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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The rise and fall of the United Housing Foundation : a case study of a cooperative housing resource group Cull, Elizabeth 1976

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THE  RISE  AND  F A L L  OF A  A  THE  UNITED  CASE  COOPERATIVE  STUDY  HOUSING  HOUSING  FOUNDATION  OF  RESOURCE  GROUP  by E L I Z A B E T H B . A . ,  A  THESIS THE  Y o r k  SUBMITTED  CULL  U n i v e r s i t y ,  IN  REQUIREMENTS  PARTIAL FOR  MASTER  THE  OF  197^  FULFILLMENT DEGREE  OF  OF  ARTS  i n THE S c h o o l  We  FACULTY  of  Community  a c c e p t t o  THE  OF  t h i s  t h e  GRADUATE and  UNIVERSITY  OF  May,  ©  R e g i o n a l  t h e s i s  r e q u i r e d  E l i z a b e t h  STUDIES  as  P l a n n i n g  c o n f o r m i n g  s t a n d a r d  B R I T I S H  COLUMBIA  1976  C u l l ,  1976  In  presenting  this  thesis  an advanced degree at the I  Library shall  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  make  it  British  freely available  that permission  for  the requirements  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  for  financial  i s understood gain s h a l l  that  not  copying or  that  study. thesis  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department It  for  or  publication  be allowed without my  permission.  Deoartment  of  G r a d u a t e  S t u d i e s ,  H  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of  representatives. thesis  in' p a r t i a l  M a y 5,  1976  Columbia  S c h o o l  o f  Community & R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g  ABSTRACT  The  U n i t e d  H o u s i n g  F o u n d a t i o n  (UHF)  p r o v i d e  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ,  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ,  h o u s i n g  c o o p e r a t i v e s  B r i t i s h  F o u n d a t i o n t h r o u g h s k i l l s  was  the  h i t h e r t o  a  u n i o n  i n g  a  v i n c e .  f u n d e d  s u c c e s s  u n i t s was  and of  e v e n t s  t h e  who  c o o p e r a t i v e s  g r o u p s y e a r s  a u s p i c e s  of  b u r e a u c r a c y  by  t o  a  and i n  t h e  UHF  grew  the  c r e d i t  c a p a b l e  b i t t e r  c h a r g e d t o  t h e  of  p r o -  t h e  a n d  c o n f l i c t  w i t h  c o o p e r a t i v e s  s u b s e q u e n t  f i n a l  b e -  o r g a n i z a t i o n  r e p r e s e n t  F o u n d a t i o n  l e d  t h e  a n n u a l l y .  f a i l u r e  the  o n e - h a l f  m a r r e d  c o o p e r a t i v e s  These  t h e s i s  I t  was  i n v e s t i g a t e s f o r c e  by  p r o v i n c i a l  p e r t a i n  t o  U H F ' s  a  of  s o c i a l  movement  l a r g e  c o o p e r a t i v e — The  t h e  t h e t h a t  the  e x t e n t h o u s i n g  main  t h e  o f  l o c a l  f r u s t r a t i o n i n  s e r v i c e s .  and  r o l e  c o l l a p s e  UHF  c o o p e r a t i v e  i n t e r f e r e n c e  t e c h n i c a l  n a t u r e  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  i n  d i s c o v e r e d  damaged  p r o f e s s i o n a l t o  a  r e v i e w  d i v i s i v e  s e v e r e l y n e e d s ,  and  t o  and  w i t h h o l d -  o f  UHF  i n  1976.  T h i s was  t h r e e  of  k n o w l e d g e  s m a l l  t o  a d v i c e  p u r p o s e  h o u s i n g  many  u n d e r  i n s e n s i t i v i t y ,  F e b r u a r y  i t  t h r o u g h o u t  g o v e r n m e n t  of  The  1972  i n  t e c h n i c a l  s u b s t a n t i a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n  c l i e n t  f u n d s .  t h e  f o u n d e d  a n d  C o l u m b i a .  s u c c e s s  of  c o o p e r a t i v e  p r o v i n c i a l of  t h e  W i t h i n  a p p a r e n t  i t s  e l i t i s m ,  t o  1000  o v e r  and  a  s e c t o r .  movement  U H F ' s  by  s c a t t e r e d  g r a s s r o o t s  d u c i n g  UHF  promote  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  c o o p e r a t i v e f r o m  to  i n  was  t o —  of  and  movement  i n d i v i d u a l  p o l i c y ,  The  p r o b l e m s  d i f f i c u l t i e s  d i s t i n c t  and  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  o f a r e  o f  UHF  p r o -  movement  was  c o o p e r a t i v e s ' l e s s - t h a n -  were i n  e n t e r p r i s e  C o o p e r a t i o n f o r  t h a t  t h i s  U H F ' s  i n h e r e n t  e c o n o m i c  l a c k  i n  c o o p e r a t i v e  UHF  b o t h  c o n c l u d e s  f o u n d  t h e  d u a l  and among  s e l f - f i n a n c i n g  .  a n d ,  t h e r e f o r e ,  s e r v e d , g r o u p s a  and t o  f o r  meet  r e c o g n i t i o n  one  r e s o u r c e t h e t h e  t h a t  g r o u p s  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  e s t a b l i s h m e n t v a r i o u s t h e  n e e d s  f i e l d  i s  of o f  t o o  g r o u p .  i i i  s e v e r a l  t y p e s  d i f f e r e n t d i v e r s e  o f  t o  t h e of  h o u s i n g be  c o o p e r a t i v e s r e s o u r c e c o o p e r a t i v e s ,  c o n t a i n e d  w i t h i n  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This support  thesis  o f many  w o u l d n o t have been p o s s i b l e  without  the  people.  I am i n d e b t e d t o t h o s e who f u n d e d me —  Central  a n d H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n who p r o v i d e d me w i t h t h e  Mortgage  fellowship  w h i c h s u p p o r t e d my t w o - y e a r p r o g r a m ; a n d t h e C o o p e r a t i v e lege  of Canada and the U n i v e r s i t y  p r o v i d e d generous b u r s a r i e s The c l a r i t y responsibility McAfee,  parts  of  the  and s t a f f  They gave f r e e l y  of  report  interest  both of  t h e many p e o p l e questions  their  of  (I  Ann  t o p u l l me t h r o u g h  without  time and k n o w l e d g e . and u s e t o t h e m .  the  I hope  help  thank  movement who a n s w e r e d my many  i n on t h e i r  meetings.  the e l e v e n t h hour  h a v e no t h a n k s  for  the  fixed  almost  typewriter.)  I must t h a n k my d e a r f r i e n d s N a n c y and I  this  I must a l s o  t h a n k s g o e s t o S t e v e a n d J i m who  w i t h o u t whose l o v e a n d s u p p o r t  this  the  the U n i t e d Housing F o u n d a t i o n .  w h i c h b r o k e down a t  causing disaster.  i n my f i r s t  largely  study.  i n the c o o p e r a t i v e  A s p e c i a l word of  Finally  research.  work i s  never f a i l e d  and a l l o w e d me t o s i t  my t y p e w r i t e r  this  would n o t have been p o s s i b l e  the D i r e c t o r s  is  this  of  which  o f my a d v i s o r s , D r . H e n r y H i g h t o w e r a n d D r .  The t h e s i s of  i n support  and coherence o f  whose t i m e l y a d v i s e  the d i f f i c u l t  of B r i t i s h Columbia  Col-  Jill,  w o u l d s u r e l y h a v e gone mad  term a t P l a n n i n g School thus never  work.  iv  accomplishing  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Acknowledgements  I  List  of  Tables  List  of  Figures  BACKGROUND TO THE CASE STUDY Introduction: The N e e d f o r R e s o u r c e G r o u p s P o t e n t i a l Problems w i t h Resource Groups Purpose of the Research D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms A Short H i s t o r y of Cooperative Housing i n Canada  II  THE HISTORY OF THE UNITED HOUSING FOUNDATION The F o u n d i n g o f UHF Growing D i s s e n t i o n : The F o r m a t i o n o f t h e A d Hoc Committee The F i n a l Y e a r o f UHF: D i v i s i o n , Antagonism, C r i s i s , and C o l l a p s e  III  THE F A L L OF UHF: RESOURCE GROUP  AN A N A L Y S I S OF THE PROBLEMS OF A  Introduction UHF R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e C o o p e r a t i v e s UHF R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e P r o v i n c e T e c h n i c a l Competence Summary o f t h e H y p o t h e s e s IV  THE ROLE OF THE UNITED HOUSING FOUNDATION  V  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions Options f o r the F u t u r e R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r UHF Lessons f o r Other Resource Summary LITERATURE  CITED  APPENDICES. Methodology NHA Amendments  v  Groups  L I S T  OF  TABLES Page  T a b l e  C o o p e r a t i v e s  1  A s s i s t e d  L I S T F i g u r e  1  B o a r d  R e s p o n s e  "Where F i g u r e  2  B o a r d  UHF  3  B o a r d Want  F i g u r e  if  To  UHF  UHF  t o  UHF  I s  Now"  and  58  "Where  To  t o  Be"  t o  B e "  C o o p e r a t i v e , R e s p o n s e To  FIGURES  Be"  t o  R e s p o n s e  UHF  13  UHF  S h o u l d  Be"  60  s u b - g r o u p s  UHF  Wants  OF  UHF  "Where  S h o u l d  R e s p o n s e  s h o w i n g F i g u r e  t o  by  "Where  and  t h e  "Where  C o o p e r a t i v e s  t h e  P r o v i n c e  62  B e " UHF  S t a f f ,  "Where and  the  "Where  and  P r o v i n c e  C o o p e r a t i v e s the  P r o v i n c e  Want Wants  64  Be"  vi  1  CHAPTER  BACKGROUND  I n t r o d u c t i o n : The s o u r c e  The  U n i t e d  g r o u p  c o o p e r a t i v e r e l i a b l e  h o u s i n g  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  i n g  C o o p e r a t i v e  i n  b u i l t  a t t e m p t  by  v e n t  t h e  d i s s i p a t i o n  t h a t  had  been  and  t o  f o r m  make  i t s  h o u s i n g r a p i d l y  i t y  on  t i v e s the  b e c o m i n g the  a  n o n - p r o f i t  t h e  t h r o u g h  t h e  of  t h e  DeCosmos  V a n c o u v e r  i n  1972.  As  t h e  of  s i g n i f i c a n t  t h e  t o  DeCosmos  r e -  d e v e l o p m e n t  o u t  b o r n  o r g a n i z e r s  i n  a  w i s h i n g  i t  V i l l a g e  k n o w l e d g e  and t h e i r  a c q u i r i n g  a v a i l a b l e  t o  f u t u r e  of  o p e r a t i o n  o f  h o u s -  V i l l a g e  s u c h ,  of  of  p r o v i s i o n  o r g a n i z e  p r o c e s s  o n e - h a l f  i n  a  t h i s  H o u s i n g  y e a r s  t h e  c o m p l e t i o n  w i t h ,  l e a d i n g  s t a r t e d  i n  b u t  s a i d :  o n l y  H o u s r e p r e -  t o  p r e -  s k i l l s  g r o u p s  h o u s i n g  w a n t i n g  ( L a i d l a w ,  F o u n d a t i o n  —  t o  c o o p e r a t i v e  s u c c e s s a  ' m o t h e r  of  t h e y  1974* 1 « ) i n  1600  30  p r o v i n c e s a r e  F o u n d a t i o n  o v e r  L a i d l a w ,  B . C .  h o u s i n g " a  t h e  t h e  o f  " C o n t i n u i n g  s i x i n  t h a n  i n  A l e x  a l l  c o o p e r a t i v e  more  f a c t o r  p r o v i n c e .  h o u s i n g ,  r e g i o n ,  o f  f o r  W o r k i n g  movement."  s t r e n g t h  U n i t e d  and  u n i t s .  been  A t l a n t i c  of  r e p o n s i b l e  c o o p e r a t i v e have  the  promote  C o l u m b i a  t o  was  g r o u p s  was i n  G r o u p s  (UHF)  t o  B r i t i s h  STUDY  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  became  c o o p e r a t i v e s  1972  i n  k n o w l e d g e  t h r e e  d i r e c t l y  t i v e UHF  t h i s  h o u s i n g I n  was  amassed  CASE  R e s o u r c e  g u i d a n c e I t  THE  F o u n d a t i o n  e s t a b l i s h e d  t e c h n i c a l  an  f o r  H o u s i n g  i n g  s e n t e d  Need  TO  I  B . C . ,  of  c o o p e r a -  h o u s i n g  C a n a d i a n h o u s i n g C a n a d a s h o w i n g  Among  t h e  L a i d l a w  s o c i e t y ' .  .  .  g r o u p s ,  a u t h o r c o o p e r a o u t s i d e  s i g n s  of  r e a s o n s c i t e d  the  w i t h  t h e  f o r  2  capability and delivery system to lead a group of people through the long and d i f f i c u l t process of putting a cooperative project in place."  (Laidlaw, 1974,  5.)  There are two main reasons why some centralization of the s k i l l s and resources required for the successful completion of a housing cooperative i s a good idea. F i r s t l y , the s k i l l s necessary are frequently complex and beyond the capabilities of even the most dedicated cooperative group.  Tasks such as preparing  legal documents for incorporation, mortgage application, and i s suing shares; accounting for hundreds oftiiousandsof dollars; negotiating land leases, contracts, and interim financing; and coordination  project development require types of experiences  and knowledge otherwise unavailable to cooperators except at considerable expense through the private market. Secondly, once a cooperative group has gone through the process of developing cooperative housing, i t has acquired many of these s k i l l s or the knowledge about where to obtain them.  The  group knows the p i t f a l l s to beware, which people or companies were most helpful, and which tasks really needed an "expert" to do them.  It i s simply wasteful to permit this knowledge to go un-  used.  It makes sense to pull i t together in order that future  groups may take advantage of what past groups have learned. Other advantages of centralizing information in a resource group are: 1)  A resource group can become the voice of the cooperative movement. It can lobby for cooperatives, negotiate with financial institutions and governments, and publicize  3  t h e  i d e a  of  h o u s i n g  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  I t  can  be  a  f o c u s  f o r  t h r o u g h o u t  the  e n e r g y . 2)  The  r e s o u r c e  p l a n n i n g  and  p r o j e c t s . may  L a r g e  y e a r s  t u r n o v e r  may  be  s i n g l e  government  w i t h .  c e s s  i n  e n c e d  P o t e n t i a l The  n e e d  e m p h a s i z e d (CCSD)  i n  c o o p e r a t i v e p e r s e v e r e n c e s t a f f t i s e  i n  and  t h e  of  t h e  w i t h  R e s o u r c e  d e v e l o p i n g  29.)  H o w e v e r , r e s o u r c e  C h r i s t o p h e r  o f  p o i n t e d  s y s t e m  and  c o o p e r a t i v e s and  membership  w o r k i n g  c o n t a c t s  f i r m s ,  f i n a n c i a l  c o o p e r a t i v e s may  w i t h  g r o u p  t h u s  have  t h e s e  g r o u p s  t h a n  t h e  g r o u p s ,  s u c h  a s  must  b e t t e r  i n e x p e r i -  C o u n c i l  on  n o n - p r o f i t The  s t u d y  f a m i l y t h a t  n o n - p r o f i t had  e a c h  S o c i a l  h o u s i n g n o t e d  h o u s i n g  h o u s i n g  was  D e v e l o p m e n t c o m p a n i e s  t h a t  "  .  .  r e q u i r e s  e x i s t i n g  g r o u p  UHF,  and  .  t h e  f u l l - t i m e  d e v e l o p m e n t f i e l d  was  l e a r n i n g  e x p e r f r a g -  t h e  p r o -  1975,  f r o m  t h e  b e g i n n i n g .  ( H a i r e ,  r e v i e w i n g  t h e  f u n d i n g  o r g a n i z a t i o n  g r o u p s H a i r e ,  s u c -  G r o u p s  o u t  w h i c h  h o u s i n g i n  f i n i s h  g r o u p s  r e s o u r c e  d e v e l o p  c o o p e r a t i v e  t o  c o o p e r a t i v e  m i g h t .  n e e d s  and  h o u s i n g  d e v e l o p  s u c h  r e s o u r c e  C a n a d i a n  t o  i n d i v i d u a l  a r c h i t e c t u r a l  s o c i e t i e s .  needed  a  can  o t h e r  c e n t r a l i z e d  of  s t u d y ,  The  h o u s i n g  t h r o u g h  e x i s t i n g  and  r e c e n t  r e s o u r c e s "  mented c e s s  a  s u r v e y  i t  c o o p e r a t i v e  f o r  o f  s t a r t  d e p a r t m e n t s ,  w i t h  c o n t i n u i t y  h i g h .  n e g o t i a t i n g  P r o b l e m s  s t a g e  f r o m  a g e n c y  i n s t i t u t i o n s , d e a l  p r o v i d e  m u l t i p l e - f a m i l y  two  a  c a n  d e v e l o p i n g  t a k e  As  3)  g r o u p  and  ( i n c l u d i n g  UHF)  t h e  a u t h o r  i n d i c a t e d  t h a t  t h e i r  o f  t h e  d e v e l o p m e n t  7 o f CCSD  k  i n v o l v e d  some  T h e s e  The  d a n g e r :  d a n g e r s  1975,  ( H a i r e ,  a r e  g r e a t  enough  comment.  What  i s  a t  s t a k e  f o r c e *  h o u s i n g  i n  C a n a d a .  i d e n t i f i e d  by  i n  d a n g e r s 1)  the  p o s s i b i l i t y  l e a d e r s h i p  w i t h i n  t h a t  i s  H a i r e o f  30.)  t h e  t h e y  i n c l u d e d :  o f  w i t h  c o o p e r a t i v e  an  and  some  a  t h i r d  1975,  ( H a i r e ,  i n t e r f e r e n c e t h e  d e s e r v e  c r e a t i o n  30  d i l u t i o n  -  31.)  of  n o n - p r o f i t  h o u s i n g  movement; 2)  t h e  p o t e n t i a l l y  s u c h  g r o u p s  d i v i s i v e  f r u s t r a t e  e f f e c t  t h e  w h i c h  m i g h t  e x p e c t a t i o n s  o f  o c c u r  i f  g r o u p s  b e i n g  s e r v e d ;  3)  t h e  p r o b l e m s  c i e n c e s d a r d s 4)  t h e of  and  p o l i t i c a l  a  g o t i a t i n g a  and  s y s t e m  w i t h  o f  d e v e l o p i n g  o f  t h e  i n  " h i g h  •The  f a s t  s e c t o r .  t h a t  o f  p o s s i b l e  s e c t o r  s e c t o r  w h i c h  d e c i s i o n h o u s i n g  CMHC, s o  a s  d e v e l o p m e n t  r e f e r s  t o  ( g o v e r n m e n t  and t o  s t a n -  d e v e l o p m e n t ; become  be  i n e f f i -  p r o f e s s i o n a l  w o u l d  and  t o  more  H o u s i n g  t h e  t a r g e t  e f f e c t i v e l y C o r p o r a t i o n  g o v e r n m e n t s .  n o n - p r o f i t r e q u i r e s  b e l o w  w o u l d  M o r t g a g e  l e a d i n g  p r o p e r t y  g r o u p s  h o u s i n g  s e c t o r  commitment  o r g a n i z a t i o n s  l e n d e r ,  a s  p r i v a t e  p r o v i n c i a l  and  f u n d i n g  s e r v i c e  s u c h  C e n t r a l  c o o p e r a t i v e  p o w e r e d  t h i r d  p u b l i c  w i t h  w h i c h  f o r m  m o r t g a g e  a s  q u a l i t y  p r e s s u r e  t h e  o t h e r  p a r t i c i p a t o r y  j e c t  a t  c o o p e r a t i v e  t o  p o o r  l i k e l i h o o d  (CMHC)  u n i q u e  i n s u f f i c i e n t  c o m p a t i b l e  d i r e c t e d  The  of  e x t e r n a l  m a k i n g .  t a c t i c s  a c t i v i t i e s  do  s t r i n g e n t p r o c e e d  w i t h  n o t  go  down  o u t s i d e  t h e  p r i v a t e  s p h e r e s  n e w i t h  p r o c e s s g u i d e l i n e s t h e  f r e q u e n t l y  and  t h e  i n  c o n c u r r e n t  c o m p l i c a t e d  c o s t s ,  w h i c h  e n t e r p r i s e )  t o  p r o b l e m s  l e a d e r s h i p  i t  w i t h  n e e d  r e d u c e  t o  The  c o u p l e d t h e  a n d  f a c e s  p r o -  r e s u l t s w e l l  o f  " f r e e  w i t h  t h e m a r k e t "  5  d e m o c r a t i c a l l y s t r u c t u r a l them  r e l a t i o n s h i p  must  be  management e v e n  31  P u r p o s e  o f  i t  i f  t h e  H a v i n g s e c t o r " ,  g r o u p s  t o  a t  do  H a i r e  to  d o m i n a t i o n .  t i m e  of  r o l e  a  the  i n s i s t e d  g r o u p s  A c c o r d i n g  t h e  s o .  the  s e r v e d  t o  g r a s s  r o o t s  ( H a i r e ,  1975,  by  H a i r e , l e v e l x i  a n d  i n  o r g a n i z a t i o n  h o u s i n g  e v e r  v i a b l e  f o r c e  o f  was i n  same  t h e  g r o u p s  l e a d i n g  c o o p e r a -  of  r e s o u r c e s  become  C a n a d i a n  r e s o u r c e  d i s r u p t i o n  t o  t h e  a  s t r o n g  h o u s i n g  s e c t o r ,  had  p o t e n -  f i n a l l y  t h e t o  t h e  c o l -  movement. i d e o l o g i c a l  may  t o  t h i s  or  by  v i c e s  the  t h e  i n  a u t h o r  i m p o r t a n t  n o t  o p e r a t i o n s and  b e l i e f  H a i r e  :  may  r a i s e d  be o f  t h e  i n  on  ( t h e n ) b o t h  p o t e n t i a l  a  i m p o r t a n t t h e  e l a b o r a t e  t o  " t h i r d  t h e  v a l i d i t y  t h e o r e t i c a l  a c t u a l i t y .  p r e - e m i n e n t  t h e  t h e  e x p l o r e  r a t h e r i n  o f  b e n e f i t s  A  way  s t u d y  r e s o u r c e and  d a n g e r s  o f  g r o u p s .  b e g i n n i n g  e v i d e n c e d  the  c o n t r a d i c t i o n  c e n t r a l i z e d  s o u r c e  f u n c t i o n i n g  and  a  r e s o u r c e  t h e  s e r i o u s  a  t e s t  c o o p e r a t i v e  a  t h e s e  and  w o u l d  be  The  s u s p i c i o n s . -  w h i c h  A t  and  seemed  i s s u e s t h e  t o  H a i r e ,  an  i t  H a i r e ' s  change  more  t o  become  of  s t i l l  t a k e  c o o p e r a t i v e  movement  t o  g r o u p  n o t  Thus  R e s e a r c h  a c c o r d i n g  l a p s e  r e s o u r c e  d e m o c r a t i c a l l y  movement.  c r i t i c a l  s o c i a l  of  may  a p p e a r e d  h o u s i n g  t i a l  o p e r a t e  t h e  T h e r e  b u t  of  . . . "  45.)  and  was  g r o u p s  s u b o r d i n a t i o n ,  must  t h o u g h  t i v e  c o n s t i t u t e d  of  t h i s  r e s o u r c e  number  i n f o r m a l  F o u n d a t i o n .  of  r e s e a r c h g r o u p .  D i s r u p t i o n  c o o p e r a t i v e s  o r g a n i z a t i o n F r o m  H a i r e ' s  ( F e b r u a r y  o f  1975), was  r e f u s i n g  t o  c o o p e r a t i v e s  w o r k ,  t h e  UHF  was  o c c u r r i n g use  UHF  w o r k i n g  a u t h o r  a s s e r t o  d e v e l o p e d  6  t h r e e  h y p o t h e s e s : 1)  UHF  had  become  h o u s i n g t i o n s The  2)  3)  s e v e r a l  c l o s e  l e d  e s t s  o t h e r  t h e  c o o p e r a t i v e s  f u n d i n g  q u a l i t y  s e r v i c e s  do  t h e  were  n o t  F e b r u a r y  d e c i d e d  w r i t i n g ,  o f  a  UHF  t h e  s t u d y  s t i l l  1)  t o  i n g t o  i n  s t u d y  r e s p e c t  t o  f o r  p u r p o s e s  B o a r d  the  o f  D i r e c t o r s  t h e  o f f i c e  e x i s t s  o n l y  who  n o t  i n  f a c t  f r o m  an  b i r t h o f  t o  may  and  the  and i n  of  i t s  one  day  a c t u a l l y  of  o f f  p r o v i n by  i n t e r -  UHF. and  any  UHF  to  and  t h e i r  p o o r s t a n d a r d s . of  t h e s e  make  r e -  o p e r a t i o n s . r e s e a r c h :  f o r m a l l y  m e m b e r s h i p  d i s s o l v e d i n  e a r l y  i n s u f f i c i e n t  f u n d s  a l l  and  s t a f f .  A t  p e r h a p s  i n  t h e  i t .  i s  a  I t  d e f u n c t . an  by  w h e t h e r  UHF  r e v i v e  o f  the  a c a d e m i c  g o i n g ,  name  a n a l y s i s  of  o f  e x p e c t a -  p r o f e s s i o n a l  U H F ' s  l a y i n g  T h e r e f o r e  o n - g o i n g  t h e  t i m e  hopes dormant t h e  f o -  o r g a n i z a t i o n  d e a t h .  f o l l o w i n g  i n  the  m e e t i n g  t h e  d e t e r m i n e d  i m p r o v i n g  o r g a n i z a t i o n  d e s c r i b e  b u t i o n  c a s e  o f  i n a d e q u a t e  d e t e r m i n e  k e e p  i t s  p u r p o s e  r e q u i r e d  a  r e s e a r c h o f  t h e  A l t h o u g h  t h e  i f  The  2)  w i t h  c o o p e r a t o r s  o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  a  t o  b e l o w  t o  t o  c o o p e r a t i v e  w i t h  s e r v e d  l e d  a  UHF  p r i o r i t i e s  had  hoped  B . C .  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  of  UHF  t h r o u g h  t h e  c l o s i n g  o f  t o  UHF  1976,  of  a u t h o r  v a l i d  F o u n d a t i o n .  o f  t h a n  L i m i t e d  s t a n d  cus  h o u s i n g  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o  t h e  f r u s t r a t i o n  had  E v e n t s  few  i n  g o v e r n m e n t  t o  d i c t a t e d  i t s  i n d i v i d u a l  f i n a n c i a l  c o m m e n d a t i o n s  M a r c h  t h r o u g h  f o r c e  c i a l  h y p o t h e s e s  t h e  d i v i s i v e  movement  of  I n i t i a l l y ,  i n  a  d e t a i l  the  p r o m o t i o n  c h a p t e r s  i s  h i s t o r y  of  and  s u c c e s s  t h e  p r o b l e m s  t h r e e f o l d : UHF o f  and  i t s  c o o p e r a t i v e  c o n t r i h o u s -  B . C . ,  d e s c r i b e  and  e x p l a i n  o f  t h e  F o u n d a t i o n  7  and 3)  t o  the  c o n s i d e r  f o r  f u t u r e  o t h e r The  c a s e  C h a p t e r p o o r t e r i n  r e a s o n s  o f  o f  c o o p e r a t i v e s " , UHF,  i o n  of  and  o f  i z a t i o n . UHF  t h e  To t e r m s  p u t  u s e d  c o o p e r a t i v e s  D e f i n i t i o n  o t h e r  t o  i n  o f  f i n a l  d i s c u s s i o n c h a p t e r  by  of  some  t h e  c o n s i d e r s r e s o u r c e  UHF.  of  t h e  " d a u g h -  i n v o l v e m e n t and  p r o v i s -  p u l l s  r o l e t h e  t h e  of  t h e  t h e  o r g a n -  l e s s o n s  of  t h e  g r o u p s .  on  t h e  of  h i s t o r y  i n  UHF:  c h a p t e r  words  be  o f  o r g a n i z a t i o n  f o u r t h  o r d e r  c h a p t e r .  p r o v i n c i a l  i n t e r n a l The  w i t h  few  a  d e f i n i t i o n s  C a n a d i a n  o f  h o u s i n g  h e l p f u l .  Terms h o u s i n g  d e s c r i b e s  c e r t a i n  a  t h a n  a  ( L i b l i t ,  1964,  e c o n o m i c  a c t i v i t y ,  que  of  o f  g o a l s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  p h i l o s o p h y ,  of  f a t e  f a c e d  some  be  f o r m  s o c i e t y "  i n  c o o p e r a t o r s  n e x t  p e r s p e c t i v e  f e a t u r e  r a t h e r  the  i n  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  t i o n  of  s t u d y  a c h i e v e  p r i m a r i l y  l e a r n e d  and  p r o b l e m s  c o o p e r a t i v e  d e m i s e ,  p a r t i c u l a r  b l e s s i n g  a  B . C .  s u b j e c t  " m o t h e r  be  c a s e  C o o p e r a t i v e t o g e t h e r  i n  s p e c i f i c  sudden  must  t h e  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  f o r  may  o f  a v o i d  m i x e d  and  i t s  g r o u p s  t h e  the  t o g e t h e r  t h e and  i s  f i f t h  e x p e r i e n c e  t h a t  t o  t h e  t h e  t o  UHF  The  l e s s o n s  d i f f i c u l t i e s  s e r v i c e s  t r o u b l e s  UHF  e x a m i n e s  r e l a t i o n s h i p  t o  r e s o u r c e  p r o v i n c e s  h i s t o r y T h r e e  t h e  l e a d i n g  m a t t e r  a  a  means  of  of  s p e c i f i c  of  b a s e d  on  and a  w h i c h t o  e n t e r p r i s e and  f u n c t i o n  p r o v i d i n g  a  l i f e  r e s p e c t  h o u s i n g  t e n u r e ,  of  w i t h  i n  o r g a n i z a t i o n  o r g a n i z a t i o n , way  p r o c e s s  c o o p e r a t i v e  C o o p e r a t i v e  5.)  a  i s  o r  s e t  o f  " w o u l d  The seem  g e n e r a l  t o  m o t i v a -  p u r p o s e . " more  a l b e i t  management.  j o i n  h o u s i n g .  f r e q u e n t l y  s h e l t e r  p e o p l e  I t  w i t h i s  p r i n c i p l e s ,  t h a n a  a l s o o f t e n  an u n i -  a  8  c a l l e d  t h e  o f  E n g l i s h  t h e  s h i r e  " R o c h d a l e  c o n s u m e r s '  l8Vw  i n  p r i n c i p l e s " ,  The  a f t e r  movement  R o c h d a l e  t h e  s t a r t e d  p r i n c i p l e s  C o o p e r a t i v e  A l l i a n c e  and  m e m b e r s h i p ,  (2)  d e m o c r a t i c  l i m i t e d  i n t e r e s t  member,  one  e a r n i n g s t o  v o t e " ,  b e l o n g  b u s i n e s s  t i o n  the  The  i s  a  i n  w h i c h  a r e  a  some  i t s  manent  h o u s i n g by  t h e  of  a  c o n t r o l  by  t h o s e  r e s e a r c h ,  c o o p e r a t i v e  j o i n t l y  owned  2.)  a  .  o r  o r  p e o p l e  t h e  h o u s i n g  who t e r m  h o u s i n g  and  f r o m  by  h o u s i n g  i d e a  c o n c e p t  .  g e t  (1)  t h e open  t h r o u g h  c a p i t a l ,  " o n e  (4)  s u r p l u s  b a s i s  and  a c c o r d i n g  (6)  c o o p e r a -  .  t h a t  a  a  a  e g .  i s  t h e y  a by  may  t h e  by  be  may w h i c h  h o u s e s of  w h i c h  t h e  form  end  o r  d e g r e e  a  p e r -  r e s u l t .  d i f f e r e n t :  i t  u n i t s  j o i n t  may f o r  a l t h o u g h  h o u s i n g .  The .  r e f e r s  h o u s i n g  i s  owned e s s e n t i a l  o w n e r s h i p  e f f o r t  w h i l e  .  and  .  t o  t h e  t h e  p r o j e c t  t e r m w h i c h  i s  o c c u p a n t s .  c o o p e r a t i v e "  " b u i l d i n g  have  some  h o u s i n g  permanent i t s  t h e y  h o u s e s  a c c o m m o d a t i o n  j o i n t  t h e  d i v i d e n d ,  h o u s i n g i s  of  o r g a n i z a t i o n  c a s e s  t h e  c o o p e r a t i v e  t o  b u i l d  s o m e t h i n g  o c c u p y  o c c u p y  e x a m p l e ,  c o - o p e r a t i v e  n o t  c o - o p e r a t i v e  any  and  h o u s i n g ,  o f  3»)  F o r  l i m i t e d  i n  -  t o  t h e s e may  2  from  c o - o p e r a t i v e l y  o r  c o l l e c t i o n who  1967,  c o - o p e r a t i v e  a l l  " h o u s i n g o f  .  r e s u l t s  c o n t r o l l e d o f  .  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  t o g e t h e r  scheme  h o u s i n g , I n  be  r e f e r r i n g  c o n s u m e r s '  p r o v i d e d  r e f e r s  s h o u l d  t h e m s e l v e s .  c o - o p e r a t i v e  g e n e r a l  1 -  1  f o l l o w s :  e s s e n t i a l ,  t e r m  may  c o - o p e r a t i v e  f e a t u r e  t i n g u i s h e d  f o r  o f  p r o j e c t  of  g e n e r a l  a c t i o n  j o i n t l y  The  .  p e o p l e  members.  h o u s i n g  h o u s i n g  .  f o r m  c o - o p e r a t i v e  t h i s  Lanca- -  by  c o n t r o l on  i n  m o d e r n i z e d  as  ( L a i d l a w ,  i n d i v i d u a l l y  members some  of  .  o w n e r s h i p  p r o v i d e  a  R o c h d a l e  p r o p o r t i o n a t e  i s  d o - i t - y o u r s e l f  own  f o r  .  h o u s i n g  i n  w i l l  t h e y  a  h o u s i n g :  ways  t h e y  a  e d u c a t i o n  f i r s t p r o v i d e  B u t  on  c o o p e r a t i v e " :  b u i l t  I n  (5)  " c o o p e r a t i v e  o r g a n i z e  o f  members  " h o u s i n g  many t o  the  1966  c o o p e r a t i v e  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  t e r m  t e r m  t o  done,  among The  (3)  i n  a t  were  I n t e r n a t i o n a l v o l u n t a r y  p i o n e e r  must  c o o p e r a t i v e " :  be  f u r t h e r ( L a i d l a w ,  d i s 1972,  9  The o f  p u r p o s e h o u s e s  of  f o r  c o o p e r a t e  a  o n l y  up  a l t h o u g h  i n  some  payments  as  a  On  t h e  i s  t o  t h e  h o u s i n g o f  i n d i v i d u a l  b a s i c a l l y  r e n t a l  T h e r e  o t h e r  a r e  two  c o o p e r a t i v e  c o o p e r a t i v e  t h a t  e x c e e d i n g  }0%  of  c o o p e r a t i v e "  the  i n  H i s t o r y  of  of  amount, t h e  v a l u e  u s e d  t h a t  i s  t e n u r e  be  of  s e p a r a t e the  members  h o u s i n g ; t e n a n t s  i n  t h e  w i t h  c o o p e r a t i o n  i n  t h a t  when  a n d  i t  a r e  i s r e n t i n g  by  p l u s o f  way  an  c o n n e c t i o n a  c e a s e s  member t o  o n l y  of  The  s e v e r a l  w a y s .  Some  t h e  a i n  amount an  i m p r o v e -  t e r m  c o n t i n u e s  use  o f  p l u s  f o r  u n i t .  o t h e r s  t h e  s h a r e s  t h e  w i t h  r e s i d e  t o  a l l o t m e n t  c o o p e r a t i o n  w h i l e  c o n c e r n e d  u s e d  e n t i t l e d  i n d e f i n i t e l y  C o o p e r a t i v e  modern c e r t a i n  e n c o u r a g e d  e r a t i v e  w h i c h  member  c o o p e r a t i v e  ( L a i d l a w )  i s  o f f .  i d e a  c o o p e r a t o r s u n t i l t o  t h e  mean  ( U H F ) .  h o u s i n g  c o n t i n u e s  c o o p e r a t i v e s u n t i l  t h e  end  o f  a  p a r  of  t h e  w i t h  t h e  h o u s i n g .  A l t h o u g h  l y  mean  i s  c o n t i n u e s  r e s e a r c h  n a t u r e  e x c e p t i o n  the  on  c o o p e r a t i o n  S h o r t  i n t o  mortgage  t h e  homes,  m o n t h l y  c o o p e r a t i v e  t y p e  o f  means  she  of  A  v a l u e "  o r  end  of  " P a r  he  t o  t h i s  f r e q u e n t l y  a c c o m m o d a t i o n ,  " c o n t i n u i n g "  l i f e  t e r m s  a  put  p a i d  h o u s i n g  use  b u t  be  use  T h i s  I n  t h e  h o u s i n g ,  a r e  n e v e r  t h e i r  h a n d l e  t h e m s e l v e s .  f a c t o r  the  f o r  a  t o  members o f  c o o p e r a t i v e w i l l  u n i t s .  t o  she  " c o n t i n u i n g  o f  t h e r e  c o n s t r u c t i o n  The  c o n t i n u e  and  c e a s e s  i n f l a t i o n a r y n o t  w h i c h  t h e  c o m p l e t i o n  m o r t g a g e s  p u r p o s e  e s s e n t i a l l y ,  h o u s i n g  v a l u e  i n  f r o m  ments  t h e  o w n e r s h i p  p a y i n g ,  o r  u n t i l  o f  may  j o i n t  a c c o m m o d a t i o n  he  t h e y  i s  o w n e r s h i p .  p o i n t  h a n d ,  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  t h a t  c a s e s  g r o u p  h o u s i n g  t h a t  t h e  o t h e r  o w n e r s h i p t h u s  t o  c o o p e r a t i v e home  s e c u r e  m u l t i p l e a r e  b u i l d i n g  i n d i v i d u a l  s e c t o r  the i s  c o o p e r a t i o n E u r o p e a n  d e v e l o p m e n t a  H o u s i n g  r e l a t i v e l y  i s  o v e r  c o u n t r i e s o f  i n  C a n a d a 100  where  c o o p e r a t i v e  i n s i g n i f i c a n t  y e a r s  o l d ,  g o v e r n m e n t  has  a c t i v e -  e n t e r p r i s e ,  t h e  c o o p -  p a r t  of  most  c o u n t r i e s '  10  economic l i f e .  In Canada, cooperative housing i s neither an im-  portant component of national housing activity nor of the cooperative sector in general.  The Canadian cooperative housing movement  is a recent development born of the depressed economic times of the 1930»s. Cooperative housing began in Canada in the Nova Scotia mining town of Reserve Mines where a group of ten families formed the f i r s t building cooperative under the guidance of St. Francie Xavier University.  The success of the project led to the rapid expansion  of building cooperatives in the Atlantic provinces.  In 1953, CMHC  extended financing to the province under the National Housing Act (NHA) and by 1971 3200 houses had been constructed by this method. Nova Scotia s t i l l remains the leading province in building cooperatives.  Independently  of the achievements of Nova Scotian cooper-  atives, building cooperatives were being formed in Quebec (1942), Ontario ( 1 9 5 3 ) , and Newfoundland ( 1 9 4 4 ) , Office, 1964, 96 - 97.)  (International Labour  The emphasis was through small groups,  local i n i t i a t i v e and planning, self-help and "sweat equity"  to  meet the goal of home ownership for those who could not afford existing market housing. However, the idea of the building cooperative, so successful in small towns and rural areas, would not transfer easily to the larger urban setting.  Thus, in the early 1960»s Canadian coopera-  tors began to investigate the large scale housing cooperatives that were having such success in Sweden and in New York City. The f i r s t large urban housing cooperative was the 200 unit Willow Park Housing Cooperative in Winnipeg completed in 1966.  An  11  i m p o r t a n t i e t y  of  d i f f e r e n c e  c o o p e r a t i v e  o p e r a t i v e i t ,  was  t h e l a r g e  (in t h e  case  M a n i t o b a , )  c o n c e i v e d  and  p l a n n e d  of  t a k e  of  P a r k  was  t h e  p e r i o d ,  f o l l o w e d  f o r  o f t e n  by  S a r c e e  A l t h o u g h  h o u s i n g  c o o p e r a t i v e s  have  p r o v i n c e s  o u t s i d e  the  R e g i o n ,  f a c t o r s  B r i t i s h  have  has  been  g r e a t e s t  c o n t r i b u t e d  C o l u m b i a ;  t h e  t o  t h e  s u p p o r t  o f  b u i l d i n g to  b o d y ,  A s s o c i a t i o n  y e a r s .  i n  c o -  o c c u p y  o r g a n i z i n g  more  v a r -  and  The  C a l g a r y  o f c o n -  s u c c e s s u n i t s )  (380  u n i t s ) .  (300  A t l a n t i c  S c o t i a n  s p o n s o r i n g  H o u s i n g  Meadows  Tower  movement  W i n d s o r  o r  t h e  a  p l a n n i n g ,  two  N o v a  i n t e n d i n g  r e q u i r e d  C o o p e r a t i v e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  i n  t h o s e  c o o p e r a t i v e  P a r k ,  l o n g  by  t h e  W h i l e  S o l i d a r i t y  o p e r a t i v e of  h o u s i n g  W i l l o w  a  s i x  a n d  o r g a n i z a t i o n .  o v e r  W i l l o w  P a r k  i t s  u r b a n  t o  W i l l o w  was  s t r u c t i o n  and  b e t w e e n  now  i n  t h e  of  e s t a b l i s h e d  s t r e n g t h  B r i t i s h  g r o w t h t h e  b e e n  of  c r e d i t  t h e  C o l u m b i a .  c o o p e r a t i v e u n i o n s ,  a  i n  A  a l l c o -  number  h o u s i n g  i n  p r o v i n c i a l  * g o v e r n m e n t v e l o p m e n t H o u s i n g  w i t h of  p r o c e s s  l a w ,  1974,  c e r n  of  a c t i v i t y " m o t h e r  •The:New i n  p e a r  t o  of  t h i s  —  of  s u p p o r t  s o c i e t y " c a p a b l e  p u t t i n g I t  a  o r  o f  f o r  c o o p e r a t i v e s  r e s o u r c e  l e a d i n g  g r o u p  p e o p l e  c o o p e r a t i v e  p r o j e c t  the  l a s t  of  t h e s e  W i l l o w  P a r k  i n d i c a t e d  i s  —  ,  and  t h e  t h r o u g h  i n  t h e  U n i t e d t h e  d i f f i -  o p e r a t i o n .  f a c t o r s  d e -  t h a t  ( L a i d -  i s  t h e  c o n -  r e s e a r c h .  e x p e r i e n c e  of  o r g a n i z a t i o n  t h r o u g h o u t r e q u i r e s s o c i e t y "  t h e the  o r  D e m o c r a t i c  s u p p o r t  C r e d i t  " m o t h e r  4-5.)  s p o n s o r i n g p r o j e c t  p o l i c y  F o u n d a t i o n  c u l t  The  a  a  of  P a r t y  was  l e n g t h y  r e s o u r c e  P a r t y  i n  December  o f  g r o u p .  h o u s i n g . 1975  who  a t  h o u s i n g  p r o v i d e  some  of f o r  A  h i g h  l e v e l  k n o w l e d g e  base  i n  f i l l  e l e c t e d  t h i s  n e e d  1972  i n  were  d e f e a t e d  t h e  t i m e  o f  the  same  i n  by  w r i t i n g e x t e n t .  t h e o f  a B . C . ,  a p p e a r e d  They t o  form  c o n t i n u i t y  p r o c e s s . 1he  To  g o v e r n m e n t  c o o p e r a t i v e  t o  p l a n n i n g  c o n s o l i d a t i o n  c o o p e r a t i v e  s u p p o r t  n e c e s s a r y  t h a t  t o  t h e do  n o t  be S o c i a l a p -  12  UHF  was  e s t a b l i s h e d  c o o p e r a t i v e i n g  g r o u p s  c o o p e r a t i v e ,  i t i o n  of  l a n d ,  c o n t r a c t u a l ,  and  g i v i n g  was  c o o p e r a t i v e s o f  t h r o u g h  f i v e  t h i s  o v e r  u n d e r  c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  and  c e a d y  t o  c o n s t r u c t e d .  ( K o e n i g ,  I n  t h r e e  y e a r s  c o o p e r a t i v e 689  u n i t s  d e r ) .  i n  t h i s  u n i t s ,  i n  o p e r a t i o n 545  a d v a n c e d  ( T a b l e  p o w e r f u l  of  f o r c e  1.) i n  p r o v i n c e .  u n i t s  U H F ' s  i s  no  p r o m o t i o n  UHF  1975,  o f  i n  f o u r t e e n  a c q u i s o r g a n i z -  s e r v i c e s ,  s k i l l s .  of  t h e  had  The  h o u s i n g  a s s i s t e d  c o m p l e t e ,  s i x  f o u r  out  o f  p o t e n t i a l l y  35.) i n c l u d e d  c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  ( a p p o i n t m e n t t h a t  f u n c t i o n -  f i n a n c i n g ,  q u a r t e r s  r e c o r d  and  a s s i s t a n c e  m a n a g e r i a l  1975,  doubt  a  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  a l r e a d y  o u t  u n d e r  p l a n n i n g  T h e r e t h e  t e n  p r o s p e c t i v e  e s t a b l i s h i n g as  and  May  c o o p e r a t i v e s  s e v e n  be  and  t h r e e  By  g u i d e d  m o r t g a g e  l e a d e r s h i p  p r o v i n c e .  s u c c e s s f u l  and  l e g a l ,  w i t h  of  s e r v i c e s  i n t e r i m  i n  F o u n d a t i o n  p r o c e s s  s u c h  a c c o u n t i n g ,  i n v o l v e d  i n  t h e  p r o v i d i n g  i n s t r u c t i o n  F o u n d a t i o n  The  1972.  a r r a n g i n g  i n g  o u t  i n  o f  t h e  s u c c e s s  o f  860 and  c o m p l e t e d a  a r c h i t e c t F o u n d a t i o n h o u s i n g  f u r t h e r t o was  t e n a  c o o p e r a t i v e s  13  TABLE COOPERATIVES  ASSISTED  BY  ( C u m u l a t i v e C o o p e r a t i v e C o m p l e t e d  A z a l e a  V i l l a g e  o r  F u l l y  P l a c e  V i c t o r i a  H i g h l a n d s  M o u n t a i n  V i e w  P i t t  Meadows  P o r t  Moody  Haney  P i o n e e r T o t a l  1975)  N o v .  110 65 74 150 162 215  J± $ 6 0  -  Under  and  Type  C o m p l e t e d  t o w n h o u s e s a p a r t m e n t s t o w n h o u s e s t o w n h o u s e s m o b i l e  home  pads  a p a r t m e n t s c o t t a g e s  1972 1973 1974 1975 1975 1975 1975  C o n s t r u c t i o n W e s t m i n s t e r  C o - o p  Demers  W i l d e r n e s s  New  W e s t m i n s t e r  V a n c o u v e r  P a r k  V i c t o r i a  W a s h i n g t o n  V i c t o r i a  M a r i g o l d  S a a n i c h R i c h m o n d  K l a h a n i e Q u e s n e l  G r e e n e  N o r t h  B u r n a b y  T o t a l A d v a n c e d James  t o w n h o u s e s  V i c t o r i a  F l o a t i n g  Homes  V a n c o u v e r  P l a z a  V a n c o u v e r  M i s s i o n  M i s s i o n  P e n t a  V a n c o u v e r &  Q u e s n e l  a p t s  &  a p t s  t o w n h o u s e s t o w n h o u s e s t o w n h o u s e s t o w n h o u s e s p a t i o  a p a r t m e n t s  1975 1976 1976 1976 1976 1976 1976  28  t o w n h o u s e s  1976  D i s t r i c t  N e l s o n  88 42 74 20 48  b e r t h s  a p a r t m e n t s  1976 1977 1977 1976 1976  p a t i o  1977  t o w n h o u s e s t o w n h o u s e s t o w n h o u s e s  G r e e n e  ( p h a s e  I I )  W o o d l a n d  H e i g h t s  N o r t h  B u r n a b y  60  N o r t h  B u r n a b y  160  s t a c k e d &  R i v e r v i e w H a r o l d  &  a p a r t m e n t s  V a n c o u v e r  P e n t i c t b n  N e l s o n  42 28 38 59 86 70 222 545  P l a n n i n g  Bay  G r e a t e r  T o t a l  FOUNDATION  O c c u p i e d )  V a n c o u v e r  Meadow  HOUSING  U n i t  C o q u i t l a m  K a n a t a  New  Summary,  V a n c o u v e r  G a r d e n s  R o c h d a l e  UNITED  L o c a t i o n  ( P a r t i a l l y  DeCosmos  1  W i n c h  C o q u i t l a m P a r k  N o r t h  B u r n a b y  69 100  W§  a p a r t m e n t s t o w n h o u s e s  m a i s o n e t t s  t o w n h o u s e s s t a c k e d &  1977 1977  t o w n h o u s e s  m a i s o n e t t e s  1977  14  CHAPTER  THE  The  U n i t e d  o r g a n i z e r s  of  mos  V i l l a g e .  UHF  r a p i d l y  i z a t i o n , ed  by  B . C . ' s  grew  c h a l l e n g e  U H F ' s  s t r u c t u r e ,  t h e i r t o  s e r v e  i n t o  a i d  P r o v i n c e ,  UHF  and  t h e  the  t h r e e of  r o l e  f o r  t h e  c o o p e r a t i v e ,  B.C. b o a r d  P r o v i n c e ' s  of  I n  be  of  c l a i m  F o u n d a t i o n :  an  of  i n s i s t e n c e UHF.  up  t h a t  Many  o r g a n i z a t i o n e n s u e d  a s  a  r o l e  and  t o  and  among  b r i e f a  —  a l l  s o o n  s t r u g g l e  began  was  t o  s u p p o s e d  a c c e p t a b l e  t o  an  UHF  between  w i t h i n  U H F ' s  t o  b e t w e e n  o n e - h a l f  f i n d  r e -  a c t i v e l y  P r o v i n c e ,  and  t o  c o o p e r a t i v e s  i n d i v i d u a l s  t h r e e  s u p p o r t -  u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  s t r u g g l e  t h e  o r g a n -  and  c o o p e r a t o r s  a  b a s e ,  " c o o p e r a t i v e s  i t s  t h a t  t h e D e C o s -  r o o t s  managers  and  o f  r e s o u r c e  c o o p e r a t i v e s  d i r e c t o r s  e v e n  g r a s s  u n o f f i c i a l  h o u s i n g  t h e  a  s e v e r a l  b u r e a u c r a t i c  c o o p e r a t o r s  f a c t ,  summed  as  power  a n d  t o  p r o f e s s i o n a l  w i t h  the  f o r  b e t w e e n  g r o u p s . can  h o u s i n g  g o v e r n m e n t  c o o p e r a t o r s ,  UHF  s u c c e s s f u l  b o a r d  S t r u g g l e s  the  by  o r i g i n a l  d e a l  FOUNDATION  c r e a t e d  a  must  HOUSING  was  s p e c i a l i z e d ,  c o n t r o l  and  UNITED  a  e l i t i s t t h e  g a i n  them.  t o r y  by  i t s  o r g a n i z i n g  and  THE  s e c o n d  p r o v i n c i a l The  OF  F o u n d a t i o n  W h a t e v e r  b r a n c h " .  w o r k e d  H o u s i n g  d o m i n a t e d  t h e  c e i v i n g  HISTORY  I I  e a c h  y e a r  o f h i s -  a c c e p t a b l e f o u n d e r s ,  t o  * i t s  c l i e n t  *UHF f e e s  had —  e r a t i v e the  c o o p e r a t i v e s ,  t h r e e  s o u r c e s  u s u a l l y t o  UHF  1 f o r  c o o p e r a t i v e s  g r a n t s c h a r g e s  were t o  -  o f  1^  r e v e n u e : o f  s e r v i c e s  w h i c h  s i g n i f i c a n t c o o p e r a t i v e s  t h e  were i n f o r  P r o v i n c e  p r o v i n c i a l  d e v e l o p m e n t r e n d e r e d , v o t i n g t h a t a i d .  who  c o s t s and  members  t h e y  f u n d e d  g r a n t s , —  p a i d  m e m b e r s h i p o f  a l l o w e d  UHF. UHF  t o  i t .  What  d e v e l o p m e n t by  t h e  f e e s  The k e e p  c o o p -  p a i d  by  p r o v i n c i a l down  15  f o l l o w s  i s  the  h i s t o r y  h i s t o r y  o f  t h e  o r g a n i z a t i o n  r e m a i n d e r t h e ed  o f  t h i s  m e e t i n g s i n  the  of  UHF  t h e  B o a r d  f i l e s ,  B o a r d  D i r e c t o r s  F o u n d i n g UHF  of  was  as  h a s  u n d e r s t o o d n o t  b a s e d  of  D i r e c t o r s  on  a  o t h e r s ,  w i t h  w h i c h  s t u d y and  c a n n o t  by  two  s o c i e t y " ,  the  W e s t e r n  C o o p e r a t i v e  was  up  1967  t o  p r o v i d e  t e c h n i c a l  v i c e s f o r d  f o r and  t h e  b i n a t i o n  a d v e r s e  demise w h i c h t o  o f  P o r t  A b b o t s f o r d  the  s h o r t - l i v e d  and  had  V i l l a g e  C o o p e r a t i v e  i n e x p e r i e n c e ,  l a c k  w i n t e r  c a u s i n g  weather  of  D i r e c t o r s  was  b e i n g  s p o n s o r e d  by  t h e  a s  t h e i r  own  f i n a n c i n g .  w i t h o u t  t h e  A t  the  t h u s  t h e  m i n u t e s  documents  of c o n t a i n -  F o u n d a t i o n , members  and  o f  t h e c i t e d .  The any  w i t h  p r o j e c t  a i d  of  r e s o u r c e  NHA  amendments  w h i c h  was  the  i n c r e a s e d  the  (WCHS) B a r c l a y  s i m i l a r  s e r -  i n  due  A b b o t s -  t o  c o n s t r u c t i o n  t h e  a l s o a i d  W i t h  A b b o t s f o r d  u n i o n  U n i o n ,  the  d e c i d e d  p r o v i d i n g  w i t h o u t  t h e  t i m e  as  the  A b b o t s f o r d  C o o p e r a t i v e  t h e  i n  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  was  1973  b e n e f i t s  2.)  same  com-  C o o p e r a t i v e ,  c o m p l e t e d  t o  a  c o n t r o l ,  d e l a y s .  C r e d i t  c r e d i t  and  t o  f o l d e d  s u c c e s s f u l l y  g r o u p  S o c i e t y  V a n c o u v e r .  WCHS  A b b o t s f o r d  u n s u c The  A s s o c i a t i o n  i n  of  one  s o c i e t y " .  h a n d l e  c o n s t r u c t i o n  o f  d e v e l o p e r  t o  a d e q u a t e  B o a r d  ( A p p e n d i x  The  s p e c i f i c a l l y  s e r v i c e s  and  the  1973  the  H o u s i n g  C o o p e r a t i v e  WCHS,  the  be  H o u s i n g  o f  a c t  t h e  " m o t h e r  a g r e e d  C o o p e r a t i v e  B a r c l a y  i n t e r i m  of  a  A l b e r n i  DeCosmos  1969  I n  and  the  of  c o o p e r a t i v e s ,  " m o t h e r  i n  and  s u c c e s s f u l  c o o p e r a t i v e ,  C o o p e r a t i v e  b e f o r e ;  o t h e r of  a u t h o r .  UHF  p r e d a t e d  i n  t h e  i n d i v i d u a l  c e s s f u l  s e t  by  c o m p i l e d  o b s e r v a t i o n  i n t e r v i e w s  and  be  i s  p e r s o n a l  c o n f i d e n t i a l  The  UHF  c h a p t e r  i n - d e p t h o f  o f  b e i n g  16  o r g a n i z e d , was  the  i n t r o d u c e d  s o r s  of  the  i z a t i o n v i n c e d the  of  i n  o u t  on  drew  upon  p e r s o n s  B . C . UCHS: t h e  t h e y  o f f o r  i t s  a  a  l o s t  a t a  t h e  by  u n d e r t a k e i n  S c h m i d , t h e  the  V a n c o u v e r  i n t e r i m  s i x  bag  by  number  C r e d i t  the  g r o u p of  w i t h  s p o n o r g a n -  and  c o n -  c a p i t a l  months no  U n i t e d  f o r  l a t e r ,  S c h m i d  b a c k - u p  and  A s s u r a n c e  C o - o p e r a t i v e  o r g a n i z e d  t a l e n t e d  U n i o n ,  f i r s t  U n i t e d C o . ,  and  t h e  C e n t r a l  by  A c t  of  B . C .  scope  the  r e s o u r c e  p r o v i d i n g  UCHS The  by  S c h m i d  p e o p l e  and  the  w h i c h  i n c l u d i n g  Community  f o r m had  been  and  w o u l d  t h e y  become  e x c e s s  UCHS  g r o u p  by  w i t h  S e r v i c e s ,  B l o c k  B r o t h e r s  g r e w ,  of  g i v i n g  was t h e  t h e o f  t o  D i r e c t o r s  A c t  t h a t  t h e  an  t h e  r e s o u r c e s  D i r e c t o r s u n w i e l d y  t h e  C o o p -  l i m i t e d  o v e r  o f -  r e i m b u r s e d o f  t o o  on  u n i t  S c h m i d  u n d e r  t h e  u n m a n a g e a b l e  110  l a t e r  was  w i t h  $ 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 ,  B o a r d  i n c o r p o r a t e d  f e a r e d  of  B o a r d  e n t e r p r i s e  b e l i e v e d  i n v o l v e d  a c c e s s  C e n t r a l  UCHS o f  i n  become  t h e  ( B . C . As  t o  c o m p l e t i o n  UCHS  D i r e c t o r s  g r o u p  s t r u c t u r e  t h e  r e s o u r c e  c o o p e r a t i v e  g r o u p .  sum,  j o i n e d  s u p p o r t . )  e r a t i v e s  p a r t i c i p a t o r y  w i t h  d e p a r t m e n t .  f i n a n c i a l  t h a t  b u t  f l e d g l i n g  s a l a r y  r e l u c t a n t  s u b s t a n t i a l  B . C .  t h e  r e s o u r c e  of  a  L i f e  C o o p e r a t i v e ;  d e v e l o p m e n t  t h e i r  f a i l e d  h o l d i n g  r e s o u r c e  of  Sun  was  V i l l a g e ,  a n d  d e c i d e d f o r  had  s u p p o r t e d  f i c e  h o u s i n g  5 1 0 0 , 0 0 0  WCHS  S h i r l e y  company.  B a r c l a y  and  t o  C o o p e r a t i v e  c o m p l e t e d  a  C e n t r a l  C e n t r a l  DeCosmos  was  e x p e r t i s e  T r u s t ,  d e v e l o p m e n t  " l e f t  ( U C H S ) ,  B . C .  C o - o p e r a t i v e  a g r e e d  p r o v i d e and  UHF,  l i m b . "  V i l l a g e  the  f r o m  B a r c l a y  a  S o c i e t y  t o  o f  c o o p e r a t i v e  She  V i l l a g e  C h u r c h  w o r d s ,  d i r e c t o r  of  p r o j e c t .  DeCosmos  own  DeCosmos H o u s i n g  c o n c e p t  the  When  h e r  8 1 0 0 , 0 0 0  t o  U n i t e d  p r o j e c t .  was,  e x e c u t i v e  B a r c l a y t h e  t h e  f u t u r e  t h e  r e q u i r e d t i m e .  Thus  17  t h e  l e g a l  e n t i t y  UCHS  was  e r a t i v e  ( a n  i n c o r p o r a t i o n  w a s t i n g  i t )  w h i l e  i n  1972  S e p t e m b e r  H o u s i n g  1973  m i s e s .  UHF  The  as  t h e  i t s  and  B . C .  C e n t r a l  p e n d e n c e ,  the  need  t o  s e p a r a t e  o p e r a t i v e s a r y . on  h o u s i n g ,  B . C .  a  C e n t r a l  c o n t r a c t u a l  " i n  and  t h e r e  B . C .  A c t  S o c i e t i e s  f r o m  B . C .  were  t h e UHF  w i t h  c o n t i n u e d u n t i l  C e n t r a l  b e h i n d  c o n c e r n e d n o t  b a s i s  and  K a n a t a  a s  i n c r e a s e  o r g a n i z a t i o n  money  t h e  r e i n c o r p o r a t e d  r e a s o n s  UHF  a  become  was  a  H o u s i n g no  C o o p -  p o i n t  n o n - p r o f i t t a k i n g  i n s o c i e t y  t h e  U n i t e d  name.  s e p a r a t e d  p r i n c i p l e  t o  c o s t s  B o a r d  u n d e r  F o u n d a t i o n  I n  tween  t h e  l e f t  t h e  May  moved i n  and  p r e -  the  t h e  p r o m o t i o n  b e l i e f  t h a t o f  was  s e r v i c e s  t o o k  b e -  i n d e -  and  a c t i v i t i e s ,  UHF  new  r e l a t i o n s h i p  t e c h n i c a l  when  t o  autonomy  w i t h  u n i o n  p r o v i d e 1974  f o r  s t a f f ,  f i r s t l y  c r e d i t  t o  change  d e s i r e p a i d  and  a l l  c o -  n e c e s t o  UHF  s e r v i c e s  h o u s e " . S c h m i d  she  was  t h e  c o n f e r e d The  one  w i t h  B o a r d  a s s e s s e d  h e l d  t h e who  r e i n s  o f  t h e  o r g a n i z a t i o n  l o o k e d  a t  t h e  p r o p e r t i e s  c o o p e r a t o r s ,  f u n c t i o n e d o p t i o n s  and  a s  a  and  l i a s e d  h i g h l y  u n d e r t o o k  w i t h  and  i t s made  e a r l y t h e  g o v e r n m e n t  q u a l i f i e d  s p e c i f i c  i n  p o o l  s t u d y  o f  d a y s : o f f e r s ,  o f f i c i a l s .  e x p e r t i s e  t h r o u g h  b o a r d  who c o m m i t -  t e e s . S c h m i d g o v e r n m e n t tween i n  t h e  t o  S c h m i d  u n d e r t o o k  s u p p o r t and  t h e  UHF  e l e c t e d  r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r  c o n t a i n s  a  f i n a n c i a l  n e w l y  M i n i s t e r  m e e t i n g  f u r t h e r  t h e  h o u s i n g .  i n  d i r e c t i o n  c o n v i n c e  c o o p e r a t i v e  r e s u l t e d  f u t u r e  t o and  1972  l a t e  t h i s  a l s o  o f  a  g r a n t  number  of  of  $10,000.  i m p o r t a n t  U H F / p r o v i n c i a l  s u p p o r t  was  m e e t i n g  h o u s i n g ,  James  S c h m i d ' s  r e p o r t  p o i n t s  r e l a t i o n s .  a n t i c i p a t e d :  A  p r o v i n c i a l  L o r i m e r  w h i c h  L o r i m e r , o f  i n d i c a t e d  S c h m i d had  b e -  s t a t e d  u r g e d  UHF  t h a t  18  t o  " t h i n k  f u n d i n g  UHF  d i r e c t l y f o r ed a  i s  a  t o  a  w o u l d  have  f i r s t  b l i s h e d  by  of  work  c o o p e r a t i v e s  UHF  was  o p e r a t i v e  have  f i v e  UHF  k%  t h e  w i t h  t h e  ed  g r a n t  a  2% t h e  1%,  t o  o f  As ued  t o  UHF  and  g e s t e d i n  f o r  B . C .  be  on  V i c t o r i a  i n  p r i c e .  f e e s  ( c h a r g e  t o  t a k e  a c c e p t e d  by  i n  i n t h e  t h e  of  f o r  t h a t  a i d and  f o r  c o p u r -  i t  t h i s  t o was  t o  N e g o t i a t i o n s UHF  r e d u c e d  s e r v i c e s  t h e  f o r  l e a s e  1973.  F o u n d a t i o n  o f  P r o v i n c e  f u t u r e .  f a l l  e s t a -  a c q u i r e d  t o  on  t h e y  p r o v i n c e  t h e  i n e s t a -  be  M e e t i n g  t h e  r e p o r t e d t h e  t o  R e q u e s t s  a g r e e d  s a t  t h a t  w o u l d  l a n d  e s t a b l i s h -  I  f u n d s  t h e  m e e t i n g ,  and  c o o p e r a t i v e s a l l  of  UHF  t h i s  l e a s e s  r e t u r n  on  b r a n c h e s  S c h m i d  f i n a l i z e d i n  g r o u n d s  t h e  s t a t u s  " a n d  on  p r o v i n c i a l  l a n d  t h a n  c l e a r l y  the  1972.)  t o  a f t e r  were  and  12,  i s  d e n i e d  ( M i n u t e s  d i r e c t e d  r a t h e r  r e p o r t e d ,  t h a t  December  p r o v i n c i a l  t o  a r e a  S h o r t l y  $160,000;  a g r e e d  was  and  p r i o r i t y  of  g o v e r n m e n t ,  b o a r d  o f  UHF  p r e f e r r e d  q u a s i - g o v e r n m e n t a l  S c h m i d  t h a t  p r o v i n c e  F o u n d a t i o n  V i c t o r i a i n  p u r c h a s e  P r o v i n c e  v e l o p m e n t  to  f i r s t  the  f o r m u l a  i n  UHF,  were  a c r e s  of  " T h e  t h e  c o o p e r a t i v e s  A  n e c e s s a r y . "  of  p u r p o s e s .  c h a s e d  s e r v i c e s .  t h r o u g h  where  t h a t  d e v e l o p  f o r w a r d :  g r o u p  D i r e c t o r s  t o  and  F o u n d a t i o n  UHF  s a y i n g  o r g a n i z a t i o n , "  a  f o r  be  t h e s e  p u t  s i m i l a r t o  f a s t "  c o o r d i n a t e  where  b l i s h  a t  work  P r o v i n c i a l  m e e t i n g  B o a r d  and  p r o v i d i n g  UHF as  b i g  r e c e i v -  i t s  d e -  r e n d e r e d )  c o o p e r a t i v e s  r e f e r r e d  to  two  p r o v i n c i a l  a p p o i n t e e s  and  t h e  f r o m  them  t o  by  i t s  d i r e c t o r s .  t h e  t i e s  grow,  c o o p e r a t o r s  a b o u t t h a t and  between  i t s  UHF t h a t  UHF  began  r e l a t i o n s h i p  a p p e a r e d o t h e r  to  t o  g r o u p s  a s k  w i t h  have  p r o v i n c i a l q u e s t i o n s  t h e  a b o u t  g o v e r n m e n t .  c o m p l e t e  were  g o v e r n m e n t  u n a b l e  c o n t r o l t o  go  t h e I t  o v e r  ahead  c o n t i n r o l e  was  o f  s u g -  c o o p e r a t i v e s on  t h e i r  own  19  m a i n l y  due  t o  p r o v i n c i a l  was  c e r t a i n l y  h u t  i t  was  n o t  t i o n e d  t h e  • • e l i t e "  s e n t a t i v e t i v e  o f  of  i n  t h a t  a s  new  To a  t o  t o UHF  B o a r d  c o n t r o l w i t h  i n t e r e s t e d was  was  A t  i n  UHF  c o o p e r a t i v e s  r e a s o n  B o a r d  s a j i n g  f o r  i t  b u t  The  n e c e s s i t y  o f  were  r e p r e -  h i g h l y - p a i d  B o a r d ,  on  the  e x p e r t i s e  a c t i v i t y .  m e m b e r s h i p  c o m p l e t e d  q u e s -  r e p r e s e n t a -  p r o v i d i n g  c o o p e r a t i v e  e x p a n d e d  L o r i m e r ,  n o t  w i t h  UHF  T h i s  a l s o  was  o n l y  p e o p l e  j o b s .  of  w i t h  C o o p e r a t o r s  m e a n i n g  and  However, s t a t e d  t h e y  w o u l d  t h e  B o a r d  l e v e l  p r o v i d e  c r e d i t  and  u n i o n s .  b y  The  t o  be  r e -  g r o u p s a  c o n t r o l  of  of  a  UHF more  h o u s i n g  g r o u p s ?  by  UHF? of  The  e x p e r t  t h r o u g h  UHF,  t h e  end  l a b o u r ,  l e v e l  e x p a n s i o n  c r i t i c s  t h i s  w i t h  s e r v e d  h i g h  f o r m e d  p r o v i d e  c o n t a c t  p r o v i n c i a l  f a v o u r e d  d e m o c r a t i c  s e r v e  c l o s e r  m a i n t a i n i n g  and  Toward  r e s t r u c t u r i n g :  c o n t r o l  w i t h  1973«  S e p t e m b e r f o r  t o  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  g a i n i n g t o  i n  d e m o c r a t i c  D i s s e n t i o n : a  a d m i t .  t h e  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  n e g o t i a t i o n s  c o o p e r a t i v e s  e v e n t u a l  b a s e ?  b o a r d  and  i n t e n d e d  G r o w i n g  i n  p r o j e c t s  c o n c e r n e d  t h e  l a b o u r  UHF  t h e  n e e d  s u c h  the  c h u r c h more  a t  o f  s u c c e s s  c o m m i t t e e  community  p r o v i d e  t h e  t h e  f o r  d e t e r m i n e  g o v e r n m e n t ,  t o  UHF  UHF.  p r e p a r e  c r e d i b l e  w a n t e d  w i t h  of  S c h m i d ' s  p r o f e s s i o n a l  c o o p e r a t i v e  i n  f a v o u r  c o n n e c t i o n s " , o r  a d m i t  i n  o f  l i v e  c o n c e r n e d  r e s t r u c t u r i n g  had  who  g u a r a n t e e  d i d  p r e s e n t e d  UHF  n a t u r e  w i t h  was  l i g h t  f a c t  p o s i t i o n s  t o  B o a r d  i n  p e o p l e  h a n d ,  o r d e r  t h e  a  " p e o p l e  m a n a g e r i a l o t h e r  t r u e  b i a s  l i a s o n  h o w e v e r ,  were  o r g a n i z a t i o n  t h a t  t h e m .  The  w o r k s h o p d i s c u s s e d  F o r m a t i o n  h e l d the  i n  of  t h e  J a n u a r y  f u t u r e  of  1974,  Ad  Hoc  C o m m i t t e e  members  c o o p e r a t i v e  o f  s e v e r a l  n o n - p r o f i t  h o u s i n g  20  i n  B.C.  and  v i n c i a l t i o n The  t h e  r o l e  government  s h o u l d  be  " F i r e s i d e  f o l l o w i n g 1)  of  was  UHF.  The  r e q u i r i n g  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e C o m m i t t e e " ,  of  as  c o o p e r a t o r s them  t o  them  and  t h i s  g r o u p  d e a l  f e l t  t h a t  i f  w i t h  UHF,  t h e  a c c o u n t a b l e  became  t o  known,  t h e  p r o -  F o u n d a -  them.  r e a c h e d  t h e  c o n c l u s i o n s : t h a t  a  c e n t r a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n  of  h o u s i n g  c o o p e r a t i v e s  was  d e s i r a b l e , t h a t  2)  s u c h  an  o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t  3)  The to  the  t e c h n i c a l  and  l o b b y i n g  tem  manned  UHF  e i g h t  e x p a n d e d  t o  b o a r d  r a p i d  p l u s  and  t h e  Ad  members  the  d e p e n d e n t  two  Hoc  UHF, o f  t h e  B o a r d  and  f i v e  s l o w l y  C o m m i t t e e ,  h o u s i n g  member  a f t e r i n  much  t h e  t h e  l i n k  b r o a d e n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l  a  c o m m i t t e e  of  t h e by  s y s -  p r e s e n t e d the  p r o v i d i n g  F o u n d a t i o n new  a p p o i n t e d  B o a r d  c o o p e r a t i v e  p r o v i n c i a l  t h a t  a  were  d i s c u s s i o n  f i e l d  f r o m  members  t h e be  h o u s -  g o v e r n -  a  r e p r e s e n -  c r e d i b i l i t y , p r o t e c t e d ,  b o a r d by  r e -  s t r u c t u r e  t h e  o f  o u t - g o i n g  a p p o i n t e e s .  and a  i t s  C o m m i t t e e  s u g g e s t e d  a f t e r  a  c o m m i t t e e  a s s o c i a t i o n s ,  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s  of  v o l u n t e e r s .  c o n c e r n e d t h e  by  i n s t i t u t i n g  o r g a n i z a t i o n  p r o v i n c i a l  p r o c e e d e d  by  f u n d i n g  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  c h a n g e :  n o n - p r o f i t  r o l e  i t s  d i r e c t o r s .  and  E v e n t s J u n e ,  of  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  e x p a n d i n g  F i r e s i d e  and  a p p r o p r i a t e  d e m o c r a t i z e  be  o r g a n i z a t i o n  and  and  t h e  an  e l e c t e d  b o a r d ,  of  a c c e p t w i t h  t h i s  c o o p e r a t i v e  F e b r u a r y ,  c o n t i n u i t y , s i s t e d  s e r v i c e s  i n  B . C . ,  t a t i v e  become  B o a r d  i n g  and  by  s h o u l d  s e r v e s ,  component  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  to  m e n t ,  i t  s h o u l d  i t s  a g r e e d i n  UHF  o r g a n i z a t i o n  among  was t h e  s e c o n d drawn  UHF  f r o m  f o r m e d  t o  w o r k s h o p 43  c o o p e r a t i v e s  p r o v i d e  c o o p e r a t i v e s  i n  u n t i l  an t h e  i n -  21  O c t o b e r T h a t  m e m b e r s h i p  summer,  o p e r a t i v e s m e n t s ,  t h e  t o  d e c i s i o n s  t h e  UHF  of  s u c h  the  s e n t  the  F i r e s i d e of  a  UHF  o r g a n i z a t i o n .  To  t o  UHF  as  of  and  t h e s e  two  t h e i r  l a n d  The  and  i t s  t o  demands, t o  f o r  r o l e  was  t o  r u n t h e  t h e  f o r  c o -  a r r a n g e of e n d o r s e  r e j e c t e d  p a r t i a l l y  member  a p p l y  b o a r d .  t h e  C o m m i t t e e  e l e c t e d , a  new  l e a s e  a c t i v i t i e s  c o n c e r n  have  t h e  c o n f e r e n c e s  A c t ,  demanded  s u p p o r t  w o u l d  of  p r o v i n c i a l  p a r t i a l l y  e x p r e s s i n g  whom  s p o n s o r e d  C o m m i t t e e .  f o r  C o o p e r a t i v e s ,  e l e c t i o n  C o o p e r a t i v e s  outcome  p r o p o s a l  l e t t e r s  t h e  m a t t e r s  i n  The  d i r e c t o r s  c e n t r a l  m i t t e e  of  and  C o m m i t t e e  c h a n g e s  B o a r d ' s  b o a r d  l e d  Hoc  s o c i e t i e s " .  t h e  ed  Ad  d e b a t e  p r o p o s e d  " m o t h e r  c o n f e r e n c e  a p p o i n t -  and Ad  c o n t r o l -  Hoc  Com-  S u p e r v i s o r  a p p r o v a l  o f  o f  c o n -  * s t i t u t i o n a l By Ad  Hoc  t h i s  of  t h e  p a r t i c u l a r ,  on  h o u s i n g  m i t t e e  on  I n  1973  s t a r t s t h e  Image  were  t h e  o f  " j u s t  UHF  a s  1975,  UHF,  members  E a c h  1-2.)  t h o u g h t  t h e  o t h e r  b e .  of  n e i t h e r  H o w e v e r ,  What  s c a l e  began  H o u s i n g  the o r  g r o u p  r e a l as  was  a  UHF  B o a r d ,  f a l s i f i e d  ( R e p o r t the  the  o t h e r a  and  i n  i n f o r m a t i o n . more o f  i n t e n t t h e  Com-  h a n d ,  t h e  t r o u b l e -  be  s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d  was  t h e  v i l l a i n  t h e  o f  d i s l i k e  and  f e e l i n g s r a t h e r  c r e a t e d  and  c o n f r o n t a t i o n .  C o m m i t t e e t o  N i c o l s o n .  B o a r d  d e v e l o p e r "  On Hoc  L o r n e  UHF  p r i n c i p l e s .  Ad  t o  the  a n o t h e r  t h e  r e a l i t y ,  m i n i s t e r  f u l l  of  I n  c r e a t e d .  a  w i t h h e l d  c o o p e r a t i v e  of  H o u s i n g ,  d i s t r u s t e d  she  D e p a r t m e n t  a p p o i n t e d  i n t o  C o m m i t t e e  o f  b e t w e e n  b e l i e v i n g  the  them  M i n i s t e r  d e v e l o p e d  t h a n  h u n g r y .  t h o u g h t  d i s t r u s t  was  t h i n k  t h e  " d i s c u s s i o n s "  Hoc  m i n o r i t y .  power  o t h e r  had  Ad  c o n s i d e r e d  s e e k i n g and  t o  and  t h e  S c h m i d ,  began  B o a r d  t i m e  C o m m i t t e e  Members  T h e y  c h a n g e s ,  q u i e t  and  L o r n e  movement  N i c o l s o n  22  t o w a r d s p l e t e  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s  w i t h  g u e r i l l a  M e a n w h i l e , n o t i c e  o f  t h e  D e p a r t m e n t , was  s t r u c t u r e two  as  so  t h r e e  s e n s u s e r a l  I n  f u l l  t o  l a r  p r o b l e m s a t  g r o u p  a b o u t  f e r e n c e UHF  a  o f  o f  t h e  a t  t h e  d e m o c r a t i z e  e l e c t e d ,  e x c e p t  u l t i m a t u m ,  C o m m i t t e e  t h r e e  Ad  Hoc  C o m m i t t e e  t o  c a n d i d a t e s . o f  t h e  n o m i n a t e  A t A d  t h e  Hoc  i t s f o r  t h e  Hoc  f o r m e d  u n r e p r e -  D e p a r t m e n t  Ad  was  The  was  t h e  members  on  number  become  e n d ,  t a k e  1975-76,  f o r  UHF  UHF  t h i s  t o  t h e  UHF  and  a  members by  c o n -  O c t o b e r  g e n -  C o m m i t t e e  were  d i r e c t o r s .  r e s p e c t  r o l e  o f  members,  s i x  f u l l y  began  t o  g a i n i n g  o f  h o u s i n g  c e n t r a l  t h e  s t u d y  i n c r e a s i n g l y t i m e  g r o u p s  t o  c o n t r o l ,  examine  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  o r g a n i z a t i o n .  s e r v i c e s  t h i s  d e m o c r a t i c  a n d  f u n c t i o n s  i m p o r t a n t  had  g r e a t  i n  i m p a c t  One  The  s u c h -  T h i s  f u t u r e  on  g r o u p  M o t h e r  UHF.  t h e  Ad  p a r t i c u -  UHF  o f  t h e  and  l a t e r  d e b a t e s  d i r e c t i o n .  Ad o f  w i t h  demands  of  formed  t o  F a c e d  f o c u s s i n g  g e n e r a t e d  U H F ' s The  t o  be  t h i r t e e n  c o n s i d e r e d  was  i d e a s  of  b o a r d  w o u l d  t h a t  p h i l o s o p h y .  UHF  t h a t  t h e  com-  movement.  f u n d i n g  I n  b a t t l e ,  H o u s i n g  a c c u s a t i o n  f u n d i n g ,  composed  m e e t i n g  w i t h  t h e  of  of  a  them"  c o o p e r a t i v e  c o n t r o l l e d .  the  b o a r d  s t a t e  t h e  C o m m i t t e e  q u e s t i o n  t o  t h e  i n t o  a g a i n s t  D e p a r t m e n t  r o o t s  b o a r d  c o m m i t t e e ,  Hoc  C o o p s  t h e  " u s  c o n s i d e r i n g  a p p o i n t e e s .  a d d i t i o n  l o o k e d  g r a s s  b l o s s o m e d  an  i n  o f  c o n d i t i o n  t h a t  m e m b e r s h i p  e l e c t e d  i n t o  a  s i t t i n g  a  m i d s t  t h e  c a p i t u l a t e d  n o m i n a t i n g  u n r e s t  government  p r o v i n c i a l  B o a r d  the  t o  and  s t i p u l a t e d ,  and  t h e  and  p r o v i n c i a l  s e e m i n g  s e n s i t i v e  s e n t a t i v e  t a c t i c s  t h e  i n  q u i c k l y  Hoc  C o m m i t t e e  c o o p e r a t i v e s  and  the  i n  C o m m i t t e e  was  f o r m a l l y  S e p t e m b e r . s t r e s s e d  t h e  d i s s o l v e d The  g r o u p  need  f o r  a t  a  w a-s  s e c o n d t o  p o s i t i v e  be  c o n merged  a c t i o n .  23  H o w e v e r ,  a l i e n a t i o n  a t i o n  t h e  UHF  B o a r d :  o f  the  Ad  t i o n  The  of b o r n  F i n a l The  months  The  Y e a r new  U H F / p r o v i n e i a l  3)  UHF  v e t o  t h i s  t h e s e  a  UHF  d i d  n o t  d e m o c r a t i z -  c o n f l i c t  and  c o n f r o n t a -  A n t a g o n i s m ,  w i t h  t h r e e  k e y  t o  d i e .  C r i s i s ,  i s s u e s  i n  a n d  t h e  C o l l a p s e  f i r s t  s i x  t o  c o o p e r a t o r s  of  can  t h e  the  want  i f ,  by  was  saw  t h e t h e  d e v e l o p m e n t  u n d e r s t o o d  i n  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  w h i c h  w o u l d  t h r o u g h  c o n t r a c t ,  t h r o u g h  a  d e s -  The  c o n t r a c t  on  t h e  a v a i l a b l e  t o  t h e  v e t o  t o  p r o v i s i o n  a n t i t h e s i s a  of  b u r e a u c r a t i c  UHF  B o a r d  them  t h e  any  p r o v i d e d and  t o  t h e  of l e d  t h a t  t h e by  T h e r e f o r e a g r e e m e n t  the  d e c i s i o n  p r o j e c t . someone  a b h o r e n t  t h e  c o o p e r a t i v e  p r e s s e d s e r v i c e s  f o r o f  The a  c o u l d  t h e r e f o r  was  a g e n c y .  m i s -  UHF  s u b s t i t u t e  be  B a r c l a y  f o o l i s h  F o u n d a t i o n ,  g i v e  UHF,  f a i l u r e .  make  s u c c e s s  f o l l o w e r s  the t o  t o  a  i n  c o n t r a c t u a l  t o  t h e  d e v i s e d  c o o p e r a t i v e .  w i t h  t h e  a b l e  o f  been  o c c u r r e d  be  o p i n i o n  had  e a c h  w h i c h  c o o p e r a t i v e  The  c o n t r o l  o f  not  meek  i t  c o n t r a c t  a s s o c i a t e d  d a m a g i n g  n o t  a t i v e  make  b e s t  s u c c e s s  be  w o u l d  i n  a r e  of  be  e n s u r e  b e t t e r .  who  s t a n d a r d  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  l o s s e s  t o  t o  t a k e n  know  r e l i n q u i s h m e n t  member  i n e x p e r i e n c e .  C o o p e r a t o r s  t h e  r e l a t i o n s , w i t h  c o o p e r a t i v e  d e c i s i o n  t o  d e v e l o p m e n t  s o u g h t  c o o p e r a t i v e  f e s s i n g  t h e  D i v i s i o n ,  o v e r  r e p e t i t i o n  d e c i s i o n  t h e  o f  a f t e r  r e f u s e d  p e r i o d  c o n t r o l  t h r o u g h  own  l o n g  i s s u e s .  o r i g i n a l  new  a  f e e l i n g s  c h a n g e s  r e l a t i o n s  F o u n d a t i o n  t a k e s  o f  p r o p o s e d  of  o f  e x p e r i e n c e ,  a  e x i s t  C o m m i t t e e  d e a l t  2)  f e a r i n g  i t s  b o a r d  d e f i n i t e  t h a t  UHF:  t h e  The  t h e  Hoc  1)  c r i p t i o n  t h e  t o  1975:  of  h i s t o r y  UHF  of  c o n t i n u e d  t o  many s p i r i t :  new  new  UHF  p r o -  but  c o o p e r -  c o n t r a c t w h i c h  24  d i d  n o t  p r o v i d e  d e c i s i o n s . i t y  f o r  f o r  They  t h e i r  any  w i s h e d  own  p o s s i b i l i t y  o f  t o  c o o p e r a t i v e  have  a c t i o n s ,  f o r  t h e t h e  c o n t r o l  s u c c e s s  o r  of  t h e  c o o p e r a t i v e ' s  t a k e  r e s p o n s i b i l -  f a i l u r e  of  t h e  c o -  o p e r a t i v e . The  l o n g - t i m e  c o n t r o l , b i l i t y  and  of  g e n c i e s ,  t y p e s d i e m  t h e r e f o r e  the and  The  w i t h  I n  w o u l d  be  ed  p r i n c i p l e ,  members  n e v e r  a p p r o v e  c o o p e r a t i v e s UHF  was  o p e r a t i v e s on  The was of  t h e  on  d e v e l o p m e n t t h e s e t a n t  a  m i g h t  w h i c h  t o  o f  of  y e a r .  t h e  w i t h  and  o f  c r e d i -  f u n d i n g  a -  as  a  the  was  t h e  government  on  per  a p p r o v -  p r e v e n t e d o p i n i o n  i t s o f  w o u l d  f u n d i n g  the  f o r  a  and  government  w i t h h o l d  v e h i c l e  on  c r e a t o r s  d r a f t e d  n a t u r e  b a s e d  c o n t r a c t  s e r v i c e s  was  I t  was  new  w h i c h  w o u l d  o p i n i o n  t h a t  of  p r o v i n c i a l  a t t e n t i o n  away  U H F / p r o v i n c i a l  i n v o l v e  UHF  b a s i s  c o r p o r a t i o n ,  p r i n c i p l e  l a c k  t o  b e l i e f  t h a t  c o n t r o l l i n g  m o n i e s  were  not  c o s p e n t  f a i l .  t o o k  c o o p s "  t h a t  weaken  o f  d i f f e r e n t  the  c o n t r a c t  e n s u r i n g  number  c o n t r a c t  a  g o v e r n m e n t  c o o p e r a t i v e  " t u r n k e y  t h a t  T h i s  a  c o o p e r a t i v e s  t h e  i n  w o u l d  p r o v i s i o n  a  l a t e r  the  f o r  began a  s p r i n g , t o  w o r r i e d  c o o p e r a t i v e s ,  i n  t h e  o f  i t .  d e t e r i o r a t i o n  H o u s i n g  o c c u p y  by  t h a t  i s s u e  r e s u l t e d  b o a r d  B o a r d  g o v e r n m e n t .  p r o b l e m s  s u c h  u s i n g  and  p r o j e c t s  t h e  of  f u n d e d  p r o v i n c i a l  l a t e  u n t i l  UHF  o t h e r  i n c l u d i n g  b u t  of  t h e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  s a t i s f a c t o r y  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n some  o f  w i t h  d e b a t e s  t h e  h o p e d i n  the  p r o p o s e d  b a s i s .  o f  F o u n d a t i o n  e n s u i n g  b e i n g  members  on  h o u s i n g  i n  p r o j e c t s  D u n h i l l . t h e  the  M o s t  g r o u n d s  f r o m  c o n t r a c t  r e l a t i o n s .  The  o r g a n i z a t i o n  of  d e v e l o p e d  t h e  b o a r d  t h a t  c o o p e r a t i v e s :  t h e  t h e y u s e r  by  members v i o l a t e d  d e b a t e  D e p a r t m e n t g r o u p s  t o  p r o v i n c i a l o p p o s e d an  i n v o l v e m e n t  i m p o r i n  25  d e s i g n . C o n c u r r e n t l y a p p r o v a l d e l a y e d c i a l ed  f u t u r e t i o n  b u d g e t  o f  f u l l  and  t h e  F o u n d a t i o n  d u r i n g would  f u n d s be  D e p a r t m e n t b i l i t y  e v i d e n t  i t s  UHF  t o  became  of  c r i s i s  t h a t  i t  t o  w o u l d  f o u n d  and  be  A p r i l .  a p p r o v e d  of  e x p r e s s e d  of  of  t o  UHF  UHF.  f o r  t o  t h e  the to  t h e  a  g r o u p s "  ( L e t t e r  t o  UHF  f r o m  L o r n e  d a i l y  o f  U H F ' s  f i n a n a n n o u n c and  t h e  t h a t  Founda^ The  a c t u a l  h o u s i n g  l a r g e  was  c o m m i s s i o n .  t e c h n i c a l  d e v e l o p i n g  s u p p o r t  q u a r t e r  r e v i e w  a b o u t  r e c e i v e  P r o v i n c e  f i r s t  c o o p e r a t i v e and  n o t  a l m o s t  A p r i l  c o n c e r n  p r o f e s s i o n a l  coop  an  g o v e r n m e n t - a p p o i n t e d  s e r v i c e s  t h e  m i g h t  F i n a n c i a l i n  I n  s u b j e c t  by  H o u s i n g  a  i t s e l f  $40,000  f u n d e d  UHF  $237,000.  u n d e r t a k e n  " m u l t i p l i c i t y r e f e r e n c e  be  p r o v i d e  competence  M a r c h  t h a t  c a p a -  s e c t o r ,  s t a f f ,  and  p r o j e c t s  t h e t h e  w i t h o u t  N i c o l s o n ,  A p r i l  May,  n o t  15,  1975.) The p u b l i c  r e s u l t s  u n t i l  m o n t h s . c i a l l y  J u l y  make  a p p o i n t e e s on  i n  of  t h e  The  and  r e v i e w  i t s  P e r h a p s  t o  " i n  T h r e e . t h e  the  t h e  t h e  r e v i e w  w i t h i n  t h e  UHF  h o u s e "  be  i t s e l f t o  most  p l a n  p r e v a i l e d  The  g o v e r n m e n t  and  r e v i e w  had  a  w i t h  s t a f f .  r e p o r t  h e r e  i s  UHF  t h a t  d e v a s t a t i n g  c o n s e q u e n c e  s u c h  was  t h a t  summer  t h e  d e l a y on an  UHF  no  l o n g e r c o n c e n -  i n s t e a d recommend-  i n i n  f i n a n g o v e r n -  UHF  c o m p l e t e  d i s c u s s e d  e f f e c t  g i v e n  t o  e d u c a t i o n ,  t h e  made  become  d e c i d e d  The  a r e  t h e  c o n t i n u i n g  recommended  c o o p e r a t i v e  e f f e c t i v e l y  i m p o r t a n t  t h a t  y e a r s ,  and  were  t h r o u g h t  two  t e c h n i c a l  made  i n  recommeded  b o a r d  s e r v i c e s  t o  c o n d u c t e d  u n c e r t a i n t y  p r o v i n c i a l  p o i n t  a b i l i t y  r e v i e w ,  i n t e r i m .  membership  p r o v i d i n g  a t i o n s  on  and  s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g  f u n d i n g  o f  t h e  E s s e n t i a l l y  ment  t r a t e  of  C h a p t e r f u n d i n g  m o r a l e  u n c e r t a i n  r e a l i z a t i o n  and f u t u r e .  t h a t  UHF  26  c o u l d  not  t a l l y  i n d e p e n d e n t  c e n t r a l  s u g g e s t  need t h e  f o c u s  i n g ,  on  government  i f  o r g a n i z a t i o n  The  t h e  depend  and  to  UHF  of  i n t e r - c o o p e r a t i v e n o t  d e v e l o p e r , )  o f  t o b u t  to  d u c t i o n  i n  t e c h n i c a l  UHF, o f  and  t o o t h a t  s e r v i c e s T h i s  r e s p o n s e  t o  o f  r e d u c e d  t o  to  2%  of  T h i s  a m b i t i o u s  t u r e  and  Schmid t h a n  1-J-  2000  a  a r g u e d  u s i n g  u n i t s  b u d g e t  l a r g e  UHF  1000  w o u l d  be  o u t s i d e  " i n  o f  s t a f f t h e  t o  c o o p e r a t i v e p e r  y e a r )  i n  s u f f i c i e n t  i n  a  t h e  h o u s e "  c o n s u l t a n t s  i n  new p e r  o r d e r  t h a t  s u p p o r t  r e o r g a n i z a t i o n " i n  h o u s e "  t e c h n i c a l and  t h a t  t r o u b l e d  l o w  l e v e l o f  a c t  a s  t h e  a n e -  r e -  c o n s t r a i n t s a  on  d u p l i c a t i o n  m e e t i n g s .  had  a  p r e -  i n d e p e n d e n c e .  I n -  b u d g e t y e a r  UHF o f  t e c h n i c a l  was  ( l a t e r  the  was  I n  b u d g e t  b a s e d i n c r e a s -  d e v e l o p m e n t f u n c t i o n s .  i n t e r n a l  t e c h n i c a l  s t a f f  t r a i n -  s k i l l s  of  b o a r d  S c h m i d  u n i t s  t o  i n  m a r k e t .  UHF  the  change  q u a l i f i e d  r e p r e s e n t e d  f i n a n c i a l  e x p e n d i t u r e ,  the  w e l l  f i n a n c i a l  r e v i e w ,  a c h i e v e  t o  a  t o  f u n c t i o n  p r o p o n e n t s t h a t  a s  s k i l l  the  w o r d s ,  p r i v a t e  p r o m i n e n c e  e n t a i l e d  i n c r e a s e  t h a t  i n  p r o v i n c i a l  l e v e l of  t o  f e e s  assumed  e n a b l e  p r o d u c t i o n  1500  s u g g e s t e d t h e  t h e  a c q u i r i n g  The  a  a l r e a d y  and  t h a t  o t h e r  i n  c o o p e r a t i v e .  e l s e w h e r e  p e n d i n g  s t e a d  ed  c o o p e r a t i v e s  a l s o  a c t i v i t y  ( I n  and  members,  a r g u e d  t e c h n i c a l  w o u l d  t h e  l o b b y i n g  c o o p e r a t i v e s ,  h o u s e "  t h a t  on  and  b o a r d  " i n  p a r e d  a  e d u c a t i o n ,  c o o p e r a t i v e  t o -  members  s e r v i c e s ,  c o n s i d e r i n g  t h e  b o a r d  become e x i s t  m e m b e r s h i p  s t a f f  s o o n  s e v e r a l  t o  s t a f f  e x p e n s i v e ,  d e b a t e  c o n t i n u e  t o  t e c h n i c a l  t h e i r  a v a i l a b l e  have  e x p e n s i v e  a s s i s t  d e v e l o p  w o u l d  t o  l e d  c o m m u n i c a t i o n ,  d e v e l o p  t o  was  o f  and  was  i n d e p e n d e n t  e d u c a t i o n a l  c e s s a r y  s t a f f  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  The  t h e  was  o f  t o w a r d  by  UHF  F o u n d a t i o n  become  l o b b y i n g .  l a c k  t h e  r e d u c t i o n  of  s u p o r t  l e s s  s t r u c -  s t a f f . e x p e n s i v e  e x p e r t i s e  was  27  n e c e s s a r y The t h e  i f  b a s i c  c e n t r a l  t i v e s  on  c o o p e r a t i v e s d i f f e r e n c e  B o a r d  r e s o u r c e  p o o l  d e c i s i o n  m a k i n g ,  e r a t i v e s  were  b e r s  who  had  t i v e  d i r e c t o r ,  m e a n i n g l e s s  v i c e s . o f  two  t o  more been  a r o s e  t h a t  UHF  b e l i e v e d  a d d i t i o n , e x p e r t  f a c t i o n s .  of  was  be  t h e s e  and  b a s i c  s e v e r e l y  t h e  d e v e l o p m e n t s . f u n c t i o n s  c o o p e r a t i v e one  o f  an  I n  t h e i r  i n f o r m a t i o n  be  t h a t  made  i n  put  c o o p -  b o a r d  and  the  p h i l o s o p h y  a n y  more  i n  and  t e c h n i c a l  d i f f e r e n c e s  was  the  the  a b i l i t y  o f  e x e c u t i v e  m a n a g e r i a l  hampered  e x e c u -  between  d i r e c t i o n  f a i t h  mem-  was  t r a d e - o f f  t h e  a n d  c o n s e n s u a l  Those  r e o r g a n i z a t i o n  and  o f  r e p r e s e n t a -  o p i n i o n ,  o r i e n t e d .  members  a d v i s e ,  t o  c o o p e r a t i v e  b u i l t t o  t h e i r  s e l f - e d u c a t i o n ,  the  t h a t  had  t h e s e  T h i s  t o  p r o d u c t  b e f o r e  h o u s i n g  outcome  t h e  a c t i v i t y .  t h a n  p a r t i c i p a t i o n  m a k i n g ,  r o l e  of  p e r t a i n e d  p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  p r o c e s s w i t h  c o n t r o l  g e n e r a l ,  p o l i t i c a l  S c h m i d ,  I n  The  UHF  a t i v e s  on  f e l t  g o v e r n m e n t  s k i l l s .  w i t h  UHF  s p l i t were  of t h e  p a r t  UHF  was  d i d  a b o u t  n o t  a p p e a r e d  of  B o a r d o f  t h e  e n t e r  much  and  m e e t i n g  c o n s i d e r i n g a p p r o p r i a t e  t h e i n  t h e  c o o p e r a t i v e s  h e a v y  s e r -  d e v e l o p m e n t  o f  h a n d e d ,  g e n e r a l  t h e  B o a r d  t h a t  i t t o  was  i t  f a i l e d  p r i n c i p l e s  of  c o o p e r a t i v e  t h e  a t was  t h e  t h a n  t h e  i t  J u n e  " C o o p s  p e n d i n g  c o o p e r a t i v e s  d i s c u s s i o n s ;  a t  a c t u a l l y  the  p r o v i n c i a l  r e t r o s p e c t  of  t h e  m e r e l y  l i v i n g were  t h e  a n o t h e r e d u c a t e t o  t r a n s -  s a t i s f i e d  f e e l i n g s  m e e t i n g .  C r o s s r o a d s " , and t o  o r  These  g e n e r a l  e v e n t s  c o o p e r -  U H F / c o o p e r a t i v e s  was.  r e v i e w  t h e s e  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  who  t h u s  a n n u a l  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  c o n t i n u e d :  t h a t  l a r g e r  o p e n l y  D i r e c t o r s ,  some  t o o  t h e  of  U n f o r t u n a t e l y ,  e x p r e s s e d  theme  t h e  b u r e a u c r a c y ,  e o o p e r a t o r s  more  and  have  o p e r a t e .  w i t h  one  s t r e s s i n g  and  O u t s i d e  f e r  t h a t I n  v i e w e d  u n l e s s  e f f i c i e n c y . d e c i s i o n  t o  o r g a n i z a t i o n .  t h e  e f f i c i e n c y  were  an  The  a p p r o p r i a t e  u n k n o w i n g l y  b e f a l l  UHF  i n  even the  28  r e m a i n d e r  o f  The  t o  l o b b y i n g  e n d o r s e d  e d u c a t i o n a l ,  d e m a n d i n g  h o u s e "  y e a r .  m e e t i n g  c e d e n c e and  the  and  t h a t i n  r e g a r d i n g  m e e t i n g  t o  be  F o u n d a t i o n t r a i n i n g .  s t a f f  l u t i o n s  r e q u e s t i n g  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  t h e  s k i l l  t e c h n i c a l  r e s o l u t i o n s  was  t h i s  The  c a l l e d  when  a n n u a l  g e n e r a l  were  t h e  t a k e o v e r  a t  m e e t i n g ,  t h e  r e f e r r e d  t o  g i v e  p r e -  f u n c t i o n s  p a r t  d e b a t e  p r o v i n c i a l  t o  p o l i t i c a l  a c t i v e l y  c o n t i n u e d  i s s u e  and  UHF  i n  t h e  p o l i t i c a l  wisdom but  a  f u t u r e  r e v i e w  r e p o r t  o f  a l l  " i n r e s o -  g e n e r a l was  made  p u b l i c .  The  1975  d i r e c t o r s .  O n l y  t e e n  p o s i t i o n s  were  e l e c t e d  o f  member  was  an  UHF  t h e o f  UHF  a  the  f i r s t  i t  c l e a r  t h a t  u n t i l  g a t h e r i n g  a  image  o u t w a r d  image t h e  h e r  o p e r a t i n g  and  o c c a s s i o n a l l y  p r o b l e m  was  f r o m  t h e  f i r e  The  and  c o n v e y e d ,  t h i r -  c a n d i d a t e s  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s L a r r y  o p p o n e n t  o f  b a t t l e  W h a l e y ,  the  f o r  e x -  c o n t r o l  o f  p r e s i d e n t  t h a t had  t h e  new  i n d e e d  UHF  w o u l d  i n i t i a t e d  s t a t e d B o a r d  t h a t  He  d i s -  he  n e e d e d  c h a n g e d . have  a  f e l t t o  f e l t  d i f f i c u l t y  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  S c h m i d  c o o p e r a t i v e s  s t y l e ,  p e r s o n a l  of  the  t w e l v e  p r e s i d e n t ,  W h a l e y  o r g a n i z a t i o n  image  a p p e a r a n c e  f o r  t e n  b o a r d ,  UHF.  w i t h  i n c l u d e d  new  of  t o  t h e  b o a r d  o p e n .  management  d e s i r e  r e s u l t ,  new  r u n  t h e  t h e  s u p p o r t  a  t o  p o i n t ,  of  new  f o u n d  a  t h i s  m e e t i n g  t h a t  a  e l e c t e d  e l e c t e d  and  F r o m  be  t w e l v e  n e w l y  UHF  S c h m i d .  i n t o  the  o f  A s  t h e s e  The  a l s o  c o u l d  B o a r d .  a n d  c r i t i c  s e r i o u s  make  The  UHF  u n o p p o s e d ,  moved  had  p e r s o n s  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  c u s s i o n  an  t h e  d i r e c t o r ,  A t  U H F ' s  on  o u t s p o k e n  e c u t i v e o f  t w e l v e  m e e t i n g  a r o s e c o u l d  change  d e s c r i b e d  " a b r a s i v e " .  and by  b o t h n o t f r o m  S c h m i d  A l t h o u g h  f r o m  be  W h a l e y ' s  i m p r o v e d  h i s  t h e  u n l e s s  p e r s o n a l  h e r s e l f  as  b e l i e f t h e r e  d i s l i k e  " h a r d  c o o p e r a t i v e s  t h a t was  of  n o s e d " had  i n c r e a s e d  29  t h e i r  a p p a r e n t  b o a r d  i n  j o r i t y s t i l l  O c t o b e r  of  p r e v a i l e d . n e v e r  c o n t i n u e d  i n t e g r a t e d The b e r s  a t o  i n  t o  h e r  The  d r o p p e d , On t i o n . B o a r d  o f  n a t i o n  the  t h e i r  the  l e a d e r s h i p t o  The  was  one  was  t h e  t h e  o f  e l e c t i o n  b o a r d ,  e n g e n d e r e d  were  of  t h e a  ma-  a l i e n a t i o n  by  d i c h o t o m y  6, so  o f  J u n e  t h e  o f  Ad  Hoc  " t h e m "  s u p p o s e d  a c c u s a t i o n s  s e r i o u s l y  a n d  t o  be  t h a t  o f i s  an  r i g h t l y  ©wn  a  government  i s  d e a l t  f r o m  w i t h  was  t h e  f r a u g h t  c o n t i n u i n g  s t a f f  t h a t  h e r  U H F ' s  f o r c e d  m o r a l e  S c h m i d ' s  r e s i g n a t i o n s on By  l a c k  a b i l i t i e s .  t h e  w i t h  r e s t r u c t u r i n g  t i g h t e r ,  members  o f f i c e r .  e x e c u t i v e  a n d  memi s s u e .  UHF  F o u n d a t i o n  and  and  t h i s  of  a n o t h e r  t h e  b o a r d  p r o g r e s s .  t h e i r  d a m a g i n g  image  c o m m i t t e e  B o a r d  t i g h t e r  e x p r e s s e d  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  and  c o n d i t i o n a l  e x e c u t i v e  members  t h e  s t a f f  t e n d e r i n g  t h e  o v e r  c o n t r a c t o r s ,  image  l i t t l e  f o u r  t o g e t h e r  November  f r o m  l i k e - m i n d e d  s u r v e y  w a n t i n g  t o  w i t h d r a w a l  c h i e f  come  the  grew  made  1975 by  f a i l e d :  t o  f o u n d  r e p o r t  B o a r d  d i s m i s s a l  and  i n  t o  t h e  n o t  f o r m e d  B u d g e t s  s t a f f and  r e s t r u c t u r i n g  c o o p e r a t i v e s  S c h m i d  emanated  e x i s t i n g  management  c i s i o n  w h i c h  d i d  s t a n c e  a r c h i t e c t s ,  F r o m  D i r e c t o r s ,  of  n a t i o n ,  w e i g h t  The  November They  r e c e n t l y  c o u l d  was  image  c r i s e s . and  the  u n s e a t  r e m o v a l  T h r e e .  t e n s i o n  f i n a n c i a l  a f t e r  t h e  UHF.  recommeded.  w i t h  more  d i s s i p a t e d :  c o o p e r a t i v e s ,  C h a p t e r  t h r o u g h  a d v e r s a r y  c o m m i t t t e  o f f i c i a l s . was  l o n g  UHF  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  r e a l l y  a t t e m p t  I n s t e a d , r e s p e c t  The  i n t o  w a n t i n g  o f and  1974  c o o p e r a t i v e  C o m m i t t e e " u s "  c o n t r o l  t h e  s t y l e  a c t i o n s  o f  a b i l i t y i s  a  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  of  h e r  a l s o  a i d  m a j o r  r e s i g -  i n  o p e r a t i o n t o  r e s i g -  h e r  c o n f i d e n c e  T h e i r  t h e  i m m e d i a t e  r e q u e s t i n g  of  d i r e c t o r  t o  r e s i g n a -  added a n d  c o o p e r a t i v e s . p o l i c y  t h e  B o a r d  d e of  30  D i r e c t o r s . s p i t e  of  a c t i o n  T h i s  the  a c t i o n  p a s t  i n d i c a t e d  f u n c t i o n  came  a t t e m p t the  t o  d e g r e e  e f f e c t i v e l y  as  and  a  t o t a l  remove t o  was  S c h m i d  w h i c h  a l l  s u r p r i s e  t h e  b u t  t o  f r o m  UHF  t h e  B o a r d  o f f i c e .  B o a r d  i n c a p a b l e  The  had  of  i n s t a f f  c e a s e d  d e c i s i v e  t o  p o l i c y  a c t i o n . A f t e r  t h e  c o o p e r a t i v e some t o  s u p p o r t  members  d e v i s e  t h i s  o f  t h e  s t r a g e g y  t u r n i n g  c o n t r o l l e d t a t i v e  r e s i g n a t i o n  by  f o r  UHF.  o l d  A d  f o r  p o i n t  m a t e r i a l i z e .  The  no  v o l u n t e e r s  f i l l  t h e  d e c l i n i n g  t i n u e d  t o  As c i a l  e l e c t i o n  P a r t y .  t h e  s u p p o r t  new  t i v e  a  were  t h e  A  g o v e r n m e n t t h a t  t h e  new  h i r i n g r e a l l y  a c t i v i t y  The  f o r  t h e  government A t  s p a r k e d  some  on  t h e  " u s "  v i e w e d t o t a l l y  t h e  r e p r e s e n -  dream  f a i l e d  d i s c u s s i o n  b o a r d .  s t e p s  a g a i n s t  c a l l e d  now  become The  n e c e s s a r y  p r o b l e m s  c a l l e d  meant  r e o r g a n i z e .  e v e n t s  was  UHF?  and  t a k e  UHF,  f o r .  s e a t s  i n c l u d i n g  c o o p e r a t o r s  t h a t  w o u l d  r a l l y  The  t o  but  c o o p e r -  r e v i t a l i z e  " t h e m "  s p l i t  c o n -  e n d .  i n t e r n a l  P a r t y  T h i s  Would  t o r ,  v e r y  t h e  D e m o c r a t i c  m e e t i n g  t o  i m m e d i a t e l y  Some  b e l i e v i n g  v a c a n t  t o  was  w o r k e d  t r i e d  c o o p e r a t i v e s ,  m o n t h s .  l o n g  o r g a n i z a t i o n .  the  i f  f a i l e d  o f  movement,  November  p r e s i d e n t  C o m m i t t e e ,  c o m i n g  had  t h e  the  m e e t i n g  Hoc  t h e  t h e y  t o  movement  A  c o o p e r a t i v e  o r g a n i z a t i o n  a t i v e  S c h m i d ,  o p t i m i s t i c a l l y  t h e  t o  o f  same  o f  e a r l y went  t i m e ,  were  December  down  r u l e s  s u p p o r t  UHF  o f  i n t h e  t h e  game  the t o  were  t h e no  I f  s o ,  e x e c u t i v e  s t r u c k .  By  t h e  c o n t r o l  of  had  d r o p p e d  o f f  t h i s  t h e due  UHF t o  t i m e ,  C r e d i t k n o w n .  w o u l d  t h e y  t r y i n g  t o  c o o r d i n a h o w e v e r ,  B o a r d . t h e  New  l o n g e r  the  was  p r o v i n -  S o c i a l  v a l i a n t l y  c o m m i t t e e  a  s i t t i n g  was  p r o p o s e d ,  UHF  d e f e a t  e n o u g h ,  B o a r d  was  t h r o u g h  and  c o o p e r a t i v e s ?  p o s i t i o n  beyond  n o t  C o o p e r a -  u n c e r t a i n t y  31  o f  the  e x i s t e n c e  o f  UHF  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  S t a f f  t h e  j o b  a n x i e t y The  o f  f i n a l  p r o v i n c i a l  ment  s u g g e s t e d  t o  a p p l i e d  I t  was  t i o n  a t  i n  t h e i r  i n  t h e  t h e  o f  c o n t i n u i n g o f f  o r  g o v e r n m e n t  r e s i g n e d  b o a r d  c r u m b l i n g  H o u s i n g .  t h e  the  the  hope  l a i d  t h e  j o b  o r d e r  o f  o r g a n i z a t i o n  W h a l e y ,  t o  w h i l e  f o r  a v o i d  d e a l t  s t i l l  B o a r d  t h a t  t h i s  was  d o u b t f u l  t h a t  t h e  o f  l e v e l .  Whaley  the  t h e  B o a r d  o f f e r e d  B o a r d  w o u l d  the  r e j e c t  i t  h i s  l e a d e r s h i p ,  w o u l d  the  i n d e p e n d e n c e  o f  t h e  c o o p e r a t i v e  movement.  n o t  s u c c e e d :  a  t h e  B o a r d  The t o  of  i n t e r -  any  h i s  r i g h t  d e c l a r i n g  t h e  P r o v i n c e  gamble  r e j e c t  was  r e s i g n a -  i n  t o  o f  D e p a r t -  u n e a s i n e s s  a n d ,  i n d i c a t e  f a i l e d  The  c  had  b u t  b y ' t h e  p r e s i d e n t  c o n f l i c t  F o u n d a t i o n ,  i n  v o t e  a  D e p a r t m e n t  c o n f i d e n c e  t i e  was  c o o r d i n a t o r .  a f f a i r s  t h a t  on  i n  s u p p o r t  e x e c u t i v e  UHF  e x t r e m e l y  i n t e r f e r e  c a u s e d  to  f o r  t o  of  u n c e r t a i n t y .  D e p a r t m e n t  had  e s t .  was  b l o w  UHF,  and  d i d  h i s  r e s i g -  n a t i o n . A  m e e t i n g  H o u s i n g , S e n i o r l o n g  a  s e n t l y  C u r t i s ,  l o s t  w o r k i n g  S o c i a l  of  (  by t h e  C r e d i t  i n  b o a r d  the  new  p o l i c i e s  c o o p e r a t i v e s  w o u l d  w i t h  t h e  o r g a n i z a t i o n  W.  As  a l l  have  an  n o t  as  c o n t r o l l e d  t o  UHF  B o a r d  no  p l a c e d home  h o u s i n g  i n d i c a t i o n on  o f  i t  r o l e  was  a n y  t o  d e p r e -  i t s  c l i e n t  D i r e c t o r s ,  p r o g r a m s  a d d e d i n  had  was  by  of  UHF.  t h e y  were  g i v e n  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  o w n e r s h i p  i m p o r t a n t  o f  p r e p a r e d  and  p r o v i n c i a l  s t r e s s i n g  f a t e  r u n  W r i g h t  be  were  M i n i s t e r  s t a t e d  and  by  t o  H o u s i n g  t h e  UHF  g o v e r n m e n t ,  e m p h a s i s  o f  new  1he  i n  o r g a n i z a t i o n  2.)  w i t h s e a l e d  1976,  D e p a r t m e n t  c o n f i d e n c e  an  members  F e b r u a r y  the  ( R e p o r t  1976,  r e v i e w  M i n i s t e r  t h a t  19,  UHF  r e l a t i o n s h i p  s t r u c t u r e d  F e b r u a r y  o f  t h e i r  c o o p e r a t i v e s ) .  u n d e r  some  b u r e a u c r a t s  ago  v e l o p  Hugh  o f  by  The t o new  t h e  e x i s t i n g  t h e  doubt  h o u s i n g  32  p o l i c y .  23  t o  As  w i n d  a up  r e s u l t , t h e  t h e  B o a r d  o r g a n i z a t i o n .  of  D i r e c t o r s  moved  on  F e b r u a r y  33 CHAPTER  THE  F A L L  OF  UHF: OF  AN A  I I I  ANALYSIS  RESOURCE  OF  THE  PROBLEMS  GROUP  I n t r o d u c t i o n H a i r e i n  them  c r e a t e  s u g g e s t e d  t h e a  e l e m e n t s  s t r o n g  d e s t r o y  t h a t  o f  as  UHF,  e x p l a i n o f  the  and  o f  i n  one,  f o u n d  the  B.C.  s e v e r a l a n t i - U H F  between  —  Ad  e r a t o r s t r a c t  Hoc  UHF  t h e  p e r i o d  n o t  on  and  an  t h e  the s o l e  h o u s i n g p u t  the  —  movement. i n  due  t o  i n  the  c a s e  p o t e n t i a l  t o  The of  o f  h i s t o r y  t h i s  T h i s  —  c o n -  c h a p t e r  One  t h e  t o  d i v i s i o n  c o n f l i c t ,  i n a d e q u a c y  i n s u f f i c i e n t  the  t o  C h a p t e r  c o n t r a d i c t i o n  w i t h -  power  f o r c e .  e x i s t e n c e  f o r t h  and  t h e  t h e  g r o u p / c o o p e r a t i v e  o p e r a t i o n ,  movement.  a  the  c o n t a i n e d  o f  f u n d s .  the t e c h n i -  E a c h  h y -  UHF.  C o o p e r a t i v e s o f  and  and  d i s r u p t i v e  t i e s ,  v a l i d  l e d  to  h o s t i l e ,  C o m m i t t e e .  c e n t r e d  was  be  c o o p e r a t i v e s  s e n t i m e n t  t a t i o n the  f u n d i n g  s e r v i c e s  t o  a  h y p o t h e s e of  g r o u p s  movement  r e v e a l s  r e s o u r c e  c o o p e r a t i v e  c l i e n t  Two,  e l e m e n t s  w i t h  b r i e f  h o u s i n g  b e c o m i n g  the  government  R e l a t i o n s h i p i t s  c o n t r a d i c t i o n  d a n g e r o u s  c o o p e r a t i v e  t h r o u g h  p r o f e s s i o n a l  I n  a  C h a p t e r  s p e c i f i c  was  r e s o u r c e  by  B . C .  by  movement  p o t h e s i s  UHF  i n  the  one  the  p r o b l e m s c a l  movement  i n  e x a m i n e s ,  o f  c o o p e r a t i v e  c o o p e r a t i v e  t o l d  t r a d i c t i o n  -that  UHF  d i v i s i v e  f r u s t r a t i o n  o f  the  d e v e l o p m e n t  o f  g r o u p  c o n f l i c t  o f  a  I t s  d e v e l o p m e n t  s o u r c e  became  u l t i m a t e l y  o r g a n i z e d The  UHF  o f  t h e  a i m s  between  UHF aid  c o n t r a c t .  d i s a g r e e m e n t ,  i t  o f  s u b s t a n t i a l  d e s t r u c t i v e , o p p o s i n g  f o r c e  c o n f r o n -  c o o p e r a t o r s t h e s e  A l t h o u g h s e r v e d  a s  c o o p t h e a  c o n -  34  c o n c r e t e w h i c h  f o c u s  f o l l o w s  f o r  a c t i o n .  i d e n t i f i e s  The  t h e  a n a l y s i s  m a j o r  o f  p o i n t s  the  o f  c o n t r a c t  d e b a t e  U H F / c o o p e r a t i v e  c o n f l i c t . The  f i r s t  movement  was  t h e  F i r e s i d e  wer  unhappy  UHF,  i t s  i n d i c a t i o n  the  r i s e  w i t h  the  b u r e a u c r a t i c  t h e s e  g r o u p s  r e s u l t e d  f o r  a  d e m o c r a t i c a l l y  UHF  f o r  ment  w i t h  t h e  t h e  b o a r d s  t h e  g r e a t e r  ed  s a i d  UHF, i n  w i c h  v i c e s  of  o f  of  c h a n g e s  many The  i n  i f  s a t i s f i e d  a  s t a t e d and  a  t h a t t h a t  c h o i c e  was  t h e i r s  d i s l i k e  f o r  U H F ' s  c o n t i n u i n g  t h e y t o  s t y l e  on  i n  UHF  d i s e n c h a n t -  o p i n i o n s  t h o s e  n o t n o t  The  o f i n  c o n s u l t -  e x p e r i e n c e  w o u l d  o f  t h e  of  d i d  make.  of  p r o v i d i n g  c o o p e r a t i v e s  t h e i r  t h e y  on  m e m b e r s h i p  C o m m i t t e e  m a j o r i t y  w i t h  of  d i s s a t i s f i e d  s u r v e y e d  b a s i c a l l y  t h e  s t i l l  h o u s i n g  g r o u p s  a c t i v i t i e s  and  S p e c i a l  t h r e e  t h e s e  e m p h a s i s  t h e  C o m m i t t e e  A l t h o u g h  s e r v i c e s  were  t h e  p r e d e c e s s o r ,  c o n s t i t u t i o n  d i r e c t o r s  a r e a .  p r o v i d e d  UHF  h o u s i n g  s t r u c t u r e  i t s  t h e  t w e n t y  c o o p e r a t o r s  i n  i n d i c a t e d  d i r e c t o r s  of  and  A l t h o u g h  c o o p e r a t o r s  1975  i t s  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  of  o f  and  i n v o l v e d  t h e  b o a r d  r e p o r t  c o o p e r a t i v e  C o m m i t t e e ,  e x p e r t i s e .  e l e c t e d  B.C.  o p e r a t i o n s ,  The  i n d i c a t e d  1975,  c o o p e r a t o r s  F o u n d a t i o n .  the  UHF  Hoc  the  The  November  were  a g a i n ,  c e i v e d  i n  V a n c o u v e r  t h e y  t e n  i n  i n  Ad  t e c h n i c a l  F o u n d a t i o n .  t a b l e d  r i f t  the  s t y l e  c o o p e r a t i v e s ,  the  a  u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  and  Image,  o f  C o m m i t t e e .  p r o f e s s i o n a l  w i t h  o f  w i t h  l i k e  t h e  way  use  UHF  s e r -  comments  o p e r a t i o n s :  r e (UHF,  1-3.) UHF  has  There t h e y  i s a r e  a  t e n d e n c y t o o  much  t o  o n e - s i d e d .  v e d  more  and  n o t  o v e r  the  c a s t l e - b u i l d i n g .  i n f l e x i b l e .  Too  t a k e  E l e m e n t s  H e a v y - h a n d e d . j u s t  t o l d  how  of  c o o p e r a t i v e . UHF  has  C o o p e r a t i v e s i t  t u n n e l  v i s i o n :  e l i t i s m .  i s .  want  t o  be  i n v o l -  35  UHF  t e n d s  s i o n t h e S e v e r a l  t o  t h a t  d o m i n a t e  the  s p e c i f i c a l l y  m e n t i o n e d  s a y i n g  i t  p r o v i d e d  t h a t  a  change  i n  t h e  t h e y  had  a b o u t  The  c o n t r a c t  c o o p e r a t i v e s . an  o f  p u s h i n g a t i v e s  UHF t h e  a t o r s  o n l y  one  a  s o r e  use UHF  had  the as  a  UHF  t h e  a l t e r n a t i v e .  c o n t r a c t  b u t  P r o v i n c i a l  .  .  .  " n o  a l t e r n a t i v e "  t h e  r e a s o n i n g  The  c o n t r a c t b u t  the  i m p r e s -  r a t h e r  t h a n  o f f e n d i n g and  t h e of  p r o j e c t .  b o a r d  f e l t  s i g n  w i t h  c l a u s e s  o f  the  t o  t h e  v e t o  s i g n  were  be  of  s u p p o r t  the  Ad  of  Hoc  t o  u s e  p r o v i n c e  l a n d ,  the  c o o p e r -  c o o p e r -  a b s e n c e  t o  c o - o p  m a k i n g  s i g n " n o  t o  i s  g i v e n  t o  UHF  t h e  power  w h i c h ,  t h e  t h e a  a l t e r b e h a l f . o f i n  s u c c e s s  members  o f  t h e  m a i n t e n a n c e b o a r d  B o a r d  R e v i e w  w i t h  " n o  t h e i r  c o n t r a c t ,  a l -  d e c i s i o n s .  them  t o  s i g n -  a n y  c o n s i s t e n t  on  1,)  r e c e i v i n g  d e c i s i o n s  C o n t r a c t  t h e  w i t h  t o  u n d a t e d ,  o f  a s k e d  gave  (Memo  s e r -  o f  the  made  the  t h e  ( S i m p s o n ,  g i v e s  l a c k  f e e l i n g s  p r i o r  f r o m  t h e  Young  i s  e s s e n t i a l t h e  and  the  of  n o n - c o o p e r a t i v e  t o  w i t h  Company  d e t r i m e n t a l  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s :  b e h a l f  i n d i c a t e d  w i t h  c o n f r o n t e d  c o n t r a c t  the  on  c o n -  r e s e r v a t i o n s  s u r r o u n d i n g  c o n t r a c t  I n  Schmid  the  c o - o p UHF  C r e d i b i l i t y . f o l l o w i n g  by  t h e  c o o p e r a t i v e  the  power  a t o  t h e  v e t o  and  a  d e c i s i o n s  F o u n d a t i o n ,  S c h m i d  by  c o - o p s  a s k e d  and  l e a s e d  a f f i l i a t i o n  p r e v e n t s  a g r e e  r i g h t  t h e  w i s h i n g  p a p e r  been  w i t h  On  t o  f o r  s u s p i c i o n  has  l a n d .  a r e  o f  t h e  and  c o n t r a c t  c o n t r a c t :  b e f o r e  b u t  t h a t  w i t h  c o n t e n t i o n  c o n t r a c t  c a u s e d  a f f i l i a t e  t h e y t o  of  i t  o f  s u m m a r i z e d  i s  L o n g  t o  some  g r o u p  A  s t a n d a r d  a g r e e m e n t  t e r n a t i v e "  A  c h o i c e .  c o n t r a c t  gave  UHF  c o n t r o l ,  s t a n d a r d  c o n d i t i o n  S i m p s o n ,  to  i s s u e  e x i s t i n g  l i t t l e  Tom  much  remove  p o i n t .  a t m o s p h e r e  t h e  o p i n i o n  f r o m  o f f e r e d  o f  U H F ' s  f r o m  UHF.  p r e v a i l i n g  a t t o r n e y  t e e  w i t h  t o o  m i g h t  i n g  The  o f  w i t h  The  t h e  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  an  r e s p e c t  n a t i v e "  UHF  o f  w o r k e r ,  o t h e r  of  t h e i r  b e e n  t o  t h e y  w i t h  a  c r e a t e s  o r d e r s  l o n g  was  had use  f e l t  C a n a d i a n s '  t h e  had  Uhf  UHF  c o n t r a c t  d e a l i n g  a l t e r n a t i v e  v i c e s  UHF  t a k e s  r e v e r s e .  t r a c t ,  o f  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  c o o p e r a t i v e  of  c o m m i t D i r e c t o r s  C o m m i t t e e ,  36  6,  M a r c h  1975,  1)  1.)  Our  r e s p o n s i b l i t y  o p e r a t i v e c i s i o n 2)  The  The  on  p o l i c i n g  t h e  s e e m i n g  on  t h e s e  the  t o  a c c o r d i n g  c o u l d  The  be  w h i c h  (Ad  w o u l d  Hoc 1)  D i r e c t o r s  w h i c h  and  t h e  of  t h e  of  a t  t h e  and  the  t h e  c o -  e a r l y  d e -  n e c e s s i t y  a l l  l e v e l s  of  Govenment  c o n t r o l ;  c r e d i b i l i t y on  t o  t h e  o f  the  c o - o p e r a t i v e  r e p u t a t i o n  c o n t r a c t s f l e x i b l e  f o r f o r  i t s  of  many  t h e i r  c a p a b i l i t y  r e t a i n e d  v a r i o u s  d e d i c a t i o n  f o r  These  t h e  t h e  a n g e r e d  d i f f e r e n t  c o o p e r a t i v e  and  u l t i m a t e  m e m b e r s h i p  p r e s e n t  and  c r e d i b i l i t y  l e v e l s  g o v e r n m e n t  c o o p e r a t i v e  own  s u c c e s s  p r o v i d i n g  d e s i r e  i n e x p e r i e n c e d  a  C o o p e r a t o r s f a i l u r e  r a n g e  w o u l d  of  d e v e l o p m e n t .  o r  g r o u p s  o f  be  e a c h  The  and f l e x i -  " t a i l o r  c o o p e r a t i v e  e x i s t i n g  who  and  l e a d e r s h i p  c o o p e r a t o r s .  c o n t r a c t s  and  o f  c o n t -  r e q u e s t e d  UHF  c o n t r o l .  i m m e d i a t e l y S c h m i d  f o r  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  assume  o f  d e p e n d s  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  d e v e l o p e d .  r a c t  w h i c h  comments  b i l i t y  assume  g u i d a n c e  b e h a l f  c o n t e m p t  s e v e r a l  t o  B o a r d  dependence  t o  s u g g e s t e d  made"  of  movement  r o l e  i n  be  n o t  UHF.  The  demanded  o f UHF  d e g r e e  h o u s i n g  e x p r e s s e d  g e n e r a l  a r e  s t a g e .  d g r e e  p l a c e  o f  the  whom  c o n t i n u i t y .  The  if)  t o  o f  i n s t a b i l i t y  f o r 3)  many  members  on  the  began  t o  i n v e s t i g a t e  o t h e r s  on  t h e  p r o v i d e  UHF  n e w l y  new  B o a r d  UHF  s e r v i c e s  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r  t h e  W i t h o u t  C o m m i t t e e , t h e  c o n t r o l s  u p - t o - d a t e  be  p o s i t i o n  i n  m a t i o n  t h e o r  i n  d a n g e r  on  p r o j e c t 6,  M a r c h  g u a r a n t e e  f o r m s  f o u g h t  a l l  C o n t r a c t  i n  o f  d e v e l o p m e n t  any  f o r m  o f  b o a r d  c o n t r a c t s .  c o n t r a c t  w i t h o u t  a s s i g n i n g  t o  a r g u i n g  t h a t :  UHF 3.)  1975,  the  n o t  of  UHF  demand  s t a n d a r d  i n f o r m a t i o n  of  "democratized'.'  b e i n g  s u p p l y i n g  t o a b l e  c o n t r a c t ,  UHF  c o o p e r a t o r s . t o  s u p p l y  t h e  m i s i n f o r m a t i o n .  c a n n o t We  w o u l d i n f o r -  37  2)  I f  UHF  i s  c e n t r a l and  p r o c e s s i n g  o f f i c e ,  i n f o r m a t i o n  I t i s l i k e l y i b i l i t y .  3)  I f  a n y t h i n g  l y  damaged  k)  The  goes  was  t h e  q u e s t t h e  d r a f t i n g  o f  a  t e r m i n a t i n g  members  o f  w o u l d  be  p u t  i t s  n e v e r  g r o w i n g the  ways  a b o u t  the  i n  a  h o u s i n g g r e a t e r  U H F ' s have  a t  a c t i n g  a s  r e s p o n s i b l e  t h e  d e c i s i o n s  a l l  be  s e r i o u s f o r  UHF  c o n t r a c t , by  c o n t r o l  and  t h e r e f o r e  UHF  r e s u l t The  t h e  B o a r d  u p o n  the  end  a  o f  summer,  the  B o a r d  w h i c h  r i g h t  p r e v e n t e d  e i t h e r  p r i n c i p l e  the  c o n t r a c t the  b e t w e e n  i n  i n  o f  members  r e -  c o o p e r a t i v e  a c c e p t e d  O t h e r  a p p r o v e  the  s e r v i c e s  c o u l d  p e n a l t y .  n e v e r  a t  D i s a g r e e m e n t s  made  w i t h o u t  F o u n d a t i o n  c o u l d  r e s p o n s -  r e p e r c u s s i o n s  c o n t r a c t  w o u l d  t h e  UHF  t i m e .  p r o v i d i n g  t h i s  assume  r e p u t a t i o n  t h i s  o v e r  w i l l  s e r i o u s  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  t h e  d i f f i c u l t  p u r p o s e  can  o f  h o u s i n g  V a n c o u v e r r e n t i n g  s h i p .  n e v e r  be  b o i l e d  p e o p l e ,  t o  e i t h e r  o f  gave  make  m i s -  t h e o r y  a r e a .  f o r  b e l i e v e d  T h e i r  f a m i l i e s t h a t  t o  who were  p r i c e d  b e i n g  c o u l d  c o o p e r a t i v e s  h a d  U H F ' s n e v e r  c o n c e n e d  was  n o t were  and  s e v e r a l  d i f f e r e n c e  f a m i l y  o b j e c t i v e  who  a  UHF  d e v e l o p m e n t .  They  r e a s o n a b l y  between  down  p e o p l e  c o o p e r a t i v e .  s h o r t a g e  t o  r e l a t i o n s h i p  c o o p e r a t i v e  p r o f e s s i o n a l  a l t e r n a t i v e T h e y  o f  a l s o  c o o p e r a t i v e s  c o o p e r a t i v e s  m o s t l y  l i v e  f u l l  o r  i s  t e s t .  many  were  o v e r  to  t o  UHF  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  c o n t r a c t  o f f e r e d  d e m i s e  UHF  b e l i e v e d  P r o v i n c e  member  b e l i e f  i n  t h e  t h e  I n  e r s  and  The  t o  t h e  B o a r d  c o o p e r a t i v e  t a k e s .  c o n t r a c t  UHF  a c c e p t a b l e  b e l i e v e d  o f  the  1975  May  t h e  a n d  c o u l d  d e b a t e  c o n c u r r e n t  c o o p e r a t i v e  p a r t y  i n  t h e  w i t h o u t  w r o n g ,  movement  o f  assume  G o v e r n m e n t  w h i c h  outcome  d o c u m e n t a t i o n  w i l l  a c c u r a t e .  t h a t  c o - o p e r a t i v e  member  members  i n f o u n d -  and  w o u l d  a b o u t  the  a c c o m m o d a t i o n t o  p r o v i d e  a f f o r d  home  c o m p e t i n g  an o w n e r -  w i t h  38  o u t r i g h t v i s i o n  o w n e r s h i p .  o f  h o u s i n g  b e n e f i t s  o f  g e n e r a l ,  t h i s  who  j o i n e d  b e s t  m a j o r  t o  c o n d u c t e d  The t o  f o r  l i v i n g made  j o i n i n g  c e r t a i n  d e g r e e  of  f r o m  i n  b o t h  the  and  a t  t h i s  t i m e .  t i r e t h e s e  n o t i o n  on  o f  t h e  w i t h  b i r t h  o f  own  p u b l i c  had  the  i t  o f  t h a t  to  be  o f  the  the  o f  1975  I n  i n d i v i d u a l s  way:  s t u d y  i n  p r o -  b e l i e v e d .  n e x t  u s e r  s a t i s -  r e p o r t e d  t h e  f i n a n c i a l .  t h e  t o  B a r c l a y  UHF  f e e l i n g  made  B o a r d  t h a t  w e i g h e d  UHF  T h i s  was  by  t h e on  the  p r o c e d u r e .  To  f a t e  c e r t a i n  s u c c e s s  of  t h e  B.C.  the  s u c c e s s  o f  UHF  w a s l e g i t i m a t e  i n  t h e  t h i s  o f  t e n u r e  d e m o n s t r a t e d  v i a b i l i t y  b e f o r e  1973  g o v e r n m e n t s  amendments  c o m p l e t e d  of  t o  new  w o u l d  the  c o o p e r a t i v e s  NHA"  c o n s i d e r and  l e s s e n e d  t h e t h e  F o u n d a t i o n o v e r  o f  the  e n -  s h o u l d e r s , and  e x t e n t ,  c o o p e r a t i v e  f o r m  t o  e v i d e n t  s t r u c t u r e  the  The  h o u s i n g  a  had  hung  t h e i r  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  gave  t h a t  C o o p e r a t i v e  b e l i e f  r i g i d  d e v e l o p m e n t  a  s t a t e m e n t s  movement  a  e a r l y  i n e x p e r i e n c e .  t h e i r  c o o p e r a t i v e  gave  y e a r s .  c e s s f u l l y  t h e y  UHF  p a t e r n a l i s m ,  i n  C o m b i n e d  h o u s i n g  t h a t  the  UHF  a p p r e c i a t i o n  i n d e p e n d e n t  n a t u r e  t h e i r  f a i l u r e  c o n t r o l l e d  depended  e v e r ,  The  f a c t o r s  t i g h t l y  e a r l y  c o n t r a c t  b o a r d .  B.C.  saw  of  up  m a j o r i t y  c o o p e r a t i v e  p r o f e s s i o n a l  c o o p e r a t i v e s  UHF  An  The  a u s p i c e s  t h e  p r o t e c t  the  s e n s e .  An  s e t  f o l l o w ,  c e r t a i n l y  the  who  g o a l .  w o u l d  o w n e r s h i p . u n d e r  women  1975.)  h i g h l y a  and  p r i m a r y  c o o p e r a t i v e s home  r e a s o n  men  t h e i r  o b j e c t i v e  UHF  ( D a v i d s o n ,  r i s e  a s  c o o p e r a t i v e  t h i n g  f a c t i o n  The  a the  movement  F o u n d a t i o n ' s had  s u p p o r t i n g  g r o w i n g  t o i t .  number  n e c e s s i t y  be  f o r  How-  o f  s u c -  s t r i c t  c o n t r o l * '  The o f  c o o p e r a t o r s  c o o p e r a t i v e  o f  t h e  h o u s i n g .  To  Ad  Hoc  t h e s e  C o m m i t t e e p e o p l e  the  had  a  d i f f e r e n t  p r o c e s s  o f  v i e w  c o o p e r a t i o n  39  was  a s  i m p o r t a n t  a t i v e  h o u s i n g  i n e l y  i n v o l v e d  t h e s e  p e o p l e  g r o u p s , t a n c e  o r  on  o t h e r s  t h e  a t  b o a r d  n i c a l  i n  the  p r o d u c t i o n  o f  t h e  i n v o l v e d  b o a r d  the of  c r i s e s .  the  a c t i o n  outcome  v o t e  any  t h e  c a t i o n a l  t o  r o l e . t o  w h e r e b y  h o u s i n g  f e r e n c e  o f  v e l o p m e n t members a  be  t h r o u g h  m o r t g a g e  by  the  on  l e a r n i n g  p r o c e s s  a p p l i c a t i o n  Most  e v e r y t h i n g  t h a n  UHF  t o  " i n  t r a n s f e r e d a f t e r  i s s u e  h o u s e "  t e c h -  p e r m i t t e d q u i c k  t h i s  o r  even  o f  f u n d -  t a b l e d  a c t i o n ,  s t r e n g t h  s a y ,  was  o v e r  the  U H F ' s o r  i m p o r t a n c e  and  was  t h e  e a c h  c o n s t a n t  f a c t i o n  combat  e f f e c t i v e l y .  d e b a t e  c o o p e r a t o r s  g e n e r a t e d .  a b o u t  t i m e  c o o p e r a t i v e l y  t h e  w i t h  c o o p e r a t o r s  r e l a t i v e t o  i m p o r -  and  r e q u i r i n g  c o o p e r a t i v e s  were  Some  c o o p e r a t i v e .  c i p a t i o n  by  a b o u t  t h e  a c t  d i s a g r e e m e n t  g o a l s  w o r k .  t o  c o n t r a c t  o c c u p i e d  d p i n i o n  the  g r e a t  i s s u e  o f  g e n u o f  c o o p e r a t i v e s ,  n o t i f y i f  b e i n g  w o r k i n g  s p l i t ;  q u e s t i o n  out  o f  on  c o o p e r -  community  l e v e l s  t h i s  of  Many  p l a c e d  b e n e f i t s  d i s a g r e e d  t o  o f  s h e l t e r .  t h u s ,  " t u r n k e y "  when  on  own  e n e r g y  the  of  a t t r a c t i o n  c o o p e r a t i v e s ,  t h e  N e e d l e s s  a b i l i t y  the  The  h o u s i n g  g r o u p s  m a t t e r s  d e p e n d e d  p o s s i b i l i t y  1974,  i n  drawn  m e e t i n g .  b o a r d ' s  S e c o n d a r y  were  i m p o r t a n t  p a r t i c u l a r  r e d u c e d  as  t h e  and  h i g h  c o n t r a c t ,  s u c h  D e c i s i o n s  t h e  two  d e s i r a b i l i t y  I n  o f  t h e  e l e c t i o n s The  main  t h e i r  p r o j e c t s ,  and  The  consumer  c o o p e r a t i n g ,  g a i n ,  i n d e f i n i t e l y .  a t  o f  l e v e l .  s t a f f ,  i n  s e l f - h e l p  m e e t i n g s :  s t r a t e g i e s i n g  but  s p i r i t  b o a r d  r e s u l t .  f i n a n c i a l ,  m u t u a l  A f t e r  end  n o t  were  t h e  t h e  was  o t h e r  f o r  t o  a s  to  t h e  c o o p e r a t o r s ,  —  UHF  r e n t s  w h i l e  f r o m  s c r a t c h ,  w a n t e d  g e n e r a l l y  o f f e r e d .  They  —  t o  f r o m  p r o c e s s t o  o n l y  f i l l i n g  s h o u l d  be  n o t  UHF  d i f d e g u i d e i n  l e a r n e d i n s i s t i n g  m e a n i n g f u l  a c c u s e d  a  U H F ' s  s h o u l d  p e r h a p s more  i n  e d u p r o d u c e  a  l e d  e d u c a t i o n  e v e r y t h i n g  d e t e r m i n i n g  U H F ' s  f a c i l i t a t e  a c h i e v e d of  of  f u n c t i o n  b e l i e v e d  t h a t  i s s u e  o f  p a r t i -  40  m y s t i f y i n g u i n e  t h e  t r a n s f e r  i n d i g e n o u s wanted  d e v e l o p m e n t o f  t a l e n t  more  tiian and  o f  b o a r d  the  UHF  a t i v e  o f  ment  f r o m  f r o m  UHF,  h a v i n g  t h e  as  an  were  d i v i d e d  b e t w e e n  f u l f i l l  c o o p e r a t i n g a  f o r  engaged became s i t y ,  a i n  a  a l t h o u g h  g r o u p  UHF  c a t e r e d .  ment  t o  c o o p e r a t i v e  a l l  a  was  v o c a l As  p h i l o s o p h y  s k i l l  e a c h  c o o p -  d e v e l o p -  t r a n s f e r  of  the  s i m p l y  c o o p e r a t i v e who  o t h e r  had  and  p r o j e c t  out  The o f  l i v i n g ,  and  f r e q u e n t l y  t o t a l  was  n o t  u s e  UHF  o f UHF  p e r s o n s  most  s u b s t a n t i a l  d i d  o f  p e o p l e n e c e s -  commited i t  p r e t h o s e  f i n a n c i a l  'and  p r i -  b e c a u s e  c r i t i c s  s t a t e d , o f  t h e m s e l v e s  b e t w e e n  t h e  i n  a  c o n f r o n t a -  d e f i n i t e  c o o p e r a t i n g  p r e v i o u s l y  w i t h  a  h o u s i n g  a  w o r d s ,  m i n o r i t y ,  i n t e r e s t e d  C o o p e r a t o r s  c o o p e r -  c o o p e r a t i v e s  i d e a l s .  c o o p e r a t i v e  saw  " s t o r a g e  c o o p e r a t i v e  The  p r i m a r i l y  became  They  p r e v e n t e d  n o t  t h o s e  c e r t a i n  h o u s i n g .  o f  and  t o  members  d e v e l o p  a s p e c t s  t h o s e i n  w a n t e d  Some  the  t o  i n  t h e  d e l a y .  i n t o  and  r e a s o n s  most  b e n e f i t s  i n  above  need  t o  o f  c o s t l y  went  c o o p e r a t i v e s  and  p o o l ,  i n v o l v e d  o w n e r s h i p :  a l b e i t  p h i l o s o p h y t h a t  and  who  commitment  l a t e r  n e c e s s a r y  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  f i n a n c i a l  i n  t i m e  t h e y  a s  g e n -  c o o p e r a t o r s  p r o c e s s .  r o l e  t h e  u n d e r u t i l i z i n g  c o m p r e h e n d .  p r o c e s s  d e s c r i b e d  t h o s e  c o o p e r a t i v e  to  i t s  p a r t i c i p a t i o n  h o u s i n g  m i n o r i t y ,  i n v o l v e d  the  The  the  by  u n d e r t a k e  h o u s i n g :  i n f o r m a t i o n  l e a r n  c o o p e r a t i v e  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  r e m a i n e d  and  i n  t o  These  d e v e l o p m e n t  d i f f i c u l t  u n n e c e s s a r y  UHF  f o r  an  and  o f  e x p e r t i s e  b e g i n n i n g .  between  f e r e n c e  as  c o n f r o n t a t i o n  t o  the  t h i s  t o  t i o n  m a r i l y  p r o d u c t i o n  and  f a i l i n g  c o o p e r a t i v e .  F o u n d a t i o n  c o o p e r a t i v e  v i e w e d The  the  i n f o r m a t i o n  e x t e n s i v e was  f o u n d  o f  h o u s i n g .  e r a t i v e  mere  by  c o o p e r a t o r s  t h e  d e - m y s t i f y  u s e f u l n e s s  h o u s e "  t o  w i t h i n  t h e  u n d e r s t a n d t h e  s k i l l s  p r o c e s s  t o  t o  the t h i s  c o m m i t s e r v i c e s  41  n o r o f  d i d t h e  t h e y Ad  Hoc  g r o u p s .  As  p e o p l e ,  u s e d  t i e s and  need  t o  c i p a l i t y  was  t o  s u p p o r t  c a l l e d  on  t h e  s i g n a t i o n , s t a n d  I t  and  w h i c h  i n  c e t a i n l y  e x p a n d i n g  s u p p o r t  H o w e v e r , c o o p e r a t i v e s g r a i n e d  t h i s was  by  b o a r d  i n  1975  t i v e s  h a d  t h i n g  a p r t  the  o n l y o f Ad  f r o m  i n  o f  been  f o r  t h e  b e t t e r  l e v e l s  o f  of  a n d  t h e  c o n t r o l  o f  t h e m s e l v e s ,  i n  r o l e .  UHF, a s  q u a l i -  s t r o n g - w i l l e d h a n d ,  t h e s e s u c c e s s -  p r o v i n c e  t h e  o r  when  W h a l e y  a c t i o n  a f t e r  S c h m i d ' s  b o a r d  l e v e l  t o  t h e t o  m u n i -  c o o p e r a t i v e s  f o l d i n g :  r e -  make  a  g o v e r n m e n t .  c o o p e r a t i v e  combat  UHF,  movement. e n e r g y  o r g a n i z i n g  new  a c t i v i t y  i n t o  c o o p e r -  l a c k  UHF.  and  o t h e r l o b b y i n g  o f  p a t t e r n  1974  and  t o  o f  be  among t h e  f o r  a f t e r t o  h o u s i n g  d e e p l y  c o n f r o n t a t i o n  c o n t i n u e d  e v e n  c o n t i n u e d  enemy  u n i t y  C e r t a i n l y  T h u s ,  t h e y an  These  i n v e s t e d  and  h o s t i l i t y  l a r g e  aware  g o v e r n m e n t .  t o  C o m m i t t e e  '  d e v e l o p t h e  c o o p e r a t i v e s ,  due  a  t o  T w i c e  i n  w a s t e d  h o u s i n g  t h e  p r o v i n c i a l  f o r c e  l i m i t s  p o l i t i c a l l y  o t h e r  t h a t  the  p a r t  Hoc  a b l e  f r o m  a t  d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n  p l a y e d  f u l l  a l l  i t  them  b e i n g  t h e  w i t h i n  f r o m  f e e l i n g s  g e n d e r e d  e n e r g y  the  members  c o o p e r a t i v e  a c t i o n .  w i t h  l a n d .  r a l l y  d i v i s i v e  have  were  them  t o  On  The  v a r i o u s  i n i t i a t i n g  c l a s h e d  p r e v e n t  a s k e d  a  w o u l d  e n t e r p r i s e s  g r e a t e r  l e a s e  o f  p r o v i d i n g  i n t e r f e r e n c e  much  and  g r o u p s .  a g g r e s s i v e ,  S c h m i d .  c a s e ,  and  he  became  c o o p e r a t i v e s , a t i v e  when the  UHF  r e s u l t e d  t o  UHF  l e a d e r s  g r o u p s  c o o p e r a t i v e s  a g a i n s t T h u s  any  w i l l i n g  f a i l e d  of  o t h e r  a c t i v e ,  l e a d  t h e i r  i n  the  f r e q u e n t l y  l e a d e r s h i p  UHF  as  t h e  were  the  t h e y  meant"!;that  w i t h o u t  much  were  t h e y  t a k i n g  t h a t  a g g r e s s i v e  f u l l y  a s  C o m m i t t e e  l e a d e r s  e n s u r e d  q u a l i t i e s  them  v i e w  a t  s u s p e c t e d  e n -  t h e  t h e i t  i n -  c o o p e r a a s a t  somea l l  42  t i m e s . ment  N o n e t h e l e s s ,  had  c a s u e s  1)  The  o t h e r  t h i s  w i d e r  The  l a c k  a t i v e s  UHF  as  a  F o r  o r  c o u l d  o r g a n i z i n g t i o n .  a  The  been  b e t t e r  s u c h  as  i n g ,  that,  the  were  I n  a  F i n a l l y  and  u n i t y  on  o f  t a c k l i n g  movement was  of  UHF  t h e  t o  among  c o o p e r -  a b o u t  f o r  s k i l l  by  t o  t h e i r  of  t h e  l o w  a f t e r .  These  p r o b -  i n f o r m a -  c o u l d were  have p r o b l e m s ,  p o l i t i c a l i n  s o l u t i o n  o f  l o b b y -  t h a t t o  i n a c t i o n  l e v e l  n o t  c o o p e r a t i v e s  S u r e l y  t h i s  use  f o r  e x c h a n g e  and  move-  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s  t h e  T h e r e  own  s e l f - h e l p ,  l o o k e d  m a t t e r s  y e a r s .  t o  UHF  t r a n s f e r .  t h e s e  s u r p r i s i n g l y  blame  tha-lack  p r o b l e m .  two  t e n d e n c y  have  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s ,  on  a b o u t  c o o p e r a t i v e  t h e i r  d i r e c t l y  on  o r g a n i z e d  b a s e d  i n -  w o r r y  l i t t l e  t h e  w o r k s h o p s  a c t u a l  a b o u t  have  o f  c o u l d  a b o u t  l a c k  h o l d i n g  t h e  knew  t e n d e d  r e m e d i e d  e d u c a t i o n ,  t h e r e  a s p e c t s  t h e y  a t t a c i n g  t o  of  o t h e r s .  c o m p l a i n e d t h e  t i m e  c o m m u n i c a t i o n  e x a m p l e ,  t h a t  q u i c k l y  c o u l d  of  c e r t a i n  a b o u t  s p e n t  r e a l  f o r  p r o b l e m s  movement.  c o o p e r a t i v e s  c o m p l a i n e d  c o o p e r a t i v e s  z l i n g .  and  i n a d e q u a t e  p r o b l e m s .  a r e  n e w s p a p e r  u s e d  p h i l o s o p h y  m a k i n g  l i t t l e  c o o p e r a t i v e s  o p e r a t i o n s  The  been  o f  most  u n e x p l a i n e d ;  e f f o r t  move-  c o o p e r a t i v e s  d e v e l o p m e n t  them  t h e  means  c o o p e r a t i v e s  have  l e f t  o f  t h a t  t h e r e  a m o n g - c o o p e r a t i v e s  and  h o u s i n g  c o o p e r a t i v e ,  o v e r w h e l m i n g  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  e x a m p l e ,  l e m s  any  s c a p e g o a t .  u n d e r t a k i n g  and  meant  r e m a i n  c o o p e r a t i v e  d i f f i c u l t .  o f  summary,  t h a t  same  t h e  e d u c a t i o n  d i f f e r e n t  t h e  c o n c e r n s  p r o b l e m s  ment  o f  of  a s :  c o o p e r a t i v e  c o o p e r a t i v e s  t h e  d i s u n i t y  s u c h  b e t w e e n  f r e q u n e t  d i v i d u a l  UHF,  of  members i s s u e  The  I n  t h a n  w i d e l y  among  3)  i n t e r n a l  i m p o r t a n c e  v a r i e d  2)  t h e  t i m e  t h e s e i s  p u z -  c o o p e r a t i o n  k3  among  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  i n d i v i d u a l  C o o p e r a t i v e s  i n t e r e s t s  i n  movement  o f  b e n e f i t  a t t i t u d e  o f  c o o p e r a t i v e  c y  c o n c e r n s  and  f r o m  t o  t h e  a c t i o n s  of  p e n s i v e  h o u s i n g  w h i c h  c o o p e r a t i v e  c o o p e r a t i v e t o  many  UHF  o f  R e l a t i o n s h i p U H F ' s  a  c a s e  o f  v i n c e ' s  m i x e d  t h e  r e s p o n s i b l e s i n c e  1972.  The  a  g r a n t  r e d u c e  m o r t g a g e  p o s s i b l e  f o r  of  UHF  s u c c e s s f u l The  the  t h e  a l l  p o l i -  c o o p e r a t i v e ,  e x c e s s i v e l y  o f  t h e  e x -  l i m i t e d  b u i l d i n g  s u b s t a n t i a l  a  s t r o n g  amounts  o f  what  c o o p e r a t i o n .  t h e i n  i s  l i t t l e  h o u s i n g and  t h e  l e a s e  I n  s p e e d  up  t r u l y  doubt  t h e  P r o -  t h a t  the  l a n d  o f  UHF  a c q u i s i t i o n was  c o o p e r a t i v e s  a t  h%  and  the  c o s t  of  t h e  p r o j e c t  e a r l y  e a r n i n g  was  f u n d i n g  h o u s i n g  c a p i t a l  g o v e r n m e n t  t h r o u g h  t h e  of  l a n d  o w n e r s h i p . to  t h e  v i e w  own  w i t h  p r o v i n c i a l  g r o w t h  h o u s e h o l d s  s e r v e d  t h e i r  t r o u b l e  by  t o  p l a n n e d  r e q u i r e s  g r a n t ,  r a p i d  of  t e n d e d  p o r t i o n  a s i d e  c o o p e r a t i v e  e v i d e n t  o f  who  the  T h e r e  y e a r s  l e s s  t h a n  a d d i t i o n , the  o f  t h e  B.C. i m p a c t  u s e d  p r o j e c t , p e r  p r o v i n c i a l and  i n  h i g h  $10,000  p r o c e s s  l a r g e l y  t o  to  made  annum  s u p p o r t e n s u r e  to and  i t s  c o m p l e t i o n .  P r o v i n c e  c h a n n l e d  r e q u e s t i n g  a i d  The  f u n d e d  i n  t h u s  i t  w i t h  i m p a c t  10%  who  l a r g e  p u t  P r o v i n c e  c o o p e r a t i v e s P r o v i n c e  o f f i c i a l  a  t o  s t r o n g e r  q u i t e  i n g r e d i e n t :  p a y m e n t s  c o o p e r a t i v e  f u n d i n g  t h a t  p r o v i n c i a l  of  a  members  c o o p e r a t i v e  t h e  r e l u c t a n t  p e r s p e c t i v e  b l e s s i n g s .  f o r  g r a n t ,  e n j o y  i s  w i t h  h i g h  was  P e r h a p ©  r a r e  of  T h i s  c l a i m e d  r e l a t i o n s h i p  s u p p o r t  p r o g r a m ,  i t  a  b u i l d  c o o p e r a t i v e s  f u n d s .  i s  to  b o a r d  some  movement us  a l l .  n a r r o w  the  CMHC  o r d e r  were  a g e n c y  e n s u r i n g  UHF  p o l i c i n g  i t s  s u p p o r t  f r o m t h e  the  b e l i e f  c o o p e r a t i v e s  c o o p e r a t i v e s  w o u l d  n o t  t h r o u g h  UHF  g o v e r n m e n t t h a t on  i t  t o  the  w o u l d  b e h a l f  f l o u n d e r  by  o f  a n d  a c t t h e  was£e  r e f e r r i n g F o u n d a t i o n . as  a  s e m i -  g o v e r n m e n t p u b l i c  kk  money. t i v e  I n  h o u s i n g  UHF  d i d  n o t  B o a r d , a  a d d i t i o n , away come  t o  r e s t r i c t i o n s o f  g o v e r n m e n t m i n e d .  the  o f  c r e a t e d  t h e  f u r t h e r  by  o f  I n  t h r e e  a  c o o p e r a t i v e s ,  c a l  s t a f f ,  ment  and  r e s u l t i n g  ( L e t t e r  to  UHF  D e p a r t m e n t o f was  whom,  of  i n  tween  t h o s e  t h o s e  who  a  e f f e c t  r e v e a l e d  s u b j e c t  a  t o  U H F ' s  number L o r n e  was  UHF, and  w i t h h o l d i n g  t h a t  by  UHF  was  g o v e r n m e n t  t h e  d e t e r -  i n  c r i t i c a l  two  see  UHF  o f  t o  w i t h i n  t h e s i t u a t i o n  o f f i c i a l  t h e  was  t h e  F o u n d a t i o n  The  f i g h t i n g  a t  t o  g r o w i n g  p r i m a r i l y t o  M i n i s t e r  e x -  p r o v i d e  s e r v i c e s  to  t h e  t h e  a  B o a r d ,  B o a r d ,  t h e  moveUHF.  The one  D e p a r t m e n t .  h o u s i n g  t h e  t e c h n i -  w i t h o u t  1.)  on  t h e  and  c o o p e r a t i v e  UHF  t h e  s p l i t  f a c i l i t a t e  t h e  t h e  1975,  o f  w i t h h o l d  F o u n d a t i o n ' s  d e v e l o p i n g 15,  A p r i l  a p p o i n t e e s  t h e  t o  p r o f e s s i o n a l  c o o p e r a t i v e s  s e n i o r  d e c i d e d  r e v i e w ,  t h e i r  d i s s e n t i o n of  a  t o  of  N i c o l s o n ,  had  t h e  c a p a b i l i t y  competence  t h o u g h t  w i t h  i n t e r f e r e n c e  H o u s i n g r e v i e w  a u t h o r i z i n g  i n t e r n a l a  assume  i n t e r f e r e n c e  were  i n  UHF  UHF.  UHF  p o s i t i o n  i d e a l s .  a r e  UHF  t h r o u g h  o f  the  p r i o r i t i e s  c o n c l u s i o n  government  o f  B e l l ,  wanted  of  t h e  o f  d e a l  T h i s  p o l i c i e s  D e p a r t m e n t  H o u s i n g  who  i t s  UHF.  c o o p e r a -  f u n d i n g  t h a t  s e t t i n g  of  t h e  f r o m  L a r r y  t h u s  e r a t i v e  i n  c o o p s " ,  r e v i e w  l e t t e r  the  i n s i s t e n c e  t h e  t h a t  The  c o o p e r a t i v e s  t o  on  r e f o r m a t i o n  m a n i p u l a t i o n  of  the  H o u s i n g .  f u n d s ,  c o n c e r n s :  t h e  a l l  a c t i o n  of  F o u n d a t i o n  1975  f u n d i n g  t h a t  f e e ,  " t u r n k e y  and  r e v i e w  o f  f o r  a t t a c h e d :  c o o p e r a t o r s  and  t h e  A p r i l  o p e r a t i o n s , p r e s s e d  many  e x t e n t  o p e r a t i o n s  D e p a r t m e n t  development  f i n a l l y  c o n t r o l l e d  The  I n  the  b o a r d ,  l e d  r e q u e s t s  s t r i n g s  s p e n d i n g  and  P r o v i n c e  the  i n s i s t e n c e  on  f u n d i n g ,  t h e  o f  r o l e ,  a p p o i n t e e s  f r o m  d i v e r t e d  w i t h o u t  r e d u c t i o n  p o l i c i n g  UHF  B o a r d  b e -  d e v e l o p e r  g r o w t h  o f  s u b s e q u e n t  B e l l  and c o o p -  d e l a y s  k5  and t a b l i n g of decisions, the discursive debates on cooperative philosophy, and the r e s u l t i n g i n a b i l i t y of the Board to function as an e f f e c t i v e policy-making body did not escape the attention of the Department of Housing.  The question of the a b i l i t y of the  Board of Directors to direct the a f f a i r s of the Foundation as important a reason for the review of UHF  was  as any of the reasons  stated e x p l i c i t l y i n the Minister's l e t t e r . The o f f i c i a l terms of reference f o r the study were: to the-Board of Directors by P. de Chazal, May  (Report  1 3 , 1975, 2.)  To 'Carry out a review of the financing and management of the e x i s t i n g co-op housing development program administered by UHF; to make recommendations to the Minister f o r the future development, financing and management of the co-operative housing program. The three person review committee spent several days i n discussions with UHF  s t a f f and Board members going over prepared b r i e f s and  budgets, learning about s t a f f problems, and attempting to assess the adequacy of UHF  services.  The r e s u l t s of the review were not made known u n t i l July 2 5 , 1975, leaving the fate of UHF v i r t u a l l y up i n the a i r f o r three months.  The disrupting e f f e c t of the review was s i g n i f i c a n t .  many ways i t represented the beginning of the end f o r UHF.  In  The  i n a b i l i t y to undertake long-range planning with the continuing funding c r i s i s d i c t a t i n g constant budget revisions severely harmed the Foundation both i n terms of morale and i n terms of generating new business. The review committee reported that they were imporessed by the success of cooperative housing to provide adequate yet modest accommodation to people with low and moderate incomes without  46  i n c u r r i n g f u r t h e r The ed  s t i g m a  g o v e r n m e n t  c o m m i t t e e t o  and of  t h e  p a r  mended  UHF  as  f o r  and  t h e  UHF  management  t i o n s  much  i t s  t h e  1)  r e v i e w  The  g u i d e l i n e s  as i n  i n  r o l e  b u t  the t h e  f o r m a t i o n  e x p r e s s e d o f  r o l e .  most  The  r e p o r t  o f  a d d i t i o n ,  t h e  a l l o w of  p r o m o t e r r e p o r t  of  com-  c o o p e r a t i v e s  d o u b t  a b o u t  s u s t a i n i n g  w e r e :  be  e n c o u r a g e m e n t  t h e  i m p o r t a n t  t h e p r o j e c t  recommenda-  ( D e p a r t m e n t  t h e  t o  a  f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l  c o o p e r a t i v e  c o o r d i n a t e  h o u s i n g  o f  a c t i v i t i e s  and  c o o p e r a t i v e  s u c c e s s  a p p r o v a l  o f  m o r t g a g e  f u n d s ,  l e a s e ,  a  r e c o g n i t i o n  s a r y  r e s o u r c e s  t h a t  t h e  t h r o u g h  P r o v i n c e  t h u s  c o m m i t t e e  t o  i n g ,  a c c e p t a b l e  haps  r e s i d e n c y  p r o v i d e  up  o r d e r  c a p i t a l  t o  c o m p l e x i t y  p r o j e c t  t o  t h e  s t a r t s .  A l l  of  w i t h  l a n d  t o  and  CMHC's  a  was  s u g -  minimum  of  and  s u c h .  t h e  n e c e s -  was  hoped  mortgage  f i n a n c i a l  c o m m i t m e n t s .  t o  p r o j e c t  s t a n d a r d s , w o u l d  f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l  and  o f  c o n t r a c t s ,  I t  t o  f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l  r e s p e c t  s i z e  a  c o o r d i n a t i n g  c o o p e r a t i v e s  t h e  and  g o v e r n m e n t .  The  p r o j e c t  f a c i l i t a t e  r e q u i r e m e n t s  o f  match  q u i d e l i n e s  l e v e l s ,  t o  l e v e l s  a b l e  r e q u i r e m e n t s .  i n f o r m a t i o n i n  be  d e v e l o p income  t h e  s e v e r a l  w o u l d  s p e e d i n g was  o f  and  p l a n n i n g  e n s u r i n g  l a n d  p a r t n e r s h i p  p r o g r a m ,  of  was  c o m m i t t e e  o f  means  T h i s  and  the  p r o g r a m .  movement  the  c a p a b i l i t y  c o m m i t t e e  f o r  a  l a n d  i n I n  members,  e s t a b l i s h m e n t  g e s t e d  t o  i t s  c o n s t r u c t i o n  c o m m i t t e e  f u n d s  UHF  r o l e  t e c h n i c a l  p e r m a n e n t  d e l a y  t h r o u g h t  recommended  h o u s i n g  c o o p e r a t i v e  p o s s i b l e  and  1975.)  H o u s i n g ,  p r o v i d e  the  of  p r o j e c t  c o o p e r a t i v e  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  of  and  and  as  h o u s i n g  the  t h a t  e f f e c t i v e  e d u c a t i o n  o f  of  f u n d i n g  h o u s i n g  d e v e l o p m e n t  p u b l i c  s u p p o r t  p a r t i a l  v a l u e  a  recommended  d e v e l o p  l i m i t e d  of  be  s c h e d u l and  p e r -  r e q u i r e d  c o o r d i n a t i n g  p l a n n i n g  o f  C o o p e r a t i v e s  t o t a l w o u l d  k7  be  e n c o u r a g e d  d e c i d i n g  n o t  d e v e l o p m e n t o r  t o  c o n t r a c t use  a s s i s t a n c e  r e v i e w i n g  v i n c i a l  t h e  w o u l d w o u l d  UHF be  be  f o r  s e r v i c e s .  C o o p e r a t i v e s  i n f o r m e d  t h a t  no  a v a i l a b l e  f r o m  e i t h e r  one  g o v e r n m e n t  must  The  somewhat'taore  t h a n  " r u l e s "  p r o b a b l y mark  w o u l d  e r a t o r s t h e  n o t  Ad  i n  e d u c a t i o n a l  a c t u a l l y gram; dom  o f  ment  i t  some  t o  same  C o m m i t t e e . to  c o n t r o l  I t  t h e y  w i t h i n  the i f  the  t h e  way  n o t e d  t o  o r  p r o v i n c e  f e d e r a l / p r o -  t h e y  r a n g e ,  t h a t who  w o u l d  be  u n l i k e l y  t h a t  r e v i e w  a  g o v e r n m e n t  t h o u g h t movement were  t h e r e and t o  was  t h a t  p r o j e c t s  of  f o l w o u l d e a r -  the  g u i d e c o o p -  a n g e r e d  c o m m i t t e e  c o o p e r a t i v e s enough  c o o p e r a t o r s t o  were  t o  t o  c o n t r o l  a l r e a d y  c o n t i n u e  n o t  a n t a g o n i z e  a t  f o r m a l  r e s i d e n c y  l i k e l y  a t t e m p t s t h e  o f f i c i a l  c o m m i t t e e  n a t u r e t o  a d -  r e s t r i c t i o n s  and  c e r t a i n  CMHC  an  o u t  p r e f e r r e d  p o t e n t i a l  U H F ' s  w o u l d  become  s e t t i n g  c o n t r o l l i n g  t h e  as  i s  t h e y  be  income  n o r  The  have  t h e  f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l  l a n d ,  d e v e l o p  a p p e a r s  a c t i o n  a c c e p t  t h e  i n t e n d e d  b u t  by  t h e m .  a p p e a r  were  w o u l d  q u a l i t y ,  Of  g u i d e l i n e s  C o o p e r a t i v e s  p r o v i n c i a l  t h u s  t h e  c o m m i t t e e  out  f o r  and  g o v e r n m e n t  p r o j e c t  s e t  d e s c r i p t i o n  c o o p e r a t i v e s  m o d e s t " .  f u n d s  much  Hoc  The  i f  r e v i e w  as  g e t  m o r t g a g e  l i n e s  wonder  s i z e ,  r e q u i r e m e n t s .  t h e  c o m m i t t e e  p r o g r a m .  c o o p e r a t i v e  l o w  c o m m i t t e e ' s  c o o r d i n a t i n g  m i n i s t e r ,  p r o -  f r e e -  n e e d e d  r e c e i v e  to  g o v e r n -  s u b s i d i e s . The  2) was  UHF  w i t h  UHF. I n  on  to  t h a t :  s e c o n d  m a j o r  ( D e p a r t m e n t  UHF  s h o u l d  and  i n f o r m a t i o n  be  c o o p e r a t i v e s ; l y  s u s t a i n e d  y e a r  t h e  of  an  H o u s i n g ,  i n d e p e n d e n t s e r v i c e s  and by  r e c o m m d e n a t i o n  s h o u l d  t h e  f o r  1975,  the  the  c o o p e r a t i v e  p r o m o t i o n a  r e v i e w  c o m m i t t e e  3.)  o r g a n i z a t i o n  w i t h i n  f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l  of  o n e - y e a r  h o u s i n g  p a r t n e r s h i p  p r o v i d i n g and  p e r i o d  be  movement. s h o u l d  e d u c a t i o n a l  management  make  o f  e n t i r e -  F o r up  t h e the  n e x t  48  d i f f e r e n c e t h e  t i o n s . be I n  I t  s e r v i c e s  s e r v i c e s  i z a t i o n s ,  t o  o f the  b e s t .  I n  t h e s e  dence  o r  the  d e s i r e  I t  p o s s i b l e  t o  g e t  o u t  and  c a s e ,  UHF  s h o u l d  recommended  t h a t  UHF  n o t  t h a t  t h e  with  t h e  e x p e r t i s e  i t  c u t  t h e  b a c k  t h e  D e p a r t m e n t d i v i s i o n  t o  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  the  s i t u a t i o n  c o o p e r a t i v e s c o m m i t t e e t o  d i d  n o t  s c a l e  H o u s i n g ,  f o r an  t h a t  w o u l d  o f  1 9 7 5 ,  1 2 . )  p o o r  an  p u b l i c  H o u s i n g  were o r g a n -  d u p l i c a t o  f u n d  a c t u a l  b e l i e f  f r o m  i n d e p e n commitment.  become  of  a  l i a b i l -  UHF  no  H o u s i n g  t h e r e f u n d s .  c o o p e r a t i v e and  p e o p l e  i n d e p e n d e n t  h a n d :  c o n t r o l ,  d v e l o p m e n t s  of  o t h e r  c o n t i n u e .  o u t  the  t e c h n i c a l  f u n d i n g  D e p a r t m e n t  m i s u s e  D e p a r t m e n t  g o i n g  b e n e f i t  UHF  g e t  assume  a  n o t  by  B o a r d  The  c o n c l u d e d  l a r g e  w o u l d  the  w o u l d  and  t h e  f e a r e d  o b t a i n  s e r v i c e s  i n  be  D e p a r t m e n t ' s  of  o f  a v a i l a b l e  p r o m p t e d  movement  t h e  t e c h n i c a l  them  f o r  t o  d e v e l o p m e n t  was  t o  of  p r o v i s i o n  U H F ' s  t h e  i t s e l f  t h a t  w h e t h e r  t h a t  ( D e p a r t m e n t  o b v i o u s  c a l l  e n s u r e  n o t ' l e n d  o f  d e v e l o p -  o r g a n i z a t i o n s . ~  As  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  t h e  i s  d e s i g n ,  e x p e c t e d  s e r v i c e s .  t a k e  h a n d ,  be  was  i n t e r n a l  t h a t  p r o j e c t  g o v e r n m e n t  t o  g e t s .  f r o m  o r g a n i z a -  y e a r  and  i t  c o n c e r n e d  c o o p e r a t i v e  c o n t r o l l e d  w o r r i e d  o t h e r d i d  the  c o m p a n i e s  t h e  the  a g e n c y  of  r e v e n u e s o t h e r  one  t o  any  and  have  t h e and  end  c o o p e r a t i v e s  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  d e b a t a b l e  s h o u l d  r e l a t i o n  c o n s i d e r e d  UHF  l o n g e r  the  c o m m i t t e e  t h a t  t o  i s  i n  f i r s t l y  o f  i t  i t y  and  c o o p s  c o m m i t t e e  e x i s t i n g  s e r v i c e s  and  p r o v i d e  t h e  and that  UHF  UHF,  i s  t h a t  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ,  e d u c a t i o n  a t  t h i s ,  become  d u p l i c a t i o n  UHF  a t  s e r v i c e s  wanted  and  the  t i o n  b u d g e t  e x p e c t e d  f r o m  t h e s e  H o u s i n g  and  t o t a l  f r o m  c o n s t r u c t i o n  F r o m of  w i t h  t e c h n i c a l  and  t h e s e  i s  t h e  c o n t r i b u t i o n s  s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g .  p r o v i d e  a  a n d  c o n d u c t i o n  ment  b e t w e e n  f e e s ,  w i t h was  may  no no  On  way the  p r o g r a m  p r o d u c t i o n  t a r -  c o o p e r a t i v e s  k9  were obviously not the vehicle through which to launch a massive government housing program.  Perhaps then, the reason behind the  committee's promotion of independence  f o r UHF was that UHF, i n  f a i l i n g to police cooperatives or to provide the medium f o r a large scale s o c i a l housing scheme, was simply no longer useful to the Department of Housing. In conclusion, i t can be argued that the second hypothesis was found to be true. agency —  The Province o r i g i n a l l y funded UHF as a p o l i c i n g  an organization which would prevent the p o s s i b i l i t y of  bankrupt cooperatives through control of t h e i r development.  It i s  i r o n i c a l that i t was the Province who i n s i s t e d UHF democratize as i t was the newly elected members of the board which gave the Province so much trouble over the "turnkey cooperatives" and other funding r e s t r i c t i o n s .  Although the main cause of the demise of  UHF was a rupture of UHF/cooperative r e l a t i o n s , the p r o v i n c i a l government through i t s manipulation had a hand i n the a f f a i r by tipping the scales i n times of c r i s i s .  Technical Competence The f i n a l hypothesis to be examined i s the concern that inadequate funding would lead to low quality professional services. technical competence of UHF —  The  i t s actual a b i l i t y to provide support  services to the cooperative housing sector i n B.C. —  was question-  ed by the province, the c l i e n t cooperatives, architects,and contractors dealing with cooperatives, and the UHF s t a f f i t s e l f .  A full  appraisal of competence of the UHF s t a f f and an evaluation of the quality of service rendered i s beyond the focus of t h i s study and,  50  f o r t u n a t e l y p r o v i n c e , t h e  u n n e c e s s a r y  i n  r e v i e w i n g  F o u n d a t i o n ' s  r e p o r t t h i s  o f  the  d o u b t .  R e v i e w The  o p i n i o n  o f  o f  the  U H F ' s  S t a f f do  S t a f f UHF  i s  A g a i n , v i c e ;  t h i s  m e r e l y  some  of  due  the  of  t h e  t o  n o t  do  f o r  d i s c o v e r e d  o f  had  11  t h e  t h a t a  p o o r  p e r s o n s  s e r v i c e s .  Some  19.)  n o t  have  e n t i r e l y  r a t e s  f o r  the  e x p e r t i s e  t o  p r e p a r e d work  f o r  w h i c h  t h e i r  j o b .  s o m e t i m e s  a t t e m p t  to  a s s e s s m e n t s t a f f  q u a l i t y  r e l a t i n g o f  o f  technical  a d v i c e .  e v a l u a t e  t h e  q u a l i t y  of  s e r -  r e p o r t  p r e -  o p i n i o n s .  e x c e s s i v e  p r o b l e m s :  q u a l i t y  members  d e l e g a t i o n  1975,  n o t  UHF  s t a f f  p r o b l e m s  f o l l o w i n g  30,  The  i m p o r v e  and  and  c o l l e c t e d  by  a b s e n c e  May  d i d  c o m p l e t e  t o  t h e y  u n e v e n  most  s u f f e r i n g i n g ,  a n  r e p o r t  c o m m i t t e e . need  mean  t h e  b a s i s  o f f i c i a l s  t e c h n i c a l  1975,  (UHF,  t h e  B o a r d  E i g h t  o f  H o w e v e r ,  on  m u n i c i p a l  p r o v i d e  p r o f e s s i o n a l  The p a r e d  UHF  The  competence  s t a f f .  d e t a i l s  t h e  and  t h e  work.  p r o f e s s i o n a l .  p r o v i d e s  i t  of  t h i s  s t u f f .  o v e r t a x e d  c h a r g e s  i s n ' t UHF  were:  t e c h n i c a l  no  c o m p e t e n c e . n o t  done  q u e s t i o n e d  gave  c o n t r a c t o r s ,  made  a l r e a d y  p r o f e s s i o n a l  C o m m i t t e e  l i m i t a t i o n s  t h e  and  C o m m i t t e e  s h o u l d  have  d i r e c t l y  t e c h n i c a l  UHF  comments  UHF  Image  a r c h i t e c t s ,  s a i d  o t h e r s  t e c h n i c a l  s e v e r a l  c o n t a c t e d  as  i n  of May  r e p o r t e d of  w o r k l o a d s , t o  to  s e r v i c e s  1975  f o r  t h a t  t h e r e  s e r v i c e  l a c k  I n  S . S c h m i d  i s  the  of  a  d e f i n i t e  S e r v i c e  was  j o b  t r a i n -  s t r u c t u r e  and  the  the  t h e y  R e v i e w  c i t e d  H a v i n g  2)  The  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  i n a b i l i t y  t o  w i t h o u t  command  commensurate  s e r v i c e s  f r o m  t h e  the  C o m m i t t e e ,  1.)  1)  r e v i e w  a d e q u a t e  p a r t i c u l a r and  a  p r o v i n c i a l  was  p r o v i s i o n .  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  a u t h o r i t y .  (Memo  UHF  a u t h o r i t y . r e s o u r c e  51  p e o p l e t o A  3)  on  o u r  s t a f f  w o r k l o a d  w o r k , i a l  o r  o t h e r w i s e  a v a i l a b l e  t o  UHF,  i n v o l v i n g  l o n g  when  n e e d e d ,  s a t i s f a c t i o n , t h a t  i s  i n a d e q u a t e  and  t o o  p a y ,  s u p p o r t  h e a v y no  s t a t u s  and  a f t e r - h o u r s  i n a d e q u a t e  s e c r e t a r -  a s s i s t a n c e .  k)  A  l a c k  o f  e s t a b l i s h e d  5)  A  l a c k  o f  c l e a r l y  6)  A  l a c k  o f  a d e q u a t e  p r o c e d u r e s  d e f i n e d  f o r  d o i n g  r o u t i n e  t a s k s .  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  p l a n n i n g  and  e v a l u a t i o n  b a s e d  on  v a l i d  d a t a . I n  a d d i t i o n ,  f r u s t r a t i o n a s k e d  t h e  d i r e c t l y  f l a t l y  i f  the  l a c k UHF  r e p l i e d :  The up  a t  s u b s e q u e n t o f  c o u l d  p r o b l e m  o f of  a c c e s s " i n  2,  the  n e c e s s i t y  d e b a t e d  a t  the  b o a r d  s i v e  h i r e  e x p e n s i v e  them t o  s t a f f  i n d i c a t e d  s t a f f  was  w i t h t o o  t h e  n o t  had  h i r e i n  been  h i g h l y  d e o m o c r a t i z a t i o n t h e  d e v e l o p m e n t I t  t h a n  The  i s  of  do  i t s  and  g e n e r a l l y  p r o f e s s i o n a l .  r e l i a b l e  t h e  s t a f f  f r o m j o b ,  t h e one  " i n  w h i l e  p r i v a t e  h o u s e " one  s t a f f .  r e v e a l e d  B o a r d .  When  c o o r d i n a t o r  g r o u p  t h e  r e l i a b l e .  " i n  h o u s e "  i n t e r v i e w e d  b e l i e v e d  a t  b o a r d  t e c h n i c a l  c o n s t r u c t i o n a g r e e d The  l e v e l .  t h a t  of  i n a d e q u a c y  o f  The  " i n t h a t  t h i s had  t e c h n i c a l t h e s e  t h e r e  was  t o  e q u a l The  a g r e e  s t a f f  was  s h o u l d  b o a r d b u t  e x p e r t i s e ,  e x p e n -  t e c h n i c a l  h o u s e "  p o o l ,  been  t o o  b a s i s .  seemd  o r i g i n a l  r e s o u r c e  f i e l d , U H F ' s  good  i n b e i n g  i t  e x i s t i n g  h o w e v e r ,  much  t h a t d i e m  S t a f f ,  b o a r d  was  p e r  t h a t  t h e  i t  was  a  Those  on  b r i n g s  d i s c u s s e d  s t a f f  c l a i m e d  b e l i e v e d  t h e  As  a r g u i n g  o t h e r  t h a t  r e s o u r c e s  t e c h n i c a l  c o n s u l t a n t s  r e p o r t  who  t e c h n i c a l  t e c h n i c a l  s t a f f  q u a l i f i e d of  t o  w i t h  t h e i r  e x p e r t i s e a  d i r e c t i o n  f a c t  l e v e l  members  e x p e n s i v e .  t e c h n i c a l  on  a l w a y s  B o a r d  i n  h o u s e "  C h a p t e r  l y  p o l i c y  w i t h  n o .  q u e s t i o n  t o  i n t e r v i e w s  be  o f  w i t h  UHF the  e s p e c i a l l y  i n  l o s t . s e r v i c e s  s e r v i c e s  i s  were  l e s s  d i r e c t l y  52  a  r e s u l t  s a i d  o f  t h a t  H o w e v e r ,  t e c h n i c a l  i n a d e q u a c y t h e r e  no  o f  r e s o u r c e  g r o u p s  l i k e  o p i n i o n ,  r e s e a r c h  movement. a t i v e s , of  u n i t y  and  f u n d i n g  and  and  r e s u l t e d  c o o p e r a t i v e  UHF,  was  t h o u g h  t o o  e r a t i v e p o l i c i e s  v i t y  i n  a  a c t i v i t y  the  i n  t h e  t h e  of  t h a t  UHF  be  was  t h a t  p a r t i c u l a r t o  can  p r o f e s s i o n a l  i s  weak  t h i s  c o o p e r a t i v e :  any  and  so  p o t e n t i a l and The  Haire:!s  d i v i s i o n f o r  f a i l u r e .  p o o r  by  B . C .  among  any  o f  of  The  the  t h e  the  The  p r o v i s i o n ,  UHF.  end  l o c a l  r e t u r n  t o  i t s  c o o p e r a t i v e  i s  g o v e r n m e n t  l i k e l y  s e c t o r  t h a t  w o u l d  e v e n be  a  weak-  s u p p o r t  of l e d  t o  t h e  f o r  and  s t i l l  d e m i s e  of  g r o u p s . UHF?  t h a t  do  t o  l a c k w h i c h  p r e - 1 9 7 2  l e d  c o o p e r -  t e n d e n c i e s  c o o p e r a t i v e  a n t i c i p a t e d  h o u s i n g  r e d u c e d  o f  i s  i t  Hpusing.  c o m p e t i n g  c o l l a p s e  f o r  s u p p o r t e d .  h o u s i n g  e f f e c t ,  i t  p r o v i n c i a l  been  i n d i v i d u a l  I t  w a s ,  f o r m u l a t e d  c o o p e r a t i v e  of  upon  t h r o u g h  i n a d e q u a c i e s  have  movement.  f o r  of  t e l l ,  t h e  r e s t e d  d i s r u p t i o n  h y p o t h e s e s  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  m e a n i n g  f o r  D e p a r t m e n t  s e r v i c e  h o u s i n g  s e r v i c e  r e p o r t  i n  power  c o o p e r a t i v e among  c o o p e r a t i v e  t i e s ,  p r o v i n c i a l  w i l l new  of  T h e i r  on  c o l l a p s e t o  f a t e  s i g n i f i c a n t .  s u p p o r t  t h e  e a r l y  c o o p e r a t i v e s  i t  e v i d e n c e  p o i n t  f u n d i n g  i n t e n d e d i s  of  c o n c r e t e  t o  UHF.  the  s e l f - h e l p  r e p r e s e n t s  no  c o o p e r a t i v e s  b a s e d  l o c a l  l e s s  i t  i s  o p i n i o n  any  s t r u g g l e  What  m a j o r i t y  q u a l i t y  i n  The  n o t  p o o r  T h e r e f o r e  b u n g l i n g  f o c u s  t h e  t h e  t h e r e  t h e  UHF,  e n i n g  t o  t h a t  i n  became  l e d  them.  H y p o t h e s e s  d i l u t i o n ,  UHF  f u n d i n g w h i l e  l e a d e r s h i p  t h i s  f o r  s e r i o u s  w a r n e d  Haire*s  pay  b a n k r u p t  the  H a i r e  t o  s e r v i c e s ,  c a u s e d  a r e  Summary  i n a b i l i t y  i n a d e q u a t e  s e r v i c e s . i n  t h e  I n  had  g r e a t l y  w a y s ,  movement. w i t h o u t  l e v e l . n o t  many  UHF  c o o p -  H o w e v e r ,  a p p e a r  UHF  A l -  t o  f a v o u r  c o n t i n u e d ,  r e d u c e d .  the  a c t i -  53  CHAPTER  THE  ROLE  U n d e r l y i n g What o f  s h o u l d  an  t h e  t h e on  a t t e n d e d  a t  the  o f  w i t h o u t  on  o t h e r ,  b u t  t h e y  c o u l d  t h e  r o l e  of  r o l e  was  g a n i z a t i o n and  be  u n d e r s t o o d  by  t h e  a  d e v e l o p  c o n s i s t e n t  by  day  c l e a r  t h e  w e l l  up  y e l r I t  i s  w i t h o u t  o f  p o l i c y .  made  t o  l a t e r  p o l i c y r o l e ,  t h e  t h r o u g h  t o  g o a l s  o f  b e i n g  and  the  f o r a r e  an  o r -  a c c e p t e d  s t a f f .  was  u n a b l e  l a r g e l y  m i s s "  any  c o n t r a c t ,  f o l d e d ,  and  B o a r d  m e e t i n g ,  d e t e r m i n i n g  t h a t  makers  o f  r e a c h  the  UHF  'had  a t t a c k e d  i m p o s s i b l e  s t a f f , " h i t  as  t a s k  when  t h e  r o l e  t h e y  s u c h  n e a r l y  s e m i n a r  t h e  f a i l e d  t h e  w h i c h  b u s i n e s s  i s s u e ,  e x p l i c i t  t h e i r  Hence  p o l i c y  members  p r o b l e m s  f a c e A  examine  s u b j e c t  1975>  The  r e g u l a r  t h e  t h e  F e b r u a r y  t o a  b o a r d  o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  d e f i n i t i o n  b o a r d ,  o f  q u e s t i o n :  was  r e s e a r c h .  a r o u n d  n o t  d e t e r m i n e d .  f u c t i o n  W i t h o u t  ed  w o u l d  b a s i c  T h i s  i n  chance  p e r i p h e r a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n .  t o  t o  o r  t h e  t a l k e d  d e b a t e d  n o t  t h e  y e t  They  a  h e r  p r e s s u r e s  o c c a s s i o n  r o l e . t h e y  B o a r d  t h e  one  F o u n d a t i o n ?  s t a r t  t h e  FOUNDATION  i s  s e m i n a r  g i v e  t h e  UHF  D i r e c t o r s  to  of  o f  o f  p a r t i c u l a r  c o n s e n s u s  p r o b l m e s  HOUSING  B o a r d  F o u n d a t i o n  e a c h  t h e  UNITED  r o l e  c o n v e n e d  t h i s  a l l  THE  t h e  a l l - d a y  a u t h o r  been  be  OF  IV  i n  to  u n d i r e c t -  day-t6-  t h e i r  d e c i s i o n s . The  d e t e r m i n a t i o n  i m p o s s i b l e t h o u g h t , y e a r .  b u t  Why I n  t a s k .  the  I t  s u r e l y  was  UHF  f i r s t  of  i s one  a  o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  t a s k  w h i c h  u n a b l e p l a c e ,  an  t o  r e q u i r i n g  r o l e  s h o u l d  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  can  be  a c c o m p l i s h e d  come  to  g r i p s  c o o p e r a t i v e s  w i t h  t h e m s e l v e s  i n  t h i s have  n o t and  l e s s  be  an  much t h a n  one  p r o b l e m ? a  d u a l  n a t u r e .  54  A  h o u s i n g  c o o p e r a t i v e  o r g a n i z a t i o n .  The  o f t e n  w i t h  c o n f l i c t S e c o n d l y ,  s p e c i a l i z e d i t y  g r o u p  o f  a  UHF  g u i d i n g  saw  y e a r  on  t h e  r o l e .  The  t o  an  a r e  much  many a  the  g u i d e  a r b i t r a r y  o f  c l i e n t  i n t o  q u e s t i o n .  1)  UHF  v a r i o u s  d e v e l o p s  B o a r d  p l a y :  f e e l  s t e p s  communThe  f i r s t  B o a r d ,  the  e a r l y  1975  t h r e e  r e s o u r c e  a g r e e m e n t  t h a t as  a  d e v e l o p m e n t .  g e n e r a l  t o  (UHF,  a  p r o j e c t  UHF  a  can  s p e c i a l i z e d  was  t h e  may  c o n t r a c t o r .  of  began  ( a s  s o c i a l  p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  g r o u p  a  s t e p s  members:  c o o p e r a t i v e s  as  when  a  c o o p e r a i v e s ,  n e c e s s a r y  the By  member  f o r  t h e r e  T h e r e f o r e ,  F o u n d a t i o n  h o u s i n g  r o l e  c o o p e r a t i v e s  t o  d e v e l o p i n g  g e n e r a l  t h e  t h e  and  r e s o u r c e  a  o p e r a t i o n  t h o u g h t  e n t e r p r i s e  f u l l  v o i c e  t h r o u g h  e l e c t e d  by  a  F o u n d a t i o n ' s  were  f o r w a r d  of  r o l e s  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  p u t  o f  l o b b y i s t ,  U H F ' s  them  aims  c e n t r a l  p r o g r a m .  came  b u s i n e s s  s o c i a l  c o o p e r a t i v e s  f i r s t  a  r e a l i t i e s  p o l i t i c a l  the  so  the  c o n s u l t a n t ,  I n  n o t  b o t h  e c o n o m i c  t h e r e  o r g a n i z e r ,  f o u n d e r s  i s  UHF  f o r c e  d i d i n -  1hem  c o o p e r a t i v e r o l e  o f  r o l e s  1975a,  t h e had  been  1.)  community  d e v e l o p m e n t  a g e n c y ) UHF  2)  a s s i s t s  s p e c i a l i z e d UHF  3)  i s  t h e  e r a t i v e s I n i t i a l l y f o c u s  t h e r e  a p p e a r e d  t h e  s e c o n d  p o s i t i o n  and  the  o f  c o n s e n s u s Up m e e t i n g s  a  as  amount  be  of  a c h i e v e  t h e i r  g o a l s  ( a s  a  of  h o u s i n g l a r g e s t  a b u t  change  r e s o u r c e  t o  be  o c c u p i e d  by  c o o p -  d e v e l o p e r )  commitment  by  B o a r d  members  d i s a g r e e m e n t  a b o u t  U H F ' s  r e q u i r e d g r o u p "  t o  soon  move  UHF  d i s r u p t e d  i n  to p r e s e n t  t h e  t h e  d i r l i t t l e  e x i s t e d .  t h i s an  t o  t o  group)  t h i r d  p o s i t i o n ;  " s p e c i a l i z e d  t h a t t o  d e v e l o p e r  ( B . C . ' s  on  e c t i o n  c o o p e r a t i v e s r e s o u r c e  p o i n t  o b s e r v e r .  t h e  r e s e a r c h e r  Now  t h e  B o a r d  had  been  a s k e d  a t t e n d i n g  t h a t  the  r o l e  b o a r d be  55  changed to participant-observer, saying that they would appreciate the advice and insight of an outsider.  At t h i s time a number  of members of the Board had already been interviewed on a c o n f i d e n t i a l basis.  The problem of understanding and communicating  to the Board positions which i t s members did or might take  was  resolved by constructing attitude p r o f i l e s , sets of positions on a s e r i e s of issues, each presented as dichotomous opposites: coop control  government control  coop philosophy  housing production  participation educational services information pool process orientation consensual decision-making self-education political decentralization  efficiency technical services developer of coop housing product orientation executive decision-making advice from experts managerial/technical centralization  Each element of the "dichotomy pair" was placed at opposite ends of a continuum.  The elements on the l e f t hand side of the  continuums related to cooperative control of the process of developing housing.  The elements on the right hand side represented a  bureaucracy controlled cooperative housing program.  The two e l e -  ments i n the pair were not considered to be mutually exclusive; rather i t was suggested 1 h a t some trade-offs between the tweo would have to occur u n t i l a balance was arrived a t . an appropriate balance was the issue.  The s e l e c t i o n of  I f the Board of Directors  could agree on the amount of trade-off desirable between each of  56  the  t e n  d i c h o t o m y  be  d e t e r m i n e d  on  e a c h  was  d i s c u s s i o n be  e a c h t o  the  member  l i n e  of  t o  t h e  B o a r d  +3  t o  be  a s k e d  i t  was  w i t h t o  i n  o r g a n i z a t i o n  t h e  p o i n t s  s u g g e s t e d  z e r o  p l o t  a s  h i s  of  w o u l d b a l a n c e  i s  Where  do  you  t h i n k  UHF  s h o u l d  Where  do  y o u  t h i n k  t h e  c o o p e r a t i v e s  Where  do  y o u  t h i n k  t h e  P r o v i n c e  i n  r e s u l t s u s i n g  t h i s  o f  a n s w e r s  the  e a c h  m i d - p o i n t ,  h e r  c o n t i n -  and  p o s i t i o n  i n  t h a t r e s p o n s e  UHF  where  the  s t a f f ,  when  s t a f f  m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f  of  w a n t s  were  UHF  on  a s k e d  t o  UHF  be?  of  Ten  t h e  t h e r e  a p p e a r e d  B o a r d  o t h e r  a b o u t  the  be  D i r e c t o r s  the  B o a r d ' s  c o m p a r i n g  P r o v i n c e  the  t o  D e p a r t m e n t  on By  o f  i n t e r e s t -  the  comment b e .  of  more  of  and  of  a n a l y s i s  E v e n  t o  be?  The  the  o p i n i o n .  v i e w s  t o  f o r m s .  s p l i t  w a n t e d  t o  r e v e a l i n g .  c o o p e r a t i v e s ,  t h e  UHF  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  were  c l i e n t  B o a r d ,  want  s u p e r f i c i a l l y  b a s i c  g r o u p s  o b t a i n e d  the  a  be?  c o m p l e t e d  w h i l e  r o l e ,  d i s c r e t e  were  a s s e s s m e n t  e x e r c i s e  t h a t  U H F ' s  two  t h a t  some  now?  r e t u r n e d  showed  and  o f  of  members  on  A f t e r  q u e s t i o n s : UHF  B o a r d  the  o r  t h i n k  r e s u l t s  1975*  J u l y  y o u  m e n t a l  t h e  j o i n i n g  do  r e s u l t e d  0  r o l e  Where  c o n s e n s u s  H  v e r t i c a l  -3  f r o m  r e s p o n s e s  i n g  t h e  p r e s e n t a t i o n  f o l l o w i n g  t w e l v e  o f  o f  B o a r d  The  a  t h e  p r e s e n t e d  s c a l e d  t h e  t h e  by  t h e n  c o n t i n u u m .  T h i s  uum  p a i r s ,  a  a c t o r s  t h e  f u n d a was  d i s -  c o v e r e d . T h e r e c u r r e n t l y  was  o p e r a t e d .  c o o p e r a t i v e s i z e  a  f a i r l y  s t r o n g H o u s i n g  p h i l o s o p h y ,  p r o d u c t  and  o r i e n t a t i o n ,  agreement p r o d u c t i o n the  was  F o u n d a t i o n  e x e c u t i v e  more was  way  i n  w h i c h  i m p o r t a n t  t h o u g h t  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ,  t o  UHF  t h a n empha-  r e l i a n c e  57  on  e x p e r t  a l s o  i n d i c a t e d I n  a  a d v i c e , UHF  r e s p o n s e  g e n e r a l  c o n t i n u u m ;  t r o l  and  t o  e d u c a t i o n a l  i s  t o  s a y  c a s e s  c o n s e n s u s  p o l a r  e l e m e n t s  a t t e n t i o n  t h a t  s a i d  s h o u l d  be  s h o u l d  more  i n  p r o c e s s  and  were  Where  d i r e c t i o n  t h e s e  s t i l l  more  g i v e n  t o  t h e  i n  l e f t  —  e l e m e n t s  l i s t e d  b r i n g  an  c o n -  p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  —  c o n s e n s u -  i n  c o n s e n s u s  o n l y  a l o n g  ( F i g u r e  d o m i n a t e  t h a t  1.) was  c o o p e r a t i v e  m e m b e r s h i p  o t h e r s  i m p o r t a n t  t h e r e  s e l f - e d u c a t i o n ,  s h o u l d  and  t h e  t o  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n .  t h i n g s  s h o u l d  be?  o f  B o a r d  ( F i g u r e  UHF  f u r t h e r  o r i e n t a t i o n ,  The  c o n t r o l l e d .  p h i l o s o p h y ,  i n c r e a s e d  t h e y  o p e r a t i o n s .  s h o u l d  move  the  c o o p e r a t i v e  s e r v i c e s ,  n o t  UHF  o f  g o v e r n m e n t  q u e s t i o n :  i s ,  on  s t y l e  l a r g e l y  t h a t  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ,  T h a t  be  t h e  t h a t  e m p h a s i s  c e n t r a l i z e d  t o  c o n s e n s u s  e a c h  a l  and  some  s a i d  more  u n d e r  1.)  t h e i r  t i m e  o r  c o o p e r a t i v e  c o n t r o l . These  two  s e t s  o f  r e s p o n s e s  v i r t u a l l y  e v e r y o n e  a g r e e s  on  s e n s u s  t h a t  s h o u l d  s h i f t  a t i v e  i s  p h i l o s o p h y ,  c o n t i n u u m s , of  t h e  t h e n  B o a r d  s w e r e d UHF  UHF  by  be?  and why  a b o u t  l o o k i n g I n  i s  t h e  p l a c e d  t h e i r  l e f t  of  z e r o  v e r s u s  no  one  the  shows  t h e  a g r e e m e n t  b r e a k d o w n now  becomes  much  ( w*ith  l i n e the  on  t h e  t h e r e  " s h o u l d be"  o f  S t a t e d be"  two  can  o r  o f  The  d i s c r e t e  the  members  o n l y  a l w a y s  i n  c o n -  c o o p e r -  b o a r d  t h e  I f  t h e  Where  i s s u e .  r e s p o n s e s .  were  among  t o :  r i g h t  i f  s i d e  e x c e p t i o n  e x c e p t i o n  c o n t r o l ) ' .  " s h o u l d  c l e a r :  r e p l i e s  t o  the  the  hand  q u e s t i o n  w i t h o u t  a l w a y s  l e f t  and  p o i n t .  c o n t r o l ,  d i s a g r e e m e n t  t h e  q u e s t i o n ,  p o s i t i o n  t h e  T h i s  a t  i n t e r e s t i n g  c o o p e r a t i v e  on  UHF?  government  z e r o of  so  o f  e i t h e r  p o s i t i o n ,  c o o p e r a t i v e  t o w a r d  c a r e f u l l y  X's  —  c r o s s e d  t h e r e  t h e  p r e s e n t  e l e m e n t s  r o l e  more  a n s w e r i n g  b e r s  t h e  o t h e r  U H F ' s  u p  be  a n -  s h o u l d memt o  f i r s t a n o t h e r  the p a i r way  F i g u r e  2  p r o b l e m g r o u p s  o f of  58  FIGURE  B o a r d  R e s p o n s e s  to  "Where  -3 coop  c o o p  c o n t r o l  i s  N6w?"  UHF  1  2  1  2  S h o u l d  UHF  B e ? "  3+  xxxxxxxxx.xxx.xxxx  / / / / / /  x x x x x  g o v e r n m e n t  h o u s i n g  ^ ^ ^ x ^ t x J t x x x x x x x  p a r t i c i p a t i o n  c o n t r o l  p r o d u c t i o n  e f f i c i e n c y t e c h n c i a l  e d u c a t i o n a l  x x x x x  s e r v i c e s  p r o c e s s  "Where  1  0  p h i l o s o p h y  i n f o r m a t i o n  and  p o o l  / / / / / / / / / / /  s e r v i c e s  * * * * * *  d e v e l o p e r h o u s i n g  ^ ^ ^ x ^ x ^ c x x x x x x  o r i e n t a t i o n  c o n s e n s u a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  p r o d u c t  / / / / / / / / / / / /  LLLLLLLLLLLL  x x x x x  ///////////  s e l f - e d u c a t i o n p o l i t i c a l  / / / / / / / ^ ^  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  x^x^x^ 3  t  :  c  :  m  3  C  o f  c o o p  o r i e n t a t i o n  e x e c u t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a d v i c e  f r o m  e x p e r t s  m a n a g e r i a l / t e c h n i c a l  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  / / / / /  Where  UHF  s h o u l d  x x x x x  Where  UHF  i s  now  be  59  o p i n i o n were  o p e r a t i n g  o n l y  B o a r d  a  t h e  of  h o u s i n g  more  m e t t e r  members  a t  f o r  d i v i s i o n  s i o n  on  m a j o r  t h e  c o u l d  A n o t h e r  u n d e r a l s o  a  i t e m U H F ' s  c l i e n t  and  w a n t s  t h e r e  was  a l s o  c o o p e r a t i v e s  o f  U H F ' s  B o a r d  where  UHF  of  UHF  o n l y  D i r e c t o r s b e .  i d e n t i f i e d  t o  had  two  I n i a t i a l l y  s u b g r o u p s  a i t  m i g h t  t e n -  on  most  V o t i n g  t h e  o f  UHF  of  e a c h was  g r o u p .  c o o p e r a t i v e s  g e t  i n t o  c o o p e r a t i v e s  member,  e x c e p t i n g  be  s e n s i t i v e  a d d i t i o n  to  t h i s  what  t h e y  a b o u t  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  p h i l o s o p h y , i t  was  d i f f e r e n c e  have  on  t h e  s h o u l d  was  p o l i -  d e p e n d i n g  g o v e r n m e n t  f a c t s  s u c h  t h e  on  p u t t i n g  c o o p e r a t i v e  l i e s  s u r v e y  t o  e x p e r t s .  t h a n  UHF I n  from  s t r e n g t h  o n l y  "much  m e e t i n g  m e e t i n g  B o a r d  c o n t r o l  t h a t  t o  d i r e c t i o n  t h i s  d o m i n a t e  i m p o r t a n c e  no  h e r e i n  t o  the  c l i e n t ?  E v e r y  a g r e e m e n t  t h e s e  a  of  n o t  a d v i c e  w a n t i n g  P r o v i n c e  be:  i s  p r o d u c e d .  t h r o u g h  d i f f e r e n c e s  r e l a t i v e  The  c l i e n t  must  i m p o r t a n t "  v o t i n g  p e o p l e  assumed  c o n t r o l ,  s h o u l d  t h e  f o u n d .  c o n s i d e r a b l e  G i v e n  3.)  the  was  was  t h e  m a j o r i t y  t h e r e  m e e t i n g  l i g h t  a r e  t h e  v e r s u s  l i n e s .  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  w a n t e d  b u t  c a s e s  f r o m  I s  a  p h i l o s o p h y  s p l i t  c o o p e r a t i v e  be  e x a m p l e ,  r e l a t i v e  t o  o r I s  on  c o u l d  c o o p e r a t i v e  v i o u s l y  UHF,  e m p h a s i s  n e e d s  ( F i g u r e  come  g r o u p ?  i t  the  c a s e s  s i g n i f i c a n t :  t h e s e  s u d d e n l y  c o n t r a d i c t i 6 n  more  i s  some  " e q u a l l y  some  f o u r - s i x  c l i e n t .  t o  f r o m  i n  a l o n g  t o  f o r  s e l f - e d u c a t i o n  a f f e c t e d  t h e r e f o r e  on  A  change  c o n t r a c t  A p u t  o f  r a n g e s  s u b g r o u p s  d i v i d e d  a t t e n d e n c e  —  I n  production,  H o w e v e r ,  i n t o  B o a r d .  c o o p e r a t i v e  h o u s i n g  e x a m p l e ,  t h u s  q u e s t i o n  t h a t  B o a r d .  i s s u e s  t h e  d e g r e e  p r o d u c t i o n  T h i s  how  o f  i m p o r t a n t " . —  of  a g r e e  e x p e n s e  g r o u n d  cy  w i t h i n  and  had  d i f f e r e n t  t o  t h o u g h t more  t h e  the  e m p h a s i s  p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  o p i n i o n  h y p o t h e s i z e d  c o n t r o l ,  a g r e e m e n t ,  d i f f i c u l t o f  one,  t h a t  t o  see  why  o v e r t h e  o p i n i o n s  p r e on  60  FIGURE  B o a r d  R e s p o n s e s  t o  "Where  c o o p  UHF  s h o w i n g  government  c o n t r o l  /////////, x x x x x x x x x x  p a r t i c i p a t i o n  c o n s e n s u a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s e l f - e d u c a t i o n  / / / / / / / / / / / / / /  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  / / / / / / / / /  / / / / / /  s u b g r o u p  one  x x x x x x  s u b g r o u p  two  coop  p r o d u c t  o r i e n t a t i o n  e x e c u t i v e x x x x x x  , / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /  p o l i t i c a l  o f  h o u s i n g  x x x x x x x x x x x x x x  ///////  -  d e v e l o p e r  x x x x x  //////  o r i e n t a t i o n  s e r v i c e s  x x x x x x x x x x  //////  p o o l  p r o d u c t i o n  t e c h n i c a l  / / / / / / .x  s e r v i c e s  h o u s i n g  c o n t r o l  e f f i c i e n c y  xxxxxxxxxx-  e d u c a t i o n a l  i n f o r m a t i o n  s u b g r o u p s .  3+  p h i l o s o p h y  p r o c e s s  B e ? "  2  -3 c o o p  S h o u l d  2  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g x x x x  ]  n  m  c  :  t  a d v i c e  f r o m  e x p e r t s  m a n a g e r i a l / t e c h n i c a l  x x x x x  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  61  what the cooperatives wanted from UHF. of the i n d i v i d u a l responses i t was  Upon further  examination  found that a l l the more "deviant"  opinions of cooperative wants (that i s , deviant from the average opinion,) were accounted for by two persons, one from each subgroup.  So the subgroups theory did not explain anything.  It i s  possible that the contradiction was based on the Board members' opinions of the r e l a t i v e importance of various c l i e n t s .  Some  members believed that contract cooperatives were the only c l i e n t of UHF,  whereas others believed UHF  had a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the  funding sources (CMHC and the province) and to the general public —  people who  i n the future may  wish to j o i n a housing  In addition to i n d i c a t i n g the UHF the Board was wanted UHF  cooperative.  role desired by cooperatives,  asked to indicated where they thought the Province  to be.  On every dichotomy p a i r , the Board placed the  Province at the opposite end of the continuum from where they had placed the cooperatives.  (Figure 3.)  The Board believed that the  Province wanted a strong government-controlled  organization empha-  s i z i n g housing production, e f f i c i e n c y , technical services, execut i v e dicision-making, expert advice, and a centralized management. If i t was  true that the cooperatives and the Province demanded  such d i f f e r e n t things of UHF,  then the i n a b i l i t y of the  Foundation  to assume a consistent role was understandable.  Hov/ever, discus-  sions with several housing cooperatives, the UHF  coordinating  s t a f f , and a Department of Housing o f f i c i a l indicated that the Board's assessment of cooperative and p r o v i n c i a l desires may been somewhat extreme.  Indications were that neither the  t i v e s nor the Province wanted UHF  have  coopera-  to operate at either end of the  62  FIGURE  B o a r d t o  R e s p o n s e s  t o  "Where  b e ? " a n d "Where  do  -3 c o o p coop  d o  y o u t h i n k  y o u t h i n k  t h e  c o o p e r a t i v e s  t h e P r o v i n c e  1  2  3  0  1  w a n t s  2  g o v e r n m e n t  p h i l o s o p h y / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /  i n f o r m a t i o n  K K K K K  //////  p a r t i c i p a t i o n  /  UHF  3+  c o n t r o l / / / / / /  e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s  want  UHF t o b e ? "  Kimxir.mr.raHt  / / / / / / / / / / / / / / x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x  P O O l / / / / / / / / / /  ]  n  n  n  n  „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „  H  n  E  3  „  m  c  h  ° u  e  f  s  f  i  i  n  S  c  i  c o n t r o l  p r o d u c t i o n  e  n  c  v  t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s x  d e v e l o p e r  o f  coop  h o u s i n g  p r o c e s s  ////////////  o r i e n t a t i o n c o n s e n s u a l  / / / / / / /  p o l i t i c a l  p r o d u c t  o r i e n t a t i o n  e x e c u t i v e  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s e l f - e d u c a t i o n  xxrac  :  x x x x x x  JfttftH/ft/H  x x x x  / / / / / / / / / / / / /  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a d v i c e  f r o m  e x p e r t s  m a n a g e r i a l / t e c h n i c a l  / / / / / / / / / / / / /  x x x x  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  / / / / / /  where  t h e  c o o p e r a t i v e s  x x x x x x  where  t h e  p r o v i n c e  want  UHF t o  b e BOARD  w a n t s  UHF t o  b e  OF  DIRECTORS'  OPINION  63  c o n t i n u u m s . f a r  more  These  m o d e r a t e  o f  D i r e c t o r s .  by  c o o p e r a t i v e s The  u n a b l e  r o l e  t o  1) t r y i n g  t o  was:  the  s o u r c e s  l i e v e d i n  UHF  t h e y  the  o f  p r o b l e m  and  b e l i e f s  h e l d  a  t h e  UHF  e n t  i n  t i v e  was  r o l e  t h e  i s  the  r o l e  of  of  i n  F i g u r e  r e a s o n s of  d i v i d e d  i n t o  two  why  have  the  a  B o a r d  UHF  s o u g h t  4.  the  B o a r d  was  UHF: o p p o s i n g  g r o u p s ,  e a c h  d i r e c t i o n s . a g r e e  i n  on  t h e  who  t h e  g e n e r a l  who  two  n o t  " c l i e n t "  p u b l i c ,  r o l e  t h e  shown:  a  of  UHF  a n d / o r  t h e  b u s i n e s s  s o c i a l  p u r p o s e .  c o o p e r a t i v e s  i n  t h e  what  d i r e c t  f u n d a m e n t a l  o f  a  a  c o o p e r a t i v e r o l e s  f o r m  f o r  i s  t h e  t o  and  what  o t h e r s  an  t o  were  r o l e .  a p p e a r s  to  makes  h o u s i n g  u n d e r s t a n d  The  g r o u p T h i s  be  h o u s i n g  i t  of  t h e n  members  o r g a n i z a t i o n  o f t e n  a  l i v i n g .  r e s o u r c e  A  when  b e t w e e n  s o l v i n g  h o u s i n g  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  b e -  o b s e r v a t i o n  f o r  t h e  and  s u s p e c t e d .  p a r t i c u l a r  d i c h o t o m y  e n t e r p r i s e  f o r  means  t h e y  d i v i s i o n  p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d  h o u s i n g  T h i s  a  n e e d s  o p p o s i t i o n ,  B o a r d  p h i l o s o p h y  a s  a r i s i n g  and  be  i t  v e r s u s  a  t o  t h a n  the  p a r t i c u l a r ,  as  d i f f e r e n t  o f  i n  a b o u t  h o u s i n g  p r o d u c t / p r o c e s s  n a t u r e  i d e a  P r o v i n c e  a g r e e m e n t  p u r p o s e  s o m e t h i n g  v e r y  t h e  v i e w e d  v e r y  p r o c e s s ;  s u b s t a n t i a t e d  has  t h e  i n a c c u r a t e  t h e  and  s u r v e y  about  i n t o  an  c o o p e r a t i v e  t h o s e  " b o t h  e x p l a i n  d i d  r o l e  c l o s e r  D i r e c t o r s  B o a r d ;  d i s t i n c t t o  i n  p r o d u c t - o r i e n t e d  v i s i o n  had  a c t o r s  v i e w e d  t r a n s l a t e d  t o  t h a n  t h e  n o t  a p p e a r e d  r o l e  shown  t h r e e  c o o p e r a t i v e s ,  B o a r d  were  t h e  who  d i d  c o o p e r a t i v e s  B a s i c a l l y  t h o s e  on  i s  d i f f e r e n t  B o a r d  o t h e r  the  B o a r d  d e p i c t i o n  P r o v i n c e  was  p r o c e s s  d e s i r a b l e  i d e n t i f i e d  i n  the  f u n d i n g .  of  f a c t  .the  i n a  l i k e l y  B o a r d  c o n t r a c t  The  demands  o f  agreement  UHF  UHF  o f  3)  and  to  l e a d  The  more  UHF  a c t o r s  o p i n i o n  s u r v e y  come The  2)  A  two  w i t h  — d i -  o f i n h e r c o o p e r a a  d i f f i c u l t them.  T h e y  64  FIGURE 4  Cooperative and Province responses to "Where the Cooperatives want UHF to be" and "where the Province wants UHF to be".  -3  2  coop control ////  0  1  3+ government control  xxxx ////  coop philosophyparticipation educational services information pool  process orientation consensual decision-making  xxxxx  xxxxx housing production efficiency technical services  ////  //// xxxxx  ///^xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx developer of coop housing product orientation  xx^xW  xxxxx  executive decision-making  JILL  advice from experts  self-education political  xxxx  decentralization  xxxx  //// 1LLL  managerial/technical dentralization  ////// Where the Province wants UHF to be, according to a provincial respondent xxxxxx Where the cooperatives want UHF to be, according to cooperative and UHF coordinating staff response  65  are two things at once: undated, 2.)  business and s o c i a l movement." (CMHC,  I t might be added that not only does t h i s aspect of  cooperatives make them d i f f i c u l t to understand, i t also makes them d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h s u c c e s s f u l l y . The history of UHF gives clear evidence to the existence of t h i s underlying d i v i s i o n i n cooperative a c t i v i t i e s .  One p a r t i c u l a r  member of the UHF Board frequently chided the researcher, saying that t h i s issue was "simply a red herring"; but time and time again the Board bogged down under debates having at t h e i r root a basic and fundamental disagreement over the nature of cooperative  housing.  The i n a b i l i t y to come to grips with t h i s problem immobilized the Board:  even the most elementary decisions, such as which services  to provide, could not be made because half the Board believed UHF should have a process-orientation, and accordingly stressed educat i o n a l services, while the other half thought UHF should have a product-orientation, and therefore an emphasis on technical services.  The board member was c l e a r l y incorrect i n h i s analysis of  the problem —  the process/product  dichotomy was c r i t i c a l to under-  standing the operations of UHF and the cooperative movement; what t h i s board member expressed was  i n declaring the issue a "red Herring"  simply h i s f r u s t r a t i o n at the Board's seeming reluctance to  solve problems, deal with importnat matters, and e s s e n t i a l l y i t s duty to provide r e l i a b l e service to housing  fulfill  cooperatives.  If the preceding comments about what each group wanted and what each group perceived UHF should be are confusing, then i t i s only a r e f l e c t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n that existed: i n the process —  three actors  the cooperatives, UHF, and the Province —  each  with a d i f f e r e n t idea about where tie organization i s now, where i t  66  i s going, and where they want i t to lead! never resolved.  These c o n f l i c t s were  As a r e s u l t , the d e f i n i t i o n of the role of UHF  was also never resolved, except i n as much as the day-to-day ope ations gradually added up to a r o l e , one defined more by acciden than by the d e f i n i t i v e actions of the Foundation's leaders.  67  CHAPTER  CONCLUSIONS  AND  V  RECOMMENDATIONS  C o n c l u s i o n s The  U n i t e d  s t a n t i a l c e s s one  o f  many  of  W h i l e by  c o n t r i b u t i o n B.C.  t h o u s a n d  t a s k  H o u s i n g  an  e f f e c t i v e  r e s e a r c h o f  t h e  k n o w l e d g e  s t a r t i n g  t h a t no  and  o t h e r  and  o f  s m a l l  UHF  e s s e n c e ,  the t h e  UHF  q u i c k l y  o u t g r e w  a t t r i b u t e s c o m p l e t e l y  and  r e s o u r c e  g r o u p s  p u r p o s e  of  t h i s  n o t i n  i t s a  t o  many  t e n o u s  ways  i n  must  p r a i s e  " g r a s s  i t s  r o o t s "  w i t h  i t s  own  o v e r  the  d i s m i s s  was  UHF, f r a g -  c o u n t r y ,  f i e l d : t o  g r o u p .  B e f o r e  s e c t o r the  d i f f i c u l t  n o t  to  b u r i e d t h e  f r o m  many g r o u p s  t h e r e  e m u l a t e .  were F o r  l a m e n t e d . i s  t o  d e s c r i b e  a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s .  cause  s e l f - m a i n t a i n i n g  i n v o l v e d  be  o f  c o o p e r a t i v e  C a n a d a  r e s e a r c h  t h e  s h o u l d  u n a v a i l a b l e  t h e  s u c -  f o c u s s i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n  p i o n e e r e d  UHF  one  t h r o u g h o u t  t o  The  t h e  s h o r t c o m i n g s ,  t h i s  s u b -  r e s o u r c e  o r g a n i z a t i o n .  a c c e s s i b l e UHF  h o u s i n g  c o o p e r a t i v e  i t s  c o m p l e t i o n  u n d e r t a k i n g  g e n e r a l l y  of  was  o f  t h e  f o r  movement.  the  p r o b l e m s ,  w o r k i n g  d e m i s e  p r o b l e m s ,  U H F ' s  a s s e m b l e d  I n  and  U H F ' s  g r o u p s  b u r e a u c r a t s ,  i t .  of  came  among  commended  c o o p e r a t i v e of  o f  f i n a l l y  s u c c e s s  the  e x p e r t i s e  c o o p e r a t i v e  U H F ' s  h a r d  i t  r e a s o n s ,  to  F o u n d a t i o n ' s t h i s  be  c o o p e r a t i v e  due  s t u d y  made  H o w e v e r , y z e  of  a  c o o p e r a t i v e .  needed  t h e s e  the  s c a t t e r e d m i n d s  i s  must  c o o p e r a t i v e s  o r g a n i z i n g  a c h i e v e m e n t s  s o u r c e s  h o u s i n g  B . C .  l a r g e l y  d e f i n i t i o n  the  t h e  i s  t h e  i n  t o  u n i t s  t h i s  m e n t e d ,  F o u n d a t i o n  of  i t s  base  and  b u r e a u c r a c y . i n t e r n a l  and  The  a n a l -  v e r y  f a i l u r e .  UHF  r a p i d l y  t o o k  The  B o a r d  c o n f l i c t s  and  t o o on  b e the  68  staff  was l e f t  icies. its  to run the F o u n d a t i o n unguided by any c o n s i s t e n t  By the end of the t h i r d year of o p e r a t i o n , UHF had  sensitivity  to the true p u l s e  of the B . C . c o o p e r a t i v e  pol-  lost move-  ment. In the meantime, the c o o p e r a t i v e s n a t i v e a c t i o n on t h e i r own b e h a l f . UHF's overbearing s t y l e  had f a i l e d  Cooperatives  Instead,  cooper-  e l s e to remedy the ,  they b u i l t up an atmosphere  s u s p i c i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o UHF — a n e g a t i v e  alter-  complained about  of o p e r a t i o n and l a c k of a s i n c e r e  a t i v e s e d u c a t i o n program, but they d i d l i t t l e situation.  to i n i t i a t e  of d i s t r u s t  response which  and  left  them f u l l y unprepared t o take p o s i t i v e a c t i o n to r e b u i l d the u n i t y of  the c o o p e r a t i v e  movement a f t e r  the c o l l a p s e  UHF as a scapegoat f o r a l l the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n g was an e a s i e r s o l u t i o n than a t t e m p t i n g problems  of UHF.  To use  of c o o p e r a t i v e  hous-  to a c t u a l l y r e s o l v e  themselves.  The Department of Housing o n l y added to the poor between the c o o p e r a t i v e s s u r i n g UHF t o accept ization,  and UHF.  provincially-determined policies  o p e r a t i o n , and p r o j e c t  situation  By d e l a y i n g f u n d i n g and p r e s -  development,  vented UHF from c a r r y i n g out long-range  for  organ-  the P r o v i n c e p r e -  planning.  Hampered by  u n c e r t a i n t y through most of 1 9 7 5 , UHF f l o u n d e r e d , unable to mine which d i r e c t i o n i t It  was r o o t e d i n i t s  it ial  i n t h i s research  destructive  t h a t the f a i l u r e  r e l a t i o n s h i p with i t s client  straw  that  the a c t i o n s  t h a t broke the c a m e l ' s  of UHF  cooper-  however, the Department of Housing p l a y e d a p i v o t a l  c o u l d be s a i d  deter-  c o u l d move i n f o r l a c k of f u n d i n g a s s u r a n c e .  has been s t a t e d before  atives;  the  role:  of the P r o v i n c e were the p r o v e r b back.  69  In conclusion, the affirmation of the three hypotheses must he  repeated: 1)  UHF  had become a d i v i s i v e force i n the cooperative move-  ment. 2)  UHF  had become too c l o s e l y t i e d to i t s p r o v i n c i a l funding  source. 3)  UHF  provided l e s s than professional technical services  due to l i m i t e d  funding.  In addition to these, there are two more conclusions that deserve emphasis: 1)  An essential compnent of the c o n f l i c t s experienced by  UHF  and i t s c l i e n t cooperatives did not pertain d i r e c t l y to the i n d i v i duals involved, but was erative: enterprise.  i n fact related to the dual nature of coop-  These dilemmas about service provision, fund-  ing, p o l i c y formation, and appropriate role would have arisen i n any s i m i l a r ; cooperative resource group. UHF,  The problems faced by  contrary to what some cooperators w i l l i n s i s t , were not s o l e l y  due to Schmid's personal operating s t y l e , just as they were not t i r e l y caused by the interference of the Province. be assumed that the problems of UHF  en-  It must not  and, therefore, the affirmation  of the hypotheses posed at the beginning of t h i s iudy, can be simply attributed to p e r s o n a l i t i e s , inexperience, p r o v i n c i a l government a t t i t u d e s , or other s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t e s of the p a r t i c u l a r case study discussed i n the research.  To do wo would be a grave  oversight and would contribut no lessons f o r future cooperative resource groups. 2)  Cooperatives are not a l l a l i k e .  They have d i f f e r e n t needs,  70  d i f f e r e n t indigenous s k i l l s , and therefore require d i f f e r e n t resource groups.  UHF  has had to f u l f i l l the requirements  varied cooperatives that come to t h e i r doors. an impossible task.  of a l l the  Possibly t h i s i s  What might be needed i s not one resource group  t r y i n g to arive at the compromise role of s p e c i a l i z e d consultant to cooperatives, but several groups —  a community development  group, a consulting group, and a housing developer too.  Options f o r the Future The end of 1975 i n B.C.  UHF  was a gloomy time for housing cooperatives  was not the sole group aiding cooperatives:  Company of Young Canadians was  the  funding several cooperatives  co-  1  ordinators to do organizational work and to l i a s e with UHF.  The  federal government, as an economy measure, discontinued the  CYC  program i n November 1975*  was  returned to the B.C.  On December 11,  legislature.  a new  government  The S o c i a l Credit government,  although i t s housing p o l i c i e s were s t i l l unknown, did not promise to be favourable disposed towards housing cooperatives and  their  continued funding. What 1976 clear.  holds i n store for housing cooperatives i s not yet  There are two factors to consider.  The f i r s t i s the pol-  i c i e s of the new  p r o v i n c i a l government.  The outlook i s not p a r t i -  cularly bright.  The S o c i a l Credit government announced i n the  March 1976  Throne Speech that housing p o l i c i e s would focus on  ownership  programs.  Cooperatives, a curious mixture of ownership  and tenancy, are thus i n an uncertain p o s i t i o n .  A meeting with  Hugh C u r t i s , the new M i n i s t e r of Housing, offered l i t t l e encourage-  71  ment no  t o  B . C .  i n d i c a t i o n  p r o g r a m s , i f  c o o p e r a t o r s . of  as  a l l  c o o p e r a t i v e h i s see  p r o g r a m s  o f  need  u n d e r t o o k o b t a i n i n g r a t h e r i t  c o u l d  o n l y  h i s  be  ray,  of  of  as  i n  o t h e r  t h a t  he  c o u l d  o n - g o i n g  he  w h i c h  c o o p e r a t i v e s  h i s  as  g i v e  t h a t  i n  b u r e a u c r a c y  g r o u p  o p i n i o n ,  w o u l d  a r e a  t h e  and  t h a t  s t a t e d  o r g a i z a t i o n  b e h a l f  F o u n d a t i o n  D e p a r t m e n t  t h i s  t h r o u g h  i n f e r r e d  H o u s i n g  g i v e  Department  he  i n d i c a t e d  i n d i v i d u a l  I n  b u t  c o u l d  d e v e l o p e d :  i n  f i n a n c i n g  e a c h  own.  on  them  z o n i n g ,  i t s  U n i t e d  w h i c h  f u n c t i o n s  l e a v i n g  on  t h e l e a d h o w e v e r ,  f o u n d a t i o n - t y p e  a s s i s t i n g  l a n d ,  p r o b l e m s t h a t  of  t h a n  p r e s e n t  a  o r  C u r t i s  w i t h i n  r e v i e w ,  c o n t i n u e d  d i d  M r .  c o o p e r a t i v e s  u n d e r  t a k e  He  c e r t a i n  n a t u r e  were  w o u l d  f o r  of  were  h o u s i n g .  the  the  p o s i t i o n  p o l i c i e s  D e p a r t m e n t  a r e a s  t o  the  1976.)  ( W r i g h t ,  t o  s e r v i c e s ,  cope  r e m a r k s  d i d  n o t  b e i n g  of  w i t h  t h e s e  were  s u c h  e n v i s a g e  t h e  t h e  o r g a n i z a t i o n  r e c o g n i t i o n  i n  t h i s  up  f r o m  c o n n e c t i o n . The a s h e s  o f  s e c o n d UHF?  f o r  f u n d i n g  t h e  NHA.  CMHC t h e  u n d e r  The  s u g g e s t e d f o r  a  R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s The  i n  The  r e s e a r c h e r a r e  and t h a t w i d e r  f o r  t h r e e  a p p l i e d  two  f o r m e r 1975  was  w i l l  g r o u p s o f  have  s e v e r a l  s p o n s o r e d  m i g h t  been  made  O r g a n i z a t i o n  w i t h  o f  r i s e  B.C. be  by A  o f  CMHC  and  the a t  r e c o g n i t i o n  r e s o u r c e  of  f o u n d i n g  s p o k e p e r s o n  f u n d e d , i n  c o o p e r a t i v e  t o  P r o g r a m  UHF  CYC  t h e  o f  s e r v i c e s .  UHF  were  a f t e r  o f  t h i s f o r  r e s e a r c h  UHF  o r i g i n a l l y  t h e  o p t i m i s t i c  t h e r e f o r e  a r e  C o u n c i l  r a n g e  what  R e s o u r c e  a l o n g  a p p l i c a n t s R e v i e w  i s  a p p l i c a t i o n s  Community  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  November  t i o n s  h a s  c o n s i d e r  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  s e c t i o n s : g r o u p s .  t h e  o t h e r  P l a n n i n g  need  t o  A l r e a d y ,  S c h m i d  members. S o c i a l  p o i n t  and  t h a t  p r e s e n t e d ,  UHF w i t h  l e s s o n s  made  r e s i g n a t i o n  a r e  of  w o u l d some  t o  a  d i v i d e d f o r  o t h e r  m e e t i n g  S c h m i d .  i n t o  A t  r e s o u r c e  of  c o o p e r a t o r s  t h a t  c o n t i n u e .  The  r e v i s i o n s ,  i n  two  t i m e  t h e  recommendat h e  p r e s e n t  72  t e n s e  as  t h e y  were  i n  November.  R e o r g a n i z a t i o n 1)  A l l  s h o u l d be  be  c o o p e r a t i v e s  r e q u i r e d  e x p e c t e d  t o  t o  on  t h r o u g h  n e w s l e t t e r s ,  i t s  t r u l y t o  c o m m i t t e e s ,  t y p e  of  UHF.  members  i n  the  a t t e n d i n g  and  any  o t h e r  a f f a i r s  of  Members  of  s e m i n a r s ,  s e r v i c e s  the  o f  E a c h  UHF  UHF  F o u n d a t i o n  m a i n t a i n i n g  a c t i v i t i e s .  f r o m  s h o u l d —  by  c o m m u n i c a t i o n  c o o p e r a t i v e  must  w e i g h t . The  2)  become  p a r t i c i p a t e  s e r v i n g  p u l l  r e c e i v i n g  UHF  B o a r d  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  s h o u l d  o f  t h e  be  r e s t r u c t u r e d ,  c o o p e r a t i v e  i n  movement  o r d e r and  t o  make  i t  r e s p o n s i b l e  i t : ( i )  15  d i r e c t o r s  ( i i )  no  member  on  the  A l t h o u g h l e v e l  d i r e c t  m i g h t  be  s h o u l d  be  c o o p e r a t i v e  UHF  e l e c t e d s h o u l d  f r o m  have  member  more  c o o p e r a t i v e s ,  t h a n  one  p e r s o n  the  B o a r d  b o a r d .  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i d e a l l y  o f  d e s i r e d ,  e a c h  t h e  c o o p e r a t i v e  B o a r d  must  be  a t k e p t  t o  a  w o r k a b l e  s i z e . To  3) n i c a l  a d v i s o r s  members. p r e s u m e d i o u s UHF  p r o v i d e  f i r m s , on  As of  t h e s e  t h e r e  be  i n  p e o p l e  r a t h e r  t o  j o i n  a d d i t i o n  w i l l and  be  a t  t o  t h e  B o a r d  t h e  B o a r d  t h e  15  i n t e r m e d i a t e  government  b o d i e s  l e v e l ,  as  n o n - v o t i n g  d i r e c t o r s . ) l e v e l w h i c h  t e c h -  s t a f f can  I t o f  i s v a r -  a d v i s e  m a t t e r s . i s  c o n e r n  c o o p e r a t i v e and  e x p e r t i s e  i n v i t e d  o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  i n w a r d - l o o k i n g o p e r a t i v e s  be  w o u l d  t e c h n i c a l  k) s o l e l y  s h o u l d  (These t h a t  t e c h n i c a l  p e r s o n s  t h u s t h a n  t h a t  t e n d  o v e r  w i l l t o  e x p a n d i n g  t i m e  become  f o c u s  on  a  UHF  B o a r d  somewhat the  n e e d s  c o o p e r a t i o n , i t  i s  composed  c o n s e r v a t i v e o f  e x i s t i n g  recommended  and c o t h a t  73  p e r s o n s l y  o r  i n t e r e s t e d  on  b e h a l f  u n i o n s ) , UHF 15  T h i s  m e n t i o n e d  work  a t i o n s ,  s h o u l d  l i k e  p o i n t  s h o u l d be  UHF,  w o r k .  T h i s  n o t  o t h e r s  f r o m  j o i n i n g  a  s t r u c t u r e  a  w o u l d  drawn  of be  f r o m  T h e r e  s m a l l  someone  the  UHF  B o a r d UHF  i s  t h o s e  and  i n  t o  t h e  one  of  t h e  s h o u l d b u t  be  a l l  r e v i s e d . o t h e r  c o o p e r a t i v e s .  t e n d e n c y g r o u p  p e o p l e ,  l a b o u r  a d d i t i o n .  member,  member  a  member  B o a r d  p e r s o n a l -  e x a m p l e ,  d i r e c t o r  e n t h u s i a s t i c  o v e r l o a d s  a  n o t  a  e i t h e r  ( f o r  e l e c t  v o t i n g  a b o v e ,  s h a r e d .  o n l y  be  c o u l d  c o o p e r a t i v e s ,  o r g a n i z a t i o n  w h i c h  (2)  be  f o r  an  w o u l d  c h a i r p e r s o n  members  l o a d  p e r s o n  h o u s i n g  i n  c o m m i t t e e s  c o m m i t t e e  c o m m i t t e e  m i t t e e  f o r m i n g  members  u n d e r  The  5) The  of  o r g a n i z e  b o a r d .  i n  b u t  i n  many  t o  do  t e n d s  com-  The  o r g a n i a -  a l l  the  t o  i n h i b i t  i n .  F u n c t i o n s 6) f o r  UHF  s h o u l d  c o o p e r a t i v e s  and  an  UHF  must  r e s o u r c e  g r o u p .  t i o n  e d u c a t i o n  and  p e o p l e "  r a t h e r  a d v i s o r y  UHF  The  s h o u l d  as UHF  i t s  8)  UHF  t h e y  s e l e c t i o n  c o n c e p t :  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , a c c e p t  p e o p l e :  a  r o l e  v i s  i t s  as  UHF  h o u s i n g "  a c t i v i t i e s  e x i s t  a b o u t  p r i m a r y  s h o u l d  f u n c t i o n  the  and  c e n t r a l  t e c h n i c a l ,  i t s  t e c h n i c a l  a  and  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  r o l e  f o c u s  v o i c e  on  t h e  o r g a n i z a -  " d e v e l o p i n g  s h o u l d  d e v e l o p  an  s e r v i c e s . o f  UHF  g o a l s  F o u n d a t i o n  has t o  been c l e a r  and  t o  i g n o r e d . up  m i s -  g a t h e r  s u p -  a c t i o n s . s h o u l d  d e v e l o p o f  d u a l  r e l a t i o n s  t h a t  r e p r e s e n t  s h o u l d  v i s  p u b l i c i z e  f o r  a  " d e v e l o p i n g  p u b l i c  u n d e r s t a n d i n g s p o r t  o f  t h a n  c a p a c i t y  7)  a c c e p t  n o t  a  p r o v i d e  d u p l i c a t i o n a  r e f e r e n c e  p r o f e s s i o n a l s ,  t e c h n i c a l of  s e r v i c e s  s e r v i c e s  c a p a b i l i t y  management,  a v a i l a b l e  w i t h  and  " i n  respect  o t h e r  h o u s e " e l s e w h e r e . t o  t h e  t e c h n i c a l  d e t a i l s .  7k  Funding 9)  UHF  should be 1 0 0 % responsible to i t s democratic  cooper-  ative base and thus must be independent of government funding. Cooperatives, i f they want the continuation of UHF, support the organization f i n a n c i a l l y .  w i l l have to  This w i l l mean r a i s i n g mem-  bership fees and introducing a more active scheme of fund r a i s i n g . Responsibility 10)  Cooperatives must accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for UHF  the fate of the cooperative movement.  Completed cooperatives  must recognize t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to help new and thus should support UHF recognize that UHF  and  a f t e r completion.  cooperatives Cooperatives must  i s t h e i r organization.  Lessons for Other Groups The story of UHF  i s an i n t e r e s t i n g one i n i t s own r i g h t , but  the purpose for t e l l i n g the tale i s to draw from i t lessons for future cooperative resource groups.  The most important lessons  are: 1)  Avoid d i r e c t government funding, with the possible ex-  ception of CMHC's Community Resource Organization program i n the s t a r t i n g period.  The inevitable  t i e s of long term government sup-  port w i l l d i s t o r t the resource groups goals and weaken the a b i l i t y of the movement to support 2)  itself.  Recognize the d i v i s i o n between cooperatives as a product  and cooperatives as a process. stumbling block: variation  This dual nature i s a very r e a l  do not dismiss i t l i g h t l y .  Recognize the  that e x i s t s and r e a l i z e that accommodation of the f u l l  7 5  range of  philosophies  may be a n i m p o s s i b l e ,  T h e r e a r e many s e r v i c e s  3)  might o f f e r ;  a cooperative  t h e r e a r e many t h a t w i l l  The e x p e r i e n c e  o f UHF h a s shown t h a t  these  without  services There are  a s UHF m i g h t cooperatives"  carry —  out.  facilitation  of  the o r g a i z a t i o n  of  of  people, of  attempted to carry that  of  focal  point  two r o g a n i z a t i o n s  of is  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e could r e s u l t  into  of  functions,  movement. that  of  or s e v e r a l ,  the  through advice,  services.  but  it  one f o r  is  con-  each  splits  the  one  UHF  function. dual  dealing  the other  acting  The m a i n d r a w b a c k  over time,  the  to  technical  m i g h t be a b s o r b e d by g o v e r n m e n t .  to those needs.  is  of  technical  the  cooperative  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e / t e c h n i c a l  service  such  generally  housing  component p a r t s —  the s o c i a l  of  and  housing cooperatives,  one o r g a n i z a t i o n  The t r a d e o f f two,  of  all  group  voice  and m a n a g e r i a l  i n a gap between t h e needs o f  consumer c o n t r o l  that  organizing,  could e x i s t ,  its  functions  respond s e n s i t i v e l y in  the " c e n t r a l  cooperative  these  the p o s s i b i l i t y  ment a n d t h e a b i l i t y  functions  which a resource  makes s e n s e i n a s much a s i t  cooperatives  cooperatives.  bureaucracy.  the m o b i l i z a t i o n  out b o t h of  group  The s e c o n d f u n c t i o n i s  administrative  w i t h the b u s i n e s s a s p e c t s as the  of  two o r g a n i z a t i o n s  Two o r g a n i z a t i o n s nature  cooperatives.  the development  and the p r o v i s i o n  ceivable  is  lobbying, educating,  s p e a k i n g on b e h a l f  task.  one g r o u p c a n n o t p r o v i d e  functions  The f i r s t  resource  be demanded by  becoming a massive  two i m p o r t a n t  energy-wasting  is  The v a l u e  move-  group  of u n i t i n g  to the  the i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t y  for  provision.  difficult; resource  it  is  groups  this  researcher's  This  opinion  p r o v i d e more b e n e f i t s  to  76  cooperators than one single group t r y i n g to accommodate within i t every type of need and philosophy that exists i n the cooperative movement.  Summary The United Housing Foundation was a major contributor to the f i e l d of cooperative housing i n t h i s province.  I t s success i s the  envy of the cooperative movement i n other provinces. from Manitoba and Ontario have studied UHF  Cooperators  to see how they can  duplicate i t s achievements. The f a i l u r e of UHF was e s s e n t i a l l y unavoidable: model to follow, no guide to the p i t f a l l s . now,  The UHF  UHF had no experience i s  however, the guide f o r future groups. we cannot know yet how deep the d i v i s i o n s i n the B.C.  ative movement are. UHF  go under.  cooper-  we do know that they went deep enough to l e t  What remains to be seen i s whether cooperators w i l l  survive the scars of UHF  and work once again cooperatively to  b u i l d a representative resource group.  The a l t e r n a t i v e i s that  housing cooperatives w i l l return to an i n s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i o n i n the B.C. housing market producing ten, perhaps f i f t y units per year. It would be a sad comparison  to the e x c i t i n g achievements  past three years.  the task of dedicated cooperators to  I t i s now  put aside t h e i r differences and r i s e above the UHF  of the  experience to  go about the d i f f i c u l t task of rebuilding the B.C. cooperative housing movement.  77  LITERATURE CITED Books and Reports Haire, Christopher. In Want of a P o l i c y , A survey of the needs of non-profit housing companies and cooperative housing s o c i e t i e s . Canadian Council on S o c i a l Development, Ottawa, 1 9 7 5 . International Labour O f f i c e .  Housing Cooperatives. Geneva, 1964.  Koenig, John F. Alternative Forms of Housing. The Real'.Estate Board of Greater Vancouver. September, 1975. L i b l i t , Jerome. Housing — the Cooperative Way. Twayne Publ i s h e r s , New York, 1 9 6 4 . Pill,  Juri.  Mimeographs, L e t t e r s , and other unpublished material. Davidson, J i l l . Highlights of User-Satisfaction Study.(undated) 1975. de Chazal, P h i l l i p p e . Report to the Board of D i r e c t o r s . May 1 3 , 1975. Department of Housing. Report to the Honourable Lome Nicolson, Minister of Housing, by Review Committee on United Housing Foundation. June 6 , 1 9 7 5 . Laidlaw, Alex.  In B.C. They're a Movement.  1974.  Questions About Cooperative Housing, Opening remarks. Workshop on cooperative housing, Canadian Conference on S o c i a l Welfare, Laval University, Quebec. 1 9 7 2 . Cooperative Housing Commentary. 1967. L e t t e r to UHF from Lome Nicolson, Minister of Housing, A p r i l 1 5 , 1975. Memo to Board of Directors from Schmid on behalf of the Ad Hoc Contract Review Committee, March 6 , 1 9 7 5 . Memo to S h i r l e y Schmid and the Review Committee, from the Coordinating S t a f f , May 3 0 , 1975. Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors of UHF, December 1 2 , 1 972.  78  S i m p s o n ,  Tom.  UHF.  R e p o r t  UHF.  UHF  U n t i t l e d of  the  H i s t o r y ,  and  u n d a t e d  C o m m i t t e e P a r t  on  t h e  I I . ( u n d a t e d )  p a p e r  on  Image  1975a.  of  t h e  UHF  UHF.  c o n t r a c t . 1975.  79  APPENDIX  1  METHODOLOGY  T h i s p u r p o s e t o  was  n o t  t h o r o u g h l y  s u l t s . as  r e s e a r c h  i t .  .  to  .  t h e  do?  a  The  t o  s t u d y  by  i n  what  a l l  c l e a r l y ,  t h a t  a t  the  was  q u o t e  by  b e g i n n i n g  not  w o r k e d  r a t h e r ,  i t  m e n c i n g  w i t h  e c t o r s ,  t h e  t e l e p h o n e  P i l l o f  out  t h e i n  e v o l v e d  t h e  r e q u e s t  r e s e a r c h e r  B e g i n n i n g  o v e r  t h e  y e a r  t o  f e e l  l i k e  as  " w e "  and  b e r  o f  t h e  a  of  the  members  o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  r e s e a r c h . i s  what do  a p p e n d i x  t h e y  b o t h .  f a c i n g  the  r e s e a r c h e r  f i n a l l y  u n d e r t a k i n g  t h e  e m p l o y e d r e s e a r c h ;  i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  o b s e r v a t i o n  of  t h e  as the  t h o s e as  t h i s  t o  encompass  UHF  s t r i c t l y  a  m e l t e d  to  i n v i t i n g  v i e w h e r  a  away  as  a c t i v e  D i r -  and  even  f e e d b a c k  r e l a t i o n s h i p  the  s p e a k i n g  h e r  of  f i n a l l y  c r i t i c a l  and  Com-  i n t e r v i e w s ,  s t u d e n t / s u b j e c t  o r g a n i z a t i o n , came  The  was  B o a r d  and  p r e s e n t a t i o n  B o a r d .  s t u d i e d  UHF  p e r s o n a l  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , d i r e c t  r e -  .)  m e t h o d o l o g y t o  an  of  r e s e r v a t i o n s  p a r t  B o a r d  o f  and  m e t h o d o l o g y . t h e  s u c h  o r  must  ,  to  r e s e a r c h  t h i n k  19  of  but  p r o d u c e d  c o u r s e  m a i l - b a c k  s e s s i o n s t h e  The  the  d e v e l o p e d  t e c h n i q u e s  o p i n i o n  d i l e m m a  p r i o r  n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t  i n t e r v i e w s ,  t h e  s t u d y .  d e t a i l  p a r t i c i p a n t  tween  up  t h r o u g h o u t  methods  a t  sums  means  r e l e g a t e d  one  I t s  m e t h o d o l o g i e s ,  f i n d i n g s  p e o p l e  ( P i l l , The  t h e o r y - b u i l d i n g .  w h a t e v e r  a c c o r d i n g l y  p r o b l e m  i s ,  i n  c o m p r e h e n s i v e  s u b s t a n t i v e  i n v e s t i g a t e  a n s w e r  e x e r c i s e  new  i s  the  o b v i o u s  one  an  c a s e  m e t h o d o l o g y  s e c o n d a r y  s h o u l d  n o t  d e v e l o p  examine  T h u s , i s  was  p a r t  b e of  r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  r e s e a r c h e r o f  s i m p l y  the  t h e  F o u n d a t i o n  a n o t h e r  p a r t i c i p a t i o n  came  memi n  80  s e m i n a r s  and  The o f  a  c e n t r a l  c a s e  A m e r i c a —  t o  t h e  m e e t i n g s .  s t u d y .  and  A  c o u l d  i n v e s t i g a t e  been  A t  aware  the  of  them  c i d e d  i t s  i t The  1)  D i r e c t  e c t o r s a s k e d w i t h  were t o  c o n d u c t e d on  and  the  c o o p e r a t i v e s ,  c o n c e r n  t o  h y p o t h e s e s  B o a r d  I n some  a b o u t  t o  e a c h  one so  b o a r d  J u l y ,  r e s e a r c h s t u d y  t h e  comments  on  had  was  j u s t  a l r e a d y  been  a p p r o a c h of  t h e  the  p u b l i s h e d  t h e  methods  members  he  o r  of  she  what  t h e  o p i n i o n o f  t h e was  Much  g a t h e r e d  f i n d i n g s  of  on  $he  B o a r d  b o a r d  UHF  o f  and  UHF  s h o u l d  be  b e t w e e n  r e a s o n s  f o r  a s i d e on  t h e  and UHF t h e  D i r e c t o r s .  i n f o r m a t i o n  d a t e .  D i r -  i n  b a s i c  t o  o f  was  f o c u s  t h i s  w e r e :  member  c o u l d  a s k e d t o  B o a r d  d i f f e r e n c e  a t  d e -  f u r t h e r  e m p l o y e d  u n s t r u c t u r e d ,  d i s c u s s i o n  was  d e s e r v e  i n v o l v e d  r o l e of  l e a r n  r e s e a r c h e r  UHF  E a c h  became  i s s u e s  and  t h e  s t u d y .  t o  The  p r o b l e m .  m e t h o d o l o g y  o r d e r  t h e  The  but have  t i m e .  r e s e a r c h e r h e r  UHF  w o u l d  r i g h t  i n  was  s i t u a t i o n  —  t h e  member.  f o r m u l a t i o n  UHF  g r o u p s  and  r o l e  t h a t  r e s o u r c e  p u r p o s e  e x p e r i e n c e s  to  h o u r  same  u s e N o r t h  t h e i r  t h e i r  t h e  the  i n  i n  the  ( i v )  g r o u p s  u n d e r w a y .  ( i i )  ( i i i )  ( v )  a r e a s ,  of  2)  w e r e ,  r e v i e w ,  s u b j e c t  why  f o r  t h e  t e n t a t i v e l y  w i t h  e a r l y  h o u s i n g ,  c l i e n t s  f i v e  a t  way  ( i )  t h e  t o o k  t h e  c o u r s e ,  was  t e c h n i q u e s  who  i n t e r v i e w  o f  H a i r e * s  i n t e r v i e w s  c o o p e r a t i v e  c o n d u c t e d  u n f o l d i n g  c h r o n o l o g i c a l  comment  p r o v i n c i a l  the  o f  r e s o u r c e  c o o p e r a t i v e  i n v o l v e d  e x c i t i n g  I n  of  i t s e l f  p a r t i c u l a r  e x p l a n a t i o n .  been  s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n  become  an  have  i n  was,  c o o p e r a t i v e  commence  p r e s e n t e d was  m e t h o d o l o g y  of  d i l e m m a ,  o f  t o  the  n e e d s  t h e  p r o c e s s  o p p o r t u n i t y f r o m  t h e  a v a i l a b l e  w a s t e d .  q u i t e  o f  s u r v e y  E u r o p e  d y n a m i c s  and  e l e m e n t  E a c h f r o m  t h e s e  i s s u e s l e a d i n g  s t a g e . p r e s e n t F r o m  t o  t h i s  the e v o l v e d  t h e  81  role survey.  Dichotomy pairs were formulated and scaled (see  Chapter IV) in an attempt to structure the many issues surrounding the question of UHF's role.  The completed questionnaires  were analysed in a very simple manner.  The responses of each  member were plotted on a master sheet and groupings of responses were identified by eye. The clustering of responses i s indicated by the cross-hatched areas on each of Figures 1 , 2, 3, and i+. The length of the cross-hatching shows the range of opinion  —  the longer the cross-hatching, the wider the difference of opinion of the UHF Board. 3)  After Whaley's unsuccessful attempt to unseat Schmid,  a committee was formed to investigate the image of UHF held by cooperatives, and others dealing with the Foundation. was part of the committee. veloped and pretested.  The author  A schedule of twelve questions was de-  The questions were designed to gather i n -  formation about what the contacts knew about UHF, what they felt the Foundation's strengths and weaknesses were, and what changes they thought were desirable. A l l interviews were conducted by telephone. Approximately a dozen organizations  were assigned to each  committee member. The committee believed that the 23 housing cooperative board representatives contacted were representative of Greater Vancouver cooperatives.  Three of the groups contacted  were both members of UHF and under contract to UHF, eight were members not under contract, eight were under contract but not members, and four were neither members nor under contract. non-cooperative  Of the  groups contacted, four were government agencies,  8j?  six were a r c h i t e c t u r a l firms, and one was a construction company. if)  A complete review of UHF records including past Board  minutes and s p e c i a l reports was c r r i e d out i n conjunction with observation of UHF a c t i v i t i e s .  The history was pieced together  from these records. 5)  I t goes without saying that much valuable information  was gathered i n informal conversation with many i n d i v i d u a l s i n volving i n the l o c a l cooperative movement.  83 APPENDIX  2  THE A M E N D M E N T S TO T H E N A T I O N A L H O U S I N G A C T  Initial indications are that many readers ars not yet fully familiar with the amendments to the National Housing Act. The House of Commons Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Social Affairs made several changes before final reading of the bill, and still other changes were made on the floor of the House just prior to approval. The following summarizes those amendments especially relevant to new opportunities for assistance available to homeowners and to citizen-initiated endeavors. The editors are especially grateful to A . F. Laidlaw, consultant on cooperative housing to C M H C , for his summary of changes affecting co-operative societies. 1) With the latest amendments, the main features of the act with respect to co-operative housing are these: • Assistance to both building co-operatives for the construction of houses to be individually owned by the members, and housing co-operatives for continuing group ownership of housing is available. • Housing co-operatives will be able to organize as either non-profit companies (par value) or as companies permitting equity build-up. They may either build new housing or acquire existing housing. • The non-profit co-ops will be eligible for 100 per cent loans, preferable interest rates, contributions (capital grants) up to 10 per cent of cost, and "start-up funds" where necessary. • The non-profit co-ops, in cases where the province agrees to share the cost with the federal government, will also be eligible to receive the rent-to-income subsidies previously only available for public housing for all or a proportion of their membership in a project. • Assistance available under the N H A to individuals of low income, e.g., in the assisted home ownership program, will be available to groups organized in co-operatives. • For a co-operative project in which the members will not be of low income, loans may be made by approved lenders under the ordinary conditions of Part I of the National Housing Act; or where loans are not available from approved lenders, application may be made for a direct loan as provided in Section 58 of the act. In both cases, applications may be made for new or existing housing. • In cases where non-profit co-op groups with low-income members acquire existing housing, they may also be eligible for rehabilitation grants, and under certain conditions grants for conversion, according to an income schedule set forth in the regulations to the N H A . 2) Rental housing projects undertaken by non-profit groups and municipal agencies may be eligible for the following: • 100 per cent loans at the preferential rate; • Contributions (capital grants) up to ilO per cent of cost; • U p to $10,000 start-up funds; • Where existing housing is acquired, rehabilitation grants, and under certain conditions grants for conversions, according to an income schedule set forth in the regulations to the N H A ; • Where the province agrees to share the cost, rent-toincome subsidies such as those previously only available to public housing tenants. 3) The old urban renewal program is replaced by the Neighborhood Improvement Program, which authorizes C M H C to enter into an agreement with a province for improving the amenities of neighborhoods and housing and living conditions. The federal government may pay 50 per cent of the following: • Selecting the neighborhood and formulating and selecting plans; • Acquiring or clearing land for open space or community facilities in the neighborhood; • Acquiring or clearing land for low- or medium-density housing for low- and moderate-income individuals and families;  • Constructing, acquiring and improving neighborhood recreation or social facilities; • Developing occupancy and building maintenance standards and systems to enforce such systems; • Making loans to neighborhood commercial systems; • Relocating individuals and families; • Staff for project exposition and implementation. They may pay 25 per cent of the following: • Improving public and municipal utility services; • Acquiring or clearing non-conforming structures and land; • Residential buildings outside of neighborhood improvement areas that do not meet minimum housing standards; • Acquiring or clearing non-conforming structures or land in residential areas outside neighborhood improvement areas where the land will be used afterward for housing or recreation or social facilities. 4) A new program for residential rehabilitation is established under which the federal government may make loans to the owner of a family housing unit in the following circumstances: • The unit is located in a neighborhood improvement area, or In any other area which a province designates as eligible and where the federal government concurs; • Private landlords enter into a rental agreement with C M H C in which the income of the tenant will be considered; • The owner is a non-profit corporation, a non-profit co-op or a municipal agency (these organizations will also be eligible for loans for undertaking conversions of structures under certain conditions). The federal government may make loans for hostel or dormitory accommodation where the owner is a non-profit corporation, a non-profit co-op or a municipal agency. The federal government may convert rehabilitation loans into grants according to an income schedule and over a period of time approved by the government. This is the operative feature which will permit the program to serve low-income families and individuals. 5) The existence of an assisted home ownership program for low-income families is formally acknowledged by the new legislation. C M H C may: • Make a loan to either a low (or moderate) income individual or a co-operative for the construction of a new unit or the acquisition of an existing one; • Make contributions towards the repayment of the loan (principal), payment of interest or towards the payment of municipal taxes, according to an income schedule set forth in the regulations to the N H A . 6) The research and grants section of the act is amended to provide the following: • Start-up funds up to $10,000 to any person (individuals or groups) wishing to undertake a low-income project under any section towards which C M H C may make contributions; • Projects of a demonstration or experimental nature; • Grants to underwrite the sale of equipment or components for installation or use in housing. 7) C M H C may make a contribution to an individual to complete a house which has been purchased prior to completion where the builder leaves it unfinished. 8) In addition, the amendments provide additional assistance to provinces, municipalities and public housing agencies to enable them to engage in land assembly, and loans to provinces to enable them to acquire land for new communities.  Source s Housing  and People,  Summer 1 9 7 3  

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