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The theme of aloneness in the work of Hans Erich Nossack Roper, David Andrew 1976

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THE THEME OF ALONENESS IN THE WORK OF HANS ERICH NOSSACK by DAVID ANDREW ROPER B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f Sussex, 1969 M.A.,  McMaster U n i v e r s i t y ,  1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f Germanic S t u d i e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1976 ©  D a v i d Andrew Roper, 1976  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree the L i b r a r y I further  s h a l l make i t  freely  available for  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  r e f e r e n c e and copying of t h i s  of  It  i s understood that c o p y i n g or  thesis  permission.  Department  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  or  publication  t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  written  that  study.  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  for  i  Abstract  Wide d i v e r g e n c e  i n the opinions expressed  about  work c a n be e x p l a i n e d b y t h e l a c k o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e establishing  t h e b a s i s f o r a more  understanding.  T h i s study,  The  presence  o f aloneness  life.  suffering  i n h i s w o r k has b e e n r e c o g n i z e d , b u t undesirable aspect of  Though r e c o g n i z i n g t h e d a n g e r s o f a l o n e n e s s  o c c a s i o n a l l y a negative  Nossack a t t a c h e s part  t o aloneness  feeling  a positive  o f t h e a u t h e n t i c human c o n d i t i o n .  ness a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d : individual's  isolation  c u l t u r a l aloneness,  v a l u e a s an Three types  of being  lost  no a t t e m p t e d e s c a p e f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e  r e p r e s s i v e and c o l l e c t i v e  and a c t i v i t i e s  metaphysical  relationships,  realm  from the  society,  any  Though i n the aloneness  T h e r e i s an  o f e x i s t e n c e , beyond  b e y o n d s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e ,  there i s  of aloneness  twentieth century  and  through  of l i f e .  an i n h e r e n t p a r t o f t h e human c o n d i t i o n .  fable,  arising  i n an i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e  thefe are c e r t a i n e l i m i n a b l e determinants  is  socio-  Because o f i t s p o s i t i v e v a l u e  the normal involvements  from the  from a l a c k o f r e l a t e d n e s s t o  individual's  of  o f alone-  from p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  and s p i r i t u a l a l o n e n e s s ,  ultimately  intrinsic  arising  s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e , feeling  and  of isolation,  personal aloneness,  arising  bewildering universe.  -  i n i t s approach,  as a k e y t o N o s s a c k ' s work.  u s u a l l y m i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a n e g a t i v e , modern  studies  o b j e c t i v e and c o m p r e h e n s i v e  "werkimmanent"  e x a m i n e s t h e theme o f a l o n e n e s s  Nossack's  inef-  personal  o u t s i d e time  and  ii p l a c e ; t h i s the i n d i v i d u a l can o n l y e x p e r i e n c e and e n t e r a l o n e . As a p r i v a t e e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h cannot be shared,  i t i s ex-  p e r i e n c e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n a b s o l u t e s o l i t a r i n e s s .  The i n -  d i v i d u a l ' s awareness and e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s o t h e r , supremely valuable r e a l i t y are the u l t i m a t e guarantors  of h i s abiding  p e r s o n a l , s o c i o - c u l t u r a l , and s p i r i t u a l a l o n e n e s s . imposed aloneness  i s i n t e n s i f i e d through  But t h i s  the a d d i t i o n o f a  s e l f - c h o s e n d i m e n s i o n when, as a m a t t e r o f p o l i c y i n h i s attempt t o c r o s s over i n t o t h e o t h e r r e a l i t y , t h e i n d i v i d u a l f r e e s h i m s e l f from a l l t h e u s u a l a c t i v i t i e s and of l i f e .  involvements  No attempt i s made t o change s o c i e t y through  o r r e v o l u t i o n , not s i m p l y because r e b e l l i o n i s f u t i l e , the a l l - p e r v a s i v e r u l e o f t h e s o c i a l Apparat,  reform given  but because o f  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s o v e r - r i d i n g m e t a p h y s i c a l a s p i r a t i o n s .  Instead  the i n d i v i d u a l camouflages h i m s e l f by outward conformism, w h i l e l e a d i n g a l i f e o f s p i r i t u a l r e s i s t a n c e and a t t e m p t i n g t o c r o s s over i n t o t h e o t h e r r e a l i t y .  The t r a d i t i o n a l l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p  cannot overcome t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s aloneness  because i t i s  i m p o s s i b l e , i n l o v e o r any o t h e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , t o a c h i e v e s p i r i t u a l c l o s e n e s s t o another.  Nossack f o r m u l a t e s a  new concept o f l o v e , w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f r e s p e c t i n g t h e fundamental otherness  o f t h e o t h e r p e r s o n and o f r e c o g n i z i n g the  o t h e r r e a l i t y as t h e h i g h e s t v a l u e . at  p e r s o n a l involvement,  P r e c l u d i n g any attempt  i t s u b s t i t u t e s an i n d e f i n a b l e meta-  p h y s i c a l intimacy or closeness.  S i m i l a r l y , Nossack's  " p a r t i s a n s " (camouflaged o u t s i d e r s ) a r e l i n k e d o n l y by t h e common^reality o f a l o n e n e s s ,  by a u n i o n i n a l o n e n e s s .  Man's  iii s p i r i t u a l a l o n e n e s s p e r s i s t s because e x i s t e n c e cannot be r a t i o n a l i z e d i n t o a f a m i l i a r w o r l d i n w h i c h man and a t home.  can f e e l s a f e  T r a n s i e n t and u n r e l i a b l e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  p r e t a t i o n s o f r e a l i t y and e q u a l l y t r a n s i e n t  and  inter-  unreliable  p e r s o n a l myths about r e a l i t y are b o t h s h a t t e r e d when r e a l r e a l i t y b r e a k s through.  The w r i t e r ' s  t o Nossack's t h e o r y of w r i t i n g . w r i t e r maintains  aloneness i s c e n t r a l  Through h i s w r i t i n g  h i m s e l f a g a i n s t s o c i e t y and  quest t o c r o s s over i n t o the o t h e r r e a l i t y .  the  i s engaged i n a Writing is  monologic, a d i a l o g u e w i t h the s e l f , though the hope p e r s i s t s t h a t i t w i l l r e a c h another, a union i n aloneness.  unknown o u t s i d e r and  W r i t i n g i s found t o be  establish  inadequate  not o n l y f o r communication about the o t h e r r e a l i t y , a l s o f o r the w r i t e r ' s  own  purposes i n h i s quest,  but  so t h a t  w r i t i n g i s always t e n d i n g t o pass o v e r i n t o s i l e n c e , though n e i t h e r a u t h o r nor p r o t a g o n i s t s are f o r long e q u a l t o d i s p e n s i n g w i t h the i n b o r n need f o r d i a l o g u e , i f o n l y w i t h the  self.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract. Acknowledgement  •  Introduction  v  ^  CHAPTER 1 :  D e f i n i t i o n and H i s t o r i c a l B a c k g r o u n d  CHAPTER 2:  B i o g r a p h i c a l Background  CHAPTER 3 :  N e k y i a and I n t e r v i e w  CHAPTER 4 :  The  CHAPTER 5 :  SpUtestens  6  and D e r U n t e r g a n g •  . •  83  m i t dem Tode  Individual, Society,  115  and R e a l i t y  im November and t h e new c o n c e p t o f 167  love CHAPTER 6 :  Spirale  CHAPTER 7 :  Der jlingere Bruder, Der F a l l  CHAPTER 8 :  35  199 Nach dem L e t z t e n  d'Arthez  The A l o n e n e s s  of the W r i t e r  Aufstand, 237 293  Conclusion  33^  BIBLIOGRAPHY  35o  V  Acknowledgement I t would be u n t h i n k a b l e t o c o n c l u d e the work on t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n w i t h o u t e x p r e s s i n g my i n d e b t e d n e s s and g r a t i t u d e t o v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . who  To P r o f . L e s l i e L. M i l l e r ,  f i r s t suggested the i d e a o f a d i s s e r t a t i o n on Nossack.  To  my s u p e r v i s o r , P r o f . Mark Boulby, and t o h i s deputy i n t h e l a t t e r s t a g e s , P r o f . M i c h a e l S. Batts,: f o r t h e i r sound judgement and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m .  To the s t a f f o f the I n t e r -  L i b r a r y Loan Department o f the L i b r a r y o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r s e r v i c e w i t h a s m i l e and f a r beyond the c a l l o f duty, even i n t h e most t r y i n g o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  To  t h e t y p i s t s o f the v a r i o u s d r a f t s of the d i s s e r t a t i o n , Miss Mary Margaret F a r m i l o , Mrs. D o r i s Roper, and Mrs. Thompson.  To my f i r s t t e a c h e r s o f  Monica  German, Mr. J i m W h i t t a k e r  and Mr. A l b e r t Leach, o f Thornton Grammar S c h o o l , B r a d f o r d , Y o r k s h i r e , who and Germany.  f i r s t awakened i n me an i n t e r e s t i n Germans To my p a r e n t s , Mr. and Mrs. J a c k Roper, t o the  aldermen and burgesses o f the c i t y o f B r a d f o r d , t o McMaster U n i v e r s i t y , and t o the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, w i t h o u t whose s t a l w a r t a s s i s t a n c e o v e r the y e a r s the academic p a t h would have been f a r more arduous, i f not i m p a s s a b l e . f i n a l l y , o f c o u r s e , t o H e r r Nossack h i m s e l f .  And  1  Introduction S i n c e the end of the Second World War achieved  few w r i t e r s have  a more e x t e n s i v e and c r e d i t a b l e r e c o r d o f p u b l i c a t i o n  than Hans E r i c h Nossack. E n g l i s h , French,  H i s works have been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o  I t a l i a n , Spanish,  Swedish, S e r b o - C r o a t , Czech,  Hungarian, P o l i s h , Rumanian, A f r i k a a n s , and Japanese, and s i b l y o t h e r languages t o o .  1  pos-  Yet t o judge from h i s r e c e p t i o n i n  German and E n g l i s h he i s p r q b a b l y v i r t u a l l y unread i n a l l o f them.  In more n a r r o w l y academic and  intellectual circles his  r e c e p t i o n , though by no means b r o a d l y based, has been somewhat b e t t e r and t h e r e must e x i s t w e l l over one hundred and of secondary l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g t o him,  comprising  fifty  items  reviews,  a r t i c l e s , d i s s e r t a t i o n s , and books, and d e a l i n g w i t h p h i l o s o p h i c a l as w e l l . a s s t y l i s t i c and a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  But  t h e r e i s a wide and  fundamental d i v e r g e n c e  i n the o p i n i o n s  and  judgments expressed  about Nossack, except perhaps f o r a g e n e r a l  agreement t h a t he i s an important w r i t e r , and Nossack h i m s e l f i s c y n i c a l l y aware o f t h i s : I c h b i n schon mit a l l e r h a n d k u r z l e b i g e n E h r e n t i t e l n a u s g e z e i c h n e t worden, so z.B. mit den e i n e s N i h i l i s t e n , E x i s t e n t i a l i s t e n , S u r r e a l i s t e n , K a f k a i s t e n und d e r g l e i c h e n mehr. Das hat meiner B i l d u n g s e h r g e n u t z t , denn s e l b s t v e r s t U n d l i c h musste i c h mich dann liber d i e s e Ismen o r i e n t i e r e n . B i s i c h s i e b e g r i f f e n h a t t e , waren s i e meistens schon l i b e r h o l t . 2 C e r t a i n l y much of the l i t e r a t u r e says more about i t s a u t h o r than about Nossack, and some has been of a n a u s e a t i n g l y m o r a l i z i n g and p o l i t i c a l l y b i a s e d k i n d ; but u n d e n i a b l y extremely  d i f f i c u l t and p a r a d o x i c a l w r i t e r .  Nossack i s an  Much of the d i s -  agreement can be e x p l a i n e d i n terms of a l a c k of l o n g e r , more comprehensive s t u d i e s of Nossack's work and themes w h i c h aim a t  2  f i n d i n g keys t o a more o b j e c t i v e and comprehensive u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  t h e a u t h o r and h i s work.  R e a l i z i n g t h i s , C h r i s t o f Schmid made  a s t a r t w i t h h i s book Monologische Werk von  Kunst:  Untersuchungen zum  Hans E r i c h Nossack^ w h i c h appeared i n 1968, two y e a r s  b e f o r e F r i e d h e l m F. R i c k e r t ' s d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , "Hans E r i c h Nossack a l s B e t r a c h t e r und its  K r i t i k e r s e i n e r Z e i t , " * w h i c h t a k e s as 2  f o c a l p o i n t Nossack's concept o f man as a s p i r i t u a l b e i n g .  Both works, a v o i d i n g s u b j e c t i v e v a l u e judgments and e s s e n t i a l l y "werkimmanent" i n t h e i r approach,  are very valuable c o n t r i b u t i o n s .  But what i n my o p i n i o n i s perhaps t h e most u s e f u l key t o Nossack's work--the theme o f aloneness  i n i t - - h a s so f a r gone unexamined.  The presence o f dominant themes o f l o n e l i n e s s and aloneness i n Nossack's work has o f c o u r s e been r e c o g n i z e d by v a r i o u s s c h o l a r s , though o n l y r a r e l y have they been seen i n t h e c o r r e c t light.  The u s u a l p a t t e r n (and I t h i n k t h i s c o u l d be c i t e d as one  of  t h e few weaknesses o f R i c k e r t ' s o t h e r w i s e a d m i r a b l e study) i s  to  see l o n e l i n e s s and aloneness as n e g a t i v e phenomena, u n d e s i r a b l e  aspects of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e i n the twentieth century, which s h o u l d be remedied as soon as p o s s i b l e . i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s h o u l d be r e j e c t e d . to  I believe this usual  To t h i s end, t h i s study  seeks  demonstrate t h e p r e v a l e n c e and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f aloneness as a  m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e and theme i n b o t h Nossack's n o v e l s and s h o r t s t o r i e s and i n h i s e s s a y s , and thus t o r e v e a l i t as a c e n t r a l exp e r i e n c e i n b o t h Nossack's l i f e and works.  Beyond t h i s , and  a l t h o u g h t h e dangers o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e a r e r e c o g n i z e d , i t attempts to  show t h a t a p o s i t i v e v a l u e i s a t t a c h e d by Nossack t o a l o n e n e s s ,  not because t h e e x p e r i e n c e i s r e l i s h e d i n a m a s o c h i s t i c way, but because aloneness  i s an u n a v o i d a b l e p a r t o f t h e a u t h e n t i c human  3  c o n d i t i o n and because any attempt t a i l a flight  into inauthenticity.  t i o n r e f e r s t h e r e f o r e t o aloneness  t o escape aloneness would enThe  t i t l e of t h i s d i s s e r t a -  r a t h e r than  loneliness  p r e c i s e l y because a p o s i t i v e v a l u e i s a t t a c h e d t o the  isolation  o f the i n d i v i d u a l from p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , to h i s s o c i o c u l t u r a l s o l i t u d e a r i s i n g from a l a c k o f any f e e l i n g o f r e l a t e d ness t o the p a t t e r n s and v a l u e s o f s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e , and his  f e e l i n g o f l o s t n e s s i n an i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e  cause the v a l u e a t t a c h e d t o aloneness  universe.  to  Be-  i s positive, i t w i l l  be  seen t o f o l l o w t h a t , at l e a s t i n the long run, no means are sought t o escape from the e x p e r i e n c e through, ship, p h y s i c a l contact, love, marriage,  f o r example, f r i e n d -  family, s o c i a l or p o l i -  t i c a l commitment, homeland, r e l i g i o n , n a t u r e , o r r e m i n i s c e n c e . Chapter One  attempts  l o n e l i n e s s and a l o n e n e s s ,  t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the  concepts  to a r r i v e at a r e a s o n a b l y comprehen-  s i v e d e f i n i t i o n o f a l o n e n e s s , and t o p l a c e i t i n a broad  his-  t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e a g a i n s t the background o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y so t h a t i n subsequent c h a p t e r s the theme o f  aloneness  i n Nossack's work can be c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n framework o f the concept Chapter Two  established in this  and  chapter.  t r a c e s i n Nossack's essays h i s p e r s o n a l exper-  i e n c e o f aloneness  and a l i e n a t i o n and h i s r e a c t i o n t o them, both  i n terms o f h i s p e r s o n a l aloneness  i n f a m i l y and i n p e r s o n a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i n terms o f h i s more g e n e r a l s o c i o - c u l t u r a l aloneness W o r l d War. war  and a l i e n a t i o n r i g h t up t o the end o f the Second The d e s t r u c t i o n o f the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l o r d e r i n the  i s d i s c u s s e d from the p o i n t of view o f the  heightened  aloneness w h i c h r e s u l t e d f o r Nossack, and t h i s i s pursued  in  4  the d i s c u s s i o n o f N e k y i a and I n t e r v i e w m i t dem Tode i n C h a p t e r Three. C h a p t e r Four c o n c e n t r a t e s  on t h e t h e o r e t i c a l i d e a s o f  Nossack's view o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e i n a r e p r e s s i v e , c o l l e c t i v e s o c i e t y and h i s e x i s t e n c e i n a b e w i l d e r i n g r e a l i t y as they a r e r e v e a l e d i n t h e e s s a y s , w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e  illustration  from f i c t i o n a l works. The  focus o f Chapter F i v e s h i f t s from s o c i o - c u l t u r a l a l o n e -  ness t o t h e theme o f p e r s o n a l a l o n e n e s s as i l l u s t r a t e d by Nossack's p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n Spatestens and o t h e r works.  im November  Nossack sees t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l o v e r e l a t i o n -  s h i p as i n c a p a b l e o f overcoming t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a l o n e n e s s because t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s unable,  e i t h e r i n a love r e l a t i o n s h i p o r  any o t h e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , t o a c h i e v e s p i r i t u a l t o any o t h e r  closeness  person.  Chapters S i x and Seven d e a l w i t h s e v e r a l o f Nossack's n o v e l s , S p i r a l e , Der jllngere Bruder, Nach dem L e t z t e n Der F a l l d'Arthez,  and D i e g e s t o h l e n e  Aufstand,  M e l o d i e ; they attempt an  a n a l y s i s and d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l p i c t u r e o f human a l o n e ness p a i n t e d i n these works and seek t o show how Nossack a l o n e n e s s as an u n a v o i d a b l e  presents  p a r t o f t h e a u t h e n t i c human c o n d i t i o n .  F i n a l l y Chapter E i g h t i s concerned w i t h t h e a l o n e n e s s o f the w r i t e r i n s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e and Nossack's view o f the element o f a l o n e n e s s i n s e p a r a b l e from t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e human document w h i c h he b e l i e v e s a u t h e n t i c l i t e r a t u r e t o be.  It is  argued i n c o n c l u s i o n t h a t language i s found t o be inadequate not j u s t f o r communication, b u t f o r t h e w r i t e r ' s own purposes, so t h a t h i s w r i t i n g i s always t e n d i n g t o pass o v e r i n t o s i l e n c e .  5  Footnotes A c c o r d i n g t o t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y i n Hans E r i c h Nossack, Der Untergang, E d i t i o n Suhrkamp, 19 ( F r a n k f u r t am Main: Suhrkamp V e r l a g , 1967), pp. 93-95 and Ingeborg M. G o e s s l , "Der Handlungsl o s e Raum b e i Hans E r i c h Nossack," M o n a t s h e f t e , 66 (1974), 3 3 . L  2  p.  Hans E r i c h Nossack, " F a l s c h e Ehren," Merkur (1964),  1208.  3 C h r i s t o f Schmid, Monologische Kunst: Untersuchungen zum Werk von Hans E r i c h Nossack ( S t u t t g a r t : Kohlhammer V e r l a g , 1968). ^ F r i e d h e l m F. R i c k e r t , "Hans E r i c h Nossack a l s B e t r a c h t e r und K r i t i k e r s e i n e r Z e i t , " D i s s . U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a 197°'  6  CHAPTER 1 D e f i n i t i o n and H i s t o r i c a l Background To be a l o n e i s t o be s o l i t a r y , t o be by o n e s e l f , a p a r t from o r w i t h o u t any o t h e r person o r t h i n g .  The word l o n e l i n e s s d e s i g -  nates an emotion w h i c h i s the u s u a l response being alone.  t o the s t a t e o f  Both words, but e s p e c i a l l y l o n e l i n e s s , seem t o have  a n e g a t i v e a u r a and connote some k i n d o f vacuum o r l a c k w h i c h n e v e r t h e l e s s can be f i l l e d t o some e x t e n t , most o b v i o u s l y by  con-  t a c t w i t h o t h e r human b e i n g s , though animals and i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s such as books, l e t t e r s , mementoes, and o t h e r p e r s o n a l p o s s e s s i o n s can f u l f i l the same f u n c t i o n .  The  n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n o f the  terms i s o b v i o u s l y the r e s u l t o f a common d e s i r e by man  t o over-  come both the s t a t e o f b e i n g a l o n e and the accompanying f e e l i n g o f l o n e l i n e s s , a d e s i r e so g e n e r a l t h a t l i t t l e comment o r e x p l a n a t i o n seems t o be c a l l e d f o r . The a n t h r o p o l o g i s t sees man  not e x a c t l y as a herd a n i m a l ,  c e r t a i n l y as a g r e g a r i o u s , t r i b a l a n i m a l possessed n a t u r e and i n s t i n c t s .  of a s o c i a b l e  In comparison t o o t h e r animals the young  o f the human s p e c i e s are p h y s i c a l l y dependent on t h e i r for  a long time.  but  parents  And w i t h r e g a r d t o a d u l t s s e x u a l p a i r i n g f o r  r e p r o d u c t i o n and companionship seems i n most c u l t u r e s t o be o f a g e n e r a l l y permanent n a t u r e ; indeed, the f a m i l y o r t r i b a l u n i t i s an u n a v o i d a b l e consequence o f man's b i o l o g i c a l h e r i t a g e , o f a prolonged process of c h i l d r e a r i n g .  Given t h i s group l i v i n g  aspect  o f human e x i s t e n c e , i t i s a m a t t e r of common e x p e r i e n c e t h a t f o r many people g r e g a r i o u s n e s s and s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e are i n thems e l v e s a form o f t o t a l human f u l f i l m e n t .  7 Yet i n a d d i t i o n t o these b i o l o g i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d needs a n o t h e r aspect  o f human e x i s t e n c e seems t o be e q u a l l y c o m p e l l i n g .  T h i s i s man's need t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d i n a way which transcends  p u r e l y p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e need t o be  r e l a t e d t o a broad s o c i o - c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n o f i d e a s , v a l u e s , and b e l i e f s w h i c h produce i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l a sense o f b e l o n g i n g i n a c u l t u r e , i n s o c i e t y , i n the world, o r i n the universe.  One may  be a p a r t from one's f e l l o w .men and t h e r e f o r e q u i t e a l o n e i n a p u r e l y p h y s i c a l sense and s t i l l have t h i s f e e l i n g o f b e i n g a t home i n t h e w o r l d because one i s a p a r t o f a community o f b e l i e f w h i c h u n i t e s one w i t h one's f e l l o w s and g i v e s one an assurance o f belonging  i n t h e w o r l d , because one's i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e i s con-  f i r m e d and j u s t i f i e d by a broad s o c i o - c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n o f shared i d e a s , v a l u e s , and b e l i e f s . There remains a t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y .  I t i s not o n l y through  b e i n g a p a r t o f s o c i e t y o r c u l t u r e t h a t a man can have a sense o f belonging,  of relatedness t o the world.  A man might r e j e c t many  o r a l l a s p e c t s o f h i s c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y and y e t s t i l l have a g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e o f a f f i r m a t i o n toward b o t h h i m s e l f and h i s r e l a t i o n to the e x t e r n a l world.  He may h o l d views and b e l i e f s  that  are not shared by h i s f e l l o w s and y e t s t i l l f e e l t h a t he has a p l a c e i n some d i v i n e o r n a t u r a l l y o r d a i n e d scheme o f t h i n g s ,  still  have an harmonious and r e a s s u r i n g f e e l i n g o f b e i n g a t home i n t h e w o r l d because h i s e x i s t e n c e i n i t i s f e l t t o be a n a t u r a l and p o s i t i v e r a t h e r than a p r o b l e m a t i c  o r f r i g h t e n i n g phenomenon.  Three p o s s i b l e v a r i e t i e s o f a l o n e n e s s c a n t h e r e f o r e be d i s tinguished.  Man has a need f o r t h e companionship o f h i s f e l l o w s ,  8 to be r e l a t e d t o them, t o have c o n t a c t w i t h them b o t h p h y s i c a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y ; the absence o f t h i s can produce what may be c a l l e d a s t a t e of personal aloneness.  He a l s o has a need t o be  r e l a t e d t o the w o r l d i n a way w h i c h t r a n s c e n d s p u r e l y p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and w h i c h g i v e s him a sense o f s o c i o - c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and b e l o n g i n g ; the absence o f such a r e l a t i o n s h i p can produce what may be termed a s t a t e o f s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  aloneness.  The t h i r d r e a d i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e v a r i e t y o f aloneness of ultimate s p i r i t u a l aloneness,  is a kind  the sense o f the i n d i v i d u a l man  b e i n g l o s t i n an a l i e n w o r l d , w h i c h a r i s e s when the r e s o u r c e s  which  the i n d i v i d u a l f i n d s w i t h i n h i m s e l f and the n a t u r e o f the w o r l d as he p e r c e i v e s  i t a r e not s u f f i c i e n t  l a t i o n s h i p between the two.  t o e s t a b l i s h an harmonious  The t h r e e t e r m s - - p e r s o n a l ,  re-  socio-  c u l t u r a l , and s p i r i t u a l - - a r e somewhat a r b i t r a r y and make no pretence  t o complete e x a c t i t u d e ;  i t i s obvious,  a l l p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s encompass the-*existence  f o r example,  that  a s p i r i t u a l d i m e n s i o n and t h a t  o f a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n o f i d e a s and v a l u e s i m -  p l i e s the n e c e s s a r y  existence  o f human i n t e r c o u r s e .  Nevertheless,  the terms do denote t h r e e g e n e r a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e t y p e s o f  alone-  ness and l o n e l i n e s s . Though i t w o u l d appear t o be the n a t u r a l d e s i r e o f man t o escape human a l o n e n e s s  and l o n e l i n e s s  i n a l l i t s forms, t h i s would  seem t o be e a s i e r s a i d than done.  Aloneness  l i e s dormant i n the  v e r y means sought t o overcome i t :  thus a human r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a  r e l a t i o n s h i p between two s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s ; and the concept  of  human s o c i e t y c l e a r l y i m p l i e s an aggregate o f i n d i v i d u a l members. A c e r t a i n s t a t e o f aloneness  i s i n s e p a r a b l e from the human c o n d i -  t i o n and can awareness o f t h i s can be awakened a t any t i m e .  9  I t i s a common human e x p e r i e n c e  t h a t one may be among p e o p l e  and yet be a s s a i l e d by a f e e l i n g o f complete i s o l a t i o n .  This  l o n e l i n e s s has i t s s o u r c e i n the e x i s t e n t i a l i s o l a t i o n and s o l i tude o f man, i n the v e r y d e f i n i t i o n o f what i t i s t o be a human being.  D e s p i t e a l l a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e e v e r y man i n  the deepest s a n c t u a r y o f h i s s p i r i t u a l and p e r s o n a l b e i n g i s  alone.  Men a r e i n v a r y i n g degrees c o n s c i o u s o f t h e i r e x i s t e n t i a l s o l i tude, of t h e i r existence ferent  as i n d i v i d u a l e n t i t i e s s e p a r a t e and d i f -  from o t h e r p e o p l e and the e n t i r e e x t e r n a l w o r l d , and from  t h i s a r i s e s the need t o be r e l a t e d t o o t h e r p e o p l e and the e x t e r n a l world. i s aware, ness,  T h i s need i s f e l t a l l the more i n t e n s e l y i n s o f a r as man through h i s knowledge o f t r a n s i t o r i n e s s , o f a g i n g ,  sick-  and d e a t h , o f how i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l he i s i n r e l a t i o n  to a l l others,  to s o c i e t y ,  t o the w o r l d , t o the u n i v e r s e , t o the  infinite. S i n c e a s e e m i n g l y n e g a t i v e a u r a surrounds the words ness and l o n e l i n e s s , loneliness, beliefs  i t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t the conquest  through r e l a t e d n e s s  and v a l u e s ,  alone-  to others,  to s o c i e t y ,  i s g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as a p o s i t i v e  of  to c u l t u r a l achieve-  ment, because i t i s an escape from t h a t w h i c h man most' f e a r s : isolation.  But do not s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e and s o c i e t y ,  i n s o f a r as t  they owe t h e i r o r i g i n t o the human f e a r o f l o n e l i n e s s , have a c e r t a i n negative aspect? an escape from a l o n e n e s s ?  A r e they not so much a d i r e c t need as T h i s i s Schopenhauer's  view:  Was nun a n d r e r s e i t s d i e Menschen g e s e l l i g macht, 1 s t i h r e U n f a i i i g k e i t , d i e E i n s a m k e i t und i n d i e s e r s i c h s e l b s t zu ertragen. Innere L e e r e und Uberdruss s i n d e s , von denen s i e sowohl i n d i e G e s e l l s c h a f t w i e i n d i e Fremde und a u f R e i s e n g e t r i e b e n werden. . . . Wie d i e L i e b e zum Leben i.m Grunde nur F u r c h t v o r dem Tode i s t , so 1 s t auch d e r G e s e l l i g k e i t s t r i e b d e r  10 Menschen im Grunde k e i n d i r e k t e r , b e r u h t n k m l i c h n i c h t auf L i e b e z u r G e s e l l s c h a f t , sondern a u f F u r c h t v o r d e r E i n s a m k e i t , indent es n i c h t sowohl d i e h o l d s e l i g e Gegenwart d e r andern i s t , d i e g e s u c h t , a l s v i e l m e h r d i e Ode und Beklommenheit des A l l e i n s e i n s , nebst d e r Monotonie des eigenen Bewusstseins, d i e geflohen w i r d ; welcher zu entgehn man daher auch m i t s c h l e c h t e r G e s e l l s c h a f t v o r l i e b n i m m t , i m g l e i c h e n das L & s t i g e und den Zwang, den e i n e j e d e notwendig m i t s i c h b r i n g t , sich gefallen l&sst. - - H a t hingegen d e r W i d e r w i l l e gegen d i e s e s a l i e s g e s i e g t und i s t i n f o l g e davon d i e Gewohnheit d e r E i n s a m k e i t und d i e Abh&rtiing gegen i h r e n u n m i t t e l b a r e n E i n d r u c k e i n g e t r e t e n . . . dann kann man m i t g r B s s t e r B e h a g l i c h k e i t immerfort a l l e i n s e i n , ohne s i c h nach G e s e l l s c h a f t z u sehnen; eben w e i l das B e d l i r f n i s d e r s e l b e n k e i n d i r e k t e s i s t und man a n d r e r s e i t s s i c h j e t z t an die wohlt&tigen Eigenschaften der Einsamkeit gewBhnt h a t . 1 F o r Schopenhauer a l o n e n e s s p o s s e s s e s the b e n e f i c i a l q u a l i t i e s o f i n n e r peace o f mind and h a p p i n e s s :  " E i n Hauptstudium  d e r Jugend s o l l t e s e i n , d i e E i n s a m k e i t e r t r a g e n z u l e r n e n ; w e i l s i e e i n e Q u e l l e des G l i i c k e s , d e r GemUtsruhe i s t . " Schopenhauer r e p r e s e n t s course i s l a r g e l y ,  t h a t human type f o r whom s o c i a l i n t e r -  i f not e n t i r e l y ,  inadequate and f o r whom  s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e i t s e l f can produce f e e l i n g s  o f aloneness  and  loneliness: So kommt es denn, d a s s , obwohl i n d i e s e r W e l t g a r v i e l e s r e c h t s c h l e c h t i s t , doch das S c h l e c h t e s t e darin die Gesellschaft bleibt: so dass s e l b s t V o l t a i r e , d e r g e s e l l i g e F r a n z o s e , hat sagen mils s e n : ' L a t e r r e e s t c o u v e r t e de gens q u i ne m£ritent pas q u ' o n l e u r p a r l e . ' 3 In Schopenhauer we f i n d not a n e g a t i v e but an e s s e n t i a l l y p o s i t i v e evaluation of aloneness,  and i n o u r d i s c u s s i o n o f  Nossack i t i s p r e c i s e l y w i t h such a p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f a l o n e ness t h a t we w i l l be c o n c e r n e d . Nossack and h i s c h a r a c t e r s as w i t h Schopenhauer,  The e s s e n t i a l aloneness  i s not t o be seen n e g a t i v e l y  the d r i v e toward aloneness  of because,  i s greater  than  11  the r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t  it.  We have seen thus f a r the g r e g a r i o u s f a m i l y - l i v i n g a s p e c t o f human e x i s t e n c e companionship and r e l a t e d n e s s fear of l o n e l i n e s s .  group,  tribal,  or  and the need o f men f o r  a r i s i n g at l e a s t  i n p a r t from a  But we have a l s o seen how a c e r t a i n  suscept-  i b i l i t y t o l o n e l i n e s s i s b u i l t i n t o man because aloneness i n s e p a r a b l e p a r t o f the human c o n d i t i o n , w h i c h , however, a l s o p o s s i b l e t o a f f i r m and embrace.  i s an it  is  Thus the problem o f a l o n e -  ness and l o n e l i n e s s , whether t h e s e a r e viewed n e g a t i v e l y  or  positively,  and as  i s an encompassing a s p e c t o f human e x i s t e n c e  such i n t r u d e s i n t o a number o f i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c i p l i n e s : i n t o l i t e r a t u r e , but a l s o i n t o p s y c h o l o g y , anthropology,  and t h e o l o g y .  philosophy,  sociology,  D o u b t l e s s the problem has a v a r i e d  and complex h i s t o r y i n a l l o f t h e s e f i e l d s . n e i t h e r necessary  not o n l y  It is,  however,  nor p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the scope o f t h i s study  attempt t o examine the main h i s t o r i c a l s h i f t s o f emphasis, discuss,  f o r example,  the n a t u r e and consequence  r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f and a l l e g i a n c e M i d d l e Ages,  to  to  of u n i v e r s a l  t o the C a t h o l i c Church i n the  the s h a t t e r i n g i n the R e f o r m a t i o n o f a u n i f i e d and  harmonious r e l i g i o u s f a i t h , and the p r o g r e s s i v e  emergence o f  indi-  v i d u a l i s m and the l i b e r a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e system, w h i c h was f o s t e r e d f u r t h e r by the E n l i g h t e n m e n t . f u l l y Nossack's  treatment o f the theme some h i s t o r i c a l  w i l l be h e l p f u l , f o r , outsider,  Yet to understand  a l t h o u g h he h i m s e l f w i l l be seen to be an  t h i s i s not t o deny t h a t he has been d e e p l y  by the events and f o r c e s - - s o c i a l , - - o f h i s age;  perspective  political,  affected  intellectual, cultural  and i n h i s work can be seen r e f l e c t e d c e r t a i n  o f man's s p i r i t u a l s i t u a t i o n and the human c o n d i t i o n i n the  facets  12 t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y and t h e i r antecedents  i n the n i n e t e e n t h .  A c c o r d i n g l y t h e r e f o l l o w s a b r i e f s u r v e y o f the most obvious a s p e c t s o f the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n o f man from the b e g i n n i n g o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y onward; n e c e s s a r i l y s i m p l i f i e d and generalised,  i t seeks to i d e n t i f y some o f N o s s a c k ' s mentors and  the i n f l u e n c e s on h i m . W i t h t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c e r t a i n c o n f l i c t i n g t r e n d s e s s e n t i a l t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Nossack become a p p a r e n t . On the one hand, w i t h the e r o s i o n o f r e l i g i o n and the f r e e i n g o f human r e a s o n i n the E n l i g h t e n m e n t , t h e r e a r e i n c r e a s i n g  indivi-  d u a l i s m and s u b j e c t i v i s m w h i c h make f o r i n c r e a s i n g human a l o n e n e s s . On the o t h e r hand, however,  t h e s e a r e opposed by the e v e r i n c r e a s -  i n g f o r c e s o f c o l l e c t i v i s m a r i s i n g l a r g e l y from the  consequences  o f the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n i n the form o f modern i n d u s t r y , nology, science,  i n d u s t r i a l mass s o c i e t y ,  and mass movements.  tech-  modern p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s ,  W h i l e a l l these f o r c e s may w e l l have  represent-  ed a s o l u t i o n t o the problem o f l o n e l i n e s s f o r many o f the g r e g a r i o u s and s o c i a b l e ,  t h e r e were o t h e r human types  ( f o r example the  Schopenhauer t y p e ) f o r whom s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e and g r e g a r i o u s n e s s , s t i l l more the mass phenomena o f modern s o c i e t y , were e n t i r e l y inadequate.  I n f a c e o f the emergent c o l l e c t i v e f o r c e s o f s o c i e t y  i n d i v i d u a l s o f t h i s t y p e became i n c r e a s i n g l y aware o f the v a l u e o f man's i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e ,  and as the c o n f l i c t between mass  s o c i e t y and the i n d i v i d u a l became i n c r e a s i n g l y apparent i t was o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t they s h o u l d w i t h d r a w more and more i n t o themselves. The f o r c e s o f c o l l e c t i v i s m were a l s o t o be d i s c e r n e d i n p h i l o s o p h y a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n the  13 thought o f H e g e l , the l a s t o f the g r e a t c l a s s i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s to c o n s t r u c t an i n t e l l e c t u a l system i n w h i c h ^ a l l a s p e c t s o f  indi-  v i d u a l and s o c i a l l i f e and o f s p i r i t u a l and m a t e r i a l r e a l i t y a r e t a k e n u p , made r a t i o n a l and harmonious, and j u s t i f i e d , and i n w h i c h one t r u t h i s p r o v i d e d f o r the w o r l d . f o r the theme o f aloneness relatedness  Hegel's  significance  i s t h a t he r e i n t r o d u c e s harmony and  i n t o the l i f e o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n s o c i e t y and the  w o r l d and between s p i r i t u a l and m a t e r i a l r e a l i t y .  In h i s i d e a -  l i s t system the b o u n d a r i e s o f the s p i r i t u a l and e x t e r n a l w o r l d s and the s e p a r a t i o n between the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s s o c i e t y  are  overcome because t h e y have the same o r i g i n ; t h i s o r i g i n i s  spiri-  t u a l because, as an i d e a l i s t , H e g e l m a i n t a i n s t h e r e can be no r e a l i t y independent o f mind; a t the o r i g i n o f a l l r e a l i t y , mind o r m a t t e r ,  there i s thought,  The i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ,  whether  the " i d e a , " a s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y .  society,  o f the d i a l e c t i c a l , l o g i c a l , n e c e s s a r y , i n g o f the i d e a i n the " W e l t p r o z e s s . "  and the w o r l d a r e a l l p a r t and p r e d e t e r m i n e d u n f o l d The s e p a r a t i o n between  i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y i s overcome and harmony and  relatedness  r e e s t a b l i s h e d between them i n H e g e l ' s system, because the d u a l f i n d s i n the l i f e , a c t i v i t i e s ,  the  indivi-  i n s t i t u t i o n s , and d e s t i n y o f  h i s s o c i e t y " . . . a c o n c r e t e u n i v e r s a l l i f e a k i n t o h i s own and a p p e a l i n g to i t w i t h w h i c h t o i n c o r p o r a t e h i m s e l f .  . . .  For  H e g e l . . • the s e p a r a t i o n o f man and the w o r l d . . . can be h e a l e d because the i d e a l and the a c t u a l a r e r e c o n c i l e d i n the l i f e o f a p e o p l e w h i c h i s a c o n c r e t e u n i v e r s a l to w h i c h the  life  o f the i n d i v i d u a l can be a s s i m i l a t e d and i n w h i c h i t i s consummated . .  The h i s t o r y o f s o c i e t y and the w o r l d i s the u n f o l d i n g  o f the i d e a , o f w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l i s a p a r t , so t h a t he  14 becomes i d e n t i f i e d and  consummated t h r o u g h The  on  and r e c o n c i l e d w i t h  consequent  them.  harmony and r e l a t e d n e s s  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e a l i z a t i o n  number o f c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s , belief  that  the State  individual's great  value  society, only  "Weltprozess."  The l i b e r t y  the world  principles,  H i s t o r y , as i t had  n o t h a v e happened  i t became a v a s t  philosophers  i s subordinated  and h i s t o r y .  H e g e l overcomes p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y t h e i s o l a t i o n  things which prepresses novel Die gestohlene are  as  and d e s c r i b e s  order  aspect  individuality.  sources  reality.  to a c o l -  although  of individual view o f  I n t h e c l o s i n g pages o f h i s  f o r a slogan  for"ein  heutiges  s o c i e t y , because o f i t s c o l l e c t i v e C l e a r l y there  t o Hegel's view o f s o c i e t y w i t h  and t h e s u b o r d i n a t i o n  lective  Thus,  o n l y by assuming a c o l l e c t i v e  " e i n menschenunwUrdiges A m e i s e n d a s e i n . " ^  ant-like  almost  M e l o d i e N o s s a c k i n d i c a t e s t h a t H e g e l o r Marx  t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e  Kollektiv"  force  dif-  The i n d i v i d u a l i s m a n d s u b j e c t i v i t y  o f human l i f e  he c a n do t h i s  because  h i s s p i r i t with the  process.  happening, c o u l d  o f e a r l i e r German i d e a l i s t  existence,  and t h a t t h e  o f the i n d i v i d u a l and i n d i v i d u a l i t y  o f human b e i n g s .  conception  Hegel's  o f s o c i e t y and p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e  f e r e n t l y and i n H e g e l ' s thought  lective  i t s parts.  between c i t i z e n and  the i n d i v i d u a l a l i g n  spirit  happened a n d was s t i l l  links  and c o l l e c t i v i s t  were not t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h  independent  than  i s t o be a member o f i t l e d h i m t o p l a c e  loyalties,  but greater  dependent  society, the t o t a l i t y of a  i s greater  on o r g a n i z a t i o n , c l o s e  i n t h i s way c o u l d  kindred  that  i s , however,  i s supreme i n human a f f a i r s  supreme d u t y  group  h i s s o c i e t y and t h e w o r l d  o f the i n d i v i d u a l  aspects, i s an  i t s emphasis on  to a greater  col-  15 H e g e l ' s c o l l e c t i v i s t system was a t t a c k e d  i n the  c e n t u r y by Soren K i e r k e g a a r d and F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e , whom a f f i r m e d i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e  against  m a t e l y t o t a l i t a r i a n i n t e l l e c t u a l systems. t i o n between man and s o c i e t y ,  nineteenth both of  c o l l e c t i v i s t and u l t i F o r b o t h , the  separa-  man and the w o r l d , i s a d e f i n i t i v e  p a r t o f the human c o n d i t i o n , and t o a b o l i s h t h i s s e p a r a t i o n an a b s o l u t e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f the two i s t o deny the v e r y of personal existence.  through  basis  I n s o f a r as b o t h t a k e the e x i s t e n c e  of  i n d i v i d u a l as t h e i r s t a r t i n g p o i n t t h e y a r e e x i s t e n t i a l i s t s  the  and  as such they cannot a c c e p t H e g e l ' s s o l u t i o n f o r two main r e a s o n s . Firstly,  h i s t o r y and s o c i e t y a r e the q u a n t i t a t i v e  factual  out-  come o f a l l the i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n s o f o t h e r p e o p l e i n the  past  and can have no a p r i o r i v a l i d i t y o r a u t h o r i t y f o r any p a r t i c u l a r e x i s t i n g i n d i v i d u a l u n l e s s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l chooses t o g i v e them such.  And s e c o n d l y ,  human knowledge o f the " W e l t p r o z e s s "  o n l y o f p a r t i a l knowledge o f the p a s t and p r e s e n t ;  consists  the f u t u r e  re-  mains c o m p l e t e l y open, unknown, and unknowable. F o r K i e r k e g a a r d the a b s u r d i t y o f H e g e l ' s p o s i t i o n was apparent:  o n l y from a p o i n t o u t s i d e o f e x i s t e n c e w o u l d i t be  p o s s i b l e t o s u r v e y the t o t a l i t y o f e x i s t e n c e ; i n the w o r l d p r o c e s s process,  from a p o i n t w i t h -  the i n d i v i d u a l need not deny the w o r l d  but i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r him t o s u r v e y i t .  w i t h K i e r k e g a a r d p h i l o s o p h y i s no l o n g e r a system.  Accordingly, The very  t i t l e s o f h i s w o r k s , E i t h e r - O r , P h i l o s o p h i c a l Fragments, C o n c l u d i n g U n s c i e n t i f i c P o s t s c r i p t , F e a r and T r e m b l i n g , i n themselves imply a negation of Hegel's r a t i o n a l i s t system.  K i e r k e g a a r d opposed o b j e c t i v e  intellectual  system b u i l d i n g as b e i n g  16 e s s e n t i a l l y a s e l f - d e c e i v i n g escape from the r e a l problems o f individual existence.  The o n l y t r u e c o n c e r n o f p h i l o s o p h y was  the t h i n k e r ' s p e r s o n a l e x i s t e n c e .  In c o n t r a s t t o H e g e l  K i e r k e g a a r d s p i r i t u a l i z e d and i n t e r n a l i z e d the i n d i v i d u a l ; i n d i v i d u a l can o n l y be known from w i t h i n ,  the  not from w i t h o u t ;  each i n d i v i d u a l i s i s o l a t e d and c o m p e l l e d t o e x i s t  for himself;  even a C h r i s t i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n i s i n K i e r k e g a a r d ' s v i e w , a t i d e a l l y , n o t h i n g more than a number o f i n d i v i d u a l s o u l s  least  living  by anguished p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n i n the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . K i e r k e g a a r d was a c u t e l y aware o f the contempt o f h i s age the i n d i v i d u a l man.  for  L i k e Schopenhauer he saw t h a t i t was the  f e a r o f aloneness w h i c h d r i v e s man t o g e t h e r  in society:  Deep w i t h i n e v e r y human b e i n g t h e r e s t i l l l i v e s the a n x i e t y over the p o s s i b i l i t y o f b e i n g a l o n e i n the w o r l d , f o r g o t t e n by God, o v e r l o o k e d among the m i l l i o n s and m i l l i o n s i n t h i s enormous h o u s e h o l d . One keeps t h i s a n x i e t y at a d i s t a n c e by l o o k i n g a t t h e many round about who a r e r e l a t e d t o him as k i n and f r i e n d s , b u t the a n x i e t y i s s t i l l t h e r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , and one h a r d l y dares t h i n k o f how he would f e e l i f a l l t h i s were t a k e n away. 7 But K i e r k e g a a r d h i m s e l f was p r e p a r e d t o assume the burden o f f e a r and a l o n e n e s s ,  and r e b u f f H e g e l a t the same t i m e :  The more the c o l l e c t i v e i d e a comes t o dominate even the o r d i n a r y c o n s c i o u s n e s s , the more f o r b i d d i n g seems the t r a n s i t i o n t o becoming a p a r t i c u l a r e x i s t i n g human b e i n g i n s t e a d o f l o s i n g o n e s e l f i n the a l l , and s a y i n g "we, o u r age, the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y " . That i t i s a l i t t l e t h i n g m e r e l y t o be a p a r t i c u l a r e x i s t i n g human b e i n g i s not t o be d e n i e d ; but f o r t h i s v e r y reason i t r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s i g n a t i o n not t o make l i g h t o f i t . F o r what does a mere i n d i v i d u a l count f o r ? Our age knows o n l y too w e l l how l i t t l e i t i s , but here a l s o l i e s the s p e c i f i c i m m o r a l i t y o f the age. . . . a d i s s o l u t e p a n t h e i s t i c contempt f o r the i n d i v i d u a l man. I n t h e m i d s t o f a l l o u r e x u l t a t i o n o v e r the achievements o f the age and the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e r e sounds a note o f p o o r l y c o n c e i v e d  17 contempt f o r the i n d i v i d u a l man; i n the m i d s t o f the s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e o f the contemporary g e n e r a t i o n t h e r e i s r e v e a l e d a sense o f d e s p a i r over b e i n g human. E v e r y t h i n g has t o a t t a c h i t s e l f so as t o b e a p a r t o f some movement; men a r e d e t e r m i n e d t o l o s e thems e l v e s i n the t o t a l i t y o f t h i n g s , i n w o r l d h i s t o r y , f a s c i n a t e d and d e c e i v e d by a magic w i t c h e r y ; no one wants t o be an i n d i v i d u a l human b e i n g . Hence perhaps the many attempts t o c o n t i n u e t o c l i n g t o H e g e l , even by men who have reached an i n s i g h t i n t o the q u e s t i o n able character of h i s philosophy. I t i s a fear that i f they were t o become p a r t i c u l a r e x i s t i n g human b e i n g s they w o u l d v a n i s h t r a c e l e s s l y , so t h a t not even the d a i l y p r e s s would be a b l e t o d i s c o v e r them, s t i l l l e s s c r i t i c a l j o u r n a l s , t o say n o t h i n g a t a l l o f s p e c u l a t i v e p h i l o s o p h e r s immersed i n w o r l d - h i s t o r y . As p a r t i c u l a r human b e i n g s they f e a r t h a t t h e y w i l l be doomed t o a more i s o l a t e d and f o r g o t t e n e x i s t e n c e than t h a t o f a man i n the c o u n t r y ; f o r i f a man l e t s go o f H e g e l he w i l l not even be i n a p o s i t i o n t o have a l e t t e r addressed t o h i m . 8 Though K i e r k e g a a r d i s nowhere mentioned by Nossack as a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e , K i e r k e g a a r d ' s defence o f the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s d e s i r e t o l i b e r a t e the i n d i v i d u a l from the c o l l e c t i v e t e n d e n c i e s o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a r e r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r t o N o s s a c k ' s c o n c e r n i n the t w e n t i e t h . too,  I n the same sense N i e t z s c h e ,  i s a f o r e r u n n e r o f Nossack; he, t o o , r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t  mass t e n d e n c i e s o f the t i m e , a g a i n s t systems,  the  categorizations,  and dogmas, w h i c h he opposed t o v i t a l i s m , l i f e , and the r e a l i t y o f human e x p e r i e n c e and needs.  L i k e Schopenhauer and K i e r k e g a a r d ,  he, t o o , was a s o l i t a r y f i g u r e i n h i s o p p o s i t i o n t o the m a t e r i a l i s t i c c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y o f h i s day.  He saw modern democracy  as an i n s i d i o u s l y l e v e l l i n g tendency and he i n d u l g e d , Kierkegaard,  like  i n humorous s n i p i n g a t H e g e l and the p o p u l a r i z a t i o n  o f h i s p h i l o s o p h y o f c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n i n the Unzeitgeireisse Betrachtungen.  H e g e l ' s j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f the n e c e s s i t y and u n i -  v e r s a l i t y o f phenomena and the whole c o u r s e o f h i s t o r y u n t i l  its  18  pinnacle  i n the P r u s s i a n s t a t e i s seen as c y n i c i s m , a r i s i n g  necessity,  and compounded by the s i d e - e f f e c t s  contemporary  from  o f D a r w i n i s m and  b i o l o g i c a l thought w h i c h see human h i s t o r y not  only  as a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h a t o f p l a n t s and a n i m a l s , but a l s o as a kind of progression  towards  vollendete  He condemns  Natur."  a n e c e s s a r y and u l t i m a t e g o a l , the H e g e l i a n s l o g a n o f " d i e  Hingabe d e r P e r s B n l i c h k e i t an den W e l t p r o z e s s " same c y n i c i s m , c o n f o r m i s t ,  individual:  o f an " E r d f l o h . "  da doch reden  jeder, ehrlicherweise, 9 sollte!"  Apparent a l s o t o the r e j e c t i o n Nietzsche's  Against  it  die  n u r von Mensch, Mensch, Mensch  o f the c o l l e c t i v e  Betrachtungen,  in addition  t e n d e n c i e s o f the t i m e ,  is  lack of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l relatedness to  Second Empire and h i s contempt i n the F r a n c o - P r u s s i a n War.  he  W e l t , W e l t , W e l t hBren mlisste,  i n the Unzeitgemasse  complete  this  which  "Wenn man nur n i c h t ewig  H y p e r b e l a l l e r H y p e r b e l n , das W o r t :  voile  as a p h r a s e o f  u n t h i n k i n g , and c o l l e c t i v e ,  reduces man t o the i n s i g n i f i c a n c e upholds the s i n g l e  "die  f o r i t s smugness a f t e r  the  the victory  The v i c t o r y i s seen as a m i l i t a r y ,  not  as a c u l t u r a l v i c t o r y ; German c u l t u r e i s o v e r r u n w i t h " B i l d u n g s p h i l i s t e r , " pompous and c o n c e i t e d t o a r t i s t i c s e n s i b i l i t y and c u l t u r e .  in their  Creative  t h e s e p h i l i s t i n e s r e s t on the c u l t u r a l l a u r e l s p a r t i c u l a r o f German C l a s s i c i s m , s e n t i a l searching  q u a l i t y o f the  pretensions  eunuchs  themselves,  o f the p a s t ,  overlooking completely  the  latter:  Was u r t e i l t aber unsere P h i l i s t e r b i l d u n g l i b e r d i e s e Suchenden? S i e nimmt s i e e i n f a c h a I s Findende und s c h e i n t z u v e r g e s s e n , dass j e n e s e l b s t s i c h nur a l s Suchende f l i h l t e n . W i r haben j a u n s e r e K u l t u r , h e i s s t es dann, denn w i r haben j a u n s e r e " K l a s s i k e r " , das Fundament i s t n i c h t nur d a , n e i n , auch d e r Bau s t e h t schon a u f ihm g e g r i l n d e t r , w i r . s e l b s t : s i n d d i e s e r Bau. D a b e i j g r e i f t d e r P h i l i s t e r an d i e e i g e n e S t i r n . 10  in es-  19 A sense o f c u l t u r a l decay, s o c i e t y are a kind o f facade own,  lacking  search  e a r l y work o v e r  a l l values.  tion  o f man  gregarious,  led Nietzsche  o f m o r a l s and h i s c a l l The l e v e l l i n g  to the s i m i l a r ,  before.  The p e r p e t u a l  has t o be c o n t i n u e d , This  new  values  into his  f o r the t r a n s v a l u a t i o n  tendencies  o f the time,  the o r d i n a r y , the average,  t h e i g n o b l e and communal  years  reflected in  two g e n e r a t i o n s  have t o be s o u g h t and c r e a t e d .  of  are questionable or  are clearly  o f t h e German C l a s s i c i s t s  immense c r i t i q u e  of t h e i r  t h a t were t o t r o u b l e N o s s a c k i n t h e e a r l y  the twentieth century--these  Nietzsche's  t h a t c u l t u r e and  any i n n a t e v i t a l i t y  even t h a t s o c i e t y ' s e t h i c a l s t a n d a r d s  fallacious--things of  the f e e l i n g  ("ins Gemeine")  the evoluthe had t o be  r e v e r s e d b y man's r e a s s u m i n g h i s i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and freedom.  Nietzsche  intentionally  exploits  German w o r d " d a s Gemeine," r e f e r r i n g  the ambivalence o f the  t o t h e communal and t h e  s o c i a l b u t a l s o t o t h e common, low, and i g n o b l e . dous i n d u s t r i a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y  both  O p t i m i s m u s " saw t h e s o c i a l poverty blissful lying  or privation  upsurge o f the l a t t e r part o f  seemed e m i n e n t l y  possible.  i d e a l o f a near-utopian  as a l m o s t  w i t h i n i t s grasp.  N i e t z s c h e ' s work i s t h e r e a l  fear that  "Blirgerlicher  s o c i e t y without A permanently  s o c i e t y i s somewhat d u b i o u s even a s an i d e a l ,  modern i d e a s and t e c h n i c a l s u c c e s s kind  W i t h the tremen-  but under-  i t i s possible, "that  . . . threatened  t o r e d u c e man-  t o a common l e v e l o f green-meadow g r e g a r i o u s n e s s ,  contentment,  12  l  ease,  security, The  and b o v i n e  mediocrity."  same t h r e a t was p e r c e i v e d  m e n t o r D o s t o y e v s k y who  doubted  i n R u s s i a by Nossack's  i f such  ponded t o human needs and f e e l i n g s ;  a Utopia r e a l l y  early  corres-  he was aware a l s o o f t h e  20  dangerous d e p e r s o n a l i z i n g t e n d e n c i e s o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y o f masses and machines and t o t a l p l a n n i n g o f a l l spheres o f l i f e by a l l - r a t i o n a l i z i n g i d e o l o g i e s and dogmas. Nossack r e f e r s  t o the p o r t r a i t w h i c h Dostoyevsky g i v e s i n The  Possessed o f a f u n c t i o n a r y , o f an e a r l y  "apparatchik":  . . . i n den Besessenen g i b t uns D o s t o j e w s k i d i e p r o p h e t i s c h e K a r i k a t u r e i n e s F u n k t i o n U r s . Dazu war e i n e genaue K e n n t n i s d e r v o r m a r x i s t i s c h e n Tendenzen n B t i g , aber es geht D o s t o j e w s k i im Grunde n i c h t um P o l i t i k . . . sondern um M i t l e i d m i t dem Menschen, d e r aus Mangel an I n d i v i d u a l i t & t e i n e r I d e o l o g i e oder einem Dogma K b r i g w i r d und dadurch zum t r a g i k o m i s c h e n , a b s t r a k t e n Wesen v e r z e r r t w i r d , das man n i c h t einitial mehr s c h u l d i g nennen kann. E i n s e h r a k t u e l l e s Problem . . . 13 In L e t t e r s from the Underworld (1864) Dostoyevsky a g a i n s t the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ' s  protests  n a i v e and o p t i m i s t i c v i s i o n s  o f the f u t u r e and the r a t i o n a l i d e o l o g i e s on w h i c h they were based.  He was nauseated by the m a t e r i a l i s t and p o s i t i v i s t r e p -  r e s e n t a t i o n o f the u n i v e r s e as a f r i c t i o n - f r e e c l o c k w o r k mechanism and i r r i t a t e d by the w i d e s p r e a d and u n q u e s t i o n i n g acceptance o f the i d e a s o f U t o p i a n s o c i a l i s t t h i n k e r s such as w h i c h he c o n s i d e r e d smug and f a c i l e . Underworld he a t t a c k s  Chernyshevsky,  In L e t t e r s from the  the C r y s t a l P a l a c e ,  the V i c t o r i a n symbol o f  the man-made s o c i a l i s t o r h u m a n i t a r i a n U t o p i a , on grounds s i m i l a r t o those used by Nossack i n h i s c r i t i q u e o f the modern s o c i a l state,  namely t h a t man i s a f i c k l e c r e a t u r e who cannot be r a t i o n a l -  i z e d and who t h e r e f o r e c o u l d never l i v e i n any e d i f i c e based c l u s i v e l y on r e a s o n .  H i s a n t i - h e r o , the a n t i t h e s i s o f  f u n c t i o n a r y i n The P o s s e s s e d , proclaims .  ex-  the  and a man a f t e r N o s s a c k s own h e a r t , 1  that:  . . always and everywhere  . . . man l i v e s t o a c t as he  21  l i k e s , and not n e c e s s a r i l y as reason and s e l f i n t e r e s t would have him do. Yes, he w i l l even act s t r a i g h t a g a i n s t h i s own i n t e r e s t s . . . . H i s own w i l l , f r e e and u n f e t t e r e d ; h i s own untutored whims; h i s own f a n c i e s , sometimes amounting almost to a madness—here we have that . . . which enters i n t o no c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , which f o r e v e r consigns systems and t h e o r i e s t o the d e v i l . 14 Dostoyevsky then,  l i k e Nossack, r e a l i z e s the inherent  intract-  a b i l i t y o f human e x i s t e n c e t h a t c o n s t a n t l y d e f e a t s attempts t o c r e a t e the p e r f e c t s o c i a l system and champions i n d i v i d u a l values against c o l l e c t i v e organization. Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard,  In t h i s he i s a t one w i t h  and N i e t z s c h e , but i n the age of the  I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n they were f i g h t i n g v e r y much a g a i n s t the stream o f developments i n i n d u s t r y , economics, technology,  science,  p o l i t i c a l thought, and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Before the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n most people were born, l i v e d , worked, and d i e d i n s m a l l communities to which they had strong t i e s .  E v e r y t h i n g was on a s m a l l s c a l e and there were no  l a r g e impersonal  i n s t i t u t i o n s such as f a c t o r i e s and tenements.  P o l i t i c a l and l e g a l power l a y , g e n e r a l l y speaking, o f v i s i b l e l o c a l people; traditions  i n the hands  l i f e was very much governed by communal  which had developed  without  conscious  design over the  c e n t u r i e s i n response t o human needs, so t h a t people were not c o n s t r i c t e d by the s u p e r - o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the modern i n d u s t r i a l state. With the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n the p a t t e r n changed d r a s t i c a l l y . There was an u p r o o t i n g o f v i l l a g e communities as men and t h e i r f a m i l i e s sought jobs i n f a c t o r i e s i n the c i t i e s . sense o f a l i e n a t i o n r e s u l t e d as man was uprooted  A widespread from h i s t r a d i -  t i o n a l p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l environment and as the c o m p e t i t i v e  22  c a p i t a l i s t market system,  backed by s c i e n c e  and  technology,  g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s w i t h more a r t i f i c i a l and l e s s human o n e s . environment,  The c a p i t a l i s t system r e d e f i n e d man's  and p r o g r e s s i v e l y  even h i s c u l t u r e as  w h i c h can be bought and s o l d f o r money. nation of science  labour,  commodities  A second f o r c e ,  and t e c h n o l o g y , a s s e r t e d  a combi-  t h a t a l l economic  activity  be c a r r i e d on i n the manner w h i c h i s t e c h n i c a l l y and s c i e n t i f i c a l l y most e f f i c i e n t .  Thus t h e r e a r o s e such t y p i c a l l y modern phenomena  as d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r , m e c h a n i z a t i o n ,  and mass p r o d u c t i o n .  Man  h i m s e l f was not a unique i n d i v i d u a l but a mere cog i n the machine o f p r o d u c t i o n and c o n s u m p t i o n , o r a s o c i a l q u o t i e n t , N o s s a c k ' s p h r a s e ; monetary,  technical,  t o use  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  considera-  t i o n s r u l e d man, not h i s i n n e r needs. Thus the I n d u s t r i a l ^ e v o l u t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d impersonal forces of o r g a n i z a t i o n , technology,  science,  organization.  the v i c t o r y o f  planning, efficiency,  economics,  and the c o l l e c t i v i s m o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  T h i s v e r y c o l l e c t i v i s m o b v i o u s l y possessed an a p -  p e a l f o r t h o s e w i t h pronounced s o c i a l needs, who were a b l e participate  the  to  i n a s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f t o g e t h e r n e s s as  they  a l i g n e d themselves w i t h new s o c i a l c l a s s e s and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . However,  f o r a r t i s t s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s w i t h a pronounced sense o f  i n d i v i d u a l i t y the new c o l l e c t i v e  tendencies  and m a c h i n e - r a t i o n a l i t y  o f the age were bound t o be q u i t e a l i e n and c o u l d o f f e r  nofcsatis-  f a c t i o n f o r t h e i r r e a l i n d i v i d u a l needs. Such i n d i v i d u a l s were r e p u l s e d by another, r e l a t e d i d e a u n d e r l a y much o f the s c i e n t i f i c age:  and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  that  thought o f  the i d e a t h a t man, f a r from c o n t r o l l i n g and d e t e r m i n i n g ,  the was  23 c o n t r o l l e d and d e t e r m i n e d i n t h r e e b a s i c areas o f h i s in biology,  existence,  i n h i s t o r y and economics, and i n the human mind;  and t h a t f u r t h e r m o r e man had t o be s t u d i e d i n c o l l e c t i v e  terms.  The t h e o r i e s o f D a r w i n , Marx, and Freud a r e a l l based on d e t e r m i n i s t i c and c o l l e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e s and as such had r e v o l u t i o n a r y i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the concept o f man h e l d up t o t h a t t i m e . Darwin's O r i g i n of Species  (1859) r e p l a c e d the concept o f  the  f i x i t y o f s p e c i e s and the G e n e s i s account o f c r e a t i o n w i t h the t h e o r y o f e v o l u t i o n by n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n t o e x p l a i n by c a u s a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n the d i f f e r e n c e s o f each t o i t s e n v i r o n m e n t .  between s p e c i e s and the a d a p t a t i o n Both the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n and the  h u m a n i s t i c view o f man as an i n d i v i d u a l l y e x i s t i n g s p i r i t u a l being suffered.  The whole time s c a l e o f human h i s t o r y and man's  e n t i r e p o s i t i o n i n the w o r l d and the u n i v e r s e were changed; man was no l o n g e r the l o w e s t o f the a n g e l s but the h i g h e s t o f the monkeys.  Furthermore h i s s p e c i f i c a l l y moral experience,  previous-  l y thought t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e man from t h e a n i m a l s , c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d t h r o u g h e v o l u t i o n p r e c i s e l y i n terms o f the s o c i a l i n s t i n c t s and herd m e n t a l i t y o f a n i m a l s , t h a t i s , i n terms o f collective realities.  Darwin c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h i s s o c i a l i n s t i n c t  was the ground out o f w h i c h man's m o r a l sense a r o s e , s o c i a l i n s t i n c t , according to Darwin's theory,  and the  arose p r i m a r i l y  out o f the need f o r s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the s p e c i e s i n f a c e o f a h o s t i l e enemy. The more e l e v a t e d h u m a n i s t i c v i e w o f man s u f f e r e d  from  D a r w i n i s m , yet N o s s a c k ' s comments on D a r w i n i s m r e v e a l t h a t i t had p r e c i s e l y f o r t h i s reason a great appeal to nineteenth century  24 b o u r g e o i s o p t i m i s m and c o l l e c t i v e modern c a p i t a l i s m .  Both r e -  c e i v e d s u p p o r t from the D a r w i n i a n b e l i e f t h a t l i f e was a c o n s t a n t struggle  i n w h i c h the weak went under and the s t r o n g t h r i v e d and  i t s c o n f i r m a t i o n o f the p o s i t i v i s t and m a t e r i a l i s t b e l i e f t h i n g s were g e t t i n g b e t t e r a l l the t i m e .  that  Nossack sees the  h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y as the " Z e i t des  first  beginnenden  b t t r g e r l i c h e n Optimismus": I n demselben b l l r g e r l i c h e n B e t t wurden dann . . . Das K a p i t a l von Marx und . . . s p S t e r D i e W e l t r & t s e l von H a e c k e l g e z e u g t . Was w i r t e c h n i s c E ^ s o z i a l und w i r t s c h a f t l i c h e r r e i c h t haben, i s t d i e s em b l i r g e r l i c h e n N l i t z l i c h k e i t s d e n k e n z u verdanken, dessen n a i v e K r a f t d a r i n l a g , dass ihm d e r Z w e i f e l an s i c h s e l b s t versagt war. 15 Significantly,  Nossack l i n k s E r n s t H a e c k e l , D a r w i n ' s  p o p u l a r i z e r i n Germany, w i t h Marx.  I n Darwin Marx found c o n f i r m a -  t i o n o f h i s emphasis on c l a s s c o n f l i c t and the s t r u g g l e contradictory forces, determined.  the e v e n t u a l outcome o f w h i c h was p r e -  Marx b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s e c o n t r a d i c t o r y  operated e s s e n t i a l l y  between  forces  i n the sphere o f economic p r o d u c t i o n .  He  r e t a i n e d H e g e l ' s d i a l e c t i c a l framework and l i k e H e g e l a t t r i b u t e d p r i m a c y t o c o l l e c t i v i s t r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l m o r a l i t y , m o r a l i t y b e i n g s i m p l y the m o r a l i t y o f the r u l i n g c l a s s and s e r v i n g interests  of that c l a s s .  the  U n l i k e H e g e l he was a m a t e r i a l i s t ,  he shared H e g e l ' s c o l l e c t i v i s t o u t l o o k :  he d i d not b e l i e v e  but that  i d e a s o r a c t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d i n the long run i n f l u e n c e  the  c o u r s e o f w o r l d h i s t o r y , w h i c h was t o be u n d e r s t o o d i n terms o f the o p e r a t i o n o f v a s t economic f o r c e s beyond i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r o l . I n h i s s t u d y o f the human mind F r e u d , l i k e the two e a r l i e r t h i n k e r s , was a d e t e r m i n i s t and t h r o u g h h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f man's  25 m e n t a l l i f e i n terms o f f i x e d , u n i v e r s a l p a t t e r n s he was, them, a c o l l e c t i v e s t .  like  L i k e them, he c o n t r i b u t e d t o the d e s p i r i -  t u a l i z a t i o n o f man t h r o u g h h i s m a t e r i a l i s t , d e t e r m i n i s t , and c o l l e c t i v i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f man's m e n t a l l i f e .  In p a r t i c u l a r  he d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a g r e a t p a r t o f man's m e n t a l l i f e t a k e s  place  on an u n c o n s c i o u s l e v e l and t h a t i n the u n c o n s c i o u s t h e r e a r e drives,  i n s t i n c t s , and r e p r e s s e d w i s h e s beyond man's c o n s c i o u s ,  r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l , so t h a t man's mind was o f t e n not even master i n i t s own house. A l l t h e s e new developments society, reflected  biology,  i n the spheres o f the new i n d u s t r i a l  h i s t o r y and economics, and p s y c h o l o g y were  i n l i t e r a t u r e toward the end o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y  i n the emergence o f N a t u r a l i s m .  I t was the r e s u l t o f the s o c i a l  developments accompanying the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n , an i n c r e a s e d a p p l i c a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c methods, a growing i n t e r e s t i n p s y c h o l o g y , and an i n c r e a s e d awareness material,  o f the e x t e n t t o w h i c h b i o l o g i c a l ,  s o c i a l , and economic f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n e d human l i f e - - i n  s h o r t , a new awareness  o f the e f f e c t s o f h e r e d i t y and environment.  In the works o f the German N a t u r a l i s t s the power o f the and p r e s e n t  ( i n the form o f h e r e d i t y and environment)  past  over  i n d i v i d u a l s i s g e n e r a l l y seen as d e c i s i v e and i n drama t h e r e u s u a l l y no attempt t o a p p o r t i o n t r a g i c g u i l t among the  is  characters  as i n c l a s s i c a l t r a g e d y because i n the main they do not possess the p r e r e q u i s i t e power and freedom o f w i l l .  As a r e s u l t of  p r o g r e s s i v e d e s p i r i t u a l i z a t i o n o f man the c h a r a c t e r s  the  of N a t u r a l i s t  drama l a c k what had always been regarded as a n e c e s s a r y dimension o f human d i g n i t y .  But s o c i e t y too i s p o r t r a y e d as h a v i n g become  26  u n d i g n i f i e d and u g l y and, whereas e a r l i e r c l a s s i c a l dramas had i l l u s t r a t e d the t r a g i c t r a n s g r e s s i o n o f immutable m o r a l laws w h i c h s u s t a i n e d an e s s e n t i a l l y j u s t s o c i e t y and w o r l d o r d e r , c l e a r t h r u s t o f N a t u r a l i s t dramas i s t h a t s o c i e t y  itself  become o p p r e s s i v e and i n i m i c a l t o the i n d i v i d u a l . protest  against  the  has  A clear  an i n c r e a s i n g l y p r o b l e m a t i c a l s o c i e t y  i s to be  seen i n the N a t u r a l i s t dramas o f G e r h a r t Hauptmann w h i c h d e p i c t the d i s a g r e e a b l e  and even s o r d i d n a t u r e o f  i n d u s t r i a l society w i t h i t s poverty, prostitution,  contemporary  starvation,  alcoholism,  slu ms, e x p l o i t a t i o n , and o p p r e s s i o n .  ingly problematical society  This  i n Hauptmann's works b l o c k s  increasman's  e n t r y i n t o a h i g h e r , p u r e r r e a l m i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the w o r l d o f m a t e r i a l i s m and d e t e r m i n i s m .  Hauptmann's b e l i e f  i n the d i g n i t y  o f man l e d him t o r e a l i z e the need not j u s t f o r m a t e r i a l improvement, b u t f o r a h i g h e r l i f e i n a s p i r i t u a l o r m e t a p h y s i c a l s e n s e . ?  T h i s same need informs the German E x p r e s s i o n i s t movement  w h i c h swept Germany i n N o s s a c k ' s 1901.)  formative years.  (He was born i n  The E x p r e s s i o n i s t s - - i n c o n t r a s t t o the N a t u r a l i s t s — e m p h a -  s i z e d the supremacy o f s p i r i t o v e r m a t t e r ,  and man was no l o n g e r ,  as i n N a t u r a l i s m , the mere p r o d u c t o f h i s environment, whose was determined by f o r c e s beyond h i s c o n t r o l .  life  Man h i m s e l f was  c a p a b l e o f t r a n s f o r m i n g the w o r l d a c c o r d i n g t o the i n n e r v i s i o n o f h i s s p i r i t and thus w i t h the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r concern w i t h s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n  than w i t h e x a c t p o r t r a y a l o f  reality.  Though t h e r e a r e themes o f u g l y a s p e c t s o f modern c i v i l i z a t i o n , o f the c i t y ,  o f the machine, o f the p l i g h t o f the w o r k i n g c l a s s ,  these a r e p o r t r a y e d not f o r t h e i r own sake but as symptoms o f a  27  c o r r u p t w o r l d o r d e r from w h i c h man has t o break away i n a quest f o r a h i g h e r form o f l i f e .  I n E x p r e s s i o n i s m the u n i t y between man  and h i s s o c i o - c u l t u r a l environment i s once a g a i n s e v e r e d .  The  c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l and the community i s c e n t r a l the E x p r e s s i o n i s t movement, t r o p h e and a p o c a l y p s e .  as i s a f e e l i n g o f impending c a t a s -  But though the u n i t y between man and  contemporaryTSociety and c u l t u r e i s  and h i s f e l l o w men are r e a f f i r m e d , w i l l be a m o r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n w o r l d , governed by l o v e , w i l l Consequently cultural,  to  severed, the t i e s between man  for after  the apocalypse  there  o f the whole human r a c e and a new arise.  the i d e a o f the u l t i m a t e p e r s o n a l ,  socio-  and s p i r i t u a l a l o n e n e s s o f man, c e n t r a l not o n l y t o  N o s s a c k ' s work but t o modern e x i s t e n t i a l i s t much t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y l i t e r a t u r e , mainstream o f E x p r e s s i o n i s m .  p h i l o s o p h y and so  does not c h a r a c t e r i z e  the  Both E x i s t e n t i a l i s m and E x p r e s s i o n i s m  do however d i s p l a y the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  inward t u r n i n g w h i c h  can be t r a c e d back i n p h i l o s o p h y t o Immanuel Kant and the German Idealist philosophies.  In K a n t ' s p h i l o s o p h y t h e r e i s a  from c e r t a i n t y about the o b j e c t i v e  retreat  r e a l i t y o f the e x t e r n a l w o r l d .  He showed the dependence o f o u r knowledge  o f the r e a l i t y o f  e x t e r n a l w o r l d on the c o n d i t i o n s o f human p e r c e p t i o n :  the  the external  w o r l d i s known o n l y through sense d a t a and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h e s e sense d a t a i n the human m i n d .  I m p l i c i t i n Kant i s  i d e a t h a t the e x t e r n a l w o r l d i s the c o n s t r u c t  the  o f the human mind,  t h a t the o n l y r e a l i t y o f w h i c h we can have d i r e c t knowledge subjective  of  is  the  r e a l i t y o f o u r own m i n d s , and thus one consequence o f  Kantian I d e a l i s t philosophy i s to r e a f f i r m s u b j e c t i v i t y  and  28 i n d i v i d u a l i s m a g a i n s t u n i v e r s a l , c o l l e c t i v e systems, w h i c h i s p r e c i s e l y what o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n the work o f Schopenhauer,  Kierkegaard, Nietzsche,  and D o s t o y e v s k y .  happens a l s o i n the p h i l o s o p h i c a l s u c c e s s o r s  It  o f the l a t t e r ,  modern e x i s t e n t i a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y o f J a s p e r s , H e i d e g g e r ,  i n the  and S a r t r e  who t u r n from the p u b l i c , e x t e r n a l w o r l d t o the p r i v a t e w o r l d o f t h e i r own c o n s c i o u s n e s s . worlds:  There i s no c o n t i n u i t y between the two  the e x i s t e n t i a l i s t p h i l o s o p h e r f i n d s t h a t he cannot be  f u l l y identified with his role in society, o r even h i s own body and c h a r a c t e r .  his actions,  his  past,  I n the d e p t h o f h i s i n n e r  b e i n g he i s s o l i t u d e and l i b e r t y , p o s s i b i l i t i e s and c h o i c e . The inward t u r n o f p h i l o s o p h y i s r e f l e c t e d  in literature,  p a r t i c u l a r i n the n o v e l i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y .  16  Kayser  in  Wolfgang  d i s c e r n s a t r a n s i t i o n from the " t r a d i t i o n a l " n o v e l o f  such w r i t e r s as C e r v a n t e s ,  Henry F i e l d i n g , and W i e l a n d .  Their  work shows an awareness o f the a m b i g u i t y o f language and r e a l i t y , o f the d i s p a r i t y between " S e i n " and " S c h e i n , " and an obvious psychological interest  i n t h a t the c h a r a c t e r s  and d i s t o r t r e a l i t y w i t h t h e i r i l l u s i o n s .  deceive  themselves,  But the a u t h o r s them-  s e l v e s a r e a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h the t r u e n a t u r e o f r e a l i t y because they have a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l o r i e n t a t i o n and so they are able to guide t h e i r characters t h i s knowledge t h e m s e l v e s .  a l o n g the p a t h t o a c h i e v i n g  I n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y ,  however,  K a y s e r sees a c r i s i s o f the n o v e l : Es b e s t e h t e i n M i s s t r a u e n gegen den ' b i s h e r i g e n ' Roman, den ' k o n v e n t i o n e l l e n ' Roman. E r e r s c h e i n t n i c h t mehr a l s echt . . . a l s g e t r e u e r Ausdruck des h e u t i g e n Verba" l t n i s ses zum D a s e i n und S e i n . Ihm i s t . . . eine S i c h e r h e i t e i g e n , d i e n i c h t a l s g U l t i g anerkannt werden  29 kann. Im e i n z e l n e n r i c h t e n s i c h d i e A n g r i f f e gegen . . . d i e Einbeziehung des p e r s B n l i c h e n L e s e r s sowie gegen den b i s h e r e r g r i f f e n e n W e l t g e h a l t (und damit z u g l e i c h gegen d i e Formen, i n denen e r e r f a s s t wurde und d i e a l s Uberholte Konventionen w i r k e n ) . 17 T h i s l a c k o f c e r t a i n t y i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y n o v e l has 18  been e x p l a i n e d by David Daiches lization.  i n terms o f a t r a n s i t i o n a l  civi-  E a r l i e r ages had what Daiches c a l l s a "community o f  b e l i e f , " a g e n e r a l standard o f s i g n i f i c a n c e and common frame o f reference f o r l i f e .  E a r l i e r we spoke o f man's need t o be  r e l a t e d t o such a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n o f shared ideas, v a l u e s , and b e l i e f s , but h i s t o r y r e v e a l s c e r t a i n p e r i o d s when the community of b e l i e f d i s i n t e g r a t e s and a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f p r i v a t e worlds r e p l a c e s the p u b l i c w o r l d .  Daiches  t h i n k s the decay o f uniform  b e l i e f i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y i s t o be e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f the d r y i n g up o f t r a d i t i o n a l sources o f value, the s h a t t e r i n g o f the preconceptions o f our f a t h e r s , along w i t h the f a i l u r e o f new b e l i e f s t o emerge. The r e s u l t i s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i s thrown back upon h i s own i n n e r r e s o u r c e s ; i n the n o v e l the w r i t e r c o n f i n e s the w o r l d to the l i m i t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l mind and assesses value s o l e l y i n terms o f t h a t mind.  The omniscient and omnipotent n a r r a t o r o f the  t r a d i t i o n a l n o v e l d i s a p p e a r s along w i t h the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r e l a t e d ness.  Leon E d e l ^ has p o i n t e d out t h a t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e  o f t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y f i c t i o n i s an inward  t u r n i n g t o convey the  flow o f mental experience i n the form o f i n t e r n a l monologue and stream o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  He c r e d i t s Proust, Dorothy Richardson,  and James Joyce w i t h having c r e a t e d the modem p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r  30 stream o f consciousness All  n o v e l between the years 1913  and  1915.  three turned from e x t e r n a l to i n t e r n a l , s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y ,  a l l three sought t o cope w i t h i n n e r problems and t o r e c o r d the inwardness o f experience, a l l three were e s s e n t i a l l y a u t o b i o g r a p h i cal.  We  have, t h e r e f o r e , i m p l i c i t l y a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t the i d e a  that there i s one v a l i d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f l i f e represented  by  omniscient a u t h o r i a l i n t r u s i o n s and an a s s e r t i o n o f the s u b j e c t i v i t y o f the  individual.  Around 1915  Hans E r i c h Nossack s t a r t e d keeping  record of h i s inner, p r i v a t e world. v a r i e t i e s o f aloneness of how  a journal,  the  Having i n d i c a t e d three  and having p l a c e d the concept  i n some k i n d  h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , the f o l l o w i n g chapters w i l l examine the d e f i n i t i o n o f aloneness  i n i t s v a r i o u s forms a p p l i e s to  Nossack i n h i s l i f e and work and how  he continues the n i n e t e e n t h  c e n t u r y c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l and  the c o l l e c t i v e ,  the  i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y , the p r i v a t e and the p u b l i c . S t a r t i n g w i t h Nossack's e a r l i e s t experiences w i t h i n the p a r e n t a l home, the f i r s t  scene and o c c a s i o n of h i s aloneness,  sequent chapters w i l l d e a l w i t h the " g r e g a r i o u s " aspects of s o c i a l intercourse, friendship,  sublife,  love, and p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Nossack's emotional r e a c t i o n to h i s p e r s o n a l aloneness w i l l  be  c o n s i d e r e d ; although t h e r e i s at times a n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g o f isolation,  implying the common human need f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  Nossack's g e n e r a l tendency i s not to seek to escape aloneness see i t as a vacuum to be f i l l e d ,  or  but to accept i t and g i v e i t a  p o s i t i v e value as the mark o f a u t h e n t i c i t y , an i n t r i n s i c p a r t o f his  individuality.  Nossack w i l l be shown to be concerned  much w i t h the q u e s t i o n a b l e nature of p e r s o n a l and  social  not  so  31 r e l a t i o n s h i p s , as were Schopenhauer and K i e r k e g a a r d , but w i t h d e m o n s t r a t i n g the v i r t u a l i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c h i e v i n g m e a n i n g f u l p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the t r a d i t i o n a l s e n s e . The e x t e n t o f N o s s a c k ' s need t o be r e l a t e d s o c i o - c u l t u r a l l y w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n the l i g h t o f h i s views on contemporary society. his  H i s awareness  o f the c o l l e c t i v e ,  age and o f i t s a n a c h r o n i s t i c f e a t u r e s  h i s main f i c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r s )  impersonal tendencies p r e v e n t s Nossack (and  from a c h i e v i n g even the  H e g e l i a n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h s o c i e t y and i t s d e s t i n y . modern i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y ' s  slightest He condemns  c o l l e c t i v e t e n d e n c i e s w h i c h reduce  man t o a s o c i a l q u o t i e n t , commodity, o r cog i n a v a s t economic machine.  of  socio-  Nossack shares the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c N a t u r a l i s t  and E x p r e s s i o n i s t view o f s o c i e t y as a system o f c o n v e n t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s and v a l u e s w h i c h may once have been j u s t and human but w h i c h have become a n t i q u a t e d and o p p r e s s i v e t o the Society,  individual.  as i n Schopenhauer and K i e r k e g a a r d , i s g e n e r a l l y seen as  b e i n g m o t i v a t e d by a f e a r o f a l o n e n e s s ,  a c h i e v i n g a herd s e c u r i t y  o n l y a t the expense o f r e p r e s s i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l and i n a u t h e n t i city. Of c o u r s e a h o s t i l e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l environment and the c o n s e quent l a c k o f s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r e l a t e d n e s s  does not mean t h a t a  need f o r a more i d e a l s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r e l a t e d n e s s w i l l not be  felt.  Such a need, though i l l - d e f i n e d , can be d i s c e r n e d i n N o s s a c k ' s writings,  though i t nowhere becomes a dominant theme.  Rather  Nossack d i s p l a y s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e x i s t e n t i a l i s t inward t u r n i n g from the p u b l i c w o r l d o f p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s o c i e t y t o the p r i v a t e , s u b j e c t i v e w o r l d o f the i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ,  the  32 world of s o l i t u d e ,  l i b e r t y , and p o s s i b i l i t y .  i n g i s accompanied by an e x i s t e n t i a l i s t  T h i s inward t u r n -  recognition of  the  i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f comprehending e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y o r f o r t h a t the i n t e r n a l r e a l i t y o f the m i n d . dogmatic  interpretations  Objective  system b u i l d i n g and  o f r e a l i t y , whether t h e y be D a r w i n i a n ,  Marxian, or Freudian, are rejected  as a f a l s i f i c a t i o n o f  i n w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t s w i t h o u t any r e l i a b l e and t h e r e f o r e ,  ultimately,  In c o n t r a s t  environment,  metaphysical,  He b e l i e v e s i n  but i n t e n s e l y r e a l r e a l m o f e x i s t e n c e  beyond p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  characters  biological  o r the c h e m i s t r y o f h i s  b r a i n , Nossack r e s p i r i t u a l i z e s man and r e a l i t y .  constitutes  orientation  t o D a r w i n , Marx, and F r e u d , who saw man as  h i s socio-economic  an i n e f f a b l e ,  reality,  s p i r i t u a l l y alone.  c o l l e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l l e d and determined e i t h e r by h i s past,  matter  beyond s o c i e t y  f o r him the h i g h e s t long t o e x p e r i e n c e  and c u l t u r e , w h i c h  value i n l i f e .  Nossack's  and e n t e r t h i s r e a l m , i n the  ex-  p e r i e n c e o f w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l i s a l o n e and w h i c h he can o n l y e n t e r a l o n e ; as opposed t o t h e p u b l i c w o r l d i t i s a dimension beyond a l l consensus o f o p i n i o n .  To e x p e r i e n c e  this  supremely  v a l u a b l e r e a l i t y man must f r e e h i m s e l f from the f e t t e r s o f h i s existence:  the f a m i l y , p e r s o n a l and l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r e l a t e d n e s s . experience  socio-cultural,  and h i s main  characters.  past,  The i n d i v i d u a l ' s awareness and  of t h i s realm are the u l t i m a t e guarantors  ing personal,  his  o f the a b i d -  and s p i r i t u a l a l o n e n e s s o f  Nossack  33 Footnotes  A r t h u r Schopenhauer, "Parerga und Paralipomena," Samtliche Werke, ed. Wolfgang F r h r . von Ltthneysen (Darmstadt: W i s s e n s c h a r t l i c h e B u c h g e s e l l s c h a f t , 1 9 6 1 ) , IV, 504. 2 Schopenhauer,  p. 503•  Schopenhauer,  p.  508.  H.J. Blackham, S i x E x i s t e n t i a l i s t T h i n k e r s (London: Routledge & Kegan P a u l L t d . , 1951), p. 1 5 0 . Hans E r i c h Nossack, Die gestohlene Melodie (Frankfurt Suhrkamp V e r l a g , 1972), p. 24b, p. 248.  Main:  am  6 Blackham, p.  151.  Soren Kierkegaard's J o u r n a l s and Papers, ed. and t r a n s . Howard V. Hong and Edna H. Hong (Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y  Press, 1967), I, 40. 8  Soren K i e r k e g a a r d , C o n c l u d i n g U n s c i e n t i f i c P o s t s c r i p t , t r a n s . David F. Swenson and W a l t e r Lowrie ( P r i n c e t o n : Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1941), p. 317. F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e , "Unzeitgemasse Betrachtungen," Werke i n d r e i Banden, ed. K a r l S c h l e c h t a (Munich: C a r l Hanser V e r l a g , 1954), I, 266-67. 10 N i e t z s c h e , p.  144.  N i e t z s c h e , " J e n s e i t s von Gut und Bose," I I , 741. 12 Blackham, p. 54. Hans E r i c h Nossack, Die schwache P o s i t i o n der L i t e r a t u r : Reden und AufsHtze, E d i t i o n Suhrkamp, 156 ( F r a n k f u r t am Main: Suhrkamp V e r l a g , 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 16-17.  34 Footnotes  (continued)  14  Fyodor Dostoyevsky, L e t t e r s from the U n d e r w o r l d , t r a n s . C . J . H o g a r t h , Everyman's L i b r a r y , No. 654 (London: XTM. Dent,  1964), p . 31.  p.  56.  Hans E r i c h Nossack, D i e schwache P o s i t i o n d e r L i t e r a t u r ,  16  Wolfgang K a y s e r , " D i e Anf&nge des modernen Romans im 18. J a h r h u n d e r t und s e i n e h e u t i g e K r i s e , " Deutsche V i e r t e l j a h r s g c h r i f t , 28 (1954), 4 1 7 - 4 6 . 17 Kayser, p. 440. D a v i d D a i c h e s , The N o v e l and t h e Modern W o r l d , R e v i s e d e d i t i o n (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , I 9 6 0 ) .  York:  Leon Joseph E d e l , The P s y c h o l o g i c a l N o v e l H a s k e l l House, 196oT  1900-1950 (New  35  CHAPTER 2 B i o g r a p h i c a l Background and Der Untergang (i) Hans E r i c h Nossack was the son o f a w e a l t h y success  born i n Hamburg on 3 0 January  c o f f e e merchant.  D e s p i t e Herr N o s s a c k s 1  i n b u s i n e s s the dominant f o r c e a t home was  the absence o f open c o n f l i c t i n the marriage was submissiveness.  Now  1901,  his wife  o n l y due t o h i s  i t i s a t r u i s m o f modern p s y c h o l o g y  that  p a r e n t a l environment and u p b r i n g i n g e x e r t a p o w e r f u l and ing  last-  i n f l u e n c e on any c h i l d ; they are the f i r s t and perhaps  dominant i n f l u e n c e s on h i s p a t t e r n s o f r e l a t i n g t o o t h e r s his  and  f e e l i n g s o f b e l o n g i n g and s e c u r i t y .  and  Nossack would c e r t a i n -  l y be the f i r s t t o agree w i t h P e t e r Pan's o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t mothers are v e r y o v e r r a t e d persons because he and h i s b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s f e l t t h a t they d i d not b e l o n g , t h a t they had  to  defend themselves a g a i n s t t h e i r mother, as he e x p l a i n s i n the essay " P r i v a t b e s i t z .  Durchgang  verboten":  Doch meine G e s c h w i s t e r standen genauso wie i c h i n Opposition zur A l l e i n h e r r s c h a f t der Mutter . . . S i e war s i c h e r e i n e imponierende F r a u , doch von e i n e r da'monischen H e r r s c h s u c h t ; a l l e i h r e Freundinnen krochen v o r i h r und wagten i h r n i c h t zu w i d e r s p r e c h e n . 1 2 Nossack's s e l f - c o n f e s s e d a n t i - m o t h e r for  complex  i s the b a s i s  h i s l a t e r f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h the m y t h o l o g i c a l f i g u r e o f  Orestes. In the essay " O r e s t " he w r i t e s of the sense of danger he a s s o c i a t e d w i t h her: . . . wo s i e a l s AngehBrige e i n e s m a t r i a r c h a l i s c h e n G e s e l l s c h a f t s s y t e m s h a n d e l t e und i h r e m l i t t e r l i c h e A u t o r i t a ' t und U n a n g r e i f b a r k e i t dazu b e n u t z t e , i h r e  36 K i n d e r z u d o m e s t i z i e r e n und diesem System z u u n t e r w e r f e n , war s i e i n d e r Tat e i n e g e f & h r l i c h e Gegnerin. . . . Herrschsucht a l s Mutterliebe maskiert i s t eine t B d l i c h e Gefahr fllr d i e SBhne. Und n i c h t nur f u r d i e SBhne, sondern f l l r d i e W e l t , da w e i b l i c h e H e r r s c h s u c h t i n s Mass l o s e liberzugehen p f l e g t . ( P s e u d o a u t o b i o g r a p h i s c h e G l o s s e n , p . 30) Here we see N o s s a c k ' s tendency t o view phenomena o f  society  i n terms o f the m a t r i a r c h y he had known i n h i s own home, i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e more common p a t t e r n , seen f o r example i n many E x p r e s s i o n i s t p l a y s o f the same p e r i o d , i n w h i c h r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t t r a d i t i o n and s o c i e t y i s s y m b o l i z e d by a r e b e l l i o n o f the son a g a i n s t t h e  father.  Nossack's i s o l a t i o n i n h i s b a t t l e against the  suffocating  m a t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e was i n c r e a s e d by the d e s e r t i o n o f h i s e l d e r b r o t h e r t o t h e opposing s i d e .  In " J a h r g a n g 1901"  (Pseudoauto-  b i o g r a p h i s c h e G l o s s e n , p . 122) Nossack says t h a t , whereas he was possessed o f a r e b e l l i o u s w i l l a g a i n s t t h e p a r e n t a l and b i o l o g i c a l i n f l u e n c e , h i s b r o t h e r c o n s i d e r e d r i g h t and d i d e v e r y t h i n g h i s parents t o l d him.  I n N o s s a c k ' s v i e w he d i d v i o l e n c e to him-  s e l f ; h i s m i n d l e s s s u b m i s s i v e n e s s made him p e d a n t i c and laughable.  He was one o f the b a s i c a l l y decent but r e a c t i o n a r y  masses t h a t Nossack d e s p i s e s ; even h i s b r o t h e r ' s " l o v e "