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Stress inducing outdoor space in three arctic villages as viewed by Inuit and Kadlunat Crassweller, Kenneth William 1976

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STRESS INDUCING OUTDOOR SPACE IN THREE ARCTIC ~.. VILLAGES AS VIEWED BY INUIT AND KADLUNAT KENNETH WILLIAM CRASSWELLER B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the School of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February, 1976 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the require-ments f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Li b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r sc h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representative. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. School of Community and Regional Planning The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, B.C. Canada Date A^"^ ^ 1976 i i ABSTRACT This i s a study of stress induced by the s p a t i a l configuration of outdoor space i n three a r c t i c communities. Stress inducing spaces are studied i n t h i s research i n terms of a paradigm i n v o l v i n g the s p a t i a l configuration of the space and the perceptual set and behavior-a l response of those experiencing the space. A stress inducing space i s defined as one that i s perceived to be uncontrollable, unpredictable, and inescapable. Two perceptual sets - Inuit and Kadlunat are assumed i n t h i s study. The data f o r t h i s study was gathered i n Pangnirtung, I g l o o l i k and Pond I n l e t i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , Canada, over a two month period i n 197^ -• Three research methods were used, researcher's unobtrusive observations, researcher informant i n t e r a c t i o n and informant generated data. Several techniques were developed under each method. The f i e l d work involved a t r i a l and error process. Techniques were t r i e d , r e s u l t -ing i n hunches concerning the occurance of stress inducing spaces, that were tested against the d e f i n i t i o n of s t r e s s f u l space. This prompted the organic growth of a r e p e r t o i r e of findings and data c o l l e c t i o n tech-niques . i i i C h a p t e r 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n Page I What i s Happen i ng i n t h e A r c t i c 9 I I Why T h i s S t u d y 1^ I I I Scope o f T h i s S t u d y 15 C h a p t e r 2 . T h e o r e t i c a l F ramework 17 I I n t r o d u c t i o n 17 I I Space 18 I I I p e r c e p t u a l Se t 19 IV S t r e s s 22 V B e h a v i o r a l Response 2k IV The P a r a d i g m 25 C h a p t e r 3- Me t hodo l o g y 27 I I n t r o d u c t i o n 27 I I C o l l e c t i n g D a t a 29 I I I A pp r o a ch 31 IV T e c h n i q u e 32 A . R e s e a r c h e r ' s U n o b t r u s i v e O b s e r v a t i o n s 1 . S p a t i a l C o n f i g u r a t i o n s 32 a) l o c a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r e s 32 b ) demograph i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r e s i d e n t s 32 c ) where " h u n t e r s " l i v e d 32 d) s pa ce s o f l i t t l e c o n c e r n 36 e) c i r c u l a t i o n sy s tems 36 f ) c l i m a t i c , o u t d o o r n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s 36 iv g) i n t o l e r a b l e sounds 36 2. Behavioral Traces a) traces of outdoor a c t i v i t i e s 37 b) drive through v i l l a g e 38 c) spaces frequently used 38 B. Researcher-Interviewee Observations 1. Issues 38 a) from news media 38 b) s e l e c t i n g issues from photographs 38 c) i d e n t i f y concerns, l a t e r photographed 1+2 2. Location previous, present homes of Inuit elders 1+2 3. Landmarks and H i s t o r i c a l S i t e s U2 C. Informant Generated Data 1. Photos 1*3 2. Survey kk 3. Pathways and Frequented Spaces kk k. Sand model kk 5- Art work 1+5 6. D i a r i e s 1+5 7« Pattern Language Cards 1+6 Chapter k. Findings I Introduction 51 II Findings 52 •A. S p a t i a l Configurations 1. i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y of u t i l i t i e s 53 2. l o c a t i o n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s 55 3. houses exposed to high winds 58 k. roads near houses 60 5. road erosion 62 6. e f f l u e n t run-off 63 B. Perceptual 1. establishments monopolizing space 65 2. c l u s t e r s of a f f i l i a t e d people's housing 70 3. poor a l l o c a t i o n hunters' housing 71 k. e l d e r l y Inuit r e l a t e d distant from each other 77 5. d i s p a r i t y l o c a t i o n and s i t i n g low cost and s t a f f housing 78 6. l a c k of view of sea f o r Inuit 80 7. lack of consecutive house numbering Qh 8. neglect c h i l d - a d u l t space perception differences 86 9. l o s s of h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s 89 C. Behavioral Response 1. use of landing s t r i p by pedestrians 92 2. residents inundated by v e h i c l e s 95 3. glut of abandoned consumer goods 96 h. scattered v e h i c l e s i n d i s r e p a i r 98 5. v a r i e d work and play hours kept by groups 99 6. unsupervised children's play spaces 100 7. time spent by c h i l d r e n i n Kadlunat a c t i v i t i e s 102 8. inadequate s i t i n g of houses 103 v i Chapter 5. Conclusion I Introduction 106 II Suggestions to Eliminate Contrary Planning Practices 108 III Suggestions to Better Accommodate " I n u i t " 110 References Cited 113 References 115 v i i L i s t of Maps and I l l u s t r a t i o n s Page Map 1 Location of B a f f i n Island i n North America 1 2 Location of v i l l a g e s studied on B a f f i n Island 2 3a 'Location of p r i n c i p l e i n s t a l l a t i o n s i n Pangnirtung 3 3b Location of p r i n c i p l e i n s t a l l a t i o n s at Pond Inl e t k 3c Location of p r i n c i p l e i n s t a l l a t i o n s at I g l o o l i k 5 ka C i r c u l a t i o n systems, Pangnirtung 33 kb C i r c u l a t i o n systems, I g l o o l i k 3^ kc C i r c u l a t i o n systems, Pond Inl e t 35 5a Issues, Pangnirtung 39 5b Issues, I g l o o l i k ko 5c Issues, Pond Inlet kl 6 Spaces i n v i l l a g e s c o n t r o l l e d by Establishments 66 7 Paths used by c h i l d r e n , Pangnirtung 8 l 8a Housing numbering, Pangnirtung 82 8b Housing numbering, Pond Inl e t 83 9 H i s t o r i c a l Sites 90 v i i i L i s t of Plates l a A i r photo of Pangnirtung 6 l b A i r photo of I g l o o l i k 7 l c A i r photo of Pond Inl e t 8 2 Vehicles causing noise 36 3 Children c o l l e c t i n g data kk k Sand model of Pangnirtung 5 View from window hj 6 Access to I g l o o l i k b u i l d i n g problem 5^ 7 A c c e s s i b i l i t y buildings to u t i l i t y d e l i v e r y , "Pang." 5^ 8 Power poles and snow d r i f t i n g , I g l o o l i k 55 9 Limited capacity water hauling vehicles 55 10 Location bulk storage tank problem 57 11 Permafrost damage 57 12 Cabled down houses to prevent wind damage 59 13 More evidence of high wind trouble 59 ih"•' Dust problems from roads 6 l 15 Roads dangerously near homes 6 l 16 Empty cable spool to prevent t r a f f i c encroachment 62 17 Water erosion problems 63 l8a Establishments c l e a r l y mark o f f "property" 67 18b Space use controversy over new community h a l l s i t e 68 l8c Where community h a l l to be b u i l t 68 l8d Route to school over establishments' property 69 l8e Establishments* use of prime b u i l d i n g land 69 ix Page 19 Overcrowded l o c a l establishment and HBC stock TO 20a Storage hunting gear and equipment i n "front yards" T3 20b Hunters' homes i n v i l l a g e s "backyards" 73 20c Hunters' homes away from sea or "entrance" to town 73 21a Hunters' homes deep i n v i l l a g e f o r skidoos to reach 7^ 21b "Doorway" into Pangnirtung 7^ 21c Terrain near "town" hard on track vehicles 75 21d Hunters cross broad expanses of town f o r supplies 75 21e Sled damage 76 22 T r a d i t i o n a l camp layout • 76 23a D i s p a r i t y of housing 79 23b Evidence of s h i f t of fa m i l i e s i n housing moves 79 23c Government s t a f f housing 79 23d Wage earners' l o c a t i o n near sea 80 2k Children's viewpoint of HBC b u i l d i n g 85 25a School children's concern with spaces 87 25b Children's eye l e v e l view of things seen on way to school 88 25c Abandoned dead dog, a concern to the ch i l d r e n 88 25d Dismantled apparatus s t i l l f o r play 88 26a HBC cannon and f l a g once pride of "Pang." 91 26b Whaling s t a t i o n b u i l d i n g s , Pang., h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t 91 27a Pangnirtung a i r s t r i p pedestrian short-cut 93 27b A i r s t r i p , Pangnirtung, 1967 9k 27c Pangnirtung, 19lk 9k 28 Low cost housing, Pangnirtung 96 Page 29a One way t r a f f i c sign, Pangnirtung 97 29b Vehicles compete with space use purposes 98 30a Child's drawing - s l i d i n g into v e h i c l e path 101 30b Supervised play space and housing 101 30c Children playing with u t i l i t a r i a n items 102 30d One "hang out" f o r youth, Pangnirtung 103 XX ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The idea f o r t h i s study echoes Kenneth Craik's words who wrote i n 1970 that a desired objective of designers of l i v i n g spaces i s to create "a molar p h y s i c a l environment that t r u l y r e f l e c t s the values and a c t i v i t i e s of i t s society through constant sensible a f f e c t i v e monitoring of i t s performance even i n the l i g h t of s t e a d i l y increasing s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l complexity." In the s p i r i t of these words t h i s w r i t e r g r a t e f u l l y acknowledges and i s indebted to the following whose assistance made t h i s study p o s s i b l e . My family; the students of the Pangnirtung School, N.W.T.; Central Mortgage and Housing; Gunther Abrahamson, George A l l e n , Tookasee Akpealeapik, Peter E l d r i d g e , Barry Gunn, A.J. Kerr, a l l of the Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s of the Federal Government, Ottawa; Dr. Rhoda Andras, Federal Government Research Centre, I g l o o l i k ; Venant A t t a -guajugusiq, I g l o o l i k ; Wally and Barbara Boyko, teachers, Pangnirtung; Ray Caouette, teacher, Pangnirtung; Tagat Curley, ITC President, Ottawa; Tom Demcheson, settlement manager, A r c t i c Bay, N.W.T.; Mike and E l l i e Denker, F r o n t i e r College, I g l o o l i k ; Hans Peter Duttle, Adult Education, Pangnirtung; Gerald Farthing, Saskatchewan Government, Swift Current; Mike Gardiner, Anglican Mission, Pangnirtung; Bob Giroux, hamlet secretary-manager, Pangnirtung; Fred Hunt, C o u n c i l l o r , Pond I n l e t ; Rose Ikadliyuk, I g l o o l i k ; Jim Kilabuk, Pangnirtung; Michael Kopak, I g l o o l i k ; Abraham Kownak, I g l o o l i k ; Keith Lawrence, Government of the N.W.T. Rt. Rev. (OMI) Lechat, R.C.Mission, I g l o o l i k ; Dennis Lowing, Government of the N.W.T., Frobisher Bay; Patty McKay, teacher, I g l o o l i k ; Brian Maclean, teacher, Pangnirtung; Blendina Makkik, i n t e r p r e t e r , I g l o o l i k ; Guy Mamatiaq, I g l o o l i k ; Luci and John Marquand, Ottawa; Boh Mathieson and David Dick, Winnipeg; B i l l McKenzie, Frobisher Bay; Simon Merkosak, Pond I n l e t ; Michael Murphy, teacher, Pangnirtung; Mike Murphy, game management, Pangnirtung; Jeanie Paton, Pangnirtung; Boh P i l o t , Government of the N.W.T., Frobisher Bay; Noah Pingattuq Sarva, I g l o o l i k ; Peter P i t s u i l a k , I g l o o l i k ; Max Ri s p i n , teacher, Pangnirtung; Dick Roberts, v i c e - p r i n c i p a l , Pangnirtung; Byron Robinson, I g l o o l i k ; John S c u l l i o n , Government of the N.W.T., Resolute Bay; Dr. R. Seaton, environmental psychologist, U.B.C. Vancouver; Ernie Seibert, operations manager, Parks, Pangnirtung; Dr. W. Stager, Graduate Studies, U.B.C. Vancouver; Alex Stevenson, Ottawa; Steph Stepheson, F i s h e r i e s and Marine Services, Federal Government, Winnipeg; James Weaver, p r i n c i p a l , Pangnirtung School; Rev. Don and Pat Whitbread, Anglican Mission, North B a t t l e f o r d , Sask. Dr. William Rees, School of Community and Regional Planning, U.B.C, for arousing t h i s author's i n t e r e s t i n the t h e s i s subject and f o r h i s suggestions; Professor Gordon Stead, U.B.C. Vancouver, f o r h i s d e t a i l e d suggestions. The author would e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t o thank Professor Brahm Wiesman, School of Community and Regional Planning, U.B.C, Vancouver, f o r h i s c a r e f u l e d i t i n g and support while guiding the author through the steps necessary to complete t h i s study. 1 MAP 1 LOCATION and SIZE of BAFFIN ISLAND Scak l-loo,ooo ,000 (approx) l"*/6oo "»/'. (ofifon) SOO l*oo /ibo iaoo 3,tOO lOOO fi'/u (QfiftntiJ 'M, eficoMersHs Sketch from Encyclopedia B r i t a n n i c a World Atl a s 19^ 2 using Goodes' Homolosine Equal-area Pr o j e c t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago. Key to Location of I n s t a l l a t i o n s a i r s t r i p school Anglican mission storage area R.C.M.P. detachment Hudson's Bay Co. ("HBC") f u e l storage tanks Map 3 a. Sketch Map of PANGNIRTUNG 197^ scale l " = approx. kOO' 9 Chapter 1. Introduction What i s Happening i n the A r c t i c The Inuit (Canadian "Eskimo") majority i n Canada's eastern a r c t i c , i n p a r t i c u l a r the B a f f i n Islanders, l i v e d f o r the most part i n a semi-nomadic, food gathering subsistance economy up u n t i l the nineteen f i f t i e s . They l i v e d i n , and hunted out of, winter and summer camps that were located near the migration routes of the animals they hunted and near where f i s h spawned. Williamson (1968) describes how the Inuit from the 1920's to the 1950's continued to l i v e i n small hunting camps populated by members of extended f a m i l i e s and to trade into small trading posts such as Pangnirtung, I g l o o l i k and Pond I n l e t . Then i n the 1950's the f e d e r a l government increased the services to the people which had been dispensed mainly through the Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e or the Hudson's Bay Company representatives at the posts. The new services included the b u i l d i n g of schools, nursing s t a t i o n s , and houses, which brought the people i n from the camps to l i v e i n the growth centres that evolved from post to settlement, hamlet and now v i l l a g e s . Some hunters became school j a n i t o r s , others apprentice e l e c t r i c a l power plant operators, u n t i l eventually fewer households were dependent on the hunters' e f f o r t s . Government cheques became the source of funds to buy an ever increasing supply of consumer goods. The s h i f t from a subsistance hunting economy to a wage earning economy became an i r r e v e r s i b l e r e a l i t y , with those persons under t h i r t y becoming week-end hunters. Following the s h i f t from hunting camps to the growing communities where the Inuit became more involved i n wage labour, t r a v e l and movies, 10-th ere came i n Sonnenfeld's (1967) view, an increased contact with an " a l i e n population" and subsequently a "landscape preference change." Adams (1971) suggested that "Eskimo materialism stems from the devaluation of h i s o l d c u l t u r e , " but that the Eskimo kept h i s " c u l t u r a l core" as a r b i t e r of s o c i a l forms and organizations i n the times of " s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n . " The r e s u l t of t h i s , according to Adams, was a community pattern where r o l e c o n f l i c t , interpersonal disagreements, s o c i o - c u l t u r a l impoverishment and lack of privacy as stress factors l e d to "behavioral disorders and stress reactions." This phenomena i s w e l l documented i n the l i t e r a t u r e and i t appears easier to v e r i f y as the v i l l a g e s i n the a r c t i c grow l a r g e r , more complex, and s i m i l a r to those i n southern Canada. For the purpose of t h i s study the words " I n u i t " and "Kadlunat" w i l l be used i n t h i s way. An " i n u i t " w i l l be anyone who l i v e d i n an o u t l y i n g camp apart from any of the three v i l l a g e s studied, and who s t i l l t r i e s to hunt, f i s h or trap for a l i v e l i h o o d while l i v i n g i n one of the three v i l l a g e s . A Kadlunat would be one who was born outside the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s (or northern Quebec) and i s engaged i n f u l l time wage earn-ings, or would be a member of an " i n u i t " family who i s a wage earner a l l or part of the time and does not depend on hunting and f i s h i n g f or a l i v e l i -hood. The emotionally charged words "Eskimo" and "whiteman" w i l l be avoided i n t h i s t h e s i s . One set of features that the a r c t i c w i l l r e t a i n as i t s own apart from the south i s the unique demanding natural s e t t i n g . Permafrost, severe c o l d , high winds, long dark winter days, and long periods of l i g h t i n the summer challenge the imagination of anyone designing l i v i n g spaces to help reduce a l l forms of s t r e s s , p h y s i c a l , psychological, and s o c i a l . 11 The three v i l l a g e s chosen f o r t h i s study are located on or near B a f f i n Island i n the Eastern A r c t i c . See Map 2. A l l three communities "began as trading centres f o r the In u i t . Pangnirtung, (plate l a ) i s located on the north-eastern shore of Cumberland Sound. In 197^ i t had a population of over 900, of which approximately 266 were elementary school c h i l d r e n . I t i s surrounded by mountains r i s i n g steeply from sea l e v e l . Pangnirtung i s the terminus of a pass through the B a f f i n mountains and the access route to the newly created B a f f i n National Park. I t s economy i s s t i l l to some degree based on se a l i n g , f i s h i n g , as well as caribou and some walrus hunting, but i s mainly on employment i n the l o c a l service i n d u s t r i e s including municipal services. The park provides some employment opportunities f o r l o c a l residents but construction continues to play a r o l e i n the economy. The community has a l o c a l c o u n c i l and settlement manager appointed by the c o u n c i l , and a housing as s o c i a t i o n elected by the l o c a l residents. It has a public laundry, two stores, one being a l o c a l co-operative, two churches, one school, a h o t e l , a gymnasium, a community h a l l and a summer swimming pool. I t has a water and sewage d e l i v e r y and pick up s t a t i o n , as well as d i e s e l power. The v i l l a g e i s bisected by a l i g h t e d 3^00 foot long, 100 foot wide a i r s t r i p equipped with a non-directional beacon to si g n a l the v i l l a g e ' s l o c a t i o n . The government employees include the p o l i c e , parks manager, school teachers, power plant manager, nurses and postmistress. There i s also a volunteer f i r e brigade. Up to three scheduled a i r mail f l i g h t s are made into Pangnirtung weekly. There are reported to be three to f i v e miles of road i n the centre and i n 197^ twenty-seven v e h i c l e s , not including l i g h t snowmobiles, motorcycles or municipal equipment. 12 Telephone communication to points outside the centre i s v i a the Anik s a t e l l i t e . Both the National Parks Service and the RCMP have radio sets. I g l o o l i k (plate lb) i s located on I g l o o l i k Island near the eastern entrance of Fury and Hecla S t r a i t s . Evidence e x i s t s that the i s l a n d has been populated since the l a s t g l a c i a t i o n , approximately 2000 BC. But the present growth centre was s e t t l e d p r i m a r i l y by the Hudson's Bay Company and the Roman Catholic Church, followed by Inuit of two d i f f e r e n t t r i b a l o r i g i n s . There i s a population of approximately 6j0. I g l o o l i k ' s economy i s based mainly on wage employment supplemented with returns from hunting and trapping of s e a l , walrus and fox, and government a i d cheques. The v i l l a g e has a l o c a l c o u n c i l , housing a s s o c i -ation and settlement c l e r k . Water and sewage i s delivered and removed by truck. E l e c t r i c i t y i s supplied by d i e s e l power. There i s an accessible harbour and a gravel landing s t r i p of 3600 feet by 150 f e e t , with a non-directional beacon. Regular f l i g h t s are scheduled twice weekly from Frobisher Bay. The volunteer f i r e department has 10 men and one tracked v e h i c l e . There i s a p o l i c e detachment, two stores, one of which i s a co-op, nursing s t a t i o n , primary school, two churches, community h a l l , post o f f i c e , p u b l i c laundry and a transient centre. There are no radar e a r l y warning "DEW l i n e " bases i n operation on or near I g l o o l i k , Pangnirtung, or Pond I n l e t . Nor are there any metero-l o g i c a l or Federal Department of Transport f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r i n g resident s t a f f h i r e d and t r a i n e d outside the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . The a i r s t r i p s i n or near a l l three v i l l a g e s are b u i l t and maintained by the Federal and T e r r i t o r i a l Governments and upgraded by the Canadian Armed Forces i n recent years. 13 Pond I n l e t , located on E c l i p s e Sound on the northeastern part of B a f f i n Island, has a population of approximately hOO. The p o l i t i c a l , economic, s o c i a l and educational makeup of t h i s v i l l a g e i s very s i m i l a r to that of I g l o o l i k and Pangnirtung, with the except of t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t point. For Pond residents employed by o i l and mining companies, who l i v e and work at o i l d r i l l i n g s i t e s , or at the i r o n ore deposit s i t e near A r c t i c Bay, "Pond" i s becoming a "wealthy bedroom community" to which they return from "outside" f o r a holiday, to r e s t , or hunt and f i s h near "Pond." Pond I n l e t (plate l c ) which i s geographically located nearer o i l and mining s i t e s , o f f e r s more foreseeable opportunities f o r employment than do I g l o o l i k and Pangnirtung. This may r e s u l t i n Pond experiencing a more rapid rate of growth i n population than the two v i l l a g e s studied. U n l i k e I g l o o l i k and Pangnirtung, the accomodation of Inuit hunters may not be a problem i f the trend continues to make "Pond" a permanent bedroom community whose residents are, for the most part, wage employed. When people l i v e d i n the a r c t i c i n hunting camps or i n trading centres there were fewer s p a t i a l problems then than at the time of t h i s study. People could u s u a l l y put things where they wanted them, or move away, l o s i n g very l i t t l e i n t h e i r move. Then the Inuit moved in t o the trading centres to l i v e there permanently. The l o c a t i o n of the schools, housing and u t i l i t i e s , service and a l l the other i n f r a s t r u c t u r e d i d not compete for space nor present insurmountable problems u n t i l r e c e n t l y - when b u i l d i n g land beyond the reach of the present u t i l i t y service l i n e s be-came scarcer i n the v i l l a g e s . As the v i l l a g e s grew, "more of everything" was needed, and there was l i t t l e place to put i t to s a t i s f y conventional engineering standards. Some of the things that were i n place grew l a r g e r , taking up more valuable space. (See maps 3a,b,c). A i r s t r i p s , bulk Ik storage tanks, schools, b u i l d i n g s , roads, vehicular t r a f f i c , power poles and other service i n s t a l l a t i o n s now play a dominant r o l e , dwarfing the Inuit people they are intended to serve. People whose job i t i s to put these things i n t o the centres presumably meet t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l standards for "safety, service and e f f i c i e n c y , " but i n doing so may create stressors f o r some residents who, i n turn, i n s a t i s f y i n g t h e i r needs, do what they can i n , or t o , the spaces which may create stressors f o r others, and the process continues. The b u i l d e r s of growth centres have problems. The natural elements, wind, snow, run-off, erosion, damage buildings,remove roads, prevent water de l i v e r y and sewage pickup. Removal of the active surface layer of perma-f r o s t creates further erosion, b u i l d i n g and v e h i c l e movement problems. Those who use what the b u i l d e r s have provided also have problems. The residents who adopt the Kadlunat mind set may question the I n u i t s ' use of outdoor spaces, who i n turn question the Kadlunat-converted I n u i t s ' use of space. Each cause stressors f or the other, as w e l l as f o r members of t h e i r own mind set. Hamlet c o u n c i l and housing as s o c i a t i o n members responsible for munici-p a l services and housing a l l o c a t i o n , as well as those who are i n government p o s i t i o n s , have d i f f i c u l t i e s that originated i n the design of urban spaces even at such a micro l e v e l . 2. Why This Study? In a r c t i c growth centres people are muddling through i n - s o - f a r as planning i s concerned. Things are put into the centres, changed or removed. Things ( i n s t a l l a t i o n s ) wall o f f or border outdoor areas creating spaces that are used, ignored or done over. In other words, people use 15 "what's there" or "bring " s t u f f i n " to s a t i s f y t h e i r own needs, and i n doing so create.spaces that may induce stress f o r themselves or others. Moreover, they come and go without much thought of what they leave behind i n the way of objects that take up space and continues to be part of the l i v e s of those who remain. I t i s clear t h a t , as the v i l l a g e s grow, so do the problems. Inuvik and Frobisher Bay are examples of t h i s . I t i s also clear with the increasing b i r t h over death r a t e s , places l i k e I g l o o l i k , Pond Inl e t and Pangnirtung w i l l also grow, and so w i l l t h e i r problems, presenting obstacles to need s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r those who remain resident i n the v i l l a g e s . Scope of This Study While the author does recognize the magnitude of the problems that develop i n v i l l a g e s i n the a r c t i c as they grow i n s i z e , r e a l i z i n g the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study he w i l l only deal with one very small part of the s i t u a t i o n concerning space and st r e s s . This study examines the outdoor spaces within each v i l l a g e from the stand point of whether some of these spaces are s t r e s s f u l to the v i l l a g e residents. When t h i s study was being conceived i t was thought that three v i l l a g e s could be compared to determine whether stresses found i n one existed i n the other two. The author was not able to cope with the great number of variables that suggested themselves. It was then thought that each v i l l a g e would o f f e r unique opportunities to develop ways of answering these questions stated here as the major objectives of t h i s study: 1. Do st r e s s o r s , as defined i n t h i s study, e x i s t i n v i l l a g e s i n the a r c t i c , i f so, what are they? 2. Can a paradigm be developed to explain how the stressors found r e l a t e d 16 to the dynamics of the s i t u a t i o n or context i n which the stressors are located? 3. What spaces are evident i n the v i l l a g e s that may harbour or f o s t e r stress? How are these spaces perceived by residents? How are they used? And do people a c t u a l l y manipulate space i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to r e l i e v e the e f f e c t s of stress? The balance of t h i s t h e s i s w i l l document the attempts to answer'.these questions, reporting on the f i e l d study completed and concluding with a l i s t of suggestions concerning design problems and solutions to reduce the e f f e c t s of the stressors that were discovered. Chapt. II Contains a discussion of the t h e o r e t i c a l background to t h i s study including a d e f i n i t i o n of s t r e s s f u l space and a paradigm in v o l v i n g l ) the s p a t i a l configuration of space; 2) the perceptual set of the persons affected by the space, and 3) t h e i r behavioural response. Chapt.-. I l l Describes the methods involved i n data c o l l e c t i o n and ana l y s i s . Chapt. IV Outlines the findings of t h i s study i n terms of defining several spaces that are believed to induce s t r e s s . Chapt. V Contains conclusions concerning t h i s study, i t s v a l i d i t y , and the need f or further research as well as several p o l i c y implications derived from the fin d i n g s . 17 Chapter 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Introduction The outdoor spaces i n a r c t i c v i l l a g e s , and what happens i n these spaces can "best be described i n t h i s author's opinion by f i r s t assuming that the Inuit and Kadlunat residents i n t e r a c t with the surroundings that have been created by "outsiders" l i v i n g elsewhere who are Kadlunats employed by government and non-government agencies that structure the v i l l a g e surroundings to s a t i s f y t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n a l needs, but do not nece s s a r i l y provide surroundings f o r the Inuit and Kadlunat l i v i n g i n the v i l l a g e s to s a t i s f y t h e i r needs, and consequently created stress inducing spaces f o r them. Inuit who have r e s e t t l e d from hunting camps to v i l l a g e s s t r i v e to meet t h e i r needs within a set of spaces accommodating Kadlunat l i f e s t y l e s p r a c t i c e d i n the south and foreign to them. Consequently these Inuit may perceive as s t r e s s f u l some spaces not perceived i n t h i s way by the Kadlunat The s t r i v i n g of the Inuit and Kadlunat to coexist i n a r c t i c v i l l a g e s i s acknowledged as an ongoing process. The beginnings of the v i l l a g e s consisted of s p a t i a l configurations produced by the presence of Hudson's Bay posts and RCMP detachment b u i l d i n g and the disappearing and reappearing tents of v i s i t i n g trading Inuit hunters that clustered about the "Bay" and p o l i c e b u i l d i n g s . This was followed by schools, power pl a n t s , houses f o r "outsider" teachers and power plant operators and administrators. A series of house-b u i l d i n g programs sponsored by the f e d e r a l government and l a t e r the northwest t e r r i t o r i e s government r e s u l t e d i n an even more complex set of s p a t i a l configurations, that were made maze-like by the further i n -s t a l l a t i o n of u t i l i t y l i n e s and storage tanks as the v i l l a g e s grew. Three groups, the i n s t a l l e r s , a l l o c a t o r s , and users, interacted i n the e r r a t i c growth process of these v i l l a g e s . These d i f f e r e n t groups, i n pursuit of t h e i r needs, a c t u a l l y impinge on each other by generating c o n f l i c t i n g space use s i t u a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g i n some spaces being perceived as s t r e s s f u l by opposing space users. Having accepted t h i s scenario as a base for subsequent discussion, l e t us consider the following d e f i n i t i o n s of "space," " s t r e s s , " and "s t r e s s o r s , " along with the r e l a t e d m aterial on which the method used to describe the v i l l a g e s dynamics i n terms of s t r e s s f u l spaces was developed. This chapter describes then: 1. Why t h i s author chose to use the variables "space" and " s t r e s s . " 2. His findings from the l i t e r a t u r e leading to the development of the means of describing s t r e s s f u l space i n the v i l l a g e s studied. 3. What i s meant by the terminology used throughout the study. SPACE Why study space and what p a r t i c u l a r kind of space are we t a l k i n g about? i s a necessary question to ask at t h i s point. Space, according to a number of authors, has several q u a l i t i e s that make i t worthy of being studied. Gibson (1950) for example, states that s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n studies are the cornerstones of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of in t e r a c t i o n s between humans and the environment. Space, according to Senn (1970), can encourage or discourage s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Sommer (1969) also characterized space by i t s a b i l i t y to 19 keep people apart or b r i n g them together. In Watson's (1969) opinion, space does not d i r e c t l y determine man's behavior but sets both p o s s i b i l i -t i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s to c u l t u r a l development. A point that w i l l be mentioned i n the discussion to follow on s t r e s s . Having accepted the importance of "space" t h i s author turned to the work of Buttimer (1972). She suggested f i v e l e v e l s of s p a t i a l a n a l y s i s , of which t h i s study w i l l be concerned with one. I t i s the i n t e r a c t i o n space, i n v o l v i n g a c t i v i t y and c i r c u l a t i o n patterns; which w i l l include f o r the purpose of t h i s study patterns of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with t e r r i t o r y and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i d e n t i f y i n g spaces as d i s t i n c t s o c i a l areas: i n other words, what people do with and i n outdoor spaces and what elements they locate i n these spaces i n the process of searching f o r ways to s a t i s f y t h e i r needs. In t h i s t h e s i s such spaces defined i n the following p a r t i c u l a r way w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as " s p a t i a l configurations." That i s to say, any outdoor space that i s delineated by i n s t a l l a t i o n s , penetrated by stationary or moving objects or l i v i n g things w i l l be considered a s p a t i a l configuration. What goes on i n a space, to a space, or i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of that space that a f f e c t s i t w i l l be considered to characterize that space f o r d e s c r i p t i o n purposes. A " s p a t i a l configuration" then, i s not an outdoor, a i r - f i l l e d space, but one that has something being done to i t or i n i t . In other words, i s a used space that can be described i n references to the objects or things impinging on i t that make i t what i t i s . PERCEPTUAL SET Following consideration of the v a r i a b l e space, and before discussing " s t r e s s , " i t i s necessary to think about how people view "space." This w i l l 20 depend on what they bring to t h e i r experience i n the form of preconceived ideas, opinions, and a t t i t u d e s . The " c u l t u r a l screen," using H a l l ' s (1963) term-, i n which he f i l t e r s through h i s perceived "sensory t r a c e s " which H a l l t r a n s l a t e s into meaning experiences w i l l be r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s study as h i s perceptual set. Sonnenfeld (1967) argues that everyone has a perceptual set that can be influenced by a number of variables i n that person's l i f e , such as age, occupation and the r o l e that person plays i n l i f e . As did Sonnenfeld, Day (1969) sees that perception develops through general l i f e stages. He states that such development i s dependent on experience with the environment. Infants and small animals perceive depth, distance, s i z e and shape, while chi l d r e n and youth develop a sense of time, place and colour. Adopting t h i s theory, the author assumes that people of d i f f e r e n t ages and other personal a t t r i b u t e s perceive and use space d i f f e r e n t l y . But a perceptual set i s contingent also on c u l t u r e , i n h e r i t e d or acquired. In the a r c t i c there appears to be three d i s t i n c t perceptual sets, Kadlunat, Inuit and c h i l d r e n . Children, who are neither wage earners, nor hunters, fishermen or trappers, are considered i n t h i s study to be a t h i r d group. They view things d i f f e r e n t l y than adults and are, f o r the most pa r t , pedestrians. But since most of t h e i r l i v e s have been spent i n the v i l l a g e s and not i n the hunting and f i s h i n g camps, i t i s suspected that they think more l i k e the Kadlunat. What s p a t i a l configurations would be d i r e c t l y s t r e s s f u l to the " I n u i t " would not be to the c h i l d r e n . But what would be s t r e s s f u l to a Kadlunat i n s t a l l e r or a l l o c a t o r of these configurations would not be to the c h i l d r e n , e i t h e r . 21 As c h i l d r e n they would see things i n a d i f f e r e n t perspective. Children play, work and pass through spaces adults often need not frequent, other than to discard or r e t r i e v e "stored" items, or churn up the permafrost i n these spaces en route to some place e l s e . I t i s assumed i n t h i s study that " c h i l d r e n " and " i n u i t " are not u s u a l l y i n s t a l l e r s or a l l o c a t o r s of the s p a t i a l configurations, but that Kadlunat are. What s p e c i f i c a l l y does "perceptual set" have to do with " s t r e s s " i n a r c t i c v i l l a g e s ? Let us look at the Kadlunat from the south and the Inuit from the camps who move into the v i l l a g e s made up of spaces foreign to them. Proctor (1968) said people who want to l i v e i n new surroundings but i n t h e i r accustomed way would bring material things of t h e i r culture to t h e i r new home i n what he c a l l an "encapsulated environment." Chance (1961) observed e a r l i e r that native people of several countries, when moving from i s o l a t e d settlements to more urban ones are required to act i n terms di c t a t e d by more complex sets of s o c i a l arrangements, but carry " c u l t u r a l cognitions" that undergo l i t t l e immediate change. This d i s j u n c t i o n be-tween behavioral requirements and the cognitive organization of migrants generate stress f o r the newcomers. This assumes behaviour, tempered by what Sonnenfeld and Day said about perceptual set and development concepts, represents a person's process of coping, to reduce or remove environment threats that can cause s t r e s s . So f a r we have discussed two v a r i a b l e s , space and perceptual set, that w i l l be used i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to two others, " s t r e s s " and "behavioral response" to form a paradigm. Let's now look at the concept " s t r e s s . " 22 STRESS What i s stress and why study i t ? The study of stress can integrate the findings of several d i s c i p l i n e s and can he used as a way of uncovering and systematizing diverse data. For instance, the impact of s t r e s s o r s , which Hans Selye (1956) l a b e l l e d "the s t i m u l i that cause s t r e s s , " are i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study as those that are s p a t i a l l y r e l a t e d and have a disrupting influence a f f e c t i n g the l i v i n g patterns of the residents of a r c t i c v i l l a g e s . Two kinds of s t r e s s o r s , primary and secondary, are subject to study. Primary are those s t i m u l i outside the body producing an excess or d e f i c i e n c y of i n t e r n a l i z e d proper-t i e s under, or over and above what the human body needs to function e f f i c i e n t l y , such as severe c o l d , disease and alcohol. Although primary stressors are recognized as of extreme importance i t i s those secondary stressors that can be r e l i e v e d through p h y s i c a l design solutions that w i l l be discussed i n t h i s study. That i s to say, those that create high l e v e l s of f r u s t r a t i o n and mental discomfort to those who i n s t a l l , a l l o c a t e or use the s p a t i a l configurations to be discussed. Levi (1967) suggests that modern s o c i e t i e s ( a r c t i c v i l l a g e s shelter such s o c i e t i e s ) create more subtle stressors than those found i n the Inuit t r a d i t i o n a l hunting camps now abandoned f o r l i f e i n such v i l l a g e s as Pangnirtung, Pond In l e t and I g l o o l i k . Selye (1956) s a i d s t i m u l i that cause stress put a person i n a p o s i t i o n where, even though he i s b i o -l o g i c a l l y programmed to " f i g h t or f l e e " (Lazarus, 1966) adopts more r e f i n e d reaction patterns that lead to h i s s u f f e r i n g from stress over and above what Selye (1956) c a l l e d a "person's threshold l i m i t of tolerance." A r c t i c v i l l a g e residents may be i n just such p o s i t i o n s . I t i s accepted 23 that people need a c e r t a i n amount of s t i m u l i , i f f o r nothing else than to have external signals i n order to orientate themselves to the changing conditions of t h e i r environment. However, when the s t i m u l i exceed t h e i r coping powers, d i v e r t i n g energy from the s a t i s f a c t i o n of needs, then i t i s assumed the s t i m u l i "become stressors and should be eliminated or t h e i r influenced reduced. How can stress be defined i n terms of what happens i n the outdoor spaces i n the v i l l a g e s to be studied, and what c r i t e r i a can be used to discern i t s existence? Stress, explained i n engineering terms, i s s t r a i n that i s the r e s u l t of an environmental s p a t i a l order counteracted by the degree of f l e x i -b i l i t y of that environment. (Turen, 1973). According to t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , the coping process involves u t i l i z a t i o n and re-arrangement of the s p a t i a l parts. In psychological terms stress r e s u l t s from sensory overload or deprivation and i t i s assumed that a person t r i e s to reduce or eliminate s t r a i n that he or she cannot adequately handle. Turen (1973) claimed stress r e s u l t e d from psychological overload i n the process of reducing or eliminating environmental threats. Glass and Singer (1972) saw noise as an environmental threat since i t confronted a person with a s i t u a t i o n where he was at the mercy of h i s environment, by perceiving noise as unpredictable, inescapable and uncontrollable. This author assumes as a given that the process of r e l i e v i n g stress i n a s p a t i a l context i s synonymous with the process of s a t i s f y i n g needs i n a s p a t i a l context. By t h i s process people make what they encounter i n space pre-d i c t a b l e , c o n t r o l l a b l e and escapable; r e s u l t i n g i n t h e i r needs being s a t i s f i e d to some extent, or at l e a s t the needs w i l l not be i n t e r f e r e d with by the space. THE CRITERIA FOR STRESS INDUCING SPACE A space i s considered stress inducing i f something about that space makes i t unpredictable, uncontrollable, and inescapable. That i s to say, i t i s stress inducing i f the person frequenting that space, or other space affe c t e d by i t cannot p r e d i c t , c o n t r o l , or escape what happens i n that s t r e s s f u l space, or what happens to objects i n i t , or the b u i l d i n g s , structures or items i n or about that space that delineate i t . Space i s defined as the dimension i n which movement takes place. Persons frequent-ing the stress inducing spaces encounter a c t i v i t i e s or objects i n or bordering those spaces that make'these spaces i d e n t i f i a b l e . A person may need a p a r t i c u l a r space to do something to i t or i n i t , or frequent a space immediately adjacent to i t i n order to s a t i s f y a p a r t i c u l a r need. I f he finds he cannot c o n t r o l the space, p r e d i c t what w i l l happen to i t , escape to another space, or use another space, or escape the consequences of what happens i n i t or to that space, then that p a r t i c u l a r space i s perceived by him as a stressor space or a stress inducing space. BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE Let us now look at the three variables "space," "perceptual set" and " s t r e s s " i n terms of the fourth "behavioral response." A person who inadvertently creates a stressor perceives a space i n a p a r t i c u l a r way, depending on the c o l l e c t i v e nature of everything that he brings to the experience - h i s perceptual set. To s a t i s f y c e r t a i n r e -quirements he does something to the space that w i l l be used by someone else - the respondent. The respondent i n turn brings to the experience his perceptual set and, should the space not help him to s a t i s f y h i s needs perceives i t and perhaps i t s creator as s t r e s s o r s . He may be able, i n 25 turn, to do something to the space or act i n a p a r t i c u l a r way to compen-sate for what he perceives as an obstacle to s a t i s f y i n g h i s needs. So persons bring to t h e i r surroundings everything that makes them what they are, r e f e r r e d to here as t h e i r perceptual set. Their responses to the spaces they frequent are l a b e l l e d "Behavioral Responses." The surroundings that they and others frequent i n seeking t h e i r needs i s c a l l e d the S p a t i a l Configuration. THE PARADIGM - In Summary Given that what has been said here about space, behavior and stress has v a l i d i t y , t h i s paradigm was adopted to i d e n t i f y stressors i n three v i l l a g e s . The paradigm consists of three parts. These are S p a t i a l Configuration, Perceptual Set and Behavioral Response. The S p a t i a l Configuration r e f e r s to the spaces delineated by i n s t a l l a t i o n s i n v i l l a g e s . The Perceptual Set represents the sum t o t a l of a l l experiences gained through which those who perceive space f i l t e r what they see to make a judgment about the spaces they occupy. The "Behavioral Response" describes how persons respond to the stress generated by the spaces that they occupy, contingent on t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r "Perceptual Sets." It suggests that people depending on t h e i r perceptual set, i n the pursuit of t h e i r needs, do something to t h e i r surroundings which may create stressors f o r others. It follows that those stressors that generate stress over and above human tolerance, i n Hans Sely e 1 s terms, ought to be changed or removed from these a r c t i c v i l l a g e s . 26 Stressors obstruct need s a t i s f a c t i o n . So by i d e n t i f y i n g stressors i n a r c t i c v i l l a g e s i n the context of a paradigm which also helps to h i g h l i g h t where the problems generating stressors may be, the reader may gain a greater understanding of how the processes i n these centres may be a l t e r e d to decrease the stressors there. In chapter four the stressors i d e n t i f i e d by the author as a r e s u l t of his f i e l d work w i l l be described following a d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s methodo-logy i n chapter three. 27 Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY  Introduction In chapter two the paradigm, con s i s t i n g of the three pa r t s , " S p a t i a l Configuration," "Perceptual Set," and "Behavioral Response," was discuss-ed and also i n the previous chapter " S t r e s s f u l Space" was defined. In t h i s chapter the methodology used f o r i d e n t i f y i n g stress inducing space i s described. In using the paradigm each of the three categories, s p a t i a l configuration, perceptual set, and behavioral response were addressed separately, i n order to f i n d out about the other two. The s p a t i a l configurations were studied to f i n d out how people perceived and used these spaces. People's behavior was studied to f i n d out more about what the spaces were l i k e and how they were perceived and the perception of the spaces were studied to f i n d out more about what the spaces were l i k e and how they were used. In each the findings were tested against the c r i t e r i a established f o r stress to determine whether the spaces i d e n t i f i e d were s t r e s s f u l . The techniques used f o r working with the categories of the paradigm and c r i t e r i a f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s t r e s s f u l spaces are dealt with i n t h i s chapter under these three headings, "Author's Unobtrusive Observations," "Interviewee Responses," and "Informant Generated Data." A b r i e f discussion of these follows, a f t e r which the techniques are described under these headings. A f t e r an extensive l i t e r a t u r e search on space and s t r e s s , methods were sought to understand the environmental s e n s i t i v i t i e s , a t t i t u d e s and preferences of the residents without imposing the researcher's views. The chapter describes b r i e f l y what the author d i d throughout the study program, 28 how he introduced h i s i n t e n t i o n to the members of the three communities, and what approach he adopted f or developing and using the techniques. The f i r s t set of techniques are those i n i t i a t e d and c a r r i e d out alone i n an unobtrusive "low p r o f i l e " by the author who attempted to avoid drawing attention to himself and what he was doing i n order not to become another v a r i a b l e i n the study. The second technique involved the author, often through an i n t e r p r e t e r , gaining (by informal unstructured i n t e r -views) information that he pieced together with the data from h i s unobtrus-ive observations. The t h i r d technique, "Informant Generated Data," involved the informant's carrying out "research exercises" which, as r e l a t i v e l y blunt research t o o l s , represented experiments leading to the development of techniques f o r further study. E s t a b l i s h i n g Working Relationships i n the F i e l d The researcher's a r r i v a l i n Pond Inl e t and I g l o o l i k was unannounced. His presence i n Pond Inl e t and Pangnirtung was not made known to the residents through public announcements. In Pond Inl e t he stayed at the l o c a l t r a n s i e n t quarters a v a i l a b l e to v i s i t o r s to Pond, while i n Pangnir-tung he stayed at the park superintendent's home. At I g l o o l i k he l i v e d i n a Federal Government research s t a t i o n house and had use of i t s o f f i c e f a c i l i t i e s . Following the p r a c t i c e of the s t a t i o n , h i s presence was made known to the l o c a l residents i n general terms. The author made contact on a r r i v a l i n each v i l l a g e with Inuit and Kadlunat l o c a l o f f i c i a l s to gain t h e i r co-operation and help. He worked through resident i n t e r p r e t e r s and l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the school, adult education centers, l o c a l research centres and v i l l a g e councils. 29 C o l l e c t i n g data Light and weather conditions were such that the researcher was able to work outside i n clear daylight throughout the twenty-four hour period of the day. Heavy shadows were cast i n the l a t e evenings and ea r l y morn-ings. With the a i d of topographical and a i r photograph maps of the three v i l l a g e s , he made sketch base maps. On these maps he noted the l o c a t i o n of those outdoor spaces that'were used by the residents of the v i l l a g e s . In c o l l e c t i n g data he t r i e d as f a r as possible to use unobtrusive observations to f i n d out about the outdoor spaces i n the v i l l a g e s and how these were viewed and used by the residents. He made notes and documented on audiotape what he perceived through h i s senses while systematically moving through the outdoor spaces i n each v i l l a g e , i n order to cover a l l outdoor spaces. To help sharpen the author's perception he p e r i o d i c a l l y during the twenty-four hour periods, took eight millimeter motion p i c t u r e "shots" of what he saw happening i n the outdoor spaces. When preparing h i s base maps the author gave h i s attention to these features of space. This helped serve the purpose of a check l i s t of space descriptors f o r h i s work. 1. l o c a t i o n , frequency, and degree of i n t e n s i t y of l i g h t , sounds and smells. 2. degree of v i s i b i l i t y of objects, viewed from within and without spaces. 3. instances and degree and d i r e c t i o n of winds, snow d r i f t s , erosion and drainage. k. nature of t e r r a i n , contours, slope, rock formations. 5. frequency and degree of freedom of movement of pedestrians and veh i c l e s allowed i n outdoor spaces. 30 6. Neglected, p o l l u t e d spaces. 7. Spaces that appear to have these q u a l i t i e s : monotonous contain surprises permanent temporary ignored frequented seldom used often used many uses few uses public p r i v a t e non r e s t r i c t e d use r e s t r i c t e d use congregational point no man's land Inuit and Kadlunat Inuit or Kadlunat serviced by u t i l i t i e s unserviced by u t i l i t i e s neglected maintained v i s i b l e hidden In examining the base maps i n the f i e l d the author formulated "hunches." When he f e l t i t was relevant to the "hunch" he was pre-occupied with at the time, he documented his observations as diagrams, rough notes or on f i l m , used audiotape, photographs or on maps. His hunches r e l a t e d to these questions. Are there sources of stress i n the v i l l a g e s to be studied? How can stresses be i d e n t i f i e d and what t o o l s can be used to do th i s ? The main approach for exploring ways to gather raw data was to begin with a few c l e a r l y developed techniques; and through a process of t r i a l and error and the entertainment of hunches develop a r e p e r t o i r e of techniques and ideas about p o t e n t i a l sources of stress to t e s t against the c r i t e r i a . Tentative findings were thenv'.described i n terms of the paradigm ou t l i n e d i n chapter two in v o l v i n g p h y s i c a l configuration, perceptual set, behavioral response. 31 Approach The author looked at what was i n the outdoor spaces and how the i n s t a l l e r s , a l l o c a t o r s and uses of the spaces may have perceived them. Ultimately the findings described i n chapter four were a r r i v e d at through the author's s h i f t i n g back and f o r t h i n his thinking from one of the factors i n the paradigm to another. In t h i s way the evaluation of tech-niques and te n t a t i v e findings grew together o r g a n i c a l l y . As he worked, he asked questions that sometimes l e d to further hunches, experiments, t e n t a t i v e conclusions and instruments. While following through with t h i s approach he kept i n mind that people make decisions based on the past experience of l i v i n g i n other camps, settlements or urban centres and may continue to do so i n t h e i r new environment. In a l l three v i l l a g e s the author made unobtrusive observations and conducted unstructured interviews with Inuit and Kadlunat informants. In Pangnirtung where he spent more time than i n the other two v i l l a g e s , he worked with the school c h i l d r e n . Approximately two t h i r d s of his f i e l d research time was spent i n Pangnirtung with the l e a s t amount of time spent at Pond I n l e t . For by the time the researcher had a r r i v e d at "Pond" the majority of the residents had l e f t the v i l l a g e f o r the spring hunt, or were working with o i l and mining exploration teams f a r from Pond. No f i n d i n g based on the use of any one sing l e technique was given c r e d i b i l i t y as a source of str e s s . The findings of several techniques together would i n d i c a t e sources of stress or "st r e s s o r s . " For instance, the u n s o l i c i t e d mention of a source of stress by an informant i n an un-structured interview, supported by the author's unobtrusive observation, and the h i g h l i g h t i n g of the same source of stress through informants generated data might then be considered as a source of stress i f i t met the c r i t e r i a f o r a "str e s s o r . " 32 Techniques A RESEARCHER'S UNOBTRUSIVE OBSERVATIONS 1. S p a t i a l Configurations The author operated on the premise that various outdoor spaces are i d e n t i f i a b l e and describable by several means. In p a r t i c u l a r an attempt was made while v i s i t i n g each of the three v i l l a g e s to record t h i s raw data on base maps. a) The l o c a t i o n of structures, t h e i r type, number, o r i e n t a t i o n on s i t e , entrances, e x i t s and occupants' ethnic o r i g i n and occupation were documented for each on the base maps prepared by the author i n consultation with l o c a l residents. b) The demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r e s i d e n t s , age, number of school c h i l d r e n , the aged and youth, occupational p u r s u i t s , employers, group a f f i l i a t i o n s , l o c a t i o n s of residences by group, opening hours of p u b l i c places frequented by the residents such as store, theatres, churches, e t c . , to determine what parts of the centres are used and by whom. c) To determine where the "hunters" l i v e d i n Pangnirtung. Copies of the Pangnirtung l o c a l Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s game o f f i c e r s reports were examined and those persons r e c e i v i n g a bonus cheque over one hundred d o l l a r s from the government for animals caught were considered hunters for the purpose of t h i s study. Many more residents almost i n a c t i v e held l i c e n c e s . The locations of the homes of the hunters were also p l o t t e d on base maps from information supplied by Inuit informants i n I g l o o l i k and Pond I n l e t . to Ayaja Camp to Air-strip POND INLET 197^ S o l i d l i n e - designed systems Dotted l i n e - foot or l i g h t v e h i c l e paths 36 d) Assuming that only a c e r t a i n amount of the open space i n any v i l l a g e i s a c t u a l l y used to a s i g n i f i c a n t degree, and that some parts are hardly perceived or used, the author attempted to i s o l a t e those spaces of l i t t l e  concern to the residents by observing the residents' movements within the v i l l a g e s . The spaces used were noted on the base maps. e) C i r c u l a t i o n systems (see maps Ua,b,c) a c c e s s i b i l i t y , f a c i l i t i e s , conditions, shape, form, dimensions, s i z e , entrances, exits were noted. f ) Climatic and other outdoor natural features environmental stimula-t i o n l e v e l (e.g. o l f a c t o r y , thermal); angle of l i g h t obstruction, amount of daylight and shadow, night l i g h t , e tc., e.g. p r e v a i l i n g winds, snow buildup, p r e c i p i t a t i o n , erosion, drainage, flooding; s o i l , rock formation were also noted. g) Intolerable Sounds. Using a sound l e v e l meter, the l e v e l of sound was recorded i n the outdoor spaces to determine i f any space frequented by motor driven equipment, or occupied by machines such as power pl a n t s , emitted sound above human ph y s i c a l tolerance l e v e l s . The only source of p o t e n t i a l l y disturbing noise other than numerous skidoos, motorcycles, etc., (plate 2) (which f o r short times gave readings above tolerance l e v e l s ) was the d i e s e l power plants which gave i n t o l e r a b l e l e v e l readings at a few yards from the buildings housing these plants. 37 2. BEHAVIORAL TRACES The author, while v i s i t i n g each v i l l a g e , at d i f f e r e n t times during twenty-four hour periods walked through the v i l l a g e , following pre-arranged routes to give f u l l coverage to the spaces ou t l i n e d on h i s sketch "base maps. While doing t h i s he, f i r s t , took photographs of what he saw and second, spoke into a tape recorder, recording the objects and behaviors of people that he saw. a) Traces of outdoor a c t i v i t i e s which may be r e f e r r e d to as behavioral traces were inventoried. These included evidence of what people did i n the outdoor spaces. For example, the author documented possible evidence of: preoccupations and preferences, troubles people have with natural hazards, r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s or innovations people have made to buildings and equipment. Acceptance of innovations, temporary and permanent structures, items dismantled f o r reconstruction, dominant i n s t a l l a t i o n s , discarded objects, spaces for storage, things i n the process of being made, and evidence of human responses to the lack or excess of smells, sounds or l i g h t . By looking at what people leave about i n the spaces around t h e i r homes, some idea of what these persons are preoccupied with becomes apparent. More-over, what they do to t h e i r homes may suggest that they are t r y i n g to resolve problems they have been having with the weather, or i n t r y i n g to s a t i s f y t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r needs f o r shelter or i n pursuit of t h e i r employment or r e c r e a t i o n a l needs. Such evidence of outdoor a c t i v i t i e s provided hunches for v e r i f i c a t i o n through other means. 38 b) On one occasion during a drive through Pangnirtung with the v i l l a g e secretary-manager who was "showing the author around" he taped the manager's conversation and l i s t e d the manager's u n s o l i c i t e d comments which v e r i f i e d some things drawn to h i s a t t e n t i o n , and of f e r e d further "hunches" to check out. c) Spaces frequently used: Each of the v i l l a g e s studied had sides of h i l l s or ridges from which the movements of people i n and out, and through the v i l l a g e could he observed. The s p a t i a l configurations that were most frequented were noted by the author from those observation points. B. RESEARCHER-INTERVIEWEE OBSERVATIONS  Issues (see maps 5a,b,c) The author recorded issues that appeared i n back and current copies of v i l l a g e newspapers. To v e r i f y or negate t h i s information or to see i t i n a new perspective as possible stresses he did the following: a) From news media: He spoke to residents, selected at random from each v i l l a g e , to f i n d how they perceived " what went on i n t h e i r v i l l a g e s . " From these unstructured interviews he gained impressions of how h i s inform-ants saw the outdoor spaces they or other residents frequented i n terms of what these spaces consisted of, where they were located, what happened i n them, and how each informant viewed these spaces i n terms of whether each space mentioned was a concern, a worry, or a source of f r u s t r a t i o n , i n the author's mind, a possible source of s t r e s s . b) Sele c t i n g issues from photographs: On a r r i v a l at I g l o o l i k , the author took p o l a r o i d photographs of the spaces and i n s t a l l a t i o n s there. He asked informants during interviews to thumb through the c o l l e c t i o n of znirtun. spaces of concern IU) Ko«S<5 - loss oi p lay spq.ce Some I g l o o l i k Issues 197^ recorded on tape and discussed i n findings t h i s sketch map notes spaces of concern located fVo«i Sea f*o« td*. Sea /MS ±e}i'rabl*. tl*.$ -ate (•at.'ly Map 5 c Some Pond Inlet Issues 19Jh recorded on tape and discussed i n findings -, t h i s sketch map notes spaces of concern and OftereftJ £y li<J't 1+2 approximately U5 p o l a r o i d photographs, "picking out those that they f e l t they would want to say something about." The r e s u l t s were not i n a form that could be r e l i e d on as i n d i c a t o r s of the presence of stressors. c) I d e n t i f y i n g concerns l a t e r photographed: A t h i r d method was t r i e d : during interviews residents were asked to i d e n t i f y t h e i r concerns which the author l a t e r photographed. 2. LOCATION OF PREVIOUS AND PRESENT HOMES OF INUIT ELDERS In Pangnirtung eight e l d e r l y Inuit were asked to in d i c a t e on t h e i r sketch maps of the hunting camps that they had l e f t , and on t h e i r outlined maps of Pangnirtung where they, t h e i r r e l a t i v e s and friends l i v e d . In I g l o o l i k , eight e l d e r l y Inuit were interviewed on tape through an in t e r p r e t e r . In addition to being asked a number of questions formally, they were also asked to mark on a map where they l i v e d i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l camps and where they l i v e d at the time of the study, an exercise s i m i l a r to that done i n Pangnirtung. In Pangnirtung some informants were interviewed by the author, some others by a minister's daughter who spoke " I n u i t " f l u e n t l y . In I g l o o l i k the informants marked the locations of t h e i r r e l a t i v e s on t h e i r sketch maps of t r a d i t i o n a l camps and i n t h e i r v i l l a g e on pre-printed maps. The author's contact at Pond Inl e t supplied him with a l i s t of the members of each former Pond camp and i t s members indic a t e d the house numbers of e l d e r l y persons' present homes i n t h e i r v i l l a g e . This l i s t i ndicated who l i v e d with whom i n each camp and were separated by housing a l l o c a t i o n i n Pond. 3. LANDMARKS AND HISTORICAL SITES A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n was made of the places of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t i n each centre. In taped interviews at I g l o o l i k some residents were asked to name the landmarks and i n s t a l l a t i o n s that they were proud of, or f e l t were 1+3 unique to t h e i r town, and that they would want v i s i t o r s to look at, i f the objective was to have v i s i t o r s see what was most i n t e r e s t i n g i n the shortest time. The assumption was that the objects selected, given such p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e s , would not be considered to be stressors to the informants. The remaining i n s t a l l a t i o n s may be stressors or perceived as such, e s p e c i a l l y i f now abandoned (e.g. a h i s t o r i c a l s i t e or r u i n ) . This gave the researcher more information, by using t h i s process of elimination i n conjunction with the findings from the use of other t o o l s used to i d e n t i f y s t r e s s o r s . The researcher had planned to seek the help of school c h i l d r e n i n a l l three v i l l a g e s . But on h i s a r r i v a l i n I g l o o l i k he found the school c h i l d r e n were not ava i l a b l e since they were hosting teachers i n spring family hunting expeditions outside of I g l o o l i k . In Pond Inl e t they had been dismissed for the summer. However, i n Pangnirtung school was s t i l l i n session and the co-operation of students and teachers was obtained. (See pl a t e 3). These are the a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out. C. INFORMANT GENERATED DATA l ) PHOTOS. One t o o l that the researcher used to determine s t r e s s f u l spaces was to have the residents photograph "outdoor spaces or things" that they l i k e d or d i s l i k e d , using a p o l a r o i d camera. I t was not necessary to explain why. Pangnirtung students, given the opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e , submitted a c o l l e c t i o n of 31 p o l a r o i d shots. The locatio n s of the " d i s l i k e s " representing approximately h a l f the number of photographs submitted, were noted on s i t e plans to in d i c a t e p o t e n t i a l stressor spaces. Conditions such as the students' u n f a m i l i a r i t y with the camera and i t s s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to temperature extremes r e s u l t e d i n about one t h i r d of the photos being unread-able. kk 2 . SURVEY A survey of Ilk Pangnirtung households was completed by one class of school children and the following data was tra n s f e r r e d to base maps: house number, number of persons per household, in d i c a t i o n s of a l t e r a t i o n s , additions to houses, and presence of outbuildings, storage sheds, etc. photo by Mike Murphy ,197*+ Plate 3. Pangnirtung school ch i l d r e n c o l l e c t i n g data. 3. PATHWAYS AND FREQUENTED SPACES Eight school ch i l d r e n were asked to indicate on t h e i r copies of pre-printed s i t e plans of Pangnirtung the paths that they usually took to and from the places they frequented during the week. This instrument was further developed i n I g l o o l i k where eight e l d e r l y people were asked to i d e n t i f y the spaces they frequented during the week. In Pond t h i s was not done. k. SAND MODEL At the author's request students picked at random at the Pangnirtung school completed a three dimensional sand model of t h e i r town. This was done without the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the teachers, other than to supply the materials. The emphasis the ch i l d r e n placed on p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a l l a t i o n s i n the town as opposed to others was noted. (See plate k). Plate k. Sand model of "Pang" "built by l o c a l schoolchildren. A i r s t r i p l o c a t i o n and c h i l d perceived si z e r e l a t i v e to two parts of "Pang" i s c l e a r l y evident. 5. ART WORK At Pangnirtung, some of the teachers provided the author (at his request) with drawings depicting a motif of the students' choice. The fi n d i n g s , extrapolated from the drawings, give some in s i g h t i n t o the community's space as perceived by the children. This assumes that, when they did the work, they were not i n h i b i t e d by conventional drawing techniques which would i n -fluence what they a c t u a l l y saw i n t h e i r minds' eye. The author r e l i e d on his previous experience with adult Inuit art i n judging the children's drawings as being d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r elders. 6. DIARIES A c o l l e c t i o n of 21 d i a r i e s kept by Pangnirtung students covering the period from March to May, 197^, were given to the author, at h i s request. Each diary consisted of a number of dated pages and each page described one h6 or more a c t i v i t i e s that the student p a r t i c i p a t e d i n that day, along with 'a drawing to i l l u s t r a t e the a c t i v i t i e s . The d i a r i e s gave the author a general idea of the spaces that the chi l d r e n frequented and were of concern to them. These ideas or hunches were v e r i f i e d or dismissed by the use of the other techniques described. 7- PATTERN LANGUAGE CARDS Several approaches were used to help develop the means of discerning how the residents of the three v i l l a g e s perceived t h e i r surroundings. One of the approaches used involved the introduction of Pattern Language Descriptors. This approach or method i s b r i e f l y outlined here. The author worked with Pangnirtung school students. Each of the pattern language cards, developed by the author p r i o r to the f i e l d t r i p , was discussed with the students. The purpose was to gain a consensus on the correct s y l l a b i c trans-l a t i o n of each d e s c r i p t i v e word p r i n t e d on each card i n Eng l i s h , so that i t too could be placed on the card, and obtain confirmation of the communicative power of the symbol representing the meaning of the word. The sessions with the students r e s u l t e d i n some words and symbols being replaced, a l t e r e d or omitted. Once t h i s exercise, which took several afternoons, was completed, the sets of cards were duplicated. The students then v i s i t e d homes i n Pangnir-tung with these cards, asking one adult i n each home to select from the deck those cards that had i n any way "something to say to them about what they saw 'out there'" ;when looking out t h e i r favourite window, while the student v i s i t o r was present i n t h e i r home. Following the s e l e c t i o n , 65 completed returns were received. The student then noted the number of each card selected on a preprinted tabu l a t i o n sheet, one of several i d e n t i c a l sheets provided and given to each student, along with a deck of the descriptor cards. hi Responses of three or four informants whose houses looked out upon each other was obtained. By a method of cross t r i a n g u l a t i o n , that i s , drawing a l i n e out from each favourite window i n each house (plate 5 ) , into the space seen by each of the informants, t h e i r common space would be located. (This would also ind i c a t e spaces that are of no concern). From t h i s data a consensus of "how that space should be described" could be gained by comparing the number of descriptor cards selected by each group of three or four persons. The informants v i s i t e d were co-operative, e s p e c i a l l y when the student was someone they knew who could speak t h e i r language. This study was l i m i t e d , however, i n experimenting with the tools and roughly measuring the informants' receptiveness to t h e i r use. So no attempt was made to take a representative sample. Further research should be done to discern what meaning respondents a c t u a l l y assigned the descriptors introduced here and to determine what adjectives the residents a c t u a l l y use or think about when they give t h e i r attention to the i n s t a l l a t i o n s and spaces these delineate. From such r e -search a set of pattern language descriptors more c l o s e l y aligned to the k8 thought patterns of the a r c t i c residents as opposed to those developed i n the south could he r e a l i z e d . The r e s u l t s of the analysis indicates to the author t h a t , subject to further refinement, the t o o l may be used i n con-junction with other t o o l s to help detect the presence of stressors. Inherent i n t h i s t o o l are several possible research flaws. For instance, the descriptors are symbols that may be interpreted d i f f e r e n t l y by each informant. The informants' p a r t i c u l a r frame of mind at the time may not represent an aggregate response to the perception of the space over a longer time period. The time of day, the range of v i s i o n from the window, the l o c a t i o n of the window, as w e l l as other v a r i a b l e s , are p o t e n t i a l sources of error needing attention i n future research. Despite the t o o l ' s weaknesses, the author j u s t i f i e s the attention he has given i t as opposed to adopting a formal questionnaire format for three reasons: The method used i n i s o l a t e d cross c u l t u r a l settings must be one that i s unobtrusive by nature, and does not "telegraph" the responses the informant thinks the i n v e s t i g a t o r wants. The c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of the inform-ants' responses must be respected where the rae data i s unavoidably often c o l l e c t e d i n the presence of many people. Where l o c a l research assistants are employed the data c o l l e c t e d must be i n a form that cannot be misconstrued. Pattern Language Descriptors An e f f o r t was made by the author throughout the study to get accurate space descriptor terms for informants to respond t o . A l i t e r a t u r e search r e s u l t e d i n a number of terms being adopted. Some of these were dropped and othersf'used. This l i s t represents those retained at the end of the study, undoubtedly, researchers pursuing the pattern language t o p i c as a means of communicating between the designer and h i s c l i e n t would use the l i s t only as a point of departure. kg The author f e e l s , since there was l i t t l e negative response to using these d e s c r i p t o r s , that pattern language as described i n t h i s t h e s i s , with future development, may have merit as a research t o o l . escapable safe no c u l t u r a l contact points inescapable dangerous predictable my space group contact points unpredictable someone else's place chance arrangements for you only integrated planned arrangements for adults only segregated changed for children only too small unchanged public too b i g harmful to land p r i v a t e p o l l u t e d not harmful to land clean many uses c o s t l y one use crowded can be changed not crowded not able to change no vandalism trouble some vandalism good f o r something good f o r nothing 50 SAMPLE PATTERN LANGUAGE CARDS S5 X no mans land four parts to  each card Inuit s y l l a b i c s number symbol English or French 51 Chapter h. FINDINGS  Introduction In the c r i t e r i a f o r defining what a stress inducing space i s , found i n chapter two, the concern with the a c t i v i t i e s that take place i n these spaces, problems that objects i n these spaces present to those seeking need s a t i s f a c t i o n while active i n these spaces, or i n other spaces af f e c t e d by these problem spaces. It was assumed that stress inducing spaces can be i d e n t i f i e d and described by examining what goes on i n the spaces or by the objects within or bordering these spaces. If^people seeking to s a t i s f y t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r needs i n d i c a t e that they cannot control what happens i n the spaces, what i s there, or happens to them when they frequent the spaces; or i f they cannot p r e d i c t what happens there, or f i n d no a l t e r n a t i v e spaces (escape), short of leaving the v i l l a g e s , then the spaces are considered stress inducing spaces, to those p a r t i c u l a r persons. For the purpose of t h i s study, residents were categorized i n chapter one as " I n u i t " and "Kadlunat." The findings also indicated that " c h i l d r e n " could be considered as a separate group. Moreover, the Inuit and ch i l d r e n are considered at t h i s point i n the study to be the "users" as opposed to the Kadlunat who were found to be the i n s t a l l e r s , and a l l o c a t o r s , as well as users. Through the use of unobtrusive observations and informant generated data the researcher i d e n t i f i e d the s p a t i a l configuration of three v i l l a g e s studied, and which spaces were frequented by members of the three groups mentioned. 52 The researcher, using a t r i a l and error hypothesis t e s t i n g process i n the f i e l d and during the "back home" analysis of the material c o l l e c t e d , addressed himself to each of the three parts of the paradigm to get at the other two. The findings described here r e f l e c t t h i s process. Each f i n d i n g i s described f i r s t of a l l i n terms of the observations that were made and the techniques that were used. The r e l a t i o n s h i p to the other two of the three variables involved, the s p a t i a l c onfiguration, behavioral response, and perceptual set i s then discussed. The s i t u a t i o n as observed i s then t e s t e d against the d e f i n i t i o n of stress i n terms of three aspects -i s i t escapable, i s i t p r e d i c t a b l e , i s i t c o n t r o l l a b l e . Conclusions are then drawn on the opportunity to redesign the s p a t i a l configuration to reduce or eliminate the s t r e s s f u l l s i t u a t i o n described i n each f i n d i n g . In examining the r e s u l t s of t h i s study the following two categories of findings seem apparent; those found anywhere where town planning needs to be done, and those which are unique to the north and in d i c a t e c e r t a i n stress inducing spaces e x i s t f or the Inuit who t r y to gain a l i v e l i h o o d hunting and f i s h i n g while l i v i n g i n the v i l l a g e s studied i n t h i s t h e s i s . The concluding chapter w i l l discuss t h i s idea further. Let us look at the findings o u t l i n e d here i n terms of the paradigm. Each i s discussed under these headings: Findings, Method of Observation, Observed S p a t i a l Configuration, Relationship to Perceptual Set and Behavioral Response, D e f i n i t i o n of Stress, and Conclusion. Under the heading " D e f i n i t i o n of Stress," except as noted, the words "the space i s s t r e s s f u l " i s substituted f o r the phrase "the s i t u a t i o n ap-pears to be uncontrollable, unpredictable and inescapable." 53 A. SPATIAL CONFIGURATION  FINDING A - l Stress caused "by in a c c e s s i b l e water supply and inadequate access to household storage tanks i n I g l o o l i k . (See plates 6,7,9). Method of Observation: unobtrusive observation, unstructured i n t e r -views (see techniques: • I ( l and 2), 2b). Observed S p a t i a l Configuration: water supply i s several miles from the settlement; access to household tanks i s blocked by d r i f t i n g snow and ob-structed by proximity of adjacent houses and e l e c t r i c u t i l i t y poles. Relation to Perceptual Set and Behavioral Response: the impression from the unstructured interviews i s that t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r e s s f u l to Kadlunat who are more attuned to higher l e v e l s of service on a more order-l y b a s i s . Behavioral response i s evidenced by the i n t r u s i o n on neighbours f o r the purpose of sharing a v a i l a b l e water and i n complaints expressed to the research-er. D e f i n i t i o n of Stress: the space i s s t r e s s f u l because the p h y s i c a l constraints are permanent factors of the community design. The residents l i v e i n a v i l l a g e with water supply problems they cannot escape from. Nor can they predict shortages since the supply i s contingent on factors beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l . Conclusion: In terms of p h y s i c a l design i t appears that more attention ought to be given to the distance of communities from water supply and assuring better access of water tank trucks ,to houses. 5^  Plate 6. Access to I g l o o l i k low cost houses by foot or vehicle other than skidoo i s d i f f i c u l t . Vehicles d e l i v e r i n g water and pi c k i n g up sewage have problems reaching houses. Plate 7« Fuel tank and indoor water tank accessible to d e l i v e r y trucks at Pangnirtung, unlike I g l o o l i k . But nearness of roads to houses presents other problems to residents. (photo Mike Murphy). 55 Plate 8. Power poles and snow drifting impedes movement of water and sewage vehicles in attempts to service these Igloolik low cost rent-al houses in the village's backyard away from the sea. Plate 9 . Igloolik's limited capacity water hauling vehicle travels several miles to deliver j water, making i t a scarce commodity in Igloolik. FINDING A2 Stress caused by bulk storage tanks, electrical transformers, power lines, poles and sand f i l l e d casing holding poles upright centrally located in villages. Pangnirtung, Igloolik, Pond Inlet, (see plates 8 and 10). Method of Observation Unobtrusive observation, unstructured interviews (see techniques I (1 and 2, 2b). 56 Observed S p a t i a l Configuration School playgrounds, c e n t r a l spaces i n v i l l a g e s and land that could be used for b u i l d i n g i s occupied by the above i n s t a l l a t i o n s . There i s r e s t r i c t -ed space f o r the enlargement of these i n s t a l l a t i o n s . Furthermore, they now crowd the spaces used by the v i l l a g e residents. Relationship to Perceptual Set and Behavioral Response The impression from the unstructured interviews i s that the dominance of these i n s t a l l a t i o n s over the surrounding space i s s t r e s s f u l to the Kad-lunat and Inuit who use these spaces and to the Kadlunat who have to i n s t a l l further s i m i l a r i n s t a l l a t i o n s because of the r e s t r i c t e d space. The behavioral response to the presence of these f a c i l i t i e s i s to give them a wide b i r t h when t r a v e l l i n g by or around them, and to complain about the space they occupy. D e f i n i t i o n of Stress The space i s s t r e s s f u l because with the expansion of the v i l l a g e s the i n s t a l l a t i o n s crowded the spaces used d a i l y by many res i d e n t s , Kadlunat and I n u i t . Neither can c o n t r o l , p r edict or escape t h i s s i t u a t i o n . The s i z e , shape and s i t i n g of these i n s t a l l a t i o n s often located distant from each other and i n heavily t r a f f i c k e d spaces, di s t u r b i n g the active permafrost layer are beyond the control of those sharing the spaces these occupy or the spaces immediately adjacent to them. Conclusion In terms of p h y s i c a l design i t appears that steps should be taken to provide spaces, other than those i n heavy demand by residents, f o r the l o c a t i o n of u t i l i t y i n s t a l l a t i o n s . 57 Plate 1 1 . Damage to the active layer of permafrost makes some spaces near i n s t a l l a t i o n s ugly and useless. The tops of some of Pangnirtung's bulk storage tanks between Cumberland Sound and a i r s t r i p , 197^-ft Plate 1 0 . Bulk storage tanks located i n the photo to the r i g h t of the school buildings and playground appear to dominate the spaces about the tanks. 58 FINDING A3 Stress caused by some houses located i n spaces exposed to high winds at Pangnirtung. (plates 12,13). Method of Observation Unobtrusive observation, unstructured interviews (see technique I a,f, I 2, 2b, I I I a). Observed S p a t i a l Configuration Houses i n rows running p a r a l l e l to Cumberland Sound which produces a wind tunnel e f f e c t . Houses are cabled and anchored down by s t e e l cables passing over roofs secured at each end by boulders or concrete f i l l e d b a r r e l s . Relation to Perceptual Set and Behavioral Response The impressions from unstructured interviews of Kadlunat was that winds along the Sound were higher than elsewhere i n the v i l l a g e ; that the houses i n question were cabled down by the Inuit residents a f t e r several had been blown apart, and parts of others blown away. D e f i n i t i o n of Stress The space i s s t r e s s f u l because the Inuit residents l i v e i n spaces at the mercy of high v e l o c i t y winds, and have nowhere else to move, (plates 12 and 13)• Conclusion Housing af f e c t e d adversely by high winds was s i t e d by those who d i d not have to l i v e i n i t . Consideration should be given to consulting with l o c a l Inuit residents when pl a c i n g houses to ensure spaces l e a s t vulnerable to the elements are used as b u i l d i n g s i t e s . 59 Plate 12. Another example of a Behavioral trace i n d i c a t i n g past troubles with strong winds. Cabled down roofs at Pangnirtung. (Photo: Mike Murphy) Plate 13. Evidence of troubles with natural elements at Pangnirtung. To prevent strong winds repeating devasting damage to houses, the houses were cabled down and anchored with rocks. (Photo: Mike Murphy) 6o-FINDING Ak Stress caused by the l o c a t i o n of roads close to houses i n Pangnirtung. (plates 1^,15 and 16). Method of Observation Unobtrusive observation (see technique I l e , 2b, III c ) . Observed S p a t i a l Configuration Vehicle paths passing within two or three feet of many houses creating a safety hazard, v i b r a t i o n , noise, and at c e r t a i n times dust or mud i n the space immediately surrounding the house. This s i t u a t i o n occurs p r i m a r i l y around the Inuit homes. Relation to Physical Configuration and Behavioral Response The empirical evidence i s that several Inuit have placed obstacles around t h e i r houses to dive r t vehicular t r a f f i c . This appears to accord more with the Kadlunat rather than the Inuit perceptual set and i t i s there-fore uncertain how s t r e s s f u l t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s to them. D e f i n i t i o n of Stress The occupants of those houses are disturbed by v i b r a t i o n and noise at a l l hours of the day and night caused by the unpredictable passing of vehicles by t h e i r homes. Since they have l i t t l e say over t r a f f i c patterns, and have l i t t l e choice as to where they s h a l l l i v e i n the v i l l a g e s , the spaces about t h e i r homes are s t r e s s f u l to them as long as v e h i c l e paths are maintained i n t h e i r present l o c a t i o n . Conclusion In terms of p h y s i c a l design more attention should be given to the r e l a t i o n s h i p of roads to houses, taking account of the p a r t i c u l a r engineer-ing problems of permafrost, drainage, and absence of curbs to delineate pathways. Plate 15. The residents of t h i s house must be v i g i l a n t when stepping o f f t h e i r porch into the well t r a v e l l e d roadway i n the heart of Pangnirtung. 6 2 Plate 16. The resident's placement of an empty cable spool prevents the veh i c l e t r a f f i c c l o s i n g i n on t h i s house at Pangnirtung. FINDING A5 Stress caused by road beds caving i n as a r e s u l t of running across natural drainage paths to the sea causing roads to be awash during spring runn o f f i n Pangnirtung, I g l o o l i k and Pond I n l e t . (Plates 11, IT and 23d). Method of Observation Unobtrusive observation, unstructured interviews (see technique I e, f , I 2a,b, III c ) . Observed S p a t i a l Configuration V i l l a g e main roads run p a r a l l e l to the sea. These roads cross places where there i s a great spring run o f f from the surrounding h i l l s . Metal culverts have been i n s t a l l e d i n some places but where the downhill torrents are the greatest, the water has bypassed the culverts and undercut the road bed or washed parts of the road away. 63 Relationship to Perceptual Set and Behavioral Response The impression from the unstructured interviews i s that t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r e s s f u l to the Kadlunat who i n s t a l l and maintain roads. The behavioral response i s for them to continue t r y i n g to i n s t a l l culverts to preserve roads or to f a i l to maintain the roads u n t i l the main annual flooding stops. D e f i n i t i o n of Stress The space i s s t r e s s f u l because the v i l l a g e s running p a r a l l e l to the sea need road s e r v i c i n g from end to end across spaces subject to flooding. The l o c a t i o n and the magnitude of the run o f f cannot be predicted with s u f f i c i e n t accuracy to i n s t a l l adequate culvert systems. Conclusion In terms of p h y s i c a l design i t appears that new methods should be found to protect roads subjected to r a p i d erosion by downhill t o r r e n t s . Plate 17- Roads running v e r t i c a l to n a tural drainage paths over permafrost present erosion problems. SPATIAL CONFIGURATION  FINDING A 6 Stress created by sew age and domestic wash water e f f l u e n t running 64 d i r e c t l y onto the active permafrost layer i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of homes and other play and work spaces throughout the v i l l a g e s of Pangnir-tung, I g l o o l i k and Pond I n l e t . (Map 5a). Method o f Observation Unobtrusive observations, unstructured interviews, (techniques l a , I 2a, I I I a). Observed S p a t i a l Configuration 1. Sewage o u t - f a l l from school at Pangnirtung ends before i t reaches suitable catch basin. 2. Domestic washing e f f l u e n t drains d i r e c t l y out from most houses onto the permafrost around the houses, causing unsanitary conditions. Relation to Behavioral Response and Perceptual Set The residents who frequent spaces r e c e i v i n g the e f f l u e n t are subject to the behavior of those using discharge systems i n s t a l l e d by outsiders who do not have to l i v e with these systems. A l l residents e i t h e r ignore using these spaces, i n s t a l l walkways to avoid contact with the mire, and/or complain to l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . D e f i n i t i o n of Stress This e f f l u e n t problem appears to be s t r e s s f u l to both Kadlunat and Inuit users of the inappropriate catch basins, for they have no e f f e c t i v e r o l e i n deciding how e f f l u e n t run o f f w i l l be disposed of through man-made systems. Conclusion Through engineering e f f o r t s spaces throughout the v i l l a g e s should be made free of sewage and domestic wastes to r e l i e v e t h i s source of str e s s . 65 B. PERCEPTUAL SET  FINDING B 1 Stress i s created by some long established i n s t i t u t i o n s perceived to be monopolizing important spaces desired by residents f o r other purposes at Pangnirtung, I g l o o l i k and Pond I n l e t . (Plate l8a to 19 and map 6). Method of Observation Unobtrusive observations, unstructured interviews, and informant generated data (see technique l a , I 2a, I I I a). Observed Perception Many Inuit youth who adopted the Kadlunat set and some other Kadlunat perceive large vacant spaces i n key areas of the v i l l a g e s as being con-t r o l l e d by long established i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the Hudson's Bay Company, the R.C.M.P. and "churches." They appear to be disturbed by the withhold-ing of t h i s land. There i s also evidence that these i n s t i t u t i o n s appear disturbed at what other Kadlunat would l i k e to do with t h i s land. Relation to Ph y s i c a l Configuration and Behavioral Response Spaces i n question were obtained by these i n s t i t u t i o n s long before the v i l l a g e s grew around them. In t h i s process modern buil d i n g s have replaced h i s t o r i c a l ones. Attempts by i n s t i t u t i o n s to c l e a r l y define and i d e n t i f y t h e i r " t e r r i t o r y " and business by markers such as painted stones, signs, rocks, border, etc. Kadlunat youth have businesses competing with or taking over services previously provided by these i n s t i t u t i o n s and resentment towards the per-ceived land monopoly r e s u l t s i n careless treatment by the young Kadlunat entrepreneurs of property, such as goods i n t r a n s i t belonging to these i n s t i t u t i o n s . D e f i n i t i o n of Stress The perceived "unfairness" of the d i v i s i o n of j u r i s d i c t i o n over outdoor 67 spaces c r e a t e s s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s f o r e i t h e r K a d l u n a t o r I n u i t . The i n s t i t u t i o n s appea r t o have t h e p r i z e d l o c a t i o n s and " s e t u p s " f r om w h i c h t o do b u s i n e s s . C o n c l u s i o n A t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o a l l o c a t i o n o f l a n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e v i l l a g e s t o cause a more e q u i t a b l e use o f space t h a n t h e u s e s now i n e x i s t e n c e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n s ' c o n t r o l o f l a n d . P l a t e 18 a . L ong t i m e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s u c h as t h e H . B . C . and t h e R . C . M . P . a t Pond c l e a r l y mark o f f w i t h p a i n t e d s t o n e s and symbo l s t h e i r c l a i m e d space a t P ond . The community h a l l at Pond was to have been b u i l t i n t h i s area of "downtown" Pond. But controversy r e s u l t e d i n i t s future s i t e being elsewhere (see photo of con-s t r u c t i o n materials ) . Plate l8b. Plate 18 c. This community h a l l was to have been b u i l t near the Bay and P o l i c e but the materials await construct ion here at Pond near a graveyard and c e n t r a l to a small percentage of the population. 6 9 Plate 18 e. A great expanse of prime b u i l d -ing land at I g l o o l i k i s taken up with establishment's s t a f f residences. TO Plate 19- Mail bags containing Hudson's Bay stock ready f o r pickup, exposed to the elements outside overcrowded l o c a l entrepreneurs establishment. FINDING B 2 Stress i s created by the c l u s t e r i n g of houses around the long e s t a b l i s h -ed i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r people a f f i l i a t e d with them causing s p a t i a l segregation i n Pangnirtung, I g l o o l i k and Pond I n l e t . Method of Observation Unobtrusive observations, unstructured interviews and informant generat-ed data. (I l a , 2a). Observed Perception Many of the members of the clu s t e r s c o l l e c t i v e l y look at members of other c l u s t e r s as "those people over there" s i m i l a r to the southern ex-pression "the people across the track s ! " Relation to Physical Configuration and Behavioral Response The c l u s t e r i n g of employees and a f f i l i a t e s of i n s t i t u t i o n s about, f o r example, a church of a p a r t i c u l a r denomination, or a government school or o f f i c e has re s u l t e d i n perceived unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of amenities. Employees and supporters of such i n s t i t u t i o n s as the Hudson's Bay Company, R.C.M.P., the churches, co-operatives and government agencies such as the schools, nursing s t a t i o n s , etc., tend to c l u s t e r i n the spaces 71 about these i n s t i t u t i o n s . See p l a t e l a (Kadlunat spend much of the time i n these "compounds"). I g l o o l i k , for example, i s s p l i t down the middle with "Anglicans" l i v i n g on one side of a road running v e r t i c a l to the sea, and "Roman Cat h o l i c s " on the other. D e f i n i t i o n of Stress The "Anglicans" i n I g l o o l i k i n these c l u s t e r s appear to be wage earners, (map 5b). Their houses run h o r i z o n t a l l y to the sea with ready access to i t . They are conveniently located near amenities such as store, community h a l l , nursing s t a t i o n , etc. The "Roman Catholics" l i v e apart from these amenities, i n homes running v e r t i c a l l y away from the sea for the most part. They subscribe mainly to the co-op which has the l o c a l u t i l i t y service con-t r a c t . The Anglicans appear to c l u s t e r about The Bay; the Roman Catholics about the co-op. The former seem to have a Kadlunat perceptual set, the l a t t e r , an Inuit. Each group enjoys c o n t r o l over amenities valued by the other: the Kadlunat over l o c a l government, the Inuit over the co-op. The Kadlunat are perceived by the Inuit as being better located geographically within the v i l l a g e . Housing a l l o c a t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d by Kadlunat through l o c a l government. So Inuit and Kadlunat each appear to f i n d the o t h e r 1 s s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n more advantageous i n r e l a t i o n to some of t h e i r needs, and as a consequence, view the s p a t i a l arrangement as s t r e s s f u l . Conclusion More attention should be given to providing l i v i n g space arrangements that are perceived as equal i n q u a l i t y t o both Inu i t and Kadlunat i n r e -l a t i o n s to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r needs. FINDING B 3 Stress caused by a l l o c a t i n g housing to hunting f a m i l i e s , that i s i n 72 extreme snow d r i f t areas away from the sea. (Plates 20a,h,c and 21 a,b and c ) . Method of Observation Unobtrusive observations, unstructured interviews, informant generated data ( see technique I a , I c , I f , I 2a, II a, I I I a). Observed Perception Inuit perceived the l o c a t i o n and type of l i v i n g spaces as inadequate, lacking outdoor space for dogs, gear, machines, work sheds, etc. They perceived "unfairness" i n many wage earners being a l l o c a t e d houses near or by the sea while the Inuit were i n the v i l l a g e s ' "back yard." Relation to P h y s i c a l Configuration and Behavioral Response Kadlunat wage earners and week-end hunters are often a l l o c a t e d housing with ready access to the sea (plate 23 d) while f u l l time Inuit hungers having to contend with snow d r i f t problems or "poor" access to the sea complain, lobby with the housing organization, drive through others' yards or s u f f e r mishaps or accidents in v o l v i n g t h e i r dogs, gear or v e h i c l e s . D e f i n i t i o n of Stress The l o c a t i o n of the housing a l l o c a t e d the Inuit hunters was perceived as s t r e s s f u l because they had no control over housing a l l o c a t i o n , could not predict i f or when t h e i r housing need would be solved, could not go elsewhere and so could not escape t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . Conclusion Provision ought to be made to accommodate the unique housing needs of fam i l i e s who engage i n hunting and f i s h i n g f o r a l i v e l i h o o d . 73 Plate 20 a. A hunter's gear and equipment stored i n h i s front yard at Pangnirtung where he can see i t and work on i t . (Photo: Mike Murphy) Plate 20 b. Hunters' homes located i n the backyard of I g l o o l i k . Spaces troubled with heavy snowdrifts and spring floods i n which dogs have been tethered. Plate 20c. Hunters often l i v e i n low cost r e n t a l housing "away from the sea" and "doorways out of town." These hunters' homes are on main artery i n Pangnirtung. Ik Plate 21 b. One "doorway" into Pangnirtung t r a f f i c k e d by Inuit en route to and from hunting areas outside Pangnirtung. N.W.T. Game o f f i c e r ' s house and o f f i c e , top centre. Gravel on permafrost for "Parks" b u i l d i n g lower l e f t . Two new "low cost r e n t a l " houses between p o s s i b l y occupied by "wage earners." 75 Plate 21 c. Rocky t e r r a i n to be Plate 21 d. Hunters cross broad expanses of " i n town" roads to gain access to supplies and t h e i r stored gear. 76 Plate 22. Traditional use of space presented fewer outdoor problems for hunters and concerned parents supervising children. A traditional camp in the 19^0's was the village of igloos in the Pond Inlet area, (credit: "Eskimo" magazine, Oblate Mission, Churchill). 77 FINDING B k Stress created when e l d e r l y Inuit who once were neighbours i n t r a d i -t i o n a l hunting camps are located i n houses distant from each other i n Pangnirtung, I g l o o l i k and Pond I n l e t , (plate 22). Method of Observation Unobtrusive observations, unstructured interviews and informant generat-ed data (see technique I a, I b, II a, b). Observed Perception I t appears some e l d e r l y Inuit view the spaces they l i v e i n as distant from t h e i r former neighbours and r e l a t i v e s from "old hunting camp days." Relation to Ph y s i c a l Configuration and Behavioral Response E l d e r l y Inuit l i v e as couples or with, t h e i r married c h i l d r e n . Distances and lack of access to transportation prevent frequent v i s i t i n g among former neighbours of hunting camps. E l d e r l y Inuit do not engage much i n Kadlunat oriented a c t i v i t i e s and so remain near or i n t h e i r houses much of the time; many are v i r t u a l l y shut-ins i n periods of bad weather. D e f i n i t i o n of Stress The s i t u a t i o n the e l d e r l y Inuit are placed i n i s such that they have no cont r o l over where they l i v e , cannot predict what w i l l happen about where they l i v e , or escape from the spaces which they are al l o c a t e d . Conclusions Means should be provided, i n f a m i l i a r surroundings, f o r frequent i n -teractions between e l d e r l y I n u i t , former hunters and t h e i r wives. 78 FINDING B5 Stress created by the d i s p a r i t y i n l o c a t i o n and s i t i n g of low cost r e n t a l housing and " s t a f f " housing i n Pangnirtung, I g l o o l i k , and Pond I n l e t . (Plate 23 a,b). Method of Observation Unobtrusive observations, unstructured interviews, informant generated data (see technique I a,b,f, 2a, II a. Observed Perception Location of r e n t a l housing provided to s t a f f "outsiders" from the "south" or Kadlunat wage earners are perceived as "better q u a l i t y " than that a l l o c a t e d permanent Inuit residents. Housing appears to not always be a l l o c a t e d according to needs, that i s to say, according to family si z e regardless of income exacerbating the perceived d i s p a r i t y . Relation to Physical Configuration and Behavioral Response Two r e n t a l housing systems operate i n the v i l l a g e s . The q u a l i t y of housing, i n so f a r as pro v i s i o n of amenities, s i z e , s t r u c t u r e , l o c a t i o n , view etc., v a r i e s between each of two categories - "low cost" and " s t a f f housing." Many f a m i l i e s s h i f t from house to house within each category over periods of time to "upgrade t h e i r housing." Seldom d i d "permanent re s i d e n t s " as opposed to outsiders, q u a l i f y f o r and gain access to " s t a f f housing." D e f i n i t i o n of Stress The i n a b i l i t y to have access to housing according to employment needs creates a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n f o r the d i s s a t i s f i e d as they cannot c o n t r o l , p r e dict or escape from the problem aside from leaving the v i l l a g e , (see plates 20 a, b, c and 21 a t o 21 e). There i s v i r t u a l l y no housing a v a i l a b l e outside the two r e n t a l systems. Some s t a f f housing occupied by Kadlunat takes up space desired by the I n u i t . 79 Conclusion Housing should be al l o c a t e d to provide outdoor spaces r e l a t e d to the p a r t i c u l a r needs of the Kadlunat and Inuit. For example, Inuit appear to need ready access to the sea and more outdoor space to work i n near t h e i r gear and equipment than do wage earning Kadlunat. Plate 23 a. Foreground Kadlunat settlement manager's l i v i n g space. Background, home of l o c a l manager-traine e and his family. Pangnirtung 197*+ • Plate 23 b. Reminder of a move or s h i f t of families from one Pangnirtung l i v i n g space to another. 197*+. 80 P l a t e 23 c . Government s t a f f l i v i n g s p a c e s . I g l o o l i k 1 973 . P l a t e 23 d . Wage e a r n e r s ( K a d l u n a t ) i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e house s l o c a t e d n e a r t h e s e a a t Pond I n l e t . Such l o c a t i o n s a r e p r i z e d b y I n u i t . FINDING B 6 S t r e s s c au sed by p e r c e p t i o n o f " l a c k o f v i e w " o f s e a f r om windows i n t h e homes o f I n u i t h u n t e r s i n I g l o o l i k . ( p l a t e 23 d , map 5 b ) . Map 8 b Relationship of POND INLET housing numbers 197^ sketch map 81+ Method of Observation Unstructured interview, unobtrusive observation (see technique I a,b, c, f, II a, b, I I I a). Observed Perception Respondents expressed d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with l o c a t i o n of houses away from the sea " i n towns'' backyard." Relation to Phy s i c a l Configuration and Behaviour Houses are s i t e d away from the sea at r i g h t angle to the view of the sea. The behavioral response of the Inuit i s to complain and lobby for a d i f f e r e n t house. D e f i n i t i o n of Stress The a b i l i t y to acquire a home with a view of the sea i s considered s t r e s s -f u l because housing a l l o c a t i o n , both "low cost" and " s t a f f " i s beyond the control of the In u i t . Conclusion Provision ought to be made to accommodate Inuit hunters' perception of view requirements by providing houses with a view of the sea. FINDING- B 7 Stress i s created by the lack of a v i s i b l e consecutive house numbering and street naming system i n Pangnirtung and I g l o o l i k . Method of Observation Unobtrusive observations, unstructured interviews, informant generated data (see technique l a , e, III b ) . Observed Perception Kadlunat appear concerned, e s p e c i a l l y those with government and f i r e -f i g h t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 86 Relation to Ph y s i c a l Configuration and Behavioral Response Houses and other buildings c a r r i e d numbers that frequently had no d i s -cernible sequence and street naming signs were i n e f f e c t i v e . This numbering was ignored by many Inuit and Kadlunat who put family name plates on t h e i r houses. V i s i t i n g o f f i c i a l s and volunteer firemen often complained about the problem. D e f i n i t i o n of Stress The numbering of houses and naming of streets produced a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n that had to be l i v e d with, causing f r u s t r a t i o n f or the Kadlunat who needed to locate houses now numbered i n an unpredictable fashion. Conclusion Solutions should be sought to provide an acceptable housing i d e n t i f i -cation system, but i t i s not clear what form t h i s should take, as i t i s outside the t r a d i t i o n a l experience of the In u i t . FINDING B 8 Some stress stems from the fac t that c h i l d r e n perceive space and objects d i f f e r e n t l y than adults at Pangnirtung. (plate 2k, 25a, b, c, d and map 7)-Method of Observation Unobtrusive observations, unstructured interviews and informant generated data, (see techniques II a, I I I a,d,e,f). Observed Perception Viewed from the eye l e v e l of ch i l d r e n i n spaces they occupy, several elements appear to be perceived as dangerous or threatening to c h i l d r e n . For example, large gaping holes i n the permafrost with soft embankments, stray dogs, l o o s e l y p i l e d U5 gallon drums, discarded wire cable and sharp edged discarded equipment. 87 Relation to Physical Configuration and Behavioral Response Many outdoor spaces are o f f the beaten path of Kadlunat i n s t a l l e r s and a l l o c a t o r s . Children, as pedestrians for the most part, pass over or l i n g e r i n those spaces. D e f i n i t i o n of Stress Adults move about more i n vehicles than do c h i l d r e n ; spend more time indoors than do c h i l d r e n , so they are able to avoid confronting the outdoor spaces children have to l i v e with. Moreover, adults design spaces to s a t i s f y t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r viewpoint, which appears to be not n e c e s s a r i l y that of chi l d r e n . The spaces containing or delineated by objects objectionable to c h i l d r e n appear to be stressors because what i s put i n these spaces, when and why cannot be co n t r o l l e d by c h i l d r e n , who cannot p r e d i c t , escape from what happens i n the spaces they frequent which adults may avoid. Conclusion To r e l i e v e t h i s s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n , more attention should be given i n designing and managing what goes on i n outdoor spaces to accom-modate the viewpoint of ch i l d r e n who represent the greatest percentage of the population of the v i l l a g e s studied. Plate 25 a. School children concerned with spaces that go unnoticed by v e h i c l e operating adults, (photo: Mike Murphy) 88 A Plate 25 b. The view of a f u e l storage tank at the J eye l e v e l of a c h i l d on a path well used by children on t h e i r way to school. Plate 25 c. A Polaroid of a dead dog l e f t to r o t , taken by a school c h i l d at Pangnirtung, indicates a concern for a space apparently of l i t t l e concern to adults. Plate 25 d. Play apparatus dismantled by adults when addi-t i o n was made to school, i n school playground over a year e a r l i e r . Pangnirtung 197^. 89 FINDING B 9 Stress caused by the loss of h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s and spaces connected with h i s t o r i c a l events at Pangnirtung, I g l o o l i k and Pond Inl e t ( map 9, plates 26 a, b ). Method of Observation Unobtrusive observations, unstructured interviews and informant generat-ed data ( see technique I a, d, II a, I I I a). Observed Perception The e l d e r l y Inuit who r e c a l l e d what was i n the tradi n g posts - now v i l l a g e s , perceive the l o s s or a l t e r a t i o n of structures d e l i n e a t i n g spaces of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t , or h i s t o r i c a l spaces, as s t r e s s f u l . The Kadlunat i n t e r e s t i n t o u r i s t trade view the loss also as s t r e s s f u l . Relation to Phy s i c a l Configuration and Behavioral Response Many h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s i n a r c t i c v i l l a g e s , e s p e c i a l l y those made up of s p a t i a l configurations created by the Hudson's Bay Company and the churches, have been removed or a l t e r e d by those i n s t i t u t i o n s making way for more ade-quate f a c i l i t i e s . Some e l d e r l y I n u i t , and Kadlunat entrepreneurs concerned with tourism, complain about the v i l l a g e s ' various s p a t i a l changes that leave l i t t l e room for the retention of the places of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t . D e f i n i t i o n of Stress The prominent spaces i n the v i l l a g e s cannot be avoided by the I n u i t , e s p e c i a l l y the e l d e r l y , who have resigned themselves to l i v i n g out t h e i r l i v e s i n these v i l l a g e s and so cannot escape from viewing these spaces. These are also s t r e s s f u l spaces to l o c a l t o u r i s t conscious entrepreneurs. Conclusion Outdoor spaces and structures i n or aroundJ.these spaces that may be considered " h i s t o r i c a l " i n nature by l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , should be protected from major a l t e r a t i o n or demolition. Pangnirtung whaling s t a t i o n HBC o l d bldg.& cannon ol d h o s p i t a l "doctor's house" 5. grave yard I g l o o l i k R.C. stone mission bldg mission f i s h pond ruins stone church grave yard . stone mission . o l d HBC buildings Pond I n l e t R.C. Church Anglican Church HBC old compound RCMP compound Grave yard 4 ' 3 HISTORICAL SITES locations 197^ 9 1 Plate 2 6 a. Space "pride of Pang" reserved f o r Hudson's Bay Company cannon and f l a g pole, Pangnirtung (1967) intruded by company's freezer b u i l d i n g i n 197^. Plate 2 6 b. Whaling s t a t i o n b u i l d i n g s , Pang-nirtung, 1 9 6 7 - Buildings used as overflow accommodations, 197^• 92 C BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE  FINDING C 1 Stress caused "by the use of the landing s t r i p at Pangnirtung as a short cut f o r pedestrians (plate 27a), as a play space f o r c h i l d r e n , and by low f l y i n g a i r c r a f t causing a noise, and blowing dust and snow which i s a nuisance to the surrounding houses. (The s t r i p s at I g l o o l i k and Pond I n l e t are distant from the v i l l a g e s proper). Method of Observation Unobtrusive observation,unstructured interviews, informant generated data (see technique I d,e, 2 a, b, II a, I I I a, c, d). Observed Behaviour Persons of a l l ages use the a i r s t r i p as a short cut to get to stores or school, crossing a wide expanse of windswept space. Children and youth play on the s t r i p ; Skidoos and motorcycle operators drive t h e i r machines over the s t r i p , often crossing high voltage transmission l i n e s exposed above ground. Parents have appealed to government f o r school bus service f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Relation to Ph y s i c a l Configuration and Perceptual Set This regulation s i z e landing s t r i p occupies a large amount of good b u i l d i n g land (plate 27b). I t creates a d i s t i n c t d i v i s i o n between the two major parts of the v i l l a g e . The road s k i r t i n g the end of i t i s a long way around to the opposite side of the v i l l a g e . The s t r i p makes distances to school and stores " f a r " f o r pedestrians. (plate 27 c ) . The houses located near the s t r i p v i b r a t e and shake on the landing and take o f f of planes. Dust and blowing snow reduces v i s i b i l i t y and seeps 93 into houses exposed to the wind tunnel e f f e c t of the s t r i p . In t h i s case both the Kadlunat and Inuit appear to be concerned about the l o c a t i o n of the a i r s t r i p . D e f i n i t i o n of Stress Both Kadlunat and Inuit appear to be under stress because the s i t u a t i o n r e l a t e d to the s t r i p i s a stress inducing space; that i s to say, the frequency of a r r i v a l s and take o f f s , t h e i r approach and take o f f , f l i g h t patterns, etc., i s beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l , neither can i t be predicted or escaped from. Conclusion A i r s t r i p s should i n p r i n c i p l e not be located so as to b i s e c t these communities. The s t r i p may also contribute to the evident s o c i a l segregation as a majority of wage earners employed by government l i v e on the "school s i d e " while others are on the "store" side. Plate 27 a. The Pangnirtung a i r s t r i p was used extensively by pedestrians en route from one side of Pang to the other. 9h Plate 27 b. A 1967 photo of p o t e n t i a l b u i l d i n g land f o r housing now occupied by a i r s t r i p b u i l t by the Canadian army. Plate 27 c. Pangnirtung, 197^. From f o r e ground toward Cumberland Sound: the sea, school, a i r s t r i p , storage tanks, and the other h a l f of "Pang." An in-school survey of k0% of the school population i n 197^ i n d i c a t e d 35% of the students l i v e d on the school side of s t r i p , and 65% on H.B.C. side of s t r i p i n background. 95 FINDING C 2 Stress i s caused by the movement of large numbers of motor vehicles of a l l descriptions on roads and about buildings i n Pangnirtung, I g l o o l i k and Pond I n l e t . (Plates 29 a, b, 30 a). Method of Observation Unobtrusive observation, unstructured interviews and informant generat-ed data, (see techniques I a, e, f , 2 a, b, III a, b). Observed Behaviour Vehicles t r a v e l on undesignated paths through people's yards at a l l hours of the day and night making loud noises and damaging permafrost i n the v i l l a g e s . Relation to Physical Configuration and Perceptual Set Spaces often used by vehicles i s not always designated nor prepared for v e h i c l e s ' use. Kadlunat see yards as pr i v a t e although some pathways t r a d i t i o n a l l y used as "doorways" i n and out of v i l l a g e cross over them. Both Inuit and Kadlunat appear to question frequent use of space around residences for vehicular operation by those outside t h e i r family. Pedestrian and motor v e h i c l e t r a f f i c are not separated. Vehicular t r a f f i c dominates the main roads. D e f i n i t i o n of Stress The confinement of v e h i c l e operation to v i l l a g e roads i s beyond the con t r o l of residents, Kadlunat or I n u i t , whose outdoor spaces about t h e i r houses are v i o l a t e d . The residents cannot predict what w i l l happen i n these spaces, nor escape from the r e s u l t s of the v e h i c l e s ' presence. So, to the pedestrians and residents, the spaces i n question are s t r e s s f u l . Conclusion The v i l l a g e s ought to be designed to accommodate veh i c l e s and pedes-96 t r i a n s with greater safety, l e s s damage to the environment, and l e s s nuisance to the space around the houses. Plate 28. A v a r i e t y of low cost housing types and vehicles i n Pangnirtung delineate spaces i n which children and Inuit play and work. FINDING C 3 Stress caused by abandonment of consumer goods and remnants of t r a d i -t i o n a l hunting and f i s h i n g economy; for example, machinery, v e h i c l e s , gear, equipment and even sled dogs i n Pangnirtung and I g l o o l i k . (Plate 28). Method of Observation Unobtrusive observation, unstructured interviews and informant generat-ed data. ( See technique I d , e, 2a, b, I I I a, b, c, g). Observed Behaviour Both Inuit and Kadlunat leaving discarded possessions in c l u d i n g dog, seal and game animal carcasses i n p u b l i c places. 97 Relation to Physical Configuration and Perceptual Set Space appears to be used i n d i s c r i m i n a n t l y f o r garbage. The Inuit appear to accept the s i t u a t i o n , while the Kadlunat mind set appears to be more concerned. D e f i n i t i o n of Stress The presence of discarded, unrepaired or "no longer of use" products and animal carcasses appeared to be a source of stress to the Kadlunat. They are unable to control the "discard i t " trend, nor predict or escape from the r e s u l t s of the p r a c t i c e of using non designated spaces as dumping grounds. Conclusion Provision should be made to provide f o r a more e f f e c t i v e supply of spare parts; disposal areas should be designated f o r abandoned equipment along with measures to ensure unwanted animal carcasses are disposed of quickly and i n a sanitary way. Plate 29 a. With the increase i n number of vehicles i n Pang., one-way s t r e e t s . came the necessity to introduce 98 Plate 29 b. Vehicle t r a f f i c inundates Pangnirtung. domestic purposes, fo r t h i s purpose at and does not necessar-i l y stay on roads b u i l t spaces used f o r other FINDING C h Stress created by Inuit and Kadlunat leaving motor vehicles and parts scattered aboug v i l l a g e and doing repairs i n hazardous places i n Pangnirtung and I g l o o l i k . Method of Observation Unobtrusive observation, unstructured interviews and informant generat-ed data. ( See technique I a, d, e, 2a, b, I I I a, b). Observed Behaviour Parked vehicles and other paraphernalia scattered throughout v i l l a g e s . Skidoos and sleds parked on candled i c e i n front of v i l l a g e s . Welding done i n shops near f u e l storage tanks, nursing s t a t i o n and school. Relation to Physical Configuration and Perceptual Set Kadlunat perceive p r a c t i c e s as dangerous i n addition to creating "eye sores." Inuit continue p r a c t i c e s as described above with Kadlunat in t e r n a -l i z i n g problem. D e f i n i t i o n of Stress Inuit behaviour i s a source of stress to Kadlunat because Kadlunat 9 9 cannot control the spaces used by the I n u i t . They cannot predict what the Inuit w i l l do i n the spaces involved; nor can they escape from the e f f e c t s of the I n u i t s ' actions. Conclusion Designated space should be a v a i l a b l e f o r the storage and s e r v i c i n g of v e h i c l e s . FINDING C 5 Stress i s caused when management s t a f f and most wage earners keep d i f f e r e n t hours i n summer than Inuit and youth. Vehicles use and spaces occupied by the l a t t e r groups during night and e a r l y morning hours i n work and play are a source of stress to the managers and wage earners i n Pangnirtung, I g l o o l i k and Pond I n l e t . Method of Observation Unobtrusive observation and unstructured interviews. ( See technique I b, f , 2a, I I I a). Observed Behaviour Long a f t e r midnight into the early hours of the morning, I n u i t , youth and some management and wage earners who, " i f they can't win, j o i n them," work and play outdoors. Management and most wage earners keep regular "nine to f i v e " hours, l i v i n g with l i t t l e sleep. Relation to Physical Configuration and Perceptual Set Vehicle use and spaces frequented by "night owls" near homes whose residents have a Kadlunat mind set cause the l a t t e r to s u f f e r lack of sleep. D e f i n i t i o n of Stress Outdoor spaces used by "night owls" during l a t e and e a r l y hours are sources of stress to others who f i n d the use of these spaces s t r e s s f u l . 10 Q Conclusion It appears "curfews" are not p r a c t i c a l to ensure adults are indoors by a designated time; nor does t h i s method work well f o r c h i l d r e n . Considera-t i o n should be given to v i l l a g e and b u i l d i n g design solutions addressed to t h i s problem, to reduce or remove the stress described. FINDING C 6 Stress created by c h i l d r e n frequenting spaces out of sight or sound of t h e i r parents or guardians at Pangnirtung. (Plates 22, 30a, b, c ) . Method of Observation Unobtrusive observation, unstructured interviews, informant generated data. (See technique I a, b, f , 2a, I I I c, e, f , g). Observed Behaviour Kadlunat and Inuit c h i l d r e n frequently play i n and on storage b u i l d i n g s , other houses, equipment, unsafe i c e and on the h i l l s d i stant from the v i l l a g e . Some parents b u i l d enclosed play areas near homes f o r c h i l d r e n , others frequently search for c h i l d r e n that have been out of sight. Relation to P h y s i c a l Configuration and Perceptual Set The spaces used by the children i s viewed as dangerous by the adult residents of the v i l l a g e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Kadlunat. The I n u i t , by compari-son, appear to be l i e v e that the c h i l d r e n can "look a f t e r themselves" from an e a r l y age. D e f i n i t i o n of Stress Children's behaviour appears to be s t r e s s f u l to the Kadlunat parents or guardians i n p a r t i c u l a r because of the nature and l o c a t i o n of the spaces the chi l d r e n frequent where the hazards are unpredictable, uncontrollable and inescapable. 101 Conclusion As long as the Kadlunat mind set becomes in c r e a s i n g l y dominant i t appears that for the avoidance of t h i s source of stress that the communities ought to be designed to provide safety and more r e a d i l y supervised spaces for children's a c t i v i t i e s . Plate 30 a. Children i n a r c t i c v i l l a g e s do not escape practices common to the south! (Child's drawing -extract from diary, Pangnirtung, 197*0-t Plate 30 b. Children have few supervised play spaces i n sight of concerned parents such as t h i s at Pang. Few are a v a i l a b l e to 1 - low cost r e n t a l tenants. House 31 i s " s t a f f " house. 102 places to adults. play things or with things that may not appear as playing i n spaces Plate 30 c. Children FINDING- C 7 Stress caused by the amount of time spent by Inuit children engaged i n Kadlunat oriented a c t i v i t i e s out of parental view i n Pangnirtung. (Plate 30 d). Method of Observation Unobtrusive observation and unstructured interview. ( See technique I b, d, e, 2a, b, II a, I I I a, b, c, g). Observed Behaviour Inuit children were us u a l l y found i n outdoor spaces away from home. Relation to Physical Configuration and Perceptual Set It appears that the space and a c t i v i t i e s away from home and out of parental influence are more a t t r a c t i v e to young people than a c t i v i t y i n the home and the space around i t . The children tend towards the Kadlunat mind set, while many of t h e i r parents have the Inuit mind set that expects that children w i l l be "longing f o r home" as part of the extended family. D e f i n i t i o n of Stress The parents of children absent from home are under stress because they perceive what i s happening i n the spaces the ch i l d r e n occupy as beyond 103 t h e i r control. Their children's actions i n these spaces are unpredictable and the s i t u a t i o n where the chi l d r e n are out of parental influence i n -escapable. Conclusion Accommodate youth by providing appropriate outdoor work and play space near t h e i r homes. As for indoor space, c h i l d r e n with a Kadlunat mind set f i n d t h e i r homes too small and u n i n v i t i n g . Plate 30 d. Sealskin simulated b u i l d i n g at Pangnirtung i s a popular "hangout" f or youth and chi l d r e n attending movies. Post o f f i c e and Community H a l l operated by "new Kadlunat" i . e . youth of Inuit ancestry adopting wage earning economy. FINDING C 8 Stress created by inadequate s i t i n g of houses i n Pangnirtung, I g l o o l i k and Pond I n l e t . 10k Method of Observation Unobtrusive observation, unstructured interviews. ( see technique I a, b, c, d, e, f , 2a, b, II a, b, I I I a, b, c, e, f , g). Observed S p a t i a l Configuration The v a r i a t i o n s i n the t e r r a i n , the wind v e l o c i t y and d i r e c t i o n , and drainage causes many housing s i t e s to d i f f e r i n t h e i r d e s i r a b i l i t y . Relation to Behavior and Perceptual Set Each head of a household viewed h i s or her home i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to several f a c t o r s , one of which was i t s l o c a t i o n i n the v i l l a g e . Desired s i t e features include adequate drainage, view, access to amenities such as store, church, etc. When those were not perceived as present, the household heads often moved with t h e i r f a m i l i e s to other houses, leaving vacancies which, when f i l l e d , r e s u l t e d i n other vacancies, and so on. This process resembled a game of "musical c h a i r s . " D e f i n i t i o n of Stress To the "have nots" seeking "better housing," the desire f o r l i v i n g spaces of the "haves" are sources of s t r e s s . For these f a m i l i e s , Kadlunat and I n u i t , the spaces occupied by the "haves" are s t r e s s f u l . To the Kadlunat or Inuit who are obliged to move from one l i v i n g space to another as r e -quested by l o c a l government housing a u t h o r i t i e s i n order to accommodate a d i s s a t i s f i e d family, t h e i r move to another place not requested by them may be beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l , unpredictable and inescapable; and so a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n . (Plate 23 b). Conclusion A so l u t i o n to the constant s h i f t i n g from house to house problem may be found i n the b u i l d i n g and maintaining of houses, no matter where located i n the v i l l a g e , so that each set of housing features makes each house as viewed 105 "by the household heads as equally desirable. This may c a l l f o r putting more money in t o houses s i t e d on "poor land" than what i s put in t o housing on good land. This should make housing more equitable to the v i l l a g e s ' residents. 106 Chapter 5 Following a search of the l i t e r a t u r e f o r i n s i g h t s i n t o the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the concepts " s t r e s s " and "space" f o r the a r c t i c , t h i s question was formulated as a research problem. Are there outdoor spaces i n the v i l l a g e s i n the a r c t i c that are per-ceived by people as sources of stress that can be a l l e v i a t e d through design solutions? During the development of a paradigm and d e f i n i t i o n of s t r e s s f u l space p r i o r to f i e l d study the question was restated: Are there outdoor spaces that are perceived as s t r e s s f u l by i n s t a l l e r s , a l l o c a t o r s or users, either of Kadlunat or Inuit mind set located i n Pangnirtung, I g l o o l i k and Pond Inlet? Inherent i n t h i s question and the means to answer i t are several con-cepts which are mentioned i n the following discussion of the f i n d i n g s . F i r s t of a l l , i t must be s a i d that the author:did f i n d stress r e s u l t i n g from the p h y s i c a l design of outdoor space. There were persons i n the v i l l a g e s studied who d i d connect the components of the d e f i n i t i o n of s t r e s s f u l spaces with t h e i r perceived outdoor spaces. These spaces were, i n t h e i r view, s t r e s s f u l to them. Moreover, i t appears possible f or those spaces to be made l e s s s t r e s s f u l through the adoption of design solutions. 10T The paradigm con s i s t i n g of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s p a t i a l configura-t i o n , perceptual set, and behavioral response handled well the data imposed upon i t to describe how persons perceived t h e i r s t r e s s f u l spaces and responded where possible to r e l i e v e the stress generated by the s i t u a t i o n connected with these spaces. It also h i g h l i g h t s the factors that should be looked at i n developing design solutions t o reduce the negative e f f e c t s of the s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s and so could be s a i d to be an e f f e c t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l framework for the data. The d e f i n i t i o n of s t r e s s o r , or a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n proved adequate. Its use i n conjunction with the exercise presented the researcher with scenarios of r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g s t r e s s . Moreover the c r i t e r i a f o r deciding whether a space was a s t r e s s o r , being uncontrollable, inescapable, and unpredictable, was useable i n the context of the r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . These terms or t h e i r antonymns as word symbols do convey how people may perceive the spaces they are concerned about. The methodology also provided acceptable r e s u l t s . The study's objective was to determine i f s t r e s s f u l spaces d i d e x i s t . To do t h i s , s u f f i c i e n t information had to be obtained about the paradigm's three components, the s p a t i a l configuration of possible s t r e s s f u l spaces, the perceptual set of those under s t r e s s , and t h e i r behavioral response. The techniques used i n the methodology, the means of documenting the f i n d i n g s , and the format used i n the w r i t i n g of them di d provide the information to t e s t against the c r i t e r i a f o r s t r e s s . Having said t h i s , however, i t must be understood that the findings r e s u l t i n g from t h i s study can only be considered t e n t a t i v e , and should be subjected to further research. Moreover, the study presents several problems that suggest further research p o s s i b i l i t i e s . For instance, the concept of perceptual set along with the d e f i n i t i o n of stress need further c l a r i f i c a t i o n 108 i n terms of, f i r s t , confirming beyond a doubt whether there i s a des-cribable "Kadlunat" and " I n u i t " mind set as outlined i n t h i s t h e s i s ; and, second, e s t a b l i s h i n g without a doubt whether Glass's (1972) terms f o r describing stress can, i n f a c t , be used i n defining s t r e s s f u l space. However, the paradigm i t s e l f appears to present fewer problems to be worked out through further research. Not withstanding the recognized need to resolve the above two problems concerning the d e f i n i t i o n s , t h i s study as an attempt at "breaking new ground" i n the use of space and stress as a focus i n m u l t i d i s c i p l i n e a r c t i c design projects should be followed up by further t e s t i n g of hypothesis formulation. The suggestions are based on the findings described i n the previous chapter, which f a l l i nto two categories. The f i r s t category includes those findings which i l l u s t r a t e that sound planning p r a c t i c e s have been v i o l a t e d i n the development of the three v i l l a g e s studied. This includes not r e s o l v i n g problems r e l a t e d to the presence of permafrost, high winds, e t c . , unique to the a r c t i c . Let us look at these suggestions a r i s i n g out of the findings r e l a t e d to the v i o l a t i o n of sound planning p r a c t i c e , then at those r e l a t e d to the p a r t i c u l a r .'heeds of Inuit hunting f a m i l i e s . The conclusions of the findings discussed i n chapter four are restated here as suggestions f o r designers and managers responsible for planning and operating v i l l a g e s l i k e Pangnirtung, I g l o o l i k and Pond I n l e t . Understandably the findings are t e n t a t i v e and so the suggestions are open to question. However, i t i s the author's contention that through such questioning other problems or solutions addressed to s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g s p a t i a l configuration both i n indoor and outdoor spaces, may r e s u l t . To f i t the suggestions i n t o a context used by designers and managers the suggestions 109 are l i s t e d under these headings: Housing, U t i l i t i e s , C i r c u l a t i o n and other Transportation Systems, and Vehicles. Housing Consult with l o c a l residents regarding placement of t h e i r houses to en-sure spaces are l e a s t vulnerable to the elements, p a r t i c u l a r l y high winds. Give more attention to the r e l a t i o n s h i p of roads to houses, while taking account of permafrost, drainage, and absence of curbs to delineate pathways and roads. Provide a housing i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system acceptable to the majority of the residents of the v i l l a g e s . Design housing or spaces immediate to them to accommodate d i f f e r e n t l i f e s t y l e s ; that i s to say, to provide f o r those who choose to stay up a l l night and f o r those who need to keep "nine to f i v e " hours. Provide safer and more r e a d i l y supervised spaces f o r children's a c t i v i -t i e s . Provide a system for preserving h i s t o r i c a l l y l i n k e d outdoor spaces or the structures that delineate them. U t i l i t i e s and S ervicing Provide space, other than those i n heavy demand by residents for u t i l i t y i n s t a l l a t i o n . Give p a r t i c u l a r attention to the distance of v i l l a g e s to water supply and ensure access of water d e l i v e r y vehicles to residences. Provide f o r e f f i c i e n t methods f o r the disposal of discarded property including animal carcasses. Provide f o r e f f i c i e n t and sanitary d i s p o s a l of e f f l u e n t from houses and other b u i l d i n g s . 110. C i r c u l a t i o n and Transportation Systems Design v i l l a g e s to accommodate vehicles and pedestrians with greater safety and le s s damage to the environment and l e s s nuisance around the houses. Find new methods to protect roads subjected to r a p i d erosion by downhill t o r r e n t s . Avoid b i s e c t i n g communities with a i r s t r i p s . Vehicles Provide designated spaces for the storage and s e r v i c i n g of v e h i c l e s . -• Provide for an e f f i c i e n t supply system for v e h i c l e parts. Suppliers of vehicles and other equipment should also supply r e p a i r f a c i l i t i e s . Having l i s t e d the suggestions a r i s i n g out of the findings on the v i o l a -t i o n of sound planning p r a c t i c e s , l e t us review the findings r e l a t e d to the Inuit hunting f a m i l i e s ' needs. For design problems r e l a t e d to t h e i r needs seem unresolved. Housing a l l o c a t e d to hunting f a m i l i e s i s often located i n extreme snow-d r i f t areas away from the sea, or i n what some hunters suggested are the v i l l a g e s ' "backyards." E l d e r l y Inuit who once were close neighbors i n t r a d i t i o n a l hunting camps are often located distant from each other i n the v i l l a g e s studied. The p r o v i s i o n of housing and storage for gear and equipment for hunting and f i s h i n g f a m i l i e s near the sea, with a good view of i t , i s often l a c k i n g . L i t t l e p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r safe, e a s i l y supervised outdoor play space to generate an i n t e r e s t i n the t r a d i t i o n a l ways f o r ch i l d r e n of Inuit hunting and f i s h i n g f a m i l i e s . These findings suggest the following: In housing design and a l l o c a t i o n , provide f o r the unique needs of f a m i l i e s who engage i n hunting and f i s h i n g f o r a l i v e l i h o o d . I l l Provide housing f o r Inuit hunters that has a c l e a r view and access t o the sea. Provide f a m i l i a r surroundings f o r frequent i n t e r a c t i o n s between I n u i t , former hunters and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . I t appears that the s p a t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n of housing to encourage the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n of Inuit and Kadlunat should not supplant the need to accommodate the i n u i t hunters and fishermen's f a m i l i e s who, i t i s hypothe-s i z e d , need to be provided with housing enclaves that have such features as these: ready access to the outdoor space "doorways" i n and out of the v i l l a g e s f o r hunters' v e h i c l e s ; safe, secure storage for equipment and gear near where the hunters l i v e and work when i n the v i l l a g e s ; safe out-door work spaces near the e x i t s and entrances to the v i l l a g e s . There has been a back to the land movement i n I g l o o l i k and Pangnirtung, but according to many l o c a l residents and the presence of few hunting camps outside the three v i l l a g e s studied, the movement has met with l e s s success than hoped for by i t s advocates. It could be hypothesized that Inuit l i v i n g i n these v i l l a g e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r the c h i l d r e n , having grown accustomed to amenities of f e r e d by the v i l l a g e , would not desert them to l i v e i n outlying camps to hunt and f i s h , but would continue.to hunt and f i s h i f the v i l l a g e s ' s p a t i a l configurations would accommodate the unique needs of hunters and fishermen, and as a consequence be l e s s s t r e s s f u l to them. It i s further hypothesized that the present set of s p a t i a l configurations i n the v i l l a g e s studied run contrary to the demands of the unique p h y s i c a l features and s o c i a l conditions of the a r c t i c . S p a t i a l configurations created by more compact, t i g h t l y k n i t neighborhoods, each devoted to a p a r t i c u l a r l i f e s t y l e such as hunting or wage economy, would better serve the needs of the users and the i n s t a l l e r s and a l l o c a t o r s who design ways to provide adequate u t i l i t i e s services. 112 The findings l i s t e d f e l l into two categories which suggest that more attention should he given i n the expansion, r e p l o t t i n g and design of a r c t i c v i l l a g e s to conventional planning p r a c t i c e s and to the r e s o l v i n g of design problems presented by the unique needs of those Inuit who choose to l i v e i n v i l l a g e s such as those studied, but also wish to continue hunting and f i s h i n g f o r a l i v e l i h o o d . It would appear, i n reviewing the findings , that approximately ninety percent of the findings r e l a t e to users. The Kadlunat seem to be the users, i n s t a l l e r s and a l l o c a t o r s of outdoor spaces, whereas the Inuit appear to be users only, with l i t t l e say about what happens to the s p a t i a l configurations they use. I t i s important, then, that the needs of the Inuit be considered as they r e l a t e to space use. I t would appear that the outdoor s p a t i a l configurations of the three v i l l a g e s studied do not r e a d i l y accommodate those who wish to pursue t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l Inuit l i f e s t y l e . Moreover, the findings l i s t e d here i n point form under the two categories, "Conventional Planning Practices V i o l a t e d " and "Unique A r c t i c Design Problems Unresolved" described i n d e t a i l i n chapter four, would suggest t h i s conclusion. Means should be sought to bring the i n s t a l l e r s , a l l o c a t o r s , and users i n step i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to create a le s s s t r e s s f u l c o l l e c t i o n ' of spaces i n the v i l l a g e s studied, and others l i k e them. But t h i s cannot be accomplished, i t i s the author's b e l i e f i n view of t h i s study's f i n d i n g s , without the i n s t a l l -ers, a l l o c a t o r s and users discussing t h e i r v i l l a g e design and management problems i n terms of a common focus. Space and Stress are f a m i l i a r to a l l people and may be the necessary Focus. 113 REFERENCES CITED Adams, C o l i n . F l e x i b i l i t y i n Canadian Eskimo S o c i a l Forms and Behavior. A l l i a n c e i n Eskimo Society. Proceedings of the American Ethnology Society, Ed. Lee Gremple. U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Press, S e a t t l e , 1971 supplement. Buttiner, Anne. S o c i a l Space and the Planning of R e s i d e n t i a l Areas. 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