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Personal clothing in Wolfram’s Parzival and Willehalm : Symbolism and significance Barran, Paula A. 1976

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PERSONAL CLOTHING IN WOLFRAM'S PARZIVAL AND WILLEHALM: SYMBOLISM AND SIGNIFICANCE by PAULA BARRAN WEISS B.A., C o l l e g e o f W i l l i a m and Mary, 1971 M.A., C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f Germanic S t u d i e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g - t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1976 0 Paula Barran Weiss,.1976 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permiss ion fo r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of German  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date O ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y i s a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e use o f c l o t h i n g symbolism by Wolfram von Eschenbach i n P a r z i v a l and i n W i l l e h a l m , i n v e s t i -g a t i n g whether he d i d i n f a c t use c l o t h i n g symbols, how he made use o f them, and s u g g e s t i n g some e x p l a n a t i o n f o r why he used them. The r e a s o n a b l e n e s s o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t c l o t h i n g sym-b o l s were used i s e s t a b l i s h e d by the e x i s t e n c e o f a s t r o n g s y m b o l i c t r a d i t i o n i n the t i m e s i n w h i c h Wolfram was w r i t i n g , an e r a i n w h i c h e v e r y t h i n g p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e fundamental u n d e r l y i n g u n i t y o f a l l c r e a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e had t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r a c t i n g as symbols o f t h o s e a s p e c t s t o w h i c h a r e l a t i o n s h i p was e s t a b l i s h e d . The h y p o t h e s i s i s f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by the e x i s t e n c e o f c o n f e s s e d c l o t h i n g symbolism i n the garments used i n t h e s e r v i c e s o f the Church d u r i n g Wolfram's l i f e t i m e , and made l i k e l y by t h e use o f a d m i t t e d c l o t h i n g symbols i n the n a r r a t i v e p o e t r y o f Wolfram's c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , n o t a b l y Hartmann von Aue, G o t t f r i e d von S t r a s s b u r g , and t h e a u t h o r o f t h e N i b e l u n g e n l i e d . Elements o f m e d i e v a l c l o t h i n g w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o the s y m b o l i c p o t e n t i a l o f t h e v a r i o u s garments a r e examined. These i n c l u d e c o l o r and s t y l e as w e l l as l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s c o v e r i n g the use o f c e r t a i n c l o t h i n g s t y l e s by c e r t a i n c l a s s e s o f s o c i e t y . The f o l l o w i n g groups o f c l o t h i n g and c l o t h i n g - r e l a t e d a r t i c l e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y : armor, c l o t h i n g on f o r m a l o c c a s i o n s , d a i l y c l o t h i n g , gemstones, g i f t s o f c l o t h i n g and a i d Supervisor: Professor Michael S. Batts o f f e r e d i n t h e a c t o f r o b i n g and d i s r o b i n g . The same d i s -t i n c t i o n s a r e f o l l o w e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f p e r s o n a l c l o t h i n g i n W i l l e h a l m , b u t t h e d i s c u s s i o n i s c o n f i n e d t o a s i n g l e c h a p t e r . I n d i v i d u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w h i c h a r e i m p o r t a n t i n e s t a b -l i s h i n g a f i r m s u p p o r t f o r t h e arguments a r e e l e m e n t s o f contemporary c u l t u r e w h i c h e s t a b l i s h s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r c e r t a i n a r t i c l e s , among them l a p i d a r i e s , b e s t i a r i e s , and t h e customs o f t h e Church. A v e r y i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e argument i s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t i s c o h e r e n t i n terms o f t h e pa r a m e t e r s o f t h e n a r r a t i v e as a whole. The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d a r e t h a t t h e use o f c l o t h i n g s y m b o l i s m i s s u p p o r t e d by p e r s o n a l a d m i s s i o n o f t h e a u t h o r , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a s t r o n g t r a d i t i o n , and by p o e t i c use w i t h i n t h e n a r r a t i v e , n o t a b l y by t h e c r e a t i o n o f i n c o n -g r u i t y o f s i t u a t i o n w h i c h i n d i c a t e s an extended meaning. C l o t h i n g symbols a r e v a l u a b l e t o o l s f o r t h e p o e t ' s c h a r a c t e r -i z a t i o n as w e l l as f o r scene l i n k a g e and are used f u r t h e r m o r e t o s u g g e s t an i n n e r r e a l i t y w h i c h i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s u p p o r t e d by t h e e x t e r n a l e v i d e n c e o f f e r e d . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER ONE THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYMBOLS. MEDIEVAL CLOTHING AND ITS SYMBOLIC POTENTIAL .. 26 TWO ARMOR 58 THREE CLOTHING ON FORMALIZED OCCASIONS.. 113 FOUR DAILY CLOTHING 142 FIVE GEMS 165 SIX GIFTS OF CLOTHING. OFFERING OF AID AND ASSISTANCE 178 SEVEN PERSONAL CLOTHING IN WILLEHALM 195 CONCLUSION. 218 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS . .. 227 NOTES 229 LIST OF WORKS CITED 249 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I owe a g r e a t d e a l o f g r a t i t u d e t o M i c h a e l . S . B a t t s who s u p e r -v i s e d t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s and o f f e r e d u n f a i l i n g good a d v i c e on a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e work i n v o l v e d . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank Rev. Robe r t F. McNamara and M i c h a e l R e s l e r f o r p r o -v i d i n g me w i t h o b s c u r e m a t e r i a l , The Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y f o r p e r m i t t i n g me t o make use o f t h e i r l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s , and my husband, B i l l , f o r e x h i b i t i n g e x t r a o r d i n a r y p a t i e n c e d u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r . P.B.W. v INTRODUCTION Symbolism i n i t s b r o a d e s t sense as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f one t h i n g by a n o t h e r was an u n d e n i a b l e f a c e t o f m e d i e v a l man's l i f e . I n a w o r l d f a s h i o n e d by God's hand, a l l a s p e c t s o f r e a l i t y were i n t e r c o n n e c t e d , a l l s e r v e d God's u l t i m a t e scheme. Because o f t h i s i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n , a network o f s i m i l a r i t i e s was e a s i l y seen t o e x i s t and one s e p a r a t e u n i t o r o b j e c t might w e l l be t h o u g h t t o be v e r y much t h e same as a n o t h e r , s i m i l a r enough so t h a t one was used t o r e p r e s e n t o r s y m b o l i z e t h e other.: Symbolism, whether c o n s c i o u s o r u n c o n s c i o u s , always fundamental i n t h i n k i n g , became i n t h e M i d d l e Ages b o t h t h e n a t u r a l medium o f t h o u g h t and e x p r e s s i o n , and an i n s t r u m e n t c o n s c i o u s l y d e v e l o p e d as t h e t r u e s t means o f p e n e t r a t i o n i n t o t h e m y s t e r y o f r e a l i t y . I t was such, i n w h i c h e v e r b r a n c h o f knowl-edge l a y t h e s e e k e r ' s i n t e r e s t : f o r a l l were u n i t e d i n t h e i r g o a l .1 T h i s b a s i c v i e w o f a u n i f i e d and i n t e r r e l a t e d c r e a t i o n n a t u r a l l y t o u c h e d e v e r y t h i n g c r e a t e d d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages. M e d i e v a l man saw symbols i n e v e r y t h i n g around him and p l a c e d symbols i n e v e r y t h i n g he w r o t e , c a r v e d , and p a i n t e d : I t i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t r a i t o f m e d i e v a l l i f e and l i t e r a t u r e t h a t a t h i n g may appear i n more t h a n one f u n c t i o n , t h a t i s , i t can appear as i t s e l f and a l s o as a symbol o r outward m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f something e l s e , some i d e a o r q u a l i t y . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f r e l i g i o u s l i t e r a t u r e , e s -p e c i a l l y o f m y s t i c a l w r i t i n g s , and t h e m e d i e v a l l o v e o f symbolism and a l l e g o r y i s p a t e n t l y o b v i o u s i n such works as t h e P h y s i o l o g u s and t h e commentaries on t h e Song o f Solomon, b u t x t i s by no means con-f i n e d t o t h e r e l i g i o u s s p h e r e . The d i c t u m o f S t . I r e n a e u s ' n i h i l vacuum neque s i n e s i g n o apud Deum' f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n a l m o s t everywhere, as symbolism and a l l e g o r y a r e t h e b e s t medium f o r e x p r e s s i n g p h i l o -s o p h i c a l , m e t a p h y s i c a l and r e l i g i o u s i d e a s t o p e o p l e 1 2 unaccustomed t o r e a d i n g , b u t i m p r e s s i o n a b l e t o v i s u a l i m a g e r y . 2 P h i l o s o p h y and r e l i g i o n , i n e x t r i c a b l y i n t e r t w i n e d , p r o v i d e examples o f t h i s f a c t as w e l l as p o s s i b l e o r i g i n s f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r u n i f i e d Weltanschauung. The B i b l e , prime document o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , was i n t e r p r e t e d t y p o l o g i c a l l y from the f i r s t ; r e f e r e n c e s i n E p i s t l e s o f S t . P a u l t o Adam as a t y p e o f C h r i s t 3 and t h e wandering I s r a e l i t e s as t y p e s o f l a t e r C h r i s t i a n s ^ l e d t o much l e n g t h i e r d i s c u s s i o n s by t h e Church F a t h e r s on t h e m a t t e r . E a r l y d e v o t i o n a l p o e t r y adopted some B i b l i c a l symbolism and imagery, and produced even more, e s p e c i a l l y i n M a r i a n p o e t r y , where e v e r y c o n c e i v a b l e image was p u t t o u s e . 5 The f o l l o w i n g v e r s e s a r e from t h e M e l k e r M a r i e n l i e d , w r i t t e n i n the f i r s t h a l f o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y : J u i n deme g e s p r e i d a c h Moyses e i n f i u r gesach. daz h o l z n i e n e b r a n , den l o u c h sah e r obenan, der was l a n c h unde b r e i t : daz b e z e i c h i n t d i n e m a g e t h e i t , S a n c t a _ M a r i a . Ysayas der w l s s a g e der habet d i n gewage, der quot wie vone J e s s e s stamme wiiehse e i n g e r t e danne. d e l vone s c o l e i n bluome v a r e n : d i u b e z e i c h i n t d i c h unde d i n b a r n , S a n c t a M a r i a . 6 The s t a n z a s o f t h i s hymn i n t e r p r e t v a r i o u s phenomena as sym-b o l i c o f Mary o r c e r t a i n o f h e r a s p e c t s : h e r v i r g i n i t y o r h e r p o s i t i o n i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e redemption o f mankind. The images used i n e a r l y d e v o t i o n a l p o e t r y a r e h i g h l y v i s u a l and were e a s i l y r e p r o d u c e d i n t h e p l a s t i c a r t s , showing a n a i v e t e 3 o f imagery w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d l i t e r a r y age on whom s u b t l e r symbols might be l o s t . D u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages a r t was p r i m a r i l y r e l i g i o u s a r t , and a l t h o u g h t h e images were n o t always c r e a t e d t o f u n c t i o n as symbols, l a t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s show t h a t t h e y l e n t t h e m s e l v e s t o s y m b o l i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . C e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f e a r l y C h r i s t i a n a r t were c o n c e i v e d as t o o l s i n l i g h t o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an i l l i t e r a t e f a i t h f u l and the need f o r s e c r e c y and s e c r e t s i g n s and s i g n a l s o c c a s i o n e d by t h e p e r s e c u t i o n s : When t h e new r e l i g i o n b r o k e new ground and a t t r a c t e d t h e pagan masses, i t had t o come t o terms w i t h t h e : mind o f t h e i l l i t e r a t e c l a s s e s who needed images t o gu i d e t h e i r b e l i e f . H aving a l l o w e d such imagery a g a i n s t i t s i n c l i n a t i o n , C h r i s t i a n i t y had t o purge i t o f t h a t p h y s i c a l emphasis w h i c h , e v e r s i n c e t h e Greeks, had made i t a r e f l e c t i o n o f e a r t h l y t h i n g s . I f i t was t o be no l o n g e r an o b j e c t o f w o r s h i p , b u t o n l y a means t o i t , t h e image was none t h e l e s s t o p l a y a p a r t i n t h e new f a i t h v e r y l i k e t h e one i t had h e l d i n t h e o l d r e l i g i o n s o f t h e E a s t . I t was an i n s t r u m e n t o f t h e o l o g y , t h e f i g u r a t i v e i n t e r -m ediary on w h i c h f a i t h l e a n s i n o r d e r t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e dogma o f w h i c h t h e image i s o n l y the garment and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . 7 A r c h i t e c t u r e and o t h e r a r t i s t i c a r e a s added symbolism t o s t r u c t u r a l n e c e s s i t y o r e x i s t i n g f a c t : t h e c a t h e d r a l i s s a i d t o r e p r e s e n t a c r o s s i n i t s shape--and i n d e e d i t d o e s — y e t had i t appeared i n any o t h e r shape, m e d i e v a l s y m b o l i s t s would c e r t a i n l y have p r e s e n t e d an e q u a l l y c o n v i n c i n g , e q u a l l y d e v o t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e whether o r n o t t h e s y m b o l i c a s p e c t s o f e a r l y C h r i s t i a n a r t were r e a l l y p r e s e n t i n t h e minds o f the c r e a t o r s ; i t i s obvious', however, t h a t t h e y were uppermost i n t h e minds o f the m e d i e v a l v i e w e r s . F o r t h e two c e n t u r i e s f o l l o w i n g t h e p e r s e c u t i o n s , when C h r i s t i a n i t y r e i g n e d as t h e Roman Empire's o f f i c i a l r e l i g i o n , :•: 4 a r c h i t e c t u r e was d e v e l o p e d more f u l l y t h a n o t h e r f a c e t s o f r e l i g i o u s a r t . The p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e c h u r c h b u i l d i n g was viewed as a s i g n i f i c a n t and n o b l e endeavor. I n many ways m e d i e v a l a r t f u l f i l l e d i t s e l f i n t h e c a t h e d r a l where a r t was u n i t e d t o r e l i g i o n and molded i n t o a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e s t o r y o f mankind: A l l t h e s e works were harmonized w i t h each o t h e r , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f an i c o n o g r a p h i c a l program t h a t r e q u i r e d a s c h o l a r ' s knowledge. Byzan-t i n e symbolism was a r e l i g i o u s symbolism, b u t t h a t o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y had an e n c y c l o p e d i c c h a r a c t e r , f o r i t r e f l e c t e d t h e s c h o l a s t i c p h i l o s -ophy, i n t e n t on i m p o s i n g t h e l o g i c o f t h o u g h t upon th e u n i v e r s e . The c a t h e d r a l i s an immense book w h i c h t e l l s t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e w o r l d . 8 The c a t h e d r a l was d e s i g n e d as a u n i f i e d c o n f e s s i o n o f t h e f a i t h o f an e r a . "The urge t o seek s a n c t u a r y i n t h e m e d i e v a l c a t h e d r a l seems t o be i r r e s i s t i b l e t o many s c h o l a r s . I t i s t h e r e t h a t t h e y can b e s t r e f l e c t on t h e o r d e r l i n e s s .of t h e m e d i e v a l w o r l d : where i t i t s e l f sought t o come t o terms w i t h i t s Maker i n a c o h e r e n t s t a t e m e n t o f f a i t h . " 9 Symbolism was n o t c o n f i n e d t o r e l i g i o u s a r t d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages, b u t found i t s way i n t o s e c u l a r a r t as w e l l . I t was p u t t o use i n c r e a t i n g h e r a l d i c arms, i d e n t i f y i n g t h e b e a r e r t h r o u g h a s i g n t h a t was c o n n e c t e d w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l o r w i t h a f a m i l y , o f t e n t h r o u g h an e v e n t o r an o c c u p a t i o n . The Wappen o f t h e p o e t s w h i c h appear, f o r example, i n t h e Grosse H e i d e l b e r g e r L i e d e r h a n d s c h r i f t a r e an e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s p r a c t i c e , showing t h e a c t u a l h e r a l d i c d e v i c e i n one c o r n e r o f a l a r g e r image. W a l t h e r von d e r V o g e l w e i d e , f o r example, whose arms show a caged b i r d , a d e v i c e no doubt t a k e n from t h e name, i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e o f t h e t h i n k e r o r 5 philosopher,, an a t t i t u d e w h i c h he v e r b a l i z e s i n h i s f i r s t R e i c h s t o n . T h i s p o s t u r e comes t o be an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n code f o r t h e p o e t , a l t h o u g h the m i n i a t u r e was not produced u n t i l some time a f t e r W a l t h e r ' s d e a t h . H i s v e r b a l i z a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e pose was a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h w h i c h he was a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r , perhaps from o t h e r m i n i a t u r e s . "The p i c t u r e so f a m i l i a r t o us (the Manesse p i c t u r e ) was t h e r e f o r e n o t known t o e i t h e r W a l t h e r o r h i s audience. He ar.d t hey knew an a n t e -c e d e n t image o f t h e t h i n k e r o r s o r r o w i n g m i n s t r e l , and t h i s image W a l t h e r ' s song r e c a l l e d . The i n t e n t i o n a l a r t i s t i c use o f symbolism and s y m b o l i c d e v i c e s as w e l l as t h e l a t e r s y m b o l i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e x i s t -i n g images had t h e i r g r e a t e s t v a l u e i n a i d i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g and comprehension o f a " s p i r i t u a l " r e a l i t y — - t h o s e a s p e c t s o f e x i s t e n c e n o t a p a r t o f c o n c r e t e r e a l i t y and hence d i f f i c u l t f o r man t o g r a s p f u l l y . The p i c t u r e o f W a l t h e r mentioned above shows t h e c o n c e p t o f " p h i l o s o p h i z i n g " by d e p i c t i n g t h e a t t i t u d e one assumes w h i l e so d o i n g . A f u r t h e r example o f t h i s i s t h e l e g e n d a r y use o f t h e shamrock by S t . P a t r i c k t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e T r i n i t y . The p a r t i c u l a r l y m e d i e v a l p o i n t o f v i e w w h i c h a l l o w e d elements o f t h e r e a l w o r l d t o be viewed as symbols o f elements i n t h e s p i r i t u a l w o r l d found an e a r l y l i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o n i n b e s t i a r i e s and l a p i d a r i e s , b o t h o f them s e r i o u s c o l l e c t i o n s o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . E e a s t s were d e s c r i b e d and t h e n e x p l a i n e d as symbols o f some i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e h i s t o r y o f s a l v a t i o n , o r t h e i r 6 q u a l i t i e s used f o r d i d a c t i c p u r p o s e s . Thus t h e l i o n who seems t o s l e e p w i t h h i s eyes open r e p r e s e n t s C h r i s t who was b u r i e d w h i l e humanly dead b u t was s t i l l D i v i n e l y a l i v e : So d e r Lewe s l a e f f e t , s i n i u ougen e r h a l t i t o f f e n . daz s c u l e n w i r suochen g e s c r i b e n an den buochen: " i c h s l i e f genote, min h e r z e wachote." von d i u b e z e i c h e n t e r den h e i l i g e n C h r i s t , g o t h e r . wande e r i n dem v l e i s c e e n t s l i e f , d i u g o t h e i t i n a n r i e f . do erwachot e r aber ze der zeswe s i n e s v a d e r , a l s o g e s c r i b e n i s t : "stande u f , min e r e du b i s t . g o t den e n t s l a f r o t n i h t , wande e r I s r a h e l b e h u o t e t unde s i h t . " H T. H. Whi t e , i n t h e appendix t o h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f a t w e l f t h c e n t u r y L a t i n b e s t i a r y , e x p l a i n s t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f such works as r e s u l t i n g from t h e m e d i e v a l b e l i e f i n a c o h e r e n t , u n i f i e d and d i v i n e l y wrought u n i v e r s e : E v e r y p o s s i b l e a r t i c l e i n t h e w o r l d , and i t s name a l s o , c o n c e a l e d a h i d d e n message f o r t h e eye o f f a i t h . I t was h a r d l y p o s s i b l e t o p l a y chess w i t h o u t r e a d i n g a ' J e u d' echecs moralise"' , i n w h i c h the names o f the v a r i o u s gambits would t e a c h a man t h a t 'he who g i v e s n o t what he esteems, s h a l l n o t t a k e what he d e s i r e s ' o r t h a t 'he sees h i s p l a y a t hand who sees i t a t a d i s t a n c e ' . He c o u l d n o t r e a d a p l a i n s t o r y i n t h e Ge s t a Romanorum w i t h o u t f i n d i n g i t s h o l y e x p l a n a t i o n a t . t h e end o f i t . A n i m a l s , l i k e t h e d i d a c t i c c r e a t u r e s o f Aesop, conveyed him a p a r a b l e . 'Ask the b e a s t , ' Job had s a i d ( X I I , 7 ) , 'and i t w i l l t e a c h t h e e , and t h e b i r d s o f heaven and they w i l l t e l l thee.'. • Even t h e i r names were m e a n i n g f u l — w h i c h i s why we have had t o p u t up w i t h such a l o t o f t h e etymology o f I s i d o r e . U r i c a t h e can k e r burns ( u r i t ) : b u t i t a l s o makes p e o p l e u r i n a t e . Even words were h i t c h e d up and e n t a n g l e d w i t h the u n i -v e r s e . The meaning o f symbolism was so i m p o r t a n t t o t h e m e d i e v a l mind t h a t S t . A u g u s t i n e s t a t e d i n so many words t h a t i t d i d n o t m a t t e r whether c e r t a i n a n i m a l s e x i s t e d ; what d i d m a t t e r was what they meant.^ 2 L a p i d a r i e s a r e works v e r y s i m i l a r t o b e s t i a r i e s i n t h a t t h e y a r e s y m b o l i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f f a c e t s o f s c i e n c e ; w h i l e t h e b e s t i a r y d e a l s w i t h n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , the l a p i d a r y i n t e r p r e t s 7 mineralogy. J a s p i s , f o r example, i s a green stone which, a c c o r d i n g to Vom Himmlischen Jerusalem, l i e s a t the f o u n d a t i o n o f the Heavenly c i t y and s i g n i f i e s the f a i t h f u l who a l s o are the f o u n d a t i o n of b e l i e f . I t s green c o l o r r e p r e s e n t s l i f e -i n - f a i t h : Nu vernemet, l i e b e n l i u t e , was der s t e i n b e d i u t e . s i n varwe i s t ime gruone; der t i u v e l i s t so chuone alsam der lewo w i l d e ; j a v e r t e r ruhelende, wie e r uns muge verswelechen, so s u l e w i r uns gote bevelechen mit teme gelouben v i l e v a s t e : so l i g e w i r z u n t e r i s t e an der g r u n t f e s t i n unte bezeichenen den J a s p i n . e r f l i u h e t sam man i n brenne, gruone b i r w i r denne. swer so gelouben niene hat, der i s t durre unde t o t . der t i u v e l i n niene midet, wante er den gelouben n i d e t . ± 3 Whereas p i c t o r i a l symbols e x i s t i n the a r t of even the most p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s , l i t e r a r y symbolism i s more o f t e n than not a s i g n of g r e a t e r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of both author and audience. There are e s s e n t i a l l y t h r e e types o f symbols found i n medieval works, each s i g n i f y i n g s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n : (1) An e x i s t i n g , c o n c r e t e o b j e c t i s i n t e r -p r e t e d as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of something e l s e , o f another o b j e c t , an event, or a concept. T h i s i s the type of symbolism appar-ent i n a l a p i d a r y where a gemstone i s i n t e r p r e t e d as the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a human q u a l i t y . (2) A concept o r an event, elements t h a t have no form, are g i v e n a c o n c r e t e r e a l i t y through the medium of language. I s i d o r e ' s etymologies belong to t h i s category f r e q u e n t l y : names or words are i n t e r p r e t e d as symbols of q u a l i t i e s , but the names themselves have no r e a l form u n t i l they are s p e l l e d out, and i t i s i n the s p e l l i n g out t h a t they come to s i g n i f y something e l s e . (3) A concrete o b j e c t i s 8 c r e a t e d by t h e po e t and t h i s c r e a t i o n i s used t o e x p r e s s h i s i d e a s . I t i s w i t h t h i s t h i r d t y p e o f symbolism t h a t we s h a l l c o n c e r n o u r s e l v e s . C l o t h i n g , a common everyday f a c t o f l i f e , was c e r t a i n l y not e x c l u d e d from t h e p o e t i c c r e a t i o n o f symbols. I t had p r e -c i s e l y t h e f a m i l i a r i t y t h a t made i t a v a l u a b l e s y m b o l i c v e h i c l e — i t was r e c o g n i z e d everywhere f o r e x a c t l y what i t was. C l o t h i n g e a s i l y became d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o t h e r e a l and t h e f u n c t i o n a l g a r b , and t h a t c l o t h i n g w h i c h bore some s y m b o l i c v a l u e by v i r t u e o f i t s b e i n g s e t a s i d e f o r p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l c l a s s e s . F u n c t i o n a l l y a c o l l e c t i o n o f c e r t a i n t y p e s o f c l o t h i n g became r e s e r v e d f o r use i n p e r f o r m i n g c e r t a i n occupa-t i o n s such as h u n t i n g and t r a v e l i n g . The s y m b o l i c v a l u e o f c e r t a i n .dress s t y l e s a r o s e i n p a r t from t h e i r l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s , a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y l a t e r . Because o f laws c o n c e r n i n g c l o t h i n g s t y l e , t h e r e e x i s t e d a c e r t a i n t y t h a t a p e r s o n d r e s s e d i n c l e r i c ' s c l o t h i n g was i n f a c t a c l e r i c . The garment s e r v e d as an i d e n t i f y i n g f e a t u r e and came t o r e p r e s e n t t h e p e r s o n ' s s t a t u s o r f u n c t i o n more so t h a n t h e p e r s o n f u l f i l l i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n . The Church encouraged t h i s tendency, even t o t h e p o i n t o f deeming i t s a c r i l e g i o u s t o d e f i l e t h e h a b i t o f a r e l i g i o u s personage as w e l l as t h e p e r s o n . S i n c e c l o t h i n g h e l d a s y m b o l i c v a l u e even i n d a i l y e x i s t e n c e , t h e use o f c l o t h i n g i n l i t e r a t u r e r e f l e c t s t h i s p a r t i c u l a r o u t l o o k . Two f u r t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s s e r v e t o make t h e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t c l o t h i n g was used s y m b o l i c a l l y even more l i k e l y . 9 F i r s t l y , t h e Church made c o n s t a n t d e l i b e r a t e use o f c l o t h i n g symbolism i n l i t u r g i c a l v e s t m e n t s . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l examples i n the works o f t h e High M i d d l e Ages where c l o t h i n g i s u n d e n i a b l y used n o n - l i t e r a l l y , even t o t h e p o i n t 14 o f b e i n g a s e l f - c o n f e s s e d symbol used by t h e a u t h o r . From about t h e s e v e n t h c e n t u r y s y m b o l i c meanings were g i v e n t o t h e v a r i o u s vestments worn by t h e p r i e s t w h i l e c e l e -b r a t i n g t h e Mass. As was t h e case i n t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e c a t h e d r a l , c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f vestments were d e v e l o p e d w i t h t h e i r symbolism i n mind, o t h e r s became symbols because o f an a t t a c h e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e sequence o f l i t u r g i c a l c o l o r s as used today was s e t somewhat l a t e r t h a n Wolfram's l i f e t i m e , i t has i t s o r i g i n s f a i r l y e a r l y , and i s mentioned by the A u g u s t i n i a n Canons i n t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y as w e l l as by In n o c e n t I I I , whose papacy l a s t e d from 1192-1216, r o u g h l y contemporary w i t h Wolfram's l i t e r a r y l i f e . The s y m b o l i c mean-i n g o f a p a r t i c u l a r p r i e s t l y garb was r e i n f o r c e d by t h e 15 p r a y e r s s a i d by t h e p r i e s t w h i l e v e s t i n g . The s t e p from e x p e r i e n c i n g such c l o t h i n g and c o l o r symbolism i n use by the Church t o u s i n g them i n one's own w r i t i n g s (or t o r e c o g n i z i n g them i n a n o t h e r ' s w r i t i n g s ) i s n o t a g r e a t one, and d i d i n f a c t p r o v i d e b o t h a u t h o r and p u b l i c w i t h a common t r e a s u r y o f a s s o c i a t i o n from w h i c h t o draw. W h i l e t h e Church c o n s t a n t l y used c e r t a i n t y p e s o f c l o t h i n g t o p r o v i d e v i s u a l symbolism, v a r i o u s w r i t e r s used c l o t h i n g i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , o c c a s i o n a l l y i n d i c a t i n g c l e a r l y t h a t t h e s e examples were n o t t o be i n t e r p r e t e d l i t e r a l l y . There i s a 10 B i b l i c a l p r e c e d e n t f o r t h i s , one example o f w h i c h i s found i n C h r i s t ' s p a r a b l e o f t h e m a r r i a g e f e a s t , "And t h e k i n g went i n t o see t h e g u e s t s ; and he saw t h e r e a man who had n o t on a wedding garment. And he s a i t h t o him: F r i e n d , how earnest t h o u i n h i t h e r n o t h a v i n g on a wedding garment? But he was 16 s i l e n t . " The l i t e r a l meaning o f t h i s passage f a d e s i n t o s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e because o f t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y s t a t e m e n t , "The kingdom o f heaven i s l i k e n e d t o a k i n g who made a: m a r r i a g e 17 . f o r h i s son." Thxs i n t r o d u c t i o n s i g n a l s t h a t t h e wedding garment i s meant t o be v iewed as a symbol, f o r the e n t i r e example i s s y m b o l i c . From the c o n t e x t , t h e wedding garment r e f e r s w i t h o u t a doubt t o t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e s o u l n e c e s s a r y t o g a i n heaven. J u s t as i n t h e l i t e r a l meaning t h e c e r e m o n i a l garment i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o a c c e p t a n c e i n t o t h e f e a s t , t h e p r o p e r s t a t e o f t h e s o u l i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n t o g a i n i n g t h e j o y s o f heaven. The t r a d i t i o n o f n o n - l i t e r a l and s y m b o l i c use o f c l o t h i n g i s n o t l i m i t e d t o t h e B i b l e , and i t appears u n d e n i a b l y i n t h e M i d d l e H i g h German c o u r t l y e p i c and has i t s p l a c e i n t h e h e r o i c e p i c . N o n - l i t e r a l c l o t h i n g appears i n s i t u a t i o n s where a s y m b o l i c v a l u e i s a s s i g n e d t o " r e a l c l o t h i n g , " t h a t i s , c l o t h -i n g w h i c h f o r t h e purposes o f t h e n a r r a t i v e can be assumed t o have e x i s t e d , as w e l l as t o c l o t h i n g w h i c h i s u n d e r s t o o d n e v e r t o have e x i s t e d i n r e a l i t y b u t has a p u r e l y s y m b o l i c e x i s t e n c e . I n Harmann von Aue's I w e i n th e madness t h a t f a l l s upon th e hero i s accompanied .by a t e a r i n g o f f o f h i s c l o t h i n g : 11 d6 wart s i n riuwe a l s o groz 1 daz im i n daz h i r n e sohSz e i n zorn unde e i n tobesuht, e r brach sine s i t e und sine zuht und z a r t e abe s i n gewant, daz er wart bl6z sam e i n h a n t . ^ Here onl y the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of the madness and the t e a r i n g o f f of c l o t h i n g i s necessary to i n d i c a t e t h a t c l o t h i n g f u n c t i o n s as a s i g n of s a n i t y , of the s i t e and zuht of the hero. S l i g h t -l y more than one hundred l i n e s l a t e r , Hartmann u n i t e s c l o t h i n g and senses i n a s i n g l e phrase, "er l i e f nu nacket b e i d e r , / d e r sinne unde der c l e i d e r " (Iwein, 3359-60). The l a c k o f c l o t h i n g which f u n c t i o n s as a companion to Iwein's madness f r e e s the reader to e x t r a p o l a t e from what Hartmann h i m s e l f s t a t e s to a f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of the symbolism of t h i s scene, having a l r e a d y been a l e r t e d to i t s symbolic p o t e n t i a l by the author. I t i s an important f e a t u r e of Iwein's madness t h a t the o f f e n s e which b r i n g s the hero from h i s senses i s a s o c i a l o f f e n s e , and the r e s u l t i n g madness f o r c i b l y sep-a r a t e s Iwein from s o c i e t y , making him l i v e b e a s t - l i k e i n the f o r e s t and shun the c l o t h i n g t h a t i s one d i f f e r e n c e between beast and man. Iwein i s r e c l o t h e d l a t e r when he i s healed of h i s madness and presumably of h i s s o c i a l f a u l t , reborn s o c i a l l y , as i t were. The c l o t h i n g i n t h i s scene has a f u n c t i o n on two l e v e l s : t h e r e i s t h a t r e a l c l o t h i n g which Iwein wears, t e a r s o f f and again wears, and t h e r e e x i s t s u n i t e d w i t h i t a symbolic l e v e l which f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e s the c o n d i t i o n s o f h i s madness, the c l o t h i n g which i s juxtaposed to s i n n e . The r e l a t i o n of c l o t h i n g to s o c i a l acceptance appears elsewhere, n o t a b l y i n Genesis: a f t e r the f l o o d , Noah becomes drunk and 12 l i e s uncovered i n his tent. When his sons Sem and Japeth approach him to cover him, they walk backwards so as not to see him i n t h i s state, possibly i n d i c a t i n g a primitive taboo i n viewing a n t i - s o c i a l nakedness. Real clothing with symbolic value appears i n the Nibelungenlied i n the episode of Brunhilde's ring and g i r d l e . This incident i s not s p e c i f i c a l l y indicated by the author himself as having symbolic value, yet he does so d i s t i n c t l y and deliber-ately through the actions of the characters. When the a r t i c l e s are given to Kriemhild by her husband, she believes them to be 19 an i n d i c a t i o n of Siegfried's sexual conquest of Brunhild. Kriemhild draws her conclusion e n t i r e l y from the evidence of the two a r t i c l e s of clothing: Do sprach aber Kriemhilt: 'ine wils niht wesen diep. du mohtes wol gedaget nan, und waere d i r ere l i e p . i c h erziugez mit dem gur t e l , den i c h hie umbe han, daz i c h niht enliuge: ja. wart min s i f r i t din man.'^O Even i f the poet's audience did not already have a preconception of what the possession of a maiden's ring and g i r d l e meant, the actions of the characters i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n would have been suf-f i c i e n t to suggest the extended meanings. Gregorius, another of Hartmann's works, begins with an a l l e g o r i c a l version of the Parable of the Good Samaritan, t e l l i n g of a certai n man being set upon by murderers. As he f e l l into t h e i r power: da haten s i i n nider geslagen und im vr e v e l l i c h e entragen a l l e r siner sinne k l e i t und h&ten i n an g e l e i t v i i marterliche wunden.^x 13 I n t h e p h r a s e a l l e r s l n e r s i n n e k l e i t Hartmann i s a b s t r a c t i n g t h e g e n e r a l noun f o r c l o t h i n g and u s i n g i t t o d e s c r i b e a man's sen s e s . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r man i s robbed n o t o f t h e c l o t h i n g o f h i s body b u t o f t h e " c l o t h i n g " o r p r o t e c t i o n p r o v i d e d him by h i s c o n s c i o u s b e i n g . J u s t as b e i n g p h y s i c a l l y s t r i p p e d l e a v e s a man p r e y t o h a r m f u l elements o f n a t u r e , t h i s man f i n d s h i s v e r y s o u l u n p r o t e c t e d : ez was zuo den stunden s i n e r s e l e armout v i i g r o z . sus l i e z e n s i i n / s i n n e / b l o z unde h a l p t o t l i g e n . (Greg. 106-09) God does n o t abandon him, however, and sends him " c l o t h i n g " t o r e p l a c e t h a t w h i c h has been s t o l e n from him: do enhate im got n i h t v e r z i g e n s i n e r g e w o n l i c h e r e r b a r m e k e i t und sande im d i s i u zwei k l e i t : g e dingen unde v o r h t e , d i u g o t s e l b e worhte daz s i im e i n s c h i r m waeren und a l i e n s i i n d a e r e n : v o r h t e daz e r e r s t u r b e , g edinge daz e r i h t v e r d u r b e . (Greg. 110-18) I t i s o b v i o u s from t h e p o e t ' s own words t h a t t h e c l o t h i n g i n t h i s e x c e r p t i s not i n t e n d e d t o be viewed as h a v i n g any r e a l f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e , t h a t i t s e x i s t e n c e i s p u r e l y on t h e s y m b o l i c l e v e l . The man i s f i n a l l y " c l o t h e d " i n hope and f e a r , t h e two v i r t u e s w h i c h can o f f e r t h e p r o t e c t i o n t o h i s s o u l t h a t r e a l c l o t h i n g can o f f e r t o t h e body. Twice i n G o t t f r i e d ' s T r i s t a n c l o t h i n g i s c o n n e c t e d t o c e r t a i n v i r t u e s . I n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r h i s k n i g h t i n g , T r i s t a n ' s garments a r e p r e p a r e d by hoher muot, v o l l e z g u o t , b e s c h e i d e n -h e i t , and h o f s c h e r s i n : 14 s i worhten a l l e v i e r e v i i r e h t e i n i r maniere: d e r hohe muot der g e r t e , daz v o i l e guot gewerte, b e s c h e i d e n h e i t s c h u o f unde s n e i t , der s i n d e r n aete i r a l l e r c l e i t und ander i r s e i t i u r e , b a n i e r e und c o v e r t i u r e und anderen d e r r i t t e r r a t , d e r den r i t t e r b e s t a t . 2 2 I n t h i s passage G o t t f r i e d i s v e r y c l o s e t o Hartmann's p r o l o g u e t o G r e g o r i u s , e x c e p t t h a t i n s t e a d o f t h e s a l v a t i o n - o r i e n t e d C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e s o f gedinge and v o r h t e he uses s t r i c t l y k n i g h t l y a t t r i b u t e s . F o l l o w i n g G o t t f r i e d ' s l i t e r a r y e x c u r s u s T r i s t a n i s " l e d i n " by t h e s e same f o u r v i r t u e s , and G o t t f r i e d speaks o f two s e p a r a t e k i n d s o f c l o t h i n g : p h y s i c a l garments sewn by man, t h a t i s t h e r e a l and f u n c t i o n a l c l o t h i n g , and t h e f i g u r a t i v e c l o t h i n g w i t h w h i c h a man i s b o r n , h i s v i r t u e s o r h i s e d e l e n muot: i c h meine aber an der waete, d i e mannes hant da n a e t e , n i h t an der an gebornen wat, d i u von des h e r z e n kamere g a t , d i e s i da h e i z e n t e d e l e n muot, d i u den man wolgemuoten t u o t und werdet l i p unde l e b e n : d i u wat w a r t den g e s e l l e n geben dem h e r r e n u n g e l l c h e . ( T r l s t . 4991-4999) An even more s t r i k i n g example o f G o t t f r i e d ' s an gebornen wat o c c u r s somewhat l a t e r when I s o l d e sends Brangane away t o be s l a i n i n t h e f o r e s t . When asked what she c o u l d have done t o anger h e r l a d y s o , Brangane e x p l a i n s t h a t upon l e a v i n g I r e l a n d , b o t h she and I s o l d e took w i t h them a pure w h i t e s h i r t . But I s o l d e s o i l e d h e r s on t h e j o u r n e y and begged Brangane's so t h a t she m ight be p r e s e n t a b l e f o r Mark on t h e wedding n i g h t . The anger, Brangane e x p l a i n s , must be because she h e s i t a t e d b e f o r e a g r e e i n g t o l e n d h e r s . T h i s t a l e i s t r a n s p a r e n t t o t h e a u d i e n c e who a r e o f c o u r s e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e a c t i o n s l e a d i n g up t o t h i s e p i s o d e , and t h e r e a d e r has no d i f f i c u l t y w hatsoever making t h e p r o p e r e q u a t i o n o f t h e p ure w h i t e garment t a k e n from I r e l a n d t o I s o l d e ' s v i r g i n i t y , l o s t i n t h e h e a t of. h e r l o v e on t h e voyage. The t a l e i s a f i c t i o n o f Brangane's and t h e r e a s o n f o r I s o l d e ' s a t t e m p t e d murder i s t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f h e r maid f o r h e r s e l f on t h e wedding n i g h t ; I s o l d e f e a r s b e t r a y a l . These examples w h i c h appear i n l i t e r a t u r e contemporary w i t h P a r z i v a l and W i l l e h a l m s u g g e s t t h a t t h e n o n - l i t e r a l and s y m b o l i c use o f c l o t h i n g was n o t i g n o r e d i n M i d d l e H i g h German l i t e r a t u r e . There i s f u r t h e r m o r e a s t r i k i n g example i n P a r z i v a l where Wolfram e x p l a i n s t h e use o f a garment as a symbol, one o f t h e few e x p l a n a t i o n s he makes. D u r i n g P a r z i v a l ' f i r s t v i s i t t o t h e G r a i l c a s t l e he i s l e n t a c l o a k by Repanse de Schoye. When he r e l a t e s t h i s t o T r e v r i z e n t , he i s g i v e n t h e r e a s o n b e h i n d t h e l o a n : do s p r a c h aber P a r z i v a l 'wer was e i n maget d i u den g r a l , t r u o c ? i r m a n t e l le*ch man m i r . ' d e r w i r t s p r a c h 'neve, was e r i r ( d i u s e l b e i s t d i n muome), s i n e l e c h d i r s n i h t ze ruome: s i wand du s o l t s t da h e r r e s i n des g r a l s unt i r , d a r zuo min. . . 1 -The c l o a k i s g i v e n him i n s y m b o l i c r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s a n t i c i -p a t e d s t a t u s as t h e G r a i l k i n g . I t i s a symbol w h i c h he i s un-a b l e t o i n t e r p r e t i n t h e same way t h a t he i s u n a b l e t o f u l f i l l t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r f r e e i n g A m f o r t a s from h i s agony. 16 In view o f the p r e c e d i n g examples, a l l showing t h a t con-temporaries of Wolfram—and Wolfram h i m s e l f i n a t l e a s t one i n s t a n c e — d i d not l i m i t themselves to a p u r e l y l i t e r a l use o f c l o t h i n g , i t i s c e r t a i n l y l i k e l y t h a t Wolfram too made use o f t h i s v a r i e t y of symbolism. S t y l i s t i c a l l y , Wolfram was ob-v i o u s l y fond of o b s c u r i t y , and i n d i c a t e d , a t l e a s t at times, t h a t anything t h a t would g i v e i t s e l f up to a l i t e r a l i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n or to a s u p e r f i c i a l r e a d i n g o r h e a r i n g was not r e a l l y worth w r i t i n g . In the prologue, Wolfram i n d i c a t e s t h a t c a l c u l a t e d o b s c u r i t y i s a t e s t of the wisdom of the audience and i s i n d i c a t i v e of one's d e s i r e to come to terms w i t h the n a r r a t i v e , s i n c e o n l y those who s i n c e r e l y want to know w i l l expend the e f f o r t to work through the d e l i b e r a t e d i f f i c u l t i e s : d i z v l i e g e n d e b i s p e l i s t tumben l i u t e n gar ze s n e l , s i n e mugens n i h t erdenken: wand ez kan vor i n wenken reh t e alsam e i n s c h e l l e c hase. ouch erkante i c h n i e so wisen man, ern mohte gerne kiinde han, welher s t i u r e d i s i u maere gern t und waz s i guoter l£re wernt. dar an s i nimmer des verzagent, b e i d i u s i v l i e h e n t unde jagent, s i entwichent unde kerent, s i l a s t e r n t unde e r e n t . swer mit d i s e n schanzen a l i e n kan, an dem hat w i t z e wol getan, der s i c h n i h t v e r s i t z e t noch v e r g e t und s i c h anders wol v e r s t e t . (Parz. 1, 15-19; 2, 5-16) I t i s s c a r c e l y l i k e l y t h a t a w r i t e r as s o p h i s t i c a t e d as Wolfram, w r i t i n g i n an age where symbolism was expected, missed so obvious and so u s e f u l a v e h i c l e f o r symbolic u t t e r a n c e s as c l o t h i n g . I t is., however, a s i d e t o Wolfram's works which i s l i t t l e m e n t i o n e d i n t h e c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . E l f r i e d e B e r t e l t c o n s i d e r e d t h e q u e s t i o n , b u t was c o n v i n c e d t h a t w i t h t h e e x -c e p t i o n o f t h e u s e o f a r m o r o n G o o d F r i d a y , t h e c h a n g e f r o m f o o l ' s c l o t h i n g t o t h e r e d a r m o r , a n d t h e e p i s o d e o f R e p a n s e ' s c l o a k , c l o t h i n g d e s c r i p t i o n i n P a r z i v a l i s n o t a t a l l s y m b o l i c a n d i s l i m i t e d t o s u c h f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t s a s m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d f r o m t h e a u t h o r o f a c o u r t l y e p i c , " V o n d a ab i s t a l l e s S u c h e n n a c h s y m b o l i s c h e r K l e i d u n g v e r g e b l i c h , d i e a n d e r e n G e w a n d s c h i l d e r u n g e n , s o w o h l i n d e r P a r z i v a l - w i e i n d e r G a w a n h a n d l u n g s i n d z w e c k h a f t e r A r t u n d u n a b h a n g i g v o n d e r i n n e r e n E n t w i c k l u n g d e r H e i d e n i n d e n L a u f d e r E r z a h l u n g •4. -.24 e i n g e s t r e u t . O t h e r c r i t i c s , w i t h o u t d e l v i n g f u l l y i n t o t h e q u e s t i o n , h a v e s e e n i n W o l f r a m a g r e a t e r u s e o f c l o t h i n g s y m b o l i s m t h a n B e r t e l t . W a l t e r M e r s m a n n i n t r o d u c e s a s e c t i o n o n c l o t h i n g a n d a r m o r i n D e r B e s i t z w e c h s e l u n d s e i n e B e d e u t u n g i n d e n D i c h -t u n g e n W o l f r a m s v o n E s c h e n b a c h u n d G o t t f r i e d s v o n S t r a s s b u r g w i t h t h e r a t h e r g e n e r a l r e m a r k t h a t a k n i g h t ' s p o s s e s s i o n s (one m u s t h e r e a s s u m e h i s c l o t h i n g a n d a r m o r a n d p e r h a p s w e a p o n s ) o f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e man a n d h i s a p p r o a c h i n g m i l i e u , " A u s d e n B e d i n g u n g e n d e s A u f b r u c h s u n d d e n D i n g e n , d i e d e r R i t t e r m i t n i m m t , d a r f man W e s e n t l i c h e s u b e r i h n 25 s e l b s t u n d d x e i h n e r w a r t e n d e W e l t e n t n e h m e n . " M e r s m a n n u s e s t h i s g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n a s a b a s i s f o r a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f c e r t a i n e x c h a n g e s o f c l o t h i n g w h i c h a p p e a r i n P a r z i v a l . D a v i d B l a m i r e s 2 ^ e x p r e s s e s t h e b e l i e f t h a t s i m p l e c h a n g e s o f c l o t h i n g h a v e a n o n - l i t e r a l 18 27 2 8 s i g n i f i c a n c e . K a r l Lachmann and P e t e r Wapnewski t o u c h upon 29 c o l o r symbolism, and O t t o Simson mentions th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f gem symbolism, a l t h o u g h he b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e gems i n P a r z i v a l e x i s t t o c a s t a r e f l e c t i o n upon t h e i r b e a r e r s and n o t f o r any i n n a t e s i g n i f i c a n c e . There a r e a h a n d f u l o f a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n about v a r i o u s i t e m s o f c l o t h i n g mentioned by Wolfram, y e t they g e n e r a l l y i g n o r e the s y m b o l i c i m p l i c a t i o n s and c o n c e n t r a t e 30 on h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s . H o r t z s c h a h s k y d i s c u s s e s Gahmuret's two emblems i n l i g h t o f the h i s t o r i c a l c o a t - o f - a r m s o f t h e 31 House o f A n j o u . George Timpson l i s t s t h e v a r i o u s h e r a l d i c r e f e r e n c e s w h i c h o c c u r i n P a r z i v a l and h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t the s c a r c i t y o f such r e f e r e n c e s r e s u l t s from Wolfram's use o f a . . . . 32 s o u r c e o r i g i n a t i n g i n p r e - h e r a l d i c t i m e s . C h r i s t i a n S e y b o l d d e f i n e s t h e word achmardi and d i s c u s s e s i t e t y m o l o g i c a l l y . 33 J u l i u s S c h w i e t e r i n g ' s a r t i c l e on helmet d e c o r a t i o n i s f o r the most p a r t a f a c t u a l d i s c u s s i o n o f the t y p e s o f d e c o r a t i o n s used on helmets d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages. A l t h o u g h he mentions t h a t c e r t a i n elements o f t h e helmet c o u l d be s y m b o l i c , the o n l y ex-amples he g i v e s o f s y m b o l i c usage a r e the s t o n e s s e t i n helmets worn i n two o f t h e Spielmannsepen. B e r c h t e r i n K o n i g R o t h e r wears A l e x a n d e r ' s P a r a d i e s s t e i n and Herzog E r n s t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f i n d i n g t h e Waise w h i c h g r a c e s t h e i m p e r i a l crown. W i t h th e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e s e and a few o t h e r works, th e p o s s i b l e s y m b o l i c i m p l i c a t i o n s o f c l o t h i n g have s c a r c e l y been d i s c u s s e d i n t h e secondary l i t e r a t u r e on Wolfram. The b u l k o f P a r z i v a l r e s e a r c h t o d a t e r e v o l v e s about a few key a r e a s o f d i f f i c u l t y , a l l o f w h i c h a r e o f prime i m p o r t a n c e f o r 19 t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a r r a t i v e i t s e l f . P o s s i b l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t i s t h a t o f t h e G r a i l . Wolfram i s o f l i t t l e h e l p when he r e f e r s t o i t as e i n d i n e ( P a r z . 235, 23) o r as der  s t e i n ( P a r z . 469, 28) y e t makes i t t h e most i m p o r t a n t element o f h i s h e r o ' s l i f e , as P a r z i v a l t e l l s T r e v r i z e n t , "min h o h s t i u n o t i s t umben g r a l ; / d a nach umb min s e l b e s wxp" ( P a r z . 467, 26-27). Research on t h e G r a i l q u e s t i o n has been concerned w i t h i t s h i s t o r y and p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s , the use made o f i t i n o t h e r o f t h e G r a i l romances o f the M i d d l e Ages, and Wolfram's own c a l c u l a t e d o b s c u r i t y on t h e m a t t e r , i n c l u d i n g such c o n f u s i n g a r e a s as t h e n e u t r a l a n g e l s , t h e b l e e d i n g o r b l o o d y l a n c e , t h e L o n g i n u s l e g e n d , and l a p s i t e x i l l i s . Some o f t h e more r e c e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on the G r a i l q u e s t i o n have been c a r r i e d o u t by Bodo M e r g e l l , " ^ H e l e n A d o l f , ^ 5 and H e r b e r t K o l b . ^ 6 One major d i f f i c u l t y i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e G r a i l i s t h a t i t i s v i r -t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s c u s s Wolfram's co n c e p t i n a vacuum because o f t h e c o m p l i c a t e d h i s t o r y o f t h e G r a i l l e g e n d , i t s o r i g i n s , and i t s e x t e n s i v e use i n l i t e r a t u r e . The q u e s t i o n o f Wolfram's s o u r c e o r s o u r c e s i s a n o t h e r a r e a much d i s c u s s e d i n the c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f C h r e t i e n de Troyes and t h e a t t e m p t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e e l u s i v e K y o t ; o f t h e two p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s Kyot i s t h e most p o p u l a r f o r purposes o f s p e c u l a t i o n . I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e l a -t i o n s h i p between Wolfram and C h r e t i e n has been i n v e s t i g a t e d 37 38 3 9 by A. T. H a t t o , M a r g a r e t R i c h e y , and Bodo M e r g e l l . - Wolf-gang M o h r ^ and W a l t e r S c h r o d e r ^ have w r i t t e n about th e ques-t i o n o f K y o t . 20 Q u i t e a l a r g e body of r e s e a r c h has been devoted to v a r i o u s e t h i c a l q u e s t i o n s brought up by c e r t a i n i n c i d e n t s i n P a r z i v a l . The s p i r i t u a l i z a t i o n of the A r t h u r i a n world has occasioned s e v e r a l s o c i o - t h e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , among them works by 42 43 44 Walter Schroder, A l o i s Haas, and Benedikt Mockenhaupt. One of the major e t h i c a l q u e s t i o n s brought up by the n a r r a t i v e i s t h a t of P a r z i v a l ' s g u i l t , both r e a l and i m p l i e d , i n c l u d i n g the e x t e n t of h i s s i n s of omission and commission i n the deaths of Herzeloyde and I t h e r , the o f f e n s e s brought about by h i s ignorance such as the b e a t i n g of Cunneware, Jeschute's treatment by O r i l u s , and the e x t e n s i o n of Amfortas' s u f f e r -45 mg. Wolfram's c o n f u s i n g language and s t y l e have a t t r a c t e d numerous l i n g u i s t s and s t y l i s t s i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s c h o i c e of words, h i s m e t r i c a l scheme, and comparison w i t h h i s contempor-a r i e s as w e l l as the development of the Middle High German language to h i s day. Some of h i s l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s , e s p e c i a l l y those found i n the prologue, have produced s i n g l e 46 o b s c u r i t i e s which have i n t r i g u e d r e s e a r c h e r s . In a d d i t i o n to these, o t h e r p o p u l a r areas f o r r e s e a r c h are the r o l e of women i n the n a r r a t i v e , the q u e s t i o n of Wolfram's e d u c a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to h i s c l a i m of being an a n a l -phabet, the geography of the poem, and the d a t i n g of the events i n the n a r r a t i v e . There have a l s o been attempts to p r e s e n t an 47 overview of the work. The amount of r e s e a r c h devoted to W i l l e h a l m has lagged f a r behind t h a t devoted to P a r z i v a l . With t h i s work, the major q u e s t i o n i s t h a t o f s o u r c e , and t h e c o n n e c t i o n o f Wolfram's v e r s i o n w i t h o t h e r s i n t h e c y c l e c o n c e r n i n g G u i l l a u m e i s f r e -q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d . The major q u e s t i o n s o f an i n t e r p r e t a t i v e 48 n a t u r e a r e the f i g u r e o f Gyburg, th e r e l i g i o u s background t o 49 50 t h e poem, and .the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the p r o l o g u e . A l t h o u g h one can r e a l l y o n l y s p e c u l a t e on t h e r e a s o n s t h a t p o s s i b l e c l o t h i n g symbolism and s i m i l a r a r e a s i n Wolfram's works have n o t y e t been i n v e s t i g a t e d i n d e t a i l c e r t a i n p o i n t s a r e f a i r l y o b v i o u s . As f a r as P a r z i v a l i s concerned i t has been o f g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e t o i n v e s t i g a t e c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s b a s i c t o t h e n a r r a t i v e ; w i t h o u t an a t t empt t o a n a l y s e the use o f t h e G r a i l , most o t h e r r e s e a r c h i n P a r z i v a l i s f u t i l e . I t i s a l s o v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o view a work i n i t s p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e , i n l i g h t o f i t s a n t e c e d e n t s , s o u r c e s , and i t s p o s i t i o n i n b r o a d g r o u p i n g s and c y c l e s . T h i s has been the case w i t h W i l l e h a l m as w e l l as w i t h P a r z i v a l , as shown by the numerous works on s o u r c e s and c y c l e s , and on t h e A r t h u r i a n w o r l d i n g e n e r a l . One s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t y w h i c h c o n f r o n t s anyone w i s h i n g t o i n v e s t i g a t e Wolfram i s t h a t he l e f t no d i a r y , l e t t e r s , o r n o t e s . Even G o t t f r i e d , contemporary w i t h Wolfram, commented on t h e need f o r a g l o s s , a l t h o u g h he meant i t as an i n d i c t m e n t o f Wolfram's s t y l e : d i e s e l b e n w i l d e n a e r e s i muezen t i u t a e r e m i t i r maeren l a z e n gan: w i r n mugen i r da nach n i h t v e r s t a n , a l s man s i h o e r e t unde s i h t ; son han w i r ouch der muoze n i h t , daz w i r d i e g l o s e suochen i n den swarzen buochen. ( T r i s t . 4683-90) 22 There i s , t h e n , t h e problem o f d e t e r m i n i n g what Wolfram means i f he chooses n o t t o t e l l h i s a u d i e n c e , b u t t h i s i n i t s e l f does n o t make the d i s c u s s i o n o f Wolfram's s y m b o l i c usage i m p o s s i b l e o r f u t i l e , m e r e l y d i f f i c u l t . There i s c e r t a i n l y much t o be g a i n e d from i t , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a v e r y r e a l danger t h a t one may b e g i n t o f i n d symbols where none e x i s t . Henry K r a t z has mentioned t h i s p roblem i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h r e c e n t c r i t i c i s m : C r i t i c i s m i n t h e l a s t two decades has been g r i m l y d e t e r m i n e d t o f i n d t h e most a b s t r u s e symbolism everywhere, and P a r z i v a l , w i t h i t s r e p u t a t i o n f o r o b s c u r i t y and m y s t i c a l p r o f u n d i t y , has p r o v e d f a i r game. And i n f a c t , how can anyone d i s p r o v e t h a t a c e r t a i n o b j e c t o r event s y m b o l i z e s what a c r i t i c says i t s y m b o l i z e s ? I s h o u l d t h i n k t h a t one way would be t o demonstrate t h a t the t h e o r y as p o s t u l a t e d does n o t f i t i n w i t h t h e d e t a i l s o f th e s t o r y , t h a t i t i s i n c o n s i s t e n t o r c o n t r a -d i c t o r y . I am n o t i m p r e s s e d by t h e c o n t e n t i o n o f the S y m b o l i s t s t h a t i n a work o f a r t e v e r y d e t a i l does n o t have t o be c o n s i s t e n t . W h i l e we may g r a n t t h i s i n p r i n c i p l e , i t c e r t a i n l y seems t h a t i f t h e r e a r e g r o s s i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , a g r o s s con-t r a d i c t i o n t o t h e t h e o r y i n the d e t a i l s o f t h e work, t h e n the t h e o r y i s wrong. Or i f t h e a l l e g e d symbolism presupposes i d e a s o r i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t Wolfram c o u l d n o t p o s s i b l y have had, o r i f i t i s so f a r - f e t c h e d t h a t no one c o u l d p o s s i b l y be e x p e c t e d t o u n d e r s t a n d i t i n t h e way t h a t t h e c r i t i c p r o f e s s e s t o u n d e r s t a n d i t , t he t h e o r y i s wrong.51 I n d i s c u s s i n g the n o n - l i t e r a l use o f c l o t h i n g i n Wolfram's works we s h a l l be concerned n o t o n l y w i t h pure symbolism and i t s s u b s e t s such as a l l e g o r y and metaphor, b u t a l s o w i t h " s i g n i f i c a n t " f u r t h e r r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e o b j e c t i n q u e s t i o n . The d i s c u s s i o n w i l l c e n t e r on t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h i s n o n - l i t e r a l use o f c l o t h i n g t o t h e work as a whole and w i l l a ttempt t o 23 remain c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the d e t a i l s o f the n a r r a t i v e . The g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n w i l l c o n c e r n P a r z i v a l because i t o f f e r s t h e b r o a d e s t scope o f c l o t h i n g s t y l e s and t y p e s t o be found among Wolfram's works. The c h a p t e r on c l o t h i n g i n W i l l e h a l m i s i n c l u d e d f o r purposes o f comparison w i t h P a r z i v a l ; t h e b u l k o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s c o n cerned w i t h t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f armor, because most o f t h e e v e n t s o f t h e n a r r a t i v e t a k e p l a c e on t h e b a t t l e f i e l d . T i t u r e l , because o f i t s f r a g m e n t a r y n a t u r e , has been e x c l u d e d , as have the poems a t t r i b u t e d t o Wolfram, none o f w h i c h mentions c l o t h i n g . There a r e v a r i o u s ways t o t a c k l e t h e p r o blem o f a n a l y s i n g symbols. J . E. G i r l o t , d i s c u s s i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n , s u g g e s t s a t h r e e - s t e p p r o c e s s : I f we t a k e any ' s y m b o l " — f o r example, t h e sword, o r t h e c o l o u r r e d — a n d a n a l y s e i t s s t r u c t u r e , we s h a l l see t h a t i t can be s p l i t up i n t o b o t h i t s r e a l and i t s s y m b o l i c components. F i r s t , we f i n d t h e o b j e c t i n i t s e l f , i n i s o l a t i o n ; i n t h e second p l a c e we f i n d t h e o b j e c t l i n k e d t o i t s u t i l i t a r i a n f u n c t i o n , t o i t s c o n c r e t e o r f a c t u a l r e a l i t y i n the t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l w o r l d — d i r e c t l y , i n t h e case o f t h e sword; o r i n d i r e c t l y , g i v i n g c o l o u r , f o r example, t o a c l o a k i n t h e case o f t h e c o l o u r r e d ; i n t h e t h i r d p l a c e , we f i n d what en-a b l e s t h e o b j e c t t o be c o n s i d e r e d as a symbol; t h a t s t r u c t u r e w h i c h we have termed ' s y m b o l i c f u n c t i o n ' , o r t h e dynamic tendency o f t h e o b j e c t t o l i n k up w i t h i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g e q u i v a l e n t s i n a l l analogous s e r i e s , n e v e r t h e l e s s p r i n c i p a l l y t e n d i n g t o show the p a r t i c u l a r m e t a p h y s i c a l meaning. I n t h i s s y m b o l i c f u n c t i o n we can s t i l l d i s t i n g u i s h between the s y m b o l i c meaning and the g e n e r a l meaning, the l a t t e r b e i n g f r e q u e n t l y am-b i v a l e n t and charged w i t h a l l u s i o n s whose v a r i e t y , however, i s n e v e r c h a o t i c , f o r i t i s m a r s h a l l e d ^ ^ a l o n g t h e c o o r d i n a t e l i n e o f a 'common rhythm". I n our d i s c u s s i o n we s h a l l f i r s t be concerned w i t h what makes c e r t a i n garments, o r a s p e c t s t h e r e o f , good c a n d i d a t e s f o r symbol-ism. We s h a l l d e f i n e "symbol" v e r y l o o s e l y as any o b j e c t t h a t r e p r e s e n t s a n o t h e r o b j e c t , q u a l i t y , c o n d i t i o n , r e l a t i o n -s h i p , o r g i v e s t h e r e a d e r some s i g n a l t h a t he s h o u l d a t t h i s p o i n t r e c a l l t h e s e t h i n g s . Our u l t i m a t e c o n c e r n i s t o p r o ve t h r o u g h t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t Wolfram made use o f c l o t h i n g symbolism i n P a r z i v a l and t o some e x t e n t i n W i l l e h a l m . There are v a r i o u s ways i n w h i c h we can g a i n s u p p o r t f o r our s u p p o s i t i o n s w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o t u r n t o Wolfram h i m s e l f f o r c o n f i r m a t i o n , s i n c e t h i s i s a l l b u t i m p o s s i b l e . R e f e r e n c e w i l l f r e q u e n t l y be made t o l i t e r a t u r e w r i t t e n by c o n t e m p o r a r i e s and immediate p r e d e c e s s o r s o f Wolfram, assuming t h a t a t r a d i t i o n a l symbol w i l l appear i n more th a n one work, assuming to o t h a t Wolfram was n o t c o m p l e t e l y o r i g i n a l i n h i s c r e a t i o n , t h a t he must have drawn o c c a s i o n a l l y on t r a d i t i o n and custom, l i t e r a r y and s o c i a l . R e f e r e n c e w i l l a l s o be made t o l i t u r g i c a l p r a c t i c e s w h i c h a r e t h e m s e l v e s f r e q u e n t l y s e l f - c o n f e s s e d symbols and non-l i t e r a l p r a c t i c e s . The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e Church on t h e c u l t u r e o f the M i d d l e Ages cannot be d i s p u t e d , and i t i s a l o g i c a l a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e Church's c l o t h i n g symbolism and s i g n i f i c a n c e was n o t w h o l l y l o s t on t h e w r i t e r s o f t h e H i g h M i d d l e Ages, e s p e c i a l l y i n l i g h t o f e l e v e n t h and t w e l f t h c e n t u r y works on t h e s u b j e c t . A t t i m e s the i n v e s t i g a t i o n must r e s t r i c t i t s e l f w h o l l y t o t h e t e x t i n a s e a r c h f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t r e a t m e n t o f s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s by Wolfram. S i n c e t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f symbolism i s e s s e n t i a l l y a s u b j e c t i v e one, comparison w i t h i n t h e work i t -25 s e l f can be a t o o l i n e l i m i n a t i n g i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . We s h a l l , f i n a l l y , attempt to produce a coherent, non-c o n t r a d i c t o r y examination of n o n - l i t e r a l c l o t h i n g and symbolic usage, f i t t i n g i t i n t o the meaning of the passage where i t appears and the n a r r a t i v e as a whole. A t w o f o l d examination of the s y m b o l — i n the immediate context, and i n the context of the e n t i r e n a r r a t i v e — w i l l a t times be the method adopted. From t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n we hope to g a i n a b e t t e r under-s t a n d i n g of c e r t a i n passages i n which these symbols appear as w e l l as a b e t t e r o v e r a l l understanding of the works themselves i n the b e l i e f t h a t each stage of progress beyond the l i t e r a l meaning of a work adds to the o v e r a l l understanding. We have a l r e a d y d e f i n e d symbolism l o o s e l y as the use of any o b j e c t or aspect to r e p r e s e n t another o b j e c t , q u a l i t y , c o n d i t i o n , or r e l a t i o n s h i p or to a c t as a s i g n a l to the reader t h a t he i s to r e c a l l these t h i n g s . In t h i s sense our under-s t a n d i n g of the term "symbol" i n c l u d e s v a r i o u s shadings of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I t i n c l u d e s pure, unambiguous r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , metaphor and a l l e g o r y , and those s i t u a t i o n s i n which an o b j e c t combines a r e a l f u n c t i o n w i t h a symbolic v a l u e . A poet can f i n d symbolic t r a i t s i n l i f e wherever he may seek them. A c r i t i c i s much more l i m i t e d ; he must determine whether o r not common concepts and o b j e c t s are used to impart a s e t of a s s o c i a t i o n s beyond t h e i r obvious and l i t e r a l f u n c t i o n i n o r d e r to determine t h e i r symbolic v a l u e . CHAPTER ONE THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYMBOLS. MEDIEVAL CLOTHING AND ITS SYMBOLIC POTENTIAL A r a t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e development and use o f t r a d i -t i o n a l symbols can g e n e r a l l y be found i n an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r background and s o u r c e . Because Western l i t e r a t u r e i s s t r o n g l y C h r i s t i a n i n c h a r a c t e r , many l i t e r a r y symbols s p r i n g from B i b l i c a l a l l u s i o n , w i t h o t h e r s r e s u l t i n g from p h y s i c a l resembl--b l a n c e , language p l a y , and a s s o c i a t i o n , among o t h e r p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s . Symbols from B i b l i c a l a l l u s i o n a r e numerous, espe-c i a l l y i n m e d i e v a l l i t e r a t u r e : C h r i s t i s t h e Good Shepherd, the v i n e , A l p h a and Omega, and t h e Lamb o f God. The A p o s t l e s are f i s h e r s o f men, an a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e i r a c t u a l o c c u p a t i o n . S h i p s a r e o f t e n used as symbols o f churches o r o f t h e Church because o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l resemblance t o t h e b u i l d i n g i t s e l f . Language p l a y i s r e s p o n s i b l e i n p a r t f o r t h e use o f such symbols as t h e C h i Rho, t h e f i r s t two l e t t e r s o f C h r i s t ' s name i n Greek, and f o r INRI w h i c h s t a n d s f o r I e s u s Nazarenus Rex  Iudaeorum, s u p p o s e d l y i n s c r i b e d on t h e c r o s s a t t h e c r u c i -f i x i o n . The c o n s t a n t use o f t h e f i s h as a symbol by t h e e a r l y C h r i s t i a n s was p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d , p a r t i a l l y o c c a s i o n e d by a Greek p h r a s e meaning "Jesus C h r i s t , Son o f God, S a v i o u r " ; the f i r s t l e t t e r s o f t h e s e words s p e l l o u t IX9YC, t h e Greek word f o r f i s h . A s s o c i a t i o n b r o u g h t p u r p l e t o s t a n d f o r p e n i t e n c e , 26 s i n c e t h i s i s t h e c o l o r o f t h e robe p l a c e d on C h r i s t w h i l e he 53 was b e i n g mocked. The o r i g i n s o f C h r i s t i a n symbols a r e r e l a t i v e l y easy t o t r a c e because C h r i s t i a n i t y i s f a i r l y "new" i n t h e h i s t o r y o f mankind, and t h e symbols show a t o t a l con-c e n t r a t i o n upon th e h i s t o r y o f s a l v a t i o n . O ther t y p e s o f symbols show more complex o r more h i d d e n b e g i n n i n g s , a l t h o u g h they t o o a r o s e from some form o f r a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . The purpose o f a symbol i s , a f t e r a l l , t h e easy r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h a t a s p e c t w h i c h i t r e p r e s e n t s . I n t h e c r e a t i o n and development o f symbols, numerous q u a l i t i e s come i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Symbols e x i s t because o f c h e m i c a l / p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s , f o r example, o r by v i r t u e o f shape and s t r u c t u r e , o r even because o f a t h i r d - p a r t y a s s o c i a t i o n . The a t o m i c s t r u c t u r e o f g o l d p r e v e n t s i t from t a r n i s h i n g and e n s u r e s t h a t i t i s found f r e e i n n a t u r e . Thus, because o f i t s a b i l i t y t o remain pure and u n s u l l i e d , g o l d became a symbol f o r t h i s q u a l i t y i n a p e r s o n , a n o b l e , f o r example, who remains a l o o f from t h e common p e o p l e o r a p e r s o n pure i n s p i r i t and u n t a i n t e d by t h e e v i l about him. Amber i s e a s i l y g i v e n a s t a t i c charge by s t r o k i n g i t upon a p i e c e o f f a b r i c and, when cha r g e d , i s a b l e t o a t t r a c t l i g h t e r o b j e c t s t o i t s e l f . T h i s same q u a l i t y i n c h a l c e d o n y i n s p i r e d a l a p i d a r i s t t o i n t e r p r e t i t as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f God as t h e sun, f o r t h e warmth o f God r a i s e s up t h e h e a r t s o f t h e f a i t h f u l j u s t as the s t o n e r a i s e s 54 up p i e c e s o f s t r a w . S i m i l a r i t i e s i n shape and s t r u c t u r e g i v e r i s e t o a s u p e r -f i c i a l resemblance between c e r t a i n o b j e c t s , and o f t e n because 28 of mere e x t e r n a l resemblance, u n r e l a t e d o b j e c t s become con-nected s y m b o l i c a l l y ; once a resemblance has been e s t a b l i s h e d , c o n v i n c i n g arguments f o r t h e i r symbolic r e l a t i o n s h i p are o f t e n d e v i s e d . C e r t a i n shapes are taken to r e p r e s e n t l e s s v i s i b l e c o n d i t i o n s : c i r c l e s are symbols of wholeness and of t i m e l e s s -ness and e t e r n i t y because there i s no apparent be g i n n i n g o r end to a c i r c l e and no d i v i s i o n e x i s t s i n the shape. Woven f a b r i c s are c r e a t e d by meshing threads which t r a v e l i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s and came to r e p r e s e n t the mixing o f d i v e r g e n t f a c t o r s , people o r i d e a s . Beaded necklaces a l s o show t h i s u n i t y from d i v e r s i t y . These examples i l l u s t r a t e the development of symbolism from resemblance, a s i t u a t i o n which i s q u i t e s t r a i g h t -forward and g e n e r a l l y easy to i n t e r p r e t and t r a c e . Symbolism developed from a s s o c i a t i o n i s l e s s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , e s p e c i a l l y when the a s s o c i a t i o n i s i n the mind of one p a r t i c u l a r author. A s s o c i a t i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o l o r symbolism: blo o d i s r e d , t h e r e f o r e any o b j e c t t h a t i s a l s o r e d i s l i k e b l o o d and can be used to symbolize i t . Symbolism by a s s o c i a t i o n i s not r e s t r i c t e d to s i t u a t i o n s where o b j e c t s share a common q u a l i t y such as c o l o r but i s a l s o p o s s i b l e when two completely d i f -f e r e n t o b j e c t s are each r e l a t e d i n some way to a t h i r d : A i s r e l a t e d to B which i s r e l a t e d t o C, t h e r e f o r e A i s r e l a t e d t o C. C e r t a i n symbols evolve from f a s h i o n and s t y l e and can take t h e i r symbolic meanings from t h i s f a s h i o n , although t h e i r symbolism can be extended by making r e f e r e n c e t o a p r e - f a s h i o n s t a t e . Footwear, f o r example, r e p r e s e n t s freedom o r s i g n i f i e s the f r e e b o r n because i n some c u l t u r e s (notably Roman) s l a v e s 29 w e n t b a r e f o o t w h i l e o n l y t h e f r e e b o r n w e r e s h o d . T h i s c u l -t u r a l r e m n a n t e x i s t s i n c o n j u n c t i o n t o a n o l d e r s y m b o l i c m e a n i n g o f f o o t w e a r : s h o e s a r e " s e r v a n t s " o f man i n t h a t t h e y p r o t e c t t h e w e a r e r f r o m s o i l i n g h i m s e l f , b e c o m i n g d i r t y t h e m -s e l v e s i n t h e p r o c e s s . T h e f o l l o w i n g r e m a r k s a r e a i m e d a t i s o l a t i n g g e n e r a l t y p e s o f g a r m e n t s w h i c h a p p e a r i n W o l f r a m ' s w o r k s a n d d i s c u s s i n g t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e s e g a r m e n t s w h i c h s e r v e t o make t h e m s u c c e s s f u l v e h i c l e s f o r n o n - l i t e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d s y m b o l i c u s e . A n y b o d i l y c o v e r i n g d e v i s e d b y man c a n b e v i e w e d i n a t l e a s t two d i f f e r e n t w a y s : man c o v e r s h i s b o d y t o p r o t e c t i t f r o m t h e e f f e c t s o f a h o s t i l e e n v i r o n m e n t o r t o p r e v e n t i t s b e i n g s e e n t h r o u g h a s e n s e o f s h a m e . I n B i b l i c a l t r a d i t i o n , c l o t h i n g o r i g i n a t e d b e c a u s e o f shame a n d a l o s s o f i n n o c e n c e : A n d t h e woman saw t h a t t h e t r e e was g o o d t o e a t , a n d f a i r t o t h e e y e s , a n d d e l i g h t f u l t o b e h o l d : a n d s h e t o o k o f t h e f r u i t t h e r e o f , a n d d i d e a t , a n d g a v e t o h e r h u s b a n d who d i d e a t . A n d t h e e y e s o f t h e m b o t h w e r e o p e n e d : a n d when t h e y p e r -c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s t o b e n a k e d , t h e y s e w e d t o g e t h e r f i g l e a v e s , a n d made t h e m s e l v e s a p r o n s . 5 5 I n W i l l e h a l m , W o l f r a m e m p h a s i z e s t h e e l e m e n t o f shame i n d e -s c r i b i n g E v e ' s l o s s o f i n n o c e n c e : ' E y v a t e r h6h u n d e w e r t , d a z d x n m u o t d e r t u m p h e i t g e r t , d a z d u m i c h s c h e i d e n w i l t v o n d e m , d e r f r o u w e n E v e n g a p d i e s c h e m d a z s i a l r e r s t v e r d a c t i r b r u s t , d a was g e w a h s e n e i n g e l u s t d e r s i b r a h t e i n a r b e i t , i n d e s t i u v e l s g e s e l l e k e i t , d e r u n s e r i m m e r v a r e t . . . ' 5 ° Scham i s of course an important v i r t u e i n Wolfram's o p i n i o n , "scham i s t e i n s l o z ob a l i e n s i t e n " (Parz. 3, 5). C l o t h i n g then p r o v i d e s a c t u a l p h y s i c a l p r o t e c t i o n as w e l l as a s h i e l d f o r human emotion, f r e e i n g man from a constant sense o f shame. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of c l o t h i n g as p h y s i c a l p r o t e c t i o n i s seen b e s t i n garments such as c l o a k s and f u r s which are s p e c i f -i c a l l y i ntended to s h i e l d man from h i s environment. There are however o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the development o f garments which o f f e r p o s s i b l e symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e . Most garments worn d a i l y are i n f l u e n c e d by the n e c e s s i t y of functionalism:, breeches r e p l a c e d long d r e s s - l i k e garments because they allowed a freedom of movement t h a t was d e s i r a b l e . A sense of f u n c t i o n -a l i s m was p r e s e n t i n the development of garments which were adopted f o r c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s , but the r e s t r i c t i o n , however s t r i c t , of c e r t a i n types of garments to c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r s symbolic p o t e n t i a l . T r a v e l i n g c l o t h i n g i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to ease of m o b i l i t y and hunting c l o t h i n g r e p r e s e n t s t h a t p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . C l o t h i n g o f f e r s an element of symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e by v i r t u e of b e i n g made out of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s . The o r i g i n s o f c o l o r symbolism are d i f f i c u l t to determine, y e t i t i s c e r -t a i n l y one of the most widespread methods of symbolic r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n i f o n l y because a l l o b j e c t s have c o l o r . The seeds of c o l o r symbolism are i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d found i n o p t i c s and a s s o c i a t i o n . The spectrum r e s u l t s from l i g h t ' s b r e a k i n g up i n t o component wavelengths y i e l d i n g v a r i o u s c o l o r s which have 31 p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s u p o n m a n : T o b e g i n w i t h , t h e r e i s t h e s u p e r f i c i a l c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n s u g g e s t e d b y o p t i c s a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y . T h e f i r s t g r o u p e m b r a c e s warm ' a d v a n c -i n g ' c o l o u r s , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o p r o c e s s e s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n , a c t i v i t y a n d i n t e n s i t y ( r e d , o r a n g e , y e l l o w a n d , b y e x t e n s i o n , w h i t e ) , a n d t h e s e c o n d c o v e r s p a s s i v i t y a n d d e b i l i t a t i o n ( b l u e , i n d i g o , v i o l e t , a n d b y e x t e n s i o n , b l a c k ) , g r e e n b e i n g a n i n t e r m e d i a t e , t r a n s i t i o n a l c o l o u r s p a n n i n g t h e two g r o u p s . T h e n t h e r e a r e t h e s u b t l e u s e s t o w h i c h c o l o u r may b e p u t i n e m b l e m a t i c d e s i g n s . T h e s e r i a l o r d e r o f t h e c o l o u r - r a n g e i s b a s i c , c o m p r i s -i n g a s i t d o e s ( t h o u g h i n a s o m e w h a t a b s t r a c t s e n s e ) a k i n d o f l i m i t e d s e t o f d e f i n i t i v e , d i s t i n c t a n d o r d e r e d c o l o u r s . 5 ^ T h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f c o l o r , t h a t i s , t h e e x i s t e n c e t o m a n ' s m i n d o f p a r t i c u l a r c o l o r s t h a t h a v e a " w a r m " f e e l i n g a n d o t h e r s t h a t h a v e a " c o l d " f e e l i n g , may r e s u l t f r o m t h e a c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p a r t i c u l a r w a v e l e n g t h s . I n f r a r e d l i g h t i s i n d e e d h o t w h i l e u l t r a v i o l e t r a y s d o n o t f e e l h o t e v e n t h o u g h t h e y t o o h a v e t h e c a p a c i t y t o b u r n . T h e d e s i g n a t i o n s o f warm a n d c o l d c o l o r s m a y , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , h a v e a r i s e n m e r e l y f r o m a s s o c i a t i o n , j u s t a s t h e g r e a t e s t p a r t o f g e n e r a l c o l o r s y m b o l i s m d i d . F i r e i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f s h a d e s o f r e d a n d o r a n g e a n d y e l l o w w h i l e i c e a n d snow r e f l e c t v a r i o u s s h a d e s o f b l u e . A s s o c i a t i v e c o l o r s y m b o l i s m i s a v e r y e f f e c t i v e m e t h o d o f b r i n g i n g s y m b o l s t o t h e s u b c o n s c i o u s l e v e l . C e r t a i n f a c e t s o f human e x p e r i e n c e — c o l o r , s m e l l , s o u n d - - a r e r e t a i n e d b y t h e s u b c o n s c i o u s a n d r e m e m b r a n c e o f a s i t u a t i o n c a n b e a c t i v a t e d b y t h e p r e s e n c e o f o n l y o n e o f i t s e l e m e n t s . W e s t e r n c u l t u r e h a s c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d c o l o r s y m b o l s : r e d s y m b o l i z e s b l o o d , g r e e n i s t h e c o l o r o f new l i f e i n i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h new 32 shoots of p l a n t l i f e i n the S p r i n g , white r e p r e s e n t s innocence because i t i s i t s e l f pure ( o p t i c a l l y white i s the r e f l e c t i o n of a l l c o l o r s ) and shows any blemish, b l a c k i s e v i l because i t i s the d i r e c t o p p o s i t e of white and r e p r e s e n t s mourning because o f i t s depth and the sombre mood i t seems to c a s t upon man. Black i s no c o l o r a t a l l , w h i l e white i s a l l c o l o r s . C o l o r symbolism i s extremely adaptable i n the hands of a poet: he can draw upon the pre-formed a s s o c i a t i o n s of h i s audience and f o r e -shadow s u b t l y u s i n g c o l o r , o r he can " c o l o r " c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s and l a t e r r e c a l l them by r e p e a t i n g the c o l o r . C o l o r can a l s o l i n k episodes i f i t appears as a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of each. However much i t might be decorated and e m b e l l i s h e d , armor has p r e c i s e l y one f u n c t i o n : i t p r o t e c t s i t s wearer d u r i n g a b a t t l e . O b viously a g r e a t p a r t o f the symbolic value o f armor r e s u l t s from t h i s f u n c t i o n , and i t s n o n - l i t e r a l - s i g n i f i c a n c e i s i n t e n s i f i e d o r a l t e r e d through the overtones of the p a r t i c u l a r type of b a t t l e b e i n g waged as w e l l as through the o v e r a l l view of p h y s i c a l combat h e l d by the poet and h i s audience. I t stands to reason t h a t a c u l t u r e which g l o r i f i e s some aspect o f b a t t l e — a s f o r example the a t t i t u d e towards the Crusades d u r i n g the High Middle Ages, an o v e r a l l g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f b a t t l e f o r the purpose of r e l e a s i n g the Holy Lands from the hands of i n f i d e l s — views armor as a p o s i t i v e symbol, w h i l e a b a s i c a l l y p a c i f i s t i c s o c i e t y sees i t as a s i g n of war-mongering and hence views i t i n a very n e g a t i v e way. There i s symbolic p o t e n t i a l i n armor beyond t h a t a r i s i n g from i t s f u n c t i o n . Armor i s t h e g r e a t m e d i e v a l l e v e l e r : be-cause i t c o m p l e t e l y h i d e s t h e k n i g h t , i t f u n c t i o n s as a d i s -g u i s e o r a method o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n (an armored man i s a k n i g h t ) . H e r a l d i c arms, t h o s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s i g n s w h i c h be-came a p a r t o f t h e k n i g h t ' s costume, a r e s e l f - c o n f e s s e d symbols as w e l l . There i s f u r t h e r m o r e a s p e c i f i c e t i q u e t t e g o v e r n i n g t h e a c t i o n s o f an armored k n i g h t , and adherence t o o r r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t t h i s s t a n d a r d o f combat i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t a s u i t o f armor can r e p r e s e n t many t h i n g s t o many p e o p l e , depending upon t h e p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t o f vie w o f t h e a u d i e n c e , and an a u t h o r i s a b l e t o use t h i s by a l l o w i n g t h e au d i e n c e t o "see" t h i s i t e m o f c l o t h i n g t h r o u g h t h e eyes o f one o r a n o t h e r o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s . A s u i t o f armor r e p r e s e n t s t o G r e g o r i u s t h e way o f l i f e he has f o l l o w e d i n h i s s e c r e t dreams, w h i l e t h e abbot can o n l y view i t as s y m b o l i c o f a l i f e i n f e r i o r t o t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d by h i s own k u t t e : '...du b i s t v i i w o l g e s c h a f f e n ze einem g o t e s k i n d e und ze k o r g e s i n d e : d i u k u t t e g e s t u o n t n i e manne b a z . 1 'Herre, nu v e r s u o c h e t daz und gebet m i r r i t t e r l i c h e wat: d£swar ob s i m i r m i s s e s t a t , so gan i c h i r w o l einem andern man und l e g e d i e k u t t e n w i d e r an. (Greg:" 1554-1562) Wolfram, l i k e many a p o e t o f h i s t i m e , was a k n i g h t by b i r t h and by t r a d e and i n t r o d u c e s h i m s e l f t o h i s au d i e n c e as one: s w e l h i u min r e h t w i l schouwen, b e i d i u sehen und hoeren, d i e n s o l i c h n i h t b e t o e r e n . s c h i l d e s ambet i s t min a r t : 34 swa* min e l l e n s i g e s p a r t , s w e l h i u mich minnet umbe sane, so dunket mich i r w i t z e k r a n c . ( P a r z . 115,. 8-14) I n k e e p i n g w i t h Wolfram's own assessment o f h i s k n i g h t h o o d as b e i n g o f g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e t h a n h i s p o e t r y , t h e i l l u s t r a t o r o f t h e Grosse H e i d e l b e r g e r L i e d e r h a n d s c h r i f t shows him i n f u l l armor, an uncommon i l l u s t r a t i o n f o r t h e k n i g h t / p o e t s who appear i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n . One may r e a d i n t o t h i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f Wolfram's p r i d e a t h i s o c c u p a t i o n as w e l l as a s i m p l e f a c t o f m e d i e v a l l i f e — a r m o r was i m p o r t a n t t o t h e k n i g h t . As i n v i r t u a l l y a l l m e d i e v a l works d e a l i n g w i t h k n i g h t s , armor p l a y s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n P a r z i v a l and i n W i l l e h a l m . I n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e e v e n t s i n P a r z i v a l t h e r e o c c u r b a t t l e s a t P a t e l a m u n t and a t P e l r e p e i r e as w e l l as numerous tournaments and examples o f combat between two s i n g l e k n i g h t s . W i l l e h a l m i s c o n c erned a l m o s t e n t i r e l y w i t h t h e s i e g e o f Orange and t h e two b a t t l e s , w i t h a s h o r t i n t e r l u d e showing W i l l e h a l m a t t e m p t i n g t o r a i s e a new army a f t e r t h e d e f e a t o f h i s f i r s t i n t h e o r i g i n a l b a t t l e . Wolfram was f a m i l i a r w i t h c h a i n m a i l r a t h e r t h a n p l a t e armor, s i n c e p l a t e was a r e f i n e m e n t t o weaponry t h a t came some-what a f t e r Wolfram's t i m e , a l t h o u g h he might have seen i t s o r i g i n s i n t h e r e i n f o r c i n g bands a p p l i e d t o t h e c h a i n s u i t . C h a i n m a i l was i n use i n Europe from about 900-1300,- and 1200 i n t r o d u c e s a t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d w h i c h l a s t e d . f o r about two hundred y e a r s d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e p r o g r e s s was made on t h e r e f i n e -ment o f t e c h n i q u e w h i c h would l a t e r produce hammered p l a t e 35 armor. As a n a i v e boy, P a r z i v a l remarks on t h e many s m a l l r i n g s w h i c h make up t h e c l o t h i n g o f t h e f i r s t k n i g h t he e v e r s e e s : aber s p r a c h d e r knappe san. da" von e i n l a c h e n w a r t g e t a n . 'ay r i t t e r g u o t , waz mahtu s i n ? du heist sus manec v i n g e r l i n an d i n e n l i p gebunden, d o r t oben unt h i e unden. a l d a b e g r e i f des knappen hant swaz e r l s e r s ame f u r s t e n v a n t : dez h a r n a s c h begunder schouwen. 'miner muoter j u n c f r o u w e n i r v i n g e r l i n an s n i i e r e n t r a g n t , d i u n i h t sus an e i n a n d e r r a g n t . ' ( P a r z . 123, 19-30) T h i s e p i s o d e p o i n t s o u t t h e g e n e r a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e k n i g h t ' s s u i t - - a n y number o f m e t a l r i n g s were s t r u n g on c o r d s o f some s o r t , p r o b a b l y o f l e a t h e r w h i c h was more d u r a b l e t h a n any c l o t h , and pushed v e r y c l o s e t o g e t h e r , p r o d u c i n g a s u r f a c e w i t h a maximum coverage o f m e t a l , y e t p l i a b l e enough t o a l l o w move-ment by t h e w e arer. The c h a i n s u i t o f t h e k n i g h t c o n s i s t e d o f t h e h a l s b e r c o r h a u b e r t w h i c h was g e n e r a l l y a hooded s h i r t - l i k e garment f a l l i n g about t o t h e knees. The l e n g t h a f f o r d e d p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e v i t a l organs and t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e hood meant t h a t t h e r e was a s t r i p o f m a i l p r o t e c t i n g the neck w h i c h c o u l d n o t be d e t a c h e d from th e s u i t as a whole, and a p r o t e c t i n g - i n s u l a t i n g l a y e r t o c o v e r t h e head under th e helmet. The hosen were more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o s t o c k i n g s t h a n t o t r o u s e r s , f o r t h e y c o v e r e d th e f e e t and s t r e t c h e d o n l y t o t h e t h i g h l e v e l where they were h e l d up by t h e l e n d e n i e r , a s o r t o f g a r t e r w h i c h was n o t always r e l i a b l e and y e t was t h e o n l y means o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e j o b a t t h e t i m e . I t was v i t a l f o r t h e k n i g h t t o wear p a d d i n g around c r i t i c a l a r e a s s i n c e t h e m a i l s u i t p r o t e c t e d him a g a i n s t c u t -t i n g wounds, b u t c o u l d n o t do much a g a i n s t shock o r p r e s s u r e . There was a h u f f e n i e r about h i s h i p s and a s e n f t e n i e r r e a c h i n g down t o h i s upper t h i g h , b o t h d e s i g n e d t o c u s h i o n shock and p r o t e c t f u r t h e r t h e a r e a where t h e two main p i e c e s o f t h e armor came t o g e t h e r . Beneath t h i s s u i t t h e k n i g h t wore a s o f t s i l k e n s h i r t t o p r o t e c t h i s s k i n from t h e rough sharpness o f th e c h a i n m a i l and a p a i r o f heavy woolen s t o c k i n g s w i t h p a d d i n g about t h e knees; knees were always a t r o u b l e s p o t , e a s i l y i n j u r e d and d i f f i c u l t t o h e a l , and t h e k n i g h t needed e x t r a p a d d i n g t o c u s h i o n them from t h e p r e s s u r e o f h o r s e s m i l l i n g about and c o l l i d i n g w i t h each o t h e r . Of c o u r s e t h e r e were heavy shoes on t o p o f t h e s t o c k i n g - l i k e f e e t o f t h e hosen, g l o v e s , and a v i s o r e d helmet. There were v a r i o u s s t y l e s o f h e l m e t s , and such an i m p o r t a n t p i e c e o f armor n a t u r a l l y underwent many r e f i n e m e n t s w h i c h were, i f p o s s i b l e , i m m e d i a t e l y adopted, i f the y were shown t o o f f e r b e t t e r p r o t e c t i o n t h a n an e a r l i e r s t y l e . On t o p o f a l l t h i s t h e k n i g h t wore h i s k u r s i t o r wapen- k l e i t ; b o t h names appear t o r e f e r t o t h e same i t e m , a c l o t h garment, s l e e v e l e s s , w h i c h was p o s s i b l y o r i g i n a l l y adopted t o h e l p h i d e weaknesses o r r u s t i n t h e armor t h a t c o u l d a l e r t an opponent and r e v e a l t o him the b e s t p l a c e s t o s t r i k e a blow. T h i s garment was f r e q u e n t l y d e c o r a t e d w i t h h e r a l d i c d e v i c e s and t h u s s e r v e d as a means o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a t o t a l l y c o v e r e d man. As i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t h i s s u r c o a t was o f even more 37 v a l u e t h a n t h e d e c o r a t e d s h i e l d : i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a k n i g h t w ould have h i s c l o t h i n g t o r n o f f , though he might w e l l l o s e h i s s h i e l d o r have i t r e d u c e d t o s p l i n t e r s d u r i n g combat. The s u r c o a t was a f a v o r i t e g i f t o f l a d i e s who wanted t h e i r chosen k n i g h t t o l o o k w e l l i n b a t t l e b u t might have been un-a b l e t o purch a s e a s u i t o f c h a i n m a i l f o r him. The p r i c e o f a good s u i t o f armor was about t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f twenty oxen, hence armor was a g i f t o f honor, a g r e a t p r i z e t o be t a k e n i n b a t t l e , and o f c o u r s e t h e r i c h e r t h e k n i g h t , t h e b e t t e r h i s p r o t e c t i o n . The s u r c o a t and t h e s h i e l d were n o t t h e o n l y d e c o r a t i v e / i d e n t i f y i n g i t e m s i n t h e k n i g h t ' s costume. He a l s o c a r r i e d a banner d e c o r a t e d w i t h h i s c o a t o f arms, and a l t h o u g h t h i s c o u l d t u r n o u t t o be a l i a b i l i t y i n combat when a k n i g h t needed one hand f o r h i s sword and one f o r h i s s h i e l d , t h e f l u t t e r i n g banner caused t h e h o r s e s o f t h e enemy t o shy. The s h i e l d , a l o n g w i t h t h e c o a t o f arms, a l s o bore j e w e l s i f t h e k n i g h t o r some p a t r o n were w e a l t h y enough f o r t h i s added expense. O f t e n a d e c o r a t i v e p i e c e , t h e z i m i e r , was a t t a c h e d t o t h e k n i g h t ' s helmet; t h i s was u s u a l l y t h e c h i e f f i g u r e t o be found i n the k n i g h t ' s c o a t o f arms. Thus t h e c l o t h i n g worn by t h e armored k n i g h t was an odd m i x t u r e o f p r a c t i c a l p r o t e c t i v e c l o t h i n g , d e c o r a t i o n , and i d e n t i f y i n g i t e m s . I t s t a n d s t o r e a s o n t h a t he wanted t o p r e s e n t a d a s h i n g , a t t r a c t i v e appearance w h i l e he p a r t i c i p a t e d i n tournaments and w h i l e he rode o f f t o war, even i f d u r i n g 38 r e a l b a t t l e s h i s c o n c e r n f o r appearance was s u p p l a n t e d by c o n c e r n f o r p e r s o n a l s a f e t y . N o n - l i t e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s e a s i l y d e v e l o p e d i n t h e l i t e r a r y use o f armor worn by m e d i e v a l k n i g h t s . One o f t h e s e a r e a s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h a t o f d i s g u i s e o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n : t h e p h y s i c a l make-up o f armor g u a r a n t e e d t h a t t h e wearer's f e a t u r e s were c o m p l e t e l y h i d d e n from a l l around him, e n a b l i n g t h e s u i t t o f u n c t i o n as a mask, even though t h i s was n o t i t s o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n . M asking r e s u l t s from t h e c o v e r i n g / p r o -t e c t i n g f u n c t i o n o f t h e garment. To t h e s y m b o l i s t , however, the mask has g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e : A l l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s a r e i n v e s t e d w i t h something a t once o f p r o f o u n d mystery and o f t h e s h a m e f u l , s i n c e a n y t h i n g t h a t i s so m o d i f i e d as t o become 'something e l s e ' w h i l e s t i l l r e m a i n i n g t h e t h i n g i t was, must i n e v i t a b l y be p r o d u c t i v e o f am-b i g u i t y and e q u i v o c a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , metamor-phoses must be h i d d e n from v i e w — a n d hence th e need f o r t h e mask. S e c r e c y tends towards t r a n s -f i g u r a t i o n : i t h e l p s w h a t - o n e - i s t o become what-o n e - w o u l d - l i k e - t o - b e ; and t h i s i s what c o n s t i t u t e s i t s magic c h a r a c t e r , p r e s e n t i n b o t h t h e Greek t h e a t r i c a l mask and i n t h e r e l i g i o u s masks o f A f r i c a o r O c e a n i a . The mask i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e c h r y s a l i s . 5 8 I n m e d i e v a l l i t e r a t u r e , t h i s d i s g u i s i n g f e a t u r e o f armor l e a d s t o some v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n s . The s i t u a t i o n known as t h e Verwandtenkampf r e s u l t s from t h e l a c k o f r e c o g n i t i o n o r knowledge o f r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a t l e a s t one o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s 59 i n t h e f i g h t . I w e i n , f o r example, i s a b l e t o avenge h i m s e l f on K e i f o r h i s i n s u l t s because as t h e unknown d e f e n d e r o f t h e f o u n t a i n he can f i g h t and u n s e a t him. N o r m a l l y i t would be a grave o f f e n s e f o r I w e i n t o c h a l l e n g e K e i and f i g h t w i t h 39 him. He can g a i n h i s revenge on l y i n the g u i s e of somebody e l s e , by t a k i n g upon h i m s e l f the secondary i d e n t i t y o f the defender o f the f o u n t a i n . Indeed, he takes g r e a t joy i n the o p p o r t u n i t y : nu kam her Iwein balde d o r t flz jenem walde ze v e l d e g e w a l o p i e r e t , i n engels wis g e z i e r e t . i n e n i r t e ros noch der muot: wan d i u waren b e i d i u guot. sinem herzen l i e b e geschach, d6 e r jenen h a l t e n sach, der a l l e z guot verke*rte, do i n got so g e r t e daz er im s o l t e g e l t e n s i n ungeviiegez s c h e l t e n und s i n e n t a g e l i c h e n spot. des l o b e t e e r got. (Iwein 2551-64) Inherent i n armor then i s the a b i l i t y t o mask and to change i d e n t i t y , and where armor i s s p e c i f i c a l l y shown to do t h i s , the surrounding events take on a new dimension because of the a l t e r a t i o n i n the " i d e n t i t y " of the c h a r a c t e r s i n v o l v e d . The obvious and immediate f u n c t i o n of armor i s i t s e l f open to a l t e r n a t e n o n - l i t e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . There i s of course the b o d i l y p r o t e c t i o n of the k n i g h t , but the p r o t e c t i o n i s not h a l t e d a t the b o d y — t h a t which p r o t e c t s the body a l s o p r o t e c t s the mind, i f o n l y by f r e e i n g i t from f e a r of i n j u r y . Indeed, b o d i l y i n j u r i e s are not the o n l y type which can wound a person; f e a r i t s e l f can be a very d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e f o r a f i g h t e r t o e xperience. There i s symbolism and n o n - l i t e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e to be found i n a c t i o n s as w e l l as i n o b j e c t s , , and p a r t i c u l a r l y so when the r e i s a s p e c i f i c code o r e t i q u e t t e governing these 40 a c t i o n s , f o r e t i q u e t t e seldom r e s u l t s from n e c e s s i t y but r a t h e r 6 0 i s e v o l v e d by s o c i e t y as a c o l l e c t i o n o f refinements. The e t i q u e t t e governing a k n i g h t ' s a c t i o n s towards h i s own armor and t h a t o f o t h e r k n i g h t s i s s i m i l a r i n o r i g i n ; the o n l y a c t i o n s t h a t can p r o p e r l y be s a i d to r e s u l t from n e c e s s i t y are those concerned w i t h the a c t u a l s e c u r i t y o f the p i e c e s themselves. We can assume w i t h reasonable c e r t a i n t y t h a t o t h e r a c t i o n s con-nected w i t h armor, customs governing where and when armor i s worn and the a t t i t u d e adopted towards the armor o f another man or towards the armor of a dead man are themselves symbolic o f a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l a t t i t u d e . There i s no r e a l reason t o ven-e r a t e a dead k n i g h t ' s armor, f o r example. In f a c t , t h e r e are oc c a s i o n s when t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a t t i t u d e has a n e g a t i v e v a l u e . Yet adhering to a s o c i a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d custom o f v e n e r a t i o n shows one's acceptance o f i t — i n t h i s case, one venerates armor as a s i g n o f one's r e s p e c t o r v e n e r a t i o n f o r the w a r r i o r who wore i t i n t o b a t t l e and the deeds he performed w h i l e wearing i t . In a d d i t i o n , armor symbolism and s i g n i f i c a n c e shares i n the g e n e r a l c o l o r symbolism of oth e r c l o t h i n g , f o r although the s u i t was f a s h i o n e d out of c h a i n m a i l , there were ot h e r f a b r i c appointments which u t i l i z e d r i c h f a b r i c s and b r i g h t c o l o r s . Although c o l o r e d armor i s not very common i n c o u r t l y o r h e r o i c l i t e r a t u r e , i t was c e r t a i n l y an h i s t o r i c a l f a c t : I t i s always a matter of some d i f f i c u l t y , e s p e c i a l -l y , i n . the e a r l i e r examples, t o t e l l what m a t e r i a l s are intended i n i l l u m i n a t e d m i n i a t u r e s , f o r we f i n d what appears to be p l a t e armour p a i n t e d brown or p a r t i - c o l o u r e d , and t h i s p o i n t s t o the f a c t t h a t armour of a l l kinds was f r e q u e n t l y p a i n t e d , even c h a i n m a i l b e i n g c o l o u r e d t o s u i t t h e t a s t e o f t h e wea r e r , and a l s o , a more i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n , t o p r e -s e r v e i t from wet and rust.°l Ceremonies and o t h e r f o r m a l i z e d o c c a s i o n s r e g u l a t e a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e sake o f f u l f i l l i n g some p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n , p r o d u c i n g an e f f e c t , o r a c t i n g i n commemoration o f an e v e n t . R e g u l a r ceremonies e x i s t i n two major a r e a s w h i c h a re n o t n e c e s s a r i l y m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . There a r e t h o s e ceremonies w h i c h p e r t a i n t o man and h i s con c e p t o f a supreme power and d e a l w i t h h i s p o s i t i o n i n t h e u n i v e r s e ; t h e s e a r e c o n s i d e r e d r e l i g i o u s c eremonies. There a r e a l s o t h o s e ceremonies w h i c h a r e concerned w i t h man's p o s i t i o n among h i s f e l l o w c r e a t u r e s , ceremonies w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be s o c i a l ceremonies. The two can o f c o u r s e be u n i t e d i n one r e l i g i o u s / s o c i a l a c t i v i t y as o c c u r s i n c u l t u r e s w h i c h a c c e p t a r e l i g i o u s f o r m a l i z a t i o n o f a c o n d i t i o n t o be l e g a l l y b i n d i n g as w e l l , a s , f o r example, i n m a r r i a g e . I t i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f ceremonies and f o r m a l o c c a s i o n s t h a t t h e y be s e t o f f from t h e o r d i n a r y sphere o f a c t i v i t y i n some way. I f they a r e c o n c e i v e d as a commemoration o f some s i g n i f i c a n t moment they must be d i r e c t e d t o t h i s end and i n c l u d e something o f t h a t moment w i t h i n them. Ceremonies i n t e n d e d t o f u l f i l l some d i s t i n c t p u r p o s e , l e g a l o r r e l i g i o u s , must be s e p a r a t e from o r d i n a r y a c t i v i t y so t h a t t h e i r f u n c t i o n cannot be r e p r o d u c e d by a c c i d e n t . The sacrament o f B a p t i s m , f o r example, combines t h e o r d i n a r y a c t i o n o f p o u r i n g w a t e r o v e r t h e head o f a c h i l d , an a c t r e p e a t e d con-s t a n t l y d u r i n g t h e c h i l d ' s e a r l y l i f e , w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r f o r m u l a o f words. Thus t h e sacrament cannot be r e p e a t e d a c c i -42 d e n t a l l y f o r the two elements must e x i s t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Although the major elements of a ceremony or formal o c c a s i o n are the a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n s which are performed by the c e l e b r a n t and p a r t i c i p a n t s , there are o t h e r f a c e t s p r e s e n t which are f r e q u e n t l y designed to c r e a t e a p a r t i c u l a r atmosphere r a t h e r than c o n t r i b u t e to the ceremonial a c t i v i t i e s . Because these a c t i v i t i e s are meant to be s e t o f f s p e c i f i c a l l y from the normal p a t t e r n o f d a i l y e x i s t e n c e , the p a r t i c i p a n t s seek to p l a c e themselves i n t o a d i f f e r e n t frame of r e f e r e n c e by some s o r t of p r e p a r a t i o n , mental or p h y s i c a l o r both. Common methods o f p r e p a r a t i o n i n c l u d e m e d i t a t i o n , the use o f s p e c i a l o b j e c t s d e d i c a t e d to the performance of the ceremonial a c t i v i t i e s , or the a l t e r a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l appearance of the p a r t i c i p a n t s which i s meant to show the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the event. Cer-t a i n l y the e a s i e s t means of a c h i e v i n g the a l t e r a t i o n of appearance i s the donning of s p e c i a l c l o t h i n g , of a t l e a s t one garment which d i f f e r s v i s i b l y from o r d i n a r y c l o t h i n g . P r i m i -t i v e s o c i e t i e s c e l e b r a t e b i r t h , puberty, marriage, and death s o c i a l l y , and have f o r t h i s a l a r g e v a r i e t y of r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l r i t e s ; but as a r u l e , the more complex a s o c i e t y becomes the g r e a t e r the number of s o c i a l events man f i n d s to c e l e b r a t e ; and the more f o r m a l i z e d a r e l i g i o n becomes, the more are the r e l i g i o u s ceremonies which occur. An e l a b o r a t i o n o f c e r e -monial and formal c l o t h i n g goes along w i t h t h i s i n c r e a s e d complexity and f o r m a l i z a t i o n . During Wolfram's time ceremonial c l o t h i n g as i t appeared i n upper l e v e l s o f s o c i e t y and a t c o u r t was connected very c l o s e l y w i t h the ceremonial garb o f r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s , which had i t s e l f developed from the dress o f the upper l e v e l s o f s o c i e t y i n i t s e a r l i e r days. Despite the f a c t t h a t the C a t h o l i c Church frowned upon the concept o f e a r t h l y r u l e r s as rex e t sacerdos and even forbade the Byzantine emperors to use the t i t l e , k i ngs were u n i v e r s a l l y viewed as d i v i n e l y 6 2 appointed and r e t a i n e d a p r i e s t l y f u n c t i o n . T h i s borrowing was not e n t i r e l y one-sided, though: C h r i s t was r e p r e s e n t e d p i c t o r i a l l y as a k i n g , having h i m s e l f used the analogy w h i l e on e a r t h . The o r i g i n s o f ceremonial garments are f r e q u e n t l y to be found i n the o r d i n a r y s t y l e of dress e x i s t i n g a t the time o f the i n s t i t u t i o n of the f o r m a l i z e d ceremony, perhaps a l t e r e d s l i g h t l y and executed i n f i n e r f a b r i c s than were used f o r normal wear. Where d i f f e r e n c e s occur between r o y a l c l o t h i n g and l i t u r g i c a l c l o t h i n g , s o c i a l ceremonies b a s i c a l l y f o l l o w the s t y l e s o f r o y a l c l o t h i n g and r e l i g i o u s ceremonies tend to f o l l o w the s t y l e s o f l i t u r g i c a l garb. N e a r l y a l l the c e r e -monial a c t i v i t i e s which occur i n P a r z i v a l have r e l i g i o u s overtones, e s p e c i a l l y where they are d i r e c t l y connected t o the G r a i l . Few p u r e l y s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s e x i s t i n an age e n t i r e l y dominated by the Church, f o r a l l human a c t i v i t y i s u l t i m a t e l y connected to God and hence t o the Church. Because, o f t h i s predominance of r e l i g i o u s and q u a s i - r e l i g i o u s ceremonies i t i s h e l p f u l t o view some aspects o f l i t u r g i c a l vestments as they e x i s t e d i n the t h i r t e e n t h century. 44 L i t u r g i c a l garments, w h i c h have n o t changed much s i n c e Wolfram's day, had t h e i r o r i g i n s i n t h e f o r m a l c l o t h i n g w h i c h e x i s t e d d u r i n g the e a r l y days o f t h e Church: Der P r i e s t e r muss s i c h , b e v or e r an den A l t a r t r i t t , m i t den l i t u r g i s c h e n Gewandern b e k l e i d e n . Das n a t i i r l i c h e Empfinden h a t von j e h e r auch schon d i e G l a u b i g e n g e l e h r t , dass man z u r g o t t e s d i e n s t l i c h e n F e i e r i n b e s s e r e n K l e i d e r n e r s c h e i n t . Fur den z e l e b r i e r e n d e n P r i e s t e r h a t das g l e i c h e G e f u h l d e r E h r f u r c h t v o r dem H e i l i g e n schon gegen Ende des c h r i s t l i c h e n A l t e r t u m s zu e i n e r besonderen l i t u r g i s c h e n K l e i d u n g g e f i i h r t . S i e war z u n a c h s t nur k o s t b a r e r a l s d i e g e w o h nliche b u r g e r l i c h e F e s t k l e i d u n g . E r s t s e i t d e m s i c h f u r das b u r g e r -l i c h e Leben e i n e neue, k u r z e T r a c h t d u r c h s e t z t e , begann s i c h d i e l i t u r g i s c h e K l e i d u n g von der b i i r g e r l i c h e n auch i n d e r Form zu u n t e r s c h e i d e n ; denn unsere l i t u r g i s c h e Gewandung i s t n i c h t s anderes a l s e i n e s t i l i s i e r t e Form der F e s t k l e i -dung d e r ausgehenden romischen K a i s e r z e i t . ^ 3 L i t u r g i c a l garments are p u r p o s e l y g i v e n an o v e r a l l s y m b o l i c meaning i n t h a t t h e y show the p r i e s t i n h i s f u n c t i o n as r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e o f C h r i s t , b u t each i n d i v i d u a l i t e m i s f u r t h e r endowed w i t h a s p e c i a l symbolism: E i n g e w i s s e r s y m b o l i s c h e r S i n n l i e g t j a t a t s a c h -l i c h i n d e r l i t u r g i s c h e n Gewandung. D a r i n , dass es n i c h t nur b e s s e r , sondern besondere, dem b i i r g e r -l i c h e n Leben fremde, womoglich d u r c h K o s t b a r k e i t der S t o f f e und Ornament gehobene K l e i d e r s i n d , d i e d e r P r i e s t e r a n l e g t , kommt zum Ausdruck, dass e r aus der i r d i s c h e n i n e i n e hohere W e l t i i b e r g e h t , von d e r nun e i n Schimmer auch auf s e i n e r Gewandung l i e g t . D i e m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e n E r k l a r e r haben s i c h aber m i t e i n e r so a l l g e m e i n e n Deutung n i c h t b e g n i i g t , sondern haben i n jedem Gewandstiick be-sondere Beziehungen zu j e n e r W elt gefunden.64 The b a s i c l i t u r g i c a l garment i s t h e a l b , a l o n g w h i t e d r e s s l i k e p i e c e o f c l o t h i n g w h i c h s y m b o l i z e s i n n o c e n c e i n t h e p u r i t y o f i t s w h i t e n e s s , and i s a l s o i n t e r p r e t e d as a s i g n o f f a i t h : So s l i u f e t e r danne i n e i n gewant, daz h e i z z e t a l b e und i s t l a n e unde i s t genennet w i z und i s t geworht i n a l i e n v l i z . u zzen u n t i n n a n i s t d e h e i n u b e l daran g e t a n , daz n e s o l deheine w i s da b e s t a n . So b e z e i c h e n e t d i u a l b e den h e i l i g e n g e l o u b e n . d e r geloube i s t a v e r v i i guot, d e r d i u guoten were t u o t The a l b i s b e l t e d w i t h t h e c i n c t u r e w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s r e s t r a i n t 6 6 o r daz r e h t , and the s t o l e i s worn around t h e neck, hanging down i n f r o n t . The s t o l e i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i m m o r t a l i t y , t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r o b e d i e n c e , o r t h e yoke o f P e t e r : D i u s t o l e i s t l a n e unde b r e i t , d i u umbe s i n e n h a l s g e i t d i u b e z e i c h e n t noch Sante P e t e r s j o c h , do e r d a r i n gewaeten was, do e r sane und l a s . der noch da i n n e gewaeten s t e t , w i e s a l e c l i c h e n d e r v u r s i c h g e t a l m i t t e n i n deme wege, daz e r uns da m i t e z e i c h e n gebe. The most v i s i b l e and most v a r i a b l e garment worn by t h e p r i e s t i s t h e c h a s u b l e , a garment s i m i l a r t o a c l o a k w h i c h i s made o f c o l o r e d f a b r i c and shows t h e p a r t i c u l a r l i t u r g i c a l c o l o r i n use a t t h e ti m e o f i t s w e a r i n g . I t i s a reminder o f t h e p u r p l e robe P i l a t e had p l a c e d upon C h r i s t t o mock him and i s a l s o a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c h a r i t y , t h e v i r t u e r e q u e s t e d i n t h e p r a y e r s u t t e r e d w h i l e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r garment i s b e i n g donned. I t i s a l s o i n t e r p r e t e d as s i g n i f y i n g f a i t h and hope a l o n g w i t h c h a r i t y . The o t h e r u s u a l l i t u r g i c a l garments, t h e amice and th e m a n i p l e , a r e g i v e n s y m b o l i c meanings as w e l l , t h e amice s i g n i f y i n g hope and s a l v a t i o n , t h e m a n i p l e r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e bonds w i t h w h i c h C h r i s t was t i e d w h i l e b e i n g s c o u r g e d and 6 8 r e p r e s e n t i n g s t r e n g t h and endurance. I t i s n o t a t a l l s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e s t y l e s o f c e r e m o n i a l c l o t h i n g w h i c h appear i n P a r z i v a l s h o u l d n o t d i f f e r g r e a t l y from t h e garments adapted t o l i t u r g i c a l wear. O b v i o u s l y t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e Church d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s , b u t i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t t h e r e e x i s t i n Western c u l t u r e r e l a t i v e l y few s t y l e s o f garments w h i c h can be adapted t o c e r e m o n i a l p u r p o s e s . I t i s a d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e o f a c e r e -m o n i a l garment t h a t a l a r g e amount o f u n c l u t t e r e d f a b r i c be a v a i l a b l e f o r any s i g n s and symbols. There must a l s o be ease of d o n n i n g , f o r o n l y t h e c h i e f c e l e b r a n t can spend a g r e a t e r amount o f time i n r o b i n g w h i c h he can combine w i t h m e n t a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e ceremony. G e n e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s do n o t r e q u i r e so l e n g t h y a m e n t a l p r e p a r a t i o n . I t i s e a s i l y seen t h a t a k n i g h t ' s armor and c e r e m o n i a l c l o t h i n g have p o t e n t i a l s y m b o l i c and n o n - l i t e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e ; t h i s i s a f e a t u r e a d m i t t e d by s e v e r a l p o e t s . L o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e i n c l u d e s d a i l y c l o t h i n g i n t h e l i s t o f s y m b o l i c garments, and t h e r e a r e i n d e e d c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s about d a i l y c l o t h i n g w h i c h make i t s s y m b o l i c use q u i t e l i k e l y . C l o t h i n g i n t h e M i d d l e Ages was t i e d v e r y r i g i d l y t o a p e r s o n ' s s t a t i o n i n l i f e ; n o b l e s were p e r m i t t e d t o wear garments and use p a r t i c u l a r f a b r i c s w h i c h were n o t a l l o w e d t o the p e a s a n t r y , and i t was c o n s i d e r e d a l e g a l o f f e n s e f o r a p e r s o n t o d r e s s above h i s s t a t i o n a l t h o u g h t h e n o b l e s presumably had more leeway and c o u l d " d r e s s down" i f t h e y so d e s i r e d , even though a good r e a s o n f o r d o i n g so i s d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e , 47 u n l e s s i t were i n t h e n a t u r e o f a d i s g u i s e . E v e r y r e s p e c t a b l e o c c u p a t i o n had a u n i f o r m o f s o r t s w h i c h i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s wore, and i t was i l l e g a l t o wear t h e c l o t h i n g w h i c h s i g n i f i e d a n o t h e r t r a d e . These " u n i f o r m s " e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d a p e r s o n as b e i n g a dyemaster, c a r p e n t e r , and so on, hence they f u n c t i o n e d as symbols o f t h i s o c c u p a t i o n o r i d e n t i f i e d t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r s y m b o l i c a l l y . C l o t h i n g was a l a b e l , and o c c u p a t i o n - o r i e n t e d c l o t h i n g , once s t a n d a r d i z e d , was d i f f i c u l t t o change. The l i t e r a r y use o f d a i l y c l o t h i n g i s u s e f u l f o r non-l i t e r a l and s y m b o l i c purposes because i t o f f e r s a f a m i l i a r o b j e c t t h a t i s s t i l l a d a p t a b l e t o s u i t v a r i o u s d e s i r e s and needs o f t h e p o e t . I t was e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d by e v e r y member o f the p o e t ' s a u d i e n c e , and y e t he c o u l d , w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s , change f a b r i c s and c o l o r s where t h e s e were n o t l e g a l l y d e t e r -mined and use t h e s e a d a p t a t i o n s t o d e l i v e r h i s message. A n o b l e who d r e s s e d i n poor c l o t h i n g o r drab c o l o r s p r e s e n t e d a p i c t u r e o f i n c o n g r u i t y t o t h e m e d i e v a l a u d i e n c e , as d i d t h e pe a s a n t who had a p r e f e r e n c e f o r s i l k . Such i n c o n g r u i t i e s f i g u r e p r o m i n e n t l y i n t h e l a t e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y s t o r y o f young Helmbrecht who d r e s s e s w e l l above h i s s t a t i o n and v i o l a t e s p r e c e p t s c o n c e r n i n g c l o t h i n g s e t down i n t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y , laws w h i c h r e s t r i c t e d t h e p e a s a n t t o rough s h i r t s , g r a y o r b l a c k c l o a k s , s h o r t b r e e c h e s , and heavy l e a t h e r shoes. A d o p t i n g t h e c l o t h i n g n o t meant f o r h i s s t a t u s i s a s i g n o f Helmbrecht's a s p i r a t i o n s t o be b e t t e r t h a n he r e a l l y 48 i s , and he f e e l s t h a t by donning f i n e c l o t h i n g he can accom-p l i s h the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of s e l f t h a t he d e s i r e s . Because f a b r i c s are dyed, c o l o r symbolism has i t s p l a c e i n the use of d a i l y c l o t h i n g as i t does i n the use of armor and ceremonial d r e s s . Peasants were r e s t r i c t e d to no c o l o r a t a l l — undyed f a b r i c s , drab grays and b l a c k — b u t nobles had t h e i r p i c k of the spectrum and fa v o r e d b r i g h t l y c o l o r e d c l o t h i n g . A l l c o l o r s which appear i n n a r r a t i v e p o e t r y are c o n s i d e r e d t o be the i n v e n t i o n of the poet, and s i n c e he need not have mentioned c o l o r a t a l l i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t the c o l o r s are meant to have some s i g n i f i c a n c e o r symbolic v a l u e , something t h a t i s c e r t a i n l y w e l l worth i n v e s t i g a t i o n . C l o t h i n g shows v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n a person's p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l l e v e l as w e l l as i n d i c a t i n g h i s occ u p a t i o n , and i t o f t e n i l l u s t r a t e s s p e c i f i c occurrences i n h i s l i f e . When a woman i s widowed, f o r example, she wears s p e c i a l c l o t h i n g to i l l u s t r a t e her p r e s e n t s t a t e of mourning f o r her l o s t spouse. The mourning dress i s a v a r i a t i o n upon her normal c l o t h i n g , changed s l i g h t l y perhaps i n s t y l e , w i t h a major a l t e r a t i o n i n c o l o r : she changes from any c o l o r a t a l l to b l a c k . Her a c t u a l p o s i t i o n o r c l a s s i n . l i f e has not changed, merely her s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n i t . T h i s type of c l o t h i n g i s a s i g n of the death of her husband and of her sorrow f o r h i s l o s s and i s re c o g n i z e d as such by onloo k e r s . There e x i s t a l s o s p e c i a l garments designed f o r t r a v e l i n g and f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s p o r t s such as hunting, 1 . 49 a l l a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h r e q u i r e f r e e d o m o f m o v e m e n t o r a t l e a s t i n t e n s i f y a n y d i s c o m f o r t s c a u s e d b y c l o t h i n g , h e n c e t h e i r m a j o r f e a t u r e s show d e s i g n s i n t r o d u c e d f o r e a s e o f f i t a n d c o m f o r t . T h e s e t o o b e c a m e e a s i l y s t a n d a r d i z e d : a h u n t i n g g a r m e n t , f o r e x a m p l e , was r e c o g n i z e d a s s u c h b y a n y o n e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s p o r t . G a r m e n t s e x i s t e d n o t o n l y t o m a r k o u t b a s i c g e n e r a l c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s o n a v i s i b l e a n d e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d b a s i s , b u t a l s o t o i n d i c a t e s u b t l e r c h a n g e s o f c o n d i t i o n a n d t o s e r v e s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s . V a r i a t i o n s i n t h e b a s i c d r e s s s t y l e s w e r e a d o p t e d , e s -J p e c i a l l y i n m a t t e r s of d e c o r a t i o n , a s t r a v e l e r s b r o u g h t b a c k w i t h t h e m k n o w l e d g e o f f o r e i g n s t y l e s . C r u s a d e r s r e t u r n i n g f r o m t h e E a s t w e r e e s p e c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n m o d i f y i n g c o n t i n -e n t a l d r e s s , i n t r o d u c i n g d i f f e r e n t f a b r i c s a s w e l l a s s t y l e s . D u r i n g t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y a n d i n t o t h e t h i r t e e n t h , men w o r e a l o n g g a r m e n t , t h e b l i a u t , w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f a l o n g s k i r t j o i n e d a t a l o w w a i s t l i n e t o a b o d i c e s e c t i o n , t h e s e a m s o f t h e s k i r t b e i n g l e f t o p e n t o d i s p l a y a t u n i c w o r n b e n e a t h a n d p o s s i b l y t o f a c i l i t a t e m o v e m e n t . A n o t h e r g a r m e n t , t h e c y c l a s , was a d a p t e d f r o m c r u s a d i n g c o s t u m e , a n d was b a s i c -a l l y a l o n g p a n e l w i t h a n o p e n i n g f o r t h e h e a d , l e f t o p e n a t t h e s i d e s a n d r e a c h i n g t o a b o u t k n e e l e n g t h . H o o d s w e r e w o r n b y p e a s a n t s f o r t h e s a k e o f p r o t e c t i o n , b y n o b l e m e n f o r t h e s a k e o f f a s h i o n , a l t h o u g h a n u n c o v e r e d h e a d was a l s o f a s h i o n a b l e . A p e a s a n t o f t e n h a d t o r e s o r t t o w e a r i n g two t u n i c s f o r w a r m t h w h e r e a s a n o b l e m a n w o r e a m a n t l e w r a p p e d a b o u t h i m . T h e m a j o r 50 changes i n men's c l o t h i n g brought by the t h i r t e e n t h century were c o n f i n e d to d e v i s i n g v a r i o u s s t y l e s of s u r c o a t s . Costume d i d not vary much between r o y a l t y and noblemen, but r o y a l t y were d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e i r c o s t l i e r f u r s and r i c h e r f a b r i c s . Women a l s o wore the b l i a u t w i t h a very f u l l s k i r t and very f u l l s l e e v e s . T h i s garment was b e l t e d w i t h a long g i r d l e , wrapped s e v e r a l times about the body. Women a l s o wore a c y c l a s or some o t h e r type o f s u r c o a t and used a mantle f o r warmth. Headwear was more common among women than men and appeared i n v a r i o u s s t y l e s . A shoulder cape was hooded and topped w i t h a cap, o r the mantle i t s e l f was hooded. The wimple, which was covered w i t h a v e i l , was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o England l a t e i n the t w e l f t h century. During the t w e l f t h century, many women wore t h e i r h a i r i n long p l a i t s hanging a t t h e i r s i d e s . From the l a t e t w e l f t h and through the t h i r t e e n t h century headdresses were adopted which bound up the h a i r , u s u a l l y i n a net o r c r e s p i n e . A c o i f , a s o r t o f p i l l b o x , h a t , was worn on top the head and secured w i t h a c h i n band. Since dress s t y l e was g e n e r a l l y the same among the v a r i o u s s t r a t a of the n o b i l i t y , rank came t o be i n d i c a t e d by the headdress which was v a r i e d to 69 a g r e a t e r degree than the body garments. Any s t y l e o f headwear has the p o t e n t i a l f o r symbolic o r n o n - l i t e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e by v i r t u e of i t s p o s i t i o n on o r around the head, the r e p o s i t o r y o f man's mind. V e i l s cover the head and hide the workings o f the mind from o u t s i d e r s , keeping the v e i l e d person secluded and a l o o f . Moses v e i l e d h i m s e l f a f t e r speaking w i t h God because h i s face shone so t h a t people c o u l d n o t be a r t o l o o k upon i t , b u t t h e v e i l i n g d e p r i v e d them o f a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e : Moses had seen God, b u t t h e p e o p l e c o u l d n o t even see God's r e f l e c t i o n i n Moses' f a c e . The v e i l was removed when he r e t u r n e d t o speak a g a i n w i t h God. 7^ Caps and head d r e s s e s o f the s o r t g e n e r a l l y worn by women can a l s o be used i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f i d e n t i t y , a g a i n because o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n on t h e head. Headdresses f u n c t i o n e d as an a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f a l a d y ' s m a r i t a l s t a t u s d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages s i n c e matrons wore one ty p e o f headgear and maidens a d i f f e r e n t s t y l e . T h i s was c e r t a i n l y as e f f e c t i v e as a wedding r i n g and c o n s i d e r a b l y more n o t i c e -a b l e . Headwear c o u l d a l s o be used t o d e l i n e a t e f u r t h e r an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n once a p r i m a r y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n had been made. A k n i g h t w e a r i n g a l i o n on top o f h i s helmet, f o r example, came t o be known because t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f i g u r e was h i s , b u t i t a l s o s e r v e d t o say t h a t he f o u g h t l i k e a l i o n . A m a r r i e d woman bowed t o t r a d i t i o n i n h e r headwear, b u t she was s t i l l cap-a b l e o f p l a c i n g i t so r a k i s h l y as t o sug g e s t t h a t though bound she h a r d l y c o n s i d e r e d h e r s e l f r e s t r a i n e d . A k i n g who w i s h e d t o show h i s c o n c e r n f o r p o v e r t y i n h i s r e a l m , o r who perhaps was d e e p l y s t r u c k by t h e mocking o f C h r i s t , a c c e p t e d h i s crown as a s i g n o f h i s d i v i n e l y a p p o i n t e d o f f i c e , b u t m o d i f i e d i t s s t y l e so as t o show h i s k i n g s h i p was n o t concerned w i t h glamor b u t o n l y j u s t i c e . Crowns a r e t h e s t a n d a r d symbol o f r o y a l t y and add t h e s y m b o l i c p o t e n t i a l i n h e r e n t t o t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and composi t i o n ( i . e . c i r c u l a r i t e m s made o f g o l d and s e t w i t h p r e c i o u s s t o n e s ) t o t h a t o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n w h i c h i n t e n s i f i e s t h e i d e a o f s u p e r i o r i t y . There a r e s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e v a r i a n t s t o t h e t y p i c a l s t y l e o f crown: s i m p l e wreaths o f f l o w e r s a r e one p o s s i b i l i t y , b u t perhaps the most memorable i s t h e crown o f t h o r n s worn by C h r i s t w h i c h combined the t o r t u r e o f s p i n e s p r e s s e d i n t o t h e s k i n w i t h t h e mockery produced by t u r n i n g a s i g n o f r o y a l t y i n t o an i n s t r u m e n t o f punishment. C l o a k s and o t h e r s i m i l a r garments a r e worn as p r o t e c t i o n from the e l e m e n t s , c h i e f l y from c o l d . I n f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r f u n c t i o n , t h e y s u r r o u n d t h e wearer w i t h a mass o f f a b r i c , a d a p t i n g h i s own s i l h o u e t t e t o one o f t h e i r own making and t o t a l l y s h i e l d i n g h i s appearance. Thus t h i s t y p e o f garment s t r e s s e s t h e v e r y essence o f d i g n i t y o r s u p e r i o r i t y : i t e f f e c t i v e l y c u t s i t s w e arer o f f from c o n t a c t w i t h h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s , t h e weather as w e l l as o t h e r p e o p l e . Because o f i t s p r o t e c t i v e f u n c t i o n , the g i f t o f a c l o a k , e s p e c i a l l y the d o n a t i n g o f one's own c l o a k , shows a c o n c e r n f o r t h e c o m f o r t and w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e r e c i p i e n t . I t can, c o n s i d e r i n g t h e con-n o t a t i o n s o f s u p e r i o r i t y i n h e r e n t i n t h e s t y l e o f t h e c l o a k , a l s o be a s i g n o f b r i n g i n g o n e s e l f down t o t h e l e v e l o f t h e r e c i p i e n t , o r o f r a i s i n g him t o one's own l e v e l . There i s a l e g e n d t o l d o f S a i n t M a r t i n t h a t , r i d i n g on a f r e e z i n g day, he p a s s e d a beggar. He s t opped and t o r e h i s own c l o a k i n h a l f , g i v i n g t h e p oor man h a l f and k e e p i n g the o t h e r f o r h i m s e l f . The s t o r y i n d i c a t e s t h e s a i n t ' s c o n c e r n f o r t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f even the l o w l i e s t o f h i s f e l l o w c r e a t u r e s and emphasizes the t o t a l e q u a l i t y o f a l l c r e a t i o n : j u s t as i t was n o t seemly f o r t h e beggar t o be f r e e z i n g and t h e s a i n t t o be warm, so was i t a l s o n o t seemly f o r t h e beggar t o keep the e n t i r e c l o a k and be warm w h i l e t h e s a i n t f r o z e . C l o a k s and o t h e r e x t e r n a l w rappings a l s o t a k e on f u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e f a b r i c used and i t s c o l o r . I n f a c t , the c o l o r may w e l l be t h e a u t h o r ' s prime c o n c e r n and the- garment m e r e l y a way o f i n t r o d u c i n g a l a r g e p a t c h o f one p a r t i c u l a r c o l o r i n t o a scheme. Gemstones, always p r i z e d f o r t h e i r beauty and g r e a t l y v a l u e d f o r t h e i r r a r i t y , were c o n s i d e r e d t o have c e r t a i n m a g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages, p r o p e r t i e s a t t r i b -u t e d t o them by Greek and Roman p h i l o s o p h e r s and r e t a i n e d o r 71 e m b e l l i s h e d by m e d i e v a l t h i n k e r s . Many o f t h e m a g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s r e s u l t e d from th e p h y s i c a l and c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f gems, many o f w h i c h were i n f a c t known t o t h e A n c i e n t s . The h ardness o f c e r t a i n gems was c e r t a i n l y e v i d e n t , as were e l e c t r i c a l q u a l i t i e s , and t h e r e f l e c t i o n and r e f r a c t i o n o f l i g h t was n o t l o s t on even t h e most c a s u a l o b s e r v e r . R a r i t y , g r e a t b e a u t y , and s p e c i f i c p r o p e r t i e s , a l l o f w h i c h a r e n o t s h a r e d by t h e most common o f o b j e c t s , caused t h e s e s t o n e s t o be p l a c e d i n t o a s p e c i a l c a t e g o r y , and i t i s easy t o see how s u s c e p t i b l e t h e y became t o b e i n g viewed as m a g i c a l . Of c o u r s e the s p e c i a l p r o p e r t i e s a s s i g n e d t o gemstones were n o t s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d t o m a g i c a l t r a i t s . M e d i e v a l t h i n k e r s viewed gems s y m b o l i c a l l y and saw i n them m y s t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h God 54 and t h e r e f l e c t i o n o f the u n d e r l y i n g u n i t y o f a l l C r e a t i o n . That gemstones a r e mentioned i n t h e B i b l e made t h e s e a s s o c i a -t i o n s a l l t h e more p r o b a b l e t o t h e m e d i e v a l mind: C h r i s t 72 compares the Kingdom o f Heaven t o a v a l u a b l e gem, f o r example, and t h e m y s t i c a l r e v e l a t i o n o f heaven r e c o r d e d by S t . John i n t h e A p o c a l y p s e shows a c i t y b u i l t on a s e r i e s o f gem founda-t i o n s , t w e l v e s t o n e s w h i c h were then i n t e r p r e t e d as s i g n i f y i n g 73 t h e t w e l v e t r i b e s o f I s r a e l and t h e t w e l v e A p o s t l e s . I n t h e r e a l m o f magic, gemstones became a p a r t o f a s t r o l o g y by t h e i r con-n e c t i o n t o t h e months, each month b e i n g a s s i g n e d a c e r t a i n s t o n e : T heophrastus and P l i n y have d e s c r i b e d some gems o f t h e i r t i me v e r y i m p e r f e c t l y and c o n f u s e d l y ; and t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e so r e p l e t e w i t h v a i n f a n c i e s , t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y any from t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s . They a t t r i b u t e d most w o n d e r f u l powers t o gems; gave f a b u l o u s d e s c r i p t i o n s , and t h e most s i n g u l a r and p e r v e r t e d views i n r e g a r d t o t h e i r o r i g i n ; and i t was s a i d t h a t t h e y had g r e a t i n f l u -ence upon h e a l t h and b e a u t y , r i c h e s , honor, and good f o r t u n e . They were c a l l e d , when worn, a m u l e t s . They were b r o u g h t i n t o c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e p l a n e t s , the t w e l v e c o n s t e l l a t i o n s , and t h e seasons o f t h e y e a r ; and a c e r t a i n gem was worn each month, w h i c h was s a i d t o have d u r i n g t h e term, i t s p e c u l i a r i n -f l u e n c e and h e a l i n g v i r t u e s . 7 4 To some e x t e n t t h e supposed a t t r i b u t e s o f gemstones were c o d i -f i e d and expanded i n l a p i d a r i e s w h i c h were c o n s i d e r e d s e r i o u s s c i e n t i f i c works: Die Kunde der E d e l s t e i n e h a t das M i t t e l a l t e r l e b h a f t b e s c h a f t i g t . I h r e K o s t b a r k e i t h a t t e d i e e d l e n S t e i n e von j e m i t s a g e n h a f t e n , magischen und m y s t i s c h e n V o r s t e l l u n g e n umsponnen. O r i e n -t a l i s c h e s , a l t t e s t a m e n t l i c h e s und a n t i k e s Wissen und F a b e l n um i h r e H e r k u n f t , N a t u r und Wirkung waren i n d i e m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e V o r s t e l l u n g s w e l t ubergegangen, i n I s i d o r s E n z y k l o p a d i e a ufgefangen und i n den S t e i n b u c h e r n s y s t e m a t i s e ! ! d a r g e s t e l l t worden. Wie der P h y s i o l o g u s das T i e r , so s e t z e n d i e S t e i n b u c h e r den E d e l s t e i n i n R e l a t i o n zu dem h o c h s t e n Gut, um daraus i h r e n Wert zu begrun-d e n . 7 5 When gemstones appear i n a work o f f i c t i o n , t h e r e e x i s t s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . They a r e added a t t i m e s as a means o f e x o t i c i s i n g t h e work, showing, f o r example, t h e g r e a t w e a l t h o f a c h a r a c t e r o r c o u r t o r , i n th e case o f gems o f g r e a t r a r i t y , as an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e e x o t i c o r i g i n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r w e a r i n g t h e gems. They a r e a l s o used f o r t h e sake o f t h e i r c o l o r , e i t h e r because o f c o l o r symbolism o r f o r t h e sake o f a i d i n g t h e r e a d e r o r l i s t e n e r t o v i s u a l i z e e v e n t s b e t t e r . They are a l s o used t o t i e e v e n t s t o g e t h e r by p r o v i d i n g an e a s i l y r e t a i n e d key t o one e v e n t , r e p e a t i n g i t l a t e r i n a n o t h e r . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e p o s s i b i l -i t i e s t h e r e i s a l s o t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t gems a r e added f o r th e sake o f t h e i r m e d i c a l o r m a g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o r f o r t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a B i b l i c a l e v e n t , a l l o f wh i c h were f a m i l i a r t o the m e d i e v a l a u d i e n c e . There i s f r e q u e n t l y n o n - l i t e r a l o r s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e t o be found i n c e r t a i n a c t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c l o t h i n g , g i v i n g a r t i c l e s o f c l o t h i n g as a g i f t , f o r example, o r o f f e r i n g a i d t o someone i n removing o r donning c l o t h i n g . C l o t h i n g g i f t s t a k e on t h e i r own s i g n i f i c a n c e i n two b a s i c manners: t h e a r t i c l e i t s e l f i s s y m b o l i c , e i t h e r because o f i n h e r e n t f u n c t i o n o r form o f t h e t y p e o f garment, i t s c o l o r , f a b r i c , o r method o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , o r i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t because i t u n i t e s o t h e r -w i s e d i s p a r a t e i n c i d e n t s t h r o u g h t h e pr e s e n c e o f a s i n g l e i t e m common t o t h e i n c i d e n t s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between donor and r e c i p i e n t i s a l s o f r e q u e n t l y o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e i n d e t e r -m i n i n g t h e n o n - l i t e r a l i m p a ct o f a c l o t h i n g g i f t : g i f t s o f c l o t h i n g from mother t o - s o n a r e d i f f e r e n t i n s i g n i f i c a n c e from g i f t s o f c l o t h i n g between l o v e r s . A i d g i v e n i n t h e a c t o f c l o t h i n g was i m p o r t a n t d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages because o f t h e ty p e o f c l o t h i n g worn, e s p e c i a l l y armor. Some t y p e s o f o r d i n a r y c l o t h i n g , and c e r t a i n l y most p a r t s o f a k n i g h t ' s armor, were so c o n s t r u c t e d as t o make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e wearer t o draw t h e s e garments onto h i s own body; f o r a k n i g h t t o d r e s s h i m s e l f , o r t o undress h i m s e l f , was a g r e a t f e a t . T h e r e f o r e i t was a b a s i c r u l e o f h o s p i t a l i t y f o r t h e h o s t t o p r o v i d e h i s g u e s t s w i t h a s e r v a n t t o a i d i n d r e s s i n g . The v a r i a t i o n s p o s s i b l e i n t h i s r a t h e r s i m p l e s i t u -a t i o n o f f e r p o t e n t i a l f o r s y m b o l i c and n o n - l i t e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . When t h e h o s t h i m s e l f o f f e r s h i s a i d t o t h e v i s i t o r a g r e a t honor i s a c c o r d e d him, f o r t h e normal s i t u a t i o n would have a s e r v a n t p e r f o r m i n g t h e s e s e r v i c e s . I f a h o s t a s s i g n e d t h i s t a s k t o a da u g h t e r , a n o t h e r g r e a t honor was a c c o r d e d t h e g u e s t . More complex v a r i a t i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e : E n i t e tends E r e c by p e r f o r m i n g t h e m e n i a l t a s k s t h a t a l o w l y s e r v a n t s h o u l d do i n s t e a d o f b e i n g a s s i g n e d t o t e n d E r e c ' s p e r s o n a l needs, a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h i s used t o emphasize t h e p o v e r t y o f t h e f a m i l y and c o n t r a s t E n i t e ' s beauty w i t h h e r p o s i t i o n . O b v i o u s l y customs so w i d e s p r e a d as g i f t - g i v i n g and o f f e r -i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n c l o t h i n g f u n c t i o n s appear i n l i t e r a t u r e as f u n c t i o n a l e v e n t s , more i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e n a r r a t i v e t h a n f o r s y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . C l o t h i n g i s g i v e n t o v i s i t o r s and used as a reward; s q u i r e s and s e r v a n t s a r e always p r e s e n t t o t e n d t o t h e r o b i n g and d i s r o b i n g o f t h e g u e s t . I n f a c t , t h i s a s p e c t o f h o s p i t a l i t y i s so u b i q u i t o u s t h a t i t s absence may be more i m p o r t a n t and g l a r i n g t h a n i t s p r e s e n c e . The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n has s u g g e s t e d some v e r y b a s i c ways i n whi c h t h e s t y l e s o f c l o t h i n g w h i c h appear i n Wolfram' works can t a k e on a n o n - l i t e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s w i l l a ttempt t o show s p e c i f i c ways i n w h i c h Wolfram i m p a r t s s y m b o l i c and n o n - l i t e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o i t e m s o f c l o t h i n g i n P a r z i v a l and i n W i l l e h a l m . CHAPTER TWO ARMOR Wolfram's s t a t e m e n t about h i s own p r o f e s s i o n s e t s t h e tone f o r th e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f armor i n h i s works, " s c h i l d e s ambet i s t min a r t " ( P a r z . 115, 1 1 ) . The f i r s t p e r s o n a l n o n - n a r r a t i v e remark t h e p o e t makes about armor i s t o use i t as a metaphor f o r k n i g h t h o o d . The use o f armor t h r o u g h o u t Wolfram's n a r r a -t i v e combines t h e l i t e r a l f u n c t i o n o f p h y s i c a l p r o t e c t i o n w i t h a c l u s t e r o f n o n - l i t e r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h i s f u n c t i o n . Armor i s seen as d i s g u i s e o r a f a c e t o f t r u e i d e n t i t y as w e l l as a means o f p r o t e c t i n g more th a n t h e body. Symbolism a r i s e s w i t h t h e use o f t h e Wappen and t h e v a r i o u s d e c o r a t i o n s t h a t e x i s t f o r weaponry, as w e l l as from t h e use o f c o l o r , and t h e r e i s n o n - l i t e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o be found i n t h e use o f s i t u a -t i o n s i n v o l v i n g c o u r t l y and c h i v a l r i c e t i q u e t t e . Wolfram's use o f s i t u a t i o n s e m p h a s i z i n g t h e d i s g u i s i n g f e a t u r e s o f armor i n P a r z i v a l s e r v e s t o u n d e r l i n e t h e s e r i e s o f . c r i s e s about i d e n t i t y t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e hero must make h i s way, c o n c e n t r a t i n g c h i e f l y - u p o n P a r z i v a l ' s n a i v e d e s i r e f o r armor/ k n i g h t h o o d w h i c h o b s c u r e s f o r him f o r some time t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f h i s t r u e s t a t e i n l i f e and h i s t r u e g o a l . The r e d armor he a c q u i r e s i n t h e t h i r d book a c t s as a mask u n t i l he has b r o u g h t h i s i n t e r i o r development up t o t h e g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l o f k n i g h t h o o d ; t h e r e a f t e r i t remains w i t h him, a reminder o f h i s 58 p a s t , w h i l e he progresses even beyond the l e v e l o f k n i g h t -hood's e a r t h l y form. The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f I t h e r von Gaheviez to the audience suggests a d i s t i n c t i o n between the armor and i t s occupant, "ez was I t h i r von Gaheviez:/den r o t e n r i t e r man i n h i e z " (Parz. 145, 15-16). There i s a d i f f e r e n c e between e x i s t e n c e o r t r u e being (sin) on the one hand and e x t e r n a l appearance or name (heizen) on the ot h e r . T h i s i s not very important where I t h e r i s con-cerned: once i n t r o d u c e d he does not l i v e f o r very long. The qu e s t i o n o f t r u e being as opposed to name o r appearance does, however, become v a l i d l a t e r w i t h P a r z i v a l and h i s c a r e e r as the Red Knight. Names are of course symbols and should be rec o g n i z e d as such. There i s a f u r t h e r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the r e p l a c i n g o f a person's name by a t i t l e o r oth e r d e s i g n a t i o n : when Wolfram r e f e r s to P a r z i v a l as Herzeloyde's son he c a l l s to mind an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t s e t of a s s o c i a t i o n s than when he c a l l s him Gahmuret's son. On the s i m p l e s t l e v e l r e f e r e n c e to Herzeloyde suggests P a r z i v a l ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the G r a i l f a m i l y w h i l e r e f e r e n c e t o Gahmuret i n d i c a t e s the s e t of value s belong-76 i n g to knighthood and the h e r i t a g e o f Mazadan. P a r z i v a l does not bother t o ask I t h e r h i s name, even though he agrees to c a r r y a message f o r him. In t h i s as w e l l as i n h i s l a t e r a c t i o n s , P a r z i v a l shows a l a c k of re g a r d f o r I t h e r ' s e x i s t e n c e as a person; because h i s onl y thought i s f o r the armor, o n l y I t h e r ' s e x t e r n a l t r a p p i n g s c a r r y any mean-i n g f o r him. Of course P a r z i v a l i s somewhat i n f l u e n c e d by the 60 f a c t t h a t a l l he can see o f I t h e r i s h i s s u i t o f armor, y e t he behaved q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y w i t h Karnahkarnanz. D u r i n g t h e e p i s o d e i n S o l t a n e , P a r z i v a l spoke i n terms o f a man who wore 77 a s u i t o f armor. I t h e r , however, i s a s u i t o f armor w h i c h happens t o be worn by a man, and i t i s even i n terms o f t h e armor t h a t P a r z i v a l r e f e r s t o I t h e r when he speaks t o A r t h u r : dem hcit e i n r i t t e r h e r enboten (den sah i c h a l l e n t h a l b e n r o t e n ) , e r w e l l s i n duze b i t e n . ( P a r z . 148, 9-11) P a r z i v a l ' s demanding t o be g i v e n t h i s armor i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f h i s n a i v e t e , h i s l a c k o f s o c i a l g r a c e , and o f h i s t o t a l i n a b i l i t y t o p r e d i c t o r examine the p r o b a b l e consequences o f h i s a c t i o n s . He i s an i n f a n t , r e l e a s e d i n t o a w o r l d o f wh i c h he has no knowledge. B e f o r e s l a y i n g I t h e r , P a r z i v a l v o i c e s a " j u s t i f i c a t i o n " o f t h e deed, "du maht w o l wesen : L a h e l i n , / v o n dem m i r k l a g e t d i u muoter min" ( P a r z . 154, 25-26). T h i s e x p r e s s i o n , however, s h o u l d be viewed as a n o t h e r o f h i s c h i l d i s h deeds. I n t h e l o g i c o f a c h i l d , he sees I t h e r as an enemy, as much because I t h e r p o s s e s s e s something he d e s i r e s as because o f I t h e r * s blow. As f a r as he knows, h i s o n l y enemy i s L a h e l i n , hence the e q u a t i o n i s e a s i l y made. O b v i o u s l y P a r z i v a l i s f u r i o u s , and t h e r e a c t i o n t o the blow i s immediate. No r e a l t h o u g h t goes i n t o t h e deed o r t h e " j u s t i f i c a t i o n , " a l t h o u g h i t must have c r o s s e d P a r z i v a l ' s mind t h a t k i l l i n g L a h e l i n i s a j u s t i -f i a b l e deed, the f u l f i l l i n g o f a promise made t o h i s mother, " d i z r i c h i c h , muoter, r u o c h t es g o t : / i n verwundet noch min g a b y l o t " ( P a r z . 128, 11-12). A t t h i s p o i n t i n h i s development, P a r z i v a l s t i l l knows v e r y l i t t l e o f d e a t h . He can r e c o g n i z e i t i n t h e hunt o f c o u r s e , b u t t h e f i r s t human d e a t h he en-78 c o u n t e r s r e s t s i n Sigune's arms and, a l t h o u g h t h e scene evokes p i t y , i t shows h a r d l y any o f the h o r r o r o f d e a t h . P a r z i v a l h i m s e l f e x p l a i n s h i s s t r o n g d e s i r e f o r I t h e r ' s armor: '...owi wan h e t i c h s i n gewant enphangen von des kunges hant! s 3 waer i c h f r e u d e n r i c h e : wan ez s t e t so r i t e r l i c h e . 1 ( P a r z . 148, 15-18) Armor i s t h e e x t e r n a l symbol o f k n i g h t h o o d , and t h e d e s i r e f o r k n i g h t h o o d i s so s t r o n g i n P a r z i v a l ' s mind t h a t he f i n d s h i s u n k n i g h t e d s t a t e a l m o s t u n b e a r a b l e : 1 . . . d e r w i l e dunket mich e i n j a r . daz i c h n i h t r i t t e r wesen s o l , daz t u o t m i r w i r s denne w o l . nune sumet mich n i h t mere, p h l e g t min nach r i t t e r s e r e . ' ( P a r z . 149, 12-16) P a r z i v a l i s unaware o f t h e p a t i e n c e t h a t he s h o u l d be e x h i b i t i n g t o i l l u s t r a t e h i s w o r t h i n e s s o f k n i g h t h o o d ; i n f a c t , he does not r e a l i z e t h a t k n i g h t h o o d i s something he must e a r n . A l l he has been t o l d about i t i s t h a t i t i s g i v e n by A r t h u r , and he b e l i e v e s t h a t once g i v e n t h e armor o f a k n i g h t he w i l l be a k n i g h t h i m s e l f . I t h e r ' s armor i s e x c e p t i o n a l i n i t s c o l o r , and i t i s f i n a l l y t h e r e d t h a t makes P a r z i v a l demand t h i s s u i t and none o t h e r . The f i r s t k n i g h t he meets, Karnahkarnanz, f i t s H e r z e l o y d e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f God: e r i s t noch l i e h t e r denne d e r t a c , d e r a n t l i t z e s s i c h bewac nach menschen a n t l i t z e . ( P a r z . 119, 19-21) P a r z i v a l m i s t a k e s t h i s armored man, t h e b r i g h t e s t p e r s o n he has e v e r seen, f o r God a t f i r s t , and though th e boy i s t o l d t h a t he i s n o t God b u t o n l y a k n i g h t who i s t r y i n g t o do God's w i l l - , a remnant o f h i s mother's t e a c h i n g remains. He r e p o r t s t h e i n c i d e n t t o h e r : 'muoter, i c h sach v i e r man noch l i e h t e r danne got g e t a n : d i e s a g t e n m i r von r i t t e r s c h a f t . . . ' ( P a r z . 126, 9-11) The b r i g h t n e s s o f c h a i n m a i l i s equated i n h i s young mind w i t h God, and s i n c e t h e boy i s t e n a c i o u s o f h i s mother's a d v i c e , h i s f i r s t s u i t o f c h a i n m a i l , I t h e r ' s r e d armor, i l l u s t r a t e s a d i s t a n c e from God, even th e b r i g h t , s h i n i n g , b u t s i m p l e God o f the f o r e s t c l e a r i n g . The armor s u i t s I t h e r i n l i g h t o f h i s f a t e d s t y l e o f l i f e : f o r I t h e r t h e r e d armor s i g n i f i e s t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f t h e c o u r t l y w o r l d and k n i g h t h o o d . P a r z i v a l ' s c h o i c e o f t h i s armor, however, i s t h e second time he e r r s on the s i d e o f t h e c h i v a l r o u s when i t i s opposed t o a r e l i g i o u s way o f l i f e . The f i r s t i s t h e m i s t a k i n g o f Karnahkarnanz f o r God, b u t t h e most s e r i o u s i s P a r z i v a l ' s f a i l u r e t o ask t h e q u e s t i o n a t Munsalvaesch i n h i s a t t empt t o f o l l o w Gurnemanz's 79 a d v i c e t o t h e l e t t e r . A r t h u r i s p l a c e d i n a d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n by P a r z i v a l ' s i n s i s t e n c e upon the armor. He i s t o r n between th e d e s i r e t o p l e a s e t h i s a p p e a l i n g young s t r a n g e r and t h e f e a r t h a t P a r z i v a l 8 0 w i l l be h u r t i n t h e outcome: A r t u s s p r a c h zem knappen san 'daz h a r n a s c h h a t an im e i n man, daz i c h t i r s n i h t g e t o r s t e gebn. . . ' ( P a r z . 150, 3-5)). That a k n i g h t such as I t h e r — o r any k n i g h t , f o r t h a t m a t t e r — would f i g h t t o defend h i s armor and the r i g h t t o wear i t i s o n l y n a t u r a l . To make a g i f t o f a n o t h e r man's armor, as i s here t h e c a s e , i s a grave i n s u l t : coming from a k i n g i t i s the e q u i v a l e n t o f a sentence o f de a t h . I t h e r , e q u a t i n g h i s armor w i t h h i s l i f e , m i s t a k e n l y assumes t h a t A r t h u r has a s s i g n e d t h i s boy t h e t a s k o f p u n i s h i n g him f o r h i s o f f e n s e : der kiinec von Kukumerlant s p r a c h 'hat A r t u s e s hant d i r irti"n h a r n a s c h gegebn, deswar daz t a e t e r ouch min l e b n , mohtestu m i r z an gewinnen...' ( P a r z . 154, 11-15) I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n armor i s a l i f e s i g n i n an e x t e n s i o n o f i t s p h y s i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e k n i g h t . I t h e r i s r i g h t t o t a k e o f f e n s e a t A r t h u r ' s m i s p l a c e d l a r g e s s e even though t h e r e was no m a l i c i o u s i n t e n t i n i t . A r t h u r m e r e l y w i s h e s t o p u t an end t o an u n c o m f o r t a b l e s i t u a t i o n and i s u n f o r t u n a t e i n r e -c e i v i n g poor a d v i c e from K e i . As a k i n g he must r e a l i z e t h e im p o r t a n c e o f armor and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h i s b e s t o w i n g I t h e r ' s as a g i f t , b u t he must be f o r g i v e n t h i s momentary l a p s e i n h i s a f f e c t i o n f o r P a r z i v a l . I t h e r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o A r t h u r a t t h i s moment p r e s e n t s an e a r t h l y p a r a l l e l t o P a r z i v a l ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o God a t t h e s t a r t o f the n i n t h book. Both a r e e n t r e n c h e d i n a c o u r t l y e t h i c t h a t says s e r v i c e s h a l l be r e -warded. I t h e r i s h i g h l y o f f e n d e d t h a t A r t h u r has so q u i c k l y t r a n s f e r r e d h i s f a v o r t o t h e young boy and has even encouraged him t o t a k e h i s v a l u a b l e armor, d e s t r o y i n g h i s k n i g h t l y a u r a as w e l l as h i s l i f e , showing the c e s s a t i o n o f f r i e n d s h i p between king and knight. The association of armor with l i f e i s strengthened by Parzival"s own motivation i n the death of Ither: i f k i l l i n g Ither i s the only way to get his armor, then Ither must die: s i n harnasch im verlos den l i p : dar umbe was s i n endes wer des tumben Parzivales ger. (Parz. 161, 4-6): I t i s l i t e r a l l y the armor which brings about I t h e r 1 s death, that same armor that was intended to protect his l i f e . The death of Ither i s the one single event which brings Parzival into knighthood because i t provides him with the external sign of the profession. Thus with the armor function-ing as the major symbol i n t h i s would-be i n i t i a t i o n , the Ither episode functions as the i n i t i a t i o n i t s e l f , a grotesque r i t e which brings about the transformation of the boy P a r z i v a l into the red knight. Thus the armor i s i n a sense e f f i c a c i o u s : i t functions as a symbol, but also brings about that which i t 81 symbolizes. Wearing armor, Parzival i s as much a knight as any other because he looks l i k e a knight; he i s never formally k n i g h t e d . ^ P a r z i v a l wins his f i r s t armor from an older male r e l a t i v e , perhaps meant here to function as a father figure and emphasize the achieving of manhood of the boy. The victory i n t h i s d i s -pute emphasizes his own "worthiness" to be a knight: he proves himself a "better" warrior than one who i s already, a member of the society he wishes to j o i n , a f i g h t e r who i s capable of con-quering his own "father." In t h i s , he i l l u s t r a t e s one of the prerequisites to membership: he i s a brave and capable f i g h t e r . The p r o o f , however, i s c a r r i e d o u t i n a most u n c o u r t l y manner, so t h a t w h i l e e x t e r n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e s a t i s f i e d , P a r z i v a l does n o t manage t o f u l f i l l i n t e r n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . H i s e n t i r e k n i g h t l y c a r e e r i s c a r r i e d o u t under th e burden o f i n c o m p l e t e f u l f i l l m e n t , and he cannot be a k n i g h t i n t h e t r u e sense u n t i l he e x p i a t e s t h e u n c o u r t l i n e s s o f t h e v i c t o r y by w h i c h he won h i s a d m i s s i o n . The p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e armor does, however, a l t e r t h e method o f h i s a t t e m p t s t o some e x t e n t : Iwanet t a k e s away h i s j a v e l i n a f t e r P a r z i v a l i s d r e s s e d i n I t h e r 1 s armor so t h a t he can no l o n g e r p e r f o r m such an u n c o u r t l y a c t . The d e a t h o f I t h e r i s accompanied by c e r t a i n s e x u a l o v e r -t ones w h i c h emphasize t h e coming i n t o manhood o f P a r z i v a l , i n however i n c o m p l e t e a f a s h i o n . H i s s l a y i n g b e a r s a c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e f i r s t a c t o f murder as T r e v r i z e n t r e l a t e s t o P a r z i v a l i n t h e n i n t h book: C a i n slew A b e l , a b l o o d r e l a t i v e , and when the b l o o d touched th e e a r t h i t took away her maidenhood: d i u e r de Adames muoter was: von e rden f r u h t A d c i m genas. dannoch was d i u erde e i n magt: noch ha"n i c h i u n i h t g e s a g t wer i r den magetuom benam. K&ins v a t e r was Ada*m: de r s l u o c A b e l n umb k r a n k e z guot. do u f d i e r e i n e n erdenz b l u o t v i e l , i r magetuom was v e r v a r n : den nam i r Adames b a r n . ( P a r z . 464, 11-20) F i g u r a t i v e l y , t h e d e a t h o f A b e l was t h e s e x u a l coming o f age o f t h e e a r t h ; t h e death o f I t h e r i s , f i g u r a t i v e l y as w e l l , t h e s e x u a l coming o f age o f P a r z i v a l . H i s deed f o l l o w s t h a t o f C a i n i n i t s o b j e c t , s l a y i n g f o r t h e sake o f p o s s e s s i o n s , and i n 8 3 i t s v i c t i m , a b l o o d r e l a t i v e . P a r z i v a l ' s own l a t e r d e s c r i p -t i o n o f the deed sounds v e r y much l i k e a r a p e : ' . . . I t h e r n von Cucumerlant den s l u o c min s i i n d e b a e r i u hant: i c h l e i t i n t o t e n u f f e z g r a s , unt nam swaz da. ze nemen was.' ( P a r z . 47.5, 9-12) F o l l o w i n g t h e a c t , Wolfram f o r t h e f i r s t time r e f e r s t o P a r z i v a l as a man i n s t e a d o f c o n t i n u a l l y c a l l i n g him a knabe o r knappe, as he had done up t o t h i s p o i n t , "gewapent r e i t z der tumbe man" ( P a r z . 161, 1 7 ) . Wolfram i s not c o n s i s t e n t i n u s i n g t h i s new a p p e l l a t i o n . I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , however, P a r z i v a l i s a man, even though he i s s t i l l tump and i n c o m p l e t e , 84 because he has become a k n i g h t . Once P a r z i v a l has been " i n i t i a t e d " i n t o k n i g h t h o o d and has p r o v e d h i m s e l f t o be a "man" he i s p e r m i t t e d t o t a k e upon h i m s e l f t h e s i g n o f h i s new manhood/knighthood, t h e armor he has won as the p r i z e o f h i s v i c t o r y . The d e a t h o f the r e d k n i g h t i s i n e v i t a b l e : armor g i v e n as a g i f t i s n o t a s i g n o f manhood, b u t armor t a k e n from a body, k i l l e d by one's own hand, i s . There i s a d i s t i n c t h o l l o w n e s s t o P a r z i v a l ' s v i c t o r y and the a c q u i s i t i o n o f the s i g n o f h i s coming o f age, t h i s k n i g h t ' s c l o t h i n g , f o r he has gone about i t i n a m o r a l l y and c h i v a l -r o u s l y u n a c c e p t a b l e manner: he has k i l l e d w i t h o u t p r o p e r c a u s e , used a weapon f o r b i d d e n by t h e code t o w h i c h he p r o f e s s e s ad-herence, and robbed a c o r p s e o f i t s c l o t h i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , he has a c q u i r e d a s u i t o f armor. From t h i s p o i n t on, t h e r e d armor has a d u a l f u n c t i o n as f a r as P a r z i v a l i s concerned, f o r i t b o t h h i d e s what s o r t o f man i s i n s i d e and i t r e p r e s e n t s h i s new k n i g h t l y i d e n t i t y . What the armor h i d e s a t f i r s t i s the f o o l . P a r z i v a l , much t o Iwanet's s u r p r i s e , i n s i s t s on w e a r i n g the c l o t h i n g h i s mother made under h i s newly a c q u i r e d armor. T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t h i s d e s i r e f o r k n i g h t h o o d does n o t go so deep as to: make him a l t e r i n t e r i o r a c t i o n s j u s t y e t : he was c o n t e n t t o g a i n t h e armor, outward s i g n o f k n i g h t h o o d , by a method v e r y much opposed t o k n i g h t h o o d , and now he r e f u s e s t o r e l i n q u i s h u n d e r c l o t h i n g t h a t does n o t go a l o n g w i t h k n i g h t h o o d . A l t h o u g h e x t e r n a l l y he l o o k s as fearsome and k n i g h t l y as I t h e r d i d — a r m o r does have t h i s e f f e c t — i n t e r n a l l y he remains much t h e same f o o l i s h y o u t h who l e f t S o l t a n e on a nag. The d e c e p t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e e x t e r n a l s i s emphasized when P a r z i v a l a r r i v e s a t t h e home o f Gurnemanz. He l o o k s l i k e a k n i g h t , though he does n o t a c t e n t i r e l y i n a c c o r d w i t h k n i g h t l y p r e c e p t s . H i s speech i s s t i l l r e m i n i s -A 85 cent o f d i r r e t o e r s c h e W a l e i s e ( P a r z . 121, 5 ) . When t h e armor i s removed, Gurnemanz 1 a t t e n d a n t s a r e shocked a t h i s s t r a n g e u n d e r c l o t h i n g . The t h r u s t o f Gurnemanz' t e a c h i n g i s t o r d d P a r z i v a l o f t h i s g r e a t d i s p a r i t y between i n n e r and o u t e r , n o t so much the d i s p a r i t y between h i s i n n e r and o u t e r c l o t h i n g as t h a t w h i c h i s s i g n i f i e d by the c l o t h i n g : h i s i n n e r and o u t e r p e r s o n . To be a k n i g h t he must l e a r n t o t h i n k and a c t a c c o r d i n g t o k n i g h t l y p r i n c i p l e s . P a r z i v a l i s t a u g h t k n i g h t l y a r t s and exchanges the f o o l ' s c l o t h i n g f o r f i n e garments w h i c h s u i t h i s 8 6 body as w e l l as h i s v o c a t i o n . A t t h i s p o i n t P a r z i v a l no 68 l o n g e r d e c l a r e s t h a t t h e c l o t h i n g h i s mother made f o r him i s good enough. He has moved from h i s m e n t a l i n f a n c y and c h i l d i s h a ttachment t o h i s mother, t h e female i n f l u e n c e , t o a s t a t e o f adolescence/manhood w h i c h i s marked by t h e t u r n i n g towards t h e f a t h e r , here as a n o t h e r o l d e r male r e l a t i v e . The new c l o t h i n g t h a t Gurnemanz p r o v i d e s does f o r P a r z i v a l ' s appearance what h i s t e a c h i n g s do f o r h i s b e h a v i o r . I t i s Gurnemanz who c h r i s t e n s P a r z i v a l w i t h I t h e r ' s s o b r i q u e t , t r a n s f e r r i n g the name and not c o n f e r r i n g i t upon him as a new t i t l e , " s l n e n g a s t des namn e r n i h t e r l i e z , / d e n r o t e n r i t t e r e r i n h i e z " ( P a r z . 170, 5-6). The name does n o t come a u t o -m a t i c a l l y w i t h t h e armor: P a r z i v a l must f i r s t e a r n i t by p r o v i n g t h a t he can be the ty p e o f k n i g h t I t h e r was, e q u a l l y 8 7 adept a t t h e k n i g h t l y a r t s . Gurnemanz a l s o p r o v i d e s r u d i -mentary r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n ( P a r z . 169, 15-20) w h i c h i s meant t o h e l p b r i d g e the gap between P a r z i v a l and God s u g g e s t e d i n h i s d e s i r e f o r I t h e r ' s r e d armor. I n many ways, P a r z i v a l ' s s o j o u r n w i t h Gurnemanz marks t h e r e a l b e g i n n i n g o f h i s k n i g h t l y l i f e , f o r i t i s here t h a t he l e a r n s the s k i l l s and b e h a v i o r t h a t go a l o n g w i t h o r d i n a r y k n i g h t h o o d . I f p u t t i n g on I t h e r ' s armor i s a s i g n o f P a r z i v a l ' s d e s i r e f o r k n i g h t h o o d , t h e new name i s a s i g n o f a t l e a s t a p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h i s d e s i r e . W i t h the armor he t a k e s on a new i d e n t i t y , one whi c h now r e p l a c e s h i s i d e n t i t y as a f o o l . He i s I t h e r ' s s u c c e s s o r , t h e r e d k n i g h t h i m s e l f . The name f o l l o w s him t h r o u g h h i s a d v e n t u r e s on t h e w o r l d l y / k n i g h t l y l e v e l , and t h o s e who see him r e f e r t o him n o t by h i s name b u t r a t h e r as t h e " r e d k n i g h t " o r as "a k n i g h t who was w e a r i n g r e d . " S i n c e t h i s i s n o t h i s d e s t i n e d l e v e l o f e x i s t e n c e , however, so l o n g as t h e name f o l l o w s P a r z i v a l , i t i n d i c a t e s more a l a c k o f f u l f i l l m e n t t h a n the a c h i e v i n g o f a dream. Those c h a r a c t e r s who r e f e r t o P a r z i v a l as t h e r e d k n i g h t show themselves t o be concerned s o l e l y w i t h h i s a c t i o n s on t h i s one l e v e l , t he form o f k n i g h t h o o d r e p r e s e n t e d by h i s armor. I t i s as t h e r e d k n i g h t t h a t he r e s c u e s P e l r e p e i r e and m a r r i e s t h e queen, and he i s r e f e r r e d t o as the r e d k n i g h t t h r o u g h o u t the Gawain e p i s o d e s , r i g h t up t o t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h h i s l o n g s e a r c h i s ended. From t h e ti m e Gurnemanz g i v e s him t h e name, i t i s o n l y C u n d r i e who t a k e s i s s u e w i t h h i s r i g h t t o i t : 1 . . . i r nennet i n den r i t t e r r o t , nach dem der l a c v o r Nantes t o t : u n g l i c h i r z w e i e r l e b e n was; wan munt von r i t e r n i e g e l a s , der p f l a e g so ganzer w e r d e k e i t . 1 ( P a r z . 315, 11-15) The armor, as i t i s worn by I t h e r , i s s y m b o l i c o f h i s h a v i n g a c h i e v e d h i s p r o p e r l e v e l i n l i f e : he was born t o be a k n i g h t on t h e w o r l d l y l e v e l and he a c h i e v e s e x c e l l e n c e i n h i s occupa-t i o n . A t t h i s p o i n t i n t h e n a r r a t i v e , w i t h C u n d r i e 1 s d e n u n c i -a t i o n , i t becomes apparent t h a t P a r z i v a l , i n a t t e m p t i n g t o be I t h e r ' s r e p l a c e m e n t , i s i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e p r o p e r o r d e r . By d e v o t i n g h i s e n e r g i e s t o t h e g o a l o f k n i g h t h o o d on t h i s one l e v e l a l o n e he i s hampered i n r e a c h i n g h i s t r u e s t a t e i n l i f e . He i s n o t d e s t i n e d t o remain a member o f A r t h u r i a n s o c i e t y , b u t i n s t e a d i s t o s t r i v e t o a c h i e v e h i s p r o p e r p o s i t i o n i n G r a i l s o c i e t y . Thus h i s appearance i s a l i v i n g c o n t r a d i c t i o n , h i s outward appearance i n d i c a t i n g something which i s n o t s u b s t a n -t i a t e d by h i s i n t e r n a l make-up. C u n d r i e denounces him i n words, b u t h e r own appearance i s p r o o f p o s i t i v e t h a t e x t e r n a l s a r e d e c e p t i v e : t a v e l r u n d e r p r i s e s k r a f t h a t e r l e m t e i n g e s e l l e s c h a f t d i u d r i i b e r gap her P a r z i v a l , ^ gg de r ouch d o r t t r e i t d i u r i t e r s mal. ( P a r z . 315, 7-10) " The t h r u s t o f h e r d e n u n c i a t i o n i s t h a t P a r z i v a l , who l o o k s l i k e 89 a p r o p e r k n i g h t , i s i n f a c t g u i l t y o f a mora l f a i l i n g so 90 g r e a t t h a t he no l o n g e r d e s e r v e s r e c o g n i t i o n as a k n i g h t . H i s s i m p l e k i n d n e s s has been c o r r u p t e d by an o v e r l a y o f e x t e r n a l c o u r t l y e t h i c s and e t i q u e t t e . C u n d r i e h e r s e l f shows t h a t t h i n g s a re not always what t h e y seem t o be: she e x h i b i t s wisdom as w e l l as compassion, b o t h l a c k i n g i n P a r z i v a l ' s a c t i o n s so f a r , she s e r v e s t h e G r a i l , and y e t she i s t h e u g l i e s t c r e a t u r e t o g r a c e Wolfram's n a r r a t i v e . P a r z i v a l ' s armor i s removed from him b e f o r e h i s r e c o n c i l i -a t i o n w i t h h i s w i f e . A s i d e from t h e o b v i o u s f a c t t h a t a j o y f u l r e u n i o n would be g r e a t l y h i n d e r e d by a s u i t o f c h a i n m a i l , t h i s s m a l l t o u c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y e a r s o f q u e s t i n g on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l a r e ended; P a r z i v a l has come t h r o u g h h i s p a s t and i s now rea d y , a l o n g w i t h h i s f a m i l y , t o b e g i n a new phase i n h i s l i f e . The w e a r i n g o f armor i s a l s o i n s t r u m e n t a l from a n a r r a t i v e p o i n t o f v i e w i n making p o s s i b l e the .Verwandtenkampf w h i c h appears i n many m e d i e v a l works. The f i g h t w i t h an unknown a s s a i l a n t t a k e s two forms i n P a r z i v a l , a p p e a r i n g as t h e f i g h t 71 w i t h a r e l a t i v e o r c l o s e f r i e n d , and t h e f i g h t w i t h the i n -c o r r e c t enemy, b o t h o f w h i c h come about because o f armor's d i s g u i s i n g f e a t u r e . . That a b a t t l e w i t h a r e l a t i v e , even a d i s t a n t one, i s t o be a v o i d e d i n any s i t u a t i o n i s emphasized i n t h e Gahmuret e p i s o d e d u r i n g a tournament. Gahmuret i s about t o be c h a l l e n g e d by K a y l e t , a c o u s i n : do kom gevaren K a y l e t . von dem ke*rte Gahmuret: wand e r was s i n e r muomen suon: waz s o l t e r im do l e i d e s tuon? ( P a r z . 39, 11-14) K a y l e t i s t o l d by G a s c h i e r t h a t h i s d e s i r e d opponent i s Gahmuret, and he t o o i m m e d i a t e l y drops any t h o u g h t o f f i g h t i n g . G a s c h i e r , however, w i l l n o t drop K a y l e t ' s r e i n s u n t i l he has u ncovered h i s head: ' i n l a z i u s n i h t , e daz min ouge a l r e r s t e r s i h t i w e r blSzez houbet. daz mine i s t m i r b e t o u b e t . 1 den helm e r im h e r ab do b a n t . ( P a r z . 40, 15-19) U n c o v e r i n g one's head d u r i n g a b a t t l e s i t u a t i o n o r a t o u r n a -ment i s o b v i o u s l y a s i g n o f s u r e t y . I n e f f e c t i t shows t o t a l t r u s t s i n c e one i s o p e n i n g t h e most v u l n e r a b l e s p o t t o a p o t e n t i a l blow. That G a s c h i e r demands t h i s s i g n l i e s i n h i s b e t o u b e t c o n d i t i o n , f o r nowhere i s t h e r e any e v i d e n c e t h a t he 91 does n o t t r u s t K a y l e t ' s word; r a t h e r he does n o t t r u s t h i s own p e r c e p t i o n . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r b a t t l e i s e a s i l y a v o i d e d because Gahmuret knows h i s b l o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h K a y l e t and i s a b l e t o r e c o g -n i z e him on t h e f i e l d because he i s f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c o a t o f 92 arms of h i s c o u s i n . Both knowledge o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p and 72 a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e a r e l a t i v e are necessary to prevent a Verwandtenkampf, and whenever one does occur i n P a r z i v a l i t i s because a t l e a s t one of these f a c t s i s unknown to both par-t i c i p a n t s . When P a r z i v a l f i r s t l e aves S o l t a n e , he i s not aware of any k i n s h i p t i e s except those to h i s mother. Yet even though he does not r e a l i z e h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h I t h e r , he s t i l l s i n s a g a i n s t k i n s h i p by k i l l i n g him, perhaps even more so because of the c h i l d i s h reason behind the deed, the d e s i r e f o r m a t e r i a l goods. F a m i l i a l t i e s are c l o s e i n importance to the t i e which e x i s t s between God and man, and T r e v r i z e n t t r i e s to make P a r z i v a l aware of the s e r i o u s n e s s of the o f f e n s e : do sprach e r ' l i e b e r swester suon, was r a t e s moht i c h d i r nu tuon? du hast d i n eigen v e r c h e r s l a g n . w i l t u f u r got d i e schulde t r a g n , s i t daz i r bede wart e i n b l u o t , ob got da r e h t g e r i h t e t u o t , so g i l t e t im d i n eigen leben...' (Parz. 475, 19-25) : P a r z i v a l ' s i n a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e k i n s h i p where i t e x i s t s i s a s i g n of h i s flawed s t a t e , the same s t a t e t h a t keeps him from r e c o g n i z i n g h i s t i e s to Amfortas or h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h God: Das Verkennen des Blutsverwandten z e i g t im konk-r e t e n Geschehen, dass P a r z i v a l den Anspruchen der Verwandten-triuwe noch n i c h t gerecht zu werden vermag, und bedeutet i n ubertragenem Sinn, dass P a r z i v a l d i e Gottes-triuwe i n dem V e r h a l t n i s der Menschen untere i n a n d e r n i c h t zu achten weiss; und d i e s insgesamt z e i g t den Beginn des O f f e n -barwerdens der S i i n d h a f t i g k e i t P a r z i v a l s . 9 3 T h i s same s i t u a t i o n i s a t the core of P a r z i v a l ' s f i g h t s w i t h Gawain and w i t h h i s b r o t h e r F e i r e f i z ; armor i s a v e h i c l e t h a t makes the i n a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y more p l a u s i b l e . At one p o i n t , 73 o u t s i d e B e a r o s c h e , P a r z i v a l and Gawain come v e r y c l o s e t o f i g h t i n g . P a r z i v a l i s unknown t o t h e townspeople: den b u r g a e r n manege t j o s t da b o t e i n r i t t e r a l l e n t h a l b e n r & t : der h i e z d e r ungenante, wande i n niemen da bekante. ( P a r z . 383, 23-26) Y e t t h e c l o t h i n g t h a t h i d e s P a r z i v a l ' s f a c e i s a l s o a means o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f o r Gawain, who r e c o g n i z e s h i s wapen and h i s c o n c e r n f o r t h e G r a i l , and who u t t e r s a p r a y e r i n t h a n k s g i v i n g t h a t t h e y had n o t been b r o u g h t t o f i g h t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , Gawain l a t e r manages t o m i s t a k e him f o r Gramoflanz. A p p a r e n t l y t h e s p r i g t h a t P a r z i v a l b r e a k s from t h e t r e e Gramoflanz guards i s a v a l u a b l e s i g n o f r e c o g n i t i o n t o Gawain: e r h e t ouch gebrochen von dem bourn, des Gramoflanz h u o t e , e i n so l i e h t e n k r a n z daz Gawanz r i s erkande. do v o r h t e r d i e schande, op s i n der kiinec da h e t e r b i t n : waer d e r d u r c h s t r l t g e i n im g e r i t n , so muese ouch s t r i t e n da geschehn, g 4 und s o i t ez nimmer frouwe e r s e h n . ( P a r z . 679, 14-22) There i s a t t h i s p o i n t some q u e s t i o n as t o what P a r z i v a l i s w e a r i n g . F o l l o w i n g C u n d r i e ' s d e n u n c i a t i o n P a r z i v a l r i d e s away from A r t h u r ' s encampment w e a r i n g what appears t o be o r d i n a r y c h a i n m a i l : .Nu was s i n o r s v e r d e e k e t , s i n s e l b e s not erwecket. ouch h e t der degen w o l g e t a n l i e h t w i z i s e r n h a r n a s c h an, t i w e r an a l l e r s l a h t g e t r o c : s i n k u r s i t , s i n wapenroc, was g e h e r t m i t g e s t e i n e . ( P a r z . 333, 1-7) K r a t z s u g g e s t s t h i s c o l o r change i s "a mere l a p s u s on Wolfram's 95 . . p a r t , " an i d e a w h i c h i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e mention o f P a r z i v a l d u r i n g t h e Gawain e p i s o d e s w h i c h i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w : P a r z i v a l i s always i d e n t i f i e d as t h e r e d k n i g h t ( P a r z . 388,8: 392, 2 0 ) . T h i s i s n o t , however, the s o r t o f l a p s e Wolfram i s l i k e l y t o make, e s p e c i a l l y i n l i g h t o f t h e c o n s t a n t s t r e s s on P a r z i v a l * s r e d armor. There i s a l w a y s , however, the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t A 96 Wolfram meant w i z t o be r e a d " s h i n i n g . " I n any c a s e , P a r z i v a l ' s c o l o r i s p r e s e n t a t t h e scene o f Gawain's f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i z e h i s c o u s i n , "noch r o e t e r denn e i n rubbin/was s i n k u r s i t u nt s i n s o r s e s k l e i t " ( P a r z . 679, 10-11) Even i f P a r z i v a l has exchanged h i s r e d armor, he r e t a i n s the r e d i n t h e f a b r i c t r a p p i n g s . Gawain i s p l a c i n g more emphasis upon deed t h a n upon appearance w h i c h , n o r m a l l y , i s an e x c e l l e n t c o u r s e o f a c t i o n , y e t i n t h i s i n s t a n c e he i s wrong. I t l e a d s t o a f i g h t w h i c h b r i n g s shame t o b o t h o f them. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h i s i s a l l o w e d t o happen because b o t h k n i g h t s have y e t a t a s k t o f u l f i l l , P a r z i v a l on t h e l e v e l o f t h e G r a i l : t h e r e l e a s e o f A mfortas from h i s agony has not y e t been bro u g h t about; and Gawain on t h e l e v e l o f A r t h u r i a n s o c i e t y : t h e b a t t l e w i t h Gramoflanz i s y e t t o o c c u r . Both o f them a r e s t i l l p e r m i t t e d t o make m i s t a k e s . P a r z i v a l makes use o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f d i s c e r n i n g the i d e n t i t y o f an armored man i n o r d e r t o h e l p e v e n t u a l l y t o p u t r i g h t t h e damage he has done by f i g h t i n g and i n j u r i n g Gawain: he f i g h t s Gramoflanz as w e l l . H i s m o t i v a t i o n i n . t h i s i s open t o q u e s t i o n , f o r A r t h u r i a n c i r c l e s c o n s i d e r i t t o be an i mproper a c t , and A r t h u r c h i d e s P a r z i v a l f o r t h i s b r e a c h o f conduct. The f i g h t was Gawain's and he d i d not w i s h t o g i v e i t up: A r t u s / j z e P a r z i v a l e s p r a c h 'neve, s i t d i r sus geschach daz du des kampfes baete und m a n l i c h e t a e t e unt Gawan d i r z v e r s a g t e , daz d i n munt do s e r e k l a g e t e , nu h a s t e den kamph i d o c h g e s t r i t e n g e i n im d er s i n da h e t e r b i t e n , ez waere uns l e i t ode l i e p . du s l i c h e von uns a l s e i n d i e p : w i r h e t e n anders d i n e hant d i s s e s kampfes w o l erwant...' ( P a r z . 708, 1-12) Thus P a r z i v a l , i n d e c i d i n g t o t a k e on Gramoflanz w i t h o u t Gawain's l e a v e , has r e a l l y o f f e n d e d c o u r t l y e t i q u e t t e . A r t h u r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f him l e a v i n g as a t h i e f i s i t s e l f r e m i n i s c e n t o f I w e i n ' s l e a v i n g s e c r e t l y t o f i n d t h e magic f o u n t a i n b e f o r e A r t h u r and h i s company a r e ready t o l e a v e . S t i l l , P a r z i v a l ' s m o t i v a t i o n i s n o t marked by t h e h o c h v a r t demonstrated by I w e i n . He f i r s t o f f e r s t o s t a n d i n f o r Gawain because he i s r e s p o n s i -b l e f o r Gawain's weakened c o n d i t i o n and he wants t o p r e v e n t any a t t a c k on h i s c o u s i n ' s honor, as w e l l as atone f o r h i s p a r t i n t h e Verwandtenkampf. He o f f e r s h i m s e l f as s u r e t y f o r Gawain: Do t r u o c d e r s t a r k e P a r z i v a l n i n d e r muede l i t noh e r b l i c h e n mal. e r h e t an den stunden s l n e n helm ab gebunden, da i n d e r werde kiinec s a c h , zuo dem e r z i i h t e c l i c h e n s p r a c h 'her, swaz min neve Gawan g e i n i w e r n h u l d e n h a t g e t a n , des l a t mich f u r i n wesen p f a n t . . . ' ( P a r z . 693, 1-9) Here, as i n t h e e a r l i e r e p i s o d e i n v o l v i n g K a y l e t and G a s c h i e r , t h e helmet i s removed t o uncover t h e head when an o f f e r o f s u r e t y i s made. When t h i s i s r e f u s e d him, P a r z i v a l must r e s o r t t o o t h e r methods t o atone f o r h i s weakening o f Gawain, who i s c e r t a i n l y n o t angry a t P a r z i v a l f o r t h i s b r e a c h o f e t i q u e t t e . He even admits t h a t i t would have been to o soon f o r him t o f i g h t Gramoflanz i n any case ( P a r z . 708, 1 7 ) . I f Gawain, who i s most a f f e c t e d by t h i s o f f e n s e , does n o t w i s h t o judge P a r z i v a l t o o h a r s h l y , t h e n A r t h u r i s w i l l i n g t o f o r g i v e him as w e l l . What i s u l t i m a t e l y a c c o m p l i s h e d by t h i s f i g h t i s t o g a i n enough time f o r Gawain and Gramoflanz t o be r e c o n c i l e d . Thus P a r z i v a l i s r e a l l y i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p r e v e n t i n g a b a t t l e t h a t would have b r o u g h t m i s e r y t o many. I t i s odd, however, t h a t Gramoflanz does n o t r e c o g n i z e P a r z i v a l b e f o r e t h e y f i g h t . He had seen him t h e day b e f o r e and s h o u l d have been f a m i l i a r w i t h h i s d i s t i n c t i v e armor. H i s eagerness f o r b a t t l e p r e v e n t s him from t h i n k i n g r a t i o n a l l y and, l i k e Gawain b e f o r e him, he i s more w i l l i n g t o c r e d i t deeds t h a n appearances. He i s supposed t o f i g h t Gawain, t h e r e f o r e Gawain must be t h e k n i g h t r i d i n g o u t t o meet him. P a r z i v a l ' s f i n a l b a t t l e w i t h an unknown a s s a i l a n t i s t h e most s e r i o u s o f f e n s e a g a i n s t k i n s h i p among t h e s e b a t t l e s s i n c e i t i s w i t h h i s h a l f - b r o t h e r . T h e i r f i g h t i s one between w e l l matched men, s i n c e b o t h o f them i n h e r i t e d t h e i r k n i g h t l y s i d e from th e same s t r a i n , and n e i t h e r can g a i n an advantage u n t i l an i n t e r v e n t i o n from God--the b r e a k i n g o f P a r z i v a l ' s s w o r d — s t o p s t h e f i g h t . God i s a t l a s t e x h i b i t i n g h i s mercy t o p r e v e n t y e t a n o t h e r shameful s i n a g a i n s t k i n s h i p on t h e p a r t 97 o f P a r z i v a l , o r on the p a r t o f F e i r e f i z . P a r z i v a l ' s m e e t i n g w i t h h i s b r o t h e r i s a p r e l u d e t o the f i n a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h Condwiramurs and h i s t w i n sons and t h e r e t u r n t o t h e G r a i l c a s t l e , where wrongs are set right by his Mitleidsfrage. Be-fore he w i l l f u l l y accept t h i s stranger's i d e n t i t y , however, Pa r z i v a l asks to see his face, for he knows of his brother's pied complexion. F e i r e f i z assures him of his i d e n t i t y , and both remove t h e i r helmets and the hooded part of t h e i r hauberks, removing a l l b a r r i e r s to recognition and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . They meet f i r s t as knights, where they share a common heritage, then, p a r t i a l l y removing the outward signs of knighthood, they meet as men. In order to prevent the confusion caused by unknown and unrecognizable knights, various types of i d e n t i f y i n g signs were developed, and during the Middle Ages t h e i r use was not r e s t r i c t e d to the knight on the b a t t l e f i e l d but was also employed by the nobles and the free born, es p e c i a l l y land owners, as a sign of t h e i r s o c i a l status. The knight's symbol was developed f i r s t , since armored knights were f i g h t i n g long before t h i s p a r t i c u l a r class structure became an established custom. A knight often simply transferred his own sign from sh i e l d to home when he became a landowner, but those who gained land without having been f i g h t i n g knights had the option of devising t h e i r own signs. There i s a l i n e of development of t h i s custom from the knight's symbol to that of the landed gentry although i n d i v i d u a l signs have a more complex development themselves. S o c i a l l y these coats of arms were signs of n o b i l i t y and therefore prized: 78 The i m p o r t a n c e a t t a c h e d t o b i r t h as t h e s o u r c e o f p r i v i l e g e was e x p r e s s e d i n t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e o l d i n d i v i d u a l s i g n s o f ' r e c o g n i t i o n ' p a i n t e d on the k n i g h t ' s s h i e l d o r engraved on h i s s e a l , i n t o t h e a r m o r i a l b e a r i n g s , sometimes t r a n s m i t t e d w i t h t h e f i e f b u t more o f t e n handed down, even w i t h o u t t h e p r o p e r t y , from g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n . The use o f t h e s e symbols o f c o n t i n u i t y , f i r s t seen i n t h e r o y a l and p r i n c e l y d y n a s t i e s , where p r i d e o f b i r t h was p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g , and soon adopted by houses o f l e s s e r r a n k , was r e g a r d e d h e n c e f o r t h as t h e monopoly o f t h e f a m i l i e s c l a s s e d as n o b l e . What o r i g i n a l l y i d e n t i f i e d a k n i g h t came a l s o t o i d e n t i f y h e r i t a g e , y e t i t was s t i l l employed f o r i t s o r i g i n a l f u n c t i o n . Because arms e v e n t u a l l y f i l l e d two s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t f u n c t i o n s , t h e n , i t was n o t n e c e s s a r y f o r a k n i g h t t o wear o n l y h i s i n h e r i t e d c o a t o f arms. T h i s c e r t a i n l y i d e n t i f i e d h i s l i n e a g e , b u t i t d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i d e n t i f y h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y as a k n i g h t . He a p p a r e n t l y had t h e r i g h t t o adopt h i s own arms, a l t h o u g h i f he were the o l d e r son and i n h e r i t e d t h e p r o p e r t y h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y was o f t e n s a c r i f i c e d and he bore t h e arms o f the p r o p e r t y and o f h i s a n c e s t o r s . A k n i g h t e r r a n t d i d n o t need t o show h i s h e r e d i t y , and t h e r e i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s f l e x i b i l i t y i n the Gahmuret e p i s o d e : when Gahmuret l e a v e s home he does n o t wear the arms o f Gandin, h i s f a t h e r : nu e r l o u b t im daz e r mueze han ander wapen denne im Gandin da v o r gap, der v a t e r s i n . ( P a r z . 14, 12-14) I n s p i t e o f i t s f l e x i b i l i t y , however, the f a c t o f arms was e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t i n i t s f u n c t i o n o f s i g n i f y i n g f r e e - b o r n s t a t u s . When Gandin's men come t o r e c e i v e t h e i r f i e f s anew from h i s son, t h e y r e q u e s t t h a t he g i v e Gahmuret l a n d and a c o a t o f arms t o go w i t h t h e l a n d so t h a t he would have a b s o l u t e 79 p r o o f o f h i s s t a t u s : s i g e r t e n , a l s i r t r i w e r i e t , r i c h und arme, g a r d i u d i e t , e i n e r kranken e r n s t l i c h e r b e t e , daz d e r kiinec an Gahmurete b r u o d e r l l c h e t r i w e merte, und s i c h s e l b e n e r t e , daz e r i n n i h t g a r v e r s t i e z e , und im s i n e s l a n d e s l i e z e hantgemaelde, daz man mohte sehen, da von der h e r r e miiese j e h e n s i n s namen und s i n e r v r i h e i t . ( P a r z . 6, 11-21) P r o o f o f s t a t u s o f t e n r e s i d e s i n symbols r a t h e r t h a n i n documents: symbols a r e c o n v e n i e n t and c o m p r e h e n s i b l e , p o r t a b l e and a d a p t a b l e and a r e o f t e n d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e purpose o f r e -p l a c i n g documentation. The Wappen a r e t h e most o b v i o u s o f a k n i g h t ' s s y m b o l i c c l o t h i n g and t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e i s t o make use o f a s t y l i z e d d r a wing t o i n d i c a t e t h e k n i g h t ' s i d e n t i t y . The c h i v a l r i c code made i t e s s e n t i a l f o r a k n i g h t to" know h i s opponent's s t a t u s i f he d i d n o t know h i s name: c h i v a l r y f o r b a d e f i g h t i n g between k n i g h t s and n o n - k n i g h t s . The Wappen r e p r e s e n t symbolism a t i t s s i m p l e s t and e a s i l y o f f e r e d a poet w r i t i n g o f f i c t i o n a l k n i g h t s a p e r f e c t v e h i c l e f o r h i s own s y m b o l i c use. I n G o t t f r i e d ' s T r i s t a n , f o r example, T r i s t a n ' s c o a t o f arms i n -c l u d e s t h e f i g u r e o f a b o a r , chosen, G o t t f r i e d s a y s , because o f i t s m e t t l e f o r f i g h t i n g , i t s courage. The boar f i g u r e s some-what l a t e r i n a dream o f Marjodoc: a boar r u s h e s i n t o t h e k i n g ' s bedchamber and f o u l s the l i n e n , a s i t u a t i o n v e r y l i k e t h a t i n t h e p a l a c e because o f t h e l o v e a f f a i r between T r i s t a n and t h e queen. Even w i t h o u t drawing on f u r t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s 80 w i t h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a n i m a l , G o t t f r i e d succeeds i n drawing two e p i s o d e s t o g e t h e r by t h e use o f the Wappen f i g u r e . H i s c h o i c e f u r t h e r f l e s h e s o u t a s p e c t s o f T r i s t a n ' s n a t u r e and f a t e . A l t h o u g h t h e boar appears as T r i s t a n ' s s h i e l d f i g u r e , h i s helmet d e c o r a t i o n i s t h e f i g u r e o f l o v e ' s d a r t , a p t l y r e f e r r e d t o by G o t t f r i e d as t h e f o r e t e l l e r o f l o v e , d e r minnen w i s a g i n n e ( T r i s t . 6595). Gahmuret wears two s e p a r a t e c o a t s o f arms a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s d u r i n g h i s l i f e . The f i r s t he adopts s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h : d e r h e r r e p f l a c m i t gernden s i t e n u f s i n e k o v e r t i u r e g e s n i t e n anker l i e h t hermin: da nach muos ouch daz ander s i n , ufme s c h i l t und an der wat. ( P a r z . 14, 15-19) The anchor i s an e x c e l l e n t c h o i c e f o r a k n i g h t l e a d i n g the s o r t o f l i f e Gahmuret wants t o l e a d . On a v e r y s i m p l e l e v e l , an anchor i s c o n n e c t e d t o s h i p s and sea t r a v e l , t h e v e r y s o r t o f t r a v e l t h a t l e a d s a k n i g h t t o f a n t a s t i c a d v e n t u r e s i n unknown l a n d s . Gahmuret e x p r e s s e s h i s d e s i r e t o t r a v e l t o h i s b r o t h e r ; " i c h w i l k e r e n i n d i u l a n t . / i c h han ouch e e i n t e i l g evarn ( P a r z . 8, 8-9). A l t h o u g h t h e anchor s u g g e s t s a s e t t l i n g down, Wolfram remarks t h a t Gahmuret's anchor emphasizes t h e f a c t t h a t he d i d n o t s e t t l e : s i n anker h e t e n n i h t b e k o r t ganzes l a n d s noch l a n d e s o r t , dane warn s i n i n d e r i n g e s l a g e n : d e r h e r r e muose f i i r b a z t r a g e n d i s e n w a p e n l i c h e n l a s t i n manegiu l a n t , d e r werde g a s t , Nach dem anker d i s i u mal, 81 wand e r d e h e i n e r s l a h t e t w a l h e t e n i n d e r noch g e b i t e . ( P a r z . 14, 29-15, 7) A l t h o u g h t h e immediate r e a c t i o n c a l l e d f o r t h by t h e use o f t h e anchor i s i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t r a v e l , one s h o u l d c e r t a i n l y n o t o v e r l o o k a f u r t h e r s y m b o l i c use t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e anchor. The Church had used i t as a symbol o f t h e v i r t u e o f hope, usage w h i c h d a t e s back as f a r as t h e e a r l y Church. Hope i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as an anchor by S a i n t P a u l : That, by two immutable t h i n g s i n w h i c h i t i s im-p o s s i b l e f o r God t o l i e , we may have t h e s t r o n g e s t c o m f o r t , we who have f l e d f o r r e f u g e t o h o l d f a s t t h e hope s e t b e f o r e u s , w h i c h we have as an anchor o f t h e s o u l , s u r e and f i r m , and w h i c h e n t e r e t h i n even w i t h i n t h e v e i l . 9 9 Gahmuret i s d e s c r i b e d as one w i t h h i g h a s p i r a t i o n s , gernden s i t e n , and he a t t e m p t s t o p u t i n t o words t h e f e e l i n g t h a t d r i v e s him t o l e a v e t h e s e c u r i t y t h a t h i s b r o t h e r w i l l i n g l y o f f e r s him f o r t h e unsure l i f e t h a t h i s t r a v e l s w i l l b r i n g him: min h e r z e i e d o c h nach hoehe s t r e b e t : i n e w e i z war umbez a l s u s l e b e t , daz m i r s w i l l e t sus min w i n s t e r b r u s t . owe war j a g e t mich min g e l u s t ? i c h s o l z v e r s u o c h e n , ob i c h mac. ( P a r z . 9, .23-27) Gahmuret's h i g h hopes and a s p i r a t i o n s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n h i s c h o i c e o f t h e anchor o f t r a v e l , t h e anchor o f hope, as w e l l as i n h i s c h o i c e o f green c l o t h i n g , a c o l o r l o n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h hope because o f i t s p r e s e n c e i n n a t u r e ' s l i f e and r e b i r t h . When Gahmuret l e a r n s o f h i s b r o t h e r ' s d e a t h , he speaks o f h i s anchor i n i t s f u n c t i o n as a symbol, "wie h a t nu mins ankers o r t / i n r i w e e r g r i f f e n l a n d e s habe!" ( P a r z . 92, 12-13). 82 He i m m e d i a t e l y s t o p s w e a r i n g i t and exchanges, h i s anchor f o r h i s f a t h e r ' s symbol, e x p l a i n i n g t h a t h i s own s i g n no l o n g e r s u i t s him: i c h s o l mins v a t e r wapen t r a g n : s i n l a n t min anker h a t b e s l a g n . der anker i s t e i n r e c k e n z i l : den t r a g e und nem nu swer d e r w i l . ( P a r z . 99, 13-16) Bo t h h i s a s p i r a t i o n s t o g l o r y and h i s d e s i r e t o t r a v e l f o r a d v e n t u r e a r e changed by t h e death o f G a l o e s . Gahmuret has g a i n e d l a n d s and w e a l t h a t home; the i n h e r i t a n c e o f f a m i l i a l l a n d b r i n g s about r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and Gahmuret can no l o n g e r l e a d a c a r e f r e e wandering e x i s t e n c e . H i s a c c e p t a n c e o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o h i s house i s i n d i c a t e d by h i s w i l l i n g a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e house c o a t o f arms and t h e d i s p o s a l o f h i s own. The anchor i s the f i t t i n g s i g n f o r a r e c k e , a wandering k n i g h t , an a d v e n t u r e r , l e s s f i t t i n g f o r a r i t t e r , and t h e p a n t h e r , Gandin's emblem, i s now sewn t o Gahmuret's c l o t h i n g . When O r i l u s and P a r z i v a l f i g h t , Wolfram mentions t h e f i g u r e on O r i l u s ' s h i e l d , a dragon w i t h ruby eyes. O r i l u s has shown h i m s e l f t o be a t h o r o u g h l y unsavory c h a r a c t e r by t h i s t i m e : n o t o n l y i s h i s t r e a t m e n t o f J e s c h u t e n e e d l e s s l y c r u e l , he i s a l s o t h e k n i g h t who k i l l e d G aloes and S c h i o n a t u l a n d e r . I t i s e a s y , t h e n , t o r e a d i n t o h i s emblem the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e v i l . B i b l i c a l l y , dragons s i g n i f y t h e d e v i l , "And t h a t g r e a t dragon was c a s t o u t , t h a t o l d s e r p e n t , who i s c a l l e d t h e d e v i l and S a t a n , who s e d u c e t h t h e whole w o r l d . " x ® x Satan 102 t o o k on t h e form o f a s e r p e n t t o tempt Eve and b r i n g about th e f a l l o f man. O r i l u s ' emblem i s open t o a deeper i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n t h a n t h i s s i m p l e l e v e l o f a n i m a l symbolism, however. P a r z i v a l ' s h e r e d i t a r y c o a t o f arms i s t h e p a n t h e r , whose s o l e 103 enemy xs t h e dragon, and even though he n e v e r wears i t i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e n a r r a t i v e , t h e f i g h t w i t h O r i l u s b r i n g s out f a m i l i a l t i e s , and P a r z i v a l ' s h e r i t a g e i s c e r t a i n l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h i s c o n t e x t . O r i l u s and L a h e l i n a r e b r o t h e r s , and b o t h wear t h e dragon f i g u r e ; i t i s by t h e emblem t h a t Cunneware r e c o g n i z e s t h e p r e s e n c e o f her b r o t h e r even though she does n o t know w h i c h one: b i den t r a c h e n ufem k u r s i t erkande s i n w o l , wan e i n s t r i t : s i s p r a c h ' du b i s t d e r b r u o d e r mm, O r i l u s , od L a h e l i n . . . ' ( P a r z . 275, 21-24) P a r z i v a l ' s d e f e a t o f O r i l u s i s i n some r e s p e c t s a means o f 104 a v e n g i n g h i s f a m i l y upon L a h e l i n . I n f a c t , t h e kingdom O r i l u s o f f e r s as ransom i s one o f P a r z i v a l ' s own h e r e d i t a r y 105 l a n d s , t a k e n from him by L a h e l i n : 'min l e b e n kouf i c h schone. i n zwein l a n d e n krone t r e i t g e w a l d e c l i c h e min b r u o d e r , der i s t r i c h e : d e r nim d i r swederz du w e l l e s t daz du mich t o t n i h t v e l l e s t . . . ' ( P a r z . 266, 21-26) P a r z i v a l does not appear t o r e c o g n i z e t h i s f a c t . I n any c a s e , h i s vengeance i s g a i n e d u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y : h i s g o a l i s t o remedy J e s c h u t e ' s m i s e r a b l e s i t u a t i o n , n o t t o r e g a i n h i s own l o s t p r o p e r t y o r w i n any o t h e r m a t e r i a l goods. U n l i k e t h e a n i m a l o f h i s h e r e d i t a r y emblem, P a r z i v a l c annot conquer O r i l u s by b r e a t h i n g i n h i s f a c e : O r i l u s defends h i m s e l f w e l l . T h i s does n o t , however, d e s t r o y t h e 84 v a l i d i t y of the emblematic and h e r e d i t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . P a r z i v a l i s f i g h t i n g f o r "good" but he i s not h i m s e l f wholly good. That d e s i g n a t i o n belongs to C h r i s t who i s u l t i m a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d by the panther. S i m i l a r l y , O r i l u s i s not wholly e v i l ; h i s dragon merely u n d e r l i n e s h i s e v i l a s p e c t s . The prominence o f the dragon emblem du r i n g t h i s f i g h t r e c a l l s P a r z i v a l ' s bravado d u r i n g h i s f i r s t meeting wi t h Jeschute: ' . . . i c h bestiiende i n doch durch a v e n t i u r , ob s i n Stem gaebe f i u r , a l s e i n e s w i l d e n trachen.' (Parz. 137, 17-19) The Wappen of the templars who serve the G r a i l bears the f i g u r e of a t u r t l e d o v e , an animal t h a t r e p r e s e n t s a non-a g g r e s s i v e l i f e , v i r t u e , triuwe, and c h a s t i t y . The B e s t i a r y g i v e s i t the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n : I t i s t r u l y b e l i e v e d t h a t when a t u r t l e - d o v e i s widowed by the l o s s of her spouse, she takes a dread a g a i n s t the marriage bed and a g a i n s t the very name o f matrimony. F o r the f i r s t l o v e has deceived her by the death of her d a r l i n g one, s i n c e he has now become u n f a i t h f u l f o r ever, she grows b i t t e r about l o v e i t s e l f — w h i c h pro-duces more sorrow out of death than sweetness out of l o v i n g . So she r e f u s e s to repeat the e x p e r i e n c e , nor does she break the bonds of c h a s t i t y or f o r g e t the r i g h t s of her wedded husband. She keeps her l o v e f o r him alone, f o r him she guards the name of wife.1^6 The t u r t l e d o v e shows triuwe because she remains f a i t h f u l throughout her e n t i r e l i f e to her one mate, r e f u s i n g to take a new mate even long a f t e r h i s death. Medieval man c o n s i d e r e d t h i s type of f a i t h f u l n e s s to be the most d i f f i c u l t to e x h i b i t , e s p e c i a l l y c o n s i d e r i n g the s o c i a l f a c t t h a t a woman had no l e g a l p r o t e c t i o n a f t e r the death of her husband and needed to t a k e a new husband i m m e d i a t e l y . The t e m p l a r s e x h i b i t s i m i l a r f i d e l i t y and c h a s t i t y , o n l y i n s t e a d o f r e m a i n i n g t r u e t o a mate, t h e y s e r v e an i d e a l and t a k e no human mate a t a l l ; t h e Church i s t h e i r one l o v e v . T r e v r i z e n t t e l l s P a r z i v a l t h a t t h e t e m p l a r s seek a d v e n t u r e " f o r t h e i r s i n s " : d u r c h a v e n t i u r d i e a l l e mal r i t e n t manege r e i s e : d i e s e l b e n t e m p l e i s e , swa s i kumbr od p r i s b e j a g e n t , f u r i r sunde s i daz t r a g e n t . ( P a r z . 468, 26-30) T h i s i s more meant i n t h e sense o f a l i f e - l o n g a t t e mpt t o atone f o r t h e humanly s i n f u l c o n d i t i o n r a t h e r t h a n i n e x p i a t i o n f o r any s p e c i f i c s i n , as t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f T r e v r i z e n t ' s i n -s t r u c t i o n p o i n t s o u t : v o r siindebaeren schanden s i n t s i immer mer behuot, und w i r t i r l&n ze h i m e l guot. ( P a r z . 471, 10-12) The Wappen f i g u r e was a s s i g n e d t o t h e Templars by A m f o r t a s , a c c o r d i n g t o T r e v r i z e n t ( P a r z . 474, 2-8). Oddly enough, i t i s TAmfortas who f a i l s t o l i v e up t o t h e v a l u e s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e i n s i g n i a i n h i s f i g h t i n g f o r " l o v e . " Wolfram uses b o t h B e l a k a h e and Sigune as human examples o f the i d e a l s o f t h e t u r t l e d o v e . Belakane th e heathen remains t r u e t o h e r d e p a r t e d mate and i s l i k e n e d by Wolfram t o t h e t u r t l e d o v e s p e c i f i c a l l y because o f h e r f i d e l i t y : i r f r e u d e v a n t den d i i r r e n z w i c , a l s noch d i u t u r t e l t u b e t u o t . d i u h e t i e den s e l b e n muot: swenne i r an t r u t s c h e f t g e b r a s t , i r t r i w e kos den d i i r r e n a s t . ( P a r z . 57, 10-14) 86 Belakane i s c o n n e c t e d t o t h e G r a i l community i n an i n d i r e c t manner, f o r h e r son F e i r e f i z m a r r i e s Repanse, one o f t h e G r a i l maidens. Wolfram does not r e f e r t o Sigune as a t u r t l e d o v e i n so many words, b u t a l l h e r a c t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e image o f t h i s f a i t h f u l b i r d , even t o t h e e x t e n t o f c h o o s i n g den durrerf 1 a s t . She i s widowed though never m a r r i e d , and h e r f a i t h f u l -ness t o h e r l o v e r even a f t e r h i s d e a t h r i v a l s many a mate's f i d e l i t y d u r i n g l i f e t i m e . A t one p o i n t , P a r z i v a l even f i n d s Sigune s i t t i n g i n a l i n d e n t r e e j u s t l i k e t h e b i r d on t h e w i t h e r e d b r a n c h , "vor im u f e i n e r l i n d e n s a z / e i n magt, der f u o g t e i r t r i w e n o t " ( P a r z . 249, 14-15). The use o f Sigune as a t u r t l e d o v e f i g u r e has not been s t r e s s e d by c r i t i c s when d i s -c u s s i n g t h i s scene. J u l i u s S c h w i e t e r i n g sees Wolfram drawing upon f a c e t s o f h e r m i t s ' e x i s t e n c e : So l i g t d i e vermutung nahe, dass Wolfram auch i n d i e s e r scene e i n e ganz bestimmte form des e r e m i t e n -d a s e i n s v orschwebte, das e r dann zu f o r t s c h r e i t e n d e r l a u t e r u n g d e r biissenden zum k l a u s n e r t u m s t e i g e r t e . Wolfram s c h o p f t e d i e s e v o r s t e l l u n g , i i b e r deren e i n z e l h e i t e n e r k e i n e r e c h e n s c h a f t g i b t , d i e s m a l n i c h t aus d e r w i i r k l i c h k e i t sondern aus der l e g e n d e , von deren stimmung d i e e r z a h l u n g von Sigune ganz durchdrungen i s t . 10 8 He a l s o p o i n t s o u t the e x i s t e n c e o f B a u m h e i l i g e n and t h e use 109 o f the t r e e f i g u r e as a f a i r y t a l e m o t i f . I n a l a t e r work he r e f e r s t o t h i s scene as an e a r l y form o f t h e P i e t a r e p r e s e n -t a t i o n . T h i s second i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has become the most p o p u l a r , b u t Konrad Burdach has s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e t u r t l e d o v e f i g u r e a t l e a s t d e s e r v e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n : L i e g t d e r beruhmten Szene im P a r z i v a l , d i e Sigune auf der L i n d e m i t dem t o t e n B r a u t i g a m 87 z e i g t , d i e t y p i s c h e P i e t a z u G r u n d e , w i e s c h o n v o r v i e l e n J a h r e n W i l m a n n s i n s e i n e n V o r l e s u n g e n a u s g e s p r o c h e n h a t , s o v e r d i e n t d i e s e t J b e r e i n -^ s t i m m u n g v o i l e A u f m e r k s a m k e i t , u n d d i e M o g l i c h -k e i t e i n e s Z u s a m m e n h a n g s m i t d e r Z w e i g s y m b o l i k d e r T u r t e l t a u b e n a l l e g o r i e i s t m i n d e s t e n s i n E r -w'agung z u Z i e h e n . 1 0 I n l i g h t o f W o l f r a m ' s u s e o f t h e W a p p e n f i g u r e , t h i s s u g g e s t i o n i s m o r e l i k e l y t h a n t h o s e a r i s i n g f r o m s a i n t s ' l e g e n d s a n d e a r l y a r t i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h W o l f r a m n e e d n o t h a v e l i m i t e d h i m s e l f t o m e r e l y o n e i m a g e . S i g u n e ' s c o n n e c t i o n t o t h e G r a i l c o m m u n i t y i s m o r e d i r e c t t h a n B e l a k a n e ' s f o r s h e i s h e r s e l f b o r n i n t o t h e G r a i l f a m i l y , t h e g r e a t - g r a n d d a u g h t e r o f T i t u r e l a n d t h e n i e c e o f H e r z e l o y d e . S h e i s s e r v e d b y t h e G r a i l i n t h a t i t p r o v i d e s h e r w i t h f o o d w h i c h i s b r o u g h t t o h e r b y C u n d r i e , a n d s h e r e m a i n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e n a r r a t i v e a n e m b l e m o f f i d e l i t y o f t h e h i g h e s t o r d e r . T h e s e two c h a r a c t e r s a r e s h o w n b y W o l f r a m t o e m p h a s i z e t h e t r a i t s o f t h e t u r t l e d o v e i n o r d e r t o c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e q u a l i t i e s d e m a n d e d o f t h e T e m p l a r s i n t h e i r s e r v i c e o f t h e G r a i l . T h e y m u s t d i r e c t a l l t h e i r e n e r g y t o t h e s e r v i c e o f o n e i d e a l a l o n e , j u s t a s S i g u n e a n d B e l a k a n e d i r e c t t h e i r e n e r g y t o t h e t h o u g h t s o f t h e i r l o v e r s . F e i r e f i z ' h e l m e t i s a d o r n e d w i t h t h e f i g u r e o f a w e a s e l w h i c h h e b e a r s d u r c h p r i s e s I o n ( P a r z . 7 3 6 , 9 ) . T h i s a n i m a l , 111 a s W o l f r a m e x p l a i n s , i s t h e enemy o f p o i s o n o u s s n a k e s : s w e l h e wurm s i n t e i t e r h a f t , v o n d e s s e l b e n t i e r l i n e s k r a f t h a n t s i l e b e n s d e c h e i n e v r i s t , s w e n n e z v o n i n e r s m e c k e t i s t . ( P a r z . 7 3 6 , 1 1 - 1 4 ) 88 T h i s f i g u r e s i g n i f i e s t h e i n n a t e goodness o f t h i s heathen man. Snakes r e p r e s e n t e v i l i n C h r i s t i a n s o c i e t y because o f t h e con-n e c t i o n o f s e r p e n t s w i t h t h e d e v i l i n the t e m p t a t i o n o f man. F e i r e f i z , even though h i m s e l f n o t a C h r i s t i a n , e x e m p l i f i e s C h r i s t i a n i d e a l s i n h i s k n i g h t h o o d and i s an enemy t o e v i l , so much so t h a t he wins p r a i s e from C u n d r i e a t the same time t h a t she denounces P a r z i v a l . F e i r e f i z a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e s h i m s e l f by m a r r y i n g i n t o t h e G r a i l f a m i l y , an a c t whi c h i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f Gahmuret's m a r r y i n g H e r z e l o y d e . F e i r e f i z c a l l s h i m s e l f t h e A n g e v i n , a f t e r h i s f a t h e r , a l -though he does n o t wear t h e p a n t h e r t h a t belonged t o h i s f a t h e r ' s f a m i l y . He c o u l d s c a r c e l y have known o f t h i s emblem, s i n c e Gahmuret d i d not h i m s e l f adopt i t u n t i l he became h e i r t o the f a m i l y ' s l a n d s , some time a f t e r h i s d e s e r t i o n o f B e l a k a n e . I n any c a s e , the s i m i l a r i t y o f p a n t h e r s and w e a s e l s i s i n t e r e s t -i n g : b o t h a r e enemies o f s e r p e n t s , the w e a s e l b e i n g t h e bane o f any p o i s o n o u s snake and t h e p a n t h e r b e i n g t h e enemy o f t h e dragon. I f more can be r e a d i n t o Gahmuret's e p i t a p h t h a n t h e customary p r a i s e o f a dead k n i g h t , t h e n h i s own c o n q u e r i n g o f e v i l i s bequeathed t o b o t h sons, " e r h e t e der v a l s c h e i t an g e s i g t " ( P a r z . 108, 27). I t has a l r e a d y been s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t i s n o t a g r e a t s t e p from showing a c t u a l b o d i l y p r o t e c t i o n by means o f armor t o i n d i c a t i n g e m o t i o n a l p r o t e c t i o n . The removal o f the helmet t o i n d i c a t e s u r e t y i s j u s t one o f t h e s e i n d i c a t i o n s : by t h e removal o f a p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r a k n i g h t shows the removal o f a ment a l b a r r i e r . T h i s a c t i o n i n d i c a t e s t r u s t : t h e removal o f 89 t h e a c t u a l b a r r i e r w h i c h h a d e x i s t e d b e t w e e n a k n i g h t a n d h i s c o u n t e r p a r t l e a v e s h i s b o d y w i t h o u t d e f e n s e a g a i n s t t h e c o n -s e q u e n c e s o f m i s p l a c e d t r u s t . T h e e m o t i o n a l c o n n o t a t i o n s o f h e l m e t r e m o v a l s u g g e s t a f u r t h e r s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a r m o r . T h e k n i g h t , e n c l o s e d i n h i s a r m o r , was e f f e c t i v e l y c u t o f f f r o m p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r s , a n d , b y e x t e n s i o n , f r o m e m o t i o n a l c o n t a c t . A r m o r f u n c t i o n s a s a n e f f e c t i v e b a r r i e r t o l o v e . T h i s s o m e w h a t u n u s u a l v i e w o f t h e a r m o r e d k n i g h t i s s u p -p o r t e d b y t h e e n t i r e t r a d i t i o n o f c o u r t l y l o v e . A k n i g h t ' s d u t y i s t o s e r v e h i s l a d y w i t h h o p e f o r a r e w a r d , b u t n o e x p e c t a t i o n o f o n e . T r a d i t i o n a l l y a k n i g h t i s c o n s u m e d w i t h l o n g i n g f o r h i s l a d y who d o e s n o t e v e n n o t i c e h i m , s o t o s p e a k . A r m o r i s f r e q u e n t l y u s e d p o e t i c a l l y t o show t h e g u l f w h i c h e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e k n i g h t a n d t h e l a d y , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e k n i g h t ' s d i l e m m a i n t r y i n g t o s e r v e two s e p a r a t e m a s t e r s , h i s k n i g h t l y g o a l s a n d h i s l a d y , s h o u l d t h e s e c o n f l i c t , a s t h e y s o m e t i m e s d o . I n a poem w r i t t e n b y D e r v o n K u r e n b e r g , f o r e x a m p l e , a k n i g h t c a l l s f o r h i s a r m o r s o t h a t h e c a n l e a v e t h e l a n d a n d t h e l a d y who w o u l d f o r c e h i m t o l o v e w h e r e h e w o u l d n o t : Nu b r i n e m i r h e r v i i b a l d e m i n r o s , m i n i s e n g w a n t , wan i c h muoz e i n e r f r o u w e n r u m e n d i u l a n t . d i u w i l m i c h d e s b e t w i n g e n d a z i c h i r h o l t s i . s i muoz d e r m i n e r m i n n e i e m e r d a r b e n d e s i n . x ± 2 T h i s v e r s e , w h i c h i s n o t , o f c o u r s e , t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l M i n n e s a n g t r a d i t i o n , shows a h o r s e a n d a r m o r r e p r e s e n t i n g a l i f e t h a t l i e s b e t w e e n : t h e k n i g h t a n d t h e l a d y , a c a l l i n g t h a t h e u s e s t o 90 h i s advantage t o l e a v e when h i s freedom i s p u t i n t o j e o p a r d y . S i m i l a r c o n v e n t i o n s a r e used i n C r u s a d i n g songs: a k n i g h t i s t o r n between h i s c a l l i n g t o go on a Crusade and h i s l o v e f o r h i s l a d y w h i c h makes him want t o remain a t home. Armor here i s n o t mentioned, a l t h o u g h o c c a s i o n a l l y the Wappen o f the c r u s a d i n g k n i g h t , the c r o s s , i s p i t t e d a g a i n s t the l a d y . C o u r t l y l o v e c o n v e n t i o n s a r e g l e a n e d from Minnesang, bu t t h e y have t h e i r p l a c e i n n a r r a t i v e p o e t r y as w e l l . Wolfram has c r e a t e d s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h , t a k e n t o g e t h e r , y i e l d a p i c t u r e o f t h e good, bad, and humorous a s p e c t s o f c o u r t l y l o v e con-v e n t i o n s . R e l a t i o n s h i p s between Gawain and O b i l o t and P a r z i v a l and Cunneware e x i s t w i t h i n t h e s e c o n v e n t i o n s and i l l u s t r a t e f r u i t f u l and u p l i f t i n g a c q u a i n t a n c e s h i p s , b u t B e l a k a n e , O b i e , and Sigune a l l u p h o l d the c o n v e n t i o n o f t h e non-y i e l d i n g l a d y w i t h t r a g i c r e s u l t s . Wolfram even pokes f u n a t c o u r t l y c o n v e n t i o n i n Gawain's meetin g w i t h A n t i k o n i e . Wolfram, b e i n g h e i r t o t h e s e t r a d i t i o n s , r e c o g n i z e d t h e s y m b o l i c p o t e n t i a l o f armor i n i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t h e male-female r e l a t i o n s h i p . F o r example, Gahmuret i s n o t B e l a k a n e ' s f i r s t s u i t o r : h e r l o v e was sought by I s e n h a r t who d i e d i n h e r s e r v i c e . She e x p l a i n s t h a t she was s l o w i n g r a n t -i n g h i s w i s h e s and t h a t she wanted t o t e s t h i s l o v e : dem h e l d e erwarp min magetuom an r i t e r s c h e f t e manegen ruom. do v e r s u o c h t i ' n , ober kunde s i n e i n f r i u n t . daz w a r t v i i b a l d e s c h i n . e r gap durh mich s i n harnas enwec, daz a l s e i n p a l a s d o r t s t e t (daz i s t e i n hoch g e z e l t : daz b r a h t e n S c h o t t e n u f d i z v e l t ) . ( P a r z . 27, 11-18) 91 F o r h e r sake, as a p a r t o f the " t e s t , " I s e n h a r t d i s p o s e s o f h i s armor. T h i s can be viewed as a s i g n o f h i s b r a v e r y , b u t s i n c e i t i s r e a l l y much more f o o l h a r d y t h a n b r a v e , t h i s a c t i s l i k e l y an attempt t o prove t h a t he i s r e a l l y a c c e s s i b l e t o l o v e . B e lakane s t a t e s t h a t she was t e s t i n g him t o see i f he c o u l d be her f r i u n t , t h a t i s her l o v e r , n o t h e r k n i g h t . B e l akane f e e l s j u s t i f i e d i n demanding t h a t he appear t o her as a man and n o t as a k n i g h t . She does not want h i s k n i g h t l y s e r v i c e w i t h a l l i t s i r o n - c l a d c o n v e n t i o n s , as bound up i n t r a d i t i o n as the k n i g h t i s i n h i s s u i t o f m a i l . Of c o u r s e I s e n h a r t , b e i n g w i t h o u t h i s armor, i s e a s i l y s l a i n , and h i s men accuse Belakane o f h i s d e a t h . She i s g u i l t y i n a way, f o r h e r demands d r i v e I s e n h a r t t o e x c e s s : because o f h i s l o v e f o r h e r he f a i l s t o adhere t o t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f h i s k n i g h t l y c a l l i n g , r a t h e r t h a n f i n d i n g i n her l o v e an impetus t o k n i g h t l y 113 p e r f e c t i o n . B e lakane wants him t o be j u s t a man t o h e r . She can l o v e a man where she cannot l o v e an i r o n s u i t , b u t he cannot l e a v e k n i g h t h o o d t o t a l l y and h i s l i f e c eases t o have meaning f o r him because o f t h e c o n f l i c t i n h i s mind t h a t p l a y s h i s chosen l o v e a g a i n s t h i s chosen c a r e e r , "des l e b e n s i n da nctch verdroz,/mange a v e n t i u r e s u o h t e r b l o z " ( P a r z . 27, 21-22). I s e n h a r t a t t e m p t s t o combine two phases o f l i f e t h a t s h o u l d not be combined because t h e i r s p e c i f i c demands upon h i s body a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . He r i d e s o u t s e e k i n g a d v e n t u r e s as a k n i g h t s h o u l d , b u t he f o l l o w s s t r i c t l y t h e demands o f l o v e , l e a v i n g h i s body undefended, and he d i e s . Belakane f e e l s p a i n b u t no r e a l g u i l t a t h a v i n g caused h i s d e a t h , even though I s e n h a r t ' s men blame h e r f o r i t , j u s t as Sigune f e e l s no r e a l g u i l t a t h a v i n g been the i n d i r e c t cause o f t h e d e a t h o f her l o v e r . B oth women a r e i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a -t i o n i n t h i s one r e s p e c t : b o t h have made demands o f t h e i r l o v e r s , demands w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r d e a t h s . But t o c o n s i d e r them w h o l l y g u i l t y o f t h e s e deaths i s t o c o n s i d e r I s e n h a r t and S c h i o n a t u l a n d e r as men w i t h no f r e e w i l l . I n b o t h cases t h e men , chose t o c a r r y o u t t h e d e s i r e s o f t h e i r l a d i e s . I n f a c t B e l a k a n e ' s w i s h was f o r I s e n h a r t t o l e a v e k n i g h t l y p u r s u i t s . He combined them o f h i s own a c c o r d . B e l a k a n e ' s s i t u a t i o n a f t e r t h e de a t h o f I s e n h a r t o f f e r s some i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t she does n o t make s i m i l a r demands upon Gahmuret. Wolfram a l l o w s h i s c h a r a c t e r s t o l e a r n from t h e m i s t a k e s o f o t h e r s : H e r z e l o y d e does n o t p r e v e n t Gahmuret from f i g h t i n g i n one tournament a month, h a v i n g been warned by Gahmuret t h a t B e l a k a n e ' s attempt t o h o l d him home caused h i s d e p a r t u r e : der frouwen huote mich u f p a n t , daz i c h n i h t r i t e r s c h e f t e v a n t : do wande i c h daz mich r l t e r s c h a f t naem von ungemuetes k r a f t . ( P a r z . 90, 29-91, 2) The t r u t h o f t h i s w a r n i n g i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . Wolfram mentions no such b e h a v i o r on t h e p a r t o f Belakane b u t su g g e s t s Gahmuret's r e s t l e s s n e s s r e s u l t s from h i s own i n a b i l i t y t o f i n d a c t i v i t y , "daz e r n i h t r i t e r s c h e f t e v a n t , / d e s was s i n f r e u d e s o r g e n phant" ( P a r z . 54, 19-20). Wolfram makes i t c l e a r t h a t 93 Gahmuret would n o t have g i v e n i n t o such a r i d i c u l o u s demand as B e l a k a n e made o f I s e n h a r t : man bant von im den adamas, niwan d u r c h des windes l u f t , und anders d u r c h d e c h e i n e n g u f t . ( P a r z . 75, 26-28) A l t h o u g h I s e n h a r t i s n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned, h i s a c t i o n i s o b v i o u s l y i n t h e p o e t ' s mind, g u f t — u t t e r f o o l i s h n e s s . The image o f armor a c t i n g as a b a r r i e r t o l o v e i s t o be seen i n t h e Gahmuret/Ampflise e p i s o d e as w e l l . A f t e r l e a v i n g B e l akane f o r t h e sake o f k n i g h t l y a d v e n t u r e , Gahmuret i s p l a c e d i n t h e awkward p o s i t i o n o f h a v i n g two queens q u a r r e l l i n g f o r h i s a f f e c t i o n , each c l a i m i n g a l e g a l r i g h t t o him. One o f them i s H e r z e l o y d e , who has t h e b e t t e r c l a i m , t h e o t h e r A m p f l i s e , t h e queen o f F r a n c e and a c h i l d h o o d companion o f 114 Gahmuret. D u r i n g t h e tournament a t K a n v o l e i s , a l e t t e r i s b r o u g h t t o Gahmuret from t h e F r e n c h queen. He had a l r e a d y had h i s head uncovered f o r him because o f t h e h e a t , an a c t t h a t w i l l l a t e r be r e p e a t e d , a g a i n because o f h e a t , and w i l l cause h i s d e a t h . The r e a d e r has a l r e a d y been i n f o r m e d t h a t A m p f l i s e ' s l o v e had o f t e n b r o u g h t Gahmuret i n t o p a i n o r danger: Nu was ouch r o i s de F r a n z e t o t , des wip i n d i c k e i n g r o z e n o t b r a h t e m i t i r minne... ( P a r z . 69, 29-70, 1) She appears a t t h i s p o i n t a l s o i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h danger, danger n o t o f h e r own making, however, b u t e x i s t i n g as a f o r e -shadowing o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f Gahmuret's d e a t h . He reads h e r l e t t e r w h i l e he i s p a r t i a l l y unarmed, and when the hooded p a r t o f h i s hauberk i s removed from h i s head, Wolfram remarks upon h i s r e d mouth, "man s t r o u f t e im ab s i n h a r s e n i e r : / s i n munt was r o t unde f i e r " ( P a r z . 75, 29-30). Thus once h i s armor i s p a r t i a l l y removed Gahmuret p r e s e n t s t h e image o f a l o v e r , no l o n g e r o f a k n i g h t . He reads t h e l e t t e r w h i c h saddens him f o r A m p f l i s e w r i t e s o f h e r p a i n i n l o v i n g him. Y e t once Gahmuret f i n i s h e s t h e l e t t e r , he i s re-armed: s i n h a r s n i e r e i n s knappen hant w i d e r u f s i n houbet z 6 c h . Gahmureten t r u r e n f l S c h . ( P a r z . 77, 20-22) H i s sadness d i s s o l v e s as soon as h i s armor has been drawn back onto h i s head. He i s w e l l p r a c t i c e d a t shrouding himself i n h i s k n i g h t h o o d and t h e r e b y a v o i d i n g g r i e f . I n f a c t , t h e o n l y time Gahmuret w i l l i n g l y ceases k n i g h t l y a c t i v i t y because o f g r i e f i s upon l e a r n i n g o f t h e d e a t h o f h i s b r o t h e r ( P a r z . 80, 19-22). He s t e a l s away from Belakane f o r t h e sake o f k n i g h t l y a d v e n t u r e , he p r o t e c t s h i m s e l f from A m p f l i s e ' s g r i e f and l o v e , and he even a t t e m p t s t o c o n v i n c e H e r z e l o y d e t h a t he i s n o t a f i t o b j e c t f o r l o v e , " k e r t minne da d i u f r e u d e s i : / wan m i r wont n i h t wan jamer b i " ( P a r z . 95, 9-10). T h i s s t atement i s more th a n t h e p l e a o f a would-be b a c h e l o r . Gahmuret r e a l i z e s s u b c o n s c i o u s l y t h a t k n i g h t h o o d and l o v e a re i l l - j o i n e d i n him, perhaps even t h a t w i t h i n h i s armor l i e the seeds o f dea t h . S i n c e h i s k n i g h t h o o d u l t i m a t e l y l e a d s t o d e a t h , an i n t r u s i o n by l o v e can produce o n l y sorrow. The same image o f armor b l o c k i n g t h e power o f l o v e i s pursued i n a l i g h t e r manner w i t h O r g e l u s e , t h e proud l a d y whom Gawain l o v e s . When her a t t i t u d e towards him changes from one 95 o f c o l d d i s d a i n t o s i n c e r e r e g a r d , Gawain, f i r e d w i t h p a s s i o n , begs f o r t h e genade t h a t i s h i s p r o p e r reward f o r s e r v i c e . O r g e l u s e , however, i s n o t so w i l l i n g : s i s p r a c h 'an g i s e r t e m arm b i n i c h s e l t e n worden warm, da g e i n i c h n i h t w i l s t r i t e n , i r n megt w o l zandern z i t e n d i e n s Ion an m i r bejagn... 1' ( P a r z . 615, 3-7) Love i s d e s c r i b e d as "becoming warm on a n o t h e r ' s arm"; Wolfram uses t h i s same ph r a s e i n r e f e r e n c e t o P a r z i v a l and L i a z e : b i sime h e r z e n kumber l a c anders n i h t wan umbe daz: e r w o l t e g e s t r i t e n b a z , e daz e r dar an wurde warm, daz man ,d& h e i z e t frouwen arm. ( P a r z . 176, 30-177, 4) O r g e l u s e ' s r e p l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t she i s n o t a g a i n s t b e s t o w i n g h e r f a v o r s upon Gawain a t some l a t e r d a t e . But a t t h i s t i m e , the s i g h t o f h i s armor p r e v e n t s h e r p a s s i o n from r e a c h i n g t h e l e v e l o f h i s . Her remark about never h a v i n g been warmed by an i r o n c l a d arm i s i n d e e d a s u c c i n c t e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e r e l a -t i o n s h i p between th e l a d y and the armored k n i g h t . Between th e two o f them s t a n d s an e n t i r e l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n based upon the demand t h a t t h e two not t o u c h p h y s i c a l l y , and where th e demands o f hohe minne a r e b r o k e n , g u i l t a t h a v i n g broken t h e r u l e s o f t h e game s e t s i n t o d i v i d e the two f u r t h e r . I t i s s h e e r i r o n y , though, t h a t i t i s a k n i g h t l y deed t h a t i s needed t o break O r g e l u s e ' s i c y e x t e r i o r . Only combat w i t h G r a m o f l a n z , s l a y e r o f h e r l o v e r C i d e g a s t , can b r i n g her t o l o v e any man. F o r t h i s r e a s o n she sends Gawain t o p l u c k a w r e a t h from Gramoflanz' t r e e , h o p i n g t o i n c i t e t h e c o n f l i c t , and h e r promise 96 o f a reward i s q u i t e s p e c i f i c a l l y one o f p h y s i c a l l o v e : s i s p r a c h 1 i r s u i t m i r e i n e n k r a n z von e i n e s bournes r i s e gewinn, d a r umbe i c h p r i s e i w e r t a t , w e l t i r michs wern: so muget i r miner minne g e m . 1 ( P a r z . 600, 20-24) The s i t u a t i o n has t h e marks o f c o u r t l y l o v e i n a l l i t s t r a d i -t i o n . The w r e a t h i s a s i g n o f t h e p h y s i c a l reward and i s c e r t a i n l y meant as a m a r r i a g e w r e a t h . By b r e a k i n g i t from t h e t r e e , Gawain i s p r o m i s i n g the u l t i m a t e i n s e r v i c e t o O r g e l u s e and f u r t h e r g u a r a n t e e s k n i g h t l y s e r v i c e i n f i g h t i n g G r a m o f l a n z . By f u l f i l l i n g a l l t h e s e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , Gawain i s p e r m i t t e d t o hope f o r a reward w h i c h Wolfram, a t l e a s t , b e l i e v e s he de-s e r v e s ( P a r z . 601, 17-19). But O r g e l u s e i s u s i n g Gawain t o a c h i e v e a vengeance o f w h i c h she i s p e r s o n a l l y i n c a p a b l e . T h i s would be a c c e p t a b l e o n l y i f she were honest w i t h Gawain from t h e b e g i n n i n g ; i n s t e a d she b a i t s him w i t h t h e r e q u e s t f o r s l i g h t t a s k s and p r o m i s e s o f f a v o r . Her a t t i t u d e towards Gawain changes r e m a r k a b l y once he has a r r a n g e d t o do combat, as she had hoped would happen: "... f u r war m i r i w e r a r b e i t f u e g e t s o l i c h h e r z e l e i t , d i u enpfahen s o l g e t r i w e z wip " umb i r l i e b e n f r i u n d e s l i p . 1 ( P a r z . 611, 27-30) Here she r e f e r s t o Gawain as h e r f r i u n t , h er l o v e r , a word w h i c h has much more o v e r t p h y s i c a l o v e r t o n e s t h a n her e a r l i e r p r o m i s e , a term used by Belakane i n d e s c r i b i n g h e r t e s t i n g o f I s e n h a r t . O r g e l u s e r e a l l y i s warmed, m e n t a l l y i f n o t p h y s i -c a l l y , an g i s e r t e m arm, b u t Gawain has f i n a l l y f e l t t h e f u l l i m p a c t o f her c o l l e c t e d i n s u l t s and he i s o f f e n d e d , n o t because she has i n s u l t e d him as a man, b u t because she has i n s u l t e d k n i g h t h o o d i t s e l f w i t h h e r d e c e p t i v e t r i c k s : ob d e r s c h i l t s i n r e h t s o l han, an dem h£t i r m i s s e t a n . des s c h i l d e s ambet i s t s,6 hoch, daz e r von s p o t t e i e s i c h gezoch, swer r i t e r s c h a f t ze r e h t e p f l a c . f rouwe, ob i c h so s p r e c h e n mac, swer mich d e r b i h a t gesehn, der muoz m i r r i t e r s c h e f t e j e h n . etswenne i r s anders j a h e t , s i t i r mich e r e s t s a h e t . daz l c l z i c h s i n : nemt h i n den k r a n z . i r s u i t d u r c h i w e r varwe g l a n z neheime r i t e r mere e r b i e t e n s o l h unere. ( P a r z . 612, 5-18) These a r e e x t r e m e l y s t r o n g words f o r Gawain t o use towards h i s l a d y l o v e , and j u s t i f i a b l e o n l y i n l i g h t o f h e r low t r e a t m e n t o f k n i g h t h o o d . Gawain uses the f i g u r e o f t h e s h i e l d r h e t o r -115 i c a l l y t o r e p r e s e n t k n i g h t h o o d , a d e v i c e used e a r l i e r by t h e p o e t i n d e s c r i b i n g h i s own o c c u p a t i o n ( P a r z . 115, 1 1 ) . Gawain's armor, t h a t i s t o say h i s k n i g h t l y c a l l i n g , p r e v e n t s him and O r g e l u s e from b e g i n n i n g t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p on a s i n c e r e and h o nest b a s i s . She t a k e s advantage o f him because o f i t , w h i l e he t a k e s o f f e n s e f o r i t s sake. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Gawain's armor e x i s t s as an e a r l y b a r r i e r t o a deeper, more mature l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , and t h e two must a l t e r t h e i r p r e c o n -c e p t i o n s about th e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f armor b e f o r e they can be u n i t e d s u c c e s s f u l l y . Love i s n o t t h e o n l y t ype o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t t h a t armor s y m b o l i c a l l y p r e v e n t s . I n much the same way t h a t c h a i n m a i l i n s u l a t e s a k n i g h t from l o v e , i t can a l s o s h i e l d him from f r i e n d s h i p o r d i s t r u s t , o r work t o l o c k i n h a t r e d o r d i s t r u s t . 98 One need o n l y r e c a l l the g e s t u r e used t o e s t a b l i s h s u r e t y — t h e removal o f the helmet, showing t h a t a k n i g h t i s w i l l i n g t o e s t a b l i s h c l o s e r c o n t a c t w i t h a n o t h e r k n i g h t . The c o n c e p t o f G a s t f r e u n d s c h a f t was i m p o r t a n t t o t h e M i d d l e Ages and was s t r i c t l y h e l d . K i n g r i m u r s e l 1 s r e f u s a l t o remove h i s armor upon h i s a r r i v a l a t A r t h u r ' s c o u r t i s a s e r i o u s b r e a c h o f e t i q u e t t e and i n d i c a t e s a r e f u s a l t o a c c e p t A r t h u r ' s h o s p i t a l i t y as w e l l as a complete l a c k o f t r u s t on the p a r t o f 116 the armored k n i g h t . He i s n o t a c c u s i n g A r t h u r o r any o f h i s c o u r t e x c e p t Gawain o f t r e a c h e r y : he g r e e t s them i n t h e e s t a b l i s h e d form. Y e t he w i s h e s no p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h them e i t h e r , c e r t a i n l y n o t t h e c o n t a c t i n v o l v e d i n t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f h o s p i t a l i t y . K i n g r i m u r s e l i s g r i e v i n g f o r t h e d e a t h o f h i s l o r d , s l a i n by Gawain, and he keeps l o c k e d w i t h i n h i m s e l f h i s s orrow and b i t t e r h a t r e d o f Gawain. Removing h i s armor i n a c c e p t a n c e o f the h o s p i t a l i t y o f t h e c o u r t would n o t o n l y b r i n g about a p r o f o u n d a l t e r a t i o n i n h i s a t t i t u d e — h e would be f a c e d w i t h h a v i n g a c c e p t e d h o s p i t a l i t y from Gawain as a p a r t o f t h e c o u r t — b u t a l s o d i f f u s e and d e f u s e th e h a t r e d t h a t i s a l l t h e s t r o n g e r f o r b e i n g e c o n c e n t r a t e d w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f h i s i r o n s u i t . He i s bound by custom t o avenge h i s l o r d and cannot do so w i t h o u t h a t r e d and b i t t e r n e s s as an i n c i t e m e n t . He s p e c i f i c a l l y e x c l u d e s Gawain from even h i s f o r m a l g r e e t i n g o f t h e c o u r t : swaz i c h der h i e gesehen han, den b i u t i c h d i e n s t l i c h e n g r u o z . wan einem t u o t min d i e n s t buoz^ dem w i r t min d i e n s t nimmer s c h i n . i c h w i l b i sime hazze s i n : swaz hazzes e r g e l e i s t e n mac, min haz im b i u t e t hazzes s l a c . ( P a r z . 320, 24-30) Because armor i s so l i t e r a l l y c o n n e c t e d t o a k n i g h t ' s l i f e , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d a k n i g h t r e f e r r i n g t o h i s armor i n terms o f l i f e and e x i s t e n c e , o r t o f i n d a f a c e t o f armor p l a y i n g a key r o l e i n a l i f e / d e a t h s i t u a t i o n . The diamond helmet i s among the a r t i c l e s o f I s e n h a r t ' s k n i g h t l y equipment w h i c h a r e e v e n t u a l l y g i v e n t o Gahmuret: der helm, von arde e i n adamas d i c k e unde h e r t e , ame s t r i f e e i n guot g e v e r t e . ( P a r z . 53, 4-6)--T h i s h e l m e t , i t s e l f a good companion i n s t r i f e , i s formed o f a s u b s t a n c e w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s q u a l i t i e s t h a t mark good f i g h t i n g companions and g i v e s i t s wearer f o r t i t u d e , "wer i n t r e g t den s t e r k t e r gegen seinem v e i n t " (Buch der N a t u r V I , 3 ) . The diamond i s e x t r e m e l y h a r d , b u t i t s n a t u r e can be d e s t r o y e d by g o a t ' s b l o o d , "der adamas l a t s i c h p rechen an p o c k s p l u o t " (Buch der N a t u r V I , 3 ) . 1 1 7 The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f Gahmuret's helmet i s seen b o t h i n i t s m a t e r i a l and i n t h e use made o f i t , t h e f a s h i o n i n g o f a helmet. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f removing a helmet f o r s u r e t y has a l r e a d y been s u g g e s t e d ; t h e r e i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e two t i m e s Gahmuret removes h i s helmet t o c o o l o f f . The f i r s t time the helmet i s t a k e n o f f him d u r c h windes l u f t , f o r t h e sake o f t h e b r e e z e . I t i s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t Gahmuret reads A m p f l i s e ' s l e t t e r . The s i t u a t i o n , however, i s c o n t r o l l e d from o u t s i d e : Gahmuret's helmet i s removed from him, b u t i t i s a l s o p u t back on him: 100 s i n h a r s n i e r e i n s knappen hant w i d e r uf s i n houbet z6ch. Gahmureten t r u r e n f l 6 c h . man bant im u f den adamas, der d i c k e unde h e r t e was: "i 118 e r w o l t s i c h a r b e i t e n . ( P a r z . 77, 20-25) The c o n t r o l o f the s i t u a t i o n e n a b l e s the diamond t o w i n i n the 119 e l e m e n t a l c o n f l i c t o f f o r t i t u d e and p a s s i o n . T h i s a s p e c t o f e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l i s a b s e n t the second time t h e helmet i s removed, " s i n h a r s e n i e r von im e r zoch:/des twanc i n s t a r k i u h i t z e ( P a r z . 105, 14-15). T h i s time t h e helmet i s t a k e n o f f — b y Gahmuret h i m s e l f o b v i o u s l y , s i n c e no s q u i r e i s m e n t i o n e d — f o r the sake o f h i t z e , a word s i g n i f y i n g p a s s i o n as w e l l as tempera-t u r e . The a c t i s a n e g a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n a p o s i t i v e one: a t K a n v o l e i s , Gahmuret had sought something (the a i r ) ; h e r e , h i s i n t e n t i s t o remedy a s i t u a t i o n by r i d d i n g h i m s e l f o f something, l e t t i n g t h e h e a t escape. I t i s t h i s e l e m e n t a l l a p s e t h a t a l l o w s the t r e a c h e r o u s a c t o f t h e heathen t o t a k e p l a c e . The c o n f l i c t between f o r t i t u d e and u n b r i d l e d p a s s i o n , i l l u s t r a t e d so w e l l i n t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f the diamond by t h e h o t b l o o d , i s a l r e a d y p r e s e n t i n the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s scene, Gahmuret and h i s k n i g h t h o o d . P a s s i o n i s h a rmless as l o n g as i t i s c o n t a i n e d . The t r a g e d y o f Gahmuret's l i f e i s found i n h i s i n a b i l i t y t o e x e r -c i s e maze. H i s w a r n i n g t o H e r z e l o y d e t h a t t h e r e i s no j o y t o be found i n l o v i n g him i s e s p e c i a l l y a p t i n t h i s c o n t e x t : h i s u n b r i d l e d d e v o t i o n t o k n i g h t h o o d can o n l y b r i n g p a i n t o t h o s e who l o v e him f o r they must always have a secondary i m p o r t a n c e i n h i s h e a r t . 101 A t Gahmuret's d e a t h , h i s helmet undergoes an a l t e r a t i o n i n s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t i s engraved w i t h h i s e p i t a p h and f a s t e n e d t o t h e emerald c r o s s above h i s g r a v e . I t s f a i l u r e , t h a t i s , t h e f a i l u r e o f " f o r t i t u d e " t o accompany him i n t o b a t t l e , i s a cause o f d e a t h , so t h i s grave marker shows cause o f d e a t h as w e l l as t h e l i f e s t y l e t h a t l e d t o i t . The p r o x i m -i t y o f t h e helmet t o t h e c r o s s i s i m p o r t a n t . K n i g h t h o o d i s a C h r i s t i a n way o f l i f e — e v e n though Gahmuret's s e r v i c e t o t h e Baruch h a r d l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s — a n d i t s symbol above Gahmuret's grave i s b l e s s e d by the c r o s s . More i m p o r t a n t l y , however: j u s t as C h r i s t ' s e n t i r e l i f e was a p r o g r e s s t o the c r o s s and f u l f i l l m e n t o f f a t e , Gahmuret's e n t i r e k n i g h t l y c a r e e r i s an i n e x o r a b l e p r o g r e s s towards f u l f i l l m e n t o f h i s own f a t e . Green i s Gahmuret's c o l o r t h r o u g h o u t t h e n a r r a t i v e , chosen by him a t t h e same time as he adopts t h e anchor as t h e symbol i n h i s Wappen: noch g r i i e n e r denne e i n smarat was g e p r i i e v e t s i n g e r e i t e g a r , und nach dem achmardi v a r . daz i s t e i n s i d i n l a c h e n : dar uz h i e z e r im machen wapenroc und k u r s i t : ez i s t b e z z e r denne der s a m i t . ( P a r z . 14, 20-26) The green o f Gahmuret's c l o t h i n g and r i d i n g gear i n t e n s i f i e s the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e anchor sewn upon h i s s u r c o a t , f o r b o t h are t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n symbols o f hope, a v i r t u e t h a t has a l r e a d y been s u g g e s t e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Gahmuret's gernden s i t e n . I n t h e Church, green i s used f o r s e r v i c e s on P e n t e c o s t , a time commemorating th e s p i r i t u a l r e b i r t h o f t h e Apostles and the actual b i r t h of the C h r i s t i a n church. Furthermore, Gahmuret's l i n e produces a perfect secular knight i n F e i r e f i z and the G r a i l king, P a r z i v a l , new l i f e i n sons who f u l f i l l the l i n e of the father. In addition to t h i s c o l -l e c t i o n of images, i t should also be r e c a l l e d that green i s c e r t a i n l y "elemental." As a color i t i l l u s t r a t e s a closeness to things of the earth. I f any one personal q u a l i t y of Gahmuret 120 i s memorable, i t i s c e r t a i n l y his sensual, earthy nature. 121 There i s no question that Ither's armor i t s e l f i s red and not merely his surcoat and other f a b r i c appointments, and Wolfram l i s t s one by one the red items he wears, his harnasch, here meaning s p e c i f i c a l l y the parts made out of chain mail, his giigerel, covertiur, k u r s i t , as well as s h i e l d and sword (Parz. 145, 1 7 f f ) . Wolfram places a great deal of emphasis on t h i s colored armor, and i t becomes a means of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i t s wearer. Its redness f i r s t c a l l s attention to Ither, who s u i t s his armor so well that even his hair i s red. The description i s a marvelous narrative feature that makes the audience notice Ither, who does come to occupy an important e t h i c a l p o s i t i o n i n the narrative l a t e r because of Parzival's murder of him. The very f a c t that Ither's armor i s colored suggests young Parzival's fundamental d i f f i c u l t y i n distinguishing between what i s properly courtly and what i s properly r e l i g i o u s : t h i s i s the one s u i t of armor that does not completely f u l f i l l Herzeloyde's description of God. But the red of the armor i s well chosen: red, the color of blood, i s used by the Church to 103 commemorate m a r t y r s . I t s u i t s I t h e r who i s k i l l e d f o r t h e sake o f h i s armor as w e l l as P a r z i v a l , who k i l l s f o r i t . I t a l s o s e r v e s t o i n d i c a t e f e r v o r , a p t i n l i g h t o f P a r z i v a l ' s l o n g s e a r c h f o r t h e G r a i l and t o t a l f a i t h f u l n e s s t o Gondwiramurs. As P e t e r Wapnewski e x p l a i n s , "Rot i s t d i e Farbe des l e b e n d i g e n 122 D i e s s e i t s , s e i n e s G l a n z e s wie s e i n e r S u n d h a f t i g k e i t . " When P a r z i v a l r i d e s away from Gurnemanz, d r e s s e d i n h i s r e d armor and i n p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e p r o p e r k n i g h t l y s k i l l s t o s u i t i t , h i s v i e w o f h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y changed as a consequence o f what has happened t o him: im was d i u w i t e zenge, und ouch d i u b r e i t e g a r ze smal: e l l i u gruene i n duhte v a l , s i n r o t h a r n a s c h i n duhte b l a n c : s i n h e r z e d'ougen des bedwanc. s i t e r t u m p h e i t ane w a r t , done w o l t i n Gahmuretes a r t denkens n i h t e r l a z e n nach der schoenen IViazen, der meide s a e l d e n r i c h e , d i u im g e s e l l e c l i c h e sunder minn b o t e r e . ( P a r z . 179, 18-29) P a r z i v a l ' s r e a c t i o n i s b r o u g h t about by h i s h e a r t , h i s h e r i t a g e from Gahmuret. H i s w o r l d i s c o l o r e d by h i s f i r s t y o u t h f u l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h l o v e and e v e r y t h i n g l o o k s d i f f e r e n t t o him. There i s a d e l i b e r a t e i r o n y i n t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , however, t h a t s u g g e s t s a deeper s i g n i f i c a n c e t o P a r z i v a l ' s r e a c t i o n t h a n the r e s u l t s o f l o v e . A f t e r P a r z i v a l has c o n f e s s e d h i s g r e a t f a i l i n g t o T r e v r i z e n t , t h a t he i s t h a t u n s a e l e c b a r n ( P a r z . 488, 19) who f a i l e d t o ask the q u e s t i o n , T r e v r i z e n t o f f e r s him some c o m f o r t : d i u m e n s c h e i t h l i t w i l d e n a r t . etswa w i l j u g e n t an w i t z e v a r t : 104 w i l dennez a l t e r t u m p h e i t ueben unde l u t e r s i t e t r i i e b e n , da von w i r t daz w l z e s a l unt d i u grviene t u g e n t v a l , da von b e k l i b e n mohte daz der w e r d e k e i t t o h t e . ( P a r z . 489, 5-12) T r e v r i z e n t ' s speech r e p e a t s two elements o f Wolfram's e a r l i e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f P a r z i v a l : t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f gruene t o v a l and t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t u m p h e i t . The e x h i b i t i n g o f s t u p i d i t y by t h o s e who s h o u l d know b e t t e r ( a l t e r as opposed t o j u g e n t ) b r i n g s about t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , t h e f a d i n g o f what was once f r e s h and g r e e n . Wolfram's i r o n y i s a p parent h e r e : P a r z i v a l cannot f o r -g e t L i a z e s i t e r t u m p h e i t ane w a r t ; bu t i n r e a l i t y , t h e o n l y s t u p i d i t y Gurnemanz has e x o r c i s e d from him i s t h a t w h i c h c l o u d s Gahmuretes a r t . The r e a c t i o n o f t h e l o v e - s i c k boy i s i n d e e d humorous, y e t i t c o n c e a l s t h e shadow o f an impending t r a g e d y . The momentary w h i t e n i n g o f t h e armor, l i k e t h e change o f s c e n e r y , i s an i l l u s i o n , a t r i c k t h a t c o n c e a l s and p e r v e r t s r e a l i t y . I t i s a p r e l u d e t o P a r z i v a l ' s p e r v e r s i o n o f r e a l i t y t h a t a l l o w s him t o f o r s a k e h i s i n b o r n t e n d e n c i e s and m i s t a k e th e s u p e r f i c i a l a s p e c t s o f Gurnemanz* t e a c h i n g s f o r t h e i r r e a l 123 i m p o r t . Helmet d e c o r a t i o n s a r e s i m i l a r t o Wappen i n t h a t t h e y g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t o f the main f i g u r e o f a k n i g h t ' s c o a t o f arms, a t t a c h e d t o the top o f h i s helmet. F r e q u e n t l y , however, they e x i s t as p u r e l y d e c o r a t i v e f e a t u r e s o f armor. F e a t h e r s a r e v e r y p o p u l a r as z i m i e r and appear o f t e n i n P a r z i v a l . Gahmuret wears h i s anchor as z i m i e r , " s i n e n anker uf dem helme 105 hoch/man g e i n der p o r t e f u e r e n s a c h " ( P a r z . 36, 16-17). L a t e r , a f t e r he a c q u i r e s I s e n h a r t ' s diamond helmet, he t r a n s -f e r s h i s own helmet d e c o r a t i o n t o i t ( P a r z . 70,. 20-26). Banners a r e used by the Church i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e R e s u r r e c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e t h e y a r e t o be t a k e n as s i g n s o f v i c t o r y , o f the i n d i v i d u a l o r o f t h e C h r i s t i a n "army" as a whole. A f t e r I s e n h a r t 1 s d e a t h , h i s men adopt an emblem whi c h they a t t a c h t o a banner t o show t h e i r a n i m o s i t y t o B e l a k a n e . T h e i r emblem shows a k n i g h t s t a b b e d t h r o u g h , w h i c h i s meant t o r e p r e s e n t I s e n h a r t i n h i s d e a t h . T h i s they d i s p l a y t o a d v e r t i s e t h e f a c t t h a t they blame Belakane f o r h i s de a t h and t h a t t h e y mean t o e x t r a c t vengeance f o r i t . B e l a k a n e ' s p e o p l e , on t h e o t h e r hand, choose a banner t o "defend" themselves a g a i n s t t h e a c c u s a t i o n s o f I s e n h a r t ' s men: un s e r vanen s i n t e r k a n t , das zw^ne v i n g e r #z d e r hant b i u t e t g e i n dem e i d e , i r n geschaehe n i e so l e i d e wan s i t daz I s e n h a r t l a c t o t (miner frouwen f r u m t e r h e r z e n o t ) , sus s t i t d i u k i i n e g i n gemal, f r o u B e l a k a n e , sunder twa.1 i n e i n e n b l a n k e n s a m i t g e s n i t e n von s w a r z e r varwe s i t daz w i r d i u wSpen k u r e n an i n ( i n t r i w e an jamer hcit gewin) : d i e s t e c k e n t ob den p o r t e n hoch. ( P a r z . 31, 1-13) There i s n o t h i n g d i f f i c u l t i n e i t h e r o f t h e s e banners, meant as t h e y a r e t o accuse and defend by symbols, b o t h i n t e n t i o n -a l l y unambiguous. I s e n h a r t ' s men show t h a t t h e y a r e d r i v e n by t h o u g h t s o f t h e i r l o r d ' s d e a t h ; B e l a k a n e ' s men show t h a t t h e y b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r l a d y u p h e l d h e r o a t h and remained f a i t h -f u l t o I s e n h a r t and i s i n n o c e n t o f h i s d e a t h . The banner f l o w n 106 by I s e n h a r t ' s men i s d e s c r i b e d merely as b e i n g b r i g h t , e i n ~  l i e h t e r van ( P a r z . 30, 2 5 ) , t h e b r i g h t c o l o r meant t o be eye-c a t c h i n g . That f l o w n by B e l a k a n e ' s p e o p l e i s b l a c k on w h i t e , d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed c o l o r s c a l l i n g t o mind th e u n d e r l y i n g c o n f l i c t between th e d e s i r e s and l i f e s t y l e s o f a k n i g h t and h i s l a d y . The b l a c k o f h e r f i g u r e i s a l s o t h e c o l o r o f her s k i n and so an a c c u r a t e s y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . B l a c k i s a l s o t h e Western c o l o r o f mourning, and B elakane mourns f o r I s e n h a r t and f o r h i s u n t i m e l y d e a t h : daz k l a g i c h noch, v i i armez w i p : i r beder t o t mich immer miiet. u f m i n er t r i w e jamer b l u e t . ( P a r z . 28, 6-f8) C i d e g a s t , O r g e l u s e ' s l o v e r who was s l a i n by G r a m o f l a n z , i s a n o t h e r k n i g h t whose p a s s i n g i s mourned by use o f a banner. A r t h u r h i m s e l f d e s c r i b e s i t , a b l a c k arrow s p l a s h e d w i t h r e d , the b l o o d o f a h e a r t : d i u b a n i e r h a t enpfangen von z o b l e e i n swarze s t r a l e m i t h e r z e n b l u o t e s male nach mannes kumber gevar. ( P a r z . 673, 14-17) Because armor d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages was a c c e p t e d as e v i -dence o f t h e k n i g h t l y s t a t u s o f t h e b e a r e r and accompanied th e k n i g h t l y c a l l i n g , a p r e s t i g i o u s and r e g u l a t e d s t y l e o f l i f e , armor to o came t o be c l o s e l y r e g u l a t e d , w i t h n o t o n l y a s e r i e s o f recommendations f o r t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e mode o f con-s t r u c t i o n b u t a l s o o f t h e e t i q u e t t e t h a t governed th e a c t i o n s o f a k n i g h t towards h i s own armor and t h a t o f o t h e r k n i g h t s . Most p r e c e p t s o f e t i q u e t t e incumbent upon the m e d i e v a l k n i g h t a r e t o be g l e a n e d from th e l i t e r a t u r e r a t h e r than t o be found i n n o n - f i c t i o n a l works o f t h e p e r i o d . As may w e l l be e x p e c t e d , n a r r a t i v e s d e a l i n g i n any l e n g t h w i t h t h e enfance o f t h e hero s t r e s s p r o p e r b e h a v i o r , seen by t h e r e a d e r i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e hero as w e l l as i n t h e r e a c t i o n s o f o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s when an o f f e n s e has been committed. O c c a s i o n a l l y even th e m ention o f a c e r t a i n a c t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o b r and i t as an o f f e n s e a g a i n s t e t i q u e t t e , assuming t h a t o n l y something u n u s u a l i s worthy o f m ention, th e normal a c t i o n s b e i n g e x p e c t e d b o t h by c h a r a c t e r s as w e l l as by the a u d i e n c e . The r e a s o n f o r t h e s t r e s s l a i d upon p r o p e r b e h a v i o r t o a s u i t o f armor i s t o be found i n t h e s y m b o l i c v a l u e o f t h e garment. I f i t were o n l y a s u i t o f m a i l c l o t h i n g , t h e r e would be no need t o a c c o r d i t any r e s p e c t . But t h e armor i s t h e k n i g h t , i t r e p r e s e n t s h i s l i f e , h i s c a l l i n g , even h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . To be d i s r e s p e c t f u l t o a k n i g h t ' s armor i s t o show t h a t same d i s r e s p e c t t o the k n i g h t h i m s e l f . S i m i l a r l y , a k n i g h t w e a r i n g h i s armor i s a s i g n o f a l l armored k n i g h t s , and any a c t t h a t shows an element o f d i s -r e s p e c t , o f r e b e l l i o n , o r o f g e n e r a l l y u n c o u r t l y b e h a v i o r b r i n g s d i s h o n o r upon the e n t i r e k n i g h t l y f r a t e r n i t y . A l t h o u g h most elements o f armor e t i q u e t t e a r e not s p e c i -f i c a l l y mentioned as such i n P a r z i v a l , Wolfram i n d i c a t e s o f f e n s e s a g a i n s t a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o r by a l l o w i n g some c h a r a c t e r o r c h a r a c t e r s t o t a k e n o t i c e o f what i s happening, t h e r e b y c a l l i n g t h e r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e a c t . I t i s not u s u a l b e h a v i o r f o r a k n i g h t t o wear h i s armor d u r i n g t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e Mass, f o r example. Even i n heathen l a n d s , Gahmuret t a k e s a l o n g h i s own p r i v a t e c h a p l a i n and o b s e r v e s t h i s custom, drawing on h i s 108 armor o n l y a f t e r the Mass has f i n i s h e d . Gawain to o a t t e n d s Mass b e f o r e he i s t o r i d e o u t t o meet G r a m o f l a n z , b u t though he l e a v e s o f f the b u l k o f h i s armor, the o t h e r s who a r e p r e s e n t a t t h e s e r v i c e n o t i c e t h a t he i s a l r e a d y w e a r i n g h i s i r o n l e g c o v e r i n g s : do der b e n d i t z w a r t g e t a n , do wapent s i c h her GawSn: man sah £ t r a g e n den s t o l z e n s i n i s e r i n e k o l z e n an wol g e s c h i c h t e n b e i n e n . do begunden frouwen weinen. ( P a r z . 705, 9-14) S i n c e t h i s i s t h e o n l y garment Wolfram chooses t o mention a t t h i s p o i n t , i t i s as c o n s p i c u o u s a f e a t u r e t o t h e r e a d e r as i t i s t o A r t h u r ' s company, and t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s a r t i c l e o f 125 c l o t h i n g upon the l a d i e s i s not l o s t . The absence o f armor d u r i n g the Mass i s i n no way t o be seen as an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t k n i g h t l y s e r v i c e i s d i v o r c e d from th e s p i r i t u a l r e a l m , b u t i s d i r e c t e d a t m a i n t a i n i n g t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e w o r s h i p p e r s t o the s e r v i c e . Gawain's armored l e g s a r e enough o f a d i s t r a c t i o n t o b r i n g t e a r s t o t h e eyes o f the l a d i e s p r e s e n t , who a r e t h e r e b y reminded t h a t he i s g o i n g o u t t o f i g h t Gramoflanz and who a l l o w t h e i r t h o u g h t s t o d w e l l upon t h i s r a t h e r t h a n upon t h e s e r v i c e . I n a way t h e armored k n i g h t i s competing w i t h God i n h i s b r i g h t s h i n i n g g l o r y as w e l l as i n h i s deeds, d o i n g on e a r t h what God would do were he p r e s e n t i n t h e f l e s h . There i s c e r t a i n danger i n g i v i n g one's a t t e n t i o n s t o a k n i g h t , who can be seen, r a t h e r than t o a God who c annot. The Mass i s d e v o t e d t o t h e s e r v i c e o f God, and i s t h e r e f o r e one a r e a where the k n i g h t must n o t i n t r u d e upon God's p r i v i l e g e . 109 Wolfram r e f e r s t o Gawain i n t h i s scene as den s t o l z e n , a f o r m u l a i c e p i t h e t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p e j o r a t i v e , and y e t p o s s i b l y s u g g e s t i v e o f t h e s i n o f p r i d e , o f p l a c i n g o n e s e l f b e f o r e God. I t i s f o r much the same r e a s o n , t o p r e v e n t t h e i n t r u s i o n o f k n i g h t h o o d upon God's p r i v i l e g e , t h a t f i g h t i n g came t o be banned on h o l y d a y s as an a i d t o t h e i r observance and as a means o f c o n t r o l l i n g w a r f a r e : B e f o r e t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y had c l o s e d , i n A q u i t a i n e and Burgundy s e v e r a l d i o c e s a n and p r o v i n c i a l synods had a n a t h e m a t i z e d m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s on t h e l a n d s o f t h e Church and o f t h e poor. T h e i r d e c r e e s s o l e m n l y pronounced t h a t non-combatants (the c l e r g y , women, c h i l d r e n , and p e a sants) s h o u l d be i n v i o l a t e i n t ime o f war. Such r e g u l a t i o n s , endorsed by l o c a l r u l e r s , were c o l l e c t i v e l y c a l l e d t h e Peace o f God. The movement s p r e a d , and i n t h e e a r l y decades o f t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y t h e Peace o f God was r e i n f o r c e d by what was c a l l e d t h e Truce o f God, a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s were t o cease on Sundays and o t h e r c h u r c h f e s t i v a l s . 1 2 6 P a r z i v a l v i o l a t e s t h e Truce o f God i f n o t l e g a l l y t h e n c e r t a i n l y m o r a l l y by r i d i n g i n f u l l armor on Good F r i d a y . That he does n o t r e a l i z e t h e day s i m p l y p o i n t s o u t how f a r he i s from God, and t h e armor e x p r e s s e s h i s b i t t e r n e s s and resentment. Wolfram s t r e s s e s the c o l d t h a t P a r z i v a l f e e l s i n h i s armor, a l t h o u g h K a henis and h i s f a m i l y , b a r e f o o t , appear n o t t o be as uncom-f o r t a b l e . P a r z i v a l ' s h e a r t , f r o z e n as i t i s a g a i n s t God, con-t r a s t s w i t h the p a s s i o n a t e l o v e o f the p e n i t e n t f a m i l y who a r e even p h y s i c a l l y warmed i n t h e i r d e v o t i o n . P a r z i v a l ' s removal o f h i s armor as he s t a y s w i t h T r e v r i z e n t i s a p r e l u d e t o h i s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h God, a n e c e s s a r y f i r s t s t e p t o p e r m i t him 127 t o be warmed i n God's l o v e . 110 The r u d i m e n t a r y i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t P a r z i v a l r e c e i v e s i n t h e e t i q u e t t e s u r r o u n d i n g t h e use o f armor i s begun by Iwanet, who shows him how t o draw the components o f a s u i t o f c h a i n m a i l o n t o h i s body and t r i e s t o p o i n t o u t t o him t h a t h i s under 12 8 c l o t h i n g does n o t q u i t e s u i t h i s new armor. Gurnemanz te a c h e s him t h a t he s h o u l d wash o f f t h e r u s t from h i s body as soon as he has removed h i s armor f o r , "des nement wibes ougen war" ( P a r z . 172, 6 ) . Rust was always a problem w i t h armor, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h c h a i n m a i l w h i c h , because o f i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n , was more s u s -c e p t i b l e t o r u s t t h a n t h e l a t e r p l a t e m a i l : t h e s m a l l r i n g s t r a p p e d m o i s t u r e and o f f e r e d a g r e a t e r s u r f a c e a r e a t o o x i d i -z a t i o n . The l a r g e number o f r e c e s s e s a l s o made i t more d i f f i -c u l t t o c l e a r away a l l t r a c e s o f r u s t once i t began and t h e r e f o r e a l l o w e d i t t o g a i n a f o o t h o l d , weakening t h e armor. I t i s a s i m p l e a c t o f r e f i n e m e n t f o r a k n i g h t t o wash away t r a c e s o f r u s t from h i s f a c e , and t h i s , o f c o u r s e , h e l p s s u p p o r t th e i d e a l i z a t i o n o f k n i g h t h o o d so i m p o r t a n t i n c h i v a l r o u s conven-t i o n . R ust s u g g e s t s t h e h a r d s h i p s o f combat r a t h e r t h a n t h e g l o r y , d i f f i c u l t i e s o f w h i c h a l a d y need n o t know, Wolfram's d e s c r i p t i o n o f A n t i k o n i e c o n t a i n s a humorous comment on t h i s , "swa harnaschramec w i r t e i n w i p , / d i u h a t i r r e h t s v e r g e z z e n " ( P a r z . 409, 12-13). One o f t h e more s e n s i b l e a c t s o f h o s p i t a l i t y a h o s t c o u l d o f f e r h i s g u e s t — m e a n s o f c l e a n i n g h i s a r m o r — i s l i t t l e m entioned i n t h e n a r r a t i v e p o e t r y , a l t h o u g h I s o l d e o r d e r s a I l l s q u i r e t o c l e a n and p o l i s h T r i s t a n ' s armor w h i l e he r e c o v e r s f r om t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e dragon's tongue ( T r i s t . 10046-54). The washing o f f o f r u s t i s t h e o n l y a s p e c t o f e t i q u e t t e t h a t Gurnemanz t e a c h e s P a r z i v a l s p e c i f i c a l l y , and P a r z i v a l f o l l o w s i t t h r o u g h o u t h i s a d v e n t u r e s . The a n c i e n t Greeks c o n s i d e r e d a w a r r i o r ' s armor t o be the s p o i l s o f war, the p r o p e r t y o f the v i c t o r i n combat, and t h i s custom i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e w r i t t e n i n M i d d l e H i g h German, and t h e c o u r t l y e p i c does n o t c o n s i d e r t h e r o b b i n g o f a c o r p s e t o be an h o n o r a b l e deed. The term a p p l i e d t o i t , r e r o u p , has d i s -t i n c t l y p e j o r a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d e x t e n u a t i n g . T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y i n k e e p i n g w i t h the i m p o r t a n c e a k n i g h t p l a c e d on h i s own armor: I t h e r equates h i s armor w i t h h i s l i f e ( P a r z . 154, 1 4 ) . A s l a i n k n i g h t ' s armor was t r e a t e d w i t h a l m o s t t h e v e n e r a t i o n a c c o r d e d t o t h e r e l i c o f a s a i n t : Nor d i d h i s d e a t h t e r m i n a t e t h e honours w h i c h were p a i d t o him. The s o l e m n i t y and ceremonies o f h i s f u n e r a l , e x p r e s s e d h i s m e r i t s and t h e p u b l i c r e -g r e t s . A monument was e r e c t e d t o him, and t h e ornaments w i t h w h i c h i t was e m b e l l i s h e d , s u i t i n g h i s a c t i o n s and h i s t o r y , i n s p i r e d h i s p o s t e r i t y w i t h " a generous e m u l a t i o n . The sword w h i c h he had c a r r i e d t o b a t t l e , the s h i e l d w h i c h had defended h i s body, and t h e o t h e r a r t i c l e s o f h i s d r e s s and armour, became the o b j e c t s o f r e s p e c t and v e n e r a -t i o n . The most i l l u s t r i o u s p e r s o n s c o u r t e d t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n , and c h u r c h e s were o f t e n esteemed t h e o n l y p r o p e r r e p o s i t o r i e s o f t h e s e a t t e n d a n t s o f h i s v i c t o r i e s and v a l o u r . 1 2 9 112 Because Gahmuret"s body was b u r i e d by t h e B a ruch, th e s h i r t he was w e a r i n g when he was s l a i n i s t a k e n home and b u r i e d a l o n g w i t h the s p e a r p o i n t t h a t s l e w him: d i e b e s t e n uber a l daz l a n t b e s t a t t e n s p e r und ouch daz b l u o t ze munster, so man t o t e n t u o t . ( P a r z . I l l , 30-112, 2) Of t h e two i n c i d e n t s o f r e r o u p t h a t Wolfram n a r r a t e s , t h e one i n P a r z i v a l i s t h e r e s u l t o f i g n o r a n c e , the one i n W i l l e h a l m o c c u r s under e x t e n u a t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Wolfram was n o t one t o t r i f l e w i t h so s e r i o u s an o f f e n s e . P a r z i v a l robs I t h e r ' s c o r p s e because he i s i g n o r a n t o f c h i v a l r y and u n t u t o r e d i n t h e c o u r t l y e t h i c : i n zoch n e h e i n c u r v e n a l : e r kunde k u r t o s i e n i h t , a l s ungevarnem man g e s c h i h t . ( P a r z . 144, 20-22) I t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s an o f f e n s e , and he r e p e n t s o f i t l a t e r . I t i s odd, however, t h a t he i s a i d e d i n removing th e armor by Iwanet, who s h o u l d e x h i b i t a c l o s e r a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h t h e c h i v -a l r i c code. One must assume t h e r e f o r e t h a t Iwanet found h i m s e l f m o t i v a t e d by c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t superseded c h i v a l r y f o r him. As Henry K r a t z s u g g e s t s : R a t h e r , he seems i m p r e s s e d by P a r z i v a l t o t h e p o i n t o f s u b s e r v i e n c e , even though th e l a t t e r appears i n f o o l ' s garb and i s i g n o r a n t o f t h e c o u r t l y manners t h a t Iwanet p o s s e s s e s . He i s o f t h e b r e e d o f l o y a l r e t a i n e r s t h a t g r e a t men so o f t e n a t t r a c t . H i s a t t r a c t i o n t o P a r z i v a l i s a s i g n o f the l a t t e r ' s f u t u r e g r e a t n e s s . 1 3 0 I n any c a s e , P a r z i v a l d i d have the k i n g ' s p e r m i s s i o n t o t a k e t h e armor. CHAPTER THREE CLOTHING ON FORMALIZED OCCASIONS The f o r m a l k n i g h t i n g ceremonies w h i c h o c c u r i n so many o t h e r M i d d l e H i g h German n a r r a t i v e s a r e c o n s p i c u o u s l y absent i n P a r z i v a l . In C h r e t i e n ' s v e r s i o n P e r c e v a l i s dubbed k n i g h t by Gornemant: The l o r d , b e n d i n g o v e r , f a s t e n e d on h i s h e e l t h e r i g h t s p u r , such was t h e custom f o r him who made a k n i g h t . Many s q u i r e s were p r e s e n t , and each, as o p p o r t u n i t y o f f e r e d , h e l p e d i n t h e arming. The l o r d took the sword, g i r d e d i t on t h e y o u t h , k i s s e d him, and s a i d t h a t w i t h t h e sword he had g i v e n him t h e h i g h e s t o r d e r t h a t God had made and d e c r e e d — n a m e l y , t h e s t a i n l e s s o r d e r o f knighthood.131 A l t h o u g h t h i s ceremony i s n o t as c o m p l i c a t e d o r as f o r m a l as most l i t e r a r y k n i g h t i n g ceremonies, i t n e v e r t h e l e s s p r e s e n t s P e r c e v a l w i t h t h e c l e a r l e g a l r i g h t t o h i s k n i g h t h o o d . Wolfram c o m p l e t e l y o m i t s f o r m a l i z e d k n i g h t i n g o f P a r z i v a l and y e t i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e e v e n t s a t A r t h u r ' s c o u r t when he t a k e s I t h e r ' s armor s e r v e t o make him a k n i g h t , and i n many ways t h e u n t u -tored a c t i o n s o f P a r z i v a l s u b c o n s c i o u s l y p a r a l l e l t h e p r e l i m i n a r y a c t i o n s o f a young s q u i r e about t o become a k n i g h t . The a c t u a l k n i g h t i n g ceremony was a r e l i g i o u s as w e l l as a s o c i a l c e l e b r a t i o n and began w i t h t h e c o n f e s s i o n o f t h e k n i g h t - t o - b e , f o r k n i g h t h o o d was a h o l y o c c u p a t i o n , meant t o be e n t e r e d upon i n as s t a i n l e s s a c o n d i t i o n as p o s s i b l e . He spen t t h e n i g h t i n k e e p i n g v i g i l o v e r h i s armor i n the c h u r c h 113 114 o r c h a p e l , l e a v i n g o n l y when the p r i e s t e n t e r e d t o say the morning Mass. P a r z i v a l spends the n i g h t b e f o r e h i s a r r i v a l a t Nantes a t t h e home o f a s u l l e n and i n h o s p i t a b l e f i s h e r m a n . He o b t a i n s f o o d and l o d g i n g f o r t h e n i g h t and the promise o f d i r e c t i o n t o A r t h u r i n exchange f o r J e s c h u t e ' s b r o o c h , and h i s e x c i t e m e n t about h i s coming k n i g h t h o o d keeps him w a i t i n g e a g e r l y f o r dawn so t h a t he can s t a r t o u t on t h e f i n a l l e g o f t h i s j o u r n e y : Die naht b e l e i p der knappe dci: man sah i n smorgens anderswa. des t a g e s e r kume e r b e i t e . ( P a r z . 143, 15-17) P a r z i v a l ' s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e eagerness i s a g e n t l e parody o f t h e young s q u i r e w a t c h i n g o v e r h i s armor: b o t h P a r z i v a l and the s q u i r e w a i t e a g e r l y f o r dawn and the e v e n t s i t w i l l b r i n g , a l -though P a r z i v a l ' s s i t u a t i o n i s h a r d l y t h a t o f a s q u i r e , nor i s the f i s h e r m a n a n y t h i n g b u t a rude h o s t . I t i s P a r z i v a l ' s i n t e n t i o n t o f i n d A r t h u r h i m s e l f so t h a t t h e k i n g may make him a k n i g h t ; he does not r e a l i z e t h a t he can be k n i g h t e d by a n o t h e r l o r d f o r he was t o l d by Karnahkarnanz t h a t knighthoodeame from A r t h u r : der knappe f r a g t e f i i r b a z 'du nennest r i t t e r : waz i s t daz? h a s t u n i h t g o t l i c h e r k r a f t , so sage m i r , wer g i t r i t t e r s c h a f t ? ' 'daz t u o t der kiinec A r t u s . j u n c h e r r e , komt i r i n des hus, der b r i n g e t i u c h an r i t t e r s namn, daz i r s i u c h nimmer d u r f e t schamn. i r mugt wol s i n von r i t t e r s a r t . ' ( P a r z . 123, 3-11) C o n s e q u e n t l y he r e p o r t s t o H e r z e l o y d e t h a t i t i s A r t h u r who s h a l l make him a k n i g h t : 115 ' . . . A r t i i s k i i n e c l i c h i u k r a f t s o l mich nach r i t e r s e r e n an s c h i l d e s ambet k e r e n . ' ( P a r z . 126, 12-14) D e s p i t e P a r z i v a l ' s o b v i o u s i g n o r a n c e o f k n i g h t l y ways, A r t h u r agrees t o k n i g h t him. He p r o m i s e s him v a l u a b l e g i f t s and asks o n l y t h a t he w a i t a day so t h a t t h e r e would be time t o p r e p a r e him. A r t h u r c e r t a i n l y means t h a t time i s needed t o p r e p a r e f o r him t h e n e c e s s a r y c l o t h i n g , b o t h c e r e m o n i a l and a r m o r i a l , f o r a day would h a r d l y s u f f i c e t o remedy a l l P a r z i v a l ' s d e f i c i e n c i e s ; Gurnemanz needs two weeks t o do t h i s . The k n i g h t i n g ceremony was n o r m a l l y a c c o r d e d g r e a t p a g e a n t r y as a measure o f i t s importance t o t h e young k n i g h t , h i s companions, and s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l , a s o c i e t y i n w h i c h k n i g h t -hood was a r e v e r e d s t a t i o n i n l i f e . The ceremony was n o t t o be t a k e n l i g h t l y , hence expenses were n o t s p a r e d i n t h e p r e p a -r a t i o n o f t h e new k n i g h t . As i n most e v e r y c e l e b r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages, c l o t h i n g p l a y e d i t s p a r t i n k n i g h t i n g : t h e k n i g h t ' s f u n c t i o n a l c l o t h i n g , h i s armor, was b l e s s e d and made ready f o r him t o draw on f o r t h e f i r s t t i me as t h e one v i s i b l e s i g n o f h i s e x a l t e d c a l l i n g . He was a l s o g i v e n f i n e c l o t h i n g t o wear beneath t h e armor, f o r o l d o r shoddy c l o t h i n g was i n s u l t i n g t o t h e new r a n k , t h e new k n i g h t , and t h e k n i g h t i n g l o r d who was e x p e c t e d t o p r o v i d e t h i s f i n e r y f o r t h e k n i g h t as a s i g n o f h i s own m i l t e o r l a r g e s s e . There i s , however, no mention by A r t h u r o f g i v i n g P a r z i v a l t h e i m p o r t a n t k n i g h t l y e d u c a t i o n w h i c h o c c u p i e s numerous l i n e s i n T r i s t a n and w h i c h i s c i t e d by t h e abbot i n G r e g o r i u s i n an attempt t o d i s s u a d e h i s p u p i l from s e e k i n g k n i g h t h o o d . Even P a r z i v a l i n t e r p r e t s 116 A r t h u r ' s r e m a r k s a b o u t p r e p a r a t i o n t o mean o n l y e x t e r n a l p r e p a r a t i o n , n o t e d u c a t i o n , f o r h e r e p l i e s t h a t h e w a n t s n o k i n g ' s g i f t e x c e p t t h e r e d a r m o r h e h a s j u s t s e e n . H i s t a k i n g I t h e r ' s a r m o r f u n c t i o n s a s a f o r m a l e n t r a n c e t o k n i g h t h o o d , a b a p t i s m b y b l o o d , a s i t w e r e . A f t e r I t h e r * s d e a t h , I w a n e t t w i c e c o r r e c t s P a r z i v a l ' s m i s c o n c e p t i o n s b y r e f e r r i n g t o t h e p r e c e p t s o f k n i g h t h o o d , w h i c h h e m u s t now f o l l o w . T h e f i r s t c o n c e r n s h i s c l o t h i n g : I w a n e t s p r a c h ' d i u r i b b a l i n s u l e n n i h t u n d e r e m l s e r n s i n : d u s o i t n u t r a g e n r i t t e r s k l e i t . ' ( P a r z . 1 5 6 , 2 5 - 2 7 ) T h e r e a r e two p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f I w a n e t ' s s t a t e m e n t . Q u i t e l i t e r a l l y , h e i s a t t e m p t i n g t o d r e s s P a r z i v a l i n k n i g h t ' s c l o t h i n g a n d r o u g h u n t a n n e d b o o t s ( a n d f o o l ' s c l o t h i n g ) d o n o t b e l o n g w i t h t h e c o s t u m e . P a r z i v a l i s o f f e n d i n g I w a n e t ' s c o u r t l y s e n s i b i l i t i e s . I t i s o d d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e m a t t e r s h o u l d b e i m p o r t a n t u n l e s s I w a n e t ' s u s e o f t h e w o r d n u a d d s a f u r t h e r s i g n i f i c a n c e t o h i s r e m a r k : P a r z i v a l m u s t now w e a r k n i g h t ' s c l o t h i n g b e c a u s e now t h a t h e i s a k n i g h t h e m u s t f o l l o w t h e s t a n d a r d c l o t h i n g s t y l e s o f k n i g h t s . S i n c e t h e m e r e f a c t o f w e a r i n g a r m o r m a r k s P a r z i v a l a s a k n i g h t , i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t I w a n e t i s s t r e s s i n g a c h a n g e i n c o n d i t i o n . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t I w a n e t w o u l d d r e s s P a r z i v a l i n k n i g h t ' s c l o t h i n g w i t h o u t f i r m l y b e l i e v i n g h e h a d a r i g h t t o w e a r i t . I w a n e t ' s s e c o n d c o r r e c t i o n c o n c e r n s P a r z i v a l ""s c h o i c e o f w e a p o n r y , " i c h e n r e i c h e d i r k e i n g a b y l o t : / d i u r i t t e r s c h a f t d i r d a z v e r b o t " ( P a r z . 1 5 7 , 1 9 - 2 0 ) . A g a i n t h e r e a r e two l e v e l s 117 of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r Iwanet's words. L i t e r a l l y , P a r z i v a l ' s use o f a j a v e l i n once he i s dressed i n armor cannot be per-m i t t e d f o r the sake of the name of knighthood s i n c e he, as an armored man, i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l k n i g h t s . However, more i m p o r t a n t l y , the use of the j a v e l i n i s f o r b i d d e n P a r z i v a l by the r u l e s of knighthood to which he must h i m s e l f adhere because he i s now a k n i g h t . The o n l y one of Iwanet's c o r r e c t i o n s t h a t P a r z i v a l heeds i s the e x t e r n a l , immediately v i s i b l e one, the f o r b i d d i n g of the j a v e l i n , which serves to p o i n t out the one unquestionable f a c t about P a r z i v a l ' s "knighthood": i t e x i s t s f o r some time onl y i n the e x t e r n a l s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s prolonged; i t e x i s t s even a f t e r the s o j o u r n w i t h Gurnemanz where P a r z i v a l l e a r n s many of the k n i g h t l y s k i l l s he had l a c k e d up to t h i s p o i n t , and Wolfram h i n t s a t h i s s t i l l e x t e r n a l i z e d knighthood as he r i d e s away from Gurnemanz i n the beginning of the f o u r t h book: Dannen s c h i e t sus P a r z i v a l . r i t t e r s s i t e und r i t t e r s mal s i n l i p mit ziihten f u o r t e , 8w^ wan daz i n r u o r t e manec unsiieziu strenge. (Parz. 179, 13-17) P a r z i v a l ' s c l a i m to knighthood, wi t h the e x c e p t i o n of h i s noble b i r t h , r e s t s i n h i s r i t t e r s s i t e und r i t t e r s mal, both merely e x t e r n a l evidence. I t i s a p o i n t even Cundrie mentions: t a v e l r u n d e r p r i s e s k r a f t h c i t erlemt e i n g e s e l l e s c h a f t d i e driiber gap h&r P a r z i v i l , der ouch d o r t t r e i t d i u r i t e r s mal. (Parz. 315, 7-10) 118 His knighthood, a state unconferred upon him, must be gained and 'proved by Par z i v a l himself. Parzival's greeting to Gurnemanz, which i s followed by a refu s a l to dismount, expresses i n his c h i l d i s h attitude his b e l i e f that he had t r u l y been knighted, even though the wording indicates that t h i s may not necessarily be so: 'mich hiez ein kunec r i t t e r sin:: swaz h a l t druffe mir geschiht, ine kum von disem orse niht...' (Parz. 163, 22-24) Arthur bade him be a knight, but he did not make him a knight. P a r z i v a l , who at thi s stage equates knighthood with knightly appearance, f e e l s i t necessary to re t a i n that which shows him to be a knight: his armor and his seat on his horse. The effe c t s of Herzeloyde's protective behavior are apparent i n Parz i v a l at t h i s time. The denial of his b i r t h r i g h t has made him overemphasize external signs and made him believe he can gain what he wants by taking i t . Because he knows no more of knighthood than the wearing of armor, he remains unconscious of the i n t e r i o r preparation necessary before he can be anything but a boy wearing a stolen s u i t of armor. He must pains-takingly be taught even the most rudimentary aspects of knightly breeding, from the proper way to draw on a s u i t of chain mail to the proper manner of r i d i n g a horse. And yet he i s not lacking i n s k i l l or aptitude, merely the courtly veneer of knighthood. He can, by himself, vanquish a trained warrior and mount a horse unassisted i n f u l l armor, "der gewapent i n den s a t e l spranc:/ern gerte stegreife niht" (Parz. 157, 119 132 28-29). He can r i d e l o n g d i s t a n c e s and he can keep h o l d o f h i s s h i e l d . Gurnemanz's remark about h i s s h i e l d m e r e l y em-p h a s i z e s i t s appearance, n o t i t s f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e : i c h han beschouwet manege want d e l i c h den s c h i l t baz hangen v a n t denner i u ze h a l s e t a e t e , ez i s t uns n i h t ze s p a e t e : w i r s u l e n ze v e l d e cjahen: da s u i t i r k u n s t e nahen. ( P a r z . 173, 15-20) There i s an element o f s t r e s s on the e x i s t e n c e o f two f a c e t s o f e x i s t e n c e : t h e i n t e r n a l and t h e e x t e r n a l , t h e f u n c t i o n a l and t h e p o l i s h e d . W h i l e P a r z i v a l ' s l a c k o f p r e p a r a t i o n f o r k n i g h t h o o d e x e r t s a n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e on h i s development f o r some t i m e , t h e f a c t t h a t he must f i g h t f o r e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s h i s by r i g h t i n c r e a s e s h i s independence. By c h o i c e he t a k e s h i s own armor, by chance he f i n d s t h e p r o p e r p e r s o n t o i n s t r u c t him i n p r o p e r b e a r i n g . The manner i n wh i c h he a c q u i r e s h i s e d u c a t i o n and h i s k n i g h t h o o d , f o r t h e most p a r t i n d e p e n d e n t l y , p a r a l l e l s t h e d i r e c t i o n o f h i s l i f e , f o r he remains t h e n independent o f any e a r t h l y c o u r t . F o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f h i s s e a r c h f o r t h e G r a i l he i s o n l y s l i g h t l y c o n n e c t e d t o A r t h u r ' s c i r c l e ; h i s s e a r c h i s c a r r i e d o u t a l o n e . Each time P a r z i v a l a t t e m p t s t o conn e c t h i m s e l f t o some e a r t h l y c o u r t , e v e n t s i n t e r v e n e t o p r e v e n t h i s d o i n g so. He c o u l d have j o i n e d t h e A r t h u r i a n c i r c l e a t the time o f h i s f i r s t v i s i t , b u t h i s a t t e n t i o n was drawn o f f by I t h e r and t h e r e d armor, and t h e n by t h e shame o f Cunneware's and A n t a n o r ' s punishment. H i s s t a y a t P e l r e p e i r e i s i n t e r -r u p t e d by the d e s i r e t o see h i s mother, a j o u r n e y w h i c h l e a d s i n s t e a d t o Munsalvaesch. The second time he appears b e f o r e 120 A r t h u r , as he i s about t o be welcomed i n t o t h e f e l l o w s h i p o f t h e Round T a b l e , C u n d r i e a r r i v e s t o denounce him. Wolfram's d e v i a t i o n from C h r e t i e n i n t h e m a t t e r o f P a r z i v a l ' s f o r m a l k n i g h t i n g p l a c e s a somewhat d i f f e r e n t l i g h t on P a r z i v a l ' s k n i g h t h o o d i t s e l f . Because he owes no r e a l a l l e g i a n c e t o any l o r d , he cannot be c o n t r o l l e d o r used. Any deeds he p e r f o r m s a r e done q u i t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y , and t h e blame o r p r a i s e a r e h i s a l o n e . I t becomes apparent t h a t P a r z i v a l ' s independence i s an i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e t o h i s development. Be-cause h i s l o y a l t y i s c o n c e n t r a t e d e n t i r e l y upon the G r a i l , and o n l y a f t e r i t h i s w i f e , t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n o f h i s r e p e a t -i n g t h e s i n o f A m f o r t a s o r o f m i s d i r e c t i n g h i s e n e r g i e s . The absence o f t h e k n i g h t i n g ceremony a l s o changes th e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c l o t h i n g g i v e n by Gurnemanz from t h a t w h i c h o c c u r s i n C h r e t i e n ' s v e r s i o n . Gornemant's g i f t i s s t a n d a r d o f a l o r d p e r f o r m i n g the k n i g h t i n g ceremony; th e c l o t h i n g g i f t o f 13 3 i Gurnemanz has an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n . The e v e n t s w h i c h P a r z i v a l w i t n e s s e s a t Munsalvaesch d u r i n g t h e e v e n i n g o f h i s f i r s t v i s i t t h e r e a r e marked as c e r e m o n i a l by t h e i r d i s t i n c t l y r i t u a l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r , e s p e c i a l l y a p p a r e n t i n t h e p r o c e s s i o n d u r i n g w h i c h t h e G r a i l i s b r o u g h t i n t o the room and l a t e r removed. J u s t b e f o r e the ceremony b e g i n s , P a r z i v a l i s g i v e n a c l o a k , t h e s t a n d a r d g i f t o f h o s t t o honored g u e s t , b u t he i s t o l d t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c l o a k i s n o t a g i f t b u t a l o a n . Towards the end o f t h e ceremony, j u s t b e f o r e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s l e a v e , he i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h a sword. These i t e m s b o t h have a s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f w h i c h P a r z i v a l i s i g n o r a n t , and he does n o t l e a r n t h e i r f u l l i m p o r t u n t i l h i s v i s i t w i t h T r e v r i z e n t . The a c t u a l ceremony b e g i n s w i t h a r i t u a l i z e d mourning: a b l e e d i n g l a n c e i s c a r r i e d i n t o t h e h a l l , r e m i n d i n g a l l p r e s e n t o f t h e need f o r sorrow i n i t s c o n n e c t i o n t o Amfortas* p a i n . Wolfram h i m s e l f r e f e r s t o t h i s as a s i t e ( P a r z . 231, 1 9 ) , a custom w h i c h i s a p a r t o f t h e ceremony and o b v i o u s l y f r e q u e n t l y r e p e a t e d . The a c t u a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h i s mourning i s u n u s u a l as w e l l : i t i s a p u b l i c e x p r e s s i o n o f g r i e f w h i c h knows no abatement o r end as l o n g as A m f o r t a s 1 p a i n l a s t s . The c i r c u i t o f t h e l a n c e b e a r e r i s f o l l o w e d by t h e p r o c e s s i o n o f t h e G r a i l maidens, c a r e f u l l y s t r u c t u r e d and d e l i b e r a t e l y o r d e r e d r i g h t down t o the g r o u p i n g o f maidens by c o l o r , f e a s t i n g (a common m e d i e v a l ceremony), t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e sword t o P a r z i v a l , and the r e c e s s i o n o f t h e maidens who q u i t t h e h a l l i n r e v e r s e o r d e r from t h e i r e n t r a n c e . There a r e two f e a t u r e s o f t h i s e v e n t w h i c h s u g g e s t t h a t i t s c e r e m o n i a l c h a r a c t e r i n c l u d e s some a s p e c t s o f c l o t h i n g symbolism i n t h e garments d e s c r i b e d . R i t u a l s and ceremonies i n g e n e r a l a r e accompanied by some t y p e o f s p e c i a l c l o t h i n g w h i c h t a k e s on a n o n - l i t e r a l o r s y m b o l i c c h a r a c t e r i f o n l y i n i t s f u n c t i o n o f i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the ev e n t s t a k i n g p l a c e a r e e x t r a -134 o r d i n a r y . Wolfram's l a v i s h d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e i n t e n d e d t o 135 p o i n t o u t t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y c h a r a c t e r o f the e v e n t s . The G r a i l ceremony a l s o resembles a number o f a c t u a l r e l i g i o u s r i t e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t Wolfram was drawing on the g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f r e l i g i o u s vestments and c e r e m o n i a l garments and t h e i r a t t e n d a n t symbolism. 122 There a r e f a r t o o many s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e G r a i l s e r v i c e and a c t u a l r e l i g i o u s ceremonies t o i g n o r e as c o i n c i -136 dence. I n a d d i t i o n the g a r n e t s t o n e and two s t o o l s b r o u g h t i n by t h e maidens a r e s e t up l i k e an a l t a r o r s a c r i f i c i a l t a b l e and b a s i n s o f w a t e r a r e broug h t i n so t h a t t h e h o s t / c e l e b r a n t can wash h i s hands. The f e a s t w h i c h f o l l o w s t h e G r a i l p r o c e s -s i o n resembles t h e agape o r l o v e f e a s t , the s h a r i n g o f t h e s a c r i f i c e o r , i n C h r i s t i a n s o c i e t i e s , t h e communion. I t was c e r t a i n l y n o t Wolfram's i n t e n t i o n t o copy any one p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e i n h i s G r a i l s e r v i c e : t h e ev e n t s o f t h e p r o c e s s i o n can be compared w i t h e q u a l s u c c e s s t o C h r i s t i a n and heathen ceremonies. The changes Wolfram made from C h r e t i e n ' s s e r v i c e s u g g e s t t h a t he was d e l i b e r a t e l y a t t e m p t i n g t o make i t u n l i k e a s p e c i f i c C h r i s t i a n ceremony i n c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s , w h i l e r e t a i n i n g C h r i s t i a n elements i n o t h e r s . C h r e t i e n ' s G r a i l i s a c i b o r i u m , t h a t v e s s e l w h i c h h o l d s t h e h o s t , and y e t Wolfram r e f u s e s t o be so d e f i n i t e : h i s G r a i l i s a " t h i n g " and a " s t o n e " — t h e one element o f t h e ceremony w h i c h i s n o t m i n u t e l y d e s c r i b e d . Even so, hecre.tains the h o s t 13 image i n t h e Good F r i d a y v i s i t s o f t h e dove s e n t from heaven. The G r a i l a l s o r e t a i n s elements o f f e r t i l i t y r i t e s : i t p r o -v i d e s the company w i t h i n e x h a u s t a b l e s u p p l i e s o f f o o d and d r i n k . F e r t i l i t y symbol and C h r i s t i a n symbol a r e u n i t e d a t t h e B a p t i s m o f F e i r e f i z where t h e G r a i l s u p p l i e s t h e B a p t i s m a l w a t e r . Most r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s have numerous elements i n common: man i s l i m i t e d i n h i s a t t e m p t s t o approach the i n f i n i t e . I t i s 123 i m p o s s i b l e t o p i n p o i n t t h e "one" ceremony Wolfram was d rawing from, i f i n d e e d such a "one" ceremony e x i s t e d . I n t e n t i o n a l l y , however, he made the G r a i l s e r v i c e as much l i k e a f o r m a l r e l i g i o u s ceremony as he c o u l d w i t h o u t c o l o r i n g t h e i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n o f t h e G r a i l o r i t s s e r v i c e w i t h p r e - f ormed r e l i g i o u s i d e a l s . F a s h i o n i n g the G r a i l s e r v i c e i n the mold o f a r e l i g i o u s ceremony p o i n t s o u t the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e o b j e c t and the s o c i e t y w h i c h c a r e s f o r i t . By making th e G r a i l s e r v i c e r e l i g i o u s w i t h o u t d i s t i n c t l y r e l i g i o u s c o n t e n t Wolfram emphasizes th e demands and rewards o f G r a i l s e r v i c e . Because the elements o f a f o r m a l r e l i g i o u s ceremony a r e p r e s e n t , t h e c l o t h i n g i s c r e a t e d f o r the purpose o f t h e s e r v i c e and t h e enhancement o f i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . P a r z i v a l i s handed Repanse's c l o a k when he i s welcomed t o t h e c a s t l e w i t h the e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t i t i s h i s t o wear w h i l e c l o t h i n g i s b e i n g made e s p e c i a l l y f o r him. T h i s was a s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages and i l l u s t r a t e s t h e e x t e n t o f t h e c o n c e r n f o r h o s p i t a l i t y . There i s , however, a c e r t a i n emphasis p l a c e d upon the f a c t t h a t t h e c l o a k i s a l o a n and n o t a g i f t : man t r u o c im e i n e n m a n t e l d a r : den l e g t an s i c h d e r w o l g e v a r ; m i t o f f e n r e snuere. ez was im e i n l o b s g e f i i e r e . do s p r a c h der kameraere k l u o c 1Repanse de schoye i n t r u o c , mm frouwe de k unegm: ab I r s o l e r i u g l i h e n s i n : wan i u i s t n i h t k l e i d e r noch g e s n i t e n . ( P a r z . 228, 9-17) The f a c t o f t h e l o a n , a l o n g w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c l o a k be-l o n g s t o t h e queen h e r s e l f , s u g g e s t s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t i t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t garment. D u r i n g the ceremony P a r z i v a l g l a n c e s f r e q u e n t l y a t Repanse, c o n s c i o u s o f t h e f a c t t h a t she i s c a r r y i n g t h e G r a i l and t h a t he i s w e a r i n g h e r c l o a k : dez maere g i h t daz P a r z i v a l d i c k e an s i sach unt d a hte, d i u den g r a l da b r c i h t e : e r h e t och i r m a n t e l an. ( P a r z . 236, 12-15) T h i s one garment c r e a t e s an immediate bond between P a r z i v a l and t h e G r a i l t h r o u g h the f i g u r e o f Repanse, but i t i s n o t u n t i l much l a t e r t h a t P a r z i v a l and t h e a u d i e n c e l e a r n i t s f u l l s i g -n i f i c a n c e : do s p r a c h aber P a r z i v a l 'wer was e i n maget d i u den g r a l t r u o c ? i r m a n t e l l e c h man m i r . ' der w i r t s p r a c h 'neve, was e r i r ( d i u s e l b e i s t d i n muome), s i n e l§ch d i r s n i h t ze ruome: s i wa*nd du s o l t s t da h e r r e s i n des g r & l s u n t i r , d a r zuo min. ( P a r z . 500, 23-30) I t i s c l e a r from t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t t h e c l o a k i s produced f o r P a r z i v a l f i r s t o f a l l as a s i g n o f r e s p e c t , n o t as an e x p r e s s i o n o f h o s p i t a l i t y , f o r Repanse b e l i e v e s t h a t he i s t h e one who w i l l ask t h e n e c e s s a r y q u e s t i o n , h e a l A m f o r t a s , and t a k e o v e r th e r u l e o f t h e G r a i l kingdom. I t s n e c e s s i t y , how-e v e r , l i e s i n t h e ceremony about t o t a k e p l a c e , n o t i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f r e s p e c t . P a r z i v a l must have a c e r e m o n i a l garment t o wear d u r i n g h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e G r a i l ceremony, f o r he i s e x p e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e ; he must wear something w h i c h s e t s h i s appearance a p a r t from th e o r d i n a r y , j u s t as t h e q u e s t i o n w i l l s e t him a p a r t from th e o r d i n a r y . H i s o r d i n a r y c l o t h i n g i s n o t s u i t a b l e : i t i s t h a t o f a w o r l d l y k n i g h t and has no a b i l i t y t o mark t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f the e v e n t s t a k i n g p l a c e , y e t 125 t h e c l o t h i n g he w i l l wear as G r a i l k i n g i s not r eady. The need f o r him, as a p a r t i c i p a n t , t o wear c e r e m o n i a l garb i s f i l l e d by t h e l o a n o f a c l o a k . The f a c t o f t h e l o a n and t h e u n p r e p a r e d s p e c i a l c l o t h i n g a l s o s e r v e s t o u n d e r l i n e t h e un-c e r t a i n t y about h i s p o s i t i o n a t M u n s alvaesch. P a r z i v a l i s meant t o ask t h e q u e s t i o n , and y e t t h e r e i s no p o s i t i v e indica -bor. t i o n t h a t he w i l l do so and p e r f o r m h i s a s s i g n e d p a r t i n t h e ceremony. H i s p r e s e n c e i s s t i l l a t e s t , and u n t i l he p a s s e s i t , he cannot r e c e i v e t h e reward and the s p e c i a l i z e d honors t h a t go a l o n g w i t h i t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e c l o a k i s a l o a n , t h e sword i s a g i f t , t a k e n w i t h him when he l e a v e s . The sword i s a c o n s t a n t r e m i n d e r o f P a r z i v a l ' s need t o f i g h t 139 h i s way back t o Munsalvaesch. P a r z i v a l remains a k n i g h t , hence he may r e t a i n t h e sword; b u t he i s n o t y e t k i n g and must 140 l e a v e t h e c l o a k b e h i n d . T r e v r i z e n t , however, t e l l s P a r z i v a l t h a t h i s a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e sword w i t h o u t the r e c i p r o c a l a c t i o n , t h e q u e s t i o n , i s s i n f u l ( P a r z . 501, 1-4), f o r t h i s t o o was i n -141 tended f o r t h e k i n g . The p r o c e s s i o n o f t h e G r a i l maidens i s accompanied by l o n g d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e i r c l o t h i n g . The f a b r i c s mentioned a r e a l l e x o t i c and l u x u r i o u s and c e r t a i n l y i n c l u d e d f o r t h e i r i m p r e s s i v e e f f e c t ; t h e E a s t e r n o r i g i n s o f t h e f a b r i c s p o i n t o u t t h e s t r a n g e n e s s o f the ceremony as w e l l as the w e a l t h o f t h e company. A l l t h e G r a i l maidens wear wreaths o f f l o w e r s 142 upon t h e i r l o o s e h a i r , b o t h s i g n s o f maidenhood, and b o t h c o n t r i b u t i n g a s p r i n g - l i k e atmosphere t o t h e p r o c e s s i o n . 126 The most important f e a t u r e of the c l o t h i n g of the G r a i l maidens i s the c o l o r sequence. The f i r s t f o u r who b r i n g i n candles and the two i v o r y s t o o l s which a c t as supports f o r the t a b l e are wearing brown; the second group of e i g h t , b e a r i n g candles and the garnet t a b l e t o p , are wearing green; and the f i n a l group be f o r e the G r a i l are wearing g o l d . T h i s l a s t group b r i n g s i n the ceremonial k n i v e s . The c o l o r s ascend from the depths of the e a r t h , from the brown of the s o i l which i s the "deepest" of the c o l o r s , to the green of v e g e t a t i o n which r e s t s somewhat above the brown e a r t h , and f i n a l l y , g o l d , the c o l o r 14 3 of the sun and symbolic of p e r f e c t i o n . The group dressed i n brown c a r r i e s i n the s t o o l s , the lowest s p a t i a l l y of the o b j e c t s brought i n as w e l l as the l e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t f u n c t i o n -a l l y i n the ceremony. The group dressed i n green b r i n g s i n the t a b l e t o p which i s s e t on the s t o o l s , an a r t i c l e h i g h e r s p a t i a l l y than the s t o o l s and more necessary to the ceremonial a c t i v i t i e s , even though the s u r f a c e i s not s t r i c t l y speaking a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the ceremony as are the knives which are c a r r i e d i n by maidens c l a d i n g o l d . Hence each group i s a s s i g n e d c o l o r s r e l a t e d both to the value of the o b j e c t s they c a r r y and to t h e i r p o s i t i o n w i t h r e l a t i o n t o the G r a i l , the maidens i n g o l d immediately p r e c e d i n g the G r a i l wearing the c o l o r which would be a s s i g n e d to the G r a i l i f i t were to be g i v e n a c o l o r : i n o t h e r G r a i l romances, where i t i s r e p r e s e n t e d as the c h a l i c e used d u r i n g the L a s t Supper and l a t e r used to c a t c h C h r i s t ' s b l o o d as he hung on the c r o s s , the G r a i l i s made out of g o l d . The c o l o r s i n the p r o c e s s i o n are v i r t u a l l y 127 an a l l e g o r y o f man's l i f e , from t h e d u s t from w h i c h he was c r e a t e d t h r o u g h h i s l i f e and i n t o h i s p e r f e c t e d s p i r i t u a l s t a t e . No c o l o r a t a l l i s a s s i g n e d t o Repanse: her e x i s t e n c e i s a t the moment e c l i p s e d by t h e a r t i c l e w h i c h she i s c a r r y i n g . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o h i n t a t human p e r f e c t i o n i n t h e s i g h t o f a r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e o f d i v i n e p e r f e c t i o n . Wolfram mentions t h e f a b r i c o f h e r d r e s s , b u t does n o t d e s c r i b e i t f u r t h e r , and t h e o n l y d e s c r i p t i o n o f Repanse h e r s e l f i s o f h e r r a d i a n t f a c e : nach den kom d i u kiinegxn. i r a n t l u t z e gap den s c h i n , s i wanden a l l e ez wolde t a g e n . ( P a r z . 235, 15-17) The image i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f Dante's v i s i o n o f t h e b l i n d i n g l i g h t o f B e a t r i c e ' s f a c e i n whose r e f l e c t i o n he views God: My eyes were f i x e d w i t h such i n t e n s i t y on q u e n c h i n g , a t l o n g l a s t , t h e i r t e n y e a r ' s t h i r s t t h a t e v e r y sense b u t s i g h t abandoned me. And as a man i s b l i n d e d by t h e l i g h t when he has l o o k e d d i r e c t l y a t t h e sun, j u s t so I found t h a t I had l o s t my s i g h t . 4 4 The G r a i l i t s e l f r e s t s upon a green c l o t h w h i c h emphasizes i t s f u n c t i o n as a l i f e f o r c e ; even Wolfram's d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e G r a i l i s couched i n metaphors o f p l a n t l i f e : u f einem gruenen achmardi t r u o c s i den wunsch von p a r d i s , bede w u r z e l n unde r i s . ( P a r z . 235, 20-22) Green i s t h e c o l o r o f t h e r e n e w a l o f p l a n t l i f e whereas t h e G r a i l can be seen as an agent o f s p i r i t u a l s e l f - r e n e w a l as w e l l as p h y s i c a l l y renewing f o r c e . Wolfram uses t h e concept o f g r e e n i n g t o i l l u s t r a t e s p i r i t u a l r e n e w a l d u r i n g P a r z i v a l ' s v i s i t w i t h T r e v r i z e n t as w e l l ( P a r z . 489, 13-19). 128 P a r z i v a l " s v i s i t w i t h T r e v r i z e n t w h i c h o c c u p i e s a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e n a r r a t i v e , h a l f w a y t h r o u g h th e books w h i c h d e a l w i t h P a r z i v a l h i m s e l f , c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s the sacrament o f Penance i n i t s f o r m a l i z e d r i t u a l i s t i c s t a t e . The v i s i t i s p r e c e d e d by P a r z i v a l ' s meeting w i t h a group o f p e n i t e n t s garbed i n rough g r e y r o b e s , b a r e f o o t i n s p i t e o f t h e c o l d weather. H i s c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h them l e a d s him t o drop th e r e i n s o f h i s h o r s e and l e t i t wander; the h o r s e l e a d s him t o T r e v r i z e n t as i f i t knew what t o do. The e n t i r e s i t u a t i o n i s d i r e c t e d by God's hand, f o r P a r z i v a l d e l i b e r a t e l y charges God w i t h t h e onus o f d i r e c t i n g t h e h o r s e : E r s p r a c h * i s t g o t e s k r a f t so f i e r daz s i b e i d i u o r s unde t i e r unt d i e l i u t mac w i s e n , s i n k r a f t w i l i'm p r i s e n . mac g o t e s k u n s t d i e h e l f e han, d i u w i s e m i r d i z k a s t e l & n dez waegest umb d i e r e i s e min: sS t u o t s i n g i i e t e h e l f e s c h i n : nu gene na*ch der g o t e s k u r . ' ( P a r z . 452, 1-9) I n h i s u n c e r t a i n t y P a r z i v a l i s a i d e d by the g r a c e o f God, t h a t same g r a c e t h a t i s a p p a r e n t i n b r i n g i n g a s i n n e r t o r e p e n t a n c e , and he i s d i r e c t e d t o a p l a c e where he can f r e e h i m s e l f o f t h e burden o f g u i l t w h i c h he has amassed s i n c e l e a v i n g S o l t a n e . P a r z i v a l ' s f i r s t words t o T r e v r i z e n t b ear a g r e a t r e -semblance t o t h e f o r m u l a u t t e r e d upon e n t e r i n g t h e c o n f e s s i o n a l , "do s p r a c h e r 'her, nu gebt m i r r a t i / i c h b i n e i n man der siinde h a t ' " ( P a r z . 456, 2 9 - 3 0 ) . 1 4 5 T h i s v e r b a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s s i n f u l s t a t e f u l f i l l s t h e f i r s t p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r f o r g i v e n e s s : P a r z i v a l has become c o n s c i o u s o f s i n and i s now s e e k i n g a i d t o change h i s c o n d i t i o n , b o t h m e n t a l s t a t e s w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f s a c r a m e n t a l c o n f e s s i o n . P a r z i v a l ' s c o n f e s s i o n o f h i s f a i l i n g s i s made t o a p e r s o n who has d e v o t e d h i s l i f e t o God and i s more q u a l i f i e d t o g i v e a d v i c e and b e t t e r s u i t e d t o s e r v e as a d e l e g a t e o f God i n t h e f o r g i v i n g o f s i n s , i n s p i t e o f h i s l a y s t a t u s . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e v i s i t , P a r z i v a l l e a r n s t h e e x t e n t o f h i s wrongdoing, i n c l u d i n g h i s o f f e n s e s a g a i n s t k i n s h i p i n t h e murder o f I t h e r and t h e c a u s i n g o f t h e d e a t h o f h i s mother, and he r e c e i v e s a d v i c e from T r e v r i z e n t t o h e l p him l i v e i n a c c o r d w i t h God's p l a n and t o change h i s l i f e . A t t h e end o f t h e v i s i t , h i s s i n s a r e r i t u a l i s t i c a l l y f o r g i v e n him by T r e v r i z e n t who o f f e r s h i m s e l f as m e d i a t o r between God and man and as s u r e t y f o r P a r z i v a l ' s change o f h e a r t : T r e v r i z e n t s i c h des bewac, e r s p r a c h ' g i p m i r dxn sunde h e r : v o r g o t e i c h b i n d i n wandels wer. und l e i s t a l s i c h d i r han g e s a g t : b e l i p des w i l l e n u n v e r z a g t . ' ( P a r z . 502, 24-28) I t i s n o t s t r i c t l y i n t h e n a t u r e o f s a c r a m e n t a l con-f e s s i o n t h a t s p e c i a l c e r e m o n i a l c l o t h i n g be worn, e x c e p t o f c o u r s e by t h e o f f i c i a t i n g p r i e s t i n i t s l a t e r forms, however c e r t a i n t y p e s o f garments a r e r e g u l a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o t h e r r i t u a l i z e d p e n i t e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s , f o r example s a c k c l o t h . P a r z i v a l i s g i v e n a garment by T r e v r i z e n t b e f o r e he i s l e d i n t o t h e cave w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s T r e v r i z e n t ' s l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e i s a n o n - l i t e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o be found i n t h i s garment because o f i t s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a f o r m a l -i z e d a c t i o n and because o f t h e o b v i o u s l y i m p o r t a n t t e m p o r a l p o s i t i o n o f the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e garment, i m m e d i a t e l y p r e -130 ceding the central events of the narrative, the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the hero with God. The Trevrizent episode i s related to the events surround-ing the G r a i l i n several ways. Parzival*s a r r i v a l at the cave i s prefaced by Wolfram's account of Kyot, Flegetanis, and a very general outline of the story of the G r a i l ; these few facts are fleshed out during the v i s i t , when Trevrizent makes known to P a r z i v a l a f u l l e r history of the G r a i l and explains the occurrences at Munsalvaesch. The ceremony, central to the understanding of the G r a i l for both the hero and the audience, i s an e s s e n t i a l one for the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , for as long as P a r z i v a l remains ignorant of the importance of the events he witnessed at Munsalvaesch he has no r e a l impetus to reconcile himself with God. P a r z i v a l arrives at Trevrizent's cave dressed i n his armor despite the holy day, freezing p h y s i c a l l y because of the cold weather and s p i r i t u a l l y because of his estrangement from God. Warmth i s one of the comforts provided him by his host, both physical warmth i n the change from his armor and a sheltered place to stay and s p i r i t u a l warmth i n the comfort of the r i t u a l of forgiveness which he ca r r i e s out. Once Pa r z i v a l has tended to his horse and enters the f i r s t of the two caves, Trevrizent o f f e r s him a cloak to replace the armor he has drawn o f f , giving him the opportunity to warm his shivering body. This cloak points out Parzival's slowly changing heart: he dons a garment belonging to Trevrizent before making his confession to him, p a r a l l e l i n g a sinner drawing on a p e n i t e n t i a l garment, even though i n t h i s case the purpose o f t h e c l o a k i s t o p r o v i d e 147 c o m f o r t , n o t t o p u n i s h t h e body. He i s c o v e r i n g h i m s e l f t o t a l l y w i t h a garment s a n c t i f i e d by i t s owner and d i v o r c i n g h i m s e l f from t h e e a r t h l y k n i g h t h o o d w h i c h he l e a v e s o f f when 14 8 he removes t h e armor. A l o n g w i t h t h e change o f h e a r t , t h e c l o a k a l s o shows the warmth o f God's l o v e f l o o d i n g i n t o P a r z i v a l ' s h e a r t and r e l e a s i n g him from t h e c o l d n e s s o f h i s h a t r e d . There i s , however, more t o t h e c l o a k t h a n t h e r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n o f t h e p e n i t e n c e accompanying P a r z i v a l ' s c o n f e s s i o n and the c o m f o r t o f t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h God. P a r z i v a l i s g i v e n t h i s garment i n t h e p r e c i s e s p o t where he e a r l i e r swore an o a t h t o O r i l u s t o c o n v i n c e him o f J e s c h u t e ' s i n n o c e n c e . Where he had once h i m s e l f e x e r c i s e d c h a r i t y f o r t h e sake o f O r i l u s and J e s c h u t e he i s now t r e a t e d w i t h c h a r i t y by T r e v r i z e n t . Where he a c t e d as m e d i a t o r between man and w i f e he meets one who can a c t as m e d i a t o r between God and man. The r e t u r n t o t h i s h o l y p l a c e i s s i g n i f i c a n t o f the f o r g i v e n e s s o f h i s p a s t 149 k n i g h t l y o f f e n s e s as w e l l as h i s s p i r i t u a l wrongs. He had here atoned f o r h i s wrong t o J e s c h u t e and atte m p t e d t o s e t t h e s i t u a t i o n r i g h t a g a i n , b u t t h a t a c t c o u l d n o t e r a s e t h e memory o f t h e months she s u f f e r e d because o f h i s s t u p i d i t y . R e t u r n i n g t o t h i s s p o t , g u i d e d by t h e g r a c e o f God, i s a r e p e t i t i o n o f the f i r s t a c t o f e x p i a t i o n . P a r z i v a l ' s f i r s t k n i g h t l y o f f e n s e a f t e r l e a v i n g home was committed a g a i n s t J e s c h u t e : t h i s has been s e t r i g h t , as have many o t h e r o f f e n s e s , y e t t h e r e i s a 132 f i n a l f o r g i v e n e s s n e c e s s a r y , b o t h f o r t h o s e wrongs o f w h i c h he had remained i g n o r a n t as w e l l as f o r t h o s e wrongs f o r w h i c h he had r e f u s e d t o acknowledge g u i l t . N e c e s s a r y i s P a r z i v a l ' s own c o n f e s s i o n and h i s a b i l i t y t o f o r g i v e h i m s e l f . The f a c t t h a t i t i s a c l o a k T r e v r i z e n t o f f e r s P a r z i v a l i s n o t u n u s u a l i n l i g h t o f t h e c o l d and T r e v r i z e n t ' s l i v i n g con-d i t i o n , y e t comparison o f t h e o t h e r t i m e s P a r z i v a l i s g i v e n a c l o a k t o t h i s e v e n t i n d i c a t e s t h e r e i s a n o n - l i t e r a l s i g n i f i -cance i n T r e v r i z e n t 1 s a c t . Of t h e f o u r c l o a k s p r e s e n t e d P a r z i v a l i n t h e n a r r a t i v e , two a r e g i v e n i n t h e w o r l d o f k n i g h t l y deeds, one by Gurnemanz and one by Condwiramurs, and two a r e p r e s e n t e d him by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y , one a t M u nsalvaesch by Repanse, and one by T r e v r i z e n t . T r e v r i z e n t ' s c l o a k i s a l s o g i v e n c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f Repanse's w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h e r e might be an i m p o r t a n t c o n n e c t i o n between the two. The second o f f e r i n g o f a c l o a k w i t h i n t h e s p i r i t u a l o r G r a i l w o r l d , by r e p e a t i n g an e a r l i e r a c t , i s i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e f a c t t h a t P a r z i v a l w i l l be g i v e n a second chance. Wolfram has a l r e a d y made a b r o a d h i n t o f t h i s j u s t b e f o r e P a r z i v a l f i n d s T r e v r i z e n t : h a t e r Munsalvaesche s i t gesehen, unt den s i i e z e n A n f o r t a s , des h e r z e do v i i s i u f z e c was? d u r c h i w e r g i i e t e gebt uns t r S s t , op der von jamer s i e r l & s t . ( P a r z . 433, 24-28) A t t h e same time as he warms h i s body i n T r e v r i z e n t ' s c l o a k and h i s s o u l i n God's l o v e , P a r z i v a l c o p i e s t h e e a r l i e r a c t s 133 t h a t marked him o u t as G r a i l k i n g w i t h o u t h i s knowing. T h i s c l o a k he does n o t don f o r p r a i s e ( P a r z . 228, 12) b u t i n a l l t h e h u m i l i t y o f h i s need and i n t h e s t a t e o f mind t h a t makes him worthy o f a n o t h e r chance. Thus i n a d d i t i o n t o f o r e s h a d o w i n g an u l t i m a t e s u c c e s s a t Mu n s a l v a e s c h , T r e v r i z e n t ' s c l o a k demonstrates t h e v a l u e o f c o n f e s s i o n : p a s t s i n s a r e f o r g i v e n and t h e f u t u r e i s g i v e n as an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r improvement. There a r e f o r m a l i z e d a s p e c t s i n Gahmuret's meetings w i t h b o t h o f h i s w i v e s , b o t h b e g i n n i n g w i t h a p a r a d e - l i k e e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e c i t y and a f o r m a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f hero t o queen. There a r e , however, s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n Gahmuret's appearance as he makes h i m s e l f known t o each woman. The o n l y p a r t o f Gahmuret's o u t f i t t h a t i s s t r e s s e d d u r i n g h i s e n t r a n c e t o Pat e l a m u n t and h i s l a t e r m e e t i n g w i t h i t s queen i s h i s c o a t o f arms: as Gahmuret r i d e s i n t o t h e c i t y , o n l y h i s s h i e l d i s mentioned on w h i c h t h e shape o f an anchor i s a t t a c h e d . When he meets B e l a k a n e , h i s c l o t h i n g i s d e s c r i b e d m e r e l y as t i w e r and r i c h ( P a r z . 23, 1; 23, 3 ) . The major i m p r e s s i o n Gahmuret makes on t h e r e a d e r who can "view" him o n l y t h r o u g h Wolfram's d e s c r i p t i o n s i s t h a t f e a t u r e emphasized by h i s c o a t o f arms: Gahmuret w i l l n o t s e t t l e down. I t comes as no s u r p r i s e t h a t he s t e a l s away from h i s w i f e as soon as he becomes b o r e d : t h e l i f e he l e a d s i s no s e c r e t . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n , Gahmuret p r e s e n t s a h i g h l y s e n s u a l p i c t u r e as he r i d e s i n t o K a n v o l e i s . H i s b o o t s a r e drawn onto b a r e l e g s and he i s s i t t i n g on h i s h o r s e i n a 134 s t u d i e d , c a s u a l f a s h i o n , o n e l e g s t r e t c h e d o u t a h e a d r e s t i n g o n t h e h o r s e ' s n e c k . H i s m o u t h i s r e d , s o r e d t h a t i t seems t o b e b u r n i n g . He w e a r s a g r e e n c l o a k a n d a w h i t e s h i r t . T h e r e i s n o m e n t i o n o f t h e a n c h o r . T h e o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n i s o n e o f a s e n s u a l , p h y s i c a l m a n , h i s s e n s u a l a s p e c t s h e i g h t e n e d b y W o l f r a m ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s p o s i t i o n , t h e b a r e l e g s , o n e t h r o w n c a r e l e s s l y o n t h e n e c k o f t h e h o r s e , n o t p r o p e r l y s e t i n a s t i r -r u p . H i s r e d m o u t h i s t h e b u r n i n g m o u t h o f a l o v e r . W o l f r a m ' s m e n t i o n o f h i s w h i t e s h i r t , h o w e v e r , r e l a t e s t h i s s c e n e t o G a h m u r e t ' s d e a t h . I n c o m b a t h e h a d b e g u n t o w e a r a w h i t e s h i f t b e l o n g i n g t o H e r z e l o y d e o v e r h i s a r m o r , a n d i t i s a b l o o d y , t a t t e r e d w h i t e s h i f t t h a t i s b r o u g h t b a c k t o b e b u r i e d . G a h m u r e t l e a v e s H e r z e l o y d e n o t f r o m b o r e d o m ( t h a t i s , t h e a n c h o r ) b u t b e c a u s e o f d e a t h ( t h e w h i t e s h i r t ) . G a h m u r e t ' s c h a n g i n g i m a g e a c c o m p a n i e s h i s c h a n g i n g a n d i n c r e a s i n g g o o d f o r t u n e a n d s u c c e s s , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h women. When h e a r r i v e s a t P a t e l a m u n t h e h a s a l r e a d y d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i m s e l f i n f i g h t i n g , t o b e s u r e , b u t when h e a r r i v e s a t K a n v o l e i s h e h a s a l r e a d y g a i n e d f a m e , a q u e e n , a n d two c r o w n s . B e c a u s e C u n d r i e ' s m i s s i o n s a r e s p e c i a l h e r b i z a r r e c o s t u m e f u n c t i o n s a s c e r e m o n i a l g a r b f o r h e r . H e r c l o a k o n h e r f i r s t v i s i t t o A r t h u r ' s e n c a m p m e n t i s made o f b l u e f a b r i c , 151 a n u n u s u a l c o l o r i n P a r z i v a l ; b l u e g e n e r a l l y s i g n i f i e s t r i u w e a n d d e v o t i o n w h i c h C u n d r i e c e r t a i n l y d e m o n s t r a t e s , b u t i t i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d a h e a v e n l y c o l o r , t h e c o l o r o f t h e s k y , a n d a s s u c h i s n o t u n s u i t e d t o a member o f t h e G r a i l c o m p a n y . 135 Her h a t i s l i n e d i n g o l d e n c l o t h ( b l i a l t ) , t h e same c l o t h t h a t appears a l s o i n t h e G r a i l ceremony ( P a r z . 235, 10) and nowhere e l s e i n t h e n a r r a t i v e , and i t i s trimmed w i t h peacock f e a t h e r s . A n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r who wears peacock f e a t h e r s i s 152 A m f o r t a s , a l s o a member o f t h e G r a i l community. Wolfram's i r o n y i s p r e s e n t i n b o t h i n s t a n c e s : A m f o r t a s ' use o f t h i s symbol o f i m m o r t a l i t y and beauty i s m e r e l y a b i t t e r r e m i n d e r o f h i s c o n s t a n t agony; C u n d r i e 1 s use o f t h e f e a t h e r s i s a n o t h e r way i n w h i c h Wolfram pokes f u n a t h e r u g l i n e s s , a l l t h e w h i l e e m p h a s i z i n g t h e beauty o f h e r c h a r a c t e r . Wolfram a c c o m p l i s h e s two t h i n g s by p r e s e n t i n g C u n d r i e i n t h i s f a s h i o n : he p o i n t s o u t h e r v a l u e b o t h by s t r e s s i n g h e r own v i r t u e and by l i n k i n g h e r t o t h e G r a i l company, and he p r e s e n t s t h e Round T a b l e w i t h a w a r n i n g a g a i n s t f u r t h e r a c c e p t a n c e o f s i t u a t i o n s a t f a c e v a l u e , a p o i n t C u n d r i e even p u t s i n t o words. A r t h u r has a c c e p t e d P a r z i v a l on the b a s i s o f h i s p h y s i c a l beauty and h i s k n i g h t l y s k i l l w i t h o u t b o t h e r i n g t o probe deeper i n t o h i s s u i t a b i l i t y . C u n d r i e ' s second m i s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g P a r z i v a l f i n d s h e r d r e s s e d d i f f e r e n t l y . The emblem o f t h e G r a i l company i s d i s -p l a y e d upon h e r c l o t h i n g , a l t h o u g h i t d i d n o t appear d u r i n g her f i r s t m i s s i o n . The g o l d e n doves a g a i n s t a b l a c k background emphasize C u n d r i e ' s d e v o t i o n t o t h e g r e a t e r e n t i t y she r e p r e s e n t s . More i m p o r t a n t l y , she i s v e i l e d t h i s t i m e , her h i d e o u s countenance c o m p l e t e l y h i d d e n . Wolfram s u g g e s t s t h a t she wears h e r h a t f o r t h e sake o f compliments, s i n c e she c e r t a i n -136 l y h a s n o n e e d o f a s u n s c r e e n : /v. wan d a z s i t r u o c g e i n p r i s e m u o t , s i f u o r t e a n n S t d e n t i u r e n h u o t u*f dem P l i m i z o e l e s p l a n : d i u s u n n e h e t i r n i h t g e t a n . ( P a r z . 7 8 0 , 2 3 - 2 6 ) T h e v e i l i n g i s i m p o r t a n t t o h e r m i s s i o n t h i s t i m e . S h e comes 153 n o t " u n e r b i t t l i c h w i e d i e g r i e c h i s c h e n E u m e n i d e n " b u t t o b r i n g h i m a j o y o u s m e s s a g e . A s k i n g h i s f o r g i v e n e s s i n h e r own f i g u r e c o u l d n o t b u t r e m i n d P a r z i v a l o f h e r e a r l i e r v i s i t a n d o f h i s own c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f g u i l t a n d t h e p a i n o f t h e d i s g r a c e , w i t h w h i c h h e h a d l i v e d t o o l o n g . T h e r e m a i n i n g " c e r e m o n i e s " i n P a r z i v a l a r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h F e i r e f i z a n d o c c u r i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f A r t h u r ' s e n c a m p m e n t a n d a t M u n s a l v a e s c h . T h e f i r s t o f t h e s e i s t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e r e -u n i o n o f t h e two h a l f - b r o t h e r s w h i c h i s c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e i r r e c e p t i o n b y G a w a i n a n d t h e i r j o u r n e y t o M u n s a l v a e s c h , i n c l u d i n g t h e r e c e p t i o n t h e r e . T h e s e c o n d i s t h e b a p t i s m o f F e i r e f i z a t M u n s a l v a e s c h . P a r z i v a l ' s r e u n i o n w i t h h i s b r o t h e r b e g i n s w i t h t h e i r b a t t l e a s u n k n o w n a s s a i l a n t s , l e a d i n g t o t h e i r u l t i m a t e r e c o g -n i t i o n o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p , a n d i t i s i n t e r r u p t e d b y t h e a r r i v a l o f C u n d r i e a t A r t h u r ' s camp b e a r i n g news much h a p p i e r t h a n was b r o u g h t d u r i n g h e r f i r s t v i s i t . A s t h e b r o t h e r s r i d e i n t o c a m p , a f t e r h a v i n g i d e n t i f i e d t h e m s e l v e s t o e a c h o t h e r , t h e y d o n o t s t o p f i r s t a t A r t h u r ' s t e n t , b u t r i d e s t r a i g h t t o G a w a i n ' s p a r t o f t h e camp f o r t h e i r r e c e p t i o n . D e s p i t e t h e h a p p i n e s s o f h i s r e u n i o n w i t h F e i r e f i z , P a r z i v a l f e e l s i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e g e n e r a l l y h a p p y a t m o s p h e r e , a f e e l i n g t h a t 137 made h i m r i d e o u t a l o n e e a r l i e r . He c a n a t l e a s t b e c e r t a i n o f t h e r e c e p t i o n t h a t h e w i l l f i n d a t G a w a i n ' s t e n t . H i s a c t i o n p l a c e s A r t h u r i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t a k i n g h i s r e t i n u e t o P a r z i v a l t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e m e r r y m a k i n g , a c c o r d i n g h i m a g r e a t d e a l o f r e s p e c t a n d e m p h a s i z i n g t h e f a c t t h a t P a r z i v a l h a s i n d e e d b e e n f o r g i v e n h i s w o r l d l y w r o n g s b y t h e k i n g a n d i s w h o l e h e a r t -e d l y a c c e p t e d i n t o t h e A r t h u r i a n c i r c l e . I t i s c e r t a i n l y f i t t i n g , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p o s i t i o n P a r z i v a l i s a b o u t t o t a k e u p . A r t h u r ' s a r r i v a l a l s o i n d i c a t e s r e s p e c t f o r F e i r e f i z , a k i n g i n h i s own r i g h t , w h o s e w e a l t h a s t o n i s h e s e v e n A r t h u r ' s c o u r t . W o l f r a m d e s c r i b e s F e i r e f i z ' s u m p t u o u s c l o t h i n g i n g r e a t d e t a i l , d e s c r i p t i o n s w h i c h a r e c e r t a i n l y m e a n t t o h e l p t h e a u d i e n c e v i s u a l i z e t h e w e a l t h a n d m a g n i f i c e n c e o f t h i s k i n g . I t a l s o c o n t r a s t s w i t h P a r z i v a l ' s c l o t h i n g a n d i l l u s t r a t e s t h e v e r y d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s o f t h e s e t w o , d e s p i t e t h e i r k i n s h i p . F e i r e f i z i s s u r r o u n d e d b y l u x u r y , c o n t e n t i n h i s p o s i t i o n . He i s m a r r i e d , t h o u g h h e d o e s n o t y e a r n f o r S e c u n d i l l e a n d i s w i l l i n g t o d i s a s s o c i a t e h i m s e l f f r o m h e r c o m p l e t e l y f o r t h e s a k e o f R e p a n s e . P a r z i v a l , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s s t i l l a t t i r e d i n h i s b a t t l e - s c a r r e d r e d a r m o r . He i s o p p r e s s e d b y h i s m i s e r y , b o t h f o r t h e G r a i l a n d f o r h i s w i f e . D u r i n g t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e r e u n i o n a t G a w a i n ' s t e n t , b o t h b r o t h e r s a r e g i v e n g i f t s o f c l o t h i n g b y G a w a i n , h e r e a 154 s i g n o f h i s h o s p i t a l i t y . L a t e r , a f t e r C u n d r i e ' s a n n o u n c e -m e n t , b o t h b r o t h e r s t r a v e l t o t h e G r a i l c a s t l e w h e r e , u p o n t h e i r a r r i v a l , t h e y a r e g i v e n i d e n t i c a l c l o t h i n g : 138 e i n kameraer "dar naher g i e n c : der b r a n t i n k l e i d e r r i c h e , den beiden a l g e l i c h e . (Parz. 794, 18-20) Th i s i s an odd touch. The c a s t l e i s o b v i o u s l y a w a i t i n g P a r z i v a l * s a r r i v a l i n eager a n t i c i p a t i o n because of the mes-sage which has appeared on the G r a i l , and one expects t h e i r g r e e t i n g o f t h e i r new k i n g t o show r e s p e c t and i n d i c a t e h i s s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n . Instead, P a r z i v a l i s gr e e t e d i n e x a c t l y the same manner as the heathen s t r a n g e r who accompanies him. He i s not s i n g l e d out by r i c h e r garments; P a r z i v a l was shown g r e a t e r r e s p e c t on h i s f i r s t v i s i t t o the c a s t l e . There are s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s treatment. P a r z i v a l and F e i r e f i z are, a f t e r a l l , h a l f - b r o t h e r s , e x h i b i t i n g the same h e r i t a g e as f a r as t h e i r k n i g h t l y s k i l l s are concerned. Though P a r z i v a l i s more important i n the eyes of C h r i s t i a n lands because of h i s h e r i t a g e from the G r a i l l i n e and h i s C h r i s . t i a n r e l i g i o n , F e i r e f i z i s h i s o l d e r b r o t h e r i n an e r a when age had p r i v i l e g e s , and both are t h e r e f o r e worthy of g r e a t 155 r e s p e c t and deserve equal treatment. I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t the i n h a b i t a n t s of the G r a i l c a s t l e i n t e n d to show F e i r e f i z the honor b e f i t t i n g h i s r o y a l t y , even i f i t does stem from heathen lands, and they express i n t h e i r h o s p i t a l i t y a consciousness o f h i s p o s i t i o n . In a b e l i e f t h a t a l l men are a l i k e i n the eyes of God they g r e e t a l l men—even t h e i r k i n g — i n the same f a s h i o n . F e i r e f i z w i l l be important i n the G r a i l c i r c l e , marrying i n t o i t through Repanse and c a r r y i n g God's message to f a r - o f f l a n d s . I t i s c e r t a i n l y t r u e , though, t h a t t h i s r e c e p t i o n i s meant to be compared to P a r z i v a l ' s f i r s t r e c e p t i o n a t Munsalvaesch. T h i s time t h e r e i s no c e r e m o n i a l c l o a k , f o r t h e r e i s t o be no r e p e t i t i o n o f the ceremony and no w a i t i n g f o r P a r z i v a l t o f u l f i l l h i s p a r t i n i t . Not even Am f o r t a s r e t a i n s any hope o f b e i n g h e a l e d by P a r z i v a l : i r s c h i e t nu j u n g e s t von m i r s o , p f l e g t i r h e l f l i c h e r t r i u w e , man s i h t i u c h drumbe i n r i u w e . wurde i e p r i s von i u g e s a g t , h i e s i r i t e r oder magt, werbet m i r da z i n den t o t und la*t s i c h enden mine n o t . ( P a r z . 795, 4-10) The f a c t t h a t P a r z i v a l , and Am f o r t a s as w e l l , w i l l be g i v e n a n o t h e r chance seems unknown t o a l l a t t h e c a s t l e d e s p i t e t h e message w r i t t e n on t h e G r a i l . H i s r e c e p t i o n a l m o s t b e l i e s C u n d r i e ' s announcement. And y e t P a r z i v a l had once b e f o r e been g r e e t e d w i t h g r e a t e x p e c t a t i o n s and had f a i l e d t h e G r a i l company m i s e r a b l y . Most i m p o r t a n t , however, i s t h e f a c t t h a t a l t h o u g h he has been named k i n g by t h e w r i t i n g on t h e G r a i l , he has y e t t o prove h i m s e l f , and thus has y e t t o be f o r m a l l y chosen by t h e company. T h i s " e l e c t i o n " t a k e s p l a c e a f t e r he h e a l s A m f o r t a s : da e r g i e n c do d e h e i n ander w a l , wan d i e d i u s c h r i f t ame g r a l h e t e ze he\rren i n benant: P a r z i v a l w a r t s c h i e r e bekant ze k i i n i g e u n t ze h e r r e n da. ( P a r z . 796, 17-21) I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e a l r e a s o n P a r z i v a l i s n o t g r e e t e d by the company a t Munsalvaesch as a k i n g i s t h a t he i s n o t y e t one. The f e s t i v i t i e s o f h i s a t t a i n i n g k i n g s h i p o f t h e G r a i l resemble t h o s e o f e a r t h l y k i n g s h i p : P a r z i v a l i s g r e e t e d by h i s v a s s a l s , and t h e t e m p l a r s who a t t e n d remove t h e b u l k o f 140 t h e i r armor i n honor o f t h e day. The G r a i l company, i n s p i t e o f i t s n e c e s s a r y e a r t h l y t r a p p i n g s , i s s t i l l a s p i r i t u a l com-m u n i t y , and armor, t h e s i g n o f e a r t h l y k n i g h t h o o d , i s n o t a c c e p t a b l e as a c e r e m o n i a l d r e s s f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r ceremony. The b a p t i s m o f F e i r e f i z a t Munsalvaesch i s one o f t h e few t r u l y s a c r a m e n t a l ceremonies w h i c h o c c u r i n t h e c o u r s e o f 156 t h e n a r r a t i v e . B a p t i s m i s o r d i n a r i l y p erformed by a p r i e s t who pours w a t e r on t h e head o f the p e r s o n about t o be b a p t i z e d o r immerses him i n w a t e r and speaks a v e r b a l f o r m u l a 157 w h i l e d o i n g so. The a c t i s a s y m b o l i c c l e a n s i n g o f t h e s o u l , t a k e n from the a c t u a l p h y s i c a l f u n c t i o n o f w a t e r i n t h e c l e a n s i n g o f t h e body. Any a t t e n d a n t a c t i o n s o r p r e p a r a t i o n a n o t i m p o r t a n t and have n o t h i n g t o do w i t h the e f f i c a c y o f t h e sacrament, b u t from the e a r l y days o f t h e Church i t became customary t o wear s p e c i a l c l o t h i n g t o s i g n i f y t h e importance o f t h e event t a k i n g p l a c e ; t h i s c l o t h i n g was n o r m a l l y a w h i t e garment w h i c h would show the c o n d i t i o n o f t h e newly b a p t i z e d 158 s o u l , c l e a n s e d o f f a u l t s . Such a garment i s p u t onto F e i r e f i z a f t e r h i s b a p t i s m as a s i g n o f h i s changed c o n d i t i o n . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , Wolfram i s b o r r o w i n g d i r e c t l y from Church; custom and making use o f a t r a d i t i o n f a m i l i a r t o h i s audi e n c e and a l l i t s s y m b o l i c c o n n o t a t i o n s . One r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e o f t h i s b a p t i s m i s t h e p r e s e n c e o f an aged p r i e s t who performs t h e sacrament and p r o -v i d e s F e i r e f i z w i t h c o u n s e l i n g about t h e e f f e c t s o f w a t e r and i n s t r u c t i o n i n some a s p e c t s o f h i s new f a i t h . Once a g a i n a g r e y o l d man i s p l a c e d i n the p o s i t i o n o f g i v i n g a d v i c e and i n s t r u c t i o n , X D 3 and t h e r e a r e s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h i s c e r e -mony and P a r z i v a l * s v i s i t w i t h Gurnemanz and h i s e n c o u n t e r w i t h K a h e n i s , b o t h o f w h i c h were c o n n e c t e d w i t h some a r t i c l e o f c l o t h i n g as f a r as P a r z i v a l i s concerned. The a d v i c e P a r z i v a l r e c e i v e s from b o t h t h e s e o l d men i s d i r e c t e d towards making h i s c l o t h i n g appear c o r r e c t f o r h i s s t a t i o n i n l i f e , t h e f i r s t t i m e c o n c e r n i n g h i s k n i g h t h o o d , t h e second time c o n c e r n i n g the f u l f i l l m e n t o f an e t h i c a l i m p e r a t i v e . The b a p t i s m a l garment p l a c e d on F e i r e f i z i s s i g n i f i c a n t o f h i s new C h r i s t i a n s t a t u s and i n d i c a t e s t h e d i r e c t i o n h i s l i f e must f o l l o w from t h i s t i me f o r w a r d , making th e c o n t i n u e d p u r i t y o f h i s s o u l a g o a l i n much the same way t h a t P a r z i v a l ' s a d o p t i o n o f c o r r e c t k n i g h t l y c l o t h i n g and p r o p e r observance o f armor r e s t r i c t i o n s was made h i s c o n c e r n by t h e a d v i c e he r e c e i v e d from Gurnemanz and K a h e n i s . CHAPTER FOUR DAILY CLOTHING Wolfram i s h a r d l y l a v i s h w i t h h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f normal e v e n t s . M a r g a r e t R i c h e y p o i n t s o u t t h a t " h i s way i s t o s i n g l e o u t t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s and l e t them speak f o r t h e 160 r e s t . " He i s more f o n d o f u s i n g an o l d n a r r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e whereby he " d e s c r i b e s " by d e p i c t i n g t h e e f f e c t one t h i n g has on i t s v i e w e r s . "^ "^  He t a k e s g r e a t d e l i g h t , however, i n f o c u s -i n g upon t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y : C u n d r i e ' s physiognomy, f o r example, and the G r a i l p r o c e s s i o n . T h i s t e c h n i q u e i s q u i t e a p p a rent i n Wolfram's use o f d a i l y c l o t h i n g i n P a r z i v a l . There i s v e r y l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n c l a s s among t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n the n a r r a t i v e , and even d i f f e r e n c e s i n rank a r e r e l a t i v e l y unim-p o r t a n t . D e s c r i p t i o n s o f d a i l y c l o t h i n g seldom f u n c t i o n f o r the sake o f i n d i c a t i n g c l a s s o r r a n k , and t h e n o n - l i t e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f such c l o t h i n g a l m o s t always, e x i s t s on a v e r y s i m p l e l e v e l . Where i t o c c u r s , i t a r i s e s from two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s i t u a t i o n s : t h o s e i n wh i c h c l o t h i n g s u i t s t h e s i t u -a t i o n and i s used f o r some purpose w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f i t s normal f u n c t i o n , and t h o s e i n w h i c h c l o t h i n g does n o t a t a l l s u i t t h e s i t u a t i o n and i s used t o p r e s e n t d e l i b e r a t e i n c o n -g r u i t i e s . The one c e r t a i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e c l o t h i n g worn by r o y a l t y i s t h e crown w h i c h i n d i c a t e s s o v e r e i g n t y . I t s 142 143 s y m b o l i c v a l u e has been i n t e n s i f i e d by t h e m e t a p h o r i c use o f the word. R u l e o f a l a n d i s f r e q u e n t l y spoken o f i n terms o f 162 w e a r i n g a crown. H e r z e l o y d e uses t h i s image when she t e l l s P a r z i v a l t h a t he i s supposed t o be t h e r u l e r o f t h e l a n d s t a k e n by L a h e l i n ( P a r z . 140, 29-141, 1 ) . Respect f o r a k i n g and t h e r u l e he r e p r e s e n t s i s spoken o f i n terms o f r e s p e c t 163 f o r h i s crown ( P a r z . 415, 21-22). I n a d d i t i o n , t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e crown i s used as an e x p r e s s i o n o f c e r t a i n s p i r i t u a l c o n d i t i o n s : Sigune speaks o f P a r z i v a l ' s a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e G r a i l k i n g s h i p as t h e w e a r i n g o f a "crown o f b l i s s " ( P a r z . 254, 20-30) the v i r t u e o f scham i s d e s c r i b e d as der s e l e krone ( P a r z . 319, 10); and Obie i n s i s t s t h a t her v r i h e i t i s a crown s u b l i m e enough f o r h e r . P a r z i v a l ' s f i r s t m e e t i n g w i t h A m f o r t a s shows th e F i s h e r K i n g f i s h i n g , and though he i s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a s p o r t , h i s c l o t h i n g , Wolfram s a y s , i s s u c h , "daz ez n i h t b e z z e r mohte s i n " ( P a r z . 225, 1 1 ) . Q u a l i t y o f c l o t h i n g i s an outward s i g n o f r o y a l t y , and A m f o r t a s b e a r s t h e appearance o f a k i n g , a l -though t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y a r e l a t i v e method o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . I n s t e a d o f a crown, h a r d l y s u i t a b l e headgear f o r a f i s h i n g e x p e d i t i o n , A m f o r t a s wears a h a t trimmed w i t h peacock f e a t h e r s . ^ These f e a t h e r s , because o f t h e i r g r e a t beauty and t h e i r v a r i e t y o f c o l o r s , c a m e t o r e p r e s e n t t h e c o n c e p t o f u n i t y d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages and s y m b o l i z e d i m m o r t a l i t y , a s t a t e o f u t t e r harmony and u n i t y w i t h s u p e r n a t u r a l power. They were a l s o v i ewed as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e t e r n a l l i f e i n a l l i t s g l o r y , 144 t h e t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e s o u l i n t o a t h i n g o f b e auty. The " i m m o r t a l " f e a t u r e s o f t h e peacock's f l e s h were a l s o s t r e s s e d , " A u g u s t i n u s s p r i c h t , daz des t S t e n pfawen f l a i s c h a i n ganzez j a r f r i s c h b e l e i b und n i h t v a u l , a l s e r s p r i c h t i n dem puoch von der s t a t g o t e s . e r s p r i c h t auch, daz des pfawen f l a i s c h nummer v a u l werd" (Buch d e r N a t u r I I I B, 5 7 ) . There i s c e r t a i n l y an element o f b i t t e r i r o n y i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h i s s i g n o f i m m o r t a l i t y and e t e r n a l l i f e upon the c l o t h i n g o f t h e F i s h e r K i n g , however, f o r i n t h e agony o f h i s wound, Amf o r t a s begs f o r d e a t h and i s k e p t a l i v e by t h e G r a i l and t h e p e o p l e who w i l l n o t a l l o w him t o d i e . He e x i s t s i n a s t a t e o f unhappy i m m o r t a l i t y as l o n g as he i s k e p t i n the p r e s e n c e o f t h e G r a i l , b u t he e x p e r i e n c e s none o f t h e g l o r y o f e t e r n a l l i f e , o n l y t h e e t e r n a l agony o f h i s i n j u r y . A m f o r t a s wears f u r s a t M unsalvaesch t o h e l p a l l e v i a t e t h e c o l d o f h i s i l l n e s s , and t h e f u r s s e r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e h i s r o y a l t y : f u r s were v a l u a b l e i t e m s d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages, and Wolfram remarks t h a t even the p o o r e s t o f t h e s e was worthy o f p r a i s e . The f u r s s e r v e as a c o n s t a n t reminder o f t h e i l l n e s s o f t h e k i n g and h i s need f o r t h e i r warmth, and t h e members o f t h e G r a i l company ar e t h e r e b y reminded o f t h e s u f f e r i n g meted ou t by God. T h i s i s one o f t h e few i n s t a n c e s i n P a r z i v a l where f u r s a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned f o r t h e i r warmth and n o t a t a l l f o r t h e i r d e c o r a t i v e f u n c t i o n . Condwiramurs' w h i t e hemde appears on two o c c a s i o n s : she wears a w h i t e s h i f t when she goes t o P a r z i v a l t o beg h i s a i d i n 145 f r e e i n g h e r c i t y from s i e g e : - . A A an i r was w e r l i c h i u wat, e i n hemde w i z s i d i n : waz mohte k a m p f l x c h e r s i n , dan g e i n dem man sus komende e i n wip? ( P a r z . . 1 9 2 , 14-17) Henry K r a t z sees a pun i n t h e s e words, "The d o u b l e - e n t e n d r e i s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t words meaning ' f i g h t ' have c o n n o t a t i o n s i n t h e e r o t i c s p h e r e , sex r e l a t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y b e i n g p i c t u r e d as a k i n d o f b a t t l e . " W h e r e a s Condwiramurs' costume i s kampf-lxcher i n an extended e r o t i c sense, i t i s a l s o w e r l i c h i u wat, a 167 " p r o t e c t i o n " a g a i n s t t h a t w h i c h i t seems t o i n v i t e . There i s i r o n y t o be found i n Wolfram's use o f t h i s garment f o r t h e queen: on one hand i t s u g g e s t s a l l t h e e r o t i c o v e r t o n e s o f s l i p p i n g away i n n i g h t c l o t h e s t o a man's bed, on the o t h e r hand th e r e a d e r i s f a c e d w i t h t h e r e a l i t y o f Condwiramurs' w h o l l y i n n o c e n t i n t e n t i o n s w h i c h r e n d e r t h e e r o t i c t o u c h a l m o s t p a t h e t i c , e s p e c i a l l y i n l i g h t o f t h e problems con-f r o n t i n g h e r c i t y . A s i m i l a r d o u b l e f u n c t i o n o f t h i s same t y p e o f garment i s p r e s e n t i n t h e two meetings w i t h J e s c h u t e . When P a r z i v a l i n v a d e s h e r t e n t she i s s l e e p i n g i n h e r hemde; O r i l u s r e f u s e s t o a l l o w h e r a change o f c l o t h i n g , so t h e second time P a r z i v a l meets h e r she i s w e a r i n g t h e same garment, much the worse f o r wear. O r i l u s i s p u n i s h i n g her " i n f i d e l i t y " by making h e r wear the garment i n w h i c h she committed i t , b u t she i s c o m p l e t e l y i n n o c e n t . R a t h e r t h a n an e v e r - p r e s e n t r e m i n d e r o f s i n , J e s c h u t e ' s hemde i s a c o n s t a n t p r o c l a m a t i o n o f h e r i n n o c e n c e . 146 P a r z i v a l ' s r e u n i o n w i t h Condwiramurs f i n d s h e r a g a i n w e a r i n g a w h i t e s h i f t . I n one sense t h e t a l e has come f u l l c i r c l e , and t h e u n i o n w h i c h began i n P a r z i v a l ' s bed i s t a k e n up once more i n Condwiramurs'. White i s t h e c o l o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Condwiramurs by Wolfram i n t h e two scenes i n v o l v i n g h e r hemde, and i t i s a l s o a s i g n o f h i s w i f e f o r P a r z i v a l . The s u g g e s t i o n o f t h e c o l o r o f newly f a l l e n snow, a c o l o r w h i c h makes P a r z i v a l t h i n k o f t h e c o l o r o f h i s w i f e ' s s k i n , i s so p o w e r f u l t h a t P a r z i v a l f a l l s i n t o a t r a n c e when he o b s e r v e s i t marked w i t h b l o o d , the c o l o r o f h e r l i p s ( P a r z . 283, 8 f f . ) . The snow/blood i s h e r s c h i n , h e r image, however l a c k i n g i n sub-s t a n c e . L a d i e s d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages adopted s p e c i a l c l o t h i n g f o r t r a v e l s i n c e t h e i r u s u a l s t y l e o f d r e s s was f a r t o o uncom-f o r t a b l e and cumbersome f o r t h e r i g o r s o f horseback o r any o t h e r t y p e o f a v a i l a b l e conveyance. Wolfram mentions Cond-wiramurs w e a r i n g a r e i s e g e w a n t ( P a r z . 807, 27) on t h e way t o Munsalvaesch a f t e r h e r r e u n i o n w i t h P a r z i v a l , removing i t when they have a r r i v e d a t t h e c a s t l e . A l t h o u g h t h i s i s t h e l o g i c a l t h i n g t o do, t h e mention o f t h e d r e s s i s a n i c e t o u c h w h i c h reminds t h e r e a d e r t h a t b o t h she and P a r z i v a l , who have been i n t r a n s i t f o r so l o n g , a r e f i n a l l y " a t home" and have r e a c h e d t h e d e s t i n a t i o n towards w h i c h they have been t r a v e l i n g ; t h ey have f u l f i l l e d t h e i r j o i n t d e s t i n y a t l a s t and have p u t an end t o the f l u x w h i c h marked t h e i r l i v e s from t h e s t a r t . S i gune i s not the o n l y c h a r a c t e r i n the n a r r a t i v e t o wear p e n i t e n t i a l c l o t h i n g ; K a henis and h i s f a m i l y , t h e p e n i t e n t s 147 P a r z i v a l meets on Good F r i d a y , a r e a l l d r e s s e d i n rough g r e y c l o t h i n g i n response t o t h e s o r r o w f u l day: im w i d e r g i e n c e i n riter a l t , des g a r t a l gra* was ge v a r , da b i s i n v e l l i e h t unde c l a r : d i e s e l b e n varwe t r u o c s i n wip; d i u be^diu uber blSzen lip truogen^grawe r o c k e h e r t e uf i r b i h t e v e r t e . ( P a r z . 446,. 10-16) Kah e n i s e s p e c i a l l y e x h i b i t s a v e r y g r e y e x t e r i o r w i t h h i s g r e y b e a r d and c l o a k , and Wolfram s t r e s s e s t h e c o l o r , r e f e r r i n g t o him seven t i m e s as d e r grawe man o r a v a r i a n t t h e r e o f even 16 8 b e f o r e h i s name i s mentioned. Once a g a i n P a r z i v a l i s p l a c e d i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f l i s t e n i n g t o a gr e y w i s e man who w i l l t e a c h him z u h t , as h i s mother a d v i s e d him t o do ( P a r z . 127, 2 1 ) . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f h e r a d v i c e on g r e e t i n g s and p o l i t e n e s s , t h i s i s t he o n l y sound a d v i c e t h a t H e r z e l o y d e g i v e s h er son and he l e a r n s from n o t o n l y g r e y men, as s p e c i f i e d , b u t from a grey 169 woman, Slgune. The c l o t h i n g K ahenis i s w e a r i n g was s t a n d a r d f o r h e r m i t s and p i l g r i m s because i t was t h e r o u g h e s t w h i c h e x i s t e d , sombre c o l o r s and u n r e f i n e d f a b r i c , t h e s o r t o f c l o t h i n g worn by t h e l o w e s t p e a s a n t . I t was a s i g n o f h u m i l i t y , f o r i t emphasized t h e l o w l i n e s s o f man when compared t o God and t h e absence o f c l a s s and rank b e f o r e t h e C r e a t o r . The p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s o f w e a r i n g such rough c l o t h i n g f o r t h e sake o f God a r e emphasized i n a c h a p t e r o f the L i t t l e F l o w e r s o f S t . F r a n c i s : a young f r i a r who had d e v e l o p e d a g r e a t h a t r e d f o r t h e rough h a b i t o f t h e Order had a v i s i o n o f b e a u t i f u l l y c l o t h e d s a i n t s 148 whom he q u e s t i o n e d as t o t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e b r i g h t e s t : They answered, "Those a r e S t . F r a n c i s and S t . Anthony; and he t h e l a s t o f a l l whom th o u sawest thus honoured i s a h o l y f r i a r t h a t newly d i e d , whom we a r e l e a d i n g i n t r i u m p h t o t h e g l o r y o f p a r a d i s e , f o r t h a t he h a t h f o u g h t v a l i a n t l y a g a i n s t t e m p t a t i o n and p e r s e v e r e d unto t h e end; and t h e s e f a i r garments o f f i n e c l o t h we wear, a r e g i v e n t o us by God i n l i e u o f t h e c o a r s e t u n i c s we wore i n the Order; and the g l o r i o u s b r i g h t n e s s t h a t t h o u b e h o l d e s t i s g i v e n t o us by God f o r t h e h u m i l i t y and p a t i e n c e , and f o r t h e h o l y p o v e r t y and o b e d i -ence and c h a s t i t y we k e p t even t o t h e l a s t . There-f o r e , my son, be i t n o t h a r d t o thee t o wear t h e s a c k c l o t h o f t h e Order, t h a t i s so f r u i t f u l , be-cause, i f c l o t h e d i n t h e s a c k c l o t h o f S t . F r a n c i s , t hou f o r l o v e o f C h r i s t d e s p i s e t h e w o r l d and m o r t i f y t h y f l e s h and v a l i a n t l y f i g h t a g a i n s t t h e d e v i l , t h o u , w i t h us, s h a l t have a l i k e r a i m e n t and e x c e e d i n g b r i g h t n e s s o f g l o r y . " 1 7 0 K a h e n i s and h i s f a m i l y make t h e i r y e a r l y p i l g r i m a g e i n t o t a l harmony w i t h t h i s c o n c e p t , h u m i l i a t i n g t h e i r b o d i e s so t h a t they might e x a l t t h e i r s o u l s . There i s perhaps a f u r t h e r r e a s o n t h a t p e n i t e n t s and p i l g r i m s adopted t h e grey garment: m e d i e v a l 171 l e g e n d d e s c r i b e d C h r i s t ' s robe as a grey c l o a k , so p e n i t e n t s sought t o emulate h i s h u m i l i t y . The a p p e l l a t i o n d e r grawe man s e r v e s t o connect Kahenis t o Gurnemanz who f i r s t t e a c h e s P a r z i v a l t h e s e c r e t s o f k n i g h t l y b e a r i n g and e t i q u e t t e . By r i d i n g i n f u l l armor on Good F r i d a y , P a r z i v a l i s v i o l a t i n g k n i g h t l y z u h t ; K ahenis completes an a s p e c t o f t h e e d u c a t i o n begun by Gurnemanz, r e v e a l i n g t o P a r z i v a l h i s wrongdoing and d i r e c t i n g him t o T r e v r i z e n t f o r t h e f i n a l e lements o f e d u c a t i o n w h i c h he h i m s e l f i s unable t o p r o v i d e : A A ' . . . r i t e t f u r b a z u f un s e r s p o r . i u e n s i t z e t n i h t ze v e r r e v o r e i n h e i l e c man: d e r g i t i u r a t , wandel f u r i w e r m i s s e t a t . w e l t i r im r i w e kiinden, e r s c h e i d e t i u c h von sunden.' ( P a r z . 448, 21-26) 149 B o t h G u r n e m a n z a n d K a h e n i s , t h e w i s e g r e y m e n , a r e s t e p s t o w a r d T r e v r i z e n t a n d t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f P a r z i v a l ' s e t h i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n . E v e r y d a y c l o t h i n g d o e s n o t f u n c t i o n w e l l a s a d i s g u i s e : i t c a n n o t n o r m a l l y c o v e r o n e ' s b o d y c o m p l e t e l y a n d o n e ' s a r t 172 i s a l w a y s a b l e t o b e d e t e c t e d : P a r z i v a l , a l t h o u g h d r e s s e d i n f o o l ' s c l o t h i n g , i s n o t t a k e n f o r a f o o l ; K a h e n i s ' s o c i a l s t a t u s c a n n o t b e d e t e c t e d b y means o f h i s g a r m e n t s , b u t W o l f r a m r e m a r k s , " e z m o h t e w o l e i n h e r r e s i n " ( P a r z . 4 4 6 , 2 5 ) . D a i l y c l o t h i n g c a n , h o w e v e r , f u n c t i o n a s a n i n d i c a t o r o f a c h a n g e i n c o n d i t i o n o r s i t u a t i o n . I n J e s c h u t e ' s c a s e , W o l f r a m u s e s t h e c h a n g e h e r c l o t h i n g u n d e r g o e s a s a s i m p l e e x p r e s s i o n o f h e r h u s b a n d ' s a n g e r . A s l o n g a s O r i l u s i s p l e a s e d t h a t h i s w i f e i s b e h a v i n g p r o p e r l y a n d r e m a i n s f a i t h f u l t o h i m s h e i s p e r m i t t e d c e r t a i n a m e n i t i e s s u c h a s d i n i n g w i t h h i m a n d b e i n g w e l l c l o t h e d b y h i m . T h e s e a r e a l l p r i v i l e g e s c o n t i n g e n t u p o n h i s p l e a s u r e a n d a r e a l l d e n i e d h e r u p o n h i s d i s c o v e r y o f h e r a l l e g e d i n f i d e l i t y . T h e s h a b b i n e s s t h a t r e s u l t s f r o m t h e c o n s t a n t u s e o f o n e g a r m e n t i s a n e v e r - p r e s e n t r e m i n d e r o f t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e i r m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p a s w e l l a s a v i s i b l e s i g n t o P a r z i v a l o f t h e p a i n h i s u n c h e c k e d b e h a v i o r h a s b r o u g h t a b o u t . I t a l s o p r o v i d e s W o l f r a m w i t h a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r v o i c i n g h i s own o p i n i o n a b o u t w e l l - d r e s s e d women: i c h s a g e t i u v i i a r m u o t : w a r z u o ? d i z i s t a l s g u o t . d o c h naeme i c h s o l h e n b l o z e n l i p f i i r e t s l i c h w o l g e k l e i d e t w i p . ( P a r z . 2 5 7 , 2 9 - 3 2 ) 150 T h i s i s a restatement of a s e c t i o n of the prologue: manec wi±>es schoene an lobe 1st b r e i t : i s t dli daz herze c o n t e r f e i t , d i e lob i c h a l s i c h solde daz s a f e r ime golde. i c h enhan daz n i h t f u r l i h t i u dine, swer i n den kranken messinc verwurket edeln r u b l n und a l d i e aVentiure s i n (dem g l i c h e i c h rehten wlbes muot). ( P a r z . 3, 11-19) Both statements are warnings against accepting surface impres-sions as v a l i d . Jeschute, whose e x t e r n a l appearance confirms the punishment being d e a l t her by her husband, j u s t as her appearance c o n f i r m e d her " g u i l t , " i s innocent. T h i s image i s not confined to Wolfram, nor to n a r r a t i v e poetry f o r t h a t m a t t e r . E n i t e i s b e a u t i f u l even when she i s shabbily dressed, and S p e r v o g e l has a verse on the subject of w e l l - c l o t h e d women: T r e i t e i n r e i n e wip n i h t guoter k l e i d e r an, s i z i e r e t doch i r tugent, a l s i c h michs kan v e r s t a n , daz s i v i i schShe sta*t gebluot a l s o d i u l i e h t e sunne t u o t , d i u gegen dem morgen s c h i n e t fruo so l u t e r und so r e i n e . swie v i i e i n v a l s c h i u k l e i d e r t r e i t , doch s i n t i r ere k l e i n e . 1 7 3 S i n c e c l o t h i n g , or r a t h e r l a c k of c l o t h i n g , f u n c t i o n s as a s i g n of O r i l u s ' d i s p l e a s u r e , he marks the r e u n i o n w i t h h i s wi f e by covering her w i t h h i s surcoat ( P a r z . 270, 1 1 ) . By p l a c i n g her under the p r o t e c t i v e i n f l u e n c e of t h i s a r t i c l e of c l o t h i n g , he i s showing th a t he i s once more p l a c i n g her under h i s p r o t e c t i o n and care, as a husband and as a knight. I t i s important to Jeschute t h a t she be covered only by her husband's hand, or at the very l e a s t w i t h h i s consent, hence 151 she r e f u s e s t o a c c e p t P a r z i v a l ' s s u r c o a t . O r i l u s f i n d s h e r punishment s u i t e d t o h e r c r i m e : h e r " i n f i d e l i t y " was an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t she was u n w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t h i s c a r e a l o n e , so he p u n i s h e s the u n w i l l i n g n e s s by r e s c i n d i n g t h e c a r e . The 174 e f f e c t i s t h e same as i f he were u n a b l e t o c a r e f o r h e r . P a r z i v a l ' s own accomplishment i n b r i n g i n g about t h e i r r e c o n c i l i -a t i o n and c l e a r i n g O r i l u s ' head o f t h e f o g o b s c u r i n g t h e t r u t h i s a s o c i a l p a r a l l e l t o what happens t o him i n t h e n i n t h book where, w i t h t h e h e l p o f T r e v r i z e n t , he comes t o r e c o g n i z e h i s own f l a w e d s t a t e and r e c o n c i l e h i m s e l f w i t h God. The two e v e n t s o f c o u r s e t a k e p l a c e i n the same l o c a t i o n : T r e v r i z e n t ' s cave. A b a t h and a change o f c l o t h i n g rank w i t h f o o d as t h e most common t y p e s o f r e f r e s h m e n t a v a i l a b l e t o t h e t r a v e l e r d u r i n g the M i d d l e Ages, r e l i e v i n g him o f t h e d u s t w h i c h accumulated as w e l l as e a s i n g t h e muscle s o r e n e s s caused by r i d i n g . A f t e r J e s c h u t e ' s o r d e a l has ended and O r i l u s has been c o n v i n c e d o f h e r i n n o c e n c e , they r e j o i n t h e i r company where b a t h s a r e p r e p a r e d f o r them. J e s c h u t e i s tended and b e a u t i f u l l y c d r e s s e d t o make up f o r t h e complete l a c k o f c o m f o r t she e x p e r i e n c e d d u r i n g t h e i r w andering. The r e c o n c i l i a t i o n b r i n g s c e l e b r a t i o n f o r them and f o r t h e i r companions, and J e s c h u t e i s p r o v i d e d w i t h g r e a t e r l u x u r y t h a n she had known b e f o r e the estrangement. Wolfram, who was so v o c a l on t h e s u b j e c t o f gorgeous c l o t h i n g o b s c u r i n g a l e s s t h a n p e r f e c t c h a r a c t e r ( P a r z . 257, 31-32) here r e f u s e s t o say more t h a n , " J e s c h u t e n wat man muose l o b n " ( P a r z . 273, 25). Wolfram d e s c r i b e s h e r t a t t e r s because they 152 i l l u s t r a t e h i s p o i n t ; he assumes, however, t h a t h i s a u d i e n c e can imagine h e r f i n e r y w i t h o u t any h e l p from him, and he has no d e s i r e t o draw the comparison between b e a u t i f u l e x t e r i o r , f l a w e d v i r t u e t o i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n . I t i s assumed by p o e t and a u d i e n c e a l i k e t h a t J e s c h u t e i s f u l l y d e s e r v i n g o f t h e new c l o t h i n g she i s g i v e n i f as n o t h i n g more than a reward f o r h e r l o n g and p a t i e n t s u f f e r i n g . Wolfram does n o t always use h eaddresses i n t h e same way t hey were used s o c i a l l y d u r i n g the M i d d l e Ages, t h a t i s as an i n d i c a t i o n o f s t a t u s , b u t he o f t e n d e s c r i b e s them f o r t h e sake o f p r o v i d i n g a m e n t a l o r e m o t i o n a l barometer, an i n d i c a t i o n o f changes i n mood and c o n d i t i o n . Condwiramurs b i n d s up h e r h a i r as a s i g n t h a t she has become P a r z i v a l ' s w i f e , even though th e s i t u a t i o n i n d i c a t e d by t h i s s i g n — t h e consummation 175 o f t h e i r u n i o n — h a s n o t o c c u r r e d . T h e i r n i g h t was s p e n t i n complete i n n o c e n c e . F o r Condwiramurs, however, the e m o t i o n a l commitment overshadows any p h y s i c a l commitment p o s s i b l e and she c o n s i d e r s h e r s e l f m a r r i e d : Den man den r o t e n r i t t e r h i e z , d i e kunegl*n e r maget l i e z . s i wande i e d o c h , s i waer s i n w i p : d u r c h s i n e n minnecll^chen l i p des morgens s i i r houbet b a n t . ( P a r z . 202, 21-25) O r g e l u s e i s a n o t h e r who makes use o f h e r headdress t o a d v e r t i s e ' l a t -h e r mood: S i h e t e m i t i r hende underm k i n n e daz gebende h i n u*fez houbet g e l e i t . k a m p f b a e r i u l i d e t r e i t e i n wip d i e man v i n d e t so: d i u waer v i i l i * h t e e i n s s c h i m p f e s v r o . ( P a r z . 515, 1-6) 153 Wolfram even i n t e r p r e t s t h e a c t i o n f o r t h e a u d i e n c e : she has adapted h e r headdress from t h e p r o p e r and c o n t r o l l e d s t y l e t o a f r e e - s p i r i t e d v a r i a n t m e r e l y by u n t y i n g i t . The s t r i n g s , i n s t e a d o f c o n t r o l l i n g and s t e a d y i n g , a r e p l a c e d o u t o f the way, on t o p o f h e r head where t h e y a r e u s e l e s s , i n c a p a b l e o f p e r f o r m i n g t h e i r o r i g i n a l f u n c t i o n and d e t r a c t i n g from t h e l i n e s o f t h e d e c o r a t i o n i t s e l f . The a c t p a r a l l e l s h e r r e b e l l i o u s 176 s t r a i n and h e r own d i s l i k e o f b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d . C l o t h i n g s t y l e s change somewhat w i t h t h e ch a n g i n g age o f the w e a r e r , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h women, and Wolfram uses t h i s custom d u r i n g an i n c i d e n t i n t h e Gawain e p i s o d e s . O b i l o t , even though she i s o n l y a c h i l d , g a i n s t h e s e r v i c e s o f Gawain, b u t she i s d i s t r e s s e d t h a t she i s unable t o g i v e h e r k n i g h t some toke n t o be a r i n t o b a t t l e . The s o l u t i o n i s r e a l l y q u i t e s i m p l e : h e r f a t h e r u n d e r t a k e s t o remedy t h e p l i g h t by r e q u e s t i n g h e r mother t o g i v e h e r a new d r e s s : frouwe, s i t i r s uns b e r e i t , ObylSt w i l b e z z e r k l e i t . s i dunket s i ' s m i t w i r d e w e r t , s i t s6 werder man i r minne g e r t und e r i r b i u t e t d i e n s t e s v i i und ouch i r k l e i n o e t e w i l . ( P a r z . 374, 15-20) I f Gawain i s g o i n g t o f i g h t i n O b i l o t ' s s e r v i c e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r h e r t o bestow a k l e i n o e t e , some k i n d o f t o k e n , upon him. The most common o f t h e s e was a s l e e v e o f the l a d y ' s garment, and f o r t h i s O b i l o t must have a new d r e s s , made e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h i s o c c a s i o n . T h i s i s a s i g n o f h e r "growing up" and goes a l o n g w i t h h e r g a i n i n g a k n i g h t ' s s e r v i c e f o r t h e f i r s t t i me and h e r f i r s t p r i v a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h a man ( P a r z . 369, 4-5). 154 H a v i n g p a s s e d t h e p o i n t w h e r e s h e c a n b e c o n t e n t w i t h t h e s o c i e t y o f d o l l s a n d c h i l d r e n , O b i l o t ' s m i n d t u r n s t o o t h e r t h i n g s a n d s h e i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h c a r r y i n g o u t t h e p r o p e r s t e p s i n v o l v e d i n t h e g r o w n - u p a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h c a p t u r e h e r m i n d . T h e new d r e s s i s a l s o a s i g n o f g r e a t r e s p e c t f o r G a w a i n ; i t i s u n t h i n k a b l e t o O b i l o t t h a t h e r t o k e n b e s h a b b y , f o r G a w a i n i s a g r e a t k n i g h t a n d d e s e r v e s t o s e r v e h i s l a d y w i t h p r i d e . S l e e v e s h a d a s y m b o l i c f u n c t i o n d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e A g e s b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e g i v e n f r e q u e n t l y t o a k n i g h t t o c a r r y i n b a t t l e a s a l a d y ' s t o k e n : t h e i r l a c k was a s n o t i c e a b l e o n t h e l a d y a s t h e i r p r e s e n c e o n t h e k n i g h t . T h e l a d y , u p o n t h e r e t u r n o f h e r k n i g h t , d r e w t h e s l e e v e b a c k o n t o h e r a r m t o a d v e r t i s e t h e s u c c e s s o f h e r k n i g h t . T h o u g h s c a r v e s , s i m i l a r i n s i z e a n d s h a p e a n d v i s i b i l i t y o n t h e k n i g h t , w e r e a l s o u s e d a s t o k e n s , t h e i r l o s s was n o t s o n o t i c e a b l e o n t h e l a d y . T w i c e a t M u n s a l v a e s c h P a r z i v a l i s w i t n e s s t o i n c i d e n t s w h e r e s l e e v e s b e c o m e b l o o d i e d . I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r h i s a r m o r h a s b e e n r e m o v e d h e i s i n v i t e d i n t o t h e c h a m b e r w h e r e t h e h o s t r e s t s b y 177 e i n r e d e s p a e h e r man ( P a r z . 2 2 9 , 4 ) . P a r z i v a l , h o w e v e r , t a k e s o f f e n s e a t t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e m a n ' s v o i c e a n d i n a n g e r h e c l e n c h e s t h e m a n ' s h a n d i n s u c h f u r y t h a t t h e b l o o d r u s h e s 178 o u t f r o m u n d e r t h e n a i l s a n d w e t s h i s s l e e v e . T h e s e c o n d o f t h e s e e p i s o d e s o c c u r s d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s i o n o f t h e l a n c e -b e a r e r a r o u n d t h e c h a m b e r ; b l o o d f r o m t h e b l e e d i n g l a n c e f l o w s o n t o h i s h a n d a n d h i s s l e e v e . T h e i m a g e o f t h e b l o o d i e d s l e e v e i s a v i s u a l c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e two e v e n t s ; b o t h a r e c o n -155 n e c t e d i n a d d i t i o n t o a v i o l e n t a c t . P a r z i v a l c a u s e s t h e f i r s t b e c a u s e h e b e l i e v e s h e i s b e i n g m o c k e d a n d r e a c t s t o t h e i n s u l t w i t h f u r y . T h e s e c o n d i s t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f a v i o l e n t g r i e f r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e o n g o i n g e f f e c t s o f a v i o l e n t a c t : d e r t r u o g e i n e g l a e v i n ( d e r s i t e was z e t r u r e n g u o t ) : a n d e r s n i d e n h u o p s i c h p l u o t u n d l i e f d e n s c h a f t u n z fif d i e h a n t , d e i z i n dem e r m e l w i d e r w a n t . d a w a r t g e w e i n e t u n t g e s c h r i t u f dem p a l a s e w i t : d a z v o l e v o n d r i z e c l a n d e n m o h t z d e n o u g e n n i h t e n b l a n d e n . e r t r u o c s e i n s m e n h e n d e n a l u m b z e n v i e r w e n d e n , u n z a b e r w i d e r z u o d e r t i i r . d e r k n a p p e s p r a n c h i n uz d e r f i i r . G e s t i l l e t was d e s v o l k e s n o t , a l s i n d e r j a m e r c e g e b o t , d e s s i d i u g l a e v i n h e t e r m a n t , d i e d e r k n a p p e b r a h t e i n s i n e r h a n t . ( P a r z . 2 3 1 , 1 8 - 2 3 2 , 4) I n b o t h s i t u a t i o n s , b l o o d i s p r e s e n t o n t h e h a n d b e f o r e i t f i n d s i t s way t o t h e s l e e v e : t h e " j e s t e r ' s " s l e e v e i s w e t w i t h b l o o d f r o m h i s own h a n d , a n d t h e l a n c e b e a r e r ' s h a n d i s b l o o d i e d f r o m t h e l a n c e w h i c h h e i s h o l d i n g i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e b l o o d m u s t c o u r s e o v e r h i s h a n d t o f i n d h i s s l e e v e . B l o o d y h a n d s , v i o l e n c e , a n d s o r r o w e m p h a s i z e t h e f a c t t h a t P a r z i v a l h a s c a u s e d u n n e c e s s a r y b l o o d t o f l o w f o r t h e s e c o n d t i m e s i n c e l e a v i n g h i s m o t h e r , b o t h o f t h e m a s a r e s u l t o f h i s i n a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l h i m s e l f . T h e b l o o d y l a n c e i s a r e m i n d e r o f A m f o r t a s " f i g h t i n g a j o u s t w h i c h h e o u g h t n o t t o h a v e f o u g h t , t h e i n v o l v e -m e n t i n a d v e n t u r e s f o r t h e s a k e o f w o r l d l y l o v e . I n t e r m s o f t h e e t h i c s o f t h e t e m p l a r s , h i s j o u s t i n g was u n n e c e s s a r y a n d s h o w e d A m f o r t a s ' own i n a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l h i m s e l f . B u t P a r z i v a l c a u s e s t h e s e c o n d b l o o d y s i t u a t i o n i n a way a s much a s h e 156 causes t h e f i r s t , t h i s t i m e , i r o n i c a l l y , by e x e r t i n g t o o much c o n t r o l o v e r h i m s e l f . He d i r e c t l y harms the " j e s t e r , " b u t , more i m p o r t a n t l y , he f a i l s t o p u t an end t o a s o r r o w f u l s i t u -a t i o n and a l l o w s i t t o c o n t i n u e f o r some y e a r s . Because he i s c o n c erned more w i t h h i s k n i g h t l y appearance, he i s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r much p a i n . A l t h o u g h n o t o f f i c i a l l y a d i s t i n c t p a r t o f a garment, it e m s o f d e c o r a t i o n f u n c t i o n as c l o t h i n g and o c c a s i o n a l l y e x h i b i t a v a l u e g r e a t e r t h a n t h e i r u s u a l f u n c t i o n . The most common i t e m s t h a t o c c u r i n P a r z i v a l a r e gem-studded b e l t s , r i n g s , c l a s p s and br o o c h e s . F o r t h e most p a r t , t h i s j e w e l r y and d e c o r a t i o n has a p u r e l y o b v i o u s f u n c t i o n i n t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n o f w e a l t h and beauty. O c c a s i o n a l l y , however, one p a r t i c u l a r i t e m i s g i v e n a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e n a r r a t i v e and f u n c t i o n s s y m b o l i c a l l y . P a r t o f t h e a d v i c e t h a t H e r z e l o y d e g i v e s t o P a r z i v a l b e f o r e he l e a v e s h e r co n c e r n s minne, e a r n i n g t h e l o v e o f a woman who w i l l t h e n e x e r t e d u c a t i v e i n f l u e n c e upon him, and th e p h y s i c a l c l o s e n e s s t h a t can grow between a man and a woman: sun, la" d i r b e v o l h e n s i n , swa du guotes wibes v i n g e r l m miigest erwerben u n t i r g r u o z , daz nim: ez t u o t d i r kumbers buoz. ( P a r z . 127, 25-28) P a r z i v a l i s n o t y e t s o p h i s t i c a t e d enough t o r e a l i z e t h a t h i s mother's a d v i c e i s meant t o be t a k e n any way b u t l i t e r a l l y . The r i n g she speaks o f i s t h e u n i v e r s a l s i g n o f l o v e and mar-r i a g e , and H e r z e l o y d e i s a t t e m p t i n g t o t e l l h e r son t h a t l o v e has a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e upon a p e r s o n . F o l l o w i n g t h i s a d v i c e 157 l i t e r a l l y , P a r z i v a l s n a t c h e s away J e s c h u t e ' s r i n g and adds h e r b r o o c h f o r good measure. The bro o c h i s m e a n i n g l e s s t o him b u t i t does a t l e a s t g a i n him a n i g h t ' s l o d g i n g . The r i n g , how-e v e r , he keeps. He has no r e a l need t o t r a d e i t away, and h i s mother's words s u g g e s t i t has a v a l u e g r e a t e r t h a n t h e c o s t o f l o d g i n g s . H i s k e e p i n g i t means t h a t J e s c h u t e i s l e f t w i t h o u t t h e v i s i b l e symbol o f h e r m a r r i a g e : P a r z i v a l d e s t r o y s t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p and keeps t h e r i n g d u r i n g the time i t i s d e s t r o y e d . The r i n g s e a l s t h e i r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n : i t i s r e t u r n e d t o J e s c h u t e a t t h e same t i m e as P a r z i v a l ' s o a t h r e s t o r e s t h e damaged u n i o n . P a r z i v a l s t a n d s l i k e a p r i e s t a t the s i m p l e ceremony t h a t r e u n i t e s t h e c o u p l e , and he hands t h e r i n g t o O r i l u s t o p u t on t h e hand o f h i s rewon b r i d e . Sigune a l s o wears a r i n g , s e t w i t h a g a r n e t t h a t s h i n e s i n the dark when P a r z i v a l v i s i t s h e r . Wolfram e x p l a i n s t h a t she wears i t i n memory o f S c h i o n a t u l a n d e r : P a r z i v c i l d e r w i g a n t e i n k l e i n e z v i n g e r l m da k o s , daz s i d u r c h a r b e i t n i e verlSs, s i n e b e h i e l t z d u r c h r e h t e r minne r a t . ( P a r z . 438, 2-5) The r i n g i s o u t o f k e e p i n g w i t h Sigune's garb as a p e n i t e n t s i n c e i t s i g n i f i e s an e a r t h l y l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , a f a c t t h a t P a r z i v a l p o i n t s o u t t o h e r . Sigune's l i f e , however, w i t h i t s t o t a l d e d i c a t i o n t o p r a y e r , i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f h e r l o v e f o r S c h i o n a t u l a n d e r . I n h i s d e a t h , he has become a l i n k between Sigune and God; h e r r i n g i s u l t i m a t e l y a reminder o f t h e pure and h o l y l o v e t h a t b i n d s h e r t o God t h r o u g h S c h i o n a t u l a n d e r . 158 A t t h e s i g h t o f b l o o d drops upon th e f r e s h l y f a l l e n snow, P a r z i v a l f a l l s i n t o a t r a n c e , t h i n k i n g o f h i s b e a u t i f u l w i f e and h i s l o n g i n g f o r h e r . N o t h i n g can f r e e h i s mind from t h e h o l d o f t h i s v i s i o n as l o n g as i t e x i s t s t o be seen. Even though t h e t r a n c e i s t w i c e broken by t h e t u r n i n g away o f h i s h o r s e i n a moment o f danger, P a r z i v a l t w i c e r e t u r n s t o t h e s p o t and r e - e n t e r s t h e t r a n c e . Gawain, who approaches P a r z i v a l a f t e r he has b e a t e n Segremors and K e i , does n o t w i s h t o f i g h t w i t h him: when he r e a l i z e s t h e r e a s o n f o r P a r z i v a l ' s s t a t e , he c o v e r s t h e b l o o d s p o t s w i t h a s c a r f i n s t e a d o f b e g i n n i n g an a t t a c k , and t h i s a c t draws P a r z i v a l back i n t o c o n s c i o u s n e s s . When he r e a l i z e s t h a t he has l o s t s i g h t o f t h e image, P a r z i v a l c r i e s o u t : e r s p r a c h 'owe frowe unde w i p , wer h a t benomn m i r d i n e n l i p ? erwarp m i t r i t e r s c h a f t min hant d i n werde minn, k r o n unde e i n l a n t ? . . . * ( P a r z . 30 2, 7-10) K n i g h t h o o d , w h i c h won Condwiramurs f o r P a r z i v a l , has i n a sense t a k e n h e r from him: on l e a v e t o f i n d h i s mother, P a r z i v a l becomes caught up i n b o t h e a r t h l y and s p i r i t u a l k n i g h t h o o d . I n a t o t a l l y l i t e r a l sense, t h e k n i g h t Gawain has t a k e n the image o f Condwiramurs from him by h i s a c t i o n i n c o v e r i n g the ground. P a r z i v a l ' s s t a t e o f mind a t t h i s p o i n t has r e v e r s e d h i s two major g o a l s : s i n e gedanke umben grcil unt der k i i n g i n g l i c h i u m al, i e w e d e r z w a s c e i n s t r e n g i u n o t : an im wac f u r der minnen l o t . ( P a r z . 296, 5-8) Wolfram laments th e h o l d l o v e has t a k e n on P a r z i v a l ' s senses and c l a i m s i n h i s d i s c o u r s e t o F r o u minne t h a t n o t h i n g can b r e a k h e r power: i r sit slSz ob dem s i n n e . ezen h i l f e t g e i n i u s c h i l t noch s w e r t , s n e l l o r s , hfich p ure m i t t i i r n e n w e r t : i r sit gewaldec ob der wer. bede u f erde unt i n dem mer waz e n t r i n n e t iwerm k r i e g e , ez f l i e z e oder f l i e g e ? ( P a r z . 292, 28-293, 4) Gawain's a c t i o n i n c o v e r i n g the image o f Condwiramurs does n o t e r a d i c a t e i t ; i t e x i s t s s t i l l under h i s s c a r f , j u s t as t h e h o l d o f k n i g h t h o o d and t h e c o m p e l l i n g s e a r c h f o r t h e G r a i l can-n o t break the h o l d o f l o v e f o r Condwiramurs. Gawain's a c t i o n m e r e l y h e l p s P a r z i v a l r e a s s i g n h i s p r i o r i t i e s . Gawain's use o f a s c a r f l i n e d i n z i n d a l has m e d i c i n a l 180 o v e r t o n e s . H e r b e r t K o l b p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f a b r i c was o f t e n used t o b i n d wounds because o f i t s a b i l i t y t o h o l d m o i s t u r e , and i t i s used by A r n i v e i n t e n d i n g Gawain's wounds a t the C a s t l e o f Wonders: d6 nam d i u a l t e k i i n e g i n d i c t a m und warmen win u n t e i n e n blawen z i n d a l : do e r s t r e i c h s i d i u b l u o t e s rakl uz den wunden, swa d e c h e i n i u was, unt bant i n so daz e r genas. ( P a r z . 579, 11-16) She e r a d i c a t e s t h e t r a c e s o f b l o o d from Gawain's wounds, p r o m i s i n g him, " i c h s e n f t e i u s c h i e r e " ( P a r z . 579, 23). Gawain' e a r l i e r use o f t h i s same f a b r i c was a l s o used t o "remove" t h e t r a c e s o f b l o o d from P a r z i v a l ' s s i g h t , and h i s a c t i o n , " d i e swanger l i b e r d i u b l u o t e s mal" ( P a r z . 301, 3 0 ) , i s r e a l l y q u i t e s i m i l a r t o A r n i v e ' s , "do e r s t r e i c h s i d i u b l u o t e s mal" ( P a r z . 160 579, 1 4 ) . There i s f u r t h e r m o r e a p l a y on t h e word s e n f t e n . A r n i v e p r o m i s e s t o ease t h e e f f e c t s o f Gawain's wounds, b u t Wolfram a l s o p o i n t s o u t t h a t s e n f t e i s t a k e n away by t h e power o f l o v e ( P a r z . 29 3, 1 6 ) . Gawain, f i r s t t he h e a l e r o f t h e pangs o f l o v e , i s l a t e r h e a l e d from t h e p h y s i c a l wounds caused by h i s a d v e n t u r e s i n t h e C a s t l e o f Wonders, i t s e l f r e p r e s e n t i n g a s p e c t s o f " l o v e . " A l t h o u g h i t i s a normal s i t u a t i o n f o r a k n i g h t t o c a r r y i n t o b a t t l e t h e t o k e n o f t h e woman he s e r v e s , Gahmuret and H e r z e l o y d e c a r r y t h i s custom t o e x c e s s . She c e l e b r a t e s h i s v i c t o r i e s w i t h him by w e a r i n g the w h i t e s h i f t he has t a k e n t o b a t t l e . When she i s t o l d o f h i s d e a t h , she has t h i s b l o o d y , t a t t e r e d s h i f t b r o u g h t t o h e r so t h a t she can wear i t , s h a r i n g h i s d e f e a t as she had h i s v i c t o r y . She i s n o t p e r m i t t e d t o keep i t . I f w e a r i n g t h i s s h i f t , a s i g n o f d e a t h , i s an e x p r e s -s i o n o f h e r own d e a t h w i s h and t h e d e s i r e t o be r e u n i t e d w i t h Gahmuret, H e r z e l o y d e i s n o t a l l o w e d i t s e x p r e s s i o n j u s t as the needs o f h e r ab o u t - t o - b e - b o r n son keep h e r from d e a t h . Her r e t a i n e r s c e r t a i n l y see i n h e r d e s i r e t o wear t h e s h i f t a dangerous e x c e s s o f g r i e f w h i c h t h e y hope t o stem by removing t h e means o f e x p r e s s i o n she chooses. The a c t i o n o f donning the garment would have p h y s i c a l l y e n c l o s e d P a r z i v a l i n the h e r i t a g e o f h i s f a t h e r . I t s removal w r e s t s Gahmuret 1s k n i g h t h o o d from H e r z e l o y d e j u s t as H e r z e l o y d e l a t e r w r e s t s P a r z i v a l ' s own k n i g h t l y h e r i t a g e from him. The d e n i a l o f f u l l e x p r e s s i o n o f h e r g r i e f c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e development o f the e x c e s s i v e motherhood H e r z e l o y d e f e e l s f o r h e r son. E x t e r n a l f o r c e s i n t e r f e r e w i t h h e r attempt t o d e a l w i t h h e r g r i e f as h e r i n s t i n c t prompts h e r t o . I n c a l l i n g f o r Gahmuret's d e a t h - s h i f t , a t t e m p t i n g t o share h i s d e f e a t , she hopes t o come t o terms w i t h h i s d e a t h by e n v e l o p i n g h e r s e l f i n a p h y s i c a l s i g n o f i t , i n t e r n a l i z i n g i t s r e a l i t y t h r o u g h 181 v i c a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . I n s t e a d o f b e i n g p e r m i t t e d t o mourn, her a t t e n t i o n i s s h i f t e d f o r c i b l y t o the c h i l d , and a l l emotion e a r l i e r r e s t i n g upon Gahmuret f o c u s e s upon P a r z i v a l . He be-comes f o r h e r a symbol o f her own e x i s t e n c e , and h e r own s u r -v i v a l depends upon her k e e p i n g him a l i v e and h e a l t h y , even a t the c o s t o f c h e a t i n g him o f h i s d e s t i n y . P a r z i v a l ' s f o o l ' s c l o t h i n g i s t h e most prominent example o f abnormal c l o t h i n g i n t h e n a r r a t i v e . Because c l o t h i n g d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages was s t r o n g l y r e g u l a t e d by custom where i t was not r e g u l a t e d by law, i t was an a l m o s t i n f a l l i b l e i n d i c a t i o n o f one's s t a t u s and p o s i t i o n i n l i f e . H e r z e l o y d e d e c i d e s t o l e t h e r son r i d e o f f i n t h e u s u a l c l o t h i n g o f a f o o l , h o p i n g t h a t rough t r e a t m e n t w i l l make him r e t u r n t o he r . The s i m p l e clumsy garment she makes f o r him b e l i e s h i s t r u e h e r i t a g e : d i u frouwe nam e i n s a c t u o c h : s i s n e i t im hemde unde b r u o c h , daz doch an eime s t i i c k e e r s c h e i n , unz e n m i t t e n an s i n b l a n k e z b e i n . daz w a r t f u r t6ren k l e i t e r k a n t . ( P a r z . 127, 1-5) The n o b i l i t y o f c o u r s e d i d n o t wear b r e e c h e s ; t h e y remained f o r some time a mark o f t h e peasant c l a s s e s . The use o f t h e s a c k c l o t h i s found i n t h e p e n i t e n t i a l garment as w e l l ; i n b o t h i n s t a n c e s , f o o l ' s c l o t h i n g and p e n i t e n t ' s c l o t h i n g , the i n t e n t i o n i s t o u s e t h e p o o r e s t q u a l i t y f a b r i c p o s s i b l e . J ' U i T h e r e i s a p o s s i b l e " e n n o b l i n g " o f P a r z i v a l ' s g a r m e n t b e c a u s e o f t h e e x t e n d e d i m p l i c a t i o n s o f s a c k c l o t h i n i t s u s e f o r e x a l t i n g t h e s p i r i t w h i l e h u m b l i n g t h e b o d y . W o l f r a m c a r r i e s t h i s c o n c e p t f u r t h e r i n t h e a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i n g o f t h e g a r m e n t . A l t h o u g h i t i s n o t m e n t i o n e d i n t h e B i b l e , i t was g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e A g e s t h a t M a r y a c t i v e -183 l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i n g o f C h r i s t ' s r o b e . H e r -z e l o y d e ' s c o n s t r u c t i n g P a r z i v a l ' s g a r m e n t h e r s e l f i s o n e o f t h e many M a r i a n i m a g e s W o l f r a m a p p l i e s t o h e r . S h e n u r s e s h e r own s o n , r e j o i c i n g i n t h e s a n c t i t y o f t h e a c t : / f r o u / U H e r z e l o y d e s p r a c h m i t s i n n e ' d i u h o e h s t e k i i n e g i n n e J e s u s i r b r u s t e b o t . . . ' ( P a r z . 1 1 3 , 1 7 - 1 9 ) When S i g u n e r e v e a l s P a r z i v a l ' s name t o h i m , s h e e x p l a i n s i t s m e a n i n g : d e r nam i s t r e n t e e n m i t t e n d u r c h . g r o z l i e b e i e r s o l c h h e r z e n f u r c h m i t d i n e r m u o t e r t r i u w e . . . ( P a r z . 1 4 0 , 1 7 - 1 9 ) A t t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f C h r i s t i n t h e t e m p l e , M a r y was t o l d , 184 " a n d thy;; own s o u l a s w o r d s h a l l p i e r c e . " I t h e r ' s e x c l a m -a t i o n u p o n s e e i n g P a r z i v a l , " w o l d e r m u o t e r d i u d i c h b a r ! " ( P a r z . 1 4 6 , 7) i s s t r o n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f a n e x c l a m a t i o n made t o 185 J e s u s , " B l e s s e d i s t h e womb t h a t b o r e t h e e . " W o l f r a m was c e r t a i n l y n o t u s i n g t h e s e i m a g e s t o make o f H e r z e l o y d e a n d P a r z i v a l f i g u r e s o f M a r y a n d J e s u s , b u t h e d i d u s e t h e m f o r t h e s a k e o f t h e i r e f f e c t u p o n h i s a u d i e n c e a n d t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n 186 t o h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . T h i s i m a g e r y i s a p p a r e n t i n t h e u s e o f t h e f o o l ' s c l o t h i n g a s w e l l a s i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n . 163 H e r z e l o y d e hopes h e r son w i l l be i l l - t r e a t e d by t h e w o r l d so he w i l l r e t u r n home, " w i r t e r g e r o u f e t unt g e s l a g n , / s o kumt e r m i r her w i d e r w o l " ( P a r z . 126, 28-29). J e s u s o f c o u r s e e n t e r e d t h e w o r l d w i l l i n g l y t o s u f f e r blows and j e e r s : D e s p i s e d and the most a b j e c t o f men, a man o f sorrows and a c q u a i n t e d w i t h i n f i r m i t y : and h i s l o o k was as i t were h i d d e n and d e s p i s e d . Where-upon we esteemed him not....He was o f f e r e d be-cause i t was h i s own w i l l , and he opened n o t h i s mouth. He s h a l l be l e d as a sheep t o t h e s l a u g h t e r and s h a l l be dumb as a lamb befc-ge. h i s s h e a r e r , and he s h a l l n o t open h i s mouth. There i s f u r t h e r m o r e t h e use o f r o y a l c l o t h i n g t o mock C h r i s t d u r i n g t h e P a s s i o n . The mockery was c a r r i e d t h r o u g h by t h e use o f c l o t h i n g w h i c h d i d n o t s u i t h i s l i t e r a l s t a t u s , r o y a l c l o t h i n g f o r a c a r p e n t e r who c l a i m e d he was a k i n g , c l o t h i n g , however, w h i c h was i n accordance w i t h an i n t e r n a l s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n a r e i n h e r e n t i n Wolfram's use o f P a r z i v a l ' s f o o l ' s c l o t h i n g , and he uses t h e garment t o s t r e s s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between l i t e r a l o r e x t e r i o r t r u t h and i n t e r n a l t r u t h . H e r z e l o y d e ' s t r i c k i s n o t s u c c e s s f u l : P a r z i v a l i s n o t t a k e n f o r a f o o l . On t h e s i m p l e s t l e v e l he i s n o t m i s t a k e n f o r a f o o l because he i s n o t one, and t h e appearance o f h i s body o f f e r s e v i d e n c e more c o n c l u s i v e t h a n h i s c l o t h i n g . J e s c h u t e i d e n t i f i e s P a r z i v a l t o O r i l u s as a f o o l , b u t she remarks, "swaz i c h l i u t e e r k e n n e t h a n , / i n e gesach n i e l i p so w o l g e t a n " ( P a r z . 133, 17-18). She senses t h e d i f f e r e n c e even i f she does n o t have the p e r s p i c a c i t y t o r e c o g n i z e i t s f u l l i m p o r t . Sigune c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e s P a r z i v a l ' s c l o t h i n g , even when she 164 r e c o g n i z e s him as h e r c o u s i n . I t h e r comments o n l y o n b h i s b e a u t y , and A r t h u r i s p r e p a r e d t o k n i g h t him i m m e d i a t e l y . P a r z i v a l ' s body i s a l m o s t an a r t i s t i c achievement, "got was an e i n e r s i i e z e n z u h t , / d o ' r P a r z i v c i l e n worhte" ( P a r z . 148, 26-27). The o n l y r e a c t i o n he draws i s l a u g h t e r a t t h e i n c o n g r u i t y between h i s e x t e r n a l f o o l ' s i d e n t i t y and h i s o b v i o u s rank. Iwanet l a u g h s a t the n a i v e a b r u p t n e s s o f h i s speech ( P a r z . 147, 24) and Cunneware a t the s i g h t o f h i s p e r s o n XParz. 151, 1 9 ) . A l t h o u g h th e f o o l ' s c l o t h i n g i s c o m p l e t e l y i n c o n g r u o u s w i t h t h e l i t e r a l r e a l i t y , i t does c o r r e s p o n d t o an i n t e r n a l r e a l i t y . F o r a l l h i s b eauty and n o b l e b i r t h , P a r z i v a l i s a f o o l i n t h e ways o f t h e w o r l d . He does not s u f f e r (as a l i t e r a l f o o l ) , b u t o t h e r s s u f f e r because o f him (the i n t e r n a l f o o l ) . When P a r z i v a l draws on I t h e r ' s armor o v e r h i s f o o l ' s c l o t h i n g Wolfram i s g i v e n a f u r t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l o i t t h e i n t e r p l a y between t h e i n t e r n a l and t h e e x t e r n a l . The armor becomes the e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a l t r u t h , the f a c t o f P a r z i v a l ' s k n i g h t l y h e r i t a g e ; t h e f o o l ' s c l o t h i n g be-comes i n t e r n a l i z e d , under t h e armor, and e x p r e s s e s an i n t e r n a l r e a l i t y , the l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n , P a r z i v a l ' s t u m p h e i t . The two garments p o i n t o u t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between h i s h e r i t a g e and h i s u p b r i n g i n g . The exchange o f t h e f o o l ' s c l o t h i n g f o r c o u r t l y garments i s c o n c u r r e n t w i t h t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e d u c a t i o n t h a t e x o r c i s e s t h e t u m p h e i t on t h e c o u r t l y l e v e l . CHAPTER FIVE GEMS I t was a common b e l i e f d u r i n g the M i d d l e Ages t h a t gems had s p e c i a l powers o f a m a g i c a l o r m e d i c i n a l n a t u r e : Ez i s t auch a i n gr6z fra"g, von wannen und wie so g r d z e u k r a f t und so g a r w u n d e r l e i c h e u maht den s t a i n e n kom, wan zwar s i habent g r o z k r e f t zuo des menschen g e s u n t h a i t und zuo andern d i n g e n . nu s p r i c h t u n s e r puoch ze l a t e i n , daz m e n s c h l e i c h e r v e r n u n f t unbekant s e i , von wannen d i e s t a i n d i e k r e f t habent, s i habens dan von g o t , wan a l l k r e f t koment von g o t , sam A r i s t o t i l e s s p r i c h t i n dem puoch von den i i b e r n a t u r l e i c h e n d i n g e n , daz ze l a t e i n h a i z t l i b e r m e t a p h y s i c e . (Buch d e r N a t u r VI) The andern d i n g e n o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t c e r t a i n l y i n c l u d e s "power" o f a m y s t i c a l n a t u r e , and gemstones were g i v e n a l l e g o r i c a l i n -t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n t h e numerous l a p i d a r i e s o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. Wolfram's a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e power o f gems i s i n d i c a t e d i n s e v e r a l passages i n P a r z i v a l . The G r a i l Company use a c a r -b u n c l e i n one attempt t o h e a l A m f o r t a s ' wound, f o r example, and i n d e s c r i b i n g F e i r e f i z ' o u t f i t , Wolfram mentions gems wh i c h i n c r e a s e t h e heathen's s t r e n g t h and s p i r i t s : daz ander waren s t e i n e , d i e m i t edelem arde r e i n e i n hSchgemiiete l e r t e n und s i n e k r a f t gemerten. ( P a r z . 743, 5-8) The gems w h i c h adorn A m f o r t a s ' bed a t Munsalvaesch have m e d i c i n a l powers as w e l l as " s p i r i t u a l " powers: 165 166 Etslecher l£rte hc-hen muot: ze s a e l d e u n t ze e r z e n l e guot was da maneges s t e i n e s sunder a r t . v i i k r a f t man an i n i n n e n w a r t , d e r z v e r s u o c h e n kund m i t l i s t e n . ( P a r z . 792, 1-5) I n a d d i t i o n t o s t a t i n g the i n h e r e n t powers t o be found i n gems, Wolfram uses gems m e t a p h o r i c a l l y i n h i s p r o l o g u e : i c h enhan daz n i h t f u r l l h t i u d i n e , swer i n den kranken messine v e r w u r k e t e d e l n rubl^n und a l d i e a V e n t i u r e s i n (dem gll*che i c h r e h t e n w^bes muot). d i u i r w i p h e i t r e h t e t u o t , dane sol i c h varwe prueven n i h t , noch i r h e r z e n dach, daz man s i h t . i s t s i i n r e h a l p der b r u s t bewart, so i s t werder p r l s dci n i h t v e r s c h a r t . ( P a r z . 3, 15-24) The i m p o r t o f t h i s pronouncement i s t h a t a r t i c l e s o f v a l u e must be t r e a t e d a c c o r d i n g l y , as must a r t i c l e s o f l i t t l e v a l u e . The s y m b o l i c i m p l i c a t i o n s o f gems i n P a r z i v a l a r e enhanced by t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t Wolfram meant the G r a i l t o be viewed 188 as a gemstone. U n f o r t u n a t e l y Wolfram d i d n o t h i m s e l f choose t o draw a s t r o n g c o n n e c t i o n between the G r a i l and t h e gemstones he mentions i n t h e n a r r a t i v e . I f he meant the G r a i l t o be a gem, i t was c e r t a i n l y as a o n e - o f - a - k i n d stone f o r w h i c h no comparison e x i s t e d . Gemstones i n P a r z i v a l have one o b v i o u s use: t h e y a r e men-t i o n e d f o r t h e sake o f i l l u s t r a t i n g w e a l t h and m a g n i f i c e n c e . T h i s i s t h e l i t e r a l f u n c t i o n o f gemstones i n t h e n a r r a t i v e and draws upon t h e i r g r e a t beauty and v a l u e . To t h i s l i t e r a l use Wolfram adds s e v e r a l n o n - l i t e r a l f u n c t i o n s : m e d i c a l use o f gems i s n o t found f r e q u e n t l y i n P a r z i v a l , b u t i t does appear o c c a s i o n -a l l y , u s u a l l y f o r t h e sake o f e m p h a s i z i n g c e r t a i n p o i n t s ; gems are used m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , b o t h f o r t h e i r v a l u e as w e l l as f o r t h e i r c o l o r ; and scenes and c o n c e p t s a r e l i n k e d t o g e t h e r by t h e use o f c e r t a i n gems. The G r a i l Company, h o p i n g t o c u r e A m f o r t a s , remove a 189 c a r b u n c l e from the f o r e h e a d o f a u n i c o r n , s t r o k e h i s wound w i t h i t and even i n s e r t t h e stone i n t o t h e wound. One can see i n t h i s a t t e mpt t h e uncommon n a t u r e o f t h e wound, b r i n g i n g w i t h i t t h e use o f uncommon remedies. The o n l y way a u n i c o r n can be caught i s i f i t i s l u r e d by a v i r g i n , "so" v a e h t man ez m i t 190 a i n e r kauschen j u n c f r a w e n " (Buch d e r N a t u r I I I A, 67). The gem i t s e l f i s e x p l a i n e d by Konrad von Megenberg t o s i g n i f y s a p i e n t i a , b u t i t a l s o appears a d o r n i n g Mary's garment i n t h e R h e i n i s c h e s M a r i e n l o b where i t has s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t c o n n o t a -t i o n s : De e c h t e s t e i n i s e i n C a r b u n k e l , de n a c h t e s s c h i n t i n d 's dags i s d u n k e l . he z i r e t s e r e d i n g e k l e i d e , wand he i s z e i c h e n d i n e r b a r m h e r z i c h e i d e . One can d e t e c t two s e p a r a t e s e t s o f a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t h e use o f t h i s s t o n e on A m f o r t a s ' wound. The u n i c o r n w h i c h i s t h e s o u r c e o f t h e gem can o n l y be t a k e n by a pure v i r g i n : t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n amount o f s t r e s s t h e n on p u r i t y and a v i r g i n a l l o v e , w h i c h i s t h e a n t i t h e s i s t o A m f o r t a s ' s i n , "Amor was si*n k r l e " 192 ( P a r z . 478, 3 0 ) . The "remedy" w h i c h had been atte m p t e d j u s t b e f o r e the use o f t h e c a r b u n c l e had a l s o s t r e s s e d t h i s a n t i t h e s i s : t h e p e l i c a n e x h i b i t s a pure l o v e by d y i n g f o r i t s young. The use o f t h e c a r b u n c l e t o i l l u s t r a t e b a r m h e r z i c h e i d e i n t h e M a r i e n l o b s u g g e s t s a second a s s o c i a t i o n . P a r z i v a l i s 193 . . c h a s t i s e d by Sigune and by C u n d r i e f o r f a i l i n g t o e x h i b i t 168 erbarme, f o r t h i s would have c u r e d A m f o r t a s . The p l a y on o p p o s i t e s w h i c h Wolfram demonstrates w i t h 194 r e s p e c t t o A m f o r t a s 1 wound can be seen i n t h e use o f t h e c a r b u n c l e as w e l l . T h i s gem s h i n e s more d u r i n g the n i g h t than d u r i n g t h e day, and i t s p u r i t y and k l c i r h e i t a r e used i n o p p o s i -t i o n t o t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e wound, " d i u wunde was e t l i i p p e c v a r " ( P a r z . 483, 4 ) . A l t h o u g h gems are used i n comparisons p r i m a r i l y f o r the sake o f t h e i r c o l o r , t h e y s t i l l c a l l up t h e s p e c i f i c a s s o c i -a t i o n s o f t h e q u a l i t i e s o f the gem, and when the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e c o m p a r a t i v e form ( i . e . b l u e r t h a n , r e d d e r than) i t s u g g e s t s an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e q u a l i t i e s . Wolfram t w i c e uses gem c o l o r comparisons i n h i s d e s c r i p -t i o n s o f C u n d r i e . D u r i n g h e r f i r s t v i s i t t o A r t h u r ' s encampment, the b l u e o f h e r c l o a k i s spoken o f as b l u e r than l a p i s l a z u l i : e i n b r u t l a c h e n von Gent, noch p l a w e r denne e i n l a s u r , h e t an g e l e i t d e r f r e u d e n s c h u r : daz was e i n kappe w o l g e s n i t e n a l nach d e r F r a n z o y s e r s i t e n : drunde an i r l i p was p f e l l e guot. ( P a r z . 313, 4-9) T h i s i s the o n l y i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n Wolfram uses i n h i s l e n g t h y d e s c r i p t i o n o f C u n d r i e , o t h e r w i s e she has h a i r as s o f t as a p i g ' s b r i s t l e s , t h e nose o f a dog, the t e e t h o f a b o a r , and so on. T h i s i s f u r t h e r m o r e t h e o n l y mention o f l a p i s l a z u l i i n t h e e n t i r e n a r r a t i v e , an uncommon gem e m p h a s i z i n g t h e un-common n a t u r e o f C u n d r i e and o f h e r m i s s i o n . L a p i s l a z u l i i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by b e i n g d e s c r i b e d as h i m e l v a r and o f f e r s a= remedy f o r m e l a n c o l i a . ^ J Wolfram i s perhaps b e i n g i r o n i c i n h i s c o n n e c t i o n o f t h i s gem t o C u n d r i e : h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f her i s p u n c t u a t e d by r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e sadness she b r i n g s w i t h h e r : i r maere t e t v i i l i u t e n l e i t . ( P a r z . 312, 5) A r t u s h e r s i b r S h t e p i n . ( P a r z . 312, 18) v i i hoher f r e u d e se n i d e r s l u o c . ( P a r z . 312, 30) The b l u e o f l a s u r , t h e b l u e o f heaven, i s f u r t h e r m o r e s u g g e s t i v e 196 o f t h e v i r t u e s so emphasized by h e r peacock plumed h a t . D u r i n g C u n d r i e ' s second v i s i t t o A r t h u r ' s camp, Wolfram uses a gem c o l o r comparison t o d e s c r i b e h e r e y e s : i r a n t l i i t z e i r habt vernomn: i r ougen stuonden dennoch s u s , g e l a l s e i n t h o p a z i u s . . . ( P a r z . 780, 18-20) The c o l o r i s s t r i k i n g a t once and i s c e r t a i n l y mentioned f o r t h e sake o f y e t a n o t h e r l a u g h a t C u n d r i e ' s h i d e o u s f a c e . C u n d r i e ' s y e l l o w e y e s , however, were n o t mentioned d u r i n g h e r f i r s t v i s i t , even though Wolfram p o i n t s o u t t h a t they have n o t changed c o l o r . T h e i r y e l l o w s h i n e s o u t a l o n g w i t h t h e g o l d i n t h e Wappen o f t h e t e m p l a r s , a l s o mentioned here f o r t h e f i r s t t i me i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h C u n d r i e . Konrad von Megenberg 197 mentions t h a t t h e c o l o r o f t h e topaz resembles g o l d . Topaz i s one o f t h e gems mentioned i n t h e v i s i o n o f t h e Heavenly J e r u s a l e m , and was i n t e r p r e t e d a l l e g o r i c a l l y as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e p e n t e n t s i n n e r : Nu s u l w i r werden i n a i n , waz p e z a i c h e n e t der s t a i n a l s o mare? a i n e n o f f e n e n s u n t a r e . den r i w e n t s i n e s c u l d e , unte e r g o t e s h u l d e m i t noten gewinnet, a l s o daz v i u r b r i n n e t uz tern c h o f e r daz g o l t : so w i r t ime g o t v i i h o l t 170 unt minnet i n mere den ander b e z z e r e . :nach dem h i m e l e i s t e r g e v a r e , swen i n s i n muot t r e i t dare ^gg alsam e ze den s u n t e n , e i n d i r i w e e r v u n t e n . P a r z i v a l , whose p r o g r e s s has been t h a t o f a r e p e n t e n t s i n n e r , h e a r s t h e news o f h i s u l t i m a t e s u c c e s s from t o p a z - e y e d C u n d r i e ; m i t n o t e n he has f i n a l l y won g o t e s h u l d e . When Gahmuret r i d e s i n t o K a n v o l e i s , Wolfram emphasizes th e r e d n e s s o f h i s mouth by comparing i t t o a ruby: s i n munt a l s e i n r u b i n s c h e i n von r o e t e a l s ober brunne: der was d i c k e und n i h t ze diinne. ( P a r z . 63, 16-18) T h i s s i m p l e comparison i s h e i g h t e n e d i n i t s e f f e c t by t h e extended meaning o f t h e ruby: a c c o r d i n g t o t h e M a r i e n l o b , i t t y p i f i e s t h e s o r t o f b u r n i n g p a s s i o n m o t i v a t i n g t h e m a r t y r s : d i k rone s i i s . r o t i n d s c h i n , s i d r e g t den vurgen e d e l n Rubin. he i s b e i d e v u r i c h i n d e r o t , he b e z e i c h e n t d e r m a r t i l j e n n o t , d i r o t des roden b l u d e s v l u t , ^ ^gg d a t b l u t e n t f e n g t d e r minnen g l u t . Gahmuret's s e n s u a l i t y and k n i g h t l y p a s s i o n a r e e v i d e n t i n t h e r e d o f h i s mouth. H i s son's p a s s i o n i s a l s o emphasized by the same gem c o l o r comparison, "noch r o e t e r denn e i n rubfc&n/was s i n k u r s i t u n t s i n s o r s e s k l e i t " (Parz,, 679, 10-11). The son e x h i b i t s the p a s s i o n o f t h e f a t h e r , b u t f a t h e r and son d i r e c t i t i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Gahmuret's p a s s i o n i s a p e r s o n a l one, d e v o t e d t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f i n t e r i o r d e s i r e s and p e r s o n a l whims. P a r z i v a l ' s p a s s i o n i s e x t e r n a l i z e d i n t h a t i t i s d i r e c t e d f i r s t o f a l l towards h i s k n i g h t l y q u e s t . The r u b y - r e d appears i n h i s armor, n o t on h i s p e r s o n . P a r z i v a l ' s " r e d n e s s " 171 o r p a s s i o n i s u l t i m a t e l y " r e d d e r " t h a n t h a t o f h i s f a t h e r . B e l a k a n e ' s crown i s formed o f a s i n g l e ruby j u s t as Gahmuret's helmet i s made o f a s i n g l e diamond. The gem i n d i -c a t e s t h e w e a l t h and m a g n i f i c e n c e o f B e l a k a n e ' s l a n d s and i t a l s o l e n d s a d i s t i n c t l y e x o t i c t o u c h f o r t h e sake o f Western a u d i e n c e s , accustomed t o the g o l d e n crowns o f t h e i r own sov-e r e i g n s . B o t h t h e s e gem h e a d p i e c e s a r e o f heathen o r i g i n (Gahmuret's helmet o r i g i n a l l y b e l o n g e d t o I s e n h a r t ) . The ruby crown i s t r a n s l u c e n t and [Belakane's head can be seen t h r o u g h i t , " i r k rone e i n l i e h t e r r u b i " n : / i r houbet man d e r d u r c h wol s a c h " ( P a r z . 24, 12-13). T h i s t r a n s l u c e n t gem i s r e c a l l e d a t Gahmuret's d e a t h when a r u b y , a l s o t r a n s l u c e n t , i s s e t o v e r h i s body: v o r jamer w a r t v i i l i u t e n we. e i n t i w e r r u b i n i s t d e r s t e i n ob sivme grabe, da* d u r c h e r s c h e i n . ( P a r z . 107, 6-8) The c o l o r o f the ruby has s i g n i f i c a n c e i n i t s use f o r B e l a k a n e ' s crown and f o r Gahmuret's g r a v e s t o n e . Belakane has caused I s e n h a r t ' s d e a t h and b e a r s t h e shadow o f b l o o d on her p e r s o n , even though h e r p a r t i n t h e d e a t h was u n i n t e n t i o n a l . Gahmuret's grave s t o n e r e p e a t s t h e c o l o r o f h i s b l o o d , t h e b l o o d t h a t s t a i n e d h i s s h i r t , and t h e g o a t ' s b l o o d w h i c h s o f t e n e d h i s helmet and p e r m i t t e d h i s f a t a l wound. F o r the heathen s i d e o f Gahmuret's f a m i l y , r u b i e s a r e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s . They a r e p r e s e n t a t t h e b e g i n -n i n g o f l o v e between Gahmuret and Belakane and t h e y mark th e d e a t h o f t h e f a t h e r . They a l s o mark th e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e C h r i s t i a n l i f e o f t h e son: t h e b a p t i s m a l f o n t a t Munsalvaesch where F e i r e f i z i s b a p t i z e d i s a l s o formed o f a s i n g l e ruby. Gahmuret d i d n o t w i s h t o deny h i s son h i s h e r i t a g e and i n h i s f a r e w e l l l e t t e r t o Belakane he c l a i m s h i s y e t unborn son and r e l a t e s h i s h e r i t a g e ; t h e b a p t i s m i s a f u l f i l l i n g o f h i s son's d e s t i n y and marks t h e change i n f a i t h w h i c h was g i v e n Belakane as a p o s s i b l e c o n d i t i o n f o r the r e t u r n o f t h e f a t h e r . Each o f t h e s e i n c i d e n t s i n Gahmuret's heathen f a m i l y i n v o l v e s a j o i n i n g o f C h r i s t i a n and heathen f o r c e s . The ruby crown marks t h e l o v e and m a r r i a g e o f heathen queen t o C h r i s t i a n k n i g h t ; t h e grave s t o n e marks Gahmuret's body, a marker p r o v i d e d by t h e heathen i n whose s e r v i c e t h e C h r i s t i a n k n i g h t d i e d ; the b a p t i s m a l f o n t marks t h e change i n f a i t h o f F e i r e f i z from heathen t o C h r i s t i a n . The ruby i s a s i g n i f i c a n t gem f o r t h e G r a i l c i r c l e as w e l l as f o r Gahmuret's heathen f a m i l y . I t i s the one gem worn by Amfortas d u r i n g t h e G r a i l ceremony w h i c h P a r z i v a l w i t n e s s e s a t M u n s a l v a e s c h , a l t h o u g h i t i s n o t mentioned d u r i n g P a r z i v a l ' s second v i s i t t o the c a s t l e . I t r e c a l l s t h e b l o o d w h i c h appears d u r i n g t h e ceremony, t h e b l o o d and agony o f t h e wound Am f o r t a s b e a r s as w e l l as t h e b l o o d o f t h e l a n c e b r o u g h t i n b e f o r e t h e G r a i l . P a r z i v a l ' s second v i s i t , d u r i n g w h i c h A m f o r t a s ' ruby i s n o t mentioned, i s accompanied by an abundance o f new l i f e t o the company i n t h e a r r i v a l o f P a r z i v a l ' s sons and the d e p a r t u r e o f Repanse w i t h F e i r e f i z b e a r i n g t h e promise o f a son as w e l l , new l i f e w h i c h removes t h e shadow o f b l o o d from t h e company. A second ruby appears d u r i n g t h e G r a i l ceremony, f o r m i n g t h e h i l t o f t h e sword p r e s e n t e d t o P a r z i v a l . T h i s weapon i s a l s o marked by t h e g e n e r a l a u r a o f d e s t r u c t i o n and r e p a i r : t h e b l a d e o f t h e sword s h a t t e r s a t t h e second blow b u t i s r e j o i n e d by t h e power o f a s p r i n g a t i t s s o u r c e . T h i s q u a l i t y o f d e s t r u c t i o n and r e p a i r permeates t h e e n t i r e G r a i l company: Am f o r t a s i s wounded b u t can be h e a l e d , P a r z i v a l f a i l s i n h i s m i s s i o n on h i s f i r s t v i s i t b u t i s g i v e n a second o p p o r t u n i t y t o f u l f i l l i t . The ruby h i l t i n a d d i t i o n echoes t h e c o l o r o f P a r z i v a l ' s armor. A m f o r t a s i s n o t t h e o n l y member o f t h e G r a i l company t o d i s p l a y a ruby: t h e h a n d l e o f t h e whip C u n d r i e c a r r i e s d u r i n g her f i r s t appearance i s formed o f t h i s gem. The i n s t r u m e n t i t s e l f i s n o t common i n the n a r r a t i v e : i t appears t w i c e as a whip and once i n a m e t a p h o r i c a l s t a t e m e n t made by K e i , " s o l iemen b r i n g e n uns den k o p f , / h i e h e l t d i u g e i s e l , d o r t d e r topf'J ( P a r z . 150, 15-16). I t i s p o s s i b l e t o vi e w C u n d r i e ' s whip i n a m e t a p h o r i c a l sense as w e l l f o r t h e r e i s a p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e r appearance and m i s s i o n and a concept w h i c h n o t a b l y appears i n Dante's Purga'torJo. As Dante e n t e r s each c o r n i c e , t h e l e v e l o f each p a r t i c u l a r s i n , he i s met w i t h t h e "whip'.' t o t h a t s i n , examples o f o p p o s i t e v i r t u e s meant t o "whip" t h e s i n n e r s on t o f o l l o w t h e examples g i v e n . He i s t o l d , f o r example;: T h i s c i r c l e purges the g u i l t o f E n v i o u s s p i r i t s , and f o r t h e s e 2 Q _ who f a i l e d i n Love, Love i s t h e l a s h t h a t s c o u r g e s . . . 174 C u n d r i e ' s appearance i n t h e s i x t h book i s d i r e c t e d t o do some-t h i n g o f t h i s s o r t , t o a c t as a "whip" b o t h by i n f o r m i n g P a r -z i v a l o f h i s f a u l t s and t o g i v e example o f t h e v i r t u e s a g a i n s t w h i c h P a r z i v a l had s i n n e d i n h i s f a i l u r e t o demonstrate p i t y f o r A m f o r t a s . C u n d r i e h e r s e l f i s moved t o t e a r s by t h e mere r e c o l l e c t i o n o f h i s p l i g h t : Cundri" was s e l b e sorgens p f a n t . a l weinde s i d i e hende want, daz manec zaher den andern s l u o c : grOz jamer se uz i r ougen t r u o c . d i e maget l e r t i r t r i u w e w o l k l a g e n i r h e r z e n r i u w e . ( P a r z . 318, 5-10) Forming t h e h a n d l e o f t h e a c t u a l whip she c a r r i e s i s t h e same st o n e worn by A m f o r t a s , r e f l e c t i n g h i s m o r t a l a n g u i s h f o r w h i c h C u n d r i e denounces P a r z i v a l . I t i s a l s o echoed i n P a r z i v a l ' s armor and h i s sword, a r t i c l e s w h i c h a r e f e a t u r e s o f h i s m i s s i o n and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f h i s f a i l u r e as w e l l as o f h i s d e s t i n y . Gahmuret's grave i s a l s o marked by a c r o s s c a r v e d from an e m erald, p l a c e d t h e r e by h i s C h r i s t i a n r e t a i n e r s b u t p a i d f o r by t h e Baruch. Gahmuret's own c o l o r r e a p p e a r s above h i s body, the gernden s i t e n o f t h e k n i g h t t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a s i g h o f C h r i s t i a n s a l v a t i o n . D e s p i t e h i s s e r v i c e o f t h e heathens, Gahmuret's s o u l i s a s s u r e d o f s a l v a t i o n : d i u m a n l i c h e t r i w e s i n g i t im ze h i m e l l i e h t e n s c h i n , und ouch s i n r i w i c p i h t e . ( P a r z . 107, 25-27) T r e v r i z e n t ' s r e l i q u a r y i s c a r v e d from a green s t o n e , q u i t e p r o b a b l y an emerald, which was g i v e n him by Gahmuret: e r gap s i n k l e i n o e t e m i r : swaz i c h im gap daz was sl^n g i r . mine k e f s e n , d i e du saehe ( d i u i s t noch g r i i e n e r denne d e r k l e ) 175 h i e z i c h wurken tiz eim s t e i n e den m i r gap der r e i n e . ( P a r z . 498, 7-12) The o r i g i n s o f t h e ston e i n Gahmuret's p o s s e s s i o n and t h e s t r e s s p l a c e d on i t s c o l o r , g r e e n e r t h a n c l o v e r , i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t the ston e i s m e a n t 1 t o be an emerald. Only t h r e e gems a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned w i t h r e s p e c t t o Gahmuret: the diamond, the ru b y , and t h e emerald. F u r t h e r m o r e , o f the gems s h a r i n g t h e c o l o r g r e e n , o n l y the emerald i s d e s c r i b e d as " g r e e n e r , " d e r i s t g r i i e n ob a l i e n griienen d i n g e n " (Buch d e r 202 N a t u r V I , 6 7 ) . These two emeralds mentioned s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Gahmuret a r e gems o f a " s e c u l a r " o r i g i n p u t t o a " r e l i g i o u s " use. The st o n e g i v e n T r e v r i z e n t was a g i f t from a k n i g h t p l e a s e d t o have met h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w , b u t was f a s h i o n e d i n t o a c o n t a i n e r f o r r e l i c s . The c r o s s above Gahmuret's grave was p r o v i d e d by a heathen b u t f a s h i o n e d and s e t t h e r e by C h r i s t i a n k n i g h t s . There i s here a merging o f s e c u l a r and r e l i g i o u s t h a t i s f r e q u e n t l y found i n o t h e r elements i n the n a r r a t i v e . P a r z i v a l , f o r example, b e g i n s h i s q u e s t as a k n i g h t s e e k i n g membership i n the f e l l o w s h i p o f the Round T a b l e , l o o k i n g f o r s e c u l a r a d v e n t u r e ; h i s k n i g h t h o o d becomes a s p i r i t u a l m i s s i o n . The s e c u l a r and the r e l i g i o u s merge i n P a r z i v a l ' s o a t h , t o O r i l u s as w e l l . He uses a r e l i g i r ous a r t i c l e , T r e v r i z e n t ' s r e l i