UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The phonology of the dialects of England Sándi, Gábor 1976

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1976_A8 S25.pdf [ 31.84MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0093930.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0093930-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0093930-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0093930-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0093930-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0093930-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0093930-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0093930-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0093930.ris

Full Text

THE PHONOLOGY OF THE DIALECTS OF ENGLAND oy Gabor Sandi B . S c , Ca r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1971 B.A. , Carleton U n i v e r s i t y , 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF . MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of L i n g u i s t i c s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1976 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h — C o l u m b i a , I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT The d i a l e c t s o f England can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o three main groups: standard, urban and r u r a l d i a l e c t s . R u r a l d i a l e c t s e x h i b i t the greatest divergence from standard speech as w e l l as showing the gre a t e s t v a r i a t i o n among themselves. Ge o g r a p h i c a l l y , r u r a l d i a l e c t s are grouped i n t o three main r e g i o n s : those of the South, o f the Midlands and o f the North. The concept of diaphonemes i s needed f o r a simple d e s c r i p t i o n of the phonologies of i n d i v i d u a l d i a l e c t s . They are a l s o necessary f o r an adequate method of comparison between d i a l e c t s . Diaphonemic merger or s p l i t i n synchronic grammar correspondsto phonetic merger or s p l i t i n di a c h r o n i c grammar. Thus the diaphonemic c o n t r a s t s /e:/ v s . / e i / , /o:/ vs. /ou/ present i n some r u r a l d i a l e c t s (mostly i n the west of England) e x i s t wherever the Middle E n g l i s h (ME) phonemes /a:/ and / a i / ; lo'.l and /ou/, r e s p e c t i v e l y , d i d not merge i n e a r l y Modern E n g l i s h . Other important developments i n standard E n g l i s h not shared by a l l d i a l e c t s i n c l u d e the r a i s i n g o f /a/ to CaeJ, the unrounding and lowering of ME /u/ t o /A/, the d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n <5f /u:/ to /au/, the rounding of /a/ t o /o/ a f t e r /w/, the lengthening of /a/ t o /a:/ when f o l l o w e d by v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s , the merger of ME /£•:/ w i t h /e:/ and the l o s s of IvI f i n a l l y and before consonants. On the other hand, there are o f t e n d i a l e c t a l developments absent from the standard language. These i n c l u d e the widespread l o s s o f /h/, the v o i c i n g of i n i t i a l v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s i n south-western England and such l o c a l changes as the South Y o r k s h i r e d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n o f ME /o: / and /o:/ t o / o i / and / n i / , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Sound changes do not u s u a l l y happen i n i s o l a t i o n . The study of the phonologies of i n d i v i d u a l d i a l e c t s r e v e a l s the inter-dependency of most sound- changes - due mostly t o a tendency i n people t o keep d i f f e r e n t phonemes apart i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n and t o maintain e x i s t i n g symmetries. - i i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I . INTRODUCTION 1 I I . PHONEME AND DIAPHONEME 7 I I I . THE DIALECTS OF ENGLAND 11 IV. DIAPHONEMES IN THE DIALECTS OF ENGLAND hi V. CONCLUSION 93 LIST OF MAPS 102 BIBLIOGRAPHY 106 APPENDIX: A LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 108 INDEX 110 MAPS I l l - 1 -I INTRODUCTION 1.1 The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o present the p h o n o l o g i c a l system of E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s spoken i n England today. I t w i l l (a) c l a s s i f y the d i a l e c t s on a geographical "basis, (b) enumerate the phonemes necessary t o describe f u l l y the phonology o f any p a r t i c u l a r d i a l e c t , as w e l l as describe the p r i n c i p a l a l l o -phones o f the phonemes, and (c) draw conclusions from the data presented about the nature of d i a -l e c t a l v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n the E n g l i s h language area and about the r e -l a t i o n s h i p s such v a r i a t i o n s have w i t h the processes of language change. 1.2 The primary source o f data f o r t h i s t h e s i s i s the Survey of E n g l i s h  D i a l e c t s (SED), e d i t e d by Orton and Dieth at the U n i v e r s i t y of Leeds. This work has proved t o be very r e l i a b l e and u s e f u l , due p r i m a r i l y t o two f a c t o r s : (1) U n i f o r m i t y o f coverage. The SED has surveyed the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of a l a r g e number of words i n r u r a l and some urban communities i n a l l parts o f England and the I s l e of Man. U n l i k e i n e a r l i e r surveys, the l o c a t i o n o f every informant i s p r e c i s e l y p i n p o i n t e d on the map. (2) R e l i a b i l i t y . The SED has used a c o n s i s t e n t and e a s i l y understandable system of phonetic n o t a t i o n f o r i t s t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , namely, the I n t e r -n a t i o n a l Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). - 2 -Two e a r l i e r works attempting t o provide a general survey of E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s have proved to be mostly of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t only. They are the E a r l y E n g l i s h P r o n u n c i a t i o n ( 1 8 8 9 ) by E l l i s and the E n g l i s h D i a l e c t  Grammar (EDG) by Wright, p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 0 5 . Both o f these surveys a t -tempted to cover a l l of the B r i t i s h I s l e s . Both of them are imprecise about the l o c a t i o n o f t h e i r informants. There i s considerable doubt about the competence of t h e i r f i e l d - w o r k e r s i n many areas, and the pho-n e t i c symbols used i n t h e i r t r a n s c r i p t i o n s ( e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of E l l i s ' s work) are d i f f i c u l t t o decipher. Despite a l l of these problems -not at a l l s u r p r i s i n g , s i n c e E l l i s and Wright were pioneers i n t h e i r f i e l d , l a y i n g the groundwork on which l a t e r d i a l e c t o l o g i s t s could b u i l d - there i s s t i l l much we can l e a r n from these works, e s p e c i a l l y about the changes a f f e c t i n g E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s i n the past hundred y e a r s . Many d e t a i l e d monographs d e a l i n g w i t h i n d i v i d u a l E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s have appeared s i n c e the beginning of t h i s century. They i n c l u d e K o k e r i t z ( 1 9 3 2 ) on the S u f f o l k d i a l e c t , Orton ( 1933) on the d i a l e c t o f South Durham, S i -v e r t sen ( i 9 6 0 ) on Cockney speech and Hedevind ( 1967) on the d i a l e c t o f Dentdale i n Y o r k s h i r e . An a r t i c l e by Wells i n "JOL ( 1 9 7 0 ) on the phonetic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of urban d i a l e c t s has a l s o been very .'useful* 1 . 3 In t h i s t h e s i s reference w i l l o f t e n be made to o l d e r stages o f the l a n -guage. Wright's EDG was o f t e n used as a reference work f o r the Old E n g l i s h (0E) sources of modern E n g l i s h sounds. Another u s e f u l work i n t h i s area i s A Short H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h by Wyld. For a d e t a i l e d study of the pronun-c i a t i o n of E n g l i s h (standard and d i a l e c t a l ) at the beginning of the modern E n g l i s h p e r i o d , one should consult The P r o n u n c i a t i o n of E n g l i s h 1 5 0 0 - 1 7 0 0 by Dobson. - 3 -l.h The phonetic symbols used i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l normally be those of the IPA, as defined i n the P r i n c i p l e s o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Phonetic  A s s o c i a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g s u b s t i t u t i o n s w i l l be made f o r t y p o g r a p h i c a l convenience: I si f o r IPA C$1 Hz: f o r IPA DJU Co: f o r IPA Note, however, t h a t Cull w i l l continue t o be used f o r the s l i g h t l y f r o n t e d h i g h rounded vowel (e.g. I s l e o f Man moon Cmu:nl), w h i l e CyH w i l l be r e t a i n e d f o r the f u l l y f r o n t e d ^e^'Si'^alent/e.g. Devon moon Cmy:nl). Another divergence from IPA usage w i l l be i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the s t r e s s e d vowel i n p o l y s y l l a b i c words. Whereas according to IPA usage, an apostrophe has t o be plac e d i n f r o n t o f the s y l l a b l e b e a r i n g the p r i -mary s t r e s s i n a word (e.g, C 'b j u:t.efulH), we w i l l be usin g an acute accent p l a c e d above the s t r e s s e d vowel (e.g. Cbju:t sfvll ). The use of parentheses around phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n s w i l l f o l l o w normal l i n g u i s t i c usage, i . e . C 1 w i l l be plac e d around a "narrow", p u r e l y phonetic or a l l o p h o n i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n , w h i l e / / w i l l be p l a c e d around "broad", phonemic or diaphonemic (see 2.k ) t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . 1.5 The word d i a l e c t has, o f n e c e s s i t y , a r a t h e r vague meaning. I t can r e f e r t o any speech used by people o f a c e r t a i n geographical r e g i o n o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , by people of a c e r t a i n s o c i a l class,': which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the presence o f c e r t a i n p h o netic, morphologic, s y n t a c t i c and vocabulary f e a t u r e s . A l s o , w i t h i n any d i a l e c t so de f i n e d , one can always f i n d sub-- k -d i v i s i o n s f u r t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h e d from i t s neighbours by various f e a t u r e s . Such s u b d i v i s i o n s can a l s o be r e f e r r e d t o as d i a l e c t s . One co u l d , i n theory, continue s u b d i v i d i n g d i a l e c t s u n t i l one would a r r i v e at the l e v e l of the i n d i v i d u a l speaker or " i d i o l e c t " . In t h i s work, the word d i a l e c t w i l l r e f e r t o a c o l l e c t i o n o f speech-forms spoken i n some c l e a r l y d e f i n e d area of England t h a t have s u f f i c i e n t u n i f o r m i t y t o be considered together. Any such s u b d i v i s i o n o f a language i n t o d i a l e c t s i s , n e c e s s a r i l y , a r b i t r a r y , and can only be defended on grounds o f convenience. The isophones (see p.11 f o r a d e f i n i t i o n ) used to define the boundaries of d i a l e c t s were chosen because they were con-s i d e r e d t o be the most important from the p o i n t of view o f E n g l i s h pho-nology. Of course, our concept o f d i a l e c t s i s an i d e a l i z e d one. Generally speaking, no-one ever speaks pure d i a l e c t , unless i t i s one of the so-c a l l e d standard d i a l e c t s . Instead, people l i v i n g i n an area use the cha-r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the l o c a l d i a l e c t most of the time, w h i l e l i g h t or heavy i n f l u e n c e i s e x e r c i s e d on t h e i r speech by other d i a l e c t s . The most im-portant " f o r e i g n " i n f l u e n c e on any d i a l e c t i s t h a t o f one or other v a r i e t y of standard E n g l i s h . In order t o c l a s s i f y the d i a l e c t s of England, we should f i r s t consider the three main s u b d i v i s i o n s o f d i a l e c t s - s u b d i v i s i o n s based on s o c i a l c l a s s r a t h e r than on geographical area. 1 . 6 Standard d i a l e c t s . The standard d i a l e c t s o f E n g l i s h are the h i g h - p r e s t i g e forms of the language, used p r i m a r i l y by the upper and middle cl a s s e s as w e l l as by i n s t i t u t i o n s such as government, schools and bro a d c a s t i n g . What i s nor-- 5 -mally considered i n England as "good E n g l i s h " i s a c t u a l l y a standard d i a l e c t o f the language, t o be r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s work as Southern Standard B r i t i s h (SSB). Names such as "Received p r o n u n c i a t i o n " , "The Queen's E n g l i s h " , "BBC E n g l i s h " and "Oxford E n g l i s h " r e f e r essen-t i a l l y t o the same d i a l e c t . SSB i s p r i m a r i l y used i n the south-eastern corner of England. In other p a r t s of the country and i n the r e s t o f the English-speaking w o r l d , other v a r i e t i e s of the standard language are used, d i f f e r e n t from SSB i n t h e i r p h o n e t i c s , and, except i n / A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand, a l s o d i f f e r e n t from i t i n t h e i r phonemic s t r u c t u r e . 1 . 7 Urban d i a l e c t s . From a numerical p o i n t of view, urban d i a l e c t s are the most important, seeing t h a t England i s one o f the most urbanized co u n t r i e s o f the world (about 80%, according t o the Encyclopaedia B r i - t a n n i c a ( 1 9 7 2 ) , v o l . 8 , , p.1+17). The "substandard" d i a l e c t s t h a t are spoken by most people l i v i n g i n the towns and c i t i e s o f England do not have the p r e s t i g e of the standard d i a l e c t s , but because of the numerical str e n g t h of t h e i r speakers they are spreading at the expense of r u r a l d i a l e c t s . For an example of how an urban d i a l e c t (that o f the c i t y o f Norwich) i s d i s p l a c i n g a r u r a l ^ d i a l e c t (that of N o r f o l k county), see T r u d g i l l (197*0. The most important of the urban d i a l e c t s i s Cockney, the urban d i a l e c t spoken i n London and nearby towns i n the south-east of England. I t i s by no means a uniform d i a l e c t , but there are s u f f i c i e n t features common to a l l o f i t s v a r i e t i e s f o r i t t o be considered a s i n g l e d i a l e c t . - 6 -1.8 R u r a l d i a l e c t s . From many p o i n t s o f v i e v the most i n t e r e s t i n g d i a l e c t s are the r u r a l ones. In t h e i r pure form they e x i s t only i n i s o -l a t e d v i l l a g e s , o f t e n spoken by e l d e r l y people only. More people speak a mixed v a r i e t y o f language, h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by standard or urban d i a l e c t s , but p r e s e r v i n g many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the r u r a l d i a l e c t of the area. Many r u r a l d i a l e c t s are very c o n s e r v a t i v e , p r e s e r v i n g o l d e r phonetic forms and d i s t i n c t i o n s l o s t elsewhere. In other cases, the r u r a l d i a -l e c t s were q u i t e i n n o v a t i v e , s h i f t i n g vowels f u r t h e r than most urban d i a l e c t s , merging d i s t i n c t i o n s preserved elsewhere. Because of t h e i r v a r i e t y , these d i a l e c t s o f f e r i n v a l u a b l e data t o the l i n g u i s t . Despite the small number of people speaking "pure" d i a l e c t today, most of the data i n t h i s paper are from r u r a l d i a l e c t s . This i s p a r t i a l l y so be-cause the three extensive surveys o f E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s , mentioned i n 1.2 , were a l l e s s e n t i a l l y surveys o f r u r a l d i a l e c t s . The other reason f o r c o n c e n t r a t i n g on them i s t h a t urban d i a l e c t s are mostly t r a n s i t i o n a l forms o f speech, w i t h t h e i r phonetics mostly based on the pr o n u n c i a t i o n of neighbouring r u r a l d i a l e c t s , w h i l e t h e i r phonology i s c l o s e to t h a t of the standard d i a l e c t s . Therefore t h e i r study sheds much l e s s l i g h t on the phonemic systems present i n E n g l i s h than does the study o f r u r a l d i a l e c t s . I I PHONEME AND DIAPHONEME When c o n s i d e r i n g any one d i a l e c t , i t s sounds can be e a s i l y grouped i n t o phonemes. This can be done by u t i l i z i n g c o n t r a s t s , an approach f a -voured by s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c s - el a b o r a t e d , f o r example, i n H a r r i s ( l 9 5 l ) . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , one can set up u n d e r l y i n g forms, from which the " s u r f a c e " phonetic r e a l i z a t i o n s can be der i v e d by ap p l y i n g ordered r u l e s . This i s the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l method, a p p l i e d t o E n g l i s h by Chomsky and H a l l e ( 1 9 6 8 ) . The f i r s t of these methods i s a synchronic one, sin c e i t i s inde-pendent o f the h i s t o r i c a l changes t h a t have shaped the sounds o f the d i a l e c t o r language. On the other hand, the second approach has much in.common w i t h d i a c h r o n i c l i n g u i s t i c s . This i s due t o the f a c t t h a t most o f the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e s correspond t o phonetic changes t h a t have occurred i n the h i s t o r y o f the language. As examples, l e t us consider the f o l l o w i n g p a i r s o f E n g l i s h words, together w i t h t h e i r SSB phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n s : w i l d / w a i l d / w i l d e r n e s s / w i l d a n i s / c h i l d / t s a i l d / c h i l d r e n / t s i l d r s n / o b l i g e / o b l a i d z / o b l i g a t i o n / o b l i g e i s a n / s i g n / s a i n / s i g n a l / s i g n a l / On the b a s i s o f such corre spondences we can e s t a b l i s h t h a t the - 8 -SSB diphthong / a i / has some k i n d of a l t e r n a t i o n w i t h the vowel / i / . We should set up an un d e r l y i n g form, c a l l i t ~ i _ , from which / a i / can he d e r i v e d through the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a simple r u l e . S i m i l a r l y , / i / could he der i v e d from an u n d e r l y i n g vowel i _ . At a deeper l e v e l o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , i _ c ould be der i v e d i n c e r t a i n cases from i _ , e x p l a i n i n g the a l t e r n a t i o n s presented above. As i t happens, o f course, u n d e r l y i n g i _ corresponds t o ME / i : / , and u n d e r l y i n g i _ t o ME / i / , w i t h the change / i / t o / i : / i n c e r t a i n phonetic environments o c c u r r i n g i n l a t e ME. The main purpose o f t h i s paragraph i s t o show why t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e s w i l l h a r d l y ever be mentioned i n t h i s paper. Where they might have any usefulness at a l l , they would simply be another way of ex-p r e s s i n g h i s t o r i c a l sound changes. 2.3 At t h i s p o i n t , the concept o f diaphoneme w i l l be introduced. For a r e l a t i v e l y r igorous d e f i n i t i o n , some set-theory terminology i s used: Diaphonemes are mutually e x c l u s i v e sets o f phonemes o c c u r r i n g i n d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s . Two phonemes i n d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s ' w i l l belong t o the same diaphoneme only i f they can both be r e g u l a r developments o f the same phoneme at an e a r l i e r stage o f the language. To put i t another way, no two phonemes w i t h i n any one d i a l e c t can belong t o the same diaphoneme, and conversely, no phoneme can belong simultaneously t o two d i f f e r e n t diaphonemes w i t h i n the same d i a l e c t . I n - a d d i t i o n , two phonemes i n d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s , no matter how s i m i l a r i n phonetic r e a l i z a t i o n , can never belong t o the same diaphoneme i f they cannot normally be der i v e d i n a r e g u l a r way from the same e a r l i e r source. I t i s t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e t o have two phonemes, p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n , o c c u r r i n g i n d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s and belonging to d i f f e -- 9 -rent diaphonemes. As an example, consider the f o l l o w i n g data: Gloss W i l t s h i r e Y o r k s h i r e sky [ s k a i : CskaiD ( SED VII. 6 . 1 ) e i g h t H a l t : C e i t l ( SED VII. 1 . 7 ) The diaphonemic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f these two words w i l l he / s k a i / and / e i t / i n both d i a l e c t s . E v i d e n t l y , the phone Cai3 belongs to two d i f f e r e n t diaphonemes i n the two d i a l e c t s . 2.h The s l a s h brackets / / w i l l be used around diaphonemes, i d e n t i c a l t o those used around phonemes i n the i n d i v i d u a l d i a l e c t s . This i d e n t i t y ' ' of n o t a t i o n w i l l f a c i l i t a t e our understanding of the concept of diaphoneme. For example, the symbol /e:/ w i l l be used t o r e f e r t o : (1) the vowel phoneme o c c u r r i n g i n words l i k e spade (but not, normally, c l a y ) i n most d i a l e c t s o f western England; and (2) the diaphoneme o c c u r r i n g i n most d i a l e c t s o f western England, r e f e r r i n g t o the vowel Le:l or [£:3 when i t i s d e r i v e d from ME /a:/ under normal circumstances. Though t h e o r e t i c a l l y any symbol c o u l d be used t o denote diaphonemes, i n p r a c t i c e the phonetic symbol most commonly used f o r the phonetic r e a l i z a t i o n of the diaphoneme w i l l be u t i l i z e d . Thus / a i / w i l l represent the diaphoneme normally corresponding t o ME / i : / , s i n c e CaU i s the most usual o f i t s many pronunciations (note t h a t the symbol I_ i s unifor m l y r e p l a c e d by / i / i n d i a -phonemic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ) . The most common pr o n u n c i a t i o n o f a diaphoneme w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as i t s p r o t o t y p a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n . 2.5 N e u t r a l i z a t i o n and merger of diaphonemes. - 1 0 -I t o f t e n happens t h a t two phonemes contrast i n a d i a l e c t , but the contr a s t i s p a r t i a l l y or completely l o s t i n oth e r s . In the f i r s t case, we t a l k o f n e u t r a l i z a t i o n , and the " n e u t r a l i z e d " sound i s assigned t o the diaphoneme whose p r o t o t y p a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s c l o s e r t o i t . As an example, /a/ and /e/ co n t r a s t i n England and i n some North Ame-r i c a n d i a l e c t s before / r / , but merge i n o t h e r s , both haying the pronunci-a t i o n C e l . Where the cont r a s t e x i s t s , marry i s represented diaphonemi-c a l l y by /mari:'/ w h i l e merry i s /meri:/. Where n e u t r a l i z a t i o n has taken p l a c e , both words are represented by /meri:/. When n e u t r a l i z a t i o n i s u n c o n d i t i o n a l , we t a l k o f merger. I t i s again the phonetic value o f the merged sound t h a t determines which diaphoneme i t should be assigned t o . For example, some v a r i e t i e s o f North American Eng-l i s h ( i n c l u d i n g Canadian E n g l i s h ) have merged the vowels o f the words-cot and caught. The merged sound i s normally Call, r a t h e r than Co:D, so that i n the d i a l e c t s where t h i s merger has occurred, both words s h a l l be t r a n s -c r i b e d diaphonemically as /kdt/. 2 . 6 The con t r a r y phenomenon, c a l l e d phonemic s p l i t a l s o o c c u r s , though l e s s commonly. I t u s u a l l y happens,when allophones come t o c o n t r a s t w i t h each other due t o the l o s s o f a c o n d i t i o n i n g phoneme, t o analogy, or t o borrow-i n g from another language or d i a l e c t . Thus at one time i n the h i s t o r y of E n g l i s h , the diaphoneme /u/ was the only one present i n words such as cut and put, w i t h probably both rounded and unrounded back allophones. This i s s t i l l the case w i t h most d i a l e c t s i n the Midlands and the north o f Eng-la n d . But i n the south and i n the standard language, an a d d i t i o n a l diapho-neme / A / has t o be int r o d u c e d , t o account f o r such c o n t r a s t s as put - putt or look - l u c k . - 11 -I I I THE DIALECTS OF ENGLAND 3.1 Even u n t r a i n e d observers are aware o f the wide range of pronunciations t h a t e x i s t i n England. People o f t e n t a l k about d i f f e r e n t kinds of accent, and can u s u a l l y determine the rough geographical area and s o c i a l c l a s s a person belongs t o , j u s t based on h i s accent. Most o f the d i a l e c t s heard i n England today d i f f e r l i t t l e i n t h e i r pho-nemic s t r u c t u r e from t h a t o f SSB. I t i s only the r u r a l d i a l e c t s , espe-c i a l l y the ones-spoken r e l a t i v e l y f a r from London and other great c i t i e s , t h a t present a very d i f f e r e n t phonemic s t r u c t u r e . 3.2 In d i a l e c t o l o g y , i t i s t r a d i t i o n a l t o d i v i d e d i a l e c t s i n t o a s m a l l number of d i s c r e t e groups, then proceed t o describe the phonology of each. This i s not a very s a t i s f a c t o r y method, because no matter where one draws the boundaries of the d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s , some important d i v i d i n g l i n e s w i l l be l e f t out. These important d i v i d i n g l i n e s i n d i a l e c t o l o g y are c a l l e d isophones. Here i s a formal d e f i n i t i o n : An isophone i s a l i n e drawn on the map t h a t separates d i a l e c t areas using e i t h e r d i f f e r e n t p ronunciations of a c e r t a i n diaphoneme ', or u s i n g d i f f e r e n t diaphonemes i n a c e r t a i n c l a s s o f words. An example of the f i r s t p o s s i b i l i t y occurs i n map 3, which shows t h a t north and west of the isophone (not a c t u a l l y , drawn on the map), /a/ i n apple i s pronounced Call, whereas on the other side of the l i n e i t i s pronounced DaeH. An example of the se-- 12 -cond k i n d of isophone i s given on map k2. South of the l i n e ( again, not a c t u a l l y drawn), words such as b l i n d and f i n d u s u a l l y contain the vowel / a i / , w h i l e north of i t the usual vowel i s / i / . Thus i t i s p r e f e r a b l e t o look at each phonetic v a r i a b l e one by one, t o see how i t v a r i e s i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the country. But f o r reference purposes i t i s s t i l l a d v i s a b l e t o d i v i d e England i n t o a number of d i a l e c t areas, w i t h the more important isophones d e f i n i n g t h e i r boundaries. I t w i l l be found t h a t o f t e n s e v e r a l of the important isophones w i l l run t o -gether, p r o v i d i n g a convenient boundary between the d i a l e c t areas to be e s t a b l i s h e d . The geographical d i v i s i o n o f urban d i a l e c t s i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of r u r a l d i a l e c t s . Map 1 shows how England has been d i v i d e d up i n t o r u r a l d i a l e c t s (see a l s o 3.*+ , 3.5 and 3.6 below), w h i l e urban d i a l e c t areas are shown on map 2.(see 3.7 a l s o ) . These d i a l e c t d i v i s i o n s are o f t e n d i f f e r e n t from those suggested by E l l i s or Wright i n t h e i r surveys of E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s . This i s mostly due t o an attempt i n t h i s t h e s i s to work w i t h as few d i a l e c t areas as p o s s i b l e w h i l e s t i l l r e t a i n i n g a l a r g e amount of u n i f o r m i t y w i t h i n each. 3.3 Here f o l l o w s a l i s t o f the l 6 r u r a l d i a l e c t areas proposed f o r England, together w i t h t h e i r geographical extent and p h o n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . For the sake of l e g i b i l i t y , examples and maps demonstrating these phonolo-g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l be given i n the r i g h t - h a n d margin, w i t h a colon s e p a r a t i n g the map numbers from the word examples. The names of counties w i l l normally be abbreviated - only at t h e i r - 13 -f i r s t mention w i l l they he w r i t t e n out i n f u l l . County names and areas represent the s i t u a t i o n as i t was at the time the f i e l d - w o r k f o r the SED was done, i . e . before the recent r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f . l o c a l government i n England. The s i x t e e n r u r a l d i a l e c t areas s h a l l be grouped i n t o three main r e g i o n s , each o f which has i t s own p h o n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , which w i l l a l s o be o u t l i n e d . 3.h SOUTHERN DIALECTS The northern boundary o f t h i s r e g i o n , s e p a r a t i n g i t from the d i a l e c t s of the Midlands, i s e s s e n t i a l l y a s t r a i g h t l i n e connecting the Severn and the Wash. This boundary coin c i d e s roughly w i t h f i v e isophones, as given below. ( i ) The northern boundary o f the area where ME /u/ r e g u l a r l y became / A / . ( i i ) The northern boundary o f the area where ME /a/ became /o/ a f t e r /w/. ( i i i ) The northern boundary o f the area where ME /o:/ was e v e n t u a l l y shortened to /u/ before /k/ ( i v ) The northern l i m i t o f the area where ME /a/ and /o/ were lengthened t o /a:/ and /o:/, r e s -p e c t i v e l y , when followed by the v o i c e l e s s f r i -c a t i v e s / f / , / 0 / and / s / . (v) The northern l i m i t of the development o f "dark" CiH as an allophone of pre-consonantal and f i n a l / l / . Map 32: c u t , l u c k Map 26: wasp, what Map 31: l o o k , took Maps-28, 29 , 62: c h a f f , b a t h , grass; cough, f r o t h , l o s s Map 18: a l l , c o l t , m i l k - ih -Unless otherwise mentioned the f o l l o w i n g phonetic and phonemic features are a l s o t r u e of the southern d i a l e c t s i n England: ( v i ) ME /a:/ and / a i / have merged i n the diaphoneme / e i / , whose pro-n u n c i a t i o n v a r i e s from Zeil t o FJaiD. Thus the words made and maid are normally pronounced i d e n t i c a l l y as /meid/. ( v i i ) In a p a r a l l e l f a s h i o n , ME /o:/ and /ou/ have merged i n the d i a -phoneme /ou/, whose p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t e n s t a r t s from a c e n t r a l vowel - we f i n d C/\uD or CauH. The words no and know t h e r e f o r e rhyme. ( v i i i ) The ME long vowels / i : / and /u:/ normally became the diphthongs / a i / and /au/, r e s p e c t i v e l y . There i s a l o t o f v a r i a t i o n i n the pho-n e t i c r e a l i z a t i o n s o f these diaphonemes. ( i x ) ME /e:/ and /e:/ have merged i n the diaphoneme / i : / , so t h a t the words sea and see are both represented by / s i : / . Here, then, f o l l o w s the l i s t o f the seven d i a l e c t areas i n c l u d e d among those of the south, together w i t h t h e i r more important phonemic and phonetic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . ( l ) EAST ANGLIA (EA) EA i n c l u d e s the counties of N o r f o l k ( N f ) , S u f f o l k ( S f ) , Essex (Ess) and the r u r a l areas around London (Ln) north of the Thames. Since SSB i s e s s e n t i a l l y an outgrowth o f the d i a l e c t s spoken around London, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the d i a l e c t s o f EA are very c l o s e i n phonemic s t r u c t u r e to SSB. Important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features of EA d i a l e c t s are: - 15 -( i ) /a/ i s r e g u l a r l y r a i s e d i n pronun-c i a t i o n to C«H. Further r a i s i n g and consequent merger w i t h /e/-CeH i s common - i n some l o c a l i t i e s , such as Ess 12 of the SED, i t i s u n i v e r s a l , so t h a t the phoneme /a/ disappears t h e r e . ( i i ) I n p a r t s of r u r a l Nf, the ME co n t r a s t s /a:/ vs. / a i / and /o:/ vs /ou/ are r e -t a i n e d , as c o n t r a s t s between the d i a -phonemes /e:/ and / e i / , /o:/ and /ou/, r e s p e c t i v e l y . ( i i i ) OE /y:/ i s r e f l e c t e d as / i : / i n much of r u r a l EA, as opposed t o the / a i / usual elsewhere. The intermediate ME stage was /e:/. The corresponding change of OE /y/ to /e/ i s e x t i n c t today, as i t has been f o r some time ( c f . EDG § 1 0 9 ) , except i n words where SSB has borrowed the form w i t h /e/. ( i v ) Pre-consonantal and f i n a l / r / (hence t o be r e f e r r e d t o as PFR) i s l o s t . I n t r u s i v e IvI i s introduced between c e r t a i n vowels. (v) /h/ i s o f t e n r e t a i n e d . ( v i ) Except i n Nf, ME / i : / i s u s u a l l y r e f l e c -t e d as / o i / , not as / a i / . Among i t s neighbours, the SE shares w i t h EA while the SMI share w i t h i t f e a t u r e ( i v ) . Map 3 : apple, cat Maps 3 6 , 3 7 : spade, c l a y Maps 5 0 , h8: both, mow Map h5: mice, l i c e b r i d g e , k i n g Map 8k: bury, fledge Map 1 7 : f a r , arm Map 6 6 : thawing Map 7 6 : hay, whole Map * i 0 : sky, k n i f e features ( i ) and ( v i ) , - 16 -THE SOUTH-EAST (SE) The SE in c l u d e s the counties o f Kent ( K ) , Surrey (Su), B e r k s h i r e ( B r k ) , Sussex (Sx ) , the I s l e o f Wight (IW), Ln south o f the Thames and the southernmost p a r t s o f Buckingham (Bkh) and Oxford (Ox). D i s t i n g u i -shing features of the S E . d i a l e c t s are: ( i ) '/a/ i s pronounced CaeH. ( i i ) ME /&:/ "before /d/ i s normally shortened to / i / i n s t e a d o f /e/. ( i i i ) PFR i s r e g u l a r l y preserved. ( i v ) /h/ i s l o s t . (v) ME / i : / i s u s u a l l y r e f l e c t e d as / o i / i n -stead o f / a i / . Features ( i ) and (v) are shared w i t h EA, ( i i ) and ( i i i ) w i t h Wx and ( i v ) w i t h "both Wx and the SMI, from among neighbouring d i a l e c t Map 3 : apple, cat Maps 2 0 , 2 1 : bread, head, red Map 1 7 : arm, f a r Map 7 6 : hay, whole Map ^ 0 : sky, k n i f e regions, WESSEX (Wx) The Wx d i a l e c t r e gion i n c l u d e s the counties o f Gloucester ( G l ) , W i l t s h i r e (w), Dorset (Do), Hampshire (Ha) (except f o r the IW) and parts o f eastern Somerset (So). D i s t i n g u i s h i n g features are: ( i ) ME /a/ r e t a i n s i t s low Lai q u a l i t y . ( i i ) ME /a:/ became /e:/, t o be i n con t r a s t w i t h /ei/= CaiD, d e r i v e d from ME / a i / . This / e i / i s a l s o i n contrast w i t h / a i / de-r i v e d from ME / i : / . ( i i i ) ME lo'l and /ou/ are normally r e f l e c t e d Map 3 : apple, cat Map 36: spade, make Map 3 7 : c l a y , maid Map hO: sky, k n i f e Maps 5 0 , 1*8: both, mow - IT -as the monophthong /o:/. ( i v ) ME /£.:/ i s r e f l e c t e d as /e:/ more, o f t e n than as / i : / . In f r o n t o f /d/ t h i s vowel was l a t e r shortened to / i / . (v) ME /o/ u s u a l l y became /a/ before / r / . ( v i ) PFR and /h/ are both preserved. ( v i i ) I n i t i a l v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s / f / , /©/, / s / and / s / became v o i c e d , w i t h the f u r t h e r s h i f t IB I t o /d/ before / r / . Among a l l i t s neighbouring d i a l e c t s , the SW i s c l o s e s t t o Wx. I t shares w i t h i t features ( i ) , ( i i ) , ( i i i ) and ( v i i ) - and i t a l s o keeps PFR. With i t s other neighbours Wx shares at most one of the features enumerated. Maps 3*+, 3 5 : speak, cream Maps 2 0 , 2 1 : head, l e a d Maps 2 5 , 6 8 : p o r r i d g e , f o r Maps IT, T 6 : arm, house Maps T 8 - 8 l : f i n g e r , t h i n , s i x , sheep, three (k) THE SOUTHWEST (SW) The SW in c l u d e s the counties of Devon (D) and Cornwall (Co), t o -gether w i t h the westernmost p a r t s of So. I t s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g features are: ( i ) /a/ remains Ca3. ( i i ) le:/ and / e i / are kept apart. ( i i i ) ME /£:/ became normally / e i / not le:/ or / i : / as elsewhere i n the south. ( i v ) / a i / i s normally monophthongized t o /fee:/ i n D . (v) In D , /u/ and /u:/ are f r o n t e d t o EyD and Cy : 3 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Map 3 : apple, cat Maps 3 6 , 3 T : spade, c l a y Maps 3*+, 3 5 : speak, cream Map h0: sky, k n i f e Maps 5 , 1 1 : put, moon - 18 -Map 50: both, coat ( v i ) /au/ and / o i / have c e n t r a l i z e d pro- | Maps lh, l 6 : house, boy nun c i a t i o n s Lozel~L'&'o-J and C A I D , respec-t i v e l y . ( v i i ) ME /o'/ i s normally s h i f t e d i n D t o Cu :3 . Since /u:/ i n D i s pronounced Cy:I] (see (v) above), t h i s Cu:U has to be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a d i f f e r e n t diapho-neme that we s h a l l c a l l /©:/.. ( v i i i ) PFR i s preserved, but /h/ i s l o s t . ( i x ) I n t e r v o c a l i c / t / became v o i c e d t o /d/ (x) I n i t i a l v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s were v o i c e d , j u s t as i n Wx. The SW shares four of these features w i t h Wx: ( i ) , ( i i ) , ( i x ) and !x), w h i l e s h a r i n g only ( i x ) and (x) w i t h i t s other neighbour, So. Maps 1 7 , 7 6 : arm, house Map 7 7 : b u t t e r , g e t t i n g Maps 78 - 8 l : f i n g e r , t h i n , s i x , sheep, three SOMERSET (So) This d i a l e c t area i n c l u d e s most o f the county of So, excluding some o f i t s e x t r e m i t i e s belonging t o Wx and the SW. The phonemic s t r u c t u r e of the So d i a l e c t i s very c l o s e to th a t of SSB - there are only three s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s from i t , a l l i n i t s consonantism: ( i ) PFR i s preserved. ( i i ) I n i t i a l v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s were nor-mally v o i c e d , as i n Wx and the SW. ( i i i ) I n t e r v o c a l i c / t / was v o i c e d t o /d/. Somerset shares these features w i t h i t s neighbours, Wx and the SW, but i t s v o c a l i s m i s clo s e t o th a t o f SSB and i s t h e r e f o r e q u i t e d i s t i n c t from t h a t o f these other d i a l e c t s . Map 1 7 : arm, f a r Maps 78 - 8 l : f i n g e r , t h i n , s i x , sheep, three Map 7 7 : b u t t e r - 19 -MONMOUTH (Mo) The Mo d i a l e c t corresponds almost e x a c t l y to the county o f Mon-mouth, o f t e n considered as p a r t of Wales. Indeed, we f i n d t h a t i t s d i a l e c t i s very c l o s e to the d i a l e c t spoken i n south-eastern Wales, as shown, f o r example, by the a r t i c l e on Welsh phonology i n Wakelin  ( 1 9 T 2 ). Some important features t y p i c a l o f the Mo d i a l e c t are: ( i ) /a/ i s kept as Call. ( i i ) /e:/ and / e i / are kept apart. ( i i i ) /o:/ and /ou/ are kept apart. ( i v ) The diaphoneme /ea/ i s u s u a l l y pro-nounced as a monophthong C£:D. (v) I3 : / i s pronounced C02: 1. ( v i ) PFR i s l o s t but /h/ i s kept. Map 3 : apple, cat Maps 3 6 , 3 7 : spade, c l a y Maps 5 0 , h8: both, mow Maps 6 0 , 6 l : h a i r , hare Map 7 3 : b i r d , burn Maps 1 7 , 7 6 : arm, hay THE SOUTH MIDLANDS (SMl) The name SMI was given t o t h i s d i a l e c t r e g i o n f o r l a c k o f any more s u i t a b l e names. In a c t u a l f a c t i t i s not i n c l u d e d among the d i a l e c t s of the Midlands. I t in c l u d e s the counties o f Cambridgeshire (Ca), Hun-tingdon (Hu), Bedford (Bd) and most of H e r t f o r d ( H r t ) , Bkh and Ox. Fea tures c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i t are: ( i ) /a/ i s pronounced Call. ( i i ) /u/ i s f r e q u e n t l y r e p l a c e d by / A / . ( i i i ) / i u : / i s o f t e n r e p l a c e d by /u:/. ( i v ) PFR i s l o s t i n the eastern h a l f o f the SMI. /h/ i s always l o s t . Map 3: apple, cat Maps 30, 9 2 : f o o t , hoof Map 58: few, tune Maps 1 7 , 7 6 : arm, hay - 20 -DIALECTS OF THE MIDLANDS The s o u t h e r n "boundary o f t h i s r e g i o n i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e n o r t h e r n boundary o f t h e d i a l e c t s o f t h e s o u t h , as shown on p. 13. I t s n o r t h e r n b oundary was chosen r a t h e r a r b i t r a r i l y , b e c a u s e few i s o p h o n e s c o i n c i d e i n t h e a r e a . The i s o p h o n e m a r k i n g t h i s b o u ndary i s t h e one c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e vowel i n words such as spade, i . e . t o t h e normal development o f ME / a : / . S o u t h o f t h e i s o p h o n e ( a l s o i n t h e I s l e o f Man) we f i n d t h e diaphonemes /e:/ o r / e i / i n t h e s e w o r d s , w h i l e n o r t h o f i t we f i n d t h e c e n t r i n g d i p h t h o n g s /id/, / e a / o r / i a / . See map 36. G e o g r a p h i c a l l y , t h e l i n e s t a r t s a r o u n d F l e e t w o o d i n n o r t h e r n L a n -c a s h i r e . • From t h e r e i t f o l l o w s an e s s e n t i a l l y s t r a i g h t c o u r s e e a s t -ward t o t h e Humber, t h e n i t t u r n s s o u t h t o e x c l u d e a l l b u t t h e s o u t h e r n -most p a r t o f L i n c o l n s h i r e from t h e M i d l a n d s . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , d i a l e c t s o f t h e M i d l a n d s have t h e f o l l o w i n g im-p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n phonemic and p h o n e t i c s t r u c t u r e from SSB: ( i ) / a / i s p r o n ounced Ca l l . ( i i ) ME / a / remains / a / a f t e r /w/. ( i i i ) ME /u/ remains /u/. ( i v ) ME / a / r e m a i n s / a / when f o l l o w e d by v o i c e -l e s s f r i c a t i v e s . ( v) ME /o:/ became /u: / w i t h o u t s h o r t e n i n g b e -f o r e /k/. ( v i ) /h/ i s n o r m a l l y l o s t . ( v i i ) / l / r e t a i n s i t s " c l e a r " C1U p r o n u n c i a t i o n even f i n a l l y and b e f o r e c o n s o n a n t s . Map 3: a p p l e , c a t Map 26: wasp," what Map 32: c u t , l u c k Maps 2 8 , 2 9 , 62: c h a f f , b a t h , g r a s s Map 31: l o o k , book Map 76: hay, whole Map 18: b a l l , c o l t - 21 -Here f o l l o w s a l i s t o f the s i x d i a l e c t areas t o be i n c l u d e d among the d i a l e c t s o f the Midlands, together w i t h t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l phonetic and phonemic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . ( l ) THE CENTRAL MIDLANDS (CMl) The CMl d i a l e c t r e gion i n c l u d e s the counties of Northampton (Nth), Warwick (Wa), S t a f f o r d ( S t ) , L e i c e s t e r ( L e i ) and Rutland (R), the eastern h a l f of Worcester (Wo), the southern h a l f o f Derby (Db) and the southernmost p a r t o f L i n c o l n s h i r e ( L ) . I t s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g features are: ( i ) ME / i : / was normally s h i f t e d t o /o'i/ i n St and Wa, i n s t e a d o f the more normal / a i / present i n the r e s t of the CMl. ( i i ) F i n a l /g/ remained a f t e r C13•. Otherwise, the CMl d i a l e c t s resemble SSB, except f o r the d i f -ferences t y p i c a l of Midlands d i a l e c t s i n ge n e r a l , as o u t l i n e d above. Map hO: sky, k n i f e s i n g , t h i n g (2) THE WEST MIDLANDS (WMl) The WMl d i a l e c t area i n c l u d e s the counties o f Shropshire (Sa) and H e r e f o r d s h i r e (He) and p a r t s o f Wo and Mo. I t s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g features are: ( i ) /a/ remains Call i n Sa, but i t i s r a i s e d Map 3 : apple, cat to Ca&H i n the r e s t o f the area. ( i i ) I n a development going back t o OE times, Maps 23, 2k: man, /a/ i s repl a c e d by /o/ before n a s a l consonants, hand, hammer - 22 -Maps 36, 37, 38: spade, c l a y , e i g h t Maps 50, h8: both, mow ( i i i ) U n l i k e i n other d i a l e c t s o f the Midlands, | Maps 32, 92: c u t , ME /u/ normally developed i n t o /A/ i n most of | put, foot the WM1. In some l o c a l i t i e s i n Sa, the d i a -phoneme /u/ has a c t u a l l y disappeared. ( i v ) In Sa, ME /a:/ and / a i / have merged i n the diaphoneme /e:/. In He and Wo, on the other hand, the two ME phonemes have been kept a p a r t , /a:/ developing i n t o CeiH w h i l e ME / a i / has be-come CaeiH. The diaphonemic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f these two sounds i s /e:/ and / e i / , r e s p e c t i v e l y . (v) In a p a r a l l e l f a s h i o n , ME /o:/ and /ou/ have merged i n Sa, both becoming /o:/, wh i l e kept a-part f u r t h e r south as /o:/ and /ou/ = C*uD, r e s -p e c t i v e l y . ( v i ) The development o f ME /e: / t o /e:/ or / e i / , i n s t e a d of / i : / , i s q u i t e common i n the WM1. ( v i i ) In He, the diaphonemes / a i / , /au/ and lo'.l have the r a t h e r p e c u l i a r pronunciations o f O x ] , Caul] and Cd:H, r e s p e c t i v e l y . ( v i i i ) PFR i s kept i n the WM1. E v i d e n t l y , the d i a l e c t s spoken i n the WM1 d i f f e r much more mar-kedly from SSB than those spoken i n the CM1. In a d d i t i o n , there are a number of important features t h a t are d i f f e r e n t i n Sa from the f e a -tures present i n He and Wo, so th a t one might almost be j u s t i f i e d i n s e t t i n g up two d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t regions i n the WM1. Maps 3h, 35: t e a , speak, cream Maps 13, Ik, 9: sky, c l o u d , saw Map 17: f a r , arm - 2 3 -(3) THE NORTH MIDLANDS (NMl) The NMl d i a l e c t area i n c l u d e s Cheshire (Ch) , most o f Db and the county o f Nottingham ( N t ) . I t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features are: ( i ) The diaphoneme /a/, when fo l l o w e d by a n a s a l consonant, i s normally r e p l a c e d by /o/. ( i i ) I n a s p e c i a l development, r e s t r i c t e d t o Db and eastern Ch, ME /£:/ and /e:/ be-came / e i / i n s t e a d o f / i : / . To compensate f o r t h i s , i n the same area ME / a i / became / i : / . Elsewhere, ME / a i / merged w i t h ME /a:/ t o r e s u l t i n /e:/. ( i i i ) The development o f ME /u:/ has a l s o been i n t e r e s t i n g i n the NMl. In most o f Ch i t became [ a m - to be i d e n t i f i e d s t i l l w i t h /au/, as / a i / i n Ch i s pronounced C a i H . In Db, on the other hand, ME /u:/ became / e : / . ( i v ) The diaphoneme /u:/ i s normally f r o n t e d t o Cu:H i n Ch, wh i l e i n Db i t i s r e p l a c e d by /eu/=CeuD. (v) In a number of words t h a t had CicH i n ME, we f i n d / e i / r a t h e r than / a i / i n the NMl, i n common w i t h d i a l e c t s o f the n o r t h . ( v i ) The diaphoneme /ea/ of other d i a l e c t s i s normally r e p l a c e d by /£:/ i n the NMl. This r e s u l t s i n a merger w i t h the development of Maps 2 3 , 2h: man, hand, hammer Maps 3 3 , 3^: t h r e e , speak Maps 3 7 , 3 9 : c l a y , s t r a i g h t Map 36: spade Maps lh, U6: cloud Maps 1 1 , 5 5 : moon, do Maps hh, 1 0 5 : f i g h t , height Maps 6 0 , 6 l : h a i r , hare - 2h -ME /u:/ - see ( i i i ) above. ( v i i ) The i n i t i a l combinations o f / k l / and / g l / have become / t l / and / d l / , r e s p e c t i v e l y . ( v i i i ) PFR i s normally l o s t . c l imb, glove Map IT: f a r , arm SOUTH YORKSHIRE (SY) This d i a l e c t i s t r u l y a t r a n s i t i o n a l one. We have c l a s s i f i e d i t w i t h the Midlands d i a l e c t s because of i t s treatment of ME /a:/. G e o g r a p h i c a l l y , i t c o n s i s t s of the southern, p r o t r u d i n g p o r t i o n o f Y o r k s h i r e ( Y ) , around the c i t i e s of B r a d f o r d , Leeds and S h e f f i e l d . The SY r u r a l d i a l e c t s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : ( i ) ME /a:/ and / a i / are both r e f l e c t e d as /e:/. But before ME Lgl we f i n d / e i / . ( i i ) Most words w i t h E i g l i n ME have developed t h e i r vowel t o / i : / r a t h e r than / a i / . Other words of t h i s c l a s s have / e i / i n s t e a d . ( i i i ) Most cases of ME /£ : / developed i n t o / i a / i n SY - thus merging w i t h the r e s u l t a n t o f ME / e : r / and /£:r/. Thus t e a and t e a r (n.) are both pronounced LtraJ. ( i v ) / a i / i s o f t e n r e p l a c e d by /a:/. (v) /au/ (from ME /u:/) i s r e g u l a r l y r e p l a c e d by /a:/. ( v i ) ME lo'l i n the south and most of the Midlands had two main OE sources. In SY, as i n the north g e n e r a l l y , these two OE sounds developed i n d i f -Maps 36, 37, 39 spade, c l a y , s t Maps ^3, kk: n i g h t , f i g h t Map 3^: speak Map 59: hear Map 13: sky Map ik: c l o u d - 25 -f e r e n t w a y s . OE / a : / , t h r o u g h t h e ME | Maps 5 0 , 5 2 : b o t h , s t a g e /o:/, d e v e l o p e d i n t o Ara/, p a r a l l e l I oak t o t h e / £ . : / t o /ia/ change shown i n ( i i i ) . | Map 5 3 : c o a l , c o a t On t h e o t h e r h a n d , OE /of i n open s y l -l a b l e s d e v e l o p e d i n t o / o i / i n SYv " ( v i i ) ME / o : / n o r m a l l y became / u i / i n SY -c f . t h e change o f OE /of t o / o i / g i v e n a b o v e . B u t b e f o r e / k / t h e more u s u a l / u : / i s f o u n d . ( v i i i ) PFR i s l o s t . F e a t u r e s ( i v ) , ( v ) , ( v i ) and ( v i i ) a r e a l l q u i t e p e c u l i a r , and t h e y g i v e t h e SY r u r a l d i a l e c t a v e r y s p e c i a l p l a c e w i t h i n t h e s y s t e m o f E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s . Maps 5 5 , 9 2 : moon, f o o t Map 3 1 : l o o k Map 1 7 : f a r , arm (5) LANCASHIRE ( L a ) P r o p e r l y s p e a k i n g , t h e L a d i a l e c t a r e a i n c l u d e s a l l o f t h e c o u n t y o f L a w i t h i n t h e M i d l a n d s d i a l e c t r e g i o n - t h a t i s , s o u t h o f t h e c i t y o f F l e e t w o o d . Among i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e : ( i ) The change o f OE / a / t o / o / i n f r o n t o f n a s a l c o n s o n a n t s . ( i i ) ME / £ : / became e i t h e r / i a / o r / e i / . ( i i i ) ME / a : / and / a i / merged i n / e : / . B u t / a i c / n o r m a l l y became / e i / , and so d i d ME / i g / i n s e v e r a l w o r d s . I n o t h e r words ME / i c / became / i : / . ( i v ) ME / u : / became / a u / o r / a : / . Maps 2 3 , 2h: man , h a n d , hammer Maps 3 5 , 3*+: t e a , speak Maps 3 6 , 3 7 , 3 9 : s p a d e , c l a y , s t r a i g h t Map hh: f i g h t Map U 3 : n i g h t Map h6, U 7 : h o u s e , g r o u n d - 26 -(v) In southern La, ME /o:/ and /ou/ have merged i n /o:/. But i n the northern p a r t of the county, ME /o:/ normally became /us/, w h i l e ME /ou/ developed i n t o /o:/. ( v i ) ME /eu/ remained i n La, i n s t e a d o f merging w i t h / i u / . ( v i i ) In southern La, / a r / i s u s u a l l y r e -placed by / 3 r / ( v i i i ) U n l i k e i n the NMl and SY, PFR i s kept. Maps 50, 53, k8: both, c o a l , mow Map 58: few Map 122: arm Map IT: arm, f a r ISLE OF MAN (IM) The IM i s not s t r i c t l y speaking p a r t o f England. However, i t was i n c l u d e d i n the SED, so tha t i t s d i a l e c t w i l l a l s o be considered here. Because E n g l i s h i s a r e l a t i v e l y recent i n t r o d u c t i o n ( c f EB v o l . l U , p.T^+5), the phonemic s t r u c t u r e of the d i a l e c t spoken on the i s l a n d i s clos e t o t h a t o f SSB. Only because of i t s geographical p o s i t i o n was the IM i n c l u d e d i n the Midlands. The f o l l o w i n g features are d i f f e r e n t from SSB: ( i ) The diaphoneme /A/ i s absent. In i t s p l a c e , ME /u/ developed i n t o L^l, thus merging w i t h ME /o/. ( i i ) ME /o/ before the v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s / f / , /9/ and / s / developed i n t o lo'l - i n common w i t h most southern r u r a l d i a l e c t s . ( i i i ) ME / a i g / and / i c / normally became / e i / - and so d i d o c c a s i o n a l l y ME /£.:/. Maps 32, 92: c u t , foot Map 29: cough, f r o t h , l o s s Maps 38, 1+3, kk, 35: s t r a i g h t , n i g h t , cream - 27 -( i v ) PFR i s kept and / r / normally has the Map 17: r e d , arm, f a r t r i l l e d p r o n u n c i a t i o n CrD. (v) ME LM3 ( u s u a l l y t r a n s c r i b e d as /irw/ ) where, whale i s preserved. ( v i ) /0/ i s o f t e n r e p l a c e d by / t / . t h i g h , t h i n Of these f e a t u r e s , ( i i i ) , ( i v ) and (v) could be considered as t y p i c a l of (pa r t s ) o f the nort h . On the other hand, some charac-t e r i s t i c s o f the IM d i a l e c t (such as the f r o n t i n g of /a/ t o CteJ and the lengthening o f ME /a/ and /of when f o l l o w e d by v o i c e l e s s f r i c a -t i v e s ) occur only i n the south aside from the IM. NORTHERN DIALECTS The r u r a l d i a l e c t s spoken between the Midlands d i a l e c t s and Scotland are c a l l e d Northern d i a l e c t s . They share., features ( i ) t o ( i v ) and featu r e ( v i i ) w i t h the Midlands. Some other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the north are as f o l l o w s : ( i ) ME /a:/ became a diphthong w i t h a c e n t r i n g o f f - g l i d e : / i s / , /es/ or / i a / . ( i i ) ME E'aicH ( i n c l u d i n g e a r l i e r C e i c j ) and c e r -t a i n occurrences of ME CicO (probably pronounced CeicH i n such words) r e g u l a r l y became / e i / i n the north. ( i i i ) ME /aim/ became /a:m/. ( i v ) ME /ou/ ( i n c l u d i n g e a r l i e r /ou/) u s u a l l y became /ou/, d i s t i n c t from the r e s u l t a n t of ME /o:/. Map 36: spade Maps 38, 39, kk: e i g h t , s t r a i g h t , f i g h t , height Map 63: palm, calm Maps k8, 5*+: mow, grow - 28 -(v) Instead of the diaphonemes / t s / and /dz/, we o f t e n f i n d /k/ and /g/. This i s probably due to the strong Scandinavian i n f l u e n c e exer-c i s e d over t h i s area p r i o r t o the 1 1 t h century. See under U .38 ( v i ) f o r a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n . Map 75: church, b r i d g e Here f o l l o w s a l i s t o f the three d i a l e c t areas i n c l u d e d w i t h the n o r t h , together w i t h t h e i r p h o n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . ( l ) LINCOLNSHIRE (L) This d i a l e c t area i n c l u d e s a l l of L except i t s southern-most p a r t s (which belong t o the CMl). P a r t s o f Y immediately to the north of the Humber share most of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the L d i a l e c t , so t h a t they can a l s o be i n c l u d e d here. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are: ( i ) ME /a:/ and / a i / have merged i n the diaphoneme /e9/ = CesH. ( i i ) ME /g.:/ d i d not merge w i t h ME /e:/ and i s today r e f l e c t e d as /±d/. ( i i i ) In an analogous way, ME /o:/ became /u©/ i n L, d i s t i n c t from the r e s u l t a n t of ME /ou/ - s t i l l /ou/ today. ( i v ) Iz'l i s o f t e n r e p l a c e d by /o/. (v) PER and /h/ are both l o s t . Maps 3 6 , 3 7 : spade, c l a y Maps 3 ^ , 3 5 : speak, cream Maps 50,' 5 2 : both, oak Map hQ: mow Map 7 3 : burn Maps 1 7 , 7 6 : arm, hay - 29 -THE MIDDLE NORTH (MN) The MN d i a l e c t area i n c l u d e s most o f Y ( e x c l u d i n g , o f course,SY), northern La, Westmoreland (We) and southernmost Cumberland (Cu). J u s t as the south-eastern p a r t o f t h i s r e g ion shares c e r t a i n features w i t h the L d i a l e c t , the speech o f northern L, immediately to the south o f the Humber •has c e r t a i n t h i n g s i n common w i t h the MN d i a l e c t -,such as feature ( v i i i ) below. Important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the MN are: ( i ) ME /£:/ i s r e f l e c t e d as /is/. ( i i ) ME /a:/ merged w i t h ME /&:/ i n eastern Y, t o give /ia/. Elsewhere we normally f i n d / i a / . ( i i i ) ME / a i / has a l s o had divergent de-velopments - /ea/ i n the e a s t , but /e:/ i n the west. ( i v ) The development o f OE /a:/ t o ME /o:/ and hence to modern /ua/ occurred only i n pa r t s of eastern Y. Elsewhere rounding never d i d take p l a c e , and the development was the same as f o r ME /a:/ (normally from OE /a/ i n open s y l l a b l e s ) given above under ( i i ) : /ia/ or / i a / . Thus the word stone has three diapho-] nemic v a r i e t i e s i n the MN: /stuan/, / s t i a n / and / s t i a n / . Map 3^: speak Map 36: spade Map 37: c l a y Maps 5 0 , 5 1 , 52 both, l o a f , oak - 30 -(v) OE /o/ i n open s y l l a b l e s , on the other hand, r e g u a r l y became /o'l i n a l l ME d i a l e c t s , and hence /us/ i n the MN. ( v i ) ME / i : / and /u:/ d i d not develop i n a p a r a l l e l f a s h i o n i n the MN d i a l e c t . ME / i : / became / a i / , as i n most of Eng-l a n d , w h i l e ME /u:/ d i d not get diph-thongized i n the MN and remained /u:/. This r e t e n t i o n of ME /u:/ i s shared w i t h the Far North d i a l e c t s and w i t h Scotland. ( v i i ) Though ME /u: / was r e t a i n e d , t h i s d i d not mean merger w i t h the r e s u l t a n t o f ME /o:/. This l a t t e r ME sound was diphthong-i z e d i n the MN, t o / i s / i n the east and t o / i u / i n the west. ( v i i i ) When f o l l o w e d by /nd/, ME /if and /u/ remained short i n the MN. t l x ) ME EicH became / i : / not / a i / . (x) Corresponding t o ME /ou/, we o f t e n f i n d /a:/ or /o:/. Where the diaphoneme /ou/ occurs, i t i s pronounced Cav3 or CauH. ( x i ) PFR and /h/ are l o s t . ( x i i ) The consonant /g/ i s l o s t a f t e r djD,. even m e d i a l l y . ( x i i i ) I n i t i a l / k l / and / g l / are normally replaced by / t l / and / g l / , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Map 5 3 : c o a l , coat Map hO: sky Map h6: cloud Maps 5 5 , 5 6 : moon, do Maps h2, UT: b l i n d , ground Map U3: night Maps U8, h9, 5 1 *: mow, snow, grow Maps I T , T 6 : arm, hay Map 8 2 : s i n g , f i n g e r climb, glove - 31 -E v i d e n t l y , t h e MN d i a l e c t s c o n t a i n some o f t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g p h o n e t i c d e v e l o p m e n t s i n a l l o f E n g l a n d . One s h o u l d make a s p e c i a l n o t e o f t h e many d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s o f t h e diaphoneme / i s / , e s p e c i a l l y i n e a s t e r n Y , where t h e w o r d s mean, mane, moan and moon can a l l he p r o n o u n c e d CmisnH = / m i s n / . C f . EDG (pp 5 2 0 - 5 3 1 ) . (3) THE FAR NORTH (FN) The FN d i a l e c t r e g i o n o c c u p i e s t h e a r e a b e t w e e n t h e MN and t h e S c o t t i s h b o r d e r . I t i n c l u d e s t h e c o u n t i e s o f Durham ( D u ) , N o r t h u m b e r -l a n d (Nb) and most o f C u . I t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : ( i ) ME /e : / and / e : / merged t o g i v e / i : / . ( i i ) ME / a : / ( i n c l u d i n g OE / a : / , u n r o u n d e d i n most o f t h e n o r t h ) became / i s / i n t h e e a s t and / i a / i n t h e w e s t . ( i i i ) OE / o / i n open s y l l a b l e s became / o : / i n ME and hence /us/ i n t h e modern FN d i a l e c t . ( i v ) As an e x c e p t i o n t o ( i i ) a n d ( i i i ) , c o r -r e s p o n d i n g t o SSB / o u / o f w h a t e v e r s o u r c e ( i . e . OE / a : / , / o / o r / o u / ) u s u a l l y w e - f i n d / o : / i n e a s t e r n Nb - a s o u n d t h a t i s p r o b a b l y an i m i t a t i o n o f t h e SSB C3uD p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f / o u / . C f . U . 2 0 b e l o w . E v e n ME /of o f t e n became / o : / i n t h i s a r e a . Maps 3 3 , 3^: s e e , s e a Map 3 6 : spade Map 5 3 : c o a l , c o a t Maps h8, 5 2 , 5 3 : b o t h , o a k , c o a l , mow Maps 2 7 , 2 8 : d o c k , d o g , f o x - 32 -(v) ME / a i / normally became /e:/. (v i ) ME / i / and /u/ before /nd/ remained s h o r t . ( v i i ) ME /!:/ o f t e n became / e i / i n s t e a d o f / a i / . ( v i i i ) ME /u:/ hSs-remained unchanged. ( i x ) ME /o:/ u s u a l l y became / i 9 / . fx) SSB /D:/ i s o f t e n r e p l a c e d by /a:/. (x i ) In Nb, / 3 : / i s u s u a l l y r e p l a c e d by /o/ = CoD. Since PFR i s preserved i n Nb, the uvular Cy3 p r o n u n c i a t i o n of / r / must be r e s p o n s i b l e , as /s:/ always develops i n f r o n t of ME / r / only. ( x i i ) PFR i s normally r e t a i n e d . The pronun-c i a t i o n o f IT I i s uv u l a r CyH i n Nb, and the dental t r i l l CrU i n northern Cu, s i m i l a r to S c o t t i s h usage. ( x i i i ) ME /hi and /hw/ are kept. (x i v ) ME /ng/ i s always r e p l a c e d by / r j / . One should note the l a r g e number of features shared w i t h the MN, e i t h e r p a r t i a l l y or completely: ( i i ) , ( i i i ) , ( v ) , ( v i ) , ( v i i i ) , ( i x ) and ( x i v ) a l l have t h e i r counterparts i n the d i a l e c t r e gion to the south. For features shared w i t h S c o t t i s h d i a l e c t s , see 3 . 8 . Map 37: c l a y Maps h2, UT: b l i n d , ground Maps ho, hi: sky, k n i f e Map h6: cloud Map 5 5: moon Map 67: saw Maps 72 , 73: burn, work Map 17: r a t , arm Map 76: hay, what Map 82: s i n g , f i n g e r - 33 -3.7 URBAN DIALECTS As mentioned b e f o r e , as fair as the number of speakers i s con-cerned, urban d i a l e c t s are the most important. Much l e s s space i s devoted t o them p a r t i a l l y because they d i f f e r l e s s from each other i n p h o n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e than do r u r a l d i a l e c t s , and p a r t i a l l y be-cause of the shortage of data. The two main surveys u t i l i z e d are Wells (1970) , covering the urban d i a l e c t s o f a l l o f England, and S i v e r t s e n ( i 9 6 0 ) , which deals w i t h the most important urban d i a l e c t i n England, Cockney. On the whole, the phonemic s t r u c t u r e o f urban d i a l e c t s i s very c l o s e to t h a t o f SSB. L i k e SSB, they have merged the ME vowels /a:/ and / a i / as / e i / , /o:/ and /ou/ as /ou/ and /£:/ and /e:/ as / i : / . Therefore made and maid are both /meid/, no_ and know are both /nou/ and sea and see are both / s i : / . Another general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s the l o s s o f /h/. One can set up nine main urban d i a l e c t areas, which w i l l be dealt w i t h i n the same way as were the r u r a l d i a l e c t ~ a r e a s . Each area w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d by the most important c i t y or c i t i e s i n i t and other c h i e f c i t i e s w i t h i n i t w i l l f o l l o w the name of the d i a l e c t area i n parentheses. ( l ) The LONDON area (Cambridge, Norwich, C o l c h e s t e r ) . The main d i f f e r e n c e s from SSB are: ( i ) ME /o/, /Q:/ or /ou/ before PFR be- morning, board, four - 3k -came /og/, pronounced Lodl. This i s i n con t r a s t w i t h the diaphoneme /ou/, de-r i v e d from ME /au/. Thus saw /sou/ and sore /so3/ do not rhyme, ( i i ) J u s t as SSB /o'/ i s r e p l a c e d "by /ou/ (see above), other vowel s h i f t s a l s o cha-r a c t e r i z e these d i a l e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y Cock-ney. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of S i v e r t s e n ( i 9 6 0 ) w i l l be adopted here: SSB / e i / / a i / / o i / /au/ /ou/ Cockney Phoneme Pr o n u n c i a t i o n / a i / / o i / / A i / /eu/ / A U / : -DX]~COIH~CTO:H C O I : L ea H~ C«aH C 3 u : ( i i i ) /a/ =• C « ] i s o f t e n r e p l a c e d by /e/ = Lei. On the other hand, / A / i s pronounced Lai. ( i v ) The use of i n t r u s i v e / r / i s widespread. (v) /h/ i s l o s t as a phoneme - Lhl i s o f t e n used, however, f o r emphasis before vowels. saw, taught gr e a t , spade sky, k n i f e boy, j o i n house, about know, spoke c a t , apple c u t , above thawing, law of h a t , hole ( 2 ) The BRISTOL - DOVER area (Folkestone, B r i g h t o n , Portsmouth, ' Southampton, Torquay, Plymouth, Bath) The f o l l o w i n g are the main d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s area and SSB: - 35 -( i ) /a/ i s pronounced Lai. c a t , apple ( i i ) / e i / and /ou/ are u s u a l l y r e p l a c e d spade, c l a y ; no, by /e:/ and /o:/, r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n the know towns o f D and Co. ( i i i ) PFR i s normally kept. arm, f a r ( i v ) /h/ i s l o s t . hay, hole I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note how f a r the urban d i a l e c t s have adopted the phonetics but not the phonology o f the r u r a l d i a l e c t s spoken i n the area. Cf. 3.*+ (3) - (5). The other seven urban d i a l e c t regions correspond roughly to the Midlands and northern r u r a l d i a l e c t s i n geographical extent. They a l l l a c k the diaphoneme / A / (as i n c u t , b l o o d ) , r e p l a c i n g i t w i t h /u/. They contain /a/ } not /a:/ ; before the v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s / f / , /Q/ and / s / (e.g. a f t e r , h a t h , g r a s s ) , but r e t a i n /a:/ i n words l i k e calm, farm, f a r , spa and tomato, '/a/ i s always pronounced Call, w h i l e /a:/ i s always Ca:3. Other d i f f e r e n c e s from SSB w i l l be noted under each d i a l e c t s e p a r a t e l y . (3) The BIRMINGHAM area (Coventry, S t a f f o r d ) The diphthongs are s h i f t e d i n t h i s area ( / e i / t o Lazl, / a i / t o C o i J , e t c . ) : ./h/ i s . m i s s i n g . (k) The LEICESTER area (Nottingham, Derby, Stoke-on-Trent) In t h i s area diphthongs r e t a i n t h e i r SSB v a l u e s , more or l e s s . Thus / e i / i s Cei 1 and /ou/ i s CouD. /h/ i s again m i s s i n g . - 36 -(5) The LIVERPOOL area The d i a l e c t o f L i v e r p o o l resembles the L e i c e s t e r area d i a l e c t . I t d i f f e r s from SSB i n two a d d i t i o n a l ways: F i n a l •unstressed / i / (• e.g. baby, lad y ) i s re p l a c e d by / i : / and the diaphoneme /ea/ ( e.g. care, scarce ) i s normally r e p l a c e d "by /3:/, so t h a t f u r and f a i r have the same p r o n u n c i a t i o n . (6) The MANCHESTER area (Wigan) This d i a l e c t d i f f e r s from the L e i c e s t e r area d i a l e c t mostly i n that i t s h i g h diphthongs are high i n pronunciation-: / s p e i d / i s pronounced CspeidH or Cspe:dH ( = spade ), w h i l e coat i s pro-nounced Ckout: or Cko:t3. (T) The NORTHERN LANCASHIRE area (Oldham, Rochdale, Blackburn, P r e s t o n , Blackpool) Here the d i f f e r e n c e from the Manchester area d i a l e c t i s i n the r e t e n t i o n o f PFR, i . e . f e a r i s / f i : r / and arm i s /a:rm/. (8) The LEEDS - SHEFFIELD area ( H u d d e r s f i e l d , Bradford) Here the main d i f f e r e n c e from the Manchester d i a l e c t i s i n the presence of v o i c i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n - that i s , Bradford i s pronounced / b r a t f a d / e t c . (9) The NEWCASTLE (-on-Tyne) area (Sunderland, Middlesbrough, Stockton) There are two important d i f f e r e n c e s from SSB. SSB / e i / and /ou/ are o f t e n r e p l a c e d by a r i s i n g diphthongs/ie/ and /uo/ ( c f . - 3 7 . -t h e p r e s e n c e i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e a r e a o f t h e r i s i n g d i p h t h o n g s /id/ and / u a / . ) S e c o n d l y , b o t h PFR and / h / a r e n o r -m a l l y r e t a i n e d , t h e f o r m e r o f t e n w i t h t h e u v u l a r Zvl p r o n u n -c i a t i o n t y p i c a l o f t h e Nb r u r a l d i a l e c t ( c f . ( x i i ) on p . 3 2 ) . 3.8 DIALECTS OF SOUTHERN SCOTLAND (SS) Though i n t h i s p a p e r t h e r e w i l l be no d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p h o n o l o g y o f S c o t t i s h d i a l e c t s , i t w i l l b e i n s t r u c t i v e t o l o o k a t how d i a l e c t s i n SS f o r m a l i n k b e t w e e n t h e more c e n t r a l S c o t t i s h d i a l e c t s and t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f n o r t h e r n E n g l a n d . The s o u r c e o f a l l d a t a g i v e n b e l o w i s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e S c o t t i s h N a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y ( S N D ) . I n t h a t w o r k t h e SS d i a l e c t s a r e d e f i n e d as t h o s e s p o k e n i n t h e c o u n t i e s o f R o x b u r g h , S e l k i r k and D u m f r i e s ( i n t h e l a t t e r , e a s t o f t h e r i v e r N i t h ) . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s d i a l e c t a r e s e t o u t b e l o w , t o g e t h e r w i t h how t h e y c o n t r a s t w i t h f e a t u r e s i n o t h e r S c o t t i s h d i a l e c t s and i n t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g FN and CN d i a l e c t s o f E n g l a n d ( see p p . 2 9 - 3 2 ) . The numbers i n p a r e n t h e s e s r e f e r t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e p a r a g r a p h i n t h e SND. ( i ) ( 9 7 . l ) OE / a : / , e x c e p t i n i t i a l l y , b e - l o a f , b o t h ; c f . came / i s / , j u s t as i n much o f t h e n o r t h o f maps 50, 51 E n g l a n d , b u t u n l i k e t h e / e : / o f o t h e r S c o t t i s h d i a l e c t s . ( i i ) (97.2) OE / a / i n open s y l l a b l e s d e v e - s p a d e ; c f . map 36 l o p e d s i m i l a r l y - j u s t as i n t h e r e s t o f S c o t -l a n d and i n t h e n o r t h o f E n g l a n d . - 38 -( i i i ) ( 9 7 . 3 ) OE / aeg / became / e : / e v e r y w h e r e i n S c o t l a n d , j u s t as i n t h e CN a n d FN r u r a l d i a l e c t s i n E n g l a n d . ( i v ) ( 9 7 . M OE i n i t i a l / a : / became / j i / i n S S , u n l i k e t h e / e : / o f o t h e r S c o t t i s h d i a -l e c t s , b u t s i m i l a r t o t h e FN forms o f / j e / o r / j i / i n s u c h w o r d s . (v ) (100) OE / o : / became / o : / i n f r o n t o f / r / , / v / and / z / , b e c o m i n g / y / i n o t h e r e n -v i r o n m e n t s . These v o w e l s have a t e n d e n c y , l i k e e l s e w h e r e i n S c o t l a n d , t o u n r o u n d t o / e : / and / i / , r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n E n g l a n d , we f i n d no f r o n t r o u n d e d v o w e l s t o d a y where OE h a d / o : / , b u t t h e FN forms / i u / ^ / i s / i n s u c h words p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t an e a r l i e r * / y : / . ( v i ) (101) OE / u : / was d i p h t h o n g i z e d t o /OU/=CAWH i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n , a deve lopmen t u n i q u e t o t h e SS d i a l e c t . ( v i i ) (103) I n a p a r a l l e l f a s h i o n , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o f i n a l / i : / o f o t h e r d i a l e c t s , we f i n d / e i / i n S S , a g a i n m a k i n g t h i s d i a l e c t u n i q u e among i t s n e i g h b o u r s . ( v i i i ) ( l O U ) The diaphoneme / e / has a v e r y open , CaeD p r o n u n c i a t i o n i n t h i s d i a l e c t . . / e / c o r r e s -ponds n o t o n l y t o ME / e / , b u t a l s o t o ME / a / i n many w o r d s , e s p e c i a l l y when f o l l o w e d b y / r / o r c l a y , n a i l ; <?f. map 37 o a k , o n e ; c f . maps 5 2 , 9*+ f l o o r moon, d o ; c f . maps 5 5 , 56 cow, how s e e , t h r e e , c f . map 33 a s h , w a s h , h a r v e s t ; c f . maps 6h, 8 9 , 22 - 39 -/ s / . This s u b s t i t u t i o n o f /e/ f o r /a/ before these consonants i s found both i n * other Scot-t i s h and neighbouring E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s . ( i x ) (107) As par t o f the same tendency f o r f r o n t vowels to open, OE / i / and /y/ are r e -f l e c t e d as CeD, though t h i s vowel should s t i l l be considered as pa r t o f the diaphoneme / i / . (x) (105) OE /o/ i n open s y l l a b l e s became /u3/ ( i n d i a l e c t l i t e r a t u r e o f t e n w r i t t e n uo), j u s t as i n the E n g l i s h North, but u n l i k e elsewhere i n Scotland. ( x i ) (65 , 66 & 109) There i s no t r a c e l e f t i n the SS d i a l e c t o f i n i t i a l /k/ and /g/ before /n/. The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f i n i t i a l c l u s t e r s /kn/ /gn/ used t o be general i n Scotland, but today i t i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the North o f Scotland and to i n s u l a r d i a l e c t s - f a s t disappearing even th e r e . ( x i i ) (76.5) S i m i l a r l y , i n i t i a l /w/ before / r / i s l o s t i n SS - i t i s only kept i n p a r t s o f the North i n the form o f /v/. ( x i i i ) ( i l l ) As i n the r e s t o f Sc o t l a n d , and un-l i k e i n any d i a l e c t i n England, ME Lgl and CxD are preserved i n SS. But there i s a tendency, absent i n the r e s t o f Sc o t l a n d , t o develop a s i t , s p i n , b i d c o a l , nose, t h r o a t ; c f . map 53 knee, gnat w r i t e , wrong laugh, daughter, n i g h t , e i g h t ; maps 120, hh - I n -v o i c e d g l i d e i n f r o n t o f these consonants. Thus laugh i s pronounced C l a u x l , daughter i s CdSoxtarH, l i g h t i s C l e i c t i l and f i g h t i s CfseictD. Among the younger generation there i s even a tendency t o leave' out the Zxl or Cell a l t o g e t h e r , probably under the i n f l u e n c e o f SSB and neighbouring d i a l e c t s i n England. !xiv) (72 , 75) The diaphonemes /h/ and /hw/ are preserved i n SS, as they are normally i n the r e s t o f Scotland and i n the FN i n England. house, where; c f . map 76 - hi -IV DIAPHONEMES IN THE DIALECTS OF ENGLAND 1 Now th a t we have a b r i e f o u t l i n e o f the d i a l e c t s spoken i n England, together w i t h t h e i r more important phonetic and phono-l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , we can proceed t o a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the diaphonemes o c c u r r i n g i n these d i a l e c t s . Each d i a l e c t s h a l l be discussed under three headings: (a) D i s t r i b u t i o n . In which d i a l e c t s does the diaphoneme occur? What k i n d o f p o s i t i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s apply to i t d i f f e r e n t from the r e s t r i c t i o n s t h a t apply i n SSB? (b) Allophones. What are the phonetic r e a l i z a t i o n s o f the d i a -phoneme i n the d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s ? (c) D e r i v a t i o n . What are the r e g u l a r ME sources o f the diaphoneme i n the various d i a l e c t s ? O c c a s i o n a l l y , references w i l l be made to OE and Old French sources. S p e c i a l emphasis w i l l be p l a c e d on h i s -t o r i c a l developments d i f f e r e n t from those i n SSB. 2 VOWEL DIAPHONEMES I t i s t r a d i t i o n a l t o d i v i d e E n g l i s h vowels i n t o two l a r g e groups: l a x and tense vowels. This approach i s as v a l i d f o r the d i a l e c t s as fo r the standard language. The d i v i s i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y made f o r reasons o f convenience. The vowels w i t h i n both groups have much i n common. Lax vowels tend t o be - U2 -short and monophthongal, and - when s t r e s s e d - they cannot occur i n morpheme-final p o s i t i o n . On the other hand, tense vowels tend t o he long and diphthongized, and they f r e q u e n t l y do occur at the end of morphemes. Another important d i s t i n c t i o n between the two c l a s s e s i s that l a x vowels are r e g u l a r l y d e r i v e d from ME short vowels, whereas tense vowels are e i t h e r r e g u l a r l y d e r i v e d from ME long vowels or diphthongs, or they are der i v e d from the lengthening o f e a r l i e r short vowels. LAX VOWELS In any one d i a l e c t i n England, there are at most s i x l a x vowel diaphonemes present (aside from the "schwa" /a/, t o he discussed se-p a r a t e l y ) . Here i s a l i s t o f the s i x diaphonemes, together w i t h some examples as they occur i n SSB: / i / CxD p i t / p i t / ; p r e t t y / p r i t i : / ; busy / b i z i : / ; women /wimin/ /e/ CeH pet /pet/; any /eni:/; bury /beri:/; head /hed/; f r i e n d / f r e n d / ; s a i d /sed/; l e o p a r d / l e p s d / ; says /sez/ /a/ \JS.1 pat /pat/ /o/ Dt?3 pot /pot/; wash /wos/; cough /kof/; because / b i k o z / /u/ Lvl put /put/; woman /wurnan/; book /buk/; should /sud/ / A / CA3 pu t t /pAt/; son /sAn/; rough /rAf/; blood /blAd/; does /dAz/ The examples were chosen t o demonstrate the d i f f e r e n t s p e l l i n g s used f o r the various diaphonemes, o f t e n showing t h e i r d i f f e r e n t o r i g i n s . This system of s i x l a x vowels e x i s t s i n SSB and i n the urban and r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the South. In the Midlands and the North, the d i a -phoneme /A/ i s m i s s i n g i n both the r u r a l and urban d i a l e c t s , though i t may be present i n the standard language used i n the area. In some l i -m ited areas on the border of the southern and midlands d i a l e c t s , i t i s /u/, not /A/, t h a t i s m i s s i n g . In a few r u r a l l o c a l i t i e s o f EA and the SE, /a/ i s absent, again reducing the system t o f i v e diaphonemes. See below f o r more e l a b o r a t i o n . .h /!/ (a) Present everywhere. (b) Normally CiH. I t tends t o have a higher and t e n s e r r e a l i z a t i o n i n the Midlands and the North than i n the South. In p a r t s o f the South and i n Y there i s a strong tendency towards c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n monosyllables and next t o / r / . Some works, such as Hedevind (1967) , suggest t h a t one should add another diaphoneme t o the i n v e n t o r y o f l a x vowels on account of the c e n t r a l vowel CiH. Contrasts l i k e k n i t / n i t / versus not / n i t / are o f f e r e d from the d i a l e c t o f Dentdale (Y) ( i b i d , p. 5 3 ) . A c t u a l l y , the word not i s the only example o f f e r e d by the book where the vowel CiH does not occur next t o ME / r / . Since the word not u s u a l l y r e c e i v e s no s t r e s s w i t h i n the sentence, the presence o f CiH i n i t could be i n -t e r p r e t e d as a somewhat emphatic, r a i s e d form o f the diaphoneme / a / . In i t s other occurrences, CiH i s simply an allophone of / i / when i t i s found next t o the consonant / r / : b i r d /bird/=CbirdD; r e d / r i d / = CridH. The examples given are, of course, from the Dentdale d i a l e c t . (c) ( i ) In a l l d i a l e c t s , / i / i s the r e g u l a r development of ME / i / when not f o l l o w e d by / r / , EcH"!",/nd/ and /mb/. For exceptions see under /u/ and / i : / . ( i i ) ME / i / before the consonant c l u s t e r s /nd/ and /mb/ remained / i / i n the CN and the FN - j u s t as ME /u/ remained /u/ before /nd/ i n the same area. ( i i i ) ME /£:/ was commonly shortened to /e/ before dental consonants i n most southern and midlands d i a l e c t s . But i n s e v e r a l areas of the South, the change was to / i / , sugges-t i n g t h a t the shortening took place a f t e r the r a i s i n g o f /£:/ t o / i : / . ( i v ) OE /y/ i n most words i s now r e g u l a r l y r e f l e c t e d as / i / . There i s no t r a c e l e f t of the e a r l i e r /e/ i n EA and the SE, except i n those words where the standard language, and hence the d i a l e c t s , have adopted the /e/. However, K o k e r i t z (1932) s t i l l r e p o r t e d /e/ as an a l t e r n a t i v e Sf pr o n u n c i a t i o n i n many words w i t h OE /y/ (e.g. b r i d g e , f i l l , f i s t , l i f t , shut, e t c . ) . s i t , p i c k Map k2: b l i n d , f i n d Maps 20, 21: head, l e a d (n. ), red b r i d g e , h i l l , k i s s bury, f l e d g e , merry The use of square brackets around CcD i s to emphasize the f a c t t h a t Lgl i s r e a l l y an allophone of the phoneme /h/ i n ME, o c c u r r i n g a f t e r p a l a t a l vowels. - kS -s e t , bet f e r n Maps 20, 21: head, re d , sweat >+.5 /e/ (a) Present everywhere. (b) Normally Cell. Aside from the widespread development o f a short o f f - g l i d e Zs^l ( e s p e c i a l l y i n monosyllabic words before v o i c e d s t o p s ) , there i s l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of t h i s diaphoneme. (c) ( i ) Normally, ME /e/ remained /e/ i n a l l d i a l e c t s , except when f o l l o w e d by PFR. ( i i ) In the Midlands (except SY) and most of the South, as w e l l as i n the standard d i a l e c t s , ME /£:/ nor-mally shortened t o /e/ before d e n t a l stops - though there are many ex-ceptions (e.g. beat, s e a t, l e a d ( v b ) ) . ( i i i ) ME /a/ o f t e n became /e/ i n the u r -ban and r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f EA and the SE. This development i s u n i v e r s a l i n those d i a l e c t s where the diaphoneme /a/ i s m i s s i n g - e.g. Ess 12^ and K k. In f r o n t o f p a l a t a l or v e l a r consonants the change /a/ t o /e/ o f t e n occurs a l s o i n other d i a l e c t s o f England. ( i v ) In a t y p i c a l EA and SE development, OE /y/ became /e/ i n l a t e r times. But Map 3: apple, cat Map 22: ash, sack, bag b r i d g e , h i l l , k i s s A b b r e v i a t i o n s such as Ess 12 r e f e r t o l o c a l i t i e s surveyed i n the SED ( i n t h i s case l o c a l i t y 12 i n Essex), as abbreviated i n th a t work. - k6 -there i s . no t r a c e l e f t o f t h i s i n con-temporary d i a l e c t s , except i n words where the standard language i t s e l f has borrowed the /e/. See h.k (c) ( i v ) . bury, f l e d g e , merry Map 3: apple, cat /a/ (a) Present everywhere except i n a few l o c a l i t i e s i n EA and the SE - e.g. Ess..12 and K k. See map 3. (b) In SSB and i n the d i a l e c t s o f EA, the SE, So, the southern part of the WM1 and the IM the r a i s e d p r o n u n c i a t i o n CaeH i s normal. E l s e -where we f i n d the low f r o n t unrounded ( c a r d i n a l k) p r o n u n c i a t i o n Call, w i t h o c c a s i o n a l occurrences of i t s back counterpart Lai, es-p e c i a l l y near the S c o t t i s h border. (c) ( i ) In most environments, ME /a/ remained /a/ i n a l l d i a l e c t s where /a/ i s present. For cases where i t became /e/, /o/, /a:/, (o'l or / a i / because of some c o n d i t i o n i n g f a c t o r , see under those diaphonemes. ( i i ) In words where ME /&:/ became /e/ i n SSB, i t became /a/ i n p a r t s o f eastern Ha i n an i n t e r e s t i n g s p e c i a l development. Cf. )•!. 23 (c) (v).'-.'. ( i i i ) ME /of before fx/ became /a/ i n Wx and Maps 25, 68: So. p o r r i d g e , morning Map 20: l e a d ( n . ) , bread, r e d - kV -lo/ Maps h, 27 , 28: f o x , dbg, cross (a) Present everywhere except i n northern Nb - more p r e c i s e l y i n Fb 1 of the SED. See map k. (b) Normally L-ol. But i n L j p a r t s of south-eastern Y and i n S f , the half-open, f u l l y rounded CoH i s u s u a l . On the other hand, the unrounded La 1 occurs s p o r a d i c a l l y i n the WMl - Wx area, one of the many s i m i l a r i t i e s between the d i a l e c t s o f t h i s r e g ion and those of North America. See map h. (c) ( i ) The main source of /o/ i s ME /o/ i n a l l d i a l e c t s . For cases where i t was lengthened t o /D:/, see under t h a t d i a -phoneme. ( i i ) In the WMl, Ch and La OE /a/ was rounded t o /o/ before n a s a l consonants, and i n most words t h i s /o/ i s preserved t o t h i s day i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the area. Formerly the extent of t h i s /o/ was much g r e a t e r , as we can see from the EDG, pp. 25-28. ( i i i ) In SSB and i n the d i a l e c t s o f the South, a l s o spreading t o Midlands d i a -l e c t s today, ME /a/ was rounded t o /o/ a f t e r /w/ (unless immediately f o l l o w e d by a v e l a r consonant - e.g. wag, wax). ( i v ) On the IM, ME /u/ r e g u l a r l y became /o/ = C-DH , presumably i n i m i t a t i o n o f Maps 2 3 , 2h: man, hammer Maps 2 6 , 89: wasp, what, wash Map 32: c u t , son - hd'-t h e diaphoneme / A / , u s u a l i n s u c h words i n S S B . ' v ) I n Nb and n o r t h e r n D u , ME / i / and / u / b e f o r e PFR became /of i n t h e modern r u r a l d i a l e c t . No doubt t h e u v u l a r p r o -n u n c i a t i o n o f / r / i n t h e a r e a i s t h e m a i n cause o f t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t . Maps 72, 73: w o r k , b i r d , b u r n h.8 / u / •Map 32": c u t , . son (a ) P r e s e n t e v e r y w h e r e , e x c e p t p o s s i b l y i n some SMI and WM1 l o c a l i t i e s . (b) N o r m a l l y s l i g h t l y u n r o u n d e d Lui. I n D and w e s t e r n So we f i n d t h e l a x h i g h f r o n t r o u n d e d LYl - c f . t h e p r e s e n c e o f / u : / = Lj:l i n t h e same a r e a . U n r o u n d e d Cur] i s q u i t e common, e s p e c i a l l y i n m o n o s y l l a b l e s l i k e g o o d and f o o t . See map 5. ( c ) ( i ) I n t h e r u r a l and u r b a n d i a l e c t s o f t h e N o r t h and t h e M i d l a n d s ( e x c e p t p a r t s o f t h e WM1 and t h e I M ) , / u / i s t h e r e g u l a r c o n t i n u a t i o n o f ME / u / . ( i i ) I n t h e S o u t h and p a r t s o f t h e WM1, ME / u / has r e m a i n e d b e t w e e n l a b i a l c o n s o n a n t s a n d / l / , as w e l l as o c c a s i o n a l l y i n o t h e r words a f t e r l a b i a l c o n s o n a n t s ( n o t e , how-e v e r , words s u c h as b u n , b u t w h i c h n o r m a l l y have /A/) . ( i i i ) ME / o : / became r e g u l a r l y / u : / and t h e n s h o r t e n e d t o / u / b e f o r e / k / and o c c a s i o n a l l y ! p u l l , b u l l , f u l l , w o o l , p u t , b u t c h e r Maps 3 0 , 3 1 : b o o k , l o o k , h o o f , s o o t - h9 -"before If I and ft/, i n SSB, the urban d i a l e c t s and the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the South and p a r t s of the Midlands. ( i v ) ME /il a f t e r /w/ became /u/ near the S c o t t i s h border. Cf. the s i m i l a r S c o t t i s h development (SND § 59)'. (v) ME /u/ before the consonant c l u s t e r /nd/ has remained i n the MN and FN. Cf. the comparable r e t e n t i o n o f / i / before /nd/ i n the same area (p. h3). ( v i ) In north-western Y and p a r t s of Cu, ME /u/ i s r e t a i n e d before PFR. In northern Cu, ME Ii/ a l s o became ,/u/ before PFR. / A / (a) Present i n the standard d i a l e c t s and i n the urban and r u r a l d i a -l e c t s o f the South and most of the WMl. Note t h a t i n p a r t s of the Midlands, CAH appears i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n w i t h Lvl, t h e r e f o r e i t i s to be assigned t o the diaphoneme /u/. (b) The p r i n c i p a l allophone of / A / i s the low c e n t r a l unrounded C A3. In the standard speech of the Midlands and the North, / A / i s pro-nounced w i t h the higher c e n t r a l vowel Lui. In the London area i t i s u s u a l l y f r o n t e d t o Lai - not t o be confused w i t h /a/ which i s pronounced Latl t h e r e . Map 1 9 : whip, win Map hi: ground Map 73: burn, t u r n b i r d -50 -[c) ( i ) The p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e o f / A / i s ME / u / , e x c e p t as n o t e d u n d e r h.8. ( i i ) ME / o / b e f o r e / g / became / A / i n much o f t h e SW. ( i i i ) ME / o : / was s h o r t e n e d v e r y e a r l y i n some w o r d s , so t h a t i t s h a r e d t h e d e v e -l o p e m e n t o f ME / u / t o / A / where t h i s d i aphon erne e x i s t s . Map 3 2 : c u t , son d o g , f r o g Map 9 3 : b l o o d , f l o o d , Monday 1+.10 TENSE VOWELS The number o f t e n s e v o w e l d iaphonemes i n E n g l i s h i s much l a r g e r t h a n t h a t o f l a x v o w e l d i a p h o n e m e s . I t i s u s u a l t o d i v i d e t e n s e v o w e l s i n t o f i v e s u b c l a s s e s , d e p e n d i n g on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r p r o t o -t y p a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n . He re f o l l o w s a l i s t o f t e n s e v o w e l d i a p h o n e m e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h w i t h examples f r o m SSB o r o t h e r d i a l e c t s : : I LONG VOWELS / i : / SSB E i : H see / s i : / ; s e a / s i : / ; r e c e i v e / r i s i : v / ; b e l i e v e / b i l i : v / ; p e o p l e / p i : p l / - ; t h e s e / c 5 i : z / , m a c h i n e •r / m s s i : n / ; C a e s a r / s i : z a / y c i t y / s i t i : / / e : / Wessex Ce:D spade / s p e : d / ; speak / s p e : k / ; k e y / k e : / / & : / NM1 Ce:D c l o u d / k l e : d / ; how /e.:/; mare /me:/; h a i r /e.:/ Is.: I Devon D&:1 s k y / s k a a : / ; k n i f e / nae : f / ; f i g h t / vae : t / / a : / SSB Ca:3 f a t h e r /fa:oV; p a r t / p a : t / ; h e a r t / h a : t / ; l a u g h / l a : f / ; c l e r k / k l a : k / ; Shah / s a : / /o:/ SSB Co?1 saw /so:/;'caught /ko:t/; a l l / o : l / ; brought / b r o : t / ; broad /bro:d/; horse /ho:s/; board /bo:d/; war /wo:/; mourn /mo:n/; door /do:/ /o: / Wessex Co: : l o a f /lo:f/;'mow /mo:/; nose /no:z/; dough /do:/ /©: / Devon Cu: 1 both /b©:0/; coat /kffi:t/ /u: / SSB Cu: : moon /mu:n/; move /mu:v/; shoe /su:/; through /9ru:/;'chew / t s u : / ; June /dzu:n/; r U e f u l / r u : f a l / /S: / Nb Co: : fox / f o : k s / ; road /ro:d/; dough /do:/ /3 : / SSB C3: 1 • b i r d /b3:d/; burn /b3:n/; f e r n /f3:n/; work /ws:k/; myrrh /1113: / ; l e a r n /I3 :n/ I I DIPHTHONGS WITH AN /!/ GLIDE / e i / SSB CeiD spade / s p e i d / ; maid /meid/; gauge /geidz/; c l a y / k l e i / ; great / g r e i t / ; neighbour /neibs/; they /Sei/; weight /weit/ / a i / SSB CaiH b i t e / b a i t / ; sky / s k a i / ; a i s l e / a i l / ; n e i t h e r /naicfe/; l i e / l a i / ; n i g h t / n a i t / ; rye / r a i / ; buy / b a i / ; eye / a i / ; h eight / h a i t / / o i / SSB Coi"J v o i c e / v o l s / ; boy / b o i / ; buoy / b o i / / u i / SY Cui] moon /muin/; foot / f u i t / ; f l o o d / f l u i d / I I I DIPHTHONGS WITH A /u/ GLIDE /eu/ SY Cecr] dew /deu/; few /f e u / /au/ SSB CauD house /haus/; now /nau/; drought /draut/ /ou/ SSB C3u] note /nout/; mauve /mouv/; boat /bout/; toe /tou/ shoulder /soulds/; mow /mou/; sew /sou/ - 52 -IV DIPHTHONGS WITH A /a/ GLIDE / i s / SSB CraH deer / d i e / ; dear / d i a / ; w e i r d /wiad/; f i e r c e / f i a s / ; here / h i a / ; t h e a t r e /Oiata/ /ea/ SSB CeaD hare /hea/; h a i r /he-a/; h e i r /e^/; hear /bea/; there /cTes/; scarce /skeas/ /os/ M i d i . CosH four / f o a / ; hoarse /oss/; door /doa/„ / W SSB C-creH poor /pus/; t o u r /tua/; sure /sua/ V EVEN AND RISING DIPHTHONGS / i a / FN Cia - i e 3 spade / s p i a d / ; gate / i a t / ; both /hiaO/ / i u / SSB Cxu:I] few / f i u / ; feud / f i u d / ; tune / t i u n / ; due / d i u / ; heauty / b i u t i : / /ua/ Y Dual! nose /nuaz/; road /ruad/; f o a l / f u a l / N a t u r a l l y , no d i a l e c t contains a l l o f these diaphonemes. The f o l l o w i n g are those t h a t occur i n a l l o r p r a c t i c a l l y a l l o f the d i a -l e c t s spoken i n England: / i : / /a:/ h :/ /u:/ / e i / / a i / / o i / / i u / Of the o t h e r s , the f o l l o w i n g are widespread, though not u n i v e r s a l : (a) /e:/ and /o:/ are t y p i c a l o f the d i a l e c t s spoken i n the West of England - a l l the way from the SW to La. S c a t t e r e d s u r v i v a l s o f these diaphonemes occur i n Nf. (b) /au/ i s m i s s i n g i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the North, w h i l e /ou/ i s m i s s i n g i n the SW - Wx area. - 53 -(c) The diphthongs / i 9 / ; /es/ and /ua/ are m i s s i n g i n mbst^dia-l e c t s t h a t have preserved PFR. This i s because the sounds CisH, CesH and Zual can be considered i n these areas as allophones o f the diaphonemes / i / , /e/ and /u/, r e s p e c t i v e l y , o c c u r r i n g before / r / . However, there are areas i n the North, where the three diph-thongs considered here do occur as diaphonemes even though PFR i s r e t a i n e d . This happens because i n these areas ME /a:/, /&:/ and /o:/ have normally developed i n t o these diphthongs. A l l the other diaphonemes mentionned above are very l i m i t e d i n t h e i r geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n . For a d e t a i l e d treatment, see under each diaphoneme s e p a r a t e l y . h.ll /!:/ (a) Present everywhere, except i n l o c a l i t y Y 6 i n north-western York-s h i r e , where i t seems t o be u n i f o r m l y r e p l a c e d by / e i / . (b) In much of England, the monophthong Ci:D i s r e p l a c e d by various kinds of diphthongs. We f i n d an. on-glide i n the L%il or Csi(:)H o f EA, the SMI or north-western Y. Cei:H occurs i n south Durham -c f . Orton ( 1933) , p. k. The "weaker" diphthong C i i H i s widespread a l l over England. See map 6 . (c) ( i ) In SSB and a l l d i a l e c t s except those Map 3 3:three, f e e l i n most of the NMl, ME /e:/ r e g u l a r l y became / i : / . ( i i ) ME /£:/ u s u a l l y became / i : / i n the Maps 3k, 35: speak, standard and urban d i a l e c t s , merging reach, cream - 54 -w i t h the r e s u l t a n t of ME /e:/. This de-velopment t o / i : / i s a l s o t r u e i n a l a r g e number of r u r a l d i a l e c t s : i n the south (ex-cept Wx and the SW), the CMl and most of the WMl, the IM and the FN. Because of the i n f l u e n c e o f the s t a n -dard language, / i : / has spread t o some other r u r a l d i a l e c t s i n c e r t a i n words, such as teacher. Before d e n t a l stops, ME /£: / u s u a l l y be-came shortened to /e/ or / i / i n the standard language and the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the south and most of the Midlands. / i : ' / i n such words i s usual only i n the FN. ( i i i ) ME / a i / became / i : / i n the same NMl r u r a l d i a l e c t s where ME /e:/ became / e i / . This i s why the diaphoneme / i : / does not disappear i n the NMl. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , ME /£:/ became / i : / i n t h i s area i n those words where i t became / e i / i n the standard language, suggesting an e a r l y merger of ME / a i / w i t h /e:/ i n t h i s area. ( i v ) ME CicH developed t o / i : / i n s t e a d of / a i / i n the n o r t h , La and the SY. (v) In the southern part o f EA, OE /y:/ became / i : / i n s t e a d of / a i / , suggesting an e a r l y development Maps 20, 21: head, bread, red Maps 37, 39: c l a y , s t r a i g h t Map 100: break, g r e a t , steak Map U3: n i g h t , l i g h t Map ^5: mice, l i c e - 5.5 -/y:/ t o /ex/, analogous t o the /y/ t o /e/ change t y p i c a l of the d i a l e c t s o f t h i s area i n e a r l y ME. ( v i ) In much of the north', ME /o:/ became Map 56: do, two / i : / i n s t e a d of /id/ at the end of a (from the d i a l e c t a l word. OE /two:/) ( v i i ) ME Ii/ became / i : / before Is/ i n the f i s h , d i s h r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f La and So (EDG, § 7 2 ) . U.12 le:/ (a) This diaphoneme i s absent from the standard language and from most urban d i a l e c t s (though present i n urban d i a l e c t s of the SW, La and the n o r t h ) . But /e:/ i s very much a l i v e i n the r u r a l d i a -l e c t s , absenting i t s e l f only i n the SE, the SMI, So, the C M 1 , L and the IM only. In the r u r a l areas of EA i t i s disappearing today, c f . K o k e r i t z (1932) , pp. 17 - 2 0 . See map 7. (b) The usual p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f /e:/ i s the higher-mid f r o n t unrounded Ce:H. Lowered L£.:l occurs o c c a s i o n a l l y i n D and So, and i s usual i n most of Cu and We. The sound Cei] o c c u r r i n g i n EA and He i s a l s o i n c l u d e d i n the d i a -phoneme le:/, d e s p i t e i t s diphthongal nature, because there i s another diphthong, pronounced Cai3 or Cae.i3, i n the areas mentioned t h a t has to be i n c l u d e d i n the diaphoneme / e i / (see U.22 ) . S l i g h t diphthong!zation of /e:/ to CeaH a l s o occurs i n eastern Y. (c) ( i ) ME /a:/ r e s u l t e d i n /e:/ i n a l l Map 36: spade, southern and Midland d i a l e c t s where /e:/ gate occurs. - 56 -( i i ) ME / a i / r e s u l t e d i n /e:/ i n Ox, Sa, the NMl, the CN and the FN, though there i s some i n t e r f e r e n c e i n the north from the diaphoneme /es/. ( i i i ) ME fZaigll r e s u l t e d i n /e:/ i n Sa and occasionally" i n Wx. ( i v ) ME IE'I r e s u l t e d i n /e:/ i n the Wx area mostly - not, of course, i n words where i t was shortened t o /e/ or / i / . (v) ME /a:/ and / a i / before PFR became le:/ i n s t e a d o f the more usual /ea/ or /e/ i n Cu and We. Maps 37, 102: c l a y , r e i n s , r a i n Map 39: s t r a i g h t Maps 3^, 35: reach, speak, cream Maps 6 0 , 6 l : hare, h a i r h.13 /e:/ (a) This i s a diaphoneme of very l i m i t e d geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n . I t occurs only i n Db (except i t s northernmost p a r t ) , St and Ch. (b) Always Ce.:!]. Note that t h i s same sound Ce:H a l s o occurs as an allophone of the diaphoneme /e:/ i n both the south-west and the' north-west of England. (c) ( i ) ME /u:/ r e g u l a r l y became /e:/ i n Db, presumably by going through the stages Cu: II-**Cau:]-»*Ceu:H*Cea:] -* Ce : 1. ( i i ) ME /a:/ and / a i / before PFR became /e:/ i n s t e a d of /ea/ i n Ch and S t , as w e l l as o c c a s i o n a l l y i n Db. Maps h6, ^7: cloud, house, ground Maps 6 0 , 6 l : hare, h a i r , mare, pear - 5 7 -h.lh /«:/ (a) This i s another very r a r e diaphoneme. I t s extent i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the county o f D . See maps ho, hi. (b) Normally LiZ'.l, which i n D c o n t r a s t s w i t h Ca:3. Thus i n northern D , i c e /ae:s/ c o n t r a s t s with'ass /a:s/. The vowel D K : H a l s o e x i s t s i n Wx and Nf as allophone o f the diaphoneme /a:/. (c) ( i ) In northern D, ME / i : / r e g u l a r l y be-came /ae:/, except before / r / where / a i / i s r e t a i n e d (e.g. i r o n / a i r a n / ) . ( i i ) I n southern D t h i s development d i d not happen before v o i c e l e s s consonants, where / a i / i s kept. Note: Because of t h i s p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of occurrence o f the d i a -phoneme /as:/, one could i n c l u d e t h i s sound w i t h the diapho-neme / a i ' / . However, one should t r y t o a v o i d i n c l u s i o n o f a monophthongal allophone w i t h a diphthongal diaphoneme. Maps h0-k2: sky, b l i n d , k n i f e Note: c a l f /k«:f/ Maps UO-^2: sky /skae.: / vs. k n i f e / n a i f / h.15 /a:/ (a) Present i n a l l d i a l e c t s . (b) Normally, low f r o n t unrounded Ca:H. In Nf and the SE, we f i n d the low back unrounded vowel Cq:H, a l s o present i n south D, but only when fo l l o w e d by / r / . The somewhat r a i s e d Cae:J a l s o occurs, e s p e c i a l l y i n Wx, the WM1, the IM and Du. See map 8. Generally speaking, the "urban d i a l e c t s have the same pronunci-a t i o n of /a:/ as the r u r a l d i a l e c t appropriate f o r t h e i r area. - 58 -( i ) The p r i n c i p a l source of /a:/ i n the various E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s i s ME /a/ l e n g t h -ened by diverse c o n d i t i o n i n g f a c t o r s . The most important of these i s pre-consonantal and f i n a l / r / , before which /a/ became /a:/ by compensatory lengthening wherever the PFR l a t e r disappeared ( i n c l u d i n g SSB). ( i i ) ME /a/ became /a:/ when f o l l o w e d by the v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s / f / , /©/ or / s / , and of t e n before /n/ f o l l o w e d by a dental con-sonant - i n SSB, the r u r a l and urban d i a -l e c t s of the south and o f t e n i n the CMl, the WMl and the IM. ( i i i ) In a number of words /a:/ i s general i n a l l standard and urban d i a l e c t s as w e l l as i n the m a j o r i t y o f r u r a l d i a l e c t s . These i n c l u d e n a t i v e words (before ME /lm/) and words of f o r e i g n o r i g i n where the /a:/ i s i n i m i t a t i o n of a long Ca:3 vowel i n the language from which the p a r t i c u l a r word i s borrowed. ( i v ) ME /u:/ became /a:/ i n south La and SY, j u s t as i t became /&:/ f u r t h e r south. (v) ME /au/ became /a:/ i n much of the n o r t h , but the exact boundaries o f t h i s change have been o b l i t e r a t e d by analogy and borrowing. Map 6k: f a r , harvest Map 62: c h a f f , b a t h , c l a s s , branch Map 63: calm, palm banana, drama, b r a , Shah, spa Map k6: c l o u d , about Map 67: saw, caught - 5.-9 -( v i ) I n most o f E n g l a n d , OE / a : w / e v e n t u -a l l y f e l l t o g e t h e r w i t h / o u / b e c a u s e o f t h e g e n e r a l r o u n d i n g o f OE / a : / . B u t i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e . n o r t h , t h e r e a r e s t i l l many t r a c e s o f t h e more c o n s e r v a t i v e , u n r o u n d e d v o w e l , w h i c h has m o n o p h t h o n g i z e d t o / a : / . ( v i i ) ME / e / b e f o r e PFR o f t e n became / a : / . I n words where even t h e s t a n d a r d l a n g u a g e has b o r r o w e d t h i s v o w e l , t h e d i a l e c t s have i t t o o , b u t i n o t h e r words t h e r e i s l i t t l e o r no t r a c e o f t h i s / a : / t o d a y . T h i s i s i n marked c o n t r a s t t o t h e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s a g e n e r a t i o n o r more b a c k , when / a : / was common i n c e r t a i n d i a l e c t s i n s u c h words as c e r t a i n and s e r v a n t . C f . W r i g h t ( p . 5 5 ) , H e d e v i n d ( p p . 112-11*0, K o k e r i t z ( p p . 1 7 1 -1 7 6 ) , O r t o n ( p p . 2 7 - 2 8 ) . P r e s u m a b l y , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f SSB / 3 : / has b e e n t o o s t r o n g t o r e s i s t . Map h-9: snow, mow, own ( b u t n o t g r o w , f o r e x a m p l e , f r o m OE / g r o r w a n / . ) f a r , h e a r t h.16 h-l (a ) P r e s e n t e v e r y w h e r e e x c e p t i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f e a s t e r n Nb and e a s t e r n Du ( see t h e n o t e r e l a t i n g t o Du i n O r t o n ( p p . 3-*0, f o r e x a m p l e ) . - GO -Maps 6 6 , 67: thaw, saw, law Maps 6 5 , 12h: caught, "brought, daughter (b) Normally the lower-mid back . rounded vowel Lo:l, w i t h a tendency towards the higher Co:1 being e x h i b i t e d mostly i n the SW. In the urban d i a l e c t s around London, i n c l u d i n g Cockney, we f i n d a diph-thongized allophone CouD. In the He - Gl - Wo area the unrounded form Ca:3 i s common. See map 9 . (c) ( i ) Except i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of the no r t h , ME /au/ r e g u l a r l y r e s u l t e d i n ( i i ) ME CauxD and CouxH normally became /o:/, except again i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of the north and the northern h a l f of the Midlands. ( i i i ) ME /a/ before pre-consonantal and f i n a l / l / r e g u l a r l y became lo:/ i n a l l d i a l e c t s where /O:/ e x i s t s . ( i v ) ME /of became lengthened t o /o'/ when fo l l o w e d by the v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s / f / , /0/ and / s / i n the r u r a l and urban d i a l e c t s of the south and of the WM1. This development a l s o e x i s t s i n o l d -fashioned SSB. (v) ME /o/ before /g/ u s u a l l y became lo'l i n the WM1 - yet another development com-mon to t h i s area and North America. ( v i ) ME jo I before pre-consonantal and | Map 68: morning w a l l , a l l , c a l l Maps 2 8 , 29: cough, f r o t h , cross Map 27: dog, l o g - 61 -f i n a l IT I u s u a l l y became /o:I i n those d i a l e c t s i n which PFR i s l o s t . However, absence of t h i s lengthening i s q u i t e com-mon, e s p e c i a l l y before / s / , where the / r / had been l o s t e a r l i e r than i n other p o s i -t i o n s . ( v i i ) On the other hand, ME /o:/, /o:/ and /ou/ before PFR became lo'l only i n a few r u r a l d i a l e c t s - mostly i n EA and the CMl. Of course, most urban d i a l e c t s and SSB do have /o:/ i n such words. ( v i i i ) ME /wa/ before PFR a l s o became /wo:/ i n SSB and the d i a l e c t s o f the south, where the rounding o f /wa/ t o /wo/ i s usu a l . ( i x ) OE /a:w/, which normally merged w i t h /ou/ i n ME, due t o the usual rounding of OE /a:/, merged w i t h ME /au/ i n s t e a d i n the western p a r t s o f the FN and hence became /Q: / i n the modern r u r a l d i a l e c t of the area. (x) ME /ou/, of whatever o r i g i n , o f t e n r e -s u l t e d i n /o:/ i n the SW r u r a l d i a l e c t s . Map 125: horse Maps 69-71: hoarse, door, four war, warm Map 1+9: snow, mow Map 1+9, 5*+: snow, grow - 62 -k.n lo-.i (a) L i k e i t s f r o n t unrounded counterpart /e:/, t h i s diaphoneme i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the urban and r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the west and of the FN, aside from a marginal presence i n EA. U n l i k e /e:/, i t i s completely absent from SY and most d i a l e c t s of the n o r t h . (b) Normally the higher-mid back rounded Co:D. There i s no t e n -dency towards the lower sound Co:H ( u n l i k e i n the case of / e : / ) , no doubt t o avoid confusion w i t h /O'. /. In Nf and parts of the CMl, the diphthongized CouD should be considered as an allophone of /o:/, because i n these areas there i s another diphthong CouD th a t i s assigned t o /ou/. Compare h.12 ( b ) . See map 10 f o r the geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of the diaphoneme / o : / . i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f England. (c) ( i ) /o:/ i s u s u a l l y d e r i v e d from ME /o:/, whether u l t i m a t e l y from OE /a:/ or from OE /o/ i n open s y l l a b l e s , ( i i ) ME ./ou/ normally became /o:/ wherever /o:/ e x i s t s , except i n EA and the He-Mon area. ' i i i ) In p a r t s of the NMl, ME / o: / and /ou/ before PFR r e s u l t e d i n /o:/. Maps 5 0 , 5 1 : both, whole, l o a f Map 5 3 : c o a l , coat Maps mow, snow, grow Maps 6 9 , TO: f o u r , mourning, hoarse - 63 -h.18 /©:/ (a) This i s a diaphoneme r e s t r i c t e d to D, the westernmost pa r t o f So and the easternmost p a r t of Co. As shown i n h.19 , t h i s area c o i n c i d e s w i t h the re g i o n where /u:/ i s pronounced Cy:H. See map 9« (t>) Always Cu:"]. (c) Always derived from ME / o : / . Maps 50, 51: both, l o a f Note: The r a t i o n a l e f o r s e t t i n g up t h i s diaphoneme i s t h a t i n the the D area most words t h a t contained / o : / i n ME, have a back high rounded-vowel Cu:H today, c o n t r a s t i n g both w i t h /u:/= Cy:H and w i t h /o:/= Co:H. I t i s t r u e t h a t a l l the words w i t h t h i s /GO:/ diaphoneme have an a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n Co:D i n the area. But words t h a t had /ou/ i n ME (e.g. mow, snow) always have /o:/ ( o c c a s i o n a l l y / o : / ) , never Cu:H - so tha t the phone Cu:D cannot be considered as simply a v a r i a n t o f /o:/. In the Ch area, where /u:/ i s a l s o f r o n t e d t o Cu:D or Cy:H, we a l s o f i n d the phones Cu:H or Lxr:l as v a r i a n t s of /o:/. But here t h i s r a i s i n g o f /o:/ occurs r e g a r d l e s s o f whether /o:/ i s derived from ME /o'l or /ou/, so t h a t Cu:H can be considered as an allophone o f /o:/, so t h a t we do not need /Q: / to f u l l y ex-p l a i n the phonology of the area. U.19 /u:/ (a) Present everywhere. (b) Normally Cu:J, w i t h s l i g h t f r o n t i n g i n EA, the CM1 and the IM. This f r o n t e d sound i s described i n K o k e r i t z (1932), pp h2-hk, as - 64 -Map 55, 56: moon, do a sound almost i d e n t i c a l t o Swedish /u/ i n hus. P h o n e t i c a l l y , Lu'.l i s a h i g h f r o n t overrounded vowel, pronounced w i t h a very narrow l i p opening, o f t e n s l i g h t l y diphthongized. In D, western So and eastern Co, as w e l l as i n p a r t s of Ch and La, /u:/ i s f u l l y fronted, t o Cy:H. One should note the sub-sequent development of the diaphoneme /Q:/ t o " f i l l i n " ; the gap between /o:/ and /u:/. [c) ( i ) ME /o:/ r e g u l a r l y became /u:/ ( c f . the s i m i l a r r a i s i n g of ME /e:/ t o / i : / ) , except i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of southern Db, SY and the CN and FN. Due t o the i n -fluence o f SSB, /u:/ i s . spreading i n words w i t h ME /o:/ i n the d i a l e c t s of SY and the CN. ( i i ) ME /u:/ was r e t a i n e d i n the r u r a l d i a -l e c t s of the FN and parts of the CN. This area, of course, i s i n complementary d i s t -r i b u t i o n w i t h the area where ME /o:/ became /u:/ (see above). Before /nd/, ME /u/ lengthened t o /u:/. j u s t as ME / i / lengthened t o / i : / i n the same environments, i n the same' d i a l e c t s . Because of l a t e r d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n of the l o n g high vowels i n most d i a l e c t s , we f i n d /u:/ i n such words only i n the r u r a l d i a -l e c t s o f eastern Y. Map h6: cloud, how Map i*7: ground - 65 -( i i i ) Before l a b i a l consonants, ME ,/u:/ was normally r e t a i n e d i n a l l d i a l e c t s . ( i v ) ME /eu/ and / i u / normally became /u:/ i n D and Nf. A f t e r /!/ and pa-l a t a l consonants, t h i s development extends to p r a c t i c a l l y a l l d i a l e c t s o f the south and the Midlands, i n c l u -ding SSB (though / i u / a f t e r / l / i s s t i l l o c c a s i o n a l l y heard i n o l d - f a -shioned speech). A f t e r / r / , /u:/ i n words of t h i s c l a s s i s u n i v e r s a l . k.20 l'6:l (a) A r a r e diaphoneme, e x i s t i n g only i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f Nb and northern Du. The o r i g i n of t h i s diaphoneme i s shrouded i n mystery. Perhaps i t i s an attempt at the i m i t a t i o n o f SSB /ou/ pronounced C3UH. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t c o u l d be a.monophthongization of an e a r l i e r diphthong "/'ua/, s t i l l current i n much of the n o r t h , i n the same way as the OF diphthong /ue/ has been reduced t o /o/ or /ce/ i n modern French (e.g. OF / p l u e t / , modern / p l o / - w r i t t e n p l e u t , ' i t r a i n s ' ) . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t /o:/ i s not even mentioned . i n the EDG as a p o s s i b l e p r o n u n c i a t i o n of the vowel i n words th a t c o n t a i n /ou/ i n SSB, even though i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s sound, of widespread use today i n Nb, was completely unknown there seventy Map 115: room (OE /ru:m/) Maps 57, 58: few, dew, chew, l u t e rude - 6 6 -y e a r s a g o . S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e i s no t r a c e o f a s i m i l a r s o u n d i n n e i g h b o u r i n g S c o t t i s h d i a l e c t s , a t l e a s t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e SND. See map 9 f o r t h e a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f / o : / i n t h e d i a l e c t s . ) A l w a y s h i g h e r - m i d f r o n t r o u n d e d C o : ] . ) ( i ) ME /o:/ n o r m a l l y r e s u l t s i n / o : / , w h e t h e r | Maps 51-53: d e r i v e d f r o m OE / a : / o r OE / o / i n open s y l - l o a f , o a k , l a b l e s . I n t h i s merge r o f t h e two OE s o u r c e s , c o a l , c o a t t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f Nb and n o r t h e r n Du a r e u n i q u e among t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e FN and n o r t h e r n CN a r e a s . T h a t t h i s / o : / i s a r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t , p r o b a b l y b o r r o w e d , i s a l s o shown b y t h e f a c t t h a t i t does n o t o c c u r i n a number o f common words w i t h OE / a : / ( s u c h as b o t h , w h i c h a l w a y s has t h e p r e s u m a b l y o l d e r f o r m /is/ i n t h e a r e a ) . B u t s a y i n g t h a t / o : / i s a b o r r o w e d diaphoneme i n Nb and Du does n o t r e a l l y e x p l a i n i t s o r i g i n . Why was a s i m i l a r v o w e l n o t b o r r o w e d b y o t h e r n o r t h e r n r u r a l d i a l e c t s ? I s t h e r e any c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p r e s e n c e o f / o : / and t h a t o f DaH, a l s o u n i q u e t o t h i s a r e a ? U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e amount o f d a t a does n o t a l l o w an answer t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , ( i i ) ME / o u / and / o / b e f o r e p r e - c o n s o n a n t a l and Maps hd, h9 f i n a l / l / a l s o r e s u l t e d i n / o : / i n t h i s a r e a , | mow, snow b u t n o t as r e g u l a r l y as ME /o:/. O f t h e words - 67 -e x a m i n e d , i t i s commonly u s e d i n d o u g h , g o l d , mow and y o l k , i t o c c u r s o c c a s i o -n a l l y i n o l d and snow and i s a b s e n t i n c o l d , c o l t , g r o w , own , sew, s h o u l d e r a n d t h r o w . E v i d e n t l y , t h e p r e s e n c e o f / o : / i n t h e s e words i s n o t p r e d i c t a b l e on t h e b a s i s o f h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s . What we h a v e , i s a p r o g r e s s i v e r e p l a c e m e n t o f d i a l e c t a l / a : / , / i a / e t c . b y / o : / i n t h o s e words t h a t c o n t a i n / o u / i n S S B . ' i i i ) ME / o / i n c l o s e d s y l l a b l e s i s a l s o o f t e n r e p l a c e d b y Jo:/ i n t h e Nb r u r a l d i a l e c t s . S i n c e t h e s e words c o n t a i n / o / , n o t / o u / i n S S B , t h e t h e o r y t h a t d i a l e c t a l / o : / i s d e r i v e d f r o m SSB / o u / i s f u r t h e r damaged. Map 27: d o g , f o x U.21 / 3:/ (a ) P r e s e n t e v e r y w h e r e e x c e p t i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f much o f t h e F N , and i n l o c a l i t y L e i 1. We s h o u l d n o t e t h a t i n a r e a s t h a t have p r e s e r v e d P F R , d iaphoneme / ' 3 : / i s r e s t r i c t e d i n d i s t r i b u t i o n t o o c c u r o n l y b e f o r e t h e c o n s o n a n t / r / . (b) . P h o n e t i c a l l y , / 3 : / i s u s u a l l y a l o n g m i d c e n t r a l u n r o u n d e d v o w e l , d e n o t e d e i t h e r C 3 : 3 o r L~a:l i n l i n g u i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e . I n Mo t h e f r o n t r o u n d e d v o w e l \SB:1 i s f o u n d i n s t e a d . I n a r e a s where PFR i s p r e s e r v e d , what i s n o r m a l l y t r a n s c r i b e d as - 6 8 -a succession o f diaphonemes /3:r/, i s a c t u a l l y a uniform vowel throughout, namely an " r - c o l o u r e d " C3:U vowel, o f t e n w r i t t e n CTrD. This vowel i s a l s o common i n North American E n g l i s h . (c) ( i ) ME / i / , /u/ and /e/ "before PFR nor-ma l l y became /3:/ i n a l l d i a l e c t s where t h i s diaphoneme e x i s t s . ME /o/ between /w/ and PFR developed i n the same way. ( i i ) SSB /ea/ i s r e g u l a r l y r e p l a c e d by /3:/ i n both the r u r a l and urban d i a l e c t s o f most o f La. ( i i i ) There i s a strong tendency i n many r u r a l d i a l e c t s t o re p l a c e SSB / i / , /e/ and / A / by li'l before i n t e r v o c a l i c / r / . A s i m i l a r tendency e x i s t s i n North Ame-r i c a n E n g l i s h . Map 73: b i r d , burn, f e r n Map 72: work, w o r l d , word Maps 6 0 , 6 l : h a i r , hare Maps 83-85: s q u i r r e l , m i r r o r , bury, h e r r i n g , hurry h.22 / e i / (a) This diphthongal diaphoneme i s present everywhere except i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of Ox and Sa and some of the urban d i a l e c t s spoken i n the southwest and the nor t h . See map 12. (b) The most general p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f / e i / i s CeiH. A higher va-r i e t y CeiH occurs i n some forms o f the standard language and i n the d i a l e c t s o f So and the IM. One should note here t h a t the diphthong Leil a l s o occurs as an allophone o f /e:/ i n p a r t s of EA and the WMl ( c f . h.12). - 69 -On t h e o t h e r hand, i n much o f t h e s o u t h / e i / has a more open p r o n u n c i a t i o n . I n t h e r u r a l and u r b a n d i a l e c t s o f most o f EA, p a r t s o f t h e SE, G l and He we f i n d m o s t l y CseiH, w h i l e t h e l o w CaiD i s f o u n d o c c a s i o n a l l y i n EA ( i n c l u d i n g o f t e n Cockney) and i s t y p i c a l o f t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f / e i / i n Wx and Wo. See map 1 2 . ( c ) ( i ) ME CaigD became / e i / p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y -where / e i / e x i s t s - r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f Db b e i n g t h e main e x c e p t i o n , t h o u g h some words such as e i g h t c o n t a i n / e i / even t h e r e . ( i i ) ME / a i / b e f o r e o t h e r c o n s o n a n t s n o r m a l l y became / e i / i n t h e s t a n d a r d l a n g u a g e , i n u r b a n d i a l e c t s where / e i / e x i s t s and i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e s o u t h ( e x c e p t O x ) , t h e C M 1 , He and t h e IM. ( i i i ) ME / a : / became / e i / i n t h e s t a n d a r d l a n g u a g e , i n most urban d i a l e c t s and t h e f o l l o w i n g r u r a l d i a l e c t s : EA (though t r a c e s o f /e:/ s u r v i v e - see h.12), t h e SE, So, t h e SMI, t h e C M 1 and t h e IM. ( i v ) ME /e:/ became / e i / i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e N M 1 and i n Y 6 . (v) ME /e:/ i n most words became / e i / i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e SW, t h e N M 1 , SY and L a , as w e l l as o c c s i o n a l l y i n Wx and t h e W M 1 . But i n some words o f t h i s c l a s s / e i / o c c u r s o n l y i n t h e SW r u r a l d i a l e c t s ( e . g . Maps 3 8 - 3 9 : s t r a i g h t , e i g h t Map 3 7 : c l a y , m a id Map 3 6 : spade, g a t e Map 3 3 : t h r e e , s e e , f e e l Map 3*+: speak, r e a c h - 70 -bean, t e a , wheat). Yet other words, such as meat f o r example, have a d i f -f e r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of / e i / . In the words break, great and steak the use of / e i / i s general i n the standard language and the urban d i a l e c t s , and because of the i n f l u e n c e o f these / e i / i s more widespread i n these words i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s a l s o . In words where ME /s :/ was shortened to /e/ i n SSB, / e i / i s absent i n a l l d i a l e c t s . ( v i ) In the FN r u r a l d i a l e c t s there has been a strong tendency f o r ME / i : / to develop i n t o / e i / i n s t e a d o f / a i / . Only i n a few words do we f i n d / a i / i n a l l northern d i a l e c t s (e.g. h i v e , i r o n ) . ( v i i ) OE /e/ or /eo/ before Zxtl were nor-mally r a i s e d to / i / by ME times i n the d i a l e c t s o f the south and much of the Midlands, and hence developed i n t o / a i / or / o i / i n the modern d i a l e c t s . But i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of the n o r t h , as w e l l as o f La, SY, the NMl and the IM, the old e r d i s t i n c t i o n between OE /e/ and / i / Map 87: deaf Maps 99, 100: great, break Maps 20, 21: head, sweat Maps 1+0, U l : sky, k n i f e Maps 1+1+, 105: r i g h t , f i g h t , height - 71 -b e f o r e CxtH has b e e n p r e s e r v e d i n t h e fo rm o f an / e i / ^ / i : / d i s t i n c t i o n . I n t h e I M , a l l words w i t h ME CicD Map k3: n i g h t , have / e i / t o d a y . l i g h t U.23 / a i / ( a ) The diaphoneme / a i / i s a b s e n t i n s e v e r a l r u r a l d i a l e c t s : p a r t s o f S f , most o f E s s , p a r t s o f K and S x , i n H a , n o r t h e r n So and i n most o f t h e CM1. I n a l l t h e s e a r e a s i t i s n o r m a l l y r e p l a c e d b y I n n o r t h e r n D , / a i / i s p r e s e n t o n l y b e f o r e i n t e r v o c a l i c / r / ( e . g . i r o n ) . (b) The p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f / a i / v a r i e s a g r e a t d e a l f r o m d i a l e c t t o d i a l e c t . I n t h e s t a n d a r d d i a l e c t s and i n t h e u r b a n and r u r a l d i a -l e c t s o f t h e n o r t h and o f S a and S t i n t h e M i d l a n d s and o f So and t h e SW i n t h e s o u t h we n o r m a l l y f i n d C a x H . The somewhat a d v a n c e d D*iD i s f o u n d on t h e IM and o c c a s i o n a l l y i n e a s t e r n Y and w e s t e r n S o . Back Cc|i"] i s u s u a l o v e r a l a r g e a r e a : L a , S Y , t h e NM1, t h e CM1 ( e x c e p t S t ) , t h e SMI and t h e London a r e a , i n c l u d i n g much o f K . I n SY a n d L e i , t h i s Cca 1 v a r i e s o p t i o n a l l y w i t h a m o n o p h t h o n g i z e d Ca : 1 . F i n a l l y , c e n t r a l i z e d [AI 1 o r Csi 1 o c c u r i n t h e S M I , M o , Wx and most o f EA and S x . See map 13 f o r t h e e x a c t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e a l l o p h o n e s i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f E n g l a n d . / o i / . See map 1 3 . - 72 -( i ) ME / i : / normally became / a i / i n a l l d i a l e c t s , except where /*:/, / e i / or / o i / are the normal developments (see under those diaphonemes). ( i i ) OE / i / before the consonant c l u s t e r s /nd/ and /mb/ remained short i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the CN and FN, but was l e n g -thened t o ME / i : / i n other d i a l e c t s and hence became / a i / i n most d i a l e c t s ( i n -c l u d i n g SSB) today. ( i i i ) The ME sequence CigD became / i : / and hence / a i / i n most modern d i a l e c t s . But i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the n o r t h , o f La and SY, the compensatory lengthening o f ME / i / t o / i : / before the l o s t Lcl took place only a f t e r the d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n o f ME / i : / , so t h a t i n these d i a l e c t s we f i n d / i : / , n o t / a i / i n such words. ( i v ) ME /a/ became / a i / before Is I i n the SW r u r a l d i a l e c t and p a r t s o f So and Wx. Cf. the corresponding lengthening o f ME / i / t o / i : / before / s / i n So (see l + . l l ). (v) In western Ha, e s p e c i a l l y i n l o c a l i t y Ha 3, ME /£ : / normally became / a i / i n an i n -t e r e s t i n g l o c a l development. Note t h a t i n words where ME /£:/ was shortened t o /e/ i n Maps 1+0-1*1: sky, k n i f e Map 1+2: b l i n d , f i n d , climb Map 1+3: l i g h t , n i g h t Maps 2 2 , 89: ash, wash Map 3l+: speak, reach - 73 -SSB, i t was shortened t o /a/ i n t h i s area, c f . h.6 (c) ( i i ) . ( v i ) Corresponding t o SSB / o i / , we o f t e n f i n d / a i / i n r u r a l d i a l e c t s . See be-low f o r f u r t h e r comments. Map 107: poison, b o i l , j o i n Map 107: poison, b o i l , boy k.2k / o i / (a) Present everywhere except i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f Ch and some neighbouring areas i n Db and La. (b) Normally CoiH. A more c e n t r a l i z e d p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s current i n the SW. See map 107. (c) ('i') ' / o i / i s normally d e r i v e d from ME / o i / and / u i / , though these ME sounds are of t e n r e p l a c e d by / a i / , e s p e c i a l l y i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of the Midlands. ( i i ) ME / i : / has become / o i / i n s t e a d o f / a i / i n s e v e r a l urban and r u r a l d i a l e c t s , espe-c i a l l y i n the London area, Wx and the CM1. ( i i i ) OE /of i n open s y l l a b l e s became / o i / i n the SY r u r a l d i a l e c t s . This development, probably r e f l e c t i n g an e a r l i e r " V o : / , i s c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l l e d by the development o f ME /o:/ t o / u i / i n the same areas. Maps 1*0-1+1: sky, k n i f e Map 53: c o a l ; t h r o a t 1+.25 / u i / - 74 -Maps 55, 10U: moon, l o s e -(a) A rare diaphoneme, o c c u r r i n g almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f SY. Elsewhere there are only s c a t t e r e d examples o f / u i / , mostly i n EA and the SE. (b) Always CU- IJ 1 . (c) ( i ) I n S Y , ME/o:/ normally became / u i / , ex-cept f i n a l l y and before /k/, where /u:/ i s us u a l . ( i i ) In the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of EA and the SE, there are t r a c e s of the diaphoneme. / u i / , s u r v i v a l o f e a r l y ME / u i / . In the SED, the only word showing / u i / i s boy ( V I I I . 1 . 3 ) , but K o k e r i t z ( 1932) , p.63, notes / u i / i n the f o l l o w i n g words o c c u r r i n g i n Sf: b o i l , b o i l e r , boy, c o i n , destroy, n o i s e , o i n t - ment , p o i n t , poisonous, v o i c e . Maps 55-56: moon, do 4 . 2 6 /eu/ (a) A r a r e diaphoneme, r e s t r i c t e d t o S t , the NMl, La, SY and p a r t s o f the northwestern area o f Y. (b) Always CeaH. (c) ( i ) In pa r t s o f St and most of Db, ME /o:/ r e -g u l a r l y developed i n t o /eu/ - c f . the deve-lopment of ME /e:/ t o / e i / i n roughly the same area (U . 2 2.(c) ( i v ) ) . ( i i ) ME /o/ before / i d / o f t e n became /eu/ i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the NMl and La. ( i i i ) ME /eu/ remained i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of La and SY. Map 112: c o l d , o l d Maps 57-58: dew, few - 75" -U .27 /au/ (a) This diaphoneme i s absent i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s df Db, much of SY and southern La and p r a c t i c a l l y a l l o f the CN and FN. See map ih. /au/ i s present i n a l l standard and urban d i a l e c t s . (b) L i k e i t s counterpart / a i / , /au/ has much v a r i a t i o n i n i t s pro-n u n c i a t i o n . Cavil i s usual i n the standard language, the urban d i a l e c t s o f the n o r t h , and the r u r a l d i a l e c t s (where present) o f La, Y, nor-thern L, Sa and So. C e n t r a l i z e d O u 1 or E A U H are normal i n Wx (except Ha), Mo and the southern WMl. In the SW r u r a l d i a l e c t s , we f i n d a c e n t r a l i z e d g l i d e Lvl i n the i n t e r e s t i n g l o c a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n Ls-vl or Lcvsl. In southern G l the r i s i n g diphthong L T J U : H i s found - or i s t h i s sound a s u r v i v a l o f ME /u:/? In the r e s t o f the d i a l e c t s , r u r a l and urban, we f i n d the advanced diphthongs Lwul and C EC O, n e a t l y corresponding t o the Car3 or Em] pro n u n c i a t i o n o f / a i / i n much of England. One i n t e r e s t i n g development i s i n pa r t s o f the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f Ch and S t , where we f i n d CaiU i n words c o n t a i n i n g /au/ i n neighbouring d i a l e c t s : house CaisH, about CsbaitD. Since / a i / i n t h i s area i s pro-nounced Car 1, f o r convenience's sake t h i s CaiD sound i s to be i n c l u d e d w i t h diaphoneme /au/. See map lh f o r the p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f /au/ i n the va r i o u s r u r a l d i a -l e c t s . (c) Wherever the diaphoneme /au/ occurs, i t i s the normal development o f ME /u:/. Maps h6-h-J, 1 0 8 - 1 0 9 : c l o u d , bound, plough, drought - 76 -U .28 /ou/ (a) This diaphoneme i s absent from the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the SW, most of Wx, Sa, Ch and La. I t i s a l s o absent from the urban d i a l e c t s spoken i n the same areas, but present i n a l l other d i a l e c t s . See map 15. (b) The p r o n u n c i a t i o n CouH i t s e l f i s r a r e , o c c u r r i n g mostly i n the CM1 and So. More common i s the somewhat lower Loul, t y p i c a l of the FN, SY, L, the NM1, Nf and the SE. In most of the CN the f i r s t p a r t o f the diphthong i s unrounded, so t h a t we f i n d Caul or Caul] i n the area. Unrounding, f r o n t i n g and r a i s i n g occurs i n He, where we f i n d Cae-UU. The c e n t r a l i z e d diphthongs C 3 0 1 ( a l s o w r i t t e n Cao"]) or CAUD are t y p i c a l o f most v a r i e t i e s of SSB and of the urban and r u r a l d i a l e c t s spoken around London. See map 15 f o r the p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f /ou/ i n the v a r i ous r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f England. (c) ( i ) ME /o I, whether from OE /a: / or from OE /o/ i n open s y l l a b l e s , be-came /ou/ i n SSB and most urban d i a -l e c t s , as w e l l as i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of EA (except N f ) , the SE, the SMI and p a r t s o f So and the WM1. ( i i ) ME /ou/ and /o/ before / l / f o l l o w e d by a consonant became /ou/ i n SSB and a l l urban and r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the south and o f the Midlands.where /ou/ e x i s t s . The s i t u a t i o n i s more complicated i n the Maps 50-53: both, whole, l o a f , t h r o a t , oak, c o a l , coat Maps U 8 - U 9 , 5h, 110-112: mow, snow, grow, dough, sew, c o l d - T7 -r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the n o r t h , owing to the f a c t t h a t already i n ME times, d i a -l e c t a l /au/ (hence modern /o:/) o f t e n r e -pl a c e d the /ou/ of other d i a l e c t s . Since the combination /a:w/ never merged w i t h /ou/ i n the n o r t h , we do not normally f i n d /ou/ i n such words i n the r u r a l d i a -l e c t s o f the nort h . See h.l6 (c) ( i x ) . ( i i i ) I n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the north and some neighbouring Midlands d i a l e c t s , ME /au/ ( i n c l u d i n g when d e r i v e d from ear-l i e r CouxH) normally developed i n t o /ou/. h.29 / i 3 / (a) The diaphoneme /is/ i s absent i n a l l PFR p r e s e r v i n g urban d i a -l e c t s ( i . e . the B r i s t o l - Dover, Northern Lancashire and Newcastle area d i a l e c t s ) . I t i s a l s o absent i n most PFR p r e s e r v i n g r u r a l d i a -l e c t s (the SE, Wx, So, the SW and the WMl), but present i n La and FN r u r a l d i a l e c t s . The diaphoneme i s present i n a l l d i a l e c t s t h a t have l o s t PFR, i n c l u d i n g SSB. In p a r t s o f Wx and So, one word (bean, see map 97) was found to con-t a i n / i 3 / , the normal development o f ME /£.:/ being / i : / i n the area. This i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n p r i n c i p l e the t e r r i t o r i a l extent o f the d i a -phoneme / i s / should be extended t o Wx and So as w e l l , though i t i s on the verge of e x t i n c t i o n t h e r e . snow, mow Maps 65-67: daughter, brought, s aw, thaw - 7£ -deer, s t e e r Map 59: hear, f e a r (b) The normal p r o n u n c i a t i o n of / i s / i s the c e n t r i n g diphthong CI3I1. In eastern St we f i n d a diphthong w i t h a higher s t a r t i n g p o i n t : CiaD, w h i l e i n Mo the r i s i n g f r o n t rounded Cx<e.:H i s usual Cf i\k . 21 (b) f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n o f /z:/ as Lce.:l i n Mo. In Nb and northern Du / i s / i s pronounced Lxol when fo l l o w e d by / r / , doubtless because of the uvular Dt»3 p r o n u n c i a t i o n of / r / i n the area. (c) ( i ) ME /e:/ before / r / became / i s / i n a l l d i a l e c t s where t h i s diaphoneme e x i s t s . ( i i ) ME / e : / before / r / a l s o became / i a / i n a l l d i a l e c t s where / i a / e x i s t s w i t h the exception of the r u r a l d i a l e c t i n Nf where i t became /ea/. However, i n many words ME /£:/ before / r / became /ea/ i n SSB and hence i n most d i a l e c t s - but i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the north / i a / i s preserved i n such words to t h i s day. ( i i i ) ME /£.:/ normally became / i a / i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of L and the MN. In a number of words the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f / i a / i s even more widespread, extending t o the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f SY and La. In one word (bean, map 97) / i a / occurs even i n p a r t s of the EML, Wx and So. ( i v ) ME /a:/ became / i a / i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s bear, pear Map 3^: speak, reach Maps 35, 97: bean, cream, deaf, heat, team, wheat Map 36: spade, gate - 79. -of -western Y and the FN. ' As has a l -ready been mentioned OE /a:/ remained unrounded i n the d i a l e c t s of the CN and FN, so t h a t i t developed'like ME /a:/ i n t h i s area. With the exception of eastern Nb (where we f i n d /o:/ i n such words), the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of the e astern h a l f of the CN and the FN have r e t a i n e d / i s / i n words w i t h OE /a:/, (v) ME /o:/ became / i s / i n the r u r a l d i a -l e c t s of the MN, and - t o a l e s s e r extent - of the FN. The development was, i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d : /o: /-»*/o:/-»*/y:/-*"/iu: / -* */1VL/-> / i s / . The e a r l i e r stage / i u / s t i l l occurs o c c a s i o n a l l y i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of the n o r t h , w h i l e evidence of the s t i l l e a r l i e r /o:/ or /y:/ stages i s found i n some S c o t t i s h d i a l e c t s ( c f . SND, § 3 5 ) . Map 50-52: both, whole, oak, bone Map 55: moon h.30 /es/ (a) The diaphoneme /ea/ i s present only i n those d i a l e c t s t h a t have l o s t PFR - and even among these i t i s absent i n the r u r a l and ur-ban d i a l e c t s o f most o f Ch, St and p a r t s o f Db, due t o i t s c o n s i s -t e n t replacement by /&:/ (see h.13 ). (b) Normally, /es/ i s pronounced Cesll. I t o c c a s i o n a l l y becomes mo-nophthongized t o Cg.: 3 ( e s p e c i a l l y i n Du and Mon), but u n l i k e i n p a r t s - 80 -Maps 6 0 - 6 l : h a r e , h a i r h e a r , p e a r o f t h e n o r t h w e s t e r n M i d l a n d s , t h i s monophthong s h o u l d s t i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as an a l l o p h o n e o f / e a / . The r e a s o n i s t h a t i n t h e s e a r e a s t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n o f m e r g e r w i t h some o t h e r phoneme, -w h i l e i n t h e Ch - S t a r e a we f i n d Le:H c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o b o t h t h e / e a / and / a u / d iaphonemes o f o t h e r d i a l e c t s , ( c ) ( i ) ME / a : / and / a i / b e f o r e / r / became / e a / w h e r e v e r t h i s d iaphoneme e x i s t s . ( i i ) ME fe'I b e f o r e IT I a l s o has h a d a s t r o n g t e n d e n c y t o d e v e l o p i n t o /ea/. I n w o r d s where SSB a l s o has / e a / , we f i n d / e a / i n most u r b a n d i a l e c t s and t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e s o u t h and t h e M i d l a n d s . I n words t h a t c o n t a i n / i a / i n S S B , /e3/ i s f o u n d n o r -m a l l y o n l y i n t h e N f r u r a l d i a l e c t . ( i i i ) I n s t e a d o f / 3 : / , we n o r m a l l y f i n d / e a / i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f n o r t h - e a s t e r n L e i . ( i v ) ME / a : / and / a i / ( e x c e p t b e f o r e CcH) n o r -m a l l y became / e a / i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f L and p a r t s o f e a s t e r n Y . Map 59: h e a r , f e a r Maps 72-73: b u r n , b i r d Maps 36-37: s p a d e , c l a y 1+.31 / c © / (a) On t h e b a s i s o f d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e SED i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s e t up a diaphoneme / o a / f o r t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f EA and t h e S M I . c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h t h e diaphoneme /o:/. / o a / i s a l s o p r e s e n t i n Cockney and some v e r y o l d - f a s h i o n e d forms o f S S B . The f o l l o w i n g minimal p a i r s w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the c o n t r a s t between /os/ and /o:/: saw /so:/ vs. sore /sod/; flaw / f l o : / vs. f l o o r / f l o p / . (b) Always Eos>3, except i n Nf, where we f i n d E o a 3 . (c) Wherever /oa/ e x i s t s , i t r e s u l t s from ME /o/, /0:/, /o:/ or /ou/ f o l l o w e d by PFR ( l a t e r t o be l o s t ) . The use of /os/ i n such words i s more common before o r i g i n a l f i n a l / r / (as i n four) than before o r i g i n a l pre-consonantal IT I (as i n f o r t y ) , where i t was more r e a d i l y r e p l a c e d by lo:/. Maps 68-71: morning, board, f l o o r , four , 32 /ua/ (a) The diaphoneme /ua/ e x i s t s i n a l l d i a l e c t s t h a t have l o s t PFR. In a d d i t i o n , i t occurs i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of Wx, the SMI, La and Cu. (b) The p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f /ua/ v a r i e s r a t h e r f r e e l y between Eua3 and . Eos3. In Ch we f i n d the more f r o n t e d E-cJa3 ( c f . sure, SED IX.7 .12) , (c) ( i ) ME /o:/ before PFR normally became /ua/ i n those d i a l e c t s where PFR l a t e r d i s -appeared. However, both i n SSB and the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the Midlands, there has been a strong tendency t o replace /us/ by lo'l i n such words. Thus, i n SSB f o r example, most words w i t h /ua/ have an a l -Map 71: door, f l o o r , poor - 82 -t e r n a t i v e p r o n u n c i a t i o n w i t h /o:/ (e.g. p o or), w h i l e others occur only w i t h /o'/ (e.g. door, f l o o r ) . ( i i ) ME / i u / before f i n a l / r / became /iua/ i n those d i a l e c t s where the IT I was l a t e r l o s t - and the / i / of t h i s t r i p h t h o n g was l a t e r l o s t a f t e r the same consonants as i n the case of / i u / (see below). ( i i i ) ME lo:/ became /ua/ i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the north (except eastern Nb and northern Du), SY and La, as w e l l as o c c a s i o n a l l y i n the south. This occurrence o f /ua/ i n southern r u r a l d i a l e c t s i s s p o r a d i c , and i s r e s t r i c t e d t o a few words. Among the words examined i n the SED, /ua/ occurs i n the south (Wx mostly) i n the words both, coat, comb, l o a f , nose, t h r o a t and whole, w h i l e absent i n c o a l , oak and spokes. . In the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of the FN and par t s o f the CN, OE /a:/ d i d not become lO'l i n ME as i t d i d i n other p a r t s o f England. Because o f t h i s , i n t h i s area d i a l e c t a l /ua/ i s r e s t r i c t e d t o words pure, sure Maps 5 0 - 5 3 : both, oak, c o a l - sa -w i t h OE /o/ i n open s y l l a b l e s . In these words, on the other hand, we f i n d /oi,/ not /u3/} i n SY. The development o f ME h'l t o /us/ i n (mostly) northern d i a l e c t s i s an exact p a r a l l e l t o the development of ME /£.:/ t o /id/ i n roughly the same area. Map 53: c o a l , coat k.33 / i a / (a) This diaphoneme i s r e s t r i c t e d i n occurrence t o the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of the FN and most of the MN. (b) / i a / i s normally an even diphthong, t h a t i s , n e i t h e r p a r t r e c e i v e s prominence over the other. In the southern and c e n t r a l p a r t s o f the area the a c t u a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h i s diaphoneme v a r i e s between CxaH and CeaJ, w h i l e i n Nb, northern Cu and p a r t s o f Du we f i n d Cxe.Il. (c) The only source o f / i a / i n E n g l i s h d i a -l e c t s i s ME /a:/, which i n the north r e s u l t s e i t h e r from OE /a/ i n open s y l l a b l e s or i s the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f OE /a:/, unrounded i n the nort h . However, i n the case o f the l a t t e r there has been much i n t e r f e r e n c e from the d i a -phoneme /o:/, i n i m i t a t i o n o f the SSB /ou/ present i n such words. Thus l o a f , f o r example, i s o f t e n pronounced / l o : f / , r a t h e r than / l i a f / i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the nor t h . Maps 36, 50-53: spade, both, l o a f - 8*i -k.3h / i u / (a) This i s the only n o n - f a l l i n g diphthong t h a t i s widespread i n England. I t occurs i n SSB, a l l the urban d i a l e c t s and i n most r u r a l d i a l e c t s . The only r u r a l d i a l e c t s t h a t seem t o l a c k t h i s diaphoneme are i n D and a few l o c a l i t i e s of So, Bk, G l and Db. In a l l these areas SSB / i u / i s r e g u l a r l y r e p l a c e d by /u:/. See map l6 f o r the a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of / i u / . (b) The f i r s t p a r t of t h i s diphthong v a r i e s between the pure semi-vowel C j • (usual i n Wx, So, Mo, the CM1, the WM1 and the IM) and t h e - v e r y short h i g h front'unrounded Ci3, usual elsewhere. The second part of the diphthong i s always the high rounded tense vowel, normally Cu:D but f r o n t e d t o Cu:H or Zy.l i n the same areas where /u:/ i s a l s o f r o n t e d . Cf. h.19 ( b ) . (c) ( i ) The usual source o f / i u / i s ME / i u / (often from French /y/ or OE /en/). In the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f SY and La, ear-l i e r /eu/ i s o f t e n r e t a i n e d t o t h i s day, so t h a t only OE / i u / and French /y/ r e -s u l t e d i n / i u / today. In Wx, So and the WM1, the / i u / o f other d i a l e c t s i s r e p l a c e d by /u:/ a f t e r dental consonants / t / , /d/ and /n/. Note the s i -m i l a r North American development. E a r l i e r / i u / i s p r a c t i c a l l y u n i v e r s a l l y r e p l a c e d by /u:/ a f t e r / r / , / l / , / s / and p a l a t a l consonants. Maps 57-58: dew, few, pure Map 58: tune, dew, new r u l e , l u t e , sue, chew, June, sure - . 8 5 ' -( i i ) I n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the MN, and Maps 55-56: do, o c c a s i o n a l l y i n Nf, ME /o:/ became / i u / , moon not / i s / , / u i / or /u:/ as i n - o t h e r d i a l e c t s . This / i u / i s probably the n a t u r a l develop-ment of an e a r l i e r /y:/ - a sound s t i l l c u r rent i n some S c o t t i s h d i a l e c t s f o r ME /o:/ ( c f . 3 .8 ( v ) ) . 4.35 /ua/ (a) This diphthongal diaphoneme i s r e s t r i c t e d t o a few r u r a l l o c a t i o n s i n north-western Y. (b) Always an even diphthong Lxral. (c) /ua/ i s always derived from ME /o:/, j u s t as i t s f r o n t counterpart / i a / i s de r i v e d from ME /a:/ i n the same area. A c t u a l l y , among a l l the words examined, i t occurs only i n three words: hose, road, t h r o a t . A l l the vowels discussed so f a r can occur i n both s t r e s s e d and unstressed s y l l a b l e s , w i t h a l l emphasis being p l a c e d on t h e i r presence i n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s . Now we should discuss a vowel that can only occur i n unstressed p o s i t i o n . I t i s the n e u t r a l vowel, or schwa D3D. I t occurs i n a l l d i a l e c t s of E n g l i s h , normally as the re d u c t i o n o f OE /a/, /e/, /o/ and /u/ - as w e l l as of most diphthongs - i n most com-p l e t e l y unstressed s y l l a b l e s . Only e a r l i e r /if has normally r e t a i n e d V.36 The "schwa' - 86 -i t s o r i g i n a l phonetic v a l u e , though i n many cases / i / , t o o , became /s/ i n unstressed s y l l a b l e s . See, f o r example, map "jh f o r the d i s -t r i b u t i o n o f /a/ and / i / i n the word r a b b i t / r a b i t / ~ / r a b a t / . 4.37 CONSONANTS The consonantal system o f E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s i s much more uniform than t h e i r v o c a l i c system. 2 2 consonantal diaphonemes are present i n a l l d i a l e c t s spoken i n England. They are, w i t h examples•from SSB: /p/ p i e / p a i / , supper /sXpa/, top /top/ /t/ t i e / t a i / , p r e t t y / p r i t i : / , cat /kat/, missed /mist/, Thomas /tomas/ /k/ k i t e / k a i t / , cat /k a t / , character /karaktB/, quarter /kwo:ta/, -lax / l a k s / , accurate / a k i u r i t / , l a c k / l a k / , acquire /akwaia/ /b/ buy / b a i / , ebb /eb/, cab /kab/ /d/ d i e / d a i / , add /ad/, mad /mad/ /g/ goal /goul/, aggravate / a g r a v e i t / , bag /bag/, examine /igzamin/, give / g i v / , ghost /goust/, g u e r i l l a / g a r i l a / /"ts/ c h i l d / t s a i l d / , c e l l o / t s e l o u / , batch /bats/, nature / n e i t s a / /dz/ j e t /dzet/, age / e i d z / , edge /edz/, s o l d i e r /souldza/ / f / f i r e / f a i a / , s u f f e r /sAfa/, laugh / l a : f / , photograph / f o u t a g r a : f / , l i e u t e n a n t /le'ftenant/ /0 / t h i n /Qin/, eighth / e i t Q / /s/ s i g h / s a i / , cent /sent/, scent /sent/, assent /^sent/, c l a s s /kla ;: 's/ / s / shy / s a i / , machine /masin/, schedule / s e d i u ' i l / , sugar /suga/, mission /misan'/, n a t i o n /neisan/, f a c i a l / f e i s a l / , noxious /noksas/ /3/ the /5i':/~/cJa/, those /ctouz/, bathe /bei£/ - 87 -/v/ v e a l / v i : l / , l o v e / I A V / , of_ /ov/~/av/ /z / z e a l / z i : l / , buzz /~b/\z/, s c i s s o r s / s i z a z / , rose /rouz/, e x i l e / e g z a i l / , xylophone / z a i l a f o u n / , t z a r /za:/ / z / pleasure / p l e z a / , azure /aza/, garage /gararz/ /m/ man /man/, hammer /hama/ /n/ never /nevs/, sinner / s i n e / , gnome /noum/, know /nou/ / l / l a t e / l e i t / , a l l _ / o : l / / r / r a t / r a t / , f u r r y / f ^ t r i : / , rheumatism /ru:matizm/ /w/ win /win/, where / wes/, qui t e /kwait/ / j / y a rd / j a : d / , m i l l i o n / m i l j a n / Two consonants occur i n SSB (in a d d i t i o n t o these )that are absent i n some o f the d i a l e c t s . They are /h/ and A)/. /h/ occurs i n SSB i n p r e - v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n only (e.g. hat /hat/, back- hand /bak hand/, n i h i l i s m / n a i h i l i z m / ) . I t s occurrence i n words l i k e huge and hue are only apparent exceptions, because according to the ana-l y s i s adopted i n t h i s paper the sequence Cju:H i n such words i s analysed as the diaphoneme / i u / , which i s a vowel. /h/ occurs i n a l l standard v a r i e t i e s of E n g l i s h - indeed, i t s pre-sence i s one of the hallmarks of "educated" speech. I t i s absent from most popular d i a l e c t s , urban and r u r a l . Among the r u r a l d i a l e c t s i t i s present only i n four r e s t r i c t e d areas: (1) East A n g l i a (2) Most of Wx and So, together w i t h the southernmost p a r t of Mo. - 88 -(3) The Far North (h) The I s l e of Man In the r e s t o f England, people r e g u l a r l y "drop t h e i r a i t c h e s " . I t Is noteworthy that i n a l l v a r i e t i e s o f E n g l i s h spoken outside England, /h/ i s preserved - even i n those d i a l e c t s (such as those of A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand) that are otherwise very cl o s e t o the southern E n g l i s h urban d i a l e c t s i n t h e i r phonology. The sequence /hw/ ( a c t u a l l y pronounced Cwl) i s present i n some v a r i e t i e s o f standard E n g l i s h (mostly old-fashioned'or pedantic) and i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s next t o the S c o t t i s h border and on the IM. I t occurs i n words such as whale and where. Outside England the use of /hw/ i s widespread i n Scotland, I r e l a n d and North America, but i n Eng-l a n d i t i s normally r e p l a c e d by /w/. See map 76 f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f /h/ and /hw/ i n E n g l i s h r u r a l d i a l e c t s . As a sound, the v e l a r n a s a l CIQH e x i s t s i n a l l d i a l e c t s o f E n g l i s h . The diaphoneme / r j / , however, i s absent i n c e r t a i n Midlands d i a l e c t s . The reason i s t h a t i n these d i a l e c t s DQ D occurs only before the v e l a r consonants /k/ and /g/, i n a p o s i t i o n where CnH cannot occur. Hence CrjD i n such d i a l e c t s can be considered as an allophone of /n/. In other d i a l e c t s , . i n c l u d i n g SSB, the f i n a l consonant c l u s t e r /ng/ has been reduced t o CQ3, SO t h a t we f i n d c o n t r a s t s such as s i n CslnH vs. s i n g C s i r p . Using generative phonology, we c o u l d s t i l l a v o i d the use of a new diaphoneme (by i n t r o d u c i n g a d e l e t i o n r u l e f o r f i n a l /g/ a f t e r - 89 -/n/). However, /g/ a f t e r /n/ was a l s o l o s t w i t h i n a word before c e r -t a i n s u f f i x e s (e.g. the n o m i n a l i z e r - e r , gerund - i n g ) , w h i l e being pre-served before others (e.g. the comparative - e r , s u p e r l a t i v e - e s t ) . Thus we f i n d s i n g e r Lsxrpl, banging Cb^erjirjH but younger HjAyjgaH and longest Clorjgistl! ( a l l examples from SSB). Since the l o s s of o r i g i n a l /g/ can-not be determined on the b a s i s of phonetic environment alone, i t i s ne-cessary to set up the diaphoneme Aj/ i n most d i a l e c t s . See map 8|2-:«— .38 Corresponding t o c e r t a i n consonantal diaphonemes of SSB we f i n d d i f f e r e n t diaphonemes i n some d i a l e c t s according t o various condi-t i o n i n g f a c t o r s . Some r e g u l a r correspondences are: (a) I n i t i a l / f / , /0/, / s / and / s / , when o c c u r r i n g before vowels or v o i c e d consonants, have u s u a l l y become v o i c e d t o /v/, /oY, / z / and / z / , r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of Wx, So and the SW. The change d i d not a f f e c t a l l words w i t h such i n i t i a l s e q u a l l y - f o r example, i t i s l e s s widespread before consonants (e.g. f l y , smoke) than before vowels. In a f u r t h e r change along the same l i n e s , we should note t h a t corresponding t o SSB /0/ before / r / we f i n d /d/,not /cV i n these d i a l e c t s : three / d r i : / , throw /drou/ or /dro:/. I t i s noteworthy t h a t a s i m i l a r v o i c i n g o f i n i t i a l f r i c a t i v e s has occurred i n some nearby Germanic languages, most i m p o r t a n t l y Dutch, which has v i j f and zes f o r E n g l i s h f i v e and s i x . In most German d i a -l e c t s a l s o , i n i t i a l / s / before vowels has become CzD: sechs CzeksH. - 90, -I n i t i a l / 0 / was not only v o i c e d i n these two languages, hut i t a l s o became a stop i n a l l p o s i t i o n s , not only before / r / as i n the E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s concerned: Dutch dun, d r i e ; German dunn, d r e i f o r E n g l i s h t h i n , three (Wx & SW d i a l e c t /Sin/, / d r i : / ) . See maps 78-81 f o r the geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s v o i c i n g phenomenon. ) ME PFR were l o s t i n a l l standard d i a l e c t s . Of the nine urban d i a l e c t areas PFR has been kept only i n t h r e e : B r i s t o l - D o v e r , North Lancashire and Newcastle. Of the r u r a l d i a l e c t s , PFR i s kept i n the f o l l o w i n g : the SE, Wx, the SW, So, the WM1, La and the FN. Traces of i t s u r v i v e i n L and the IM. Outside England, the d i a l e c t s a l s o s p l i t i n t h e i r treatment o f ME PFR. I t i s r e t a i n e d i n Wales, I r e l a n d , Scotland and much of North America, w h i l e l o s t i n p a r t s o f New Eng-l a n d (see Kurath (1961) , p115), most of the American South, A u s t r a l i a , New Zealand, South A f r i c a and the Caribbean. Where PFR i s l o s t , the v o c a l i c system i s profoundly a f f e c t e d , as the diphthongal phonemes / i s / , /us/ and /ea/ have t o be int r o d u c e d t o account f o r the ending o f words such as peer, poor and pear and the diaphonemes /a:/ and lo'l become much more frequent than i n the d i a -l e c t s p r e s e r v i n g PFR. In d i a l e c t s t h a t have l o s t PFR, the vowels / i a / , / a : / and /o-/ seem to have developed an " u n d e r l y i n g " (mostly deleted) / r / even where no / r / e x i s t e d o r i g i n a l l y . This accounts f o r the presence o f the so-c a l l e d " l i n k i n g r " i n words and phrases such as idea of / a i d i a r a v / , - 91 -the Shah o f P e r s i a /5s s a r r s v p3:s3/ and thawing /O^rri ir ) / . See map IT f o r areas where PFR i s l o s t and map 66 f o r the presence of l i n k i n g r_ i n r u r a l d i a l e c t s . (c) I n t e r v o c a l i c / t / was v o i c e d t o /d/ i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the SW, So and pa r t s o f Wx. Cf. the s i m i l a r development i n North American E n g l i s h . See map TT f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the /bXdSr/ pr o n u n c i a t i o n o f b u t t e r i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s . In Cockney and the urban and r u r a l d i a l e c t s spoken around London, the g l o t t a l stop C?H i s a frequent allophone of i n t e r v o c a l i c / t / . (d) The v e l a r consonants /k/ and /g/ were r e p l a c e d by / t / and /d/, r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n many Midlands and northern d i a l e c t s when f o l l o w e d by / l / or /w/. Thus we would f i n d climb / t l a i m / or / t l i m / , glove /dluv/, q u i l t / t w i l t / and Gwynn /dwin/. See SED q u i l t (V.2.1l) and glove (VI. 14-.7 ), f o r example. (e) The c l u s t e r s C t j l l and CdjH ( a c t u a l l y , from / t i u - / and /diu-/) were re p l a c e d by the a f f r i c a t e s / t s / and /dz/, r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f Wx, So and the WMl, as w e l l as i n s e v e r a l urban d i a l e c t s i n c l u d i n g Cockney. In these d i a l e c t s tune i s /tsu:n/ and dew i s /dzu:/. See map 5T. In many words t h a t contained the sequence / t j / and / d j / already i n ME, t h i s change has spread t o most E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s i n c l u d i n g SSB: nature, s o l d i e r . - 91 -( f ) OE /k/ and /g/ were p a l a t a l i z e d t o / t s / and /dz/ i n c e r t a i n environments ( /k/ always when f o l l o w e d "by a f r o n t vowel or f i n a l l y a f t e r a f r o n t vowel; /g/ only, when geminated, m e d i a l l y before or f i n a l l y a f t e r a f r o n t vowel). Examples i n SSB are: OE /kild/-» SSB c h i l d / t s a i l d / ; OE swelc /swelk/-> SSB such / s A t s / (note t h a t the i n t e r v e n i n g / l / aid not prevent the p a l a t a l i z a t i o n ) ; OE ecg /egg/-* SSB edge /edz/. This p a l a t a l i z a t i o n a f f e c t e d a l l E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s . However, there are many words where the expected p a l a t a l i z a t i o n i s absent. Such words are e s p e c i a l l y common i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the no r t h , due t o the heavy Scandinavian i n f l u e n c e present i n the area i n OE times. See map 75 f o r the frequency of /k/ i n s t e a d o f / t s / i n the words b i r c h (OE b i e r c e ) , c h a f f (OE c e a f ) , church (OE c i r c e ) , churn (OE c y r i n ) , f l i t c h (OE f l i c c e ) and such (OE swelc). - 93 -v CONCLUSION As we can see from t h i s paper, the phonemic s t r u c t u r e of E n g l i s h presents a complicated p i c t u r e . But i f we look at i t c a r e f u l l y , we can see t h a t i t s p a t t e r n s are r a t h e r symmetrical and t h a t the h i s -t o r i c a l developments w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l d i a l e c t s have had a l a r g e degree o f i n t e r n a l consistency. A good example i n symmetrical development i s seen i n the r e g u l a r modern developments of the ME l o n g vowels /a:/ and lo'J (e.g. spade, t h r o a t ) . The two ME sounds have developed symmetrically i n most of England, as shown i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e ( c f . a l s o maps 36, 5 3 ) . ME /a:/ ME / j : / D i a l e c t s /e:/ /o:/ Wx, the SW, WM1, NM1, urban d i a l e c t (2) /ei/=Zeil /ou/=»CouD So, IM, urban d i a l e c t s ( 6 ) , (T) & (8) /ei/-CeiH /ou/=Cou ~ovl SE, SMI, CM1, many standard d i a l e c t s /ei/*C£i-«xD /ou/-C ou-Atr: Much of EA, SSB, Cockney / i a / /oa/ Eastern Y E v i d e n t l y , the only major area where symmetry does not occur i s i n the d i a l e c t s of the north. In L and p a r t s of Y we f i n d c e n t r i n g diphthongs f o r both ME vowels (/es/ or / i a / f o r ME /a:/ and / i i a / f o r ME h - l ) , w h i l e - 94 -i n the r e s t o f the north we mostly f i n d i d e n t i c a l r e f l e x e s / i a / or / i a / f o r OE /a:/ and OE /a/ i n open s y l l a b l e s , w i t h only OE /o/ i n open s y l -l a b l e s developing t o ME /o:/ and hence to modern d i a l e c t a l /ua/. Occasio-n a l l y we a l s o f i n d d i a l e c t a l /o:/ and /o:/ i n the n o r t h , corresponding t o SSB /ou/, diaphonemes t h a t represent developments that d i d not affect, ME /a:/. 5.3 S i m i l a r symmetry occurs i n most d i a l e c t s o f E n g l i s h i n the development of the ME long vowels / i : / and /u:/. We f i n d the f o l l o w i n g vowels i n words such as sky and cloud ( c f . maps 4 0 , 46). ME / i : / ME /u:/ D i a l e c t s ./ai/=CaiH /au/=CaxjH Sa, c e n t r a l L, p a r t s of south Y, northern La, SSB /ai/=CciI~'DX3 /au/=Caerj--£.Tjri EA (except N f ) , the SE, Ha, SMI, CMl, St /ai/=Ce'i~AtD /au/=C3tJ~AUD Mon, He, Wo, W, Do Again, we do not f i n d symmetry everywhere. The e a r l y modern E n g l i s h diphthongs / a i / and /au/ were again monophthongized: / a i / to /afc:/ i n D, /au/ t o /a:/ or /£.:/ i n Db, south Y and south La, w i t h no equivalent change i n the other diphthong. In the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the MN and FN, ME /u:/ was r e t a i n e d unchanged, w h i l e / i : / was diphthongized t o / a i / . 5.4 The ME short vowels /a/ and /o/ were lengthened to /a:/ and lo'-l i n the d i a l e c t s o f the south and the southern p a r t s o f the Midlands when fol l o w e d by the v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s / f / , / 0 / and / s / . See maps 62 and 28, f o r example. This i s another sound change t h a t a f f e c t e d two sounds - 95 -s h a r i n g s e v e r a l common features i n the same way. 5.5 D i f f e r e n t kinds of p a t t e r n s can he seen i n the way c e r t a i n sound changes a f f e c t each other. There seems to he a " n a t u r a l " tendency i n languages t o keep phonemes apart. This i m p l i e s t h a t i f one phoneme i s s h i f t e d i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n towards another, the other w i l l a l s o s h i f t , so t h a t the c o n t r a s t between the two i s maintained. Of course, i n some cases t h i s does not happen and we f i n d phonemic merger. 5.6 There are many examples of sound changes o c c u r r i n g as a k i n d of c h a i n -r e a c t i o n . Here are some: (a) During the s o - c a l l e d Great E n g l i s h Vowel S h i f t , the l o n g f r o n t vowels were p r o g r e s s i v e l y r a i s e d , except f o r ME / i : / which was diph-thongized t o / a i / i n most d i a l e c t s . The components of t h i s s h i f t were: ( i ) ME /a:/ was r a i s e d t o / e i / or /e:/ i n a l l d i a l e c t s except the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of the north where a diphthong w i t h a higher s t a r t i n g p o i n t developed: / i a / or / i a / . E.g. spade (OE spadu-»ME /spa:d/), map 36. ( i i ) ME /£:/ normally merged w i t h ME /e:/, t o be r a i s e d t o / i : / i n the modern standard language and most d i a l e c t s . In the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of p a r t s of Wx and the WMl, ME /&:/ merged w i t h ME /a:/ i n s t e a d t o give modern /e:/. The same merger took place i n p a r t s of the CMl, where the r e s u l t a n t today i s / e i / . Note t h a t i n a number of words i t was t h i s merger th a t was adopted - 96 -i n t o the standard language: break (OE brecan ->ME / b r e : k / ) , d r a i n (OE dreahnian -»ME /dre:n/), great (OE great -> ME / g r e : t / ) , steak (ON s t e i k -»ME /ste.:k/) and yea (OE gea -»ME /j£:/). As we know from the evidence of rhymes from poetry up t o the. l 8 t h century, merger o f ME /a:/ and /£:/ used t o be much more common i n the standard language. In the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the SW, ME /£:/ merged w i t h ME / a i / to give / e i / . In the N M 1 , SY and La r u r a l d i a l e c t s ME /£:/ has produced / e i / a l s o , but i n t h i s area t h i s does not represent a merger w i t h any major ME vowel or diphthong ( i t does, however, correspond t o the ME sequence CaicH, so t h a t eat and e i g h t are both pronounced / e i t / ) . F i n a l l y , i n the L and MN r u r a l d i a l e c t s ME /£:/ gave / i s / , not normally a merger w i t h ME /a:/, / a i / or /e:/. See maps 3*+, 35, 9 6 , 97 f o r the diaphonemes present i n speak, cream, eat and bean. Maps 9 9 , 1 0 0 and 1 0 2 show the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of g r e a t , break and d r a i n , already discussed above. ( i i i ) ME /e:/ was r a i s e d t o / i : / i n a l l d i a l e c t s except f o r the r u r a l d i a l e c t s i n p a r t s of St and Db, where i t became / e i / . E.g. three (OE preo -»ME /Ore:/). See map 33. ( i v ) ME / i : / developed i n t o the modern diphthong / a i / i n most d i a l e c t s , f u r t h e r s h i f t e d t o / o i / i n some southern and Midlands d i a l e c t s . This f u r t h e r s h i f t i s e a s i l y understood i f we consider t h a t / e i / i s pronounced CaiH or CoiH i n many of these areas. According t o most a u t h o r i t i e s , the intermediate stage between ME L±:l and modern standard CaiD was a diphthong whose f i r s t p a r t was the - 9 7 -n e u t r a l vowel Call, r a t h e r than any k i n d of f u l l y f r o n t e d vowel. See f o r example Dobson ( 1968) , §13Tj which proposes the f o l l o w i n g sequence f o r the development of ME / i : / i n SSB: :i::-»*Cxi:-> Cai3-> *CAX3-VtaxD. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t i n c e r t a i n d i a l e c t s of modern E n g l i s h / i : / (from ME /e:/ or /&:/) has s t a r t e d t o s h i f t i n the same d i r e c t i o n . On the other hand, i n c e r t a i n southern d i a l e c t s the o l d e r s h i f t i s s t i l l incomplete, s i n c e / a i / i s s t i l l pronounced Dai 1 or C A X H. See map hi f o r k n i f e (OE c n i f ) . (v) ME / a i / , of d i v e r s e o r i g i n s , should a l s o be considered here. In most d i a l e c t s i t has had the same development since ME times as ME /a:/, but t h i s merger i s not u n i v e r s a l . Among the urban d i a -l e c t s , only those near the Welsh border have kept these two sounds apart (ME / a i / i s r e f l e c t e d as / e i / , against the /e:/ from ME / a : / ) . The same d i s t i n c t i o n i s kept i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of Wx, the SW and the WML (except Sa), w h i l e i t i s being l o s t i n EA. In the wes-t e r n h a l f of the MN, ME / a i / became /e:/, w h i l e ME /a:/ was d i p h -thongized t o / i a / . I n a l l other d i a l e c t s merger of ME / a i / and /a:/ i s normal - / e i / being the most common r e s u l t a n t , but we a l s o f i n d /e:/ (Mo, Ox, Sa, the NMl, SY, La and next t o the S c o t t i s h b o r d e r ) , /ea/ ( i n L) and / i a / ( i n p a r t s of the MN and FN). In p a r t s of S t , Ch and Db, ME / a i / developed t o / i : / , thus a v o i -ding merger w i t h any other ME phoneme. See map 37, showing the pronunciations of the vowel i n c l a y (OE cli£g->ME / k l a i / ) . When fol l o w e d by EgD, ME / a i / became / e i / i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l d i a -l e c t s . See maps 38, 39 f o r eight (OE ahta ->ME Cai g t l J ) , s t r a i g h t (OE s t r e g t -»ME C s t r a i g t l l ) . - 98 -(b) Back rounded vowels underwent a s i m i l a r but not completely e q u i -v a l e n t development during the Great Vowel S h i f t . I t s components were: ( i ) ME lO'/ was r a i s e d t o /o:/ or /ou/ i n the south and the Midlands, w i t h o c c a s i o n a l f u r t h e r r a i s i n g t o Cu:H (=/©:/, c f . 4.18) i n D. A higher-mid rounded vowel has a l s o been adopted (probably as a bor-rowing, c f . 4 .20) i n the Nb and northern Du r u r a l d i a l e c t s , but here i t was f r o n t e d : /o:/. But elsewhere i n the n o r t h , ME /o:/ occurred normally only as the development of OE /o/ i n open s y l l a b l e s (e.g. c o a l , OE c o l , ME / k o : l / ) , which became / o i / i n SY and /us/ i n the other r u r a l d i a l e c t s of the area. See map 53. OE /a:/ was rounded t o Io'I i n a l l d i a l e c t s o f the south and the Midlands i n ME times, but i n the north only i n L and SY, e v e n t u a l l y d i p h t h o n g i z i n g t o /u3/. In the r e s t of the northern r u r a l d i a l e c t s , OE /a:/ merged w i t h /a/ i n open s y l l a b l e s , f o r the development of which see (a) ( i ) above. E.g. l o a f (OE h l a f , ME / l a : f / i n the n o r t h , / l o : f / elsewhere). See map 51. ( i i ) ME /o:/ was r a i s e d t o /u:/ i n most d i a l e c t s . In parts of Db and S t , ME /o:/ became /eu/ j u s t as ME /e:/ became / e i / . In areas where /o:/ has a tendency t o "over-round" t o K): U or Cu:H (even producing a new diaphoneme /©:/ i n D, c f . above), the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of /u:/ a l s o tends t o s h i f t i n the d i r e c t i o n of a f u l l y f r o n t e d Cy:H. Yet i n areas of the north where ME /D:/ was not r a i s e d t o /o:/ or /ou/, ME /o:/ was not s h i f t e d t o /u:/ e i t h e r , developing t o / u i / i n SY ( c f . ME /o:/ t o / o i / i n the same region) and / i u / or / i a / i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of the MN and FN. See map 55 f o r moon (OE mona, ME /mo:n/). - 99 -This t r i p l e development of ME /o:/, depending on how ME /o:/ evolved i s a powerful argument i n favour of the push-chain/ p u l l -chain theory of phonetic change (see M a r t i n e t (1*364-),pp. J T 3 - 6 0 ) . ( i i i ) ME /u:/ was diphthongized t o /au/ i n those areas where ME /o:/ became /u:/ - an evident "pushing" e f f e c t . In the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of the MN and FN, ME /u:/ has remained unchanged. See map U6 f o r cloud (OE clud-»ME / k l u : d / ) . ( i v ) ME /au/ normally became /o:/, but there has been a strong t e n -dency i n the north t o merge w i t h ME /ou/, e s p e c i a l l y before ME CxH. See map 65 f o r example, f o r brought (OE brohte -»early ME CbrouxtH -» ME CbrauxtD i n the south andM'idlands, CbrouxtH i n the n o r t h ) . (v) ME /ou/ corresponds n e a t l y t o ME / a i / . I n p a r t s of the west and i n Nf i t remained /ou/, d i s t i n c t from the /o:/ derived from ME /o:/. Even i n p a r t s of the CM1 i t r e t a i n e d a separate i d e n t i t y - we f i n d CD-all f o r ME /ou/, w h i l e CouD f o r ME lo'.l. In the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of'the n o r t h , ME /ou/ i s a l s o preserved - o f t e n w i t h a more ot>pen p r o n u n c i a t i o n : Caif] or Cctm. See map 5*+ f o r grow (OE growan, ME /grou/). ) There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t three changes a f f e c t i n g short vowels i n the south of England are a l s o r e l a t e d i n a s i m i l a r way. They are: ( i ) ME /u/ became / A / i n a l l d i a l e c t s of the south and i n the WM1. In i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s , we f i n d /o/ f o r ME /u/ on the IM. See map 32 f o r c u t . ( i i ) ME /a/ was r a i s e d t o CasD i n much of the south and on the IM, pr< sumably t o keep i t s distance from the low, unrounded / A / . Around London, where / A / has acquired i t s most advanced Call allophone, the - 1 0 0 -diaphoneme / a / has t e n d e d t o merge w i t h / e / . See map 3 f o r a p p l e , ( i i i ) A c c o r d i n g t o ( i ) a b o v e , ME / u / i n most c a s e s has become /A / i n t h e d i a l e c t s o f t h e s o u t h . The m a i n r e a s o n why t h e d iaphoneme / u / s t i l l e x i s t s i n t h e a r e a i s t h a t ME / o : / , a f t e r b e i n g r a i s e d t o / u : / was s h o r t e n e d t o / u / i n many w o r d s , e s p e c i a l l y when f o l l o w e d b y / k / . T h i s s h o r t e n i n g i s much r a r e r i n t h o s e d i a l e c t s where ME / u / has b e e n p r e s e r v e d . See map 31 f o r l o o k . 5.7 Thus a s u r v e y o f t h e phonemic s y s t e m s o f d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s g i v e s us a good i n s i g h t i n t o how sound changes o p e r a t e . I t does n o t , h o w e v e r , e x p l a i n t h e m . F o r a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how sound changes o c c u r , how t h e y s p r e a d f r o m s p e a k e r t o s p e a k e r , l o c a l i t y t o l o c a l i t y , s o c i a l c l a s s t o s o c i a l c l a s s , a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f s u r v e y i s n e e d e d . I n s t e a d o f e x a m i n i n g t h e s p e e c h o f r e l a t i v e l y f e w , p r e - s e l e c t e d p e o p l e i n a l a r g e number o f l o c a l i t i e s , i t w o u l d have t o c o n s i d e r t h e s p e e c h o f a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e o f a l l ages and s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d s , t a k e n p e r h a p s a t random i n c e r t a i n l o c a l i t i e s . B y t h a t method one c o u l d e s t a b l i s h how f a r c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s u r v e y have a c t u a l l y s u r -v i v e d t o d a y i n E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s . W h i c h p h o n e t i c and phonemic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d i a l e c t s c a n compete w i t h S t a n d a r d E n g l i s h and c a n s u r v i v e f o r s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s t o come -and w h i c h ones w i l l d i e o u t o r have a l r e a d y d i e d o u t ? B y c o m p a r i n g W r i g h t ' s EDG w i t h t h e SED made some 50 t e a r s l a t e r , we c a n see how much l o c a l d i a l e c t s have r e t r e a t e d i n t h i s c e n t u r y . N a t u r a l l y , i t i s a r o u n d L o n d o n and t h e o t h e r l a r g e c i t i e s t h a t l o c a l d i a l e c t s have l o s t most o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e s : A r o u n d L o n d o n t h e r e a r e no t r a c e s l e f t o f - 101 -/e/ from OE /y/ (e.g. b r i d g e , k i n g ) , of /e:/ from ME /a:/ (e.g. spade) or of /a:/ i n s t e a d of SSB /3:/ (e.g. s e r v a n t ) . Nevertheless, as t h i s survey has shown, there are s t i l l many d i a l e c t a l s u r v i v a l s i n England today, c o n t r i b u t i n g t o our knowledge and understan-ding of the h i s t o r y of the E n g l i s h sound system. - 102 -LIST OF MAPS Map "1 ... Ru r a l d i a l e c t s o f Map IT ... hi England. Map 18 ... / l / (pre-consonantal and f i n a l ) Map 2 ... Urban d i a l e c t s of England. Maps 19 - 82 show the pronunciations of words demonstrating r e g u l a r phonetic Maps 3 - 18 show the d i s - changes i n the va r i o u s r u r a l d i a l e c t s of t r i b u t i o n and pr o n u n c i a t i o n England, of c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l d i a -phonemes w i t h i n the r u r a l Map 19 . .. whip ( ME 111 a f t e r /w/ ). d i a l e c t s of England. Map 20 . .. l e a d '( noun)J Map 3 ... /a/ H ME / g : / before /d/ Map 21 . .. head J Map k ... hi j Map 22 . .. ash ( ME hi before / s / ) Map 5 . . . hi Map 23 . .. man Map 6 . . . li:l -( OE hi before nasals ) Map 2h . .. hammer Map T ... h'.l e ( ME hi before i n t e r -Map 25 . .. p o r r i d Map 8 . . . /a:/ v o c a l i c hi ) Map 9 ... h-l Map 26 . .. what, wasp ( ME hi a f t e r /w/ ) lo:/ /©:/ Map 2T . .. dog ( ME hi before f i n a l /g/ ) Map 10 . . . h-.l Map 28 . .. cross " -(ME hi before v o i c e l e s s Map 11 . . . h-l Map 29 . .. cough J f r i c a t i v e s ) Map 12 . . . / e i / Map 30 . .. hoof (ME lo:/ before / f / ) Map 13 ... hi/ Map 31 . .. look ( ME /o:/ before /k/ ) Map Ik ... /au/ Map 32 . .. cut ( ME hi ) Map 15 . . . /ou/ Map 33 . .. three ( ME /e:/' ) Map 16 . . . / i n / Map 3k . .. speak ( ME /&:/ ) - 103 -Map 35 ... cream ( ME /£:/ i n Map 56 ... do ( ME /o:/ f i n a l l y ) c e r t a i n words ) Map 57 ... dew( ME /eu/ a f t e r d e n t a l Map 36 ... spade ( ME /a:/ ) consonants ) Map 37 ... c l a y ( ME / a i / ) Map 58 ... few ( ME /eu/ elsewhere ) Map 38 ... eight 1 Map 59 ... hear ( ME /e:/ and. /£:/ before V ( ME EaigD ) PFR ) Map 39 ... s t r a i ght\ ... hare ( ME /a:/ before PFR ) J Map 60 Map kO ... sky ( ME / i : / f i n a l l y 61 and before v o i c e d Map ... h a i r ( OE 'before PFR ) consonants ) Map 62 ... c h a f f ( ME /a/ before v o i c e -Map kl ... k n i f e ( ME / i : / be- l e s s f r i c a t i v e s ) fore v o i c e l e s s con-sonants ) Map 63 ... palm ( ME /au/ before /m/ ) Map k2 ... b l i n d ( ME / i / before Map 61+ ... harvest ( ME /a/ before PFR ) /nd/ ) ... brought ( OE oht ) Map 65 Map k3 ... night ( OE i h t ) Map 66 ... thawing ( OE aw; development Map kk ... f i g h t ( OE eoht ) of " i n t r u s i v e " r_ ) Map 1+5 ... mice ( OE /y:/ ) Map 67 ... saw (noun) ( ME /au/ ) Map k6 ... cloud ( ME /u:/ ) Map 68 ... morning ( ME /o/ before PFR ) Map 47 ... ground ( ME /u/ be- Map 69 ... four ( ME /ou/ before PFR ) fore /nd/ ) ... hoarse ( OE a before PFR ) Map 70 Map kQ ... mow ~ ... door ( ME /o:/ before PFR ) -( OE aw ) Map T l Map I+9 ... snow ... work ( ME /o/ between /w/ and Map 72 Map 50 ... both PFR ) •( OE a ) Map 51 ... l o a f Map 73 ... burn ( ME /u/ before PFR; meta t h e s i s i n OE ) Map 52 ... oak ( OE a, i n i t a l l y ) ... r a b b i t ( ME u n s t r e s s e d ' / i / ) Map Ik Map 53 ... c o a l ( OE 0 i n open Map 5k Map 55 s y l l a b l e s ) ... grow ( OE ow ) ... moon ( ME jo:I ) Map 75 b i r c h , c h a f f , churn, church, f l i t c h , such ( OE /k/ i n p a l a t a l environments ) Map 76 ... hav_ ( ME /h/ ) - 104 -Map 77 ... b u t t e r ( ME i n t e r -v o c a l i c / t / ) Map 78 Map 79 Map 80 Map 81 Map 82 f i n g e r t h i g h  three seven snow ( OE i n i t i a l Y v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s ) s h i l l i n g j f i n g e r , tongue /ng/ ••) ME Maps 83 - 126 show words t h a t have had i r r e g u l a r phonetic de-velopments i n some of the d i a l e c t s . Those t h a t are marked w i t h an a s t e -r i s k have i r r e g u l a r pronunciations i n SSB as w e l l . The etymology of each word i s given i n parentheses. Map 83 ... sq u i r r e l ( OF e s c u r i u e l ) Map 8U ... bury* ( OE byrgan ) . h e r r i n g ( OE haering ) Map 85 Map 86 Map 87 any* ( OE g»nig ) many* ( OE manig ) deaf* (OE deaf ) Map 88 ... ho t * (OE hat ) Map 89 ... wash ( OE wascan ) Map 90 ... tongs* ( OE tang ) Map 91 ... wrong* ( OE wrang ) Map 92 ... f o o t * ( OE f o t ) Map 93 ... f l o o d * ( OE f l o d ) Map 9*+ ... one* ( OE an ')' Map 95 . . . among* ( 0E onmang ) Map 96 . . . eat ( 0E etan ) Map 97 . . . bean ( 0E bean ) Map 98 . . . key* ( 0E c«g ME /kay/ Map 99 . . . g r e a t * ( 0E great ) Map 100 . . break* ( 0E brecan ) Map 101 . . d r a i n * ( 0E dreahnian ) Map 102 . . r e i n s * ( OF rene, from L a t i n r e t i n a ) Map 103 . . d i e d * ( ON deyja ) Map 10l+ . . e i t h e r * ( 0E £g3er ) Map 105 . . height ( ,0E hiehpo ) Map 106 . . eye* ( 0E eage ) Map 107 . . poison ( OF poison, froii L a t i n potionem ) Map 108 . . drought ( 0E drugaj? ) Map 109 . . plough* ( 0E ploh ) Map 110 . . dough ( 0E dah ) Map I l l .. sew* ( 0E siwan, siowan Map 112 . . c o l d ( 0E c a l d ) Map 113 . . chew* ( OE.ceowan ) Map 11*+ . . l o s e * ( 0E l o s i a n ) Map 115 . . room ( 0E rum ) Map 116 . . ewe ( 0E eowu ) Map 117 . . h a l f ( 0E h e a l f ) Map 118 . . f a t h e r * ( 0E feeder ) - 105 -Map 119 . . c a l f ( OE c e a l f ) Map 120 . . l a u g h * ( OE h l e h h a n ) Map 121 . . g r a s s ( OE grass ) Map 122 . . arm ( OE arm ) Map 123 . . w a t e r * ( OE waeter ) Map 124 . . d a u g h t e r * ( OE d o h t e r ) Map 125 . . h o r s e ( OE h o r s ) Map 126 . . worm ( OE wyrm ) e l m ( OE e l m ) The l a s t two maps p r o v i d e t h e n u m b e r i n g o f t h e s u r v e y l o c a l i t i e s as g i v e n i n t h e S E D . Map 127 . . Number ing o f s u r v e y l o c a l i t i e s i n t h e S E D . Map 128 . . A b b r e v i a t i o n s o f c o u n t y names i n E n g l a n d . - io6 -BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l e n , Harold B. and Gary N. Underwood, e d i t o r s . Readings i n American  D i a l e c t o l o g y . New York, 1971. Baker, Sydney J . The A u s t r a l i a n Language. Sydney, 1966. Brook, J . L. E n g l i s h D i a l e c t s . London, 1963, 1965. Burghardt, L o r r a i n e H a l l , e d i t o r . D i a l e c t o l o g y : Prospects and Perspec- t i v e s . New York, 1971. Chomsky, Noam and M o r r i s H a l l e . The Sound P a t t e r n of E n g l i s h . New York; 1968. Dobson, E. J . The P r o n u n c i a t i o n of E n g l i s h , 1500-1700. 2nd ed. 2 volumes. Oxford, 1968. E l l i s , Alexander. E a r l y E n g l i s h P r o n u n c i a t i o n . Part V. London, 1889. Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a . Chicago and London, 1972. Gimson, A. C. An I n t r o d u c t i o n to the P r o n u n c i a t i o n of E n g l i s h . London, I 9 6 5 . Grant, W i l l i a m . The P r o n u n c i a t i o n of E n g l i s h i n Scotland. London, 1970. ._, e d i t o r . The S c o t t i s h N a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y . Edinburgh, 1931. H a r r i s , Z e l l i g S. Methods i n S t r u c t u r a l L i n g u i s t i c s . Chicago, 1951. Hedevind, B e r t i l . The D i a l e c t of Dentdale i n the West R i d i n g of Y o r k s h i r e . Uppsala, 1967. Jones, D a n i e l . The P r o n u n c i a t i o n of E n g l i s h . Cambridge, 1967. K o k e r i t z , Helga. The Phonology of the S u f f o l k D i a l e c t . Uppsala, 1932. Kolb, Eduard. P h o n o l o g i c a l A t l a s of the Northern Region. Bern, 1966. Kurath, Hans and Raven I . McDavid, J r . The P r o n u n c i a t i o n of E n g l i s h i n the  A t l a n t i c S t a t e s . Ann Arbor, 1961. ' Lanham, L. W. The P r o n u n c i a t i o n of South A f r i c a n E n g l i s h . Cape Town, 1967. M a r t i n e t , Andre. Economie des changements phonetiques. Bern, 1964. - 107 -Orton, Harold. The Phonology of the South Durham D i a l e c t . Z u r i c h , 1933. , Eugen D i e t h and W. J . H a l l i d a y , e d i t o r s . Survey of E n g l i s h D i a l e c t s . 13 volumes. Leeds, 1962-1970. P r i n c i p l e s o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Phonetic A s s o c i a t i o n . London.', 1949, 1974:-S c a r g i l l , H. and H. Warkentyne. The Survey of Canadian E n g l i s h : A Report. Reprinted from the E n g l i s h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 5 , no.3 , 1972. S i v e r t s e n , Eva. Cockney Phonology. Oslo, i 9 6 0 . Southerland, R. H. Readings on Language i n Canada. Calgary, 1972. T r u d g i l l , P e t e r . The S o c i a l D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f E n g l i s h .in Norwich.. Cambridge, 1974. ' ' • Turner, G. W. The E n g l i s h Language i n A u s t r a l i a • and New. Zealand.. London, 1966. Wakelin, Martyn F. E n g l i s h D i a l e c t s (An I n t r o d u c t i o n ) . London.,. 1972. , e d i t o r . Patterns i n the.. Folk Speech o f the B r i t i s h I s l e s . London, 1972. ; - , , ... Weinreich, U r i e l , " i s a S t r u c t u r a l D i a l e c t o l o g y Possible?"' Word, I I I . (Dec, 1954) , 388-400. ' • ' • - , " W e l l s , J . C. "Local Accents i n England and Wales". J o u r n a l of L i n g u i s t i c s , VI. (Sept, 1970) , 231-252. Wright, Joseph. The E n g l i s h D i a l e c t Grammar. Oxford, 1905. -Wyld, H. C. A Short H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h . London, 1 9 l 4 . - 1 0 8 -APPENDIX A L I S T OF ABBREVIATIONS Bd B e d f o r d s h i r e IW , Bk'. B u c k i n g h a m s h i r e K B r k B e r k s h i r e L Ca C a m b r i d g e s h i r e L a Ch C h e s h i r e L e i CM1 C e n t r a l M i d l a n d s L o n Co C o r n w a l l ME Cu C u m b e r l a n d MN D Devon Mo. Db D e r b y Nb Do D o r s e t . N f Du Durham NM1 EA E a s t A n g l i a Nt EDG E n g l i s h D i a l e c t Grammar N t h E s s E s s e x OE FN F a r N o r t h ON G l G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e Ox Ha H a m p s h i r e PFR He H e r e f o r d s h i r e R H r t H e r t f o r d s h i r e Sa Hu H u n t i n g d o n s h i r e SE I P A I n t e r n a t i o n a l P h o n e t i c A l p h a b e t SED IM I s l e o f Man S f I s l e o f W i g h t K e n t L i n c o l n s h i r e L a n c a s h i r e L e i c e s t e r L o n d o n M i d d l e E n g l i s h M i d d l e N o r t h :Monmouth N o r t h u m b e r l a n d N o r f o l k N o r t h M i d l a n d s N o t t i n g h a m N o r t h a m p t o n O l d E n g l i s h O l d N o r s e O x f o r d s h i r e P r e - c o n s o n a n t a l and f i n a l / r / R u t l a n d S h r o p s h i r e ( S a l o p ) S o u t h e a s t S u r v e y o f E n g l i s h D i a l e c t s S u f f o l k - 109 -SMI South Midlands SND S c o t t i s h N a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y So Somerset SS Southern Scotland o r : Southern S c o t t i s h SSB Southern Standard B r i t i s h St S t a f f o r d s h i r e Su Surrey SW Southwest EB Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a Sx Sussex SY South Y o r k s h i r e W W i l t s h i r e Wa Warwick We Westmoreland WMl West Midlands Wo Worcester Wx Wessex Y Y o r k s h i r e JOL J o u r n a l of L i n g u i s t i c s - 110 -INDEX The f o l l o w i n g b r i e f i n d e x i s p r o v i d e d t o s e r v e as a q u i c k s o u r c e o f r e f e r e n c e as t o t h e pages on w h i c h t h e v a r i o u s d i a l e c t s and d iaphonemes a r e d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l . DIALECTS Page Page S o u t h e r n d i a l e c t s ( g e n e r a l ) 13 The N o r t h M i d l a n d s 23 E a s t A n g l i a 11+ S o u t h Y o r k s h i r e 21+ The S o u t h e a s t 16 L a n c a s h i r e 25 Wessex 16 I s l e o f Man 26 The S o u t h w e s t I T N o r t h e r n d i a l e c t s ( g e n e r a l ) 27 Somerse t 18 L i n c o l n s h i r e 28 Monmouth 19 The M i d d l e N o r t h 29 The S o u t h M i d l a n d s 19 The F a r N o r t h 31 The M i d l a n d d i a l e c t s ( g e n e r a l ) 20 U r b a n d i a l e c t s 33 The C e n t r a l M i d l a n d s 21 S o u t h e r n S c o t t i s h d i a l e c t s 37 The West M i d l a n d s 21 DIAPHONEMES Page Page Page / ! / *+3 h:l 62 / o u / 76 hi 1+5 h'.l 63 / a / 1+6 h:/ . 63 / i a / 77 hi hi lo:/ 65 /ea/ 79 hi 1+8 h:/ 67 / o a / 80 hi 1+9 / u a / 81 / e i / 68 / i a / 83 / i : / 53 / a i / 71 / i u / 81+ / e : / 55 / o i / 73 / u a / 85 le:/ 56 M / 73 hi 85 / * : / 57 / a : / 57 / e u / 71+ C o n s o n a n t s 86 h:l 59 / a u / 75 VOLUME TWO The r u r a l d i a l e c t s of England. (See 3 .3 - 3.6) i C i t i e s and towns shown on the r i g h t are: 10 London 11 Cambridge 1 2 Norwich 13 Colchester 2 0 B r i s t o l 21 Dover 2 2 .Folkestone 2 3 Brighton 2k Portsmouth 25 Southampton 26 Torquay 27 Plymouth 28 Bath 3 0 Birmingham 3 1 Coventry 3 2 S t a f f o r d 1+0 L e i c e s t e r Ul Nottingham 1+2 Derby 1+3 Stoke-on-Trent 5 0 L i v e r p o o l 60 Manchester 61 Wigan 7 0 Oldham 71 Rochdale 7 2 Blackburn 73 Preston 7l+ Blackpool 80 Leeds 81 S h e f f i e l d 82 H u d d e r s f i e l d 8 3 Bradford 9 0 Newcastle 9 1 Sunderland 9 2 Middlesbrough 9 3 Stockton MAP 2 The urban d i a l e c t s of England. (See 3.7) The numbers w i t h i n c i r c l e s r e f e r t o the numbering of the urban d i a l e c t regions w i t h i n the t e x t . vowel i n apple (IV.11.8): The vowel i n dock ( I I . 2 . 8 ) : Unmarke d /a/ Ha: Unmarked hi Do: Co:: 1 Da: I co: o ca:: O hi ce: — Co: a /a/ Ca: • hi Do: * /o:/ Co:: a Oat: MAP 5 The vowel i n b u l l ( H I . l . l U ) : Unmarked /u/ Lvl A / A / CAD o hi ct>: — /u:/ Cu:: (with l o s s of / l / ) MAP 6 1 W W P r o n u n c i a t i o n of the diaphoneme / i : / - c h i e f l y as .n three ( V I I . 1 . 3 ) , c f . map 3 3 . Unmarked I © c i t : c x i : C s i : ~ c i i : C e i : MAP 7 D i s t r i b u t i o n and pron u n c i a t i o n of the diaphoneme /e:/: Unmarked I O No /e:/ Ce: : Ce Ce:D~Ce:: C e i : Ce:H~CeiH Sources: break (IX.3.5), c l a y (IV.U.2), eat (VI.5.11), MAP 8 Pro n u n c i a t i o n of the diaphoneme /a:/: I Ca:D <D Ca::~Ca:l o ca:: © c«::~ca:: — C3&:: +• Ca::~C«.:: 6" C£:: Sources: ask (IX.2.1+), draught (V.3.11), f a t h e r ( V I I I . 1 . 1 ) , grass ( I I . 9 . l a ) , h a l f ( V I I I . V_ &\ Kawroct I T T A 1 1 m.m (VTTT.Q.6) MAP 9 O Unrounded Ca:H pr o n u n c i a t i o n of the diaphoneme /o:/. Sources: brought ( V I I I . l . l l ) , thaw (VII . 6 . 1 5 ) »fc Presence of the diaphoneme /o:/. Sources: c o a l ( lV.U . 5 a ) , fox (IV.5 . 1 1 ) , nose (VI.U . 6 ) , pond. (IV.1 . 5 ) | Presence of the diaphoneme /ca:/=Cu:H. Sources: both (VII. 2 . 1 1 ) , whole ( V I I . 2 . 1 2 ) . MAP 10 D i s t r i b u t i o n and pr o n u n c i a t i o n of the diaphoneme /o:/: Unmarked No /o:/ +• Co:D~Cu:] I Co:: T Co:H~Cos: O CouD Sources: both ( V I I . 2 . 1 1 ) , c o a l ,(lV.U . 5 a ) , grow ( I X . 3 . 9 ) , oak (IV. 1 0 . 2 ) , spokes ( 1 . 9 . 6 ) Sources: cloud ( V I I . 6 . 2 ) , moon ( V I I . 6 . 3 ) . MAP 12 D i s t r i b u t i o n and pro n u n c i a t i o n of the diaphoneme / e i / : Unmarked No / e i / I o C e i l CaiD~DaeiJ' Cai] Sources: c l a y (lY.k.2), spade ( ' 1 .7 .6) . D i s t r i b u t i o n and pr o n u n c i a t i o n of the diaphoneme / a i / : Unmarked No / a i / fl) [aiZUCaxH X Cei:-CAV3~CAXl | Cai3 + CaiH-Daex!] 5* CaiD~:ax: O : O L : ® CoiH-CaiH * Csi^DaerJ — C x i : Sources: i r o n (IV.4 . 5 b ) , k n i f e ( l . T . l 8 ) , night ( V I I . 3 . 9 ) , poison (IV. 11.h), sky_ ( V I I . 6 . 1 ) , time ( V I I . 5 . l ) . MAP Ik D i s t r i b u t i o n and pr o n u n c i a t i o n of the diaphoneme /au/: Unmarked No /au/ O CaiD O CTJU:] — [£u:~DaerrJ & Zttrl'oLae&l X CAirH-HsuD & CaiD'-Ce.u: Sources: cloud ( V I I . 6 . 2 ) , ground (IV. 4 . 1 ) , how (VII.8 . 1 1 ) . MAP 15 D i s t r i b u t i o n and pr o n u n c i a t i o n of the diaphoneme /ou/ Unmarked Wo /ou/ X CAa>C3oD | CouD A LaxJl^DaevI — COUH^C-DUH +• cou:~ccw] Sources: grow ( I X . 3 . 9 ) , mow ( I I . 9 . 3 ) , nose (VI.U . 6 ) , (V . 1 0 . 3 ) \\\ MAP 16 D i s t r i b u t i o n and pr o n u n c i a t i o n of the diaphoneme / i u / : Unmarked No / i u / — [ i u : ] » Cju:: © Ciu: D~Ci»: H'-Cxy: H <D :j»::-'Cju:: • Sources: dew ( V I I . 6 . 7 ) , ewe ( I I I . 6 . 6 ) , few (V I I . 1 . 1 P r o n u n c i a t i o n of / r / and i t s loss., i n pre-consonantal and f i n a l p o s i t i o n : M PFR fx/ PFR Unmarked U 1 l o s t 0 LMl kept I C J : kept 03 C r i kept — D J n l o s s o p t i o n a l a Lrl l o s s Sources: arm ( V I . 6 . 8 ) , b i r d ( l V . 6 . l ) , f i n g e r ( V I . 7 . 7 ) , MAP 18 P r o n u n c i a t i o n of pre-consonantal and f i n a l / l / Unmarked C1H I C1U ("dark" /!/) Source: m i l k ( i l l . 1 3 . 1 2 ) . .1 MAP 20 The vowel i n l e a d (plumbum) (IV.4 Unmarked I /e/ A / / i a / / i : / * /e:/ A /a/ + / i a / ~ / e / 1 •V-J J » K MAP 21 The vowel i n head ( V I . l . l ] Unmarked I /e/ / i / / i a / / i : / X /e:/ <D / J e / e AW O / j u / ~ / i u / MAP 22 The vowel i n ash (V . U . U ) : Unmarked I /a/ / a i / /ei/=CaiH~r_sexH =Cei:~CexJ * / a r / X /a:/ O /e/ Presence of the diaphoneme /a/ i n : I what (VII.8.16) — wasp (IV.8.7) This symbol shows /a:/ i n wasp. MAP 29 The vowel i n cough (VI.8.2-3) Unmarked /o/ ^ /u/ — /o:/ a /ou/ <D /or/ ru /eu/ JK /o:/ MAP 30 The vowel i n hoof ( i l l . 4 . 1 0 ) Unmarked I /u/ /u:/ / i u / / i a / X / i : / a /eu/ A / A / MAP 31 The vowel i n look ( i l l . 1 3 . 1 8 and VIII.1.23) Unmarked /u/ O /eu/ I /u:/ A / A / ° /ia/ ••- / u : / ~ / i u / - / i u / Unmarked / i : / I / e i / = C e x 3 ^ C e i : +• / e i / = C a x : - / e : / ° / i s / * hi MAP 36 The v o w e l i n spade (1.7.6): Unmarked / e i / 1C / i a / I / e : / * / e s / O / i s / — / i : / Unmarked A l l other diaphonemes The vowel i n cloud (VII.6.2): Unmarked /au/ X /a:/ * / a u / = [ a i ] A l /ea/ I /u:/ O / £ : / MAP hi The vowel i n ground Unmarked /au/ 3tX /au/ =• CaiD I /u:/ * /a:/ MAP k9 The vowel i n snow ( V I I . 6 . 1 3 ) : Unmarked /ou/ /o:/ I /o:/ O /u:/ X /a:/ A /au/ MAP 50 The vowel i n both ( V I I . 2 . 1 1 ) : Unmarked /ou/ <D /©:/ /ea/ I /o:/ O /ua/ A /au/ * /o:/ A / i a / • /u/ O /u:/ * / i a / A /A/ MAP 51 The vowel i n l o a f (V .6.9) : Unmarked /ou/ O /u:/ . & /id/ I /o:/ © / ( D : / V / i a / * /o:/ O A O / — / o : / MAP 52 Pron u n c i a t i o n of oak (IV.10.2) Unmarked /ouk/ X / j e k / Q /usk/ * /5:k/ Z / J i k / — /o:k/ I /o:k/ <S> / j a k / O /u:k/ A / i B k / • / i a k / © /ffl:k/ MAP 53 The vowel i n c o a l (IV. k .5a): Unmarked /ou/ Q /ua/ © / o i / I I ox I J . No/ O /u:/ * /S:/ - lo\l A /au/ MAP 54 The vowel i n grbw (IX.3.9) : Unmarked /ou/ £ /eu/ t /o:/ O /u:/ X /a:/ A /au/ MAP 5 5 The vowel i n moon (VII.6.3) Unmarked I a / i u / - /u/ X /eu/ © / u i / The vowel i n do ( I X . 5 . 1 ) : Unmarked /u:/ a / i s / i / i u / X /eu/ / i : / I, MAP 57 The pron u n c i a t i o n of dey ( V I I . 6 . 7 ! MAP 58 The vowel i n few ( V I I . 1 . 1 9 ; VII.8 . 2 1 ) Unmarked o <D 1 X / d i u / / d z i u / /dzu:/ /du:/ /deu/ A OO /djeu/ /djau/ /dag/ / d a i g / /dzau/ Unmarked X I A / i u / /eu/ /u:/ / j a u / / j o u / /ou/ /au/ MAP 59 Ending of hear (VI.U.2) Unmarked I O X / i a / = Cxall / i a / - Cjce.: 1 / i r / - Cxa-t H / i r / - Cxoa ] /ea/ = Hesll Ending of hare (HV . 5 . 1 0 ) : Unmarked / e a / - [call /a:/ — / e a / - He: 3~Cae: ] <® / a r / I /er/« C ea-iH a / i a r / / e r / - «\> /3:r/ O /er/ = X / i 9 / * /e:/ Ending of h a i r (VI.2.1): Unmarked /es/=:eal * /.€.'../ ® / i r / * Cxaj3 — /e©/= C&: ]~Cce.:: ^> /ar/ / j a : / I / e r / = C e a j : O / i a r / © / i u r / = Cjus-*: 4» /er / = C t : a : oj /3:r/ O /iua7= CjuaH O /er/ = Ce.oa: X /i©/ H / a i r / C a i a j ] MAP 62 The vowel i n c h a f f ( I I . 8 . 5 ) Unmarked /a:/ t /a/ O /e/ M A P 63 P r o n u n c i a t i o n of palm (of hand) (VI.7 . 5 ) Unmarked I /pa:m/ /pam/ /palm/ /po:m/ /pO:lm/ 3* /parm/ (g> /polm/ O /pa :1m/ 0 /pelm/ i n harvest (II.6.1): Unmarked I /a:/ / a r / - / er/ * IZ'.rl MAP 65 The vowel i n brought ( V I I I . l . l l ) : Unmarked /o:/ O / o r / I /ou/ * /a:/ + /eu/ € /e/ X /au/ J, MAP 66 The s t r e s s e d vowel i n thawing ( V I I . 6 . 1 and the presence of i n t r u s i v e r_ i n i t : Unmarked I /a:/ /ou/ /eu/ O foil © /u:/ O /9:r/ M A P 68 The l e t t e r sequence ot_ i n morning (VII.3.11) Unmarked foil O /o:r/ — M /ar/ 1 /a:/ ® /ur/ X / 3 : / /ou/ A /ua/ e /oar/ MAP 6 9 The ending of four ( V I I . l . U ' Unmarked e O 0 /our/ /oua/ /o:r/ /awe/ /OB/ /ur/ -/us/ low I I /a:/ « /o:/ II /a:Mo:/ Q /o:/Woa/ P r o n u n c i a t i o n of the isequence oar i n hoarse ( V I . 5 . 1 6 ) : Unmarked / o : / • /o:r/ I /a:/ O /o:r/=Co:4>Coa-i: <g) /u:r/ A /A/ © /o:r/=Cd:4: A /ua/ © /o:/ — /oa/ <\> /u/ e /©:r/ ® /ir/«=:aoy: /ou/ =[-USM] X / i a / © /our/ MAP T l The vowel i n door (V . 1 . 8 ) : Unmarked /ua/ or /ur/= DUB-ID © /ur/=CTjD-«] I /o:(r)/ - / o 9 ( r ) / X /iua/ or / i u r / * /3: ( r ) / E /eu®/ or /eur/ + / i a / or / i r / © /eo:r/ © /oua/ or /our/ O / o : ( r ) / The vowel i n work (VIII. 4 . 8 ) : Unmarked / 3 : ( r ) / I / a : ( r ) / O / o:r/ or / u ( r ) / - / £ : / O /ea/ /o/ A /A/ P r o n u n c i a t i o n of burn (IV,.6.1): Unmarked /b3:(r)n/ 9 /brun/ 1 /ba:n/ /bun/ 0 /bo:rn/ n /bean/ o /bon/ A /bAn/ X /burn/ j , The unstressed vowel i n r a b b i t ( I I I . 13.13) : Unmarked / i / I hi A / A / O hi MAP 75 Frequency of /k/ i n s t e a d of / t s / i n s i x s e l e c t e d words: /k/ does not occur /k/ occurs i n one of the words /k/ two /k/ " three /k/ " four /k/ " f i v e /k/ s i x The words are: b i r c h (IV.10.1) c h a f f ( I I . 8 . 5 ) churn (V . 5 . 5 ) church ( V I I I . 5 . 1 ) f l i t c h ( I H . 12.3) MAP 76 P r e s e r v a t i o n of i n i t i a l /h/ i n hay (II.9.1): Unmarked /h/ i s l o s t I /h/ i s preserved The i n i t i a l consonant i n t h i g h (VI.9.3) and three ( V I I . 1 . 3 ) : t h i g h three Unmarked /©/ /©/ 1 /&/ /©/ <D 181 /a/ o /©/ /a/ - /©/ 16/ The i n i t i a l consonant i n ! s e v e n (VII.1.6) and snow (VII.6.13): seven snow Unmarked / s / /s/ +• fzf fzf I / z / Iff The s t r e s s e d vowel i n s q u i r r e l (IV.5.8): Unmarked / i / •¥ /a/ I IZ'.I O lot X /e/ A / A / MAP 84 The s t r e s s e d vowel i n "bury ( V I I I . Unmarked /e/ I /3:/ + /a/ A / A / /u/ MAP 85 The s t r e s s e d vowel i n h e r r i n g (IV.9 . 1 1 ) : Unmarked /e/ <t / i / 1 / 3 : / © / j a / * /a/ © AW o / j e / e /Ju/ © /J3:/ or / i a / © / j o / J, The occurrence of' /o/ i n any (VTI.3 . 16) and many ( V I I . 8 . 1 1 ) : i n any only i n many only i n both words I fol - hi 4r hi The vowel i n deaf (VI.4.5): Unmarked /e/ /e:/ O / i : / / e i / 1 / i / /a:/ — / i a / Unmarked /o/ M /&/ I /e/ ® /a:/ O / i a / or / j a / O / ° : / <— / i a / /wu/ j , The vowel i n tongs (V.3.7): Unmarked hi h/ 1 hi A hi — / i s / a /ia/=CxtD or / j e / at /a/ r o / i / o lo:/ & /S:/ MAP 91 The vowel i n wrong (IX.7.la) Unmarked /o/ O /Q: / I lei + lu/ *. /a/ A /A/ X /a:/ MAP 92 The vowel i n foot 1 ( V I . l O . l ) : Unmarked /u/ >fc / i a / A / A / a / i u / « M HI & /ua/ I /u:/ O M / X /eu/ The vowel i n f l o o d (IV.I.U),: Unmarked /A/ O / i n / I /u/ O / u i / ® /o:/ A /o/ alC / i s / The pro n u n c i a t i o n ( s ) of one ( V I I . l . l ) : Unmarked /wAn/ <8> /wa:n/ 1 /wun/ / j e n / ^ / i a n / o /won/ —. / J i n / $> /wo:n/ a / j a n / ^ / i a n / 4- /u:n/ * /wan/^/wAn/ X /wan/ /wun/^/won/ «> /wa:n/ © /von/w/wAn/ MAP 95 The s t r e s s e d vowel i n among (lX.2.12) Unmarked /A/ <D /O/~>/U/ I /u/ ® /a/~/o/~/u/ O /o/ * /a/~/u/ X /a/ 4- /u/~/ A/ a /o:/ P r o n u n c i a t i o n of eat (VI.5.11) Unmarked / i s t / I / e i t / - / e : t / O / i a t / X / i t / a / i a t / A /JAt/ V / j u t / E / J e t / X / e t / MAP 97 Pronunciation of bean (V.7.±8): Unmarked /bi:n/ W /biun/ I /bein/ «r /bjAn/ ~~ /be:n/ g /bjen/ ° /bian/ * /bain/ A /bAn/ 0 9o% on o II- -MAP 99 P r o n u n c i a t i o n of great (IX.1.6) Unmarked 4" / g r e i t / / g r i : t / / g r e : t / / g r i a t / s / g r i t / © / g i t / © /get/ * /gxrt / II /gret / © /great/ U /grut/ A /grAt/ MAP 101 The vowel i n d r a i n (vb) (IV.1.9) Unmarked / e i / © /ea/ / i : / O / i a / — /e:/ X / a i / O / i & / X / o i / MAP 102 The vowel i n reinB (I.5•5) Unmarked / e i / O / i ^ / +• / i : / © /es/ - /e:/ X / a i / The p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f d i e d ( l I I . T . 2 ) : Unmarked / d a i d / , / d o i d / o r /dae.:d/ I / d i : d / 4* / d e i d / O / d e d / The s t r e s s e d v o w e l i n e i t h e r ( V I I . 2 . 1 3 ) : Unmarked / a i / , / o i / o r /ae: / 4- / e i / I / i : / O / i a / O h - . / © / e a / © / o u / - / e / X / e : / * / a : / MAP 105 The vowel i n height ( V I . 1 0 . 9 ) : Unmarked / a i / , / o i / or /a&: / I / ! : / + / e i / /e/ MAP 106 P r o n u n c i a t i o n of eye (VI.3 . 1 ) : Unmarked / a i / , / o i / or /at:/ * / i : / +" / e i / CD / i : / ~ / a i / * /a:/ MAP 107 The s t r e s s e d vowel i n poison Unmarked / o i / *C /a:/ I / a i / + / e i / O /u/ A / n i / MAP 108 P r o n u n c i a t i o n of drought (VII.6 . 2 0 ) Unmarked /draut/ 4- / d r e : t / I / d r u : t / X / d r a : t / <D /drout/ <X> / d r a f t / alt / d r u f t / — / d r o t / O / d r o : t / • / d r o r f t / LA H MAP 109 P r o n u n c i a t i o n of plough ( 1 . 8 . 1 . Unmarked I /plau/ / p l u : / / p l i u / / p l i u f / / p l a : / O / p l u f / i - / p l i s f / <D /plou/ -I* / p i t : / MAP 110 P r o n u n c i a t i o n of dough (V.6.3): Unmarked I /dou/ /do:/ /do:/ /do:/ /do:f/ X /dau/ © /duf/ +• /du:/ /du:f/ © /dof/ ® / d A f / »v» /dus/ © /duaf/ A / d i a f / 6" /deu/ MAP 111 Pr o n u n c i a t i o n o f sew (V.10.3) Unmarked /sou/ AC /so:/ I /so:/ O / s i u / /so:/ B /sen/ * /sa:/ 0 /sau/ O /su:/ j , o - - -MAP 112 Pron u n c i a t i o n of c o l d (VI.13.1T) Unmarked /kould/ or / k o : l d / /koud/ I /ko:d/ — /ko:d/ © /ko:ld/ A /kead/ O /ka:d/ © / k a : l d / g /keud/ X /kaud/ O / k o l d / MAP 113 The vowel of chew ( i l l . 2 . 1 1 ] Unmarked /u:/ Ht /a:/ O /ou/ & lO'.l • /eu/ / i u / X /au/ MAP l l U The vowel of l o s e (IX.3.1): Unmarked /u:/ £ /eu/ * /o:/ + / i u / <D / o i / A A » / — /o/ AJ / e i / • / D : / O /on/ The vowel of room (V.2.k): X /au/ O /ou/ £ /eu/ A /A/ Unmarked /u:/ — /u/ At / i u / A / i s / Pro n u n c i a t i o n of ewe ( I I I . 6 . 6 ) : Unmarked / i u / / j o : / 1 / j o u / — /eu/ © / j e u / X /au/ / j o : / o /u:/ / j a u / a /ou/ MAP 117 The vowel i n h a l f ( V I I . 7 . 6 ) Unmarked /a:/ /e:/ I /a/ Q h:/ O /o:/ - / i : / * / a r / • /o:/-/a: • /ea/ E /e/ « / e i / MAP 118 The s t r e s s e d vowel i n fa t h e r ( V I I I . l . l ) Unmarked /a:/ + /e:/ I /a/ E /e/ Sit / a r / || / j a / O /ea/ T / j e / * / e i / MAP 119 Pro n u n c i a t i o n o f c a l f ( i l l . 1 . 2 ) : Unmarked /ka:f/ + /ke:f/ I /kaf/ *» /kusf/ O /ko:f/ © /kouf/ *C / k a r f / H / k i a : f / ® / k o : r f / s / k a : f / - / k a f / © /kosf/ MAP 120 Pro n u n c i a t i o n of laugh ( V I I I . 8 . 7 ) Unmarked I O / l a : f / / l a f / / l o : f / / l a r f / / l o f / P / l e u f / X / l e i f / / l e : f / <N* / l e f / MAP 121 Pro n u n c i a t i o n of grass ( l l . 9 . 1 a ) Unmarked I • /gra:s/ /gras/ /gros/ /gres/ / g r i a s / / g 3 : s / ^ / g 3 : r s / MAP 122 Pronunciation of arm (VI. Unmarked /arm/ ( P /arm/ © /earm/ • /earn/ & / 3 r rm/ /errm/ •water ( i l l . 3 . 2 ) : Unmarked h: I © / a r / I /a/ O /e/ 4- /a:/ X /.e:/ O /o/ * / ' e i / © /o:r/ Pronunciation of the str e s s e d vowel i n daughter ( V I I I . l . U ) : Unmarked /o: / K /e:/ 4* /a:/ <D /ou/ O /o/ A /ua/ © /o:r/ £ /eu/ © / a r / /au/ The o c c u r r e n c e o f i n t r u s i v e /s/: | -worm, /wSrram/ (IV.9.1) — elm /Slam/ (IV.10.k) MAP 127 Numbering of survey l o c a l i t i e s i n the 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0093930/manifest

Comment

Related Items