UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The rise and fall of the United Housing Foundation : a case study of a cooperative housing resource group Cull, Elizabeth 1976

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T H E R I S E A N D F A L L O F T H E U N I T E D H O U S I N G F O U N D A T I O N A C A S E S T U D Y O F A C O O P E R A T I V E H O U S I N G R E S O U R C E G R O U P b y E L I Z A B E T H C U L L B . A . , Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , 197^ A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S i n T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S S c h o o l o f C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g W e a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A M a y , 1976 © E l i z a b e t h C u l l , 1976 In presenting th i s thesis in' pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Deoar tment o f G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s , S c h o o l o f C o m m u n i t y & R e g i o n a l H P l a n n i n g The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date M a y 5, 1976 A B S T R A C T T h e U n i t e d H o u s i n g F o u n d a t i o n ( U H F ) w a s f o u n d e d i n 1972 t o p r o v i d e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , a n d t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e t o h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n w a s t o p r o m o t e t h e s u c c e s s o f h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s t h r o u g h t h e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s u b s t a n t i a l k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s h i t h e r t o s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t m a n y s m a l l g r o u p s i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s e c t o r . W i t h i n t h r e e a n d o n e - h a l f y e a r s U H F g r e w f r o m a g r a s s r o o t s o r g a n i z a t i o n u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e c r e d i t u n i o n m o v e m e n t t o a g o v e r n m e n t f u n d e d b u r e a u c r a c y c a p a b l e o f p r o -d u c i n g o v e r 1000 c o o p e r a t i v e u n i t s a n n u a l l y . U H F ' s a p p a r e n t s u c c e s s w a s m a r r e d b y a b i t t e r c o n f l i c t b e -U H F a n d i t s c l i e n t c o o p e r a t i v e s w h o c h a r g e d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h e l i t i s m , i n s e n s i t i v i t y , a n d f a i l u r e t o r e p r e s e n t c o o p e r a t i v e s a n d b y a p r o v i n c i a l r e v i e w o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n a n d s u b s e q u e n t w i t h h o l d -i n g o f f u n d s . T h e s e e v e n t s l e d t o t h e f i n a l c o l l a p s e o f U H F i n F e b r u a r y 1976. T h i s t h e s i s i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e r o l e o f U H F a n d c o n c l u d e s t h a t i t w a s a d i v i s i v e f o r c e i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t i n t h i s p r o -v i n c e . I t w a s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e l o c a l c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t w a s s e v e r e l y d a m a g e d b y U H F ' s f r u s t r a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l c o o p e r a t i v e s ' n e e d s , p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r f e r e n c e i n U H F p o l i c y , a n d U H F ' s l e s s - t h a n -p r o f e s s i o n a l t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s . T h e p r o b l e m s o f U H F w e r e f o u n d t o p e r t a i n t o a l a r g e e x t e n t t o d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n t h e d u a l n a t u r e o f c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g — b o t h e c o n o m i c e n t e r p r i s e a n d . s o c i a l m o v e m e n t — a n d t h e d i s t i n c t l a c k o f C o o p e r a t i o n a m o n g c o o p e r a t i v e s . T h e m a i n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e f o r s e l f - f i n a n c i n g a n d , t h e r e f o r e , r e s o u r c e g r o u p s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s s e r v e d , a n d f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s e v e r a l t y p e s o f r e s o u r c e g r o u p s t o m e e t t h e v a r i o u s n e e d s o f d i f f e r e n t h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s , a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e f i e l d i s t o o d i v e r s e t o b e c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n o n e g r o u p . i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s t h e s i s wou ld n o t have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t he s u p p o r t o f many p e o p l e . I am i n d e b t e d t o t ho se who funded me — C e n t r a l Mo r tgage and Hou s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n who p r o v i d e d me w i t h t he f e l l o w s h i p wh i c h s u p p o r t e d my t w o - y e a r p r og ram; and t h e C o o p e r a t i v e C o l -l e g e o f Canada and the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w h i c h p r o v i d e d gene rous b u r s a r i e s i n s u p p o r t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . The c l a r i t y and c ohe r en ce o f t h i s work i s l a r g e l y t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f my a d v i s o r s , D r . Hen ry H i g h t o w e r and D r . Ann McA f e e , whose t i m e l y a d v i s e n e v e r f a i l e d t o p u l l me t h r o u g h t h e d i f f i c u l t p a r t s o f t he s t u d y . The t h e s i s wou ld no t have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t he h e l p o f t he D i r e c t o r s and s t a f f o f t he U n i t e d H o u s i n g F o u n d a t i o n . They gave f r e e l y o f t h e i r t ime and k now l edge . I hope t h i s r e p o r t i s b o t h o f i n t e r e s t and use t o them. I must a l s o t hank t he many peop l e i n the c o o p e r a t i v e movement who answered my many q u e s t i o n s and a l l o w e d me t o s i t i n on t h e i r m e e t i n g s . A s p e c i a l word o f t h a n k s goes t o S t e ve and J i m who f i x e d my t y p e w r i t e r wh i c h b r o k e down a t t he e l e v e n t h hou r a l m o s t c a u s i n g d i s a s t e r . ( I have no t h ank s f o r t he t y p e w r i t e r . ) F i n a l l y I must t h ank my dea r f r i e n d s Nancy and J i l l , w i t h o u t whose l o v e and s u p p o r t I wou ld s u r e l y have gone mad i n my f i r s t t e rm a t P l a n n i n g S c h o o l t h u s n e v e r a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h i s wo rk . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknow ledgements L i s t o f T a b l e s L i s t o f F i g u r e s I BACKGROUND TO THE CASE STUDY I n t r o d u c t i o n : The Need f o r R e s o u r c e G roups P o t e n t i a l P r o b l e m s w i t h R e s o u r c e G roups Pu r po se o f t he R e s e a r c h D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms A S h o r t H i s t o r y o f C o o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g i n Canada I I THE HISTORY OF THE UNITED HOUSING FOUNDATION The F o u n d i n g o f UHF G r ow i ng D i s s e n t i o n : The F o r m a t i o n o f t h e Ad Hoc Commi t tee The F i n a l Y e a r o f UHF: D i v i s i o n , A n t a g o n i s m , C r i s i s , and C o l l a p s e I I I THE FALL OF UHF: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEMS OF A RESOURCE GROUP I n t r o d u c t i o n UHF R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the C o o p e r a t i v e s UHF R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the P r o v i n c e T e c h n i c a l Competence Summary o f t h e Hypo t he s e s IV THE ROLE OF THE UNITED HOUSING FOUNDATION V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS C o n c l u s i o n s O p t i o n s f o r t he F u t u r e Recommendat ions f o r UHF L e s s o n s f o r O t h e r R e s o u r c e G roups Summary LITERATURE CITED APPENDICES. Me t h odo l o g y NHA Amendments v L I S T O F T A B L E S T a b l e 1 C o o p e r a t i v e s A s s i s t e d b y U H F P a g e 13 L I S T O F F I G U R E S F i g u r e 1 B o a r d R e s p o n s e t o " W h e r e U H F I s N o w " a n d " W h e r e U H F S h o u l d B e " F i g u r e 2 B o a r d R e s p o n s e t o " W h e r e U H F S h o u l d B e " s h o w i n g s u b - g r o u p s F i g u r e 3 B o a r d R e s p o n s e t o " W h e r e t h e C o o p e r a t i v e s W a n t U H F T o B e " a n d " W h e r e t h e P r o v i n c e W a n t s U H F T o B e " F i g u r e if C o o p e r a t i v e , U H F S t a f f , a n d P r o v i n c e R e s p o n s e t o " W h e r e t h e C o o p e r a t i v e s W a n t U H F T o B e " a n d " W h e r e t h e P r o v i n c e W a n t s U H F t o B e " 58 60 62 64 v i 1 C H A P T E R I B A C K G R O U N D T O T H E C A S E S T U D Y I n t r o d u c t i o n : T h e N e e d f o r R e s o u r c e G r o u p s T h e U n i t e d H o u s i n g F o u n d a t i o n ( U H F ) w a s a n o n - p r o f i t r e -s o u r c e g r o u p e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1972 t o p r o m o t e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h r o u g h t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r e l i a b l e t e c h n i c a l g u i d a n c e t o g r o u p s w i s h i n g t o o r g a n i z e h o u s -i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s . I t w a s b o r n o u t o f t h e D e C o s m o s V i l l a g e H o u s -i n g C o o p e r a t i v e b u i l t i n V a n c o u v e r i n 1972. A s s u c h , i t r e p r e -s e n t e d a n a t t e m p t b y t h e o r g a n i z e r s o f D e C o s m o s V i l l a g e t o p r e -v e n t t h e d i s s i p a t i o n o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s t h a t h a d b e e n a m a s s e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a c q u i r i n g t h e i r h o u s i n g a n d t o m a k e t h i s k n o w l e d g e a v a i l a b l e t o f u t u r e g r o u p s w a n t i n g t o f o r m h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s . I n i t s t h r e e a n d o n e - h a l f y e a r s o f o p e r a t i o n t h e F o u n d a t i o n w a s d i r e c t l y r e p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f o v e r 1600 c o o p e r a -t i v e h o u s i n g u n i t s . W o r k i n g w i t h , m o r e t h a n 30 c o o p e r a t i v e g r o u p s , U H F r a p i d l y b e c a m e a l e a d i n g f a c t o r i n t h e s u c c e s s o f h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . A l e x L a i d l a w , a C a n a d i a n a u t h o r -i t y o n c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g , s a i d : " C o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o o p e r a -t i v e s h a v e b e e n s t a r t e d i n a l l s i x p r o v i n c e s o f C a n a d a o u t s i d e t h e A t l a n t i c r e g i o n , b u t o n l y i n B . C . a r e t h e y s h o w i n g s i g n s o f b e c o m i n g a m o v e m e n t . " ( L a i d l a w , 1974* 1 « ) A m o n g t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e s t r e n g t h o f c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i n B . C . , L a i d l a w c i t e d t h e U n i t e d H o u s i n g F o u n d a t i o n — " a ' m o t h e r s o c i e t y ' . . . w i t h t h e 2 capability and delivery system to lead a group of people through the long and difficult process of putting a cooperative project in place." (Laidlaw, 1974, 5 . ) There are two main reasons why some centralization of the skills and resources required for the successful completion of a housing cooperative is a good idea. Firstly, the skills neces-sary are frequently complex and beyond the capabilities of even the most dedicated cooperative group. Tasks such as preparing legal documents for incorporation, mortgage application, and i s -suing shares; accounting for hundreds of tiiousands of dollars; negotiating land leases, contracts, and interim financing; and coordination project development require types of experiences and knowledge otherwise unavailable to cooperators except at con-siderable expense through the private market. Secondly, once a cooperative group has gone through the pro-cess of developing cooperative housing, i t has acquired many of these skills or the knowledge about where to obtain them. The group knows the pitfalls to beware, which people or companies were most helpful, and which tasks really needed an "expert" to do them. It is simply wasteful to permit this knowledge to go un-used. It makes sense to pull i t together in order that future groups may take advantage of what past groups have learned. Other advantages of centralizing information in a resource group are: 1) A resource group can become the voice of the cooperative movement. It can lobby for cooperatives, negotiate with financial institutions and governments, and publicize 3 t h e i d e a o f h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s . I t c a n b e a f o c u s f o r e n e r g y . 2) T h e r e s o u r c e g r o u p c a n p r o v i d e c o n t i n u i t y t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a n n i n g a n d d e v e l o p i n g s t a g e o f i n d i v i d u a l c o o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s . L a r g e m u l t i p l e - f a m i l y h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s m a y t a k e t w o y e a r s f r o m s t a r t t o f i n i s h a n d m e m b e r s h i p t u r n o v e r m a y b e h i g h . 3) A s a s i n g l e a g e n c y i t c a n d e v e l o p w o r k i n g c o n t a c t s w i t h g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l f i r m s , f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , a n d o t h e r s u c h g r o u p s c o o p e r a t i v e s m u s t d e a l w i t h . T h e r e s o u r c e g r o u p t h u s m a y h a v e b e t t e r s u c -c e s s i n n e g o t i a t i n g w i t h t h e s e g r o u p s t h a n t h e i n e x p e r i -e n c e d c o o p e r a t i v e m i g h t . P o t e n t i a l P r o b l e m s w i t h R e s o u r c e G r o u p s T h e n e e d f o r c e n t r a l i z e d r e s o u r c e g r o u p s , s u c h a s U H F , w a s e m p h a s i z e d i n a r e c e n t C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l o n S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t ( C C S D ) s u r v e y o f t h e n e e d s o f n o n - p r o f i t h o u s i n g c o m p a n i e s a n d c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g s o c i e t i e s . T h e s t u d y n o t e d t h a t " . . . t h e p e r s e v e r e n c e n e e d e d t o d e v e l o p f a m i l y h o u s i n g r e q u i r e s f u l l - t i m e s t a f f r e s o u r c e s " a n d p o i n t e d o u t t h a t e x i s t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t e x p e r -t i s e i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e a n d n o n - p r o f i t h o u s i n g f i e l d w a s f r a g -m e n t e d t h r o u g h a s y s t e m w h i c h h a d e a c h g r o u p l e a r n i n g t h e p r o -c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g h o u s i n g f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g . ( H a i r e , 1975, 7 a n d 2 9 . ) H o w e v e r , i n r e v i e w i n g t h e f u n d i n g a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e g r o u p s ( i n c l u d i n g U H F ) t h e a u t h o r o f t h e C C S D s t u d y , C h r i s t o p h e r H a i r e , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t k i n v o l v e d s o m e d a n g e r : ( H a i r e , 1975, 3 0 . ) T h e s e d a n g e r s a r e g r e a t e n o u g h t h a t t h e y d e s e r v e s o m e c o m m e n t . W h a t i s a t s t a k e i s t h e c r e a t i o n o f a t h i r d f o r c e * i n h o u s i n g i n C a n a d a . T h e d a n g e r s i d e n t i f i e d b y H a i r e i n c l u d e d : ( H a i r e , 1975, 30 - 3 1 . ) 1 ) t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h a n d i l u t i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e a n d n o n - p r o f i t h o u s i n g m o v e m e n t ; 2 ) t h e p o t e n t i a l l y d i v i s i v e e f f e c t w h i c h m i g h t o c c u r i f s u c h g r o u p s f r u s t r a t e t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f g r o u p s b e i n g s e r v e d ; 3) t h e p r o b l e m s o f i n s u f f i c i e n t f u n d i n g l e a d i n g t o i n e f f i -c i e n c e s a n d p o o r q u a l i t y s e r v i c e b e l o w p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n -d a r d s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y d e v e l o p m e n t ; 4 ) t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t s u c h g r o u p s w o u l d b e c o m e t h e t a r g e t o f p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e w h i c h w o u l d b e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y d i r e c t e d a t C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e a n d H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n ( C M H C ) a n d t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s . T h e c o o p e r a t i v e a n d n o n - p r o f i t h o u s i n g s e c t o r f a c e s p r o b l e m s u n i q u e t o a s y s t e m w h i c h r e q u i r e s c o m m i t m e n t a n d l e a d e r s h i p i n n e -g o t i a t i n g w i t h o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s e x t e r n a l t o i t c o n c u r r e n t w i t h a p a r t i c i p a t o r y f o r m o f d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . T h e c o m p l i c a t e d p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g c o u p l e d w i t h s t r i n g e n t g u i d e l i n e s o f t h e m o r t g a g e l e n d e r , C M H C , a n d t h e n e e d t o p r o c e e d w i t h t h e p r o -j e c t a s f a s t a s p o s s i b l e s o a s t o r e d u c e c o s t s , f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t s i n " h i g h p o w e r e d d e v e l o p m e n t t a c t i c s w h i c h d o n o t g o d o w n w e l l w i t h • T h e t h i r d s e c t o r r e f e r s t o a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e t h e s p h e r e s o f t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r ( g o v e r n m e n t e n t e r p r i s e ) a n d t h e p r i v a t e " f r e e m a r k e t " s e c t o r . 5 d e m o c r a t i c a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d g r o u p s . . . " T h u s H a i r e i n s i s t e d t h e s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f r e s o u r c e g r o u p s t o t h e g r o u p s s e r v e d b y t h e m m u s t b e s u b o r d i n a t i o n , n o t d o m i n a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o H a i r e , m a n a g e m e n t m u s t o p e r a t e d e m o c r a t i c a l l y a t t h e g r a s s r o o t s l e v e l e v e n t h o u g h i t m a y t a k e m o r e t i m e t o d o s o . ( H a i r e , 1975, x i a n d 31 a n d 4 5 . ) P u r p o s e o f t h e R e s e a r c h T h e r e a p p e a r e d t o b e a s e r i o u s c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n t h e c o o p e r a -t i v e h o u s i n g m o v e m e n t . T h e c e n t r a l i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s w a s c r i t i c a l i f c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g w a s e v e r t o b e c o m e a s t r o n g s o c i a l m o v e m e n t a n d a v i a b l e f o r c e i n t h e C a n a d i a n h o u s i n g s e c t o r , b u t a c c o r d i n g t o H a i r e , t h e s e s a m e r e s o u r c e g r o u p s h a d t h e p o t e n -t i a l t o b e c o m e a s o u r c e o f d i s r u p t i o n l e a d i n g f i n a l l y t o t h e c o l -l a p s e o f t h e m o v e m e n t . H a v i n g a n i d e o l o g i c a l b e l i e f i n t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e " t h i r d s e c t o r " , i t s e e m e d t o t h i s a u t h o r i m p o r t a n t t o e x p l o r e t h e v a l i d i t y o f H a i r e ' s s u s p i c i o n s . - : H a i r e r a i s e d i n a r a t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l w a y i s s u e s w h i c h m a y o r m a y n o t b e i m p o r t a n t i n a c t u a l i t y . A s t u d y o f t h e r o l e a n d o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e ( t h e n ) p r e - e m i n e n t r e s o u r c e g r o u p w o u l d t e s t a n d e l a b o r a t e o n b o t h t h e b e n e f i t s a n d d a n g e r s o f c o o p e r a t i v e r e s o u r c e g r o u p s . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s r e s e a r c h ( F e b r u a r y 1975) , U H F w a s s t i l l a f u n c t i o n i n g r e s o u r c e g r o u p . D i s r u p t i o n w a s o c c u r r i n g a s e v i d e n c e d b y t h e n u m b e r o f c o o p e r a t i v e s r e f u s i n g t o u s e U H F s e r -v i c e s a n d t h e i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c o o p e r a t i v e s w o r k i n g t o c h a n g e t h e F o u n d a t i o n . F r o m H a i r e ' s w o r k , t h e a u t h o r d e v e l o p e d 6 t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s : 1 ) U H F h a d b e c o m e a d i v i s i v e f o r c e i n t h e B . C . c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g m o v e m e n t t h r o u g h i t s f r u s t r a t i o n o f t h e e x p e c t a -t i o n s o f s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s . 2) T h e c l o s e f i n a n c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f U H F w i t h t h e p r o v i n -c i a l g o v e r n m e n t h a d l e d t o p r i o r i t i e s d e t e r m i n e d b y i n t e r -e s t s o t h e r t h a n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s s e r v e d b y U H F . 3) L i m i t e d f u n d i n g o f U H F h a d l e d t o i n a d e q u a t e a n d p o o r q u a l i t y s e r v i c e s b e l o w t h e r e q u i r e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s . I n i t i a l l y , t h e a u t h o r h o p e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a n y o f t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s w e r e v a l i d t h r o u g h a c a s e s t u d y o f U H F a n d t o m a k e r e -c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o U H F w i t h r e s p e c t t o i m p r o v i n g t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s . E v e n t s d o n o t s t a n d s t i l l f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f a c a d e m i c r e s e a r c h : i n F e b r u a r y 1976, t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s o f U H F f o r m a l l y d i s s o l v e d t h e F o u n d a t i o n . A l t h o u g h a m e e t i n g o f U H F ' s m e m b e r s h i p i n e a r l y M a r c h d e c i d e d t o k e e p t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n g o i n g , i n s u f f i c i e n t f u n d s d i c t a t e d c l o s i n g t h e o f f i c e a n d l a y i n g o f f a l l s t a f f . A t t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g , U H F e x i s t s o n l y i n i t s n a m e a n d p e r h a p s i n t h e h o p e s o f a f e w c o o p e r a t o r s w h o m a y o n e d a y r e v i v e i t . I t i s a d o r m a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n , i f n o t i n f a c t a c t u a l l y d e f u n c t . T h e r e f o r e t h e f o -c u s o f t h e r e s e a r c h f r o m a n a n a l y s i s o f a n o n - g o i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n t o a s t u d y o f i t s b i r t h a n d d e a t h . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s i s t h r e e f o l d : 1 ) t o d e s c r i b e i n d e t a i l t h e h i s t o r y o f U H F a n d i t s c o n t r i -b u t i o n t o t h e p r o m o t i o n a n d s u c c e s s o f c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s -i n g i n B . C . , 2) t o d e s c r i b e a n d e x p l a i n t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n 7 a n d t h e r e a s o n s l e a d i n g t o i t s s u d d e n d e m i s e , 3) t o c o n s i d e r t h e l e s s o n s t h a t m u s t b e l e a r n e d i n o r d e r f o r f u t u r e r e s o u r c e g r o u p s i n B . C . a n d c o o p e r a t o r s i n o t h e r p r o v i n c e s t o a v o i d t h e p a r t i c u l a r f a t e o f U H F . T h e c a s e h i s t o r y o f U H F i s t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . C h a p t e r T h r e e e x a m i n e s t h e s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s f a c e d b y U H F : t h e p o o r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e " m o t h e r s o c i e t y " w i t h s o m e o f t h e " d a u g h -t e r c o o p e r a t i v e s " , t h e m i x e d b l e s s i n g o f p r o v i n c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n U H F , a n d t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d p r o v i s -i o n o f s e r v i c e s t o c o o p e r a t i v e s . T h e f o u r t h c h a p t e r p u l l s t h e t r o u b l e s o f U H F t o g e t h e r i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t h e o r g a n -i z a t i o n . T h e f i f t h a n d f i n a l c h a p t e r c o n s i d e r s t h e l e s s o n s o f t h e U H F e x p e r i e n c e f o r o t h e r c o o p e r a t i v e r e s o u r c e g r o u p s . T o p u t t h e c a s e s t u d y i n p e r s p e c t i v e s o m e d e f i n i t i o n s o f t e r m s u s e d a n d a f e w w o r d s o n t h e h i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s m a y b e h e l p f u l . D e f i n i t i o n o f T e r m s C o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g d e s c r i b e s a p r o c e s s i n w h i c h p e o p l e j o i n t o g e t h e r t o a c h i e v e c e r t a i n g o a l s w i t h r e s p e c t t o h o u s i n g . T h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e o f a c o o p e r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e " w o u l d s e e m t o b e p r i m a r i l y a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d g e n e r a l m o t i v a -t i o n r a t h e r t h a n a m a t t e r o f s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n o r p u r p o s e . " ( L i b l i t , 1 9 6 4 , 5.) C o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i s f r e q u e n t l y m o r e t h a n a n e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y , a m e a n s o f p r o v i d i n g s h e l t e r a l b e i t w i t h a u n i -q u e f o r m o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , t e n u r e , a n d m a n a g e m e n t . I t i s a l s o a p h i l o s o p h y , a w a y o f l i f e b a s e d o n a s e t o f p r i n c i p l e s , o f t e n 8 c a l l e d t h e " R o c h d a l e p r i n c i p l e s " , a f t e r t h e p i o n e e r c o o p e r a t i v e o f t h e E n g l i s h c o n s u m e r s ' m o v e m e n t s t a r t e d a t R o c h d a l e i n L a n c a - 1 -s h i r e i n l 8 V w T h e R o c h d a l e p r i n c i p l e s w e r e m o d e r n i z e d b y t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i v e A l l i a n c e i n 1966 a s f o l l o w s : (1) o p e n a n d v o l u n t a r y m e m b e r s h i p , (2) d e m o c r a t i c c o n t r o l t h r o u g h " o n e m e m b e r , o n e v o t e " , (3) l i m i t e d i n t e r e s t o n c a p i t a l , (4) s u r p l u s e a r n i n g s b e l o n g t o t h e m e m b e r s o n a p r o p o r t i o n a t e b a s i s a c c o r d i n g t o b u s i n e s s d o n e , (5) e d u c a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l , a n d (6) c o o p e r a -t i o n a m o n g c o o p e r a t i v e s . T h e t e r m " c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g : s h o u l d b e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m t h e t e r m " h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e " : ( L a i d l a w , 1967, 2 - 3») T h e f i r s t i s a . . . g e n e r a l t e r m r e f e r r i n g t o a n y o f t h e m a n y w a y s i n w h i c h p e o p l e m a y g e t t o g e t h e r c o - o p e r a t i v e l y t o p r o v i d e h o u s i n g f o r t h e m s e l v e s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e y m a y o r g a n i z e i n a d o - i t - y o u r s e l f s c h e m e a n d b u i l d h o u s e s w h i c h t h e y w i l l o w n i n d i v i d u a l l y . . . o r t h e y m a y h a v e h o u s e s b u i l t f o r o w n e r s h i p b y a c o n s u m e r s ' c o - o p e r a t i v e o f w h i c h t h e y a r e m e m b e r s . . . o r a c o - o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n m a y p r o v i d e s o m e f o r m o f h o u s i n g , e g . l i m i t e d d i v i d e n d , f o r s o m e o f i t s m e m b e r s . I n a l l t h e s e c a s e s s o m e f o r m o r d e g r e e o f c o - o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n r e s u l t s i n h o u s i n g , a l t h o u g h a p e r -m a n e n t h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e m a y n o t b e t h e e n d r e s u l t . B u t a h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e i s s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t : i t i s a h o u s i n g p r o j e c t o r c o l l e c t i o n o f h o u s i n g u n i t s o w n e d j o i n t l y b y t h e p e o p l e w h o o c c u p y t h e h o u s i n g . T h e e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e o f a h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e i s j o i n t o w n e r s h i p a n d c o n t r o l b y t h o s e w h o o c c u p y t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n . . . I n t h i s r e s e a r c h , t h e t e r m c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g r e f e r s t o t h e g e n e r a l i d e a o f h o u s i n g p r o v i d e d b y j o i n t e f f o r t w h i l e t h e t e r m h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e r e f e r s t o a p e r m a n e n t h o u s i n g p r o j e c t w h i c h i s j o i n t l y o w n e d a n d c o n t r o l l e d b y i t s o c c u p a n t s . T h e c o n c e p t o f a " h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e " m u s t b e f u r t h e r d i s -t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h a t o f a " b u i l d i n g c o o p e r a t i v e " : ( L a i d l a w , 1972, 1 - 2.) 9 T h e p u r p o s e o f a b u i l d i n g c o o p e r a t i v e i s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h o u s e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l h o m e o w n e r s h i p . T h e m e m b e r s c o o p e r a t e o n l y u p t o t h e p o i n t o f c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i r h o m e s , a l t h o u g h i n s o m e c a s e s t h e y m a y c o n t i n u e t o h a n d l e m o n t h l y p a y m e n t s a s a g r o u p u n t i l t h e m o r t g a g e s a r e p a i d o f f . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e p u r p o s e o f a h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e i s t o s e c u r e j o i n t o w n e r s h i p a n d c o o p e r a t i v e t e n u r e o f m u l t i p l e h o u s i n g i n w h i c h t h e r e w i l l n e v e r b e s e p a r a t e o w n e r s h i p o f i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s . I n t h i s t y p e t h e m e m b e r s a r e p a y i n g , e s s e n t i a l l y , f o r t h e u s e o f h o u s i n g ; i t i s t h u s b a s i c a l l y r e n t a l h o u s i n g , b u t t h e t e n a n t s a r e r e n t i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n f r o m t h e m s e l v e s . T h e r e a r e t w o o t h e r t e r m s f r e q u e n t l y u s e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s . " P a r v a l u e " m e a n s t h a t w h e n a m e m b e r o f a h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e c e a s e s t o b e a m e m b e r a n d c e a s e s t o r e s i d e i n c o o p e r a t i v e a c c o m m o d a t i o n , h e o r s h e i s e n t i t l e d o n l y t o t h e a m o u n t t h a t h e o r s h e p u t i n t o t h e c o o p e r a t i v e b y w a y o f s h a r e s p l u s a n i n f l a t i o n a r y f a c t o r o n t h a t a m o u n t , p l u s a n a l l o t m e n t f o r i m p r o v e -m e n t s n o t e x c e e d i n g }0% o f t h e v a l u e o f t h e u n i t . T h e t e r m " c o n t i n u i n g c o o p e r a t i v e " i s u s e d i n s e v e r a l w a y s . S o m e c o o p e r a t o r s u s e " c o n t i n u i n g " t o m e a n t h a t t h e c o o p e r a t i o n c o n t i n u e s u n t i l t h e e n d o f t h e m o r t g a g e ( L a i d l a w ) w h i l e o t h e r s u s e t h e i d e a t o m e a n t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n c o n t i n u e s i n d e f i n i t e l y ( U H F ) . T h i s r e s e a r c h i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s o f a p a r v a l u e n a t u r e i n w h i c h c o o p e r a t i o n c o n t i n u e s u n t i l t h e e n d o f t h e l i f e o f t h e h o u s i n g . A S h o r t H i s t o r y o f C o o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g i n C a n a d a A l t h o u g h m o d e r n c o o p e r a t i o n i s o v e r 100 y e a r s o l d , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f c e r t a i n E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s w h e r e g o v e r n m e n t h a s a c t i v e -l y e n c o u r a g e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o o p e r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e , t h e c o o p -e r a t i v e s e c t o r i s a r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f m o s t c o u n t r i e s ' 10 economic l i f e . In Canada, cooperative housing is neither an im-portant component of national housing activity nor of the coopera-tive sector in general. The Canadian cooperative housing movement is a recent development born of the depressed economic times of the 1930»s. Cooperative housing began in Canada in the Nova Scotia mining town of Reserve Mines where a group of ten families formed the fir s t building cooperative under the guidance of St. Francie Xavier University. The success of the project led to the rapid expansion of building cooperatives in the Atlantic provinces. In 1953, CMHC extended financing to the province under the National Housing Act (NHA) and by 1971 3200 houses had been constructed by this method. Nova Scotia s t i l l remains the leading province in building cooper-atives. Independently of the achievements of Nova Scotian cooper-atives, building cooperatives were being formed in Quebec (1942), Ontario ( 1 9 5 3 ) , and Newfoundland ( 1944) , (International Labour Office, 1964, 96 - 97.) The emphasis was through small groups, local initiative and planning, self-help and "sweat equity" to meet the goal of home ownership for those who could not afford ex-isting market housing. However, the idea of the building cooperative, so successful in small towns and rural areas, would not transfer easily to the larger urban setting. Thus, in the early 1960»s Canadian coopera-tors began to investigate the large scale housing cooperatives that were having such success in Sweden and in New York City. The first large urban housing cooperative was the 200 unit Willow Park Housing Cooperative in Winnipeg completed in 1966. An 11 i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n W i l l o w P a r k a n d t h e N o v a S c o t i a n v a r -i e t y o f c o o p e r a t i v e w a s i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n . W h i l e t h e b u i l d i n g c o -o p e r a t i v e w a s c o n c e i v e d a n d p l a n n e d b y t h o s e i n t e n d i n g t o o c c u p y i t , t h e l a r g e u r b a n h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e r e q u i r e d a s p o n s o r i n g b o d y , ( i n t h e c a s e o f W i l l o w P a r k , t h e C o o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f M a n i t o b a , ) t o t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g , o r g a n i z i n g a n d c o n -s t r u c t i o n o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d , o f t e n t w o o r m o r e y e a r s . T h e s u c c e s s o f W i l l o w P a r k w a s f o l l o w e d b y S a r c e e M e a d o w s i n C a l g a r y (380 u n i t s ) a n d S o l i d a r i t y T o w e r i n W i n d s o r (300 u n i t s ) . A l t h o u g h h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s h a v e n o w b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d i n a l l s i x p r o v i n c e s o u t s i d e t h e A t l a n t i c R e g i o n , t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e c o -o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t h a s b e e n g r e a t e s t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A n u m b e r o f f a c t o r s h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e g r o w t h o f c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e c r e d i t u n i o n s , a p r o v i n c i a l * g o v e r n m e n t w i t h a p o l i c y o f s u p p o r t f o r c o o p e r a t i v e s , a n d t h e d e -v e l o p m e n t o f a " m o t h e r s o c i e t y " o r r e s o u r c e g r o u p — t h e U n i t e d H o u s i n g F o u n d a t i o n — c a p a b l e o f l e a d i n g p e o p l e t h r o u g h t h e d i f f i -c u l t p r o c e s s o f p u t t i n g a c o o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t i n o p e r a t i o n . ( L a i d -l a w , 1974, 4 - 5 . ) I t i s t h e l a s t o f t h e s e f a c t o r s t h a t i s t h e c o n -c e r n o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . T h e e x p e r i e n c e o f W i l l o w P a r k i n d i c a t e d t h a t s o m e f o r m o f s p o n s o r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n w a s n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e c o n t i n u i t y f o r t h e p r o j e c t t h r o u g h o u t t h e l e n g t h y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A h i g h l e v e l o f a c t i v i t y r e q u i r e s t h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f 1 h e k n o w l e d g e b a s e i n a " m o t h e r s o c i e t y " o r r e s o u r c e g r o u p . T o f i l l t h i s n e e d i n B . C . , • T h e : N e w D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y g o v e r n m e n t e l e c t e d i n 1972 a p p e a r e d t o b e i n s u p p o r t o f c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g . T h e y w e r e d e f e a t e d b y t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y i n D e c e m b e r 1975 w h o a t t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g d o n o t a p -p e a r t o s u p p o r t c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g t o t h e s a m e e x t e n t . 12 U H F w a s e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1972. T h e F o u n d a t i o n g u i d e d p r o s p e c t i v e c o o p e r a t i v e g r o u p s t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a f u n c t i o n -i n g c o o p e r a t i v e , p r o v i d i n g s u c h s e r v i c e s a s a s s i s t a n c e i n a c q u i s -i t i o n o f l a n d , a r r a n g i n g i n t e r i m a n d m o r t g a g e f i n a n c i n g , o r g a n i z -i n g c o n t r a c t u a l , a c c o u n t i n g , l e g a l , a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e s , a n d g i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n l e a d e r s h i p a n d m a n a g e r i a l s k i l l s . T h e F o u n d a t i o n w a s i n v o l v e d w i t h o v e r t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f t h e h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . B y M a y 1975, U H F h a d a s s i s t e d f o u r o u t o f f i v e s u c c e s s f u l c o o p e r a t i v e s a l r e a d y c o m p l e t e , s i x o u t o f s e v e n u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n , a n d t e n o u t o f f o u r t e e n p o t e n t i a l l y c e a d y t o b e c o n s t r u c t e d . ( K o e n i g , 1975, 3 5 . ) I n t h r e e y e a r s o f o p e r a t i o n U H F ' s r e c o r d i n c l u d e d 8 6 0 c o m p l e t e d c o o p e r a t i v e u n i t s , 545 u n i t s u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n , a n d a f u r t h e r 689 u n i t s i n a d v a n c e d p l a n n i n g ( a p p o i n t m e n t o f a r c h i t e c t t o t e n -d e r ) . ( T a b l e 1.) T h e r e i s n o d o u b t t h a t t h e F o u n d a t i o n w a s a p o w e r f u l f o r c e i n t h e p r o m o t i o n a n d s u c c e s s o f h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . 13 T A B L E 1 C O O P E R A T I V E S A S S I S T E D B Y U N I T E D H O U S I N G F O U N D A T I O N ( C u m u l a t i v e S u m m a r y , N o v . 1975) C o o p e r a t i v e L o c a t i o n U n i t a n d T y p e C o m p l e t e d C o m p l e t e d ( P a r t i a l l y o r F u l l y O c c u p i e d ) D e C o s m o s V i l l a g e V a n c o u v e r 110 t o w n h o u s e s 1972 A z a l e a G a r d e n s C o q u i t l a m 65 a p a r t m e n t s 1973 R o c h d a l e P l a c e V i c t o r i a 74 t o w n h o u s e s 1974 K a n a t a V a n c o u v e r 150 t o w n h o u s e s 1975 M e a d o w H i g h l a n d s P i t t M e a d o w s 162 m o b i l e h o m e p a d s 1975 M o u n t a i n V i e w P o r t M o o d y 215 a p a r t m e n t s 1975 P i o n e e r H a n e y J± c o t t a g e s 1975 T o t a l - $ 6 0 U n d e r C o n s t r u c t i o n N e w W e s t m i n s t e r N e w W e s t m i n s t e r 42 t o w n h o u s e s & a p t s 1975 C o - o p D e m e r s V a n c o u v e r 28 a p a r t m e n t s 1976 W i l d e r n e s s P a r k V i c t o r i a 38 t o w n h o u s e s 1976 W a s h i n g t o n V i c t o r i a 59 t o w n h o u s e s & a p t s 1976 M a r i g o l d S a a n i c h 86 t o w n h o u s e s 1976 K l a h a n i e R i c h m o n d 70 t o w n h o u s e s 1976 Q u e s n e l G r e e n e N o r t h B u r n a b y 222 p a t i o a p a r t m e n t s 1976 T o t a l 545 A d v a n c e d P l a n n i n g J a m e s B a y V i c t o r i a 28 t o w n h o u s e s 1976 G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r F l o a t i n g H o m e s V a n c o u v e r 88 b e r t h s 1976 P e n t i c t b n P l a z a V a n c o u v e r 42 t o w n h o u s e s 1977 M i s s i o n M i s s i o n 74 t o w n h o u s e s 1977 P e n t a V a n c o u v e r 20 t o w n h o u s e s 1976 N e l s o n & D i s t r i c t N e l s o n 48 a p a r t m e n t s 1976 Q u e s n e l G r e e n e ( p h a s e I I ) N o r t h B u r n a b y 6 0 p a t i o a p a r t m e n t s 1977 W o o d l a n d H e i g h t s N o r t h B u r n a b y 160 s t a c k e d t o w n h o u s e s & m a i s o n e t t s 1977 R i v e r v i e w C o q u i t l a m 69 t o w n h o u s e s 1977 H a r o l d W i n c h P a r k N o r t h B u r n a b y 100 s t a c k e d t o w n h o u s e s W§ & m a i s o n e t t e s 1977 T o t a l 14 C H A P T E R I I T H E H I S T O R Y O F T H E U N I T E D H O U S I N G F O U N D A T I O N T h e U n i t e d H o u s i n g F o u n d a t i o n w a s c r e a t e d b y s e v e r a l o f t h e o r g a n i z e r s o f B . C . ' s s e c o n d s u c c e s s f u l h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e , D e C o s -m o s V i l l a g e . W h a t e v e r i t s o r i g i n a l c l a i m t o a g r a s s r o o t s b a s e , U H F r a p i d l y g r e w i n t o a s p e c i a l i z e d , b u r e a u c r a t i c r e s o u r c e o r g a n -i z a t i o n , d o m i n a t e d b y a b o a r d o f p r o f e s s i o n a l m a n a g e r s a n d s u p p o r t -e d b y t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t a s a n u n o f f i c i a l " c o o p e r a t i v e s b r a n c h " . T h e o r g a n i z i n g B . C . h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s s o o n b e g a n t o c h a l l e n g e U H F ' s e l i t i s t b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s a n d i t s u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , a n d t h e P r o v i n c e ' s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t a l l c o o p e r a t i v e s r e -c e i v i n g t h e i r a i d m u s t d e a l w i t h U H F . M a n y c o o p e r a t o r s a c t i v e l y w o r k e d t o g a i n c o n t r o l o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t w a s s u p p o s e d t o s e r v e t h e m . S t r u g g l e s f o r p o w e r e n s u e d — a s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n U H F a n d t h e P r o v i n c e , b e t w e e n c o o p e r a t o r s a n d t h e P r o v i n c e , b e t w e e n U H F a n d t h e c o o p e r a t o r s , a n d e v e n a m o n g i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e g r o u p s . I n f a c t , t h e b r i e f t h r e e a n d o n e - h a l f y e a r h i s -t o r y o f U H F c a n b e s u m m e d u p a s a s t r u g g l e t o f i n d a n a c c e p t a b l e r o l e f o r t h e F o u n d a t i o n : a r o l e a c c e p t a b l e t o U H F ' s f o u n d e r s , t o * i t s c l i e n t c o o p e r a t i v e s , a n d t o t h e P r o v i n c e w h o f u n d e d i t . W h a t * U H F h a d t h r e e s o u r c e s o f r e v e n u e : p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s , d e v e l o p m e n t f e e s — u s u a l l y 1 - 1 ^ o f d e v e l o p m e n t c o s t s — p a i d b y t h e c o o p -e r a t i v e t o U H F f o r s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d , a n d m e m b e r s h i p f e e s p a i d b y t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s w h i c h w e r e v o t i n g m e m b e r s o f U H F . T h e p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t t h e y a l l o w e d U H F t o k e e p d o w n c h a r g e s t o c o o p e r a t i v e s f o r a i d . 15 f o l l o w s i s t h e h i s t o r y o f U H F a s u n d e r s t o o d b y t h e a u t h o r . T h e h i s t o r y o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n h a s n o t b e c o m p i l e d b e f o r e ; t h u s t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s b a s e d o n a s t u d y o f t h e m i n u t e s o f t h e m e e t i n g s o f t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s a n d o t h e r d o c u m e n t s c o n t a i n -e d i n t h e U H F f i l e s , p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n , a n d i n - d e p t h c o n f i d e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l m e m b e r s o f t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s a n d o t h e r s , w h i c h c a n n o t b e s p e c i f i c a l l y c i t e d . T h e F o u n d i n g o f U H F U H F w a s p r e d a t e d b y t w o s u c c e s s f u l c o o p e r a t i v e s , o n e u n s u c -c e s s f u l c o o p e r a t i v e , a n d a s h o r t - l i v e d " m o t h e r s o c i e t y " . T h e " m o t h e r s o c i e t y " , t h e W e s t e r n C o o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g S o c i e t y ( W C H S ) w a s s e t u p i n 1967 t o p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s t o t h e B a r c l a y C o o p e r a t i v e i n P o r t A l b e r n i a n d h a d a g r e e d t o h a n d l e s i m i l a r s e r -v i c e s f o r t h e A b b o t s f o r d C o o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n i n A b b o t s -f o r d a n d t h e D e C o s m o s V i l l a g e C o o p e r a t i v e i n V a n c o u v e r . I n 1969 t h e B a r c l a y C o o p e r a t i v e a n d W C H S f o l d e d d u e t o a c o m -b i n a t i o n o f i n e x p e r i e n c e , l a c k o f a d e q u a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r o l , a n d a d v e r s e w i n t e r w e a t h e r c a u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n d e l a y s . W i t h t h e d e m i s e o f W C H S , t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s o f t h e A b b o t s f o r d C o o p e r a t i v e , w h i c h w a s b e i n g s p o n s o r e d b y t h e A b b o t s f o r d C r e d i t U n i o n , d e c i d e d t o a c t a s t h e i r o w n d e v e l o p e r w i t h t h e c r e d i t u n i o n p r o v i d i n g t h e i n t e r i m f i n a n c i n g . T h e p r o j e c t w a s s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p l e t e d i n 1973 w i t h o u t t h e a i d o f a n y r e s o u r c e g r o u p a n d a l s o w i t h o u t t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e 1973 N H A a m e n d m e n t s w h i c h i n c r e a s e d a i d t o c o o p e r a t i v e s . ( A p p e n d i x 2 . ) A t t h e s a m e t i m e a s t h e A b b o t s f o r d C o o p e r a t i v e w a s b e i n g 16 o r g a n i z e d , t h e f u t u r e e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r o f U H F , S h i r l e y S c h m i d , w a s i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e c o n c e p t o f c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g b y t h e s p o n -s o r s o f t h e B a r c l a y p r o j e c t . S h e a g r e e d t o u n d e r t a k e t h e o r g a n -i z a t i o n o f t h e D e C o s m o s V i l l a g e C o o p e r a t i v e i n V a n c o u v e r a n d c o n -v i n c e d t h e U n i t e d C h u r c h t o p r o v i d e 5 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 i n t e r i m c a p i t a l f o r t h e p r o j e c t . W h e n B a r c l a y a n d W C H S f a i l e d s i x m o n t h s l a t e r , S c h m i d w a s , i n h e r o w n w o r d s , " l e f t h o l d i n g t h e b a g w i t h n o b a c k - u p a n d 8 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 o u t o n a l i m b . " D e C o s m o s V i l l a g e w a s c o m p l e t e d b y t h e U n i t e d C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g S o c i e t y ( U C H S ) , a r e s o u r c e g r o u p o r g a n i z e d b y S c h m i d w h i c h d r e w u p o n t h e e x p e r t i s e o f a n u m b e r o f t a l e n t e d p e o p l e i n c l u d i n g p e r s o n s f r o m B . C . C e n t r a l C r e d i t U n i o n , U n i t e d C o m m u n i t y S e r v i c e s , C o - o p e r a t i v e T r u s t , S u n L i f e A s s u r a n c e C o . , a n d t h e B l o c k B r o t h e r s d e v e l o p m e n t c o m p a n y . B . C . C e n t r a l w a s a t f i r s t r e l u c t a n t t o b e c o m e i n v o l v e d w i t h U C H S : t h e y h a d l o s t a s u b s t a n t i a l s u m , i n e x c e s s o f $ 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 , o n t h e B a r c l a y C o o p e r a t i v e ; b u t w i t h t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e 1 1 0 u n i t D e C o s m o s V i l l a g e , B . C . C e n t r a l j o i n e d t h e U C H S B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s a n d s u p p o r t e d t h e f l e d g l i n g r e s o u r c e g r o u p b y g i v i n g S c h m i d a n o f -f i c e a n d a s a l a r y a n d b y p r o v i d i n g U C H S w i t h a c c e s s t o t h e r e s o u r c e s o f i t s d e v e l o p m e n t d e p a r t m e n t . ( B . C . C e n t r a l w a s l a t e r r e i m b u r s e d f o r t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . ) A s U C H S g r e w , t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s d e c i d e d t h a t t h e c o o p e r a t i v e f o r m o f e n t e r p r i s e w a s t o o u n w i e l d y f o r a r e s o u r c e g r o u p . U C H S h a d b e e n i n c o r p o r a t e d u n d e r t h e C o o p -e r a t i v e s A c t o f B . C . T h e D i r e c t o r s b e l i e v e d t h e A c t l i m i t e d t h e s c o p e o f t h e r e s o u r c e g r o u p a n d t h e y f e a r e d t h a t t h e r e q u i r e d p a r t i c i p a t o r y s t r u c t u r e w o u l d b e c o m e u n m a n a g e a b l e o v e r t i m e . T h u s 17 t h e l e g a l e n t i t y U C H S w a s l e f t t o b e c o m e t h e K a n a t a H o u s i n g C o o p -e r a t i v e ( a n i n c o r p o r a t i o n c o s t s m o n e y a n d t h e r e w a s n o p o i n t i n w a s t i n g i t ) w h i l e t h e B o a r d r e i n c o r p o r a t e d a s a n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t y i n S e p t e m b e r 1972 u n d e r t h e B . C . S o c i e t i e s A c t t a k i n g t h e U n i t e d H o u s i n g F o u n d a t i o n a s i t s n a m e . I n 1973 U H F s e p a r a t e d f r o m B . C . C e n t r a l a n d m o v e d t o n e w p r e -m i s e s . T h e p r i n c i p l e r e a s o n s b e h i n d t h e c h a n g e i n r e l a t i o n s h i p b e -t w e e n U H F a n d B . C . C e n t r a l w e r e t h e d e s i r e f o r a u t o n o m y a n d i n d e -p e n d e n c e , t h e n e e d t o i n c r e a s e U H F p a i d s t a f f , a n d t h e b e l i e f t h a t a s e p a r a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n c e r n e d f i r s t l y w i t h t h e p r o m o t i o n o f c o -o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g , a n d n o t w i t h c r e d i t u n i o n a c t i v i t i e s , w a s n e c e s -s a r y . B . C . C e n t r a l c o n t i n u e d t o p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s t o U H F o n a c o n t r a c t u a l b a s i s u n t i l M a y 1974 w h e n U H F t o o k a l l s e r v i c e s " i n h o u s e " . S c h m i d h e l d t h e r e i n s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n i t s e a r l y d a y s : s h e w a s t h e o n e w h o l o o k e d a t t h e p r o p e r t i e s a n d m a d e t h e o f f e r s , c o n f e r e d w i t h c o o p e r a t o r s , a n d l i a s e d w i t h g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s . T h e B o a r d f u n c t i o n e d a s a h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d p o o l o f e x p e r t i s e w h o a s s e s s e d o p t i o n s a n d u n d e r t o o k s p e c i f i c s t u d y t h r o u g h b o a r d c o m m i t -t e e s . S c h m i d a l s o u n d e r t o o k t o c o n v i n c e t h e n e w l y e l e c t e d p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t t o s u p p o r t U H F a n d c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g . A m e e t i n g b e -t w e e n S c h m i d a n d t h e M i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h o u s i n g , J a m e s L o r i m e r , i n l a t e 1972 r e s u l t e d i n a g r a n t o f $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 . S c h m i d ' s r e p o r t o f t h i s m e e t i n g c o n t a i n s a n u m b e r o f i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h e f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n o f U H F / p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s . S c h m i d s t a t e d t h a t f u r t h e r f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t w a s a n t i c i p a t e d : L o r i m e r h a d u r g e d U H F 18 t o " t h i n k b i g a n d w o r k f a s t " s a y i n g t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e p r e f e r r e d f u n d i n g U H F t o c o o r d i n a t e a n d d e v e l o p c o o p e r a t i v e s r a t h e r t h a n d i r e c t l y p r o v i d i n g t h e s e s e r v i c e s . A q u a s i - g o v e r n m e n t a l s t a t u s f o r U H F i s f i r s t p u t f o r w a r d : " T h e F o u n d a t i o n i s c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h -e d a s a P r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , " S c h m i d r e p o r t e d , " a n d I s a t i n o n a m e e t i n g w h e r e a g r o u p i n V i c t o r i a w a s d e n i e d t h e f u n d s t o e s t a -b l i s h a s i m i l a r F o u n d a t i o n i n t h a t a r e a o n t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h e y w o u l d h a v e t o w o r k t h r o u g h U H F a n d t h a t b r a n c h e s w o u l d b e e s t a -b l i s h e d b y U H F w h e r e n e c e s s a r y . " ( M i n u t e s o f t h e M e e t i n g o f t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s o f U H F , D e c e m b e r 1 2 , 1 9 7 2 . ) R e q u e s t s f o r a i d f o r c o o p e r a t i v e s w e r e t o b e d i r e c t e d t o U H F b y t h e p r o v i n c e a n d U H F w a s t o h a v e f i r s t p r i o r i t y o n p r o v i n c i a l l a n d a c q u i r e d f o r c o -o p e r a t i v e p u r p o s e s . S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s m e e t i n g , t h e P r o v i n c e p u r -c h a s e d f i v e a c r e s o f l a n d i n V i c t o r i a a n d a g r e e d t o l e a s e i t t o U H F a t k% o f t h e p u r c h a s e p r i c e . S c h m i d r e p o r t e d t h a t t h i s w a s t o b e t h e f o r m u l a f o r p r o v i n c i a l l e a s e s i n t h e f u t u r e . N e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e P r o v i n c e w e r e f i n a l i z e d i n t h e f a l l o f 1973. U H F r e c e i v -e d a g r a n t o f $ 1 6 0 , 0 0 0 ; i n r e t u r n t h e F o u n d a t i o n r e d u c e d i t s d e -v e l o p m e n t f e e s ( c h a r g e t o c o o p e r a t i v e s f o r s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d ) f r o m 2% t o 1%, a g r e e d t o t a k e o n a l l c o o p e r a t i v e s r e f e r r e d t o t h e m b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t , a n d a c c e p t e d t w o p r o v i n c i a l a p p o i n t e e s t o i t s b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s . A s t h e t i e s b e t w e e n U H F a n d t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t c o n t i n -u e d t o g r o w , c o o p e r a t o r s b e g a n t o a s k q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e r o l e o f U H F a n d a b o u t i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e g o v e r n m e n t . I t w a s s u g -g e s t e d t h a t U H F a p p e a r e d t o h a v e c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l o v e r c o o p e r a t i v e s i n B . C . a n d t h a t o t h e r g r o u p s w e r e u n a b l e t o g o a h e a d o n t h e i r o w n 19 m a i n l y d u e t o p r o v i n c i a l b i a s i n f a v o u r o f U H F c o o p e r a t i v e s . T h i s w a s c e r t a i n l y t r u e i n l i g h t o f S c h m i d ' s n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h L o r i m e r , h u t i t w a s n o t a f a c t U H F w a n t e d t o a d m i t . C o o p e r a t o r s a l s o q u e s -t i o n e d t h e • • e l i t e " n a t u r e o f t h e U H F B o a r d s a j i n g i t w a s n o t r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e o f p e o p l e w h o l i v e i n c o o p e r a t i v e s b u t o n l y r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e o f " p e o p l e w i t h c o n n e c t i o n s " , m e a n i n g p e o p l e w i t h h i g h l y - p a i d m a n a g e r i a l p o s i t i o n s o r p r o f e s s i o n a l j o b s . T h e U H F B o a r d , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , w a s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e n e c e s s i t y o f p r o v i d i n g e x p e r t i s e i n o r d e r t o g u a r a n t e e t h e s u c c e s s o f c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y . H o w e v e r , t h e B o a r d d i d a d m i t t h e n e e d f o r e x p a n d e d m e m b e r s h i p a n d s t a t e d t h a t a s n e w c o o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s w e r e c o m p l e t e d t h e y w o u l d b e r e -p r e s e n t e d i n U H F . T o p r e p a r e f o r s u c h e v e n t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h e B o a r d f o r m e d a r e s t r u c t u r i n g c o m m i t t e e i n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 3 « T o w a r d t h i s e n d U H F h a d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e a s o n f o r r e s t r u c t u r i n g : t o p r o v i d e a m o r e c r e d i b l e c o m m u n i t y b a s e ? t o p r o v i d e c l o s e r c o n t a c t w i t h l a b o u r , g o v e r n m e n t , c h u r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a n d p r o v i n c i a l h o u s i n g g r o u p s ? t o p r o v i d e m o r e d e m o c r a t i c c o n t r o l b y g r o u p s s e r v e d b y U H F ? T h e U H F B o a r d w a s c o n c e r n e d w i t h m a i n t a i n i n g a h i g h l e v e l o f e x p e r t c o n t r o l a t t h e b o a r d l e v e l a n d f a v o u r e d e x p a n s i o n t h r o u g h l i a s o n w i t h l a b o u r a n d c r e d i t u n i o n s . T h e c r i t i c s o f U H F , h o w e v e r , w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n g a i n i n g d e m o c r a t i c c o n t r o l o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t w a s i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e t h e m . G r o w i n g D i s s e n t i o n : T h e F o r m a t i o n o f t h e A d H o c C o m m i t t e e A t a U H F w o r k s h o p h e l d i n J a n u a r y 1974, m e m b e r s o f s e v e r a l c o o p e r a t i v e s d i s c u s s e d t h e f u t u r e o f c o o p e r a t i v e n o n - p r o f i t h o u s i n g 20 i n B . C . a n d t h e r o l e o f U H F . T h e c o o p e r a t o r s f e l t t h a t i f t h e p r o -v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t w a s r e q u i r i n g t h e m t o d e a l w i t h U H F , t h e F o u n d a -t i o n s h o u l d b e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e m a n d a c c o u n t a b l e t o t h e m . T h e " F i r e s i d e C o m m i t t e e " , a s t h i s g r o u p b e c a m e k n o w n , r e a c h e d t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s : 1 ) t h a t a c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s w a s d e s i r a b l e , 2) t h a t s u c h a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d b e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i t s e r v e s , 3 ) t h a t U H F s h o u l d b e c o m e t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n b y b r o a d e n i n g i t s t e c h n i c a l c o m p o n e n t a n d e x p a n d i n g i t s e d u c a t i o n a l a n d l o b b y i n g s e r v i c e s a n d b y i n s t i t u t i n g a c o m m i t t e e s y s -t e m m a n n e d b y c o o p e r a t i v e m e m b e r v o l u n t e e r s . T h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e F i r e s i d e C o m m i t t e e w e r e p r e s e n t e d t o t h e U H F B o a r d i n F e b r u a r y , a n d a f t e r m u c h d i s c u s s i o n t h e B o a r d a g r e e d t o a c c e p t a n e x p a n d e d r o l e i n t h e f i e l d o f c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s -i n g i n B . C . , w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e f u n d i n g f r o m t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n -m e n t , a n d t o d e m o c r a t i z e i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n b y p r o v i d i n g a r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s . U H F , c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e c r e d i b i l i t y , c o n t i n u i t y , a n d e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n b e p r o t e c t e d , r e -s i s t e d r a p i d c h a n g e : t h e B o a r d s u g g e s t e d a n e w b o a r d s t r u c t u r e o f e i g h t e l e c t e d m e m b e r s a n d f i v e m e m b e r s a p p o i n t e d b y t h e o u t - g o i n g b o a r d , p l u s t h e t w o p r o v i n c i a l a p p o i n t e e s . E v e n t s p r o c e e d e d s l o w l y a n d a f t e r a s e c o n d U H F w o r k s h o p i n J u n e , t h e A d H o c C o m m i t t e e , a c o m m i t t e e d r a w n f r o m 43 c o o p e r a t i v e s a n d n o n - p r o f i t h o u s i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s , w a s f o r m e d t o p r o v i d e a n i n -d e p e n d e n t c o m m u n i c a t i o n s l i n k a m o n g t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s u n t i l t h e 21 O c t o b e r m e m b e r s h i p c o n f e r e n c e a n d t h e e l e c t i o n o f t h e n e w b o a r d . T h a t s u m m e r , t h e A d H o c C o m m i t t e e s p o n s o r e d t w o c o n f e r e n c e s f o r c o -o p e r a t i v e s t o d e b a t e s u c h m a t t e r s a s p r o v i n c i a l l a n d l e a s e a r r a n g e -m e n t s , p r o p o s e d c h a n g e s i n t h e C o o p e r a t i v e s A c t , a n d t h e r o l e o f " m o t h e r s o c i e t i e s " . T h e o u t c o m e o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s w a s t o e n d o r s e t h e d e c i s i o n s o f t h e F i r e s i d e C o m m i t t e e . T h e C o m m i t t e e r e j e c t e d t h e U H F B o a r d ' s p r o p o s a l o f a p a r t i a l l y e l e c t e d , p a r t i a l l y a p p o i n t -e d b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s f o r U H F a n d d e m a n d e d a m e m b e r r u n a n d c o n t r o l -l e d c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . T o s u p p o r t i t s d e m a n d s , t h e A d H o c C o m -m i t t e e s e n t l e t t e r s e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r c o n c e r n t o t h e S u p e r v i s o r o f C o o p e r a t i v e s , t o w h o m U H F w o u l d h a v e t o a p p l y f o r a p p r o v a l o f c o n -* s t i t u t i o n a l c h a n g e s , a n d t h e M i n i s t e r o f H o u s i n g , L o r n e N i c o l s o n . B y t h i s t i m e t h e " d i s c u s s i o n s " b e t w e e n t h e U H F B o a r d a n d t h e A d H o c C o m m i t t e e h a d d e v e l o p e d i n t o a f u l l s c a l e c o n f r o n t a t i o n . M e m b e r s o f t h e A d H o c C o m m i t t e e d i s t r u s t e d t h e U H F B o a r d , a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r , S c h m i d , b e l i e v i n g s h e w i t h h e l d o r f a l s i f i e d i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e y b e g a n t o t h i n k o f U H F a s " j u s t a n o t h e r d e v e l o p e r " m o r e i n t e n t o n h o u s i n g s t a r t s t h a n c o o p e r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s . ( R e p o r t o f t h e C o m -m i t t e e o n t h e I m a g e o f U H F , 1975, 1 - 2 . ) O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e B o a r d c o n s i d e r e d t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e A d H o c C o m m i t t e e a t r o u b l e -s e e k i n g m i n o r i t y . E a c h t h o u g h t t h e o t h e r t o b e s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d a n d p o w e r h u n g r y . I n r e a l i t y , n e i t h e r g r o u p w a s t h e v i l l a i n t h e o t h e r t h o u g h t t h e m t o b e . H o w e v e r , r e a l f e e l i n g s o f d i s l i k e a n d d i s t r u s t w e r e c r e a t e d . W h a t b e g a n a s a r a t h e r q u i e t m o v e m e n t I n 1973 t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g w a s c r e a t e d a n d L o r n e N i c o l s o n w a s a p p o i n t e d m i n i s t e r 22 t o w a r d s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s q u i c k l y b l o s s o m e d i n t o a b a t t l e , c o m -p l e t e w i t h g u e r i l l a t a c t i c s a n d a n " u s a g a i n s t t h e m " p h i l o s o p h y . M e a n w h i l e , t h e p r o v i n c i a l D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g b e g a n t o t a k e n o t i c e o f t h e s e e m i n g u n r e s t i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t . T h e D e p a r t m e n t , i n t h e m i d s t o f c o n s i d e r i n g f u n d i n g U H F f o r 1 9 7 5 - 7 6 , w a s s e n s i t i v e t o t h e g r a s s r o o t s a c c u s a t i o n t h a t U H F w a s u n r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e a n d g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r o l l e d . I n t h e e n d , t h e D e p a r t m e n t s t i p u l a t e d , a s a c o n d i t i o n o f f u n d i n g , t h a t U H F d e m o c r a t i z e i t s s t r u c t u r e s o t h a t t h e b o a r d w o u l d b e f u l l y e l e c t e d , e x c e p t f o r t h e t w o p r o v i n c i a l a p p o i n t e e s . F a c e d w i t h t h i s u l t i m a t u m , t h e U H F B o a r d c a p i t u l a t e d t o t h e d e m a n d s o f t h e A d H o c C o m m i t t e e a n d a n o m i n a t i n g c o m m i t t e e , c o m p o s e d o f t h r e e A d H o c C o m m i t t e e m e m b e r s a n d t h r e e s i t t i n g b o a r d m e m b e r s , w a s f o r m e d t o n o m i n a t e b y c o n -s e n s u s a f u l l s t a t e o f t h i r t e e n c a n d i d a t e s . A t t h e O c t o b e r g e n -e r a l m e m b e r s h i p m e e t i n g s i x m e m b e r s o f t h e A d H o c C o m m i t t e e w e r e e l e c t e d t o t h e b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s . I n a d d i t i o n t o f o c u s s i n g o n g a i n i n g d e m o c r a t i c c o n t r o l , t h e A d H o c C o m m i t t e e f o r m e d a n u m b e r o f s t u d y g r o u p s t o e x a m i n e p a r t i c u -l a r p r o b l e m s w i t h r e s p e c t t o h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s . O n e s u c h g r o u p l o o k e d a t t h e r o l e o f t h e c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e U H F - M o t h e r C o o p s g r o u p c o n s i d e r e d t h e s e r v i c e s a n d f u n c t i o n s o f U H F . T h i s q u e s t i o n w a s t o b e c o m e i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e f u t u r e a n d t h e i d e a s g e n e r a t e d a t t h i s t i m e h a d g r e a t i m p a c t o n l a t e r d e b a t e s a b o u t U H F ' s d i r e c t i o n . T h e A d H o c C o m m i t t e e w a s f o r m a l l y d i s s o l v e d a t a s e c o n d c o n -f e r e n c e o f c o o p e r a t i v e s i n S e p t e m b e r . T h e g r o u p w a - s t o b e m e r g e d i n t o U H F a n d t h e C o m m i t t e e s t r e s s e d t h e n e e d f o r p o s i t i v e a c t i o n . 23 H o w e v e r , a l i e n a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o e x i s t l o n g a f t e r t h e d e m o c r a t i z -a t i o n o f t h e U H F B o a r d : t h e f e e l i n g s o f c o n f l i c t a n d c o n f r o n t a -t i o n b o r n o f t h e A d H o c C o m m i t t e e r e f u s e d t o d i e . T h e F i n a l Y e a r o f U H F : D i v i s i o n , A n t a g o n i s m , C r i s i s , a n d C o l l a p s e T h e n e w b o a r d d e a l t w i t h t h r e e k e y i s s u e s i n t h e f i r s t s i x m o n t h s o f 1975: 1) t h e p r o p o s e d c h a n g e s t o t h e s t a n d a r d d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r a c t , 2) U H F / p r o v i n e i a l r e l a t i o n s , 3) U H F r e l a t i o n s w i t h m e m b e r c o o p e r a t i v e s . T h e h i s t o r y o f t h i s p e r i o d c a n b e b e s t u n d e r s t o o d t h r o u g h a d e s -c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e i s s u e s . T h e o r i g i n a l U H F d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r a c t h a d b e e n d e v i s e d t o g i v e U H F d e f i n i t e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s u c c e s s o f e a c h c o o p e r a t i v e . U H F , f e a r i n g a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e l o s s e s w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n t h e B a r c l a y e x p e r i e n c e , d i d n o t w a n t t o b e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a f a i l u r e . T h e r e f o r e t h e F o u n d a t i o n s o u g h t t o e n s u r e t h r o u g h t h e c o n t r a c t u a l a g r e e m e n t t h a t a n e w c o o p e r a t i v e w o u l d n o t b e a b l e t o m a k e a n y f o o l i s h m i s -t a k e s t h r o u g h i n e x p e r i e n c e . T h e c o n t r a c t p r o v i d e d t h a t U H F c o u l d v e t o a d e c i s i o n t a k e n b y t h e c o o p e r a t i v e a n d s u b s t i t u t e t h e r e f o r i t s o w n d e c i s i o n i f , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n , t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e w a s d a m a g i n g t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e p r o j e c t . C o o p e r a t o r s a r e n o t m e e k f o l l o w e r s t o b e l e d b y s o m e o n e p r o -f e s s i n g t o k n o w b e t t e r . T h e v e t o p r o v i s i o n w a s a b h o r e n t t o m a n y c o o p e r a t o r s w h o s a w i n i t t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s p i r i t : r e l i n q u i s h m e n t o f c o n t r o l t o a b u r e a u c r a t i c a g e n c y . T h e n e w c o o p e r -a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o n t h e U H F B o a r d p r e s s e d f o r a n e w c o n t r a c t w h i c h w o u l d m a k e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e m t h e s e r v i c e s o f U H F b u t w h i c h 24 d i d n o t p r o v i d e f o r a n y p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n t r o l o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e ' s d e c i s i o n s . T h e y w i s h e d t o h a v e t h e c o o p e r a t i v e t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l -i t y f o r t h e i r o w n a c t i o n s , f o r t h e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f t h e c o -o p e r a t i v e . T h e l o n g - t i m e m e m b e r s o f t h e U H F B o a r d w o r r i e d t h a t l a c k o f c o n t r o l , a n d t h e r e f o r e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , w o u l d w e a k e n t h e c r e d i -b i l i t y o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n w i t h o t h e r c o o p e r a t i v e s , w i t h f u n d i n g a -g e n c i e s , a n d w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t . T h e e n s u i n g d e b a t e s r e s u l t e d i n a n u m b e r o f n e w c o n t r a c t t y p e s b e i n g p r o p o s e d i n c l u d i n g t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s o n a p e r d i e m b a s i s . I n t h e l a t e s p r i n g , a c o n t r a c t w h i c h t h e c r e a t o r s h o p e d w o u l d b e s a t i s f a c t o r y t o c o o p e r a t i v e s w a s d r a f t e d a n d a p p r o v -e d i n p r i n c i p l e , b u t p r o b l e m s o f a d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e p r e v e n t e d i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n u n t i l l a t e r i n t h e y e a r . I t w a s t h e o p i n i o n o f s o m e m e m b e r s o f t h e b o a r d t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d n e v e r a p p r o v e o f s u c h a c o n t r a c t a n d w o u l d w i t h h o l d f u n d i n g t o c o o p e r a t i v e s u s i n g i t . T h i s o p i n i o n w a s b a s e d o n t h e b e l i e f t h a t U H F w a s f u n d e d b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t a s a v e h i c l e f o r c o n t r o l l i n g c o -o p e r a t i v e s a n d f o r e n s u r i n g t h a t g o v e r n m e n t m o n i e s w e r e n o t s p e n t o n p r o j e c t s t h a t m i g h t f a i l . T h e i s s u e w h i c h t o o k a t t e n t i o n a w a y f r o m t h e c o n t r a c t d e b a t e w a s t h e d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f U H F / p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s . T h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g b e g a n t o i n v o l v e U H F i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g r o u p s t o o c c u p y o n a c o o p e r a t i v e b a s i s p r o j e c t s d e v e l o p e d b y t h e p r o v i n c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t c o r p o r a t i o n , D u n h i l l . M o s t b o a r d m e m b e r s o p p o s e d t h e s e " t u r n k e y c o o p s " o n t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h e y v i o l a t e d a n i m p o r -t a n t p r i n c i p l e o f h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s : u s e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n 25 d e s i g n . C o n c u r r e n t l y i t b e c a m e e v i d e n t t h a t U H F m i g h t n o t r e c e i v e a p p r o v a l o f i t s f u l l b u d g e t o f $237,000. F i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t w a s d e l a y e d a n d t h e F o u n d a t i o n f o u n d i t s e l f i n a n a l m o s t d a i l y f i n a n -c i a l c r i s i s d u r i n g M a r c h a n d A p r i l . I n A p r i l t h e P r o v i n c e a n n o u n c -e d t h a t U H F w o u l d b e f u n d e d $40,000 f o r t h e f i r s t q u a r t e r a n d t h a t f u t u r e f u n d s w o u l d b e a p p r o v e d s u b j e c t t o a r e v i e w o f t h e F o u n d a ^ t i o n t o b e u n d e r t a k e n b y a g o v e r n m e n t - a p p o i n t e d c o m m i s s i o n . T h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n a b o u t U H F ' s a c t u a l c a p a -b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s t o t h e c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g s e c t o r , t h e c o m p e t e n c e o f t h e U H F p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l s t a f f , a n d t h e " m u l t i p l i c i t y o f c o o p g r o u p s " d e v e l o p i n g l a r g e p r o j e c t s w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o U H F . ( L e t t e r t o U H F f r o m L o r n e N i c o l s o n , A p r i l 15 , 1975.) T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e r e v i e w , c o n d u c t e d i n M a y , w e r e n o t m a d e p u b l i c u n t i l J u l y a n d u n c e r t a i n t y p r e v a i l e d t h r o u g h t t h e s u m m e r m o n t h s . E s s e n t i a l l y t h e r e v i e w r e c o m m e d e d t h a t U H F b e c o m e f i n a n -c i a l l y s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g w i t h i n t w o y e a r s , w i t h c o n t i n u i n g g o v e r n -m e n t f u n d i n g i n t h e i n t e r i m . T h e g o v e r n m e n t d e c i d e d t o n o l o n g e r m a k e a p p o i n t e e s t o t h e U H F b o a r d a n d r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t U H F c o n c e n -t r a t e o n m e m b e r s h i p s e r v i c e s a n d c o o p e r a t i v e e d u c a t i o n , i n s t e a d o f p r o v i d i n g " i n h o u s e " t e c h n i c a l s t a f f . T h e c o m p l e t e r e c o m m e n d -a t i o n s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l r e v i e w r e p o r t a r e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e . T h e p o i n t t o b e m a d e h e r e i s t h a t t h e d e l a y i n f u n d i n g a n d t h e r e v i e w i t s e l f h a d a d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t o n U H F m o r a l e a n d o n i t s a b i l i t y t o p l a n e f f e c t i v e l y g i v e n s u c h a n u n c e r t a i n f u t u r e . P e r h a p s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t c o n s e q u e n c e w a s t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t U H F 26 c o u l d n o t d e p e n d o n g o v e r n m e n t s u p o r t a n d w o u l d h a v e t o b e c o m e t o -t a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t i f t h e F o u n d a t i o n w a s t o c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t a s a c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c o o p e r a t i v e s . T h e n e e d t o b e c o m e i n d e p e n d e n t l e d s e v e r a l b o a r d m e m b e r s t o s u g g e s t t h e r e d u c t i o n o f e x p e n s i v e t e c h n i c a l s t a f f a n d a c h a n g e i n t h e f o c u s o f U H F t o w a r d m e m b e r s h i p s e r v i c e s , e d u c a t i o n , s k i l l t r a i n -i n g , a n d l o b b y i n g . T h e c o o p e r a t i v e b o a r d m e m b e r s , a l r e a d y t r o u b l e d b y t h e l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n a l a n d l o b b y i n g a c t i v i t y a n d t h e l o w l e v e l o f i n t e r - c o o p e r a t i v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a r g u e d t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n o f U H F w a s n o t t o d e v e l o p c o o p e r a t i v e s , ( I n o t h e r w o r d s , t o a c t a s a d e v e l o p e r , ) b u t t o a s s i s t c o o p e r a t i v e s i n a c q u i r i n g t h e s k i l l s n e -c e s s a r y t o d e v e l o p t h e i r c o o p e r a t i v e . T h e p r o p o n e n t s o f t h e r e -d u c t i o n i n t e c h n i c a l s t a f f a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t w e l l q u a l i f i e d s t a f f w a s t o o e x p e n s i v e , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s o n U H F , a n d t h a t " i n h o u s e " t e c h n i c a l s t a f f r e p r e s e n t e d a d u p l i c a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e e l s e w h e r e i n t h e p r i v a t e m a r k e t . T h i s d e b a t e s o o n a s s u m e d p r o m i n e n c e i n U H F b o a r d m e e t i n g s . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e p e n d i n g p r o v i n c i a l r e v i e w , S c h m i d h a d a b u d g e t p r e -p a r e d t h a t w o u l d e n a b l e U H F t o a c h i e v e f i n a n c i a l i n d e p e n d e n c e . I n -s t e a d o f a r e d u c e d l e v e l o f e x p e n d i t u r e , t h e n e w b u d g e t w a s b a s e d o n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f 1000 c o o p e r a t i v e u n i t s p e r y e a r ( l a t e r i n c r e a s -e d t o 1500 t o 2000 u n i t s p e r y e a r ) i n o r d e r t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t f e e s o f 1-J- t o 2% w o u l d b e s u f f i c i e n t t o s u p p o r t U H F f u n c t i o n s . T h i s a m b i t i o u s b u d g e t e n t a i l e d a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n t e r n a l s t r u c -t u r e a n d a l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n t h e " i n h o u s e " t e c h n i c a l s t a f f . S c h m i d a r g u e d t h a t " i n h o u s e " t e c h n i c a l s t a f f w a s l e s s e x p e n s i v e t h a n u s i n g o u t s i d e c o n s u l t a n t s a n d t h a t t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e w a s 27 n e c e s s a r y i f c o o p e r a t i v e s w e r e t o h a v e c o n t r o l o f t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t s . T h e b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e t h a t a r o s e p e r t a i n e d t o t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n g e n e r a l , t h e c o o p e r a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s o n t h e B o a r d v i e w e d t h a t r o l e t o b e o n e o f a n i n f o r m a t i o n a n d r e s o u r c e p o o l s t r e s s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n , s e l f - e d u c a t i o n , c o n s e n s u a l d e c i s i o n m a k i n g , a n d p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . I n t h e i r o p i n i o n , c o o p -e r a t i v e s w e r e m o r e p r o c e s s t h a n p r o d u c t o r i e n t e d . T h o s e b o a r d m e m -b e r s w h o h a d b e e n w i t h U H F b e f o r e t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d t h e e x e c u -t i v e d i r e c t o r , S c h m i d , b e l i e v e d t h a t c o o p e r a t i v e p h i l o s o p h y w a s m e a n i n g l e s s u n l e s s h o u s i n g w a s b u i l t a n d t h a t a n y t r a d e - o f f b e t w e e n e f f i c i e n c y a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n h a d t o b e m a d e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f e f f i c i e n c y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s e m e m b e r s p u t m o r e f a i t h i n e x e c u t i v e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g , e x p e r t a d v i s e , a n d m a n a g e r i a l a n d t e c h n i c a l s e r -v i c e s . T h e o u t c o m e o f t h e s e b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s w a s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t w o f a c t i o n s . T h i s s e v e r e l y h a m p e r e d t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e B o a r d t o o p e r a t e . O u t s i d e o f t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s , t h e g e n e r a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h U H F o n t h e p a r t o f s o m e c o o p e r a t i v e s c o n t i n u e d : t h e s e c o o p e r -a t i v e s f e l t U H F w a s t o o h e a v y h a n d e d , t h a t i t w a s m e r e l y a n o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t b u r e a u c r a c y , a n d t h a t i t f a i l e d t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y e d u c a t e e o o p e r a t o r s a b o u t t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f c o o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g o r t o t r a n s -f e r s k i l l s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s w h o w e r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h U H F d i d n o t e n t e r t h e d i s c u s s i o n s ; t h u s t h e U H F / c o o p e r a t i v e s s p l i t a p p e a r e d m u c h l a r g e r t h a n i t a c t u a l l y w a s . T h e s e f e e l i n g s w e r e e x p r e s s e d o p e n l y a t t h e J u n e a n n u a l g e n e r a l m e e t i n g . T h e t h e m e o f t h e m e e t i n g w a s " C o o p s a t t h e C r o s s r o a d s " , a n a p p r o p r i a t e o n e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p e n d i n g p r o v i n c i a l r e v i e w a n d u n k n o w i n g l y e v e n m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e i n r e t r o s p e c t o f t h e e v e n t s t o b e f a l l U H F i n t h e 28 r e m a i n d e r o f t h e y e a r . T h e m e e t i n g e n d o r s e d r e s o l u t i o n s r e q u e s t i n g U H F t o g i v e p r e -c e d e n c e t o e d u c a t i o n a l , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a n d p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n s a n d d e m a n d i n g t h a t t h e F o u n d a t i o n a c t i v e l y t a k e p a r t i n p o l i t i c a l l o b b y i n g a n d i n s k i l l t r a i n i n g . T h e d e b a t e o v e r t h e w i s d o m o f " i n h o u s e " t e c h n i c a l s t a f f w a s c o n t i n u e d a t t h e m e e t i n g , b u t a l l r e s o -l u t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h i s i s s u e w e r e r e f e r r e d t o a f u t u r e g e n e r a l m e e t i n g t o b e c a l l e d w h e n t h e p r o v i n c i a l r e v i e w r e p o r t w a s m a d e p u b l i c . T h e 1975 a n n u a l g e n e r a l m e e t i n g a l s o e l e c t e d a n e w b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s . O n l y t w e l v e p e r s o n s c o u l d b e f o u n d t o r u n f o r t h e t h i r -t e e n p o s i t i o n s o n t h e U H F B o a r d . A s a r e s u l t , t h e t w e l v e c a n d i d a t e s w e r e e l e c t e d u n o p p o s e d , a n d t h e s e t w e l v e i n c l u d e d t e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f m e m b e r c o o p e r a t i v e s . T h e n e w l y e l e c t e d p r e s i d e n t , L a r r y W h a l e y , w a s a n o u t s p o k e n c r i t i c o f U H F a n d a p e r s o n a l o p p o n e n t o f t h e e x -e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r , S c h m i d . F r o m t h i s p o i n t , t h e b a t t l e f o r c o n t r o l o f U H F m o v e d i n t o t h e o p e n . A t t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g o f t h e n e w b o a r d , W h a l e y i n i t i a t e d a d i s -c u s s i o n o f t h e m a n a g e m e n t o f U H F . T h e p r e s i d e n t s t a t e d t h a t h e f e l t U H F h a d a s e r i o u s i m a g e p r o b l e m a n d t h a t t h e n e w B o a r d n e e d e d t o m a k e i t c l e a r t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n h a d i n d e e d c h a n g e d . H e f e l t t h a t u n t i l a n e w i m a g e w a s c o n v e y e d , U H F w o u l d h a v e d i f f i c u l t y g a t h e r i n g s u p p o r t f r o m t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s . T h e d e s i r e t o f i r e S c h m i d a r o s e b o t h f r o m W h a l e y ' s b e l i e f t h a t U H F ' s i m a g e w i t h c o o p e r a t i v e s c o u l d n o t b e i m p r o v e d u n l e s s t h e r e w a s a n o u t w a r d a p p e a r a n c e o f c h a n g e a n d f r o m h i s p e r s o n a l d i s l i k e o f h e r o p e r a t i n g s t y l e , d e s c r i b e d b y S c h m i d h e r s e l f a s " h a r d n o s e d " a n d o c c a s s i o n a l l y " a b r a s i v e " . A l t h o u g h t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s h a d i n c r e a s e d 29 t h e i r a p p a r e n t c o n t r o l o f U H F t h r o u g h t h e r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f t h e b o a r d i n O c t o b e r 1974 a n d m o r e r e c e n t l y i n t h e e l e c t i o n o f a m a -j o r i t y o f c o o p e r a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o t h e b o a r d , a l i e n a t i o n s t i l l p r e v a i l e d . T h e a d v e r s a r y s t a n c e e n g e n d e r e d b y t h e A d H o c C o m m i t t e e n e v e r r e a l l y d i s s i p a t e d : t h e d i c h o t o m y o f " t h e m " a n d " u s " c o n t i n u e d l o n g a f t e r t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s w e r e s u p p o s e d t o b e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o U H F . T h e a t t e m p t t o u n s e a t S c h m i d f a i l e d : l i k e - m i n d e d b o a r d m e m -b e r s w a n t i n g h e r r e m o v a l c o u l d n o t c o m e t o g e t h e r o v e r t h i s i s s u e . I n s t e a d , a c o m m i t t t e w a s f o r m e d t o s u r v e y t h e i m a g e o f U H F w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o o p e r a t i v e s , a r c h i t e c t s , c o n t r a c t o r s , a n d g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s . T h e i m a g e w a s f o u n d w a n t i n g a n d a n o t h e r r e s t r u c t u r i n g w a s r e c o m m e d e d . T h e r e p o r t o f t h e i m a g e c o m m i t t e e i s d e a l t w i t h i n C h a p t e r T h r e e . F r o m J u n e t o N o v e m b e r t h e F o u n d a t i o n w a s f r a u g h t w i t h t e n s i o n w h i c h e m a n a t e d f r o m t h e B o a r d a n d f r o m t h e c o n t i n u i n g f i n a n c i a l c r i s e s . B u d g e t s g r e w t i g h t e r a n d t i g h t e r , s t a f f m o r a l e d r o p p e d , a n d t h e B o a r d m a d e l i t t l e p r o g r e s s . O n N o v e m b e r 6 , 1975 f o u r s t a f f m e m b e r s f o r c e d S c h m i d ' s r e s i g n a -t i o n . T h e y d i d s o b y t e n d e r i n g t h e i r © w n r e s i g n a t i o n s t o t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s , w i t h d r a w a l c o n d i t i o n a l o n t h e i m m e d i a t e r e s i g -n a t i o n o f t h e i r c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r . B y r e q u e s t i n g h e r r e s i g -n a t i o n , t h e s t a f f m e m b e r s e x p r e s s e d a l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e i n h e r l e a d e r s h i p a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t i e s . T h e i r a c t i o n s a l s o a d d e d w e i g h t t o e x i s t i n g a c c u s a t i o n s t h a t h e r s t y l e o f o p e r a t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t w a s s e r i o u s l y d a m a g i n g U H F ' s a b i l i t y t o a i d c o o p e r a t i v e s . T h e d i s m i s s a l o f a n e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r i s a m a j o r p o l i c y d e -c i s i o n a n d o n e t h a t i s r i g h t l y t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e B o a r d o f 30 D i r e c t o r s . T h i s a c t i o n c a m e a s a t o t a l s u r p r i s e t o t h e B o a r d i n s p i t e o f t h e p a s t a t t e m p t t o r e m o v e S c h m i d f r o m o f f i c e . T h e s t a f f a c t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e U H F B o a r d h a d c e a s e d t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y a n d w a s a l l b u t i n c a p a b l e o f d e c i s i v e p o l i c y a c t i o n . A f t e r t h e r e s i g n a t i o n o f S c h m i d , t h e p r e s i d e n t t r i e d t o r a l l y c o o p e r a t i v e s u p p o r t f o r U H F . A m e e t i n g o f c o o p e r a t i v e s , i n c l u d i n g s o m e m e m b e r s o f t h e o l d A d H o c C o m m i t t e e , w a s i m m e d i a t e l y c a l l e d t o d e v i s e s t r a g e g y f o r t h e c o m i n g m o n t h s . S o m e c o o p e r a t o r s v i e w e d t h i s t u r n i n g p o i n t o p t i m i s t i c a l l y b e l i e v i n g t h a t U H F , n o w t o t a l l y c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t , w o u l d b e c o m e t h e r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e y h a d l o n g w o r k e d f o r . T h e d r e a m f a i l e d t o m a t e r i a l i z e . T h e N o v e m b e r m e e t i n g s p a r k e d s o m e d i s c u s s i o n b u t n o v o l u n t e e r s t o f i l l t h e v a c a n t s e a t s o n t h e b o a r d . T h e c o o p e r -a t i v e m o v e m e n t f a i l e d t o t a k e t h e n e c e s s a r y s t e p s t o r e v i t a l i z e t h e d e c l i n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e " u s " a g a i n s t " t h e m " s p l i t c o n -t i n u e d t o t h e v e r y e n d . A s i f t h e i n t e r n a l p r o b l e m s o f U H F w e r e n o t e n o u g h , a p r o v i n -c i a l e l e c t i o n w a s c a l l e d f o r e a r l y D e c e m b e r a n d t h e s i t t i n g N e w D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y g o v e r n m e n t w e n t d o w n i n d e f e a t t o t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y . T h i s m e a n t t h a t t h e r u l e s o f t h e g a m e w e r e n o l o n g e r k n o w n . W o u l d t h e n e w g o v e r n m e n t s u p p o r t c o o p e r a t i v e s ? I f s o , w o u l d t h e y s u p p o r t U H F ? A t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e B o a r d w a s v a l i a n t l y t r y i n g t o r e o r g a n i z e . A n e w p o s i t i o n w a s p r o p o s e d , t h e e x e c u t i v e c o o r d i n a -t o r , a n d a h i r i n g c o m m i t t e e w a s s t r u c k . B y t h i s t i m e , h o w e v e r , e v e n t s w e r e r e a l l y b e y o n d t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e U H F B o a r d . C o o p e r a -t i v e a c t i v i t y t h r o u g h U H F h a d d r o p p e d o f f d u e t o t h e u n c e r t a i n t y 31 o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f U H F a n d o f c o n t i n u i n g g o v e r n m e n t s u p p o r t f o r c o o p e r a t i v e s . S t a f f w a s l a i d o f f o r r e s i g n e d i n o r d e r t o a v o i d t h e a n x i e t y o f j o b u n c e r t a i n t y . T h e f i n a l b l o w t o t h e c r u m b l i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n w a s d e a l t b y ' t h e p r o v i n c i a l D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g . W h a l e y , w h i l e s t i l l p r e s i d e n t o f U H F , h a d a p p l i e d f o r t h e j o b o f e x e c u t i v e c o o r d i n a t o r . c T h e D e p a r t -m e n t s u g g e s t e d t o t h e U H F B o a r d t h a t t h i s w a s a c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r -e s t . I t w a s e x t r e m e l y d o u b t f u l t h a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t h a d a n y r i g h t t o i n t e r f e r e i n t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n , b u t u n e a s i n e s s w a s c a u s e d a t t h e b o a r d l e v e l . W h a l e y o f f e r e d t h e B o a r d h i s r e s i g n a -t i o n i n t h e h o p e t h a t t h e B o a r d w o u l d r e j e c t i t a n d , i n d e c l a r i n g t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e i n h i s l e a d e r s h i p , w o u l d i n d i c a t e t o t h e P r o v i n c e t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t . T h e g a m b l e d i d n o t s u c c e e d : o n a t i e v o t e t h e B o a r d f a i l e d t o r e j e c t h i s r e s i g -n a t i o n . A m e e t i n g o f s o m e U H F b o a r d m e m b e r s w i t h 1he n e w M i n i s t e r o f H o u s i n g , H u g h C u r t i s , i n F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 6 , s e a l e d t h e f a t e o f U H F . S e n i o r b u r e a u c r a t s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g s t a t e d t h e y h a d l o n g a g o l o s t t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e i n U H F a n d w e r e n o t p r e p a r e d t o d e -v e l o p a w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a s i t w a s p r e -s e n t l y s t r u c t u r e d ( a n o r g a n i z a t i o n r u n a n d c o n t r o l l e d b y i t s c l i e n t c o o p e r a t i v e s ) . ( R e p o r t b y W . W r i g h t t o U H F B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s , F e b r u a r y 1 9 , 1 9 7 6 , 2 . ) A s a l l p r o v i n c i a l h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s w e r e u n d e r r e v i e w b y t h e n e w g o v e r n m e n t , n o i n d i c a t i o n w a s g i v e n b y t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e e m p h a s i s t o b e p l a c e d o n c o o p e r a t i v e s . T h e e x i s t i n g S o c i a l C r e d i t p o l i c i e s s t r e s s i n g h o m e o w n e r s h i p a d d e d t o t h e d o u b t t h a t c o o p e r a t i v e s w o u l d h a v e a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n a n y n e w h o u s i n g 32 p o l i c y . A s a r e s u l t , t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s m o v e d o n F e b r u a r y 23 t o w i n d u p t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . 33 C H A P T E R I I I T H E F A L L O F U H F : A N A N A L Y S I S O F T H E P R O B L E M S O F A R E S O U R C E G R O U P I n t r o d u c t i o n H a i r e s u g g e s t e d - t h a t c o o p e r a t i v e r e s o u r c e g r o u p s c o n t a i n e d w i t h -i n t h e m t h e e l e m e n t s o f a d a n g e r o u s c o n t r a d i c t i o n — t h e p o w e r t o c r e a t e a s t r o n g c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g m o v e m e n t a n d t h e p o t e n t i a l t o d e s t r o y t h a t m o v e m e n t b y b e c o m i n g a d i s r u p t i v e f o r c e . T h e h i s t o r y o f U H F , a s t o l d i n C h a p t e r T w o , r e v e a l s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s c o n -t r a d i c t i o n i n t h e B . C . c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g m o v e m e n t . T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s , o n e b y o n e , t h e h y p o t h e s e p u t f o r t h i n C h a p t e r O n e t o e x p l a i n t h e s p e c i f i c e l e m e n t s o f t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n — t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e m o v e m e n t t h r o u g h r e s o u r c e g r o u p / c o o p e r a t i v e c o n f l i c t , t h e p r o b l e m s o f g o v e r n m e n t f u n d i n g t i e s , a n d t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f t e c h n i -c a l a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s d u e t o i n s u f f i c i e n t f u n d s . E a c h h y -p o t h e s i s w a s f o u n d t o b e v a l i d i n t h e c a s e o f U H F . U H F R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e C o o p e r a t i v e s I n i t s b r i e f p e r i o d o f o p e r a t i o n , U H F b e c a m e a d i v i s i v e f o r c e i n t h e B . C . c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t . I t s f r u s t r a t i o n o f t h e a i m s o f s e v e r a l c l i e n t c o o p e r a t i v e s l e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u b s t a n t i a l a n t i - U H F s e n t i m e n t a n d a h o s t i l e , u l t i m a t e l y d e s t r u c t i v e , c o n f r o n -t a t i o n b e t w e e n U H F a n d a n o r g a n i z e d g r o u p o f o p p o s i n g c o o p e r a t o r s — t h e A d H o c C o m m i t t e e . T h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n U H F a i d t h e s e c o o p -e r a t o r s c e n t r e d o n t h e U H F d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r a c t . A l t h o u g h t h e c o n -t r a c t w a s n o t t h e s o l e s o u r c e o f d i s a g r e e m e n t , i t s e r v e d a s a 34 c o n c r e t e f o c u s f o r a c t i o n . T h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o n t r a c t d e b a t e w h i c h f o l l o w s i d e n t i f i e s t h e m a j o r p o i n t s o f U H F / c o o p e r a t i v e c o n f l i c t . T h e f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n o f a r i f t i n t h e B . C . c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g m o v e m e n t w a s t h e r i s e o f t h e A d H o c C o m m i t t e e , a n d i t s p r e d e c e s s o r , t h e F i r e s i d e C o m m i t t e e . T h e c o o p e r a t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e g r o u p s w e r u n h a p p y w i t h t h e u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f U H F , i t s b u r e a u c r a t i c s t y l e o f o p e r a t i o n s , a n d i t s e m p h a s i s o n p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e . A l t h o u g h t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e s e g r o u p s r e s u l t e d i n c h a n g e s i n t h e U H F c o n s t i t u t i o n p r o v i d i n g f o r a d e m o c r a t i c a l l y e l e c t e d b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s a n d m e m b e r s h i p i n U H F f o r c o o p e r a t i v e s , m a n y c o o p e r a t o r s w e r e s t i l l d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e F o u n d a t i o n . T h e r e p o r t o f t h e S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e o n U H F I m a g e , t a b l e d i n N o v e m b e r 1975 i n d i c a t e d t h e c o n t i n u i n g d i s e n c h a n t -m e n t w i t h t h e F o u n d a t i o n . T h e C o m m i t t e e s u r v e y e d t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e b o a r d s o f d i r e c t o r s o f t w e n t y t h r e e h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s i n t h e g r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a . A l t h o u g h a m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e c o n s u l t -e d s a i d t h e y w e r e b a s i c a l l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h U H F , t e n o f t h e c o o p e r a t o r s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t l i k e t h e w a y i n w i c h U H F p r o v i d e d s e r v i c e s a n d t h a t t h e y w o u l d n o t u s e U H F s e r -v i c e s a g a i n , i f t h e c h o i c e w a s t h e i r s t o m a k e . T h e c o m m e n t s r e -c e i v e d i n d i c a t e d a d i s l i k e f o r U H F ' s s t y l e o f o p e r a t i o n s : ( U H F , 1975, 1 - 3 . ) U H F h a s a t e n d e n c y t o t a k e o v e r t h e c o o p e r a t i v e . T h e r e i s t o o m u c h c a s t l e - b u i l d i n g . U H F h a s t u n n e l v i s i o n : t h e y a r e i n f l e x i b l e . E l e m e n t s o f e l i t i s m . T o o o n e - s i d e d . H e a v y - h a n d e d . C o o p e r a t i v e s w a n t t o b e i n v o l -v e d m o r e a n d n o t j u s t t o l d h o w i t i s . 35 U H F t e n d s t o d o m i n a t e c o o p e r a t i v e s . U H F c r e a t e s t h e i m p r e s -s i o n t h a t t h e c o o p e r a t i v e t a k e s o r d e r s f r o m U H F r a t h e r t h a n t h e r e v e r s e . S e v e r a l s p e c i f i c a l l y m e n t i o n e d t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e c o n -t r a c t , s a y i n g i t p r o v i d e d U H F w i t h t o o m u c h c o n t r o l , a n d i n d i c a t e d t h a t a c h a n g e i n t h e c o n t r a c t m i g h t r e m o v e s o m e o f t h e r e s e r v a t i o n s t h e y h a d a b o u t d e a l i n g w i t h U H F . T h e c o n t r a c t h a d l o n g b e e n a n i s s u e o f c o n t e n t i o n w i t h t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s . U h f o f f e r e d o n l y o n e s t a n d a r d c o n t r a c t a n d t h e l a c k o f a n a l t e r n a t i v e w a s a s o r e p o i n t . A g r o u p w i s h i n g t o u s e t h e s e r -v i c e s o f U H F h a d t o u s e t h e e x i s t i n g c o n t r a c t a n d w i t h t h e p r o v i n c e p u s h i n g t h e u s e o f U H F a s a c o n d i t i o n f o r l e a s e d l a n d , t h e c o o p e r -a t i v e s f e l t t h e y h a d l i t t l e c h o i c e . A p a p e r b y C o m p a n y o f Y o u n g C a n a d i a n s ' w o r k e r , T o m S i m p s o n , s u m m a r i z e d t h e f e e l i n g s o f c o o p e r -a t o r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s t a n d a r d c o n t r a c t : ( S i m p s o n , u n d a t e d , 1 , ) T h e p r e v a i l i n g a t m o s p h e r e o f s u s p i c i o n s u r r o u n d i n g t h e s i g n -i n g o f t h e U H F c o n t r a c t i s c a u s e d b y t h e a b s e n c e o f a n y o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e . L o n g b e f o r e a c o - o p i s a s k e d t o s i g n a c o n t r a c t a g r e e m e n t i t h a s b e e n c o n f r o n t e d w i t h " n o a l -t e r n a t i v e " b u t t o a f f i l i a t e w i t h U H F p r i o r t o r e c e i v i n g P r o v i n c i a l . . . l a n d . O n a f f i l i a t i o n t h e c o - o p i s g i v e n " n o a l t e r n a t i v e " b u t t o s i g n a c o n t r a c t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e a s o n i n g t h a t p r e v e n t s c o - o p s f r o m m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s . T h e c o n t r a c t t h e y a r e a s k e d t o s i g n g i v e s t h e m " n o a l t e r -n a t i v e " b u t t o a g r e e w i t h d e c i s i o n s m a d e o n t h e i r b e h a l f . T h e o f f e n d i n g c l a u s e s o f t h e c o n t r a c t g a v e U H F t h e p o w e r o f a t t o r n e y a n d t h e r i g h t t o v e t o c o o p e r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s w h i c h , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n , w e r e d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e p r o j e c t . S c h m i d a n d t h e n o n - c o o p e r a t i v e m e m b e r s o f t h e U H F b o a r d f e l t t h e v e t o p o w e r t o b e e s s e n t i a l t o t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f U H F ' s C r e d i b i l i t y . I n s u p p o r t o f t h e c o n t r a c t , a b o a r d c o m m i t -t e e g a v e t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : ( M e m o t o B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s f r o m S c h m i d o n b e h a l f o f t h e A d H o c C o n t r a c t R e v i e w C o m m i t t e e , 36 M a r c h 6, 1975, 1 . ) 1 ) O u r r e s p o n s i b l i t y t o t h e g e n e r a l m e m b e r s h i p o f t h e c o -o p e r a t i v e m a n y o f w h o m a r e n o t p r e s e n t a t t h e e a r l y d e -c i s i o n s t a g e . 2) T h e i n s t a b i l i t y o f B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s a n d t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r c o n t i n u i t y . 3) T h e d g r e e o f d e p e n d e n c e w h i c h a l l l e v e l s o f G o v e n m e n t p l a c e o n U H F g u i d a n c e a n d c o n t r o l ; i f ) T h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g m o v e m e n t d e p e n d s o n t h e r e p u t a t i o n a n d c r e d i b i l i t y o f U H F . T h e p o l i c i n g r o l e o n b e h a l f o f t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e s e e m i n g c o n t e m p t f o r t h e d e d i c a t i o n o f c o o p e r a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p e x p r e s s e d i n t h e s e c o m m e n t s a n g e r e d m a n y c o o p e r a t o r s . C o o p e r a t o r s d e m a n d e d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r o w n s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e a n d s u g g e s t e d s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c o n t r a c t s p r o v i d i n g a r a n g e o f f l e x i -b i l i t y b e d e v e l o p e d . T h e s e f l e x i b l e c o n t r a c t s w o u l d b e " t a i l o r m a d e " a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c a p a b i l i t y a n d d e s i r e o f e a c h c o o p e r a t i v e t o a s s u m e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e e x i s t i n g c o n t -r a c t c o u l d b e r e t a i n e d f o r i n e x p e r i e n c e d g r o u p s w h o r e q u e s t e d U H F t o a s s u m e c o n t r o l . T h e c o o p e r a t i v e m e m b e r s o n t h e n e w l y " d e m o c r a t i z e d ' . ' U H F b o a r d i m m e d i a t e l y b e g a n t o i n v e s t i g a t e n e w f o r m s o f d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r a c t s . S c h m i d a n d o t h e r s o n t h e U H F B o a r d f o u g h t a n y f o r m o f c o n t r a c t w h i c h w o u l d p r o v i d e a l l U H F s e r v i c e s o n d e m a n d w i t h o u t a s s i g n i n g u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e p r o j e c t t o U H F a r g u i n g t h a t : ( A d H o c C o n t r a c t C o m m i t t e e , M a r c h 6, 1 9 7 5 , 3.) 1) W i t h o u t t h e c o n t r o l s i n t h e s t a n d a r d c o n t r a c t , U H F c a n n o t g u a r a n t e e u p - t o - d a t e i n f o r m a t i o n t o c o o p e r a t o r s . W e w o u l d b e i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f n o t b e i n g a b l e t o s u p p l y t h e i n f o r -m a t i o n o r i n d a n g e r o f s u p p l y i n g m i s i n f o r m a t i o n . 37 2 ) I f U H F i s p r o c e s s i n g m e m b e r d o c u m e n t a t i o n o r a c t i n g a s c e n t r a l o f f i c e , m e m b e r s w i l l a s s u m e U H F i s r e s p o n s i b l e a n d i n f o r m a t i o n a c c u r a t e . 3) I t i s l i k e l y t h a t G o v e r n m e n t a l s o w i l l a s s u m e U H F r e s p o n s -i b i l i t y . k) I f a n y t h i n g g o e s w r o n g , U H F ' s r e p u t a t i o n c o u l d b e s e r i o u s -l y d a m a g e d w h i c h c o u l d h a v e s e r i o u s r e p e r c u s s i o n s f o r t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t a t t h i s t i m e . T h e o u t c o m e o f t h e d e b a t e o v e r t h e c o n t r a c t a t t h e U H F B o a r d w a s t h e d r a f t i n g o f a c o n t r a c t p r o v i d i n g a l l U H F s e r v i c e s u p o n r e -q u e s t w i t h o u t c o n c u r r e n t U H F r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . D i s a g r e e m e n t s b e t w e e n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e a n d U H F o v e r d e c i s i o n s m a d e c o u l d r e s u l t i n e i t h e r p a r t y t e r m i n a t i n g t h e c o n t r a c t w i t h o u t p e n a l t y . T h e c o o p e r a t i v e m e m b e r s o f t h e B o a r d b e l i e v e d t h i s c o n t r a c t , a c c e p t e d i n p r i n c i p l e i n M a y 1975 a n d o f f e r e d t o c o o p e r a t i v e s b y t h e e n d o f t h e s u m m e r , w o u l d b e a c c e p t a b l e t o c o o p e r a t i v e s . O t h e r m e m b e r s o f t h e B o a r d b e l i e v e d t h e P r o v i n c e w o u l d n e v e r a p p r o v e a c o n t r a c t w h i c h g a v e t h e c o o p e r a t i v e f u l l c o n t r o l a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e r i g h t t o m a k e m i s -t a k e s . T h e d e m i s e o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n p r e v e n t e d e i t h e r t h e o r y b e i n g p u t t o t h e t e s t . I n m a n y w a y s t h e d i f f i c u l t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n U H F a n d s e v e r a l o f i t s m e m b e r c o o p e r a t i v e s c a n b e b o i l e d d o w n t o a d i f f e r e n c e i n b e l i e f a b o u t t h e p u r p o s e o f c o o p e r a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t . U H F ' s f o u n d -e r s w e r e m o s t l y p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e , p e o p l e w h o h a d n e v e r a n d w o u l d n e v e r l i v e i n a h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e . T h e y w e r e c o n c e n e d a b o u t t h e g r o w i n g h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e o f r e a s o n a b l y p r i c e d f a m i l y a c c o m m o d a t i o n i n t h e g r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a . T h e i r o b j e c t i v e w a s t o p r o v i d e a n a l t e r n a t i v e t o r e n t i n g f o r f a m i l i e s w h o c o u l d n o t a f f o r d h o m e o w n e r -s h i p . T h e y n e v e r b e l i e v e d t h a t c o o p e r a t i v e s w e r e c o m p e t i n g w i t h 3 8 o u t r i g h t o w n e r s h i p . T h e m e n a n d w o m e n w h o s e t u p U H F h a d t h e p r o -v i s i o n o f h o u s i n g a s t h e i r p r i m a r y g o a l . A n a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e b e n e f i t s o f c o o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g w o u l d f o l l o w , t h e y b e l i e v e d . I n g e n e r a l , t h i s o b j e c t i v e m a d e s e n s e . T h e m a j o r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s w h o j o i n e d U H F c o o p e r a t i v e s c e r t a i n l y s a w i t t h a t w a y : t h e n e x t b e s t t h i n g t o h o m e o w n e r s h i p . A n i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y o f u s e r s a t i s -f a c t i o n c o n d u c t e d u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f U H F i n 1975 r e p o r t e d t h e m a j o r r e a s o n f o r j o i n i n g t h e c o o p e r a t i v e t o b e f i n a n c i a l . ( D a v i d s o n , 1 9 7 5 . ) T h e h i g h l y p r o f e s s i o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e e a r l y U H F B o a r d g a v e r i s e t o a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f p a t e r n a l i s m , a f e e l i n g t h a t U H F h a d t o p r o t e c t c o o p e r a t i v e s f r o m t h e i r o w n i n e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s w a s e v i d e n t i n b o t h t h e c o n t r a c t a n d i n p u b l i c s t a t e m e n t s m a d e b y t h e F o u n d a t i o n a t t h i s t i m e . T h e f a i l u r e o f t h e B a r c l a y C o o p e r a t i v e h u n g o v e r t h e U H F b o a r d . C o m b i n e d w i t h t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t t h e f a t e o f t h e e n -t i r e B . C . h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t w e i g h e d o n t h e i r s h o u l d e r s , t h e s e f a c t o r s g a v e b i r t h t o a r i g i d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a n d a t i g h t l y c o n t r o l l e d d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e d u r e . T o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e B . C . h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t d e p e n d e d o n t h e s u c c e s s o f U H F w a s l e g i t i m a t e i n t h e F o u n d a t i o n ' s e a r l y y e a r s . T h e v i a b i l i t y o f t h i s n e w f o r m o f t e n u r e h a d t o b e d e m o n s t r a t e d b e f o r e g o v e r n m e n t s w o u l d c o n s i d e r s u p p o r t i n g i t . H o w -e v e r , t h e 1973 a m e n d m e n t s t o t h e NHA" a n d t h e g r o w i n g n u m b e r o f s u c -c e s s f u l l y c o m p l e t e d c o o p e r a t i v e s l e s s e n e d t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r s t r i c t c o n t r o l * ' T h e c o o p e r a t o r s o f t h e A d H o c C o m m i t t e e h a d a d i f f e r e n t v i e w o f c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g . T o t h e s e p e o p l e t h e p r o c e s s o f c o o p e r a t i o n 39 w a s a s i m p o r t a n t a s t h e e n d r e s u l t . T h e m a i n a t t r a c t i o n o f c o o p e r -a t i v e h o u s i n g w a s n o t f i n a n c i a l , b u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f b e i n g g e n u -i n e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e i r o w n s h e l t e r . M a n y o f t h e s e p e o p l e w e r e i n v o l v e d i n c o n s u m e r c o o p e r a t i v e s , c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s , o r o t h e r s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s , a n d t h u s , p l a c e d g r e a t i m p o r -t a n c e o n t h e s p i r i t o f c o o p e r a t i n g , t h e b e n e f i t s o f w o r k i n g w i t h o t h e r s f o r m u t u a l g a i n , a n d t h e h i g h e n e r g y l e v e l s g e n e r a t e d . A f t e r t h e b o a r d e l e c t i o n s i n 1974, t h i s s p l i t ; w a s t r a n s f e r e d t o t h e b o a r d l e v e l . T h e t w o g r o u p s d i s a g r e e d o n i s s u e a f t e r i s s u e a t b o a r d m e e t i n g s : t h e c o n t r a c t , t h e q u e s t i o n o f " i n h o u s e " t e c h -n i c a l s t a f f , t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f " t u r n k e y " c o o p e r a t i v e s , a n d e v e n s t r a t e g i e s o f a c t i o n s u c h a s w h e n t o n o t i f y c o o p e r a t o r s a b o u t f u n d -i n g c r i s e s . D e c i s i o n s w e r e d r a w n o u t i f t i m e p e r m i t t e d o r t a b l e d i n d e f i n i t e l y . I n i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r s r e q u i r i n g q u i c k a c t i o n , t h e o u t c o m e o f t h e v o t e d e p e n d e d o n t h e r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h o f e a c h f a c t i o n a t a n y p a r t i c u l a r m e e t i n g . N e e d l e s s t o s a y , t h i s c o n s t a n t c o m b a t r e d u c e d t h e b o a r d ' s a b i l i t y t o a c t e f f e c t i v e l y . S e c o n d a r y t o t h e c o n t r a c t d e b a t e w a s t h e i s s u e o f U H F ' s e d u -c a t i o n a l r o l e . T h e d i s a g r e e m e n t o v e r U H F ' s f u n c t i o n — t o p r o d u c e h o u s i n g t o b e o c c u p i e d b y c o o p e r a t i v e s o r t o f a c i l i t a t e a p r o c e s s w h e r e b y h o u s i n g g o a l s w e r e c o o p e r a t i v e l y a c h i e v e d — l e d t o a d i f -f e r e n c e o f d p i n i o n a b o u t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e d u c a t i o n i n U H F ' s d e -v e l o p m e n t w o r k . S o m e c o o p e r a t o r s b e l i e v e d U H F s h o u l d o n l y g u i d e m e m b e r s t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s a n d t h a t e v e r y t h i n g f r o m f i l l i n g i n a m o r t g a g e a p p l i c a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e n t s s h o u l d b e l e a r n e d b y t h e c o o p e r a t i v e . M o s t c o o p e r a t o r s , w h i l e p e r h a p s n o t i n s i s t i n g o n l e a r n i n g e v e r y t h i n g f r o m s c r a t c h , w a n t e d m o r e m e a n i n g f u l p a r t i -c i p a t i o n t h a n U H F g e n e r a l l y o f f e r e d . T h e y a c c u s e d U H F o f 40 m y s t i f y i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s b y f a i l i n g t o u n d e r t a k e t h e g e n -u i n e t r a n s f e r o f s k i l l s t o c o o p e r a t o r s a n d b y u n d e r u t i l i z i n g t h e i n d i g e n o u s t a l e n t w i t h i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e . T h e s e c o o p e r a t o r s w a n t e d m o r e tiian t h e m e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f h o u s i n g : t h e y w a n t e d t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d d e - m y s t i f y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . S o m e m e m b e r s o f t h e U H F b o a r d f o u n d t h i s d i f f i c u l t t o c o m p r e h e n d . T h e y s a w t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n i n i t s r o l e a s t h e " s t o r a g e h o u s e " o f i n f o r m a t i o n a n d e x p e r t i s e n e c e s s a r y t o d e v e l o p c o o p e r -a t i v e h o u s i n g . U H F , a s a n i n f o r m a t i o n p o o l , p r e v e n t e d e a c h c o o p -e r a t i v e f r o m h a v i n g t o l e a r n t h e p r o c e s s o f c o o p e r a t i v e d e v e l o p -m e n t f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g . T h e t i m e i n v o l v e d i n s k i l l t r a n s f e r a n d e x t e n s i v e c o o p e r a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o j e c t w a s v i e w e d a s a n u n n e c e s s a r y a n d c o s t l y d e l a y . T h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n d e s c r i b e d a b o v e w a s n o t s i m p l y a c o n f r o n t a -t i o n b e t w e e n U H F a n d t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s . T h e c o o p e r a t i v e s t h e m s e l v e s w e r e d i v i d e d b e t w e e n t h o s e w h o w e n t i n t o c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g p r i -m a r i l y t o f u l f i l l a h o u s i n g n e e d a n d t h o s e w h o h a d a d e f i n i t e p r e -f e r e n c e f o r c o o p e r a t i v e o w n e r s h i p : i n o t h e r w o r d s , b e t w e e n t h o s e c o o p e r a t i n g f o r f i n a n c i a l r e a s o n s a n d t h o s e c o o p e r a t i n g b e c a u s e o f a p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o m m i t m e n t t o c e r t a i n i d e a l s . T h e c r i t i c s o f U H F r e m a i n e d a m i n o r i t y , a l b e i t a v o c a l m i n o r i t y , o f t h e t o t a l p e r s o n s e n g a g e d i n c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g . A s p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , m o s t p e o p l e b e c a m e i n v o l v e d i n c o o p e r a t i v e s p r i m a r i l y o u t o f f i n a n c i a l n e c e s -s i t y , a l t h o u g h l a t e r m o s t b e c a m e i n t e r e s t e d i n ' a n d c o m m i t e d t o t h e p h i l o s o p h y a n d b e n e f i t s o f c o o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g , a n d i t w a s t o t h i s g r o u p t h a t U H F c a t e r e d . C o o p e r a t o r s w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a l c o m m i t -m e n t t o c o o p e r a t i v e p h i l o s o p h y f r e q u e n t l y d i d n o t u s e U H F s e r v i c e s 41 n o r d i d t h e y n e e d t h e m a s m u c h a s t h e o t h e r g r o u p s . T h e m e m b e r s o f t h e A d H o c C o m m i t t e e w e r e t h e l e a d e r s o f v a r i o u s c o o p e r a t i v e g r o u p s . A s l e a d e r s t h e y w e r e a c t i v e , a g g r e s s i v e , p o l i t i c a l l y a w a r e p e o p l e , u s e d t o t a k i n g t h e l e a d a n d i n i t i a t i n g a c t i o n . ' T h e s e q u a l i -t i e s e n s u r e d t h a t t h e y f r e q u e n t l y c l a s h e d w i t h t h e s t r o n g - w i l l e d a n d a g g r e s s i v e l e a d e r s h i p o f S c h m i d . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e s e q u a l i t i e s m e a n t " ! ; t h a t t h e i r g r o u p s w e r e a b l e t o d e v e l o p s u c c e s s -f u l l y w i t h o u t U H F i n a n y c a s e , p r o v i d i n g t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e o r m u n i -c i p a l i t y w a s w i l l i n g t o l e a s e t h e m l a n d . T w i c e t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s f a i l e d t o s u p p o r t U H F a n d p r e v e n t i t f r o m f o l d i n g : w h e n W h a l e y c a l l e d o n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s t o r a l l y f o r a c t i o n a f t e r S c h m i d ' s r e -s i g n a t i o n , a n d w h e n h e a s k e d t h e m a t t h e b o a r d l e v e l t o m a k e a s t a n d a g a i n s t t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t . T h u s U H F b e c a m e a d i v i s i v e f o r c e i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t . I t r e s u l t e d i n m u c h e n e r g y b e i n g w a s t e d t o c o m b a t U H F , e n e r g y w h i c h c e t a i n l y w o u l d h a v e b e e n b e t t e r i n v e s t e d o r g a n i z i n g n e w c o o p e r a t i v e s , e x p a n d i n g t h e l i m i t s o f a c t i v i t y i n t o o t h e r c o o p e r -a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e s w i t h i n h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s , a n d l o b b y i n g f o r g r e a t e r s u p p o r t f r o m a l l l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t . H o w e v e r , t h i s d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d l a c k o f u n i t y a m o n g h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s w a s o n l y i n p a r t d u e t o U H F . C e r t a i n l y t h e d e e p l y i n -g r a i n e d f e e l i n g s o f h o s t i l i t y a n d t h e p a t t e r n o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n e n -g e n d e r e d b y t h e A d H o c C o m m i t t e e i n 1974 a n d c o n t i n u e d a t t h e b o a r d i n 1975 p l a y e d a l a r g e r o l e . T h u s , e v e n a f t e r t h e c o o p e r a -t i v e s h a d f u l l c o n t r o l o f U H F , t h e y c o n t i n u e d t o v i e w i t a s s o m e -t h i n g a p r t f r o m t h e m s e l v e s , a s a n e n e m y t o b e s u s p e c t e d a t a l l 42 t i m e s . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e i n t e r n a l d i s u n i t y o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e -m e n t h a d c a s u e s o t h e r t h a n U H F , s u c h a s : 1 ) T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o o p e r a t i v e e d u c a t i o n a n d p h i l o s o p h y v a r i e d w i d e l y b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s a n d a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s a m e c o o p e r a t i v e , m a k i n g u n i t y o n t h i s i s s u e d i f f i c u l t . 2) T h e f r e q u n e t a n d o v e r w h e l m i n g d e v e l o p m e n t p r o b l e m s o f i n -d i v i d u a l c o o p e r a t i v e s l e f t t h e m l i t t l e t i m e t o w o r r y a b o u t t h e w i d e r c o n c e r n s o f t h e m o v e m e n t . 3) T h e l a c k o f a n y m e a n s o f r e a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n a m o n g c o o p e r -a t i v e s m e a n t t h a t m o s t c o o p e r a t i v e s k n e w l i t t l e a b o u t t h e p r o b l e m s o r o p e r a t i o n s o f o t h e r s . I n s u m m a r y , t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e -m e n t t h a t r e m a i n u n e x p l a i n e d ; f o r e x a m p l e , t h e i r t e n d e n c y t o u s e U H F a s a s c a p e g o a t . T h e c o o p e r a t i v e s t e n d e d t o b l a m e U H F f o r n o t u n d e r t a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h a t t h e y c o u l d h a v e l o o k e d a f t e r . F o r e x a m p l e , c o o p e r a t i v e s c o m p l a i n e d a b o u t t h a - l a c k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a m o n g - c o o p e r a t i v e s a n d a b o u t t h e l a c k o f s k i l l t r a n s f e r . T h e s e p r o b -l e m s c o u l d h a v e b e e n q u i c k l y r e m e d i e d d i r e c t l y b y t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s o r g a n i z i n g a n e w s p a p e r o f h o l d i n g w o r k s h o p s t o e x c h a n g e i n f o r m a -t i o n . T h e e f f o r t s p e n t a t t a c i n g U H F o n t h e s e m a t t e r s c o u l d h a v e b e e n b e t t e r u s e d t a c k l i n g t h e a c t u a l p r o b l e m . T h e r e w e r e p r o b l e m s , s u c h a s i n a d e q u a t e e d u c a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , a n d p o l i t i c a l l o b b y -i n g , t h a t , w e r e c o m p l a i n e d a b o u t f o r t w o y e a r s . S u r e l y i n t h a t t i m e t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s c o u l d h a v e o r g a n i z e d t h e i r o w n s o l u t i o n t o t h e s e p r o b l e m s . I n a m o v e m e n t b a s e d o n s e l f - h e l p , t h i s i n a c t i o n i s p u z -z l i n g . F i n a l l y t h e r e w a s t h e s u r p r i s i n g l y l o w l e v e l o f c o o p e r a t i o n k3 a m o n g c o o p e r a t i v e s . C o o p e r a t i v e s w e r e r e l u c t a n t t o p u t a s i d e i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s i n o r d e r t o b u i l d a s t r o n g e r c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t o f b e n e f i t t o a l l . T h i s w a s q u i t e e v i d e n t b y t h e a t t i t u d e o f c o o p e r a t i v e b o a r d m e m b e r s w h o t e n d e d t o v i e w a l l p o l i -c y c o n c e r n s f r o m t h e n a r r o w p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e i r o w n c o o p e r a t i v e , a n d t h e a c t i o n s o f s o m e c o o p e r a t i v e s w h o p l a n n e d e x c e s s i v e l y e x -p e n s i v e h o u s i n g w h i c h c l a i m e d a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e l i m i t e d C M H C c o o p e r a t i v e f u n d s . P e r h a p © t h e t r o u b l e w i t h b u i l d i n g a s t r o n g c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t i s t h a t i t r e q u i r e s s u b s t a n t i a l a m o u n t s o f w h a t t o m a n y o f u s i s a r a r e i n g r e d i e n t : c o o p e r a t i o n . U H F R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e P r o v i n c e U H F ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t w a s t r u l y a c a s e o f m i x e d b l e s s i n g s . T h e r e i s l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t t h e P r o -v i n c e ' s s u p p o r t o f c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g t h r o u g h t h e l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n p r o g r a m , t h e h i g h i m p a c t g r a n t , a n d t h e f u n d i n g o f U H F w a s l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e r a p i d g r o w t h o f h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s i n B . C . s i n c e 1972. T h e p r o v i n c i a l l a n d l e a s e a t h% a n d t h e h i g h i m p a c t g r a n t , a g r a n t o f 10% o f t h e c a p i t a l c o s t o f t h e p r o j e c t u s e d t o r e d u c e m o r t g a g e p a y m e n t s i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e p r o j e c t , m a d e i t p o s s i b l e f o r h o u s e h o l d s e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $10,000 p e r a n n u m t o e n j o y c o o p e r a t i v e o w n e r s h i p . I n a d d i t i o n , p r o v i n c i a l s u p p o r t a n d f u n d i n g o f U H F s e r v e d t o s p e e d u p t h e p r o c e s s a n d t o e n s u r e i t s s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n . T h e P r o v i n c e c h a n n l e d i t s s u p p o r t t h r o u g h U H F b y r e f e r r i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s r e q u e s t i n g a i d f r o m t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o t h e F o u n d a t i o n . T h e P r o v i n c e f u n d e d U H F i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t i t w o u l d a c t a s a s e m i -o f f i c i a l a g e n c y p o l i c i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s o n b e h a l f o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t t h u s e n s u r i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s w o u l d n o t f l o u n d e r a n d w a s £ e p u b l i c kk m o n e y . I n a d d i t i o n , U H F d i v e r t e d r e q u e s t s f o r a c t i o n o n c o o p e r a -t i v e h o u s i n g a w a y f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g . T h e f u n d i n g o f U H F d i d n o t c o m e w i t h o u t s t r i n g s a t t a c h e d : r e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e U H F B o a r d , r e d u c t i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t f e e , i n s i s t e n c e t h a t U H F a s s u m e a p o l i c i n g r o l e , i n s i s t e n c e t h a t a l l c o o p e r a t i v e s d e a l w i t h U H F , a p p o i n t e e s t o t h e b o a r d , " t u r n k e y c o o p s " , s e t t i n g p r i o r i t i e s a n d r e s t r i c t i o n s o n s p e n d i n g o f f u n d s , m a n i p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h w i t h h o l d i n g o f f u n d i n g , a n d f i n a l l y t h e r e v i e w o f U H F . T h i s i n t e r f e r e n c e b y t h e P r o v i n c e l e d m a n y c o o p e r a t o r s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t U H F w a s g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r o l l e d a n d t h a t i t s p o l i c i e s w e r e g o v e r n m e n t d e t e r -m i n e d . T h e e x t e n t a n d e f f e c t o f g o v e r n m e n t i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n a r e r e v e a l e d i n t h e c r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n c r e a t e d b y t h e r e v i e w o f U H F . I n A p r i l 1975 t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g d e c i d e d t o w i t h h o l d f u r t h e r f u n d i n g o f U H F s u b j e c t t o a r e v i e w o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n ' s o p e r a t i o n s , I n a l e t t e r a u t h o r i z i n g t h e r e v i e w , t h e M i n i s t e r e x -p r e s s e d t h r e e c o n c e r n s : U H F ' s c a p a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s t o t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s , t h e c o m p e t e n c e o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i -c a l s t a f f , a n d t h e i n t e r n a l d i s s e n t i o n w i t h i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e -m e n t r e s u l t i n g i n a n u m b e r o f c o o p e r a t i v e s d e v e l o p i n g w i t h o u t U H F . ( L e t t e r t o U H F f r o m L o r n e N i c o l s o n , A p r i l 1 5 , 1975, 1 . ) T h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g h a d t w o a p p o i n t e e s t o t h e U H F B o a r d , o n e o f w h o m , L a r r y B e l l , w a s a s e n i o r o f f i c i a l o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t . B e l l w a s t h u s i n a p o s i t i o n t o s e e t h e g r o w i n g s p l i t o n t h e B o a r d b e -t w e e n t h o s e w h o t h o u g h t U H F w a s p r i m a r i l y a h o u s i n g d e v e l o p e r a n d t h o s e w h o w a n t e d t h e F o u n d a t i o n t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e g r o w t h o f c o o p -e r a t i v e i d e a l s . T h e f i g h t i n g a t t h e B o a r d , t h e s u b s e q u e n t d e l a y s k5 and tabling of decisions, the discursive debates on cooperative philosophy, and the resulting i n a b i l i t y of the Board to function as an effective policy-making body did not escape the attention of the Department of Housing. The question of the a b i l i t y of the Board of Directors to direct the affairs of the Foundation was as important a reason for the review of UHF as any of the reasons stated e x p l i c i t l y in the Minister's let t e r . The o f f i c i a l terms of reference for the study were: (Report to the-Board of Directors by P. de Chazal, May 13 , 1975, 2.) To 'Carry out a review of the financing and management of the existing co-op housing development program administered by UHF; to make recommendations to the Minister for the future development, financing and management of the co-operative housing program. The three person review committee spent several days in discussions with UHF staff and Board members going over prepared briefs and budgets, learning about staff problems, and attempting to assess the adequacy of UHF services. The results of the review were not made known un t i l July 25 , 1975, leaving the fate of UHF v i r t u a l l y up in the air for three months. The disrupting effect of the review was significant. In many ways i t represented the beginning of the end for UHF. The i n a b i l i t y to undertake long-range planning with the continuing funding c r i s i s dictating constant budget revisions severely harmed the Foundation both in terms of morale and in terms of generating new business. The review committee reported that they were imporessed by the success of cooperative housing to provide adequate yet modest ac-commodation to people with low and moderate incomes without 46 i n c u r r i n g t h e s t i g m a o f a p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t a n d r e c o m m e n d e d f u r t h e r g o v e r n m e n t s u p p o r t o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g p r o g r a m . T h e c o m m i t t e e r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t t h e c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t b e a l l o w -e d t o d e v e l o p a s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h t t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f a n d l i m i t e d p a r t i a l f u n d i n g o f U H F i n t h e r o l e o f t h e p r o m o t e r o f p a r v a l u e h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e p o r t c o m -m e n d e d U H F f o r i t s e f f e c t i v e r o l e i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f c o o p e r a t i v e s a n d t h e e d u c a t i o n o f i t s m e m b e r s , b u t e x p r e s s e d d o u b t a b o u t t h e U H F m a n a g e m e n t a n d t e c h n i c a l c a p a b i l i t y o f s u s t a i n i n g t h e p r o j e c t d e v e l o p m e n t a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n r o l e . T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t r e c o m m e n d a -t i o n s o f t h e r e v i e w c o m m i t t e e r e p o r t w e r e : ( D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g , 1 9 7 5 . ) 1 ) T h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l p a r t n e r s h i p t o p r o v i d e g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g p r o g r a m , a n d o f a p e r m a n e n t c o m m i t t e e t o c o o r d i n a t e a c t i v i t i e s a n d p l a n n i n g w a s s u g -g e s t e d a s a m e a n s o f e n s u r i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s u c c e s s a n d a m i n i m u m o f d e l a y i n a p p r o v a l o f m o r t g a g e f u n d s , l a n d l e a s e , c o n t r a c t s , a n d s u c h . T h i s w a s a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e n e c e s -s a r y r e s o u r c e s t h r o u g h s e v e r a l l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t . I t w a s h o p e d t h a t t h e P r o v i n c e w o u l d b e a b l e t o m a t c h l a n d t o C M H C ' s m o r t g a g e f u n d s t h u s s p e e d i n g u p p r o j e c t s t a r t s . T h e f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l c o m m i t t e e w a s t o d e v e l o p q u i d e l i n e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o p r o j e c t s c h e d u l -i n g , a c c e p t a b l e i n c o m e l e v e l s , p r o j e c t s i z e a n d s t a n d a r d s , a n d p e r -h a p s r e s i d e n c y r e q u i r e m e n t s . A l l c o o p e r a t i v e s w o u l d b e r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l c o o r d i n a t i n g c o m m i t t e e i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g o f t o t a l l a n d a n d c a p i t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d c o m m i t m e n t s . C o o p e r a t i v e s w o u l d k7 b e e n c o u r a g e d t o c o n t r a c t w i t h U H F f o r s e r v i c e s . C o o p e r a t i v e s d e c i d i n g n o t t o u s e U H F w o u l d b e i n f o r m e d t h a t n o e d u c a t i o n a l o r d e v e l o p m e n t a s s i s t a n c e w o u l d b e a v a i l a b l e f r o m e i t h e r t h e p r o v i n c e o r U H F . I n r e v i e w i n g t h e c o m m i t t e e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n O f t h e f e d e r a l / p r o -v i n c i a l c o o r d i n a t i n g c o m m i t t e e a n d t h e g u i d e l i n e s t h e y w o u l d a d -m i n i s t e r , o n e m u s t w o n d e r i f c o o p e r a t i v e s w e r e t o b e c o m e a n o f f i c i a l g o v e r n m e n t p r o g r a m . T h e g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d b e s e t t i n g o u t r e s t r i c t i o n s o n c o o p e r a t i v e s i z e , p r o j e c t q u a l i t y , i n c o m e r a n g e , a n d r e s i d e n c y r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h e r e v i e w c o m m i t t e e n o t e d t h a t c e r t a i n p r o j e c t s w e r e s o m e w h a t ' t a o r e t h a n m o d e s t " . C o o p e r a t i v e s w h o p r e f e r r e d n o t t o f o l -l o w t h e " r u l e s " a s s e t o u t b y t h e f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l c o m m i t t e e w o u l d p r o b a b l y n o t g e t p r o v i n c i a l l a n d , n o r w o u l d C M H C b e l i k e l y t o e a r -m a r k m o r t g a g e f u n d s f o r t h e m . T h e c o n t r o l l i n g n a t u r e o f t h e g u i d e -l i n e s w o u l d t h u s a p p e a r t o h a v e t h e p o t e n t i a l t o a n t a g o n i z e c o o p -e r a t o r s i n m u c h t h e s a m e w a y a s U H F ' s a t t e m p t s a t c o n t r o l a n g e r e d t h e A d H o c C o m m i t t e e . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e v i e w c o m m i t t e e a c t u a l l y i n t e n d e d t o d e v e l o p a f o r m a l g o v e r n m e n t c o o p e r a t i v e s p r o -g r a m ; b u t i t a p p e a r s t h e y t h o u g h t t h e r e w a s a l r e a d y e n o u g h f r e e -d o m o f a c t i o n w i t h i n t h e m o v e m e n t a n d t h a t c o o p e r a t o r s n e e d e d t o a c c e p t s o m e c o n t r o l i f t h e y w e r e t o c o n t i n u e t o r e c e i v e g o v e r n -m e n t s u b s i d i e s . 2) T h e s e c o n d m a j o r r e c o m m d e n a t i o n o f t h e r e v i e w c o m m i t t e e w a s t h a t : ( D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g , 1975, 3 . ) U H F s h o u l d b e a n i n d e p e n d e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l a n d i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r t h e p r o m o t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f c o o p e r a t i v e s ; a n d s h o u l d w i t h i n a o n e - y e a r p e r i o d b e e n t i r e -l y s u s t a i n e d b y t h e c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g m o v e m e n t . F o r t h e n e x t y e a r t h e f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l p a r t n e r s h i p s h o u l d m a k e u p t h e 48 d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t o t a l b u d g e t a n d t h e r e v e n u e s f r o m t h e f e e s , a n d c o n t r i b u t i o n s f r o m c o o p s a n d o t h e r o r g a n i z a -t i o n s . I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t a t t h e e n d o f o n e y e a r U H F s h o u l d b e s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g . I n c o n d u c t i o n w i t h t h i s , t h e c o m m i t t e e r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t U H F n o t p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s i n r e l a t i o n t o p r o j e c t d e s i g n , d e v e l o p -m e n t a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d t h a t c o o p e r a t i v e s b e e x p e c t e d t o o b t a i n t h e s e s e r v i c e s f r o m e x i s t i n g c o m p a n i e s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s . ~ F r o m t h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g w a n t e d U H F t o g e t o u t o f t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s a n d b e c o m e f i r s t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e o p l e a n d t h e e d u c a t i o n o f c o o p e r a t i v e s . U H F ' s t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s w e r e a d u p l i c a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s a n d e x p e r t i s e a v a i l a b l e i n o t h e r o r g a n -i z a t i o n s , a n d t h e c o m m i t t e e c o n s i d e r e d t h e m t o b e a p o o r d u p l i c a -t i o n a t b e s t . I n a n y c a s e , t h e g o v e r n m e n t w a s n o t g o i n g t o f u n d U H F t o p r o v i d e t h e s e s e r v i c e s . A s f o r t h e c a l l f o r a n i n d e p e n d e n t U H F , i t i s d e b a t a b l e w h e t h e r i t w a s p r o m p t e d b y a n a c t u a l b e l i e f t h a t U H F a n d t h e c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t w o u l d b e n e f i t f r o m i n d e p e n -d e n c e o r t h e d e s i r e t o c u t b a c k t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s f u n d i n g c o m m i t m e n t . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t f e a r e d U H F w o u l d b e c o m e a l i a b i l -i t y s h o u l d t h e i n t e r n a l d i v i s i o n o f t h e B o a r d c o n t i n u e . U H F n o l o n g e r c o n t r o l l e d t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s . T h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g m a y h a v e w o r r i e d t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n w o u l d g e t o u t o f h a n d : w i t h n o a g e n c y t o t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d a s s u m e c o n t r o l , t h e r e w a s n o w a y t o e n s u r e t h a t c o o p e r a t i v e s d i d n o t m i s u s e p u b l i c f u n d s . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e c o m m i t t e e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e c o o p e r a t i v e p r o g r a m d i d n o t ' l e n d i t s e l f t o l a r g e s c a l e d v e l o p m e n t s a n d p r o d u c t i o n t a r -g e t s . ( D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g , 1 9 7 5 , 1 2 . ) H o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s k9 were obviously not the vehicle through which to launch a massive government housing program. Perhaps then, the reason behind the committee's promotion of independence for UHF was that UHF, in fa i l i n g to police cooperatives or to provide the medium for a large scale social housing scheme, was simply no longer useful to the Department of Housing. In conclusion, i t can be argued that the second hypothesis was found to be true. The Province originally funded UHF as a policing agency — an organization which would prevent the possibility of bankrupt cooperatives through control of their development. It i s ironical that i t was the Province who insisted UHF democratize as i t was the newly elected members of the board which gave the Pro-vince so much trouble over the "turnkey cooperatives" and other funding restrictions. Although the main cause of the demise of UHF was a rupture of UHF/cooperative relations, the provincial government through i t s manipulation had a hand in the a f f a i r by tipping the scales in times of c r i s i s . Technical Competence The f i n a l hypothesis to be examined i s the concern that inade-quate funding would lead to low quality professional services. The technical competence of UHF — i t s actual a b i l i t y to provide support services to the cooperative housing sector in B.C. — was question-ed by the province, the client cooperatives, architects,and contrac-tors dealing with cooperatives, and the UHF staff i t s e l f . A f u l l appraisal of competence of the UHF staff and an evaluation of the quality of service rendered i s beyond the focus of this study and, 50 f o r t u n a t e l y u n n e c e s s a r y a s o t h e r s h a v e a l r e a d y d o n e t h i s w o r k . T h e p r o v i n c e , i n r e v i e w i n g U H F d i r e c t l y q u e s t i o n e d t h e c o m p e t e n c e o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n ' s t e c h n i c a l a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f . H o w e v e r , t h e r e p o r t o f t h e R e v i e w C o m m i t t e e g a v e n o d e t a i l s o n t h e b a s i s f o r t h i s d o u b t . T h e I m a g e C o m m i t t e e o f t h e U H F B o a r d d i s c o v e r e d t h a t s e v e r a l a r c h i t e c t s , c o n t r a c t o r s , a n d m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s h a d a p o o r o p i n i o n o f U H F ' s t e c h n i c a l c o m p e t e n c e . E i g h t o f t h e 11 p e r s o n s c o n t a c t e d s a i d U H F s h o u l d n o t p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s . S o m e o f t h e c o m m e n t s m a d e w e r e : ( U H F , 1975, 1 9 . ) S t a f f l i m i t a t i o n s m e a n t h e y d o n o t h a v e t h e e x p e r t i s e t o d o t h e t e c h n i c a l s t u f f . S t a f f i s o v e r t a x e d a n d n o t e n t i r e l y p r e p a r e d f o r t h e i r j o b . U H F c h a r g e s p r o f e s s i o n a l r a t e s f o r w o r k w h i c h s o m e t i m e s i s n ' t p r o f e s s i o n a l . U H F p r o v i d e s a n u n e v e n q u a l i t y o f technical a d v i c e . A g a i n , t h i s r e p o r t d i d n o t a t t e m p t t o e v a l u a t e t h e q u a l i t y o f s e r -v i c e ; i t m e r e l y c o l l e c t e d o p i n i o n s . T h e m o s t c o m p l e t e a s s e s s m e n t o f U H F s e r v i c e s i s a r e p o r t p r e -p a r e d b y s o m e o f t h e U H F s t a f f i n M a y 1975 f o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l r e v i e w c o m m i t t e e . T h e s t a f f m e m b e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e w a s a d e f i n i t e n e e d t o i m p o r v e t h e q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n . S e r v i c e w a s s u f f e r i n g d u e t o e x c e s s i v e w o r k l o a d s , l a c k o f a d e q u a t e j o b t r a i n -i n g , a n d p r o b l e m s r e l a t i n g t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a n d t h e a b s e n c e o f d e l e g a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y . I n p a r t i c u l a r t h e y c i t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o b l e m s : ( M e m o t o S . S c h m i d a n d t h e R e v i e w C o m m i t t e e , M a y 3 0 , 1975, 1 . ) 1 ) H a v i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h o u t c o m m e n s u r a t e a u t h o r i t y . 2) T h e i n a b i l i t y t o c o m m a n d s e r v i c e s f r o m t h e r e s o u r c e 51 p e o p l e o n s t a f f o r o t h e r w i s e a v a i l a b l e t o U H F , w h e n n e e d e d , t o o u r s a t i s f a c t i o n , 3) A w o r k l o a d t h a t i s t o o h e a v y i n v o l v i n g l o n g a f t e r - h o u r s w o r k , i n a d e q u a t e p a y , n o s t a t u s a n d i n a d e q u a t e s e c r e t a r -i a l a n d s u p p o r t a s s i s t a n c e . k) A l a c k o f e s t a b l i s h e d p r o c e d u r e s f o r d o i n g r o u t i n e t a s k s . 5) A l a c k o f c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 6) A l a c k o f a d e q u a t e p l a n n i n g a n d e v a l u a t i o n b a s e d o n v a l i d d a t a . I n a d d i t i o n , s u b s e q u e n t i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e s t a f f r e v e a l e d f r u s t r a t i o n a t t h e l a c k o f p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n f r o m t h e B o a r d . W h e n a s k e d d i r e c t l y i f U H F c o u l d i n f a c t d o i t s j o b , o n e c o o r d i n a t o r f l a t l y r e p l i e d : n o . T h e p r o b l e m o f a c c e s s t o r e l i a b l e t e c h n i c a l r e s o u r c e s b r i n g s u p t h e q u e s t i o n o f " i n h o u s e " t e c h n i c a l s t a f f . A s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 2, t h e n e c e s s i t y o f " i n h o u s e " t e c h n i c a l s t a f f w a s b e i n g d e b a t e d a t t h e b o a r d l e v e l w i t h o n e g r o u p a r g u i n g i t w a s t o o e x p e n -s i v e t o h i r e t h e m o n s t a f f w h i l e t h e o t h e r c l a i m e d t h a t i t w a s e q u a l -l y e x p e n s i v e t o h i r e p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t s o n a p e r d i e m b a s i s . T h e s t a f f i n d i c a t e d i n t h e i r r e p o r t t h a t e x i s t i n g " i n h o u s e " t e c h n i c a l s t a f f w a s n o t a l w a y s r e l i a b l e . T h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d s e e m d t o a g r e e w i t h t h e B o a r d m e m b e r s w h o b e l i e v e d t h a t g o o d " i n h o u s e " s t a f f w a s t o o e x p e n s i v e . T h e S t a f f , h o w e v e r , b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d b e t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e a t t h e b o a r d l e v e l . T h e o r i g i n a l b o a r d o f U H F h a d b e e n a h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d t e c h n i c a l r e s o u r c e p o o l , b u t w i t h t h e d e o m o c r a t i z a t i o n o f t h e b o a r d m u c h o f t h i s e x p e r t i s e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n f i e l d , h a d b e e n l o s t . I t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t U H F ' s t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s w e r e l e s s t h a n p r o f e s s i o n a l . T h e i n a d e q u a c y o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s i s d i r e c t l y 5 2 a r e s u l t o f t h e i n a b i l i t y t o p a y f o r t h e m . T h e r e f o r e i t c a n b e s a i d t h a t i n a d e q u a t e f u n d i n g l e d t o p o o r q u a l i t y p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s . H o w e v e r , w h i l e t h e m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n i s t h a t U H F w a s w e a k i n t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s , t h e r e i s n o c o n c r e t e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h i s i n a d e q u a c y c a u s e d s e r i o u s b u n g l i n g i n a n y p a r t i c u l a r c o o p e r a t i v e : t h e r e a r e n o b a n k r u p t c o o p e r a t i v e s t o p o i n t t o a n y f a i l u r e . S u m m a r y o f t h e H y p o t h e s e s H a i r e w a r n e d t h a t t h e f a t e o f c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g r e s t e d u p o n r e s o u r c e g r o u p s l i k e U H F . T h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r d i s r u p t i o n t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p d i l u t i o n , f u n d i n g t i e s , a n d s e r v i c e i n a d e q u a c i e s w a s , i n H a i r e * s o p i n i o n , s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e h y p o t h e s e s f o r m u l a t e d f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h a n d b a s e d o n H a i r e : ! s r e p o r t h a v e b e e n s u p p o r t e d . U H F b e c a m e t h e f o c u s o f d i v i s i o n i n t h e B . C . c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g m o v e m e n t . T h e s t r u g g l e f o r p o w e r a m o n g i n d i v i d u a l h o u s i n g c o o p e r -a t i v e s , U H F , a n d t h e p r o v i n c i a l D e p a r t m e n t o f H p u s i n g . l e d t o a w e a k -e n i n g o f t h e l o c a l c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t . I t r e d u c e d t e n d e n c i e s f o r u n i t y a n d s e l f - h e l p a m o n g c o o p e r a t i v e s . T h e l a c k o f s u p p o r t a n d f u n d i n g r e s u l t e d i n p o o r s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n , w h i c h l e d t o s t i l l l e s s c o o p e r a t i v e s u p p o r t f o r U H F . T h e e n d e f f e c t , t h e d e m i s e o f U H F , w a s n o t i n t e n d e d b y a n y o f t h e c o m p e t i n g g r o u p s . W h a t i s t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e c o l l a p s e o f U H F ? I n m a n y w a y s , i t r e p r e s e n t s a c o l l a p s e o f t h e l o c a l c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t . A l -t h o u g h t o o e a r l y t o t e l l , i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t w i t h o u t U H F c o o p -e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y w i l l r e t u r n t o i t s p r e - 1 9 7 2 l e v e l . H o w e v e r , t h e p o l i c i e s o f t h e n e w p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t d o n o t a p p e a r t o f a v o u r c o o p e r a t i v e s a n d s o i t i s l i k e l y t h a t e v e n h a d U H F c o n t i n u e d , a c t i -v i t y i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s e c t o r w o u l d b e g r e a t l y r e d u c e d . 53 C H A P T E R I V T H E R O L E O F T H E U N I T E D H O U S I N G F O U N D A T I O N U n d e r l y i n g a l l t h e p r o b l m e s o f U H F i s o n e b a s i c q u e s t i o n : W h a t s h o u l d b e t h e r o l e o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n ? T h i s w a s t h e s u b j e c t o f a n a l l - d a y B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s s e m i n a r i n F e b r u a r y 1975> w h i c h t h e a u t h o r a t t e n d e d a t t h e s t a r t o f h e r r e s e a r c h . T h e s e m i n a r ' h a d b e e n c o n v e n e d t o g i v e t h e B o a r d a c h a n c e t o e x a m i n e t h e r o l e o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n w i t h o u t t h e p r e s s u r e s o f a r e g u l a r b u s i n e s s m e e t i n g , o n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r o c c a s s i o n t h e b o a r d m e m b e r s f a i l e d t o r e a c h a n y c o n s e n s u s o n r o l e . T h e y t a l k e d a r o u n d t h e i s s u e , t h e y a t t a c k e d e a c h o t h e r , t h e y d e b a t e d p e r i p h e r a l p r o b l e m s s u c h a s t h e c o n t r a c t , b u t t h e y c o u l d n o t o r w o u l d n o t f a c e u p t o t h e t a s k o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . A y e l r l a t e r w h e n U H F f o l d e d , t h e r o l e w a s y e t t o b e d e t e r m i n e d . I t i s n e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r a n o r -g a n i z a t i o n t o f u c t i o n w e l l w i t h o u t e x p l i c i t g o a l s t h a t a r e a c c e p t e d a n d u n d e r s t o o d b y t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s p o l i c y m a k e r s a n d s t a f f . W i t h o u t a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e i r r o l e , t h e B o a r d w a s u n a b l e t o d e v e l o p c o n s i s t e n t p o l i c y . H e n c e t h e s t a f f , b e i n g l a r g e l y u n d i r e c t -e d b y t h e b o a r d , m a d e p o l i c y t h r o u g h " h i t a n d m i s s " i n t h e i r d a y - t 6 -d a y d e c i s i o n s . T h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a n o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s r o l e s h o u l d n o t b e a n i m p o s s i b l e t a s k . I t i s a t a s k r e q u i r i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n a n d m u c h t h o u g h t , b u t s u r e l y o n e w h i c h c a n b e a c c o m p l i s h e d i n l e s s t h a n o n e y e a r . W h y w a s U H F u n a b l e t o c o m e t o g r i p s w i t h t h i s p r o b l e m ? I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , c o o p e r a t i v e s t h e m s e l v e s h a v e a d u a l n a t u r e . 54 A h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e i s b o t h a b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e a n d a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e e c o n o m i c r e a l i t i e s o f d e v e l o p i n g h o u s i n g m a y o f t e n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e s o c i a l a i m s o f f u l l m e m b e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e a r e m a n y r o l e s a r e s o u r c e g r o u p c a n p l a y : a s p e c i a l i z e d c o n s u l t a n t , a c e n t r a l v o i c e f o r c o o p e r a i v e s , a c o m m u n -i t y o r g a n i z e r , a p o l i t i c a l l o b b y i s t , a g e n e r a l c o n t r a c t o r . T h e f o u n d e r s o f U H F s a w t h e F o u n d a t i o n ' s r o l e a s a s p e c i a l i z e d r e s o u r c e g r o u p g u i d i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s t h r o u g h t h e s t e p s o f p r o j e c t d e v e l o p m e n t . I n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f U H F ' s o p e r a t i o n t h e r e w a s g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t o n t h e r o l e . T h e c l i e n t c o o p e r a t i v e s b e g a n t o f e e l t h a t U H F d i d n o t s o m u c h g u i d e t h e m t h o u g h t t h e n e c e s s a r y s t e p s a s f o r c e 1hem i n -t o a n a r b i t r a r y p r o g r a m . T h e r e f o r e , w h e n t h e f i r s t c o o p e r a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w e r e e l e c t e d t o t h e U H F B o a r d , t h e r o l e o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n c a m e i n t o q u e s t i o n . B y e a r l y 1 9 7 5 t h r e e r o l e s h a d b e e n p u t f o r w a r d b y v a r i o u s B o a r d m e m b e r s : ( U H F , 1 9 7 5 a , 1 . ) 1 ) U H F d e v e l o p s c o o p e r a t i v e s ( a s a c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c y ) 2) U H F a s s i s t s c o o p e r a t i v e s t o a c h i e v e t h e i r g o a l s ( a s a s p e c i a l i z e d r e s o u r c e g r o u p ) 3) U H F i s t h e d e v e l o p e r o f h o u s i n g t o b e o c c u p i e d b y c o o p -e r a t i v e s ( B . C . ' s t h i r d l a r g e s t d e v e l o p e r ) I n i t i a l l y t h e r e a p p e a r e d t o b e a c o m m i t m e n t b y B o a r d m e m b e r s t o f o c u s o n t h e s e c o n d p o s i t i o n ; b u t d i s a g r e e m e n t a b o u t U H F ' s p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n a n d t h e a m o u n t o f c h a n g e r e q u i r e d t o m o v e U H F i n t h e d i r -e c t i o n o f a " s p e c i a l i z e d r e s o u r c e g r o u p " s o o n d i s r u p t e d t h e l i t t l e c o n s e n s u s t h a t e x i s t e d . U p t o t h i s p o i n t t h e r e s e a r c h e r h a d b e e n a t t e n d i n g b o a r d m e e t i n g s a s a n o b s e r v e r . N o w t h e B o a r d a s k e d t h a t t h e r o l e b e 55 changed to participant-observer, saying that they would appreci-ate the advice and insight of an outsider. At this time a number of members of the Board had already been interviewed on a confi-dential basis. The problem of understanding and communicating to the Board positions which i t s members did or might take was resolved by constructing attitude profiles, sets of positions on a series of issues, each presented as dichotomous opposites: coop control government control coop philosophy housing production participation efficiency educational services technical services information pool developer of coop housing process orientation product orientation consensual decision-making executive decision-making self-education advice from experts p o l i t i c a l managerial/technical decentralization centralization Each element of the "dichotomy pair" was placed at opposite ends of a continuum. The elements on the l e f t hand side of the continuums related to cooperative control of the process of develop-ing housing. The elements on the right hand side represented a bureaucracy controlled cooperative housing program. The two ele-ments in the pair were not considered to be mutually exclusive; rather i t was suggested 1 h a t some trade-offs between the tweo would have to occur u n t i l a balance was arrived at. The selection of an appropriate balance was the issue. If the Board of Directors could agree on the amount of trade-off desirable between each of 56 t h e t e n d i c h o t o m y p a i r s , t h e n t h e r o l e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w o u l d b e d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e v e r t i c a l l i n e j o i n i n g t h e p o i n t s o f b a l a n c e o n e a c h c o n t i n u u m . T h i s w a s p r e s e n t e d t o t h e B o a r d i n J u l y 1975* A f t e r s o m e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n i t w a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t e a c h c o n t i n -u u m b e s c a l e d f r o m -3 t o +3 w i t h z e r o a s t h e m i d - p o i n t , a n d t h a t e a c h B o a r d m e m b e r b e a s k e d t o p l o t h i s o r h e r p o s i t i o n i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : W h e r e d o y o u t h i n k U H F i s n o w ? W h e r e d o y o u t h i n k U H F s h o u l d b e ? W h e r e d o y o u t h i n k t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s w a n t U H F t o b e ? W h e r e d o y o u t h i n k t h e P r o v i n c e w a n t s U H F t o b e ? T h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x e r c i s e w e r e r e v e a l i n g . T e n o f t h e t w e l v e B o a r d m e m b e r s r e t u r n e d c o m p l e t e d f o r m s . T h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s p o n s e s s h o w e d t h a t w h i l e s u p e r f i c i a l l y t h e r e a p p e a r e d t o b e a c o n s e n s u s o n U H F ' s r o l e , a b a s i c s p l i t o n t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s r e s u l t e d i n t w o d i s c r e t e g r o u p s o f o p i n i o n . E v e n m o r e i n t e r e s t -i n g r e s u l t s w e r e o b t a i n e d w h e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H 0 u s i n g a n d t h e U H F s t a f f w e r e a s k e d t o c o m m e n t o n t h e B o a r d ' s a s s e s s m e n t o f w h e r e t h e c l i e n t w a n t e d U H F t o b e . B y c o m p a r i n g t h e a n s w e r s o f t h e s t a f f , B o a r d , c o o p e r a t i v e s , a n d P r o v i n c e a f u n d a -m e n t a l m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e v i e w s o f t h e o t h e r a c t o r s w a s d i s -c o v e r e d . T h e r e w a s f a i r l y s t r o n g a g r e e m e n t a b o u t t h e w a y i n w h i c h U H F c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t e d . H o u s i n g p r o d u c t i o n w a s m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n c o o p e r a t i v e p h i l o s o p h y , a n d t h e F o u n d a t i o n w a s t h o u g h t t o e m p h a -s i z e a p r o d u c t o r i e n t a t i o n , e x e c u t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , r e l i a n c e 57 o n e x p e r t a d v i c e , a n d c e n t r a l i z e d s t y l e o f o p e r a t i o n s . T h e B o a r d a l s o i n d i c a t e d U H F t o b e l a r g e l y g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r o l l e d . ( F i g u r e 1 . ) I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n : W h e r e s h o u l d U H F b e ? t h e r e w a s a g e n e r a l c o n s e n s u s t h a t U H F s h o u l d m o v e f u r t h e r t o t h e l e f t a l o n g e a c h c o n t i n u u m ; t h a t i s , m o r e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f c o o p e r a t i v e c o n -t r o l a n d e m p h a s i s o n c o o p e r a t i v e p h i l o s o p h y , m e m b e r s h i p p a r t i c i p a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , p r o c e s s o r i e n t a t i o n , s e l f - e d u c a t i o n , c o n s e n s u -a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , a n d i n c r e a s e d d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . ( F i g u r e 1 . ) T h a t i s n o t t o s a y t h a t t h e s e t h i n g s s h o u l d d o m i n a t e — i n s o m e c a s e s c o n s e n s u s s a i d t h e y s h o u l d a n d i n o t h e r s c o n s e n s u s s a i d t h e i r p o l a r e l e m e n t s w e r e s t i l l m o r e i m p o r t a n t — o n l y t h a t m o r e t i m e o r a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d b e g i v e n t o t h e e l e m e n t s l i s t e d u n d e r c o o p e r a t i v e c o n t r o l . T h e s e t w o s e t s o f r e s p o n s e s b r i n g u p a n i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t . I f v i r t u a l l y e v e r y o n e a g r e e s o n U H F ' s p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n a n d i f t h e c o n -s e n s u s i s t h a t U H F s h o u l d s h i f t t o w a r d c o o p e r a t i v e c o n t r o l , c o o p e r -a t i v e p h i l o s o p h y , a n d o t h e r e l e m e n t s o n t h e l e f t h a n d s i d e o f t h e c o n t i n u u m s , t h e n w h y i s t h e r e s o m u c h d i s a g r e e m e n t a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e B o a r d a b o u t t h e r o l e o f U H F ? T h i s q u e s t i o n c a n o n l y b e a n -s w e r e d b y l o o k i n g m o r e c a r e f u l l y a t t h e r e p l i e s t o : W h e r e s h o u l d U H F b e ? I n a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n , w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n b o a r d m e m -b e r s p l a c e d t h e i r X ' s e i t h e r a l w a y s t o t h e r i g h t o r a l w a y s t o t h e l e f t o f t h e z e r o p o s i t i o n , ( w * i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e f i r s t p a i r — c o o p e r a t i v e v e r s u s g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r o l ) ' . S t a t e d i n a n o t h e r w a y n o o n e c r o s s e d t h e z e r o l i n e o n t h e " s h o u l d b e " i s s u e . F i g u r e 2 s h o w s t h e b r e a k d o w n o f t h e " s h o u l d b e " r e s p o n s e s . T h e p r o b l e m o f a g r e e m e n t n o w b e c o m e s c l e a r : t h e r e w e r e t w o d i s c r e t e g r o u p s o f 58 F I G U R E 1 B o a r d R e s p o n s e s t o " W h e r e i s U H F N6w?" a n d " W h e r e S h o u l d U H F B e ? " - 3 2 1 0 1 2 3+ c o o p c o n t r o l / / / / / / xxxxxxxxx.xxx.xxxx g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r o l c o o p p h i l o s o p h y x x x x x h o u s i n g p r o d u c t i o n ^ ^ ^ x ^ t x J t x x x x x x x e f f i c i e n c y p a r t i c i p a t i o n e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t e c h n c i a l x x x x x s e r v i c e s i n f o r m a t i o n p o o l / / / / / / / / / / / * * * * * * d e v e l o p e r o f c o o p h o u s i n g p r o c e s s o r i e n t a t i o n ^ ^ ^ x ^ x ^ c x x x x x x p r o d u c t o r i e n t a t i o n c o n s e n s u a l / / / / / / / / / / / / e x e c u t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g LLLLLLLLLLLL x x x x x d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s e l f - e d u c a t i o n /////////// x ^ x ^ x ^ a d v i c e f r o m e x p e r t s p o l i t i c a l / / / / / / / ^ ^ 3 t : c : m 3 C m a n a g e r i a l / t e c h n i c a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n c e n t r a l i z a t i o n / / / / / W h e r e U H F s h o u l d b e x x x x x W h e r e U H F i s n o w 59 o p i n i o n o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n t h e B o a r d . I n s o m e c a s e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e o n l y a m e t t e r o f d e g r e e — f o r e x a m p l e , a m a j o r i t y o f t h e B o a r d m e m b e r s a g r e e t h a t c o o p e r a t i v e p h i l o s o p h y m u s t n o t d o m i n a t e a t t h e e x p e n s e o f h o u s i n g p r o d u c t i o n , b u t t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f h o u s i n g p r o d u c t i o n r a n g e s f r o m " e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t " t o " m u c h m o r e i m p o r t a n t " . H o w e v e r , i n s o m e c a s e s t h e r e i s n o m e e t i n g g r o u n d — f o r e x a m p l e , s e l f - e d u c a t i o n v e r s u s a d v i c e f r o m e x p e r t s . T h i s d i v i s i o n i n t o s u b g r o u p s i s s i g n i f i c a n t : h e r e i n l i e s t h e t e n -s i o n o n t h e B o a r d . A f o u r - s i x s p l i t w a s p r o d u c e d . V o t i n g o n m o s t m a j o r i s s u e s d i v i d e d a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s . T h e d i r e c t i o n o f U H F p o l i -c y c o u l d t h u s c h a n g e s u d d e n l y f r o m m e e t i n g t o m e e t i n g d e p e n d i n g o n h o w a t t e n d e n c e a f f e c t e d t h e r e l a t i v e v o t i n g s t r e n g t h o f e a c h g r o u p . A n o t h e r i t e m t o c o m e t o l i g h t t h r o u g h t h i s s u r v e y w a s t h e q u e s t i o n o f U H F ' s c l i e n t . I s t h e c l i e n t o n l y t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s u n d e r c o n t r a c t t o U H F , o r a r e p e o p l e w a n t i n g t o g e t i n t o c o o p e r a t i v e s a l s o a c l i e n t g r o u p ? I s t h e P r o v i n c e a c l i e n t ? A c o n t r a d i c t i 6 n w a s f o u n d . E v e r y B o a r d m e m b e r , e x c e p t i n g o n e , p u t m o r e e m p h a s i s o n c o o p e r a t i v e c o n t r o l t h a n o n g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r o l , t h e r e f o r e i t c o u l d b e a s s u m e d t h a t U H F s h o u l d b e s e n s i t i v e t o t h e n e e d s a n d w a n t s o f c o o p e r a t i v e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s a g r e e m e n t , t h e r e w a s a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l e a g r e e m e n t a b o u t w h a t t h e y t h o u g h t t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s w a n t e d U H F t o b e : p u t t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e e m p h a s i s o n c o o p e r a t i v e c o n t r o l , c o o p e r a t i v e p h i l o s o p h y , a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n . ( F i g u r e 3 . ) G i v e n o n l y t h e s e t w o f a c t s i t w a s d i f f i c u l t t o s e e w h y U H F ' s B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s h a d s u c h a d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n o v e r w h e r e U H F s h o u l d b e . I n i a t i a l l y i t w a s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e p r e -v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d s u b g r o u p s m i g h t h a v e h a d d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s o n 60 F I G U R E 2 B o a r d R e s p o n s e s t o " W h e r e S h o u l d U H F B e ? " s h o w i n g s u b g r o u p s . -3 2 c o o p c o n t r o l c o o p p h i l o s o p h y 3+ p a r t i c i p a t i o n e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n f o r m a t i o n p o o l / / / / / / / / / , x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x -/ / / / / / . x x x x x x x x x x x ////// x x x x x g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r o l h o u s i n g p r o d u c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s d e v e l o p e r o f c o o p h o u s i n g p r o c e s s o r i e n t a t i o n c o n s e n s u a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g -////// x x x x x x x x x x x x x x /////// x x x x x x s e l f - e d u c a t i o n , / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / p o l i t i c a l / / / / / / / / / / / / / / ] n m c : t d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n / / / / / / / / / x x x x x x x x x p r o d u c t o r i e n t a t i o n e x e c u t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a d v i c e f r o m e x p e r t s m a n a g e r i a l / t e c h n i c a l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n / / / / / / s u b g r o u p o n e x x x x x x s u b g r o u p t w o 6 1 what the cooperatives wanted from UHF. Upon further examination of the individual responses i t was found that a l l the more "deviant" opinions of cooperative wants (that i s , deviant from the average opinion,) were accounted for by two persons, one from each sub-group. So the subgroups theory did not explain anything. It i s possible that the contradiction was based on the Board members' opinions of the relative importance of various clients. Some members believed that contract cooperatives were the only client of UHF, whereas others believed UHF had a responsibility to the funding sources (CMHC and the province) and to the general public — people who in the future may wish to join a housing cooperative. In addition to indicating the UHF role desired by cooperatives, the Board was asked to indicated where they thought the Province wanted UHF to be. On every dichotomy pair, the Board placed the Province at the opposite end of the continuum from where they had placed the cooperatives. (Figure 3.) The Board believed that the Province wanted a strong government-controlled organization empha-sizing housing production, efficiency, technical services, execu-tive dicision-making, expert advice, and a centralized management. If i t was true that the cooperatives and the Province demanded such different things of UHF, then the i n a b i l i t y of the Foundation to assume a consistent role was understandable. Hov/ever, discus-sions with several housing cooperatives, the UHF coordinating staff, and a Department of Housing o f f i c i a l indicated that the Board's assessment of cooperative and provincial desires may have been somewhat extreme. Indications were that neither the coopera-tives nor the Province wanted UHF to operate at either end of the 62 F I G U R E 3 B o a r d R e s p o n s e s t o " W h e r e d o y o u t h i n k t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s w a n t U H F t o b e ? " a n d " W h e r e d o y o u t h i n k t h e P r o v i n c e w a n t s U H F t o b e ? " -3 2 1 0 1 2 3+ c o o p c o n t r o l / / / / / / g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r o l c o o p p h i l o s o p h y / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / K K K K K h ° u s i n S p r o d u c t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n / / / / / / Kimxir.mr.raHt e f f i c i e n c v e d u c a t i o n a l / / / / / / / / / / / / / / t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s / x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x s e r v i c e s i n f o r m a t i o n P O O l / / / / / / / / / / ] n n n n „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ H n E 3 „ m c x d e v e l o p e r o f c o o p h o u s i n g p r o c e s s o r i e n t a t i o n / / / / / / / / / / / / xxrac p r o d u c t o r i e n t a t i o n c o n s e n s u a l / / / / / / / e x e c u t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g : x x x x x x d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s e l f - e d u c a t i o n JfttftH/ft/H x x x x a d v i c e f r o m e x p e r t s p o l i t i c a l / / / / / / / / / / / / / m a n a g e r i a l / t e c h n i c a l / / / / / / / / / / / / / x x x x d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n c e n t r a l i z a t i o n / / / / / / w h e r e t h e x x x x x x w h e r e t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s w a n t U H F t o b e p r o v i n c e w a n t s U H F t o b e B O A R D O F D I R E C T O R S ' O P I N I O N 63 c o n t i n u u m s . T h e s e t w o a c t o r s i n t h e p r o c e s s a p p e a r e d t o h a v e a f a r m o r e m o d e r a t e o p i n i o n o f a d e s i r a b l e r o l e t h a n d i d t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s . A m o r e l i k e l y d e p i c t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f U H F s o u g h t b y c o o p e r a t i v e s a n d . t h e P r o v i n c e i s s h o w n i n F i g u r e 4 . T h e r o l e s u r v e y i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e r e a s o n s w h y t h e B o a r d w a s u n a b l e t o c o m e t o a g r e e m e n t o n t h e r o l e o f U H F : 1) T h e U H F B o a r d w a s d i v i d e d i n t o t w o o p p o s i n g g r o u p s , e a c h t r y i n g t o l e a d U H F i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . 2) T h e U H F B o a r d d i d n o t a g r e e o n w h o t h e " c l i e n t " o f U H F w a s : t h e c o n t r a c t c o o p e r a t i v e s , t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , a n d / o r t h e s o u r c e s o f f u n d i n g . 3) T h e U H F B o a r d h a d a n i n a c c u r a t e i d e a a b o u t t h e n e e d s a n d d e m a n d s o f o t h e r a c t o r s i n t h e p r o c e s s ; i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e y b e -l i e v e d t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s a n d t h e P r o v i n c e t o b e i n o p p o s i t i o n , w h e n i n f a c t t h e y w e r e i n c l o s e r a g r e e m e n t t h a n t h e B o a r d s u s p e c t e d . B a s i c a l l y t h e r o l e s u r v e y s u b s t a n t i a t e d w h a t d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s h a s s h o w n : a f u n d a m e n t a l d i v i s i o n b e t w e e n t h o s e w h o v i e w e d c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g a s a m e a n s t o s o l v i n g a h o u s i n g p r o b l e m a n d t h o s e w h o v i e w e d i t a s a p h i l o s o p h y f o r l i v i n g . T h e b e l i e f s h e l d a b o u t t h e p u r p o s e o f c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g w e r e t h e n t r a n s l a t e d i n t o t w o v e r y d i f f e r e n t r o l e s f o r t h e r e s o u r c e g r o u p — a p r o d u c t - o r i e n t e d r o l e v e r s u s a p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d r o l e . T h i s d i -v i s i o n w a s n o t s o m e t h i n g a r i s i n g f o r m t h e p a r t i c u l a r m e m b e r s o f t h e U H F B o a r d ; t h e p r o d u c t / p r o c e s s d i c h o t o m y a p p e a r s t o b e i n h e r -e n t i n t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s . A h o u s i n g c o o p e r a -t i v e i s " b o t h a b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e a n d a n o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h a d i s t i n c t s o c i a l p u r p o s e . T h i s i s w h a t o f t e n m a k e s i t d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n c o o p e r a t i v e s a n d f o r o t h e r s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e m . T h e y 64 FIGURE 4 Cooperative and Province responses to "Where the Cooperatives want UHF to be" and "where the Province wants UHF to be". -3 2 1 0 coop control //// xxxx 3+ government control coop philosophy-participation educational services -information pool //// xxxxx housing production xxxxx //// //// xxxxx efficiency technical services ///^xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx developer of coop housing process orientation consensual decision-making self-education political x x ^ x W xxxxx JILL xxxx //// product orientation executive decision-making advice from experts managerial/technical decentralization xxxx 1LLL dentralization ////// Where the Province wants UHF to be, according to a provincial respondent xxxxxx Where the cooperatives want UHF to be, according to cooperative and UHF coordinating staff response 65 are two things at once: business and social movement." (CMHC, undated, 2.) It might be added that not only does this aspect of cooperatives make them d i f f i c u l t to understand, i t also makes them d i f f i c u l t to establish successfully. The history of UHF gives clear evidence to the existence of this underlying division in cooperative a c t i v i t i e s . One particular member of the UHF Board frequently chided the researcher, saying that this issue was "simply a red herring"; but time and time again the Board bogged down under debates having at their root a basic and fundamental disagreement over the nature of cooperative housing. The i n a b i l i t y to come to grips with this problem immobilized the Board: even the most elementary decisions, such as which services to provide, could not be made because half the Board believed UHF should have a process-orientation, and accordingly stressed educa-tional services, while the other half thought UHF should have a product-orientation, and therefore an emphasis on technical ser-vices. The board member was clearly incorrect in his analysis of the problem — the process/product dichotomy was c r i t i c a l to under-standing the operations of UHF and the cooperative movement; what this board member expressed in declaring the issue a "red Herring" was simply his frustration at the Board's seeming reluctance to solve problems, deal with importnat matters, and essentially f u l f i l l i t s duty to provide reliable service to housing cooperatives. If the preceding comments about what each group wanted and what each group perceived UHF should be are confusing, then i t i s only a reflection of the situation that existed: three actors in the process — the cooperatives, UHF, and the Province — each with a different idea about where tie organization i s now, where i t 66 i s going, and where they want i t to lead! These conflicts were never resolved. As a result, the definition of the role of UHF was also never resolved, except in as much as the day-to-day ope ations gradually added up to a role, one defined more by acciden than by the definitive actions of the Foundation's leaders. 67 C H A P T E R V C O N C L U S I O N S A N D R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S C o n c l u s i o n s T h e U n i t e d H o u s i n g F o u n d a t i o n m u s t b e c o m m e n d e d f o r i t s s u b -s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e B . C . c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t . T h e s u c -c e s s o f m a n y B . C . h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s a n d t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f o v e r o n e t h o u s a n d u n i t s i s l a r g e l y d u e t o U H F ' s u n d e r t a k i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t t a s k o f o r g a n i z i n g a n e f f e c t i v e c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g r e s o u r c e g r o u p . W h i l e t h i s r e s e a r c h i s a s t u d y o f U H F ' s s h o r t c o m i n g s , f o c u s s i n g b y d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n ' s p r o b l e m s , o n e s h o u l d n o t d i s m i s s t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h i s h a r d w o r k i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . B e f o r e U H F , t h e k n o w l e d g e a n d e x p e r t i s e o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s e c t o r w a s f r a g -m e n t e d , s c a t t e r e d a m o n g s m a l l g r o u p s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y , b u r i e d i n t h e m i n d s o f b u r e a u c r a t s , a n d g e n e r a l l y u n a v a i l a b l e t o t h e s t a r t i n g c o o p e r a t i v e . U H F a s s e m b l e d t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m m a n y s o u r c e s a n d m a d e i t f i n a l l y a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e c o o p e r a t i v e g r o u p s t h a t n e e d e d i t . I n e s s e n c e , U H F p i o n e e r e d t h e f i e l d : t h e r e w e r e n o o t h e r c o o p e r a t i v e r e s o u r c e g r o u p s i n C a n a d a t o e m u l a t e . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , t h e d e m i s e o f U H F m u s t b e l a m e n t e d . H o w e v e r , t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t o d e s c r i b e a n d a n a l -y z e U H F ' s p r o b l e m s , n o t t o p r a i s e i t s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s . T h e v e r y s u c c e s s o f U H F w a s i n m a n y w a y s t h e c a u s e o f i t s f a i l u r e . U H F t o o q u i c k l y o u t g r e w i t s t e n o u s " g r a s s r o o t s " b a s e a n d r a p i d l y t o o k o n t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f a s e l f - m a i n t a i n i n g b u r e a u c r a c y . T h e B o a r d b e -c a m e c o m p l e t e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h i t s o w n i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s a n d t h e 68 s t a f f was l e f t to run the Foundation unguided by any cons i s tent p o l -i c i e s . By the end of the t h i r d year of opera t ion , UHF had l o s t i t s s e n s i t i v i t y to the true pulse of the B . C . cooperative move-ment. In the meantime, the cooperat ives had f a i l e d to i n i t i a t e a l t e r -nat ive ac t ion on t h e i r own beha l f . Cooperatives complained about UHF's overbearing s t y l e of operat ion and l ack of a s incere cooper-a t ive s education program, but they d id l i t t l e e lse to remedy the , s i t u a t i o n . Instead, they b u i l t up an atmosphere of d i s t r u s t and susp ic ion with regard to UHF — a negative response which l e f t them f u l l y unprepared to take p o s i t i v e a c t i o n to r e b u i l d the u n i t y of the cooperative movement a f t e r the co l lapse of UHF. To use UHF as a scapegoat for a l l the d i f f i c u l t i e s of cooperative hous-ing was an eas ier s o l u t i o n than attempting to a c t u a l l y resolve the problems themselves. The Department of Housing only added to the poor s i t u a t i o n between the cooperat ives and UHF. By de lay ing funding and pres-sur ing UHF to accept p rov inc i a l ly -de te rmined p o l i c i e s for organ-i z a t i o n , opera t ion , and pro ject development, the Province pre-vented UHF from c a r r y i n g out long-range p lanning . Hampered by uncer ta inty through most of 1 9 7 5 , UHF f loundered, unable to deter-mine which d i r e c t i o n i t could move i n for l ack of funding assurance. I t has been stated before i n t h i s research that the f a i l u r e of UHF was rooted i n i t s des t ruc t ive r e l a t i o n s h i p with i t s c l ient cooper-a t i v e s ; however, the Department of Housing played a p i v o t a l r o l e : i t could be sa id that the ac t ions of the Province were the proverb-i a l straw that broke the camel's back. 69 In conclusion, the affirmation of the three hypotheses must he repeated: 1) UHF had become a divisive force in the cooperative move-ment. 2) UHF had become too closely tied to i t s provincial funding source. 3) UHF provided less than professional technical services due to limited funding. In addition to these, there are two more conclusions that deserve emphasis: 1) An essential compnent of the conflicts experienced by UHF and i t s client cooperatives did not pertain directly to the i n d i v i -duals involved, but was in fact related to the dual nature of coop-erative: enterprise. These dilemmas about service provision, fund-ing, policy formation, and appropriate role would have arisen in any similar ; cooperative resource group. The problems faced by UHF, contrary to what some cooperators w i l l i n s i s t , were not solely due to Schmid's personal operating style, just as they were not en-t i r e l y caused by the interference of the Province. It must not be assumed that the problems of UHF and, therefore, the affirmation of the hypotheses posed at the beginning of this iudy, can be sim-ply attributed to personalities, inexperience, provincial govern-ment attitudes, or other specific attributes of the particular case study discussed in the research. To do wo would be a grave oversight and would contribut no lessons for future cooperative resource groups. 2) Cooperatives are not a l l alike. They have different needs, 70 different indigenous s k i l l s , and therefore require different re-source groups. UHF has had to f u l f i l l the requirements of a l l the varied cooperatives that come to their doors. Possibly this i s an impossible task. What might be needed i s not one resource group trying to arive at the compromise role of specialized consultant to cooperatives, but several groups — a community development group, a consulting group, and a housing developer too. Options for the Future The end of 1975 was a gloomy time for housing cooperatives in B.C. UHF was not the sole group aiding cooperatives: the Company of Young Canadians was funding several cooperatives 1 co-ordinators to do organizational work and to liase with UHF. The federal government, as an economy measure, discontinued the CYC program in November 1975* On December 1 1 , a new government was returned to the B.C. legislature. The Social Credit government, although i t s housing policies were s t i l l unknown, did not promise to be favourable disposed towards housing cooperatives and their continued funding. What 1976 holds in store for housing cooperatives i s not yet clear. There are two factors to consider. The f i r s t i s the pol-i c i e s of the new provincial government. The outlook i s not parti-cularly bright. The Social Credit government announced in the March 1976 Throne Speech that housing policies would focus on ownership programs. Cooperatives, a curious mixture of ownership and tenancy, are thus in an uncertain position. A meeting with Hugh Curtis, the new Minister of Housing, offered l i t t l e encourage-71 m e n t t o B . C . c o o p e r a t o r s . ( W r i g h t , 1 9 7 6 . ) M r . C u r t i s c o u l d g i v e n o i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f c o o p e r a t i v e s w i t h i n D e p a r t m e n t p r o g r a m s , a s a l l p o l i c i e s w e r e u n d e r r e v i e w , b u t h e s t a t e d t h a t i f c o o p e r a t i v e p r o g r a m s w e r e c o n t i n u e d o r d e v e l o p e d : h i s D e p a r t m e n t w o u l d t a k e t h e l e a d i n t h i s a r e a a s i n o t h e r a r e a s o f h o u s i n g . H e d i d h o w e v e r , i n d i c a t e d t h a t h e c o u l d s e e t h e n e e d f o r a f o u n d a t i o n - t y p e o f o r g a i z a t i o n w h i c h u n d e r t o o k c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s o n b e h a l f o f c o o p e r a t i v e s i n t h e n a t u r e o f a s s i s t i n g t h e m t h r o u g h t h e b u r e a u c r a c y o f o b t a i n i n g l a n d , z o n i n g , f i n a n c i n g a n d o n - g o i n g s e r v i c e s , r a t h e r t h a n l e a v i n g e a c h i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p t o c o p e w i t h t h e s e p r o b l e m s o n i t s o w n . I n ray, o p i n i o n , h i s r e m a r k s w e r e s u c h t h a t i t c o u l d o n l y b e i n f e r r e d t h a t h e d i d n o t e n v i s a g e t h e p r e s e n t U n i t e d H o u s i n g F o u n d a t i o n a s b e i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o w h i c h h i s D e p a r t m e n t w o u l d g i v e r e c o g n i t i o n i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n . T h e s e c o n d p o i n t t o c o n s i d e r i s w h a t w i l l r i s e u p f r o m t h e a s h e s o f U H F ? A l r e a d y , t h r e e a p p l i c a t i o n s h a v e b e e n m a d e t o C M H C f o r f u n d i n g u n d e r t h e C o m m u n i t y R e s o u r c e O r g a n i z a t i o n P r o g r a m o f t h e N H A . S c h m i d h a s a p p l i e d a l o n g w i t h s e v e r a l o f U H F f o u n d i n g m e m b e r s . T h e o t h e r a p p l i c a n t s a r e s p o n s o r e d b y C Y C a n d t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g a n d R e v i e w C o u n c i l o f B . C . A s p o k e p e r s o n a t C M H C s u g g e s t e d t h a t t w o g r o u p s m i g h t b e f u n d e d , i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e n e e d f o r a w i d e r r a n g e o f c o o p e r a t i v e r e s o u r c e s e r v i c e s . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r U H F T h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h a r e d i v i d e d i n t o t w o s e c t i o n s : r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r U H F a n d l e s s o n s f o r o t h e r r e s o u r c e g r o u p s . T h e f o r m e r w e r e o r i g i n a l l y m a d e t o a m e e t i n g o f c o o p e r a t o r s i n N o v e m b e r 1975 a f t e r t h e r e s i g n a t i o n o f S c h m i d . A t t h a t t i m e t h e r e s e a r c h e r w a s o p t i m i s t i c t h a t U H F w o u l d c o n t i n u e . T h e r e c o m m e n d a -t i o n s a r e t h e r e f o r e p r e s e n t e d , w i t h s o m e r e v i s i o n s , i n t h e p r e s e n t 72 t e n s e a s t h e y w e r e i n N o v e m b e r . R e o r g a n i z a t i o n 1 ) A l l c o o p e r a t i v e s r e c e i v i n g a n y t y p e o f s e r v i c e s f r o m U H F s h o u l d b e r e q u i r e d t o b e c o m e m e m b e r s o f U H F . M e m b e r s o f U H F s h o u l d b e e x p e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n — b y s e r v i n g o n c o m m i t t e e s , a t t e n d i n g s e m i n a r s , m a i n t a i n i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h r o u g h n e w s l e t t e r s , a n d o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . E a c h c o o p e r a t i v e m u s t p u l l i t s w e i g h t . 2) T h e U H F B o a r d s h o u l d b e r e s t r u c t u r e d , i n o r d e r t o m a k e i t t r u l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t a n d r e s p o n s i b l e t o i t : ( i ) 1 5 d i r e c t o r s s h o u l d b e e l e c t e d f r o m m e m b e r c o o p e r a t i v e s , ( i i ) n o m e m b e r c o o p e r a t i v e s h o u l d h a v e m o r e t h a n o n e p e r s o n o n t h e U H F b o a r d . A l t h o u g h d i r e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e a c h c o o p e r a t i v e a t t h e B o a r d l e v e l m i g h t b e i d e a l l y d e s i r e d , t h e B o a r d m u s t b e k e p t t o a w o r k a b l e s i z e . 3) T o p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e a t t h e B o a r d l e v e l , t e c h -n i c a l a d v i s o r s s h o u l d b e i n v i t e d t o j o i n t h e B o a r d a s n o n - v o t i n g m e m b e r s . ( T h e s e w o u l d b e i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e 15 d i r e c t o r s . ) I t i s p r e s u m e d t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e w i l l b e i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l s t a f f o f v a r -i o u s f i r m s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a n d g o v e r n m e n t b o d i e s w h i c h c a n a d v i s e U H F o n t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s . k) A s t h e r e i s c o n e r n t h a t o v e r t i m e a U H F B o a r d c o m p o s e d s o l e l y o f c o o p e r a t i v e p e r s o n s w i l l b e c o m e s o m e w h a t c o n s e r v a t i v e a n d i n w a r d - l o o k i n g a n d t h u s t e n d t o f o c u s o n t h e n e e d s o f e x i s t i n g c o -o p e r a t i v e s r a t h e r t h a n e x p a n d i n g c o o p e r a t i o n , i t i s r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t 73 p e r s o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n f o r m i n g h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s , e i t h e r p e r s o n a l -l y o r o n b e h a l f o f m e m b e r s i n a n o r g a n i z a t i o n ( f o r e x a m p l e , l a b o u r u n i o n s ) , o r g a n i z e c o m m i t t e e s w h i c h w o u l d e l e c t a m e m b e r t o t h e U H F b o a r d . T h i s p e r s o n w o u l d b e a v o t i n g d i r e c t o r a n d o n e o f t h e 15 m e n t i o n e d u n d e r p o i n t (2) a b o v e , n o t s o m e o n e i n a d d i t i o n . 5) T h e c o m m i t t e e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e U H F B o a r d s h o u l d b e r e v i s e d . T h e c o m m i t t e e c h a i r p e r s o n c o u l d b e a B o a r d m e m b e r , b u t a l l o t h e r c o m -m i t t e e m e m b e r s s h o u l d b e d r a w n f r o m U H F m e m b e r c o o p e r a t i v e s . T h e w o r k l o a d s h o u l d b e s h a r e d . T h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y i n m a n y o r g a n i a -a t i o n s , l i k e U H F , f o r a s m a l l e n t h u s i a s t i c g r o u p t o d o a l l t h e w o r k . T h i s n o t o n l y o v e r l o a d s t h o s e p e o p l e , b u t t e n d s t o i n h i b i t o t h e r s f r o m j o i n i n g i n . F u n c t i o n s 6 ) U H F s h o u l d a c c e p t a d u a l r o l e c o n c e p t : a c e n t r a l v o i c e f o r c o o p e r a t i v e s a n d a n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s o u r c e g r o u p . U H F m u s t a c c e p t a s i t s p r i m a r y r o l e t h e o r g a n i z a -t i o n a n d e d u c a t i o n o f p e o p l e : U H F s h o u l d f o c u s o n " d e v e l o p i n g p e o p l e " r a t h e r t h a n " d e v e l o p i n g h o u s i n g " a n d s h o u l d d e v e l o p a n a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y v i s a v i s t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s . 7) T h e p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f u n c t i o n o f U H F h a s b e e n i g n o r e d . U H F s h o u l d p u b l i c i z e i t s a c t i v i t i e s a n d g o a l s t o c l e a r u p m i s -u n d e r s t a n d i n g s t h a t e x i s t a b o u t t h e F o u n d a t i o n a n d t o g a t h e r s u p -p o r t f o r i t s a c t i o n s . 8) U H F s h o u l d n o t p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s " i n h o u s e " a s t h e y r e p r e s e n t a d u p l i c a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e e l s e w h e r e . U H F s h o u l d d e v e l o p a r e f e r e n c e c a p a b i l i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s e l e c t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s , m a n a g e m e n t , a n d o t h e r t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s . 7k Funding 9 ) UHF should be 1 0 0 % responsible to i t s democratic cooper-ative base and thus must be independent of government funding. Cooperatives, i f they want the continuation of UHF, w i l l have to support the organization financially. This w i l l mean raising mem-bership fees and introducing a more active scheme of fund raising. Responsibility 1 0 ) Cooperatives must accept the responsibility for UHF and the fate of the cooperative movement. Completed cooperatives must recognize their responsibility to help new cooperatives and thus should support UHF after completion. Cooperatives must recognize that UHF i s their organization. Lessons for Other Groups The story of UHF i s an interesting one in i t s own right, but the purpose for t e l l i n g the tale is to draw from i t lessons for future cooperative resource groups. The most important lessons are: 1) Avoid direct government funding, with the possible ex-ception of CMHC's Community Resource Organization program in the starting period. The inevitable ties of long term government sup-port w i l l distort the resource groups goals and weaken the a b i l i t y of the movement to support i t s e l f . 2) Recognize the division between cooperatives as a product and cooperatives as a process. This dual nature i s a very real stumbling block: do not dismiss i t l i g h t l y . Recognize the variation that exists and realize that accommodation of the f u l l 7 5 r ange o f p h i l o s o p h i e s may be an i m p o s s i b l e , e n e r g y - w a s t i n g t a s k . 3) The re a r e many s e r v i c e s a c o o p e r a t i v e r e s o u r c e g r oup m i gh t o f f e r ; t h e r e a r e many t h a t w i l l be demanded by c o o p e r a t i v e s . The e x p e r i e n c e o f UHF has shown t h a t one g r oup c anno t p r o v i d e a l l t h e s e s e r v i c e s w i t h o u t becoming a ma s s i v e b u r e a u c r a c y . T h e r e a r e two i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s w h i c h a r e s o u r c e g r oup s u ch as UHF m igh t c a r r y o u t . The f i r s t i s t he " c e n t r a l v o i c e o f c o o p e r a t i v e s " — l o b b y i n g , e d u c a t i n g , o r g a n i z i n g , and g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g on b e h a l f o f c o o p e r a t i v e s . The second f u n c t i o n i s t he f a c i l i t a t i o n o f t he deve l opmen t o f c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g t h r o u g h t he o r g a i z a t i o n o f p e o p l e , t he m o b i l i z a t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e , and the p r o v i s i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and m a n a g e r i a l s e r v i c e s . UHF a t t e m p t e d t o c a r r y ou t b o t h o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n s , bu t i t i s c o n -c e i v a b l e t h a t two o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o u l d e x i s t , one f o r each f u n c t i o n . Two o r g a n i z a t i o n s makes sense i n a s much as i t s p l i t s t he d u a l n a t u r e o f c o o p e r a t i v e s i n t o i t s component p a r t s — one d e a l i n g w i t h the b u s i n e s s a s p e c t s o f h o u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s , t h e o t h e r a c t i n g as t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f t he s o c i a l movement. The ma in d rawback t o two r o g a n i z a t i o n s i s t he p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t o v e r t i m e , t he t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s m igh t be a b s o r b ed by gove rnmen t . T h i s c o u l d r e s u l t i n a gap be tween t he needs o f the c o o p e r a t i v e move-ment and the a b i l i t y o f t he a d m i n i s t r a t i v e / t e c h n i c a l g roup t o r e s pond s e n s i t i v e l y t o t ho se n e e d s . The v a l u e o f u n i t i n g t h e f u n c t i o n s i n one o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t he i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r consumer c o n t r o l o f s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n . The t r a d e o f f i s d i f f i c u l t ; i t i s t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t two , o r s e v e r a l , r e s o u r c e g r oups p r o v i d e more b e n e f i t s t o 76 cooperators than one single group trying to accommodate within i t every type of need and philosophy that exists in the cooperative movement. Summary The United Housing Foundation was a major contributor to the f i e l d of cooperative housing in this province. Its success i s the envy of the cooperative movement in other provinces. Cooperators from Manitoba and Ontario have studied UHF to see how they can duplicate i t s achievements. The failure of UHF was essentially unavoidable: UHF had no model to follow, no guide to the p i t f a l l s . The UHF experience i s now, however, the guide for future groups. we cannot know yet how deep the divisions in the B.C. cooper-ative movement are. we do know that they went deep enough to let UHF go under. What remains to be seen i s whether cooperators w i l l survive the scars of UHF and work once again cooperatively to build a representative resource group. The alternative i s that housing cooperatives w i l l return to an insignificant position in the B.C. housing market producing ten, perhaps f i f t y units per year. It would be a sad comparison to the exciting achievements of the past three years. It i s now the task of dedicated cooperators to put aside their differences and rise above the UHF experience to go about the d i f f i c u l t task of rebuilding the B.C. cooperative housing movement. 77 LITERATURE CITED Books and Reports Haire, Christopher. In Want of a Policy, A survey of the needs  of non-profit housing companies and cooperative  housing societies. Canadian Council on Social Development, Ottawa, 1975. International Labour Office. Housing Cooperatives. Geneva, 1964. Koenig, John F. Alternative Forms of Housing. The Real'.Estate Board of Greater Vancouver. September, 1975. L i b l i t , Jerome. Housing — the Cooperative Way. Twayne Pub-lishers, New York, 1964. P i l l , J u r i . Mimeographs, Letters, and other unpublished material. Davidson, J i l l . Highlights of User-Satisfaction Study.(undated) 1975. de Chazal, Phillippe. Report to the Board of Directors. May 1 3 , 1975. Department of Housing. Report to the Honourable Lome Nicolson, Minister of Housing, by Review Committee on United  Housing Foundation. June 6 , 1975. Laidlaw, Alex. In B.C. They're a Movement. 1974. Questions About Cooperative Housing, Opening remarks. Workshop on cooperative housing, Canadian Conference on Social Welfare, Laval University, Quebec. 1972. Cooperative Housing Commentary. 1967. Letter to UHF from Lome Nicolson, Minister of Housing, April 1 5 , 1975. Memo to Board of Directors from Schmid on behalf of the Ad Hoc Contract Review Committee, March 6 , 1975. Memo to Shirley Schmid and the Review Committee, from the Coordinating Staff, May 3 0 , 1975. Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors of UHF, December 1 2 , 1 972. 78 S i m p s o n , T o m . U n t i t l e d a n d u n d a t e d p a p e r o n t h e U H F c o n t r a c t . U H F . R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i t t e e o n t h e I m a g e o f U H F . 1975. U H F . U H F H i s t o r y , P a r t I I . ( u n d a t e d ) 1975a. 7 9 A P P E N D I X 1 M E T H O D O L O G Y T h i s r e s e a r c h w a s n o t a n e x e r c i s e i n t h e o r y - b u i l d i n g . I t s p u r p o s e w a s n o t t o d e v e l o p n e w c o m p r e h e n s i v e m e t h o d o l o g i e s , b u t t o t h o r o u g h l y e x a m i n e a c a s e s t u d y b y w h a t e v e r m e a n s p r o d u c e d r e -s u l t s . T h u s , m e t h o d o l o g y i s a c c o r d i n g l y r e l e g a t e d t o a n a p p e n d i x a s i t i s s e c o n d a r y t o t h e s u b s t a n t i v e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . . . . t h e o b v i o u s p r o b l e m i n a l l o p i n i o n r e s e a r c h i s s h o u l d o n e i n v e s t i g a t e w h a t p e o p l e t h i n k o r w h a t t h e y d o ? T h e a n s w e r i s , c l e a r l y , t h a t o n e m u s t d o b o t h . ( P i l l , 1 9 , . ) T h e q u o t e b y P i l l s u m s u p t h e d i l e m m a f a c i n g t h e r e s e a r c h e r a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s t u d y . T h e m e t h o d o l o g y f i n a l l y e m p l o y e d w a s n o t w o r k e d o u t i n d e t a i l p r i o r t o u n d e r t a k i n g t h e r e s e a r c h ; r a t h e r , i t e v o l v e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u r s e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . C o m -m e n c i n g w i t h n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e U H F B o a r d o f D i r -e c t o r s , t h e m e t h o d s d e v e l o p e d t o e n c o m p a s s p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s , t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w s , m a i l - b a c k q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , a n d f i n a l l y e v e n p a r t i c i p a n t t e c h n i q u e s s u c h a s d i r e c t p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d f e e d b a c k s e s s i o n s a t t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e U H F B o a r d . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e -t w e e n t h e r e s e a r c h e r a n d t h o s e s t u d i e d w a s a c r i t i c a l p a r t o f t h e m e t h o d o l o g y . B e g i n n i n g a s s t r i c t l y a s t u d e n t / s u b j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p , o v e r t h e y e a r t h e r e s e r v a t i o n s m e l t e d a w a y a n d t h e r e s e a r c h e r c a m e t o f e e l l i k e a p a r t o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , s p e a k i n g o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n a s " w e " a n d B o a r d m e m b e r s c a m e t o v i e w h e r a s s i m p l y a n o t h e r m e m -b e r o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n v i t i n g h e r a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n 80 s e m i n a r s a n d m e e t i n g s . T h e c e n t r a l e l e m e n t o f t h e m e t h o d o l o g y w a s , o f c o u r s e , t h e u s e o f a c a s e s t u d y . A s u r v e y o f c o o p e r a t i v e r e s o u r c e g r o u p s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a a n d E u r o p e c o u l d h a v e b e e n c o n d u c t e d f o r t h e s a m e p u r p o s e — t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e n e e d s o f c o o p e r a t i v e r e s o u r c e g r o u p s — b u t t h e d y n a m i c s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e u n f o l d i n g U H F s i t u a t i o n w o u l d h a v e b e e n w a s t e d . A t t h e c o m m e n c e o f t h e r e s e a r c h U H F w a s a l r e a d y q u i t e a w a r e o f i t s d i l e m m a , H a i r e * s s t u d y h a d j u s t b e e n p u b l i s h e d a n d t h e p r o c e s s o f s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n w a s t e n t a t i v e l y u n d e r w a y . T h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s a n d t o l e a r n f r o m t h e m p r e s e n t e d i t s e l f a t t h e r i g h t t i m e . T h e r e s e a r c h e r d e -c i d e d i t w a s a n e x c i t i n g w a y t o a p p r o a c h t h e p r o b l e m . T h e p a r t i c u l a r t e c h n i q u e s o f t h e m e t h o d o l o g y d e s e r v e f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n . I n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r t h e m e t h o d s e m p l o y e d w e r e : 1 ) D i r e c t i n t e r v i e w s w i t h m e m b e r s o f t h e U H F B o a r d o f D i r -e c t o r s w e r e c o n d u c t e d e a r l y i n t h e s t u d y . E a c h b o a r d m e m b e r w a s a s k e d t o c o m m e n t o n ( i ) w h y h e o r s h e b e c a m e i n v o l v e d i n U H F a n d w i t h c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g , ( i i ) w h a t t h e r o l e o f U H F s h o u l d b e a n d w h o t h e c l i e n t s w e r e , ( i i i ) t h e i s s u e s o f d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n U H F a n d t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s , ( i v ) t h e i r o p i n i o n o n $ h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l r e v i e w , ( v ) t h e r o l e o f t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s . E a c h i n t e r v i e w t o o k a b o u t o n e h o u r a n d w a s u n s t r u c t u r e d , a s i d e f r o m t h e s e f i v e s u b j e c t a r e a s , s o t h a t d i s c u s s i o n c o u l d f o c u s o n t h e i s s u e s o f c o n c e r n t o e a c h b o a r d m e m b e r . M u c h b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n l e a d i n g t o h y p o t h e s e s f o r m u l a t i o n w a s g a t h e r e d a t t h i s s t a g e . 2) I n J u l y , t h e r e s e a r c h e r w a s a s k e d t o p r e s e n t t o t h e B o a r d s o m e c o m m e n t s o n h e r f i n d i n g s t o d a t e . F r o m t h i s e v o l v e d t h e 81 role survey. Dichotomy pairs were formulated and scaled (see Chapter IV) in an attempt to structure the many issues surround-ing the question of UHF's role. The completed questionnaires were analysed in a very simple manner. The responses of each member were plotted on a master sheet and groupings of responses were identified by eye. The clustering of responses is indicated by the cross-hatched areas on each of Figures 1 , 2, 3, and i+. The length of the cross-hatching shows the range of opinion — the longer the cross-hatching, the wider the difference of opinion of the UHF Board. 3) After Whaley's unsuccessful attempt to unseat Schmid, a committee was formed to investigate the image of UHF held by cooperatives, and others dealing with the Foundation. The author was part of the committee. A schedule of twelve questions was de-veloped and pretested. The questions were designed to gather in-formation about what the contacts knew about UHF, what they felt the Foundation's strengths and weaknesses were, and what changes they thought were desirable. All interviews were conducted by telephone. Approximately a dozen organizations were assigned to each committee member. The committee believed that the 23 housing cooperative board representatives contacted were representative of Greater Vancouver cooperatives. Three of the groups contacted were both members of UHF and under contract to UHF, eight were members not under contract, eight were under contract but not members, and four were neither members nor under contract. Of the non-cooperative groups contacted, four were government agencies, 8j? six were architectural firms, and one was a construction company. if) A complete review of UHF records including past Board minutes and special reports was crried out in conjunction with observation of UHF a c t i v i t i e s . The history was pieced together from these records. 5) It goes without saying that much valuable information was gathered in informal conversation with many individuals i n -volving in the local cooperative movement. 83 A P P E N D I X 2  THE AMENDMENTS TO THE NATIONAL HOUSING ACT Initial indications are that many readers ars not yet fully familiar with the amendments to the National Housing Act. The House of Commons Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Social Affairs made several changes before final reading of the bill, and still other changes were made on the floor of the House just prior to approval. The following summarizes those amendments especially relevant to new opportunities for assistance available to home-owners and to citizen-initiated endeavors. The editors are especially grateful to A . F. Laidlaw, consultant on co-operative housing to C M H C , for his summary of changes affecting co-operative societies. 1) With the latest amendments, the main features of the act with respect to co-operative housing are these: • Assistance to both building co-operatives for the con-struction of houses to be individually owned by the mem-bers, and housing co-operatives for continuing group ownership of housing is available. • Housing co-operatives will be able to organize as either non-profit companies (par value) or as companies permitting equity build-up. They may either build new housing or acquire existing housing. • The non-profit co-ops will be eligible for 100 per cent loans, preferable interest rates, contributions (capital grants) up to 10 per cent of cost, and "start-up funds" where necessary. • The non-profit co-ops, in cases where the province agrees to share the cost with the federal government, will also be eligible to receive the rent-to-income subsidies previously only available for public housing for all or a proportion of their membership in a project. • Assistance available under the N H A to individuals of low income, e.g., in the assisted home ownership program, will be available to groups organized in co-operatives. • For a co-operative project in which the members will not be of low income, loans may be made by approved lenders under the ordinary conditions of Part I of the National Housing Act; or where loans are not available from approved lenders, application may be made for a direct loan as provided in Section 58 of the act. In both cases, applications may be made for new or existing housing. • In cases where non-profit co-op groups with low-income members acquire existing housing, they may also be eligible for rehabilitation grants, and under certain con-ditions grants for conversion, according to an income schedule set forth in the regulations to the N H A . 2) Rental housing projects undertaken by non-profit groups and municipal agencies may be eligible for the following: • 100 per cent loans at the preferential rate; • Contributions (capital grants) up to ilO per cent of cost; • Up to $10,000 start-up funds; • Where existing housing is acquired, rehabilitation grants, and under certain conditions grants for conversions, according to an income schedule set forth in the regulations to the N H A ; • Where the province agrees to share the cost, rent-to-income subsidies such as those previously only available to public housing tenants. 3) The old urban renewal program is replaced by the Neighborhood Improvement Program, which authorizes C M H C to enter into an agreement with a province for improving the amenities of neighborhoods and housing and living conditions. The federal government may pay 50 per cent of the following: • Selecting the neighborhood and formulating and select-ing plans; • Acquiring or clearing land for open space or com-munity facilities in the neighborhood; • Acquiring or clearing land for low- or medium-density housing for low- and moderate-income individuals and families; • Constructing, acquiring and improving neighborhood recreation or social facilities; • Developing occupancy and building maintenance standards and systems to enforce such systems; • Making loans to neighborhood commercial systems; • Relocating individuals and families; • Staff for project exposition and implementation. They may pay 25 per cent of the following: • Improving public and municipal utility services; • Acquiring or clearing non-conforming structures and land; • Residential buildings outside of neighborhood im-provement areas that do not meet minimum housing standards; • Acquiring or clearing non-conforming structures or land in residential areas outside neighborhood improvement areas where the land will be used afterward for housing or recreation or social facilities. 4) A new program for residential rehabilitation is estab-lished under which the federal government may make loans to the owner of a family housing unit in the follow-ing circumstances: • The unit is located in a neighborhood improvement area, or In any other area which a province designates as eligible and where the federal government concurs; • Private landlords enter into a rental agreement with C M H C in which the income of the tenant will be considered; • The owner is a non-profit corporation, a non-profit co-op or a municipal agency (these organizations will also be eligible for loans for undertaking conversions of struc-tures under certain conditions). The federal government may make loans for hostel or dormitory accommodation where the owner is a non-profit corporation, a non-profit co-op or a municipal agency. The federal government may convert rehabilitation loans into grants according to an income schedule and over a period of time approved by the government. This is the operative feature which will permit the program to serve low-income families and individuals. 5) The existence of an assisted home ownership program for low-income families is formally acknowledged by the new legislation. C M H C may: • Make a loan to either a low (or moderate) income individual or a co-operative for the construction of a new unit or the acquisition of an existing one; • Make contributions towards the repayment of the loan (principal), payment of interest or towards the pay-ment of municipal taxes, according to an income schedule set forth in the regulations to the N H A . 6) The research and grants section of the act is amended to provide the following: • Start-up funds up to $10,000 to any person (individuals or groups) wishing to undertake a low-income project under any section towards which C M H C may make contributions; • Projects of a demonstration or experimental nature; • Grants to underwrite the sale of equipment or com-ponents for installation or use in housing. 7) C M H C may make a contribution to an individual to complete a house which has been purchased prior to com-pletion where the builder leaves it unfinished. 8) In addition, the amendments provide additional assis-tance to provinces, municipalities and public housing agencies to enable them to engage in land assembly, and loans to provinces to enable them to acquire land for new communities. Source s H o u s i n g a n d P e o p l e , S u m m e r 1 9 7 3 

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