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Townhouses in single family areas : an analysis of public attitudes towards increasing density Battles, Robert Anthony Marvin 1976

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TOWNHOUSES IN SINGLE FAMILY AREAS' AN ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC ATTITUDES TOWARDS INCREASING DENSITY  by ROBERT ANTHONY MARVIN BATTLES B.A.  ( E c o n . ) , U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1973  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l  Planning  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1976  (c)  Robert Anthony Marvin Battles, 1976  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the  requirements  f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s  for  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department o r by h i s representatives.  I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of  this  t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  per-  mission.  S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l  Planning  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Way 3, 1976  ABSTRACT  The p a s t two decades have seen the c o n s t r u c t i o n of an i n c r e a s i n g number of m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s i n s i n g l e f a m i l y a r e a s .  Two p o s s i b l e  reasons f o r p e r m i t t i n g development t o h i g h e r d e n s i t i e s a r e to make more e f f i c i e n t use of l a n d and m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , and to a l l o w new r e s i d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y those w i t h c h i l d r e n , to l i v e i n a s o c i a l l y s t a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l environment.  There r e m a i n s , however, widespread  r e s i s t a n c e to change w i t h i n e s t a b l i s h e d s i n g l e f a m i l y  neighbourhoods.  P l a n n e r s a r e thus o f t e n c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the problem o f a c h i e v i n g i n c r e a s e s i n d e n s i t y w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g f e e l i n g s of resentment towards i n c o m i n g r e s i d e n t s and a m i s t r u s t of government on the p a r t of existing  the  residents.  T h i s s t u d y f o c u s e s upon homeowners' a t t i t u d e s constructed i n e x i s t i n g s i n g l e family zones.  towards townhouses  The p r i m a r y s o u r c e of  i n f o r m a t i o n i s p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s conducted w i t h a t o t a l of 75 single family residents.  The i n t e r v i e w s were e q u a l l y d i v i d e d between  three V i c t o r i a neighbourhoods:  two i n which a townhouse p r o j e c t had  been b u i l t and one i n which no change had o c c u r r e d . followed a l i t e r a t u r e  This survey  review which s t r e s s e s the v a r y i n g v i e w p o i n t s  from which the response to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new h o u s i n g types i n t o a r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood has been examined. The purposes of the s t u d y were: a)  t o determine which a s p e c t s of townhouse p r o j e c t s a r e of g r e a t e s t concern t o s u r r o u n d i n g  residents,  the  iii  b)  to a s c e r t a i n i f  and how a t t i t u d e s a r e m o d i f i e d by exposure t o a  totunhouse p r o j e c t and i t s c)  inhabitants,  t o e v a l u a t e the p u b l i c h e a r i n g as a d e v i c e f o r measuring community a t t i t u d e s towards z o n i n g changes,  d)  to recommend c r i t e r i a which c o u l d guide p l a n n e r s i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n of s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t  proposals.  Survey r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the most troublesome a s p e c t s of townhouses were t h e i r e f f e c t s on v i e w s , p r i v a c y , and t r a f f i c .  Another  f i n d i n g was t h a t both n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e s h i f t s o f a t t i t u d e s had occurred.  I n c r e a s e d c o n c e r n was generated by the d e s i g n of the p r o -  j e c t , w h i l e c o n c e r n s l e s s e n e d i n r e l a t i o n to the i s s u e s of  privacy,  neighbourhood s t a t u s , the type of people a t t r a c t e d t o townhouses, p r o p e r t y v a l u e s , maintenance, p a r k i n g , and open green s p a c e s . c a s e s these s h i f t s were e x p l a i n e d by s i t e and p r o j e c t  In most  characteristics  o r by the f a c t t h a t c e r t a i n f e a r s had not been r e a l i z e d . The i n t e r v i e w r e s u l t s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t the p u b l i c h e a r i n g i s an adequate d e v i c e f o r measuring the range of r e s i d e n t s *  concerns.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t the a t t i t u d e s u r v e y i s a more appropriate tool since i t  reaches a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f  neighbourhood  residents. The f i n a l c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s a s e t of p l a n n i n g g u i d e l i n e s  that  s h o u l d be adopted as the b a s i c c r i t e r i a f o r a s s e s s i n g townhouses and the a c t u a l p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s .  The need to f o r m u l a t e a m u n i c i -  p a l r e z o n i n g p o l i c y based on the above c r i t e r i a i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d .  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  ii  LIST OF MAPS LIST OF FIGURES  vii viii  LIST OF TABLES  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEWENTS  xi  Chapter I.  II.  INTRODUCTION  1  Background  1  The Problem  3  Scope and Purpose of the Study  3  Relevance of the Study  5  Conclusion  7  REVIEW OF RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES P h y s i c a l Determinism  9 9  S t r e s s i n t h e R e s i d e n t i a l Environment  12  Territoriality  14  The Neighbourhood Concept and the F o r m a t i o n of C i t i z e n s Groups  16  The P u b l i c H e a r i n g as a Measure of P u b l i c O p i n i o n  18  A t t i t u d e and P r e f e r e n c e S t u d i e s R e l a t e d t o Townhouses  20  Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s  28  V  Chapter III.  IV.  V.  VI.  Page ATTITUOE MEASUREWENT  31  D e f i n i t i o n s and Measurement Concepts  31  A t t i t u d e Change  34  Conclusion  36  METHODOLOGY  37  S e l e c t i o n o f the Study Areas  37  The Design of the I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e s  44  Sample S e l e c t i o n and the I n t e r v i e w  51  The Respondents  53  Conclusion  57  RESEARCH FINDINGS  59  A t t i t u d e s Towards Townhouse L i v i n g and P r o j e c t Residents  59  The Nature and Ranking of R e s i d e n t s ' Concerns  62  Residents* Design P r e f e r e n c e s  70  The E x t e n t of A t t i t u d e Change  74  P u b l i c H e a r i n g s and A t t i t u d e s Towards F u t u r e Townhouse C o n s t r u c t i o n  82  Summary  86  CONCLUSIONS>  IMPLICATIONS FOR PLANNING  89  Conclusions  90  Recommendations  93  vi  Page APPENDICES APPENDIX A.  LETTER OF INTRODUCTION  100  APPENDIX B.  SURVEY OF HOMEOWNERS ATTITUDES TOWARDS TOWNHOUSE PROJECTS ( A r e a W i t h o u t Touinhouses)  101  APPENDIX C.  SURVEY OF HOMEOWNERS ATTITUDES TOWARDS TOWNHOUSE PROJECTS ( A r e a W i t h Townhouses)  109  APPENDIX D.  DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO THE STATEWENT SHEET IN THE HAULTAIN AREA  118  APPENDIX E.  DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO THE STATEWENT SHEET IN THE VIC. WEST AREA  119  APPENDIX F.  DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO THE STATEWENT SHEET IN THE CEDAR HILL AREA  120  BIBLIOGRAPHY  121  vii  LIST OF MAPS  Nap  Page  1.  L o c a t i o n of Study Areas i n the C i t y of V i c t o r i a  40  2.  H a u l t a i n Study Area  41  3.  V i c . West Study Area  42  4.  Cedar H i l l Study Area  43  viii  LIST OF FIGURES  Figure  Page  1.  View of Cedar H i l l p r o j e c t from N o r t h D a i r y Road  46  2.  Rear view of Cedar H i l l p r o j e c t from the b a c k y a r d of a home on Clawthorpe S t r e e t  46  3.  Rear view of Rochdale P l a c e u n i t s i n V i c t o r i a West  47  4.  View between rows of Rochdale P l a c e u n i t s  47  5.  One example of a c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y a r e a i n a townhouse development i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y of S a a n i c h  48  6.  An example of p o s s i b l e e x t e r i o r d e s i g n f e a t u r e s i n a S a a n i c h townhouse p r o j e c t  48  7.  R e c e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d townhouses i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y of S a a n i c h  49  8.  F r o n t a l view of a s m a l l townhouse p r o j e c t i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Oak Bay  49  9.  An example of l a n d s c a p i n g i n a Vancouver townhouse project  50  ix  LIST OF TABLES  Table  Page  1.  Study Area C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  39  2.  Sex of Respondent  54  3.  Age of Respondent (By O b s e r v a t i o n )  54  4.  Stage i n L i f e C y c l e  55  5.  Household S i z e  55  6.  H i g h e s t L e v e l of E d u c a t i o n Completed  56  7.  T o t a l Household Income  56  8.  O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s o f Household Head  56  9.  Tenure  57  10.  Length of Residence i n P r e s e n t D w e l l i n g  57  10.  Question:  Do you t h i n k t h a t townhouse r e s i d e n t s and the occupants of s i n g l e f a m i l y homes have d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ?  60  12.  Question:  To your knowledge, what k i n d of i n d i v i -  61  duals l i v e i n  townhouses?  13.  Statement Sheet  63  14.  Statement Ranking  64  15.  Key References and P h r a s e s  69  16.  Design P r e f e r e n c e s  71  17.  Reasons f o r C h o i c e of Home  76  18.  Length of Residence i n R e l a t i o n to Townhouses  76  19.  Weighted Statement S c o r e s  77  20.  P e r s o n a l Assessment of A t t i t u d e Change  79  21.  Difficulty  81  i n S e l l i n g Home  X  Table  Page  22.  W i l l i n g n e s s t o Buy i n Same L o c a t i o n  81  23.  Number of Households Thought t o Have Moved Because of the Townhouses  81  24.  A t t i t u d e s Towards F u t u r e Townhouse C o n s t r u c t i o n  83  25.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of R e s i d e n t s '  83  Position  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The a u t h o r would l i k e t o e x p r e s s h i s s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n  to  D r . Henry Hightower and to D r . Ann McAfee f o r t h e i r thorough a s s i s t a n c e and many h e l p f u l comments d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s .  I  a l s o extend my thanks to o t h e r f a c u l t y members who o f f e r e d t h e i r a d v i c e and c o n s t r u c t i v e  criticism.  I e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e to Deane S t r o n g i t h a r m of the  Victoria  C i t y P l a n n i n g Department f o r h i s g e n e r o s i t y i n p r o v i d i n g maps and i n f o r m ation. Lastly,  I would extend a s i n c e r e thank you to the r e s i d e n t s  the C i t y of V i c t o r i a who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s  study.  of  1  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION  T h i s s t u d y i s concerned w i t h the a t t i t u d e s of s i n g l e  family  r e s i d e n t s to medium d e n s i t y m u l t i - f a m i l y h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s t h a t are constructed i n otherwise s i n g l e family zones.  A v a r i e t y of  interview-  i n g t e c h n i q u e s are emphasized as the most a p p r o p r i a t e means of examini n g the i n t e n s i t y and s t a b i l i t y  of these a t t i t u d e s .  Subsequent  analy-  ses of the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r recommendations  to  a s s i s t p l a n n e r s i n the f i e l d s of neighbourhood l a n d use p l a n n i n g and housing.  Background Historically, couraged i n Canada.  the m i x i n g of h o u s i n g types has not been e n -  Such a p a t t e r n of r e s i d e n t i a l development h a s ,  in  fact,  been p u r p o s e l y d i s c o u r a g e d through the enforcement of z o n i n g b y -  laws.  Zoning was o r i g i n a l l y c o n c e i v e d t o keep i n c o m p a t i b l e uses from  i m p i n g i n g on one a n o t h e r and to p r e v e n t o v e r - i n t e n s i v e development of one s i t e from i m p o s i n g burdens on i t s n e i g h b o u r s ( H e i l b r u n , 1974s 3 0 9 ) . As s u c h , i t has t r a d i t i o n a l l y  been a c c e p t e d by most p l a n n e r s as a  l e g i t i m a t e way of r e g u l a t i n g the l a n d market by r e d u c i n g the e f f e c t s externalities. municipalities  On the o t h e r hand, z o n i n g has a l s o been used by some f o r e x c l u s i o n a r y p u r p o s e s ; the i n t e n t b e i n g not to c o r -  r e c t market f a i l u r e , but t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t c e r t a i n forms of uses.  of  land  2  The p a s t two decades have seen the c o n s t r u c t i o n of an i n c r e a s i n g number of m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s i n s i n g l e f a m i l y a r e a s . residential districts,  In suburban  f o r example, l o w - r i s e apartments have  r e p l a c e d o l d e r s i n g l e f a m i l y homes.  typically  Redevelopment to a h i g h e r  density  has o c c u r r e d as a r e s u l t of r i s i n g l a n d and development c o s t s . t h i s i s not the o n l y development p a t t e r n .  Townhouses, i n  have been b u i l t on l a n d p r e v i o u s l y bypassed by d e v e l o p e r s . example of i n f i l l  b u i l d i n g o r a f i r s t use r a t h e r than  However,  particular, T h i s i s an  redevelopment.  To a v o i d c o n f u s i o n , i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t the development p a t t e r n s d e s c r i b e d above are l e s s a p p l i c a b l e to i n n e r c i t y hoods.  In these areas the t r e n d i s  neighbour-  towards w h o l e s a l e redevelopment as  apartment zones r e p l a c e areas of s i n g l e f a m i l y homes c o n v e r t e d t o m u l t i family  use. From the p l a n n e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , i n c r e a s e s i n suburban r e s i d e n -  t i a l d e n s i t i e s have been caused by s t r o n g u r b a n i z a t i o n p r e s s u r e s .  A  very s e n s i t i v e i n d e x of these growth p r e s s u r e s i n Canada i s the p r i c e of housing.  I t has been the most v i s i b l e i n d i c a t o r of an inadequate  supply  of s e r v i c e d l a n d i n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas i n the f a c e of a burgeoning d e mand.  Y e t , d e s p i t e i n f l a t i o n a r y i n c r e a s e s i n the c o s t of a l l  housing  components, i n c l u d i n g the c o s t of b o r r o w i n g money, many Canadians c o n t i n u e t o a s p i r e t o own a s i n g l e detached home. longer a r e a l i s t i c  T h i s i s , however, no  hope f o r moderate income f a m i l i e s  such as T o r o n t o , Ottawa, and Vancouver.  living in  cities  I t has thus become apparent  t h a t medium d e n s i t y h o u s i n g w i l l become the o n l y f e a s i b l e h o u s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e f o r a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s .  F a c t o r s o t h e r than c o s t have  3  a l s o l e d to the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a v a r i e t y of h o u s i n g t y p e s .  These f a c -  t o r s i n c l u d e i n c r e a s i n g numbers of c h i l d l e s s c o u p l e s who do not n e c e s s a r i l y view s i n g l e f a m i l y homes as e i t h e r n e c e s s a r y o r a p p r o p r i a t e ,  and  the c o s t s of suburban s p r a w l i n terms of a e s t h e t i c s , r e s o u r c e consumpt i o n , and l o s s e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d .  The response to t h e s e f a c t o r s  has been a growth i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s , r a n g i n g from h i g h r i s e apartments and garden apartments t o rowhouses.  The Problem The s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s d e s c r i b e d above c o n s t i t u t e b a s i c r a t i o n a l e f o r p e r m i t t i n g the development of new and o l d areas a t h i g h e r d e n s i t i e s .  There r e m a i n s , however, w i d e s p r e a d  to change w i t h i n e s t a b l i s h e d s i n g l e f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s .  the  residential resistance  Planners are  thus o f t e n c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the problem of a c h i e v i n g ; i n c r e a s e s i n  density  w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g f e e l i n g s of resentment towards i n c o m i n g r e s i d e n t s and a m i s t r u s t of government on the p a r t of the e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t s .  This  problem i s compounded by a l a c k of r e s e a r c h on a t t i t u d e s towards some forms of h i g h e r d e n s i t y development and how these a t t i t u d e s may be e v a l u a t e d by p l a n n e r s .  Scope and Purpose of the Study T h i s s t u d y f o c u s e s upon homeowners* a t t i t u d e s t o townhouses constructed i n e x i s t i n g s i n g l e f a m i l y zones.  The c h o i c e of t h i s  r e s e a r c h p e r s p e c t i v e was i n f l u e n c e d by two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  narrow  Firstly,  t h e r e i s c u r r e n t l y a p r e s s i n g need f o r the type of g r o u n d - o r i e n t e d f a m i l y  4  accommodation p r o v i d e d by townhouse u n i t s .  S e c o n d l y , because of  o p p o s i t i o n , the assumption was made t h a t i t i s more d i f f i c u l t  public  to i n s e r t  m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s i n t o e s t a b l i s h e d neighbourhoods than i t i s to i n c l u d e them as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of a new r e s i d e n t i a l development.  In the former  c a s e , homes a r e purchased w i t h the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the s i n g l e c h a r a c t e r of the neighbourhood w i l l remain unchanged.  family  As a r e s u l t ,  s i s t a n c e to m u l t i p l e dwellings i s u s u a l l y strengthened.  re-  T h i s problem  does not a r i s e i n the l a t t e r case s i n c e the p r o s p e c t i v e buyer of a d e t a c h e d home i s aware of the m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s b e f o r e the d e c i s i o n  to  purchase i s made. At the o u t s e t of t h i s s t u d y a s u r v e y of the l i t e r a t u r e i s sented.  pre-  The p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n of t h i s s u r v e y i s t o s t r e s s the v a r y i n g  v i e w p o i n t s from which the response t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new h o u s i n g types i n t o a r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood has been examined.  Its  purpose  i s not t o p r e s e n t an e x h a u s t i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f c r o w d i n g i n the r e s i d e n t i a l environment o r of m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g l o c a t i o n s t u d i e s .  Reviews of  t h i s n a t u r e a l r e a d y e x i s t ( R a p ; o p o r t , 1975; Howard, 1974; F i s c h e r e t a l , 1974; Andzans, 1973; E a r l ,  1970).  A second f u n c t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y i s to r e v e a l the e x t e n t t o which c e r t a i n g r o u p s a t t e m p t t o i n f l u e n c e p l a n n i n g and l a n d -  use d e c i s i o n s .  P a r t i c u l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n to the persons who  a r e l i k e l y t o appear a t a p u b l i c h e a r i n g s on r e z o n i n g p r o p o s a l s as w e l l as to the i s s u e s which are u s u a l l y r a i s e d . i s to i n d i c a t e the u t i l i t y  The purpose of t h i s  approach  of the p u b l i c h e a r i n g as a means by which  p l a n n e r s may a s s e s s the a t t i t u d e s of a community towards z o n i n g c h a n -  5  ges. The r e s e a r c h d a t a of t h i s s t u d y was o b t a i n e d by means of s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s conducted w i t h a t o t a l of 75 s i n g l e f a m i l y The i n t e r v i e w s were e q u a l l y d i v i d e d between t h r e e V i c t o r i a hoods:  per-  residents. neighbour-  two i n which a townhouse p r o j e c t had been b u i l t and one i n which  no change had o c c u r r e d .  A l l t h r e e neighbourhoods were chosen on the  b a s i s of t h e i r s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i l e the townhouse  projects  were s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of t h e i r d e s i g n , s i z e , and o r i e n t a t i o n  to  s u r r o u n d i n g homes. The purpose of the i n t e r v i e w s was: a)  t o determine which a s p e c t s of townhouse p r o j e c t s a r e of the g r e a t e s t c o n c e r n t o s u r r o u n d i n g r e s i d e n t s :  b)  t o a s c e r t a i n i f and how a t t i t u d e s a r e m o d i f i e d by exposure to a townhouse p r o j e c t and i t s i n h a b i t a n t s ;  c)  to make recommendations c o n c e r n i n g : i)  ii) iii) iv)  the n a t u r e of a r e z o n i n g p o l i c y which would reduce the n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s of redevelopment upon the i n d i v i d u a l and the community; c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the p u b l i c p r i o r to r e z o n i n g s and the u t i l i t y of p u b l i c h e a r i n g s ; s i t e c r i t e r i a f o r townhouse  projects;  d e s i g n c r i t e r i a f o r townhouse  projects.  Relevance of the Study Smith and McCann ( 1 9 7 5 : 30) have r a i s e d a number of the q u e s t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d by the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n : and demands of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups a l l of p l a n n i n g ?  I s r e a c t i n g to the p l e a s  t h a t can be done i n the name  S i m i l a r i l y , can not l o c a t i o n p o l i c i e s be drawn up which  6  weigh the need f o r new accommodation i n e x i s t i n g neighbourhoods the needs of the people a l r e a d y l i v i n g t h e r e ?  Additionally,  against  should  i t not be p o s s i b l e t o a n t i c i p a t e the p r e s s u r e s f o r change and to f o r e c a s t * how they w i l l a f f e c t the r e s i d e n t i a l environment?  Some of the answers  t o these q u e s t i o n s a r e now b e i n g sought t h r o u g h e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n 1975: 7 1 ) .  (Koenig,  Under the a u s p i c e s of the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s -  t r i c t (GVRD) P l a n n i n g Department, a "Compact Housing Program" has been i n i t i a t e d which i s d e s i g n e d t o i n t r o d u c e and t e s t the s u i t a b i l i t y  of  d i f f e r e n t forms of medium d e n s i t y development i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver area.  The c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d t o judge t h e s e developments i n c l u d e  impact of a p r o j e c t on i t s s u r r o u n d i n g s . s i d e r a t i o n s emphasizes the i m p o r t a n c e of ecological sensitivity, social  the  A r e l a t e d c h e c k - l i s t of c o n complementary  landscaping,  harmonious s c a l e , p e r c e i v e d d e n s i t y , and  integration. A f u r t h e r dimension t o the i s s u e o f d e n s i t y i n c r e a s e s e x i s t s  B r i t i s h Columbia.  I t i s the p o s s i b i l i t y  in  t h a t some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s who  have been very r e l u c t a n t to a c c e p t some forms o f m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s be g i v e n no c h o i c e by the P r o v i n c i a l Government.  A recent report  that The z o n i n g b y - l a w has been d e s c r i b e d as a d e v i c e f o r making s u r e t h a t the poor p e o p l e l i v e i n the n e x t m u n i cipality. Rather than damning these a t t i t u d e s as u n c h a r i t a b l e , i t might w e l l bs r e c o g n i z e d t h a t they a r e p e r f e c t l y n a t u r a l and a r e l i k e l y t o be h e l d by l o c a l c o u n c i l s r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r p o l i t i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w . . . . We cannot o b j e c t t o the p r o v i n c e s u b s t i t u t i n g i t s view f o r t h a t o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n the s h o r t t e r m . T h i s c o u l d take the form of s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l s but might a l s o d e a l w i t h g e n e r a l development s t a n d a r d s . . . • There a r e l a r g e b u i l t up a r e a s i n the c i t i e s w i t h  will  states  7  u n d e r u t i l i z e d s c h o o l s and a tuealth of s e r v i c e s i n r o a d s , underground s e r v i c e s and i n d e e d a s o c i a l w e a l t h i n the e x i s t e n c e of s t a b l e communities t h a t work w e l l . We do not suggest t h a t these communities be d e s t r o y e d by h i g h d e n s i t y a p a r t m e n t s . They c o u l d and i n our view s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d t o accommodate some modest p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e , through some c o n v e r s i o n s and i n f i l l b u i l d i n g . ( i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l Study Team on Housing and R e n t s , 19755 68,69) The l a c k of r e s e a r c h i n t h i s f i e l d i s acknowledged by a number of a u t h o r s .  Smith and McCann (19751 3 0 ) , f o r example, s t r e s s the gene-  r a l need f o r Canadian r e s e a r c h .  They c a u t i o n t h a t the urban problems  of American and Canadian c i t i e s a r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t and f o r c e f u l l y c o n c l u d e t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l t h i n k i n g about neighbourhood change s h o u l d be c h a l l e n g e d s i n c e i t  i s l a r g e l y d e r i v e d from American s o c i o -  l o g i s t s and l a n d e c o n o m i s t s . The r e a d e r s h o u l d a l s o r e a l i z e t h a t the m a j o r i t y of  attitude  and p r e f e r e n c e s t u d i e s , most n o t e a b l y those by M i c h e l s o n , have i n v e s t i gated the a d a p t i v e a b i l i t i e s ment.  of persons upon moving t o a new e n v i r o n -  R e l a t i v e l y few s u r v e y s have s y s t e m a t i c a l l y examined homeowners'  a t t i t u d e s when the i n d i v i d u a l has remained s t a t i o n a r y w h i l e the e n v i r o n ment has changed about h i m .  Or, when such s t u d i e s have been attempted  ( E a r l , 1970; Rodgers, 1 9 7 2 ) , the a n a l y s i s has been a t  a fairly"general  l e v e l and few e f f o r t s have been made t o c o n t r o l f o r extraneous  variables.  Conclusion T h i s c h a p t e r has noted s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t s ' changes i n t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  opposition  Given good reasons f o r p e r m i t t i n g  to re-  development w i t h i n these neighbourhoods, p l a n n e r s a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y  con-  f r o n t e d w i t h the g e n e r a l problem of m i n i m i z i n g the n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s  of  8  redevelopment upon the i n d i v i d u a l .  A s u b s e t of t h i s problem which p l a n -  ners must d e a l w i t h i s the n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r d e n s i t y redevelopment i n the form of m u l t i p l e  dwellings.  The a t t i t u d e s of s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t s towards townhouses a r e f o c u s e d upon i n t h i s study f o r two p r i n c i p l e r e a s o n s .  There i s  l y a p r e s s i n g need f o r g r o u n d - o r i e n t e d accommodation f o r c o u p l e s children.  currentwith  P l a n n e r s , however, have a l i m i t e d knowledge of the s o c i a l  impact of these d w e l l i n g s on a s i n g l e f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  At the p r e -  s e n t time one of the p r i n c i p l e means by which t h i s impact i s  measured  i s the p u b l i c h e a r i n g .  Y e t , doubts have been e x p r e s s e d as to the v a l u e  of such h e a r i n g s . The l i t e r a t u r e p r e s e n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r c o n s i d e r s v a r i e t y of r e s e a r c h p e r s p e c t i v e s  r e l a t e d to the response of  the  individuals  t o neighbourhood change as w e l l as the u t i l i t y of p u b l i c h e a r i n g s .  This  i s done to c r e a t e a broad f o u n d a t i o n f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of the e n s u i n g r e s e a r c h .  9  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES  T h i s c h a p t e r attempts t o i d e n t i f y  those r e s e a r c h  which b e s t e x p l a i n the response of i n v i d i d u a l s  perspectives  to neighbourhood change.  A number of b e h a v i o u r a l c o n c e p t s and a s e r i e s of a t t i t u d e s u r v e y s a r e emphasized to c r e a t e a b a s i s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the p o t e n t i a l impact of townhouses on n e i g h b o u r i n g s i n g l e f a m i l y  residents.  The c h a p t e r begins w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of the c o n c e p t of determinism.  physical  T h i s c o n c e p t i s f o c u s e d upon t o i n d i c a t e the p o s s i b l e  in-  f l u e n c e of p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e s upon i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o u r a t the n e i g h bourhood l e v e l .  S u b s e q u e n t l y , the c l o s e l y l i n k e d c o n c e p t s of  and t e r r i t o r i a l i t y  are examined.  stress  I t i s shown t h a t s t r e s s may be caused  by a c t u a l changes i n a neighbourhood, such as a r e d u c t i o n i n the amount of space a v a i l a b l e to a r e s i d e n t , o r by the a n t i c i p a t i o n of change. The d i s c u s s i o n of the t e r r i t o r i a l i t y  concept r e v e a l s how i n d i v i d u a l s  r e a c t o r adapt t o d i f f e r e n t forms of s t r e s s .  The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s  w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of some e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d i e s which have attempted t o i n t e r p r e t the response of s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t s t o m u l t i p l e constructed i n t h e i r  dwellings  neighbourhoods.  P h y s i c a l Determinism Many r e s e a r c h e r s have chosen the " n e i g h b o u r h o o d " as t h e i r of s t u d y .  I n t h i s s p a t i a l c o n t e x t the c o n c e p t of p h y s i c a l  i s often mentioned.  unit  determinism  T h i s c o n c e p t d e s c r i b e s the s i t u a t i o n i n which the  p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , a c t i n g as an independent v a r i a b l e , p r e d i c t s c r e a t e s behaviour of a s p e c i f i c nature w i t h i n i t .  or  Environment and  b e h a v i o u r a r e seen to i n t e r a c t i n a s t r i c t r e l a t i o n s h i p of cause and effect. I n the not too d i s t a n t p a s t neighbourhood p l a n n i n g f o c u s e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y upon f a c t o r s such as s t r e e t p a t t e r n ,  landscaping,  h o u s i n g arrangement, and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s . elements were p r e s e n t e d as e n c o u r a g i n g o r d i s c o u r a g i n g c e r t a i n  These types  o f b e h a v i o u r among r e s i d e n t s o r as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o any of a number of attitudinal characteristics,  r a n g i n g from a sense of s e c u r i t y t o one  of r e l a x a t i o n ( L y n c h , 1971: 3 8 ) .  Such b e l i e f s are now b e i n g t e s t e d by  r e s e a r c h e r s i n the f i e l d of e n v i r o n m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y .  This  relatively  new f i e l d a t t e m p t s t o e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p between human b e h a v i o u r and p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g on the b a s i s of c o g n i t i v e mechanisms such as p e r ception.  However, r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a a t the neighbourhood l e v e l  has been l a r g e l y i n c o n c l u s i v e ( P r o s h a n s k y , 1 9 7 0 ) . Other r e s e a r c h e r s have attempted t o account f o r the f a c t  that  the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g of the neighbourhood was u s u a l l y o v e r l o o k e d o r only considered i n d i r e c t l y .  Kuper has noted t h a t  The f i n d i n g s i n r e g a r d to the s o c i a l consequences o f the s p a t i a l arrangement of the h o u s e s , taken i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the r e s u l t s of the American s t u d i e s , p r o v i d e some e v i d e n c e i n s u p p o r t of the p l a n n i n g assumption of e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r m i n i s m . But t h e r e i s no s i m p l e mechanic a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n ; the consequences depend f i n a l l y on t h e v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s o f the r e s i d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s . ( K u p e r , 1953: 17 Both Gans (1968) and K e l l e r (1972) have s t r e s s e d the e f f e c t s of  social  11  v a r i a b l e s upon i n d i v i d u a l s '  response to neighbourhood change.  They  a s s e r t t h a t the homogeneity and l i f e s t y l e s of the groups brought  to-  g e t h e r i n a neighbourhood e x e r t the g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e upon b e h a v i o u r . Accordingly,  they c l a i m t h a t p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s  and d i s t a n c e s can not  always be m a n i p u l a t e d to a c h i e v e s p e c i f i c r e s u l t s . c a l environment i s a f a c i l i t a t o r of  At b e s t , the p h y s i -  behaviour.  Research has thus caused p l a n n e r s to doubt the determining influence:  of the p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t .  exclusive  I t i s now seldom  assumed t h a t some p o s i t i v e a l t e r a t i o n of b e h a v i o u r can be a c c o m p l i s h e d merely by changes i n neighbourhood d e s i g n .  Y e t , w i t h the  increasing  c o n c e r n f o r the s o c i a l consequences of p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s , the p l a n n e r i s c o n s t r a i n e d by the danger t h a t some of h i s d e s i g n s o r those of p r o j e c t s he approves may have n e g a t i v e b e h a v i o u r a l e f f e c t s .  the  The C i t y  of Edmonton P l a n n i n g Department ( 1 9 7 2 : 19) has noted i n a n e i g h b o u r hood s a t i s f a c t i o n s t u d y t h a t i f  p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e s a r e d e s i g n e d to  f o r c e r e g u l a r i n t e r a c t i o n between r e s i d e n t s i n an a r e a , t h e r e i s a h i g h probability  t h a t some form of s o c i a l p a t h o l o g y w i l l o c c u r .  T h i s might  be a degree of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s c o m f o r t , such as a sense of c r o w d i n g , o r open h o s t i l i t y .  The p o i n t i s a l s o made t h a t the p l a n n e r can respond  t o these c o n d i t i o n s i n two ways.  He may attempt t o use e d u c a t i o n t e c h -  n i q u e s to a l t e r the p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s of r e s i d e n t s o r he may concede  that  h i s r o l e i s a t b e s t to c r e a t e a p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g which enhances the p r e f e r e n c e s of the e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t s .  The d i f f i c u l t y  posed by these o p -  t i o n s i s the requirement t h a t the p l a n n e r be a b l e to i s o l a t e those p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l f e a t u r e s of b u i l d i n g s which are most i m p o r t a n t to  indi-  12  v i d u a l s i n a community.  A l s o c r i t i c a l i s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how d i f f e r -  ent b u i l d i n g s impinge on the p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s of a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t s as w e l l as how v a r i o u s k i n d s of people a d j u s t t o these  buildings.  S t r e s s i n the R e s i d e n t i a l Environment The a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l t o cope w i t h s t r e s s of  varying  t y p e s i s a n o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e from which neighbourhood change has been viewed.  A l t h o u g h the s t u d y of human s t r e s s i s s t i l l  i n a formative  s t a g e , most r e s e a r c h e r s would not q u a r r e l w i t h the f o l l o w i n g b a s i c  defi-  nition: s t r e s s a r i s i n g from n o n s o c i a l ( p h y s i c a l ) s o u r c e s may be s a i d to e x i s t when t h e r e i s a s u b s t a n t i a l imbalance b e tween a p e r s o n ' s demand f o r space and the c a p a c i t y of a p a r t i c u l a r r e s i d e n t i a l space to f u l f i l l t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n . S t r e s s from s o c i a l s o u r c e s ( e x c e s s i v e s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n ) i s s a i d to o c c u r when t h e r e i s s u b s t a n t i a l imbalance b e tween e n v i r o n m e n t a l demand and the response c a p a b i l i t y of the o r g a n i s m . (Howard, 1974: 120) Howard (1974: 102)has n o t e d , however, t h a t t h i s d e f i n i t i o n r e q u i r e s two important a)  qualifications:  An e n v i r o n m e n t a l demand can produce p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s only i f with i t ,  the i n d i v i d u a l a n t i c i p a t e s  t h a t he w i l l not be a b l e to cope  cope w i t h i t a d e q u a t e l y , o r cope w i t h i t w i t h o u t  other g o a l s .  endangering  That i s , one i s not t h r e a t e n e d by demands he does not  " r e c e i v e " o r b e l i e v e s h i m s e l f c a p a b l e of h a n d l i n g ; but i s  threatened  when he a n t i c i p a t e s he cannot handle these demands a d e q u a t e l y ; b)  S t r e s s o r t h r e a t o c c u r s o n l y when the consequences of f a i l u r e  to  13  meet the demand are p e r c e i v e d by the i n d i v i d u a l t o be i m p o r t a n t , o r , t o have s e r i o u s consequences f o r  himself.  M i c h e l s o n (1969) has c o n s i d e r e d a d a p t a t i o n t o s t r e s s .  He has  d e s c r i b e d the case o f the f a m i l y h a v i n g s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r elements of l i f e s t y l e i n c o n o r u e n t w i t h one o r more a s p e c t s of t h e i r setting, d e n t a l h e a l t h s t u d i e s have shown t h a t l a c k of a b i l i t y t o change such a s i t u a t i o n o r adapt t o i t i s h i g h l y r e l a t e d t o mental i l l n e s s . Geographers have shown t h a t t h i s very same p r o c e s s as a p p l i e d t o h o u s i n g , produces a change of r e s i d e n c e most t y p i c a l l y . Psychol o g i c a l l y , t h i s phenomenon i s analogous t o F e s t i n g e r ' s c o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e t h e o r y , which h o l d s t h a t a person cannot s u s t a i n two i n c o m p a t i b l e b e l i e f s ; he w i l l change one of them o r s u f f e r d i s t r e s s . ( f f l i c h e l s o n , 1969x 4) A s s e s s i n g the i m p o r t a n c e of the a d a p t a t i o n p r o c e s s , N i c h o l s o n ( 1 9 6 9 : 5) a l s o notes t h a t no s t u d i e s have been conducted to document e i t h e r  the  c o n d i t i o n s which s u g g e s t how l o n g a time p e r i o d t h e r e w i l l be between s t a b l e s i t u a t i o n s o r t h e e f f e c t of t h a t time span upon e v e n t u a l p e r c e p t i o n of the emerging s i t u a t i o n . The m i x i n g of d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l groups i s an i m p o r t a n t cause of s t r e s s .  potential  K e l l e r (19721 286) o b s e r v e s t h a t such m i x i n g i s a  "complex and d e l i c a t e m a t t e r r e q u i r i n g a g r e a t d e a l of s k i l l not y e t c o n t a i n e d i n any e x i s t i n g f o r m u l a . "  I t i s s u b s e q u e n t l y a s s e r t e d t h a t adap-  t a t i o n to s t r e s s of t h i s k i n d cannot be c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t from the b r o a d e r c o n t e x t of the a r e a .  The l a t t e r i s i n t u r n shaped by s o c i a l  the d e s i g n of d w e l l i n g s , group c o m p a t i b i l i t y , change.  traditions,  and the dynamics of  social  14  Territoriality T e r r i t o r i a l b e h a v i o u r i s seen to be the defence by i n d i v i d u a l s of a s p a t i a l area which they use to s a t i s f y 154).  So d e f i n e d , the concept of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y  c o n c e p t s of p e r s o n a l space and p r i v a c y . notion  t h e i r needs ( C a r s o n , 1972: is closely  t i e d to the  C e n t r a l to each of these i s  the  that peoble e s t a b l i s h b o u n d a r i e s around themselves to m a i n t a i n t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e g r i t y , manage t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s , and p r o t e c t t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . W h i l e the d i s t a n c e s t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l m a i n t a i n s between h i m s e l f and o t h e r s are g e n e r a l l y seen as a f u n c t i o n of such f a c t o r s as f a m i l i a r i t y , s t a t u s s i t u a t i o n , s e x , and age the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of such s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r i s c u l t u r a l l y determined. (Howard, 1974: 71) The r e a l v a l u e of the t e r r i t o r i a l i t y  neighbourhoods has y e t to be shown.  c o n c e p t as i t a p p l i e s  Nevertheless, i t i s possible  draw from the l i t e r a t u r e a number of o b s e r v a t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s a r e r e l e v a n t to the s u b j e c t of i n c r e a s i n g d e n s i t i e s .  Since  to that  territorial  b e h a v i o u r i s d e f e n s i v e i n n a t u r e , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t work i n a r e a f o c u s e s upon a s e r i e s of t h r e a t s to the r e s i d e n t i a l  to  this  environment.  N e i t h e r i s i t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s have emphasized the importance of the p e r c e p t i o n s of these t h r e a t s ,  the human responses to them, and  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to numerous s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  variables.  Carson ( 1 9 7 2 ) , f o r example, has s u r v e y e d h i g h income suburban  residents  i n P h i l a d e l p h i a to determine what events were p e r c e i v e d to be urban threats.  He fiound t h a t the s p e c i f i c  t h r e a t s b e l i e v e d to be most imminent  were drug problems i n s c h o o l s , s c h o o l c r o w d i n g , t r a f f i c  congestion,  15  minor c r i m e , reduced open green s p a c e s , and a i r p o l l u t i o n .  Other  threats  i n c l u d e d g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n c r o w d i n g , park and p l a y g r o u n d c r o w d i n g , and i n c r e a s e d low c o s t r e n t a l h o u s i n g .  Crowding was thus judged to be the  t h r e a d weaving these t h r e a t s t o g e t h e r .  Yet the response p a t t e r n of  sample of f a m i l i e s d i d not show a c t u a l people as b e i n g the s i g n a l s crowding.  On the c o n t r a r y ,  the of  the t h r e a t of c r o w d i n g was judged on the  b a s i s of v i s i b l e changes t h a t were t a k i n g p l a c e , o r t h r e a t e n i n g to take p l a c e , i n t h e i r immediate p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t .  The most  significant-of  these changes, o r c l u e s , was reduced open green, s p a c e s . The term t e r r i t o r i a l has a l s o been used t o d e s c r i b e the o r g a n i z a t i o n of space i n the West End of Boston a n d , more g e n e r a l l y , i n many w o r k i n g c l a s s neighbourhoods (Hartman, 1972! 3 1 3 ) .  In these a r e a s the  space i m m e d i a t e l y s u r r o u n d i n g o n e ' s d w e l l i n g i s r e g a r d e d and used as a s t a b l e m e a n i n g f u l l o c u s f o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t , l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s , s h o p p i n g , and s e r v i c e s .  I t i s a p a r t i c u l a r , contiguous  t o which an i n d i v i d u a l belongs and w i t h i n which he f e e l s  territory  ' a t home'.  Since t h i s t e r r i t o r y i s readily a v a i l a b l e , i t i s in f a c t one's  personal  l i v i n g s p a c e , even though i t i s not e x c l u s i v e o r p r i v a t e . In d e s c r i b i n g the development of the house as a p l a c e of from both nonhuman and human t h r e a t s , R a i n w a t e r (1973» 181) takes above argument one s t e p f u r t h e r .  He notes t h a t the p h y s i c a l  the  barriers  between i n s i d e and o u t s i d e are not m a i n t a i n e d when people t a l k of a t t i t u d e s and d e s i r e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o h o u s i n g .  safety  their  R a t h e r , they t a l k of  the  e x t e r i o r as an i n e v i t a b l e e x t e n s i o n of the i n t e r i o r and t h a t what o c c u r s i n one l o c a l e may s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t  the o t h e r .  F u r t h e r m o r e , i n times of  16  conflict,  lower income people do not have the f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t y o r the  i n c l i n a t i o n to move of the more a f f l u e n t .  Hartman ( 1 9 7 2 : 311)  points  out t h a t many West End f a m i l i e s i n Boston have e x p e r i e n c e d h i g h e r d e n sities  than they would have p r e f e r r e d .  A d a p t a t i o n o c c u r r e d as a r e s u l t  of the d e s i r e not to abandon a f a m i l i a r s e t t i n g o r to s e v e r ties.  personal  Minor d i s c o m f o r t s which r e s u l t e d from changes i n s p a t i a l  and d e s i r e s were absorbed as a l t e r n a t i v e  needs  costs.  The Neighbourhood Concept and the F o r m a t i o n of C i t i z e n s  Groups  At t h i s p o i n t i t s h o u l d be e v i d e n t t h a t the f u n c t i o n i n g of d e n t i a l areas u n d e r l i e s much of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n .  Similarly,  resi-  the e x t e n t  of n e i g h b o u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n a community may e x p l a i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s attitudes  towards change.  While i t i s beyond the scope of t h i s study  examine the neighbourhood c o n c e p t i n any d e t a i l , some notes of o f f e r e d by r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s f i e l d must be m e n t i o n e d .  to  caution  Firstly,  generali-  z a t i o n s about where r e s i d e n t s draw boundary l i n e s o r how they become a t tached to an a r e a can not be made w i t h any a u t h o r i t y on the b a s i s of ting data.  F o r some urban r e s i d e n t s neighbourhood attachment i s  For o t h e r s i t i s very weak.  strong.  While i t i s p o s s i b l e to s t a t e t h a t the  a r e a i s no l o n g e r o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e t o a l l p e o p l e , more e x p l i c i t c l u s i o n s are t h w a r t e d by the l a c k of s c i e n t i f i c a l l y the f o r m a t i o n and f u n c t i o n i n g of n e i g h b o u r h o o d s .  exis-  local con-  v a l i d knowledge on  K e l l e r (1972: 286)  m a i n t a i n s t h a t a t t i t u d e s towards neighbourhood change must t h e r e f o r e be viewed as p a r t of a s u b j e c t i v e phenomenon dependent upon p e r c e i v e d and a c t u a l a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r f r i e n d s or f a c i l i t i e s ,  opportunities for  mobility,  as w e l l as the age, p e r s o n a l temperament, and t a s t e of the i n d i v i d u a l .  17  In many c a s e s r e s i d e n t s ' s p e c i f i c action.  beliefs  lead to  political  I t i s t h e r e f o r e not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t geographers and p o l i t i c a l  s c i e n t i s t s have a n a l y z e d the f o r m a t i o n of c i t i z e n s  groups.  Ley ( 1 9 7 4 :  75) has d e s c r i b e d the emergence of these groups i n North America d u r i n g the mid 1960*s.  C i t i z e n s sought to r e p l a c e the t r a d i t i o n a l a l l i a n c e  of  p o l i t i c i a n s and e n t r e p r e n e u r s w i t h a new s e t of v a l u e s emphasizing the p r e s e r v a t i o n of f u n c t i o n i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d s .  T h e i r language  is  one of s t a b l e neighbourhoods, of s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s and low r i s e a p a r t m e n t s , w i t h b l o c k e d a c c e s s t o through t r a f f i c , e f f i c i e n t rapid t r a n s i t , tree-lined r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s , p a r k s and t o t - l o t s , and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of a s e c u r e community. ( L e y , 1974:  75,76)  The above p r e f e r e n c e s are a p a r t of a l a r g e r non-growth movement. In the U.S. c o n t e x t F i n k l e r and P e t e r s o n have o b s e r v e d t h a t many people a r e e i t h e r c o n s c i o u s l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y d i s c o n c e r t e d by the f r u i t s of a few decades of r a p i d growth and are w i l l i n g to a c t d i f f e r e n t l y , v o t e d i f f e r e n t l y , and maybe even pay more t a x e s t o m a i n t a i n a c e r t a i n q u a l i t y of l i f e . . . A l o t more people would l i k e t o be a b l e to p r e d i c t t h e i r f u t u r e s more a c c u r a t e l y and t o have some degree of c o n t r o l o v e r change and t h e i r d e s t i n i e s .».« I n the p a s t few y e a r s , t h e r e has been a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n a t t i t u d e s ; a growing number of communities and p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s have come r i g h t out and s a i d ' s t o p ' , o r a t l e a s t ' s l o w down*. The d i s c u s s i o n of growth v e r s u s non-growth i s now out i n the open i n many a r e a s , w i t h the u n d e r l y i n g a s sumption t h a t f u t u r e growth can be a f f e c t e d and perhaps even s t o p p e d as a m a t t e r of p u b l i c p o l i c y . ( F i n k l e r and P e t e r s o n , 1974:16) A s i m i l a r t r e n d i n Canadian c i t i e s has been d e s c r i b e d i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a as a l o s s of c o n f i d e n c e i n government's a b i l i t y ban change:  to manage u r -  18  the degree and f r e q u e n c y w i t h which c i t i z e n s i n the p a s t few y e a r s have banded t o g e t h e r to form p r e s s u r e groups o r s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t movements c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s the e x t e n t to which the p u b l i c has l o s t c o n f i d e n c e i n the a b i l i t y of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to cope w i t h g r o w t h . In many areas c i t i z e n s groups have r e s i s t e d the o c c u r r e n c e of d e v e l o p ment. I n a number of i n s t a n c e s t h i s has r e s u l t e d i n c o s t l y changes on the p a r t of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . More r e c e n t l y we have seen t h i s l o s s of c o n f i d e n c e r e s u l t i n a tendency to r e s i s t development of any k i n d . Protest i s becoming a r e f l e x . ( G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t ,  The P u b l i c H e a r i n g as a Measure of P u b l i c  1974: 18)  Opinion  One of the p r i m a r y means by which p o l i t i c i a n s  and p l a n n e r s mea-  s u r e p u b l i c o p i n i o n i s the p u b l i c h e a r i n g - a meeting a t which community r e s i d e n t s a r e g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to e x p r e s s t h e i r a p p r o v a l o r d i s a p p r o v a l of p o t e n t i a l l a n d use changes.  ' N e t z e r (1974) n o t e s t h a t such  h e a r i n g s are bound to be dominated by persons o b j e c t i n g to proposed changes i n l a n d u s e .  He argues  that  the o n l y o p t i o n an ; a d j a c e n t l a n d u s e r has i s to f i g h t the proposed new u s e , no m a t t e r how s m a l l the p r o s p e c t i v e harm. F o r example, h i g h e r d e n s i t y h o u s i n g i n a neighbourhood might i n c r e a s e t r a f f i c volumes. Even i f the i n c r e a s e i s a s m a l l one, t h e r e i s an i n c e n t i v e to o b j e c t to the proposed z o n i n g change. ( N e t z e r , 1974: 171) Ley (1974) t a k e s a s l i g h t l y Vancouver s c e n e .  d i f f e r e n t approach i n h i s e x a m i n a t i o n of  He p o i n t s out t h a t c e r t a i n groups are more l i k e l y  be heard than o t h e r s : H i g h s t a t u s groups have s p a t i a l l y e x t e n s i v e images whereas low s t a t u s groups have s p a t i a l l y c o n f i n e d urban knowl e d g e . T h e r e f o r e both c o g n i t i v e l y and b e h a v i ; O u r a l l y , h i g h income groups r e g a r d l a r g e a r e a s of the c i t y as b e i n g i n  the to  19  some sense t h e i r t u r f , whereas low income groups p e r c e i v e o n l y t h e i r immediate neighbourhoods i n t h i s l i g h t . Thus, f a r more p o t e n t i a l l a n d use c o n f l i c t s f a l l w i t h i n the range of h i g h e r s t a t u s g r o u p s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , these groups= and t h e i r f o r m a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s a r e i n v o l v e d not o n l y i n l o c a l c o n t e s t s , but a l s o i n s e l e c t e d c i t y - w i d e c o n t e s t s o v e r proposed l a n d use change. C o n t e n t i o n i s aroused by a symbolic challenge to a cherished b e l i e f - s y s t e m . ( L e y , 1974: 67) In l i g h t of the above comments and the r e a c t i o n a r y n a t u r e of  the  p r o t e s t movement i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t much has been w r i t t e n on the need f o r c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t i n the e a r l y s t a g e s of the p l a n n i n g and u r ban management p r o c e s s ( F e l l m a n , 1970: 2 8 1 ; 1974: 7 1 ) .  felhile  Bottomley and H o l d s w o r t h ,  p l a n n e r s r e c o g n i z e t h i s i d e a l , they tend to seek  citi-  zen p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t a r e s t r i c t e d number of s t a g e s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o cess.  The p u b l i c h e a r i n g i s an example of one such s t a g e .  However, one  may ask whether the p u b l i c h e a r i n g i s an a p p r o p r i a t e t o o l f o r  guaging  the range of a t t i t u d e s i n a neighbourhood towards a z o n i n g change.  Un-  f o r t u n a t e l y , few w r i t e r s have even attempted t o answer t h i s q u e s t i o n . Some have s u g g e s t e d t h a t the views of n o n - j o i n e r s and the would not be heard ( H e f f e r o n , 1 9 7 2 ) .  inarticulate  O t h e r s , s u c h as L a n s i n g and fflarans  (1969: 199)» have i n f e r r e d t h a t a p u b l i c meeting i s an i n a d e q u a t e tool.  planning  They c o n c l u d e t h a t a more v a l u a b l e d e v i c e would be the a t t i t u d e  s u r v e y s i n c e i t would e n a b l e p l a n n e r s t o go d i r e c t l y t o a l l  the p e o p l e t o  determine d i f f e r e n c e s as w e l l as consensus i n v a l u e s and a s p i r a t i o n s . Zech (1972) s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t s t h i s v i e w p o i n t , but i s more c r i t i c a l of public hearing process.  He a s s e r t s  that  a s u r v e y i s one form of g a i n i n g an u n b i a s e d i n s i g h t i n t o the p r e v a l e n t f e e l i n g s and s e n t i m e n t s of a community.  the  20  A l t h o u g h the d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s ensures t h a t p r e v a l e n t community f e e l i n g s w i l l be made p u b l i c knowledge, o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d i n the p o l i t i c a l arena are not r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t o r s of a consensus of o p i n i o n towards g i v e n i s s u e s . S p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups t o g e t h e r w i t h the a l l too common apathy of l o c a l c i t i z e n s may combine to g i v e the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t some s e n t i m e n t s are p r e v a l e n t and i m p o r t a n t which i n r e a l i t y are e n t i r e l y u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the m a j o r i t y of c i t i z e n s . ( Z e c h , 1972: V-2) In l i g h t of these remarks, i t seems c l e a r t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r a f u l l e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the m o t i v e s , p e r c e p t i o n s , and p r e f e r e n c e s of  those  r e s i d e n t s who a t t e n d p u b l i c meetings as w e l l as those who are not p r e sent.  A t t i t u d e and P r e f e r e n c e S t u d i e s R e l a t e d to Townhouses To t h i s p o i n t the d i s c u s s i o n has c e n t e r e d upon the g e n e r a l r e sponse to neighbourhood change and p l a n n e r s * i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h a t sponse.  re-  What remains to be c o n s i d e r e d a r e a t t i t u d e s towards the i n t e g -  r a t i o n of townhouse u n i t s w i t h i n a s i n g l e f a m i l y z o n e . p e r t i n e n t r e s e a r c h , t h i s i s not e a s i l y  Due to a l a c k of  done.  The more e x h a u s t i v e s t u d i e s i n the f i e l d of h o u s i n g mix and d e n s i t y p r e f e r e n c e s t y p i c a l l y f o c u s on the ' u s e r '  ( B e l l and C o n s t a n t i n e s c u ,  1974? Howard, 1974; Andzans, 1973; Zehner and Marans, 1973; Cooper, 1 9 7 2 ) . In b r i e f ,  t h i s l i n e of r e s e a r c h has shown t h a t townhouse r e s i d e n t s  have  e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r e f e r e n c e s s i m i l a r to those of s i n g l e f a m i l y homeowners. C o n s e q u e n t l y , the use of m u l t i p l e f a m i l y developments as b u f f e r s s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s and zones of h i g h e r i n t e n s i t y l a n d use i s satisfactory  t o the r e s i d e n t s of the former p r o j e c t s .  between not  Even when m u l t i -  21  f a m i l y p r o j e c t s are l o c a t e d among i n d i v i d u a l homes, i n s u f f i c i e n t s i d e r a t i o n of d e s i g n f e a t u r e s , the l i f e s t y l e s of the people  con-  brought  t o g e t h e r , and s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o u l d l e a d t o the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a l i e n a t i o n of p r o j e c t households ( C o o p e r , 1971: 7 9 ) .  These  c o n c l u s i o n s r e c e i v e some s u p p o r t from the f i n d i n g s of a 1973 survey of townhouses and apartment condominiums i n the Lower M a i n l a n d a r e a . The most f r e q u e n t l y - v o i c e d c o m p l a i n t s of p r o j e c t r e s i d e n t s were poor s o u n d p r o o f i n g , poor c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n a d e q u a t e p a r k i n g , l a c k of  privacy,  poor a t t i t u d e of o t h e r owners, and u n c o n t r o l l e d c h i l d r e n ( K o e n i g , 1975: 53,54). There are two p r i n c i p l e means of e x p l a i n i n g the a t t i t u d e s s i n g l e f a m i l y homeowners to the i n c u r s i o n of townhouse d w e l l i n g s . f i r s t approach one may examine the p o p u l a r i m p r e s s i o n of townhouse ability. public.  of As a live-  In the l a t e 1 9 6 0 ' s townhouses were not w e l l a c c e p t e d by the Gans ( 1 9 6 8 : 21) notes t h a t a t t h a t time the r e j e c t i o n of  new form of h o u s i n g was due l a r g e l y to the o c c u p a n t ' s l a c k of  this  privacy.  In comparison w i t h s i n g l e f a m i l y detached h o u s i n g , more r e c e n t townhouse developments a r e s t i l l p e r c e i v e d to be l e s s a t t r a c t i v e ,  less  m a i n t a i n e d , more n o i s y , and l e s s w e l l p r o v i d e d w i t h p l a y areas f o r ren (Zehner and Marans, 1973: 3 3 7 ) .  These s p e c i f i c  views are  well child-  indicative  of the u n d e r l y i n g f e a r t h a t s o c i a l problems a r i s i n g w i t h i n a m u l t i - f a m i l y p r o j e c t w i l l s p i l l o v e r i n t o the s u r r o u n d i n g community.  Some examples of  p e r c e i v e d s p i l l o v e r e f f e c t s would be i n c r e a s e s i n v a n d a l i s m and j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y and the i n c r e a s e d s t r a i n s p l a c e d upon neighbourhood r e c r e a tional  facilities. O p p o s i t i o n t o townhouses i s i n p a r t a r e a c t i o n t o change of any  22  kind. 'rural'  F a m i l i e s who moved i n t o a neighbourhood because they l i k e d c h a r a c t e r f r e q u e n t l y attempt to keep i t  against a l l  types of m u l t i p l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s .  t h a t way by l o b b y i n g The p r e s e r v a t i o n of  neighbourhood a m e n i t i e s i s u s u a l l y g i v e n as a motive f o r t h i s N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t does not obscure the s e l f i s h i m p u l s e s  action.  "now t h a t we  a r e i n , l e t ' s slam the door to keep o t h e r s from f o l l o w i n g " 1974: 3 1 0 ) .  its  (Heilbrun,  In t h i s same o v e r v i e w f a s h i o n i t may be s t a t e d t h a t the  o p p o s i t i o n i s o f t e n an attempt to e x c l u d e persons p e r c e i v e d to be of a lower s o c i a l s t a t u s .  Class prejudice i s c l e a r l y a factor i n  i n s t a n c e , but i t i s a l s o a s u b j e c t few people w i l l d i s c u s s  this  openly.  Other m o t i v e s a r e f i n a n c i a l , r e f l e c t i n g the view t h a t l o w e r income h o u s i n g does not "pay i t s way" i n terms of t a x e s . • The g e n e r a l i t y of the above paragraph i s e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t no townhouse a t t i t u d e s u r v e y s of the type a t t e m p t e d i n s t u d y have been u n c o v e r e d .  this  T h e r e f o r e , s u r v e y s measuring a t t i t u d e s  to-  wards a v a r i e t y of m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s and lower income h o u s i n g w i l l be used as s u b s t i t u t e s . Gruen and Gruen (1972) have shown t h a t m i d d l e - and upper-income suburban r e s i d e n t s b e l i e v e t h a t the e n t r y of l o w - and moderate-income households i n t o t h e i r neighbourhoods w i l l harm i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s of t h e i r l i v i n g environment. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)  Specifically,  they f e a r  that  P r o p e r t y w i l l be l e s s w e l l m a i n t a i n e d . Property values w i l l drop. Service l e v e l s w i l l drop. P r o p e r t y taxes w i l l i n c r e a s e . School q u a l i t y w i l l drop. Social organization w i l l deteriorate. Social status w i l l decline. S o c i a l s t a b i l i t y w i l l decrease. (Gruen and Gruen, 1972s 93)  23  L i s t i n g these hazards i n t h i s way i s somewhat dangerous s i n c e i t not r e v e a l t h e i r c o n t e x t o r the i n t e n s i t y of r e s i d e n t s '  does  feelings.  On  the o t h e r hand, such a l i s t i n g r e v e a l s the range of c o n c e r n s t h a t have been measured by o t h e r s u r v e y s and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of p r o p e r t y m a i n tenance.  The l a t t e r emerges as the key element due to i t s  overwhelming  i m p o r t a n c e t o the suburban image: i t i s the symbol of the economic s t a t u s , the p u r i t a n a t t i t u d e s , the m o r a l i t i e s , and the v a l u e s f o r which the s u b u r b a n i t e has s t r i v e n . (Gruen and Gruen, 1972: x i i ) I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t these f i n d i n g s c o r r e l a t e w i t h the r e s u l t s of neighbourhood s a t i s f a c t i o n  highly  studies.  To summarize, e a r l i e r s t u d i e s have e s t a b l i s h e d o r i m p l i e d the importance of p r i v a c y , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , c o m p a t i b i l i t y , maintenance l e v e l , and s e v e r a l o t h e r f a c t o r s f o r neighbourhood e v a l u a t i o n s . . . as i n L a n s i n g and H e n d r i c k s * study of D e t r o i t , i t proved to be more i m p o r t a n t to have n e i g h b o u r s one f e l t were c o m p a t i b l e than to have n e i g h b o u r s w i t h whom one i n t e r a c t e d frequently. . . . S p e c i f i c a l l y , on the b a s i s of the b i v a r i a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s , those f a c t o r s most h i g h l y r e l a t e d to the s a t i s f a c t i o n s s c a l e a r e the maintenance l e v e l of the neighbourhood ( . 5 6 ) , the f r i e n d l i ness ( . 4 4 ) and s i m i l a r i t y ( . 3 6 ) of t h e n e i g h b o u r s , and the neighbourhood n o i s e l e v e l ( . 3 4 ) . ( Z e h n e r , 1972: 176-179) Some s t u d i e s have attempted to determine the amount of to m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s i n a neighbourhood.  resistance  The most comprehensive of  s t u d i e s was a community a t t i t u d e s u r v e y of r e s i d e n t s i n the G r e a t e r t o r i a m u n i c i p a l i t y of Oak Bay ( Z e c h , 1 9 7 2 ) .  A t o t a l of 148 s i n g l e  these Vic-  family  r e s i d e n t s r e p l i e d to a m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n e d to measure the comm u n i t y ' s f e e l i n g s and s e n t i m e n t s towards m u l t i p l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g .  The  t o t a l sample was s u b d i v i d e d i n t o a p u r e l y random sample and one where  24  respondents l i v e d c l o s e t o e x i s t i n g m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s .  In g e n e r a l  it  was found t h a t those l i v i n g n e x t t o m u l t i p l e h o u s i n g u n i t s had much more f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e s towards them than d i d o t h e r r e s p o n d e n t s . particular,  the a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t s d i s a g r e e d t h a t apartments  In  reduce  p r o p e r t y v a l u e s and r u i n the c h a r a c t e r of the n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  Assessing  a l l of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s , Zech found t h a t about o n e - q u a r t e r of the respondents f a v o u r e d m u l t i p l e h o u s i n g i n Oak Bay, a n o t h e r o n e q u a r t e r was opposed t o i t ,  and the remainder would a l l o w i t i n  selected  locations. One purpose of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u r v e y was t o measure respondents* attitudes  towards the p r o s p e c t of h a v i n g m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s on an a d j a c e n t  property. if  O n e - q u a r t e r of the respondents i n d i c a t e d they would be i n  the b u i l d i n g s were garden a p a r t m e n t s .  were opposed t o such a p a r t m e n t s .  S i x t y per c e n t of the  favour  respondents  F o r wood-framed b u i l d i n g s , 9 f l o o r  build-  i n g s , and m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s i n g e n e r a l the p r o p o r t i o n i n f a v o u r dropped to below 12 p e r cent w h i l e the p r o p o r t i o n opposed r o s e to between 70 and 90 per c e n t . A n o t h e r purpose o f t h e s u r v e y was t o guage t h e r e l a t i v e a b i l i t y of d i f f e r e n t d w e l l i n g t y p e s .  accept-  T h i s wa3 a c h i e v e d by c r e a t i n g a  " t o t a l i m p r e s s i o n " c a t e g o r y on the b a s i s of the o v e r a l l response p a t t e r n of each respondent ( Z e c h , 19721 V - 1 9 ) .  By t h i s means the a u t h o r c o n -  cluded that most respondents would welcome d u p l e x e s , garden a p a r t ments and i n g e n e r a l , l o w - r i s e s t r u c t u r e s . S i x f l o o r s a r e a c c e p t a b l e to many but beyond t h a t , s u p p o r t becomes increasingly marginal. ( Z e c h , 1972: V - l )  Respondents were a l s o asked to agree o r d i s a g r e e w i t h n e g a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s about a p a r t m e n t s .  I t was found t h a t the c o n t e n t i o n  that  apartments do not pay t h e i r way and t h a t t h e i r t e n a n t s are lower c l a s s were r e j e c t e d w i t h the g r e a t e s t f r e q u e n c y .  The m a j o r i t y of r e s p o n d -  e n t s a l s o r e j e c t e d the statements t h a t apartments are tomorrow's slums and t h e i r d w e l l e r s " t r a n s i e n t s " .  Agreement c e n t e r e d about the s t a t e -  ments t h a t m u l t i p l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g " c u t s o f f  l i g h t and a i r " and t h a t  such developments "make the a r e a too urban by i n c r e a s i n g d e n s i t i e s and traffic  congestion". On the s t r e n g t h of the s u r v e y f i n d i n g s , Zech i d e n t i f i e s a num-  ber of i n t a n g i b l e c o s t s t h a t can be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m u l t i p l e constructed within a single family d i s t r i c t .  dwellings  These c o s t s may be sum-  m a r i z e d as f o l l o w s : a)  a r e d u c t i o n i n community c h a r a c t e r as a r e s u l t of i n c r e a s e d u n i f o r m i t y and monotony i n b u i l d i n g d e s i g n .  T h i s imposes s o c i a l  i n terms of the " a l i e n a t i o n " of d i f f e r e n t a r e a s of the and a l e s s e n i n g of a n e i g h b o u r h o o d ' s a e s t h e t i c b)  costs  Municipality  appeal.  a r e d u c t i o n i n the p r i v a c y of a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t s as a r e s u l t of " v i s u a l and a u d i b l e i n t r u s i o n "  by m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g o c c u p a n t s .  Any consequent f r i c t i o n between newcomers and e s t a b l i s h e d  resi-  dents i s a s o c i a l c o s t to the community as a w h o l e . c)  a r e d u c t i o n i n community " i n t e g r a t i o n " due to the of persons w i t h d i f f e r i n g l i f e s t y l e s  d)  introduction  and v a l u e s .  i n c r e a s e d p h y s i c a l danger, s t r e s s , or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the neighbourhood as a r e s u l t of i n c r e a s e d t r a f f i c  volumes,  pollution  26  and l i t t e r , e)  and o t h e r v i s u a l  distractions.  the burden of moving and a d j u s t i n g to an a l i e n environment i m posed upon those r e s i d e n t s who are d i s l o c a t e d .  f)  the i n c r e a s e d u n c e r t a i n t y as to the f u t u r e c h a r a c t e r of neighbourhood.  the  T h i s i s the r e s u l t of the p r e c e d e n t e s t a b -  l i s h e d w i t h a new m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g w h i c h , from the homeo w n e r ' s p o i n t of v i e w , " t h r e a t e n s the c o n t i n u a t i o n of community  life".  Having i d e n t i f i e d these c o s t s i t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t Zech d i d not them to s p e c i f i c  types of m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s .  relate  He c o u l d have done so had  he attempted to a n a l y z e how r e s i d e n t s '  a t t i t u d e s change once they have  been exposed to a p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t .  Such an a n a l y s i s of a t t i t u d e change  would have complemented an o t h e r w i s e thorough s t u d y by e n a b l i n g him to s u g g e s t how the i n t a n g i b l e c o s t s of redevelopment can be reduced o r even eliminated. Other s u r v e y s have f o c u s e d s o l e l y upon a t t i t u d e s towards ment development.  apart-  In Thunder Bay, f o r example, the Lakehead P l a n n i n g  Board i n t e r v i e w e d 141 r e s i d e n t s l i v i n g w i t h i n a o n e - q u a r t e r m i l e of apartment complexes of v a r y i n g s i z e s . on a v a r i e t y of t o p i c s .  radius  The respondents were q u e s t i o n e d  These i n c l u d e d the appearance of the a p a r t m e n t s ,  p r o p e r t y v a l u e s , p r i v a c y , and the adequacy of community f a c i l i t i e s .  In  every case the m a j o r i t y of r e s i d e n t s r e p l i e d t h a t they would not o b j e c t to the e x i s t e n c e of apartments i n t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  Negative respon-  ses were a t t r i b u t e d to a s m a l l , but r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t c o r e of t o r s e q u a l i n g o n e - q u a r t e r of the s a m p l e .  objec-  27  On the s u b j e c t of a d d i t i o n a l development 57 per c e n t of respondents i n d i c a t e d they would o b j e c t to a l a r g e development 12 u n i t s ) w i t h i n o n e - q u a r t e r m i l e of t h e i r home. c e n t would o b j e c t i f  the  (over  An a d d i t i o n a l 4 per  the development was " v e r y c l o s e " .  If  the  development was to be l e s s than 12 u n i t s 30 per c e n t of the sample would o b j e c t and another 5 per c e n t would be opposed to a nearby development.  Such f i n d i n g s are u s e f u l s i n c e they a c c o u n t f o r the s i z e  and p r o x i m i t y of the a p a r t m e n t s .  However, t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n of  how responses v a r i e d among r e s i d e n t s l i v i n g near s m a l l p r o j e c t s as o p posed t o l a r g e r o n e s .  Nor i s t h e r e an i n d i c a t i o n of how many of  the  respondents had l i v e d i n the community b e f o r e the apartments were c o n structed. A similar,  y e t more e x p l o r a t o r y i n t e r v i e w s u r v e y was c o n d u c -  ted by E a r l (1970) i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a .  This researcher i n -  t e r v i e w e d 20 s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t s l i v i n g w i t h i n two b l o c k s of 2 and 3 s t o r e y apartments i n North Vancouver and S u r r e y . t i v e was to determine i f  His primary  the l e v e l of o b j e c t i o n t o apartments had c h a n -  ged a f t e r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n .  Recorded o p p o s i t i o n t o the apartments was  used as the b a s i s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g homeowners' a t t i t u d e s b e f o r e s t r u c t u r e s were  objec-  the  built.  E a r l d e t e r m i n e d t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , a t t i t u d e s towards  specific  p r o j e c t s had changed from i n t e n s e o p p o s i t i o n t o a f e e l i n g of complacency after their construction.  With the e x c e p t i o n of 10 to 15 per c e n t of  the sample, respondents d i d not p e r c e i v e t h a t the p r o j e c t s had a f f e c t e d property values, p r i v a c y , property taxes, t r a f f i c  volumes, views, and  parking.  Additionally,  the p l a y a r e a s around the apartments were genera  l y thought to be adequate and the n o i s e c r e a t e d by c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y was not c o n s i d e r e d to be a s i g n i f i c a n t  problem.  E a r l a l s o q u e s t i o n e d r e s i d e n t s on the s u b j e c t of apartment development i n t h e i r a r e a .  additional  He found t h a t homeowners who v o l u n  t a r i l y chose to l i v e i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to apartments "were a l m o s t 100 per c e n t i n f a v o u r of mixed h o u s i n g " ( E a r l , 1970» 1 7 5 ) .  On the o t h e r  hand, he c o n c l u d e d t h a t even a f t e r h a v i n g l i v e d n e x t t o the apartments f o r o v e r a y e a r , 90 per cent of those r e s i d e n t s who had apartments " f o r c e d " upon them remained opposed t o mixed h o u s i n g . s i o n was t h a t the type of apartment development and i t s c r i t i c a l factors.  A f i n a l concluh e i g h t were  A t t i t u d e s were much l e s s n e g a t i v e towards garden  apartments and 2 s t o r e y s t r u c t u r e s i n comparison w i t h 3 s t o r e y  buildings  The above f i n d i n g s c l e a r l y s u g g e s t t h a t a t t i t u d e s towards v i d u a l apartment p r o j e c t s do change o v e r t i m e .  However, these  indi-  findings  must be c o n s i d e r e d t e n t a t i v e due to the very s m a l l sample s i z e .  As w e l l  the a n a l y s i s of a t t i t u d e change must be viewed w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e  skepti-  cism.  E a r l h i m s e l f admits  that  any i m p r e s s i o n of a change i n a t t i t u d e s c o u l d o n l y be a r r i v e d a t on a v e r y s u b j e c t i v e b a s i s a f t e r e x a m i n i n g the o v e r a l l responses to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . ( E a r l , 1970: 133)  Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s The p r e c e d i n g pages have d e s c r i b e d the p r o b i n g attempts of many r e s e a r c h e r s to a n a l y z e the f u n c t i o n i n g of n e i g h b o u r h o o d s .  The response  29  of neighbourhood r e s i d e n t s to changes i n t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l was a l s o examined. is likely  I t was shown t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  environments  response t o change  to be a d e f e n s i v e r e a c t i o n to a s e r i e s of t h r e a t s .  In t u r n ,  s t r e s s s u f f e r e d by the i n d i v i d u a l i s r e l a t e d to h i s p e r c e p t i o n of t h r e a t s and h i s a b i l i t y  to adapt to new c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  the  those  A d a p t a t i o n to  change was emphasized because of the key r o l e of i n d i v i d u a l s '  attitudes.  Only t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s were r e a c h e d , however, due to the complex r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s and numerous s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l factors.  The most i m p o r t a n t of these f a c t o r s were s o c i a l  attachment t o the neighbourhood, a r e a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  traditions,  group c o m p a t i b i l i t y ,  and the age, p e r s o n a l temperament, and t a s t e of the i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s c h a p t e r a l s o i n c l u d e d an e x a m i n a t i o n of the p u b l i c as a p l a n n i n g t o o l .  hearing  I t was shown t h a t a number of a u t h o r s have s e r i o u s  doubts as to the u s e f u l n e s s of these h e a r i n g s to p l a n n e r s .  Subsequently,  i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t r e s e a r c h on t h i s s u b j e c t was needed to determine which groups i n the community a r e l i k e l y  t o be r e p r e s e n t e d a t such h e a r -  ings. To f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d the p o s s i b l e s o c i a l impact of  townhouses  on a neighbourhood, the r e s u l t s of a number of m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s u r v e y s were d i s c u s s e d .  These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the i n i t i a l  t i o n of s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t s to m u l t i p l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s i s  attitude opposirelated  t o the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s of a proposed development and the imagined c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p r o s p e c t i v e n e i g h b o u r s .  The r e s u l t s a l s o  suggested  t h a t a t t i t u d e change does o c c u r i n r e l a t i o n to a number of t o p i c s once s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t s have been exposed t o a m u l t i - f a m i l y  development.  30  Another f u n c t i o n of the d i s c u s s i o n of p r e v i o u s a t t i t u d e s u r v e y s was to r e v e a l the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of t h e i r i n t e r v i e w  methodology.  The s u r v e y s were shown to have o n l y l i m i t e d a p p l i c a b i l i t y  to t h i s  due t o the a u t h o r s ' f a i l u r e  to i n v e s t i g a t e  the e x t e n t of a t t i t u d e  study change  o r the consequences f o r the i n d i v i d u a l who must adapt to m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s c o n s t r u c t e d near h i s home. I t was w i t h these c r i t i c i s m s i n mind t h a t the r e s e a r c h methodo l o g y of t h i s study was d e v i s e d .  Chapter IV d e s c r i b e s the f o r m u l a t i o n  of the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s and how the t e c h n i q u e s of o t h e r  researchers  were used t o g a i n a b e t t e r i n d i c a t i o n of changes i n a t t i t u d e s as w e l l as the p r o p o r t i o n of r e s i d e n t s who would p u b l i c l y e x p r e s s t h e i r  opinions.  P r i o r to a d i s c u s s i o n of r e s e a r c h methodology i t was f e l t t h a t a b r i e f review of the problems r e l a t e d t o a t t i t u d e measurement would be a p p r o p riate.  T h i s r e v i e w i s p r e s e n t e d i n the next  chapter.  31  CHAPTER ATTITUDE  III  MEASUREMENT  One of the major t a s k s of t h i s t h e s i s i s towards change w i t h i n a n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  to i d e n t i f y  attitudes  In o r d e r to a c c o m p l i s h such a  t a s k t h i s study, assumes t h a t a t t i t u d e s towards a p a r t i c u l a r form of new h o u s i n g can be measured w i t h a u s e f u l degree of a c c u r a c y . assumes t h a t changes i n a t t i t u d e s can be i n t e r p r e t e d t o y i e l d relevant conclusions.  It  also  policy  The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r these assumptions l i e s  in  the s c i e n c e of a t t i t u d e measurement as i t has e v o l v e d o v e r the p a s t s i x t y years.  Over t h i s p e r i o d c o n c e p t s and t e c h n i q u e s have become i n -  creasingly sophisticated. however, s t i l l  exist.  Problems of d e f i n i t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,  The purpose of t h i s b r i e f c h a p t e r i s to d e s c r i b e  some of the more b a s i c problems and d e f i n i t i o n s  r e l a t e d to  attitudes.  W h i l e such a t r e a t m e n t b a r e l y s c r a t c h e s the s u r f a c e of t h i s  complex  f i e l d , i t s h o u l d a i d i n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the r e s e a r c h methodology as w e l l as the subsequent  analysis.  D e f i n i t i o n s and Measurement Concepts S o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s have d e f i n e d an a t t i t u d e to be " a l e a r n e d p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to respond p o s i t i v e l y o r n e g a t i v e l y to a g i v e n c l a s s objects"  ( M c G r a t h , 1964: 2 1 ) .  of  A t t i t u d e s are thus d i f f e r e n t from h a b i t s  which are more a u t o m a t i c and f i x e d responses towards a c l a s s of A d i s t i n c t i o n may a l s o be made between a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s :  objects.  32  V a l u e s , t h u s , are a b s t r a c t i o n s o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s which f i n d t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n i n a t t i t u d e s towards p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t s , the o b j e c t s b e i n g regarded as a i d i n g o r b l o c k i n g the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e s e v a l u e s . These " o b j e c t s " may be t h i n g s o r p e o p l e , o r complex s o c i a l phenomena and c o n c e p t s such as norms, s t e r e o t y p e s , r o l e s , and so forth. T h e r e f o r e , g i v e n t h a t o r d e r i n the s o c i a l e n v i r o n ment i s mainly based on v a l u e s , i t f o l l o w s t h a t the s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r of the i n d i v i d u a l i s a l s o u l t i m a t e l y l a r g e l y a f u n c t i o n of h i s a t t i t u d e s . ( K e l v i n , 1970s 40)  I n s p i t e of the m u l t i p l i c i t y of d e f i n i t i o n s of a t t i t u d e ,  there  i s agreement among p s y c h o l o g i s t s t h a t an a t t i t u d e has an a f f e c t i v e ,  cog-  n i t i v e , and b e h a v i o u r a l component (Lemon, 1973s 16; Seeord and Backman, 1964s 9 7 ; S c h i f f , , 1970s 6 , 7 ) .  The b e h a v i o u r a l component c o n s i s t s of an  i n d i v i d u a l ' s f e e l i n g s of l i k e o r d i s l i k e f o r an o b j e c t , w h i l e the c o g n i t i v e component c o n s i s t s of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e l i e f s about the o b j e c t .  In  o t h e r w o r d s , o n e ' s a t t i t u d e towards an o b j e c t i s a c o m b i n a t i o n of what one knows o r b e l i e v e s t o be t r u e , what one f e e l s , and what one i s i n c l i n e d t o do about  it. When d i s c u s s i n g a t t i t u d e s i t i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t t o remember  t h a t t h e r e i s no s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d r e l a t i o n s h i p between a p e r s o n ' s  actions,  a t t i t u d e s , and e x p r e s s e d o p i n i o n s .  Overt a c t i o n s and speech are f r e S  quently designed to conceal p r i v a t e  attitudes:  When the p o l i t i c i a n k i s s e s Negro b a b i e s as an e x p r e s s i o n of h i s f r i e n d l y a t t i t u d e toward the Negro r a c e h i s a c t i o n i s p r o b a b l y no more an a c c u r a t e i n d e x of h i s " p r i v a t e " a t t i t u d e than i s h i s i m p a s s i o n e d d e c l a r a t i o n of f r i e n d s h i p from the p l a t f o r m . . . The p o i n t i s t h a t our knowl e d g e of a t t i t u d e s can come o n l y through a s t u d y of b e h a v i o u r , and a l l b e h a v i o u r i s s u b j e c t to m o d i f i c a t i o n i n the p r o c e s s of e x e c u t i o n from c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of c o u r tesy, expedience, or other s o c i a l pressures. ( L u n d b e r g , 1929: 202)  33  F u r t h e r m o r e , o v e r t responses may be d i f f i c u l t l a t i o n to the immediate environment. f a c t o r s as the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  to e x p l a i n s o l e l y i n  re-  They may be a f u n c t i o n of such  p a s t e x p e r i e n c e and p r e s e n t m o t i v a t i o n .  These u n o b s e r v a b l e i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s " i n t e r v e n e " to determine a t i n p a r t the observed responses to the observed s t i m u l i .  least  A ravenous  c h i l d , f o r example, w i l l rush t o a f o o d - l a d e n t a b l e w h i l e a w e l l - f e d gourmet would p r o b a b l y i g n o r e i t  ( K e l v i n , 1970: 4 3 ) .  Of the numerous s o u r c e s of b i a s i n the measurement of  atti-  tudes many can be t r a c e d to the s i t u a t i o n i n which the i n t e r v i e w :'. questionnaire i s administered. v i o u s l y important i s  One s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r which i s  the n a t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n -  v e s t i g a t o r and the r e s p o n d e n t .  I t i s w e l l known t h a t the c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c s of the f o r m e r can i n f l u e n c e the i n f o r m a t i o n which i s d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w .  ob-  obtained  T h i s i s p a r t i a l l y a r e s u l t of the f a c t t h a t  t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n i s not a pure d a t a g a t h e r i n g o c c a s i o n which i s v o i d of meaning f o r the r e s p o n d e n t .  the de-  More o f t e n than not i t i s a s o c i a l  event i n which both p a r t i e s have e x p e c t a t i o n s about t h e i r r o l e behaviour.  Respondents' e x p e c t a t i o n s about the u l t i m a t e use and c o n f i d e n -  t i a l i t y of t h e i r r e p l i e s a r e t h e r e f o r e key f a c t o r s i n any t e s t i n g ation.  The tendency to g i v e s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e r e s p o n s e s o r t o  situ-  respond  i n an extreme way are a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s which must be a l l o w e d f o r  in  both the d e s i g n of the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e and the manner i n which q u e s t i o n s are a s k e d .  T h i s t a s k i s most demanding when i s s u e s of  morality  and p r e j u d i c e are b e i n g s t u d i e d . Any s i n g l e a t t i t u d e measure i s b i a s e d to some e x t e n t (Lemon,  34  1973: 8 2 ) . cators.  I t i s t h e r e f o r e a d v i s a b l e to use a number of d i f f e r e n t  indi-  T h i s enables the r e s e a r c h e r to randomize the e r r o r which a r i s e s  s p e c i f i c a l l y from the type of measuring i n s t r u m e n t which i s b e i n g u s e d . Additionally, dividual's  i t p r o v i d e s a means of c h e c k i n g the c o n s i s t e n c y of an i n -  remarks.  S e v e r a l o t h e r c r i t e r i a may be a p p l i e d to m i n i m i z e  s o u r c e s of d i s t o r t i o n i n a t t i t u d e measurement.  D u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w  attempt s h o u l d be made to g a i n the c o n f i d e n c e and t r u s t of the At the same time the i n t e r v i e w e r may w i s h to obscure h i s t r u e f o r a p o r t i o n of the i n t e r v i e w . sibility  every  subject. objectives  T h i s would be done to l e s s e n the p o s -  of the very a c t of t e s t i n g a l t e r i n g the a t t i t u d e under s c r u t i n y .  Wore s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  every statement s h o u l d be such t h a t acceptance o r r e -  j e c t i o n of the statement i n d i c a t e s something about the i s s u e i n q u e s t i o n . D o u b l e - b a r r e l e d s t a t e m e n t s s h o u l d be a v o i d e d , as s h o u l d any q u e s t i o n s open to v a r y i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .  Similarly,  any statement to which p e r -  sons w i t h markedly d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s can respond i n the same way i s unsatisfactory.  A t t i t u d e Chancie K e l v i n (1970: 59) s u g g e s t s t h a t a change i n a t t i t u d e i m p l i e s a change i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s o r d e r of v a l u e s - which are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h changes i n h i s b e l i e f s and b e h a v i o u r .  C o n s e q u e n t l y , any change i n the  way i n which the i n d i v i d u a l o r d e r s h i s environment n a t u r a l l y a f f e c t s p r e d i c t i o n s which he makes about i t and the way i n which he a d j u s t s i t and m a n i p u l a t e s i t .  the to  W i t h i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n a l framework some i m p o r t a n t  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s must be made.  F i r s t l y , an i n d i v i d u a l i s not always c o n -  35  s c i o u s of a change i n h i s own a t t i t u d e s .  An employee, f o r example, may  o f t e n s c a r c e l y r e c o n g i z e t h a t new w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s have a f f e c t e d  his  " m o r a l e " and thus the s a t i s f a c t i o n he g a i n s from h i s j o b ( K e l v i n , 1970: 59). tent.  S e c o n d l y , a t t i t u d e change i s u s u a l l y g r a d u a l , both i n time and e x To g i v e a n o t h e r example, a person may be very f a v o u r a b l e  a newly e l e c t e d government, become s l o w l y d i s a p p o i n t e d by i t s p e r f o r m a n c e , and e v e n t u a l l y s u f f i c i e n t l y  hostile  towards  actual  to vote a g a i n s t i t  at  the next e l e c t i o n . Theoretically,  the c a p a c i t y to change a t t i t u d e s a l l o w s the i n -  d i v i d u a l to accommodate changes i n h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e s , whether these be due to n a t u r a l p r o c e s s e s such as a g i n g o r to exogenous changes i n h i s ment.  T h i s b r i n g s to the f o r e o n e ' s a b i l i t y  environ-  to cope w i t h s t r e s s as w e l l  as the a t t i t u d i n a l e f f e c t s of a s t r e s s s i t u a t i o n .  I t has been shown,  f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t the c o n t r o l of b e h a v i o u r by the use of f o r c e may s u b s e q u e n t l y l e a d t o a change i n  attitudes:  When the U n i t e d S t a t e s army e n f o r c e d r a c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n , a t t i t u d e s towards i n t e g r a t i o n were o f t e n i n i t i a l l y h o s t i l e ; sometime a f t e r w a r d s the g r e a t m a j o r i t y of o f f i c e r s and men became f a v o u r a b l e to i t . Merely b e i n g f o r c e d to p r o pose a v i e w p o i n t i n p u b l i c may make the advocate more f a v o u r a b l e towards i t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f he g a i n s s a t i s f a c t i o n from h i s performance o r i s p u b l i c l y a p p r o v e d . ( K e l v i n , 1970: 68) From a n o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e an u n d e s i r a b l e o b j e c t , e v e n t , o r form of b e h a v i o u r may be a c c e p t e d because the a l t e r n a t i v e s are even l e s s a p pealing. A person may, f o r example, m a i n t a i n an unhappy and m u t u a l l y u n s a t i s f y i n g marriage because the consequences of complete m a r i t a l breakdown ( e . g . l o n e l i n e s s , g u i l t ,  36  f i n a n c i a l s t r i n g e n c y ) are even more u n p l e a s a n t . His comparison l e v e l f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s ' i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s l i k e l y to be so low t h a t he would be p r e p a r e d t o tolerate his existing marital circumstances. Very few s t u d i e s of the b e h a v i o u r a l consequences of a t t i t u d e s take i n t o account the respondents a t t i t u d e s t o a l t e r n a t i v e b e h a v i o u r s , and thereby l i m i t t h e i r p r e d i c t i v e ability. (Lemon, 1973: 259)  Conclusion The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s c l e a r l y o n l y a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n the study of i n d i v i d u a l s '  attitudes.  to  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i n d i c a t e s some of  the p r e c a u t i o n s which must be taken when d e v i s i n g an i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , by p r o v i d i n g a b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i n g the r e s e a r c h methods d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , i t removes the need t o c o n s i d e r o b j e c t i v e of each i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n .  the  A g r e a t e r need i s to u n d e r s t a n d  t h a t the m i x t u r e of i n t e r v i e w i n g t e c h n i q u e s used i n t h i s s t u d y d i d have a d e f i n i t e purpose.  That purpose was to randomize response e r r o r s ,  check the c o n s i s t e n c y of i n d i v i d u a l s ' s p o n d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s to a l t e r n a t i v e  to  r e m a r k s , and t o probe i n t o the r e behaviours.  37  CHAPTER IV METHODOLOGY  This chapter o u t l i n e s  the r e s e a r c h methods t h a t were d e s i g n e d to  a s s e s s the impact of townhouses p l a c e d i n s i n g l e f a m i l y a r e a s .  The d e -  velopment and r e f i n e m e n t of the methodology i s shown to have o c c u r r e d i n a number of o v e r l a p p i n g p h a s e s . p l a n n e r s and government o f f i c i a l s  D u r i n g the i n i t i a l phase,  municipal  i n V i c t o r i a and Vancouver were c o n s u l t e d .  The purpose of t h i s s e r i e s of d i s c u s s i o n s was to l o c a t e townhouse  projects  t h a t were d e s i g n e d f o r f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n and which were t o t a l l y p a r t i a l l y surrounded by s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s .  or  S u b s e q u e n t l y , i t was a l s o  n e c e s s a r y to s e l e c t an a r e a i n which townhouses had not been b u i l t , t h a t was as s i m i l a r as p o s s i b l e to the a r e a s a l r e a d y c h o s e n .  but one  The second  phase of the r e s e a r c h p r e p a r a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of the d r a f t i n g , t e s t i n g , and r e v i s i o n of two s e p a r a t e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s .  D u r i n g the t h i r d phase a  s a m p l i n g procedure was d e s i g n e d and a sample of households was c h o s e n . L e t t e r s of i n t r o d u c t i o n (see Appendix A) were then d i s t r i b u t e d and i n t e r views were c o n d u c t e d .  S e l e c t i o n of the Study Areas To f a c i l i t a t e  the s e l e c t i o n of two a r e a s i n which townhouses had  been b u i l t i t was n e c e s s a r y to e s t a b l i s h some g u i d e l i n e s c o n c e r n i n g the s i z e , d e s i g n , and l o c a t i o n of the townhouses.  The f o l l o w i n g  is a  of the c r i t e r i a upon which the c h o i c e of the t e s t areas was made:  list  38  a)  The study areas had to be e x i s t i n g , " o l d e r " neighbourhoods.  residential  b)  The s t u d y a r e a s had to be zoned p r i m a r i l y f o r s i n g l e dwellings.  c)  The townhouse p r o p e r t y s h o u l d be a d j a c e n t to the p r o p e r t i e s of homeowners on a t l e a s t two s i d e s .  d)  The townhouses s h o u l d be g r o u n d - o r i e n t e d f a m i l y u n i t s a maximum h e i g h t of t h r e e s t o r e y s .  e)  The townhouse p r o j e c t s h o u l d not i n c l u d e any commercial development.  f)  The townhouse p r o j e c t s s h o u l d have been c o n s t r u c t e d at d i f f e r ent t i m e s ; one f i v e o r more years ago and one b u i l t w i t h i n the l a s t two y e a r s . T h i s g u i d e l i n e was e s t a b l i s h e d to p e r m i t a t e s t f o r the e f f e c t s of time exposure as w e l l as f o r the e f f e c t s of d e s i g n improvements.  family  with  On the b a s i s of these c r i t e r i a , the C i t y of v i c t o r i a was found to c o n t a i n the two most s u i t a b l e p r o j e c t s .  One p r o j e c t i s 24 townhouse  u n i t s b u i l t i n 1969 on North D a i r y Road i n the Cedar H i l l a r e a .  The  o t h e r p r o j e c t , known as Rochdale P l a c e , c o n s i s t s of 36 townhouse u n i t s i n a t o t a l c o - o p e r a t i v e development of 74 u n i t s .  Of the  remaining  u n i t s , 28 are d u p l e x , 6 are s e m i - d e t a c h e d , and 4 are d e t a c h e d .  It  is  l o c a t e d i n the h e a r t of an a r e a known as V i c . West. As some d i f f i c u l t y was encountered i n f i n d i n g any p r o j e c t s which met a l l of the above c r i t e r i a , i t was not p o s s i b l e to choose e i t h e r p r o j e c t s o r areas t h a t were s i m i l a r i n a l l r e s p e c t s .  This  dif-  f i c u l t y f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d the s e l e c t i o n of the t h i r d s t u d y a r e a . F i n a l l y , a d i s t r i c t which w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as the H a u l t a i n a r e a was chosen.  I t i s w i t h i n a m i l e of the Cedar H i l l n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  s e q u e n t l y , the two d i s t r i c t s shopping f a c i l i t i e s  have much the same o r i e n t a t i o n  and a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s .  Con-  towards  While the V i c . West n e i g h -  39  bourhood i s f i v e m i l e s d i s t a n t from these a r e a s i t s o r i e n t a t i o n s h o p p i n g and employment c e n t r e s i s c o m p a r a b l e .  to  F u r t h e r comparisons  between a l l t h r e e of the a r e a s a r e s i m p l i f i e d by the c h e c k l i s t  presented  i n Table 1 as w e l l as by r e f e r e n c e t o Maps 1, 2, 3 and 4 . Table 1 Study Area  Characteristics  Feature  Cedar H i l l  1.  Homes b u i l t about 1915  2.  Homes b u i l t about 1946  3.  Some homes b e i n g r e n o v a t e d  4.  Some new homes nearby  5.  Elementary s c h o o l w i t h i n 2 b l o c k s  6.  P a r k s o r open green space w i t h i n 2 blocks  V i c West  Haultain  X  X  X  X  X X  X X X  7.  Apartments w i t h i n 3 b l o c k s  X  8.  A d j a c e n t to s m a l l s t o r e s  X  9.  Adjacent to l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l area  X X  X X  X X  X  10.  Some dead-end s t r e e t s o r c u l - d e - s a c s  X  X  X  11.  No c l e a r view of ocean o r mountains  X  X  X  Some a d d i t i o n a l f a c t s about the townhouse developments a r e worth n o t i n g .  Both p r o j e c t s i t e s are i r r e g u l a r i n shape and both had  p r e v i o u s l y been open f i e l d s .  In each c a s e , t h r e e o r f o u r o l d e r homes were  demolished to p e r m i t c o n s t r u c t i o n of the townhouses. similarities  end.  themselves  The Cedar H i l l  At t h i s p o i n t  the  P r o j e c t was p r i v a t e l y f i n a n c e d and each  u n i t was s o l d a t p r e v a i l i n g market p r i c e s .  In c o n t r a s t ,  Rochdale  Place  r e c e i v e d f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l Governments  40  Saanich  Oak viCToniA  Map  Bay  I  Legend  Location City  of  of  Study  Areas  in  the  Haultain  Study  Area  Victoria Vic.  West  Cedar Scales  Hill  2  Study  Study  inches  Area  Area  =  1  (^)  (^)  mile  1  •  /=? V > 3 A / 8 _?<s°  •s_> / / r ~ J  \  "7  %.  •S S  >  ;  3" .  i  ES  •• £1 ;  ' £?£!  '  e_  •2 3  •<£  « fig  <5  _?_>'  1  e  S  PARK  '&  s  r"  fO  p hi  _3 /O  t  ; /a s ' /p in • /<s i ^ l = :  /3  ' /a  /a /o =  *) (*•••  • /©  .  A 5 Q '  / / O  J  /o = //  : i  •  /3 a  5 H i -  •  • /a  = /s /£  /S  '8  • £*o  ago.  ^  |  .  rBGZ aJ  ; 1 CLOSED \ wa'. ^ i «5  ^|_?<& as L  J H «  a?  I  u  :  '  /o  So /9  p  - C O  a  •  /O  •  /3 se'  IS  ;  s  '• 2o  P  a  • / P  /O  :  //  «  /a  3  -  ^ J  < :  1 !I |/£ ! •  P  a  //o • G  -  1 /A  3  • </p;  / O :j  «  j  (//)  •  /_? •  <  //o | //<?  •^ 3  3  81  p  |  ;  a  • /i  'j I  ^ /a  _>  • / P  /O x  • i  // =  ,  ••  /<&  •/a  55  .ea Legend  map 2 H a u l t a i n Study Area  Survey  -— i d  ; g  -  i _r_  *3!  '3 ! s >s  -  § £?/ -  /_»  /a-  "0 XT?  • 2  ' __  ;  > /a  5  Q ' • NI  • _?3 (a )  •o ^  Q  ;'• -h sd  3  1  < (/£*) /a  /<&  /S  ^  /*  /&  fr*  _?/ .  *>  "  _r i ;  /  • _fa  . ?? o  //o •  ^ S<c>  (4a  ^ &s,  S  -  Sanple  Commercial Use  SCBIG: 1 i n c h = 200 F e e t  J  Map  3  Vic.  West  Legend Study  Area  Townhouse  s i t ~  Survey  Sample  Scale:  1  inch  • o  =  2 0 0 feet  A  - V P -  •C* * *'*'  /"*•  o  \  ;«  ^ ^  * /cs.c »  ILV  D p  .  B .  t'9.97' '.-, r;  •t  \37  \  1 6  2 -415 A- g * ^ '  1  Si  •i t».M * i  ic o\ j  u  01  ii. —•  .*  9 1  IC5.0'  l\  -**«* •  N  CO 0)  SB  5  <0  19* 9' Legend  Map 4 Cedar  Townhouse  Hill  Study  Area  Survey  Sample  Commercial  Scale:  site  1  •  Use  inch  =  200  feet  A  :  44  as w e l l as from community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . t i v e , the complex i s owned c o l l e c t i v e l y  Furthermore, being a co-operaby members who i n d i v i d u a l l y  lease  t h e i r homes.  The Design of the I n t e r v i e w  Schedules  The b a s i c d e s i g n of the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s (see Appendices B and C) was i n f l u e n c e d by the work of p a s t r e s e a r c h e r s ( E a r l , 1970; D u g u i d , 1972; Lakehead P l a n n i n g B o a r d , 1 9 7 3 ) .  T h e i r s c h e d u l e s were v a l u a b l e b e -  cause they had a l r e a d y been t e s t e d and because t h e i r a t t i t u d e  measurement  o b j e c t i v e s were s i m i l a r .  questions  Based on t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , s p e c i f i c  were chosen to meet a v a r i e t y of needs.  S e p a r a t e q u e s t i o n s , f o r example,  d e a l t w i t h the type of people l i v i n g i n townhouses and the a c t u a l of the d w e l l i n g s .  design  T h i s was done to determine the r e l a t i v e importance of  these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the mind of the  respondent.  The number of people who had moved away o r who were thought to have moved because of the townhouses was p o s t u l a t e d as b e i n g one measure of the impact of the new h o u s i n g on the n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  Q u e s t i o n s on t h i s  s u b j e c t were t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e d i n the townhouse s c h e d u l e .  In t h i s same  s c h e d u l e an attempt to check the c o n s i s t e n c y of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  response  was made by a s k i n g f o r h i s o p i n i o n s of the townhouses nearby and of any a d d i t i o n a l townhouses t h a t might be b u i l t i n the immediate a r e a .  The  a c t u a l words chosen to i n d i c a t e p r o x i m i t y were " w i t h i n s i g h t of your home". I t was f e l t t h a t the use of such a phrase would evoke a more m e a n i n g f u l response than words such as " i n t h i s neighbourhood" o r " w i t h i n a i radius".  mile  45  F o r o b v i o u s reasons the n a t u r e and sequence of q u e s t i o n s the H a u l t a i n a r e a r e s i d e n t s had to be s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t .  for  Nevertheless,  an attempt was made to measure the same a t t i t u d e s on each t o p i c by r e t a i n i n g the m i x t u r e of c l o s e d and open-ended q u e s t i o n s found i n the other schedule. cases.  Similarly,  the same statement s h e e t was used i n both  The c o r r e s p o n d i n g answer s h e e t was d e s i g n e d so t h a t i t c o u l d be  completed by the respondent w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e from the  interviewer.  I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l might express an a t t i t u d e on paper v i a a check mark t h a t he might not express v e r b a l l y .  As a f u r t h e r means  of s t i m u l a t i n g n e g a t i v e o r p o s i t i v e o p i n i o n s , the respondent was asked to e v a l u a t e a s e r i e s of c o l o u r photographs ( s e e F i g u r e s 1 through 9 ) . p h o t o g r a p h s , which i n c l u d e d two views of each of the study a r e a were chosen to show a v a r i e t y of townhouse  These  projects,  types.  Subsequent to the i n i t i a l d r a f t i n g of the two s c h e d u l e s ,  certain  q u e s t i o n s were d e l e t e d , added, r e p h r a s e d , o r r e a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g to the a d v i c e of a number of p r o f e s s o r s . c a r r i e d out i n Vancouver.  P r e t e s t s of both s c h e d u l e s were then  The s c h e d u l e t o be used i n the H a u l t a i n a r e a  was t e s t e d i n an area of s i n g l e f a m i l y homes i n K e r r i s d a l e .  Due to the  s i m i l a r i t y of the two i n s t r u m e n t s , the t e s t r e s u l t s prompted changes both s c h e d u l e s .  The most i m p o r t a n t change was the a d d i t i o n of the  in  res-  ponse c a t e g o r i e s " d o n ' t know" and " c a n ' t g e n e r a l i z e " to a number of questions.  The second s c h e d u l e was t e s t e d i n the v i c i n i t y of a townhouse  development completed i n 1973.  Other a l t e r a t i o n s were then made to  minate awkward o r r e p e t i t i v e words. viewed d u r i n g the p r e t e s t s t a g e .  In t o t a l , f i v e homeowners were  eliinter-  Figure  2»  Rear  view  backyard  of of  Cedar a  home  Hill on  project  Clawthorpe  from  the  Street.  F i g u r e 4:  View between rows of Rochdale P l a c e  units.  48  F i g u r e 61  An example of p o s s i b l e e x t e r i o r d e s i g n f e a t u r e s i n a S a a n i c h townhouse p r o j e c t .  49  Figure  8:  Frontal in  the  view  of  a  small  Municipality  of  townhouse Oak  Bay.  project  50  F i g u r e 9:  An example of l a n d s c a p i n g i n a Vancouver townhouse p r o j e c t .  51  Sample S e l e c t i o n and the  Interview  In l i g h t of the a v a i l a b l e s e t a t 75 completed i n t e r v i e w s .  r e s o u r c e s the t o t a l sample s i z e was  Manageable t a r g e t s of 25 i n t e r v i e w s  week per study a r e a were thus e s t a b l i s h e d .  W h i l e these t a r g e t s were not  r e l a x e d i n any of the t h r e e a r e a s , the f i n a l s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e between the H a u l t a i n a r e a and the two townhouse d i s t r i c t s . t r o l a r e a the f i r s t  per  differed  In the c o n -  t a s k was to s e l e c t f o u r b l o c k s f o r s t u d y .  Following  a t o u r of the a r e a the b l o c k s shown on Map 2 were s e l e c t e d because of t h e i r c l o s e n e s s to a s c h o o l , a p a r k , and some s m a l l s t o r e s .  The age and  c o n d i t i o n of the houses themselves h a d , of c o u r s e , been p r i n c i p a l i n the c h o i c e of the l a r g e r s t u d y a r e a .  factors  Another c o n s i d e r a t i o n was t h a t  w i t h t h e removal o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e houses as w e l l as a s t r e e t  clo-  s u r e a s m a l l townhouse p r o j e c t of about a dozen u n i t s c o u l d have been b u i l t i n the a r e a . contacted. resident.  The next t a s k was to s e l e c t the households to be  I t was f i n a l l y d e c i d e d to attempt to i n t e r v i e w every The r a t i o n a l e was t h a t t h i s would s i m p l i f y  the l e t t e r  third dis-  t r i b u t i o n p r o c e s s and e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e the response o v e r the f o u r blocks.  The problem of where to begin d i s t r i b u t i n g l e t t e r s was s o l v e d  by a random draw from among the l o t numbers shown on Map 2. I n the two townhouse a r e a s a m o d i f i c a t i o n was made i n the househ o l d s e l e c t i o n procedure as a r e s u l t of the poor i n i t i a l Cedar H i l l a r e a .  response i n  the  The m o d i f i c a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of an attempt to c o n t a c t  each r e s i d e n t whose p r o p e r t y was on the same b l o c k as the townhouses o r whose home was d i r e c t l y a c r o s s the s t r e e t from the p r o j e c t .  T h i s was a  compromise measure designed to ensure t h a t the g r e a t e s t number of persons  52  d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by the p r o j e c t c o u l d be i n t e r v i e w e d . d i s t a n t r e s i d e n t s w i t h i n an a r b i t r a r y  F o r those more  two b l o c k r a d i u s the procedure  of c o n t a c t i n g every t h i r d r e s i d e n t was r e t a i n e d .  If a resident  could  n o t be c o n t a c t e d a f t e r two o r t h r e e a t t e m p t s a l e t t e r of i n t r o d u c t i o n was d i s t r i b u t e d to a n o t h e r h o u s e h o l d .  T h i s was the s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e  in  each a r e a . Those i n d i v i d u a l s who would not g r a n t an i n t e r v i e w were c l a s s i f i e d as " r e f u s a l s " .  Some of the r e f u s a l s on the f i r s t day of  i n g i n the Cedar H i l l d i s t r i c t were l i k e l y  due to the a u t h o r ' s  and l a c k of t a c t i n r e q u e s t i n g an i n t e r v i e w . t r i b u t e d to i l l n e s s , ed f o r the i n t e r v i e w .  interviewuneasiness  Other r e f u s a l s may be a t -  a p a t h y , or an u n w i l l i n g n e s s  to spare the time n e e d -  I n c l u d e d i n these c a t e g o r i e s was one man who  t w i c e postponed a p r e a r r a n g e d i n t e r v i e w and a n o t h e r who would not answer a knock a t the d o o r . The i n t e r v i e w s were conducted between 9 . 3 0 A . M . and 10.00P.IY1. each day - w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of F r i d a y and S a t u r d a y n i g h t s and Sunday mornings.  Such a s c h e d u l e was needed because many persons were not a t  home b e f o r e 4 . 0 0 P . M . d u r i n g the week. v i e w s v a r i e d between 40 to 60 m i n u t e s .  The normal l e n g t h of the  inter-  On o c c a s i o n they c o n t i n u e d f o r  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 90 m i n u t e s . As a s o c i a l e v e n t , the i n t e r v i e w r e a l l y began a t the d o o r s t e p . From t h i s p o i n t f o r w a r d a degree of c o n f i d e n c e had t o be e s t a b l i s h e d between the i n t e r v i e w e r and the r e s p o n d e n t .  Some p e r s o n s '  apprehensions  were v i s i b l y d i s p e l l e d by s t a t e m e n t s t h a t the a u t h o r was not a salesman of any k i n d as w e l l as by h i s w i l l i n g n e s s  to r e t u r n a t a more c o n v e n i e n t  53  time.  Other i n d i v i d u a l s needed no such a s s u r a n c e s ,  The l e t t e r  the n a t u r e and purpose of the s u r v e y had been s u f f i c i e n t .  explaining  Once i n s i d e  home some a d d i t i o n a l measures were taken to calm any sense of m i s t r u s t u n e a s i n e s s the respondent might have.  The i n d i v i d u a l was, f o r  A number of women seemed p l e a s e d to be a b l e to proceed w i t h t h e i r  day.  cooking  Others seemed to r e l a x when  a t o p i c of common i n t e r e s t u n r e l a t e d to townhouses was b r i e f l y If,  or  instance,  o f t e n encouraged to resume t h e i r normal a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h a t time of  o r i r o n i n g as they responded t o q u e s t i o n s .  the  discussed.  on the o t h e r hand, the i n t e r v i e w was an o b v i o u s i n c o n v e n i e n c e ,  fewer  spontaneous o r p r o b i n g q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d . The i n t e r v i e w u s u a l l y took p l a c e i n a l i v i n g room o r k i t c h e n . I n two e x c e p t i o n a l c a s e s i t was completed a t the f r o n t d o o r . case the views of one person were r e c o r d e d .  In every  I f both husband and w i f e  were p r e s e n t and i n t e r e s t e d i n the survey the husband was chosen as the spokesman.  T h i s was done to o b t a i n a more even b a l a n c e between the num-  ber of male and female r e s p o n d e n t s .  Such a d e c i s i o n d i d not mean, however,  t h a t the o p i n i o n s of a w i f e or f r i e n d were not welcomed.  In f a c t ,  third  p a r t y comments were o f t e n encouraged s i n c e they tended to prompt d i s c u s sion.  The Respondents The p e r s o n a l and household c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the respondents the t h r e e study a r e a s are d e s c r i b e d below i n s t a t i s t i c a l f o r m . through 10 are l a r g e l y s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y .  They f a c i l i t a t e  in  Tables 2  comparisons  between the t h r e e sample p o p u l a t i o n s and p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r  evaluating  54  the a t t i t u d e s of a r e a  residents.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of a l l female and 41 per c e n t male.  the respondents by sex was 59 per c e n t :  The g r e a t e s t d e v i a t i o n from t h i s  average  was i n the V i c . West a r e a where o n l y 29 per c e n t of the respondents were males.  As most i n t e r v i e w s were conducted d u r i n g the day the  female r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was e x p e c t e d .  larger  I t was g r e a t e s t i n V i c . West be-  cause more non-male households were c o n t a c t e d and because more husbands happened to be absent d u r i n g the e a r l y e v e n i n g . From the d a t a i n T a b l e s 3 and 4 i t i s c l e a r t h a t the V i c . West sample p o p u l a t i o n was younger than the o t h e r two groups of  respondents.  Only 20 per c e n t of those i n t e r v i e w e d i n V i c . West were o v e r the age of fifty.  Comparable f i g u r e s f o r the same age group are 40 per c e n t and  48 per c e n t f o r the H a u l t a i n and Cedar H i l l a r e a s  respectively.  Table 2 Sex of  Respondent  Haultain  V i c . West  Cedar  Hill  Male  13  7  11  Female  12  18  14  Table 3 Aoe of Respondent (By O b s e r v a t i o n ) Haultain  V i c . West  Cedar  Hill  19-24  1  4  4  25-34  8  8  4  35-50  6  8  5  50-65  5  2  6  Over 65  5  3  6  55  Table 4 Stage i n L i f e  Cycle  Haultain  V i c . West  2  7  6  4  5  3  With o n l y s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n  5  4  4  Mixture  5  4  2  With only adult c h i l d r e n  9  5  10  Childless  Cedar  Hill  With o n l y p r e s c h o o l age children  Table 5 Household S i z e No. of Persons  Haultain  V i c . West  Cedar  1  2  3  1  2  5  10  7  3  5  2  9  4  6  7  5  5  6  3  1  6 o r more  1  0  2  Hill  Table 6 r e v e a l s t h a t the l a r g e m a j o r i t y of respondents i n each a r e a had not a t t e n d e d u n i v e r s i t y .  T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s c l o s e l y w i t h the f a c t  t h a t most respondents r e p o r t e d a low to moderate income (see Table 7 ) . The f i g u r e s f o r tenure and l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e do not show major d i f f e r e n c e s between the t h r e e study a r e a s . the t u r n o v e r of homes i s f a i r l y  rapid.  any  In each neighbourhood  At the same t i m e , however,  approx-  i m a t e l y 44 per c e n t of the respondents i n each a r e a have been r e s i d e n t s f o r f i v e o r more y e a r s .  Many of these c o u l d be termed permanent  residents  w i t h no i n t e n t i o n of moving e l s e w h e r e .  As w e l l , a s m a l l m i n o r i t y  16 per c e n t ) of the respondents i n each a r e a were  (12-  renters.  Table 6 H i o h e s t L e v e l of E d u c a t i o n Completed  Elementary  school  High s c h o o l 1-3 y e a r s u n i v e r s i t y college University  V i c . West  7  7  5  15  12  12  2  5  5  1  1  3  or  degree  Cedar  Haultain  Hill  Table 7 T o t a l Household Income Cedar  Hill  Income Ranoe  Haultain  V i c . West  Under $8,000  7  4  7  $8,000 - 814,000  8  10  5  $14,000 - $20,000  7  7  6  $20,000 - $25,000  1  0  2  $25,000 - $35,000  2  0  1  Over $35,000  0  2  0  No response  0  2  4  Table 8 O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s of Household Head V i c . West Haultain Self-employed U s u a l l y employed time  Hill  4  2  3  14  18  13  2  1  0  1  3  6  0  1  full  U s u a l l y employed p a r t time  Cedar  0  Unemployed  1  Retired  6  Student  0  57  Table 9 Tenure Hill  V i c . West  22  21  21  Detached house  2  2  3  Duplex  1  2  0  S u i t e i n house  0  0  1  Own Rent:  Cedar  Haultain  Table 10 Lenath of Residence i n P r e s e n t D w e l l i n g Haultain  V i c . West  Cedar  Less than 1 y e a r  6  4  4  1 - 2 years  0  7  3  3 - 5  8  years  6-10  years  Over 10 years  4  Hill  4  2  4  5  9  6  9  Conclusion T h i s c h a p t e r has d e s c r i b e d the r e s e a r c h methods and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the respondents i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l .  T h i s was done to p e r m i t  the r e a d e r to d e t e c t any s o u r c e s of b i a s i n the sample s e l e c t i o n .  From  the a u t h o r ' s v i e w p o i n t , the c o n s i s t e n t adherence t o the household s e l e c t i o n procedure and the t i m i n g of the i n t e r v i e w s e l i m i n a t e d any p o t e n t i a l l y nificant biases. area i s  sig-  I t i s t h e r e f o r e a s s e r t e d t h a t the sample i n each s t u d y  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the neighbourhood p o p u l a t i o n .  FOOTNOTES The number of r e f u s a l s was 4 , 1 3 , and 12 f o r the H a u l t a i n , V i c . West, and Cedar H i l l areas r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out f o r those r e a d e r s w i t h a s t a t i s t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t t h e s e numbers a r e not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l u s i n g a C h i - s q u a r e t e s t w i t h two degrees of freedom. In o t h e r words, the number of r e f u s a l s may have been due to random v a r i a t i o n i n the s a m p l e . Having made t h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n , i t i s worth n o t i n g some of the a p p a r e n t reasons f o r the g r e a t e r number of r e f u s a l s i n the two townhouse a r e a s . Some i n d i v i d u a l s seemed to view the survey as an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the townhouses. One woman commented a p o l o g e t i c a l l y t h a t she d i d not w i s h to become "involved". Others s t a t e d f l a t l y t h a t they were not i n t e r e s t e d i n a n s w e r i n g any q u e s t i o n s . T h e i r a b r u p t manner s u g g e s t e d t h a t they r e s e n t e d a s t r a n g e r ' s attempt to d i s c u s s i s s u e s t h a t might generate bad f e e l i n g s i n the community.  59  CHAPTER V RESEARCH FINDINGS  T h i s c h a p t e r examined the r e s u l t s of the i n t e r v i e w s .  Responses  t o s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d under the f o l l o w i n g h e a d i n g s : a)  a t t i t u d e s towards townhouse l i v i n g and p r o j e c t  residents  b)  the n a t u r e and r a n k i n g of r e s i d e n t s *  c)  residents'  d)  the e x t e n t of a t t i t u d e change r e s u l t i n g from exposure t o  concerns  design preferences  townhouses e)  p u b l i c h e a r i n g s and a t t i t u d e s towards f u t u r e  townhouse  construction Each of these s e c t i o n s c o n s i d e r s methods of a n a l y s i s and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of u s i n g the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e approach t o measuring attitudes.  As s u c h , the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i s both d e s c r i p t i v e and  interpretive.  A t t i t u d e s Towards Townhouse L i v i n o and P r o j e c t  Residents  S u r v e y r e s u l t s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t the a t t i t u d e s of  single  f a m i l y r e s i d e n t s r e p o r t e d below were formed on the b a s i s of l i m i t e d knowledge.  Only 4 of the 75 respondents had p r e v i o u s l y l i v e d i n a townhouse.  A much l a r g e r number (31) d i d have f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s who l i v i n g i n townhouses o r who had done so i n the p a s t .  were p r e s e n t l y  T w o - t h i r d s of  the  f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s were r e p o r t e d by the respondents to be s a t i s f i e d t h e i r townhouse accommodation. The a t t i t u d e s of the respondents towards townhouse l i v i n g were  with  60  measured by a s k i n g i f f o r a new home.  a townhouse u n i t would be c o n s i d e r e d when l o o k i n g  T w e n t y - e i g h t per c e n t of the respondents r e p l i e d  that  they would look a t townhouses - f o r reasons of c o s t o r because of a s c a r c i t y of s i n g l e f a m i l y homes.  A l a c k of p r i v a c y , a l a c k of  personal  freedom, o r a f e e l i n g o f b e i n g crowded were among the reasons g i v e n by the m a j o r i t y who s a i d they would not c o n s i d e r a townhouse f o r  themselves.  O p i n i o n was e v e n l y d i v i d e d as t o whether p r o j e c t r e s i d e n t s f e r e d from the occupants of s i n g l e f a m i l y homes ( s e e Table 1 1 ) . who f e l t  dif-  Those  t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e h e l d two d i s t i n c t p o i n t s of v i e w .  One  Table 11 Question:  Do you t h i n k t h a t townhouse r e s i d e n t s and the occupants of s i n g l e f a m i l y homes have d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ?  Response  Haultain  V i c . West  Yes  7  13  10  30  No  12  9  8  29  D o n ' t know  5  3  3  11  Can't  1  0  4  5  25  25  25  75  generalize  Number of  respondents  Cedar H i l l  Total  view was t h a t townhouse d w e l l e r s were s e e k i n g a more c l o s e l y k n i t of l i v i n g and t h e r e f o r e c o u l d a c c e p t l e s s freedom and p r i v a c y .  style  The  g r e a t e r p r e v a l e n c e of t h i s view i n the V i c . West a r e a was l i k e l y due t o the p r o x i m i t y o f the Rochdale P l a c e C o - o p e r a t i v e . r e s i d e n t s were c o n s i d e r e d to be t r a n s i e n t ,  Alternatively,  townhouse  l a z y i n d i v i d u a l s a t t e m p t i n g to  a v o i d the g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the ownership of a s i n g l e detached house.  61  Table 12 r e q u i r e s o n l y a b r i e f comment.  Most respondents  per-  c e i v e d t h a t townhouses a t t r a c t e d persons from a v a r i e t y of c l a s s e s and age g r o u p s .  However, they d i d f e e l t h a t f a m i l i e s and w o r k i n g c l a s s  ple predominated.  None of the respondents b e l i e v e d t h a t s i n g l e  o r members of the upper c l a s s l i v e d i n  peo-  people  townhouses.  Table 12 Questions  To your knowledge, what k i n d of l i v e i n townhouses?  individuals  F reauencv of Response Cedar  Hill  Total  Haultain  V i c . West  11  7  10  28  0  0  0  0  Young people  1  2  1  4  M i d d l e aged people  0  2  0  2  R e t i r e d persons  1  0  2  ..3  14  17  18  49  Upper c l a s s  0  0  0  0  Middle  9  1  6  16  12  10  11  33  4  10  9  23  3  5  2  10  Families Single  people  A l l types of  people  class  Working c l a s s M i x t u r e of Can't Notes  classes  generalize  No income o r o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a was used to d e f i n e the t h r e e c l a s s e s l i s t e d above. The respondent was f r e e t o choose the term which matched h i s i m p r e s s i o n of the townhouse r e s i d e n t s . The term " w o r k i n g c l a s s " was used as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r " l o w e r c l a s s " because i t was f e l t t h a t the l a t t e r term had an o v e r l y derogatory c o n n o t a t i o n .  62  The Nature and Ranking, of R e s i d e n t s '  Concerns  One of the b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s of the s u r v e y was to determine which a s p e c t s of townhouse redevelopment o r i n f i l l p r o j e c t s were of the concern to surrounding r e s i d e n t s .  greatest  T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d p r i m a r i l y by  w e i g h t i n g and then summing the responses t o the s t a t e m e n t sheet c o n t a i n e d i n the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s ( f o r ease of r e f e r e n c e the statement s h e e t reproduced i n Table 1 3 ) . shown i n Table 14. to a v o i d c o n f u s i o n .  is  The r e s u l t i n g r a n k i n g and the s c a l e s used are  The s i x p o s i t i v e s t a t e m e n t s have been shown s e p a r a t e l y T h e i r o r d e r i n g reveals that i n a l l areas  residents  f e l t t h a t townhouses u s u a l l y r e p l a c e rundown houses and were more a c c e p t able i f  they were a t t r a c t i v e l y  designed.  This information  compliments  the r a n k i n g of the n e g a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s a l t h o u g h the main reason f o r  in-  c l u d i n g the more f a v o u r a b l e s t a t e m e n t s was to p r e s e n t a mixed s e t of s t i m u l i t o the r e s p o n d e n t . The data of Table 14 p r o v i d e s some i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t s  between  the o p i n i o n s of r e s i d e n t s i n the H a u l t a i n a r e a and the two townhouse neighbourhoods.  P r i v a c y emerges as the dominant c o n c e r n i n the f o r m e r  a r e a whereas those r e s i d e n t s who have a townhouse nearby agree t h a t o n e ' s view i s most l i k e l y  to be a f f e c t e d by a rowhouse p r o j e c t .  Property  ues are c l e a r l y of a l e s s e r c o n c e r n t o the V i c . West and Cedar residents.  val-  Hill  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t a l l of the sample groups p e r -  c e i v e d maintenance to be a secondary i s s u e .  Problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  p r i v a c y and t r a f f i c are shown to be the more i m p o r t a n t common concerns of the m a j o r i t y of r e s i d e n t s i n a l l t h r e e a r e a s . The dangers of g e n e r a l i z i n g f u r t h e r from the i n f o r m a t i o n  displayed  Table  13  Statement Sheet 1.  They c r e a t e t r a f f i c  problems.  2.  They have l a r g e open green spaces on t h e i r  3.  They reduce the p r i v a c y of s u r r o u n d i n g  4.  They b l o c k the view of s u r r o u n d i n g  5.  They r e p l a c e rundown houses.  6.  They p l a c e s t r a i n s on s e w e r , w a t e r , and o t h e r s e r v i c e s .  7.  They cause l o c a l tax r a t e s to  8.  They are a c c e p t a b l e w i t h i n s i n g l e f a m i l y a r e a s i f are a t t r a c t i v e l y  9.  property.  residents.  residents.  rise. they  designed.  They cause crowding i n s c h o o l s .  10.  They a r e not w e l l m a i n t a i n e d .  11.  They i n c r e a s e the s t a t u s of the n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  12.  They a t t r a c t m o s t l y s i n g l e persons w i t h w e l l - p a y i n g jobs or s e n i o r  citizens.  13.  They reduce p r o p e r t y  values.  14.  They cause p a r k i n g p r o b l e m s .  15.  They are p o o r l y  16.  They r u i n the c h a r a c t e r of the community.  17. 18.  They b l e n d i n w i t h the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . They c r e a t e n o i s e p r o b l e m s .  designed.  Statements 2, 5, 8 , 1 1 , 1 2 , and 17 are c o n s i d e r e d to be p o s i t i v e s t a t e m e n t s w h i l e the remainder are c o n s i d e r e d to be n e g a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s .  64  T a b l e 14 Statement Haultain  Ranking V i c . West  Cedar  Hill  Negative statements 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11 . 12.  privacy property values t r a f f i c problems p a r k i n g problems strains services b l o c k view school crowding ruin character n o i s e problems maintenance poor d e s i g n tax r a t e s  Positive  statements  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  rundown houses a t t r a c . design open green spaces blend i n increase status s i n g l e and s e n i o r  Notes  b l o c k view t r a f f i c problems school crowding privacy property values p a r k i n g problems strains services tax r a t e s n o i s e problems poor d e s i g n maintenance ruin character  b l o c k view privacy t r a f f i c problems p a r k i n g problems strains services n o i s e problems ruin character poor d e s i g n school crowding property values tax r a t e s maintenance  rundown houses a t t r a c . design blend i n increase status open green spaces s i n g l e and s e n i o r  a t t r a c . design rundown houses blend i n open green spaces increase status s i n g l e and s e n i o r  The above s t a t e m e n t s were ranked a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e s : N e g a t i v e Statements ( F i r s t Group) S t r o n g l y Agree Agree D o n ' t Know Disagree Strongly Disagree Can't Generalize  -3 -2 0 +2 +3 0  P o s i t i v e Statements (Second Group) +3 +2 0 -2 -3 0  65  i n Table 14  are numerous.  Firstly,  the r a n k i n g s can not be i n t e r p r e t e d  to i n d i c a t e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s * a t t i t u d e s have changed.  W h i l e the d a t a  s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s i s the case the method of w e i g h t i n g the responses the s t a t e m e n t s must be c o n s i d e r e d i n g r e a t e r d e p t h . i n the s e c t i o n on a t t i t u d e change.  a given statement.  T h i s w i l l be done  S e c o n d l y , the r a n k i n g s o n l y  the o p i n i o n s of those persons who f e l t  to  reflect  they c o u l d agree o r d i s a g r e e  These tended to be people who answered on the  with  basis  of very l i m i t e d knowledge o r on the b a s i s o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a p r o j e c t t h a t was l e s s than two b l o c k s away. different  The person who was aware of  types of townhouse developments u s u a l l y checked the " c a n ' t  g e n e r a l i z e " column.  On the o t h e r hand, the person who had no knowledge  of c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s of townhouses marked the " d o n ' t know" c o l u m n . Both of these responses were a s s i g n e d a w e i g h t of z e r o .  T h i s w e i g h t was  a p p l i e d s o l e l y f o r a n a l y t i c a l purposes and does not i n d i c a t e t h a t both answers were c o n s i d e r e d t o be e q u a l o r i n s i g n i f i c a n t .  Both of these  ponses a r e u s e f u l s i n c e they i n d i c a t e t h a t r e s i d e n t s a r e l e s s s e t t h e i r a t t i t u d e s i n r e l a t i o n to c e r t a i n t o p i c s . r a t e s , neighbourhood s t a t u s ,  the v i s i b i l i t y  res-  in  These t o p i c s i n c l u d e  tax  and d e s i g n of townhouses, and  t h e i r e f f e c t on community c h a r a c t e r . Any f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s a l o n g the above l i n e s i s l e f t  to the  reader.  F o r t h i s purpose the responses to the statement s h e e t i n each s t u d y a r e a a r e shown i n Appendices D, E, arid F.  These f r e q u e n c y t a b l e s d i s p l a y  f o r m a t i o n which i s not e a s i l y put i n t o words.  in-  They a l s o p e r m i t the s k e p -  t i c a l o r c u r i o u s r e a d e r t o apply a number of d i f f e r e n t w e i g h t i n g s c a l e s t o the d a t a to t e s t the r e s u l t s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s  study.  Another i m p o r t a n t p o i n t i s t h a t the r a n k i n g s shown i n Table 14  66  are not i n d i c a t i o n s of houi r e s i d e n t s would respond to a proposal.  future  townhouse  As w i l l be e x p l a i n e d , c e r t a i n t o p o g r a p h i c a l and d e s i g n f e a t u r e s  then become key c o n d i t i o n i n g  variables.  Despite a n a l y t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , be a v a l u a b l e d e v i c e . of the s t a t e m e n t s .  the statement s h e e t proved to  A number of respondents e n q u i r e d as to the  origin  They seemed p l e a s e d t h a t the comments had been made  by s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t s l i k e  themselves.  H e s i t a t i o n to i n d i c a t e  r e a l o p i n i o n s f o r f e a r of marking the "wrong" column was t h e r e f o r e duced to a minimum.  one's re-  Of equal importance was the f a c t t h a t many persons  murmured t o themselves as they marked t h e i r answer s h e e t s .  Others  f e r e d unexpected remarks, many of which r e v e a l e d the e x t e n t of knowledge of the s u b j e c t and reasons f o r b i a s e s .  of-  their  The respondents  often  o f f e r e d t h e i r comments when marking the " s t r o n g l y a g r e e " o r " s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e " columns. cific  T h i s seemed t o be t h e i r way o f i n d i c a t i n g the s p e -  e f f e c t s of i m p o s i n g townhouses on a community.  i n t e n s i t y of f e e l i n g s was r e c o r d e d .  In t h i s manner the  Due to the w e i g h t i n g s c a l e s  applied,  those s t a t e m e n t s which aroused the s t r o n g e s t r e a c t i o n s are those t h a t are ranked h i g h e s t f o r a l l t h r e e s t u d y a r e a s .  The o n l y e x c e p t i o n i s  the  statement t h a t townhouses a r e p o o r l y d e s i g n e d ( s e e Appendices D, E, and F).  H a l f of those who agreed w i t h t h i s o p i n i o n had s t r o n g f e e l i n g s .  T h e i r e f f e c t on the r a n k i n g s was moderated by the much l a r g e r number of persons who d i d not agree w i t h the s t a t e m e n t . The v a l u e of the spontaneous comments made w h i l e marking the statement s h e e t and a t o t h e r times d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w was t h a t they r e v e a l e d some c o n c e r n s t h a t had not been a n t i c i p a t e d .  A l i s t of the most  67  f r e q u e n t l y mentioned  remarks o r f e e l i n g s was c o n s e q u e n t l y p r e p a r e d t o  i n d i c a t e these c o n c e r n s .  This l i s t ,  which appears i n Table 15, p r o -  v i d e s some a d d i t i o n a l i n s i g h t s i n t o the r e s i d e n t s '  past  experiences,  t h e i r s c a l e of v a l u e s , and why c e r t a i n f e a r s are not e a s i l y  dispelled.  As i n t e r v i e w s were b e i n g conducted i t became apparent t h a t a m i n o r i t y of r e s i d e n t s i n a l l t h r e e a r e a s s h a r e d the o p i n i o n t h a t zens* p r o t e s t s have no e f f e c t on p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s . Cedar H i l l  citi-  V i c . West and  r e s i d e n t s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , were s k e p t i c a l of the v a l u e of  public hearings.  Some t y p i c a l comments were:  a)  "The community i s u s u a l l y b y p a s s e d . "  b)  " I would p r o t e s t , but i t w o u l d n ' t do any good t h e r e would be a cheque behind someone's b a c k . "  c)  " I d o n ' t t h i n k i t m a t t e r s i f they ( t h e n e i g h b o u r s ) object or not. I f the C i t y o r the Government want i t to happen, i t w i l l go t h r o u g h . "  On o c c a s i o n these o p i n i o n s were c o u p l e d w i t h the p e s s i m i s t i c view t h a t C i t y Council represents business i n t e r e s t s .  As a r e s u l t b u i l d i n g p e r m i t s  were thought to be g r a n t e d o r r e f u s e d on the b a s i s of the d e v e l o p m e n t ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to m u n i c i p a l revenues r a t h e r than i t s a e s t h e t i c o r s o c i a l impact on the community. A t h i r d e m o t i o n a l c o n c e r n was t h a t the townhouses might be a low income r e n t a l p r o j e c t .  The two examples most o f t e n c i t e d i n t h i s  were B l a n s h a r d C o u r t and B u r n s i d e Gardens.  regard  Both p r o j e c t s were b u i l t  in  the l a t e 1960*s and both s u f f e r e d from v a n d a l i s m s h o r t l y a f t e r they were occupied.  B u r n s i d e Gardens was o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d as a low r e n t a l d e -  velopment f o r f a m i l i e s , a l t h o u g h the u n i t s have r e c e n t l y been o f f e r e d sale.  for  B l a n s h a r d C o u r t c o n t i n u e s to house a p p r o x i m a t e l y n i n e t y low income  68  families.  Those persons who r e f e r r e d t o these two p r o j e c t s were very  a p p r e h e n s i v e o f the e f f e c t s of c o n c e n t r a t i n g low income f a m i l i e s i n one area.  T h e i r p r i n c i p l e concern was t h a t c h i l d r e n would " r u n w i l d "  be-  cause both p a r e n t s were w o r k i n g or because a s i n g l e mother c o u l d not c o n t r o l them. A s m a l l m i n o r i t y of the respondents a s s e r t e d t h a t the t e n u r e of the townhouse u n i t s was the v i t a l i s s u e .  In t h e i r v i e w , homeowners are  i n t e r e s t e d i n the appearance of t h e i r p r o p e r t y w h i l e r e n t e r s are not m o t i v a t e d to do maintenance work.  Those r e s i d e n t s who spoke i n terms of  " t h e p r i d e of o w n e r s h i p " a l s o r e f e r r e d t o the sense of c o m p e t i t i o n  that  can be aroused between n e i g h b o u r s ; w i t h each one t r y i n g to impress  the  o t h e r by s e t t i n g h i g h maintenance s t a n d a r d s .  A l t h o u g h they a d m i t t e d t h a t  t h e i r a c t i o n s and e x p e n d i t u r e s bordered on the i r r a t i o n a l , they added t h a t they d i d not w i s h to be a s o u r c e of embarrassment to the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . Having adopted t h i s ownership e t h i c , t h i s group r e s e n t e d people  perceived  to have o p p o s i n g v a l u e s . Other r e s i d e n t s were opposed to townhouses f o r a wide assortment of r e a s o n s .  Some were d i s t r e s s e d t h a t some s i n g l e f a m i l y homes might be  sacrificed.  Others f e l t t h a t townhouses r e p r e s e n t e d an a l i e n , compact  l i f e s t y l e which they c o u l d not adapt to because of t h e i r r u r a l background. S t i l l o t h e r s doubted the need to l o c a t e m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s i n family areas.  single  They a l l u d e d to Canada's v a s t n e s s o r c l a i m e d t h a t  were the r e s u l t of l o b b y i n g by d e v e l o p e r s i n s e a r c h of l a r g e  rezonings  profits.  Numerous r e s i d e n t s a d m i t t e d t h a t " p e o p l e have to l i v e somewhere", but f e l t they c o u l d not a c c e p t as neighbours;,persons who chose townhouse  69  T a b l e 15 Key References and Phrases Number of Times Mentioned  Reference  Haultain Townhouses s h o u l d not be l i k e apartments o r ' b o x e s "  V i c . West  Cedar H i l l  11  Total  24  R e s i d e n t s p r o t e s t s have no effect  3  5  4  12  Uncontrolled  4  5  3  12  6  2  3  11  5  1  4  10  R u r a l background  3  4  2  9  B u r n s i d e Gardens  4  1  3  8  Increase i n  4  2  2  8  1  4  3  8  3  1  2  6  P a r k i n g problems  0  3  2  5  Townhouses s h o u l d not o v e r l o o k neighbours* yards  2  1  2  5  Homes s h o u l d not be p u l l e d down  0  1  4  5  children  Blanshard Court Developer's p r o f i t  motive  traffic  Neighbourhood problems ( n o t l a t e d to townhouses) Ownership v e r s u s  re-  rental  70  u n i t s as o n l y " a p l a c e to s l e e p " .  Nor c o u l d they a c c e p t the r e g u l a -  t i o n s which d i d not p e r m i t more i n d u s t r i o u s townhouse occupants make a l t e r a t i o n s  to t h e i r u n i t .  to  F o r these r e a s o n s , t h e r e was a common  e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the b u i l d i n g s would not be m a i n t a i n e d and t h a t a " s l u m " o r "tenement" would be the e v e n t u a l  result.  Residents' Design Preferences The use of photographs as a s t i m u l u s proved to be a very u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g townhouse d e s i g n p r e f e r e n c e s .  F o r the  m a j o r i t y of respondents the photographs ( F i g u r e s 1 to 9) were the h i g h l i g h t of the i n t e r v i e w .  They had something to p o i n t t o as a means of  e x p r e s s i n g a m i x t u r e of hopes and f e a r s . to encourage f u r t h e r u s e f u l  The photographs a l s o  tended  dialogue.  Given the assumption t h a t townhouses would be a l l o w e d i n  their  a r e a , r e s i d e n t s were asked to i n d i c a t e what f e a t u r e s o r f a c i l i t i e s make townhouses more a c c e p t a b l e to them. Table 16.  Their r e p l i e s are tabulated  T h i s l i s t of p r e f e r e n c e s emphasizes the importance to  of an e x t e r i o r d e s i g n t h a t does n o t c l a s h w i t h the predominant of the a r e a . ference.  would in  residents  character  V a r i a t i o n i n u n i t d e s i g n was a p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g p r e -  I t was mentioned t h a t d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s of p a i n t ,  distinctive  d o o r s , and an a s s o r t m e n t of window s i z e s h e l p e d to c r e a t e t h i s S i m i l a r f e e l i n g s were e x p r e s s e d by r e s i d e n t s who f e l t would be b e t t e r r e c e i v e d i f  effect.  t h a t townhouses  they resembled s i n g l e f a m i l y homes.  In  this  r e g a r d s u g g e s t i o n s were made f o r the s t a g g e r i n g of u n i t s and the c r e a t i o n of an i r r e g u l a r r o o f l i n e .  Recommendations f o r the g r e a t e r use of  brick  71  Table 16 Design Feature  Preferences Number of Times Mentioned Haultain  Landscaping  V i c . West  Cedar H i l l  Total  10  14  14  38  8  4  8  20  7  5  6  18  Use of wood  4  5  7  16  Fences  3  6  6  15  S i n g l e f a m i l y home appearance  6  4  4  14  B r e a k i n g up of  6  1  5  12  2  5  5  12  Own y a r d  2  4  5  11  E x p e n s i v e appearance  6  0  3  9  Low p r o f i l e  3  1  3  7  Peaked r o o f  1  4  2  7  B i g windows  1  1  3  5  Variation in unit Play area f o r  Use of  design  children  rows  brick  72  and n a t u r a l wood m a t e r i a l s were a l s o q u i t e common. P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have shown t h a t an i n v e s t m e n t i n  landscaping  can generate a h i g h degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r townhouse o r m u l t i f a m i l y r e s i d e n t s ( B e l l and C o n s t a n t i n e s c u , 1974;  Cooper, 1 9 7 2 ) .  This  s u r v e y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s statement i s e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to s u r r o u n d i n g residents.  More than 50 per c e n t of the respondents made r e f e r e n c e  mature t r e e s , s h r u b s , and green g r a s s .  to  The g e n e r a l consensus was t h a t  these s o f t e n e d the v i s u a l impact of the townhouses.  More  specifically,  good l a n d s c a p i n g was h i g h l y r a t e d because i t h e l p e d to c r e a t e a q u i e t , s a f e , p a r k - l i k e , community atmosphere t h a t c o u l d do much to o f f s e t  in-  herently i n s t i t u t i o n a l - l o o k i n g b u i l d i n g forms. The p r e v i o u s paragraphs u n d e r l i n e the f a c t t h a t s i n g l e r e s i d e n t s a r e very image c o n s c i o u s .  family  They r e j e c t u n i f o r m , unbroken  f a c a d e s and s t r u c t u r e s t h a t are o v e r l y c o n s p i c u o u s . s t r o n g l y emphasized t h a t townhouses were p r e f e r a b l e t h a t any b o x - l i k e s t r u c t u r e was u n a c c e p t a b l e .  Many r e s i d e n t s to a p a r t m e n t s ,  but  When e v a l u a t i n g the  p h o t o g r a p h s , many r e a c t e d n e g a t i v e l y to the Cedar H i l l p r o j e c t f o r reason.  this  They a t t a c k e d i t s b a r r e n , i m p e r s o n a l appearance by comparing  to a c h i c k e n coop, o f f i c e , m o t e l , o r p r i s o n .  T h i s was t h e i r way of  it  say-  i n g t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h a d j a c e n t homes i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e to the acceptance of m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s w i t h i n a s i n g l e zone.  family  Many of the respondents a l s o e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e i r o p i n i o n s were  based on vague f e e l i n g s o r f e a r s r a t h e r than f a c t s .  T h e i r dominant concern  was the f e e l i n g of crowding t h a t might r e s u l t from new development w i t h i n t h e i r f i e l d of v i e w .  Such comments were o f t e n supplemented by hand g e s -  73  t u r e s which were used to d e s c r i b e the sense o r the e f f e c t s of  being  "closed i n " . B e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g the respondents o t h e r p r e f e r e n c e s i t  must  be r e v e a l e d t h a t some persons d i d not seem to u n d e r s t a n d t h a t o p i n i o n s were b e i n g sought on the s u b j e c t of l i v i n g near r a t h e r than i n a townhouse complex. numerous c a s e s .  C a r e f u l r e p e t i t i o n of the q u e s t i o n was n e c e s s a r y  in  Y e t , even when t h i s p o i n t had been c l a r i f i e d , some  r e s i d e n t s p e r s i s t e d i n making comments one might e x p e c t from an occupant of a p r o j e c t .  A p l a y a r e a f o r c h i l d r e n was deemed to be very  important.  Fences between u n i t s and around the whole p r o j e c t were a n o t h e r mentioned p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e .  frequently  Other p r e f e r e n c e s were f o r r e a r y a r d s f o r each  u n i t and f o r l a r g e r windows.  On the b a s i s of the above comments;it was  e v i d e n t t h a t the l i v e a b i l i t y of the townhouses was a key i s s u e .  The r e -  spondents i n f e r r e d t h a t d e s i g n improvements would ease the s o c i a l of townhouse r e s i d e n t s and thereby reduce p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s of w i t h the w i d e r community.  conflict  F e n c e s , f o r example, i n c r e a s e the p r i v a c y o f  p r o j e c t r e s i d e n t s by r e d u c i n g the amount o f unwanted i n t e r a c t i o n neighbours.  problems  between  Fences a l s o i n d i c a t e the a r e a f o r which the occupant  is  r e s p o n s i b l e and may promote a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n the appearance of  the  yard. One i m p o r t a n t t o p i c t h a t i s not l i s t e d i n Table 16 i s size.  project  I t ' w a s d e l i b e r a t e l y o m i t t e d because r e s i d e n t s r a r e l y l i n k e d  acceptance of townhouses to the number of d w e l l i n g u n i t s . appearance of the development was u s u a l l y  their  The v i s u a l  the more s a l i e n t i s s u e .  When  prompted to e s t i m a t e an a c c e p t a b l e s i z e , most r e s i d e n t s mentioned f i g u r e s  74  i n the range of 6 to 30 u n i t s . twelve u n i t s .  The f i g u r e most f r e q u e n t l y used was  These e s t i m a t e s are somewhat m i s l e a d i n g , however,  r e s i d e n t s d i d not always r e p l y i n a b s o l u t e t e r m s .  since  Some c o n s i d e r e d a  d o u b l i n g of the s i n g l e f a m i l y d e n s i t y to be the upper l i m i t w i t h the p r o v i s o t h a t the number of u n i t s i n a s i n g l e row s h o u l d not exceed six.  Others would not commit t h e m s e l v e s , s a y i n g " i t depends on the  l o c a t i o n " o r " i t depends on how much l a n d i s  available."  The E x t e n t of A t t i t u d e Change The i d e a l method of measuring a t t i t u d e change would have been t o i n t e r v i e w the same group of i n d i v i d u a l s both b e f o r e and a f t e r townhouses had been b u i l t i n t h e i r a r e a .  Due t o the l e n g t h of time needed  f o r t h i s a p p r o a c h , i t was not a t t e m p t e d .  However, the methods used i n  t h i s s t u d y were chosen to approximate t h i s i d e a l method as c l o s e l y as possible. The a n a l y s i s of a t t i t u d e change d e s c r i b e d below i s based upon one c r i t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n .  I t i s t h a t the t h r e e s t u d y a r e a s and t h e i r  sample p o p u l a t i o n s are s u f f i c i e n t l y of the i n t e r v i e w d a t a .  s i m i l a r to p e r m i t a v a l i d comparison  A l e s s e r assumption i s t h a t i t would n o t be c o r -  r e c t to i n c l u d e i n a response comparison the views of those r e s i d e n t s who had moved to the townhouse a r e a s a f t e r the community had been n o t i f i e d of the townhouse p r o p o s a l .  With the e x c e p t i o n of one o r two persons  moving p r i o r t o the s t a r t of c o n s t r u c t i o n , these i n d i v i d u a l s would have l i m i t e d knowledge of the c o n d i t i o n s which e x i s t e d b e f o r e the townhouses were  built.  75  The above r e a s o n i n g i s not meant t o s u g g e s t t h a t those persons who purchased homes n e a r Rochdale P l a c e o r t h e Cedar H i l l p r o j e c t a p proved of the townhouses.  The d a t a of T a b l e 17 i l l u s t r a t e s  F o r the m a j o r i t y of respondents the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l  this  point.  characteristics  of the immediate neighbourhood were of secondary i m p o r t a n c e .  Financial  and l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s were the main d e t e r m i n a n t s of d w e l l i n g choice.. C o n s e q u e n t l y , the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the townhouses t o the p u r c h a s e r c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d m i n i m a l were i t not f o r the f a c t t h a t a number of s t a t e d t h a t no o t h e r homes were a v a i l a b l e o r t h a t they c o u l d not anything e l s e .  people afford  In o t h e r words, t h e s e people c o n s i d e r e d the townhouse  p r o j e c t t o be one of the n e g a t i v e f e a t u r e s of t h e i r a r e a , but not somet h i n g t o s t a n d i n the way of the homeownership g o a l . The method of measuring a t t i t u d e change i n t h i s survey may now be o u t l i n e d w i t h the a i d of T a b l e 1 9 .  Responses to the statement s h e e t  were f i r s t a s s i g n e d the n u m e r i c a l w e i g h t s g i v e n i n T a b l e 14. ed responses were then summed h o r i z o n t a l l y  These w e i g h t -  to o b t a i n a p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e  f i g u r e ( a w e i g h t e d s t a t e m e n t s c o r e ) o p p o s i t e each s t a t e m e n t .  The s t a t e m e n t  s c o r e s f o r the H a u l t a i n a r e a a r e based on the r e s p o n s e s of a l l 25 i n t e r viewees.  In c o n t r a s t ,  the f i g u r e s f o r the townhouse d i s t r i c t s a r e based  on t h e responses of 23 people* 11 from the V i c . West a r e a and 12 from the Cedar H i l l a r e a .  As shown i n T a b l e 18, these were the i n d i v i d u a l s who  met the r e q u i r e m e n t of h a v i n g been r e s i d e n t s when the townhouses were proposed. An a t t i t u d e change and i t s d i r e c t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d by the f i g u r e s i n columns 4 and 5 of T a b l e 1 9 .  These f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t the  difference  Table 17 Reasons F o r C h o i c e of Home Percentage of Respondents C i t i n g F a c t o r Reasons  Haultain  Economic reasonable p r i c e / r e n t o n l y a v a i l a b l e home  28 16  Location c l o s e to general c l o s e to close to c l o s e to  8 36 28 24 0  work accessibility school shopping park  Dwelling unit related layout/design space other  12 4 0  P h y s i c a l environment pleasant surroundings less congestion view  4 0 0  S o c i a l environment child/family related f r i e n d l y neighbours  4 8  44  96  16  V i c West 72 12 4 20 8 0 4 12 4 4  84  36  20  Cedar  Hill 52  32 20  60  8 32 8 12 0  16  16 0 0  28  12  4 0 4  24 4 0  0 8  4 0  Historical  24  12  Table 18 Length of Residence i n R e l a t i o n to Townhouses V i c . West P r i o r to neighbourhood awareness of townhouse p r o p o s a l P r i o r to p r o j e c t approval P r i o r t o s t a r t of c o n s t r u c t i o n P r i o r to date of f i r s t occupancy Subsequent to date of f i r s t occupancy  11 0 0 5 9  Cedar 12 0 0 1 12  Hill  77  Table 19 Weighted Statement Scores (1) Haultain  (2) V i c . West  (3) Cedar H i l l  (4)  (5)  (2)-(l)  (3)-d)  -13  -13  -06  0  +07  privacy  -26  +01  -07  +27  +19  b l o c k view  -10  -22  -14  -12  -04  strains  -11  +01  -04  + 12  +07  +10  +03  +07  -07  -03  school crowding  -02  -06  +07  -04  +09  maintenance  +02  +09  +17  +07  +15  property  -16  -09  -01  +07  + 15  p a r k i n g problems  -13  -01  -04  +12  +09  poor d e s i g n  +06  -03  -04  -09  -10  ruin  character  -01  +03  +07  +04  +08  n o i s e problems  +02  -01  +03  -03  +01  open green spaces  -10  +05  -05  +15  +05  rundown houses  + 21  +08  + 13  -13  -08  attrac. design  +20  +09  +10  -11  -10  increase  -26  -09  -14  +17  +12  s i n g l e and s e n i o r  -36  -08  -21  +28  +15  blend i n  -15  -04  -08  +11  +07  traffic  tax  problems  services  rates  values  status  Note:  a sample c a l c u l a t i o n of a w e i g h t e d statement s c o r e i s g i v e n below. Response i n H a u l t a i n Area Strongly Agree  T r a f f i c problems Weights Weights x responses  Don't Agree Know  Disagree  Strongly Disagree  Can't Generalize  1  10  5  5  0  4  -3  - 2  0  2  3  0  -3  -20  0  10  0  0  Weighted statement s c o r e = sum of weighted responses = -23 + 10 = -13  78  between the statement s c o r e s of the townhouse a r e a respondents and those of the " c o n t r o l " respondents i n the H a u l t a i n a r e a .  I f the v a l u e was b e -  tween -10 and +10 the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was t h a t a t t i t u d e s had not changed. V a l u e s o u t s i d e t h i s range were a c c e p t e d as s i g n a l s of a s h i f t i n  attitudes.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t every s e t of d i f f e r e n c e ' v a l u e s f o r each v a r i a b l e i s of the same s i g n w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of t h e t r a f f i c , n o i s e , and school crowding v a r i a b l e s .  T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t the i n t r o d u c t i o n of town-  houses i n t o s i m i l a r a r e a s can have p r e d i c t a b l e e f f e c t s on a t t i t u d e s . The f a c t t h a t both p r o j e c t s were b u i l t on p r e v i o u s l y vacant had a d i s c e r n i b l e e f f e c t .  land  Respondents i n both a r e a s d i s a g r e e d more o f t e n  t h a t rundown houses were r e p l a c e d and V i e . West r e s i d e n t s f e l t  strongly  t h a t the views of s u r r o u n d i n g r e s i d e n t s a r e b l o c k e d by townhouses.  It  is  not as s i m p l e t o e x p l a i n the l a c k of a p e r c e p t i b l e a t t i t u d e s h i f t by Cedar H i l l r e s i d e n t s on the view q u e s t i o n .  On the one hand, they have had a  much g r e a t e r l e n g t h of time to a c c e p t the l o s s of any view they e n j o y e d . Y e t , on the o t h e r hand, the Cedar H i l l p r o j e c t has f e w e r breaks between i t s b u i l d i n g s and has a g r e a t e r h e i g h t than Rochdale P l a c e u n i t s .  It  is  l i k e l y t h a t one f a c t o r c a n c e l s the o t h e r . The d e s i g n o f the p r o j e c t i s shown t o be a s o u r c e of more c o n c e r n once townhouses a r e b u i l t .  T h i s i s a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e where t h e r e i s no  c l e a r reason f o r the more n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s .  As r e v e a l e d i n the s e c t i o n  on d e s i g n p r e f e r e n c e s , the e v a l u a t i o n of p r o j e c t d e s i g n tends to be s u b j e c t i v e i n nature.  A number o f p a r t i c u l a r d e s i g n f e a t u r e s admired by  some respondents were d e t e s t e d by o t h e r s . The p o s i t i v e s h i f t s i n a t t i t u d e o c c u r r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the  following' concerns:  p r i v a c y , neighbourhood s t a t u s ,  the type of  people a t t r a c t e d to townhouses, p r o p e r t y v a l u e s , maintenance, p a r k i n g , and open green s p a c e s .  In g e n e r a l t e r m s , these s h i f t s a r e e x p l a i n e d  by the f a c t t h a t c e r t a i n f e a r s had not been r e a l i z e d .  Yet a l l of  s h i f t s i n a t t i t u d e were not common to both townhouse a r e a s .  the  Concern  o v e r maintenance and p r o p e r t y v a l u e s , f o r example, o n l y l e s s e n e d a p p r e c i a b l y i n the Cedar H i l l d i s t r i c t . plain this result.  D i f f e r e n c e s i n time exposure would e x -  In t u r n , p o s i t i v e s h i f t s  green space o c c u r r e d o n l y i n V i c . West.  r e l a t e d to p a r k i n g and open  The r e s u l t i n t h i s case i s  ex-  p l a i n e d by the p r o v i s i o n of v i s i t o r p a r k i n g spaces and a d e s i g n a t e d p l a y a r e a on the grounds o f Rochdale P l a c e . As a means of c h e c k i n g the above f i n d i n g s , asked i f  they f e l t  the 23 respondents we  t h e i r o p i n i o n s had changed o v e r t i m e .  have been c a t e g o r i z e d i n Table 20.  T h e i r answere  V e r b a l a t t i t u d e s and w r i t t e n r e s p o n -  s e s c o r r e s p o n d to the e x t e n t t h a t both i n d i c a t e p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e shifts.  Additionally,  these i n d i c a t o r s s u g g e s t t h a t the p o s i t i v e  are g r e a t e r i n number and magnitude than the n e g a t i v e  shifts  shifts.  Table 20 P e r s o n a l Assessment of A t t i t u d e Chanae A t t i t u d e Assessment  V i c . West  Cedar  Hill  Positive shift  4  2  Negative s h i f t  2  0  Constantly positive  0  0  Constantly negative  2  6  Constantly neutral  3  4  11  12  Number of respondents  80  F u r t h e r v e r i f i c a t i o n f o r changes i n a t t i t u d e were sought q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h i s hood.  via  neighbour-  One h y p o t h e t i c a l q u e s t i o n asked of the H a u l t a i n r e s i d e n t s was  whether they thought the c o n s t r u c t i o n of townhouses w i t h i n s i g h t of t h e i r home would make i t d i f f i c u l t  to s e l l .  homeownersc answered i n the a f f i r m a t i v e . the townhouse a r e a respondents f e l t difficulty  T h i r t y - t w o per cent of  On t h i s same t o p i c , h a l f  of  t h a t they c u r r e n t l y would have no  s e l l i n g t h e i r home (See T a b l e 2 1 ) .  F u r t h e r m o r e , of those who  a n t i c i p a t e d some p r o b l e m s , o n l y t h r e e persons f e l t were to blame.  the  In l i g h t of these r e s p o n s e s , i t  t h a t the townhouses  i s not s u r p r i s i n g  that  a t l e a s t t w o - t h i r d s of the 50 townhouse a r e a r e s i d e n t s would buy o r r e n t i n the same l o c a t i o n today ( s e e T a b l e 2 2 ) .  Given t h e i r  present  knowledge of the neighbourhood, 13 of the 23 o r i g i n a l r e s i d e n t s they would make t h i s same d e c i s i o n .  stated  Of the 10 persons who would buy  e l s e w h e r e , 6 were unhappy w i t h the p r o x i m i t y of the townhouses.  The  g e n e r a l p r e f e r e n c e of t h i s group was f o r a more r u r a l s e t t i n g .  Their  s p e c i f i c c o m p l a i n t s concerned a r e d u c t i o n i n p a r k i n g space i n f r o n t of t h e i r homes, a decrease i n p r i v a c y , and a l o s s of p r o p e r t y  value.  The impact of the townhouses was a l s o c r u d e l y measured by a s k i n g the V i c . West and Cedar H i l l of the p r o j e c t s .  r e s i d e n t s whether anyone had moved because  A l t h o u g h f o u r a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t i e s were e i t h e r  for  s a l e o r had r e c e n t l y been s o l d i n each a r e a , o n l y 5 of the 50 townhouse a r e a respondents f e l t t h a t movement out of the d i s t r i c t c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o the townhouses (see Table 2 3 ) .  These persons had been i n  a good p o s i t i o n to observe the changes c r e a t e d by the townhouses s i n c e  81  T a b l e 21 Difficulty  i n S e l l i n g Home  ( i f Townhouses B u i l t )  (At  Haultain No d i f f i c u l t y  Present)  V i c . West  Cedar  11  12  15  Presence of townhouses  7  2  1  Other  4  7  5  Not a p p l i c a b l e  3  4  4  25  25  25  Number of respondents  T a b l e 22 W i l l i n g n e s s to Buy i n Same L o c a t i o n V i c . West Yes  Cedar  Hill  17  16  No  8  6  D o n ' t know  0  3  25  25  Number of respondents  Table 23 Number of Households Thought to Have Moved Because of the Townhouses Number of Households None  V i c . West  Cedar  Hill  21  24  One  1  1  Two o r more  3  0  25  25  Number of respondents  Hill  82  they had l i v e d i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e neighbourhoods b e f o r e the were b u i l t .  However, none c o u l d i d e n t i f y  houses which had d i s t u r b e d the d e p a r t i n g  the f e a t u r e s of the townfamilies.  P u b l i c H e a r i n g s and A t t i t u d e s Towards F u t u r e Townhouse  Construction  T h i s s e c t i o n compares the responses to the p r o s p e c t a)  some townhouses b e i n g b u i l t i n the H a u l t a i n a r e a ;  b)  a d d i t i o n a l townhouses b e i n g b u i l t i n the V i c . West and Cedar H i l l  of:  areas.  The a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e s a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of r e s i d e n t s ' actively  projects  a t t i t u d e s and how  they would s u p p o r t o r oppose a p r o p o s a l f o r townhouses  s i g h t of t h e i r homes.  T h i s approach f a c i l i t a t e s  within  an assessment of  the  p u b l i c h e a r i n g as an a t t i t u d e measuring d e v i c e . T a b l e s 24 and 25 summarize the p o s i t i o n of r e s i d e n t s as f i e d by the a u t h o r .  classi-  T h i s breakdown r e v e a l s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  the a t t i t u d e s p r e v a i l i n g i n the two townhouse n e i g h b o u r h o o d s .  In the V i c .  West a r e a fewer r e s i d e n t s were w i l l i n g to oppose something they knew about.  T h i r t y - s i x per c e n t of these r e s i d e n t s were opposed i n  in  little  principle  to a n o t h e r townhouse p r o j e c t , but o n l y 12 per c e n t s t a t e d they would e x p r e s s t h e i r f/eelings p u b l i c l y .  The response of the Cedar H i l l  d e n t s was-much more s t e r e o t y p e d .  In f a c t ,  resi-  t h e i r a t t i t u d e s are shown to  be very s i m i l a r i n d i s t r i b u t i o n to those of the H a u l t a i n r e s i d e n t s .  Sixty  per c e n t of the Cedar H i l l respondents were opposed i n p r i n c i p l e to a n o t h e r p r o j e c t a n d , most i m p o r t a n t l y , 44 p e r c e n t of the sample f e l t they would express t h e i r opinions a t a p u b l i c hearing or i n a l e t t e r  to C i t y  Hall.  83  Table 24 A t t i t u d e s Towards F u t u r e Townhouse C o n s t r u c t i o n (Some Townhouses)  (Additional  Townhouses)  Haultain  V i c . West  In f a v o u r  0  3  1  Indifferent  5  6  6  13  9  15  Not i n f a v o u r  Would depend on the s i z e and d e s i g n of the p r o j e c t 7 Would depend of the type of people i n the p r o j e c t Number of respondents  Cedar  7  -  Hill  2  D  1  1  25  25  25  Table 25 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of R e s i d e n t s ' (Some Townhouses) Haultain  Position ( A d d i t i o n a l Townhouses) V i c . West  Cedar  A c t i v e , vocal support  0  0  0  Weak s u p p o r t  0  1  0  0  2  1  S i l e n t and n e u t r a l  8  7  8  Silent,  5  6  4  Weak o p p o s i t i o n  3  0  4  Active, vocal  6  3  7  3  6  1  25  25  25  Silent,  but i n  favour  but opposed opposition  V o c a l concern Number of  respondents  Hill  84  The major d i f f e r e n c e between the two sample groups i s t h a t more of V i c . West r e s i d e n t s adopted an e n q u i r i n g a t t i t u d e .  the  They tended to hav/e  s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d to a p o s s i b l e s i t e f o r a p r o j e c t ,  provisions  f o r v i s i t o r p a r k i n g , the number of u n i t s i n r e l a t i o n t o the l a n d a v a i l a b l e , and the type of people who might move i n t o the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . An e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s between the two townhouse sample p o p u l a t i o n s must f o c u s on the townhouse p r o j e c t s themselves.  These were the g u i d e p o s t s by which most r e s i d e n t s  responded.  The h e i g h t and e x t e r i o r d e s i g n of the Cedar H i l l p r o j e c t shows l e s s sitivity  t o the neighbourhood i n comparison w i t h Rochdale P l a c e .  sen-  The  l a t t e r i n c o r p o r a t e s a g r e a t e r number of d e s i g n improvements w h i c h , as has been shown, more c l o s e l y meet the p r e f e r e n c e s of s i n g l e f a m i l y  residents.  As w e l l , i t must be remembered t h a t the V i c . West r e s i d e n t s were e v a l u a t i n g a much more r e c e n t change i n t h e i r a r e a .  Many Cedar H i l l r e s i d e n t s had not  observed a change i n t h e i r immediate a r e a f o r c l o s e to s i x y e a r s .  From  t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i t i s perhaps not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t people a r e more r e s i s t a n t to change once they have become a t t a c h e d to t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s .  It  i s a l s o p l a u s i b l e t h a t V i c . West r e s i d e n t s are more accustomed to change, h a v i n g bean exposed to a g r e a t e r amount of r e n o v a t i o n a c t i v i t y and new house c o n s t r u c t i o n .  F u r t h e r m o r e , a number of r e s i d e n t s i n t h i s  equated new h o u s i n g w i t h an improved neighbourhood - a t l e a s t i n  area visual  terms. Some a d d i t i o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e on the b a s i s of data i n T a b l e s 24 and 2 5 .  Firstly,  the  o n l y 4 of the 75 respondents s a i d they  would be i n f a v o u r of townhouses proposed w i t h i n s i g h t of t h e i r homes.  85  C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t 21 r e s i d e n t s moved to the two townhouse a r e a s the two p r o j e c t s were o c c u p i e d , t h i s f i n d i n g i s s i g n i f i c a n t .  after It  indi-  c a t e s t h a t those who move i n t o a mixed h o u s i n g environment do not n e c e s s a r i l y approve of the m i x i n g of d i f f e r e n t h o u s i n g t y p e s . The second key f e a t u r e of the response c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i s  the  l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of r e s i d e n t s i n each s t u d y a r e a (52 - 60 per c e n t ) who would not v o i c e t h e i r o p i n i o n s p u b l i c l y .  In t h i s subgroup those not  i n f a v o u r of the townhouses outnumber those i n f a v o u r .  Y e t , the most  i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t i s t h a t the m a j o r i t y of t h i s s i l e n t subgroup were n e u t r a l w i t h r e s p e c t to h a v i n g townhouses n e a r b y . T a k i n g a l l f a c t o r s i n t o a c c o u n t , i t i s p o s s i b l e to c o n c l u d e t h a t most persons who are opposed to a z o n i n g change w i l l t h e i r f e e l i n g s to p o l i t i c i a n s i n a v a r i e t y of ways.  communicate  F u r t h e r m o r e , on the  b a s i s of r e s i d e n t s ' comments, p o l i t i c i a n s and p l a n n e r s may f e e l t h a t the views e x p r e s s e d a t a p u b l i c h e a r i n g are l i k e l y t i v e of more than h a l f of the a f f e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n .  confident  to be r e p r e s e n t a -  However, as d e c i s i o n -  makers who must c o n s i d e r a l l p o i n t s o f v i e w , they would be concerned t h a t a l m o s t o n e - t h i r d of the community who are not r e s i s t a n t to change a r e not represented.  T h i s f i n d i n g does not s u b s t a n t i a t e Z e c h ' s a s s e r t a t i o n  that  " o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d i n the p o l i t i c a l a r e n o t r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t o r s of a con sensus of o p i n i o n towards g i v e n i s s u e s . "  Yet, i t  does i n d i c a t e t h a t an  a t t i t u d e survey of the type conducted by the a u t h o r would be most u s e f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g the views of r e s i d e n t s who would o t h e r w i s e remain  silent.  The a u t h o r ' s e x p e r i e n c e d u r i n g the c o u r s e of t h i s s u r v e y s u g g e s t s  that  persons i n t h i s s i l e n t m i n o r i t y group are those most l i k e l y  to make l e s s  86  e m o t i o n a l and o f t e n more v a l u a b l e comments on the p o t e n t i a l impact of the townhouses.  Summary The p r e s e n t a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s u r v e y r e s u l t s has been c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the i n t e r v i e w methodology.  T h i s was done to  further  e x p l a i n the reasons f o r the methods adopted and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a v a r i e t y of i n d i c a t o r s .  I t was shown t h a t the p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w approach  was a v a l u a b l e means of r e c o r d i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u c c e s s of the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e i t s e l f statement s h e e t and the p h o t o g r a p h s .  attitudes.  Much of  was l i n k e d to the use of  They p e r m i t t e d a range of  the  the  attitudes  to be measured and a l s o prompted the m a j o r i t y of respondents to engage i n a f r a n k d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i r  opinions.  Survey r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a t t i t u d e s towards townhouses a r e based upon l i m i t e d knowledge.  A l t h o u g h a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f of the r e s p o n d -  e n t s had been i n s i d e a townhouse u n i t , never l i v e d i n one. Hill  the v a s t m a j o r i t y (95 p e r c e n t )  had  These f i n d i n g s e x p l a i n why most V i c . West and Cedar  r e s i d e n t s were o n l y f a m i l i a r w i t h the p r o j e c t nearby and perhaps one  o r two o t h e r p r o j e c t s i n the c i t y .  The i m p r e s s i o n s of townhouse  g a i n e d from t h e s e few developments were g e n e r a l l y not f a v o u r a b l e .  liveability A feeling  of b e i n g crowded o r a l a c k of p e r s o n a l freedom and p r i v a c y were commonly c i t e d as reasons f o r n o t c o n s i d e r i n g a townhouse f o r a new home. i m p r e s s i o n s of townhouse r e s i d e n t s were more f a v o u r a b l e .  The  Working c l a s s  f a m i l i e s were b e l i e v e d to c o - e x i s t w i t h a v a r i e t y of o t h e r age and c l a s s groups - w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of s i n g l e people and members of the upper c l a s s .  87  H a l f of the respondents f e l t t h a t townhouse and s i n g l e f a m i l y  residents  had much the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , w h i l e a l e s s e r p r o p o r t i o n of the sample d e s c r i b e d occupants of r o w - h o u s i n g developments to be a l a z i e r ,  less  s p o n s i b l e , and more t r a n s i e n t type of p e r s o n .  objectives  One of the b a s i c  re-  of the survey was to determine which a s p e c t s of townhouse p r o j e c t s were of the g r e a t e s t concern to s u r r o u n d i n g r e s i d e n t s .  An a n a l y s i s of the r e s p o n -  s e s to the s t a t e m e n t s h e e t y i e l d e d the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the most t r o u b l e some a s p e c t s were the p r o j e c t s '  impact on v i e w s , p r i v a c y , and t r a f f i c .  I t was noted t h a t a l l of the sample groups p e r c e i v e d maintenance to be a secondary i s s u e and t h a t p r o p e r t y v a l u e s were of l e s s e r concern to the V i c . West and Cedar H i l l  residents.  A second i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i v e of the s u r v e y was to a s c e r t a i n  if  and how a t t i t u d e s are m o d i f i e d by v i s u a l o r p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t w i t h a townhouse p r o j e c t .  F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of the s t a t e m e n t s h e e t responses s u g g e s t e d  t h a t both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e s h i f t s of a t t i t u d e s had o c c u r r e d .  Yet,  all  of the s h i f t s were not common to both townhouse a r e a s .  In most c a s e s the  reasons f o r the s h i f t were e x p l a i n e d by s i t e o r p r o j e c t  characteristics.  However, i n some i n s t a n c e s t h e r e was no c l e a r e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the change in attitudes.  Examples of the l a t t e r case were the i n c r e a s e d c o n c e r n  g e n e r a t e d by the d e s i g n of the p r o j e c t .  The p o s i t i v e s h i f t s i n  attitude  o c c u r r e d i n r e l a t i o n to the i s s u e s of p r i v a c y , neighbourhood s t a t u s , type of people a t t r a c t e d to townhouses, p r o p e r t y v a l u e s , maintenance, i n g , and open green s p a c e s .  the park-  Many of these s h i f t s were a t t r i b u t e d to the  f a c t t h a t c e r t a i n f e a r s had not been r e a l i z e d . A t t i t u d e s towards f u t u r e townhouse p r o p o s a l s were a l s o  analyzed  88  i n some d e p t h .  I t was shown t h a t r e s i d e n t s of the two townhouse a r e a s  were no more i n f a v o u r of a d d i t i o n a l townhouses than H a u l t a i n were t o the p r o s p e c t o f one p r o j e c t i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t .  residents  The o n l y  dif-  f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s was t h a t V i c . West r e s i d e n t s were l e s s opposed i n p r i n c i p l e to a n o t h e r p r o j e c t . d e s i g n o f Rochdale P l a c e .  T h i s r e s u l t was r e l a t e d t o the s u p e r i o r  I t was i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s p r o j e c t c l o s e l y  f l e c t e d the p r e f e r e n c e s of s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t s f o r l a n d s c a p i n g ,  re-  vari-  a t i o n i n u n i t d e s i g n , a p l a y a r e a f o r c h i l d r e n , and a s i n g l e f a m i l y home appearance.  The s t r o n g a v e r s i o n of r e s i d e n t s to 3 - s t o r e y  box-like  s t r u c t u r e s was g i v e n as the reason f o r the more n e g a t i v e response of Cedar H i l l respondents.  These f i n d i n g s r e v e a l e d t h a t an assortment of  had been l e s s e n e d but not d i s p e l l e d by the exposure t o a s i n g l e  fears project.  R e s i d e n t s dominant f e a r s were t h a t a new p r o j e c t would not be w e l l m a i n t a i n e d , t h a t c h i l d r e n would not be c o n t r o l l e d , and t h a t they would f e e l 'closed i n " . The a n a l y s i s of the survey r e s u l t s l e a d to two o t h e r i m p o r t a n t conclusions.  One was t h a t the m a j o r i t y of persons who move i n t o a mixed  h o u s i n g environment do not f a v o u r the m i x i n g of d i f f e r e n t h o u s i n g t y p e s . The second c o n c l u s i o n was t h a t the views e x p r e s s e d a t a p u b l i c h e a r i n g are likely  to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of more than h a l f of the p o p u l a t i o n .  At the  same time i t was p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a l m o s t o n e - t h i r d of the community who were not opposed to change i n the form of townhouses would not e x p r e s s t h e i r opinions i n  public.  89  CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PLANNING  T h i s s t u d y has f o c u s e d upon homeowners* a t t i t u d e s t o townhouses constructed i n s i n g l e family zones.  The i n t e n t was to g a i n a g r e a t e r u n -  d e r s t a n d i n g of the response of i n d i v i d u a l s by medium s c a l e i n f i l l  to i n c r e a s e s i n d e n s i t y  and redevelopment p r o j e c t s .  Initially,  caused  a review  of the l i t e r a t u r e demonstrated t h a t the response t o new h o u s i n g forms c o u l d not be m e c h a n i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d .  P e r s o n a l v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s  were shown to be the f i n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  reaction.  In  t h i s c o n t e x t , i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t s e v a l u a t e d a proposed h o u s i n g development on the b a s i s of i t s a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s w e l l as the imagined c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r p r o s p e c t i v e Possible explanations for residents' ber of r e s e a r c h p e r s p e c t i v e s .  as  neighbours.  a t t i t u d e s were d i s c u s s e d from a num-  These p e r s p e c t i v e s i n c l u d e d the c o n c e p t s  of p h y s i c a l d e t e r m i n i s m , t e r r i t o r i a l i t y ,  n e i g h b o u r i n g , and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  stress. A t the o u t s e t of t h i s study the p o i n t was a l s o made t h a t m i x i n g of d i f f e r e n t h o u s i n g types has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y through the enforcement of z o n i n g b y - l a w s .  discouraged  I t i s o n l y more r e c e n t l y  t h a t market p r e s s u r e s have prompted changes i n z o n i n g p o l i c i e s  to p e r m i t  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s , i n c l u d i n g townhouses, i n family d i s t r i c t s . specific  the  When asked t o a s s e s s the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s  r e z o n i n g d e c i s i o n s , p l a n n e r s must c o n s i d e r the s o c i a l  single  of benefits  90  a c c r u i n g to those who w i l l be accommodated i n a new townhouse  project.  Y e t , p l a n n e r s must a l s o c o n s i d e r the n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s a townhouse p r o j e c t may have on the community's e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t s .  In s h o r t ,  what a r e the c o s t s of i m p o s i n g a townhouse development on a n e i g h b o u r hood, and how may they be m i n i m i z e d ?  F u r t h e r m o r e , what c r i t e r i a  should  guide p l a n n e r s i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n of s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s ?  The  d i s c u s s i o n which f o l l o w s a t t e m p t s t o p r o v i d e some of the answers to these q u e s t i o n s .  Conclusions This s t u d y ' s f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e that i n d i v i d u a l s ' change may be viewed as a form of t e r r i t o r i a l b e h a v i o u r .  responses  to  I t has been  shown t h a t respondents made numerous r e f e r e n c e s to the f e e l i n g s of vacy and p e r s o n a l freedom they a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s i n g l e f a m i l y  pri-  dwelling.  T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t people do need to e s t a b l i s h b o u n d a r i e s around thems e l v e s t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l I n t e g r i t y and manage t h e i r i n teractions with others.  The respondents a l s o f e l t t h a t townhouse  dents would have a s i m i l a r need to extend t e r r i t o r i a l home onto a p i e c e of ground.  resi-  r i g h t s from t h e i r  They would agree w i t h C o o p e r ' s remark  that  . . . territorial r i g h t s o v e r a p i e c e of ground - and i n d i v i d u a l i s m - are somehow c o n n e c t e d , and a s u r e way to p e r m i t people to f e e l a l i t t l e more s e c u r e and happy i n a b a s i c a l l y i n s t i t u t i o n a l atmosphere i s to p r o v i d e them w i t h some means, however l i m i t e d , f o r e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l i t y . ( C o o p e r , 1972: 125) In b r i e f ,  s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t s are a b l e to i d e n t i f y some of the needs  and d e s i r e s of p r o j e c t r e s i d e n t s .  Their high preference f o r play  areas  91  f o r c h i l d r e n would c o n f i r m t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , even though such a p r e f e r e n c e r e f l e c t s the concern t h a t a l a c k of adequate f a c i l i t i e s  might cause p r o b -  lems w i t h i n the p r o j e c t to s p i l l o v e r i n t o the community a t  large.  Another i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s study i s t h a t a sense of c r o w d i n g  is  more f r e q u e n t l y i n d u c e d by p h y s i c a l phenomenon than by i n c r e a s e s i n the number of people i n an a r e a .  The m a j o r i t y of r e s i d e n t s e v a l u a t e d town-  houses on the b a s i s of t h e i r v i s u a l a p p e a r a n c e .  They o f t e n added t h a t  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t of v i e w i n g rows of u n i f o r m l y designed u n i t s was a "closed i n " feeling.  Many homeowners a d m i t t e d to h a v i n g l i t t l e  contact with t h e i r neighbours.  social  T h e r e f o r e , t h e i r degree of attachment to  the neighbourhood tended to be measured i n terms of a e s t h e t i c s ,  quietness,  s a f e t y ( e s p e c i a l l y f o r women and c h i l d r e n ) , and a f e e l i n g of freedom to do as one p l e a s e d w i t h i n o n e ' s own y a r d o r d w e l l i n g . The o p p o s i t i o n to townhouses may thus be viewed as a r e s u l t of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n h i s home.  very s u b s t a n t i a l f i n a n c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  Single family  investment  r e s i d e n t s can not a c c e p t the concept of  townhouses w i t h s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s .  The m a j o r i t y can o n l y  a s s e s s a s i n g l e p r o j e c t once they have been exposed to i t .  mixing  objectively  Some r e s i d e n t s  s t a t e d t h a t they c o u l d not make a t r u e assessment of the p r o j e c t u n t i l l e a s t a year had p a s s e d .  T h i s gave them time t o a n a l y z e p r o j e c t  at  conditions  d u r i n g the summer and w i n t e r months. T h i s s u r v e y has i d e n t i f i e d two types of c o s t s t h a t may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d e c i s i o n to a l l o w a townhouse p r o j e c t i n a s i n g l e area.  The f i r s t  family  type of c o s t r e s u l t s from the exposure of the r e s i d e n t  the a c t u a l p r o j e c t .  I t may be d e f i n e d i n terms of an i n c r e a s e i n  to  stress  on the i n d i v i d u a l o r a l e s s e n i n g of h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h i s home e n v i r o n -  92  ment.  T h i s survey determined t h a t s t r e s s c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o l o s s e s of  view and p r i v a c y , i n c r e a s e s i n t r a f f i c , v i s u a l appearance of the p r o j e c t .  and a l s o a d i s l i k e f o r  I t was not d i r e c t l y  the  r e l a t e d to the  l e s s q u a n t i f i a b l e f e a r s of reduced p r o p e r t y v a l u e s and l a c k of m a i n t e n ance.  These two f e a r s were c o n s i d e r e d to be l e s s v a l i d once the  had been b u i l t .  project  The s i g n i f i c a n c e of these f i n d i n g s i s t h a t most of  s t r e s s - r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s can be r e g u l a t e d by p l a n n e r s .  It is  the  therefore  c o n c l u d e d t h a t the n e g a t i v e responses to a s i n g l e p r o j e c t may be g r e a t l y reduced by the a p p l i c a t i o n of a s e t of d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s and p l a n n i n g g u i d e l i n e s to each townhouse p r o p o s a l . The second type of c o s t r e s u l t s from the r e z o n i n g process self.  M i s t r u s t of l o c a l government o f f i c i a l s i s c r e a t e d by C i t y  d e c i s i o n to o v e r r u l e the o b j e c t i o n s of l o c a l r e s i d e n t s .  it-  Council's  This mistrust  is  h e i g h t e n e d by the n a t u r e of p u b l i c h e a r i n g s and the n a t u r e of z o n i n g .  It  was shown t h a t o n l y those opposed to a p r o j e c t o r those people w i t h s p e c i f i c concerns are a t t r a c t e d to p u b l i c h e a r i n g s .  They are so a t t r a c t e d because  they b e l i e v e t h a t a z o n i n g change w i l l have o n l y n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s . e x i s t i n g zoning p o l i c i e s ,  Under  they can not e x p e c t t o be compensated f o r  accepting a project in their v i c i n i t y ,  nor can they e x p e c t t h a t one p r o -  j e c t w i l l be the o n l y one a l l o w e d i n the a r e a .  The outcome i s a very  e m o t i o n a l b a t t l e between the d e v e l o p e r and the r e s i d e n t s .  Any p r o j e c t  a p p r o v a l i s t h e r e f o r e seen as a contemptuous d i s r e g a r d f o r the c o n c e r n s of the  majority. I n Chapter 2 of t h i s s t u d y the adequacy of the p u b l i c h e a r i n g as  a p l a n n i n g t o o l was q u e s t i o n e d . O n the b a s i s of the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s  it  93  was s u b s e q u e n t l y r e v e a l e d t h a t the views e x p r e s s e d a t a p u b l i c are l i k e l y tion.  hearing  to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of more than h a l f of the a f f e c t e d p o p u l a -  I t i s t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e d t h a t the p u b l i c h e a r i n g i s an adequate  d e v i c e f o r measuring the range of r e s i d e n t s * c o n c e r n s .  The weakness of  the p u b l i c h e a r i n g i s t h a t i t does not a t t r a c t those persons whose more open-minded a t t i t u d e p e r m i t s them t o make c o n s t r u c t i v e comments on the p o t e n t i a l impact of a townhouse p r o j e c t on the community.  The more  a p p r o p r i a t e t o o l f o r r e g i s t e r i n g the views of t h e s e s i l e n t  individuals  i s the a t t i t u d e survey s i n c e the s u r v e y d e s i g n can a s s u r e t h a t i t a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of neighbourhood  reaches  residents.  Recommendations The recommendations of t h i s s t u d y are l i s t e d under the headings of f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and p r o j e c t e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a .  The r e q u i r e m e n t s  f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h a r e d e s c r i b e d f i r s t so t h a t the r e a d e r may a s s e s s p r o j e c t c r i t e r i a i n the l i g h t of the l i m i t e d scope o f  1•  Further  this  study.  Research  I t s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d i n i t i a l l y  t h a t townhouses are o n l y one exam-  p l e of m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s t h a t have been c o n s t r u c t e d i n s i n g l e areas.  the  family  I f the p r e s s u r e to p e r m i t increase© i n d e n s i t y c o n t i n u e s u n a b a t e d ,  t h e r e w i l l be an i n c r e a s i n g need to s t u d y the impact of o t h e r medium dens i t y m u l t i - f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s on the s i n g l e f a m i l y community.  It is  in  t h i s broad c o n t e x t t h a t the recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be v i e w e d . I t was p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d t h a t the i d e a l method of  measuring  a t t i t u d e change would be to i n t e r v i e w the same group of s i n g l e r e s i d e n t s both b e f o r e and a f t e r a p r o j e c t had been b u i l t . of m o n i t o r i n g approach i s the most f r u i t f u l d i r e c t i o n f o r research.  Firstly,  family  This  type  further  i t would p e r m i t changes i n a t t i t u d e on s p e c i f i c  t o p i c s t o be measured much more p r e c i s e l y .  S e c o n d l y , the e f f e c t s  time exposure c o u l d be a n a l y z e d more e f f e c t i v e l y respondents on more than one o c c a s i o n .  by  of  re-interviewing  The number of people who moved  because of the new p r o j e c t c o u l d a l s o be p r e c i s e l y  determined.  Other r e l a t e d s t u d i e s s h o u l d examine the s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n of the townhouse p r o j e c t w i t h i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  T h i s would i n v o l v e  the  i n t e r v i e w i n g of p r o j e c t r e s i d e n t s as w e l l as the s u r r o u n d i n g homeowners. In ' t h i s way the common p r e f e r e n c e s and c o n c e r n s of the two groups c o u l d be determined and a c t e d upon.  Additionally,  the t r a d e o f f s  t h a t each  group would make to accommodate the o t h e r c o u l d be measured.  The r e -  s e a r c h f i n d i n g s would enable p l a n n e r s t o draw up d e t a i l e d d e s i g n s t a n d ards. The two types o f s t u d i e s d e s c r i b e d above s h o u l d be a p p l i e d to townhouses d i f f e r i n g i n s i z e , d e s i g n , t e n u r e , and s i t e  characteristics.  T h i s would p e r m i t r e s e a r c h e r s t o determine the s o c i a l impact of townhouses o v e r t i m e .  Such an a n a l y s i s c o u l d then be used to recommend the  e x t e n t to which m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s s h o u l d c o n s i d e r the i n i t i a l  negative  r e a c t i o n s of community r e s i d e n t s to townhouse p r o p o s a l s .  2.  Project Evaluation  Criteria  The amount of u n c e r t a i n t y and a n i m o s i t y g e n e r a t e d by c u r r e n t rezoning practices i l l u s t r a t e s  the need f o r a r e v i s e d r e z o n i n g  policy.  I n d i v i d u a l s may not have the r i g h t to e x p e c t t h a t changes i n the l a n d us  95  of a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t i e s w i l l not o c c u r .  Y e t , they do have the r i g h t  to  e x p e c t t h a t a l l r e z o n i n g p r o p o s a l s w i l l be j u d g e d on the same c r i t e r i a . They s h o u l d a l s o have the r i g h t t o a s s i s t i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of  these  criteria. On the b a s i s of the survey f i n d i n g s i t  i s recommended t h a t the  c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g townhouse p r o p o s a l s i n s i n g l e f a m i l y a r e a s s h o u l d i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s r e l a t e d to the s i t i n g , and d e s i g n of townhouses and the a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s .  Site a)  criteria p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l s h o u l d be dependent upon the a b i l i t y of community f a c i l i t i e s  existing  to bear the a d d i t i o n a l s t r a i n s p l a c e d on them  by the townhouse r e s i d e n t s .  The c a p a c i t y of such f a c i l i t i e s  as  s t r e e t s , s c h o o l s , and p a r k s c o u l d be determined by p l a n n e r s i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h e n g i n e e r s , t e a c h e r s , and community s e r v i c e b)  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of u n i t s d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r  workers.  individuals  w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n , the number of d w e l l i n g u n i t s per gross a c r e s h o u l d not exceed 2 times the number of s i n g l e f a m i l y u n i t s on a d j a c e n t c)  per gross a c r e  property.  no minimum s i t e s i z e s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d .  Smaller  e s p e c i a l l y those of l e s s than 12 u n i t s , are l i k e l y a c c e p t a b l e t o the community as a w h o l e .  projects,  to be most  Such p r o j e c t s s h o u l d be  p e r m i t t e d when they meet the e s t a b l i s h e d p l a n n i n g c r i t e r i a they cause m i n i m a l i n c r e a s e s i n p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y , t r a f f i c umes, and n o i s e .  since vol-  96  Project design a)  criteria  the maximum number of u n i t s i n any one row s h o u l d not exceed s i x . I n p r o j e c t s h a v i n g more than t h r e e rows, b u i l d i n g s s h o u l d be s e t ' a t a n g l e s to one another so t h a t t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n d i f f e r s .  This  i n c r e a s e s the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t view c o r r i d o r s w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d and t h a t the p r o j e c t w i l l appear l e s s c o n f i n i n g to s u r r o u n d i n g  residents.  From the p e r s p e c t i v e of p r o j e c t r e s i d e n t s , B e l l and C o n s t a n t i n e s c u (1974) c o n c l u d e d t h a t p r o j e c t s i n which d w e l l i n g u n i t s are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the whole by means of s m a l l c l u s t e r s , c h a n g i n g f a c a d e s , d i r e c t s u i t e e n t r y from the o u t s i d e , e t c . , are p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g l e s s crowded than those which do n o t . ( B e l l and C o n s t a n t i n e s c u , 1974s 14) b)  Landscaping s h o u l d be e x t e n s i v e .  Mature and f a s t - g r o w i n g t r e e s  l e a s t e q u a l t o the number t h a t are removed d u r i n g s h o u l d be p l a n t e d .  construction)  E v e r g r e e n t r e e s and s h r u b s s h o u l d a l s o be used  to s e r v e as v i s u a l b u f f e r s a t a l l times of the y e a r . features  Other  of the s i t e , such as rock w a l l s , which would o f f s e t  newer b u i l d i n g s s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d wherever p o s s i b l e .  c)  the  Efforts  s h o u l d be made to i n c o r p o r a t e such f e a t u r e s i n t o the o v e r a l l of the  (at  design  project.  At l e a s t one o f f - s t r e e t  p a r k i n g space p e r u n i t s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d .  A d d i t i o n a l p a r k i n g spaces s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d f o r second and t h i r d c a r s , o v e r - s i z e d r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e s and v i s i t o r p a r k i n g .  The  number of a d d i t i o n a l spaces s h o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d on the b a s i s of the number and s i z e of u n i t s and the w i d t h and c o n f i g u r a t i o n of local  streets.  97  d)  an o n - s i t e p l a y a r e a f o r p r e - s c h o o l aged c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d i n any p r o j e c t h a v i n g more than 15 f a m i l y u n i t s ( i f a d j a c e n t to a p a r k ) .  the s i t e i s  T h i s p l a y a r e a s h o u l d be s e g r e g a t e d from  not traf-  f i c as w e l l as p a r k i n g and a c c e s s z o n e s , and s h o u l d be i n a w e l l drained l o c a t i o n .  C o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n to l o c a t i n g  p l a y a r e a where i t c o u l d e a s i l y be used by the c h i l d r e n of  this  surrounding  r e s i d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y when a p r o j e c t i s c o n s t r u c t e d on vacant f o r m e r l y used as a p l a y a r e a by l o c a l e)  land  children.  each townhouse u n i t s h o u l d have a f e n c e d p r i v a t e y a r d .  A recent  s u r v e y i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a d e t e r m i n e d t h a t p r i v a t e are a l s o p o p u l a r w i t h townhouse  yards  residents:  Economic c o n s t r a i n t i n the h o u s i n g game d i d not d i m i n i s h p e o p l e ' s commitment to p r i v a t e y a r d s . Seventy-one per c e n t of respondents who were a b l e t o , chose a p r i v a t e backyard i n p r e f e r e n c e to a s e m i - p r i v a t e y a r d , a p a t i o , a balcony o r no s p a c e . ( B e l l and C o n s t a n t i n e s c u , 1974s 27-28) f)  Fences which s e p a r a t e the townhouse p r o j e c t from a d j a c e n t  properties  s h o u l d be of s o l i d c o n s t r u c t i o n and s u f f i c i e n t i n h e i g h t to d i s s u a d e c h i l d r e n from e a s i l y s c a l i n g them.  The a c t u a l d e s i g n and appearance  of the f e n c e s h o u l d be determined i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t y owners. g)  s i d e y a r d and s e t b a c k r e q u i r e m e n t s on the p e r i m e t e r of the s i t e s h o u l d be the same as those a p p l i e d t o a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t i e s . if  the o r i e n t a t i o n and b u l k of the b u i l d i n g ( s )  differs  Or,  sufficiently  from a group of a d j a c e n t homes, the r e q u i r e m e n t s s h o u l d take shadow effects into  account.  h)  s u b j e c t to economic c o n s t r a i n t s , u n i f o r m i t y i n the d e s i g n o f u n i t s s h o u l d be a v o i d e d .  exterior  Design features that should  be v a r i e d i n c l u d e the s i z e and placement of windows,  the s i z e of  the u n i t s , roof h e i g h t , and the p r o p o r t i o n o f s i d e w a l l s which a r e common t o two u n i t s .  Attempts s h o u l d a l s o be made t o vary the  f a c a d e s of s e p a r a t e b u i l d i n g s to g i v e the p r o j e c t more of a s i n g l e f a m i l y appearance.  In the case of s m a l l e r p r o j e c t s , i n  particular,  r e l a x a t i o n of t h i s g u i d e l i n e s h o u l d be a l l o w e d upon the a p p r o v a l of a m a j o r i t y of r e s i d e n t s l i v i n g w i t h i n one b l o c k of the p r o j e c t .  Approval process a)  criteria  the d e s i g n o f the p r o j e c t s h o u l d be s u b j e c t t o r e v i e w by an a d v i s o r y d e s i g n p a n e l composed of p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i t e c t s as w e l l as some r e s i dents of the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  T h i s group s h o u l d o n l y make t h e i r recom-  mendtaions a f t e r v i e w i n g the s i t e i n q u e s t i o n and a s s e s s i n g the a r c h i t e c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s u r r o u n d i n g b)  dwellings.  an i n f o r m a t i o n meeting s h o u l d be h e l d p r i o r to a p u b l i c h e a r i n g .  At  l e a s t one p l a n n e r s h o u l d be p r e s e n t a t t h i s meeting t o d i s c u s s employment, suburban s p r a w l , and o t h e r growth i s s u e s which e x p l a i n t r e n d towards townhouse c o n s t r u c t i o n .  Wore i m p o r t a n t l y ,  the  residents  s h o u l d be a b l e to determine from s k e t c h e s o r photographs the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the proposed p r o j e c t .  The m o d e r a t i o n of o p i n i o n s  that  o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s approach c o u l d l e s s e n the i n i t i a l f e e l i n g s of h o s t i l i t y  by tempering the f e a r s  are based upon a very l i m i t e d knowledge of  townhouses.  that  99  c)  an a t t i t u d e s u r v e y of r e s i d e n t s l i v i n g w i t h i n a one b l o c k of the s i t e s h o u l d be s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d i f i s l a r g e r than 20 u n i t s .  radius  the proposed p r o j e c t  The i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s would a l l o w the  p l a n n e r and the d e v e l o p e r t o determine the c o n c e r n s and p r e f e r e n c e s of r e s i d e n t s based on t h e i r knowledge of the l o c a l a r e a .  I t would  a l s o a l l o w the p l a n n e r o r d e v e l o p e r to e x p l a i n the p r o j e c t to the r e s i d e n t s i n the s e c u r i t y of t h e i r homes.  The l a b o u r c o s t s of such  a survey would be a p p r o x i m a t e l y two man-hours per h o u s e h o l d .  These  c o s t s s h o u l d be borne by the d e v e l o p e r . d)  w i t h i n an i d e n t i f i a b l e neighbourhood o r an a r e a of 6-10 square o n l y one l a r g e p r o j e c t (20 o r more u n i t s ) , o r two s m a l l  projects  ( l e s s than 20 u n i t s ) , s h o u l d be approved under t h i s s e t of f o r the f i r s t 18 months the g u i d e - l i n e s a r e i n e f f e c t .  blocks  guidelines  T h i s would  p e r m i t a c o n t i n u o u s m o n i t o r i n g of the p r o j e c t s and assessments of t h e i r impact on the community.  If necessary,  the g u i d e l i n e s  could  then be a l t e r e d b e f o r e o t h e r p r o j e c t s were a p p r o v e d . In summary, i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the c o n s i s t e n t a p p l i c a t i o n of  these  g u i d e l i n e s would do much to reduce the s o c i a l c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h townhouse redevelopment.  They are s e n s i t i v e  to the p r e f e r e n c e s of both the  s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t and the p r o j e c t r e s i d e n t , and u l t i m a t e l y  reflect  the view t h a t i n the event t h a t more and more h o u s i n g must be b u i l t i n m u l t i - f a m i l y schemes, a b a s i c r u l e of thumb s h o u l d be to p r o v i d e as many as p o s s i b l e of those q u a l i t i e s which people l o o k f o r i n a s i n g l e f a m i l y house. . . . These r e q u i r e m e n t s can be p r o v i d e d i n m u l t i - f a m i l y h o u s i n g . I t j u s t takes a l i t t l e more thought and i m a g i n a t i o n than has p r e v i o u s l y been expended by the sponsors and d e s i g n e r s of most m u l t i - f a m i l y schemes. ( C o o p e r , 1972: 141)  101 APPENDIX B SURVEY OF HOMEOWNERS ATTITUDES TOWARDS TOWNHOUSE PROJECTS ( A r e a W i t h o u t Townhouses) Interviewer  Area  Date  Address  P l a n n e r s are o f t e n c r i t i c i z e d f o r not c o n s u l t i n g the p u b l i c on i m p o r t a n t issues. T h i s i s one of the main reasons why I have, chosen to t a l k to p e o p l e l i k e y o u r s e l f about t h e i r t r u e f e e l i n g s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r home and immediate neighbourhood. In p a r t i c u l a r , I am i n t e r e s t e d i n your o p i n i o n of townhouses t h a t are b u i l t i n a r e a s of s i n g l e f a m i l y homes. B e f o r e a s k i n g f o r your o p i n i o n s i t would be h e l p f u l to know who l i v e s 1.  How many people l i v e i n t h i s house? _________________  2.  How many c h i l d r e n do you have l i v i n g a t home? ______________ (if  3.  1 o r more)  | Own  •  Rent  How l o n g have you l i v e d here? I I I  5.  How many are of p r e s c h o o l age? How many a t t e n d s c h o o l ? (excluding university)  Do you own o r r e n t t h i s home? j  4.  (a) (b)  ) Less than 1 year I 1 - 2 years I 3 - 5 years  TZD 6 - 1 0 y e a r s C D Over 10 y e a r s  P l e a s e s t a t e your reasons f o r c h o o s i n g a home i n t h i s (1) (2) (3)  (4) (5),  location.  here.  102 T h i s completes the i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n of the i n t e r v i e w . Next i t w i l l be u s e f u l to l e a r n about your e x p e r i e n c e w i t h townhouses. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t because what one t h i n k s of a p a r t i c u l a r type of h o u s i n g i s i n f l u e n c e d by how much one knows about i t . But b e f o r e I c o n t i n u e , I s h o u l d s t r e s s t h a t the townhouses I am r e f e r r i n g to are 2 o r 3 s t o r e y s t r u c t u r e s i n which i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s a r e a t t a c h e d s i d e - t o - s i d e . In other w o r d s , they share common w a l l s , but are not s t a c k e d one on top of the other. P l e a s e keep t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i n mind as you answer the f o l l o w i n g questions. 6.  Have you ever l i v e d i n a townhouse? ( I f Yes)  (a)  I Less than 1 y e a r I 1 - 2 years I 3 - 5 years  (b)  Where was t h i s  (c)  Why d i d you move?  (a)  townhouse?  townhouses?  Are they ( i s he/she) s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r home(s)?  I f you were l o o k i n g f o r a new home would you l o o k a t a townhouse? • ( I f No) (a)  (if  Yes) (b)  Yes  Why i s t h a t ? _  What would be the major • • • •  9.  I . I 6 - 1 0 years I I o v e r 10 y e a r s  Are any of your f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s l i v i n g i n •.Yes • No ( I f Yes)  8.  CZ3 No  F o r how l o n g ? I I I  7.  •Yes  L I No -  .,  reason?  C o s t of townhouses w i t h r e s p e c t to o t h e r h o u s i n g types Less maintenance r e q u i r e d i n home and garden C l o s e r p r o x i m i t y to o t h e r people and f a c i l i t i e s C h i l d r e n have moved out - home too l a r g e Other ( s p e c i f y )  To your knowledge, what k i n d of i n d i v i d u a l s  live in  townhouses?  103  (a)  Are t h e y :  • • •  Families S i n g l e people Young people  (b)  Would you say they a r e : • Upper c l a s s • Middle c l a s s | I Working c l a s s  10.  • M i x t u r e of c l a s s e s Can't generalize  Do you t h i n k t h a t townhouse r e s i d e n t s and occupants of s i n g l e homes have d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? •  Yes  • N o  ( I f Yes) (a)  11.  • M i d d l e aged people • R e t i r e d persons Q A 1 1 types of people  •  D o n ' t know  •Can't  family  generalize  Why do you say t h a t ?  I f townhouses were proposed w i t h i n s i g h t of your home what would be your r e a c t i o n ? O I n favour • Indifferent • Not i n f a v o u r • Would depend on the s i z e and d e s i g n of the p r o j e c t I I Would depend on the type of people i n the p r o j e c t (a)  Please e x p l a i n , g i v i n g reasons:  (b)  Would you express your f e e l i n g s i n some f a s h i o n ? •  ( I f Yes)  (i)  ( I f No) ( i i )  Yes  • N o  •Don't  What would you do?  Why do you say  (For interviewer) • Active, vocal opposition I | Weak o p p o s i t i o n • S i l e n t , but opposed • S i l e n t and n e u t r a l O S i l e n t , but i n f a v o u r • Weak s u p p o r t • A c t i v e , v o c a l support • V o c a l concern  that?  know  104  12.  I f townhouses were b u i l t w i t h i n s i g h t of your home do you t h i n k your home would be d i f f i c u l t to s e l l ? •'Yes (a)  •  No  •  D o n ' t know  Why do you say t h a t ?  N e x t , you are g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to compare your o p i n i o n s w i t h those of o t h e r homeowners. P l e a s e complete t h i s f o r m , k e e p i n g i n mind the d e f i n i t i o n of townhouses g i v e n e a r l i e r ( r e p e a t d e f i n i t i o n i f n e c e s s a r y ) . (Note: 14.  Use a c l i p b o a r d to a l i g n statement s h e e t w i t h the f o l l o w i n g page. Then g i v e the c l i p b o a r d to the r e s p o n d e n t . )  P l a n n e r s are o f t e n asked to d e c i d e what f e a t u r e s w i l l make townhouses more a c c e p t a b l e t o r e s i d e n t s of a community. Assume f o r the moment t h a t C i t y C o u n c i l i n t e n d s to a l l o w townhouses t o be b u i l t - i n t h i s a r e a . With the a i d of these photographs ( g i v e photos to respondent o r d i s p l a y on a t a b l e ) , c o u l d you i n d i c a t e what f e a t u r e s o r f a c i l i t i e s would make townhouses more a c c e p t a b l e to y o u .  105  STATE(VE NT SHEET  1.  They c r e a t e t r a f f i c  problems.  2.  They have l a r g e open green spaces on t h e i r p r o p e r t y ,  3.  They reduce the p r i v a c y of s u r r o u n d ing residents.  4.  They b l o c k the view of residents.  5.  They r e p l a c e rundown h o u s e s .  6.  They p l a c e s t r a i n s on sewer, and o t h e r s e r v i c e s  7.  They cause l o c a l t a x r a t e s to  8.  They are a c c e p t a b l e w i t h i n s i n g l e f a m i l y a r e a s i f they are a t t r a c t i v e l y designed.  9.  They cause c r o w d i n g i n s c h o o l s .  surrounding  water, rise.  10.  They a r e not w e l l m a i n t a i n e d .  11.  They i n c r e a s e the s t a t u s of  12.  the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . They a t t r a c t m o s t l y s i n g l e persons w i t h w e l l - p a y i n g jobs or s e n i o r  citizens.  13.  They reduce p r o p e r t y  values  14.  They cause p a r k i n g p r o b l e m s .  15.  They are p o o r l y  16.  They r u i n the c h a r a c t e r of the community.  17.  They b l e n d i n w i t h the neighbourhood.  18.  They c r e a t e n o i s e  designed.  problems.  106 13.  The f o l l o w i n g are some s t a t e m e n t s t h a t o t h e r s have made about townhouses. I n d i c a t e the e x t e n t . ; t o which you agree o r d i s a g r e e . P l e a s e scan the l i s t b e f o r e making any check marks.  Strongly Agree 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  9. 10. 11 . 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.  Agree  Don't Know  Disagree  Strongly Disagree  Can't Generalize  107  F i n a l l y , t h e r e are a few a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s about your h o u s e h o l d . L o o k i n g a t t h i s c a r d (hand respondent c a r d 1 ) , c o u l d you p l e a s e t e l l me the number of the c a t e g o r y which a p p l i e s t o : 15.  The t o t a l y e a r l y income o f the household? • • 0  16.  Under §8,000 S8,000 - $14,000 814,000 - S20,000  • • •  The h i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n you have completed? • Elementary s c h o o l 1 I High s c h o o l  17.  $20,000 - $25,000 $25,000 - 335,000 Over S35,000  • 1—3 y e a r s u n i v e r s i t y o r c o l l e g e O U n i v e r s i t y degree  The o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f the head o f the household? I I Self-employed O U s u a l l y employed p a r t time I i Retired • Unemployed D U s u a l l y employed f u l l time • O t h e r ( s p e c i f y )  (By o b s e r v a t i o n ) 18. 19.  20.  Respondent's s e x :  •  Wale  • •  50 - 65 Over 65  CZl Female  Respondent's a g e : • •  19 - 24 25 - 34  •  35 - 50  Stage i n l i f e  cycle:  I IChildless • With o n l y p r e s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n • With o n l y s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n  .'*• O • •  Mixture Adult c h i l d r e n only Other ( s p e c i f y )  108  I would l i k e to thank you f o r your a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s s u r v e y , and f o r g i v i n g me so much of your t i m e . (Note:  p l a c e pen and paper to one s i d e and ask the respondent i f he ( o r she) would l i k e t o make any g e n e r a l comments of the t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d or the way i n which q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d . Do they have some q u e s t i o n s of t h e i r own? The o b j e c t i v e a t t h i s s t a g e i s to engage i n an i n f o r m a l d i a l o g u e t h a t may conducive t o more i n depth p r o b i n g i n t o p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n s . No attempt s h o u l d be made to r e c o r d responses i n the presence of the respondent.)  Comments:  10 9 APPENDIX  C  SURVEY OF HOfVEOl'JNERS ATTITUDES TOWARDS TOWNHOUSE PROJECTS ( A r e a With Townhouses) Interviewer  •  Area  Date  Address  P l a n n e r s a r e o f t e n c r i t i c i z e d f o r not c o n s u l t i n g the p u b l i c on i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s . T h i s i s one of the main reasons why I have chosen to t a l k to people l i k e y o u r s e l f about t h e i r t r u e f e e l i n g s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r home and immediate n e i g h b o u r h o o d . In p a r t i c u l a r , I am i n t e r e s t e d i n your o p i n i o n of townhouses t h a t are b u i l t i n areas of s i n g l e f a m i l y homes. B e f o r e a s k i n g f o r your o p i n i o n s i t would be h e l p f u l to know who l i v e s here. 1.  How many people l i v e i n t h i s house?  2.  How many c h i l d r e n do you have l i v i n g a t home? (if  1 o r more)  _____________  (a)  How many are of p r e s c h o o l age?  (b)  How many a t t e n d s c h o o l ?  _________________  ( e x c l u d i n g u n i v e r s i ty) 3.  Do you own or r e n t t h i s home? I I own  o  rent  4.  How l o n g have you l i v e d here? (For interviewer) | I Residence p r i o r to neighbourhood awareness of townhouse proposal • Residence p r i o r to p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l • Residence p r i o r t o s t a r t of c o n s t r u c t i o n • Residence p r i o r to date of f i r s t occupancy of townhouses • Residence subsequent to date of f i r s t occupancy of townhouses _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  5.  P l e a s e s t a t e your reasons f o r c h o o s i n g a home i n t h i s (1) (2) (3) . (4)  location.  110 6.  To your knowledge, i s t h e r e a n y t h i n g about your home o r i t s t i o n t h a t would make i t d i f f i c u l t to s e l l ? r__ • I I I I •  Presence of townhouses Poor l o c a t i o n Q u a l i t y of s u r r o u n d i n g homes Poor d e s i g n of house Other ( s p e c i f y )  "  loca-  •  ( I f because of presence of townhouses) (a) P l e a s e e x p l a i n .  T h i s completes the i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n of the i n t e r v i e w . The next group of q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d s i n c e they r e l y h e a v i l y on your memory. (if  townhouses nearby have a l r e a d y been mentioned ask q u e s t i o n  I am aware t h a t t h e r e are townhouse u n i t s 7.  nearby.  D i d you know a t the time you purchased your home t h a t would be b u i l t i n t h i s a r e a ? (If  No) (a)  7.)  townhouses  • Yes No • Already B u i l t What was your r e a c t i o n when you heard they would be built? I—I N e g a t i v e O Neutral • Positive  (b)  Why d i d you f e e l t h a t way?  (Give  reasons)  (c)  Do you s t i l l f e e l t h i s way, o r have your f e e l i n g s i n any way?  changed  (If  8.  relevant)  (d)  living  I f you knew a t the time you purchased your home what you know about t h i s a r e a , would you s t i l l buy i n t h i s l o c a t i o n ? • (a)  9.  Do your c h i l d r e n p l a y w i t h the c h i l d r e n i n the townhouses?  Yes  •  No  What are your reasons f o r s a y i n g  that?  Do you know of anyone who moved because of the • ( i f Yes)  (i) (ii)  (iii)  Yes  •  townhouses?  No  How many people moved? What d i d they d i s l i k e about the  D i d they have any d i f f i c u l t y  townhouses?  s e l l i n g t h e i r homes?  Next i t w i l l be u s e f u l to l e a r n about your e x p e r i e n c e w i t h townhouses. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t because what one t h i n k s of a p a r t i c u l a r type of h o u s i n g i s i n f l u e n c e d by how much one knows about i t . But, b e f o r e I c o n t i n u e , I s h o u l d s t r e s s t h a t the townhouses I am r e f e r r i n g to are 2 o r 3 s t o r e y s t r u c t u r e s i n which i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s are a t t a c h e d s i d e - t o p s i d e . In o t h e r words, they share common w a l l s , but are not s t a c k e d one on top of the o t h e r . P l e a s e keep t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i n mind as you answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . 10.  Have you e v e r l i v e d i n a townhouse? (If Yes) (a)  Yes  •  No  F o r how l o n g ? • Less than 1 y e a r • 1 - 2 years I I 3 - 5 years  (b)  •  Where was t h i s  townhouse?  (ZD 6 - 10 y e a r s CZl Over 10 y e a r s  112 (c)  11.  Why d i d you move?  Are any of your f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s • ( I f Yes) (a)  12.  Yes  •  living in  townhouses?  No  Are they ( i s he/she) s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r home(s)?  I f you were l o o k i n g f o r a new home would you l o o k a t a townhouse? • (If  No) (a)  (if  Yes) (b)  Yes  f_3 No  Why i s t h a t ?  What would be the major reason? •  Cost of townhouses w i t h r e s p e c t to o t h e r h o u s i n g types I I Less maintenance r e q u i r e d i n home and garden I I C l o s e r p r o x i m i t y to o t h e r people and f a c i l i t i e s • C h i l d r e n have moved out - home too l a r g e • Other ( s p e c i f y )  13.  To your knowledge, what k i n d of i n d i v i d u a l s  (a)  Are t h e y :  • Families • S i n g l e people I I Young people  (b)  Would you say they a r e :  • • •  I I Upper c l a s s • Middle c l a s s I I Working c l a s s 14.  live in  townhouses?  M i d d l e aged people R e t i r e d persons A l l types of people  f__ M i x t u r e of c l a s s e s • Can't generalize  Do you t h i n k t h a t townhouse r e s i d e n t s and occupants of s i n g l e homes have d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? I I Yes (if  Yes)  • (a)  No  O  D o n ' t know  Why do you say t h a t ?  •  Can't  generalize  family  113  15.  I f more townhouses were proposed w i t h i n s i g h t of your home what would be your r e a c t i o n ? I I In f a v o u r • Indifferent • Not i n f a v o u r I I Would depend on the s i z e and d e s i g n of the p r o j e c t I | Would depend on the type of people i n the p r o j e c t (a)  Please e x p l a i n , g i v i n g reasons:  (b)v Would you e x p r e s s your f e e l i n g s i n some f a s h i o n ? I I Yes ( I f Yes) ( i )  O  No  •  D o n ' t know  What would you do?  ( I f No) ( i i ) Why do you say  that?  (For i n t e r v i e w e r ) • Active, vocal opposition CZ3 Weak o p p o s i t i o n CZl S i l e n t , but opposed (ZD S i l e n t and n e u t r a l (Z3 S i l e n t , but i n f a v o u r CZl Weak s u p p o r t • A c t i v e , vocal support • V o c a l concern Next, you are g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to compare your o p i n i o n s w i t h those of o t h e r homeowners. P l e a s e complete t h i s f o r m , k e e p i n g i n mind the d e f i n i t i o n of townhouses g i v e n e a r l i e r ( r e p e a t d e f i n i t i o n i f n e c e s s a r y ) . (Note:  Use a c l i p b o a r d to a l i g n statement s h e e t w i t h the f o l l o w i n g p a g e . Then g i v e the c l i p b o a r d to the r e s p o n d e n t . )  114  STATEMENT SHEET 1.  They c r e a t e t r a f f i c  problems.  2.  They have l a r g e open green spaces on t h e i r p r o p e r t y .  3.  They reduce the p r i v a c y of s u r r o u n d ing residents.  4.  They b l o c k the view of  surrounding  residents. 5.  They r e p l a c e rundown h o u s e s .  6.  They p l a c e s t r a i n s on sewer, w a t e r , and o t h e r s e r v i c e s . They cause l o c a l t a x r a t e s t o r i s e .  7. 8.  They are a c c e p t a b l e w i t h i n s i n g l e f a m i l y areas i f they are a t t r a c t i v e l y designed.  9.  They cause c r o w d i n g i n  10.  They are not w e l l m a i n t a i n e d .  11.  They i n c r e a s e the s t a t u s of neighbourhood.  12.  They a t t r a c t mostly s i n g l e persons  schools.  the  well-paying jobs or s e n i o r  with  citizens.  13.  They reduce p r o p e r t y  values.  14.  They cause p a r k i n g p r o b l e m s .  15.  They are p o o r l y  16.  They r u i n the c h a r a c t e r of the community.  17.  They b l e n d i n w i t h the n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  18.  They c r e a t e n o i s e problems.  designed.  115 16.  The f o l l o w i n g are some s t a t e m e n t s t h a t o t h e r s have made about townhouses. I n d i c a t e the e x t e n t t o which you agree o r d i s a g r e e . P l e a s e scan the l i s t b e f o r e making any check marks.  Strongly Agree 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  9. 10. 11 . 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.  Agree  Don't Know  Disagree  Strongly Disagree  Can't Generalize  116 17.  P l a n n e r s a r e o f t e n asked t o decide what f e a t u r e s w i l l make townhouses more a c c e p t a b l e to r e s i d e n t s of a community. Assume f o r the moment t h a t C i t y C o u n c i l i n t e n d s t o a l l o w a d d i t i o n a l townhouses to be b u i l t i n t h i s a r e a . With the a i d of t h e s e photographs ( g i v e photos to respondent o r d i s p l a y on a t a b l e ) , c o u l d you i n d i c a t e what f e a t u r e s o r f a c i l i t i e s would make townhouse more a c c e p t a b l e to you.  F i n a l l y , t h e r e are a few a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s about your h o u s e h o l d . L o o k i n g a t t h i s c a r d (hand respondent Card 1 ) , c o u l d you p l e a s e t e l l me the number of the c a t e g o r y which a p p l i e s t o ! 18.  The t o t a l y e a r l y income of the household? • • •  19.  Under $8,000 $8,000 - $14,000 $14,000 - $20,000  (By  Elementary school High s c h o o l  • •  1 - 3 years u n i v e r s i t y or c o l l e g e U n i v e r s i t y degree  The o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s of the head of the household? • Self-employed I—I R e t i r e d • U s u a l l y employed time observation)  21.  Respondent's  22.  Respondent's age: • • •  23.  $20,000 - $25,000 $25,000 - $35,000 Over $35,000  The h i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n you have completed? • •  20.  • • •  sexi  19 - 24 25 - 34 35 - 50  Stage i n l i f e  •  full  Male  • U s u a l l y employed p a r t I I Unemployed r~l Other ( s p e c i f y )  1 I Female  • 50 - 65 I I Over 65  cycle:  • Childless r~1 With o n l y p r e s c h o o l age children I | With o n l y s c h o o l age children  r~l M i x t u r e • Adult c h i l d r e n only • O t h e r (specify)  time  I would l i k e t o thank you f o r your a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s s u r v e y , and f o r g i v i n g me so much of your t i m e . (Notes  p l a c e pen and paper to one s i d e and ask the respondent i f he ( o r she) would l i k e t o make any g e n e r a l comments on the t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d o r the way i n which q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d . Do they have some q u e s t i o n s of t h e i r own? The o b j e c t i v e a t t h i s s t a g e i s to engage i n an i n f o r m a l d i a l o g u e t h a t may be conducive to more i n depth p r o b i n g i n t o p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n s . No attempt s h o u l d be made to r e c o r d responses i n the presence of the respondent.)  Comments s  117  APPENDIX D DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO THE STATEMENT SHEET IN THE HAULTAIN AREA  Strongly Agree  1.  merit  Agree  Don't Knoui  Disagree  Strongly Disagree  1  10  5  5  0  4  0  2.  0  5  3  12  0  5  0  3.  4  12  3  5  0  1  0  4.  2  8  6  4  0  5  0  5.  1  13  3  4  0  4  0  '6.  1  9  9  5  0  1  0  7.  0  1  15  6  0  3  0  8.  3  15  2  5  0  0  0  9.  2  6  6  8  0  3  0  10.  2  5  8  9  0  1  0  11.  0  1  7  11  2  4  0  12.  °  3  19  0  1  1  1  T  Can't Generalize  No Response  13.  2  12  3  7  0  1  0  14.  1  11  3  6  0  3  1  15.  2  3  4  9  0  7  0  16.  1  5  5  7  0  7  0  17.  0  4  6  10  1  4  0  18.  1  6  7  7  1  3  0  119 APPENDIX E DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO THE STATEMENT SHEET IN THE VIC. WEST AREA ement er  Strongly Agree Agree  Don't Know  Disagree  Strongly Disagree  Can't Generalize  No Response  1.  5  8  5  5  0  2  0  2.  0  8  4  8  3  2  0  3.  2  9  4  7  1  2  0  4.  0  19  1  3  1  1  0  5.  3  13  4  2  0  3  0  6.  2  4  8  7  1  3  0  7.  0  3  17  3  1  1  0  B.  2  16  3  3  1  0  0  9.  1  9  8  4  1  2  0  10.  2  4  3  9  2  5  0  11.  0  8  6  7  1  3  0  12.  0  2  5  13  2  3  0  13.  2  5  8  6  0  3  1  14.  3  7  2  11  0  2  0  15.  4  3  3  10  1  4  0  16.  0  3  5  9  2  6  0  17.  0  11  5  2  2  5  0  1B.  0  10  2  9  2  2  0  APPENDIX F DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO THE STATE WENT SHEET IN THE CEDAR HILL AREA Don't Know  Strongly Disagree  Can't Generalize  No Response  Strongly Agree  Agree .  1.  4  8  3  6  0  4  0  2.  0  5  5  11  1  3  0  3.  4  12  0  8  0  1  0  4.  3  17  0  2  0  3  0  ' 5.  1  12  2  3  0  7  0  6.  2  7  5  7  0  3  1  7.  0  2  17  5  1  0  0  8.  0  19  2  2  1  1  0  9.  0  8  6  8  2  1  0  10.  0  1  3  15  2  4  0  11 .  0  0  9  9  2  5  0  12.  0  0  3  19  4  4  0  13.  1  6  3  9  1  5  0  14.  4  9  1  9  0  2  0  15.  3  4  0  8  2  8  0  16.  2  2  0  13  0  8  0  17.  0  8  2  9  0  6  0  18.  3  6  1  9  0  6  0  Statement Number  Disagree  BIBLIOGRAPHY Andzans, P. 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