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Functional rhetoric in Jean Genet : a story of verbal manipulation in Les Negres and Le Balcon Courtney de Broux, Peggy 1976

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FUNCTIONAL RHETORIC IN JEAN GENET: A. STUDY OF VERBAL MANIPULATION IN LES NEGRES AND LE BALCON by Peggy Courtney de Broux B.A., University of Washington, 1967 M.A., University of Washington, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of French) We accept this thesis as conforming-to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF April, ^) Peggy Courtney BRITISH COLUMBIA 1976 de Broux, 1976 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes is for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of French The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 Date A p r i l 15. 1976 - i — ABSTRACT Among twentieth-century French playwrights, Jean Genet i s one of the more elusive. His major plays, Le  Balcon, Les Negres and Les Paravents, have e l i c i t e d much l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m . However, seldom have c r i t i c s c l o s e l y examined the grammatical function of language i n Genet's dramatic dialogue. This study attempts to focus upon one p a r t i c u l a r type of character, discovered through use of language, found i n two of Genet's major plays, Les Negres and Le Balcon. I t i s an assessment of the manipulating character who uses certain r h e t o r i c a l devices while attempting persuasion of another character. The method used borrows from Peter France's book, Racine's Rhetoric (1965)»an analysis of language used i n seventeenth-century theatre. France's study examines persuasive rh e t o r i c under two d i f f e r e n t r u b r i c s : per-suasive language i n which speakers express overt emotions and covert emotions. We are l i m i t i n g this study to that dialogue i n Jean Genet's drama which reveals emotions, leaving to another study i t s complementary side. Rheto-r i c a l devices are here further confined to three groups only: imperatives, exhortations and i n s u l t s . The study searches Genet's dramatic dialogue f o r e f f e c t i v e uses of these r h e t o r i c a l devices. The s t u d y examines s u c h f u n c t i o n a l r h e t o r i c i n t h e two p l a y s w h e r e i n m a n i p u l a t i n g c h a r a c t e r s a r e t h e most a p p a r e n t , a l t h o u g h s i m i l a r t e c h n i q u e s a p p e a r e d e a r l i e r i n G e n e t ' s s h o r t e r w o r k s , Haute s u r v e i l l a n c e and L e s B o n n e s . R o l e - p l a y i n g , t h e most o b v i o u s i n L e s N e g r e s , i s f o u n d t o be c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a t t e m p t e d m a n i p u l a t i o n . Le  B a l c o n i s n e x t s t u d i e d , as t h e p e r s u a d i n g c h a r a c t e r s a r e l e s s o b v i o u s . The s t u d y f i n d s t h a t c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r s i n L e s  N e g r e s and Le B a l c o n a t t e m p t - - a n d a t t i m e s e f f e c t i v e l y m a n a g e - - p e r s u a s i o n o f o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s by use o f i m p e r a -t i v e s , e x h o r t a t i o n s and i n s u l t s . I m p e r a t i v e s a r e most o f t e n u s e d t o d e f i n e a r o l e , t o d i r e c t r o l e - p l a y i n g o r t o d e f i n e a g r o u p g o a l . A r c h i b a l d and L a R e i n e use i m p e r a t i v e s f o r t h e s e p u r p o s e s i n L e s N e g r e s , as does Mme I r m a i n Le B a l c o n . We a l s o w a t c h L ' E n v o y e 1 p e r -saude I rma to assume t h e r o l e o f L a R e i n e . O t h e r m a n i -p u l a t o r s i n L e B a l c o n a r e L e s T r o i s P h o t o g r a p h e s , who d e f i n e r o l e s f o r L ' E v e q u e , Le Juge and Le GeSnSral . We f i n d t h a t F e l i c i t S employs e x h o r t a t i o n i n o r d e r t o i n s t i l l a s e n s e o f p r i d e i n l e s n e g r e s . We a l s o f i n d t h a t some e x h o r t a t i o n s - - w h e n s i n g l e words o r n e g a t i v e s — a r e i n -e f f e c t u a l a d m o n i s h m e n t . V e r t u a t t e m p t s t o sway V i l l a g e ' s n a r r a t i v e i n L e s N e g r e s , b u t w i t h n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s . I n Le B a l c o n , e f f e c t i v e e x h o r t a t i o n i s t s a r e I r m a , who manages t o f r i g h t e n Carmen i n t o r e m a i n i n g w i t h i n l e G r a n d Balcon, and Roger, who attempts to keep Chantal from becoming the figure-head f o r the insurrection. Irma uses the repeated i m p e r a t i v e — c l e a r exhortation--and succeeds: Carmen remains. Roger uses the less f o r c e f u l exhortation—admonishment--and Chantal eludes him. Even though the admonishing exhortation f a i l s to sway i t s interlocutor, we f i n d i t s use reveals a character's psychological motivation. The t h i r d r h e t o r i c a l device, i n s u l t , i s seen to operate e f f e c t i v e l y i n Les Negres, as the "hatred of white" i s an in t e g r a l part of the play-within- the-play. There i s no equivalent 'theme i n Le  Balcon; thus, the use of i n s u l t there i s reduced to sparse name-calling. In so examining s p e c i f i c dialogue, the study adds depth to some of the rather puppet-like characters i n two of Jean Genet's dramas, adding one facet to exis t i n g psychological analysis. This type of textual examination of dialogue could be rewarding i n a future study of i t s alternate side: dialogue which conceals the emotions. In addition, an evolution may be discovered by examining dialogue i n Genet's l a s t play, Les Paravents, where the manipulating character seems to go underground, exchanging role-playing fo r a more straight-forward type of characterization. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Page RHETORIC IN GENERAL AND IN GENET 1 I . Genet's use o f I m p e r a t i v e s 6 I m p e r a t i v e s E x c l u d e d 9 I I . Genet's Use o f E x h o r t a t i o n 12 I I I . Genet's Use o f I n s u l t & I n v e c t i v e 13 CHAPTER ONE LES NEGRES I . I m p e r a t i v e s 17 A r c h i b a l d ( 2 2 - 3 8 ) ; V i l l e de S a i n t - N a z a i r e (38-2+0); La Reine ( 4 0 - ^ 7); Secondary D i r e c t o r s (^7-51) ; Summary (51) I I . E x h o r t a t i o n 52 F e l i c i t e ( 5 3 - 6 6 ) ; V e r t u & V i l l a g e ( 6 7 -7 2 ) ; Summary ( 7 2 - 7 3 ) I I I . I n s u l t and I n v e c t i v e 73 Neige & Bobo ( 7 5-82); V i l l a g e (82-8 5 ) ; F e ' l i c i t e ' & La Reine ( 8 5 - 8 8 ) ; Summary ( 8 8 - 8 9 ) IV. G e n e r a l Summary 89 CHAPTER TWO LE BALCON I . I m p e r a t i v e s 92 The Framing P l a y (92-9*0; Irma (9k-10k)5 L'EnvoyS ( 1 C 4 - 1 0 7 ) ; Les T r o i s Photographes ( 1 0 8 - 1 1 2 ) ; L'Eveque (112-1124.); Georges ( 1 1^-118); Summary (118-119) D i r e c t o r s W i t h i n the Frame ( 1 1 9 - 1 2 0 ) ; l e l e r T a b l e a u ( 1 2 0 - 1 2 1 ) ; l e 2® Tableau ( 121-1 2 5 ) ; l e 3 e T a b l e a u ( 1 2 6 - 1 2 9 ) ; l e 9 e Tableau ( 1 2 9 - 1 3 1 ) ; Summary ( I 3 2 - I 3 3 ) I I . E x h o r t a t i o n 133 C h a n t a l & Roger ( 1 3 ^ - 1 3 6 ) ; L'Eveque ( 1 3 6 - 1 3 7 ) ; Le Juge & Le Bo u r r e a u ( 137-1 3 8 ) ; Irma & Carmen ( I 3 8 - H H ) ; Georges & Carmen ( l k l - l k k ) ; Summary (lkk) I I I . I n s u l t Ikk Irma & Georges (Ik5-lk7)i Summary (Ik7-lk8) IV. G e n e r a l Summary 12+8 - V — TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CONCLUSION 150 NOTES & COMMENTS 159 BIBLIOGRAPHY I . Works C i t e d 181 I I . Works by Jea n Genet C o n s u l t e d 190 I I I . R h e t o r i c a l Methods, Works C o n s u l t e d 191 IV. U s e f u l C r i t i c i s m & R e l a t e d M a t e r i a l s C o n s u l t e d 193 V. B i b l i o g r a p h i e s C o n s u l t e d 201 - v i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A T h e s i s P r o j e c t a l w a y s i n v o l v e s f a r more p e o p l e t h a n the w r i t e r , whose u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s , o f c o u r s e , t o a t t e m p t n o t t o do a d i s s e r v i c e e i t h e r t o the s u b j e c t m a t t e r n o r t o r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l u s e d f r o m t h e r e s e a r c h u n d e r t a k e n . Whatever e r r o r s i n l o g i c o r p e r -c e p t i o n w h i c h a p p e a r h e r e a r e t h e w r i t e r ' s own. T h i s p r o j e c t has undergone enormous changes s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n . S e v e r a l y e a r s p r i o r t o the i n c u b a t i n i d e a s , t h e w r i t e r " d i s c o v e r e d " J e a n G e n e t t h r o u g h the a s s i s t a n c e o f D r . Norman S t o k l e ' s g r a d u a t e s e m i n a r on the T h e a t r e o f t h e A b s u r t a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g -t o n , summer o f 19"6?. G e n e t ' s use o f l a n g u a g e and d r a m a -t i c f o r m was a t once i n t r i g u i n g , so much so t h a t the f i r s t t h e s i s i d e a i n v o l v e d a c o m p a r i s o n s t u d y : a c y c l e s e e n i n the drama o f Samuel B e c k e t t and J e a n G e n e t w h i c h compared w i t h t h e f i c t i o n a l w o r l d o f W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r . The scope o f s u c h a p r o j e c t p r e c l u d e d i t s c o m p l e t i o n , a l t h o u g h I s h o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k D r . F r a n k J o n e s , P r o f e s s o r o f C o m p a r a t i v e L i t e r a t u r e and E n g l i s h , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , and D r . J o s e p h M e e k e r , C h a i r m a n o f H u m a n i t i e s , A t h a b a s c a U n i v e r s i t y , f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u e d s t i m u l a t i o n o f the w r i t e r ' s i d e a s and f o r t h e i r i n v a l u a b l e c r i t i c i s m s o v e r a p e r i o d o f y e a r s . - v i i -T h e s i s D i r e c t o r , D r . F l o y d S t - C l a i r , has g i v e n u n l i m i t e d s y m p a t h y and encouragement t o t h e p r o j e c t as i t changed f o r m and c o n c e p t . The p r e s e n t work a l s o owes a g r e a t d e a l t o t h e c a r e f u l r e a d i n g and c r i t i c i s m s o f "both D r . H a r o l d K n u t s o n and D r . F r e d e r i c G r o v e r , P r o f e s s o r s o f F r e n c h a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . And o n e ' s f a m i l y must a l w a y s p u t up w i t h t h e w r i t e r ' s e m o t i o n a l and a c a d e m i c d i f f i c u l t i e s , as t h e t h e s i s p r o -j e c t wends a l o n g i t s sometime h i l l o c k y r o a d . To my h u s b a n d , D r . J a y C o u r t n e y de B r o u x , t h e d e e p e s t g r a t i -t u d e f o r h i s p e r c e p t i v e n e s s and k i n d n e s s . The p a p e r w o u l d n e v e r have r e a c h e d a c o n c l u s i o n w i t h o u t h i s e n -couragement and p r a g m a t i c c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n , n o r w i t h o u t t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f my d a u g h t e r . A f i n a l n o t e : one c a n n e v e r p r o p e r l y t h a n k t h a t t i r e l e s s s t a f f , l i b r a r i a n s t h r o u g h o u t the N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t i n e n t , b u t I w o u l d l i k e t o g i v e my s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o A n n H u t c h i s o n , w i t h o u t whose p e r s i s t e n t a i d i n o b t a i n i n g I n t e r - L i b r a r y L o a n s much o f the r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l w o u l d have been i n a c c e s i b l e . Peggy C o u r t n e y de B r o u x U n i v . o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r , B . C . — 1976 -1-FUNCTIONAL RHETORIC IN JEAN GENET: A STUDY OF VERBAL MANIPULATION IN LES NEGRES & LE BALCON INTRODUCTION RHETORIC IN GENERAL AND IN GENET "II devra d'abord seduire, ensuite convaincre" --Genet, Les Negres Rhetoric has undergone a seemingly metamorphic career, from the orator's art i n ancient Greece, through a formal academic d i s c i p l i n e f o r school children, to a modern " c a t c h - a l l " f or any use of language. I t has even retained the derogatory sense of bombast, although t h i s describes only one of i t s many q u a l i t i e s . Anytime we examine language i n a work of l i t e r a t u r e , we are deal-ing with one or another form of rh e t o r i c , whether we so name i t or not. A study of dialogue, for example, reveals r h e t o r i c a l patterns which expose psychological motiva-tions of speakers. Does a character use•derogatory lan-guage? F l a t t e r i n g or commanding speech? Does the character change the tone of his speech by choice of vocabulary, c a r e f u l l y s u i t i n g h is language to the oc-casion? Why? These are some of the questions l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s may ask—and answer--regarding the.functional -2-use of rh e t o r i c i n l i t e r a t u r e . Some of the greatest figures i n world l i t e r a t u r e can be characterized by t h e i r r h e t o r i c a l patterns. Lear, Hamlet and Phedre are s t r i k i n g users of metaphor, simile and apostrophe. Faulkner's Quentin Compson (The Sound and  the Fury) t y p i c a l l y breaks away from central narrative to include information p e r i p h r a s t i c a l l y . Anouilh's Creon makes b r i l l i a n t use of l o g i c a l argumentation as he attempts to sway Antigone. Many of Akutagawa's and Harold Pinter's characters are masters of understate-ment ( l i t o t e s ) . La Princesse de Cleves and Prince Genji both c a r e f u l l y f i t t h e i r vocabulary to the occasion, as does one of the masters of irony i n French l i t e r a t u r e , Eaclos' Valmont. Diderot's neveu de Rameau b r i l l i a n t l y reveals paradox (antithesis) i n both h i s character and his speech. E l i o t ' s Prufrock reveals his hes i t a t i n g character by choice of images. Baudelaire transforms poetic " i d e a l " into b i r d ("L*Albatros"), using metonymy e f f e c t i v e l y . Dostoevsky's Ivan uses graphic and mov-ing narrative d e t a i l to frighten his brother, Aloysha Karamazov. Goethe's Werther revels i n pathetic exag-geration, and Rabelais' Gargantua i s a creative user of hyperbole, as his l i s t s accumulate epithets. These are just a few examples from world l i t e r a t u r e which point to the s t r i k i n g uses of r h e t o r i c a l device. - 3 -* * * T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the a r t o f r h e t o r i c was d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s , these c a t e g o r i e s meant to i n s t r u c t the o r a t o r : " i n v e n t i o , the d i s c o v e r y o f a l l the a v a i l a b l e means o f p e r s u a s i o n ; d i s p o s i t i o , the p l a n o f the speech ; e l o c u t i o , s t y l e ; memoria, memory; and p r o n u n c i a t i o , d e l i v e r y . " " ' " The two most r e l e v a n t c a t e g o r i e s f o r an e x a m i n a t i o n o f dramat ic d i a l o g u e are i n v e n t i o and, e s p e c i a l l y , e l o c u t i o . The modern use o f the term, r h e t o r i c , i s many-f a c e t e d , a p t l y p o i n t e d out by P e t e r France when he w r i t e s : A f t e r an e c l i p s e d a t i n g back at l e a s t as f a r as the E n c y c l o p e d i s t s , but made t o t a l by the succes s o f Romantic views o f l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n , r h e t o r i c has been showing s i g n s of new l i f e . I n A m e r i c a , where the t r a d i t i o n o f fo rmal r h e t o r i c a l t r a i n i n g was s t r o n g , the r e v i v a l o f the s u b j e c t has been p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y v i g o r o u s , but Europe too has been touched by the movement. The word r h e t o r i c i s now an accepted p a r t o f the c r i t i c a l a r s e n a l , even i f i t has to do s e r v i c e i n a number o f r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t causes . ( F r a n c e , RH & T , p . 265) J u s t how many " d i f f e r e n t causes" i s o n l y too e v i d e n t , when one attempts to de f ine "modern r h e t o r i c . " Leo Rockas , i n h i s Modes o f R h e t o r i c , c o n c i s e l y s t a t e s the three s tages through which t h i s " r h e t o r i c " has e v o l v e d , when he w r i t e s : R h e t o r i c has meant the a r t o f p e r s u a s i o n , o f d e c o r a t i o n and o f c o m p o s i t i o n . The f i r s t meaning i s c l a s s i c a l , the second m e d i e v a l and R e n a i s s a n c e , the t h i r d modern. The modern r h e t o r i c i a n , i f he exists, may r i g h t f u l l y take up any matter of lan-guage or discourse l e f t over when the l o g i c i a n and the grammarian have finished--and the three together s t i l l form a dubious modern " t r i v i u m . " 2 A combination of two of these uses of r h e t o r i c (excluding r h e t o r i c as decoration) i s suggested also by Peter France when he l i s t s Edward P. J. Corbett, C l a s s i c a l  Rhetoric for the Modern Student (New York, 1965), and Cleanth Brooks and Robert Perm Warren, Modern Rhetoric, 2nd e d i t i o n (New York, 1958) as being p r a c t i c a l guides to the use of r h e t o r i c for speaking and writing. France advises that these volumes are "more p r a c t i c a l books, mainly American, which set t h e i r advice on speech and writing i n the ancient t r a d i t i o n " (RH & T, p. 265)- France goes on to point out, "The second element i n the r e v i v a l of r h e t o r i c i s more interesting to the student of l i t e r a -ture. . .the attempt to b u i l d on the model of c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c a modern science, whose p r i n c i p a l aim i s to describe the language of l i t e r a t u r e . In t h i s , r h e t o r i c i s part of the cluster of subjects known as s t y l i s t i c s (from another point of view, s t y l i s t i c s i s a part of r h e t o r i c ) " (RH & T, pp. 265-66).3 We s h a l l examine what means of persuasion Jean Genet finds e s p e c i a l l y useful i n two of his major plays, Les Negres^" and Le Balcon,^ by examining the style which he selects for his characters' use i n these two plays. - 5 -Our method, then, w i l l assimilate the t r a d i t i o n a l con-cept of rhet o r i c as an orator's art. In the study, we are converting the orator and his audience into the medium of drama, where each character i s the c l a s s i c i s t V s "orator" and his intended onstage l i s t e n e r i s the "audience" which he i s attempting to persuade with p a r t i c u l a r l i n -g u i s t i c techniques. Thus, t h i s study w i l l be based upon some older conventions as well as some which are newer. One set of conventions applicable to the r h e t o r i c a l language which Genet's characters use can be based upon a d i v i s i o n between language which expresses overt and covert emotions. When used as attempts to persuade other characters, these techniques are useful i n exami-ning a p a r t i c u l a r type of character which appears with frequency i n Genet's drama. As the scope f o r examining both overt and covert language i s necessarily too large to be encompassed here, our study w i l l l i m i t i t s e l f , to language used' by characters to express t h e i r emotions openly. Such a d i v i s i o n was carried out by Peter France i n his examination of rh e t o r i c i n Racine's drama. A. guide-l i n e suggested i t s e l f i n his volume, Racine's Rhetoric, Chapter Five: "Functional r h e t o r i c — T h e Passions," where France described r h e t o r i c used i n Racine which we can apply - 6 -to the r h e t o r i c i n Genet. To summarize, the r h e t o r i c of overt emotions based on France and noticeable i n Genet's drama are: 1) COMMAND FORMS: Imperatives and implied im-peratives . 2) EXHORTATION, commonly, repeated Imperatives. 3) INSULT and INVECTIVE. These language structures p a r t i c u l a r l y reveal the emotions of t h e i r speakers, and are derived from t r a d i -t i o n a l r h e t o r i c . By means of the above, the persuading character reveals to another character something which he desires or f e e l s . Other r h e t o r i c a l devices--exclamation, the rheto-r i c a l question, apostrophe, hyperbole, change i n person (tutoiement to vousvoiement, and vice versa) and the use of the h i s t o r i c p r e s e n t s — w i l l be pointed out i n context where they i n t e n s i f y the techniques under d i r e c t study. However, three main techniques of rhetoric—Commands, Exhortations and Insults—have been i s o l a t e d as being the most relevant to language which attempts active per-suasion by one speaker upon another. I : GENET'S USE OF IMPERATIVES In Les Negres and Le Balcon we s h a l l examine how - 7 -certain characters i n Genet employ various forms of the command i n order to di r e c t other characters. S i g n i f i -cant examples of commands which are d i r e c t imperatives w i l l be studied, both i n the second persons and i n t h i r d -person- commands . We s h a l l also examine forms of commands which are i n d i r e c t imperatives. Typical of the d i r e c t imperative i s "N'ayez pas peur" (NEG, p. 5 2 ) . The basic difference between the di r e c t and the i n d i r e c t command i s the person to whom they are addressed. The second-person- commands (tu and vous forms) are e x p l i c i t l y directed to someone, as i s the fi r s t - p e r s o n , p l u r a l , command, which includes the speaker with h i s l i s t e n e r . The more i n d i r e c t third-person, singular, command--often used as "imperial desire" by La Reine i n Les Negres, for example (". . .qu'on recoive l a mere avec o courtoisie , '*7 NEG , p. 1 2 1 )--actually states a command. This type of imperative i s often directed to a group rather than to an i n d i v i d u a l . The third-person impera-tive may even be directed to someone not present. Other types of implied imperatives are 1) the i n -f i n i t i v e form and 2) the future tense form when, within the context, i t i s quite clear that the speaker i s expressing his desire for another to act i n a certa i n way. An example occurs i n Le Balcon when Mme Irma uses the future to inform Arthur how to play an approaching - 8 -r o l e , " T u r e s t e r a s i m m o b i l e , e t on t * e n s e v e l i r a " ( B A L , p . 9 6 ) . I n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s i n G e n e t ' s d r a m a , the use o f the f u t u r e t e n s e as command f o l l o w s c l o s e l y u p o n a d i r e c t l y e x p r e s s e d i m p e r a t i v e f o r m . A n o t h e r i m p l i e d i m p e r a t i v e o c c u r s i n Genet when e x c l a m a t i o n s ( b o t h i n f r a g m e n t e d p h r a s e s and i n s e n t e n c e f o r m ) i m p l y t h a t an a c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o the s p e a k e r . A g a i n , t h i s usage w i l l have t o be d e t e r m i n e d s o l e l y by the c o n t e x t i n w h i c h i t i s u s e d . R e c u r r e n t e x a m p l e s i n L e s N e g r e s , f o r e x a m p l e , are s u c h s h o r t e x p r e s s i o n s as " A u s e c o u r s ' . " " E n p l a c e , " " Je v o u s en p r i e , " " A t o i , " o r "Eve*que'." (NEG, p p . 66 , 8 1 , 5k, 103, 1 8 ) . W i t h i n t h e i r v a r i o u s c o n t e x t s , i t w i l l be c l e a r t h a t t h e s e s i n g l e words o r p h r a s e s are a c t u a l l y commands f r o m one c h a r a c t e r t o a n o t h e r . Y e t a n o t h e r i m p l i e d i m p e r a t i v e i n G e n e t ' s d r a m a t i c d i a l o g u e o c c u r s w i t h c e r t a i n u s e s o f complex s e n t e n c e s where t h e v e r b i n the i n d e p e n d e n t c l a u s e i m p o s e s t h e use o f t h e s u b j u n c t i v e i n t h e dependent c l a u s e . How-e v e r , f o r the p u r p o s e s o f a p p r e h e n d i n g p e r s u a s i v e r h e t o r i c , t h i s t y p e o f s y n t a x must be j u d g e d as an i m p e r a -t i v e t o a n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s o l e l y w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f i t s u s e . T h i s t y p e o f i m p e r a t i v e , as w e l l as t h o s e a b o v e , i s g e n e r a l l y o n l y a p e r s u a d i n g command when a d d r e s s e d t o someone e l s e . H o w e v e r , we may sometimes - 9 -notice that the speaker includes himself i n the group thus directed. For example, Archibald says, "nous devons meriter leur reprobation" (NEG, p. ^-6), A r c h i -bald including himself i n the general command. We s h a l l observe another very special case where the command includes the speaker. This i s the s e l f - command , noticeable, for example, i n the character Roger i n Le Balcon as he states what he, himself, must understand i n order to play out the role of Le Heros: "II faut que je me fasse une idee du Heros. . ." (BAL, ) p. 188). This type of character utters self-commands, "di r e c t i n g " a role envisaged mentally by that same character. A. f i n a l l i n g u i s t i c imperative at work i n Genet w i l l be seen i n the use of certain verbs whose very sense ( i n t e r d i r e , for example) makes the i r 1 use a "commanding" one . IMPERATIVES EXCLUDED Since our study i s not a l i n g u i s t i c search for a l l possible forms of the imperative, but rather i t i s a concentrated study of imperatives employed by characters i n Les Negres and Le Balcon who attempt to influence action or f e e l i n g i n another character, i t w i l l be -lO-ne cessary to exclude the following three types of commands which do not function i n t h i s manner: 1) Excluded are such imperatives as tie n s , dites, etc., when they are used to urge conversations to con-tinue; i n such instances these imperatives are not being used i n th e i r s t r i c t e s t grammatical sense as actual commands. 2) Excluded are such commands where word-sense asks for permission, rather than expressing a desire of the speaker that someone else act (a di r e c t contrast to such verbs as i n t e r d i r e , mentioned above). The verb, l a i s s e r , f or example, may function i n both ways; i t may be a genuine imperative, such as "Ne me l a i s s e pas seule au grenier" (NEG, p. 9 3 ) ; or i t may be used as a plea f o r permission, often the case when Diouf uses i t : "Laissez-moi. . .leur pro-poser un accord" (NEG, p. 46). There are other times at which context alone w i l l regulate such an exclusion. 3) The t h i r d instance to be excluded has already been mentioned: there are times when the self-addressed command w i l l not apply to any e f f o r t at s e l f - d i r e c -t i o n . The dir e c t and i n d i r e c t imperatives described e a r l i e r - - w i t h the above e x c e p t i o n s — w i l l be f u l l y explored -11-i n Genet's Les Negres and Le Balcon. * * The study concentrates on these two plays for one major reason: a survey of Genet's dramatic work re-vealed that manipulators were more completely developed i n these, his fourth and t h i r d dramas. Haute surveillance and Les Bonnes both contain characters who attempt mani-pulation and would be worth a study on t h e i r own. How-ever, with Le Balcon, Genet's f i r s t f u l l - l e n g t h drama, t h i s type of manipulating character becomes more obvious and provides more depth of observation than i s available i n the two e a r l i e r , hermetically t i g h t dramas. In Les  Negres, the persuading character i s clearest of a l l , which i s why the study begins here, rather than with Balcon, a s l i g h t l y flawed drama. Another reason to have chosen these two major plays (and not have included Genet's f i n a l f u l l - l e n g t h drama, Les Paravents) i s that the emotional manipulation which we s h a l l examine follows a path of i t s own: beginning i n the very enclosed uni-verse of brothel and court, where role-playing i s abso-l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l , Genet's dramatic "world" expands from the " p a r t i c u l a r " (derived from his special back-ground) where role-playing i s absolutely necessary, to -12-th e more "universal," as i n Les Paravents, where a l l masks have f a l l e n . Thus, we s h a l l explore evident mani-pulation, stopping at the point where Paravents begins: drama i n which manipulation becomes subtle and psycholo-g i c a l , perhaps verbally absent i n great part. II : GENET'S USE OF EXHORTATION We s h a l l examine how characters i n Genet use exhor-t a t i o n to d i r e c t other characters. Although dictionary d e f i n i t i o n s do not express the form which an exhortation takes, we s h a l l discover that speakers commonly use repeated imperatives i n order "to i n c i t e by words or advice. . .to urge strongly" (Webster's New International  Dictionary, 2nd e d i t i o n , 1953); or "to admonish earnestly; to urge by words to laudable conduct""1"0 (The Shorter  Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd e d i t i o n , 19^7); or "to urge, advise or caution earnestly; admonish urgently" (American College Dictionary, Random House, 1958) . Close examination of the above--slightly varying--definitions reveals that these d e f i n i t i o n s , themselves, employ a r e p e t i t i o n of idea, the i n f i n i t i v e s used as near synonyms. Thus, i t i s not surprising to note, for i n -stance, that Peter France l i m i t s examples of exhortation i n Racine's drama to repeated imperatives,1""'" and he -13-d e s c r i b e s b o t h the r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n and the e x h o r t a -t i o n as " t w o f i g u r e s w h i c h , t h o u g h c a p a b l e o f e x p r e s s i n g p a s s i o n , a re e s s e n t i a l l y p e r s u a s i v e f i g u r e s " (RR, p . 233)-We s h a l l examine t h e r e p e a t e d commands u s e d b y G e n e t ' s c h a r a c t e r s and o t h e r l i n g u i s t i c p a t t e r n s w h i c h i n d i c a t e e x h o r t a t i o n . We may f i n d t h a t t h e i n t e n t o f the s p e e c h i s t o u r g e a n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r t o a c e r t a i n a c t i o n o r f e e l i n g , u s i n g r h e t o r i c a l l a n g u a g e t o m a i n t a i n a p e r s u a s i v e p o s i t i o n . We may a l s o f i n d t h a t s i n g l e words o r n e g a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s c o n t a i n e x h o r t a t i v e i n t e n t . T h i s may o c c u r as e i t h e r i n c i t e m e n t o r admonishment . I l l : GENET'S USE OF INSULT & INVECTIVE The t h i r d method o f u s i n g r h e t o r i c t o e x p r e s s d i r e c t e m o t i o n c o m p r i s e s t h e s t u d y o f i n s u l t and i n v e c t i v e . The two w o r d s are n o t e x a c t l y synonymous; h o w e v e r , t h e y c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e one a n o t h e r and w o r k , l i n g u i s t i c a l l y , i n the same w a y . B o t h are f o r m s o f h y p e r b o l e . W i l l i a m F . I r m s c h e r d e f i n e s i n v e c t i v e as e x a g g e r a t i o n i n t h i s manner : "When / e x a g g e r a t i o n / i s a p p l i e d t o p e r s o n a l a t t a c k , the r e s u l t 12 i s i n v e c t i v e - - a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f a b u s e . " A g a i n com-p a r i n g d e f i n i t i o n s f r o m W e b s t e r ' s , O x f o r d , and The A m e r i c a n  C o l l e g e d i c t i o n a r i e s , i n o r d e r , W e b s t e r ' s d e f i n e s i n v e c -t i v e : "A. v i o l e n t o r r a i l i n g d e n u n c i a t i o n o r a c c u s a t i o n ; - 1 4 -something u t t e r e d or w r i t t e n i n a har sh or b i t t e r s p i r i t , i n t e n d e d to ca s t opprobr ium, or d e n u n c i a t o r y e x p r e s s i o n . " O x f o r d ' s i s a lmost e x a c t l y the same d e f i n i t i o n : " A v i o -l e n t a t t a c k i n words; a d e n u n c i a t o r y or r a i l i n g speech , w r i t i n g , or e x p r e s s i o n . . . v i t u p e r a t i o n . " The c h o i c e of a d j e c t i v e s i s o n l y s l i g h t l y : d i f f e r e n t i n The Amer ican  C o l l e g e : "vehement d e n u n c i a t i o n ; an u t t e r a n c e o f v i o l e n t censure or r e p r o a c h . " The d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n f o r " i n s u l t " appear q u i t e p a r a l l e l : W e b s t e r ' s , "To t r e a t w i t h i n s o l e n c e , i n -d i g n i t y , or contempt, by word or a c t i o n ; to a f f r o n t wan-t o n l y " ; O x f o r d ' s g i v e s : "To a s s a i l w i t h s c o r n f u l abuse or o f f e n s i v e d i s r e s p e c t ; to o f f e r i n d i g n i t y t o ; to a f f r o n t , o u t r a g e " ; and The American C o l l e g e says i n s u l t " i m p l i e s such i n s o l e n c e o f speech or manner as d e e p l y h u m i l i a t e s or wounds o n e ' s f e e l i n g s and arouses a n g e r . " The d i f f e r e n c e between " i n v e c t i v e " and " i n s u l t " i s o f t e n i n q u a n t i t y o f l anguage : i n v e c t i v e o f t e n b e i n g a p r o l o n g e d , cumula t ive a t t a c k , whereas an i n s u l t i s q u i t e o f t e n e f f e c t e d w i t h a s i n g l e word. I n each case , speakers use language to h u r t , denounce o r r e p r o a c h . We w i l l n o t i c e t h a t i n s u l t s t e n d to be se t i n language which would a f f e c t the l i s t e n e r ' s emotions ( " o u t r a g e , " " i n s o l e n c e , " " i n d i g n i t y , " " c o n t e m p t , " " h u m i l i a t e s " or " a rouses a n g e r " ) . As a means o f m a n i p u l a t i n g o t h e r s , t h i s type o f language -15-i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r spe a k e r s who w i s h t o persuade, E. L. Shostrom d e s c r i b e s the f o l l o w i n g under the r u b r i c , " M a n i p u l a t i n g the F e e l i n g s o f O t h e r s " : 1. Anger. A. m a n i p u l a t o r can, by h i s own anger, i n t i m i d a t e and c r e a t e f e a r i n o t h e r s . . . Other c l e v e r m a n i p u l a t o r s use the f e e l i n g o f anger by g e t t i n g p e o p l e t o h a t e . 2. F e a r . Eugene B u r d i c k s u g g e s t s t h a t a m a n i p u l a t o r works f e a r a l o n g w i t h h a t e . "He s i t s a t the c o n s o l e and g i v e s 'em what he t h i n k s t h e y need; a l i t t l e f e a r t o d a y , a l i t t l e h a t e tomorrow . . . " / B u r d i c k , The N i n t h Wave ( B o s t o n , 1956), P- 9P7 3- H u r t . The a u t h o r o f How _to Be a J e w i s h  Mother /Dan Greenburg (Los A n g e l e s , I9E5J> PP- 15. I j 5 / g i v e s examples o f how a m a n i p u l a t i v e mother might use h u r t t o c o n t r o l h e r c h i l d r e n . . . The f o l l o w i n g key p h r a s e s i l l u s t r a t e the use o f : h u r t t o c o n ' t r o l : a. "Go ahead and e n j o y y o u r s e l f " (and don't worry t h a t I have a headache). b. "Don't worry about me." c. " I don't mind s t a y i n g home a l o n e . " d. "I'm g l a d i t happened t o me and not to" you." 1-} Shostrom a l s o l i s t s t r u s t ("The t y p i c a l 'con a r t i s t ' u ses t r u s t t o make a s a l e . . .") and l o v e [ { " a s a mani-p u l a t i v e t e c h n i q u e i s i l l u s t r a t e d by such p h r a s e s as vIf you l o v e me you would... '") (MAN, p. 4 4 ) . We suggest we may f i n d t h a t Shostrom's f i r s t t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s (anger, f e a r , h u r t ) r e s u l t when Genet's p e r s u a s i v e c h a r a c t e r s employ r h e t o r i c a l i n s u l t s and i n v e c t i v e s . The l i n g u i s t i c d e v i c e used w i l l v a r y , dependent upon the p a r t i c u l a r r e s u l t d e s i r e d a c c o r d i n g t o c o n t e x t . ^ - 1 6 -In Genet's drama, we may often f i n d the tone of whole passages r e f l e c t s invective when used "by a character who i s attempting persuasion. In other instances, single words may attack 1"^ the feelings of the l i s t e n e r . In Les Negres, for example, Bobo uses the single epithet, "Imbecile" (NEG, p. 42), for V i l l a g e , which may prove t y p i c a l of the i n s u l t as used by Genet's characters. We s h a l l examine i n s u l t as r h e t o r i c a l figure only when i t appears to be used to pique another character into action. - 1 7 -CHAPTER ONE Les Negres I : IMPERATIVES "Les v i l l a g e s dSsoles l'Afrique e"cartelee" — D iop, Hammer Blows « . 1 Les Negres, Genet's second f u l l - l e n g t h drama, i s a complex play with dual plots and r o l e s which require that the actors play dual sets of characters. The more obvious p l o t concerns a crime which members of a black "cast," l e s negres, enact i n order to receive judgment from a white Cour, who are blacks disguised by white masks. Various members of the black cast are appointed th e i r r o l e s : V i l l a g e must commit the rape/ murder; Diouf, an elder member of l e s negres, i s appointed the role of the white victim. Two leaders, Archibald and F e l i c i t e , urge the black actors to play t h e i r r o l e s "properly," "according to the text." Two of l e s negres, the lovers V i l l a g e and Vertu, r e s i s t playing th e i r "proper" r o l e s and almost force the leader, Archibald, to exile them among the white audience. The masked blacks are La Reine and her retinue, who s i t i n -18-judgment u n t i l the plot reverses i t s e l f and they f i n d themselves being judged, following Diouf's "giving b i r t h " to d o l l s which represent each member of l a Cour. The secondary p l o t , which i s known only through hearsay, concerns " r e a l " blacks who are judging a criminal among themselves, and when the l i a i s o n character between the two pl o t s , V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire, makes th i s second judgment clear, we discover that a l l the role-playing onstage was being used to divert white attention from that "outside" act. Susan Taubes summarized these complexities concisely, when she says i n "The White Mask F a l l s " : The play i s set up so as to provide continual mirror e f f e c t s as i t s action develops simulta-neously on two planes: l ) the c o n f l i c t between blacks and whites i s given i n the dramatic con-frontation between the players and the public; and 2) i t i s mirrored on the stage where a group of Negro actors must re-enact before a white jury . . .the f i c t i t i o u s rape of a white woman. . . The white-masked actors represent i n caricature a group of white supremacists composed of a queen and her valet, a co l o n i a l governor general, and a missionary bishop. By the play's end, the audience has discovered that a l l the parts were played by Negro actors; that they were viewing a c i r c u l a r r i t u a l ; and that the same r i t u a l w i l l be undertaken again the next evening, continuing c y c l i c a l l y . The 'surface' plo t ends when l e s negres lead l a Cour onto enemy t u r f (Africa) and "execute" them. - 1 9 -Th e "outside" p l o t concludes when a l l the Negro players (les negres and the unmasked Cour) hear from V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire that t h e i r own judgment i s complete. The f i n a l moments present a paradoxical r i t u a l , a mixture of black and white supremacy, as Afr i c a n rhythms give way to the orderly Western minuet. # * *• In Les Negres, Jean Genet creates three obvious persuading characters: ARCHIBALD and LA REINE, the two leaders who c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y use imperatives to d i r e c t . FELICITE, who uses commands to a les s e r degree, dominates others through exhortive language, which w i l l be examined i n the next section of our study. ARCHIBALD emerges as a "persuader" by his extensive use of the imperative--in a l l the forms which were de-fined i n our Introduction. We s h a l l c l o s e l y scrutinize examples of his commands which occur i n two types of situat i o n s . In the f i r s t , Archibald i s director/prompter of l e s negres, the group of actors i n the play who are to narrate and pantomime a crime which one of th e i r group, V i l l a g e , claims as his own. Bobo, Neige, Diouf, Vertu and Fe"licite*, the others i n t h i s group, involve -20-themselves i n V i l l a g e ' s narrative through various means: they 'correct' h i s version; they castigate him when he appears to be miming the feelings of t h e i r judges, l a Cour; they give him support by providing i n s u l t s when he c a l l s on them for help. Throughout, ARCHIBALD di r e c t s them, ordering the tone of the narrative and c r i t i c i z i n g i l l - c h o s e n vocabulary or gesture. He casts r o l e s or allocates t h i s duty to another.. ...He, himself, enters into the 'performance' they are playing, and as s i s t s i n the f i n a l version of V i l l a g e ' s narrative. ARCHIBALD'S l a s t 'directing* duty i s that of showing l a Cour the exact spot on the stage on which to "die." In each case, ARCHIBALD h a b i t u a l l y uses imperatives (direct or implied) to d i r e c t both groups acting i n the 'performance.' Secondly, ARCHIBALD also d i r e c t s what i s actually another group, which at f i r s t consists only of l e s negres, plus the l i a i s o n character, V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire. This group stands aside from the 'performance' and discusses i t s private concern, which i s judging one of i t s own people a n d — l a t e i n the play--picking a new leader for the revolution which dialogue implies i s occuring off-stage. Near the end of Les Negres we discover that l a Cour has been a part of t h i s same group, a l l along. Throughout the play, ARCHIBALD directs the others i n the b r i e f scenes -21-where they delay the 'performance* to discuss t h e i r 'outside' concern. LA REINE i s the leader of l a Cour, which consists of Le Gouverneur, Le Juge, Le Missionnaire and Le Valet. As monarch, her imperatives are generally imperial decrees of her w i l l , to be imposed upon l e s negres. LA REINE also demands help from l a Cour, and she occasionally commands the ,*performance' of l e s negres. By f a r her most important commands concern threats to l e s negres, a l l uttered as the leader of the judging characters, that i s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of her role as LA REINE. In addition, LA REINE and'ARCHIBALD, together, d i r e c t the execution of her Court. We f i n d that several members of her Court also use imperatives: Le Gouverneur utters stereotyped cliche-commands; Le Missionnaire i n s i s t s upon prudence; Le Juge rules the 'judgment'; and Le Valet demands atten-t i o n to the 'performance' and cautions l a Cour during t h e i r voyage. For purposes of analyzing the r h e t o r i c a l techniques which these characters use e f f e c t i v e l y to 'direct' others, we s h a l l a r b i t r a r i l l y use model examples of t h e i r language, taken out of the context of the normal sequence of the play. - 2 2 -* # # ARCHIBALD, p r o m p t e r o f the p l a y - w i t h i n - t h e - p l a y As the c h a r a c t e r c o n t r o l l i n g the ' p e r f o r m a n c e ' w h i c h l e s n e g r e s a r e t o g i v e f o r l a Cour ( t h e p i a y - w i t h i n - t h e -p l a y ) , A r c h i b a l d c o n t r o l s t h r e e t h i n g s ? 1) f r e q u e n t l y he r e m i n d s h i s a c t o r s o f t h e g o a l o f t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e ; 2) he i n s i s t s upon the t o n e and v o c a b u l a r y o f t h a t p e r -f o r m a n c e ; and 3) he d i r e c t s the a c t o r s ' a c t i o n s . F i r s t t o be e x a m i n e d are t h o s e speeches i n w h i c h he e v o k e s the g r o u p g o a l . A r c h i b a l d u s e s an i m p l i e d command ( the f u t u r e t e n s e ) when he f i r s t o p e n l y r e m i n d s l e s n e g r e s , as a c t o r s , o f the g o a l o f t h e i r ' p e r f o r m a n c e , ' i n s i s t i n g t h a t the c o l o r b l a c k be t h e i r v i t a l f o r c e : " L e t r a g i q u e s e r a dans l a c o u l e u r n o i r e ! C ' e s t e l l e que v o u s c h e r i r e z , r e j o i n d r e z , m l r i t e r e z . C ' e s t e l l e q u ' i l f a u d r a g a g n e r " (NEG, p . 2 8 ) . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e i s l a t e r r e i n f o r c e d w i t h a n o t h e r s p e e c h , w h i c h b e g i n s as a d i r e c t i v e t o V i l l a g e , b u t w h i c h becomes a d i r e c t i v e t o l e s n e g r e s , as a g r o u p , t o "become b l a c k " : -23-ARCHIBALD (grave) : Je vous ordonne d'etre noir jusque dans vos veines et d'y charrier du sang noir . Que l'Afrique y c i r c u l e . Que l e s Negres se negrent. Qu'ils s'obstinent jusqu'a l a f o l i e dans ce qu'on les condamne a &tre, dans leur Ibene, dans leur odeur, dans l ' o e i l jaune, dans leurs goftts c a n n i b a l e s . Q u ' i l s ne se contentent pas de manger l e s Blancs, mais q u ' i l s se cuisent entre eux. Qu'ils inventent des recettes pour l e s t i b i a s . . .les levres epaisses. . .des sauces inconnues. . .Que s i l'on change a notre regard, Negres, ce ne s o i t par 1 ' indulgence , mais l a terreur*. . . . (NEG, p. 76) There are many examples, above, other than the r h e t o r i c a l  imperative. In addition to using the commanding verb, "ordonner," and the many third-person commands--"Que les Negres se negrent. . .Qu'ils ne se contentent pas. . . Qu'ils inventent"--Genet allows Archibald several other r h e t o r i c a l techniques for moving his audience (Village and the other blacks). Archibald's repeated use of "que" turns t h i s series of third-person implied commands into exhortation. He uses f a i r l y long l i s t s (there are f i v e uses of prepositional phrases commencing with "dans," for example). Perhaps the most e f f e c t i v e r h e t o r i c a l device--metonymy--is also the most important, as Archibald converts the receiver of the speech from V i l l a g e to the whole group by using "vos veines" and "sang noir" to -24-symbolize the group s p i r i t he desires from these actors. These nouns become metonymic ( i . e . , symbolizing an abstract by i t s material attribute) when the next sentence orders A f r i c a to c i r c u l a t e i n them, pivoting attention from V i l l a g e to the entire group. This same theme w i l l again be repeated i n F e l i c i t y ' s second exhor-ta t i o n which commences with "Dahomey" (NEG, pp. 110-11), which we s h a l l examine i n the next section. Archibald not only commands h i s actors* feelings; he also uses implied commands to a t t a i n the group goal of deceiving t h e i r judges: ARCHIBALD : C'est par 1'elongation que nous defor-merons assez le langage pour nous en envelopper et nous y cacher : l e s maitres procedant par contraction. (NEG, p. 41) # «• * Nous devons seduire : de l a plante des pieds jusqu'a. leurs o r e i l l e s , notre langue rose. . . se promene avec science et silence autour de nos beaux i n d i f f i r e n t s . La phrase convient-e l l e ? (NEG, p. 42) We notice, here, that Archibald now includes himself i n the f i r s t , implied, command, "nous diformerons,"" as well as i n the second command, "nous devons seduire." Neither i s as s t r i c t l y a "command form" as the formal imperative. However, i n t h i s context, Archibald i s i n s i s t i n g upon deceit as an action that he desires they (and he) take i n the future, thus the use of the future -25-produces an implied command. A l i t t l e further, his language i s more d i r e c t l y commanding, as he orders the group not to forget that they must merit t h e i r condem-nation, another desired goal: ARCHIBALD : N'oubliez pas ceci : nous devons meriter leur reprobation, et les amener a prononcer le jugement qui nous condamnera. Je vous le r^pete, i l s connaissent notre crime... (NEG, p. 46) At t h i s p a r t i c u l a r moment i n "the play, we have not yet heard Archibald's persuasive exhortation to l e s negres to "be black" (quoted above). The audience and l a Cour know only, at t h i s moment, that Archibald continues to i n s i s t to h i s actors that they must play t h e i r parts well, so that t h e i r judges w i l l be convinced they are g u i l t y . Some l i n e s l a t e r , he more s p e c i f i c a l l y states that i t i s i n the theatre that they w i l l dominate, as that i s a l l that remains to them: "On nous l ' a d i t , nous sommes de grands enfants. Mais alors, quel domaine nous reste! Le Theatre!" (NEG, p. 5 7 ) . And here he begins to describe, metaphorically, why they are i n the process of playing r o l e s : "Nous jouerons a. nous y r e f l i c h i r et lentement nous nous verrons, grand narcisse noir, disparaltre dans son eau" (NEG, p. 57 )- However, V i l l a g e , who objects, remains oblivious to the metaphor. -26-Here we mark an inversion of the process mentioned above: Archibald pivots the d i r e c t i o n of h i s command from the group ("nous jouerons") to V i l l a g e , d i r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t i n g V i l l a g e ' s role f o r him, t e l l i n g him how i t should be played by emphasizing that V i l l a g e ' s drowning (which i s also, c o l l e c t i v e l y , t h e i r own) i s meant to set the Whites' teeth on edge and to haunt them: ARCHIBALD : . . .11 ne demeurera de t o i que l'ecume de ta rage. Puisqu'on nous renvoie a 1*image et qu'on nous y noie, que cette image l e s fasse grincer des dents*. VILLAGE : Mon corps veut viv r e . ARCHIBALD : Sous leurs yeux tu deviens un spectre et tu vas l e s hanter. (NEG, pp. 57-58) Here, Archibald again uses the third-person implied com-mand, "que cette image l e s fasse grincer des dents," as well as verbs which imply the future ("devenir") and the "near future" ("va l e s hanter"), thereby commanding V i l l a g e — a n d the group, as V i l l a g e becomes a symbol for a l l , here. Archibald's command to "be black" ("Je vous ordonne d'Stre n o i r " ) , quoted above, comes somewhat l a t e r i n the play and serves as a primary motivation which Archibald urges upon the group regarding the reasons f o r t h e i r deceiving t h e i r judges and for performing the play-within-the-play. His l a s t command which reminds the group of t h e i r goal i s , i n f a c t , an explanation that they achieved that -27-goal. Just before the entire cast (including l a Cour) resume role-playing, donning masks, etc., he stops them i n order to thank them f o r t h e i r performances. Here, Archibald again reminds the cast--this time a l l of the players--of t h e i r purpose, just before he orders them to resume the 'performance*: ARCHIBALD (1'arrltant) : Un moment. . .mes camarades. Vous avez bien jou# votre r S l e . (Les cinq  Negres r e t i r e n t l e s masques et saluent.). . . peut-e'tre soupconne-t-on ce que peut d i s s i -muler cette architecture de vide et de mots. Nous sommes ce qu'on veut que nous soyons, nous le serons done jusqu'au bout absurdement. Remettez vos masques pour s o r t i r , et qu'on les reconduise auxEnfers. (Les cinq remettent  leurs masques.) (NEG, p. 179) * * * Archibald's second type of commands concerns main-taining the required 'tone' of the s c r i p t within which he, as t h e i r metteur en scene, i n s i s t s they must remain. He makes t h i s e x p l i c i t when he says to V i l l a g e , "C'est a moi q u ' i l faut obSir. Et au texte que nous avons mis au point" (NEG, p. 29). The very f i r s t instance of Archibald's insistence that they maintain a cert a i n tone concerns ges-ture, rather than language, as he chides Neige f o r having -28-not only disturbed the 'props' (she took flowers from the catafalque) but for having made a disturbing gesture, " e l l e crache l a f l e u r apres avoir mordue." At t h i s gesture, Archibald says, "Pas d ' i n u t i l e s cruautes, Neige.. Ni d'ordures i c i " (NEG, p. 2 6 ) . When Bobo follows a s i m i l a r l i n e and goes outside the bounds of the required tone i n 3 her exhortation evoking A f r i c a n heritage, Archibald steps i n to divert attention away from her and toward Vertu, commanding Bobo to be quiet, " (a. Bobo) Laissez parler Vertu" (NEG, p. 3 2 ) . Although here Archibald does not d i r e c t l y reprimand Bobo fo r her language, as he had Neige for her gesture, both actresses are quite evidently not within the required tone of the text, so i t i s Archibald's duty to arrest them i n mid-air. He l a t e r orders Bobo to r e t r a c t a vulgar word ("baver"), i n s i s t i n g upon the tone t h e i r r i t u a l must have. The most evident example of t h i s type of manipula-t i o n occurs when V i l l a g e utters the dangerous word, "pere." Archibald stops him immediately, i n s i s t i n g that the word i s too j a r r i n g . What we understand, by impli-cation, i s that t h i s actor approaches dangerously close to describing h i s "hidden," outside l i f e , which w i l l l a t e r be forbidden again by Archibald: VILLAGE : . . .Ah, le temps merveilleux ou l'on chassait l e Negre et l ' a n t i l o p e ! Mon pere m'a raconte 1. . . -29-AR CHI BALD (1' i n t e r r oiripant) : Votre pere? N' u t i l i s e z plus ce mot. En l e prononcant i l vient de passer dans votre voix, monsieur, comme un tendre sentiment. (NEG, p. 38) Although the impression, here, i s that V i l l a g e , i n saying the word, r i s k s becoming tender i n h i s narrative, rather than cruel, we s h a l l see i n a moment that there i s a double danger: V i l l a g e must invent another word, must use periphrase, i n order to avoid revealing both a tenderness for the father h i s narrative names as well as his "own" father (that i s , the father of the "actor" who i s V i l l a g e ) . Genet again allows Archibald a combina-tio n of r h e t o r i c a l devices to influence V i l l a g e ' s use of language: VILLAGE : Et comment me conseillez-vous d'appeler l e male qui engrossa l a negresse de qui je suis ne? ARCHIBALD : Je m'en fous. Faites ce que vous pourrez. Inventez, sinon des mots, des phrases qui coup-ent au l i e u de l i e r . Inventez non 1'amour, mais l a haine, et f a i t e s done de l a po&sie, puisque c'est l e seul domaine q u ' i l nous s o i t permis d'exploiter. . .Procedez avec delicatesse. Ayez l' h a b i l e t e de ne c h o i s i r que des raisons de haine. Retenez-vous de trop magnifier notre sauvagerie. Redoutez d'apparaitre comme un grand fauve : sans avoir leur estime, vous ten-ter iez leur desir. . . (NEG, pp. 38-4-1) Archibald begins deceptively, commanding V i l l a g e to do as he pleases ("faites ce que vous pourrez"), but then he -30-proceeds to elaborate what he should, i n f a c t , do; The one r e p e t i t i o n of the command, "inventez," gives t h i s speech an exhortive tone, i n addition to the imperative one. Archibald also c l e a r l y c a l l s f o r V i l l a g e to use hyperbole by h i s insistence on circumlocution of the word, "pere." His next l i n e , i n f a c t , demands that very c l e a r l y : VILLAGE : Minute. Le mot de pere, par quoi pourrai-je le remplacer? ARCHIBALD : Votre pe"riphrase conviendra parfaitement. (NEG, p. 41) Here, stressed with an implied imperative (the future), the self-consciousness about language i s the most apparent i n the entire text, and i t i s here that Archibald addresses these actors to deform the language i n order to hide behind i t , ". . .deformerons assez l e langage. . ." quoted above. There are two more important instances where Archibald i n s i s t s upon language's remaining true to the text which they are following. In one more instance, he warns Vi l l a g e to take care not to reveal more than he should, interrupting him twice i n h i s narration: "Attention, V i l l a g e , n'allez pas evoquer votre vie hors d ' i c i , " just at the point where V i l l a g e was using vocabulary which might have revealed h i s personal f e e l i n g s for Vertu, -31-"Quand je vous v i s . . . " (NEG, p. 5 3 ) ' Archibald stops him yet again when V i l l a g e comes too close to speaking of "1*amour" when he uses the word, "coeur," often the metonym for "love": VILLAGE : . . .11 s u f f i r a i t de peu de chose pour que me rejouissent votre visage, votre corps, vos mouvements, votre coeur... ARCHIBALD : Prenez garde, V i l l a g e ! VILLAGE (a. Vertu) : Mais je vous hais'. . . . (NEG, p. 55) A few moments l a t e r , Archibald warns Vertu with the same type of command, for similar reasons. As she implies that her 'real* l i f e i s that of a p r o s t i t u t e , and she, alone, r e a l l y knows shame, Archibald interrupts her with a command: VERTU : Qu'on sache done que l a ceremonie de ce s o i r aura sur moi moins d ' e f f i c a c i t e que celle que j'accomplis dix f o i s par jour. Je suis l a seule a. a l l e r jusqu'au bout de l a honte. .. ARCHIBALD : N'evoquez pas votre v i e . (NEG, p. 56) As t h i s command i s an exact r e p e t i t i o n of the e a r l i e r one given V i l l a g e , the meaning of Archibald's command i s quite clear. # •«• * Archibald's t h i r d 'director's duty,' and perhaps -32-the most o b v i o u s , i s to d i r e c t the a c t i o n s o f l e s  n e g r e s . He dons h i s ' d i r e c t o r ' s cap ' d u r i n g the v e r y opening moments o f the p l a y , as he o r d e r s Neige to bow (to l a Cour and to the a u d i e n c e ) , " s a l u e z , madame" (NEG, p . 1 8 ) . The v e r y d i r e c t s econd-per son i m p e r a t i v e i s t y p i c a l o f t h i s type o f command which A r c h i b a l d uses to d i r e c t v a r i o u s a c t i o n s . A r c h i b a l d a l s o t y p i c a l l y uses the i m p l i e d command ( f i r s t - p e r s o n p l u r a l ) . He o rder s them a l l to smoke c i g a r e t t e s ( to h i d e the odor o f the corpse-5), " G r i l l o n s tous une c i g a r e t t e . E n f u m o n s - l a " (NEG, p . 3 4 ) ; he i n s i s t s they not l i s t e n to D i o u f s. p l e a d i n g f o r c o n c i l i a t i o n between the two groups w i t h the commands, " t achons de s u g g l r e r l e d l s e r t . B o u c l o n s -nous . . . E f f a c o n s - n o u s , " a t the same time commanding D i o u f to go ahead, " p a r l e z " ( N E G , p . 46). One o f the most impor tant o f A r c h i b a l d ' s commands to V i l l a g e i s the s i m p l e , " E n t r e z dans l a chambre" (NEG, p . 1 1 2 ) , coming c l o s e to the end o f V i l l a g e ' s n a r r a t i o n -pantomime of the murder . I t i s A r c h i b a l d ' s command, " e n t r e z , " t aken up by N e i g e , which s i g n a l s the commence-ment o f a l y r i c and r i t u a l i s t i c r e c i t a t i o n by V e r t u and N e i g e . T h i s moment o f r i t u a l accompanies the f i n a l moments o f the d i sappearance o f D i o u f , f o l l o w e d by V i l l a g e , b e h i n d the s c r e e n where the rape /murder i s to take p l a c e . - 3 3 -Following the 'crime 1 i s the 'judgment.* Again, Archibald directs the actors, commanding them, "Accrou-pissez-vous" (NEG, p. l 4 l ) . He even addresses the occasional command to l a Cour, commanding them to be prudent ("Soyez prudents," p. 14-5). Following the ' judgment "which turns the world of l a Cour upside-down, Archibald gives e x p l i c i t stage directions to each member of the white Court as he 'dies.' The f i r s t "victim" i s Le Gouverneur, who i s commanded by Archibald, "Viens mourir i c i " (NEG, p. 171) . Archibald also f i n a l i z e s the death r i t u a l by pronouncing, "Aux Enfers" (NEG, p. 171) . The next to be sent "aux Enfers" i s Le Juge (NEG, p. 173); Le Missionnaire i s sent, by Archibald, "A 1 'abattoir*." (NEG, p. 175) . For Le Valet, a l l Archibald need command i s "Aux Enfers" (NEG, p. 176) . And h i s l a s t command, "Remettez vos masques pour s o r t i r , et qu'on l e s reconduise aux Enfers" (NEG, p. 179) . i s reserved f o r La Reine, who remained 7 aloof from these proceedings, m a sense. The group command includes her with the others of l a Cour who are already "dead." Archibald uses one l a s t type of imperative within the 'performance.' When V i l l a g e ' s narrative i s f a i l i n g because of lack of i n s u l t , Archibald i n i t i a t e s a series -34-i n which the phrase, "A. vous," w i l l focus a spotlight, f i r s t on one actor, then another. Archibald gives the f l o o r to Vertu, "C'est a. vous, Vertu. Et f a i t e s - l e s / l e s insultes7 sonner, haut, c l a i r , d r o i t " (NEG, p. 8 5 ) . The r i t u a l begun with t h i s implied command, the 'magic phrase' passes from character to character: Neige takes over, then gives the f l o o r to Bobo ("A t o i , " NEG, p. 8 7 ) ; Bobo announces, "A nous deux!" (NEG, p. 8 7 ) ; Archibald i n t e r -venes and throws attention to V i l l a g e , "A vous, V i l l a g e " (NEG, p. 8 7 ) . V i l l a g e then reaches a point i n h i s narra-t i o n when he needs other actors to help play parts, and he begins the 'casting' of parts by appointing F e l i c i t e as l a Mere /of Diouf-Mariey 7; Archibald then assigns the * 8 role of "boulangere" to Bobo ; Le Missionnaire cues Archibald, whose gesture suggests the returning husband of Diouf-Marie; and Bobo i s cast as the sage-femme by Vil l a g e (NEG, pp. 9 2 , 9 3 , 9 7 , 103 ). The very l a s t role to be assigned occurs near the end of the play, and i t i s Archibald who casts Diouf-Marie i n a second female r o l e , "Mere des Heros morts" (NEG, p. I 7 8 ) . # * # ARCHIBALD, di r e c t o r of the off-stage .judgment Stru c t u r a l l y , Archibald i s seen most often as the -35 -"prompter" whom we have just examined, appropriately so, as the majority of the play takes place either within the play-within-the-play or i n conversation discussing how the i r r o l e s i n that play should be acted. Archibald also commands these same characters i n t h e i r l i v e s outside the 'performance.' He again directs actions, keeps them to the text, and reminds them of a goal: the goal which they share when they shed t h e i r r o l e s b r i e f l y to discuss the strategy for judging a t r a i t o r and for finding-a new leader. T y p i c a l l y , these b r i e f discussions commence.with the entrance of the l i a i s o n character, V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire, or upon some one of l e s negres' n o t i c i n g h i s presence. Archibald commands t h i s character to leave during the i n i t i a l ceremony of introduction, pivoting attention momentarily away from l e s negres and the play-within-the-play. He warns V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire to maintain secrecy, "Tout, etant secret, i l faut foutre l e camp," and commands him to h i s l i a i s o n post, " A l l e z , mais a l l e z done l e s preVenir. Dites-leur bien que nous avons commence'. Qu'ils fassent leur t r a v a i l comme nous allons f a i r e l e notre. Tout se passera comme a 1'accoutumee" (NEG, p. 26). In these d i r e c t i v e s to V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire, Archibald sends word to the mysterious "outside" group, - 3 6 -d i r e c t i n g them through t h i s messenger with the t h i r d -person command form, "Qu'ils fassent leur t r a v a i l . " At V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire's next appearance, the mystery surrounding t h i s "outside" action i s l i f t e d only a l i t t l e , as Archibald forbids him to t e l l too much about the off-stage t r i a l : VILLE DE SAINT-NAZAIRE ( i l se baisse et ramasse le  revolver pose sur l a bolte de cireur) : Avant tout, 1 * interroger... ARCHIBALD (1'interrompant) : Ne dites que ce q u ' i l faut dire, on nous epie. (Tous levent l a tete  et regardent l a Cour). (NEG, p. 44) Archibald also prevents V i l l a g e ' s and D i o u f s objections, keeping these characters under control with both d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t commands, "/a Village7 Laisse. Dans l a colere tu vas te t r a h i r et nous t r a h i r " (NEG., p. 4 4 ) ; "/a Diouf 7 Une f o i s de plus je voudrais que vous sachiez que vous perdez votre temps. Vos arguments sont connus . . .Vous parlerez d*amour. F a i t e s - l e , puisque nos repliques sont prevues par l e texte" (NEG, p. 4 5 ) . Here we notice that Archibald keeps the characters 'to the text* not only i n the 'performance' but also i n t h e i r private l i v e s , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which underlines h i s p i v o t a l p o s i t i o n i n the play. I t i s Archibald, not V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire, who i s the r e a l l i n k between the two groups. V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire i s at f i r s t but a messenger, not a -37-leader.^ Archibald remains the leader, c o n t r o l l i n g h i s entrances and e x i t s : "Quand l e tribunal sera en place, reviens nous prevenir" (NEG, p. 4 4): "Partez! Rentrez dans l a coulisse. Emportez l e revolver, 1" 0 et a l l e z f a i r e votre besogne" (NEG, p. 4 5 ) . Upon t h i s occasion—as happens a few other t i m e s — V i l l a g e reinforces Archibald's command: "/a V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire7 Pas de mais. Obeis a monsieur Wellington" (NEG, p. 4 5 ) . V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire next emerges during F e l i c i t e ' s f i r s t "Dahomey" exhortation and remains quiet u n t i l noticed by Archibald. 1" 1" This occurs following the c r u c i a l point i n the play: V i l l a g e ends his narrative and i s pulled behind a screen by Diouf, where the rape/murder takes place (described by Le Gouverneur and Le Juge). Archibald scolds V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire for having appeared too soon, and the moment has arrived when we are very b r i e f l y allowed to r e a l i z e that l a Cour i s also a part of the "outside" plan. As Archibald commands l a Cour, "Gardez vos masques'." (NEG, p. 1 1 5 ) . we r e a l i z e Archibald's power over characters other than l e s negres, which subtly hints again at the conspiracy to be c l a r i f i e d i n the next few moments. Archibald allows V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire's report of the impending execution to continue, advising l e s negres to be aware of what i s at stake, commanding them to remember t h e i r goal: "Reflechissez : i l s'agit de - 3 8 -juger, probablement, de condamner, et d'executer un Negre. C'est grave" (NEG,- p. 115)-VILLE DE SAINT-NAZAIRE, a 'double' of Archibald V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire supports Archibald's view--a sergeant supporting his lieutenant--and gives h i s own command, ". . .nous ne devons plus jouer quand nous sommes entre nous. II faudra nous habituer a prendre l a responsabilite du sang—du nStre" (NEG, p. 116) . Archibald then commands him to leave ("Retourne pres d'eux"), but concedes to V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire*s request to remain ("Alors... restez," NEG, p. 116) . At t h i s point, Archibald directs the rest of l e s negres to return to the 'performance,' urging them to help V i l l a g e : "Et vous, taisez-vous. V i l l a g e t r a v a i l l e pour nous. Aidez-le en silence, mais aidez-le" (NEG, pp. 116-121). Archibald's role as leader i s strengthened by being doubled by V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire during the next scene 12 outside the play-withm-the-play, as V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire repeats the 'group goal' which Archibald had urged: VILLE DE SAINT-NAZAIRE' : . . .11 faudra nous habituer a cette responsabilite Y executer nous-memes nos propres t r a i t r e s . (NEG, p. 160) # # * -39-Notre b u t n ' e s t pas seulement de c o r r o d e r . . . l ' i d e * e q u ' i l s . v o u d r a i e n t que nous a y i o n s d ' eux . I I nous f a u t a u s s i l e s combattre dans l e u r s personnes de c h a i r e t d ' o s . . . (NEG, p . 161) U s i n g the s u b j u n c t i v e s u b s t i t u t e , f a i r e i n the p r e s e n t and the f u t u r e , f o l l o w e d by i n f i n i t i v e s , V i l l e de S a i n t -N a z a i r e • s i m p l i e d i m p e r a t i v e s r e p e a t and s t r e n g t h e n the group g o a l which A r c h i b a l d had r e q u i r e d . J u s t f o l l o w i n g these commands, a l l o f the c h a r a c t e r s , l a Cour unmasked and l e s negre s , demand a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r new l e a d e r , then l o o k to A r c h i b a l d to dec ide the d i s p o s i t i o n o f D i o u f , caught between the two g r o u p s . A r c h i b a l d makes the d e c i s i o n , commanding D i o u f to r e m a i n , " A l o r s , r e s t e " (NEG, p . 1 6 4 ) , and c a l l s f o r b o t h groups to resume t h e i r r o l e s a g a i n and f i n i s h the per formance , a c c o r d i n g to the t e x t , " . . .nous devons achever ce s p e c t a c l e , e t nous d e b a r r a s s e r de nos j u g e s . . . (A c e l l e  q u i e t a i t l a Reine) comme p r e v u " (NEG, p . 1 6 4 ) . The • former queen' c a l l s f o r the masks, and A r c h i b a l d g i v e s the cue , "Commencez" (NEG, p . 1 6 5 ) • T h i s i s h i s l a s t i m p e r a t i v e as l e a d e r o f the " judgment . " S ince the e x e c u t i o n has t aken p l a c e and a new l e a d e r chosen who " d e v r a d ' a b o r d s e d u i r e , e n s u i t e c o n v a i n c r e " as V i l l e de S a i n t - N a z a i r e d e s c r i b e d him (NEG, p . 1 6 2 ) , A r c h i b a l d -40-can put aside his own role of leadership. He has been replaced, off-stage, dans l a coulisse, and can retire the influence he exerted through rhetorical language. * * * LA. REINE, director of l a Cour La Reine uses imperatives, both direct and indirect, with both groups who are taking part in the 'performance.* Acting her own role in that 'performance,* La Reine typi-cally addresses three differing kinds of commands to her own group, l a Cour; l ) either she calls them for help or advice, commanding them to her side in queenly style; or 2) she orders actions; or 3) she uses imperial decrees to express orders she wishes accomplished. Her f i r s t command, "Eveque*. Eveque in partibus*." (NEG, p. 18), interrupts Archibald's explanation of the •performance' we are to see. L'Evique leans towards her and we find that a l l she wished was to ask the question, "Vont-ils l a tuer?" (NEG, p. 18), which she repeats again i n a few lines. As these speeches occur during the open-ing moments of the play, her commands indicate primarily - 4 1 -that l a Cour i s "on c a l l " to La Reine. Her next order to them comes from fear, not c u r i o s i t y , as she r e a l i z e s that Vertu i s speaking for her. Here, La Reine has joined i n Vertu*s description of " l a Reine Occidentale," though she i s apparently asleep and hatching c i v i l i z a t i o n (according to Le Juge, p. 62). She s t a r t l e s awake and c r i e s f o r help from l a Cour: LA REINE (soudain eve i l l e e) : Assez'. Et f a i t e s - l e s t a i r e , i l s ont vole ma voix*. Au secours... (NEG, p. 66) At t h i s moment, we see two types of commands together i n La Reine fs appeal: she i n s i s t s that she has heard enough ("Assez'.") and imperially orders "someone" to silence l e s negres ("faites-les t a i r e " ) . At the same time, r e a l i z i n g Vertu i s mimicking her p o s i t i o n as Queen, she c a l l s f o r help ("Au secours"). Before any of l a Cour has that chance, F e l i c i t e attacks them with her f i r s t "Dahomey" exhortation. Again, La Reine appeals for help. However, t h i s time La Reine c a l l s upon various c u l t u r a l 14 products of Western c i v i l i z a t i o n , rather than her immediate court, brushing aside Le Valet's fear for her l i f e . Her use of "A moi" i n the following carries the same valence as the phrase, "au secours," aimed e a r l i e r d i r e c t l y at l a Cour: LE VALET : Madame se meurt*. LA REINE : Pas encore'. A moi, vierges du Parthenon, ange du p o r t a i l de Reims, colonnes valeriennes, -42-Musset, Chopin, Vincent d'Indy, cuisine francaise, Soldat Inconnu, chansons tyro-liennes, principes cartesiens, ordonnance de Le N$tre, coquelicots, bleuets, un b r i n de coquet-t e r i e , jardins de cures... (NEG, p. 69) The next command which La Reine utters i s an i n d i r e c t one, reported to l a Cour by Le Valet, who--when asked what she has said--quotes La Reine: LE VALET : Au moins, sauvez l fEnfant'. Et qu'on recoive l a mere avec cou r t o i s i e . E l l e aura done faute, mais e l l e est Blanche. (NEG, p. 121) "La mere," here, i s Diouf who has already played out his role of the murdered Marie. We notice the t y p i c a l , imperial subjunctive command, "qu'on recoive l a mere," La Reine's reported directive to l a Cour. When she reappears onstage, La Reine again alludes to Diouf, giving l a Cour a motivation for the judgment they must pronounce: " V o i c i c e l l e q u ' i l faudra descendre venger," she says, as she and Diouf appear on the upper-level platform of l a Cour (NEG, p. 1 2 5 ) . Here, she uses the future, an implied command form. Her next command i s again one of t y p i c a l 'royal w i l l , ' imposed with the subjunctive command, "Qu'on apporte l a Nuit'." (NEG, p. 136) . She asks the impossible : that one turn day into night just so that she may see the l o c a l A frican dances, as l a Cour has now descended to -43-A f r i c a f o r the judgment. When the f u l l inversion of po s i t i o n i s achieved, and Fe*licite makes i t quite evident that l a Cour i s now i n the power of l e s negres, La Reine meets the challenge, remaining firm u n t i l threatened by F e l i c i t e with becoming a very un-queenly pet, at which she again commands her court to help her: "Gouverneur'. General'.1-5 Ev§que! Juge! Valet'." (NEG, p. 1 5 2 ) . In the next breath, La Reine threatens l e s negres with more royal commands, "Qu'on l e s passe au f i l de l'epee" (NEG, p. 1 5 2 ) . She repeats the threat, a b i t l a t e r , warning l e s negres of her intended commands i n the near future, "Je vais vous f a i r e exterminer" (NEG, p. 153)- No one character of l a Cour obeys t h i s implied and rather vague command. They do, however, f r e e l y give La Reine advice (in command form) about other methods of influencing l e s negres (NEG, pp. 1 5 3 , 154 , 1 5 5 ) . One of La Reine's l a s t d i r e c t i v e s to l a Cour i s a dir e c t command to Le Gouverneur, the f i r s t to be "execu-ted." Here, as leader, La Reine a s s i s t s Archibald i n the execution r i t u a l , although i t takes three such commands from La Reine to move t h i s f i r s t "victim": LA REINE (se levant) : C'est a. vous, monsieur l e Gouverneur. (NEG, p. 166) * # * (avec beaucoup d'autorite) : Silence. C'est a. moi de parler, et de donner mes ordres. _q4-(Au Gouverneur) : Je vous l ' a i d i t , c'est a vous, monsieur le Gouverneur. LE GOUVERNEUR : D'habitude, dans ces cirConstances, on t i r e a l a co u r t e - p a i l l e . . . LA. REINE : Pas d*explications. Montrez a ces bar-bares que nous sommes grands par notre souci de l a d i s c i p l i n e , et au Blancs qui nous regardent, que nous sommes dignes de leurs larmes. (NEG, p. 169) # •«• * Ah, ah'. Je vous t i e n s . (Au Gouverneur) Gouverneur, en route'. (NEG, p. 170) In t h i s scene, La Reine also uses two of the phrases which are a part of t h i s r i t u a l execution, "C'est a. vous" and "En route." In addition, she uses the d i r e c t command, "montrez," to influence her group's actions, just as Archibald had i n s i s t e d that his group use cer-t a i n vocabulary and tone. La Reine's l a s t command to her own group i s quite d i r e c t , ordering t h e i r e x i t : LA. REINE (a. sa Cour) : Debout! (Tous l e s quatre se .levent.) Venez avec moi aux Enfers. Et qu'on s'y tienne bien. (E l l e l e s pousse devant e l l e  comme un troupeau.) (NEG, p. 179) * * # LA REINE, direc t o r of l e s negres La Reine also a s s i s t s the continuity of performance -45-by p e r i o d i c a l l y d i r e c t i n g members-->of l e s n e g r e s . I n some i n s t a n c e s s h e , l i k e A r c h i b a l d , d i r e c t s t h e i r ' p e r -f o r m a n c e . ' F o r e x a m p l e , L a R e i n e r e q u i r e s b o t h A r c h i b a l d and V i l l a g e t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e s , " C o n t i n u e " (NEG, p . 24) and " C o n t i n u e z , j eune hommet" (NEG, p . 3 0 ) . She e v e n a d d r e s s e s a command t o F e l i c i t e * ' , h e r d i r e c t r i v a l , "Commence" (NEG, p . 1 4 6 ) , as t h e two queens p r e -p a r e f o r t h e i r v e r b a l b a t t l e . More e f f e c t i v e , h o w e v e r , are L a R e i n e * s commands t o l e s n e g r e s w h i c h d i r e c t t h e i r t h i n k i n g a b o u t h e r s e l f (and a b o u t l e s b l a n c s , by e x t e n s i o n ) . These commands o c c u r d u r i n g h e r c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h F e l i c i t e and d u r i n g the r i t u a l " e x e c u t i o n . " F o r e x a m p l e , as L a R e i n e and F e l i c i t e ' d i s c u s s the r o l e s t h e y w i l l each p l a y i n the f u t u r e when l e s n e g r e s w i l l have g a i n e d s u p r e m a c y , L a R e i n e r e m i n d s the b l a c k queen t h a t a l l o f h e r w i t c h c r a f t ( s y m b o l i z e d h e r e by h e r b e s ) c a n n o t h e l p , n o r c a n F e l i c i t e and t h e o t h e r b l a c k s t u r n t o L a R e i n e f o r h e l p : L A REINE ( e l l e e t F l l i c i t e v o n t se p a r l e r comme deux femmes e c h a n g e a n t des r e c e t t e s de mdnagere) : O u i , c ' e s t v r a i . M a i s t o i , a t o n t o u r t u v a s t e f a t i g u e r ? E t ne compte pas s u r m o i p o u r t ' i n d i -q u e r des r e m o n t a n t s . V o s h e r b e s ne s u f f i r o n t p a s . F E L I C I T E : Je v e u x b i e n c r e v e r de f a t i g u e . D ' a u t r e s m ' a i d e r o n t . (NEG, p . 156) - 4 6 -As they continue t h e i r verbal b a t t l e , La Reine again insinuates the power her group w i l l have as slaves, commanding F e l i c i t e to envisage her own future under such conditions, ". . .vous serez f o r t s . Et nous, char-meurs. Nous serons l a s c i f s . Nous danserons pour vous seduire. Songe a ce que tu vas f a i r e ? Un long t r a -v a i l . . ." (NEG, p. 157)' As La Reine i r o n i c a l l y fore-casts that l e s blancs w i l l be "charmeurs" who dance i n order to seduce (the 'stereo-typed v i s i o n ' we have a l -ready seen l e s negres enact during t h e i r 'performance'), she urges F e l i c i t e to think about the problems involved i n being the masters. She goes on to question her, "Que cherches-tu? Non, non, ne reponds pas : que tes f i l s ne connaissent pas l e s chalnes?" (NEG, p. 157) • Then La Reine demands F e l i c i t e ' s attention, posing questions and answering them herself, while she continues to i n s i s t that F e l i c i t e follow the argument ("ecoute-moi... suis-moi. . .souris un peu!" NEG, p. 157)-During the execution r i t u a l , La Reine sends another command to l e s negres, urging her Valet to "Dites-leur au moins que sans nous, leur revolte n'aurait pas de sens... " (NEG, p. 176). And upon her own "demise," La Reine warns F e l i c i t e again about the future, forcing her to imagine l e s blancs not dead but dormant: ". . .nous partons, mais - 4 7 -dites-vous que nous resterons engourdis dans l a Terre corame des larves ou des taupes, et s i un jour... dans six mille ans... " (NEG, p. 1 8 0 ) . 1 6 This v i s i o n which La Reine predicted i s b r i e f l y indicated musically: the power of le s negr es over l e s blancs w i l l take place, but the c i r c l e i s closed as the music of Western culture super-17 cedes A f r i c a n culture, symbolizing a r i s e i n power. ' The r u l e r s (les negres) w i l l , i n t h e i r t u r n — a s pre-dicted by La Reine--be ruled again. * # # Secondary directors LE GOUVERNEUR makes use of "imperial commands" similar to La Reine's imperial decrees. However, his commands are either stereotyped cli c h e s involving the behaviour of l e s negres or suggestions to other members of l a Cour as to how t h e i r roles should be played. Typical of h i s stereotyped remarks proclaimed as general commands are: "Broyer du Noir'." (NEG, p. 20); " l i s vont l a / l a mortey7 cuire et l a manger. Qu'on leur r e t i r e l e s allumettes!" (NEG, p. 35) ; "Qu'on l e s / V i l l a g e et Vertu7 empiche de poursuivre" (NEG, p. 62). Typical -48-of Le Gouverneur's d i r e c t i n g the ro l e s of l a Cour are: "/au Valet7 Taisez-vous, foutu gamin perdu par 1'amour de l'exotisme" (NEG, p. 3 1 ) ; "/a l a Reine7 Madame, Madame, riveillez-vous'. . . .Qu'on l a r l v e i l l e . . ." (NEG, p. 6 2 ) ; and, again, "Madame, sautez du l i t ' . " (NEG, p. 63)- Later, Le Gouverneur reminds l a Cour of t h e i r duty, that of judging l e s negres: "Nous devons a l l e r l e s chatier, l e s juger, et le voyage sera long et penible" (NEG, p. 122 ). When they at l a s t arrive i n A f r i c a , Le Gouverneur issues warnings, t e l l i n g l a Cour how to react: "N'avancez 18 * plus. Prudence, circonspection, mystere. Tout est marecages. . ." (NEG, p. 1 3 4 ) . Le Gouverneur i s also the f i r s t of l a Cour to recognize t h e i r inverted p o s i -ti o n , ". . .c'etait un piege, i l faut f a i r e face?" and, imitating F e l i c i t e ' s r i t u a l i s t i c language, he commands Le Valet to take up the r i t u a l i s t i c phrases, "C'est 1'A.urore'. (Au Valet.) A vous'." Le Valet com-pletes the r i t e by responding with the r i t u a l word, "Cocorico." (NEG, p. 1 3 9 ) . LE MISSIONNAIRE's commands generally c a l l for group action or group thinking among l a Cour, i n reaction to some threat from l e s negres. He commands them a l l to pray, "Tous, a. genoux devant cet auguste chagrin" (NEG, p- 3 5 ) . while l e s negres b u i l d t h e i r smoke-screen about - 4 9 -th e catafalque. When V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire reproaches 19 Village with not having yet negrified l a Cour, 7 Le Mis-sionnaire interrupts, commanding l a Cour to prepare for their journeys "En route'. . . .Preparez le manteau, les bottes. . .le cheval de Sa Majeste. . . i l faut y aller" (NEG, p. 1 2 7 ) . He continues with the more general command, "qu'on entonne une messe de Palestrina. . .Alors, en avant... marche'." (NEG, p. 128). Le Missionnaire tries to reassure La Reine, who i s frightened by noises, "bruits de feuilles, de vents" (NEG, p. 1 3 7 ) , t e l l i n g her, "N'ayez pas peur, madame, i l s n'oseraient pas. . . i c i je commande. . .Vous etes sous ma protection" (NEG, p. 1 3 8 ) . As Le Juge commands les negres to tremble before him, Le Missionnaire again urges prudence, "/au Juge7 Soyez pru-dents. I l s sont roues, sournois. . . i l s ont un telegraphe secret. . ." (NEG, p. l 4 l ) . Twice he reprimands Le Valet, f i r s t t e l l i n g him to bring the throne, and stop tremb-ling (NEG, p. 1 3 9 ) ; secondly, as they realize the degree to which they have been tricked (no coffin, no corpse, no crime'.), Le Missionnaire again directs Le Valet's role: "Ne riez pas! Vous voyez bien ce qu'ils font de nous?" (NEG, p. 143). The last of Le Missionnaire*s commands again reminds the group to be prudent; as Le Juge and Le Gouverneur become enraptured with their 20 ideas of how to execute their judgment, Le Missionnaire -50-insists upon calmness, "Du calme, messieurs. Le monstre ne nous echappera plus" (NEG, p.144). LE JUGE directs mainly during the t r i a l which he begins with the subjunctive (indirect command): "Qu'on dresse le Tribunal!" (NEG, p. 1 3 9 ) . Then he directs les negres in their manner of approaching the bench, insisting at f i r s t that they abase themselves completely, "Couchez-vous. Vous approcherez sur le ventre" (NEG, p. 140). As Archibald intervenes, Le Juge allows les negres simply to crouch, but insists upon their showing signs of fear, directing their acting: LE JUGE : . . .(D'urie voix tonnante) Mais d'abord, tremblez'. (Tous ensemble, orchestres, les Negres  tremblent.) Plus fort'. Tremblez, allons, secouez-vous! N'ayez pas peur de faire de-gringoler les noix de coco qui pendent a vos branches! Tremblez, Negres! (Les Negres, tous  ensemble, tremblent de plus en plus fort.) Assez!... Assez!. . . (NEG, p. 141) Like Archibald t e l l i n g his actors how to stay within their roles, Le Juge directs the gestures and emotions of those whom he w i l l judge. Even LE VALET takes part as a director. He insists that Le Gouverneur rehearse his role, "Apprenez votre role dans les coulisses" (NEG, p. 2 3 ) , and he directs - 5 1 -V i l l a g e how to play his r o l e , "Allongez et m u l t i p l i e z l e s soupirs, charmant negrillon'." (NEG, p. 3 0 ) . In h i s growing admiration for l e s negres, Le Valet commands l a  Cour to li s t e n s "Qu'on ne l e s condamne pas d'abord, mais qu'on l e s ecoute. I l s ont une spontanlite exquise . . ." (NEG, p. 3 1 ) . And, l i k e the other members of l a Cour, Le Valet warns of the dangers they are encountering when they f i r s t arrive i n A f r i c a : "Attention au bourrin*. Qu'il ne bute pas. . .que l a traine du manteau de l a Reine, n i que votre ( i l rote) jupon. . .n*accrochent pas les cactus. . .Attention... attention... l a . . . l a . . . " (NEG, p. 1 3 3 ) . * * * In the preceding we have examined the various per-suading characters of Les Negres as they used r h e t o r i c i n the command forms (both d i r e c t and implied imperatives). This examination has shown the main tendency of ARCHIBALD to be the metteur en scene, dir e c t i n g the tone of the play-within-the-play. To a lesser degree, ARCHIBALD directed the actions of the outside r e v o l t . His command-ing language helps to reveal his psychological motiva-ti o n , as a dramatic character. ARCHIBALD i s concerned that l e s negres achieve t h e i r goal of mystifying t h e i r judges, l a Cour, while carrying on t h e i r own private -52-judgment. LA. REINE r h e t o r i c a l l y i n s i s t e d upon actions req u i s i t e to the rol e s l a Cour were playing, aided by other members of l a Cour (the "minor d i r e c t o r s " ) . While playing her own r o l e , LA REINE threatened l e s negres through her commands to believe i n the coming cycle of events i n which l e s negres are to take the place of l a Cour and then, i n the i r turn, are to be. dominated again. Her language reveals motivation for t h i s character who symbolizes the "White E t h i c , " as monarch of l a Cour. Like ARCHIBALD, LA REINE, a "proper monarch," leads her set of actors toward t h e i r own group goal: to judge l e s negres i n the play-within-the-play. * # * II : EXHORTATION FELICITE and VERTU are the two characters i n Les  Negres who most frequently use the r h e t o r i c a l device of exhortation (the use of repeated imperatives, d i r e c t or implied) i n order to persuade others to take a designated action. Yet the two women use exhortation i n quite d i f f e r i n g ways: FELICITE evokes a consciousness of 'blackness' i n the three speeches which commence c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y with "Dahomey." At the same time, her speeches d i r e c t l y evoke aid from l e s negres• VERTU, on - 5 3 -the o ther hand, uses e x h o r t a t i o n to admonish V i l l a g e . A t f i r s t q u i t e g e n t l y , then w i t h s w e l l i n g t e r r o r , VERTU at tempts to s top V i l l a g e ' s n a r r a t i o n be fore he can a r r i v e a t the c r i t i c a l moment o f the r a p e / m u r d e r . A n o t h e r c o n t r a s t between these two types o f e x h o r t a t i o n i s t s con-cerns the i n t e n d e d l i s t e n e r . I n F E L I C I T E ' s use o f r e -pea ted i m p e r a t i v e s , her commands are aimed at a g roup , as are A r c h i b a l d ' s i n the one speech a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d which r e v e a l e d the r e p e a t e d i m p e r a t i v e . VERTU' s com-mands are d i r e c t e d to V i l l a g e — t h e i n d i v i d u a l — w h o a l s o uses e x h o r t a t i o n , h i m s e l f , w h i l e p l a y i n g h i s d e s i g n a t e d r o l e o f r a p i s t / m u r d e r e r . We s h a l l f i r s t examine the language o f L e s Negre s ' most power fu l e x h o r t a t i o n i s t , F E L I C I T E , whose three "Dahomey" speeches c o n t a i n some o f the most e v o c a t i v e r h e t o r i c i n Les Negres . * * # F E L I C I T E , e x h o r t a t i o n i s t o f l e s negres and l a Cour The f i r s t time we encounter F i l i c i t e as more than j u s t another member o f l e s negres occur s as she suddenly cu t s o f f L a R e i n e ' s c a l l f o r h e l p ("Au s e c o u r s . . .") by her own commands to l e s negres to come to her a i d . We s h a l l n o t i c e , h e r e , t h a t her audience i s n o t o n l y l e s -54-negres onstage, but "Negres de tous l e s coins du monde": (Soudain, F e l i c i t e se leve . Tout l e monde l a regarde, se t a i t , et l'ecoute.) FELICITE : Dahomey*. . . . Dahomey*. ... A. mon secours, Negres de tous l e s coins du monde. Venez! Entrez*. Mais pas a i l l e u r s qu'en moi. Que me gonfle votre tumultel Venez. Bousculez-vous. Penetrez par ou vous voudrez : l a bouche, 1 * o r e i l l e - - o u par mes narines. Narines, con-ques enormes, g l o i r e de ma race, pavilions tentlbreux, tunnels, grottes beantes ou des batai l l o n s enrhume*s sont a l'aise*. Geante a l a t i t e renversee, je vous attends. Entrez en moi, multitude, et soyez, pour ce s o i r , seulement, ma force et ma raison. ( E l l e se rassied. Le  dialogue continue.) (NEG, pp. 66-69) Although the command form of the verb, entrer, appears only twice, the other command forms suggest p a r a l l e l movement: toward her—"venez," twice; "penetrez," once; i n d i r e c t commands are the r e p e t i t i o n of the place-name, "Dahomey," the command for help, "A mon secours," and the subjunctive clause, "que me gonfle votre tumulte," a l l of which reinforce F e l i c i t e * s desire that other blacks approach. Not only approach, but penetrate. At th i s point, Genet has F e l i c i t e make use of another rhe-t o r i c a l technique which i s intended to move her audience: with the use of metaphor, F e l i c i t e transforms he r s e l f into an abstract being, beyond the concrete being who i s a black actress, member of the cast, l e s negres. Using -55 -juxtaposition of imperatives suggesting penetration and of the penetrable images evoked by the epithets attached to "narines," t h i s black queen's language changes her from actress to sensuous body openings: " l a bouche, l ' o r e i l l e . . .narines." At the same time, the metaphoric epithets are reminders to l e s negres of 'blackness'--"pavilions tenebreux, tunnels, grottes"--and are, by ex-tension, a r e p e t i t i o n of the general theme begun when Archibald announced early i n the play, "Le tragique sera dans l a couleur noire!" (NEG, p. 28). A suggestion of black magic tinges her hermetic phrase, "Geante a l a 22 tete renverse*e, je vous attends." Thus, we discover that F e l i c i t e ' s f i r s t major speech contains many of the themes which emerge l a t e r i n the play, at the same moment that the speech's intent i s an important buttres-sing of the 'black s p i r i t ' of l e s negres• The speech i s i n d i r e c t l y aimed at V i l l a g e , as well as the group, because he i s the representative of l e s negres i n t h i s 'mock' t r i a l . Although i t i s quite a b i t shorter than the second "Dahomey". speech, Fe*licite here exhibits her power--through language — over not only l e s negres but l a  Cour (over La Reine, i n p a r t i c u l a r ) . She reveals the pos i t i o n she w i l l maintain throughout the play. La Reine's reaction, at t h i s moment, reveals the powerful e f f e c t F e l i c i t e ' s language—both metaphoric and -56-exhortative—has had upon hers "(tres solennelle et presque de f a i l l a n t e ) Ariane, ma soeur, de quel amour, je meurs... "(NEG, p. 69 )• Intervening between Fe'licite's f i r s t and second "Dahomey" speeches i s Archibald's d i r e c t i v e to l e s negres to "be black" (NEG, p. 7 6 ) . We have already pointed out 23 the exhortative language used by Archibald. I f we contrast just the f i r s t two l i n e s from Archibald*s speech with F e l i c i t y ' s , we now r e a d i l y see that the power of the theme, "be black," i s reinforced by r e p e t i t i o n of idea. Archibald had said, "Je vous ordonne d'etre noir jusque dans vos veines et d*y charrier du sang n o i r . Que l'Afrique y c i r c u l e " (NEG, p. 7 6 ) . Notice that the metaphoric language of both F e l i c i t e and Archibald turns upon b i o l o g i c a l images: blacks entering black noses, mouths, n o s t r i l s ( F e l i c i t e ) and A f r i c a , equating "blacky" c i r c u l a t i n g i n t h e i r blood (Archibald.) F e l i c i t e * s next appearance as exhortationist occurs as V i l l a g e p e r s i s t s i n hesitating to conclude h i s narra-/ 24 tive/pantomime. Heralded by other characters who command V i l l a g e to enter ("BOBO/Entre dans l a turne, flemmard'." and "TOUS/Entre dans l a chambre," NEG, p. 1 0 9 ) , F e l i c i t e commences her second "Dahomey" exhortation i n which t h i s very command, "entrez," appears nine additional times. I t i s her longest ti r a d e . The speech which we -57-w i l l quote i n i t s e n t i r e t y can be divided into four d i f f e r e n t movements, each one aimed at a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t audience. The f i r s t portion, s i g n a l l e d immediately by the r e p e t i t i o n of the words "Dahomey" and "A mon secours, Negres," i s directed again at blacks everywhere. A l -though seemingly close to stream-of-consciousness, the speech i s quite ordered: F e l i c i t e makes abundant use of contrasting " l i s t s " of blacks, princes l i s t e d with t h e i r "opposites," workers, etc., i n c a r e f u l l y planned sets of p a r a l l e l antitheses. At t h i s point, the speech takes an introspective turn: F e l i c i t e contemplates the color black, commencing with the s o l i d image of feet, then transforming the physical to the abstract image of feet of a l l colors (black, white, blue, red, green, yellow). The t h i r d movement remains introspective at f i r s t — an apostrophe to A f r i c a . F e l i c i t e then evokes the black heritage she shares with the others, which moves the intended l i s t e n e r from herself to the l i s t e n i n g black cast. After a moment of concentration—a gesture which suggests a seer approaching a trance--the fourth movement begins as Felicite* again speaks i n metaphor, abstractly describing herself (Afrique and l e s negres, symbolically) as "un bloc de nuit," which, i n the l a s t l i n e , becomes -58-"nous," as she predicts that les negres w i l l go down s t r o l l i n g through the hypnotized spectators. For purposes of more c l e a r l y discussing this long speech (NEG, pp. 110-11), we s h a l l present i t divided into the four movements suggested above, pointing out p a r t i c u l a r exhortations i n each section, along with the other r h e t o r i c a l techniques employed i n this f i n e mono-logue . In part one, the dominant exhortation i s the command form, "entrez," previously s i g n a l l e d twice by Bobo and Tous : FELICITE (se dressant soudain) : Dahomey.... Dahomey! ... A mon secours, Negres! Tous. Sous vos blancs parasols, messieurs de Tombouctou, entrez. Mettez-vous l a . Tribus couvertes d'or et de boue, remontez de mon corps, sortez! Tribus de l a Pluie et du Vent, passez! Princes des Hauts-Empires, princes des pieds nus et des §triers de bois, sur vos chevaux h a b i l l S s, entrez. Entrez a cheval. Au galop! Au galop! Hop! Hop! Hop-la! Negres des Etangs, vous qui pechez les poissons avec votre bee pointu, entrez. Negres des docks, des usines, des bastringues, Negres de chez Renault, Negres de Citroen, vous autres aussi qui tressez les joncs pour encager les g r i l l o n s et les roses, entrez et restez de-bout. Soldats vaincus, entrez. Soldats vain-queurs, entrez. Serrez-vous. Encore. Posez vos -59-boucliers contre l e mur. Vous aussi, qui deterrez l e s cadavres pour sucer l a cervelle des cranes, entrez sans honte. Vous, f r e r e -soeur emmele, inceste melancolique et qui mar che, passez. Barbares, barbares, barbares, venez. Je ne peux vous deerire tous, n i meme vous nommer tous, n i nommer vos morts, vos armes, vos charrues, mais entrez. Marchez doucement sur vos pieds blancs. (NEG, p. 110) In addition to the repeated command, "entrez," Genet has F e l i c i t e use an accumulation of other verbal com-mands which duplicate the general theme of "come, a l l blacks," the same r h e t o r i c a l technique used i n F e l i c i t e * s f i r s t "Dahomey" speech. This use of periphrase (expand-ing a given statement by r e p e t i t i o n of idea) adds ur-gency to the speech, as a whole. A majority of the p e r i -phrastic verbs are d i r e c t commands: "mettez-vous," "remontez," "sortez," "passez," "restez debout," "serrez-vous," "posez" and "marchez." The implied command usage of phrases i s e f f e c t i v e l y combined with verbal forms. The di r e c t command, "entrez a. cheval," i s expanded by implication when immediately followed by "au galop" and "hop," both of which are repeated at l e a s t once. Also implied i s an extension of the black audience: F e l i c i t e i s speaking both to les negres onstage and to blacks everywhere, which i s emphasized by her use of the contrast--6o-ing l i s t s : a) blacks are described as r i v e r s (metapho-r i c a l l y fashioned of gold) contrasting with mud, wind and r a i n ; b) blacks are "princes," contrasted with workers i n fa c t o r i e s and fishermen; c) blacks are both the v i c t o r s and the vanquished; d) various pariahs are in v i t e d : grave-robbers, hermaphrodites and barbarians. As the catalogue ends, F e l i c i t e continues to use para l l e l i s m , repeating verbal forms: "Je ne peux vous decrire tous, n i meme vous nommer tous," then noun forms, "nommer vos morts, vos armes, vos charrues. . ." (NEG, p. 110). In the second movement of the speech, the intended audience changes to F e l i c i t e , herself. I t i s an i n t r o -spective contemplation, synthesizing a material part of the body ("pieds") with an abstract v i s i o n of color: FELICITE : . . .Marchez doucement sur vos pieds blancs. Blancs? Non, no i r s . Noirs ou blancs? Ou bleus? Rouges, verts, bleu, blanc, rouge, vert, jaune, que s a i s - j e , ou suis-je? Les couleurs m*epuisent... (NEG, pp. 110-111) In allowing F e l i c i t e ' s imagination to suffuse 'les pieds* with a spectrum of color, Genet r e i t e r a t e s one of the more subtle themes i n t h i s "black versus white" b a t t l e . According to F e l i c i t e , above, and Genet, himself, i n the - 6 1 -epigraph to Les Negres, ". . .qu'est-ce que c'est done un noir? Et d'abord, c'est de quelle couleur?" (NEG, p. v i i i ) , r a c i a l color i s not a stable normative; i t i s , i n f a c t , quite elusive and changeable. There follows, i n the t h i r d movement, another break i n F e l i c i t e ' s chain of thought as she invokes A f r i c a , although there i s a continuity of technique. F e l i c i t e proceeds from self-question (above) to apostrophe, both of which at f i r s t appear to be said only for her own benefit. Upon examination, however, the epithets and metaphors which describe the object of the apostrophe--Africa--must surely be intended to further buttress l e s negres' pride of race: FELICITE : . . .Tu es l a , Afrique aux reins cambres, a l a cuisse oblongue? Afrique boudeuse, Afrique t r a v a i l l e e dans l e feu, dans le fer, Afrique aux m i l l i o n s d'esclaves royaux, Afrique dSportee, continent a l a derive, tu es la? Lentement vous vous evanouissez, vous reculez dans l e passe, l e s r e c i t s de naufragls, l e s muees coloniaux, l e s travaux des savants, mais je vous rappelle ce s o i r pour a s s i s t e r a une fete secrete. (NEG, p. I l l ) The sudden mention of a clandestine r i t e , following the imaginative descriptions of A f r i c a n history, laced with shipwreck and c o l o n i a l museums of Western acculturation are intended for two d i f f e r e n t audiences: the references -62-should s t a r t l e the l i s t e n i n g Cour as well as command action from l e s negres. The l a s t movement of the speech, introduced-by the trance-like gesture, " E l l e regarde en elle-meme," transforms A f r i c a (and, by extension, l e s negres) into "night." F e l i c i t e d i r e c t l y commands t h i s image ( A f r i c a / blacks/night) not to leave the stage, and i n d i r e c t l y commands the audience to watch, using the subjunctive. She ends by suggesting that t h i s hypnotizing "bloc de nuit" w i l l l a t e r leave the stage, to s t r o l l , among the powerless spectators: FELICITE : . . . ( E l l e regarde en e l l e -meme .) C'est un bloc de nuit, compact et mechant, qui r e t i e n t son sou f f l e , mais non son odeur. Vous etes la? Ne quittez pas l a scene sans mon ordre. Que l e s spectateurs vous regardent. Une somnolence profonde, v i s i b l e presque, sort de vous, se repand, l e s hypno-t i s e . Tout a. l'heure nous descendrons parmi eux. Mais avant... VILLAGE : Madame... (NEG, p. I l l ) V i l l a g e ' s "Madame" interrupts F e l i c i t e ' s mystical moment i n which the e a r l i e r h i n t of witchcraft practices i s furthered by the reference to the hypnotizing influence of t h i s "bloc de nuit": "Somnolence profonde. . .se -63-repand, l e s hypnotise." As metaphoric language ceases, more di r e c t language takes i t s place. In moments F e l i c i t e ' s command, "entrez," i s repeated by various speakers, intended now s p e c i f i c a l l y for V i l l a g e . Archibald i s f i r s t , "Entrez dans l a chambre," followed by Neige, "Entrez, entrez... delivrez-nous du mai. . ." (NEG, p. 112). V i l l a g e ' s r e p e t i t i o n of "Madame ... Madame... ", spoken i n f i v e separate sets (combined with the r i t u a l i s t i c chants of Neige, Bobo and Vertu), accompanies his f i n a l disappearance off-stage. With the aid of exhortation from F e l i c i t e and Archibald, the dramatic climax anticipated i n the play-within-the-play i s achieved. F e l i c i t e uses exhortative language i n two more major speeches: her f i n a l "Dahomey" speech and the moment where she claims that a l l things sweet and white w i l l become black. Both of these speeches occur during the verbal battle between the two queens. The f i r s t i s again a c a l l to l e s negres for aid, as the two women hesitate to begin t h e i r b a t t l e . The r e t o r t s pass back and forth: "reculez" / "Commence" / "A toi'." / "je peux attendre" (NEG, p. 14-6). At l a s t F e l i c i t e begins: -64-FELICITE (les mains aux hanches, et explosant) : Ah, vraiment? Eh bien, Dahomey! Dahomey! Negres, venez m'epauler. Et qu'on ne l a i s s e pas esca-moter l e crime. (A l a Reine.) Personne n'au-r a i t l a force de le nier. II pousse, i l poussey ma b e l l e , i l grandit, v e r d i t , i l eclate en corolles, en parfums, et c'est toute l'Afrique ce bel arbre, mon crime! Les oiseaux sont venus s'y nicher et dans ses branches l a nuit s'y repose. (NEG, pp. 146-15D Exhortation i s e x p l i c i t , with the now-familiar "Dahomey," followed by i m p l i c i t exhortation: the verbal command, "venez," though not repeated i n t h i s speech, i s a repe-t i t i o n from the two previous "Dahomey" speeches (having occured twice i n the f i r s t , once i n the second). And again Genet allows F e l i c i t e the imagistic use of metaphor, exactly following the same pattern set i n the two other speeches; the conversion, here, transforms " A f r i c a " into a "tree." Both of these, i n turn, represent what F e l i c i t e c a l l s "mon crime." The crime, however, becomes the crime of l e s negres, already carried out by V i l l a g e . Therefore, F e l i c i t e and "son crime" become the symbol of a l l blacks, intended to frighten La Reine, l a Cour, and... the white ?6 audience. The l a s t l i n e of the speech further l i n k s together the previous image of les negres as " l a nuit" by r e p e t i t i o n of t h i s image, harbored by "l'Afrique ce bel arbre. . .dans ses branches l a nuit s'y repose." -65-There are intervening speechs which again repeat the metaphor of " l a nuit," now the symbol of l e s negres. As the dialogue continues, the color contrast becomes more prominant. F e l i c i t e says to La Reine: " S i vous etes l a lumiere et que nous soyons 1*ombre, tant q u ' i l y aura l a nuit ou vient sombrer le jour. . .Sotte, que vous seriez plate, sans cette ombre qui vous donne tant de r e l i e f " (NEG, pp. 152-53)- This i s a heightening of the theme, "be black," with the added argument that without l e s negres ("cette ombre") the whites could not e x i s t . Later F e l i c i t e r e t o r t s to La Reine, "nous etions l a Nuit en personne. Non c e l l e qui est absence de lumiere, mais l a mere genereuse et t e r r i b l e qui contient l a lumiere et l e s actes" (NEG, p. 1 5 4 ) . F e l i c i t e i s again employing r h e t o r i c a l language i n her attempt to conquer La Reine, as the metaphor, " l a Nuit," personifies l e s negres• She again uses antitheses, contrasting l i g h t and dark (symbolic of l e s blancs and l e s negres). F e l i c i t e ' s l a s t speech (NEG, p. 155) which exhi-b i t s a prominant use of exhortation also repeats the symbol of " l a nuit," which i s used to introduce the idea that i t s opposite—things w h i t e — w i l l become dominant, when transformed into black. F e l i c i t e begins with exhortation i n the form of the repeated command, - 6 6 -"regardez," then continues on another r h e t o r i c a l l e v e l , using metonomy to transform an abstract, "le noir," into the more concrete images of p r i e s t s and orphans. F e l i c i t e then predicts an implied a n t i t h e s i s : that sweetness and good w i l l become "le noir." Notice that the catalogue of "white" combines both the material ( l a i t , sucre, r i z , colombes, opera) and the abstract ( c i e l , esperance): FELICITE : Regardez! Regardez, madame. La nuit. que vous reclamiez, l a v o i c i , et ses f i l s qui s'approchent. I l s l u i font une escorte de crimes. Pour vous, le noir I t a i t l a couleur des cures, des croque-morts et des orphelins. Mais tout change. Ce qui est doux, bon, aimable et tendre sera n o i r . Le l a i t sera noir, le sucre, l e r i z , l e c i e l , l e s colombes, 1 'esperance, seront noirs--l'opera aussi, ou nous irons, noires /sic/, dans des Rol l s noires, saluer des r o i s noirs, entendre une musique de cuivre sous l e s l u s t r e s de c r i s t a l n oir... (NEG, p. 155) Implied commands (the use of the future: sera, seront) add forcefulness to the other r h e t o r i c a l devices of exhortation, metonomy and metaphor. F e l i c i t e ' s speech announces the future domination of black over white, both metaphorically and p h y s i c a l l y . 2 ^ •*• # * -67-VBRTU, exhortationist of V i l l a g e and VILLAGE, exhortationist  of Le Masque While F e l i c i t ^ exhibits characteristicsoof a power-f u l seer, influencing those about her, Vertu appears to be i n d i r e c t contrast. Vertu attempts l i t t l e persuasion of the other blacks; her use of exhortation i s l i m i t e d to speeches attempting to dissuade V i l l a g e with quiet admonishment. Unlike F e l i c i t e , Vertu has no long speeches; her admonishing exhortations occur i n b r i e f instances. The f i r s t of note happens when Archibald has ostracized the couple, sending them away, although they a c t u a l l y remain onstage, while the others r e t i r e to one side: "Archibald, Bobo, Diouf, Neige, F e l i c i t e s'eloignent, se  detournant et cachant leurs visages dans leurs mains,  cependant que soudain une dizaine de masques blancs  apparaissent autour de l a Cour" (NEG, p. 6 1 ) . I t i s these "masques blancs" that bring about Vertu*s admonish-ments, as she urges V i l l a g e to speak s o f t l y (or not at a l l ) , since they are being overheard: VILLAGE (a Vertu) : Vertu, je t'aime. VERTU : Procldons doucement, V i l l a g e . VILLAGE : Je t'aime. VERTU : C'est un mot faeile a dire. . -Mais tu paries d*amour et tu nous c r o i s seuls? Regarde ( e l l e montre l a Cour). (NEG, p. 61) Vertu advises caution, "procedons doucement," and makes -68 V i l l a g e aware of the l i s t e n i n g masks. y A few l i n e s l a t e r , as V i l l a g e panics, shouting to les negres (who are simulating inattention, faces hidden i n th e i r hands), Vertu offers him comfort, using command forms to assuage Vil l a g e ' s fear: "Ne crains r i e n . . . T a i s - t o i . Aimons-nous d'abord, s i tu en as l a force" (NEG, p. 62). These admonishments suggest quiet r e s t r a i n t . Her l a s t admonishments to V i l l a g e are cast i n almost r e p e t i t i v e language: "Ne continue pas" (NEG, p. 97); "cesse" (NEG, p. 98); " T a i s - t o i " (NEG, p. 99), although the feelings which are revealed at this l a t e r time are quite d i f f e r e n t . In the i n t e r v a l "between the two scenes, Vill a g e ' s narrative/pantomime begins, and we hear V i l l a g e , himself, using exhortation i n his role as rape/murderer of " l a morte," pantomimed by Diouf-Marie. V i l l a g e repeats one command, "e'eoutez," several times, always i n the same context: he i s commanding his "victim" to l i s t e n to his sexuality: VILLAGE : . . .C'est un pays l o i n t a i n , madame, mais que tout mon corps pourrait vous r e c i t e r . Ecoutez chanter mes cuisses I EcoutezI (NEG, p. 91) He interrupts the ta l e , i n s i s t i n g Diouf-Marie wear a s k i r t , then goes on, i n exact r e p e t i t i o n : "Je continue. Ecoutez chanter mes cuisses, car. . .mes cuisses -69-l a fascinaient" (NEG, p. 9 2 ) . Again, there i s an i n t e r -ruption of the t a l e : l a Mere plays her r o l e , shouting for attention and pralines; l a Boulangere enters and leaves. V i l l a g e begins his tale of fascinating-^ 0 h i s victim again; each time he progresses a l i t t l e closer to the climactic moment when he w i l l describe the a c t — a moment which Vertu attempts to stop with exhortation. Following the l a s t interruption, V i l l a g e ' s exhortation p a r a l l e l s F e l i c i t e ' s , t echnically, as he uses repeated commands ("ecoutez") then metaphor to describe sexual excitment: VILLAGE (reprenant l e ton du r e c i t solennel) : J'etais done t a p i dans 1*ombre. Et je l u i murmurais : ecoutez chanter mes cuisses. Ecoutez! (II  f a i t s a i l l i r sous son pantalon sa cuisse.) Ce bruit, c'est le miaulement des :pantheres et des t i g r e s . E l l e s p lient? Mes leopards s'etirent. S i je me deboutonne, c'est un aigle des Grands Empires qui fondra de nos neiges jusqu'a. vos Pyrenees. Mais... je ne tiens pas a. me deboutonner. Les feux s'allument. Sous nos doigts sees, l e s tambours... (NEG, p. 9*0 Vertu remains s i l e n t , here and during the continu-ing narration, as V i l l a g e adds more d e t a i l s , l a Mere c a l l s again and the s i s t e r (Suzanne) adds more action. These various actions f i n a l l y culminate i n Vertu's i n t e r -ruption. She w i l l h a l t V i l l a g e after he has described shutting the windows and causing snow to f a l l : "Galant, -70-je fermai l a fenetre. La neige tombait sur l a v i l l e " (NEG, p. 97)' As the inference has already been established between the sexual act and " l a neige" (above, an eagle melts snows, followed by the image of heat, "les feux s'allument"), the repeated reference to " l a neige" has special implications for Vertu. I t i s at t h i s moment that she c r i e s out's "Ne continue pas" (NEG, p. 97), frightened that V i l l a g e w i l l a c t u a l l y describe the sexual union and the murder. Her word's have no e f f e c t . Bobo, i n fa c t , urges V i l l a g e to continues "Mais regardez comme i l se donne. II Icume. II fume'. C'est un mirage'." (NEG, p. 98), at which Vertu urges him again, with commands, to stops "V i l l a g e , je te le demande, cesse" (NEG, p. 98). And i t i s at t h i s point that a gesture from V i l l a g e c l a r i f i e s another of Vertu's fears. V i l l a g e continues his narra-t i v e , describing the white victim, but he does so looking d i r e c t l y at Vertus VILLAGE (regardant Vertu) s La limpidite de votre o e i l bleu, cette larme qui b r i l l e au coin, votre gorge de c i e l . . . VERTU s Tu d e l i r e s , a. qui parles-tu? VILLAGE (regardant tou.jours Vertu) s Je vous aime et je n'en puis plus. VERTU (hurlant) s V i l l a g e . (NEG, p. 98) This admonishment, using V i l l a g e ' s name as a command, cl e a r l y establishes Vertu's feelings, which have been - 7 1 -disturbed by V i l l a g e ' s narration. As we have been l e d to think of the two as lovers from previous portions of the play where Vertu and V i l l a g e spoke of loving one another, Vertu*s attempt to exhort V i l l a g e to "stop" i s f i t t i n g to t h i s character who i s forced to l i s t e n to her lover describing his committing the sexual act with a r i v a l , even i f that r i v a l be the^'doomed" white victim. Further, V i l l a g e now seems to be confusing the two women, speaking of one while looking d i r e c t l y at the other. In fact, Vertu reprimands V i l l a g e for using the same voca-bulary with his "victim* as he had already used with her: VILLAGE (se tournant lentement vers le Masque. . .) : Vos pieds dont l a plante a l a couleur des per-venches, vos pieds vernis sur le dessus, i l s se promenaient sur le ciment... VERTU : Tu me l'as deja d i t . T a i s - t o i . (NEG, pp. 98-99) Her exhortive appeal, " t a i s - t o i , " again goes unacknow-ledged. V i l l a g e continues the narration and the white d o l l s (replicas of l a Cour) are born to Le Masque. As the two are about to go offstage ("Ils avancent tous l e s  deux, l e Masque precedant V i l l a g e , tres lentement en  d i r e c t i o n du paravent"), V i l l a g e says, "Sous vos robes vous portez bien quelque jupon noir plus soyeux que mon regard... "; here, Vertu, "tombant a. genoux," makes her f i n a l exhortive appeal, again using only his name, -72-"Village*." (NEG, p. 10 5) . # * * Vertu's admonishments f a i l ; V i l l a g e commands Le Masque, and the narrative/pantomime continues. Vertu's exhortations—attempts to a l t e r V i l l a g e ' s role of r a p i s t / m u r d e r e r — f a i l , whereas F e l i c i t e ' s appear to succeed. However, Vertu*s opposition to V i l l a g e ' s narration lends dramatic tension to the plot of the play-within-the-play, and she acts more independently than V i l l a g e , not "being "directed" how to play her r o l e . As a persuader, Vertu remains i n e f f e c t i v e . On the basis of evidence just examined i n Les Negres, we can t e n t a t i v e l y conclude that exhortive r h e t o r i c which i s used to admonish f a i l s to move i t s audience. At the same time, however, an examination of admonishing language has assisted i n revealing the psychological motivation of a character. With regard to exhortation as used by Felicite* (and to a small extent by Archibald), we have remarked the more ef f e c t i v e use of the repeated imperative, f o r c e f u l l y employed by F e l i c i t e . Where Archibald directed actions and language with h i s r h e t o r i c a l imperatives, F l l i c i t e appealed to l i s t e n e r s ' emotions through her use of exhortative language. We noticed also that the "intended -73-audience" f o r her exhortations was f a r greater than one or two characters; F e l i c i t e ' s long monologues are directed toward l a Cour and the theatre audience. In both cases, exhortation appeared to af f e c t that audience. * * * III : INSULT AND INVECTIVE Insult, the l a s t type of persuasive r h e t o r i c under discussion, provides the clearest insight into emotional motivations behind characters i n Les Negres. There can be no doubt about a speaker's feelings for another character when he s t a r t s a series of name-calling, f o r example. This type of personal attack ca r r i e s the general intent of creating emotion i n the l i s t e n e r as well as revealing the speaker's emotions. In Les Negres the use of i n s u l t i n g language t y p i f i e s the two supporting characters, NEIGE and BOBO, who prod V i l l a g e ' s narrative by r i d i c u l i n g or attacking V i l l a g e personally. Their use of t h i s type of r h e t o r i c a l persuasion complements F e l i c i t e ' s use of exhortation just examined. FELICITE, hereself, also uses invective; however, the object of her r i d i c u l e and i n s u l t i s La Reine, not V i l l a g e . - 7 4 -VILLAGE also employs t h i s l i n g u i s t i c technique, though more i n d i r e c t l y . By implication, h i s denigrating descriptions of h i s victim and of 'her' actions (suppliant compliance with h i s a r b i t r a r y orders) w i l l have an emo-ti o n a l e f f e c t upon his l i s t e n e r s - - l a Cour and the audience. The drama never allows anyone to forget that the victim, mimed by Diouf-Marie, i s a White Woman. Insults directed at Le Masque represent i n s u l t s directed at l a Cour and the audience, by implication. We discover that most abusive language i n the play comes from characters among les negres; i t i s a f a i r l y one-sided attack. LA. REINE, however, eventually r i s e s to her own defense during the verbal battle with F e l i c i t e . And she, as well as a couple of her Cour, make r i d i c u l i n g „ 31 comments either about l e s negres or to one another. Insulting language.is not t y p i c a l for characters i n l a Cour. I t i s more t y p i c a l among l e s negres, which again reinforces the continuing offensive which l e s negres pursue i n th e i r battle for domination over l a Cour, who remain defensive throughout the play. As the o r i g i n a l sense of the word, i n s u l t , was "to leap upon," t h i s r h e t o r i c a l t a c t i c i s naturally more f i t t i n g to the agressors, l e s negres• # * # -75-NEIGE and BOBO.the vituperatives The use of i n s u l t and invective i s more t y p i c a l of the speech of NEIGE than of any other one character i n Les Negres• In fa c t , i t i s remarkable to the extent that the type of language she uses symbolizes the func-t i o n of her character, e s p e c i a l l y i n the play-within-the-play. Bobo even describes Neige's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r us, emphasizing the role we expect of her. E a r l y i n the play, as Neige pouts about being constrained by the others—"On dlbute toujours contre moi"--Bobo answers by characterizing her: "Vous f a i t e s i n t e r v e n i r votre tem-perament, vos coleres, vos humeurs, vos in d i s p o s i t i o n s , et vous n'en avez pas le dro i t " (NEG, p. 27) . By t h i s time, Neige has already revealed her tendency toward i n s u l t . Her f i r s t i n s u l t directed to V i l l a g e i s " F l i c deja'." (NEG'> p. 2 6 ) , aiming a verbal attack at him for catching her i n mid-flight from Archibald (who had just chastised her for disturbing the c o f f i n ' s flowers). This i s quite a minor personal attack upon V i l l a g e , but i t sets the tone for the language which Neige w i l l t y p i -c a l l y use when speaking to him. Her more important function i s to prod V i l l a g e ' s anger i n order to continue h i s "confession." Neige - 7 6 -repeatedly accuses him of i n s i n c e r i t y , which i n t h i s case equals "betrayal of race." At one point, she exaggerates r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s — i n s t r u c t i n g V i l l a g e i n his goal which should be blackness, e.g., pride i n black physiognomy. At the same time, her language i n s u l t s the l i s t e n i n g Cour with the v i o l e n t epithets she grants the " i d e a l hero," so her vaunting of black-ness i s a two-edged sword: accusative of V i l l a g e be-cause she impugnes hi s honesty, and threatening to l a Cour because of i t s violence; NEIGE (tres hargneuse) : S i j ' e t a i s sftre que V i l l a g e eftt descendu cette femme a f i n de devenir avec plus d'eclat un negre balafre, puant, lippu, camus, mangeur, bouffeur, bafreur de Blancs et de toutes l e s couleurs, bavant,suant, rotant, crachant, baiseur de boucs, toussant, pltant, lecheur de pieds blancs, feignant, malade, degoulinant d'huile et de sueur, flasque et soumis, s i j ' e t a i s sure q u ' i l l ' a i t tuee pour, se con-fondre avec l a nuit... Mais je sais q u ' i l 1'aimait. VERTU : Non'. VILLAGE : Non! (NEG, p. 42) The epithets describing "un negre" point out what Vi l l a g e should be proud of being: lrb alafre , puant, lippu, camus, mangeur, bouffeur, bafreur de Blancs." She f i r s t describes physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , then eating - 7 7 -habits. I t i s a "lesson i n table etiquette": how to eat a White. Neige then proceedst,to describe the "menu" i n a series of denigrating epithets f o r White: "crachant, baiseur de boucs. . .flasque. . .soumis." Her i n s i s -tence upon the image of cannibalism i s reinforced by Archibald's l a t e r speech cataloguing the recipes for various bones: "Qu'ils inventent des recettes pour l e s t i b i a s , l e s rotules, l e s j a r r e t s . . ." (NEG, p. 7 6 ) . ^ 2 The l a s t l i n e s , which repeat Neige's i n i t i a l sus-p i c i o n of V i l l a g e ' s intent ("Si j ' e t a i s sure. . .") end with her f i n a l accusation, "Mais je sais q u ' i l l'aimait." The accusation brings about reaction not only i n V i l l a g e , as intended, but also i n Vertu. Neige now continues her use of i n s u l t by attacking Vertu: "Vous pensez done etre aimee de l u i , vous, l a negresse soumise?" (NEG, p. 4 - 3 ) . And she goes on, undaunted though Archibald objects, "Neige'.", turning from invective-^ to r i d i c u l e by re-minding Vertu that i t i s p h y s i c a l l y impossible f o r a black to blush: NEIGE (a Vertu) : Rosir, rougir d'emoi, de con-fusion, doux termes qui ne s'appliqueront jamais a nous, sinon vous verr i e z monter, a toutes pompes, l a pourpre aux joues de Vertu. (NEG, p. 43) The accusation Neige began above ("je sais q u ' i l l'aimait") continues to be her point of attack against - 7 8 -V i l l a g e : she accuses him of ,loving--not hating--the white victim: VILLAGE : . . .vous m'aiderez? M'exciter : vous m'exciterez? NEIGE : Moi l a premiere, parce que j'en a i assez de vos lachetes. # # * . . .vous parlez d'elle avec tendresse. VILLAGE : Non d'elle, mais de mon geste. NEIGE : Vous mentez'. (NEG, p. 71) Neige then repeats the straight accusation that he i s l y i n g , personnifying h i s behaviour as Nostalgia, and ends her accusations with a simile which compares Vil l a g e to a member of the Colonial forces: NEIGE : Vous mentez. Quand vous parlez d ' e l l e , sur vos grosses levres, dans vos yeux malades, i l passe une t e l l e douceur, une s i poignante t r i s t e s s e que j*entrevois, monsieur, apparaitre en personne l a Nostalgie. Ce n'etait pas votre geste que vous me decriviez. . .ni l a resistance de l a chair au couteau en racon-tant sa paupiere bistree, n i votre nausee en evoquant, sur l e tapis, l a chute de son corps... VILLAGE : Menteuse'. NEIGE : . . .ni /votre/ 7 misere en songeant a. sa paleur. . .vous r e c i t i e z un grand amour. Venu de l o i n . . .un immense amour venait mourir i c i , l l c h e r des c h e v i l l e s blanches. Vous e t i e z , Negre, amoureux. Comme un sergent de l a Coloniale. ( E l l e tombe, epuise*e. . •) (NEG, p. 72) -79-Again, the rh e t o r i c i s aimed i n two ways: the accusa-tions against V i l l a g e are meant to transform him from an in d i v i d u a l into the proud representative of l e s negres: the black who k i l l s the white victim. On the other hand, the language describing a groveling V i l l a g e ("amour venait. . .lecher des c h e v i l l e s blanches") with i t s following simile comparing him to a Colonial Sergeant i s aimed by implication at the l i s t e n i n g Cour (and the white audience). Neige continues with the worst v i s i o n she can imagine for a black: changing color 1. And the accusation that V i l l a g e was pondering changing color-' i s followed by the implied reference to r o t t i n g f l e s h , "une peau verte": NEIGE (comme cherchant d'autres insultes et l e s  vomissant avec des hoquets) : Jurez'. Comme d'autres changent de fa m i l i e s . . .de Dieux, jurez que vous n'avez pas eu l'idee de changer de couleur pour l ' a t t e i n d r e . Mais ne pouvant pourtant songer au blanc royal , vous vous §tes desire une peau verte : e l l e vous est restee! (NEG, p. 73) Neige returns to t h i s image i n her l a s t i n s u l t to V i l l a g e , accusing him of personal cowardice ( k i l l i n g a white woman already dead): VILLAGE : . . .Vous etes surs que c'est u t i l e d ' a l l e r jusqu'au bout? NEIGE : Tout a. l'heure vous n'hesitiez pas a. - 8 0 -m'insulter, et vous n'auriez pas l a force de tuer une Blanche deja morte? (NEG, p. 85) The taunt i n Neige*s accusation b e f i t s the role she has played throughout the play-within-the-play: that of prodding V i l l a g e into accomplishing the rape/murder. The l a s t i n s u l t Neige voices occurs late i n the play, as l a Cour are being sent "aux Enfers." As she directs La Reine to take her place among the "dead," Neige again uses epithets to downgrade whiteness (and, by contrast, praise blackness): ". . . l ' e s c a l i e r de l a mort est interminable. Et c l a i r comme le jour. Pale. Blanc. Infernal" (NEG, p. 1 7 9 ) . B0B0 plays a minor r o l e , complementary both to F e l i c i t e and to Neige. Her use of invective language occurs but three times. In the f i r s t instance, the speech i s both exhortive and i n s u l t i n g , aimed d i r e c t l y at l a Cour; i n the second instance, Bobo repeats one of Neige's i n s u l t s ; i n the t h i r d , she forms a chorus with Neige i n which the two urge V i l l a g e toward the f i n a l moments of his narrative. Bobo's f i r s t attack begins with metaphoric language, describing the scent of the corpse i n terms which exhort les negres to be proud; then, turning d i r e c t l y to the l i s t e n i n g Cour, she begins to describe t h e i r contrasting -81-l a c k o f s c e n t i n g r a p h i c terms: BOBO ( a A r c h i b a l d ) : L a puanteur vous e f f r a i e , m a intenant? C'est e l l e q u i monte de ma t e r r e a f r i c a i n e . M o i , Bobo, s u r ses vagues e p a i s s e s , je veux promener ma t r a l n e ' . Qu'une odeur de charogne me porte'. E t m-lenleve! (A l a Cour.) E t t o i , r a c e b l a f a r d e e t i n o d o r e , t o i , p r i -vee d'odeurs a n i m a l e s , p r i v e e des p e s t i l e n c e s de nos mare'cages. . . ARCHIBALD ( a Bobo) : L a i s s e z p a r l e r V e r t u . (NEG, p. 32) The i n s u l t , h e r e , t o l a Cour d e r i v e s from the tone o f i n s o l e n c e Bobo uses i n her c h o i c e o f v o c a b u l a r y , con-t r a s t i n g what i s not n o r m a l l y c e l e b r a t e d ( c a r r i o n : "une odeur de charogne me p o r t e " ) w i t h the o d o r l e s s n e s s of the w h i t e r a c e , u s i n g images g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d un-p l e a s a n t ("odeurs a n i m a l e s " and " p e s t i l e n c e s de nos marecages"). E a r t h y , swampy odors c o n t i n u e t o be c e l e -b r a t e d by Bobo, as she n o t e s t h e i r d e p r i v a t i o n among the w h i t e r a c e . The n e x t i n s u l t s we hea r Bobo use are d i r e c t l y spoken t o V i l l a g e , s u p p o r t i n g Neige's a c c u s a t i o n t h a t he i s l y -i n g : VILLAGE : . . .j e m'apporte. Je re g a r d e un peu autour de moi... BOBO : Vous mentez. S o u r n o i s , h i e r vous e t e s e n t r e avec c i r c o n s p e c t i o n . Vous deformez. (NEG, pp. 87-88) -82-Not only does Bobo openly attack V i l l a g e for l y i n g ; she also c a l l s him "sournois." Then, as she and Neige urge that V i l l a g e follow Diouf-Marie offstage, she commands, "Entre dans l a turne, flemmard'." (NEG, p. 1 0 9 ) , empha-s i z i n g V i l l a g e ' s hesitancy. We can add to Bobo's name-calling that of Archibald, who c a l l s V i l l a g e both "Imbecile" (NEG, p. 42) and "mon-sieur le malin" (NEG, pp. 6 0 - 6 1 ) . F e l i c i t e l a b e l s him "le plus lache de tous l e s Negres" (NEG, p. 1 1 1 ) . In each of these instances, the use of an i n s u l t i n g epithet describing V i l l a g e — s o u r n o i s , flemmard, imbecile, malin, lache--is intended to spur V i l l a g e * s anger so that he can play his role properly, according to the text. * * # VILLAGE, narrator of i n s u l t V i l l a g e also uses the language of invective as he describes the object of his crime. In addition, through commands ordering Le Masque to execute puppet-like ges-tures, V i l l a g e ' s enactment of the prelude to the crime suggests the degraded p o s i t i o n he i n s i s t s upon with his representative of l a Cour, his White Victim. A l l of -83-these i n s u l t s , both d i r e c t and implied, occur at various places during V i l l a g e ' s oft-interrupted narration. Although the 'victim* i s transformed several times throughout the narration, V i l l a g e ' s physical description i s consistently denigrating. At f i r s t , she i s the "beggar who reeks of wine and excrement"s VILLAGE s . . . i l y avait une v i e i l l e ciocharde accroupie--ou allongie--sur un tas de guenilles. . . * * •«• . . .Elle puait le vin, comme toutes c e l l e s q u ' i l s r e j e ttent sur l e s quais. . . * * * (NEG, p. 33) . . .Je l ' a i etranglee avec mes deux mains. . . Un peu degoute a cause de l a gueule de l a v i e i l l e , d'une odeur de v i n et d'urine, a. cause de l a crasse, monsieur Herode Aventure a f a i l l i degueuler. . . (NEG, p. 3*0 The i n s u l t i s further amplified by h i s r e l a t i n g that his accomplice, M. Herode Aventure, was almost made i l l from the smells. V i l l a g e ' s next i n s u l t i s - - l i k e Bobo's--an i n s u l t by inversion as he contrasts the r a c i a l color of l e s negres with that of l e s blancs. V i l l a g e imputes that whiteness i s watered-down wine, and he describes the color white as j a c k a l - l i k e : "Notre couleur n'est pas une tache de vinasse qui dechire un visage, notre visage n'est pas un -84-chacal qui devore ceux q u ' i l regarde... " (NEG, p. 63). V i l l a g e ' s comments denigrating paleness are then 37 p a r a l l e l e d i n Vertu's i r o n i c praise of p a l l o r . V i l l a g e returns to a more de f i n i t e i n s u l t regarding his v i c t i m a b i t l a t e r by describing her as " l a v i e i l l e garce" (NEG, p. 94); then she i s d i r e c t l y addressed as "salope" (NEG, p. 99), and described as "captive et domptee. Car e l l e e t a i t habile et reputee parmi ceux de sa race" (NEG, p. 100). As we are i n the midst of a narrative which i s establishing V i l l a g e ' s sexual power over h i s victim, the r e l a t i v e l y c o l o r l e s s adjectives, captive, domptee, habile and rlputee, carry disparaging innuendoes regarding the sexual "reputation"of h i s v i c -tim • Seconds l a t e r , V i l l a g e enacts the gestures of dominating his victim with orders, as Diouf-Marie mimes "her" reactions. V i l l a g e a r b i t r a r i l y orders Le Masque to play the piano, then to stop: VILLAGE : . . .(Au Masque) Jouez-nous done une melodie de Charles Gounod. (Docile, le Masque  s'assied sur un i n v i s i b l e tabouret et .joue, face au public, sur un i n v i s i b l e piano.) Stop'. (II cesse de jouer. . •) (NEG, p. 101) V i l l a g e then orders her to pray, d i r e c t i n g her p o s i t i o n exactly: VILLAGE : . . • (Au Masque.) A genoux'. (II s'age-nouille.) Les mains jointes. Les yeux au c i e l . Bien. Priez'. . . . (NEG, p. 101) -85-Following a series of commands-^ during which he again addresses Le Masque as "salope!" (NEG, p. 105), V i l l a g e addresses a parting i n s u l t to his victim: "Comme vous marchez bien, croupe familiere et noble'." (NEG, p. 106) . The f a m i l i a r i t y of the phrase, "croupe fa m i l i e r e , " c a r r i e s an i n s u l t i n g connotation not only for Le Masque, but also for l a Cour. V i l l a g e ' s i n s u l t s , l i k e Neige's, are double-edged broadswords attacking both an i n d i v i d u a l white and the group, l a Cour• * •* # FELICITE and LA. REINE: the verbal battle The verbal battle that engages FELICITE and LA REINE r e f l e c t s a v a r i e t y of r h e t o r i c a l language. We have already pointed to the use of exhortation by both queens. In the use of the rhetoric of invective, F e l i c i t e rules uppermost, attacking La Reine with r i d i c u l e and insolence. F e l i c i t e begins by suggesting that La Reine i s weak: "Dis que tu es incapable de trouver l e premier mot," but La Reine s t a l l s her, "Je peux attendre, j ' a i l ' E t e r n i t e pour moi" (NEG, p. 14-6). F e l i c i t e then -86-attempts intimidation with more insolence, vaunting her power i n blackness and implying the weakness of white-ness, which she transforms into a groundfog: "J'aurai l e cadavre du fantome de ton cadavre. Tu es pale, mais tu deviens transparente. B r o u i l l a r d qui f l o t t e sur mes terres, tu vas t'evanouir tout a. f a i t . . ." (NEG, p. 152 ), closely followed by the outrageous threat that La Reine w i l l become no more than a body wind: "Nous lacherons un pet, vous serez a. l a porte" (NEG, p. 1 5 2 ) . As La Reine r e t a l i a t e s with a counter-threat, "Je vais vous f a i r e exterminer," Felicite* uses the i n s u l t i n g epithet, "Sotte," and reminds La Reine of the importance the shadow (les negres) holds i n r e l a t i o n to the thing which casts the shadow (les blancs): 11. . .que vous seriez plate, sans cette ombre qui vous donne tant de r e l i e f " (NEG, p. 1 5 3 ) A t t h i s point La Reine's power begins to d r i f t away, not unlike "Afrique. . . continent a. l a derive. . ." (NEG, p. 1 1 1 ) . . By the time F e l i c i t e has concluded her argument, using the metaphor of night for l e s negres and weak l i g h t f o r l e s blancs, La Reine and l e s blancs ( l a Cour and the audience) have become a groundfog, without substance. The contrast between the t w o — l i g h t and the absence of l i g h t - - i s p a r a l l e l e d by Richard Coe to concepts found i n Spinoza: - 6 7 -As i n Spinoza, " a l l determination i s negation": every positive implies a negative, and vice-versa. Positive and negative, Figure and Image, are i n -separable, and a l l r e a l i t y i s the simultaneous co-existence of the two. Every Judge implies a Criminal, every Bishop a Sinner to be forgiven, and i f there were no Sinners, then Bishops would cease to exist, t h e i r function having vanished. x I t i s only with some intervening moral support from her Cour that La Reine at l a s t summons r e t a l i a t o r y remarks i n th i s "positive/negative" argument. La Reine provides a delayed counter-attack to F e l i c i t e ' s attack on her vanity: "Vous n'empe*cherez, ma b e l l e , que je n'ai ete plus be l l e que vous'. Tous ceux qui me connaissent pour-ront vous l e dire. Personne n'a ete chantee plus que moi. Ni plus courtisee, n i fetee. Ni paree. . ." (NEG, pp. 1 5 3 - 5 4 ) . La Reine then l i s t e n s as F e l i c i t e outlines the coming power of l e s negres with her exhortation which transforms the "good and sweet" from white to 42 black. La Reine t r i e s one l a s t i n s u l t , c a l l i n g F e l i c i t e "Idiote!" (NEG, p. 1 5 6 ) . From t h i s point on, the debate bounces evenly back and fo r t h , as the two women argue about future generations. La Reine uses i n s u l t i n an in t e r e s t i n g way i n two other instances i n the play. In the f i r s t , she r i d i c u l e s l e s negres by commenting to Le Gouverneur upon Archibald's appearance: ". . .mais l a i s s e z done ce negre parler : -88-voyez sa pauvre bouche qui b a i l i e , grande ouverte, et ces colonnes de mouches qui en sortent... ( e l l e regarde  mieux, penchee) ou qui s'y p r e c i p i t e n t . . ." (NEG, p. 24). Although the r i d i c u l e i s not spoken d i r e c t l y to Archibald, i t s impact i s f e l t by him and the l i s t e n i n g negres. In the other instance, we are l i s t e n i n g not to "La Reine," but to the "actress" who played her r o l e , speaking out-side the play-within-the-play. Here, she p l a i n l y states her opinion of "1 * abominable' vie des Blancs" to the audience: CELLS QUI ETAIT LA. REINE : Nous nous etions cou-verts d'un masque a. l a f o i s pour vivre 1* abomi-nable vie des Blancs, et pour vous aider a. vous en l i s e r dans l a honte, mais notre rSle de come-dien t i r e a. sa f i n . (NEG, p. 165) This self-conscious description of role-playing b l a t a n t l y explains to the audience that the sole purpose of the deceptive play-within-the-play was to arouse that audience's feelings of shame, although that shame i s to be allayed by the distancing of play-acting. * # * We have just seen that Neige and Bobo both made use of invective i n order to urge V i l l a g e ' s narrative. We also remarked the extent to which vituperation was h e l p f u l -89-to V i l l a g e ' s m a n i p u l a t i o n o f D i o u f - M a r i e , h i s " v i c t i m . " L a Reine and her Cour were l e s s prone to employ the r h e t o r i c o f i n s u l t . The i n s u l t ' s most p o w e r f u l weapon i s to produce anger i n the l i s t e n e r . By t h i s method we can conclude t h a t i n Les Negres t h i s type o f r h e t o r i c a l dev ice i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n f u r t h e r i n g the s l i g h t a c t i o n o f the drama. * * # GENERAL SUMMARY, I m p e r a t i v e s , E x h o r t a t i o n s and I n s u l t s i n  Le s Negres What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p "between the use o f r h e t o -r i c a l language and the dramat ic movement o f the p l a y , L e s  Negres? A l t h o u g h a few c h a r a c t e r s d i d not r e v e a l them-s e l v e s to be p e r s u a d i n g c h a r a c t e r s , a t t e m p t i n g to mani-p u l a t e o t h e r s by the v a r i o u s uses o f I m p e r a t i v e s , E x h o r -t a t i o n s or I n s u l t s , the major c h a r a c t e r s used these r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s , which gave l i f e to the movement o f the drama. I n a d d i t i o n , the e x a m i n a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c language used h e l p e d r e v e a l some of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l m o t i v a t i o n f o r those c h a r a c t e r s who used p e r s u a s i v e l anguage . With the use o f command forms, A r c h i b a l d r e v e a l e d - 9 0 -quite r a p i d l y that l a Cour and the audience are intended to watch a play-within-a-play, as he directed l e s negres i n t h e i r r o l e s . At the same time, Archibald desired that t h e i r play-within-the-play shock the l i s t e n i n g whites (Cour and audience) into impotence, which re-vealed the psychological motivation for h i s actions and the type of dialogue chosen to f i t his characterization. When the importance of V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire's role as l i a i s o n between an "outside judgment" and the one occuring onstage was clear, the purpose of F e l i c i t y ' s exhortations to "be black" more c l e a r l y became a thema-t i c part of both actions. Thus, Felicite*'s motivations can be joined to Archibald's. They are both leaders of l e s negres with a common goal: to r i d i c u l e l e s blancs and to strengthen the black pride of race. The use of both Imperatives and Exhortations also aided the pace of a drama i n which not much action r e a l l y took place. The use of r h e t o r i c a l language— including metaphoric images--preserved continuity i n what otherwise would be, perhaps, episodic bafflement. The characters' use of Invective supported the "hate of white" which empowered l e s nlgres to conquer l a Cour. This conquest was achieved not through l o g i c , but through emotional persuaders: with fear, "witchcraft," and scorn. Thus, the use of r h e t o r i c assumed an important -91-place i n the ov e r - a l l context of the play. As Insult and Exhortation heightened the proportions of the battle between the two queens (a debate made ri c h e r by metaphor), drama took place i n the h a l l . The use of r h e t o r i c a l techniques not only helped Genet's characters to influence each other: his r i c h use of language became an i n t e g r a l part of the movement i n a play which otherwise contains l i t t l e dramatic tension. In addition, such language--when examined closely--has assisted the student of l i t e r a t u r e to bring to the sur-face the psychological motivations behind the actions and some of the dialogue of major characters i n Les Negres. - 9 2 -CHAPTER TWO Le Balcon I : IMPERATIVES "C'est une image vraie, nee d'un spectacle faux." -- Genet, Le  Balcon Directors of the Framing Play The "framing t a l e " has been a device of French prose, as well as of other l i t e r a t u r e s , which was well-defined by the early seventeen-hundreds.Although Jean Genet, as a twentieth-century dramatist, does not use the "fram-ing" device i n the same way as the early prose writers did, that i s , attempting to introduce a f i c t i o n under the guise of h i s t o r i c a l truth, he does--in a new sense--employ a similar t a c t i c . In Le Balcon, as i n Les Negres, Genet presents h i s readers and spectators with two l e v e l s of r e a l i t y : a r i t u a l takes places as play-within-the-play which i s set within the l i m i t s of some "outer r e a l i t y . " In the case of Les Negres, we noted the "outside judgment" which was handed down offstage and reported by the l i a i s o n character, V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire. We also noted the d i s p a r i t y -93-between les negres and l a Cour as 'actors'—with 'real l i v e s ' who quite often bicker among themselves and who must be directed back to the s c r i p t by Archibald--and the r o l e s which these same 'actors* portray within por-tions of a play-within-the-play. S i m i l a r l y , i n Le Balcon we s h a l l see just such a juxtaposition: the "framing play" concerns the day-by-day r e a l i t y of the world outside the walls of Irma's Grand Balcon-^ (a world of r e b e l l i o n , l e d by Roger and Chantal) as well as the d a i l y organization of l i f e within that "maison d ' i l l u s i o n s " (BAL, p. 7 1 ) . Genet urges us to believe i n . t h i s ' r e a l i t y , ' which w i l l contrast with the plays-within-the-play: the various scenarios en-acted within the chambers of the brothel. More impor-tantly, the play-acting of those c l i e n t s who come to enact the roles of Juge, Eveque, and General w i l l contrast sharply with these same characters when they "become" Juge, General, Eve*que and Reine. Madame Irma passes through an opposite t r a n s i t i o n , however. Irma tra v e l s from an "outer r e a l i t y " as brothel madame to role-playing as La Reine i n the "inner r e a l i t y , " and, i n the l a s t seconds of the play, she reverts to the Irma of the "framing play," once again ex i s t i n g i n the "outer r e a l i t y . " We s h a l l notice that imperatives are used as -9k-persuasive r h e t o r i c i n both the "framing play" and i n the various plays-within-the play. Let us f i r s t consider the characters who use persuasive r h e t o r i c i n the "outer r e a l i t y , " that i s , the "framing play." IRMA, scenario ' d i r e c t r i c e ' and 'boss' of Le Grand Balcon In the beginning tableau of Le Balcon, Mme Irma controls her c l i e n t , L'Eveque, and the scene i t s e l f with instructions to La F i l l e . A l l these d i r e c t i v e s are issued from Irma's po s i t i o n as " d i r e c t r i c e " of the brothel and occur--it i s understood--following L'Eveque's enactment of his p a r t i c u l a r scenario. Irma commands La F i l l e to remove the costume used by L'Eveque: " D e f a i s - l u i ses lac e t s . Dechausse-le. Et en l ' h a b i l l a n t q u ' i l ne prenne pas f r o i d " (BAL, p. 1 6 ) . She dire c t s the same commands to L'Eveque, himself, reminding him that his time i s up. Irma uses both d i r e c t commands and the imperative adverb, " v i t e , " which gains i t s command-form from the context: IRMA : Approchez, on va vous deshabiller'. L'EVEQUE (suppliant, presqu'a genoux) : Non, non, pas encore. IRMA : C'est l'heure. Allons'. Vite'. Plus v i t e ! (BAL, p. 17) With more commands Irma assures him of the inauthen-t i c i t y of La F i l l e ' s "sins," which i s es s e n t i a l , as they are part of the play-within-the-play: "(a. l'Eveque) Mais -95-ne 1*Ecoutez pas. Pour ses peches, soyez rassures. II n'y a pas i c i . . . " (BAL, p. 18). Irma then defends her employee, commanding L'Ev&que to stop questioning La F i l l e , "Mais l a i s s e z - l a , avec toutes ces questions" (BAL, p. 19 )-A b i t l a t e r , following the additional time granted L'Eveque, Irma--efficient ' d i r e c t r i c e ' — a g a i n commands him to leave, "Ca s u f f i t , maintenant. II va f a l l o i r par-t i r " (BAL, p. 2 2 ) , using an i n d i r e c t command. As L'Eveque continues to dal l y , Irma remains unrelenting i n the si t u a -t i o n , again commanding La F i l l e to disrobe him and i n s i s t -ing that t h i s c l i e n t a s s i s t i n hi s own transformation (from role of Eveque to his 're a l ' l i f e ) : IRMA (a. l a f i l l e ) : Ne l'ecoute plus et deshabille-l e . (A 1'Eveque qui est descendu de ses patins . . .) Aidez-vous, vous etes raide. * * # (a. l a f i l l e ) Passe-lui son veston. . . L'EVEQUE (regardant ses f r i p e s qui s'entassent a.  terre) : Ornements, dentelles, par vous je rentre en moi-meme . . .Le jugement dependc;de moi et me v o i c i face a. face avec ma mort. IRMA : C'est beau, mais i l faut p a r t i r . . . (BAL, pp. 23-24) At l a s t Irma e f f e c t s h i s departure, managing L'Eveque's behaviour with both d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t commands. In the t h i r d tableau she plays a sim i l a r r o l e , con-t r o l l i n g the c l i e n t , Le General, by cutting short h i s c h i v a l r l c offer to go to the aid of someone-^ they've heard scream. A P e r c i v a l , Le General offers to rescue the lady--"Je m'elance... "--which Irma prevents by replying, "Pas d'histoires i c i , calmez-vous. Pour l e moment, vous etes en c i v i l " (BAL, p. 46). Irma takes part, as well, i n d i r e c t i n g the scenario d e t a i l s , which are, i n t h i s case, boots spotted with blood. When t h i s c l i e n t voices hi s suspicions that there i s no blood (as he cannot see i t ) , Irma responds quite pragmatically: "II a seche. N'oubliez pas que c'est le sang de vos b a t a i l l e s d'autre-f o i s " (BAL, p. 47). Here, not only does she attempt to control Le General by a l l a y i n g his fears; Irma also takes p a r t - - l i k e another A r c h i b a l d — i n the s c r i p t - w r i t i n g of h i s approaching session with La F i l l e . This reveals the Irma who i s i n complete control of her Balcon, making sure her c l i e n t s ' wishes are confirmed during t h e i r sessions by having the chambers properly equipped. A d i f f e r e n t ' d i r e c t r i c e ' appears i n the f i f t h tableau. As Irma discusses the business a f f a i r s of le_ Grand Balcon with Carmen, she cuts short Carmen's discussion of Le Chef de l a Police, which i s an aside from Carmen's book-keeping job: "reprenons nos comptes, veux-tu?" (BAL, p. 65)-A. b i t l a t e r , Irma takes the same stance with Carmen, t h i s time abruptly discontinuing Carmen's nostalgic description of the scenario she used to enact for the "comptable du -97-C r i d i t Lyonnais." Irma reverts "to business": "Assez. II / l e comptablej 7 ne vient plus. . '. Occupe-toi de mes additions" (BAL, p. 68). Irma, "the boss," commands Carmen, "the bookkeeper," back to work. At the end of the same tableau, Irma retains a business-n l i k e calm, following the sudden shooting of Arthur,' as she orders imperially: "Mais d'abord qu'on enleve Arthur. Je vais recevoir l'Envoye" (BAL, p. 116). This i s the same Arthur whom Irma persuades with r h e t o r i c e a r l i e r i n the same tableau, as she commands him to search for Le Chef de l a Police. This p a r t i c u l a r por-t i o n of the tableau emphasizes a discrepancy i n the character of Arthur, himself, who appeared to be her Q chosen "macquereau," to whom Irma renders accounts. This bragging pimp changes to coward as Irma exposes his fear of the outside r e b e l l i o n . Not only does she i n s i s t , with d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t commands, that he locate Georges, le Chef de l a Police. She also forces Arthur into a po s i t i o n and an action which r e f l e c t the extent of his cowardice: Irma commands him to kneel and spray her with scent. Her i n i t i a l commands that he locate Georges are couched i n l e s s d i r e c t terms; she uses subjunctives as softened, i n d i r e c t commands: IRMA : . . .Pour 1*instant i l faut absolument que tu a i l l e s a. l a rencontre de Georges... -98-ARTHUR (d'une insolente ironie) : Tu dis, bien-aimee? IRMA. (seche) : Que tu a i l l e s a. l a rencontre de mon-sieur Georges. Jusqu'a. l a Police s ' i l l e faut et que tu l e previennes que je ne compte que sur l u i . (BAL, pp. 93-94) Rather than obeying, Arthur continues to play the "mac." Irma now becomes more demanding, using the f a m i l i a r form of d i r e c t imperative: ARTHUR (legerement inquiet) : Tu blagues, j'espere?... IRMA (soudain tres a u t o r i t a i r e) : Le ton de ma der-niere replique devrait te renseigner. . .Et t o i tu n'as plus a jouer au mac tendre et mechant. Fais ce que je t'ordonne, mais avant prends l e vaporisateur. (A. Carmen qui apporte  1' ob jet • ) Donne-le l u i / s i c j 7 ( A Arthur.) Et a. genoux! ARTHUR ( i l met un genou en terre et vaporise Irma) : Dans l a rue?... Tout seul?... Moi?... (BAL, p. 94) The change i n tone from "Que tu a i l l e s " to "Fais ce que je t'ordonne" begins to af f e c t Arthur, though he continues to hesitate, complaining that he had dressed to remain indoors. He protests--"Je n'ai que l a soie pour me pro-teger... "--which has no e f f e c t on t h i s Irma who demands ornaments from Carmen then again i n s i s t s that Arthur carry out her e a r l i e r command, "Et t o i vaporise"(BAL, p. 95)-Irma remains inexorable, despite Arthur's fears that he w i l l be recognized. She commands, "Rase l e s murs. (Un -99-temps.) Prends ce revolver" (BAL, p. 95)- Irma relents, somewhat, i n view of Arthur's fear of the gun: "Pas de revolver," but she continues her insistence that Arthur finds Georges, "Mais enleve ton chapeau, va ou je te dis, et reviens me renseigner" (BAL, p. 9 6 ) . At t h i s moment, another aspect of Irma's role i n th i s "framing play" emerges, and she n o t i f i e s Arthur of an approaching r o l e , i n s t r u c t i n g him exactly how to play the part, much as Archibald d i r e c t s h i s "actors." Here, Irma uses the future as an i n d i r e c t command: ARTHUR : . . .Qu'est-ce .que c'est? IRMA : Je croyais te 1 ' a v o i r d i t ': un cadavre. * * # . . .Tu resteras immobile, et on t'ensevelira. Tu pourras te reposer. * * * . . .ne m'interroge plus. Va. (BAL, p. 96) (/Arthur7 sort, toujours a. genoux.) (BAL, p. 97) Later i n the same tableau Irma also i n s t r u c t s Georges how to play h i s r o l e as Chef de l a Police. Just as Irma cut short Carmen's dreaming, she arrests Georges' dream-ing and instructs him i n the p r a c t i c a l aspects of "how to become" a hero: IRMA : II faut tuer encore, mon cher Georges. LE CHEF DE LA POLICE : Je f a i s ce que je peux. . . -100-IRMA. s . . .11 faut t'enfoncer dans l a nuit, dans l a merde et dans l e sang. (Soudain angoisse !e•) Et tuer ce qui peut rester de notre amour... LE CHEF. DE LA POLICE (net) s Tout est mort. IRMA : C'est une be l l e v i c t o i r e . Alors, i l faut tuer autour de t o i . (BAL, p. 102) Like a s k i l l f u l dramatic director, Irma analyzes the necessities of Georges' r o l e , which w i l l include k i l l i n g t h e i r love as well as the rebels ("II faut tuer. . . t'enfoncer. . .tuer ce qui peut rester. . . " ) . In the l a s t tableau (the ninth) Irma again di r e c t s the actions of her clients."'" 0 As she dire c t s t h e i r de-parture, Irma leaves behind her own role and again i s Irma, ' d i r e c t r i c e . ' She issues d i r e c t commands to Carmen and outlines her own duties: LA REINE /iRMAy7: V O U S passerez par l a pet i t e porte qui donne sur l a r u e l l e . Une voiture vous attend. (BAL, p. 203) * # * /a. l'Envoye/ • • • Irma. Appelez-moi madame Irma, et rentrez chez vous. Bonsoir, monsieur. * * * (BAL, p. 204) . . .Carmen?... Tire l e s verrous, mon cheri, et place l e s housses... ( E l l e continue d'eteindre.) Tout a. l'heure, i l va f a l l o i r recommencer. . . tout rallumer... s ' h a b i l l e r . . .Redistribuer l e s r o l e s . . . endosser l e mien. . . (BAL, pp. 204-05) At t h i s moment a dramatic change i n "audience" occurs, and -101-the f u l l thematic impact of the entire play hinges upon Irma's dire c t commands to the theatre audience, i t s e l f : IRMA : . . . ( . . .face au p u b l i c ) . . . preparer l e votre ... juges, generaux, eveques, chambellans, revolte's qui l a i s s e z l a revolte se f i g e r . . . i l faut rentrer chez nous / s i c : vous/,"'""'" ou tout, n*en doutez pas, sera encore plus faux q u ' i c i ... II faut vous en a l l e r . . .Vous passerez a droite, par l a r u e l l e . . .C'est deja l e matin. (BAL, p. 205) As the play ends on the above l i n e s , Irma attempts d i r e c t persuasion of the audience (or reader) with commands which are both d i r e c t ("preparer") and i n d i r e c t ( " i l faut ren-t r e r , " " i l faut vous en a l l e r , " "vous passerez"). Rima D r e l l Reck points to the audience-involvement i m p l i c i t i n Irma's speech i n her a r t i c l e , "Appearance and Reality i n Genet's Le Balcon," Yale French Studies' issue on "New Dramatists" i n 1 9 6 2 : Genet the moralist s t r i k e s h i s double blow: play-acting i s a delight, but not so simple when the game i s for r e a l ; perhaps a l l the "roles" of society are merely r o l e s , that i s , interchangeable, a r b i t r a r y assignments i n a general masquerade or r i t u a l . Genet has put society i t s e l f to the question and along with i t , a l l of us who l i v e i t s masquerade "for r e a l . " - ^ IRMA. persuades Carmen Within the "framing play" we have already noticed one of Irma's relationships to Carmen: Irma dominates her "bookkeeper" with imperatives. In the f i f t h tableau -102-we also see another Irma, one who dominates with r h e t o r i c the inner Carmen. Irma uses f e a r - i n s p i r i n g invocations i n order to fri g h t e n a Carmen who i s thinking of leaving l e Grand Balcon (as Chantal has already done). Irma uses the future i n order to create a frightening v i s i o n of what w i l l happen to Carmen i f she leaves. I t i s a use-f u l method to manipulate Carmen's way of seeing h e r s e l f i n the future: CARMEN : . . .tout en moi se tourne vers ma f i l l e . . .Elle est dans un v r a i j a r d i n . . . IRMA : Tu ne pourras pas a l l e r l a rejoindre et d ' i c i peu le jardin sera dans ton coeur. CARMEN : Taisez-vous *. IRMA. (inexorable) : La v i l l e est pleine de cadavres. Tous l e s che'inins sont coupes. . .Les revoltes en veulent au Clerge, a l'Arml'e, a l a Magistra-ture, a moi, Irma, mere maquerelle et patronne de boxon. Toi, tu seras tuee, eventree, et ta f i l l e adoptee par un vertueux r e b e l l e . Et nous y passerons tous, ( e l l e f r i s s o n e ) . (BAL, pp. 68-69) Irma's use of the future, above, becomes e s p e c i a l l y e f f e c -ti v e upon Carmen as she describes the possible fate await-ing both Carmen and her daughter. We s h a l l note a b i t l a t e r how very e f f e c t i v e i s a threat to Carmen's daughter. In addition to "imagined t e r r o r , " Irma also t r i e s the ploy of f l a t t e r y upon Carmen. As they speak of pros-t i t u t i o n as a profession, Irma urges Carmen's "pride of -103-profession" with commands to transform that pride with brightness, "tu as raison, mon cheri, d'exalter ton metier et d'en f a i r e une g l o i r e . F a i s - l e b r i l l e r . Q u'il t'allumine, s i tu n'as que l u i " (BAL, pp. 81-82). Irma urges t h i s pride mainly to convince Carmen she should accept the new role offered her e a r l i e r : that of sainte Therese (BAL, p. 73)• Irma even t r i e s to make Carmen see he r s e l f as a heroine: "Dans toute revolution, i l y a l a putain exalte*e qui chante une M a r s e i l l a i s e et se v i r g i n i s e . Tu sera c e l l e -l a ? " (BAL, p. 83). As t h i s v i s i o n seemingly f a i l s to con-vince, Irma reverts to using Carmen's daughter i n the ar-gument, t h i s time v i s u a l i z i n g the "glory"r-o'f her death: IRMA : Morte ou vivante, t a f i l l e est morte. Songe a. l a tombe, orne"'e de marguerites et de couronnes en perles. . . CARMEN : J'aurais aime l a r e v o i r . . . IRMA : Tu garderas son image dans 1*image du jardin et l e jardin dans ton coeur sous l a robe en-flammee de sainte Therese. Et tu hesites?... (BAL, p. 85) Here, Irma i s again d i r e c t i n g a role she wishes enacted i n le Grand Balcon. The next l i n e s reveal how personal i s Irma's desire that Carmen remain i n the brothel. As Car-men admits, "Vous savez bien que je vous suis attachee," the Sapphic r e l a t i o n s h i p i s further c l a r i f i e d by Irma.'s proferred " v i s i o n " : "Je t'enseignerai l e s c h i f f r e s . . . que nous passerons des nuits, ensemble, a. c a l l i g r a p h i e r " -104-(BAL, p. 85)- Irma's motivation for employing f l a t t e r i n g and. threatening commands i s now clear: Carmen i s preferred above both of Irma's male lovers (Georges, the former.lover, and Arthur, before whose role of "mac" Irma pretends to bow) . L'ENVOYB, catalyst between the " l i t t l e people" and the  "powerful" In the seventh tableau the royal Envoye: stands as l i a i s o n between the world of the "framing play" and various i l l u s i o n s which at f i r s t take place as role-play-ing. Subsequently, when no longer role-playing, these characters become part of the "framing play." I n i t i a l l y , the c l i e n t s whom we see enacting a chosen role i n Irma's Balcon wish to be Eveque, Juge and General i n private, only. The fourth major c l i e n t , Roger, also desires the privacy of l_e Grand Balcon i n order to play the role of Le Heros. Except for the l a t t e r , these " l i t t l e people" have no i n i t i a l desire to l i v e the roles which they assume i n Irma's chambers. When they are role-playing, they form a part of the plays-within-the-play. However, once L'Envoye has persuaded Irma to "become" La Reine, the " l i t t l e people" follow her lead and "become" t h e i r r o l e s . Thus, when Irma i s convinced, the three c l i e n t s follow her "example" (although Irma--unlike them--appears to be playing rather than " l i v i n g " that r o l e ) . Hence, the -105-c a t a l y t i c q u a l i t y of the l i a i s o n character, L'Envoye. L'Envoy! begins his d i r e c t i o n of Irma quite subtly, only mentioning that La Reine i s safe and w i l l wait, "Rassurez-vous, Sa Majeste est en l i e u sur. Et mort, ce phenix saurait s'envoler des cendres. . . l a Reine attendra l e temps q u ' i l faut" (BAL, p. 140). Although his language i s paradoxical regarding La Reine (here, as elsewhere), L'Envoye* implies she i s dead by suggesting the r i s i n g of a Phoenix, as the Phoenix myth informs us that t h i s fabu-lous b i r d dies i n flames only to be reborn from i t s own 13 ashes, within a predictable time. -* As his very next l i n e s are addressed d i r e c t l y to Irma--"Je dois rendre hommage, madame, a. votre sang-froid. Et a. votre courage. I l s sont dignes des plus hauts egards... " (BAL, p. 140)--the object of L'Envoye's mission obliquely becomes apparent. Obliqueness changes to c l a r i t y a few l i n e s l a t e r , following praise of Irma's physique: L'ENVOYE (l'examinant, l a deHaillant) : Bete superbe! Cuisses d'aplomb'. Epaules solides*. . . . Tete . . . IRMA (riant) : On l ' a deja. pretendu. . .je f e r a i une morte presentable. . .Mais s i l a Reine est morte... L'ENVOYE (s'inclinant) : Vive l a Reine, Madame. '(BAL, p. 14L> The significance of his exclamatory command, "Vive l a Reine, Madame," i s not missed by Irma; however, she remains -106-unconvinced, and even commands L'Envoye to search for La Reine, "Je n'aime pas qu'on se foute de moi. Regainez vos h i s t o i r e s . . .Au l i e u de rester l a , a' dire vos aneries, a l l e x f o u i l l e r l e s d&combres du Palais pour r e t i r e r l a Reine. Meme un peu r S t i e . . . " (BAL, p. 14-1). As Irma remains unconvinced, even now, that she should accept the r o l e , L'Envoye gives her a s c r i p t to follow, describ-ing what q u a l i t i e s are needed: "(A Irma et l u i passant l a  main sur l a nuque}) Oui, i l faut des vertebres solides ... i l s'agit de porter plusieurs k i l o s . . . " (BAL, p. 142). And he continues to demand she accept the r o l e , despite 14- * the protests of a jealous Georges. L'Envoye commands Irma to decide, at the same time p r e v a i l i n g upon Georges to accept her as La Reine. He also reminds Georges that he i s , as yet, "unqualified": L'ENVOYE (avec autorite /a. Irma7) : Autour de cette amande. . .nous forgerons un royau d'or et de fe r . Mais i l faut vous decider v i t e . LE CHEF DE LA POLICE (furieux) : Avant moi! A i n s i Irma passerait avant moi!. . .Si je suis au pouvoir, je veux bien imposer Irma... L'ENVOYE : Impossible. C'est d'elle que vous devez te n i r votre autorite'. II faut qu'elle appa-raisse de d r o i t d i v i n . N'oubliez pas que vous n'etes pas encore represent! dans ses salons. (BAL, p. 14-3) Shortly, Irma makes her d i c i s i o n : "Ma decision est p r i s e . Je suppose que j ' e t a i s appelee. . .et que Dieu me benira. -107-Je v a i s a l l e r me p r e p a r e r dans l a p r i e r e . . . " (BAL, p. 147). When L'Envoye i n q u i r e s whether e v e r y t h i n g i s i n r e a d i n e s s , Irma i s s u e s h e r f i r s t " i m p e r i a l commands," "Prevenez Carmen! Q u ' e l l e f a s s e b r o s s e r l e s costumes" (BAL, p. 147). The c a t a l y s t — L ' E n v o y e — h a s done h i s work. H a v i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h r h e t o r i c h i s p e r s u a d i n g " m i s s i o n , " he d i r e c t s b o t h Irma and Georges w i t h a b r u p t commands: L'ENVOYE : . . .depechez-vous. A l l e z dans vos ap-partements. Brodez un i n t e r m i n a b l e mouchoir... (Au chef de l a P o l i c e . ) Vous, donnez vos d e r -n i e r s o r d r e s a vos d e r n i e r s hommes. ( I I v a a un  m i r o i r . . .d'un t o n c a n a i l l e . ) E t f a i t e s v i t e . Je p e r d s mon temps a. e'couter vos c o n n e r i e s . (BAL, p. 149) C o n f i r m a t i o n o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f L'Envoye's p e r -s u a s i o n i s i m m e d i a t e l y seen i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u (the e i g h t h ) , as L'Eveque, Le Juge, Le G e n l r a l and Irma as L a Reine appear on a b a l c o n y o u t s i d e l e Grand B a l c o n , i n p r o c e s s of becoming t h e i r r o l e s . The o n l y i n c o m p l e t e t r a n s i t i o n from the " o u t e r " t o the " i n n e r " r e a l i t y i s r e p r e s e n t e d by Le H l r o s , Georges. We know t h a t h i s r o l e i s s t i l l i n c o m p l e t e because h i s costume i s o f n a t u r a l p r o p o r t i o n s , and he has not y e t donned the c o t h u r n i , "Tous sont de p r o p o r t i o n demesuree, g e a n t e - - s a u f l e H e r o s , c ' e s t - a - d i r e l e che f de l a P o l i c e - - e t reve'tus de l e u r s costumes de ceremonie, mais d e c h i r e s e t p o u s s i e r e u x " (BAL, p. 15D -108-LBS TROIS PHOTOGRAPHES create a r t i f i c i a l " r e a l i t y " Les Trois Photographes who appear early i n the ninth tableau are the most obvious persuading characters i n Le Balcon. Their directions to each of Les Trois Figures enable: the l a t t e r to appear to have begun " l i v i n g " t h e i r chosen r o l e s . Les Figures r e a l i z e d e a r l i e r that they are not r e a l l y l i v i n g t h e i r parts, although they were able to fo o l the crowd i n the procession. 1^ L'Eveque c l e a r l y ex-pressed the desire they a l l now have to l i v e t h e i r r o l e s , as with the future tense he "dire c t s " his' own r o l e : "Pour moi, chef symbolique de l ' E g l i s e de ce pays,"j'en veux devenir le chef e f f e c t i f . . .je vais signer des decrets et nommer des cures" (BAL, pp. 1 5 5 - 5 6 ) . Yet L'Eveque i s the f i r s t to show his fear and i n a b i l i t y to become that er very "chef e f f e c t i f , " and he needs d i r e c t i o n from Le 1 Photographe. I n i t i a l l y , L'Eveque appears to be commanding the si t u a t i o n by ordering the photographers to hurry. However, er we soon r e a l i z e Le 1 Photographe must take charge, as the commands switch from one to the other: L'EVEQUE (severe) : . . .11 vous faudra operer v i t e , et en silence s i possible. Vous prendrez chacun de nos p r o f i l s , l'un souriant, 1'autre plus sombre. LE l e r PHOTOGRAPHE : . . .(A l'Eveque.) En place pour l a p r i e r e . . . L'EVEQUE (sans bouger) : Dans une meditation ardente. -109-LE l e r PHOTOGRAPHE : Ardente . Arrangez-vous . L'EVEQUE (mai a son a i se ) : M a i s . . . comment? (BAL, p . 157) We n o t i c e w i t h L 'Eveque* s l a s t l i n e t h a t h i s e a r l i e r con-f idence d i s i n t e g r a t e s (". . .comment?"). " I n s t r u c t i o n " comes immediate ly through i m p l i e d commands (noun p h r a s e s ) : LE l e r PHOTOGRAPHE : . . . A l o r s , a l a f o i s face a Dieu et face a l ' o b j e c t i f . Les mains j o i n t e s . L a t e te l e v e e . Les yeux b a i s s e s . " . . (BAL, pp. 157-58) Again L'Eveque i s u n c e r t a i n , "Comme c e c i ? " which h i s " d i r e c t o r " answers w i t h more commands: LE 1CJ" PHOTOGRAPHE : . . . Tourne z-vous . . . un p e u . . . ( I I l u i tourne l a t e t e . ) L'EVEQUE (en co le re ) : Vous dev i s sez l e cou d 'un pre 1 at'. LE l C i PHOTOGRAPHE : Monseigneur, vous devez p r i e r de t r o i s q u a r t s . (BAL, pp. 158-59) Even a complaint from L'Eveque ("Vous deVissez l e cou. . .") has no e f f e c t upon t h i s d i r e c t o r , who calmy orders him to present a p a r t i c u l a r p r o f i l e . The drama of the t a b l e a u i s e s p e c i a l l y he ightened , er here , by the gestures of Le 1 Photographe as he borrows the hand of Le Juge and the monocle be long ing to Le Genera l to serve as proper " a c c e s s o r i e s " f o r L 'Eveque : LE l e r PHOTOGRAPHE : . . .Monsieur l e Procureur? (Le Juge s ' approche . ) Pour un / s i c / chouette de c l i c h e , vous me pre tez vo t re main une minute -110-(d'auto-rite i l l e prend par l a main et l e  place) mais, que votre main seule paraisse... La... retroussez un peu votre manche. . . ( l . . A 1'Eveque.) Tir e z l a langue. Plus grand. Bien. (II cherche toujours dans ses poches  . . .11 regarde. • .A 1'Eveque.) Ne bougez pas, c'est p a r f a i t . Vous permettez? (Sans  attendre l a reponse i l r e t i r e de l ' o r b i t e du  General son monocle. . .11 oblige le Juge a.  tenir l e monocle au-dessus de l a langue de  l'Bvgque, comme s ' i l s'agissait d'une hostie, et i l court• • •) (BAL, pp. 160-61) We notice that Les Trois Figures offer l i t t l e resistance er to the directions of Le 1 Photographe. Le Juge responds to "que votre main seule paraisse. . .retroussez un peu votre manche." L'Eveque obediently acts upon "Tirez l a langue." And Le General passively accepts the command implied by gesture, as Le 1 Photographe " r e t i r e . . .son  monocle." Again, gesture directs Le Juge "a. t e n i r l e monocle . . . " While Le 1 Photographe i s arranging L'Eveque i n a "proper" prayer stance, Le 2 Photographe prepares Le Juge, ordering both f a c i a l expression and hand p o s i t i o n for t h i s Juge who, shortly before, was so sure of his projects which would assure him of the " r e a l " power of 17 Judgeship: LE 2 e PHOTOGRAPHE (au Juge) : S ' i l vous p l a i t , - I l l -a l l o n g e z un peu l e s t r a i t s de v o t r e v i s a g e . Vous n ' a v e z pas t o u t a f a i t l ' a i r d ' u n juge . Une f i g u r e p l u s l o n g u e . . . LE JUGE : C h e v a l i n e ? Morose? LE 2 e PHOTOGRAPHE : . . . E t l e s deux mains de devant sur v o t r e d o s s i e r . . . (BAL, p . 158) Monsieur l e P r o c u r e u r , s i c ' e t a i t p o s s i b l e , un peu p l u s de s e v S r i t e . . . l a l e v r e p e n d a n t e . . . (Dans un c r i . ) Oh! p a r f a i t ! Ne touchez a. r i e n ' . (_. . .Le 2 e /Photographe7 se g l i s s e . . ..) (BAL, p . 159) Le G e n e r a l i s a b i t more sure o f how he wishes to appear (he suggests he needs a m a r s h a l l ' s b a t o n ) , y e t commands from Le 3 e Photographe are needed to e f f e c t the p roper s tance o f G e n e r a l : the moment r e q u i r e s Le Photo-graphe ' s i n g e n u i t y to f a s h i o n a baton from a sheet o f paper : L E GENERAL : Malheureusement je n ' a i pas de b a t o n . . . * * * (BAL, p . 159) LE 3 e PHOTOGRAPHE (au Genera l ) : Nous avons ce q u ' i l f a u t . Tenez , e t prenez l a pose . ( I I r o u l e une  f e u i l l e de p a p i e r en forme de b a t o n de mare*chal, i l l e t e n d au G e n e r a l q u i p r e n d l a pose . . .) (BAL, p . 160) I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o t e , h e r e , the p a r a l l e l i s m be-tween the " f a l s e d e t a i l s " (mentioned e s p e c i a l l y as Irma and Carmen d i s c u s s the v a r i o u s r o l e s p l a y e d out i n the 18 s a lons ) which are o b l i g a t o r y to a l l of the s c e n a r i o s enac ted i n l e Grand B a l c o n and the f a l s e d e t a i l s -112-introduced, above, by two of Les T r o i s Photographies. In the case of Le General, the f a l s e d e t a i l which lends credence to his pose i s the rolled-up paper representing "un baton de marechal," as noted. In the case of L'Eveque, the "host" i s invented from the monocle commandeered from Le General. Through both verbal commands and gestures Les Trois Photographes "invent" an "authentic" picture with " f a l s e " people and props. L'Envoye comments rather f i t t i n g l y , "C'est une image vraie, nee d'un spectacle faux" (BAL, p, 161). L'EVEQUE, direc t o r of Les Figures The three " l i t t l e men" who attempt to cross from the i r role-playing ( i n t h e i r private scenarios) into the "framing play" encounter much d i f f i c u l t y . One of them, L'Eveque, provides the other two with peer guidance. He i s the most verbal of the three and recognizes early i n 19 the ninth tableau that there i s no turning back. 7 L'Eveque also defines the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t h e i r new " l i v e s , " urging d e f i n i t e behaviour with commands: "II depend de nous que cette mascarade change de s i g n i f i c a -t i o n . Employons d'abord des mots qui magnifient. Agis-sons v i t e , et avec precision. Pas d'erreurs permises" (BAL, p. 1 5 5 ) . L'Eveque also r e a l i z e s how much Les Figures actually -113-owe to t h e i r symbols of o f f i c e : the costumes which repre-sent Eveque, Juge, General. As the other two r a i l against Georges (they command him to have patience while waiting for his role to be confirmed i n Irma's chambers, BAIL, pp. I68Q69), L'Eveque commands Georges (as well as the two l i s t e n i n g Figures) that they must make th e i r ornaments serve them: L'EVEQUE (au Chef de l a Police) : . . .La purete orne-mentale, .ne se retrouvera plus : s o i t . . . Nous allons vivre dans l a lumiere, mais avec ce que cela implique. Magistrat, soldat, prelat, nous allons agir a f i n de r l d u i r e sans cesse nos ornements! Nous allons l e s f a i r e servir'. Mais pour q u ' i l s servent, et nous servent. . .11 faut que vous les reconnaissiez l e premier et leur rendiez hommage. (BAL, pp. 171-72) Despite the positive p o s i t i o n taken, above, by L'Eveque, these " l i t t l e men" continue to f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to " l i v e " t h e i r r o l e s . Comments which Benjamin Nelson makes i n his a r t i c l e , "The Balcony and P a r i s i a n E x i s t e n t i a l i s m , " perhaps c l a r i f y t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s : The Great Figures are a l l now constrained to be the actual beings who wear these o u t f i t s ; from t h i s even-t u a l i t y they shrink i n fear, dreading to abandon the only hold they have upon existence , which is. to be the image that Irma i s becoming through metamorphosis. Genet i s continually suggesting that once the meta-morphosis has moved beyond a ce r t a i n point, there i s an actual l o s s (and an apparent gain) of v i t a l i t y . V i t a l i t y can come now i n two ways: v i t a l i t y i n the f i r s t sense i s i d e n t i f i e d with nearness to actual existence i n a l l i t s contrariety. There, one's every movement i s cued by existence. . . In the second sense, however. . .significance -114-and v i t a l i t y are acquired through a r o l e . . .The Great Figures are forced into the frightening choice of having to l i v e the parts of "Bishop," "General," "Advocate." They don't know what l i v i n g means. They fear that every move they make, every word they utter may be the wrong one. They f e e l l o s t i n the r o l e . L Nelson i s , of course, discussing these characters from an e x i s t e n t i a l point-of-view, examining t h e i r "choices," i n Sartrean terms. Relative to our d i v i s i o n between the "framing play" and the "inner r e a l i t y , " Nelson's point that there are two " v i t a l i t i e s , " one bound to "actual existence," the other bound to role-playing, sharpens the discrepancy and the s i m i l a r i t y between the roles these characters " l i v e " and "act." LE CHEF DE LA POLICE: Georges, the chauvinist The greatest difference between Les Trois Figures and Le Chef de l a Police l i e s i n development of character. Whereas the " l i t t l e men" already have designed and acted-out t h e i r visions of Eveque, Juge and General, Georges* role within l e Grand Balcon has yet to be written, as well as cast. He develops h i s scenario onstage, i n op-p o s i t i o n to t h e i r already scripted "plays," which were developed before Le Balcon ever commenced. For the most part we know t h i s character only i n the "framing play," while he i s waiting to be added to the Nomenclature. His i s a delayed appearance. He f i r s t arrives onstage as late -115-as the f i f t h tableau. Upon t h i s a r r i v a l , he "predicts" his own future, d i r e c t i n g h i s own " r o l e " with the use of the future: LE CHEF DE LA POLICE :•. . .La revolte y est tragique et joyeuse, contrairement a cette maison. . . Done, je joue ma chance aujourd'hui meme. Cette nuit je serai dans l a tombe ou sur l e socle. . . (BAL, p. 98) Georges continues to v i s u a l i z e h i s "rol e , " seeing i t mul-21 . . . t i p l i e d i n Irma's mirrors, p a r a l l e l i n g h i s notion that i f he describes the role often enough (multiplying i t with words), i t w i l l take substances LE CHEF DE LA POLICE (avec force) s Mon image grandit de plus en plus, je t'assure, E l l e devient colossale. Tout, autour de moi, me l a repete et me l a renvoie. . . (BAL, p. 101) * * * . . .Personne encore*. Mais j ' o b l i g e r a i mon image a se detacher de moi, a. penltrer, a. f o r -cer tes salons, a. se refle*chir, a. se m u l t i p l i e r . Irma, ma fonction me pese. I c i , e l l e m'appa-r a i t r a dans l e s o l e i l t e r r i b l e du p l a i s i r et de l a mort. (R&veur) De l a mort... (BAL, p. 102) The use of the implied future--with the verb, devenir, as well as the use of the future tense, o b l i g e r a i , apparaltra--emphasizes the desires Georges has f o r the role he awaits. It i s at t h i s moment that Irma reminds him with implied commands that t h i s role requires k i l l i n g ("II faut tuer -116-encore," p. 1 0 2 ) . Moments l a t e r , the dream tomb taking on the proportions of a giant Alexandrian monolith, Georges commands Irma to he present i n that implied future scene. We see from her quite pragmatic reply that Irma evades such f a n c i f u l manipulations: LE CHEF DE LA POLICE : . . .(Exalte) Alexandrie! J'aurai mon tombeau, Irma. Et t o i , quand on posera l a premiere pierre, tu seras a l a meilleure place. IRMA : Je te remercie. (A. Carmen.) Le the, Carmen. (BAL, p. 103) More r e a l i s t i c a l l y , Georges assumes hi s d a i l y p o s i t i o n of an o f f i c e r accepting graft. I t i s i n t h i s portion of the tableau that he f i r s t appears quite chauvinistic, as he shoves Irma about, demanding his percentage of the day's gross. At t h i s moment, Ge o r g e s i s responding emotionally to Irma's taunts concerning Arthur: IRMA s . . .cela ne t'a pas toujours ennuye que je t'apparaisse sous l e s apparences de ce corps magnifique /Arthur^... Je peux te r e d i r e . . . LE CHEF DE LA POLICE ( g i f l e Irma qui tombe sur l e  divan) : Et ne chiale pas, ou je t'ecrase l a gueule. . .J'illumine l a v i l l e aux putains i n -cendiees. (Tres doucement.) Tu m'en crois capable? IRMA (dans un souffle) : Oui, cheri. LE CHEF DE LA POLICE : Alors, fais-moi l e s comptes. Defalque s i tu veux l e cr§pe de Chine 22 .» d'Apollon. Et depeche-toi, i l faut que je rejoindre mon poste. . . (BAL, p. 113) -117-Th e commands used by Georges--"fais-moi l e s comptes" and "depeche-toi"--are i n fine contrast to Arthur's e a r l i e r attempts to control Irma i n the same tableau. Arthur posed questions or made statements, whereas Georges, above, gave commands i n the same s i t u a t i o n : ARTHUR : Tu as f a i t combien, aujourd'hui? IRMA. (sur l a defensive) : Carmen et moi, nous n'avons pas f i n i l e s comptes. ARTHUR : Moi s i . D'apres mes c a l c u l s , ga va cher-cher dans l e s 2 0 . 0 0 0 . (BAL, p. 92) In the seventh tableau, Georges attempts to force L'Envoye to be precise i n h i s description of La Reine. At f i r s t he i n s i s t s only on c l a r i t y : L'ENVOYE (impassible) : /La Reiney7 ronfle et e l l e ne ronfle pas. . . LE CHEF DE LA POLICE (tou.iours plus menacant) : Passons. Vous m'avez d i t que l e Palais e t a i t en danger... Que f a u t - i l f a i r e ? . . .Ou en est done l a r l v o l u t i o n ? Soyez c l a i r . L'ENVOYE : Jugez-en par l ' e t a t de cette maison et par le votre... Tout semble perdu. (BAL, p. 135) As L'Envoye remains impassive, disdaining precise language ("La Reine est debout sur une jambe au milieu d'une chambre vide et e l l e . . . " ) , Georges becomes im-patient and more demanding with his commands, "Assez! . . .Pour moi, l a Reine doit etre quelqu'un. Et l a s i t u -ation concrete. Decrivez-la avec exactitude" (BAL, -118-P- 1 3 6 ) . ^ We have already noticed Georges' chauvinistic con-cerns which here again emerge, as L'Envoye i s i n the pro-cess of convincing Irma to become La Reine. In addition to Georges' command, "Irma, ne l'ecoute pas.'" (BAL, pp. 14-2-4-3) , Georges further reveals h i s chauvinism with the following protest: "Avant moi! A i n s i Irma passerait avant moi! Tout le mai que je me suis donne pour etre l e maitre ne s e r v i r a i t a r i e n " (BAL, p. 143). I t would seem Georges can no more accept Irma as having royal power over him than he can allow her an "equal partner" r e l a -tionship i n the business a f f a i r s of l e Grand Balcon. As often happens i n Genet, t h i s character attempts but does not succeed i n his use of persuasive r h e t o r i c . * * * Within the "framing play," which i s the "outer r e a l i t y , " we have examined the imperative forms (direct and i n d i r e c t commands) used by some of the major charac-ters i n Le Balcon. Madame Irma gave commands to both c l i e n t s and pros t i t u t e s , as she pursued the d a i l y business of running l e Grand Balcon, her "maison d ' i l l u s i o n s . " We also studied Irma's attempts to r e t a i n Carmen i n that maison, urging her with threats and with -119-f l a t t e r y to remain. We discovered that the royal emis-sary, L'Envoye, f u l f i l l e d a v i t a l role by acting as catalyst, transforming Irma through persuasive language from the class of " l i t t l e people" to a p o s i t i o n of power (which she plays as i n a role i n the "inner r e a l i t y , " next to be observed). Once Irma consented to become "La Reine," we noted that the influence of L'Envoye reached as far as those c l i e n t s who formerly acted out the roles of Eveque, Juge and General, i n that Irma 1s acceptance en-couraged t h e i r own. Les Trois Photographes were i n s t r u -mental i n helping Les Trois Figures to f i l l t h e i r " l i v i n g " r o l e s . We also noted that L'Eveque, once " l i v i n g " his ro l e , became spokesman for the other two Figures, d i r e c t -ing them how to " l i v e " t h e i r power positions. F i n a l l y , we examined the commands Georges, Le Chef de l a P o l i c e , used to attempt supremacy over Irma and to force L'Envoye to precise language. These actions occurred outside the plays-within-the-play; the following discussion w i l l examine persuasive r h e t o r i c inside the "inner r e a l i t y , " that i s , within those plays-within-the-play. DIRECTORS within the Frame The play-within-the-play i s l e s s obvious i n Le_ Balcon than i n Les Negres. Rather than two d i s t i n c t sets of -120-characters enacting one piay-within-the-play, i n Le  Balcon we have several plays-within-the-play (framed by the "outer r e a l i t y " ) , performed by various sets of charac-te r s . As t h i s complexity can be confusing, the discussions axe ordered according to tableau. Those tableaux which are relevant are as follows: the f i r s t tableau presents the scenario of L'Eveque. The second tableau clusters around Le Juge; the t h i r d stars Le General and La F i l l e ; and the f i n a l scenario i n tableau nine features Carmen, who inst r u c t s Roger as Le Heros, and then Georges, who steps into that r o l e . The study attempts to examine only those portions of the above tableaux i n which characters use persuasive r h e t o r i c while role-playing, within the "inner r e a l i t y . " le l e r Tableau The c l i e n t i n the f i r s t tableau i s L'Eveque, and the only commands we hear him voice occur somewhere i n the fringe area between role-playing and being himself. Because h i s p a r t i c u l a r session i s already f i n i s h e d by the time the drama begins, we cannot witness what he might have said to h i s "co-star," La Femme. What we do hear are h i s commands to Irma and La Femme to remain s i l e n t . When Irma inquires too clos e l y into the "plot," L'Eveque commands silence: -121-IRMA : . . .Et qu'est-ce que nous avons accompli ce s o i r ? . . .Adoration perpetuelle? L'EVEQUE (grave) : Ne parlez pas de ga maintenant. C'est f i n i . . . (BAL> P- 1*0 We note that t h i s command i s not s u f f i c i e n t . Irma re-mains i n q u i s i t i v e , which brings about an implied command from L'Eveque, the single word, "assez": LA FEMME : . . .Ensuite ma confession... IRMA. : Apres? L'EVEQUE : Assez'. LA. FEMME : C'est tout. A l a f i n mon absolution. (BAL, pp. 14-15) L'Eveque's primary insistence i s upon secrecy and veracity (BAL, pp. 1 7 - 2 0 ) . Near the end of the same scene, he demands extra time to contemplate his role ("Laissez-moi seul," BAL, p. 2 0 ) , and Irma allows him a few more minutes alone, within his r o l e . le 2 e Tableau There are three characters who use persuasion i n the second tableau, and during t h i s scenario we are allowed to witness most of the "play," although i t has already begun. La Voleuse has the upper hand at the beginning, f o r c -ing Le Juge to crawl about, l i c k i n g her boots. The speech i s repeated almost exactly at the end of the tableau, creat-ing a cycle which shows us that La Voleuse remains i n f i n a l -122-control of the scenario action through her use of lan-guage, despite what occurs during the interim: LA. VOLEUSE (tendant son pied) : Pas encore! L i che! Leche d'abord... (Le .juge f a i t un e f f o r t pour ramper encore. . .) (BAL, p. 27) # •«• * (dans un c r i ) : Pas encore! Leche! Leche! Leche d'abord! (BAL, p. 41 The r e l a t i v e positions of the two characters (standing and crawling) i s symbolised near the end of the scenario within the language which La Yoleuse i n s i s t s upon: she commands Le Juge to use vousvoiement: LE JUGE : Dis moi ou? Ne sois pas c r u e l l e . . . LA VOLEUSE : Ne me tutoyez pas, voulez-vous? LE JUGE : Mademoiselle... Madame. Je vous en pri e . . . (BAL, p. 39) The moment he begins to comply marks the moment he w i l l revert to h i s crawling p o s i t i o n on the f l o o r ("II se jette a. genoux, ". *BAL , p. 39)-The second persuading character, Le Bourreau, takes charge of the scenario by c o n t r o l l i n g both La Voleuse and Le Juge. When the two of them--much l i k e V i l l a g e and Vertu--stray from the scenario, Le Bourreau reminds them of the re q u i s i t e timing and dialogue, using both d i r e c t and i n -dire ct commands: LE JUGE : . . .dis-moi que tu es une voleuse. LA. VOLEUSE : Oui, monsieur l e Juge! LE BOURREAU : Non! -123-LA VOLEUSE (le regardant, etonng-e) : Non? LE BOURREAU : C'est pour plus tard. LA VOLEUSE : Hein? LE BOURREAU : Je dis : l'aveu doit venir en son heure. Nie. (BAL, pp. 28-29) Le Juge then confirms t h i s "stage d i r e c t i o n . " In affirm-ing that La Voleuse must f i r s t deny the charges, so she can repent, Le Juge i s repeating the "d i r e c t i o n " just given by Le Bourreau, when he says, "Tu dois' nier d'abord, puis avouer et te repentir" (BAL, p. 2 9 ) . Also at t h i s moment, Le Juge restates what the scenario requires of La Voleuse, using i n d i r e c t commands, "De tes beaux yeux je veux voir j a i l l i r l'eau tiede. Oh1. Je veux que tu en sois trempee" (BAL, p. 2 9 ) . A b i t l a t e r , Le Bourreau must again act as prompter (quite l i k e Archibald), commanding La Voleuse not to use his " r e a l " name (Arthur), which she had just cried out: LA VOLEUSE (dans un c r i ) : Arthur'. LE EOURREAU : Qu'est-ce qui te prend? Ne m'adresse pas l a parole. Reponds a monsieur le Juge. Et moi, appelle-moi Monsieur le Bourreau. (BAL, pp. 33-3^) Later Le Bourreau also uses a single noun, "Ta gueule*." to command La Voleuse to stop. The i n s u l t ("shut up'.") implies an order to return to the s c r i p t , as she was r e f e r r i n g to the "outside" r e b e l l i o n (BAL, p. 36). Here, again, h i s role i s quite similar to Archibald's i n Les -124-Negres• The t h i r d character to use persuasive .rhetoric i s Le Juge, whose " s c r i p t " they are enacting. He commands actions of both La Voleuse and Le Bourreau, i n keeping with defining h i s own role as Le Juge. In order to "prove" to himself that La Voleuse i s a t h i e f , he orders Le Bour-reau to search her s k i r t s , using the future tense ( i n d i r e c t imperative): "(Au bourreau.) Passe-lui l a main sous le jupon, tu trouveras l a poche, l a fameuse poche Kangourou" (BAL, p. 27). Le Juge continues defining h i s own role through the use of i n d i r e c t command to La Voleuse, defin-ing her role at the same time: LE JUGE : . . .Ecoute : i l faut que tu sois une voleuse modele, s i tu veux que je sois un juge modele. Fausse voleuse, je deviens un faux juge. C'est c l a i r ? (BAL, p. 30) Later, Le Juge also directs how she must play that r o l e , allowing Le Bourreau to whip her i n order that Le Juge may intervene; t h i s means, too, that she must deny the theft so that she w i l l be whipped, so that he can, judge-like, intervene: LE JUGE : . . ./a. l a Voleuse/ 7 Nous sommes l i e s : t o i , l u i , moi. Par exemple, s ' i l ne cognait pas, comment pourrais-je l ' a r r ^ t e r de cogner? Done, i l doit frapper pour que j'intervienne et prouve mon autorite. E t tu dois n i e r a f i n q u ' i l -125-te frappe. . . (BAL, p. 30) The same insistence occurs twice more, as Le Juge d i r e c t s h i s own future r o l e - - " J ' a u r a i a juger tout cela. . .Je vais etre juge de tes actes!" (BAL, p. 34)--and again as he em-phasizes the role of La Voleuse i n re l a t i o n s h i p to h i s own r o l e : LE JUGE : . . .Mon e*tre de juge est une emanation de ton i t r e de voleuse. . .Tu ne refuseras pas d ' e t r e une voleuse? Ce s e r a i t mai. Ce s e r a i t criminel. Tu me p r i v e r a i s d ' e t r e ! . . .mon amour, tu ne refuseras pas? (BAL, p. 38) In the l a t t e r speech Le Juge shows les s control of his l i s t e n e r because he inverts h i s i n d i r e c t imperatives with negation ("Tu ne refuseras pas d'etre une voleuse?"). In between the two above speeches to La Voleuse, Le Juge gained more authority by transforming himself into Minos, "Roi des Enfers," and Le Bourreau into Cerberus, the watch-dog of h i s "Enger": LE JUGE : . . .Toi, voleuse, espionne, chienne, Minos te parle, Minos te pese. (Au Bourreau) Cerbere? LE BOURREAU (imitant le chien) : Houah, houah'. LE JUGE : Tu es beau'. . . . (II l u i retrousse l e s levres.) Montre tes crocs? T e r r i b l e s . Blancs. (BAL, p. 35) Thus, we notice that Le Juge i s most " i n control" when he, himself, s h i f t s to fantasy : Minos has more power than Juge. -126-l e 3 e T a b l e a u The nex t p l a y - w i t h i n - t h e - p l a y i s p r e s e n t e d i n f u l l . I n a d d i t i o n , Genet a l s o a l l o w s us to w i t n e s s p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r the s c e n a r i o to be e n a c t e d . We have a l r e a d y remarked I r m a ' s i n f l u e n c e on t h i s c l i e n t , Le G e n e r a l , be fore the s c e n a r i o b e g i n s . We s h a l l n o t i c e t h a t a p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h " d r e s s i n g " f o r the p a r t i s f o l l o w e d by the r e q u i r e d " u n d r e s s i n g , " which t akes p l a c e w i t h i n the s c e n a r i o . L a F i l l e ' s commands to L e G e n e r a l g e n e r a l l y concern h i s p r e -p a r a t i o n s f o r p l a y i n g - o u t h i s r o l e o f " g l o r i o u s , d y i n g h e r o . " U s u a l l y , Le G e n e r a l ' s commands d i r e c t the r e a c t i o n s he d e s i r e s o f h i s " h o r s e , " Colombe, the r o l e t o be f i l l e d by L a F i l l e . As there i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y equa l emphasis ( equa l dominance) d i s t r i b u t e d between these two, t h e i r commands w i l l be examined t o g e t h e r . As L a F i l l e commands t h i s c l i e n t to remove h i s s t r e e t c l o t h e s , he counter s by commanding h e r to h e r knees : L E GENERAL : . . .Mon f i e r c o u r s i e r ! Ma b e l l e jument, avec t o i nous en avons gagne des g a l o p s ! LA F I L L E : E t ce n ' e s t pas f i n i ! . . . R e t i r e z v o t r e s p a n t a l o n e t vos s o u l i e r s , que je vous h a b i l l e . LE GENERAL ( i l a o r i s l a badine) : O'ui, mais d ' a b o r d a genoux! A genoux! A l l o n s , a l l o n s , p l i e te s j a r r e t s , p l i e . . . (BAL, p . 48) Then, seconds l a t e r , Le G e n e r a l (another A r c h i b a l d ) d i r e c t s how L a F i l l e s h a l l p l a y h e r r o l e : -127-LE GENERAL : . . .maintenant, tu vas m'aider et repondre a mes questions. C'est tout a. f a i t dans l'ordre qu'une bonne pouliche aide son maitre a se de'boutonner, a se deganter, et qu'elle l u i reponde du tac au tac. Done, commence par denouer mes l a c e t s . (BAL, p. 49) By t h i s time Le General has begun the transformation into his role by donning the caricatured costume of that r o l e . Next w i l l follow La F i l l e * s continuing commands to Le General to disrobe, and his counter-commands that she help him: LA FILLE : Qu'est-ce que je f a i s ? . Deboutonnez-vous. LE GENERAL : Es-tu cheval ou i l l e t t r e e ? S i tu es cheval, tu encenses. Aide-moi. T i r e . Tire moins f o r t . (BAL, pp. 49-50) Le General's next command, an i n d i r e c t one, orders his mount to be "costumed" with b i t and b r i d l e , "Tu auras le mors, l a bride, l e harnais, l a sous ventriere. . ." (BAL, p. 5 0 ) . However, once a cheval i n h i s imagination, Le General becomes carried away and must be'brought back to t h i s script--and the act of preparing f o r "death"--by t h i s pragmatic "domestique." Her reminders bring him back to the subject of necessary props for the scenario: LE GENERAL : Ecumer rose et p§ter du feu'. . . .les chemins poudreux, sur l e s monts. . .de l'aurore au crepuscule et du crepuscule... LA FILLE -.: Rentrez l a chemise. Ti r e z l e s b r e t e l l e s . . .Vous voulez l e sabre? -128-LE GENERAL : Comme c e l u i de Lafayette, q u ' i l demeure sur l a table. . .mais cache l e s vetements. . . (BAL, pp. 5 0 - 5 D The short d r i f t into "outer r e a l i t y " ("cache l e s v e t e -ments") disappears as Le General commands that La F i l l e v e r i f y his " g l o i r e " by counting his medals ("La tunique? Bien. II y a toutes l e s medailles? Compte," BAL, p. 51.)-La F i l l e again orders Le General to costume himself, "Boutonnez-vous tout seul, mon general" (BAL, p. 5 2 ) , so as not to delay her narrative of the fantasy most impor-tant to the scenario: descriptions of approaching war, the widowed, the war dead, then Death, i t s e l f (BAL, pp. 52-55)- As La F i l l e describes Death, seated upon his shoulders, Le General orders her to h a l t the narrative, "correcting" her timing: "Arr&te, arrete, ce n'est pas encore l e moment mais je sens que ce sera magnifique" (BAL, p. 5 4 ) . Moments l a t e r they diverge from the scenario and discuss the "outer r e a l i t y " (the insurrection), and i t i s La F i l l e * s turn to correct the scene, r e c a l l i n g Le General to the required text, "ga ne nous regarde pas. Continuez. Vous d i s i e z . . .ensuite?" (BAL, pp. 54-55)-In his l a s t long speech, Le General combines direc-tions to his steed, La F i l l e , with directions to himself. In the f i r s t section of thi s part of the scenario, he commands her readiness and his own path toward death (BAL, p. 55)- In the l a t t e r part, he directs La F i l l e * s actions and bids himself farewell: -129-LE GENERAL : . . .A t o i , maintenant. Tu vas baisser l a tete et te cacher l e s yeux, car je veux §tre general dans l a solitude. . .pour mon image, and mon image pour son image, et a i n s i de suite. Bref, nous serons entre Igaux. Colombe, tu es pr§te? (La f i l l e hoche l a tete.) Alors, viens. Passe t a robe baie, cheval. . . Salut: (II salue son image dans l e miroir.) Adieu, mon general'. (Puis i l s'allonge dans l e f a u t e u i l . . .et salue le public, en se tenant aussi r i g i d e qu'un cadavre. . .) (BAL, pp. 55-56) And he adds his f i n a l command, direc t i n g what La F i l l e should report: LE GENERAL (sursautant) : Colombe'. LA FILLE (se detournant, en pleurs) : Mon general? LE GENERAL : Ajoute que je suis mort debout*. (Puis  i l reprend, sa pose. ) (BAL, p; 56) These two characters (using rh e t o r i c to convince) enact kindly, rather than s a d i s t i c , r o l e s . Their imperatives appear to have an affectionate tone, generally absent i n Genet's theatre. le 9 e Tableau In the f i n a l tableau there are two characters who direct others with imperatives during a scenario. Carmen i s the f i r s t , while playing the role of guide for Roger, who has decided to emulate Le Heros, the role long-awaited by Georges, le Chef de l a Police. Georges, himself, i s the second, as he gives orders while playing the role which -130-Roger w i l l have t e r m i n a t e d w i t h s e l f - c a s t r a t i o n . I n c o n t r a s t t o the p r e v i o u s s c e n a r i o a s s i s t a n t s a l -r e a d y e x a m i n e d , Carmen must d i r e c t a l m o s t e v e r y a c t i o n as Roger e n a c t s L e H e r o s . W i t h s h o r t noun p h r a s e s , she d i r e c t s h i s a c t i o n s , i n s i s t e n t upon the " p r o p e r way" t o smoke a c i g a r , f o r e x a m p l e : CARMEN ( s ' a p p r o c h a n t e t l u i t e n d a n t u n c i g a r e ) : O f f e r t p a r l a m a i s o n . ROGER ( i l met l e c i g a r e a. s a bouche) : M e r c i . CARMEN ( i n t e r v e n a n t ) : Le f e u : l a . I c i , l a b o u c h e . ( E l l e t o u r n e l e c i g a r e dans l e b o n s e n s . ) C ' e s t v o t r e p r e m i e r c i g a r e ? ( B A L , p p . 185-86) She c o r r e c t s h i s v o c a b u l a r y , as w e l l , and w i t h t h e f u t u r e as i n d i r e c t command, h e l p s h i m f o l l o w t h i s u n r e h e a r s e d s c r i p t : ROGER ( t o u c h a n t l e s murs) : A i n s i , c ' e s t mon tombeau? CARMEN ( r e c t i f i a n t ) : M a u s o l e e . ( B A L , p . 186) Carmen t h e n s u p p l i e s Roger w i t h s t a g e d i r e c t i o n s , t e l l i n g h i m where t o g o , and when t o b e g i n : CARMEN : . . . ( E l l e monte l ' e s c a l i e r s o u t e r r a i n . ) T o u t a 1 ' h e u r e , v o u z d e s c e n d r e z p l u s b a s . * * * ( B A L , p . 187) . . . T o u t e s t au p o i n t . C ' e s t a v o u s de f a i r e l e r e s t e . ROGER ( i n q u i e t ) : Tu s a i s , j e c h e r c h e , m o i a u s s i . . . ( B A L , p . 188) Carmen o r d e r s the e n t r a n c e o f L ' E s c l a v e , who a s s i s t s Roger i n t h e b a l a n c e o f the s c e n a r i o : " A p p r o c h e ! -131-(L'Esclave entre en rampant)" (BAL, p. 189)1 and further directs Roger, i n s i s t i n g he ignore the outside world (the "outer r e a l i t y " ) and that he make L'Esclave speak: ROGER (tres t r i s t e ) : Oui. Tout est foutou... Et l e plus t r i s t e c'est qu'on d i t : " l a revolte e t a i t b e l l e : " CARMEN : II ne faut plus y penser. Et ne plus ecouter l e s b r u i t s du dehors. . . I c i yous e*tes chez vous. (Montrant l'esclave) F a i t e s - l e parler. (BAL, pp. 190-91) Carmen, above, has f i l l e d a p o s i t i o n s i m i l a r to Archibald's, " d i r e c t i n g " a hesitating "hero'' with r h e t o r i c a l impera-tives . The only other true persuading character i n the l a s t scenario i s Georges, as he issues imperial commands that he be brought food. He describes h i s future, " d i r e c t i n g " the f i n a l portion of Le Heros' scenario. At t h i s point, Georges has taken Roger's-place i n the mausoleum: LE CHEF DE LA POLICE : . . .Qu'on previenne l e s cuisines'. Qu'on m'envoie pour deux mi l l e ans de b o u s t i f a i l l e ! # # # . . .(II montre le tombeau.) Maintenant je vais pouvoir etre bon... et pieux... et juste... Vous avez vu?. . . (BAL, p. 201) Georges' l a s t command i s to the entire group watching his scenario: "Pensez a moi'." (BAL, p. 2 0 2 ) , as he shuts off a l l entrances to h i s "tomb." -132-* * * We have examined, imperatives used within the "inner r e a l i t y " as persuasive language i n Le Balcon. In general, t h e i r use, within each scenario, i s s i m i l a r to language . used by l e s negres when they joined into V i l l a g e ' s narra-t i v e and enacted r o l e s which helped him t e l l h i s t a l e . In Le Balcon's f i r s t tableau, L'Eveque i n s i s t e d upon privacy; i n the second, the three players cued one another (Le Juge directed the r o l e s of La Voleuse and Le Bourreau; La Voleuse and Le Bourreau also directed Le Juge's r o l e ) . In the t h i r d tableau, La F i l l e and Le General t o l d each other how to play t h e i r parts, using imperatives to e f f e c t the "proper" acting within the scenario. I t i s only i n the l a s t tableau that the scenario being played i s unrehearsed. This time, Carmen directs Roger i n the role of Le Heros. Later, Georges ends the scenario by commanding food before shutting off the tomb from the r e s t of the players. The major difference i n the way i n which imperatives were used i n the two " r e a l i t i e s " l i e s i n the goal of the characters i n each " r e a l i t y . " In the framing play or the "outer r e a l i t y , " imperatives kept pace with every-day demands (Irma ran her business and used r h e t o r i c a l imperatives to sway Carmen into remaining i n l e Grand -133-Balcon). Imperatives were also e f f e c t i v e i n transform-ing the c l i e n t s from l i v i n g t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s to l i v i n g a ro l e , guided by L'Envoye into the transformation and assisted by Les Trois Photographes, once the roles were assumed as r e a l . In both r e a l i t i e s , imperative language was used to affec t the behaviour of others, both ;,in and out of r o l e -playing. There were duplications of the "director's duties" which we saw most often performed by Archibald i n Les Negres, as various characters i n Le Balcon prescribed certain language or p a r t i c u l a r actions to f i t the scenario of the moment. II : EXHORTATIONS The major users of exhortation i n Le Balcon appear i n the sixth tableau and are Roger and Chantal, whose admonishments to one another clo s e l y resemble Vertu's ad-monishments to V i l l a g e . Other tableaux i n which some degree of exhortive language appears, i n the form of re-peated imperatives or admonishments, are the f i r s t , i n which L'Eveque exhorts Irma for solitude: the second i n which Le Juge admonishes his fellow "players" and Le Bourreau exhorts Le Juge; the f i f t h i n which Irma and Carmen admonish one another, and the ninth, where Georges, -134-th en Carmen, are the exhortationists. Chantal and Roger : l e 6 e Tableau Chantal's opening l i n e s are those of a lover, begging Roger to remember and to wait for her: "Garde-moi, s i tu veux, mon amour, mais garde-moi dans ton coeur. Et attends-moi" (BAL, p. 1 1 7 ) . As she t r i e s to dispel h i s jealousy ("Tu es jaloux de qui, ou de quoi?"), Roger admonishes her language use: "Chantal, je t'en p r i e , ne sois pas vulgaire" (BAL, p. 118). Following the barter for Chantal as figurehead for 27 the rebels, ' she continues to voice admonishments: "Rassure-toi, j ' a i mon e t o i l e " (BAL, p. 122); she also pleads with Roger to l e t her go and directs his thinking ("Nous ne serons pas separes"): ROGER : Encore une minute, mon amour. . . CHANTAL : . . .ma colombe, laisse-moi p a r t i r . ROGER : Je ne supporterai pas l e s minutes que je passerai sans t o i . CHANTAL : Nous ne serons pas separe. . .je murmurais des mots d'amour. . .et j'ecouterai ceux que tu me diras. (BAL, pp. 124-25) Chantal continues trying to convince Roger to allow her to leave, admonishing him not to be af r a i d , and describing--with the future tense--the v i s i o n of her own role as leader of the insurrection: CHANTAL : Ne crains r i e n , mon amour. . .Je leur -135-p a r l e r a i d'une voix severe, je leur d i r a i ce que le peuple exige. I l s m'ecouteront car i l s auront peur. Laisse-moi p a r t i r . ROGER (dans un c r i ) : Chantal, je t'aime'. (BAL, p. 125) As Roger continues to raise objections, Chantal repeats "Laisse-moi p a r t i r " (BAL, p. 126) a t h i r d time, the repe-t i t i o n adding f o r c e f u l l n e s s to t h i s admonishing exhorta-t i o n . Roger continues to t r y to change her decision: "Ja-mais tu ne sauras leur parler" (BAL, p. 127), using the future i n the negative to describe h i s own int e r p r e t a t i o n of her future r o l e . Chantal disagrees, replying, "Je saurai mieux que personne" and describes her aptitude f o r the r o l e , even dire c t i n g Roger's future (with i n d i r e c t command, "tu seras f i e r . . . " ) : CHANTAL : Je saurai mieux que personne. . . * * * J'inventerai l e s gestes, l e s attitudes, l e s phrases. . .tu seras f i e r de ma v i c t o i r e . # * * . . .Eux, i l s ne savent que se batter et t o i que m'aimer. C'est le role que vous avez appris a. jouer. Moi, c'est autre chose. Le bordel m'aura au moins s e r v i , car c'est l u i qui m'a enseigne l ' a r t de feindre et de jouer. J ' a i eu tant de rSles a. ten i r , que je l e s connais pres-que tous. Et j ' a i eu tant de partenaires. . . ROGER : Chantal! (BAL, pp. 127-28) Roger's exclamation, "Chantal'." i s an admonishment i n -136-exactly the same tone as Vertu's " V i l l a g e ! " As one of the rebels orders Chantal, "Assez. . .Va," Roger appeals to her one l a s t times "Chantal, reste!" (BAL, p. 128). However, exactly l i k e Vertu and V i l l a g e , the admonishments do not work: Chantal leaves, as did V i l l a g e , "Chantal s'eloigne, emmenee par l e s r e v o l t ! s " (BAL, p. 128). Minor Exhortations: Ji'Eveque,, l e 1 Tableau We viewed Irma as the curious " d i r e c t r i c e " e a r l i e r , as she attempted to pry into the secrets of L'Eveque's scenario. In r e t a l i a t i o n , L'Eveque uses i n d i r e c t commands to exhort Irma to leave him alone: L'EVEQUE (effraye) : Non, non. Ces choses-la doivent rester et resteront secretes. II est deja i n -decent d'en parler. . .Et que toutes l e s portes soient ferm!es. Oh, bien ferm!es, closes, bou-tonn!es, lacees, agrafees, cousues... (BAL, p. 15) Once having ordered "que toutes l e s portes soient fermees," L'Eveque adds a.catalogue of synonyms for "fermees" which reinforces his command by r e p e t i t i o n . In addition, after being granted more time by Irma, L'Eveque orders her and La Femme away, using a series of commands which become exhorta-t i o n by reason of t h e i r repeating the same idea ("sortez, laissez-moi, ecoutez aux portes, rentrez /tout a l'heure_7"): L'EVEQUE : . . .(A Irma, tres doucement.) Sortez! Laissez-moi seul! - 1 3 7 -# * * Laissez-mcl seul. Ecoutez aux portes s i vous voulez, je sais que vous l e f a i t e s , et rentrez quand j'aurai f i n i . (Les deux femmes sortent. . •) (BAL, p. 20) As Irma returns too soon, interrupting h i s monologue, L'Eveque repeats the command, "laissez-moi," and adds the more urgent "foutez l e camp": IRMA (passant l a tete par l a porte entre-baillee) : Vous avez f i n i ? L'EVEQUE : Mais laissez-moi, nom de Dieux. Foutez l e camp! Je m'interroge. . .(BAL, p. 22) The above exhortations have posit i v e r e s u l t s : Irma leaves, fo r a time. Le Juge and Le Bourreau, le 2 e Tableau At the point mentioned e a r l i e r when La Voleuse com-mands Le Juge to keep h i s distance, Le Juge obeys her command and goes on to plead with her, admonishing her be-haviour : LE JUGE : Mademoiselle... Madame. Je vous en pr i e . (II se jette a genoux.). . .Ne me l a i s s e z pas dans une p a r e i l l e posture, attendant d'etre juge?. . . # * # . . .vous ne me jouerez pas un tour p a r e i l . . . Vous ne ferez pas q u ' i l n'y en a i t pas? Com-prends-moi bien : que tu te dissimules. . .que malicieusement tu me fasses languir. . . (BAL, p. 39) -138-The use of the negative futures--"ne me jouerez pas. . . ne ferez pas"--emphasize what L'Eveque admonishes La Voleuse to do by st a t i n g opposite actions. He then plays his r o l e more confidently and uses clear, affirma-tive commands, dir e c t i n g her r o l e — " q u e tu te dissimules, que tu me fasses languir." In quick succession Le Bourreau w i l l take over the strong exhortations by repeating the command, "rampez": LE JUGE : . . .tu veux que je rampe? LE BOURREAU (au juge) : Rampez! LE JUGE : Je suis f i e r ! LE BOURREAU (menagant) : Rampez! (Le juge. . .se  couche a. p l a t ventre et rampe. . .) Bien. Continuez. (BAL, pp. 39-40) Le Bourreau repeats the command a t h i r d time: LE JUGE : . . .ce n'est pas condamner que je desire surtout, c'est juger... (II tente de se re-dresser.) LE BOURREAU : Rampez! Et dep§chez-vous, i l faut que j ' a i l l e m'habiller. (BAL, p. 4l) At t h i s point, La Voleuse closes the c y c l i c scenario, re-peating the command, "Leche!" three times i n answer to Le Juge's imploring "dites-moi que vous etes une voleuse... (BAL, p. 41). Irma and Carmen, l e 5 Tableau Ear l y i n the f i f t h scene, Irma "corrects" Carmen's -139-a t t i t u d e toward t h e i r c l i e n t s - - " J ' e x i g e l e r e s p e c t des v i s i t e u r s . V i - s i - t e u r s ! " (BAL, p. 6 1 ) - - y e t t h i s demanding statement does n o t p r e v e n t Carmen's a n a l y t i c a l and u n f l a t -t e r i n g r e t o r t c o n c e r n i n g the r e t u r n s Irma r e c e i v e s t h r o u g h le„Grand B a l c o n ! "Pour vous o u i : l e f r i c e t l e s r a f f i n e -ments'." (BAL, p. 6 1 ) . T h i s comment b r i n g s out a c o n c i l i a -t o r y Irma who t r i e s t o charm Carmen through admonishments ( i n t h i s c ase, a n e g a t i v e i m p e r a t i v e ) : " ( e l l e se v e u t  c o n c i l i a n t e ) Ces yeux! S o i s pas i n j u s t e . D e p uis q u e l -que temps t u es i r r i t a b l e " (BAL, p. 6 l ) . As Irma goes on t o ment i o n t h a t e v e r y t h i n g w i l l im-p r o v e — i n d i c a t i n g "Monsieur Georges" w i l l p u t t h i n g s r i g h t - -Carmen e x p l o d e s i n t o s a t i r i c a l r e t o r t , "Ah, c e l u i - l a . " (BAL, p. 6 1 ) . T h i s e x c l a m a t i o n b r i n g s f o r t h a n o t h e r n e g a t i v e i m p e r a t i v e from Irma, admonishing Carmen: "Ne d i s r i e n c o n t r e l e che f de l a P o l i c e . Sans l u i nous s e r i o n s dans de beaux d r a p s " (BAL, p. 6 2 ) . A b i t l a t e r , as Irma a t t a c k s t h e touchy s u b j e c t o f Carmen's dreams o f her d a u g h t e r , i t i s Carmen who uses admonishment t o c h i d e Irma: IRMA : . . •(Re~veuse.) J ' a i mes fStes... e t t o i , l e s o r g i e s de t o n coeur... CARMEN : N'arrangent pas l e s choses, p a t r o n n e . Ma f i l l e m'aime. • (BAL, p. 66) R e a l i z i n g she has an advantage, Irma c o n t i n u e s t o provoke Carmen, a c c u s i n g h e r o f p l a n n i n g t o b r i n g the daughter i n t o the b r o t h e l . Carmen's use o f h e r name--"Madame Irma'." — -14-0-exactly p a r a l l e l s the same admonishing use already noticed i n Vertu i n Les Negres and Roger i n another scene i n Le Balcon: IRMA t . . .(Riant aux eclats.) Ah, ca c'est trop f o r t , enfin, pour quelqu'un, mon bordel, c'est-la-dire, l'Enfer, est l e Ciel'. C'est l e C i e l pour ta gosse! ( E l l e r i t . ) Plus tard, tu en feras une putain? CARMEN: Madame Irma'. (BAL, p. 66) A h i t l a t e r , Carmen reacts i n the same way when Irma--continuing her psychological "attack"-- suggests the daughter i s dead: IRMA : Ta f i l l e est morte... CARMEN : Madame'. (BAL, p. 84) Irma, i n her turn, uses the same type of admonishment with Carmen: CARMEN : L o r s q u ' i l sont avec leurs femmes. . .gar-den t - i l s leur fete, tres r i d u i t e , miniscule, dans un bordel... IRMA ( l a rappelant a. l'ordre) : Carmen! (BAL, p". 72) Irma also uses admonishments with Georges, l a t e r i n t h i s same scene, chiding him for being impatient that h i s "role" has not yet been requested i n the brothel: "Tu tiens toujours a mener ce jeu? Non, non, ne t'impatiente pas" (BAL, p. 106). She also admonishes Georges—again with negative imperative--for being d i s r e s p e c t f u l , "Ne vas pas depricier ma maison" (BAL, p. 108). -14-1-As we have remarked the close r e l a t i o n s h i p between Carmen and Irma has Sapphic overtones and as we have heard Irma r e f e r to Georges as a former lover, her use of admonishments (as well as Carmen's) compare well with other lovers' admonishments we have already examined i n Les Negres. Georges and Carmen, le 9 Tableau Exhortation i n the l a s t tableau takes place i n two instancess Georges--anxious to be represented and out of 28 * * patience with Les Trois Figures --menaces Le General and Le Juge: LE CHEF DE LA. POLICE : . . . je veux que vous me serviez. Mais, tout a. 1*heure vous p a r l i e z bien? Je dois done rendre hommage a votre lloquence, a votre f a c i l i t y . . .a l a puissance de votre organe. . . (BAL, p. 177) * * # ( i l pousse le general qui culbute et reste assis  par terre, ahuri.) Couche! Couch!, mon General! LE JUGE : Ma jupe peut se retrousser... LE CHEF DE LA POLICE ( i l pousse le juge qui culbute) : Couch!'. Puisque vous desirez etre reconnu comme juge, vous voulez le demeurer selon l ' i d ! e que j'en a i ? . . . (BAL, p. 178) Georges begins, above, by commanding t h e i r servitude (with the subjunctive, "que vous me serviez"), then he uses the repeated imperative, "Couche," forcing two of Les Trois -142-Figures to the f l o o r . However, he quickly expends h i s energy and admonishes them to accompany his v i g i l , await-ing representation i n l e Grand Balcon: LE CHEF DE LA POLICE : . . .(. • •parraissant soudain  tres fatigue*.) Attendez encore un peu. Pour l e moment, je suis encore bourre*1 d'actes a. venir . . .mais des que je me s e n t i r a i me m u l t i p l i e r infiniment, alors. . . j ' i r a i pourrir dans l e s consciences. Et vous, alors, retrouvez vos jupons s i vous voulez, et mettez-vous en route pour l e boulot. . .Taisons-nous, et attendons..-(Un long et lourd s i l e n c e . ) . . . (BAL, p. 180) Carmen, now i n her role as guide to Roger, also uses a combination of straight-forward exhortation and subtle admonishment, as she r e a l i z e s the earnestness with which Roger i s playing h i s "dying scene." At f i r s t , she issues the command to leave, d i r e c t i n g h i s e x i t with urgency: "II faut rentrer," as they hear ominous off-stage sounds: CARMEN : . . .11 est temps de p a r t i r , monsieur. La se'ance est f i n i e . Pour s o r t i r , vous prendrez a. gauche. Le couloir... (On entend l e b r u i t de  l'enclume encore. . •) Vous entendez? II faut rentrer... Qu'est-ce que vous f a i t e s ? (BAL, p. 197) It i s also at t h i s moment that Carmen begins to r e a l i z e that Roger intends to castrate himself, and the commands are quickly repeated: "II faut rentrer... " (BAL, p. 197) and "Je ne sais pas ce que vous f a i t e s . . .Mais vous devez -143-p a r t i r . L'heure est passee" (BAL, p. 1 9 8 ) . At Roger's mention of Chantal, Carmen's urgency grows: "(soudain  ef frayee) Partez'. Allez-vous-en vite'.. . .Partez'." (BAL, p. I 9 8 ) . Exhortation r i s e s with further commands to leave, "Venez'.. . .Ne cr i e z pas, monsieur, tous l e s salons sont occupes. Venez... " (BAL, p. 199)- Roger ignores Carmen's exhortations; he remains,^turning his back and making the gesture of s e l f - c a s t r a t i o n (BAL, p. 199 )- Car-men's exhortations attempted—and f a i l e d - - t o deter Roger from h i s chosen "end" for Le Heros. Roger's act, which brought about Carmen's exhorta-tions, i s d i f f i c u l t to place, thematically. Perhaps 29 Genet's own description 7 of h i s character's motivation w i l l help c l a r i f y Roger's highly negative response to Car-men's exhortative language. In a reported interview with Marcel Breitman, published i n Arts i n May of 1 9 5 7 , Genet i s quoted as sayings "D'ailleurs, mon point de depart se s i t u a i t en Espagne, l'Espagne de Franco, et le revolu-tionnaire qui se ctiatrait c ' e t a i t tous l e s republicains quand i l s ont admis leur defaite."-^ 0 Although Genet's desired symbolism for the character, Roger, may remain obscured, we have pointed toward the e f f e c t desired by Carmen. I f Roger were more c l e a r l y presented as a chagrinned Spanish Republican—as desired by Genet, ac-cording to the Arts interview--Roger*s very active r e s i s --144-tance to Carmen's exhortations would be clearer (as would Georges* motivation for wishing to have Le Heros represent himself). * # # • Of those characters using exhortation or admonish-ment i n Le Balcon, only some are e f f e c t u a l : Le Bourreau's exhortations i n the second tableau and Georges* commands i n the ninth were the most e f f e c t i v e . The remaining characters examined used admonishments--with the excep-t i o n of Carmen, who employed exhortation i n the above scene—with l i t t l e or no success, which follows a pattern we have seen emerging. At t h i s point i n our study, we can propose the generality that pure Exhortation (repeated imperatives) allows Genet's characters to e f f e c t a desired reaction, whereas the ' s i s t e r commands' which are admonishing represent intended desires which r a r e l y have an e f f e c t on the interlo c u t o r . I l l : INSULT In Les Negres we noted a rather abundant use of the i n s u l t i n order to urge V i l l a g e i n his role of r a p i s t / murderer. Neige, Bobo and F e l i c i t e were the prime users of i n s u l t s aimed at V i l l a g e . We also noted that Felicite" -145-and La Reine used invective i n t h e i r verbal b a t t l e . In most instances, i n s u l t s were spoken only by role-players, within the play-within-the-play. In sharp contrast, we s h a l l f i n d that i n s u l t s i n Le Balcon appear i n only one tableau (the f i f t h ) , and that they are used exclusively i n the "framing t a l e , " or the "outer r e a l i t y . " Irma and Georges are the two characters who attempt to move other characters with the use of i n s u l t . Irma i s the f i r s t to employ name-calling, using the i n s u l t i n g epithet when tal k i n g to Carmen about the daughter i n the country: "Tu tiens toujours a. a l l e r l a voir? Mais i d i o t e , entre l a maison et l a campagne de ta nourrice i l y a l e feu, l'eau, l a revolte et le f e r " (BAL, p. 64). The epithet, here, i s mild and affectionate, e s p e c i a l l y when compared with the name-calling previously examined i n Les Negres. In fa c t , even when Irma t e l l s Carmen, " T a i s - t o i " (BAL, p. 6 6 ) , a few l i n e s l a t e r , the command seems but very mild invective. I t i s only when th i s same command i s used by Carmen--who shouts, "Taisez-vous!" when Irma continues to i n s i s t that she w i l l not be able to see her daughter again (BAL, p. 68)—that t h i s p a r t i c u l a r use of language carries the crushing i n s u l t of a "shut up'." Irma's use of i n s u l t i s the more flamboyant when she speaks i t out of the victim's hearing, as she describes - 1 4 6 -Arthur to Carmen: CARMEN : Monsieur Arthur est l a . IRMA : Tu te fous de moi! Pas un homme, ga c'est mon accessoire. . . (BAL, p. 82) Even so, Irma i s ready to i n s u l t Arthur to his face, maligning him with a f l a t statement which implies how cowardly he i s , "La t r o u i l l e te para l y s e r a i t dans une cave" (BAL, p. 9 2 ) , as Arthur so obviously fears to go i n search of Georges. Irma continues to make fun of him i n t h i s scene, forcing Arthur to his knees, demanding that he perfume her (see above discussion, 9 7 - 9 8 ) . During the scene, she continues to i n s u l t him, suggesting that he i s so frightened that he should take the gun with him (BAL, p. 95 )• Georges, le Chef de l a Police, uses i n s u l t a b i t more conspicuously than Irma i n the same tableau. How-ever, his i n s u l t s generally reveal h i s anger without mov-ing his l i s t e n e r to any p a r t i c u l a r action. For example, while he i s trying to discover whether the role of Le Heros has yet been added to the scenarios of le Grand Balcon, Carmen makes a comment, "Le simulacre?" which enrages Georges into shouting "Idiote! Oui! Le simulacre du chef de l a Police?" (BAL, p. 100). A few l i n e s l a t e r , he accuses Irma of l y i n g , when she i n s i s t s that c l i e n t s ' v i s i t s are kept secret i n her "maison d 1 i l l u s i o n s " : -147-IRMA s De toutes faeons / s i c / , e l l e y s e r a i t celebree que je n'en verrais r i e n . Les ce-remonies sont s e c r l t e s . LE CHEF DE LA POLICE : Menteuse. Dans chaque cloison tu as dissimule des judas. Chaque mur, chaque miroir est truque. . . (BAL, pp. 101-02) Here, Georges i s simply i r r i t a t e d with an Irma who pre-tends naivete. His accusation draws no reply; indeed, he continues with an introspective soliloquy about him-s e l f which does not i n v i t e reaction from Irma. Irma reacts only when Georges brings up the sub-ject of Arthur, i n s i s t i n g to Georges, "C'est t o i qui me l'as impose" (BAL, p. 112), going on to i n s i s t that she had not wanted any man "dans un domaine qui devait rester vierge... Imbecile, ne r i s pas. Vierge. C'est-a-dire s t e r i l e " (BAL, p. 112). Georges' reply i s a rather mild, " T a i s - t o i , " the l a s t i n s u l t which bears noticing i n the play. * # * Judging from the above, the sparsity of use of i n s u l t as r h e t o r i c a l device i n Le Balcon reveals that i t s use i s more p r a c t i c a l when applied to role-playing, as we saw revealed i n Les Negres. In addition, the theme -148-of "hatred of white" which i s so i n t e g r a l to the play-within-the-play i n Les Negres has no r e a l equivalent theme i n Le Balcon. Were we to have heard more from Roger's i n s u r r e c t i o n i s t s , themselves, i n s u l t as rheto-r i c a l device might well have been more abundant. IV : GENERAL SUMMARY Imperatives, Exhortations and Insults i n Le Balcon As was the case i n Les Negres, we have discovered that a remarkable use of various r h e t o r i c a l devices i n Le Balcon enabled major characters to attempt to persuade other characters. Imperatives were used by Madame Irma i n the "outer r e a l i t y " to maintain control of d a i l y events within le  Grand Balcon. S t i l l within the "outer r e a l i t y , " the royal emissary, L'Envoye"', used Imperatives to convince Irma to play the role of La Reine, at the same time con-v e r t i n g — b y extension—the role-playing c l i e n t s (Eveque , Juge and Geaieiral) into those power figures. Imperatives employed within the frame, i n the "inner r e a l i t i e s " of the various scenarios, were quite s i m i l a r i n usage to the directions given by Archibald i n Les Negres, that..is, these Imperatives quite often defined a role or directed a character to keep to the text. Each metteur en scene - U n -required d e f i n i t e language or action. The use of Exhortation was more l i m i t e d i n Le Balcon than i n Les Negres, although a pattern emerged. I t was apparent, after the study, that the pure Exhortation was by f a r more ef f e c t i v e at manipulating others than the imploring admonishment (a type of Exhortation), which was used mainly by couples i n both plays. The use of the Insult was found to be quite scant i n Le Balcon, appearing as i t does i n only one tableau. I t s use by Irma was more often p l a y f u l than serious, and Georges' i n s u l t s were extremely l i m i t e d i n number. We have suggested that the lesser use of t h i s r h e t o r i c a l device depends on the f a c t that those characters whom we see i n Le Balcon are not involved c r i t i c a l l y i n a battle for power, i n the usual sense. Their dialogue and actions were completely contained within the walls of le Grand Balcon, and thus they never a c t u a l l y confronted any enemy, other than i n the procession, which i s described only through hearsay and not enacted onstage. Contrary to Le Balcon, Les Negres takes place i n more open space, and the i n s u l t s hurled at V i l l a g e are also intended for the ears of the l i s t e n i n g "enemy," the white Cour. I t i s t h i s q u a l i t y of eaves-dropping which made the Insult more ef f e c t i v e i n Les Negres. -150-C0NCLUSI0N Jean Genet has often constructed his theatre upon c i r c u l a r l y p lotted themes. This has been s t r i k i n g l y evident i n Les Negres and Le Balcon. The preceding examination of certain types of r h e t o r i c i n p a r t i c u l a r dialogues i n these plays has revealed the minipulating relationships between characters--not events—which are i n t e g r a l to the t o t a l structure of each play. As characters vied to control one another through l i n -g u i s t i c means, the c i r c u l a r i t y of the play's process unfolded. In Les Negres, the main focus of the r h e t o r i c examined was to urge V i l l a g e to narrate his crime; yet at the play's end, we also noted that La Reine r h e t o r i c a l l y reminded Fe*licite that, one day, the descendents of her Cour would r i s e again, to conquer the descendents of l e s negres. No r e a l action has occurred during the play; however, a great deal of persuasive r h e t o r i c has flowed: Archibald d i r e c t i n g characters to "keep to the text," F e l i c i t I exhorting l e s negres to pride i n t h e i r blackness, Vertu admonishing V i l l a g e to halt his narrative while Bobo and Neige urge him to com-plete i t . The method used to discover how and why these characters moved about i n the universe of white and black was explored through r h e t o r i c a l analysis which exposed -151-both motives and p e r s o n a l i t i e s . In Le Balcon, we r e a l i z e d that Irma must have longed to play a r o l e , herself, i n her Grand Balcon, as the royal emissary was able to sway her into claiming the role of La Reine. We also discovered something deeper about her psyche by examining her use of r h e t o r i c with Carmen, Arthur and Georges. Irma's strong attachment for Carmen was an underlying motive for her to cajole Carmen into remaining i n the "maison d ' i l l u s i o n s . " Irma revealed i n our study that she was already role-playing with Arthur, her "mac," as we closely examined her submissive and then contrasting commanding language i n scenes with t h i s avowed but cowardly pimp. And Irma's dialogue with Georges, l e Chef de l a Police, revealed a tender concern for t h i s former lover (although Georges turned out to be 2 c h a u v i n i s t i c a l l y jealous of the power offered Irma by L'Envoyl). L a s t l y , we noted that those three c l i e n t s who appeared to yearn to be Ev^que, Juge and General were only capable while role-playing within t h e i r rehearsed scenarios; Les Trois Photographes were re-quired to show them how to appear to f i l l these mytic roles of power. And again, as i n Les Negres, Le Balcon ended with a c y c l i c movement, as Irma returned to her " r e a l l i f e " by resuming her function as " d i r e c t r i c e " of le Grand Balcon. Her f i n a l commands to the audience/ reader emphasized Genet*s attempt to maintain a b a r r i e r -152-between the actors and the audience, involving i t not by action but by contemplation—that i s , by r e f l e c t i o n a f t e r the performance. Genet's persuading characters manipulate one another, exploring emotional paths by which to sustain control, as they exploit i n others the innermost emotions of anger, fear or love. They "seduce"--as V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire said was necessary, "II devra d'abord seduire, ensuite convaincre" (NEG, p. 1 6 2 ) — b e f o r e attempting, i f they ever do, any kind of l o g i c a l argumentation. The " l o g i c " usually occurs outside the theatre, upon our own r e f l e c t i o n of a performance or after a careful reading. During the performance or reading of a Genet play, we watch puppeteers manipulating t h e i r puppets with the e f f e c t i v e strings of persuasive r h e t o r i c a l device. We watch the emotional strings being jerked (by Imperatives, Exhortations or Insults) while, i n the process, those same r h e t o r i c a l strings are manipulating our own emotions. The end r e s u l t : a magnificent spectacle i n the theatre, not accomplished i n the French dramatic tra.dition--with r e c i t s and t i r a d e s ^ to convince or to prove--but with sensory e f f e c t s . For example, Henri Peyre points out i n the l i n e r notes to the Theatre Recording Society's produc-ti o n of The Balcony on Caedmon records that Genet's theatre can be compared to some t h e a t r i c a l elements of -153-Antonin Artaud. Peyre suggests that Genet i s f a r from the c l a s s i c a l tirades of French c l a s s i c a l theatre, and close to the "dark forces" often employed currently by both the circus and the cenematic world: Genet's i s neither a philosophical nor, i n spite of the author's fondness f o r fine prose and occasionally purple passages, a l i t e r a r y theatre. Breaking with the venerable French t r a d i t i o n which dates from Corneille and Racine and was inherited from Seneca, Genet dethrones the text exchanging magnificently cruel tirades. Like Artaud, Genet dreams, for the modern theatre, of an appeal to the darker forces which arise i n men and women gathered for a performance, forces s i m i l a r to those which the circus and the cinema have cap-tured while too many plays were content with ver-bose and subtle exercies i n psychology. . .It i s not a vanguard theatre for the sophisticated. In Les Negres and Le Balcon Genet has not used the more t r a d i t i o n a l structure of either tragedy or comedy, with t h e i r incumbent l a t e r a l p l o t l i n e s , where actions lead to a c r i s i s which i s resolved. Genet employed— instead of a c t i o n — a c i r c u l a r l i n g u i s t i c structure, as have h i s emminent contemporaries, Samuel Beckett and Eugene Ionesco. Because 'time' i s f l u i d i n Genet's theatre, r a r e l y hesitating except for occasional " f l a s h -backs," scene or act d i v i s i o n s are generally unnecessary 7 i n Genet. Since dialogue, then, has been substituted for action, as c r i t i c s we were obliged to focus our attention d i r e c t l y upon techniques used by the dramatist i n that dialogue. One method of c r i t i c i s m , r e l a t i v e l y unexplored - 1 5 4 -heretofore, has been an examination of Genet's use of r h e t o r i c . With a " r h e t o r i c a l method" we have examined Genet's s k i l l i n putting characters into c o n f l i c t , bounc-ing them about as a puppeteer manipulates h i s marionettes. Every dramatist i s a puppeteer, i n t h i s respect, but Genet goes a step further. He creates dramatic characters (his puppets) who, i n t h e i r turn, attempt manipulation of others, using persuasive rhetoric as t h e i r puppet strings. In t h i s regard we see that Genet i s , indeed, i n love with language, His theatre i s a very verbal one, depending heavily upon language. As Robert Champigny suggests i n Le Genre dramatique, there are many elements i n a dramatic work (perspective, gesture, word, character, tension, meaning), but the most abundant of these i s verbal: ". . .une oeuvre dramatique, ou piece de theatre, est  un ensemble de gestes, a. dominante verbale, destine a. &tre apprecie esthetiquement a. 1 ' o c c a s i o n d'une represen-* 8 t a t i o n scenique." Genet's use of that most useful vehicle, the verbal element, has c a l l e d f o r such a study of the r h e t o r i c a l elements employed by h i s characters. In point of fact, Genet's use of language—not only the s p e c i f i c figures of r h e t o r i c to which we have pointed by examining his manipulating characters i n Les Negres and Le Balcon, but the r i c h use of imagery which permeates these and h i s other p l a y s — i s what b a s i c a l l y sets Genet - 1 5 5 -apart from his contemporary "Absurdist" colleagues, Beckett and Ionesco i n p a r t i c u l a r . Robert Corrigan says l i t t l e about Genet i n his essay which attempts to define the theatre of the s i x t i e s . This essay, "The Theater i n Search of a Fix," points out, among other things, "This i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t thing about the avant-garde theater--o i t i s a theater of gesture." 7 Corrigan continues by point-ingm r i g h t l y , to the importance of gesture i n such plays as The Chairs, Waiting for Godot, Ping-Pong, Endgame, The Balcony and E s c u r i a l , c o r r e c t l y r e f e r r i n g to an important element i n Genet's Balcony. However, Corrigan also uses Beckett and Ionesco--not Genet--as examples when he i s discussing the avant-garde theatre'-s defiance of language: The Absurdists, i n turn, are reacting against the a r i d language of naturalism. . . i n some of t h e i r plays—Beckett's Acts Without Words /j. and IJ-7 and Ionesco's The New Tenant--they have discarded lan-guage altogether. However, the answer to the prob-lem doesn't l i e i n the defiant r e j e c t i o n of language, but rather i n the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of i t . The big question, then, i s how to make the language of the theatre once again dramatic. Corrigan's answer to his own question i s r e v i t a l i z a t i o n through the language of imagery and metaphor, 1 1 and we submit that Jean G e n e t — i n using these and other figures of r h e t o r i c — i s due a re-evaluation as a non-Absurdist 1 2 dramatist who has, indeed, as Corrigan demanded i n 1 9 6 1 , "/made7 the language of the theatre once again dramatic." -156-* * # Only characters' overt emotions have been dealt with i n t h i s study, that i s , r h e t o r i c has been examined through the three l i n g u i s t i c devices which reveal a speaker's emotions to an interlocutor (Imperatives, Exhor-tations, I n s u l t s ) . Further work which could complement and complete the present study would examine the language of covert emotions i n Genet's theatre. Covert emotion i s commonly expressed i n the use of verbal i r o n i e s , which r e v e a l — w h i l e attempting to hide--the speaker's fe e l i n g s . Work has been begun i n the general area of irony i n Genet by Jack Frisch i n his 1965 d i s s e r t a t i o n ; his f i f t h chapter deals exclusively with Genet: "Jean 13 Genet: The Irony of r e f l e c t e d r e f l e c t i o n . " Frisch makes a v a l i d contribution to l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m by ob-serving that the basic structure of irony i s the r e a l basis f o r the modern "absurd" viewpoint. He points out, for example, that "the f i r s t thing of note about /Les  Paravents7 i s the deliberate and constant juxtaposition of v i s u a l r e a l i t y and unreality" (IT, p. 208), pointing i n p a r t i c u l a r to the " r e a l " props versus those painted upon the screens. S i g n i f i c a n t elements of irony for Frisch are "an expectation and the contradiction of that expectation" (IT, p. 18). There are few studies other than his which have s p e c i f i c a l l y investigated -15.7-irony i n Genet and we submit that an examination of the i r o n i c language of major characters i n Genet's plays would discover further c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of per-suading (manipulating) characters. In addition to the present plays discussed, Genet's early short plays, Haute surveillance (19^7) and Les Bonnes (19^7 , revised 1954) and possibly Genet's seldom-published b a l l e t scenario, 'Adame M i r o i r ( 19^9 ) . would provide f r u i t -f u l material. I t might well be that the manipulating character also i s present i n Genet's l a s t dramatic piece, Les Paravents ( 1 9 6 1 ) , although there are no apparent role-players i n the l a t t e r play, and we have discovered through our own research that the manipu-l a t i n g character i s busiest'when'.directing another character how to act and speak while role-playing. Lucien Goldmann does f i n d a world of the dominating and dominated i n Les Paravents, along with other of Genet's plays, when he describes Genet's work i n the essay, "Le Theatre de Jean Genet et ses Itudes s o c i o l o -giques": Un univers au centre duquel se trouve avant tout l e rapport entre domine's et dominants, les Bonnes et Madame, les Noirs et les Blancs, les Revoltes et le Balcon / l e chef de l a police , l a reine, l e general, 1' eVeque, l e jugey7. . .enfin, dans les premieres scenes des Paravents, les Colonisers et les Colonisa-teurs. Un rapport dialectique, constitu^ de haine et de fascination, que nous devons analyser. ^ Goldmann was interested i n studying, here, a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i o l o g i c a l reaction between the powerful and the weak. - 1 5 8 -We believe that other facets of the dominating/dominated characters, as perceived through a study of t h e i r i r o n i c language, would be useful to a more thorough understand-ing of the dramatic art of Jean Genet. * •»• * This thesis has pointed toward the dominating and dominated characters i n two of Jean Genet's major dramas as revealed by t h e i r language which attempted domination over others overtly. The means used was rh e t o r i c which expressed these manipulators' emotions and w h i c h — f o r the most part--persuasively worked upon the emotions of t h e i r i n t e r l o c u t o r s . The l i n g u i s t i c devices of Imperative, Insult and Exhortation proved to be effec-tive persuaders, with the exception of the admonishment, where persuasion was attempted with l i t t l e success. Manipulators who used Imperatives, Insults and Exhorta-tions proved to be successful i n Les Negres and Le Balcon, c y c l i c plays almost wholly dependent upon dialogue, "un ensemble de gestes, a. dominante verbal," as Champigny suggested, i n Le Genre dramatique. - 1 5 9 -NOTES AND COMMENTS Introduction 1 Peter France, Rhetoric and Truth i n France (London: Univ. Press, 1 972 ) , p. 8 . NOTE: Further c i t a t i o n s r e f e r to t h i s e d i t i o n and appear i n the "body of the text, RH & T. NB: France, here i s summarizing basic tenets of c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c , based upon the ideas of A r i s t o t l e , Cicero and Q u i n t i l i a n . Although Peter France's two rhe-t o r i c a l studies, Racine's Rhetoric (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1965) and Rhetoric and Truth i n France are focussed upon the art as i t was practiced i n seventeenth century France, his observations regarding r h e t o r i c are p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l as a framework fo r t h i s study. 2 Rockas (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1 964 ) , p. i x . ^ Another l i n g u i s t often given reference i s J. L. Austin, How to do Things with Words, ed. J. 0. Urmson (London, New York: Oxford Univ. Press, I 9 6 2 ) . ^ Genet, Les Negres, 3e ed. (Decines: l'Arbalete, 1963) - NOTE: Further c i t a t i o n s r e f e r to t h i s edition and appear i n the body of the text, NEG• -5 Genet, Le Balcon, l'ed. 3 6 et def. (Decines: l'Arbalete, I 9 6 2 ) : reprinted i n Genet, Oeuvres completes (Paris: Gallimard, I 9 6 8 ), IV, pp. 35 -135 - NOTE: Further c i t a t i o n s r e f e r to the Arbalete e d i t i o n and appear i n the body of the text, BAL. Racine's Rhetoric, op. c i t . , pp. 164-204. NOTE: Further c i t a t i o n s r e f e r to t h i s e d i t i o n and appear i n the body of the text, RR. -160-7 The above catalogue summarizes the r h e t o r i c a l devices (usually referred to as l e s figures i n French) examined by Peter France as "The Direct Expression of Emotion." See RR, pp. 167-182. g We s h a l l follow, again, the model of Peter France i n Racine's Rhetoric because h i s study i s one of the most precise, i n grammatical terms, accessible to l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s . France confines the imperative to two types, ". . .the dire c t , command, second person imperatives or the t h i r d person imperative, the wish or imprecation" (RR, p. 171)- L i n g u i s t i c studies tend to coin new termsoof reference and provide l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m with a l e s s manageable vocabulary. Q NB: E l i p s e s are indicated i n the text as (. . .) and hesitations i n a character's speech, as indicated by Genet, as (... ). x ® Taken within the context of the plays, exhorta-ti o n i n Genet w i l l express feelings which reveal what the speaker believes to be "laudable conduct." ± x For example, Peter France's study of Racine c i t e s as an example of exhortation: "VQuittez, mon F i l s , q u ittez. . .'" (RR, p. 118). 1 2 Irmscher, The Holt Guide to English: A Contempo-rary Handbook of Rhetoric, Language, and Literature (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc., 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 142. 13 Shostrom, Man the Manipulator (New York: Bantam Books, Inc., 1968), pp. 43-44. NOTE: Further c i t a t i o n s w i l l r e f e r to t h i s e d i t i o n and appear i n the body of the text, MAN. 14 There have been several studies which concentrate on the emotions of hate and anger i n Genet: A. I s r a e l , - 1 6 1 -"The A e s t h e t i c o f V i o l e n c e : Rimbaud and G e n e t , " Y a l e  F r e n c h S t u d i e s , 46 ( 1 9 6 1 ) , 2 8 - 4 0 ; and Norman M a i l e r , "The B l a c k s , " The V i l l a g e V o i c e , 27 A p r i l and 18 May, 1961, r e p r i n t e d as "On The B l a c k s , " E x c h a n g e , A C a n a d i a n  R e v i e w , 1, N o . 2 (December I 9 6 I ) , 52-59. The a r c h a i c meaning o f the w o r d , " i n s u l t , " was l i t e r a l l y t o a t t a c k o r a s s a u l t , f r o m the L a t i n s u b s t a n -t i v e , i n s u l t a r e , * t o l e a p on o r a t , i n s u l t . ' C h a p t e r One - L e s N e g r e s 1 F i r s t p e r f o r m e d 28 O c t o b e r 1959 a t t h e T h e a t r e de L u t e c e , P a r i s , u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n o f R o g e r B l i n ; f i r s t p u b l i s h e d by M a r c B a r b e z a t , l ' A r b a l e t e , i n J a n u a r y , 1958, i n a l i m i t e d e d i t i o n ; t h e n a g a i n i n i960 w i t h p h o t o g r a p h s by E r n e s t S c h e i d e g g e r o f the B l i n p r o d u c t i o n . The t r a n s -l a t i o n by B e r n a r d F r e e h t m a n , The B l a c k s : A C l o w n Show by  J e a n G e n e t , was p u b l i s h e d i n i960 by G r o v e P r e s s , New Y o r k . 2 T a u b e s , T u l a n e Drama R e v i e w , 7, N o . 3 ( S p r i n g 1963), 86 . 3 B o b o ' s e x h o r t a t i o n e v o k e s the s m e l l s o f c a r r i o n , " Q u ' u n e odeur de charogne me p o r t e ' . " (NEG, p . 32). 4 A r c h i b a l d s a y s t o B o b o , " R e n t r e z ce mot , B o b o . Ce n ' e s t pas une seance d ' h y s t e r i e c o l l e c t i v e , c ' e s t une c e r l m o n i e " (NEG, p . 85)- She a p p a r e n t l y obeys i n a l a t e r s c e n e , as she ' c o r e c t s ' ' h e r s e l f , " . . . i l y f a i t n o i r comme dans l e t r o u du c u l d ' u n negre, . - - O h ! p a r d o n , d ' u n N o i r . I I f a u t e t r e p o l i e " (NEG, p . 93). Her ' p o l i t e n e s s ' i s s t i l l tongue i n c h e e k , h o w e v e r , as the w o r d " c u l " i s as i m p o l i t e as " n e g r e . " -162-D This p a r t i c u l a r gesture takes on a 'black humor' quality; they are masking two d i f f e r e n t things: 1) the stink of the corpse, and 2) the lack of odor which i s the implied heritage of the white ("race. . .inodore," NEG, P- 3 2 ) . Jeanette.Laillou-Savona suggests that the motivation also includes inverted Ch r i s t i a n symbolism when she says: "The most s i g n i f i c a n t piece of stage business i n the f i r s t part i s the use of smoke: a l l the Blacks huddled around the catafalque l i g h t up a cigarette and puff smoke around i t , smoking out the White woman i n order to get r i d of her odour. The incident appears as a revenge against the myth of the stench of the Blacks, a stench which the Black actors are proud to admit: as we l i s t e n to a chant hummed by the group, i t i s as i f we were witnessing the triumph of the Black stench which serves as a r a l l y i n g point against the Whites. At the same time, we are dealing with an act of reversed p u r i f i c a -t i o n which could be interpreted as a caricature of the censing of the a l t a r , at the beginning of the Mass." In her a r t i c l e , "The Blacks by Jean Genet: ~ a dimensional approach," Australian Journal of French Studies, 1 0 , No. 2 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 208. The members of l a Cour f i n d themselves not i n France but i n A f r i c a , and condemned by the very ones they were judging. 7 ' We s h a l l remark, however, when examining the commands of La Reine that she as s i s t s Archibald i n t h i s very r i t u a l . She announces her own death, following "une  detonation" (NEG, p. 1 7 7 ) . but she i s never r e a l l y sent "aux Enfers" except by implication i n the above-quoted command by Archibald. V i l l a g e , undirected, speaks the l i n e s of Diouf-Marie; and F e l i c i t e i n d i r e c t l y indicates that Neige w i l l -163-play the role of the " s i s t e r , " Suzanne. F e l i c i t e says to V i l l a g e , "Dis a ta soeur Suzanne de rentrer" (NEG, p. 9 6 ) . Q Bernard Frechtman chose an appropriate name-equivalent f o r t h i s character i n "Newport News," a name which reveals, perhaps more than the o r i g i n a l , a great deal about his function i n the play (Genet,- The Blacks, t r . B. Frechtman, op. c i t . ) . 1 0 Diouf had just objected to V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire•s taking the gun with him. "/Archibald7 s'apergoit de l a presence de V i l l e de  Saint-Nazaire, entre tres lentement, alors que F e l i c i t e  d i s a i t sa grande tirade" (NEG, p. 115 )• 12 Signalled by sound and l i g h t i n g e f f e c t s , "plusieurs  explosions de petards. . . r e f l e t s d'un feu d ' a r t i f i c e " (NEG, p. 1 5 9 ) . 13 J She issues but one command outside the play-within-the-play, as she commands the actors who play l a Cour to don t h e i r masks, "Messieurs, vos masques'." (NEG, p. 1 6 5 ) , i n order to f i n i s h , the 'performance.' 14- Th i s cataloguing of Western culture emphasizes the scope of her appeal. 1 ^ The use of the word, "General," appears only twice i n the play. Here, La Reine seems to be c a l l i n g Le Gouver-neur by the two d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s ; he i s also l a t e r referred to as "General" i n an indic a t i o n , "Celui qui tenait l e r o l e  du General" (NEG, p. I 6 3 )• These instances appear to be unintended, mere e d i t o r i a l discrepancies. 16 There i s a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y of idea between these l i n e s and the ending l i n e s of Albert Camus' La Peste; -164-"/Rieux/ savait ce que cette foule en joie igno-r a i t . . .que l e b a c i l l e de l a peste ne meurt n i ne dis p a r a l t jamais, q u ' i l peut rester pendant des dizaines d'annees endormi. . . q u ' i l attend patiem-ment. . .peut-etre, l e jour viendrait ou. . . l a peste r e v e i l l e r a i t ses rats et l e s enverrait mourir dans une c i t e heureuse," "La Peste," Theatre, r&cits, nou\?elles (Paris: Gallimard, Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade, 1962 ), p. 1 4 7 2 . 17 The p a r t i c u l a r Leitmotif indicated here took place f i r s t i n performance. Roger B l i n describes having changed "the general laughter at the end of the play into a savage dance l a s t i n g a few minutes, after which would come the minuet" i n Bettina Knapp's "Interview with Roger B l i n , " Tulane Drama Review, 7, No. 3 (Spring 1 9 6 3 ) , 1 1 5 • * Genet obviously approved t h i s a l t e r a t i o n of his own written stage directions, when he indicates i n "Pour jouer le s 'Negre s'": " V o i c i comment Roger B l i n terminalt l a piece; a. peine Vertu et V i l l a g e ont echange" leur derniere  replique que tous l e s acteurs rentrent en scene et  se mettent a danser sur un rhythme a f r i c a i n . V i l l e de  Saint-Nazaire en p r o f i t e pour passer en coulisse. Soudain, a l a musique af r i c a i n e succedent l e s premieres  mesures du menuet de Mozart. . . V i l l e de Saint-Nazaire  apparalt. . ./et/. . .porte. • .le catafalque. . •  puis, l a musique n'ayant pas cesse, tous se mettent  a danser l e menuet de Mozart. Rideau. Cette fagon d'achever l a piece a ma p r l f I r e n c e • " (NEG, p. v i i ) * NB: This a r t i c l e has often been reprinted: B. Knapp, "An Interview with Roger B l i n , " Genet/lonesco: The Theatre of the Double, ed. K e l l y Morris (New York: Bantam Books, Inc., 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 70-79 ; as B. Knapp, "Entretien avec Roger B l i n , " trad. Gilberte Lambrichs, Obliques, No. 2 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 3 9 - 4 3 ; and as a portion of the chapter, "Roger B l i n , " i n B. Knapp and Claude Avranne, Off-Stage Voices, ed. Alba Amoia (Troy, NY: The Whitston Pub. Co., 1 9 7 5 ) , PP-21-40. -165-18 Le M i s s i o n n a i r e l a t e r echoes h i m , " N ' a v a n c e z plus. . C ' e s t un pays r e d o u t a b l e " (NEG, p . 137)-19 7 V i l l e de S a i n t - N a z a i r e says , "Vous n ' a v e z pas e s s a y ! de l e s n e g r i f i e r ? De l e u r g r e f f e r des n a r i n e s . . .De l e u r c r ! p e l e r l e s cheveux? De l e s r e d u i r e en e s c l a v a g e ? " (NEG, p . 1 2 7 ) . 20 They l i s t v a r i o u s types o f e x e c u t i o n s : " b a l l e dans l a t e t e . . . C r e v a i s o n de 1'abdomen, abandon dans l e s ne ige s e t e r n e l l e s . . . p o i n g a m e r i c a i n , g u i l l o t i n e , l a c e t s , s o u l i e r s , g a l e , I p i l e p s i e . . . " (NEG, p . 14-4). 21 * *» Margare t Moore comments on F e l i c i t e ' s m o t i v a -t i o n f o r t h i s speech when she says , " / F e l i c i t j y 7 c a l l s f o r a i d , t o o , i n t h i s a lmost m y s t i c a l chant : 'Dahomey'.. . . ' / N E G , pp . 66-62/. She i s c a l l i n g f o r a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f the d i s -p e r s e d f o r c e s t h a t can g i v e s t r e n g t h and wisdom to h e r , a symbol o f the u n i f i e d b l a c k i d e n t i t y . The white Queen, ' t r e s s o l e n n e l l e e t presque de-f a i l l a n t e ' / N E G , p . 69_7 f e e b l y echoes h e r c a l l f o r h e l p , though seek ing h e r a i d i n the g l o r i e s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . . . " i n "The Thea t re o f Jean Genet : A. S tudy i n the Neo-B a r o q u e , " D i s s . U n i v . o f Washington 1 9 7 2 , p p . 2 2 2 - 2 3 . NOTE: F u r t h e r c i t a t i o n s w i l l appear i n the body o f the t e x t , NBO-BAR. 22 The " r e v e r s e d head" symbol i s f a i r l y common i n d e s c r i p t i o n s o f r i t u a l murders among the o c c u l t w h i l e p r a c t i s i n g the " B l a c k M a s s . " Contemporary r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s Mass and the above symbol are f o u n d , f o r example, i n W i l l i a m P e t e r B l a t t y ' s The E x o r c i s t (New Y o r k : Harper & Row, 1 . 1 9 7 1 ) , pp . 7 1 , 7 2 , 146, 1 5 2 , 1 7 9 , 266 . A n o n - l i t e r a r y p r e s e n t a t i o n of ".the B l a c k Mass i s i n G r i l l o t de G i v r y , Chapter I V , "The S a b b a t h , " W i t c h c r a f t , Magic & Alchemy, t r . J . Courtney Locke (New Y o r k : Dover P u b . , I n c . , 1 9 7 1 ) , pp. 72-89--166-23 See above, pages 23-24. 24 Diouf-Marie's white-gloved hand r e s t s on V i l l a g e ' s shoulder at the e x i t , but V i l l a g e refuses to leave, begging that he need not go "jusqu'au bout" (NEG, pp. 106-13). ^ This point i s also brought out by R. A. Zimbardo i n his a r t i c l e , "Genet's Black Mass," where he says; "Blacks are not necessarily Negroes though Negroes are usually blacks. When F e l i c i t y c a l l s the blacks of the world together to be absorbed i n her mighty power and to p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t s thrust, she i s care-f u l to say that there are blacks of a l l colors, that to her, the mother of blackness, color i s a meaning-l e s s , confusing term. . .Black i s the negative of white as servanthood i s the negativenof mastery; i t i s a negation that defines the p o s i t i v e . The white queen, who alone can shape forms, i s hatching ' C e l t i c remains, 1 e n t i t i e s which are a l -ready dead, and are so because they individuated, structured, l i k e 'stained glass of Chartres, Lord Byron, French cooking. . .Aristotelean p r i n c i p l e s . . .' Black i s pure, unformed urge, though i t contains the p o t e n t i a l i t y of everything active." i n Modern Drama, 8, No. 3 (December 1965)., 254. ?6' Genet i s quite clear on t h i s point: "Cette piece, je l e repete, e c r i t e par un Blanc, est destinee a un public de Blancs. . .Et s i au-cun Blanc n'acceptait cette representation? Qu'on distribue au public noir a. 1'entree de l a s a l l e des masques de Blancs. Et s i l e s Noirs refusent le s masques qu'on u t i l i s e un mannequin." (NEG, p. x i i i ) 27 ' Genet c r i t i c George B. MacDonald suggests the inter-changeability of the s i t u a t i o n i n his a r t i c l e , "'The Blacks* and Ritual Theatre," the Spring issue of Humanities ( I 962 ) when he says: "Working with the abstractions of r e a l i t y and i l -l u s i o n through the colors black and white, Genet, -167-i n r e a l i t y turning inside out, discovers that the two are inter-changeable and usually mistaken f o r one another. Accordingly, the Negroes w i l l now assume a l l the god-like q u a l i t i e s of the Whites (Archibald / s i c : F e l i c i t e / t e l l s us that a l l that i s tender and kind i n the new world w i l l be Black . . .) and i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y w i l l eventually mis-take the i l l u s i o n of the i r grandeur f o r t h e i r r i g h t -f u l place i n the universe and be overthrown by a new race. . ." (Humanities, 2 1 , No. 2 (Spring 1 9 6 2 ) , 4-3-44). NB: This a r t i c l e , along with many other i n t e r e s t i n g dramatic pieces, i s reprinted i n The Theater of Jean Genet: A Casebook, ed. Richard N. Coe (New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1 9 7 0 ) . NOTE: Further references to Coe's c o l l e c -t i o n of dramatic c r i t i c i s m on Genet w i l l appear i n the body of the text, Coe, CASEBOOK. 28 In one speech, commanding V i l l a g e and Vertu to leave l e s negres because t h e i r attitudes threaten the goal they have set themselves, Archibald gives the couple eleven commands, one atop the other: "ARCHIBALD : Alors foutez l e camp'. Sors! Va-t'en. Emporte-la.. Va chez eux (II indique l e public) ... s ' i l s f a c c e p t e n t . S ' i l s vous acceptent. Et s i tu reussis a. etre aim!' d'eux, reviens me prevenir. Mais faites-vous d'abord decolorer. Foutes l e camp. Descendez. A l l e z avec eux et soyez spectateurs. Nous, nous serons sauv!s par ca ( i l montre l e catafalque)." (NEG, p. 59) 29 This i s the only occasion i n the play that any additional actors appear, and the moment i s short, quite similar to the appearance of the rhinoceros 'heads' i n Beranger's window i n the l a s t few minutes of Eugene Ionesco's Rhinoceros, Act I I I . 30 . J V i l l a g e remarks upon the necessity of using sorcery l a t e r when he says, "Car i l f a l l a i t bien, n'est-ce pas, que je 1•ensorcelle" (NEG, p. 9 4 ) . -168-31 ^ Instances are, indeed, rare: Le Gouverneur c a l l s Le Valet "foutu gamin" (NEG, p. 62); l a t e r he t e l l s the trembling negres, "N'ayez pas peur de f a i r e degringoler l e s noix de coco qui pendent a. vos branches'•"" (NEG, p. 141); and Le Missionnaire c a l l s Le Gouverneur "Idio t " (NEG, p. 154). 32 ^ See above, page 23- Both of these speeches serve another function: that of cari c a t u r i n g the black man as seen by the white, as Aleksandra Hoffmann-Liponska puts i t very succinctly i n the a r t i c l e , "La Confrontation du theatre de Jean Genet et sa confrontation avec l e s theses d'Antonin Artaud": "Rejetes par l e s Blancs, l e s Noirs veulent jouer jusqu'au bout l e rSle des coupables devant leurs juges. Mais i l s donnent une image caricaturale des Blancs qui, a. leur tour, imposent une fausse image des Noirs sur l a scene." (Studia Romanica Posnaniensia, 2 (1972-73), 5 D 33 The phrase, "negresse soumise," implies, among other things, i n s u l t to Vertu as a black pros t i t u t e who submits to white men; the epithet i s heightened by the fact that Niege had already attached i t to her descrip-t i o n of those whites V i l l a g e should be ready to eat, "flasque et soumis" (NEG, p. 42). 34 J The c r i t i c , George B. MacDonald, makes clear the importance of being " a l l black" (stressed below by contra-d i c t i o n by Neige, "ne pouvant. . .songer au blanc royal" -169-NEG, p. 73, and demanded a f f i r m a t i v e l y by Archibald and F e l i c i t e ) , i n his essay i n Humanities (1962), when he says: "In a world which has watched, feared, patronized and despized him, the Negro i s beginning to r e a l i z e that unless his s p l i t image of h a l f - a s s i m i l a t i o n i s rejected, unless he l i v e s up to his color, Black, and finds a comforting i d e n t i t y i n the falseness of the darkly mysterious and e v i l connotations the Whites have given i t , he.is doomed to a l i f e of meaningless, subjugated grayness." (MacDonald, op. c i t . p. 41) In contrast, the French c r i t i c , Robert Kanters, seemed to have 'missed the point,' as at one place i n his review of Les Negres, "L'Evangile selon Jean Genet," L'Express, 5 novembre 1 9 5 9 , he says: "A i n s i , l e s excellents acteurs noirs du Lutece (Mmes Darling Legitimus, Lydia Ewande, Toto Bissainthe, MM. Bachir Tour!, Mamadou Conde', Robert Li e n s o l , etc.) sont obliges de se f a i r e plus negres que nature pour jouer l'oeuvre de l'auteur blanc, ce sauvage" (p. 37)-The v i c t i m undergoes several transformations of s o c i a l "class." She begins as "a white women." She i s then an "accomplished lady" (who plays piano, knits, sings, does watercolors). Within V i l l a g e ' s narrative, her l a s t transformation i s into "martyr of France," Jeanne d'Arc. This i s the sole mention of t h i s character, who i s never seennonstage. 37 Vertu begins, "Je suis l a Reine Occidentale a l a paleur de lys'. Resultat precieux de tant de s i e c l e s . . ." (NEG, p. 64). 38 er J Quite s i m i l a r to the orders Le 1 Photographe gives l'Eveque i n Le Balcon: "Les mains joi n t e s . La tete levee. Les yeux baisses" (BAL, p. 1 5 8 ) . 39 " A l l e z , madame. . .Marchez'.. . .Avancez toujours . . .Tirez-moi vers vos dentelles. . .Marchez plus v i t e . . . -170-Suivez l e corridor. Tournez a. droite. . .Ouvrez" (NEG, p. 1 0 5 ) . ZJ-0 This idea w i l l be repeated'by La Reine m the message she sends through Le Valet, "Dites-leur au moins que sans nous, leur revolte n'aurait pas de sens--et meme qu'elle n ' e x i s t e r a i t pas... "(NEG, p. 176) . 41 Richard N. Coe, The V i s i o n of Jean Genet (New Yorki Grove Press, Inc., 1968 ), p. 2 0 . Coe i s discussing Le Balcon s p e c i f i c a l l y ; however, the remark i s pertinent to Les Negres. See above discussion, pages 63-65-t ^ This i s a r e i t e r a t i o n of an early warning by Archibald to the audience: ". . . af i n que dans vos f a u t e u i l s vous demeuriez a. votre aise. . .nous aurons encore l a p o l i t e s s e , apprise parmi vous, de rendre l a communication im-possible. La distance qui nous separe, o r i g i n e l l e , nous 1'augmenterons par nos fastes, nos manieres, notre i n s o l e n c e — c a r nous sommes aussi des come-diens." (MSG, pp. 20-23) Chapter Two - Le Balcon ± For example Prevost's Manon Lescaut (1731) or Richardson's C l a r i s s a Harlowe ( 1747-1748 ) . A nineteenth-century French example would be Benjamin Constant's Adolphe (1816). Genet i s perhaps closest i n form to the Diderot of Jacques l e f a t a l i s t e et son maitre ( 1796 ), where " r e a l i t y " i s so often put into question. 2 F i r s t performed i n French 18 May i 9 6 0 at the Theatre de Gymnase, Paris, under the d i r e c t i o n of Peter Brook. (NB: The world premier took place three years e a r l i e r i n London at the Arts Theatre Club, 1957 1 where Peter Zadek produced the play i n English translation.) F i r s t published -171-i n a l i m i t e d e d i t i o n by L'Arbalete (Decines) i n 1956 , a ver-sion i n 15 scenes; brought out again by L'Arbalete as a second e d i t i o n (revised to nine scenes) i n i 9 6 0 , including an "Avertissement" (pages 7-9) ; revised i n the t h i r d e d i t i o n (Decines: L'Arbalete, 1962 ), which i s also described as " d e f i n i t i v e " and preceded by "Comment jouer 'Le Balcon"' (pages v-x). NOTE: A l l references are to t h i s l a s t e d i t i o n and appear i n the text, BAL. This version re-printed i n Gallimard*s Oeuvres completes, Tome IV ( 1 9 6 8 ) , pages 33-1351 which also reprints the "Avertissement" (pages 35-36) and "Comment jouer 11 Le Balcon"' (pages 27-2 7 6 ) . Bernard Frechtman has published two translated versions, both i n England and the United States: the f i r s t text i n nine scenes was brought out by Faber and Faber (London) i n ' 1957 and reprinted i n 1 9 6 5 ; t h i s version was also published i n New York (Grove Press, 1958 ). The revised t r a n s l a t i o n (based upon the 3rd, d e f i n i t i v e version) was printed by Grove Press i n i 9 6 0 with several reissues. In 1 9 7 1 . according to a report by Odette Asian i n Jean Genet (Paris: Seghers, 1 9 7 3 ) . pages 2 2 - 2 3 , Barbara Wright and Terry Hands created a new t r a n s l a t i o n for the Royal Shakespeare Company, which appears to remain unpublished at t h i s writing. NB: Richard N. Coe outlines the basic differences between the long (15 scenes) and short (9 scenes) versions i n his f i r s t bibliography on Genet, "Jean Genet: A Check-l i s t , " Australian Journal of French Studies, 6, No. 1 (Jan-uary-April 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 1 2 3 . Note 1. 3 ^ So named i n the text by Irma: ". . .on connait le Grand Balcon. C'est l a plus savante, mais l a plus honnete maison d ' i l l u s i o n s . . . " (BAL, p. 71)-4 * Roger i s the only major character whose metier we actually know: he i s a plumber (BAL, p. 109)- However, since we learn through dialogue about the various occupa--172-tions represented by other clients—who are said to be bank clerks, embassy employees, waiters, etc.—we may safely assume that the occupations of Les Trois Figures (BAL, p. v i i i ) , the f i r s t of whom we meet i n the above, are also of about the same type; these are the " l i t t l e men. " 5 The scream emanates from La Voleuse of the second tableau. 6 * As Immaculee-Conception de Lourdes for the bank clerk (BAL, p. 6 7 ) . ^ "Arthur tombe, frappe au front, d'une ba l l e venue  du dehors. . .Irma. . .se penche sur l u i , l u i caresse le  front" (BAL, p. 1 1 5 ) . Q See BAL, p. 9 2 , where Arthur asks about the day's receipts and Irma pretends being dominated by him. 9 Corrected i n the Gallimard (1968) editions "Donne-l e - l u i " (Genet, Oeuvres completes, IV, op_. c i t . , p. 81). NOTE: Further c i t a t i o n s r e f e r r i n g to t h i s e d i t i o n appear i n the text, PC IV. 1 0 By t h i s time the " l i t t l e men" are ready to shed th e i r r o l e s of Eve4 que , General and Juge. 1 1 See PC IV, p. 1 3 5 , corrected to "vous." 1 2 Yale French Studies, 29 (Spring/Summer 1962), 24. NBs This issue also contains a r t i c l e s on Genet by two other emminent c r i t i c s s Jacques Ehrmann, "Genet's Drama-t i c Metamorphosis: from Appearance to Freedom," (pages 33-42) and Joseph McMahon's "Keeping Faith and Holding Firm" (pages 26-32) . 13 J See Thomas Bulfinch, Mythology, mod. abrid., Edmund F u l l e r (New York: D e l l Pub. Co., Inc., 1959 ; 8 t h p r i n t . 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 236-237-NB: For a more far-reaching analysis of mythic themes -173-i n c l u d i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f Irma as "phe*n ix , " see G i s e l e F e a l ' s a r t i c l e , "Le_ B a l c o n de Genet ou l e c u l t e m a t r i a r c h a l : une i n t e r p r e t a t i o n m y t h i q u e , " The F r e n c h Review, 4-8, No. 5 ( A p r i l 1 9 7 5 ) , 897-907-14 Le Chef de l a P o l i c e demands Irma i gnore the o f f e r , " I rma , ne l ' l c o u t e pas'. (A. l ' B n v o y e . ) E t m o i , a l o r s , q u ' e s t - c e que je d e v i e n s ? " (BAL, p p . 1 .42-43). L e s T r o i s F i g u r e s and L a Reine appear i n t a t t e r e d , dus ty costumes, u p h o l d i n g the "appearances " o f the r o l e s of those whom they have now r e p l a c e d . We n o t i c e t h a t t h e y approach t i m i d l y and s i l e n t l y (BAL, p . 1 5 0 ) ; they have no t q u i t e completed t h e i r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n t o the l i v e s o f t h e i r r o l e s , "S implement , i l s se montrent " (BAL, p p . 150-51) L 'Eveque remarks , "Personne ne p o u v a i t nous r e -c o n n a l t r e , nous e t i o n s dans l e s d o r u r e s . A v e u g l e , t o u t l e monde en a v a i t un e c l a t dans l ' o e i l . . . " (BAL, p . 155)-Having r e a l i z e d t h a t "appearances are a l l , " he r e s e n t s the f a c t . 17 ' " J ' a i r endez-vous avec p l u s i e u r s m a g i s t r a t s . Nous p reparons des t e x t e s de l o i s , une r e v i s i o n du code" (BAL, p . 1 5 6 ) . 18 For example, " d e n t e l l e s n o i r e s sous l a jupe de b u r e " (BAL, p . 7 4 ) . T h i s i s o n l y one o f s e v e r a l " d l t a i l s faux" which are enumerated by Irma. Le G e n e r a l r e a l i z e s they must " i n v e n t , " but i t i s L 'Eveque who c a u t i o n s they must " l i v e " t h e i r r o l e s : " L E GENERAL : . . . C ' e s t toute une v i e q u ' i l f a u t i n v e n t e r . . . d i f f i c i l e . . . / L'EVEQUE ( i r o n i q u e ) : . . . Ou non, i l f a u d r a l a v i v r e . Aucun de nous ne peut p l u s r e c u l e r . . . " (BAL, p . 1 5 3 ) . 20 N e l s o n , Tu lane Drama Review, 7, No. 3 ( S p r i n g 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 7 5 • NB: T h i s i s sue i s devoted e q u a l l y to Genet and -174-Ionesco. I t contains the f i r s t chapter, i n t r a n s l a t i o n , of Jean-Paul Sartre's Saint Genet (New York, 1963), as well as a r t i c l e s by Pucciani, Taubes, Pi e r r e t and Svendsen and notes by Genet, himself. NOTE: Further c i t a t i o n s from t h i s issue appear i n the text, TDR '63-Several of these a r t i c l e s are reprinted i n Genet/lonesco (1969), op. c i t . , and i n Obliques, No. 2 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , another issue devoted e n t i r e l y to Jean Genet. 21 Leonard Pronko's description of Georges near the end of the play reminds us that the desired mirroring at l a s t emerges: "Now the Chief may die himself, for he has found i d e n t i t y i n h i s representation by others, and as the play ends he descends to his tomb where he too w i l l be r e f l e c t e d endlessly by mirrors." In Pronko, Avant-Garde: The Experimental Theater i n France (Berkeley & Los Angeles: C a l i f . Univ. Press, I962), p. 148. NOTE: Further c i t a t i o n s r e f e r to t h i s e d i t i o n and appear i n the text, A-G TH. Pronko's fine assessment appeared i n France the following year as Theatre d'-Avant-garde , t r . Marie-Jean Lefevre (Liguge: DenoeT, 1963)-22 With largesse, Georges even agrees to pay some of Arthur's expenses, the "cre'pe de Chine." J What follows immediately i s most revealing, as they discuss p r i o r i t i e s : "L'ENVOYE : Qui voulez-vous sauver? LE CHEF' DE LA. POLICE : La Reine! CARMEN : Le drapeau! IRMA : Ma peau!" (BAL, p. 136) Irma's answer i s the most revealing : i t i s herself she would save, f i r s t of a l l (not l a Reine, not the flag'.). Is t h i s her motivation for becoming the resurrected Reine? Quite possibly. After a l l , Irma had t o l d Carmen e a r l i e r that i f the insurgents won,-her house would be of no more -175-use to the rabble; they would be too busy and were too chasteuto have need of i t . 24 Indeed, complexity has caused a v a r i e t y of c r i t i c s --both those favorable and those unfavorable to Genet—to conclude that Le Balcon i s a " f a u l t y " p lay . In p a r t i c u -l a r , see: o John B i r d , "The Balcony," Granta, 6 3 , No. 1191 (16 May 1 9 5 9 ) , page 34 i n p a r t i c u l a r . o Michel Zeraffa , "Chroniques: Le Theatre," Europe, 38 , No. 375-76 ( j ,u i l le t -aout i 9 6 0 ) , e spec i a l ly pages 282-83. o Christopher Ricks , "Dejecta , " The New Statesman, 67 , No. 1713 (10 January 1 9 6 4 ) , e spec i a l ly page 47-^ The stage d i rec t ions emphasize the car ica ture : "(Pendant toute l a scene. . . l a f i l l e va aider le general a se deshabi l l e r , puis a. s ' h a b i l l e r en  general . Lorsque c e l u i - c i sera completement h a b i l l e , l ' o n s 'apercevra q u ' i l a p r i s des proportions gigan-tesques, grace a. un truquage de theatre : ' p a t i n s i n -v i s i b l e s , epaules e"largies, visage maquille" a.  1 ' e x t r e m e T p '. (BAL, pT~49) NOTE: Although i t i s d i f f i c u l t to know where i t occurred i n t h i s tableau, Genet admired an added b i t of stagecraft used i n the B r i t i s h production which otherwise enraged him: "Pas dire tout l e temps du mai: a i n s i a. Londres, le  metteur en scene avai t eu une ide"e, l ' a c t r i c e f i g u ^ rant le cheval dess inai t avec amour, pendant l 'une  de ses t i r ade s , avec un bout de charbon des mous-taches au General . " (Genet, "Comment jouer ' l e B a l c o n , ' " PC IV, p. 275) 26 This i s probably the most humorous episode i n the ent ire p lay , containing as i t does a mirror of the " fare-w e l l " scene i n Les Negres i n which' the pi led-up "dead" r i s e and b i d Diouf-Marie goodbye•(NEG, p. 178). We have i n Le_ Balcon a c l i e n t who portrays a grand death, to the point of arranging himself as a cadavre s t i f f l y upon a cha i r , only to hear him come " a l i v e " and brag that he "died with h i s boots on . " -176-C ( Chantal e a r l i e r described t h i s p o s ition: "On d i t de moi. . .que j'en suis l'ame et l a voix /de 1 'Insurrec-t i o n / • • •" (BAL, p. 118). 28 L'Eve'que manages to avoid the confrontation, "L'Eveque s'ecarte, prudemment" (BAL, p. 1 7 8 ) . 00 7 NB: Genet's interpretation of Roger which follows has not necessarily been accepted by his major c r i t i c s . 3® Genet, " J ' a i ete victime d'une tentative d'assassi-nat," Arts, No. 617 (1-7 mai 1 9 5 7 ) , P- 1- The a r t i c l e , translated by R. N. Coe, appears i n Coe, CASEBOOK, pp. 90-9 2 . See PC IV, p. 84, corrected to "De toute facon." Conclusion More s p e c i f i c a l l y , characters were not examined by the psychoanalytic c r i t i c i s m method. Relating the man to his work i s more useful i n a study of Genet's novels which are, admittedly, closer to autobiography than his drama. Although a study of the philosophy present i n Genet's plays does, indeed, a s s i s t our understanding of t h e i r themes, i t i s the writer's b e l i e f that the work, i t s e l f , should stand alone for c r i t i c a l analysis. 2 Here, as e a r l i e r , the meaning of "chauvinism" i s the modern, vernacular sense of "male domination." 3 Pierre Larthomas modifies the Robert d e f i n i t i o n of tirade ("longue suite de phrases, de vers, recitee sans i n t e r r u p t i o n ' par un personnage de theatre") by suggesting that each such speech must be defined by i t s context alone. See Le Langage dramatique (Paris: L i b r a i r i e Armand Colin, 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 388-93 . -177-Peyre i s but one of many c r i t i c s who have made the association between Genet and Artaud. For other examples, see: .6 Robert Brustein, "Antonin Artaud and Jean Genet: the Theatre of Cruelty," The Theatre of Revolt (Boston & Toronto: A t l a n t i c Monthly Press, 1964), pp. 361-411. o Lewis T. Cetta, Profane Play, R i t u a l , and Jean Genet (Univ. of Ala. Press, 1974), see es p e c i a l l y pages 7 - 9 . o Martin E s s l i n , "Violence i n Modern Drama 1,"Reflections (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1 9 7 1 ) . pp. 1 5 9 - 7 3 -o Aleksandra Hoffmann-Liporiska, "La Conception. . ." Studia Romanica Posnaniensia, op. c i t . , pp. 3 9 - 5 3 -o Charles Marowitz, "Notes on the Theatre of Cruelty," Tulane Drama Review, 1 1 , No. 2 (Winter 1 9 6 6 ) , es-p e c i a l l y 1 6 7 - 7 1 , Genet's Paravents. o George E. Wellwarth, "Jean Genet: The Theatre of I l l u s i o n and D i s i l l u s i o n , " Theatre of Protest and  Paradox (NY: New York Univ. Press, 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 113-33. NB: One of the few c r i t i c s to refuse Artaud 1s influence on Genet i s Leonard Pronko; see "Jean Genet," Theatre East  and West (Berkeley: Univ. of C a l i f . Press, I 9 6 7 ) , PP- 6 3 -6 7 . 5 Peyre, The Balcony, The Theatre Recording Society, A Caedmon Production, TRS 316S, l i n e r notes, p. 6 . T r a d i t i o n a l tragedy generally comes about as the r e s u l t of the hero's recognition of his 'fault' or his complete i n a b i l i t y to act, i n the face of circum-stances that his own 'fate' has created. T r a d i t i o n a l comedy generally resolves c o n f l i c t at this moment (the peripetie, followed immediately by the denouement); the opposition between young and old disappears, the l a t t e r either leaving the scene (a bouc emissaire) or accepting the take-over by youth. Comedy i n s i s t s that the ba r r i e r created during the play be destroyed; tragedy -1?8-shows that b a r r i e r indestructable. As do most contem-porary playwrights, Genet creates a fusion of the two. 7 ' Of Genet's dramatic works, two are 'one-acts, 1 with no apparent scene d i v i s i o n (Haute surveillance, Les Bonnes), although several c r i t i c s have created appropriate d i v i -sions (see NB, below). Le Balcon i s divided into tableaux (nine), as i s Les Paravents (17 i n the f i n a l version). Les Negres follows the technique of the two e a r l i e r plays and has no d e f i n i t e d i v i s i o n . In fact, Genet's use of the tableau i s very s i m i l a r to the "black-out" technique used by several modern dramatists. A pertinent example i s that of F r i e d r i c h Durrenmatt i n the m i d - f i f t i e s . In The V i s i t (Per Besuch der alten Dame) l i g h t i n g i s used to switch quickly from one part of the set to another, quite l i k e Genet's use of space, l i g h t , and the screens, themselves, i n Paravents. See The V i s i t , adapt. Maurice Valency, Masters of Modern 'Drama, ed. Haskell M. Block and Robert H. Shedd (New York: ; Random House, Inc., 1 9 6 2 ) , pp. 1134-59-NB: Oreste Pucciani divides Les Bonnes into f i v e 'movements' i n "Tragedy, Genet and The Maids," (TDR ' 6 3 , pp. 42-59) ; reprinted i n Genet/lonesco, op. c i t . , pp. 23-3 9 ; reprinted, "La Tragedie, Genet et les Bonnes," trad. Mousse Montil, Obliques, op. c i t . , pp. 1 1 - 2 2 . See also Pierre Chabert, "Espace v i s u e l (et reconnais-sance) dans les Bonnes, de Jean Genet," Obliques, No. 3 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , PP. 102-08 . g R. Champigny, Le Genre dramatique (Monte Carlo: Regain, 1965)1 p. 1 1 ^ . 9 Corrigan, "The Theater. . ," Tulane Drama Review, 5, No. 4 (June 1 9 6 1 ) , 3 0 . 1 0 Corrigan, i b i d . , p. 31--179-I b i d . , pp. 3 2 , 3 3 . 12 Other c r i t i c a l assessors who do grant Genet's v i t a l in te re s t i n language i n drama are : o Bernard P o r t - - " . . . l a demarche de Genet demeure fondamentalement di f ferente de c e l l e d'Artaud. . . Lo in de r e j e t e r toute l a dramaturgie occidentale . . .Genet rencher i t p lutot sur e l l e : i l l a pousse jusque dans ses l i m i t e s extremes. . .Son theatre reste un theatre de texte . . . n u l l e part i l ne tente de ramener l a parole a son o r i g i n e . . . " i n "Genet ou l e combat avec le theat re , " Theatre r e e l : 1967-1970 (Par i s : Edi t ions du S e u i l , 1971), pp. 178-79. o Margaret Ann M o o r e - - c r i t i c i z i n g Mart in E s s l i n ' s assessement: " . . .the most important argument to be ra i sed against E s s l i n ' s viewpoint concerns the use of language. Genet does not communicate i n his plays a sense of the devaluation of l a n -guage. Unlike the absurdists , Genet does not f i n d language meaningless, but on the contrary, f inds i t to be r i c h i n mult ip le layers of mean-i n g . . . " (NEO-BAR, pp. 18-19). o Andre Morf--who also i n s i s t s that Genet's language i s p r i m a r i l y r i t u a l , saying, "La puissance evoca-t r i c e de l a langue rempli t done une t r i p l e fonc-t i o n dans l a creat ion du r i t e . , E l l e confere aux personnages i n s i g n i f i a n t s l a c e l e b r i t § dont i l s revent. E l l e en transforme d'autres en arche-types de toute une cu l ture . E t , en p lus , e l l e comble l 'absence d'objets reels par des choses imaginaires tout en accentuant a i n s i l eur i n -exi s tence , " i n "Le R i t u e l comme technique drama-tique chez Jean Genet," Diss . M c G i l l Univer s i ty 1969, P. 3 4 . o Leonard Pronko--though he, too, emphasizes the "devaluation of language" i n the avant-garde, Pronko describes Genet's contr ibut ion toward r i t u a l i s t i c language: " In Genet's /sic/ l a t e s t play /Les Negres/7 there i s no pretense at rea l i sm, no p lot or f i xed characters. With i t we have a r r ived at a theater that i s almost pure ceremony, a theater that 'shakes the rules of the stage and defies judgment,' jus t as any r e l i g i o u s ceremony would do. Like the Cathol ic Mass, l i k e the Voodoo ceremonies of H a i t i , and l i k e the Dionysian cele-brations that undoubtedly preceded the f lowering of tragedy i n Greece, th i s r i t u a l theater speaks a -180-language which has not been heard for many hundreds of years on the European stage," (A-G TH, p. 1 8 8 ) . 13 J F r i s c h , "Ironic Theater: Techniques of Irony i n the Plays of Samuel Beckett, Eugene Ionesco, Harold Pinter and Jean Genet," Diss. University of Wisconsin 19&5, PP-179-216 . NOTE: Further c i t a t i o n s appear i n the body of the text, IT. In Cahiers Renaud-Barrault, No. 57 (novembre 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 98-99 ; essay expanded and reprinted, "The Theatre of Genet: A S o c i o l o g i c a l Study," t r . Pat Dreyfus, The Drama  Review, 1 2 , No. 2 (Winter 1968),= 51-61; "Le Theatre de Genet: Essai d*etude sociologique," i n Sociologie de l a l i t t e r a t u r e : Recherches recentes et discussions (Bruxelles: Eds. de l ' I n s t i t u t de Sociologie, 1969)1 pp. 9-34; and i n Genet/lonesco, pp. 93-107. -181-BIBLIOGRAPHY I. WORKS CITED American College Dictionary. Ed. C. L. Barnhart. New York: Random House, 1958 . Asian, Odette. Theatre de tous les temos, No. 24. Jean Genet: Points de vue c r i t i q u e s ; Tetaoignages: Chrono-logi e ; Bibliographie; I l l u s t r a t i o n s . P a r i s : Editions Seghers, 1 9 7 3 . Austin, J. L. How to Do Things with Words. Ed. J. 0 . Urmson. London, Oxford, New York: Oxford Univer-s i t y Press, 1962 . Bird, John. "The Balcony." Granta, 5 3 , No. 1191 (16 May 1 9 5 9 ) , 34 . Blatty, William Peter. The Exorcist. New York: Harper and Row, 1 9 7 1 . Bulfinch, Thomas. Mythology. Mod. abridg. Edmund F u l l e r . New York: D e l l Publishing Company, Inc., 8 t h p r i n t . 1 9 7 2 ; copyright 1 9 5 9 , PP- 2 3 6 - 3 7 . Brooks, Cleanth and Robert Penn Warren. Modern Rhetoric. 2nd edition. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1958 . Camus, Albert. La Peste i n Thlatre, r§cits, nouvelles. Ed. Roger Q u i l l i o t . Paris: Gallimard, Bibliotheque de l a P l S i a d e , 1 9 6 2 , pp. 1211-1472 . Cetta, Lewis T. Profane Play, R i t u a l , and Jean Genet: A Study of His Drama. University, Ala.:. Universi-ty of Alabama Press, 1974 . Chabert, Pierre. "Espace v i s u e l (et reconnaissance) dans les Bonnes, de Jean Genet (Elements pour une mise en scene)" Obliques, No. 3 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , PP- 1 0 2 - 0 8 . Champigny, Robert. Le Genre dramatique. Monte Carlo: Regain, 1 9 6 5 . Coe, Richard N. "Jean Genet: A Checklist of his Works i n French, English and German." Australian Journal of  French Studies, 6 , No. 1 (January-April 1969)1 1 1 3 - 3 0 . -182-Coe, Richard. N. , ed. The Theater of Jean Genet: A Casebook. New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1 9 7 0 . . The V i s i o n of Jean Genet. New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1 9 6 8 . Constant, Benjamin. Adolphe: s u i v i de Cecile. Paris: L i b r a i r i e General Francaise, Le Livre de Poche, 1957-Corbett, Edward P. J. C l a s s i c a l Rhetoric f o r the Modern  Student. New York: Oxford University Press, I 9 6 5 . Corrigan, Robert. "The Theater i n Search of a Fix." Tulane Drama Review, 5, No. 4 (June 1 9 6 1 ) , 21-35-Diderot, Denis. Jacques le f a t a l i s t e et son maltre. Pref. Lucien Scheler. Paris: La Bibliotheque Francaise, 1947-Diop, David Mandessi. "Les Vautours/The Vultures." Hammer Blows and Other Writings. Tr. and ed. Simon Mpondo and Frank Jones. Bloomington & Lon-don: Indiana University Press, 1 9 7 3 , PP- 4-5-Dort, Bernard. "Genet ou le combat avec le theatre." Theatre r e e l : Essais de c r i t i q u e 1967-1970 - Paris: Editions du Se u i l , 1 9 7 1 , PP- 1 7 3 - 8 8 . Reprinted from Les Temps modernes, 2 2 , No. 247 (decembre 1 9 6 7 ) , 1094-1109 . Duerrenmatt, F r i e d r i c h . "The V i s i t " /Per Besuch der Alten Dame7. Adapt. Maurice Valency. Masters of  Modern Drama. Ed. Haskell M. Block and Robert G. Shedd. New York: Random House, 1 9 6 2 ; copyright 1956 by M. Valency, pp. 1134-59-Ehrmann, Jacques. "Genet's Dramatic Metamorphosis: From Appearance to Freedom." Yale French Studies, 29 (Spring/Summer 1 9 6 2 ) , 3 3 - 4 2 . E s s l i n , Martin. "Violence i n Modern Drama." Reflections: Essays on Modern Theatre. Garden City, NY: Double-day and Company, Inc., Anchor Books E d i t i o n , 1 9 7 1 ; copyright 1964 by M. E s s l i n , pp. 159-73-Feal, Gisele. "Le Balcon de Genet ou le culte matriar-chal: Une inter p r e t a t i o n mythique." The French  Review, 48, No. 5 ( A p r i l 1 9 7 5 ) , 897-907--183-France, Peter. Racine's Rhetoric. London: Oxford University Press, 1 9 6 5 . . Rhetoric and Truth i n France: Descartes to Diderot. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1 9 7 2 . Frisch, Jack Eugene. "Chapter V: Jean Genet: The Irony of Reflected Reflection." "Ironic Theater: Tech-niques of Irony i n the Plays of Samuel Beckett, Eugene Ionesco, Harold Pinter and Jean Genet." Unpub-l i s h e d Dissertation. University of Wisconsin, 1 9 6 5 , pp. 179-216 . Genet, Jean. "'Adame M i r o i r " / b a l l e t i n collaboration with Mile Jeanine Charrat, music by Darius Milhaud/. L'Enfant criminel et 'Adame M i r o i r . Paris: Paul Morihien, 194-9. "Avertissement." Le Balcon. 2 e e d i t i o n . D§cines (Marc Barbezat): Editions de l'Arbalete, i 9 6 0 , pp. 7-9. Reprinted, Le Balcon. l ' E d i t i o n 3 e et def. Decines: l'Arbalete, 1 9 6 2 , pp. 7-9. Reprinted, Oeuvres completes. Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1968 . IV, 35-36 . . Le Balcon. Decines: l'Arbalete, 1 9 5 6 . / l i m i t e d e d i t i o n / . Le Balcon. 2 e e d i t i o n . Decines (Marc BarbezatTT Editions de l'Arbalete, i 9 6 0 . . Le Balcon, l ' E d i t i o n troisieme et d e f i n i -tive , pre*"c. de "Comment ,jouer Le Balcon. " Decines: l'Arbalete, 1962 . Reprinted, "Le Balcon." Oeuvres  completes. Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1968 . IV, 33-135-- The Balcony. Tr. Bernard Frechtman. Lon-don: Faber and Faber, 1957 and New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1 9 5 8 . . The Balcony. Revised. Tr. Bernard Frecht-man. New York: Grove Press, Inc., i 9 6 0 . . The Blacks: A Clown Show by Jean Genet. Tr. Bernard Frechtman. New York: Grove Press, i 9 6 0 . . "Les Bonnes." L'Arbalete, No. 12 (mai 194-7), pp. 4 7 - 9 2 . -184-Genet, Jean. Les Bonnes, piece en un acte; Les deux  versions pre ce dees d'une Le ttre de 1' Auteur /a Jean-Jacques Pauvert/. Sceaux: Jean-Jacques Pauvert, 1954 . . "Les Bonnes." Oeuvres completes. Paris: Editions Gallimard, I 9 6 8 . IV, 137-76 . "Comment jouer 'Le Balcon.'" Le Balcon, edition 3 e et definitive, prec. de "Comment jouer  Le Balcon." Decines: l'Arbalete, I 9 6 2 , pp. v-x. Reprinted, Oeuvres completes. Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1968 . IV, 271-76 . . "Haute-Surveillance" /hyphenated, sic/ 7. La Nef, 4 , No. 28 (mars, 1 9 4 7 ) , 9 4 - 1 1 2 ; No. 29 Tavril 1 9 4 7 ) , 92-112 . . Haute surveillance. Edition definitive. Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1965- Reprinted, Oeuvres completes• Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1 9 6 8 . i v , 177-213 . . "I Have Been the Victim of an Attempted Murder!" Tr. R. N. Coe. The Theater of Jean Genet: A Casebook. Ed. Richard N. Coe. New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1970 , pp. 90-92 . . "J'ai ete victime d'une tentative d'assassi-nat." /interviewed by Marcel Breitman/ Arts, No. 617 (1-7 mai 1 9 5 7 ) , P- 1-. "Letters to Blin" /two only: #2, #147-Tr. Richard Seaver. Genet/Ionesco: The Theatre of  the Double, a C r i t i c a l Anthology. Ed. Kelly Morris. New York: Bantam Books, Inc., I 9 6 9 , pp. 80-84. "Lettre a Pauvert." Les Bonnes, piece en un Acte: Les deux versions pre ce dee s d'une lettre  de 1'Auteur. Sceaux: Jean-Jacques Pauvert, 1954 , pp. 11-17. Reprinted, L'Atelier d'Alberto Giacometti, Les Bonnes (suivi d'une -!ettre), L'Enfant criminel, le Funambule. Decines: l'Arbalete, Marc Barbezat, 1 9 5 8 , pp. 142-47- Reprinted, Obliques, No. 2 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 2-4. . Les Negres, clownerie. Decines: l'Arbalete, 1958- /limited edition/ -185-Genet, Jean. Les Negre s; Pour ,j ouer l e s negres , clownerie• 3 e edition. Decines: l'Arbalete, 1963. . "A Note on Theatre." Tr. Bernard Frecht-man. Tulane Drama Review, 7, No. 3 (Spring I 9 6 3 ) , 37-41. /Translation of "Lettre a Pauvert," 1954/ Reprinted, Genet/lonesco: The Theatre of the  Double, a C r i t i c a l Anthology. Ed. K e l l y Morris. New York: Bantam Books, Inc., 1969, pp- 19-22. . Les Paravents. Decines: l'Arbalete, Marc Barbezat, 1 9 6 I . . "The Strange Word Urb••• " Tr. Bettina L. Knapp. Genet/lonesco: The Theatre of the Double, a C r i t i c a l Anthology. Ed. Kelly/Morris. New York: Bantam Books, Inc., 1969 , PP- IO8-I5. . "To a Would Be Producer." Tr. Bernard Frechtman. Tulane Drama Review, 7, No. 3 (Spring 1963), 80-81. Reprinted, Genet/lonesco: The  Theatre of the Double, a C r i t i c a l Anthology. Ed. K e l l y Morris. New York: Bantam Books, Inc., I 9 6 9 , pp. 60-61 . Genet/lonesco: The Theatre of the Double, a C r i t i c a l  Anthology. Ed. K e l l y Morris. New York: Bantam Books, Inc., 1969-Givry, G r i l l o t de. "Chapter IV: The Sabbath." Witch-cr a f t , Magic and Alchemy. Tr. J. Courtney Locke. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1971. PP- 72-89-Goldmann, Lucien. "The Theatre of Genet: A Sociolo-g i c a l Study." Tr. Pat Dreyfus. The Drama Review, 12, No. 2 (Winter I 9 6 8 ) , 51-61. Reprinted, Genet/  Ionesco: The Theatre of the Double, a C r i t i c a l An-thology. Ed. K e l l y Morris. . New York: Bantam Books, Inc., I 9 6 8 , pp. 93-107. Reprinted, The Theater of Jean Genet: A Casebook. Ed. Richard N. Coe. New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1970, pp. 220-38. . "Le T h e a t r e de Jean Genet et ses etudes sociologiques ." Cahiers Renaud-Barraulty No. 57 (novembre 1 9 6 6 ) , pp ; 90-125- Expanded, "Le Theatre de Genet: ^Essai d'etude sociologique." Sociologie  de l a l i t t e r a t u r e : Recherches recentes et discus-sions . Bruxelles: Editions de l ' I n s t i t u t de Socio-l o g i e , I 9 6 9 . PP- 9-34. Reprinted, Structures -186-mentales et Creation c u l t u r e l l e . Paris: E d i t i o n s Anthropos, 1 9 7 0 . Hoffmann-Liponska, Aleksandra. "La Conception du t h l a t r e de Jean Genet et sa confrontation avec l e s theses d'Antonin Artaud." Studia Romanica Posnaniensia, 2 ( 1 9 7 2 - 7 3 ) , 3 9 - 5 3 -Ionesco, Eugene. Rhinoceros. Paris: Editions Gallimard, l e Manteau d'Arlequin, 1959-Irmscher, William F. The Holt Guide to English: A Con-temporary Handbook of Rhetoric, Language, and L i t e r a -ture . New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1 9 7 2 . I s r a e l , A. "The Aesthetic of Violence: Rimbaud and Genet." Yale French Studies, No. 46 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , PP-28-40. Kanters, Robert. "Les Negres: l'Evangile selon Jean Genet." L'Express, No. 438 (5 novembre 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 3 6 - 3 7 ' Reprinted, "The Gospel According to Saint Genet." Tr. R. N. Coe. The Theater of Jean  Genet: A Casebook. Ed. Richard N. Coe. New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1 9 7 0 , pp. 1 1 9 - 2 1 . Knapp, Bettina. "An Interview with Roger B l i n . " Tulane  Drama Review, 7 , No. 3 (Spring I 9 6 3 ) , 111-24. Re-printed, Genet/Ionesco: The Theatre of the Double, a C r i t i c a l Anthology. Ed. K e l l y Morris. New York: Bantam Books, Inc., I 9 6 9 , PP- 7 0 - 7 9 - Reprinted, "Entretien avec Roger B l i n . " Tr. Gilberte Lambrichs. Obliques, No. 2 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 3 9 - 4 3 -and Claude Avranne. "Roger B l i n . " Off-Stage Voices: Interviews with Modern French Dramatists. Ed. Alba Amoia. Troy, NY: The Whitston Publishing Company, 1 9 7 5 , PP- 2 1 - 4 0 /portion, pp. 2 1 - 3 6 , i s pre-ceding item/ Larthomas^ Pierre. Le Langage dramatique: Sa nature, ses  procedes. Paris: L i b r a i r i e Armand Colin, 1 9 7 2 . MacDonald, George B. "'The Blacks* and R i t u a l Theatre." Humanities (Boston College), 2 1 , No. 2 (Spring 1 9 6 2 ) , 3 2 - 4 4 . Reprinted, The Theater of Jean Genet: A Casebook. Ed. Richard N. Coe. New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1 9 7 0 , pp. 1 2 5 - 3 1 . -187-Mailer, Norman. "The Blacks." The V i l l a g e Voice, 27 A p r i l and 18 May, 1961. Reprinted, "On The Blacks." Exchange, a Canadian Review, 1, No. 2 (December 1 9 6 1 ) , 5 2 - 5 9 -Marowitz, Charles. "Notes on the Theater of Cruelty." Tulane Drama Review, 1 1 , No. 2 (Winter 1 9 6 6 ) , 1 5 2 -7 2 . Reprinted, "(Notes sur le Theatre de l a Cruaute) Les Paravents." Tr. Jacqueline Bernard. Obliques, No. 2 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 57-59-McMahon, Joseph. "Keeping Faith and Holding Firm." Yale  French Studies, 29 (Spring/Summer I 9 6 2 ) , 2 6 - 3 2 . Moore, Margaret. "The Theatre of Jean Genet: A. Study i n the Neo-Baroque." Unpublished Dissertation. Univer-s i t y of Washington, 1 9 7 2 . Morf, Andre. "Le R i t u e l comme technique dramatique chez Jean Genet." Unpublished M.A. Thesis. ' McGill Univer-s i t y . Nelson, Benjamin. "The Balcony and P a r i s i a n E x i s t e n t i a -lism." Tulane Drama Review, 7 , No. 3 (Spring I 9 6 3 ) , 6 0 - 7 9 - Reprinted, Genet/Ionesco: The Theatre of the  Double, a C r i t i c a l Anthology. Ed. K e l l y Morris. New York: Bantam Books, Inc., I 9 6 9 , pp. 40 - 5 9 . Obliques, No. 2 ( 1 9 7 2 ) . Issue e n t i r e l y devoted to Jean Genet; the following are a r t i c l e s not otherwise c i t e d : Barthes, Roland. "Le Balcon: mise en scene de Peter Brook au Theatre du Gymnase," 3 7 - 3 8 . Boyer, Laurent. "Bibliographie: 1. Ouvrages de Jean Genet; 2 . Ouvrages consacres a. Genet," 7 4 - 8 5 -Butor, Michel. "Les Paravents," 5 4 - 5 5 , 5 7 - 5 9 -Clabecq, Francoise and Jean Blairon. "Le Balcon: Autour de quelques objets," 2 3 - 3 1 -Decock, Jean. "Les Negres aux USA," 48 - 5 0 . Deguy, Michel. "Thlatre et r e a l i s m : Le cas des Paravents," 51-55-Dort, Bernard. "Le seminaire de Louvain (Inventaire dramaturgique)" 8 - 1 0 . Gardair, Jean-Michel. "La Mere homosexuelle," 6 1 - 6 3 -G i t i n e t , Jean. "Lecture semiologique des annotations de decor du tableau 4 du Balcon," 3 2 - 3 6 . -188-Obliques, No. 2 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , continued: G i t i n e t , Jean. "Realite profane et r e a l i t e - sacree dans le theatre de Jean Genet," 70-73-Lecuyer, Maurice. "Les Negres et au-dela," 4 4 - 4 7 . Marowitz, Charles. "(Brook i n perspective) Digres-sion," 37-38-Nugent, Robert. "Sculpture et theatre: 1 'Influence de Giacometti sur Genet," 65-69-Piemme, Michele. "Espace scenique et i l l u s i o n dra-matique dans Le Balcon," 23-31-Vasseur, Yves. "Les objets dans Les Bonnes," 1 1 - 1 9 . Vogelweith, Guy. "Le desir d ' e t r e bonne," 7-10. Peyre, Henri. /Liner notes tpJ7 The Balcony. The Theatre Recording Society. A Caedm'on Production, TRS 316S. P i e r r e t , Marc. "Genet's New Play: The Screens." Tr. Rima D r e l l Reck. Tulane Drama Review, 7, No. 3 (Spring 1 9 6 3 ) , 93-97- Reprinted, "Poet of the Imaginary." The Theater of Jean Genet: A Case-book. Ed. Richard N. Coe. New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1970 , pp. 173-79-Prevost, Antoine Francois. H i s t o i r e du chevalier des Grieux et de Manon Lescaut. Ed. c r i t i q u e . Geneve: L i b r a i r i e Droz, 1953-Pronko, Leonard C. "Genet." Avant-Garde: The Experi-mental Theater i n France. Berkeley & Los Angeles: C a l i f o r n i a University Press, I 9 6 2 , pp. 140-53-. "Jean Genet." Theatre East and West. Berkeley: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, I 9 S 7 . PP- 63-67 . . " I l l - Theatre et Anti-theatre; Jean Genet: le theatre r i t u e l . " Theatre d'Avant-garde : Beckett, Ionesco et l e theatre experimental  en France. Tr. Marie-Jean Lefevre. Liguge: Denoe'l, 1 9 6 3 , pp- 174-88 . Pucciani, Oreste F. "Tragedy, Genet and The Maids." Tulane•oDflama Review, 7, No. 3 (Spring 1963) , 42-59. Reprinted, "Tragedy and The Maids." Genet/lonesco: The Theatre of the Double, a C r i t i c a l Anthology. Ed. Ke l l y Morris. New York: Bantam Books, Inc., I 9 6 9 , -189-pp. 23-39- Reprinted, "La tragedie, Genet et l e s  bonnes." Tr. Mousse Montil. Obliques, No. 2 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , . pp. 1 1 - 2 2 . Reck, Rima D/rell7. "Appearance and Rea l i t y i n Genet's 1 Le Balcon." Yale French Studies, 29 (Spring/Summer 1 9 6 2 ) , 20-25 . Richardson, Samuel. The History of C l a r i s s a Harlowe. 8 v o l . London: William Heinemann, 1 9 0 2 . Ricks, Christopher. "Dejecta." The New Statesman, 67 , No. 1713 (10 January 1 9 6 4 ) , 4"6^47. Rockas, Leo. Modes of Rhetoric. New York: St. Martin's Press, 19-VT. Sartre, Jean-Paul. " I . The Metamorphosis: The Melodious Child Dead i n Me Long Before the Ax Chops off My Head." Saint Genet: Actor and Martyr. Tr. Bernard Frechtman. New York: New American Library, a Mentor Book, 1964; copyright I 9 6 3 by George B r a z i l l e r , Inc., pp. 9-25- Reprinted, "Saint Genet: Actor and Martyr." Tulane Drama Review, 7, No. 3 (Spring 1963)1 19-36 . Reprinted, "Saint Genet: The Metamorphosis." Tr. Bernard Frechtman. Genet/lonesco: The Theatre of  the Double, a C r i t i c a l Anthology. Ed. K e l l y Morris. New York: Bantam Books, Inc., I 9 6 9 , pp. 3-18. Laillou-Savona, Jeanette. "The Blacks by Jean Genet: A Dimentional Approach." Australian Journal of French  Studies, 1 0 , No. 2 ( 1 9 7 3 ) . 203-22 . Shorter Oxford English Dictionary•onnHistorical P r i n c i p l e s . 3 r d edition, rev. Ed. S i r James A. H. Murray. London: Oxford University Press, 1947 . Shostrom, Everett L. Man, the Manipulator: The Inner Journey from Manipulation to Act u a l i z a t i o n . New York: Bantam Books, I 9 6 8 ; copyright I 9 6 7 , Abington Press. Svendsen, J. M. "Corydon Revisited: A Reminder on Genet." Tulane Drama Review, 7, No. 3 (Spring 1 9 6 3 ) , 93-110 . Taubes, Susan. "The White Mask F a l l s . " Tulane Drama Re-view, 7, No. 3 (Spring 1 9 6 3 ) , 8 5 - 9 2 . Reprinted, Genet/lonesco: The Theatre of- the Double, a C r i t i c a l  Anthology. Ed. Ke l l y Morris. New York: Bantam Books, Inc., I 9 6 9 , pp. 62-69 . -190-Tulane Drama Review, 7, No. 3 (Spring 1 9 6 3 ). Half of issue devoted to Genet, pages 19-124. Webster's New International Dictionary of the English  Language. 2nd edition, unabridg. S p r i n g f i e l d , Mass.: G. & C. Merriam, 1953-Wellwarth, George E. "Jean Genetf: The Theatre of I l l u s i o n and D i s i l l u s i o n . " The Theatre of Protest  and Paradox. New York: New York University Press, 1934, PP- 113 - 3 3 -Yale French Studies. "The New Dramatists," 29 (Spring/ Summer 1962 ). A r t i c l e s on Genet, pages 20-42. Zeraffa, Michel. "Chroniques: Le Theatre / l e B a l c o n 7 - " Europe, 38 , No. 375-76 ( j u i l l e t - a o u t ±9~Zo) , 281-83-Zimbardo, R. A. "Genet's Black Mass." Modern Drama, 8, No. 3 (December I 9 6 5 ), 247-58. I I . WORKS BY JEAN GENET CONSULTED Genet, Jean. "Introduction." Tr. Richard Howard. Sole-dad Brothers, the Prison Letters of George Jackson. Ed. George Jackson. New York: Coward-McCann, Inc., 1 9 7 0 , pp. v - x i i i . . Journal du Voleur. Paris: E d i t i o n s G a l l i -mard, 19%9~. . Letters to Roger B l i n : Reflections on the Theater. Tr. Richard Seaver. New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1969 . . Lettre a Leonor F i n i . Paris: Loyau, 1950. . Lettres a Roger B l i n . Paris: E d i t i o n s Gal-limard, 1966 . The Maids and Deathwatch: Two Plays by Jean Genet. Intr. Jean-Paul Sartre. Tr. Bernard Frecht-man. New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1 9 5 4 ; 6 t h p r i n t -ing 1962 . May Day Speech. Tr. A l l e n Ginsberg. San Francisco: City Lights, 1 9 7 0 . -191-Genet, Jean. "Notre-Dame des Fleurs." Oeuvres completes. Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1951- I I , 7-207. . Our Lady of the Flowers. Intr. Jean-Paul Sartre. Tr. Bernard Frechtman. New York: The Modern Library, 1 9 6 5 ; copyright 1 9 6 3 , Grove Press, Inc. . /unsigned/" "Playboy Interview: Jean Genet." Playboy, 1 1 , No. 4 ( A p r i l 1 9 6 4 ) , 4 5 - 5 3 . . _ Reflections on the Theatre.".and Other Writings • Tr. R/Ichard/Seaver. London: Faber, 1972 . . "A Salute to 100 ,000 Stars." Tr. Richard Seaver. Evergreen Review, 1 2 , No. 61 (December 1 9 6 8 ) , 5 0 - 5 3 ; 87-88 . . The Screens• Tr. Bernard Frechtman. New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1962 . . "Something Which Seems to Resemble Decay... " Tr. Bernard Frechtman. Art and L i t e r a -ture: An International Review, No. 1 (March 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 77-86\ • The T h i e f 1 s Journal. Tr. Bernard Frechtman. New York: Grove.rPress, Inc., 1964 . . "Une l e t t r e de Jean Genet." Les Lettres francaises. No. 1429 (29 mars-4 a v r i l 1972 ), p. 14. I I I . RHETORICAL METHODS, WORKS CONSULTED The Art of Rhetoric. Ed. Francis Connolly and Gerald Levin. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1968 . Baird, A. Craig. Rhetoric, a Philosophical Inquiry. New York: The Ronald Press Company, I965-Barthes, Roland. "L'analyse rhlt o r i q u e . " L i t t e r a t u r e et  societe: Problemes de methodologies en sociologie  de l a l i t t e r a t u r e . Bruxelles: Eds. de l ' I n s t i t u t de sociologie, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, 1967 , PP- 31-45--192-Booth:, Wayne C. The Rhetoric of F i c t i o n . Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1961; 8 t h imp. 1968 . Burke, Kenneth. A Rhetoric of Motives• New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1950 . Chaneles, Sol and Jerome Snyder. "that p e s t i l e n t cos- metic , rh e t o r i c . " New York: Grossman Publishers, 1972 . Dixon, Peter. Rhetoric. "The C r i t i c a l Idiom, 1 9 . " London: Methuen and Company, L t . , 1971-Dawson, S. W. "Dramatic Irony." Drama and the Dramatic. London: Methuen and Company Ltd., 1970 , pp. 38-4-4. Essays on Rhetorical C r i t i c i s m . Ed. Thomas R. Nilsen. New York: Random House, I 9 6 8 . Farrington, Conor A. "The Language of Drama." Tulane  Drama Review, 5, No. 2 (December- i 9 6 0 ) , 65-72 . Genette, Gerard. Figures: Essais, I. Paris: Editions du S e u i l , I 9 6 6 . ™~ . Figures, I I I . Paris: Editions du S e u i l , 1972 . Jakobson, Roman. "Two Aspects of Language: Metaphor and Metonymy." European L i t e r a r y Theory and Practice: From E x i s t e n t i a l Phenomenology to Structuralism. Ed. Vernon W. Gras. New York: D e l l Publishing Co., a Delta Book, 1 9 7 3 , PP- 119-29-Lamy, / l e Perey" Bernard. La Rhetorique ou I'Art de par-l e r . 4 e edition. Amsterdam: Chez Paul Marrett, 1699; Sussex Reprints, French Series No. 1 , Univ. of Sussex Library, Brighton, 1969-Langer, Susanne K. Feeling and Form: A Theory of Art Developed from "Philosophy in.'.-a New' Key."'New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953-McLuhan, Marshall and Quentin Fiores. The Medium i s the  Massage. Co-ord. Jerome Angel. New York, London, Toronto: Bantam Books, I 9 6 7 . Muecke, D. C. IIrony. London: Methuen and Company, Ltd., 1970 . -193-Packard, Vance. The Hidden Persuaders. New York: D. McKay Company, 1957-Richards, I. A. The Philosophy of Rhetoric. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1936 . States, Bert 0. Irony and Drama: A Poetics. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1971-La Theorie de 1 *Argumentation, perspectives et applica-tions : Recueil• Louvain et Paris: l e Centre National Beige de recherches de logique, 1964 . Wichelns, Herbert A. "Some Differences Between L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m and Rhetorical C r i t i c i s m . " H i s t o r i c a l  Studies of Rhetoric and Rhetoricians. Ed. Raymond F. Howes. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1 9 6 1 , pp. 217-24 . IV. USEFUL CRITICISM AND RELATED MATERIALS CONSULTED Artaud, Antonin. "Le Theatre et son double." Oeuvres  completes• Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1964. TV, 11-171-..:, Ashmore, Jerome. "Interdisciplinaryr.Roots of the Theatre of the Absurd." Modern Drama. 14, No. 1 (May 1 9 7 1 ) , 7 2 - 8 3 . B a t a i l l e , Georges. "Genet." La L i t t e r a t u r e et l e Mai. Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1 9 5 7 , pp. 185-226'. Bauchere, Jacques. "Jean Genet: l e c r i d'un revolte." Confluent Moracco (Paris), No. 9 (septembre-octobre I960), pp. 608-10 . Bensky, Roger-Daniel. Recherches sur l e s structures et  l a Symbolique de l a Marionette• Paris: Editions A.-G. Knight, 1971-Birn, Randi Marie. "Claudel's L'Annonce f a i t a Marie and Genet's Le Balcon: S i m i l a r i t i e s i n Rit u a l Theatre." Romance Notes, 1 3 , No. 1 (Autumn 1 9 7 1 ) , 1-7--194-Blanchot, Maurice. "Where Now? Who Now?" Tr. Richard Howard. Evergreen Review, 2 , No. 7 (Winter 1959)» 222-29 . Blau, Herbert. The Impossible Theatre; A Manifesto. New York and London: Macmillan, 1 9 6 5 . Boisdeffre, Pierre de. "Genet." Une H i s t o i r e vivante  de l a L i t t e r a t u r e d' au.jourd' hui. Paris : Le Livre contemporain, 1 9 5 7 , pp. 277-80 . Bonnefoy, Claude. "De l a prison a 1'§criture." Maga-zine l i t t l r a i r e , No. 27 (mars 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 7-9. . Genet. Classiques du xx e s i e c l e , # 76 . Paris: Editions U n i v e r s i t a i r e s , 1965* Bonosky, P h i l l i p . "/Three Plays on the Negro7 I I . The Blacks." Masses and Mainstream, 1 5 , No. 2 (February 1962) , 61-oT. Brustein, Robert. "The Brothel and the Western World." The New Republic, 143 ( i 9 6 0 ) r e p r i n t . Seasons of Discontent. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1 9 ^ 5 , PP. 33-35-. the t h i r d theatre. New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1 9 6 9 . Bryden, Ronald. "Plaything." The New Statesman, 7 7 , No. 1725 (3 A p r i l 1 9 6 4 ) , 5 3 7 . Cetta, Lewis Thomas. "Jean Genet as Homo ludens i n Quest of Profane Play." Connecticut Review, 6 , No.Tl ( 1 9 7 2 ) , 2 6 - 3 3 . . "Jean Genet as Guru: A Note on the Ending of The Screens." Notes on Contemporary  Literature, 1 , No. 3 (May 1 9 7 1 ) , 1 1 - 1 3 . . "Myth, Magic and Play i n Genet's The Blacks." Contemporary L i t e r a t u r e , 1 1 , No. 4 T T 9 7 0 ) , 5 1 1 - 2 5 . Chesneau, Albert C. "Ide'e de revolution et principe de r§versibilit§ dans Le Balcon et Les Negres de Jean Genet." PMLA, 8, No. 5 (October 1 9 7 3 ) , 1137-45 . -195-Chevigny, B e l l Gale. "Introduction." Tweitieth Century Interpretations of Endgame: A C o l l e c t i o n of C r i t i c a l  Essays. Ed. B. Chevigny. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., I 9 6 9 , PP- 1 - 1 3 -Chiaromonte, Nicola. "Jean Genet: White and Black." Tr. Raymond Rosenthal. Partisan Review, 2 8 , No. 5-6 ( 1 9 6 1 ) , 6 6 2 - 6 8 . . . "Pirandello and the Contemporary Theatre." World Theatre, 16, No. 3 ( I 9 6 7 ) r e p r i n t . The Play and the Reader. A l t . Ed. Ed. Stanley Johnson, Judah Bierman, James Hart. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice H a l l , Inc., 1 9 7 1 , pp. 419-24. Cocteau, Jean. "Au President de l a Republique." Combat. 16 j u i l l e t 1 9 4 8 , p. 4 . Coe, Richard N. "Genet." Forces i n Modern French Drama: Studies i n Variations on the Permitted L i e . Ed. John Fletcher. London: University of London Press, Ltd., 1 9 7 2 , pp. 1 4 7 - 6 7 . Cohn, Ruby. "Dialogues of Cruelty." The Southern Review (La. State Univ.), 3 new series, No. 2 ( A p r i l I 9 6 7 ) , 3 2 2-40. . "European Theater, Spring 1 9 6 6 , a Sampling." Drama Survey, 5 , No. 3 (Winter 1 9 6 6 - 6 7 ) , 286-92. . "Four Stages of Absurdist Hero." Drama Survey, 4, No. 3 (Winter I 9 6 5 ) , 2 0 4 - 0 8 . Coleman, John. "House and Home," The New Statesman: The Weekend Review, 66, No. 1701 (18 October I 9 6 3 ) , 5 3 8 . Copfermann, Emile. " G l o r i f i c a t i o n de 1'image et du r e f l e t : Le Balcon." La Mise en crise theatrale. Paris: Francois Maspero, 1 9 7 2 , pp. 1 4 0 - 4 4 . Craig, Edward Gordon. "Chapter Two: The Actor and the Uber-Marionette." On the Art of the Theatre. London: William Heinemann, 1 9 1 4, pp. 5 4 ^ 9 4 . Dace, L e t i t i a . "On Jean Genet and Martin E s s l i n or Here Absurdist, There Absurdist, Everywhere... " Kansas  Quarterly, 3 , No. 2 (Spring 1 9 7 1 ) , 1 1 0 - 1 6 . Demeron, Pierre. "Genet / s i c / s o r t de l a honte." Le Nouveau Candide, No. 2 6 1 ( 2 5 a v r i l - 1 mai ±966), pp. 4-7--196-Driver, Tom F. Jean Genet. Columbia Essays on Modern Writers, # 2 0 . New York: Columbia University Press, I 9 6 6 . Dumur, Guy. "Jean Genets Parable et parodie." Spec-tacles, No. 1 , nouv. serie (30 octobre i 9 6 0 ) , pp. 74-79-Eaubonne, Francoise d'. "L'Evasion par l ' e c r i t u r e . " Magazine l i t t e r a i r e , 71 (decembre 1972 ), pp. 18-20. Eskin, Stanley G. " T h e a t r i c a l i t y i n the Avant-Garde Dramas A. Reconsideration of a Theme i n the Light of The Balcony and The Connection." Modern Drama, 7, No. 1 (May 1 9 6 4 ) , 213-22 . E s s l i n , Martin. "Jean Genet: A H a l l of Mirrors." The  Theatre of the Absurd. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, Anchor Books, 1 9 6 1 , pp. 140-67-. "A Note on L e t i t i a Dace's A r t i c l e . " Kansas Quarterly, 3. No. 2 (Spring 1 9 7 1 ) . 1 1 6 - 1 7 . Federman, Raymond. "Jean Genet ou l e theatre de l a haine." E s p r i t , 3 8 , No. 391 ( a v r i l 1 9 7 0 ) , 697-713-Fergusson, Francis. The Idea of a Theatre: A Study of Ten Plays, the Art of Drama i n Changing Perspective. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1949 ; paperback, I 9 6 8 . Fowlie, Wallace. Dionysus i n Paris: A Guide to Contem-porary French Theatre. New York: Meridian Books, Inc., i 9 6 0 . . "New Plays of Ionesco and Genet." Tulane Drama Review, 5, No. 1 (September i 9 6 0 ) , 43-48. Francovich, A l l a n . "Genet's Theatre of Possession." Tulane Drama Review, 14, No. 1 ( F a l l 1 9 6 9 ) , 25 - 4 5 -Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m : Four Essays. New York: Atheneum, 1 9 6 9 ; copyright 1 9 5 7 . Princeton University Press. Gide, Andre1. "L'Evolution du Theatre." Nouveaux p r l -textes: reflexions sur quelques points de l i t t e r a -ture et de morale. Paris: Mercure de France, 1 9 4 7 , pp. 1 1 - 2 7 . -197-Goldmann, L u c i e n , e t a l . " M i c r o - s t r u c t u r e s dans l e s v i n g t - c i n q p r e m i e r e s r e p l i q u . e s des 'Negres.'" Revue de 1 ' I n s t i t u t de S o c i o l o g i e . B r u x e l l e s : Eds. de l ' I n s t i t u t de S o c i o l o g i e , I 9 6 9 , PP- 363-80. u . "Une p i e c e r e a l i s t e : Le_ B a l c o n de Genet." L e s Temps modernes, 1 5 . No. 171 ( j u i n I 9 6 0 ) , 1885-96. Graham-White, Anthony. "Jean Genet and the P s y c h o l o g y o f C o l o n i a l i s m . " Comparative Drama, 4, No. 3 ( F a l l 1 9 7 0 ) , 208-16. G r o s s v o g e l , D a v i d I . The Blasphemers: The Th e a t r e o f  B r e c h t , I o n e s c o , B e c k e t t , and Genet. I t h a c a , NY: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I 9 6 2; C o r n e l l P a p e r b a c k s , 1965-G u i c h a r n a u d , J a c q u e s , i n . c o l l . w i t h June Guicharnaud . "The G l o r y o f A n n i h i l a t i o n : Jean Genet." Modern  Fre n c h T h e a t r e : from G i r a u d o u x t o Genet. New Haven and London: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I 967. PP- 259-77-Hahn, P i e r r e . "Le p l u s g r a n d a u t e u r du x x e s i e c l e avec B e c k e t t ? " A r t s e t l o i s i r s , No. 28 (6-12 a v r i l I 9 6 6 ) , P- 17-J a c o b s e n , J o s e p h i n e and W i l l i a m R. M u e l l e r . "Jean Genet and the As c e n t i n t o N o t h i n g n e s s . " I o n e s c o and Genet: P l a y w r i g h t s o f S i l e n c e . New York: H i l l and Wang, 1968, pp. 126^73-J e f f r e y , D a v i d K. "Genet and G e l b e r : S t u d i e s i n A d d i c -t i o n . " Modern Drama, 1 1 , No. 2 (September 1 9 6 8 ) , 151-56-Jones, R o b e r t Emmet. Panorama de l a n o u v e l l e C r i t i q u e  en F r a n c e : de Gaston B a c h e l a r d a. J e a n - P a u l Weber. P a r i s : Sedes, I 9 6 8 . K i l l i n g e r , John. "Jean Genet i n the L o o k i n g G l a s s . " J o u r n a l o f Modern L i t e r a t u r e , 1 , No. 1 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 141-45 . K l i e s s , Werner. Genet. V e l b e r b e i Hannover: F r i e d r i c h , I 9 6 7 . Knapp, B e t t i n a L. Jean Genet. Twayne's World A u t h o r s S e r i e s . New York: Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , I 9 6 8 . -198-Knowles, Dorothy. "Introduction: Pr i n c i p l e s of Staging." Forces i n Modern French Drama: Studies i n Variations  on the Permitted L i e . Ed. John Fletcher. London: University of London Press Ltd., 1972, pp. 11-32. Lebesque, Morvan. "Le Mai n'est qu'une fa i b l e s s e qui se veut force : a propos de Jean Genet, e c r i v a i n et voleur." Carrefour, 7, No. 310 (22 aout 1950), 7-8. Lukas, Mary. "The Blacks." The Catholic World, 194, No. 1,159 "(October 1961 )7~62-64. Madral, Philippe. "Ou en est l e theatre en 1971?" Ten-dances , 69 (feVrier 1971), 105-20. Magnan, Jean-Marie. Essai sur Jean Genet.' Poetes d'Aujourd'hui, # 48. Paris: Seghers, 1966. . "Sur Genet: Le Balcon ou Le regne de l'apparence; Les Negres ou La vertu du simulacre." L'Arc, 5 , No. 17~Tfevrier 1962), 60-63. Mah, Kai-Ho. "Chapter V. Caligula and Le Balcon." "The Dramatic Functions of the Mirror i n Selected Elizabethan and Modern French Plays." Unpublished Dissertation. University of Washington, 1967, pp. 110-48. Marcabru, Pierre. "Les Negres : une messe n o i r . " Spec-tacles , No. 748 (11-17 novembre 1959), p. 6. Markus, Thomas B. "The Psychological Universe of Jean Genet." Drama Survey, 3, No. 3 (February 1964), 386-92. Mayhew, Anne L o v i t t . "The Use of Ri t u a l i n the Theatre of the Absurd: A Study of Beckett, Pinter, Genet." Unpublished M.A. Thesis. University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964. McMahon, John H. The Imagination of Jean Genet. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963-Melcher, Edith. "The Pirandellism of Genet." The French  Review, 36, No. 1 (October 1962), ' 32-36. M i l l e t t , Kate. "Sexual P o l i t i c s : M i l l e r , Mailer and Genet." New American Review, Number Seven. New York: New American Library, I 9 6 9 , pp. 7-32. -199-M o n l e o n , J o s e . " E n M a d r i d con J e a n G e n e t : 10 anos de s i l e n c i o . " P r i m e r A c t o , N o . 115 ( D i c i e m b r e 1 9 6 9 ) , p p . 12-19 . . " G e n e t , L a s C r i a d a s . " P r i m e r A c t o , N o . 113 ( O c t u b r e 1 9 6 9 ) , P P - 8ft9-M u r c h , Anne C. " G e n e t - T r i a n a - K o p i t : R i t u a l as 'Danse m a c a b r e . ' " M o d e r n Drama, 15 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 3 6 9 - 8 1 . P e y r e , H e n r i . " J e a n G e n e t . " F r e n c h N o v e l i s t s o f T o d a y . New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , a G a l a x y B o o k , 1 9 6 7 , p p . 4-16-17. Pieii ime, M i c h e l e . " L e s e s p a c e s s c e n i q u e s e t d r a m a t u r -g i q u e s dans L e s N e g r e s de G e n e t . " Marche romane , 2 0 , No . 3 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 3 9 - 5 2 . P r i m e r A c t o . " G e n e t ( 1 ) " and " L a s C r i a d a s . " T r . V i c t o r G a r c i a . N o . 113 ( O c t u b r e 19697"^ A r t i c l e s on G e n e t , pages 7-46; S p a n i s h t e x t o f L e s B o n n e s , pages 47-63-P r i m e r A c t o . " G e n e t ( 2 ) . " N o . 115 ( D i c i e m b r e 1969 )• A r t i c l e s on G e n e t , pages 11-31-R e g n a u t , M a u r i c e , " L e s N e g r e s , de J e a n G e n e t /sic/, m i s e en scene de Roger B l i n , avec l a Compagnie a f r i c a i n e d ' a r t d r a m a t i q u e L e s G r i o t s , au T h e a t r e de L u t l c e . " T b J a t r e p o p u l a i r e , N o . 36 ( 1 9 5 9 ) , P P - 50-53-R o s a , N i c o l a s . "Sexo y c r e a c i o n : S a r t r e y G e n e t . " C r i t i c a v_ s i g n i f i c a c i o n . Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l G a l e r n a , 1970 , p p . 101-43-S a n d i e r , G i l l e s . " G e n e t un e x o r c i s t e de g e n i e . " A r t s e t l o i s i r s , N o . 37 (27 a v r i l - 3 mars 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 57-S a r t r e , J e a n - P a u l . " I n t r o d u c t i o n . " J e a n G e n e t . The M a i d s  and D e a t h w a t c h : Two P l a y s by J e a n G e n e t . T r . B e r n a r d F r e c h t m a n . New Y o r k : Grove P r e s s , I n c . , 1954 , p p . 7-31-. " I n t r o d u c t i o n . " J e a n G e n e t . Our L a d y o f the F l o w e r s . T r . B e r n a r d F r e c h t m a n . New Y o r k : The M o d e r n L i b r a r y , 1 9 6 5 ; c o p y r i g h t I 9 6 3 , Grove P r e s s , p p . 9-57-. S a i n t G e n e t : c o m e d i e n e t m a r t y r . P a r i s : E d i t i o n s G a l l i m a r d , 1952 . -200-Selz, Jean. "Les Negress Tragedie ou exorcism?" Les  Lettres nouvelles, 7» No. 29 (11 novembre 1959) » 37-38 . Simon, Al f r e d . "La metaphore primordiale." E s p r i t , nouv. serie 33, No. 338 (mai 1 9 6 5 ) . 837-W! Sontag, Susan. "Sartre's Saint Genet." Against Interpre-t a t i o n and Other Essays. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, The Noonday Press, 1 9 6 6 : copyright I 9 6 I , pp. 93-99-Stewart, Harry E. "Jean Genet's Mirror Images i n Le Balcon." Modern Drama, 1 2 , No. 2 (September 1 9 6 9 ) . 197-203 . . "A Note on Verbal Play i n Genet's *Le Balcon.'" Contemporary L i t e r a t u r e , 1 0 , No. 3 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 389-95-Strem, George G. "The Theater of Jean Genet: Facets of I l l u s i o n — T h e Anti-Christ and the Underdog." The Minnesota Review, 4 , No. 2 (Winter 1 9 6 4 ) , 226-36 . Studi d i l e t t e r a t u r a francese. "Aspetti d i Genet." 1, No. 89 (196?)• The issue i s half-devoted to Jean Genet, pages i x to 114, and includes Clara Cova's " B i b l i o g r a f i c a d i Jean Genet." Styan., John Louis. "After 'Godot': Ionesco, Genet / s i c / and Pinter." The Dark Comedy: The Development of  Modern Comic Tragedy;. 2nd e d i t i o n . Cambridge University Press, 1 9 6 8 , pp. 234-50 . Swander, Homer D. "Shakespeare and the Harlem Clowns: I l l u s i o n and Comic Form i n Genet's The Blacks." The Yale Review, 55, No. 2 (December 1 9 6 5 ) , 209-26 . Tardieu, Jean. "Paroles legeres et paroles empoisonnees: Jean Giraudoux et Jean Genet, chez Jouvet." Action, 2 mai 1 9 4 7 , p. 1 0 . Tarrab, G i l b e r t . Le_ Theatre du nouveau langage: E s s a i sur le drame de l a parole. I. Montreal: Le Cercle du l i v r e de France, 1973• . Theatre et contestation. I I . Montr!al: Le Cercle du l i v r e de France, 1973--201-Thody, P/hilip_7 M« W. Four Cases of L i t e r a r y Censor-ship : An inaugural lecture. Leeds: Leeds Univer-s i t y Press, 1968. . "Genet and the I n d e f e n s i b i l i t y of Sexual Deviation." 20 th Century Studies, 2 (November 1 9 6 9 ) , 6 8 - 7 3 . . Jean Genet: A study of his Novels and Plays. London: Hamish Hamilton, I 9 6 8 . V i d a l , Gore. "Notes on Pornography." Reflections upon a Sinking Ship. London: Heinemann, 1 9 6 8 , pp. 9 1 - 9 2 . Wellwarth, George E. "The New Dramatists: 3. Jean Genet." Drama Survey, 1 , No. 3 (February I 9 6 2 ) , 308-20 . Wilcocks, Robert. "Genet's Preoccupation v/ith Language." Modern Language Review, 6 5 , No. 4 (October 1 9 7 0 ) , 785-92 . Yeager, Henry J. "The Uncompromising Morality of Jean Genet." The French Review, 3 9 , No. 2 (November 1 9 6 5 ) , 2l¥=T9-Zadek, Peter. "/Arts and Entertainment/ Acts of Vio-lence." The New Statesman and Nation, 5 3 , No. 1364 (4 May 19577,~~56"8-70. V. BIBLIOGRAPHIES CONSULTED Boyer, Laurent. "Bibliographie., 1. Ouvrages de Jean Genet; 2. Ouvrages consacres a. Genet." 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