Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Fraser River flood control programme : how decisions get made Cousineau, John Glen 1976

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1976_A8 C68_8.pdf [ 4.2MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0093923.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0093923-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0093923-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0093923-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0093923-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0093923-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0093923-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0093923-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0093923.ris

Full Text

THE FRASER RIVER FLOOD CONTROL PROGRAMME: HOW DECISIONS G E T MADE  BY  JOHN GLEN COUSINEAU B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in the Department of P o l i t i c a l Science  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1976  §)  John  Glen  Cousineou,  1976  i  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y and this  study.  I further  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of.  t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my  Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood that  or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n w i t h o u t by w r i t t e n  permission.  Department o f P o l i t i c a l  Science  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  A p r i l 29, 1976  copying  s h a l l not beaallowed  ii  ABSTRACT  There e x i s t s a f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l programme f o r p r o v i d i n g f l o o d p r o t e c t i o n i n the Lower Eraser of  the procedures  Valley.  An examination  i s made  f o r d e c i d i n g upon a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n d i v i d u a l  p r o j e c t s i n c l u d e d i n t h e Programme and an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f when, the way, and the extent  t o which a s s o c i a t e d i n t e r e s t s become i n v o l v e d  i n p r o j e c t d e c i s i o n s i s made.  The methodology i n v o l v e s t h r e e s t e p s . to  d e f i n e the procedures  f o l l o w e d by the a d m i n i s t e r i n g agencies o f  the Programme and i d e n t i f y become i n v o l v e d .  in  the stages  d u r i n g which a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s  The second s t e p i s t o ' i d e n t i f y  happen as these procedures  The f i r s t s t e p i s  are followed.  the t h i n g s which  I n t e r v i e w s w i t h key  the p r o v i s i o n system p r o v i d e the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d .  s t e p i s t o note p a r t i c u l a r case study o'faagency i n t e r a c t i o n  The  examples i n which c e r t a i n  o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t involvement  the d e c i s i o n s which a r e made.  Advocate  do not p l a y a prominent r o l e i n  The accommodation o f c o n d i t i o n a l l y  s u p p o r t i v e i n t e r e s t s has g e n e r a l l y not been d i f f i c u l t .  to  patterns  of a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s i s  f l o o d p r o t e c t i o n has been made.  ( o u t s i d e the l e a d agencies)  a t i o n of competitive  The t h i r d  occurred.  a f t e r a commitmenttto p r o v i d e interests  officials  i n t e r e s t s i s more d i f f i c u l t .  The accommod-  When the l o s s e s  be imposed upon a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s i n g e n e r a l , and c o m p e t i t i v e  i n t e r e s t s i n p a r t i c u l a r , a r e h i g h , e x t e n s i v e n e g o t i a t i o n s take i n s e a r c h o f an e q u i t a b l e compromise s o l u t i o n .  place  The  adjustments made to accommodate a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s  are o f t e n made a t a s u b s t a n t i a l a d d i t i o n a l c o s t t o the Programme. That these a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s may exceed the o r i g i n a l assessment o f b e n e f i t s suggests a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s s h o u l d become i n v o l v e d a t an e a r l i e r stage when commitments to p r o v i d e p r o t e c t i o n a r e made on the b a s i s o f the a s s o c i a t e d b e n e f i t s and c o s t s .  Approved:  TABLE OF CONTENTS £age L i s t of Figures CHAPTER ONE:  i i i  INTRODUCTION  1  The Problem  1  The Approach o f t h e Study  8  CHAPTER TWO:  THEORY AND METHODOLOGY  11  A C o n c e p t u a l Framework  11  Methodology  16  CHAPTER THREE:  THE FORMAL PROCEDURES  23  The Three Stages  23  The P r e l i m i n a r y P l a n n i n g The Advanced P l a n n i n g  Stage  23  Stage  27  The C o n s t r u c t i o n Stage CHAPTER FOUR:  29  THE PROVISION SYSTEM  . . . .  33  A f f e c t e d I n t e r e s t s and P a r t i c i p a t i n g A g e n c i e s . .  33  The P r e l i m i n a r y P l a n n i n g  Stage  36  —the  c o s t assessment  36  —the  b e n e f i t assessment  37  The Advanced P l a n n i n g  Stage  — t r a d e - o f f s a t the working l e v e l — t r a d e - o f f s a t other l e v e l s The C o n s t r u c t i o n Stage CHAPTER FIVE:  THE CASE STUDIES  The Involvement of Advocate I n t e r e s t s The Involvement o f C o n d i t i o n a l l y S u p p o r t i v e  38 . . .  38 41 43 46 46  Interests . . . 47  V  CHAPTER FIVE:  THE CASE STUDIES (cont'd)  The Involvement 1.  2.  CHAPTER SIX:  of Competitive I n t e r e s t s  . . . . .  R e l a t i v e l y Simple Adjustments  . . . .  49 49  a.  S o l u t i o n by Compromise  49  b.  S o l u t i o n by C o n c e s s i o n  51  Complex B a r g a i n i n g  54  a.  Tilbury Island  54  b.  Brunswick P o i n t  .  60  c.  Boundary Bay  .  63  d.  Roberts Bank  CONCLUDING  • 65  OBSERVATIONS  Conclusions  69  F u r t h e r Research and I n v e s t i g a t i o n s  . .  71  APPENDIX A:  THE FRASER RIVER FLOOD CONTROL AGREEMENT  73  APPENDIX B:  THE QUESTIONNAIRE  80  APPENDIX C:  LOCATION OF THE CASE STUDIES  84  APPENDIX D:  THE RESPONDENTS  89  BIBLIOGRAPHY  . .  92  vi  LIST OF FIGURES page FIGURE 1:  The Formal Procedures f o r D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g . .  24  FIGURE 2:  E x i s t i n g Alignment a t O l i v e r  52  FIGURE 3:  E x i s t i n g Alignment a t Ewen Slough . . . . . .  53  FIGURE 4:  E x i s t i n g Alignment a t T i l b u r y  . . . .  55  FIGURE 5:  E x i s t i n g Alignment a t Brunswick P o i n t  . . . .  60  Slough  Slough  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  T h i s study has been a never  s u f f i c i e n t l y express my  'team e f f o r t ' .  Words a l o n e  s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n to P r o f e s s o r  I r v i n g K. Fox whose academic i n s i g h t s and p a t i e n t guidance made t h i s s t u d y — i n d e e d A d d i t i o n a l l y , thanks and encouraging been o u r s .  comments.  I t was  experience  this degree—a  are due  I will  to Ken  The  most rewarding  of  the B.C.  have  experience.  P e t e r s o n f o r h i s many t h o u g h t f u l  degree may  be mine, b u t the work has  a team I have enjoyed b e i n g a p a r t of and  an  always c h e r i s h .  Many o f f i c i a l s p r o v i d e d the i n f o r m a t i o n on which study i s b a s e d .  will  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  this  I wish t o thank Mr. Angus MacPherson  Water Resources S e r v i c e , and Mr.  John P r e s t o n of E n v i r -  onment Canada f o r h a v i n g g i v e n so f r e e l y o f t h e i r  time.  P r o f e s s o r s P a u l Tennant and K e i t h B a n t i n g o f f e r e d v a l u a b l e c r i t i c i s m s of t h i s work.  Their efforts  to completion are g r a t e f u l l y Finally,  I wish  i n seeing this t h e s i s  through  acknowledged.  to thank Miss O r l a Murphy, my  b r o t h e r Wayne,  and M i s s Susan Hargreaves f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n p r e p a r i n g the d r a f t s o f t h i s work. been  met.  final  Without t h e i r h e l p , d e a d l i n e s would never have  CHAPTER  ONE  Introduction  T h i s study d e f i n e s the ways i n which d e c i s i o n s get made i n the F r a s e r R i v e r F l o o d C o n t r o l Programme. based on data o b t a i n e d  by i n t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w i n g o f members o f the  decision-making process of government.  The d e s c r i p t i o n p r o v i d e d i s  a t t h e f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and m u n i c i p a l  In t h i s f i r s t  chapter,  level  a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f the f l o o d  c o n t r o l problem i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y w i l l be p r e s e n t e d  and the r e s u l t i n  Programme w i l l be d e s c r i b e d . The  Problem The  F r a s e r i s a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r i v e r , d r a i n i n g a 90,000  square m i l e b a s i n which o c c u p i e s h a l f o f B r i t i s h Columbia. drains a quarter roughly  the g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f the southern  In a l l ,  i t s t r e t c h e s some 850 m i l e s and  o f the P r o v i n c e .  The average flow of the r i v e r i s  96,000 c u b i c f e e t p e r second  below 28,000 c.f.s."'"  ( c . f . s . ) and a n n u a l l y  The maximum r e c o r d e d  flow occurred  drops to  d u r i n g the  2 1894 f l o o d and has been estimated  a t 620,000 c . f . s .  Seasonal f l u c t u a -  t i o n s i n c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s account f o r t h e - f l u c t u a t i n g d i s c h a r g e levels.  Certain physical factors affect  spring freshet:  the amount o f m o i s t u r e i n the s o i l b e f o r e  pack b e g i n s t o melt; the water e q u i v a l e n t the e x t e n t  the magnitude o f the annual the snow-  of the accumulated snow-pack;  t o which f r e e z i n g temperatures extend i n t o t h e s p r i n g ; and  the amount o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n d u r i n g  the p e r i o d o f m e l t i n g  i n the s p r i n g .  A l t h o u g h the s p r i n g f r e s h e t s a r e the primary concern i n c o n t r o l l i n g f l o o d s i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y , w i n t e r o f f s o f t e n causing  storms can a l s o produce heavy r u n 3 f l o o d s and e r o s i o n .  2  W i t h i n the F r a s e r R i v e r b a s i n , the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y i s the p r i n c i p a l a r e a t h r e a t e n e d by f l o o d damage. extends approximately c o n t a i n i n g i n excess  The Lower V a l l e y  100 m i l e s from Hope to the S t r a i t of of 175,000 a c r e s of f l o o d p l a i n .  At  Georgia present,  w e l l over h a l f of B r i t i s h Columbia's p o p u l a t i o n , much of i t s f i n e s t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , and c o n c e n t r a t e d here.  a good p r o t i o n of i t s manufacturing  are  The p o t e n t i a l d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t s of any f l o o d i n g  are c o n s i d e r a b l e as evidenced  i n p a r t by the f l o o d of  Records i n d i c a t e t h a t , w i t h i n the l a s t s p r i n g d i s c h a r g e s have caused  1948.  100 y e a r s , heavy  severe damage on a number of o c c a s i o n s  4 i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . l a r g e s t on r e c o r d , caused of the 1948  The  f l o o d of 1948,  a r e c o r d amount of damage.  the  At the  time  s p r i n g f r e s h e t , t h e r e e x i s t e d a s e r i e s of dykes i n the  Lower V a l l e y which had been developed grew.  w h i l e not  as the need f o r l a n d p r o t e c t i o n  Of the twenty p r i v a t e l y owned and  t h a t e x i s t e d at the time, some had  dyking  p o o r l y maintained  were plagued w i t h f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . d y k i n g d i s t r i c t s were breached  operated  districts  s t r u c t u r e s and  Over a dozen of  b e f o r e the waters receded.  these Over  55,000 a c r e s of l a n d were f l o o d e d to depthsrrof-fupptoctwenty-five f e e t subsequently two  damaging or d e s t r o y i n g over 2,000 houses.  t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y l i n e s l i n k i n g Vancouver w i t h the r e s t  Canada were severed by the f l o o d waters. way  The  was  innundated.  The  of  Trans-Canada h i g h -  Urban areas such as A g g a s i z , Rosedale,  and  p a r t s o f M i s s i o n were f l o o d e d c a u s i n g s e v e r a l i n d u s t r i e s to h a l t or 5 6 reduce p r o d u c t i o n . Damages were e s t i m a t e d to exceed $17.5 m i l l i o n .  3  In responding by the 1948  to the need f o r f l o o d p r o t e c t i o n made apparent  f l o o d , the f e d e r a l and  t h a t same year  to e s t a b l i s h the  R i v e r B a s i n ' to study and  'Dominion-Provincial  Between 1949  and  1954,  and  requirements  the  Board  i n an i n v e s t i g a t i v e c a p a c i t y c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n  from e x i s t i n g r e c o r d s .  In 1955,  the Board was  later  Board—Fraser  r e p o r t on the water r e s o u r c e s  of the F r a s e r R i v e r watershed.^ operated  p r o v i n c i a l governments agreed  r e p l a c e d by  missing  the  Fraser  R i v e r Board whose more s p e c i f i c terms o f r e f e r e n c e c a l l e d f o r the determination resources  o f "what development and  c o n t r o l of water and  of the F r a s e r R i v e r B a s i n would be a d v i s a b l e and  p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect In 1963, presented  to f l o o d c o n t r o l and  incidental feasible,  h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power."  the f i n a l r e p o r t o f t h i s F r a s e r R i v e r Board  to the two  l e v e l s of government.  I t s recommendations  f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of $400 m i l l i o n worth of upstream s t o r a g e and  an a d d i t i o n a l $4.9  was called projects  m i l l i o n worth o f dyke improvements from A g g a s i z  to the S t r a i t o f G e o r g a i  a l o n g the Lower F r a s e r .  These dyke improve-  ments were recommended as a means o f augmenting the c a p a c i t y o f proposed upstream works to c o n t r o l f l o o d f l o w s . works to be  constructed  to be a b l e to w i t h s t a n d  the  It called for a l l another f l o o d of  the  1948-magnitude. In 1966,  a f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l committee was  the purpose of r e v i e w i n g and  to e s t i m a t e  facilities,  any  estimated  established for  expenses f o r dyke r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  f u r t h e r requirements such as i n t e r n a l  bank p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t e r o s i o n , and  committee recommended the e x p e n d i t u r e  drainage  sea dykes.  This  o f $33 m i l l i o n on a p l a n of  flood  4  plain protection, awareness and the two  "On  the b a s i s of t h i s r e p o r t , and  continuing  concern over the e v e r ^ i n c r e a s i n g need f o r f l o o d p r o t e c t i o n ,  governments i n May  o f 1968  agreed to a c o o p e r a t i v e  of works i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y and p r o j e c t s n e c e s s a r y to p r o v i d e The  the  programme  a review of upstream  storage  a comprehensive p l a n of p r o t e c t i o n , "  Pro gramme ^ r o g r a ^ ^ Sections  Appendix A)  16  to 19 of the F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Agreement  p a r t i c u l a r , provided  S e c t i o n 18,  f o r the c r e a t i o n of a J o i n t A d v i s o r y  J o i n t Programme Committee, progress  (see  d e s c r i b e the m a n a g e r i a l arrangements which were e s t a b l i s h e d  to implement the F r a s e r R i v e r F l o o d C o n t r o l Programme,  The  Board was  Board and  e s t a b l i s h e d to evaluate  of the Programme, recommend an annual budget to the two  l e v e l s of government i n accordance w i t h  i t s plans  g e n e r a l l y oversee the implementation of the Agreement.  was  e s t a b l i s h e d to c a r r y out j o i n t p l a n n i n g  p r o j e c t s f o r approval  toothe  a c t i v i t i e s associated with  J o i n t Advisory  and  Sections  p r o v i n c i a l governments share f i f t y p e r c e n t  c a p i t a l costs with  20  to  of  the  share of the c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s f o r works w i t h i n t h e i r  municipal  ten p e r c e n t  governments p a y i n g  'equitable share  1  was  Committee  the  equitable  This  year  23  an  boundaries.  the m u n i c i p a l  senior  coordinate  o u t l i n e the c o s t - s h a r i n g formula of the Programme i n which f e d e r a l and  a  s t u d i e s , recommend  Board, and  approved p r o j e c t s .  The  in  the  f o r a forthcoming  and  subsequently d e f i n e d  as  of the c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s .  There have been two major changes t o t h e s e i n i t i a l of the Agreement. and  9  To reduce p r o c e d u r a l  thus the Programme c o s t s , i t was  provisions  d u p l i c a t i o n i n the Programme,  decided  by  the J o i n t  Advisory  5  Board to disband  the J o i n t Programme Committee i n 1972.  i t was  found t h a t some of the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s were unable to meet share of the c o s t s and  a d e c i s i o n was  to e l i m i n a t e t h i s aspect are s t i l l  responsible  of r i g h t - o f - w a y  and  subsequently made by  of the l o c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n .  the  Board  the a c q u i s i t i o n  access.  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p l a n n i n g of the Programme i s a s s i g n e d  their  The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  for a l l costs associated with  construction  also  to two  and  administrative  lead a g e n c i e s ^ — t h e  activities  Water  Invest-  i g a t i o n s Branch of the p r o v i n c i a l Department o f the Environment"'""'", and the I n l a n d Waters D i r e c t o r a t e of the f e d e r a l Department of the Each a c t s on b e h a l f of i t s l e v e l of government. cedures f o l l o w e d by  Stage, and  the P r e l i m i n a r y P l a n n i n g  the C o n s t r u c t i o n  applying area.  Stage, the Advanced  Stage, an assessment of  a s s o c i a t e d b e n e f i t s and  the  c o s t s i s made f o r an  Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s manages the assessment of the needed  work6ftand a s s o c i a t e d c o s t s . c o u l d be  pro-  Stage.  D u r i n g the P r e l i m i n a r y P l a n n i n g n e c e s s a r y works and  the  the l e a d a g e n c i e s i n p r o v i d i n g f l o o d c o n t r o l works  i n v o l v e three stages: Planning  Essentially,  Environment.  realized  I n l a n d Waters a s s e s s e s  i f the n e c e s s a r y works were  the b e n e f i t s t h a t  provided. 12  D u r i n g the Advanced P l a n n i n g  Stage, designs 13  are f i n a l i z e d i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h a g e n c i e s works.  Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s n o r m a l l y  agency i n t e r a c t i o n .  f o r each c o n t r a c t  a f f e c t e d by  the proposed  manages the r e s u l t i n g p r o c e s s  I n l a n d Waters i s i n v o l v e d at t h i s stage to see  of that  6  d e s i g n c r i t e r i a are met During  by  the designs d r a f t e d .  the C o n s t r u c t i o n Stage,  the works a r e c o n s t r u c t e d 14  under the s u p e r v i s i o n of Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s . will  Both l e a d  agencies  i n s p e c t the completed works to see t h a t d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s have  been  met. The  a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out by the l e a d a g e n c i e s  through  each of these stages a r e a l l s u b j e c t to the a p p r o v a l of the J o i n t Board, c o n s i s t i n g of t h r e e top l e v e l c i v i l the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments.  s e r v a n t s from Branches of  The members of the Board  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r budget a l l o c a t i o n s and determine the spending for  each y e a r .  Although  priorities  c o n s i d e r e d , and a p p l i e d t o the Programme.  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of f l o o d c o n t r o l works appears  to be l a r g e l y a matter of e n g i n e e r i n g d e s i g n and a r e o t h e r groups which tend to be a f f e c t e d by These groups may  or c o m p e t i t i v e i n t e r e s t  specification,  the p r o v i s i o n of  have e i t h e r an advocate, i n the Programme.  g e n e r a l l y have investments  to p r o t e c t from f l o o d s .  adequate p r o t e c t i o n of t h e i r investments.  there such  conditionally supportive,  Groups w i t h advocate  o r t i v e groups w i l l have a d d i t i o n a l d e s i g n c r i t e r i a  and  are  I t i s a t t h i s l e v e l t h a t the o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s of the  governments are expressed,  works.  Advisory  interests  C o n d i t i o n a l l y suppto advocate  Groups w i t h n o t h i n g  f o r an to g a i n  something to l o s e by the p r o v i s i o n of f l o o d c o n t r o l works w i l l  have a c o m p e t i t i v e i n t e r e s t be enhanced, and  i n the Programme.  others adversely a f f e c t e d .  Thus some i n t e r e s t s Conflicts w i l l  prove  will  7  inevitable. sloped  For  instance,  dyke to a g r a d u a l  f i s h e r i e s groups w i l l p r e f e r a s t e e p s  s l o p e bacause the former w i l l not  as much as the l a t t e r on the r i v e r bed may  provide  of f i s h and  or marshland.  These areas  spawning, r e s t i n g or f e e d i n g h a b i t a t f o r v a r i o u s thus c o u l d be a d v e r s e l y  However, the s t e e p e r  a f f e c t e d by  be  any  such encroachment.  As  areas o f p o t e n t i a l l a n d r e c l a m a t i o n  another example, for either a g r i c u l t u r a l  or i n d u s t r i a l purposes t h a t c o u l d be r e a l i z e d by v a r i o u s ments.  However, the p o t e n t i a l r e c l a m a t i o n  may  formal  arrangements p r e s c r i b e d by  s p e c i f i c a l l y recognize  i n the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . Two  r e s t i n g , or  the Agreement  do  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a v a r i e t y of groups Yet  the  theory  to be p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter  c a l l s f o r the weighing of t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n p u b l i c decisions-  making, and  casual observation  i n d i c a t e s that procedures e x i s t f o r  t a k i n g such i n t e r e s t s i n t o account,  The  to examine the procedures f o r d e c i d i n g  o b j e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s i s  upon a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r  u a l p r o j e c t s i n c l u d e d i n the Programme and and  to  habitat. The  not  dyke a l i g n -  a l s o be o f v a l u e  f i s h e r i e s and w i l d l i f e groups as a spawning, f e e d i n g , nesting  species  the s l o p e of a dyke, the l e s s p r o t e c t i o n i t  a f f o r d s to i n t e r e s t s l o c a t e d b e h i n d the dyke. there may  encroach  the extent  to which a s s o c i a t e d  d e c i s i o n s . Since aspect  ferences  are  reconciled.  to determine when, the  way,  i n t e r e s t s become i n v o l v e d i n p r o j e c t  there are c o n f l i c t i n g  of the study w i l l be  individ-  interests involved,  t h a t of d e t e r m i n i n g how  an  important  conflicting  pre-  8  TRis type of i n f o r m a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l to an e v a l u a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements.  While i t i s not the aim of the t h e s i s  p r o v i d e such an e v a l u a t i o n , i t may s h o u l d be addressed  suggest  to  some of the i s s u e s t h a t  and p r o v i d e s an e s s e n t i a l  foundation,  The Approach of the Study The F r a s e r R i v e r F l o o d C o n t r o l Programme has been p r i n c i p a l l y a c t i v e i n the Lower F r a s e r Valley.''""' T h i s study has been l i m i t e d  to  areas i n the Lower V a l l e y i n which c o n c e n t r a t e d p l a n n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n activities of  have o c c u r r e d .  particular  on case s t u d i e s  f l o o d c o n t r o l c o n t r a c t s i n these areas which,  w i t h i n t e r v i e w s conducted and  I n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be p r e s e n t e d  w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the l e a d  a f f e c t e d a g e n c i e s , w i l l p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y  the t h e s i s o b j e c t i v e s .  together agencies  data f o r a d d r e s s i n g  9  NOTES:  CHAPTER  ONE  1. see Hoos, L.M., and Packman, G.A., The F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y S t u d i e s of E n v i r o n m e n t a l Knowledge to 1974, S p e c i a l E s t u a r y S e r i e s Number 1, F i s h e r i e s and Marine S e r v i c e , P a c i f i c E n v i r o n m e n t a l I n s t i t u t e , West Vancouver, B.C., 1974, p. 49. 2. a l l the c . f . s . measures g i v e n were taken a t the Hope gauge and thus were not s u b j e c t to t i d a l f l u c t u a t i o n s . For a d e t a i l e d account, of the geography o f the F r a s e r R i v e r and i t s b a s i n , see the F i n a l Report of the F r a s e r R i v e r Board on F l o o d C o n t r o l and HydroE l e c t r i c Power i n the F r a s e r R i v e r B a s i n , V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1964, esp. pp. 7 and 18; and the P r e l i m i n a r y Report of the F r a s e r R i v e r Board on F l o o d C o n t r o l and H y d r o - E l e c t r i c Power i n the F r a s e r R i v e r B a s i n , V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1958, esp, pp. 7 and 22. 3.  see F i n a l Report, p.  35.  4. " p r i o r to the t u r n of the c e n t u r y , the f l o o d s of 1876, 1882, and 1894 reached s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n s . a n d , of these, the flows of 1894 have y e t to be exceeded." F i n a l Report, p. 35. 5.  see I b i d . , p.  36.  6. t h i s damage c o s t f i g u r e does not r e f l e c t the i n d i r e c t l o s s e s s u f f e r e d as a r e s u l t of the f l o o d . As noted i n the P r e l i m i n a r y Report, " f l o o d damage can be ' d i r e c t ' or ' i n d i r e c t ' depending on whether i t i s caused d i r e c t l y by p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t w i t h f l o o d waters or i n d i r e c t l y by i n t e r u p t i n g t r a d e and communications, The former i s m a t e r i a l l y o b v i o u s ; but the l a t t e r i s intangitbleaaridnn6tssubj:ectttq an exact f i n a n c i a l a n a l y s i s , " P r e l i m i n a r y Report, p, 47. 7. the h i s t o r i c a l account of the f l o o d c o n t r o l Boards d e a l i n g w i t h the F r a s e r R i v e r problem i s an a b b r e v i a t i o n of accounts made by the v a r i o u s government documents on the s u b j e c t . For a d e t a i l e d account of t h i s h i s t o r y , see the P r e l i m i n a r y Report, pp. 47-50; the F i n a l Report, pp. i x , x , l , 2 , 3 5 , and 36; and Schedule A of the F r a s e r R i v e r F l o o d C o n t r o l Agreement, dated May 24, 1968, pp. 1-2, 8. F i n a l Report, p, 1. For the a c t u a l terms of f o r the F r a s e r R i v e r Board, see the P r e l i m i n a r y Report, pp. 9. p.  2.  reference 1-4.  Schedule A of the F r a s e r R i v e r F l o o d C o n t r o l Agreement,  10  NOTES:  i n seeing  and  CHAPTER O N E v ( c o n t ' d )  10. they a r e l e a d a g e n c i e s i n t h a t they take t h e ' l e a d ' t h a t Programme o b j e c t i v e s a r e met.  11. formerly Water Resources.  12. I n f r a , p. 27.  there  o f the p r o v i n c i a l Department o f Lands,  are several contracts  i n each p r o j e c t .  Forests,  See  13. r e f e r e n c e i s made h e r e to b o t h governmental and non*governmental a g e n c i e s a l t h o u g h , as w i l l Be noted i n Chapters Four and F i v e , t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n i s l a r g e l y made w i t h t h e former r a t h e r than the l a t t e r . 14. s e c t i o n 17(a) o f the Agreement s p e c i f i e s t h a t " t h e P r o v i n c e . . . s h a l l Be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g approved p r o j e c t s , (and) f o r o p e r a t i o n and maintenance o f t h e p r o j e c t s , . . . " Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s thus takes on a management r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a s p e c t s of e a c h p r o j e c t . See Appendix A, p. 76. 15. the Agreement was amended i n 1974 t o . i n c l u d e the Kamloops area of the b a s i n . See Report-of^thexB.C, Water Resources S e r v i c e , V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 19.74, p. 45.  11  CHAPTER Theory and  TWO  Methodology  T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l review the l i t e r a t u r e on i n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t a l and i n t e r - a g e n c y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and  thus develop a c o n c e p t u a l  frame-  work to be a p p l i e d i n a d d r e s s i n g the c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n s o f the study. An e x p l a n a t i o n o f the methodology used i n c o n d u c t i n g the r e s e a r c h w i l l then be made. A C o n c e p t u a l Framework The c l a s s i c a l model o f decision-making"'" i s an important  first  step towards e s t a b l i s h i n g a c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r a study such as this.  The model i d e n t i f i e s  f i v e normative procedures i n the d e c i s i o n -  making p r o c e s s : (1) (2) (3) (4) C 5)  t h e r e i s some r e c o g n i t i o n o f a problem; t h e r e i s an a n a l y s i s and statement o f a l t e r n a t i v e s ; t h i s then r e q u i r e s a c h o i c e among a l t e r n a t i v e s ; t h e r e i s a communication and implementation o f the d e c i s i o n ; 2 t h e r e i s a feed-back of the r e s u l t s of the d e c i s i o n .  I t seems r e a s o n a b l e to expect these s t e p s to be f o l l o w e d i n making d e c i s i o n s about  f l o o d c o n t r o l p r o j e c t s i n c l u d e d i n the F r a s e r R i v e r  F l o o d C o n t r o l Programme. T h e o r e t i c a l and e m p e r i c a l e v i d e n c e suggests t h a t i n any c h o i c e among a l t e r n a t i v e s the i n t e r e s t s o f d e c i s i o n makers w i l l always be i n p a r t i a l c o n f l i c t .  Bross notes t h a t making a c h o i c e  i n v o l v e s the a p p l i c a t i o n of a v a l u e system 3 to the a l t e r n a t i v e s . 4 The d i f f e r i n g v a l u e frameworks o f i n t e r a c t i n g a g e n c i e s thus  explain  12  the  i n e v i t a b i l i t y of c o n f l i c t  i n a decision process.  As Downs s u g g e s t s ,  "...whenever s o c i a l agents i n t e r a c t , t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i m p e r i a l i s m s a r e bound t o c r e a t e  some c o n f l i c t s between them, a l t h o u g h t h e i r r e l a t i o n s  as a whole may be dominated by c o o p e r a t i o n . " ^ the  I t follows,  then,  that  r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t s w i l l be an important f a c t o r i n t h e o p e r a t i o n  of a p u b l i c d e c i s i o n By  process.^  i d e n t i f y i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a u t h o r i t y  i n a decision  p r o c e s s , one can suggest the ways o f r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s which might be  employed.  Lindblom suggests such d i s t r i b u t i o n s a r e l a r g e l y d i c t a t e d  by  t h e r u l e s o r laws governing b e h a v i o u r i n a d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s .  "Rules  s p e c i f y what each p a r t i c i p a n t i n p o l i c y making can and cannot do, as w e l l as what he must do, whom he must obey, and whom ( i f anyone) he can command."  7  When formal a u t h o r i t y  i s divided,  i t i s self-evident  those who share a u t h o r i t y must r e c o n c i l e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s to be taken. "rather,  One agency w i t h a u t h o r i t y  that  i f action i s  cannot d i c t a t e t o t h e o t h e r ;  i t must r e l y on the t e c h n i q u e s o f diplomacy, p e r s u a s i o n , and  consultation  i f i t i s t o m a i n t a i n . . . a n important v o i c e  i nsocial  g planning."  W i t h i n such d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f power and a u t h o r i t y ,  coercion  9 has  no p l a c e .  In the absence o f t h i s a b i l i t y t o c o e r c e , c o o p e r a t i o n  becomes a p r a c t i c a l n e c e s s i t y . The  g e n e r a l i t y o f the language used i n t h e B r i t i s h North  America A c t has meant t h a t  the authority  f o r many problems,  including  f l o o d c o n t r o l , i s shared by the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments."*"^ The  P r o v i n c e s have an involvement i n f l o o d c o n t r o l problems through  their authority  over  'property and c i v i l r i g h t s ' ' m a t t e r s  o f a merely  13  l o c a l or p r i v a t e nature', p r o p r i e t a r y r i g h t s over t h e i r boundaries."  14  12  and a g r i c u l t u r e  13  i n a d d i t i o n to t h e i r  "Crown lands and o t h e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n  The f e d e r a l government, on the o t h e r hand, appears  t o be i n v o l v e d through  i t s a u t h o r i t y over f i s h e r i e s ,  and n a v i g a t i o n , ^ and i t s i n t e r e s t  15  transportation,  16  i n the p r e v e n t i o n o f n a t i o n a l d i s -  18 asters. suggests  T h i s s h a r i n g o f a u t h o r i t y w i t h r e g a r d t o f l o o d c o n t r o l problems t h e r e a r e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l reasons  making p r o c e s s t o be d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter overlapping  f o r the d e t a i l e d j o i n t d e c i s i o n Three.  I n such s i t u a t i o n s o f  jurisdiction  " . . . p o l i c i e s can o n l y be made through the c o o p e r a t i o n o f many p a r t i c i p a n t s , each o f whom performs a t a s k t h a t i s n e c e s s a r y , but i t s e l f i n s u f f i c i e n t , t o e s t a b l i s h a p o l i c y decision. Policy-making i s a cooperative c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t , and p o l i c y a j o i n t output, beyond t h e c a p a c i t y , o f any one person o r any s m a l l group" o f those to-whome p o l i c y t a s k s are assigned."19 iHowever, c o o p e r a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y c o n s t i t u t i o n a l ones d e s c r i b e d .  f o r reasons  There a r e c o n c e i v a b l y i n s t a n c e s i n  which the l e g a l j u r i s d i c t i o n over a p a r t i c u l a r a s s i g n e d t o a s i n g l e agency.  o t h e r than the  ' r e s o u r c e ' w i l l be  In such i n s t a n c e s , the agency may have  a monopoly o f a u t h o r i t y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h a t ' r e s o u r c e ' .  In a d e c i s i o n -  making p r o c e s s w i t h such a d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y , c o e r c i o n i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y a v i a b l e and amployable means f o r a r r i v i n g a t a d e c i s i o n . The  agency w i l l be a b l e t o a f f e c t the changes i t i n t e n d s  accommodating the i n t e r e s t s o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s .  without  I t s power t o c o e r c e 20  these o t h e r agencies  i n t o a c c e p t i n g a s o l u t i o n appears c o n s i d e r a b l e .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , as a p r a c t i c a l matter, full  even when a p u b l i c agency has  l e g a l a u t h o r i t y t o take an a c t i o n , i t has a s t r o n g m o t i v a t i o n  to a c h i e v e an accommodation w i t h the o t h e r i n t e r e s t s a f f e c t e d .  The  14  political  support  i t has  f o r i t s own  programmes  Z1  may  be  undermined  22 if  i t fails  to a c h i e v e such an accommodation.  The  accommodation  of a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s i s thus a s t r a t e g i c approach to e n s u r i n g  the  a c c e p t a b i l i t y of d e c i s i o n s . In areas of o v e r l a p p i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s , such as f l o o d  control,  f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l c o o p e r a t i o n has been a means of a v o i d i n g c o n s t i t u t 23 i o n a l problems.  As one way  ments are s i g n e d and  of cooperating, f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l  agree-  the n e c e s s a r y powers are d e l e g a t e d t o a j o i n t l y 24  e s t a b l i s h e d system of a g e n c i e s . a c t i o n of competing a g e n c i e s  ASiiindicatedmothetcooperative  inter-  i n the r e s u l t i n g d e c i s i o n system may  occur  f o r p r a c t i c a l r a t h e r than j u r i s d i c t i o n a l reasons. To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s n e c e s s a r y c o o p e r a t i o n , formal  institutional  arrangements are commonly e s t a b l i s h e d i n which a v a r i e t y of i n f o r m a l 25 mutual adjustments are made. agencies  B a r g a i n i n g among the  participating  i n the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s w i l l occur because i t i s seen, f o r  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s , as " . . . n e c e s s a r y , 26 thought  to be p r o f i t a b l e . "  The  a compromise s o l u t i o n which may  p o s s i b l e , and  a c t i o n taken w i l l most o f t e n i n v o l v e  be a c h i e v e d between a g e n c i e s by  one  of two  mutual adjustment t e c h n i q u e s : n e g o t i a t i o n , or the c r e a t i o n and 27 d i s c h a r g e of o b l i g a t i o n s . By n e g o t i a t i n g , two o r more agencies w i l l attempt to r e a c h an e x p l i c i t b a s i s f o r c o o p e r a t i o n and  thus e s t a b l i s h a f o u n d a t i o n  which subsequent p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s can be made. o b l i g a t i o n s can be c r e a t e d and 29 of r e c i p r o c i t y ' . "  Lindblom  discharged  has  28  On  from  the o t h e r hand,  i n accordance  d e s c r i b e d the concept  w i t h the  'rule  as f o l l o w s :  15  " I f i n i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l n e g o t i a t i o n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y maker...concedes something to a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . . . , he can o f t e n expect a r e c i p r o c a l c o n c e s s i o n a t some l a t e r d a t e . He has s t r u c k no b a r g a i n , but he has s t o r e d up a s t o c k of good-, w i l l on which he can l a t e r draw."30  Another important (or  f a c t o r to be c o n s i d e r e d i n the  involvement  l a c k t h e r e o f ) o f a s s o c i a t e d i n t e r e s t s i n the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s .  Lindblom  has  suggested  t h a t these i n t e r e s t s w i l l become i n v o l v e d  representing agencies.  Individuals w i l l  through  form groups i n the p u r s u i t of  common i n t e r e s t s to which government agencies w i l l be s e n s i t i v e . important  i n t e r e s t or v a l u e w i l l have i t s watchdog.  "These  can p r o t e c t the i n t e r e s t s i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n i n two  'watchdogs'  quite different  ways: f i r s t , by r e d r e s s i n g damages done by o t h e r a g e n c i e s ; and, by a n t i c i p a t i n g and heading  o f f i n j u r y before i t occurs."  V a r i a t i o n s i n the v a l u e frameworks of agencies  to the same s t i m u l i .  p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e s may  32  second,  31  suggest  w i l l be v a r i a t i o n s i n the ways i n which they p e r c e i v e problems thus respond  Every  there  and  Thus, b u r e a u c r a t i c p e r c e p t i o n s o f  greatly distort  the image t h a t c o u l d be  obtained  33 i f a d d i t i o n a l i n p u t were c o n s i d e r e d . it  As Dorcey and  Fox have  suggested,  i s t h e r e f o r e u n l i k e l y t h a t adequate i n f o r m a t i o n about a v a i l a b l e  p o l i c y c h o i c e s w i l l be p r o v i d e d u n l e s s t h e r e i s an i n t e r a c t i o n i n the p r o v i s i o n system between agencies which tend to r e p r e s e n t the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s i n s o c i e t y and  i n which each had  r e f l e c t i n g i t s p e r c e p t i o n s of the b e s t Swainson suggests  the chance to generate 34 solution.  that i n t e r a c t i o n s with a f f e c t e d  plans  interests,  35 through  the o p e r a t i v e system of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ,  the stage i n which the are s e t .  should occur  'terms of r e f e r e n c e ' f o r subsequent :  during  interactions  - " I t ' i s when b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s a r e b e i n g agreed upon, b a s i c d a t a are b e i n g gathered and a s s e s s e d , and b a s i c l i n e s o f a c t i o n are b e i n g s e t t h a t the o p e r a t i v e system of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n has to t r y t o weight i n d i v i d u a l s ' v a l u e s as e q u a l l y as p o s s i b l e . " - ^ 0  It f o l l o w s , however, t h a t the involvement  of a d d i t i o n a l agen-  c i e s i n a d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s w i l l do more than j u s t a f f e c t  the adequacy  of  theory presented  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the development of a l t e r n a t i v e s .  suggests  The  t h e r e w i l l be a r e l a t e d i n c r e a s e i n the number o f  v a l u e frameworks.  "Higher p r o b a b i l i t i e s o f i n t e r e s t  conflicting  conflict  (will 37  i n c r e a s e ) the r e l a t i v e amounts of r e s o u r c e s devoted The  r e s i d u a l of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n from c o n f l i c t  to n e g o t i a t i o n . "  settlements w i l l also 38  be  g r e a t e r i n d e c i s i o n systems w i t h l a r g e numbers o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . iRowever, w h i l e s t r a t e g i c approaches to e n s u r i n g the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of d e c i s i o n s c a l l f o r the involvement the need f o r c o n t r o l and  of a wide d i v e r s i t y of a g e n c i e s , 39 coordination creates a countervailing s t r a i n  toward g r e a t e r g o a l consensus and A-  thus the involvement  of a l i m i t e d  . 4 0  r  d i v e r s i t y of agencies. Methodology The of  r e s e a r c h has  involved three methodological steps: a  the l i t e r a t u r e on f l o o d c o n t r o l , i n t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w i n g of  pants  i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  p r o c e s s b e i n g s t u d i e d , and  review  partici-  an a n a l y s i s of  questionnaire data. An e x t e n s i v e review of l i t e r a t u r e on f l o o d c o n t r o l i n g e n e r a l and the F r a s e r R i v e r F l o o d C o n t r o l Programme i n p a r t i c u l a r , was ucted. likely  T h i s l i t e r a t u r e suggested  the types o f i n t e r e s t s and  to be a f f e c t e d by the Programme.  On the b a s i s of the  cond-  agencies theoretical  17  o u t l i n e d above, and was  i n l i g h t o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e review, a procedure  designed f o r a d d r e s s i n g the study  objectives.  As p a r t o f t h i s p r o c e d u r e , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  developed  (see Appendix B) f o r use i n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the a g e n c i e s i d e n t i f i e d by the l i t e r a t u r e review as h a v i n g some i n t e r e s t i n the Programme.  These r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were asked a number  o f q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g to the involvement  o f t h e i r agency i n the P r o g r -  amme such as the agencies w i t h which they r e g u l a r l y i n t e r a c t w i t h 41 r e g a r d t o the Programme, the n a t u r e o f those c o n t a c t s , they viewed  the a g e n c i e s  as s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t o r s to the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s  i n p a r t i c u l a r case examples, and the s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h which they viewed  t h e i r own  p a r t i c i p a t i o n on v a r i o u s c o n t r a c t s .  sampling methodology was  used i n the study.-  A  'snowball'  Each respondent was  to nominate o t h e r a g e n c i e s , and people working  asked  i n those a g e n c i e s , which  they f e l t have had an impact on the d e c i s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o dyke p r o j e c t s and thus c o u l d o f f e r f u r t h e r i n s i g h t s i n t o the workings  o f the  system.  The i n t e r v i e w i n g c o n t i n u e d u n t i l a t l e a s t one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from of the most o f t e n mentioned  a g e n c i e s had been i n t e r v i e w e d .  The i n f o r m a t i o n gathered from the r e v i e w o f f l o o d l i t e r a t u r e and the subsequent an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how  each  i n t e r v i e w s was  control  then s y n t h e s i z e d t o o b t a i n  d e c i s i o n s have been made i n the p a s t .  Once a b l e  to d e f i n e the f o r m a l p r o c e d u r a l s t e p s f o l l o w e d i n p r o v i d i n g f l o o d works under the a u s p i c e s o f the Programme, an e f f o r t was  made to d e t e r -  mine what the network o f i n t e r a c t i o n s had been f o r d e c i s i o n s to p a r t i c u l a r cases b e i n g s t u d i e d .  control  relating  On the b a s i s of these f i n d i n g s ,  an  e f f o r t was  made to d e s c r i b e the p r o c e s s o f i n t e r a c t i o n through which  f l o o d c o n t r o l works are p r o v i d e d (the p r o v i s i o n  system).  19  NOTES:  CHAPTER  TWO  1. f o r a d i s c u s s i o n and c r i t i q u e of the c l a s s i c a l model, see Simon, H.A., and March, J.G., O r g a n i z a t i o n s , New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1958, pp. 136-142. 2. C l i f f s , N.J.:  see Lindblom, C.E., P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1968,  The P o l i c y - M a k i n g p. 13.  P r o c e s s , Englewood  3. Bross d e f i n e s a 'value system' i n terms of the b e n e f i t s and c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an a c t i o n f o r a p a r t i c u l a r d e c i s i o n - m a k e r . See B r o s s , I.D.B., Design f o r D e c i s i o n , T o r o n t o : C o l l i e r - M a c M i l l a n L t d . , p. 27. 4. see I b i d . , pp. 18-32; esp. pp. 20,23,26, and 27. Swainson supports h i s s u g g e s t i o n as f o l l o w s : ^However the f i n a l d i r e c t i o n i n which p u b l i c p o l i c y i s g o i n g to move i s determined, i t does i n v o l v e a b a l a n c i n g or r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of c l a i m s of v a l u e s , b e n e f i t s , and c o s t s — i n s h o r t , an a c t of s h o i c e . " Swainson, N.A., " D e f i n i n g the Problem: The I n s t i t u t i o n a l Arrangements f o r Water Q u a l i t y Management," i n Swainson, N.A. ( e d . ) , Managing the Water Environment, Vancouver, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1976, p. 17. 5. Downs r e f e r s to t h i s f e a t u r e of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g as the 'Law of I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l C o n f l i c t ' : "Every l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i n p a r t i a l c o n f l i c t w i t h every other s o c i a l agent i t d e a l s w i t h . " See Downs, A., I n s i d e Bureaucracy, Boston: L i t t l e , Brown, and Company, 1958, pp. 213-216: 6. here I am a n t i c i p a t i n g a l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n o f i f , when, . and how c o n f l i c t s can be r e s o l v e d ( i n Chapter Four) and are r e s o l v e d ( i n Chapter F i v e ) . 7.  Lindblom, C.E.,  op.- c i t . , p.  35.  8. Simeon,,R., F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Diplomacy, T o r o n t o : s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1972, p. 172. 9.  see  I n f r a . , p.  Univer-  13nl8.  10. see G i b s o n , D., " C o n s t i t u t i o n a l J u r i s d i c t i o n over E n v i r onmental Management i n Canada," i n the U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Law J o u r n a l , Volume 23 (1973), p. 55. 1 1  • &.N.A. A c t .  S.  92(13).  See  G i b s o n , D.,  op.  c i t . , p.  61.  20  12.  S. 92(16).  13.  S. 95.  See Gibson, D., Op. c i t . ,  See G i b s o n , D., op. c i t . , p. 66.  14. j u r i s d i c t i o n over Crown lands and o t h e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s i s d e l e g a t e d t o the p r o v i n c e s under S. 109 o f t h e A c t . T h i s argument of t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l b a s i s f o r p r o v i n c i a l involvement i n f l o o d c o n t r o l matters i s taken from Gibson, D., op. c i t . , pp. 58,63,66,67,73, and 76. 15.  S. 91(12).  16.  S. 91(29).  17.  S. 91(10).  18. t h i s argument o f t h e b a s i s f o r f e d e r a l involvement i n f l o o d c o n t r o l matters i s suggested by the M i n i s t e r o f Energy, Mines, and Resources i n announcing the Agreement i n t h e House o f Commons. See P e p i n , J . L . , s p e a k i n g i n Canada, House o f Commons Debates, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1968 Volume 1, p. 129. A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e f e d e r a l government's spending powers enable i t t o become i n v o l v e d , through f i n a n c i a l g r a n t s , i n areas over which i t has no d i r e c t a u t h o r i t y so l o n g as i t does n o t e x e r c i s e ' d i r e c t l e g i s l a t i v e c o n t r o l over matters o f e x c l u s i v e p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . L a F o r e s t d e f i n e s t h i s spending power as a combination o f f e d e r a l t a x i n g and p r o p e r t y powers. See L a F o r e s t , G.V., A l l o c a t i o n o f T a x i n g Power Under the Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n , T o r o n t o : Canadian Tax Found a t i o n , 1967, pp. 37-38. See a l s o Gibson, D., op. c i t . , p. 63. 19.  Lindblom, C E . , Pp.- c i t . , p. 117.  20. the l e g i t i m a c y o f the r u l e s a l l o c a t i n g such power and a u t h o r i t y i s taken as a g i v e n f a c t o r . See I b i d . , p. 35. 21. f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f how agencies' d e r i v e support f o r t h e i r programmes, see I n f r a . , pp. 32-35.  political  22. as Gibson n o t e s , one can c i t e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power and a u t h o r i t y i n Canada as a case i n p o i n t . "In theory, the Parliament of Canada c a n . ; . i n v e s t i t s e l f a t w i l l w i t h l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y over' any 'work' t h a t i t chooses t o d e c l a r e t o be ' f o r the g e n e r a l advantage of Canada'." Ss. 92(10c) and 91(29). See Gibson, D., 6p. c i t . , p. 63n49. However, "...having r e g a r d . . . t o p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s , i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s power would now be used...." I b i d . , p. 63. ;  23.  see Gibson, D., op. c i t . , p. 66.  24.  see I b i d . , p. 76.  25.  see Lindblom, C.E., op. c i t . , p. 117.  21  26. D a h l , R.A., and Lindblom, C.E., P o l i t i c s , Economics, and W e l f a r e , New York: Harper and Row, 1953, p. 326. They suggest t h a t "...because d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s i n d e n t i f y w i t h d i f f e r e n t groups, a compromise a r r i v e d a t by b a r g a i n i n g i s n e c e s s a r y (as a s t r a t e g i c approach t o e n s u r i n g the a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f d e c i s i o n s ) . Because i n d i v i d u a l s i n d i f f e r e n t groups may a l s o share membership i n another group, compromise by b a r g a i n i n g i s s t i m u l a t e d . Because i n d i v i d u a l s i n d i f f e r e n t groups share some common v a l u e s , b a r g a i n i n g i s p o s s i b l e . And because d i f f e r e n t i s s u e s a c t i v a t e d i f f e r e n t combinations o f groups, compromise by b a r g a i n i n g i s c o n t i n u o u s . " I b i d . , p. 333. 27. f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of these t e c h n i q u e s o f 'mutual a d j u s t ment', see Lindblom, C.E., op. c i t . , pp. 93-100. Other n o t i o n s o f mutual adjustment are c o n s i d e r e d i n - h ' i s H t h e s i s . However, f o r the purposes o f t h i s study, these two forms w i l l s u f f i c e . 28.  see I b i d . , p.  95.  29. see I b i d . , p. 96. For a d i s c u s s i o n and c r i t i q u e of the ' r u l e o f r e c i p r o c i t y ' , see Gouldner, A.W., "The Norm o f R e c i p r o c i t y : A P r e l i m i n a r y Statement", i n the American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, Volume 25 ( A p r i l , 1960), pp. 161-178. 30.  Lindblom, C.E.,  op. c i t . , p.  96.  31. Lindblom, C.E., "The S c i e n c e of Muddling Through", i n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review, Volume 19, Number 2 ( S p r i n g 1959), p. 85. 32. as suggested i n Dorcey, A.H.J., and Fox, I.K., "An Assessment o f U n i v e r s i t y Sponsored I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Research: the W i s c o n s i n R i v e r and the Lower F r a s e r R i v e r Water Q u a l i t y S t u d i e s " , i n P r o c e e d i n g s o f the A.S.C.E. Conference on I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y A n a l y s i s o f Water Resource Systems, June 19-22, U n i v e r s i t y o f C o l o r a d o . 33. see Rourke, F.E., Bureaucracy, P o l i t i c s , and P u b l i c P o l i c y , Boston: L i t t l e , Brown, and Company, 1969, pp. 120-121. 34.  see Dorcey, A.H.J., and Fox, I.K.,  op. c i t .  35. the ' o p e r a t i v e system o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ' i n the p r o v i s i o n system w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter Four. See I n f r a . , pp. 34-36. 36.  Swainson, N.A.,  op. c i t . , p.  14.  37. Gregg, P.M., An A l t e r n a t i v e Approach f o r the Study o f E f f i c i e n c y i n the Urban P u b l i c S e c t o r , p r e p a r e d f o r the annual meeting of the M i c h i g a n Academy o f S c i e n c e s , M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , March 1974, p. 23.  38.  see Ibid., p. 12.  39. Litwack and Hylton have suggested that where a c o n f l i c t between agencies overlaps with areas of common p o l i c i e s , some i n t e r agency coordination w i l l be necessary to ensure the groups their autonomy i n areas of disagreement, while allowing at the same time for a unified e f f o r t i n areas of agreement. See Litwack, E., and Hylton, L.F., "Interorganizational Analysis: A Hypothesis on Co-ordinating Agencies," i n Administrative Science Quarterly, Volume 6, (March 1962), p. 399. 40. Downs refers to t h i s phenomenom as the 'Law of Counterv a i l i n g Goal Pressures', see Downs, A., op. c i t . , p. 224. 41. that i s , what projects and contracts were discussed, what aspects of the works were reviewed during the exchanges, how extensively were the discussions, and how often might such exchanges take place. See Appendix B, Infra., p. 80.  25  CHAPTER THREE The  Formal Procedures  To a p p r e c i a t e how d e c i s i o n s a r e made i n the F r a s e r F l o o d C o n t r o l Programme, i t would be u s e f u l as a f i r s t  River  step t o  o u t l i n e the procedures which were found to be r e g u l a r l y f o l l o w e d i n p r o v i d i n g f l o o d p r o t e c t i o n i n the Lower F r a s e r . obtained  i n i n t e r v i e w s suggest these procedures can be d i v i d e d  i n t o the t h r e e b a s i c stages Planning  Information  i l l u s t r a t e d . i n F i g u r e 1:  Stage; the Advanced P l a n n i n g  the P r e l i m i n a r y  Stage; and the C o n s t r u c t i o n  Stage.  The  Three Stages During  the P r e l i m i n a r y P l a n n i n g  Stage t h e r e i s an assessment  of the b e n e f i t s and c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o v i d i n g the n e c e s s a r y e c t i o n i n an a p p l y i n g a r e a .  I f economically  w i l l be approved and the n e c e s s a r y Advanced P l a n n i n g  f e a s i b l e , an a p p l i c a t i o n  funds made a v a i l a b l e .  Stage, the p r e l i m i n a r y designs  i n c e r t a i n contract features.  w i l l be d e a l t w i t h and the c o n t r a c t designs During  D u r i n g the  f o r each o f the c o n t r a c t s  i n a p r o j e c t a r e a a r e forwarded by the l e a d agencies w i t h an i n t e r e s t  prot-  to other  Inter-agency  subsequently  agencies conflicts  finalized.  t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n Stage, t h e drawings and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r  each c o n t r a c t are d r a f t e d , r i g h t - o f - w a y  lands a r e a c q u i r e d , and the  works a r e c o n s t r u c t e d . 2 1.  The P r e l i m i n a r y P l a n n i n g A municipal  Stage  a p p l i c a t i o n t o the Programme^ marks  of the P r e l i m i n a r y P l a n n i n g  Stage.  the'beginning  Such a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e made t o the  Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch o f the P r o v i n c i a l Water Resources  Service  PRELIMINARY PLANNING STAGE  ADVANCED PLANNING STAGE  Municipal Application  CONSTRUCTION STAGE  Project Report Reviewed by Associated Agencies  Joint Advisory Board  Drawings and Specifications  Associated Agencies i  Contract Schedule Provincial Assessment of Costs i Federal Assessment of Benefits  |~Contract BenefitCost Assessment of Necessary Works for Applying Area  Design Proposal  |Contract 1 C o n t r a c t c| | C o n t r a c t DI 1 Contract l 1 C o n t r a c t Ft 1 iContract _G[ E  Construction  FIGURE 1 The Formal P r o c e d u r e s f o r D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g  ho  25  and  are a u t o m a t i c a l l y  Board's a p p r o v a l  passed on to the J o i n t A d v i s o r y  adequate p r o t e c t i o n i n the a p p l y i n g  for  Province  construction costs.  i s responsible,  As  a first  step,  at t h i s p o i n t and  estimating  the  then, the Water  P r o j e c t Managers manage and  r e l a t e d to p r o j e c t s w i t h i n t h e i r a s s i g n e d  s u l t a n t s are h i r e d by  the P r o v i n c e ,  lead  providing  i n the  procedures,  associated  Investigations  the a p p l i c a t i o n to a P r o j e c t Manager and  of c o n s u l t i n g e n g i n e e r s . activities  c o s t s of  the  area.^  a s s e s s i n g what works are r e q u i r e d  Branch a s s i g n s  After  i n p r i n c i p l e , i t i s then forwarded t o the two  a g e n c i e s f o r an assessment of the b e n e f i t s and  The  Board.  hires a firm  coordinate a l l areas.^  The  con-  on b e h a l f o f the Programme, to handle  t e c h n i c a l matters which are beyond the r e s o u r c e s  o f any  particular  government agency. The  P r o j e c t Manager asks the c o n s u l t a n t s  gineering f e a s i b i l i t y percent  study and  the c o s t s t h a t would be  meet a s p e c i f i e d standard subsequently p r e p a r i n g both w i t h i n and contained  outside  prepare a r e p o r t involved  t o conduct an  estimating  within  ten  i n p r o v i d i n g works n e c e s s a r y  of protection.6  Jn c o n d u c t i n g t h e i r study,  t h e i r r e p o r t , the c o n s u l t a n t s the government f o r d a t a .  i n t h e i r r e p o r t serve  en-  estimates the  a p p l y i n g m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h a good i n d i c a t i o n o f what i t s share of  the  p r o j e c t c o s t s w i l l be.  These c o s t e s t i m a t e s a l s o p r o v i d e  the  information  the f e d e r a l government t o determine whether  project i s As  purpose.  cost  p a r t of  the  justified. i t s share of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s d u r i n g  and  agencies  They p r o v i d e  r e q u i r e d by  a two-fold  The  w i l l draw on  to  t h i s stage,  Inland Waters D i r e c t o r a t e a s s e s s e s the b e n e f i t s t h a t would accrue  the  26  in the applying area i f the necessary works were provided.  It w i l l  get the data i t needs for this assessment from wherever i t can. Their economists thus have a task of benefit analysis which p a r a l l e l s the cost analysis of the consultants.  By combining their own  findings  with those of the consultants, Inland Waters establishes a benefitcost Eatiosfor the proposed works in the applying area.  This b e n e f i t -  cost assessment i s then forwarded, along with the c o n s u l t a n t s Report, to the Joint Advisory The Joint Advisory  Board. Board manages the a l l o c a t i o n of funds made  available to the Programme by the two senior governments. representatives  Project  The  federal  currently on the Board^ are the National Director of  Water 1 anagement and Planning in the Inland Waters Directorate,  the  Regional Director of the Inland Waters Directorate, and the Regional Director of the Fisheries 1 anagement Service.  The p r o v i n c i a l  repre-  sentatives are the Deputy 1 i n i s t e r of the Environment, the Director of Services for the Water Resources Service, and the Director of the Water Investigations Branch.  I f , based on the preceding benefit-cost  assessment, the proposed works for an applying area are economically j u s t i f i e d , the application i s approved and becomes a Programme project. As the time for i n i t i a t i o n of the project approaches, the Board allocates the necessary funds. Once the project i s approved, the Province w i l l arrange with the l o c a l authority to have a provincial-municipal agreement signed. Having received a copy of the Project Report, the municipality w i l l assess i t s a b i l i t y to meet what w i l l be i t s share of the project costs under the terms of the standard cost-sharing formula of the Programme.  27  T h i s f o r m u l a r e q u i r e s t h a t f o r each p r o j e c t the a p p l y i n g m u n i c i p a l i t y be  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of a l l r i g h t - o f - w a y  r e p a i r and maintenance of the works once completed. c a p i t a l c o s t s w i l l be d i v i d e d e q u a l l y between the governments.  proceeds i n t o the Advanced P l a n n i n g The  Advanced P l a n n i n g As a f i r s t  by  The  and  the  remaining  f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l  I f w i l l i n g to meet i t s share of the p r o j e c t c o s t s ,  m u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l s i g n an agreement w i t h  2.  lands  the p r o v i n c e  and  the  the p r o j e c t  Stage.  Stage  step  i n t h i s stage,  the l e a d a g e n c i e s to o t h e r a g e n c i e s  the P r o j e c t Report i s r e f e r r e d  ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as  associated  a g e n c i e s ) which have an i n t e r e s t i n c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s of the p r o j e c t . These agencies are asked to comment on the e f f e c t s any works may  have on a r e s o u r c e  of the proposed  or i n t e r e s t s of concern to them.  The  comments of a s s o c i a t e d a g e n c i e s at t h i s p o i n t g i v e a p r e l i m i n a r y  indi-  g c a t i o n of the c o m p l e x i t i e s the p r o j e c t .  The  dealt with  i n p a r t i c u l a r areas of  P r o j e c t Manager then d i v i d e s the p r o j e c t i n t o s e v e r a l  contracts ranging $2,000,000.  to be  i n estimated  c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s from $500,000 to  In l i g h t o f the c o m p l e x i t i e s  of p r o v i d i n g works i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s ,  the  area.  f o r design,  the c o n s u l t a n t s  a p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n which w i l l m i n i m i z e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s . l i m i n a r y design proposal informal process  agencies.  and v i e w p o i n t s  with  one  draft  The  i s r e f e r r e d to the a s s o c i a t e d a g e n c i e s .  of i n t e r a c t i o n then occurs w i t h  anging i n f o r m a t i o n  urgency  a c o n s t r u c t i o n schedule i s  d r a f t e d f o r the c o n t r a c t s i n the p r o j e c t As each c o n t r a c t comes up  p r e d i c t e d and  prei An  these a g e n c i e s exch-  another and w i t h  the  lead  28  On the b a s i s o f t h e s e  i n t e r a c t i o n s , the p o s i t i o n s o f the v a r i o u s  become known and common causes o f t e n form.  agencies  Where an agency s t r o n g l y  o b j e c t s t o the i n i t i a l  d e s i g n p r o p o s a l , i t w i l l propose a l t e r n a t i v e s  to  Bargaining u s u a l l y continues  the l e a d a g e n c i e s .  a s s o c i a t e d and l e a d agencies found.  u n t i l an a c c e p t a b l e  between the  compromise i s  Where the i n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n s f a i l t o r e s o l v e any problems,  meetings w i l l be c a l l e d the p r o c e s s  t o enable an exchange o f i d e a s and  o f a r r i v i n g a t a s u i t a b l e compromise.9  The  expediate  com-  promises which a r e developed i n response t o the i n p u t o f a s s o c i a t e d agencies  can a f f e c t  of the i n i t i a l  the d e s i g n , t i m i n g o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , and l o c a t i o n  contract  proposal.  Where a c o n t r a c t c r o s s e s  I n d i a n l a n d s , the procedures  f o l l o w e d d u r i n g t h i s stage w i l l be s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d . province  still  administers  I n l a n d Waters w i l l Advanced P l a n n i n g  A l t h o u g h the  the C o n s t r u c t i o n Stage which f o l l o w s ,  take the l e a d i n managing the a c t i v i t i e s o f the Stage.  This s h i f t  i n management i s n e c e s s a r y  because I n d i a n a f f a i r s i s a f e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . ^  I n l a n d Waters  w i l l arrange f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n o f r i g h t o f way lands by n e g o t i a t i n g w i t h an I n d i a n band through the Department o f I n d i a n  Affairs. 11 -  The  need f o r r i g h t - o r - w a y  Planning  lands t o be o b t a i n e d  d u r i n g t h i s Advanced  Stage i s d i c t a t e d by a Programme p o l i c y not t o e x p r o p r i a t e  Indian land.  T h i s f a c t o r a c t s as a c o n s t r a i n t i n f l u e n c i n g the d e s i g n  a l t e r n a t i v e s t o be c o n s i d e r e d  by a s s o c i a t e d agencies  bargaining f o r  29  a say i n the f i n a l d e s i g n .  In such cases,  takes the l e a d i n a r r a n g i n g  compromise s o l u t i o n s w i t h  thus i n a r r a n g i n g 3.  a finalized  The C o n s t r u c t i o n  design.  what  the I n d i a n s  12  the d e s i g n  i n consultation with  associated  of a c o n t r a c t s h a l l be, the c o n s u l t a n t s a r e  asked t o p r e p a r e the n e c e s s a r y drawings and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . p a r a t i o n of these documents marks the b e g i n n i n g Stage and form p a r t of the c o n t r a c t document  The  pre-  of the C o n s t r u c t i o n  as d r a f t e d by the l e g a l  s t a f f of the P r o v i n c e .  While the c o n t r a c t i s b e i n g  municipality w i l l begin  to a c q u i r e  ition  and  Stage  Once i t has been d e c i d e d , agencies,  then, the f e d e r a l government  right-of-way  p r e p a r e d , the  lands.  Such  acquis-  i s made by e i t h e r g a i n i n g an easement, making a l a n d purchase, 13  or e x p r o p r i a t i n g l a n d .  Construction  the n e c e s s a r y r i g h t - o f - w a y  lands  The c o n t r a c t document t i g a t i o n s Branch.  can n o t be s t a r t e d u n t i l a l l  f o r a c o n t r a c t have been  obtained.  i s then a d v e r t i s e d by the Water  The Branch w i l l review the tenders  award the c o n t r a c t to the lowest b i d d e r .  Inves-  r e c e i v e d and  The c o n s u l t i n g e n g i n e e r and  a r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Branch then become r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s u p e r v i s i o n of o n - s i t e c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y . to ensure t h a t d e s i g n  It i s their  task  s t a n d a r d s are met i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  works. Upon c o m p l e t i o n of the works, a f i e l d is  c a r r i e d out.  i n s p e c t i o n of the j o b  T h i s i n s p e c t i o n r e g u l a r l y i n c l u d e s the r e s p o n s i b l e  P r o j e c t Manager, a P r o j e c t E n g i n e e r of the I n l a n d Waters D i r e c t o r a t e , the r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s , and the M u n i c i p a l  30  Engineer.  I f a l l p a r t i e s are i n agreement t h a t the work has been  satisfactorily responsible At  completed, the c o n t r a c t o r  f o r materials  i s p a i d i n f u l l and remains  and c o n s t r u c t i o n  f o r one y e a r t h e r e a f t e r .  t h i s p o i n t , by the p r o v i n c i a l - m u n i c i p a l agreement, the m u n i c i p a l i t y  assumes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r maintaining  the c o n s t r u c t e d  works.^  NOTES:  CHAPTER THREE  1. the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s Chapter i s based on i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d i n the i n t e r v i e w s and the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e on the F r a s e r R i v e r F l o o d C o n t r o l Programme. The i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the l e a d agencies were p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a h l e f o r t h i s purpose. The primary w r i t t e n source of i n f o r m a t i o n was the F r a s e r R i v e r F l o o d C o n t r o l Programme I n f o r m a t i o n Guide, V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1968. 2. throughout these f o r m a l procedures, the Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch a c t s as the managing agency of the Programme. As such, i t has a p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y once an a p p l i c a t i o n i s approved and becomes a ' p r o j e c t ' (see I n f r a . , note 4 ) . The f e d e r a l government, f o r i t s p a r t , i s e s s e n t i a l l y concerned w i t h s e e i n g t h a t funds a l l o c a t e d to the Programme are spent on e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e p r o j e c t s which w i l l meet the d e s i g n c r i t e r i a agreed to by the two s e n i o r l e v e l s of government (see I n f r a . , note 5 ) . Thus, the p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the I n l a n d Waters D i r e c t o r a t e ast<the f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n the Programme i s to see t h a t the P r o v i n c e takes account of these f e d e r a l objectives. T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e s a c o n t i n u a l exchange of i n f o r m a t i o n between these two l e a d a g e n c i e s through each of the t h r e e s t a g e s . 3. t e c h n i c a l l y , any l o c a l a u t h o r i t y can a p p l y . However, i n the m a j o r i t y of c a s e s — a n d i n a l l the cases covered by t h i s s t u d y — i t has been a m u n i c i p a l i t y which has macle an a p p l i c a t i o n to i n i t i a t e a project.  by  4. the d e s i g n  'adequate p r o t e c t i o n ' has been d e f i n e d i n the Programme standards which have been adopted. See I n f r a . , note 5.  5. f o r purposes of d e f i n i t i o n , each m u n i c i p a l a p p l i c a t i o n becomes a p r o j e c t once the funds f o r d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n are approved by the J o i n t A d v i s o r y Board. Each P r o j e c t Manager i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o n t r u c t i o n of f l o o d c o n t r o l works i n s e v e r a l approved m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . One P r o j e c t Manager, f o r i n s t a n c e , may be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the D e l t a p r o j e c t , Queensborough p r o j e c t * ; and H a r r i s o n p r o j e c t and each of the c o n t r a c t s w i t h i n each of those p r o j e c t s . 6. a l l works must be c o n s t r u c t e d to meet the s t a n d a r d of p r o t e c t i o n the two l e v e l s of government have agreed s h a l l be provided. T h i s s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e s t h a t a l l works be a b l e to w i t h s t a n d a water l e v e l which might be e x p e c t e d to o c c u r on an average of once every two hundred y e a r s . The e n g i n e e r i n g f e a t u r e s r e q u i r e d to meet t h i s s t a n d a r d of p r o t e c t i o n are d e f i n e d as the 'design c r i t e r i a ' of the Programme. 7.  as of January 1,  1976.  32  NOTES:  CHAPTER THREE (cont'd)  8. two f a c t o r s w i l l d i c t a t e the complexity o f the i n t e r a c t i o n s d u r i n g t h i s s t a g e : the number of l e g a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s c r o s s e d ; and the number of i n t e r e s t s a f f e c t e d g i v e n the p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s of the l a n d s c a p e . See I n f r a . , pp. 38-43 and Chapter F i v e . 9 . as w i l l be suggested i n Chapter Four (see I n f r a . , pp. 38-43) and e v i d e n c e d i n Chapter F i v e (see I n f r a . , pp 54-59) compromises do not always o c c u r . The p o i n t here i s simply t h a t they u s u a l l y w i l l o c c u r . 10. S. 91(24). See G i b s o n , D., " C o n s t i t u t i o n a l J u r i s d i c t i o n over E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management i n Canada", i n U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Law J o u r n a l , Volube 23 (1973), p.61. 11. the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s i s a f e d e r a l agency p r o v i d i n g an a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e to I n d i a n bands. I t p l a y s an important r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g and g u a r a n t e e i n g a l l I n d i a n shares of c o n t r a c t c o s t s . 12. where I n d i a n l a n d s are i n v o l v e d , the p r o v i n c e , as opposed to the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y , w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the maintenance and r e p a i r of the works once c o n s t r u c t i o n i s completed. 13. g a i n i n g an easement t i t l e to the n e c e s s a r y y l a n d s i s the most common means o f a c q u i r i n g the r i g h t - o f - w a y . I t i s seldom t h a t e x p r o p r i a t i o n must be r e s o r t e d t o . 14. S e c t i o n 17(a) of the F l o o d C o n t r o l Agreement s p e c i f i e s t h a t the P r o v i n c e s h a l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the o p e r a t i o n and maintenance of the c o n s t r u c t e d works (see Appendix A ) . I t i s assumed, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i f a m u n i c i p a l i t y were t o b r e a c h i t s agreement w i t h the P r o v i n c e and f a i l to a d e q u a t e l y m a i n t a i n the works, the P r o v i n c e would become r e s p o n s i b l e under the terms of the o r i g i n a l f e d e r a l p r o v i n c i a l agreement.  35  CHAPTER FOUR The  P r o v i s i o n System  A l t h o u g h an o u t l i n e o f the f o r m a l procedures f o r d e c i s i o n making i n the Programme i s important c h a r t can ever hope to c a p t u r e  for i l l u s t r a t i v e  purposes,  the dynamics o f a d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s .  One  can o n l y hope to o b t a i n a p e r s p e c t i v e of such p r o c e s s e s  how  the procedures work i n p r a c t i c e .  r e l a t i o n s h i p which was  by  studying  T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l o u t l i n e the  found t o e x i s t between a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s and  p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies, agencies  no  and  d e s c r i b e the  t h i n g s which happen as  become i n v o l v e d i n the v a r i o u s stages  these  of the p r o v i s i o n system.2  A f f e c t e d I n t e r e s t s and P a r t i c i p a t i n g A g e n c i e s  The  f l o o d c o n t r o l works of the F r a s e r F i v e r F l o o d  Programme are b e i n g p r o v i d e d by  the l e a d agencies  Control  through the procedures  o u t l i n e d i n Chapter Three to p r o t e c t the investments i n l a n d , and human l i f e  that l i e behind  them from p o t e n t i a l i n n u n d a t i o n .  i n a d d i t i o n to r e s i d e n t s and p r o p e r t y  suggest the i n t e r e s t s a f f e c t e d by  d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups: i n t e r e s t s ; and  competitive  Groups w i t h  findings  the Programme can  be  c o n d i t i o n a l l y supportive  3  Most landowners and businessmen on the  i n t o t h i s category.  Programme f a i l s  The  advocate i n t e r e s t s have c a p i t a l or l a n d investments  they w i s h to see p r o t e c t e d . plain f a l l  advocate i n t e r e s t s ; interests.  However,  owners, f l o o d c o n t r o l works a f f e c t  o t h e r i n t e r e s t s as w e l l — s o m e f a v o u r a b l y , o t h e r s a d v e r s e l y . of t h i s study  capital,  They w i l l o n l y be  concerned i f the  to p r o v i d e an adequate amount of p r o t e c t i o n .  flood  34  Groups w i t h c o n d i t i o n a l l y control, while desiring have a d d i t i o n a l egory are  the p r o t e c t i o n  criteria  agriculture  afforded  by  they want to have met.  and  i n t e r n a l drainage included  dykes, yet  i n the  Included i n t h i s  i n t e r n a l drainage works to be  a l s o want an  contracts.  flood  the Programme, w i l l  certain industrial interests.  want t h e i r l a n d p r o t e c t e d by  be  supportive i n t e r e s t s i n  cat-  Farmers w i l l  adequate system of  They w i l l a l s o want such  a d a p t a b l e to a d d i t i o n a l works which  i n s t a l l e d at some l a t e r date f o r i r r i g a t i o n purposes.  On  may  the  o t h e r hand, c e r t a i n r i v e r s i d e i n d u s t r i e s w i l l have c o n s t r u c t e d works i n or over the see  that  any  e x i s t i n g dyke r i g h t - o f - w a y and  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the  w i l l be  concerned  existing protection  to  creates a  minimal d i s t u r b a n c e to these works. F i s h and  wildlife  i n t e r e s t i n the Programme.  c o n s e r v a t i o n groups w i l l have a The  F r a s e r i s one  p r o d u c i n g r i v e r s i n N o r t h America, and the b a s i n form p a r t  birds.  w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s do not  floods  and  may  be  There are involvement i n the the Programme. of the that  part  the  the  need the p r o t e c t i o n  decisions  from  c o n t r o l works would  habitat.  a v a r i e t y of government a g e n c i e s which have t h a t are made i n the  Many of t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s  groups of a f f e c t e d  usually  of t h e i r  salmon  of the P a c i f i c fly-way f o r m i g r a t o r y  a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d where f l o o d  damage or e l i m i n a t e  largest  the marshland areas i n  lower reaches of F i s h and  of the  competitive  interests  provision  o v e r l a p w i t h the  i d e n t i f i e d above.  system  of  objectives  I t was  i n t e r e s t s of these groups were p r o t e c t e d by  ment a g e n c i e s w i t h s i m i l a r o b j e c t i v e s .  an  found govern-  P a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies, i n  e f f e c t , have 'watchdogged' f o r c e r t a i n groups of a f f e c t e d  interests.^  35  The  Inland Waters D i r e c t o r a t e of the f e d e r a l Department of  the Environment i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f e d e r a l p o l i c i e s c o n c e r n i n g q u a n t i t y and  cooperates with  implementation of j o i n t  the p r o v i n c e s  i n the development  f l o o d c o n t r o l programmes.  The  water and  Water Inves-  t i g a t i o n s Branch of the p r o v i n c i a l Department of the Environment with  t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s r e l a t e d to water r e s o u r c e s  sibility  f o r the d e s i g n  and  the F r a s e r R i v e r Programme. p r o t e c t i o n , these two The  and has  By p r o v i d i n g a s e t standard  p r o v i n c i a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e was  In k e e p i n g w i t h  i n t e r e s t s of farmers, i t has  had  advocated c e r t a i n d e s i g n The  conservation  established primarily i n the c o n d i t i o n a l l y  an i n t e r e s t i n s e e i n g  t h a t the works of the Programme maximize a g r i c u l t u r a l has  of f l o o d  a g e n c i e s u s u a l l y p r o t e c t advocate i n t e r e s t s .  the the h i g h l y f e r t i l e F r a s e r V a l l e y .  and  a respon-  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f f l o o d c o n t r o l works f o r  to ensure the p r e s e r v a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ,  supportive  deals  production  f e a t u r e s f o r i n t e r n a l d r a i n a g e works.  o b j e c t i v e s of groups w i t h an i n t e r e s t  i n f i s h and w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n  are u s u a l l y p r o t e c t e d by  a g e n c i e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Programme:  three  the F i s h e r i e s Management  S e r v i c e of the f e d e r a l Department of the Environment' the Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e of the same department; and  the B.C.  l i f e Branch of the p r o v i n c i a l Department of R e c r e a t i o n  F i s h arid W i l d and  Conservation.  The  F i s h e r i e s Management S e r v i c e has  as i t s o b j e c t i v e the management  and  p r e s e r v a t i o n of f i s h e r i e s , o t h e r  aquatic l i v i n g resources,  and  36  the aquatic environment.  The Canadian W i l d l i f e Service i s responsible  for the conservation and management of w i l d l i f e resources under federal jurisdiction.^  The B.C.  F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i s responsible for  the management and preservation of f i s h and w i l d l i f e resources under provincial jurisdiction.  These agencies have opposed the Programme  where the provision of flood control works have threatened  the resources  under their respective j u r i s d i c t i o n s . In summary, there are three types of interests which were found to be affected by the Fraser River Flood Control Programme.  These  interests have usually been protected by three categories of p a r t i c i pating government agencies.  In l i g h t of this 'watchdog' r o l e usually  played by the p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies,  an important  second step to  describing the provision system i s to outline the kinds of things which happen during each of the three stages of the formal procedures,  and  with what r e s u l t s . The Preliminary Planning Stage As described i n Chapter Three, this stage b a s i c a l l y involves an assessment of the costs and benefits that would result from the provision of a set standard of flood protection i n an applying area. Information i s gathered  and assessed and the basis objective of whether  or not to provide flood protection i n an applying area i s set. a.  The Cost Assessment Under the supervision of the Water Investigations Branch,  the consulting engineers have a two-fold r e s p o n s i b i l i t y during this stage: (1) to determine the types of works necessary to meet Programme  s t a n d a r d s , ' and (2) t o e s t i m a t e w i t h i n t e n p e r c e n t constructing  the works.  In g a t h e r i n g  the costs of  the necessary information,  they  w i l l r e q u i r e a range o f t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e beyond the c a p a c i t y o f t h e i r own f i r m .  They w i l l  therefore,  through Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s ,  draw on a g e n c i e s from b i t h l e v e l s o f government (and perhaps p r i v a t e c o n s u l t i n g firms) f o r data. instance,  i s often contacted  The m u n i c i a p l  other  engineer, f o r  by Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s t o determine  any weak spots which may e x i s t i n t h e dykes, t h e s t a t e o f the pump s t a t i o n s , and a r e a s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o bank e r o s i o n . may be need f o r a s o i l d s p e c i a l i s t  t o examine t h e c o n t e n t s o f the  e x i s t i n g dykes and pump s t a t i o n s where such i n f o r m a t i o n perhaps, a l o n g w i t h other  engineers,  i n t e r n a l drainage requirements. t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d  i s l a c k i n g and  to examine bank p r o t e c t i o n and  Where s p e c i a l d e s i g n  i n t o the cost estimates given  features  This information  from  may i n c l u d e f a c t s on the  e f f e c t s o f t i d e s , s a l t water o r d i f f e r e n t types o f v e g e t a t i o n b.  need  t h e n a t u r e o f the  p h y s i c a l landscape, a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be o b t a i n e d knowledgable i n d i v i d u a l s .  There  on dykes.  The B e n e f i t Assessment In a s s e s s i n g  t h e b e n e f i t s of p r o v i d i n g  the proposed works,  economists i n the Inland Waters D i r e c t o r a t e a l s o employ t h e e x p e r t i s e of p a r t i c u l a r l y q u a l i f i e d a g e n c i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s . i s o f t e n asked f o r s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n land v a l u e s .  on road e l e v a t i o n s and  Other a g e n c i e s such as the Greater  Vancouver R e g i o n a l  D i s t r i c t and t h e p r o v i n c i a l Department o f M u n i c i p a l consulted  regarding  The m u n i c i p a l i t y  A f f a i r s may be  p o t e n t i a l growth and development i n an a p p l y i n g  38  area.  Groups such as the f e d e r a l Department of P u b l i c Works, p r o v i n c i a l  Department of Highways, and  p r i v a t e i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s a r e r e g u l a r l y asked  to a s s e s s p o t e n t i a l s t r u c t u r a l damages.  The  f e d e r a l and  provincial  Departments of A g r i c u l t u r e w i l l p r o v i d e c o s t - p r o d u c t i o n schedules an a p p l y i n g a r e a and  t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on i n t e r n a l d r a i n a g e  ments i n d i c a t i n g when the a r e a should be  for  require-  f r e e from f l o o d i n g to a v o i d  crop damage. In summary, d u r i n g the P r e l i m i n a r y P l a n n i n g agencies  c o n t a c t other agencies  Stage the l e a d  f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on the b a s i s of  their  t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e , r a t h e r than on the b a s i s of t h e i r ' . i n t e r e s t s . t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s gathered,  p r o j e c t s are a s s e s s e d  and  Once  o b j e c t i v e s are  set. The  Advanced P l a n n i n g During  Stage  the Advanced P l a n n i n g  Stage, d e s i g n p r o p o s a l s  f o r each  of the p r o j e c t c o n t r a c t s a r e d r a f t e d which w i l l meet the o b j e c t i v e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n the P r e l i m i n a r y P l a n n i n g uction costs.  Stage w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g  A t r a d e - o f f of a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s i s u s u a l l y made at  working l e v e l s of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s s e n i o r l e v e l s of the agencies o f f has been made, designs a.  Trade-Offs The  are  but  or a t the p o l i t i c a l  can be made a t level.  the  the  Once a t r a d e -  finalized.  a t the Working L e v e l theory presented  i n Chapter Two  i n g the number of p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies and w i l l  constr-  suggested t h a t by  i n a d e c i s i o n process  i n c r e a s e the number of p o t e n t i a l i n t e r e s t c o n f l i c t s .  referrals inviting  the i n p u t of a s s o c i a t e d agencies  increasonce  can  The  d u r i n g the Advanced  39  P l a n n i n g Stage were found system.  to have such an e f f e c t on the p r o v i s i o n  The w a t e r - o r i e n t e d i n t e r e s t s of the f e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e  r e g u l a r l y c o n f l i c t w i t h the l a n d - o r i e n t e d i n t e r e s t s o f o t h e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s d u r i n g the p r o c e s s of i n t e r a c t i o n which o c c u r s .  Other  a g e n c i e s , such as the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l Departments of A g r i c u l t u r e , i n d u s t r i a l development a g e n c i e s such as the B.C. B.C.  Harbours Board,  Development C o r p o r a t i o n , and w i l d l i f e a g e n c i e s such as the  W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e , have a common i n t e r e s t i n l a n d y e t r e g u l a r l y  and  the  Canadian conflict  over d i f f e r e n c e s i n the types of land-use they a d v o c t a t e . In  each case observed,  some i n i t i a l b a r g a i n i n g o c c u r r e d among  the p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s , a p p a r e n t l y as a r e s u l t o f the ' n e c e s s i t y , 8 p o s s i b i l i t y , and p r o f i t a b i l i t y ' c o o p e r a t i o n predominates  of d o i n g so.  I t was  and compromise s o l u t i o n s a r e  found  that  developed.  The Programme o b j e c t i v e s c l e a r l y s p e c i f y t h a t funds for  usually  allocated  a p r o j e c t w i l l be spent on the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f works which a r e  a b l e of p r o v i d i n g the s t a n d a r d of p r o t e c t i o n .  The a l t e r n a t i v e compro-  mise p r o p o s a l s made d u r i n g t h i s stage must t h e r e f o r e conform d e s i g n c r i t e r i a developed by the l e a d a g e n c i e s . omnipotent  to the  Despite t h i s  apparent  b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n of the l e a d a g e n c i e s , the i n t e r e s t s o f  a s s o c i a t e d a g e n c i e s a r e always wighed and u s u a l l y r e f l e c t e d design  cap-  i n the  adopted. The a s s o c i a t e d a g e n c i e s , upon r e c e i v i n g a r e f e r r a l , w i l l  start  a b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s i n motion by i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h one another and w i t h the l e a d a g e n c i e s to d i s c u s s changes i n the i n i t i a l d e s i g n p r o p o s a l which they may  desire.  On the b a s i s of these i n f o r m a l exchanges, which  40  can take p l a c e by telephone, memoranda, and unscheduled  meetings,  ances o f t e n form among a g e n c i e s w i t h common o b j e c t i v e s .  These a l l i a n c e s  can g i v e r i s e t o common p r o p o s a l s f o r a c o n f l i c t r e s o l v i n g which w i l l be d r a f t e d and forwarded sideration.  alli-  compromise  to the l e a d a g e n c i e s f o r t h e i r  con-  The l e a d a g e n c i e s may agree t o t h e mutual adjustments  sugg-  e s t e d by the compromise or c o u t e r w i t h an a l t e r n a t i v e compromise proposal.  This i t e r a t i v e process of i n t e r a c t i o n u s u a l l y continues u n t i l  the c o n f l i c t i n g p a r t i e s a r e a b l e t o agree t o a s o l u t i o n . Where t h e r e a r e a number o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o be taken of i n a r r i v i n g a t a s u i t a b l e s o l u t i o n t o d e s i g n problems,  account  committee  meetings f o r n e g o t i a t i o n purposes may be c a l l e d by the l e a d a g e n c i e s . The exchanges o f i n f o r m a t i o n and views which o c c u r a t such meetings sledom produce  an immediate s o l u t i o n to the problems a t hand, y e t they  may enable the p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s t o a p p r e c i a t e the c o m p l e x i t i e s of the case and the types o f mutual  adjustments  which they may have  to make i f d e s i g n s a r e to be f i n a l i z e d and the o b j e c t i v e s met. I t was suggested  e a r l i e r that the p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies  will  tend t o p r o t e c t a c o n s i d e r a b l e range o f i n t e r e s t s a f f e c t e d by f l o o d control.  Organized groups such as t h e B.C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n and  i t s s u b s i d i a r y Rod and Gun Clubs depend on p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s w i t h s i m i l a r objectives f o r protection of t h e i r i n t e r e s t s .  Unorganized  groups  of i n t e r e s t s w i l l have a s i m i l a r dependency on the p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s . However, w h i l e the a g e n c i e s and i n t e r e s t s may have s i m i l a r they w i l l n o t have the same o b j e c t i v e s . ected.  objectives,  Some i n t e r e s t s may go u n p r o t -  Where such i n t e r e s t s become aware o f the p r o p o s a l to dyke an  41  a r e a , they can become i n v o l v e d d u r i n g t h i s stage through the m u n i c i p a l i t y and a f f e c t In  the f i n a l d e s i g n adopted  for a contract.  each of the cases s t u d i e d , when an i n i t i a l d e s i g n p r o p o s a l  a f f e c t e d an a s s o c i a t e d agency the d e s i g n s were not f i n a l i z e d u n t i l some t r a d e - o f f o f p o s i t i o n s between the l e a d and a s s o c i a t e d a g e n c i e s had been made. working b.  However, these t r a d e - o f f s were not always accomplished l e v e l s o f the p r o v i s i o n  a t the  system.  T r a d e - O f f s a t Other L e v e l s In  some i n s t a n c e s , the p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s w i l l d i s a g r e e  over which t r a d e - o f f s c o u l d and should be r e a s o n a b l y made.  These d i s -  agreements can reduce the c o o p e r a t i o n between the i n t e r a c t i n g a g e n c i e s . B a r g a i n i n g among the a g e n c i e s becomes d i f f i c u l t and the development of compromise s o l u t i o n s w i l l be u n l i k e l y .  When t h i s o c c u r s , t h e r e a r e  avenues f o r the l e a d a g e n c i e s to f o l l o w e n a b l i n g t r a d e - o f f s to be made at  o t h e r l e v e l s o f the p r o v i s i o n The  involvement  system.  of s e n i o r c i v i l  s e r v a n t s and p o l i t i c i a n s i n  the p r o v i s i o n system most o f t e n o c c u r s when t h e r e i s some c o n f l i c t tween a number of p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s .  be-  Although p r o v i n c i a l inter-agency  c o n f l i c t s were o f t e n t y p i c a l of those e x p e r i e n c e d f e d e r a l l y , the f o r m a l procedures  i n the f e d e r a l b u r e a u c r a c y  f o r t r a d i n g - o f f the  v a l u e s a r e complex and have been designed much l a r g e r magnitude.  conflicting  to d e a l w i t h problems o f a  Where a s u b s t a n t i a l c o n f l i c t has o c c u r r e d be-  tween f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s and  t h e r e has been a subsequent  r e l u c t a n c e to  t r a d e - o f f p o s i t i o n s , i t has been d e a l t w i t h i n f o r m a l l y through the h i e r -  9 a r c h i e s of the c o n f l i c t i n g  agencies.  42  The P r o v i n c e has a c o n s t r u c t i o n schedule to m a i n t a i n g i v e n i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the management of w o r k i n g - l e v e l a c t i v i t i e s related  to the Programme.  I t subsequently takes a l e a d i n encouraging  t r a d e - o f f s between a g e n c i e s . p l i s h e d a t the working to  Where these t r a d e - o f f s cannot be accom-  l e v e l s , Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s can r e f e r the matter  the Environment and Land Use  Secretariat.  As the s t a f f arm o f the  Environment and Land Use Committee, a committee of p r o v i n c i a l Cabinet M i n i s t e r s whose Departmetns have some r e l a t i o n t o environment use problems i n B.C.,  the S e c r e t a r i a t w i l l  a c t as a mediator  and l a n d to r e s o l v e  the c o n f l i c t s which occur where c o m p l e x i t y or f r u s t r a t i o n l e v e l s are abnormally high."*"^  In cases where the compromises i t proposes  to the  c o n f l i c t i n g p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s are not a b l e to y i e l d a s o l u t i o n ,  the  S e c r e t a r i a t w i l l d r a f t a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s and r e f e r the matter  to  the Committee f o r a p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n on the matter.  A solution in  which some t r a d e - o f f of c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s i s made w i l l imposed on the p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s and, f e d e r a l government, a p p l i e d  In  an i n t e r e s t  s u b j e c t to the a p p r o v a l o f the  to the c o n t r a c t i n q u e s t i o n .  summary, the l e a d a g e n c i e s w i l l  w i t h advocate,  then be  i n t e r a c t during t h i s  stage  c o n d i t i o n a l l y s u p p o r t i v e , and c o m p e t i t i v e a g e n c i e s w i t h  i n the f e a t u r e s of a p a r t i c u l a r c o n t r a c t .  These a s s o c i a t e d  a g e n c i e s have c o n f l i c t i n g o b j e c t i v e s which w i l l be  ' t r a d e d - o f f i n some  manner b e f o r e d e s i g n s f o r a c o n t r a c t a r e f i n a l i z e d .  C o o p e r a t i o n among  the p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s i s a h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e , but not f a c t o r i n d e v e l o p i n g the f i n a l d e s i g n .  prerequisite,  43  The  Construction  Stage  In a c q u i r i n g the n e c e s s a r y r i g h t - o r - w a y lands to c o n s t r u c t ,  the Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch and  and  proceeding  the m u n i c i p a l i t y  will  i n t e r a c t w i t h a number of a g e n c i e s to overcome p a r t i c u l a r s i t e - s p e c i f i c problems.  Agencies with a supporting  i n t e r e s t i n the Programme such  the f e d e r a l Department of P u b l i c Works and Highways w i l l be  contacted  ment of A g r i c u l t u r e may materials  be  to be used i n a dyke Any  associated  i f an i n t e r e s t i t has  of a s s o c i a t e d  contract.  Usually,  the adjustments made i n an  t h i s stage are minimal.  Iii some i n s t a n c e s , however, t h e r e may which have not been p r o t e c t e d  by  accommodation simple  the Advanced P l a n n i n g be  Stage.  affected interests there-  the p r e c e d i n g  stage.  concerned w i t h the a c t i v i t i e s of the Programme c i t i z e n groups w i l l  i n v o l v e d through p o l i t i c a l channels by the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, and  way  by  the p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s and  i n a contract area, h i g h l y l o c a l i z e d  works may  stage  It i s a  i n the t r a d e - o f f s made d u r i n g  When they become aware and  have a c o n s i d e r a b l e  this  p r e v i o u s l y t r a d e d - o f f becomes a f f e c t e d  i n t e r e s t s during  considered  p r o v i n c i a l Depart-  s t o c k p i l e s i t e s f o r dredge  matter o f e n f o r c i n g the t r a d e - o f f s made d u r i n g  f o r e were not  The  agency can become i n v o l v e d d u r i n g  not  construction a c t i v i t y .  the p r o v i n c i a l Department o f  f o r dyke m a t e r i a l s . asked to p r o v i d e  as  form and  become  approaching t h e i r mayor, Member of  Member o f P a r l i a m e n t .  Such o f f i c i a l s  can  impact on the a c t i o n s s u b s e q u e n t l y taken.  To  summarize, a g e n c i e s w i t h some s u p p o r t i n g  i n t e r e s t i n the  be  asked by the Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch to a s s i s t  w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s of the c o n t r a c t o r .  i n some  Associated  44  agencies may become i n v o l v e d where i n t e r e s t s they have not p r e v i o u s l y agreed t o t r a d e - o f f become a f f e c t e d .  45  NOTES:  CHAPTER FOUR  1. Dahl and Lindblom have suggested t h a t a l t h o u g h d i a g r amming f o r m a l procedures may not prove a n y t h i n g , such an e x e r c i s e can p r o v i d e an important t o o l o f i l l u s t r a t i o n . See Dahl, R.A., and Lindblom, C.E., " S o c i a l Techniques" i n R i p l e y , R.B., P u b l i c P o l i c i e s and T h e i r P o l i t i c s , N.Y.: Norton and Co., 1966, p. 5. Doern f u r t h e r comments t h a t "...no c h a r t can c a p t u r e the dynamics o f the way i n which h i e r a r c h i c a l a u t h o r i t y and power a r e e x e r t e d . " Doern, G.B., "The Development o f P o l i c y O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the E x e c u t i v e Arena", i n Doern, G.B., and Aucoin, P., The S t r u c t u r e s of P o l i c y - M a k i n g i n Canada, T o r o n t o : Bryant P r e s s , 1971, p. 1. 2. the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s Chapter i s based on the i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d i n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from each o f the types of a g e n c i e s d i s c u s s e d . 3. t h e r e may w e l l be o t h e r i n t e r e s t s a f f e c t e d by f l o o d c o n t r o l works i n g e n e r a l . However, f o r each of the cases to be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter F i v e , these were the o n l y t h r e e types to have had any involvement.  Chapter  4. Five  c o g n i z a n c e o f t h i s u s u a l l y happening w i l l be taken i n  5. t h e r e i s no d i r e c t mention i n the B.N.A. A c t o f l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n over w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , by the p r o c e s s o f j u d i c i a l i n t e r p e t a t i o n and p r e c e d e n t s , w i l d l i f e has come to be c o n d s i d e r e d a provincial responsibility. However, the law h o l d s t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t i e s s h a l l take precedence over domestic l e g i s l a t i o n and, as such, the f e d e r a l government e n a c t s l e g i s l a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o m i g r a t o r y b i r d s . See The Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e — i t s f u n c t i o n s and scope, mimeo, p. 1. 6. ved are noted  i n Chapter  the e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s normal i n Chapter F i v e .  7.  Supra., p. 30n5.  8.  see Supra., p. 21n25.  c o n d i t i o n which was  obser-  9. as o c c u r r e d a t the G r e y e l l Slough c o n t r a c t , as r e p o r t e d Five.  10. see Report of the Environment and Land Use (1974), V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1975, p. 10.  Secretariat  CHAPTER FIVE The  Case  Studies  I t was suggested i n Chapter Four t h a t a s s o c i a t e d i n t e r e s t s w i l l be concerned w i t h p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e s i n the F r a s e r R i v e r C o n t r o l Programme.  The n e g o t i a t i o n s which f o l l o w as p a r t i c u l a r  i n t e r e s t s become i n v o l v e d i n the p r o v i s i o n system a r e most when c o m p e t i t i v e  i n t e r e s t s are adversely  b e g i n by i l l u s t r a t i n g  affected.  will  w i t h case study examples the n a t u r e o f the  seek t o i n f l u e n c e the n a t u r e o f a d e c i s i o n . devoted t o i l l u s t r a t i n g  Involvement o f Advocate  interests  Major a t t e n t i o n w i l l  the n a t u r e o f the n e g o t i a t i o n s  ments i n v o l v e d i n d e a l i n g w i t h c o m p e t i t i v e The  extensive  This section  i s s u e s i n v o l v e d when advocate and c o n d i t i o n a l l y s u p p o r t i v e  be  Flood  then  and a d j u s t -  interests.  Interests  There was o n l y one case found i n which an advocate i n t e r e s t became i n v o l v e d i n n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the l e a d a g e n c i e s i n an attempt to a l t e r an i n t e n d e d for  a c t i o n o f the Programme.  the m u n i c i p a l i t y o f C h i l l i w h a c k  called  f o r the dyke to f o l l o w  the e x i s t i n g alignment b e h i n d the C h i l l i w h a c k an advocate i n t e r e s t i n s e e i n g  The P r o j e c t Report  I n d i a n Reserve.  t h e i r land p r o t e c t e d ,  asked, through the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s ,  the I n d i a n  Having band  t h a t the p l a n s be  amended t o i n c l u d e f l o o d p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e i r Reserve.  The b e n e f i t -  c o s t assessments f o r t h e area were s u b s e q u e n t l y redone and i t now appears t h a t a t l e a s t some o f t h e Reserve w i l l be dyked. Advocate i n t e r e s t s have a l s o had some involvement i n the  47  Brunswick P o i n t The  and  Tilbury Island contracts  Involvement of C o n d i t i o n a l l y S u p p o r t i v e There are t h r e e  contracts  Bay  by  the d e c i s i o n s made:  V i l l a g e , and  have b u i l t  f a c t o r to be  accommodated i n  Queensborough, Beach Grove-Boundary  taken p l a c e along i n and  considerable  the r i v e r and  over the r i g h t - o f - w a y  These i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s became aware of a  for information  t h a t c o u l d be  which was  done f o r the o v e r a l l p r o j e c t a r e a .  t h a t t h e i r works which had  industrial  several industries  to r e h a b i l i t a t e the e x i s t i n g dyke when approached by  being  supportive  Matsqui.  their f a c i l i t i e s  e x i s t i n g dyke.  later.  Interests  In the Queensborough c o n t r a c t a r e a , development has  discussed  i n which c o n d i t i o n a l l y  i n t e r e s t s have been the o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t some way  to be  or  the  proposal  the l e a d  agencies  used i n the b e n e f i t - c o s t assessment  p r e v i o u s l y been p r o t e c t e d  They were concerned received  this  a d d i t i o n a l p r o t e c t i o n but were concerned t h a t the dyke d e s i g n  and  c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s might i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e i r day-to-day operations.  S p e c i a l d e s i g n s and  a compatible s c h e d u l i n g  of  construction  were s u b s e q u e n t l y arranged at an a d d i t i o n a l c o s t to the Programme. Water f r o n t r e s i d e n t s i n the Beach Grove-Boundary Bay area became aware of the p l a n s  to p r o v i d e  area when the c o n s u l t i n g e n g i n e e r was  required  Village  a d d i t i o n a l p r o t e c t i o n to  questioned while surveying  landscape f o r an i n d i c a t i o n of the types of works which might i f Programme standards were to be met.  2  the  the  be  These r e s i d e n t s were  concerned t h a t c e r t a i n dyke d e s i g n s might a t t r a c t p e o p l e to the beach subsequently i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e i r p r i v a c y and  the n a t u r a l s t a t e of  48  the a r e a . for  The community a t l a r g e , however, expressed  c o n t i n u e d and improved access  t o the beach.  a growing demand  Private citizen  groups were formed and began e x e r t i n g p r e s s u r e on t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . The mayor responded to these p u b l i c p r e s s u r e s by a s k i n g the P r o v i n c e . to  c o n s u l t the people w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n the area b e f o r e  the d e s i g n .  The l e a d agencies  agreed.  n a t i v e s have been d r a f t e d , p l a n s c a l l  finalizing,  Once p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n  alter-  f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y to e s t a b l i s h  an i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t e r f o r t h r e e days and f o l l o w - u p w i t h a p u b l i c meeting to  gauge p u b l i c r e a c t i o n . At Matsqui,  3  t h e r e were s p e c i a l drainage problems to be d e a l t  w i t h by t h e i n t e r n a l d r a i n a g e works o f t h e c o n t r a c t . d i t c h e s was designed which the l e a d agencies  felt  A system o f  to be t e c h n i c a l l y  capable o f d e a l i n g w i t h the waters which p e r i o d i c a l l y accumulated on the a g r i c u l t u r a l f i e l d s which l a y b e h i n d  the dykes.  Before  r u c t i o n o f t h e system c o u l d be completed, a major r a i n storm abnormally be d r a i n e d .  e x c e s s i v e accumulation The l o c a l farmers  the c o n s t caused an  o f water i n t h e f i e l d s which were t o  o r g a n i z e d and began l o b b y i n g to have  an a l t e r n a t i v e d e s i g n c o n s t r u c t e d a t an a d d i t i o n a l c o s t to the Programme. They approached the p r o v i n c i a l Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e and t h e i r M.L.A. f o r support.  The problem c o u l d n o t be handled  l e v e l and was r e f e r r e d ernment subsequently  to the J o i n t A d v i s o r y Board.  i n d i c a t e d i t would be w i l l i n g  local  a t t h e working The f e d e r a l gov-  to change the d e s i g n  (given i t s c a p a c i t y to meet Programme s t a n d a r d s ) b u t would be u n w i l l i n g to pay any a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s .  T h e i r M.L.A. s u b s e q u e n t l y  P r o v i n c e t o p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y  convinced the  a d d i t i o n a l f u n d i n g and t h e d e s i g n s  49  were amended to conform to the farmers  demands.  H  C o n d i t i o n a l l y s u p p o r t i v e i n t e r e s t s a l s o had ment i n the Brunswick P o i n t c o n t r a c t to be d i s c u s s e d The  Involvement of C o m p e t i t i v e  an i n v o l v e later.  Interests  There are s e v e r a l c o n t r a c t s i n which c o m p e t i t i v e have had  an involvement.  When these i n t e r e s t s have been ' i n v o l v e d ,  t r a d e - o f f s have been made i n one simple  interests  of two ways: e i t h e r  adjustments at the working l e v e l s ; o r (2) by  (1) by  relatively  complex b a r g a i n i n g  w i t h o t h e r l e v e l s becoming i n v o l v e d i n some b a r g a i n i n g c a p a c i t y . 1.  R e l a t i v e l y Simple Adjustments As suggested  e a r l i e r , when c o m p e t i t i v e i n t e r e s t s become  i n v o l v e d i n the p r o v i s i o n system, there i s r e g u l a r l y a c o n f l i c t ween the l a n d - o r i e n t e d i n t e r e s t s of those w i t h some s u p p o r t i n g i n the Programme and concern  the w a t e r - o r i e n t e d  f o r f i s h and w i l d l i f e .  of two  t h i n g s were found  to be d e s c r i b e d :  either  In cases where problems a s s o c i a t e d  a.  S o l u t i o n by The  adjustments,  to happen as demonstrated by  (a) t h e r e was  made by the c o n f l i c t i n g p a r t i e s and or (b) a c o n c e s s i o n was  interest  i n t e r e s t s of those w i t h a  w i t h t h i s c o n f l i c t were overcome by r e l a t i v e l y simple one  bet-  the c o n t r a c t s  a mutual adjustment o f p o s i t i o n s  a compromise s o l u t i o n was  made by the c o m p e t i t i v e  accepted;  interests.  Compromise  i n i t i a l d e s i g n p r o p o s a l f o r the Vedder  Canal•contract  i n c l u d e d a p r o v i s i o n f o r s u b s t a n t i a l bank p r o t e c t i o n work to be  done.  Upon r e c e i v i n g a copy o f the p r o p o s a l , the F i s h e r i e s Management S e r v i c e expressed  a concern  t h a t bank p r o t e c t i o n along the banks of the  Canal  50  c o u l d d i s t u r b the spawning g r a v e l s o f t i d a l o f the r i v e r banks by  fish.  The  h e l d t h a t the proposed designs were n e c e s s a r y The  e f f e c t i v e removal  the p r o v i s i o n of such works would a l s o e l i m i n a t e  a v a l u a b l e f e e d i n g h a b i t a t a f o r the f i s h .  were to be met.  The  lead agencies, i f programme  standards  F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e then suggested t h a t i f the works  were c o n s t r u c t e d d u r i n g the month of August, t h e r e would be fish  i n the a r e a and  be reduced.  The  the p o t e n t i a l adverse a f f e c t s c o u l d  extensiveness  t h a t the works c o u l d not be A s o l u t i o n was  be  and  fewer  subsequently  f o the proposed works, however, meant  c o n s t r u c t e d i n such a s h o r t p e r i o d o f time.  reached when o f f i c i a l s  l e a d agencies  however,  at the working l e v e l s " ' of  the  the F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e agreed t h a t the works would  c o n s t r u c t e d over a l o n g e r p e r i o d of time w i t h c l o s e r s u p e r v i s i o n  to ensure a minimal d i s t u r b a n c e  to the f i s h p o p u l a t i o n s  At Kent, the p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n p r o p o s a l to be  constructed  along  waters.  d i d not  area.  c a l l e d f o r dykes  the e x i s t i n g alignment which was  from the main stream of the F r a s e r and  i n the  well inland  cut o f f any  tributary  What e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage c o u l d be done to the a r e a had  for  the most p a r t been done when the e x i s t i n g dykes were c o n s t r u c t e d . F i s h e r i e s r a i s e d no o b j e c t i o n s and there was  the d e s i g n s were f i n a l i z e d .  some concern among o f f i c i a l s  the source  of dyke m a t e r i a l s .  m a t e r i a l s to be  The  o r i g i n a l plan c a l l e d  argued t h a t t h e r e c o u l d be  the salmon spawning g r a v e l s i n the a r e a . agreed t o use designed  and  land-based g r a v e l p i t s . c o n s t r u c t e d without  However,  i n the F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e over f o r the  dredged form the g r a v e l beds o f the H a r r i s o n  These f i s h e r i e s o f f i c i a l s  Federal  The  River.  a disturbance  l e a d agencies  Otherwise the c o n t r a c t  complication.  necessary  to  subsequently was  51  The n e g o t i a t i o n s which gave o c c u r r e d w i t h r e g a r d to the G r e y e l l Slough  C o n t r a c t have been f o c u s e d on a r r a n g i n g an e q u i t a b l e  compromise s o l u t i o n to a c o n f l i c t between c o m p e t i t i v e i n t e r e s t s and the l e a d a g e n c i e s . to  The i n i t i a l  d e s i g n p r o p o s a l c a l l e d f o r the dyke  be r e a l i g n e d a c r o s s the mouth of the s l o u g h w i t h c o n t r o l gates to  be i n s t a l l e d to r e g u l a t e the flow of water i n t o the s l o u g h .  Officials  from the f e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e , however, argued t h a t some o f the 700,000 p i n k salmons which spawn i n the a r e a a n n u a l l y c o u l d be a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d i f any work was of  done i n the s l o u g h .  However,  some c o n t r o l  flows i n t o the s l o u g h was o f h i g h v a l u e to the l e a d a g e n c i e s to  reduce bank e r o s i o n i n the a r e a . c o s t s have been c o n s i d e r e d .  Several alternatives with varying  Although  the e x a c t alighment  has y e t to be agreed  upon, t h e r e has been one important  made by the agencies  concerned.  of the dyke  mutual adjustment  F e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s o f f i c i a l s have  agreed  to  a l l o w work to be done i n the a r e a ^ i n exchange f o r the i n s t a l l a t i o n  of  a s p e c i a l screw pump t o a l l o w the m i g r a t i o n o f f i s h i n and out of  the s l o u g h to be m i n i m a l l y d i s t u r b e d . a g e n c i e s , has agreed  The Programme, through  the l e a d  t o pay f o r the a d d i t i o n a l works i n exchange f o r  b e i n g a b l e to i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o the f i n a l d e s i g n some r e a l i g n m e n t  o f the  e x i s t i n g dyke f o r the purposes of c o n t r o l l i n g the f l o w s . b. S o l u t i o n by  Concession  In some cases o f r e l a t i v e l y simple b a r g a i n i n g , w i l l be made by c o m p e t i t i v e i n t e r e s t s . Slough  contract  Csee  Figure 2).  attempt to m i n i m i z e c o s t s , c a l l e d the mouth o f the s l o u g h .  concessions  A good example i s the O l i v e r  The i n i t i a l  d e s i g n p r o p o s a l , i n an  f o r the dyke to be r e a l i g n e d a c r o s s  Having r e c e i v e d i t s copy of the p r o p o s a l  52  FIGURE 2 E x i s t i n g Alignment a t O l i v e r  Slough  and g i v e n the r e s o u r c e s o f f u n d i n g , s t a f f , and equipment a t i t s d i s p o s a l , the f e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e proceeded t o assess of  the realignment  little life  evidence  the p o t e n t i a l  on the n a t u r a l h a b i t a t i n the s l o u g h .  t o suggest  Although  There was  t h e s l o u g h was a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the  c y c l e o f many f i s h g i v e n the e n v i r o n m e n t a l  already occurred.  effects  d e g r a d a t i o n which had  t h e r e was an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t w i t h i p r o p e r  p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l the s l o u g h c o u l d become more v a l u a b l e , F i s h e r i e s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e r e were two economic f a c t o r s which posed a s i g n i f i c a n t o b s t a c l e to s a v i n g the s l o u g h :  the c o s t s wich would be i n c u r r e d i f  p o l l u t i o n i n t h e s l o u g h was to be adequately  r e g u l a t e d ; and the  c o n s i d e r a b l e c o s t s which c o u l d be saved by r e a l i g n i n g .  T h e i r subsequent  a p p r o v a l o f the i n i t i a l p r o p o s a l t o r e a l i g n served as a c o n c e s s i o n t o the l e a d  agencies.  9  Competitive Slough  i n t e r e s t s made another  c o n t r a c t on Westham I s l a n d .  c o n c e s s i o n a t the Ewen  The Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e  owns a good p a r t o f the I s l a n d and has d e s i g n a t e d w i l d l i f e areas.  i t s p r o p e r t i e s as  B o r d e r i n g some such p r o p e r t y a r e the dykes around  53  Ewen Slough  (see F i g u r e 3 ) .  As a l e a s t c o s t a l t e r n a t i v e , the i n i t i a l  d e s i g n p r o p o s a l f o r the c o n t r a c t c a l l e d f o r a r e a l i g n m e n t o f the dyke a c r o s s the mouth o f the s l o u g h .  The Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e had no  FIGURE 3 E x i s t i n g Alignment  a t Ewen Slough  o b j e c t i o n s t o such a r e a l i g n m e n t p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e r e c o u l d be f l o o d c o n t r o l gates i n the dyke which would a l l o w i t to r e g u l a t e water i n the s l o u g h f o r use by m i g r a t o r y w a t e r f o w l .  The l e a d a g e n c i e s , how-  ever, i n d i c a t e d t h a t they l a c k e d the n e c e s s a r y funds a d d i t i o n a l works.  levels  to p r o v i d e such  The Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e then d e a l t w i t h t h e  54  matter i n t e r n a l l y and was a b l e t o generate The  d e s i g n p r o p o s a l was then amended t o i n c l u d e the s p e c i a l works  had  Bay  they  requested."^ O c c a i s i o n a l l y competitive  if  the funds which were r e q u i r e d .  i n t e r e s t s have to make  the d e s i g n c r i t e r i a o f t h e Programme a r e t o be met. C e n t r a l c o n t r a c t i s a good example.  concessions  The Boundary  The B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e  Branch argued i n t h i s case t h a t the removal of b l a c k b e r r y bushes from the r i g h t - o f - w a y an adverse  l a n d s as proposed i n the i n i t i a l designs would have  a f f e c t on the pheasant h a b i t a t of the a r e a .  gramme standards  call  However, P r o -  f o r the removal o f a l l such v e g e t a t i o n .  adjustment c o u l d n o t be made by the l e a d agencies w i t h o u t a Programme s t a n d a r d ,  As an  sacrificing  the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch made a n e c e s s a r y  c o n c e s s i o n and the bushes were removed."'"''" 2.  Complex B a r g a i n i n g As  suggested  e a r l i e r , when f r u s t r a t i o n l e v e l s o r c o m p l e x i t i e s  are p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h i n the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s t r a c t , t h e r e a r e procedures be employed. ened:  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a con-  f o r the r e s o l u t i o n o f problems which can  There a r e f o u r n o t e a b l e  examples i n which t h i s has happ-  the T i l b u r y I s l a n d c o n t r a c t , the Brunswick P o i n t c o n t r a c t , the  Boundary Bay c o n t r a c t s , and t h e Roberts Bank c o n t r a c t . a.  Tilbury Island The  Tilbury Island contract i l l u s t r a t e s  the types o f compl-  e x i t i e s which can occur i n downstream c o n t r a c t s where the number o f l e g a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s c r o s s e d and the number o f i n t e r e s t s a f f e c t e d can be r e l atively  great.  55  The  i n i t i a l d e s i g n p r o p o s a l was o r i g i n a l l y  to have  called  f o r the e x i s t i n g alignment around T i l b u r y Slough to be f o l l o w e d (see Figure 4).  A t the time the P r o j e c t Report was prepared  the e s t i m a t e d  f o r Delta,  c o s t s i n d i c a t e d i t would o n l y c o s t an a d d i t i o n a l $125,000  FIGURE 4 E x i s t i n g Alignment a t T i l b u r y Slough  to do so r a t h e r than r e a l i g n the dyke a c r o s s The  c o s t e s t i m a t e s were subsequently  the mouth o f the s l o u g h  updated and i t was found t h a t  $600,000 c o u l d now be saved i f the dyke were r e a l i g n e d . o f f the mouth o f the s l o u g h , past  By c l o s i n g  t h e r e would a l s o be an i n c r e a s e d  flow-  the I s l a n d c a u s i n g a r e d u c t i o n i n the annual amount o f sediment  d e p o s i t i n the a r e a .  The  s l o u g h a r e a c o n s i s t s of two  of which i s t i t l e d to the B.C.  Development C o r p o r a t i o n and  which i s a p p a r e n t l y a bona f i d e a c c r e t i o n . up  properties  lands have been zoned i n d u s t r i a l .  The  These and  the  f o r t y a c r e s of l a n d which  p o t e n t i a l f o r i n d u s t r i a l growth i n the a r e a .  a s s o c i a t e d agencies Although was  (Alternative A). environmental  i n f o r m a t i o n on the s l o u g h competitive  onmental damage c o u l d be done i f the slough were to be proposed.  the B.C.  a n e s t i n g and  area  interests some e n v i r -  c l o s e d o f f by  F e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s , the Canadian W i l d l i f e  F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch argued i n essence t h a t  such slough areas have t r a d i t i o n a l l y p r o v i d e d f i s h and  the  Such f a c t o r s formed  to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e i r arguments, i t became a p p a r e n t t t h a t  S e r v i c e , and  to  designs which were d r a f t e d and r e f e r r e d to  v e r y s c a r c e , thus hampering e f f o r t s by  the realignment  other  subsequent back-  c o u l d be r e c l a i m e d by r e a l i g n i n g the dyke c o u l d t h e r e f o r e add  the b a s i s of the i n i t i a l  one  a feeding habitat for  feeding h a b i t a t f o r waterfowl.  F i g u r e s were  p r o v i d e d which i n d i c a t e d t h a t o n l y twenty p e r c e n t of the  foreshore  areas of t h i s type i n the Lower F r a s e r remain untouched.  Although  B.C.  Development C o r p o r a t i o n , as p a r t of i t s i n d u s t r i a l development  p l a n s , had of  the  commissioned a p r i v a t e r e p o r t on the environmental  the s l o u g h ,  f i s h e r i e s o f f i c i a l s from both  the F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e  the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch d i s a g r e e d w i t h i t s f i n d i n g s . t h a t i t was  value and  They argued  not a f a i r r e f l e c t i o n on the annual use o f the a r e a which  might be expected  because the f i s h  counts c o n t a i n e d . i n the r e p o r t were  done d u r i n g the w i n t e r months when f i s h runs i n the F r a s e r are  partic-  57  u l a r l y low.  In a r g u i n g the p o s s i b l e heavy use o f the s l o u g h by  and w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s , they asked followed  fish  t h a t the e x i s t i n g alignment  be  ( A l t e r n a t i v e B). The  l e a d a g e n c i e s o f f e r e d a compromise s o l u t i o n  (Alternative  C) which would p r o v i d e f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a c o n t r o l mechanism a t the mouth of the s l o u g h much as was  designed f o r Ewen Slough.  mentioned, Programme standards c a l l f o r the removal i n the r i g h t - o f - w a y .  The  l e a d a g e n c i e s suggested  of a l l v e g e t a t i o n  the proposed  ment would a l l o w much o f the v e g e t a t i o n i n the e x i s t i n g to remain  and  As  realign-  right-of-way  c o n t i n u e to form p a r t o f the n a t u r a l h a b i t a t .  Addition-  a l l y , by p r o v i d i n g such a c o n t r o l mechanism i n a r e a l i g n e d dyke, water c o u l d be p e r m i t t e d t o e n t e r the s l o u g h up to a lower  controlled  level  which, w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g the f i s h and w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t , would a l s o reduce the amount o f p r o t e c t i o n the e x i s t i n g dykes would need t o p r o v i d e , thus e l e i m i n a t i n g the need f o r t h e i r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . be m a i n t a i n e d  The h a b i t a t c o u l d  and t o t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s reduced.  However, o f f i c i a l s  i n the Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e argued  t h a t a r e d u c t i o n i n the water l e v e l i n the s l o u g h c o u l d a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t the n a t u r e of the v e g e t a t i o n f o r the f e e d i n g purposes waterfowl.  Fisheries o f f i c i a l s  of migratory  from the F i s h and W i l d l i f e  and the F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e suggested  Branch  t h a t the i n c r e a s e d r i v e r  which would r e s u l t and the p e r i o d i c c l o s i n g o f the s l o u g h by  flows the  c o n t r o l gates would reduce i f not e l i m i n a t e any use o f the a r e a by fish.  Officials  from each o f these c o m p e t i t i v e a g e n c i e s  expressed  a common concern t h a t any realignment would l e a v e open the p o s s i b i l i t y that the s l o u g h c o u l d be b a c k f i l l e d a t some l a t e r date f o r i n d u s t r i a l development.  They s u b s t a n t i a t e d t h e i r concerns w i t h r e f e r e n c e to an  58  o r i g i n a l p l a n by the f e d e r a l Department of P u b l i c Works to a harbour B.C.  develop  i n the area and the a c q u i s i t i o n of n e i g h b o r i n g l a n d s by  Development C o r p o r a t i o n .  The m u n i c i p a l engineer a l s o  the  countered  the c l a i m s t h a t the v e g e t a t i o n i n the e x i s t i n g r i g h t - o f - w a y c o u l d remain i f c o n t r o l s t r u c t u r e s were i n s t a l l e d by a r g u i n g t h a t i t would hamper the maintenance a c t i v i t i e s of the m u n i c i p a l i t y which would be r e q u i r e d a l o n g the o l d dyke i f t h e r e was  to be any water i n the  slough.  The q u e s t i o n of l e g a l c o n t r o l of the l a n d i n the slough subsequently become an important who  owned the l a n d and  s l o u g h was  consideration.  f o r what purposes  matter  i t might be developed  s i m p l y c l o s e d by a r e a l i g n m e n t .  t h a t i f the s l o u g h was  I t would not  has  i f the  However, i t became c l e a r  to be even p a r t i a l l y saved  i n i t s natural state  by the f l o o d c o n t r o l d e s i g n adopted,  then some c o n t r o l of the f u t u r e  use of the l a n d would be e s s e n t i a l .  I f the l a n d owners c o u l d not  prevented  from b a c k f i l l i n g  t h e i r l a n d s i n the s l o u g h , the  of a c o n t r o l mechanism o r a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g  be  installation alignment  would be a waste of money. The suggested  l e a d a g e n c i e s r e c o g n i z e d these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and  the s a v i n g s i n c o s t and the g a i n s to w i l d l i f e of  installing  a c o n t r o l mechanism i n a r e a l i g n e d dyke would be a t t r a c t i v e i f the development of the s l o u g h p r o p e r t i e s c o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d . meeting of the primary i n t e r a c t i n g agencies was various alternatives  t h a t had  committee  c a l l e d to d i s c u s s the  thus f a r been c o n s i d e r e d and  the v i a b i l i t y of t h i s newest a l t e r n a t i v e .  A  to  suggest  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from  I n l a n d Waters D i r e c t o r a t e , the Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch,  the  the  59  municipal engineer's o f f i c e ,  the c o n s u l t i n g  the Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e ,  firm, Federal  Fisheries,  B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e , and the B.C.  Development C o r p o r a t i o n exchanged views on the s i t u a t i o n and agreed t h a t because the t o t a l e s t i m a t e d c o s t s i n a realigned  dyke and o b t a i n i n g  o f i n s t a l l i n g c o n t r o l mechanisms  c o n t r o l o f the s l o u g h  properties  (as p e r A l t e r n a t i v e D) were l e s s than those f o r A l t e r n a t i v e B and contained a p r o v i s i o n  f o r gaining  c o n t r o l o f the a r e a , t h i s newest  a l t e r n a t i v e merited serious  consideration.  •  agreed t h a t the spending o f a d d i t i o n a l  >••- z. ' i/Itawas g e n e r a l l y  funds on the c o n t r a c t would have t o be e c o n o m i c a l l y j u s t i f i e d .  Such  j u s t i f i c a t i o n would t h e r e f o r e  have t o be based on the v a l u e o f the  s l o u g h as a n a t u r a l h a b i t a t .  An e n v i r o n m e n t a l assessment o f t h e  slough w i l l s u b s e q u e n t l y be done. There a r e much l a r g e r q u e s t i o n s a r i s i n g from the problems c o n f r o n t e d i n the f l o o d c o n t r o l c o n t r a c t  at T i l b u r y Island.  I f money  i s spent to g a i n  c o n t r o l o f t h e s l o u g h and r e t a i n the a r e a as a  natural habitat,  i t could  a l s o prove t o be wasted i f a d d i t i o n a l  development i s p e r m i t t e d i n the s u r r o u n d i n g areas p r e s e n t l y industrial.  The heavy i n d u s t r i a l development o f the a r e a  p o l l u t e the waters i n the s l o u g h and reduce or e l i m i n a t e as a f i s h e r i e s h a b i t a t .  Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s  the Environment and Land Use S e c r e t a r i a t p r o v i n c i a l land-use p o l i c y f o r the a r e a .  zoned could  i t s usefulness  has s u b s e q u e n t l y asked  f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n  o f the  A p p a r e n t l y as a r e s u l t o f  the  c o m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s i n g out o f the T i l b u r y f l o o d c o n t r o l  negotiations,  the  S e c r e t a r i a t has undertaken an assessment o f the a l t e r n a t i v e  land-  60  uses which might be adopted The Lands S e r v i c e has  i n a r e a s s e s s e d p o l i c y f o r the a r e a .  done an e n v i r o n m e n t a l  study f o r the a r e a .  P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch i s a s s e s s i n g the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s on  The the  n a t u r a l h a b i t a t i n the s l o u g h a r e a of c o n t i n u e d i n d u s t r i a l development i n s u r r o u n d i n g areas:'  The Parks Branch has  answer q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g may  be p r e s e r v e d .  to the management of any h a b i t a t which  The e n v i r o n m e n t a l  c o m p e t i t i v e agencies  a l s o been approached to  assessment b e i n g c a r r i e d out  f o r the F l o o d C o n t r o l Programme w i l l  a l s o form p a r t of i t s reassessment.  by  apparently  I t i s r e a s o n a b l e to assume t h a t  the p r o v i n c i a l land-use p o l i c y f o r the a r e a which i s d e f i n e d and  the  zoning changes, i f any, which subsequently^occu'riwilfliahave a s i g n i f i c a n t b e a r i n g on the d e s i g n p r o p o s a l which i s f i n a l l y dyke  adopted  f o r the  contract.12  b. Brunswick P o i n t As i n d i c a t e d , i t i s the s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e of the Programme to  f o l l o w a l l e x i s t i n g dyke alignments  i n the Lower F r a s e r except  where c o s t f a c t o r s encourage a r e a l i g n m e n t . however, t h e r e were two  e x i s t i n g alignments  At Brunswick P o i n t , (see F i g u r e 5 ) .  N DELTA  FIGURE 5 E x i s t i n g Alignments  -  at Brunswick P o i n t  The  61 consultants be  i n d i c a t e d i n the i n i t i a l  designs  r e q u i r e d to f o l l o w e i t h e r alignment.  the i n n e r and  As  the c o s t s which would the c o s t s f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i n g  o u t e r dykes were r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r , and because as  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of an e x i s t i n g dyke the e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage to done was  minimal, the I n l a n d Waters D i r e c t o r a t e r e c e i v e d  from f e d e r a l a s s o c i a t e d a g e n c i e s to a l l o w the P r o v i n c e  a  be  clearance  to make the  alignment d e c i s i o n . As place  the i n f o r m a l exchange of views and  among p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t e d a g e n c i e s ,  information  took  i t became c l e a r to  the  Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch t h a t t h e r e were a number of i s s u e s The be  B.C.  F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch was  followed.  The  saved.  t h a t the i n n e r  l a n d o u t s i d e the i n n e r dyke c o u l d then be  as a w i l d l i f e sanctuary c o u l d be  suggesting  The  and  involved.  developed  some c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance  costs  p r o v i n c i a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , however,  expressed a concern over the c o n t i n u e d  l o s s of prime a g r i c u l t u r a l  i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y such as t h a t p r o t e c t e d B.C.  at present  by  The  Harbours Board owns the p r o p e r t y  i t s back-up lands  to the Roberts Bank Superport development and  t h a t at some f u t u r e date they may  want to develop the l a n d  I t asked t h a t the o u t e r alignment be the l a n d i n q u e s t i o n  objected  to the s u g g e s t i o n  B.C.  t h a t the i n n e r alignment be  indicated  Land Commission  designated  and  followed.  They suggested t h a t by  alignment, the l a n d c o u l d be  of  industrially.  a c o n s t r u c t i o n schedule to  suggested a compromise s o l u t i o n .  the o u t s i d e  The  as p a r t  as p a r t of i t s A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve,  Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s had and  followed.  land  the e x i s t i n g  o u t e r alignment.  had  alignment  maintain following  as e i t h e r a b i r d  62  sanctuary, i n d u s t r i a l s i t e ,  o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d a t some l a t e r  date.  A l t h o u g h agreed t o by the B.C. Harbours Board, t h i s p r o p o s a l was n o t approved by the B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e In an e f f o r t views and f i n a l i z e  Branch.  to e x p e d i a t e a t r a d e - o f f o f the c o n f l i c t i n g  the c o n t r a c t  designs,  the Water  Investigations  Branch r e f e r r e d t h e problem to t h e Environment and Land Use S e c r e t a r i a t . The  S e c r e t a r i a t was a l s o unable to arrange a compromise among the  conflicting parties. had  On the b a s i s o f the v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s  a r i s e n from among the a s s o c i a t e d  agencies,  i t developed  that three  a l t e r n a t i v e s which c o u l d be adopted as designs f o r the c o n t r a c t and asked that  the Environment and Land Use Committee s e t t l e the i s s u e by  making a c h o i c e . The be  followed  first  a l t e r n a t i v e provided  f o r the i n n e r alignment t o  a t a c o s t o f $128,000 and f o r the remaining l a n d beyong  the r e h a b i l i t a t e d i n n e r dyke to be d e s i g n a t e d A second a l t e r n a t i v e p r o v i d e d followed  f o r the outer  a t a c o s t o f $383,000.  The t h i r d  as a w a t e r f o w l s a n c t u a r y .  dyke alignment to be alternative  f o r the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f both e x i s t i n g dykes.  provided  Water l e v e l c o n t r o l  methods i n v o l v i n g i n t e r n a l ! d r a i n a g e works c o u l d be p r o v i d e d and administered  by an i n t e r - D e p a r t m e n t a l  committee.  This a l t e r n a t i v e  would permit a use o f the area by both a g r i c u l t u r e and w i l d l i f e . Although c o s t e s t i m a t e s were n o t p r o v i d e d i t was expected t h a t  i n this latter alternative,  the c o s t s would be g r e a t .  After considering  these t h r e e  a l t e r n a t i v e s , The Environment  63  and Land Use adopted.  Committee d e c i d e d t h a t the second a l t e r n a t i v e was  Designs were f i n a l i z e d and  c. Boundary  to be  the o u t e r dyke was r e h a b i l i t a t e d . 1 3  Bay  The  Boundary Bay  c o n t r a c t s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r have a l s o  i n v o l v e d c o m p l i c a t i o n s of land-use  p o l i c y by v i r t u e of the  of c o m p e t i t i v e i n t e r e s t s i n the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s .  involvement  P a r t of the  original  p l a n f o r the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g sea dykes around Boundary Bay was  to use the Bay  officials  as a cheap source of dyke m a t e r i a l s .  from the B.C.  F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch o b j e c t e d to  p l a n on the grounds t h a t the dredging  Fisheries this  a c t i v i t y c o u l d damage the  s e n s i t i v e f i s h e r i e s h a b i t a t i n the a r e a .  I t subsequently  contacted  o t h e r a g e n c i e s w i t h s i m i l a r c o m p e t i t i v e i n t e r e s t s i n the Programme a s k i n g f o r support  of t h e i r p o s i t i o n .  The Marine Resources S e r v i c e o f  p r o v i n c i a l Department of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n was support  g i v e n t h e i r concern  e f f e c t on commercial f i s h . f o r support  land-based  The  The  f e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e was  l e a d agencies  asked  f o r the c o n s e r v a t i o n of subsequently  agreed  to  g r a v e l p i t s f o r dyke m a t e r i a l s a t an a d d i t i o n a l c o s t t o  the Programme of over $1  million.  F i s h e r i e s o f f i c i a l s from B.C. expressed  for  over a c t i v i t i e s which c o u l d have a d e t r i m e n t a l  on the b a s i s of t h e i r concern  t i d a l f i s h populations.  asked  the  a concern  F i s h and W i l d l i f e a l s o  over p o s s i b l e encroachments, of the dyke s l o p e s  on the s e n s i t i v e f o r e s h o r e areas of the Bay.  They argued t h a t a  s t e e p e r s l o p e c o u l d minimize such encroachment and environmental  damage.  However, the l e a d a g e n c i e s  thus  potential  indicated that  use  64  by d e s i g n i n g f o r a s t e e p e r s l o p e , a h e a v i e r , more expensive m a t e r i a l would have to be used to c o u n t e r a c t caused by wave a c t i o n . mentally unproductive agreed  dyke  the n a t u r a l e r o s i o n  Much of the f o r e s h o r e c o n s i s t s of e n v i r o n coarse m a t e r i a l s .  A compromise s o l u t i o n was  A  t o which would a l l o w the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch to s e t  standards  f o r the amount of encroachment t h a t c o u l d be p e r m i t t e d  out s e r i o u s l y damaging what n a t u r a l h a b i t a t t h e r e  was.  The Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch, as a r e s u l t of these a c t i o n s w i t h c o m p e t i t i v e a g e n c i e s , began to r e c o g n i z e the p o t e n t i a l s of the a r e a . p l a n n i n g committee was  The asked  with-  G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l  inter-  recreational  District  f o r i t s r e p o r t on the a r e a which o u t l i n e d  the p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e f u t u r e uses of the area which ranged from c o n s e r v a t i o n to an e x t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l development.  In l i g h t  of  these p o s s i b i l i t i e s , = W a t e r I n v e s t i g a t i o n s approached the E n v i r o n ment and Land Use  S e c r e t a r i a t f o r an assessment of p r o v i n c i a l  use p l a n s f o r the a r e a . ibilities,  The  S e c r e t a r i a t , upon r e v i e w i n g  the  landposs-  then r e f e r r e d the Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch to the  Branch of the Department of R e c r e a t i o n and  Conservation  Parks  to enable  an  assessment of the r e c r e a t i o n a l uses which c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the dyke designs f o r the c o n t r a c t s i n the a r e a . Land Use to  Committee subsequently  make a d d i t i o n a l funds  The  Environment  i n d i c a t e d the P r o v i n c e would be  a v a i l a b l e f o r such a s o c i a l l y s e n s i t i v e  and willing area.  The Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch then i n s t r u c t e d the c o n s u l t a n t s to prepare  i n i t i a l d e s i g n p r o p o s a l s f o r each of the Boundary Bay  contracts  65  which would be considered d.  by  compatible w i t h the a l t e r n a t i v e land-use p o l i c i e s the Environment and  Land Use  Committee and  its  being  Secretariat.14  Roberts Bank There i s e v i d e n c e to suggest t h a t , at Roberts Bank,  have been a number of c o m p l e x i t i e s  i n v o l v e d i n the c o n t r a c t , not  l e a s t o f which has been the d i r e c t r e s u l t of the a c t i v e and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of s e v e r a l p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t groups.  The  dissenting  the e x i s t i n g  alignment of the dyke which runs through the Tswassen I n d i a n  forshore  I n d i a n band had  accreted  l a n d i t be .^routed  l a n d and along  gained l e g a l t i t l e  As  r e a l i z e d by  subject  design  proposal  was  to minor r e v i s i o n s , the c o n t r a c t was  At  the request  in  the c o n t r a c t p r o h i b i t i n g d r e d g i n g and  their  a means  developing  w i t h the  r e f e r r e d to the  of  in lieu  c o n s u l t i n g e n g i n e e r s were i n s t r u c t e d to p r e p a r e  This i n i t i a l  a g e n c i e s and,  to c r o s s  the band, and  d e s i g n s f o r a r e a l i g n m e n t of the dyke i n c o n f o r m i t y demands.  Reserve. acres  the seaward edge of t h i s p r o p e r t y .  of the p o s i t i v e economic b e n e f i t s t h a t c o u l d be the l a n d , the  to over 200  i n s i s t e d t h a t i f the dyke was  of a v o i d i n g u n c o n t r o l l e d d y k i n g o f the l a n d by  the  most economic  p r o j e c t i n t h i s case would have i n v o l v e d r e h a b i l i t a t i n g  However, the  there  initial Indians'  associated approved.  o f the F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e , s e v e r a l c l a u s e s were i n c l u d e d  l i g h t of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a l u e  stockpiling activities in  of the a d j o i n i n g areas at a s u b s t a n t i a l  a d d i t i o n a l c o s t to the Programme. However, as c o n s t r u c t i o n proceeded, p r i v a t e c o n s e r v a t i o n backed by  the o p i n i o n s  of f e d e r a l and  groups,  p r o v i n c i a l b i o l o g i s t s , began q u e s t -  i o n i n g the e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage t h a t was  to be  done by  the r e a l i g n e d  dyke.  66  These groups mounted a s u b s t a n t i a l lobby. exerted and  by  the B.C.  W i l d l i f e Federation,  Environmental Control  from the  f e d e r a l and  intervened  and  negotiations,  In response to the and  the S o c i e t y f o r P o l l u t i o n  (S.P.E.C.), among o t h e r s ,  the  ministers  p r o v i n c i a l Departments of the Environment  ordered c o n s t r u c t i o n on the p r o j e c t h a l t e d . such as those o u t l i n e d i n other  pressures  finally  Complex  case s t u d i e s , have  s i n c e been t a k i n g p l a c e i n an attempt to f i n d an e q u i t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to the r e a l i g n e d dyke.''""'  67  NOTES:  CHAPTER FIVE  1. i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s c o n t r a c t i s based on the comments of e l e v e n respondents who had some involvement i n one of the agencies mentioned. 2. i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s c o n t r a c t i s based on the comments o f f i v e respondents. These respondents were from the Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch, I n l a n d Waters D i r e c t o r a t e , F e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e , and B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch.  Land Use provided  3. respondents from Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s , the Environment and S e c r e t a r i a t , B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e , and the c o n s u l t i n g f i r m i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s c o n t r a c t .  4. s i x respondents p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s c o n t r a c t . These respondents were from the I n l a n d Waters D i r e c t o r a t e , B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e , the p r o v i n c i a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , and Water Investigations. 5. the b a r g a i n i n g which takes p l a c e at the working l e v e l does not i n c l u d e s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s from the b a r g a i n i n g agencies a l t h o u g h there w i l l be a n a t u r a l communication of i n f o r m a t i o n between these working and s e n i o r l e v e l o f f i c i a l s . 6. i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s case i s based on the responses of i n d i v i d u a l s from the I n l a n d Waters D i r e c t o r a t e , F e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e , and the Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch. 7. s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s i n the F e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e , I n l a n d Waters D i r e c t o r a t e , and Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s had an involvement i n the n e g o t i a t i o n s i n t h i s case. Although the adjustments agreed to were made by what i s termed here as ' r e l a t i v e l y simple bargaining'., because the stakes f o r both the c o m p e t i t i v e and advocate i n t e r e s t s i n t h i s case were p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h , these o f f i c i a l s became i n v o l v e d by o u t l i n i n g to each o t h e r which a l t e r n a t i v e s c o u l d and c o u l d not be considered reasonable. 8. respondents from the I n l a n d Waters D i r e c t o r a t e and F e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e p r o v i d e d the b u l k of the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d .  eer  9. the P r o j e c t Manager, m u n i c i p a l e n g i n e e r , (with I n l a n d Waters), p r o v i d e d t h i s i n f r o m a t i o n .  Project  Engin-  NOTES:  CHAPTER FIVE  (cont'd)  10. the respondents from the Inland Waters Directorate, Water Investigations, the municipal engineer, the consulting engineer, and the Canadian W i l d l i f e Service provided t h i s information. 11. the Project Engineer, Project Manager, consutling engineer, and municipal engineer provided the information presented. 12. the information presented i s based on interviews with the Project Manager, the municipal engineer, the consultint engineer, other o f f i c i a l s i n the Water Investigations Branch, and o f f i c i a l s from the Inland Waters Directorate, Federal Fisheries Service, Canadian W i l d l i f e Service, B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e , the p r o v i n c i a l Lands Service, and the Environment and Land Use Secretariat. Additional information was obtained from the minutes of the meeting which was called by the lead agencies. 13. interviews with o f f i c i a l s from the Environment and Land Use Secretariat, B.C. Fish and W i l d l i f e , Federal F i s h e r i e s , Water Investigations, and i n p a r t i c u l a r with the Project Manager, municipal engineer, and Project Engineer provided this information. 14. o f f i c i a l s from the Environment and Land Use Secretari a t , B.C. Fish and W i l d l i f e , Federal Fisheries Service, consulting engineer, Water Investigations, and Inland Waters Directorate provided the information presented. 15. federal and p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s were unable to provide any information on this contract given the controversy surrounding the issues involved. The information presented has therefore been based on an interview with the B.C. W i l d l i f e Federation, and the following media accounts of the contract: "Dike Building halt urged", in the Vancouver Sun, May 31, 1975; "Dike job under study", i n Ibid., June 25, 1975; "Dike work cutback asked", i n Ibid., June 27, 1975; Thomas, L., "Indians propose cash or land trade i n dike project", i n Ibid., July 15, 1975, p. 2; and Thomas, L., "Williams promises to probe Roberts Bank dike project", i n Ibid., June 24, 1975, p. 16.  69  CHAPTER SIX Concluding  Observations  T h i s study has i d e n t i f i e d  the p r o c e s s  of  decision-making  i n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r F l o o d C o n t r o l Programme and the r o l e s p l a y e d by v a r i o u s a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s i n t h a t p r o c e s s .  In t h i s f i n a l s e c t i o n ,  c o n c l u s i o n s a r e drawn from the i n f o r m a t i o n presented chapters  and some o b s e r v a t i o n s  i n the p r e c e d i n g  a r e made which suggest avencues f o r  further investigations. Conclusions The  procedures d e f i n e d i n Chapter Three, the p r o v i s i o n  system d e s c r i b e d  i n Chapter Four, and the evidence  provided  i n Chapter  F i v e suggest t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s c a n be drawn: 1.  The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t  i s d u r i n g t h e Advanced P l a n n i n g a r e prepared  secure  Stage when i n i t i a l d e s i g n  and r e f e r r e d to a s s o c i a t e d a g e n c i e s .  inary Planning to  involvement o f a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s  Stage, the l e a d agencies  will  i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r than o p i n i o n s .  During  proposals the P r e l i m -  c o n t a c t other During  agencies  the C o n s t r u c t i o n  Stage, a s s o c i a t i o n i n t e r e s t s become i n v o l v e d o n l y i f t h e r e has been a departure  from the t r a d e - o f f s p r e v i o u s l y made o r i f p a r t i c u l a r  i n t e r e s t s were n o t c o n s i d e r e d 2.  i n the t r a d e - o f f s t h a t were made.  Advocate i n t e r e s t s ( o u t s i d e t h e l e a d a g e n c i e s )  p l a y a prominent r o l e i n t h e d e c i s i o n which a r e made. a b l e t o suggest they a r e s a t i s f i e d  do not  I t i s reason-  t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s o f the P r o g r -  amme u s u a l l y accommodate t h e i r i n t e r e s t  i n seeing f l o o d p r o t e c t i o n  70  provided. will  Where a d v o c a t e  either  interested  be concerned i n proposals  3. has  interests that  to protect additional  cost  they  constructed  advocated  they  formed  supportive  I n each o f the cases  (Matsqui part  or  interests  which have  and Brunswick P o i n t )  of the f i n a l  design  been  the design  a t an  additional  t o t h e Programme. 4.  difficult.  The accommodation When t h e s e  of competitive  interests  simple  adjustment  l e a d i n g t o a compromise  competitive  adjustments  conflict  relatively  the  role,  land.  The accommodation o f c o n d i t i o n a l l y  a n d a r e now  features  a prominent  t h e p r o t e c t i o n may b e i n a d e q u a t e  g e n e r a l l y n o t been d i f f i c u l t .  studied  do p l a y  interests.  a r e made.  their  demands a r e n o t t o o i m p o r t a n t  will  and l e a d a g e n c i e s  involve sacrificing h a v e t o make  a particular  a r e a number o f o t h e r negotiations plexities  take  design  or f r u s t r a t i o n  levels  be r e s o r t e d t o and p l a y  are  made.  5.  Generally  are roughly  made b y when t h e  equal.  Programme s t a n d a r d s ,  l o s s e s which  When of  their  competitive  c o u l d be i n c u r r e d by  are p a r t i c u l a r l y  affected  i n search  can  or a concession  a mutual  o r when a n a c c o m m o d a t i o n  proposal  agencies  place  agencies,  concessions.  When t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l adopting  the lead  Mutual adjustments are i d e n t i f i e d  to the competitive  interests  just  i s more  These can be e i t h e r  solution  costs  i n t e r e s t s would  with  interests  by t h e d e s i g n  high  and  adopted,  o f an e q u i t a b l e t r a d e - o f f .  there extensive  I f com-  become c o n s i d e r a b l e , s u p e r i o r a u t h o r i t y  a prominent r o l e  speaking,  affected  i n the t r a d e - o f f s which  interests  rely  h e a v i l y upon  71  p a r t i c i p a t i n g government a g e n c i e s to defend t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . i n t e r e s t groups can  form and  Private  become i n v o l v e d when p a r t i c u l a r a f f e c t e d  i n t e r e s t s d e c i d e t h e i r i n t e r e s t s have not been a d e q u a t e l y  represented.  Such i n t e r e s t group involvement i n the p r o v i s i o n system i s most n o t e a b l e among c o n d i t i o n a l l y s u p p o r t i v e 6.  interests.  Commitments a r e made b e f o r e  to comment.  D u r i n g the P r e l i m i n a r y  gathered and  a s s e s s e d and  Advanced P l a n n i n g  a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s are  Planning  Stage, i n f o r m a t i o n  objectives are set.  Stage t h a t the o p i n i o n s  I t i s not u n t i l  asked is  the  of a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s form  p a r t of the d e c i s i o n s made. Further  Research and  Investigations  There are a number of p o i n t s  i n t h i s study which c o u l d  be  addressed i n f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . 1.  There appears to be  c o n s i d e r a t i o n and  a s u b s t a n t i a l opportunity  However, as one  respondent noted, i t i s  r e a s o n a b l e to assume t h a t the p u b l i c i s g e n e r a l l y not F r a s e r R i v e r F l o o d C o n t r o l Programme e x i s t s .  t o respond to the v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies.  design  2.  p u b l i c an  the there  opportunity  which a r e c o n s i d e r e d  As suggested e a r l i e r ,  government a g e n c i e s are not An assessment of how  proposals  aware t h a t  I t i s apparent t h a t  s p e c i f i c p r o c e d u r e s f o r g i v i n g the g e n e r a l  fact reflect  the  subsequent accommodation of a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s through  the p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s .  are no  for  by  the o b j e c t i v e s of  the  the  the same as those of a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s .  w e l l a g e n c i e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Programme i n  the i n t e r e s t s a f f e c t e d i s t h e r e f o r e Many of the adjustments made d u r i n g  necessary. the Advanced  Planning  72  Stage are made at a substantial a d d i t i o n a l cost to the Programme. These adjustments are often made to accommodate i n t e r e s t s not previously consulted,.  The commitments made during the Preliminary Planning Stage  are based on a benefit-cost assessment of economic f e a s i b i l i t y .  It  would be useful to compare the i n i t i a l cost estimates made to determine the f e a s i b i l i t y of various projects with the actual c a p i t a l outlays following the various adjustments made.  These should also be compared  with the o r i g i n a l assessment of benefits.  The procedures for gathering  and assessing information on which the commitments to provide dykes are made also need much a d d i t i o n a l study.  73  APPENDIX A The Fraser River Flood Control Agreement  AGREEMENT covering a plan forflood control in the Fraser Valley, British Columbia T H I S A G R E E M E N T made the 24th day of May, 1968. BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA (hereinafter referred to as "Canada"), represented by the Honourable Jean-Luc Pepin, Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources of Canada O F T H E FIRST PART, AND THE GOVERNMENT OF T H E P R O V I N C E O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A (hereinafter referred to as "the Province"), represented by the Honourable Ray Williston, Minister of Lands, Forests and Water Resources OF T H E SECOND PART. W H E R E A S the Fraser River Valley and other areas adjacent to the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia have in the past experienced widespread losses and damages from flooding; AND W H E R E A S such flood loss and damage can be reduced by a program of works; AND W H E R E A S Canada and the Province have agreed that it is in the national and the provincial interest to undertake jointly a comprehensive program of flood control for the area; AND W H E R E A S Canada and the Province have agreed on a general flood control program, hereinafter referred to as "the Program" for the area and on a plan for its implementation as described herein; AND W H E R E A S HIS E X C E L L E N C Y , the Govemor-in-Council by Order-in-Council  P.C. 1968.-3/1018 of May 29, 1968 has authorized the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources to execute this Agreement on behalf of Canada; AND W H E R E A S HIS HONOUR, the Lieutenant Governor-in-Conncil by Ordcr-inCouncil No. 1629, 1968 has authorized the Minister of Lands, Forests and Water Resources to execute this Agreement on behalf of the Province; NOW T H E R E F O R E , it is agreed by and between the parties hereto as follows:  1. T h e purpose of this Agreement is the joint undertaking of a program of studies and works for flood control aimed at substantially reducing the flood threat to this area. 2. A l l projects undertaken under the Program shall be approved by the parties hereto and shall be substantially consistent with the Program Guide, attached hereto as Schedule " A " , which describes and defines the basic outline of the Program and the objectives sought to be attained thereby. 3. Subject to the terms and conditions of this Agreement and subject to the funds being voted by Parliament, the aggregate sum which C a n a d a shall be liable to contribute i n respect of the Program and projects hereunder, as more particularly described and defined i n the Agreement and Schedule " A " hereof, shall not exceed $18,000,000. 4. Subject to the terms and conditions of this Agreement and subject to the funds being appropriated by the provincial legislature of British Columbia, the Province shall contribute, i n respect of the Program and projects hereunder, the sum of $18,000,000 exclusive of the cost of operating and maintaining said projects after an agreed completion date. 5. Canada and the Province from time to time during the life of this Agreement may approve proposed development projects of the Program which are practical, engineeringly sound, economically justified, and substantially consistent with the Program Guide, but i n no circumstances shall funds be contributed i n respect of any project or part of the Agreement unless approval thereof by C a n a d a and the Province has been given. 6. Canada and the Province upon request shall give to the other any i n formation about the Program or any project thereof. 7. Canada and the Province i n a mutually agreed form shall approve annually, on or before the first of September of each year, estimates of the cost of the Program and projects hereunder to Canada and to the Province for the fiscal year beginning the first of A p r i l next following. C a n a d a and the Province on the first of M a y of each year shall approve a forecast of estimated expenditures during the five fiscal years subsequent thereto, or over the period of time remaining i n the Agreement, whichever is the lesser. 8. Canada made pursuant documentation. and documents  and the Province shall keep complete records of all expenditures to the Agreement and shall support such expenditures with proper Canada and the Province upon request shall make these records available to auditors appointed by the other.  9. Subject to the cost sharing provisions of this Agreement, C a n a d a shall pay to the Province expenditures made by the Province pursuant to this Agreement upon the submission of a claim i n a mutually agreed manner and form by the Province, certified by a senior official of the Province, and bearing a Provincial audit certificate.  10. Each development project agreed to by Canada and the Province shall specify each party's respective share of the cost of the undertaking. 11. In the event that Canada and the Province agree that further studies or information with respect to the Program demonstrate that the objecives and basic guidelines provided for by paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 and described in Schedule " A " hereof require alteration and amendment, the Agreement may from time to time be reviewed by the parties hereto and, with the approval of the Governor-inCouncil and Lieutenant Governor-in-Council, may be revised. 12. The following conditions with respect to employment and the awarding of contracts under this Agreement shall apply to all projects carried out under this Agreement and, in the case of sub-paragraph (b) hereof, shall be made a condition of all contracts entered into as a result of this Agreement. (a) Where practicable, the recruiting of labour shall be conducted through the Canada Manpower Division of the Department of Manpower and Immigration. (b) In the employment of persons on any project there shall be no discrimination by reason of race, national origin, colour, religion or political affiliation. 13. (a) This Agreement shall not be construed as to vest in Canada any proprietary interest in the projects constructed hereunder, (b) Except for acts of God, the Province shall save harmless and indemnify Canada for and against any and all liability, loss, damages or expenses, which may be suffered or created as a result of implementing the Program or projects hereunder and for the implementation of which Canada is not directly responsible hereunder. 14. This Agreement shall commence on, and take effect from, the date on which it becomes signed by both Canada and the Province and no costs incurred more man 60 days prior to that date shall be eligible or considered for payment under this Agreement except those specifically provided for in paragraph 21. The Agreement shall terminate 10 years from the date of signing, and no project or program shall be approved after that date, and no claim for contribution made in respect of any project or program under this Agreement or part of the program under this Agreement shall be paid unless it is received by Canada within one year following the agreed completion date of the approved project. This agreement may be renewed for any further period agreed upon by the parties hereto, but such renewal shall be subject to the approval of the Governor-inCouncil and the Lieutenant Governor-in-Council. 15. (a) No Member of Parliament or member of the Legislature of the Province shall hold, enjoy or be admitted to any share or part of any contract, agreement, commission or benefit arising out of any project under the Agreement. "  (b) Canada and the Province agree that in carrying out the Program or any project under this Agreement they shall observe and abide by the conditions respecting fair wages and hours of work under the Fair Wages and Hours of Labour Act, R.S.C., 1952, c. 108.  Administration 16. The purpose and intent of this section is to establish managerial machinery to implement effectively the Program described in this Agreement; to provide for adequate co-ordination among Canada, the Province and their agencies herein affected; to ensure that by placing management of that portion of the Program which is assigned by the Joint Program Committee as defined in paragraph 18 (b) to the Province in the hands of one provincial agency there is coordinated and comprehensive execution of the whole Program; and to arrange for continued joint involvement and participation by Canada and the Province in the planning and operation of the Program. 17. (a) The Province, through its agency the Department of Lands, Forests and Water Resources, shall be responsible for constructing approved projects, for operation and maintenance of the projects and for implementing all other portions of the Program assigned to the Province by the Joint Program Committee. (b) Local authorities may, pursuant to an undertaking between the Province and the local authority, carry out all or part of the project on behalf of the Province and share in paying the cost thereof, as shall be provided under paragraph 21, but any such delegation of responsibility undertaken by the Province under the Agreement shall not release the Province from its obligations under this Agreement. 18. Canada and the Province shall participate in a process of joint planning. T o facilitate this process there shall be established: (a) A Joint Advisory Board consisting of six members at a senior level, three of whom will be appointed by Canada and three by the Province. This Board shall meet at least once each year and shall report to the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources of Canada and to the Minister of Lands, Forests and Water Resources of the Province on its evaluation of the progress of the Program, its views and recommendations with respect to its implementation, the annual budget set aside for the Program and its plan for the forthcoming year. (b) A Joint Program Committee consisting of three members appointed by Canada and three by the Province. This Committee shall be responsible for carrying out the joint planning and studies, the recommendation of projects for approval by Canada and the Province, and the co-ordination of the implementation of approved projects. The Committee may recommend to the Provincial Civil Service Commission appointment of a Program Director and such other staff as may be needed from time to time to assist it in the performance of its duties; the Program Director and such other staff shall be responsible, func-  tionally, to the Joint Program Committee. T h e Committee shall report to the Joint Advisory Board. 19. T h e Province shall provide the staff including any field staff and administrative facilities necessary to implement the construction phase of the Program and any portion of the Program assigned to the Province by the Joint Program Committee.  Cost sharing 20. I n respect of costs directly related to the administration of this Program, including staff and consultant costs, Canada shall contribute 50 per cent of the total cost. 21. (a) Canada shall contribute 50 per cent of the costs incurred by the Province i n the planning, design, and construction of projects under this Agreement, after deducting that portion to be paid by local interests benefiting. (b) I n the case of all projects constructed, local interests benefiting shall pay an equitable proportion of the cost of the project. This proportion shall be established for each project approval. (c) T h e costs incurred by the Province with respect to this paragraph shall include those costs incurred prior to the signing of the Agreement with respect to improvements of the dykes done under emergency conditions, particularly following the highwater period of 1964, which are i n conformity with guidelines established under this Agreement and its Schedule " A " . T h e total of such expenditures by the Province was $90,297.03 of which the Federal Government share under this clause is $45,148.51. 22. A s provided i n the Program Guide, projects may be constructed to serve Indian lands and Indian interests. I n the event and to the extent that Indian lands or Indian interests are served i n a project, special cost-sharing arrangements may be negotiated. 23. T h e Province shall be responsible for operating and maintaining projects completed under this Agreement i n proper order at a l l times, and for a l l operation and maintenance costs associated therewith. Where dyking is undertaken on Indian Reserves, Canada will arrange, i n consultation with the Indians, to provide access to the lands for this purpose.  Land use zoning andfloodproofing 24. T h e Province undertakes to continue to encourage a program of land use zoning and flood proofing to diminish potential flood losses i n the area covered by this Agreement.  Research and further planning 25. Canada and the Province may jointly undertake further planning, social, economic or engineering studies and feasibility studies and assessments of this Program or any project under this Agreement.  26. In any event, Canada and the Province, no more than two years after the date of this Agreement, shall jointly initiate a review of the program of upstream storage set out in the "Final Report of the Fraser River Board on Flood Control and Hydro-Electric Power in the Fraser River Basin", dated September 1963, including any additional measures, with a view to recommending further flood protection, utilization and control of the water resources of the basin. 27. The cost of studies under paragraphs 25 and 26 shall be shared jointly by Canada and the Province, but the total cost of studies under paragraph 26 shall not exceed $1,000,000, and shall comprise part of the total funding under this Agreement as described under paragraphs 3 and 4. IN WITNESS W H E R E O F The Honourable Jean-Luc Pepin, Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources has hereunto set his hand on behalf of Canada and The Honourable Ray Williston, Minister of Lands, Forests and Water Resources for the Province, has hereunto set his hand on behalf of the Province of British Columbia.  In the Presence of  Signed on behalf of the Government of Canada  (A.T.DAVIDSON) (JEAN-LUC PEPIN)  In the Presence of  Signed on behalf of British Columbia  (A. F. P A G E T ) (RAY W I L L I S T O N )  APPENDIX B The  Questionnaire  81  QUESTIONNAIRE  Interview Number:  Name of Respondent:  Date:  T i t l e of Respondent:  Time Interview Began:  Name of Respondent's Department:  1.  Respondent's correct t i t l e i s : ( i f not already known)  2.  What are the objectives of R's organization?  3.  What are the kinds of a c t i v i t i e s R's organization normally undertakes?  4. What i s the task assigned to the organization ( i e : information ection, administrative, planning, etc.) 5.  What i s R's r o l e i n the organization?  6.  How does a project get started?  coll-  7. How does R's organization get involved i n the Programme ( i e : at what stage) 8. What i s R's organization's interest i n the Programme? sive i s their involvement? 9.  How exten-  How are p r i o r i t i e s for project construction set?  10. When objections get raised how are they handled? (probe for eg.) 11. Has R or R's organization ever had any contact with the following agencies with regard to a Fraser River Flood Control question? (probe for p a r t i c u l a r cases, p a r t i c u l a r issues):  AGENCIES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT: Department of the Environment: — F i s h e r i e s and Marine Service: Fisheries Management Service Ocean and Aquatic A f f a i r s —Environmental Protection Service  — E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management S e r v i c e : Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e Inland Waters D i r e c t o r a t e P o l i c y and Programme Development Department of P u b l i c Works M i n i s t r y of Transport: — N a t i o n a l Harbours Board — N o r t h F r a s e r Harbour Commission — F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission Department o f I n d i a n  Affairs  Department o f R e g i o n a l and Economic Expansion Others:  PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT: Department o f the Environment: — W a t e r Resources S e r v i c e Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch Water R i g h t s Branch P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch —Lands  Service  —Forest  Service  Environment and Land Use S e c r e t a r i a t Environment and Land Use Committee B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e Department of Highways Department o f R e c r e a t i o n — P a r k s Branch —Fish  and C o n s e r v a t i o n :  and W i l d l i f e Branch  —Marine  Resources  B.C. Harbours  Branch  Board  Department o f R e g i o n a l and Economic  Expansion  Others:  MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENTS:  REGIONAL GOVERNMENTS: —G.V.R.D.  RESEARCH AND CONSULTING FIRMS: — B . C . Research — P r i v a t e Consulting AESL  Firms  CBA  INTEREST GROUPS: —SPEC —B.C. Environmental C o u n c i l —Sierra  Club  —B.C. W i l d l i f e —Industrial  Federation  Users  TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL ASSOCIATIONS: — C o u n c i l of F o r e s t I n d u s t r i e s — T o w b o a t Owners A s s o c i a t i o n —Fisheries  Association  OTHER AGENCIES NOT PREVIOUSLY MENTIONED:  84  APPENDIX C Location of the Case Studies  MAP  ONE  Downstream F l o o d C o n t r o l Case  Studies  00  TABLE 1 Downstream F l o o d C o n t r o l Case S t u d i e s (to accompany Map One)  Ewen Slough C o n t r a c t Brunswick P o i n t  Contract  Beach Grove-Boundary Bay V i l l a g e Boundary Bay C e n t r a l C o n t r a c t Boundary Bay East  Contract  T i l b u r y Island Contract Queensborough  Contract  Contract  MAP  TWO  Upstream F l o o d C o n t r o l Case  Studies  00 <4  88  TABLE 2 Upstream F l o o d C o n t r o l Case S t u d i e s (to accompany Map Two)  8.  Matsqui Contract  9.  Vedder Cannal C o n t r a c t  10.  C h i l l i w a c k I n d i a n Reserve C o n t r a c t  11.  G r e y e l l Slough C o n t r a c t  12.  Kent  Contract  89  APPENDIX D The Respondents  90  AGENCY REPRESENTATIVES INTERVIEWED  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT: Department o f the Environment: — F i s h e r i e s and Marine S e r v i c e : F i s h e r i e s Management S e r v i c e : 1. Mr. Lee D u t t a ; Engineer, Habitat P r o t e c t i o n Unit 2. Mr. Bruce H i l l a b y ; B i o l o g i s t , H a b i t a t P r o t e c t i o n U n i t 3. Mr. John M c N a l l y ; Senior Engineer, Habitat P r o t e c t i o n 4. Mr. B r i a n T u t t y ; B i o l o g i s t , Habitat Protection Unit — E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management S e r v i c e : Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e : 1.  Mr. E r n i e T a y l o r ;  Biologist,  Impact Assessment  Inland Waters D i r e c t o r a t e 1. 2. 3. 4.  Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr.  A r c h i e Book; Economist, Water Management and P l a n n i n g Mac C l a r k e ; R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r , I n l a n d Waters J i m Leong; P r o j e c t Engineer John P r e s t o n ; Head, P r o j e c t s D i v i s i o n  PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT: Department o f t h e Environment: — W a t e r Resources S e r v i c e : Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch 1. Mr. Pete Brady, D i r e c t o r 2. Mr. Angus MacPherson, P r o j e c t Manager 3. Mr. J e f f Simmons; D i r e c t o r o f S e r v i c e s 4. Mr. Doug Watts; C h i e f , P l a n n i n g and Surveys D i v i s i o n —Lands  Service: 1. Mr. Bob Gilmore; 2. Mr. John S e c t o r ;  R e g i o n a l Land I n s p e c t o r Coordinator of Environmental  Services  Environment and Land Use S e c r e t a r i a t : 1. Mr. B r i a n Gates; B i o l o g i s t , Special Projects Unit 2. Mr. B i l l W o l f e r s t a n ; Economist, S p e c i a l P r o j e c t s U n i t Department of A g r i c u l t u r e : 1. Mr. Roy W i l k i n s o n ; D i r e c t o r , Product and M a r k e t i n g 2. Mr. Reg M i l l e r ; Director, Special Services Department o f R e c r e a t i o n  and C o n s e r v a t i o n :  Services  Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch: 1. Mr. Bruce Cox; Regional Habitat Protection Biologist 2. Mr. Ray Halladay; Chief W i l d l i f e B i o l o g i s t  MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENTS: —Delta: 1. Mr. Otto Voutte;  Assistant Municipal  Engineer  RESEARCH AND CONSULTING FIRMS: —AESL: 1. Mr. Adolf Machel;  Consulting Engineer, Delta Project  INTEREST GROUPS: —B.C. W i l d l i f e Federation: 1. Mr. W i l l Paulick;  Assistant Director  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1. Backstrom, C.H., and Hursh, G.D., Survey Research, M i n n e a p o l i s : Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. 2. B l a l o c k , H.M., An I n t r o d u c t i o n to S o c i a l Research, Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1970. 3. B r o s s , I.D.B., Design f o r D e c i s i o n , T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n L t d . , 1953.  Collier-  4. Burns, R.M., "Intergovernmental R e l a t i o n s i n Canada" i n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review, Volume 33:1, January/February 1973. 5. Canada, O r g a n i z a t i o n of the Government of Canada, Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, 1975. 6. D a h l , R.A. , and Lindblom, C.E., and W e l f a r e , New York: Harper and Row, 1953.  Politics,  Economics,  7. Dorcey, A.H.J., and Fox, I.K., "An Assessment of U n i v e r s i Sponsored I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Research: The W i s c o n s i n R i v e r and the Lower F r a s e r R i v e r Water Q u a l i t y S t u d i e s " , i n P r o c e e d i n g s of the A.S.C.E. Conference on I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y A n a l y s i s of Water Resource Systems, June 19-22, 1973, U n i v e r s i t y of C o l o r a d o .  and  8. Company,  Downs, A., 1958.  I n s i d e B u r e a u c r a c y , B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown,  9. F i n a l Report of the F r a s e r R i v e r Board on F l o o d C o n t r o l and H y d r o - E l e c t r i c Power i n the F r a s e r R i v e r B a s i n , V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1964. 10. F r a s e r R i v e r F l o o d C o n t r o l Programme I n f o r m a t i o n V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1968.  Guide,  11. Friesema, P.A., " I n t e r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l Agreements i n Metro A r e a s " , i n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Science Q u a r t e r l y , Volume 15, 1970. 12. G i b s o n , D., " C o n s t i t u t i o n a l J u r i s d i c t i o n over E n v i r onmental Management i n Canada", i n the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Law J o u r n a l , Volume 23, 1973. 13. Gouldner, A.W., "The Norm of R e c i p r o c i t y : A P r e l i m i n a r y Statement", i n the American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, Volume 25, A p r i l , 1960 14. Gow, D., "The S e t t i n g of Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " , i n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t a r a t i o n Review, Volume 33:1, J a n u a r y / F e b r u a r y , 1973.  93  15. Gregg, P.M., An A l t e r n a t i v e Approach f o r the Study of E f f i c i e n c y i n the Urban P u b l i c S e c t o r , p r e p a r e d f o r the annual meeting of the M i c h i g a n Academy of S c i e n c e s , M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , March, 1974. 16. Hoos, L.M., and Packman, G.A., The F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y S t u d i e s o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l Knowledge to 1974, S p e c i a l E s t u a r y S e r i e s Number 1, F i s h e r i e s and Marine S e r v i c e , P a c i f i c E n v i r o n m e n t a l I n s t i t u t e , West Vancouver, B.C., 1974. 17. I n s t i t u t i o n a l Design f o r Water Q u a l i t y Management: A Case Study o f the W i s c o n s i n R i v e r B a s i n , Volume 1, S e c t i o n A - Summary, Water Resources C e n t e r , U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n , 1971. 18. L a F o r e s t , G.V. , A l l o c a t i o n of Taxing Power Under the Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n , T o r o n t o : Canadian Tax F o u n d a t i o n , 1967. 19. L a F o r e s t , G.V., N a t u r a l Resources and P u b l i c P r o p e r t y folder the Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n , T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1969. 20. L a s k i n , B., "The J u r i s d i c t i o n a l Framework f o r Water Management", i n Resources f o r Tomorrow, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , Volume 1, 1961. 21. Lindblom, C.E., C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1968.  The  Policy-Making  Process,  Englewood  22. Lindblom, C.E., "The S c i e n c e of Muddling Through", i n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review, Volume 19, Number 2, S p r i n g 1959. 23. Lindblom, C.E., "Tinbergen on P o l i c y Makings", i n the J o u r n a l of P o l i t i c a l Economy, LXVI, December, 1958. 24. L i t w a c k , E., and H y l t o n , L.F., " I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l A n a l y s i s : A H y p o t h e s i s on C o - o r d i n a t i n g A g e n c i e s " , i n A d i m i n i s t r a t i v e S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y , Volume 6, March 1962. 25. O l s o n , M., The L o g i c of C o l l e c t i v e A c t i o n , Cambridge; Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971.  for  26. P e t e r s o n , K., and Fox, I.K., A Normative S t r u c t u r e e v a l u a t i n g Water Q u a l i t y Management I n s t i t u t i o n s , J u l y 6, 1973.  27. . P r e l i m i n a r y Report of the F r a s e r R i v e r Board on F l o o d C o n t r o l and H y d r o - E l e c t r i c Power i n the F r a s e r R i v e r B a s i n , V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1958. 28. Ranney, A., P o l i t i c a l Markham P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1968.  Science  and  P u b l i c P o l i c y , Chicago:  29. Report o f the B.C. Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e (1974), V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1975.  94  30. Report of the B.C. Water Resources V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1973.  Service  (1972),  31. Report of the B.C. Water Resources V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1975.  Service  (1974),  Printer,  32. Report of the Lands S e r v i c s 1975.  (1974), V i c t o r i a : Queen's  33. Report o f the Water Resources S e r v i c e (1971) , V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1972. 34. Report o f the Environment V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1975.  and Land Use S e c r e t a r i a t  35. Rourke, F.E., Bureaucracy, P o l i t i c s , Boston: L i t t l e , Brown, and Company, 1969. x  36. R i p l e y , R.B., Norton and Company, 1966.  and P u b l i c  (1974),  Policy,  P u b l i c P o l i c i e s and T h e i r P o l i t i c s ,  New  York:  37. S a l i s b u r y , R.H., "A Search f o r T h e o r i e s and R o l e s " , i n Ranney, A., ( e d . ) , P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e and P u b l i c P o l i c y , Chicago: Markham P u b l i s h i n g , 1968. 38. Simeon, R., F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Diplomacy, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1972. 39. Simon, H.A., and March, J.G., John W i l e y and Sons, 1958.  Toronto:  O r g a n i z a t i o n s , New  York:  40. S p r o u l e - J o n e s , M., I n s t i t u t i o n a l and I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l Arrangements and the management of Water Q u a l i t y : The Lower F r a s e r Case,^paper p r e s e n t e d a t the I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f Management Conference on I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l D e c i s i o n Making and P u b l i c P o l i c y , West B e r l i n , June 1975. 41. S p r o u l e - J o n e s , M,, and P e t e r s o n , K., " P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l i n the Lower F r a s e r : Who's i n Charge", L e c t u r e p r e s e n t e d a t M a c M i l l a n P l a n e t a r i u m , Vancouver, B.C., January 15, 1976. 42. Swainson, N.A.(ed.), Managing the Water Environment, Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1976. 43. W i l d a v s k y , A., "The P o l i t i c a l Economy of E f f i c i e n c y : C o s t - B e n e f i t A n a l y s i s , Systems A n a l y s i s , and Program B u d g e t i n g " , i n Ranhey, A., (ed)r)..j> . p o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e and P u b l i c P o l i c y , Chicago : Markham P u b l i s h i n g , 1968.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0093923/manifest

Comment

Related Items