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The theme of aloneness in the work of Hans Erich Nossack Roper, David Andrew 1976

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THE THEME OF ALONENESS IN THE WORK OF HANS ERICH NOSSACK by DAVID ANDREW ROPER B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Sussex, 1969 M.A., McMaster U n i v e r s i t y , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Germanic Studies We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the req u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1976 © David Andrew Roper, 1976 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permiss ion fo r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 i A b s t r a c t Wide divergence i n the o p i n i o n s expressed about Nossack's work can be e x p l a i n e d by the l a c k of comprehensive s t u d i e s e s t a b l i s h i n g the b a s i s f o r a more o b j e c t i v e and comprehensive understanding. T h i s study, "werkimmanent" i n i t s approach, examines the theme o f aloneness as a key t o Nossack's work. The presence o f aloneness i n h i s work has been re c o g n i z e d , but u s u a l l y m i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a negative, u n d e s i r a b l e aspect of modern l i f e . Though r e c o g n i z i n g the dangers o f aloneness and s u f f e r i n g o c c a s i o n a l l y a negative f e e l i n g o f i s o l a t i o n , Nossack a t t a c h e s t o aloneness a p o s i t i v e value as an i n t r i n s i c p a r t o f the a u t h e n t i c human c o n d i t i o n . Three types o f alone-ness are d i s t i n g u i s h e d : p e r s o n a l aloneness, a r i s i n g from the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i s o l a t i o n from p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , s o c i o -c u l t u r a l aloneness, a r i s i n g from a l a c k of r e l a t e d n e s s to s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e , and s p i r i t u a l aloneness, a r i s i n g from the i n d i v i d u a l ' s f e e l i n g o f being l o s t i n an incomprehensible and b e w i l d e r i n g u n i v e r s e . Because of i t s p o s i t i v e value t h e r e i s u l t i m a t e l y no attempted escape from the experience through any of the normal involvements and a c t i v i t i e s o f l i f e . Though t h e f e are c e r t a i n e l i m i n a b l e determinants of aloneness i n the r e p r e s s i v e and c o l l e c t i v e t w e n t i e t h century s o c i e t y , aloneness i s an inherent p a r t of the human c o n d i t i o n . There i s an i n e f -f a b l e , m e t a p h y s i c a l realm of e x i s t e n c e , beyond p e r s o n a l - r e l a t i o n s h i p s , beyond s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e , o u t s i d e time and i i p l a c e ; t h i s the i n d i v i d u a l can only experience and enter alone. As a p r i v a t e experience which cannot be shared, i t i s ex-perienced by the i n d i v i d u a l i n absolute s o l i t a r i n e s s . The i n -d i v i d u a l ' s awareness and experience of t h i s other, supremely valuable r e a l i t y are the u l t i m a t e guarantors of h i s abiding personal, s o c i o - c u l t u r a l , and s p i r i t u a l aloneness. But t h i s imposed aloneness i s i n t e n s i f i e d through the a d d i t i o n of a self-chosen dimension when, as a matter of p o l i c y i n h i s attempt to cross over i n t o the other r e a l i t y , the i n d i v i d u a l f rees himself from a l l the u s u a l a c t i v i t i e s and involvements of l i f e . No attempt i s made to change s o c i e t y through reform or r e v o l u t i o n , not simply because r e b e l l i o n i s f u t i l e , given the a l l - p e r v a s i v e r u l e of the s o c i a l Apparat, but because of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s o v e r - r i d i n g metaphysical a s p i r a t i o n s . Instead the i n d i v i d u a l camouflages h i m s e l f by outward conformism, w h i l e leading a l i f e of s p i r i t u a l r e s i s t a n c e and attempting to cross over i n t o the other r e a l i t y . The t r a d i t i o n a l love r e l a t i o n s h i p cannot overcome the i n d i v i d u a l ' s aloneness because i t i s impossible, i n love or any other personal r e l a t i o n s h i p , to achieve s p i r i t u a l closeness to another. Nossack formulates a new concept of love, which c o n s i s t s of r e s p e c t i n g the funda-mental otherness of the other person and of r e c o g n i z i n g the other r e a l i t y as the highest value. P r e c l u d i n g any attempt at personal involvement, i t s u b s t i t u t e s an i n d e f i n a b l e meta-p h y s i c a l intimacy or closeness. S i m i l a r l y , Nossack's " p a r t i s a n s " (camouflaged o u t s i d e r s ) are l i n k e d only by the common^reality of aloneness, by a union i n aloneness. Man's i i i s p i r i t u a l aloneness p e r s i s t s because existence cannot be r a t i o n a l i z e d i n t o a f a m i l i a r world i n which man can f e e l safe and at home. Transient and u n r e l i a b l e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s of r e a l i t y and e q u a l l y t r a n s i e n t and u n r e l i a b l e personal myths about r e a l i t y are both shattered when r e a l r e a l i t y breaks through. The w r i t e r ' s aloneness i s c e n t r a l to Nossack's theory of w r i t i n g . Through h i s w r i t i n g the w r i t e r maintains himself against s o c i e t y and i s engaged i n a quest to cross over i n t o the other r e a l i t y . W r i t i n g i s monologic, a dialogue w i t h the s e l f , though the hope p e r s i s t s that i t w i l l reach another, unknown o u t s i d e r and e s t a b l i s h a union i n aloneness. W r i t i n g i s found to be inadequate not only f o r communication about the other r e a l i t y , but a l s o f o r the w r i t e r ' s own purposes i n h i s quest, so that w r i t i n g i s always tending to pass over i n t o s i l e n c e , though n e i t h e r author nor p r o t a g o n i s t s are f o r long equal to d i s -pensing w i t h the inborn need f o r dialogue, i f only w i t h the s e l f . TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t . Acknowledgement • v I n t r o d u c t i o n ^ CHAPTER 1 : D e f i n i t i o n and H i s t o r i c a l Background 6 CHAPTER 2: B i o g r a p h i c a l Background and Der Untergang• . • 3 5 CHAPTER 3 : Nekyia and Interview mit dem Tode 8 3 CHAPTER 4 : The I n d i v i d u a l , S o c i e t y , and R e a l i t y 1 1 5 CHAPTER 5 : SpUtestens im November and the new concept of love 1 6 7 CHAPTER 6 : S p i r a l e 199 CHAPTER 7 : Der jlingere Bruder, Nach dem L e t z t e n Aufstand, Der F a l l d'Arthez 2 3 7 CHAPTER 8 : The Aloneness of the W r i t e r 2 9 3 C o n c l u s i o n 3 3 ^ BIBLIOGRAPHY 3 5 o V Acknowledgement I t would be unthinkable to conclude the work on t h i s d i s -s e r t a t i o n without expressing my indebtedness and g r a t i t u d e to various i n d i v i d u a l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . To Prof. L e s l i e L. M i l l e r , who f i r s t suggested the idea of a d i s s e r t a t i o n on Nossack. To my su p e r v i s o r , Prof. Mark Boulby, and to h i s deputy i n the l a t t e r stages, Prof. Michael S. Batts,: f o r t h e i r sound judge-ment and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m . To the s t a f f of the I n t e r -L i b r a r y Loan Department of the L i b r a r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r s e r v i c e w i t h a smile and f a r beyond the c a l l of duty, even i n the most t r y i n g of circumstances. To the t y p i s t s of the various d r a f t s of the d i s s e r t a t i o n , Miss Mary Margaret Farmilo, Mrs. Doris Roper, and Mrs. Monica Thompson. To my f i r s t teachers of German, Mr. Jim Whittaker and Mr. A l b e r t Leach, of Thornton Grammar School, Bradford, Y o r k s h i r e , who f i r s t awakened i n me an i n t e r e s t i n Germans and Germany. To my parents, Mr. and Mrs. Jack Roper, to the aldermen and burgesses of the c i t y of Bradford, to McMaster U n i v e r s i t y , and to the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, without whose s t a l w a r t a s s i s t a n c e over the years the academic path would have been f a r more arduous, i f not impassable. And f i n a l l y , of course, to Herr Nossack himself. 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Since the end of the Second World War few w r i t e r s have achieved a more extensive and c r e d i t a b l e record of p u b l i c a t i o n than Hans E r i c h Nossack. His works have been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h , French, I t a l i a n , Spanish, Swedish, Serbo-Croat, Czech, Hungarian, P o l i s h , Rumanian, A f r i k a a n s , and Japanese, and pos-s i b l y other languages t o o . 1 Yet to judge from h i s r e c e p t i o n i n German and E n g l i s h he i s prqbably v i r t u a l l y unread i n a l l of them. In more narrowly academic and i n t e l l e c t u a l c i r c l e s h i s r e c e p t i o n , though by no means broadly based, has been somewhat b e t t e r and there must e x i s t w e l l over one hundred and f i f t y items of secondary l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g to him, comprising reviews, a r t i c l e s , d i s s e r t a t i o n s , and books, and d e a l i n g w i t h p h i l o s o p h i -c a l as w e l l . a s s t y l i s t i c and a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . But there i s a wide and fundamental divergence i n the opinions and judgments expressed about Nossack, except perhaps f o r a general agreement that he i s an important w r i t e r , and Nossack himself i s c y n i c a l l y aware of t h i s : Ich b i n schon mit a l l e r h a n d k u r z l e b i g e n E h r e n t i t e l n ausgezeichnet worden, so z.B. mit den eines N i h i l i s t e n , E x i s t e n t i a l i s t e n , S u r r e a l i s t e n , K a f k a i s t e n und dergleichen mehr. Das hat meiner Bildung sehr genutzt, denn s e l b s t v e r s t U n d l i c h musste i c h mich dann liber diese Ismen o r i e n t i e r e n . Bis i c h s i e b e g r i f f e n hatte, waren s i e meistens schon l i b e r h o l t . 2 C e r t a i n l y much of the l i t e r a t u r e says more about i t s author than about Nossack, and some has been of a nauseatingly m o r a l i -z i n g and p o l i t i c a l l y biased k i n d ; but undeniably Nossack i s an extremely d i f f i c u l t and p a r a d o x i c a l w r i t e r . Much of the d i s -agreement can be explained i n terms of a lack of longer, more comprehensive stud i e s of Nossack's work and themes which aim at 2 f i n d i n g keys to a more o b j e c t i v e and comprehensive understanding of the author and h i s work. R e a l i z i n g t h i s , C h r i s t o f Schmid made a s t a r t w i t h h i s book Monologische Kunst: Untersuchungen zum  Werk von Hans E r i c h Nossack^ which appeared i n 1968, two years before Friedhelm F. R i c k e r t ' s d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , "Hans E r i c h Nossack a l s Betrachter und K r i t i k e r s e i n e r Z e i t , " 2 * which takes as i t s f o c a l p o i n t Nossack's concept of man as a s p i r i t u a l being. Both works, avoiding s u b j e c t i v e value judgments and e s s e n t i a l l y "werkimmanent" i n t h e i r approach, are very valuable c o n t r i b u t i o n s . But what i n my opinion i s perhaps the most u s e f u l key to Nossack's work--the theme of aloneness i n i t - - h a s so f a r gone unexamined. The presence of dominant themes of l o n e l i n e s s and aloneness i n Nossack's work has of course been recognized by various s c h o l a r s , though onl y r a r e l y have they been seen i n the c o r r e c t l i g h t . The us u a l p a t t e r n (and I t h i n k t h i s could be c i t e d as one of the few weaknesses of R i c k e r t ' s otherwise admirable study) i s to see l o n e l i n e s s and aloneness as negative phenomena, undesirable aspects of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e i n the twentieth century, which should be remedied as soon as p o s s i b l e . I b e l i e v e t h i s usual i n t e r p r e t a t i o n should be r e j e c t e d . To t h i s end, t h i s study seeks to demonstrate the prevalence and s i g n i f i c a n c e of aloneness as a motivating force and theme i n both Nossack's novels and short s t o r i e s and i n h i s essays, and thus to r e v e a l i t as a c e n t r a l ex-perience i n both Nossack's l i f e and works. Beyond t h i s , and although the dangers of the experience are recognized, i t attempts to show that a p o s i t i v e value i s attached by Nossack to aloneness, not because the experience i s r e l i s h e d i n a masochistic way, but because aloneness i s an unavoidable part of the authentic human 3 c o n d i t i o n and because any attempt to escape aloneness would en-t a i l a f l i g h t i n t o i n a u t h e n t i c i t y . The t i t l e of t h i s d i s s e r t a -t i o n r e f e r s t h e r e f o r e to aloneness r a t h e r than l o n e l i n e s s p r e c i s e l y because a p o s i t i v e value i s attached to the i s o l a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l from personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s , to h i s s o c i o -c u l t u r a l s o l i t u d e a r i s i n g from a lack of any f e e l i n g of r e l a t e d -ness to the patterns and values of s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e , and to h i s f e e l i n g of lostness i n an incomprehensible universe. Be-cause the value attached to aloneness i s p o s i t i v e , i t w i l l be seen to f o l l o w that, at l e a s t i n the long run, no means are sought to escape from the experience through, f o r example, f r i e n d -s h i p , p h y s i c a l contact, love, marriage, f a m i l y , s o c i a l or p o l i -t i c a l commitment, homeland, r e l i g i o n , nature, or reminiscence. Chapter One attempts to d i s t i n g u i s h between the concepts l o n e l i n e s s and aloneness, to a r r i v e at a reasonably comprehen-s i v e d e f i n i t i o n of aloneness, and to place i t i n a broad h i s -t o r i c a l p erspective against the background of the nineteenth century so that i n subsequent chapters the theme of aloneness i n Nossack's work can be coordinated w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n and framework of the concept e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s chapter. Chapter Two traces i n Nossack's essays h i s personal exper-ience of aloneness and a l i e n a t i o n and h i s r e a c t i o n to them, both i n terms of h i s personal aloneness i n f a m i l y and i n personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i n terms of h i s more general s o c i o - c u l t u r a l aloneness and a l i e n a t i o n r i g h t up to the end of the Second World War. The d e s t r u c t i o n of the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l order i n the war i s discussed from the point of view of the heightened aloneness which r e s u l t e d f o r Nossack, and t h i s i s pursued i n 4 the d i s c u s s i o n of Nekyia and Interview mit dem Tode i n Chapter Three. Chapter Four concentrates on the t h e o r e t i c a l ideas of Nossack's view of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e i n a r e p r e s s i v e , c o l -l e c t i v e s o c i e t y and h i s existence i n a bew i l d e r i n g r e a l i t y as they are revealed i n the essays, w i t h appropriate i l l u s t r a t i o n from f i c t i o n a l works. The focus of Chapter F i v e s h i f t s from s o c i o - c u l t u r a l alone-ness to the theme of personal aloneness as i l l u s t r a t e d by Nossack's pr e s e n t a t i o n of the love r e l a t i o n s h i p i n Spatestens im November and other works. Nossack sees the t r a d i t i o n a l love r e l a t i o n -ship as incapable of overcoming the i n d i v i d u a l ' s aloneness be-cause the i n d i v i d u a l i s unable, e i t h e r i n a love r e l a t i o n s h i p or any other personal r e l a t i o n s h i p , to achieve s p i r i t u a l closeness to any other person. Chapters S i x and Seven d e a l w i t h s e v e r a l of Nossack's novels, S p i r a l e , Der jllngere Bruder, Nach dem Letzten Aufstand, Der F a l l d'Arthez, and Die gestohlene Melodie; they attempt an a n a l y s i s and d i s c u s s i o n of the general p i c t u r e of human alone-ness painted i n these works and seek to show how Nossack presents aloneness as an unavoidable part of the authentic human c o n d i t i o n . F i n a l l y Chapter Eight i s concerned w i t h the aloneness of the w r i t e r i n s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e and Nossack's view of the element of aloneness inseparable from the c r e a t i o n of the human document which he b e l i e v e s authentic l i t e r a t u r e to be. I t i s argued i n conc l u s i o n that language i s found to be inadequate not j u s t f o r communication, but f o r the w r i t e r ' s own purposes, so that h i s w r i t i n g i s always tending to pass over i n t o s i l e n c e . 5 Footnotes L According to the b i b l i o g r a p h y i n Hans E r i c h Nossack, Der  Untergang, E d i t i o n Suhrkamp, 19 (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1967), pp. 93-95 and Ingeborg M. Goessl, "Der Handlungs-lose Raum b e i Hans E r i c h Nossack," Monatshefte, 66 (1974), 3 3 . 2 Hans E r i c h Nossack, "Falsche Ehren," Merkur (1964), p. 1 2 0 8 . 3 C h r i s t o f Schmid, Monologische Kunst: Untersuchungen zum  Werk von Hans E r i c h Nossack ( S t u t t g a r t : Kohlhammer Ver l a g , 1968). ^ Friedhelm F. R i c k e r t , "Hans E r i c h Nossack a l s Betrachter und K r i t i k e r s e i n e r Z e i t , " D i s s . U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota 197°' 6 CHAPTER 1 D e f i n i t i o n and H i s t o r i c a l Background To be alone i s to be s o l i t a r y , to be by oneself, apart from or without any other person or t h i n g . The word l o n e l i n e s s d e s i g -nates an emotion which i s the u s u a l response to the s t a t e of being alone. Both words, but e s p e c i a l l y l o n e l i n e s s , seem to have a negative aura and connote some kind of vacuum or l a c k which nevertheless can be f i l l e d to some extent, most obviously by con-t a c t w i t h other human beings, though animals and inanimate objects such as books, l e t t e r s , mementoes, and other personal possessions can f u l f i l the same f u n c t i o n . The negative connotation of the terms i s obviously the r e s u l t of a common d e s i r e by man to over-come both the s t a t e of being alone and the accompanying f e e l i n g of l o n e l i n e s s , a d e s i r e so general that l i t t l e comment or explanation seems to be c a l l e d f o r . The a n t h r o p o l o g i s t sees man not e x a c t l y as a herd animal, but c e r t a i n l y as a gregarious, t r i b a l animal possessed of a s o c i a b l e nature and i n s t i n c t s . In comparison to other animals the young of the human species are p h y s i c a l l y dependent on t h e i r parents f o r a long time. And w i t h regard to a d u l t s sexual p a i r i n g f o r reproduction and companionship seems i n most c u l t u r e s to be of a g e n e r a l l y permanent nature; indeed, the f a m i l y or t r i b a l u n i t i s an unavoidable consequence of man's b i o l o g i c a l h e r i t a g e , of a prolonged process of c h i l d r e a r i n g . Given t h i s group l i v i n g aspect of human exi s t e n c e , i t i s a matter of common experience that f o r many people gregariousness and s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e are i n them-selves a form of t o t a l human f u l f i l m e n t . 7 Yet i n a d d i t i o n to these b i o l o g i c a l l y determined needs another aspect of human existence seems to be e q u a l l y compelling. This i s man's need to be r e l a t e d to the e x t e r n a l world i n a way which transcends purely personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the need to be r e l a t e d to a broad s o c i o - c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n of ideas, values, and b e l i e f s which produce i n the i n d i v i d u a l a sense of belonging i n a c u l t u r e , i n s o c i e t y , i n the world, or i n the universe. One may be apart from one's f e l l o w .men and the r e f o r e q u i t e alone i n a pure l y p h y s i c a l sense and s t i l l have t h i s f e e l i n g of being at home i n the world because one i s a part of a community of b e l i e f which u n i t e s one w i t h one's f e l l o w s and gives one an assurance of belonging i n the world, because one's i n d i v i d u a l existence i s con-firmed and j u s t i f i e d by a broad s o c i o - c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n of shared ideas, values, and b e l i e f s . There remains a t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y . I t i s not only through being a part of s o c i e t y or c u l t u r e that a man can have a sense of belonging, of relatedness to the world. A man might r e j e c t many or a l l aspects of h i s c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y and yet s t i l l have a general a t t i t u d e of a f f i r m a t i o n toward both himself and his r e l a t i o n to the e x t e r n a l world. He may hold views and b e l i e f s that are not shared by h i s f e l l o w s and yet s t i l l f e e l that he has a place i n some d i v i n e or n a t u r a l l y ordained scheme of things, s t i l l have an harmonious and rea s s u r i n g f e e l i n g of being at home i n the world because h i s existence i n i t i s f e l t to be a n a t u r a l and p o s i t i v e r a t h e r than a problematic or f r i g h t e n i n g phenomenon. Three p o s s i b l e v a r i e t i e s of aloneness can t h e r e f o r e be d i s -t i n g u i s h e d . Man has a need f o r the companionship of h i s f e l l o w s , 8 to be r e l a t e d to them, to have c o n t a c t w i t h them both p h y s i c a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y ; the absence o f t h i s can produce what may be c a l l e d a s t a t e of p e r s o n a l a loneness . He a l s o has a need to be r e l a t e d t o the w o r l d i n a way which transcends p u r e l y p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and which g i v e s him a sense of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and b e l o n g i n g ; the absence o f such a r e l a t i o n s h i p can produce what may be termed a s t a t e o f s o c i o - c u l t u r a l a loneness . The t h i r d r e a d i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e v a r i e t y o f aloneness i s a k i n d o f u l t i m a t e s p i r i t u a l a loneness , the sense o f the i n d i v i d u a l man b e i n g l o s t i n an a l i e n w o r l d , which a r i s e s when the resources which the i n d i v i d u a l f i n d s w i t h i n h i m s e l f and the nature o f the w o r l d as he p e r c e i v e s i t are not s u f f i c i e n t to e s t a b l i s h an harmonious r e -l a t i o n s h i p between the two. The t h r e e t e r m s - - p e r s o n a l , s o c i o -c u l t u r a l , and s p i r i t u a l - - a r e somewhat a r b i t r a r y and make no pretence t o complete e x a c t i t u d e ; i t i s o b v i o u s , f o r example, t h a t a l l p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s encompass a s p i r i t u a l dimension and t h a t the-*existence o f a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n o f ideas and values im-p l i e s the necessary e x i s t e n c e o f human i n t e r c o u r s e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the terms do denote t h r e e g e n e r a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e types o f a l o n e -ness and l o n e l i n e s s . Though i t would appear t o be the n a t u r a l d e s i r e o f man to escape human aloneness and l o n e l i n e s s i n a l l i t s forms, t h i s would seem to be e a s i e r s a i d than done. Aloneness l i e s dormant i n the very means sought to overcome i t : thus a human r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between two separate e n t i t i e s ; and the concept o f human s o c i e t y c l e a r l y i m p l i e s an aggregate of i n d i v i d u a l members. A c e r t a i n s t a t e o f aloneness i s i n s e p a r a b l e from the human c o n d i -t i o n and can awareness o f t h i s can be awakened at any t ime. 9 I t i s a common human exper ience t h a t one may be among people and yet be a s s a i l e d by a f e e l i n g o f complete i s o l a t i o n . T h i s l o n e l i n e s s has i t s source i n the e x i s t e n t i a l i s o l a t i o n and s o l i -tude o f man, i n the v e r y d e f i n i t i o n o f what i t i s to be a human b e i n g . D e s p i t e a l l aspects o f s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e every man i n the deepest s a n c t u a r y o f h i s s p i r i t u a l and p e r s o n a l be ing i s a l o n e . Men are i n v a r y i n g degrees consc ious o f t h e i r e x i s t e n t i a l s o l i -tude, o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e as i n d i v i d u a l e n t i t i e s separate and d i f -f e r e n t from o t h e r people and the e n t i r e e x t e r n a l w o r l d , and from t h i s a r i s e s the need t o be r e l a t e d t o o t h e r people and the e x t e r n -a l w o r l d . T h i s need i s f e l t a l l the more i n t e n s e l y i n s o f a r as man i s aware, through h i s knowledge o f t r a n s i t o r i n e s s , o f ag ing , s i c k -ness , and death , o f how i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l he i s i n r e l a t i o n to a l l o t h e r s , to s o c i e t y , t o the w o r l d , to the u n i v e r s e , to the i n f i n i t e . S i n c e a seemingly n e g a t i v e aura surrounds the words a l o n e -ness and l o n e l i n e s s , i t can be concluded t h a t the conquest o f l o n e l i n e s s , through r e l a t e d n e s s to o t h e r s , to s o c i e t y , to c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s and v a l u e s , i s g e n e r a l l y regarded as a p o s i t i v e a c h i e v e -ment, because i t i s an escape from t h a t which man most' f e a r s : i s o l a t i o n . But do not s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e and s o c i e t y , i n s o f a r as t they owe t h e i r o r i g i n to the human f e a r o f l o n e l i n e s s , have a c e r t a i n n e g a t i v e aspect? Are they not so much a d i r e c t need as an escape from aloneness? T h i s i s Schopenhauer's v iew: Was nun a n d r e r s e i t s d i e Menschen g e s e l l i g macht, 1 s t i h r e U n f a i i i g k e i t , d i e E i n s a m k e i t und i n d i e s e r s i c h s e l b s t zu e r t r a g e n . Innere Leere und Uberdruss s i n d es , von denen s i e sowohl i n d i e G e s e l l s c h a f t w i e i n d i e Fremde und auf R e i s e n g e t r i e b e n werden. . . . Wie d i e L i e b e zum Leben i.m Grunde nur F u r c h t vor dem Tode i s t , so 1st auch d e r G e s e l l i g k e i t s t r i e b d e r 10 Menschen im Grunde k e i n d i r e k t e r , beruht n k m l i c h n i c h t auf L i e b e z u r G e s e l l s c h a f t , sondern auf F u r c h t v o r d e r E i n s a m k e i t , indent es n i c h t sowohl d i e h o l d s e l i g e Gegenwart d e r andern i s t , d i e gesucht , a l s v i e l m e h r d i e Ode und Beklommenheit des A l l e i n s e i n s , nebst der Monotonie des eigenen Bewusstse ins , d i e gef lohen w i r d ; w e l c h e r zu entgehn man daher auch m i t s c h l e c h t e r G e s e l l s c h a f t v o r l i e b n i m m t , i m g l e i c h e n das L & s t i g e und den Zwang, den e i n e jede notwendig mit s i c h b r i n g t , s i c h g e f a l l e n l & s s t . - - H a t hingegen d e r W i d e r w i l l e gegen d i e s e s a l i e s g e s i e g t und i s t i n f o l g e davon d i e Gewohnheit der E i n s a m k e i t und d i e Abh&rtiing gegen i h r e n u n m i t t e l b a r e n E i n d r u c k e i n g e t r e t e n . . . dann kann man m i t g r B s s t e r B e h a g l i c h k e i t immerfort a l l e i n s e i n , ohne s i c h nach G e s e l l s c h a f t zu sehnen; eben w e i l das B e d l i r f n i s d e r s e l b e n k e i n d i r e k t e s i s t und man a n d r e r s e i t s s i c h j e t z t an d i e w o h l t & t i g e n E i g e n s c h a f t e n der E i n s a m k e i t gewBhnt h a t . 1 F o r Schopenhauer aloneness possesses the b e n e f i c i a l q u a l i -t i e s o f i n n e r peace o f mind and happiness : " E i n Hauptstudium der Jugend s o l l t e s e i n , d i e E i n s a m k e i t e r t r a g e n z u l e r n e n ; w e i l s i e e i n e Q u e l l e des G l i i c k e s , d e r GemUtsruhe i s t . " Schopenhauer r e p r e s e n t s t h a t human type f o r whom s o c i a l i n t e r -course i s l a r g e l y , i f not e n t i r e l y , inadequate and f o r whom s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e i t s e l f can produce f e e l i n g s o f aloneness and l o n e l i n e s s : So kommt es denn, dass , obwohl i n d i e s e r Wel t gar v i e l e s r e c h t s c h l e c h t i s t , doch das S c h l e c h t e s t e d a r i n d i e G e s e l l s c h a f t b l e i b t : so dass s e l b s t V o l t a i r e , der g e s e l l i g e F r a n z o s e , hat sagen mils sen: ' L a t e r r e es t couverte de gens q u i ne m£ritent pas qu 'on l e u r p a r l e . ' 3 In Schopenhauer we f i n d not a n e g a t i v e but an e s s e n t i a l l y p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f a loneness , and i n our d i s c u s s i o n o f Nossack i t i s p r e c i s e l y w i t h such a p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f a l o n e -ness that we w i l l be concerned. The e s s e n t i a l a loneness of Nossack and h i s c h a r a c t e r s i s not t o be seen n e g a t i v e l y because, as w i t h Schopenhauer, the d r i v e toward aloneness i s g r e a t e r than 1 1 the r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t i t . We have seen thus f a r the g r e g a r i o u s group, t r i b a l , or f a m i l y - l i v i n g aspect o f human e x i s t e n c e and the need o f men f o r companionship and r e l a t e d n e s s a r i s i n g at l e a s t i n p a r t from a f e a r o f l o n e l i n e s s . But we have a l s o seen how a c e r t a i n s u s c e p t -i b i l i t y t o l o n e l i n e s s i s b u i l t i n t o man because aloneness i s an i n s e p a r a b l e p a r t o f the human c o n d i t i o n , w h i c h , however, i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e to a f f i r m and embrace. Thus the problem o f a l o n e -ness and l o n e l i n e s s , whether these are viewed n e g a t i v e l y or p o s i t i v e l y , i s an encompassing aspect o f human e x i s t e n c e and as such i n t r u d e s i n t o a number o f i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c i p l i n e s : not o n l y i n t o l i t e r a t u r e , but a l s o i n t o psychology , p h i l o s o p h y , s o c i o l o g y , anthropology , and t h e o l o g y . Doubt less the problem has a v a r i e d and complex h i s t o r y i n a l l o f these f i e l d s . I t i s , however, n e i t h e r necessary nor p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the scope o f t h i s study to attempt to examine the main h i s t o r i c a l s h i f t s o f emphasis, to d i s c u s s , f o r example, the nature and consequence o f u n i v e r s a l r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f and a l l e g i a n c e t o the C a t h o l i c Church i n the M i d d l e Ages, the s h a t t e r i n g i n the Reformation of a u n i f i e d and harmonious r e l i g i o u s f a i t h , and the p r o g r e s s i v e emergence o f i n d i -v i d u a l i s m and the l i b e r a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e system, w h i c h was f o s t e r e d f u r t h e r by the E n l i g h t e n m e n t . Yet t o understand f u l l y Nossack 's treatment o f the theme some h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e w i l l be h e l p f u l , f o r , a l t h o u g h he h i m s e l f w i l l be seen to be an o u t s i d e r , t h i s i s not t o deny t h a t he has been deeply a f f e c t e d by the events and f o r c e s - - s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , c u l t u r a l - - o f h i s age; and i n h i s work can be seen r e f l e c t e d c e r t a i n f a c e t s o f man's s p i r i t u a l s i t u a t i o n and the human c o n d i t i o n i n the 12 t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y and t h e i r antecedents i n the n i n e t e e n t h . A c c o r d i n g l y t h e r e f o l l o w s a b r i e f survey o f the most obvious aspects o f the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n o f man from the b e g i n n i n g o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y onward; n e c e s s a r i l y s i m p l i f i e d and g e n e r a l i s e d , i t seeks to i d e n t i f y some o f Nossack 's mentors and the i n f l u e n c e s on him. W i t h the b e g i n n i n g of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c e r t a i n c o n f l i c t -i n g trends e s s e n t i a l to an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Nossack become apparent . On the one hand, w i t h the e r o s i o n o f r e l i g i o n and the f r e e i n g o f human reason i n the Enl ightenment , t h e r e are i n c r e a s i n g i n d i v i -d u a l i s m and s u b j e c t i v i s m which make f o r i n c r e a s i n g human a loneness . On the o t h e r hand, however, these are opposed by the ever i n c r e a s -i n g f o r c e s o f c o l l e c t i v i s m a r i s i n g l a r g e l y from the consequences o f the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n i n the form of modern i n d u s t r y , t e c h -nology , s c i e n c e , i n d u s t r i a l mass s o c i e t y , modern p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , and mass movements. W h i l e a l l these f o r c e s may w e l l have r e p r e s e n t -ed a s o l u t i o n t o the problem o f l o n e l i n e s s f o r many of the g r e g a r i o u s and s o c i a b l e , there were o t h e r human types ( f o r example the Schopenhauer type) f o r whom s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e and g r e g a r i o u s n e s s , s t i l l more the mass phenomena o f modern s o c i e t y , were e n t i r e l y inadequate . In face o f the emergent c o l l e c t i v e f o r c e s o f s o c i e t y i n d i v i d u a l s o f t h i s type became i n c r e a s i n g l y aware o f the v a l u e o f man's i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e , and as the c o n f l i c t between mass s o c i e t y and the i n d i v i d u a l became i n c r e a s i n g l y apparent i t was o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t they s h o u l d withdraw more and more i n t o them-s e l v e s . The f o r c e s o f c o l l e c t i v i s m were a l s o to be d i s c e r n e d i n p h i l o s o p h y at the b e g i n n i n g o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n the 13 thought o f H e g e l , the l a s t o f the great c l a s s i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s to c o n s t r u c t an i n t e l l e c t u a l system i n w h i c h ^ a l l aspects of i n d i -v i d u a l and s o c i a l l i f e and o f s p i r i t u a l and m a t e r i a l r e a l i t y are taken up, made r a t i o n a l and harmonious, and j u s t i f i e d , and i n which one t r u t h i s p r o v i d e d f o r the w o r l d . H e g e l ' s s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the theme o f aloneness i s t h a t he r e i n t r o d u c e s harmony and r e l a t e d n e s s i n t o the l i f e o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n s o c i e t y and the w o r l d and between s p i r i t u a l and m a t e r i a l r e a l i t y . In h i s i d e a -l i s t system the boundaries o f the s p i r i t u a l and e x t e r n a l wor lds and the s e p a r a t i o n between the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s s o c i e t y are overcome because they have the same o r i g i n ; t h i s o r i g i n i s s p i r i -t u a l because, as an i d e a l i s t , Hegel m a i n t a i n s t h e r e can be no r e a l i t y independent o f mind; a t the o r i g i n o f a l l r e a l i t y , whether mind o r mat ter , there i s thought , the " i d e a , " a s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y . The i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , s o c i e t y , and the w o r l d are a l l p a r t o f the d i a l e c t i c a l , l o g i c a l , necessary , and predetermined u n f o l d -i n g o f the i d e a i n the " W e l t p r o z e s s . " The s e p a r a t i o n between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y i s overcome and harmony and r e l a t e d n e s s r e e s t a b l i s h e d between them i n H e g e l ' s system, because the i n d i v i -d u a l f i n d s i n the l i f e , a c t i v i t i e s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , and d e s t i n y o f h i s s o c i e t y " . . . a c o n c r e t e u n i v e r s a l l i f e a k i n to h i s own and a p p e a l i n g to i t w i t h w h i c h to i n c o r p o r a t e h i m s e l f . . . . F o r Hegel . . • the s e p a r a t i o n o f man and the w o r l d . . . can be hea led because the i d e a l and the a c t u a l are r e c o n c i l e d i n the l i f e o f a people w h i c h i s a c o n c r e t e u n i v e r s a l to which the l i f e o f the i n d i v i d u a l can be a s s i m i l a t e d and i n which i t i s consumma-ted . . The h i s t o r y o f s o c i e t y and the w o r l d i s the u n f o l d i n g o f the i d e a , o f which the i n d i v i d u a l i s a p a r t , so t h a t he 14 becomes i d e n t i f i e d and r e c o n c i l e d w i t h h i s s o c i e t y and the world and consummated through them. The consequent harmony and r e l a t e d n e s s i s , however, dependent on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e a l i z a t i o n that s o c i e t y , the t o t a l i t y o f a number of c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s , i s g r e a t e r than i t s p a r t s . Hegel's b e l i e f that the St a t e i s supreme i n human a f f a i r s and that the i n d i v i d u a l ' s supreme duty i s to be a member of i t l e d him to p l a c e g r e a t value on o r g a n i z a t i o n , c l o s e l i n k s between c i t i z e n and s o c i e t y , group l o y a l t i e s , and c o l l e c t i v i s t p r i n c i p l e s , because only i n t h i s way c o u l d the i n d i v i d u a l a l i g n h i s s p i r i t w i t h the kin d r e d but g r e a t e r s p i r i t of s o c i e t y and p a r t i c i p a t e i n the "Weltprozess." The l i b e r t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l and i n d i v i d u a l i t y were not to i n t e r f e r e w i t h the world process. H i s t o r y , as i t had happened and was s t i l l happening, c o u l d not have happened d i f -f e r e n t l y and i n Hegel's thought i t became a vast f o r c e almost independent of human beings. The i n d i v i d u a l i s m and s u b j e c t i v i t y o f e a r l i e r German i d e a l i s t p h i l o s o p h e r s i s subordinated to a c o l -l e c t i v e c o n c e p t i o n o f human l i f e and h i s t o r y . Thus, although Hegel overcomes p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y the i s o l a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e , he can do t h i s o n l y by assuming a c o l l e c t i v e view o f thi n g s which prepresses i n d i v i d u a l i t y . In the c l o s i n g pages o f h i s n o v e l Die gestohlene Melodie Nossack i n d i c a t e s t h a t Hegel o r Marx are the most a p p r o p r i a t e sources f o r a slogan f o r " e i n heutiges K o l l e k t i v " and d e s c r i b e s s o c i e t y , because o f i t s c o l l e c t i v e a s p e c t s , as " e i n menschenunwUrdiges Ameisendasein."^ C l e a r l y there i s an a n t - l i k e aspect to Hegel's view o f s o c i e t y w i t h i t s emphasis on ord e r and the s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l to a g r e a t e r c o l -l e c t i v e r e a l i t y . 15 H e g e l ' s c o l l e c t i v i s t system was a t t a c k e d i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y by Soren K i e r k e g a a r d and F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e , both o f whom a f f i r m e d i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e a g a i n s t c o l l e c t i v i s t and u l t i -mately t o t a l i t a r i a n i n t e l l e c t u a l systems. F o r b o t h , the separa-t i o n between man and s o c i e t y , man and the w o r l d , i s a d e f i n i t i v e p a r t o f the human c o n d i t i o n , and to a b o l i s h t h i s s e p a r a t i o n through an a b s o l u t e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f the two i s to deny the very b a s i s o f p e r s o n a l e x i s t e n c e . I n s o f a r as both take the e x i s t e n c e o f the i n d i v i d u a l as t h e i r s t a r t i n g p o i n t they are e x i s t e n t i a l i s t s and as such they cannot accept H e g e l ' s s o l u t i o n f o r two main reasons . F i r s t l y , h i s t o r y and s o c i e t y are the q u a n t i t a t i v e f a c t u a l o u t -come o f a l l the i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n s o f o t h e r people i n the past and can have no a p r i o r i v a l i d i t y or a u t h o r i t y f o r any p a r t i c u l a r e x i s t i n g i n d i v i d u a l u n l e s s that i n d i v i d u a l chooses to g i v e them s u c h . And s e c o n d l y , human knowledge of the " W e l t p r o z e s s " c o n s i s t s o n l y o f p a r t i a l knowledge o f the past and p r e s e n t ; the f u t u r e r e -mains c o m p l e t e l y open, unknown, and unknowable. F o r K i e r k e g a a r d the a b s u r d i t y of H e g e l ' s p o s i t i o n was ap-p a r e n t : o n l y from a p o i n t o u t s i d e o f e x i s t e n c e would i t be p o s s i b l e to survey the t o t a l i t y o f e x i s t e n c e ; from a p o i n t w i t h -i n the w o r l d process the i n d i v i d u a l need not deny the w o r l d p r o c e s s , but i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r him t o survey i t . A c c o r d i n g l y , w i t h K i e r k e g a a r d p h i l o s o p h y i s no l o n g e r a system. The very t i t l e s o f h i s works , E i t h e r - Or , P h i l o s o p h i c a l Fragments, Conc luding U n s c i e n t i f i c P o s t s c r i p t , Fear and T r e m b l i n g , i n them-s e l v e s imply a n e g a t i o n o f H e g e l ' s r a t i o n a l i s t i n t e l l e c t u a l system. K i e r k e g a a r d opposed o b j e c t i v e system b u i l d i n g as be ing 16 e s s e n t i a l l y a s e l f - d e c e i v i n g escape from the r e a l problems o f i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e . The o n l y t r u e concern o f p h i l o s o p h y was the t h i n k e r ' s p e r s o n a l e x i s t e n c e . In c o n t r a s t t o Hegel K i e r k e g a a r d s p i r i t u a l i z e d and i n t e r n a l i z e d the i n d i v i d u a l ; the i n d i v i d u a l can o n l y be known from w i t h i n , not from w i t h o u t ; each i n d i v i d u a l i s i s o l a t e d and compel led to e x i s t f o r h i m s e l f ; even a C h r i s t i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n i s i n K i e r k e g a a r d ' s v iew, a t l e a s t i d e a l l y , n o t h i n g more than a number o f i n d i v i d u a l s o u l s l i v i n g by anguished p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n i n the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . K i e r k e g a a r d was a c u t e l y aware o f the contempt o f h i s age f o r the i n d i v i d u a l man. L i k e Schopenhauer he saw that i t was the f e a r o f aloneness which d r i v e s man together i n s o c i e t y : Deep w i t h i n every human being there s t i l l l i v e s the a n x i e t y over the p o s s i b i l i t y o f b e i n g a lone i n the w o r l d , f o r g o t t e n by God, o v e r l o o k e d among the m i l -l i o n s and m i l l i o n s i n t h i s enormous household . One keeps t h i s a n x i e t y at a d i s t a n c e by l o o k i n g a t the many round about who are r e l a t e d t o him as k i n and f r i e n d s , but the a n x i e t y i s s t i l l t h e r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , and one h a r d l y dares t h i n k o f how he would f e e l i f a l l t h i s were taken away. 7 But K i e r k e g a a r d h i m s e l f was prepared t o assume the burden o f f e a r and a loneness , and r e b u f f Hegel a t the same t i m e : The more the c o l l e c t i v e i d e a comes to dominate even the o r d i n a r y c o n s c i o u s n e s s , the more f o r b i d d i n g seems the t r a n s i t i o n t o becoming a p a r t i c u l a r e x i s t i n g human b e i n g i n s t e a d o f l o s i n g o n e s e l f i n the a l l , and s a y i n g "we, our age, the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y " . That i t i s a l i t t l e t h i n g merely t o be a p a r t i c u l a r e x i s t i n g human b e i n g i s not to be d e n i e d ; but f o r t h i s very reason i t r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s i g n a t i o n not t o make l i g h t o f i t . F o r what does a mere i n d i v i d u a l count f o r ? Our age knows o n l y too w e l l how l i t t l e i t i s , but here a l s o l i e s the s p e c i f i c i m m o r a l i t y o f the age. . . . a d i s s o l u t e p a n t h e i s t i c contempt f o r the i n d i v i d u a l man. In the m i d s t o f a l l our e x u l t a t i o n over the achievements o f the age and the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , there sounds a note o f p o o r l y c o n c e i v e d 17 contempt f o r the i n d i v i d u a l man; i n the midst o f the s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e o f the contemporary g e n e r a t i o n t h e r e i s r e v e a l e d a sense o f d e s p a i r over b e i n g human. E v e r y t h i n g has to a t t a c h i t s e l f so as to b e a p a r t o f some movement; men are determined to l o s e them-s e l v e s i n the t o t a l i t y o f t h i n g s , i n w o r l d h i s t o r y , f a s c i n a t e d and dece ived by a magic w i t c h e r y ; no one wants to be an i n d i v i d u a l human b e i n g . Hence perhaps the many attempts to c o n t i n u e t o c l i n g to H e g e l , even by men who have reached an i n s i g h t i n t o the q u e s t i o n -a b l e c h a r a c t e r o f h i s p h i l o s o p h y . I t i s a f e a r t h a t i f they were t o become p a r t i c u l a r e x i s t i n g human beings they would v a n i s h t r a c e l e s s l y , so t h a t not even the d a i l y press would be a b l e to d i s c o v e r them, s t i l l l e s s c r i t i c a l j o u r n a l s , t o say n o t h i n g at a l l o f s p e c u l a t i v e p h i l o s o p h e r s immersed i n w o r l d - h i s t o r y . As p a r t i c u l a r human beings they f e a r t h a t they w i l l be doomed to a more i s o l a t e d and f o r g o t t e n e x i s t e n c e than t h a t o f a man i n the c o u n t r y ; f o r i f a man l e t s go o f Hegel he w i l l not even be i n a p o s i t i o n t o have a l e t t e r addressed to h i m . 8 Though K i e r k e g a a r d i s nowhere mentioned by Nossack as a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e , K i e r k e g a a r d ' s defence o f the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s d e s i r e t o l i b e r a t e the i n d i v i d u a l from the c o l l e c t i v e t e n d -e n c i e s o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y are remarkably s i m i l a r to N o s s a c k ' s concern i n the t w e n t i e t h . In the same sense N i e t z s c h e , t o o , i s a f o r e r u n n e r o f Nossack; he, t o o , r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t the mass tendencies o f the t i m e , a g a i n s t systems, c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s , and dogmas, which he opposed to v i t a l i s m , l i f e , and the r e a l i t y o f human e x p e r i e n c e and needs. L i k e Schopenhauer and K i e r k e g a a r d , he, t o o , was a s o l i t a r y f i g u r e i n h i s o p p o s i t i o n t o the m a t e r i a l -i s t i c c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y o f h i s day. He saw modern democracy as an i n s i d i o u s l y l e v e l l i n g tendency and he i n d u l g e d , l i k e K i e r k e g a a r d , i n humorous s n i p i n g at Hegel and the p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f h i s p h i l o s o p h y of c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n i n the Unzeitgeireisse  Betrachtungen. H e g e l ' s j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the n e c e s s i t y and u n i -v e r s a l i t y o f phenomena and the whole course o f h i s t o r y u n t i l i t s 1 8 p i n n a c l e i n the P r u s s i a n s t a t e i s seen as c y n i c i s m , a r i s i n g from n e c e s s i t y , and compounded by the s i d e - e f f e c t s of Darwinism and contemporary b i o l o g i c a l thought which see human h i s t o r y not o n l y as a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f that o f p l a n t s and a n i m a l s , but a l s o as a k i n d o f p r o g r e s s i o n towards a necessary and u l t i m a t e g o a l , " d i e v o l l e n d e t e N a t u r . " He condemns the H e g e l i a n s l o g a n o f " d i e v o i l e Hingabe der P e r s B n l i c h k e i t an den W e l t p r o z e s s " as a phrase o f t h i s same c y n i c i s m , c o n f o r m i s t , u n t h i n k i n g , and c o l l e c t i v e , which reduces man to the i n s i g n i f i c a n c e o f an " E r d f l o h . " A g a i n s t i t he upholds the s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l : "Wenn man nur n i c h t ewig d i e H y p e r b e l a l l e r Hyperbe ln , das Wort: W e l t , W e l t , Welt hBren mlisste, da doch j e d e r , e h r l i c h e r w e i s e , nur von Mensch, Mensch, Mensch 9 reden s o l l t e ! " Apparent a l s o i n the Unzeitgemasse Betrachtungen, i n a d d i t i o n t o the r e j e c t i o n o f the c o l l e c t i v e tendencies o f the t i m e , i s N i e t z s c h e ' s complete l a c k o f s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r e l a t e d n e s s t o the Second Empire and h i s contempt f o r i t s smugness a f t e r the v i c t o r y i n the F r a n c o - P r u s s i a n War. The v i c t o r y i s seen as a m i l i t a r y , not as a c u l t u r a l v i c t o r y ; German c u l t u r e i s overrun w i t h " B i l d u n g s p h i l i s t e r , " pompous and c o n c e i t e d i n t h e i r p r e t e n s i o n s t o a r t i s t i c s e n s i b i l i t y and c u l t u r e . C r e a t i v e eunuchs themselves, these p h i l i s t i n e s r e s t on the c u l t u r a l l a u r e l s o f the p a s t , i n p a r t i c u l a r o f German C l a s s i c i s m , o v e r l o o k i n g c o m p l e t e l y the es-s e n t i a l s e a r c h i n g q u a l i t y o f the l a t t e r : Was u r t e i l t aber unsere P h i l i s t e r b i l d u n g l iber d i e s e Suchenden? S i e nimmt s i e e i n f a c h a I s Findende und s c h e i n t zu vergessen, dass jene s e l b s t s i c h nur a l s Suchende f l i h l t e n . W i r haben j a unsere K u l t u r , h e i s s t es dann, denn w i r haben j a unsere " K l a s s i k e r " , das Fundament i s t n i c h t nur d a , n e i n , auch d e r Bau s t e h t schon auf ihm gegri lndetr ,wir . s e l b s t : s i n d d i e s e r Bau. D a b e i j g r e i f t d e r P h i l i s t e r an d i e eigene S t i r n . 10 19 A sense o f c u l t u r a l decay, the f e e l i n g t h a t c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y are a k i n d o f facade l a c k i n g any innate v i t a l i t y of t h e i r own, even that s o c i e t y ' s e t h i c a l standards are q u e s t i o n a b l e o r f a l l a c i o u s - - t h i n g s t h a t were t o t r o u b l e Nossack i n the e a r l y years of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y - - t h e s e are c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n Ni e t z s c h e ' s e a r l y work over two ge n e r a t i o n s b e f o r e . The p e r p e t u a l search o f the German C l a s s i c i s t s has to be continued, new values have to be sought and c r e a t e d . T h i s l e d N i e t z s c h e i n t o h i s immense c r i t i q u e o f morals and h i s c a l l f o r the t r a n s v a l u a t i o n of a l l v a l u e s . The l e v e l l i n g tendencies o f the time, the e v o l u -t i o n o f man to the s i m i l a r , the o r d i n a r y , the average, the g r e g a r i o u s , the i g n o b l e and communal ("ins Gemeine") had to be re v e r s e d by man's reassuming h i s i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and freedom. N i e t z s c h e i n t e n t i o n a l l y e x p l o i t s the ambivalence o f the German word "das Gemeine," r e f e r r i n g to the communal and the s o c i a l but a l s o to the common, low, and i g n o b l e . With the tremen-dous i n d u s t r i a l and socio-economic upsurge of the l a t t e r p a r t o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y both seemed eminently p o s s i b l e . " B l i r g e r l i c h e r Optimismus" saw the s o c i a l i d e a l o f a near-utopian s o c i e t y without poverty o r p r i v a t i o n as almost w i t h i n i t s grasp. A permanently b l i s s f u l s o c i e t y i s somewhat dubious even as an i d e a l , but under-l y i n g N i e t z s c h e ' s work i s the r e a l f e a r that i t i s p o s s i b l e , " t h a t modern ideas and t e c h n i c a l success . . . threatened to reduce man-kin d to a common l e v e l o f green-meadow gre g a r i o u s n e s s , contentment, l12 ease, s e c u r i t y , and bovine m e d i o c r i t y . " The same t h r e a t was p e r c e i v e d i n R u s s i a by Nossack's e a r l y mentor Dostoyevsky who doubted i f such a U t o p i a r e a l l y c o r r e s -ponded to human needs and f e e l i n g s ; he was aware a l s o o f the 20 dangerous d e p e r s o n a l i z i n g tendencies o f the n i n e t e e n t h c entury i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y o f masses and machines and t o t a l p l a n n i n g o f a l l spheres o f l i f e by a l l - r a t i o n a l i z i n g i d e o l o g i e s and dogmas. Nossack r e f e r s t o the p o r t r a i t which Dostoyevsky g i v e s i n The Possessed o f a f u n c t i o n a r y , o f an e a r l y " a p p a r a t c h i k " : . . . i n den Besessenen g i b t uns D o s t o j e w s k i d i e p r o p h e t i s c h e K a r i k a t u r e ines F u n k t i o n U r s . Dazu war e i n e genaue Kenntnis d e r v o r m a r x i s t i s c h e n Tendenzen n B t i g , aber es geht D o s t o j e w s k i im Grunde n i c h t um P o l i t i k . . . sondern um M i t l e i d m i t dem Menschen, der aus Mangel an I n d i v i d u a l i t & t e i n e r I d e o l o g i e oder einem Dogma K b r i g w i r d und dadurch zum t r a g i k o m i s c h e n , a b s t r a k t e n Wesen v e r z e r r t w i r d , das man n i c h t einit ia l mehr s c h u l d i g nennen kann. E i n sehr a k t u e l l e s Problem . . . 13 In L e t t e r s from the Underworld (1864) Dostoyevsky p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ' s na ive and o p t i m i s t i c v i s i o n s o f the f u t u r e and the r a t i o n a l i d e o l o g i e s on which they were based. He was nauseated by the m a t e r i a l i s t and p o s i t i v i s t r e p -r e s e n t a t i o n of the u n i v e r s e as a f r i c t i o n - f r e e c lockwork mechanism and i r r i t a t e d by the widespread and u n q u e s t i o n i n g acceptance o f the ideas o f U t o p i a n s o c i a l i s t t h i n k e r s such as Chernyshevsky, which he c o n s i d e r e d smug and f a c i l e . In L e t t e r s from the  Underworld he a t t a c k s the C r y s t a l P a l a c e , the V i c t o r i a n symbol o f the man-made s o c i a l i s t or humani tar ian U t o p i a , on grounds s i m i l a r to those used by Nossack i n h i s c r i t i q u e o f the modern s o c i a l s t a t e , namely t h a t man i s a f i c k l e c r e a t u r e who cannot be r a t i o n a l -i z e d and who t h e r e f o r e c o u l d never l i v e i n any e d i f i c e based ex-c l u s i v e l y on r e a s o n . H i s a n t i - h e r o , the a n t i t h e s i s o f the f u n c t i o n a r y i n The Possessed, and a man a f t e r N o s s a c k 1 s own h e a r t , p r o c l a i m s t h a t : . . . always and everywhere . . . man l i v e s to ac t as he 21 l i k e s , and not necessarily as reason and s e l f -interest would have him do. Yes, he w i l l even act straight against his own inte r e s t s . . . . His own w i l l , free and unfettered; his own untutored whims; his own fancies, sometimes amounting almost to a madness—here we have that . . . which enters into no c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , which forever consigns systems and theories to the d e v i l . 14 Dostoyevsky then, l i k e Nossack, r e a l i z e s the inherent i n t r a c t -a b i l i t y of human existence that constantly defeats attempts to create the perfect s o c i a l system and champions i n d i v i d u a l values against c o l l e c t i v e organization. In thi s he i s at one with Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche, but in the age of the Ind u s t r i a l Revolution they were f i g h t i n g very much against the stream of developments i n industry, economics, technology, science, p o l i t i c a l thought, and s o c i a l organization. Before the In d u s t r i a l Revolution most people were born, l i v e d , worked, and died i n small communities to which they had strong t i e s . Everything was on a small scale and there were no large impersonal i n s t i t u t i o n s such as fac t o r i e s and tenements. P o l i t i c a l and l e g a l power lay, generally speaking, i n the hands of v i s i b l e l o c a l people; l i f e was very much governed by communal traditions which had developed without conscious design over the centuries in response to human needs, so that people were not constricted by the super-organization of the modern i n d u s t r i a l state. With the In d u s t r i a l Revolution the pattern changed d r a s t i c a l l y . There was an uprooting of v i l l a g e communities as men and t h e i r families sought jobs in factories i n the c i t i e s . A widespread sense of alienation resulted as man was uprooted from his t r a d i -t i o n a l physical and s o c i a l environment and as the competitive 22 c a p i t a l i s t market system, backed by s c i e n c e and technology, g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d t r a d i t i o n a l va lues w i t h more a r t i f i c i a l and l e s s human ones. The c a p i t a l i s t system r e d e f i n e d man's l a b o u r , environment, and p r o g r e s s i v e l y even h i s c u l t u r e as commodities which can be bought and s o l d f o r money. A second f o r c e , a combi-n a t i o n o f s c i e n c e and technology, a s s e r t e d t h a t a l l economic a c t i v i t y be c a r r i e d on i n the manner which i s t e c h n i c a l l y and s c i e n t i f i c a l l y most e f f i c i e n t . Thus t h e r e arose such t y p i c a l l y modern phenomena as d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r , m e c h a n i z a t i o n , and mass p r o d u c t i o n . Man h i m s e l f was not a unique i n d i v i d u a l but a mere cog i n the machine o f p r o d u c t i o n and consumption, o r a s o c i a l q u o t i e n t , to use N o s s a c k ' s p h r a s e ; monetary, t e c h n i c a l , and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s r u l e d man, not h i s i n n e r needs. Thus the I n d u s t r i a l ^ e v o l u t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d the v i c t o r y o f the impersonal forces o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , p l a n n i n g , e f f i c i e n c y , economics, technology, s c i e n c e , and the c o l l e c t i v i s m o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s v e r y c o l l e c t i v i s m o b v i o u s l y possessed an ap-p e a l f o r those w i t h pronounced s o c i a l needs, who were a b l e to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f togetherness as they a l i g n e d themselves w i t h new s o c i a l c l a s s e s and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . However, f o r a r t i s t s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s w i t h a pronounced sense o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y the new c o l l e c t i v e tendencies and m a c h i n e - r a t i o n a l i t y o f the age were bound to be q u i t e a l i e n and c o u l d o f f e r nofcsat is-f a c t i o n f o r t h e i r r e a l i n d i v i d u a l needs. Such i n d i v i d u a l s were r e p u l s e d by another, r e l a t e d i d e a t h a t u n d e r l a y much o f the s c i e n t i f i c and socio-economic thought o f the age: the i d e a that man, f a r from c o n t r o l l i n g and d e t e r m i n i n g , was 23 c o n t r o l l e d and determined i n t h r e e b a s i c areas o f h i s e x i s t e n c e , i n b i o l o g y , i n h i s t o r y and economics, and i n the human mind; and t h a t furthermore man had t o be s t u d i e d i n c o l l e c t i v e terms. The t h e o r i e s o f Darwin, Marx, and Freud are a l l based on d e t e r m i -n i s t i c and c o l l e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e s and as such had r e v o l u t i o n a r y i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the concept o f man h e l d up to t h a t t i m e . D a r w i n ' s O r i g i n o f Species (1859) r e p l a c e d the concept o f the f i x i t y o f s p e c i e s and the Genesis account o f c r e a t i o n w i t h the t h e o r y o f e v o l u t i o n by n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n to e x p l a i n by c a u s a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n the d i f f e r e n c e s between s p e c i e s and the a d a p t a t i o n o f each t o i t s environment. Both the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n and the h u m a n i s t i c view o f man as an i n d i v i d u a l l y e x i s t i n g s p i r i t u a l b e i n g s u f f e r e d . The whole t ime s c a l e o f human h i s t o r y and man's e n t i r e p o s i t i o n i n the w o r l d and the u n i v e r s e were changed; man was no l o n g e r the lowest o f the angels but the h i g h e s t o f the monkeys. Furthermore h i s s p e c i f i c a l l y mora l e x p e r i e n c e , p r e v i o u s -l y thought t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e man from the a n i m a l s , c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d through e v o l u t i o n p r e c i s e l y i n terms o f the s o c i a l i n s t i n c t s and herd m e n t a l i t y o f a n i m a l s , t h a t i s , i n terms o f c o l l e c t i v e r e a l i t i e s . Darwin c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h i s s o c i a l i n s t i n c t was the ground out o f w h i c h man's mora l sense a r o s e , and the s o c i a l i n s t i n c t , a c c o r d i n g t o D a r w i n ' s t h e o r y , arose p r i m a r i l y out o f the need f o r s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the s p e c i e s i n face o f a h o s t i l e enemy. The more e l e v a t e d h u m a n i s t i c v iew o f man s u f f e r e d from Darwinism, yet N o s s a c k ' s comments on Darwinism r e v e a l t h a t i t had p r e c i s e l y f o r t h i s reason a g r e a t appeal to n i n e t e e n t h century 24 bourgeois opt imism and c o l l e c t i v e modern c a p i t a l i s m . Both r e -c e i v e d support from the Darwinian b e l i e f t h a t l i f e was a constant s t r u g g l e i n which the weak went under and the s t r o n g t h r i v e d and i t s c o n f i r m a t i o n o f the p o s i t i v i s t and m a t e r i a l i s t b e l i e f t h a t t h i n g s were g e t t i n g b e t t e r a l l the t i m e . Nossack sees the f i r s t h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y as the " Z e i t des beginnenden b t t r g e r l i c h e n Optimismus": In demselben b l l r g e r l i c h e n B e t t wurden dann . . . Das  K a p i t a l von Marx und . . . s p S t e r D i e W e l t r & t s e l von H a e c k e l gezeugt. Was w i r t e c h n i s c E ^ s o z i a l und w i r t s c h a f t l i c h e r r e i c h t haben, i s t d i e s em b l i r g e r l i c h e n N l i t z l i c h k e i t s d e n k e n z u verdanken, dessen naive K r a f t d a r i n l a g , dass ihm d e r Z w e i f e l an s i c h s e l b s t versagt war . 15 S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Nossack l i n k s E r n s t H a e c k e l , D a r w i n ' s p o p u l a r i z e r i n Germany, w i t h Marx. In Darwin Marx found c o n f i r m a -t i o n o f h i s emphasis on c l a s s c o n f l i c t and the s t r u g g l e between c o n t r a d i c t o r y f o r c e s , the e v e n t u a l outcome o f which was p r e -determined. Marx b e l i e v e d t h a t these c o n t r a d i c t o r y forces operated e s s e n t i a l l y i n the sphere o f economic p r o d u c t i o n . He r e t a i n e d H e g e l ' s d i a l e c t i c a l framework and l i k e Hegel a t t r i b u t e d primacy to c o l l e c t i v i s t r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l m o r a l i t y , m o r a l i t y b e i n g s i m p l y the m o r a l i t y o f the r u l i n g c l a s s and s e r v i n g the i n t e r e s t s o f t h a t c l a s s . U n l i k e Hegel he was a m a t e r i a l i s t , but he shared H e g e l ' s c o l l e c t i v i s t o u t l o o k : he d i d not b e l i e v e t h a t ideas o r a c t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d i n the long run i n f l u e n c e the course o f w o r l d h i s t o r y , which was t o be understood i n terms o f the o p e r a t i o n of v a s t economic forces beyond i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r o l . In h i s s tudy o f the human mind F r e u d , l i k e the two e a r l i e r t h i n k e r s , was a d e t e r m i n i s t and through h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f man's 25 mental l i f e i n terms o f f i x e d , u n i v e r s a l p a t t e r n s he was, l i k e them, a c o l l e c t i v e s t . L i k e them, he c o n t r i b u t e d t o the d e s p i r i -t u a l i z a t i o n o f man through h i s m a t e r i a l i s t , d e t e r m i n i s t , and c o l l e c t i v i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f man's mental l i f e . In p a r t i c u l a r he d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a g r e a t p a r t o f man's mental l i f e takes p l a c e on an unconscious l e v e l and t h a t i n the unconscious there are d r i v e s , i n s t i n c t s , and r e p r e s s e d wishes beyond man's c o n s c i o u s , r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l , so t h a t man's mind was o f t e n not even master i n i t s own house. A l l these new developments i n the spheres o f the new i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , b i o l o g y , h i s t o r y and economics, and psychology were r e f l e c t e d i n l i t e r a t u r e toward the end o f the n i n e t e e n t h century i n the emergence o f N a t u r a l i s m . I t was the r e s u l t o f the s o c i a l developments accompanying the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n , an i n c r e a s e d a p p l i c a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c methods, a growing i n t e r e s t i n psychology, and an i n c r e a s e d awareness o f the extent t o which b i o l o g i c a l , m a t e r i a l , s o c i a l , and economic f a c t o r s determined human l i f e - - i n s h o r t , a new awareness o f the e f f e c t s o f h e r e d i t y and environment. In the works o f the German N a t u r a l i s t s the power o f the past and present ( i n the form o f h e r e d i t y and environment) over i n d i v i d u a l s i s g e n e r a l l y seen as d e c i s i v e and i n drama there i s u s u a l l y no attempt t o a p p o r t i o n t r a g i c g u i l t among the c h a r a c t e r s as i n c l a s s i c a l tragedy because i n the main they do not possess the p r e r e q u i s i t e power and freedom o f w i l l . As a r e s u l t of the p r o g r e s s i v e d e s p i r i t u a l i z a t i o n o f man the c h a r a c t e r s o f N a t u r a l i s t drama l a c k what had always been regarded as a necessary dimension o f human d i g n i t y . But s o c i e t y too i s p o r t r a y e d as having become 26 u n d i g n i f i e d and u g l y and, whereas e a r l i e r c l a s s i c a l dramas had i l l u s t r a t e d the t r a g i c t r a n s g r e s s i o n o f immutable m o r a l laws which s u s t a i n e d an e s s e n t i a l l y j u s t s o c i e t y and w o r l d o r d e r , the c l e a r t h r u s t o f N a t u r a l i s t dramas i s t h a t s o c i e t y i t s e l f has become o p p r e s s i v e and i n i m i c a l to the i n d i v i d u a l . A c l e a r p r o t e s t a g a i n s t an i n c r e a s i n g l y p r o b l e m a t i c a l s o c i e t y i s to be seen i n the N a t u r a l i s t dramas o f Gerhart Hauptmann which d e p i c t the d i s a g r e e a b l e and even s o r d i d nature o f contemporary i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y w i t h i t s p o v e r t y , s t a r v a t i o n , a l c o h o l i s m , p r o s t i t u t i o n , s lums, e x p l o i t a t i o n , and o p p r e s s i o n . T h i s i n c r e a s -i n g l y p r o b l e m a t i c a l s o c i e t y i n Hauptmann's works b l o c k s man's e n t r y i n t o a h i g h e r , p u r e r rea lm i n o p p o s i t i o n to the w o r l d of m a t e r i a l i s m and d e t e r m i n i s m . Hauptmann's b e l i e f i n the d i g n i t y o f man l e d him to r e a l i z e the need not j u s t f o r m a t e r i a l improve-ment, but f o r a h i g h e r l i f e i n a s p i r i t u a l o r m e t a p h y s i c a l sense. ? T h i s same need informs the German E x p r e s s i o n i s t movement w h i c h swept Germany i n N o s s a c k ' s f o r m a t i v e y e a r s . (He was born i n 1901.) The E x p r e s s i o n i s t s - - i n c o n t r a s t t o the N a t u r a l i s t s — e m p h a -s i z e d the supremacy o f s p i r i t over m a t t e r , and man was no l o n g e r , as i n N a t u r a l i s m , the mere product o f h i s environment, whose l i f e was determined by forces beyond h i s c o n t r o l . Man h i m s e l f was capable o f t r a n s f o r m i n g the w o r l d a c c o r d i n g to the i n n e r v i s i o n of h i s s p i r i t and thus w i t h the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r concern w i t h s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n than w i t h exact p o r t r a y a l o f r e a l i t y . Though t h e r e are themes o f u g l y aspects o f modern c i v i l i z a t i o n , o f the c i t y , o f the machine, o f the p l i g h t o f the w o r k i n g c l a s s , these are p o r t r a y e d not f o r t h e i r own sake but as symptoms o f a 2 7 c o r r u p t w o r l d o r d e r from w h i c h man has to break away i n a quest f o r a h i g h e r form o f l i f e . In E x p r e s s i o n i s m the u n i t y between man and h i s s o c i o - c u l t u r a l environment i s once a g a i n s e v e r e d . The c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l and the community i s c e n t r a l to the E x p r e s s i o n i s t movement, as i s a f e e l i n g o f impending c a t a s -trophe and a p o c a l y p s e . But though the u n i t y between man and contemporaryTSociety and culture i s severed, the t i e s between man and h i s f e l l o w men are r e a f f i r m e d , f o r a f t e r the apocalypse there w i l l be a m o r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n o f the whole human race and a new w o r l d , governed by l o v e , w i l l a r i s e . Consequently the i d e a o f the u l t i m a t e p e r s o n a l , s o c i o -c u l t u r a l , and s p i r i t u a l a loneness o f man, c e n t r a l not o n l y to Nossack 's work but t o modern e x i s t e n t i a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y and so much t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y l i t e r a t u r e , does not c h a r a c t e r i z e the mainstream o f E x p r e s s i o n i s m . Both E x i s t e n t i a l i s m and E x p r e s s i o n i s m do however d i s p l a y the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c inward t u r n i n g which can be t r a c e d back i n p h i l o s o p h y t o Immanuel Kant and the German I d e a l i s t p h i l o s o p h i e s . In K a n t ' s p h i l o s o p h y there i s a r e t r e a t from c e r t a i n t y about the o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y o f the e x t e r n a l w o r l d . He showed the dependence o f our knowledge o f the r e a l i t y of the e x t e r n a l w o r l d on the c o n d i t i o n s o f human p e r c e p t i o n : the e x t e r n a l w o r l d i s known o n l y through sense d a t a and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f these sense d a t a i n the human mind. I m p l i c i t i n Kant i s the i d e a t h a t the e x t e r n a l w o r l d i s the c o n s t r u c t o f the human mind, t h a t the o n l y r e a l i t y o f which we can have d i r e c t knowledge i s the s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y o f our own minds, and thus one consequence of K a n t i a n I d e a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y i s t o r e a f f i r m s u b j e c t i v i t y and 28 i n d i v i d u a l i s m a g a i n s t u n i v e r s a l , c o l l e c t i v e systems, which i s p r e c i s e l y what o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n the work o f Schopenhauer, K i e r k e g a a r d , N i e t z s c h e , and Dostoyevsky. I t happens a l s o i n the p h i l o s o p h i c a l successors o f the l a t t e r , i n the modern e x i s t e n t i a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y o f J a s p e r s , Heidegger, and S a r t r e who t u r n from the p u b l i c , e x t e r n a l w o r l d t o the p r i v a t e w o r l d o f t h e i r own c o n s c i o u s n e s s . There i s no c o n t i n u i t y between the two w o r l d s : the e x i s t e n t i a l i s t p h i l o s o p h e r f i n d s t h a t he cannot be f u l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h h i s r o l e i n s o c i e t y , h i s a c t i o n s , h i s p a s t , o r even h i s own body and c h a r a c t e r . In the depth of h i s i n n e r b e i n g he i s s o l i t u d e and l i b e r t y , p o s s i b i l i t i e s and c h o i c e . The inward t u r n o f p h i l o s o p h y i s r e f l e c t e d i n l i t e r a t u r e , i n p a r t i c u l a r i n the n o v e l i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . Wolfgang 16 Kayser d i s c e r n s a t r a n s i t i o n from the " t r a d i t i o n a l " n o v e l o f such w r i t e r s as C e r v a n t e s , Henry F i e l d i n g , and W i e l a n d . T h e i r work shows an awareness o f the ambigui ty o f language and r e a l i t y , o f the d i s p a r i t y between " S e i n " and " S c h e i n , " and an obvious p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t i n t h a t the c h a r a c t e r s deceive themselves, and d i s t o r t r e a l i t y w i t h t h e i r i l l u s i o n s . But the authors them-s e l v e s are a b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h the t r u e nature o f r e a l i t y because they have a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l o r i e n t a t i o n and so they are a b l e t o guide t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s a l o n g the path t o a c h i e v i n g t h i s knowledge themselves . In the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , however, Kayser sees a c r i s i s o f the n o v e l : Es besteht e i n M i s s t r a u e n gegen den ' b i s h e r i g e n ' Roman, den ' k o n v e n t i o n e l l e n ' Roman. E r e r s c h e i n t n i c h t mehr a l s echt . . . a l s g e t r e u e r Ausdruck des heut igen Verba" l t n i s ses zum Dase in und S e i n . Ihm i s t . . . e ine S i c h e r h e i t e i g e n , d i e n i c h t a l s g U l t i g anerkannt werden 29 kann. Im einzelnen richten s i c h die Angriffe gegen . . . die Einbeziehung des persBnlichen Lesers sowie gegen den bisher ergriffenen Weltgehalt (und damit zugleich gegen die Formen, i n denen er erfas s t wurde und die als Uberholte Konventionen wirken). 17 This lack of ce r t a i n t y i n the twentieth century novel has 18 been explained by David Daiches i n terms of a t r a n s i t i o n a l c i v i -l i z a t i o n . E a r l i e r ages had what Daiches c a l l s a "community of b e l i e f , " a general standard of sign i f i c a n c e and common frame of reference f o r l i f e . E a r l i e r we spoke of man's need to be related to such a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l pattern of shared ideas, values, and b e l i e f s , but history reveals c e r t a i n periods when the community of b e l i e f disintegrates and a m u l t i p l i c i t y of private worlds replaces the public world. Daiches thinks the decay of uniform b e l i e f in the twentieth century i s to be explained i n terms of the drying up of t r a d i t i o n a l sources of value, the shattering of the preconceptions of our fathers, along with the f a i l u r e of new b e l i e f s to emerge. The r e s u l t i s that the i n d i v i d u a l i s thrown back upon his own inner resources; i n the novel the wr i t e r confines the world to the l i m i t s of an i n d i v i d u a l mind and assesses value s o l e l y i n terms of that mind. The omniscient and omnipotent narrator of the t r a d i t i o n a l novel disappears along with the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r elated-ness. Leon E d e l ^ has pointed out that the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c feature of twentieth century f i c t i o n i s an inward turning to convey the flow of mental experience i n the form of i n t e r n a l monologue and stream of consciousness. He cr e d i t s Proust, Dorothy Richardson, and James Joyce with having created the modem psychological or 30 stream of consciousness novel between the years 1913 and 1915. A l l three turned from external to inte r n a l , subjective r e a l i t y , a l l three sought to cope with inner problems and to record the inwardness of experience, a l l three were e s s e n t i a l l y autobiographi c a l . We have, therefore, i m p l i c i t l y a protest against the idea that there i s one v a l i d interpretation of l i f e represented by omniscient aut h o r i a l intrusions and an assertion of the s u b j e c t i -v i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l . Around 1915 Hans E r i c h Nossack started keeping a journal, the record of his inner, private world. Having indicated three v a r i e t i e s of aloneness and having placed the concept i n some kind of h i s t o r i c a l perspective, the following chapters w i l l examine how the d e f i n i t i o n of aloneness i n i t s various forms applies to Nossack i n his l i f e and work and how he continues the nineteenth century c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l and the c o l l e c t i v e , the i n d i v i d u a l and society, the private and the public. Starting with Nossack's e a r l i e s t experiences within the parental home, the f i r s t scene and occasion of his aloneness, sub-sequent chapters w i l l deal with the "gregarious" aspects of l i f e , s o c i a l intercourse, friendship, love, and personal relationships. Nossack's emotional reaction to his personal aloneness w i l l be considered; although there i s at times a negative f e e l i n g of i s o l a t i o n , implying the common human need f o r relationships, Nossack's general tendency i s not to seek to escape aloneness or see i t as a vacuum to be f i l l e d , but to accept i t and give i t a p o s i t i v e value as the mark of authenticity, an i n t r i n s i c part of his i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Nossack w i l l be shown to be concerned not so much with the questionable nature of personal and s o c i a l 31 r e l a t i o n s h i p s , as were Schopenhauer and K i e r k e g a a r d , but w i t h demonstrat ing the v i r t u a l i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c h i e v i n g meaningful p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the t r a d i t i o n a l sense. The extent o f N o s s a c k ' s need t o be r e l a t e d s o c i o - c u l t u r a l l y w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n the l i g h t o f h i s views on contemporary s o c i e t y . H i s awareness o f the c o l l e c t i v e , impersonal tendencies o f h i s age and o f i t s a n a c h r o n i s t i c f e a t u r e s prevents Nossack (and h i s main f i c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r s ) from a c h i e v i n g even the s l i g h t e s t H e g e l i a n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h s o c i e t y and i t s d e s t i n y . He condemns modern i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y ' s c o l l e c t i v e tendencies which reduce man t o a s o c i a l q u o t i e n t , commodity, o r cog i n a v a s t s o c i o -economic machine. Nossack shares the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c N a t u r a l i s t and E x p r e s s i o n i s t view o f s o c i e t y as a system o f c o n v e n t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s and values which may once have been j u s t and human but w h i c h have become a n t i q u a t e d and o p p r e s s i v e t o the i n d i v i d u a l . S o c i e t y , as i n Schopenhauer and K i e r k e g a a r d , i s g e n e r a l l y seen as b e i n g m o t i v a t e d by a f e a r o f a l o n e n e s s , a c h i e v i n g a herd s e c u r i t y o n l y at the expense o f r e p r e s s i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l and i n a u t h e n t i -c i t y . Of course a h o s t i l e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l environment and the conse-quent l a c k o f s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r e l a t e d n e s s does not mean that a need f o r a more i d e a l s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r e l a t e d n e s s w i l l not be f e l t . Such a need, though i l l - d e f i n e d , can be d i s c e r n e d i n Nossack 's w r i t i n g s , though i t nowhere becomes a dominant theme. Rather Nossack d i s p l a y s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e x i s t e n t i a l i s t inward t u r n i n g from the p u b l i c w o r l d o f p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s o c i e t y to the p r i v a t e , s u b j e c t i v e w o r l d o f the i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , the 32 w o r l d o f s o l i t u d e , l i b e r t y , and p o s s i b i l i t y . T h i s inward t u r n -i n g i s accompanied by an e x i s t e n t i a l i s t r e c o g n i t i o n o f the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f comprehending e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y o r f o r that matter the i n t e r n a l r e a l i t y o f the mind. O b j e c t i v e system b u i l d i n g and dogmatic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f r e a l i t y , whether they be D a r w i n i a n , M a r x i a n , o r F r e u d i a n , are r e j e c t e d as a f a l s i f i c a t i o n o f r e a l i t y , i n w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t s w i t h o u t any r e l i a b l e o r i e n t a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e , u l t i m a t e l y , s p i r i t u a l l y a l o n e . In c o n t r a s t t o Darwin, Marx, and F r e u d , who saw man as c o l l e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l l e d and determined e i t h e r by h i s b i o l o g i c a l p a s t , h i s soc io-economic environment, o r the c h e m i s t r y o f h i s b r a i n , Nossack r e s p i r i t u a l i z e s man and r e a l i t y . He b e l i e v e s i n an i n e f f a b l e , m e t a p h y s i c a l , but i n t e n s e l y r e a l r e a l m o f e x i s t e n c e beyond p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , beyond s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e , which c o n s t i t u t e s f o r him the h i g h e s t va lue i n l i f e . Nossack 's c h a r a c t e r s long t o exper ience and e n t e r t h i s rea lm, i n the ex-p e r i e n c e of which the i n d i v i d u a l i s a lone and w h i c h he can o n l y e n t e r a l o n e ; as opposed to the p u b l i c w o r l d i t i s a dimension beyond a l l consensus of o p i n i o n . To exper ience t h i s supremely v a l u a b l e r e a l i t y man must f r e e h i m s e l f from the f e t t e r s o f h i s e x i s t e n c e : the f a m i l y , p e r s o n a l and l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , h i s p a s t , and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r e l a t e d n e s s . The i n d i v i d u a l ' s awareness and exper ience o f t h i s r e a l m are the u l t i m a t e guarantors o f the a b i d -i n g p e r s o n a l , s o c i o - c u l t u r a l , and s p i r i t u a l aloneness o f Nossack and h i s main c h a r a c t e r s . 33 Footnotes Arthur Schopenhauer, "Parerga und Paralipomena," Samtliche Werke, ed. Wolfgang Frhr. von Ltthneysen (Darmstadt: Wissenschartliche Buchgesellschaft, 1961), IV, 504. 2 Schopenhauer, p. 503• Schopenhauer, p. 508. H.J. Blackham, Six E x i s t e n t i a l i s t Thinkers (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., 1951), p. 150. Hans E r i c h Nossack, Die gestohlene Melodie (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1972), p. 24b, p. 248. 6 Blackham, p. 151. Soren Kierkegaard's Journals and Papers, ed. and trans. Howard V. Hong and Edna H. Hong (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1967), I, 40. 8 Soren Kierkegaard, Concluding U n s c i e n t i f i c Postscript, trans. David F. Swenson and Walter Lowrie (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1941), p. 317. F r i e d r i c h Nietzsche, "Unzeitgemasse Betrachtungen," Werke in d r e i Banden, ed. K a r l Schlechta (Munich: C a r l Hanser Verlag, 1954), I, 266-67. 10 Nietzsche, p. 144. Nietzsche, "Jenseits von Gut und Bose," II, 741. 12 Blackham, p. 54. Hans E r i c h Nossack, Die schwache Position der Lit e r a t u r : Reden und AufsHtze, Edition Suhrkamp, 156 (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1966), pp. 16-17. 34 Footnotes (cont inued) 14 Fyodor Dostoyevsky, L e t t e r s from the Underworld, t r a n s . C . J . Hogarth, Everyman's L i b r a r y , No. 654 (London: XTM. Dent, 1964), p . 31. Hans E r i c h Nossack, Die schwache P o s i t i o n der L i t e r a t u r , p . 56. 16 Wolfgang Kayser , " D i e Anf&nge des modernen Romans im 18. Jahrhundert und s e i n e h e u t i g e K r i s e , " Deutsche V i e r t e l j a h r s g c h r i f t , 28 (1954) , 4 1 7 - 4 6 . 17 Kayser , p . 440. David D a i c h e s , The N o v e l and the Modern W o r l d , Revised e d i t i o n (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , I 9 6 0 ) . Leon Joseph E d e l , The P s y c h o l o g i c a l Nove l 1900-1950 (New York: H a s k e l l House, 196oT 3 5 CHAPTER 2 B i o g r a p h i c a l Background and Der Untergang ( i ) Hans E r i c h Nossack was born i n Hamburg on 3 0 January 1901, the son of a wealthy coffee merchant. Despite Herr Nossack 1s success i n business the dominant force at home was his wife and the absence of open c o n f l i c t i n the marriage was only due to h i s submissiveness. Now i t i s a t r u i s m of modern psychology that p a r e n t a l environment and upbringing exert a powerful and l a s t -ing i n f l u e n c e on any c h i l d ; they are the f i r s t and perhaps dominant i n f l u e n c e s on h i s patterns of r e l a t i n g to others and hi s f e e l i n g s of belonging and s e c u r i t y . Nossack would c e r t a i n -l y be the f i r s t to agree w i t h Peter Pan's observation that mothers are very overrated persons because he and h i s brothers and s i s t e r s f e l t that they d i d not belong, that they had to defend themselves against t h e i r mother, as he explains i n the essay " P r i v a t b e s i t z . Durchgang verboten": Doch meine Geschwister standen genauso wie i c h i n Opposition zur A l l e i n h e r r s c h a f t der Mutter . . . Sie war s i c h e r eine imponierende Frau, doch von e i n e r da'monischen Herrschsucht; a l l e i h r e Freundinnen krochen vor i h r und wagten i h r n i c h t zu widersprechen. 1 2 Nossack's s e l f - c o n f e s s e d anti-mother complex i s the b a s i s f o r h i s l a t e r f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h the m y t h o l o g i c a l f i g u r e of Orestes. In the essay "Orest" he w r i t e s of the sense of danger he a s s o c i a t e d w i t h her: . . . wo s i e a l s AngehBrige eines m a t r i a r c h a l i s c h e n Gesellschaftssytems handelte und i h r e m l i t t e r l i c h e Autorita't und Unangreifbarkeit dazu benutzte, i h r e 36 K i n d e r zu d o m e s t i z i e r e n und diesem System zu u n t e r w e r f e n , war s i e i n der Tat e i n e g e f & h r l i c h e G e g n e r i n . . . . Herrschsucht a l s M u t t e r l i e b e m a s k i e r t i s t e i n e t B d l i c h e Gefahr f l l r d i e SBhne. Und n i c h t nur f u r d i e SBhne, sondern f l l r d i e W e l t , da w e i b l i c h e Herrschsucht i n s Mass l o s e liberzugehen p f l e g t . (Pseudoautobiographische G l o s s e n , p . 30) Here we see N o s s a c k ' s tendency to view phenomena o f s o c i e t y i n terms o f the m a t r i a r c h y he had known i n h i s own home, i n c o n t r a s t t o the more common p a t t e r n , seen f o r example i n many E x p r e s s i o n i s t p l a y s o f the same p e r i o d , i n which r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t t r a d i t i o n and s o c i e t y i s symbol ized by a r e b e l l i o n o f the son a g a i n s t the f a t h e r . Nossack 's i s o l a t i o n i n h i s b a t t l e a g a i n s t the s u f f o c a t i n g m a t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e was i n c r e a s e d by the d e s e r t i o n o f h i s e l d e r b r o t h e r t o the opposing s i d e . In "Jahrgang 1901" (Pseudoauto-b i o g r a p h i s c h e G l o s s e n , p . 122) Nossack says t h a t , whereas he was possessed o f a r e b e l l i o u s w i l l a g a i n s t the p a r e n t a l and b i o l o g i -c a l i n f l u e n c e , h i s b r o t h e r c o n s i d e r e d r i g h t and d i d e v e r y t h i n g h i s parents t o l d h i m . In N o s s a c k ' s view he d i d v i o l e n c e to him-s e l f ; h i s mindless submiss iveness made him p e d a n t i c and l a u g h a b l e . He was one o f the b a s i c a l l y decent but r e a c t i o n a r y masses t h a t Nossack d e s p i s e s ; even h i s b r o t h e r ' s " l o v e " f o r him i s not c o n s i d e r e d by Nossack to be a genuine e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s f e e l i n g s , but o n l y an a c t o f deference to the expected. Nossack s t r u g g l e s f o r freedom from f e t t e r s t h a t t h r e a t e n h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y . The f i r s t and g r e a t e s t o f these i s the f a m i l y , and he r e l a t e s the exper ience o f o t h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l s o f h i s g e n e r a t i o n to h i s own r e v o l t : In diesem Sinne s i n d w i r e i n e G e n e r a t i o n von A b t r l i n n i g e n . Der niemals endende LoslBsungskampf hat sogar unsern 37 kBrperlichen Habitus gepragt. Ich erkenne die, die gle i c h mir den rigorosen S c h r i t t von der Familie weg getan haben, noch heute an ihrem i l l e g a l e n Blick, der nichts anderes als unruhige Wachsamkeit bis i n den letzten Schlaf hinein bedeutet. Und genauso erkenne ich v o l l e r Zorn und Kummer die, die dem schleichenden G i f t biologischer Sentimentalitiiten erlegen sind. Ihr Blut scheint s i c h zersetzt zu haben, ihre Gesichtszlige sind s c h l a f f und i h r KBrper setzt das ungesunde Fett der Resignation an. ("Jahrgang 1901, "Pseudoautobiographische  Glossen. pp. 139-40) This account may seem far-fetched, but i t indicates the permanent traumatic e f f e c t of his childhood experiences i n the family home. Any natural desire to belong and be loved, any fondness f o r family and home (elementary i n s t i n c t s i n man's attempt to overcome aloneness) could never develop i n view of the deep and la s t i n g resentment he f e l t toward his domineering mother. Even as a c h i l d he was an outsider in his own house, and th i s fundamental experience of aloneness came from his awareness of himself as an i n d i v i d u a l but threatened entity. There was no sudden deprivation of love or security, no vacuum which could give r i s e to purely negative feelings of loneliness. In "Jahrgang 1901" Nossack describes his youth as "ganz unwirklich" rather than unhappy, and compares i t to Balzac's Louis Lambert, a story "die das v B l l i g e Verlorensein des Kindes im Gehege burgerlicher Ordnung d a r s t e l l t . Die Erwachsenen geben vor, zu wissen, was Gluck s e i , und das Kind weiss bereits, dass i h r GlUck nicht stiramt und dass s i e s i c h etwas vormachen" ("Jahrgang 1901," Pseudoautobiographische Glossen, p. 129). The unreality was due not only to the circumstances of Nossack's home background but also to h i s t o r i c a l and socio-c u l t u r a l developments during his childhood and adolescence, in p a r t i c u l a r the collapse of the prosperous and seemingly secure 38 world of the upper middle classes with the f i r s t World War: . . . s i e fllhrten bis 1914 das grosse Leben i h r e r Epoche; Abend fllr Abend glanzvolle Diners in ihren reichen Hausern, prachtige Opernauffllhrungen und v i e l e kostspielige Reisen durch die Luxushotels Europas. Dieser grossbllrgerliche Rahmen und die fllr selbstverst&ndliche genommene Sicherheit brachen 1914 zusammen. Wir Jiingeren, die g l e i c h i n die Revolution und i n die I n f l a t i o n a l l e r Werte hineingeboren wurden, kBnnen i n keiner Weise beurteileny wie der Zusammen-bruch einer fllr absolut sicher gehaltenen Existenz auf unsre V&ter wirkte. ("Privatbesitz. Durchgang verboten," Pseudoautobiographische Glossen, p. 37) The collapse of the hollow facade of society and culture i s seen as the culmination of a process of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l decay: 1914 brach die bllrgerliche Welt zusammen, und zwar von innen her, da s i e nur noch hohle Fassade war. Die Kinder und Halbwuehsigen begriffen . . . vermutlich besser a l s die Erwachsenen, die i n ihren Gewohnheiten befangen waren, dass s i c h a l l e s i n einer makabren Kulisse bewegte, die nicht mehr zu den Tatsachen passte. Nicht einmal die Erwachsenen richteten s i c h nach den geheiligten Brauchen, die man uns noch beizubringen trachtete. Woran s o l l t e n wir uns halten? 3 With the outbreak of the war i n 1914 Nossack found that his education was constantly disrupted; a thorough education was j u s t one of the values of which Nossack was deprived, according to "Jahrgang 1901" and "Warum ich nicht wie Hermann Broch schreibe." In these years not only d i d the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l framework of the German "Burger" collapse, but there was a disruption also of the means of i n s t i l l i n g i t s values and modes of thought and of achiev ing "Bildung" i n the sense of the formation of the personality and character of the young person u n t i l he i s able to enter society as a useful member. Nossack was deprived of s t i l l other values before he even had a chance to make them his own by what he c a l l s the monetary and s p i r i t u a l i n f l a t i o n of the time. In "Jahrgang 1901" 39 (Pseudoautobiographische G l o s s e n , p . I 3 3 ) he records h i s s h a t t e r -i n g d i s c o v e r y t h a t money has o n l y a h y p o t h e t i c a l va lue which can be i n v a l i d a t e d at any t i m e ; t r a d i t i o n a l va lues o f i n d u s t r y and t h r i f t and the b e l i e f i n the s e c u r i t y o f money and investments were no l o n g e r v a l i d and h i s own t i e s to the w o r l d o f m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s were undermined. The i n f l a t i o n o f p r e v i o u s l y a b s o l u t e m o r a l va lues had an even g r e a t e r e f f e c t on Nossack. He saw t h a t i n times o f c r i s i s fche o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n d i d not p r a c t i s e what they preached. In "Jahrgang 1901" he mentions i n p a r t i c u l a r b lack-market buying by r e s p e c t a b l e bourgeois parents and the f e e l i n g o f shame which t h e i r a c t i o n s caused them. In p r a c t i c e he saw the open f l o u t i n g by a d u l t s o f t h e i r own h i g h l y p r a i s e d moral o r d e r . But the s i g n i f i -cant p o i n t i s t h a t i t was never h i s own m o r a l , s o c i a l , or c u l t u r a l o r d e r . Nossack was s i m p l y too young t o have been d e p r i v e d o f m o r a l , s o c i a l , o r c u l t u r a l va lues which had been s a n c t i f i e d by h i s own b e l i e f i n them; and t h u s , as we saw w i t h r e s p e c t to h i s f i r s t exper ience o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e r e was no vacuum caused by sudden d e p r i v a t i o n w h i c h c o u l d produce p u r e l y negat ive f e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s . Not o n l y can he not miss va lues which were never h i s own, but he p r o u d l y p r o c l a i m s h i s i n a b i l i t y to b e l i e v e i n " E w i g k e i t s w e r t e , " which now appear c o m i c a l , and p r o c l a i m s t h a t : " E i n e Ordnung, d i e e i n m a l n e g i e r t wurde, da d i e Umst&nde mUchtiger waren, l & s s t s i c h n i e w i e d e r h e r s t e l l e n " (Pseudoautobio-g r a p h i s c h e G l o s s e n , p . 134). Yet p r e c i s e l y w i t h regard to the negated moral order and the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l c o l l a p s e a f t e r 1918 N o s s a c k ' s p o s i t i o n of 4 0 s o c i o - c u l t u r a l aloneness was increased^ for an attempt was made to resurrect, the negated order. Within the ranks of his very own generation there was parting of the ways i n the immediate post-war years: Die einen—von den Studierenden blirgerlicher Herkunft die Uberwiegende Mehrheit—bekannten s i c h zu dem, was vor dem Zusammenbruch war--die meisten aus Bequemlichkeit und Denkfaulheit, doch die Besten von ihnen wurden reaktion&re Revolutions're. . . . Die anderen, ohne dass s i e a ls Zwanzigi&hrige liber besondere p o l i t i s c h e Einsichten verfugten, bejahten die Unruhe als das Neue und als das ihnen gem&sse Lebenselement. Sie gerieten auf diese Weise, ob s i e wollten oder nicht, unweigerlich nach l i n k s . (Pseudoautobiographische Glossen, p. 135) A young person of Nossack's family background might have been expected to tend towards the reactionary party, though with Nossack, so conscious of the f a i l u r e of the old order, the op-posite was the case. His upbringing was, however, the reason for his i n i t i a l lack of contacts on the l e f t with whom he could f e e l a bond of comradeship. His s o c i o - c u l t u r a l aloneness was further increased during this period by the fact that a f t e r the f a i l u r e of the German revolutionary movements in the years 1918-19 i t was the Right which gained dominance, formed successive govern-ments during the Weimar Republic, and determined the restorative character of the period: So gesehen i s t a l l e s , was nach 1918 passierte, r e s t -auratives Flickwerk und ressentimentgeladenes Nachklappen, und gerade darum so unmenschlich, w e i l es ein Nachklappen war. Faschismus und Zweiter Weltkrieg sind nicht denkbar ohne Dolchstosslegende. Wehleidige Rllckerinnerung an hundert Jahre bllrgerlichen F o r t s c h r i t t s s p i e l t auch heute noch eine Rolle . . . (Pseudoautobiographische Glossen, p. 131) It has emerged that a general state of aloneness characteri-zed Nossack's s i t u a t i o n from the e a r l i e s t years of childhood. He 4 1 l a c k e d from the b e g i n n i n g any sense o f rootedness i n or a f f e c t i o n f o r h i s p a r e n t a l environment, a long w i t h any f e e l i n g o f s o c i a l o r c u l t u r a l b e l o n g i n g . In both cases no vacuum was caused by sudden d e p r i v a t i o n , so no c r a v i n g f o r the conquest o f l o n e l i n e s s a r o s e . From the s t a r t he found h i m s e l f on the o u t s i d e i n a k i n d of e x i l e . But even so the f i r s t sudden awareness o f aloneness can s t i l l be a f r i g h t e n i n g exper ience o f i n s e c u r i t y , though u l t i m a t e l y the aloneness i t s e l f appears to have a p o s i t i v e aspect : W i r waren A b t r l l n n i g e , ehe w i r es s e l b e r wussten. Unter E x i l s o i l h i e r das H e r a u s t r e t e n des I n t e l l e k t u e l l e n aus s e i n e r ihm angeborenen, k l e i n e n g e s c h i c h t l i c h e n Z e i t i n e i n e g e i s t i g e Z e i t verstanden s e i n . Das i s t k e i n bewusst r e v o l u t i o n S r e r A k t , sondern geschieht dem jungen Menschen im Grunde gegen s e i n e n W i l l e n . Ware e r s i c h des e r s t e n S c h r i t t e s bewusst, wllrde e r i h n v e r m u t l i c h n i c h t v o l l z i e h e n kBnnen . . . und . . . vor dem R i s i k o zur l ickschrecken . . . E i n e s Tages jedoch merkt man, dass man schon n i c h t mehr dazu gehBrt und b e r e i t s a u s s e r h a l b d e r angestammten Umgebung s t e h t . N i c h t s s c h e i n t mehr zu stimmen, was einem b e i g e b r a c h t wurde und den andern a l s L e b e n s r e g e l g i l t . Wehe dem, der s i c h z u lange u m b l i c k t . Man s teht ohne H a l t da und hat den s i c h a l s a b s o l u t s i c h e r gebardenden I n s t i t u t i o n e n n i c h t s entgegenzusetzen a l s das G e f u h l , i n ihnen n i c h t mehr atmen zu kBnnen. Man kann s i c h nur auf e i n e Negat ion b e r u f e n , und das r e i c h t a l s K r a f t q u e l l e n i c h t aus. . . . Man muss schon e i n i g e s Gl l i ck haben und eine gewisse Z&higkei t im Standhal ten b e s i t z e n , um den e r s t e n Moment des Bewusstwerdens ohne a l l z u grosse F e h l e r zu bestehen. E r s t sehr v i e l s p U t e r , v i e l l e i c h t e r s t nach der Erfahrung e ines ganzen Lebens kommt man dazu, den Standpunkt a u s s e r h a l b des v e g e t a t i v e n K r e i s e s , der s i c h f l l r a l l e i n g U l t i g h & l t , a l s e ine Chance und Bevorzugung zu a k z e p t i e r e n . (Pseudoautobiographische  G l o s s e n , pp. 123-24) Elsewhere i n the same essay t h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l e x i l e i s seen under the aspect o f not having a homeland: " M i r f e h l t jedes G e f l i h l f l l r das, was man Heimat nennt" (Pseudoautobiographische  G l o s s e n , p . 121). To the themes o f i n t e l l e c t u a l o r s p i r i t u a l e x i l e and " H e i m a t s l o s i g k e i t " can be added the theme of h i s t o r i c a l r o o t l e s s n e s s . Nossack spoke o f the e x i l e d i n t e l l e c t u a l ' s 42 existence i n a s p i r i t u a l time, as opposed to the l i t t l e dimension of h i s t o r i c a l time, because the h i s t o r i c a l age i n which he finds himself i s something to be overcome, because i t threatens his i n d i v i d u a l i t y : Geschichtliche Ereignisse, denen er s i c h ausgesetzt sah, waren hichts als Hemmnisse, die ihn von seiner Richtung abbringen wollten, und seine Privatgeschichte i s t kaum mehr als Widerstand gegen das, was dann hinterher Geschichte genannt wird. (Pseudoautobiographische  Glossen, p. 121) To Nossack i t seems that the i n t e l l e c t u a l ' s e x i l e into a s p i r i t u a l time dimension was more frequent and necessary in the f i r s t half of the twentieth century than i n previous ages. The series of events which culminated i n Fascism and war are for him s u f f i c i e n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s s p i r i t u a l e x i l e from an archaic s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l structure: "Die nachfolgenden Ereignisse haben uns all e r d i n g s recht gegeben, denn a l l e s , j a w i r k l i c h a l l e s , was uns als Ewigkeitswerte und absolute Wahrheiten angepriesen wurde, hat dann ira E r n s t f a l l klMglich versagt und s i c h a ls das gezeigt, was wir mehr i n s t i n k t i v vermuteten: als Uberlebte Fassade" (Pseudoautobiographische Glossen, p. 124). This f e e l i n g of j u s t i f i c a t i o n ultimately enables Nossack to see the e x i l e of the i n t e l l e c t u a l as "Chance und Bevorzugung," as a po s i t i v e rather than a negative state, even though the f i r s t awareness of aloneness produces feelings of fear and insecurity because i t i s an awareness not just of s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i s o l a t i o n but of ultimate s p i r i t u a l aloneness. The i n d i v i d u a l "steht ohne Halt da" in the world, so absolutely alone that i f he had to take a f i r s t step into t h i s e x i l e he would be unable to do so. Instead, he suddenly finds himself on the outside and accepts 43 h i s aloneness because, as w i t h Schopenhauer, h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to accept i t i s g r e a t e r than the repugnance he f e e l s f o r the a l t e r n a -t i v e s which the conquest o f l o n e l i n e s s would e n t a i l . But how i s i t t h a t a young person i s a b l e to w i t h s t a n d t h i s h i g h l y endangered form of e x i s t e n c e c o m p l e t e l y i n o p p o s i t i o n to the va lues and t r a d i t i o n s o f h i s o r i g i n , environment, and time? In "Der Weg nach draussen" (Pseudoautobiographische G l o s s e n , p . 19) the s i t u a t i o n i s shown to be c o m p l i c a t e d not j u s t by the i n -e x p e r i e n c e and v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f the young person at tempting to l e a d a l i f e " a l s Fremdl ing i n U n s i c h e r h e i t und A L l e i n s e i n , " but a l s o by the f a c t that a t every s tep he has t o defend h i m s e l f a g a i n s t h i s f a m i l y ' s attempts to h o l d him back, to m a i n t a i n the t i e s o f t>lood and b i o l o g y . The answer i s that at an e a r l y age Nossack d i s c o v e r e d through l i t e r a t u r e t h a t t h e r e had always been a number o f i n d i v i d u a l s who were born out o f t h e i r t i m e , who had attempted to e x i s t o u t s i d e o f t h e i r s o c i e t y and the anonymous stream o f h i s t o r y through a p o w e r f u l a s s e r t i o n of t h e i r i n d i v i -d u a l i t y ; w i t h o u t these he would have been c o m p l e t e l y l o s t . At f o u r t e e n he encountered H e b b e l ' s d i a r i e s i n h i s f a t h e r ' s l i b r a r y . He exper ienced the great a t t r a c t i o n o f H e b b e l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y and f e l t an i n n e r compuls ion to become a man l i k e him because " i c h w o l l t e i h n n i c h t noch einsamer machen a l s e r schon war" (Pseudoautobiographische G l o s s e n , p . 13). A t s i x t e e n Nossack encountered August S t r i n d b e r g through the Dream P l a y and l a t e r through The Road to Damascus. F o r Nossack he was " e i n ganz gegenw&rtiger Mensch, d e r p l B t z l i c h i n mein Leben t r a t und ihm e i n e andere R i c h t u n g gab." 2 * S t r i n d b e r g ' s 44 p r e s e n t a t i o n o f women as the dominant sex, o f t e n having the q u a l i t i e s o f vampires, and the theme o f the p s y c h i c murder, the a n n i h i l a t i o n o f a weaker mind by a s t r o n g e r , must have reminded Nossack of the s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i n h i s own home. Other f i g u r e s who were to become f o r Nossack l i v i n g com-panions were Dostoyevsky, B a l z a c , and the Van Gogh o f the B r i e f e  an s e i n e n Bruder Theo. I n "Der Weg nach draussen" Nossack d e s c r i b e s t h e i r works as be ing " a l l e s a m t kompromisslose Monologe" (Pseudoautobiographische G l o s s e n , p . 22), w h i l e i n " O r e s t " he d e s c r i b e s how Dostoyevsky and B a l z a c both s tood o u t s i d e the s o c i a l and b i o l o g i c a l p e r i p h e r y and how i n n e i t h e r t h e r e i s " e i n Hinweis auf d i e m U t t e r l i c h e H e r k u n f t " (Pseudoautobiographische  G l o s s e n , p . 26). The urgent need t o overcome the m a t e r n a l o r i g i n and i n f l u e n c e e x p l a i n s Nossack 's a t t r a c t i o n t o E r n s t B a r l a c h . In h i s " B e k e n n t n i s zu B a r l a c h " (Pseudoautobiographische G l o s s e n , p . 43) Nossack b e l i e v e s the s e a r c h f o r the f a t h e r - f i g u r e and God i n the s p i r i t u a l dimension o f l i f e i s B a r l a c h ' s b a s i c theme, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Der t o t e Tag. I n the e q u a t i o n o f the f a t h e r image, not w i t h t r a d i t i o n , d i s c i p l i n e , and r e s t r i c t i o n , but w i t h the s p i r i t , f r e e -dom, and p o s s i b i l i t y Nossack saw m i r r o r e d h i s own e x p e r i e n c e ; i n c o n t r a s t t o h i s domineering mother he r e c a l l s the words o f h i s f a t h e r to h i s sons: "Das musst i h r s e l b e r e n t s c h e i d e n " (Pseudo-a u t o b i o g r a p h i s c h e G l o s s e n , p . 32), even when the d e c i s i o n they made was q u i t e c o n t r a r y t o h i s own i n c l i n a t i o n s . I n Der t o t e Tag Nossack saw the j u x t a p o s i t i o n and c o n f l i c t between the w o r l d o f the mother and the w o r l d o f the f a t h e r , the theme of man's urge 45 t o f r e e h i m s e l f from the trammels o f h i s environment as symbolized by the " M u t t e r w e l t , " to pursue h i s search f o r the f a t h e r , f o r the s p i r i t u a l , f o r God, and to r e a l i z e not h i s p h y s i c a l and m a t e r i a l but h i s s p i r i t u a l p o s s i b i l i t y . The s t r u g g l e i s o f ten unsuccess-f u l and t r a g i c because, as we read i n " C r e s t " (Pseudoautobiogra-p h i s c h e G l o s s e n , p . 3 0 ) , the mother d e s t r o y s the s o n ' s c e n t r i -f u g a l s p i r i t u a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s and thus s p i r i t u a l l y c a s t r a t e s h im. B a r l a c h was yet another f i g u r e e x i s t i n g o u t s i d e of the anonymous stream of h i s t o r y . H i s works do not r e f l e c t h i s t o r i c a l events but r e v o l v e around t i m e l e s s human i s s u e s . The sense o f t h e i r b e i n g s i t u a t e d o u t s i d e h i s t o r y i n a s p i r i t u a l o r q u a s i -m y s t i c a l r e a l m and the absence of h i s t o r i c a l rootedness were t h i n g s which Nossack had exper ienced as being t r u e o f h i s own l i f e . I t i s the t y p i c a l E x p r e s s i o n i s t i d e a o f the d i g n i t y o f man, but man s t r i p p e d o f a l l h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and even p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s . The i d e a i s o f t e n condemned as a p u r e l y a b s t r a c t concept w i t h o u t c o n s t r u c t i v e f o r c e , and i f t h i s s tudy were p o l e m i c a l i n nature i t would be hard not to regard i t as s e l f - d e l u s i o n , a p u r e l y p e r s o n a l myth; but the i d e a i s c e n t r a l to Nossack 's image o f man. Hebbel , S t r i n d b e r g , Dostoyevsky, B a l z a c , Van Gogh, and B a r l a c h were, then, the companions o f Nossack 's youth who helped him t o endure h i s a loneness by c o n f i r m i n g and encouraging him on h i s journey a long " d e r Weg nach d r a u s s e n . " In them he saw f i g u r e s who i n o p p o s i t i o n to t h e i r o r i g i n , environment, and h i s t o r i c a l t ime were r e l e n t l e s s l y f o l l o w i n g t h e i r own path a g a i n s t a l l the w e l l - m e a n i n g and r a t i o n a l a d v i c e o f f r i e n d s and r e l a t i o n s , even 46 a g a i n s t t h e i r own commonsense, m a t e r i a l i n t e r e s t s . They were r e a l l i v i n g companions: " L e u t e , d i e zu enttauschen i c h mich schamte und d i e es f e r t i g b r a c h t e n , dass i c h am nachsten Morgen mein Leben Underte oder mein Leben e r t r u g . . . " (Pseudoautobiographische G l o s s e n , p . 22). The d e c i s i v e break w i t h m i l i e u and f a m i l y towards which . N o s s a c k ' s mentors, c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and i n n a t e nature had been l e a d -i n g him o c c u r r e d i n 1921, when he was s t u d y i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f J e n a . A c c o r d i n g to the essay "Jahrgang 1901" h i s f e e l i n g s o f i s o l a t i o n had been f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d i n the student f r a t e r n i t y he had j o i n e d . Nossack was denied any s a t i s f a c t o r y form of companionship w i t h h i s f e l l o w students and was d r i v e n f u r t h e r i n t o a p o s i t i o n o f p e r s o n a l and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l a loneness because he r e a l i z e d the a n a c h r o n i s t i c nature o f the student f r a t e r n i t i e s : Die Studentenverbindungen waren damals, d . h . urn 1920, schon v B l l i g t l b e r l e b t , da d i e Standesordnung, f l l r d i e s i e geschaffen waren, n i c h t mehr e x i s t i e r t e . Die Verbindungen verdankten i h r unzeitgem&sses Scheinleben nur den r e s t a u r a t i v e n Wllnschen der A l t - H e r r e n s c h a f t . (Pseudoautobiographische G l o s s e n , p . I36) Nossack r e s i g n e d from the f r a t e r n i t y i n 1921 when he r e a l i z e d how out o f p l a c e he was t h e r e . H i s i d e a l i s t i c l e t t e r o f r e s i g n a t i o n c o s t him the p e n a l t y o f o s t r a c i s m . The c o r r e c t n e s s o f h i s s tep was conf irmed and h i s d i s t r u s t o f such i n s t i t u t i o n s i n c r e a s e d when i n 1933 he saw how the f r a t e r n i t i e s (which he had c o n s i d e r e d r e j o i n i n g f o r t a c t i c a l , a n t i - N a z i reasons) chose not to f i g h t and f a l l f o r t h e i r p r i n c i p l e s , but i n s t e a d were among the f i r s t t o compromise w i t h and be swallowed by N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m : " e i n n a c h t r a g l i c h e r Beweis f l l r d i e H o h l h e i t s o l c h e r I n s t i t u t i o n e n und f l l r d i e R i c h t i g k e i t meines j u g e n d l i c h e n I n s t i n k t s " (Pseudoautobio-graphische G l o s s e n , p . I37). 47 Nossack 's break w i t h h i s family, recorded i n " P r i v a t b e s i t z . Durchgang v e r b o t e n , " was a l s o a break w i t h the f a l s i t y o f h i s e a r l i e r l i f e . In both h i s q u i t t i n g o f the f r a t e r n i t y and the break w i t h the f a m i l y h i s f e a r o f aloneness was l e s s than h i s f e a r of i n a u t h e n t i c i t y and l o s s of freedom. Indeed, he had been c o n d i t i o n e d t o the acceptance o f aloneness from e a r l y c h i l d h o o d and consequent ly c o n v e n t i o n a l s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e was never va lued by him, s i n c e i t d i d not correspond to any i n n e r need. Nossack does appear to have a concept o f t r u e companionship and s p i r i t u a l i n t e r c o u r s e , as can be seen from h i s remarks on the s p i r i t u a l mentors o f h i s youth , but these seem to proceed from the encounter o f s i m i l a r l y i n c l i n e d natures e x i s t i n g i n a s p i r i t u a l realm or t ime dimension o u t s i d e s o c i e t y and h i s t o r y i n what appears to be a s t a t e o f monologic a l o n e n e s s . In 1922 Nossack withdrew from u n i v e r s i t y a f t e r v a i n l y at tempt-i n g t o f i n a n c e h i s s t u d i e s h i m s e l f . From then u n t i l 1933 two r e l a t e d i n f l u e n c e s were brought to bear on him. The f i r s t was t h a t o f E x p r e s s i o n i s m , and Nossack 's a t t r a c t i o n to t h i s l a r g e l y e x p l a i n s the second i n f l u e n c e o f these y e a r s : that o f the Communist P a r t y , w h i c h he j o i n e d i n 1922. In E x p r e s s i o n i s m he saw the r e v o l u t i o n a r y and l i b e r a t i n g r e j e c t i o n o f an outworn t r a d i t i o n i n which he knew he had no p a r t . L i k e the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s , Nossack had been born at a time when the growing d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f pre-war s o c i e t y was becoming i n c r e a s -i n g l y obvious and i t s b e l i e f s and values i n c r e a s i n g l y dubious; they were born i n t o " e i n e g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e , p o l i t i s c h e und Bkonomische TrUmmerwliste."^ L a c k i n g c u l t u r a l u n i t y , the p e r i o d 48 could o f f e r few opportunities for a sense of c u l t u r a l rootedness. There was for Nossack no community of b e l i e f or system of values to r e l a t e to; at best there was a m u l t i p l i c i t y of p a r t i a l , i n -adequate, or f a l s e value systems. Nossack's and the Expressionists' awareness of this i s shared by one of the major writers of the period, Hermann Broch, and forms the c e n t r a l theme of his novel t r i l o g y Die Schlafwandler. Modern man at the end of the nine-teenth and the beginning of the twentieth century i s experiencing the end of an h i s t o r i c a l cycle. The old system of values i s no longer v a l i d , but a new one has not yet arisen. There i s a pro-nounced need to f i n d a new system of values that w i l l be v a l i d i n the twentieth century world, but meanwhile man i s in a limbo of loneliness and despair, caught i n the void between the old order and the "not yet" of the new. Broch said of his work: "Das Buch besteht aus einer Reihe von Geschichten, die a l l e das gleiche Thema abwandeln, namlich die Rllckverweisung des Menschen auf die Einsamkeit--eine Rllckverweisung, die durch den Z e r f a l l der Werte bedingt ist--und die Aufzeigung der neuen produktiven Krafte, die aus der Einsamkeit entspringen, wenn s i e t a t s a c h l i c h manifest 5 geworden i s t . " For Broch i t i s necessary f o r man to assume the f u l l burden of his loneliness and despair and then carry i t through to i t s end, where a new future may perhaps be born. Nossack's work also shows "die Rllckverweisung des Menschen auf die Einsamkeit," and here too there i s the occasional reference to a new future community which i t i s hoped may come about a f t e r man has passed through a state of aloneness, though i t w i l l become evident that i n Nossack's work aloneness i s not r e a l l y 49 a t r a n s i t i o n a l , p r e r e q u i s i t e s tage , but r a t h e r the permanent, necessary s t a t e o f the a u t h e n t i c i n d i v i d u a l . But Nossack, l i k e Broch, sees a p o s i t i v e ac t i n the break w i t h outworn t r a d i t i o n s and the acceptance o f a loneness , the " p e r s o n a l " mode o f e x i s t e n c e : "Immer, wenn l iber T r a d i t i o n s b r u c h gejammert w i r d , z e i g t es s i c h , dass der sogenannte T r a d i t i o n s b r u c h a l l e r b e s t e T r a d i t i o n i s t , n^mlich e i n e neue und z e i t g e n & s s e r e A r t , nach der Wahrheit zu suchen, und . . . e i n e neue p e r s B n l i c h e A r t . " ^ But whether aloneness i s a temporary o r permanent s t a t e , i n the work o f b o t h Broch and Nossack few men are w i l l i n g to assume i t : the m a j o r i t y seek t o escape from aloneness and i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by c r e a t i n g scapegoats f o r the f a i l u r e o f t h e i r s o c i o - c u l t u r a l p a s t . In p a r t i c u l a r Nossack shares B r o c h ' s aware-ness o f how men i n d u l g e i n a p a t h e t i c k i n d o f Romanticism, a p i t i f u l aping of the t r a d i t i o n s o f the p a s t , whereby e a r t h l y , t r a n s i e n t phenomena are e l e v a t e d to the l e v e l o f a b s o l u t e s . Another p o i n t o f comparison between the two w r i t e r s i s that the c h a r a c t e r s o f both are sometimes d i s t u r b e d by the i n t r u s i o n o f i r r a t i o n a l elements i n t o the u n s t a b l e o r d i s i n t e g r a t i n g order o f t h e i r w o r l d s . B r o c h ' s a u t h o r i a l comment i n Die Schla fwandler to the e f f e c t t h a t " a u f Unduldsamkeit und Unverst&ndnis i s t d i e S i c h e r h e i t des Lebens gegrl lndet"^ g i v e s an important i n s i g h t i n t o N o s s a c k ' s view o f r e a l i t y . In 1927 Nossack wrote a s h o r t p i e c e e n t i t l e d "GesprMch v o r der K a t a s t r o p h e " ^ which shares w i t h Die S c h l a f w a n d l e r an acute awareness o f the " F a s s a d e n r e a l i t U t " o f men's everyday l i v e s and w i t h the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s a p r e m o n i t i o n o f impending c a t a s t r o p h e . 50 In a d i s c u s s i o n between a young man, h i s w i f e , and h i s f r i e n d , one o f the young men asks what, o f a l l t h e i r present m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l p o s s e s s i o n s , they would most l i k e to s u r v i v e the c a t a s t r o p h e and be preserved w i t h them i n t h e i r subsequent e x i s t e n c e . The q u e s t i o n i s r a i s e d i f i t would be a t a l l p o s s i b l e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s to s u r v i v e such a c a t a s t r o p h e d e p r i v e d o f v i r t u a l -l y a l l m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l p o s s e s s i o n s . But i t i s p o i n t e d out t h a t even now, b e f o r e the c a t a s t r o p h e , there are i n d i v i d u a l s who l i v e o u t s i d e o f s o c i e t y and f o r whom the w o r l d does not e x i s t because they want t o be a lone f o r themselves: Warum werden denn d i e grossen L i e b e s p a a r e , d i e e i n u n g l U c k l i c h e s Ende gefunden haben, m i t h e i m l i c h e r Sehnsucht v e r e h r t ? Damit geben w i r j a z u , dass d i e s e Fassungslosen etwas gefunden haben, was b e s s e r i s t a l s das, was uns unsre g e f a s s t e Wel t zu b i e t e n vermag. J a , und was i s t denn das, was w i r Fassung nennen? I c h sehe m i r manchmal das G e t r i e b e auf der S t r a s s e an. Da gehen d i e Menschen umher, g e k l e i d e t , w i e d i e Mode und d i e J a h r e s z e i t es v o r s c h r e i b t . M i t Bewegungen, wie s i e s i c h gehBren. S i e tanzen n i c h t , s i e s p r i n g e n n i c h t , s i e s c h r e i e n n i c h t . S i e gehen ihrem Geschaft nach, s i e glauben z u w i s s e n , was s i e w o l l e n , und z u t u n , was s i e w o l l e n . A l l e s i s t i n Ordnung. S i e s t r e i f e n s i c h g e g e n s e i t i g mit den B l i c k e n nur ganz o b e r f l a c h l i c h . Mehr, um n i c h t gegeneinanderzurennen, a l s um f e s t z u s t e l l e n , was f i l r e i n Mensch der Begegnende i s t . K e i n e r von a l l den Hunderten, d i e z u g l e i c h auf der S t r a s s e s i n d , denkt auch nur e i n e n A u g e n b l i c k d a r a n , dass d i e andren genauso wie e r s e l b s t u n t e r d i e s e r K l e i d u n g , d i e s e r S i t t e , d i e s e n H B f l i c h k e i t e n , k u r z , h i n t e r d i e s e r Fassung nackt s i n d . N i c h t nur k B r p e r l i c h n a c k t , sondern auch s e e l i s c h oder wie w i r es nennen w o l l e n . Dass d a h i n t e r d i e Wut und d i e L i e b e und was sonst noch a l l e s auf d e r Lauer l i e g t . Denn wenn n i c h t s d a h i n t e r w&re, dann l i e f e nur unser Anzug umher. . . . Wenn man den Menschen auf d i e s e A r t zuschaut , muss man n i c h t staunen, dass s i e den U n t e r s c h i e d zwischen i h r e r Fassung und dem, was i h r e Fassung versehweigen s o l i , auch nur e i n e Minute l i n g e r e r t r a g e n kBnnen. I c h w e i s s , s i e denken n i c h t dar l lber nach, das i s t i h r e R e t t u n g . Doch wenn d i e Spannung zu gross w i r d , dann i s t d i e N a t u r k a t a s t r p p h e d a . Wie nun, wenn n i c h t e i n e r oder z w e i d i e Fassung v e r l i e r e n , sondern mehrere? . . . Und w i e . wenn nun d i e Mehrheit oder sogar a l l e d i e Fassung v e r l o r e n ? . . . w i r wiirden l e i d e r s o f o r t erkennen, dass a l l d i e s e Dinge, 51 Hauser, t S t B d t e , Gewohnheiten und Gesetze , d i e w i r f l i r u n z e r s t B r b a r h a l t e n , w e i l Jahrhunderte i h r e K r a f t daran gegeben h a b e n , , s i e auszubauen, k u r z , dass d i e s e ganze Fassung k e i n e eigene Schwerkraf t h a t , d i e uns ira E m s t f a l l e e i n e n H a l t b i e t e n kBrinte. D i e Dinge haben nur das Gewicht , das w i r ihnen geben, w e i l w i r s i e w o l l e n und an s i e glauben . . . ("GesprUch vor d e r K a t a s t r o p h e , " pp. 53-54) The f a s h i o n s o f d r e s s , the convent ions o f b e h a v i o u r , the " o r d e r " o f l i f e , the s u p e r f i c i a l i t i e s o f human c o n t a c t , a l l the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l s t r u c t u r e s o f the w o r l d are r e v e a l e d as a facade behind which men are s p i r i t u a l l y naked and yet concealed from each o t h e r , behind which there i s another , unordered k i n d o f e x i s t e n c e . The facade and i t s s e c u r i t y are preserved by B r o c h ' s "Unduldsamkeit und U n v e r s t a n d n i s , " by the f a c t that people s i m p l y do not t h i n k h o n e s t l y about the d i f f e r e n c e "zwischen i h r e r Fassung und dem, was i h r e Fassung verschweigen s o l i . " But i f the t e n s i o n between the two realms becomes too great the c a t a s t r o p h e i s t h e r e ; man f i n d s h i m s e l f i n a w o r l d d e p r i v e d o f m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l p o s s e s s i o n s , not o n l y houses and c i t i e s , but a g e - o l d customs and laws, and can o n l y s u r v i v e by withdraw-i n g i n t o h i m s e l f : ZurUckweichen i s t das e i n z i g e . . . m i t l e i d s l o s ; S c h r i t t f U r S c h r i t t , immer w i e d e r , immer w e l t e r , immer hBher h i n a u f oder t i e f e r i n s i c h h i n e i n . Man w i r d v i e l B a l l a s t abwerfen mils s e n . . . . Es s c h e i n t uns nur j e t z t so, a l s gehBre e i n u n v o r s t e l l -b a r e r Mut dazu. Aber i c h g laube, der Mensch hat d i e F & h i g k e i t , s i c h b i s auf das N i c h t s e i n e s Samentierchens zu v e r d i c h t e n , sonst wlirde e r nach a l l e m Ungl l ick , wovon d i e Geschichtsbt lcher v o l l s i n d , n i c h t mehr e x i s t i e r e n . Nur d e r e r s t e S c h r i t t , d i e Los lBsung vom Gewohnten i s t schwer, spJiter e r g i b t s i c h a l l e s von s e l b s t . V i e l l e i c h t hast du r e c h t , man s o l l t e m i t d i e s e r LoslBsung schon heute b e g i n n e n . ("Gesprach vor d e r K a t a s t r o p h e , " pp. 56-57) Man i s reduced to an e x i s t e n t i a l minimum as t r a d i t i o n , l t u r e , convent ions are l o s t , i n f a c t thrown o f f as unnecessary 52 b a l l a s t . This sense of the uselessness and d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of his s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l heritage explains not only Nossack's at-tr a c t i o n to Expressionism, but also his membership of the German Communist Party, which he joined i n 1922. Since the t r a d i -tions against which the Expressionists revolted were those of a bourgeois c a p i t a l i s t society, i t i s only natural that the future they sought to actualize tended to take the shape of a s o c i a l i s t or communist society. As Nossack records in "Jahrgang 1901," the Russian Revolution had a dramatic impact on his generation: . . . d i e Russische Revolution von 1917 C w a rJ eine Offenbarung fl l r uns junge Menschen. Russland war ein Mythos, unser Mythos. Es war unsere Sache, die dort siegreich durchgefllhrt wurde. . . . Kommunismus war f l l r uns eine se lbs t vers t&ndliche menschliche H i l f s b e r e i t s c h a f t gegen die Unterdrllckung durch e r s t a r r t e Formen, die uns die Bewegungsfreiheit nahmen. . . . Wir kehrten der Vergangenheit den Rile ken. Wir erwachten zum Bewusstsein unserer selbst i n der MorgenrBte der Russischen Revolution. (Pseudoautobiographische Glossen, pp. 146-47) They saw i n the Russian Revolution--if with a somewhat un-p o l i t i c a l v i s i o n — t h e dynamic l i b e r a t i n g force corresponding to t h e i r own inner unrest which had caused them to turn t h e i r back on the past, and Nossack joined the KPD very much in the s p i r i t of an "angry young man." In "Jahrgang 1901" he r e c a l l s the death of some workers in some shooting at a factory. He painted placards showing a dead worker and in the background smoke from a factory chimney formed the words: "Brilder, wo b l e i b t i h r ? " (Pseudoautobio-graphische Glossen, p. 148). Then around 1925 Nossack wrote a play e n t i t l e d " I l n i n " which consisted of scenes from the Russian Revolution and which, with i t s optimism and clima c t i c v i s i o n of human brotherhood, was as much expressionist as s o c i a l i s t : 53 Mein Stuck s c h l o s s mit e i n e r A r t Apotheose und dem L i e d " B r l i d e r , z u r F r e i h e i t , z u r Sonne." . . . I c h e n t s i n n e mich a l l e r d i n g s nur e i n e s e i n z i g e n S a t z e s , und swar der Frage: "Wieso kann man v e r z w e i f e l n ? " (Pseudoautobiographische G l o s s e n , pp. 149-50) The d i f f e r e n c e i n mood between t h i s p l a y o f 1925 and the "Gesprach vor der K a t a s t r o p h e " o f 1927 i s s t r i k i n g . I n both t h e r e i s a r e v o l t a g a i n s t the t r a d i t i o n a l and c o n v e n t i o n a l , but whereas i n the p l a y t h e r e i s u n l i m i t e d expansion i n the apotheosis o f human brotherhood, i n the "Gesprach" t h e r e i s e q u a l l y u n l i m i t e d c o n t r a c t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l to h i s e x i s t e n t i a l minimum. To a c e r t a i n extent the d i f f e r e n c e r e f l e c t s c o n t r a d i c t o r y but r e l a t e d elements e x i s t i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n N o s s a c k ' s mind: p r e c i s e l y h i s acute awareness o f i s o l a t i o n leads to an urgent need f o r such a v i s i o n o f human brotherhood beneath a warm and h o s p i t a b l e sun. But N o s s a c k ' s g r a d u a l d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h Communism a l s o p l a y s a p a r t . I n "Jahrgang 1901" (Pseudoautobiographische G l o s s e n , p . 146) he r e f e r s t o the hard l e s s o n o f exper ience t h a t naive enthusiasm i s always e x p l o i t e d by the t a c t i c i a n s , t h a t p r o g r e s s i v e s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n of a movement b r i n g s i n c r e a s i n g i n j u s t i c e s . Nossack c o u l d never v a l u e i d e o l o g y more than the t r u t h , and admits t h a t he and o t h e r " u n p o l i t i c a l communists" would have p a i d f o r t h e i r r e v o l t a g a i n s t the o s s i f i c a t i o n o f i d e o l o g y i n p o s t - r e v o l u t i o n a r y R u s s i a w i t h l i q u i d a t i o n . I n o t h e r words Nossack was soon d i s -i l l u s i o n e d by the d i s c r e p a n c y between h i s own m i l l e n i a l hopes and the " R e a l p o l i t i k " o f the p a r t y - l i n e , though even at the outset i t i s d i f f i c u l t to r e c o n c i l e N o s s a c k ' s p r e d i l e c t i o n s w i t h the p o l i c i e s and views o f the Communists. H e i n r i c h Vormweg has d e s c r i b e d the consequences o f N o s s a c k ' s b r i e f Communist i n t e r l u d e : " U b r i g b l i e b 54 davon e i n p r i n z i p i e l l e s M i s s t r a u e n gegenUber a l l e r P o l i t i k , d i e Meinung, dass W e s e n t l i c h e s nur i n anderen Bere ichen vorgehe, und e i n v e r h a l t e n e s , k o m p l i z i e r t - r o m a n t i s c h e s E l i t e b e w u s s t s e i n . " ^ 0 Thus when Nossack r e j o i n e d the p a r t y i n 1930-33 i t was p u r e l y f o r t a c t i c a l reasons and w i t h i n n e r d i s t a n c e . He r e j o i n e d s i m p l y because the KPD was the o n l y p a r t y b i g enough t o prevent a N a z i t a k e o v e r . But once a g a i n he was d isenchanted when he found t h a t some o f h i s u s e f u l and important suggest ions went unheeded because they went a g a i n s t the b l i n k e r e d approach o f p a r t y dogma (Pseudoauto-b i o g r a p h i s c h e G l o s s e n , p . 151). W i t h the N a z i r i s e to power i n January 1933 Nossack exper ienced a new k i n d of a loneness : the aloneness o f every t r u e i n d i v i d u a l i n a t o t a l i t a r i a n s t a t e . N o s s a c k ' s r e f l e c t i o n s on the o r i g i n s o f Nazism s t r e s s "den im t i e f s t e n Sinne des Wortes r e a k t i o n U r e n I n s t i n k t des Kle inbl l rgerturns , besonders des deutschen K l e i n b t l r g e r -tums, das jede noch so ver logene Ordnung e i n e r r e v o l u t i o n l l r e n Unruhe v o r z i e h t " (Pseudoautobiographische G l o s s e n , p . 66). The masses o f the people j o i n e d the p a r t y and submit ted themselves to " G l e i c h s c h a l t u n g " because they were " M i t l a u f e r . . . ' u n f & h i g z u r S c h u l d ' , das V e r a c h t l i c h s t e , was s i c h von einem Menschen sagen l S i s s t . " ^ In h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i t i s indeed q u i t e apparent that the mass d e s e r t i o n from the ranks o f one-t ime opponents c a n -not be a t t r i b u t e d s i m p l y t o the use o f f o r c e . The success o f N a z i economic p o l i c y , the disappearance o f mass unemployment, and the promise o f new s e c u r i t y p l a y e d an important p a r t , as Nossack s t r e s s e s i n " D i e s l e b e n l o s e L e b e n . " But above a l l N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m was an escape f o r the masses from the i n d i v i d u a l acceptance o f a loneness , from the assumption 55 o f p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and from the honest c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f unpleasant f a c t s , which f o r Nossack and Broch were a necessary p r e c o n d i t i o n , i f t h e r e was ever to be a new and b e t t e r s o c i o -c u l t u r a l framework. N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m c r e a t e d scape-goats f o r the f a i l u r e o f the German s o c i o - c u l t u r a l pas t and f o r the l o s s o f the 1914-18 war ; i t was a Romanticism i n B r o c h ' s sense because i t aped and exaggerated t r a d i t i o n s and b e l i e f s o f the past and e l e v a t e d e a r t h l y and t r a n s i e n t phenomena to the l e v e l o f a b s o l u t e s . H i t l e r , l i k e Nossack and B r o c h , knew that the i n d i v i d u a l f e l t a n x i e t y i n the face o f i s o l a t i o n , and i n the mass-meeting and i n N a z i i d e o l o g y the i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d overcome h i s i s o l a t i o n through a f e e l i n g o f b e l o n g i n g t o a g r e a t e r r a c i a l community. F o r the C h r i s t i a n refuge o f the past N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m s u b s t i t u t e d a r a c i a l r e f u g e . And whereas i n Germany e s p e c i a l l y C h r i s t i a n i t y was s p l i t i n t o v a r i o u s s e c t s , Nazism r e v i v e d the dream o f a b s o l u t e u n i t y i n a n a t i o n a l , r a c i a l r e l i g i o n . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t i n the l a s t R e i c h s t a g e l e c t i o n s be fore H i t l e r came t o power over h a l f the German people voted f o r s e l f -confessed t o t a l i t a r i a n p a r t i e s (the N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t s and the Communists). These t o t a l i t a r i a n p a r t i e s c o u l d o n l y g a i n widespread support because they responded t o a common (though not u n i v e r s a l ) human l o n g i n g f o r the conquest o f i s o l a t i o n and the f i n a l r e s o l u -t i o n o f a l l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and c o n f l i c t s i n a s t a t e o f t o t a l harmony. Nossack, w i t h h i s emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l , s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s , was not s u b j e c t t o the appeal o f these mass t e n d e n c i e s , but he r e a l i z e d the power o f the p r i m i t i v e b i o l o g i c a l i n s t i n c t s w h i c h c a l l e d the t o t a l i t a r i a n s t a t e and i t s a n a c h r o n i s t i c i d e o l o g y i n t o e x i s t e n c e : 56 Hakenkreuz, V o l k , Rasse, B l u t und Boden, Heimat und was d e r g l e i c h e n mehr, B e g r i f f e , d i e v i e l l e i c h t v o r tausend Jahren G l l l t i g k e i t gehabt haben mBgen, stimmten 1933 weder w i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h noch t r a f e n s i e f U r d i e p r a k t i s c h e n Daseinsbedingungen des 20. Jahrhunderts z u . Trotzdem a p p e l l i e r t e man damit s e h r wirksam an ganz p r i m i t i v e b i o l o g i s c h e I n s t i n k t e . 12 Nossack saw Nazism as h o s t i l e not o n l y t o the i n d i v i d u a l but t o s p i r i t u a l va lues and to the i n t e l l e c t u a l s who upheld them. In a somewhat o b s c u r a n t i s t a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l argument o f d o u b t f u l v a l u e Nossack sees the N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t s t a t e as a m a t r i a r c h a t e which suppresses i n d i v i d u a l s p i r i t u a l autonomy and emasculates man: . . . e i n e s d a r f m i t Best immthei t tlber d i e s e geheime H e r r s c h a f t s f o r r a gesagt werden: s i e i s t immer g e i s t -f e i n d l i c h . Was i n i h r a l s G e i s t geduldet w i r d , i s t n i c h t s a l s Schmuckgegenstand, l u x u r i e s e S p i e l e r e i und F r e i z e i t u n t e r h a l t u n g . UhddUim g l e i c h e i n e Sweite F e s t -s t e l l u n g a n z u s c h l i e s s e n : Epochen, d i e s i c h k r a f t m e i e r i s c h und^Siprdatisch geben, s i n d a l l e s andere a l s m&nnliche Z e i t e n , wie das meistens geglaubt w i r d . . . Wann und wo auch immer d i e Wel t s i c h von U n i f o r m und G l e i c h s c h r i t t f a s z i n i e r e n l & s s t , kann man auf e i n e u n t e r s c h w e l l i g e m a t r i a r c h a l i s c h e Tendenz s c h l i e s s e n . Durch U n i f o r m i e r u n g w i r d der Mann zum b i o l o g i s c h brauchbaren M&nnchen umgeformt. ("Jahrgang 1901," Pseudoautobiographische  G l o s s e n , p . 141) N o s s a c k ' s extremely n e g a t i v e view o f modern s o c i e t y was l a r g e l y c o n d i t i o n e d by h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f the N a z i S t a t e , f o r he must have r e a l i z e d that the t o t a l i t a r i a n s t a t e i s s i m p l y the u l t i m a t e development o f a t o t a l i t a r i a n t r e n d and p o t e n t i a l i n h e r e n t i n the s t r u c t u r e o f a l l modern i n d u s t r i a l mass s o c i e t i e s . In such s o c i e t i e s d i s t i n c t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s , i f c a r r i e d beyond f a i r l y narrow l i m i t s , are i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h commercia l , i n d u s t r i a l , and governmental e f f i c i e n c y . I n d i v i d u a l s are lumped t o g e t h e r tfo form e f f i c i e n t u n i t s f o r v a r i o u s purposes: f o r employ-ment and i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n , f o r e l e c t i o n s t o some c e n t r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e assembly, f o r t a x a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h c a r e , e t c . 57 Important a l s o i s the i n d e f i n i t e e x t e n s i o n o f the sphere of S t a t e i n f l u e n c e and a c t i o n . Consequently once a p a r t y such as H i t l e r ' s ga ins c o n t r o l o f the S t a t e machinery, i t a c q u i r e s almost l i m i t -l e s s power and i n f l u e n c e over every s i n g l e member o f s o c i e t y . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n s o f a r as i t ga ins c o n t r o l o f the means o f communicat ion--the p r e s s , the r a d i o , the l o u d s p e a k e r — t h r o u g h w h i c h an e n t i r e s o c i e t y can be d e p r i v e d o f independent thought and i n d o c t r i n a t e d . I t i s t h i s s u b j e c t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l t o c o l l e c t i v e arrangements and h i s r e d u c t i o n , as Nossack says, to a s o c i a l q u o t i e n t , w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s the c e n t r a l a x i s around w h i c h N o s s a c k ' s c r i t i q u e o f s o c i e t y r e v o l v e s . On t h i s b a s i s Nossack 's h o s t i l i t y t o post-war s o c i e t y and h i s f e e l i n g o f a loneness i n i t i s j u s t as g r e a t as i t was towards N a z i s o c i e t y . G i v e n c o n t r o l o f the S t a t e machinery, the N a z i d i c t a t o r s h i p used a combinat ion o f propaganda and t e r r o r i s m to m a i n t a i n i t s e l f i n power. Propaganda and i d e o l o g y appealed a t best t o man's need f o r s e c u r i t y and i d e n t i f y ; a t w o r s t , to the herd m e n t a l i t y o f the mob. The N a z i t e r r o r machine threatened the l o n e l y i n d i v i d u a l w i t h the punishment, agony, and even death he would have to face a lone i f he stepped out o f l i n e . In p a r t i c u l a r the N a z i s sought t o t r a n s f o r m every c i t i z e n i n t o a p o t e n t i a l spy who c o u l d i n f o r m on h i s f r i e n d s , ne ighbours , and r e l a t i v e s , so t h a t organized op-p o s i t i o n was d i s c o u r a g e d because bonds between i n d i v i d u a l s were undermined. I n " D i e s l e b e n l o s e Leben" Nossack w r i t e s o f the c o n t i n u e d f e a r o f d e n u n c i a t i o n , o f how no-one c o u l d t r u s t h i s neighbour, o f how former f r i e n d s and c o l l e a g u e s no l o n g e r knew each o t h e r on the s t r e e t . In the t o t a l i t a r i a n s t a t e everyone 58 i s h o r r i b l y a l o n e . I n i t i a l l y few people r e a l i z e d t h a t the N a z i s — a s t r u e t o t a l i -t a r i a n s - - w o u l d attempt t o remould the mind of a whole n a t i o n i n c o n f o r m i t y t o a s i n g l e p a t t e r n from w h i c h any u n d e s i r a b l e i d e a was e x c l u d e d . Most people adapted f a i r l y e a s i l y a t f i r s t because the new r u l e r s o n l y seemed t o r e q u i r e s i l e n t concurrence i n p u b l i c and l e t people b e l i e v e t h a t they c o u l d s t i l l l e a d p r i v a t e l i v e s . But Nossack c o n t i n u e s : Die furchbare Tauschung beruht d a r i n , dass es u n t e r einem t o t a l i t H r e n Regime k e i n P r i v a t l e b e n , k e i n i n d i v i d u e l l e s Dasein und k e i n e n w i r k l i c h s e l b s t a n d i g e n Gedanken g i b t . A l l e s i s t von dem B a z i l l u s d e r Epidemie i n f i z i e r t , s e l b s t d e r Gegner, d e r s i c h immun z u machen g l a i i b t , s t e h t schon u n t e r ihrem G e s e t z . Wie e i n e Dunstglocke l a g e r t d i e I d e o l o g i c der Machthaber l iber a l l e m und nimmt a l i e n menschl ichen Handlungen d i e W i r k l i c h k e i t . ("Dies l e b e n l o s e L e b e n , " Pseudoauto-b i o g r a p h i s c h e G l o s s e n , p . 72) The p a r t y aimed at n o t h i n g s h o r t of omnipresence i n an attempt t o impose c o o r d i n a t i o n even on the thoughts o f the i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s f o r Nossack was the most t h r e a t e n i n g aspect o f N a z i Germany from the human s t a n d p o i n t . The i n h u m a n i t i e s and the genocide as p a r t i c u l a r events can be prevented i n the f u t u r e ; but not so the warping o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s : Aber wie w i l l heute jemand von s i c h behaupten, e r s e i gegen e i n e b e h B r d l i c h angeordnete Ver f&lschung p r i m i t i v -s t e r Wahrheiten g e f e i t ? Vermag e r zu b e u r t e i l e n , wie e r d u r c h s e i n e Umgebung k o r r u m p i e r t w i r d ? Wie e r a l s Gegner durch d i e trBge S u b a l t e r n i t a t d e r Masse gel&hmt w i r d ? Durch d i e schBne Redensart etwa: "Wie kann i c h vom B i e r t i s c h aus d i e W e l t l a g e Undern?" A l s ob es s i c h urn d i e W e l t l a g e h a n d e l t e ! . . . Es handel t s i c h n i c h t urn A n t i s e m i t i s m u s , n i c h t urn Faschismus, n i c h t urn Gaskammern. Es handel t s i c h n i c h t um d i e W e l t l a g e , es h a n d e l t s i c h um den Menschen, den e i n z e l n e n Menschen, der durch k o n f o r m i s t i s c h e Gedankentragheit e r s t i c k t w i r d . (Pseudoautobiographische G l o s s e n , p . 70) N o s s a c k ' s p e r s o n a l and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l aloneness d u r i n g the N a z i e r a was accompanied by a f e e l i n g o f a b s o l u t e powerlessness . 59 Rebellion i n Nossack's opinion was f u t i l e in face of a vast tota-l i t a r i a n t e r r o r machine and a paralysed population (Pseudoauto-biographische Glossen, p. 74) and so resistance had to take a s p i r i t u a l form: Nicht auf physische Widerstandskraft kam es an, sondern a l l e i n auf g e i s t i g e . Nur durch Rllckbesinnung auf uralte menschliche Normen vermochte der wehrlose Einzelne die Selbstachtung zu bewahren und damit den Punkt zu gewinnen, von dem aus es nur ein absolutes Nein zur Unmenschlichkeit gibt. (Pseudoautobiographische Glossen, p. 64) These words r e f l e c t the antithesis a n Nossack's thought bet-ween the inhuman tyranny of mass movements on the one hand and the s p i r i t u a l freedom of the lone i n d i v i d u a l on the other. But this inner, s p i r i t u a l freedom must not reveal i t s e l f , for this would be to i n v i t e destruction. I t must remain concealed as the clandestine s p i r i t u a l resistance of the i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l camouflaged as a conforming member of society: . . . die bewusste Tarnung gehtirt zu dem, was h l e r als Partisanendasein bezeichnet wurde. Es handelt s i c h dabei nicht so sehr um Selbstschutz der Person . . . sondern um schmerzliche Einsicht i n die Vergeblichkeit. Geist und Wahrheit wUren verloren gewesen, wenn s i e s i c h dem matriarchalischen Ameisenhaufen offen zum Kampf g e s t e l l t ha'tten, und sind es noch heute dem allgemeinen Funktionalismus gegenliber. Es war uns auferlegt, die Wahrheit flir den Gegner unsichtbar zu machen, so dass sein Hass und seine Energien ins Leere verpufften. (Pseudoautobiographische Glossen, pp. 153-54) Camouflage offered the only p o s s i b i l i t y of preserving the s p i r i t from the mindless but powerful onslaught of the b i o l o g i c a l mass: Geist und Macht stehen niemals i n einem innigen Verhk'ltnis zueinander, bestenfalls i n einem, das auf gegenseitiger Duldung beruht. Aber i n krankhaft sektiererischen Epochen wird G e i s t f e i n d l i c h k e i t zu einer machtpolitischen Tendenz. So war es unter den Nazis. Man denke nur an den Satz von Goebbels, dass er jedesmal nach dem Revolver g r e i f e , wenn er das 60 Wort K u l t u r hBre . M i t dem Slogan konnte e r des f r e n e t i s c h e n B e i f a l l s des h a l b g e b i l d e t e n Kleinbl irgerturns gewiss s e i n . Es i s t immer w i e d e r e r s c h r e c k e n d , m i t welchem abgrUndigen I n s t i n k t e i n e nur b i o l o g i s c h e I n t e l l i g e n z d e r Masse a l l e g e i s t i g e n Resterscheinungen a u s w i t t e r t und v e r f b l g t , wenn w i r h i e r u n t e r G e i s t d e r E i n f a c h h e i t h a l b e r d i e Gabe s e l b s t U n d i g e r Entscheidung des menschl ichen Individuums v e r s t e h e n . (Pseudoautobio-graphische G l o s s e n , p . 63) Nossack 's awareness that the enemies o f the N a z i S ta te were s p i r i t and i n d i v i d u a l judgement i s p a r a l l e l e d even i n posts-war s o c i e t y by the common e x p e r i e n c e t h a t o r d i n a r y people do not l i k e a b s t r a c t or s u r r e a l i s t i c "problem a r t , " which they see as a d i s t o r t i o n . O r d i n a r y people l i k e t h e i r a r t e a s i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e ; they do not l i k e i t t o q u e s t i o n t h e i r b a s i c assumptions about r e a l i t y o r t h e i r own e x i s t e n c e ; they do not l i k e to f e e l a lone i n a s t r a n g e , unordered w o r l d . But d u r i n g the N a z i d i c t a t o r s h i p to q u e s t i o n openly the o f f i c i a l assumptions about r e a l i t y c o u l d be f a t a l . Furthermore i t i s c l e a r t h a t even those w r i t e r s who concerned themselves d i r e c t l y w i t h the i s s u e s o f the t ime were unable t o i n -f l u e n c e the s o r r y course o f e v e n t s . There was a p r o g r e s s i v e defeat o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and s p i r i t u a l va lues i n the face o f a v e r t i c a l "VBIkerwanderung" i n w h i c h m i n d l e s s , b a r b a r i c elements rose t o a p o s i t i o n o f supremacy and dominated a l l aspects o f s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e . These h i s t o r i c a l events were bound to accentuate Nossack 's sense of the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of r e a l i z i n g i n d i -v i d u a l human values i n the w o r l d o f p o l i t i c s and p u b l i c a f f a i r s . But t h i s was accepted, and s p i r i t u a l , human values were preserved i n w a r d l y behind the camouflage o f the good N a z i c i t i z e n . C o n f l i c t i n g f e e l i n g s beset N o s s a c k ' s double l i f e o f " P a r t i -s a n e n d a s e i n . " In "Jahrgang 1901" he r e f e r s to " d i e jedem 61 K l i n s t l e r eigene S p i e l e r n a t u r " which enabled him to p l a y to p e r f e c t i o n the part of the dedicated businessman. Yet a few sentences l a t e r he adds that he was subject to frequent depres-s i o n s , "denn d i e K l u f t zwischen R o l l e und Person war a l l z u gross" (Pseudoautobiographische Glossen, p. 153). And i n "Dies lebenlose Leben" he w r i t e s that i t was impossible f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l s to j o i n the Nazi Party i n the hope of i n f l u e n c -ing events f o r the b e t t e r because t h i s would have e n t a i l e d a double r o l e : "DafUr i s t e i n I n t e l l e k t u e l l e r n i c h t geschaffen, denn d i e dauernde Luge w i d e r s p r i c h t s e i n e r Veranlagung" (Pseudo-autobiographische Glossen, p. 63). The t e n s i o n between the c o n f l i c t i n g poles of inner and outer r e a l i t y , the ease and the d i f f i c u l t y , the pleasure and the torment of r o l e - p l a y i n g , i s e s p e c i a l l y evident i n two of the Gedichte, w r i t t e n during the Nazi era. They show a l s o how the aloneness of the p a r t i s a n i s an inner, w e l l concealed f a c t because he i s by a l l appearances a dedicated member of Nazi s o c i e t y . In "Der A b f a l l " the p a r t i s a n has distanced himself from h i s s'urface, s o c i a l r o l e and e x i s t s alone i n a s p i r i t u a l realm. Yet though he w i l l i n g l y accepts h i s aloneness, he i s not able to a b o l i s h e n t i r e l y h i s longing f o r an i d e a l compa-nion w i t h and f o r whom he would f i g h t and f a l l . He would w i l l i n g l y have returned from h i s journey i n t o the other, s p i r i t u a l realm to the s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l world i f there had been but one such person who was prepared q u i t e simply to swing a punch at Nazism, though i t does not seem e n t i r e l y reason-able or honest to expect someone e l s e to do f i r s t what Nossack 62 w i l l not do h i m s e l f . S i e sassen b e i T i s c h . Da g i n g i c h h e i m l i c h f o r t . Nur meinen Namen l i e s s i c h ihnen d o r t . Der sass auf meinem gewohnten P l a t z und s o l l t e antworten; jedem, was e r hBren w o l l t e . Denn das genllgte w o h l . - -Wei tab ihrem GlUcke s t e h i c h und hBre s i e n i c h t mehr. J a , h&tte damals E i n e r nur von A l l e n , durch j&he Schau des Untergangs beschwert , s i c h a u f g e r i c h t e t , um d i e F a u s t , bewehrt m i t freudigem T r o t z , i n s N i c h t s z u b a l l e n , w i s s e n d , doch dem Gesetz u n v e r s e h r t t r e u , E i n e r — f a , i c h w&re umgekehrt, m i t ihm z u f a l l e n . U n s t e r b l i c h G l l i c k , w i r wUren Zwei gewesen so E i n s , dass w i r am Himmel j u b e l n d w e i t e r f e c h t e n , e i n s c h a t t e n l o s e s S t e r n b i l d i n den Nachten des Z w e i f e l n s , o GefUhrdeter , z u l e s e n , G e s e t z , e i n d e u t i g , des Notwendigse ins . Doch da war K e i n e r , um s i c h zu bekennen und zu b e g e i s t e r n das vom N i c h t s umhauchte neu. K e i n e r ! Und i c h war e i n e r nur und war nur h a l b ; es f e h l t e d e r , f U r den i c h f a l l e n w o l l t e . 13 " B e r e i t s c h a f t " i s l i k e w i s e about the p a r t i s a n ' s aloneness i n a t o t a l i t a r i a n s o c i e t y : W i e v i e l w o h l raBgen a u s s e r h a l b d e r Z e i t e n , w i e v i e l e Wesen so w i e d e i n s und meins, t i e f im V e r s t e c k e i h r e s aussren Seins wachen und warten und s i c h v o r b e r e i t e n . Manchmal mBcht i c h s i e schon m i t Namen nennen: Du b i s t ' s und du! Ich sehe s i e b e i n a h , so w i e mein B i l d im S p i e g e l s tehn s i e d a , und b r e i t e schon d i e Arme zum Erkennen. J a , manchmal denk i c h i A l l e ! A l l e mils sen so s e i n w i e i c h - - w i e kann man anders s e i n ? - -Und w i l l schon r u f e n : Kommt, s i e kam d i e Z e i t ! 63 Doch immer wieder warnt noch mein Gewissen: Mache dich b l i n d nach aussen! Du a l i e i n v i e l l e i c h t von a l i e n b l e i b s t nur! Sei b e r e i t ! 14 Here again he desires to drop his camouflage and establish comradeship with others in a j o i n t outburst against the Nazis because the tension between i n t e r n a l r e a l i t y and external appear-ance i s too great. Yet in a t o t a l i t a r i a n state no-one can be trusted; the partisan must reckon with the fact that he may be e n t i r e l y alone and his camouflage must not be betrayed. The negative pole of playing a role against his true nature accounted for Nossack's recurrent depressions during the Nazi period: they arose because the gu l f between outer r o l e and inner r e a l i t y was too great to be sustained (Pseudoautobiographische Glossen, pp. 127-28). But then i n July 1943 a world-shattering event destroyed the contemptible society in which Nossack had been compelled to e x i s t and invalidated the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l past which had created i t . 64 ( i i ) The d e s t r u c t i o n o f Hamburg by A l l i e d bombing r a i d s i n J u l y 1943 conf irmed and i n t e n s i f i e d Nossack 's f e e l i n g o f s p i r i t u a l e x i l e from h i s t o r y and s o c i e t y and h i s sense o f e x i s t i n g i n a g r e a t e r s p i r i t u a l time d i m e n s i o n . T h i s e x p l a i n s perhaps why the d e s t r u c t i o n i s not seen i n an h i s t o r i c a l , p o l i t i c a l , or m i l i t a r y c o n t e x t . The c o n f l i c t between the A x i s and A l l i e d powers i s viewed as i r r e l e v a n t . The German s t a t e i s "etwas v B l l i g NebensBchl iches . . . das an einem S c h i c k s a l , w i e es Hamburg e r l i t t , weder s c h u l d war noch i n der Lage, etwas daran zu l i n d e r n . " ^ Though Nossack c l a i m s t o be r e p o r t i n g exper iences and thoughts shared by the mass o f the p o p u l a t i o n , he seems to a s -c r i b e t o i t h i s own f e e l i n g s . In r e a l i t y he speaks not as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a p e o p l e , but as a unique i n d i v i d u a l f o r whom the h i s t o r i c a l war i s not the r e a l cause o f the d e s t r u c t i o n : " E i n e v i e l t i e f e r e E i n s i c h t i n d i e Dinge verbot uns , an e inen F e i n d zu denken, der d i e s a l l e s v e r u r s a c h t haben s o l l t e ; auch e r war uns hBchstens e i n Werkzeug unkennbarer Machte, d i e uns zu v e r n i c h t e n wllnschten" (p. 42) . The c a t a s t r o p h e i s the work o f i n s c r u t a b l e , f a t e f u l powers beyond human c o n t r o l . Man i s faced w i t h the t e r r i b l e r e a l i t y o f an incomprehensib le e x p e r i e n c e , " d a es der Vermin f t niemals mBgl ich s e i n w i r d , das , was damals geschah, a l s W i r k l i c h k e i t zu b e g r e i f e n " (pp. 7-8)• No comfort can be taken i n the knowledge o f a n a t u r a l l y o r d i v i n e l y benevolent scheme o f t h i n g s ; God's p l a c e i s taken by unknowable forces o f f a t e w h i c h w i s h t o d e s t r o y man, and b e f o r e which man i s l e f t t o h i s own r e s o u r c e s . 65 To b e g i n w i t h Nossack f e e l s threatened w i t h a n n i h i l a t i o n : " F i i r mich g i n g d i e Stadt a l s Ganzes u n t e r , und meine Gefahr bestand d a r i n , schauend und wissend durch E r l e i d e n des Gesamt-s c h i c k s a l s U b e r w & l t i g t zu werden" (p. 7 ) . The inhuman o r d e r o f N a z i Hamburg was s t i l l an ordered environment from which he c o u l d be e x i l e d and as such a r e a l i t y i n terms o f which he c o u l d d e f i n e h i m s e l f , even i f o n l y n e g a t i v e l y . But now even t h i s i s taken from him. T h i s n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g i s soon at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y r e p l a c e d by a p o s i t i v e sense o f l i b e r a t i o n i n t h a t Nossack becomes aware o f why he had hated the past and longed f o r i t s d e s t r u c t i o n . The premises and va lues by which man had l i v e d i n the past are accused. Man had been " d e r Sklave s e i n e r E i n r i c h t u n g e n " (p. 41). Because o f f e a r o f a loneness and need f o r s e c u r i t y a l l i n d i v i d u a l b e i n g and p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y had been s a c r i f i c e d to a mechanical facade of i n s t i t u t i o n s , c o n v e n t i o n s , and ready-made o p i n i o n s . People dece ived themselves w i t h a pretence o f s e c u r i t y i n a s t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n a l w o r l d o f dependable m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l posses-s i o n s . Yet i t was a s t r a n g e l y empty l i f e because t h e i r p e r s o n a l b e i n g had no p a r t i n i t ; n o t h i n g had seemed so necessary and v a l u a b l e t h a t i t was w o r t h s a v i n g from an imminent c a t a s t r o p h e : . . . wenn w i r uns e r n s t h a f t d i e Frage v o r l e g t e n , was w i r Uber e i n e morgige S i n t f l u t h i n u b e r r e t t e n w o l l t e n , um es den fiberlebenden zu e r h a l t e n , wo war dann etwas, das uns so notwendig s c h i e n , dass w i r uns b i s zum l e t z t e n Atemzuge dafUr e i n g e s e t z t h&tten? . Was von a l l den Dingen, d i e w i r gebrauchten • und d i e uns b e l a s t e t e n , war denn noch unser? (p. 18) But a f t e r the c a t a s t r o p h e man i s no l o n g e r the s l a v e o f h i s i n s t i t u t i o n s because these have been destroyed by " e i n e hBhere 66 Gewalt" (p. 44). He t r e a t s the S t a t e as i r r e l e v a n t to h i s f a t e and by i m p l i c a t i o n reassumes p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . P a r a d o x i c a l -l y the coming o f an incomprehensib le e x t e r n a l Fate leads to man becoming r e s p o n s i b l e a g a i n f o r h i s own f a t e . Nossack examines a l s o and f i n a l l y condemns man's a t t i t u d e toward the be loved and i r r e p l a c e a b l e m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s o f the past which are now gone f o r e v e r and can no l o n g e r comfort him: Diese Dinge haben i h r Leben von uns, w e l l w i r ihnen irgendwann e i n m a l unsere Zuneigung zuwandten; s i e sogen unsere W8rme i n s i c h auf und hegten s i e dankbar, um uns i n armen Sbunden w i e d e r damit zu b e r e i c h e r n . W i r waren v e r a n t w o r t l i c h f l l r s i e , s i e konnten nur m i t uns s t e r b e n . Und nun standen s i e auf der andern S e i t e des Abgrunds im Feuer und r i e f e n b i t t e n d h i n t e r uns her : V e r l a s s t uns n i c h t ! W i r wussten es , w i r hBrten es und wagten i h r e Namen n i c h t z u nennen, w e i l uns das M i t i e i d dann zugrunde g e r i c h t e t h & t t e . W i r d u r f t e n uns n i c h t e i n m a l nach ihnen umsehen. (pp. 33-34) L a t e r (pp. 63-64) comes the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t a l l these o b j e c t s had an e x i s t e n c e which was n e c e s s a r i l y independent o f the p o s s e s -s o r , who never t r u l y possessed them; the t r u e r e l a t i o n s h i p between o b j e c t s and "owner" was l i k e t h a t between guest and h o s t . There i s a l s o the i m p l i c a t i o n that perhaps i t i s best t h a t they are gone f o r e v e r , because i n the past people used them as a d e c e p t i v e refuge from the t r u e human c o n d i t i o n and i n consequence t h e i r e n t i r e way of l i f e was f a l s e : Oder war es doch f a l s c h , so zu leben? Haben w i r d i e Dinge m i s s b r a u c h t , um uns h i n t e r ihnen v o r den U n b i l d e n d e r W i r k l i c h k e i t zu verbergen? S i e aber g ingen, uns v e r t e i d i g e n d , zugrunde, und w i r stehen nun nackt und ohne tauschende Z u f l u c h t da? (p. 64) Nossack here takes up a theme o f C h r i s t i a n and O r i e n t a l m y s t i c i s m and modern e x i s t e n t i a l i s m : the d i s t i n c t i o n between what an i n d i v i d u a l i s and what he has . A l l possess ions are e x t e r n a l to and independent o f the i n d i v i d u a l , whose essence c o n s i s t s o f 67 h i s consciousness o f h i s e x i s t e n c e as an e n t i t y separate from the w o r l d about him. Human e x i s t e n c e c o n s i s t s o f b e i n g , not of h a v i n g , but the i n d i v i d u a l c l i n g s t o e x t e r n a l p o s s e s s i o n s because they s h i e l d him from an awareness o f h i s aloneness i n the w o r l d ; t h e i r l o s s e n t a i l s the e x i s t e n t i a l "Angst" o f a loneness . But by h i s anxious c l i n g i n g — a n d Nossack r e a l i z e s that he too was g u i l t y o f t h i s — t h e i n d i v i d u a l reduces b e i n g to h a v i n g , and e l e v a t e s having to b e i n g , and becomes i n a u t h e n t i c because i n the process the pos-s e s s o r becomes the possessed. The same argument a p p l i e s to man's s p i r i t u a l possess ions i n the p a s t . Before the c a t a s t r o p h e men a n x i o u s l y c l u n g t o t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d b e l i e f s and v a l u e s , c o n s i d e r i n g them s e c u r e l y t h e i r own, but i n so do ing they became possessed by them. Men were i n a u t h e n t i c because they f a i l e d c o n s t a n t l y to q u e s t i o n t h e i r b e l i e f s and v a l u e s . Thus be fore the c a t a s t r o p h e i n r e l a t i o n to both t h e i r m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l p o s s e s s i o n s men had l i v e d on the l e v e l o f h a v i n g ; by becoming what they had, they reduced them-s e l v e s to the s t a t u s o f t h i n g s . In "Gesprach v o r der K a t a s t r o p h e " men were to detach themselves from p o s s e s s i o n s and become an e x i s t e n t i a l minimum. But now the bombing o f Hamburg does t h i s . C o u n t l e s s thousands l o s e a l l m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l p o s s e s s i o n s , e v e r y t h i n g which had seemed t o them permanent and e s s e n t i a l , and f i n d themselves i n a w o r l d which i s the n e g a t i o n o f t h e i r p r e v i o u s s e c u r i t y : " E s begann e i n e maskenlose Z e i t ; d i e gewohnten V e r k l e i d u n g e n f i e l e n von s e l b e r ab . . . W i r a l l e haben . . . erkennen mttssen, dass d i e Gewichte, mit denen w i r b i s h e r gewogen h a t t e n , n i c h t mehr st immten" (p. 2 6 ) . 68 Nossack records how no he lp c o u l d be expected from f r i e n d s , ne ighbours , or r e l a t i v e s (p. 26), but i n an u l t i m a t e sense the refugees are beyond the reach of h e l p : " S i e brachten e i n e u n h e i m l i c h e S t i l l e mit s i c h . . . . nur ihnen H i l f e anbieten z u w o l l e n , s c h i e n e i n e zu l a u t e Handlung" (p. 24). They are people who have been made p a i n f u l l y aware o f the t r a n s i e n c e o f a l l pos-s e s s i o n s and man's defence lessness i n face o f the d e s t r u c t i v e forces o f f a t e . H e l p , sympathy, and any form o f comfort such as music s i m p l y make man more aware o f h i s h e l p l e s s n e s s : "gerade d i e s e r T r o s t l a s s t uns f t thlen, dass w i r nackt und h i l f l o s e i n e r Macht ausgesetzt s i n d , d i e uns v e r n i c h t e n w i l l " (pp. 15"-16). Even w i t h the best w i l l i n the w o r l d the refugees cannot r e a l l y be helped o r t h e i r defence lessness d i s p e l l e d w i t h g i f t s o f s h e l t e r , f u r n i t u r e , food, and c l o t h e s because they have l e f t behind the w o r l d of having and l i v e i n a d i f f e r e n t w o r l d a l t o g e t h e r . The d e s t r u c t i o n has been a d i v i d i n g f o r c e o f s t a g g e r i n g p r o p o r t i o n s : Und was erwarteten d i e B e t r o f f e n e n , wenn s i e a l l e s , was man ihnen Gutes t a t , beinahe nur deshalb anzunehmen s c h i e n e n , um den Gebern g e f a l l i g zu s e i n ? Der I n s t i n k t der Helfenden wehrte s i c h dagegen; n i c h t n u r , dass i h r e Gabe dadurch entwertet wurde, es raubte ihnen auch a l l e S i c h e r h e i t und erweckte Z w e i f e l i n ihnen am eigenen B e s i t z . So geschah es , dass Menschen, d i e i n demselben Hause zusammen l e b t e n und am g l e i c h e n T i s c h e b e i e i n a n d e r s a s s e n , d i e L u f t ganz v e r s c h i e d e n e r Welten atmeten. S i e versuchten s i c h d i e Hand zu geben und g r i f f e n v o r b e i . Wer war nun b l i n d von ihnen? S i e redeten d i e s e l b e Sprache, aber s i e meinten m i t i h r e n Worten ganz andere W i r k l i c h k e i t e n . Wer war nun taub von ihnen? Es g i b t auch heute noch keine M B g l i c h k e i t e n , s i c h d i e s g e g e n s e i t i g zu u b e r s e t z e n . (pp. 28-29) Nossack h i m s e l f became a refugee w i t h the l o s s o f h i s home, p o s s e s s i o n s , and m a n u s c r i p t s . The d e s t r u c t i o n o f Hamburg symbo-l i z e d f o r him the d e s t r u c t i o n o f European c i v i l i z a t i o n along w i t h 69 i t s customs, v a l u e s , and b e l i e f s . P r e v i o u s l y these had g i v e n man i d e n t i t y and s e c u r i t y because they p r o v i d e d a s t a b l e " M e n s c h e n b i l d . ' Furthermore even the o l d c a t e g o r i e s o f p e r c e i v i n g and d e s c r i b i n g the w o r l d are no l o n g e r v a l i d ; r e a l i t y i s i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e ; t h e r e i s no l o n g e r an e s t a b l i s h e d and u n i f i e d " W e l t b i l d . " W i t h the l o s s o f both " M e n s c h e n b i l d " and " W e l t b i l d " man f e e l s threatened by a r e a l i t y which had p r e v i o u s l y o n l y been hidden behind the s o c i o -c u l t u r a l facade. T h i s o t h e r r e a l i t y i s p e r c e i v e d by the i n d i v i -d u a l i n a s t a t e o f a b s o l u t e a l o n e n e s s ; h i s p e r c e p t i o n i s s u b j e c t i v e i n the extreme because t h e r e i s no consensus o f o p i n i o n about the r e a l m that l i e s beyond the facade. Consequently t h e r e i s no o b j e c t i v e l y v a l i d r e a l i t y , and the i n d i v i d u a l can no longer escape h i s aloneness by c l i n g i n g t o the i n v a l i d a t e d va lues o f the p a s t . T h i s l o s s o f o r i e n t a t i o n through t r a d i t i o n and the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f p l a y i n g out l i f e as before a c c o r d i n g t o the f a l s e values o f the past i s c r y s t a l l i z e d i n the words: " W i r haben k e i n e Vergangenheit mehr" (p. 3 0 ) . Any attempt to r e s t o r e the past would be r e g r e s s i o n i n Nossack v iew. In an essay he w r i t e s t h a t he f e l t "dass j e d e r Versuch, e i n e v e r l o r e n e Vergangenheit z u r e s t a u r i e r e n , zu n i c h t s a l s ^ zu einem P l a g i a t oder zu e i n e r durch i h r e H o h l h e i t g e f B h r l i c h e n Fassade f l ihren wlirde, und dass nur e i n Das e i n , das s i c h z u d e r s c h i c k s a l -gegebenen V e r g a n g e n h e i t s l o s i g k e i t bekennt, a u f r i c h t i g und zeitgem&s w S r e . " ^ Even memories o f the past a r e i r r e l e v a n t t o the t a s k o f m a s t e r i n g the present e x p e r i e n c e , as i n d i c a t e d by the q u o t a t i o n from Dostoyevsky 's Aus einem Totenhaus a t the b e g i n n i n g o f Der  Untergang: "Im a l lgemeinen sprachen s i e wenig ttber i h r e 70 Vergangenheit , s i e e r z U h l t e n n i c h t g e m und bemllhten s i c h , w i e es s c h i e n , n i c h t an das Fr l lhere zu denken." The a b s o l u t e aloneness o f man c a s t i n t o an a l i e n and incom-p r e h e n s i b l e w o r l d and h i s r e d u c t i o n to an e x i s t e n t i a l minimum w i t h the l o s s o f h i s o l d i d e n t i t y i s expressed by Nossack i n the f a i r y - t a l e o f the mother less man: Es war e i n m a l e i n Mensch, den h a t t e k e i n e M u t t e r geboren. E i n e Faust s t i e s s i h n nackt i n d i e Welt h i n e i n , und e i n e Stimme r i e f : S i e h z u , w i e du w e i t e r -kommst. Da B f f n e t e e r d i e Augen und wusste n i c h t s anzufangen m i t dem, was i h n umgab. Und e r wagte n i c h t , h i n t e r s i c h zu b l i c k e n , denn h i n t e r ihm war n i c h t s a l s Feuer . (pp. 29-30) In another f a i r y - t a l e sequence an I n d i a n who alone s u r v i v e d o f a l l h i s f e l l o w tr ibesmen asks h i m s e l f i f he s h o u l d become O r i o n . I n an essay Nossack e x p l a i n s the meaning of the q u e s t i o n : " E r hat d i e Tatsache s e i n e s A l l e i n s e i n s a k z e p t i e r t , und das hat ihn v e r w a n d e l t . " ^ The I n d i a n symbol izes an aloneness w h i c h can p e r s i s t even i n a crowd o f s u r v i v o r s : the aloneness o f man i n an incompre-h e n s i b l e and a l i e n w o r l d . The p a s s i v e s u f f e r i n g o f t h i s aloneness i s not enought f o r Nossack: i t i s necessary to do as the I n d i a n d i d , to acknowledge i t as the t r u e human c o n d i t i o n : "Man muss bekennen oder vergessen . . . " (p. 64). Even i n t h i s acknowledgement Nossack i s a lone among those who p r e f e r to f o r g e t . Around him he sees p a t h e t i c f i g u r e s who, d e p r i v e d o f the s e c u r i t y o f t h e i r p a s t , are possessed by c r i p p l i n g despondency. And then a g a i n Nossack i s a lone among those; . . . d i e e i n e Vergangenheit haben, von der s i e i h r e n Mass-stab f U r den morgigen Tag nehmen. . . . A c h , welch e i n e v e r g e b l i c h e Anstrengung, i h r Z i e l zu dem u n s e r i g e n z u mac hen! Und so i s t d i e W e l t i n z w e i " R i l e g e t e i l t , dazwischen l i e g t e i n u n s i c h t b a r e r Abgrund . . . D i e Menschen d i e s s e i t s und j e n s e i t s haben e inander zu hassen begonnen . . . (p. 30) These subsequent ly f l o o d back i n t o Hamburg and are j o i n e d by the l e t h a r g i c s u r v i v o r s who become possessed o f a new w i l l to r e c r e a t e the p a s t . Nossack i s a c u t e l y aware t h a t such attempts to l i v e l i f e as before are o n l y a facade: " S i e w i s s e n , dass es nur Sche in i s t . S i e glauben n i c h t d a r a n . Die K u l i s s e f e h l t , d i e I l l u s i o n der W i r k l i c h k e i t " (p. 7 0 ) . The s i g h t of people c l e a n i n g windows, gardening , d r i n k i n g c o f f e e on b a l c o n i e s , now seems u n r e a l , as i f i n a f i l m . Nossack w i l l never be ab le to r e t u r n to t h i s w o r l d o f h a b i t and c o n v e n t i o n a l s e c u r i t y because he r e a l i z e s that i t concea ls another r e a l i t y , r e a l r e a l i t y , o r n o n - o r d i n a r y r e a l i t y , which has been r e v e a l e d t o him through the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the o l d c a t e g o r i e s o f p e r c e i v i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g r e a l i t y . T h i s o t h e r r e a l i t y i s tremendously r i c h i n p o s s i b i l i t i e s be-cause i t has not yet been reduced t o r a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s and devalued by f a m i l i a r i t y and e x p e c t a t i o n . "Das k a l t e , g e i z i g trennende F e n s t e r g l a s " (p . 36) o f man's eyes has been s h a t t e r e d and opened to an i n f i n i t y o f b e i n g . T h i s new p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y had begun f o r Nossack out on the heath d u r i n g the n i g h t o f the f i r s t a t t a c k : Zwei stammlose K i e f e r n h a t t e n den f r i e d l i c h e n Bann i h r e s Daseins durchbrochen und s i c h i n schwarze WBlfe verwandel t , d i e g i e r i g nach d e r b lutenden M o n d s i c h e l sprangen, d i e v o r ihnen a u f g i n g . D i e Augen l e u c h t e t e n weiss und G e i f e r t r o f f ihnen aus den g e f l e t s c h t e n M a u l e r n . ( ( p . 17) Later,«when Nossack enters the des troyed c i t y , he loses a l l sense o f t ime and d i r e c t i o n because the t i m e - p l a c e continuum has been d e s t r o y e d . I t i s a s t r a n g e , o t h e r - w o r l d l y landscape, " a l l e s 72 ganz schweigsam, ohne Bewegung und VerSinderung; des Z e i t l i c h e n e n t k l e i d e t und ewig geworden" (p. 48). I t i s an i n e x p l i c a b l e r e a l i t y : Aber nun, wo n i c h t s mehr da war? N i c h t d i e L e i c h e der S t a d t , n i c h t e i n t o t e s Bekanntes, das zu uns s p r a c h : A c h , g e s t e r n , a l s i c h noch l e b t e , war i c h de ine Heimat . . . Was uns umgab, e r i n n e r t e i n k e i n e r Weise an das V e r l o r e n e . Es h a t t e n i c h t s damit z u t u n . Es war etwas anderes, es war das Fremde, es war das e i g e n t l i c h N i c h t -M B g l i c h e . Im Norden F i n n l a n d s g i b t es vor F r o s t e r s t a r r t e W i l d e r . . . . Aber wer denkt d a b e i noch an Wald? Es i s t n i c h t e i n m a l das Gerippe e ines Waldes . Gewiss, es i s t etwas d a , sogar mehr, a l s wenn es nur Ger ippe wHre, aber was bedeuten d i e s e Zeichen und Runen? V i e l l e i c h t d i e unausdenkbare Umkehrung des B e g r i f f e s Wald? (pp. 45-46) Before the c a t a s t r o p h e man had g e n e r a l l y been unaware o f t h i s o t h e r i n d e f i n a b l e r e a l m o f e x i s t e n c e which l i e s behind the d e c e p t i v e facade o f c o n v e n t i o n a l r e a l i t y . Indeed the s o c i a l w o r l d had as one o f i t s main o b j e c t i v e s to prevent any e r u p t i o n i n t o i t o f t h i s o t h e r unordered but a b s o l u t e r e a l m . In p a r t i c u l a r the e d u c a t i o n a l system i s c r i t i c i z e d : W i e v i e l haben w i r doch i n d e r Schule g e l e r n t , wie v i e l e BUcher ge lesen und Abbi ldungen b e s t a u n t , aber h i e r l i b e r h a t t e noch niemand b e r i c h t e t . Gab es a l s o doch noch u n e r f o r s c h t e W e l t t e i l e ? I c h sah i n a l i e n Augen d i e s aufmerksame, gespannte Suchen nach aussen und e i n v e r g e b l i c h e s V e r g l e i c h e n nach i n n e n . Dies E r w a r t e n , dass s i c h irgendwo etwas z e i g e n wllrde, was das R & t s e l l t t s t e , und das w i r auf k e i n e n F a l l ttbersehen d l i r f t e n . (pp. 46-47) The r a t i o n a l , f a m i l i a r w o r l d , c o n s t r u c t e d by p u b l i c consent and language, i n which man f e e l s sa fe and at home, i s a n n i h i l a t e d . The i n d i v i d u a l i s plunged i n t o an awareness o f the wondrous, a - r a t i o n a l e x i s t e n c e o f t h i n g s w h i c h p r e v i o u s l y language, reason, and c o n v e n t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f r e a l i t y had c o n c e a l e d . In h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s n o n - o r d i n a r y r e a l i t y the i n d i v i d u a l i s 73 e x i s t e n t i a l l y i s o l a t e d ; community i s no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e because h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f i t i s o f a p u r e l y p r i v a t e nature and he i s u n - -a b l e to communicate w i t h o t h e r s about i t . I t i s i n f a c t beyond the r e a c h o f language and common consensus o f o p i n i o n . Language i s inadequate t o d e s c r i b e t h i s o t h e r r e a l i t y because i t i s r e l a t e d a t every l e v e l to p u b l i c , c o n v e n t i o n a l r e a l i t y , whereas the o t h e r r e a l i t y i s p r i v a t e and n o n - o r d i n a r y . As Werner Ober le observes: "Das W e s e n t l i c h e kann geahnt, httchstens e r l e b t werden, es e n t z i e h t 18 s i c h — d a s w i s s e n a l l e M y s t i k e r - - d e r S p r a c h e . " At best the o t h e r r e a l i t y can o n l y be h i n t e d at where language f a i l s o r leaves o f f . Or an attempt can be made w i t h the f a i r y - t a l e and s u r r e a l i s t i c elements i n Der Untergang. In both cases the inadequacy of reason must be r e c o g n i z e d and we must r e c o v e r the g i f t o f wonder. The w o r l d i n which man l i v e s i s not a c l o s e d , i n t e l l i g i b l e system and Nossack r e j e c t s reason as an a b s o l u t e v a l u e : " T r a u r i g i s t nur der V e r s t a n d , w e i l e r F l U g e l zu haben g l a u b t , und s t l i r z t doch immer w i e d e r ab" (p. 7 2 ) . N o s s a c k ' s awareness o f the inadequacy o f language, h i s d i s -t r u s t o f reason, and h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f another dimension of r e a l i t y and time has l e d to r e f e r e n c e s to the " m y s t i c a l " element i n h i s w o r k . ^ In an i n t e r v i e w 2 0 Nossack h i m s e l f says he would agree about the m y s t i c a l t r e n d as long as the word i s not used i n the t r a d i t i o n a l sense w h i c h e n t a i l s a s e a r c h f o r a " u n i o m y s t i c a . " S i g n i f i c a n t l y Nossack r e j e c t s the i d e a t h a t he i s a m y s t i c who b e l i e v e s he can a c t u a l l y exper ience o r u n i t e w i t h the t i m e l e s s , unfathomable aspects o f r e a l i t y w h i c h e x i s t behind e x i s t e n c e as we know i t . In Nossack the l i m i t s o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y may be extended but are never transcended and consequent ly human aloneness i s never 74 a b o l i s h e d . In the Bienek i n t e r v i e w Nossack again r e j e c t s the i d e a o f a "unio m y s t i c a . " Mich i n t e r e s s i e r t brennend, was d i e Dinge wohl s e i n mBgen, wenn s i e n i c h t nur unser Objekt s i n d . Oder d e u t l i c h e r ausgedrlickt: was s i n d s i e i n i h r e r Einsamkeit, was s i n d s i e , bevor s i e Mythos geworden s i n d , denn der Mythos i s t doch nur eine V o r d e r s e i t e , d i e s i e uns zukehren, und d i e w i r verbrauchen. . . . Ich habe manchmal das G e f i i h l , dass auf d i e s e r uns n i c h t zugekehrten S e i t e der Wesen meine Heimat l i e g t . 21 Nossack's f e e l i n g t h a t h i s home l i e s on the s i d e o f things which i s turned away from us, the s i d e o f the t i m e l e s s and un-fathomable aspects o f r e a l i t y w i t h which i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to u n i t e , guarantees human aloneness i n that i t cannot be m y s t i c a l l y t r a n s -cended. N e i t h e r can human aloneness i n the experience o f an i n d e f i n -a b l e dimension of being be regarded as a t r a n s i t i o n a l stage p r i o r to the emergence of a new s o c i o - c u l t u r a l framework. The other realm o f being, though f r i g h t e n i n g and b e w i l d e r i n g , i s d e s i r a b l e above a l l o t h e r t h i n g s ; Nossack loves i t and yearns f o r i t , as W a l t e r B o e l i c h observes i n h i s afterword: Seine Werke s i n d . . . Werke der Achtung urid ;der L i e b e . . . . S i e s i n d e r f l i l l t von der Achtung des Fremden, n i c h t von s e i n e r Ablehnung. S i e geben noch dem Fremdartigsten, U n e r f a h r b a r s t e n Raum. (p. 84) C e r t a i n remarks i n Der Untergang a d m i t t e d l y imply that a new s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r e l a t e d n e s s i s sought, as f o r example when he pro-c l a i m s : "Mit dem Augenblick, wo w i r uns von den Trllmmern unseres e i n s t i g e n Heimes abwenden, beginnt der Weg, der tiber den Untergang h i n a u s f l l h r t " (p. 6 8 ) . And i n the next work, Nekyia, the need f o r the r e l a t e d n e s s and o r i e n t a t i o n o f a new s o c i o - c u l t u r a l order i s 75 p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e . Yet l o o k i n g back over N o s s a c k ' s work to date i t i s c l e a r t h a t h i s awareness o f another , supremely v a l u a b l e r e a l m of b e i n g p r e c l u d e s any p r o g r e s s i o n to a new and improved s o c i o - c u l t u r a l o r d e r because i t leads d i r e c t l y to a g e n e r a l s t a t e o f p e r s o n a l , s o c i o - c u l t u r a l , and s p i r i t u a l a l o n e n e s s . The dilemma of N o s s a c k ' s e a r l y work a r i s e s from the incom-p a t i b i l i t y between the need f o r the r e l a t e d n e s s and o r i e n t a t i o n o f :•-„ a new s o c i o - c u l t u r a l o r d e r and the d e s i r e f o r the o t h e r r e a l i t y . The s o c i o - c u l t u r a l need i s p r e s e n t , yet cannot be f u l f i l l e d because h i s r e a l homeland l i e s on the s i d e o f t h i n g s w h i c h i s turned away from u s . And every attempt t o extend man's e x i s t e n t i a l l i m i t s i n t o t h i s o t h e r i n f i n i t e l y d e s i r a b l e r e a l m , every attempt t o depart i n t o i t , even merely the awareness o f i t , l e a d i n v a r i a b l y , as s u c -c e s s i v e works show, to a loneness , as B o e l i c h has observed: Nossacks Wesen s i n d j e w e i l s e i n z e l n e , d i e den S c h r i t t h i n l l b e r wagen, d i e Grenze U b e r s c h r e i t e n , i n s N i c h t -V e r s i c h e r b a r e aufbrechen. S i e werden i n schmerzhafte I s o l i e r u n g g e t r i e b e n , ausgestossen, aber s i e legen Zeugnis ab von e i n e r anderen W e l t . 22 I t i s a m y s t e r i o u s l y a p p e a l i n g w o r l d which beckons, yet i t can be c o l d and h o s t i l e ; removed from human and c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t s , the i n d i v i d u a l can be tormented by doubts about h i s i d e n t i t y and very e x i s t e n c e ; he can even f r e e z e t o d e a t h , i n the c o l d o f i s o l a -t i o n , l i k e the man i n "Das M a l . " The more p a i n f u l aspects o f t h i s aloneness tend to be at l e a s t p a r t l y concealed i n Der Untergang by the euphor ic f e e l i n g o f t o t a l l i b e r a t i o n from the p r i s o n o f a hated, i n a u t h e n t i c past and a f e e l -i n g o f new l i f e and p o s s i b i l i t y i n a new b e g i n n i n g . I t was "wie e i n e E r f U l l u n g " (p.^43) because the d e s t r u c t i o n conf i rmed and 76 i n t e n s i f i e d N o s s a c k 1 s p r e v i o u s exper ience o f l i v i n g o u t s i d e o f h i s t o r i c a l t ime i n a s p i r i t u a l t ime d i m e n s i o n . The s o c i o - c u l t u r a l past has been d e s t r o y e d : " w i r haben k e i n e Vergangenheit mehr" (p. 30). The c o r o l l a r y o f t h i s i s p r o c l a i m e d by Nossack: "Denn was w i r gewonnen haben und was anders wurde, das i s t : W i r s i n d gegenwSrtig geworden. W i r haben uns aus der Z e i t g e l l i s t " (p . 71). The o t h e r s , on the o t h e r s i d e o f the abyss , are s t i l l "eingezw&ngt zwischen dem G e s t e r n und Morgen, ohne e i n e Sekunde Gegenwart" (p. 71). The ending o f Der Untergang shows that man i s be ing o f f e r e d the chance to e x i s t o u t s i d e the r e a s s u r i n g p u b l i c r e a l i t y o f the past and o u t s i d e h i s t o r i c a l t ime i n a r e a l m where man i s a l o n e . A b u r n i n g b u i l d i n g symbol izes the s e c u r i t y o f the past and the h i s t o r i c a l t ime d i m e n s i o n . Those who r e f u s e to leave i t s d e c e p t i v e s e c u r i t y because they are a f r a i d o f the flames p e r i s h i n the c o n -f l a g r a t i o n . Those who muster the courage t o f i g h t t h e i r way through the flames s u r v i v e : "Dann waren w i r h i n d u r c h . E i n i g e s i n d dann auf der S t r a s s e noch u m g e f a l l e n . W i r konnten uns n i c h t um s i e kllmmern" (p. 73). But they s u r v i v e , as these c o n c l u d i n g words o f Der Untergang show, as i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s who can expect n e i t h e r sympathy nor h e l p from t h e i r f e l l o w s ; they s u r v i v e i n a rea lm where i t i s not one f o r a l l and a l l f o r one, but each one f o r h i m s e l f . No h e l p can be g i v e n because they have broken through i n t o a r e a l m where no help i s p o s s i b l e and where man i s i s o l a t e d ; " Z e i t g e s c h i c h t e " has been l e f t b e h i n d , and w i t h i t not o n l y the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r e l a t e d n e s s , but a l s o o f s i g n i f i c a n t human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Theodore Z i o l k o w s k i ' s Dimensions o f the Modem N o v e l " 0 throws l i g h t on N o s s a c k ' s view o f the o t h e r , n o n - h i s t o r i c a l t ime d i m e n s i o n . Z i o l k o w s k i shows t h a t i n e a r l i e r ages man had been assured o f meaning, d u r a t i o n , and rootedness . Up u n t i l the seven-t e e n t h c e n t u r y the o r d e r o f God had guaranteed man's meaning and d u r a t i o n , whereas a f t e r the d e c l i n e o f g e n e r a l r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f h i s t o r y and h i s t o r i c a l t ime, e s p e c i a l l y as expounded by such t h i n k e r s as H e g e l , Marx, and Darwin, had p r o v i d e d the necessary o r d e r and va lues which transcended the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s a l o n e - -ness . But toward the end o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , Z i o l k o w s k i argues, the w o r l d o f h i s t o r y became so v a s t and complex that no u n i f i e d o r d e r c o u l d p o s s i b l y be read i n t o o r out o f i t . Conse-q u e n t l y h i s t o r y was fragmented i n t o a number o f p l u r a l i s t i c va lue systems and the i n d i v i d u a l was c a s t back upon h i m s e l f i n h i s search f o r meaning, v a l u e , and d u r a t i o n . The t ime had come f o r Bergson and the modem e x i s t e n t i a l i s t p h i l o s o p h i e s which sought man's meaning not o u t s i d e o f man, but i n h i s own i n d i v i -d u a l e x i s t e n c e and d u r a t i o n . Nossack i s a t one w i t h Bergson i n that both see man's becoming not as a n e c e s s a r i l y predetermined process o f being shaped by e x t e r n a l f o r c e s , but as the a c t o f shaping one 's own e x i s t e n c e and r e a l i z i n g one 's p o s s i b i l i t i e s . F o r Nossack a l l the e x t e r n a l f o r c e s w h i c h c o u l d shape him from o u t s i d e have been destroyed w i t h the l o s s o f the p a s t , and can have no h o l d over him as long as he does not a l l o w h i m s e l f to f a l l v i c t i m a g a i n t o the past and t o the w o r l d o f p u b l i c and s c i e n t i f i c t ime and thus become a g a i n "eingezwangt zwischen dem Gestern und Morgen, ohne e i n e Sekunde Gegenwart"; as l o n g , i n 78 o t h e r words, as he m a i n t a i n s h i m s e l f i n h i s a loneness and authen-t i c i t y . A u t h e n t i c p e r s o n a l e x i s t e n c e i s f o r Nossack never s i m p l y what i t i s , but what i t w i l l be i n the r e a l i z a t i o n o f i t s p o s s i b i -l i t i e s . I t has no f i n a l i t y and t o t a l i t y o f i t s own because i t always has p o s s i b i l i t i e s t o r e a l i z e , l i m i t s t o e x t e n d . I t i s a w o r l d o f " s t i r b und werde" and, u n l i k e the p a s t , which can be i d o l i z e d o r hated but not changed because i t i s w h o l l y g i v e n , p e r s o n a l e x i s t e n c e c o n s i s t s o f p o s s i b i l i t y because the f u t u r e i s always open. The f u t u r e and the present w i t h w h i c h i t begins are no longer dominated by or made dependent upon the c l a i m s and va lues o f the p a s t . A necessary consequence of t h i s i s that the " M e n s c h e n b i l d " o f the