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Aki No Yo No Naga-Monogatari : a lengthy story for a long autumn night Sawada, Shikyo 1976

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AKI NO YO NO NAGA-MONOGATARI: A LENGTHY STORY FOR A LONG AUTUMN NIGHT by SHIKYO SAWADA B.A., Taish6 University, 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Dept. of Asian Studies)  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1976  ©  Shikyo Sawada, 1976  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the I  Library shall  make i t  freely available  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  for  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  that  study. thesis  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or  by h i s of  for  I agree  this  written  representatives. thesis  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  ASIAN STUDIES  University of B r i t i s h  2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  permission.  Department of The  It  APRIL 5, 1976  Columbia  not be allowed without my  i  !  ABSTRACT A k i no yo no naga-monogatari (A Lengthy Story f o r a Long Autumn N i g h t ) . an anonymous work o f the Middle Ages, has been considered one o f the e a r l i e s t and f i n e s t examples of those chigo monogatari ( c h i l d s t o r i e s ) which have a homosexual r e l a t i o n s h i p as t h e i r main theme.  The p o p u l a r i t y o f  numerous plays t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e l i e v e d t o be derived from A k i no j o no naga-monogatari as w e l l as the appeal o f i t s homosexual theme has motivated many authors t o w r i t e comment a r i e s on i t , and the t a l e has even come t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a popular legend.  I t i s c e r t a i n that A k i no yo no naga-  monogatari was extremely f a m i l i a r t o authors o f the Tokugawa p e r i o d , by whom i t was much appreciated. A k i no j o no naga-monogatari i s a valuable subject f o r l i t e r a r y s c h o l a r s h i p p r i m a r i l y because i t combines s e v e r a l techniques found i n d i f f e r e n t genres.  The amalgamation of  Heian f i c t i o n , medieval war s t o r y , and Buddhist n a r r a t i v e created a unique type o f l i t e r a r y work.  In a d d i t i o n , the  f a i r y t a l e , which became most popular during the Edo p e r i o d , i s p r e f i g u r e d i n A k i no j o no naga-monogatari.  In t h i s res-  pect, t h e t a l e stands apart from other l i t e r a r y works o f the Middle Ages.  In s p i t e o f the f a c t that many such works have  been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h , A k i no yo no naga-monogatari and other s i m i l a r s t o r i e s have yet t o be introduced to Western readers.  ii The i n t r o d u c t o r y p o r t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s o u t l i n e s s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f the p e r i o d during which Akl no j o no nagamonogatari was w r i t t e n .  The h i s t o r i c a l background o f the  hero and d e t a i l s o f the r e l i g i o u s c o n f l i c t which comes t o l i g h t i n the t a l e are given.  I n chapter two the diverse  techniques employed by the author are discussed along w i t h problems of genre c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  L a s t l y , works associated  w i t h A k i no y a no naga-monogatari are t r e a t e d .  The informa-  t i o n i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n should enable the reader t o achieve a b e t t e r understanding and deeper a p p r e c i a t i o n o f Aki no yo naga-monogatari. My t r a n s l a t i o n i s based on the t e x t i n Nihon koten bungaku t a i k e i .  This i s taken from the oldest e x i s t i n g manu-  s c r i p t o f Aki no jo no naga-monogatari.  For those i n t e r e s t e d  i n reading the work i n Japanese, t h i s t e x t i s the e a s i e s t t o obtain.  I have t r a n s l a t e d the t e x t as l i t e r a l l y as p o s s i b l e  throughout, except where i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was a b s o l u t e l y necessary to make the meaning c l e a r . I hope that t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n w i l l encourage others to study t a l e s l i k e A k i no j o no naga-monogatari, because they are an important l i n k between Heian l i t e r a t u r e and the popul a r l i t e r a t u r e o f the Edo period.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  i  INTRODUCTION...  1  CHAPTER I  A View o f L i t e r a t u r e o f the M i d d l e Ages  1  CHAPTER I I  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f A k i no yo no naga-monogatari  7  CHAPTER I I I H i s t o r i c a l Background o f t h e T a l e B i o g r a p h i c a l Sketch o f Sensai  12 12  The R i v a l r y Between t h e Sammon and t h e Jimon Denominations CHAPTER IV  20  Literature Related to Aki  no yo no naga-monogatari  The Author's Sources  27 2#  Works Thought to Have Been I n f l u e n c e d by the  Tale  .  NOTES ON INTRODUCTION Aki  31 37  no yo no naga-monogatari: A Lengthy S t o r y f o r a Long Autumn Night  NOTES ON THE TEXT  52 93  TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS  112  BIBLIOGRAPHY  113  1  INTRODUCTION QHAPTER I  0  A View o f L i t e r a t u r e of the Middle Ages >  >  The Heian p e r i o d ( H e i a n - i i d a i ^ ^&rfv\  ) came t o a  close and c o n t r o l passed from the hands of the court nobles to the w a r r i o r s i n 116*5, the year that marked the f i n a l batt l e between the Minamoto clan (Genji-^^. fj\ ) and the T a i r a c l a n (Heike 3fi-  ). I n the same year that power was s e i z e d  by the w a r r i o r c l a s s , the leader of the G e n j i , Minamoto no  jffi  Yoritomo  (1147  "Constables", and J i t o  - 1197)  g§K  posted Shugo  "Stewards", throughout  , Japan  i n order t o e s t a b l i s h the Kamakura Shogunate (Kamakura Bakufu  ^f-MM^y  T h e  P  e r i o d  f r o m  1 ]  - £ 5 t o 1600,  the year o f the"  B a t t l e of Sekigahara (Sekigahara no t a t a k a i t^'$$^h£ c l a s s i f i e d as the Japanese Middle Ages (Chusei ^  ) is ). I t was  an extended p e r i o d of i n c e s s a n t war and extreme s o c i a l unrest. Those who were f o r c e d to endure such a d v e r s i t y turned t o Buddhism f o r comfort.  I n order to more adequately serve those i n  s p i r i t u a l d i s t r e s s , e x i s t i n g Buddhist sects were reformed and new Buddhist orders were founded.  Temples r e c e i v e d the sup-  port of the new r u l i n g c l a s s as w e l l as the general populace. Their power increased and Buddhist i n f l u e n c e came t o dominate 2 l i t e r a t u r e as w e l l as many other aspects of c u l t u r e . In 11^5, the Heike had been completely vanquished.  1  2 However, peace was not forthcoming. F o l l o w i n g the Gempei War, the f i n a l war between the G e n j i and the Heike (Gempei / j 3 ^ <n Jf?  no soran  N  ), other h i s t o r i c a l l y important  b a t t l e s occurred: the Disturbance of JSkyu (Jokvu no ran  j|<A^<»ri|L w  iK.  > 1221), the B a t t l e of Bun'ei (Bun'ei no e k i  ^  ' ^274 > the b a t t l e s which brought about the Kemmu  R e s t o r a t i o n CKemmu no chuko J^j^f^^)i  , 1334) the skirm-  i s h e s between the Southern Court (Nan-cho Northern Court (Hoku-cho  jtCl*H)> and the 6nin  ) and the War (Onin no  ran y ^ - Y ^ * j^L ) which took place from 1467 t o 1477.  The  6*nin War, which centered around Kyoto, caused the f a l l o f the governing body, the Muromachi Shogunate Bakufu ^  JBJ JI^J"  (Muromachi  , 1333 - 1573) and r e s u l t e d i n the d i v i -  s i o n o f Japan i n t o separate t e r r i t o r i e s each c o n t r o l l e d by a r i v a l leader. These wars which brought about f u r t h e r changes i n power and p o l i t i c a l system combined t o produce among the people innumerable grievances which had no o u t l e t f o r expression except that of r e l i g i o n .  The severe c u l t u r a l upheavals cau-  sed people t o r e a l i z e that they were indeed l i v i n g i n the age of the l a t t e r days of the Lawsr (mappo 4 Buddhist p e r i o d i z a t i o n ) . sought solace i n Buddhism.  according to  S p i r i t u a l l y d i s t r e s s e d , they However, the p r a c t i c e s of the  e x i s t i n g Buddhist orders could not adequately f u l f i l l t h e i r needs.  P r i o r t o the onset o f the Middle Ages the e s t a b l i s h e d  Buddhist sects had been l a r g e l y supported by court nobles and i n order t o s a t i s f y the demands o f such a congregation, s e r v i c e s were l a r g e l y composed o f i n c a n t a t i o n and prayers.  3  Having l o s t the support o f the noble c l a s s due t o the change i n the governing body, Buddhist temples were f o r c e d t o expand t h e i r teaching t o i n c l u d e a l l c l a s s e s o f people, and at the same time they were compelled t o overhaul t h e i r system o f r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s and t h e o r i e s i n order t o more 5 e f f e c t i v e l y appeal t o those i n d i s t r e s s . Abhorring the c o r r u p t i o n o f Buddhism, some monks o f v i r tue attempted t o reform t h e i r s e c t s .  They succeeded only  p a r t i a l l y i n t h e i r task however, because t h e i r deeds were not s u f f i c i e n t l y dynamic t o gain the support o f people i n general. ded.  Concurrently, new Buddhist orders were being foun-  The f i r s t new sect t o be s e t up during the Middle Ages  was the j8do Sect (Jodo-shu ^> i . ^ by Honen  (1133 - 1212).  Sect (Jodo shin-shu ^  j£_ JL^  1262), the Zen Sects (Zen-shu  1215) and Dogen (Hokke-shu founded.  fjf  ^  ) e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1175  F o l l o w i n g t h i s , the Jodo Shin )  o f  ffijfe.  Shinran )  o  f  E i a a i  (1173 -  IS-^  f  1 1  ^  1  "  (1200 - 1253), and the Hokke Sect  ) of Nichiren 0  (  1 2 2 2  " 12S2), were  The JSdo Sects soon gained tremendous prominence  among a l l c l a s s e s o f people because o f t h e i r unique d o c t r i n e , 7 t a r i k i - h o n g a n jfa ^>M^  » " s a l v a t i o n by f a i t h " .  The Zen  Sects obtained the confidence o f the new governing c l a s s e s and t h e i r temples came t o r e p l a c e the Court as centers o f the a r t s . New Buddhism i n f l u e n c e d many aspects o f c u l t u r e ; l i t e r a t u r e was no exception. A concept o f f i c t i o n (kv&gen kigo %> £ £ f  ) came t o dominate the outlook o f w r i t e r s and  4  t h e i r audiences. ed by Po Ghii-i  The term kyogen kigo was o r i g i n a l l y employ-  & ^£ J7  (772 - £46) and was introduced i n  Japan by Fujiwara no K i n t o t&fe <fo £  (966 - 1041) i n h i s  e d i t i o n of the anthology o f Wakan f o e i shu (compiled i n 1013).  -fcft tfcJk.  The ideas inherent i n kyogen kigo be-  came wide spread during the mid-Heian p e r i o d when Jodo Buddhism (jSdo-kvo ?if 3L  ) began t o take root i n Japan.  Those who i n i t i a l l y considered the concept o f kyogen kigo thought that they must r e f r a i n from w r i t i n g and accepti n g f i c t i o n and must p r a c t i c e o n l y Buddhism. Nevertheless, l i t e r a r y p r a c t i t i o n e r s soon came t o b e l i e v e that they should w r i t e and accept f i c t i o n i n order t o a t t a i n higher e n l i g h t e n 10  ment.  Works w r i t t e n under the i n f l u e n c e o f t h i s theory  aroused unprecedented  interest.  Once these questions concerning the purpose o f l i t e r a ture came t o the f o r e , the p o p u l a r i t y of Heian s t y l e f i c t i o n (tsukurimono /f£ *J  ) d e c l i n e d and l i t e r a t u r e o f a d e s c r i p -  '  t i v e nature gained p o p u l a r i t y .  11  The frequent b a t t l e s which  had continued t o take place since the l a t e Heian period prov i d e d much m a t e r i a l . i"a  •^CJ  Accounts o f wars ( s e n k i monogatari  |^  ) became ever more r e a l i s t i c and conveyed t o  people the v a n i t y o f l i f e .  Representative war s t o r i e s o f 12. t h i s time are Heike monogatari If- 4K. $0 jf£ and T a i h e i k i <  1  X.-T"f(L  x  .  3  Techniques employed i n these s t o r i e s c o n t r i -  buted t o d e s c r i p t i v e l i t e r a t u r e ' o f other types such as: h i s t o r i c a l t a l e s ( r e k i s h i monogatari ^ l i t e r a t u r e ( z u i h i t s u bangaku f^J^. £ ^  §£.#$7^ )> essay ) and autobiographi -  5  c a l accounts ( n i k k l bungaku Q  J L ^ . ).  As mentioned above, i n t e r e s t i n Heian f i c t i o n d i m i n i shed.  The reason f o r t h i s d e c l i n e i s t w o f o l d .  The nobles,  having f a l l e n from power, d i s p l a y e d l e s s and l e s s i n t e r e s t i n w r i t i n g and the new readers showed l i t t l e enthusiasm f o r the tedious Heian s t o r i e s which were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by mono no aware  £ <n <n <£\ <2 JK.  , "an a f f e c t i n g sense o f r e f i n e -  14  ment".  Nevertheless, f i c t i o n a f t e r the f a s h i o n o f Heian  s t y l e f i c t i o n continued t o be w r i t t e n .  Karen B r a z e l l notes  however, t h a t , "The n a r r a t i v e s o f t h i s p e r i o d are pseudo c l a s s i c a l t a l e s (giko monogatari fj^h and many of them are simply i m i t a t i o n s of e a r l i e r s t o r i e s or r e w r i t i n g 15  of s e c t i o n s o f The Tale o f G e n i i . "  In spite of t h i s f a c t ,  out o f t h i s type o f l i t e r a t u r e evolved n a r r a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e (setsuwa bungaku  %%^^%}\J^.  )• These works were designed  t o be o f p r a c t i c a l v a l u e , namely, t o e d i f y . a l s o served another purpose.  However they  They helped t o t r a n s f e r Heian  techniques t o a new genre, that o f f a i r y - t a l e s (otogi-z£shi ) which evolved during the l a s t h a l f o f the Middle Ages. Thus l i t e r a t u r e o f the Middle Ages m u l t i f o r m a l i z e d during t h i s p e r i o d o f continued c o n f l i c t .  The ascendency  of the court nobles i n governmental and a r t i s t i c spheres ended and the i n f l u e n c e o f monks, the most educated c l a s s , grew.  Monks devoted themselves t o every s o r t o f c r e a t i v e  endeavour and i n time members o f the new r u l i n g c l a s s e s were i n s p i r e d t o f o l l o w t h e i r l e a d .  Authors o f d i v e r s e  6 backgrounds produced a great v a r i e t y of l i t e r a r y works which s t e a d i l y increased i n p o p u l a r i t y during the Middle Ages.  7  Chapter I I C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of A k i no yo no naga-monogatari A k i no j o no naga-monogatari i s b e l i e v e d t o have been 16  w r i t t e n i n the mid-fourteenth century,  a p e r i o d o f extreme  s o c i a l unrest. The s t o r y , a composite o f q u i t e d i s t i n c t e l e ments of s e v e r a l genres, indeed r e f l e c t s t h i s unstable age of Japanese h i s t o r y .  Because A k i no j o jao naga-monogatari  contains f e a t u r e s o f chigo monogatari ^fe. s t o r y " , o t o g i - z $ 3 h i . and hosshin-dan  Jf&i^fj^.  > "a c h i l d , "a s t o r y o f  regeneration", i t has been c l a s s i f i e d a t one time or another 17 i n each o f these ways.  When the n a r r a t i v e techniques o f  the s t o r y are examined one f i n d s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each o f the above genres as w e l l as d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f both Heian f i c t i o n and the war c h r o n i c l e s o f the Middle Ages. Although these various elements are admittedly incorporated i n A k i no yo no naga-monogatari. i t may be argued that essent i a l l y i t i s a t a l e of r e g e n e r a t i o n . The f i r s t eleven s e c t i o n s o f the n a r r a t i v e are s i m i l a r i n tone t o Heian f i c t i o n that describes the love o f men and women.  The author was f o r c e d t o employ Heian technique  throughout these s e c t i o n s t o p o r t r a y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between Umewaka $^-Jca and K e i k a i  because there were no con-  v e n t i o n a l phrases which could be used t o p a r t i c u l a r i z e a 18 matter-of-fact r e l a t i o n s h i p between men.  The Heian love s t o r y gives way t o the super-natural t a l e 19 upon the appearance of the long-nosed g o b l i n (tengu ^  )  i n s e c t i o n 12. Because o f the nature o f s e c t i o n 12, 16 and 17, A k i no j o no naga-monogatari i s o f t e n c l a s s i f i e d as otogi-zoshi.  This p a r t i c u l a r genre o r i g i n a t e d during t h e  l a s t h a l f o f the Middle Ages and came t o be most popular i n g the e a r l y Edo period.  dur-  Otogi-zoshi i s a short piece o f  f i c t i o n which e x h i b i t s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f e a t u r e s from those of Heian w r i t i n g s . R e f l e c t i n g the d i v e r s e nature o f Chusei s o c i e t y , o t o g i - z o s h i was intended f o r people o f a l l c l a s s e s and i t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d that the authors o f such works represent a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f s o c i e t y .  The contents were  based on f o l k l o r e and the s t o r i e s are d i d a c t i c . Section 13, 14, and 15 represent another genre popular during the e a r l y Middle Ages, namely, that of senki monogatari.  The nature of the war s t o r y i s h i g h l y d e s c r i p t i v e  and always g r e a t l y exaggerated i n order t o provide the aud20 ience w i t h the a c t u a l sensations of b a t t l e .  As war chron-  i c l e s were f o r the most p a r t o r a l r e c i t a t i o n s , the sentences of such s t o r i e s are l a c o n i c and r h y t h m i c a l . Aki no YO no naga-monogatari has a l s o been considered 21 one o f the e a r l i e s t examples o f a chigo monogatari.  •$£. JfL l  Chigo  o r i g i n a l l y meant an i n f a n t ; however, i t came t o spec-  i f i c a l l y denote those c h i l d r e n brought up i n l a r g e temples during the Middle Ages.  C h i l d r e n came t o be placed i n tem-  ples f o r mainly two reasons.  F i r s t l y , temples provided the  most thorough education t o the c h i l d r e n o f high ranking court  9 nobles and w a r r i o r s , and secondly, temples proved t o be the most secure environment f o r c h i l d r e n without parents o r guardian.  Those placed i n the care of temples remained there  u n t i l adulthood a t which time some of them became monks and some returned t o t h e i r own homes. Chigo monogatari r e f e r s to a s t o r y i n which one such c h i l d i s the hero.  U n t i l about  one hundred years ago, women were excluded from temples, and thus temples were e n t i r e l y the domain o f men.  Since homo-  sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c h i l d r e n entrusted to the temple and monks provided the theme i n chigo monogatari  r  the term chigo monogatari came t o denote a s t o r y o f homosexuality.  They are not always s t o r i e s of sodomy but they  are o f t e n thought o f as such because these t a l e s are a s s o c i ated w i t h pornographic l i t e r a t u r e o f pederasty w r i t t e n dur22 i n g the Edo p e r i o d . I c h i k o T e i j i s t a t e s i n h i s book, Chuko shosetsu no kenkyu. that almost a l l the waka poems of "The Chapter o f Love" i n the anthology o f Ansen waka shft e d i t e d by the monk KySga (zot&-ka  i n 1369 are exchange poems 23  Jj£~§X^ )  t  that t h e monk  ^  between monks and c h i l d r e n .  He adds  poets of Gosan j?L <L\ , "the f i v e Zen temples",  composed many poems d e s c r i b i n g the beauty o f young boys. The poems l i s t e d i n the c o l l e c t i o n o f verses, San'eki enshi  J&rfc-IS-ii^" are examples o f such compositions. s t a t e s t h a t Rvuben Hoin s a i i o k i  He a l s o  £p fa JL fcj,  e d i t e d i n 1250, describes the corrupt l i f e o f the monks o f On j o - j i  tfy -jj- who f r e q u e n t l y s t o l e s e c r e t l y i n t o the  10 25 rooms of the Kamakura youths r e s i d i n g i n the temple. I c h i k o T e i j i noted the above p o i n t s i n order t o prove that homosexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s were r i f e during the Middle Ages. Furthermore, he a s s e r t s t h a t A k i no yo no naga-monogatari 2o~ i s the f i n e s t example o f such a s t o r y . I t i s wrong however t o consider that the s t o r y i s simp l y a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the homosexual r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the heroes o f the t a l e , Umewaka, and the monk K e i k a i .  Rather,  the main purpose o f the author o f A k i no yo no naga-monogatari was t o i l l u s t r a t e the regeneration o f K e i k a i from a Buddhist 27 point o f view.  I n Nihon r v o i k i S ^ ' ^ ^ ^ ' C J  »  there a r e  many b i z a r r e s t o r i e s which have t h e i r o r i g i n i n legends o f ancient times, and which describe marriages between humans and other creatures.  These s t o r i e s i n t i m a t e that b e s t i a l i t y  e x i s t e d i n Japan o f a n t i q u i t y . The compiler, Kyokai - | r -rf^ simply added morals to the t a l e s i n order t o use them as h i s sermons.  I t was p r o f i t a b l e t o use these s t o r i e s because they  were strange and therefore extremely a t t r a c t i v e t o the aud28 iences o f the e a r l y n i n t h century.  The p l o t o f A k i no yo  no naga-monogatari i s a l s o f a r beyond r e a l i t y and the combin a t i o n o f such a s t o r y w i t h a conclusion o f r e t r i b u t i o n paral l e l s the elements o f Nihon r y o i k i . Umewaka*s high rank would, i n r e a l i t y , have excluded him as a p o s s i b l e partner i n a homosexual a f f a i r .  Furthermore, i n the concluding  sec-  t i o n s o f t h e s t o r y , the reader discovers that Umewaka was a c t u a l l y a manifestation o f a M e r c i f u l Goddess.  I n Japanese  Buddhist n a r r a t i v e s a M e r c i f u l Goddess often surrendered  her-  11 s e l f t o a monk.  Later the monk, tormented by a g u i l t y con29  science, became t r u l y pious i n order t o expiate h i s s i n . Although A k i no yo no naga-monogatari contains elements of o t o g i - z o s h i . i t should be evident that setsuwa a r e bound t o d i s p l a y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the f a i r y t a l e , p r o v i d i n g as they d i d , a l i n k between Heian f i c t i o n and o t o g i - z S s h i . Moreover A k i no yo no naga-monogatari does contain the seeds of these chigo monogatari which describe homosexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; however these d e s c r i p t i o n s served as an expedient through which the author was a b l e t o achieve h i s t r u e i n t e n t i o n , the e d i f i c a t i o n of h i s audience. Thus, i t i s p r e f e r a b l e to l a b e l A k i no yo no naga-monogatari as setsuwa and subcateg o r i z e i t as a s t o r y o f regeneration.  12  Chapter I I I H i s t o r i c a l Background of the Tale In the previous chapter, the diverse n a r r a t i v e t e c h n i ques of A k i no YO no naga-monogatari were mentioned.  It is  evident however t h a t these v a r i a t i o n s are not simply a r e s u l t of the combination of l i t e r a r y techniques.  C a r e f u l exami-  n a t i o n of the t a l e demonstrates t h a t i t was composed of at l e a s t three accounts: the l i f e s t o r y of the monk Sensai, the d i s c o r d between the Sammon and the Jimon Denominations, and the legend of Umewaka. Underlying these f i r s t two themes are a c t u a l h i s t o r i c a l i n c i d e n t s that provided i n s p i r a t i o n to the author of the t a l e .  Knowledge of these events enriches the  reader's understanding and a p p r e c i a t i o n of the s t o r y .  B i o g r a p h i c a l Sketch of Sensai Although the l i f e of Sensai has not been s t u d i e d to any great extent, i t i s g e n e r a l l y recognized that he e s t a b l i s h e d 30 Ungo-ji (daibutau X. ^  ,  and carved a great image of Buddha  ) there.  He i s b e l i e v e d t o have been an  e x c e l l e n t chanter of Buddhist i n v o c a t i o n s and i n a d d i t i o n , Sensai i s known as one of the f i r s t poet monks of the l a t e Heian p e r i o d to use waka poetry to i l l u s t r a t e Buddhist Mangen Shi ban °f Honcho koso den ^  7L  thought.  ( 2 7 - 1710), the compiler l 6  recorded some o f S e n s a i s 1  13  31  achievements as f o l l o w s :  Sensai was a monk of Mount H i e i . He moved t o the eastern part of Kyoto and there he p r a c t i c e d according t o Tendai d o c t r i n e through which he sought the pure land. He e s t a b l i s h e d Ungo-ji i n the f i r s t year of T e n j i %L -,a (1124). He a l s o carved a hachi-.id ) \ (approximately twenty-four meter) high golden f i g u r e of Buddha and he placed i t i n the Sho$-in ?r\M^'f%j » I n the,seventh month of the f i r s t year of E i j i 7& ( H 4 D , he c a l l e d many monks together and he performed a consecration ceremony f o r the newly made image....  In Jimon denki horpku | r f f i fvir  the author ShikS  w r i t e s t h a t , " I n the f i r s t year of T e n j i , on the nine-  teenth of the seventh month, the monk Sensai founded Ungo-ji and placed a has-shaku / \ X. (approximately two meter, f o r t y 32 centimeter) h i g h f i g u r e of Buddha t h e r e . . . . " Both documents v  s t a t e that Sensai founded Ungo-ji i n 1124 but there i s conf l i c t i n g evidence as t o the a c t u a l height of Buddha's image which was placed i n the temple. D e t a i l s of Ungo-ji are a l s o reported i n Iroha . i i r u i sho  In the f o u r t h year of Jowa 7 ^ .Tta  (#37), the C o u n c i l l o r of S t a t e 5 * b u i l t the  temple so that prayers f o r the repose o f the s o u l of the Emperor Kammu t& ^ (737 - 306) might be o f f e r e d . The monk Sensai constructed a temple t o the west of t h i s and placed a hachi-,i$ high f i g ure of Buddha therein,. He named h i s temple Sh6$ Mida-in ^ S L J B f f e w t . Nowadays both temples are r e f e r r e d t o as Ungo-ji. N  14 I n a d d i t i o n to the above, i n Shoku Nihon k o k i ^  Q Jt\  *  i t i a recorded t h a t the temple, b u i l t f o r the repose of the Emperor Kammu s s o u l , was east of the Y a s a k a - j i /\  -rf-  ,  and t h a t i t seemed to belong t o Y a s a k a - j i ; t h e r e f o r e , i t was commonly c a l l e d Yasaka t o - i n /V 35 C l o i s t e r of Y a s a k a - j i " .  ^  , "the Eastern  A comparison of these sources r a i s e s some question as t o whether Sensai a c t u a l l y founded the whole complex o f U n g o - j i ; however, i f Sensai*s achievements a f t e r h i s move t o the annex of Yasaka t 6 - i n . l a t e r c a l l e d U n g o - j i , are considered., there i s some b a s i s f o r c a l l i n g him "the monk who re-established Ungo-ji". Nonetheless, one f a c t s t i l l remains unresolved.  What  was the a c t u a l height of the image of Buddha t h a t Sensai raised?  Ungo-ji was well-known f o r i t s f i g u r e of Buddha.  In Samboku k i k a shu Hi^K ^\ poems by Minamoto no T o s h i y o r i  , a c o l l e c t i o n o f waka (1055 - 1129),  T o s h i y o r i noted that he was asked to guide h i s f r i e n d t o 36 Ungo-ji to worship i t s daibutsu.  This evidence  supports  the f a c t that Ungo-ji*s image must have been l a r g e because i n order t o be r e f e r r e d t o as daibutsu a statue must be more than i c h i - i o . roku-shaku  — X.  meters, e i g h t y centimeters) high.  yK. 37  (approximately f o u r Therefore, the image  mentioned i n Jimon denki horoku, (two meters,forty c e n t i meters), i s f a r too s m a l l t o be c a l l e d daibutsu.  Neverthe-  l e s s , the height of twenty-four meters mentioned i n the other sources seems to be f a r too t a l l because the t a l l e s t e x i s t i n g  15 d a i b u t s u i n Japan i s found i n T o d a i - j i it l  i s approximately  f^f^^L  (1661  statements  ^  s i x t e e n meters h i g h .  - 1733)  X. TT  the Buddha of U n g o - j i was  twenty-four that,  "...  rumored t o have been a hachi-.io  n  h i g h f i g u r e , but i t might p o s s i b l y have been a twelve  The  ^  a l s o q u e s t i o n e d the v a l i d i t y of the  He wrote i n h i s book S h i o . j i r i  h i g h f i g u r e i n a seated  and  Amano Sadakage  which r e p o r t e d t h a t the s t a t u e was  meters h i g h .  i n Nara,  meter  position...".  o l d e s t r e c o r d i n which the name o f S e n s a i i s men-  t i o n e d i s HonchS sho.io shu no Mototoshi  &~ 2?$  i^J^ %?/\%L_{ K  e n t i t l e d , "Ungo-ji no  •^•^'JL. e d i t e d by F u j i w a r a  - 1142).  A s h o r t p i e c e by Sensai  Sh6nin ky&gen kigovto kuyuru waka no j o "  'i&TtX-Ktfk  ("An  U n g o - j i Monk's  Foreword t o Waka P o e t r y Composed as a Penance f o r H i s I n v o l v e 39 raent i n F i c t i o n " ) i s l i s t e d i n i t .  T h i s essay i s dated  the t h i r t e e n t h of the n i n t h month o f the f i r s t T|C  (1106).  Although  t h i s account  year o f Kasho  g i v e s no h i n t as t o the  i d e n t i t y of the w r i t e r , t h e r e i s no evidence  t h a t other monks  of U n g o - j i were i n v o l v e d w i t h p o e t r y . In a d d i t i o n , i t i s known t h a t p o e t r y c o n t e s t s were o f t e n h e l d a t U n g o - j i around the year 1116 ship.  One  under S e n s a i ' s  p a r t i c u l a r l y well-known c o m p e t i t i o n was  .11 Kechien-gvo kSen utaawase  -^K*g  sponsorthe Ungo-  ^^^t/^L%-SL^  •  I t was  h e l d i n the e i g h t h month of the f o u r t h year o f E i k y u  ^<_X^  (1116) w i t h F u j i w a r a no Mototoshi  as the judge.  t h i s c o n t e s t Sensai composed t h r e e waka poems and won A f t e r t h i s he p l a y e d o f f a t i e w i t h Minatnoto  In twice.  no T o s h i y o r i and  16 the r e s u l t was  a draw.  S e n s a i * s waka poems appeared i n F u j i w a r a no C o l l e c t i o n s o f Poems (Fu.iiwara no Mototoshi  ^C?IL ) >  A'fL shu  a  a  Mototoshi's  kashu ^ ^ y ^  w e l l as i n the I m p e r i a l a n t h o l o g i e s of  » Shika shu  f^]^|L  Shin kokin shu %\f $>^&_ Zoku goshui shu  Jfj ^  2^/1  Kin'yo  -f'^.IL »  , Shin chokusen shu Jrl'j"  ^^^jfj^  and Shin goshui shu  » Senzai shu  ^  ^-T^^L,  , Shin s h u i shu $if  >  .  Sensai formed c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h F u j i w a r a no Motot o s h i and Minamoto no T o s h i y o r i , both l e a d i n g poets o f t h e i r day.  T h i s f a c t i s known because Mototoshi  l i s t e d several  s e t s of poems which were exchanges between h i m s e l f and h i s f r i e n d S e n s a i , i n Fu.iiwara no M o t o t o s h i  kashu.  I t seems t h a t  T o s h i y o r i v i s i t e d Sensai o f t e n a t h i s temple because he ed s i x poems vrtiich had been composed at U n g o - j i ,  includ-  Sensai*s  r e s i d e n c e , i n Samboku k i k a shu. T o s h i y o r i * s c o l l e c t i o n of poems.  Although  S e n s a i * s works are r e l a t i v e l y u n s t u d i e d , i t  i s e v i d e n t from the r e s u l t o f the p o e t r y c o n t e s t noted above, the f r i e n d s h i p shared w i t h Mototoshi  and T o s h i y o r i , as w e l l  as from the f a c t t h a t h i s poems a r e i n c l u d e d i n many I m p e r i a l a n t h o l o g i e s t h a t Sensai was  equal i n a b i l i t y to the best  o f h i s day. As a poet S e n s a i i s d e s c r i b e d i n Kokon chomon 1u *2  ft*  n  poets  17  ...the monk loved waka poetry; t h e r e f o r e , the poets of h i s day f r e quently gathered together at h i s temple i n order to h o l d meetings of waka verse. He painted a mandala of waka (waka mandara % M.<!> Tt, $L ) and l i s t e d the Seven Buddhas of the Past (kako shiehi-Butsu Ml £ ^ # ), * together w i t h the names of t h i r t y - s i x well-known poets (san.iu-rok-kasen s. T A - I K 4d\ ).... 4 3  v  4  In Ima monogatari  , an example of Sensai »s quick45 >^ "> ness of p o e t i c repartee i s given. Fujiwara no Nobuzane ^J^-'/fL $k  10l w r i t e s that one day the Premier Kyogoku  the time a minor o f f i c i a l , was passing by U n g o - j i .  , at He n o t i c -  ed Sensai»s antiquated house and had a servant shout;  H l . i i r i no va wo ba  The o l d man» s broken down house... Should be roofed t o hide the chinks.  mekakuahi n i fnke  Then he q u i c k l y drove away i n h i s c a r t .  Sensai made a novice  run a f t e r the servant and say:  Ame no s h i t a n i morite kikovuru koto mo a r i  A l l under heaven, You never know what w i l l leak And be heard i n the end.  The author of Ima monogatari f i n i s h e s t h i s paragraph  prais-  i n g the quickness of Sensai who was challenged to compose the f i r s t three l i n e s of the waka poem, the l a s t two l i n e s of  18  which Kyogoku had  provided.  Another example of Sensai*s w i t i s i n c l u d e d i n Zoku s h i k a shu  Jj^ .  I t i s recorded that one day as he  was  h o l d i n g a s e r v i c e , water from a leak i n the roof dropped upon his  sleeve.  As he got down from the dias he composed the f o l -  lowing verse:  I n i s h i e wo tazunete mo k i k u ima mo miru moru-ya wa n o r i no kataki nari keri  In the days gone by, I f I seek, I ' l l f i n d a case. Aha now I see... A house w i t h a leaky roof Is c e r t a i n l y the Law's foe.  In t h i s poem Sensai comments on the f a c t that h i s s e r v i c e i s i n t e r r u p t e d by a leaky r o o f ; however, he i s at the same time r e f e r r i n g to the f a c t that h i s sleeve, tear-soaked  because he  sleeps alone, i s c r e a t i n g a b a r r i e r to s a l v a t i o n . From such evidence i t i s c l e a r that even Buddhist s e r v i c e s might be l i g h t e n e d by Sensai's w i t and the reason Sensai i s counted as one of those who  i n i t i a l l y expressed Buddhist thought t h r -  ough waka poetry becomes c l e a r .  I t seems that Sensai r e c i t e d  poems whenever he had to t a l k , and that he h e l d meetings of waka poetry even a f t e r Buddhist s e r v i c e s , p r o v i d i n g there were enough people.  In f a c t he o f t e n arranged s e r v i c e s s p e c i f i c a l -  l y i n order to hold meetings of poetry. In a d d i t i o n , Sensai was a s k i l l f u l chanter. koso den t h i s t a l e n t i s described.  In Honch6  v  "Sensai was an admirable  19  chanter o f the holy i n v o c a t i o n s , and i t was s a i d t h a t when he performed everyone l i s t e n e d w i t h j o y . RySnin ^ ,*L (1072 - 1132) o f Mount 6hara X / j ^ .  was taught t o chant by Sensai..."  This i s an extremely i n t e r e s t i n g statement because Jodo Buddhism was t r a n s m i t t e d by means of chants,- and RySnin, the fou-y^  nder of the Yuzu N.embutsu Sect (Yuzu nembntsu-shu ._  .  48  ),  if  was known t o be one of the pioneers of such invoca-  tions. Sensai*s e x c e p t i o n a l a b i l i t y combined w i t h h i s amazing sense of humor must have made him a popular f i g u r e among a l l kinds of people.  The compiler o f Hyaku rensho §  wrote  t h a t , "...the consecration ceremony of the hachi-jfr high g o l den image of Buddha was attended by both high and low who t o 49  gether deepened t h e i r devotion...".  S i m i l a r comments are  found i n other sources. I n Goshui oMfr den #ft i t i s recorded that Sensai was c a l l e d on by Minamoto no Toshifusa ^^^)%  { -1121), the M i n i s t e r of the L e f t , t o perform  the l a s t r i t e s which would assure him of companionship i n the 50 next l i f e . The monk Sensai died on the t w e n t i e t h day of the s i x t h month o f the second year of D a i j i X A w- X 51 T & §dj the compiler w r i t e s :  ?Q  (1127).  In Chuu k i  The t w e n t y - t h i r d day: The monk Sensai d i e d at the time of the dog on the twentieth day. He used to be a monk o f E n r y a k u - j i /% 4r . He p r a c t i c e d preaching and mastered i t . He has been pious and he has performed v a r i o u s Buddhist s e r v i c e s . He carved a h a c h i - f 6 high image o f Buddha i n h i s temple and he a l s o changed the  20  Eastern Mountain (Higashi-vama ^ <U ) of Kyoto i n t o hvaku-io g jt (approximately three-hundred meter) t a l l image of Maitreya (Miroku 3& $ft ) « He was the i n i t i a t o r of the one hundred day pilgrimage (Hvaku-nichi no gyo^do^ ^ 0 .3L ) * seeking paradise. Moreover he i n s p i r e d a l l kinds of people t o deepen t h e i r f a i t h i n Buddhism. However, he has already passed away. The days of Buddhism are a l s o gone. Buddhism has been e x t i n g u i s h e d f o r a l o n g time. Aha, i t i s indeed p i t i a b l e . 53  5  When the above h i s t o r i c a l accounts o f Sensai are compared w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the monk i n the l a s t s e c t i o n of A k i no yo no naga-roonogatari. i t becomes c l e a r that much of the author's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n was based on h i s t o r i c a l f a c t .  Although no  document other than A k i no yo no naga-monogatari r e v e a l s that Sensai*s former name was K e i k a i , t h a t he was a monk s o l d i e r of Mount H i e i or that he had a love a f f a i r w i t h a young boy, when Sensai*s achievements and r e f i n e d character are understood, i t i s easy t o imagine why the author o f A k i no yo no nagamonogatari wrote a t a l e w i t h Sensai as i t s hero.  The R i v a l r y Between the Sammon and the Jimon Both G i s h i n ^  jL  (  Denominations  - 333) and Ennin  d i s c i p l e s o f Saicho - ^ i H  (766 - 822),  Tendai Sect (Tendai-shu ^  o ^  (zasu Hiei.  i , ) at the  (794 -  864),  the founder o f the  ) > served as the c h i e f monks  headquarters of the Tendai Sect on Mount  Gishin»s d i s c i p l e , Enchin | g ^  (314 - 391), a l s o be-  came a c h i e f monk a t Mount H i e i a f t e r he r e t u r n e d from China  21  i n 858 and during the next seventy years members o f h i s group c o n t r o l l e d Mount H i e i .  (912 - 985) o  However, Ryogen  f  the Ennin l i n e g r a d u a l l y gained power because he reconstruc55 ted  many temple headquarters r u i n e d due t o f i r e .  Antagonism  between groups r e p r e s e n t i n g these two l e a d e r s soon developed. E v e n t u a l l y , when Yokei  J%g_ (  - 991) o f the Enchin l i n e  was prevented from becoming the c h i e f monk of Mount H i e i i n 9^9, the Enchin group l e f t Mount H i e i and e s t a b l i s h e d an i n d e pendent branch, the Jimon Denomination (Jimon-ha i n 993, w i t h i t s head quarters a t 0 n j 3 - j i .  ^f-f^ffc ),  From that time, the  Mount H i e i branch has been r e f e r r e d t o as the Sammon Denominat i o n (Sammon-ha  f®\  ).  The complications between these two groups o r i g i n a t e d w i t h the r i v a l r y f o r abbotship; however from the time O n j o - j i became independent, owing t o  0nj6-jJLS  having no r i g h t t o b u i l d  an o r d i n a t i o n p l a t f o r m f o r the issuance o f commandments, problems r e l a t e d t o the o r d i n a t i o n of monks arose.  I n order t o  confirm monks O n j o - j i was r e q u i r e d t o depend upon other temp l e s , mainly the Sammon temple of Mount H i e i . 57 relationship raised d i f f i c u l t i e s .  This f o r c e d  The records of Hvaku renshft f o r the second year o f Cho*-  kyu  -6. A  (1041) and the second year o f Enkyu  JtiLZ^  (1070)  mentioned that the monks o f 0 n j 6 - j i f r e q u e n t l y asked permiss i o n of the Court t o b u i l d a p l a t f o r m f o r o r d i n a t i o n (kaidan .  53 TJE )•  These requests angered the monks o f Mount H i e i ,  and i n the f i r s t year o f Eih6~ J(<^^ (1031) the whole temple complex o f O n j o - j i was razed t o the ground f o r the f i r s t time.  22  F o l l o w i n g t h i s ^ burnings of O n j o - j i by the monk s o l d i e r s (s£hei ^  ^  ) of Mount H i e i continued.  In addition to  minor r a i d s , the whole temple complex of Q n j S - j i was t o t a l l y destroyed seven times. Records o f the f i r s t four a t t a c k s , which r e s u l t e d i n complete d e s t r u c t i o n , are found i n Hvaku rensho.  The f i r s t  occurred on the n i n t h day of the s i x t h month i n the f i r s t year o f EihS.  I t i s w r i t t e n that on the day of the Hie , , 61  Shrine (Hie-.iin.ia  Q  £>ffifa  ) f e s t i v a l i n the f o u r t h month  of that same year, the monks o f O n j S - j i captured some a t t e n dants of Hie shrine and s t o l e o f f e r i n g s .  These a c t s i n c i t e d  the monks of Mount H i e i t o a c t i o n . The second i n c i d e n t occurred i n the second year o f Hoan (\W  (1121), on the t h i r d day o f the i n t e r c a l a r y f i f t h  month (uruu s a t s u k i f£\ J5_ }\ ) which f e l l between the f i f t h 52  and s i x t h months.  O n j o - j i was burned once again on the s i x -  teenth day of the i n t e r c a l a r y f i f t h month o f H6*en isK i ! ^ . (1140).  I n t h i s account, the previous a t t a c k s o f 1081 and 63  1121 are mentioned. On the n i n t h day of the s i x t h month of the f i r s t year of Chokan f< ( 1 1 6 3 ) the monk s o l d i e r s of Mount H i e i des64  troyed O n j o - j i yet another time.  This a c t was brought about  by.  the monks o f O n j o - j i who beheaded s e v e r a l Shinto p r i e s t s  on  . the t h i r d day of that same month.  d i r e c t provocation  Apart from t h i s  from O n j o - j i , however, there were s e v e r a l  underlying reasons f o r t h i s attack by the monks o f Mount H i e i in II63.  I n Hvaku rensho, i t i s recorded that i n the second  23 year of Oho ary  #\ (1162), on the f i r s t day of the i n t e r c a l -  second month, Kakuchu ® " }£. , the son of an 0 n j 6 - j i abbot, ^  was appointed as head monk of the Tendai Sect.  65  The monks  of Mount H i e i , however, f o r c e d him to d e c l i n e the p o s i t i o n . Moreover, i n the f i f t h month of the f o l l o w i n g year (1163) the temple of Mount H i e i p r o t e s t e d the f a c t t h a t the monks of O n j o - j i had ceased to r e c e i v e o r d i n a t i o n at Mount H i e i . . . . Seven days l a t e r , on^the twenty-ninth day of the f i f t h month, Kofuku-ji  fr&fimrf  suggested to the Throne that the monks  of 0 n j 6 - j i should cease t o r e c e i v e o r d i n a t i o n at Mount H i e i and furthermore, that Mount H i e i should become subordinate to O n j o - j i .  Thus the reason f o r Mount H i e i ' s v i o l e n t assa-  u l t i s e a s i l y understood. I t i s recorded i n Azuma kagami -fa"  •IF-'^L  th&t  Onjo-ji  was destroyed on the f i f t e e n t h day of the f o u r t h month of the second year of Kempo  \%\. (1214)  and t h a t t h i s a t t a c k was  the r e s u l t of t r o u b l e between the Shinto p r i e s t s of Sakamoto (Mount H i e i )  and  Otsu ( O n j o - j i ) on the day of the Hie 68  Shrine f e s t i v a l , the f o u r t e e n t h day of the same month. The record a l s o notes t h a t t h i s was the f i f t h occurrence, and that i t f o l l o w e d i n c i d e n t s i n 1108, Zokushi gusho ing  'f^hflf  1121, 1164 and  1214.  records t h a t the 3ixth burn-  of O n j o - j i took place on the second day of the f i f t h month 1  ,  of the f i r s t year of Bun'ei X ^  69 (1264).  On the twenty-  t h i r d day of the t h i r d month of the same year, the monks of Mount H i e i reduced almost a l l of t h e i r own temples to ashes i n order to p r o t e s t the f a c t t h a t t h e i r request seeking the  24 abbot ship of Tenno-ji ^  j £ rr,  which a t that time was h e l d 70 by a monk o f 0 n j $ - j i , was ignored. Taking advantage o f the confusion on Mount H i e i , the monks of O n j o - j i reconstructed t h e i r temple t o resemble a c a s t l e and a l s o b u i l t an ordina71 t i o n platform.  Highly angered, the monks of Mount H i e i  rushed t o O n j o - j i . On the t w e n t y - f i f t h day o f the f o u r t h month of the t h i r d year o f Bumpo  £/fjjl  (1319), i n Hanazono Tenno s h i n k i X*C>. ^  A L U >6L * C J » i t i s recorded t h a t , "...the main h a l l , the ord72 i n a t i o n platform o f O n j o - j i . . . e v e r y t h i n g was razed....". I t seems reasonable t o suppose that the cause of t h i s i n c i d e n t was a l s o r e l a t e d t o the o r d i n a t i o n platform of O n j o - j i . From these documents recording the a t t a c k s and burnings of O n j o - j i by the monk s o l d i e r s of Mount H i e i , i t i s q u i t e evident that the b a t t l e which takes place i n sections t h i r t e e n t o f i f t e e n o f A k i no j o no naga-monogatari i s indeed r e l a t e d to a c t u a l h i s t o r i c a l events.  I n Aki no j o no naga-monogatari.  a v a i n b a t t l e between two denominations was caused by the love a f f a i r between K e i k a i and Umewaka. Without knowledge of h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s , the cause o f t h i s b a t t l e may seem r a t h e r unrealistic.  Nevertheless, as i t i s c l e a r from h i s t o r i c a l records  that many of the i n i t i a l causes o f the a c t u a l b a t t l e s were trivial.  They merely provided an excuse f o r a release of the  pent-up h o s t i l i t y of both denominations. Hirasawa Goro - ^ 7 ^ h~ £p monogatari ko"  f^Jk.  says i n "Aki no yo no naga-  i& %K.  t h a t  A k i no j o no naga-  monogatari seems t o have been w r i t t e n by a man who e i t h e r saw  25  or heard of the i n c i d e n t of the year 1319, the l a s t burning of O n j o - j i , and wrote the s t o r y while the memory of the batt l e s held between the Sammon and the Jimon Denominations was 73 f r e s h i n the minds of people of the area.  He notes that i n  s e c t i o n f i f t e e n of A k i no j o no naga-monogatari i t i s mentioned  that the Sammon Denomination had p r e v i o u s l y attacked the 74 Jimon Denomination s i x times. He concludes that the b a t t l e which takes place i n the t a l e was the one which occurred i n 75 1319. Hirasawa Goro says that learned men of that age must have known the exact number of times that OnjoVji had been burned because h i s t o r i c a l documents o c c a s i o n a l l y mentioned these f a c t s , and even i n T a i h e i k i , which i s not a c h r o n i c l e , i t i s noted that O n j o - j i had been burned seven times before the f i r s t year of Bumpo (1317).  (This must be an e r r o r be-  cause according to other h i s t o r i c a l documents the seventh , burning of O n j o - j i occurred i n 1319). The author of A k i no vo no naga-monogatari must have been w e l l aware of t h i s comment 77 i n Taihei k i .  I t seems reasonable t o suppose that the author  of A k i no yo no naga-monogatari consciously mentioned that s i x burnings had occurred before the b a t t l e described i n the story. The points that Hirasawa r a i s e s are completely v a l i d . When.the author wrote A k i no yo no naga-monogatari. he must have indeed used the i n c i d e n t o f 1319 to convey t o people the c o n d i t i o n s of a c t u a l event.  I t may be p o s s i b l e t o suppose,  i n a d d i t i o n , that there was a legend about Sensai, a monk  26  s o l d i e r of Mount H i e i .  I n w r i t i n g A k i no yo no naga-monoga-  t a r i . the author combined h i s knowledge of the l i f e o f Sensai w i t h h i s experience of the a c t u a l c o n f l i c t o f 1319, an event which was the only b a t t l e o f l a r g e scale which occurred duri n g h i s l i f e t i m e , i n an attempt t o express Sensai»s heroic legendary episode i n h i s own words.  27  CHAPTER IV L i t e r a t u r e Related t o Aki  no yo no naga-monogatari  I t i s important t o i n v e s t i g a t e those works which are b e l i e v e d t o have been the sources o f the author of A k i no vo no naga-monogatari as w e l l as l a t e r l i t e r a t u r e which i s s a i d t o have been i n f l u e n c e d by the t a l e . not  This research  only adds^new dimension t o knowledge concerning the char-  a c t e r i s t i c s o f Buddhist n a r r a t i v e s but a l s o provides new background m a t e r i a l s f o r the study of l i t e r a t u r e of other periods. Xty  I t i s i n d i s p u t a b l e that Kon.iaku monogatari  ^  and T a i h e i k i provided some i n s p i r a t i o n f o r A k i no vo  no naga-monogatari and that the t a l e i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e d w r i t e r s such as Zeami i f 1*\ $tk (1364? - 1443) and Ryutei Tanehiko #]7 ^  A^./% (17^3 - 1842).  I n a d d i t i o n , f o r many years  there has been a s t r o n g l y h e l d b e l i e f that the N$ song, Sumidagawa fi\ &) n|  , upon which s e v e r a l Edo works and a  chain of plays were based, was i n f l u e n c e d by A k i no vo no naga-monogatari. Although t h i s popular notion i s i n c o r r e c t , i t i s important t o examine t h i s misconception i n d e t a i l because i t provides i n s i g h t s which help t o e x p l a i n the tremendous p o p u l a r i t y of the t a l e during the Edo p e r i o d .  In this  chapter, those works which have been s a i d t o be r e l a t e d t o Aki  no yo no naga-monogatari w i l l be examined and t h e i r r e l a -  t i o n s h i p s t o the t a l e w i l l be discussed.  28  The Author's Sources Nishida Naokai \jfc> \B JkJlK.  ('  -  l d 6  3 ) was e v i d e n t l y the  f i r s t c r i t i c t o i n d i c a t e the existence of a t a l e which may have provided i n s p i r a t i o n t o the author of A k i no yo no  1p  *~  that i n kan twenty-one of Kon.iaku monogatari there i s a  story which reads:  78  A dragon had assumed the guise of a t i n y snake and was l i v i n g i n Mano Pond (Mano no i k e * 7^ ) i n the Province of Sanuki jl;ff-*AX.. 7f A tengu who had taken on the shape o f a hawk, captured him and c a r r i e d him to Mount H i r a ( H i r a no yama J d &i <?\ d± ) . 8© The dragon was imprisoned i n a cave and was given no water. When he was about to d i e , the tengu brought i n a monk o f Mount H i e i , who was c a r r y i n g a water b o t t l e i n h i s hand. A drop of water r e v i v e d the dragon, whereupon he escorted the monk t o h i s temple and then he himself returned to heaven.  Section seventeen of A k i no yo no naga-monogatari i n which Umewaka i s captured and imprisoned i n the r o c k - j a i l indeed corresponds q u i t e c l o s e l y to t h i s summary of a Kon.iaku monogatari t a l e . T a i h e i k i has been considered to have had the greatest i n f l u e n c e upon A k i no yo no naga-monogatari.  Many w e l l -  e s t a b l i s h e d scholars such as Got6 T a n j i and K^jo Isao have noted analogies i n p l o t as w e l l as s t r i k i n g correspondences i n sentences.  Moreover, they even  29 suggested that these two works were c r e a t i o n s of the same author. The f o l l o w i n g i s an attempt to i l l u s t r a t e two examples of the p a r a l l e l s which may be seen i n passages of T a i h e i k i and A k i no j o no naga-monogatari.  . . . i r o koto n i kogashitaru fumi no f u r u r u sode sae kuyuru bakari no 'g. s- 3 ij" ^  ?  ^  st  >  >^  to  t  x-  7 =>~  )•  (Section 7; A k i no YO no naga-monogatari)  ...toru te mo kuyuru b a k a r i n i kogaretaru momi.ji-gasane no Jfj^ 7 =3- I L - j0 ^ (Kan 15; T a i h e i k i )  Although, fumi (a l e t t e r ) i s the object o f the clause i r o koto n i kogashitaru fumi no (the l e t t e r , which one s t r o n g l y perfumed), whereas momi.ji-gasane (a red paper backed with yellow i . e . , a l e t t e r ) i s the subject of the phrase kogaretaru momiji-gasane n i (the l e t t e r perfumed s t r o n g l y ) , these two fragments are semantically i d e n t i c a l .  Moreover the phrase  kuyuru bakari n i (as i t may gain a l i n g e r i n g scent) i s i n c l u ded i n both sentences. Other s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r sentences occur i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of e a r l y morning scenes:  30  ....Akegata no t s u k i mado no n i s h i v o r i kumanaku s a s h i - i r i t a r e b a neroidare-garni no harahara t o k a k a r i hazure v o r i mavu no n i o i hoke vaka n i Bf\ ^ > J 7 r  •y  ii  —  • • •  (Section 9; A k i no yo no naga-monogatari)  ....Ariake no t s u k i no kumanaku s a s h i - i r i t a r u ni...harahara t o kobore k a k a r i t a r u b i n no hazure v o r i honoka n i mietaru mavu no n i o i fx. *m ) £ ) r i >\ * ,u =. . .. /s s\  v~  D  it." u- -p &  <) *?  > ;\  ^ 3  83  (Kan 18; T a i h e i k i )  Again, these passages are semantically equivalent t o one another although there are some l e x i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s as w e l l as v a r i a t i o n s i n word order.  Although these s i m i l a r i t i e s may be  thought t o be e i t h e r examples of l i t e r a r y convention or c o i n c i d e n t a l , more than twenty such c l o s e l y r e l a t e d passages can be shown t o e x i s t .  Moreover, h a l f o f these s i m i l a r i t i e s occur  i n kan eighteen o f T a i h e i k i . From the above evidence, i t should be c l e a r that the connection  between A k i no yo no naga-  monogatari and T a i h e i k i i s an extremely close one. Moreover because i t i s g e n e r a l l y considered that T a i h e i k i was comple84  ted around 1368 - 1375,  and that the oldest t e x t of A k i no  yo no naga-monogatari was copied i n 1377, i t i s l i k e l y that the author of A k i no yo no naga-monogatari adopted those sentences from T a i h e i k i . As there i s no d e f i n i t e proof w i t h which t o support t h i s hypothesis, i t may a l s o be p o s s i b l e t o consider that A k i no yo no naga-monogatari provided t i o n f o r Taihei k i .  inspira-  31 Works Thought t o Have Been Influenced by the Tale I t can be demonstrated that A k i no yo no naga-monogatari i n f l u e n c e d w r i t e r s of the Middle Ages and the Pre-modern period.  Sentences patterned a f t e r the opening l i n e s of  A k i no yo no naga-monogatari are found i n the No t e x t s Seniu -T  f  and Atsumori  , w r i t t e n by Zeami who seems t o  have been the e a r l i e s t w r i t e r t o show i n t e r e s t i n A k i no yo no naga-monogatari and i n the work of f i c t i o n , Kakitsu monogatari ^  ^ iffy  .  The l a t t e r work was completed o)  a f t e r the Disturbance of Kakitsu ( K a k i t s u no ran i|)L t 1441).  Since the oldest t e x t of Aki no yo no naga-  monogatari i s dated 1377, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o assume t h a t the opening sentences of A k i no yo no naga-monogatari were adopted i n these l i t e r a r y works. Ryutei Tanehiko a l s o employed sections of the t a l e i n h i s works of f i c t i o n .  He uses the phrase "Shirakawa ohoko 7&J  no s o r a - i n l i Gosan no so no monto-date $(L  ^  <* f ^ %• $U 3  i n h i s piece Awa no Narutb  n  ^- 0 ^? fcp  from A k i no yo no naga-monogatari yp)  z_ »j fj p  > and he a l s o  adopted the waka poem "Shirasebava hono-mishi hana no omokage n i tachisou kumo no mavou kokorowo  it*  d) #/*  yomihon  jife  1-  c  H  0  'ft * i l  \f 0, Jj^  £0 ^ b  »c t  Ms  " m  jL. , "story book", e n t i t l e d Yakko no Koman mono90  o\ yjv ^  gatari  the t a l e of 'Aozukin"-f" ,  9  wis •  1  which i s known t o be based upon of Ugetsu monogatari  ^  Q Iffy)  32 Other than the examples noted above there are no works which can be proved t o have been d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d by A k i U2 Z2 H2 naga-monogatari; however, f o r many years s c h o l a r s , w r i t e r s , and audiences have b e l i e v e d that the No song Sumidagawa and i t s r e l a t e d works, a s e r i e s o f plays and s e v e r a l pieces of popular l i t e r a t u r e whose t i t l e s i n c l u d e the  words Sumidagawa. were based upon A k i no yo no naga-  monogatari . Zeami»s son, Kanze Motomasa MTL^TL^L 92 composed the No t e x t Sumidagawa.  (1394? - 1452)  The basic p l o t s t r u c t u r e  of t h i s piece i s as f o l l o w s : A mad woman a r r i v e s at the f e r r y cross93 i n g o f the Sumida R i v e r (Sumida-gawa ffi »'| ). At f i r s t the boatman t r i e s t o make fun o f her. However, upon hearing that she has come from Kyoto seeking her missing son, he f e e l s sorry f o r her and f e r r i e s her across the r i v e r . A man on the same boat, n o t i c i n g that there are many people on the r i v e r dike l o u d l y chanting prayers t o Ami da JSj £j§ "%**asks the boatman about i t . The boatman r e p l i e s , "A year ago, a merchant came t o t h i s f e r r y c r o s s i n g . He brought w i t h him a boy purchased i n Kyoto. Perhaps because he was too young f o r such a long t r i p , the youth had become s i c k . C r u e l l y , the merchant abandoned the boy and he continued north alone. The boy died s h o r t l y afterwards." The boy was the c h i l d f o r whom the mad woman sought. A f t e r g e t t i n g out o f the boat she j o i n s those praying on the d i k e , whereupon she hears the v o i c e o f the boy and sees h i s g h o s t l y image.  Both A k i no vo no naga-monogatari and the No song Sumidagawa  33 incorporate his  i n c i d e n t s i n which the hero i s c a r r i e d o f f a g a i n s t  w i l l and  d i e s a t r a g i c death, however the only  s i m i l a r i t y between the two heroes are the same.  No and  i s the f a c t that the names o f 1^  Shuzui K e n j i ^  Kabuki kvakuhon shu  ^  YjLfeP/?ML  t h a t a kanazfishi 4fc_%z.^-"^r  t h i s No  text.  1§  ©  II)  the  notes i n  i d e a  f o r  t h e  no naga-monogatari.  , " s t o r y book i n kana",  <f^S7*4%" ( I 6 5 6 )  was  based upon  In a d d i t i o n , Goto T a n j i c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n to  the f a c t t h a t Shida l o s h i h i d e Q  Nihon no densetsu to dSwa dagawa monogatari was  fep l£I fi^  *  4%-  to imagine why  to e x i s t , n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  During the Edo  mentions i n t ^.i/S  t h a t Sumi-  96  r e l a t e d to A k i no yo no naga-monogatari.  I t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t continued  ?e5  t h a t t h e  t e x t Sumidagawa o r i g i n a t e d i n A k i no jo  Sumidagawa monogatari  concrete  such a s s o c i a t i o n s  they were r a r e l y  challenged.  p e r i o d the s e r i e s o f Sumidagawa p l a y s  became extremely p o p u l a r .  97  P a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l known among bete ia 93  these dramas were Futago Sumidagawa Chikamatsu Monzaemon  &.fof \lk.ftj?^ t  (1653  -  first  1724)  Kj*" j^fit^.  performed a t Takemotoza (a J o r u r i t h e a t e r i n Osaka) i n 1720» and the Kabuki p l a y s Sumidagawa g o n i c h i no omokage 99  j\§ \B (  - 1802)  %H t(f ijL  by Nagawa Shimesuke and  7*1  Sumidagawa hana no Goshozome  by Tsuruya Namboku  which were performed i n i t i a l l y  -tlJL  fij^fiz $) *C  i n 1 7 3 4 and  'f)*  /£> n] (1755  -  1829),  1814 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  These p o p u l a r p l a y s r e t a i n e d the p l o t s t r u c t u r e o f the  No  t e x t Sumidagawa. as w e l l as the name o f the hero, Umewaka. Although these works had  no more connection  w i t h A k i no yo  no  34 naga-monogatari than d i d Sumidagawa. i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t theatergoers  o f the time who were i n t e r e s t e d i n the o r i g i n  o f the p l a y s b e l i e v e d t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Budd h i s t t a l e , A k i no yo no naga-monogatari. and t h e N& song Sumidagawa d i d indeed e x i s t . I t was probably a t t h i s time t h a t the legend o f Umewaka came i n t o e x i s t e n c e . .  A memorial tomb was b u i l t a t ^ 101  „  the temple o f Mokubo-ji /N -cpr -vp  by t h e Sumida R i v e r ,  and a wooden image o f Umewaka was enshrined  there.  More-  over t h e p r a c t i c e o f h o l d i n g a s e r v i c e t o commemorate t h e anniversary tom  o f Umewaka's death was e s t a b l i s h e d .  has continued  t o present  T h i s cus-  day.  Thus, d u r i n g the Edo p e r i o d the legend o f Umewaka began  t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h A k i no yo no naga-monogatari.  In a d d i t i o n , a d a p t a t i o n s i n c r e a s i n g l y popular. no connection  o f t h e Nd song Sumidagawa became  As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , t h e r e was  between these l i t e r a r y works and A k i no yo  no naga-monogatari; n o n e t h e l e s s , t h e p i e c e s were completed by authors who f e l t t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d . i n e v i t a b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h i s theory by p u b l i c  I t was  came t o be supported  opinion.  Ryutei  Tanehiko, a s c h o l a r who had s t u d i e d A k i no yo  no naga-monogatari more thoroughly than any o f h i s contemp o r i e s , s t r o n g l y opposed t h e i d e a t h a t Sumidagawa and i t s r e l a t e d works were based on A k i no y o no naga-monogatari. I  n  Kflshoku-bon mokuroku ^  £ ^  g)  not only d i d he  assemble f o u r t e x t s o f A k i no yo no naga-monogatari but  35 102 he a l s o commented on t h e i r q u a l i t y .  I n h i s essays he  dis-  p e l l e d s e v e r a l popular misconceptions about the t a l e and  shed  l i g h t on some unexplored a r e a s . In R y u t e i k i  ^gt*  >  tomb f o r Umewaka a t Mokubo-ji t a n t e who  admired  ke noted t h a t the memorial was  probably b u i l t by a  the N"o* song Sumidagawa.  dillet-  He concluded t h i s  a r t i c l e s a y i n g t h a t "...the s t o r y o f Mokubo-ji  temple  and  the t a l e o f Aki no jo no naga-monogatari both concern someone c a l l e d Umewaka, however, they [ t h e heroes] are d i f f e r e n t people w i t h the same name....".  He a l s o noted i n R y u t e i k i  t h a t the wooden f i g u r e o f Umewaka had not been i n the posses104 s i o n o f Mokubo-ji  f o r any great l e n g t h o f time.  I t had been  purchased by a monk o f the temple d u r i n g a v i s i t t o Kyoto. R y u t e i p e r s o n a l l y b e l i e v e d that the f i g u r e was  not that o f * <r ± 105 Umewaka but r a t h e r an image o f Ushiwaka-maru jz> . ro. xr / > 106 Furthermore, he noted i n Sokushin-0 k i J^£{j4*}, that v  the names o f the monks o f M i i - d e r a who  are l i s t e d i n A k i no  yo no naga-monogatari as " S e n n i n - g i r i no Ara-Sanuki, no Aku-dayu, rt..  Happo-yaburi  no Musashibo  ." were a c t u a l l y a l l f i c t i t i o u s .  t>Z) <*  -f" A*  The terms r e f e r t o  the s t r a t e g i e s o f the game o f vasasugare J \ ^ , and  Kanasaibo  /  ^ ^ K  i  "fox  geese". N e i t h e r the N&" song Sumidagawa and i t s r e l a t e d works nor  the Umewaka legend can be proved t o have t h e i r o r i g i n s i n A k i no yo no naga-monogatari,  nonetheless i t i s evident that  they have l o n g been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the t a l e .  F o r t h i s reason,  36  A k i no j o no naga-monogatari was f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o i n s c h o l a r l y works r e l a t e d t o Sumidagawa,  I t i s also  evident  t h a t phrases o f the t a l e were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a number o f l i t e r a r y works.  T h i s f a c t t e s t i f i e s t o the value o f t h e  work as a l i t e r a r y source and t o i t s f a m i l i a r i t y among l a t e r w r i t e r s o f the M i d d l e Ages and Pre-Modern p e r i o d .  37  NOTES ON THE INTRODUCTION T a k a u j i A$L M  Ashikaga  1  %Ki  (  1  3  °  5  "  5 S )  »  founder  o f Muromachi Shogunate, became a convert o f t h e monk o f t h e R i n z a i Zen Sect ( R i n z a i - s h u gf j f f i ^ D  (1275  -  N  ^  He f r e q u e n t l y c o n s u l t e d t h e monk on  1351).  a f f a i r s o f government. Ozawa E i i c h i Yasumasa /|  ), Muso S o s e k i  \& jjfs. [E. ,  y\\ ^X.fit—»  and Oda  ed., Kenkyu Nihon s h i ^>\^ ^  (Tokyo: Shiraizu Shoin, 1 9 5 6 ) ,  QJr\^  p. 1 5 8 , pp. 1 6 7 - 8 .  2  I n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s paragraph from Shuzui K e n j i  ^fj^^ia  i s taken  , and Shioda Ryohei 3 ^ ©  » ed., Kokubungaku s h i Shinsha, 1 9 5 9 ) , PP. 77-81.  IfJ] j t ^ l ^ .  (  T o k  y°  :  Seirin  ^  Shoin  A l s o r e f e r t o H. P a u l V a r l e y ,  The Onin War (New York, and London: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 6 7 ) ,  p. 6 0 7 .  3  Gempei no soran.  -^F* 2o p'JjjLj ,  1159)?  r u l e o f the Fujiwara  A f t e r the H e i j i War (Hei.ii no r a n  the Heike a c t i v e l y i n t e r v e n e d i n t h e  f a m i l y J ^ y j ^ ^ , and soon p r a c t i c a l l y  c o n t r o l l e d t h e country.  Among those who were d i s s a t i s f i e d  w i t h t h i s s i t u a t i o n was Minamoto no Yorimasa (IIO4-1180).  He r a i s e d an army i n support o f P r i n c e  M o c h i h i t o ^J^^Tj Goshirakawa  ^ fi)^  (1151 -  1180),  t h e son o f t h e Emperor  )*j (1127 - 1 1 9 7 ) i n 1130.  was q u e l l e d by t h e Heike.  This uprising  However, f o l l o w i n g t h i s many  b a t t l e s between the c l a n s o c c u r r e d u n t i l t h e Heike were  38 f i n a l l y defeated  a t Dan no u r a  ^  v  i n 1185. The  c h a i n o f b a t t l e s between the G e n j i and the Heike a r e commonly c a l l e d Gempei no s£ran o r t h e Gempei War.  Ozawa,and Oda,  pp. 110-1. In Mappo tomyS k i  %.)kp$_which  t o have been completed by Saicho s a i d t h a t mappo* would begin i n 1152. Buddha's death was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e . were sh6b£  i s believed (766 - 822), i t was The age a f t e r Gautama The t h r e e d i v i s i o n s  (500 - 1,000 y e a r s ) , z$b$  yfc, (500  or 1,000 y e a r s a f t e r sho'bo'), and mappo (10,000 y e a r s ) .  It  was b e l i e v e d that Buddha's d i r e c t s p i r i t u a l i n f l u e n c e would d e c l i n e g r a d u a l l y and d u r i n g mappo o n l y s u p e r f i c i a l knowledge of Buddhism would e x i s t . 5 Shuzui, and Shioda, p. 81. 6  ' . Koben ,|F| #»]^r  (1173 - 1232) o f t h e Kegon Sect (Kegon-  ), J S k y o  shu %  (1152 - 1213) o f t h e Hosso Sect  ) and E i z o n | A 1 ^-  (Hoss6~-shu R i t s u Sect  &J$L  (Ris-shu ^ %  (1201 - 1227) o f t h e  ).  7 E a r l i e r s e c t s taught t h a t one c o u l d achieve e n l i g h t enment o n l y through penance. (Jodo-kvo r#X$JL)  However, i n Jodo Buddhism  i t i s s a i d t h a t i n v o c a t i n g Buddha's  name i s t h e o n l y way t o g a i n enlightenment d u r i n g t h e age of mappo. tariki  T h i s b a s i c b e l i e f can be i l l u s t r a t e d i n one phrase,  hongan.  39 8  Wakan r o e i shu,  A c o l l e c t i o n of 589 Chinese poems  composed by both Japanese and Chinese poets.  These verses  are arranged i n t o f i v e s e c t i o n s : s p r i n g , summer, autumn, winter and m i s c e l l a n y . waka verses. recitation.  The poems are accompanied by 216  This c o l l e c t i o n was designed to be used f o r I t i s b e l i e v e d to have been completed i n 1013.  In NKBT, v o l . 73. The poem by Po Chii-i i n which the term kyogen kigo occurs i s on p. 200. 9 Refer t o note 7 of the i n t r o d u c t i o n .  The d o c t r i n e s  of t h i s s e c t were handed down by Asvagohosha ,% f.^ Nagar juna ffe India,  >f§y (Ryuju), and Vasubandhu -ftf" ^  Hui-yuan  ft-4,  (Eon, 334-416) and  (Zendo, 613-661) of China and Kuya ^ P^^i  (Memyo),  (Seshin) of  Shan-tao (903-972), Genshin  (942-1017), and Honen of Japan.  10 11  Shuzui, and Shioda, p. 84. I b i d . , p. 84. There i s one exception t o t h i s statement.  During e a r l y Chusei magnificent waka poetry was being w r i t t e n by court nobles. 12 Heike monogatari.  I n t h i s war s t o r y the r i s e and f a l l  of the T a i r a Clan i s described i n Buddhist tone. dan of Tsurezure gusa £ \© %  fti^fjk.  I n d a i 226  w r i t t e n by Yoshida Kenko  (1283 - 1350), he suggested who the author and  f i r s t n a r r a t o r of Heike monogatari might have been; however there are c o n f l i c t i n g views, and Kenko's comments have not been v a l i d a t e d .  Heike monogatari i s b e l i e v e d t o have been  40  completed i n j£kyu (1219 - 2 2 ) .  NKBT. v o l . 32-3; A. L.  S a d l e r , t r a n s . , "The Heike M o n o g a t a r i , " Transactions o f t h e A s i a t i c S o c i e t y o f Japan. 46, 2 (1913), pp. 1-278; 49, 1 (1921), pp. 1-354. 13 See  bibliography.  Mono no aware.  M o t o o r i Norinaga Jf^Jfc ^ L - ^ _ (1730 -  1301) used t h i s phrase t o d e s c r i b e one aspect  o f Heian i d e o -  l o g y which i s e s p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t i n l i t e r a r y works. G e n j i monogatari tama no ogushi  See h i s  > ^ i\ tftyife £ i *sW ftfy  ,  i n M o t o o r i Norinaga zenshu (Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo, 1969), v o l . 4, pp. 173-242.  Mono no aware has a l s o been t r a n s l a t e d  i n t o E n g l i s h as " s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h i n g s " .  See Tsunoda  Ryusaku,  et a l . , Sources o f Japanese T r a d i t i o n (New York, and London: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), v o l . 1, p. 173. 15 Karen B r a z e l l , "Towazu g a t a r i , " i n Harvard J o u r n a l o f A s i a t i c S t u d i e s , ; 31. (19.71), p.. 221. 16 The o l d e s t t e x t o f A k i no y o no naga-monogatari i s dated t h e t h i r d year o f Eiwa ^fc^o r e c o r d o f t h e t a l e before t h i s .  (1377).  There i s no  The b a t t l e d e s c r i b e d i n  the t e x t seems t o be t h e one which took p l a c e i n 1319. 17 In NKBT. A k i no y o no naga-monogatari was i n c l u d e d i n t h e volume e n t i t l e d O t o g i - z ^ s h i .  ?o  i n Chuko shSsetsu no kenkvu  Ichiko T e i j i  1)7 £ f(  vf> £ y\ j?]^ otJ[£\ K  (Tokyo:  Tokyo Baigaku Shuppan-kai, 1955), p. 134, and Goto* T a n j i  41  #  i n Chusei kokubungaku kenkyu  (Tokyo: Isobe Koyo-do, 1 9 3 3 ) , pp. 6 5 - 6 , yo no naga-monogatari  tf jjt |f§j ^ L ^ ^ f ^  i n s i s t t h a t A k i no  i s a chigo monogatari.  18 I c h i k o , p.  140.  19 Tengu. An imaginary g o b l i n who  i n h a b i t s deep  mountains.  I t has a human f i g u r e w i t h a p a i r o f wings, a r e d f a c e and an extremely prominent nose. can f l y f r e e l y i n the a i r .  I t possesses o c c u l t powers and Yamabushi. "mountain  ascetics",  (See note 57 o f the t e x t ) have o f t e n been r e f e r r e d t o as tengu of  because o f t h e i r odd manner o f d r e s s and strange way  life. 20 The r e a d e r o f A k i no j o no naga-monogatari  will  notice  t h a t the b a t t l e scenes o f s e c t i o n f i f t e e n o f the t e x t a r e h i g h l y exaggerated, e s p e c i a l l y i n r e g a r d t o the l a r g e numbers o f monks t a k i n g p a r t . 21 I c h i k o , p.  134.  22 An example o f an Edo anecdote: "Not l o n g ago, a young swordsman, a r e t a i n e r o f A y a k 6 j i , l u r e d a boy from the Ayak o j i ' s mansion by a r u s e .  He wanted t o take the boy i n t o  the bushes o f the f r o n t garden i n o r d e r t o enjoy a chrysanthemum ( k i k u %y -.another term f o r the a n u s ) . h a r d to r e f u s e .  Saying t h i s he embraced  the boy t i g h t l y and h e l d h i s i n d e c e n t t h i n g  (—7 \f  tried  The swordsman s a i d , *Please don't be unkind  t o me and endure t h i s f o r a w h i l e . '  mono  The boy  t  °)  (mukutsukeki  ) a g a i n s t the blossom.  He must  42  have been t o o e x c i t e d ; he l e t t h e dew gush out over t h e t i n y flower....".  "p*J ^ jjfe^  T h i s anecdote appears i n Ana oka s h i  Ho ivi- , w r i t t e n by a well-known Japanese c l a s s i c a l Sawada N a t a r i  ^  Edo sandai k i s h o Okada Hajime  &> (  (1775 - 1345). )  >X. f  .=-X-£j~-§-  scholar,  I n (Zenshaku) , t r . , by  /£] © $ T (Tokyo: Yuko Shobo, 1970), p. 248.  23 I c h i k o , p. 131. Ansen wakashu can be found i n ZGR, v o l . 14; 1. 24 I b i d . , p. 132. San'eki enshi can be found i n ZGR. v o l . 13; 1. 25 A I b i d . , p. 132. There i s no modern v e r s i o n o f Rvuben Hoin s a i i o k i . r  26  I b i d . , p. 134. 27 l@  A  Nihon r v o i k i o r Nihon-koku gempo zen'aku r y o i k i  tJLftfi^-i^  j [  Buddhist n a r r a t i v e s . i n 7 9 7 o r 822.  •  T  h  i  s  w  o  r  k  0  c o n t a i n s 116 s h o r t  I t i s b e l i e v e d t o have been completed  Although these s t o r i e s conclude w i t h Buddhist  morals, t h e p l o t s o f t h e t a l e s a r e not c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o Buddhism.  T h i s book i s a f a s c i n a t i n g account o f t h e l i f e o f  the common people o f t h e Nara p e r i o d (Nara-.iidai  ^  4^ , 7 1 0 - 7 3 4 ) . NKBT. v o l . 7 0 . 2  8  Sawada Shikyo 7 ^ £)  , BA t h e s i s , 1 9 7 © .  29  For an example o f such a s t o r y see t h e f o r t y - f i f t h  43  t a l e o f kan seventeen o f Konlaku monogatari. 24,  vol.  I n NKBT,  570-1.  pp.  30  T h i s temple no l o n g e r e x i s t s .  D e t a i l s concerning  the o r i g i n o f the temple can be found on pages 1 3 - 1 4 o f t h i s chapter.  U n g o - j i and i t s image o f Buddha were d e s t r o -  yed by f i r e i n 1 4 3 6 . 1439.  Ashikaga Y o s h i n o r i r e b u i l t U n g o - j i i n  However, i n e i t h e r 1 4 6 7 o r 1 4 6 9 i t was d e v a s t a t e d  during a b a t t l e .  See Mochizuki Shinko  z u k i ) BukkvS d a i - . i i t e n C"§£  "^jf $  f\ ) ^ i 3 C > ^ j £ # &  , (Mochi(Tokyo:  Sekai S e i t e n Kanko* Ky6kai, 1 9 5 4 ) , v o l . 1 , p. 2 3 6 . 31  In DNBZ, v o l . 1 0 2 , p. 7 0 2 . 32  In DNBZ. v o l . 127, p. 3 7 4 .  33  Masamune Atsuo &  'y$L  &f  JE- ^  ^X.^.  ed., I r o h a j i r u i sho  4?  (Tokyo: Kazama Shobo, 1 9 6 5 ) , kan 5 , p. 6 7 .  34  ( 7 4 1 - 814) was one o f a  Sugano Mamichi tfg fj committee  which c a r r i e d out t h e c i t y p l a n n i n g o f Heiankvo  "T  (Kyoto).  He was a l s o a member o f t h e group  which  compiled one o f t h e S i x N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i e s (Rikkoku s h i $L  )-i  Shoku Nihon g i ^  B  j&'lL  which covered t h e  years 6 9 7 t o &50 and was completed i n 7 9 7 . 35  In (SZ)KT, v o l . 6 , p. 6 4 . 36 37  In (S)GR, v o l . 1 1 , p. 6 1 4 . Gautama Buddha was g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t o have been  44  ichi-.1o. roku-shaku t a l l .  Therefore, standing statues of  Buddha have been made t h i s s i z e o r h a l f t h i s s i z e i n a seated p o s i t i o n .  An image t a l l e r than i c h i - . i o . roku-shaku  i s c a l l e d daibutsu. 38 In NZT,  I I I , v o l . 10, p.  663.  39  te  In HonchS bunshu 40  vol.  ;£-##XlL>  10, pp.  (SZ)KX, v o l . 30, p.  236.  76-9.  41  The f o l l o w i n g waka v e r s e s by S e n s a i were i n c l u d e d i n Imperial anthologies: N o r i no tame ninau t a k i g i n i kotoyosete yagate ukivo k o r i zo  wo  hatenuru. Kin'yo  shu. i n KT,  kashu. p.  129.  Shin chokusen shu,, i b i d . , pp. 222-3. Iori  sasu nara no kokage n i moru t s u k i no kumoru t o mireba  shigure  furunari. S h i k a shu. i b i d . , p.  Karanishiki yama-.ji  nusa n i tachimote  yuku a k i mo  134*  kyo ya tamuke no  koyuran. Senzai shu. i b i d . , p.  168.  T a k i g i t s u k i k e b u r i mo sumite i n i n i k e n kore ya n a g o r i t o miru zo k a n a s h i k i . S e n z a i shu. i b i d . , p.  168.  Tsune yorimo shinoya no nokizo uzumoruru kyo ya miyako n i h a t s u y u k i ya  furu. Shin k o k i n shu, i b i d . ,  p.  183.  45 Mukashi mishi t s u k i no h i k a r i wo shirube n i t e koyoi ya kimi ga n i s h i e yukuran. Shin kokin shu. i b i d . , p. 210. Fumiwake t e asa y u k i mireba kohagibara s h i k a no tachino no nishiki narikeri. Zoku goshui shu. i b i d . , p. 4 6 9 . I n i s h i e no t s u r u no hayashi no mivuki kato omoi toku n i zo aware n a r i k e r u . Shin shui shu. i b i d . , p. 610. Saki-ma.iiru hana no adana mo tachinubeshi nani  midaruran  nobe no karukaya. Shin goshui shu. i b i d . , p. 6 2 8 . 42  In NKBT. vol.34-, pp. 152-3.  43 A mandala i s a graphic symbol o f the universe. I t can be supposed that Sensai wrote waka poems on h i s waka mandara i n s t e a d of p i c t u r e s .  Unfortunately, examples o f  t h i s type o f mandala do not e x i s t . ^  B i b a s h i f\L% T  , Shika f ^  Kuruson #)<g  , Kumaganmuni ft] #|5  and Shakamuni ^  )£0, ^fJvLx •  45  46 47  In (S)GR, v o l . 21, p. 235. In (S)GR, v o l . 7, p. 8 9 . In DHBZ. v o l . 102, p. 702.  , Bishabu J*L £ * % , ^  , Kasho  46 48  T h i s s e c t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 1 1 7 .  Ry6nin taught  t h a t i f a person chants, h i s good deed w i l l cause others t o g a i n enlightenment.  Because o f t h i s v e r s a t i l e theory t h e  p o p u l a r i t y o f h i s s e c t became widespread. 49  In (SZ)KT, v o l . 1 1 , p. 5 5 . 50  51  In DNBZ. v o l . 1 0 7 , pp. 1 1 1 - 2 . In ZST, v o l . 1 3 , p. 3 1 2 .  52  Saicho  -f^?J%t  ( 7 6 6 - 8 2 2 ) founded I c h i j o " s h i k a n - i n  on Mount H i e i i n 7 8 8 . T h i s temple was r e named E n r y a k u - j i  by I m p e r i a l o r d e r .  o f t h e Tendai S e c t .  Enryaku-ji  I t i s t h e head  i s r e f e r r e d t o i n many d i f -  j^^^K. d\  f e r e n t ways, two o f which a r e : H i e i - z a n and Hokurei ^L/^  temple  (the Northern Peak).  (Mount H i e i )  I n t h i s t e x t the  temple i s c a l l e d Mount H i e i . 53  The Buddha o f t h e f u t u r e . w i l l descend from heaven i n o r d e r  I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t Miroku t o save those l i v i n g - b e i n g s  who have not a l r e a d y been saved by Gautama Buddha. 54  The name o f Buddha i s i n c e s s a n t l y chanted by p i l g r i m s who c i r c l e Buddha's image c l o c k w i s e .  T h i s p r a c t i c e i s con-  t i n u e d f o r a p e r i o d o f 1 0 0 days. 55  In t h e second year o f Tenroku ^Tff^ reconstructed  Soji-in  Tengen ^  (980)  TLJ  ( 9 7 1 ) , Ryogen  ] ^ and i n t h e t h i r d year o f he r e c o n s t r u c t e d  (the main h a l l o f E n r y a k u - j i ) .  Kompon-chudo*  J^^rf*  See Hvaku rensho* i n  47  (SZ)KT, v o l . 1 1 , pp. 2 - 3 . 56  .  J— A-y J^.^  Uesugi Fumihide  fe^sX. &  x~Jk, Nihon Tendai s h i  ©  (Tokyo: Kokusho Kankfr-kai, 1 9 7 2 ) , .sei, pp. 3 8 6  -90. 57  I b i d . , pp. 3 9 0 - 1 .  A l s o see Kokon chomon .iu i n NKBT,  v o l . 8 4 , pp. 5 4 - 5 . 58 59  See (SZ)KT, v o l . 1 1 , p. 2 1 and p. 32 r e s p e c t i v e l y . I b i d . , p. 3 7 .  60  Large temples such as E n r y a k u - j i and K o f u k u - j i owned e x t e n s i v e e s t a t e s (shoen  lE\  ).  During the l a t e Heian  p e r i o d when s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s became u n s t a b l e , i t was necess a r y t h a t t h e s e e s t a t e s be guarded by armed monks o f low rank.  These monks were r e f e r r e d t o as soTiei.  The e x i s t e n c e  o f such groups caused l a r g e s c a l e r i v a l r i e s between temples. L o c a t e d i n Sakamoto IbLyi^ , a town a t the e a s t e r n f o o t o f Mount H i e i .  I t i s a l s o r e f e r r e d t o as t h e s h r i n e  o f t h e Guardian S p i r i t o f t h e Mountain  (Sanno iL 3L. ).  62  See Hvaku rensho. p. 5 2 .  I n the l u n a r c a l e n d a r a  year c o n s i s t e d o f 3 5 4 days d i v i d e d i n t o twelve months. make-up month had t o be added approximately every t h i r t y months• 63  A  See Hvaku rensho, p. 6 2 .  One  48  64  I b i d . , p.  77.  I b i d . , p.  76.  65  66  A  ifc^JP^  The headquarters o f t h e Hosso Sect (Hosso-shu ^  ) i n Nara.  Yamashina-dera  Kagami no Okimi iL\ ^M" -\j  "£. - i f  ( - ^ 8 4 ) founded  i n the P r o v i n c e o f Yamashina  (the  a r e a o f Higaj3hiyama-ku, K y o t o ) , a c c o r d i n g t o the i n s t r u c t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n the w i l l o f her husband F u j i w a r a no Kamatari  ^  %t\J£~.  When Hei.io-kvo temple was (659  -  (614  -  669).  *A.  (Nara) was founded i n 710,  moved t h e r e by F u j i w a r a no F u h i t o  y\j^  7 2 0 ) and was renamed K o f u k u - j i . Hvaku rensho. p.  68  T h i s temple has been moved t w i c e .  77.  In (SZ)KT, v o l . 3 2 , p. 7 1 1 .  69  In (SZ)KT, v o l . 13,  70  p. 2 9 .  I b i d . , p. 2 9 .  71 I b i d . , p.  72  29.  In  (Z)ST, v o l . 2 , p.  I64.  I  Shido Bunko ronshu. 3 ( I 9 6 4 ) , PP.  73 74  n  I b i d . , p. 2 4 6 .  75 I b i d . , p. 76  246.  I b i d . , p. 2 4 7 .  245-6.  the  JhJdL-rf  49 77  See c h a p t e r f o u r o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n .  73 In NZT, v o l . 2, p. 214.  The s t o r y i l l u s t r a t e d  i s a c t u a l l y t h e 11th s t o r y o f kan 20.  there  See Kon.iaku monogatari.  i n NKBT. v o l , 25, pp. 165-7, and a l s o Kadokawa Bunko. v o l . 933, pp. 370-3. 79 Sanuki i s now c a l l e d Kagawa P r e f e c t u r e (Kagawa-ken  , ^  '»)fa). 80 H i r a no vama.  A mountain i n Shiga P r e f e c t u r e ( S h i g a -  ken ;&1f#IJ. 31 Goto, pp. 75-82;  Kojo I s a o , "Eiwa shosha-bon A k i no ^<^b>  yo no naga-monogatari n i t s u i t e " j$r^££ 82  ->,<z  f  %  'j^  Kokugo kokubun. 24, 10 (1955), pp. 39-43.  In NKBT. v o l . 35, P« H 9 . 83 I b i d . , p. 353. 84 Shuzui, and Shioda, p. 111. 85 I n YT, v o l . 3 , p. 1702.  The a u t h o r o f t h i s p i e c e  c o u l d a l s o have been Kaneharu Zenchiku  fe&ffitf  ( - 1401),  Zeami's son-in-law.  36 In YT, v o l . 1, pp. 134-5.  37 ZGR.  83  v o l . 20; 1, p. 225.  T h i s b a t t l e o c c u r r e d because o f t h e a s s a s s i n a t i o n  50  I^~4AJ1393 - 1441).  of A s h i k a g a Y o s h i n o r i %L% \ 1  was  An army  sent by the Muromachi Bakufu t o subjugate the  Also refer  t o H. P a u l V a r l e y , The Onin War  (New  London: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967), pp.  09  Tanehiko kessaku shu-jEjJ> ^  p. 889.  / ^ / ^ i ^  traitors  York and  65-7.  . i n £B_, v o l . 16,  •' •  iJk%s>4J^&.%^  Kyokaku-den zenshu  . i n TB, v o l . 48,  pp. 739-57. 91 In NKBT. v o l . 56, Ugetsu monogatari  pp. 1 2 2 - 3 1 ;  L. Zolbrod,  trans.,  (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia  P r e s s , 1974), pp. 185-94. 92 In H » v o l . 3, pp. 1517-35. 93 The r i v e r f l o w s t h r o u g h the e a s t e r n p a r t o f Tokyo and d r a i n s i n t o " j ^ j \€) tl)  Tokyo Bay.  , however, i t was  Nowadays Suraida-gawa i s w r i t t e n also written: ^  andJ|=-t©ilJ . 94  \£> ; i |  .  .  j?J  &  ^  The Buddha of the Western Pure Land (Saiho-.jodo,  $5  3—  )•  A m i d a - f a i t h became p o p u l a r when Jodo Buddhism  became widespread.  95 In NHZ,  ed i n %M, 96  v o l . 1,  p. 69.  v o l . 3, pp. 254-70.  Goto*, p.  8^5.  Sumidagawa monogatari i s i n c l u d -  51 97  B e s i d e s p l a y s , voraihon were a l s o w r i t t e n .  b a i r v u shinsho &g ^ vol.  ^  13? /») J&/tff%^%-  (1767 - 1847)  Sumidagawa  7^  by Takizawa Bakin  i s a w e l l known example.  I n TB,  46. 98 In NMZ,  Edo bungei-bu 5, pp. 428-56.  In MKZ,  v o l . 15, pp.  In MKZ,  v o l . 22, pp. 274-307.  99 4-52.  100 101 A branch temple o f the Tendai S e c t i n Sumida-ku ©  UL  , Tokyo.  I t i s s a i d t o have been founded i n 976.  A l e g e n d o f Umewaka has been p e r p e t u a t e d by t h i s  temple.  The l e g e n d i s remarkably s i m i l a r t o the p l o t o f the No Sumidagawa.  ^  Also r e f e r to Hori Yoshizo ^  D a i Nihon . l i i n soran  X.  B  j  t  >  *  f  %  -  text  , ed., %  (Tokyo:  Meicho Kanko-kai, 1966), v o l . 1, pp. 166-7. 102 I n SGR,  v o l . 7, p.  147.  In NZT,  v o l . 1, pp. 709-10.  I n NZT,  v o l . 1 p.  103 104 716.  105 Ushiwakamaru. J^\*£.  The child-name o f Minamoto no Y o s h i t s u n e  (1159 - 1189).  106 In NZT,  s e r . 2; v o l . 7. p.  585.  52  A k i no yo no naga-monogatari: A Lengthy S t o r y f o r a Long Autumn N i g h t  PROLOGUE  "Now l i s t e n c l o s e l y .  Flowers o f s p r i n g bloom upon  t r e e s t o r e v e a l t o man t h e g i s t o f a b o d h i s a t t v a pledge, 1 'Raise your eyes and seek t h e p e r f e c t wisdom o f Buddha." Conversely, t h e moon o f autumn descends t o l i g h t e n the wate r ' s depth t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e meaning o f another b o d h i s a t t v a 2 pledge 'Look below t o save a l l . ' unveils i t s e l f to a l l l i v i n g  Heaven i s s i l e n t but nature  beings.  I f one possesses the mind o f a human b e i n g , how i s i t p o s s i b l e not t o make strenuous e f f o r t t o seek t h e p e r f e c t wisdom o f Buddha?  One must s t r i v e t i r e l e s s l y .  Once a p e r 3 son has e x p e r i e n c e d the E i g h t Human A f f l i c t i o n s and has become d i s g u s t e d w i t h t h i s impure world, h i s e a r t h l y d e s i r e s .4 w i l l become n o t h i n g but p e r f e c t wisdom. Furthermore, when a person hears about t h e F i v e C e l e s t i a l Signs o f Approaching 5 Death and he l o n g s f o r t h e pure l a n d , h i s m o r t a l i t y w i l l be6 come nothing but n i r v a n a . When Buddha and t h e b o d h i s a t t v a s e d i f y a l l l i v i n g  beings,  they use two d i s t i n c t methods which seemingly r u n counter t o 7 each o t h e r . They allow t r a n s g r e s s o r s t o enifrer the r i g h t from the wrong, and i f there a r e people o f undetermined f a t e who seek enlightenment, 8 righteousness.  they t r a n s f o r m t h e i r wickedness i n t o  53 I f I should i l l u s t r a t e the f o u n d a t i o n s o f these t h i n g s my words would flow e n d l e s s l y , f o r t h e r e are an amazing 9 number o f t e s t i m o n i e s i n the s u t r a s and s a s t r a s and i n t h e books o f men  o f o t h e r days.  S i n c e I h a p p e n ^ ! t o hear a s t o r y which i s e x c e s s i v e l y s t r a n g e , l i f t your heads from your p i l l o w s and l i s t e n fully.  The wakefulness o f my  o l d age a l l o w s me  care-  to narrate  a r a t h e r l e n g t h y t a l e f o r t h i s l o n g autumn n i g h t . A l o n g , l o n g time ago, t h e r e was who  a monk named Sensai 10  l i v e d i n the Western Mountains o f Kyoto.  He was  well-  known because o f both h i s u p r i g h t c h a r a c t e r and h i s profound learning.  He was  f o r m e r l y one o f the monk s o l d i e r s o f the 11 E a s t e r n Pagoda on the Northern Peak as w e l l as the head12 master o f the I n s t i t u t e f o r the Encouragement o f Study. H i s p r e v i o u s name had been K e i k a i . I n terras o f Buddhist 13 s t u d i e s , he drank from the flow o f the Jeweled S p r i n g and swept a l l the clouds away from the moon o f the Four D o c t r i n e s 14 and the Three Outlooks. I n terms o f the o t h e r p r a c t i c e s , he f o l l o w e d the p a t h upon which Huang-shih kung had t r o d , and he mastered Inundation T a c t i c s as w e l l as Water-Back 15 Tactics.  Sometimes he e n f o l d e d people compassionately  in  t h e s l e e v e s o f h i s humble robe f o r t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n and a t o t h e r times he h e r o i c a l l y brought f o e s t o t h e i r knees w i t h h i s f u r i o u s sword.  Both monks and o r d i n a r y f o l k were t r u l y  dependent upon him,for he was tary arts  alike.  an expert i n l i t e r a r y and  mili-  54  When he was f u l l y mature, a t l a s t comprehending the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the f a l l i n g o f f l o w e r s and the s c a t t e r i n g of l e a v e s , he experienced an awakening from h i s dream. •What have I been doing?  I happened t o leave the realm o f  e a r t h l y dust behind me and became a f o l l o w e r o f Buddha, but i t seems as though I have done nothing but run a f t e r g l o r y and wealth both day and n i g h t .  How d i s g u s t i n g i t i s  that I have neglected my duty t o escape the c i r c l e o f r e birth. * When he became aware o f h i s s i n s , he decided t h a t he should search deep i n t o the mountains and i n due course should construct a brushwood hut i n which t o r e t r e a t f o r awhile.  Nevertheless, i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r anyone t o leave  the p l a c e where he has o l d t i e s . world.  I t i s the way o f the  Because he d i d not have the determination t o t e r m i -  nate h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the P h y s i c i a n o f Souls, w i t h 16 the Guardian S p i r i t o f the Mountain,  and w i t h h i s c o l l e a g -  ues and f e l l o w d w e l l e r s , he passed h i s time v a i n l y . However one day something s t i r r e d w i t h i n him. He was moved t o put 17 i t i n t o words: Morning and night I have been buried under e a r t h l y dust.  By chance I l o s t my way and  1 wasted three score years.  With human eyes  which see only g l o r y and d i s g r a c e , when can I , who r e s t s i n the dark shadow o f an o l d pine t r e e , see a cloud and yet sleep?  55  ONE •Perhaps I have not been a b l e t o do what I t r u l y d e s i r e because e v i l o r h e r e t i c a l thoughts have been h i n d e r i n g me. If  t h i s has been the case, I s h a l l put my t r u s t i n the pro-  t e c t i o n o f Buddha and the b o d h i s a t t v a s i n order t o a t t a i n 18 my g o a l . "  T h i n k i n g thus, K e i k a i made h i s way t o Ishiyama.  He p r o s t r a t e d h i m s e l f on the ground f o r seven days and s i n c e r e l y completed  h i s prayer f o r the r e a f f i r m a t i o n o f r e l i -  g i o u s d e v o t i o n which would i n s t a n t l y a l l o w him t o a t t a i n 19 supreme p e r f e c t wisdom. On t h e n i g h t which terminated t h e seven days, K e i k a i f e l l a s l e e p u s i n g t h e d a i s o f t h e o f f i c i a t i n g monk as a p i l low.  As he s l e p t he dreamed o f a handsome, i n d e s c r i b a b l y  e l e g a n t boy who stepped out from behind t h e brocade t a p e s t r y of  t h e Buddhist  sanctum and stood somewhat h e s i t a t i n g l y i n 20  the shadow o f a f l o w e r i n g c h e r r y t r e e s c a t t e r e d about.  whose blossoms were  Because t h e f l o w e r p e t a l s had f a l l e n as  l i g h t l y as snow on t h e boy's embroidered  garment o f a f a i n t  green c o l o r , K e i k a i was i n doubt as t o whether o r not the c h e r r y blossoms had once a g a i n b u r s t i n t o bloom on t h e d i s t a n t mountains.  The boy stood t h e r e w i t h p e t a l s on h i s  s l e e v e s and seemed t o be going nowhere a t a l l .  Nevertheless  he v a n i s h e d a s day fades w i t h t h e coming o f evening. the boy disappeared, K e i k a i s dream ended. 1  When  56  TWO K e i k a i was  j u b i l a n t because he f e l t t h a t the dream had  been a s i g n i n d i c a t i n g the achievement o f h i s p r a y e r . B e f o r e the dawning sky had f u l l y grown l i g h t he l e f t f o r h i s temple. As i f w a i t i n g f o r some expected event, he l o o k e d forward t o the r e l i g i o u s d e v o t i o n which would a r i s e w i t h i n him. i n g l y , h i s d e c i s i o n to l i v e i n the dense mountains  Accord-  expired;  c o n v e r s e l y , the f i g u r e o f the boy i n h i s dream was never f o r a moment f a r from h i s mind.  He was d i s t r a u g h t and unable t o  endure such i n c o n s o l a b l e p a i n . D e s p i t e t h i s , he burned i n c e n s e and f a c e d the f i g u r e o f Buddha i n hope o f s o l a c e .  He was a b l e t o share i n the sorrow  of the Emperor Wu who had burned the Incense o f R e t u r n i n g 21 Souls i n order t o meet Empress L i o f the Han.  When K e i k a i  stood beneath clouds and viewed blossoms on the l o n e l y mount a i n s , he f e l t as though the g r i e f - s t r i c k e n t e a r s o f King Hsiang,who had s o r e l y missed the f a c e o f the Goddess o f Mt. Wu,  were h i s own.  She had become a c l o u d and then f a l l i n g  r a i n a f t e r meeting w i t h King Hsiang i n h i s dream. K e i k a i r e c e i v e d a message from the Guardian S p i r i t o f the Mountain t e l l i n g him t h a t h i s l o s s as a monk would cause the S p i r i t as much p a i n as t h e swallowing o f a l o n g p o i n t downwards.  sword  He f e l t t h a t h i s d e c i s i o n must have been  a f f e c t e d by the Guardian S p i r i t ' s g r e a t g r i e f .  'Even though  i t i s the Lord's wish, o n l y i f I can s u r v i v e w i l l I be a b l e  57 23 t o r e k i n d l e t h e Buddhist l i g h t weaken.  1  which has been i n c l i n e d t o  M i s e r a b l y K e i k a i thought, »I w i l l not l i v e as l o n g  as t h e dew which v a n i s h e s b e f o r e evening. I may d i e t h i s v e r y i n s t a n t . '  I f e e l as though  He thought t h a t he s h o u l d t e l l  2k  the M e r c i f u l Goddess  o f Ishiyama o f h i s complaint and he  r e v i s i t e d Ishiyama. THREE 25 As he was p a s s i n g i n f r o n t o f M i i - d e r a , s p r i n g r a i n began t o t r i c k l e down h i s f a c e .  unexpectedly, D e c i d i n g t o take  s h e l t e r , he walked down towards t h e golden h a l l .  On t h e way  he n o t i c e d an a n c i e n t f l o w e r i n g c h e r r y t r e e , t h e b e a u t i f u l blossoms o f which t r a i l e d over a w a l l as i f forming a c l o u d 26 i n the garden o f the c l o i s t e r o f Sh6go-in. I saw a house i n the d i s t a n c e w i t h f l o w e r s around i t . entered...  I made my way towards i t and 27  F a s c i n a t e d by the essence o f t h i s v e r s e he approached the gate o f t h e e n c l o s u r e .  Through i t ,  he saw a g r a c e f u l  youth o f about s i x t e e n , s l i m o f w a i s t and s l e n d e r o f limb, who was wearing a p a l e r e d under dress,-. beneath a l i g h t , 28 gauze, s i l k robe w i t h a f i s h - a n d - w a t e r embroidered p a t t e r n . Unaware t h a t he was b e i n g watched,  the boy stepped from  behind t h e bamboo b l i n d s i n t o t h e garden and broke o f f a  58 branch  so f u l l o f blossoms t h a t i t seemed t o be covered 29 heavy snow. He hummed t h i s poem:  In t h e f a l l i n g  with  rain,  Though t h e y ' r e wet,  I ' l l pick these  Mountain c h e r r y blossoms; Oh wind t o chase t h e clouds away, Won't you now begin t o blow?  He resembled a f l o w e r , wet w i t h drops o f r a i n from the blossoms.  K e i k a i suddenly w o r r i e d t h a t another wind might  tease t h i s flower.  He wished f o r enough s l e e v e t o h i d e i t .  J u s t as he f e l t t h a t he wanted t o f r e e h i s mind t o clouds o r mist a h e a r t l e s s wind blew c a u s i n g t h e door o f t h e gate t o squeak. The boy a t once looked about d u b i o u s l y as though he had n o t i c e d t h a t t h e r e had been someone o b s e r v i n g him,  and then,  h o l d i n g t h e f l o w e r i n g twig i n h i s hand, he s t a r t e d t o walk 30 l e i s u r e l y around t h e t r e e s which marked t h e f o o t b a l l 31 His elegant m i r u - l i k e  field.  h a i r became entwined w i t h the t h r e a d -  l i k e l e a v e s o f t h e w i l l o w t r e e and he glanced back absentmindedly w i t h an i n e x p r e s s i b l y b e a u t i f u l l o o k i n h i s eyes. H i s appearance was no d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f t h e boy i n the dream which had caused K e i k a i t o l o s e h i s way i n t h e unknown and t h e monk f o r g o t t h e dream i n t h e presence a c t u a l f i g u r e o f the boy.  o f the  I t had become dark, but K e i k a i  c o u l d not remember where he ought t o have gone.  59 That evening he f e l l  p r o s t r a t e upon t h e veranda o f t h e  golden h a l l and passed t h e n i g h t g a z i n g d e j e c t e d l y on t h e garden.  Was i t a l l a dream, Or was i t r e a l i t y ? I could hardly t e l l But no matter which t h e case,  32  My sad h e a r t i s s t i l l  confused.  FOUR When day broke he r e v i s i t e d the p l a c e he had been t h e day b e f o r e and stood near the gate o f t h e c l o i s t e r .  He saw  a n e a t l y d r e s s e d boy emerge from t h e gate t o throw away water  33 from a p a i l covered w i t h a bamboo s c r e e n . t h e r t h i s might be  a  He wondered whe-  b o y - i n - w a i t i n g o f t h e youth he had  seen the p r e v i o u s day. He stepped c l o s e t o him and s a i d , ' I want t o a s k you something.» Showing no s u r p r i s e , t h e boy r e p l i e d ,  "What i s i t ? "  K e i k a i was p l e a s e d w i t h t h i s response and i n q u i r e d , "Do you know t h e boy who seems t o be s i x t e e n o r seventeen who was i n t h i s c l o i s t e r y e s t e r d a y wearing a fish-and-water p a t t e r n e d , gauze, s i l k robe?" S m i l i n g , t h e boy answered, »I am w a i t i n g upon him, h i s name i s Umewaka.  34  He i s a son o f Hanazono, the M i n i s t e r o f  60  the L e f t .  35  T h i s boy possesses such a r a r e and h e l p l e s s l y  r e f i n e d mind that he i s unable t o b e l i e v e t h a t d e c e i t e x i s t s i n t h i s world.  36  flowering tree  When o l d monks and young men gaze upon t h i s which i s too l a t e f o r s p r i n g and whose b l o s -  soms, c l e a r as t h e moon o f mid-autumn, seem t o s c a t t e r nowhere, they appear t o f l a u n t t h e g l o r y o f t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l househ o l d s hoping t o win him.  However, t h e atmosphere o f t h i s man-  s i o n has been somewhat c o n f i n e d .  He goes nowhere apart  from  those p l a c e s where performances o f music o r dance a r e h e l d .  37 I n v a r i a b l y he f a c e s t h e r e a r window  o f t h i s b u i l d i n g and  composes poems, hums songs and i d l e s h i s time away.' On  hearing  t h i s K e i k a i was i n h i g h s p i r i t s .  t o e v e n t u a l l y employ t h i s young servant  He thought  as t h e bearer o f t h e  l e t t e r which would r e v e a l t o Umewaka h i s innermost thoughts. Nevertheless,  he was a f r a i d t o a c t openly.  He r e t u r n e d t o  h i s own mountain without even v i s i t i n g Ishiyama. FIVE Because o f t h e f a c e he had seen both i n h i s dream and i n a c t u a l i t y , K e i k a i n e i t h e r s l e p t n o r remained awake, but spent n i g h t s and days h a l f - c o n s c i o u s .  At l a s t he found  i n g nearby ShSgo-in, a man whom he had f o r m e r l y the p r e t e x t o f sometimes a t t e n d i n g  known.  livUnder  a meeting f o r p o e t r y and  other times being amused by a d r i n k i n g p a r t y , he more and more f r e q u e n t l y passed n i g h t s a t h i s f r i e n d ' s house. A f t e r some time, he became f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e young s e r vant whose name was K e i j u .  38  They soon were h a v i n g t e a  61 t o g e t h e r , d r i n k i n g wine, and d i v e r t i n g themselves i n v a r i o u s ways.  K e i k a i even presented K e i j u w i t h an image o f a spray  o f a scented orange t r e e made o f g o l d . of v a r i o u s l y coloured f i n e s i l k . h e a r t was a l r e a d y pledged  He added t e n robes  K e i j u saw t h a t K e i k a i " s  t o Umewaka and i t seemed t o him  t h a t h i s own a c t i o n s r e f l e c t e d thoughts i n s e p e r a b l e from those o f K e i k a i . The monk c o n f i d e d t o K e i j u t h a t t h e bewilderment brought about by h i s l o v e f o r Umewaka would never d i s a p p e a r . K e i j u suggested,  " F i r s t o f a l l l e t me have your l e t t e r ,  I w i l l t r y t o approach him.• Even though one t r i e s t o make t h e s u r f a c e o f paper comp l e t e l y b l a c k w i t h words c o n t a i n i n g t h e essence o f one's f e e l i n g s o f l o v e , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o express a l l .  Rather 39 attempt t h i s u s e l e s s t a s k K e i k a i wrote o n l y a v e r s e :  than  Were I t o t e l l you..• I saw t h e f l o w e r i n g beauty Gf your l o v e l y f a c e . L i k e clouds t h a t r i s e b e s i d e i t I know not what t o do.  SIX Taking the l e t t e r from h i s bosom, t h e boy s a i d , glance over t h i s .  'Please  A l o n g time ago d u r i n g a pause i n a r a i n  shower you stood i n t h e shade o f t h e f l o w e r i n g c h e r r y t r e e .  62  Having become wet,  you r e e n t e r e d .  A r e f i n e d man  caught a  glimpse o f you and he f e l l s e c r e t l y i n l o v e .  His sleeve 40 has a l r e a d y been smeared crimson w i t h t e a r s o f b l o o d . It  seems he can no l o n g e r bear t o r e l e a s e h i s emotion w i t h  tears.' The young master, w i t h f l u s h e d f a c e , was  j u s t about to  u n t i e t h e r i b b o n o f the l e t t e r when a monk, one who 41 nounced the world, r i d o r and  came stamping a l o n g the c o n n e c t i n g c o r -  entered the room.  Umewaka's s i g h t and  had r e -  He wrenched the l e t t e r out o f  jammed i t i n t o h i s s l e e v e .  Keiju f e l t  the s i t u a t i o n hopeless but he attended h i s master u n t i l sunset w a i t i n g f o r another  chance.  A f t e r some time, Umewaka handed a r e p l y t o K e i j u through t h e window o f the study. r e c e i v i n g the l e t t e r .  The boy f e l t l i g h t n e s s i n the hand  He took the message h u r r i e d l y t o the  monk. K e i k a i was  so p l e a s e d t h a t h i s eyes were aglow.  seemed i m p o s s i b l e f o r him t o stand s t i l l . 42 l e t t e r but t h e r e were o n l y a few words:  How  He opened the  can I depend  Upon your f i c k l e mind? I t ' s l i k e a flower Which the f r e e l y d r i f t i n g May  o v e r c a s t w i t h shadow.  It  clouds  63  SEVEN When the monk saw t h i s l e t t e r he was and was r e l u c t a n t t o d e p a r t .  i n high-spirits  He f e l t wretched j u s t i m a g i n i n g  f u t u r e l e a v e - t a k i n g s a n d he c o n s i d e r e d s t a y i n g f o r a w h i l e i n an i n n nearby so t h a t he c o u l d a t l e a s t l i v e w i t h h i s eyes on the t r e e t o p s o f Umewaka*3 garden.  At t h e same time he  sensed t h a t t h i s might be an unseemly  act.  Telling  Keiju  t h a t he would come a g a i n , K e i k a i took h i s l e a v e and r e t u r n e d t o h i s mountain. Although the day i n s p r i n g was  l o n g , w i t h each step t h a t  he took he l o o k e d back and a f t e r each second s t e p , he made a step backwards,  thus n i g h t f e l l b e f o r e he was a b l e t o r e a c h 43 the monk's lodge i n nearby Sakamoto. At l a s t he stopped t o 44 r e s t i n a r u i n e d hut somewhere near T o t s u . e n t i r e n i g h t l o s t i n thought.  He spent the  The next morning as he s t e p -  ped out i n t o the garden i n t e n d i n g t o go up the mountain  he  was  d e t a i n e d by thoughts which seemed not t o be h i s own.  It  was  as i f h i s w a i s t were t i e d w i t h a rope h e l d by a thousand  people. T u r n i n g back from T o t s u , he walked absentmindedly i n 45 the d i r e c t i o n o f O t s u . was  making h i s way  R a i n was  falling softly.  When he  a l o n g under the g u i s e o f h i s t r a v e l l i n g  c l o t h e s , a straw r a i n c o a t and a straw hat, he came a c r o s s a r i d e r w i t h an umbrella i n h i s hand. wondering what k i n d o f man Keiju.  K e i k a i gazed a t him  he might be and he soon r e c o g n i z e d  K e i j u a l s o p e r c e i v e d the monk.  64 The boy s a i d , * I t i s r e a l l y s t r a n g e .  Because I have  something t h a t I must t e l l you, I am on my way t o a mountain which I have never v i s i t e d b e f o r e .  How f o r t u n a t e i t i s t o  come a c r o s s you h e r e . ' He l e a p e d from the horse, grasped t h e monk's hand and l e d him t o a nearby wayside s h r i n e . 'What has happened?* asked t h e monk. From h i s b r e a s t , K e i j u took out a h e a v i l y s c e n t e d  letter.  I t seemed t h a t Keikai»s s l e e v e s might a c q u i r e a l i n g e r i n g scent simply by t o u c h i n g i t .  K e i j u s m i l e d and j o k i n g l y  *His t r o u b l e d mind must be f a r beyond my understanding.  said, I  was o r d e r e d t o f i n d you r e l y i n g upon what you t o l d me even i f I s h o u l d l o s e my way i n the mountains.  How much wetter  w i l l h i s s l e e v e become w i t h t e a r s i f he s h o u l d spend a n i g h t w i t h you?* When K e i j u s a i d t h i s , K e i k a i r e p l i e d , h a l f i n j e s t , »I wish f o r such a chance t o b r i n g me t h e sorrow o f p a r t i n g . * K e i k a i saw t h e l e t t e r :  46  That t h e r e be f a l s e h o o d I never t r u l y  realized.  I b e l i e v e d i n you But now I am  compelled  To r e s e n t my t r u s t i n g mind.  65  EIGHT K e i j u tempted K e i k a i , s a y i n g r e p e a t e d l y , f S i n c e by the mansion there i s a monastery i n h a b i t e d by a monk whom I know, p l e a s e s t a y t h e r e f o r awhile and keep your eye upon t h e openi n g s o f t h e bamboo s c r e e n s . '  Touched by h i s own emotion, t h e  monk a g a i n went t o M i i - d e r a . K e i j u arranged f o r temporary l o d g i n g s f o r K e i k a i i n the study h a l l o f t h e monastery.  The s u p e r i o r o f t h e monastery  gave K e i k a i a c o r d i a l r e c e p t i o n .  O f t e n p a r t i e s w i t h music  o f wind and s t r i n g s , and meetings o f p o e t i c a l  composition  w i t h e v a l u a t i o n o f v e r s e s were h e l d w i t h numerous young boys i n attendance.  The days passed.  K e i k a i informed the s u p e r i o r o f h i s i n t e n t i o n t o go t o 47 worship  b e f o r e t h e Great B r i g h t S p i r i t o f S h i n r a  days i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e h i s s u p p l i c a t i o n . K e i k a i disappeared i n t o t h e darkness  Every  f o r seven evening,  b e s i d e t h e c l o i s t e r and  concealed h i m s e l f e i t h e r among t h e p i n e t r e e s o f the mound o r i n t h e dewy bushes o f the garden.  I t seemed as though Umewaka  had a l r e a d y n o t i c e d K e i k a i and i t appeared  t h a t he was hoping  t h a t no o t h e r s were o b s e r v i n g them. K e i k a i p i t i e d Umewaka, whose predicament  was such t h a t  he was t r y i n g t o s o l v e t h e c o n f l i c t between h i s wish t o s t e p out i n t o t h e garden and h i s worry about being  conspicuous.  K e i k a i d e s p e r a t e l y t r i e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t s e e i n g Umewaka a t a d i s t a n c e was h i s appointed d e s t i n y .  He regarded  Umewaka*s  66 a f f e c t i o n as t h e source o f h i s own l i f e and f o r more than t e n days he r e t u r n e d morning and evening. Although people asked K e i k a i t o extend h i s s t a y ; nevert h e l e s s , he h e s i t a t e d .  He had d e c i d e d t o l e a v e t h e monastery  the f o l l o w i n g day when K e i j u v i s i t e d him and s a i d , *At l a s t v i s i t o r s from Kyoto a r e coming t o t h e c l o i s t e r t o n i g h t and 48 they a r e g o i n g t o have a d r i n k i n g p a r t y .  As the c h i e f abbot  o f Shdgo-in w i l l be t e r r i b l y drunk, wait f o r me and do not l e a v e u n t i l midnight. t e r here.  I was t o l d t o s t e a l t h i l y l e a d my mas-  P l e a s e l e a v e t h e door o f t h e gate unlocked and  wait f o r us.»  He d e l i v e r e d t h i s speech r a p i d l y and r e t u r n e d  home. NINE Upon h e a r i n g t h i s the monk f e l t o v e r j o y e d and h i s mind was i n a t u r m o i l .  He was b e s i d e h i m s e l f w i t h happiness.  L i s t e n i n g t o t h e s t r i k i n g o f the hours o f t h e n i g h t , he w a i t e d u n t i l the moon had moved t o the south. When he heard sounds which i n d i c a t e d t h a t someone was 49 opening the door o f the Chinese s t y l e fence he l o o k e d out from the cedar-board door o f the study and saw K e i j u h o l d i n g 50 a f i s h - h e a d l a n t e r n i l l u m i n a t e d by glowing  fire-flies.  Although the f i g u r e was q u i t e shadowy and dim, he saw Umewaka i n a golden robe o f f i n e s i l k , s t a n d i n g by the w i l l o w t r e e whose t h r e a d - l i k e l e a v e s t r a i l e d over h i s a c c e n t u a t i n g h i s beauty.  He s t o o d i n a g r a c e f u l l y h e s i t a n t manner as  67 though he were w o r r y i n g about being seen by someone e l s e . K e i k a i was immediately enraptured by him.  He f e l t  more dead  than a l i v e . K e i j u stepped i n f i r s t , hung the f i r e f l y l a n t e r n on one end o f a h o r i z o n t a l p i e c e o f timber s e p a r a t i n g the upper chamber  from t h e room, knocked on t h e door o f t h e study and t o l d  K e i k a i t h a t he had brought Umewaka.  As t h e monk was a t a  l o s s as t o how t o r e p l y , he j u s t i n d i c a t e d h i s presence by bending h i s body s l i g h t l y sideways. the  K e i j u went round t o  garden and t o l d h i s young master t o hasten.  Umewaka walked  ahead and e n t e r e d t h e room through the p a n e l l e d door. Umewaka's s c e n t , which had been absorbed by Keikai»s s l e e v e s even when they had been s e p a r a t e d by a g r e a t was now b e s i d e K e i k a i . to  distance,  Umewaka was so c l o s e t h a t he seemed  be l e a n i n g upon the monk.  The f r a g r a n c e o f the b e a u t i f u l  paper c o r d which resembled an autumn c i c a d a ' s wing and which 51 f o r the f i r s t time h e l d back Umewaka*s h a i r , together with the ers, the  scent o f h i s b e a u t i f u l eyebrows which resembled moth f e e l 52 were so e x q u i s i t e that f l o w e r s might have hated him and moon might have been j e a l o u s o f him. Umewaka*s hundred  e x p r e s s i o n s and thousand c o q u e t r i e s were i m p o s s i b l e t o desc r i b e e i t h e r i n a p i c t u r e drawn w i t h a brush o r i n words. With the f l o w i n g o f t h e i r t e a r s , pent-up emotions were released.  T h e i r b e l t i n g s became u n t i e d and they shared the  same bed. As the e x i s t e n c e o f an i s l e t the  i n a flowing c u r r e n t causes  r i v e r around i t t o deepen, so t h e i r bond became c l o s e r .  68 Before the l o v e r s " t a l k which c o u l d have l a s t e d f o r e v e r , came t o an end,  the bedroom became c h i l l y .  This  caused  t h e i r dream t o fade as e a s i l y as p u r p l e dye i s wont t o . S i n c e the water o f the c l e p s y d r a had a l r e a d y gone, i t became d i f f i c u l t t o put o f f t h e i r t e a r f u l p a r t i n g . the cock who  They r e s e n t e d  crowed the hour o f dawn a f t e r t h i s one s e c r e t  n i g h t which had brought them t o g e t h e r .  I t was  as though a  53 node had a t l a s t formed i n a young bamboo. T h e i r c l o t h e s had become c o o l .  J u s t as they were about  t o p a r t the moon o f dawn found i t s way the western window. grant eyebrows.  i n t o the room  through  The monk c o u l d dimly see Umewaka"s f r a -  Umewaka"s f a c e m i r r o r e d deep a f f e c t i o n ,  K e i k a i had a f l e e t i n g premonition t h a t Umewaka would not l i v e u n t i l t h e i r next meeting. TEN In order to walk w i t h Umewaka t o h i s mansion the monk had l e f t h i s accommodation i n the e a r l y morning. r e t u r n i n g to h i s own  l o d g i n g s immediately,  Instead of  he remained stand-  i n g on the stone pavement beneath the gate o f Umewaka"s c l o i s t e r because he c o u l d not bear t o l e a v e . He was  still  s t a n d i n g t h e r e when the young servant  K e i j u appeared and h e l d out something, s a y i n g , "A K e i k a i opened i t and found t h a t i t was words:  54  letter."  composed o f  few  69 Upon my s l e e v e , D i d i t stay? No, i t has gone. A f t e r our meeting I t brought  us t e a r f u l p a r t i n g  The moon i n t h e dawning sky. 55 The monk r e t u r n e d to h i s own study and wrote:  I saw i t w i t h you, T h i s moon which has remained As dew on my s l e e v e . I cannot  brush i t away,  Yet i t w i l l b r i n g me n i g h t s o f g r i e f .  ELEVEN To K e i k a i , t h e memory o f Umewaka s f a c e was as nebulous 1  as a dream, but w i t h t h e l i n g e r i n g scent on the s l e e v e s which had touched Umewaka as h i s memento, he climbed t h e mountain. His l a n g u i d mind prevented him from answering t r i e d t o t a l k t o him about v a r i o u s matters.  those who  Although he had  not i n t e n d e d t o weep, h i s t e a r s continued t o flow and indeed, they a t t r a c t e d undue a t t e n t i o n .  The s l e e v e s w i t h which he  wiped away h i s t e a r s seemed t o have become decayed. He excused  h i m s e l f s a y i n g t h a t as he f e l t unwell, he was  unable t o see anyone. in  tears.  He passed the days l y i n g on h i s bed  70 When the boy heard about K e i k a i from o t h e r s , he his  young master what had happened.  Upon h e a r i n g about  K e i k a i , Umewaka abandoned h i m s e l f t o worry. troublesome and p a i n f u l .  told  T h i n k i n g became  Anxious about the monk but a t t h e  same time hoping t o hear something from him soon, Umewaka waited f o r awhile.  A f t e r some time, he f i n a l l y c a l l e d the  boy t o him and grumbled: n i g h t seems u n r e a l .  "The i n c i d e n t on t h a t dream-like  Days have gone by and I have not com-  municated w i t h him even by l e t t e r . ill,  I f K e i k a i had not become  e v e r y t h i n g c o u l d have been l e f t  have f o r g o t t e n my dream.  But now  i s almost as f r a g i l e as the dew.  as i t was and I c o u l d  I have heard t h a t h i s l i f e I f he passes away, v i s i t -  ing  him a f t e r h i s death w i l l be o f no use.  the  mountain, however deep i t may  I want t o go t o  be, i n o r d e r t o see him.  But i f I go to seek him without l e a v i n g any word, I f e e l  that  i t w i l l go a g a i n s t the wishes o f the c h i e f abbot o f Shogo-in. I  cannot do such a t h i n g .  What has caused me t o t r u s t the  words o f t h i s f i c k l e man who place?  Why  has now  departed f o r an unknown  do I l o n g so p a s s i o n a t e l y f o r him?  i s t h u s , l e a d me.  While my mind  L e t us s e a r c h f o r hira on any mountain o r  any s t r a n d . " Saying t h i s , Umewaka shed t e a r s . as may the  way  He was  s t i l l young and  be expected o f a c h i l d , h i s mind was unsteady. o f the world; t h e r e i s no way  t o d i s c o u r a g e one  It i s who  i s i n love. Because K e i j u understood h i s young master's sorrow, he s a i d , 'I was  g i v e n d e t a i l s about the p l a c e where he i s l i v i n g ,  71  o  t h e r e f o r e , I w i l d accompany you. the c h i e f abbot, i n v e n t  I f our a c t i o n s  displease  something l a t e r as an excuse.'  Unaccompanied, Umewaka and K e i j u l e f t  f o r t h e i r unknown  destination.  TWELVE Umewaka was born t o the f a m i l y o f one o f t h e t h r e e 56 Ministers.  H i s f a t h e r was one o f t h e nine  As he u s u a l l y t r a v e l l e d i n a magnificent  Chancellors.  o x c a r t o r ©n an  e x c e l l e n t horse, he had never stepped even momentarily i n e i t h e r mud o r s o i l .  Consequently, h i s l e g s soon became  wobbly and h i s mind became t i r e d . c o u l d walk no f a r t h e r .  A f t e r a short w h i l e , he  Even t h e boy e s c o r t i n g Umewaka was  worn o u t . 57 They r e s t e d under a pine t r e e a t Karasaki anxiously mirrored  and they  pondered t h e i r s i t u a t i o n w h i l e gazing a t t h e moon  They expressed the wish t o be taken 58 t o Mount H i e i by any long--nosed g o b l i n or e v i l s p i r i t . J u s t then, a very aged mountain a s c e t i c i n a f o u r - s i d e d 59 palanquin  i n the lake.  w i t h bamboo b l i n d s came up t o them.  made h i s f o l l o w e r s move t h e palanquin The  The a s c e t i c  i n f r o n t o f Umewaka.  o l d monk asked, 'Where a r e you going?'  Keiju replied truthfully. ' I t i s I who am going t o climb  The monk got out and s a i d , up t o t h e p l a c e which i s next  t o the monastery t o which you a r e going.  I feel really  sorry  s e e i n g you so t i r e d , t h e r e f o r e I w i l l walk, and you can take  72 my  palanquin.*  get i n t o h i s  Upon s a y i n g t h i s , he made Umewaka and K e i j u palanquin.  Borne by twelve men,  i t moved as f a s t as a f l y i n g  They c r o s s e d the v a s t l a k e and went through the dark mist.  Almost i n s t a n t l y i t was 60  the Omine Range.  bird.  cloudy  brought t o Mount Shaka i n  Here Umewaka and K e i j u were shut up  as  c a p t i v e s i n a j a i l b u i l t o f huge r o c k s . They c o u l d d i s t i n g u i s h n e i t h e r n i g h t nor day.  They  were a b l e t o see the l i g h t o f n e i t h e r sun nor moon.  Dew  d r i p p i n g from the moss and the sound o f the wind blowing through the p i n e t r e e s combined t o prevent  t h e i r t e a r s from  c e a s i n g f o r a moment. I t seemed t h a t there were a l l k i n d s o f c a p t i v e s , f o r o n l y the sound o f sobbing was  a u d i b l e i n the cavernous  darkness. THIRTEEN From t h a t n i g h t , the c h i e f abbot, who disappearance was grief.  f e l t t h a t Umewaka»s  an e x t r a o r d i n a r y occurance, was  He asked everybody about i t but no one  Then, a t r a v e l l e r on h i s way 61 Sakamoto,  knew a n y t h i n g .  to 6tsu from H i g a s h i -  a r r i v e d at Sh6go-in and  l a r t o the one you d e s c r i b e  deep i n  s a i d , *A young boy  passed me  simi-  on the beach o f Kara-  s a k i a t about ten o * c l o c k l a s t night.' When the c h i e f abbot heard t h i s he grumbled, *Ah,  I  was  t o l d t h a t Umewaka had s e c r e t l y pledged h i m s e l f to a monk o f the Sammon Denomination but somehow I d i d not take i t  73  seriously.  1  He became a g i t a t e d as he spoke.  He was not a l o n e i n h i s annoyance. e n t i r e temple was aroused.  The f u r y o f t h e  ' A s s a i l i n g t h e Sammon Denomina-  t i o n c o u l d be v e r y d i f f i c u l t .  I n s t e a d l e t us make a r u s h  f o r t h e mansion o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e L e f t t o complain, f o r he must know about t h i s . * At once more than f i v e hundred monk s o l d i e r s o f t h e temple a t t a c k e d the mansion o f the M i n i s t e r o f t h e L e f t a t ^ ^ 62 Sanjo-Kyogoku i n broad d a y l i g h t . More than f i f t y o f those on duty nearby fought back a t the r i s k o f t h e i r l i v e s .  The  monks o f O n j o - j i , however, e a s i l y broke i n t o the b u i l d i n g s . They burned down the g a l l e r i e s , the f i s h i n g p a v i l i o n , the b u i l d i n g nearby the f o u n t a i n and t h e s p l e n d i d t i l e - r o o f e d 63 corridors. The mansion was r a z e d t o t h e ground.  FOURTEEN With these a c t s the monks o f O n j o - j i were s t i l l not a b l e t o r i d themselves o f t h e i r anger.  The temple members d i s -  cussed the matter t o g e t h e r and concluded: 'There has never been, nor ever w i l l be a d i s g r a c e t o the Jimon Denomination which exceeds t h i s .  T h e r e f o r e , i f we take t h i s chance t o 64  b u i l d an o r d i n a t i o n p l a t f o r m f o r t h e Samaya commandments, the monk s o l d i e r s o f the Sammon Denomination w i l l s u r e l y come t o a t t a c k us.  T h i s may be a means t o d e s t r o y our f o e because  we w i l l be t a k i n g advantage o f t e r r i t o r y f a m i l i a r t o us. T h i s way, we w i l l be a b l e t o e l i m i n a t e heresy and spread our  74 commandments. We  Heaven i s o f f e r i n g us t h i s  opportunity.  must not h e s i t a t e f o r a moment.' At t h i s , more than two thousand p a r t i s a n s o f the same  65 mind excavated s e v e r a l moats on the Nyoigoe Pass,  reconstru-  c t e d the i n t e r i o r o f t h e i r temple t o resemble a c a s t l e ,  and  b u i l t an o r d i n a t i o n p l a t f o r m f o r the Samaya commandments. FIFTEEN When the monks o f the Sammon Denomination how  heard o f t h i s  c o u l d they h e s i t a t e i n c a l l i n g up t h e i r army?  proceeded t o 0 n | 3 - j i  s i x times b e f o r e because  They had  o f the o r d i n a -  t i o n platform. • I t i s n e i t h e r necessary t o r e p o r t t o c o u r t nobles nor complain t o w a r r i o r s . " now  C r y i n g , *Let us hasten to 0 n j 6 - j i  and burn i t down,' they sent t h e i r o r d e r t o t h r e e thou-  sand seven hundred and t h r e e s u b o r d i n a t e temples and F i r s t of a l l ,  shrines.  the monk s o l d i e r s o f the n e i g h b o u r i n g  s t a t e s gathered and crowded t o the top o f Mount H i e i and t o the town o f Sakamoto.  They s a i d , •the day o f the monkey  f a l l s d u r i n g the second ten days o f the t e n t h month on the  67  f i f t e e n t h day.  There can be no l u c k i e r day than that."  They d i v i d e d more than one hundred  thousand  soldiers  i n t o seven armies which thronged t o a t t a c k 0 n j 6 - j i both f r o n t and r e a r .  from  The g e n t l e beach breeze blew upon  those on horseback whipping t h e i r mounts a l o n g the s t r a n d  63 of Shiga-Karasaki.  The s o f t sea spray f e l l upon those i n  boats p o l i n g a c r o s s the l a k e i n the morning calm.  Among  75 those who were thus advancing, was the monk K e i k a i .  He waa  eager t o be f i r s t i n t o b a t t l e /because he longed t o leave h i s name t o p o s t e r i t y . ght about t h i s calamity.  He r e a l i z e d that he h i m s e l f had brouHe was hastening out o f the Nyoigoe  Pass w i t h h i s f i v e hundred young comrades, each o f whom had drunk the d i v i n e water, before the sky had grown l i g h t a t  69 around f o u r o'clock. The f r o n t and r e a r armies, i n a d d i t i o n t o those i n the c a s t l e , t o t a l e d one hundred and seven thousand strong.  To-  gether they r a i s e d a war c r y loud enough t o destroy a huge 70 mountain o r s p i l l a lake i n t o the deepest part o f the e a r t h . Stepping over the i n j u r e d and dead without regard, s o l d i e r s made a rush f o r the c a s t l e .  The men a t the f r o n t were from  the temples o f Shuzen, Zenchi, Enshu, Sugiu, Saisho, Konrin, Sugimoto and Myokan-in, temples which were a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the main temple o f Mount H i e i , and a l s o from the temples o f J o k i , J ^ j i t s u , Nangan, Gyosen, Gy6ju and Jorim-bo o f the 71 Western Tower, and Zempo, Zenju and Hannya-in o f Yokawa. Of one accord, t h e monks o f the three towers combined t o gether t o f i g h t . On the o t h e r s i d e , the defence, ready t o hazard t h e i r 72 l i v e s were:  the D e v i l s o f Suruga o f Emman-in, the Seven  Long-Nosed Goblins o f TS-in, the Eight Deva-Kings o f Minaraino-in, Ara-Sanuki, famous f o r k i l l i n g a thousand, Akudayu, an expert i n f i g h t i n g w i t h a two meter l o n g , spiked i r o n bar, Musashibo, who caused h i s enemies t o f l e e i n eight d i r e c t i o n s , Engetsubo who could throw stones a t t a r g e t s o f three hundred  76 meters d i s t a n c e , and Kakuso who head t o f o o t .  was  fond of c l e a v i n g men  These f i g h t e r s had a l l strengthened  their  f a i t h t o s o l i d r o c k and metal and had made t h e i r l i v e s  73  l i g h t as dust.  from  as  F r e q u e n t l y , they l e f t the c a s t l e b r a v e l y .  They fought w i t h g r e a t s t r e n g t h . Arrowheads p e r f o r a t e d helmets and spears r a i s e d clouds of dust. thousand men  A f t e r f i g h t i n g f o r about  s i x hours more than  of the a t t a c k i n g c a v a l r y had been i n j u r e d .  seven  These  seemed c l o s e r t o death than t o l i f e y e t the c a s t l e seemed  forever indestructable. Seeing t h i s , K e i k a i became f u r i o u s and c r i e d ,  " T h i s way  o f f i g h t i n g i s n o t h i n g t h a t we w i l l f e e l proud o f r e c o u n t i n g later. why  If I f i l l  a moderate-sized moat w i t h dead b o d i e s ,  can we not take the c a s t l e by storm?  among you, f o l l o w me and observe my  I f t h e r e are  courage."  men  Then s h o u t i n g  r o u g h l y , K e i k a i l e a p e d e f f o r t l e s s l y down i n t o the narrow  74  bottom of the V-shaped moat. S t e p p i n g onto one s h i e l d , p a r t of a row o f s h i e l d s l i n e d up l i k e a s e r i e s o f r e c k o n i n g blocks,  75  he jumped up t o the top o f the o p p o s i t e s i d e , a  76 d i s t a n c e o f about  s i x meters.  P l a c i n g h i s hand a g a i n s t an  exposed p i l l a r o f the p l a s t e r w a l l , he nimbly c l e a r e d i t . In a headstrong manner he rushed alone i n t o more than t h r e e hundred o f h i s enemies.  He grabbed  men  arm and then stabbed them.  He s l a s h e d men  to t h e i r opposite arm-pit.  He gashed b o d i e s .  with h i s l e f t  from t h e i r  shoulder  Holding h i s  sword behind him and s t e p p i n g backwards, seemingly  to a l l o w  h i s f o e s t o escape, he took advantage o f h i s a d v e r s a r i e s * unguarded moments.  He mowed men  down one upon the  77 other. lap  He chopped up h i s f o e s as e n d l e s s l y as the waves  the shore.  He swung h i s sword w i l d l y : i n the shape o f  an X, i n e i g h t d i r e c t i o n s , i n t w i s t i n g p a t t e r n s and i n the f i g u r e o f a cross.He pursued h i s f o e s t o f o u r c o r n e r s  and  77 i n eight directions.  He  cut around h i s enemies c e a s e l e s s l y .  The more than t h r e e hundred s o l d i e r s who  had been defen-  d i n g the Nyoigoe Pass perhaps thought t h a t t h e r e was t e n d i n g w i t h K e i k a i , f o r they s t a r t e d t o run t o the and  no conright  the l e f t i n c o n f u s i o n . Other men,  f o l l o w i n g K e i k a i , rushed i n from e i g h t d i r -  e c t i o n s and more than f i v e hundred o f them spread out set  f i r e t o the b u i l d i n g s .  As they d i d so, f i e r c e  began to r i s e and b i l l o w i n g smoke covered  and  winds  everything,  the  golden h a l l , the l e c t u r e room, the b e l f r y , the Amida h a l l , used f o r i n c e s s a n t Buddhist  78  invocation,  the h a l l where  79  p r a y e r s f o r the p r o l o n g a t i o n o f l i f e were o f f e r e d , the 80 monastery o f the monk K y 6 j i , the memorial h a l l o f the g r e a t ^ 81 t e a c h e r Chisho, and the q u a r t e r s o f the t h r e e I m p e r i a l 82 Princes i n holy orders.  More than t h r e e thousand seven  hundred b u i l d i n g s were s i m u l t a n e o u s l y No  reduced  to ashes.  chamber remained, save f o r the sanctuary o f t h e  Great  Bright S p i r i t of Shinra. SIXTEEN While the young p r i n c e , unaware o f the f a t e o f M i i - d e r a , was  imprisoned  i n the rock j a i l  crying bitterly  i n low  spirits,  78 an extremely l a r g e number o f long-nosed g o b l i n s were gathered t o g e t h e r d i s c u s s i n g v a r i o u s matters. One  o f the small-long-nosed g o b l i n s s a i d , 'Although we  c o n s i d e r f i r e s , w h i r l w i n d s , s m a l l q u a r r e l s , arguments about sumo r e s u l t s , Shirakawa c h i l d r e n ' s throwing-stone competi33 tions, s a c r e d p a l a n q u i n s c a r r i e d by the monks o f the Sammon 84 Denomination and the Nanto, and the mondo o f the f i v e major 85 Zen temples i n Kyoto  the f u n n i e s t t h i n g s t o observe, y e s t e r -  day's f i g h t i n g a t M i i d e r a was p a r t i c u l a r l y s p l e n d i d .  Perhaps  i t w i l l stand without p a r a l l e l i n the world. Another long-nosed g o b l i n nearby s a i d , we have Umewaka h e r e .  ' I t i s strange,  I f he had not been captured, f i g h t i n g  of such magnitude would not have taken p l a c e . monks o f the Sammon and the Jimon Denominations i n g , I saw  While the were f i g h t -  the abbots o f temples t r i p p i n g over the ends o f  t h e i r l o n g robes as they ran to and f r o t r y i n g t o escape. I t was  such an amusing s i g h t t h a t I composed a j o l l y  verse.' A g o b l i n who  was  i n an upper seat asked, 'How 86 The g o b l i n s a i d , ' I t went l i k e t h i s :  d i d i t go?'  They a r e a l l worked up And f i l l e d w i t h b i t t e r shame At M i i - d e r a . They s u r e l y brought i t on themselves And now  must l i v e i n deep lament.'  acrostic  79 As he r e a d t h i s v e r s e , t h e f a c e o f every long-nosed i n t h e whole assembly c r i n k l e d i n t o a g r i n .  goblin  Umewaka, over-  h e a r i n g t h e i r t a l k , was i n anguish knowing t h a t because o f him M i i - d e r a had been overthrown.  However, t h e r e was nobody  from whom he c o u l d l e a r n t h e d e t a i l s and n o t h i n g he c o u l d do but continue t o weep m i s e r a b l y w i t h h i s boy.  SEVENTEEN A l i t t l e w h i l e l a t e r , mentioning 87 P r o v i n c e o f Awaji  age.  from t h e  had a r r i v e d , i n t o t h e j a i l , a g o b l i n l e d  an o l d man who was t i e d up. of  that a g i f t  He seemed more than e i g h t y y e a r s  The g o b l i n s a i d , »This o l d f e l l o w was captured be-  cause he stepped o f f t h e end o f a r a i n c l o u d and f e l l down from i t .  P l e a s e name him as you wish and take him i n t o your  service.  Nobody can soar i n t h e sky b e t t e r than he.*  A few days l a t e r , n o t i c i n g t h a t t h e p r i n c e and h i s young servant had been weeping, t h e o l d man s a i d , *My dears, your s l e e v e s a r e soaked.* The p r i n c e and the boy r e p l i e d i n u n i s o n , we had l e f t  »Shortly a f t e r  the p l a c e where we had l o n g l i v e d we f e l l  the hands o f these long-nosed  goblins.  into  Whenever we t h i n k  about the d i s t r e s s ' o f our p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s , our t e a r s stream  down without d r y i n g f o r a moment.  s l e e v e s a r e wet.  That i s why o u r  T  The o l d man was v e r y p l e a s e d and s a i d , »If what you say i s t r u e , l e t me e n t e r i n t o you.  I can e a s i l y h e l p you  r e a c h the c a p i t a l . " sleeve.  Beads o f dew,  dropped from i t . of  Saying t h i s he wrung out Umewaka's resembling p e a r l s o r o t h e r jewels  The o l d man  put the beads i n t o t h e hollow  h i s l e f t hand and r o l l e d them about c a r e f u l l y f o r a w h i l e .  The drops o f dew  soon became one mass the s i z e o f a f o o t b a l l .  He s e p a r a t e d t h i s and p l a c e d one b a l l i n the palm o f each hand.  He r o l l e d each o f them about f o r some time.  dew-balls g r a d u a l l y became l a r g e r and l a r g e r . caused the i n s i d e o f the r o c k - j a i l t o f l o o d . old  man  became a t h u n d e r b o l t .  The long-nosed  Finally  two they  At once, the  P e a l s o f thunder  ground and f l a s h e s o f l i g h t e n i n g l i t up the  The  shook the  sky.  g o b l i n s were f u l l o f p l u c k , but a t t h i s ,  they were a l l atremble w i t h f e a r and they f l e d i n ten d i r e c 83 tions.  89 Then the Dragon God  troyed i t .  k i c k e d the r o c k - j a i l and  des-  He took not o n l y the p r i n c e and h i s boy on h i s  c l o u d but a l s o a l l kinds o f people who from v a r i o u s o t h e r p l a c e s .  had been c a p t u r e d  He l e d them t o a p l a c e nearby 90  t h e Garden o f the Goddess S p r i n g  i n the remains o f the  Emperor's p a l a c e . EIGHTEEN The monks and common f o l k , both men  and women, p a r t e d  from each o t h e r and went back i n d i v i d u a l l y t o t h e i r homes. Umewaka and h i s boy r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r own  ancestral  r e s i d e n c e , Hanazono, but the b u i l d i n g s once r o o f e d w i t h t i l e o r t h a t c h had become a wide expanse o f burnt-out  ruin  81  and t h e r e was no  one t o t e l l them what had taken p l a c e .  They asked a t a monastery i n the v i c i n i t y and were t o l d , •The mansion o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f the L e f t was burnt by monks who stormed from M i i - d e r a b e l i e v i n g that your f a m i l y must have been g i v e n n o t i c e about you, t h e young l o r d , taken away t o Mount H i e i . ' They wanted t o a l s o ask about t h e i r c h i e f abbot's f a t e but t h e r e was no p l a c e t o s t a y the n i g h t .  They s a i d , ' L e t  us go t o M i i - d e r a and ask about him. Leading Umewaka by t h e hand, K e i j u reached M i i - d e r a only a f t e r a s k i n g f o r d i r e c t i o n s innumerable t i m e s .  Here  they found t h a t a l l the temples and the monk's l i v i n g quart e r s had been r a z e d and not a b u i l d i n g was l e f t .  The dew  drops f a l l i n g from the g r a s s i n the empty garden were i n harmony w i t h t h e s i g h i n g o f t h e wind among the p i n e t r e e s on t h e empty  mountain.  Saying, 'This i s t h e r u i n o f our former house', they looked down and saw t h a t t h e base stones o f t h e temple had been s h a t t e r e d by the f i r e , t h a t the green-moss had faded and t h a t t h e branches o f t h e plum t r e e by the eaves were dead.  There was no f r a g r a n t breeze from t h e t r e e now.  'This w o r l d l y d i s a s t e r , which has completely r u i n e d e v e r y t h i n g , was caused by me a l o n g . My f o r t u n e must have ceased t o be b l e s s e d by the gods... s i p e d about.'  I must have been gos-  T h i n k i n g thus, Umewaka was ashamed.  Although the scene was unbearable t o l o o k upon, s i n c e t h i s was the p l a c e where they had l i v e d f o r a l o n g time and  32 which had been f a m i l i a r , they were r e l u c t a n t t o l e a v e immediately.  T h e r e f o r e , g a z i n g a t t h e moon m i r r o r e d i n t h e l a k e ,  they passed a t e a r f u l n i g h t i n t h e s h r i n e o f t h e Great B r i g h t Spirit.  NINETEEN They p a i d a v i s i t t o Ishiyama e x p e c t i n g t o f i n d t h e c h i e f abbot.  They were t o l d , however, t h a t he was not t h e r e .  K e i j u s a i d t o Umewaka.  ' T h i s being so, p l e a s e s t a y i n t h e  main sanctuary o f the temple t o n i g h t p r e t e n d i n g pilgrim.  t o be a  I w i l l go up t o Mount H i e i and t r y t o v i s i t t h e  monk i n h i s chamber.' If  there were nobody t o dissuade him, Umewaka was w i l -  l i n g t o throw h i m s e l f i n t o any deep r i v e r , f o r he had made a profound  r e s o l u t i o n t o l e a v e t h i s weary world.  Weeping,  he wrote a l e t t e r and handed i t t o the boy. Umewaka stood watching him go and w a i t i n g u n t i l he was out o f s i g h t w i t h out knowing t h a t t h i s had been t h e i r l a s t meeting. S i n c e the boy c a r r i e d the l e t t e r , he climbed  hurriedly  up t h e mountain t o see t h e monk. When K e i k a i saw the boy, he was s p e e c h l e s s and a t f i r s t wept u n r e s t r a i n e d l y .  K e i j u t o o , had t o wipe away h i s t e a r s  and t r y t o t e l l t h e monk what had b e f a l l e n Umewaka and himself. Saying t h a t he would f i r s t  look a t the l e t t e r , K e i k a i  opened i t and found a v e r s e e v i d e n t l y w r i t t e n by Umewaka i n a d i s t r a c t e d s t a t e o f mind;  91  83  I t i a my c r u e l f a t e That I s h a l l drown i n the atream. Into i t s deep p o o l s May now s h i n e f o r evermore The moon on the mountain edge.  TWENTY The this.  monk was h i g h l y a g i t a t e d and c r i e d ,  'Just look a t  I t i s e v i d e n t from t h i s poem t h a t h i s mind i s t r o u b l e d .  P l e a s e t a l k t o me as we go a l o n g .  We s h a l l l e a v e  without  delay.' L e t t i n g the boy go ahead o f him a f t e r they had passed Sakamoto, i n g r e a t haste K e i k a i proceeded t o Ishiyama.  Pass-  A  i n g through Otsu, on the way t o Ishiyama, they came a c r o s s a group o f t r a v e l l e r s and overheard  their  conversation.  •Alas what a p i t y ! What k i n d o f unhappiness o b l i g e d the boy t o throw h i m s e l f i n t o t h e water?  How g r e a t must be t h e  g r i e f o f h i s parents and t e a c h e r s ! ' T h i n k i n g t h a t these comments might be a c l u e , K e i k a i asked them the d e t a i l s o f the i n c i d e n t . The  t r a v e l l e r s h a l t e d t h e i r s t e p s , 'A w h i l e ago when we 92  were c r o s s i n g t h e B r i d g e o f Seta,  we saw a boy o f s i x t e e n  o r seventeen wearing o n l y a t i g h t - s l e e v e d undergarment o f r e d , the c o l o r o f plum blossoms, and a d i v i d e d s k i r t belonging t o 93  a f i n e s i l k garment.  He chanted  the s a c r e d name o f Amid a  about t e n times w h i l e f a c i n g the west and then he threw  84 h i m s e l f i n t o the r i v e r .  I t was a p i t i f u l s i g h t , and we were  about t o e n t e r the water t o t r y t o save him, when h i s body suddenly disappeared.  We simply had t o pass on d e j e c t e d l y . "  Saying t h i s , they shed t e a r s .  TWENTY-ONE A f t e r they had heard the t r a v e l l e r s ' d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e boy's age and appearance,  t h e r e was no doubt i n t h e i r minds  t h a t t h e boy had indeed been Umewaka. K e i j u were f r i g h t e n e d . They f e l t as though  Both t h e monk and  T h e i r f e e t and arms became numb.  they would f a l l unconscious.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the p a i r hastened i n t h e i r palanquins t o the f o o t o f t h e b r i d g e and l o o k e d around.  They found the  s m a l l blue l a p i s lassuli r o s a r y t o which was a t t a c h e d a g o l d brocade t a l i s m a n w i t h a t h i n l a c e , hanging on a column o f t h e bridge.  The t a l i s m a n was t h e one t h a t Umewaka had always  worn about h i s neck next h i s s k i n .  When t h e monk and the boy  saw t h e s e t h i n g s , both w r i t h e d i n agony.  They longed t o  throw themselves i n t o t h e c u r r e n t , but many o f K e i k a i ' s f e l lows came upon them and prevented them from doing s o . •Aah, a t l e a s t I would l i k e t o see h i s l i f e l e s s f a c e b e f o r e I do a n y t h i n g f u r t h e r , ' murmured K e i k a i .  He stepped  i n t o a s m a l l f i s h i n g boat moored c l o s e by and looked i n t o the depths. At  t h i s , h i s f r i e n d s took o f f t h e i r robes and they a l s o  s t a r t e d t o l o o k f o r Umewaka between rocks and i n t h e shadow  85 o f the d i k e s .  Leaving no stone unturned, they  everywhere but they c o u l d not f i n d him.  searched  The monk and the  boy l a y on the ground and besought heaven, a l l the w h i l e c o n t i n u i n g to weep. A f t e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f time had passed  they  94 went down t o t h e Rapids o f Gugo  t o s e a r c h f o r Umewaka.  T h e i r eyes were a t t r a c t e d by something the r e d l e a v e s o f maples, caught  crimson,  resembling  behind a rock,  Keikai poled  t h e boat towards the o b j e c t and a t l a s t found Umewaka. f a c e was  l i f e l e s s , h i s l o n g h a i r was  and h i s body was the r o c k .  His  entangled w i t h weeds,  swaying w i t h the waves as they washed over  The monk and the boy wept as they brought  the  body i n t o the boat. K e i k a i p l a c e d Umewaka's head ©n h i s l a p w h i l e the boy embraced Umewaka's l e g s . plight? us?  »How c o u l d he have come t o such a  In doing t h i s , what d i d he expect would become o f 95  Brahma, I n d r a , and Gods o f Heaven and E a r t h ,  please  take our l i v e s and i n r e t u r n l e t us l o o k a t h i s l i v i n g f a c e which now  has become a v o i d . '  S a y i n g t h i s , they w a i l e d un-  controllably. However, t h e r e i s no case i n which a blossom once s c a t -  96 t e r e d from a bough blooms anew  o r i n which a morning moon  having descended towards the west r i s e s a g a i n .  Umewaka s 1  b r i g h t p i n k under-dress had become soaked, i t s c o l o r deepened, and h i s snowy white b r e a s t was which had once darkened h i s raven l o c k s , now  cold.  The  had color  h i s brows had become smudged, and  d i s h e v e l l e d , covered h i s f a c e .  86 H i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y f e a t u r e s had not changed but h i s eyes which had once shown a hundred c o q u e t t i s h e x p r e s s i o n s when97 ever he s m i l e d s k i n had  were c l o s e d and the b r i g h t c o l o r o f h i s  faded.  Both the monk and the boy threw themselves a t Umewaka»s head and f e e t and wept as though they might d i e . f e l l o w temple d w e l l e r s , r i g h t down t o the lowest  Keikai*s ranking  monks, c a s t themselves on the moss o f the r i v e r - b a n k and they a l s o b u r s t i n t o neverending  tears.  Hoping t h a t Umewaka  would come t o l i f e a g a i n , t h a t e n t i r e day K e i k a i and the h e l d h i s body t o t h e i r b r e a s t s to warm i t . beyond t h e i r power t o b r i n g him back t o  boy  However, i t was  life. 98  On the f o l l o w i n g day, a t n e i g h b o r i n g T o r i b e n o , l e t Umewaka*s body ascend i n a wisp o f smoke. smoke had disappeared,  they  A f t e r the  one by one K e i k a i * s f e l l o w d w e l l e r s  departed, but n e i t h e r the monk nor the boy  left.  They remained f a c i n g the heap o f ash and continued t o cry.  Both f e l t  t h a t they wanted t o be b u r i e d under the  same moss as Umewaka but they c a l l e d t o mind the meaning o f Umewaka*s dying v e r s e , »...May how  shine f o r evermore, the  moon on the mountain edge.* which s i g n i f i e d t h a t Umewaka had wished f o r masses t o be h e l d f o r the repose o f h i s s o u l . T h e r e f o r e , the monk d i d not r e t u r n t o h i s own remained i n Toribeno and i n due 99 for  a b l a c k robe,  temple, but  course exchanged h i s c l o t h e s  hung Umewaka*s ashes from h i s neck and  departed on a p i l g r i m a g e over mountains and  rivers.  L a t e r he b u i l t h i m s e l f a hermitage a t the p l a c e c a l l e d  87 Iwakura on the Western Mountain o f Kyoto  100  and  performed  r e l i g i o u s r i t e s f o r the s a l v a t i o n o f Umewaka*s s o u l . due  course the young servant  In  o f Umewaka, K e i j u , shaved h i s 101 A  head and  secluded himself  u n t i l the end  i n Mount Koya  where he remained  o f h i s days. TWENTY-TWO  The  t h i r t y r i n g l e a d e r s o f O n j o - j i who  b u i l d the o r d i n a t i o n p l a t f o r m c o u l d not  decided t o  f o r the Samaya commandments  p o s s i b l y return to O n j o - j i to l i v e .  s i c k and weary o f l i f e and Mii-dera.  had  They became  decided to break connections w i t h  However, they r e s o l v e d  to v i s i t the r u i n s o f  the  Jimon Denomination i n order to take t h e i r l e a v e b e f o r e s e t t i n g out t o begin those p r a c t i c e s through which they would seek p e r f e c t wisdom.  At the r u i n s they planned t o h o l d a  r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e t o p r a i s e Buddha*s deep assurance o f  the  truth. Upon t h e i r r e t u r n t o O n j o - j i , they h e l d a wake i n f r o n t of the Great B r i g h t S p i r i t o f S h i n r a ,  and  f o r the l a s t time  performed a s e r v i c e which c o u l d be compared t o the 102 o f the Buddhist  ordering  delicacies.  Deep i n the n i g h t when the border between waking  and  s l e e p i n g c o u l d not be d i s t i n g u i s h e d , the sounds o f g a l l o p i n g horses and r a t t l i n g c a r t s was sky.  heard coming from the  eastern  I t sounded as though a l a r g e number o f e x a l t e d  ages were on t h e i r way.  The  monks f e l t  this quite  person-  strange.  Wondering what i t was, they s t o l e a glance upward and saw a h i g h r a n k i n g monk who resembled  an a r c h b i s h o p on c l e r i c a l  duty r i d i n g i n a f o u r - s i d e d p a l a n q u i n around which a t t e n d a n t s were crowded.  They a l s o n o t i c e d a man i n f u l l  l e a d i n g groups o f armored w a r r i o r s . a woman wearing  c o u r t dress  Moreover, they beheld  j e w e l l e d h a i r ornaments r i d i n g i n a l i g h t l y  equipped c a r t a t t e n d e d by s c o r e s o f w a i t i n g women. 103 d r e s s e d In faded p i n k garments  Retainers  were f o l l o w i n g these e x a l t e d  personages. The monks asked them, "What k i n d o f people have a r r i v e d ? " The a t t e n d a n t s r e p l i e d ,  " T h i s i s H i e , Guardian  Spirit  of t h e mountain i n Higashi-Sakamoto.» The two d i s t i n g u i s h e d v i s i t o r s  got out o f t h e i r  and palanquin and entered through t h e hangings tuary.  The Great B r i g h t S p i r i t  attempted  t o look d i g n i f i e d .  cart  o f t h e sanc-  s t r a i g h t e n e d h i s crown and  He came out from behind t h e  golden t a p e s t r y and f a c e d the d i g n i t a r i e s . A f t e r the s e a t s f o r t h e honorable guests and t h e host 104 had been decided, t h e r i t e o f d r i n k i n g t o each o t h e r ' s h e a l t h was performed. dance,"the  As t h e r e were p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f music and  Great B r i g h t S p i r i t o f S h i n r a was w e l l e n t e r t a i n e d  and he s m i l e d i n g r e a t d e l i g h t , which continued throughout  t h e y a l l enjoyed t h e p a r t y  the e n t i r e night.  When day broke the Guardian S p i r i t ushered him from t h e temple gate and remained  outside f o r a l i t t l e while.  89  TWENTY-THREE The Great B r i g h t S p i r i t walked up t h e f i n e s t a i r s and was about t o e n t e r h i s sanctum, when one o f t h e monks who had been engaged t o remain awake throughout down b e f o r e him and implored t e a r f u l l y :  the night, knelt  'In r e g a r d t o the  matter o f r a i s i n g t h e o r d i n a t i o n p l a t f o r m f o r t h e Samaya commandments...it was i n l i n e w i t h t h e I m p e r i a l s a n c t i o n o f 105  the p a s t .  When we c o n s t r u c t e d i t , we were t h i n k i n g  the p r o s p e r i t y o f our temple.  about  We never c o n s i d e r e d f o r one  moment t h a t we might have b u i l t i t because o f our f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y .  The monk s o l d i e r s o f t h e Sammon Denomina-  t i o n had o f t e n r e c k l e s s l y d i s r e g a r d e d t h e I m p e r i a l d e c i s i o n and had brought v a r i o u s e v i l d i s a s t e r s upon us. have burnt down our temple.  Now they  We a l l r e a l i z e how deeply aggra-  v a t e d both you, t h e B r i g h t S p i r i t , and Buddha must be, but what was t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e Gods i n h a v i n g t h i s p a r t y and p l a y i n g m e r r i l y w i t h H i e , the Guardian S p i r i t Sammon Denomination,  our foe?  I t i s a mystery  of the t o us.*  When t h e monk concluded, t h e Great B r i g h t S p i r i t summoned a l l t h e monks b e f o r e him and s a i d :  'The grudge you  a l l h o l d may be c o n s i d e r e d r e a s o n a b l e but i t stems from narrow thoughts.  Listen closely.  On t h e day t h a t Buddha o r a  B r i g h t S p i r i t performs an expedient act, designed t o b l e s s 106  a l l l i v i n g beings,  i f they c o n s i d e r a c e r t a i n person deser-  v i n g they may g i v e happiness t o him. t h e i r main i n t e n t i o n .  T h i s , however, i s not  S i m i l a r l y , c o n s i d e r i n g another person  s i n f u l , they may punish him as t h e upshot o f t h e i r  compassion.  90  They modify human deeds whether o r not they a r e i n obedience to Buddha's law so t h a t humans may a t t a i n s o v e r e i g n e n l i g h t 107 enment. I t appears t h a t you do not know why I am r e j o i c i n g . The d e s t r u c t i o n o f temples and monasteries occured t o enable you t o o b t a i n d i v i n e f a v o r through your e f f o r t s t o r e b u i l d them. to  The b u r n i n g o f t h e s u t r a s and t h e s a s t r a s o c c u r r e d  enable you t o become c l o s e r t o t h e p r o v i d e n c e o f Buddha  i n your r e - c o p y i n g o f them. Thanking Buddha w h i l e i n v o l v e d i n t h e v i c i s s i t u d e s o f l i f e s t i l l has an a s p e c t o f b i r t h 108 and death. to ing  I showed.my j u b i l a t i o n because I was o v e r j o y e d  see K e i k a i , who because o f h i s sorrow, commenced preachand began h i s search f o r enlightenment.  The Guardian  S p i r i t o f the Mountain v i s i t e d here t o c e l e b r a t e w i t h me. How wonderful i s the great compassion o f t h e M e r c i f u l Goddess of Ishiyama who manifested h e r s e l f i n t h e form o f a boy t o help Keikai a t t a i n higher perception.• When the B r i g h t S p i r i t had thus spoken, he seemed t o e n t e r the sanctum.  The t h i r t y monks i n v o l v e d i n t h e wake a t  once awoke from t h e i r dreams and everybody recounted the same story. TWENTY-FOUR »Aah, then the boy who threw h i s body i n t o t h e water was an a p p a r i t i o n o f t h e M e r c i f u l Goddess and the c a l a m i t y of  the d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Jimon Denomination 109  expedient f o r s a l v a t i o n . '  by f i r e was an  Upon r e a l i z i n g t h i s each monk  deepened h i s piousness toward Buddha.  Then, t o strengthen  91  t h e i r r e s o l v e t o p r a c t i c e Buddhist d o c t r i n e s l i k e  Keikai,  the t h i r t y monks v i s i t e d t h e hermitage i n Iwakura where K e i k a i , who had changed h i s name t o S e n s a i , had been l i v i n g . There, they saw a c l o u d hanging low over h a l f o f t h e t h a t c h e d s i x meter square c o t t a g e .  They a l s o n o t i c e d t h a t  a l t h o u g h i t was a f t e r t h e f r o s t s o f t h e t h r e e autumn months, Sensai»s robe was as t a t t e r e d as a l o t u s l e a f which has been t o r n by a s t r o n g wind.  They saw, however, t h a t t h e r e was  enoughrto e a t because t h e morning wind had blown down f r u i t . Sensai had l i s t e n e d t o t h e murmuring stream and t o t h e wind blowing through t h e p i n e t r e e s and had g r a d u a l l y awakened from h i s weary world's dream.  Whenever he thought about  Umewaka, streaming t e a r s soaked t h e moon on h i s s l e e v e . 110 such times he r e c i t e d t h i s poem:  At  How can I f o r g e t The l i g h t o f t h e moon we saw? Following i t s lead I s h a l l t o n i g h t proceed To your r e s t i n g p l a c e , t h e pure l a n d . Ill When the ex-Emperor  saw t h i s poem on t h e stone w a l l  o f S e n s a i ' s study, he p r a i s e d the v e r s e e n d l e s s l y and s e l e c t e d it  f o r t h e 'Shakkyo' chapter o f an anthology o f poems c a l l e d  Shin kokin shu. 112 •A man o f v i r t u e w i l l not remain a l o n e a t t r a c t companions.  but w i l l  soon  Although S e n s a i would have l i k e d t o  a v o i d o t h e r s , monks having had s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s came  92 t o g e t h e r from a l l q u a r t e r s .  Consequently,  they decided to  b u i l d a temple near the c a p i t a l which would w i d e l y ordinary folk.  serve  They performed the ceremony f o r the founda-  t i o n of Ungo-ji. They rendered the mask p l a y s and 113 f i v e bodhisattvas  songs o f the twenty  i n order t o p r a i s e those who  the b l i s s o f p a r a d i s e .  Among those who  performances, t h e r e was  no one who  strengthened.  had  entered  happened to see  f a i l e d t o have h i s b e l i e f s  From near and f a r people came t o g e t h e r  a f t e r the o t h e r .  these  one  Both h i g h and low worshipped w i t h hands  clasped i n prayer."  EPILOGUE Shedding t e a r s the o l d man  concluded;  "This story  i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t the seed which enables people to  attain  Buddhahood i s s t i l l found w i t h i n karma." Those who  had been l i s t e n i n g to what the o l d man  n a r r a t e d admired h i s s t o r y . had remained dry.  There was  had  no one whose s l e e v e  93 NOTES ON THE TEXT 1  "Raise your eyes and seek the p e r f e c t wisdom o f Buddha"  .jogu b o d a i  X- %\ ^r-^k^j a b o d h i s a t t v a vow.  " L o o k below t o save a l l " geke shujo  "f. ^f^Lj^J^-''  a  b o d h i s a t t v a o a t h , c f , .jogu geke, a phrase c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e first  p a r t s o f t h e phrases jogu b o d a i and geke shu.jo.  ^§ti->  Maka s h i k a n ^ ^ " j f c . j ^ . "The  i n TSD,  See C h i g i  v o l . 46, pp. 6-8.  E i g h t Human A f f l i c t i o n s " n i n g e n no hakku  )  ) \ ^ § : i ) the s u f f e r i n g o f b i r t h , i i ) t h e s u f f e r i n g o f o l d age, i i i ) t h e s u f f e r i n g o f s i c k n e s s , i v ) t h e s u f f e r i n g o f death, v ) the  s u f f e r i n g caused by b e i n g t o g e t h e r w i t h those whom one  h a t e s , v i ) t h e s u f f e r i n g caused by b e i n g a p a r t from those whom one l o v e s , v i i ) t h e s u f f e r i n g caused by the i n a b i l i t y t o s a t i s f y one's d e s i r e s , v i i i )  the s u f f e r i n g caused b y the f a c t t h a t one  i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e f i v e e l e m e n t a l aggragates o f which one's body, mind and environment  ^if/^  , i n Abidatsuma  , Genj6  a r e composed.  d a i bibasha ron  t r a n s . , i n TSD,  R e f e r t o k u s h S t a i ~S§"  ffj J!^jf[j^||  J^f^'J^rf  v o l . 27, p. 402.  4 "His  e a r t h l y d e s i r e s w i l l become n o t h i n g but p e r f e c t  wisdom" bonno soku b o d a i  EpJ^^Ll l i t e r a l l y , - : " W o r l d l y de-  f i l e m e n t s are i n and o f themselves enlightenment'; a fundamental Mahayana n o t i o n .  See C h i g i , p. 6.  5  "The F i v e C e l e s t i a l S i g n s o f Approaching Death" ten.jo no gosui  ^ J i . ) 7J  •  G-osui denotes t h e f i v e s i g n s o f decay o r  a p p r o s c h i n g death o f which d e s c r i p t i o n s v a r y . zuiS  i n Z $ i c h i agon gyo  Refer to goshi  J ^ - j p f G u d o n  94  Sogyadaiba^^^^/^oiljf-  , t r a n s . , i n TSB, v o l . 2 , p. 6 7 7 .  6  "  '  " H i s m o r t a l i t y w i l l become n o t h i n g but n i r v a n a " s h o j i soku nehan J£.^L c - ]  7  l i t e r a l l y ,  "The b i r t h and death o f un-  e n l i g h t e n e d b e i n g s i s i n and of i t s e l f nirvana,"; a Mahayana n o t i o n , c f , note 4 o f the t e x t .  fundamental  See G h i g i , p. 6 .  7  "Two  d i s t i n c t methods which seemingly r u n c o u n t e r t o  each o t h e r " .lungyaku no kedd  "lI^j^L 4 tl J  :  a  method of g u i d -  ance which i s a d j u s t e d t o s u i t men  of v i r t u m a s w e l l as men  v i c e , c f , i n n e n n i gyaku.iun a r i ©  i ^ K ^ r f iJlJ^JC • • •  Chigi,  of pp.  4 8 - 5 9 .  g  The former case r e f e r s t o .jun'en '')f)^fi> "the f a t e i n  obedience", and l a t t e r case r e f e r s t o gyakuen '# >fv^_t "the f a t e i n See R y u j u ^ ^ j ^ f , Shaku maka enron  disobedience". B a t s u daimata  ^kj^^  , t r a n s . , i n TSD.  ^^'^t'k0\^,  v o l . 3 2 , p. 6 4 9  9  " S u t r a s and s a s t r a s " ;  r o n ^ & i s a sltstra  t  kyoVon^^h^ . K y j ^ ^ ^ i s a s u t r a ,  "a d o c t r i n a l  "The Western Mountains"  treatise". Nishiyama lip U-A : a  mountain  range s t r e t c h i n g from n o r t h t o s o u t h i n the western s e c t i o n o f Kyoto. 11 "The ^  35^.  Mount H i e i .  E a s t e r n Pagoda on the N o r t h e r n Peak" H o k u r e i Toto •  Hokurei o r the N o r t h e r n Peak i s a n o t h e r name f o r  Toto"  o r the E a s t e r n Pagoda i s the c e n t r a l tower o f  t h r e e main towers on Mount H i e i .  95  12  "The  /^^r^L*  I n s t i t u t e f o r Encouragement o f S t u d y " K a n g a k u - i n c o l l e g e a t t a c h e d t o a l a r g e temple.  a  Jeweled S p r i n g " Y u - c h ' u a n ^ ; J^_(Gyokusen i n S i n o -  "The  J a p . ) : the name o f a temple i n Tang-yang e s t a b l i s h e d by T ' i e n - t ' a i - t a - s h i h C h i h - i ^  ^ ,  China which  was  o J A ^ & J ^ ^ (Tendai  D a i s h i C h i g i , 5 3 8 - 5 9 7 ) i n 592. 14 "The F o u r D o c t r i n e s and t h e Three O u t l o o k s " S h i k y o Sangan ^ ^ ^ I A J -  D o c t r i n e t a u g h t by Shakyamuni i s d i v i d e d  T n e  f o u r c a t e g o r i e s and i s c a l l e d S h i k y o . Tendaigaku ^  £ ^  into  See Ando T o s h i o Bjr jfyjfc-  (Tokyo: H e i r a k u j i S h o t e n , 1 9 6 8 ) , pp.  81-111.  The Sangan ( o r S a n t a i .£=.  ) of the Tendai Sect a r e ;  i ) Ku ^  ; a l lexistence i s non-substantial,and void,  i i ) Ke/^fj  a l l e x i s t e n c e i s n o n - s u b s t a n t i a l , but i t n e v e r t h e l e s s has a i i i ) Chu rf> ; a l l e x i s t e n c e i s n e i t h e r  provisional reality,  v o i d n o r p r o v i s i o n a l l y r e a l , but t h e r e i s a t r u t h w h i c h t r a n scends t h i s d i c h o t o m y w h i c h i s none o t h e r t h a t h a t o f the m i d d l e way.  I b i d . , pp.  112-21. J-  15  Huang-shih kung  y£>  (OsekikS): the s p i r i t of a y e l *  l o w s t o n e w h i c h was rumored t o have been t h e o l d man Chang l i a n g ^ ^ ' ^ _ ( c  A^IlL  •  "  L i u  h o u  who  gave  -168BC) a t a c t i c s book by T * a i Kung-wang s h i i l  CKBT. v o l . 1 1 , p. 114.  c  M  a  "  ^  ^ ^ - ^ . S h i h cM  l^gj  , in  B u r t o n Watson, t r a n s . , R e c o r d s o f t h e  Grand H i s t o r i a n o f C h i n a (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ) , v o l . 1. p. 1 3 5 . " I n u n d a t i o n T a c t i c s " nosa £no h a k a r i g o t o j '^ftJT[j jTf" 3 H s i n J^I/fj^ (  :  H a n  - 196BC) damned up t h e Wei R i v e r ) ^ _ ) ^ \ w i t h t e n s  96 of thousands o f sand bags l a t e r removed of Lung Chu  ^^..SL was  crossing  l i e h chuan" 5  them when the army  downstream.  "Huai y i n hou  , i b i d . , i n CKBT', v o l . 12, p. 31.  Watson, p. 221. "Water-back  T a c t i c s " h a i s u i £no .jinj  ()  ft^l  : s e t t i n g up an  encampment b a c k i n g on the water i s dangerous because i n case o f a t t a c k t h e r e i s no way  t o escape.  Han H s i n , however, used  "Water-back T a c t i c s " and l a t e r e x p l a i n e d t o h i s r e t a i n e r s t h a t he b e l i e v e d h i s army would s u r v i v e i f p l a c e d i n t h i s f a t a l tion.  Ibid., ppv28-9.  Watson, pp. 215-7.  "The P h y s i c i a n o f S o u l s " l o Buddha. Mount  posi-  • a manifestation of  16 i s e n s h r i n e d i n the main h a l l o f E n r y a k u - j i on -  Hiei.  "The G u a r d i a n S p i r i t  o f the Mountain" Sannft  no Kami  i s e n s h r i n e d as Sann§.  i£. .  Omononushi  A l s o see note 61  of the i n t r o d u c t i o n . 17  $f\  4. %A  §L$gJk  Chochfr bobo fu.jin no soko s h i k k y a k u ayamatte shozu san.ju nen i z u r e no h i zo n i n g e n ei.joku no manako  ?i\  ^ k o s h o  i n r i n i kumo wo mite nemuru.  Ishiyamay^pJ.\ : a s e c t i o n o f fecture  (Shiga-ken yfy  %  ^$Jt)  •  frtsuX.?^-  n  Shiga Pre-  i s h i y a m a i s w e l l known because  of the temple c a l l e d Ishiyama-dera J^d\-^~ eighth century.  i  , built  i n the mid-  K e i k a i went t o t h i s temple.  19 "The r e a f f i r m a t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s d e v o t i o n * which would i n s t a n t l y a l l o w him t o a t t a i n supreme p e r f e c t wisdom" dfishin  97  © , fep ^ i ^ X ^ 4 / t L _  kengo, sokusho mu.jb b o d a i  /l^'C  R e f e r t o a s a n i dfrshin wo  okoseba, sunawachi j o b u t s u  wo  en  c f l f - ^ ^  mo  t a i s e t s u k o f u ky£ g  J i k u b u t s u n e n ^Jfyfe 20  »  ^  i n  B  o  s  a  t  s  #  surukoto  .iuto.jutsu teng6 ,jim-  u  tift*  '  , t r a n s . , i n TSD,  " C h e r r y t r e e " s a k u r a /fjjgj.  k i or a f l o w e r i n g t r e e appear. ways meant e i t h e r plum (ume  v o l . 12, p.  1036.  I n the t e x t , the words hana no  I n J a p a n nana o r f l o w e r has a l ) or cherry blossoms.  The  flower-  i n g t r e e i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s indeed a cherry t r e e ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , i n s e c t i o n e i g h t e e n o f the t a l e t h i s t r e e i s r e f e r r e d t o as a plum t r e e . "The  Emperor Wu"  Wu  f i f t h Emperor o f the Former "The  Incense  k£).  ( B u t e i , 157BC - 87BC): the Han.  o f R e t u r n i n g S o u l s " Fan hun h s i a n g J^jiy^^T  T h i s l e g e n d was made i n t o a poem e n t i t l e d " L i f u j e n " by Po C h i i - i .  See Haku K y o i , i n CSS,  "King Hsiang" Hsiang wangJ^jL (  (Hangon-  v o l . 12. pp.  ^  165-70. j§L  (Jo*6): a k i n g o f Chu  - 223BC).  "Mount Wu"  Wu  shan 7& ih  (Fuzan): a mountain in^tlte Province  i n China.  This legend i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a  Szuchuan |2D'l|  poem e n t i t l e d "Kao 223BC).  t'ang f u "  See, Monzen j ^ ) ^ ,  / | r ) ^ | ^ b y Sung Yu ^ _ 3 L ; i n KKT,  Bungaku 3,  pp.  of  (290BC -  1-2.  23 "The  Buddhist  means Buddhism. darkness  l i g h t " h o t t o liS%.  •  I n  t h i s case  hotto  B u d d h i s t t e a c h i n g sheds l i g h t on a l l b e i n g s i n  i n o r d e r t o l e a d them t o t h e pure l a n d s .  98  r  24 "The  M e r c i f u l Goddess" Kannon  dents o f Buddha.  The K a n n o n - f a i t h  S u t r a (Hokekyft in  ?  )  > :  o  n  e  o  two a t t e n -  f  became p o p u l a r when the Lotus  became widespread.  Kannon i s e n s h r i n e d  Ishiyama-dera. 2  5 ^ Mii-dera  -  Shogo-in  ^\TT~ '• another name f o r O n j o - j i .  T j " or H i t .  founded by E n c h i n ; c l o i s t e r s of 0 n j $ - j i .  one o f , t h e t h r e e  S i n c e 1613, Sh6*go-in has been a head-  q u a r t e r s f o r yamabushi (see note  59 o f the t e x t ) .  27 " I saw a house i n t h e d i s t a n c e w i t h f l o w e r s around i t . I made my way towards i t and e n t e r e d " haruka n i j i n k a wo mite hana areba sunawachi i r u j J i _ i L A ^ ^ K L / ^ L . T ^J<' part of :  a poem by Po O h i i - i . it  T h i s poem i s well-known t o Japanese because  i s i n c l u d e d i n Wakan r S e i shu.  I n NKBT, v o l . 73, p. 76.  28  _ He i s wearing a type o f j a c k e t , s u i k a n 7 T V " j  -  ,  "water-dry".  The  term s u i k a n may have been g i v e n t o t h i s garment f o r one o f  two  reasons:  e i t h e r i ) t h e m a t e r i a l o f the j a c k e t was f u l l e d  without u s i n g s t a r c h , o r i i ) s u i k a n was worn d u r i n g b o a t i n g p l a y . "A p a l e r e d under d r e s s " u s u - k u r e n a i  no akome 7 j& i j _  c o l o r under d r e s s was u s u a l l y worn by those i n t h e i r  . This lowteens;  however, among h i g h r a n k i n g n o b l e s , t h i s c o l o r was even worn by highteens. 29 guru ame n i nurutomo oran yamazakura kumo no k a e s h i no kaze mo koso f u k e .  99 30 The  football field  each c o r n e r : a c h e r r y t r e e t r e e a t t h e south-east  i s marked w i t h f o u r t r e e s one a t at the north-east  corner, a willow  c o r n e r , a maple t r e e a t t h e south-west  c o r n e r and a p i n e t r e e a t t h e north-west c o r n e r .  These t r e e s  are r e f e r r e d t o as k a k a r i ft -fl y Miru  a k i n d o f t u f t y seaweed; Codium F r a g i l e .  The word m i r u was o f t e n used t o d e s c r i b e b e a u t i f u l  raven-colored  locks. 32 Kore ya.yume a r i s h i y a u t s u t s u waki-kanete i z u r e n i mayou kokoro 33  naruran. r^Uf  " A bamboo s c r e e n " n u k i s u g) .3g- .  The p a i l i n t o which  hand-washing water was poured was covered w i t h a n u k i s u . prevented  the water from s p l a s h i n g .  Umewaka it^Jfa '35  It  ' literally  " y o u n g r l i k e a .plum!'*  "' • "Hanazono, the M i n i s t e r o f the L e f t " Hanazono no S a d a i j i n  /f^L^\  ) Tx-%J&-  i n the north-western  •  Hanazono, "Flower garden", was a p l a c e name p a r t o f Heiankyo.  The mansions o f s u c c e s -  s i v e M i n i s t e r s o f the L e f t were l o c a t e d t h e r e . u s u a l t o r e f e r t o people  o f h i g h rank by t h e i r  I t was q u i t e  1  address.  " T h i s f l o w e r i n g t r e e " i c h i b o k u no hana m e t a p h o r i c a l l y Umewaka. 37  A  "The  yfp./k*  r e a r window" s h i n s o  T h i s word i s s t i l l  used t o d e s c r i b e a youth ( e s p e c i a l l y a g i r l ) o f a good f a m i l y , brought up w i t h t e n d e r e s t  care.  100  K e i j u 7t%^  39  .  S h i r a s e b a y a honomishi hana no omokage n i t a c h i s o u kumo  no mayou kokoro  wo.  " T e a r s o f b l o o d " k e t s u r u i J j Q _ : an e x p r e s s i o n which describes b i t t e r tears.  T h i s phrase i s supplemented  by the  t r a n s l a t o r i n o r d e r - t o make the meaning o f the sentence t o the r e a d e r .  clear  I n the o r i g i n a l t e x t , i t i s w r i t t e n t h a t , "the  c o l o r o f t h e s l e e v e had a l r e a d y become r e d " (sode no i r o mohaya j g_  kurenai ^ "One term was  ^.yv-^/vX-  who  ).  had renounced  the w o r l d " shusse  this  used t o r e f e r t o sons o f n o b l e f a m i l i e s who  monks on Mount  became  Hiei.  42 Tanomazu yo h i t o no kokoro no hana no i r o n i adanaru kumo no k a k a r u mayoi  wa.  Sakamoto T^.JtK. • & town l o c a t e d a t the e a s t e r n f o o t Mount H i e i .  There are many l o d g e s f o r monks i n Sakamoto.  are used by those h e a d i n g f o r o r l e a v i n g Mount H i e i . note 61 o f the 44  See  of They  also  introduction.  Totsu f  : the name o f a p l a c e l o c a t e d between Saka>-  moto and 0 n j 6 - j i .  Sakamoto and Onjo"-ji a r e about  seven  kilo-  : a c i t y i n Shiga P r e f e c t u r e .  Onjo-ji i s  meters a p a r t . 45  A  Otsu  located i n t h i s  city.  101 46  I t s u w a r i no a m  yo wo s h i r a d e tanomiken waga kokoro  sae urameshi no mi y a . 47  "The  Great B r i g h t S p i r i t  ^frffj?^ /^&r\fc^  ^ o f S h i n r a " S h i n r a D a i Myo.jin  : the g u a r d i a n s p i r i t  of 0nj6-ji.  This  spirit  i s b e l i e v e d t o be e i t h e r a f o r e i g n god o r Susan& no Mikoto ^L-^Sdxf-  »  a  s  o  no Mikoto $ 3in  n  o  f  I  z  ft\^j  a  n  a  S  i  n  0  Mikoto 1^ ^J0b  and Izanami  » t h e c r e a t o r s o f Japan.  S h i n r a D a i Myfr-  was e n s h r i n e d by E n c h i n , t h e r e s t o r e r o f O n j o - j i . 48 "The  c h i e f abbot" monshu  a son o f an I m p e r i a l  p r i n c e o r a h i g h r a n k i n g noble who became t h e head o f a c l o i s t e r , "The  Chinese  s t y l e fence" karakaki  ' a plastered  w a l l which e n c l o s e d b u i l d i n g s . 50 "A f i s h - h e a d l a n t e r n " gyono no t o r o The  /^.f[^jX^Xj  , >  *  c a r t i l a g e o f a f i s h - h e a d was b o i l e d u n t i l i t became t r a n s -  parent.  I t was t h e n used a s t h e globe  " I l l u m i n a t e d by glowing a metaphorical  o f a lamp.  f i r e - f l i e s " h o t a r u wo tomosu |j£ j  e x p r e s s i o n d e s c r i b i n g a gloomy, b l u i s h  '  light.  51 A male had h i s h a i r t i e d up f o r the f i r s t coming o f age ceremony (Gembuku "An  time a t h i s  7X^$$^_)»  autumn c i c a d a wing" a k i no semi ftio h a n e j ffi^  j  Japanese f i n d beauty w i t h i n evanescence, i . e . , t h e b r i e f of  ' life  a cicada. "Eyebrows which resembled moth f e e l e r s " g a b i $R^J^\ :  b e a u t i f u l l y arched  eyebrows.  T h i s i s a c o n v e n t i o n a l phrase o f  102  b o t h Japanese and Chinese l i t e r a t u r e . beautiful  Gabi a l s o r e f e r s t o a  face.  53 " I t was a s though a node had a t l a s t formed i n a young bamboo" s h i n o no ozasa no h i t o f u s h i n i  j  ) —  T h i s phrase i s used t o e x p r e s s t h e e x t e n t o f t h e i r l o n g i n g .  The  phrase can be t r a n s l a t e d a n o t h e r way because t h e word s h i n o a l s o r e f e r s t o s h i n o b u jp. ,  "to act secretly".  t  means " l y i n g down ($>/0". be a mistake i n the t e x t .  T  n  e  The word f u s h i  i n c l u s i o n o f "a l e t t e r "  also must  " L e t t e r " has t o be r e p l a c e d w i t h  "a node". 54 Waga sode n i y a d o s h i y a h a t e n k i n u g i n u no namlda n i wake s h i a r i a k e no tsuki!... 55 Tomo n i m i s h i t s u k i wo n a g o r i no sode no t s u y u harawade i k u y o n a g e k i akasan. 56 "The Three M i n i s t e r s " s a n d a i ^ the M i n i s t e r o f t h e L e f t (Udai.jin J^jj  Right daijin  |£]  ffi  ( o r sankS* 5.  )'  (Sadai.lin J^C-j\_ lUt-. ) t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e ) and the Keeper o f t h e P r i v y S e a l ( N a i -  )<J&J.  "The n i n e C h a n c e l l o r s " kyukyoku  ( o r kugyo  n o b l e s w i t h any grade h i g h e r t h a n t h i r d c o u r t rank  ^ j ? ): c o u r t (sammi  i n c l u d i n g sanko". 57  > Karasaki^jjZ  J^f:  a s p i t i n Lake Biwa (Biwa-ko  ^£  K a r a s a k i i s l o c a t e d about t h r e e k i l o m e t e r s from Sakamoto and about f o u r k i l o m e t e r s from OnjS'-ji. 58 . "Long-nosed  g o b l i n " tengu.  See note 1 9 o f t h e i n t r o -  ).  103 duction. "Mountain a s c e t i c " Yamabushi w i t h e i t h e r the Tendai  They are  o r the Shingqn Sect  They do not "believe i n s t u d y i n g Buddhist  affiliated gL  r%)•  Instead  they  (Shingon-shu  doctrines.  d w e l l i n the mountains and undergo r e l i g i o u s e x e r c i s e s t h e r e . T h e i r major c e n t e r i s l o c a t e d i n the Omine Range fef^ I x ^ v  , Mie  i n Kumano  P r e f e c t u r e (Mie-ken ^ . ^ F j j j k ' ) .  '~J  ....  t  "A f o u r - s i d e d p a l a n q u i n " s h i h S g o s h i tfE> "jfiV^; : e i t h e r w i t h bamboo of  b l i n d s or with a pyramidal s i x men.  I f i t was  t o be  roof.  I t was  borne by a group  c a r r i e d a great distance s i x or  twelve men f o l l o w e d i n o r d e r t o take t u r n s c a r r y i n g i t . 60 "Mount Shaka i n the Omine Range" Omine no Shaka ga dake A  yCjfp" ^ ^ / ^ J ^ .  H"  *  T  h  e  0m  k i l o m e t e r s south o f K a r a s a k i .  i r i e  See a l s o note  Higashi-Sakamoto ^  50  Range i s l o c a t e d about 57  o f the  text.  a p l a c e name; l o c a t e d i n the  e a s t e r n p a r t o f Sakamoto. Sanj6-Kyogoku jEL ijjb^^$?L* /  the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Sanj"o and  s t r e e t names.  The  a r e a around  Nishi-Kyogoku  "West Kyo-  goku", i s c a l l e d Hanazono. Mansions r e f e r r e d t o as s h i n d e n - z u k u r i ^ ^ j j j p _  w  e  r  e  commonly owned by I m p e r i a l f a m i l i e s and h i g h r a n k i n g n o b l e s . "Samaya commandments" Sammaya-kai r u l e s must be ceive f u l l enable  s t r i c t l y observed  by monks who  f*^$p\  These  are seeking; t o r e -  o r d i n a t i o n (Dembfr k a n . i o * / ( ^ - ^ ^ / y / ^ ) which  them t o become h i g h monks of e s o t e r i c Buddhism  will (A.jari  104  T^TWH yijL,  ) • S h u g o k o k k a i s h u d a r a n i kyS  i n TSD, "The  ^ j f lS&  ft  k l ^ J f U ^  v o l . 19,p N y o i g o e ^p^^j^^  Nyoigoe Pass"  Mount H i e i a n d O n j ' S - j i .  - a pass between  T h e r o u t e v i a N y o i g o e t o O n j o - j i i s r.  s h o r t e r t h a n t h e t r i p v i a Sakamoto. 66 See  t h e second p a r t o f c h a p t e r  three  o f the i n t r o d u c t i o n ,  page 2 5 • 67  , . "The  d a y o f t h e monkey" s a r u no h i f  sexagenary c y c l e , combinations and  the twelve  -j"  S a r u no h i o c c u r s ,  s a r u no h i o f t h e  I n the  ) were u s e d t o d e n o t e  y e a r , month a n d day a s w e l l a s d i r e c t i o n s . .  though the  .  o f the t e n stems ( j i k k a n "j" ' j " )  branches ( j u n i s h i  ninth unit of junishi.  >0  Saru  (monkey) i s t h e  every  twelth. day a l -  same s t e m o c c u r s , o n l y e v e r y  sixty  days. I t w a s b e l i e v e d t h a t Sanno* s m e s s e n g e r was a m o n k e y . 1  Shrine the  f e s t i v a l w a s h e l d when t h e d a y o f t h e monkey f e l l  second t e n days o f the f o u r t h month. S h i g a - K a r a s a k i : a place "The  gods. fight  d i v i n e water" Shinsui  Just before  during-;  name.  y]C_' w a t e r p l a c e d  before  a b a t t l e w a r r i o r s d r a n k o f i t a n d swore t o  bravely.  "Around f o u r o ' c l o c k " i n the  The H i e  morning.  goko J L W  > from three t o f i v e  o'clock  105 70 "The literally exists.  liDiN^)  deepest p a r t of the  _ . e a r t h " s u i r i n z a i A^9fay%' •  the a r e a where the water wheel ( s u i r i n I t was  7l<jf$fo )  "believed t h a t t h e r e were f o u r wheels  beneath the  earth.  S u i r i n i s one  of the  (shirin  four.  71 These a r e s u b o r d i n a t e  temples b e l o n g i n g  to three  the main tower i . e . , the E a s t e r n Tower (Tbt6* ^ J 2 ^ ) , e r n Tower ( S a i t  and  Yokawa A « P "  towers:  the West-  .  72 T h i s passage d e s c r i b e s those d e f e n d i n g 35 o f the i n t r o d u c t i o n f o r f u r t h e r  Onjo-ji.  See  page  information.  73 "Had and  s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e i r f a i t h t o s o l i d r o c k and  metal,  had made t h e i r l i v e s as l i g h t as d u s t " g i wo k i n s e k i n i /^^y^D  h i s h i i n o c h i wo .jinkai n i karuku s h i t e ^  ^ - ^ i .  9 ^"T  c h i v a l r y and b r a v e r y "The  ''  a  con  ' ^^ ' l ven  0  n:a  z~  phrase which expresses  is the  of w a r r i o r s .  V-shaped moat" yagen-boridjj)*ffit -rfc.  Yagen i s a boat-  shaped chemist's m o r t a r . 75  , ,. "Reckoning b l o c k s " san [jgij j*} L/^J s m a l l wooden b l o c k s which were used f o r the f o u r o p e r a t i o n s o f a r i t h m e t i c . 76 :  " S i x meters". been ni-.jo 7  high.  7  "To \1D  I n the Japanese t e x t i t i s s a i d to have  f o u r c o r n e r s and  f\ / \~%  E a s t , and  i n e i g h t d i r e c t i o n s " s h i k a k u happo,  , Shikaku denotes North, West, South  and  happfl denotes North-West,. South-West, South-East  106 and North-East and i n a d d i t i o n , shikaku» "Incessant Buddhist invocation" jfigyo" zammai ^fl'f c f . hyakunichi no gy$<3o  note 54 of the i n t r o d u c t i o n .  r  *  Chigi,  p. 12. 79 "The h a l l where prayear f o r prolongation of l i f e were offered" Fugen gySgan no Nyoho-do  ^  ^  >f J /J|f jJjfri rtk^j  The bodhisattva Fugen made ten vows to save a l l l i v i n g beings. These vows are r e f e r r e d to as Fugen gy6gan. bon" ^^{y^fyoo # ^ J C r £  A  t i n Daihftkobutsu kegon gyo 40 kan bon J  ^fJ^Jk  ( S h i ^ Kegon gy£  Hannya 4^£jf§> , trans., i n TSD, ral  ;.'-v, sense,  life".  "K ~k  jfjgrjtg),  v o l . 10, pp. 844-51.  In a gene-  Fugen gy&gan i s understood as "prolongation of  See emmeih.6* J?j£_^? 7-£. i n I s s a i shonyoraishin kSmyo k a j i  Fugen Bosatsu emmei kongo" saish£ darani kyS trans., i n TSD, 80  See "Fugen gyogan  v o l . 20, p.  * ** K y o j i r)KX^  —  ^e^'jto  ^  /CLT  578.  A  1  a  m  o  n  k  rumored to have l i v e d i n O n j $ - j i .  When Enchin, the r e s t o r e r of O n j o - j i , v i s i t e d the temple f o r the f i r s t time, he met the one hundred and sixty-two year o l d monk, K y o j i . 81  j. #|f^&p  "The great teacher Chisho*" Chisho Daishi ^  :  Enchin's posthumous name. 82 "Shirakawa children's throwing-stone Shirakawa hoko no s o r a i n j i  (2> 'I) yfv. 3  competitions" £J7£tJL  #  Shirakawa  i s the area between Higashiyama and the Kamo River (Kamo-gawa ^Jzg ilj ) i n the northern part of Kyoto.  See page 31 of the  107 introduction.  84 "Sacred p a l a n q u i n s  c a r r i e d by the monks o f the Sammon  Denomination and the Nanto" Sammon Nanto no  ffilffi jfaf f^fjfcj  mikoshiburi  t^Ljrfafj-  Nanto denotes K 6 f u k u - j i  i n Nara.  When t h e i r r e q u e s t s were- i g n o r e d monks of Mount H i e i and Kttfukuji  o f t e n rushed  t o Kyoto w i t h t h e i r s a c r e d p a l a n q u i n s  t o p r e s e n t d i r e c t p e t i t i o n s t o the Throne. Heike monogatari, kan 1, pp.  i n NOT,  v o l . 32,  See  i n order  "Mikoshiburi"  pp. 1 3 4 - 6 .  Sadler,  27-9. 85 "The  gosan no  Mond6~ of the f i v e major Zen temples i n Kyoto"  Jx^d-\  so no monto-date  gosan a r e T e n r y u - j i yK^^.-^J' Jl_/^  t S&coku-ji  » T6fuku-ji |?^J>^-  5y  J P^jflfc_3L-*  The  Kyoto  » Kennin-ji  and M a n j u - j i ^  a l l b e l o n g t o the R i n z a i S e c t .  .  Monto-date  ^  •  They  can mean e i t h e r  " q u e s t i o n s and answers" (mondo" ?o\Js^ ) o r "the s t r u g g l e ; f o r power among b e l i e v e r s " .  See  page 31  o f the i n t r o d u c t i o n .  86 U-karekeru h a j i M l - i d e r a no A - r i s a m a ya K A - i wo t e ne wo  nomizo naku.  The  tsukuri-  hero o f the t a l e , Umewaka i s i n c l u d e d  i n the v e r s e as U-MI-A-KA.  87 "The  P r o v i n c e of A w a j i " Awa.ji no k u n i J*J /$L  the I s l a n d of A w a j i  (Awaji-shima  J 1^1  :  ^^^7).  " I n t e n d i r e c t i o n s " .jippo -|- -j^ : upwards, downwards and  happo.  A  8 9  "The  Dragon God"  Gods (Hachibushu / \H?J/$l  *u~i±  Ryuj i n iagJff'; one ) of Buddhism.  of the E i g h t  The  esoteric  Guardian  sects  108 b e l i e v e t h a t R y u 3 i n b r i n g s c l o u d s and r a i n .  It i s interest-  i n g t o note t h a t the Sanno o f Hie S h r i n e i s Omononushi no Kami and  t h a t h i s t r u e shape i s t h a t of a t i n y snake o r dragon.  " S u j i n Tenn6" 67, p. 246.  ^jU^TJ^L Nihon  shoki  Q jfc^fitL  William Aston,.trans., Nihongi  T u t t l e Co.,  1972), pp.  "The  i n NKBT, v o l .  (Tokyo: C h a r l e s  Garden o f the Goddess? S p r i n g " Shinsen-en ffi M  (774 - 835),  the f o u n d e r  founded.  &  Since  of the Shingon S e c t ,  :  Kukai  offered  p r a y e r s f o r r a i n t h e r e , i t became a p o p u l a r p l a c e t o h o l d ceremonies.  E.  158-9.  a R o y a l park c o n s t r u c t e d when Heiankyfr was ^  t  See  such  T h i s park i s l o c a t e d i n Nakagyo-ku, K y o t o .  91 Wagami sate shizumi-mo hateba f u k a k i - s e no soko made t e r a s e yama no ha no t s u k i .  c f , K u r a k i y o r i k u r a k i m i c h i n i zo  i r i n u b e k i h a r u k a n i t e r a s e yama no ha no t s u k i by Izumi S h i k i b u ^jfcjfc^  . Shui shfc i n KT,  p.  92  80. j.  Bridge of Set a ""JS e t). a noTheh a ssource hi J^§^r i v e r i s S e t a R i v "The e r (Seta-gawa Eg) o f9q the :  at the s o u t h e r n end (Uji-gawa  ^ffe\\\  of Lake Biwa.  o  n  t  h  e  T h i s r i v e r j o i n s the U j i R i v e r  ).  93 "A kan no with  d i v i d e d s k i r t b e l o n g i n g t o a f i n e s i l k garment"  shimo / l C " t "  J  "f-  :  sui-  a p a i r of h a k a m a ^ ^ which are worn  suikan.  94  J,  "The  Rapids of Gugo" Gugo no se ^#M]]  )/f£^  ' about  f o u r k i l o m e t e r s downstream from the B r i d g e o f S e t a .  95 "Brahma, I n d r a , and  Gods of Heaven and E a r t h " Bonten,  109 T a i s h a k u . Ten.iin. C h i g i ^J^J^J^ the  c r e a t o r god o f the u n i v e r s e .  » ^ / f e•  Bontent  Bonten i s one o f two  T a i s h a k u j^tenj : a n o t h e r t u t e l a r y  t u t e l a r y gods o f Buddhism. god.  v^ffi  T a i s h a k u r e c e i v e s r e p o r t s about the moral c o n d i t i o n s o f  a l l b e i n g s from the Pour Q u a r t e r K i n g s (Shitenrio" Ten.iin: gods who i n h a b i t t h e heavens,  OP^L^^)*  c f . Amatsu-kami  " ~  ;  <  C h i g i : gods who a r e i n charge o f the l a n d , c f . K u n i t s u - k a m i jj^  96 "There i s no case i n which a blossom once  1  scattered  from a bough blooms anew" r a k k a eda wo . j i s h i t e n i d o saku n a r a i ?  naku  -> 7  e n t i t l e d "Lo h u a " ^ - / ^  - A -  I ^ T J  by Po C h i i - i .  " c f . t h e poem  Wakan r o e i shu, h a r u . i n  NKBT. v o l . 73, p. 79. 97 "Those  eyes which had once shown a hundred  coquettish  e x p r e s s i o n s whenever he s m i l e d " i c h i d o emeba hyaku no k o b i a r i s h i manako ty$J£^  —  ^  ^ J<  & )  ji)  >/B%^ » i . e . , —  §  : from t h e poem e n t i t l e d "Ch'ang hen k e " ^ / ^ l C by Po  Chu-i. 98 period. 99  CSS, v o l . 13, p. 93. T o r i b e n o ^ j ^ ^ j ' : a crematorium used d u r i n g the Heian I t was l o c a t e d i n the e a s t e r n suburb o f Heiankyo". "A b l a c k r o b e " sumizome ^ - 7 ^  : a monk wears a b l a c k  robe when he performs s e r v i c e s f o r h i s own sake. 100 "Iwakura S ? ^ )^hyW>C •  on the Western Mountain" Nishiyama no Iwakura Iwakura i s the a r e a a t the western f o o t o f Mount  H i e i ; the n o r t h - e a s t suburb o f Kyoto.  110 101  (  "Mount K$ya" Koya-san fc) f^d\  . The h e a d q u a r t e r s of the  7  Shingon Sect are l o c a t e d h e r e ,  n\%$r  ia816  K u k a i e s t a b l i s h e d Kong6l)u-ji JILL  -  102 "A s e r v i c e which c o u l d be compared t o the o r d e r i n g of the Buddhist d e l i c a c i e s " homai^c 0 ^  .  m i l k , b u t t e r and ghee are c a l l e d h6mai.  M i l k , cream, c u r d l e d The Buddhist  service  5  i s metaphorically r e f e r r e d t o as the p r o c e s s by which m i l k i s made i n t o ghee. 103 "Faded p i n k garments" t a i k S  T • worn by low r a n k i n g  servants. 104 "The  rite  of d r i n k i n g t o each o t h e r ' s h e a l t h " kempai  105 The f i r s t  I m p e r i a l s a n c t i o n was  i s s u e d on the f o u r t e e n t h  day of the f i f t h month of the second y e a r of 0ho*kyu"SL^C (1041). The Emperor Gosuzaku/jjP_%>$JL  (  1 0 0 9  ~  1C>  45) consulted delega-  t i o n s from a l l Buddhist s e c t s abut whether 0nj6**-ji s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d t o b u i l d an o r d i n a t i o n p l a t f o r m .  Everyone  except the  monks from Mount H i e i agreed t o the s u g g e s t i o n o f the Emperor. See Hyaku rensho i n (SZ)KT, v o l . 11, p.  21.  106 "An expedient a c t designed t o b l e s s a l l l i v i n g - b e i n g s " r i s h 6 hoben'  ji\ £j£$tV  Hokke g i s h o  ^  ^&fc  H^ben: see "Ho*ben bon"  , Kichizo  4$JSb  , comp., i n TSD,  pp. 482-51!-. 107 R e f e r t o note 7 and 8 of the t e x t .  , in  v o l . 34,  Ill 108 "Thanking Buddha w h i l e i n v o l v e d i n the v i c i s s i t u d e s o f life  s t i l l has an aspect  sh6metsu no so* nakaranya r y > .  o f b i r t h and death" u i no h6~butsu a n i 7% J^.  ) -fjj^  %.  ^  j ^  f  ft  T h i s sentence i n f e r s t h a t such deeds as t h e b u i l d i n g  o f temples and the c o p y i n g o f s u t r a s do n o t a l l o w men t o g a i n enlightenment. of  Only t r u e p i e t y  enables  one t o r e a c h the  stage  nirvana. 109  ^ "An  expedient  for salvation"  \  % ) JJA^z  s a i d o no hoben  110 Mukashi m i s h l t s u k i no h i k a r i wo s h i r u b e n i t e k o y o i y a k i m i ga n i s h i e yukuran. 1  1  (1180 -  The ex-Emperor Gotoba  1  1239).  112 "A man o f v i r t u r e w i l l not remain a l o n e , he w i l l  soon  others'* Toku wa ko n a r a z u k a n a r a z u t o n a r i a r i ^f-^y^"" " ^ { ^  attract ' X j ^ f ^  *  a  q u o t a t i o n from "Pa i p i e n " )  Lun-yu ^ ^ ^ ^ * »  i n CKBT, v o l . 3 , p. 22. 113 "The  : guardians See  o f those who chant  Juo.io Amidabukkoku gyo  prayears ^  t o Ami da Buddha  3 ^ ^ - ^ ® ^  >  1  9  °  (Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Committee on the P h o t o g r a p h i c cation  o f a C o n t i n u a t i o n t o t h e Buddhist  zo kyo,"  J=--T3-%"  twenty-five bodhisattvas" nijugo bosatsu  v o l . 87, p. 292b.  5  ;  r  p  t  -'  Publi-  T r i p i t a k a , l^i-fj),  "Zoku  112  TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS  CKBT:  Ghugoku k o t e n bungaku t a i k e i .  CSS:  Chugoku s h i j i n senshu.  DNBZ:  Dai  (S)GR:  (Shinkd) Gunsho  KBS:  K i n s e i bungei sosho.  KET:  Kokuyaku Kambun t a i s e i .  KT:  Kokka t a i k a n .  MK2:  Meisaku k a b u k i zenshu.  MZH:  Mikan z u i h i t s u  NKBT:  Nihon k o t e n bungaku t a i k e i .  NMZ:  Nihon meicho  N2T:  Nihon z u i h i t s u t a i s e i .  SGR:  S h i n gunsho  (Z)'ST:  (Zoho) S h i r y o t a i s e i .  TB:  T e i k o k u bunko.  TSD:  T a i s h 3 shinshu. D a i z o k y o .  YT:  Yokyoku  ZGR:  Zoku gunsho  Nihon Bukkyo zensho. ruiju.  hyakushu.  zenshu.  ruiju.  taikan. ruiju.  113  BIBLIOGRAPHY Abidatsuma dai bibasha ron %$~?)fifa . Trans. Genjo ^ tjf, Tokyo: Taisho Issaikyd Kank6-kai, 1926. "Taisho shinshu Daiz6ky6""," v o l . 27. Aki no yo no naga-monogatari ;^L.-^<: 7^?*i»(l377). In Otogi zoshi ft y»P Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1958. "Nihon koten bungaku t a i k e i , " v o l . 38. (1642). Tokyo: Naigai Shoseki K. K., 1928. "(ShinkS) Gunsho r u i j u , " v o l . 14. AndS Toshio Tendaigaku: Rompon shiso to sono tenkai 'JUPfl • y ° H e i r a k u j i Shoten, 1968. ' Ansen waka shu Tokyo: Zoku Gunsho Ruiju Kanko-kai, .1931. "Zoku gunsho r u i j u V " 4th ed., v o l . 14;1. T o k  :  Azuma kagami%r ^r^j» 52 kan (missing kan 45). Tokyo: Kokushi T a i k e i Kank^-kai, 1932-3. " ( S h i n t e i z6ho) Kokushi t a i k e i , " v o l . 32-3. A chronicle edited by the Kamakura Bakufu. Coverage i s from 1180 to 1266. The f i r s t chronicle completed by members of the warrior c l a s s . Bosatsu j u t o j u t s u tengo jimmo t a i s e t s u k&fu kyo" ^WOftW^SL Jfr/J^S***1 shptai ^ Jg- ihJ^r/ro n'ans. Jikubutsunen *£_ ify <£u. Tokyo: Taisho I s s a i kyd KinkS-kai, 1925. "TaishS shinshu DaizSkyo*-," v o l . 12. B r a z e l l , Karen. "Towazu g a t a r i : Autobiography of a Kamakura Court Lady." Harvard Journal o_f A s i a t i c Studies. 31, 1971, pp. 220-33. Chigiif Maka shikan yfe Jk.M.. Tokyo: TaishS Issaikyo" Kank6**-kai, 1927. "Taisho" shinshu* DaizoTcyoV' v o l . 46. Chikamatsu Monzaemon i i L %P*k P®\ JJJL^P^ . Futago Sumidagawa |£ *fif"D \£> 'lI . In Chikamatsu meisaku shu"", ge'. Tokyo: Njhon Meicho Zenshti Kanko-kai, 1927. "Nihon meicho zenshu," Edo bungei no bu 5. Chfiu k i ^ f e ( o r Chfiyu k i , Nakau k i ) . Fujiwara M u n e t a d a ^ f t ^ • fa-f£f Kyoto: Nozomikawa Shoten, 1965. "(Z6"ho) Shiryff x a i s e i , " • v o l . 9-11. The diary of Munetada, the M i n i s t e r of the Right. Coverrage i s from 1087 to 1138. rr  Daih$k6butsu kegon gyo: 4.0 kan bon X_ >5V^M# ^MgL^z., w=> * & jf^ (or S h i j u kegon gyo** xp-r ). Trans. Hannya Jik. $3- .Tokyo: Taisho Issaikyo Kankc^-kai, 1927. TaishS shinshu DaizSky*," v o l . 40.  Dai Nihon .jiin sfrran & J^^ltfcj^J^ . Comp. Hori Yoshizo vt? . 2 v o l s . 1916; r p t . Tokyo: Meicho Kanko"-kai, 1966. :  114 Fuboku waka shS %L %o-^tJ^$f . Gorap. F u j i w a r a Nagakiyo l ^ y ^ L • Tokyo: Kokusho K a n k 6 - k a i , 1 9 0 6 . 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"Nihon k o t e n bungaku t a i k e i , " v o l . 3 2 - 3 . Kitagawa H i r o s h i , and T s u c h i d a , Bruce, t r a n s . The T a l e o f the" H e i k e : Heike monogatari. Tokyo: U n i v e r s i t y o f Tokyo Press, 1975• S a d l e r , A., t r a n s . "The Heike M o n o g a t a r i . " T r a n s a c t i o n s o f the A s i a t i c S o c i e t y o f Japan. 4 6 , 2 ( 1 9 1 8 ) , pp. 1 - 2 7 8 ; 4 9 , T T 1 9 2 1 J , pp. 1 - 3 5 4 .  Hirasawa Goro - ^ " r f ^ . " A k i no yo no naga-monogatari, ( j o k u ) : Dempon k a i d a i n a r a b i n i h o n ' i n sanshu" %X. $L^t. WD*k. C*\)^ W ^' .* e ^ . ShidS Bunko ronshu $lr •mlL > (1963), PP. 2 9 1 - 3 ^ 7 " ^ . ... _ A k i no yo no^naga-monogatari k6" #C t^^fty^ Shidfr Bunko r o n s h u . 3 1 1 9 6 4 ) . P P . 2 2 7 - 9 8 . 2  ,T  Honcho bunshu ^ jjft . Ed. Mito-han A<^f . 8 0 kan. Tokyo: K o k u s h i T a i k e i Kank6*-kai, 1 9 3 8 . " ( S h i n t e i z6ho) K o k u s h i taikei," v o l . 30. Honcho kSsfr den $j ff & . Comp. Mangen S h i b a n JU 7L 4 £ . 75 kan. Tokyo: Bussho Kank6"-kai, 1 9 1 3 . " D a i Nihon Bukkyd zensho," v o l . 1 0 2 - 3 . The b i o g r a p h i e s o f 1 , 6 6 2 Japanese Buddhist monks. Completed i n 1 7 0 2 . Hyaku rensho" IS ^ r . 1 7 kan ( m i s s i n g f i r s t 3 ) . Tokyo: K o k u s h i T a i k e i Kank$-kai, 1 9 2 9 . " ( S h i n t e i z&Tio) K o k u s h i t a i k e i , " v o l . 11, A c h r o n i c l e . Coverage i s from the r e i g n o f Emperoar R e i z e i > ^ J R L ( 9 6 7 - 9 6 9 ) t o the r e i g n o f Emperor Gofukakusa & ( 1 2 4 6 - 1 2 5 9 ) . The l a s t p a r t seems t o be the comp i l e r ' s d i a r y . An important h i s t o r i c a l document o f the • Imperial Court.  115  Ichiko T e i j i  £ |>. ^ . Chuko, shosetsu no kenkyu (f> £ /I-jfea . 3rd ed. Tokyo: Tokyo Daigaku Shuppan-kai, 1962.  Iroha j i r u i sho 4T%-,lL^$&$T . Masamune Atsuo IE ^ , ed. Tokyo: Kazama Shobo, 1965. 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"Taisho" shinshix Daizo*ky6%" v o l . 2.  

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Ashburn 8 0
New York 8 1
Rock Hill 7 0
Montreal 6 2
Shenzhen 5 28
Irvine 5 1
Mountain View 4 0
Anaheim 4 0
Penza 4 0
London 4 0

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