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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The phonology of the dialects of England Sándi, Gábor 1976

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THE PHONOLOGY OF THE DIALECTS OF ENGLAND  oy Gabor Sandi B.Sc,  Carleton  University,  1971  B.A. ,  Carleton  University,  1972  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF . MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of Linguistics  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1976  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h — C o l u m b i a ,  I agree  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  written  permission.  Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  s h a l l not  thesis  Department o r  I t i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  study.  copying of t h i s  be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my  that  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSTRACT  The d i a l e c t s o f E n g l a n d can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h r e e main groups: s t a n d a r d , urban and r u r a l d i a l e c t s .  Rural d i a l e c t s exhibit the greatest  d i v e r g e n c e from s t a n d a r d speech as w e l l as showing t h e g r e a t e s t v a r i a t i o n among t h e m s e l v e s .  G e o g r a p h i c a l l y , r u r a l d i a l e c t s a r e grouped i n t o t h r e e  main r e g i o n s : t h o s e o f t h e S o u t h , o f t h e M i d l a n d s and o f t h e N o r t h . The concept o f diaphonemes i s needed f o r a s i m p l e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e phonologies of i n d i v i d u a l d i a l e c t s .  They a r e a l s o n e c e s s a r y f o r an  adequate method o f comparison between d i a l e c t s . split  merger o r  i n s y n c h r o n i c grammar c o r r e s p o n d s t o p h o n e t i c merger o r s p l i t i n  d i a c h r o n i c grammar. vs.  Diaphonemic  Thus t h e diaphonemic c o n t r a s t s /e:/ v s . / e i / ,  /ou/ p r e s e n t i n some r u r a l d i a l e c t s  /o:/  ( m o s t l y i n t h e west o f England)  e x i s t wherever t h e M i d d l e E n g l i s h (ME) phonemes / a : / and / a i / ; lo'.l and /ou/, r e s p e c t i v e l y , d i d not merge i n e a r l y Modern E n g l i s h . Other i m p o r t a n t developments  i n s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h not s h a r e d by a l l  d i a l e c t s i n c l u d e t h e r a i s i n g o f / a / t o CaeJ, t h e u n r o u n d i n g and l o w e r i n g o f ME /a/  /u/ t o / A / , t h e d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n <5f /u:/ t o /au/, t h e r o u n d i n g o f  t o /o/ a f t e r /w/,  t h e l e n g t h e n i n g o f / a / t o / a : / when f o l l o w e d by  v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s , t h e merger o f ME IvI  /£•:/ w i t h /e:/ and t h e l o s s o f  f i n a l l y and b e f o r e c o n s o n a n t s . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e a r e o f t e n d i a l e c t a l developments  from t h e s t a n d a r d l a n g u a g e . the  absent  These i n c l u d e t h e w i d e s p r e a d l o s s o f /h/,  v o i c i n g of i n i t i a l v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s i n south-western England  and such l o c a l changes as t h e South Y o r k s h i r e d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n o f ME /o: / and /o:/ t o / o i / and / n i / ,  respectively.  Sound changes do not u s u a l l y happen i n i s o l a t i o n .  The s t u d y o f t h e  p h o n o l o g i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l d i a l e c t s r e v e a l s t h e i n t e r - d e p e n d e n c y o f most sound- changes - due m o s t l y t o a tendency i n p e o p l e t o keep d i f f e r e n t phonemes a p a r t i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n and t o m a i n t a i n e x i s t i n g  symmetries.  - iii  -  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page INTRODUCTION  1  II.  PHONEME AND DIAPHONEME  7  III.  THE DIALECTS OF ENGLAND  11  DIAPHONEMES I N THE DIALECTS OF ENGLAND  hi  CONCLUSION  93  I.  IV. V.  LIST OF MAPS  102  BIBLIOGRAPHY  106  APPENDIX: A LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS  108  INDEX  110  MAPS  I l l  - 1 -  I INTRODUCTION  1.1  The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o p r e s e n t t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l system o f E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s spoken i n E n g l a n d t o d a y .  It will  (a)  c l a s s i f y t h e d i a l e c t s on a g e o g r a p h i c a l "basis,  (b)  enumerate t h e phonemes n e c e s s a r y t o d e s c r i b e f u l l y t h e phonology o f any p a r t i c u l a r d i a l e c t , as w e l l as d e s c r i b e t h e p r i n c i p a l  allo-  phones o f t h e phonemes, and (c)  draw c o n c l u s i o n s from t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d about t h e n a t u r e o f d i a l e c t a l v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n t h e E n g l i s h language a r e a and about t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s such v a r i a t i o n s have w i t h t h e p r o c e s s e s o f language change.  1.2  The p r i m a r y s o u r c e o f d a t a f o r t h i s t h e s i s i s t h e Survey o f E n g l i s h D i a l e c t s (SED), e d i t e d by O r t o n and D i e t h a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Leeds. T h i s work has p r o v e d t o be v e r y r e l i a b l e and u s e f u l , due p r i m a r i l y t o two  factors:  (1)  U n i f o r m i t y o f coverage.  The SED has s u r v e y e d t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n  o f a l a r g e number o f words i n r u r a l and some urban communities i n a l l p a r t s o f E n g l a n d and t h e I s l e o f Man.  U n l i k e i n e a r l i e r surveys, the  l o c a t i o n o f e v e r y i n f o r m a n t i s p r e c i s e l y p i n p o i n t e d on t h e (2)  Reliability.  map.  The SED has used a c o n s i s t e n t and e a s i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e  system o f p h o n e t i c n o t a t i o n f o r i t s t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , namely, t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).  -  Two  2  -  e a r l i e r works a t t e m p t i n g t o p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l s u r v e y o f E n g l i s h  d i a l e c t s have p r o v e d t o be m o s t l y o f h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t o n l y .  They a r e  t h e E a r l y E n g l i s h P r o n u n c i a t i o n ( 1 8 8 9 ) by E l l i s and t h e E n g l i s h D i a l e c t by W r i g h t , p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 0 5 .  Both o f t h e s e s u r v e y s a t -  tempted t o cover a l l o f t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s .  Both o f them are i m p r e c i s e  Grammar (EDG)  about t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e i r i n f o r m a n t s .  There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e doubt  about t h e competence o f t h e i r f i e l d - w o r k e r s i n many a r e a s , and t h e phon e t i c symbols used i n t h e i r t r a n s c r i p t i o n s E l l i s ' s work) are d i f f i c u l t t o d e c i p h e r .  ( e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e case  of  D e s p i t e a l l o f t h e s e problems -  not a t a l l s u r p r i s i n g , s i n c e E l l i s and W r i g h t were p i o n e e r s i n t h e i r  field,  l a y i n g t h e groundwork on w h i c h l a t e r d i a l e c t o l o g i s t s c o u l d b u i l d - t h e r e i s s t i l l much we  can l e a r n from t h e s e w o r k s , e s p e c i a l l y about t h e changes  a f f e c t i n g E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s i n t h e p a s t hundred y e a r s . Many d e t a i l e d monographs d e a l i n g w i t h i n d i v i d u a l E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s have appeared s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c e n t u r y . on t h e S u f f o l k d i a l e c t , Orton  They i n c l u d e K o k e r i t z ( 1 9 3 2 )  ( 1 9 3 3 ) on t h e d i a l e c t o f South Durham, S i -  v e r t sen ( i 9 6 0 ) on Cockney speech and Hedevind ( 1 9 6 7 ) on t h e d i a l e c t o f Dentdale  i n Yorkshire.  An a r t i c l e by W e l l s i n "JOL  ( 1 9 7 0 ) on t h e p h o n e t i c  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f urban d i a l e c t s has a l s o been v e r y .'useful*  1.3  I n t h i s t h e s i s r e f e r e n c e w i l l o f t e n be made t o o l d e r s t a g e s o f t h e guage.  W r i g h t ' s EDG was  lan-  o f t e n used as a r e f e r e n c e work f o r t h e O l d E n g l i s h  (0E) sources o f modern E n g l i s h sounds.  A n o t h e r u s e f u l work i n t h i s  area  i s A S h o r t H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h by Wyld.  For a d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f t h e pronun-  c i a t i o n o f E n g l i s h ( s t a n d a r d and d i a l e c t a l ) a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e modern E n g l i s h p e r i o d , one Dobson.  s h o u l d c o n s u l t The P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f E n g l i s h 1 5 0 0 - 1 7 0 0 by  - 3 -  l.h  The p h o n e t i c symbols u s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l n o r m a l l y be t h o s e o f t h e IPA, as d e f i n e d i n t h e P r i n c i p l e s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l P h o n e t i c Association.  The f o l l o w i n g s u b s t i t u t i o n s w i l l be made f o r t y p o g r a p h i c a l  convenience: I si  f o r IPA C$1  Hz:  f o r IPA DJU  Co:  f o r IPA  N o t e , however, t h a t Cull w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be used f o r t h e s l i g h t l y f r o n t e d h i g h rounded vowel ( e . g . I s l e o f Man moon Cmu:nl), w h i l e CyH w i l l be r e t a i n e d f o r t h e f u l l y f r o n t e d ^e^'Si'^alent/e.g. Devon moon Cmy:nl). Another d i v e r g e n c e from IPA usage w i l l be i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s t r e s s e d vowel i n p o l y s y l l a b i c words.  Whereas a c c o r d i n g t o IPA usage,  an apostrophe has t o be p l a c e d i n f r o n t o f t h e s y l l a b l e b e a r i n g t h e p r i mary s t r e s s i n a word ( e . g , C 'b j u : t . e f u l H ) , we w i l l be u s i n g an a c u t e accent p l a c e d above t h e s t r e s s e d vowel ( e . g . C b j u : t sfvll ). The use o f p a r e n t h e s e s around p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n s w i l l  follow  normal l i n g u i s t i c usage, i . e . C 1 w i l l be p l a c e d around a "narrow", p u r e l y p h o n e t i c o r a l l o p h o n i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n , w h i l e / / w i l l be p l a c e d around " b r o a d " , phonemic o r diaphonemic (see 2.k  1.5  ) transcriptions.  The word d i a l e c t h a s , o f n e c e s s i t y , a r a t h e r vague meaning.  I t can  r e f e r t o any speech used b y p e o p l e o f a c e r t a i n g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , b y p e o p l e o f a c e r t a i n s o c i a l class,': w h i c h i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f c e r t a i n p h o n e t i c , m o r p h o l o g i c , s y n t a c t i c and v o c a b u l a r y features.  A l s o , w i t h i n any d i a l e c t so d e f i n e d , one can always f i n d s u b -  - k -  d i v i s i o n s f u r t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h e d from i t s n e i g h b o u r s by v a r i o u s  features.  Such s u b d i v i s i o n s can a l s o be r e f e r r e d t o as d i a l e c t s . One c o u l d , i n theory, continue  s u b d i v i d i n g d i a l e c t s u n t i l one w o u l d a r r i v e a t t h e l e v e l  o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l speaker o r " i d i o l e c t " . I n t h i s work, t h e word d i a l e c t w i l l r e f e r t o a c o l l e c t i o n o f speechforms spoken i n some c l e a r l y d e f i n e d a r e a o f E n g l a n d t h a t have s u f f i c i e n t u n i f o r m i t y t o be c o n s i d e r e d  together.  Any such s u b d i v i s i o n o f a language  i n t o d i a l e c t s i s , n e c e s s a r i l y , a r b i t r a r y , and can o n l y be defended on grounds o f c o n v e n i e n c e .  The isophones (see p.11 f o r a d e f i n i t i o n ) used  t o d e f i n e t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f d i a l e c t s were chosen because t h e y were cons i d e r e d t o be t h e most i m p o r t a n t from t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f E n g l i s h phonology. Of c o u r s e , our concept o f d i a l e c t s i s an i d e a l i z e d one. s p e a k i n g , no-one ever speaks pure d i a l e c t , u n l e s s c a l l e d standard  dialects.  Generally  i t i s one o f t h e s o -  I n s t e a d , p e o p l e l i v i n g i n an a r e a use t h e c h a -  r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e l o c a l d i a l e c t most o f t h e t i m e , w h i l e l i g h t o r heavy i n f l u e n c e i s e x e r c i s e d on t h e i r speech b y o t h e r d i a l e c t s . portant  The most im-  " f o r e i g n " i n f l u e n c e on any d i a l e c t i s t h a t o f one o r o t h e r v a r i e t y  of standard  English.  I n o r d e r t o c l a s s i f y t h e d i a l e c t s o f E n g l a n d , we s h o u l d  first  consider  the t h r e e main s u b d i v i s i o n s o f d i a l e c t s - s u b d i v i s i o n s b a s e d on s o c i a l c l a s s r a t h e r t h a n on g e o g r a p h i c a l  1.6  Standard d i a l e c t s .  area.  The s t a n d a r d  d i a l e c t s o f E n g l i s h are the h i g h - p r e s t i g e  forms o f t h e l a n g u a g e , used p r i m a r i l y by t h e upper and m i d d l e c l a s s e s as w e l l as by i n s t i t u t i o n s such as government, s c h o o l s  and b r o a d c a s t i n g .  What i s n o r -  - 5 -  m a l l y c o n s i d e r e d i n E n g l a n d as "good E n g l i s h " i s a c t u a l l y a s t a n d a r d d i a l e c t o f t h e language, t o be r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s work as Standard B r i t i s h "The  (SSB).  Southern  Names such as " R e c e i v e d p r o n u n c i a t i o n " ,  Queen's E n g l i s h " , "BBC  E n g l i s h " and " O x f o r d E n g l i s h " r e f e r  essen-  t i a l l y t o t h e same d i a l e c t . SSB  i s p r i m a r i l y used i n t h e s o u t h - e a s t e r n c o r n e r o f E n g l a n d .  In  o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y and i n t h e r e s t o f t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g w o r l d , o t h e r v a r i e t i e s o f t h e s t a n d a r d language  are used, d i f f e r e n t from SSB i n  t h e i r p h o n e t i c s , and, except i n / A u s t r a l i a and New  Zealand, also  different  from i t i n t h e i r phonemic s t r u c t u r e .  1.7  Urban d i a l e c t s .  From a n u m e r i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w , urban d i a l e c t s a r e  t h e most i m p o r t a n t , s e e i n g t h a t E n g l a n d i s one o f t h e most u r b a n i z e d c o u n t r i e s o f t h e w o r l d (about 80%, t a n n i c a ( 1 9 7 2 ) , v o l . 8 , , p.1+17).  according t o the Encyclopaedia B r i -  The  " s u b s t a n d a r d " d i a l e c t s t h a t are  spoken by most p e o p l e l i v i n g i n t h e towns and c i t i e s o f E n g l a n d do not have t h e p r e s t i g e o f t h e s t a n d a r d d i a l e c t s , b u t because o f t h e n u m e r i c a l s t r e n g t h o f t h e i r speakers t h e y are s p r e a d i n g at t h e expense o f r u r a l dialects.  F o r an example o f how  an urban d i a l e c t  Norwich) i s d i s p l a c i n g a r u r a l ^ d i a l e c t  (that of the c i t y of  ( t h a t o f N o r f o l k c o u n t y ) , see  T r u d g i l l (197*0. The most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e urban d i a l e c t s i s Cockney, t h e urban spoken i n London and nearby towns i n t h e s o u t h - e a s t o f E n g l a n d .  dialect  I t i s by  no means a u n i f o r m d i a l e c t , but t h e r e a r e s u f f i c i e n t f e a t u r e s common t o a l l o f i t s v a r i e t i e s f o r i t t o be c o n s i d e r e d a s i n g l e  dialect.  - 6 -  1.8  Rural dialects.  From many p o i n t s o f v i e v t h e most  d i a l e c t s a r e t h e r u r a l ones.  interesting  I n t h e i r pure form t h e y e x i s t o n l y i n i s o -  l a t e d v i l l a g e s , o f t e n spoken by e l d e r l y p e o p l e o n l y .  More p e o p l e  speak  a mixed v a r i e t y o f language, h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by s t a n d a r d o r urban d i a l e c t s , b u t p r e s e r v i n g many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of the r u r a l  dialect  of the area. Many r u r a l d i a l e c t s a r e v e r y c o n s e r v a t i v e , p r e s e r v i n g o l d e r p h o n e t i c forms and d i s t i n c t i o n s l o s t e l s e w h e r e .  In other cases, the r u r a l  dia-  l e c t s were q u i t e i n n o v a t i v e , s h i f t i n g vowels f u r t h e r t h a n most urban d i a l e c t s , merging d i s t i n c t i o n s p r e s e r v e d e l s e w h e r e .  Because o f t h e i r  v a r i e t y , these d i a l e c t s o f f e r i n v a l u a b l e data t o the l i n g u i s t .  Despite  t h e s m a l l number o f p e o p l e s p e a k i n g "pure" d i a l e c t t o d a y , most o f t h e d a t a i n t h i s paper a r e from r u r a l d i a l e c t s .  T h i s i s p a r t i a l l y so b e -  cause t h e t h r e e e x t e n s i v e s u r v e y s o f E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s , mentioned  in  1.2  reason  , were a l l e s s e n t i a l l y s u r v e y s o f r u r a l d i a l e c t s .  f o r c o n c e n t r a t i n g on them i s t h a t urban d i a l e c t s  The o t h e r  are mostly t r a n s i t i o n a l  forms o f speech, w i t h t h e i r p h o n e t i c s m o s t l y b a s e d on t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f n e i g h b o u r i n g r u r a l d i a l e c t s , w h i l e t h e i r phonology i s c l o s e t o t h a t of the standard d i a l e c t s .  T h e r e f o r e t h e i r s t u d y sheds much l e s s  light  on t h e phonemic systems p r e s e n t i n E n g l i s h t h a n does t h e s t u d y o f r u r a l dialects.  II PHONEME AND DIAPHONEME  When c o n s i d e r i n g any one d i a l e c t , i t s sounds can be e a s i l y grouped i n t o phonemes.  T h i s can be done b y u t i l i z i n g c o n t r a s t s , an approach f a -  v o u r e d b y s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c s - e l a b o r a t e d , f o r example, i n H a r r i s (l95l).  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , one can s e t up u n d e r l y i n g f o r m s , from w h i c h  the " s u r f a c e " phonetic rules.  ordered  T h i s i s t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l method, a p p l i e d t o E n g l i s h b y  Chomsky and H a l l e  The  r e a l i z a t i o n s can be d e r i v e d b y a p p l y i n g  (1968).  f i r s t o f t h e s e methods i s a s y n c h r o n i c  one, s i n c e i t i s i n d e -  pendent o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l changes t h a t have shaped t h e sounds o f t h e d i a l e c t o r language.  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e second approach has much  in.common w i t h d i a c h r o n i c l i n g u i s t i c s .  T h i s i s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t  most o f t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e s c o r r e s p o n d t o p h o n e t i c  changes t h a t  have o c c u r r e d i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e language. As examples, l e t us c o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g p a i r s o f E n g l i s h words, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r SSB phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n s : wild  /waild/  wilderness  /wildanis/  child  /tsaild/  children  /tsildrsn/  oblige  /oblaidz/  obligation  /obligeisan/  sign  /sain/  signal  /signal/  On t h e b a s i s o f such c o r r e spondences we can e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e  - 8 -  SSB  d i p h t h o n g / a i / has some k i n d o f a l t e r n a t i o n w i t h t h e vowel / i / .  We s h o u l d s e t up an u n d e r l y i n g f o r m , c a l l i t ~ i _ , from w h i c h / a i / can he d e r i v e d t h r o u g h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a s i m p l e r u l e .  Similarly, /i/  c o u l d he d e r i v e d from an u n d e r l y i n g vowel i _ . A t a deeper l e v e l o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , i _ c o u l d be d e r i v e d i n c e r t a i n cases from i _ , e x p l a i n i n g the a l t e r n a t i o n s presented  above.  As i t happens, o f c o u r s e , u n d e r l y i n g i _ c o r r e s p o n d s t o ME / i : / , and u n d e r l y i n g i _ t o ME / i / , w i t h t h e change / i / t o / i : / i n c e r t a i n phonetic  environments o c c u r r i n g i n l a t e ME.  The main purpose o f t h i s p a r a g r a p h i s t o show why t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e s w i l l h a r d l y e v e r be mentioned have any u s e f u l n e s s  i n t h i s paper.  Where t h e y might  a t a l l , t h e y w o u l d s i m p l y be a n o t h e r way o f ex-  p r e s s i n g h i s t o r i c a l sound changes.  2.3  A t t h i s p o i n t , t h e concept o f diaphoneme w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d . a r e l a t i v e l y r i g o r o u s d e f i n i t i o n , some s e t - t h e o r y t e r m i n o l o g y Diaphonemes a r e different dialects. the same diaphoneme t h e same phoneme a t  For  i s used:  m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e s e t s o f phonemes o c c u r r i n g i n Two phonemes i n d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s ' w i l l b e l o n g t o o n l y i f t h e y can b o t h be r e g u l a r developments o f an e a r l i e r s t a g e o f t h e l a n g u a g e .  To p u t i t a n o t h e r way, no two phonemes w i t h i n any one d i a l e c t can b e l o n g t o t h e same diaphoneme, and c o n v e r s e l y , no phoneme can b e l o n g simultaneously  t o two d i f f e r e n t diaphonemes w i t h i n t h e same d i a l e c t .  I n - a d d i t i o n , two phonemes i n d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s , no m a t t e r how s i m i l a r i n phonetic  r e a l i z a t i o n , can never b e l o n g t o t h e same diaphoneme i f t h e y  cannot n o r m a l l y be d e r i v e d i n a r e g u l a r way from t h e same e a r l i e r I t i s t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e t o have two phonemes, p r a c t i c a l l y i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n , o c c u r r i n g i n d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s and b e l o n g i n g  source.  identical to diffe-  - 9 -  r e n t diaphonemes.  As an example, c o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a :  Gloss  Wiltshire  Yorkshire  sky  [skai:  CskaiD  ( SED V I I . 6 . 1  )  eight  Halt:  Ceitl  ( SED V I I . 1 . 7  )  The diaphonemic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e two words w i l l he and / e i t / i n b o t h d i a l e c t s .  E v i d e n t l y , t h e phone C a i 3 b e l o n g s t o two  d i f f e r e n t diaphonemes i n t h e two  2.h  dialects.  The s l a s h b r a c k e t s / / w i l l be used around diaphonemes, t o t h o s e used around phonemes i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l d i a l e c t s . of n o t a t i o n w i l l For (1)  /skai/  identical This identity''  f a c i l i t a t e our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e concept o f diaphoneme.  example, t h e symbol /e:/ w i l l be u s e d t o r e f e r t o : t h e vowel phoneme o c c u r r i n g i n words l i k e spade (but n o t , n o r m a l l y , c l a y ) i n most d i a l e c t s o f w e s t e r n E n g l a n d ; and  (2)  t h e diaphoneme o c c u r r i n g i n most d i a l e c t s o f w e s t e r n E n g l a n d , r e f e r r i n g t o t h e vowel Le:l  o r [£:3 when i t i s d e r i v e d from ME / a : / under normal  circumstances. Though t h e o r e t i c a l l y any symbol c o u l d be used t o denote diaphonemes, i n p r a c t i c e t h e p h o n e t i c symbol most commonly used f o r t h e p h o n e t i c r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e diaphoneme w i l l be u t i l i z e d .  Thus / a i / w i l l r e p r e s e n t t h e diaphoneme  n o r m a l l y c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o ME / i : / , s i n c e C a U  i s t h e most u s u a l o f i t s many  p r o n u n c i a t i o n s (note t h a t t h e symbol I_ i s u n i f o r m l y r e p l a c e d by / i / i n d i a phonemic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ) .  The most common p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f a diaphoneme  w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as i t s p r o t o t y p a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n .  2.5  N e u t r a l i z a t i o n and merger o f  diaphonemes.  -  10  -  I t o f t e n happens t h a t two phonemes c o n t r a s t i n a d i a l e c t , b u t t h e contrast i s p a r t i a l l y o r completely l o s t i n others.  In the f i r s t  case,  we t a l k o f n e u t r a l i z a t i o n , and t h e " n e u t r a l i z e d " sound i s a s s i g n e d t o t h e diaphoneme whose p r o t o t y p a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s c l o s e r t o i t . As an example, / a / and / e / c o n t r a s t i n E n g l a n d and i n some N o r t h Amer i c a n d i a l e c t s b e f o r e / r / , b u t merge i n o t h e r s , b o t h h a y i n g t h e p r o n u n c i ation Cel.  Where t h e c o n t r a s t e x i s t s , marry i s r e p r e s e n t e d diaphonemi-  c a l l y b y /mari:'/ w h i l e merry i s / m e r i : / .  Where n e u t r a l i z a t i o n has t a k e n  p l a c e , b o t h words a r e r e p r e s e n t e d b y / m e r i : / . When n e u t r a l i z a t i o n i s u n c o n d i t i o n a l , we t a l k o f merger. t h e p h o n e t i c v a l u e o f t h e merged sound t h a t determines s h o u l d be a s s i g n e d t o . lish  I t i s again  w h i c h diaphoneme i t  F o r example, some v a r i e t i e s o f N o r t h American Eng-  ( i n c l u d i n g Canadian E n g l i s h ) have merged t h e vowels o f t h e words-cot  and caught.  The merged sound i s n o r m a l l y Call, r a t h e r t h a n Co:D, so t h a t  i n t h e d i a l e c t s where t h i s merger has o c c u r r e d , b o t h words s h a l l be t r a n s c r i b e d d i a p h o n e m i c a l l y as / k d t / .  2.6  The c o n t r a r y phenomenon, c a l l e d phonemic s p l i t a l s o o c c u r s , though l e s s commonly.  I t u s u a l l y happens,when a l l o p h o n e s  come t o c o n t r a s t w i t h each  o t h e r due t o t h e l o s s o f a c o n d i t i o n i n g phoneme, t o a n a l o g y , o r t o b o r r o w i n g from another language o r d i a l e c t .  Thus a t one t i m e i n t h e h i s t o r y o f  E n g l i s h , t h e diaphoneme /u/ was t h e o n l y one p r e s e n t i n words such as c u t and p u t , w i t h p r o b a b l y b o t h rounded and unrounded back a l l o p h o n e s . i s s t i l l t h e case w i t h most d i a l e c t s i n t h e M i d l a n d s land.  But i n t h e s o u t h and i n t h e s t a n d a r d language,  neme / A / has t o be i n t r o d u c e d , t o account or look - luck.  This  and t h e n o r t h o f Engan a d d i t i o n a l  diapho-  f o r such c o n t r a s t s as p u t - p u t t  - 11 -  III THE DIALECTS OF ENGLAND  3.1  Even u n t r a i n e d o b s e r v e r s a r e aware o f t h e wide range o f p r o n u n c i a t i o n s t h a t e x i s t i n England. and can u s u a l l y  P e o p l e o f t e n t a l k about d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f a c c e n t ,  determine t h e rough g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a and s o c i a l c l a s s  a  p e r s o n b e l o n g s t o , j u s t b a s e d on h i s a c c e n t . Most o f t h e d i a l e c t s h e a r d i n E n g l a n d t o d a y d i f f e r l i t t l e i n t h e i r phonemic s t r u c t u r e  from t h a t o f SSB.  c i a l l y t h e ones-spoken  I t i s o n l y t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s , espe-  r e l a t i v e l y f a r from London and o t h e r g r e a t  t h a t p r e s e n t a v e r y d i f f e r e n t phonemic  3.2  In dialectology, number o f d i s c r e t e  cities,  structure.  i t i s t r a d i t i o n a l to divide  dialects into a small  g r o u p s , t h e n p r o c e e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e phonology o f each.  T h i s i s not a v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y method, because no m a t t e r where one draws the b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s , some i m p o r t a n t d i v i d i n g l i n e s w i l l be l e f t o u t . These i m p o r t a n t d i v i d i n g l i n e s i n d i a l e c t o l o g y  are c a l l e d isophones.  Here i s a f o r m a l d e f i n i t i o n :  An isophone i s a l i n e drawn on t h e map  t h a t s e p a r a t e s d i a l e c t areas  u s i n g e i t h e r d i f f e r e n t p r o n u n c i a t i o n s o f a c e r t a i n diaphoneme ', o r u s i n g d i f f e r e n t diaphonemes i n a c e r t a i n c l a s s o f words. p o s s i b i l i t y o c c u r s i n map (not  An example o f t h e f i r s t  3, w h i c h shows t h a t n o r t h and west o f t h e isophone  a c t u a l l y , drawn on t h e map),  / a / i n a p p l e i s pronounced  on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e l i n e i t i s pronounced  DaeH.  Call, whereas  An example o f t h e s e -  - 12 -  cond k i n d o f isophone i s g i v e n on map  k2.  South o f t h e l i n e  ( a g a i n , not  a c t u a l l y drawn), words such as b l i n d and f i n d u s u a l l y c o n t a i n t h e vowel / a i / , w h i l e n o r t h o f i t t h e u s u a l vowel i s / i / .  Thus i t i s p r e f e r a b l e t o l o o k a t each p h o n e t i c v a r i a b l e one by t o see how  i t v a r i e s i n d i f f e r e n t parts of the country.  one,  But f o r r e f e r e n c e  purposes i t i s s t i l l a d v i s a b l e t o d i v i d e E n g l a n d i n t o a number o f a r e a s , w i t h the more i m p o r t a n t  dialect  isophones d e f i n i n g t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s .  w i l l be f o u n d t h a t o f t e n s e v e r a l o f t h e i m p o r t a n t  It  isophones w i l l run t o -  g e t h e r , p r o v i d i n g a c o n v e n i e n t boundary between t h e d i a l e c t areas t o be established. The  g e o g r a p h i c a l d i v i s i o n o f urban d i a l e c t s i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f  rural dialects. dialects  Map  1 shows how  (see a l s o 3.*+  are shown on map  , 3.5  2.(see 3.7  E n g l a n d has been d i v i d e d up i n t o  and 3.6 b e l o w ) , w h i l e urban d i a l e c t also).  areas  These d i a l e c t d i v i s i o n s are o f t e n  d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e suggested by E l l i s o r W r i g h t i n t h e i r surveys English dialects.  rural  of  T h i s i s m o s t l y due t o an attempt i n t h i s t h e s i s t o  work w i t h as few d i a l e c t areas as p o s s i b l e w h i l e s t i l l r e t a i n i n g a l a r g e amount o f u n i f o r m i t y w i t h i n each.  3.3  Here f o l l o w s a l i s t o f t h e l 6 r u r a l d i a l e c t areas p r o p o s e d f o r E n g l a n d , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c a l e x t e n t and p h o n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . For t h e sake o f l e g i b i l i t y ,  examples and maps d e m o n s t r a t i n g  these phonolo-  g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l be g i v e n i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d m a r g i n , w i t h a c o l o n s e p a r a t i n g t h e map  numbers from t h e word examples.  The names o f c o u n t i e s w i l l n o r m a l l y be a b b r e v i a t e d - o n l y a t t h e i r  - 13 -  f i r s t mention w i l l t h e y he w r i t t e n out i n f u l l .  County names and areas  r e p r e s e n t t h e s i t u a t i o n as i t was a t t h e time t h e f i e l d - w o r k f o r t h e SED was done, i . e . b e f o r e t h e r e c e n t r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f . l o c a l government i n England. The s i x t e e n r u r a l d i a l e c t areas s h a l l be grouped i n t o t h r e e main r e g i o n s , each o f w h i c h has i t s own p h o n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  which  w i l l a l s o be o u t l i n e d .  3.h  SOUTHERN DIALECTS  The n o r t h e r n boundary o f t h i s r e g i o n , s e p a r a t i n g i t from t h e d i a l e c t s of t h e M i d l a n d s , i s e s s e n t i a l l y a s t r a i g h t l i n e c o n n e c t i n g t h e Severn and the Wash.  T h i s boundary c o i n c i d e s r o u g h l y w i t h f i v e i s o p h o n e s , as g i v e n  below. (i)  The n o r t h e r n boundary o f t h e a r e a where ME  Map 32: c u t , l u c k  /u/ r e g u l a r l y became / A / . (ii) /a/ (iii)  The n o r t h e r n boundary o f t h e a r e a where ME became /o/ a f t e r  Map 26: wasp, what  /w/.  The n o r t h e r n boundary o f t h e a r e a where ME  Map 31: l o o k , t o o k  /o:/ was e v e n t u a l l y s h o r t e n e d t o /u/ b e f o r e /k/ (iv)  The n o r t h e r n l i m i t o f t h e a r e a where ME / a /  and /o/ were l e n g t h e n e d t o / a : / and /o:/, r e s -  chaff, bath, grass;  p e c t i v e l y , when f o l l o w e d by t h e v o i c e l e s s  cough, f r o t h , l o s s  catives / f / , /0/ (v)  Maps-28, 2 9 , 62:  fri-  and / s / .  The n o r t h e r n l i m i t o f t h e development o f "dark" CiH as an a l l o p h o n e o f p r e - c o n s o n a n t a l and f i n a l / l / .  Map 18: a l l , c o l t , m i l k  - ih -  Unless otherwise  mentioned  the f o l l o w i n g p h o n e t i c  and phonemic  f e a t u r e s are a l s o t r u e o f the s o u t h e r n d i a l e c t s i n E n g l a n d : (vi)  ME  / a : / and  / a i / have merged i n the diaphoneme / e i / , whose p r o -  n u n c i a t i o n v a r i e s from Zeil  t o FJaiD.  Thus the words made and maid  are n o r m a l l y pronounced i d e n t i c a l l y as /meid/. (vii)  I n a p a r a l l e l f a s h i o n , ME  /o:/  and  /ou/ have merged i n t h e  dia-  phoneme /ou/, whose p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t e n s t a r t s from a c e n t r a l vowel - we (viii)  f i n d C/\uD The ME  / a i / and  o r CauH.  The words no and know t h e r e f o r e rhyme.  l o n g vowels / i : / and  /au/, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  /u:/ n o r m a l l y became t h e  diphthongs  There i s a l o t o f v a r i a t i o n i n t h e pho-  n e t i c r e a l i z a t i o n s o f t h e s e diaphonemes. (ix)  ME  /e:/  and  /e:/ have merged i n t h e diaphoneme / i : / , so t h a t  the words sea and see are b o t h r e p r e s e n t e d by  /si:/.  Here, t h e n , f o l l o w s t h e l i s t o f the seven d i a l e c t areas i n c l u d e d among t h o s e o f t h e s o u t h , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r more i m p o r t a n t and p h o n e t i c  (l)  phonemic  characteristics.  EAST ANGLIA  (EA)  EA i n c l u d e s t h e c o u n t i e s o f N o r f o l k  ( N f ) , S u f f o l k ( S f ) , Essex  (Ess) and t h e r u r a l areas around London (Ln) n o r t h o f t h e Thames. S i n c e SSB  i s e s s e n t i a l l y an outgrowth o f t h e d i a l e c t s spoken around  London, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e d i a l e c t s o f EA are v e r y i n phonemic s t r u c t u r e t o SSB. EA d i a l e c t s  are:  Important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  close  features  of  -  (i)  15  -  / a / i s r e g u l a r l y r a i s e d i n pronunc i a t i o n t o C«H.  Map 3 : a p p l e , c a t  F u r t h e r r a i s i n g and  consequent merger w i t h /e/-CeH i s common - i n some l o c a l i t i e s ,  such as Ess 12 o f  the SED, i t i s u n i v e r s a l , so t h a t t h e phoneme / a / d i s a p p e a r s (ii)  there.  I n p a r t s o f r u r a l N f , t h e ME c o n t r a s t s  / a : / v s . / a i / and /o:/ v s /ou/ a r e r e -  Maps 3 6 , 3 7 : spade, c l a y Maps 5 0 , h8: b o t h ,  mow  t a i n e d , as c o n t r a s t s between t h e d i a phonemes /e:/ and / e i / , /o:/ and /ou/, respectively. (iii)  OE / y : / i s r e f l e c t e d as / i : / i n much  Map h5: m i c e , l i c e  o f r u r a l EA, as opposed t o t h e / a i / u s u a l elsewhere. /e:/.  The i n t e r m e d i a t e ME stage was  The c o r r e s p o n d i n g  change o f OE / y /  bridge, king  t o /e/ i s e x t i n c t t o d a y , as i t has been f o r some t i m e ( c f . EDG § 1 0 9 ) , except i n words where SSB has borrowed t h e form w i t h /e/. (iv)  Pre-consonantal  and f i n a l / r / (hence t o  be r e f e r r e d t o as PFR) i s l o s t . IvI  Intrusive  Map 8k: b u r y , f l e d g e Map 1 7 :  f a r , arm  Map 6 6 : t h a w i n g  i s i n t r o d u c e d between c e r t a i n v o w e l s .  (v)  /h/ i s o f t e n r e t a i n e d .  Map 7 6 : h a y , whole  (vi)  Except i n N f , ME / i : / i s u s u a l l y r e f l e c -  Map * i 0 : s k y , k n i f e  t e d as / o i / , n o t as / a i / . Among i t s n e i g h b o u r s , t h e SE shares w i t h EA f e a t u r e s ( i ) and ( v i ) , w h i l e t h e SMI share w i t h i t f e a t u r e ( i v ) .  - 16  -  THE SOUTH-EAST (SE) The  SE i n c l u d e s t h e c o u n t i e s o f Kent ( K ) , S u r r e y  (Su), Berkshire  ( B r k ) , Sussex ( S x ) , t h e I s l e o f Wight (IW), L n south o f t h e Thames and the southernmost p a r t s o f Buckingham (Bkh) and O x f o r d  (Ox).  Distingui-  shing features of the SE.dialects are: Map 3 : a p p l e , c a t  (i)  '/a/ i s pronounced CaeH.  (ii)  ME /&:/ "before / d / i s n o r m a l l y  shortened  Maps 2 0 , 2 1 : b r e a d , head, r e d  t o / i / i n s t e a d o f /e/. (iii)  PFR i s r e g u l a r l y p r e s e r v e d .  Map 1 7 :  arm, f a r  (iv)  /h/ i s l o s t .  Map 7 6 : h a y , whole  (v)  ME / i : / i s u s u a l l y r e f l e c t e d as / o i / i n -  Map ^ 0 : s k y , k n i f e  stead o f / a i / . Features and  ( i ) and ( v ) a r e s h a r e d w i t h EA, ( i i ) and ( i i i ) w i t h Wx  ( i v ) w i t h "both Wx and t h e SMI, from among n e i g h b o u r i n g  dialect  regions,  WESSEX (Wx) The Wx d i a l e c t r e g i o n i n c l u d e s t h e c o u n t i e s o f G l o u c e s t e r ( G l ) , W i l t s h i r e (w), Dorset (Do), Hampshire (Ha) (except f o r t h e IW) and p a r t s o f e a s t e r n Somerset ( S o ) .  D i s t i n g u i s h i n g features are:  (i)  ME / a / r e t a i n s i t s l o w Lai  (ii)  ME / a : / became /e:/, t o b e i n c o n t r a s t  Map 3 : a p p l e , c a t  quality.  w i t h / e i / = CaiD, d e r i v e d from ME / a i / . / e i / i s also i n contrast with / a i /  Map 36: spade, make  This  Map 3 7 : c l a y , maid  de-  Map hO: s k y , k n i f e  r i v e d from ME / i : / . (iii)  ME lo'l and /ou/ a r e n o r m a l l y  reflected  Maps 5 0 , 1*8: b o t h ,  mow  - IT -  as t h e monophthong /o:/. (iv)  ME /£.:/ i s r e f l e c t e d as /e:/ more, o f t e n  t h a n as / i : / .  I n f r o n t o f /d/ t h i s vowel  was l a t e r s h o r t e n e d  Maps 3*+, 3 5 : speak, cream Maps 2 0 , 2 1 : head, l e a d  to / i / .  (v)  ME /o/ u s u a l l y became / a / b e f o r e / r / .  Maps 2 5 , 6 8 : p o r r i d g e , f o r  (vi)  PFR and /h/ a r e b o t h  Maps I T , T 6 : arm, house  (vii)  I n i t i a l v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s / f / , /©/,  preserved.  / s / and / s / became v o i c e d , w i t h t h e f u r t h e r  Maps T 8 - 8 l : f i n g e r , t h i n , s i x , sheep, t h r e e  s h i f t IB I t o /d/ b e f o r e / r / . Among a l l i t s n e i g h b o u r i n g shares w i t h i t f e a t u r e s ( i ) , PFR.  d i a l e c t s , t h e SW i s c l o s e s t t o Wx. (ii),  It  ( i i i ) and ( v i i ) - and i t a l s o keeps  W i t h i t s o t h e r n e i g h b o u r s Wx shares  a t most one o f t h e f e a t u r e s  enumerated.  (k)  THE SOUTHWEST (SW) The  SW i n c l u d e s t h e c o u n t i e s o f Devon (D) and C o r n w a l l  g e t h e r w i t h t h e westernmost p a r t s o f So.  (Co), t o -  I t s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g features  are: (i)  / a / remains Ca3.  Map 3 : a p p l e , c a t  (ii)  le:/ and / e i / a r e k e p t a p a r t .  Maps 3 6 , 3 T : spade, c l a y  (iii)  ME /£:/ became n o r m a l l y  Maps 3*+, 3 5 : speak, cream  / e i / n o t le:/  o r / i : / as elsewhere i n t h e s o u t h . (iv)  / a i / i s n o r m a l l y monophthongized t o  Map h0: s k y , k n i f e  /fee:/ i n D .  (v)  I n D , /u/ and / u : / a r e f r o n t e d t o EyD and C y : 3 , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Maps 5 , 1 1 : p u t , moon  -  (vi)  18  -  /au/ and / o i / have c e n t r a l i z e d p r o -  n u n c i a t i o n s Lozel~L'&'o-J and  CAID,  | Maps lh,  l 6 : house, boy  respec-  tively. (vii)  ME /o'/ i s n o r m a l l y s h i f t e d i n D t o  Cu:3.  Map 50: b o t h ,  coat  S i n c e /u:/ i n D i s pronounced  Cy:I] ( s e e ( v ) a b o v e ) , t h i s Cu:U has t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a d i f f e r e n t  diapho-  neme t h a t we s h a l l c a l l /©:/.. ( v i i i ) PFR i s p r e s e r v e d , b u t / h / i s l o s t .  Maps 1 7 ,  (ix)  I n t e r v o c a l i c / t / became v o i c e d t o / d /  Map 7 7 : b u t t e r , g e t t i n g  (x)  I n i t i a l v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s were  Maps 78 - 8 l : f i n g e r , t h i n , six,  v o i c e d , j u s t as i n Wx. The  SW shares  7 6 : arm, house  sheep, t h r e e  f o u r o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s w i t h Wx: ( i ) , ( i i ) , ( i x ) and  !x), w h i l e s h a r i n g o n l y ( i x ) and ( x ) w i t h i t s o t h e r n e i g h b o u r , So.  SOMERSET (So) T h i s d i a l e c t a r e a i n c l u d e s most o f t h e county o f So, e x c l u d i n g some o f i t s e x t r e m i t i e s b e l o n g i n g t o Wx and t h e SW.  The phonemic  s t r u c t u r e o f t h e So d i a l e c t i s v e r y c l o s e t o t h a t o f SSB - t h e r e a r e o n l y t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s from i t , a l l i n i t s consonantism: (i)  PFR i s p r e s e r v e d .  Map 1 7 :  (ii)  I n i t i a l v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s were n o r -  Maps 78 - 8 l : f i n g e r ,  m a l l y v o i c e d , as i n Wx and t h e SW. (iii)  I n t e r v o c a l i c / t / was v o i c e d t o / d / .  arm, f a r  t h i n , s i x , sheep, t h r e e Map 7 7 : b u t t e r  Somerset shares t h e s e f e a t u r e s w i t h i t s n e i g h b o u r s ,  Wx and t h e SW,  but i t s v o c a l i s m i s c l o s e t o t h a t o f SSB and i s t h e r e f o r e q u i t e d i s t i n c t from t h a t o f t h e s e o t h e r  dialects.  - 19  -  MONMOUTH (Mo) The Mo d i a l e c t c o r r e s p o n d s almost e x a c t l y t o t h e county o f Monmouth, o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d  as p a r t o f Wales.  Indeed, we f i n d t h a t i t s  d i a l e c t i s v e r y c l o s e t o t h e d i a l e c t spoken i n s o u t h - e a s t e r n  Wales,  as shown, f o r example, by t h e a r t i c l e on Welsh phonology i n W a k e l i n (19T2).  Some i m p o r t a n t  f e a t u r e s t y p i c a l o f t h e Mo d i a l e c t a r e : Map 3 : a p p l e , c a t  (i)  / a / i s k e p t as Call.  (ii)  /e:/ and / e i / a r e k e p t  apart.  Maps 3 6 , 3 7 : spade, c l a y  (iii)  /o:/ and /ou/ a r e k e p t  apart.  Maps 5 0 , h8: b o t h ,  (iv)  The diaphoneme / e a / i s u s u a l l y p r o -  mow  Maps 6 0 , 6 l : h a i r , h a r e  nounced as a monophthong C£:D. (v)  I3 : / i s pronounced C02: 1.  Map 7 3 : b i r d , b u r n  (vi)  PFR i s l o s t b u t /h/ i s k e p t .  Maps 1 7 , 7 6 : arm, hay  THE SOUTH MIDLANDS (SMl) The  name SMI was g i v e n t o t h i s d i a l e c t r e g i o n f o r l a c k o f any more  s u i t a b l e names. of the Midlands. tingdon  I n a c t u a l f a c t i t i s n o t i n c l u d e d among t h e d i a l e c t s I t i n c l u d e s t h e c o u n t i e s o f C a m b r i d g e s h i r e ( C a ) , Hun-  (Hu), B e d f o r d (Bd) and most o f H e r t f o r d ( H r t ) , Bkh and Ox.  Fea  tures c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i t are: (i)  / a / i s pronounced Call.  Map 3: a p p l e , c a t  (ii)  /u/ i s f r e q u e n t l y r e p l a c e d by / A / .  Maps 30, 9 2 : f o o t , h o o f  (iii)  / i u : / i s o f t e n r e p l a c e d by / u : / .  Map 58: few, t u n e  (iv)  PFR i s l o s t i n t h e e a s t e r n h a l f o f t h e  Maps 1 7 , 7 6 : arm, hay  SMI.  /h/ i s always l o s t .  - 20  D I A L E C T S OF  The  THE  -  MIDLANDS  s o u t h e r n "boundary o f t h i s  boundary o f the  region i s , of course, the  d i a l e c t s o f t h e s o u t h , as shown on p . 13.  n o r t h e r n b o u n d a r y was  The  isophone  marking  c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e vowel i n words such d e v e l o p m e n t o f ME we  /a:/.  South  t h i s boundary i s the  as s p a d e , i . e . t o t h e  o f the isophone  f i n d the c e n t r i n g diphthongs  Geographically, the l i n e  one  normal  (also i n the I s l e  starts  /id/,  /ea/ o r / i a / .  around Fleetwood  c a s h i r e . • F r o m t h e r e i t f o l l o w s an e s s e n t i a l l y w a r d t o t h e Humber, t h e n  of  from the  p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n phonemic and p h o n e t i c  course  a l l but the  have the  structure  (i)  /a/ i s pronounced  (ii)  ME  /a/ remains /a/ a f t e r  (iii)  ME  /u/ remains  (iv)  ME  / a / r e m a i n s / a / when f o l l o w e d b y v o i c e -  Call. /w/.  /u/.  /o:/ became /u: / w i t h o u t  Laneast-  southern-  shortening  be-  following  from  im-  SSB:  Map  3: a p p l e ,  Map  26:  wasp," w h a t  Map  32:  cut, luck  Maps 28, bath,  fricatives. ME  36.  map  Midlands.  Generally speaking, d i a l e c t s o f the Midlands  less  See  i n northern  straight  i t turns south to exclude  most p a r t o f L i n c o l n s h i r e  fore  isophones  f i n d t h e diaphonemes /e:/ o r / e i / i n t h e s e w o r d s , w h i l e n o r t h  o f i t we  (v)  Its  c h o s e n r a t h e r a r b i t r a r i l y , b e c a u s e few  coincide i n the area.  Man)  northern  29,  cat  62:  chaff,  grass  Map  31: l o o k , book  Map  76:  hay,  Map  18:  ball,  /k/.  (vi)  /h/ i s n o r m a l l y  (vii)  / l / retains  even f i n a l l y  lost.  i t s "clear"  and b e f o r e  C1U  pronunciation  consonants.  whole colt  - 21 -  Here f o l l o w s a l i s t o f t h e s i x d i a l e c t areas t o be i n c l u d e d among the d i a l e c t s o f t h e Midlands, together w i t h t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l phonetic and phonemic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  (l)  THE CENTRAL MIDLANDS (CMl) The  CMl d i a l e c t r e g i o n i n c l u d e s t h e c o u n t i e s o f Northampton  ( N t h ) , Warwick (Wa), S t a f f o r d ( S t ) , L e i c e s t e r ( L e i ) and R u t l a n d ( R ) , t h e e a s t e r n h a l f o f Worcester  (Wo), t h e s o u t h e r n h a l f o f  Derby (Db) and t h e southernmost p a r t o f L i n c o l n s h i r e ( L ) . I t s distinguishing features are: (i)  ME / i : / was n o r m a l l y s h i f t e d t o / o ' i /  Map hO: s k y , k n i f e  i n S t and Wa, i n s t e a d o f t h e more normal / a i / p r e s e n t i n t h e r e s t o f t h e CMl. (ii)  F i n a l / g / remained  a f t e r C13•.  sing, thing  O t h e r w i s e , t h e CMl d i a l e c t s resemble SSB, except f o r t h e d i f ferences t y p i c a l o f Midlands  d i a l e c t s i n g e n e r a l , as o u t l i n e d  above.  (2)  THE WEST MIDLANDS (WMl) The WMl d i a l e c t a r e a i n c l u d e s t h e c o u n t i e s o f S h r o p s h i r e (Sa) and H e r e f o r d s h i r e (He) and p a r t s o f Wo and Mo.  Its distinguishing  features are: (i)  / a / remains Call i n S a , b u t i t i s r a i s e d  Map 3 : a p p l e , c a t  t o Ca&H i n t h e r e s t o f t h e a r e a . (ii)  I n a development g o i n g back t o OE t i m e s ,  / a / i s r e p l a c e d b y /o/ b e f o r e n a s a l consonants,  Maps 23, 2k: man, hand, hammer  - 22 -  (iii)  Unlike i n other d i a l e c t s o f the Midlands,  ME /u/ n o r m a l l y the WM1.  d e v e l o p e d i n t o /A/ i n most o f  | put,  foot  I n some l o c a l i t i e s i n S a , t h e d i a -  phoneme /u/ has a c t u a l l y (iv)  | Maps 32, 92: c u t ,  disappeared.  I n S a , ME / a : / and / a i / have merged i n t h e  diaphoneme /e:/. I n He and Wo, on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e two ME phonemes have been k e p t /a:/ developing come CaeiH.  Maps 36, 37, 38: spade, c l a y , e i g h t  apart,  i n t o CeiH w h i l e ME / a i / has b e -  The diaphonemic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f  t h e s e two sounds i s /e:/ and / e i / , r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n a p a r a l l e l f a s h i o n , ME /o:/ and /ou/ have  (v)  merged i n S a , b o t h becoming /o:/, w h i l e k e p t a-  Maps 50, h8: b o t h , mow  p a r t f u r t h e r south as /o:/ and /ou/ = C*uD, r e s pectively. (vi)  The development o f ME /e: / t o /e:/ o r / e i / ,  i n s t e a d o f / i : / , i s q u i t e common i n t h e WM1. (vii)  I n He, t h e diaphonemes / a i / , /au/ and lo'.l  speak, cream Maps 1 3 , Ik, 9: s k y , c l o u d , saw  have t h e r a t h e r p e c u l i a r p r o n u n c i a t i o n s o f Ox],  Maps 3h, 35: t e a ,  Caul] and Cd:H, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Map 17: f a r , arm  ( v i i i ) PFR i s k e p t i n t h e WM1. E v i d e n t l y , t h e d i a l e c t s spoken i n t h e WM1 k e d l y from SSB t h a n t h o s e spoken i n t h e CM1. a number o f i m p o r t a n t tures present  d i f f e r much more marI n a d d i t i o n , there are  f e a t u r e s t h a t a r e d i f f e r e n t i n Sa from t h e f e a -  i n He and Wo, so t h a t one might almost be j u s t i f i e d i n  s e t t i n g up two d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t r e g i o n s i n t h e WM1.  -  (3)  23  -  THE NORTH MIDLANDS (NMl) The NMl d i a l e c t a r e a i n c l u d e s C h e s h i r e the c o u n t y o f N o t t i n g h a m ( N t ) . (i)  (Ch) , most o f Db and  I t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features are:  The diaphoneme / a / , when f o l l o w e d by a n a s a l consonant, i s normally  replaced  Maps 2 3 , 2h: man, hand, hammer  by /o/. (ii)  I n a s p e c i a l development, r e s t r i c t e d  t o Db and e a s t e r n Ch, ME /£:/ and /e:/ b e -  Maps 3 3 , 3 ^ : t h r e e , speak  came / e i / i n s t e a d o f / i : / . To compensate f o r t h i s , i n t h e same a r e a ME / a i / became  Maps 3 7 , 3 9 : c l a y ,  / i : / . E l s e w h e r e , ME / a i / merged w i t h ME  straight  / a : / t o r e s u l t i n /e:/.  Map 36: spade  (iii)  The development o f ME / u : / has a l s o  been i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h e NMl.  Maps lh,  U6: c l o u d  Maps 1 1 ,  5 5 : moon,  I n most o f  Ch i t became [ a m - t o be i d e n t i f i e d s t i l l w i t h /au/, as / a i / i n Ch i s pronounced CaiH.  became (iv)  I n Db, on t h e o t h e r hand, ME / u : / /e:/.  The diaphoneme / u : / i s n o r m a l l y  fronted  t o Cu:H i n Ch, w h i l e i n Db i t i s r e p l a c e d  do  by /eu/=CeuD. (v)  I n a number o f words t h a t had CicH i n ME, we f i n d / e i / r a t h e r t h a n / a i / i n t h e NMl,  Maps hh,  105: f i g h t ,  height  i n common w i t h d i a l e c t s o f t h e n o r t h . (vi)  The diaphoneme /ea/ o f o t h e r d i a l e c t s i s  n o r m a l l y r e p l a c e d by /£:/ i n t h e NMl.  This  r e s u l t s i n a merger w i t h t h e development o f  Maps 6 0 , 6 l : h a i r , hare  - 2h -  ME (vii)  /u:/ - see ( i i i ) above. The i n i t i a l c o m b i n a t i o n s o f / k l /  / g l / have become / t l / and / d l / ,  climb, glove  and  respectively. Map  ( v i i i ) PFR i s n o r m a l l y l o s t .  I T : f a r , arm  SOUTH YORKSHIRE (SY) T h i s d i a l e c t i s t r u l y a t r a n s i t i o n a l one.  We have c l a s s i f i e d  i t w i t h t h e M i d l a n d s d i a l e c t s because o f i t s t r e a t m e n t o f ME / a : / . Geographically, i t c o n s i s t s of the southern, p r o t r u d i n g p o r t i o n of Y o r k s h i r e ( Y ) , around t h e c i t i e s o f B r a d f o r d , Leeds and  Sheffield.  The SY r u r a l d i a l e c t s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : (i)  ME  / a : / and / a i / are b o t h r e f l e c t e d as  But b e f o r e ME Lgl we f i n d (ii)  Most words w i t h E i g l i n ME have d e v e l o p e d  words o f t h i s c l a s s have / e i / Most cases o f ME  Maps 36, 37, 39 spade, c l a y , s t  /ei/.  t h e i r vowel t o / i : / r a t h e r t h a n / a i / .  (iii)  /e:/.  Other  Maps ^ 3 , kk: night, fight  instead.  /£ : / developed i n t o / i a /  Map  3^: speak  Map  59: hear  i n SY - thus merging w i t h t h e r e s u l t a n t o f ME / e : r / and /£:r/. b o t h pronounced  Thus t e a and t e a r (n.) are LtraJ.  (iv)  / a i / i s o f t e n r e p l a c e d by / a : / .  Map  13: sky  (v)  /au/ (from ME  Map  ik: c l o u d  /u:/)  i s regularly replaced  by / a : / . (vi)  ME lo'l  i n t h e s o u t h and most o f t h e M i d l a n d s  had two main OE s o u r c e s .  I n SY, as i n t h e n o r t h  g e n e r a l l y , t h e s e two OE sounds d e v e l o p e d i n d i f -  -  ferent  ways.  OE / a : / ,  /o:/,  stage  /£.:/ to  On t h e  other  lables  developed i n t o  cf.  through  developed i n t o  to the  (vii)  25 -  /ia/  hand,  the  Ara/,  | Maps 5 0 , 5 2 : b o t h ,  ME  parallel  c h a n g e shown i n OE /of i n o p e n  (iii).  I oak | Map 5 3 : c o a l ,  syl-  / o i / i n SYv "  ME / o : / n o r m a l l y became / u i / i n SY -  Maps 5 5 , 9 2 : m o o n ,  the  foot  c h a n g e o f OE /of t o  above.  But b e f o r e  /u:/  found.  / k / the  / o i / given more  usual Map  is  (viii)  PFR i s  Features and t h e y the  (5)  coat  31:  look  lost. (iv),  give the  (v),  (vi)  SY r u r a l  system o f E n g l i s h  and  ( v i i ) are  dialect  Map 1 7 : f a r , a r m a l l quite peculiar,  a very special place  within  dialects.  LANCASHIRE ( L a ) Properly  speaking,  county o f La w i t h i n the of  the  the  Among i t s  The c h a n g e o f OE / a / t o of  nasal  characteristics  in  front  (iii)  ME / a : /  / i a / or  /ei/.  and / a i / merged i n / e : / .  n o r m a l l y became / e i / , a n d s o  /ig/  i n several words.  /ic/  became  is,  In other  d i d ME  w o r d s ME  south  Maps 2 3 , 2h:  man,  hammer  Maps 3 5 , 3*+: t e a ,  /a:/.  speak  Maps 3 6 , 3 7 , 3 9 : spade, Map hh:  clay,  straight  fight  Map U 3 : n i g h t  / i : / .  ME / u : / became / a u / o r  But  the  are:  hand,  ME / £ : / became e i t h e r  (iv)  /o/  a l l of  region - that  consonants.  (ii)  /aic/  area includes  Midlands dialect  c i t y of Fleetwood.  (i)  La dialect  Map h6, ground  U7: house,  - 26 -  (v)  I n s o u t h e r n L a , ME /o:/ and /ou/ have merged i n /o:/. But i n t h e n o r t h e r n  part  Maps 50, 53, k8: b o t h , c o a l , mow  o f t h e c o u n t y , ME /o:/ n o r m a l l y became /us/, w h i l e ME /ou/ d e v e l o p e d i n t o /o:/. (vi)  ME /eu/ remained i n L a , i n s t e a d o f  Map 58: few  merging w i t h / i u / . (vii)  I n southern L a , /ar/ i s u s u a l l y r e -  Map 122: arm  placed by / 3 r / ( v i i i ) U n l i k e i n t h e NMl and SY, PFR i s k e p t .  Map I T : arm, f a r  ISLE OF MAN (IM) The  IM i s n o t s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g p a r t o f E n g l a n d .  However, i t  was i n c l u d e d i n t h e SED, so t h a t i t s d i a l e c t w i l l a l s o be here. vol.  Because E n g l i s h i s a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t  considered  i n t r o d u c t i o n ( c f EB  l U , p.T^+5), t h e phonemic s t r u c t u r e o f t h e d i a l e c t spoken on  the i s l a n d i s c l o s e t o t h a t o f SSB.  Only because o f i t s  p o s i t i o n was t h e IM i n c l u d e d i n t h e M i d l a n d s .  geographical  The f o l l o w i n g  features  are d i f f e r e n t from SSB: (i)  The diaphoneme /A/ i s a b s e n t . p l a c e , ME /u/ d e v e l o p e d i n t o L^l,  In i t s thus  Maps 32, 92: c u t , foot  merging w i t h ME /o/. (ii)  ME /o/ b e f o r e t h e v o i c e l e s s  fricatives  / f / , /9/ and / s / d e v e l o p e d i n t o lo'l - i n  Map 2 9 : cough, f r o t h , loss  common w i t h most s o u t h e r n r u r a l d i a l e c t s . (iii)  ME / a i g / and / i c / n o r m a l l y became / e i /  - and so d i d o c c a s i o n a l l y ME /£.:/.  Maps 38, 1+3, kk, 35: s t r a i g h t , n i g h t , cream  - 27 -  (iv)  PFR i s k e p t and / r / n o r m a l l y has t h e  Map 17: r e d , arm, f a r  t r i l l e d p r o n u n c i a t i o n CrD. ME LM3 ( u s u a l l y t r a n s c r i b e d as /irw/ )  (v) is (vi)  where, whale  preserved. /0/ i s o f t e n r e p l a c e d b y / t / .  Of t h e s e f e a t u r e s , ( i i i ) ,  ( i v ) and (v) c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as  t y p i c a l of (parts) o f the north. t e r i s t i c s o f t h e IM d i a l e c t  thigh, thin  On t h e o t h e r hand, some c h a r a c -  (such as t h e f r o n t i n g o f / a / t o CteJ and  t h e l e n g t h e n i n g o f ME / a / and /of when f o l l o w e d by v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s ) o c c u r o n l y i n t h e south a s i d e from t h e IM.  NORTHERN DIALECTS  The r u r a l d i a l e c t s spoken between t h e M i d l a n d s d i a l e c t s and S c o t l a n d are c a l l e d N o r t h e r n  d i a l e c t s . They share., f e a t u r e s ( i ) t o ( i v ) and f e a t u r e  ( v i i ) w i t h t h e Midlands.  Some o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e n o r t h a r e as  follows: (i)  ME / a : / became a d i p h t h o n g w i t h a c e n t r i n g  Map 36: spade  o f f - g l i d e : / i s / , /es/ o r / i a / . (ii)  ME E'aicH ( i n c l u d i n g e a r l i e r C e i c j ) and c e r -  t a i n occurrences  o f ME CicO ( p r o b a b l y pronounced  CeicH i n such words) r e g u l a r l y became / e i / i n t h e  Maps 38, 39, kk: eight, straight, fight,  height  north. (iii)  ME /aim/ became /a:m/.  Map 63: palm, calm  (iv)  ME /ou/ ( i n c l u d i n g e a r l i e r /ou/) u s u a l l y became  Maps k8, 5*+: mow,  /ou/,  d i s t i n c t from t h e r e s u l t a n t o f ME /o:/.  grow  -  (v)  -  28  I n s t e a d o f t h e diaphonemes / t s / and  we o f t e n f i n d /k/ and /g/.  /dz/,  This i s probably  75:  Map  church,  bridge  due t o t h e s t r o n g S c a n d i n a v i a n i n f l u e n c e e x e r c i s e d over t h i s a r e a p r i o r t o t h e 1 1 t h See under U.38  (vi) for a f u l l  century.  discussion.  Here f o l l o w s a l i s t o f t h e t h r e e d i a l e c t areas i n c l u d e d w i t h the n o r t h , together w i t h t h e i r p h o n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  (l)  LINCOLNSHIRE (L) T h i s d i a l e c t a r e a i n c l u d e s a l l o f L except i t s s o u t h e r n most p a r t s (which b e l o n g t o t h e C M l ) .  P a r t s o f Y immediately  t o t h e n o r t h o f t h e Humber share most o f t h e  characteristics  o f t h e L d i a l e c t , so t h a t t h e y can a l s o be i n c l u d e d h e r e . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (i)  ME  are:  / a : / and / a i / have merged i n t h e  ME  /g.:/  d i d not merge w i t h ME  /u©/  I n an analogous way,  /e:/  /±d/.  and i s t o d a y r e f l e c t e d as (iii)  ME  /o:/ became  i n L, d i s t i n c t from t h e r e s u l t a n t  o f ME /ou/ - s t i l l  /ou/  (iv)  Iz'l  (v)  PER and /h/ are b o t h  37:  spade,  35:  speak,  clay  diaphoneme /e9/ = CesH. (ii)  Maps 3 6 ,  today.  i s o f t e n r e p l a c e d by lost.  /o/.  Maps 3 ^ , cream  Maps 50,' 5 2 :  both,  oak Map  hQ:  mow  Map  73:  burn  Maps 1 7 ,  76:  arm,  hay  -  29 -  THE MIDDLE NORTH (MN) The MN d i a l e c t a r e a i n c l u d e s most o f Y ( e x c l u d i n g , o f course,SY),  n o r t h e r n L a , Westmoreland (We) and southernmost  Cumberland (Cu). r e g i o n shares  J u s t as t h e s o u t h - e a s t e r n  part of t h i s  certain features with the L d i a l e c t , the  speech o f n o r t h e r n L, i m m e d i a t e l y  t o t h e south o f t h e Humber  •has c e r t a i n t h i n g s i n common w i t h t h e MN d i a l e c t -,such as f e a t u r e ( v i i i ) below. Important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e MN a r e : /is/.  (i)  ME /£:/ i s r e f l e c t e d as  (ii)  ME / a : / merged w i t h ME /&:/ i n  e a s t e r n Y, t o g i v e /ia/. we n o r m a l l y (iii)  Map 3^: speak Map 36: spade  Elsewhere  find / i a / .  ME / a i / has a l s o h a d d i v e r g e n t de-  Map 37:  clay  velopments - / e a / i n t h e e a s t , b u t / e : / i n t h e west. (iv) /o:/  The development o f OE / a : / t o ME and hence t o modern /ua/  o n l y i n p a r t s o f e a s t e r n Y.  occurred Elsewhere  r o u n d i n g n e v e r d i d t a k e p l a c e , and t h e development was t h e same as f o r ME / a : / ( n o r m a l l y from OE / a / i n open s y l l a b l e s ) g i v e n above under ( i i ) :  /ia/  or / i a / .  Thus t h e word stone has t h r e e diapho-] nemic v a r i e t i e s i n t h e MN: / s t i a n / and / s t i a n / .  /stuan/,  Maps 5 0 , 5 1 , 52 b o t h , l o a f , oak  - 30 -  (v)  OE  /o/ i n open s y l l a b l e s , on  o t h e r hand, r e g u a r l y became /o'l a l l ME  the  Map  53:  coal,  Map  hO:  sky  Map  h6:  cloud  coat  in  d i a l e c t s , and hence /us/ i n t h e  MN. (vi)  ME  / i : / and /u:/ d i d not  develop  i n a p a r a l l e l f a s h i o n i n t h e MN ME  / i : / became / a i / , as i n most o f Eng-  l a n d , w h i l e ME  /u:/ d i d not get  t h o n g i z e d i n t h e MN  the Far North Though ME  diph-  and remained  T h i s r e t e n t i o n o f ME  (vii)  dialect.  /u:/.  /u:/ i s s h a r e d  d i a l e c t s and w i t h /u: / was  with  Scotland.  retained, this did  not mean merger w i t h t h e r e s u l t a n t o f /o:/.  T h i s l a t t e r ME  i z e d i n the MN,  sound was  ME  diphthong-  t o / i s / i n t h e e a s t and  to  Maps 5 5 ,  56:  moon,  UT:  blind,  do  / i u / i n the west. ( v i i i ) When f o l l o w e d by /nd/, ME remained s h o r t i n the tlx)  ME  (x)  Corresponding  /if  and  /u/  ground  MN.  Map  EicH became / i : / not / a i / . t o ME  f i n d / a : / o r /o:/.  Maps h2,  /ou/, we  often  Where t h e diaphoneme  U3: n i g h t  Maps U8, mow,  h9,  5 *: 1  snow, grow  /ou/ o c c u r s , i t i s pronounced Cav3 or CauH. /h/ are  Maps I T ,  (xi)  PFR  and  lost.  (xii)  The  consonant /g/ i s l o s t a f t e r  djD,.  Map  82:  T6:  r e p l a c e d by / t l / and  normally  /gl/, respectively.  climb,  hay  sing, finger  even m e d i a l l y . ( x i i i ) I n i t i a l / k l / and / g l / a r e  arm,  glove  -  Evidently, phonetic  c o n t a i n some o f t h e m o s t  i n a l l of England.  many d i f f e r e n t  sources  interesting  One s h o u l d make a  o f the  diaphoneme  /is/,  special especially  e a s t e r n Y , w h e r e t h e w o r d s m e a n , m a n e , moan a n d moon c a n a l l h e  pronounced  (3)  -  MN d i a l e c t s  developments  note o f the in  the  31  CmisnH = / m i s n / .  520-531).  C f . EDG (pp  THE FAR NORTH ( F N ) The FN d i a l e c t Scottish border. land  r e g i o n occupies the It  (Nb) a n d m o s t  includes the  of Cu.  Its  area between  counties  t h e MN a n d  the  o f Durham ( D u ) , N o r t h u m b e r -  characteristic  features  include  the  following: (i)  ME /e : / a n d / e : /  (ii)  ME / a : /  most o f t h e  ( i n c l u d i n g OE / a : / , north)  and / i a / i n the (iii)  became  /is/  give  unrounded i n the  OE / a : / ,  ( i i ) and  / o / or  an i m i t a t i o n o f the  /ou/)  /o:/  in  Map 5 3 : c o a l ,  coat  cor-  source  Maps h8, both,  52, 53:  oak,  c o a l , mow  usually we-find  a sound t h a t  is  probably  SSB C3uD p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f  C f . U.20 below.  E v e n ME /of o f t e n became area.  east  (iii),  SSB / o u / o f w h a t e v e r  i n e a s t e r n Nb -  /ou/.  Map 3 6 : s p a d e  /us/ i n t h e m o d e r n FN d i a l e c t .  responding to  /o:/  in  sea  west.  A s an e x c e p t i o n t o  (i.e.  Maps 3 3 , 3 ^ : s e e ,  / i : / .  OE / o / i n o p e n s y l l a b l e s became  ME a n d h e n c e (iv)  merged t o  /o:/ in  this  Maps 2 7 , 2 8 : d o c k , dog,  fox  - 32 -  (v)  ME / a i / n o r m a l l y became /e:/.  Map 37: c l a y  (vi)  ME / i / and /u/ b e f o r e  Maps h2,  /nd/ remained  ground  short. (vii)  UT: b l i n d ,  Maps ho, hi: s k y ,  ME /!:/ o f t e n became / e i / i n s t e a d o f  knife  /ai/. ( v i i i ) ME / u : / hSs-remained unchanged.  Map h6:  (ix)  ME /o:/ u s u a l l y became / i 9 / .  Map 5 5: moon  fx)  SSB /D:/ i s o f t e n r e p l a c e d by / a : / .  Map 67: saw  (xi)  I n Nb, / 3 : / i s u s u a l l y r e p l a c e d by  Maps 7 2 , 73: b u r n ,  /o/ = CoD.  cloud  work  S i n c e PFR i s p r e s e r v e d i n Nb,  t h e u v u l a r Cy3 p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f / r / must be r e s p o n s i b l e , as /s:/ in  always develops  f r o n t o f ME / r / o n l y .  (xii)  PFR i s n o r m a l l y r e t a i n e d .  Map 17:  The pronun-  r a t , arm  c i a t i o n o f IT I i s u v u l a r CyH i n Nb, and the dental t r i l l to  CrU i n n o r t h e r n Cu, s i m i l a r  S c o t t i s h usage.  ( x i i i ) ME /hi  Map 76: h a y , what  and /hw/ a r e k e p t .  ME /ng/ i s always r e p l a c e d by / r j / .  (xiv)  Map 82: s i n g , f i n g e r  One s h o u l d note t h e l a r g e number o f f e a t u r e s s h a r e d w i t h t h e MN, e i t h e r p a r t i a l l y or completely: and  (ii),  ( x i v ) a l l have t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s  south.  (iii),  (v), ( v i ) , ( v i i i ) , (ix)  i n the dialect region to the  F o r f e a t u r e s s h a r e d w i t h S c o t t i s h d i a l e c t s , see 3 . 8 .  - 33  3.7  -  URBAN DIALECTS  As m e n t i o n e d  b e f o r e , as fair as t h e number o f speakers i s con-  c e r n e d , urban d i a l e c t s a r e t h e most i m p o r t a n t . Much l e s s space i s d e v o t e d t o them p a r t i a l l y because t h e y d i f f e r l e s s from each o t h e r i n p h o n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e t h a n do r u r a l d i a l e c t s , and p a r t i a l l y b e cause o f t h e s h o r t a g e o f d a t a .  The two main s u r v e y s u t i l i z e d a r e  W e l l s ( 1 9 7 0 ) , c o v e r i n g t h e urban d i a l e c t s o f a l l o f E n g l a n d , and S i v e r t s e n ( i 9 6 0 ) , w h i c h d e a l s w i t h t h e most i m p o r t a n t urban d i a l e c t i n E n g l a n d , Cockney. On t h e w h o l e , t h e phonemic s t r u c t u r e o f urban d i a l e c t s i s v e r y c l o s e t o t h a t o f SSB.  L i k e SSB, t h e y have merged t h e ME vowels / a : /  and / a i / as / e i / , /o:/ and /ou/ as /ou/ and /£:/ and /e:/ as / i : / . T h e r e f o r e made and maid a r e b o t h /meid/, no_ and know a r e b o t h /nou/ and sea and see a r e b o t h / s i : / .  Another general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s the  l o s s o f /h/. One can s e t up n i n e main urban d i a l e c t a r e a s , w h i c h w i l l be w i t h i n t h e same way as were t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t ~ a r e a s .  dealt  Each a r e a w i l l  be i d e n t i f i e d by t h e most i m p o r t a n t c i t y o r c i t i e s i n i t and o t h e r c h i e f c i t i e s w i t h i n i t w i l l f o l l o w t h e name o f t h e d i a l e c t a r e a i n parentheses.  (l)  The LONDON a r e a (Cambridge, N o r w i c h , C o l c h e s t e r ) . The main d i f f e r e n c e s from SSB a r e : (i)  ME /o/, /Q:/  o r /ou/ b e f o r e PFR be-  morning, board, four  -  3k -  came /og/, pronounced Lodl.  This i s i n  c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e diaphoneme  /ou/, de-  r i v e d from ME /au/.  saw, t a u g h t  Thus saw / s o u / and  s o r e /so3/ do not rhyme, J u s t as SSB /o'/  (ii)  i s r e p l a c e d "by /ou/  (see a b o v e ) , o t h e r vowel s h i f t s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e these d i a l e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y ney.  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f S i v e r t s e n  Cock(i960)  w i l l be adopted h e r e : SSB  Cockney Phoneme  (iii)  Lei.  Pronunciation g r e a t , spade  /ei/  /ai/  /ai/  /oi/  :-DX]~COIH~CTO:H  sky, k n i f e  /oi/  /Ai/  COI:  boy, j o i n  /au/  /eu/  L ea H~ C«aH  house, about  /ou/  /AU/  C3u:  know, spoke  / a / =• C « ] i s o f t e n r e p l a c e d by /e/ = On t h e o t h e r hand, / A / i s pronounced  c a t , apple c u t , above  Lai.  (iv)  The use o f i n t r u s i v e / r / i s w i d e s p r e a d .  t h a w i n g , law o f  (v)  /h/ i s l o s t as a phoneme - Lhl  hat, hole  i s often  u s e d , however, f o r emphasis b e f o r e v o w e l s .  (2)  The BRISTOL - DOVER a r e a ( F o l k e s t o n e , B r i g h t o n , P o r t s m o u t h , ' Southampton, Torquay, P l y m o u t h , B a t h ) The f o l l o w i n g are t h e main d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s a r e a and SSB:  - 35 -  (i)  / a / i s pronounced Lai.  (ii)  / e i / and /ou/ a r e u s u a l l y r e p l a c e d  c a t , apple  by /e:/ and /o:/, r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n t h e  spade, c l a y ; no, know  towns o f D and Co. (iii)  PFR i s n o r m a l l y k e p t .  arm, f a r  (iv)  /h/ i s l o s t .  hay, h o l e  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note how f a r t h e urban d i a l e c t s have  adopted  t h e p h o n e t i c s b u t not t h e phonology o f t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s spoken i n the area.  C f . 3.*+ (3) - ( 5 ) .  The o t h e r seven urban d i a l e c t r e g i o n s c o r r e s p o n d r o u g h l y t o t h e M i d l a n d s and n o r t h e r n r u r a l d i a l e c t s i n g e o g r a p h i c a l e x t e n t . They a l l l a c k t h e diaphoneme / A / (as i n c u t , b l o o d ) , r e p l a c i n g i t w i t h /u/. They c o n t a i n /a/ n o t /a:/ b e f o r e t h e v o i c e l e s s }  ;  fricatives  / f / , /Q/ and / s / (e.g. a f t e r , h a t h , g r a s s ) , b u t r e t a i n / a : / i n words l i k e calm, farm, f a r , s p a and tomato, w h i l e / a : / i s always  Ca:3.  '/a/  i s always pronounced Call,  Other d i f f e r e n c e s from SSB w i l l be n o t e d  under each d i a l e c t s e p a r a t e l y .  (3)  The BIRMINGHAM a r e a ( C o v e n t r y , S t a f f o r d ) The  diphthongs  a r e s h i f t e d i n t h i s a r e a ( / e i / t o Lazl, / a i /  t o C o i J , e t c . ) : ./h/ i s . m i s s i n g .  (k)  The LEICESTER a r e a (Nottingham, Derby, I n t h i s a r e a diphthongs  Stoke-on-Trent)  r e t a i n t h e i r SSB v a l u e s , more o r l e s s .  Thus / e i / i s Cei 1 and /ou/ i s CouD.  /h/ i s a g a i n m i s s i n g .  - 36 -  (5)  The LIVERPOOL a r e a The  d i a l e c t o f L i v e r p o o l resembles  dialect.  the L e i c e s t e r area  I t d i f f e r s from SSB i n two a d d i t i o n a l ways:  Final  •unstressed / i / (• e.g. baby, l a d y ) i s r e p l a c e d b y / i : / and t h e diaphoneme / e a / ( e.g. c a r e , s c a r c e ) i s n o r m a l l y r e p l a c e d "by / 3 : / , so t h a t f u r and f a i r have t h e same p r o n u n c i a t i o n .  (6)  The MANCHESTER a r e a (Wigan) T h i s d i a l e c t d i f f e r s from t h e L e i c e s t e r a r e a d i a l e c t m o s t l y i n t h a t i t s h i g h diphthongs i s pronounced CspeidH  are high i n pronunciation-: / s p e i d /  o r Cspe:dH ( = spade ) , w h i l e coat i s p r o -  nounced Ckout: o r Cko:t3.  (T)  The NORTHERN LANCASHIRE a r e a (Oldham, R o c h d a l e , B l a c k b u r n , P r e s t o n , Blackpool) Here t h e d i f f e r e n c e from t h e Manchester a r e a d i a l e c t i s i n t h e r e t e n t i o n o f PFR, i . e . f e a r i s / f i : r / and arm i s /a:rm/.  (8)  The LEEDS - SHEFFIELD a r e a ( H u d d e r s f i e l d , B r a d f o r d ) Here t h e main d i f f e r e n c e from t h e Manchester d i a l e c t i s i n t h e presence o f v o i c i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n - t h a t i s , B r a d f o r d i s pronounced /bratfad/ etc.  (9)  The NEWCASTLE (-on-Tyne) a r e a ( S u n d e r l a n d , M i d d l e s b r o u g h , There a r e two i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s from SSB.  Stockton)  SSB / e i / and  /ou/ a r e o f t e n r e p l a c e d b y a r i s i n g d i p h t h o n g s / i e / and /uo/ ( c f .  -  the presence i n the diphthongs  /id/  37.-  rural dialects  and / u a / . )  mally retained,  the  of the  of the  rising  S e c o n d l y , b o t h PFR a n d / h / a r e u v u l a r Zvl  former o f t e n w i t h the  c i a t i o n t y p i c a l o f t h e Nb r u r a l d i a l e c t  3.8  area  (cf.  nor-  pronun-  ( x i i ) on p .  32).  D I A L E C T S OF SOUTHERN SCOTLAND ( S S )  Though i n t h i s  paper  t h e r e w i l l b e no d e t a i l e d  phonology o f S c o t t i s h d i a l e c t s , dialects and the  The s o u r c e  of northern  o f a l l data  S c o t t i s h N a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y (SND).  (in  the  latter,  east o f the  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h how t h e y i n the numbers  contrast  OE / a : / ,  came / i s / , j u s t England, but  as  to the  except  /e:/  are  set  i n other  out b e l o w ,  are  and Dumfries  respective  pp.  paragraph  be-  north o f  of other  together  Scottish dialects  o f E n g l a n d (see  initially,  i n much o f t h e  u n l i k e the  SS d i a l e c t s  o f Roxburgh, S e l k i r k  dialect  with features  i n parentheses refer  the  Nith).  n e i g h b o u r i n g FN a n d CN d i a l e c t s  (97.l)  (i)  of this  dialects  introduction to  I n t h a t work the  counties  river  Scottish  how  England.  given below i s the  d e f i n e d as t h o s e s p o k e n i n t h e  the  i t w i l l be i n s t r u c t i v e to l o o k at  i n SS f o r m a l i n k b e t w e e n t h e more c e n t r a l rural dialects  discussion of  and  29-32).  The  i n t h e SND.  loaf, both; maps 5 0 ,  cf.  51  Scottish  dialects. (ii)  (97.2)  OE / a /  loped s i m i l a r l y l a n d and i n the  i n open s y l l a b l e s d e v e just  as  i n the  north of England.  rest of  Scot-  spade;  c f . map 36  -  (iii) in  (97.3)  (iv)  or  i n the  OE i n i t i a l  SS, u n l i k e the  lects,  as  /e:/  but  /r/,  /e:/  of other  Scottish  FN f o r m s  of  oak,  OE / o : / became  cf.  maps 5 2 , 9*+  dia-  / o : / i n front  These vowels have a  like  elsewhere  /e:/  and / i / , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  i n Scotland, to  unround  to  I n E n g l a n d , we  the  (101)  unique to the (103)  /iu/^/is/  an e a r l i e r  in  position, a  such  */y:/.  OE / u : / was d i p h t h o n g i z e d  /OU/=CAWH i n f i n a l  cf.  maps 5 5 , 56  tendency,  had / o : / , but  words p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t  moon, d o ;  en-  r o u n d e d v o w e l s t o d a y w h e r e OE FN f o r m s  floor  of  f i n d no f r o n t  to  cow,  how  see,  three,  development  SS d i a l e c t . In a p a r a l l e l fashion,  to  final  in  SS, again making t h i s  (viii)  one;  /je/  / v / and / z / , becoming / y / i n o t h e r  vironments.  its  <?f. map 37  CN a n d FN r u r a l  / a : / became / j i /  s i m i l a r to the  (100)  (vii)  nail;  / j i / i n such words.  (v)  (vi)  clay,  everywhere  i n England.  (97.M in  -  OE / a e g / became  Scotland, just  dialects  38  / i : / of other  corresponding  d i a l e c t s , we f i n d dialect  unique  map  /ei/  cf.  33  among  neighbours. (lOU)  The d i a p h o n e m e  / e / has  a very  CaeD p r o n u n c i a t i o n i n t h i s  dialect. . /e/  ponds not  but  o n l y t o ME / e / ,  open,  corres-  a l s o t o ME / a /  many w o r d s , e s p e c i a l l y when f o l l o w e d b y / r /  in or  ash,  wash,  harvest;  cf.  maps 6h, 8 9 , 22  - 39 -  /s/.  T h i s s u b s t i t u t i o n o f /e/ f o r / a / b e f o r e  t h e s e consonants i s found b o t h i n * o t h e r  Scot-  t i s h and n e i g h b o u r i n g E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s . (107)  (ix)  s i t , spin, b i d  As p a r t o f t h e same tendency f o r  f r o n t vowels t o open, OE / i / and /y/ a r e r e f l e c t e d as CeD, though t h i s vowel s h o u l d  still  be c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t o f t h e diaphoneme / i / . (105)  (x)  OE /o/ i n open s y l l a b l e s became /u3/  (in d i a l e c t l i t e r a t u r e often w r i t t e n uo), just  c o a l , nose, t h r o a t ; c f . map 53  as i n t h e E n g l i s h N o r t h , b u t u n l i k e elsewhere in  Scotland.  (xi)  ( 6 5 , 66 & 109)  There i s no t r a c e l e f t i n  the SS d i a l e c t o f i n i t i a l /n/.  knee, gnat  /k/ and / g / b e f o r e  The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f i n i t i a l c l u s t e r s / k n /  /gn/ u s e d t o be g e n e r a l i n S c o t l a n d , b u t today i t i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e N o r t h o f S c o t l a n d and t o i n s u l a r d i a l e c t s - f a s t d i s a p p e a r i n g even there. (xii)  (76.5)  Similarly, i n i t i a l  /w/ b e f o r e / r /  w r i t e , wrong  i s l o s t i n SS - i t i s o n l y kept i n p a r t s o f t h e N o r t h i n t h e form o f /v/. ( x i i i ) ( i l l ) As i n t h e r e s t o f S c o t l a n d , and unl i k e i n any d i a l e c t i n E n g l a n d , ME Lgl are p r e s e r v e d i n SS.  and CxD  But t h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y ,  absent i n t h e r e s t o f S c o t l a n d , t o develop  a  laugh, daughter, night, eight; maps 1 2 0 , hh  -In-  voiced g l i d e i n front o f these  consonants.  Thus l a u g h i s pronounced C l a u x l ,  daughter  i s CdSoxtarH, l i g h t i s C l e i c t i l and i s CfseictD.  fight  Among t h e younger g e n e r a t i o n  t h e r e i s even a tendency t o l e a v e ' out t h e  Zxl  o r Cell a l t o g e t h e r , p r o b a b l y under t h e  i n f l u e n c e o f SSB and n e i g h b o u r i n g d i a l e c t s in !xiv)  England. (72,  75)  The diaphonemes /h/ and  /hw/  a r e p r e s e r v e d i n SS, as t h e y are n o r m a l l y i n t h e r e s t o f S c o t l a n d and i n t h e FN i n England.  house, where; c f . map  76  - hi -  IV DIAPHONEMES IN THE DIALECTS OF ENGLAND  1  Now t h a t we have a b r i e f o u t l i n e o f t h e d i a l e c t s spoken i n E n g l a n d , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r more i m p o r t a n t p h o n e t i c and phonol o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , we can p r o c e e d t o a d e t a i l e d  description  o f t h e diaphonemes o c c u r r i n g i n t h e s e d i a l e c t s . Each d i a l e c t s h a l l be d i s c u s s e d under t h r e e h e a d i n g s : (a)  Distribution.  I n w h i c h d i a l e c t s does t h e diaphoneme o c c u r ?  What k i n d o f p o s i t i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s a p p l y t o i t d i f f e r e n t  from  t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s t h a t a p p l y i n SSB? (b)  Allophones.  What a r e t h e p h o n e t i c r e a l i z a t i o n s o f t h e d i a -  phoneme i n t h e d i f f e r e n t (c)  Derivation.  dialects?  What a r e t h e r e g u l a r ME s o u r c e s o f t h e diaphoneme  i n the various dialects? OE and O l d F r e n c h s o u r c e s . t o r i c a l developments  2  O c c a s i o n a l l y , r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be made t o S p e c i a l emphasis w i l l be p l a c e d on h i s -  d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e i n SSB.  VOWEL DIAPHONEMES  I t i s t r a d i t i o n a l t o d i v i d e E n g l i s h vowels i n t o two l a r g e groups: l a x and t e n s e vowels.  T h i s approach i s as v a l i d f o r t h e d i a l e c t s as  f o r t h e s t a n d a r d language. The d i v i s i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y made f o r reasons o f c o n v e n i e n c e . vowels w i t h i n b o t h groups have much i n common.  The  L a x vowels t e n d t o be  -  s h o r t and monophthongal, morpheme-final p o s i t i o n .  U2 -  and - when s t r e s s e d - t h e y cannot o c c u r i n On t h e o t h e r hand, t e n s e vowels t e n d t o he  l o n g and d i p h t h o n g i z e d , and t h e y f r e q u e n t l y do o c c u r a t t h e end o f morphemes.  A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e two c l a s s e s i s  t h a t l a x vowels a r e r e g u l a r l y  d e r i v e d from ME s h o r t v o w e l s , whereas  t e n s e vowels a r e e i t h e r r e g u l a r l y  d e r i v e d from ME l o n g vowels o r  d i p h t h o n g s , o r t h e y a r e d e r i v e d from t h e l e n g t h e n i n g o f e a r l i e r short vowels.  LAX VOWELS  I n any one d i a l e c t i n E n g l a n d , t h e r e a r e a t most s i x l a x vowel diaphonemes p r e s e n t ( a s i d e from t h e "schwa" /a/, t o he d i s c u s s e d s e parately). examples  Here i s a l i s t o f t h e s i x diaphonemes, t o g e t h e r w i t h some  as t h e y o c c u r i n SSB:  /i/  CxD  p i t / p i t / ; p r e t t y / p r i t i : / ; busy / b i z i : / ; women /wimin/  /e/  CeH  p e t / p e t / ; any /eni:/; b u r y / b e r i : / ; head /hed/;  friend  / f r e n d / ; s a i d / s e d / ; l e o p a r d / l e p s d / ; says / s e z / /a/  \JS.1  pat /pat/  /o/  Dt?3  p o t / p o t / ; wash /wos/; cough / k o f / ; because  /u/  Lvl  p u t / p u t / ; woman /wurnan/; book /buk/; s h o u l d /sud/  /A/  C A 3 p u t t /pAt/; son /sAn/; rough / r A f / ; b l o o d / b l A d / ; does /dAz/  /bikoz/  The examples were chosen t o demonstrate t h e d i f f e r e n t  spellings  used f o r t h e v a r i o u s diaphonemes, o f t e n showing t h e i r d i f f e r e n t  origins.  T h i s system o f s i x l a x vowels e x i s t s i n SSB and i n t h e urban r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e South.  and  I n t h e M i d l a n d s and t h e N o r t h , t h e d i a -  phoneme /A/ i s m i s s i n g i n b o t h t h e r u r a l and urban d i a l e c t s , though i t may be p r e s e n t i n t h e s t a n d a r d language used i n t h e a r e a .  I n some l i -  m i t e d a r e a s on t h e b o r d e r o f t h e s o u t h e r n and m i d l a n d s d i a l e c t s , i t i s /u/, not /A/, t h a t i s m i s s i n g . the  I n a few r u r a l l o c a l i t i e s  o f EA  and  SE, / a / i s a b s e n t , a g a i n r e d u c i n g t h e system t o f i v e diaphonemes.  See below f o r more e l a b o r a t i o n .  /!/  .h (a)  P r e s e n t everywhere.  (b)  N o r m a l l y CiH.  I t t e n d s t o have a h i g h e r and t e n s e r r e a l i z a t i o n  i n t h e M i d l a n d s and t h e N o r t h t h a n i n t h e South.  In parts of the  South and i n Y t h e r e i s a s t r o n g tendency towards  centralization,  e s p e c i a l l y i n m o n o s y l l a b l e s and next t o / r / . Some w o r k s , such as Hedevind  ( 1 9 6 7 ) , suggest t h a t one s h o u l d add  a n o t h e r diaphoneme t o t h e i n v e n t o r y o f l a x vowels on account o f t h e c e n t r a l vowel CiH.  C o n t r a s t s l i k e k n i t / n i t / v e r s u s not / n i t / are  o f f e r e d from t h e d i a l e c t o f D e n t d a l e (Y) ( i b i d , p. 5 3 ) . the  Actually,  word not i s t h e o n l y example o f f e r e d by t h e book where t h e vowel  CiH does not o c c u r n e x t t o ME  /r/.  S i n c e t h e word not u s u a l l y r e c e i v e s  no s t r e s s w i t h i n t h e s e n t e n c e , t h e p r e s e n c e o f CiH i n i t c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as a somewhat emphatic, r a i s e d form o f t h e diaphoneme  /a/.  In i t s o t h e r o c c u r r e n c e s , CiH i s s i m p l y an a l l o p h o n e o f / i / when i t i s found n e x t t o t h e consonant CridH.  / r / : b i r d /bird/=CbirdD; r e d / r i d / =  The examples g i v e n a r e , o f c o u r s e , from t h e D e n t d a l e  dialect.  (c)  sit,  ( i ) In a l l d i a l e c t s , / i / i s the regular  pick  development o f ME / i / when n o t f o l l o w e d by  / r / , EcH"!",/nd/ and /mb/.  For exceptions  see under /u/ and / i : / . (ii)  ME / i / b e f o r e t h e consonant /nd/  clusters  and /mb/ remained / i / i n t h e CN and  Map k2: b l i n d , find  t h e FN - j u s t as ME /u/ remained /u/ b e f o r e /nd/ (iii)  i n t h e same a r e a . ME /£:/ was commonly s h o r t e n e d t o /e/  before  d e n t a l consonants i n most s o u t h e r n  and m i d l a n d s d i a l e c t s .  But i n s e v e r a l areas  Maps 20, 21: head, l e a d (n. ), red  o f t h e S o u t h , t h e change was t o / i / , suggest i n g that the shortening took place  after  t h e r a i s i n g o f /£:/ t o / i : / . (iv)  OE /y/ i n most words i s now r e f l e c t e d as / i / .  regularly  There i s no t r a c e  left  bridge,  hill,  kiss  o f t h e e a r l i e r /e/ i n EA and t h e SE, except in  t h o s e words where t h e s t a n d a r d  language,  and hence t h e d i a l e c t s , have adopted t h e /e/. However, K o k e r i t z  (1932) s t i l l r e p o r t e d /e/  as an a l t e r n a t i v e S f p r o n u n c i a t i o n  shut,  merry  i n many  words w i t h OE /y/ ( e . g . b r i d g e , f i l l , lift,  bury, fledge,  fist,  etc.).  The use o f square b r a c k e t s around CcD i s t o emphasize t h e f a c t t h a t Lgl i s r e a l l y an a l l o p h o n e o f t h e phoneme /h/ i n ME, o c c u r r i n g a f t e r p a l a t a l vowels.  - kS -  >+.5  /e/ (a)  P r e s e n t everywhere.  (b)  Normally  Cell.  A s i d e from t h e w i d e s p r e a d  s h o r t o f f - g l i d e Zs^l  development o f a  ( e s p e c i a l l y i n m o n o s y l l a b i c words b e f o r e  voiced stops), there i s l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n the pronunciation o f t h i s diaphoneme. (c)  set, bet  ( i ) N o r m a l l y , ME /e/ remained /e/ i n a l l d i a l e c t s , except when f o l l o w e d  fern  by PFR. (ii)  I n t h e Midlands  (except SY) and  Maps 20, 21: head,  most o f t h e S o u t h , as w e l l as i n  red,  sweat  t h e s t a n d a r d d i a l e c t s , ME /£:/ n o r m a l l y s h o r t e n e d t o /e/ b e f o r e d e n t a l s t o p s - though t h e r e a r e many exc e p t i o n s (e.g. b e a t , s e a t , l e a d ( v b ) ) . (iii)  ME / a / o f t e n became /e/ i n t h e u r -  Map 3: a p p l e , c a t  ban and r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f EA and t h e SE.  T h i s development i s u n i v e r s a l i n  t h o s e d i a l e c t s where t h e diaphoneme / a / i s m i s s i n g - e.g. Ess 12^ and K k.  In  f r o n t o f p a l a t a l o r v e l a r consonants  Map 22: a s h , s a c k ,  t h e change / a / t o /e/ o f t e n o c c u r s a l s o  bag  i n other d i a l e c t s o f England. (iv)  I n a t y p i c a l EA and SE development,  OE /y/ became /e/ i n l a t e r t i m e s .  bridge, h i l l ,  But  A b b r e v i a t i o n s such as Ess 12 r e f e r t o l o c a l i t i e s s u r v e y e d i n t h e SED ( i n t h i s case l o c a l i t y 12 i n E s s e x ) , as a b b r e v i a t e d i n t h a t work.  kiss  - k6  -  t h e r e i s . no t r a c e l e f t o f t h i s i n contemporary d i a l e c t s , e x c e p t i n words  b u r y , f l e d g e , merry  where t h e s t a n d a r d language i t s e l f has borrowed t h e /e/.  See h.k  (c)  (iv).  /a/ (a)  P r e s e n t everywhere e x c e p t i n a few l o c a l i t i e s - e.g. Ess..12 and K k.  (b)  See map  i n EA and t h e SE  3.  I n SSB and i n t h e d i a l e c t s o f EA, t h e SE, So, t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t o f t h e WM1  and t h e IM t h e r a i s e d p r o n u n c i a t i o n CaeH i s n o r m a l .  where we f i n d t h e low f r o n t unrounded ( c a r d i n a l k)  Else-  pronunciation  Call, w i t h o c c a s i o n a l o c c u r r e n c e s o f i t s back c o u n t e r p a r t Lai,  es-  p e c i a l l y near t h e S c o t t i s h b o r d e r . (c)  ( i ) I n most e n v i r o n m e n t s , ME / a / remained /a/  i n a l l d i a l e c t s where / a / i s p r e s e n t .  For  cases where i t became / e / , /o/, / a : / ,  Map 3: a p p l e , c a t  (o'l o r / a i / because o f some c o n d i t i o n i n g f a c t o r , see under t h o s e diaphonemes. (ii)  I n words where ME /&:/  became /e/ i n  SSB, i t became / a / i n p a r t s o f e a s t e r n Ha  Map 20: l e a d ( n . ) , bread, red  i n an i n t e r e s t i n g s p e c i a l development. Cf. (iii) So.  )•!. 23 (c) (v).'-.'. ME /of b e f o r e fx/ became / a / i n Wx and  Maps 25,  68:  p o r r i d g e , morning  - kV -  lo/ (a)  P r e s e n t everywhere except i n n o r t h e r n Nb - more p r e c i s e l y i n Fb 1 o f t h e SED.  (b)  N o r m a l l y L-ol.  k.  See map  But i n L j p a r t s o f s o u t h - e a s t e r n Y and i n S f ,  t h e h a l f - o p e n , f u l l y rounded CoH  i s usual.  t h e unrounded La 1 o c c u r s s p o r a d i c a l l y  On t h e o t h e r hand,  i n t h e WMl  - Wx a r e a , one  o f t h e many s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e d i a l e c t s o f t h i s r e g i o n and t h o s e o f N o r t h America. (c)  See map  h.  ( i ) The main source o f /o/ i s ME a l l dialects.  /o/ i n  F o r cases where i t was  l e n g t h e n e d t o /D:/,  Maps h,  27,  28:  f o x , dbg, c r o s s  see under t h a t d i a -  phoneme. (ii)  I n t h e WMl,  Maps 2 3 ,  Ch and L a OE / a / was  rounded t o /o/ b e f o r e n a s a l c o n s o n a n t s ,  man,  2h:  hammer  and i n most words t h i s /o/ i s p r e s e r v e d t o t h i s day i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e area.  Formerly the extent o f t h i s  was much g r e a t e r , as we EDG, (iii)  pp.  can see from t h e  25-28.  I n SSB and i n t h e d i a l e c t s o f t h e  South, a l s o spreading t o Midlands l e c t s t o d a y , ME a f t e r /w/ by a v e l a r (iv)  /o/  / a / was  dia-  Maps 26,  89:  wasp,  what, wash  rounded t o /o/  (unless immediately f o l l o w e d consonant  On t h e IM, ME  - e.g. wag,  wax).  /u/ r e g u l a r l y became  /o/ = C-DH , presumably  i n imitation  of  Map  32: c u t , son  -  the  diaphoneme  /A/,  hd'-  usual i n  such  words i n SSB. 'v)  I n Nb a n d n o r t h e r n / u / before rural  P F R became  dialect.  main cause  /of i n t h e  No d o u b t t h e  nunciation of / r /  h.8  D u , ME / i / a n d  i n the  of this  Maps 72, 73: w o r k , bird,  modern  burn  uvular pro-  area  is  the  development.  /u/ (a)  Present  everywhere,  (b)  N o r m a l l y s l i g h t l y u n r o u n d e d Lui. lax high front same a r e a . like  (c)  U n r o u n d e d Cur] i s  In the  the  quite  r u r a l and urban  WM1 a n d t h e  I n D and w e s t e r n presence  So we f i n d  the  o f / u : / = Lj:l i n  the  common, e s p e c i a l l y i n m o n o s y l l a b l e s  S e e map 5.  N o r t h and t h e M i d l a n d s the  p o s s i b l y i n some SMI a n d WM1 l o c a l i t i e s .  r o u n d e d LYl - c f .  good and f o o t .  (i)  except  dialects  (except  of  the  parts  I M ) , / u / i s the  •Map 32": c u t , . s o n  of  regular  c o n t i n u a t i o n o f ME / u / . (ii)  In the  / u / has and / l / ,  S o u t h a n d p a r t s o f t h e WM1, ME  remained between l a b i a l as w e l l  words a f t e r  consonants  as o c c a s i o n a l l y i n  labial  consonants  pull,  bull,  wool, put,  full, butcher  other  (note,  how-  e v e r , words s u c h as b u n , b u t w h i c h n o r m a l l y have (iii)  /A/). ME / o : / became r e g u l a r l y / u : / a n d  shortened to  / u / before  then  / k / and o c c a s i o n a l l y !  Maps 3 0 , 3 1 : b o o k , look, hoof,  soot  - h9  -  "before If I and ft/, i n SSB, t h e urban d i a l e c t s and t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e South and p a r t s o f t h e M i d l a n d s . (iv)  ME  /il  a f t e r /w/  the S c o t t i s h border. Scottish (v)  ME  became /u/ near Cf. the  development (SND  §  19: whip, win  Map  hi:  Map  73: b u r n , t u r n  similar 59)'.  /u/ b e f o r e t h e consonant  /nd/ has remained i n t h e MN  Map  cluster  and  ground  FN.  Cf. t h e comparable r e t e n t i o n o f / i / h3).  b e f o r e /nd/ i n t h e same a r e a (p. (vi) ME  I n n o r t h - w e s t e r n Y and p a r t s o f /u/ i s r e t a i n e d b e f o r e PFR.  In  n o r t h e r n Cu, ME Ii/ a l s o became ,/u/ before  Cu,  bird  PFR.  /A/  (a)  P r e s e n t i n t h e s t a n d a r d d i a l e c t s and i n t h e urban and r u r a l l e c t s o f t h e South and most o f t h e WMl.  dia-  Note t h a t i n p a r t s o f t h e  M i d l a n d s , CAH appears i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n w i t h Lvl,  therefore i t i s  t o be a s s i g n e d t o t h e diaphoneme /u/. (b)  The p r i n c i p a l a l l o p h o n e o f / A / i s t h e low c e n t r a l unrounded C A 3 . In t h e s t a n d a r d speech o f t h e M i d l a n d s and t h e N o r t h , / A / i s p r o nounced w i t h t h e h i g h e r c e n t r a l vowel Lui. i s u s u a l l y f r o n t e d t o Lai pronounced Latl t h e r e .  I n t h e London a r e a i t  - not t o be c o n f u s e d w i t h / a / w h i c h i s  -50  [c)  (i)  (ii)  except  as n o t e d u n d e r  ME / o / b e f o r e  of (iii)  Map  s o u r c e o f / A / i s ME  The p r i n c i p a l /u/,  -  32: c u t ,  son  h.8. dog,  / A / i n much  / g / became  frog  t h e SW. Map 9 3 : b l o o d ,  ME / o : / was s h o r t e n e d v e r y e a r l y i n  some w o r d s , s o t h a t  it  shared the / A / where  l o p e m e n t o f ME / u / t o  flood,  Monday  deve-  this  d i a p h o n erne e x i s t s .  TENSE VOWELS  1+.10  The  number o f t e n s e v o w e l d i a p h o n e m e s  than that  o f l a x vowel diaphonemes.  vowels i n t o f i v e  subclasses,  typal pronunciation. together  I  It  in English  i s usual to  d e p e n d i n g on t h e  Here f o l l o w s  i s much l a r g e r  a list  divide  nature  of their  o f tense vowel  w i t h w i t h e x a m p l e s f r o m SSB o r o t h e r  tense proto-  diaphonemes,  dialects::  LONG VOWELS / i : /  SSB  E i : H see  /si:/;  sea  /si:/;  receive / r i s i : v / ;  /bili:v/;  people  /mssi:n/;  Caesar / s i : z a / y c i t y  /e:/  Wessex  Ce:D spade  /spe:d/;  /&:/  NM1  Ce:D  Is.: I  Devon  D&:1 s k y / s k a a : / ; k n i f e  /a:/  SSB  Ca:3  cloud / k l e : d / ;  father /la:f/;  /pi:pl/-; •r  speak  /spe:k/;  /nae:f/;  Shah  machine  /siti:/ /ke:/  /me:/; h a i r /e.:/  fight  /pa:t/;  /kla:k/;  /c5i:z/,  key  how /e.:/; m a r e  /fa:oV; p a r t clerk  these  believe  /vae:t/  heart /sa:/  /ha:t/;  laugh  /o:/  SSB  Co?1  saw /so:/;'caught /ko:t/; a l l / o : l / ; b r o u g h t / b r o : t / ; b r o a d / b r o : d / ; h o r s e /ho:s/; b o a r d /bo:d/; war /wo:/; mourn /mo:n/; door /do:/  :  l o a f /lo:f/;'mow /mo:/; nose /no:z/; dough /do:/  /o: /  Wessex  Co:  /©: /  Devon  Cu: 1  /u: /  SSB  Cu: : moon /mu:n/; move /mu:v/; shoe / s u : / ; t h r o u g h  b o t h /b©:0/; coat / k f f i : t /  /9ru:/;'chew / t s u : / ; June /dzu:n/; r U e f u l /ru:fal/ /S: /  Nb  Co: :  /3: /  SSB  C3: 1  fox •  / f o : k s / ; r o a d / r o : d / ; dough /do:/  b i r d /b3:d/; b u r n /b3:n/; f e r n / f 3 : n / ; work /ws:k/; myrrh  II  /1113:  / ; l e a r n /I3 :n/  DIPHTHONGS WITH AN /!/ GLIDE /ei/  SSB  CeiD  spade / s p e i d / ; maid /meid/; gauge / g e i d z / ; c l a y / k l e i / ; great / g r e i t / ; neighbour /neibs/; they  /ai/  SSB  CaiH  /Sei/; w e i g h t  /weit/  b i t e / b a i t / ; sky / s k a i / ; a i s l e / a i l / ;  neither  /naicfe/; l i e / l a i / ; n i g h t / n a i t / ; r y e / r a i / ; buy / b a i / ; eye / a i / ; h e i g h t / h a i t / /oi/  SSB  Coi"J  /ui/  SY  C u i ] moon /muin/; f o o t / f u i t / ; f l o o d  III  v o i c e / v o l s / ; boy / b o i / ; buoy / b o i / /fluid/  DIPHTHONGS WITH A / u / GLIDE /eu/  SY  Cecr]  dew /deu/; few / f e u /  /au/  SSB  CauD  house /haus/; now /nau/; drought / d r a u t /  /ou/  SSB  C3u] note /nout/; mauve /mouv/; boat /bout/; t o e / t o u / s h o u l d e r / s o u l d s / ; mow /mou/; sew /sou/  - 52 -  IV  DIPHTHONGS WITH A / a / GLIDE /is/  SSB  CraH  deer / d i e / ; dear / d i a / ; w e i r d /wiad/; f i e r c e / f i a s / ; here / h i a / ; t h e a t r e  /ea/  SSB  CeaD  /Oiata/  h a r e /hea/; h a i r /he-a/; h e i r /e^/; h e a r  /bea/;  t h e r e /cTes/; s c a r c e / s k e a s / /os/  M i d i . CosH  f o u r / f o a / ; h o a r s e / o s s / ; door /doa/„  /W  SSB  poor /pus/; t o u r / t u a / ; s u r e  V  C-creH  EVEN AND  /sua/  RISING DIPHTHONGS  /ia/  FN C i a - i e 3  spade / s p i a d / ; gate / i a t / ; b o t h /hiaO/  /iu/  SSB  few / f i u / ; f e u d / f i u d / ; t u n e / t i u n / ; due  Cxu:I]  heauty /ua/  Y  Dual!  /diu/;  /biuti:/  nose /nuaz/; r o a d / r u a d / ; f o a l  /fual/  N a t u r a l l y , no d i a l e c t c o n t a i n s a l l o f t h e s e diaphonemes.  The  f o l l o w i n g are those t h a t occur i n a l l o r p r a c t i c a l l y a l l o f the d i a l e c t s spoken i n E n g l a n d : / i : / /a:/ /ei/  h :/  /ai/ /oi/  /u:/ /iu/  Of t h e o t h e r s , t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e w i d e s p r e a d , though n o t u n i v e r s a l : (a)  /e:/ and /o:/ a r e t y p i c a l o f t h e d i a l e c t s spoken i n t h e West o f E n g l a n d - a l l t h e way  from t h e SW t o L a .  Scattered survivals of  t h e s e diaphonemes o c c u r i n Nf. (b)  /au/ i s m i s s i n g i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e N o r t h , w h i l e /ou/ i s m i s s i n g i n t h e SW - Wx a r e a .  - 53 -  (c)  The diphthongs / i 9 / ; / e s / and /ua/ a r e m i s s i n g i n m b s t ^ d i a l e c t s t h a t have p r e s e r v e d PFR. CesH and Zual  T h i s i s because t h e sounds C i s H ,  can be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e s e areas as a l l o p h o n e s o f  t h e diaphonemes / i / , /e/ and /u/, r e s p e c t i v e l y , o c c u r r i n g b e f o r e /r/.  However, t h e r e are areas i n the N o r t h , where t h e t h r e e d i p h -  thongs c o n s i d e r e d here do o c c u r as diaphonemes even though PFR i s retained.  T h i s happens because i n t h e s e a r e a s ME / a : / , /&:/  and  /o:/ have n o r m a l l y developed i n t o t h e s e d i p h t h o n g s .  A l l t h e o t h e r diaphonemes mentionned t h e i r geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n .  above are v e r y l i m i t e d i n  F o r a d e t a i l e d t r e a t m e n t , see under  each diaphoneme s e p a r a t e l y .  h.ll  /!:/ P r e s e n t everywhere, except i n l o c a l i t y Y 6 i n n o r t h - w e s t e r n York-  (a)  s h i r e , where i t seems t o be u n i f o r m l y r e p l a c e d by (b)  /ei/.  I n much o f E n g l a n d , t h e monophthong Ci:D i s r e p l a c e d by v a r i o u s kinds o f diphthongs.  We  find  EA, t h e SMI o r n o r t h - w e s t e r n Y. c f . Orton ( 1 9 3 3 ) , p. k. a l l over E n g l a n d . (c)  an. o n - g l i d e i n t h e L%il  or Csi(:)H o f  Cei:H o c c u r s i n s o u t h Durham  -  The "weaker" d i p h t h o n g C i i H i s w i d e s p r e a d  See map  6.  ( i ) I n SSB and a l l d i a l e c t s except t h o s e i n most o f t h e NMl, ME  Map  33:three, f e e l  /e:/ r e g u l a r l y  became / i : / . (ii)  ME /£:/ u s u a l l y became / i : / i n t h e  s t a n d a r d and urban d i a l e c t s , merging  Maps 3k,  35:  r e a c h , cream  speak,  -  54  -  w i t h t h e r e s u l t a n t o f ME  /e:/.  This  de-  velopment t o / i : / i s a l s o t r u e i n a l a r g e number o f r u r a l d i a l e c t s : i n t h e south cept Wx  and t h e SW),  t h e WMl,  (ex-  t h e CMl and most o f  t h e IM and t h e  FN.  Because o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s t a n d a r d language,  / i : / has s p r e a d t o some  o t h e r r u r a l d i a l e c t s i n c e r t a i n words, such as t e a c h e r . B e f o r e d e n t a l s t o p s , ME  /£: / u s u a l l y be-  came s h o r t e n e d t o /e/ o r / i / i n t h e  standard  language and t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e  south  and most o f t h e M i d l a n d s .  / i : ' / i n such  words i s u s u a l o n l y i n t h e  FN.  (iii)  ME  / a i / became / i : / i n t h e same NMl  d i a l e c t s where ME why  /e:/ became / e i / .  rural  This i s  /£:/ became / i : / i n t h i s  a r e a i n t h o s e words where i t became / e i / i n t h e s t a n d a r d language,  red  Maps 37,  39:  clay, straight  / a i / w i t h /e:/ ME  Map  100:  break,  great, steak  s u g g e s t i n g an e a r l y merger o f in this  area.  CicH developed t o / i : / i n s t e a d o f / a i / i n  t h e n o r t h , La and t h e (v)  head, b r e a d ,  NMl. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , ME  (iv)  21:  t h e diaphoneme / i : / does not d i s a p p e a r i n  the  ME  Maps 20,  SY.  Map  light  I n t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t o f EA, OE /y:/ became / i : / Map i n s t e a d o f / a i / , s u g g e s t i n g an e a r l y development  U3: n i g h t ,  lice  ^5: m i c e ,  - 5.5 -  /y:/ t o /ex/,  analogous  t o t h e /y/ t o  /e/ change t y p i c a l o f t h e d i a l e c t s o f t h i s area i n e a r l y (vi)  ME.  I n much o f t h e north', ME  /o:/ became  56:  Map  do,  / i : / i n s t e a d o f /id/ a t t h e end o f a  (from t h e  word.  OE  (vii)  ME  Ii/  became / i : / b e f o r e Is/  r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f L a and So (EDG,  i n the  two  dialectal  /two:/)  fish,  dish  §72).  le:/  U.12 (a)  T h i s diaphoneme i s absent from t h e s t a n d a r d language and  from  most urban d i a l e c t s (though p r e s e n t i n urban d i a l e c t s o f t h e  SW,  L a and t h e n o r t h ) .  dia-  But /e:/ i s v e r y much a l i v e i n t h e r u r a l  l e c t s , a b s e n t i n g i t s e l f o n l y i n the SE, t h e SMI, So, t h e C M 1 , L and t h e IM o n l y .  I n t h e r u r a l a r e a s o f EA i t i s d i s a p p e a r i n g  t o d a y , c f . K o k e r i t z ( 1 9 3 2 ) , pp. 17 (b)  The u s u a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f /e:/ Ce:H.  7.  See map  i s t h e h i g h e r - m i d f r o n t unrounded  Lowered L£.:l o c c u r s o c c a s i o n a l l y i n D and So, and i s u s u a l  i n most o f Cu and The  - 20.  We.  sound C e i ] o c c u r r i n g i n EA and He i s a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h e  phoneme le:/,  d e s p i t e i t s d i p h t h o n g a l n a t u r e , because t h e r e i s another  d i p h t h o n g , pronounced Cai3 o r Cae.i3, i n t h e areas mentioned t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e diaphoneme / e i / (see U.22 S l i g h t d i p h t h o n g ! z a t i o n o f /e:/ (c)  ( i ) ME  t h a t has  ).  t o CeaH a l s o o c c u r s i n e a s t e r n Y.  / a : / r e s u l t e d i n /e:/ i n a l l  s o u t h e r n and M i d l a n d d i a l e c t s where /e:/ occurs.  dia-  Map gate  36:  spade,  -  (ii)  56  -  Maps 37, 102:  ME / a i / r e s u l t e d i n /e:/ i n Ox, S a ,  clay,  reins, rain  t h e N M l , t h e CN and t h e FN, though t h e r e i s some i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e n o r t h from t h e diaphoneme / e s / . (iii)  Map 39: s t r a i g h t  ME fZaigll r e s u l t e d i n /e:/ i n Sa and  o c c a s i o n a l l y " i n Wx. (iv)  ME IE'I  Maps 3^, 35: r e a c h ,  r e s u l t e d i n /e:/ i n t h e Wx  speak, cream  a r e a m o s t l y - n o t , o f c o u r s e , i n words where i t was s h o r t e n e d t o /e/ o r / i / . (v)  Maps 6 0 , 6 l : h a r e ,  ME / a : / and / a i / b e f o r e PFR became le:/ i n s t e a d o f t h e more u s u a l / e a / o r /e/ i n  hair  Cu and We.  h.13  /e:/ (a)  T h i s i s a diaphoneme o f v e r y l i m i t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . I t o c c u r s o n l y i n Db (except i t s northernmost  (b)  Always Ce.:!].  p a r t ) , S t and Ch.  Note t h a t t h i s same sound Ce:H a l s o o c c u r s as an  a l l o p h o n e o f t h e diaphoneme /e:/ i n b o t h t h e south-west north-west (c)  and the'  o f England.  ( i ) ME / u : / r e g u l a r l y became /e:/ i n Db, presumably b y g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e  Maps h6,  ^7: c l o u d ,  house, ground  stages Cu: II-**Cau:]-»*Ceu:H*Cea:] -* Ce : 1. (ii)  ME / a : / and / a i / b e f o r e PFR became  /e:/ i n s t e a d o f / e a / i n Ch and S t , as w e l l as o c c a s i o n a l l y i n Db.  Maps 6 0 , 6 l : h a r e , h a i r , mare, pear  -  h.lh  57  -  /«:/ (a)  T h i s i s another v e r y r a r e diaphoneme. t o t h e county o f D . N o r m a l l y LiZ'.l,  (b) D,  I t s extent i s r e s t r i c t e d  See maps ho, hi.  w h i c h i n D c o n t r a s t s w i t h Ca:3.  i c e /ae:s/ c o n t r a s t s w i t h ' a s s / a : s / .  Thus i n n o r t h e r n  The vowel D K : H  also exists  i n Wx and Nf as a l l o p h o n e o f t h e diaphoneme / a : / . (c)  Maps h0-k2: s k y ,  ( i ) I n n o r t h e r n D, ME / i : / r e g u l a r l y b e came /ae:/, except b e f o r e / r / where / a i /  blind,  i s r e t a i n e d (e.g. i r o n  Note: c a l f /k«:f/  (ii)  /airan/).  I n s o u t h e r n D t h i s development d i d  not happen b e f o r e v o i c e l e s s  Maps UO-^2:  consonants,  where / a i / i s k e p t . Note:  knife  sky /skae.: / v s . knife  /naif/  Because o f t h i s p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e d i a phoneme /as:/, one c o u l d i n c l u d e t h i s sound w i t h t h e diaphoneme / a i ' / .  However, one s h o u l d t r y t o a v o i d i n c l u s i o n o f  a monophthongal a l l o p h o n e w i t h a d i p h t h o n g a l diaphoneme.  h.15  /a:/ (a)  Present i n a l l d i a l e c t s .  (b)  N o r m a l l y , low f r o n t unrounded Ca:H.  I n Nf and t h e SE, we f i n d  t h e low back unrounded vowel C q : H , a l s o p r e s e n t i n south D, b u t o n l y when f o l l o w e d by / r / . especially  The somewhat r a i s e d  i n Wx, t h e WM1, t h e IM and Du.  Cae:J a l s o o c c u r s ,  See map 8.  G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e "urban d i a l e c t s have t h e same p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f / a : / as t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i r a r e a .  -  (i)  58  -  Map  The p r i n c i p a l source o f / a : / i n t h e v a r i o u s E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s i s ME / a / l e n g t h ened by d i v e r s e c o n d i t i o n i n g f a c t o r s .  6k: f a r ,  harvest  The  most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e i s p r e - c o n s o n a n t a l and f i n a l / r / , b e f o r e which  / a / became / a : /  by compensatory l e n g t h e n i n g wherever t h e PFR l a t e r d i s a p p e a r e d ( i n c l u d i n g S S B ) . (ii)  ME / a / became / a : / when f o l l o w e d by t h e  Map 6 2 : c h a f f ,  v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s / f / , /©/ o r / s / , and  bath, class,  o f t e n b e f o r e /n/ f o l l o w e d by a d e n t a l con-  branch  sonant - i n SSB, t h e r u r a l and urban d i a l e c t s o f t h e s o u t h and o f t e n i n t h e CMl, t h e WMl and t h e IM. (iii)  I n a number o f words / a : / i s g e n e r a l  i n a l l s t a n d a r d and urban d i a l e c t s as w e l l as i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f r u r a l d i a l e c t s .  These  i n c l u d e n a t i v e words ( b e f o r e ME /lm/) and  Map 6 3 : calm, palm  words o f f o r e i g n o r i g i n where t h e / a : / i s i n i m i t a t i o n o f a l o n g Ca:3 vowel i n t h e  banana, drama,  language from w h i c h t h e p a r t i c u l a r word i s  b r a , Shah, spa  borrowed. (iv)  ME /u:/ became / a : / i n s o u t h L a and SY,  j u s t as i t became /&:/ f u r t h e r s o u t h . (v)  ME /au/ became / a : / i n much o f t h e n o r t h , but t h e e x a c t b o u n d a r i e s o f t h i s change have been o b l i t e r a t e d by analogy and b o r r o w i n g .  Map k6: c l o u d , about Map 6 7 : saw, caught  -  (vi)  I n most  ally  fell  5.-9 -  o f E n g l a n d , OE / a : w / together  with  / o u / because o f  the  g e n e r a l r o u n d i n g o f OE / a : / .  the  rural dialects  still  many t r a c e s  of the.north, o f t h e more  unrounded v o w e l , w h i c h has to  ME / e / b e f o r e  there  are  (but  not  for  example,  OE  /grorwan/.)  conservative,  monophthongized  PFR o f t e n became  I n words where even t h e has b o r r o w e d t h i s it  t o o , but  or  no t r a c e o f t h i s  176),  to  dialects  / a : / today. to the  have  is  affairs was  (p.55),  C f . Wright  27-28).  heart  i n such words  112-11*0, K o k e r i t z  Orton (pp.  far,  little  This  state of  dialects  and s e r v a n t .  (pp.  influence  language  o r more b a c k , when / a : /  common i n c e r t a i n  Hedevind  /a:/.  i n o t h e r words t h e r e i s  a generation  certain  standard  vowel, the  i n marked c o n t r a s t  h.16  But i n  own  /a:/.  (vii)  as  Map h-9: s n o w , mow,  eventu-  (pp.  Presumably,  o f SSB / 3 : / h a s b e e n t o o  171the  strong  resist.  h-l (a)  Present  everywhere  and e a s t e r n for  Du ( s e e  example).  except the  i n the  rural dialects  note r e l a t i n g to  of eastern  Du i n O r t o n ( p p .  Nb  3-*0,  grow, from  - GO -  (b)  N o r m a l l y t h e l o w e r - m i d back . rounded vowel Lo:l, w i t h a tendency towards t h e h i g h e r Co:1 b e i n g e x h i b i t e d  m o s t l y i n t h e SW.  urban d i a l e c t s around London, i n c l u d i n g  Cockney, we f i n d a d i p h -  t h o n g i z e d a l l o p h o n e CouD.  In the  I n t h e He - G l - Wo a r e a t h e unrounded  form Ca:3 i s common. See map 9 . (c)  ( i ) Except i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e n o r t h , ME /au/ r e g u l a r l y r e s u l t e d i n  (ii)  ME CauxD and CouxH n o r m a l l y became  /o:/,  except a g a i n i n t h e r u r a l  dialects  Maps 6 6 , 67: thaw, saw, l a w  Maps 6 5 , 12h: "brought,  caught,  daughter  o f t h e n o r t h and t h e n o r t h e r n h a l f o f the Midlands. (iii)  ME / a / b e f o r e p r e - c o n s o n a n t a l and  wall, a l l , call  f i n a l / l / r e g u l a r l y became lo:/ i n a l l d i a l e c t s where /O:/ (iv)  exists.  ME /of became l e n g t h e n e d t o /o'/  when f o l l o w e d by t h e v o i c e l e s s  fricatives  Maps 2 8 , 2 9 : cough, f r o t h , cross  / f / , /0/ and / s / i n t h e r u r a l and urban d i a l e c t s o f t h e s o u t h and o f t h e WM1. T h i s development a l s o e x i s t s i n o l d f a s h i o n e d SSB. (v)  ME /o/ b e f o r e /g/ u s u a l l y became lo'l  Map 27: dog, l o g  i n t h e WM1 - y e t another development common t o t h i s a r e a and N o r t h (vi)  America.  ME jo I b e f o r e p r e - c o n s o n a n t a l and  | Map 6 8 : morning  - 61 -  f i n a l IT I u s u a l l y became /o:I  i n those  d i a l e c t s i n w h i c h PFR i s l o s t .  However,  absence o f t h i s l e n g t h e n i n g i s q u i t e common, e s p e c i a l l y b e f o r e / s / , where t h e / r / had been l o s t e a r l i e r t h a n i n o t h e r  Map 125:  horse  posi-  tions . On t h e o t h e r hand, ME /o:/,  (vii)  /ou/ b e f o r e PFR became lo'l  /o:/ and  o n l y i n a few  r u r a l d i a l e c t s - m o s t l y i n EA and t h e CMl.  Maps 69-71: hoarse,  door,  four  Of c o u r s e , most urban d i a l e c t s and SSB do have /o:/ i n such words. (viii)  ME /wa/ b e f o r e PFR a l s o became  /wo:/  war, warm  i n SSB and t h e d i a l e c t s o f t h e s o u t h , where t h e r o u n d i n g o f /wa/ t o /wo/ i s usual. (ix)  OE /a:w/, w h i c h n o r m a l l y merged w i t h  Map 1+9:  snow,  Map 1+9,  5*+:  mow  /ou/ i n ME, due t o t h e u s u a l r o u n d i n g o f OE / a : / , merged w i t h ME /au/ i n s t e a d i n t h e w e s t e r n p a r t s o f t h e FN and hence became / Q : / i n t h e modern r u r a l d i a l e c t of the area. (x)  ME /ou/, o f whatever o r i g i n , o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n /o:/ i n t h e SW r u r a l d i a l e c t s .  grow  snow,  - 62 -  k.n  lo-.i (a)  L i k e i t s f r o n t unrounded c o u n t e r p a r t /e:/, t h i s diaphoneme i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e urban and r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e west and t h e FN, a s i d e from a m a r g i n a l presence  i n EA.  of  U n l i k e /e:/, i t  i s c o m p l e t e l y absent from SY and most d i a l e c t s o f t h e n o r t h . (b)  N o r m a l l y t h e h i g h e r - m i d back rounded Co:D. dency towards t h e lower sound Co:H  There i s no t e n -  ( u n l i k e i n t h e case o f  /e:/),  no doubt t o a v o i d c o n f u s i o n w i t h /O'. /. I n Nf and p a r t s o f t h e CMl, t h e d i p h t h o n g i z e d CouD s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as an a l l o p h o n e o f /o:/, because i n t h e s e areas t h e r e i s another d i p h t h o n g  h.12  CouD t h a t i s a s s i g n e d t o /ou/.  (b). 10  See map  f o r t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e diaphoneme  / o : / . i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s of (c)  Compare  (i)  England.  /o:/ i s u s u a l l y d e r i v e d from ME  Maps 5 0 ,  /o:/,  51:  whether u l t i m a t e l y from OE / a : / o r from  whole, l o a f  OE /o/ i n open s y l l a b l e s ,  Map  (ii)  ME ./ou/ n o r m a l l y became /o:/ wherever  /o:/ e x i s t s , except i n EA and t h e He-Mon  53:  both,  c o a l , coat  Maps  mow,  snow, grow  area. 'iii)  I n p a r t s o f t h e NMl, ME  b e f o r e PFR r e s u l t e d i n /o:/.  / o: / and  /ou/  Maps 69,  TO:  four,  mourning, hoarse  - 63 -  /©:/  h.18 (a)  T h i s i s a diaphoneme r e s t r i c t e d t o D, t h e westernmost p a r t o f So and the easternmost p a r t o f Co. As shown i n h.19  , this  area  c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e r e g i o n where /u:/ i s pronounced Cy:H. See map 9« (t>)  Always Cu:"].  (c)  Always d e r i v e d from ME / o : / .  Note:  Maps 5 0 , 51: b o t h ,  loaf  The r a t i o n a l e f o r s e t t i n g up t h i s diaphoneme i s t h a t i n t h e t h e D a r e a most words t h a t c o n t a i n e d  / o : / i n ME, have a back  h i g h rounded-vowel Cu:H t o d a y , c o n t r a s t i n g b o t h w i t h /u:/= Cy:H and w i t h /o:/= Co:H. I t i s t r u e t h a t a l l the words w i t h t h i s /GO:/ diaphoneme have an a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n Co:D i n t h e area.  But words t h a t had /ou/ i n ME ( e . g . mow, snow) always  have /o:/ ( o c c a s i o n a l l y / o : / ) , Cu:D  cannot be c o n s i d e r e d  never Cu:H - so t h a t t h e phone  as s i m p l y a v a r i a n t o f /o:/.  I n t h e Ch a r e a , where /u:/ i s a l s o f r o n t e d t o Cu:D o r Cy:H, we a l s o f i n d the phones Cu:H o r Lxr:l as v a r i a n t s o f /o:/. here t h i s r a i s i n g o f /o:/ o c c u r s d e r i v e d from ME /o'l o r /ou/, an a l l o p h o n e  o f /o:/,  r e g a r d l e s s o f whether /o:/ i s  so t h a t Cu:H can be c o n s i d e r e d as  so t h a t we do n o t need /Q: / t o f u l l y ex-  p l a i n t h e phonology o f t h e  U.19  But  area.  /u:/ (a)  Present  everywhere.  (b)  N o r m a l l y Cu:J, w i t h s l i g h t f r o n t i n g i n EA, t h e CM1 and the IM. T h i s f r o n t e d sound i s d e s c r i b e d i n K o k e r i t z (1932), pp h2-hk, as  - 64 -  a sound almost i d e n t i c a l t o Swedish /u/ i n hus. Lu'.l  Phonetically,  i s a h i g h f r o n t overrounded v o w e l , pronounced w i t h a v e r y  narrow l i p o p e n i n g , o f t e n s l i g h t l y  diphthongized.  I n D, w e s t e r n So and e a s t e r n Co, as w e l l as i n p a r t s o f and L a , /u:/ i s f u l l y f r o n t e d , t o Cy:H.  One  s h o u l d note t h e sub-  sequent development o f t h e diaphoneme /Q:/ between /o:/ and [c)  (i)  ME  to " f i l l  /o:/ r e g u l a r l y became /u:/ ( c f . /e:/ t o  except i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f SY and t h e CN and FN.  f l u e n c e o f SSB, w i t h ME  i n " ; the  gap  /u:/.  t h e s i m i l a r r a i s i n g o f ME  Db,  Ch  Due  Map  /i:/),  55,  56:  moon, do  southern t o the i n -  /u:/ i s . s p r e a d i n g i n words  /o:/ i n t h e d i a l e c t s o f SY and  the  CN. (ii)  ME  /u:/ was  r e t a i n e d i n the r u r a l  l e c t s o f t h e FN and p a r t s o f t h e CN.  diaThis  Map  h6:  cloud,  how  a r e a , o f c o u r s e , i s i n complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h the a r e a where ME /u:/  /o:/ became  (see above).  Before j u s t as ME  /nd/, ME  /u/ l e n g t h e n e d  / i / lengthened  to  /u:/.  to / i : / i n the  same e n v i r o n m e n t s , i n t h e same' d i a l e c t s . Because o f l a t e r d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n o f t h e l o n g h i g h vowels i n most d i a l e c t s , we /u:/ i n such words o n l y i n the l e c t s of eastern  Y.  rural  find dia-  Map  i*7: ground  - 65 -  (iii)  Before l a b i a l consonants,  ME  ,/u:/ was n o r m a l l y r e t a i n e d i n a l l  Map  115:  room  (OE /ru:m/)  dialects. (iv)  ME  /eu/ and / i u / n o r m a l l y became  /u:/ i n D and Nf.  A f t e r /!/ and pa-  l a t a l consonants, t h i s  Maps 57, dew,  58:  few,  chew, l u t e  development  extends t o p r a c t i c a l l y a l l  dialects  o f t h e s o u t h and t h e M i d l a n d s , i n c l u d i n g SSB  (though / i u / a f t e r / l / i s  s t i l l o c c a s i o n a l l y heard i n o l d - f a shioned speech).  A f t e r / r / , /u:/ i n  rude  words o f t h i s c l a s s i s u n i v e r s a l .  l'6:l  k.20 (a)  A r a r e diaphoneme, e x i s t i n g o n l y i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f Nb and n o r t h e r n Du. mystery.  The o r i g i n o f t h i s diaphoneme i s shrouded i n  Perhaps i t i s an attempt a t t h e i m i t a t i o n o f SSB  pronounced  C3UH.  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t c o u l d be  /ou/  a.monophthongization  o f an e a r l i e r d i p h t h o n g "/'ua/, s t i l l c u r r e n t i n much o f t h e n o r t h , i n t h e same way as t h e OF d i p h t h o n g /ue/ has been r e d u c e d t o /o/ o r /ce/ i n modern F r e n c h ( e . g . OF / p l u e t / , modern / p l o / - w r i t t e n pleut, ' i t  rains').  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t /o:/ i s not even mentioned . i n t h e EDG  as a p o s s i b l e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e vowel i n words t h a t  c o n t a i n /ou/ i n SSB, even though i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s o f w i d e s p r e a d use t o d a y i n Nb, was  sound,  c o m p l e t e l y unknown t h e r e s e v e n t y  -  years  ago.  Similarly,  66 -  t h e r e i s no t r a c e  neighbouring Scottish d i a l e c t s , See map 9 f o r t h e  actual  at  of a similar  least  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e SND.  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f / o : / i n the  )  Always h i g h e r - m i d front  )  (i)  sound i n  dialects.  rounded C o : ] .  ME /o:/ n o r m a l l y r e s u l t s  i n / o : / , whether  |  Maps 51-53:  d e r i v e d f r o m OE / a : / o r OE / o / i n o p e n s y l -  loaf,  oak,  lables.  coal,  coat  the  I n t h i s merger  rural dialects  u n i q u e among t h e northern  by the of  fact  rural dialects That t h i s  o f the  that  it  does n o t  w h i c h always has  FN and  /o:/ is a  probably borrowed, i s  common w o r d s w i t h OE / a : /  /is/ i n t h e  t w o OE s o u r c e s ,  o f Nb a n d n o r t h e r n D u a r e  CN a r e a s .  development,  o f the  recent  also  shown  o c c u r i n a number ( s u c h as  both,  the presumably o l d e r  form  area).  But s a y i n g t h a t  / o : / i s a borrowed  i n Nb a n d D u d o e s n o t  diaphoneme  really explain its  origin.  Why was a s i m i l a r v o w e l n o t b o r r o w e d b y northern r u r a l dialects? between the  presence  I s t h e r e any  o f / o : / and t h a t  a l s o unique to t h i s  area?  amount o f d a t a  not  questions (ii)  the  / l /  present  not  also resulted  connection of  DaH,  Unfortunately,  the  a l l o w an answer t o  these  time,  ME / o u / a n d / o / b e f o r e  final but  at  does  other  pre-consonantal  in /o:/ in this  a s r e g u l a r l y a s ME /o:/.  Of the  Maps hd, h9  and  area, words  |  mow, snow  - 67 -  examined, i t i s  commonly u s e d i n  g o l d , mow a n d y o l k ,  it  occurs  nally  i n o l d a n d snow a n d i s  cold,  colt,  throw.  grow, own, sew,  Evidently,  the  dough,  occasioabsent  shoulder  presence  of  is  dialectal words t h a t 'iii)  on  o f h i s t o r i c a l developments.  we h a v e ,  a progressive  /a:/,  / i a / etc.  contain  replacement by / o : / i n  not  S i n c e t h e s e words  / o u / i n SSB, the  /o:/  is  of those  / o u / i n SSB.  r e p l a c e d b y Jo:/ i n t h e  dialects.  the  What  ME / o / i n c l o s e d s y l l a b l e s i s  often  and  /o:/  i n t h e s e words i s not p r e d i c t a b l e basis  in  also  Map 27: d o g ,  fox  Nb r u r a l contain  theory that  /o/,  dialectal  d e r i v e d f r o m SSB / o u / i s  further  damaged.  U.21  / :/ 3  (a)  Present FN,  everywhere  except  a n d i n l o c a l i t y L e i 1.  i n the  (b)  occur only before  the  dialects  We s h o u l d n o t e t h a t  have p r e s e r v e d P F R , diaphoneme to  rural  i n areas  /'3:/ i s r e s t r i c t e d  consonant  front  either  C3:3 or  found  I n a r e a s w h e r e PFR i s p r e s e r v e d ,  that  in distribution  unrounded  L~a:l i n l i n g u i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e .  r o u n d e d v o w e l \SB:1 i s  the  /r/.  . P h o n e t i c a l l y , / 3 : / i s u s u a l l y a long mid c e n t r a l denoted  o f much o f  vowel,  I n Mo t h e  instead. what  is normally transcribed  as  -68  -  a s u c c e s s i o n o f diaphonemes / 3 : r / , i s a c t u a l l y a u n i f o r m vowel t h r o u g h o u t , namely an " r - c o l o u r e d " C3:U v o w e l , o f t e n w r i t t e n CTrD.  T h i s vowel i s a l s o common i n N o r t h  American  English. (c)  ( i ) ME / i / , /u/ and /e/ "before PFR n o r -  Map 73: b i r d ,  m a l l y became / 3 : / i n a l l d i a l e c t s where  burn, fern  t h i s diaphoneme e x i s t s .  Map 72: work,  ME /o/ between  /w/ and PFR d e v e l o p e d i n t h e same way. (ii)  SSB /ea/  i s r e g u l a r l y r e p l a c e d by  /3:/ i n b o t h t h e r u r a l and urban  dialects  w o r l d , word Maps 6 0 , 6 l : h a i r , hare  o f most o f L a . (iii)  There i s a s t r o n g tendency i n many  Maps 83-85:  r u r a l d i a l e c t s t o r e p l a c e SSB / i / , /e/  squirrel,  and / A / b y li'l b e f o r e i n t e r v o c a l i c / r / .  mirror, bury,  A s i m i l a r tendency e x i s t s i n N o r t h Ame-  herring, hurry  rican English.  h.22  /ei/ (a)  T h i s d i p h t h o n g a l diaphoneme i s p r e s e n t everywhere  except i n t h e  r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f Ox and Sa and some o f t h e urban d i a l e c t s i n t h e southwest and t h e n o r t h . (b)  spoken  See map 12.  The most g e n e r a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f / e i / i s CeiH.  A higher va-  r i e t y CeiH o c c u r s i n some forms o f t h e s t a n d a r d language and i n t h e d i a l e c t s o f So and t h e IM. d i p h t h o n g Leil  One s h o u l d note here t h a t t h e  a l s o o c c u r s as an a l l o p h o n e o f /e:/ i n p a r t s o f EA  and t h e WMl ( c f . h.12).  - 69 -  On  t h e o t h e r h a n d , i n much o f t h e  pronunciation. parts of the  I n t h e r u r a l and  SE,  CaiD i s f o u n d  G l a n d He we  occasionally  south  / e i / has  urban d i a l e c t s  f i n d mostly  i n EA  (i)  ME  (including  C a i g D became / e i / p r a c t i c a l l y  where / e i / e x i s t s  - rural dialects  o f most o f  CseiH, w h i l e t h e  a n d Wo.  (ii)  / a i / before  other consonants  became / e i / i n t h e  the r u r a l d i a l e c t s He  CM1,  ME  of the  and t h e  south  of  straight,  Db  / a : / became / e i / i n t h e i n most u r b a n d i a l e c t s  following  r u r a l d i a l e c t s : EA  o f / e : / s u r v i v e - s e e h.12), t h e SMI, ME  ME  the  CM1  normally  38-39:  eight  /e:/  rural  and  NM1  and t h e  dialects  occurs  But  (except  clay,  36:  spade,  33:  three,  Ox),  standard and  the  (though  Map gate  traces  t h e SE, So,  IM. dialects  Map see,  6.  o f t h e SW,  as o c c s i o n a l l y  the NM1, i n Wx  SY  and  and the  i n some w o r d s o f t h i s c l a s s / e i /  o n l y i n t h e SW  37:  in  i n m o s t w o r d s became / e i / i n t h e  L a , as w e l l WM1.  in Y  Map maid  in  and  / e : / became / e i / i n t h e r u r a l  of the (v)  12.  IM.  language,  (iv)  map  Maps  standard language,  urban d i a l e c t s where / e i / e x i s t s  (iii)  See  and  as e i g h t c o n t a i n / e i / e v e n t h e r e .  ME  the  low  every-  b e i n g t h e m a i n e x c e p t i o n , t h o u g h some w o r d s such  EA,  o f t e n Cockney)  i s t y p i c a l o f t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f / e i / i n Wx (c)  a more o p e n  rural dialects  (e.g.  Map  feel 3*+:  reach  speak,  - 70 -  bean, t e a , w h e a t ) .  Y e t o t h e r words,  such as meat f o r example, have a d i f ferent d i s t r i b u t i o n of / e i / .  Map 87: d e a f  In the  words b r e a k , g r e a t and s t e a k t h e use  Maps 9 9 , 100:  of / e i / i s general i n the standard  g r e a t , break  language and t h e urban d i a l e c t s , and because o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s e / e i / i s more w i d e s p r e a d i n t h e s e words i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s  also.  I n words where ME /s :/ was s h o r t e n e d t o /e/ i n SSB, / e i / i s absent i n a l l  Maps 20, 21: head, sweat  dialects. (vi)  I n t h e FN r u r a l d i a l e c t s  t h e r e has  been a s t r o n g tendency f o r ME / i : / t o develop i n t o  Maps 1+0, U l : s k y , knife  / e i / instead of / a i / .  Only i n a few words do we f i n d / a i / i n a l l northern dialects (vii)  (e.g. h i v e ,  iron).  OE /e/ o r /eo/ b e f o r e Zxtl were n o r -  mally raised dialects  t o / i / b y ME t i m e s i n t h e  o f t h e s o u t h and much o f t h e  M i d l a n d s , and hence developed i n t o / a i / or  / o i / i n t h e modern d i a l e c t s .  the r u r a l d i a l e c t s  But i n  o f t h e n o r t h , as w e l l  as o f L a , SY, t h e NMl and t h e IM, t h e o l d e r d i s t i n c t i o n between OE /e/ and / i /  Maps 1+1+, 105: right, height  fight,  - 71 -  before  CxtH h a s b e e n p r e s e r v e d  form o f an / e i / ^ / i : / In the have  U.23  in  the  distinction. Map k3: n i g h t ,  I M , a l l w o r d s w i t h ME C i c D  light  / e i / today.  /ai/ (a)  The d i a p h o n e m e of  absent i n s e v e r a l r u r a l d i a l e c t s :  S f , most o f E s s , p a r t s o f K and S x , i n H a , n o r t h e r n  most  o f the  /oi/. In  CM1.  In a l l these areas i t  D, / a i / i s present  in  In the  o f the  somewhat  eastern  standard  dialects  /r/  a d v a n c e d D*iD i s  Y and w e s t e r n  d e a l from d i a l e c t  and i n the  s o u t h we n o r m a l l y f i n d  urban and r u r a l  dia-  CaxH. IM and o c c a s i o n a l l y  So. area:  L a , SY, the  S t ) , the  SMI a n d t h e  London a r e a ,  SY a n d L e i , t h i s  Cca 1 v a r i e s  optionally with  Finally,  to  M i d l a n d s a n d o f So a n d  f o u n d on t h e  B a c k Cc|i"] i s u s u a l o v e r a l a r g e (except  a great  n o r t h and o f Sa and St i n the  SW i n t h e  The  intervocalic  iron).  dialect.  the  So a n d i n  i s normally r e p l a c e d by  only before  The p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f / a i / v a r i e s  lects  parts  See map 1 3 . northern  (e.g. (b)  / a i / is  N M 1 , t h e CM1  i n c l u d i n g much o f K .  In  a m o n o p h t h o n g i z e d Ca : 1 .  c e n t r a l i z e d [AI 1 o r Csi 1 o c c u r i n t h e  S M I , M o , Wx a n d  m o s t o f EA a n d S x . See map 1 3 f o r t h e rural  dialects  exact  of England.  d i s t r i b u t i o n of these allophones  in  the  -  (i)  72  -  ME / i : / n o r m a l l y became / a i / i n a l l d i a l e c t s , except where /*:/,  Maps 1+0-1*1:  / e i / or  sky, k n i f e  / o i / a r e t h e normal developments (see under t h o s e (ii)  diaphonemes).  OE / i / b e f o r e t h e consonant  /nd/ and /mb/  Map 1+2:  clusters  remained s h o r t i n t h e r u r a l  blind,  f i n d , climb  d i a l e c t s o f t h e CN and FN, b u t was l e n g t h e n e d t o ME / i : / i n o t h e r d i a l e c t s  and  hence became / a i / i n most d i a l e c t s ( i n c l u d i n g SSB) (iii)  today. Map 1+3:  The ME sequence CigD became / i : / and  hence / a i / i n most modern d i a l e c t s .  light,  night  But  i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the n o r t h , o f La and SY, t h e compensatory l e n g t h e n i n g o f ME / i / t o / i : / b e f o r e t h e l o s t Lcl  took p l a c e  o n l y a f t e r t h e d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n o f ME / i : / , so t h a t i n t h e s e d i a l e c t s we f i n d  /i:/,not  / a i / i n such words. (iv)  ME / a / became / a i / b e f o r e Is I i n t h e SW  r u r a l d i a l e c t and p a r t s o f So and Wx.  Cf.  Maps 2 2 ,  89: a s h ,  wash  t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l e n g t h e n i n g o f ME / i / t o / i : / b e f o r e / s / i n So (see l + . l l ). (v)  I n w e s t e r n Ha, e s p e c i a l l y  in locality  Ha  3 , ME /£ : / n o r m a l l y became / a i / i n an i n t e r e s t i n g l o c a l development.  Note t h a t i n  words where ME /£:/ was s h o r t e n e d t o /e/ i n  Map  3l+:  reach  speak,  - 73 -  SSB, i t was s h o r t e n e d t o / a / i n t h i s a r e a , c f . h.6 (vi)  (c) ( i i ) .  C o r r e s p o n d i n g t o SSB / o i / , we o f t e n  find / a i / i n rural dialects.  See b e -  Map 107: p o i s o n , boil,  join  low f o r f u r t h e r comments.  k.2k  /oi/ (a)  P r e s e n t everywhere except i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s  o f Ch and  some n e i g h b o u r i n g areas i n Db and L a . (b)  N o r m a l l y CoiH. t h e SW.  (c)  A more c e n t r a l i z e d  pronunciation i s current i n  See map 107.  ('i') ' / o i / i s n o r m a l l y d e r i v e d from ME / o i /  b o i l , boy  and / u i / , though t h e s e ME sounds a r e o f t e n r e p l a c e d by / a i / , e s p e c i a l l y rural dialects (ii)  Map 107: p o i s o n ,  i n the  o f the Midlands.  ME / i : / has become / o i / i n s t e a d o f / a i /  i n s e v e r a l urban and r u r a l d i a l e c t s ,  espe-  Maps 1*0-1+1: sky,  knife  c i a l l y i n t h e London a r e a , Wx and t h e CM1. (iii)  OE /of i n open s y l l a b l e s became / o i / i n  t h e SY r u r a l d i a l e c t s .  T h i s development,  p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t i n g an e a r l i e r " V o : / , i s c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l l e d by t h e development o f ME /o:/ t o / u i / i n t h e same a r e a s .  1+.25  /ui/  Map 53: throat  coal;  - 74 -  (a)  A r a r e diaphoneme, o c c u r r i n g almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f SY.  E l s e w h e r e t h e r e a r e o n l y s c a t t e r e d examples o f  / u i / , m o s t l y i n EA and t h e SE. (b)  Always  (c)  ( i ) I n S Y , ME/o:/ n o r m a l l y became / u i / , ex-  CU-IJ . 1  cept f i n a l l y and b e f o r e  /k/, where /u:/ i s  Maps 55, 10U: moon, l o s e -  usual. (ii)  I n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f EA and t h e SE,  t h e r e a r e t r a c e s o f t h e diaphoneme. / u i / , s u r v i v a l o f e a r l y ME / u i / . I n t h e SED, t h e o n l y word showing / u i / i s boy ( V I I I . 1 . 3 ) , but K o k e r i t z ( 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 6 3 , n o t e s / u i / i n t h e f o l l o w i n g words o c c u r r i n g i n S f : b o i l , b o i l e r , boy, c o i n , destroy, n o i s e , o i n t ment , p o i n t , p o i s o n o u s , v o i c e .  /eu/  4.26  (a)  A r a r e diaphoneme, r e s t r i c t e d t o S t , t h e N M l , L a , SY and p a r t s o f t h e n o r t h w e s t e r n a r e a o f Y.  (b)  Always CeaH.  (c)  ( i ) I n p a r t s o f S t and most o f Db, ME /o:/ r e g u l a r l y d e v e l o p e d i n t o /eu/ - c f . t h e deve-  Maps 55-56: moon, do  lopment o f ME /e:/ t o / e i / i n r o u g h l y t h e same a r e a (ii)  (U.22.(c)  ME /o/ b e f o r e  (iv)).  / i d / o f t e n became /eu/ i n  t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e NMl and L a . ( i i i ) ME /eu/ remained i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f L a and SY.  Map  112:  cold, o l d Maps 57-58: dew, few  - 75" -  /au/  U.27  (a)  T h i s diaphoneme i s absent i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s  d f Db, much o f  SY and s o u t h e r n L a and p r a c t i c a l l y a l l o f t h e CN and FN. ih. (b)  /au/ i s p r e s e n t i n a l l s t a n d a r d and urban  See map  dialects.  L i k e i t s c o u n t e r p a r t / a i / , /au/ has much v a r i a t i o n  i n i t s pro-  nunciation. Cavil i s u s u a l i n t h e s t a n d a r d language, t h e urban d i a l e c t s o f t h e n o r t h , and t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s  (where p r e s e n t ) o f L a , Y, n o r -  t h e r n L, Sa and So. C e n t r a l i z e d Ou t h e s o u t h e r n WMl. glide  Lvl  1  or  EAUH  a r e normal i n Wx (except Ha), Mo and  I n t h e SW r u r a l d i a l e c t s , we f i n d a  i n the interesting  centralized  l o c a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n Ls-vl o r Lcvsl.  southern G l t h e r i s i n g diphthong  LTJU:H  In  i s found - o r i s t h i s sound  a s u r v i v a l o f ME /u:/? I n t h e r e s t o f t h e d i a l e c t s , r u r a l and u r b a n , we f i n d t h e advanced diphthongs  Lwul and C E C O , n e a t l y c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e Car3 o r E m ]  p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f / a i / i n much o f England. One i n t e r e s t i n g  development i s i n p a r t s o f t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f  Ch and S t , where we f i n d CaiU i n words c o n t a i n i n g /au/ i n n e i g h b o u r i n g d i a l e c t s : house C a i s H , about C s b a i t D . nounced Car 1, f o r convenience's  Since / a i / i n t h i s area i s pro-  sake t h i s CaiD sound i s t o be i n c l u d e d  w i t h diaphoneme /au/. See map lh f o r t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f /au/ i n t h e v a r i o u s r u r a l  dia-  lects . (c)  Wherever t h e diaphoneme /au/ o c c u r s , i t i s Maps h6-h-J, 1 0 8 - 1 0 9 : t h e normal development o f ME / u : / .  c l o u d , bound, p l o u g h , drought  -  76  -  /ou/  U.28  (a)  T h i s diaphoneme i s absent from t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e most o f Wx,  Sa, Ch and L a .  SW,  I t i s a l s o absent from t h e urban  d i a l e c t s spoken i n t h e same a r e a s , b u t p r e s e n t i n a l l o t h e r dialects. (b)  See map  15.  The p r o n u n c i a t i o n CouH i t s e l f i s r a r e , o c c u r r i n g m o s t l y i n  the  CM1 and So.  More common i s t h e somewhat l o w e r Loul,  o f t h e FN, SY, L, t h e NM1,  typical  Nf and t h e SE.  I n most o f t h e CN t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e d i p h t h o n g i s unrounded, so t h a t we f i n d Caul o r Caul] i n t h e a r e a . and r a i s i n g  o c c u r s i n He, where we f i n d  The c e n t r a l i z e d  diphthongs  C301  Unrounding,  fronting  Cae-UU.  (also written  Cao"]) o r  CAUD  t y p i c a l o f most v a r i e t i e s o f SSB and o f t h e urban and r u r a l spoken around London.  See map  15  are  dialects  f o r t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f /ou/ i n  the v a r i o u s r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f E n g l a n d . (c)  Maps 5 0 - 5 3 : b o t h ,  ( i ) ME /o I, whether from OE /a: / o r from OE /o/ i n open s y l l a b l e s , be-  whole, l o a f , t h r o a t ,  came /ou/ i n SSB and most urban d i a -  oak, c o a l , c o a t  l e c t s , as w e l l as i n t h e r u r a l  dialects  o f EA ( e x c e p t N f ) , t h e SE, t h e SMI p a r t s o f So and t h e (ii)  and  WM1.  ME /ou/ and /o/ b e f o r e / l / f o l l o w e d  by a consonant became /ou/ i n SSB  and  a l l urban and r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e s o u t h and o f t h e Midlands.where /ou/ e x i s t s . The s i t u a t i o n i s more c o m p l i c a t e d i n t h e  Maps U 8 - U 9 , 5h, 112: mow,  110-  snow, grow,  dough, sew,  cold  - T7 -  r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e n o r t h , owing t o t h e f a c t t h a t a l r e a d y i n ME t i m e s ,  dia-  l e c t a l /au/ (hence modern /o:/) o f t e n r e p l a c e d t h e /ou/ o f o t h e r d i a l e c t s . t h e combination  Since  /a:w/ n e v e r merged w i t h  /ou/ i n t h e n o r t h , we do n o t n o r m a l l y f i n d /ou/ i n such words i n t h e r u r a l l e c t s of the north. (iii)  See h.l6  dia-  (c) ( i x ) .  I n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the north  and some n e i g h b o u r i n g  Maps 6 5 - 6 7 :  Midlands d i a l e c t s ,  ME /au/ ( i n c l u d i n g when d e r i v e d from e a r l i e r CouxH) n o r m a l l y  h.29  snow, mow  daughter, brought, s aw,  thaw  d e v e l o p e d i n t o /ou/.  /i3/  (a)  The diaphoneme /is/ i s absent i n a l l PFR p r e s e r v i n g urban d i a l e c t s ( i . e . t h e B r i s t o l - Dover, N o r t h e r n area d i a l e c t s ) .  L a n c a s h i r e and N e w c a s t l e  I t i s a l s o absent i n most PFR p r e s e r v i n g r u r a l  dia-  l e c t s ( t h e SE, Wx, So, t h e SW and t h e WMl), b u t p r e s e n t i n L a and FN rural dialects.  The diaphoneme i s p r e s e n t  i n a l l d i a l e c t s t h a t have  l o s t PFR, i n c l u d i n g SSB. I n p a r t s o f Wx and So, one word (bean, see map 97) was found t o cont a i n / i 3 / , t h e normal development o f ME /£.:/ b e i n g / i : / i n t h e a r e a . This i n d i c a t e s that i n p r i n c i p l e the t e r r i t o r i a l extent o f the d i a phoneme / i s / s h o u l d be extended t o Wx and So as w e l l , though i t i s on t h e verge o f e x t i n c t i o n  there.  - 7£ -  (b)  The  normal p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f / i s / i s t h e c e n t r i n g d i p h t h o n g  CI3I1.  I n e a s t e r n St we  f i n d a diphthong w i t h a h i g h e r  starting  p o i n t : CiaD, w h i l e i n Mo t h e r i s i n g f r o n t rounded Cx<e.:H i s u s u a l as Lce.:l i n  C f i \ k . 2 1 (b) f o r t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f /z:/  Mo.  I n Nb and n o r t h e r n Du / i s / i s pronounced Lxol when f o l l o w e d by / r / , d o u b t l e s s because o f t h e u v u l a r Dt»3 p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f / r / i n the (c)  area.  (i)  ME  deer, s t e e r  /e:/ b e f o r e / r / became / i s / i n a l l  d i a l e c t s where t h i s diaphoneme e x i s t s . (ii)  ME  / e : / b e f o r e / r / a l s o became / i a / i n  Map  59:  hear,  fear  a l l d i a l e c t s where / i a / e x i s t s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t i n N f where i t became /ea/.  However, i n many words  /£:/ b e f o r e / r / became /ea/ i n SSB i n most d i a l e c t s  ME  and hence  - but i n the r u r a l  bear, pear  dialects  o f t h e n o r t h / i a / i s p r e s e r v e d i n such words to t h i s (iii)  ME  day. Map  /£.:/ n o r m a l l y became / i a / i n t h e  rural dialects  o f L and t h e MN.  I n a number  3^:  speak,  reach  o f words t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f / i a / i s even  Maps 35,  more w i d e s p r e a d ,  b e a n , cream, d e a f ,  dialects map Wx (iv)  97) and ME  extending t o the  o f SY and L a .  rural  I n one word  (bean,  / i a / o c c u r s even i n p a r t s o f t h e  97:  h e a t , team, wheat  EML,  So. / a : / became / i a / i n t h e r u r a l  dialects  Map  36:  spade, gate  - 79. -  o f -western Y and  the FN. ' As has  ready been mentioned unrounded i n the FN, in  OE  t h i s area.  d i a l e c t s o f the  W i t h the  (where we  f i n d /o:/  rural dialects  h a l f o f the  CN  /is/  and  the  i n words w i t h OE  ME  /o:/  - o f the  FN.  The  likelihood:  */1VL/->  /is/.  and  The  i n such eastern  /a:/, rural  dia-  - to a l e s s e r  55:  Map  moon  extent  development was,  in  /o: /-»*/o:/-»*/y:/-*"/iu: / -* e a r l i e r stage / i u / s t i l l  o r /y:/  some S c o t t i s h  h.30  of  rural  dialects  n o r t h , w h i l e e v i d e n c e o f the  e a r l i e r /o:/  bone  FN have r e t a i n e d  o c c u r s o c c a s i o n a l l y i n the o f the  and  oak,  /a:/  o f the  became / i s / i n the  l e c t s o f the MN,  all  CN  exception  w o r d s ) , the  both, whole,  remained  so t h a t i t d e v e l o p e d ' l i k e ME  e a s t e r n Nb  (v)  /a:/  50-52:  Map  al-  still  s t a g e s i s found i n  dialects  §35).  ( c f . SND,  /es/ (a)  The  diaphoneme /ea/  l o s t PFR ban  - and  even among t h e s e i t i s absent i n the  d i a l e c t s o f most o f Ch,  t e n t replacement by (b)  i s p r e s e n t o n l y i n t h o s e d i a l e c t s t h a t have  N o r m a l l y , /es/  /&:/  St and  (see  h.13  p a r t s o f Db,  ur-  to i t s consis-  ).  i s pronounced Cesll.  n o p h t h o n g i z e d t o Cg.: 3 ( e s p e c i a l l y  due  r u r a l and  I t o c c a s i o n a l l y becomes  i n Du  and  Mon),  but  mo-  unlike i n parts  - 80 -  of the  northwestern  c o n s i d e r e d as areas there while the (c)  i n the  Ch - S t a r e a we f i n d diaphonemes  wherever t h i s ME fe'I  diaphoneme  before  tendency to  develop i n t o  o f other  that  contain / i a /  Instead  i n the  of  Maps  60-6l:  hare,  hair  hear,  pear  dialects  I n words found  nor-  dialect.  Map 59: h e a r , fear  o f / 3 : / , we n o r m a l l y f i n d  rural dialects  both  strong  /ea/ i n  i n SSB, /e3/ i s Nf r u r a l  these  I n words  rural  south and t h e M i d l a n d s .  mally only i n the (iii)  exists.  and t h e  in  dialects,  / r / became / e a /  /ea/.  be  phoneme,-  Le:H c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o  / e a / , we f i n d  most u r b a n d i a l e c t s  is that  some o t h e r  IT I a l s o h a s h a d a  w h e r e SSB a l s o h a s  of the  The r e a s o n  i s no q u e s t i o n o f m e r g e r w i t h  ME / a : / a n d / a i / b e f o r e  (ii)  monophthong s h o u l d s t i l l  an a l l o p h o n e o f / e a / .  /ea/ and / a u /  (i)  Midlands, this  Maps 72-73:  /ea/  north-eastern  burn,  bird  Maps  36-37:  Lei. (iv)  ME / a : / a n d / a i / ( e x c e p t b e f o r e  m a l l y became  /ea/ i n the  CcH) n o r -  rural dialects  spade,  of  clay  L and p a r t s o f e a s t e r n Y .  1+.31  /c©/ (a)  On t h e b a s i s set  o f data o b t a i n e d from t h e  up a d i a p h o n e m e  contrasting with the  /oa/  for the  diaphoneme  rural /o:/.  SED i t  dialects /oa/ is  i s necessary  to  o f EA and t h e SMI. also present  C o c k n e y a n d some v e r y o l d - f a s h i o n e d f o r m s o f S S B .  in  The f o l l o w i n g m i n i m a l p a i r s w i l l  i l l u s t r a t e t h e c o n t r a s t between  /os/ and /o:/: saw / s o : / v s . s o r e / s o d / ;  flaw / f l o : / vs. f l o o r  /flop/. (b)  Always Eos>3, e x c e p t i n N f , where we f i n d  (c)  Wherever /oa/ e x i s t s , i t r e s u l t s  Eoa3.  from ME /o/,  Maps 6 8 - 7 1 :  /0:/, /o:/ o r /ou/ f o l l o w e d by PFR ( l a t e r t o  morning, board,  be l o s t ) .  f l o o r , four  The use o f / o s / i n such words i s more  common b e f o r e o r i g i n a l f i n a l / r / (as i n f o u r ) than before o r i g i n a l pre-consonantal  IT I (as  in  replaced  f o r t y ) , where i t was more r e a d i l y  by lo:/.  /ua/  , 32 (a)  The diaphoneme /ua/ e x i s t s In a d d i t i o n , and  (b)  i t occurs i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s  t h a t have l o s t  PFR.  o f Wx, t h e SMI, L a  Cu.  The p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f /ua/ v a r i e s r a t h e r f r e e l y between Eua3 and  . Eos3. (c)  i n a l l dialects  I n Ch we f i n d t h e more f r o n t e d E-cJa3 ( c f . s u r e , SED I X . 7 . 1 2 ) ,  ( i ) ME /o:/ b e f o r e PFR n o r m a l l y became /ua/ i n those appeared.  d i a l e c t s where PFR l a t e r  dis-  However, b o t h i n SSB and t h e  rural dialects  o f t h e M i d l a n d s , t h e r e has  been a s t r o n g t e n d e n c y t o r e p l a c e /us/ by lo'l  i n such words.  Thus, i n SSB f o r  example, most words w i t h /ua/ have an a l -  Map 71:  door,  f l o o r , poor  - 82 -  ternative pronunciation with (e.g.  p o o r ) , w h i l e others occur  o n l y w i t h /o'/ (ii)  /o:/  ( e . g . door, f l o o r ) .  ME / i u / b e f o r e f i n a l / r / became  pure,  sure  /iua/ i n t h o s e d i a l e c t s where t h e IT I was l a t e r l o s t - and t h e / i / o f t h i s t r i p h t h o n g was l a t e r l o s t t h e same consonants  after  as i n t h e case  o f / i u / (see b e l o w ) . ME lo:/  (iii)  dialects  became /ua/ i n t h e r u r a l  o f t h e n o r t h (except e a s t e r n  Nb and n o r t h e r n Du), SY and L a , as w e l l as o c c a s i o n a l l y i n t h e s o u t h . T h i s o c c u r r e n c e o f /ua/ i n s o u t h e r n rural dialects  i s s p o r a d i c , and i s  r e s t r i c t e d t o a few words.  Among t h e  words examined i n t h e SED, /ua/ o c c u r s i n t h e s o u t h (Wx m o s t l y ) i n t h e words b o t h , c o a t , comb, l o a f , n o s e , t h r o a t and w h o l e , w h i l e absent i n c o a l , oak and spokes. . In the r u r a l d i a l e c t s  o f t h e FN and  p a r t s o f t h e CN, OE / a : / d i d n o t become  lO'l  i n ME as i t d i d i n o t h e r p a r t s o f  England.  Because o f t h i s , i n t h i s  area  d i a l e c t a l / u a / i s r e s t r i c t e d t o words  Maps 5 0 - 5 3 : b o t h , oak,  coal  - sa -  w i t h OE /o/ i n open s y l l a b l e s .  Map 53: c o a l , coat  In  t h e s e words, on t h e o t h e r hand, we f i n d / o i , / n o t /u3/ i n SY. }  The development o f ME h'l  t o /us/  i n ( m o s t l y ) n o r t h e r n d i a l e c t s i s an e x a c t p a r a l l e l t o t h e development o f ME /£.:/ t o /id/ i n r o u g h l y t h e same area.  k.33  /ia/ (a)  T h i s diaphoneme i s r e s t r i c t e d i n o c c u r r e n c e t o t h e r u r a l  dialects  o f t h e FN and most o f t h e MN. (b)  / i a / i s n o r m a l l y an even d i p h t h o n g , t h a t i s , n e i t h e r p a r t r e c e i v e s prominence over t h e o t h e r .  I n t h e s o u t h e r n and c e n t r a l p a r t s o f t h e  a r e a t h e a c t u a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h i s diaphoneme v a r i e s between CxaH and CeaJ, w h i l e i n Nb, n o r t h e r n Cu and p a r t s o f Du we f i n d (c)  The o n l y source o f / i a / i n E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s i s ME / a : / , w h i c h i n t h e n o r t h r e s u l t s e i t h e r from OE / a / i n open s y l l a b l e s o r i s t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f OE / a : / , unrounded i n t h e north.  However, i n t h e case o f t h e l a t t e r  t h e r e has been much i n t e r f e r e n c e from t h e d i a phoneme /o:/, i n i m i t a t i o n o f t h e SSB /ou/ p r e s e n t i n such words.  Thus l o a f , f o r example,  i s o f t e n pronounced / l o : f / , r a t h e r t h a n i n the r u r a l dialects of the north.  /liaf/  Cxe.Il.  Maps 36, 5 0 - 5 3 : spade, b o t h ,  loaf  -  k.3h  8*i  -  /iu/ (a)  This i s the o n l y n o n - f a l l i n g diphthong t h a t i s widespread i n England.  I t o c c u r s i n SSB, a l l t h e urban d i a l e c t s and i n most  rural dialects.  The o n l y r u r a l d i a l e c t s t h a t seem t o l a c k t h i s  diaphoneme a r e i n D and a few l o c a l i t i e s I n a l l t h e s e areas SSB l6  map (b)  o f So, Bk, G l and  / i u / i s r e g u l a r l y r e p l a c e d by /u:/.  f o r the a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of  See  /iu/.  The f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s d i p h t h o n g v a r i e s between t h e pure vowel C j • ( u s u a l i n Wx,  Db.  So, Mo, t h e CM1,  t h e WM1  semi-  and t h e IM)  t h e v e r y s h o r t h i g h f r o n t ' u n r o u n d e d Ci 3 , u s u a l e l s e w h e r e . -  and  The  second p a r t o f t h e d i p h t h o n g i s always t h e h i g h rounded t e n s e v o w e l , n o r m a l l y Cu:D  but f r o n t e d t o Cu:H  areas where /u:/ i s a l s o f r o n t e d . (c)  o r Zy.l  Cf. h.19  i n t h e same  (b).  ( i ) The u s u a l s o u r c e o f / i u / i s ME / i u /  Maps 57-58: dew,  ( o f t e n from F r e n c h /y/ o r OE / e n / ) .  few, pure  I n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f SY and L a , e a r l i e r /eu/ i s o f t e n r e t a i n e d t o t h i s  day,  so t h a t o n l y OE / i u / and F r e n c h /y/ r e s u l t e d i n / i u / today. I n Wx,  So and t h e WM1,  the / i u / of other  d i a l e c t s i s r e p l a c e d by /u:/ a f t e r d e n t a l consonants  / t / , /d/ and /n/.  m i l a r N o r t h American  tune,  new  Note t h e s i -  universally  r e p l a c e d by /u:/ a f t e r / r / , / l / , / s / and consonants.  dew,  58:  development.  Earlier /iu/ i s practically  palatal  Map  rule, lute,  sue,  chew, June, s u r e  -.85'  (ii)  -  I n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e MN, and  o c c a s i o n a l l y i n N f , ME /o:/ became / i u / ,  Maps 55-56: do, moon  not / i s / , / u i / o r /u:/ as i n - o t h e r d i a l e c t s . This / i u / i s probably t h e n a t u r a l development o f an e a r l i e r  / y : / - a sound  still  c u r r e n t i n some S c o t t i s h d i a l e c t s f o r ME /o:/  ( c f . 3.8 ( v ) ) .  /ua/  4.35 (a)  T h i s d i p h t h o n g a l diaphoneme i s r e s t r i c t e d t o a few r u r a l l o c a t i o n s i n north-western  Y.  Lxral.  (b)  Always an even d i p h t h o n g  (c)  /ua/ i s always d e r i v e d from ME /o:/, j u s t as i t s f r o n t c o u n t e r p a r t / i a / i s d e r i v e d from ME / a : / i n t h e same a r e a .  A c t u a l l y , among a l l  t h e words examined, i t o c c u r s o n l y i n t h r e e words: hose, r o a d , t h r o a t .  V.36  The  "schwa'  A l l t h e vowels d i s c u s s e d so f a r can o c c u r i n b o t h s t r e s s e d and u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s , w i t h a l l emphasis b e i n g p l a c e d on t h e i r in stressed syllables.  presence  Now we s h o u l d d i s c u s s a vowel t h a t can o n l y  occur i n u n s t r e s s e d p o s i t i o n .  I t i s t h e n e u t r a l v o w e l , o r schwa D3D.  I t o c c u r s i n a l l d i a l e c t s o f E n g l i s h , n o r m a l l y as t h e r e d u c t i o n o f OE / a / , /e/, /o/ and /u/ - as w e l l as o f most diphthongs p l e t e l y unstressed s y l l a b l e s .  - i n most com-  Only e a r l i e r /if has n o r m a l l y r e t a i n e d  - 86 -  i t s o r i g i n a l p h o n e t i c v a l u e , though i n many cases / i / , t o o , became /s/ i n u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s .  See, f o r example, map "jh f o r t h e d i s -  t r i b u t i o n o f / a / and / i / i n t h e word r a b b i t / r a b i t / ~ / r a b a t / .  4.37  CONSONANTS The  consonantal  system o f E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s i s much more u n i f o r m  t h a n t h e i r v o c a l i c system.  22 consonantal  i n a l l d i a l e c t s spoken i n E n g l a n d .  diaphonemes a r e p r e s e n t  They a r e , w i t h examples•from SSB:  /p/  p i e / p a i / , supper /sXpa/, t o p / t o p /  /t/  t i e / t a i / , p r e t t y / p r i t i : / , c a t / k a t / , m i s s e d / m i s t / , Thomas /tomas/  /k/  k i t e / k a i t / , c a t / k a t / , c h a r a c t e r / k a r a k t B / , q u a r t e r /kwo:ta/, -lax / l a k s / , accurate / a k i u r i t / , l a c k / l a k / , acquire  /akwaia/  /b/  buy / b a i / , ebb /eb/, cab /kab/  /d/  d i e / d a i / , add /ad/, mad /mad/  /g/  g o a l / g o u l / , a g g r a v a t e / a g r a v e i t / , bag /bag/, examine g i v e / g i v / , ghost / g o u s t / , g u e r i l l a  /igzamin/,  /garila/  /"ts/ c h i l d / t s a i l d / , c e l l o / t s e l o u / , b a t c h / b a t s / , n a t u r e / n e i t s a / /dz/ j e t / d z e t / , age / e i d z / , edge /edz/, s o l d i e r /f/  /souldza/  f i r e / f a i a / , s u f f e r / s A f a / , l a u g h / l a : f / , photograph / f o u t a g r a : f / , lieutenant /le'ftenant/  /0/  t h i n /Qin/, eighth / e i t Q /  /s/  s i g h / s a i / , cent / s e n t / , s c e n t / s e n t / , assent / ^ s e n t / , c l a s s /kla :'s/  /s/  shy / s a i / , machine /masin/, schedule  ;  / s e d i u ' i l / , sugar /suga/,  m i s s i o n /misan'/, n a t i o n / n e i s a n / , f a c i a l / f e i s a l / , noxious /3/  t h e /5i':/~/cJa/, t h o s e /ctouz/, b a t h e /bei£/  /noksas/  - 87 -  /v/  v e a l / v i : l / , l o v e / I A V / , of_ /ov/~/av/  /z/  z e a l / z i : l / , buzz /~b/\z/, s c i s s o r s / s i z a z / , r o s e / r o u z / , e x i l e / e g z a i l / , xylophone / z a i l a f o u n / , t z a r / z a : /  /z/  p l e a s u r e / p l e z a / , a z u r e / a z a / , garage  /gararz/  /m/  man /man/, hammer /hama/  /n/  never /nevs/, s i n n e r / s i n e / , gnome /noum/, know /nou/  /l/  late / l e i t / , all_ /o:l/  /r/  r a t / r a t / , f u r r y / f ^ t r i : / , rheumatism  /w/  w i n / w i n / , where / wes/, q u i t e / k w a i t /  /j/  yard /ja:d/, m i l l i o n  /ru:matizm/  /miljan/  Two consonants o c c u r i n SSB (in a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e )that a r e absent i n some o f t h e d i a l e c t s .  /h/  They a r e / h / and A)/.  o c c u r s i n SSB i n p r e - v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n o n l y (e.g. h a t / h a t / , back-  hand /bak hand/, n i h i l i s m / n a i h i l i z m / ) .  I t s o c c u r r e n c e i n words l i k e  huge and hue a r e o n l y apparent e x c e p t i o n s , because a c c o r d i n g t o t h e anal y s i s adopted i n t h i s paper t h e sequence  Cju:H i n such words i s a n a l y s e d  as t h e diaphoneme / i u / , w h i c h i s a vowel. /h/ o c c u r s i n a l l s t a n d a r d v a r i e t i e s o f E n g l i s h - i n d e e d , i t s p r e sence i s one o f t h e h a l l m a r k s o f " e d u c a t e d " speech. most p o p u l a r d i a l e c t s , urban and r u r a l .  I t i s absent from  Among t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s i t i s  present only i n four r e s t r i c t e d areas: (1)  East A n g l i a  (2)  Most o f Wx and So, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e southernmost p a r t o f Mo.  - 88 -  (3)  The F a r N o r t h  (h)  The I s l e o f Man  I n t h e r e s t o f E n g l a n d , p e o p l e r e g u l a r l y "drop t h e i r a i t c h e s " .  It  Is n o t e w o r t h y t h a t i n a l l v a r i e t i e s o f E n g l i s h spoken o u t s i d e E n g l a n d , /h/ i s p r e s e r v e d - even i n t h o s e d i a l e c t s (such as t h o s e o f A u s t r a l i a and New  Zealand) t h a t a r e o t h e r w i s e v e r y c l o s e t o t h e s o u t h e r n E n g l i s h  urban d i a l e c t s i n t h e i r The sequence  /hw/  phonology.  ( a c t u a l l y pronounced  Cwl) i s p r e s e n t i n some  v a r i e t i e s o f s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h ( m o s t l y o l d - f a s h i o n e d ' o r p e d a n t i c ) and i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s n e x t t o t h e S c o t t i s h b o r d e r and on t h e IM. o c c u r s i n words such as whale and where. /hw/  It  O u t s i d e E n g l a n d t h e use o f  i s w i d e s p r e a d i n S c o t l a n d , I r e l a n d and N o r t h A m e r i c a , b u t i n Eng-  l a n d i t i s n o r m a l l y r e p l a c e d by See map  /w/.  76 f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f /h/ and /hw/  i n English  rural  dialects.  As a sound, t h e v e l a r n a s a l  CIQH  exists i n a l l dialects of English.  The diaphoneme / r j / , however, i s absent i n c e r t a i n M i d l a n d s  dialects.  The r e a s o n i s t h a t i n t h e s e d i a l e c t s D Q D o c c u r s o n l y b e f o r e t h e v e l a r consonants /k/ and /g/, i n a p o s i t i o n where CnH cannot o c c u r .  Hence  CrjD i n such d i a l e c t s can be c o n s i d e r e d as an a l l o p h o n e o f /n/.  In  o t h e r d i a l e c t s , . i n c l u d i n g SSB, t h e f i n a l consonant c l u s t e r /ng/ has been r e d u c e d t o C Q 3 , SO t h a t we f i n d c o n t r a s t s such as s i n CslnH v s . sing Csirp. of  a new  U s i n g g e n e r a t i v e phonology, we c o u l d s t i l l a v o i d t h e use  diaphoneme (by i n t r o d u c i n g a d e l e t i o n r u l e f o r f i n a l /g/ a f t e r  - 89 -  /n/).  However, /g/ a f t e r /n/ was  a l s o l o s t w i t h i n a word b e f o r e c e r -  t a i n s u f f i x e s (e.g. t h e n o m i n a l i z e r - e r , gerund - i n g ) , w h i l e b e i n g p r e s e r v e d b e f o r e o t h e r s (e.g. t h e comparative we  f i n d s i n g e r Lsxrpl,  banging  -er, superlative -est).  Thus  Cb^erjirjH b u t younger HjAyjgaH and l o n g e s t  C l o r j g i s t l ! ( a l l examples from SSB).  S i n c e t h e l o s s o f o r i g i n a l /g/ can-  not be determined on t h e b a s i s o f p h o n e t i c environment a l o n e , i t i s nec e s s a r y t o s e t up t h e diaphoneme Aj/  .38  i n most d i a l e c t s .  See map 8|2-:«—  C o r r e s p o n d i n g t o c e r t a i n c o n s o n a n t a l diaphonemes o f SSB we  find  d i f f e r e n t diaphonemes i n some d i a l e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o v a r i o u s c o n d i tioning factors.  (a)  Some r e g u l a r correspondences  are:  I n i t i a l / f / , /0/, / s / and / s / , when o c c u r r i n g b e f o r e vowels o r v o i c e d c o n s o n a n t s , have u s u a l l y become v o i c e d t o /v/, /oY, /z/,  r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f Wx,  So and t h e SW.  change d i d not a f f e c t a l l words w i t h such i n i t i a l s example, i t i s l e s s w i d e s p r e a d b e f o r e consonants than before In  / z / and The  equally - for  (e.g. f l y , smoke)  vowels.  a f u r t h e r change a l o n g t h e same l i n e s , we  c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o SSB  s h o u l d note t h a t  /0/ b e f o r e / r / we f i n d /d/,not /cV  i n these  d i a l e c t s : t h r e e / d r i : / , t h r o w /drou/ o r / d r o : / . I t i s noteworthy  that a similar voicing of i n i t i a l f r i c a t i v e s  has  o c c u r r e d i n some nearby Germanic l a n g u a g e s , most i m p o r t a n t l y Dutch, w h i c h has v i j f and zes f o r E n g l i s h f i v e and s i x .  I n most German d i a -  l e c t s a l s o , i n i t i a l / s / b e f o r e vowels has become CzD:  sechs  CzeksH.  - 90, -  I n i t i a l / 0 / was not o n l y v o i c e d i n t h e s e two l a n g u a g e s , h u t i t a l s o became a s t o p i n a l l p o s i t i o n s , not o n l y b e f o r e / r / as i n t h e E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s concerned: Dutch dun, d r i e ; German dunn, d r e i f o r E n g l i s h t h i n , t h r e e (Wx & SW d i a l e c t See maps 78-81  /Sin/, / d r i : / ) .  f o r the geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s  voicing  phenomenon.  )  ME PFR were l o s t i n a l l s t a n d a r d d i a l e c t s .  Of t h e n i n e urban  d i a l e c t areas PFR has been k e p t o n l y i n t h r e e : B r i s t o l - D o v e r , N o r t h L a n c a s h i r e and N e w c a s t l e .  Of t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s , PFR i s k e p t i n t h e  f o l l o w i n g : t h e SE, Wx, t h e SW, So, t h e WM1, of  i t s u r v i v e i n L and t h e IM.  L a and t h e FN.  Traces  Outside England, the d i a l e c t s  s p l i t i n t h e i r t r e a t m e n t o f ME PFR.  also  I t i s r e t a i n e d i n Wales, I r e l a n d ,  S c o t l a n d and much o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , w h i l e l o s t i n p a r t s o f New Engl a n d (see K u r a t h ( 1 9 6 1 ) , p115), most o f t h e American S o u t h , A u s t r a l i a , New Z e a l a n d , South A f r i c a and t h e C a r i b b e a n . Where PFR i s l o s t , t h e v o c a l i c system i s p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t e d , as the  d i p h t h o n g a l phonemes / i s / , /us/ and /ea/ have t o be i n t r o d u c e d t o  account f o r t h e e n d i n g o f words such as p e e r , poor and p e a r and t h e diaphonemes / a : / and lo'l become much more f r e q u e n t t h a n i n t h e d i a l e c t s p r e s e r v i n g PFR. In d i a l e c t s t h a t have l o s t PFR, t h e vowels / i a / , / a : / and /o-/ seem t o have d e v e l o p e d an " u n d e r l y i n g " ( m o s t l y d e l e t e d ) / r / even where no / r / e x i s t e d o r i g i n a l l y .  T h i s accounts f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e s o -  c a l l e d " l i n k i n g r " i n words and phrases such as i d e a o f / a i d i a r a v / ,  - 91 -  the  /5s s a r r s v p3:s3/ and t h a w i n g / O ^ r r i i r ) / .  Shah o f P e r s i a See  map IT f o r areas where PFR i s l o s t and map 66 f o r t h e p r e s e n c e  o f l i n k i n g r_ i n r u r a l d i a l e c t s .  (c)  Intervocalic the  / t / was v o i c e d t o /d/ i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f  SW, So and p a r t s o f Wx.  American E n g l i s h .  C f . t h e s i m i l a r development i n N o r t h  See map TT f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e /bXdSr/  pronunciation o f butter i n the r u r a l d i a l e c t s . I n Cockney and t h e urban and r u r a l d i a l e c t s spoken around London, the  (d)  g l o t t a l s t o p C?H i s a f r e q u e n t a l l o p h o n e o f i n t e r v o c a l i c / t / .  The v e l a r consonants /k/ and / g / were r e p l a c e d by / t / and / d / , respectively, by  i n many M i d l a n d s and n o r t h e r n d i a l e c t s when f o l l o w e d  / l / o r /w/.  Thus we w o u l d f i n d c l i m b / t l a i m / o r / t l i m / , g l o v e  / d l u v / , q u i l t / t w i l t / and Gwynn /dwin/. g l o v e (VI. 14-.7  (e)  See SED q u i l t ( V . 2 . 1 l ) and  ), f o r example.  The c l u s t e r s  C t j l l and CdjH ( a c t u a l l y , from / t i u - / and / d i u - / ) were  r e p l a c e d by t h e a f f r i c a t e s / t s / and /dz/,  respectively,  d i a l e c t s o f Wx, So and t h e WMl, as w e l l as i n s e v e r a l including See  Cockney.  i n the r u r a l  urban  dialects  I n t h e s e d i a l e c t s tune i s / t s u : n / and dew i s /dzu:/.  map 5T. I n many words t h a t c o n t a i n e d t h e sequence / t j / and / d j / a l r e a d y i n  ME, t h i s change has s p r e a d t o most E n g l i s h nature, s o l d i e r .  d i a l e c t s i n c l u d i n g SSB:  - 91 -  (f)  OE /k/ and / g / were p a l a t a l i z e d t o / t s / and / d z / i n c e r t a i n environments  ( /k/ always when f o l l o w e d "by a f r o n t vowel o r f i n a l l y  a f t e r a f r o n t v o w e l ; / g / only, when geminated, m e d i a l l y b e f o r e o r f i n a l l y a f t e r a front vowel).  Examples i n SSB a r e : OE /kild/-»  SSB c h i l d / t s a i l d / ; OE swelc /swelk/-> SSB such that the intervening  /sAts/  (note  / l / aid not p r e v e n t t h e p a l a t a l i z a t i o n ) ; OE  ecg /egg/-* SSB edge /edz/. This p a l a t a l i z a t i o n affected a l l English  dialects.  However,  t h e r e a r e many words where t h e e x p e c t e d p a l a t a l i z a t i o n i s absent. Such words a r e e s p e c i a l l y common i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e n o r t h , due t o t h e heavy S c a n d i n a v i a n i n f l u e n c e i n OE t i m e s .  present i n the area  See map 75 f o r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f /k/ i n s t e a d o f / t s /  i n t h e words b i r c h  (OE b i e r c e ) , c h a f f  churn (OE c y r i n ) , f l i t c h  (OE c e a f ) , church (OE c i r c e ) ,  (OE f l i c c e ) and such (OE s w e l c ) .  - 93 -  v CONCLUSION  As we  can see from t h i s p a p e r , t h e phonemic s t r u c t u r e o f E n g l i s h  presents a complicated p i c t u r e .  But i f we l o o k at i t c a r e f u l l y ,  can see t h a t i t s p a t t e r n s a r e r a t h e r s y m m e t r i c a l  we  and t h a t t h e h i s -  t o r i c a l developments w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l d i a l e c t s have had a l a r g e degree o f i n t e r n a l  consistency.  A good example i n s y m m e t r i c a l  development i s seen i n t h e r e g u l a r  modern developments o f the ME l o n g vowels / a : / and throat).  The  two ME  lo'J  (e.g. spade,  sounds have d e v e l o p e d s y m m e t r i c a l l y i n most o f  E n g l a n d , as shown i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e ( c f . a l s o maps 36, ME  /a:/  ME  /e:/  /j:/  53).  Dialects  /o:/  Wx,  t h e SW,  WM1,  urban d i a l e c t  /ei/=Zeil  /ou/=»CouD  (2)  So, IM, urban d i a l e c t s (T) &  /ou/=Cou ~ovl  /ei/-CeiH  NM1,  (6),  (8)  SE, SMI,  CM1,  many s t a n d a r d  dialects /ei/*C£i-«xD  /ou/-C ou-Atr:  Much o f EA, SSB,  /ia/  /oa/  Eastern  Cockney  Y  E v i d e n t l y , t h e o n l y major a r e a where symmetry does not o c c u r i s i n t h e d i a l e c t s of the north. f o r b o t h ME vowels (/es/  I n L and p a r t s o f Y we o r / i a / f o r ME  f i n d c e n t r i n g diphthongs  / a : / and  / i i a / f o r ME  h - l ) , while  - 94 -  i n t h e r e s t o f t h e n o r t h we m o s t l y f i n d i d e n t i c a l r e f l e x e s / i a / o r / i a / f o r OE / a : / and OE / a / i n open s y l l a b l e s , w i t h o n l y OE /o/ i n open l a b l e s d e v e l o p i n g t o ME /o:/ and hence t o modern d i a l e c t a l /ua/.  syl-  Occasio-  n a l l y we a l s o f i n d d i a l e c t a l /o:/ and /o:/ i n t h e n o r t h , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o SSB /ou/, diaphonemes t h a t r e p r e s e n t developments t h a t d i d not a f f e c t , ME /a:/.  5.3  S i m i l a r symmetry o c c u r s i n most d i a l e c t s o f E n g l i s h i n t h e development o f t h e ME l o n g vowels / i : / and /u:/.  We f i n d t h e f o l l o w i n g vowels i n  words such as s k y and c l o u d ( c f . maps 4 0 , 4 6 ) . ME / i : /  ME / u : /  Dialects  ./ai/=CaiH  /au/=CaxjH  S a , c e n t r a l L, p a r t s o f s o u t h Y, n o r t h e r n L a , SSB  /ai/=CciI~'DX3  /au/=Caerj--£.Tjri  EA  ( e x c e p t N f ) , t h e SE, Ha,  SMI, C M l , S t /ai/=Ce'i~AtD  /au/=C3tJ~AUD  Mon, He, Wo,  A g a i n , we do n o t f i n d symmetry everywhere. diphthongs  W,  Do  The e a r l y modern E n g l i s h  / a i / and /au/ were a g a i n monophthongized: / a i / t o /afc:/ i n D,  /au/ t o / a : / o r /£.:/ i n Db, s o u t h Y and s o u t h L a , w i t h no e q u i v a l e n t change i n t h e o t h e r d i p h t h o n g .  I n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e MN and FN,  ME / u : / was r e t a i n e d unchanged, w h i l e / i : / was d i p h t h o n g i z e d t o / a i / .  5.4  The ME s h o r t vowels / a / and /o/ were l e n g t h e n e d  t o / a : / and lo'-l i n  t h e d i a l e c t s o f t h e s o u t h and t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t s o f t h e M i d l a n d s f o l l o w e d by t h e v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s 2 8 , f o r example.  This i s another  when  / f / , / 0 / and / s / . See maps 62 and  sound change t h a t a f f e c t e d two sounds  - 95 -  s h a r i n g s e v e r a l common f e a t u r e s i n t h e same  5.5  way.  D i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f p a t t e r n s can he seen i n the way changes a f f e c t each o t h e r .  c e r t a i n sound  There seems t o he a " n a t u r a l " tendency  i n languages t o keep phonemes a p a r t .  T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t i f one phoneme  i s s h i f t e d i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n towards a n o t h e r , t h e o t h e r w i l l a l s o so t h a t t h e c o n t r a s t between t h e two cases t h i s does not happen and we  5.6  i s maintained.  shift,  Of c o u r s e , i n some  f i n d phonemic merger.  There are many examples o f sound changes o c c u r r i n g as a k i n d o f reaction. (a)  chain-  Here are some:  D u r i n g t h e s o - c a l l e d Great E n g l i s h Vowel S h i f t , t h e l o n g f r o n t vowels were p r o g r e s s i v e l y r a i s e d , except f o r ME t h o n g i z e d t o / a i / i n most d i a l e c t s .  The  / i : / w h i c h was  components o f t h i s  diph-  shift  were: (i)  ME  / a : / was  r a i s e d t o / e i / o r /e:/ i n a l l d i a l e c t s except t h e  r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f the n o r t h where a d i p h t h o n g w i t h a h i g h e r p o i n t developed: / i a / o r / i a / . map (ii)  E.g.  spade (OE spadu-»ME  starting  /spa:d/),  36. ME  /£:/ n o r m a l l y merged w i t h ME  /e:/, t o be r a i s e d t o / i : / i n  t h e modern s t a n d a r d language and most d i a l e c t s . I n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f p a r t s o f Wx merged w i t h ME  and  t h e WMl,  / a : / i n s t e a d t o g i v e modern /e:/.  The  ME  /&:/  same merger  t o o k p l a c e i n p a r t s o f t h e CMl, where t h e r e s u l t a n t t o d a y i s / e i / . Note t h a t i n a number o f words i t was  t h i s merger t h a t was  adopted  - 96 -  i n t o t h e s t a n d a r d language: (OE d r e a h n i a n -»ME (ON s t e i k -»ME  b r e a k (OE b r e c a n ->ME  /bre:k/), drain  / d r e : n / ) , g r e a t (OE g r e a t -> ME  /ste.:k/) and yea  (OE gea -»ME  /gre:t/),  /j£:/).  As we know  from t h e e v i d e n c e o f rhymes from p o e t r y up t o the. l 8 t h merger o f ME standard  steak  century,  / a : / and /£:/ used t o be much more common i n t h e  language.  I n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e SW,  ME  /£:/ merged w i t h ME / a i /  to give / e i / . In t h e N M 1 , SY and L a r u r a l d i a l e c t s ME  /£:/ has p r o d u c e d / e i /  a l s o , but i n t h i s a r e a t h i s does not r e p r e s e n t a merger w i t h major ME vowel o r d i p h t h o n g  ( i t does, however, c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e  ME sequence C a i c H , so t h a t eat and e i g h t are b o t h pronounced F i n a l l y , i n t h e L and MN r u r a l d i a l e c t s ME n o r m a l l y a merger w i t h ME See maps 3*+,  35,  96,  cream, eat and bean.  any  /a:/, / a i / or  /eit/).  /£:/ gave / i s / , not  /e:/.  97 f o r t h e diaphonemes p r e s e n t i n speak,  Maps 9 9 ,  1 0 0 and 1 0 2 show t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f  g r e a t , b r e a k and d r a i n , a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d above. (iii)  ME  /e:/ was  r a i s e d t o / i : / i n a l l d i a l e c t s except f o r t h e r u r a l  d i a l e c t s i n p a r t s o f St and Db, where i t became / e i / . E.g. (OE preo -»ME (iv)  ME  /Ore:/).  / i : / developed  See map  33.  i n t o t h e modern d i p h t h o n g  / a i / i n most d i a l e c t s ,  f u r t h e r s h i f t e d t o / o i / i n some s o u t h e r n and M i d l a n d s f u r t h e r s h i f t i s e a s i l y understood CaiH o r CoiH i n many o f t h e s e  L±:l  three  i f we  dialects.  This  c o n s i d e r t h a t / e i / i s pronounced  areas.  A c c o r d i n g t o most a u t h o r i t i e s , t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a g e between  ME  and modern s t a n d a r d CaiD was  the  a d i p h t h o n g whose f i r s t p a r t was  -  97  -  n e u t r a l vowel Call, r a t h e r t h a n any k i n d o f f u l l y f r o n t e d v o w e l . See f o r example Dobson ( 1 9 6 8 ) , §13Tj w h i c h proposes t h e f o l l o w i n g sequence f o r t h e development o f ME / i : / i n SSB: :i::-»*Cxi:-> Cai3-> *CAX3-VtaxD.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t i n c e r t a i n d i a l e c t s  o f modern E n g l i s h / i : / (from ME /e:/ o r /&:/) has s t a r t e d t o s h i f t in  t h e same d i r e c t i o n .  On t h e o t h e r hand, i n c e r t a i n s o u t h e r n  d i a l e c t s the older s h i f t i s s t i l l incomplete, pronounced Dai 1 o r (v)  ME / a i / ,  CAXH.  since / a i / i s s t i l l  See map hi f o r k n i f e (OE c n i f ) .  o f d i v e r s e o r i g i n s , s h o u l d a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d  here.  I n most d i a l e c t s i t has had t h e same development s i n c e ME t i m e s as ME / a : / , b u t t h i s merger i s not u n i v e r s a l . Among t h e u r b a n d i a l e c t s , o n l y t h o s e near t h e Welsh b o r d e r have k e p t t h e s e two sounds a p a r t (ME / a i / i s r e f l e c t e d as / e i / , The  a g a i n s t t h e /e:/ from ME / a : / ) .  same d i s t i n c t i o n i s k e p t i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f Wx, t h e SW  and t h e WML  (except S a ) , w h i l e i t i s b e i n g l o s t i n EA.  I n t h e wes-  t e r n h a l f o f t h e MN, ME / a i / became /e:/, w h i l e ME / a : / was d i p h thongized t o / i a / . is  normal - / e i /  I n a l l o t h e r d i a l e c t s merger o f ME / a i / and / a : / b e i n g t h e most common r e s u l t a n t , b u t we a l s o f i n d  /e:/ (Mo, Ox, S a , t h e NMl, SY, L a and next t o t h e S c o t t i s h b o r d e r ) , /ea/ ( i n L) and / i a / ( i n p a r t s o f t h e MN and F N ) . I n p a r t s o f S t , Ch and Db, ME / a i / d e v e l o p e d t o / i : / , t h u s a v o i d i n g merger w i t h any o t h e r ME phoneme. See map 37, showing t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n s o f t h e v o w e l i n c l a y (OE cli£g->ME / k l a i / ) . When f o l l o w e d by EgD, ME / a i / lects.  became / e i / i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l d i a -  See maps 3 8 , 39 f o r e i g h t (OE a h t a ->ME C a i g t l J ) , s t r a i g h t  (OE s t r e g t -»ME C s t r a i g t l l ) .  - 98 -  (b)  Back rounded vowels underwent a s i m i l a r but not c o m p l e t e l y e q u i v a l e n t development d u r i n g t h e Great Vowel S h i f t . (i)  ME  lO'/ was  I t s components were:  r a i s e d t o /o:/ o r /ou/ i n t h e s o u t h and t h e  with occasional further  r a i s i n g t o Cu:H  (=/©:/, c f . 4.18)  Midlands,  i n D.  A  h i g h e r - m i d rounded vowel has a l s o been adopted ( p r o b a b l y as a b o r r o w i n g , c f . 4.20) i t was  i n t h e Nb and n o r t h e r n Du r u r a l d i a l e c t s , but h e r e  f r o n t e d : /o:/.  But elsewhere  i n t h e n o r t h , ME  /o:/  occurred  n o r m a l l y o n l y as t h e development o f OE /o/ i n open s y l l a b l e s c o a l , OE c o l , ME  / k o : l / ) , which became / o i / i n SY and /us/ i n t h e  other r u r a l d i a l e c t s of the area. OE / a : / was Midlands  rounded t o Io'I  53.  i n a l l d i a l e c t s o f t h e south and  / a : / merged w i t h / a / i n open s y l l a b l e s , f o r t h e development o f  / l o : f / elsewhere). ME  S t , ME  /o:/ was  E.g. l o a f (OE h l a f , ME  See map  / l a : f / i n the n o r t h ,  51.  r a i s e d t o /u:/ i n most d i a l e c t s .  /o:/ became /eu/ j u s t as ME  I n p a r t s o f Db  (even p r o d u c i n g a new  and  /e:/ became / e i / .  I n areas where /o:/ has a tendency t o " o v e r - r o u n d " Cu:H  the  In the r e s t of the northern r u r a l d i a l e c t s ,  which see (a) ( i ) above.  (ii)  See map  i n ME t i m e s , but i n t h e n o r t h o n l y i n L and SY, e v e n t u a l l y  d i p h t h o n g i z i n g t o /u3/. OE  (e.g.  diaphoneme /©:/  t o K): U o r  i n D, c f . a b o v e ) ,  the  p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f /u:/ a l s o tends t o s h i f t i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a f u l l y fronted  Cy:H.  Yet i n a r e a s o f t h e n o r t h where ME o r /ou/, ME  /o:/ was  i n SY ( c f . ME  /mo:n/).  was  not r a i s e d t o  /o:/  not s h i f t e d t o /u:/ e i t h e r , d e v e l o p i n g t o / u i /  /o:/ t o / o i / i n t h e same r e g i o n ) and  t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f t h e MN and FN. ME  /D:/  See map  / i u / or / i a / i n  55 f o r moon (OE mona,  - 99 -  T h i s t r i p l e development o f ME /o:/,  depending on how ME /o:/  e v o l v e d i s a p o w e r f u l argument i n f a v o u r o f t h e p u s h - c h a i n / chain theory of phonetic (iii)  pull-  change (see M a r t i n e t (1*364-),pp. J T 3 - 6 0 ) .  ME /u:/ was d i p h t h o n g i z e d  t o /au/ i n t h o s e a r e a s where ME  /o:/ became /u:/ - an e v i d e n t " p u s h i n g "  effect.  In the  rural  d i a l e c t s o f t h e MN and FN, ME /u:/ has remained unchanged. See map (iv)  U6 f o r c l o u d (OE clud-»ME / k l u : d / ) . ME /au/ n o r m a l l y became /o:/, but t h e r e has been a s t r o n g t e n -  dency i n t h e n o r t h t o merge w i t h ME /ou/,  e s p e c i a l l y b e f o r e ME CxH.  See map 65 f o r example, f o r b r o u g h t (OE b r o h t e -»early ME CbrouxtH -» ME (v)  CbrauxtD i n t h e south a n d M ' i d l a n d s , CbrouxtH i n t h e n o r t h ) . ME /ou/ c o r r e s p o n d s n e a t l y t o ME / a i / .  and i n Nf i t remained /ou/, ME  /o:/.  I n p a r t s o f t h e west  d i s t i n c t from t h e /o:/ d e r i v e d from  Even i n p a r t s o f t h e CM1 i t r e t a i n e d a s e p a r a t e  - we f i n d CD-all f o r ME /ou/, w h i l e CouD f o r ME  identity  lo'.l.  I n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f ' t h e n o r t h , ME /ou/ i s a l s o - o f t e n w i t h a more ot>pen p r o n u n c i a t i o n : Caif] o r Cctm.  preserved See map  5*+ f o r grow (OE growan, ME / g r o u / ) . )  There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t t h r e e changes a f f e c t i n g s h o r t vowels  i n t h e south o f England a r e a l s o r e l a t e d i n a s i m i l a r way.  They a r e :  ME /u/ became / A / i n a l l d i a l e c t s o f t h e south and i n t h e WM1.  (i)  I n i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s , we f i n d /o/ f o r ME /u/ on t h e IM.  See map  32 f o r c u t . (ii)  ME / a / was r a i s e d t o CasD i n much o f t h e south and on t h e IM, pr<  sumably t o keep i t s d i s t a n c e from t h e l o w , unrounded / A / . Around London, where / A / has a c q u i r e d i t s most advanced Call a l l o p h o n e ,  the  -100-  diaphoneme (iii) the  / a / has t e n d e d t o merge w i t h  According to  (i)  d i a l e c t s o f the  still  exists  i n the  This  south. area  i s t h a t ME / o : / , a f t e r  S e e map 31 f o r  Thus a s u r v e y o f t h e phonemic systems u s a g o o d i n s i g h t i n t o how s o u n d c h a n g e s e x p l a i n them.  For a better  of  social  class,  examining the  being raised  speaker,  a different  dialects  of different operate.  It  dialects  gives  does n o t ,  however, occur,  l o c a l i t y to l o c a l i t y ,  social Instead  consider the  speech o f a  far  c e r t a i n features  present  survey have a c t u a l l y  w i t h S t a n d a r d E n g l i s h and can s u r v i v e f o r  local  their  other  several generations  SED made some 50 t e a r s l a t e r ,  d i a l e c t s have r e t r e a t e d  London and the  o f d i a l e c t s can  d i e out or have a l r e a d y d i e d out?  W r i g h t ' s EDG w i t h t h e  sur-  dialects.  Which p h o n e t i c and phonemic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  and w h i c h ones w i l l  at  B y t h a t m e t h o d o n e c o u l d e s t a b l i s h how  discussed i n the  vived today i n English  large  large  number o f p e o p l e o f a l l a g e s a n d s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d s , t a k e n p e r h a p s random i n c e r t a i n l o c a l i t i e s .  to  look.  k i n d o f survey i s needed.  i t would have t o  /u/  where  speech o f r e l a t i v e l y few, p r e - s e l e c t e d people i n a  number o f l o c a l i t i e s ,  in  followed  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how s o u n d c h a n g e s  how t h e y s p r e a d f r o m s p e a k e r t o class to  i n those  /A/  diaphoneme  / u / i n many w o r d s , e s p e c i a l l y when  s h o r t e n i n g i s much r a r e r  apple,  h a s become  T h e m a i n r e a s o n why t h e  ME / u / h a s b e e n p r e s e r v e d .  5.7  See map 3 f o r  a b o v e , ME / u / i n m o s t c a s e s  / u : / was s h o r t e n e d t o by / k / .  /e/.  in this  large c i t i e s that  t r a d i t i o n a l features:  century. local  to  compete come  -  By comparing  we c a n s e e how much  Naturally,  it  is  around  d i a l e c t s have l o s t most o f  Around London t h e r e are  no t r a c e s  left  of  - 101 -  /e/ from OE /y/ ( e . g . b r i d g e , k i n g ) , o f /e:/ from ME / a : / ( e . g . spade) or o f / a : / i n s t e a d o f SSB /3:/  (e.g. s e r v a n t ) .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , as t h i s s u r v e y has shown, t h e r e a r e s t i l l many d i a l e c t a l s u r v i v a l s i n England t o d a y , c o n t r i b u t i n g t o our knowledge d i n g o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e E n g l i s h sound  system.  and u n d e r s t a n -  - 102 -  LIST OF MAPS  Map "1 Map  ... R u r a l d i a l e c t s o f England.  2 ... Urban d i a l e c t s o f England.  Maps 3 - 18 show t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and p r o n u n c i a t i o n of c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l d i a phonemes w i t h i n t h e r u r a l d i a l e c t s of England. Map  3 ... /a/  Map  k ... hi  Map  5  . . . hi  Map  6  . . . li:l  Map  T ... h'.l  Map  8  Map  9 ... h-l  . . . /a:/  lo:/  /©:/  Map IT ...  hi  Map 18 ... / l / ( p r e - c o n s o n a n t a l and f i n a l ) Maps 19 - 82 show t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n s o f words d e m o n s t r a t i n g r e g u l a r p h o n e t i c changes i n t h e v a r i o u s r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f England, Map 19  . .. whip ( ME 111 a f t e r /w/ ).  Map 20 . .. l e a d '( noun)J H Map 21 . .. head  J  ME / g : / b e f o r e / d /  j  Map 22 . .. ash ( ME hi Map  23 . .. man  Map  2h . .. hammer  before / s / )  -( OE hi  before nasals )  Map 25 . .. p o r r i d e ( ME hi v o c a l i c hi )  before i n t e r -  Map 26 . .. what, wasp ( ME hi Map  a f t e r /w/ )  2T . .. dog ( ME hi b e f o r e f i n a l / g / )  Map 10  . . . h-.l  Map 11  . . . h-l  Map 28 . .. c r o s s " -(ME hi b e f o r e Map 29 . .. cough fricatives )  ... /ei/  Map  30 . .. hoof (ME lo:/ b e f o r e / f / )  Map  31 . .. l o o k ( ME /o:/ b e f o r e /k/ )  Map Ik ... /au/  Map  32 . .. c u t ( ME hi )  Map 15  . . . /ou/  Map  33 . .. t h r e e ( ME /e:/' )  Map 16  ... /in/  Map  3k . ..  Map 12 Map  13 ... hi/  voiceless  J  speak  ( ME /&:/ )  - 103  Map  35 ... cream ( ME /£:/ i n c e r t a i n words )  Map  36 ...  spade ( ME  /a:/ )  Map  37 ...  clay  ( ME  /ai/)  Map  38 ... e i g h t  Map Map  Map  1  V( ... s t r a i ght\ 39 J kO ... sky ( ME / and b e f o r e consonants kl  ...  ME  i : / finally voiced )  Map  k2 ...  Map  k3 ... n i g h t ( OE i h t )  Map  kk  Map  1+5 ... mice ( OE  Map  k6 ... c l o u d ( ME  Map  47 ... ground ( ME /u/ bef o r e /nd/ )  Map  kQ  ...  Map  56  ... do ( ME  Map  57  ... dew( ME /eu/ a f t e r d e n t a l consonants )  Map  58 ... few ( ME  Map  59  Map  60 ... hare  Map  61  ... h a i r ( OE  Map  62  ... c h a f f ( ME / a / b e f o r e v o i c e less fricatives )  Map  63  ... palm ( ME  Map  61+ ... h a r v e s t ( ME  Map  65  ... brought  Map  66  ... t h a w i n g ( OE aw; development of " i n t r u s i v e " r_ )  Map  67  ... saw  Map  68  ... morning ( ME  Map  69  ... f o u r ( ME  Map  70  ... h o a r s e  Map  Tl  ... door ( ME  /o:/ b e f o r e PFR  )  Map  72  ... work ( ME PFR )  /o/ between /w/  and  Map  73  ... b u r n ( ME /u/ b e f o r e PFR; t h e s i s i n OE )  Map  Ik  ... r a b b i t ( ME u n s t r e s s e d ' / i / )  EaigD )  k n i f e ( ME / i : / bef o r e v o i c e l e s s consonants ) b l i n d ( ME /nd/ )  -  / i / before  f i g h t ( OE eoht  )  /y:/ ) /u:/ )  /o:/ f i n a l l y )  /eu/ elsewhere  ... hear ( ME PFR ) ( ME  )  /e:/ and. /£:/ b e f o r e / a : / b e f o r e PFR 'before PFR  )  )  /au/ b e f o r e /m/  )  / a / b e f o r e PFR  )  ( OE oht )  (noun) ( ME  /au/ )  /o/ b e f o r e PFR  /ou/ b e f o r e PFR  ( OE a b e f o r e PFR  )  ) )  ... mow ~ -( OE aw  )  Map  I+9 ... snow  Map  50 ...  both  Map  51 ...  loaf  Map  52 ... oak ( OE a, i n i t a l l y )  Map  53 ...  •( OE a )  c o a l ( OE 0 i n open syllables )  ... grow ( OE ow  Map  5k  Map  55 ... moon ( ME  Map  75  Map  76  )  jo:I  )  meta  b i r c h , c h a f f , churn, church, f l i t c h , such ( OE /k/ i n p a l a t a l environments ) ... hav_ ( ME  /h/ )  - 104 -  Map 77  ... b u t t e r ( ME i n t e r vocalic / t / )  Map  78  finger  Map  79  thigh three  Map 80 Map  81  Map 82  Y  seven snow  ( OE i n i t i a l voiceless fricatives )  shillingj f i n g e r , tongue /ng/ ••)  Map 83 ... s q u i r r e l ( OF e s c u r i u e l Map 8U ... b u r y * ( OE b y r g a n  Map 96  . . . eat ( 0E e t a n )  Map 97  . . . bean ( 0E bean )  Map 98  . . . k e y * ( 0E c«g  Map 99  . . . g r e a t * ( 0E g r e a t )  any* ( OE g»nig ) many* ( OE manig )  Map 87  d e a f * (OE d e a f )  Map 88 ... h o t * (OE h a t ) Map 89 ... wash ( OE wascan ) Map 90 ... t o n g s * ( OE t a n g )  ME /kay/  Map 100  . . b r e a k * ( 0E b r e c a n )  Map 101  . . d r a i n * ( 0E d r e a h n i a n )  Map 102  . . r e i n s * ( OF r e n e , from Latin retina )  Map 103  . . d i e d * ( ON d e y j a )  Map 10l+  . . e i t h e r * ( 0E £g3er )  Map 105  . . h e i g h t ( ,0E hiehpo )  Map 106  . . eye* ( 0E eage )  Map 107  . . p o i s o n ( OF p o i s o n , froii L a t i n potionem )  Map 108  . . drought  Map 109  . . p l o u g h * ( 0E p l o h )  Map 110  . . dough ( 0E dah )  Map I l l  .. sew* ( 0E s i w a n ,  Map 112  .. cold  Map 113  . . chew* ( OE.ceowan )  Map 11*+  . . l o s e * ( 0E l o s i a n )  Map 115  . . room ( 0E rum )  Map 116  . . ewe ( 0E eowu )  Map 117  . . h a l f ( 0E h e a l f )  Map 118  . . f a t h e r * ( 0E feeder )  )  )  . h e r r i n g ( OE haering )  Map 86  Map 91  . . . among* ( 0E onmang )  ME  Maps 83 - 126 show words t h a t have had i r r e g u l a r p h o n e t i c developments i n some o f t h e d i a l e c t s . Those t h a t a r e marked w i t h an a s t e r i s k have i r r e g u l a r p r o n u n c i a t i o n s i n SSB as w e l l . The etymology o f each word i s g i v e n i n p a r e n t h e s e s .  Map 85  Map 95  ( 0E drugaj? )  siowan  ( 0E c a l d )  ... wrong* ( OE wrang )  Map 92 ... f o o t * ( OE f o t ) Map 93 ... f l o o d * ( OE f l o d ) Map 9*+ ... one* ( OE an ')'  -  Map 119  ..  calf  ( OE c e a l f  105  -  Map 126  )  . . worm ( OE wyrm ) e l m ( OE e l m )  Map 120 . . l a u g h * ( OE h l e h h a n ) Map 121  ..  Map 122 . .  grass  The l a s t t w o maps p r o v i d e t h e numbering o f the survey l o c a l i t i e s as g i v e n i n t h e SED.  ( OE grass )  a r m ( OE a r m ) Map 127  Map 1 2 3 . . w a t e r * ( Map 124  ..  Map 125  . . horse  OE waeter )  d a u g h t e r * ( OE d o h t e r ( OE h o r s  )  )  ..  Numbering o f s u r v e y i n the SED.  localities  Map 128 . . A b b r e v i a t i o n s o f c o u n t y names i n E n g l a n d .  - io6 -  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A l l e n , H a r o l d B. and Gary N. Underwood, e d i t o r s . Dialectology. New Y o r k , 1971. B a k e r , Sydney J . Brook, J . L.  The  A u s t r a l i a n Language.  Burghardt, Lorraine H a l l , e d i t o r . t i v e s . New Y o r k , 1971.  1966.  Sydney,  London, 1963,  English Dialects.  Readings i n American  1965.  D i a l e c t o l o g y : P r o s p e c t s and  Chomsky, Noam and M o r r i s H a l l e . 1968.  The  Dobson, E. J . The P r o n u n c i a t i o n Oxford, 1968.  o f E n g l i s h , 1500-1700. 2nd  E l l i s , Alexander.  Gimson, A. C.  Chicago and London,  The  ._, e d i t o r .  Pronunciation  The  H a r r i s , Z e l l i g S.  Jones, D a n i e l .  The  K o k e r i t z , Helga.  M a r t i n e t , Andre.  1931. 1951.  Chicago,  Pronunciation Economie des  Uppsala, Bern,  Pronunciation  1932. 1966.  o f E n g l i s h i n the  o f South A f r i c a n E n g l i s h .  changements p h o n e t i q u e s .  Yorkshire.  1967.  Cambridge,  A t l a s of the Northern Region. The '  1970.  London,  Edinburgh,  Phonology o f t h e S u f f o l k D i a l e c t .  K u r a t h , Hans and Raven I . McDavid, J r . A t l a n t i c S t a t e s . Ann A r b o r , 1961. The  London, I 9 6 5 .  D i a l e c t o f D e n t d a l e i n t h e West R i d i n g o f  Phonological  1889.  London,  of E n g l i s h i n Scotland.  of E n g l i s h .  York;  2 volumes.  ed.  of E n g l i s h .  Scottish National Dictionary.  Pronunciation  The  New  1972.  Methods i n S t r u c t u r a l L i n g u i s t i c s .  Hedevind, B e r t i l . The Uppsala, 1967.  Lanham, L. W.  P a r t V.  An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e P r o n u n c i a t i o n  Grant, W i l l i a m .  K o l b , Eduard.  Sound P a t t e r n o f E n g l i s h .  Early English Pronunciation.  Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a .  Perspec-  Cape Town,  Bern,  1964.  1967.  - 107 -  Orton, Harold. 1933.  The Phonology o f t h e South Durham D i a l e c t .  , Eugen D i e t h and W. J . H a l l i d a y , e d i t o r s . D i a l e c t s . 13 volumes. L e e d s , 1962-1970.  Zurich,  Survey o f E n g l i s h  P r i n c i p l e s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l P h o n e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n . London.', 1949, S c a r g i l l , H. and H. Warkentyne. A Report.  Reprinted  The Survey o f Canadian E n g l i s h :  from t h e E n g l i s h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 5 ,  S i v e r t s e n , E v a . Cockney Phonology. S o u t h e r l a n d , R. H.  1974:-  n o . 3 , 1972.  Oslo, i960.  Readings on Language i n Canada.  Calgary,  1972.  T r u d g i l l , Peter. The S o c i a l D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f E n g l i s h .in Norwich.. Cambridge, 1974. ' ' • T u r n e r , G. W. The E n g l i s h Language i n A u s t r a l i a • and New. Zealand.. London, 1966. W a k e l i n , Martyn F.  E n g l i s h D i a l e c t s (An I n t r o d u c t i o n ) .  , editor. London, 1972.  Patterns  London.,. 1972.  i n the.. F o l k Speech o f t h e B r i t i s h ; , , ...  Isles.  W e i n r e i c h , U r i e l , " i s a S t r u c t u r a l D i a l e c t o l o g y P o s s i b l e ? " ' Word, I I I . (Dec, 1 9 5 4 ) , 388-400. ' • ' • - , " W e l l s , J . C. " L o c a l A c c e n t s i n E n g l a n d and Wales". J o u r n a l o f L i n g u i s t i c s , V I . ( S e p t , 1 9 7 0 ) , 231-252. Wright, Joseph. Wyld, H. C.  The E n g l i s h D i a l e c t Grammar.  A Short H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h .  O x f o r d , 1905.  London, 1 9 l 4 .  -  -  108  -  APPENDIX A L I S T OF ABBREVIATIONS  Bd  Bedfordshire  IW ,  Isle  Bk'.  Buckinghamshire  K  Kent  Brk  Berkshire  L  Lincolnshire  Ca  Cambridgeshire  La  Lancashire  Ch  Cheshire  Lei  Leicester  CM1  Central Midlands  Lon  London  Co  Cornwall  ME  Middle  Cu  Cumberland  MN  Middle North  D  Devon  Mo.  :Monmouth  Db  Derby  Nb  Northumberland  Do  Dorset  Nf  Norfolk  Du  Durham  NM1  North Midlands  EA  East A n g l i a  Nt  Nottingham  EDG  E n g l i s h D i a l e c t Grammar  Nth  Northampton  Ess  Essex  OE  Old  English  FN  Far North  ON  Old  Norse  Gl  Gloucestershire  Ox  Oxfordshire  Ha  Hampshire  PFR  Pre-consonantal  He  Herefordshire  R  Rutland  Hrt  Hertfordshire  Sa  Shropshire  Hu  Huntingdonshire  SE  Southeast  IPA  International  SED  Survey of E n g l i s h  IM  Isle  Sf  Suffolk  o f Man  .  Phonetic Alphabet  o f Wight  English  and f i n a l  (Salop)  Dialects  /r/  - 109 -  SMI  South M i d l a n d s  Sx  Sussex  SND  Scottish National Dictionary  SY  South Y o r k s h i r e  W  Wiltshire  Southern Scotland  Wa  Warwick  or: Southern S c o t t i s h  We  SSB  Southern Standard B r i t i s h  WMl  West M i d l a n d s  St  Staffordshire  Wo  Worcester  Su  Surrey  Wx  Wessex  SW  Southwest  Y  Yorkshire  EB  Encyclopaedia Britannica  JOL  J o u r n a l of L i n g u i s t i c s  So SS  Somerset  Westmoreland  - 110 -  INDEX  The f o l l o w i n g b r i e f reference are  as t o t h e  index i s provided to  pages on w h i c h t h e  serve  as  a quick source  various dialects  and  of  diaphonemes  discussed i n d e t a i l .  DIALECTS Page Southern d i a l e c t s (general) East A n g l i a The S o u t h e a s t Wessex The S o u t h w e s t Somerset Monmouth The S o u t h M i d l a n d s The M i d l a n d d i a l e c t s (general) The C e n t r a l M i d l a n d s The W e s t M i d l a n d s  Page The N o r t h M i d l a n d s South Y o r k s h i r e Lancashire I s l e o f Man Northern dialects (general) Lincolnshire The M i d d l e N o r t h The F a r N o r t h Urban d i a l e c t s Southern S c o t t i s h d i a l e c t s  13 11+  16 16 IT  18 19 19 20 21 21  DIAPHONEMES Page  /!/ hi  /a/  *+3 1+5 1+6  hi hi hi  hi  / i : / /e:/  53 55 56 57 57 59  le:/  /*:/ /a:/  h:l  1+8  Page  Page  h:l h'.l h:/ . lo:/ h:/  62 63 63 65 67  /ei/ /ai/ /oi/ M /  68 71 73 73  /eu/ /au/  71+ 75  1+9  /ou/  76  /ia/ /ea/ /oa/ /ua/ /ia/ /iu/ /ua/  77 79 80 81 83 81+  hi  85 85  Consonants  86  23 21+ 25 26 27 28 29 31 33 37  VOLUME TWO  C i t i e s and towns shown on t h e r i g h t a r e :  The r u r a l d i a l e c t s o f E n g l a n d . (See 3.3  -  i  3.6)  10 London 11 Cambridge 1 2 Norwich 13 C o l c h e s t e r 20 B r i s t o l 21 Dover 22.Folkestone 2 3 Brighton 2k Portsmouth 25 Southampton 26 Torquay 27 Plymouth 28 B a t h 3 0 Birmingham 31 Coventry 32 Stafford 1+0 L e i c e s t e r U l Nottingham 1+2 Derby 1+3 Stoke-on-Trent 50 Liverpool 60 Manchester 61 Wigan 7 0 Oldham 71 Rochdale 72 Blackburn 73 P r e s t o n 7l+ B l a c k p o o l 80 Leeds 81 S h e f f i e l d 82 H u d d e r s f i e l d 8 3 Bradford 9 0 Newcastle 9 1 Sunderland 9 2 Middlesbrough 9 3 Stockton  MAP  2  The urban d i a l e c t s o f England. (See  3.7)  The numbers w i t h i n c i r c l e s r e f e r t o t h e numbering o f t h e urban d i a l e c t regions w i t h i n the t e x t .  vowel i n apple ( I V . 1 1 . 8 ) : Unmarke d 1 O  •  /a/ hi hi  Ha: Da: ce:  Do:  The vowel i n dock Unmarked  (II.2.8):  hi  I  *  Do: co: Co:  —  /o:/  Co::  o  a  a  Co:: ca::  /a/  Ca: Oat:  1  MAP 6  MAP 5 The vowel i n b u l l  (HI.l.lU):  /u/  Lvl  /A/  CAD  o  hi  ct>:  —  /u:/ Cu:: ( w i t h l o s s o f / l / )  Unmarked  A  W W  P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e diaphoneme / i : / - c h i e f l y as .n t h r e e ( V I I . 1 . 3 ) ,  Unmarked  I ©  c f . map  cit: cxi:  Csi:~cii: Cei:  33.  MAP 8  MAP 7 D i s t r i b u t i o n and p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e diaphoneme /e:/: Unmarked I  No /e:/ Ce: : Ce  O  Ce:D~Ce:: Cei: Ce:H~CeiH  Sources: break (IX.3.5), c l a y (IV.U.2), eat (VI.5.11),  P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e diaphoneme / a : / : I  Ca:D  <D Ca::~Ca:l  o  ca::  ©  — 6"  C3&:: C£::  +• Ca::~C«.::  c«::~ca::  S o u r c e s : a s k (IX.2.1+), draught (V.3.11), f a t h e r ( V I I I . 1 . 1 ) , grass ( I I . 9 . l a ) , h a l f ( V I I I . V_ &\ Kawroct I T T A 1 1 m.m (VTTT.Q.6)  MAP 9 O  Unrounded Ca:H p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e diaphoneme /o:/. Sources: b r o u g h t ( V I I I . l . l l ) , thaw ( V I I . 6 . 1 5 )  »fc P r e s e n c e o f t h e diaphoneme /o:/. S o u r c e s : c o a l ( l V . U . 5 a ) , f o x ( I V . 5 . 1 1 ) , nose ( V I . U . 6 ) , pond. (IV.1.5) |  P r e s e n c e o f t h e diaphoneme /ca:/=Cu:H. b o t h ( V I I . 2 . 1 1 ) , whole ( V I I . 2 . 1 2 ) .  Sources:  MAP 10 D i s t r i b u t i o n and p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e diaphoneme /o:/: Unmarked No /o:/ +• Co:D~Cu:] I Co:: T Co:H~Cos: O CouD S o u r c e s : b o t h ( V I I . 2 . 1 1 ) , c o a l , ( l V . U . 5 a ) , grow ( I X . 3 . 9 ) , oak ( I V . 1 0 . 2 ) , spokes ( 1 . 9 . 6 )  MAP  12  D i s t r i b u t i o n and p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e diaphoneme /ei/: No / e i / Unmarked S o u r c e s : c l o u d ( V I I . 6 . 2 ) , moon ( V I I . 6 . 3 ) .  Sources: c l a y (lY.k.2),  I o spade ( ' 1 . 7 . 6 ) .  Ceil CaiD~DaeiJ' Cai]  MAP Ik D i s t r i b u t i o n and p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e diaphoneme / a i / : Unmarked | O —  No / a i / Cai3 :OL: Cxi:  fl) + ®  [aiZUCaxH CaiH-Daex!] CoiH-CaiH  X Cei:-CAV3~CAXl 5* CaiD~:ax: * Csi^DaerJ  Sources: i r o n ( I V . 4 . 5 b ) , k n i f e ( l . T . l 8 ) , night ( V I I . 3 . 9 ) , poison  (IV. 11. h),  sky_ ( V I I . 6 . 1 ) , t i m e  (VII.5.l).  D i s t r i b u t i o n and p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e diaphoneme /au/: Unmarked — X  No /au/  O  [£u:~DaerrJ CAirH-HsuD  & Zttrl'oLae&l & CaiD'-Ce.u:  CaiD  O  S o u r c e s : c l o u d ( V I I . 6 . 2 ) , ground ( I V . 4 . 1 ) , (VII.8.11).  CTJU:]  how  \\\  MAP 15  MAP 16  D i s t r i b u t i o n and p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e diaphoneme /ou/ Unmarked | —  Wo /ou/ CouD  X A  CAa>C3oD LaxJl^DaevI  COUH^C-DUH  +•  cou:~ccw]  S o u r c e s : grow ( I X . 3 . 9 ) , mow ( I I . 9 . 3 ) , nose ( V I . U . 6 ) , (V.10.3)  D i s t r i b u t i o n and p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e diaphoneme /iu/: Unmarked No / i u / —  [iu:]  » © <D  Cju:: C i u : D~Ci»: H'-Cxy: H :j»::-'Cju:: •  S o u r c e s : dew ( V I I . 6 . 7 ) , ewe ( I I I . 6 . 6 ) , few ( V I I . 1 . 1  MAP P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f / r / and i t s loss., i n prec o n s o n a n t a l and f i n a l p o s i t i o n : Unmarked  I  —  M  PFR  U 1 C J  :  DJ  n  lost kept loss optional  0 03 a  fx/ LMl Cri  Lrl  S o u r c e s : arm ( V I . 6 . 8 ) , b i r d ( l V . 6 . l ) , f i n g e r  18  P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f p r e - c o n s o n a n t a l and f i n a l / l / PFR kept kept loss  Unmarked I Source: m i l k  (VI.7.7),  C1H C1U ("dark" /!/) (ill.13.12).  .1  MAP 20 The vowel i n l e a d (plumbum) (IV.4 Unmarked I  /e/ A/ /ia/ /i:/  * A +  /e:/ /a/ /ia/~/e/  1  •V-J  J  »  K  MAP 21 The vowel i n head Unmarked  I  /e/ /i/ /ia/ /i:/  MAP 22 (VI.l.l] X /e:/ <D / J / e  e  AW  O  /ju/~/iu/  The vowel i n ash Unmarked  I  (V.U.U):  /a/ /ai/ /ei/=CaiH~r_sexH =Cei:~CexJ  * /ar/ X /a:/ O /e/  P r e s e n c e o f t h e diaphoneme / a / i n : I  what (VII.8.16)  —  wasp  (IV.8.7)  T h i s symbol shows / a : / i n wasp.  MAP 30  MAP 29 The vowel i n cough (VI.8.2-3) Unmarked —  <D JK  /o/ /o:/ /or/ /o:/  ^  /u/  a /ou/ ru /eu/  The vowel i n hoof Unmarked I  /u/ /u:/ /iu/ /ia/  (ill.4.10) X / i : / /eu/ A /A/  a  MAP The Unmarked I ° -  31  vowel i n l o o k ( i l l . 1 3 . 1 8 and /u/ /u:/ /ia/ /iu/  VIII.1.23)  O  /eu/  A  /A/  ••-  /u:/~/iu/  MAP 36 The v o w e l i n s p a d e Unmarked I +• °  *  / i : / /ei/=Cex3^Cei: /ei/=Cax: /e:/ /is/  hi  Unmarked  I  O  /ei/ /e:/ /is/  (1.7.6): 1C / i a / * /es/ — / i : /  The vowel i n c l o u d ( V I I . 6 . 2 ) : Unmarked  A l l o t h e r diaphonemes  Unmarked *  I  /au/ /au/=[ai] /u:/  X /a:/ A l /ea/  O  /£:/  MAP  hi  The vowel i n ground Unmarked 3tX  I  *  /au/ /au/ =• CaiD /u:/ /a:/  MAP k9 The vowel i n snow Unmarked /ou/ I /o:/ X  /a:/  (VII.6.13): /o:/ O /u:/  A  /au/  MAP  50  The vowel i n b o t h Unmarked  I  *  O  /ou/ /o:/ /o:/ /u:/  <D  O A *  (VII.2.11): /©:/ /ua/ /ia/ /ia/  A •  A  /ea/ /au/ /u/ /A/  MAP 52  MAP 51 The vowel i n l o a f Unmarked  /ou/  O  I  /o:/  ©/(D:/  *  /o:/  O  P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f oak (IV.10.2)  (V.6.9): /u:/ AO/  . &  /id/  V /ia/ — /o:/  Unmarked *  I  A  /ouk/ /5:k/ /o:k/ /iBk/  X  /jek/  •  /iak/  Z /Jik/ <S> / j a k /  Q /usk/ — /o:k/ O /u:k/ © /ffl:k/  MAP 53 The vowel i n c o a l Unmarked  I  *  /ou/  Q  I ox I  J.  /S:/  -  MAP 54 (IV.k.5a): /ua/ No/  lo\l  The vowel i n grbw ( I X . 3 . 9 ) : © /oi/ O /u:/ A /au/  Unmarked  t X  /ou/ /o:/ /a:/  £  /eu/  O /u:/ A /au/  MAP  55  The vowel i n moon (VII.6.3) Unmarked  I a  /iu/  /u/ X /eu/ © /ui/  The v o w e l i n do  Unmarked  a i  X  (IX.5.1):  /u:/ /is/ /iu/ /eu/ /i:/  I,  MAP  MAP 58  57  The p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f dey ( V I I . 6 . 7 ! Unmarked  o <D 1 X  /diu/ /dziu/ /dzu:/ /du:/ /deu/  A OO  /djeu/ /djau/ /dag/ /daig/ /dzau/  The vowel i n few ( V I I . 1 . 1 9 ; V I I . 8 . 2 1 ) Unmarked X  I  A  /iu/ /eu/ /u:/ /jau/  /jou/ /ou/ /au/  MAP 59 E n d i n g o f hear Unmarked  I O X  /ia / = /ia/ /ir/ /ir//ea/ =  (VI.U.2)  Cxall Cjce.: 1 Cxa-t H Cxoa ] Hesll  E n d i n g o f hare Unmarked —  I O  *  / e a / - [call / e a / - He: 3~Cae: ] /er/« C ea-iH /er/ /er/ = /e:/  (HV.5.10):  <® a  «\>  X  /a:/ /ar/ /iar/ /3:r/ /i9/  MAP Ending o f h a i r Unmarked — I 4» O  /es/=:eal /e©/= C&: ]~Cce.:: /er/=Ceaj: /er/=Ct:a: / e r / = Ce.oa:  The vowel i n c h a f f  (VI.2.1): * /.€.'../ ^> / a r / O /iar/ oj / 3 : r / X /i©/  62  ®  /ir/ * /ja:/ © /iur/= O /iua7= H /air/  Cxaj3 Cjus-*: CjuaH Caiaj]  Unmarked  t O  /a:/ /a/ /e/  (II.8.5)  MAP  63  P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f palm ( o f hand) ( V I . 7 . 5 ) Unmarked  I  /pa:m/ /pam/ /palm/ /po:m/ /pO:lm/  3* (g> O 0  /parm/ /polm/ /pa :1m/ /pelm/  i n harvest Unmarked  I  /a:/ /ar/  (II.6.1): - /er/  * IZ'.rl  J,  MAP  65  The vowel i n brought Unmarked I + X  /o:/ /ou/ /eu/ /au/  MAP  (VIII.l.ll): O * €  /or/ /a:/ /e/  66  The s t r e s s e d vowel i n t h a w i n g ( V I I . 6 . 1 and t h e presence o f i n t r u s i v e r_ i n i t :  O  Unmarked  I  /a:/ /ou/ /eu/  foil  © /u:/ O /9:r/  MAP  68  The l e t t e r sequence ot_ i n morning (VII.3.11) Unmarked —  1  X  A  foil M /a:/ /3:/  /ua/  O  ®e  /o:r/ /ar/ /ur/ /ou/ /oar/  MAP 6 9 The ending o f f o u r  /OB/  Unmarked O  /our/ /oua/ /o:r/  0  /awe/  e  (VII.l.U'  /ur/ /us/  low I  P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e isequence o a r i n hoarse  I /a:/ « /o:/  II /a:Mo:/  Q  /o:/Woa/  Unmarked O © — ®  X  (VI.5.16):  /o:/ /o:r/=Co:4>Coa-i: /o:r/=Cd:4: /oa/ /ir/«=:aoy:  / i a /  • <g) A <\>  /o:r/ /u:r/ /ua/ /u/ /ou/  I /a:/ A /A/ © /o:/ e /©:r/ =[-USM]  © /our/  MAP T l The vowel i n door Unmarked  © I X *  /ua/  or  (V.1.8):  /ur/= DUB-ID  /ur/=CTjD-«] /o:(r)/ /o9(r)/ / i u a / or / i u r / /3:(r)/  The vowel i n work E + © © O  /eu®/ or /eur/ / i a / or / i r / /eo:r/ /oua/ or /our/ /o:(r)/  Unmarked I O  /3:(r)/ /a:(r)/ / o : r / or /o/ /u(r)/  (VIII.4.8): O A  /£:/ /ea/ /A/  j,  P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f b u r n (IV,.6.1): Unmarked  1  0  o  X  /b3:(r)n/ /ba:n/ /bo:rn/ /bon/ /burn/  9 n A  /brun/ /bun/ /bean/ /bAn/  The u n s t r e s s e d vowel i n r a b b i t ( I I I . 13.13) : Unmarked /  i  /  I  hi  A O  /A/  hi  MAP  75  MAP  Frequency o f /k/ i n s t e a d o f / t s / i n s i x s e l e c t e d words: /k/ does not o c c u r /k/ o c c u r s i n one o f t h e words /k/ two /k/ " three /k/ " four /k/ " five /k/ six  P r e s e r v a t i o n o f i n i t i a l /h/ i n hay (II.9.1):  The words a r e : birch chaff churn church flitch  76  (IV.10.1) (II.8.5) (V.5.5) (VIII.5.1) ( I H . 12.3)  Unmarked I  /h/ i s l o s t /h/ i s p r e s e r v e d  The i n i t i a l consonant i n t h i g h (VI.9.3) and three (VII.1.3): thigh Unmarked  1  <D o  -  /©/  /&/  /©/  /©/ 181  The i n i t i a l consonant i n s e v e n snow ( V I I . 6 . 1 3 ) : !  three  /©/ /©/ /a/ /a/ 16/  seven  snow  Unmarked  /s/  /s/  I  /z/  +•  fzf  fzf Iff  ( V I I . 1 . 6 ) and  MAP 84 The s t r e s s e d vowel i n s q u i r r e l Unmarked I X  / i /  IZ'.I  /e/  •¥ / a / O lot A /A/  (IV.5.8):  The s t r e s s e d vowel i n "bury ( V I I I . Unmarked I + A  /e/  /3:/ /a/ /A/  /u/  J,  MAP 85 The s t r e s s e d v o w e l i n h e r r i n g Unmarked /e/ 1 / 3 : / * /a/ o /je/ © /J3:/ or / i a /  (IV.9.11): <t / i / © /ja/  © AW e  /Ju/ © /jo/  The o c c u r r e n c e of' /o/ i n any (VTI.3.16) and many ( V I I . 8 . 1 1 ) : I 4r  fol i n any o n l y  hi i n many o n l y hi i n b o t h words  The vowel i n deaf ( V I . 4 . 5 ) : Unmarked O  1  —  /e/ /i:/ /i/ /ia/  /e:/ /ei/ /a:/  Unmarked I  O  /o/ /e/ / i a / or / j a /  <—  / i a /  M ® O  /&/ /a:/ /° / /wu/ :  j,  The vowel i n tongs (V.3.7): Unmarked  1 — at o  hi hi  A  h/ hi /ia/=CxtD  /a/  ro  /i/  /is/  lo:/  a  &  /S:/  or / j e /  MAP 91  MAP 92  The vowel i n wrong ( I X . 7 . l a ) Unmarked I *. X  /o/  O  /Q: /  lei  +  lu/  /a/ /a:/  A  /A/  The vowel i n f o o t Unmarked  /u/  A  /A/  «M  I  X  HI  /u:/ /eu/  1  (VI.lO.l): >fc  a  &  O  /ia/ /iu/ /ua/ M/  The p r o n u n c i a t i o n ( s ) o f one ( V I I . l . l ) :  The vowel i n f l o o d (IV.I.U),: Unmarked /A/ I /u/ ® /o:/ alC / i s /  O /in/ O/ui/ A /o/  Unmarked 1  o  $>  4-  X  «>  /wAn/  /wun/ /won/ /wo:n/ /u:n/ /wan/ /wa:n/  <8>  —.  a  * ©  /wa:n/ /jen/^/ian/ /Jin/ /jan/^/ian/ /wan/^/wAn/ /wun/^/won/ /von/w/wAn/  MAP 95 P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f eat (VI.5.11)  The s t r e s s e d v o w e l i n among ( l X . 2 . 1 2 ) Unmarked I O X  a  /A/  <D  /O/~>/U/  /u/ /o/ /a/  ® * 4-  /a/~/o/~/u/ /a/~/u/ /u/~/ /  /o:/  A  Unmarked I O X  /ist/ /eit/ /e:t/ /iat/ / i t /  a /iat/ A /JAt/ V /jut/ E / J / X /et/ e  t  MAP 97 P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f bean (V.7.±8): Unmarked I ~~ °  A  /bi:n/ /bein/ /be:n/ /bian/ /bAn/  W «r g *  /biun/ /bjAn/ /bjen/ /bain/  0  o%  9  on  II-  -  o  MAP  99  P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f g r e a t (IX.1.6) Unmarked  4"  /greit/ /gri:t/ /gre:t/ /griat/  s © © *  /grit/ /git/ /get/ /gxrt /  II © U  /gret / /great/ /grut/  A  /grAt/  MAP 101  MAP 102  The vowel i n d r a i n (vb) (IV.1.9) Unmarked —  O  /ei/ /i:/ /e:/ / i  ©  /ea/  O/ia/  &  /  X /ai/ X /oi/  The v o w e l i n r e i n B (I.5•5) Unmarked +• -  /ei/ / i : /e:/  /  O /i^/ © /es/ X /ai/  The p r o n u n c i a t i o n Unmarked I 4*  O  of died  /daid/, /di:d/ /deid/ /ded/  (lII.T.2):  / d o i d / or  /dae.:d/  The s t r e s s e d Unmarked  / a i / , / o i / or  I / i : / O h - . / ©  X  vowel i n e i t h e r  /ou/ /e:/  /ae: /  (VII.2.13): 4-  /ei/  O  /ia/  ©  /ea/  *  /e/ /a:/  MAP  The vowel i n h e i g h t Unmarked  I  +  MAP  105 (VI.10.9):  / a i / , / o i / o r /a&: /  /!:/  /ei/ /e/  106  P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f eye ( V I . 3 . 1 ) : Unmarked / a i / , / o i / o r /at:/ */ i : / +" /ei/ CD /i:/~/ai/ * /a:/  MAP  The s t r e s s e d vowel i n p o i s o n Unmarked / o i / I /ai/ O /u/  MAP  107  *C / a : / + /ei/ A /ni/  Pronunciation Unmarked I <D alt O  108  o f drought ( V I I . 6 . 2 0 )  /draut/ /dru:t/ /drout/ /druft/ /dro:t/  4X <X> — •  /dre:t/ /dra:t/ /draft/ /drot/ /drorft/  LA H  MAP  MAP  109  Pronunciation of plough ( 1 . 8 . 1 . Unmarked I  /plau/ /plu:/ /pliu/ /pliuf/ /pla:/  O /pluf/ i- /plisf/ <D / p l o u / -I* / p i t : /  110  P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f dough (V.6.3): Unmarked I  /dou/ /do:/ /do:/  /do:/  /do:f/  X /dau/ © /duf/ +• /du:/ /du:f/ © /dof/  ®  /dAf/  /dus/ © /duaf/ /diaf/ 6" /deu/ »v»  A  j,  o - -  MAP Pronunciation Unmarked I * O  /sou/ /so:/  /so:/  /sa:/ /su:/  111  MAP  o f sew (V.10.3) AC / s o : / O /siu/ B /sen/ 0 /sau/  Pronunciation Unmarked I — © A  -  112 of cold  /kould/ or /ko:ld/ /koud/ /ko:d/ /ko:d/ /ko:ld/ /kead/  (VI.13.1T) O © g X O  /ka:d/ /ka:ld/ /keud/ /kaud/ /kold/  MAP l l U  MAP 113  The vowel o f l o s e  The vowel o f chew ( i l l . 2 . 1 1 ] Unmarked O • X  /u:/ /ou/ /eu/ /au/  Ht / a : / & lO'.l /iu/  Unmarked * —  /u:/ /o:/ /oi/ /o/  •  /D:/  <D  (IX.3.1): £ /eu/ + /iu/ A A»/ AJ / e i / O /on/  P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f ewe  The vowel o f room (V.2.k): Unmarked — At A  /u:/ /u/ /iu/ / i s /  X O £ A  /au/ /ou/ /eu/ /A/  Unmarked 1  ©  /iu/ /jou/ /jeu/ /jo:/ /jau/  — X  o a  (III.6.6): /jo:/ /eu/ /au/ /u:/ /ou/  MAP  117  MAP 118  The vowel i n h a l f ( V I I . 7 . 6 ) Unmarked  I O  * • «  /a:/ /a/  /o:/  /ar/ /ea/ /ei/  Q  /e:/  h:/  - /i:/ • /o:/-/a: E /e/  The s t r e s s e d vowel i n f a t h e r Unmarked  I  Sit  O *  /a:/ /a/ /ar/ /ea/ /ei/  +  (VIII.l.l)  /e:/  E /e/  ||  /ja/  T /je/  MAP 119 Pronunciation of c a l f Unmarked I O *C ® ©  /ka:f/ /kaf/ /ko:f/ /karf/ /ko:rf/ /kosf/  MAP 120 (ill.1.2): + *» © H s  /ke:f/ /kusf/ /kouf/ /kia:f/ /ka:f/-/kaf/  P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f laugh Unmarked  I O  /la:f/ /laf/ /lo:f/ /larf/ /lof/  P X <N*  (VIII.8.7) /leuf/ /leif/ /le:f/ /lef/  MAP 122  MAP 121 P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f grass Unmarked  I  •  (ll.9.1a)  /gra:s/ /gras/ /gros/ /gres/ /grias/ /g3:s/^/g3:rs/  P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f arm ( V I . Unmarked (P  © • &  /arm/ /arm/ /earm/ /earn/ / 3 r rm/ /errm/  •water Unmarked  I  4-  O  ©  P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e s t r e s s e d vowel i n daughter ( V I I I . l . U ) :  (ill.3.2): h: I /a/ /a:/ /o/ /o:r/  ©  /ar/  O /e/ X /.e:/  * /'ei/  Unmarked 4*  O  © ©  /o: / /a:/ /o/ /o:r/ /ar/  K  /e:/  £  /eu/ /au/  <D /ou/ A /ua/  The o c c u r r e n c e o f i n t r u s i v e | —  -worm,  /wSrram/  elm  /Slam/  (IV.9.1) (IV.10.k)  /s/:  MAP 127 Numbering o f s u r v e y l o c a l i t i e s i n the  

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