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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The British Columbia ranching frontier, 1858-1896 Thomas, Gregory Edward Gwynne 1976

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THE B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A R A N C H I N G F R O N T I E R :  1858 - 1896 by GREGORY E . G . THOMAS B.A.(Hons.), U n i v e r s i t y  o f Alberta,1973.  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R THE D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF A R T S I N THE  DEPARTMENT  OF HISTORY  We a c c e p t  The  this  thesis  University April,  ©  as conforming  of British  Columbia  1976  G r e g o r y E.G. Thomas, 1976  t o therequired  standard  In  presenting  requirements British freely agree thesis of  my  stood  this  available  I agree  for scholarly Department  financial  that  shall  and  I  or publication  shall  n o t be  2L  Columbia  the  copying  be  granted  of t h i s  of  make i t  further of  this  by  the  Head  I t i s underthesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t r s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  Date  study.  for extensive p u r p o s e s may  of  at the University  the L i b r a r y  permission.  Department  fulfillment  or h i s representatives.  copying gain  degree  f o r reference  permission  that  in partial  f o r an advanced  Columbia,  that  thesis  for  written  I  ABSTRACT  This development livestock  industry. that  and  stimulated  role  British  the practical  husbandry  on t h e  of a peculiar  agricultural  on s t o c k r a i s i n g ,  Columbia  ranching frontier  foundation of agriculture  i n t h e Oregon c o u n t r y under  of gold  settler.  With  the American  temporarily  to f u l f i l l  the discovery  ranching frontier  Through the hesitant  of  the Interior  Plateau  of  stock raising.  the independent i n British  extended  industry  of pastoral  came t o r e a l i z e depended  In i t s first  isolated  ranching frontier  petition  forsite  With  livestock  introduction slowly  preceded  of the  northward  was  that  initially  system  the colonial  the settlement upon t h e p r o m o t i o n  stage o f settlement, the  d i d not experience serious  n o r d i d one e t h n i c ,  the region's  leases,  and  established.  the implementation of a pre-emption  administrations  control  was  t h e demands o f t h e m i n i n g m a r k e t  the process the Interior  group  economic  the guidance  American  and  i n turn,  and animal  under  1  in  which  i n the region's p o l i t i c a l ,  H u d s o n s B a y Company a n d i t s m a t u r i t y  Columbia,  Interior  development. The  by  the growth  and  r a n c h i n g community and  The argument i s b a s e d  primarily  a prominent  social  Columbia  the settlement o f the Southern  economy dependent played  i s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n s  of the British  assumption Plateau  thesis  social  or  com-  economic  development.  the gradual decline  of the mining  industry  and  II the  f r u s t r a t i o n s surrounding  the  new p r o v i n c e  of British  economic  recession.  however,  i trepresented  and  growing  was  concentration stimulated  consolidation  While tained the  now r e q u i r e d continued  itself  strength while  Once  railway  ranchers'  the past  prosperity  expansion  two  and  I n t e r i o r ranching  decades  land population.  of I n t e r i o r settlement  society.  they were v i s i b l y  main-  alarmed  by  companies and t h e growing  of the Alberta  ranching  frontier.  the broader problems o f the ranching front, the established  on an i n d e p e n d e n t ,  l e d to tension  and  the inevitable  as t h e l a r g e s t landowners,  ranching  a more u n i t e d  this  economic  and i n d u s t r i a l i z e d  livelihood,  of large  community,  sphere.  began t o e x p e r i e n c e  ranchers,  to operate  Ultimately,  during  railway,  a decade o f  i n 1880, t h e  18 8 5 t h e c h a r a c t e r  a comfortable  Nevertheless,  raising  f o r the established  the cattle  competitive  commenced  o f a more m o b i l e  formation  of gradual  of unparalleled  livestock industry  transitions  entered  i n the p o l i t i c a l  upon s t o c k  After the  a period  finally  a period  Columbia  For the I n t e r i o r ranching  influence  construction  the transcontinental  ranchers  individualistic  within the ranching  and a d e c l i n i n g r o l e i n t h e economy o f t h e  industry  basis.  community province.  Ill ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The possible  completion  without  of this  and i n d i v i d u a l s .  t o Ann Yandle  and t h e s t a f f  the  past  British Cook,  of British  two y e a r s .  many q u e s t i o n s . of  I am p a r t i c u l a r l y  of Special  t h e Kamloops  The s t a f f  council  David  guided  Collections,  at the Provincial  cooperative Thanks  helpful  over  Archives of  Kent Haworth and Terry  and always w i l l i n g  a r e a l s o due t o Mary  t o answer  Balf,  my  Curator  Museum.  The w r i t e r i s e s p e c i a l l y Professor  indebted  C o l u m b i a , who h a v e b e e n m o s t  Columbia, and p a r t i c u l a r l y  were most  been  t h e g e n e r o u s a s s i s t a n c e o f a number o f  organizations  University  t h e s i s would n o t have  grateful  H. B r e e n , w h o s e c o n s t a n t the project during  t o h i s supervisor,  encouragement and wise  the past  two y e a r s .  IV T A B L E OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  I  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I l l  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  IV  L I S T OF T A B L E S  V  L I S T OF MAPS  VI  INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I CHAPTER I I  . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Early Influences  IX Ranching  1  The R a n c h i n g F r o n t i e r i n t h e I n t e r i o r Plateau of B r i t i s h Columbia  CHAPTER I I I The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1871 - 1884  Ranching  CHAPTER I V  Ranching  CHAPTER V  The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1885 - 1896  BIBLIOGRAPHY  32  Frontier: 84 Frontier:  The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R a n c h i n g F r o n t i e r : The S o c i a l S i d e o f t h e S e t t l e m e n t P r o c e s s  CONCLUSION NOTES  Frontier  129 182 199  Introduction Chapter I Chapter I I Chapter I I I Chapter IV Chapter V  208 210 216 22 6 235 245 248  V L I S T OF  TABLES  TABLE  I  II III  IV  PAGE  CATTLE  IMPORTATIONS-MAINLAND B R I T I S H  1859 - 1870  29  RETURN OF  PASTORAL L E A S E S - Y A L E D I S T R I C T  55  RANCH OWNERSHIP AND A P P R O X I M A T E A C R E A G E A L I E N A T E D BY P R E - E M P T I O N & P U R C H A S E  76  CATTLE  DISTRIBUTION BRITISH  COLONIAL V VI  VII  INTERIOR 77  D I S T R I B U T I O N OF C A T T L E  IN INTERIOR-1873  L I V E S T O C K A R R I V A L S AT NEW STEAMER-1878 Y A L E AND  COLUMBIA  PERIOD  LILLOOET DISTRICT  REPRESENTATIVES VIII  COLUMBIA-  WESTMINSTER  BY 97  PROVINCIAL  1872-1885  P R O P O R T I O N OF L A N D DEVOTED TO INTERIOR PLATEAU  -1893  88  101 STOCK R A I S I N G 174  VI  L I S T OF  MAPS  MAP I  II  PAGE THE P R I N C I P A L R A N C H I N G A R E A OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A : THE SOUTHERN I N T E R I O R P L A T E A U P R I N C I P A L ROADS, T R A I L S AND SOUTHERN I N T E R I O R P L A T E A U  CATTLE  . . . .  VII  DRIVES VIII  - VII -  Table  I.  THE P R I N C I P A L R A N C H I N G Z^REA OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A : THE SOUTHERN I N T E R I O R PLATEAU  Thomas R. W e i r , R a n c h i n g i n t h e S o u t h e r n I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Memoir 4, G e o g r a p h i c a l B r a n c h , Mines and ' T e c h n i c a l S u r v e y s , Ottawa, 1964.  - VIII  Table  I I . .  -  P R I N C I P A L ROADS, T R A I L S AND DRIVES SOUTHERN I N T E R I O R P L A T E A U  CATTLE  Thomas R. W e i r , R a n c h i n g i n t h e S o u t h e r n I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Memoir 4, G e o r g r a p h i c a l B r a n c h , M i n e s and T e c h n i c i a l S u r v e y s , Ottawa, 1964.  IX  INTRODUCTION  Traditionally British  Columbia has been d e s c r i b e d  influences;  there  Vancouver  points 1849,  Island.  among i t s h i s t o r i a n s  evolution of the Fraser Valley  As these  1  areas  have been t h e f o c a l  o f p o p u l a t i o n , government, i n d u s t r y and c u l t u r e s i n c e this  emphasis i s understandable.  misleading more t h a n region.  to treat  the province  a business  I t i s important as a s e r i e s  entities,  each w i t h Not  only  confederation",  i t s Interior,  the  subordinate  successive  centred  to realize  i t s peculiar didBritish  upon t h e c o a s t a l  r e g i o n a l and  Columbia,  i n isolation  and i s o l a t e d  Columbia as no  historical  the intermontane  background.  from the r e s t  isolation  never complete  i n an economic o r s o c i a l  promoted  the particular  historical  Plateau  agriculture  once t h e i n i t i a l  as  I t  from the c o a s t a l r e g i o n , sense,  which  e v o l u t i o n and c h a r a c t e r o f  i n the nineteenth  e x p l o i t e d as a mining  economy became i n c r e a s i n g l y  o f Canada,  and Vancouver.  although  originally  of  economic h i n t e r l a n d o f t h e  geographical  Although  child  region, also evolved  was t h i s  Interior  has  sectional  "the s p o i l t  regional metropolises, Victoria  Southern  i t i s  that the province  of inter-related  develop  but  Nevertheless,  of British  civilization  developed  the  major  and t h e r a i l w a y .  has been a tendency  emphasize t h e h i s t o r i c a l  and  i n terms o f three  the f u r trade, the gold rush  In the process, to  t h e e x p l o r a t i o n and s e t t l e m e n t o f  century.  frontier,i t s  dependent upon l i v e s t o c k gold excitement  and  i n the Cariboo  X  began i t s slow  decline.  Although area,  clearly  distinctive  geographic  encompassed  segments o f t h r e e d e s i g n a t e d  d i s c e r n a b l e as a  t h e Southern  T h i s meant t h a t i t s p o l i t i c i a n s  Interior  Plateau  political  districts.  could n o t always cooperate  on  2 common i s s u e s a s a c o h e s i v e the  r e g i o n was e q u a l l y d i v e r s e .  were i n t e r s p e r s e d along and  river  the  International  to  valleys  a certain  inequalities ranch  early  as  boundary.  style  after  While  evident.  Interior's  mining  industry  t o Osoyoos on were  united  The  social  comfortable  a t A s h c r o f t was  con-  from t h e l o g s h a n t i e s c o n s t r u c t e d by t h e and c a t t l e  drovers.  economically.  approaches have found  historical  foundation  frontier.  i nBritish  Columbia  Columbia  historians  i t difficult  to f i t  that of the province  t o have i g n o r e d i t .  of the livestock  While  essence,  multi-ethnici n  Hence,  development i n t o  Some s e e m a l m o s t  In  shape i n t h e B r i t i s h  subsequent development o f ranching the  o f communication  1858 was t r a n s i e n t i n n a t u r e ,  traditional  The  of population  the settlers  of the Cornwalls  and d i v e r s i f i e d  a whole.  pockets  i n the north  s o c i e t y which began t o take  using the  from Quesnel  were immediately  removed  population  Small  t h e main a r t e r i e s  pre-emptors, packers  Interior  I n terms o f s e t t l e m e n t ,  degree by t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e f r o n t i e r ,  and l i f e  siderably  the  unit.  i n d u s t r y and the  communities c o i n c i d e d with  i t has always been a  secondary  i n terms o f p r o d u c t i o n  and c a p i t a l  3 investment, in  livestock  the Interior  before  many, i t r e p r e s e n t e d  raising  was a m a j o r  1900 a n d , p e r h a p s  a particular  economic  endeavour  as important, f o r  way o f l i f e .  I t was t h e f i r s t  XI  generation a  region  of  d o m i n a t e d by  population mining  ranchers  during  the  population  ranchers  who  first  the  the  Interior,  of  the  Canadian P a c i f i c  social  permanence  mobile  settlement.  i n the  late  dominant economic and  ranching the  Yet,  frontier  upon the  Interior  before  received  Once  social  despite  only  the  arrival obvious  economic  1900,  the  group  the the  in  mining  1860's  retained until  Railway.  C o l u m b i a ' s h i s t o r y has  and  this  phase  limited  of  attention  scholars. The  the  decade of  a p o s i t i o n they  development of  British from  the  sense of  a h i g h l y t r a n s i e n t and  in  of  a  began to withdraw  emerged as  influence  provided  local  or  regional historical  coastal province's  both  the  graphy.  strengths  and  The  generation  first  among o t h e r s , E.O.  e v e n t s and  the  minent B r i t i s h long  n e v e r has  of  province's  historians,  which  G o s n e l l , F.W.  p r i m a r i l y concerned with  reflects  historioincluded  Howay,  Columbians.  Their works, nevertheless,  been and  certainly The  fact  geography of  relegated  that British  never w i l l  be  the  agriculture to  a  on  of  prodo  Columbia  predominantly  province, a  and  a narrative  biographical information  enough t o r e a f f i r m the  least,  the  development  p r o v i s i o n of  agrarian province. term at  weaknesses of  A l e x a n d e r B e g g , R.E.  S c h o l e f i e l d , was  pause  early agricultural  writing dealing with  i n the  supplementary  long  rather  4 than a primary Columbia's  role  i n the  approximately  economic  230  system.  million  acres,  Of  British  only  three  per  cent  5 is  considered  of  arable  land  t o be  arable  represents  land.  But,  a relatively  just small  because the  amount  fraction  the  of  * f»  XII  province's  land  agriculture  surface,  i t i s q u i t e wrong  as o f l i m i t e d  consequence  i n British  d e v e l o p m e n t , and t o assume t h e p r o v i n c e one  time  rural and  a viable rural  consciousness.  others  agricultural  to overlook  early history.  discretion  a s e a r l y a s 1914  the  plains of Lilloet  admits but  argues without  when he p o r t r a y e d  and Cariboo Martin  realty  until  the c u l t u r e which  Robin's  supportive  the time  The Rush  on  f o r Spoils  i n the Interior,  evidence  settled  eventually  this  the railway arrived.^  o f bunch g r a s s "  sufficient  of  i n the  "cowpunching"  miners passed  C o l u m b i a was n o t o r i g i n a l l y  that  shared  raiser  R.E. G o s n e l l w a s g u i l t y  later,  the "profane  British and  years  i fnot a broadly  of the stock  a means b y w h i c h d i s i l l u s i o n e d  Almost f i f t y  d i d not possess a t  developments and  the role  province's  as  Columbia's  Such assumptions have l e d ; h i s t o r i a n s  t o ignore  specifically  population,  to dismiss  by  that  agriculturalists  " g e l l e d " b y no means  7 had  an " a g r a r i a n hue".  province's neatly  development before  enough w i t h  of  I t should  example, which the province's  considered  1890  i n 1881  a mining  area,  concentration, "the  be n o t e d  contained  population  too abruptly the  as i tdoes n o t c o i n c i d e  h i s major thematic  Company P r o v i n c e " . for  Robin dismisses  that  i n Yale  about twenty per  and which has been  more t h a n  district  fifty  cent  traditionally  per cent  o f t h e male g  population  were c l a s s i f i e d  Professor region  on b o t h  as e i t h e r farmers o r stock  M a r g a r e t A. O r m s b y ' s f a m i l i a r i t y  a p r o f e s s i o n a l and personal  level  raisers.  with the  has r e s u l t e d  XIII  in  the most balanced  assessment of  the  Interior's  historical  9 development before devoted  1900.  In her  early  c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n t o the  Okanagan v a l l e y  w h e r e f o r many y e a r s  "sole  revenue  source  of  and  f o r i t were i d e a l "  British  Columbia: A H i s t o r y , the  Plateau  as  "stock  raising  d o m i n a n t members o f the  exigencies of  standards ground".  of 1 1  the  an  incomplete  their  ranching  the  the  the  first  North  observers  the  was  maintained  the  and  Interior the  even  under  customs  and  country-gentry the  i t i s , s t i l l  Interior  con-  study,  comments upon "who,  the  as  p o r t r a y s the  recognition of  the  back-  significance  leaves  livestock  us  with  industry  than  of  ranchers  by  their  S t a t e s , i t has  put  "Some P i o n e e r s  British i f not  forward of  the  unintentionally, community  extension of  P r o f e s s o r Ormsby, t h e  American c a t t l e  t h a t the  impression  work of  generation  American i n s p i r e d ,  ranching  raising greatly  the  and  population.  United  quite  her  in  community  class  e r a , v a l u a b l e as  amateur h i s t o r i a n s As  life,  upper middle  p i c t u r e of  Beyond of  frontier  and  she  era  provincial  author  country"  ranching  Nevertheless,  of  ranching  the  stock  In her  0  ranching  i t expanded  ditions  1  research,  and  has  been b e t t e r served  ranching  industry originated i n some  Columbia ranching  leads  Laing's  i n the  more o r  less  is  was the  article,  Laing,  to b e l i e v e the  i n d u s t r y was  i t s counterpart  This  important 12  Industry". one  Canadian  community  American dominated.  Cattle  by  professional counterparts.  b e e n assumed by  i n F.W.  evolution  probably  Interior a  northern  American P a c i f i c  Northwest.  XIV  In  terms of  the  general  scale of  operation,  operational techniques  considerable  validity  examines the  demographic data  was  Laing's  not  only  tempered by broad  an  Germans.  in this  the  the  other  But  more c l o s e l y ,  Englishmen,  ranchers  Irishmen,  and  industry, there  assessment.  colonial  when  one  is  one  finds that i t  whose a c t i o n s  government, but  were  also  a  which included A u s t r a l i a n s , Frenchmen,  Scots  and  1 3  Other non-academic of  of  transportation  "American cattlemen"  aggressive  spectrum of  Italians,  means o f  ranching  volunteer  era  studies  in British  more i n t h e  way  of  recognize  Columbia's  the  existence  Interior,  n a r r a t i v e chronology  but  than  14 historical in  local  perspective.  h i s t o r y can  Nevertheless,  the  recent  prove very  useful to  upon a more a c a d e m i c  approach.  Mary B a l f ' s study  is  Although  a case  topical  i n point.  anecdotes  Kamloops r e g i o n , Balf's and  Ormsby.  scale, as  study  Although breed" need It nor  to  was was  i t provides and  alters  the  the  of  accurate  particularly the  I t devotes  often poorly  w e l l as  basically  of  perspective equal  educated  may  approach the  n e i t h e r dominated i t c o n t r o l l e d by  by  a collection information  the put  early  of  about  the  her  upper middle  class  the  and  ranching  the  "rougher  small rancher, heritage.  exemplifies  stereotyped  indigenous  Laing  tougher  community w i t h  American  a unique,  unconnected  presentation  the  ranchers.  forward  socially  intent  Kamloops  s i g n i f i c a n c e to both  exaggerate  Interior  of  F.W.  and  Kamloops c a t t l e m e n ,  historian  by  gentleman farmer of  author  the  interest  group  the  caution. cowboy,  like  the  XV  "cattle  compact" To  this  i n the  neighbouring  p o i n t , no  Interior's  ranching  within  the  broader  ment.  The  result  historian  community context  has  North  of  and  has  the  early  s t u d i e s , Robin  Relations  in British  livestock  British  and  1 6  the  to place  the  industry  Columbia  recent  F i s h e r ' s w o r k on  Columbia"  Territories.  attempted  b e e n t h a t e v e n two  excellent  West  and  settlemost  "Indian-European late  Robert  Cail's  17 survey  of  the  from t h i s  Disposal of  historiographical  c o m p e t e n t and in  C r o w n Lands",  frequent  reference  Columbia  Interior  before  undefined who  had  reduce  settlement their  upon the  the  cattle  colonial  Indian claims?  Thaddeus, assemble  the  Cascades without  part  of  1890,  leases? the  one  frontier.  and  pastoral  to the  i n dealing with this  grazed  pressure  Despite  The  the  the  were the  and  provincial  How  d i d the  largest  common b o n d w i t h  British  ranchers exerted  Harper b r o t h e r s ,  either  Interior  and  largely  administrations to  ranching  of  crown pre-emptions  ranchers  1890.  initiative  Jerome  operation east  were an  c o m m u n i t y who  upon generous government l e a s e s o r the  British  cattle  Indian reserves  much upon i n d i v i d u a l  extent,  the  the  r a t h e r n e b u l o u s and  based  that  sources,  writers'  Who  business  the  senses  b e n e f i t of  early  diversified  on  of  times  highly  of  economic development before  as  their  at  settlement  region's as  suffer  often imaginative interpretation  their  frustrations  vacuum.  both  and  integral  dominated  Their  the  success  personal  was  capital  e x t e r n a l investment.  Columbia ranching  i t s American counterparts.  frontier The  or  shares  cattle  To a  companies  XVI  with not  their begin  circles  p r o f e s s i o n a l managers and to play  a prominent r o l e  until  the  late  domination of  the  cattle  scale  frontier Our  ranching the  before  knowledge of  population,  political  province,  has  as  and  peculiar which,  the  a  development  from  study  re-examine  Southern  and  assessing  ranching  1858  Interior the  arrive  and  one  i t s first  to  allow  stock  of  British  produce.  Plateau  1896.  the  at  initial  of  period  o f why  stock  of  f o r beef  1880, and  and  then,  raising  the  study  this  Interior  region, failed  in  live-  adequate  degree upon only  upon  will  ultimately  after  this  describing  apparently  sources  a  region's  t o become s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t with  the  growth of  settlement  process  to a considerable  self-dependence  for  major purpose of  industry, this  did a province  group  coastal  the  on  of  industries,  this  British  i n the  potential rely  of  the  by  e a r l y development of  important  until  Interior  performed  largely  the  small  Interior  i s unfortunate  grazing  years  the  stimulated  understanding  Columbia Why  In  livestock  an  the  the  century.  Hence, the  Plateau.  and  attempt to  This  ranching  increasing  known p h a s e o f  1900.  o r i g i n s and  community  the  a prominent role to  Columbia  that point,  role  economy b a s e d  i n turn, played  the  the  little  Directors, did  typify  character  w e l l as  Interior  agricultural  i s to  the  economic development of  remained  of  to  turn of  the  Columbia's h i s t o r y before settlement  Despite  continued the  of  in British  companies a f t e r  independent rancher  ranching  in  1880's.  Board  a  p r o s p e r i t y , once again  American few give  short way  XVII  to  alternative  Territories? complexity Interior  competition, t h i s time The  from the North  answer t o these q u e s t i o n s r e s t s  of factors  West  i n the  surrounding the development of the  r a n c h i n g community  itself.  -  1  CHAPTER THE B R I T I S H  I  COLUMBIA  RANCHING  FRONTIER  EARLY INFLUENCES  In and  examining the p r a c t i c a l  animal husbandry  will  focus naturally  i n the Pacific  foundation Northwest  upon t h e two major  of  this  focus leads  logically  to consideration  ments i n t h e Oregon c o u n t r y . the  ranching  frontier  Although black seen on t h e Northwest as e a r l y and  as 1792,  1  I t i s here  i n British cattle  settler.  of first  that  develop-  any assessment  of  C o l u m b i a m u s t commence. b e l o n g i n g t o S p a n i a r d s were  c o a s t o f America by E n g l i s h  the practical  animal husbandry  chapter  protagonists; the  H u d s o n ' s B a y Company a n d t h e i n d e p e n d e n t A m e r i c a n This  agriculture  explorers  foundation of both  i n the Pacific  Northwest  agriculture  took place  during 2  the  period  The  men  trade  of British-American  o f the Northwest  of the Pacific  responsible country. April  Joint  O c c u p a t i o n a f t e r 1818.  C o m p a n y , who m o n o p o l i z e d t h e I n t e r i o r  Northwest between  f o r the i n i t i a t i o n  This particular  of cattle  enterprise  2 3 , 1 8 1 4 , when t h e s h i p  1813 a n d 1 8 2 1 , w e r e raising  presumably  i n t h e Oregon commenced o n  I s a a c Todd l a n d e d a t A s t o r i a 3  with The  "two young  New  and two h e i f e r s  breeding of livestock,  was c a r r i e d of  bulls  from San F r a n c i s c o . "  by t h e Northwest  on i n an i n d i f f e r e n t  manner.  after  however,  With t h e ascendancy  t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company i n t h e C o l u m b i a Caledonia regions  Company,  River Valley  1821, and Governor  Simpson's  and  - 2 carefully  implemented  potential  livestock  austerity  industry  program,  the nucleus of a  began t o t a k e shape  i n the Pacific  4 Northwest. For aged  twenty  t h e development  as a s u b s i d i a r y can  y e a r s t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company of stock raising  1840's,  the settlers  logical  means b y w h i c h  expanded  the region  began t o r a i s e to utilize  gradually  community h e l d  population mining  reached  throughout t h e Columbia  Company r e t r e a t e d ranching  i n t h e Oregon c o u n t r y  operation of the f u rtrade.  settlement frontier  large  basin,  northward.  enough t o absorb  as t h e most As t h e s e t t l e r s  t h e Hudson's Bay By 1 8 6 0 , t h e O r e g o n  of livestock it.  without a  e x c i t e m e n t commenced i n t h e c o l o n y o f B r i t i s h  The  they drove  herds  Columbia  of cattle Interior  industry  proved  colony.  occurrence.  t o e x p l a i n was t h e i n a b i l i t y  the expansion o f the mining  regarding  The e x t e n s i o n n o r t h -  livestock  policy  was a r e -  What i s more  on t h e p a r t  Company t o r e s p o n d t o t h e m a r k e t  initial  immediately.  to the British  ranchers i n search of markets  straightforward  The  responded  Columbia,  t o be t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e l i v e -  i n the British  ward o f American latively  and sheep  local  C o n s e q u e n t l y , when t h e  dealers  Bay  i n t h e 1830's and  livestock  Oregon r a n c h e r s and l i v e s t o c k  stock  When t h e A m e r i -  the land.  a surplus  encour-  difficult  o f t h e Hudson's  opportunities  opened by  frontier.  o f t h e H u d s o n s B a y Company  i n the Pacific  1  Northwest  was  directed  -  toward  the establishment  3 -  of herds a t the various  company  5 posts the  throughout  t h e Columbia Department.  Company's i n t e r e s t  was s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y  development o f an e x t e r n a l t r a d e the  Chief Factor  discouraged was b e e f  lower  gaged  and t h e eventual  i n agricultural  the slaughter of cattle  f o r food  i n 1 8 2 7 a n d 18 33 r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  represented  and stock  an important  raising.  at  and o n l y  it  Fort Langley  on  Sound, b o t h  In fact,  part  raising  integral  S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , one o f t h e arguments p u t  t h e Company  agricultural  i n support  operations  encourage the settlement immigrants" license  of i t s c l a i m f o r renewal  was r e n e w e d extent  stock raising  Puget  of i t s retired  Company.  forward  of i t s  t o expand i t s but also to  servants  "and o t h e r  30, 1 8 3 8 , t h e Company's 9 years.  o f t h e Hudson's Bay Company's  ultimately  North-  On M a y  f o r twenty-one  Sound A g r i c u l t u r a l  parent  intended  i n t h e Oregon c o u n t r y ,  i n that region.  The  the  of three  i n D e c e m b e r 18 3 4 ,  was t o p l a y a n  m o n o p o l y c h a r t e r was t h a t i t n o t o n l y  in  policy.  i n t h e Hudson's Bay Company's f u t u r e i n t h e P a c i f i c  west. by  that cattle  en-  Fort Nisqually  t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e Company's  pounds f o r t h e purchase o f c a t t l e  acknowledged  rarely est-  When t h e L o n d o n C o m m i t t e e a u t h o r i z e d t h e e x p e n d i t u r e thousand  first  From t h e i r  F r a s e r and F o r t N i s q u a l l y on Puget  i n farming  products,  r e s p o n s i b l e , Dr. John McLoughlin,  s u p p l i e d t o t h e Company's s h i p s .  ablishment the  As t h e e s s e n c e o f  was r e v e a l e d  i n 1839 when t h e  Company was f o r m e d  Under t h e nominal  interest  as a s a t e l l i t e  s u p e r v i s i o n o f John  of  -  McLoughlin, of  an  the to  agreement w i t h  the  Fort  tallow  fulfill was  provide provisions,  and and  i t s new  subsidiary and  Cowlitz, wool  over  was  also  sheep  one  beef,  intended to breed  at i t s central  i n the returning  cows and  three  a  locations, hides, ships.  o f t h e Company's f i r s t  s i x hundred  whereby  newly  to permit the export of  to England  terms  including  1  contract,  to purchase  the  posts. ''" F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e  stock of c a t t l e  Nisqually  horns,  coastal  agricultural  sufficient  designed to f u l f i l l  t h e R u s s i a n - A m e r i c a n F u r Company  company w o u l d  latter's  created  -  t h e c o m p a n y was  ± 0  British  4  To  decisions  thousand  12 sheep  from C a l i f o r n i a .  Sound A g r i c u l t u r a l tractual vided  ample g r a i n , fell  1841,  to  transfer  was  i n meeting  Although the Nisqually  quantities  of beef  and  quality  the Cowlitz  surplus  cattle to Nisqually 13  Walla Walla.  so d i s s a t i s f i e d  with  The  to provide foodstuffs  discontinued  when t h e l e a s i n g  this  Colvile, Company  Company's  part  arrangement  summer  McLoughlin  Russian-American  that  butter  In the  from F o r t s  t h e Hudson's Bay  pro-  farm  enough  o f S p a n i s h cows f o r c e d  Puget  i t s con-  operation  of the necessary requirements.  the poor  Okanagan and  ability  difficulty  however, the  McLoughlin's attempts to produce  f a r short  of  was  Company h a d  obligations.  sufficient  From t h e o u t s e t ,  of the was  capagreement  renewed i n  1849. Despite p r o d u c t i o n problems in  attracting  vants,  settlers  the Puget  who  would  work  Sound A g r i c u l t u r a l  and  the lack  f o r a few  Company saw  of  success  y e a r s as i t s herds  ser-  -  increase the  14  substantially.  Puget  Sound b a s i n  livestock. grass and of  vegetation,  The  was  T h e r e was  5  -  t o p o g r a p h y and  ideally  an  the  climate  of  s u i t e d f o r the  grazing  of  abundance of  easy a c c e s s i b i l i t y  comparatively  mild winters.  company e m p l o y e e , M i c h a e l  At  highly nutritious short to  s t r e a m s and  rivers  N i s q u a l l y , the  Simmons p r e s e n t s  a  evidence  pleasant  picture: A l l o v e r t h e t r a c t were bands o f h o r s e s and c a t t l e and h e r d s o f s h e e p . They had five o r s i x w h i t e herdsman and f i f t e e n o r t w e n t y Indians; they l i v e d i n houses s c a t t e r e d o v e r t h e p l a i n s . . . The c a t t l e w e r e i n s m a l l bands l y i n g a l l over the p r a i r i e and a p p e a r e d t a m e ; i n t h e summer t i m e a g o o d many r a n g e d i n t h e w o o d s a n d m a r s h e s when t h e g r a s s was d r y o n t h e p l a i n s . This Hudson's Bay of  the  the  period  of  tranquillity  Company a n d  i t s agricultural  forty-ninth parallel  Company's a t t e m p t s  and  to  was  expansion subsidiary  shortlived.  settle  for  First  the  south  of a l l ,  f a m i l i e s u p o n one  thousand  16 acre  leaseholds  h o w e v e r , was into  the  was  the  an  aggressive  Oregon and  responsible  movement o f  reveal that  f o r the  the  More  American  Washington t e r r i t o r i e s  Contemporary r e p o r t s partly  unqualified failure.  settlers  i n the  American  r a p i d d i s p e r s a l and  important,  1840's.  settlers  were  depletion  of  17 the  Corporation's  alternative  of  slaughtered  and  herds.  either standing removed by  ward t o Vancouver I s l a n d or It  i s not  The  C o m p a n y was by  and  watching  boat or moving t o one  surprising therefore  that  of  faced  the  with  their  the stock  i t s livestock northInterior  shortly before  posts. the  -  diplomatic Treaty and  discussions  i n 1846,  cattle  to Fort  an  respecting  were d r i v e n  the  -  the  unknown number o f  Kamloops.  probably  6  north  According  first  Oregon the  Boundary  Company's  horses  from C o w l i t z  and  to  Ormsby, t h i s  Professor  l i v e s t o c k t o be  brought  Nisqually  into  was  the  18 Southern  Interior  Plateau  the  Boundary Treaty  and  the  Puget  of  guaranteed  south  on  l i v e s t o c k i n d u s t r y on  of  the  industry cattle  Islands  were of  American  minimum o f the  It  must be the  Methodist Jason  couragement of  Lee  Willamette  Chief  at  pioneer  l i v e s t o c k i n the  i n the  of  the  and  the  live-  the  Sandwich  introduced with  considerable  by a  potential  raising.  only  as  nonetheless,  adaptation  the  sub-  Although  those  s u r v i v a l and  mentioned  of  a mission  to  influence  s i d e was  foundation  Northwest.  Company  possessory  their  corporations,  illustrated  breeders 18 3 4 ,  American  breeding  their  for stock  were not  Hudson's Bay  from C a l i f o r n i a  inferior  supervision  region  traders  Pacific  Although  Company t h e i r  the  British  imported  settlers,  the  f o r l a y i n g the  i n the  Spanish  of  The  been r e s p o n s i b l e  stock  Columbia.  Forty-ninth parallel,  merged a f t e r 1846. had  to  Sound A g r i c u l t u r a l  rights the  British  Factor  v o l v e m e n t i n a g r i c u l t u r e and  this  point  that  the  agriculturists  Old  Oregon country.  and  his associates  Valley with  the  John McLoughlin.  fur  and As  early  established  a i d and 19 Their  a n i m a l h u s b a n d r y was  enin-  i n part  a  logical  way  adapt to Their with  to  the  encourage the  white  m a n ' s way  commitment t o the  stock  o r g a n i z a t i o n of  Its  first  and  cooperation,  Indians  to  of  and  life  raising the  was  to  and  religious  Willamette  e m p l o y men  down  formalized  decision, with McLoughlin's was  settle  faith.  i n 18 37  C a t t l e Company.  financial  involvement  t o d r i v e a band of  six  20  hundred c a t t l e outcome of perity  of  northward  this the  opened the  enterprise laid  initial  way  into  settlers  to the  Oregon c o u n t r y . people  from C a l i f o r n i a .  The  the  the  expansion of of  cattle  interests  Oregon Country.  bodied  i n the  migration  and  assured  cattle  f o r the  ranching  the  with  a  as  by  the  many a s  few  years  superior  two  American  replacement of  cattle  in  thousand  dominance of  Within  pros-  Valley,and  more t h a n one  r e s u l t e d i n the  h a l f w i l d Spanish  successful  Willamette  C o l u m b i a V a l l e y i n 1843  thousand head of  overland  foundation  i n the  migration  The  this  the  light-  American  stock. The  arrival  good g r a z i n g the  land  Valley, river  of  the  moved i n t o Further  the  country  gold  into  drove  their  lucrative  market.  and  occupied the  east  livestock  surplus  Yet,  availability  while  was  1849. cattle the  the  the  the  of  herds  Rogue  Columbia  created  as  Willamette  finalized,  the  of  natural  Umpqua a n d  O r e g o n t r e a t y was  discoveries of  cattlemen  the  which to u t i l i z e  Settlers  north  raise  and  r a p i d expansion of  southward  Once t h e  impetus to  California  method by  region.  then pushed  valleys.  settlers  l e d to the  most p r a c t i c a l  resources  of  by  they River.  the  E n t e r p r i s i n g Oregon southwards to  mining  this  potential in  Cali-  -  fornia first  and  southern  steady  -  Oregon p r o v i d e d  market,  Oregon economy.  8  As  i t a l s o had e a r l y as  an  neglected  oxen"  of  and  that  "a  ranchers  1849,  that  the  farms  territory  were b e i n g  This  situation  i n Oregon  taken  to  their  upon  Governor  i n Oregon  large p o r t i o n of  that  with  adverse e f f e c t  April,  Oregon, Joseph Lane, complained being  the  the the  the of  were  horses  and  California  22 mines. sidelight  of  Potentially  the  later  lucrative  almost always enticed labour  force to  for a  ties.  temporary  mining  a  short  mining  s i z e a b l e p o r t i o n of  time  current at  economic  to  endeavours  the  the  instability  region's  new  Oregon and  the  T e r r i t o r y of Washington contained  population  of  livestock  were e q u a l l y  The  impressive;  1860  devote  opportuni-  i n the  however,  for  By  and  N o r t h w e s t was,  64,059 i n h a b i t a n t s .  important  occupation  least,  shortlived.  an  experience.  employment i n the  abandon t h e i r  themselves, This  Cariboo  foreshadowed  the  American State a  combined  corresponding 63,106 m i l k  of  totals cows, 23  10,203 oxen, This  and  109,073 c a t t l e ,  meant t h a t w i t h  ment i n 1858, ready  to  the  exploit While  the  Oregon  establishments  scale. ordered  2 4  In A p r i l , the  at  Company h a d  the  total  and  182,382.  gold excite-  i n d u s t r y was  poised  and  market.  industry developed, continued  N i s q u a l l y on  parent  a s s o c i a t e company t o  of  Fraser  lucrative  livestock  Cowlitz  1847,  the  livestock  a potentially  Puget Sound A g r i c u l t u r a l its  advent of  American  the  for a  to a  Hudson's Bay  remove the  the  operate reduced Company  majority  of  the  -  livestock decision  from was  south  but  one  draw from American its  activities  terms of  of  of  the  of  territory  north of  farming  the  and  -  Forty-ninth parallel.  aspect  agricultural  expansion  9  the  and  company's p l a n  henceforth  International  to  to  with-  concentrate  boundary.  pastoral pursuits,  operations  This  this  at Fort Langley  In  meant  and  the  the  2 6 recently  established Fort Victoria.  reinforced cided  two  to create  understanding ment o f the  "a  the  they  later colony  were t o  settlement  Hudson's Bay  newly  or  the  southern  Company o n c e a g a i n  gentleman w i t h  sufficient  price  required couples  of  l a n d a t one  to b r i n g out f o r every  Island.  On  supervise  of  resident  was de-  the  the  establish-  colonists", to  t i p of Vancouver  one  the  the  belief  capital P o u n d an single  c o l o n i s t was 2 8  to hire acre men  acres  Chief Factor  every  three  purchased,  With landowner  married the  fur  Douglas q u i c k l y  was  i n sharp  Washington T e r r i t o r y Land  settlers  Law  who  of  had  bought  land.  c o n t r a s t to the at this  1850,  time.  This  occupied  and  in  Here, under  cultivated  By  restrictive  situation  lands were granted  trade  proved  had  men  be  the  labour.  and or  settle-  t h a t l a n d must  only  eleven  Hudson's  to promote a g r i c u l t u r a l  most a t t r a c t i v e  hundred  I s l a n d , the  which t o promote c o l o n i z a t i o n . 29  Donation to  Parliament  a p o o r means by  land policy and  settlements  five  company's scheme u n d e r  1852,  f i n a n c e and  to propound  t h a t the  be  of Vancouver  set out  h i g h p r i c e d and  to  British  Company a s s u m e d p r o p r i e t o r y r i g h t s 27  ment. They c o n t i n u e d  the  when t h e  development  constituted colony. On  Bay  years  This  the  f r e e of  land  for  Oregon  charge four  - 10 -  years,  or t i t l e  c o u l d be g r a n t e d  after  two y e a r s  upon p a y -  30 ment o f $1.25 an a c r e . grew s t e a d i l y , gentry  Hence, w h i l e  t h e Company's e f f o r t s  continued  to falter  the American to attract  throughout  a  region landed  t h e 1850's.  agricultural  operations  were c e n t r e d  a t C r a i g f l o w e r , Constance Cove, V i e w f i e l d  Colwood. hired  At these  bailiffs  agricultural limited breed, In  activities.  As t h e e x t e n t  and Company  of stock records  end o f Vancouver  self-sufficiency  raising  was  was a s l o w  I s l a n d never d i d reach  t h e r e was p r o d u c e d  locally  of Her Royal  Spanish process.  a r e any i n d i c a t i o n , t h e  e v e n f o r i t s own l o c a l  the requirements  of pasture  o f herds were o f t h e i n f e r i o r  i f the McKenzie  What b e e f  Island  on a c o n t r a c t u a l b a s i s t o s u p e r v i s e t h e 31  the establishment  fact,  on Vancouver  farms t h e P u g e t Sound A g r i c u l t u r a l  and t h e nucleus  southern  by  that d i d exist  The  beef  a level  requirements.  was q u i c k l y  Majesty's  of 32  absorbed  squadron a t  Esquimault. As the  British  t h e Hudson's B a y Company, w i t h Colonial  colonization New  the  corporation.  plexion First the  Caledonia  o f t h e New  proposal  Island, the f u r trade i n  Department continued With  River district  of a l l ,  s e t o u t on i t s i l l - c o n c e i v e d  scheme on V a n c o u v e r  the  Columbia  Office,  to turn a profit f o r  t h e Company's r e t i r e m e n t increasingly  Caledonia  as e a r l y  the cooperation of  from the  inevitable,  f u r trade  changed  t h e com-  considerably.  a s 1 8 4 6 , Company o f f i c i a l s  of Alexander  C. A n d e r s o n t o s e a r c h  had  fora  accepted new  -  route  f o r the  Interior  11  -  brigade.  had  traversed the three  the  Thompson R i v e r t o t h e l o w e r  the  most f e a s i b l e  Coquihalla,  The  Hope t r a i l  after  m e a n t i t was  was  routes  Fraser  and  of t h i s  was  t o and  from Douglas  b y way  of  the  known as  the  to  trail,  that the high  Anderson  advised  Tulameen r i v e r s  b e l i e v e d i t had  directly  the Harrison  a year  Fort  summit e l e v a t i o n  f r e e f r o m snow i n t h e summer m o n t h s .  Douglas  the route  overland  drawback  1849,  only  Nevertheless,  or  major  Within  t o the I n t e r i o r  Similkameen and  Kamloops.  over  route  main  33  definite  down t h e F r a s e r  River route  b y way  advantages  canyon  of the  v i a Yale  Anderson-Seton  34 chain little  of lakes. choice  In fact,  but to adapt  new  highways.  the  most a c c e s s i b l e r o u t e  By  Interior,  was  spreading  Indian  side of the  unrest  Kamloops, served 35  area.  the Fraser,  C o l u m b i a , had  The  t h e Okanagan Lake from the south closed  t o one  to the  to peaceful  had  of  brigade  these  trail, northern  trade  i n the Columbia basin  or  on  "Thompson R i v e r P o s t " ,  as an e n t r e p o t  and  pack-train route  t o Kamloops and long  communication.  on  been regarded  by  the  American  interrupted after  was  n o t abandoned by  t h e 1846  garrison f o r the from F o r t  New  Alexandria,  as a permanent l i n e  the of  transportation route  boundary  t h e Hudson's Bay  entrusted with  had  t o F o r t Okanagan on  When t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  was  K a m l o o p s was  i t s activities  Company  boundary.  traditionally  on  1848,  effectively  Fort  Caledonia  t h e Hudson's Bay  settlement,  Company.  the r a i s i n g  Kamloops  Instead,  of horses f o r the  -  large on  p a c k - t r a i n s the  the  bunch grass  gave the  first  12  -  fur trade  on  the  required.  bench land  indication  of  the  The  horses  surrounding  district's  grazing  Kamloops  potential  as  a  36 fine  stock  farming with  raising  became an  country.  I t was  important  during  Governor Simpson's p o l i c y  such crops  provisions.  of  would  i t i s evident  farm products  rigid  several occasions  economy,  as  p r o v i s i o n s f o r the of  beef,  men  flour  and  Company vegetables in  The  of  fort  the  journal  slaughter of worn-out  i t is significant  potatoes  on  food  from N i s q u a l l y .  personnel  luxury.  the  and  the  that  line  cereals,  periodically  a  records  In  them s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  that to  remained  on  serving  render  Livestock arrived  Nevertheless, post,  as  years  f a c t o r a t Kamloops.  employees were i n s t r u c t e d t o produce hay, and  these  that  Christmas  horses  the  Day,  1859,  37 was  an  event worthy It  reason  i s evident  d i d not  tential  of  the  market f o r beef rush  of  would not  fully  special the  mention  Hudson's Bay  appreciate  the  Kamloops r e g i o n . and  readily  In  fact,  stock-raising  I f they  had  behaviour  C o m p a n y ' s l e a d e r s was  curious  The  men  c o r p o r a t i o n were  They had in  the  Yet,  directed this  moved a g g r e s s i v e l y i n t o  process  while  strengthened  aware of  Thompson r i v e r  gold  district  their  the  the  the  coast  inland fur trade  e a r l y as  1852,  the gold  Hudson's  businessmen. trade  and  market.  quantities in their  the  1850's.  shrewd  Pacific  i n considerable as  po-  c o n t r o l of  of  throughout  some  Cariboo  come u n d e r t h e the  journal.  done so,  the  Bay  who  fort  Company f o r  m u t t o n t h a t came w i t h  have so  American cattlemen.  i n the  only  the  reaction  was t o v e i l this the  exploitation  had  i n secrecy.  One c a n u n d e r s t a n d  d e c i s i o n i n t e r m s o f t h e Company's d e s i r e t o  Interior.  by  the discovery  of the fur-bearing regions  But senior o f f i c i a l s  personally witnessed the California  a matter ninth  rush,  This  of the  activity  must have r e a l i z e d  the mainland  would witness  Northern  s u c h a s James D o u g l a s ,  t h e spontaneous  of time before  parallel  miners.  gold  continue  north  the onslaught  engendered  i t was  of the of gold  was s u r e l y a r e m a r k a b l e o p p o r t u n i t y  hungry f o rthe  well into  diversification  enterprise, t o prepare  arrival  of a captive market.  leaders  failed  soon t o l o s e mainland  In this  to react positively  their  position  of B r i t i s h  instance,  only  forty-  Hudson's Bay Company, a l r e a d y as a business  a stage  who  o f economic f o rthe  t h e Company's  and i n the process  were  as t h e dominant i n f l u e n c e on t h e  Columbia. * * * * * * * * * *  Before  1858, t h e B r i t i s h  Mountains and t h e sea coast vast  Interior  carried from  intrusive  American hold  was c o n s i d e r e d  where t h e s e r v a n t s  on t h e i r  traditional  settlers.  expansion  territory  determination  and t o perpetuate  u p o n t h e r e g i o n was r e s p o n s i b l e of information  concerning  resources.  F o r some y e a r s  before  the American mining  collecting  gold-dust  frontier,  from  Indians  remote,  o f t h e Hudson's Bay  suppression  of  a land  duties without  This  between t h e Rocky  Company  interference to  resist  t h e Company's i n part  a  strangle-  f o r the  the territory's  the northward  initial mineral  penetration  Company o f f i c i a l s  had been  and from i t s French-Canadian  -  employees. the  39  But  amount t h e  this  date  until  14  -  1856,  as  Company a c q u i r e d  t h a t most of  Professor was  i t s officers  Ormsby p o i n t s  s m a l l , and  i t was  learned  recognize  to  out,  only  at  gold  40 m  i t s natural state.  Within  informing  his superiors  miners  to  the  matter  of  time before  the  The  the  centres ensuing  point  important  question  populated  mainland.  the  the  Thompson R i v e r .  population  transitional  that  extension  of  At  the  mining  this the  gold  point new  Western  excitement  in British  had  i t was  mining  only  seaboard. can  be  s e e n as  over  the  a  vast  and  sparsely  colonial  authority or  the  turned  s e r i e s of  d e c i s i v e m a n o e u v r e s by  Douglas ensured  British  goldfields.  As  e a r l y as  December, 1857,  ordinance  which  declared  a l l mines i n the 41  districts  belonged  a mining  1  the  and  only  to provide  a  justification  came t h r o u g h h i s p o s i t i o n as senior to  o f f i c i a l on  administer  solved State  them.  the  Fraser  to  the  colonies, initiated  rich an  Thompson 1,  taxation.  As  18 5 8 , mining  regulations  Bay-Company's the  political  political authority  newly the  and  the  lacked  problem of  issued  regulate  Hudson's he  James  February  f o r i n i t i a t i n g these the  As  potentially  Douglas  framework of  when S i r Edward L y t t o n , f o r the  the  Then on  introduced  mainland,  This  over  Crown.  l i c e n c e s y s t e m was  population Douglas  jurisdiction  either  expansion  it  to  major  The  American t e r r i t o r i a l influence o f f i c i a l l y northward. a  reached  immediate f u t u r e would witness  British  the a  fields  of  out,  was  carried  Columbia's h i s t o r y .  jurisdiction  The  however, Douglas  l u r e of  news o f  along  was  a year,  appointed  next  British  status was  Secretary decision.  of  - 15 -  In  a bold  move,  Lytton  authorized  Hudson's Bay Company's m o n o p o l y Rocky Mountains parliament  legislation  t o c o n s t i t u t e a new c o l o n y ,  over  officially replaced  i n the territory  and i n t r o d u c e d  Hence, as o f August Company  the termination  west of the  i n the B r i t i s h  British  Columbia.  2, 1 8 5 8 , t h e m o n o p o l y o f t h e " H o n o u r a b l e "  the mainland  dead.  of the  north  of the forty-ninth p a r a l l e l  I t s a u t h o r i t y on t h e P a c i f i c  by t h a t o f a c o l o n i a l  G o v e r n o r was g r a n t e d  full  Slope  was  had been  government wherein .t h e  and a b s o l u t e  p o w e r t o make  provision  for  the administration of justice  and, subject  the  B r i t i s h parliament,  t o e s t a b l i s h laws and  the right  t o review  by  42 ordinances. In penetrate  18 58 t h e h e t e r o g e n e o u s m i n i n g  beyond V i c t o r i a  population  a n d up t h e F r a s e r  River  began t o  or follow  43 the  rejuvenated  numbers were the  farmer  keeping  and  sufficient  to quickly represent  and s t o c k r a i s e r i n t h e P a c i f i c  with  frontier,  Columbia-Okanagan V a l l e y route.  a new m a r k e t f o r  Northwest.  Thus i n  t h e p a t t e r n o f t e n observed on t h e North  American  the cattlemen  followed  hard  on t h e heels  of the miner,  one o f t h e immediate consequences o f t h e B r i t i s h  mining  boom was t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a t r a d e  produce. extent  Although  San F r a n c i s c o  i n the cattle  trade  Island, lower  the lower  Puget  Sound.  Fraser 44  source  shared  f o r almost a  was a n a t u r a l e c o n o m i c  earlier,  Columbia and  cattle  t o some decade  o f meat f o r V a n c o u v e r  V a l l e y and t h e American  This  Oregon, as d i s c u s s e d  i n cattle  and Honolulu  to Victoria,  W e s t e r n O r e g o n was t h e p r i n c i p a l  for  Their  towns on t h e development  h a d become a s u r p l u s  stock  - 16 producing  region  over t h e p r e v i o u s two decades.  the newly  constituted  colonial  t h e movement o f A m e r i c a n  Colonies.  I t was o b v i o u s t o D o u g l a s  o f Vancouver  feeding  the rapidly  Island  that  into the  neither  the settled  expanding mining population.  the flow of cattle  t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r  livestock  n o r t h e m a i n l a n d was c a p a b l e o f  more, t h r o u g h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n tariff,  first,  government d i d n o t r e s i s t , b u t  encouraged  region  At  Further-  o f a t e n p e r cent ad valorem  and o t h e r f o o d s t u f f s p r o v i d e d  government w i t h  an immediately source o f  45 revenue. The  response  o f American  to  t h e n o r t h e r n market  in  the expansion of t h e i r  barriers this  was immediate.. American  dealers  new o p p o r t u n i t y .  As e a r l y  markets  River  valleys.  Columbia  River,  Interior  were s e n t , e i t h e r and then d r i v e n  Valley;  thoser'headed  boat t o Monticello  point  Once t h e c a t t l e  welcomed  by boat  herds  Umpqua a n d  drivers  Cattle  reached the  destined  f o r the  or overland t r a i l ,  to the  n o r t h w a r d b y way o f t h e O k a n a g a n  f o rthe coastal  (now K a l a m a ) ,  ward by t h e o l d C o w l i t z  they  a s t h e summer o f 1858,  the route divided.  Dalles,  limited  by g e o g r a p h i c a l  from t h e W i l l a m e t t e ,  Columbia  and ranchers  As t h e y were  and t h e non-existence o f a r a i l w a y ,  b e g a n t o move n o r t h w a r d  this  cattle  market  and then were d r i v e n  r o a d t o t h e head  they were t r a n s p o r t e d  were c a r r i e d  o f Puget  by steamer  north-  Sound.  down P u g e t  by  From  Sound  46 to V i c t o r i a , The and  t h e main c o a s t a l  market.  r o u t e b y way o f P u g e t  the lower Fraser V a l l e y  Sound t o V a n c o u v e r  had decided advantages  Island  over the  -  alternative  Puget  Save f o r the could  be  b r o u g h t by  land  Sound B a s i n ,  where they  could  Sound.  Furthermore,  Victoria Island,  a  the  free port.  imposed  hostile risk  Indian of  throughout the  1858  with  the  Plateau interior 47 1858.  Interior and  1859  was as  region. route  The was  the  grazed  to  until  the  ten  and  P u g e t Sound r o u t e  the  Vancouver  per  cent  Kamloops. was  drovers  British  declared  entering  the  Westminster  logistic the  used  the  movement o f  from Western Oregon t o  the  and  ad Yet  absence  packers  natives  of  ran  scattered  region.  P u g e t Sound n e t w o r k ,  Columbia  the  livestock  The  more  River,  be  Columbia  harassment from the  coastal the  the  transportation across  subject  population.  Indian  Despite  in  American  the  s h o r t e r and  D o u g l a s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had  a t New  another advantage of  little  their  t h e r e f o r e , were not  valorem duty  the  I t was  crossing of  Columbia market warranted  any  -  Okanagan V a l l e y r o u t e .  economical. livestock  17  the  and  remunerative  overland  route  i n c r e a s i n g l y by  market g r a d u a l l y mining  first  organized  by  into  of  British  packers  drive along  General  the  shifted  population  cattle  to  security  and  drovers  eastward the  the  Interior  more  J o e l Palmer  in  arduous June,  -  Basically,  Palmer  from the D a l l e s ; the  Snake  Simcoe,  River  -  and  subsequent drovers followed  one  b y way  to Priest  striking  18  o f W a l l a W a l l a and  R a p i d s and  t h e Columbia above  the other the head  two  routes  t h e mouth b y way  of  of  of  Priest  48 Rapids.  After  ariving  territory,  Palmer  at Fort  followed  Okanagan, i n . W a s h i n g t o n  t h e Okanagan R i v e r  northward,  crossing  49 the  International  established then up and  boundary  initially  by  l e d northward along  t o i t s head, Kamloops.  same r o u t e  s o u t h o f Osoyoos.  t h e Hudson's Bay  was  As  P a l m e r made a  i n 1859,  he w a s  of the opinion  the Interior  of f a l l i n g  a reference  route  i t was  his fellow  market, p a r t i c u l a r l y danger  that  second  obviously  the Fraser  J a n u a r y , 1860,  improve  brigade,  t h e n v e e r e d t o w a r d t h e Thompson R i v e r  C o l u m b i a t h a n by in  Company  River  optimistic  about  system.  of American  "British  cattle  administration  posed  restrictive  custom  road building  only  interests  the Douglas  duties  warned  would  policy.  to  T h i s was  be  construct  a minimal threat into  in  obviously  to  the Interior  a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y had and  the  network'., o r t h e m i n i n g  control".  posed  True,  ambitious  by  A m e r i c a n s m u s t move q u i c k l y  i n the Similkameen region,  control"  the  the  goods  B u t a s he  to the c o l o n i a l  "British  Valley  t o the Cariboo mines.  cheaper t o ship 50  communications  under  Lake  j o u r n e y o v e r much  government's d e c i s i o n t o . . 51 a r o a d f r o m Hope t o t h e Rock C r e e k m i n i n g a r e a .  extension  route,  the w e s t e r n s h o r e o f Okanagan  Columbia River-Okanagan V a l l e y He  This  road t o l l s  the  market. im-  to finance  B u t , i n t h e meantime, as  an the  - 19  London Times c o r r e s p o n d e n t  -  Donald Fraser  so a p t l y  observed,  52 "even m i n e r s frontier  cannot e a t gold".  was p u s h i n g  administration's nucleus  ability  of mining  Hope a n d F o r t practically  the Interior  Yale,  line  begun t o c r a w l  o f men,  north  Cariboo  region  a route  Neither  a valuable  Cariboo  route  supervision,  but there  was h e a v i l y u s e d  of gold  during  and  at Keithley eastward  from  Cariboo  into the  f o r the promotion  route,  n o r t h e y e t t o be  Canyon t o L y t t o n  to transport livestock.  constructed  i s little  a  had begun.  population  suitable f o r livestock  Hope t o S i m i l k a m e e n t r a i l ,  ended,  R i v e r , Okanagan and Kamloops. 54  up t h e F r a s e r  means b y w h i c h  internal  the strike  the Cariboo  River-Lillooet  road  the  the  t h e summer  a d d i t i o n a l impetus  b y way o f t h e C o l u m b i a  the Harrison  completed  wholly  provided  along  t o t h e Quesnel and  movement o f t h e m i n i n g  were  between A l e x a n d r i a  supply  The a d v a n c e t o w a r d  The  of  the considerable  spur o f t h e Rocky Mountains  Lake region.  Fort  c a r r y i n g heavy  from Yale  Before  B y t h e s p r i n g o f 18 6 0 ,  Creek confirmed the  between  t o Boston Bar, L i l l o o e t , P a v i l i o n , 53  and on t o A l e x a n d r i a . "  George.  the colonial  by t h e s p r i n g o f 1859 t h e o l d b a r s  t h o u s a n d men w e r e w o r k i n g i n t h e a r e a Fort  mining  f a s t e r than  had been i n t h e area  abandoned as "a t h i n  dangerous t r a i l  the  t o c o n t r o l i t . W h e r e a s i n 1858 t h e  activity  packs, had already  Fountain  into  Essentially,  t h e boom y e a r s  The  only  was t h e F o r t  under Edgar  evidence  proved  Dewdney's  t o suggest  of the Cariboo  this rush.  -  The  majority of  the  and  sheep, entered  Okanagan V a l l e y . to appease the Southern the  duties  livestock, the.colony  This  New  on  cent  ad  -  which by  included horses,  way  i s manifest  Westminster  Boundary A c t  ten per  20  of  Osoyoos and  a l l goods and  m e r c h a n t s by  tariff,  animals  the  i n Governor Douglas'  i n December, 1860.  valorem  cattle  i n t r o d u c i n g the  This Act  and  effort  abandoned  applied heavier  entering British  customs  territory  55  through the  the  Southern  Interior.  continual surveillance  Boundary creek virtually  to the  politically  In  motivated  the p r a c t i c a l Creek live  one  Cariboo  governor  duty  of  Governor Douglas  livestock  trade  had  to the  R.C.  on  British by  the  ranchers  market.  very  employed  i n the  i n Oregon a t  seen a t once $10  need  urgent  Commissioner to three  for  that  at  Rock  thousand  per  northern  from  to American  Upper Country, cattle  the  head are  to  export cattlemen.  i n his prize-winning  persons  chased  the  for increased supplies  profitable  i n "the  be  1862,  the  d e a l e r s were w i l l i n g  The  i n 1863,  a s may  itself  c r o s s i n g s were  become so  two  and  Columbia  large,  By  Gold  i n h i s request  Lundin-Brown p o i n t e d out  obtained  from  6  Cariboo  i n f a c t proven  As  extending  i t proved  broken.  importation of  free.^  demanded  that Douglas expected  mines had  directed  American c a t t l e oblige  open p l a i n  suspects  a c t t o be  to encourage the cattle  legislation  before permanent border  fact,  A m e r i c a n meat a t t h e  the  this  Okanagan V a l l e y ,  ineffectual  established.  of  As  business  fact  sold  essay  the  i s very  that beasts  three or  profit  four  purmonths  - 21 afterward  i n the north  a t $50  -  per head  and  cost  literally  58 nothing merely  f o r f o o d by reflected  all  commodities  for  example,  t h e way."  This  the exorbitant i n the remote  bacon  was  40C  remarkable p r i c e  prices  charged f o r p r a c t i c a l l y  m i n i n g camps.  a pound  difference  In June,  a t L i l l ' o o e t and  1861,  75£  a  pound  59 at  Keithley  Creek.  A year later,  agent of the I n t e r i o r , pound,  beans  $1  reported  a pound,  flour  vicinity  of f i f t y  however,  the transportation  ties  involved  goods, ster  once  navigation,  Cariboo.  Point  $1.50  had  Point  a pound  f o r the arduous  Douglas, government  $1.50  beef  States,  mutton,  The  New  Westmin-  t o t h e head  of  then transferred  five  hundred  were a l l o w e d  officials  a  i n the  adventure.  steamer  and  express  t o t h e C a r i b o o communi-  the United  or Yale,  B e f o r e t h e goods  and  financial  t o be moved by  Douglas  a t C a r i b o o was  of staples  purchased i n either  the pioneer  O u t s i d e o f b e e f and  a rather precarious  horse, mule o r camel the  bacon  c e n t s a pound.  or V i c t o r i a ,  Ballou,  mile  beyond  imposed  to trek  Yale,  the most  to  Hope  or  resented  60 tax  i n existence  during  Although the cost  stockmen  t h e t a x was  emerged w i t h  of transportation  livestock American  the c o l o n i a l  dealers cattle  an  drovers,  equally  brothers  suaded  by  duties  and  and  o v e r h e a d was  The less  packing confreres.  s u c h as Ben  the H a r p e r s , were not  comparatively  from the American  Outside of small.  goods,  final to  The  Snipes, Major  road t o l l s .  toll.  upon a l l  important advantage.  men  the Jeffrey  were t r a n s p o r t e d  the road  t o t h e m i n i n g m a r k e t s was  Thorp,  expenses, t h e i r  inflicted  than to t h e i r  boundary  period,  the early  John disthese  Cattle  ranching markets with  a  -  m i n i m a l amount o f The  very  route land  skilled  restricted  before along  existent.  1863  the  22  -  supervision  number o f  transportation  from the  various  Interior  Plateau,  directly  related to  the  or  routes  settlements  cattleman's  the  small  seasonal  legal  was  for isolated  Indian  a  permanent s e t t l e r s  meant c o m p e t i t i o n  Thus, except  and  along  claim  non-  throughout  worries of  grazing  interference  scattered  nature  force. the  for  virtually  cases of  real  labour  were  the  the  more  mining  market  itself. There i s l i t t l e of  the  One  original  major  Journal,  cattle  source,  the  precise  drovers  information  or  the  H u d s o n ' s Bay  is particularly  scale  as  of  to  their  Company F o r t  cattle  a r r i v e d on  their  band of  cattle  a r r i v e d from the  way  to  the  operations.  "another  mines", or  D a l l e s " , are  identity  Kamloops  vague i n i t s r e f e r e n c e s ;  band of  the  typical  "a  large  entries  61 made b y  Chief  following 1858  and  the 1859,  "heavy c a t t l e to  one  T r a d e r W i l l i a m Manson. pioneering  Jerome Harper dealers"  Oregon to  the  mentioned  stockmen  British  pioneer  venture  into  drovers the  J.H.  Fort  do  know  l e d by  General Palmer  from  from Northern 6 2 Interior.  six  The  (sometimes s p e l l e d originally  most were  "Jeffrie"  Dalles  i n the with  and  brothers or Their  fall "a  be  frequently  from Alabama.  C a r i b o o m a r k e t was  in  hundred  California  Kamloops J o u r n a l  when J o h n J e f f r e y s a r r i v e d f r o m t h e  that  Parsons were s a i d t o  each year drove  Columbia  i n the  drives  and  cattle  Oliver Jeffreys,  Jefferie") first  who  thousand head of  J o h n and  cattle  We  of  1860  large  band  of  cattle. ""  as  w i t h i n a year  U  Jeffreys  This  J  initial  W.G.  Cox  d r i v e must have proven s u c c e s s f u l  reported the  w i t h e i g h t hundred  cattle  arrival  who  "will,  of  a  Mr.  i f possible, 64  control  the  beef market i n the  Harper-Parsons probably market, mining the  Upper Country".  p a r t n e r s h i p and  the  Jeffreys  the  largest  c o n t r i b u t o r sto the  they  were by  no  years.  firm  of  T h e r e was  Snipes  John Thorp and involved  means w i t h o u t  and  a host  of  i n the  developing  brothers  fledgling  other  smaller  British  were  i n the  peak  competitors;  Company,  were o t h e r  the  Cariboo  competition  Murphy, W a l d r o n and  Daniel Drumheller  Although  Major  Americans  Columbia c a t t l e  also  trade  65 before  1865. The  into to  the  year  Cariboo  stabilize and  growth.  T h i s was of  October,  social  the  and  fancying  f i f l y or  would without  most, bag the  a pile  bosom o f  had  absurd  As  nuggets,  f a m i l y and  with  John  come t o B r i t i s h and  hundred d o l l a r s reach  and  friends,  Cariboo  a l l i n one little,  began  and  the  the  sudden  Robson,  to h i s readers  expectations  one  difficulty  of  process.  influx  population  four thousand persons  Columbian admitted  m a n y men  that with  that point the  inevitable  "the most Uptopian  they  to  greatest population  s t r u c t u r e b e g a n t o c a t c h up  an  too  the  After  three  British  1862,  marked  region.  at about  economic  editor  18 62  in  Columbia  with  notions, in their  in a  few  season,  i f any,  pocket  weeks  at  return  to  short  of  6 6 millionaires".  For  the  In the  sad  reality.  the  m a j o r i t y , the Cariboo  opposite  country,  the  was  best  more  gold  often  was  -  found  deep i n the ground  24  and  -  c o u l d o n l y be  reached  by  sinking  6 7 shafts  forty  or  fifty  feet  to bedrock.  works r e q u i r e d  capital  miners  partnerships.  to form  become h e a v i l y less  capitalized  profitable.  location like  was  forcing  from  the  frontier,  throughout thousand  Hence, by  and  placer  compelled  1862  the  mining  p a c k i n g and  many  industry  became  the r e s u l t i n g  hundreds of miners  the  rapid  had  increasingly  economic  to consider  dis-  alternatives  r a n c h i n g , o r more o f t e n ,  transition  i n the B r i t i s h  i t continued to attract  1861-62 as  cattle  1860,  expensive  de-  region.  Despite mining  after  Furthermore,  road-building,  parting  which,  These more  that  i s evidenced  by  American  Columbia  drovers  the  estimated s i x  entered the mainland  colony during  this  68 year.  The  imposed by  abrupt decline  the American  i n 1863  was  government as  the  result  a civil  war  of  an  embargo  measure  late  69 in  1862.  of  the  The  Douglas  embargo by  Osoyoos, States  "not  administration  i n f o r m i n g J.C.  to interfere  Government f o l l o w i n g  cooperated with the  Haynes, c o l l e c t o r  terms  o f Customs  w i t h any  officers  of  the  animals  smuggled  across  at  United the  70 boundary."  This decision  Jeffreys  families,  Southern  cause.  and  British  1863,  both  must have i r r i t a t e d  very outspoken  However, owing  officials,  to permit the export of  territory records  bordered  indicate,  on  sympathizers of  to agitation  t h e e m b a r g o was  the m o d i f i c a t i o n  from  Ocean.  i n any But,  came t o o  as  late  and  the  both  modified i n  stock raised  the P a c i f i c  the Harper  American  September, state the  or  Osoyoos  to allow  the  -  resumption  of  passed  Osoyoos Customs  the  rest of  the  Only  i n September and  1188  head  none d u r i n g  the  year.  articles  of  the beef food,  colonial  observers  upon the  neighbouring  food.  I n 18 62  round  figures,  over  -  l a r g e s c a l e d r i v e s i n 1863.  Although other  25  as  the  twenty-seven  of beans, r i c e ,  not  extended  i t r e a f f i r m e d w h a t was  a  "potentially  Republic  colony  twenty  e m b a r g o was  of  thousand b a c o n and  f o r the  "a  great bulk  Columbia  head of  barrels  s e e n by  some  d i s a s t r o u s " dependence  British  thousand  to  of  thousand  and  their  imported,  livestock flour,  of  and  a  to say  one  in little  nothing  other  72 articles". for  the  gold  The  colony  and  beef  t o t u r n away f r o m  to concentrate  livestock,  cereal  crops  T h e r e was  by  producing  some g r a i n ,  within  the  emanating  this  time  colony, but from A  a  temporary  logical beef  to  was  inform  herd  of  vegetables  few  vegetables they  of  by  the  at  and  no  i t s own  roadside  running  production  of  borders.  establishments  small  means s a t i s f i e d  of  the  i n the the  1862-63 c a t t l e Cariboo.  British cattle  herds the  demands  drivers"  seventy-five cents  arrived  On  embargo  January  C o l o n i s t wrote  were a v a i l a b l e  same c o r r e s p o n d e n t  had  need  regions.  head of c a t t l e "  cattle  farms and  "enterprising  selling  month l a t e r ,  within  shortage  field  "about f o r t y  and a  the  e x c l u s i v e p u r s u i t of upon t h e  result  a correspondent  the  more a t t e n t i o n  the mining  1864,  beef  embargo t h e r e f o r e a c c e n t u a t e d  24,  from  t h a t not  Less  could report that a  at Richfield  and  the p r i c e  Rich-  more  i n that area 73  a pound.  was  of  than  and than large beef  a  -  had  fallen  to f i f t y  must have a r r i v e d 1864,  the price  cents  a pound.  26  -  c e n t s a pound.  Subsequently, other  a t the Cariboo mines,  of beef  at William's  f o r by  Creek  was  early only  herds  June, forty  74 this the  The  short period  illustrates  beef market.  Once h e r d s  Washington  Territory  until  s u p p l y was  to  that  a higher level.  arrive  arrived  the highly  population  left  the c a t t l e  infeasible  1865  competitive California  prices  fall  would  e x h a u s t e d and  the majority  to drive  their  i t was  cattle  c o l d months, they t u r n e d t h e i r milder  Splawn,  indication  of this  a young American  back  drover  to  i n the  labours.  of the Cariboo mining months.  financially  Consequently,  and  physically  to the Cariboo during  herds  loose  the  to graze i n the  and  p r a c t i s e was  cattle  of  and  region  for his  c l i m e s o f t h e Thompson, B o n a p a r t e  first  nature  climbed  years the f i r s t  f o r the winter  drovers found  i n  o f f considerably  then prices  a handsome r e t u r n  the region  of beef  from Oregon,  In these early  guaranteed Before  The  i n the p r i c e  at the Barkerville-Cameronton-Richfield  s p r i n g was  as  fluctuations  Hat  Creek  r e c o r d e d by  d r o v e r who  later  valleys. A.J.  published  the  75 story  o f h i s 1861  cattlemen accepted Donald  experiences.  S n i p e s and  On  M u r p h y , a Mr.  that  Cock and  t h e a d v i s e o f f o r m e r Hudson's Bay  McLean, t o w i n t e r  In  following  winters,  of  wintering  herds under  of  t h e Thompson, Hat  their  herds  other cattle  occasion, Major  Bonaparte  and  on  Nicola  trader,  Creek  followed  minimal supervision  Creek,  Thorp  Company  i n the Hat  dealers  American  valley.  this  practise  t h e open  ranges  valleys  before  -  driving other in  them n o r t h i n t h e  than  the B r i t i s h  accident first in  those  and  of  at prices  closer  the  establishing  themselves  Interior.  As  interests  many o f  i n the  by the  established  the mining  on  animals  on  Benjamin  the American  had  i n the  of  the  the  elements  within  no  intention  always  Company o f f i c i a l ,  the branches  of  the  ranching  they were  livestock be  colony.  At  graciously  and  primarily  to the  avail-  dispensed  Fort  Kamloops, the  were a l l o w e d t o graze  t o become an  influential  the  D a l l e s area, bought a l l the y e a r l i n g  Bay  Company c o u l d s p a r e  at  discouraged  r e c e i v e d by  Thompson R i v e r .  of  Columbia  c a t t l e m e n were not the  ad-  i t i s evident  British  stock h o p e f u l l y would the  valleys  owners,  and  market,  Washington T e r r i t o r y ,  transportation  later  the  excitement.  cattlemen  ranches  Certainly,  Snipes,  of  When  them a l r e a d y were d e v e l o p i n g  c a t t l e m e n were almost  Hudson's Bay  more a c a s e  grazing potential  American  market, where the  maximum p r o f i t .  from  to a p r o f i t a b l e  i n Oregon and  interested able  early  established  began to pre-empt l a n d i n those  obvious  t h a t most of  herds,  than preconceived plan.  by  the  manner  Company, w e r e  I t was  were a v a i l a b l e  inflated  of being  In t h i s  Interior.  settlers  Despite vantage  spring.  circumstance  Interior  -  H u d s o n ' s Bay  Columbia  1862-63, c a t t l e  but  the  27  their  In A p r i l , rancher  calves the  1862,  in  Hudson's  76 same c o m p a n y o f f e r e d  the  at  $25  a head.  Jeffreys  A month  later,  brothers four hundred  the dollars  77 to  enable  these  their  isolated  herds  to clear  occurrences  do  customs a t Osoyoos. not  Although  represent conclusive proof,  - 28 -  it  i s evident  need  t o expand  confines of  t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y C o m p a n y now r e c o g n i z e d t h e their  b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s beyond  of the f u r trade.  labour  and p r o v i s i o n s  the  first  the  livestock  created  business enterprise business.  miners  and t r a v e l l e r s  hungry  Indians. By  beginning  In order  7  the traditional  t o meet t h e h i g h e r  by t h e m i n i n g  cost  discoveries,  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w a s now i n  They s o l d  as w e l l  surplus  as p r o v i d i n g  stock  to passing  t h e odd s t e e r t o  8  t h e summer o f 1 8 6 5 t h e C a r i b o o r e g i o n  to decline  stock.  One r e p o r t  cattle  were g r a z i n g  as an i m p o r t a n t market  estimated  was  f o rAmerican  live-  a s many a s t w o t h o u s a n d h e a d o f  i n t h e Kamloops  district  waiting  f o r an  79 improved market. were n o t o v e r l y  The A m e r i c a n distressed  ranchers and drovers,  by t h e development,  the  B r i t i s h Columbia mining market  the  Kootenay mines.  estimated their  supplies,  of  Walla Walla,  f o r i n 18 64  had broadened  a t Wild  including  Horse  C r e e k , who  beef, from the American 80  L e w i s t o n and W a l l u l a .  In that  attracted  a c o n s i d e r a b l e movement o f m i n e r s i n t o  of B r i t i s h Columbia. large  to  B r i t i s h Columbia c a t t l e  that  Both t h e s e markets were  r a n c h e s w e r e now i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p m e n t the  industry  communities  o f the Columbia  p a r t by American p a c k e r s and d r o v e r s .  most  same y e a r t h e  of gold  the  i n t h e B i g Bend r e g i o n  an  received  discovery  area  to include  B y t h e summer o f 1 8 6 4 t h e r e w e r e  t h o u s a n d men  of  however,  River  remote  served f o r  While a few i n the  Interior,  b y no means h a d e v o l v e d  t h e p o i n t w h e r e i t was r e a d y t o compete w i t h A m e r i c a n  live-  - 29 stock nor  interests.  Hence, a t t h i s  t h e B i g Bend m i n i n g  fluence  Interior  According  rapid  this,  livestock  exhibited  t h e Kootenay  any major i n -  raising  i n the Southern  the predominant American m a r k e t was  to the cattle  importations after  import  fell  from  CATTLE  also  interest  on t h e d e c l i n e  statistics  compiled  i n  by 1865.  by  F.W.  18 62 o n w a r d , b u t t h e d e c l i n e  was  1865. TABLE IMPORTATIONS  NO.  YEAR  neither  Plateau. Beyond  Laing,  frontiers  upon t h e development o f s t o c k  Interior  the  stage,  OF  - MAINLAND B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  YEAR  CATTLE  1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870  499 962 1,625 4,343 1,299 3,000  1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864  I  NO.  OF  -  1859-1870  CATTLE  3,429 2,399 1,897 1,841 698 264  TOTAL - 2 2 , 2 5 6  Only t h e Harper b r o t h e r s , import c a t t l e  from Oregon and C a l i f o r n i a  Most o f t h e i d e n t i f i a b l e their  attentions  ill-fated  Jerome and Thaddeus, c o n t i n u e d t o  attempt  cattle  elsewhere. to outfit  dealers  The J e f f r e y s  on a r e g u l a r appear t o have brothers,  a Confederate privateer  basis. turned  after  an  i n Victoria,  -  returned  to Dalles City,  30  -  Oregon, where John J e f f r e y s  died  8 2 in  February,  business gold of  1867.  to devote  c l a i m on  Snipes  gether  Major Thorp abandoned fully  A n t l e r Creek.  and  one  himself  the  cattle  development of  Benjamin Snipes,  Murphy, r e t u r n e d  of  to the  the  of  the  t o O r e g o n w h e r e he  most s u c c e s s f u l ranches  his  firm  put  i n the  to-  Columbia  8 3 basin.  O t h e r men  colony  itself;  years a  while  pursued  Mr.  Cock o p e r a t e d  another  lucrative  drover,  road-side  As  the  began to  fade,  Interior  P l a t e a u of  identity appear  by  British  from Osoyoos t o the ship between the  C o l u m b i a was  ranches  along  the  Cariboo.  American P a c i f i c would continue  colonial  period.  Interior  more, would of  the  But, the it  herds. not  The  immediately  c o l o n i e s ' n e e d t o be was  more t h a n  sites of  i t s  begun  the  trade the  balance  of  American  spokesman were  the depend  furtherdomination  Vancouver I s l a n d . serious  about  in livestock  that this  to  British  community,  the  own  relation-  their  ranching  a  communication  to establish  challenge  1865  had  on  would  self-sufficient  e v i d e n t by  settled  to develop  F r a s e r V a l l e y and  l e a d e r s and  Southern  f o r some t i m e  livestock  fledgling  beef market i n the  i f colonial  t o be  farm  f o r the  potential  t h a t the  N o r t h w e s t and  ranchers  Washington  f o r many  the m i n e r a l  Admittedly,  Interior  foundation  and  main l i n e s  Columbia  upon Oregon and  over  already beginning  Small  the  at Quesnel  i n c r e a s i n g evidence  I t was  sporadically  the  within  Sumner B a t e s , e s t a b l i s h e d 84 Cariboo road.  excitement  t h e r e was  1865.  interests  a ferry  Aschael  house on  initial  permanent b a s i s .  business  dependence  produce, logically  -  rested  with  the development  31  -  of the I n t e r i o r ' s  tential.  The  Hudson's Bay  Company a n d  interests  had  demonstrated  the c a p a b i l i t i e s  for  stock  raising.  now  depended upon t h e C o l o n i a l  themselves.  Further  impetus  ranching  the American of the  po-  cattle region  f o r i t s development  government  and  the  settlers  CHAPTER I I  The  Ranching  Frontier  i n the Interior  The  Colonial  Plateau of British  Period  When t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e initiated joining  t h e debate upon t h e p r o s p e c t  Confederation  yet,  agricultural  the colony  Council  of British  1870, one o f t h e p r i n c i p a l  d i s c u s s i o n was t h e p r o t e c t i o n a n d p r o m o t i o n nascent  Columbia  and stock r a i s i n g  Columbia topics of  of the colony's  community.''"  had n o t r e l e a s e d i t s e l f  from  As  a heavy  depen-  2 dence upon American  sources  f o rlivestock  There was, however, a b r i g h t of  the Southern  raising Colonial of  an the to  a r e a was f i r m l y  despatch  i n an expanding  body  awareness o f t h e colony's  stock  outselves,  t o London."Your L o r d s h i p w i l l  of the fact  o b t a i n i n g a market  already  cattle  e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e minds o f t h e  This growing  significance  imported  the potential  p o t e n t i a l was r e m a r k e d upon b y G o v e r n o r M u s g r a v e i n  optimistic  abroad.  B y 18 7 0 ,  produce.  P l a t e a u as a predominantly  g o v e r n m e n t a n d was m a n i f e s t  ranchers.  raising  Interior  prospect.  and farm  that attention  f o rproduce which  i s raised  instead of a l l our supplies being  Probably  next  i n Victoria.  year  there w i l l  drawn  be l i t t l e  The Upper c o u n t r y  s u p p l i e d as cheaply  i s now  observe directed  among from  o r no  of the Fraser  beef being  w i t h meat and b r e a d s t u f f s as any 3 other portion of the colony".  -  As of  stockraising  result of  the  of  which  the was  attraction  initial i n the  After  the  Interior  beef  of  American  of  the  1863,  International  the  who  would  the  Interior  colonial  the  years  cattle  influential  ranching  the  colonial  the mainland, Douglas,  the  of  a  involvement  to markets  south  point forward, i t  established ranchers direction  very  of  prominent in  the  community developed  in  Yet,  the  frontier  mining  the  in  the  despite their  permanent  initial  sense of  in  the m a j o r i t y  particularly  period.  i n terms  provided  the  regard, the  the  excitement,  colonial  as  supply  less  settlement  boom, i t was  transient  stability  of the  mining  to the  extensive  area. Given  As  American  ranching  ranching  paramount  dealers to  U n l i k e the  i n d u s t r y and  Plateau after  population, which  this  and  the  subsequent  political  community p e r h a p s more t h a n  geographic  the  the  was  factors,  attention  economic and  Interior  position,  Interior  of  From t h i s  frontier.  the mining  of  their  establishment  Interior  and  drovers  boundary.  ranching  shadow o f  the  gold  however, the  turned  the  American West, the  early  a variety  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  determine  of  the  market began t o d e c l i n e ,  cattlemen  was  the  of  argued,  Columbia  of American c a t t l e  region.  profile  British  discovery of  the  -  chapter  interaction the  33  significance  essential government  the  of  the  purpose of  ranching  this  community  chapter  struggled to establish  s u c c e s s i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s under  Seymour and  Musgrave took  decisive  steps  in  i s twofold. itself  upon  Governors' to  regulate  -  and  c o n t r o l the  particularly and  the  the  physical isolation  impact of New  these  Westminster  important their  to  who  was  and  stock  of  the  legislative and  the  Interior.  the To  a  decrees  designed  the  men  who  new  environment.  guided  the  From the officials  however,  initial  passed  population  in  and  describe  individual the  colonial  ranching  the  period  community.  p a t t e r n of  growth of  the  i t i s equally  The  Interior  groundwork f o r the  *  and  Consequently,  the  lands  Plateau reduced  early ranching  of  is  Crown  large extent,  the  nucleus  This  d i s p o s a l of  Interior  Victoria.  industry after  colonial  to  situation.  identify  the  these  laid  regard  the  e s t a b l i s h e d themselves during  represented It  land  response to  ranchers  -  development of  true with  Indian  34  settlement  Interior  live-  Confederation.  *  *  outset and  *  *  of  the  *  *  gold  journalists  rush  i n 1858,  miners,  commented upon t h e  potential  4 of  the  Interior  Plateau  of  the  L o n d o n T i m e s , D o n a l d F r a s e r , was  "inaccessibility",  but  f o r stock  raising.  The  wary of  e n t h u s i a s t i c about the  correspondent the  Interior's  Similkameen  valley  5  as  a  stock  British the  Engineers,  development of  links But  raising  he  c o u l d be  locality.  a l s o expressed the  the  settlement;  Interior  starting  from these  lieutenant in  r e s t r a i n e d enthusiasm  the  Bonaparte  "natural starting  Mayne, a  until  established with  d i d p r e d i c t the  w o u l d be  R.C.  and  point  effective  coastal  the  about  communication g  settlements.  Thompson R i v e r v a l l e y s for civilization  points, civilization  and would  - 35  gradually  creep  forward  and  -  extend  finally  to  the  valleys  of  7 the  frontier."  Other observers  the  Interior's agricultural  Cheadle, while in  1863,  on  praised  was  pastoral amenities.  North America with  "great  about Kamloops", but been  and  a tour of the  were l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c about  n u t r i t i o u s n e s s of  throught  the  "grossly misrepresented." e v e n more p e s s i m i s t i c .  Columbia  i s a miserable  He  the  Milton  pasturage  potential  B r i t o n , Duncan  concluded  country,  Lord  agricultural  Fellow  Walter  that  had  Macdonald,  "British  n e i t h e r adapted  for  cattle  9  nor  suited for cereal". Conflicting  opinion  prospects  i s hardly  Interior's Plateau years  was  removed  region  of  variance. River  from a  I f one  1 0  he  f o r the  river.  following  large extent  unexplored,  systematic  entered  viewed flat  Only  British  surprising.  land  tremendous geographic,  route.7:  except the  to a  upon the  Interior t h a t was  the  Interior  vaguely  survey.  by  mapped  small  also  and  climatic  way  of  the  above the town o f  Lytton  towards Kamloops d i d the  open i n t o the  characteristic  "rolling  country"  four miles  wide.  entered  the  region  characteristic in  other  was  w o r d s he  aroused the  three by  to  way  of  that of found  curiosity  of  the  the  1 1  of  lack of  One  f a c t was  and  narrow,  If  one dominant  vegetation;  " l i t h o g r a p h i c landscape"  Cheadle.  of  region  Osoyoos boundary, the  d r y n e s s and  Fraser  bends  Thompson R i v e r  valleys,  a  non-productive  the  elongated  and  I t was  clearly  or benches, elevated  after passing  The  topographical  the  terrain  Columbia  which  perfectly  so  - 36  evident  from the  including  outset  stockraising,  of  settlement.  was  t o be  Plateau,  i t w o u l d be  directly  i n accordance with  localized  climate  Columbia's the  perfectly  of  the  able  and  capable  of  Despite  the  the  s c a l e and  Interior  would  an  l a c k of  an  and  agricultural  agricultural  i t  of  on  was  population. potential  p u r s u i t s , t h e r e was  excellent quality  British  region  consensus about the  for agricultural  vary  while  Canadian p r a i r i e s ,  supporting  enthusiasm about the  the  Nevertheless,  w o u l d n e v e r be or  agriculture,  intensely variable  topography.  California  Interior  the  If  p u r s u e d on  upon a moderate  Interior  scale of  -  consider-  bunch  grass  12 in  the  The  country  colonial  with  respect  immediately  east  the  g o v e r n m e n t , h o w e v e r , was to  In a d d i t i o n to  the the  development of problem of  hinterland's  future stability  promotion  permanent  of  of  Cascade i n an  awkward  i t s stock  communication, clearly  settlement.  colonial  forced  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n l e d by  to placate this  temporary delay For  the  Yet,  that a certain  market i n the the  Upper Country  livestock  the  as  potential.  Interior  while  the  the colony's  mining  frontier, was  even i f i t meant  a more s e t t l e d  a t Rock Creek m i g h t  American would  immediate concern  sufficient  Cox  raising  Governor Douglas  interest,  promotion of  instance, Magistrate  alarm  but  of  vested  position  depended upon  economy r e m a i n e d h e a v i l y d e p e n d e n t upon t h e the  Mountains.  populace. express  soon c o n t r o l the  a result  of  large  of  the  g o v e r n m e n t was  reached  the  Cariboo  beef  importations, to  since the  see  that  required  13 supply  could  not  be  provided  from w i t h i n the  the  colony.  To  counterbalance colony  was  this  37  -  decision, cattle  e n c o u r a g e d by  the  breeding  remission of  within  the  duties for  those  14 settlers  importing cattle Although  American  of  D o u g l a s had the  these  first  defined.  nominal  Crown t o  and  of  surveyed  and  system.  The  Royal  could  not  surveys  Engineers, survey  the  i t was  where surveys  special a  understood  first  establishment a direct  Hudson's Bay out  by  Westminster,  cost of  lands  Although  1 6  having  the of  1860 the  response  Company l a n d the  Colonial  that  no  been  the  centre  t r a n s p o r t i n g the  land pre-emption  to the  weak-  experiment. Office  a t a pace t h a t c o u l d meet t h e  r e a c h i n g New  addition,  ties  the  sent  and  clearly  constitutional  minerals;  acre.  p r o v i s i o n of  T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t was original  were  government a u t h o r i t y .  most i m p o r t a n t  h o w e v e r , was  the  first  an  copy  From  public auction at  shillings at  a  comprehensive  e s t a b l i s h e d the  country  the 1858,  Office 15  principles  open to purchase w i t h o u t  mapped u n d e r  The ordinance,  The  town, g e n e r a l  ten  February  first  a l l l a n d s , mines and  soon abandoned p r i n c i p l e , t o be  as  deter  regulate  public lands.  colony's  o f f e r e d f o r s a l e by  price  l a n d was  In  1860.  to  Colonial  concerning  i n January,  upset  ness of  ranches.  early  British  emerged the  divided into  settlement,  As  paramount p r i n c i p l e  the  w e r e t o be  a  to the  proclamation  The  of  Columbia.  forwarded  ordinance  right  their  Douglas a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o u l d not  British  proclamations,  land  stock  i m p o r t a t i o n s , i t moved d e c i s i v e l y  settlement  of  the  to  in  1858,  demand f o r  for their  Engineers  to  land  operations. locali-  were r e q u i r e d o f t e n would have exceeded  the  - 38 17 price and  of the land  To s o l v e  this  survey  t o promote t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f unsurveyed  land, land to  itself.  t h e 1860  ordinance  to the extent  title  authorized  o f 160  f o rany person  acres,  problem  agricultural  the occupation  with  immediately  o f such  a pre-emptive  occupying  right  and improving  18 the  land.  A t t h e same t i m e ,  made p r o v i s i o n  f o rthe purchase  surveyed country order  t o guard  shillings  t h e Douglas "of large  administration t r a c t s o f un-  land....by persons o f l a r g e r means,(but) i n  against  an acre  the speculative  (was) t o be p a i d  holding  land....5  of  down, a n d t h e r e s i d u e  at  19 the the  t i m e o f t h e s u r v e y ." O c c u p a t i o n o f t h e l a n d w a s made a b s o l u t e t e s t o f t h e t i t l e , a n d no p r e - e m p t i o n was t o be  20 granted without  the  view  than  that  "imperative  C o l o n i a l O f f i c e and t h e Douglas  government  that  t h e encouragement o f settlement  was more  In January  price of land  acre,  condition".  The  the enrichment of the treasury  lands. the  fulfilling  and allowed  from t h e sale  pre-emptors  to acquire  important  of public  18 61, a g o v e r n m e n t p r o c l a m a t i o n t o t h e rough equivalent  took  reduced  o f one d o l l a r  an  additional land a t  21 ten  shillings  an acre  .  Fortunately  who o s t e n s i b l y w o u l d p u r c h a s e  f o rthe c a t t l e  additional land  rancher,  f o r grazing  p u r p o s e s , t h e s e t t l e r was u n d e r no o b l i g a t i o n t o i m p r o v e h i s more-recently purchased land. However, he was s t i l l o b l i g a t e d t o i m p r o v e h i s f i r s t c l a i m o r f o r f e i t i t t o a n o t h e r who w o u l d  22 put  the land  t o " b e n e f i c i a l use" .  governments d i d n o t enforce  Less  fortunately,  the related statutory  later  provisions  respecting large  i m p r o v e m e n t s , and  profits  acknowledged scarcely  39  i n defiance  a public figure  inevitably  of  t h a t from the  -  an  speculators  admirable  1860's u n t i l  in British  reaped  principle.  1910  there  C o l u m b i a who  It is was  d i d not  acquire 23  agricultural,  mining  The the  promotion of  priority. well a  new  as  The  the  or  land the  laws,  restriction  subsequent  of  1863  acres,  with  the  raising  on  a  a c t was  of pasture  pastoral  lease  land.  to  the  and  purchases,  the  Interior  similar  to  continued the  any As  the  first  until  situation  the  first  top  acres  limited  The  originally  settlement  most l o g i c a l  legislative  as  the  land  i t turned  more  out,  the  than  stock  omission  in  lack of  the  extent  of  ranchers  permanent  their  i n parts of  and the  pre-emptions  assumed the a l l .  once  ranches.  original  simply  the  a  t o have immediate r e p e r c u s s i o n s of  to  concerned  p r o v i s i o n governing  This  American  ranges  of  practise,  West, introduced  1865.  i s apparent that the  reluctance of  government t o implement more e f f e c t i v e in  160  p r o v i s i o n f o r r e g u l a t i n g l a n d was  Land Ordinance of It  which  P l a t e a u were open t o one  the  to  a  with  i n a d d i t i o n to h i s pre-emption  establishment  limited  devised  i n d u s t r y as  pre-emptions  agricultural  s y s t e m was  p e r s o n s commenced t h e Confined  livestock  ordinance,  large scale.  land  for speculative purposes.  t h a t D o u g l a s was  promotion of  original use  suggests  land  however, were not  colony's  pre-emptor could purchase  480  in  timber  land ordinance  was  the  c o n t r o l of  motivated  colonial  pasture  i n p a r t by  the  lands  -  colony's of  -  dependence upon A m e r i c a n  i t s provisions.  essentially  Harpers,  allegiance occupied  As  the  transitory  upon g r a z i n g and The  40  packers  in their  watering  importers  their  and  cattle  drovers  movements, t h e y  them from  the  to take  right  l a n d e a s t of Kamloops f o r the  were  insisted  s t o c k w h e r e i t was  f o r i n s t a n c e , whose r e f u s a l  disqualified  f o r the m a j o r i t y  convenient.  an  oath  of  to pre-empt,  purpose of  simply  grazing  24 their  livestock.  packers  and  4-4-1  2  As  drovers  the  following  letter  indicates,  o f t e n t r e s p a s s e d upon the  the  l a n d of bona  fide  5  settlers; A Mr. C o r n w a l l p r e - e m p t e d a p i e c e o f g r a s s l a n d on t h e l i n e o f t h e Waggon r o a d f o r t y m i l e s b e y o n d L y t t o n , he m e r e l y p l a n t e d s t a k e s a t t h e corners of h i s pre-emption, but d i d not put up a n y f e n c e . . . a man n a m e d C o u r t e n a y c a m e a l o n g t h e r o a d w i t h 80 h e a d o f c a t t l e . . . h e s t o p p e d h i s c a t t l e w h e r e w a t e r was convenient . . . . d u r i n g t h e n i g h t h i s c a t t l e as i t app e a r e d i n t h e m o r n i n g had been g r a z i n g on t h e p r e - e m p t i o n c l a i m o f "Cornwall',' and he c l a i m e d f r o m C o u r t e n a y $1 p e r h e a d f o r t h e c a t t l e . . . o r he w o u l d b r i n g a n a c t i o n f o r t r e s pass... Your E x c e l l e n c y w i l l r e a d i l y p e r c e i v e t h e g r e a t i n c o n v e n i e n c e and i n j u r y t h a t c o u l d be i n f l i c t e d on t h e p a c k i n g c o m m u n i t y i f s u c h a law holds good.... As  this  letter  from  packer  s p o k e s m a n , H.  Attorney-General  indicates,  had  grievance, they  by  a particular  applying pressure  rectify first  the  situation.  were l a r g e l y  c h a l l e n g e was a prominent notice  on  not  and  the  Ladner,  to  packers  and  drovers  reacted quickly  and  positively  i f the  early  colonial  While  administration to  the packers  successful i n having long i n coming.  influential  to Courtenay,  an  As  rancher,  the  and  their  early  as  drovers own  way,  December  Clement C o r n w a l l ,  American c a t t l e  at  d e a l e r , and  a 1862, served  several  -  other As  locals  they  and  t h a t they  ignored  and  the  -  were t r e s p a s s i n g i l l e g a l l y  his notice, Cornwall  at Lytton i n June,  claim  41  1863,  took  magistrate  d i s c o n c e r t e d A m e r i c a n was  on  Courtenay  Ball  his to  upheld  forced to  land.  court  Cornwall's  settle  with  27 the  recent  English At  arrivals.  first  glance,  presents  the  Interior  community.  beginning Interior  suited  their  of  fact  important  land  Interior. d i d not  Colonial  legislation  establish  to  their the  to  legislation  to conform to the  and  obvious  framework of  suitability  the  were the  we  the  continue  ranching first  operations. of  the  someone  to  on  The  Interior  as  as i t  evidence  attract  begun to  per-  develop  settlement early  Interior  solely  encouragement.  t h a t the  successive  legislation  on  early  Interior  the  examination  frontier,  first  and  a more  the  the had  activities  stands  i n the  ranchers,  the  packers  beginning  government  heeds of  Hence, b e f o r e  ranching  case  encourage  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s were a d a p t i n g  d e s c r i b e who  the  themselves  themselves  w o u l d become i n c r e a s i n g l y  broader  time,  I t i s e v i d e n t , however, t h a t the  It  community.  a.remote  business  government had  a response  basis  first  The  C o l u m b i a was  as  colonial  to  re-  development of  pre-eminence of  upon e s t a b l i s h i n g  a  settlers  the  interests.  that British  The  the  For  i n the  f r e e d o m t o c a r r y on  manent b a s i s .  of  incident in  transition  the  particular  framework of  local  community.  their  intent  a  court decision simply  This d e c i s i o n , however, s i g n i f i e d  successfully  and  settlers  an  ranching  drovers  the  settlement of  of  challenged  this  and  i t is how  settlers  an  ad  hoc  ranching of  the  necessary they  set  up  demonstrated  Plateau for stock  raising,  not  the c o l o n i a l  government.  It to  follow  42 -  i s very d i f f i c u l t  t o d i s c e r n who w e r e t h e f i r s t  t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company i n t o  ranching i nt h e  28 British this  Columbia  distinction,  ranches  as e a r l y  potential duced  into  1859.  joined  individuals  region.  t h e Okanagan v a l l e y they established  The f i r s t  Calmels.  Oregon.  1860,  Frank  by John  Richter  McDougall,  William  their  Richter  settled  River.  supplemented  Company's h o r s e s northward, busy  from and  H.O.  building  Lillooet  a t Keremeos.  Company.  herd,  S e v e r a l hundred  at Alkali  Bowe b o u g h t h i s f i r s t dealer,  head he t o o k  32 Bay  h i s own  of  miles  Bowe a n d h i s p a r t n e r , H e r b e r t G r i n d e r , w e r e  district.  the Interior  of the present  h i s income by t e n d i n g t h e Hudson's Bay 31  Tom I r v i n g ,  on shares  i n the cattle  cattle,  f o rcolonial  cattle  outside the earlier  Lake  i nt h e  300 h e a d ,  a n d w i t h h i s own  business.  t h e Bowe e n t e r p r i s e w a s t h e f i r s t in  were  stock i n  on t h e ranges  establishing  a road house and ranch  made h i s s t a r t  Sable  Pion and  initial  i n the vicinity  While  located  Oregon c a t t l e forty  priests  e a s t o f t h e Okanagan v a l l e y i n  town o f Cawston and p a s t u r e d h i s c a t t l e Similkameen  intro-  m i s s i o n a t L'Anse Au  T h e s e men d r o v e  Immediately  of the  h e r d was  I n November 1 8 6 0 , t h e Okanagan m i s s i o n a r i e s  from  the  areas  b y t h e Roman C a t h o l i c  their  merit  established  a s 1859 and i n w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d 29  i n the valley 30  Auguste  R e g a r d l e s s o f who s h o u l d  i ti s e v i d e n t t h a t  stock raising  soon a f t e r in  Interior.  officials,  Some a u t h o r i t i e s ranch  involvement  herd he claim  established o f t h e Hudson's  - 43 -  A large majority of the colonial had  pursued  often  some o t h e r c a r e e r b e f o r e  totally  turning  unrelated to agriculture  the  Interior  The  Harper  industry,  drovers  raising.  experience,however,  a n d d e a l e r s who d e c i d e d  and e s t a b l i s h  themselves  b r o t h e r s , a dominant had gained  to ranching,  or stock  A m o n g t h o s e w i t h some r e l e v a n t r a n c h i n g were t h e c a t t l e  ranching population  t o remain i n  on a more permanent  force i n the early  previous livestock  experience  basis.  cattle supplying  33 cattle with  to the California  g o l d markets';  Two o t h e r  p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e were John W i l s o n  ranchers  and Lewis  Campbell.  34 Campbell, with  son o f a Maryland  Yorkshire emigrant,  engaged  farmer,  entered a partnership  John Wilson,  i n the importation of cattle  p r a c t i s e was t o w i n t e r l i v e s t o c k  i n the early from  Oregon.  a t Campbell  Kamloops, and then  drive  American,  English,  founded  a ranch  experience  driving  cattle  after  five  Benjamin years  1860's and Their  Creek,  east of  them t o t h e C a r i b o o market.  Another  i n Venables from  valley  Oregon t o  35 the of and  Cariboo.  Other  livestock  through  J.B. Greaves,  gained  business.  Both  f o rthe Interior  Donald  McLean l e f t  ranching communities.  t h e Company p o s t on Hat Creek  knowledge  Charles  p a r t n e r s i n t h e Douglas Lake  H u d s o n ' s B a y Company was a n o t h e r  a ranch  their  apprenticeships i n the butcher  source  establish  ranchers  the butcher  later  Company, s e r v e d e a r l y „ ., ^ 36 Cariboo centres. The  prominent  Beak  Cattle shops o f  important Chief  Trader  a t Kamloops i n 1860 t o  a t t h e mouth o f t h e  Bonaparte  River.  W i l l i a m Manson, A r c h i b a l d M c K i n l e y  Anderson were o t h e r l o n g time  officials  and  who  William  left  secure  38 positions  to t r y their  hand a t r a n c h i n g .  C o m p a n y e s t a b l i s h m e n t a t K a m l o o p s was as  an  alternative  capital  or  form  experience  o f e m p l o y m e n t f o r men to start  their  prominent  Trader,  J.W.  Interior  own  who  lacked  ranches.  the  George assembly  f o r Kamloops  in British  Bay  important  legislative  rancher, worked  McKay, upon h i s a r r i v a l  Hudson's  especially  B o h u n M a r t i n , l o n g t i m e member o f t h e and  The  Chief  Columbia  in  39 18 6 2 . F r o m 18 68 t o 1 8 7 0 , W i l l i a m J a m e s R o p e r , p r o p r i e t o r o f the C h e r r y Creek r a n c h west o f Kamloops, s e r v e d as a 40 packer  and  charter  and  continued in  teamster  monopoly c o n t r o l ,  t o e x e r t an  British  ranchers,  the  governors,  during they  t h e Hudson's Bay  important  the  economic and  "Honourable"  Colonial  encouraged  young, educated  Office,  Upper M i d d l e  from  England  the c o l o n i a l  social influence  and  social  Company e m p l o y e d  with full  and  period.  future  c o o p e r a t i o n from  by  the mining.  Ireland,  arrived  Although  the  Columbia. to  ranches  Clement  Interior  large men,  stream  small  t h e g r o u p w e r e ; s e v e r a l y o u n g men i n the  who d e c i d e d 41 Plateau. Henry and  the  i n a steady  a relatively  British  of  These young  i n f l u e n c e over  development of  the  Columbia  Class Britons to offset  were t o e x e r c i s e a p o w e r f u l  political  lost i t s  Company  the emigration to B r i t i s h  population attracted  primarily  Though i t had  Columbia. While  American  a t F o r t Kamloops.  group,  economic, Among  establish Cornwall,  for  i n s t a n c e , paused only b r i e f l y i n V i c t o r i a  proceeding  to  the  Interior  where they  i n 1862  pre-empted  before  l a n d on  the  42 Thompson R i v e r .  The  sons o f  Reverend Alan Gardiner  Cornwall,  Champlain-in-Ordinary  t o Queen V i c t o r i a , b o t h  brothers  had  received  Cambridge; Clement ^graduating i n  law  from  degrees  Magdalene  from  i n 1858  and  Henry  i n engineering from  Trinity  43 in  1861.  As  attracted men,  by  The  and  would  leave their  England,  was  of  education  expectation within for  the  the  and  colonial  one  a l l u d e t o why can  only  comfortable  background, secure  July  1862,  English  them  an  I r i s h were a l s o prominent ranches.  commenced a t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r  J.C.  career  in light  some  positions  Whatever t h e i r  and p u r c h a s e 44 acres.  Interior  In  p e r h a p s had  Cornwalls  two  situation.  them i m p o r t a n t  the  were  s p e c u l a t e why  English  they  administration.  c o n t a i n 6,4 52  original  they  strong motivating factor,.  pre-emption  The of  a  t h a t i t would  assemble by  not  cheap l a n d , a commodity d e n i e d  probably  e m i g r a t i o n , by  would  do  e d u c a t i o n members o f u p p e r c l a s s  a v a i l a b i l i t y of  their  diaries  to B r i t i s h Columbia,  birth  society,  their  had  reasons  begun  e s t a t e which  to eventually  i n the  establishment  Haynes  for instance,  i n 1861  as  government 4  administrator, The  p o l i t i c i a n and  Okanagan v a l l e y ,  attraction  f o r these  O'Reilly;  Osoyoos  seemed t o h o l d a  educated  young  to Victoria an  i n the  however,  e x a m p l e , Thomas E l l i s introduced  rancher  arrived  from  society  old friend.  Bored  by by  Irishmen. Ireland,  colonial the  he  district.  special When f o r was  official,  seemingly  immediately Peter  endless  round  of  church  Ellis  and  games l i k e  soon l e f t  f o r the  a pre-emption at  46  -  "battle  d o o r and  Upper Country.  Penticton  as  4 fi shuttlecock",  Once t h e r e  i t seemed"a v e r y  he  located  good p l a c e  for  47 wintering largest  cattle".  ranch  was n o t t h e distinction C.F.  This  i n the  was  t o be  the  Okanagan v a l l e y .  beginning Tom  of  Ellis,  the  however,  f i r s t Irishman to s e t t l e i n that area. This b e l o n g s t o t h r e e f o r m e r I r i s h army o f f i c e r s ;  H o u g h t o n , F o r b e s G e o r g e V e r n o n and  his brother,  Charles  48 Vernon.  Charles  Castle,  Dublin,  and  Forbes Vernon were n a t i v e s  where t h e i r  f a t h e r owned a  of  Clontarf  considerable  49 estate. grant set  The  land  i n 18 63  aside  as  Vernon's, Priest's  was an  Houghton had disallowed  Indian  as  reserve.  initially i t had  Cold  Springs.  five  I n May,  signed  all  claim to  the  Priest  V a l l e y ranch  for  his interest  i n the  Coldstream  lived  Coldstream  land  was  ranch  at  at  shortly  son  military  t h e r e a f t e r been  of  miles  1869  Creek whereby the  Edward Tronson,  a  In partnership with  Houghton then pre-empted valley  c h o s e n as  an  east  of  agreement  Vernons r e l i n q u i s h e d  to Houghton  ranch. the  the  Near  in  exchange  the  Vernon's  inspector of  Police  for  50 Kilkenny after  in Ireland.  several years  abortive mining apprenticeship  the  the  at  Interior  the  they  e s t a b l i s h e d h i s Okanagan  the  Bank o f  capital enjoyed  colonial  necessary the  ranch  Columbia,  i n 1868  and  an  an  ranch.  among o t h e r s , the  British  a t B i g Bend  Vernon  during  considerable  immediately,  with  experience  T h e s e men, in  He  played  a prominent  period. to  Besides  establish  educational  ranch  background  part possessing operations and  influence  47  -  needed t o g a i n p o l i t i c a l ,  appointments.  Clement C o r n w a l l  representative  to  J o h n M a r t l e y was Peace  f o r the  exploration being  the  f o r a time  Lillooet  and  education planted  and  a  frontier  federal  attracted  no  in British  assembly  t o one  ear  Columbia.  small  s c a t t e r e d throughout  they  enjoyed  before they  their  too  labour  men  turned  the  essential  and  inflated  contrast, a  less  been drawn t o B r i t i s h  b e t w e e n 1858  and  1864.  at mining,  many a c t i v i t i e s frastructure.  they the  affluent  access  and  Cariboo,  and  rush  of  Chinese,  Canadians, B r i t o n s and  odd  ranching  comparatively Plateau. to  Though  capital,  great  value,  g e n t e e l group the  or  a prosperous  lure  of  of  gold  one  after of  the  mining  i n -  K o o t e n a y , B i g Bend and investment,  Americans, Frenchmen, even the  trans-  multi-national population  C r e e k m i n e s b e g a n t o demand more c a p i t a l a  Yale-  prices.  merchandising  made p o s s i b l e b y When t h e  these  pastoral pursuits only  packing,  for  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , markets,  C o l u m b i a by this  did  were i t s most  Interior  livestock  the  background,  early  were a  problems of  Many o f  to a g r i c u l t u r a l  attempts  by  l a n d h o l d i n g s were t o assume any  shortages  had  figures,  e x c e p t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e and  faced  In  the  of  before  Parliament  another  district,  Houghton  government  Though t h e y  and  Yale  Justice  Charles  in Victoria,  conspicuous group  from the  member o f  means c o n t r o l l e d  dominant  elected  a r a t h e r unpopular  sympathetic  B r i t o n s by  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  first  c o n t r a c t s f o r the  first  Although  the  community w h i l e  survey  e l e c t e d the  Kootenay.  colonial  was  legal  there  Italians,  Australian  Rock  to record  was  Mexicans, pre-  - 48 -  emptions  i n the region east of the Cascades.  of  early  these  wealthier  l a n d c l a i m s were l a t e r  ranchers  or simply  absorbed  abandoned, they  major p r o p o r t i o n of the pioneer  Although  0 ±  Interior  by t h e  represented the  ranching population.  T h e i r backgrounds were as d i v e r s i f i e d pioneer the  society.  California  M a n y o f t h e men h a d d r i f t e d  mining  region.  livelihoods  i n Eastern  Cache Creek  rancher  Others  Canada..  left  Charles  and f u t u r e premier,  many  as any  northward  from  comfortable  Semlin,  a  prominent  had taught  school at  52 Simcoe County, O n t a r i o u n t i l pioneered  t h e Shuswap d i s t r i c t ,  t o w n o f O t e g o , New Y o r k , prospected Laurent  1862.  before  Guichon,  earnings  i n a Cariboo  purchase  some r a n c h  a ranch.  i n California, supply  Chase,  who  h a d s t u d i e d l a w i n h i s home-  worked as a b u i l d e r 53  establishing mined  Whitfield  business  then  i n Victoria  and  The F r e n c h m a n , investedh i s  b e f o r e he d e c i d e d t o  land with h i s brother Charles  i nthe  54 Nicola had  valley.  worked  California  Luc G i r o u a r d , born  f o r the Northern and then  upon s t o c k r a i s i n g t h e m a j o r i t y who period  This  a t Cherry  railroad,  Creek before 55  as a l i v e l i h o o d . settled  the Interior  i n Quebec,  then  mined i n  eventually settling  I t i s apparent  that  Plateau i n the  w e r e b y n o m e a n s u n i t e d b y common e x p e r i e n c e  ground. simply  Pacific  and educated  colonial  o r back-  I f t h e r e w a s a common d o n o m i n a t o r i t i s t o b e i n the attraction  situation  ranching  would  frontier  discernable  of the colony's mining  appear  t o stand  i n the North  and c o h e s i v e  social  i n sharp  found  wealth.  contrast to the  West T e r r i t o r i e s  where  clearly  groups a s s e r t e d themselves  from  the  outset of  country of  the  settlement.  in British  of  the  ground the  of  the  the  early  common n a t u r e  The  5 6  diversity  United  Despite  ranching  frontier  generous  lease  and  where the  market,  their  on and  i n the  mining  necessity Besides  their  alfalfa  and  a house  other  cattle,  vegetables.  brothers As  f o r themselves,  toward  The  soon as they  later  where  the  ranching  potential  local  market  Cornwalls,  capital i f so  and  a  concentrated  limited  livestock  agricultural  the  the  Unlike the  C o l u m b i a was a  by almost  for large scale cattle  necessary of  The  Territories,  self-sufficiency. the  back-  themselves  soon t o open a r i c h  production  pursued  cultural  market f o r c e d  neighbouring  in British  possessed  upon t h e  ranching  were drawn t o g e t h e r  s m a l l l a n d h o l d i n g s , c o n f i n e d by  solely  ranching  the  economic e n t e r p r i s e .  system allowed  o r i e n t e d toward  of  economic p u r s u i t s .  r a i l w a y was  i n s t a n c e , who  of  they  and  population to orient  stock raising  the  seems t o d i s p l a y more  diverse social  ranchers,  of  of  States.  wide d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of ranching  occupation  characteristic  c o m p l e t e dependence upon the colonial  -  Columbia i n fact  demographic  frontiers  49  to  for  concentrate  inclined,  business  of  activities.  grew o a t s , b a r l e y , wheat, they  completed c o n s t r u c t i o n  immediately  commenced 57  construction spent  the  of  a  "40  winter of  by  60  f o o t Road House".  1862-63 i n V i c t o r i a  to  Henry  arrange  Cornwall  for  the 58  machinery Similarly, in  the  for a the  Interior  s a w - m i l l t o be Harper's, cattle  sent  besides  f r o m San  their  Francisco.  expanding  market, were busy  i n the  involvement promotion  and  - 50 operation  of their  saw-mill  -  at Yale,  59  and a f l o u r m i l l  at  Clinton. In Columbia period  this  context  c a n be seen i n t h e e a r l y  as an open f r o n t i e r  more d i v e r s i f i e d frontiers.  than  The f i r s t  by  population.  zenith,  lucrative  o f more  agrarian  as d e v e l o p i n g  As t h e C a r i b o o  t o these  books o f John Boyd, rancher  wood House and r a n c h  o p p o r t u n i t i e s were  their  to the service opportunities created  investment.  have s u r v i v e d r e l a t i n g  British  of the colonial  as w e l l  the operation of a well  potentially  day  years  where b u s i n e s s  settlers,  responded  the mining  Plateau of  was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  own p r o p e r t y ,  its  the Interior  region  approached  l o c a t e d road Although  early  h o u s e was  very  few  a  records  establishments, the  and p r o p r i e t o r o f t h e C o t t o n -  i n the Cariboo  district,  have  been  61 preserved.  While  for  overnight  accommodation, Boyd and h i s p a r t n e r , Mr.  did  a steady  potatoes,  the roadside  business  selling  h o u s e was  flour,  largely  beef,  bacon,  c o f f e e , t e a and hay t o t h e assortment  utilized Heath,  beans,  of  travellers  62 who  passed  develop they  their  their  way.  own  These p a r t i c u l a r  livestock  p r e f e r r e d t o purchase  production their  ranchers  t o any e x t e n t .  requirements  Harpers or Van Volkenburgh  a n d Company when  warranted  Road was  houses the  it.  similar  Cariboo  ments  The C a r i b o o  subordinated  lucrative  lined  to attract  their  ranching  the miners, operations  provision of supplies, liquor  Instead  from e i t h e r the  the local  with  t o t h a t o f Boyd and Heath's,  continued  d i d not  market  roadside  and as l o n g these  as  establish-  t o t h e more  and a p l a c e  to sleep.  - 51 By  1865,  -  however, the changing  compelled  the  roadside  emphasis of  operators  the mining  frontier  t o d e v o t e more e n e r g y  to  the  63 improvement of The had  wide  farmers.  and  i t s livestock the  their  c o m m o d i t i e s and  the  p u r s u i t of  specialization  initially  by  the  cattlemen  were  the mines,  cost of  fully  they  beef at  on  the  dollars  live-  production  other  was As  could realize  The  f r o m an  mixed  production of of  s u b s i d i a r y economic  ranches.  a head  commencement  were e s s e n t i a l l y  foundation herds.  at Lytton  ranchers  Interior  the high  prices  bought  Oregon d r o v e r , 40  American at  settlers  Cornwalls  f o r cows and  activities.  hampered  demanded e x o r b i t a n t r a t e s f r o m  cattle 60  early  From the  in stockraising  aware they  upon e s t a b l i s h i n g  Stroud,  ranchers  demanded t h e  Furthermore,  first  industry.  majority of  isolation  of the  development of  They m i g h t c o n c e n t r a t e  but  intent  stock.  economic d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n  settlement,  stock,  l a n d and  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the  agriculture of  their  a  Mr.  dollars  for  their  two  64 year  old steers.  diary  the  would  surely place  At  the  excessive cattle  many o f  the  initially  through  practical  reasons,  capital, then  purchase  once s e t t l e d ,  Clement Cornwall  p r i c e s and  upon i n t e n d i n g  Faced w i t h the ranch,  time  Either  their  d i s s o l v e the  pressure  i t  establishing  established  herd  on  would pool  or their  a common r a n g e  p a r t n e r s h i p and  a  themselves  for financial  o r more i n d i v i d u a l s graze  in his  ranchers.  ranchers  partnerships.  and  ensuing  considerable cost of  colonial  two  the  noted  ranch  on  and an  - 52 -  individual  basis.  especially  common.  Wilson  to drive  Partnership i n the original I n 1865 L e w i s  a herd  Campbell  of cattle  from  purchase  was  joined with  Umatilla,  John  Washington  65 Territory,  t o t h e Kamloops v i c i n i t y .  Thomas E l l i s , cattle  from  excitement, Cornelius valley.  Woods by  T h o m a s Wood a n d O t t a w a i n their  held the cattle  Lake.^^  The f a m i l y  proved  from  jointly  I n the Harper's  until  side  exemplified  Moores and Van  Volkenburghs  a ranching  Jerome devoted  himself  o f t h e o p e r a t i o n w h i l e Thaddeus  largely  handled  a s p e c t s o f r a n c h management and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  transportation  increasingly  1 8 7 1 , when  at the foot of  way t o e s t a b l i s h  case,  native,  the Willamette,  business arrangement  t o be a s u c c e s s f u l  the financial  ranch  herd  Guichons,  purchased  o f t h e B i g Bend  o u t t o Thomas G r e e n h o w , a n d s e t t l e d  the p r a c t i c a l of  I n 1866, t h e year  Newfoundlander  T h e s e men  operation. to  Oregon.  the Cornwalls, Harpers,  also  year  i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h Andrew M a c f a r l a n d ,  O'Keefe, brought  Wood s o l d  I n t h e same  t o market.  carried  As f o r t h e C o r n w a l l s , Henry  o u t t h e day t o day a c t i v i t i e s  of the  a s C l e m e n t was away a g r e a t d e a l o n p o l i t i c a l  and b u s i n e s s  matters. Another diversification ready  factor  inhibiting  availability  o f I n d i a n and Chinese  i s replete  with entries  Hudson's Bay Company's d i f f i c u l t i e s 67 agricultural  same s i t u a t i o n chores  and  encouraging  was t h e s e a s o n a l l a b o u r s h o r t a g e , d e s p i t e t h e  Kamloops j o u r n a l  liable  expansion  workers.  and i n t h e e a r l y  themselves.  There  labour.  The  Fort  commenting upon t h e  i n attracting  good r e -  The C o r n w a l l s c o m p l a i n e d years usually  i s little  of the  d i d the daily  doubt t h e c o n t i n u i n g l u r e  - 53 -  of  t h e mines and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y i n f l a t e d  hurt  the development o f t h e c o l o n i a l  particularly Interior  ranch,  siderable land  those  o f modest means.  units  livestock,  were almost  universally  particularly operation.  wandering  cattle  quarters  and f e d .  Building  their  ment t h e i r  ranch  incomes. After  ranchers  for a portion  Many n e v e r  having  development o f I n t e r i o r  colonial land.  that  of every  and system.  pre-emptors  year  t o supple-  the identity  of the early  associated with the  of the colonial  government i n  ranching frontier. i s crucial  ranching enterprises. located  The  sig-  to the  By 1865,  i n the Interior  were  most  about t h e seeming r e l u c t a n c e on t h e p a r t o f t h e government t o r e g u l a t e t h e p a s t u r e  Thomas E l w y n ,  Wright,  tolls  transportation  i n particular,  government o f f i c i a l s  concerned  implements had  ranching operation, i ti s necessary  the development o f t h e I n t e r i o r of land policy,  head-  returned.  established  t u r n once a g a i n t o t h e r o l e  certain  t o the ranch  and a g r i c u l t u r a l  a n d some o f t h e p r o b l e m s  nificance  herded  t h a t many o f t h e o r i g i n a l  establishment of a viable to  consuming and  t h e coast, subject t o road  sites  As t h e  severe weather the  of a rudimentary  was n o t s u r p r i s i n g  con-  the care of  i n w i n t e r , was a t i m e  had t o be l o c a t e d ,  the inconvenience  left  o f l a n d , was a  unfenced,  In especially  t o be t r a n s p o r t e d from  It  The f o u n d a t i o n o f an  i n terms o f l a b o u r and c a p i t a l .  laborious  all  structure  r a n c h i n g community and  outside the pre-emption  investment  wage  a prominent  lands o f the main-  the magistrate at Lillooet, road  c o n t r a c t o r , had both  a l t h o u g h b u n c h g r a s s was l u x u r i a n t  and  warned  G.B. Douglas  and apparently  -  plentiful,  54  i t would not l a s t  -  i f grazed  i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y by 68  cattle the by  drovers,  and r a n c h e r s .  Governor Seymour, According  grant  finally  pastoral leases  immediate v i c i n i t y . that  they  animals  stocked  declaring  first  lease  the pre-emptor  was  a l l land  leased  of renewal.  the clause  waste  land  specified  land  to  i n the  land  on t h e c o n d i t i o n  the proportion by t h e  of  local  f o r p a s t o r a l purposes compensation,  to limit  a l l leases  A further limitation  which  could  i n theory,was  and promote s e t t l e m e n t .  i n s t r u c t e d Seymour  no r i g h t  lease  legislation,  pre-emption o r purchase without Office  land  i t w i t h i n s i x months w i t h acres  empowered  Magistrate.  This protect  could  grazing  and unimproved  had purchased  Settlers  of  g o v e r n m e n t , now l e d  action to regulate  of unsurveyed  t o e a c h one hundred  Stipendiary  took  the passing  t o s e c t i o n 5 1 , t h e G o v e r n o r was  p r e - e m p t o r s o r p e r s o n s who 69  to  With  Land Ordinance o f 1865, t h e c o l o n i a l  land. to  packers  stipulated only  be l e a s e d  five  designed  Besides  liable  to  the C o l o n i a l t o seven years  upon t h e hundred  cattlemen  acres  f o r c u t t i n g hay, and then,  with  of  only f o r  70 five  years.  never  fully  Despite  implemented,  considerable the  Yale  grazing  interest.  district  what they  the t h r e a t of these  realized  land.  the pastoral lease The m a j o r i t y  as t h e f i r s t  were  system a t t r a c t e d  o f a p p l i c a t i o n s came  ranchers  t o be p o t e n t i a l l y  c o n t r o l s , which  from  scurried to control  valuable  and  limited  - 55 -  TABLE I I  71 RETURN OF P A S T O R A L L E A S E S - Y A L E  Name o f L e s s e e  District  E.G. Perry W h i t f i e l d Chase CornwallBrothers W.H. S t a n f o r d H. I n g r a m J . Uren N. H a r e CA. Vernon A.G. Pemberton J a c o b Duck Charles Heuling Gannon,McKinlay & Manson James S t e w a r t J.B. G r e a v e s C h a r l e s A. S e m l i n John Wilson Henry Morton F. Peranet W. F o r t u n e P. G o t i n Haynes & Lowe  Yale Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do.  Although the  new l e a s e  patronage. brothers as  Acreage  Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Kootenay  t h e r e i s no  concrete  J . C . H a y n e s , J . B.  6,200 1,085 10,000 3,430 1,711 1,154 2,425 3,252 3,505 1,710 400  4 cents 4 cents 3 a n d 1/3 3 a n d 1/3 4 cents Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do.  4,000 1,400 4,940 2,880 10,980 1,710 1,147 2,055 1,151 2,500  Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do.  a  granted to  while other  Greaves,  obvious  that  tremendous scope f o r  l e a s e s were  and John Wilson  Rate/Acre/Annum  evidence, i t i s  system possessed  The l a r g e s t  DISTRICT  Charles  the Cornwall  prominent ranchers Semlin  such  and Charles  Vernon r e c e i v e d permission t o rent  sizeable acreages.  spicuous  by  l i s t o f l e s s e e s were t h e  Harpers,  t h emajor  period.  One d i d n o t h a v e t o b e a B r i t i s h  a  t h e i r absence  lease a t this  from the  livestock  t i m e as  dealers  during the  Con-  colonial  subject to obtain  t h e r e w e r e s e v e r a l .A m e r i c a n s o n t h e  cents cents  -  list. their  Why  considerable  In Cornwall  at this  brothers  however, must remain  time.  the granting  of a pastoral lease  i n 1865 s t i m u l a t e d  Clement Cornwall,  Cambridge alumnus t o ranch the f i r s t  a pastoral lease f o r  number o f l i v e s t o c k  fact,  controversy.  as  -  the Harpers d i d not acquire  a matter of conjecture  the  56  besides  i n British  to  a vigorous being  the  local first  C o l u m b i a , was  e l e c t e d member o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e  sitting  Council f o r 72  Yale  district  close  when t h e l e a s e  affiliation  istration  and c o o p e r a t i o n  with  His  t h e Seymour admin-  d i d n o t e n d e a r h i m t o some o f h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s a n d  brought heated Robson,  s y s t e m was f o r m u l a t e d .  criticism  self-acclaimed  who c h a r a c t e r i z e d  from  journalist  and p o l i t i c i a n ,  "champion o f t h e p e o p l e " .  Cornwall  John  Robson,  as "that Gentleman o f t h e  Seventeenth Century Abroad,"  had p r e v i o u s l y  expressed h i s  strong opposition to Cornwall's "Pounds B i l l " w h i c h he p o r t r a y e d as an attempt " t o i n f r i n g e t h e r i g h t s o f s e t t l e r s , 73 the packers, t h e s t o c k - r a i s e r s and t h e drovers." Hence, once word applied  f o r a large  lease  circulated  that  the Cornwalls  i n t h e Hat Creek v a l l e y  R o b s o n A s n e w s p a p e r , The B r i t i s h  Columbian,  a n d The  had  both Cariboo  74 S e n t i n e l were quick  t o comment o n t h e s i t u a t i o n .  Westminster's paper opposed as the not  i t was  t h e "Hat Creek V a l l e y  New Speculation  "one o f t h e b e s t a n d m o s t u s e d c a t t l e r a n g e s i n 75 Upper Country." The B a r k e r v i l l e n e w s p a p e r was c o n c e r n e d 76 so much w i t h t e r m s a s w i t h t h e e x t e n t o f t h e l e a s e s ; We c a n n o t c o n c e i v e a n y b e n e f i t t h e g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d d e r i v e f r o m a l l o w i n g s o much l a n d t o get i n t o t h e hands o f one o r two p e r s o n s . We w o u l d b e g l a d t o s e e e v e r y i n c h o f g r o u n d  - 57 f r o m Y a l e t o C a r i b o o t a k e n up a n d occupied by bona f i d e s e t t l e r s , because t h a t w o u l d be e v i d e n c e o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s progress, but t o parcel out the best l a n d s o f t h e c o l o n y among a f e w c a p i t a l i s t s would o n l y b r i n g upon us an i n c u b u s ( s i c ) l i k e t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company to s t o p s e t t l e m e n t and r u i n t h e c o u n t r y . Clement Cornwall, as  a monopolist,  pastoral land for  lease  involved  obviously defended  system,.:  r e s e n t f u l of being  h i s a p p l i c a t i o n a n d t h e new He a r g u e d  i n the proposed  a g r i c u l t u r e due t o h i g h  frequently  characterized  by t h e p a c k e r s .  i n some d e t a i l  lease, besides  altitudes,  7 6  being  was u s e d  that the useless  only  i n -  A  Had y o u S i r , b e f o r e p u b l i s h i n g t h a t a r t i c l e , read the e x i s t i n g law you would h a v e s e e n t h a t t h e l a n d e v e n when l e a s e d would have been open as b e f o r e f o r p r e emption and purchase and as t o packers n o t b e i n g a b l e t o f e e d t h e i r a n i m a l s when p a s s i n g t h r o u g h l e a s e h o l d s , what c a n be e a s i e r than t h e Government t o i n s e r t a clause i n these leases r e s e r v i n g such a r i g h t f o r them and f o r c a t t l e d r o v e r s . One r a t h e r the  lease  against  suspects  controversy  the lease proposal  In  fact,  J o h n R o b s o n was  using  as a v e h i c l e t o f u r t h e r h i s campaign  Clement Cornwall.  to  that  Magistrate  and granted  Nind  it,to  he b e l i e v e d t h e C o r n w a l l s  saw no o b j e c t i o n  the applicants.  actually  underestimated  77 the  number o f c a t t l e  Other the an  Interior  new l e a s e indication  Certainly, the  t h a t Hat Creek v a l l e y  ranchers system,  appeared  with  support. t h e terms o f  i f lack o f o f f i c i a l corespondence i s  of their  the colonial  satisfaction  o f t h e need  with  t h e new r e g u l a t i o n s .  g o v e r n m e n t h a d moved p o s i t i v e l y  regulation of the region's  recognition  satisfied  could  pastoral land  f o r large  leases  into  and Nind's  was an e n c o u r a g i n g  sign  -  for  the  development of Although  the  f o r the  legislation situation this  as  Vancouver  the  construed  allowed  on  the  stock  introduced f o r any  district  the  i f so  designed  to  rather part  d e s i r e d by  industry.  of  the  the  part  of  1869  t o be  a convention  Indeed,  on a  an  hoc  carefully  Fence  Ordinance, Cosmos,  designated  of  ad  administrations  m e m b e r , A m o r De  colony  the  mainland.  colonial  The  This  more t o meet  t h a n as  Victoria  i n the  on  was  ordinances  have been i n i t i a t e d  industry.  by  area  ranching  Island than  need arose  policy  Interior.  i n f l u e n c i n g the  were s e v e r a l o t h e r  appears  encourage the  w h i c h was  there  legislation  i n a c t u a l f a c t was  on  i n d u s t r y i n the  provision for pastoral leases  r e g u l a t i o n of  legislation  basis  -  livestock  colonial  frontier,  enacted  to  the  most important  ranching  the  58  a  two-thirds  fencing of  the  7 8 district person  landowners.  living  trespass his  strayed  into  was  stock  was  met  with  was  considered  cattle  protected  land  the  fencing  this  w i t h i n that area  because of  property  If  protected  liable  little  could  by  a  by  exist  by  such a  the  was  to  his  fence,  The  of  ranch  headquarters.  once the  proponent of  a Pounds law  cattle  owner  where open  ranching  population.  to  the  range That  immediate  Even Clement f o r the  of  legislation  Interior  limited  vicinity  fencing  unless  If  the  no  for  land  "lawful fence".  f o r damages.  sancrosanct  met,  c l a i m damages  s t r a y i n g on  enthusiasm i n the  which did the  p r e r e q u i s i t e was  colony,  Cornwall, had  altered  his position. A s f a r a s h e was c o n c e r n e d " i f i t ( f e n c i n g 79 d i s t r i c t ) comes i n t o f o r c e h e r e i t w i l l do us g r e a t i n j u r y " .  - 59 As the In was  i t turned  out,  Southern  no  fencing districts  Interior  Plateau during the  t h a t s a m e s e s s i o n , a new passed  designed  by  Vancouver provided  to control  The  district  cattle,  carcasses  council. the  p r e v a l e n t among t h e Island.  of  settlers  the  impose p e n a l t i e s on  stolen cattle  and  Ordinance,  Once a g a i n  cattle  with  period.  Cattle  stealing and  i t  was  and  Indians  sections that applied to  magistrates  to  colonial  enactment, the  legislative  primarily  apparently  stolen  the  were e s t a b l i s h e d i n  shooting on  the  mainland  authority to  restore  anyone p o s s e s s i n g  to encourage the  the  registration  8 0 of was  brands. the  Of  passing  legislation, House by  more s i g n i f i c a n c e of  Toll  w h i c h was  Interior  Cornwall,  the  for Interior  Exemption Act  i n t r o d u c e d and  exempted a l l farm  colony's  transportation difficulties  the to  Interior the  colonial  prehensive of  the  through  resented  the  Clement  road  hoped t h a t r e l i e f ranchers  to  send  i s clear  t h a t as  and  ferry  tolls.  would  cattle,  the  Although  were u n r e s o l v e d  from t o l l s  their  of  wool  at  the  this  encourage and  hides  coast. It  the  guided  This  produce transported out  from the  i t was  i n 1871.  members, Thomas H u m p h r e y s a n d  Interior  point,  ranchers 81  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  land policy  colony's  traditional encroached  the  crown  land. of  cattle  In the the  period  progressed,  gradually evolving a  t o r e g u l a t e and  territories upon by  colonial  promote the  process,  Native  settlement  however,  p o p u l a t i o n were  drovers, packers  and  com-  the being  ranchers.  -  It  was i n c r e a s i n g l y  in  the midst  the  60  evident  the Interior  supported  were  frontier  among t h e s e t t l e r s  the manipulation  q u o t e one r e c e n t  assessment,  "settlement  of  E u r o p e a n s who h a d c o m e t o t r a n s f o r m  caught  where  and government  of the native  To  with  tribes  o f an a g g r e s s i v e , expanding  climate of opinion, both  officials,  -  brought  people. groups  t h e w i l d e r n e s s , and  varying degrees o f consciousness,  t o change t h e Indians  82 who w e r e s e e n t o b e a p a r t o f i t . " to  L a n d was  essential  the continuation of Indian culture i n B r i t i s h  various people  s t u d i e s have  shown, t h e e x t e n t  have r e t a i n e d t h e i r  lolumbia.  t o which an  land i s the best  As  indigenous  single  criteria  83 on  which t o judge  the  cattle  their  ranchers  survival  upon t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y range,  they  Indian's  and growth p o t e n t i a l  the early  time,  depended  o f l a n d , and i n t h e e r a o f t h e open  operation.  the pressure  settlement,  B u t , a t t h e same  r e q u i r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e amounts t o a t t a i n  of p r o f i t a b l e instigate  survival.  Hence, a l t h o u g h  upon t h e I n d i a n s ranchers  r e l e g a t i o n t o a minor  level  d i dnot  t o conform t o white  certainly role  they  a  supported  i n British  the  Columbia  society. For  h i s p a r t James D o u g l a s d i d a r t i c u l a t e  a  84 comprehensive  Indian policy  He e n v i s i o n e d  the settlement  among o t h e r  benefits,  encroachment o f white secure  they  from the colony's i n c e p t i o n . of Indians  would be secure  settlement  from the p o s s i b i l i t y  on r e s e r v e s  against the  and r e c i p r o c a l l y  o f "having  where,  the native  the whites tribes  85 arrayed a  i n vindictive  warfare."  p o r t i o n on t h e r e s e r v e  E a c h f a m i l y was t o have  f o r i t s own u s e a n d t o e n s u r e i t s  -  retention, alienate  the  Indians  their  officials  land.  the  right  to  assigning reserves,  set pattern other  attempt to  i n c l u d e w i t h i n the  all  settlement,  Indian  -  were denied In  f o l l o w e d no  61  reserve  graveyards,  sell  D o u g l a s and  than  an  his  honest  boundaries  gardens,  or  i f possible  hunting  lodges,  8 6 berry  patches  admirable  and  principles  codified  system  the  of  time  Ordinance Reserves to  hold  fishing  f o r the  personal  settlement,  unfortunate  remained  the  Douglas  e f f o r t , there  i n 1864.  specifically withheld  lands  Despite  reservation of  his retirement  or  colonial  and  stations.  Indian  Although  lands  at  1865  Land  from pre-emption a l l Indian  undefined.  f o r B r i t i s h Columbia's  administrations;were  no  the  legislative right  largely  was  1  less  of  This  Indians,  as  sympathetic  the was  Indians most  successive to  the  8 7 territorial  privileges  D o u g l a s had reserves which  throughout  encompassed a  thirty-nine  of  the  native  appointed  the  peoples.  certain  officials  mainland colony.  large percentage  r e s e r v a t i o n s were d e f i n e d  of  In the  the  to Yale  Interior  covering  lay  out  district, Plateau,  18,759.5  8 8 acres. the  The  largest  of  these  Shuswap Lake v i c i n i t y  surprising. more t h a n  forty  Kamloops. local  The  As  Indian  drovers  and  and  reserves  at Kamloops.  original tract miles  along  t h i s was tribe  the  of  pre-emptors.  land  T h i s was  laid  valuable  immediate pressure This  in  out  pressure  not  extended  S o u t h Thompson r i v e r  potentially  felt  were those  from  grazing land, from  took  the  cattle  different  forms.  -  On t h e p o l i t i c a l  front,  colonial  utilized  the available  pressure  on t h e c o l o n i a l  1864,  channels  settlers  calling  "current  t e n acres  As e a r l y  a s May  one o f t h e a p p o i n t e d  i n the legislative  petition  from t h e o u t s i d e  o f communication t o apply  government.  R o b e r t Thompson S m i t h ,  representatives  62 -  council,  Yale  introduced  f o rthe reduction of the reserves per Indian"  3,  a s i t was " s e r i o u s l y  a  from t h e inter-  89 fering with 1866,  Clement Cornwall,  Yale as  the resources  member, a s k e d  t o what s t e p s  reserves  Council.  as  had been taken  t o reduce  the "extensive 90  Interior  Magistrates  St. Paul  from throughout lands  d i dnot wait  f o r the  the ranching used by w h i t e  country men f o r  Columbian  h i sentire  tract  Shuswap Lake t o Jerome  and  a n y o n e who a t t e m p t s  ranges  t o c u t hay o r otherwise  any p o r t i o n o f i ti s hunted  short distance eastward, had rented  t o a stock  i n the country  Nind  reported  from  "thus  i s l o c k e d up, make u s e 91  o f f by t h e Indians.  Phillip  claimed  Harper  f o r t h e m e a g r e sum o f $ 2 5 a m o n t h a n d  o f t h e most v a l u a b l e  allotment  River.  i n the British  o f Kamloops had r e n t e d  range  Nisquaimilth  being  An e d i t o r i a l  Kamloops t o t h e L i t t l e  a stock  ranchers  Council  t o be r e s o l v e d by t h e L e g i s l a t i v e  of Indian  cattle.  elected  t o inform  one  of  the f i r s t  February,  Secretary  question  instances  pasturing  Fort  time  o n Okanagan L a k e a n d t h e Thompson  reservations  Chief  by t h i s  In  the Colonial  Meanwhile  cited  of the colony."  that  " A Chief  a p o r t i o n o f t h e Shuswap l a n d 92 raiser. James Todd, a f o r m e r Hudson's  - 63 -  Bay  Company e m p l o y e e a t K a m l o o p s , was e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t  the  establishment  o f a 520 a c r e  camp a n d c o n f i d e n t t h a t  ranch  near N i s q u a i m i l t h s  "with a horse  o r s o " he c o u l d b u y  1  93 the  chief  both  "over  t o h i s views".  T h i s was u n f o r t u n a t e f o r  t h e Kamloops a n d Shuswap I n d i a n s  siderable Nind,  enterprise i n agricultural  whilst  a champion o f white  Shuswap t r i b e  were  had e x h i b i t e d  con-  and p a s t o r a l p u r s u i t s .  settlement, d i d admit the  " i n better circumstances  than the 94  generality  with  a great  number o f h o r s e s  These a c t i v i t i e s were merely a  concerted  the  larger  the  lower  Fraser  their  Douglas the  1  The I n d i a n s  traditional  territories.  retirement, Walter o f t h e Shuswap  informed  Trutch,  that Nisquimilth objected the  threat to h i s people's  because o f the l o s s white  men  retired  t o reduce  i n t h e Kamloops and  resented  this  reversal  b u t o f f e r e d no o v e r t r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e r e d u c t i o n 95  reserves  Moberley  o n c e D o u g l a s was s a f e l y  areas.  "  the precursors of  Indian allotments, p a r t i c u l a r l y  of p o l i c y , of  effort,  a n d some c a t t l e .  Within  M o b e r l e y was s e n t Indians  of  out t o reduce  by Governor  Commissioner o f Lands  Seymour. and Works,  t o t h e r e d u c t i o n not because o f fishing  and hunting  territory but  o f t h e " c o n s i d e r a b l e sum o f m o n e y 96  f o r the use of the land".  J.C. Haynes,  agent r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e Okanagan area  as w e l l  rancher,  b e l i e v e d t h e two Okanagan r e s e r v e s  reduced;  a s he p u t i t " t w e n t y  considering  a year  square miles  t h a t the n a t i v e s occupy  government  as an  should  from  aspiring  a l s o be  i s much t o o l a r g e  land i n several  other  - 64 places  and remain on t h e r e s e r v e s  but f o ra short  time i n  97 each year."  The p r e s s u r e  t o reduce  was r e i n f o r c e d b y c o m p l a i n t s Indians  had i n t e r f e r e d  from  with  their  t h e Okanagan  local  ranchers  livestock  reserves  that the  i n the Mission  valley. By the  October  1866, Joseph T r u t c h  was a b l e  r e d u c t i o n o f t h e Kamloops a n d Shuswap L a k e c l a i m s t o 99  holdings opened  o f 6,000 a n d 5,000 a c r e s  some v a l u a b l e  grazing  land  respectively.  the  area.  the  Alberta ranching  situation ranchers  Columbia directly  the ranching  settlement  cultivate  advantage over  where t h e I n d i a n  Interior,  land  to the region.  the settlement  coincided with  the early  of the Indian development  As t h e dominant symbols o f the colonial  the "vagrant"  a few s m a l l patches  g o v e r n m e n t was r e a d y  situation  to take  settlement  ranchers  held  Indian, content  of potatoes  the Indian reserve  here  a to  and t h e r e .  personifies, the  steps  t o remove any  obstacles  t o t h e permanent  Plateau.  They had a l s o r e s p o n d e d  for  stock  raising  the  final  a n a l y s i s , however, t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  with  into  the majority of  system were i n t r o d u c e d  community.  ranchers  i n marked c o n t r a s t t o  stable before  i n the Interior,  As colonial  stands  frontier,  and t h e lease  question  distinct  process  was r e l a t i v e l y  the B r i t i s h  land of  This  1 0 0  This  f o r pre-emption and  t h e r e was a n i m m e d i a t e movement o f p r o s p e c t i v e  In  t o announce  of the Interior  to the region's  capacity  a system o f p a s t o r a l l e a s e s .  In  of a viable  -  ranching  establish  1860's, the beginning  vived  as  the  itself  Interior  on  gradual  the  recession of  I n 1866 Columbia  the mining  by  their  of  Lillooet  the  R i v e r and  left  rancher  Although  H.  pete  Ladner,  for a  in  suitable  the  As  Bridge  of  experienced  route  by  way  interests  i t turned  out,  remained  at French  Although  a viable  Cariboo  themselves stock yards foundation  before  1870,  with  the  building  and  the  variety  of  colony s 1  Interior these  very  a ranch  site.  few  Greenbaum for  packer,  of  cleared a  year  c o u l d not  at  Colvile,  however, the  B i g Bend  January,  an  market.  Okanagan t o  that they  By  the  records  B i g Bend  the  re-  markets  Houghton spent  centred  Big  ranchers,  new  a Mr.  the  of  at  River country  Cariboo  Captain  mid was  diggings  1866,  only a temporary r e p r i e v e .  men  new  to exploit  R i v e r , i t became e v i d e n t  Washington.  fifty  i s one  C r e e k and  with the American  provided  the  In A p r i l ,  This  an  beginning  market  upon t h e  from e x p l o i t i n g  attempting  to French  Columbia  Cariboo  t h a t community w i t h e i g h t y head 1 0  looking  the  industry temporarily,  Bend country. "'"  trail  i n d u s t r y was  d i s c o v e r y of  inaccessibility.  Interior  a  cattle  livestock.  a more permanent b a s i s i n t h e  however, were r e s t r i c t e d  Big  demand f o r  t o have a d e t r i m e n t a l impact  development.. Bend on  -  i n d u s t r y depends upon the  Unfortunately, to  65  the com-  activity  1867,  only  Creek. market f o r l i v e s t o c k  continued  most ranchers  content  of of  their  first  endeavours  For  the  had  to  houses,  corrals,  involved i n  more a m b i t i o u s  and  the well  -  financed,  men  such  66  -  as t h e C o r n w a l l s , t h e b u i l d i n g  stage  could  involve a considerable investment.  diary  c o n t a i n s a breakdown o f expenses i n c u r r e d w h i l e  making  improvements upon h i s p r e - e m p t i o n  personally  invested over  two t h o u s a n d  Clement  claim.  dollars  1  Cornwall's  0  He  2  before  he  had  103 purchased  his first  cattle.  Hence, i n o r d e r  the  high costs of purchasing  the  ranch  operation, the Cornwalls  activities mill,  which included besides  ranchers  men men,  the Cornwall like like  Charles  records Semlin,  t o work  before  they  as ranch  i t i s not  include references to  horses. ad-  surprising "hired"  J a c o b Duck and A l e x P r i n g l e .  many i n r a n c h i n g  pelled  the f i n a n c i a l  auxilary  grist  f o r government  Therefore,  frontiers  elsewhere,  hands f o r t h e i r  established their  own  meet  establishing  t h e Road House, a  d i d not share  vantages of the Cornwalls.  and  depended upon t h e i r  and c o n t r a c t s t o f e e d and c a r e  Most a s p i r i n g  that  livestock  to help  were  wealthier  These com-  neighbours  successful ranching  operations. For provided was  most  Interior  a valuable learning  sometimes c o s t l y  literally  s t i l l  business.  who  experience  Clement Cornwall  i n either  readily  When h e d i s c o v e r e d o t h e r  years  an e x p e r i e n c e  had c a p i t a l .  v e r y much i n t h e p r o c e s s  n e i g h b o u r h o o d weaned t h e i r  the c o l o n i a l  experience,  t o those  no p r e v i o u s  agriculture. he was  ranchers,  Many  had  stock raising  admitted  i n 1866  of learning  "cattle  that  the  breeders"  c a l v e s he and h i s b r o t h e r  or that  cattle i n the quickly  104 followed  suit.  The  C o r n w a l l s were a l s o v e r y  careful  to  - 67 allow  their  before  herd  they  judicious  t o reach  sold stock  winters.  dramatic time. fatal  to livestock  o f feed to this  occasions  were c i t e d  winter by  was  .  losses  area.  endear  spent had  attitude  market,  A  notable  who o n n u m e r o u s  considerable  stock t o  l o s s e s were caused  livestock  they  Camp e a s t  raisers,  operation.  b u t were a b l e  days  since given  development d u r i n g  ranchers  searching  individual  In assessing  their  While concentration ranching  like  apparently  t h e waning years  non-  cattle d i d  the Cornwalls,  for cattle  the ranching  as w e l l  i n the Interior  their  names.  stock  t o absorb r e c u r r i n g  the condition of their  them t o B r i t i s h  i n part  o f Kamloops and i n t h e  dominant p o s i t i o n  towards  main  also maintained  A t t h e same t i m e ,  long winter  long  lost  The H a r p e r  because o f t h e i r  chalant  below.  considerable  They d i dn o t s u p e r v i s e  l i v e s t o c k market.  not  were t h e Harpers,  as having  a t Harper's  stock  retained a  was a t C l i n t o n a n d t h e i r  on t h e Cariboo  smaller  the grass  proved  105  headquarters  Cache Creek as  rule  conditions.  operations  t o reach  rancher  the large scale of their  their  a short period of  o n hand f r o m November t o M a r c h .  exception  .  subject t o  c r u s t o n t h e snow o f t e n  attempting  the wise  reports of  p l a t e a u was p r o n e t o  i n temperature over hard  head)  T h i s was a  The r e g i o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y  The r e s u l t i n g  quantity  (250-400  the optimistic  the Interior  fluctuations  Consequently,  size  i n any q u a n t i t y .  practise for despite  some e a r l y o b s e r v e r s , severe  a certain  t o whom  who  they  1 0 6  industry's  economic  of the colonial  period,  it  i s appropriate  t o f o c u s on  d o m i n a n t c a t t l e m e n who Interior the  Van  about  Volkenburghs  i s difficult  importers, Van  t h e C a r i b o o and  came t o c o n t r o l  ranchers; the Harpers  instance,  the  68  and  from Lyons,  to discern  i t i s not c l e a r  or  whether  they also  of  the beef.  Volkenburgh,  We  do  York.  i f the major  Volkenburghs, merely  American How  from a v a i l a b l e  the Harpers, Benjamin  controlled know t h a t  their  i n partnership with  Ben  came  sources.  A.S.  Bates  cattle  on  Benjamin English,  For  livestock  the preparation  i n 1865  for  confreres,  this  Cariboo  English,  sold  the  the main market  their  New  upon  and  the  and and  hoof  marketing Isaac  opened  Van  a  107 slaughter years, to and  t h e Van  include one  two  Volkenburgh  use  an  and  had  fellow Americans; Volkenburghs flour  and  stock  one  t i m e , t h e Van  warehouse  brothers.  three  i t so p e r a t i o n s in  Centreville  Volkenburghs  While the  with  and  their  Van  f o r the marketing of the  f o r the purchase  f u l f i l l  of  f o r t h e s t o r a g e o f meat f o r  i n the Cariboo, the Harpers  Harpers'  accepted r e -  transportation  of the  live-  market. the terms  of t h i s  continually  S t a t e s o r t o any  available  this  the Harper  T h a d d e u s H a r p e r was United  expanded  entered a business relationship  to the mining To  had  in Barkerville,  were r e s p o n s i b l e  cattle  sponsibility  By  adjoining  Within a period  interest  meat markets 108  in Richfield.  possessed winter  house a t B a r k e r v i l l e .  f o r purchase.  Interior The  on  business  arrangement,  t h e move e i t h e r  to  ranch where l i v e s t o c k  Harpers  had  obviously  the was  retained  their  ranching  connections  i n Oregon and C a l i f o r n i a f o r  b e t w e e n 1864 a n d 1 8 6 7 , t h e y  p a i d over  five  thousand  dollars  109 to  t h e Osoyoos C u s t o m s o f f i c e .  this  period  Their cattle  f a r o u t d i s t a n c e d any o f t h e i r  The H a r p e r s w e r e a l s o n o t i c e d f o r t h e i r business and  tactics.  Hudson's  on account of  On m o r e t h a n  B a y Company r e f u s e d  the scale of their  northern For  instance, horse  flour  discrepancy  part of the Interior  aggressive  to sell  o p e r a t i o n , were  advantage o f t h e d e f i n i t e  of  same s i t u a t i o n  able  to take  from a high  beef  i n the Lytton, L i l l o o e t  the  vicinity  Interior their the  ranchers  livestock  Cariboo.  venture,  a t A s h c r o f t f o r 9C  bination  a t Soda  Though  i fthey  However,  once they  were  1 1 1  should  arrived  This  remained i n  i s not t o say that price for  t o undertake  such  confronted the  I n terms o f  livestock  p e r i o d , i t was a d i f f i c u l t  against.  of  t o d r i v e them as f a r as  elect  there, they  network.  i n the colonial t o compete  they  1 1 0  the price  the price  and Kamloops areas  inclined  Creek.  t o 25C a p o u n d i n  i n 1864,  a pound.  region.  down t o p u r c h a s e  c o u l d n o t demand a p r o f i t a b l e  Harper-Van Volkenburgh marketing  had f a l l e n  o f 60C a p o u n d  of t e n cents  better  P l a t e a u and t h e c e n t r a l  held true f o rcattle,  1866  because  between p r i c e s i n t h e  Flour selling  f r e s h meat i n t h e C a r i b o o  cattle  The H a r p e r s ,  a p o u n d c o u l d g o f o r a s much a s 22C a p o u n d The  the Cornwalls  them t h e i r  teams were o f t e n s e n t  from the Cornwalls.  competitors.  one o c c a s i o n  o f the low prices offered.  imports i n  com-  a  - 70 By  1870 i t was e v i d e n t  the control  m a r k e t was c o n c e n t r a t e d  of the Interior  i n t h e hands o f s e v e r a l  p r o m i n e n t among t h e m t h e H a r p e r b r o t h e r s . British  Colonist  "nearly  a l l t h e horned c a t t l e  hands o f f i v e  was b u s y p r o p o u n d i n g  individuals,  At least the  the theory  i n British  livestock  that  Columbia a r e i nthe  o r s i x men, a n d n e a r l y t h e w h o l e o f t h e s h e e p 112  in  t h e h a n d s o f o n e man.  stock market, restrictive Cariboo. prices the  This  i t was f e a r e d , w o u l d  demanded f o r t h e i r  to the  foundation  herds.  were n o t t o be r e a l i z e d .  True,  of the  t o meet t h e Fortunately,  f e a r s o f some t h a t m o n o p o l y c o n t r o l w o u l d  impede  t h e Harpers and  V o l k e n b u r g h s had a s t r a n g l e h o l d upon t h e C a r i b o o , b u t  ranching markets  The f u t u r e o f t h e I n t e r i o r  i n d u s t r y depended upon t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n a n d b y 1869 t h e r e was e v i d e n c e  Vancouver  Island interests  Interior  butcher,  Plateau.  travelled  to the Cornwalls  to inquire  Clement Cornwall  a t $70 p e r h e a d ;  a  good t h i n g t h a t t h e lower 113  f o r i t s beef."  the potential  " a capital  Later  inquiries  about c a t t l e  following  spring ranchers  of  country  from V i c t o r i a  about t h e  sold  him nine  s a l e on t h e whole and  i n the year  such  and  1869, J . Reece, t h e Yale  steers very  of coastal  the Fraser valley  had discovered  In April  p u r c h a s e o f some c a t t l e .  here  l e a d once a g a i n  w o u l d n o t be a b l e  t h a t was a d i m i n i s h i n g m a r k e t .  the  concentration of the live-  h i g h p r i c e s s o p r e v a l e n t i n t h e boom y e a r s  A s p i r i n g ranchers  settlement Van  "  begin  t o come up  Cornwall  butchers  a s Thomas E l l i s  had f u r t h e r  and by t h e and Lewis  -  Campbell were  71  selling cattle  -  t o Mr.  Wren, the  Interior  114 agent  f o r R e y n o l d ' s meat market Although  capable  of  emerged  i n the  of  the  Interior  ranching  i t s own,  i n 1867  s u r v i v i n g on  tariff  Legislative so  as  colony's pastoral the  the  to  in Victoria.  Council  afford  at  Throughout the  had  a relatively flexible tariff  Certainly,  the  duty  imposed upon l i v e s t o c k  r a n c h e r s and  forty-ninth  cattle dealers  parallel.  1  never  1867,  John  customs t a r i f f  t h a t would have imposed a duty  This  unless  imported  "protection" oriented  evolving  philosophy  colony."'  "In  the  need of  true  policy  agricultural to  a  to  and  i n March  guard with  of  three  $2  and  dollars  sheep  Interior  the  per 118  75*.  tariff  of  fall  Robson's  f o r the  mainland  the  colony  head; m i l c h  most t e n d e r 117  At  this  nor  were  stage,  any  After tariff  the  i n the  evidence  the the  referral was  demand a  horses  none o f  involved  i s there  $2;  felt  solicitude  "  protective  cows  we  b a c k upon and  interests.  a new  head  of  B e e f c a t t l e w o u l d now  representatives  revised  to  manufacturing  1867.  $5 a 116  part  a rural population was  of  proposal  condition  the  the  purposes.  was  period  Robson,  amendment t o  self-sufficiency  depressed  the  deterred  for breeding  l e g i s l a t i v e committee,  adopted  the  the  of  to  structure.  W e s t m i n s t e r , moved an  cattle  re-evaluation  colonial  m e m b e r f o r New  for  had  from c r o s s i n g  ^ In February  1  the  protection  colony  American  seemed  a movement  aimed  better  interests.  community  and  duty  mules  four  promotion that  of  Interior  cattlemen  supported such a measure.  speculate  upon t h e i r  apparent  R o b s o n was more c o n c e r n e d Fraser Valley industry.  settlers  Produce  productive  the revised  t o harp  i ti s l i k e l y  i n 1867 i n t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f  continued to flow  colony's newspapers, continued  indifference,  than the state  from t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l y Despite  A l t h o u g h one c a n o n l y  of the Interior  cattle  across the border  Puget  Sound  region.  Customs s t r u c t u r e , t h e  and p a r t i c u l a r l y  the British  Columbian,  upon t h e c o n t i n u e d dependence on i m p o r t e d  119 livestock.  I t was w i t h i n  self-sufficiency the advantages  that  concerned  low federal  ment o f B r i t i s h  agricultural  Columbians  Many o b s e r v e r s  the impact  would  began t o weigh  t h e com-  have upon t h e d e v e l o p -  agriculture.  The p r e v a i l i n g  Lillooet  f o r an increase  t o $5 p e r h e a d  from t h e I n t e r i o r  mood  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s was i n f a v o u r o f p r o -  I n F e b r u a r y 1 8 6 9 , Thomas H u m p h r e y s o f  moved s u c c e s s f u l l y cattle  about  tariff  Columbia  among t h e p o l i t i c a l tection.  some B r i t i s h  o f f e d e r a t i o n w i t h Canada.  were p a r t i c u l a r l y paratively  the context of  o f t h e duty on horned 120 a n d $1 o n s h e e p . The r e a c t i o n  was m i x e d .  While Cornwall supported the  121 motion, near  George K e l l y ,  Clinton,  criticized  expensive beef.  t h e move a s l i k e l y  He a r g u e d  cattle  trader",  tariff  to undersell  head  the pioneer rancher i n Cut-Off  would  he c u r r e n t l y  that  Jerome Harper,  be a b l e by v i r t u e  American  held  concerned, the proposed  to result  i n the colony. would  i n more  the "great  of the higher  competition with 122  tariff  valley  t h e two  thousand  As f a r a s K e l l y give  the Harpers  a  was  "complete monopoly evidence  i n the beef m a r k e t . T h e r e  that Governor  Seymour a c c e p t e d p r e c i s e l y  arguments,  b u t he  d i d v e t o t h e new  1869.  tariff  structure  level  The  established The  in  tariff  debate  that  was  British  one  l i v e s t o c k was  met  in  March  to remain at  at Victoria  the  tariff  would  i t too high  issues  i n March  M o s t members w e r e i n  1870,  agreement  have t o be m o d i f i e d i f  Columbia were t o escape  Some c o n s i d e r e d  proposal  o f the most prominent  council  Confederation.  the Canadian  on  tariff  these  1867.  when t h e l e g i s l a t i v e to  i s no  on  serious  economic  livestock,  dislocation.  others too  low  124 on  agricultural  distinguish the  as  The  themselves during  available  e v i d e n c e does  indifference. the  produce.  mean i m p r o v e d p u b l i c  the o t h e r hand,  American stituents and  wanted  was  tariff.  more a r t i c u l a t e  British  spoke  about  owner  a railway  Columbia  against  "money t o k e e p  their  to administer  In fact,  and  coastal 1  that  i t was  of  i t as  largely  a l lh i s con-  trails  and  i n order  carry  out the  role;  Amor  "our duty t o open  country-Osoyoos, Okanagan, Kamloops,  laws.  mentioned  representatives  future  fresh  economy.  representatives  the I n t e r i o r s  Cosmos t o o k t h e p o s i t i o n Interior  apparent  promoted C o n f e d e r a t i o n  works,  enough, none o f t h e I n t e r i o r  Canadian  this  Dewdney, spokesman f o r t h e  district,  a resident magistrate  Oddly the  Kootenay  Edgar  d i d not  Unfortunately,  F r a n k B a r n a r d , t h e Y a l e member a n d  C a r i b o o E x p r e s s Company, a c t i v e l y i t would  politicians  the debate.  not explain  investment f o r the staggering On  Interior  were De the  Similkameen  - 74 and  other  districts.  munication with  To b r i n g  the Interior into  the seaboard would  portion of the Interior, k e e p t h e money t h a t  provide  settle  com-  up t h e b e s t  an o u t l e t f o r p r o d u c e , and  i s now s e n t a b r o a d w i t h i n  o u r own  12 6 borders."  When t h e l i v e s t o c k i n d u s t r y  was u s u a l l y  came up a g a i n , i t  a n I s l a n d member who m e n t i o n e d  i t . Victoria's  Mr.  H e l m c k e n , who h a d n e v e r b e e n t o t h e I n t e r i o r ,  the  discussion  Country's that  on t h i s  topic.  He r e c o g n i z e d  t h e Upper  s t o c k r a i s i n g p o t e n t i a l and argued  the region  needed  the protective  dominated  convincingly  tariff  while  the  127 ranching railway that  communities were i n t h e i r was c o m p l e t e d  they  could  Such arguments alert  infancy.  and herds  established,  confront  the American  openly  suggest that  to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  Once t h e he  reasoned  competition.  the Island delegates  were  o f t h e I n t e r i o r as an  fully  important  hinterland. By that  t h e c o l o n i a l governmentswas w e l l  i f the colony  agricultural  was t o be s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  produce.  taken p o s i t i v e i f hesitant ranching,  pastoral  and  1871.  leases  This  steps  increased,  was d e s p i t e  t o t h e end o f t h e y e a r  because o f n e g o t i a t i o n s  i n meat  The c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o promote and  and t h e r e s u l t s were e n c o u r a g i n g .  for  1870  aware  t h e p r o m o t i o n o f t h e I n t e r i o r l i v e s t o c k i n t e r e s t was  essential and  1871  with  particularly  the fact that  had  regulate  Applications between  from  1869  September  l e a s e f s a p p l i c a t i o n s were  refused  t h e Dominion government f o r  land  along  the  once a g a i n terminate o f way.  proposed  being  Further  Land Ordinance, east a  of  the  clause  "the  on  128  Cascades  interfered  320  1871  provided  acres.  size  of  by  bona  fide  personal  shanty  on  the  residence  c l a i m and  were  the  running  might  right  the  1870  pre-emptions  T h e r e was,  emptor", a r e s t r i c t i o n added t o prevent a  railway  amended l a n d l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h  continuous  structing  leases  government  w i t h the  increased the to  By  c o n d i t i o n the  e n c o u r a g e m e n t was which  i n the  -  railway.  granted  them i f t h e y  75  of  however, demanded the  pre-  practise  of  c a t t l e on  con-  the  129 land,  but  living  elsewhere.  Certainly, of  the  Interior  the  economic  and  demographic  ranching  frontier  and  cattle  expanded c o n s i d e r a b l y d u r i n g the the the for  industry  period.  had  Besides  approximately  70,000 a c r e s g r a n t e d as p a s t o r a l l e a s e s i n 130 Yale d i s t r i c t , o v e r 1700 p r e - e m p t i o n s w e r e i s s u e d t h e L i l l o o e t , L y t t o n , C a r i b o o , Kamloops, Okanagan and 131  Similkameen d i s t r i c t s . collection the  colonial  dimensions  of  Interior's  colonial growth  A  r o u g h b r e a k d o w n o f F.W.  land records as  a ranching  adds t o our area.  Laing's  perception  of  - 76 -  TABLE I I I RANCH OWNERSHIP AND A P P R O X I M A T E A C R E A G E A L I E N A T E D B Y P R E - E M P T I O N AND P U R C H A S E  A p p r o x . No. of Ranchers  District  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  Lillooet Chilcotin Cariboo Ashcroft Kamloops Nicola Similkameen Okanagan  It  i s apparent  the  Interior  large  stage  o f development,  was n o t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y  t h e exception o f a few wealthy  ranchers  with  military  g r a n t s , m o s t p r o s p e c t i v e ; . r a n c h e r s commenced  ations  initial  early  frontier  Outside  2  12,000 4,100 13,200 13,000 15,000 4,100 4,000 10,500  that a t this  holdings.  3  Approx. Acreage a l i e n a t e d by Preemption and Purchase  50 20 50 45 55 15 10 40  ranching  1  on a very  capital  modest l e v e l .  holdings d i d n o t occur records of  a l s o demonstrate  cattle  and those  upon I n t e r i o r  until  eligible f o r  The e x p a n s i o n t h e next  a steady ranches.  decade.  oper-  of land Surviving  i n c r e a s e i n t h e number  TABLE  IV  CATTLE D I S T R I B U T I O N I N B R I T I S H COLUMBIA COLONIAL  Year  No.  of  1,520 2,905  1866  5,680  1867  8,446  1869  10,275  steady increase  reduced  1 3 3  Cattle  1862 1865  The  PERIOD  Area  L i l l o o e t and L y t t o n Quesnel, Cariboo, L i l l o o e t & Lytton Quesnel, W i l l i a m s Lake, Lillooet & Lytton Quesnel, W i l l i a m s Lake, & Lillooet Lytton, L i l l o o e t , & Cariboo  i n t h e number o f c a t t l e  dependence upon i m p o r t a t i o n s from  Whereas, i n 1862,  4,842 h o r s e s a n d  4,492 b e e f  cattle  were i m p o r t e d  public,  1870,  by  this  INTERIOR  heavy  the United  mules,  from  translated  273  cows  into States.  and  the neighbouring r e -  dependence had  been  reduced 13  to  1,037  That  h o r s e s and  i s not  Columbia  and  abandoned. in  to say  Western  Aspiring Washington  Interior  selves with American  that  Pacific  foundation herds. period,  mules,  cows and  the relationship  Northwest  1,061  beef  and  ranching frontiers  t h e end  of  had  remained  the  at this  the best available  been  their colonial  r a n c h e r s were b e g i n n i n g t o concern b r e e d i n g s t o c k , and  British  livestock  Oregon t o supplement by  cattle.  between the  r a n c h e r s c o n t i n u e d t o buy  Furthermore,  improved  region  182  them-  stage,  source.  the  -  The  78  dominant problem c o n f r o n t i n g the  ranching  p o p u l a t i o n when t h e  remained  their  t h e r e were  isolation  and  markets.  journey  The  but  high water  timber  had  government wanted policy  and  the  the proposed The  i t was  had  blocked  to ensure  the  the  a winter  prising  heavy s n o w f a l l .  In  i t s state of  t h a t by  observers  the  agreed  i n the  that only  the  very  along  temporarily  advantage of  to take  Cariboo  were abandoned or  the  by  the  canyon.  trail colonial  very only  Cariboo  much a n e c e s s i t y . a  financial  i t i s not  period and  during  most a c c e s s i b l e  settled.  Many  new-  Road, had  only  located  captive mining  ranchers  sur-  most  m a r k e t b e g a n t o d e c l i n e , many s m a l l absorbed  drive  i t s pastoral  impassable  best  been  the  the  I f the  isolation,  colonial  comers, p a r t i c u a r l y  Once t h e  of  were not  the  P l a t e a u had  to  Interior hinterland,  of  Interior  end  relative  now  Fraser  segments o f  they were v i r t u a l l y  of  were  Similkameen-Hope  t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y was  current transportation routes  main-  narrowness of  the  success  f u t u r e growth of  lower  impractical  the  t o use  1871  Thompson,  f o r the  good g r a z i n g i n the was  By  i n the  w a s h e d away t h e b r i d g e s .  burden to maintain,  land  of  alternative  fallen  Confederation  cattlemen  Road b e c a u s e o f  scarcity  ranchers'  route and  the  ready  Although  periodically  t h e m down t o C a r i b o o and  entered  expanding  from c o a s t a l markets.  Okanagan v a l l e y s  Victoria  making the  trail  colony  s e v e r a l thousand beef c a t t l e  S i m i l k a m e e n and land  -  with visions  market. farms of  larger  enterprises presented  the  community. ground or cided  permanent s e t t l e m e n t .  nucleus  As  we  to ranch by  of  have  experience  initially to  and  the  seen,  of  these  mining  commit themselves  on  the  region for stockraising, the  w o r k was  original  poor,  the m a i l  females.  Yet,  investment  the  first  stance, was  generation  were devoted  continually  the  time  and  and  Interior  forced to travel  he  a  the  of  The  Outside  potential had  few  of  an  schools  obvious  lack  background  Cornwalls  of or  scale  for  Cornwall  great nuisance, dead a l i v e  were  for i n -  When C l e m e n t  s t a y i n g i n so  of  amenities  f o r h e a l t h reasons  "this  of  transportation net-  The  life.  de-  decided  held a curious attraction  to V i c t o r i a  complained  the  experience,  ranchers.  back-  they  small minority  erratic,  t h e r e was  to ranch  money a n d  i n the  Attracted  Interior  s e r v i c e was  r e g a r d l e s s of the  little  region.  settlers.  non-existent  ranching  t o e x p l a i n why  n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t and  virtually  of  men  first  re-  a more permanent b a s i s .  attractive  offer  t h e r e was  potential,  its  to  Interior's  i n that isolated  the  T h e s e men  in  1870,  wasting  a place  as  135 Victoria." could  He  indulge himself  general  operation of The  a  nucleus  of few  the  yearned  of  colonial  decades.  The  r e t u r n t o A s h c r o f t where  i n coyote  hunting,  riding  and  he the  a prospering  ranch.  p e r i o d had  witnessed  the  formation  which would guide  the  development  legislation  livestock  to  i n d u s t r y and  ranching  most important  frontier  legislation  f o r the  in relation  of  next to  s t o c k r a i s i n g were the the  successive  land  the  colonial  industry's financial  nor  role  the  economic e n t i t y .  In  ranchers  the  strictions. on  The  more t h a n one  land  or  be  settled the  claims,  there  to  the  possess  to act  as  a  i s evidence of  their  to  realized  about  the  even though s q u a t on  Interior  u n l i m i t e d amounts o f  Open r a n g e p r e d o m i n a t e d  there  choice of  the  to  This  on  was  system  Indian one  The  few  Interior  could  sparsely  most p a r t ,  other was  some  re-  land  cattle  land.  however,  pre-emption  legal  s t i l l  and  ample  Obviously,  B r i t i s h Columbia  good g r a z i n g  i n the  this  suggest  fulfilling  improvement and  the  to  isolation.  For  a  unified  laws upon r a n c h e r s  Osoyoos.  of  legislative  Crown l a n d .  Interior's  enforce  limited  interests  s c a t t e r e d throughout the  details  merely  most ranchers  their  implementation  c e r t i f i c a t e s of  opportunity  land.  fact,  were c o n s c i e n t i o u s  administrative  not  afford  from Quesnel to  ranchers  implementation  grazing  of  the  ranching  occasion  result  expected  and  could  unleased  control  representatives played  developed  by  and  s m a l l numbers and Interior  the  settlement  regulate  i n s t a n c e , abused  government agents not  Essentially,  Harpers,for  unsurveyed,  inevitable  not  by  Perhaps because of  the  formation  p o i n t where they  to  their  political  They had  resented  and  raisers.  neither  their  i n the  legislation.  scale  state,  resources,  passed  to promote i n d i v i d u a l  stock  incipient  population leading  of  land ordinances  administrations.  r e l a t i v e l y small  activities  -  various  laws were designed  upon a  80  colonial  and  did  agricultural  period,  but  - 81 it  would not  pasture the  and  fragile  be  long before  build  their  ranchers would begin  own  bunch grass  -  irrigation  from  to  fence  ditches to protect  destruction  through  over-  grazing . The market  Cariboo  i n the  colonial  most i m p o r t a n t growth was  of  the  factor  I t s e x i s t e n c e was  the  initial  the  development  ranching frontier.  Its  single and  influence  stockraisers.  i t d i d p r o v i d e an  i n s t a n t m a r k e t and  attracted  Volkenburghs, and  livestock  to high  dealers  to ask  hindered  Y e t , by fast  ranching  1871  and  at the  e x p e r t i s e such same t i m e  seasonal nature  diversification,  was  livestock  d e t r i m e n t a l to the  isolation  turn  behind  the p r i n c i p a l  and  ranchers with c a p i t a l Van  period.  Interior  both b e n e f i c i a l  While  r e g i o n was  levels. this  situation  substantial the  the  encouraging  allowed cattle  prices  was  focus of  frontier  was  moving  Nicola,  Bonaparte  and  Okanagan v a l l e y s ,  climate  and  encourage the Interior  next  of B r i t i s h  phase of  on  southward  into  drovers which  local  in  ranches. It  Interior  the  Thompson,  where the  milder  region would  ranching development i n  Columbia.  and  the  to the coastal  of  economic  a diminishing influence.  accessibility  and  the p r i c e  for livestock,  becoming e v i d e n t t h a t the  easier  Harpers  to drive  establishment of herds Cariboo  the  i t s geographical  combined  Besides  as  the  -  82  -  CHAPTER I I I  THE  I N T E R I O R RANCHING FRONTIER: 1 8 7 1 - 1 8 8 4  When B r i t i s h Confederation  on J u l y  20,  important crossroads. serious  economic  although  small,  character."'" to  1871,  The  had  and  of B r i t i s h  on a more permanent  stood  had w e a t h e r e d  i t shighly  at  an  i t s first  and  transient  r e a d y t o commit  themselves  Columbia's considerable basis.  The  terms  Canada c e r t a i n l y  seemed t o s o l v e  Besides assuming  the former colony's debt, the  government  Canadian  the remaining population,  cast aside  They were p o i s e d  entered  her pioneers  colony  recession  the development  resources  Columbia o f f i c i a l l y  some i n h e r e n t  p r o m i s e d t o commence c o n s t r u c t i o n  natural  of Union  with  difficulties. federal  of a  railway  2 within  two  y e a r s and  so t h e argument  to complete i t w i t h i n  went,  would  annihilate  employment and meet t h e complex mountain potential  and be  Pacific  region.  realized  ten.  distance,  transportation  Only then would  on a n a t i o n a l  The  and  railway,  provide  needs  of  the vast  n o t m e r e l y on  the economic  a  local  level. The the in  Lower  was  colonial croft  population,  Cariboo country  the Nicola,  first  Interior  Kamloops,  and  r a n c h e r and  the emerging  Okanagan and  not p a r t i c u l a r l y to provincial  scattered  excited  status.  aspiring  by  i t was  ranching  between  communities  Similkameen v a l l e y s , the t r a n s i t i o n  In fact  politician,  as  Clement even  from  Cornwall,  failed  to  at  Ash-  register  -  British  Columbia's entry  detailed  diary.  On  poor  s t a t e of  unresolved  Indian  irrigation. c a u g h t up  high  the  settlers  was  t h e member o f  and  Smith,  and  to  provincial  send  two  Charles  legislative 1871, a  council. when t h e  token  of  of  as  a To  men  the  soon new  the  i t s most senator the  and  Charles  to  Interior  rancher  a  O p t i m i s m was corps  The  Provincial  a t L y t t o n and  federal  be  prominent  Cache Creek  first  to  governments.  sympathetic  Semlin,  government agent  arrived,  two  Parliament.  e l e c t o r a t e sent  i n August,  surveyors  which pervaded  the  of  were, n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  Clement Cornwall  development;  cost  G o v e r n m e n t meant members had  federal  ranching's  further  and  more  livestock,  the  district  the  markets f o r t h e i r  were  land question  Yale  member o f  ranchers  coastal region,  House, the  Robert  normally  the  to Ottawa;  Houghton as  Interior  in his  transportation to  Representative  Yale-Kootenay  Confederation  buoyant optimism  f o r both  ranchers  available  Interior  i n the  province. elected  The  into  -  the minds of  immediate concerns; the  83  former  engendered  of  railway  government's  commit-  3 ment and first  an  additional  s e s s i o n , the  market f o r I n t e r i o r  ranchers.  newly c o n s t i t u t e d L e g i s l a t i v e  At i t s  Assembly 4  abolished  tolls  on  the  roads  l e a d i n g to the  Interior  and  5 adopted  the  Canadian  particularly tural  the  been  throughout  enthusiasm In  pleasing to  p r o d u c e had  taxation  Yale  tariff.  was  the  the  Interior  abolition  colonial  alone  of  road  r e s i d e n t s , whose  subject to this  number o f  district  The  "despised"  period.  Another  was  agriculform cause  pastoral leases granted  over  tolls  of for  in  25,000 a c r e s were g r a n t e d  1871. in  -  pastoral  leases In  i n the  s p i t e of  d e c a d e was  t o be  Interior.  M a n y who  colonial  period  a  had  and  s m a l l and  dispersed  only and  their  latter the  initial  of  that  optimism,  period  now  attained a  level  In Yale  Okanagan M i s s i o n .  these  of  in The  could  not  for instance,  Kamloops, Cache exceeded  two  the  the  production  Interior  district,  None o f  in  next  l a r g e r market.  i n the  s i z e were L y t t o n ,  of  the  ranchers  established themselves  settlements  any  however,  f o r the  c e r e a l s w h i c h demanded a  of  year.  had  produce.  centres  -  part  frustrating  livestock  absorb  84  the Creek  hundred  7 people before district, the  1875.  The  other  amongst the  Chilcotin  ranching  L i l l o o e t , w a s even more s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d .  s m a l l t o w n s o f L i l l o o e t and  spread  main I n t e r i o r  valley,  small  C l i n t o n , the  ranching  Pavilion  population  concentrations  mountain, Lac  Outside  La  of  was  the  Hache and  Alkali  8 lake.  Hence, the  only  a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r the  were t o meet the  g r o w i n g demand i n t h e  northward  isolated  to  the  mining  Omineca and  Cassiar districts.  competitive  state of  difficulties exodus of This the  was  t o be  the  r a i l w a y w o u l d be  continued In  raisers  fact,  lesser  to develop the  extent  ranching the  and  farmers  built,  the  from the  Interior  a modest pace  areas of  transportation  by  a  considerable  Interior  the  ranching  throughout  moved a h e a d  Plateau.  belief  that  population the  N i c o l a , K a m l o o p s and  Okanagan v a l l e y ,  turn  Cariboo,  suspected  Sustained the  or  the i n c r e a s i n g l y  might have  case.  at  i n the  c o a s t a l m a r k e t and  i n v o l v e d , one  stock not  the  ranchers  coastal region  markets With  Interior  187 to  0's. a  considerably  -  i n what g e n e r a l l y has been stagnation.  85 -  considered  This development  as a p e r i o d o f  i s an important  concern  of  this  chapter. While their  individual  during  this  disunite in  the Interior  land holdings  i t sdevelopment.  both  the Lillooetand sympathetic  stockraisers ever,  economic  community  t o promote.  and L i l l o o e t , were expenditure route.  i n a political Yale  districts  position.  on r o a d s ,  a viable  and compete  pressure  point  1871  to Victoria  group w i t h  ranching over  of the  ranching  regions,  Yale  government  t o cooperate community's  association after livestock  particular  and t h e r a i l w a y  of the politicians  livestock  to  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , how-  Crown l a n d p o l i c y  I f the Interior beyond  After  r e t u r n e d men  a t odds  after  failure  i n d u s t r y was t o expand Plateau, i t  on t h e p a r t o f t h e r e g i o n ' s  p o p u l a t i o n and e x i s t i n g  d i v i s i o n s would have  t o be  overcome.  *  *  Once t h e i n i t i a l entry  into  Confederation  *  excitement  began  to  the railway's  the confines of the Interior  would require a united e f f o r t ranching  market  e v i d e n t when one  context.  These  The two m a i n  foreshadowed the I n t e r i o r  completion.  their  t o t h e p r o t e c t i o n and enhancement  continually  The i n a b i l i t y  establish  developed  at a crucial  i s particularly  d i d n o t a c t as a cohesive  interests  1871  and expanded  ranching This  the ranchers  who w e r e  population  i n t e r i m p e r i o d , i s s u e s d i d emerge w h i c h s e r v e d  the Interior  examines  ranching  * of British  t o recede,  Columbia's  the province's  -  population  s a t b a c k and  economic m i r a c l e . First  of  all,  determined. through  the  waited  -  a n x i o u s l y f o r the  T h e y w e r e t o be  a route By  86  f o r the  January,  sorely disappointed.  p r o p o s e d r a i l w a y had  1874,  Rocky Mountain  proposed  seven p o s s i b l e  and  to  be  routes  Cascade ranges t o the  Pacific  9 coast was  had  of  been  course  community. lower  by  of very  Nicola valley  value  the  Similkameen, the  Inlet,  great  of  l a n d and  up  and  valley  by  Canin,  the  encourage  N i c o l a and  crossed  way  and of  the  from there  the  Chilcotin  route would  favour  more s o u t h e r l y p o r t i o n o f  themselves  districts.  isolated  As  back  forth  the  location. the  The  the  t h i s would ranching  and  the  Plains, the  the  t h i s would the  decade progressed i n favour  Fraser river  of  as  either  Whatever  Interior's  the  the  Lac  pocket  the  hinder  and  enhance  interests  in  I f on  other  the on  Bute valley  Thompson  river  L a Hache and i n the of  the  Lake  Lilloet  settlement  I n t e r i o r would  then  in  find  development  of  more p o p u l o u s c o a s t a l and  the  Bute  the  pendulum  Inlet,  the  or  Interior  railway's  d e c i s i o n , i t would  scattered ranching  ranching  Homathco  the  ranchers  a terminus,  uncertainty surrounding  route  Coquihalla valley  approached  growing  market r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  region.  faced  the  C a s c a d e c h a i n by  the  lower  Interior  Kamloops areas.  Cariboo  the  the  railway followed  to Kamloops,  and  and  to the  of  r a i l w a y commenced a t W a d d i n g t o n H a r b o u r ,  to Lake T a t l a ,  their  determination  concern  t o Hope, p a s s e d  the  hand  The  I f , f o r instance, the  Fraser  thence  identified.  not  population.  swung a  site  on  ranchers  eventual serve  to unify  -  Until resigned to  to  the  livestock.  By  e s t a b l i s h e d as  dwindling  Cariboo  Lytton  and  Yale,  winter  months,  perilously  considerable New  was  they  the  by  of  Lillooet  the  Naturally  there  government the  being  devoid  The over  i t was  "the  presenting  cattle  Cariboo  the  was  with  by  a poorly  in  the  feed  and  livestock  steamer  at  developed  trail  course, a l t e r n a t i v e could  Hope by  develop.  drive their trail  way  opinions  of  over  or  stock  utilize  Princeton. the  route  the  F i n a n c i a l support p r o m o t e d by  Semlin,  f o r from  v a l l e y s i n the  Meanwhile, L i l l o o e t  was  the  once the  Howe S o u n d  Charles  a petition  road  sufficient  shipped  actively  other  trails  s t r e t c h between  n a t u r a l o u t l e t f o r the  S i m i l k a m e e n , N i c o l a and  was  of  ranchers  p r o m o t e and  members, R o b e r t S m i t h and  province".  over  which reached  more s o u t h e r l y r o u t e  the  t o be  There were, of  and  the  Furthermore,  were c o n f l i c t i n g  should  viewpoint,  time,  and  ranchers  frequently impassable  driven  seaboard.  Dewdney t r a i l ,  roads  However, the  largely  expense or  to  of  the  interconnecting link  e i t h e r had  Westminster.  completed,  this  market.  routes way  use  narrow i n places.  reached Yale,  to  an  besides  1 0  -  r a i l w a y was  themselves  move t h e  well  the  87  Yale their  cattle  from  the  eastern  part  of  member Thomas  for increased  for  Humphreys  expenditure  upon  the  12 cattle  trail  from L i l l o o e t  This the in  subject October,  constituted  of  potentially a  1873.  lengthy 13 This  to Bute or divisive  article  Burrard  transportation issue  in Victoria's  editorial  Inlet.  argued  a n a t u r a l boundary d i v i d i n g  the  Daily  was  Colonist  t h a t Soda  Creek  Interior  into  -  northern  and  southern zones,  s e a b o a r d b y way b y way also the  and  of L i l l o o e t  of Princeton  p r o v i d e s an Interior.  complete  88  -  the former presumably and  t o Hope and  approximate  Howe S o u n d a n d New  picture  the l a t t e r  Westminster.  The  breakdown of c a t t l e  Although not precise, of where c a t t l e  zone  article  numbers i n  i t does g i v e  r a n c h i n g was  seeking the  a  being  more pursued  upon what s c a l e . TABLE  V 14  D I S T R I B U T I O N OF  CATTLE IN  No. o f Cattle  Locale  Quesnel Mouth W i l l i a m s Lake Chimney Creek Soda Creek A l k a l i Lake B i g B a r , down F r a s e r Lac La Hache Pavillion Bonaparte, Clinton  As more c a t t l e  government investment i n the supported. of N i c o l a 124  The  editorial  valley,  who  m i l e s from N i c o l a  more, a n o t h e r and been opened  had  No. o f Cattle  Locale  i n the  southern zone, h e a v i e r  s o u t h e r n r o u t e was  cited  proposed  the example of Samuel  recently  driven  r o u t e t o Hope f r o m N i c o l a  i n 187 2 b y E d g a r  and  Moore  a band o f c a t t l e  t o Hope v i a t h e Dewdney t r a i l .  shorter  2,850 2,675 1,075 625 4,120 3,700 3,130 2,394 1,500  Cache Creek Savona, Copper Creek Tranquille North Forks(Thompson) Kamloops & South F o r k s Okanagan Similkameen N i c o l a Lake Kootenay  410 525 1,310 1,070 3,050 2,000 3,250 1,400 1,965  were l o c a t e d  INTERIOR—1873  the  Furtherlake  Dewdney i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h  had the  -  Canadian P a c i f i c distance and  survey.  89 -  This  shortened  f r o m Hope t o t h e N i c o l a v a l l e y  recognized  communities  the direct  t o one hundred  the increasing significance  i n the southern  Meanwhile, as l a t e were complaining  miles  of the ranching  portion of the Interior  as 1877, L i l l o o e t  overland  and C l i n t o n  o f t h e government's n e g l e c t and  Plateau.  ranchers incompetence  15 in  the completion The  o f t h e Howe S o u n d  demand  trail.  forbetter trails  w a r d movement o f s e t t l e m e n t  into  reflected  t h e more r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e  valleys  between Kamloops and t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l  August,  1872, Frances  British  Columbia's pioneer  initiation and  Barnard,  main  line  of a weekly passenger  through  t o the Cariboo.  the v i l l a g e  south  Its in  vicinity  of  and p o t e n t i a l l y  passenger  Besides  passed  after  of  British  wealthiest grazing population . .  district. early .  a salubrious climate,i t  t o t h e Okanagan and t o t h e  an improved  construction.  C.P.R. s u r v e y i n g  line  o f t h e n o r t h and  a small ranching  b y wagon r o a d  highway, w h i l e  was u n d e r  point with the  i t was a t t h e c e n t r e  period.  w a s now c o n n e c t e d  Creek  K a m l o o p s h a d many n a t u r a l  had a t t r a c t e d 17  the colonial  Cariboo  a t t h e former  Situated a t the confluence  largest  announced t h e  t o d i s p l a y signs o f development  Thompson r i v e r s ,  Columbia's  and owner o f  s e r v i c e between Cache  This  decades o f i s o l a t i o n .  advantages.  line,  In  o f Kamloops where t h e o l d Hudson's Bay  Company was b e g i n n i n g its  boundary.  Okanagan rancher  express  t h e Okanagan, c o n n e c t i n g 16  the south-  trail  Furthermore,  to the Nicola  with  valley  t h e commencement  i n 1 8 7 1 , Kamloops h a d become t h e s u p p l y  -  centre  and I n t e r i o r  was e v e r y  headquarters  indication  unless  the Bute  before  the final  Inlet  f o r survey  the r a i l w a y would pass r o u t e was a d o p t e d .  crews.  There  through  Kamloops  Consequently,  d e c i s i o n , Kamloops experienced  commercial development. established  90 -  and a l o c a l  long  some  H o t e l s were c o n s t r u c t e d ,  stores  p a r t n e r s h i p was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e 18  construction  o f t h e community's f i r s t  lumber m i l l . positive  By  1874  Kamloops was a l r e a d y d i s p l a y i n g  indications  that  i t w o u l d become t h e u r b a n c e n t r e o f t h e I n t e r i o r  Plateau. Although moving by  southward  the ranching  i n the early  frontier  important  and W i l l i a m s Lake v i c i n i t y  stopping point f o r ranchers  the latest mineral  strikes  was  The  was b e c o m i n g moving  t o be  region  stock raisers.  f r o m t h e Thompson and N i c o l a v a l l e y s by  appeared  1870's t h e C a r i b o o  no means abandoned b y I n t e r i o r  Barkerville  thus  their  t o the markets  an livestock created  i n t h e Omineca and C a s s i a r  19 regions. in  The H a r p e r - V a n V o l k e n b u r g h  particular,  Cariboo  i n the early In  Barkerville hotel  continued  fact, area  and s a l o o n  t o operate  business  successfully  combination, i nthe  1870's.  they  played  t h a t J.W. operator  them o f h a v i n g promoted New i s i t j u s t of beef c a t t l e them i n t o o u r c o n t r o l l e d by  such  Lindhard,  a dominant r o l e a prosperous  i n the d i s t r i c t ,  publicly  i nthe Danish  accused 20 a b e e f m o n o p o l y f o r some t i m e : that the farmers, having thousands , s h o u l d be d e b a r r e d from b r i n g i n g market by t h e market being one i n d i v i d u a l who, a s i t h a s b e e n  -  91  -  proven r e p e a t e d l y , lowers the p r i c e of beef when o t h e r s d r i v e i n s t o c k so t h a t t h e y s h a l l not r e a l i z e expenses, o n l y to r a i s e i t again w h e n t h e m a r k e t i s i n h i s own h a n d s .  The in  Van  Volkenburghs  the Cariboo  market.  but  True,  may  have c o n t r o l l e d  they  the  d i d not monopolize  retailing  the  they bought the m a j o r i t y of  of  meat  livestock  their  cattle  from  21 the Harpers Herbert  to s e l l  l e n g t h y and  markets. early Van a  they  also  Bowe, B e n j a m i n  preferred the  but  English  their  and  s t o c k on  arduous c a t t l e  Hence, as  their  other  other  local  hard  in  the Cariboo  As  early  as  mill  Harpers,  to the  approached  avoid  alternative  maturity i n  d e s p i t e the  up  him  family  owned a  quarters  industry  December, 1871,  forced  departure  however, c u r t a i l e d  livestock  for sale  business.  to s e l l fact  the  to  they  By  this  to r e t i r e large  i n grand  on  t h e g r o u n d s he  time  the  drove  estate.  style.  mills  were t r a n s f e r r e d  the  put  was  he the  Volkenburghs.  the  wanted  to  left, scene  Harper  had  where  the Harper of  the  head-  lavish 23  business  t o t h e c a r e o f T h a d d e u s who,  cattleman, d i d not possess  retire  made h i s  f o r h i s many g u e s t s .  remaining  Clinton  health  California  Jerome Harper  Before  involvement  t h e Van  his deteriorating  to Santa Barbara, 22  a t the C l i n t o n  Jerome's d e p a r t u r e ,  before  their  Jerome Harper  among t h e m champagne l u n c h e s  astute  often  bargain. The  flour  interest  ranchers  the Cariboo market to  drives  herds  ranchers.  1870's, n o r t h e r n ranchers were w i l l i n g  Volkenburgh-Harper  from  bought from  parties, With  interests  although  an  t h e b u s i n e s s a c u m e n .of  his  -  brother. best  While  92  Jerome b e l i e v e d l a n d a c c u m u l a t i o n  means t o a c q u i r e w e a l t h ,  speculative profits  -  T h a d d e u s was  t u r n o f mind and p r o c e e d e d  i n a mining  venture  was  the  o f a more  to invest  ranching  i n the Horsefly area  of the  _ 24 Cariboo. During  t h e 187 0 ' s , h o w e v e r , T h a d d e u s  business  i d i o s y n c r a s i e s do n o t a p p e a r  family's  considerable investment  The e x t e n t  of t h i s  investment  1874, when Jerome H a r p e r d i e d  t o have damaged  i n Interior  was  Harper's  revealed  the  ranching.  i n November,  i n h i s bathtub  at  Santa  25 Barbara;  he was  only  forty-two years  member o f H a r p e r B r o t h e r s , C l i n t o n , Volkenburgh  As t h e C a r i b o o synonymous  a "household  with  qualities  found  ranchers.  With  i n the f i r s t little  Instead  ventures  his reputation 26  generation  country.  was  many o f t h e  of B r i t i s h  education,  Columbia  he a r r i v e d  i n the  of business  and  i n his native Virginia  and  of investing  his capital  on p r o v i d i n g l i v e s t o c k the Cariboo.  i n the mines  and f l o u r  The p r o f i t s  to  Interior  gained  from  were r e i n v e s t e d i n the o u t r i g h t purchase  good g r a z i n g l a n d acquired  formal  gained  markets, p a r t i c u l a r l y these  i n t h e Upper  the benefit of a wealth  he c o n c e n t r a t e d  and L i g h t n i n g Creek,  Jerome Harper e p i t o m i z e d  experience  California.  Van  '!energy a n d i n d u s t r y " .  Certainly  Interior with  word"  Sentinel put i t ,  As t h e s e n i o r  a n d a s a member o f  and Company o f B a r k e r v i l l e  J e r o m e ' s name w a s  ranching  old.  land east  throughout  the Interior  Plateau.  of  They  o f Kamloops, i n t h e Cache Creek a r e a , i n  -  the Cut-Off  valley  near  93 -  Clinton  and e v e n t u a l l y i n t h e C h i l -  27 cotin  district.  colonial  investors  implement f u l l y  cases, to  the legislation  the Harpers  Barkerville  they  vicinity  justification, controlling  and  the price  an i s o l a t e d  grazed  livestock  reserves.  Jerome Harper  business  near  success. Clinton,  as Deputy Governor  and w i t h  and l a n d l a t e r  he p u t h i s n e w l y  some  was o b v i o u s l y and t h e  The  Cornwalls 28  ethics,  but  by land  In fact, i n went  so f a r as t o  of the Cariboo 29  economic development.  Upon h i s b r o t h e r ' s d e a t h ,  t o which  land i nthe  s t a t u s was d e t e r m i n e d  h i s devotion to the Interior's  $176,000  With the  on Crown lease,  certain  o f m a n i p u l a t i n g and  represented  a rancher  i n some  of the Interior  t o promote h i s i n t e r e s t s  s o c i e t y where  recommend Jerome H a r p e r  use  Consequently,  arrangements w i t h  on t h e i r  o f the Harper's  money, t h e H a r p e r s  inherited  t o r e g u l a t e and  isolation  cattle  o f beef.  that the  to alienate  c l i m a t e o f o p i n i o n was c o m p l i a n t .  18 68 G e o r g e K e l l y ,  for  the relative  they were accused  may h a v e d i s a p p r o v e d in  land.  without a pastoral  t o bend t h e r u l e s  prevailing  designed  o f Crown  aware  r e g i o n n o r hope t o  They had w o r k i n g  t o graze  Van V o l k e n b u r g h s ,  ready  used  advantage.  tribes  afford  i n the isolated  the distribution  their  Indian  was a l s o w e l l  government c o u l d n e i t h e r  potential  control  Jerome Harper  Thaddeus  valued  Harper  a t $300,000  and t h e  acquired capital i s  30 instructive. his  Harper  elected  ranching enterprises.  to purchase  an a d d i t i o n a l  t o commence t h e e x p a n s i o n  Between 21,499.5  1875 and 1877 he acres  of  applied  i n the Lillooet  -  district,  making the  94  -  former K e l l y ranch  i n the  Cut-Off  31 valley  the  Interior  largest ranch  ranchers  in British  followed  Columbia.  Harper's b e l i e f  Other  that  security 32  rested The  i n c o n t r o l of  relatively  1870's i n the acres  high Yale  deeded r a t h e r average of  and  land  Lillooet  respectively, reflects  districts,  the  growing  land  this  supposedly dormant economic p e r i o d  E.  Gosnell  bona f i d e of  pieced  together  later  stock  the  criticized  settlement 34  agriculture..."  and  Granting  to  realize  way  l i n k e d the  the  only  the  Interior  potential.  have been  market  holdings, a  price  the  surplus of  Collector  of  cattle of  Interior  the  to  Interior land which  the  the  Interior  for their  as  Benjamin what  stock  Gosnell  raising  Interior  Railwas  Plateau's  to  ranching  Van  explain population  l i v e s t o c k appears  to  state.  ranchers state of  record  of  development  Canadian P a c i f i c  the  R.  detriment  holdings,  the  l i v e s t o c k i n the to  of  during  i n d i v i d u a l s such  developing  of  situation  depressed  "to  the.coast,  i n such a depressed While  that  What i s more d i f f i c u l t  apparent progress  when t h e  and  with  4 00  I t was  Haynes and  large  that u n t i l  f e a s i b l e means o f  agricultural is  was  that  Lowe, J.C.  Volkenburgh were accumulating failed  being  the  preoccupation 33  large blocks as  land.  28 0 a n d  raising.  consequently,  Thaddeus Harper, W i l l i a m  leased  purchases during  with  ranchers  c o n s o l i d a t i o n and  than  lows.  added the  to  British  Interior According  Customs a t O s o y o o s and  their  land  Columbia  had  forced  t o J.C.  rancher,  prices  economy the  Haynes,  -  prevailing head  i n the  Interior  f o r cows w i t h  95  -  i n 1876  c a l v e s , $17  were as  low  as  for steers three  $12  per  years  and 35  over, The  $12  f o r two  British  year  Columbia ranching  same d o w n w a r d t r e n d was In  happening the  i n the  i n the  neighbouring  at Walla  o l d s t e e r s and frontier  United  States  Pacific  1874,  same m o n t h t h e  e d i t o r of  the  Both ranching in  the  at a  populations  eastern  railway  was  United  connection  was  experiencing  between  Northwest,  i n March,  stock r a i s i n g  for yearlings.  average p r i c e f o r c a t t l e  Walla  that  $6  at  $10  ebb  but  Farmer  i n the  the  and  a head and  were aware of  States  that 1880.  c a t t l e were  Willamette low  1872  selling  in  the  affirmed  Willamette  the  market  distance  the  valley.  potential  to the  a t C h e y e n n e , W y o m i n g , made t h a t  nearest trip  prohibitive. Thaddeus Harper's response but  another  manifestation of  i n i t i a t i v e — much l a u d e d announced  an  initiative  frontier  this  which  to  this  stockman's  situation  In A p r i l ,  t r a n s p o r t 8 00  is  considerable  seems i n k e e p i n g  stereotype.  his intention  to  with  1876,  head of  the  he beef  cattle  37 to Chicago. them s o u t h by 428  rail.  Harper's to Salt  Besides  incredible  L a k e , U t a h , and h i s own  800  proposal then  was  ship the  hired  men  the  C o l u m b i a , and river  I n t e r n a t i o n a l b o u n d a r y , H a r p e r and  drove  the  cattle  followed  i n w h a t i s now  down t h e  i t to  drive  survivors  head, Harper purchased  head a t C o r n e l i u s O'Keefe's Okanagan ranch.  crossing  to  another  After his  Okanagan r i v e r  nine to  the  i t s j u n c t i o n w i t h the Snake 3 8 Northern Idaho. At this location a  -  winter  camp was  established.  n e v e r made i t t o drought the  S a l t Lake,  in California  cattle  to  96  San  -  The  Harper d r i v e ,  l e t alone  Chicago.  made i t m o r e p r o f i t a b l e  Francisco  however,  where they  A  severe  to  drive  s o l d f o r $7 0  a  39 head. long  Unfortunately, cattle  d r i v e has  The  construction a major  increasing  of  local  commenced.  source  were d r i v i n g  the  of  their  afford of  livestock  Similkameen down t h e  and  livestock 187 5.  t h a t by  arriving trail  Fraser  unbelievably  ranchers  had  to  the  and  1878  the  In  that year  there  Canyon.  ranchers  c o a s t a l towns  arrival are  railway  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n remained  to  from the the  content  c o a s t a l markets u n t i l  newspaper r e p o r t s  evidence  this  discouragement, Upper Country  numbers by  The  of  Interior  Although  Guardian began to r e p o r t bands.  record  survived.  majority  themselves with  no  of  not  the  cattle  in  Mainland in  small  always p r e c i s e  was  Interior  a considerable by  way  of  the  l e s s advantageous Cariboo  but flow Hoperoad  -  97 -  TABLE V I LIVESTOCK ARRIVALS  AT NEW  W E S T M I N S T E R BY  Cattle/ Head  Rancher  District  W.J. R o p e r H. M u r r a y W. W o o d w a r d J. Douglas L. C a m p b e l l C. B e a k J.F. A l l i s o n L. G u i c h o n T. E l l i s P. H o u g h t o n J.B. Greaves C A . Vernon R. C a w s t o n M. B a r r e l o A. L u n d b o m F. R i c h t e r J. Gilmore J . Moore P. F r a s e r J. Martley J.B. Greaves  Kamloops Kamloops Nicola Nicola Kamloops Nicola Similkameen Nicola Okanagan Okanagan Cache Creek Okanagan Similkameen Okanagan Nicola Similkameen Nicola Nicola Nicola Lillooet Cache Creek  The  v a l l e y and t o a l e s s e r  Okanagan  relatively  small  relieved  Assuming  These  Interior  driving primarily  t o the coast,  from the  The bands o f c a t t l e  the I n t e r i o r ranchers with  t h e r a n c h e r s were  1 2 2 1 2 4 4 1 3 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  from the Similkameen,  t h e s u r p l u s p r e s s u r e upon  year o l d steers  largely  and r a r e l y e x c e e d e d 100 h e a d .  however, d i d p r o v i d e and  extent  and Kamloops d i s t r i c t s .  No. o f Trips  85 82 98 53 62 154 181 71 190 78 123 128 100 26 51 72 62 37 ? sheep 230sheep 426sheep  l i v e s t o c k a r r i v i n g by t h i s r o u t e were  Nicola  STEAMER—1878.  a t a going rate  were drives,  a cash  income  ranges.  two and t h r e e o f $15 a h e a d ,  -  a rancher coast.  could realize  This cash  ranchers  While in  increasing  breed this  of  during  their  imported  who  San  Again  had  trip  to  Interior  to the  coast  t o improve the  settled  the  impetus i n the  I n t h e autumn o f  Jose, C a l i f o r n i a ,  the  pace.  cattle  attempts  realized.  period.  from  at a gradual  to drive  first  c a m e f r o m men  the c o l o n i a l  Allison  ranches  r a n c h e r s began  stock were a l s o  $1,000 f o r a  e n o u g h t o a l l o w many  numbers, the  direction  -  a p r o f i t of  f l o w was  t o expand  98  187 2  a  in Interior  John  "magnificent  41 S h o r t h o r n Durham b u l l " a t a c o s t o f the b u l l died year,  before i t reached  Thaddeus Harper  imported  $1,000.  Allison's  Unfortunately  ranch.  some C o t s w a l d  That  rams  same  from  42 Canada,  and  the  following 43  from W i l l a m e t t e , Oregon. imported  stock from  r o a d w e n t up  river  the Spallumcheen Ontario  and  Leicester years,  Frank  reputations Harper  was  In  1877  the  a pedigree  first  f r o m New 44  valley. of  Cotswold Barnard  for their  Westminster  and  was  from  t e n Durham s h o r t h o r n s ,  Forbes  fine  of  Rail-  f o r James S t e e l e o f  This livestock  sheep and  stallion  shipment  Ontario v i a the Northern P a c i f i c  consisted  and  year purchased  t h r e e hogs.  In  eight  c o n s i d e r e d the most d i v e r s i f i e d  pure  ensuing  Vernon e s t a b l i s h e d  breeding horses, but  Whitby,  wide  Thaddeus  stock breeder  in  45 the province. seven  pure  large  Spanish  Janet.  bred  The  important  I n 188 2 a l o n e h i s i m p o r t a t i o n s i n c l u d e d bulls  as w e l l  as  s t a l l i o n imported  ownership  status  two from  expensive  B a r c e l o n a and  o f good b r e e d i n g  symbol w i t h i n  animals,  s t o c k was  the ranching  a  a  Maltese  an  community.  -  Besides in  signifying wealth  livestock  looked  matters,  by o b s e r v e r s  of purebred limited  99 -  i t i m p l i e d a knowledge and  an i m p o r t a n t  criterion often  of agricultural history.  livestock  i n British  t o i t s more a f f l u e n t  ranchers.  improved  the general quality  for  o f t h e r r a n c h e r s made t h e i r  It  many was  i n their best  Columbia first  livestock  improve  developing  While achieve  the I n t e r i o r  were making  among  British  ranching  country's  and newly  communities. ranching  community, t h e p r o v i n c e ' s  politicians,  this  available.  of  the American  community  a more s t a b l e economic p o s i t i o n  provincial  stock  t o see the q u a l i t y  i f the Interior  Alberta ranching  largely  i n the province,  breeding  s e t t l e r s were t o compete w i t h  purchase  But, i n turn,  of livestock  interest  over-  The  C o l u m b i a was  interest  struggled to  w i t h i n t h e l o c a l and  first  generation of  them t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e r a n c h e r s ,  sporadic attempts  t o adapt themselves  to  46  responsible  government.  much i n e v i d e n c e a more v i r u l e n t itself  The M a i n l a n d - I s l a n d  during  the colonial  and complex form.  was b y no means a c o h e s i v e  was c o n s i d e r a b l e a n i m o s i t y interests  of the Cariboo  complicate by  matters  Furthermore, political  of Yale  the Yale  district,  their  particular  the Interior  interests,  Plateau  interrelated  so i n  mainland There political  Westminster d i s t r i c t s .  and Hope f r e q u e n t l y c o m p l a i n e d  members w e r e p r o m o t i n g  the  entity.  t h r e e members, was o f t e n i n t e r n a l l y d i v i d e d .  electors  of  p e r i o d , reappeared  between t h e t r a d i n g and  a n d New  further,  cleavage,  To  represented The that  their  to the detriment as they  were as  -  much w i t h region  the Fraser  east  variety as  as w i t h  o f t h e Cascades.  instability, Legislative  valley  100 -  Despite  t h e L i l l o o e t and Y a l e  of l e g i s l a t i o n introduced lists  this  populated  political  representatives  Assembly were p r i m a r i l y  the voters'  the sparsely  responsible  i nt h e  f o r the  t o p r o t e c t and promote,  r e v e a l , an e l e c t o r a t e p r i n c i p a l l y 47  involved  i n farming  I t was n o t u n t i l population to  form  Nicola  and stock  t h e next decade  had developed  their valley  raising  t h e 1870*s.  the Interior  t o t h e p o i n t where they  own c o - o p e r a t i v e ranchers  that  during  formed  ranching  were  ready  organizations.  Until the  an a g r i c u l t u r a l  society i n  48 188 0, t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s was l i m i t e d t o the infrequent p o l i t i c a l meetings held from time t o time a t 49 . . various Interior sites. As t h e r e a r e no s u r v i v i n g r e c o r d s of  these  ranchers  meetings outside  brief  newspaper accounts,  the  i n f l u e n c e m u s t b e m e a s u r e d b y e x a m i n i n g who  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were, and what k i n d  of legislation  their  they  promoted. The  Interior  members i n b o t h  ranchers  the provincial  Ottawa, Clement Cornwall, the  Senate u n t i l  Lieutenant the  and f e d e r a l parliaments.  Ashcroft  he r e t u r n e d  rancher,  t o h i sadopted  G o v e r n o r i n 18 8 1 .  growth o f t h e I n t e r i o r  inception,  had t h e b e n e f i t o f q u a l i f i e d  Not only  At  w a s a member o f province  had Cornwall  as witnessed  ranching  frontier  since i t s  b u t he was an a r t i c u l a t e  defender  of British  50 Columbia's in  interests.  The f e d e r a l members  t h e H o u s e o f Commons, E d g a r  f o r Yale-Kootenay  Dewdney, a l s o b e n e f i t e d b y  -  his  extensive experience  surveyor  and  rancher.  ranchers  held  seats  101  -  w i t h the  On  the  r e g i o n as  provincial  for either  the  Yale  a  government  level, or  several  Lillooet  districts. TABLE Y A L E AND  1872-1875  VII  LILLOOET DISTRICT PROVINCIAL 1872-1885.SI  REPRESENTATIVES  Parliament  Yale d i s t r i c t - Robert Smith, Charles Semlin, J . Robinson L i l l o o e t d i s t r i c t - A n d r e w J a m i e s o n , Thomas H u m p h r e y s , W i l l i a m S a u l r e p l a c e d J a m i e s o n i n 1873. 1876-1878  Parliament  Yale d i s t r i c t - John Mara, Forbes Vernon, Robert Smith L i l l o o e t d i s t r i c t - W i l l i a m Brown, W i l l i a m M o r r i s o n 1878-1882  Parliament  Yale d i s t r i c t - John Mara, Forbes Vernon, P r e s t o n L i l l o o e t d i s t r i c t - W i l l i a m Brown, W i l l i a m S a u l 1883-1887  Bennett  Parliament  Yale d i s t r i c t - Charles Semlin, John Mara, P r e s t o n Bennett; u p o n B e n n e t t ' s d e a t h he was r e p l a c e d by G e o r g e M a r t i n L i l l o o e t d i s t r i c t - A.E.B. D a v i e , Edward A l l e n  Charles  Semlin,  Premier, Saul,  Ontario  sat for Yale  a Clinton  rancher,  defeated  by  in  In fact,  after  consistently was  either  or  his career.  In  and  1876 by  stock  stock raiser, the  men  Yale  William  Saul,  in  W i l l i a m Brown,  district  whose p r i n c i p a l  raising.  future  1873  r e p l a c e d Andrew Jamieson.  a fellow  represented  farming  Cache Creek rancher  throughout  t u r n , was 1875.  born  was occupation  F o r b e s V e r n o n was  well  -  known i n t h e  Interior  as  a  102A  -  "gentleman"  and  as  a pioneer  of  52 the  Okanagan v a l l e y .  Englishman, brother  owned a  i n the  Preston  successful ranching  primarily  agricultural  Upon h i s p r e m a t u r e d e a t h , Martin,  another  Bennett,  Bennett  was  n a t i v e Englishman,  an  articulate  enterprise with  his  Spallumcheen  valley.  s u c c e e d e d by  George  who  ranched  in  the  53 Kamloops area. Yale  John Mara, a Canadian  representative in either  parliaments  from  but  a pioneer  the  Interior's  nineteenth  1875  evolving  political  Yale  Lillooet  influencing  the  designed of  the  the  govern  the  in  the  himself with the  ranching  example,  legislation  specifically  community's  surprising  community and  i n January,  of  to apply 55  to the  T h i s was the  providing separate i n the  recognized  Interior  a  east  of  directly  the  live-  William which and  significant c o n t i n u a t i o n of legislation  region.  Cascades.  the  to  Colonial stock  always a p p l i c a b l e to the  find  region north  t h a t laws governing  c o a s t a l r e g i o n were not  open bunchgrass c o u n t r y  187 4,  to  respecting breedingsstock  Cascade range.  had  ranchers  members i n t r o d u c i n g l e g i s l a t i o n  For  practise  of  ranching  maturity, i t i s not  stock r a i s i n g  officials  a rancher  preponderance  development i n t h a t i t demonstrated colonial  federal  perhaps u n p a r a l l e l e d i n  a mark o f  Interior  industry.  Saul introduced  east  not  or  century.  in politics,  was  o n w a r d s , was  d e v e l o p m e n t was 54  involved  stock  provincial  and  Kamloops b u s i n e s s m a n whose f a m i l i a r i t y  Hence, w i t h  and  the  from Toronto  raising the  Fencing  -  ordinances imposing simply  could  designated  In  the  options; institute  district  process,  certain  considered  the  legislation  Other  5  those  of  soil  raising  bulls  Interior  landowners  legislation.  interest  group  acts passed  extensions  passed during  running  of  introduced  the  i s s u e s such as  grievances 1875,  of  in  the  the  branding,  at  l a r g e were  "thereby  who  designed  dealt  of  the  specifically  Interior  pasturage  annually  tax  grazed  d e s t r o y i n g what our  to  to  ranching  Robert Smith of Yale  a provincial  American drovers  Canadian  and  the  the  majority of  l e g i s l a t i o n was  In A p r i l ,  introduction  stock  the  government had alienating  of  6  resolve particular community.  of  Instead  administrators  to implement the  The  Specific  cattle  in detail.  colonial  i f two-thirds  colonial  governing  of  in point.  were amendments t o o r  period.  depasturing with  case  framework which  regulations without  1870's s i m p l y  colonial  a  agreed  most d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d . the  a  -  u n i v e r s a l g u i d e - l i n e s the  provided  settlers a  m i g h t be  102B  moved  the  penalize  their  cattle  settlers  on  are 57  endeavouring flippant  to preserve  for their  manner i n w h i c h S m i t h  indicative  stock  introduced  i n winter". the  motion  The was  o f t h e mood o f t h e l e g i s l a t i v e a s s e m b l y : E v e r y y e a r t h e r e a r r i v e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e 2,000 o r 3,000 h e a d o f b e e f c a t t l e so p o o r i n c o n d i t i o n t h a t i t was q u i t e p o s s i b l e t o r e a d t h e v o t e s and p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h i s h o u s e t h r o u g h t h e i r r i b s ( l a u g h t e r ) . Our s t o c k r a i s e r s were c o m p e l l e d t o pay a t a x , and the f o r e i g n d r o v e r s come i n w i t h t h e i r m i s e r a b l e wretches, f a t t e n e d them i n our f e r t i l e v a l l e y s , s o l d the  -  stock f o r any t a x . something w e l l used Though t h i s control  103 -  cash and c l e a r e d out w i t h o u t paying He h o p e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t c o u l d d o f o r t h e farmers f o r they were p r e t t y up.  m o t i o n was d e f e a t e d , S m i t h was d e t e r m i n e d t o  "this  flagrant  c o m p e t i t i o n and abuse  of  British  59 Columbia  resources".  the motion. with and  T h i s time the newly  rancher Forbes Vernon Works, responded  remonstrations. but  The f o l l o w i n g  on Canadian  Interior  cattle soil.  weak r e s p o n s e , p e r h a p s of the delicate In  This  protection  because  avoided.  Lands  appears could  their  t o be a be done i n  balance of Island-Mainland relations. Mara i n t r o d u c e d  the License Ordinance  legislation  of the cattle  by American  a Bill i n  o f 1867 w h i c h h a d livestock  dealers.  was a l s o d e s i g n e d f o r " t h e producer against  cattle which  the southern boundary  the ruinous 60  drover". indicated  were g r e a t l y  of the undervaluation the protective  the Canadian  of  t o Smith's  t h i s was a l l t h a t  argument upon s t a t i s t i c s  crossing  government,  Commissioner  Although this  competition of the foreign his  Elliott  drovers from p a s t u r i n g  t h e f e e t o be p a i d  proposed  reintroduced  border crossings t o  t h e same y e a r , J o h n  t h e H o u s e t o amend outlined  as Chief  he  They d i d n o t go a s f a r a s a p a s t u r a g e t a x  discourage American  view  elected  sympathetically  they d i d i n s t r u c t  cattle  April  Mara that  statistics  cattle  undervalued and purpose  ad v a l o r e m d u t y o f t e n p e r c e n t was  M a r a p r o v i d e d some  based  recently  of  largely assembled  -  at  104  the Osoyoos border c r o s s i n g :  -  V J J  "  45 c o w s e n t e r e d v a l u e d a t $12 p e r h e a d 2 1 y e a r l i n g h e i f e r s e n t e r e d v a l u e d a t $6 p e r h e a d 22 y e a r l i n g s t e e r s e n t e r e d v a l u e d a t $6 p e r h e a d 2 1 - 2 y e a r o l d s t e e r s e n t e r e d v a l u e d a t $9 p e r h e a d 1 7 - 3 y e a r o l d s t e e r s e n t e r e d v a l u e d a t $12 p e r h e a d 16-4 y e a r o l d s t e e r s e n t e r e d v a l u e d a t $15 p e r h e a d On  these  $1  a head and  cattle with  imports  into  the  William  certainly  the  growing  support  of  Brown and  considered This  a duty  t o be  ranged  of  $ 1 4 8 . 1 0 was  not  paid - a fraction  enough t o d e t e r  Canadian market.  rancher-politicians  $50  for less  than  flow  of  Consequently Forbes  W i l l i a m Morrison, proposed a more e q u i t a b l e d u t y  from  the  on  Mara,  Vernon,  what  they  foreign  t e n head  over  cattle.  t o $ 1 , 0 00  for  62 imports from  over  the  as  hundred  Interior  introducing lines  one  area  of  M a r a was  which  federal  simply o p p o s i t i o n of  cheap meat.  While  were immediately  legislation  upon an  head.  any  criticized  would  jurisdiction,  attempt  another  calling  license  drovers  importing foreign  Frustrated stock  raisers  drovers,  in their  by  Interior  attempts  creating  a  other p r e s s i n g problems.  i n May  claims  owners of  sheep and  of  the  wall  1876  guide be  access  Bill  seen to  and a  tax  or  cattle. Interior  or  licensing  American  their  attention  to  Through t h e i r  appointed  the  may  to p r o t e c t the  turned  C o m m i t t e e was  this  i m p o s i t i o n of  tariff  politicians  for  to r e s t r i c t  forced to withdraw f o r the  his associates  impose p r o v i n c i a l  substitute on  Mara and  to  pressure study  cattle  the  pastured  a  Select  relative on  public  -  lands. late  The d i r e c t  D J  result  105 -  o f t h e r e p o r t was t h e p a s s i n g ,  i n t h e s e s s i o n , o f an A c t c a l l i n g f o rt h e " B e t t e r  64 Protection similar  o f C a t t l e Ranges".  i n many r e s p e c t s  to earlier  specifically  f o rthe region  It  land  presented  option  This  north  r e g u l a t i o n s drawn up  and east  owners i n an e l e c t o r a l  of establishing a grazing  Ranchers could  l e g i s l a t i o n was  then pasture  district  cattle  for  a s e t annual  fee but,  the  legislation,  sheep were n o t a l l o w e d .  the  common t h e y  owners were  subject  This frontation  legislation reflects  of ranching  years of  Plateau.  lack  This  of population  expanded raisers  from  This  many o f t h e e a r l i e s t  on t h e Southern  does one f i n d  those  evidence  frontier cattle  located i n the Lillooet  sheep and c a t t l e  t o a lower  twenty  i n l a r g e p a r t by t h e  Most o f t h e large  from  the outset.  element i n the success  ranchers  con-  latent  and by t h e way t h e r a n c h i n g  raised both  mutton,  entered  i t or the  throughout the f i r s t  c a n be e x p l a i n e d  Sheep had been an i m p o r t a n t  product,  t o vacate  t o develop  rarely  1858 onward.  cheap and s u b j e c t  I f sheep  o f sheep and c a t t l e  slow  very  and p a r t i c u l a r l y  district,  point of  the traditional  frontiers.  In fact,  of settlement,  friction.  u p o n t h e common  was t h e v i t a l  hours  land.  t o a $50 f i n e .  antagonism had been v e r y Interior  and t h i s  between t h e r a i s e r s  characteristic  with the  common u p o n C r o w n  their  had twenty-four  o f t h e Cascades.  because they customs duty,  commanded p r i c e s a s h i g h  were  of  relatively  while as beef  the final a tthe  -  mining and  markets.  Interior  value.  G r e a v e s and ranchers  stock  t o be  r a i s e r s were keenly  J o h n M a r t l e y , Ben  John Clapperton  who  -  There were p r o f i t s  D 3  Captain  106  drove  Van  made i n  aware of  their  Volkenburgh,  w e r e p r o m i n e n t among  sheep as w e l l  as  cattle  sheep  J.B. the  to the  coastal  6 6 market from  1875  onward.  t e n s i o n between Yale  district  motions  stockmen and  aware of  i n the the  the  Interior,  Interior  tremendous p r e s s u r e  last.  to put  o f p u b l i c money f o r w o o l 6 7  and  were  sheep c o u l d p l a c e  also upon  land.  capable  of destroying bunchgrass f o r , u n l i k e c a t t l e ,  The  f e e d upon the  legislation  first  passed  to  the  The political ation  Plateau. British the  The  i n the  "sheep  Columbia  the  importance early  expansion  of  Interior,  uneasy r e l a t i o n s h i p  ranching  cattle  of  cattle  over  stock had  i n t r o d u c e d by Interior  of  the  sheep.  ranges fully  of  settlement  the  the  ranching  land to the  however, o n l y  between  bare.  community  interests 6 8  settlement the  they  menace".  various legislation  the  virtually  to protect Winter  t h a t the  were  g r a z i n g commons was  i n favour  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of  rancher  i t was  Interior  range  potential  recognized  the  until f o r the  i n 1879  f u r t h e r evidence  awakened  of  that the  t o p r o t e c t the  Legislation was  to provide  indication  wanted  terrain  sheep  forward  tanning  ranchers  to overgraze,  While  grazing  would  I f allowed  inevitable  sheepmen came a t  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were prepared  i n favour  factories  Nevertheless,  the  hegemony Interior  frontier served  Indians  and  popul-  to the  in  the  aggravate white  -  population, article  13  ment had Indians  and of  107  particularly  the  -  the  terms of union,  assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y "and  the  cattle the  ranchers.  Dominion  for British  t r u s t e e s h i p and  By  govern-  Columbia's  management o f  the  lands  69 reserved  for their  however, the  use  Provincial  to transfer  control  the  aside of  setting  and  benefit".  government proved  over  Indian affairs  reserves  i n the  federal  officials  became a d i f f i c u l t  issue.  As  most B r i t i s h  concerned, minimal  f a r as the  role  required  I n d i a n was  i n the  only  a l r e a d y been confirmed  the  76 official  reserves  In surprising Affairs, with had  light  of  that the  less the  first  immediate problems he  been appointed  proceed  i n 1872  government had  acre  Indian  a  attitude  per  generous  Indian. ^ 7  of  urging  territory of  not  Indian confronted No  him  where  settlers  1  i t i s  sooner  George Walkem,  valley  process  when  overly  district.  W o r k s , was  by  he  developments,  than  imminent i f white  been i n the  This  a not  Yale  result,  were  Therefore  P o w e l l , was  Chilcotin  upon t r a d i t i o n a l  settlers  Superintendent  i n the  Lands and  a t once t o the  considered  encroach  previous  a  Confederation  comprised one  as  contentious  land.  before  than  very reluctant  and,  and  future.  L i e u t e n a n t - C o l o n e l I.W.  Commissioner of  was  to  end,  to play only  amount o f  had  the  coastal province  Columbia  expected  region's  a minimal  allotment equal  In  Chief  to  trouble  continued which  to  the  establishing  as  a  -  reserve.'" "  the of  of  -  There were a l s o rumours about a p o s s i b l e  1  break  108  hostilities  latter  area  a recent  the  court  a t Cache Creek Indians  case  and  were incensed  i n which  an  damages f o r a l l e g e d t r e s p a s s  although  not  were h e l d  by  Indian  assessed  fenced,  Kamloops.  under  upon  In  the  had  out-  outcome  been  lands,  which,  a provincial  pastoral  72 lease. local land  In  1874  Indians. for their  horses while  Powell  visited  They t o l d l a r g e and  at  the  him  Kamloops t o meet  that  same t i m e w h i t e were able  thousands of  acres  and t h e n beyond 73  Indians  cruelty.  the  family for  by  reducing  from eighty  each head of The  responsible  these  the  promotion of  the  adjoined  five.  Indians  and  g o v e r n m e n t was settlement  favoured  Indian, Indian  reserves  the  treated  implicit  to  Indian  each  the  warnings  delicate  twenty  federal  i n an  lease  acres  situation.  concerned  Interior  of  officials  awkward  system.  leases  i n the  lease  4  upon the  these  the  already  primarily  a generous  many o f  7  and  in  often  to each f a m i l y to  f o r them were c a u g h t  Provincial  for  this  allotments  f a m i l y of  Interior  The  therefore  a  acres  cattle  t o p r e - e m p t and  Despite  the  insufficient  ranchers  f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t compounded an  situation  had  growing herds of  immediate v i c i n i t y  with  they  the  with  Plateau  and  Unfortunately  pastoral  Kamloops, Cache  land Creek, 75  O k a n a g a n , Shuswap and The  Interior  ranchers  other  suitable  .often drove  ranching  Indian  locales.  cattle  off  their  -  pastoral  leases  prosecution  and  the  Indians  was  a  and  good g r a z i n g  l a n d was  as  overstocking  i n the  the  bunchgrass  Furthermore,  injustice  and  an  competitors  Okanagan M i s s i o n and  1,300  these not  lands  were not  unlimited,  Interior  was  raising  limited reported  and  already sage  fenced  destroying  brush. that  the  were t h e r e f o r e  range.  Father  i n 1873  that  horses were spread  This  particularly  census demonstrated  stock  for a  as  brought  for trespassing.  replacing i t with  1873  were t u r n i n g to  -  i n some c a s e s a c t u a l l y  against  serious  109  between  Indians becoming  Grendidier  436  seven  of  head of  cattle  tribes,  "and  7 6 they  are  only  raising, or  the  with  however, could  ranchers  regard  to  Crown l a n d . as  situation  at  the  personal not  fires  as  ranching  clear.  the  and  the  h o r s e s and  population  of  presence of  government tolerance  provinces'  cattle  owned by  white the  the  stock  required settlers.  Interior  same t i m e , 77  they they  were a p o t e n t i a l d i d not  bulls,  w h i c h damaged g r a z i n g for cutting the  they land  s t e e r s out  presence of  the  brand  of  Indian  their  some h a d  an  to  stock, set  they  brush  a  a ranchers' was  force.  threat  frequently and  the  Indians  a c h e a p i f somewhat u n r e l i a b l e l a b o u r  control their  short,  to  showed a d e g r e e o f  those  The  adaption  succeed unless  herds of  security,  propensity In  not  pastoral leases  Indian  was  represented  did  the  the  Their  themselves  much p a s t o r a l l a n d For  But  a beginning".  herd.  annoyance.  -  They wanted Indians their  stock  restricted  reduced  Whitfield ranchers the  the  raising  to  size,  110  their  -  p u r s u i t s of  continued  vicinity  of  government about being  Interior  reservations which, to give  Little  despite  offence.  C h a s e , A l e x a n d e r M c B r y a n and i n the  the  In  several  1878  other  Shuswap Lake p e t i t i o n e d  enclosed  by  a  "large"  Indian 7 8  reservation,  four miles  i n length  and  one  mile  widei  N o t a h o r s e c a n be r i d d e n p a s t , n o r an animal moved, t o and f r o m our f a r m s , w i t h o u t d a n g e r o f b e i n g stampeded by t h e s a v a g e s and their d o g s , s c o r e s o f w h i c h , s t a r v e d and r a v e n o u s b r u t e s , p e r t a i n t o e a c h and e v e r y l o d g e . The p o s i t i o n of the r e s e r v a t i o n s , they being on every s i d e of us, w i l l induce the passing to and f r o c o n s t a n t l y o f t r a i n s o f l a w l e s s s a v a g e s , who w i l l t h r o w d o w n o u r f f e n c e s l e a v i n g them open, a l l o w i n g a n i m a l s t o s t r a y upon our c r o p s and e l s e w h e r e ; by t h e i r dogs o u r p o u l t r y w i l l be e x t e r m i n a t e d and our p i g s and y o u n g s t o c k w o r r i e d and destroyed.  The of  a t t i t u d e expressed the  long  Indians' and  Indians, the  the  Indians  very  few  By  curbing  The  not  as  at  the  i n any  1870's i n B r i t i s h and  When t h e  of  stock  ranchers  raising  white had  among  prevented one  them t o  of become  man.  been a p e r i o d  expectations,  f o r the  Interior  reserves  s u b s t a n t i a l way  Columbia  detriment  behest,  somewhat b e t t e r  contract  the the  of  have enabled  shattered  fared  to  size  dependent upon the  i n d u s t r y had  a whole.  the  development of  from pursuing  economic depression ranching  the  governments,  and  survival  restricting  i n d u s t r i e s that would  self-reliant  definitely  t e r m d e v e l o p m e n t and  culture.  thereby  h e r e was  than  though the  of  the  economy  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  the  -  railway let  line  f r o m Emory Bar  t o Onderdonk and  building  new  spirit  confidence  The  federal  by  1876.  the main gripped  Macdonald,  had  Governor General At  Vancouver  of  t h a t time  I s l a n d was  the  were s e t t l e d ,  under the the  D u f f e r i n had of  the  finally arrange-  province's  accepted  centre  was  final  a  population.  firm  control  advice  Dufferin during  Lord  the  and  line  government, once again  S i r J o h n A.  forward in  of  t o Savona's f e r r y  Company i n 1879,  ments f o r the  of  I l l -  put  his visit  concluded  really  west  that  serious  79 discontent. the  Fraser valley  guage l i n e to  The  the  route  from Yale  best  Interior  solution and  i n the  ranchers  mainland  construct a  to Kamloops.  grazing land  cattle  f o r the  with  light  outlet  and  to  survey  narrow  This would  province  an  was  give  access  provide  to the  the  coast  8 0 towns.  This  ranchers is  news was  whose predominance  illustrated  by  the  fact  had  been brought under 81 d i s t r i c t by 1881, by horned  cattle At  finally This  blast, out  Yale  on  the  agricultural  that although  cultivation  May the  d e v e l o p m e n t was of  i n the  r e c e i v e d by  i n the  same d a t e  only  Interior  community  2,740  Yale  acres  federal  some f i f t y  thousand 82  were g r a z i n g upon i t s p a s t o r a l l a n d .  signalled  ranchers  optimistically  the  14,  1880,  a blast  commencement o f an  immediate  Interior.  Thaddeus Harper  and  Within the  Edward C a n n e l l ' s b u t c h e r  Van  of  dynamite  railway construction.  stimulus to the a month of  the  patient first  V o l k e n b u r g h s had  premises  i n the  bought  rejuvenated  -  town o f Y a l e . stock  raisers  contract meat.  -  men,  "probably the  i n B r i t i s h Columbia,"  had  heaviest  secured  t o s u p p l y the Onderdonk c o n s t r u c t i o n  In their  raisers had  These two  O J  112  had  reactivated  dominated  period.  quick response  crews  the arrangement  i n the  which  colonial  Thaddeus Harper  f o r t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n and  with  stock  the business r e l a t i o n s h i p  the C a r i b o o meat market  Under  responsible  the American  the  was  transportation  of  84 stock  to cattle  y a r d s a t Emory,  Volkenburghs, under  the t i t l e  while  the  o f t h e "B.C.  Van Meat  assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r the merchandising of 8 5  and  Victoria.  mutton  livestock  a t Y a l e and market  ship.  The  low as  five  captive and  retailing  1881,  changed  f o r beef  to eight  up  to sixty  profits  and  Onderdonk had  Governor  General Lorne  year,  estimated that  one  seven  i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n  Columbia. Harper  and  new  t h e Van  realize  market  daily.  By  the I n t e r i o r men  of the r a i l w a y  was  more  thesspring  shiploads 87  thousand  the  upon b u l k  t h o u s a n d men.  visited  as  asked f o r  To  have t o r e l y  i m p o r t e d two  containing  partner-  a f a r c r y from  c e n t s a pound.  increasing  beef  the  m u t t o n i n 18 8 0 w e r e 86  but most i m p o r t a n t , t h i s  accessible  former  when t h e y had  they would  each  involved  and  the  nature of  their  c e n t s a pound,  coolies,  he  since  Cariboo mining market  comparable  of  prices  received  readily  had  The  Market",  of When  the were  following now  in British  Volkenburghs were not the  only  - 113 -  Interior  ranchers  t o b e n e f i t from  commencement o f t h e r a i l w a y . at Yale, reported mostly  cattle,  from the I n t e r i o r In late  Anderson of N i c o l a a r r i v e d sold  of  s t i l l  livestock,  and p a r t i c u l a r l y  from  December, 1880, P e t e r at Yale with  t e n t o Ed C a n n e l l and then  New W e s t m i n s t e r .  awaited  The I n l a n d S e n t i n e l ,  the regular a r r i v a l  the N i c o l a v a l l e y .  cattle,  the long  I n March N i c o l a v a l l e y  Samuel Moore and A l e x Young a r r i v e d  forty  head o f  proceeded t o ranchers,  w i t h a b a n d o f 12 0  89 cattle had  to ship t o the coast.  secured  announced  Other prominent  railway contracts.  that the Cornwall  contract t o supply  the  Lytton-Ashcroft vicinity.  some e s t i m a t e s nature  which  beef  I n May, 1 8 8 1 , i t was  b r o t h e r s had been  the  indicate  The announcement the potentially  animal  contract represented  pounds o f beef profit  before The  stock  five  expenses o f roughly profit  livestock  dealers.  per  On a y e a r l y b a s i s t h e  cents  million  a pound, o r a 91  $125,000.  from t h e recuperated  industry stimulated increased competition  province's Nelson  o f t e n head p e r day  two and a h a l f  a t approximately  potential  lucrative  a month a t an average w e i g h t  o f seven hundred pounds.  Cornwall  included  The a p p r o x i m a t e r a t e o f  c o n s u m p t i o n was i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d hundred  awarded  t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n crews i n 90  o f t h e r a i l w a y market.  w h i c h was t h r e e  ranchers  I n January,  opened a meat m a r k e t a t Y a l e  18 8 2 ,  live-  among t h e A.M.  t o compete w i t h t h e  -  Van in  Volkenburghs."'''' the  He  114  -  purchased  his cattle  "Upper C o u n t r y " , p r i n c i p a l l y  personally  the Lac  La  Hache  Greaves,  s t i l l  93 area,  and  drove  ranching  a t Cache Creek  increasingly their the  involved  transportation  spring  into  them t o Y a l e .  o f 1882  the purchase  burgh  .  livestock  also  of c a t t l e 94  t o the coast market.  Greaves  had  of c a t t l e  and  In fact,  e n t e r e d so  that  a t an  into  local  by  extensively  the Harper-Van  Volken-  the Western  upon the Western  acute beef  from  the  the I n t e r i o r  independent Puget Columbia  that  Colvile  British  heavy  of with  winter in 9 6  cattle  Even  traditionally  Sound d e a l e r s were t u r n i n g  but  emerged  s t i l l  and  i n the e a r l y  cattle  f o r beef 97  livestock  1 8 8 0 ' s was  I n J a n u a r y , 1880,  to purchase  British  Portland.  potential  named L o u i s B e a u p r e was  Columbia  to  t h e g r o w i n g demand  c e n t r e s such as S e a t t l e  also  dealers,  a r e a , were p u r c h a s i n g s t o c k  ranchers.  N o r t h West T e r r i t o r i e s . contractor  coupled  i n 1880-81 r e s u l t e d  time, American  A more d i s t a n t market  i n t h e E a s t and  sources to f u l f i l l  coastal  the great i n f l u x  United States,  Plains  Columbia  shortage i n the neighbouring Republic.  Hence, f o r the f i r s t primarily  demand f o r B r i t i s h  a l ltime high,  shortages, a drought  losses  in  i n the purchase  While  was  population  from  p o i n t , was  95  competition.  an  at this  combination admitted to the pressure of h i s .  hay  J.B.  a  reported to drive  the  beef t o be  in  e a s t by  way  -  of  t h e Kootenay pass.  left  h i sranch  1,200  I n May, 1 8 8 1 , J o h n  i n the Similkameen v a l l e y  head o f c a t t l e  recently  115 -  appointed  t o h i s former  Allison  to deliver  neighbour  and  Indian Commissioner, Edgar  Dewdney,  99 at F o r t Macleod. indicates  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , no s u r v i v i n g  how m a n y c a t t l e  Interior  ranchers  frontier  east  believe  their had  livestock,  F o r one t h i n g ,  introduced a generous i n Southern  a rate of ten dollars  per  acre  per y e a r . ^  land  almost a  ranching  British  Columbia's  limited  largely  for sold for  five  $6,000."'"^"''  interest 18 8 4 , two  hundred  hundred  never  government  L e a s e s o f up t o f o rtwenty-one  attracted  - o r one  years, cent  l a r g e and w e l l  companies t o t h e A l b e r t a f r o n t i e r and  enterprise. involvement  i n d u s t r y ceased From t h a t time  market.  This  i n the North  Lillooet  West  considerable profit  h i s f o r e m a n Newman S q u i r e s horses. ^ 1  2  forward,  I n March, 1884,  B u r n e l l o f Crows Bar, horses  t o be  i n t h e A l b e r t a m a r k e t was  district,  Territories  aroused  o f t h e u b i q u i t o u s Thaddeus Harper  he s e n t  to  scheme t o p r o m o t e  p e r 1,000 a c r e s  t o the horse  example, A l e x  community  leasing  instantaneously the stock  small, haphazard  ranching  i s reason  the federal  Alberta.  This  1  financed  route  the Northwest as a large o u t l e t f o r  1 0 0 , 0 0 0 a c r e s w e r e made a v a i l a b l e at  t h e new  There  Columbia's ranching  considered  stock r a i s i n g  i n v o l v e d o r what  followed t o reach  of the Rockies.  British  seriously  were  account  the  and i n A p r i l ,  t o Calgary  with  -  By  January,  the Canadian P a c i f i c provincial  1884,  old steers,  an  same t i m e  $12  by  Eastern Washington buyers  obtained  the  $12  they were being  anxious  had  stopped  of meat a f t e r  the  b i l l  G r e a v e s who  for  two  $40  before.  f o r cows  their  Greaves  r a i l w a y meat c o n t r a c t p r e v i o u s l y h e l d by concern.  construction  The  eight years  J.B.  of  stock  t o expand  1884,  Volkenburgh-Harper  unpaid  $25  from  Van  an  Interior  o f f e r e d over  In February,  1 0 3  section  been completed.  increase of  the  stock.  had  t o Savona  f o r c a l v e s and  At  breeding  Yale  p r o s p e r i n g and  r a i s e r s were r e c e i v i n g year  -  the  Railway  economy was  116  supply f o r ten  thousand  superintendent instructed  The  latter being  dollars  apparently abandoned  left  Onderdonk.  the  with  behind  by  This d i d not  deter  h i s foreman, George Hayes, t o  drive  104 in  cattle  for this  " l u c r a t i v e market".  closely  c o i n c i d e d w i t h the  through  t o P o r t Moody and  1884, 85  the  first  head b e l o n g i n g  ranching finally  witnessed  done"  train  t o J.B.  the  late  as  C o l u m b i a had  and  a  "risky  of  p.m.  on  Greaves.  from  188 0 t h e  the  of  The  railway  Yale  13, carrying  Interior  after  i t s inception,  i t s major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  i t s coastal  markets.  livestock  industry in  been c o n s i d e r e d by  many t o be 106  speculative enterprise".  considerable winter  decision  February  passed through 105  solution  i t s isolation As  British  a t 1:30  industry, twenty-five years  problem;  the  cattle  completion  This  l o s s e s i n 1879-8 0 t h e  "over-  Despite Interior  -  ranchers  t h e n had  change w i t h  construction and  had  prosperity  community. appointed  1883,  parliament  concerning  the  hand  absorb.  than  But  commencement o f a period  majority  of  of the  Clement Cornwall,  Lieutenant  their  to  initiated  provincial  for  the  f o r the  By  -  more l i v e s t o c k on  c o a s t a l markets were able dramatic  117  G o v e r n o r , was with  an  local  the  sudden  unparalleled Interior the  able  the  and  railway growth  ranching  recently  to  open  enthusiastic  the  speech  "remunerative p r i c e s " received  h e r d s and  and  "improved c o n d i t i o n  by  of  ranchers  agriculture"  107 throughout the construction  province.  camps, the  Besides  the  railway  I n t e r i o r cattlemen  had  been  able  108 to  exploit a revived  c o a s t a l market, lesser  degree,  Cariboo market,  a growing  I n t e r i o r m a r k e t and  a demand f r o m t h e  United  N o r t h West T e r r i t o r i e s f o r B r i t i s h The rejuvenation purchases. ment and grazing or  fully  railway  additional the  I n t e r i o r was  aware of  already 109  belt,  designated  administration  of  of  increase  pay  a  much  and  the  the  economic  in  land  stimulate  area of  e i t h e r as  settle-  valuable Indian  I n t e r i o r ranchers h a s t i l y  Crown l a n d .  begun to  an  large  expanding  Columbia l i v e s t o c k .  r a i l w a y would  the  acreage before  p r i c e of  recently  i n the  to  States  most immediate r e p e r c u s s i o n  R e a l i z i n g the  land  a rapidly  reserve  applied  the  p r o v i n c i a l government  The  p r o v i n c i a l government  closer a t t e n t i o n to  Crown l a n d .  In  1878,  for  raised had  the  returns  outlining  -  the  arrears  i n rent  embarrassing their  rent  reminder  and  that  taken action. John Wilson, were  pastoral leases that  the  Charles  few  to  Semlin,  the  last  moved  a c t was  for  land  b o u g h t o u t r i g h t and  grant  $7,114.63 on  eliminated  pre-emptions introduced  a period  districts.  of A  the  18 84  escalating land  breakdown of  was  which  the  f o l l o w i n g year  immediate the  a  payment  provisionsfor in  passed,  purchases  land  pay  Greaves  land  originally  Land A c t  to  Cornwalls,  J.B.  1878  The  p a s s e d w h i c h demanded  Before was  of  to' c o l l e c t .  land  free  Haynes and  In  an  not  i n c l u d i n g the  1 1 0  were  bothered  g o v e r n m e n t s had  $2,300.  new  had  187 0,  J.C.  extent of  since  lessees  successive  annual rent  government a t  -  Twenty-one l e s s e e s ,  i n arrears  demanded an  on  118  1874.  1 1 1  however,  i n the  ranch  applications i n that  year  112 reveals  some s i g n i f i c a n t  trends.  concentration  of  ward  K a m l o o p s , N i c o l a and  into  the  settlement  had  They c o n f i r m definitely  moved  Okanagan  I n d i v i d u a l s were e s t a b l i s h i n g themselves or holdings Nicola  i n three  valley  region. acres of  In  per  stock  initial  and  the  main areas; the  raising settlers.  and  land  strongly the  current  Although five  p u r c h a s e r s were newcomers, had  the  districts. expanding  the  p r o s p e r i t y of of  the  majority  been e s t a b l i s h e d a decade o r more.  their  the  Prairie-Shuswap  purchases averaged suggesting  the  south-  Okanagan v a l l e y ,  Spallumcheen-Grande  Okanagan,  individual,  the  that  1,030  pre-eminence the  districts'  twenty-one were ranchers Forbes Vernon  who added  -  3,260 a c r e s  119  -  t o h i s g r a z i n g l a n d a t Long Lake,  b r o t h e r s a c q u i r e d 3,360 a c r e s . Winfield  ranch  by  Bernard,  i n v e s t e d i n an  neighbours  by  The  acres  buyers who  ranchers  e a c h i n 1883.  Nicola  at the  Conspicuous  Laurent  Chapperon l a k e and  a l l his of  i n the  of  among t h e  large  J.B.  Greaves,  Chapperon r i v e r  G u i c h o n w h o s e 3,000 a c r e s  C h a r l e s B e a k who  Nicola  average  stock raisers;  4,000 a c r e s b e t w e e n t h e  lake,  an  son  at  head  existed  purchased  were three experienced  acquired  3,24 0 a c r e s  Thomas Greenhow e x c e e d e d  same s i t u a t i o n  v a l l e y where e l e v e n 1,789  additional  his  L e q u i m e s , E l i and  a c q u i r i n g 3,450 a c r e s  Okanagan l a k e . .  Postill  T h o m a s Wood e x t e n d e d  1,92 0 a c r e s , t h e  Okanagan M i s s i o n and  the  had  and  bordered  abandoned  the 113  Cariboo In  the  area,  Road f o r t h r e e t h o u s a n d Spallumcheen v a l l e y ,  s e t t l e m e n t was  from  but  the N i c o l a  of  374  agriculture  acres  suggests  r a t h e r than  stock raising  T h i s r e g i o n was, a t t r a c t i v e  accessible  to the  any  and  through  purchase of these  north-west  proposed  the  route  R o g e r s and  i n 1883, districts.  and  of  Eagle  h o w e v e r , was  lake.  Shuswap  situation  the  average toward  among i t s  new  as  easily  the  i t was Canadian  Pass. not  The  Pacific largest  registered  S e v e r a l hundred m i l e s to  Thaddeus Harper  had  was  Okanagan  ancTinclination  settlers.  land  the  I n t h i s more h e a v i l y wooded a r e a  purchase  Railway  at Douglas  Grande P r a i r i e  a l s o expanding  considerably different regions.  acres  begun t o assemble  in the  the  -  Chilcotin's  l a r g e s t ranch,  acres  of  north  the  and  frontier;  the The  Chilcotin  a period  This  was  stimulated  with  the  line  Rogers the  river  and  west of  into  the  Interior's  of  rapid settlement  Fraser. most  ranching  was  i n 18 83-8  a widespread  the  chances were  a more s o u t h e r l y  4.  rumour  have b e e n a d o p t e d by  Pass",  take  8,000  the  promising  in particular,  i n p a r t by  through Eagle  of  country.  believed to  r a i l w a y would  purchase  nevertheless  Nicola valley,  experiencing  the  advancing  remote but  -  through  Chilcotin  T h a d d e u s H a r p e r was isolated  120  "that  Major  increased  course,  that  passing 114  through This  the  "rising"  rumour, which caused  Kamloops, proved the  town of  way  considerable  Mill.  consternation  u n f o u n d e d when company e n g i n e e r s  r a i l w a y would  southward by  N i c o l a at Fenson's  pass  t h r o u g h Kamloops and  of A s h c r o f t ,  Lytton  and  then  the  in  announced proceed  Fraser  115 canyon.  Expanded  tensions  characteristic  Some N i c o l a s e t t l e r s of  settlement  land being  of  b r o u g h t new  ranching  were not  tensions  frontiers  happy about the  a l i e n a t e d i n the  area  by  the  -  everywhere. large  tracts  more e s t a b l i s h e d  ranchers. In J o h n C o t e and  1884,  forty-six  for  a t one  any  bona  l e d by  Robert S c o t t , p e t i t i o n e d the  government to r e s t r i c t acres  settlers,  time, fide  the  purchase of  " w h i c h w o u l d be settler,  and  Peter  Fraser,  provincial  p u b l i c lands  ample q u a n t i t y  thus keep out  to  640  enough  speculators"  1 1  -  For  the  most p a r t  the  most r e c e n t  resented who, of  the  during valuable  range the by  an  the  petition  settlers  activities  had  purchased  grazing  After  land.  of  settlers  original  opinion,  i t stimulated  agricultural  ranchers  legislative  assembly.  In  of  economic act.  surveyed  continued,  or  188 4 t h e  land  and  acre. but  the  land, which are  no  last  resented and  cattlemen.  established  fifteen  were a t who  defensive  of  being  grazing  ranchers  25,000  years  the  Despite  their  over  open  confronted  the  by  a  strongly  response  worded  from  representatives  the  province  in  with  the the  agricultural  The  pastoral lease  act  provided  unfit  l u m b e r i n g p u r p o s e s , may  that  purchased  at  the  price  of  $1.00  dis-  "mountainous and  the  another  from  s y s t e m was  for cultivation be  land  to  yet  I t s major p r o v i s i o n r a i s e d the unsurveyed  the  small  Smithe a d m i n i s t r a t i o n reacted state of  acres  c o n t r o l of  land  of  They  1883-84 a l o n e ,  group of  $2.50 an  Nicola valley.  established cattle  best  to  viewpoint  the  region's  both  the  of  influx  revised  -  represented  i n the  N i c o l a ranchers  encouraging  121  tracts  valueless r a t e of  $1  for an  117 acre". the  To  a p p l i c a n t had  effect  and  reserved the  insure  the  the  the  t o make a  Chief  right  that  to  a c t u a l l y was  C o m m i s s i o n e r o f L L a n d s and refuse  considerable  waste  statutory declaration to  any  p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t was  which required  land  application.  imposing  legal  land, that  Works Once  again  restrictions  administrative surveillance.  Previous their  -  122  -  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s had  not  been equal  negligence  had  resulted i n considerable  had  been p a r t i c u l a r l y  true of  the  Interior  c o m m u n i t y who  pastoral with  ranching  leases, neglected  Indian  claims.  more r e s t r i c t i o n s  This  and  Certainly, implications price  of  pastoral  lease  to  land new  the  land act  s y s t e m w h i c h had  However, the  new  compensating  clause which only  position of  the  of  1884  u n d e r any  the  land  rent  l a n d a c t had  damaging  It raised  the  the  an  served  previous  abuse.  the  purchase  of  generous  been i n o p e r a t i o n  that t i t l e  on  introduced  since  1865.  important to  strengthen  o l d e r more e s t a b l i s h e d r a n c h e r s .  act provided  of  to  removed  act contained  This  for settlers  raisers.  and  and  interfered  simply  land, restricted  64 0 a c r e s  task  abuse.  ignored  s u r v e y s and  stock  the  p r o m i n e n t members  had  most r e c e n t  for Interior  land  certain  qualifications  agricultural  unsurveyed  to  to  land  the  Section  applied  a c t , e v e n t h o u g h now  repealed,  present  passed.  76  for  could  be  118 acquired return  as  i f the  t a b l e d M a r c h 5,  a c t were not  1885,  showed t h a t  title  A to  109,995.25 119  acres  was  acquired  A m o n g t h o s e who the  Interior's  its  smaller  acres  five  fell  into  this  clause  this  by  category  most prominent ranchers 120  land  owners.  represented  Interior  under  the  land purchased  ranchers.  a p p l i c a n t s , the  government would  Of  Instead  of  101  applicants.  were a number as w e l l as  109,995 a c r e s ,  at a dollar  an  $178,015 t o w h i c h t h e  have been e n t i t l e d  under  many  of  71,206  acre  r e c e i v i n g from the  of  by  35  thirty-  provincial the  new  rate  of  -  $2.50, the  t r e a s u r y was  $71,206 a t  the  a c t i o n s may of  only  attendant  -  compensated  former rate of  have doubled  population  123  $1  i n 1883 upon the  to  the  extent  While  land  an  acre.  as  a result  of  b u i l d i n g of  the  the  of trans-  influx  Canadian 121  Pacific  and  equally  significant  of valuable  the  E s q u i m a u l t and  land  Thaddeus Harper extensive acquired while his  at  holdings.  Coldstream ranch.  vested  suggests they  them f u l l y  limiting  the  purchased  amount o f  agricultural But,  promotion of  s i t u a t i o n was tracts  already  established  not  l a n d was  to  set aside  as  these  and  the  for other  most  It  also  in Victoria  who in  t h a t p e r t a i n i n g t o Crown the  p r i c e of  land  land  that could  and  was  i n the  Besides Indian  t h e r e was  the  the  reserves  and  realization  therefore  Interior,  the  land.  be  individuals responsible  promising.  ranchers,  Greaves  Smithe's government's  settlement  already  changing developments  limited  f o r those  to his  Interior.  contacts  unsurveyed the  ranchers.  p o s i t i o n as  i n the  provisions raising  demonstrated  conserved. the  influential  such as  acquisition  a d d i t i o n a l 4,739 a c r e s  their  group  as  an  D o u g l a s L a k e C a t t l e Company an  illustrate  areas  J.B.  Such a c q u i s i t i o n s by  informed  legislative The  that  f o r the  interest  had  scale  established  Beak and  Forbes Vernon obtained  powerful  large  f u r t h e r 12,146 a c r e s  Charles  10,574 a c r e s  ranchers  key  the  cheap r a t e s by  added a  Interior  kept  t r e n d was  Nanaimo r a i l w a y s ,  to  be  for  land  considerable or  unsettled  occupied question  by  -  of  the railway belt.  had  reserved  land  from  contained  124 -  I n 1878 t h e f e d e r a l  f o r r a i l w a y purposes  the Yellowhead  Pass  valuable pastoral  a forty  to Burrard  government m i l e wide b e l t o f Inlet.  and a g r i c u l t u r a l  This  l a n d , and  o n c e t h e C.P.R. c o m m e n c e d c o n s t r u c t i o n , p r e s s u r e in  the province  t o have t h e f e d e r a l  belt  overseers  grew w i t h -  open t h e  122 railway and  belt  Charles  to settlement. Semlin,  constituents Governor  Y a l e members, George  came u n d e r m o u n t i n g p r e s s u r e  and by January,  and f e l l o w  18 8 4 ,  rancher,  of  land situation  t h e need  Act,  the Macdonald  t o open t h e f o r t y  mile  strip  "with a l l convenient h o w e v e r , moved v e r y belt;  speed".  rail-  By t h e terms  government d i d agree acres  The f e d e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  slowly with regard  to either  Lieutenant  c o n t a i n i n g 10,976,00 0 124  so s l o w l y i n f a c t  were r e s t r i c t e d  their  to resolved the 123  as soon as p o s s i b l e .  the Settlement  railway  asked  from  Clement Cornwall, t o press  upon t h e Dominion a u t h o r i t i e s way  they  Martin  t o the survey  that intending  s q u a t t i n g on f e d e r a l  of the  settlers land or  t a k i n g up l a n d i n more remote r e g i o n s o f t h e I n t e r i o r . Government d e l a y s , b o t h federal Since of  level,  w e r e n o t a new e x p e r i e n c e  Confederation  broken  Interior  or delayed  they  livestock  had been  promises  communications,  These problems, the  on a p r o v i n c i a l  coupled  irrigation  1 8 8 0,  ranchers.  variety  the railway,  schemes and l a n d  w i t h the slow  industry before  for Interior  subjected to a  concerning  and  but steady  had o n l y  surveys.  growth of  served t o  -  strengthen  the  determination  125  -  of  Interior  ranchers  come t h e m a j o r o b s t a c l e s i n h e r e n t t o a r a n c h i n g By  1885,  the  matured period  Interior's  t o the p o i n t where the  between B r i t i s h beginning  raisers  local  Interior  and  railroad  existing  cattle,  the  superceded operating  on  an  The  Interior  to  the  last  aggressive  by  Yale  their  returned  i n d i v i d u a l s who  stock  surplus not  to drive In the  their  process  relationships Nanaimo  coastal region's  livestock  challenge of  and  the  growing  Lillooet  of  had  been  Interior  ranchers  were e i t h e r  rancher's  significant  development f o r t h e i r colonial  to govern  stock  raisers  political  constituencies continually  to  the  Interior  i n f l u e n c e i n the  sympathetic  legislation  and  Westminster, the  the  independent b a s i s .  The  of  Interior  a  lull  Confederation  coast.  evident  upon A m e r i c a n  sphere.  continuation  interim  for their  i n New  and  have seen,  communities could  economic expansion  paralleled  we  were compelled  dealers at  reliance the  outlet  frontier.  were e n j o y i n g  i n the  into  over-  expanded  established stable business  I t was  by  an  ranchers  coastal livestock Victoria.  As  construction.  Cascade range  ranchers  traditional  was  Columbia's entry  of  As  herds over  with  cattlemen  were c o n c e n t r a t e d  d e s p e r a t e l y needed  livestock. absorb  economy had  of u n p a r a l l e l e d p r o s p e r i t y .  major d i f f i c u l t i e s  the  ranching  to  ranchers  interests.  T h i s was  presence  practise  stock r a i s i n g  themselves a  insured  of providing  i n the  or  Interior  the separate Plateau.  -  An  act  such as  Cattle  Ranges  instincts  as  expansion.  that  calling  satisfied w e l l as  significant  as  Lands and  portfolio.  vital  their At  rancher's men  With  the  however,  completion  Interior  was  represent  the  and  i t was  office  for their  of  entering  the a  their  particularly  representative  to  of  land  were  was  crucial  to  their  new  upon  ranching association.  settlement  phase which  ranchers with  to  problems.  stockmen's the  know  sympathetic  Interior  own  railroad  crucial  established  Chief  heavy dependence the  own  of  aware of  this  protective  reassuring  who  of  tradition  utilization  discouraged  from organizing  also  Lillooet  i n t e r e s t s and  influence  population  The  in political  same t i m e ,  political  basically  w h a t became a  or  interest  particular  the  Protection  enough scope  W o r k s was  i t initiated  this  had  Better  ranchers'  allowing  either a Yale  they  f o r the  the  appointing  the  -  F o r b e s V e r n o n ' s a p p o i n t m e n t as  Commissioner of  to  126  more  of  the  would  complex  problems. As in the of  this  further and  interim period,  principal this  as  shifted  livestock  was  the  stock  a c t i v i t y of  most m a r k e t a b l e raising  Interior  continuing  preoccupation  decline  the  of  Cariboo  a p r o v i s i o n market, gradually  instance,  the  southward.  increased  had  continued  settlers.  with region  stock both  As  Yale  from a population  a  raising as  concentration The  commodity to  result and  a mining of  be  the centre  settlement  federal district, of  1,316  i n 1871  for to  -  9,200 i n 1 8 8 1 . new  While  settlement  valleys  also  transition As  experienced  settlement  was r a p i d . throughout The  provided  Indian  they  next  five  sold  return  district.  long  i n 188 0  awaited  produce.  For  financially  i n the expansion o f t h e i r  as  ranching  B y 1 8 8 5 , some I n t e r i o r r a n c h e r s w e r e  links  of major  transportation  has i n t h e Canadian  a more d i v e r s i f i e d  While  same t i m e  the railway  brought  Certainly this  developed  the surrounding  society.  Therein  the railway  of the Interior.  environs.  pressing Kamloops  and s e r v i c e  New  was  at the  a n d new a n d  as an i m p o r t a n t r a i l w a y ranching  and  w e l l being,  settlement  i s true  wealthy  experience  and complex  t o the livestock industry's  for  began  construction  that  essential  rapidly  communities  the ranchers prospered  t h e dilemma o f t h e cattleman.  problems.  belt,  l i v e s t o c k a t p r o f i t a b l e l e v e l s and, i n turn,  their  communication  lies  ready  hindered  or the railway  ranching  The  t h e Upper and Lower N i c o l a  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t  stimulated  corridor  pronounced.  enjoyed  l i v e s t o c k and a g r i c u l t u r a l  years  their  operations.  the most  land,  the I n t e r i o r ranchers with  reinvested  men.  Small  this  of population.  commencement o f r a i l w a y  market f o r t h e i r the  reserves  of  and Okanagan  t o t h e c o a s t a l m a r k e t s and was  by l a r g e  appear  an i n f l u x  excellent grazing  portion  i n the central  i n t h e N i c o l a v a l l e y was  accessibility  to  itself  and Kamloops, t h e N i c o l a  i tcontained  neither  a considerable  established  between L y t t o n  127 -  settlers  centre arrived,  - 128 -  external  i n v e s t m e n t was a t t r a c t e d  and o c c a s i o n a l  skeptics,  particularly  newspaper  journalists,  began t o q u e s t i o n t h e  status  Until  the Interior  had developed  and  quo.  as a r e l a t i v e l y  ment r e s t r i c t i o n s o f open range.  the  Canadian  only  respective on s p e c i a l  frontier.  Apart  t h e r a n c h i n g community,  i n British  and roam  Columbia,  at will  owners b u t seldom  over  i n isolation  from c e r t a i n  succinctly  "cattle  large  govern-  i t had been  As C l e m e n t C o r n w a l l s t a t e d  Senate,  g r e a t numbers,  Their  open  upon  era  in  now  an to  are raised  tracts  of country.  see them a t a l l , and i t i s  o c c a s i o n s when t h e o w n e r " r e q u i r e s t o c o l l e c t  a band o f h i s c a t t l e  together f o r market... t h a t  he t a k e s t h e  126 trouble  to look after  railway  the established  pressure veloped to  own  large  tracts  the  first  the completion of the  ranchers found themselves  f o r more t h a n t w e n t y  an o b s t a c l e  of  With  t o c h a n g e a way o f l i f e  and  would  them".  some h a d c u l t i v a t e d  years.  Suddenly  of the province.  generation of ranchers to this  ultimately  the B r i t i s h  they  o f l a n d was t o be c r i t i c i z e d  t o t h e growth  determine  Columbia  their  Interior  under and de-  found  that  as "monopolist" The r e s p o n s e  changing  situation  place i n the development i n the nineteenth century.  of  -  129  -  CHAPTER  THE  BRITISH  COLUMBIA RANCHING FRONTIER  1885  On last  spike  N o v e m b e r 7, at  accomplished  route.  entrepot Orient.  the be  and  the  fact. was  province  be  further of  the  At  population  Province's  on  an  the  an  have a c c e s s  a l l Canadian as to  an  considerable  was  to  Eastern  transporta-  important the  Kootenay's mining  po-  international scale  and  for fruit  growing  i t seemed, the  find  British  A u s t r a l i a and  the  last,  would  Railway  Confederation  w o u l d now  Okanagan v a l l e y s  explored.  between  completion of  within  Cascades,  exploited  station  the  a major i n d i c a t i o n that  m a r k e t s by  the  Smith drove  Canadian P a c i f i c  The  isolation  and  Beyond could  the  small  Vancouver would develop  promise® o f  influx  D o n a l d A.  for trans-pacific shipping  1  tential  of  coastal  Canadian centres tion  1885,  railway  Columbia's period The  1896  S i c a m o u s , and  transcontinental  over.  -  Craigellachie, a  R e v e l s t o k e and became an  IV  long  British  could  awaited  i t s way  to  Columbia  natural  resources would  be  developed. It  is difficult  reaction  of  the  dramatic  changes which took place  the  established  r a n c h e r s were e x c i t e d  access  f o r the  i t provided  to  communities benefited  by  h i s t o r i a n to measure  ranching  the  population  a f t e r 1885. railway.  coastal markets,  As  to  the  the  Naturally well  as  the  existing Interior  f r o m i t s p r a c t i c a l and  administrative  -  operations. journey of  No  civilized  Southern  settlers  ranchers  o f new  pressure  holdings.  McCutcheon,  on g r a z i n g  their  ranchers  land  t o break  editorial  to  amenities assured While  increased  new  settlement  as w e l l  as  up w h a t many  increasingly considered Journalists Michael  successive  the  settlement.  an e x p a n d e d m a r k e t ,  increased  be c o m p e l l e d  The r a i l w a y s a l s o  upon e s t a b l i s h e d r a n c h e r s  extensive  -  to experience  Plateau  contemporary observers  used  would  society.  Interior  promised  a l s o meant stress  longer  to the coastal c i t i e s  a more  the  2  130  t o be  Hagan  and  overly Hugh  e d i t o r s o f t h e Kamloops S e n t i n e l ,  influence to criticize  f o r retarding settlement  by  the  region's  "hanging on t o  4 extensive  cattle  Botanist,  Professor  far to  a s he was  r a n g e s o f many m i l e s Macoun, echoed  concerned,  i n extent."  similar  sentiments.  the monopoly o f l a n d  t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e many c o u l d  only  Dominion As  by t h e few  result  i n  "fictitious"  5  land  p r i c e s and slower  temporary c r i t i c s complex  settlement.  situation.  The p r e s e n c e o f t h e r a i l w a y  the  irrigation  branch  introduced,  lines stock  m o s t v i a b l e means o f a g r i c u l t u r a l  settlement by  potential ofithe  corridor, but u n t i l  systematic  of the ranching  the formation  companies.  these  con-  w e r e o v e r s i m p l i f y i n g w h a t h a d become  enhance t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l central  In fact,  frontier  These companies, although  Interior  might Plateau's  were completed raising  would  development.  was  of heavily financed  line  a  further  ranching  and  remain  The  complicated  and  n o t numerous  land i n British  -  Columbia, possessed  the  131  -  financial  resources  and  the  manage-  ment e x p e r t i s e t o e x e r c i s e a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e o v e r immediateldistrict  i n which  activities.  While  the  the  of  property  Okanagan Land  and  The  to  shift  the  direction  f o r the  competitors from the  firm  of  Interior  southwest of seriously  Calgary  grasp  of  five  years  after  the  gain  full  livestock  Alberta  beef  ranching  and  interests  had  interested  Now  the  not or  course  deter-  industry's  seemed t o be  Interior  not  recovered  fledgling  evolved  to  the  Their  fully  competitive  Hence, the  ranching the  in  point  the  opportunity to gain  K o o t e n a y m a r k e t was  a  clearly  Yet  i n the  first  railway's completion,  they  failed  to  the  situation.  d e a l e r s were the  fruit.^  ranchers.  advantage of  coastal  to  to a s s e r t themselves.  c o a s t a l and the  of  livestock  18 8 5 .  1870's and  Columbia market.  the  North  the  for speculative  raising  situation  A m e r i c a n N o r t h w e s t had  f o o t h o l d i n the  within  encouraging  stock  provincial  ranchers  the  established ranching  changing  the  absorbed  settlers,  holdings  from  decade a f t e r  i n the  w h e r e i t was British  emphasis  the  recession of  community  their  manner i n w h i c h t h e  development i n the time  Nicola valley  subdivide  their  Company  D e v e l o p m e n t C o m p a n y was  community r e a c t e d t o mined the  concentrated  Douglas Lake C a t t l e  neighbouring  Okanagan r a n c h e r s p u r p o s e s and  they  the  important  filling  Stock  the  early  of  the border  raising  1890's  meat c o n t r a c t s  K o o t e n a y m a r k e t was  l o c a t e d south  West T e r r i t o r i e s .  By  began t o  or  with  lost in  fall  the far  to  behind of  the mining,  and o v e r a l l  industries  i n terms  production within the  o r i e n t e d economy. This  industry, the  -  lumber and f i s h i n g  employment, e x p o r t s  resource  132  apparent malaise  w i t h i n the Interior  however, d i d not s i g n i f y  Interior  itself.  Stock  occupation  i n the Interior  registered  male v o t e r s  510 w e r e c l a s s i f i e d  a major t r a n s i t i o n  raising  continued  Plateau before  i n the Yale  as f a r m e r s ,  livestock  t o be a m a j o r  1896.  electoral  28 a s s t o c k  within  Of  1,894  district raisers,  in/i.1890, 18  as  7 ranchers horned  cattle,  Cariboo in  and 5 as c a t t l e  for  cattle  whelmed  i n the  federal  The b r e a k d o w n o f l a n d u s e i s an e v e n  indicator  ranching.  meagre 15,812  raised  106,784  w h i l e a f u r t h e r 72,120 were a c c o u n t e d f o r g  district.  more s t r i k i n g  Of t h e P r o v i n c e ' s  16,863 head were b e i n g  district  the Yale  herders.  acres  of the Interior's  In the Yale currently  by t h e 445,606  acres  continued  district  under crop  propensity  by 1891, t h e  was  completely  t h a t were c l a s s i f i e d  as  over-  pasture  9 land.  At this  paratively  less  point, the Interior diversified  development i n the c o l o n i a l Despite ranching 1885. in  these  c o m m u n i t y was  They r e s e n t e d  own.  grazing  during  the earliest  statistics,  increasingly  the  of Alberta  stage  of  after ranchers  had grown accustomed t o see as the t h r e a t posed to t h e i r  ranges by t h e Oregon sheep i n t r o d u c e d by t h e  companies.  com-  Interior  on t h e d e f e n s i v e  the strong position  They r e s e n t e d  u n i t s were  period.  impressive  a r e g i o n a l market they  their  than  ranching  Yet f o r a variety  o f r e a s o n s upon w h i c h  traditional ranching this  -  chapter w i l l did  concentrate, the established  mount a u n i f i e d ,  influences.  Perhaps  self-satisfied situation.  effective  to feel  miting  their  taken  success  ever the  or failure  livestock  to  ranches.  best  industry  by c e r t a i n  The  by  depressed  resistance  *  *  *  i n new  visibly  but ultimately  *  economic o u t l o o k f o r t h e I n t e r i o r Like  the period  cloud  the ranching industry  Once t h e C a n a d i a n  ranchers  would q u i c k l y  failed  *  C o n f e d e r a t i o n , many o f t h e i s s u e s w h i c h  optimism.  s e t t l e m e n t and  t o change.  *  were  What-  directions  ranchers were  new d e v e l o p m e n t s ,  suppressed Pacific  of  British  immediately soon  would  under a b l a n k e t  Railway  had been  i n more remote a r e a s were o p t i m i s t i c follow.  their  individual  after  lines  o f com-  I n t h e e r a o f open range,  began t o e v o l v e  i n 1885 was b r i g h t .  completed,  i n the  g r a z i n g l a n d and  when t h e c h a r a c t e r o f I n t e r i o r  *  of  changing  had s u r v i v e d t h e e c o n o m i c a l l y  had been determined  mount a c o n c e r t e d  Columbia  and  t o the development o f t h e  1885, t h e l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d  alarmed  new  and a minimum o f government i n t e r f e r e n c e .  the reason,  after  of the  In the process  up m o s t o f t h e I n t e r i o r ' s  prosperous  initiative  period.  and s k i l l s  P l a t e a u , they  developed  impact  Many o f t h e r a n c h e r s h a d b e e n l o c a t e d  energy  never  o p p o s i t i o n t o these  the f u l l  since the colonial  70's,  ranchers  they were a l r e a d y t o o i n s u l a t e d  region  Interior  133 -  There were rumours,  i n fact,  branch of  railways ward  northward  from  from  the  mineral  prospects.  strong.  Nicola  Besides  The  to build  to exploit  being  East  t o E a s t w o o d and  line and  remained  to c o a s t a l markets,  continued  to prosper  butchers  Interior  market.  from  Kamloops, John W i l s o n  Farlow,  the  i t s stockraising  bought f o r the American  of  south-  Okanagan  a main  demand f o r l i v e s t o c k  some r a n c h e r s  meat c o n t r a c t s . cattle  1 0  and  companies v y i n g f o r  r e g u l a r shipments  were s t i l l  Meanwhile,  valley  Cariboo  S p a l l u m c h e e n and  government's approval  through  cattle  the  T h e r e w e r e a l s o two  provincial  -  A s h c r o f t to the  Sicamous through  valleys.  134  railway  was  f o r the  1 1  supplying  last  major 12  section  of  the  At were busy  Canadian P a c i f i c  the  establishing  a prominent  Cherry  and  William Hull  the  Interior  British  town o f  Railway  Kamloops i t s e l f , their  butcher  Creek rancher,  were r a p i d l y  from  England  E d i t h and  establish trip  The  completed  way  of  the  They a s t u t e l y  and  K a m l o o p s and  ranchers  by  horses.  strategically  was  Lakes.  financially  possibly  between the  becoming 13  Nephews  important  Upon t h e i r  i n 1873,  they  arrival  served  concentrated  realized  John  a  in  ranch  to  i n 1884  i t would  of  an  establishing  Crow's N e s t Pass  of  members  brother's decision  Hull's with  a  be  a d v a n t a g e o u s t o be e s t a b l i s h e d  Calgary two  Pass.  brothers  a meat m a r k e t i n Kamloops f o l l o w e d W i l l i a m  to Calgary  band of  in  Hull  Hull  business.  apprenticeship with their uncle before 14 at  the  Eagle  W i l l i a m James Roper,  r a n c h i n g community.  Columbia  through  once the  regions.  upon l i v e s t o c k  railway  connection  Hence, w h i l e  shipments  to the  other coastal  markets, and In  the  horses  H u l l s were busy  as  foundation  to run  one  -  filling  herds  partnership with Walter  lease  135  the  i n the  Trounce,  thousand head of  demand f o r  North  they  cattle  West  cattle  Territories.  obtained  a  south  Calgary  of  grazing  15 between W i l l o w 1886,  they  British ranch did  shipped  not  control to  on  the  the  Fish  could  growth of quickly  sell their  ranching  ranching  and  the  points  east.  cattle  and  frontier  Interior  horses  to  an  Hull  from the they  from  brothers  British  were the i n both  Hull  brothers  i n the  ranching  the  the  contacts  an  the  where  The  rapid  most  freight British  to Calgary  such  the  foothills  Rockies.  preferred to  and  market  more e s t a b l i s h e d  discouraged  dealers  into  sign,  Alberta  shipping livestock ranchers  first  efficiently  encouraging  feed  Columbia  prices.  advantage of  livestock  advantage of  the  west of  cost of  from  horses  of  established a  the  cattle  best  community  initial  higher  Columbia ranchers  the  m a r k e t was  overcame the  Interior costs  the  summer  family firm with definite  t h e movement o f  livestock  75  retail outlets  m a r k e t demand commanded t h e  Alberta  While  livestock  the  the  William Hull  Creek.  and  This provided  While  and  West T e r r i t o r i e s ,  ranches  they  During  cattle  and  flow of  North  to establish  a d v a n t a g e s as  had  creeks.  3500 h e a d o f  near Calgary  regions.  the  Mosquito  Columbia to Calgary  Interior men  and  sell as  the  and  their Hulls  who  established operation  1 C  in  the  foothill city.  which possessed market the  the  cattle,  Even the  necessary  Douglas  resources  preferred to transfer  Lake C a t t l e  to  transport  ownership  of  Company, and cattle  destined While to  f o r the Northwest  136 -  to the Hulls  I n t e r i o r r a n c h e r s were t a k i n g  p o t e n t i a l markets,  Alberta  a conservative  approach  r a n c h i n g i n t e r e s t s a t t h e same  time were e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n n e c t i o n s i n t h e I n t e r i o r A year a f t e r Senator Cochrane  17  a t Kamloops.  Plateau.  bought a band o f h o r s e s be-  18 longing  t o Thaddeus Harper,  the Hulls  and a  rancher, V i c t o r Guillaume, r e t u r n e d from Hereford  bulls,  p r i z e winners  Quebec and A l b e r t a While optimistic  of  ward  completion.  the freight rate  reluctance By  to f u l f i l l  18 87 t h e M a c d o n a l d  over strip  situation,  point  were  they were  on e i t h e r s i d e  A feeling  structure  and t h e f e d e r a l  t h e terms  o f t h e 1884 S e t t l e m e n t A c t .  g o v e r n m e n t was s t i l l of the railway  o f the Canadian  government's  procrastinating  belt;  Pacific  t h e twenty Railway  t o open t o s e t t l e m e n t i n 1884.  this  delicate situation,  i n t h e autumn o f 1887 t h e  Land  Board  Commissioner,  s e n t i t s Land  information  William  ranchers turned out i n force  t o guarantee  Pacific  was d i r e c t e d t o -  had promised  meeting  generally  less  they  Local  famous  i n t h e wake o f t h e C a n a d i a n This disenchantment  the administration  Kamloops.  y  1  c e r t a i n other developments.  b i t t e r n e s s had emerged 19  Railway's  19  herds.  t h e market  about  Calgary with  Senator Cochrane s  I n t e r i o r ranchers a t this  about  enthusiastic  from  Kamloops  that  Pearse  forwarded  mile  which  To  defuse  Dominion  Pearse, to at a special  the  "right"  t o Thomas W h i t e , M i n i s t e r o f t h e I n t e r i o r i n 20 the Macdonald c a b i n e t . The s i x a r t i c l e s a g r e e d upon a t t h e meeting were conducive t o t h e development o f c a t t l e ranches 21 within the railway belt. While the ranchers agreed that  -  no  leases  pre-empt  should 320  64 0 a c r e s  be  137  allowed,  acres  with  at a r a t e of  an  -  individuals  be  allowed  o p t i o n t o p u r c h a s e an  $2.50 an  a l r e a d y h e l d pre-emptions were granted  holdings.  When t h e s e  640  government the  railway  belt  established  ranchers  While  the  was  essentially  the  Interior  cattle  throughout of  stall  a grievance  to graze  surrounding  ranchers  The  two-fold.  winters  such  was  1880-81,  the  of  the  occasion.  railway  belt  to e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s , own  1886-87 and  allowed  winter  t h e w e a t h e r was During  local  had  They r e s i s t e d  severe.  by  this  the  upon s p e c i f i e d  unless  original  lobby  traditionally  Plateau.  the  Interior's  The  s u c c e s s f u l on  feeding cattle  as  being.  related  freely  Interior  result  the  were e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e i r  Interior  the  proven  controversy  ranchers  difficulties. their  had  time  Those  were r a t i f i e d  disenchantment over f o r the  land.  adjoining their  qualifications  federal  subsided  acres  for pasture  and  ranchers  to purchase  acre  f o r meadow  l a n d and  privilege  an  acre  to  additional  agricultural who  $1  would  ranges  the  practise  particularly  particularly  1 8 9 0 - 9 1 , many  cold  Interior  22 ranchers  suffered considerable  stage  the  was  ranching  compounded by  pretty the  of  well  cattle  burnt do  paw  stock  frontier's fact  that  and  bare  before the  At  development,  the  through  losses.  "the  the  o l d grass  winter  this situation  ranges  s e t s i n and  snow, t h e r e  i s nothing  are when for  23 them t o g e t . . . "  Furthermore,  winter  l o s s e s , the  changing  placed  them a t a  when r a n c h e r s  nature  of  serious disadvantage.  the To  did suffer  livestock compete  heavy  market seriously  for to  the  rapidly  supply  not  expanding  livestock  138  -  c o a s t a l market,  dealers throughout  s i m p l y d u r i n g t h e more c o n v e n i e n t  A definite and  early  r e l u c t a n c e to adopt to s p r i n g damaged t h e  position. such  as  In order  t h e Van  Victoria,  to f i l l  the v o i d ,  Volkenburghs,  as w e l l  as  and  Hayes and  the  now  entire  summer a n d  stall  Interior  i t was  year  and  fall  months.  feeding i n the  ranchers' coastal  P o r t e r and  Mcintosh  necessary  winter  market  livestock  agents  Company i n  i n Vancouver,  turned  24 to  available  American  The only  and  editors  of  newspaper u n t i l  in  1891,  of  Interior  Albertan sources.  the  Inland Sentinel,  the  t h e V e r n o n News commenced  commented upon t h e ranchers  apparent  to adapt  Interior's  publication  r e l u c t a n c e on  to changing  the  ranching  part  techniques  25 and  m a r k e t demands.  had  ulterior  men.  As  However, M i c h a e l Hagan and  motives  for criticizing  they were committed  newspaper and  the  and  the need  advocated  Interior.  Only  the  attraction  an  ;  diversified Interior  capital.  Consequently,  itself  avid  all  scale.  t h a t an  primitive of  financial  proponent Stock  o f more s e t t l e r s  raising,  h a b i t o f Abraham, and  the  t h e modern cowboy... a g r i c u l t u r e  devil alone  pronounced  d e v e l o p m e n t on  bringing  to mind may  of  i t s natural  "while remunerative,  element of barbarism,  provide  vision  newspaper c o n t i n u a l l y  agricultural  the  the  could  economy w i t h Kamloops as  of  of  recognized  labour force for their  their  McCutcheon  cattle-  success  for increased settlement i n  t a x base and  smaller  established  development of Kamloops, they  the necessary  an  to the  the  Hugh  care  a  is for the attitude  seems t o h a v e  the  26 basis  of  sound moral  and  financial  footing..."  Kamloops  -  was  typical  centre,  o f many f r o n t i e r  o f growth.  everywhere,  The in  communities.  As a  service  i t s businessmen were c o n s t a n t l y i n t e r e s t e d  promotion  over  139 -  they  Therefore,  championed  like  the farmer  ranching  i nthe  frontiers  and h i s e n t e r p r i s e  t h e r a n c h e r who made m o r e e x t e n s i v e u s e o f t h e l a n d . Interior  r a n c h i n g p o p u l a t i o n , however, d i d n o t r e a c t  any v i s i b l e  newspaper. situation Gazette stock  way t o t h e p e r i o d i c  outbursts of their  T h i s was i n marked c o n t r a s t t o a i n A l b e r t a where c r i t i c a l  resulted  similar  editorials  i n t h e Macleod  i n the withdrawal of the ranching  advertisements  and s u b s c r i p t i o n s  local  until  compact's  the editor  was  27 forced  t o modify  to place t h e i r  h i sposition.  cattle  the knowledge they agricultural  Columbia  Canadian, invest  British  capital  railways resources ranching tricts  some m a j o r  had awakened  British  legal  title  as'an  area  ranchers  immediately  appeared  after  was  By 1890, e x t e r n a l  f o rlarge  and American  i n provincial  coal  Plateau.  the ranching frontier  transitions.  safe i n  int-  i n a l a r g e way t o t h e p o t e n t i a l o f  and steamers like  i n the years  continued  to the best  of the established  and secure  the r a i l w a y ' s completion,  erests  i n the Inland Sentinel  had secure  the position  stable  experiencing  ranchers  and g r a z i n g l a n d i n t h e I n t e r i o r  While relatively  cards  Interior  as w e l l  scale  investment.  entrepreneurs were w i l l i n g  transportation  schemes such  as i n the e x p l o i t a t i o n 28  and lumber.  The f o r m a t i o n o f  and l a n d companies i n t h e Y a l e and L i l l o o e t  was an i m p o r t a n t m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h i s  to as  of natural large dis-  economic m a t u r i t y .  While size  t h e r e were o n l y i n this  fluence  ranching  period, these  neighbouring  were g r a n t e d  frontier.  on t h e B r i t i s h  region, like cattle  after  the pioneer  Furthermore, granted federal  property  extensive cattle  tions. burgh,  ranchers  the B r i t i s h  i n the foot-  The s i t u a t i o n  was  frontier.  had e s t a b l i s h e d  Columbia ranching  leases or specified governments.  privileges  The r a n c h i n g  In the  Another  Columbia ranching  J.B. Greaves,  Charles  shareholders  i n d u s t r y and ranching  period  onward.  companies  striking  years  were  by t h e p r o v i n c i a l  companies  acquired  two decades  by  characteristic  c o m p a n i e s was t h e p r o m i n e n t i n these  new  organiza-  Beak and Benjamin Van o f t h e Douglas Lake  Company, w e r e a l l o n a n i n t i m a t e f o o t i n g cattle  twenty  themselves.  i n the past  by e s t a b l i s h e d ranchers  founding  interests  by t h e Macdonald  ranches  Columbia ranching  which had been developed  played  Canadian  and l a n d companies were o r g a n i z e d  the B r i t i s h  role  and E a s t e r n  the pattern i n the American west, the  independent i n d i v i d u a l s . of  of large  the foundation of  l e a s e s o f up t o 100,000 a c r e s  first  or  analysis.  Alberta, the formation  region southwest of Calgary.  reversed  not  d i d exert a powerful i n -  careful  British  government t o e s t a b l i s h  latter  companies o f major  c o m p a n i e s was c o m c o m i t a n t w i t h  ranching  hills  ranching  and t h e r e f o r e warrant In  the  early  three  community  T h e same c o u l d b e s a i d  Volken-  Cattle  with the Interior  from the c o l o n i a l o f Thomas E l l i s  and  -  Richard  141  Cawston, t r u s t e e s of  Company, and  operating  a  the  John Edwards and  K a m l o o p s C a t t l e Company. large ranch  Richard  Cawston had  William  Lowe, b e f o r e  -  had  Cattle  been assembling  Penticton  managed t h e he  Columbia  James Woodland, owners o f  Ellis at  British  since  1865  Osoyoos ranch  bought the  the  and  while  of  his  R i c h t e r ranch  uncle,  at  29 Keremeos.  J o h n T.  m i n e r who  turned  E d w a r d s , on  to c a t t l e  the  ranching  other on  the  h a n d , was North  a  Welsh  Thompson  30 after  achieving  some s u c c e s s  i n the  Cariboo.  W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n R a n c h i n g Company and D e v e l o p m e n t Company w e r e w h o l l y involved  i n some way  with  the  owned by  Only  the  Okanagan Land  and  i n t e r e s t s not  the  Interior's  development  before  the  D o u g l a s L a k e C a t t l e Company,  1885. The the  first  formation  ranching  province,  company t o be  illustrates  capitalists  i n the  resources.  Although  1886,  the  of  the  formed  newly aroused  development of  original  i t was  not  i n the  interest  British  of  Columbia's  officially  p a r t n e r s h i p was  coastal  natural  incorporated  organized  in  until  February  31 1882.  In that year,  Victoria to Van  citizens  wrestle  with  c o n t r o l of  Greaves approached a  scheme t o  of  Charles  C o m p a n y ; W i l l i a m C. Columbia; Beak,  Peter  Interior  He  prominent  syndicate  r a i l w a y meat c o n t r a c t s  Volkenburgh combination.  interest  form a  a group of  from  designed  the  s u c c e s s f u l l y aroused  Thomson, owner o f Ward, manager of  the the  Victoria Bank o f  Harperthe  Gas British  O ' R e i l l y , I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r and Charles 32 rancher. When t h i s i m p r e s s i v e g r o u p o f  -  investors  agreed  $5,000 w o r t h At  this  buying  cattle  Greaves1  t o p u t up $5,000 e a c h a l o n g s i d e  of cattle,  stage,  142 -  t h e s y n d i c a t e was l e g a l l y  the business and s e l l i n g  established.  was i n t e r e s t e d p r i m a r i l y i n  them t o t h e v a r i o u s  railway  The  purchase  a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C o m p a n y ' s home  was  arranged  and c o n t r o l l e d  camps.  ranch  by J.B. Greaves and Charles  Beak,  33 who e s t a b l i s h e d a f o r m a l time  p a r t n e r s h i p i n 1883.  t h e Douglas Lake C a t t l e  Company was r e o r g a n i z e d a n d  incorporated  i n 1 8 8 6 , t h e home r a n c h  an  10,000 deeded  in  estimated  covered  acres,  Company was i n c o r p o r a t e d a t V i c t o r i a .  similar  Nicola and  a t Douglas Lake  the l a r g e s t ranch holding 34 the province outside the Harper estate. Four years passed before t h e B r i t i s h Columbia 35  Cattle was  By t h e  i n certain  Valley.  coincided  t o i t s counterpart  operation i n the  Two o f i t s t r u s t e e s , m a n a g e r R i c h a r d  Thomas E l l i s ,  operations  respects  Its  owned a n d o p e r a t e d  i n the Interior. conveniently with  Their their  successful  ranching Victoria  Cawston  ranching  expertise partner,  Captain  3 6 John I r v i n g . Pacific the  Navigation  British  social Fully  of  known a s t h e a c t i v e h e a d o f t h e C a n a d i a n Company, t h e A m e r i c a n b o r n  Columbia  connections  Company w i t h  and r e t a i l i n g  company p u r c h a s e d  of the Hull  facilities  the retail  t h e Van Volkenburgh brothers.  ranches  important  within the provincial  aware o f t h e success  production the  Best  i n the Chilcotin  Irving  p o l i t i c a l and  establishment.  brothers  towards  i n combining  t h e end o f 1890,  meat and r a n c h i n g 37 This  provided  purchase  and N i c o l a d i s t r i c t s  business  included  as w e l l as  retail  -  meat o u t l e t s  in Victoria,  143  -  Vancouver  T h i s was  a wise business decision  ranching  company w i t h  livestock ranching  industry.  they also  the l i v e s t o c k .  independent  solidating  This  the B r i t i s h  prise,  i n the  d i d they possess  control  new  provincial  valuable  most  over  productive  the marketing with  or o t h e r middlemen.  Columbia  Cattle  i n the p r o v i n c i a l  Company was livestock  con-  industry,  r a n c h i n g company a l s o was . e s t a b l i s h i n g  interests  Company a n d  advantages  of the I n t e r i o r ' s  dealers  i t sposition  large  Westminster.  They were n o t c o m p e l l e d t o d e a l  formation involved  Harper  only  New  f o r i t provided the  gained direct  livestock  While  another  Not  o p e r a t i o n s i n two  areas, but of  immediate  and  by  the purchase  the B r i t i s h  the subsequent  the Western  of the  Columbia  Canadian  Ranching  extensive  Land  f o r m a t i o n o f an  itself.  and  Investment  associate  enter-  Company, t o manage  this  38 substantial  ho'lding.  Ranching  Company was  Harper's  physical  Thaddeus Harper  The  emergence o f the Western  i n large  and  part  financial  inherited  the story  demise.  $176,000 and  the  establishment of  the  purchase  Thaddeus  will  be  ranch land 39  $300,000 upon t h e d e a t h o f h i s b r o t h e r , b r o t h e r ' s d e a t h , Thaddeus had  As  of  Canadian  Jerome.  c o n t i n u e d t o expand  recalled,  valued at After  his  through  t h e Gang r a n c h i n t h e C h i l c o t i n  o f the S t e w a r t r a n c h i n the Cache Creek  and valley  40 in  1886.  However, by  the time Harper  $25,000 f o r a ranch,men f a m i l i a r worth  $ 1 5 - 1 8 , 0 0 0 , he  Columbia. from an  His real  accident  owed  with  had  paid  the region considered  money t o t h e B a n k o f  problem,  however,  Stewart  British  seems t o h a v e stemmed 41 a t t h e Gang r a n c h i n 1884. On t h a t  -  unfortunate  o c c a s i o n he  had  partially  p a r a l y s e d by  recover.  Besides drinking  in  h i s Horsefly mining  vision  of  a rich  144  -  been knocked  a horse's  kick.  heavily,  p r o p e r t y and  g o l d mine and  unconscious He  he  never  invested  and  did  fully  large  amounts  recounted widely h i s  his desire  t o marry  a  wealthy  42 widow.  To  Ashcroft  finance these  flour  mill  and  illusions,  then  the  Harper  Stewart  sold  ranch  the  to the  British  43 Columbia Harper, and  Land  o n c e one  Columbia, from  legal  case  T h a d d e u s was  his financial  was  a ruined  British  legitimate  being  this  time,  sued  f o r bankruptcy  before the  Supreme C o u r t  and h i s 44  of  Despite this  In British  d e c l a r e d o f unsound mind and  obligations.  released  reprieve,  e s t a t e as  v a l u a b l e as  and  Land and  t h e n was  the Harper  put  Investment  up  holdings  for sale,  Company was  one  interest.  A British  in  London, England,  of  a general financial investment  and  large  i t s local  Cambridge educated, ranch w i t h the agent  interests  business which  brokerage  properties  concern  as w e l l  as 46  for clients. CA.  were but  involved  the  a  offices  one  aspect  insurance  t h e management o f e s t a t e s A  H o l l a n d , was  f o r the Harper  w i t h head  the of  o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h the resources to express 45  and  however,  ranchers  been p l a c e d i n r e c e i v e r s h i p .  receivership,  Columbia  local  By  man.  When a n went i n t o  Company.  o f the p r o v i n c e ' s most p r o s p e r o u s  p r o p e r t y had  the ensuing  few  Investment  e n t r e p r e n e u r s , was  remaining  he  and  director  of  the  Company,  dispatched to the  estate,  Yale  Gang  politician,  George M a r t i n .  47  company d e c i d e d later  an  Impressed  enterprise.  formed first  R a n c h i n g C o m p a n y was educated  Holland's  the  report,  Harper estate  company, c o n t r o l l e d by  was  The  -  by  to purchase  associate  Thomas G a l p i n ,  145  at Fettes  t o manage t h e  manager o f  J a m e s D.  College,  the  the  and  English  two  British  years  publisher,  large  ranching  Western  Canadian  Prentice,  S c o t t i s h born  Edinburgh, before  he  and  emigrated  48 to  Canada  i n 1888.  The  English  pursuing  a p r a c t i s e common i n t h e  ranching  frontier  outside  the  did  the  not  often cases,  of  manager of personal often  the  that  than not,  considerable  hired  W.  as  company.  Like  and  J.B.  portion  b o r n E.H.  Aberdeen Crawley  from  social  they  was  the  of  enterprise.^ 51 i n 1891, Ricardo  the to  had  a  These  men  they  were  In  some  Pittendrigh, considerable 49  operation. were h i r e d  minority  established  Captain  More as  managers  or  fulfilling  commit-  situation  for Forbes  Vernon  kept him  every year.  Wood, h i m s e l f  1885.  standing.  also  ranching  growing  Prentice,  Greaves or  i n the  This  was  Alberta  a  managers f o r  responsibilities  Vernon ranching Lord  acted  owners were e i t h e r l i v i n g  whose p o l i t i c a l  to  of  of  community a f t e r  h o w e v e r , t h e s e men  ments e l s e w h e r e .  Ontario  representative  Haynes e s t a t e ,  investment  because the  a  was  some e d u c a t i o n  s u c h as  neighbouring  management e x p e r t i s e  ranching  a ranching  company  locale.  ranches but  or  men  Prentice  Interior  own  ranchers  hiring  immediate  J.D. within  of  ranching  a  In  local  in Victoria the  s e r v e as  meantime,  r a n c h e r , managed  A f t e r Vernon future  for  sold his  Governor  manager o f  ranch  General the  the  Cold-  stream  estate.  A  146  -  Cambridge graduate,  Ricardo  had  gained  his  52 ranching Bostock upon a ranch  experience was  as  another  salaried from  a  stockman i n A l b e r t a .  British  manager.  Jacob  rancher-politician  After  the world.  Yet  educated  man  who  Colorado  and  California  Columbia  Interior.  managerial already  had  class  The  left  another  gained  in British  emergence and  the  corresponding  ranchers  the  Harpers  D.H.  prominent frontier  before The  appearance of  decade a f t e r  much as  the  ranching the  marked  the  growing  frontier,  era of  British  In f a c t ,  definitely does not  development of  group  their American reaffirms  the i n f l u e n c e on  the  dispel  the  the  decline their  Interior  the  ranching companies  Interior  ranching  railway's completion. competitive strength of  symbolized  isolation  further  was  in  ranching  1885.  the major change w i t h i n the  the  an  British  Volkenburghs, 1885  trip  British  decline i n important  However, t h i s  influence i n the  a  experience  largely  Columbia.  t h e Van  interests  Western Canada.  ranching  this  hired  B a t c h e l o r was  reinforced  Breen's observations t h a t a f t e r  of American ranching 54 in  and  Creek  immediately  d e c i d i n g upon the  Interior  depended  the Monte  Englishman,  previous  before  who  w i t h h i s b r i d e on  appearance of  i n the  i n residence  like  purchasing  Duck f o r $45,000, B o s t o c k  Owen B a t c h e l o r a s m a n a g e r a n d 53 around  Hewitt  growth  f o r the i n the  the  represents  frontier  in  Their arrival, the  neighbouring  conclusive termination of  pioneer  as  r a n c h i n g community  r e g i o n ' s economic m a t u r i t y .  and  As  they  and  represented  political  direct  a large accumulation  i n f l u e n c e , they  possessed  t o a considerable degree  ranching  industry.  industry, i n the early  the  companies operated integral  Ultimately established  years  of their  being  of  development,  as s e l f - c o n t a i n e d u n i t s r a t h e r  l e d them i n t o  ranching  conflict  than  community.  with  some o f t h e l o n g  1891, however, t h e I n t e r i o r  community d i d n o t appear  special  R o p e r was a n g r y  ranching  t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y  o f t h e new c o m p a n i e s .  o u t b u r s t s by ranchers granted  the potential to  ranchers.  Before  activities  capital  the future of the Interior  parts of the Interior this  of land,  Unfortunately, f o rthe well  the  as  147 -  who  There were  suspected  privileges.  alarmed  by t h e  infrequent  t h e companies were  being  I n 1889, f o r i n s t a n c e , W i l l i a m  about the w i l d  l a n d assessment t a x on h i s  55 Cherry  Creek ranch.  Roper i n s i n u a t e d w i t h  that  t h e Douglas Lake C a t t l e  land  t a x i n 1889.  being and of  granted  support  special  privileges,  community  were counted  Semlin  that  Semlin,  sponsibility vicinity  district  decade.  ranchers,  and George M a r t i n were f i r m l y Assembly.  entrenched  By t h i s  time,  were  the complicity the interests When t h e  i n t h e 1887 a n d 1891 e l e c t i o n s  Charles  Legislative  i t was w i t h  f o rthe past  that the three Yale  the  companies  who h a d r e p r e s e n t e d  evident  validity  Company h a d n o t p a i d a n y w i l d  i fthe ranching  of politicians  the ranching  votes  Indeed,  some  i t was  Forbes  Vernon,  ensconced i n  i t was  understood  i n t h e o p p o s i t i o n , assumed r e -  f o r the west Yale  a r e a , M a r t i n t h e Kamloops  and Vernon t h e Okanagan and Similkameen.  The  ranching  interest Allen and  i n the  and  A.E.  Lillooet Davie,  Works u n t i l  he  148  -  district  Premier  was  and  represented  Chief  by  Edward  Commissioner of  transferred responsibility  f o r the  Lands  latter  5 6 position as  the  to Vernon  .  Conservative  In the  federal  house, John Mara  member r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e  sat  Yale-Kootenay  constituency. I f h i s n o m i n a t i o n p a p e r s a r e any indication, t h e p i o n e e r Kamloops merchant and l a n d o w n e r r e t a i n e d t h e o v e r a l l 57 support  of  the  Interior  show o f  support  characteristic with  their  f o r the the  time  these  the  Lack  water,  of  w h i c h was  Spence's B r i d g e  shared  s t a n d i n g members i n t h e  provincial  house  in Alberta.  N i c o l a V a l l e y and  g o o d w a t e r was  Semlin  dry  Shuswap L a k e , o r w h i c h was  the  had  the  The  the  fallen  and  had  ignored  By  time  the  problem.  from Semlin,  for irrigation  the  not  to  enough  corridor  from  i n areas  s c h e m e s was House  successive  a  of  the  of  not  a  new  i n 1875,  but  governments  George M a r t i n ,  introduced a motion  s c h e m e s , i t was  of  development  question  subject i n the  Walkem government had  aid  problem  water contained  situation 59  Vernon d i s t r i c t s .  raised  either central  the  support  the  generally considered  T h e r e was i n the  to  controversial  t o r e s o l v e was  government.'involvement i n i r r i g a t i o n one.  a r i s e n from time  A particularly  had  the case  content,  another  fraternity  Plateau.  to  solid  p a r t y was  g r e a t e s t drawback to a g r i c u l t u r a l  Interior  alkali  This  ranching 58  politicians  single  upon t h e  Conservative  c o n f r o n t i n g i s s u e s t h a t had  irrigation.  high  long  population.  Columbia  since Confederation.  issue  be  federal  British  counterparts  Yale's were s t i l l  ranching  i n favour  of  g e n e r a l l y conceded  with government that  irrigation  149 -  o f l a n d s was b e y o n d  t h e means o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l  60 settler.  A.G. P e m b e r t o n , p i o n e e r  agreed  w i t h the Davie  letter  to the Inland Sentinel  pretation  of this  South  Thompson r a n c h e r ,  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s assessment.  aspect  reflects  His  an i n t e r e s t i n g  of the Interior  ranching  inter-  situation,  particularly twenty  a s i n much a s i t came f r o m a r a n c h e r w i t h 61 years experience i n the region. I t i s n o t f a i r t o expect t h a t any Dry Rancher w i l l , at the risk of ruining himself, prospect f o r an a r t e s i a n w e l l o f water, as most o f these a r e t h e m o s t n e e d y among u s . . . b e s i d e s which, a s a r u l e t h e y a r e n o t y o u n g men b u t o l d p i o n e e r s and n a t u r a l l y pause before they take any c h a n c e s t h a t m i g h t r u i n them. The w e l l t o - d o among u s h a v e e i t h e r e n o u g h w a t e r o r a r e s t o c k m e n who h a v e made t h e i r m o n e y o u t o f stock... }  Pemberton d i s a g r e e d , furthermore, w i t h t h e popular that  Interior  c a t t l e m e n , as t h e l a r g e s t  belt,  were consequently  bring  increased settlement.  a d d i t i o n a l water,  I f artesian wells  h e b e l i e v e d many c a t t l e  of the land this  Although  way t h a n  ranchers  provide  i n fact  l a n d , a s " t h e y make m o r e on i t  P e m b e r t o n ' s p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n was n o t i m m e d i a t e l y  forth  they  c a n by r u n n i n g  many o f t h e c a t t l e  t h e Okanagan d i s t r i c t ,  realized  could  handsome p r o f i t s  ranchers,  d i d subdivide their fortheir  particuarly  l a n d and  efforts.  The  problems  surrounding  t o be n e a r e r  solution  when E.B. M c k a y was c o m m i s s i o n e d  to carry  would  cattle  coming, u l t i m a t e l y in  i n the dry  opposed t o a r t e s i a n w e l l s which  would be happy t o s u b d i v i d e t h e i r out  landowners  assumption  out a geological  survey  Interior  irrigation  o f t h e Thompson,  appeared i n 1888  Spallumcheen  -  Okanagan and  150  Mission valleys  -  as w e l l  as  the  country  between  6 3 Cache Creek  and  the best area  the  lower  for trial  Thompson R i v e r f r o m  Nicola Valley.  b o r i n g was  Tranquille  He  concluded  the n o r t h bank o f  to the  Kamloops  that  the  junction.  Although the M c k a y r e p o r t was t a b l e d i n 1888 i t was o v e r l o o k e d u n t i l l a t e i n t h e 1889 s e s s i o n when S e m l i n c a l l e d f o r a special Then  committee to study  suddenly,  political  the  the  machinery The of  Davie  second  and  i s s u e became a  source  of  g o v e r n m e n t was  rate  l e d by  comprehensive British  chastized  equipment and  a  Columbia.  came u n d e r c r i t i c i s m  would hurt the  settlers  more t h a n  the  companies.  Any  established  h i m s e l f on  career  available. proponent  c o n v e n i e n t l y s t r u c k a t 500 6 6  feet  I n 1892  Charles  drought.  As  system  small scale established early  i n 1890,  s c h e m e was  Cache Creek 6 7  intelligent  made  best  with  t o implement a b e t t e r  Interior  artesian  struggle along  irrigation  from  s e v e r e l y from  to  Thompson r a n c h  government  for  restrictive  s e r i o u s about  John Robson, the  W a t e r was  heated  commented t h a t o n l y t h e  development, decided  George M a r t i n ' s South  failure  project.  e n g i n e e r i n g e x p e r t i s e s h o u l d be  experiments.  suffering  boring  Comox member s n i d e l y  agricultural  into  artesian well  I f they were indeed  g o v e r n m e n t , now  the on  The  use of 6 5  $3,000 b u d g e t . wells,  irrigation  debate.  the proposed  the  Semlin  but  then  no  introduced  consequently  r a n c h e r s who  were  Pemberton had p r e d i c t e d , of  irrigation  ranchers ranchers  settler  and or  had  a favourable location  for  the  newer  ranching long  since  where a c c e s s  to  water  f o rstock or agricultural  problem. the  151 -  T  h  e  r  financial  systems.  a  n  c  n  i  g  n  purposes  was n o t a s e r i o u s  companies, on t h e other hand,  resources  In the f a l l  to construct their  possessed  own i r r i g a t i o n  o f 1892, f o r example, besides  employing 68  forty  men t o b u i l d  i r r i g a t i o n d i t c h e s o n t h e Gang  the Western Canadian reservoir  Ranching  ranch,  Company was c o n s t r u c t i n g a  dam o n P a u l C r e e k t o p r o v i d e w a t e r  f o r their  ranch  69 at  Harper's  Camp o n t h e s o u t h  While Interior to  take  of  the provincial  government p r o c r a s t i n a t e d about  irrigation, Interior  cattle  advantage o f e x i s t i n g  most v a l u e d and  Thompson.  asset; range  ranchers  legislation to protect  land.  The C a t t l e  t h e amended 1888 v e r s i o n h a d p r o v i d e d cattle  commonsvupon Crown Land.  generated  very  Pavillion  Mountain  in  little  revenue,  (16,000 a c r e s ) , M i n n i e  their  Range A c t o f 1876 f o rt h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  Although  t h e scheme  Commons w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d a t  (3,200 a c r e s )  the Lillooet district,  were c o n t i n u i n g  a n d B i g B a r (3,200  acres)  and i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f N i c o l a  Lake  (1,600 a c r e s )  and Osoyoos  Lake (16,000  70 acres)  in.the Yale d i s t r i c t .  latter  cattle  initiated nemisis,  the  of "land grabbing" 71  the Inland Sentinel, on t h e d e f e n s i v e .  "Keremeos", t h e p r i n c i p a l commons p e t i t i o n  characterized that  common i n t h e O s o y o o s - S i m i l k a m e e n  charges  immediately from  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t  t h e range  expressed  as "monopolists"  from  ofthe  region  the cattle  The accused  ranchers  I n t h e s h a r p l y worded stock raisers their  were rebuttal  who h a d s i g n e d  resentment  a t being  and r e a f f i r m e d t h e i r  l a n d i n q u e s t i o n was u n f i t  rancher's  contention  f o r agricultural  72 settlement.  These c a t t l e  ranchers,  t h e m a j o r i t y o f whom h a d  been i n the  Osoyoos-Similkameen d i s t r i c t  were w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d and  content  of  after  affairs.  Nonetheless,  some u n k n o w n r e a s o n  the  Inland  with  the  f o r twenty  the  years,  existing  initial  state  attack,  S e n t i n e l d i d not  for  pursue  the  issue. While  the  protective  shield  provincial  land  of  Interior  the  mid  C a t t l e Range A c t against  sheep r a i s e r s  legislation  cattle  continued  ranches.  This  1 8 6 0 ' s when c o l o n i a l  generous p a s t o r a l lease to purchase  land at  had  s y s t e m and low  provincial  and  to  serve  been the had  as  case  growth since  initiated  a  encouraged  individuals  rates.  1888,  land  a  agriculturists,  to promote the  officials  relatively  mentioned above, the  continued  In  a c t was  as  amended and  con-  73 solidated revision as  once again. of  either  suitable cost for  the  first  This  former or  land act.  of  acre  these  while  the  lumbering the  latter  p u r p o s e s , c o u l d be  revised legislation  a l l this  L a n d was  second c l a s s ;  for cultivation,  $2.50 an any  Essentially,  d i d not  m e a n t was  now  classified  former being  or  hay  curtail  the  an  active  land  ranchers.  take  land  clause which allowed  acquire  unsurveyed mountain pasturage  example, of purchase  the  land  approximately  i n the  Yale  two  t h i r d s w e r e made by  the  Interior  familiar acres  act  and  sixty  ranchers  for a considerable  names on  the  list.  of mountain pasturage  separate  who time.  J.B.  an  them  acre.  in  to  For  1888,  been ranching There were  Greaves purchased  f o r the  to  a p p l i c a t i o n s to  districts  had 74  acre.  They c o n t i n u e d  f o r $1  Lillooet  unsuitable  f o r $1  Interior  the  now  land, considered  purchase p r a c t i s e s of advantage of  land  meadows,  obtained  a  in  many 1,617  Douglas Lake C a t t l e  - 153 -  Company; R i c h a r d land  Cawston a p p l i e d  f o r 1200 a c r e s  n e a r Keremeos a n d H e r b e r t Bowe, a l l e g e d  the  first  acres  I n t e r i o r stock  to hisAlkali  rancher,  Lake ranch.  chases by a c t i v e r a n c h e r s .  the  t o be p e r h a p s  added y e t a n o t h e r These were  What a l a r m e d  o b s e r v e r s was t h e s u d d e n t r e n d  of pastoral  4 00  legitimate  some  pur-  informed  b e t w e e n 1888 a n d 1891 t o w a r d  purchase of I n t e r i o r property  purely  f o r speculative  75 purposes. and  Why  e l s e w o u l d Norman B o l e  a prosperous  p r o v i n c i a l m e m b e r f o r New W e s t m i n s t e r , a p p l y  lawyer  t o purchase  76 over  9,000 a c r e s  i n the Similkameen Valley?  Vancouver c a p i t a l i s t s J.C.  Keith  The  of large blocks  poses had serious ment i n B r i t i s h province  failed  speculation part  influenced this  Interior  at  any a c t i o n  suggests  settle-  t o curb 78  of the  Yet the  Forbes Vernon responsible  t o take  pur-  f o r Land  t h e rampant  The d e l a y  t h e Robson g o v e r n m e n t was coastal business  on t h e heavily  community a t  time.  damaging  this  or easily accessible.  by t h e a g g r e s s i v e  While had  o f Vernon  when s o l i t t l e  i n Crown l a n d s , . u n t i l 1891.  of Vernon  north  f o rspeculative  Columbia, p a r t i c u l a r l y  was e i t h e r a r a b l e  Works,  of land  land  would  Home,  implications f o r the promotion of  Robson government, w i t h and  else  s u c h a s t h e O p p e n h e i m e r s , J.W.  a n d Thomas Dunn be p u r c h a s i n g  purchases  Why  extensive  speculation  i n Crown  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r new s e t t l e r s ,  cattle  recent  this  this  r a n c h e r s were r e l a t i v e l y  development.  juncture  In fact their  was h u r t i n g  their  lands  the majority  insulated general  of  against  complacency  economic p o s i t i o n  within  -  the  provincial  livestock  loads of c a t t l e passed These c a t t l e , on sented  the  154  market.  livestock  Interior  cattle,b'uy,increasing  Columbia  Cattle  provincial cattle  dealers,  three years Richard  absorbed  way  five  to the  which would  see  unable to f u l f i l l  car  coast.  79  British  contracts  numbers o f A l b e r t a  Cawston,  Company, w o u l d  market  their  1889,  to Victoria butchers, repre-  of a trend  Columbia  Within  In March  Kamloops on  consignment  initiation  -  seven  livestock.  manager o f t h e  admit  publicly  to eight  f r o m t h e N o r t h West T e r r i t o r i e s  with  that  thousand  British the head  f o r the spring  of  and  8 0 winter markets.  In the f i r s t  Cawston's company In  the process, the  its of  grip the  on  the  The  industry Interior  But  more e f f i c i e n t l y have  seen,  any  was  coastal  wrong w i t h  Nicola  improve  sj:ockmen  Agricultural  but  i t s activities  were  alone,  from the  Had  the  Northwest. losing ranges  carrying  t h e manner i n w h i c h  conducted?  solution  f o r m a l manner s i n c e  The  market.  flow of cattle  i n the  1892  r a n c h i n g p o p u l a t i o n was 81  the livestock  Interior  head  r a n c h i n g c o m m u n i t y was  they could  modernize  thousand  r e a c h e d t h e i r maximum  something  d i r e c t l y the  Columbia. perhaps  Plateau  o r was  livestock  control  Interior  the expanding  Interior  capacity  in  i m p o r t e d one  t h r e e months o f  had  powerless  from Alberta  t h e i r market  industry of their  i f they  limited  t o an  As  we  themselves settlement.  been formed annual  and  cooperated  problems.  t h e commencement o f had  British  position  not organized  Society  to  to  in  1880,  exhibition  -  highlighted less,  -  show a n d h o r s e  b y 18 88 t h e r e w e r e s i g n s o f new  January the  by a s t a l l i o n  155  1888, an A g r i c u l t u r a l  Spallumcheen v a l l e y  races.  development.  s o c i e t y was  b y J.M.  NevertheIn  organized f o r  Lambly, the d r i v i n g  force  82 behind year  t h e Shuswap  Charles  legislative  and Okanagan  Semlin  took  time  d u t i e s t o guide  railroad.  That  same  away f r o m h i s r a n c h i n g  the formation  o f an  and  agricultural  83 association  f o r the Ashcroft-Cache  Creek  area.  The b i g  news, however, o r i g i n a t e d i n Kamloops where a m e e t i n g form a p r o v i n c i a l January  7,  stock  raisers  A s s o c i a t i o n was  from Kamloops and s u r r o u n d i n g "cooperative  speaker Ward  to  felt  dated  ranching  now  overcome t h e i r  The  unusual  areas,  where  delay  The  numerous d i f f i c u l t i e s .  and  to regulate local  William  independent  they The  as branding  He  argued  c o u l d n o t hope formation a united  as the Canadian P a c i f i c  i s s u e s such  sharp  first  association.  raisers  them-  i s i n  and lawyer,  the traditionally  e x t e r n a l f o r c e s such  were  cattlemen's  a c o o p e r a t i v e body w o u l d a l l o w them t o p r e s e n t against  Interior  ranches  settlement.  rancher  stock  a  need t o o r g a n i z e  needed a formal  a c t i n g as i n d i v i d u a l  ranchers  met t o f o r m 84  the f i r s t  This  local  i n t i m a t e d why  ranchers  the  from the f i r s t  a t the meeting,  Spinks,  Interior that  had a t l a s t  to other  associations  districts  after  i n a f o r m a l manner.  contrast  a group of  and p r o t e c t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n . "  twenty-five years  established, selves  called for  18 8 9 .  On t h e p r e s c r i b e d a f t e r n o o n  ranchers,  to  of front  Railway  and improvement  -  of  breeding  with  the  stock,  The  sentiments  was  concerned,  was  long  was  formed  the  committee, session,  next  expressed  After  the  by of  Greaves,  Spinks,  As  the  he  association a  committee  organization.  w h i c h was  older  agreed  f a r as  a cooperative  f o r the  executive  represented  J.B.  further discussion,  d r a f t by-laws  like  -  speaker,  formation  overdue. to  156  elected  more e s t a b l i s h e d  This  i n the  evening  interior  8 5 ranchers.  Curiously,  m e n t i o n was interest is  made o f  p o s e d by  the  i n large  potential  influx After  British  In  directors  had  m e e t i n g was  fact,  branding the  progress first  successful  the  first  organizational meeting,  the  to  the  for the 8 7  held  forty  various  at  little  British  the  Kamloops c o u r t  grown t o  Columbia  include  A in  news on  the  meeting  the  Cattleman's  house.  By  some s i x t y  to  the  when  whom w e r e i n a t t e n d a n c e w h e n  Samuel Moore, c a l l e d  early  affiliated  December, 1889,  the  had or  until  low  announced  districts  then  a  quorum.  Association,  T h e r e was  organization  a  the  the 8 6  Kamloops i n M a r c h , however, and  roundups  f o r want of  of  at  organization  some t h i r t y  maintained  scheduled meeting  of  the  population.  held  secretary  again,this formed  from  cancelled  organization. of  Once  be  A s s o c i a t i o n was  rancher,  settlers.  themselves  no  cattleman's  stockmen A s s o c i a t i o n s  to protect  farming  annual meeting of  time the  new  the  to  John T a i t ,  with  the  of  to  Columbia Cattleman's A s s o c i a t i o n  profile.  May,  the  a  organizational meeting  potential threat  to  part  of  the  arrival  i n sharp contrast  elsewhere  the  the  at  order.  this members, Nicola After  - 157 -  the  reports  of the various  the  f l o o r and expressed  about t h e A s s o c i a t i o n The  that  branding.  dane b r a n d i n g executive about  ation  incorporation.  of the Association  risk  information  the Association materially  reduce  point,  the cost  of the rather the  Semlin's  first discussion  He a r g u e d a g a i n s t  as a p r i v a t e  mun-  political  Bill.  incorpor-  Besides  was a n i l l u m i n a t i n g s t a t e m e n t ,  of being  88  i f i t  and moved i n t o a h e a t e d  asset.  took  of h i s constituents.  discussion  At this  a valuable  $200, and t h i s  f o r more  t h e members r e - e l e c t e d  by a c c l a m a t i o n  Semlin  t h e Cache Creek and Bonaparte  could  extensive  issue,  acumen p r o v e d  join  i t s rules  After  captains,  f o rthe benefit  ranchers would only  demonstrated  the  h i s desire  rancher-politician believed  valley  of  branding  costing  i t would r u n  "thrown o u t " owing t o so few o f t h e p r o -  89 vincial  members b e i n g  Semlin's  genuinely  a d v i c e was a c c e p t e d  interested  t o reconvene a t the f i r s t  the  Hotel.  of  had emerged  established In Association Organized the  annual  As y e t no m e n t i o n o r  t h e broader problems confronting  raisers  from t h i s  fact, the B r i t i s h  dinner  at  discussion  the Interior  stock  association, theoretically  t o a c t as a cooperative  was on u n s t a b l e  raising.  and s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r t h e  meeting adjourned Grand P a c i f i c  i n stock  and p r o t e c t i v e  Columbia  ground  t o promote and p r o t e c t  body.  Cattlemen's  from i t s  inception.  the ranching  I n t e r i o r , i t b y no means r e p r e s e n t e d  interests of  the Interior  I t d i d not a t t r a c t consistent  support  Plateau  as  a whole.  from  ranchers  in  t h e Okanagan and t h e Similkameen v a l l e y s n o r d i d i t c a p t u r e  -  the  a t t e n t i o n of  was  d e f i n i t e l y hurt  associations Society  and  gonisms as  ranchers by  i n the  158  from Ashcroft  the  Interior.  The  diverting  cattlemen's  eligible  f o r government grants  body d i d not  meet the  This  development,  was  by  the  means a w e a l t h y  annual meeting  i t could  s u p p o r t and  whereas the  qualifications  British  sectional  for  cattleman's  early  stage  Columbia Cattleman's  scarcely boast  were  some i n e x p l i c a b l e  in this  organization.  anta-  energy  These o r g a n i z a t i o n s  i s important because  its  no  association.  Agricultural  promoted  financial  It  agricultural  Ashcroft  i t s Kamloops c o u n t e r p a r t w e l l as  northward.  emergence of  from the  reason.  -  At  i t s  of  Association  first  about a bank  balance  90 of  $22.82.  This  financial  situation  r a n c h e r s were not  committed  to  ready on  to  contribute  stable  financial  organization  the  record  or  to  w o u l d be 91  session.  any  There  point  Despite  ranchers  When t h e  meeting  in late  become o b v i o u s  executive 1890  the  on  the  to prove  by  organization  to  the a  their  the  hope  next  government  the  British  incorporated  forced  account of  At  expressed  i s , h o w e v e r , no  was  were  Association  i n 1890.  incorporated  C o l u m b i a C a t t l e m a n ' s A s s o c i a t i o n was  the  these problems,  meetings  account whatsoever,  years.  that  where they  money t o p l a c e  hold  i n June the  Association  Legislative  own  footing.  continued  "crowded" meeting that  their  the  implies  cancel  in  the  poor attendance,  in i t s original  these annual i t  had  format,  had  support  the  92 failed. The  reluctance  of  Interior  ranchers  to  -  British and  Columbia Cattleman's  A s s o c i a t i o n as a  p r o t e c t i v e a g e n t came a t a n i n o p p o r t u n e  placency the  159 -  e x h i b i t e d by t h e I n t e r i o r  increasingly  competitive market  t o most r a n c h i n g  frontiers;  between sheep and c a t t l e . had  been pursued  Interior  the  stockmen.  sheep as w e l l  same t i m e ,  While  situation  was  divisive  as c a t t l e  67,254 h o r n e d  superissuei n -  the traditional  Prominent ranchers the Cornwalls  The comregard t o  As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r ,  sheep remained  t h e r e were  with  t o some d e g r e e b y t h e f i r s t  the Van Volkenburghs, grazed  time.  ranchers  ceded by t h e emergence o f a p o t e n t i a l l y herent  cooperative  such  as the  raising  Harpers,  M a r t l e y had  range.  a secondary cattle  sheep  generation of  and Captain  upon t h e i r  conflict  But a t  consideration.  accounted  f o r i nthe 93  Yale  district  minor one  i n 1881, t h e r e were o n l y  importance  i n the Interior  5,361 s h e e p .  i s f u r t h e r e x e m p l i f i e d when  c o n s i d e r s t h e 8,000 s h e e p c o n c e n t r a t e d 94  district  i n t h e same p e r i o d .  ranges had been  legally  Furthermore,  i n the Vancouver Interior  p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t sheep  under t h e terms o f the C a t t l e  Their  Range A c t .  cattle  s i n c e 1876  Interior  landowners  had t h e l e g a l . p o w e r t o e l e c t a b o a r d o f o v e r s e e r s w i t h t h e power t o p a s s by-laws g o v e r n i n g t h e p a s t u r i n g o f c a t t l e and 95 sheep on p u b l i c l a n d s . the  Few, t h e r e f o r e , w e r e p r e p a r e d f o r  d e c i s i o n made b y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C a t t l e  Company i n  1891 As  already noted,  incorporated  the B r i t i s h Columbia C a t t l e  i n 1890 b y t r u s t e e s Thomas E l l i s ,  Company,  Richard  Cawston  -  and  John  Irving,  160 -  had purchased t h e h o l d i n g s  o f t h e Van  96 Volkenburgh ranch  family.  As t h e Van V o l k e n b u r g h s Canoe  Creek  1  i n the Chilcotin  was a d m i r a b l y s u i t e d  f o r sheep  97 raising,  t h e new o w n e r s  promising market  decided t o take advantage  f o r wool  and mutton  by i m p o r t i n g  of the  large  98 herds o f sheep  from Oregon.  made, h o w e v e r ,  t h e company a p p r o a c h e d  parliamentary Prior. Mr.  members  They wanted  f o rVictoria,  of t e n thousand  scornful special worst  of the idea privileges  f e a r s were  to waive  sheep.  border crossing. of  dogs"  the  when t h e f e d e r a l  over  government organized  and i n September, at the  N i n e men  and a  to drive  had been  hired  two-thirds  grant  and  t h e d u t y o n 9,000 s h e e p  their  refused cattle 1891,  Osoyoos "multitude  of the flock  to  Company's Canoe C r e e k r a n c h and t h e r e m a i n d e r t o r a n g e  near John A l l i s o n ' s the  might  "syndicate",  However, t h e r e c e n t l y  assembled  Edward  r a n c h e r s were  t h e.Conservative government  allayed  paid  and  t h e i m p o r t duty on a  Interior  company d e c i d e d t o p u r s u e t h e p l a n Thomas E l l i s  federal  Thomas E a r l e  of waiving 99  to a particular  the duty.  their  were  t h e s e members t o a p p r o a c h t h e h o n o u r a b l e  B o w e l l on t h e s u b j e c t  flock  Before the importations  latter  flock  location. ^"'"  before  t h e Dewdney t r a i l By  the spring  1  driving i n bands  The p l a n  them t o t h e c o a s t a l of three  to four  o f 1892 t h e B r i t i s h  Company's i n v e s t m e n t i n sheep  was t o f a t t e n  was b e g i n n i n g  hundred.  Columbia to  market  Cattle  irritate  ranchers  i n the Chilcotin  Creek, Spring intention  161 -  district.  Settlers  House and A l k a l i Lake  to establish  i n t h e Dog  areas expressed  a common t o p r o t e c t  their  against the  102 d e p r e d a t i o n s o f sheep. the  editor  In a highly  of the Inland  was c h a r a c t e r i z e d  critical  Sentinel,the  letter to  B.C. C a t t l e  Company  o f "greedy c a p i t a l i s t s " i n t e n t 103 upon a q u i c k p r o f i t a t t h e expense o f t h e p u b l i c . T h e i r l a r g e b a n d s o f s h e e p w e r e now o n D o g C r e e k m o u n t a i n  where  as a group  " t h e s e t t l e r s " had grazed t h e i r  cattle  "unmolested"  104 for  years.  for  a common a s i t m e a n t a t a x o f t e n t o t w e n t y - f i v e  a head could  The s e t t l e r s , f u r t h e r m o r e , r e s e n t e d  per year; ill-afford  advocated  Vernon,  increased  Western  fact,  George  cattle  confrontation  While the BrC.  sheep  into  J.N.J.  t o feed  on t h e Hat Creek arrived  Brown's  the B i g Creek  C a n a d i a n R a n c h i n g Company b r o u g h t 8,000  t h e sheep  and Forbes  ranchers and t h e ranching  when t h e Gang r a n c h sheep  As  property  Martin  The p o s s i b i l i t y o f a  ranch and moving  range an i r a t e P h i l l i p ordered  to private  as t h e y e a r p r o g r e s s e d .  down f r o m t h e C h i l c o t i n In  raisers  the settlers  Company was i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a c q u i r i n g  Empire v a l l e y the  supporters,  stock  cents  pay i n votes i f they f a i l e d t o pro-  industry.  the individual  companies Cattle  r e s t r i c t i o n s o f sheep  they would  the cattle  small  In conclusion,  t h e government  that  between  t o pay.  strict  and warned  tect  a n a m o u n t w h i c h many  t h e need  a r e a / ^  sheep 106  range.  a t t h e Hat Creek  Parke, l o c a l rancher and m a g i s t r a t e ,  o f f t h e range a t once.  the situation  moved t o w a r d a c o n f r o n t a t i o n  between  -  the  ranching  public  companies and  m e e t i n g was  called  162  the  -  established local  to discuss the  ranchers,  "sheep  a  question"  107 at  A s h c r o f t on  former with  Senator  an  ranchers  of B r i t i s h  valleys  east  cattle part  and  3,  "on  of  cattle,  the  limited  Clement  Governor,  presentation.  Columbia, the  F r a s e r and  the  could not  said  valleys  have been  that the flocks  As  were concerned, C o r n w a l l  Cascades,  so  are  for a  of  sheep b e l o n g i n g  they  were concerned  a b o u t was  last  s e s s i o n of  provincial  the  an  f a r as  support when  to  many  the  Thompson  dry  River  sheep  "the  fully 108  and  greater  stocked  time."  established ranchers  meeting  argued,  already  long  Cornwall,  opened the  same g r o u n d " , e s p e c i a l l y  a l l the and  insisted  of  1892.  Lieutenant  e m o t i o n a l l y charged  Interior belt  September  with  Cornwall  had  nothing  against  "actual settlers".  amendment p a s s e d  parliament which  in  the  What  the  allowed  l a r g e f l o c k s o f s h e e p t o o c c u p y t h e summer r a n g e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y reserved for c a t t l e ; T h e e f f e c t o f t h i s i s t h a t c a t t l e m e n who for n e a r l y t w e n t y y e a r s have l i v e d i n p e a c e and subh p r o s p e r i t y as P r o v i d e n c e gave them, h a v e now i n t h e i r o l d a g e t h i s o u t l o o k b e f o r e t h e m , t h a t a n y man o r c o m p a n y who o w n s s h e e p o r has t h e c a r e o f them, has t h e p r i v i l e g e t o f u l l y o c c u p y w i t h s h e e p t h e summer r a n g e s u p o n w h i c h o u r c a t t l e l i v e . . . W e w o u l d be l e s s t h a n men, i f we t a m e l y s u b m i t t e d . . . 110 l  u  9  James P r e n t i c e , S e c r e t a r y T r e a s u r e r R a n c h i n g Company, t h e n position sides the  and  legal  took  right  the  honourable  straightforward  Mr.  Cornwall,  fact  floor  to graze  taking strong exception  t h a t the  of  Western  to defend  sheep a t  t o the this  the  tone  recent  company he  Hat and  the  company's  Creek. message  arrival now  Canadian  Beof  stressed  represented  the paid  "half  t h e t a x e s o r more"  were i n v e s t i n g l a r g e the  local  that by  i n the Lillooet  He t h e n c o u n t e r e d  1  the Western Canadian Ranching  pointing  i n Britain  out that  district  and c u r r e n t l y  sums w h i c h w o u l d p e r m a n e n t l y  ranchers. "'""'"  shareholders  the  163 -  Cornwall's  claim  Company was c o n t r o l l e d  and d i r e c t o r s i n V i c t o r i a  t h e Company h e a d q u a r t e r s w e r e  immediate d i s t r i c t  benefit  and any c o m p l a i n t c o u l d  by  located i n be  resolved  locally. The Charles  a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e m e e t i n g was g r o w i n g  Semlin  took  the platform.  Both  Semlin and  were i n an awkward p o s i t i o n f r o m a p o l i t i c a l they in  had supported  18 9 2 .  clearly  modified not  the  he was e m p l o y e d  t h e tone  Besides being  a  i n a consulting  was  recognized f o r t h e amended  or managerial Both  must have b e e n r e l i e v e d when P h i l i p o f t h e meeting by i n t r o d u c i n g  r e l a t e d t o the immediate c o n f l i c t  Parke  a resolution over Hat Creek. upon  Dominion government t o review t h e enforcement o f a l l regulations  unalienated  forward, well  as  r e s o l u t i o n was i n s u p p o r t o f p r o v i n c i a l p r e s s u r e  provincial the  companies, Martin  by t h e W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n R a n c h i n g Company.  directly  Parke's  standpoint  o f t h e Robson government r e s p o n s i b l e  men, n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  Martin  afford to alienate the  ranchers or the ranching  legislation, capacity  could  more open t o a t t a c k .  supporter  when  t h e amendment t o t h e C a t t l e Ranges A c t  While neither  established  tense  lands  the meeting  worn d e b a t e o v e r  respecting  pasturage  of the railway focussed  on t h i s  belt.  of livestock within From t h a t  complex  issue  point  and t h e  federal-provincial legislation.  The  tempo o f the  the meeting  ranchers  Cattle  again,  should  arrive flict  an  h e l d a t Kamloops  stock  internal  at effective over  range  conciliatory  gathering adjourned  r e q u i r e d , or whether or  be  Interior  resolve  the  -  not  later  raisers  had  taken  conflict,  but  i n the  s o l u t i o n s to the  a  i n the  fall.  definite end  was  e x a c t l y the  a c t i o n on  the  part of  sort  a well  of  indeed  in  the  success  of  Despite ranchers  two  m a j o r p r o t a g o n i s t s now  organized their  meeting  unresolved  the  the  moved t o  ranges  and  rectify  chosen to  the  a t A s h c r o f t had  the  newly  Both  of  situation.  into  the  the  A  illustrated  Interior and  conflict,  Davie  select  the  ranching  the r e c e n t l y articulated  administration  committee  p r o t e c t i o n of winter  desirability  difficulties  brought together  T.  where  stock-  sheep  groups had  formed  con-  elsewhere.  i n v o l v e d i n the  companies.  the  inquire  and  nature  older established ranchers  ranching  position  i s well  stockmen's a s s o c i a t i o n s the  This  organized  both  as  to  situation  to  satisfaction  to  were unable  have r e s o l v e d the  parties'  Once  steps  controversy.  lands  the  stockmen's  man's a s s o c i a t i o n w o u l d p r o b a b l y  industry;  before  c o u l d a g r e e upon w h a t amendment, i f any,  Range A c t  meeting  lost,  164  of d e f i n i n g c e r t a i n  and  was summer  areas  in  112 which  sheep c o u l d be  decision far  as  was  the  pastured.  a moral v i c t o r y  c o m m i t t e e was  money i n s h e e p w a r r a n t e d fair  p o r t i o n of  political  f o r the  concerned, the  they  ranching parties  same r i g h t s  the p u b l i c domain.  spirit,  In essence,  as  the  companies.  who  invested  other  Consequently,  o f f e r e d a compromise  committee's As their  citizens in  solution.  true They  to  a  amended t h e all  the  local  Cattle  Range A c t  change r e a l l y  electors'  laws concerning  165  during  represented  privilege the  -  of  the  was  session,  but  a reinforcement  electing  pasturing of  1893  overseers  cattle  and  of  to pass  s h e e p on  the by-  public  113 lands.  Some p r o v i n c i a l  Stoddart  f o r one,  because the  province  room f o r c a t t l e available  s t i l l  and  and  politicians,  operated  was  sheep.  potential  The  pastoral  agricultural efficient  imperative.  This  from the  politicians  t h e r e was  grazing land  potential  of  the  range u t i l i z a t i o n  or  the  h o w e v e r , was  ranching  ample  in If  the was  management  not  of  British  province  and  D.  that  quality  severely limited.  initiative,  member  illusion  q u a n t i t y and  a r a b l e and  i n actual fact  be.realized,  the  large i n area, 114  C o l u m b i a was and  under  Lillooet  to was  forthcoming  community  in  this  period. The that by  the  position  their  readily  Ashcroft meeting of  the  Basque ranch Cornwall  over  when W a l t e r  f o r many y e a r s , the  question of was  as  further  established ranchers  r e l u c t a n c e t o a c t as apparent  stands  evidence,,  was  weakened  a cooperative unit. Langley,  who  expressed  had  owned  Langley  adamant i n h i s b e l i e f  ill-afford  to alienate external c a p i t a l  on  in  the  the  was  the  h i s disagreement  f o r e i g n investment  Interior.  This  with  the  region  scale  i n t r o d u c e d by t h e W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n R a n c h i n g C o m p a n y : ^ T h i s w h o l e c o u n t r y had been c r y i n g out f o r f o r e i g n c a p i t a l t o c o m e i n , a n d now t h e f i r s t g r e a t a m o u n t t o come i n i s t r e a t e d i n a h i g h l y improper manner. I f the i m p r e s s i o n goes a b r o a d t h a t we l o o k w i t h s u s p i c i o n u p o n f o r e i g n c a p i t a l , and c a l l f o r laws t o h i n d e r i t s u s e , i t w i l l be f o l l y f o r us t o l o o k f o r any m o r e c a p i t a l t o come i n . 1 1  could  - 166 -  C o r n w a l l was d e f y i n g p r o g r e s s when he o p p o s e d the  introduction  the  sluggish  however, his  Interior  scale  livestock  i s not d i f f i c u l t  b r o t h e r had a r r i v e d  social as  of large  capital  and economic advantages,  the early  His  t o understand.  into  antagonism,  Although  Columbia  these  t h e y now p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s ,  with  and e x p e r t i s e  industry.  i n British  i n principle  with  "country  he and  distinct  gentlemen",  had been i n t i m a t e l y  settlement of the B r i t i s h  They had l e a r n e d t o l o v e t h e i s o l a t e d  Columbia  way o f l i f e  seemed t o be s a d d e n e d b y t h e i n e v i t a b l e  involved  Interior. and  transitions.  As  116 Cornwall  later  lamented:  I n t h o s e d a y s p o p u l a t i o n was s c a n t y , e v e r y o n e knew e v e r y b o d y e l s e , h o s p i t a l i t y was r i f e , and p e o p l e were always g l a d t o see o t h e r s . As i t w e r e t h e w h o l e c o u n t r y was o n e ' s own... Now how d i f f e r e n t ! S e t t l e r s a l l o v e r t h e country p o i s o n i n g and c u r s i n g "Coyotes", the face o f the ground, through o v e r s t o c k i n g , e a t e n b a r e a s t h e p a l m o f o n e ' s h a n d a n d No Hounds 1 The  considerable publicity  overshadowed Interior raisers to  ranchers; the marketing were n o t b e n e f i t i n g  t h e degree  the a b i l i t y Columbia The of  a more f u n d a m e n t a l  expected  of Alberta  the B r i t i s h  Columbia  owner W a l t e r L a n g l e y to feed c a t t l e  problem  confronting  of their  cattle.  the growing  many Stock  coastal  market  a n d i t was n o t c o m p l e t e l y r e l a t e d  to  ranchers t o supply the B r i t i s h  m a r k e t more e f f i c i e n t l y  root o f t h e problem  head  from  g i v e n t h e sheep q u e s t i o n  on a year  round  rested with the internal ranching industry.  basis. workings  As Basque  ranch  e s t i m a t e d i n 1 8 9 3 , i t now c o s t $ 1 0 p e r f o r the spring  t r a d e a n d $7 a h e a d t o  transport unless  they  smaller their  the stock drove  individuals capital  the stock  their  ranchers  could  Consequently,  themselves,  not afford  They s o l d them i n s t e a d d i r e c t l y  and c a t t l e  c o m p a n i e s who p o s s e s s e d  coastal livestock  best  117  t o the coast  t o meet t h e s p i r a l l i n g  Meanwhile, in  to coastal butchers.  scale Interior  cattle.  167 -  interest  cost of feed  dealers  many  t o market  t o those  few  the necesssry  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  had d i s c o v e r e d  i t was  n o t t o compete f o r t h e purchase and  118 marketing  of cattle.  Instead  upon a n open c o m p e t i t i v e m a r k e t ,  of purchasing they  livestock  made y e a r l y  contracts  119 with  a "few wealthy  tractors, their  meat a s t h e l a t t e r  of  This  cosy  could  not afford  relationship,  who w e r e u n a b l e  the larger interests Interior  their  marketing  to sell  ranchers  difficulties  observers  had been promoting  preferably  f o rdressed  Kamloops.  refrigerated to circumvent coast.  group.  storage  i fthey  stock  locally  as a  informed of a cold  The a d v a n t a g e s were o b v i o u s . of a l l ,  C a t t l e c o u l d be s l a u g h t e r e d  those o r t o one  meat a t one o f t h e I n t e r i o r 120  feed  better  t o overcome  had cooperated  the establishment  plant, first  with  disadvantage.  F o r a number o f y e a r s  the cost of winter  autumn, a n d t h e n  market, placed  might have been a b l e  unified  plant  their  at a distinct  cohesive,  storage  con-  t o buy i n l a r g e  w h i c h was l i t t l e  monopoly c o n t r o l o f t h e l i v e s t o c k  ranchers  The  i n turn, supplied the smaller coastal butchers  quantities. than  companies o r s y n d i c a t e s . "  would  centres; A  allow  ranchers  and t r a n s p o r t t o t h e  at their  delivered t o butchers.at  prime  a slight  i nthe advance o f  - 168 autumn p r i c e s pay  interest  of paying  i n order  t o cover  on t h e c a p i t a l  the cost of cold  invested.  F o r example,  f o r t h e feed and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  the freight  meat.  Then t h e r e would be t h e waste p r o d u c t s the hide  instead  o f a 1200 pound  steer,  feeding,  storage and  w o u l d be p a i d o n 800 p o u n d s o f d r e s s e d f o r hog  f o r tanning, t o say nothing of side  products  121 like  tallow.  Although  J a m e s P r e n t i c e made a s p e c i a l  t o Kamloops t o d i s c u s s t h e v e n t u r e behalf  of t h e Western  construction before this at  18 9 6 .  There  time.  establish  i s no s u r v i v i n g  ranchers  passed  the planning  evidence  to explain  i n n o v a t i o n was n o t c a r r i e d  At this  j u n c t u r e , h o w e v e r , t h e r e was  stock raisers  could cooperate  a more i n t i m a t e b u s i n e s s  on  Company, t h e  logical  hope t h a t I n t e r i o r to  Ranching  of a storage p l a n t never  seemingly  this  Canadian  with local  trip  stages  why  forward renewed  long  relationship  enough  with  coastal  butchers. The the  formed t h e Kamloops C a t t l e  they had found  a combination"  the coastal  of butchers  t o open a r e t a i l  outlet 122  surplus  livestock.  attract  investment  the  o f a c o o p e r a t i v e m a r k e t was  essentially  i d e a John Edwards a n d James Woodland h a d i n mind  they As  concept  ranchers  superceded forgotten  from  early  d e a l e r s , they  decided  a t Vancouver and market t h e i r  other  traditional  until  i n September, 1892.  m a r k e t c l o s e d t o them "by  and c a t t l e  At this  the obvious  Company  when  point,  they were hoping  Interior  ranchers  f o r cooperation.  i n 18 95 w h e n c e r t a i n  to  b u t once  preference f o r independent  need  own  bargaining  The c o n c e p t  Kamloops  again  was  ranchers  re-introduced  the  idea:  As t h i n g s a r e a t p r e s e n t t h e s m a l l e r s t o c k m e n are not o n l y a t the mercy of the l a r g e r ones, b u t t h e y h a v e no c h a n c e w h a t s o e v e r t o s h i p to the coast. Three experienced and  local  ranchers,  T h o m a s Newman w e r e a p p o i n t e d  inaugural meeting of to correspond Victoria.  1  expressed business again,  2  with  a genuine  ranchers  to join  satisfactory  no  Cuthbert  small  sound  together  and  and  & Company, a  ranchers.  scheme f a i l e d the  to  part of  withhold cattle  had  formal  scale Interior  f u r t h e r move on  inexplicable  compounded by  reluctance or  Once  mater-  the  until  ability  system or  smaller  a  Prices for cattle  February,  1895,  the  per  live  weight  price or  were p a r t i c u l a r l y  of beef an  had  fallen  average of  to  a cold  a g e n e r a l l y depressed  economy.  pound  the  i n Vancouver  in establishing  a cooperative marketing was  Bulman  more  m a r k e t a r r a n g e m e n t c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d .  This  plant  with  H.  however, a p o t e n t i a l l y T h e r e was  a committee at  parties  firm,  interest  relationship  as  Thomas  Kamloops A g r i c u l t u r a l A s s o c i a t i o n  interested  A Victoria  4  ialize.  either  the  Andrew Noble,  $25  establish  storage  provincial low. to  By  2-3  a head  cents  for  prime  125 three year ranchers  old steers.  still  agricultural effectively of  federal  ostensibly  maintained  interests.  Despite  this  certain  advantages over been  f r o m A m e r i c a n c o m p e t i t i o n by 126  the  strong  Canada, e s s e n t i a l l y  regulations.  to prevent served  This  diseased  other  protected enforcement  legislation,  meat from  t o p l a c a t e and  cattle  the  had  designed  1892  the  they  quarantine  Since  situation  entering  p r o t e c t the  poli-  -  tically the  powerful  British  170  Alberta ranching  Columbia ranching  particularly  from  the  ranchers,  transportation,  traditional  the  developed  flow of  mid  full  impact  1890's the  of  an  majority of  the  also protected,  cattle  their  ranching  to a certain  ranches  readily  at  comparatively  low  They c o u l d  sell  on  the  an  situation  increasingly  sell  the  recovered.  their  Although  valley,  experienced  extension of  scale  came t o be  for fruit  The  influenced cattle  the  ranching  l e d the  agriculture 128 settler".  local as  on  and land.  Okanagan  1890's.  a  With Vernon,  commercial  Okanagan Land  way  of  became  particularly  the  i n the  the  127  preneur  class  this  seemed  growing  guidance  better  livestock  Shuswap r a i l w a y t o  D e v e l o p m e n t Company, u n d e r t h e  more d i v e r s i f i e d  available  valuable grazing  transition  utilized.  George Mackay,  water  subdivide  particularly  Okanagan and  .  could  to  the  them back u n t i l  community  some a r e a s ,  potential .  they  By  enough  U l t i m a t e l y , and  ranching  a major  the  hold  increasingly  the  t o change,  that region's  survive or  common p r a c t i s e ,  portions of  resistant  rates.  and  extent  were fenced,  l a b o u r was  economic  feed  economic d e p r e s s i o n . the  the  operations  d e f i n e d and  market to  from  the e s t a b l i s h e d  r i g h t s were w e l l  local  process,  increased cost of  p o i n t where they were i n s u l a t e d  from the  In  Furthermore,  d e s p i t e the  had  lobby.  c o m m u n i t y was  Puget Sound b a s i n t o V i c t o r i a . Interior  -  of  i n the  Scottish promotion  and  the  attraction  In  the  process,  newspaper,  a remnant of  and  of  "of  the  past  and  to  a  the  Company  t h e V e r n o n News, t o the  enter-  attack  label  -  171 -  ranching  companies as "monopolists,  Mackay's  speculative interest  growing to  gained  pure  and simple."  129  i n t h e promotion o f f r u i t  f u r t h e r s t i m u l u s when L o r d  be Canada's Governor G e n e r a l ,  Aberdeen,  acquired  Forbes  soon  Vernon's 130  ranching The  interests  for a reported  following year,  planting acres  Aberdeen  50,000 pounds  launched  the first  i n t h e Okanagan when he a r r a n g e d  t o be p l a n t e d  a t both  Kelowna and t h e Coldstream  h i s ranches; 131  i n 1891. commercial  f o r two hundred the Guisachen a t  a t Vernon.  George Mackay and h i s a s s o c i a t e s , as w e l l as o t h e r Vancouver and V i c t o r i a Vernon d i s t r i c t ,  capitalists  who b o u g h t  were i n t e r e s t e d p r i m a r i l y  land  i n the  i n land  132 speculation. dividing it  They were b u y i n g  i t into  blocks  available property,  of tento forty  a t advanced p r i c e s as high  acres  a s $60 a n a c r e ,  m a n y o f whom h a d b e e n l i v i n g  i n thevalley  period,  latest  d i d not resist  some a c t i v e l y to  supported  this  i t either  sub-  and then Local  selling  ranchers,  since the colonial  development.  by s e l l i n g  In fact,  their  property  t h e O k a n a g a n L a n d a n d D e v e l o p m e n t Company o r s u b d i v i d i n g  themselves.  When E l l i s  of  range  by  D. N i c h o l s o n  800  acre  another  land  pasture  rancher  with  a n d A. L e f e v r e , 133  other  who s u b d i v i d e d ;  $5.  ranching  both  farming  This  followed  Frederick Brent,  was  he b r o k e h i s 2,100 a c r e s  land  selling  into  f o r $10-40 a n d  was a phenomenon t h e I n t e r i o r  frontiers.  acres  o f whom o w n e d s u c c e s s f u l  Colonial pioneer,  improved  land,  2400  a t Okanagan M i s s i o n , he was q u i c k l y  ranches.  blocks with  s o l d t h e Mackay company  The r a n c h e r s ,  shared  after pur-  -  chasing  their  confronted As  several  land values  divide  and  would  acre  use  now  the  divergence  offered  into  to  raising in  the  had  been the  Now  the  a  continue  products  Interior  T h e r e was to  from the  cattle  to  United  opportunity to  make more  gain  industry  a more  the  and  pursued  was  the  influx the  1890. form  of after  arriving  who  diversified  the  and  per  settled  horticultural British  large majority  States  that  illustrates  r e a s o n why  the  to  sale.  settlers  in  frontier.  recognized  P l a t e a u was  for  no  import  the  wished  most w i d e l y  need  inevitably  development a f t e r  base; p a r t i c u l a r l y  fields.  should  and  were  settlement  seized  fruit  g e n e r a t i o n of  potential  agricultural dairy  new  a  Okanagan v a l l e y  raising  18 6 0 .  by  immediate  Interior's  the  prices  Many r a n c h e r s  the  since  low  t h o s e who  of  agriculture  at  ranchers  of  the  -  later  land.  potential  population  saw  the  t a k e many y e a r s  return  Stock  decades  acreages  of  The of  initially  rose,  sell  intensive it  land  172  f r o m as  and  Columbia  of  its  far  dairy  away as  Nova  134 Scotia.  The  movement t o w a r d  agriculture,  h o w e v e r , was  dominance of  stock  organized  the  in  regulate  and  to  hindered  raising.  Department of the  a more  In  by  1890,  diversified the  continued  the  Robson  Agriculture  horticultural,  to  dairy  administration  foster and  pre-  interest  live  stock  sent  out  135 industries. circulars area  The designed  under crop,  similar  first to  Minister,  obtain  J.H.  information  Turner, as  to  land  owned,  number o f f r u i t t r e e s , l i v e s t o c k and other 136 particulars. A l t h o u g h many r a n c h e r s and farmers  -  173  were r e l u c t a n t t o v o l u n t e e r w o u l d be u s e d statistics of  proportion  settlers of land  Not land  regard  f o r stock  s t i l l  o n l y was  under c u l t i v a t i o n  than  of land continued  small  group of s e t t l e r s . i n 18 9 3 ,  Interior  per  individual.  some v e r y  and t h e  revealing  propensity considerable  to pastoral pursuits. ten per cent  of  Plateau  t o these  occupied i n 1893,  t o be h e l d by a  According  comparatively  statistics  landowners possessed 137  850 a c r e s  raising  on t h e I n t e r i o r  tracts  of  f o r fear that i t  to the continued  devoted  less  large  assembled  information  f o r t a x assessment purposes,  emerged w i t h  Interior  -  an  average  -  17 4 -  TABLE P R O P O R T I O N OF  LAND DEVOTED TO  INTERIOR  Cult. Land  District  1. P r i n c e t o n 2. P e n t i c t o n 3. O k a n a g a n Mission 4. V e r n o n 5. S p a l l u m c h e e n 6. S a l m o n A r m 7. S h u s w a p 8. G r a n d e P r a i r i e  VIII  PLATEAU  STOCK R A I S I N G  - 18 93  Pasture Land  Land Owners  Arm,  8,770 13,899 35,599  23 32 66  797 2,557 5,002  7,000 8,483 432 1,350 no s t a t istics 1,315 1,733  45,000 10,348 95 1,380  160 42 8  —  4,100 3,700 143 1,465  60 32  5,848 23,206  15 13 13 20 15 12 10 20  191 748 1,718 2,062 556 1,044 924 1,812  16 12 41  3,286 1,795 7,930  33  1,519  area  l i k e Salmon  Okanagan and t h e m a r g i n a l  farming  L y t t o n and Shuswap were t h e o n l y a r e a s  centration  No. o f Cattle  1,440 778 5,368  9. K a m l o o p s 23,586 10.Upper N i c o l a 130,247 11.Central & Lower N i c o l a 12.Lytton 1,022 801 13.Spences B r i d g e 483 1,759 14.Ashcroft 1,.34.6__ 7, .4.99. 15.Cache Creek 1,352 4,362 16.Lillooet 1,228 2,040 17.Pavillion 1,202 2,478 18.Clinton 450 1,510 19.Bridge Creek 970 6,330 & Lac La Hache 20.Lower C h i l c o t i n 868 4,442 21.Upper C h i l c o t i n 390 3,120 22.Alkali Lake,Big 3,809 51,495 B a r & Dog C r e e k 23.Soda Creek & 2,717 6,249 Quesnel 24.Williams Lake no s t a t i s t i c s  The N o r t h  138  of land under c u l t i v a t i o n  was  w h e r e t h e con-.  greater  than that  -  utilized areas,  for stock  isolated  connection, The  as  -  purposes.  distance  or  the  In  need  dependence upon s t o c k  Nicola valley,  develop of  raising  by  the  175  now  the  introduced  region and  more  for a  remote  railway  raising  major ranching  a more d i v e r s i f i e d  i r r i g a t i o n was  the  was  paramount.  district,  until  a branch  could  a uniform line  not  system  connected i t  139 with  the  backs, was  Canadian P a c i f i c  i t appears  prospering  presence of the of  as  the  a  nearly  the  Nicola valley raising  the and  Even at  stock. of  the  To  district  the  range  rested  ran  before  1896,  tinued  to play  i n the  also  firm  drawpopulation  While  the  and  there an  cattle the  isolated  important  decade a f t e r evidence  to  the  ten  and  ranching  average  $25  per  thousand the  the  on  head, dollars  same  most  could  recent  In  in British of  inflate  cattle  Chilcotin.  direction  fact, Columbia  settlement  in  this  region.  examines the is little  the  of  345  degree,  country  settled;  owned an  average of  owned n e a r l y  ranching  future of  settled  an  somewhat l e s s e r  t o be  When o n e  life  a  in large part with  sparsely  community.  a modest estimate  Cariboo  Interior long  these  ranching  Nicola settlers  average N i c o l a rancher  said  Despite  D o u g l a s L a k e C a t t l e Company t e n d e d t o  2,000 a c r e s ,  ranges.  worth of  is  the  stock  average holdings,  local  be  that  Railway.  Southern  doubt role  stock  i n the  completion  Interior raising  Plateau had  economy and of  the  suggest that to pursue  conway  of  railway. the  study  There of  - 176 -  the  ranching  must  study  level.  and l i v e s t o c k  i n a very  or Lillooet  sification growing,  industry further,  t h e r e g i o n o n a n e v e n more  The Okanagan V a l l e y ,  evolving loops  frontier  different  local  and i n t e n s i v e  f o r instance, clearly direction  districts.  Besides  than  number  of British  means,  education  s a y , t h e Kam-  t h e economic  1 4  diver-  settlers and s o c i a l  with  fruit  a disproportionate  above average  aspirations.  financial  The e d i t o r o f  t h e V e r n o n News, A n g u s S t u a r t , was m o s t e x p l i c i t stated:  was  i m p l i e d by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f commercial  t h e O k a n a g a n was a t t r a c t i n g  one  when he  ^ T h e r e i s a b s o l u t e l y no room i n t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e I n t e r i o r f o r t h a t v e r y common t y p e t h e man who w a n t s t o t a k e u p 2 0 0 o r 3 0 0 acres o f p r a i r i e land near Vernon, Enderby, o r some o t h e r t o w n , a l l r e a d y f o r t h e p l o u g h , a n d who e x p e c t s t o g e t i t a t $ 1 a n a c r e .  This the  i s not t o imply entire  that cattle  ranching  Okanagan V a l l e y by 1896.  As l a t e  Thomas E l l i s  absorbed  his  f r o m P e n t i c t o n t o ©soyoos.  holdings  cattle  ranch,  prise,  had by t h i s  pattern  was r e d u n d a n t i n as 1895,  t h e Haynes e s t a t e , t h e r e b y  extending  But the large  as p e r s o n i f i e d by t h e e x t e n s i v e E l l i s time  become  the exception  enter-  to the general  of settlement. Furthermore,  a new g e n e r a t i o n  r e a c h i n g m a t u r i t y b y 18 9 6 .  o f ranchers  When S a m u e l M o o r e  Andrew N o b l e ' s Kamloops meat b u s i n e s s  i n 18 94  were  acquired f o r h i s son, 141  it  represented  more  than  John Moore h a d been born  a mere  business transaction.  and r a i s e d  Now, w i t h h i s f a t h e r r e a d y  i n the Nicola  to retire,  valley.  he was a s s u m i n g t h e  -  responsibilities a  retail  f o r the  first  the  early colonial  their they  settlers,  children, retired  Throughout the  some o f  whom h a d  selling  out  ranched  or  Kamloops, V i c t o r i a  as  well  Interior  as  Plateau,  there  p e r i o d , were t r a n s f e r r i n g  simply  to  -  family's N i c o l a ranch  meat b u s i n e s s .  the  177  since  ownership  hiring  to  managers  before  o r more d i s t a n t d e s t i n 142  ations  such as  of  e a r l y ranchers  the  eastern  Canada or Great were a l r e a d y  Britain.  dead.  Some  Thomas  Greenhow,  143 p r o m i n e n t Okanagan r a n c h e r , Cornwall's  death  i n 1892  had  after  died a  i n 188 9.  lengthy  Henry  illness  was  cause  144 for  the  l a r g e s t f u n e r a l i n Kamloops'  The  following year,  two  other  short  history.  prominent pioneer  ranchers, 145  M o s e s Lumby a n d Other pioneer  W i l l i a m Pinchbeck,  stockmen experienced  E d w a r d J a m e s was  admitted  to  the  T h a d d e u s H a r p e r , owner a t one and  also passed less  New  time  away.  fortunate  Westminster  of  the  endings. asylum  province's  most s u c c e s s f u l , r a n c h i n g e n t e r p r i s e , d i e d  while  largest  relative 146 p o v e r t y and o b s c u r i t y i n V i c t o r i a i n December, 1898. O n l y a few o l d f r i e n d s and r a n c h e r s , most n o t a b l y Premier 147 Semlin,  attended The  devoted  their  his small funeral.  first  raising  taken  advantage of  lease  system to  some o f  the  generation  careers  stock  in  in  to the  potential.  By  relatively  establish Interior  of  Interior  ranchers  development of 188 5, cheap  the these  land  a  successful ranching  Plateau's  region's  many o f  and  best  had  men  had  generous operations  agricultural  areas.  - 178 With the completion prospects and  of the Canadian P a c i f i c  f o rthe future  that  of their  personal  18 9 6 ,  to  control large  i t was e v i d e n t  ranching  that  although  population  had f a i l e d  respects.  i t s potential  First  of a l l ,  their  sustain a regionally representative  Association  seriously detracted  potentially  influential  Furthermore,  i t damaged t h e i r  important  local  issues  marketing  of cattle  o f range  agricultural  sentatives  introduced  existing  legislation  period.  ranchers  over  sheep.  Instead  keep  i n pace w i t h  status  quo.  and Ottawa.  storage  This  on  plants, the  issue, the  over-  depended  political  upon  repre-  was a m i s t a k e .  o f Lands and Works,  legislation In fact,  to placate  While  governing  they  the  legislative  companies and  In the process,  i n conflict  initiative  t e c h n o l o g i c a l change, t h e Yale i n f l u e n c e toward  ranching  h i d behind the  the ranching  of providing  both  neither  when t h e two i n t e r e s t s w e r e  members d i r e c t e d t h e i r the  p o s i t i o n as a  Forbes Vernon and George M a r t i n  innovative  i n this  Raiser's  the ranchers  problems.  inability  t o cooperate  neglected  Instead,  portfolio  industry  independent  capability  s o c i e t i e s and t h e i r  government supporters  man  i n Victoria  and a badly  to resolve  the important  Stock  from t h e i r  such as c o l d  land.  Plateau, the  realize  to  lobby  continued  to  some i m p o r t a n t  held  enterprises  the ranchers  segments o f t h e I n t e r i o r  in  local  the  o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l i v e s t o c k i n d u s t r y were e x c e l l e n t .  By  grazing  Railway,  and  Lillooet  the preservation  the complexities  to  of  surrounding  -  the  need  system and of  f o r a comprehensive  i n the  the the  Dry  cattle  to  satisfy  established ranchers  struggled to preserve  ranching  companies  a major  force i n the  ranching  three  their  considerably altered  formation  ranching  ranching  frontier.  upon a c o n s o l i d a t e d p o o l Douglas Lake C a t t l e from the Beak, with  ranching  their  Bank of  ranching  of  the  early  languished, demands  of  and  their  s t a t u s quo,  and  of  J.B.  Columbia.  were c o m p a r a t i v e l y  losses of  The  light.  the  of  larger the  the  could  benefited  Charles position  scale  ranching  of companies.  losses i n the ranching  They c o u l d a f f o r d  draw  The  only  Greaves and  s u f f e r e d heavy  1890's, the  significance,  expertise.  f r o m W i l l i a m Ward's i n f l u e n t i a l  ranchers  Though  complexion  corporations they  capital  the  e s t a b l i s h e d them-  Company, f o r i n s t a n c e , n o t  British  political  community.  the  operation also favoured  When i n d i v i d u a l  irrigation  companies of major  As  experience  i t profited the  or  even the  the  successfully  t h e r e were o n l y  Interior  policy  market.  the  representatives  as  l a n d use  industry failed  While  emerging  -  B e l t went u n r e s o l v e d , d a i r y i n g  provincial  selves  179  winters  companies  the  men  necessary  148 to  stall-feed  possessed thereby  the  or  capital  overcoming  limitations. t o be  cattle  broken  to build  their  fences. own  of  the  Interior's  In essence,  the  ranching  virtually  one  repair  irrigation most  serious  companies c o u l d  self-contained units within The  ranching  community.  major  tained  over  independent rancher,  also  ditches,  independent  larger  the  They  advantage  they  h o w e v e r , was  afford the  main-  illustrated  - 180 -  in  the market  paratively ship  of  As t h e s e  coastal  view,  cattle  they  of forming  to sell  their  their  sympathetic  interests  evidence  own c o o p e r a t i v e m a r k e t ,  for a  toward  a thing  European  r a n c h e r s was  of the past.  and B r i t i s h  settlers  Interior  moved  into  experienced  f o r a l l intents  settlers  would  find  a ready  provincial  spring  and f a l l  market level.  and  decade, the i n f l u x  agricultural  Plateau of British  base  Columbia. of the  product  Ranchers would  on b o t h  continue  roundups and t h e search  upon As  Interior, ensured.  and r a n c h i n g companies would for their  first  encourage the  t h e more remote a r e a s  stock raisers  was  expressed  by t h e  h o w e v e r , t h e f u t u r e o f t h e r a n c h i n g i n d u s t r y was Interior  there  c a p t i v e markets  In the next  d e v e l o p m e n t o f a more d i v e r s i f i e d Southern  to the larger  a s t h e 18 9 0 ' s p r o g r e s s e d .  1896 t h e e r a o f o p e n r a n g e ,  Interior  were  t h e r a n c h i n g companies  minimum government i n t e r f e r e n c e  purposes  prices  seemingly  o f o p e r a t i n g as m u t u a l l y  the smaller scale ranchers  established  and  point  t o compete  s h a r i n g common o b j e c t i v e s ,  o f resentment  By  to  ties  a business  stock at dictated  Hence, i n s t e a d  the  important  The r a n c h e r s , u n a b l e  interests.  of  on a r e g u l a r  t h e market p l a c e w i t h t h e r a n c h i n g companies, and  forced  and  strictly  to  c o u l d depend upon t h e companies  supply o f beef.  incapable  by  established  from  com-  could afford  t o a v a i l a b l e markets  d e a l e r s , who  found  companies r a n a  number o f s t o c k , t h e y  I n the process, they  regular on  large  or drive  basis. with  situation.  a  continue local  the traditional  f o r the ultimate  -  breeding unless  bull.  particular  British  i t should  the second generation  demonstrate  regain  But,  181  of  a more c o o p e r a t i v e limitations,  have been apparent Interior approach  the livestock  the i n f l u e n t i a l position Columbia  -  economy.  ranchers to the  that began  region's  i n d u s t r y would  t h a t i t once  to  held  never  i n the  - 182 CHAPTER  V  THE B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A R A N C H I N G F R O N T I E R : THE S I D E OF THE S E T T L E M E N T  This tier  has concentrated  acter it  analysis of the British  ranching  outlook  of the Interior  evolved  i n this  country  Before  the social  fron-  char-  we  conclude,  framework and  The s o c i e t y w h i c h  1858 d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o h a v e  resemble  the Alberta ranching  t h a t took  and p o l i t i c a l  community.  characteristic  nor d i d i t wholly  dominated society  ranching  region after  i n t h e mold  Columbia ranching  population.  i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o examine b r i e f l y  terned  PROCESS  upon t h e economic  of the Interior  SOCIAL  of the American the "cattle  frontier  after  pat-  cattle  compact" 1880."'"  which  The  s h a p e w a s n e i t h e r " r a w , r u d e a n d demo-  2 cratic,"  as Okanagan h i s t o r i a n  R. D. K e r r w o u l d  believe,  n o r was i t c o n t r o l l e d  ranchers  who, e v e n u n d e r t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f f r o n t i e r  maintained Class its of  t h e customs and standards  and Country-Gentry  comparatively i t s early  British  early  settlers,  Columbia  o f Western Canada. the social  observations to  suggest  background." settlement  of their 3  after  of influences peculiar  areas  backgrounds  i nthe a c u r i o u s and  to that  However, as t h e h i s t o r i c a l  made i n t h i s  Middle  because o f  and the d i v e r s e  1858 r e p r e s e n t s  and life,  Upper  In fact,  development o f t h e I n t e r i o r  potential  officials  the s o c i e t y which evolved  Interior  somewhat u n i q u e b l e n d  to  by " B r i t i s h  l e a d us t o  region  sources  related  are limited, the  d i s c u s s i o n are designed  primarily  f o r more i n t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  -  Hopefully,  future  interpretation  183  research w i l l  of the pioneer  -  result  ranching  i n a more  comprehensive  community  as a  social  entity. One community, virtue  there  middle  class  group W.  Britons,  importance, periences,  social  as t h e y were l i t e r a t e has  ambition, men  s e p a r a t e compact  larger  i t would or e l i t e .  group o f B r i t i s h  on Vancouver  upon t h e t o n e and theless,  ranching  exerted  direction  side  can acquire  the  Vernons, of  upon  They a r e  of a  an  them  as  significantly  who,  Columbia  from  their  influence society.  privileged  None-  group,  and  environment,  the  a broader understanding of the  of the settlement process i n the B r i t i s h  pro-  the  to portray  new  ex-  historical  a considerable  through the examination of t h i s  This  o r p e r h a p s o f more  officials  of B r i t i s h  who  t h e y w e r e men  frontier.  t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e y a d a p t e d t o t h e i r historian  Ireland, government  influence  They a r e p a r t and  Upper  recorded their  be m i s l e a d i n g  settlers  Island,  and  within  period.  assumed an e l e v a t e d  of the I n t e r i o r  group but  As  and  educated  such as the C o r n w a l l s ,  which perhaps exaggerates t h e i r  important  base  important figures  the c o l o n i a l  by  marriage  ranches or accept  and p o l i t i c a l  group  ranching  group which  connection,  and John C a r m i c h a e l Haynes.  this  development  a  social  from E n g l a n d and  during  b y men  the I n t e r i o r  were the young,  primarily  to establish  i s personified  considerable  file  These  i n the I n t e r i o r  J . Roper,  social  themselves as  community.  were encouraged positions  a distinct  education,  established  ranching  that within  existed  of birth,  capital, the  cannot deny  social  Columbia  Interior.  As  we  v i d u a l s who period  d i d so  ranch  by  population  amenities  the  winter  fact,  writing  Cornwall  less an  American  the  was  t i m e was  passed  the  While  or  of  their who  like their  the  there  own  their  suggest  that  their  inbred  of the  Christmas  "Oregon J a c k " 5  or  playing  neighbours.  On  the  cattle  drovers A.  to  J.  the  "gentlemen of g  a  other were  Splawn, Interior  as  "exiled  leisure,  with  purses."  appears  to  have been a  between ranchers  socio-economic  In  class,  English ranchers  V e r n o n s as  off  doing 4  company  E n g l i s h neighbours.  than t h e i r  interaction  their  made s e v e r a l t r i p s  the  to  set aside  above s h a r i n g  cut  livestock.  p r e f e r r e d the men  from  During  reading,  i s evidence  Cornwalls  they  region  effectively  c a r r y i n g f o r the there  ranching  district.  Interior  contemporary American  and  longer  wide range of in  the  1860's, d e s c r i b e d  Although social  of  poker with  rancher  thoroughbreds"  of  isolation  officials  c h a r i t a b l e to  pedigrees  by  characters  the  period  initial the  and  colonial  this of  the  indi-  market  existence  the  like  the  social  were not  local  game o f  the  In  early years,  brothers  some o f  during  discoveries.  those  agricultural  more p o p u l o u s c o a s t a l ,  ranchers  of  ranches during the  the  letters,  colonial  with  friendly hand,  the  pretensions.  important  large majority  to  controlled of  -  response  mining  outside world,  "gentleman"  dinner  direct  months, when t h e  i n these  social  a  the  was  the  chores,  as  development,  from the  the  chose to e s t a b l i s h  stimulated of  have seen,  184  on  a  certain  local  degree  basis,  and  cultural  backgrounds  B r i t i s h Columbia ranching  frontier  meant t h a t  the  inherent they  -  often  adapted  ways.  The r a n c h e r s  clear  indication  frontier the In  to their  with  Interior fact,  185 -  new e n v i r o n m e n t  attitude  1  of this  toward  diversified  o n l y a few s m a l l  i ntotally  women a n d m a r r i a g e response.  was n o t an a t t r a c t i v e  noted  i n his diary  f e m a l e s b e t w e e n 150 M i l e ranchers  that  environment  The Y a l e d i s t r i c t  18 71 o n w a r d ,  isolated  f o r w h i t e women. C. A .  t h e r e were o n l y s i x w h i t e and no w h i t e 7  House a n d Soda Creek.  accepted the l o g i c a l  alternative  marriage  and took  register,  contains the record  Hence,  which  survives  o f a number o f m a r r i a g e s  r a n c h e r s a n d I n d i a n women i n t h e e a r l y  of  More o f t e n  ignored  themarital  common-law w i t h  T h i s convenient arrangement  mented upon by P r e s b y t e r i a n m i n i s t e r ,  George Grant,  s t u d y Ocean t o Ocean...., b u t he was c a r e f u l that  "as might  years  than not, however, t h e r a n c h e r s  vows a n d s i m p l y l i v e d  "squaws" o r " k l o o t c h m a n . "  some  Indian  between I n t e r i o r settlement.  i sone  concentrations of settlement,  women a l o n g t h e C a r i b o o R o a d a b o v e L i l l o o e t  from  As an  i n a n 1870 j o u r n e y from Y a l e t o B a r k e r v i l l e ,  Sargison  wives.  different  be e x p e c t e d , "  their  was com-  i n his  to point out  the ranchers "did not bring  them  9 to  church."  populace  O n l y when t h e r e g i o n  attracted  i n t h e mid-1870's d i dt h e r a n c h e r s ,  t h o s e o f more m o d e s t means a n d u s u a l l y background, during  b e g i n t o marry  the annual  trip  Conspicuous register, British  with  white g i r l s  by t h e i r  absence  single  from  settled  particularly  o f American  t o New W e s t m i n s t e r  were those young  Columbia  local  a more  or  European  o r women t h e y m e t  or Victoria. ^ 1  the Yale  marriage  B r i t o n s who a r r i v e d i n  enough c a p i t a l  to establish  ranches  immediately.  I f t h e s e men w e r e t o m a i n t a i n  dance w i t h t h e i r tage,  upper middle,  they were c e r t a i n l y  Indian maidens. sible,  own  class.  8,  18 7 1 ,  Hence,  Anglican  church,  to  local  behind,  within  to find  pos-  their  t h a t on June  Green, London,  i n S t . John's  She h a d been s t a y i n g Pearse,  i n Victoria  the wife of the colonial  C l e m e n t C o r n w a l l , however, was n o t t h e  rancher  t o i n t r o d u c e an educated  i n the Interior.  kameen r a n c h e r , daughter  o f Kensal  M r s . B. W.  General.  British  life  left  as n e a r l y as possible,  Victoria.''""''  her sister,  first  heri-  Clement Cornwall married C h a r l o t t e Pemberton, t h e of the rector  Surveyor  i n accor-  as n e a r l y as  had so r e c e n t l y  i t i snot surprising  daughter  with  i n marrying  t o reproduce,  they  should marry,  standards  and upper c l a s s V i c t o r i a n  not interested  Their desire  the culture which  meant t h e y  186 -  I n 1868 a t V i c t o r i a ,  John F a l l  o f a wealthy  Allison,  Ceylon  married  plantation  English  woman  pioneer  Simil-  Susan M o i r , t h e  owner and an accom-  12 plished  poet  side-saddle  i n h e r own r i g h t . over  t h e Hope t r a i l  present day P r i n c e t o n . was a  Mina E l l i s ,  return  trip  That  to the Allison  One o f S u s a n A l l i s o n ' s  whom P e n t i c t o n r a n c h e r  to Ireland  t h e s e women p e r i o d i c a l l y  same y e a r  i n 1872. visited  o f a London s o l i c i t o r and f i r s t . . 13 g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l , J . C. H a y n e s . Although  t h e more a f f l u e n t  ranchers  K i n g d o m a p p e a r t o h a v e made a p r a c t i s e their  class,  their  wide d i s p e r s a l  near  closest  friends  married  early  upon  years,  C h a r l o t t e Haynes a t Osoyoos;  the daughter and  ranch  Tom E l l i s  I n those  she rode  wife of cattleman  from  of marrying  throughout  the United within  the Interior  - 187 -  plateau social at  and t h e d a i l y interaction.  demands o f r a n c h Despite  limited  their  t h e c o m f o r t a b l e new r a n c h  A s h c r o f t and t h e comparative  Chinese  life  house  l u x u r y o f a servant and  c o o k , C h a r l o t t e C o r n w a l l was l o n e l y  during her early  14 years  i n the Interior.  Her o n l y c l o s e f r i e n d s  were t h e F o s t e r s a t C l i n t o n the P a v i l i o n of  area  the Cornwalls  Charles', Factor. ranch  toward  i n the colonial  The o t h e r g r e a t  i n  friends  p e r i o d were t h e W i l l i a m  who r e s i d e d a t K a m l o o p s w h i l e h e w a s t h e C h i e f In fact,  Victoria.  the isolation  The Haynes  every w i n t e r a t Ince  after  and t h e M a r t l e y ' s and Carsons  Lillooet.  l e d some r a n c h e r s  Crease  i n the area  o f e x i s t e n c e upon a  pioneer  t o a c q u i r e h o m e s i n New W e s t m i n s t e r  family, Cottage,  a t New W e s t m i n s t e r . they were m a r r i e d ,  f o r i n s t a n c e , spent t h e former  part of  r e s i d e n c e o f Judge  The V e r n o n b r o t h e r s ,  1 5  spent  or  particularly  a good d e a l o f e v e r y  year i n  Victoria. The  large  majority of the early  however, c o u l d n o t a f f o r d alone In  lean years  ment, i t was d i f f i c u l t operation. settlers social hunting racing. Creek,  t o m a i n t a i n two r e s i d e n c e s ,  the luxury o f governesses,  the financially  after  to f i l l  and f i s h i n g ,  leisure  excite-  ranching  hours, the  own i n i t i a t i v e  t h e most p o p u l a r pastime  ranchers,  mining  cooks.  to organize  the region's great potential f o r  Throughout the I n t e r i o r local  the initial  their  were dependent upon t h e i r Besides  l e t  s e r v a n t s , and Chinese  enough t o m a i n t a i n a v i a b l e  Consequently,  activities.  ranching population,  farmers,  P l a t e a u from  was  horse  Keremeos t o Soda  and I n d i a n s would  gather  - 188  -  together at l e a s t annually f o r a s e r i e s of improvised I n 1865  races.  the Cornwalls b u i l t a race t r a c k near t h e i r road  house  17 and  introduced horse  r a c i n g to the A s h c r o f t  These p a r t i c u l a r a n n u a l and  new  cultures.  stewards  and  i z i n g and  district.  r a c e s were a c u r i o u s m i x t u r e  While  the Cornwalls rushed  of the o l d  about a p p o i n t i n g  p u t t i n g up h u r d l e s , t h e l o c a l s w e r e b u s y  organ-  t a k i n g b e t s upon t h e K l o o t c h r a c e s ; a p o p u l a r  event  w h i c h i n v o l v e d I n d i a n women r a c i n g a b o u t t h e c o u r s e w i t h i n g degrees of s o b r i e t y . hundred people  A f t e r the f i r s t  and  races a t t r a c t e d  as w e l l as t h e e n t i r e l o c a l  A s h c r o f t r a c e s became an a n n u a l  s e r v e d a s an  I n d i a n band, 18  autumn e v e n t .  p a r t i c u l a r l y the p r e s t i g e surrounding  fast horse,  important  societies,  r o u n d u p s and A g r i c u l t u r a l  the o r g a n i z a the  o c c a s i o n when t h e r a n c h i n g p o p u l a t i o n was who  possessed  a  social equalizer within  t i o n of annual  A man  the  the breeding of  Before  together.  one  Horse r a c i n g ,  the B r i t i s h Columbia r a n c h i n g f r o n t i e r .  w e r e t h e one  vary-  a thorough  races brought  knowledge o f  horses  r e t a i n e d the respect of h i s ranching c o n f r e r e s , r e g a r d l e s s o f h i s socio-economic  status.  a b o u t h i s f a t h e r , was f a t h e r had  A l e x B u l m a n , when r e m i n i s c i n g  c a r e f u l to p o i n t out t h a t although  a "great fondness f o r the c a t t l e business but w i t h 19  o u t a d o u b t , he While  l i k e d horses  much b e t t e r . "  every c l a s s of rancher enjoyed  the horse  i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s , t h e y d i d n o t compete w i t h c o y o t e a s a f o r m o f r e c r e a t i o n f o r t h e C o r n w a l l s and associates.  his  As  e a r l y a s 1868,  their  races  hunting ranching  t h r e e h u n t i n g hounds a r r i v e d 20  A s h c r o f t , c o m p l i m e n t s o f t h e Duke o f B e a u f o r t .  For  the  at  next  twenty  pied  the  years,  the  189  -  innovative sport of coyote  hunting  occu2  Cornwalls  every  1  spare  moment.  As  Cornwall  recorded:  . . . h o w e v e r a t t r a c t i v e o t h e r p u r s u i t s a n d s p o r t s may be i n t h e i r w a y . . . h u n t i n g m u s t be p l a c e d f i r s t and t h e r e s t NOWHERE i More e s p e c i a l l y has t h i s been t h e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s w i t h u s i n B.C. a c o u n t r y i n i t s p a u c i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n so t o speak u t t e r l y d e v o i d o f t h e r a t i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n and amusement i n d u l g e d i n e l s e where by the upper c l a s s e s o f s o c i e t y . Under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s i t i s easy t o c o n c e i v e what the hounds were t o us i n t h e w i n t e r . They were the o b j e c t of l i f e — t h e y were l i f e itself! Although sport the  Clement Cornwall  utterly  admitted  unknown t o t h e  neighbourhood,"  they  " h u n t i n g was,  great m a j o r i t y of  rarely  had  any  as  the  a rule, people  difficulty  a  of  forming  a  22 hunting party. Campbell s p e n t party The  Cornwall  journal  "old friend"  Cut-Off  Duck  a hunting  from  valley,  Francis Cecil  o f B r i t o n s and  and  Eastern  r e c o r d s , f o r example,  W.  J . Roper of  A.  G.  Cherry  Pemberton of  Grande P r a i r i e ,  G e o r g e M a r t i n , "a  Lord  h o l i d a y a t t h e manor, b u t  included a mixture  their of  I n 18 6 8 ,  gallant  Charles  gentleman,  George  their  usual  Canadians. involvement  Creek,  South  Semlin  the  Lord  George  Kelly  Thompson,  Jacob  o f Cache Creek,  f o r m e r l y o f Her  of  and  Majesty's  23 Navy."  From time  to time,  the  Cornwalls  h o u n d s t o K a m l o o p s w h e r e W.  Charles  Hudson's Bay  as  ally the  they "gay,  Ellison,  Company s e r v e d  ventured sprightly and  Phillip  November, 1886, at  as  the N i c o l a  f a r as  and  Valley  ranch  The  account of  fellow  of  a Cornwall Englishman,  the  occasionchased  w i t h the Vernons,  Inland Sentinel of  their  Captain Layton  hunting p a r t n e r s , or  plucky" coyote  an  take  the Okanagan where they  Houghton.  carried  and  would  Price  in  trip  to  William  hunt  -  24  Pooley.  By  this  time  five  190  -  ladies  were a l l o w e d  to  join  the  25 men  on  the  made b y were  hunt.  the  That t r i p ,  Cornwalls.  Much as  f o r c e d t o abandon the  o f mange h a d result  of  decimated  the  h o w e v e r , was  the  inclination  of  the  i t g r i e v e d them, t h e  hunt,  partly  coyote of  one  new  b e c a u s e an  p o p u l a t i o n , but settlers  last  Cornwalls outbreak  a l s o as  to put  out  a  poison  26 which endangered In  fact,  1 8 8 0 's w a s  one  undergoing  an  period  the  and  content  hounds.  the  abandonment o f  indication important first  without  society.  the  the  the  of  amenities  Organized  Interior  transition.  years  of  flected  of  we  meant t h e to  ability  have seen,  their  people  for certain  adaptation of way  of  thinking,  effort  to  that this  to  improvise  ranchers  of  and  There  ranchers and  a more s t a b l e p h a s e o f  Indeed, as  l e a d e r s h i p came f r o m a b r o a d The  ample o f  this  pressure  was  exerted  As  on  upon t h e  church  re-  basis.  pursuits  the  evidence made a  the  had  this  which,  institutions to  suggest,  concerted hetero-  Interior  development  provincial  services  a local  education  many r a n c h e r s  seemed  sedentary  cross-section of  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of trend.  settlers  mores upon t h e  frontier  lation.  colonial  British heritage,  is little  population.  1880,  the  leisure  geneous r a n c h i n g entered  the  midwas  were pursued  properly emulated  attitudes  frontier  Throughout  activities  s m a l l group of  impose t h e i r  i n the  a more s t a b l e and  standards  of m i d - V i c t o r i a n England. however,  ranching  s c h o o l s were n o n - e x i s t e n t , what s o c i a l  As  hunting  Confederation,  were i n f r e q u e n t and the  coyote  ranching after  the  popu-  i s a good  young  ex-  families,  government to  fund  the  establishment  sponsored  a Bill  191  of schools. through  -  I n 18 7 4 , r a n c h e r  the legislature  Charles  Semlin  and a b o a r d i n g  school  27 was  built  school,  a t Cache Creek.  under the guidance  students tlers  from throughout  were  as w e l l  served  with  hired  Moore,  ranchers  By  Creek  boarded  forty  1880, I n t e r i o r  Lillooet,  and  set-  Kamloops 28  valleys.  had a t t a i n e d a t l e a s t and self-improvement  The more a f f l u e n t  ranchers,  a  was men  an like  governesses  to provide their children 29 education. Once t h i s s t a g e was 30  the boys attended  the youngest  ranchers,  at Clinton,  education  the b a s i c elementary  completed,  t h e Cache  i n t h e N i c o l a and Okanagan  consideration.  and E l l i s ,  a year,  the Interior.  Interior  grade school education, important  of local  by s c h o o l s  as i n s t i t u t i o n s As most  Haynes  Within  school  in Victoria.  son of N i c o l a rancher,  William  Samuel Moore,  was 31  educated  by p r i v a t e t u t o r  Okanagan  rancher,  Victoria  College  thesis  true  Ellison,  i n Montreal  on O r i e n t a l  families attend  Price  before  University.  sent  to  where 32  Exclusion.  t o more c e n t r a l  a t t e n d i n g Queen's h i s daughter  she e v e n t u a l l y wrote  Other  ranchers  moved  locations to allow their  s c h o o l on a more r e g u l a r b a s i s .  T h i s was  o f the Kamloops and N i c o l a d i s t r i c t s  maintained  Royal  where  a  their  children  to  particularly several  homes i n K a m l o o p s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e r u r a l  ranchers  ranching  33 operation. The p r o v i s i o n o f h i g h e r was  o n l y one  Lillooet with  indication  and N i c o l a both  r e g u l a r meetings.  education  of the rancher's supported  for their  cultural  avid debating  A t many r a n c h e s  throughout  children  awareness. societies the  Interior,  -  one  could  find  magazines.  the  The  latest  192  -  E n g l i s h and  s t o r e owned by  Canadian newspapers  Thaddeus Harper,  and  for instance, 34  contained An  a private library  English writer,  awareness and ranchers At  the  he  cently  had  politics, ation in  concern  met  ranch  Morley  of  Roberts,  with world  affairs  J o h n H u g h e s , who  Englishman,  a local  I n d i a n , he 35  Interior  chatted As  of published travel  accounts  related  i t i s most u n f o r t u n a t e  and  other  Interior  c a t i o n was  trains  centres  Interior  but  one  aspect  community a f f a i r s . active  as  Justices  of  Peace,  though the  of  Besides  ranchers  the  ranching  ranching  and  England  were w e l l  Plateau.  Thomas E l l i s  c o n s t r u c t i o n of Father  a  little  Green,  affairs  was  admirable,  on  through  broadening  proliferColumbia that  Kamloops  of  duties, there  the  church  this  on  Church.  were  A l to  have  and  the  Interior  to personally finance h i s ranch 37  services.  involvement ranchers  and  supported  Cornelius  followed suit  occasion  in  agents, 36  Roman C a t h o l i c c h u r c h  f a r as  edu-  involvement  the whole appears  to hold  Although  a  about  historian  trustees, Indian  O ' K e e f e , a d e v o u t Roman C a t h o l i c , Okanagan Lake.  re-  f o r hours  e s t a b l i s h e d upon t h e  went as  only  night.  ranching  p o p u l a t i o n on  Church of  clergyman,  their  the  1884-85.  community's commitment t o  supporters  been m u l t i - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l ,  the  some  to British  f o r the  dead of  their  schoolboard  in  t h e r e was  g e n e r a l l y passed i n the  by  e x h i b i t e d by  fellow  Canadian P a c i f i c  of  most impressed  atheism.  The  newspapers.  the  married  1880's,  and  during h i s tour of  the  a  was  a g n o s t i c i s m and  the  the  with periodicals  at  the  head  i n community accepted  positions  - 193 t h e y had  n e i t h e r the t r a i n i n g nor  in  a c o m p e t e n t manner.  A.  E. Howse and  For  the  i n c l i n a t i o n to carry  i n s t a n c e , i n 1884,  John C l a p p e r t o n  a g e n t s a f t e r Howse was  -  Nicola  r e s i g n e d as the  a c c u s e d by  out  ranchers  local  Indian  a V i c t o r i a newspaper  of  38 k i c k i n g an  I n d i a n t o d e a t h upon t h e N i c o l a r e s e r v e .  t h e y were c l e a r e d o f t h e c h a r g e s , local  as r a n c h e r s  i n t e r e s t , t h e g o v e r n m e n t was  l o c a l s e t t l e r s could deal w i t h the manner.  The  f e d e r a l and  aware o f t h e g e n e r a l  Although  with a  vested  unwise t o t h i n k t h a t Indians  the  i n an i m p a r t i a l  p r o v i n c i a l governments were  c l i m a t e of o p i n i o n regarding  fully  the  Interior  39 Indians. Despite  t h e odd  suggest v i o l e n t crimes  i n c i d e n t , there i s l i t t l e  w e r e a common o c c u r r e n c e  B r i t i s h Columbia ranching I n t e r i o r ranching  frontier.  As  settlement stage  of settlement.  law.  gained  first-  Furthermore, i n the  B r i t i s h Columbia d i d not  West M o u n t e d p o l i c e , as was  tion,  attracted  w i t h the u n r e s t r a i n e d A m e r i c a n West, where  of settlement,  magistrates,  lawless-  t h a t a t t h e o u t s e t , t h e r e g i o n had  o f t e n preceded the  l a w and  the  This i s s u r p r i s i n g  enjoy  sence of a t r a i n e d , f u l l - t i m e p o l i c e f o r c e l i k e  stead,  the  fact,  a p e r i o d of  a h i g h l y t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n , many o f whom h a d hand e x p e r i e n c e  to  community's development i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e  ness i n the e a r l y stage considers  within  a matter of  t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n West d i d n o t e x p e r i e n c e  when one  evidence  o r d e r was  the  the  initial pre-  North  the case i n the p r a i r i e west.  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of l o c a l  many o f whom w e r e r a n c h e r s .  the o n l y v i o l e n t crimes  directly  Despite  appointed  this  i n v o l v i n g the  In-  situa-  ranching  - 194 -  populace  c a m e i n 18 80 w h e n t h e h a l f - b r e e d  H u d s o n ' s B a y Company o f f i c i a l Alex  Hare,  son o f Rancher,  victed  f o r t h e murders  Kelly,  and John  of  former  and r a n c h e r , Donald  Nicolas  of Nicola  Ussher,  sons  Hare,  district  government agent  McLean, and  were t r i e d  and con-  shepherd,  James  and c h i e f c o n s t a b l e  40 at  Kamloops.  Outside this  c r i m e was l i m i t e d  unfortunate occurrence,  to rustling  and t h e o c c a s i o n a l  local  dispute  over  41 stock. of  stock rustling.  tised in  Observers of t h i s  h i s memoirs t h a t  cases,  disputes  as b e i n g a r a n c h owner, p o i n t e d o u t  over brands  but cattle-stealing support this  disagrees  and has argued  Kamloops d i s t r i c t ,  ding  and a few c a t t l e 42  w a s n o t common."  contemporary that  ranchers considered the herds  their  disposal,  Company was a f a v o u r i t e question Balf's  support t h i s maintain tling  actually  research.  Columbia  Cattle  Balf  endemic i n 43  i n t h e 18 8 0 ' s .  of the larger  In this  Accor-  case  the  concerns a t  Lake  Cattle  one must  The a v a i l a b l e  seri-  s o u r c e s do n o t  and t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e r a n c h e r s t o  stock associations  suggests that  the rus-  On t h e f e w o c c a s i o n s w h e n  d i d occur, the local  t o blame o u t s i d e r s  Mary  was a l w a y s  t h e Douglas  p r o b l e m was n o t t o o s e r i o u s .  rustling ferred  effective  that  target.  supposition  stealing  w h i c h p r o v i d e s no e x a m p l e s ,  small  and a s s e r t e d  disputes,  Although the  assessment,  rustling  particularly  to her interpretation,  ously  prac-  "most o f h i s c a s e s w e r e i r r i g a t i o n  newspapers  the  d i s a g r e e as t o t h e e x t e n t  W i l l i a m W a r d S p i n k s , a l a w y e r who  a t Kamloops as w e l l  mine-jumping,  period  r a n c h i n g community  f o r such misdeeds.  Company h a d 200 s h e e p  stolen  pre-  When t h e B r i t i s h i n 1892, t h e  -  195  -  manager R i c h a r d Cawston i m m e d i a t e l y  accused  "Monatchey  Bill,  44 a  cowboy  from It  member o f Ontario,  across the  line."  i s interesting  the  Interior  would  R i c h a r d Cawston, a  r a n c h i n g community born  immediately  crime  a g a i n s t p r o p e r t y was  case,  i t gives credence  the  that  and  s u s p e c t an A m e r i c a n committed.  to the popular  " c u s s i n g c o w p u n c h e r " who  drifted  prominent educated  cowboy when  in a  Although  an  frontier  stereotype of  aimlessly  isolated  from  cowtown  to  45 cowtown a f t e r  the C i v i l  the d e s c r i p t i o n the  or  International  ranchers  boundary  lished The  Interior  of  and  that  for instance,  Van  and  conform  and  i t does about  Cawston's of  the  who  across  the American  had  estab-  Interior Plateau.  a g e n e r a l a n t i p a t h y between  American  simply d i d not he  to  cowboy, d r i f t e d  the a t t i t u d e  upon t h e  occasions i n his diary, the Harpers  who  Volkenburghs  t h e r e was  ranchers of B r i t i s h  Cornwall, several  ranchers than  permanently  suggest  men  i n s e a r c h o f employment.  us more a b o u t  the Harpers  themselves  sources  trust  Interior  like  Granted,  image o f the American  comment, h o w e v e r , t e l l s established  War.  like  openly  while enroute  origin.  Clement  Americans.  expressed  to Ottawa  On  his  i n 18 72  dishe 46  expostulated h i s f e e l i n g s concerning the American people: I t was p l e a s a n t on g e t t i n g i n t o C a n a d a a n d f i n d i n g a much b e t t e r l o o k i n g and p l e a s a n t e r s o r t o f p e o p l e . . . I n C a n a d a t h e men a r e r o b u s t , h e a l t h y l o o k i n g f e l l o w s and a g r e a t c o n t r a s t t o t h e w e a k l y , u n d e r s i d e d p e o p l e i n the neighbouring states. Once a g a i n , t h i s evidence about  i s o n l y an  of a prevailing  the American  isolated  attitude.  element  active  example and We  really  i n the  not c o n c l u s i v e  know v e r y  Interior  and  little  even  -  less of  about the  the  the  ranching  Southern  that  c o w b o y s who  196  performed  operation.  David  Alberta ranching  contrary to popular  numerous i n the  -  H.  the  fundamental  Breen,  duties  i n h i s study  of  community, argues c o n v i n c i n g l y  belief,  American  C a n a d i a n West, and  their  ranch  owners were  social  influence  not  was  47 correspondingly small. true  f o r the  British  While frontiers social ture  Columbia  n e i t h e r the  experienced  level,  This  assessment a l s o appears ranching  British  Columbia or A l b e r t a  a dominant American presence  relationships  hold  frontier.  w i t h i n the A l b e r t a ranching  of personal  to  on  community  retained a  somewhat  ranching the  the  struc-  stratified 4:  character The  and  one's p l a c e  employee c l a s s  was  ranch  owners as w e l l  tinct  division  Columbia ranch  of  from the i s not  population.  continued  ranches  and  did  attempt  not  cattlemen Instead,  ride  herd to  they  particular  the  the  o l d and  range.  o c c u p a t i o n a l group.  conscious. ranching  a p p e a r on This  may  frontier  w i t h i n the  success labour  British  In  of  and  not  fact,  as  in  experience  the  Calgary. societies to  Interior  the  ranchers  the A l b e r t a  restricted  e x p l a i n i n p a r t why  ranch  their  of pioneer  the  dis-  Interior  Columbia  the whole t o have been  d i d not  This British  about  apart  the  the  Ranchmens' C l u b  formation  settlers  from  population.  socially  formed the  new  or  manual  set themselves  defined.  large majority of  size  c o n t r i b u t e d to the  community does not  Columbia  on  farming  The  well  socially  apparent  to perform  d i d when t h e y  open t o both  class  as  owners, r e g a r d l e s s of  operation,  comparatively  usually separated  groups  ranching  remained  any  ranching  terribly British  tension  between the apparent United the in  established ranchers  i n neighbouring  States  Interior  i n the  p a r t to the  fact  The of  ensuing their  their  ability The  to  be  the  that  one  society.  further the  the  study  of  the  a ranching  pact  similar  the  the  maintained  much  as  process  has  proven  to evaluate  in  the  a  with  availability  of  interpretation entity  British  ranching  local  can  of  of  the  emerge,  Columbia s o c i e t y  out.  Certainly,  histories  researcher frontier,  first he  d o m i n a t e d by  i s a  the  step  approached  expected  to  a ranching  com-  s o p h i s t i c a t e d m e t r o p o l i t a n group a c t i v e 1880.  small group of an  as  carried  When t h i s  Indeed,  subject d i d confirm t h a t the a  measure  intimate familiarity  of  m u s t be  s o c i e t y t h a t was  Alberta after  attracted  the  refinement.  historian  i n more a n a l y t i c a l  to the  com-  succeed.  community, as  a social  nature  Interior  was  had  s u b s t a n t i a t e one's c o n c e p t i o n  community as  century  of  attributed  i t s ranchers  livestock  a comprehensive  the  tranquillity  a l s o be  settlement  f o r the  Western  a desire to  social  I t r e q u i r e s an  direction.  find  Southern  subject  into  nineteenth  right  the  side of  of  materials to  research  in  l a n d and  i s s t u d y i n g as w e l l  ranching  interest  1890's can  population  the  comparative  s t a t u s w i t h i n the  Before  recent  parts of  more t h a n  of  farming  m a j o r i t y of  lead a l i f e  manner.  source  Interior  in  to  social  district  adequate  little  and  a difficult  meaningful  i n the  accumulation  success  The  that the  menced r a n c h i n g w i t h  the  A l b e r t a and  1890*s.  situation  and  Interior  British  elevated social  and  further research  and  ranching  Canadian  political  into  country  ranchers  profile.  in  But,  who by  ~ 198 -  no means, d i d t h i s  group d i c t a t e the s o c i a l  development o f the r e g i o n . the  isolation  of the region,  and t h e s l o w e c o n o m i c ranching its  community,  social  attitudes part  Columbia.  i t s comparatively  in i t s isolation,  diverse  established  congenially  i n f l u e n c e was  growth o f the p r o v i n c e .  institutions  populace very  Their  b e h a v i o u r and  to t h i s  was  tempered early The  by  settlement  Interior  compelled to adapt  situation.  In the process,  i n background, n a t i o n a l i t y , customs, t h e m s e l v e s s u c c e s s f u l l y and  a and  f o r t h e most  upon t h e S o u t h e r n I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u  of  British  - 199 CONCLUSION The  study  of the B r i t i s h  Columbia  ranching  f r o m 1858 t o 1896 r e i n f o r c e s t h e h i s t o r i a n ' s approach the settlement  o f any r e g i o n  development w i t h c a u t i o n and without Every  sectional  Certainly, Interior a  or regional entity  when one e x a m i n e s  ranching  growing  i n i t s initial preconceived  the origins  of profound  significance,  and  appraisal.  Though n o t a l l h i s t o r i a n s  contribution settlement  of the early  o f the Southern  the f u r trade.  tinct  stage  prairies, suffered pelled, thern  ranching Interior  The c a t t l e  the later  the B r i t i s h  British  t h e .Great  Columbia  with  ranching  industry, there i s  ranching  c a n n o t be d e n i e d .  analysis Columbia  to appreciate the  Plateau after  initial  the decline  era represents  frontier  a  dis-  on t h e Canadian  experience  f r o n t i e r was  ranching  has not  only recently dissimply  expansion  Instead,  a  nor-  as i t swept  the origins  of the  community a r e u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d , w i t h t h e more m o d e s t l y  w h i c h emerged i n t h e P a c i f i c  The A m e r i c a n  although  population to the  assumption,  Plains.  some j u s t i f i c a t i o n , frontier  1858,  of British  failed  Columbia ranching  extension o f the American across  features.  of the coastal province.  ranching  from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  notions.  a more c a r e f u l  ranching  that the Canadian ranching  westward  1846.  most have  i n the settlement  Unlike  and  deceived,  of  and growth o f t h e  community and l i v e s t o c k  warrants  to  stage  has i t s p a r t i c u l a r  not  of  obligation  awareness t h a t i t s development a f t e r  have been t o t a l l y  frontier  scaled  Northwest  i n f l u e n c e i n t h e immediate post  after  1858 p e r i o d  The d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t  -  200  attraction  of cattle  fornia  Washington T e r r i t o r y  and  Interior failed can  livestock  to take  cattle  practises north  of  nucleus  49th  stock raising  upon t h e B r i t i s h  comprehend the expansion population after  ture  techniques  as w e l l  of the  as  or  1865,  indeed, one  and  awakened t o the  climatic  Although  the  percentage an  r e g i o n was  large  the  ranch-  survival  economic,  of  the  settlement  and  social  struc-  limitations in total  of  the  the  early  topographic, Interior  area, only a  Plateau.  restricted  suitable  f o r g r a z i n g purposes  e v e n s m a l l e r amount was  suitable  for agricultural  the  agricultural  involved  i n the  control l a n d was  nascent  of a v a i l a b l e  the  Southern  ing  frontiers  can  be  The  outcome o f  seen  and  accessible  of paramount importance  Interior  settlement of  point,  To  l a n d was  Consequently, and  this  ranching frontier.  tremendous geographic, and  the  small  populace.  variations  of  only a  significant  Once t h e C a r i b o o m a r k e t began t o r e c e d e , settlers  markets the  Beyond  exert a  Ameri-  ranching  leaving  must t u r n t o the  the p o l i t i c a l ,  diverse ranching  and  however,  them.  does not  Columbia  Company  Once t h e m i n i n g  southward,  ranching experience  the  ranchers bought  began t o d e c l i n e ,  retreated  Cali-  foundation of  Interior  of ranching compatriots behind  influence  patterns  the  when t h e Hudson's Bay  Parallel  of Americans  the American  ing  laid  initiative.  adopted  d e a l e r s from Oregon,  common s o u t h o f t h e b o r d e r . the  majority  industry  the  and  d r o v e r s and  -  for  ranching industry.  Interior  Plateau, like  i n terms of  that competition determined  both  pursuits. grazing those The  other  competition for  and  early ranch-  site.  individual  -  fortunes  201  -  and  s e t the c o n t o u r s o f the economic  The  more s e v e r e i m p l i c a t i o n s  were suppressed t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e fact  that  veloped  from  i n a state  small" and  t o 1880  degree,  and  group  Company e m p l o y e e s ,  ing.  the I n t e r i o r ' s  purchase, or squatting  on  accessibility  and  winter  to water  range.  After  administration potential British  and  also  and  the  small  tion  a legislative  but e s s e n t i a l l y  ence.  Isolated  potential either  though  generally  confined and  by  subsidiary  isolation,  by  the  framework  raising  which  market  began t o p r o s p e r on  economic  of  ensured  by  and  encouraged  some  lease regula-  interfer-  the Cascade ranchers  range, from  a modest l e v e l .  A l -  moderately-sized holdings,  oriented  activities  the ranchers adapted  the sources  pastoral  g u a r a n t e e d minimum government  market  and  colonial  Hence, t h e y  a generous  rais-  ready  i n the release  of a l lkinds.  to  pre-emption,  dependence upon A m e r i c a n  c o n c e n t r a t e d on  a local  began  land with  but possessed of a mobile product, I n t e r i o r Osoyoos t o Quesnel  and  for stock  hesitation,  play  from the c o a s t a l  a  shunned  t h e m o s t c o n v e n i e n t summer  ranching population with  system and  de-  Only  settlers  region  the best bottom  i t s heavy  produce  the  isolation.  British  themselves  i t might  site  Interior  recognized the region's stock  colony from  agricultural  Columbia  coastal  some i n i t i a l  the r o l e  for  however, by  social  considerable  They began t o l o c a t e  order.  of. f o r m e r m i n e r s , p a c k e r s ,  a m e n i t i e s o f t h e more s e t t l e d  exploit  social  of competition f o r  the B r i t i s h  o f economic  widely dispersed  Hudson's Bay the  1865  and  toward  self-sufficiency  t o compensate  to their  for  environment  their in a  -  responsive  and  struction  successful  finally  began t o t i g h t e n  i t s policies  cattle tence  r a n c h e r s who on  the a  istrations  d i d not  scale,  of  as and  a  situation  the  Columbia  success  of  the  upper middle  the Harpers as  of  isolated  provincial  encourage group  ranching frontier  more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i t s later  exis-  of  settlement  the  supposition.  who  or  t h e Van o r J . B.  stage of  skills  political  and  Although  Volkenburghs  established  and  they  or  study of the  and  important  ranchers  education,  ranches  in The  certainly  generally by  did  Americans  not like  countrymen  they persevered, viable  the  well-connected  fellow  learned  such the  ranching operations.  t o assume a d m i n i s t r a t i v e office  the  it'sdevelopment.  established  Greaves,  on  American  approaches  s m a l l group of educated Britons  admin-  counterpart i n Alberta.  when one  early  mining  displays  Nevertheless, nationality,  at this  Their willingness pursue  and  ranching expertise personified  John Wilson  necessary  colonial  especially  class  this the  upon t h e  and  nucleus  r e s o u r c e s c o u l d work t o one's advantage  British  possess  grazing  a determined  only serves to complicate the  entity.  financial  supports  by  to thrive  the  Interior  than  frontier,  social  con-  government  Plateau's best  successfully  frontiers  ranching  railway  i t s close association with the  because  demographic d i v e r s i t y  This  time  the p r o v i n c i a l  controlled  appeared  result  partly  ranching  the  frontier.  m a r k e t and  large  By  r e g a r d i n g Crown l a n d , a c o n s i d e r -  Interior  l a n d was  As  a  the  -  manner.  commenced and  able proportion of agricultural  202  positions  coastal  and  connections  was  - 203 -  the  key t o t h e i r  influential role  community.  Outside  o f Canadians  and  Semlin,  almost  Charles  within the Interior John Mara, Frank  a l l of the Interior  ranching  Barnard,  ranching  dis-  tricts'  l e g i s l a t i v e a n d p a r l i a m e n t a r y members w e r e o f B r i t i s h  origin,  principally  tunate  from England  f o rthe ranching  ambitions. expansion interim  of the livestock  lands  that these  of the Interior  men h a d  political  ranching  in  In the process,  nified  completion  the effective  forward,  competition  sion  cattle  frontier.  stage  frontier  came t o  sig-  of devel-  From t h i s  peaceful  level.  Before  time  1885 t h e  They had s u p p o r t e d and had p r o f i t e d reserves.  and s u c c e s s f u l l y  the  They had d r i v e n  their  competed a g a i n s t t h e  Now a s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e n t e r e d  was e x p o s e d  suppres-  from t h e con-  o f economic advancement and m a t u r i t y , t h e  ranching  particularly  however, t h e ranchers  ranching  Indians  American competition. stage  voice,  of the transcontinental railway  reduction of their  t o the coast  i n any way, i t  political representatives.  were t h e a g g r e s s o r s .  of the Interior  siderable  As t h e  f o r s i t e w o u l d assume a more i n t e n s i v e  a t t h e same t i m e ,  ranchers  Railway.  termination of the f i r s t  opment f o r t h e I n t e r i o r  yet  have a p o l i t i c a l  t o o h e a v i l y upon t h e i r The  i n these  climate, the unsettled  p o p u l a t i o n was n o t o r g a n i z e d  that they  rely  political  a n d t h e many u n c e r t a i n t i e s s u r r o u n d -  was i m p o r t a n t Victoria.  for-  P l a t e a u and t h e  the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the Canadian P a c i f i c  Interior  I t was  i n d u s t r y was c o m p l i c a t e d  by t h e unstable  question of Indian ing  interest  The s e t t l e m e n t  years  and I r e l a n d .  t o new p r e s s u r e s  a  Interior which  new  - 204 -  illuminated munity,  the strengths  and t h e i r  major  livelihood,  On a n i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , that  the established  nomic and p o l i t i c a l table  and weaknesses o f the ranching  i t w o u l d be m i s l e a d i n g  ranchers force.  collapsed  ranching  But, there  population  as a p o l i t i c a l ,  t o operate  eco-  to the inevi-  and i n d u s t r i a l  i s enough e v i d e n c e  continued  industry.  t o conclude  Many o f them a d a p t e d  t r a n s i t i o n s o f a more m o b i l e  prospered.  the livestock  com-  s o c i e t y and  t o suggest that the on an  independent,  individualistic, basis  when t h e b r o a d e r p r o b l e m s o f t h e r a n c h -  ing  a united  industry  required  Certainly, ranching  frontier  mountable. reserved feed mon  front.  the problems  were n e i t h e r  confronting  unique n o r were they  The a p p e a r a n c e o f s h e e p on r a n g e s  forcattle,  the increased  and t h e c o m p e t i t i v e t o ranchers  state  cost  a brief flirtation 1889  with  Cattlemen's Association came  allowed  to die.  i n t h e form o f the r e c e n t l y traditional  The a p p e a r a n c e o f l a n d  leadership  organized  and ranching  established  ranching  c o m p a n i e s was t h e  figures  companies were long  alter-  resort; the p o l i t i -  after ing  after  Columbia  the I n t e r i o r ranching  The p r o m i n e n t  formation  a t Kamloops i n  m a j o r new i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n 1885.  com-  logical  However,  the British  The o t h e r  were  was t h e  such an o r g a n i z a t i o n  companies and t h e rancher's cians.  The  stockman's o r g a n i z a t i o n .  t o 1890, t h e r a n c h e r s  natives  traditionally  of the market place  e l s e w h e r e on t h e c o n t i n e n t .  a representative  unsur-  o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  means b y w h i c h t o o v e r c o m e t h e s e o b s t a c l e s of  the Interior  frontier  i n two o f t h e m a j o r  ranch-  r a n c h e r s who h a d a d o p t e d  -  the  company f o r m a t  They were f u l l y Interior content the  t o use  members, o f  allowed within  the  ranchers  superior the  economic  the  situation  the  ranchers  and  Interior  emphasis on  middle fruit  class  two  main  the  com-  the had  forces  sheep  contro-  the  solution  delayed which  great  trepidation.  confronted  the  of  Their  In those British  p o p u l a t i o n and  signified  the  cattle  ranching  era.  The  did  not  resist  this  l a n d use.  the  The  transition,  l o c a t i o n s the  over  irrigation  settlers.  f o r the  settlebut  Okanagan influx the  beginning  fact,  as  the and  of  a  pre-  new of  the  e s t a b l i s h e d Okanagan In  the  arrival  government's h e s i t a t i o n  for  new  were on  anticipate  i n a period of  farming  as  politicians-  expense p r o j e c t e d f o r  was  ranching  d i d not  most pronounced changes were r e s e r v e d  dominately  the  depression  large influx  Spallumcheen v a l l e y s .  the  i n the A l b e r t a f o o t h i l l s ,  federal  the a  of  progressed.  busters" with  schemes d i s c o u r a g e d ment o f  a t appeasement o n l y  the  development  community d u r i n g  Unlike  railway belt  As  caught between the  1890's  location,  seemed  George M a r t i n , i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  the  "sod  the  districts  as  o f waves o f  community.  Lillooet  problem of  Interior  forward  the  p e r i o d , they  and  ranching  established  in this  stride,  Their attempts broader  confronting  to h i t t h e i r  t o be  Interior  problems  Yet,  ranching  Yale  economic o r g a n i z a t i o n .  s e l f - c o n t a i n e d u n i t s rather than  F o r b e s V e r n o n and  the  the  influence to  a broader  themselves  versy.  of  companies as  f o r the  decline.  the  their  -  s u p e r i o r form of  community.  were b e g i n n i n g  ranchers  of  a  cognizant  ranching  ranching  panies  as  205  land  end ranchers  values  -  escalated,  many r a n c h e r s  characteristic  and  Nicola the  stock they  settlers  raising  of  as  ranchers sense of  shared  its  own.  the  attitude  vincial  of  their  the  scale of  and  the  the  of  of  the  of  the  The  ranches,  with  companies, never the  Pacific  settlement  of  region. British  Yet,  Pla-  Interior  American Colum-  character  were  outlook which  the  readily  foothills. livestock  exception  areas  i n the  the  so  the  n e v e r more t h a n  approached  major ranching  by  British  the A l b e r t a  the  an  region.  would have f e l t  was  gen-  Interior  community d e s p i t e  who  lifestream,  first  Columbia  that cosmopolitan  gentry  Although  Certainly,  i t s development and  ranchers  Chilcotin,  dedication to  the  southern  British  ranching  the  communities w i t h  stability.  of  how-  of  land.  group,  I n t e r i o r . r a n c h e r s towards  operation of the  the  a  stage  Plateau,  i n the  traditional  so many a s p e c t s  would-be  i n outlook.  southwest or opening  like  economic  large ranching  and  at this  districts  north  Interior  property;  f a c t o r s w i t h i t s A l b e r t a and  foothills  home a m o n g s t t h e  farther  the  frontier  ultimately  the  ranching  established families  region attracted  industry,  few  the  Interior  interest  settlers  I t never acquired  characterized  The  first  But,  experience,  knit  their  frontiers  means t o u t i l i z e  provided  some i m p o r t a n t  bia  fact  best  a ranching  counterparts.  the  major and  continuity  emerged as As  at  the  1890's these had  subdivide  retained their  were never a t i g h t l y  important  teau  i n the  and.Thompson v a l l e y s ,  eration  the  began t o  In large parts of  particularly  earlier  -  common t o m o s t r a n c h i n g  of development. ever,  206  of  size  i n the history  Columbia's Southern  prothe or  American of  the  Interior  -  Plateau, haps  the c a t t l e  rancher  t h e most o v e r l o o k e d  tiers .  207  played  -  an i n t e g r a l  o f Western Canada's  part  i n per-  ranching  fron-  -  208  -  NOTES INTRODUCTION  1.  There have been s e v e r a l p r o v i n c i a l h i s t o r i e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. T h e m o s t b a l a n c e d a c c o u n t i s M a r g a r e t A. Ormsby, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A H i s t o r y , T o r o n t o , 1971.  2.  The r a n c h i n g r e g i o n o f t h e I n t e r i o r , r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e Southern I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u , encompassed the Y a l e , L i l l o o e t and C a r i b o o P o l i t i c a l d i s t r i c t s .  3.  T h o m a s R. W e i r , R a n c h i n g i n t h e S o u t h e r n I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , M e m o i r 4, G e o g r a p h i c a l ' B r a n c h , M i n e s and T e c h n i c a l S u r v e y s , Ottawa, 1964. This s y s t e m a t i c study of the r a n c h i n g i n d u s t r y emphasizes the p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , range t y p e s and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l i v e s t o c k m a r k e t s and s u p p l y c e n t r e s .  4.  M a r t i n R o b i n , The R u s h f o r S p o i l s , 1871-1933, T o r o n t o , 1972, p.35.  5.  R o b e r t E. C a i l , L a n d , Man a n d t h e L a w , T h e D i s p o s a l o f Crown Lands i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1871-1913, Vancouver, 1974, p.21.  6.  R.E. G o s n e l l , " H i s t o r y o f F a r m i n g " , i n A d a m S h o r t t a n d A r t h u r G. D o u g h t y , e d i t o r s C a n a d a a n d i t s P r o v i n c e s , Volume 13, T o r o n t o , 1914, p.531. G.N. P e r r y , "The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t i o n and Trade i n t h e Economic Development o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , S c i e n t i f i c A g r i c u l t u r e , V o l . XX, S e p t e m b e r , 1939.  The  Company  Province,  7. M a r t i n R o b i n , O p . c i t . p.36. R o b i n may h a v e m o d e r a t e d t h i s a r g u m e n t i f h e h a d c o n s u l t e d F.W. L a i n g ' s e x c e l l e n t work on e a r l y a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t . S e e F.W. L a i n g , C o l o n i a l Farm S e t t l e r s on t h e M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 8 5 8 - 1 8 7 1 , MSS, P A B C , 1 9 3 9 . 8.  B r i t i s h Columbia, "Voters L i s t , Yale D i s t r i c t " , P a p e r s , V i c t o r i a , 1880, pp.117-126.  Sessional  9. M a r g a r e t A. O r m s b y , "A S t u d y o f t h e O k a n a g a n V a l l e y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , M.A. Thesis, University of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1931. 10.  ibid,  p.47.  1 1 . M a r g a r e t A. O r m s b y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A H i s t o r y , o p . c i t . p.240. A l s o s e e M a r g a r e t A. O r m s b y , "The H i s t o r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e  - 209  -  i n B r i t i s h Columbia", S c i e n t i f i c A g r i c u l t u r e , Vol.XX, S e p t e m b e r , 1939, p p . 6 1 - 7 3 . T h i s a r t i c l e o f f e r s an a c c u r a t e summation o f t h e c o a s t a l p r o v i n c e ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l development u n t i l t h e 1930's. 12. F.W. L a i n g , "Some P i o n e e r s o f t h e C a t t l e I n d u s t r y " , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , O c t o b e r , 1942, pp.257-275. 13. J o s e p h H u n t e r t o D.B. J o n e s , M a r c h 16, 1882, MSS, PABC, H u n t e r L e t t e r b o o k . C i t e d i n M a r g a r e t A. Ormsby, " P r e s i d e n t i a l A d d r e s s " , The C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n a l A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1966, p . 1 1 . 14. See T. A l e x B u l m a n , K a m l o o p s C a t t l e m e n , 100 Y e a r s o f T r a i l D u s t , S y d n e y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1972. M a r y B a l f , K a m l o o p s , A H i s t o r y o f t h e D i s t r i c t up t o 1914, K a m l o o p s , 1969. 15. F o r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y o f t h e r a n c h i n g f r o n t i e r i n t h e N o r t h West T e r r i t o r i e s , s e e t h e g r a d u a t e r e s e a r c h o f P r o f e s s o r D a v i d H. B r e e n . D a v i d H. B r e e n , "The C a t t l e Compact: The R a n c h Community i n S o u t h e r n A l b e r t a , 1 8 8 1 - 1 8 9 6 " , M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , 1969. "The C a n a d i a n West and t h e R a n c h i n g F r o n t i e r , 1 8 7 5 - 1 9 2 2 " , U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1972. 16. R o b i n A. F i s h e r , " I n d i a n - E u r o p e a n R e l a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 7 7 4 - 1 8 9 0 " , U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1974. 17. R o b e r t E. C a i l ,  Op.cit.  -  210  r-  NOTES CHAPTER  I  1.  George Vancouver, A Voyage of D i s c o v e r y t o the N o r t h P a c i f i c O c e a n , a n d R o u n d t h e W o r l d , L o n d o n , 18 0 1 , pp. 336-372.  2.  J . O r i n O l i p h a n t , On t h e C a t t l e R a n g e s o f t h e O r e g o n C o u n t r y , S e a t t l e and L o n d o n , 1968, p.5. For the first study of the o r i g i n s of c a t t l e breeding i n the P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t , s e e O.S. Kingston's "Introduction of C a t t l e i n t o the P a c i f i c Northwest", Washington H i s t o r i c a l Quart e r l y , XLV, J u l y 1923, pp.163-185.  3.  J. Orin  4.  ibid,  5.  L i v e s t o c k r a i s i n g and o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s were encouraged a t newly c o n s t r u c t e d F o r t Vancouver; a t the mouth of the Columbia, F o r t Walla Walla, F o r t C o l v i l e , Fort Okanagan; near the mouth o f the Okanagan r i v e r i n the Upper C o l u m b i a r e g i o n , F o r t B o i s e and F o r t H a l l .  6.  In  7.  F o r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f F o r t L a n g l e y , see R o b i e L. R e i d , " E a r l y D a y s a t F o r t L a n g l e y " , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , I , A p r i l 1937, and a s u p p l e m e n t e n t i t l e d "Fort Langley Correspondence", B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , I I , J u l y 1937, pp.107-194.  8.  J. Orin  9.  J . S . G a l b r a i t h , The H u d s o n ' s Bay Company a s an F a c t o r , 1821-1869 , B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s , 194-196.  Oliphant,  Op.cit.  p.6.  p.10.  the F o r t Vancouver a r e a a t the mouth o f the Columbia, the herds of c a t t l e increased very slowly. In f a c t , not u n t i l 1836 d i d M c L a u g h l i n p e r m i t any c a t t l e t o be slaughtered f o r meat. The h e r d by t h a t t i m e n u m b e r e d 700. W.R. Sampson, " K e n n e t h M c K e n z i e and t h e O r i g i n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A g r i c u l t u r e " , B.C. H i s t o r i c a l News, J u n e 1973, p. 16.  Oliphant,  Op.cit.  p.25. Imperial 1957, pp.  10.  E . E . R i c h , T h e H u d s o n ' s B a y C o m p a n y , 1 6 7 0 - 1 8 7 0 , B o o k V, 1821-1870. L o n d o n , 1958. A c c o r d i n g t o E.E. Rich, the c r e a t i o n o f t h e P u g e t S o u n d A g r i c u l t u r a l C o m p a n y was little m o r e t h a n t h e f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f M c L a u g h l i n ' s 1832 plan f o r an i n d e p e n d e n t H i d e and T a l l o w Company ( p . 6 8 1 ) .  11.  By  the  agreement  signed  i n Hamburg  i n February,  1839,  the  - 211 ^  H u d s o n ' s B a y Company l e a s e d a c o a s t a l s t r i p s o u t h o f Cape S p e n c e r f r o m t h e R u s s i a n A m e r i c a n Company. In r e t u r n f o r t h i s t e n y e a r l e a s e , t h e Hudson's B a y Company w o u l d , among o t h e r t h i n g s , p a y a n n u a l l y t w o t h o u s a n d l a n d o t t e r s k i n s , and f o r t e n y e a r s would supply t h e R u s s i a n Company w i t h w h e a t , f l o u r , s a l t e d b e e f , b u t t e r , hams a n d other provisions. 12.  CS.  Kingston,  Op. c i t .  13.  The f o u n d a t i o n h e r d s i n t h e Oregon c o u n t r y were o f S p a n i s h breed and brought i n from C a l i f o r n i a . As W i l l i a m F r a s e r Tolmie, Superintendent o f N i s q u a l l y farms f r o m 1843 t o 1859, commented, " I n body c o n f o r m a t i o n t h e y l o o k e d a s though they were bred f o r speed r a t h e r than beef". S.F. T o l m i e , "My F a t h e r , W i l l i a m F r a s e r T o l m i e , 1812-1886", B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , October, 1937, p.234.  14.  J . O r i n O l i p h a n t , O p . c i t . p.28. An 1845 r e p o r t b y L i e u t e n a n t s W a r r e a n d V a v a s o u r showed t h a t a t N i s q u a l l y a n d a t C o w l i t z t h e r e w e r e 300 h o r s e s , 2 , 3 4 6 h e a d o f c a t t l e a n d 6,857 h e a d o f s h e e p . A t twentyt h r e e p o s t s o f t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company a n d i t s s a t e l l i t e company w e s t o f t h e R o c k i e s , t h e r e w e r e 1,716 h e a d o f h o r s e s , 4,430 h e a d o f c a t t l e , 1,891 s h e e p a n d 1,581 h o g s .  15.  CS.  Kingston,  16.  W.R.  Sampson, Op.cit.. p.17.  17.  See t h e p u b l i s h e d p a p e r s o f t h e B r i t i s h and A m e r i c a n J o i n t Commission, E v i d e n c e on t h e P a r t o f t h e P u g e t ' s Sound A g r i c u l t u r a l Company, C l a i m a n t , (Montreal 1868), pp.107109, and t h e O p i n i o n s Award o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s . . . . P r o n o u n c e d September 10, 1869 ( M o n t r e a l 1 8 6 9 ) .  18.  M a r g a r e t A. O r m s b y , " T h e H i s t o r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia", S c i e n t i f i c A g r i c u l t u r e , O p . c i t . p.62.  19.  J . O r i n O l i p h a n t , O p . c i t . p.16. F o r McLaughlin, as Rich p o i n t s o u t , (pp.666-667) A m e r i c a n s e t t l e m e n t , t h e A m e r i c a n c o a s t a l t r a d e and t h e American f u r t r a d e were t h r e e d i s t i n c t and i n d e p e n d e n t i s s u e r s . S e t t l e m e n t he r e g a r d e d kindly. Douglas, on t h e o t h e r hand, r e f u s e d t o s e l l c a t t l e t o A m e r i c a n m i s s i o n a r i e s u n t i l he had l e a r n e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company G o v e r n o r a n d C o m m i t t e e s .  20.  J . Orin  21.  i b i d , p . 3 2 . The f e d e r a l c e n s u s . o f 1850 r e p o r t e d 41,729 head o f c a t t l e on farms and r a n c h e s i n t h e Oregon T e r r i t o r y . Of t h e s e , 9,427 w e r e m i l c h c o w s a n d 8,114 w e r e w o r k i n g o x e n .  Op.cit.  Oliphant,  p.172.  p.174.  Op.cit.  pp.  20-21.  -  22.  ibid.  23.  CS.  24.  M a r g a r e t A. p. 98.  25.  E.E.  26.  M a r g a r e t A.  212  -  p.41. Kingston,  Rich,  Op.cit.  Ormsby,  Op.cit. Ormsby,  p.185.  British  Columbia: A History,  Op.cit.  Columbia: A History,  Op.cit.  p.752. British  p. 91. 27.  ibid,  p.98.  28.  ibid,  p.100.  29.  W.R.  30. 31.  i b i d . p.17. F o r p r e c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e Company f a r m s , t h e p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s h o l d s t h e s t o c k b o o k s k e p t by t h e company bailiff, K e n n e t h M c K e n z i e , who w a s h i r e d i n 1 8 5 2 t o s u p e r v i s e t h e C r a i g f l o w e r farm. These s t o c k books c o n t a i n an i n v e n t o r y o f l i v e s t o c k h e l d by t h e f a r m . The p u r c h a s e r s o f c a t t l e , the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f c a t t l e and o t h e r d a i l y information is also included.  32.  Kenneth McKenzie Stock Books, McKenzie C o l l e c t i o n , MSS, PABC, V i c t o r i a . As o f September 1864, t h e c a t t l e on i n v e n t o r y a t C r a i g f l o w e r c o n s i s t e d o f one b u l l , 11 cows a n d t e n c a l v e s . At B r o a d m e a d t h e r e w a s o n e b u l l , 9 c o w s , 4 c a l v e s , 14 y e a r l i n g s and 1 s t e e r f o r a t o t a l o f 29.  33.  M a r g a r e t A.  Sampson,  Op.cit.  Ormsby,  p.17.  British  Columbia: A H i s t o r y ,  op.cit.  p.90. 34.  ibid,  p.90.  35. 36.  E.E. R i c h , O p . c i t . p.459. F. H e n r y J o h n s o n , " F u r T r a d i n g D a y s a t K a m l o o p s " , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , I , A p r i l , 1937, pp.171-185.  37.  ibid,  38.  M a r g a r e t A.  p.182.  p.138. 39.  ibid,  p.138.  40.  ibid,  p.138.  Ormsby,  British  Columbia:  A History,  Op.cit.  -  2 1 3 <-  41.  There a r e s e v e r a l e x c e l l e n t accounts o f t h e e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia gold rush but the best i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s cont a i n e d i n M a r g a r e t Ormsby's P r o v i n c i a l h i s t o r y i n t h e chapter e n t i t l e d t h e "Gold Colony".  42.  ibid,  43.  i b i d , p . 1 4 2 . O r m s b y e s t i m a t e d 8,000 m i n e r s f o l l o w e d t h e reopened C o l u m b i a R i v e r - Okanagan v a l l e y r o u t e t o t h e Thompson v a l l e y i n 1858.  44.  J . O r i n O l i p h a n t , "The C a t t l e T r a d e o n P u g e t S o u n d , 1 8 5 8 1 8 9 0 " , A g r i c u l t u r a l H i s t o r y , V o l u m e 7, N o . 3 , 1 9 3 3 . pp.129-149.  45.  M a r g a r e t A. O r m s b y , B r i t i s h  46.  J . O r i n O l i p h a n t , On t h e C a t t l e R a n g e s o f t h e O r e g o n Country, O p . c i t . p.46.  47.  S t a n l e y S. S p a i d , " T h e L a t e r L i f e a n d A c t i v i t i e s o f G e n e r a l J o e l P a l m e r " , Oregon H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , LV, December 1954, pp.313-315.  48.  J o e l Palmer's e a r l y experiences i n B r i t i s h Columbia a r e r e l a t e d i n a l e t t e r p u b l i s h e d i n t h e Oregon Statesman, January 28, 1860.  49.  F.W. L a i n g , "Some P i o n e e r s o f t h e C a t t l e I n d u s t r y " , B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , October 1941, pp.157-275.  50.  Oregon Statesman, January  51.  Palmer expressed h i sview t h a t t h e d u t i e s c o l l e c t e d a t F o r t Thompson "gave good g r o u n d s t o a p p r e h e n d e x t o r t i o n " . P a l m e r was b i t t e r t h a t d u t y was c o l l e c t e d a t F o r t K a m l o o p s when t o h i s k n o w l e d g e i t was n o t a n o f f i c i a l port of entry. He d i d a d m i t , h o w e v e r , t h a t i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e s e d u t i e s , n o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w a s made b e t w e e n B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s and American c i t i z e n s .  52.  Donald F r a s e r , A r t i c l e s on B r i t i s h Columbia, L o n d o n T i m e s , 1858-1862, PABC, p . 2 .  53.  M a r g a r e t A. O r m s b y , B r i t i s h p.182.  54.  T h i s r o u t e had been i n v e s t i g a t e d by A l e x a n d e r C a u l f i e l d Anderson i n 1846. A f t e r ascending t h e H a r r i s o n R i v e r , i t involved a s e r i e s o f portages along the Anderson-Seton chain of lakes before a r r i v i n g a t the Fraser River a t Lillooet.  55.  C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , B l u e B o o k o f S t a t i s t i c s , MSS, PABC. Under a D o u g l a s p r o c l a m a t i o n i s s u e d o n J u n e 2, 1 8 5 9 , t h e c u s t o m s  pp.150-151.  Columbia: A H i s t o r y ,  Op.cit.  1, 1 8 6 0 .  printed i n the  Columbia: A H i s t o r y ,  Op.cit.  -  214  r-  d u t y o n b u l l s , o x e n , cows, h o r s e s , a s s e s a n d m u l e s was 4 s h i l l i n g s 2 pence p e r head and f o r sheep and g o a t s 2 s h i l l i n g s one pence p e r head. 56.  James D o u g l a s t o t h e L o r d B i s h o p , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , May 19, 1862, i n a t y p e d copy o f D o u g l a s ' P r i v a t e O f f i c i a l L e t t e r B o o k , 1 8 5 9 - 1 8 6 4 . MSS, PABC,  57.  Donald F r a s e r , i n h i s correspondence t o t h e London Times, c o m m e n t e d t h a t h e k n e w t w o c a t t l e d e a l e r s who a l l e g e d l y h a d made p r o f i t s o f s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d p o u n d s d u r i n g t h e 1861 s e a s o n .  58.  R.C. L u n d i n B r o w n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A n E s s a y , New m i n s t e r , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1863, p.21.  59.  The B r i t i s h  60.  As o f November 1 8 6 3 , r o a d t o l l s were c h a r g e d f o r i n l a n d bound f r e i g h t . The t o l l s on goods t r a n s p o r t e d i n l a n d b y l a n d o r w a t e r f r o m D o u g l a s , Y a l e a n d Hope w e r e 1 s h i l l i n g f o r e v e r y f i f t y pounds o f goods. As o f September 1862, every head o f c a t t l e g o i n g from L i l l o o e t t o A l e x a n d r i a by way o f t h e C a r i b o o Road was s u b j e c t t o a t o l l o f 1 s h i l l i n g p e r head.  61. F o r t 1,  Columbian,  Kamloops J o u r n a l , 1859-December  62-. T h e B r i t i s h  June  West-  27, 1861.  W i l l i a m Manson, C h i e f  Trader,  January  3 0 , 1 8 6 2 , MSS, PABC.  Columbian,  March  25, 1862.  63. F o r t K a m l o o p s J o u r n a l , O c t o b e r 1, 1 8 6 0 . 6 4 . W.G. C o x t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , M a r c h 3, 1 8 6 1 , C o l o n i a l C o r r e s p o n d e n c e I n w a r d , MSS, PABC. On J u n e 6, 1 8 6 2 , T h e B r i t i s h Columbian reported t h e recent a r r i v a l a t Rat r i v e r o f J o h n J e f f r e y s w i t h 1,000 h e a d o f c a t t l e a n d 300 h o r s e s bound f o r t h e I n t e r i o r markets. 65.  See A . J . S p l a w n , KA-MI-AKIN: The L a s t Hero o f t h e Y a k i m a s , P o r t l a n d , N.P.D. T h i s b o o k c o n t a i n s a f i r s t h a n d a c c o u n t of one o f t h e Washington t o C a r i b o o c a t t l e d r i v e s . Splawn was a member o f a p a r t y o r g a n i z e d b y M a j o r J o h n T h o r p i n 1861 t o d r i v e a h e r d o f c a t t l e f r o m Yakima t o t h e g o l d fields.  66.  The B r i t i s h  67.  M a r g a r e t A. O r m s b y , B r i t i s h p.183.  68.  Fort  Columbian,  Kamloops J o u r n a l ,  October  April  22, 1862.  Columbia:  A History,  24, 1861.  Op.cit.  -  British  215  -  69.  The  C o l u m b i a n , A u g u s t 5,  1863.  70.  J.C. Haynes t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , A u g u s t 31, C o l o n i a l C o r r e s p o n d e n c e I n w a r d , MSS, P A B C .  71.  F.W.  Laing,  72.  The  British  C o l u m b i a n , A u g u s t 5,  73.  The  British  Colonist,  February  16,  74. The  British  Colonist,  June  1864.  1863.  O p _ . c i t . , p. 260  21,  1863. 1864  O p . c i t . , pp.160-185.  75.  A.J.  Splawn ,  76.  Fort  Kamloops  77.  ibid.  May  78.  ibid.  February  79.  J . Orin Oliphant, Country, Op.cit.  80.  ibid,  81.  F.W. L a i n g , "Some P i o n e e r s o f t h e C a t t l e I n d u s t r y " , Op. c i t . p.261. H i s e s t i m a t e s a r e based upon t h e s u r v i v i n g r e c o r d s o f t h e Customs O f f i c e a t Osoyoos and t h e g e n e r a l l y i n a c c u r a t e B l u e Books o f t h e Crown C o l o n y .  82.  The  83.  J . O r i n O l i p h a n t , On t h e C a t t l e t r y , O p . c i t . p.187.  28,  Journal, April  18,  1862.  1862. 1,  1861. On t h e C a t t l e p.66.  Ranges  of the  Oregon  p.66.  British  Colonist,  March 17,  1867. Ranges  o f t h e Oregon  8 4 . F.W. L a i n g , C o l o n i a l Farm S e t t l e m e n t on t h e M a i n l a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 8 5 8 - 1 8 7 1 . MSS', P A B C , p . 2 6 4 .  Coun-  of  - 216 -  NOTES CHAPTER I I  1.  B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , Debate on t h e s u b j e c t of C o n f e d e r a t i o n w i t h Canada, Government G a z e t t e , V i c t o r i a , March, 1870.  2. J . O r i n O l i p h a n t , 1890", O p . c i t .  "The C a t t l e  Trade  on Puget  Sound, 1858-  3. M u s g r a v e t o G r a n v i l l e , O c t o b e r 1 5 , 1 8 6 9 . G r e a t B r i t a i n , C o l o n i a l O f f i c e O r i g i n a l Correspondence, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858-1871, M i c r o f i l m , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Library. 4. V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , F e b r u a r y 1 7 , 1 8 5 9 . "The f a c i l i t i e s f o r r a i s i n g s t o c k i n a l l t h e . U p p e r C o u n t r y are r e m a r k a b l y good. Bunch g r a s s o f a v e r y s u p e r i o r quality grows i n a l m o s t e v e r y d i r e c t i o n b e i n g found on.the f l a t and mountain i n large q u a n t i t i e s . The r a i s i n g o f s t o c k w i l l be a source o f c o n s i d e r a b l e w e a l t h t o t h e c o u n t r y , and v e r y profitable to the raisers..." 5. T h e T i m e s ,  London,  October  4, 1 8 6 0 .  6. R i c h a r d C. M a y n e , F o u r Y e a r s i n B r i t i s h v e r I s l a n d , London, 1862, p.398. 7. i b i d ,  Columbia  9. D u n c a n G.B. M a c d o n a l d , B r i t i s h London, 1862, p.343.  Columbia  The  North-West  and Vancouver  Island,  T h o m a s R. W e i r , R a n c h i n g i n t h e S o u t h e r n I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , M e m o i r 4, G e o g r a p h i c a l B r a n c h , M i n e s a n d T e c h n i c a l S u r v e y s , O t t a w a , 19 6 4 . S e e C h a p t e r 2, "The P h y s i c a l E n v i r o n m e n t " , f o r a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f the region's p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  11. R i c h a r d  C. M a y n e , o p . c i t .  p.111.  1 2 . M.  B e g b i e t o J . D o u g l a s , N o v e m b e r 7, 1 8 5 9 , C o l o n i a l p o n d e n c e I n w a r d , MSS, P A B C . Thomas E l w y n t o J . D o u g l a s , J u l y 3 0 , 1 8 5 9 , C o l o n i a l p o n d e n c e I n w a r d , MSS, P A B C .  13.  Vancou-  p.388.  8. W a l t e r B u t l e r C h e a d l e a n d V i s c o u n t M i l t o n , Passage by Land, London, 1865, p.192.  10.  and  Cox t o C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , March d e n c e I n w a r d , MSS, P A B C .  3, 1 8 6 1 , C o l o n i a l  CorresCorresCorrespon-  -  2 1 7 «-  14.  J . J . Young t o Cox, September 28, 1861, C o l o n i a l C o r r e s p o n d e n c e O u t w a r d , MSS, PABC.  15.  F o r a l i s t o f t h e o r i g i n a l n i n e p r o v i s i o n s , s e e R o b e r t E. C a i l , L a n d , Man a n d t h e Law, t h e D i s p o s a l o f C r o w n L a n d s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871-1910, Vancouver, 1974, pp.9-10.  16.  i b i d , p.10.  17.  ibid.  18.  A l t h o u g h C a i l ' s study o f t h e crown l a n d system i s t h e most comprehensive study o f t h i s important area, other h i s t o r i a n s have examined t h e d i s p o s a l o f l a n d i n B r i t i s h Columbia. S e e P h y l l i s M. M i k k e l s o n , " L a n d S e t t l e m e n t P o l i c y o n t h e M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 8 5 8 - 1 8 7 4 " , M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950. F.W. L a i n g , C o l o n i a l F a r m S e t t l e r s o n t h e M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 8 5 8 - 1 8 7 1 , MSS, PABC, 1 9 3 9 .  19.  R o b e r t E. C a i l ,  20.  Secretary,  p.12-13.  O p . c i t . p.13.  ibid.  2 1 . F.W. L a i n g , C o l o n i a l F a r m S e t t l e r s o n t h e M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858-1871, O p . c i t . p.7. 22.  R o b e r t E. C a i l ,  O p . c i t . p.14.  23.  F.W. L a i n g , O p . c i t . p . 1 6 . Government o f f i c i a l s i n t h e c o l o n i a l p e r i o d c e n t r e d t h e i r s p e c u l a t i v e a c t i v i t y i n t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r , Y a l e a n d H o p e a r e a s . C o l o n e l R.C. M o o d y m a d e 1 1 c l a i m s a l o n e i n 1 8 6 0 and r e c e i v e d a s e v e r e r e p r i m a n d f r o m G o v e r n o r Douglas t h r o u g h t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y o n A p r i l 5, 1 8 6 1 .  24.  A l f r e d W. R o d g e r s , PABC, p . 1 5 .  25.  Crease t o C o l o n i a l Secretary, J u l y 11, 1863, A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l Correspondence Outward, C o l o n i a l Correspondence, MSS, PABC.  26.  E d w a r d P h i l i p J o h n s o n , "The E a r l y Y e a r s o f A s h c r o f t M a n o r " , B.C. S t u d i e s , N o . 5 , Summer 1 9 7 0 , p p . 3 - 2 3 . Also refer to t h e d i a r i e s o f C l e m e n t a n d H e n r y C o r n w a l l i n t h e PABC. These d i a r i e s and farm r e c o r d s a r e t h e most i l l u m i n a t i n g source f o rthe c o l o n i a l period with regard t o t h e i n d i v i d ual ranch. One m u s t c o n t i n u a l l y b e a r i n m i n d , h o w e v e r , t h a t the Cornwalls d i dnot t y p i f y the nineteenth century rancher. C l e m e n t F. C o r n w a l l , " D i a r y " , May 1 8 6 2 t o J u l y 1 8 6 4 , MSS, PABC, p . 3 6 . A l t h o u g h he w a r n e d C o u r t e n a y a b o u t t r e s p a s s i n g , C o r n w a l l c o n t i n u e d t o do b u s i n e s s w i t h t h e A m e r i c a n , b u y i n g 288 p o u n d s o f b e e f a t 1 6 C a p o u n d i n F e b r u a r y 1 8 6 3 ( p . 5 1 ) .  Reminiscences  of British  Columbia,  MSS,  r-  218  r-  27.  C l e m e n t F. C o r n w a l l , " D i a r y " , 1 8 6 2 - 1 8 6 4 , p.85. C o r n w a l l made o n l y a s h o r t comment on t h e C o u r t e n a y c a s e in h i s d i a r y but i t i s very i n d i c a t i v e of h i s e a r l y a t t i t u d e toward the l o c a l community. "The a f f a i r c a u s e d quite a sensation i n Lytton... A very hard matter to club a n y l a w i n t o t h e i r h e a d s , t h e y a r e i n c l i n e d t o go o n t h e i r own p r i v a t e v i e w o f a m a t t e r " .  28.  F.W. L a i n g , O p . c i t . p.9. A c c o r d i n g t o L a i n g ' s s t u d y , some o f t h e o r i g i n a l p r e e m p t i o n r e c o r d s were d e a l t w i t h i n an i n f o r m a l manner by the l o c a l magistrates. T h i s was due i n p a r t t o t h e l a c k of p r e s c r i b e d p r i n t e d forms.  29.  I t i s not p o s s i b l e to put forward a complete demographic breakdown of the c o l o n i a l r a n c h i n g p o p u l a t i o n but from the s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e one i s a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h m a j o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the I n t e r i o r r a n c h i n g community. The term "rancher" i s used i n t h i s study i n a g e n e r a l sense. The I n t e r i o r s e t t l e r s w e r e r e f e r r e d t o o r c l a s s i f i e d a s " f a r m e r s " , " s t o c k r a i s e r s " , " c a t t l e r a n c h e r s " and " g e n t l e men" . The v a l u a b l e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f p r e - e m p t i o n r e c o r d s by F.W. L a i n g s t a t e w h e r e t h e y s e t t l e d i n i t i a l l y a n d how m u c h l a n d t h e y h e l d by p r e - e m p t i o n and p u r c h a s e . The establishment o f t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d s b e f o r e t h e y t u r n e d t o r a n c h i n g i s a more complex s o u r c e p r o b l e m . Available diaries, personal p a p e r s , n e w s p a p e r s and g o v e r n m e n t r e c o r d s p r o v i d e t h e majority of t h i s information.  30.  M a r g a r e t A. O r m s b y , A S t u d y o f t h e O k a n a g a n V a l l e y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1931. p.46.  31.  F.W.  32.  I n l a n d S e n t i n e l , December 12, 1891. I n a d i s c u s s i o n w i t h a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n r e p o r t e r , Bowe s t a t e d t h a t t o t h e b e s t o f h i s k n o w l e d g e , "he was t h e f i r s t man t o s t a r t c a t t l e ranching i n B r i t i s h Columbia".  33.  F.W. Laing, pp.266-71.  34.  J.B. K e r r , B i o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r y o f W e l l C o l u m b i a n s , V a n c o u v e r , 1890, p.119.  35.  E . D . S . S c h o l e f i e l d a n d F.W. the E a r l i e s t Times t o the IV, B i o g r a p h i c a l , p.807.  36.  i b i d , p.880. J.B. G r e a v e s , b o r n a t P u t s y , Y o r k s h i r e on J u n e 18, 1831, had an i n t e r e s t i n g c a r e e r . A man o f l i t t l e f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , h e l e f t home a t f o u r t e e n a n d s p e n t s e v e n y e a r s a t Belleville, Missouri. I n 1854 he t r a v e l l e d t o t h e C a l i f -  Laing, Op.cit.  p.15.  "Some P i o n e e r s  of  the  Cattle  Industry",  Known  Op.cit.  British  Howay, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m P r e s e n t , V a n c o u v e r , 1914, V o l .  -  219  -  o r n i a g o l d f i e l d s w h e r e h e was a l a b o u r e r u n t i l h e establ i s h e d h i s butcher business a t Michigan Bar. Upon t h e d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , he moved h i s b u t c h e r business to the Cariboo district. 37.  F.W. L a i n g , C o l o n i a l Farm S e t t l e r s on t h e M a i n l a n d of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858-1871, O p . c i t . , pp.356-358. D o n a l d and J o h n M c A u l a y , J o h n M c l v o r and J o h n L e n n a r d , a l l f o r m e r Company e m p l o y e e s , had p r e v i o u s l y l e f t t h e Company's e m p l o y t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own ranches.  38.  i b i d , pp.288-289, 302-303. M a n s o n ' s r a n c h was a t t h e 1 1 1 M i l e P o s t o n t h e C a r i b o o w h i l e M c K i n l e y and A n d e r s o n pre-empted l a n d i n t h e Lac Hache v a l l e y .  Road La  39.  ibid,  p.404.  40.  Mary B a l f , Kamloops, A H i s t o r y of K a m l o o p s , 1969, p.128.  41.  Men who l e g i t i m a t e l y c o u l d b e c l a s s i f i e d i n t h i s g r o u p i n c l u d e d t h e C o r n w a l l b r o t h e r s , Thomas E l l i s , t h e V e r n o n b r o t h e r s , John C a r m i c h a e l Haynes, George Bohun M a r t i n , P r e s t o n B e n n e t t , J o h n F. A l l i s o n , J o h n M a r t l e y , W.J. Roper, A.G. P e m b e r t o n , C h a r l e s F. H o u g h t o n , E d g a r D e w d n e y , C a v e n d i s h V e n a b l e s , B e n j a m i n W. P e a r s e , T h o m a s L o w e , George F o s t e r , W i l l i a m C h a r l e s and C a p t a i n Layton.  42.  F.W. L a i n g , C o l o n i a l Farm S e t t l e r s on t h e M a i n l a n d of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858-1871, O p . c i t . p.348. According to the pre-emption records, the l o c a t i o n s of t h e s e l a n d c l a i m s was . . . " a b o u t 26 m i l e s f r o m t h e f e r r y o n t h e Thompson r i v e r on t h e r o a d l e a d i n g n o r t h w a r d s . . . " T h i s r a t h e r v a g u e d e s c r i p t i o n i s r e f l e c t i v e o f many o f the e a r l y pre-emption records. The l a c k o f systematic s u r v e y s o r m a p s was a n i m p o r t a n t c a u s e o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n .  43.  Edward P h i l i p  44.  ibid,  45.  H e s t e r E. W h i t e , " J o h n C a r m i c h a e l H a y n e s " , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . I V , 1940, p.186. See a l s o M a r g a r e t A. O r m s b y , "Some I r i s h F i g u r e s i n C o l o n i a l D a y s " , B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . XIV, 1950, No. 1 a n d 2, p p . 6 1 - 8 2 .  46.  Thomas E l l i s ,  "Diary",  47.  ibid,  1865,  48.  F.W. Laing, Historical  Johnson, Op.cit.  the  District  up  to  1914,  p.3.  p.6.  May  25,  MSS,  M a r c h 18,  1865,  MSS,  PABC.  PABC.  O p . c i t . pp.453-458. See a l s o t h e O k a n a g a n S o c i e t y , A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1958, p.118.  220  r-  49.  J.B.  Kerr,  Op.cit.  p.316.  50.  ibid,  51.  F.W. Laing, Op.cit. p.9. O v e r 3,000 p r e - e m p t i o n c l a i m s w e r e r e c o r d e d d u r i n g t h e c o l o n i a l p e r i o d : New W e s t m i n s t e r ( 9 1 7 ) , L i l l o o e t (758), L y t t o n (460), Cariboo ( 3 9 7 ) , Hope ( 1 1 9 ) , Y a l e (100), D o u g l a s ( 9 6 ) , R o c k C r e e k a n d O s o y o o s (89) and Similkameen (32).  52.  E.O.S. S c h o l e f i e l d a n d  53.  K a m l o o p s Museum A s s o c i a t i o n , " E a r l y D a y s " ,  54.  J.B.  55.  ibid,  56.  S e e D a v i d H. B r e e n , "The C a t t l e C o m p a c t : T h e R a n c h C o m m u n i t y i n S o u t h e r n A l b e r t a 1 8 8 1 - 1 8 9 6 " , M.A. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y , 1969. The f i r s t c h a p t e r , " F o u n d a t i o n o f t h e C a t t l e Kingdom: 1 8 8 1 - 1 8 8 6 " , c o n t a i n s an e x c e l l e n t a n a l y s i s of the f i r s t ranchers to s e t t l e the A l b e r t a ranching frontier.  57.  C l e m e n t F.  58.  ibid,  59.  J e r o m e H a r p e r t o G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s , May C o r r e s p o n d e n c e I n w a r d , MSS, PABC.  60.  F o r i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e m i l l , s e e F.W. Laing, "Early Flour M i l l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia", B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . V , 1941, pp.201-203.  61.  J o h n B o y d , C o t t o n w o o d H o u s e R e c e i p t s and Day B o o k s , C o l d S p r i n g H o u s e C a s h B o o k , MSS, Special Collections, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, L i b r a r y . T h e i r l o c a t i o n was 2 6 m i l e s south of Quesnelmouth.  62.  John Boyd,  63.  P i o n e e r r a n c h e r s who r a n r o a d s i d e h o u s e s t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e i r i n c o m e s i n c l u d e d among o t h e r s t h e C o r n w a l l s a t A s h c r o f t ; C. S e m l i n a n d P. P a r k e a t B o n a p a r t e H o u s e ; L o r e n z o L e a r t o a t "The F o u n t a i n " ; A l b e r t C h r y s l e r a t 83 M i l e H o u s e ; W i l l i a m M a n s o n a t 1 1 1 M i l e H o u s e ; W. H e n d e r s o n ' s B l u e T e n t R a n c h ; D e n n i s M u r p h y a t 141 M i l e H o u s e and M c L e e s e ' s C o l o n i a l H o t e l a t Soda Creek. C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , May 12, 1866.  64.  C l e m e n t F.  p.310.  Kerr,  Op.cit.  F.W.  p.17  Howay, O p . c i t .  p.879. 1971,  MSS,  PABC.  6.  p.209.  Cornwall,  "Diary",  1862-1864.  p.31.  p.49.  "Day  Books", February  Cornwall,  "Diary",  2,  4,  1864,  1862-1864,  1863,  Colonial  Op.cit.  p.25.  -  Cariboo Sentinel,  66.  M a r g a r e t A. O r m s b y , "A S t u d y o f t h e O k a n a g a n V a l l e y B r i t i s h Columbia", Op.cit. p.47.  67.  F o r t K a m l o o p s J o u r n a l , W i l l i a m M a n s o n , May 9, 1 8 6 1 , MSS, PABC. A common e n t r y b y t h e c h i e f t r a d e r w o u l d r e a d "Men m o r e o r l e s s i n l i q u o r a l l d a y a l t h o a t w o r k " .  68.  Thomas E l w y n t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , November 16, 1860, C o l o n i a l C o r r e s p o n d e n c e I n w a r d , MSS, PABC. G.B. W r i g h t t o D o u g l a s , F e b r u a r y 5, 1 8 6 2 , C o l o n i a l C o r r e s p o n d e n c e I n w a r d , MSS, PABC.  69.  British  70.  R o b e r t E.  71.  B r i t i s h Columbia Return of P a s t o r a l Leases, Report of the C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r o f Lands and Works, 1873. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1873. p.65.  72.  H..M. B a l l t o C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , O c t o b e r 17, 1864. L y t t o n G o v e r n m e n t A g e n c y , L e t t e r b o o k , 1 8 5 9 - 1 8 7 0 , MSS, PABC. At a p u b l i c meeting a t L y t t o n , Clement C o r n w a l l beat W. A r m s t r o n g b y a m a j o r i t y o f 1 3 5 v o l e s t o w i n . t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Council seat.  73.  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n , F e b r u a r y 15, 1865. The P o u n d s b i l l , i f i t had b e e n i m p l e m e n t e d , w o u l d h a v e p r o v i d e d f o r the impounding of e v e r y h o r s e , mare, g e l d i n g , c o l t , f i l l y , a s s , m u l e , cow, h e i f e r , e t c . f o u n d i n a n y f o r e s t o r open p a s t u r e l a n d , o r o t h e r u n e n c l o s e d l a n d . T h i s p r o p o s a l b y C o r n w a l l came b e f o r e t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l had i n t r o d u c e d f e n c i n g legislation.  74.  The H a t C r e e k v a l l e y i s a n a r r o w v a l l e y , l y i n g westward of t h e Thompson r i v e r v a l l e y . Through the v a l l e y r a n a t r a i l f r o m L y t t o n w h i c h j o i n e d t h e wagon r o a d a t McLean's house on t h e B o n a p a r t e r i v e r .  75. B r i t i s h 76. 76A. 77.  Cail,  1865.  O r d i n a n c e s , 1865, Op.cit.  Columbian,  Cariboo Sentinel, British  17,  r.  65.  Columbia  May  221'  Columbian,  27.  p.18.  August August  No.  of  24 19,  October  and  28,  1865.  1865. 28,  1865.  P.H. N i n d t o C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , J u l y 2 5 , 1 8 6 5 , L y t t o n Government Agency, O p . c i t . N i n d , a f t e r c o n s u l t i n g w i t h L y t t o n b u t c h e r Chapot, e s t i m a t e d the land c o u l d support 1 h e a d p e r 30 a c r e s w h e r e a s t h e C o r n w a l l e s t i m a t e w a s 1 h e a d p e r 50 a c r e s .  r-  r-  78.  British  79.  Clement Cornwall, "Diary", MSS, P A B C .  80.  British  Columbia Ordinances,  1869,  No . 1 0 .  81.  British  Columbia Ordinances,  1871,  No . 2 0 .  82.  Robin F i s h e r , "Indian-European R e l a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columb i a , 1 7 7 4 - 1 8 9 0 " , Ph.D. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974, p.146.  83.  ibid,  84.  B r i t i s h Columbia, "Papers connected w i t h t h e I n d i a n Land Q u e s t i o n " , S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 2nd P a r l i a m e n t , 1 s t S e s s i o n , 1876.  85.  R o b e r t E. C a i l ,  86.  ibid,  87.  F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f post Douglas C o l o n i a l Indian p o l i c y , see Robin F i s h e r , "Joseph T r u t c h and I n d i a n Land P o l i c y " , B.C. S t u d i e s , No. 1 2 , W i n t e r 1 9 7 1 - 7 2 , p p . 3 - 3 3 .  88.  B r i t i s h Columbia, "Return of Indian Reserves", P a p e r s , 2nd s e s s i o n , 1 s t P a r l i a m e n t , 1872-73,  89.  B r i t i s h Columbia, Journals of the L e g i s l a t i v e M a y 3, 1 8 6 4 , New W e s t m i n s t e r , MSS, P A B C .  90.  B r i t i s h Columbia, Journal of the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , F e b r u a r y 1 2 , 1 8 6 6 , New W e s t m i n s t e r , M S S , P A B C .  91.  British  92.  P.H. N i n d t o C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , J u l y 1 7 , 1 8 6 5 , L y t t o n G o v e r n m e n t A g e n c y , L e t t e r B o o k , MSS, P A B C .  93.  P.H.  94.  Columbia  222  O r d i n a n c e s , 1869, No.9. 24, 1869,  p.160.  Op.cit.  p.174.  p.175.  Columbian,  Nind  August  Sessional Appendix. Council,  4, 1 8 6 6 .  to Colonial Secretary,  J u l y 12, 1865, i b i d .  jbid.  95.  British  96.  Moberley  Columbian, to Chief  22, 1865, "Papers O p . c i t . p.198. 97.  li3 6 6 - 1 8 6 9 , J a n u a r y  March  6, 1 8 6 7 .  Commissioner  o f Land  connected with  J.C. Haynes t o C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y ,  and Works,  the Indian May  Land  December Question",  27, 1865, i b i d .  -  223  r-  98.  C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y t o J.C. H a y n e s , J u n e 12, 1865, C o l o n i a l C o r r e s p o n d e n c e O u t w a r d , MSS, PABC.  99.  B r i t i s h Columbia, p.866.  October  15,  1866,  Government  100.  S e e F.W. British  101.  P.H. N i n d t o C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , J u l y 17, 1865, G o v e r n m e n t A g e n c y , L e t t e r B o o k , MSS, PABC.  102.  British  103.  Clement C o r n w a l l , " D i a r y " , 1862-18C4, O p . c i t . E r e c t i o n o f h o u s e s , wages $500 F o o d and p r o v i s i o n s 4 0 Irrigation Ditch 20 P u t t i n g up c o r a l s 30 P u t t i n g up s t o c k y a r d 66 P l o u g h i n g 25 a c r e s 150 P u t t i n g up s t a b l e and s h e d 150 E r e c t i o n o f saw m i l l , m a c h i n e r y ( n o t g i v e n ) Digging c e l l a r 27 2/3 m i l e f e n c i n g 300 B r e a k i n g u p 127 a c r e s o f l a n d 162  Gazette,  L a i n g , " C o l o n i a l Farm S e t t l e r s on t h e M a i n l a n d Columbia, 1858-1871", O p . c i t . pp.395-413.  Columbian, A p r i l  18,  Total 104.  ibid,  105.  Clement Cornwall,  106.  H e n r y P. C o r n w a l l , 1 8 6 5 , MSS, PABC,  107.  ibid, p.29. In true E n g l i s h s t y l e o f endearment such as  of  Lytton  1866, p.164.  $2,045  p.160. "Diary", "Diary", p.31.  1866-1869, O p . c i t . December  10,  1864  p.7. - June  13,  t h e y named t h e i r c a t t l e w i t h t e r m s "Bos", " C a r o l i n e " , and "Jenny".  108.  Cariboo  S e n t i n e l , J u l y 29,  1865.  109.  C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , J u n e 8, 1868. T h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e Van Volkenburgh family. O r i g i n a l l y f r o m New Y o r k s t a t e , t h e y operated i n the Cariboo mining centers before branching o u t i n t o r a n c h e s a t Canoe C r e e k and t h e n i n t h e N i c o l a Valley. I n t h e 1880's t h e y moved t o V i c t o r i a . There were a t l e a s t two b r o t h e r s , I s a a c and B e n j a m i n , a c t i v e i n t h e family business.  110.  Customs C o l l e c t i o n s a t the 1 8 6 4 - 1 8 6 7 , MSS, PABC.  S o u t h e r n B o u n d a r y and  Victoria,  -  111.  Clement Cornwall, Op.cit.  224  ^  "Diaries",  March  31 a n d A p r i l  4,  1868,  112. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " S t a t e m e n t o f t h e A v e r a g e P r i c e o f t h e P r i n c i p a l A r t i c l e s o f Consumption, C a r i b o o , 1863-1866", S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1867, p.7. 113.. B r i t i s h  Colonist,  114. C l e m e n t C o r n w a l l , 115.  ibid.  May  18,  April  13,  1868.  "Diaries",  April  13, 1869,  Op.cit.  1870.  1 1 6 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , "An O r d i n a n c e t o a m e n d t h e D u t i e s o f Customs, F e b r u a r y 15, 1865", O r d i n a n c e s o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , New W e s t m i n s t e r , 1 8 6 5 . S p e c i f i c d u t i e s o n l i v e s t o c k was 4 s / 2 d f o r b u l l s , cows, h o r s e s , a s s e s , mules and 2 s / l d f o r sheep, g o a t s , and hogs per head. 117.  Robson f u r t h e r p r o p o s e d a 20% ad v a l o r e m d u t y dead meat c a r c a s s e s .  118. B r i t i s h 119.  C o l u m b i a n , November 13,  1867.  "Diary",  123. B r i t i s h  March  Colonist,  18,  Council,  1867.  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , F e b r u a r y 10, 1869, J o u r n a l lative Council, Victoria, 1869.  122. C l e m e n t C o r n w a l l ,  124.  16,  B r i t i s h Columbia, Ordinances of the L e g i s l a t i v e No. 1 8 , 1 8 6 7 .  12 0. B r i t i s h 121.  Columbian, February  on a l l  February  19, 1869,  of the  Legis-  Op.cit.  1869.  ibid.  1 2 5 . The C a n a d i a n D u t y o n h o r s e s was $15 p e r h e a d a n d $10 p e r head f o r c a t t l e . T h e r e was no d u t y o n h a y , h o p s a n d cereals of a l l kinds. Government G a z e t t e , March, 1870, V i c t o r i a , pp.37-38. 126. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l S u b j e c t o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n w i t h Canada, March, 1870, V i c t o r i a , p.121.  Debate on t h e Government G a z e t t e ,  127.  ibid,  p.83.  128.  ibid,  p.100.  129.  P e a r s e t o S a n d e r s , S e p t e m b e r 3, 1 8 7 0 a n d P e a r s e t o O ' R e i l l y , S e p t e m b e r 3, 1 8 7 0 , L a n d s a n d W o r k s D e p a r t m e n t , C o l o n i a l  -  Correspondence  Outward,  Cail,  Op.cit.  225  r-  MSS,  PABC.  130.  R o b e r t E.  p.17.  131.  B r i t i s h Columbia, "Return of P a s t o r a l S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s 1873, p.65.  132.  Fs.W. L a i n g , C o l o n i a l F a r m S e t t l e r s o n t h e M a i n l a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1858-1871, O p . c i t . p.9.  133.  ibid,  134.  T h o m a s R.  135.  Colonial Office, MSS, PABC.  136.  Clement C o r n w a l l , MSS, PABC.  137.  i b i d . The C o r n w a l l s e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e y had shown a p r o f i t o f $6,200 f o r t h e y e a r 1868. That i s a very r e s p e c t a b l e s h o w i n g when y o u c o n s i d e r t h e g e n e r a l l y s t a g n a n t n a t u r e o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a economy. Obv i o u s l y , the C o r n w a l l s were competent businessmen.  Leases...  1873", of  p.233-490. Weir, Op.cit.  p.85.  Blue Books, "Diary",  British  Columbia,  1869-1871, J u l y  12,  1870, 1870,  226 r-  r-.  NOTES  CHAPTER I I I  1.  E.O.S. S c h o l e f i e l d a n d R.E. G o s n e l l A H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V o l . 1 1 , O p . c i t . , p.13. T h e p o p u l a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 9,000 w h i t e s , 4 5 0 c o l o u r e d s a n d 1,400 C h i n e s e w a s f o u n d c h i e f l y i n t h e V i c t o r i a a n d New W e s t m i n s t e r a r e a , w i t h o n l y s c a t t e r e d s e t t l e m e n t throughout the I n t e r i o r .  2. M a r g a r e t A. O r m s b y , B r i t i s h pp.247-248.  Columbia:  A History,  Op.cit. y  3.  F o r d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on r a i l w a y s u r v e y s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , see S a n f o r d F l e m i n g , R e p o r t o f P r o g r e s s on t h e E x p l o r a t i o n a n d S u r v e y s u p t o J a n u a r y , 1 8 7 4 , O t t a w a , 187 4.  4.  Statutes  5.  ibid.  6.  B.W. P e a r c e t o B u s h b y , A u g u s t 2 5 , O c t o b e r 5, 1 4 , 2 5 , L a n d s and Works Department, C o l o n i a l C o r r e s p o n d e n c e Outward, MSS, PABC.  7.  B r i t i s h Columbia, Journals of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, 1875, V o l . IV, V i c t o r i a , pp.281-288. The Y a l e d i s t r i c t was d i v i d e d i n t o s i x p o l l i n g d i v i s i o n s . The b r e a k d o w n o f t h e 1874 v o t e r s l i s t was Hope a n d Y a l e p o l l i n g d i v i s i o n , 57 v o t e r s ; L y t t o n , 3 0 ; N i c o l a , 4 4 ; O k a n a g a n , 46; C a c h e C r e e k , 20; K a m l o o p s , 88.  8.  i b i d , pp.281-282. L i l l o o e t was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p o l l i n g d i v i s i o n s c o n s i s t i n g o f C a n o e C r e e k , 20 v o t e r s ; C l i n t o n , 75; L i l l o o e t , 65.  9.  Sanford Fleming, Op.cit.  10.  of the Province of B r i t i s h  No.  3,  Columbia,  No.  2,  18 7 2 .  1872.  pp.16-22.  C l e m e n t C o r n w a l l , " D i a r y " , J a n u a r y 1 9 , 1 8 7 2 , MSS, PABC. When t h e B a r n a r d E x p r e s s a r r i v e d a t t h e C o r n w a l l s i n J a n u a r y 1 8 7 2 , i t was t h e i r f i r s t c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e lower c o u n t r y i n f i v e weeks.  1 1 . M a i n l a n d G u a r d i a n , New  Westminster,  F e b r u a r y 17,  1877.  12.  B r i t i s h Columbia, J o u r n a l of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, s e s s i o n , 1 s t p a r l i a m e n t , J a n u a r y 11, 1873.  13.  British  Colonist,  Victoria,  October  26,  1873.  2nd  -  14.  227  -  ibid.  15.  Mainland  16.  Cariboo  17.  F.W. L a i n g , C o l o n i a l Farm S e t t l e r s on t h e M a i n l a n d o f B.C., 1858-1871, O p . c i t . pp.376-400. L o c a l r a n c h e r s who s e t t l e d i n t h e K a m l o o p s D i s t r i c t i n c l u d e d Donald McCauley, John Peterson, W i l l i a m Jones, V i c t o r G u i l l a u m e , I s a a c McQueen, R o b e r t Todd, J o h n Edwards, J o h n M c l v o r , Andrew N o b l e and o t h e r s .  18.  Mary B a l f , Op.cit.  Guardian, Sentinel,  February August  Kamloops, A  17,  24,  1877.  1872.  History  of  the  District  to  1914  p.31.  19.  Cariboo  Sentinel,  March  20.  Cariboo  Sentinel,  August  21.  C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , December 23, 1873. H e r b e r t Bowe d e l i v e r e d 39 h e a d o f c a t t l e burgh a b b a t o i r i n December, 1871.  9,  1872.  24,  1872.  22.  Cariboo  Sentinel,  October  23.  British  Colonist,  March  24.  British  Colonist,  N o v e m b e r 7,  25.  Cariboo  Sentinel,  December  26.  up  5,  19,  t o t h e Van  Volken-  1872. 1871. 1891.  15,  1874.  ibid.  27.  F.W. L a i n g , "Some P i o n e e r s o f t h e C a t t l e I n d u s t r y " , Op. c i t . pp.268-270. The H a r p e r l a n d h o l d i n g s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e l a r g e s t I n t e r i o r h o l d i n g b e f o r e t h e f o r m a t i o n and g r o w t h o f t h e D o u g l a s Lake C a t t l e Company. I t i n c l u d e d 3,957 a c r e s e a s t o f K a m l o o p s , 906 a c r e s a t C a c h e C r e e k , 1 4 , 7 9 7 a c r e s i n t h e C u t - O f f v a l l e y n e a r C l i n t o n and t h e Gang Ranch i n t h e C h i l c o t i n .  28.  C l e m e n t C o r n w a l l , " D i a r y " , A p r i l 1 4 , 1 8 6 8 , MSS, PABC. Clement Cornwall d i d not t r u s t the Harpers. As Thaddeus H a r p e r was a s s e m b l i n g h i s c a t t l e i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1868, C o r n w a l l w e n t o v e r t o C a c h e C r e e k t o s e e i f he had "any of ours".  29.  British  Colonist,  April  30.  British  Colonist,  November  31.  B r i t i s h Columbia, "Return of land s o l d , S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1876, 1877, 1878.  13,  1868. 10,  1891, Lillooet  District",  -  228  32.  British Lytton  Columbia, "Return of lands applied D i s t r i c t " , S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1878,  33.  B r i t i s h Columbia, "Approximate Statement o f Lands s o l d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a from December 31, 1876..., S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1877, pp. 481-487.  34.  R.E. G o s n e l l , " H i s t o r y o f F a r m i n g " , i n C a n a d a a n d i t s P r o v i n c e s , T o r o n t o , 1917, V o l . X X I I , p/544.  35.  British  Colonist,  August  36.  J. Orin  Oliphant,  On  Country, 37.  British  Op.cit.  Colonist,  19,  f o r , Yalepp.584-585.  1876.  the C a t t l e  Ranges o f t h e  Oregon  p.113. April  20,  1876.  38.  F.W. L a i n g , "Some P i o n e e r s o f t h e C a t t l e p.270-71. 3 9 . B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , F e b r u a r y 5, 1 8 7 8 .  Industry,  Op.cit.  40.  The M a i n l a n d G u a r d i a n , e v e r y week f r o m m i d - M a r c h t o November, w o u l d l i s t t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e s t e a m f r o m Y a l e and Hope a l o n g w i t h t h e number o f c a t t l e on b o a r d . I n 1 8 7 8 , 1,878 cattle c a m e d o w n b y s t e a m e r t o New W e s t m i n s t e r . This i s a very c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e o f how m a n y h e a d a r r i v e d a t t h e c o a s t f o r i t does not t a k e i n t o account l i v e s t o c k d r i v e n a l l t h e way o r s e n t b y t h e Howe S o u n d t r a i l .  41.  British  42.  Cariboo Sentinel,  October  43.  Cariboo Sentinel,  April  44.  M a i n l a n d G u a r d i a n , May  45.  Inland  46.  F o r t h e p e r i o d 1871-1884, the p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s