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Sentimentalism and Karamzin Tegart, Jarmila Alexandra 1976

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S E N T I M E N T A L I S M AND  KARAMZIN  by  J A R M I L A ALEXANDRA Teaching  Diploma,  Prague,  TEGART  Charles  University  Czechoslovakia  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S  FOR THE D E G R E E  M A S T E R OF in  OF  ARTS  t h e Department of  SLAVONIC STUDIES  We  accept  this the  thesis  required  as conforming standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H September,  COLUMBIA  1976  i  ©  to  J a r m i l a A l e x a n d r a T e g a r t , 1976  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the I  Library shall  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  fulfiIment  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  make i t  freely available  t h a t permission  for  of  the requirements  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  It  for financial  i s understood that copying or gain s h a l l  The  thesis  not be allowed without my  J a r m i l a A. Tegart  SLAVONIC STUDIES  University of B r i t i s h  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  September 1976  Columbia  that  or  publication  permission.  Department of  for  study.  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  ABSTRACT The talist its  object of  this  movement i n t h e  way  into  Russian  literature,  as  Russian  sentimentalist school.  significant  and  isolation,  the  German.  these  new  the  characteristics,  of  and  v a n i t y of  toward and  virtue,  Karamzin's  the  only  and  sentimentalism  translations  by  an  transience  an  aspiration Murav'ev  a definite  vague  tendencies  identity. Masonic  i n Western Europe drew him His  a translation  a p p r a i s a l of  early  of J u l i u s  Shakespeare's  were,  Nikolaj  works  of Western European authors,  s i g n i f i c a n t work being prefaced  these  but  the  I t was  education, his contact with  his travels  the  sentimentalism  form.  crystallized  England,  i n appearing,  of Xeraskov,  incipient  mainstream of European c u l t u r e .  mainly  in  relative  a sense of  lyrics  the  particularly  were slow  i n haphazard  K a r a m z i n who  gave R u s s i a n  circles,  i n the  found  Karamzin e v e n t u a l l y  representative of  namely  These s i g n s of  however, present  and  how  a l l things, together with  appeared  Sumarokov.  Mixajlovic  and  Because of Russia's  tendencies  sentimen-  of Western Europe  literature,  some o f life  the  s e n t i m e n t a l i s t movement, o r i g i n a t i n g  soon a f f e c t e d a l l European French  i s t o s h o w how  literatures  emerged  The  the most  study  the  toward are most  Caesar,  genius.  An modelled  able  the Moskovskij  of European his  most  literary  Zurnal  such  journalist,  In this  1  putesestvennika  on t h e l i n e s  j o u r n a l he p u b l i s h e d  as "Bednaja L i z a "  bojarskaja doc " (Natalia,  Pis'ma russkogo  Karamzin  (Moscow J o u r n a l )  magazines.  famous w o r k s ,  "Natal*ja, and  and d i s c r i m i n a t i n g  (Poor  the Boyar's  (Letters  Liza),  Daughter)  of a  Russian  Traveller). Karamzin p o p u l a r i z e d t h e s h o r t s t o r y and c r e a t e d wide Russian readers often  approach  to story-telling  Russian  Considered literature,  sovereignty  importance  of the nineteenth  Traveller, which  and b e s t  set  t h e norm  exploration  novels  i n the light  as l i v i n g  first  feeling,  necessarily involved a  assumes g r e a t  of the heart  the  and  and o f t h e e x o t i c .  as a  prelude  century.  o f t h e development o f  Karamzin's most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e work  a Russian  characters  virtue  degree o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f and t h i s  the great  Russian  the attention of  p a s t o r a l i s m , b u t a l s o t i n g e d by  o f t h e romance o f t h e p a s t  characters,  of  commanding  s e t o f fby a n o s t a l g i c  considerable  to  public,  with h i sportrayal of simplicity,  suggestions His  reading  a  i s Letters  shows h i s i n s i s t e n c e  and t h e importance  persons.  Russian  on t h e  of creating  This work, t h e r e f o r e , remains  example o f Russian  sentimentalism,  which  f o r a m o v e m e n t t h a t made p o s s i b l e t h e s e a r c h i n g o f t h e human p s y c h e  fiction.  i n the great  tradition  of  T A B L E OF  CONTENTS PAGE  ABSTRACT  i  i  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  V  A:  INTRODUCTORY REMARKS  1  B:  DEVELOPMENT OF S E N T I M E N T A L I S M I N  CHAPTER I.  WESTERN EUROPE II. III.  SOURCES OF R U S S I A N S E N T I M E N T A L I S M I N F L U E N C E S ON K A R A M Z I N S 1  "SENTIMENTAL IV.  11  A:  SENTIMENTAL  B:  KARAMZIN'S  WRITER"  A 41  FICTION L E T T E R S OF A  TRAVELLER V.  DEVELOPMENT AS  20  57 RUSSIAN 93  CONCLUSION  103  FOOTNOTES  10 8  BIBLIOGRAPHY  116  iv  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  To  Professor  my g r a t i t u d e thanks help  Z. F o l e j e w s k i  for his patient  go a l s o  to Professor  and k i n d n e s s  I would  guidance  through  V. R e v u t s k y ,  i n offering  many u s e f u l  v  like  t o express my w o r k .  for his  My  generous  suggestions.  CHAPTER A.  I t was great  Peter  INTRODUCTORY  the  cost, transformed  opened the  Great,  led to  things  necessary  such  many R u s s i a n s  but  reflecting  faced  unsettled  nature  Until  late  g a v e way  The  and  study  the  learning  languages state.  country  i n Western  skills.  and  demand  a strong military into  at  empire  e m p h a s i s on  politics  technology.  these  Peter  and  Europe, the  Consequently,  a s p i r a t i o n s was  great  the  With  also  Great  to elements  century  and  because  only  some o f  literary  1  -  the  time.  language  and  from  European-  language  i t s ecclesiastical  from spoken Russian.  -  of  removed  secularization  this  pragmati-  recognized  Slavonic, a  syntactically  Peter's  and  the  the  importance,  language at t h a t  been Church  society,  modified,  difficulties  Russian  seventeenth  of Russian  gradually  and  grammatically  spoken Russian. ization  of  language had  lexically,  an  T r a n s l a t i o n s assumed g r e a t e r  translators  literary  into  who,  t o the West, f o c u s i n g b h i s a t t e n t i o n only  sciences  oriented.  the  as  r e t u r n e d w i t h new  travelled  on " p r a c t i c a l  the  invited  were p e r m i t t e d t o  from where they  cally  "Antichrist,"  for building  Many f o r e i g n e r s w e r e  literature  the  medieva-1; R u s s i a  modernization  practical  disciplines  himself  REMARKS  door t o West European e n l i g h t e n m e n t .  for military primarily  I  was elements  Nevertheless,  —  2 t r a n s l a t o r s were was  i n an  extremely  impossible to find  terms.  Russian  Slavonic Polish,  forms  and  Dutch,  chaotic,  texts  Peter's  time,  terized  by  literary  established  efforts  i n the  peanization literary  took  genre,  the early  age  and  u n a f f e c t e d by  popular  the  and  of  from  German,  The  Church Latin,  language  principles.  was  From  i n R u s s i a was  to establich  charac-  a modern, s e c u l a r  zlocastii  ( T a l e o f Woe  the development of  Greek  and  Latin  secular tale,  narrative  new  reading public  and  the  M i s f o r t u n e ) , and  a secular Russian  technique, attracting  to  Grudcyn,, P o v e s t '  stylistic an  indeed,  composed o f b u r g h e r s ,  they  also  o  Frol  awkwardness,  important  culture;  —  was  "povest'."  and  played  Euro-  gave r i s e  Savva  tales  not  important  are  and  did  T r a n s l a t i o n s of  ficti6Baiiher.oes3forstherfifstrfcime?.d-They new  An  was  of Peter's time,  tale.  structural  seventeenth-century  culture  Secularization  a product  Russian  examples  Despite their  attention  began t o advance.  Polish,  most s i g n i f i c a n t  little Russian  eighteenth-century prose  The  these  rules  of Peter  although not  romances from  Skobeev.  —  full  Italian.  changes.  r o o t and  seventeenth-century  i  and  literature,  the  gore  for i t  language.  to philosophy  remain  period are  the eighteenth century  Although paid  of t h i s  foreign borrowings  strenuous  situation,  adequate e q u i v a l e n t s f o r Western  Greek, French  lacking  difficult  role  in  introduced  introduced a creating —  merchants  and,  in  a  3 time,  e v e n some e d u c a t e d Prose  larity  tales  during this  c o n t i n u e d t o be age,  are  generally  The  most i n t e r e s t i n g  skij, like  written  although  weaker than tale  i n the  early  the m a j o r i t y of  great d i f f i c u l t i e s  ing  the  flexibility  those  of the  i s about  of the  doubt,  marks t h e b e g i n n i n g o f  and  t o win  seventeenth  a sailor  a new  A l l these  Russian achieve  century. Koriot-  anonymously,  tales  language, towards  popu-  tales  Vasilij  eighteenth century —  i t would  T h e r e i s no  written  eighteenth-century  these works.  the  century.  peasants.  reflect  s t i l l  the  await-  end  of  however, t h a t t h i s  age  consciousness.  Mirsky  As  the  clearly puts  it, Modern R u s s i a n l i t e r a t u r e dates from the e s t a b lishment of a continuous t r a d i t i o n of s e c u l a r i m a g i n a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e i n the second q u a r t e r of the eighteenth century. The a d o p t i o n o f F r e n c h c l a s s i c a l s t a n d a r d s b y f o u r men, a l l b o r n i n t h e r e i g n o f P e t e r , and t h e i r v a r i o u s l y s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t s t o t r a n s p o s e t h e s e s t a n d a r d s i n t o R u s s i a n and t o p r o d u c e o r i g i n a l work a c c o r d i n g t o them, are the s t a r t i n g p o i n t of a l l subsequent l i t e r a r y development. The f o u r men w e r e K a n t e m i r , T r e d j a k o v s k i j , L o m o n o s o v and Sumarokov.1  Prince and  a d i p l o m a t , was  Russia nine  the  after  against  probably  of h i s time.  satires,  before long  Antiox Dmitrievic  the  Russian  h i s death. enemies  literary  i n French  originals The  (1708-1744),  t h e m o s t c u l t u r e d man  His major  appeared  Kantemir  and  in  work, a c y c l e  German  a  the of  translations  were e v e n t u a l l y p u b l i s h e d  edge o f h i s s a t i r e  of the Enlightenment  and  poet  is of  (1762)  directed Peter's  4 reforms. the  In h i s w r i t i n g s ,  Russian  simple  literary  colloquial  Kantemir's  language  speech  and  the  prosody.  first  of the  stixov  Composing  Russian  out  rossijskix Verses;  that syllabic  as b e i n g  important  metre  more s u i t a b l e  M i x a i l V. formulations.  His  major works which stixotvorstva Ritorika  T r e d j a k o v s k i j who  (A New  1735),  and  Brief  Russian  reforms  are  on  the  Rules  Use  of the  guage ;  1757) .  Church Books  professional  Russian  classicism"  drama" —  — t h e s e  "the  are the  literary  ment o f R u s s i a n Tredjakovskij  interests.  literature  and  metre,  in his  Prosody;  titles  1739),  (Russian  rossijskom  of  Russian  by  Lan-  letters"  main exponent  role  which  i n the  Although  —  of  because of h i s wide  His  i s great.  v  i n the  R u s s i a n man  Sumarokov i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d  comprehensive  pointed  set forth  R o s s i j s k a j a grammatika  (On  Aleksandr  of  tonic  of Russian  jazyke  Russian  k  f a r beyond T r e d j a k o v s k i j ' s  0 pol'ze k n i g cerkovnyx  f a t h e r of  Method  poetry  language.  and  "the  sposob  r e p l a c e d by  Grammar; 1755)  first  Russian  i n c l u d e Pis'ma O p r a v i l a x r o s s i j s k o g o  ( R h e t o r i c ; 1748),  "The  the  is  Tredjakovskij first  s h o u l d be  linguistic  (Letters  the  of  Novyj) i k r a t k i j  Lomonosov went  to bring  in line with  theoretician  f o r the  was  people.  K.  In h i s t r e a t i s e  slozeniju  aim  somewhat more  However, i t i s V a s i l i j considered  chief  and  develop-  i n f l u e n c e d by  Lomonosov, Sumarokov soon a c q u i r e d h i s  own  5 personal sions  style.  i n favour  educated Russian  of  important  our  time  introduced.  based  of  By  the  was  bivaja  the pcela  published  by  literature.  idyll, of  and  1750  Russian  of  (The  nobility.  or  was  1748  the  extremely literature.  European the  hold  neo-classicism  m o d e l , and  Racine began t o  Sumarokov p u b l i s h e d i n w h i c h he  the be  an  epistle  expressed  his  genres.  Russian  main t h e o r e t i c i a n  pseudo-classicism.  Besides  the  Industrious  S u m a r o k o v i n 1759  Bee),  the  first  and  Almost  genres, such  a l l literary mock-epic,  tragedy,  took  devoted  from the  point  His of  upon  entirely as  fable, epistle,  Sumarokov.  of  journal  epigram,  classical  view of  to  verse  comedy, s o n n e t , b a l l a d , l o v e by  literary  journal, Trudolju-  a single individual  and  His  demanding occupations  of p u b l i s h i n g a l i t e r a r y  special interest  the  Lomonosov.  secular  r u l e s formed  playwright,  were f o l l o w e d  class,  a progressively stronger  po^tique,  enormous.  task  h i s own  expres-  came much c l o s e r t o  1750s Sumarokov became the  s a t i r e , ode-, e p i c inscription,  In  Art  literary  b o t h d i r e c t o r and himself  of  Boileau's  imitated.  practitioner  activity  1730  gaining  Russian  Boileau's  concepts  language of  o f M o l i d r e , C o r n e i l l e and  and  on  abandoned b o o k i s h  Thus he  progress  educated  he  than did Tredjakovskij  E n l i g h t e n m e n t was  studied  spoken  p e r i o d between  techniques  and  the  nobility.  f o r the  over the was  of  Russian  The  The  In h i s poetry  lyric, idylls  tracing  the  are  6 beginning pleasing  Russian  language  spring, which  of  sentimentalism.  the  He  love of shepherds  summer, f l o w e r s , n i g h t i n g a l e s ,  s e d u c e men Culture  into  and  taking  refuge  intellectual  atmosphere of peace  and  Elizabeth  and and  stability  daughter  Russian  e d u c a t i o n b e g a n t o move f o r w a r d .  and  support  with  caused  Russian  his wide-ranging  belongs  wholly  Germany on breaking, academic  and  culture  penetrate The theatre was  also begins  a passionate  found  i n her  Xbrev  was  of  academic  the  lover  performed  the Cadet Corps. by  Fedor  Elizabeth  heard  The  about the  Lomonosov,  The  activities, grip  was to  of  gradually prominent  doors  ofEElizabeth.  to  Western  began  to  i n 1744  r e g u l a r group of  i n the  city  Jaroslav  Russian  She  Russian  Sumarokov's  b e f o r e t h e Empress  Volkov  first  encouragement  o f R u s s i a n drama and  reign  first  of  life.  i t needed.  The  an  period  the  Enlightenment  o f t h e t h e a t r e , and  the patron  organized  French  history  i n the  1755  in  reign  this  and  life  appointed  positions.  intellectual  continuous  In  of Elizabeth. and  administrative  Russian  During  interests  Russians were being  E u r o p e w e r e o p e n e d , and  i n the  science to thrive.  reign  delights  flourish  i n Moscow, and  scientific  to the  Russian and  (1741-1761).  founded  other  began t o  Peter's  R u s s i a n u n i v e r s i t y was  shepherdesses,  i n nature.  life  political  describes in  theatre  tragedy by  young  actors  of J a r o s l a v . ^  p l a y e r s she  herself  men was  When  invited  them  7 to  Petersburg.  her  They p l a y e d  e n t h u s i a s t i c support.  enthusiasm  and  association  began t o  the  first  before  her  i n 17 52  Sumarokov shared  and  secured  Elizabeth's  collaborate with Volkov.  From  p e r m a n e n t s R u s s i a n t h e a t r e was  their  born  in  1756. Catherine had  begun.  century  became even  to  correspondence  the  the  Peter  crowned what E l i z a b e t h  strongest ruler  the  Great,  the  Interested in culture, French  Enlightenment Diderot  for herself  the  Russian fluent  (she  and  in  empire  in  French  maintained  d'Alembert),  a r e p u t a t i o n as  an  the  "enlight-  monarch." In  February  throne,  service. wholly  areas  the  Now  of  1762,  nobles  shortly  before  could devote  private vocations.  reign witnessed  Russian  life:  w e r e c r e a t e d , and  Catherine  II  great  many new  The  themselves  beginning  developments  institutions  in  and  of various societies  schools  and  academies were b u i l t ;  personal patronage of  the  E m p r e s s , s e v e r a l new  journals  appeared, notably  Things)  and  at  time  this  former  Truten  1  (The  virtually  secretary of.the  ascended  were f r e e d from o b l i g a t o r y s t a t e  t a l e n t e d noblemen  to their  Catherine's  the  (1762-1796)  with Voltaire,  Empress secured  ened  the  after  greater.  attracted  new  Great  Under C a t h e r i n e ,  eighteenth  and  the  under satirical  Vsjakaja vsjacina ( A l l Sorts  Drone).  revolved  Intellectual  life  in  of Russia  around N i k o l a j Novikov,  Legislative  Commission  and  later  a a  8 leading  figure  permitted  of Russian  Freemasonry.  the establishment  tipografii),  a very  important  also he set  i n s m a l l e r towns.  new  standards  r e i g n was  published fields  The  authors  Corneille, Gilbert,  (Sobranie  the  country  suppressing ideas. and  years  works  published percent)  of existence, the society  (173 v o l u m e s ) .  They  geography  and  Swift,  covered literature. Mably, Fielding,  and G o l d o n i . Catherine's  enlightened  I n 1773 P u g a c e v ' s u p r i s i n g  and, although the revolt,  Catherine  i t was  In reaction t o this  suspicious.  variety,  of a society f o r the translation  Diderot, d'Alembert, Blackstone,  long.  and  included Montesquieu, V o l t a i r e ,  Unfortunately, last  numerous:  projects of Catherine's  of the sciences, history, chosen  were  s t a r a j u s c e e s j a o prevode i n o s t r a n -  In i t s fifteen  Tasso  not  activities  enterprises.  112 t r a n s l a t e d  the  presses  (that i s , twenty-eight  the establishment  nych k n i g ) .  Many  Of t h e 2,685 b o o k s  o f t h e most admirable  f o r e i g n books  i n Russia'?.  i n quantity, quality  i n Russia.  the Novikov  One  life  i n Moscow and S t . P e t e r s b u r g , b u t  1 7 8 1 a n d 1 7 9 0 , 749  came f r o m  (vol'nye  innovation f o rthe further  Novikov's  p u b l i s h e d books which,  between  of  not only  Catherine  of independent presses  development o f i n t e l l e c t u a l began t o operate,  I n 17 83  event,  spread  finally  a shock  absolutism d i d throughout  succeeded i n  to her enlightened  Catherine  N a t u r a l l y , one o f h e r f i r s t  became  alarmed  s t e p s was t h e  9 suppression indeed,  of the s a t i r i c a l  o f 1789.  After  abandoned h e r former created In  that, Catherine  principles  1 7 9 2,  Novikov  was  years  l a t e r by P a u l  I , Novikov  Another w r i t e r Radiscev  century, named.  the l i s t Jakov  treasonable to  fifteen  released  four  man.  order  was  I n 1790 he h a d p u b l i s h e d (A J o u r n e y  from S t .  open a t t a c k on t h e  institu-  of outstanding w r i t e r s of the eighteenth  Borisovic Knjaznin  In the history  Knjaznin earned  a place  Vadim Novgorodskij order little  of Russian  (1742-1791) s h o u l d literary  of distinction  of  o f V a d i m was b u r n e d ,  On  Catherine's  and t h e r e  he w o u l d  can be  have  shared  Radiscev. literary  d r a m a t i s t Denis  remembered  suppression,  17 8 9 ) .  doubt t h a t i f K n j a z n i n had l i v e d  fate  be  with h i s tragedy  (Vadim o f Novgorod;  the manuscript  Another the  of  o f serfdom. In  the  despotism.  Although  v Moskvu  t o Moscow), t h e f i r s t  French  enlightenment  came o u t a b r o k e n  (1749-1802).  —  completely  a r r e s t e d on C a t h e r i n e ' s  Putesestvie i z Peterburga  tion  the  German F r e e m a s o n r y , and s e n t e n c e d  i n the Schlusselburg Fortress.  Petersburg  was  a r r e s t e d , accused  years  Aleksandr  shock  and i n s t e a d o f  an atmosphere o f f r i g h t e n i n g  conspiracy with  his  Another  one o f even more s e r i o u s p o r t e n t —  Revolution  she  journals.  celebrity  of Catherine's  Ivanovic Fonvizin  f o r h i s comedies B r i g a d i r  r e i g n was  (1745-1792),  best  (The B r i g a d i e r ; 1769)  1Q and  Nedoros1'  against years  (The M i n o r ;  despotism  were spent The  1781).  exhausted  be seen  as t h e h a r b i n g e r  (17 4 3 - 1 8 1 6 ) .  as a l e a d e r o f R u s s i a n  achieved  the f u l l  realization  of the solemnity, manner,  expression  fall;  Russian  While  o f h i s own and  classicism,  and  Derzavin  genius.  His poetry, of  i s more p e r s o n a l , more l y r i c a l ,  have permanent p l a c e s  can  tradition,  "heaviness"  His Felica  was  Lomonosov  sentimentalism,  loftiness,  and emotion.  1 7 9 1 - 9 4)  Puskin  of the baroque p o e t i c  Karamzin  in  poet before  as t h e m a i n e x p o n e n t o f R u s s i a n  Lomonosov's  struggle  F o n v i z i n ' s h e a l t h , and h i s l a s t  g r e a t e s t and t h e f i n e s t  Romanoyic D e r z a v i n  free  of active  i n suffering.  Gavrila  Sumarokov  Years  lighter  and Vodopad  (Water-  i n the treasury of  literature. One  o f t h e most  influential  leaders of the progressive  gentry  i n Catherine's  r e i g n was  Mixail  1807).  Like Novikov,  Sumarokov  and K a r a m z i n ,  b e l o n g e d i t o the"?. M a s o n i c  circle.  his  career  highly productive  Rossiad; classical  1779).  The m o s t  M.  Xeraskov  i s t h e e p i c poem R o s s i j a d a  This, l i k e h i s other works,  the poet Murav'ev, undoubtedly  way  f o r sentimentalism,  the  end of the eighteenth  Xeraskov  o u t s t a n d i n g work  leanings, but despite the c l a s s i c a l  together with  (1733-  the l i t e r a r y century.  of (The  shows h i s manner prepared  movement t h a t  Xeraskov, the  dominated  B.  DEVELOPMENT OF IN  "Sentiment," notably  "sense,"  occupying literary  a key  quotes  with  "sensibility," place  Erametsa,  some t w e n t y  dictionaries  WESTERN E U R O P E  together  vocabularies  Erik  SENTIMENTALISM  are  i n the  p h i l o s o p h i c a l , moral,  and  of  eighteenth  the  i n h i s Study  published  appeared p r i o r  given  for  and  of  taken  b e t w e e n 1689  to  "sentiment":  terms,  "sentimental,"  definitions  which  several associated  1777,  the  century.  the  Word  from and  "Sentimental",  a number  1812;  and  of in  those  f o l l o w i n g synonyms  "opinion,"  words  "verdict,"  are  "judgment," 3  "thought," time,  the  "mind," Oxford  "notion,"  and  D i c t i o n a r y has  "inclination." this  to  In our  own  say:  1. A m e n t a l f e e l i n g , t h e sum o f w h a t o n e f e e l s on some s u b j e c t , a t e n d e n c y o r .view b a s e d o r c o l o r e d w i t h e m o t i o n s , s u c h as f e e l i n g s c o l l e c t i v e l y as an i n f l u e n c e . 21 ( I n a r t ) M o v i n g q u a l i t y r e s u l t i n g from a r t i s t ' s sympathetic i n s i g h t i n t o what i s d e s c r i b e d or d e p i c t e d . 3. Tendency t o be swayed by f e e l i n g r a t h e r t h a n reason, emotional weakness, mawkish tenderness or the d i s p l a y of i t , nursing of the emotions, whence s e n t i m e n t a l , s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , s e n t i m e n talist, sentimentalism.^ Though p r e c i s e , the lexical  meaning of  interest  to study  eighteenth doctrine,  century moral  the how  d i c t i o n a r y can  work i n i s o l a t i o n . this  w o r d was  to signify  t h e o r i e s , and -  used  give  us  only  I t i s of, m o r e throughout  the  a body o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l literary 11  -  the  tendencies.  12 Revelling  i n o n e ' s own e m o t i o n s , t h e v i c a r i o u s  enjoyment o f happiness  or grief,  goodness  o f human n a t u r e  integral  parts  state  that  nature  equally new  absurd  Y e t i t would be absurd t o  came i n t o b e i n g  i n one p a r t i c u l a r to think  examination  confined  thought,  that  of literary  features  t o an o l d e r  styles,  of literature  poem c o u l d  appear t o be o b v i o u s l y  deliberately ment, w i t h the of  s e t out t o prepare  situation.  determined  pages, one i s f o r c e d "sentimental  formerly  o f an  that  believed t o i n those  which  and a n o t h e r  To b e l i e v e  that  part  writers  f o r a future  move-  g o a l , would be t o m i s c o n s t r u e  t o systematize  i n a few  and s i m p l i f y .  Thus, t h e  movement" i s u s e d h e r e t o d e s i g n a t e  i n analyzing  sentimentalism,  On  eighteenth-century  romantic,  t h e way  to a  i n time.  i t can be seen  tendencies  R o m a n t i c movement o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h  words,  point  enough t o s e t i t f o r t h  development of c e r t a i n l i t e r a r y the  be  Y e t , i f o n e i s t o b«ring o u t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e  e a c h movement c l e a r l y  term  one p a r t  neo-classical.  a clearly  I t would  e r a can a l s o be found  For instance,  as o b v i o u s l y  a t one  t h e s e phenomena gave b i r t h  followed.  just  location.  movement a t one r e c o g n i z e d  characteristic be  a l l a r e r e l a t e d phenomena and  of sentimentalism.  recorded  time  literary  closer  i n the essential  t h e s e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p h e n o m e n a , known t o human  since  particular  —  a belief  literary  i n many  which  century.  the  influenced In  other  development one c a n s a y t h a t  r e s p e c t s , was t h e m e e t i n g  point  13 between the and  two  more s e l f - c o n s c i o u s movements o f  romanticism.  which  to record  from the  age  feelings  of  We  of  and  their reason  the  can  transitional  us  interest  go  back to the  Epicurus,  that the i n the  deliberate  to  the  social  changes,  which were  changing  more s u b j e c t i v e  explored  eighteenth  such  as  by  Plato,  century  subject  More r e c e n t  human h a p p i n e s s as  the  Aristotle,  c o n s t a n t l y the  them.  of  of  history  assumed u n i v e r s a l  a result  of  the  against neo-classical tradition.  persuaded  head.  philosophical treatises  l e a r n how  theme o f  revolt  "Be the  t o t h a t of  movement  heart.  human h a p p i n e s s was  from  a  aesthetic views,  Roman p h i l o s o p h e r s  S e n e c a and  tells  was  r e s u l t e d from w r i t e r s s t r u g g l i n g w i t h  trying  Greek  Sentimentalism  classicism  t h a t wisdom  i s more f r o m  F e e l g o o d n e s s , and  you  will  the  see  heart  than  a l l things  5 faxr  and  good," y w r i t e s ^ S h a f t e s b u r y ,  philosopher ethic  of  the  became t h e  eighteenth  central  eighteenth-century  the  century.  English This  i d e a i n the works  philosophers  such  of  statesman-  sentimental prominent  as Adam S m i t h ,  Hume  and  Rousseau. In ideas tion  the  appeared of  arts,  the  first  indications  i n E n g l i s h drama.  Ernest  of  sentimental  Bernbaum's  defini-  s e n t i m e n t a l drama c l e a r l y s e t s out i t s components: The d r a m a o f s e n s i b i l i t y , w h i c h ' i n c l u d e s sentim e n t a l comedy and d o m e s t i c t r a g e d y , was f r o m i t s b i r t h a p r o t e s t against the orthodox view of l i f e ,  14 and a g a i n s t t h o s e l i t e r a r y c o n v e n t i o n s w h i c h h a v e served that view. I t i m p l i e d t h a t human n a t u r e , w h e n n o t , as i n some c a s e s , a l r e a d y p e r f e c t , was p e r f e c t i b l e by an a p p e a l t o t h e e m o t i o n s . It r e f u s e d t o assume t h a t a v i r t u o u s p e r s o n must be sought i n a romantic realm apart from the everyday world. I t w i s h e d t o s h o w t h a t b e i n g s who w e r e good a t l e a s t were found i n t h e o r d i n a r y w a l k s o f life. I t s o r e p r e s e n t e d t h e i r c o n d u c t as t o a r o u s e a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e i r v i r t u e s and p i t y f o r their sufferings. I n s e n t i m e n t a l comedy, i t showed them c o n t e n d i n g a g a i n s t d i s t r e s s e s b u t f i n a l l y r e w a r d e d by m o r a l l y d e s e r v e d happiness. In d o m e s t i c t r a g e d y , i t showed them overwhelmed by c a t a s t r o p h e s f o r w h i c h they were m o r a l l y n o t responsible. A new e t h i c s h a d a r i s e n , a n d new forms o f l i t e r a t u r e were thereby demanded. 6  Indeed, the " t e a r f u l n e s s " of the eighteenth may  be  said  t o have begun.  change from  f e u d a l i s m t o modern  took  p l a c e , and, n a t u r a l l y ,  this  s o c i e t y was In  I t was  i n England  industrial  century  that the  society  the l i t e r a t u r e which  first  portrayed  written there.  1731 George L i l l o  (1693-1739) w r o t e  a tragedy,  London Merchant o r t h e H i s t o r y o f George B a r n w e l l . play, the  together with  same c h a n g e  introduced  into  Gamester  i n the history the novel.  of the stage  Since  of  rules  Lillo's  o f drama.  w o r k was  I t should  felt  less  Germany, b e c a u s e i n E n g l a n d were  not revered The  as t h e y  that time,  inspiration  be  marks  Richardson  numerous  plays  reaction against  added t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e  i n England  the French  were  that  The  This  (1753) by Edward M o o r e ,  have been w r i t t e n t h a t c a r r y on L i l l o ' s French  great  than  i n France  neo-classical  and  rules  on t h e c o n t i n e n t .  came f r o m E n g l a n d ,  but the  French,  15 once t h e y were persuaded f o r w a r d more r a p i d l y important plays,  though  not  t o the c l a s s i c a l  Germany  belongs  classical very  s t i l l  t o be  Diderot. in  His  of the time.  dramatists,  has  Of: more  about  acting,  was  greatly (1755)  Gamester.  however, d i d not  produce  the stage today.  History  t h e b e s t judge o f a work o f a r t , and  despite  their  Racine  and  Moliere  disparagement  impor-  Lillo.  L e s s i n g , who  a p l a c e on  own  direct  as G e o r g e B a r n w e l l and  plays<of Corneille,  much a l i v e  most  H i s p l a y M i s s S a r a Sampson  sentimental  proved  views  t h e i n n o v a t o r was  Diderot.  any w o r k w h i c h  s t y l e was  carried i t  of the  i n t a s t e begun by  t o t h e same s c h o o l The  One  p l a y s were h i s t h e o r i e s  aided the r e v o l u t i o n  i n f l u e n c e d by  has  new  style,  s u c c e s s f u l , were w r i t t e n  t a n c e t h a n h i s own  In  t h e new  than the E n g l i s h .  admirers of this  opposition  which  t o adopt  the  are  s t i l l  i n the eighteenth  century. Meanwhile, before.  i n England, the novel f l o u r i s h e d  R i c h a r d s o n ' s name, t h o u g h  permanent p l a c e i n l i t e r a r y works,  n o t a b l y Pamela  S i r Charles Grandison  The  heroes  the  laws  and  The  ridiculed, influence Harlowe  of t h e i r  own  lack  realism,  characters  a  of h i s (1747-48) Europe.  t h e room, open and  a c t a p p a r e n t l y as p e o p l e do  portrayals  never  has  (1753-54), spread a l lover  o f t h e s e n o v e l s move a b o u t  talk  Yet t h e i r  history.  (1740-41), C l a r i s s a  and  doors,  often  as  in real  f o r t h e y do  not  s o much as t h e y  life. follow  follow  shut  16 Richardson's  constant  In  the  addition,  another dust.  reason  novels  of  the  were enormously In set  no  Richardson:  was  this  on  the  instruction,  shelves to  t i m e , when t h e  to preach  the  enthusiasm  to his praise,  "O  left  load of  gather  general  m o r a l i t y , these  books  admired.  France  bounds  are  during  age  the highest m o r a l i t y .  c a r r y a heavy  t h a t they  Nonetheless,  tendency  d e s i r e to serve  Richardson,  was  no  less  intense.  Diderot  i n h i s celebrated eulogy  Richardson,  unique  of  a m o n g men  in  7 my  eyes,  thou  s h a l t be  Rousseau's  and  that Hgloise W e r t h e r was  such  all  the p r a c t i c a l  was  the  details  picture  saw  the  geography  its  title  force of Richardson's  and  widely  (1761)  is  from  example  i n which  imitated  t h a t went i n t o  of the  place.  and  clever  The  he  Goethe's  but  about o l d  churches, the  h i s own  than  feelings  from  books  showed t h a t what  novel  on  i s , i n s h o r t , what  typographical bizarrerie. and  author  away  travel  Writers imitated  imitation,  English  turned  the  wrote not  d e p e n d e d much more on  style by  He  galleries,  d e f i n e s i t t o be.  honored him  long!"  Hdloise  European t r a d i t i o n  his predecessors.  digressive  life  t h a t drew i n s p i r a t i o n  In h i s Sentimental Journey,  and  traveller  the books  influential  Sterne.  scenery,  a l l my  nurtured.  was  by  of  created the  Another  written  favorite  famous n o v e l La N o u v e l l e  the most i m p o r t a n t Richardson;  my  "Sterne's Diderot  s e n t i m e n t a l i s m became  a  17 vogue of the  time.  Nature from  had  always  Anglo-Saxon times  eighteenth Pope k e p t  century the  i n nature  interest  appears  published though  elegant of his  original  widely-read  poets  s c h o l a r s have  in  that school trusted  far  this  poems, t h e  w i t h the  one  of the  i t might own  the w r i t i n g  upon them o f  of t h e most i m p o r t a n t  the theme o f  i m m o r t a l i t y ; and  To  arouse  by  Pope's  understanding as  most  the  claims faith  sake; of  and,  in  mournful  sentimental school  poetical  so  in  treatments  may  this of  f o r i t s impressively emotional  a place i n i n the  Some  reasonably  Edward Young's N i g h t Thoughts, w r i t t e n  i t rightly  an  sentimental school.  for their  mood, i s one  tone,  i t a l s o had  and  p o e t r y became p o p u l a r .  indulgence motivated  granted.  popular;  were unimpressed  the emotions,  i n emotions  influence  Seasons,  England.  associated this  indulgence  Such  ( 1 7 0 0 - 1 7 4 8 ) The  o f n a t u r e , made h i m  the  intense  h i s s y m p a t h y w i t h p o v e r t y , as w e l l  1740s m e l a n c h o l y  induce  be  and  an  growing.  educated,  in  While  society,  immediately  who  but  theme.  Thomson's e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s  treatment  In the  as  among t h e  poetry,  Milton,  on  s a k e was  poem was  among o r d i n a r y p e o p l e satires.  fixed  i n James Thomson's The  and  independent  attention  f o r i t s own  i n 1726.  ordinary l i f e ,  Since  i t became an  i t circulated  audience  a theme i n E n g l i s h  t o Shakespeare  reader's  interest  been  Pre-Romantieism.  g o o d n e s s o f human n a t u r e  was  18 one  of the major  tales,  and  goals  o f t h e new  n o v e l s were w r i t t e n  c o n t r a s t between  actual  depicted  literature  i n such  life  sentimental school.  in this  and  the  spirit.  However,  d i s a p p o i n t e d many p e o p l e .  the  s e n t i m e n t a l s c h o o l began t o develop,  philosophy  and  in criticism,  the better  to  the natural.  people  i f i t avoided The  closer  of  this  theory  the masterpieces products  of  appeal  on  (Dr.  from  the  attributed  to Ossian,  time  they  Johnson)  and  needed  Versions  appeared  especially  of  course, i n the  closer  fact  l i t e r a t u r e were not  a The  that the  seemed t o b r i n g  to support  these  a Gaelic  aroused  the  Ossian.the  bard  of  violent  he  into  Son  he  the  spirit.  and  Fingal,  century. of  Dutch.  doubt;  t h e one  other.  and  an  confidently  a matter  German, F r e n c h  Ossian's  of  i t with  o p p o s i t i o n on  i n Spanish, Polish  published  the t h i r d  a c c l a i m on  forward  primitivist  verses which  poems i s s t i l l  tremendous  moved by  would  p o e t r y w o u l d be.  Macpherson prefaced  of these  poems w e r e t r a n s l a t e d  kept  consciousness  t o n a t u r e , w h e n i n 1762  antiquity  in  epochs.  Gaelic.  authenticity the  of  an A n c i e n t E p i c P o e m , b y  Translated  at  their  James M a c p h e r s o n  t h a t was  for a return  Fingal,  lies,  of u n c i v i l i z e d  the evidence  The  to primitive  the world's  Nevertheless,  essay  a r t i f i c i a l and  w e r e , t h e more b e a u t i f u l  weakness  Con-  the theory t h a t l i t e r a t u r e the  the  rose-colored world  sequently,  be  Drama,  hand  Soon  the  Italian. Germany  T h a t c o u n t r y was  was  just  19 awakening t o the consciousness of  O s s i a n was  artificial It the  Continent —  like  than  i n England.  e a c h i n h i s own w a y  Richardson,  i n the s t i f l i n g dominant  Europe  Lillo, served  from Rousseau  felt  Richardson,  as a model  and O s s i a n  a meteor.  time.  more  on  Sterne,  f o r French by  that  f o r h i s n o v e l W e r t h e r , a book  like  a i ro f  f o r a long  R o u s s e a u was d i r e c t l y i n s p i r e d  and i t was  drew t h e i n s p i r a t i o n over  and t h e v o i c e  t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f O s s i a n was  and German w r i t e r s .  swept  a sea breeze  l i t e r a t u r e t h a t had been  can be s a i d  Ossian  felt  o f i t s powers,  Goethe  that  CHAPTER I I SOURCES OF In literary "time  school dates  from  between the date  An  interesting  reader d i r e c t l y , reason  their  but  for this  enthusiasm  themselves  and  had  that  Of  work  the Russian reader, the  suffice:  in  the  French  into  French  seventies.  forties  roundabout  and  early  Richardson's  translations  less  as  an  imitation  Russian w r i t e r s were literary  found  only i n the  Sentimentalism, or  i n 1769,  fifties,  like of  to the  English  translation.  time,  which  an  following  published in  were  sentimental English  examples  will  1742-1745,  were t r a n s l a t e d  into  Russian  novels, published i n the t h e i r way  to Russia  through  eighties. came t o R u s s i a m o r e  current western trying  movements o f W e s t e r n E u r o p e .  20  in  Russian  of English  classicism,  constantly  of  continued i n  at that  r o u t e by  Young's N i g h t Thoughts,  translated  the o r i g i n a l  strong influence  obvious  of i t s appearance  Russians  literature. reached  the  i s an  t o undergo French  f o r t h e F r e n c h who,  a  publication  t h e i r way  i s simply that  under the  There  first  i s that  find  first  1790.  of the  fact  s e n t i m e n t a l works d i d not  The  about  sentimental literature  Russia.  SENTIMENTALISM  R u s s i a , t h e b e g i n n i n g o f s e n t i m e n t a l i s m as  gap"  western  RUSSIAN  literary  style.  t o keep pace w i t h The  Russian  the  literary  21 l a n g u a g e was n o t y e t c o d i f i e d main o b s t a c l e t o Russian the  delay  at that time,  writers,  i n the transmission  and t h i s  was t h e  and t h e p r i n c i p a l  of l i t e r a r y  cause of  t h e o r i e s and  models. Even before R u s s i a , new trate.  as the  literary  The f i r s t  detected  the classical tendencies  inclinations  i n the poetry  e a r l y as t h e f i r s t question  movement h a d m a t u r e d i n had already  toward  begun t o  sentimentalism  half  of the eighteenth of Russian  century.  of i t s sources,  are  t h e arguments o f Russian  devoted, presenting  h i s t o r i a n s who h a v e e x a m i n e d G. N. P o s p e l o v ,  lyric  poetry,  become p o p u l a r  at length.  "Sources o f  Russian  t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f P.  "Sentimentalism  and i n t h e l o v e i n the first  accepts  infinite  expansion  pointing  out that there  Sakulin.  But i s every  existed  stories which  half  N.  before  had already  of the eighteenth  Sakulin's statement,  He i s r i g h t i n  i s no l i m i t t o s u c h v i e w s sensitive  historical  century.  but objects t o the  of i t s possibilities.  a sign of sentimentalism?  from d i f f e r e n t  literary  S a k u l i n sees t r a c e s o f s e n t i m e n t a l i s m i n  Pospelov  ature  issue with  statement that  t h e f o l l o w i n g pages  problem  i n his article  takes  sentimentalism."^  this  To  sentimentalism,  as w e l l a s t h e q u e s t i o n  Sakulin's  can be  o f X e r a s k o v , Sumarokov and Murav'ev, g  o f t h e antecedents  Sentimentalism,"  infil-  quality  as those  expressed  I n many w o r k s  p e r i o d s we c o u l d  find  of  of  i n literliterature  "sentiment,"  22 and  might even  describe We  may  call  them  " s e n t i m e n t a l , " a n d y e t we  them as s e n t i m e n t a l i s t  elements  take, f o r example, t h e l y r i c  Sumarokov, e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  i n a literary  poetry  tales,  and  some o f P u s k i n ' s  and even t h e e a r l y works o f D o s t o e v s k i j .  agreeing  that "Sentimentalism  Pospelov  does n o t agree  historical  sense.  o f Kantemir  elegies,  existed  could not  before  So, w h i l e  sentimentalism,"  w i t h S a k u l i n ' s method  of tracing i t s  sources.  One l i t e r a r y  s c h o o l , says  Pospelov,  . . . h i s t o r i c a l l y forms an i d e a , an a e s t h e t i c f e a t u r e o f a l i t e r a r y work, a c c e p t e d as a program by i t s c r e a t o r s , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e c r i t i c s and j o u r n a l i s t s who s i d e w i t h t h e m . T h u s , w h e n we s a y "a l i t e r a r y s c h o o l was f o r m e d " i t means t h a t an ideological content, with i t s corresponding poetic f o r m s , f i n a l l y f o u n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a n d t h i s new l i t e r a r y p l a t f o r m u n i t e d a group o f w r i t e r s whose c r e a t i o n i s b a s e d on t h e i r a c c e p t e d programs. In s u c h a way h i s t o r i c a l d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s i n l i t e r a r y w o r k s a p p e a r s much e a r l i e r t h a n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g established literary platform.H We ism  may  existed  before  originality tinctive  accept  Sakulin's observation that sentimental-  s e n t i m e n t a l i s m i n t h e sense t h a t t h e  of poetical  and i n t e g r a l  his  followers,  and  the establishment  now  remains:  conditions  first  time  literature  of h i s literary  found  before  program.  ideological  dis-  content, these poetical  t o Karamzin?  forms,  and  Karamzin  The q u e s t i o n  and under what s o c i a l  corresponding  prior  which  i n t h e work o f Karamzin  i n Russian  i n whose work  d i dthis  and form,  expression  existed  motifs with their the  content  and  literary  poetical appear f o r  23 Pospelov believes in  the depths  established Pospelov is  of classicism,  as a l i t e r a r y  thirty  middle  of  reason.  To p r o v e  lyrics,  characterstic  where i t  features  Russian n o b i l i t y ,  of  l e d by Sumarokov i n  of the eighteenth century, believed Xeraskov,  Filosoficeskie  this,  style.  The e n l i g h t e n e d the  form  years before being  s c h o o l by K a r a m z i n .  t o observe the f i r s t  sentimental  doubts  s e n t i m e n t a l i s m began t o  analyzed Xeraskov"s p h i l o s o p h i c a l  possible  the  that  ody  i n h i s Novye ody  (Philosophical  (New  Odes;  i n t h e power  Odes;  1762)  and  1769), expressed h i s  and d i s a p p o i n t m e n t i n t h e power o f r e a s o n .  "For what  12 is  reason useful?"  he  asks.  (About t h e Power o f Reason) razuma" deeply  H i s two poems,  and  "0 v r e d e  (About t h e Harm R e s u l t i n g X e r a s k o v was  disappointed  "0 s i l e  razuma"  proissedsem ot  from Reason),  show  i n the principle  how  of  rationalism. "When man  was  created,"  p o e m , " n a t u r e f o r h i s own reason." of  Man  says  defence  Xeraskov  i n the  first  gave him t h e power  conquered  a l lcreatures  and became t h e  At that  time everyone  was  a l l nature.  happy  of ruler  and no  knew t h e m e a n i n g o f u n h a p p i n e s s .  But times  says  he q u e s t i o n s t h e u s e f u l n e s s  of  reason.  with the  i n the second  each  poem, i n w h i c h  People began t o d i v i d e other.  R e a s o n was  into  c h a n g e d , as  one  tribes  and  fought  r e p l a c e d by e n v y , w h i c h  s o u r c e o f human m i s f o r t u n e .  "Where, w h e r e  he  became  are you, 0  24 Man, Where a r e t h o s e happy days poet. one's  As a s o l u t i o n , civil  duties,  recognition expresses  Xeraskov  b u t the taming  13  exclaims the  not the discharging o f one's d e s i r e s  These i d e a s  He t u r n s b a c k  whose l i v e s  rejection  of a corrupt  an i d y l l i c  Xeraskov  civilized life  of innocence.  society  untouched  t h e motive behind Xeraskov's  X e r a s k o v was n o t t h e f i r s t to  be aware o f s o c i a l  by  Sumarokov and h i s f o l l o w e r s ,  counted. conclusion  change:  But w i t h o u t doubt different  from  (On  t o the o l d days, t o "our fore- -  a r e examples  patriarchal  of  and t h e  m a i n l y i n h i s e l e g y "Na c e l o v e c e s k u j u z i z n ' "  fathers,"  provided  sees  o f human w e a k n e s s e s .  Man's L i f e ) .  of  of yours?"  and t h e i d e a l i z a t i o n by  civilization  new c o n c e p t  of  among t h e a c t i v e  i t was k e e n l y f e l t  life.  nobility  and d e s i r e d  among whom X e r a s k o v may  he was t h e f i r s t  that  This  t o draw  of the majority  e n l i g h t e n e d members o f S u m a r o k o v ' s s c h o o l .  be  a  of the  Furthermore,  X e r a s k o v was t h e f i r s t  t o attempt t o l a y the foundations of  criticism  of a moral point  that  on t h e b a s i s  of civic Going  through the l i t e r a r y  many m o t i f s w h i c h  such  as t h e i d e a l i z a t i o n the escape  from  later  than  city  f o r peasant  w o r k o f X e r a s k o v , we c a n  appear  i n t h e work o f Karamzin,  of the pastoral life  menti-onedathatrfdrrxeraskpy? preference  rather  duty.  find  and  of view  life  t o nature.  life  of shepherds,  I t s h o u l d be  ast'later*"for"Karamzin, the was n o t m o t i v a t e d by any  desire  25 to  change o r improve  Dreaming offered  the social  about t h e innocent the author  Besides Xeraskov's  literary  man.  peasant  i s animated  life  i n t h e bosom o f n a t u r e  a subjective,  overcoming  working  conditions of the peasantry.  work  While  highly  the traditions i s notable  Sumarokov's  happy  This motif  occurs  good example b e i n g (Poor  of  many  the father  i s the consciousness  o f p l e a s u r e , and of nature.  "Bednaja  True Treasure  objective resulted  civil  a  Liza"  philosophical  realized  The r e p u d i a t i o n o f w e a l t h , t o r e f u s e any  1  to mysticism.  of the other world lyrics  Such w i t h d r a w a l s  from  ones  M o t i f s o s u c h as t h e  appeared  of the sixties,  o f t e n i n Xeraskov's  f o rinstance, i nthe  (Inconstancy).  p e n e t r a t i n g new w o r l d v i e w  and e x p r e s s e d  kind  "Istinnoe sokrovisce dobrodetel "  values t o purely inner subjective  "Nepostojanstvo" The  philosophical  o f n o n e n t i t y and t h e e p h e m e r a l i t y  o f V i r t u e ) shows.  i n h i s turning  blissfulness  i n Xeraskov's  g r a d u a l l y l e d Xeraskov  a c t i v e w o r k , a s h i s poem  poem  feels  i n t h e work o f Karamzin,  i n h i s story  a l l t h e good t h i n g s o f l i f e .  (The  Xeraskov  a feeling  of the  hard-working  w i t h t h e beauty  times  important motif  fame and h e r o i s m of  f o ri t s depiction  Liza). Another  lyric  harmonizes  satisfaction.  classicism,  by t h e " v o i c e o f d u t y , "  inner l i f e also  of  image o f t h e  t h a t hard work b r i n g s t h e peasant this  emotional  of the nobility,  i n the moral-philosophicallyric  of  26 Xeraskov Russian  i n the sixties, literature  question to  and r e s u l t e d  i s :precisely  appear  how  i n Xeraskov*s  It  came i n t o  b r o u g h t new p o e t i c m a t e r i a l s  existence  The l i t e r a r y  intellectual  nobility,  towards The  tradition to  "middle" ideas  conviction which  of  directed  of enlightenment. predominant  i n Russian l i t e r a t u r e  during  this  time, gave  odes,  political and i d y l l s  tragedies; were  didactic  of classical  f o r t h e new  form:  t h e most c o n v i n c i n g  content.  Most  is  of i n t e r e s t  is  first  the lyric  became t h e most  vehicle  construction  enlighteners.  f o rXeraskov's  i s n o t found  lyrical  new dis-  rationalist.  What  content of h i swriting.  imagery,  of psychology i n poetry.  psychology  laid the  of emotional reflection  of i t s lyrical  I t  which, i n  ledto the f i r s t  Generally  i n t h e works  a  contradict the  Xeraskov  t o u s i s t h e new  or  "ode", t h e  poetics.  of a disillusioned  of a l la display  satires  the term  o f h i s odes p r e s e n t a b s t r a c t  course, the discourse  rise  considered secondary,  Although Xeraskov used  spirit  begin  united the  X e r a s k o v , was  and j u s t i f i c a t i o n  suitable,  of  the ripening  the  genre.  appearance  new s t y l e  formed  Elegies  foundation  the  during  e x p r e s s e d i n h i s Novye ody s t r i k i n g l y  rational  The  of classicism, which  laudatory  comedies.  forms.  of the sixties?  including  the affirmation  spirit  and when d i d t h i s  lyric  classicism.  i n new p o e t i c  to  this  element  of the c l a s s i c a l  27 Xeraskov artistic  does n o t d i s d a i n c l a s s i c i s m ,  validity  to poetry which  Instead, h i s poetry  calls  calls  drama"  composed  A good example i s h i s  i n monthly  elements  Xeraskov's  periodicals  (Free Time U s e f u l l y  which poets  Historically,  i nTrudoljubivaja  relevance  Spent;  here.  i s perhaps  pol'zu  1759-60) , j o u r n a l s  l e d by Sumarokov p u b l i s h e d Sumarokov  can be  i s s u e d f o r t h e b e n e f i t and  (The I n d u s t r i o u s Bee) and P r a z d n o e v r e m j a v  upotreblennoe in  i n  material forinvestigation  amusement o f t h e p u b l i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y pcela  nescastnyx  Ones).  from t h e s i g n i f i c a n t  w o r k , much i n t e r e s t i n g found  to society.  i n t h e s e v e n t i e s , S drugom  (A F r i e n d o f t h e U n h a p p y Apart  f o r duty  f o rthe recognition of personal  f e e l i n g s w h i c h move o n e t o t e a r s . "tear  but denies  their  o f t h e most  I n d e e d , L . V. P u m j a n s k i j ,  works. immediate  i n his article  13 "Sentimentalism," Russia with In  links  the l y r i c  the poetry  poetry  view  stand  o f Sumarokov.  (Monthly  philosophical.  his  ideological  say  that i n this  The l y r i c  poetry  feelings,  teaching  elegant, t o d i s p l a y love, a l l of which  presents  I t i s p o s s i b l e t o ~ ~.  appeared  the gentry  points  intimate-lyrical,  o f Sumarokov  and a e s t h e t i c b e l i e f s . genre Sumarokov  i n t h e pages o f  Works), t h r e e main  out: accusatory-satirical,  and  delicate  of sentimentalism i n  o f Sumarokov p u b l i s h e d  Ezemesjacnye s o c i n e n i j a of  the beginning  as an a d v o c a t e  t o be  graceful,  are desirable i n  of  28 genteel  circles.  interested  I t was n o t b y c h a n c e t h a t S u m a r o k o v was  i n the poetry  experiences  i tleaves  especially Istorija Social  dedicated  t othe  o f l o v e , p a r t i n g , j e a l o u s y , and s i m i l a r  He b e l i e v e d t h a t i l y r i c otherwise  of antiquity,  poetry  the reader  necessary  should  be "burnt"  cold.  Such  f o rlove poetry.  russkoj obscestvennoj  Thought), wrote  mysli  by  emotions. feelings,  conditions are  Plexanov,  i n his  (History of Russian  i n the chapter  on Sumarokov:  T h e a d v i c e i s g o o d i n t h a t i t s h o w s u s how Sumarokov emphasizes t h e importance o f f e e l i n g . S u m a r o k o v i s a c l a s s i c i s t , b u t i n h i s p o e t r y we already f i n d t h e approaching psychology of f e e l i n g , a l t h o u g h very tentatively.-*--^ In  h i selegies,  Sumarokov  followed o l dtraditions:  preferred  Roman p o e t r y , w h i c h m a i n l y  emotional  experience,  such  as d i s a p p o i n t m e n t ,  s.uf'feringofrom l o v e , and o t h e r Ja I The  den  life.  i noc g o r j u , mucajus',  o f death  because  These types  o f e l e g i e s found  Batjuskov  moods. lubja,  or  less  following  In  tracing  fuller  such  of sentimentalism,  as a g e n r e w o u l d b e c l o s e r  histreatise  reflections  about  development i n  progressive i n h i s eclogues,  o l dtraditions  elements  i n Sumarokov's  and Z u k o v s k i j .  Sumarokov was l e s s  In  loneliness,  of love i s repeated  many t i m e s , w i t h p h i l o s o p h i c a l  Karamzin,  songs  amorous  personal  g d e b y j a n i b y l , mne s k u c n o b e z t e b j a .  motif  elegies  1  expresses  he  on p o e t r y  as those  more  of Virgil.  Sumarokov*s view o f  t o our area  of  interest.  (1748) , Sumarokov w o r k e d  outi n  29 detail  the theory  song equal quite  to other  alien  quences.  o f t h e song as a genre. classical  to classical  genres,  views,  He c o n s i d e r e d t h e  and such  an i d e a ,  l e d t o f a r - r e a c h i n g conse-  Z. D a b a r a s , i n h e r P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , w r i t e s :  By p e r m i t t i n g a s o n g on c l a s s i c a l Parnassus, S u m a r o k o v o p e n e d t h e w a y i n p o e t r y t o o r d i n a r y man and a c c e l e r a t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f f u r t h e r i n g l i t e r a t u r e on t h e way t o s e n t i m e n t a l i s m a n d pre-romanticism. Love themes characterized the  l e d t o t h e p e r f e c t i o n o f an a r t i s t i c  by t h e v a r i a t i o n  melodiousness  of rhythm, r e p e t i t i o n s ,  synonyms, e m o t i o n a l l y - c h a r g e d conscientiously to  form.  of the metre of t o n i c  created poetry  i n which  Nevertheless, h i s songs,  content  idylls,  or  such  which  suited  of view, poetry  e l e g i e s and',  the tastes of gentry works  an i d e o l o g i c a l  language.  language  Belinskij,  of the  circles.  and a r t i s t i c  lyric  From t h i s  continuity  and h i s e f f o r t s  life,  point t o the  a n d made between  Karamzin.  became p o p u l a r  Later Puskin  of  —- a l l of  o f Sumarokov drew n e a r e r  and t h e f o l l o w e r s o f  Sumarokov's  of  of intimate feelings  o f t h e s e n t i m e n t a l i s t s among t h e g e n t r y ,  Sumarokov  musical  the sphere  the literary  possible  Sumarokov  as t h e p o e t i z a t i o n o f a p a t r i a r c h a l way  transport into  of  corresponds  ecloguessstillrreflectedtteridenciesi-intfeheccuiture gentry,  verse,  the diversity  e p i t h e t s , and so on.  form  because o f h i s easy  p r a i s e d Sumarokov's  t o teach  respect  knowledge  f o r poetry.  c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f Sumarokov's  lyrics.  30 wrote: M o r e t h a n o t h e r s he was a f a v o r i t e o f t h e p u b l i c i n h i s t i m e ; the p o e t i c a l works of Lomonosov were m o r e r e s p e c t e d , S u m a r o k o v was m o r e l o v e d . It is u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t he was, more t h a n Lomonosov, a belletrist. H i s w o r k s were e a s i e r , more i n t e l l i g i b l e t o the m a j o r i t y . His works bore a relation to life.18 Although e n c e d by  the  of  Karamzin,  In  the  but  the  p o p u l a r i t y of  philosophical  i n prose,  of  of  letters,  sentimentalism,  of  Beauty  of the  court.  the  Rousseau's and  saturating The  typical  as  The  letters  letter  was  their  spread  l e t t e r "On  the  city  life  ment o f  o n e ' s own  and  the  moods —  the  of  right  Beauty  variously  up  to  articles,  the  investi-  genre i s the  the  most  the  (On  ideali-r . corruptness  manifestation felt  by  the  successors,  of Nature"  of  that  Karamzin.  from s o c i e t y ,  idylls  poetry  classicism.  gentry's  a peculiar  among S u m a r o k o v ' s  human p e r s o n a l i t y , i s o l a t i o n between  One  i n contrast with  presents  literature  only  "0>kras6tepprir.6dy"  i n f l u e n c e , w h i c h was  later  For  most i n t e r e s t i n g  i n content.  "natural life"  of  those forward.  original  treatises.  of Nature), which expresses  of  gentry,  the  which vary  Sumarokov's  zation  of  a genre not  philological  influ-  r e s p e c t made a s t e p  works were t r a n s l a t i o n s ,  and  gation  the  such  pages of h i s magazines were p u b l i s h e d not  Among h i s p r o s e  popular  t h e w h o l e was  sentimental works  Sumarokov i n t h i s  a l s o works  his  r e a d i n g p u b l i c on  deals with the  contrast  country,  a l l e m p h a s i z e d by  the  the  the use  enjoyof  the  first an  person;  important  talism, cally,  i t a l s o e x p o u n d s on point which  especially the  considered  the  ravishment  content  first  of  nature,  l a t e r became a f e a t u r e of  when i t became a s o c i a l  ideological as  the  sentimen-  force.  Histori-  of Sumarokov's work c o u l d  s i g n of  sentimentalism, thus  be  making  19 Sumarokov a predecessor The  new  style  emotionally-charged and  techniques,  language employing  combination  of words  are  tired),  sentimental prose  sentimentalism.  b r o u g h t new  repetitions;.the  sweetly  of  rhythms  and  foreign to a device  (little  rhetorical  anticipating  the  songs of  references  (painful  milky  personal which to  creativity,  strives  express  things  sword).  not  such  the  see  the  (crimson  first  step  a consciously artistic  c o n d i t i o n s and  of  in  language,  relations  but  also  to  us.  languorous"  exemplify  p a i n t i n g i n words can  shores  metaphorical  to depict objective reality,  inner emotional  Epithets  and  using  only  surrounding  languid,  H e r e we  style  the  shepherdesses,  g r e e n meadows), p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  sunset,  questions  (bubbling  delightful  thoughts),  as  m u s i c a l i t y of prose, classicism  birds,  such  as  "sweet, d e l i g h t f u l ,  raise  author's  the  beautiful,  subject to emotional  emotional  a p p r a i s a l of  heights,  personal  experiences. Sumarokov devoted artistic  form.  much a t t e n t i o n t o t h e  In h i s t h e o r e t i c a l  treatises  he  problems wrote of  of the  musical expressiveness for  form  brought  of  the.Russian  of  tonic  and  good r e s u l t s ,  language,  verse.  :aabasisofor  of the Russian as he  inner excitement;  of the language  while  i n prose,  he  style  as K a r a m z i n  writers  Sumarokov's  tion his  also furnish  anticipated  interesting  German, F r e n c h  a r e "A T e m p l e  on U s i n g  Passions  purpose. and  Besides  stories  first  with  have  Way"  from from  these, the f i r s t began  t r a n s l a t e d works of t h i s  teristic appeal  device of this by  describe  the author  w o r k was  tells  with  and  mainly  questions  pedagogy.  "Meditation of  French,  didactic  and so on.  and  translations t o appear.  moral of  novels  One  of the  Putesestvie  German s t o r y .  the d i r e c t ,  t o h i s reader.  h i s j o u r n e y , he  The m a j o r i t y o f  French,  k i n d was  (Orontov's "Journey) , ajjsentimen t a i  investiga-  German, " M e d i t a t i o n  from  a typically  l o v e themes  Prazdnoe  are translations,  religion  a Woman o n B r i n g i n g u p D a u g h t e r s " articles  i n the  the emotional-expressive  concerned  to Virtue"  i n a Good  mood  and h i s f o l l o w e r s .  journal  t o m o r a l i t y and e t h i c s ,  these  especially  material f o r the  and I t a l i a n ,  Examples  All  of emotion,  of sentimentalism.  works p u b l i s h e d i n t h i s  related  possibilities  c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the magazine  of the beginning  from  care  dipped-into the treasury,  and e x p l o r e d t h e r i c h  genre of h i s l e t t e r s ,  vremja  His  Thus, i n h i s p o e t r y , Sumarokov e s t a b l i s h e d  the creation  of such  language.  Before  A  Orontova charac-  ingenuous he  the r e a d e r what  starts  to  l e d ; up, t o h i s  33 departure: T h e y e a r 1710 was the most p a i n f u l y e a r i n a l l my l i f e . My r e a d e r . a l r e a d y k n o w s t h a t t h e l o s s o f my b e l o v e d C h l o e w a s t h e m a i n r e a s o n f o r my travelling.20 Then  comes t h e  stopped  story of  i n Germany  .  his  .  travels:  . went t o  "In  Italy  the  and  same y e a r  I  everywhere  my  21 grief  followed Early  Russian which  t r a n s l a t i o n s of  readers  proved  in working The affirmed logical poet  me."  t o be  on  new  poetry  of  but  the  such  and  ideas.  consequently ment on hand, t o  the  and  roots As  was  i n the  new  of  concepts  writers  of a  of  The  own  the  sphere  for  of  of  objec-  events,  and  changes. established.  reality,  left  neotLC'lassieal s c h o o l , of m y s t i c a l  former b e l i e f s ,  of  but  These i d e a l s ,  and  insights,  in public activity. level  the  individual  i t was  with  and  ideo-  world  political  many c r i s e s  practical  ideals.  .determined  external world  disappointed  faith  o b j e c t i v e and  reality.  shaken before  framework  g i v i n g up  new  for Russian  a poet's  a result  themselves with  i t created  of  went through  a rejection  and  constantly strove  political  Xeraskov,  rationalistic  surrounded  hand  as  notions  acquainted  forms.  ideas,  Rus.siahonee-classicism Writers  pieces  theaneoeGlassi'cacblschber  had  literature  new  training-ground  consist solely  absolute  Russian  styles,  artistic  objectivity  d i d not  new  the  "absolute"  consciousness, tive  with  sentimental  Disappoint-  l i f e l e d , on t h e on  the  other  formulated  one  34 eventually creator  by Murav'ev, s t r e s s e d  i n a literary  work.  constitutes  the force  aesthetic.  The e m p h a s i s  the personality  This  romantic point  o f Murav'ev's  as w e l l  on p e r s o n a l i t y  in  t h e i r works, b u t contributes  of  v i e w i n g human p e r s o n a l i t y , n o t o n l y  t h e epoch, having  The  formerly  objective  liberal  reality,  subjective  reality.  gentry, having  Their  objective  world  perceived  i n a concrete  i s a limiting  as p a r t  i t .  lost  Their  teachers  reality.  i n i t s responses  consequence o f t h i s  Subjective  view  activities  to objective  the world  Nevertheless,  this  was a t r e m e n d o u s  I t was t h e f i r s t  stage  i n t h e conquest  from without.  I t was a t t h i s  time that  the road  came i n t o e x i s t e n c e .  from c l a s s i c a l  step of  reality.  o b j e c t i f i e d by Puskin  f a c t , r e a l and  One  i t encouraged  p e r s o n a l i t i e s t o form a s h i e l d against  ideology  of the  phenomena.  o f t h e p s y c h e was t h a t  e x p e r i e n c e was l a t e r  later  t o be e s s e n t i a l l y  and h i s t o r i c a l  that  i ncontrolling  B u t Murav'ev, and  form o f s o c i a l  authentic  significance.  had contemplated t h e  i n the introspective  forward.  general  as a scheme, a norm and a system o f c o n c e p t s ,  n o t only  them.  problem  interest shifted to  subjective,  around  The of a  faith  human c o n s c i o u s n e s s  sensitive  factor  u n i t y , was a p r o b l e m  Karamzin, discovered  mind, b u t a l s o  as Karamzin's  a world-wide h i s t o r i c a l  rejected  o f view  t o t h e i r power.  t y p e , b u t as an i n d e p e n d e n t s u b j e c t i v e of  of the  i nthe  perceptible  realism  as an  One m i g h t e v e n s a y  rationalism to realism l a y  35 through  s u b j e c t i v e and i d e a l i s t i c The  world  movement f r o m  outlook  towards  connected w i t h thought. forming  a purely mechanical  individual  t h e common,  rationalistic  s o l i p s i s m was  general  Karamzin. classical  o f the time  genetically  movement o f E u r o p e a n  Man's p e r s o n a l i t y a n d i n d i v i d u a l i t y the thought  were  deductive  reasoning.  of virtue,  ideas  o f Rousseau, Kant and  Man was s e t f r e e f r o m t h e i n h i b i t i n g  whom l o v e w a s a h i g h e r quently  romanticism.  shell  of  I n f l u e n c e d by Rousseau, f o r  expression  o f p e r s o n a l i t y and conse-  Murav'ev exclaims:  "0 d a m n e d w i s d o m  that  22 destroys  t h e happiness  of sensations!"  nThis  i s a  complete  a n s w e r t o heos:clas'si:eal>:;."wds:dom,T.Vhwhich£was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  subversion  o f man's p r i m i t i v e  purity.  Murav'ev d i d n o t believe i n a b s o l u t e classicists reason,  Russia.  l a y only views  i n one's  o f each  foundation  individual,  f o r existence,  The i n f l u e n c e o f R o u s s e a u ' s  among t h e u p p e r m i d d l e - c l a s s  ideas  sentimentalists sentimentalism  was b e c o m i n g  and those into  a  an a b s o r b i n g  experience  question  who w e r e ' f o r g i n g t h e v a l u e s  system.  found  intelligentsia i n  The p r o b l e m o f e v a l u a t i n g human e m o t i o n a l  human d i g n i t y  own  Murav' ev, s . a s a a n a a h t i x r a t i o n a l i s t ,  f e e l i n g s as t h e o n l y  soil  For  above a l l i n t h e sphere o f pure  f o rpersonal  and m o r a l i t y .  fertile  and  and except  i s no t r u t h .  considers truth  exists  b u t f o rMurav'ev t h e t r u t h  thoughts, there  the truth  truth.  among of  36  Murav'ev suggested expressed and  by  Karamzin.  goodness  artistic These  the  purpose of developed  For  changed the  creation,  are  many new  and  instance, the  concept  was  the  Karamzin  Although tradition,  of  only  r o o t s of Murav'ev's  art: art cultivates by  and  Murav'ev c r e a t e d  the  b e t w e e n one  which  first  attempts  could express  truth.  Thus  arose  genius  t a s t e - a s - the  basis  criterion  truth.  of  notions  emotions.  belongs  are elements which  relationship  later  This  for  about idea  the was  Zukovskij.  Murav'ev's poetry  there  unity of  concrete  the  sentimentalism.  made t h e  ideas which were  to  link  classical i t with  a language f o r  create  the need  already  t h i n g and  the poet's  to the  another,  a specific  poetic  and  thus  poetic  mood r a t h e r t h a n  f o r a new  expressing  language  objective  vocabulary:  I v d r u g mne v i d e l a s prekrasnaj a strana, Gde v e r n o c a f s t v u e t p r o x l a d n a j a v e s n a : Gde i z v i v a j u t s j a m e z d u x o l m o v d o l i n y I s m o t r j a t s j a v vodax v y s o k i x d r e v v v e r g i n y . 1  (Videnie) Expressions are not  meant t o  such  give  as  "tall  real world.  emotional  t o the  the  dryness  gradually of  response  the  and  landscape,  of what the  They  of the  sees,  From t h i s  classical  In Murav'ev's  poet  a r e u s e d t o show  described object.  tediousness  eliminated.  trees""andoJicoelii-spring"  a description  or t o d e s c r i b e the  2 3  style  conscious  t h i n g s become a l i v e ,  and  an time,  was  apprehension  in this  way  the  poet  i n v o l v e s h i s r e a d e r w i t h h i s own s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e 24  of  nature.  but  "  more o f t e n a r e u s e d t o e x p r e s s  emotional  associations.  such words ogy  "I".  Murav'ev's  o f man  i s based  fcheselassical In  on h i s r e l i g i o u s  system  the beginning  but  later  bounds  emotional  of analytical  hitherto  popular  a different  later had  continued  life  divided  pressure  The  poetry  poet's  of the inner i n an e m a n a t i o n  i n common.  among t h e g e n t r y . eclogues,  effusions overflowed the  classicism.  Another  by D e r z a v i n ,  literary  and accomplished up t o a c c e p t  corresponding  into  separate  o f new i d e a s  individual,  another  radical  blow t o  although  i t came  direction.  been brought experience,  common  odes, e l e g i e s and  N e v e r t h e l e s s , Murav'ev's  of  belief  psychol-  of emotional  c l a s s i c i s m was a c c o m p l i s h e d from  Human  l y r i c 'dealtualseEiousablow t o 25  Murav'ev wrote  t h e stream  from  about t h e u n i t y  God's s o u l a c c e s s i b l e t o a l l p e o p l e Murav'ev's  aesthetic  f o rZukovskij, a  " I " does n o t d i f f e r ideas  and  meanings,  o f emotion expressed i n  i s subjective but not individual.  Zukovskij's later  life  dictionary  overtones  The s p h e r e  i s , f o r Murav'ev and p a r t l y  factor.  of  Words c a r r y n o t o n l y t h e i r  o f Murav'ev  by Karamzin.  the schematic t o the schematic  logical  The  conception of Under t h e  freedom and t h e  schematism began t o f a l l  clearly  reflects  gentry  classification  categories.  a c c e n t u a t i n g human  the classical  w o r k b e g a n w h a t was  this  apart.  i n i t s style,  38 w h i c h d i d n o t change w i t h but  allowed  him t o express  consistently, writing  the form o f the p a r t i c u l a r h i s inner emotional  as w h a t was i m p o r t a n t  about b u t what he f e l t  is  turned  while  t o ancient Russian  one o f t h e f i r s t  of Kievan novels tale  romantic  writing.  of the nineteenth  "Socuvstvie"  of Karamzin. sciously  Features  such  "Oskol'd"  to revive the history  Murav'ev's  anticipates  the  romantic  sentimental  the sentimentalism  as r h y t h m i c a l p e r i o d s , a  aesthetic vocabulary,  a r t i f i c i a l i t y , -typical-oof  His  i t foreshadowed  century.  (Sympathy)  M u r a v ' e v was o n e among  history.  attempts  R u s * , a n d i n i t s way  conditions  was n o t w h a t he was  Under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f O s s i a n , many w h o  piece  complicated  and  Karamzin's w r i t i n g ,  con-  delicate are already  26 present  i n Murav'ev's Sentimentalism  put  prose. answered t h e needs o f t h e time.  " t h e p r o b l e m o f man"  among R u s s i a n fied  form,  this  concern  and,  K a r a m z i n was b e s t  requirement.  I n 1 7 9 0 a new  quali-  literary  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s e n t i m e n t a l i s t approach began t o and f i n a l l y  of Russia. Karamzin  secured  i t s place  a n d a g r o u p o f w r i t e r s who  discoveries  i n the literary  history  The s c h o o l was d i s t i n c t i v e l y s r e p r e s e n t e d  movement o p e n e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s  views  foremost  w r i t e r s of the time,  to satisfy  school  a s man's  I t  o f man  concerning  sided w i t h him.  forfurther,  deeper  and h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i f e .  These  by T h e new  new  m a n , t o g e t h e r w i t h d e c l a r a t i o n s o f h i s own  39 value,  encouraging  feelings  o f h i s own  r e s p e c t , made s e n t i m e n t a l i s m  dignity  and  self-  a p r o g r e s s i v e movement a t  this  time. Russian attained reason  by  s e n t i m e n t a l i s m d i d not  Western European  for this  historical  was  the  of  countries; consequently,  suffered  the  Russian feelings  and  the  earlier  the  source  and  the  view  elemental  as state  prominence of while  individual,  religion  the  classist's  p o r t r a y and  idealize  considered  positive.  artificial  and  and of  as  religion life  sensibility.  exaggerated  had  held the  o v e r l y - r a t i o n a l views  style.  Whereas  intellect  Sentimentalism  Rousseau had  to  written),  literature  view  of  life,  only  those  closer  heart  or  and  to  facets of  However,  to  life  view  insistence  classicism.  his  the  life  on  which  by  The  they  became morality  clear depiction  f o r i n i t s r e a c t i o n against the of  the  s e n t i m e n t a l i s t s tended  extreme, t h i s the  be  stressed  a mystical experience.  In the  other  sentimentalism  h i s return to nature  s a c c h a r i n e , and  strived  The  from that of  l e d t h e m o v e m e n t away f r o m t h e  i t had  main  paid close attention to  foremost.  (of which  The  f o r sentimental w r i t e r s the  sentimentalism brought  avoiding to  an  adopted  century  creativity,  emotions were  Russian  t h e m i n an  eighteenth  o f man  an  sentimentalism  expressed  of  of  heights  l a n g u a g e arid t i m e .  Russia differed  European  limitations  the  sentimentalism.  problem  development of  reach  sole reliance  staid, of  40 the  s e n t i m e n t a l i s t s on f e e l i n g s  the  sociological  Russian  life.  distant  past,  contemporary problems  and p o l i t i c a l  An e x a g g e r a t e d and a m o r a l ,  reality  of  embellishment  provided  s e n t i m e n t a l i s m had been o r i g i n a l l y  portray  reality  a  conscious  withdrawal  for their  talism  i s that i t developed  and in  a retreat  own  into  fantasy.  the individual  fostered fore  sake.  l e d t h e way  into  often  of the l a t e  a world  to represent  o f emotions  reality  a withdrawal  from  However, t h e r e s u l t a n t i n t e r e s t e x p l o r a t i o n of the psyche  on development  o f c h a r a c t e r , and t h e r e -  literature.  the internal  dynamics  of  toward  F o r example, dialogue  reproduces  an a t t e m p t  into  expression point definitely  classicism.  while  sentimen-  sentimentalism  emphasize t h e imaginative view o f l i f e , of  approach t o  f o r the realism that characterized  nineteen-century While  toward  The p a r a d o x o f R u s s i a n  and r o m a n t i c  an e m p h a s i s  attitude  i t came e v e n t u a l l y t o  from r e a l i t y  valued  i n the  In fact,  Russian  more c l o s e l y ,  of l i f e  an i d e a l i z e d  possible solutions.  to explore  eighteenth-century  over-simplified  civilization,  and t h e i r  l e d t o the f a i l u r e  faithfully  1700s.  change i n l i t e r a r y  Russian content  change i n e x p r e s s i o n .  the mechanical  means  r e a l i s m a n d away  from  i n s e n t i m e n t a l i s t works  t h e common s p e e c h sentimentalism  of the late  represents  a n d , more i m p o r t a n t ,  a  a  radical  CHAPTER I I I I N F L U E N C E S ON K A R A M Z I N S  DEVELOPMENT  1  AS A " S E N T I M E N T A L Karamzin's by  life  and l i t e r a r y  various d i s t i n g u i s h e d people  events.  r e c e i v e d was  The f i r s t  enlightened,  as p r o f e s s o r s and  and a l s o ,  Shaden  in  (1731-1797).  an i n t e r e s t  Here Karamzin spent  and l i t e r a t u r e , admiration  E u r o p e , on s e e i n g  Leipzig,  he was  young p u p i l s .  particularly f o r England.  a monument  reminded  superior t o reason, must s t r i v e  i n a garden i n Vorlesungen"  of Gellert's a man  i n his  philosophy should  pay  the heart i s  t o achieve  For a sensitive  41  lan-  Here t o o began  moral precepts  to Gellert,  and i n o r d e r  to  Later, during h i s travels  of the "Moralische  According  t o be good.  h i s love of  German.  of the heart, t o which  attention.  an  (1777-81) a n d ,  to Gellert  The b a s i c p r i n c i p l e  the education  special  Shaden was  and a l o v e f o r  four years  used by P r o f e s s o r Shaden t o i n s t i l l  was  he  s c h o o l d i r e c t e d by  under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Shaden, developed  Karamzin's  by  e n t h u s i a s t i c t e a c h e r , who h a d t h e a b i l i t y  awaken i n h i s young s t u d e n t s  guages  of course,  systematic education  i n Moscow a t a b o a r d i n g  P r o f e s s o r Johann Matthias  education.  c a r e e r were i n f l u e n c e d  such  colleagues, by foreign l i t e r a t u r e historical  WRITER"  happiness  soul like  one  young  42 Karamzin,  the  development In zenskij stayed was  teachings  as  17 81  Guard  Dmitriev  S h a d e n and  Regiment  salons  and  retired  time  already  the  from the  devote himself enthusiastic  than  established a position  of h i s  f a t h e r , Karamzin  life  and  Night  i n 1785,  was  and  as w e l l as "Le  translation, with  Russia  because of  appreciation In joined  the  Society), able  of  1785  i n the  Shakespeare's left  i n the  a  poet.  officially to  to reading.  He  and  of  was  Young's  passion,  result  of  Caesar, which  this  appeared  foreword,  eighteenth-century  to Shakespeare's  t e x t and  i t s  genius. Simbirsk  f o r Moscow, where  N i k o l a j I . N o v i k o v , one  figures i n Russia  time  for Simbirsk  The  'i/Druzeskoeuueenioeoobseestvo" l e d by  and  i t s enthusiastic  literature  i t s fidelity  Karamzin  Julius  the  literary  his greatest  f o r Shakespeare. of  that  Taureau blanc"  Thoughts, but  in  remain unique  translator  left  period  met  i n the  death  a translation  will  At  as  (1784)  short  encouraged  Russia  Guards  he  H e r e he  of  to social  This  life.  first translation.  e n t h u s i a s m was 1787.  this  ( 1 7 6 0 - 1 8 3 7 ) , who  a  Preobra-  Although  a year,  i n Karamzin's  about V o l t a i r e ' s  Complaint  beginning  less  in his  j o i n e d the  i n St. Petersburg.  Dmitriev  theatres  After  The  left  attempt h i s  had  importance  Karamzin  Ivanovic  Karamzin to  had  writer.  i n St. Petersburg  Ivan  Gellert  a sentimental  a significant  poet  of  late  he  (Friendly.- Learned of  the  eighteenth  most  remark-  century.  There,  under  Turgenev, and  the  Karamzin  b e c a m e an  activity  influence  s t u d e n t and  "Friendly  a perfectionist.  Learned  Society"  M o s t o f t h e members o f t h e M a s o n i c wealthy  social  the group  science,  Karamzin  these, Of  their  was  involved  never  showed  mystical  and  literary  centre.  Novikov"s  any  to  and  foreign the  as M i l t o n ' s  The  Rousseau  name o f A.  M.  most e d u c a t e d Journey  Kutuzov  s h o u l d be  mentioned  his  f r o m P e t e r s b u r g t o Moscow.  (1785-87).  essays  Kutuzov  has  tant early his  Of  emphasizing come t o b e exponents  translations Another  him.  was  of  the  Paradise Thomson's  many o t h e r s . here  as  one  The  of  the  F r e e m a s o n s , t o whom R a d i s c e v d e d i c a t e d h i s KutUzov's  l a t i o n s were Young's N i g h t Thoughts Messiah  and  to  group  introduced translations  Klopstock's Messiah,  s e v e r a l w o r k s by  of  intellectual  the Novikov  authors, such  elite.  hermetic  L o s t , Young's N i g h t Thoughts, Seasons,  a  and m o r a l  remained was  life  tremendous.  deep u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of which  circle  works of l e a d i n g European  in occultism  P.  The  belonged  f o r Karamzin  activities  was  cultural  activities  far greater significance  life the  and  group  s t r a t u m and w e r e t h e  Although  Freemason, Ivan  overcame the t e m p t a t i o n s of s o c i e t y  eager  of the  of a prominent  and  man  special  (17 85)  interest  the primacy  influenced  and K l o p s t o c k ' s  of the heart over of the most  o f s e n t i m e n t a l i s m , by  who  trans-  among h i s w o r k s  r e c o g n i z e d as one  his original  major  virtue  of  are  reason. imporboth  essays. Karamzin's  career during  his  four years  Petrov. his  w i t h Freemasonry  P e t r o v became an i n t i m a t e f r i e n d  teacher  i nthe fields  philosophy.  Petrov  arrived  lived.  concepts  the lowest  Karamzin's  level  the  Karamzin  t o a higher  levels  although,  should  basic  These  be mastered.  that of feeling. ideas  appealed  to  as a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , he  i o w a r d ' s m y s t i e a ' ] ! b e l i e f s . , be." : ' Petrov  founda-  o f knowledge, o f  level,  i s the mystical.  language.  with  One o f S c h w a r z ' s  i s the r a t i o n a l , which  Karamzin recognized  Russian  Karamzin  as a p h i l o s o p h i c a l  are three  sensibility,  heverzinciined  served  sentimentalism.  was t h a t t h e r e  highest  :z-'.zed.~  When  I t w a s P e t r o v who a c q u a i n t e d  . T h e r e u p o n a man r i s e s The  Novikov.  i n Moscow, S c h w a r z was a l r e a d y d e a d , b u t h i s t e a c h i n  f o r Karamzin's  which  and  had s t u d i e d under Schwarz, t h e a u t h o r i t y  Schwarz's t e a c h i n g , which tion  o f Karamzin,  A.  o f p h i l o l o g y , a e s t h e t i c s and  among M o s c o w F r e e m a s o n s b e f o r e  s t i l l  (1785-89) was A l e k s a n d r  -  as h i s teacher  I n 1800 h e w r o t e t h a t  i n handling  Petrov's  . . . t a s t e was f r e s h e r a n d p u r e r t h a n m i n e ; h e c o r r e c t e d my s c r i b b l i n g s , s h o w e d me t h e b e a u t i e s i n a u t h o r s , and I began t o f e e l t h e s t r e n g t h and attractiveness of expressions.^8 As  Karamzin  said,  "The t i m e  of our acquaintance  will  always  29 be  t h e most important It  p e r i o d o f my  was n o t by c h a n c e t h a t K a r a m z i n ' s  work was a t r a n s l a t i o n (The had  Wooden read  life."  o f Gessner's  L e g ; 17 8 3 ) .  "from h i s e a r l y  idyll  first  published  "Das H o l z e r n e  Bein  G e s s n e r w a s a n a u t h o r whom K a r a m z i n 30 years." In hisidylls Gessner  described Alpine  the pastoral  shepherds.  mankind, which talists. freedom  He  had  innocence of Switzerland, with i t s also described  a specially  K a r a m z i n was and  strong  enthusiastic  happiness"  t h e Golden Age  appeal f o r sentimen-  about  (which l a t e r ,  of  Gessner's  after  "land  his travels,  of  he  31 skeptically  called  a result  of this  "Palemon  and  adaptation  A.  works  des  one  can  by  the  In  1786  tfbels"  (On  find  he  prosperity").  attempted  an  "Der  the Origin  had  skillful  great respect  Haller's  of E v i l ) .  t h e s a m e v i e w o f man  on  idyll,  Sturm."  translated  Thomson, where  As  original  i s n o t h i n g more t h a n a  idyll  of our happiness  love  earth  and  and and  essay In  "Vom  Haller's  n a t u r e as  i n the  resignation  form  t h e harmony  produced  Creator. Karamzin  translations translation faithful  continued to provide the Russian public  of major works of European of J u l i u s  translation  C a e s a r was  Genlis.  He  felt  a way  as  Veill^es  f o r her plan  t o educate  f o r the n o b i l i t y .  h e r p r e f a c e t o Les  Emilia  Genlis du  a  Galotti.  One  Mme.  to write "for  them, r a t h e r  stressed  chateau  with  His  i n 17 8 8 b y  the French authoress,  g r e a t sympathy  the people" i n such only  was  literature.  followed  of Lessing's play  of h i s f a v o r i t e w r i t e r s  write  and  a u t h o r f o r whom K a r a m z i n  poems o f Y o u n g and the basis  which  of Gessner's  Haller.  Ursprung  of freedom  e n t h u s i a s m he  Daphnis,"  Another was  "land  (Social  this  than  aim i n  Evenings  to  46 in  t h e Chateau), from which  Karamzin  stories.  In her stories  Genlis  ate  love,  a preference f o runspoiled  tal  descriptions  of peasant  translated  describes  life,  It  s h o u l d be mentioned  (Children's  to  sentimen-  and recommendations  a p p e a l f o r t h e young  here that  h i s translations  R e a d i n g ) , w h i c h was a f r e e  Vedomosti  (Moscow N e w s ) .  amuse, i n f o r m  during  the period  i n Detskoe  supplement  The a i m o f t h e supplement  and i n s t r u c t young  ( G o o d h e a r t ) , who was p o r t r a y e d editors,  Russian readers.  in  children  t o obey  God, and t o p r a c t i s e modesty Moskovskie Vedomosti  inequality. spirit  Serfdom  o f humanism  respect  f o rchildren.  their  Dobro-  parents, t o believe  the question  as i n e v i t a b l e ,  of  social  but i nthe  classes.  Karamzin  kept t h i s  peasantry  throughout h i s l i f e ;  discussed  later  i n this  stories.  demanded  a s a human b e i n g a n d a s a n e c e s s a r y  member o f s o c i e t y , who s u p p l i e d  sentimental  Dobroserdov  and e n l i g h t e n m e n t , t h e Freemasons  f o r the peasant  The  and m o d e r a t i o n .  raised  was s e e n  was  as an a c t u a l p e r s o n known t o  and s e t up as an example  serdov encouraged  Ctenie  t o Moskov-  m o r a l message was p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h t h e c h a r a c t e r  the  f o r an  I t ,  1787-89 K a r a m z i n p u b l i s h e d  skie  t e n d e r and p a s s i o n -  country l i f e ,  educational j o u r n e y , w h i c h h a d an ohlvious Karamzin.  several  f o o d and income  ambiguous a t t i t u d e i t will  be more  f o rother toward t h e fully  study, i n connection with h i s  47 Besides partial  translation,  extracts version and  Genlis' stories, i n prose,  from Bonnet's La  other works of European and  had  read  and  authors,  drew i n s p i r a t i o n Julija" was  i n f l u e n c e d by  Ossian. z i n 's  "Progulka"  sentimental  the  inclination author's  attitude  toward  the  1790s.  "Eugene and  sentimental prose  was  expression and  only  (A W a l k )  of  c u l t i v a t e d by  and  Karam-  of  s h o w e d ..<  typified the  a certain  the  A  religion.  attitude  of h i s prose  he  he  "Evgenij  e m o t i o n s , and  employing  was  Genlis that  career, Karamzin  sentimental  Julia"  attempt  by  senti-  stylistic the  beginning,  early and  Karamzin throughout  his  development.  His  admiration  f o r f o r e i g n authors  h i s £B©ezicj.a" ( P o e t r y ; eleven l i n e s  beloved  an  his  a l l the works  "Progulka"  towards nature  is characteristic  showed  T h o m s o n , Young, Homer,  a b s o r p t i o n i n h i s own  which  and  sketch  of his l i t e r a r y  formula  in  His  is essentially  m e n t a l manner o f e x p r e s s i o n  literary  f r o m Mme.  a  Monument,  first  sentimental tale  several poets:  From the b e g i n n i n g an  I t was  Julia).  own  i n f l u e n c e d by  for his first  (Eugene and  l a nature,  Arcadian  His  a  Seasons,  a l l of which  philosophicalbeliefs.  translated.  de  d r a m a The  a t a n - ? o r i g i n a l iwork^wasi i n e v i t a b l y  also published  o f Thomson's The  Contemplation  of C h r i s t i a n Weisse's  interests  Karamzin  poets  1792).  i n length)  In t h i s  Karamzin pays  whose p h i l o s o p h i c a l , m o r a l  i s best poem  (two  tribute and  expressed  to  hundred the  a e s t h e t i c views  48 appealed  t o him  expresses using  the most.  h i s views  an  epigram  In the  about poetry  first as  from Klopstock.  p a r t of  something  Poetry  the  poem  he  supernatural,  i s holy,  "the  32 eternal the  comforter  didactic  role  of  innocent,  of poets,  pure  "the  souls."  chosen  He  emphasizes  people":  In a l l , i n a l l c o u n t r i e s holy Poetry Was t h e i n s t r u c t o r o f p e o p l e , t h e i r happiness; E v e r y w h e r e i t warmed h e a r t s w i t h l o v e . The s a g e by k n o w i n g N a t u r e , knew i t s C r e a t o r , And h e a r i n g H i s v o i c e i n t h e t h u n d e r and i n the breezes, I n t h e f o r e s t and i n t h e r i v e r s , i m i t a t e d on his harp The h e a v e n l y c h o r d s , and t h e w o i c e o f t h i s P o e t Was a l w a y s t h e v o i c e o f God.-First  he  speaks  Sophocles, Ovid.  turns  Milton,  were masters  end,  Russian  Young  Orpheus,  English poets:  Thomson.  to  For  Homer,  and  Ossian,  and  Shaker--  Karamzin these  poets  human m e l a n c h o l y .  G e s s n e r and  Karamzin expresses  Klopstock.  his belief  i n the  The  At  future  the of  poetry.  imitations."  He  translations  held  reading  and  a tribute  Karamzin's  public  to the  i n depicting nature  poem e n d s w i t h very  ancient poets:  E u r i p i d e s , B i o n , T h e o c r i t u s , Moschus, V i r g i l  Then he  speare,  of the  as w e l l and  as  was  not  works yet  important  c o u l d be  called  original,  but  significance  f o r Karamzin himself.  translating  hand gave him to doubts  as  early  great  "enlightened  nevertheless  f o r the He  was  Russian absorbed  f o r e i g n a u t h o r s , w h i c h on  satisfaction,  to his ability  to  his  other  the  in  one  but  on  the  hand  led  create  an  o r i g i n a l work.  It  49 was o n l y felt  a f t e r h i s j o u r n e y t h r o u g h E u r o p e i n 17 89 t h a t  more e m a n c i p a t e d , more c o n f i d e n t  a l t h o u g h he n e v e r d e n i e d t h e f o r e i g n of v i t a l  had  17 89 K a r a m z i n  s e t o u t on h i s t r a v e l s  behind him the "Friendly  spent four years.  beliefs  talent,  influence which  importance t o him throughout h i s l i t e r a r y  In He l e f t  a b o u t h i s own  he  remained  career.  i n Europe.  L e a r n e d S o c i e t y , " w h e r e he  A l t h o u g h he had n e v e r s h a r e d  their  i n m y s t i c i s m , h e h a d b e c o m e a n e n l i g h t e n e d man i n  t h e company o f t h e F r e e m a s o n s , s h a r i n g  their  desire  for self-  knowledge and s e I f - i m p r o v e m e n t , d e v e l o p i n g a f e e l i n g f o r language  and a c q u i r i n g  a l s o become r e l a t i v e l y In  short,  this  t o bear  Moskovskij. Zurnal  particular seriously  taste.  i n F r e n c h , German and  fruit  in his journalistic  (Moscow J o u r n a l )  i n that  journal which, through h i s e f f o r t s ,  career soon  of Russian sentimentalism.  journal  together with  "Bednaga L i z a "  work.  i s therefore of  published  a large  part of  Karamzin's  :  (Natalia,  English.  literary  B i s j - m a s f u s s k b g o (putesestvenniikgu (Lettersao£larRussian ler),  He h a d  i m p o r t a n c e , as K a r a m z i n began h i s l i t e r a r y  became t h e m i r r o r The  fluent  literary  was w h e r e he r e c e i v e d h i s f i r s t  e d u c a t i o n , w h i c h was The  a distinctive  s u c h famous s e n t i m e n t a l t a l e s  (Poor L i z a )  the Boyar's  - T r a v e 1-  as h i s  and •'-^Nat.al•jg.a,bbo.g,aESkfg.a:doc "  Daughter).  ,  I t was K a r a m z i n who  pointed  o u t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p r o s e a n d who  putting  p r o s e on a l e v e l w i t h p o e t r y as an a r t .  first  succeeded i n  50 The  activity  the Moskovskij a  forthcoming  headings: 2)  1)  of Karamzin  Z u r n a l was  translations  of  of  original  translations;  4)  French  Russian  p u b l i s h i n g works which  "pleasant," with  and  those  His  events  public,  were too  undoubtedly varied  intention  As  and  to  1790  only  in  Russian  fifty-eight  of  original  In the  of prose  worthwhile  i n Moscow;  anecdotes  tried  the  and  about journal  to  "useful"  avoid  and  i n producing  a  the journal  content, polished i n  eighteenth prose  t o V.  novels  V.  following  century  of the  i n the  or  Russian works — fiction.  reviews,  Russian with a journal  important  According  from  academic, m y s t i c a l or  to provide  34 popularity  prose;  t o make t h e  contemporary  seven o r i g i n a l  journals.  and  succeeded  Z u r n a l makes i t e s p e c i a l l y literature.  and  critical  Karamzin  already mentioned, the  Russian  five  a l s o of  In order  of Western Europe i n the  success.  3)  books, but  strove for a mixture  a lively,  style. to  books;  authors.  among t h e R u s s i a n  He  announced  together with notices  n o t i c e s of plays performed  famous :coritemporary  pedantic.  he  of  under  i n verse  journals,  d e s c r i p t i o n s of noteworthy  popular  1790  divided  Russian works  recently-published foreign  mainly  5)  content  In  publication  foreign works, selected p r i n c i p a l l y  German, E n g l i s h and of  tremendous.  journal, with original  during the  equal  met  Moskovskij  development  Sipovskij,  stories  were  of  of  from  1730  published  decade t h e r e evidence  with  were  the  growing  51 Besides of  prose,  Karamzin's  Kevshould  c r i t i c i s m , which  role  i n advancing  the popularity  a l s o be c r e d i t e d w i t h developing  had been  initiated  by N o v i k o v .  literary  He  wrote:  Some p e o p l e a f f i r m t h a t i t i s e a s i e r t o c r i t i c i z e t h a n w r i t e . . . b u t I am n o t c o n v i n c e d a n d b e l i e v e t h a t t o c r i t i c i z e w i t h judgement and t a s t e i s as d i f f i c u l t as t o w r i t e w e l l . ^ Karamzin tool  defended  the importance  of criticism  f o r the development o f l i t e r a t u r e  as a  as w e l l  necessary  as f o r t h e  theatre: What was German l i t e r a t u r e t h i r t y y e a r s a g o , and w h a t i s i t now? And i s i tn o t p a r t l y due t o s t r i c t c r i t i c i s m t h a t t h e Germans have b e g u n t o w r i t e so w e l l ? ^ ^ According  to Cross,  the situation  appeared  as  follows:  Under one o f two r u b r i c s , "About R u s s i a n Books" and " A b o u t F o r e i g n B o o k s " some f o r t y w o r k s w e r e reviewed o r l i s t e d by Karamzin. Despite Karamzin's i n i t i a l wish t o review " p a r t i c u l a r l y o r i g i n a l " Russian works, f o r e i g n works predominate, a fact which f a i t h f u l l y mirrors the state of the Russian book market. . . . A l l t h e reviews o f works p u b l i s h e d i n R u s s i a n were w r i t t e n by Karamzin himself. . . . I n common w i t h a l l h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s t h e y r e f l e c t h i s own i n t e r e s t a n d t a s t e s . ^ " A m o n g many in  others  the context  Richardson, Karamzin  of great  interest,  of special  importance  of sentimentalism are h i s criticisms  a representative of English sentimental  i s enthusiastic  a b o u t R i c h a r d s o n , whom h e  of fiction. calls  . . . a s k i l l f u l p a i n t e r o f man's m o r a l n a t u r e , able t o maintain a reader's i n t e r e s t through eight volumes, w h i l s t d e s c r i b i n g nothing e x t r a ordinary but keeping t o r e a l l i f e . In  the ability  t o d e p i c t c h a r a c t e r , Karamzin  places  Richardson  52 with  Shakespeare:  Britain's heart."  "0  pride,  Richardson! your works w i l l  and  monuments o f t h e  In h i s review  portrayal  of C l a r i s s a  o f good and  noble  and  sometimes  Erast  reminda  kind, us  Although important  evil  journal.  praises  a monster.  the prose  who  poems w e r e K a r a m z i n  but sometimes  considered a the  very poetry  success  of  Karamzin's  journal  by  t h e number  regularly  poems, gave a u t h o r i t y  •festaMi'shoitstnamesh Optimism  t o the  contributing journal,  about the  Karamzin  of  qualities.  himself, Derzavin, Dmitriev  T h e s e p o e t s , by  by  the  man's  portrait  Z u r n a l , i t was  initial  dominated  i s expressed  Karamzin's  m a t e r i a l was  the  be  Richardson's  Lovelace being  v e r y much o f t h e s e  assured  Poets  Xeraskov.  poetry  he  —  p a r t of the Moskovskij  section which  latest  a r t of p a i n t i n g  o f L o v e l a c e , i n whom t h e r e i s a r e m a r k a b l e  natural mixture  their  always  i n the  and  and  their helped  future of closing  of  to  Russian  lines  of  his  poem "Po£zij a " : 0 R u s s i a n s ! t h e t i m e w i l l come When p o e t r y w i l l s h i n e a m o n g y o u , The  darkness  shines  ...  Another large  theatre, To  Karamzin and  illustrate  ^  important  p a r t of the  reviews.  o f n i g h t has  l i k e the sun at midday disappeared—already Aurora's light  literary  j o u r n a l was always  form which.occupied  drama c r i t i c i s m  he  theatre  s t r e s s e d h i s demand f o r , t r u e  the ^''naturalness" of the this  and  a  characters*  contrasted French  classical  reactions. drama,  based  on  dead  Shakespeare nature. him  r u l e s and  and  The  Lessing, based  Russian  an  the  works  understanding  to  express  his  critical  of of  human  Cid  gave  opinion  of  tragedies. Karamzin's  successful. speare's play  on  with  p e r f o r m a n c e o f C o r n e i l l e ' s Le  a good o p p o r t u n i t y  French  conventions,  His  attempts only  influence.  i s the  play The  attempt t o  to write  f o r the  S o f i j a bears  only  evidence  interesting  create  a Russian  stage  were of  not  Shake-  t h i n g about  the  background.  The d r a m a m u s t b e a f a i t h f u l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f society; i t i s e s s e n t i a l that the characters i n i t n o t o n l y a c t b u t a r e named t h e same as t h e y are in society.^ Psychological and  truth  and  motivated  moving scenes, n a t u r a l n e s s  when n e c e s s a r y demanded o f  —  the  dramatist.  for the  Russian  T r a v e l l e r , w h e r e he  in  literature  discusses  p i c t u r e of  his  at h i s L e t t e r s of  the  theatre  and  sentimental  had  met  and  stories,  rhapsodies  from  a  many  and  Euro-  Goethe,  Verne, Wieland, t a l k e d with..  t r a n s l a t e d showed h i s i n short  current  translations,  Marmontel, Ossian,  particularly  plays,  p o p u l a r i z a t i o n of  i s shown i n h i s  o f w o r k s t o be  fiction, and  constant  o t h e r s , , many o f whom h e  choice  look  Karamzin  detail.  Herder, S c h i l l e r , and  should  emotions  Russification  features which  To-,complete t h e  t h e a t r e , one  Karamzin's pean  in dialogue,  a l l were b a s i c  concern  plays  actions, strong  interest  e x t r a c t s from  poems, a l l f u l l  Sterne The in novels of  54 typically  pre-romantic  elements.  J . F . M a r m o n t e l , whom  Karamzin  considered  directly  i n f l u e n c e d h i s own o r i g i n a l  Sterne  t o be an o u t s t a n d i n g  was a n o t h e r  author  and p a r t l y  Sterne  i nthe following  reading  sk  Sterne's  "The; S t o r y  creation.  whom K a r a m z i n  admired, t r a n s l a t e d i s expressed  imitated.  o f Le  deeply  A tribute t o  lines  written  after  Fevre":  Incomparable Sterne! I n what learned u n i v e r s i t y were you taught t o f e e l so t e n d e r l y ? What r h e t o r i c revealed t o you t h e s e c r e t o f touching w i t h two words t h e most d e l i c a t e f i b r e s o f o u r h e a r t s ? What m u s i c i a n commands t h e s o u n d s o f h i s s t r i n g s a s s k i l l f u l l y a s y o u command o u r f e e l i n g s ? The t i m e s I h a v e r e a d " L e F e v r e " a n d t h e t i m e s my t e a r s h a v e p o u r e d o n t o t h e p a g e s o f t h i s s t o r y !^1 Karamzin  Sentimental first  also translated  Journey.  Sterne  This  new l i t e r a r y  passages  Sterne's  as one o f t h e  and h i s s t y l e was w i d e l y fashion appealed  However, t h e d i f f e r e n c e between Sterne's Karamzin"s  from  was r e g a r d e d  sentimental travellers,  imitated.  and  storyteller,  Letters i s obvious,  to  Karamzin.  Sentimental  and although  Journey  there are  critics  w h o t r y t o p* r © y e i K a r a i t e i n :*:s § d i s e e t y d e p e n d e n c e - 'on  Sterne,  L e t t e r s was a g r e a t  for  t h e work was p r e p a r e d  success.  No d o u b t t h e g r o u n d  by Karamzin's  reading  works, b u t Letters i s nevertheless undeniably original ing  and unique.  Letters,  while  A modern r e a d e r  other works  famous s e n t i m e n t a l f i c t i o n , literary  critics  can s t i l l  o f Karamzin,  remain  and h i s t o r i a n s .  of foreign  Russian, enjoy  read-  including h i s  of interest  only t o  55 Other t r a n s l a t i o n s i n c l u d e works such  as  travel  of  a general  biographies accounts,  of  careful a  he  insisting  He  and  the  and  nature,  philosophical  only with of  stylistic  consistent.  the  choice  from which  strict with  from  and  linguistic  of  from  no  of the  translation, to  t r a n s l a t i o n was  others, but  His  quality  edification  accuracy  the  of  his translations.  Besides  and  excerpts  g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e correspondence  language was  Zurnal  precepts.  not  quality  demanded h o n e s t y  on  particular done.  the  attention to the  content,  i n the Moskovskij  l e a d i n g German a u t h o r s ,  concerned  also with  t r a n s l a t i o n was  literary  meditations  K a r a m z i n was works, but  published  less  the  being  so w i t h  himself:  I w o u l d t r a n s l a t e one and t h e same t h i n g o n c e , t w i c e , t h r e e t i m e s , and when I had r e a d i t t h r o u g h and d e l i b e r a t e d , I w o u l d t h r o w i t i n t o t h e f i r e , u n t i l at l a s t I achieved something worth publishing. ^ 4  Karamzin's enment of  Russia.  publicizing in  journal played I t b e c a m e an  i n f o r m a t i o n about  t h e W e s t as w e l l  published Boyar's  and  translated  guages, making achieve  inside  Russia?.,  In t h i s  their  a Russian  author  the  events  journal "Natalia,  Traveller.  i n many E u r o p e a n  first  enlight-  literature,  cultural  "Poor L i z a , "  published  i n the  Russian  and  L e t t e r s of and  organ of  role  literary  h i s most famous w o r k s :  Daughter"  works were  as  a vital  Russian  writer  he the These  lanto  a European r e p u t a t i o n . T f . u e ~ r e p r e s e n t a t i y e e o f n t h e - R u s s i anr en l i g h t e n m e n t  t h at"  56 he  was,  Karamzin  following  addressed  h i s dream t o the  public in  the  lines:  I f only a s o c i e t y of young, a c t i v e people were t o be f o r m e d h e r e , endowed w i t h g e n u i n e t a l e n t ; i f only these people — w i t h a sense of t h e i r worth but without the arrogance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of base minds — were t o dedicate themselves completely t o l i t e r a t u r e , j o i n t h e i r t a l e n t s and, b e f o r e t h e a l t a r o f t h e b e n e f i c e n t M u s e s , vow t o p r o p a g a t e z e a l o u s l y a l l t h a t i s n o b l e , n o t f o r t h e i r own f a m e b u t f r o m a w o r t h y and s e l f l e s s l o v e o f good — i f o n l y my most c h e r i s h e d dream w e r e t o become a r e a l i t y , t h e n w i t h s i n c e r e joy I would e f f a c e myself i n t o complete a n o n y m i t y and l e a v e t h i s r e s p e c t e d s o c i e t y t o publ i s h a magazine worthy of the g o o d w i l l of the Russian p u b l i c . 4 3  Twenty-five A.  I. Vjazemskij  years  after  K a r a m z i n made h i s  looked back w i t h  r e s p e c t on  his  appeal, achievement:  Karamzin, i n the Moskovskij Zurnal, destroyed t h e G o t h i c t o w e r s o f a d e c a y i n g l i t e r a t u r e and on i t s r u i n s l a i d t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f a new European p u b l i c a t i o n , which awaited, f o r i t s ultimate completion, only s k i l l e d , industrious hands. 4 4  CHAPTER A:  Karamzin's role  i n the  and flat,  plotswhere  happily ever  always  the  first  people  Sfter.  i n Russian their  literature  daily  life  Before him,  writers  like  Pamela  Russian  Pamela;  (The  Pis'ma Ernesta i Doravry 1766),  had  ordinary  attempted  people.  Richardson, Emin had the  but  The  Russian  But  and  tried  L'vov, the and  (Letters  to suggest  simplicity  language  had  to wait  57  Rossijskaja  of the  the models  i n remaining  f o r Karamzin  real  Doravra;  on).  to reform  life  tied  The  and  handling to  (long  the mono-  Russian  i t and  of  of  where L'vov  l a y i n the poor  so  not  sorrows.  of  o f E r n e s t and  following  j o u r n e y s , and  was  Emin w i t h h i s  numerous mannerisms o f p s e u d o - c l a s s i c a lp r o s e logues, moralizing,  are  background  Karamzin  Goethe, succeeded  also  go  heroines  author F.  tales  re-united  w i t h a l l i t s j o y s and  17 89)  stories  related  finally  beauty.  who  Karamzin,  and  The  of upper-class  T h e i r weakness  language,  are  heroes  to depict the  R o u s s e a u and  failed.  P.  important  often separated,  of outstanding physical  and  an  literature.  lovers,  unreal characters, usually  and  played  pseudo-classic prose which  unbelievable adventures,  life  FICTION  sentimental stories  from  fantastic  through  SENTIMENTAL  development of Russian  were d i s t i n c t with  IV  free i t  of  58 from  Lomonosov's heavy  successful French  i n adapting  style  by  of new  of  syntax.  I t was initiated has  influence  of  of  Genlis:  "Eugenie Genlis*  the  Genlis  story  subtitle result  young  1  Julia,"  c a r e e r as plot,  friend  translaNew  ideas  v o c a b u l a r i e s , and and  the  language  became a  strong  was  accepted  sophisticated  late  eighteenth  the of  d i d not  a short story  and  title  was  "Eugene and  very  successful.  The  indicates  plot  for  an  obvious as  The  some use  of  of the  a deviceatypical  et Pandrosse."  tale"  Though  '^.OFhepfoMleeet^-Olympia,"  Karamzin's  true Russian  the  stories.  hero.  prove  writers  m a n n e r , as w e l l  i n the  n a r r a t o r of  is superficial.  I t bears  of her  "Daphnis  which  i t i s quite important  et Dalinde,"  the  p u b l i s h e d i n 17 8 9 ,  tales.  narrative  lovers  "Alphonse  "A  and  elements  e t L^once,"  intimate  literary  elegant  Church  popularized. new  was  a more  h i s exact  limitations,  and  to  numerous  by  expression i n the  of h i s l a t e r  tales,  helped  Karamzin,  elementary  characteristic  names o f two  and  t h a t he  new  Karamzin  centuries.  Karamzin*s  understanding  the  of  "Eugene  a very  was  certain  for literary  nineteenth  archaisms  he  this  syntax. language  knowledge needed  Despite  followers  vehicle  it  and  Russian  writings  orientation,  many  early  in this  French  sensibility  French by  the  the  rejecting  Slavonic words; tions  German-Latin  As  usual  Julia"  effort  to  Although  is  an  russify the  his intention,  i s s e t on  in  a Russian  the  estate,  but  the o t h e r elements  example,  Julia  Klopstock's  and  song  r e v e a l West European  Eugene, w h i l e  "Willkommen,  i s tragic.  enjoying  silberner  the  story  Karamzin  uses  for  t h e emotions.Iof h i s h e r o e s .  At  Eugene's d e a t h .  been d e s t r o y e d by to  pity  can  as  first  effort'and,  "Boor the  in his  was  The  smile  fact  successful  that  Karamzin's captured  story  The  subject  poor  peasant g i r l ,  Liza  lives  of the story Liza,  was  " a w e l l - t o - d o p e a s a n t who always  has  r e a d e r i s moved he  first  i t constitutes  s t o r y by  an  Karamzin  used  But  was  t o walk  shed t e a r s  brings  to  over  the  an  indulgent  i t was  true:  t h a t he c o m p l e t e l y  young  i n a small  monastery.  and  people  i s t h e unhappy  for a rich  w i t h her mother Her  young  heart.  the  well,  girl,  so c o n v i n c i n g  the reader's  gloomy  p e o p l e w i t h whom  and  o f a modern r e a d e r . was  of  and  readers actually  of the poor peasant  to the face  of  background  Karamzin's  pond n e a r t h e Simonov M o n a s t e r y , fate  end  development.  most p o p u l a r and  Liza."  tragic  The  a l t h o u g h a r a t h e r weak one,  step  The  Julia"  a  sad  two  of real  The  the source  and  fate.  remind him  "Eugene and  Mond").  l o v e between  inexorable  the heroes  identify.  important  an  The  (for  nature, sing  n a t u r e as  s e n t i m e n t a l h a p p i n e s s , n a t u r e becomes after  influence  f a t h e r , who  love  nobleman,  cottage not  l e d a sober l i f e . "  45  '  Liza's  a  Erast.  f a r from  d i e d when L i z a was  loved, worked,  of  tilled mother  fifteen, the is  soil  60 depicted  as  a g o o d , s e n s i t i v e p e r s o n who  relationship with after  her  fascinate  the  meets  their they  of  city the  different continue  result  of  destroys  day  sees  to partake  in his  spirit  One  Liza while  a young nobleman.  E r a s t , who  a while,  lacking  daughter.  o l d mother.  Moscow she  for  her  of  the  life.  idyll,  social  their  i n her  " w h i c h he  could  love heart  in  at  and  charm least  simplicity  so  affair  progresses  in  of  nature.  Even  though  impossible,  the i n e v i t a b l e  their  Platonic love  proud of  look  and  secret meetings, with  be  to  flowers  b a c k g r o u n d s make m a r r i a g e  dream of not  best  opportunity,  innocence  i n the  wonderful  L i z a ' s p u r i t y and  an  Their  a  does her selling  a p h y s i c a l consummation of Erast's  has  love.  and  The  reality  produces  w h i c h w e r e no  feelings  longer  46 novel  t o him."  relationship Later, his  Liza  There and  finally  Humiliated  finally  by  from h i s h o u s e , she the  for  his  f o r the  Liza's The  by  r e s t of h i s  Liza  Erast  false  and  to  throws  discovers  feels  consola-  remove  herself  buried.  f o r he  the  pretext.  o f money as  servants  is later  life,  a  continue  i n Moscow and  to the reason  to  on  his offer  order  she  f o r him  Erast  her into  is  responsible  death. b a r e theme o f  conventional condenses  leaves  loses her  deep pond, near which  unhappy  he  way  a c c i d e n t a l l y meets  duplicity.  t i o n , and  i s no  the  the  story  for eighteenth-century familiar  theme i n t o  i s uncomplicated, Europe. a short  Yet  and  Karamzin  s t o r y , moving  swiftly  from  contact  to the  respect  "Poor L i z a "  (17(40) o r  of  servant  the  girl  differs  Russian  wandering  by  her  suicide  of  the  Western Europe —  Werther. action  Apart  tradition.  Exemplary  life, motifs  are  keeping the  there  with  of  the  motif  of  s t o r y are  a motif  death  of  suicide, given  hard  work  and  reminiscent  of  the world  of  is a typical  idyllic  deep and  heroine,  powerful  with  the  exaltation  a reading  the  i s already  of  an  popular  setting, pastoral  a certain  life  of  and of  delicate The  want t o  the  peasantry.  r e a l i s m i n the  conception  state-  in  primitive  d i d not  rural  idylls.  l o v e " was  imaginary  p u b l i c which  actual brutal  to  the  a l l these  a pure,  affection.  the  the  joys  Gessner's  —  Goethe's  i n the  the  a  end,  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between parents  " E v e n p e a s a n t women k n o w how  of  tragic  peasant hero —  of  of  i s c a u s e d by  has; a - c l e a r l i n k  the  virtue  idealized  d e l i g h t of  reminded  f o r her  Liza  the  in  exploitation  The  final  entanglements,  an  capable  ment t h a t  of  subject,  to  Liza creature  the  this  Pamela  theme p o p u l a r  a reward  death  c e l e b r a t i o n of  virtues given  —  In  novel  love  lover Erast.  from the  characters  the  A  e x e m p l i f i e d by  and  children,  and  pages.  century  her  heroine,  Liza's suicide.  from Richardson's  m a s t e r , and  of  e r r o r of p h y s i c a l  n o v e l s , where a s i m i l a r  Here the  character  fatal  encounters  eighteenth  also missing.  unstable  in  by  the  denouement —  s t r e t c h e d over- c o u n t l e s s  novels  is  love to  tragic  earlier  complicated is  idyllic  for be Yet of  Liza's s t i l l The in  character. vague,  he  classicist  Although Karamzin's  takes a step saw  conflict with  society.  exercised  and  society.  Liza  by  society.  herself his  i s the victim  heroine:  sexually  a child  has  does  a good  approach  idealistic  is  just  love  a result The  of h i s  roles  the  the r o l e  his  narrator's  man,  and of  corrupted  by  allowing  not  condemn  he  plays  the role  man;  His  of a  him  false,  an e v i l  technique that Karamzin The  of the narrator  The  he  dream  shepherd  narrator  that  o f Moscow and  employs  several  At the beginning of  i s that  of a  i s giving  with  in  assumes  an  person account  reader i s assured of  thorough f a m i l i a r i t y fact  sees  to take a  frivolous.  throughout the story.  The  f o r he  fantasy.  inhabitants.  occur.  environment  the  trained  does  i s not  i s weak and  t h e w o r l d o f t h e s t o r y , who  fellow  events  Erast  i s very effective.  different  within  allows him  to life.  i n which  narrative  "Poor L i z a "  Karamzin  the errors  condemn E r a s t ,  which  h e a r t , b u t he  of  tale,  n o t even  of a society  superficial  individual  can guide  d i s o b e y s the moral codes Karamzin  tradition.  belief,  of a hypocritical  exploited,  is  he weeps f o r h e r .  Karamzin as  the  i f they are properly  i f t h e y a r e n o t c o r r u p t e d by  Though she  t o be  Contrary to this  view of'man: emotions  toward v i r t u e ,  t o man  forward from c l a s s i c a l  p e r s o n a l emotions a s p l a c i n g  accepted the Romantic individual  approach  the  the p l a c e s where  the s e t t i n g  of the t a l e  the Simonov Monastery  —  of  the —  was  the  familiar  t o a contemporary  Muscovite  creating  the impression of authenticity,  many p i l g r i m a g e u n d e r t a k e n where L i z a also  story  drowned h e r s e l f .  after  be mentioned  narrator's story.  personal  the t a l e . involved  t h e events  acquaintance  by t h e  t o t h e pond  of authenticity i s  thoughts  justifies  the reader's  Here Karamzin  sive  emotional  tion  o f n a t u r e , as w e l l  assumes t h e r o l e  reinforce  i s unhappy  the mutability  about t h e end o f t h e  of disappointment  His role  and  the persua-  His lyrical  descrip-  about events  i nt h e  apprehension  the reader  into  a  acknowledgement,  and f a i l u r e .  of his life.  The n a r r a t o r f i n d s of l i f e .  i n the story,  a mood o f v a g u e  t h a t , b y h i s own  f o rthe rest  ofh i s  o f an e m o t i o n a l l y -  that determines  He l e a d s h i s " f r i e n d "  an a u r a  soon d i e s t o o .  factor  as h i s f e e l i n g s  accentuate  of experiences  the very  the inclusion  atmosphere o f t h e work.  open sorrow.  series  does n o t l e a r n  emotional perception of  n a r r a t o r who i s a c o n s t a n t  consistently  Here i t  and f u r t h e r m o r e , he i s a b l e  i s h i s l y r i c a l responsiveness  story,  him the  t h e use o f a n a r r a t o r w i t h i n t h e  and f e e l i n g s ,  and d i r e c t  telling  had taken p l a c e .  with Erast until  w o r l d , Karamzin  control  Erast  readers  The i l l u s i o n  that the reader  Thus, through  fictional  or  as proven  c h a r a c t e r E r a s t , who i s a c t u a l l y  many y e a r s  should  it  by Russian  i s important i n  a c h i e v e d by t h e n a r r a t o r ' s p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e  principal  to  reader  Liza  Liza's  dies,  mother  h i m s e l f m e d i t a t i n g on thus  fulfills  the senti-  mentalist  need  and  conducive to  As  heart the  to  narrator of  a n o t h e r , he  also  the  Liza,  the  events  For  author  to  cultivate a state  contemplating his  so  integrates  story.  the  inward,  intertwines  description  into  turn  as  own  of  mind  life's unpredictability. personality with  t o make t h e m f l o w  his  into  one  certain d i d a c t i c moral p r i n c i p l e s  example, a f t e r Erast's  i n t e r r u p t s the  seduction  narrative with  the  of  following  digression: He who k n o w s h i s own h e a r t , who h a s d u l y conside r e d the c h a r a c t e r o f i t s most t e n d e r p l e a s u r e s , w i l l , o f c o u r s e , a g r e e w i t h me t h a t t h e fulfillment of a l l d e s i r e s i s the most dangerous t e m p t a t i o n of love. ' 4  Through h i s firm the  use  standard tale  Erast  are  lives  them.  scheme.  the  of moral subject.  up  to  Karamzin's  characters  istic  of  i n t r u d i n g author, Karamzin justice, The  those  reader  standards  a p p l i c a t i o n of  is told and  the  Both  the  s u b j e c t i v e mood o f  lessons  are  central to  i t s harmony w i t h ,  praises actively  Nature  and  imbue him  with  In  "Poor L i z a "  work's  comes t o be  her  clearly  nostalgia for his  can  lost  employs n a t u r e  when  to  his  narrative and  as  a  i t s moralmovement.  regarded  fellowship with she  of  transgresses  tale  sentimentalism  emotionally,  Karamzin  quite  standards  the  a  characters  in  terms  a l i e n a t i o n f r o m , man's s o u l .  stresses  a f f e c t s man  or  or  the  when he  these  i s a c e n t r a l f a c t o r of  With Karamzin, nature of  to which  sets  man:  He Nature  e i t h e r cheer innocence  frequently  and to  him peace.  illustrate events. by  and add p o i g n a n c y  T h e mood  a lyrical  to h i s descriptions  of the  i s suggested a t the beginning of the story  description  o f t h e Simonov  Monastery:  I o f t e n come t o t h i s p l a c e a n d a l m o s t a l w a y s meet s p r i n g t h e r e . I a l s o come h e r e e v e n i n t h e gloomy days o f autumn t o g r i e v e t o g e t h e r w i t h .:- E.rmaturg/j's T h e w i n d s w a i l f e a r f u l l y among t h e w a l l s o f t h e d e s e r t e d m o n a s t e r y , among t h e g r a v e s o v e r grown w i t h t a l l g r a s s , and t h r o u g h t h e d a r k corridors of the c e l l s . ^ 1  4  Here,  i ti s objects  Karamzin's physical which  emotive  and n a t u r e r a t h e r purpose.  description  Karamzin  i s s t i l l  The s u g g e s t i v e t e x t u r e  enhances  hangs o v e r t h e t a l e . under  I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d  the influence  pastoral  elements  are not only  are  directly  involved  i n the action,  characters ing  I n d e e d , n a t u r e seems of the story  or disapproving  after "The  Liza  has l o s t  storm rumbled  serve  of the  t h e a u r a o f doom a n d s o r r o w  the  denouement.  than events which  o f Gessner's  used  idyll,  as a b a c k g r o u n d , b u t  and m o t i v a t e t h e t r a g i c  judgment, e i t h e r  of events.  the rain  approv-  F o r example,  h e r innocence, nature responds threateningly,  as  almost t o be one o f t h e  and t o pass  of the turn  out that  poured  terribly: from t h e  b l a c k clouds , black  clouds —  Liza's ings, the  i t seemed t h a t  innocence."" '  In describing  t h e author always  bright  singing  moon  n a t u r e mourned  refers  Erast's  the loss  and L i z a ' s  t o nature: "Without your  i s dark, without your  voice  of meet-. eyes  the nightingale's  i s b o r i n g , w i t h o u t your breath'.the l i g h t breeze i s 50 u n p l e a s a n t f o r me." ' Karamzin chooses-the various aspects  of  nature  contrast  i n such the  emotional  episodes  clarity  which proved  so  of  his  and  article  Karamzin mixes p r a i s e condemnation of  his  and  t h u s he  evokes  Karamzin's prose  to his  tale.  constant  In his  tale,  rhythm of  in this  and  d e s c r i p t i o n s complement  and  the  reader.  L o m o n o s o v , who  subordination, predicates.  his  attractive  exemplified  from that  that his of  response of  The  well  a way  contemporary  His  used  style,  readers,  language d i f f e r e d  long  sentences,  Lomonosov i n the  for his predecessor's  sharply  frequent  i n v e r s i o n of modifiers on  is  and  Pantheon,  poetry  with  prose:  In g e n e r a l , the p r o s e of Lomonosov cannot s e r v e as a m o d e l f o r u s . The l o n g s e n t e n c e s , t h e w o r d o r d e r , w h i c h do n o t a l w a y s c o n f o r m t o t h e f l o w o f i d e a s , are not pleasant t o h e a r . ^ 1  Karamzin  avoided  use  a c o n s t r u c t i o n he  such  and, In  less  awkward s u b o r d i n a t i o n ,  frequently,  contrast with  Karamzin  the  introduced  sequence.  He  was  adverbs  innovator  of  balanced,  often broken  even  or  either  five.  i n the  . . . participial  or  a more l o g i c a l  an  into  number o f  His  two  Each p a r t  of  or  A  transliterated  to  pronouns  constructions.  i n handling sentences three  or  passage  are  parts, to  i n the  53 stresses.  relative  Lomonosov's  corresponds  syllables  had  52  sentences,  "subject-predicate"  also  sentences.  when he  t o use  f r e e word order  qualities  four  prose  preferred  and  reads:  the  the  tonic  rhythmically sometimes others  number  of  C a s t o p r i x o z u na s i e mesto p o c t i v s e g d a v s t r e c a j u tarn v e s n u t u d a ze p r i x o z u i v mracnye d n i o s e n i gorevat' vmeste 54 s In  pnrodoju.  order to strengthen the  reaction  to a situation,  language,  stringing clauses.  effects  making the  each  Karamzin  uses  the  spontaneous  rhythm of  the  together successive exclamatory,  breathless by  impression of h i s  He  enhances the  scene's  clauses of equal  almost  emotional  length, organizing  around repeated key words: E r a s t f e l t an u n u s u a l a g i t a t i o n i n h i s b l o o d ; n e v e r had L i z a seemed so c h a r m i n g t o him — never had c a r e s s e s a f f e c t e d him so s t r o n g l y , never had h e r k i s s e s been so f i e r y . . . J  Finally, devices  harmony as  and  musicality  alliteration,  Ejxenbaum suggests sound v a l u e than  uses  t h a t words  for their  the  a c h i e v e d by  assonance, are  and  such  poetic  parallelism.^  chosen more f o r  specificity  example, t o provide a melodic Karamzin  are  of  thought.  accompaniment t o the  suggestive repetition  of back  B.  their For meaning,  vowels,  57 ' v  which  match  the  sound of the wind:  Strasno vojut vetry v stenax opustevsego m S h a s ' t y r g a , m§zdu. g r o i a Q v ? z a f S s s i x - v y s S k o j u t r a v o j u i v temnyx perexodax k e l i j . ^ These d e v i c e s that  g i v e Karamzin's  strengthens h i s appeal "Poor  idealizes  the  Liza" lower  i s not  t o the  the  classes.  prose  a definite reader's  only story "Frol  poetic  quality  emotions.  that glorifies  Silin"  has  the  same  and  68 message, p o i n t i n g people first  out  over corrupt to  as w e l l  idealize as  the  s u p e r i o r i t y of  city-dwellers.  peasants.  i n the  In  comic operas  hero,ddepicfced  as  a good, k i n d  or b r u t a l i t y ,  became more and  itiheci*dealized p i c t u r e of sensitive  and  The  "Frol Silin"  story  virtuous,  deeds:  during  giving  them p a r t  are  destroyed  care  of  the  marriages states  a  and  by  of  his  fire  future  of  of  desires  helps  his  of  the  L'vov  without  only  account  not  seventies,  more p o p u l a r .  helps  two  the  creature  crops;  he  novels  and  the  any  Emin,  peasant  coarseness  According  p e a s a n t h e r o , he  i s an  f a m i n e he  f o r them.  his  the  country  K a r a m z i n was  the of  simple  good the  is  to  gentle,  for  others.  hero's  good  starving neighbors  t h o s e w h o s e homes and financially;  he  also  s e r f g i r l s , byoarrangiing  Afertheibeginhinghof-  i n t e n t i o n to b u i l d a memorial  barns takes  good  hdisestory, to  by  Karamzin  a simple,  good  man: Let the V i r g i l s c e l e b r a t e t h e i r Augustuses! Let the f l a t t e r e r s p r a i s e the magnanimity of the well-born! I want t o p r a i s e F r o l S i l i n , a simple f a r m e r , a n d my p r a i s e w i l l c o n s i s t i n a d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s d e e d s , w h i c h a r e known t o me. Karamzin believed noble  image of  the  that  whole  "the  gentry  i s the  soul  and  nation":  I love t o imagine the Russian gentry not only w i t h a sword i n i t s hands, not only w i t h the s c a l e s o f T h e m i s , b u t a l s o w i t h t h e l a u r e l s o f A p o l l o as w e l l as t h e s y m b o l s o f t h e g o d d e s s o f a g r i c u l t u r e . He  defended  the  to  perpetuate  Russian  serfdom  social  and  the  system  evehothbugh  supremacy of  the  6  1  i t sought  gentry,  but  he  believed that enlightenment  relationship  between master  should  and  lead  to a  better  peasant:  . . . f o r the t r u e p r o s p e r i t y of our peasants I w i s h o n l y t h a t t h e y h a v e g o o d m a s t e r s and t h e means t o e n l i g h t e n m e n t , w h i c h a l o n e w i l l make p o s s i b l e a l l that i s good. 6 2  Karamzin's in  most o p t i m i s t i c  V e s t n i k Evropy  (The  "Prijatnye prospekty (Pleasing  H e r e he  on  this  subject, published  M e s s e n g e r o f E u r o p e ) , was  nadezdy  P r o s p e c t s , Hopes  1802-03).  essay  i zelanija  and  called  nastojascego  vremeni"  Desires of the Present  Time;  wrote:  Enlightenment d e s t r o y s the abuse of a master's power, which even under our e x i s t i n g laws i s not t y r a n n i c a l and u n l i m i t e d . A member o f t h e R u s s i a n g e n t r y g i v e s n e c e s s a r y l a n d t o h i s p e a s a n t s ; he i s t h e i r p r o t e c t o r i n c i v i l a f f a i r s and t h e i r h e l p e r i n accidental or n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s : these are h i s duties! F o r t h i s he demands f r o m t h e m h a l f t h e w o r k i n g days i n a week: t h i s i s h i s r i g h t ! ^ F r o m t h e p e a s a n t s , who education, position like  Karamzin  classes,  ways, f o r t h e i r firmly  own  not  expect as  rise  to a certain  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  " i t svictims  but  a l l o f whom m u s t w o r k , and  their  freeing  the peasants  thisiherconsidered believed awareness  abuse t h e i r  without  some d e g r e e o f  o f t h e many p r o b l e m s liberty  of  i f in  He  facing  of  their  beneficiaries different  was  unable  was to  g i v / i n g a t f i e m h l a n d , and  impracticable at that time;  that, without  level  country's b e n e f i t . H e  opposed t o immediate emancipation.  envisage  would  would  in society,  other  must a l s o  likewise  e d u c a t i o n and them, t h e  with idleness  and  the  peasants  drink.  His  he  70 c a u t i o n was  liable  generation  of  t o be  i n t e r p r e t e d as  r e a c t i o n a r y by  e a g e r y o u n g r e f o r m e r s , and  his defense  a  of  65  serfdom  as  a preference  "Natal'ja,  b o j a r s k a j a doc'"  Daughter) presents Like  Liza,  she  read, with falls  dictates this  tale  "Natalia"  another  of  of  is beautiful,  a sensitive  i n love  f o r slavery over  at  first  (Natalia,  Karamzin's young  and  responsiveness sight.  But  i s his  indulges  first  at  Boyar's  sentimental  innocent,  although  she  heroines.  unable She  also the  end.  "sentimental  a historical  to  follows  meet a t r a g i c  i n a b i t of  attempt  the  to nature.  p a s s i o n , N a t a l i a does not  Karamzin  freedom.  In  irony."  tale.  He  claims  t h a t t h e s t o r y i s b a s e d on t r u e e v e n t s : I i n t e n d t o i n f o r m my d e a r r e a d e r s o f a t r u e t a l e or h i s t o r y , which I heard i n the region of the shades, i n the kingdom of i m a g i n a t i o n , from t h e g r a n d m o t h e r o f my g r a n d f a t h e r . . . 6  However, from the stood than  very  t h a t Karamzin with  beginning  of  the  story, i t is  i s c o n c e r n e d more w i t h h i s  serious historical  own  under-  imagination  facts:  I l o v e t o f l y on t h e s w i f t w i n g s o f i m a g i n a t i o n t o t h a t d i s t a n t o b s c u r i t y , t o s e e k my whiskered f o r e f a t h e r s beneath the canopy of long-decayed e l m s , t o chat w i t h them about adventures o f a n c i e n t t i m e s , about the c h a r a c t e r of the g l o r i o u s people of Russia . . . ' 6  It  should  time of  be  mentioned here that t h i s  when R u s s i a ' s  past  was  tale  was  b e c o m i n g more and  w r i t t e n at more a  interest: The a c h i e v e m e n t o f Y e a r s War a w a k e n e d a n  R u s s i a n arms i n t h e S e v e n i n t e r e s t i n the n a t i o n a l  a  source  71 p a s t a m o n g many R u s s i a n s . H i s t o r i e s were p u b l i s h e d a n d new h i s t o r i c a l j o u r n a l s i s s u e d . In the literary sphere, t h e f o l k t a l e s and f o l k songs were s t u d i e d . In prose, a less serious a t t i t u d e guided t h e e a r l y a p p r o a c h t o t h e past.^° It  i s true that  i n the introduction to  Karamzin promises t o w r i t e  a history:  with  bravely  a pen, I s h a l l  sketch  " . . .  "Natalia"  arming  myself  the history of Natalia,  69  the  boyar's  daughter."  continuation in  of Gessner's  a background  "Sweet S h e p h e r d . " heroine, product often  c o n t r a r y , was  re-worked  spiritually  c l e a r h i s f a t h e r ' s name. the Lithuanians.  falseness Natalia  idiom.  accused  of the accusation  "Natalia,"  on t h e  o f the adventure and  heroine,  lovers, beautiful  A l e k s e j , t h e son of a of treason,  the Tsar  against  a  and i n t h e s i m p l e ,  i s determined  He p r o v e s h i s b r a v e r y  Finally,  called  coloring of the  The h e r o  ideal  as w e l l as p h y s i c a l l y .  b o y a r who h a s b e e n w r o n g l y  with  life.  tradition  are noble,  place  a new p h e n o m e n o n ,  i n the peasant  i n a modern  written  and Aleksej i s a c t u a l l y  was e s s e n t i a l l y  of everyday  stories  a  / T h e i a c t i o n .takes  the sentimental  i n the earlier  Alekseg. and N a t a l i a ,  to  idylls.  o f t h e new i n t e r e s t events  of sentimental  of nature,  Despite  "Poor L i z a "  tragic,  novel,  Yet„the s t o r y i s , i n f a c t ,  of the tradition  the spirit  against  '  i n battle  discovers the  Aleksej's  f a t h e r , and  i s f o r g i v e n by h e r f a t h e r f o r e l o p i n g w i t h A l e k s e j . *T'hdsh<s.to£ya i sr«al<s& d ' i B f e r e n t y fr'om', - t r u l y -  -  sentimental  f i c t i o n " i n i t s us'e".;pfS'.irbhien.detachment a n d - p a r o d i c  devices.  Karamzin  was  influenced  by  Sterne's  technique, which  rupts  the n a r r a t i v e with digressions.  place  the personality  since  the n a r r a t o r i s none o t h e r than  this  helps  Sometimes such times  "Natalia" with  away i n t o  Karamzin  the  an  ironic  philosophical  and  and,  attitudes.  slant,  and  some-  thought.  apologizes for h i s frequent  gentle irony:  reader  to  author himself,  personality  d i g r e s s i o n s have  theyawander  Digressions serve  of the n a r r a t o r before the  t o e m p h a s i z e h i s own  inter-  " D e a r r e a d e r , f o r g i v e me  In  interruptions  for  this 7 0  digression. other  Not  o n l y S t e r n e was  situations,  a s l a v e o f h i s pen."  digressions help  the  author  In  to avoid  being  too e x p l i c i t i n descriptions of d e l i c a t e matters: The y o u n g h u s b a n d r e t u r n e d t o h i s b e l o v e d — helped her undress — t h e i r hearts beat — he t o o k h e r by h e r w h i t e hand... B u t my m o d e s t m u s e c o v e r s her face w i t h a white handkerchief — not a word! The h o l y c u r t a i n d e s c e n d s , h o l y and i m p e n e t r a b l e to curious eyes! "Natalia" the  author  is full  of parodying  explains Natalia's  "Where e l s e ,  i f not  i n church,  devices.  frequent v i s i t s  For to  example,  church:  could a curious lass  steal  72 glance  at people?"  ridicules  little  on y o u r is  i n another  example,  sentimental love f o r animals  grandmother): nor  Or,  . . your  f l y , and  nose  directed  ".  ..." at the  (referring  hand destroyed  the b u t t e r f l y 73 In the  always  following  frequent appearance  Karamzin' to  neither  mosquito  rested  peacefully  example, h i s of  the  tears:  irony  a  73 . . . and s u d d e n l y a d i a m o n d - l i k e tear, s p a r k l e d i n h e r r i g h t eye — t h e n a l s o i n h e r l e f t —- and b o t h rolled forth — one d r o p p e d on h e r bosom, and t h e o t h e r h e s i t a t e d on h e r b l u s h i n g c h e e k . . . 4  Alongside eighteenth "Natalia"  i s a story from the  contemporary  influence  of such  century, Karamzin  characters a  the use  reverted  t o an  dealing with motives  old  and  seventeenth century, but  form.  Numerous s c h o l a r s  of Karamzin's  nineteenth  t e c h n i q u e s , modern f o r t h e  "historical  actions  have s t u d i e d  tales"  story  UOstrovBBorngoMmi"  (The  on  by  Island  "The  From e a r l i e r  Island  sentimental stories  of Bornholm"  t a k e s one  of  the  Puskin. of  like  into  the  stories  Bornholm;  icZ9.4«)>srepres.entstaefurther s t a g e v e f o d e v e - i o p m e f l t i n writing.  of  compressed  century — - n o t a b l y Tales of B e l k i n  The  tradition.  Karamzin's  "Poor  more s t e p towards  Liza," roman-  ticism. The His  contemporaries  something had very  new  and  p u b l i s h e d i n Karamzin's  accepted i t with unusual  popular i n England. and  Florian's  He  had  of  fascination,  And  Aglaja.  f o r i t was Karamzin  the Gothic t a l e ,  already translated  "Valerie,"  supernatural elements.  descriptions  almanac  f o r a Russian reader.  introduced a Russian version  "Cordelia" and  s t o r y was  stories  i n "Poor  of the Simonov Monastery  with  Liza"  he  then Wieland's  mysterious had  t o awaken d r e a d  used i n the  reader.'5 In England this  genre  at this  were Horace  t i m e , the most p o p u l a r w r i t e r s  Walpole,  Clara  R e e v e , and  Anna  in  Radcliffe. Radcliffe "The  castle. Island  of Udolpho."  a persecuted  "The I s l a n d o f B o r n h o l m , " M r s .  "The S i c i l i a n  Romance o f t h e F o r e s t "  usually  (1791);  o f Bornholm"  Romance"  (1790) and  and l a t e r ,  i n 1 7 9 4 , "The  The c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n h e r s t o r i e s i s  young g i r l  K a r a m z i n was  who  i s confined  familiar with  represents  i n a  these works,  deserted  and "The  a successful adaptation  of  genre. The  giving  story  by a n a r r a t o r  same t e c h n i q u e  narrator  Julia,"  i s told  a u t h e n t i c i t y and g e n e r a t i n g  Thissisiethe the  Karamzin's  had published  Mysteries  this  Before  visits  the graves  "Poor L i z a , " The  story  from England. "Listen —  used  a feeling  of  i n Karamzin's o f h i s heroes  The n a r r a t o r tell  takes  place  person,  intimacy.  other  stories:  i n "Eugene and  and " N a t a l i a , t h e Boyar's  supposedly  I will  i n the first  Daughter."  on K a r a m z i n ' s  promises  to tell  you a story —  I will  a true tell  return  story:  you a  true  76 story,  not a figment On a s h o r e ,  o f my  imagination."  where h i s boat  from the wind, the n a r r a t o r  i s forced  t o take  shelter  meets  " a y o u n g man, t h i n , p a l e , 7 7/ languid — m o r e s p e c t e r t h a n man." The s e n s i t i v e n a r r a t o r d e t e c t s t h a t t h e y o u n g man i s v e r y u n h a p p y : Unfortunate y o u n g man: t h o u g h t I . Y o u h a v e been d e s t r o y e d by f a t e . I know n e i t h e r y o u r name n o r y o u r o r i g i n ; b u t I know t h a t y o u a r e u n h a p p y . ' 8 The  young s t r a n g e r The The  begins  to sing  l a w s condemn o b j e c t o f my  about h i s l o s t  love;  love:  75 B u t who, 0 h e a r t ! Oppose you? What Than What Than (This  law i s more s a c r e d ,your i n n a t e f e e l i n g s ? power i s s t r o n g e r l o v e and beauty?' ^ 7  song became v e r y  Eventually  popular  Gogol parodied  A s t h e s o n g g o e s o n , we held how  Danish  away f r o m  island  explore  the  with  the Russian  i t i n The Government  public. Inspector.)  learn that h i s beloved,  c a p t i v e on B o r n h o l m . he s a i l s  can  Lila,  The n a r r a t o r c o n t i n u e s ,  this  of Bornholm.  shore  and f i n a l l y  His curiosity  is  telling  reaches  leads  the  him t o  island:  I d o u b l e d my p a c e a n d s o o h n d r e w n e a r a l a r g e . G o t h i c b u i l d i n g , w h i c h was e n c i r c l e d by a deep moat and a h i g h w a l l . S i l e n c e reigned everywhere, i n t h e d i s t a n c e t h e s e a r o a r e d , -and t h e l a s t r a y of the evening l i g h t faded from the copper s p i r e s of the t o w e r s . ^ The  gates  of the castle  are f i n a l l y  opened by  "a t a l l  man  i n  81 black him to  dress,"  into  who  the castle.  takes  t h e n a r r a t o r by t h e hand and  Every  detail  of the castle  i s  leads  designed  s u s t a i n t h e f e e l i n g o f m y s t e r y and h o r r o r : I t was g l o o m y and d e s e r t e d e v e r y w h e r e . In the f i r s t h a l l , e n c i r c l e d w i t h i n by a G o t h i c c o l o n n a d e , hung a lamp and i t shed a weak d i m l i g h t upon a row o f g i l d e d p i l l a r s w h i c h h a d b e g u n t o c r u m b l e , worn by time . . , 8 2  Then t h e n a r r a t o r meets  t h e owner o f t h e c a s t l e ,  a  83 "venerable,  gray-haired  learns  that  this  only  castle."  8A '  o l d man,"  "eternal grief  F r o m t h e o l d man  he  dwells within the walls  The room w h e r e t h e n a r r a t o r i s t o s p e n d  of the  night  h a s an i r o n  lighted  door, with  by t h e f a i n t  "ancient weapons, which  r a y o f t h e moon t h r o u g h  were  the small  8 5 window." mares  During  about k n i g h t s  •[which] w i t h  garden:  rustling  i s d i s t u r b e d by n i g h t -----• 86 i n armor and " a ' h o r r i b l e winged monster 8 7  a roar  Because h i s sleep the  the night  sleep  and a s h r i e k f l e w  i s completely  " I entered  t o w a r d my b e d . "  broken, he takes  t h e dark  lane, beneath  a walk i n  t h e cover  of  a f e e l i n g o f p r o f o u n d awe, w a l k e d '8 8 deeper i n t o i t s darkness." Soon h e comes t o a c a v e w i t h a wide i r o n door. He o p e n s t h e d o o r a n d " i n a c o r n e r o n a b e d 89 o f s t r a w l a y a p a l e y o u n g woman i n a b l a c k d r e s s . " "Had " an  oaks,  his  artist  and w i t h  wished  t o portray  a languishing, endless,  constant  90 grief the  —  comments t h e n a r r a t o r ,  u n f o r t u n a t e . H i s  innocence,  "touched by t h e s i g h t o f  s e n s i t i v e heart  b u t t h e woman r e f u s e s  i s sure  h i so f f e r  o fh e r  o f h e l p : "You,  p e r h a p s , k n o w my s t o r y , b u t i f y o u d o n o t , 92  then  me —  He l e a v e s t h e  f o r God's s a k e ,  d o n o t a s k . . ."  woman w h o s e s t o r y h e s t i l l  d o e s n o t know.  do n o t a s k  Later  t h e o l d man  alludes t o ". . . a m o s t h o r r i b l e s t o r y — a story which you w i l l n o t h e a r n o w , my f r i e n d ; i t w i l l w a i t u n t i l another time. T h i s t i m e I s h a l l t e l l y o u one t h i n g o n l y , t h a t I have found t h e s e c r e t o f t h e Gravesend stranger — a terrible secret. From a s e r i e s o f h i n t s assume t h a t  t h e young s t r a n g e r  possibly brother  and a l l u s i o n s t h e reader c a n and t h e i m p r i s o n e d  a n d s i s t e r , who came i n t o  girl  disastrous,  were  conflict with  their  Nebel,  i n h i s N.  traces  the  incident in a  the  in  M.  maiden  "Oithona,"  island.  In  narrator's u s e d by  of  a father's  "Songs o f  as  Ossian  standing  before  heroine  "Carthon," dream i n  influence  A  the  the  a  upon  night;  and  the  a device to  found  deserted  separated;  i n the  gleam of  season of  on  of Bornholm,"  evident  is  a moonlit  imprisoned also  similar  F i n g a l comes  a c a v e on  are  H.  daughter  a direct relation  i s also  s i l e n c e , the  Karamzin.  i s also  Island  society.  Sentimentalist,  "Cath-Loda,"  lovers  "The  with  toward h i s  In  elements: moonlit, n i g h t , cliffs,  on  Selam."  the  as  Russian  animosity  Karamzin, suggests  Ossian's  well  Karamzin, A  influence  of  captive  family  often  Ossian.  descriptive  candles,  year being  terrible autumn,  and  9 4 so  on. "What a h o l i d a y  I wanted t o  see  but  my  his  Letters while  ship.  g a z e was  the  Ossian  wild  lost  reading  on  this  The  to  and  a foreign  in  the  in  Spain,  Norway on 9 5 says  the  of  Bornholm"  assume t h e  with port  side,  Karamzin  i s not  on  Ossian!  in  board  mentioned  direct influence  in  of  story.  country  second p a r t a  filled  t r a n s l a t i n g Ossian  popular p r a c t i c e of  in  of  darkness,"  Island  i t is possible  imagination,  shores  i n the  A l t h o u g h , "The  Letters,  f o r my  country  continues  of  Aglaja  s e t t i n g the  plot  of  i n " S i e r r a , Morena," in  1795.  conventionally  The  story  assumed t o  a  story  published  takes  nourish  place strong  78 passions.  This  one  central  of  the  Elviza shipwreck. with  time  and  The  Elviza.  the  Alonzo  which  range from i n i t i a l  broken the  narrator gives  she  her  accepts  us  an  n u n n e r y , and  false,  the  falls  of  to ultimate  as  a  On  the  appears  and,  commits s u i c i d e .  young t r a v e l l e r  of  in  love  feelings,  of  the  after Elviza  is left  a  sentimental  marriage,  because she  day  by  disillusion-  proposal  conscience  promise to Alonzo.  of being  elements  traveller's  unexpectedly  separated  a n a l y s i s o f h i s own  happiness  the  are  traveller,  typical  s u f f e r s pangs of  l o s t Alonzo  Elviza  l o v e r s who  narrator, a Russian  the  although  are  Following the  Elviza  involved  characters.  tale,  ment.  narrator i s directly  has  wedding, accusing retires  to  t o wander the  a  world  alone. This first fate —  of  story differs  a l l , the  he the  characters  a step back  adventure novel. remains  from previous  to the  On  the  do  older  other  a sentimental hero,  e a r l y romantic  he  l o v e s , he  of  people  rebel.  travels  and  not  sentimental  h a v e any  technique  power o v e r  typical  hand, the  narrator,  possesses  certain  After being becomes  "the  tales:  of  their the  although  features  r e j e c t e d by  the  p l a y t h i n g of  the  woman malice  9 6' dark"  once  f o r him,  l o v e d by he  me."  is full  A l l the  of melancholy  world  i s "cold  and b i t t e r n e s s :  Cold world! I have l e f t you! Mad b e i n g s called men, I have l e f t you! Rage i n y o u r w i l d f r e n z i e s , t e a r and m u r d e r e a c h o t h e r o t h e r ! My h e a r t i s d e a d f o r y o u and y o u r f a t e d o e s n o t move i t . 9 ^ -  of  and  79  Nebel, i n h i s ^ r k ' ' o n ' j < a r a r a | i n ^ - r e m i n d s 8  ; f  retirement  of the hero  nunnery)  i s a device  of  a r e found  which  o gore  further  close  i n older Russian tales,  (Tale o f Sorrow  to a  examples  tales  "Povest'  and M i s f o r t u n e ) and  d o s t o i n a k u p c a Fomy G r u d c y n a o s y n e e g o S a v v e "  (Tale o f Savva, This  found  (or the heroine  i n the seventeenth-century  i zlopastii"  "Povest'  t o a monastery  us t h a t t h e  S o n o f t h e Worthy M e r c h a n t F o m a G r u d c y n ) .  strengthens  interest  our understanding  i n the culture  One o f K a r a m z i n ' s  of  Karamzin's  o f a bygone e r a .  finest  stories  i s . "Jiulija"  (Julia).  Here he d e p i c t s t h e m a t u r i n g  process  development o f h i s h e r o i n e .  At the beginning of the story  Julia  i s presented  herself. of for  the first  izing  comedies  the l i f e  of high  she i s surrounded time  the person,  Legkoum  a s a b e a u t i f u l woman i n t e r e s t e d  She e n j o y s  h e r beauty  uses  and because  b y many a d m i r e r s .  "meaningful"  journals.  (Lightminded), another Pustoslov  society,  only i n  Karamzin  names, names c h a r a c t e r -  a d e v i c e common dim e i g h t e e n t h * - c e n t u r y  and s a t i r i c a l  another,  of the psychological  (Idleword).  One o f J u l i a ' s  Xrabron  Russian  suitors i s  (Courageous)  and  Among a l l h e r s u i t o r s  s t i l l  Julia  finally  f a v o r s A r i s t a y o u n g man w h o h a d b e e n e d u c a t e d i n  foreign  lands,nnbtbbyhMredstutors b u t by h i sw i s e  father"  - and whose " u s e f u l  his  virtuous principles  soul,  and p l e a s a n t knowledge h i sheart."  1 0 0  '  and t e n d e r adorned  Their love i s  t h r e a t e n e d b y t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e y o u n g P r i n c e N*, who i s  80 "aristocratic, Julia,  rich  can r e s i s t  and h a n d s o m e . "  h i s charm.  women, f o r s h e g a i n s long.  the Prince's  excitements  In h i s f a r e w e l l l e t t e r want t o l o v e  i n my  No woman, n o t e v e n  She i s l u c k i e r  P r i n c e N* i s . a s e l f i s h  new p l e a s u r e s ,  1 0 1  other  attention, but not f o r  hedonist:  constantly  a n d new e m o t i o n a l  to Julia  than  he t e l l s  fashion, t o love  seeking  experiences.  h e r : "You d i d n o t  f o rthe pleasure  of love 102  —  t o love while  Julia  then  period they  you are i n love;  returns  of their  are very  to Aris,  married  happy.  life  Again,  and so —  and they i s spent  farewell!"  are married.  The  i n the country,  as i n p r e v i o u s  first where  sentimental  s t o r i e s , n a t u r e t a k e s p a r t i n human e m o t i o n s : I t seemed t h a t N a t u r e h e r s e l f t o o k p a r t i n t h e i r j o y s : she bloomed there i n a l l t h e expanse o f h e r gardens. The s w e e t s m e l l o f j a s m i n e a n d l i l i e s o f - t h e - v a l l e y was e v e r y w h e r e ; n i g h t i n g a l e s and robins sang everywhere; the incense o f love burned everywhere, and e v e r y t h i n g p l e a s u r a b l e nourished the love o f our conjugal p a i r . With  t h e change o f s e a s o n , when "gloomy  tiful  .in and  summer,"  the field  1 0 4  Julia's  and garden  "everything  autumn f o l l o w s  mood a l s o c h a n g e s .  faded,  became s o sad,"  t h e greenery Julia  As  grew  beau-  "the flowers 10 5 pale"  becomes b o r e d  with  country  life,: The human h e a r t i s i n s a t i a b l e ; i t c o n s t a n t l y d e s i r e s s o m e t h i n g n e w , new i m p r e s s i o n s , w h i c h l i k e t h e m o r n i n g dew r e f r e s h i t s i n n e r f e e l i n g s a n d g i v e t h e m new s t r e n g t h . 1 0 7  Julia a busy  insists social  on r e t u r n i n g t o t h e c i t y , life.  where she c a r r i e s  Among h e r many g u e s t s ,  P r i n c e N*  on  appears  81 again.  Julia,  now  the  virtuous wife  a d e s i r a b l e p r i z e i n the that  Julia  sets  out  on  ficiality accepts  has a  of  the  Prince's  disappointed long  her  him  journey.  Julia  her  husband.  a nobleman,  game.  again,  f e e l i n g s f o r the  loss of  of  When A r i s he  now  becomes  leaves  learns  her  recognizes  the  p r i n c e , and  in  She  to the  returns  and super-  grief country:  My r u r a l c o t t a g e ! I c o u l d have been happy w i t h i n y o u r q u i e t w a l l s , b u t k n e w n o t how t o b e ; I l e f t you w i t h a t e n d e r , most worthy husband. I r e t u r n alone, a poor widow, but w i t h a heart that loves v i r t u e . 1  After to her  becoming  her  son.  0  8  a mother, J u l i a  She  becomes  motherhood w i t h  fully  enjoys  close to nature,  devoting  which  herself  celebrates  her:  Now J u l i a h u r r i e d t o s h o w h e r s m a l l d a r l i n g a l l Nature. I t seemed t o h e r t h a t t h e sun shone more b r i g h t l y on him; t h a t e v e r y t r e e b e n t t o embrace him; t h a t t h e b r o o k l e t c a r e s s e d him w i t h i t s p u r l i n g ; t h a t t h e l i t t l e b i r d s and b u t t e r f l i e s f l u t t e r e d and s p o r t e d f o r h i s amusement. I am a m o t h e r , s h e t h o u g h t , a n d w a l k e d t h r o u g h t h e meadow at a b r i s k e r p a c e . 1 0 9  At  the  end  of  the  story, Aris,  several years  i n foreign lands,  are  and  re-united In  ending  and  although the  extremes  beginning  not  of  thus:  place  happily  story Karamzin of  a sentimental  described did  this  live  the "He  looked on  on  to Julia.  for  Thus  they  together. avoids  the  from  his heart  for Julia  a f a r , he  with  a  sad  Aris,  self-possessed.  admiration her  sentimentally  exaggeration.  i s rather  story his  h i s hands  returns  sentimental hero,  a f t e r wandering  is  d i d not  languid  At  sigh,  moan."  82 The  most s i g n i f i c a n t  Karamzin's Julia's  artistic  progress  she  grows  into  way  through  career  contribution  to maturity.  she pays  heart her the  and e v i l  From  an i r r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r her mistakes, Her b a s i c  finally  girl  and h e r m i n d , when she  finds  recognizing  Her  the balance  On  and b e a r s  goodness  save her.  comes when she f i n d s  son, f i n a l l y  to  i s h i s achievement i n d e p i c t i n g  consequences w i t h d i g n i t y .  conversion  story  a m a t u r e woman a n d a d e v o t e d m o t h e r .  life  sense o f good  of this  and  her  the  natural  ultimate  between  her  happiness i n l i v i n g  the s u p e r f i c i a l i t y  for  of l i f e  in  city: The p l e a s u r e s w h i c h J u l i a h a d a t one t i m e s o u g h t i n s o c i e t y now s e e m e d t o h e r a n i n s i g n i f i c a n t , d e c e p t i v e phantom i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e s u b s t a n t i a l n o u r i s h i n g d e l i g h t of motherhood.  Belief already  i n the superiority been  "Poor L i z a , " of  city  of country  expoundedi>in e a r l i e r where  life,  life  over c i t y  stories,  life  f o r instance, i n  Karamzin mentions the corrupting  a motif  often  repeated  had  influence  throughout h i s  literary  career. Both S i p o v s k i j  1 1 0 ,  and N e b e l  similarity  between  divorce."  There t o o a young w i f e  but  after  being  her  husband.  "Julia"  Karamzin, s i m i l a r i t i e s "Julia"  was  ' point  and M a r m o n t e l ' s  disillusioned  In another  1 1 1  by  longs  t o the works  published  close  "L'Heureux  f o r romantic  o t h e r men,  scholarly  t o the  w o r k , P.  she r e t u r n s Brang f i n d s ,  o f A n t o n Wall.-'-- -  i n 1796,  love,  1  although  2  i t was  to in  83 completed third  i n 1794.  The s t o r y was i n t e n d e d  v o l u m e o f A g l a j a , w h i c h was n e v e r The  stories  "Rycar'  t o appear  published.  nasego vremeni"  Time) , " C u y s t v i f e e l i ' ; n y j i i ^ x o l d d n y ' j " and "Moja i s p o v e d ' "  (My C o n f e s s i o n ) ,  aspect  of Karamzin*s  A l l three  psychological differs again  i n each.  acts  events  tive  as an i n t e r m e d i a r y  i s shifted  on being  stories.  sketches,  I n "A K n i g h t  of the story.  narrator insist  character  •indicates  his  hero,  eleven. child," (for  that  o f view.  t o analyze Leon,  between t h e reader  position,  "man o f f e e l i n g "  and t h e  i s very  and he does n o t  o f Karamzin's  earlier  different,"from the narra-  The s u b t i t l e ,  "Letter to the Editor," The t i t l e  o f t h e w o r k was  child  psychology.  the l i t t l e  and n o t e v e r y t h i n g  between Leon  i s the first  attempt  Karamzin  f r o m t h e moment o f h i s b i r t h  example, Leon's  between  technique  b y R o u s s e a u ' s L e s n C on f e s s i o n s..  Although  respects.  with  o f Our Time," t h e n a r r a t o r  t o a more e p i c  "A K t i i g h t o f O u r T i m e " literature  deal  different  but the narrative  t h e form o f t h e s t o r y .  influenced  and t h e  show a  stories  o f Our  I n "The S e n s i t i v e a n d t h e C o l d " t h e ,  "My C o n f e s s i o n "  point  (A K n i g h t  (The S e n s i t i v e  Cold),  art.  i nt h e  rescue  hero  i s an u n b e l i e v a b l y  a bear,  and Countess M i r o v a ) ,  and environment.  "ideal  i s convincing  or ther e l a t i o n s h i p  i ti s v a l u a b l e  Karamzin brings^puttfeheqquestion">6f'the  character  follows  t o t h e age o f  related i n the story from  i n Russian  i n many dependence  i n t h e s t o r y he r e f e r s  84 to  Locke's  belief  that  the soul  o f a new-born c h i l d  is  like  113 a white sheet of paper. his  mother's  tender  decides both the  love.  fate  and  Leon's  s o u l was  mother  i s d e s c r i b e d as  toward  melancholy.  death  provincial first an  of  years  avid  reads  formed  is a tragic  and  f o r L e o n as w e l l  Karamzin mainly  library.  mind, such  of a 114  Karamzin F r o m an  Leon's a  tendency  mother.  Her  for his father,  early  age  n o v e l s , on  Concerning the  effect  i s d e s c r i b e d by  soul, which  ripens  a  describes the he  himself i n his youth,  adventure  literature  f o r a young  as  always  person.  for love."  represents the i d e a l  F u r t h e r on,  Like  h i s mother's  "a hothouse  love,  with  upbringing almost  the main q u a l i t i e s  of Leon's e d u c a t i o n .  reader.  i s inscribed  a t e n d e r , l o v i n g woman w i t h  loss  nobleman.  soul  "Initial  by  She  a l lthe books,  child's  Leon's  was  Leon  the  shelves  of t h i s  Karamzin  prematurely  on  a  as from  115 such r e a d i n g . " Another In  a letter  character i n the story  she w r i t e s  relationship with age of the  and  t o a f r i e n d , we  her husband.  temperament, Countess  a suitor  and  fulfillment  remains of her  i s the Countess about  her  Despite the difference Mirova resists  faithful life  learn  Mirova.  the temptation  t o her husband.  i n the role  in  of Leon's  She  finds  adoptive  mother. The Chapter  story  i s divided  II consists  of ten  into  eight  lines,  and  chapters, of Chapter  IV  "was  which written  85 only in  f o r C h a p t e r V."  V: K. K j u x e l ' b e k e r  t h e i r works d i s c u s s  and V i c t o r S k l o v s k i j  1 1 6  the influence of Sterne  v  on  this  117 particular  story.  "The attempts The  S e n s i t i v e and t h e C o l d "  at the psychological understanding  " s e n s i t i v e " hero Erast  many r e s p e c t s The  i s portrayed  a continuation  "cold" hero Leonid  contrast with and  Erast,  o f Leon  follows  only  of Karamzin's  of  character.  as an i d e a l i s t , i n  from t h e l a s t  i s a prudent type  friendship i s described  their  i s another  o f man w h o , i n  h i s reason.  from t h e i r  becoming government o f f i c i a l s .  Their  life  early school  days t o  Karamzin uses  and c o n t r a s t  love  and h i s i n t e r e s t i n h i s t o r y remind us o f  Karamzin himself, less,  despite  remains  that  gust  as Leon's  characters.  small  events t o depict f o r reading  their  atory.  childhood  does.  some b i o g r a p h i c a l c o i n c i d e n c e s , Karamzin's  Erast's  Neverthe-  the fact  i n t e n t i o n wastftotwrfte  fiction,  not  autobiography. Artistically, of  t h e two.  geois  heroes  indifferent and  Leonid  He c o u l d  be considered  i n Russian t o others:  i n d i f f e r e n c e was  through h i s l i f e t i m e .  He g o e s t h r o u g h  "To h i m n o n - s u f f e r i n g  Erast  bourlife  meant enjoyment, 118 J  o f wisdom.,"  of h i s wives,  love but only  character  one o f t h e f i r s t  literature.  the talisman  even moved by t h e d e a t h He d o e s n o t r e s p e c t  i s .the m o r e c o n v i n c i n g  He i s n o t  chilclferi or f r i e n d s .  fame, w h i c h he  i s a typical  man  of  gathers feeling,  86 constantly source his  seeking happiness  of excitement  money  as w e l l  Leonid's who  i s the hero  the  story  and l o v e .  Any change i s a  f o r h i m , a new e x p e r i e n c e .  as h i s h e a l t h .  Finally  He  squanders  he d i e s f o r g o t t e n .  character i s similar  t o t h a t o f t h e Count  o f "My C o n f e s s i o n . "  As a l r e a d y  i s i n t h e form  of a letter.  mentioned,  I t i s an  interesting  self-portrait  o f a y o u n g a n d i m m o r a l a r i s t o c r a t who,  a  i s more r e a l  caricature,  heroes.  Like Leonid,  indifferent allows  any o t h e r  t h e Count  to the fate  him t o l i v e  than  leads  of others.  o f Karamzin's  an e g o t i s t i c a l  The l a c k  and a c t as he does.  of  He a d m i t s  without  regret that h i sunfaithfulness to h i swife Emilia  the  cause o f h e r death.  person."  for  "Nature  change.  have  produced case,  lived  and a c r i t i c i s m  nobility.  The s t o r y  and r e p r e s e n t s  creative  had he t h e chance t o without  special live  any d e s i r e  satire  of the uselessness  on  gentry  of the Russian  i n t h e Messenger o f Europe i n  t h e peak o f Karamzin's  popularity  and  writing.  lovers of history  (Martha  t h e M a y o r e s s ) was  and o f t a l e s , "  Karamzin's best-known s t o r i e s , written  as a c o m p l e t e l y  i s a realistic  appeared  "Marfa-posadnica" "for  me  t h e same l i f e ,  "My C o n f e s s i o n "  education,  1802,  was  He a l s o c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f t o b e a n  As i n L e o n i d ' s  a g a i n , he would  life,  conscience  any  e x c e p t i o n a l man:  although  after  written  and became one o f "Poor L i z a . "  i n 1 8 0 3 , d u r i n g a t i m e when K a r a m z i n  was  I t was seriously  87 concerned w i t h lished  an e s s a y  H i s t o r y , which might  Russian history.  "On t h e I n c i d e n t s and C h a r a c t e r s i n R u s s i a n May P r o v i d e S u b j e c t s f o r t h e A r t s "  be r e g a r d e d as a t h e o r e t i c a l  tion  f o r an a t t e m p t  1803  another essay  the  Mayoress  from  of Igor"  history. of  anecdotes Russian  esting  o f t h e importance  reader about  and l i v e l y  popularize  Besides  o f "The  i n Russian  he i n f o r m e d t h e r e s e a r c h and  i n making h i s a r t i c l e s made h i m t h e f i r s t  interto  history.  h i sserious  "Martha  t h e Mayoress,"  a  "based  story  should  songs, and  of historical  i n a way w h i c h  Russian  interest  Martha  t o see the importance  In h i sarticles  He s u c c e e d e d  I n June  Mention  proverbs, folk  the results  justifica-  of the discovery  aroused wide  and p r e s e r v i n g  which  " I n f o r m a t i o n on  was one o f t h e f i r s t  of the past.  documentation.  entitled  tale.  o f S t . Tosima."  (1795), which  —  and p a t r i o t i c  a historical  appeared,  Karamzin  collecting  to write  the Life  a l s o b e made h e r e Tale  I n December 1802 he pub-  with  historical  r e s e a r c h , he c r e a t e d  the subtitle  "A h i s t o r i c a l  on one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t h a p p e n i n g s  tale," of  119 Russian history." old  Here t h e n a r r a t o r  manuscript written  witnessed  the events.  has  "corrected  and  that  But  despite  by a Novgorodian The e d i t o r  only i t s obscure  " a l l t h e main events certain  historical  i s the editor b o y a r who  o f an  allegedly  assures the reader that  and u n i n t e l l i g i b l e  are historically facts,  "Martha  he  language" 121  accurate." t h e Mayoress"  1  88 is  not history  event: in  but f i c t i o n .  t h e conquest  1478.  The m a i n  In Karamzin's  The s t o r y  of the free  city  deals with  an  actual  o f Novgorod by Ivan I I I  character, Martha,  i s the city's  spokesman.  w o r d s , s h e was  . . . a w o n d e r f u l woman w h o k n e w how t o command . tMieppepplea^aridwwishedtfcob Republic. B e f o r e h e r h u s b a n d d i e d s h e swore an oa'th t o b e " t h e e t e r n a l e n e m y o f t h e u s u r p e r s o f Novgorodian freedom."1^2 Martha her  i s a p a s s i o n a t e woman, w h o s e a c t i o n s a r e m o t i v a t e d b y  patriotic  against ation from  Ivan  fanaticism. I I I , and when  she has t o choose between  and war, she p r e f e r s t o f i g h t . Pskov  does n o t come, and h e l p  Lithuania  and t h e K i n g  patriotic  reasons.  disaster. is  As mayoress, she leads her people  After  sentenced  of Poland  The h o p e d - f o r  offeredbby  t o death.  i s r e f u s e d by Martha, f o r  the city  capitulates,  Contrary t o h i s t o r i c a l  hanged b e f o r e masses o f people. i s a tragic  heroine  support  the Prince of  R e c k l e s s l y she leads h e r people  the battle  humili-  into  and  fact,  Martha she i s  Bravely she accepts h e r  fate.  Martha  people  was t h e f i r s t  people  and o f n a t i o n s i s t h e s e c r e t o f P r o v i d e n c e , b u t o u r  interest  f o r whom t h e f a t e  of her l i f e :  of her  "The f a t e o f  123 actions She  depend s o l e l y  dies proudly  "Subjects As with  and h e r l a s t words  of Ivan!  t o the people a r e :  I I d i e as a c i t i z e n  a historical  "Natalia,  on o u r s e l v e s , and t h a t i s enough."  tale,  the Boyar's  "Martha  Daughter,"  o f Novgorod."-'-  t h e Mayoress" I f "Natalia"  24  compares i s a  89 pastoral  tale with  some h i s t o r i c a l  coloration,,then  "Martha" 12 5  can  be termed  a historical  Martha's daughter, Natalia, ful  although  as t h a t  heroine,  found  with  pastoral coloration.  h a s many t h i n g s  the depiction of Ksenia Ksenia  and i n n o v e n t .  young s t r a n g e r , warrior.  Ksenia,  of Natalia.  pure  tale  She a l s o  " i n swaddling  i s surrounded clothes  with  i s n o t as  i s a typical  M i r o s l a v , who, l i k e  His origin  i n common  falls  success-  sentimental i n love with  a  A l e k s e j , i s a brave i n mystery,  on t h e i r o n  steps  f o r he was o f Vadim's  126 Court." Ivan  From t h e f a c t t h a t  I I I and t h a t  comes t o v i s i t the  Tsar's  depicted  h i s grave,  son.  The l o v e  i n a sentimental  Miroslav's side.  later,  death.  Ksenia  The c h a r a c t e r s  as w e l l  as t h e i r  Miroslav  a f t e r h i s death t h e reader  to k i l l  i nbattle,  can guess  manner, i s t r a g i c a l l y herself dies  love  later  and M i r o s l a v  Ivan  that  s t o r y between M i r o s l a v  of Ksenia  whole  refuses  he was  and  Ksenia,  ended by  a t h e r mother's are f i c t i o n a l ,  story; Martha d i d e x i s t  as a  historical  figure, but her portrayal i s the result of  Karamzin's  imagination.  the  spokesman, and Isaac  Tsar's  historical the  figures.  motivation  t o h e r husband  behind  Boreckij  as P r i n c e  Xolmskij,  are modelled  after  Martha's i s  K a r a m z i n shows t h e p s y c h o -  her actions, which  and h e r people.  and l i f e l e s s .  such  Among a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s ,  most s u c c e s s f u l l y p o r t r a y e d .  logical  pale  Characters  The o t h e r  In comparison with  i sher  characters  devotion are  N a t a l i a , Ksenia i s  90 depicted  less clearly,  Ksenia's  role  character  of  i s only her  stories  narrative "Martha" view  of  by  tone the  best  works  Karamzin's fifteen all  years,  published  he  with  short  story  h i s works  the  and  key  discussed  above  of  short  composed Russian  in style  later  and  that  main  created  Gothic  tale  are  the  stories.  point a  Russian  more o r  into some  in of  generally  and  republished  in  1820.  the  reading  genre of  the  public.  From  e v o l u t i o n of  "man  of  originally  later  senti-  peasant s t o r y ,  less  of  highly  important  stories,  popularized  the  in  Over a p e r i o d  1814  narrator, a  "The  created  most  i s a sentimental  the  stories  From the  They w e r e  f o l l o w the  and  from  h i s t o r y continued  i n 1803,  a wide  The  evoking  on  tone  even humorous,  aiLmanacs, and  and  and  M a y o r e s s " was  a number o f  introduced  characters.  The  N a t a l i a i s the  in Kisaearlier  readers.  environment  figure,  remembered  Ale-ksaridr P u s k i n  genre..  "Poor L i z a "  idealized  modelled  and  i t i s possible to  mentalism. its  based  collected tales  Karamzin  be  patriotic.  of t h i s  in journals  volumes of  and  and  Fiction  collection  popular  While  is lofty  century,  examples  The  differs  h i s t o r y , "Martha the  i n f l u e n t i a l work.  the  Mayoress"  i s sentimental  literary  nineteenth  secondary, while  Karamzin.  tone  the  i t should  story.  "Martha the other  although  with  simplistically of  feeling,"  reader's  responses.  I s l a n d of  Bornholm"  presents  is  91 another type of creation set  by K a r a m z i n ,  i n which  f a rfrom t h e homeland, and t h e n a r r a t o r  the plot i s  i s actually  one  of t h e protagonists. Another "psychological  type o f story sketch,"  could be c l a s s i f i e d  i n which  the importance o f environment  is  Time,"  author's author  changed.  " I " i s r e p l a c e d b y "we."  The torical  last  tale,"  events. and  The p o s i t i o n  I n "The S e n s i t i v e  as n a r r a t o r w i t h d r a w s type o f story  "Martha  nineteenth All aesthetic  stories,  t h e Mayoress"  and t h e C o l d , " t h e  completely. could be defined  "Natalia,  these stories  use certain  common  ofthe  as s u b j e c t i v i s m ,  and p r e f e r e n c e f o rc e r t a i n  sentimental  pastoral  seasons,  i n the psychology o f h i s characters  lesser  Daughter"  l e d t h e way f o r w r i t e r s  interest  peasants,  historical  t h e Boyar's  T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t common f e a t u r e  His  as t h e " h i s -  on c e r t a i n  spring.  depiction  of the narrator  century.  devices such  landscape,  Here  I n "My C o n f e s s i o n , " t h e  a f i c t i o n a l work based  Of such  t o assess  a n d t h e C o l d , " "A K n i g h t o f  a n d "My C o n f e s s i o n . "  greatly  attempts  o n human c h a r a c t e r .  c o u l d b e p l a c e d "The S e n s i t i v e Our  Karamzin  as t h e  of their range such  generally  i s Karamzin"s and t h e  emotions.  embraces  as L i z a  nobility,  coloring of  such  all  kinds of characters:  and h e r mother, and F r o l as J u l i a ,  Aris,  and E r a s t ;  idealized  S i l i n ; the contemporary  provincial nobility as n o b i l i t y and  from  even Tsar  ( a s i n "A  the past  Ivan  K n i g h t o f Our  Time")  ("Natalia the Boyar's  I I I ("Martha t h e  Mayoress").  as  we  Daughter  B:  K A R A M Z I N ' S L E T T E R S OF  Karamzin's of  a Russian  sentimental the b e s t  publish first  Traveller) journey.  literary  Even though  Pis''"ma r u s s k o g o i s an  not  h i s impressions  to capture  public.  the  t o him  were very  popular  the  first  imagination of  style  approach,  and  factual  i n the  Russian was  Russian  i t i s among  the  Russian  and  i n f o r m a t i o n , t o a n e c d o t e and  reading were  for travel  lesser  and  the  translated,  century.  greater or  Russia.  to record  certainly  for his Letters,  eighteenth  giving  a  of eighteenth-century  o f E u r o p e , he  as m o d e l s  (Letters  example of  "Poor L i z a , "  Many f o r e i g n w o r k s , o r i g i n a l  available  TRAVELLER  putesestvennika  with  achievements was  RUSSIAN  excellent  Together  Karamzin  A  books  They v a r i e d emphasis  adventure,  in  to  or to  subjec-  127 tive  impressions  that  Karamzin  and  digressive  there  Sterne's  are  (see the unique  letter  of  Sterne's  Calais),  m i g h t be  Sterne  "the  Though  though  in  he  Letters  s e n t i m e n t a l mannerisms  Karamzin's L e t t e r s  examined  i n f o r m a t i o n about  (reflecting journey),  of  and  to  i s quite  original.  Letters source  Sentimental Journey,  from  him  eighteenth century."  reminiscences  and  I t was  t u r n e d most f r e q u e n t l y , c a l l i n g  greatest master of the admired  fancy.  the  and  life  i n two  as  an  first,  as  a  i n major European c o u n t r i e s  educational motives  second,  ways:  behind  example of  Karamzin's  sentimentalism.  Essentially, of which tained part  covers  by  the  differs  different  of  is  main-  Karamzin himself.  style,  f o r he  Each,  followed  country.  i s pEeoccupiedcmainly with  philosophers  conversations  with  meeting  he  admires.  Here  Kant, Herder, Weisse,  P l a t n e r , M o r i t z , R a m l e r and part  Unity  each  Germany, g i v i n g p r e c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n s  t h e w r i t e r s and  records  traveller,  i n t o n e , manner and  men"  into four parts,  Karamzin v i s i t e d .  sentimental  G e r m a n y , he  great  all  a country  is divided  i n t e r e s t s i n each  In "the  Letters  Wieland.  i s more s c h o l a r l y t h a n t h a t  of  Thus, the the  parts  of  he  Nicolai, tone  on  of  this  France  and  Switzerland. In h i s d e s c r i p t i v e techniques, concerned with a person's  physiognomy  character.  Moscow I l i k e d  to  as  "You  study  Karamzin  a source  k n o w , my  faces,  to  of  somewhat  information  friend,  seek  i s  that  about  even  a likeness  in  where  1 O Q  others 17 8 9 ,  find He  n o n e , and  so  on.  refers to Lavater's  In  the  letter  Physiognomical  of  July  7,  Fragments:  With regard to N i c o l a i ' s appearance, although there i s nothing p a r t i c u l a r l y attractive i n i t , there i s something worthy of respect. He i s t a l l , s p a r e , and s w a r t h y . Lavater claims that N i c o l a i ' s h i g h f o r e h e a d i n d i c a t e s an e x c e e d i n g l y w i s e p e r s o n . This  method  i s used  Karamzin's of and  a student lack of  rather  frequently  approach to  to his  teacher.  comprehension of  "the There their  throughout h i s  great  men"  work.  i s often  i s a mixture philosophies.  of  1 3 0  that  adoration  More  than  being  i n t e r e s t e d i n the  differing  among t h e m s e l v e s , K a r a m z i n that  unite  with  Nicolai  own  them.  For  that divide  i s concerned with  example, the  about the  idealistic  views  Berlin  the  men  qualities  philosophical discussion  J e s u i t s ends w i t h  Karamzin's  conclusion:  F o r me a t r u e p h i l o s o p h e r i s o n e who k n o w s how t o l i v e a t p e a c e w i t h e v e r y o n e , who l o v e s even t h o s e who d o n o t a g r e e w i t h h i s way o f t h i n k i n g . One s h o u l d p o i n t o u t t h e e r r o r s o f h u m a n r e a s o n w i t h z e a l but without malice. T e l l a man that he i s i n e r r o r and why, b u t do n o t r e v i l e h i s h e a r t and c a l l h i m a f o o l . 1  As  a true  where f o r "the great He  man"  he  Weisse:  "Every  him  "great  and  line  Herder:  the  man"  of  his  and  bespeaks with  " H e r d e r met  so  before  gentle me  me  that  only  same p u r p o s e was  I  himself,  with  and  a  a  that  "the  was  life.  accepted  his meeting a good  by  with  soul!  He  simplicity."132  0  i n the  hall,  entrance  forgot the  a kind,  friendly  great  n  his  author  man."  Karamzin's d e s c r i p t i o n of  i n family surroundings, spirit  every-  i n h i s everyday  describes  face  looking  his belief  w i t h w h i c h he  Thus he  k i n d l y , warmly  saw  a great  father  justify  simplicity  h i s m a n n e r was  To  of  the  interviewed.  meeting w i t h  in  to  i s n e c e s s a r i l y a g o o d man  r e c e i v e d me  and  1  s e n t i m e n t a l i s t , K a r a m z i n was  good h e a r t "  appreciated  those  3  s t r e s s i n g the  loving heart:  "He  l o v i n g f a t h e r , who  has  combination  [Weisse] devoted  is  a  his  134 life  to the  education  Karamzin's  of young  hearts.  essential attitude —  seeking  the  his  "real  man"  i n t h e man  following:  c a n be  "In short,  a u t h o r , now,  sufficiently  i f formerly  h a v i n g met  him  illustrated  by  I loved Weisse,  i n person, I love  the  the  even  more  135 t h e man."' -  Weisse,  Through Karamzin land.  —  the writings  approached  Rousseau  of Gessner, H a l l e r  the b e a u t i e s of the  and  Rousseau,  landscape of  pervades  a l lof Karamzin's  heart —  and  view  of  Switzer-  life. 13  With he  " j o y i n my  visited  jthe s p o t s w h e r e  Rousseau's  H & l o i s e i n my  "the immortal Rousseau  hand"  placed his  13*7 romantic top,  lovers."  feeling  about  "  Like  the nearness  Rousseau, o f God,  death, f o r "the fear  turning  describes  p r a y s on  a  thinking without  mountain fear  of death i s a consequence 13 8  away f r o m n a t u r e ' s p a t h . "  Karamzin  he  h i s meetings  The  with  of  our  episodes i n which  Swiss shepherds  and  peasants carry the s p i r i t of Gessner's idyll: . . . t h e c l o u d l e s s s k y , t h e happy s u r r o u n d i n g s , the clear shining lake with i t s beautiful shores, where g e n t l e Gessner p l u c k e d the f l o w e r s t h a t a d o r n h i s s h e p h e r d s and s h e p h e r d e s s e s . Karamzin simple the  and  natura-llone,  q u e s t i o n o f how  oneself. of  e x p r e s s e s a w i s h t o c h a n g e h i s way f o r he  to find  Hois d e s c r i p t i o n  believes  peace  and  of  life  i t i s an  happiness  of the shepherd's  life  for a .  answer  to  within has  an a i r  peaceful contentment: H e r e I came u p o n a f e w h u t s w h e r e s h e p h e r d s live o n l y i n summer. These s i m p l e - h e a r t e d people i n v i t e d me t o b e t h e i r g u e s t a n d b r o u g h t me cream, c u r d s , and c h e e s e . Thus I d i n e d w i t h them, s e a t e d  on a l o g , f o r t h e i r h u t s c o n t a i n n e i t h e r t a b l e s nor chairs. Two g a y y o u n g s h e p h e r d e s s e s k e p t s t a r i n g a t me a n d g i g g l i n g . I t o l d them t h a t I w o u l d l i k e t o r e m a i n w i t h them t o m i l k t h e cows. They r e p l i e d o n l y w i t h l a u g h t e r . 1 3 9  The  image o f Swiss  beautiful  shepherds,  landscape,  republican  blends  s e t i n the background  with  Karamzin's  system of the country,  of the  interest  i t speople,  i n the  and i t s  economic c o n d i t i o n s : E v e r y w h e r e i n S w i t z e r l a n d y o u s e e abundance and w e a l t h , b u t as soon as y o u c r o s s o v e r i n t o Savoy you f i n d p o v e r t y , ragged p e o p l e , and g r e a t numbers of beggars — g e n e r a l s l o v e n l i n e s s and f i l t h . 1  Disappointed downfall  most art."  republic.  i s imbued w i t h letters  to "this  from  later  most b e a u t i f u l  predicts"the-possible  B u t , b a r r i n g a few words of Switzerland that  enthusiastic France  0  approval.  are e s s e n t i a l l y country  a  sentimental  i n the world,  the  f o r i t s climate, i t s works,  141  - - of reverenGe:;eheeyisitedsMarr3y.,.aehantilly,  Full  Fontainebleau,  Opera, g a l l e r i e s Though remained  and h i s t o r i c a l  an e y e w i t n e s s  indifferent  "leisurely  tourist,"  c l a s s e s where  discussed. avoided  As  and was  to it.  i t speople, i t s  a frequent  visitor  -  to the  monuments.  to the Revolution, H i s was  interested  of  he  beautiful  Versailles,  upper  Karamzin  the general picture  His tribute  this,  of the Swiss  criticism, presents  by  4  Karamzin  the attitude  of the  more i n t h e s a l o n s  a r t ,philosophy,  of the  and  literature  were  f a r as t h e R e v o l u t i o n was  concerned,  he  a n y d e e p d i s c u s s i o n . "What i s t h e r e  t o say about the  98 French  Revolution?  events  a r e known t o y o u . " I  4 2  His  to Paris  feelings  You  farewell toward the  read the newspaper, consequently  letter  best i l l u s t r a t e s  the  his  Revolution:  I l e f t you, dear P a r i s , l e f t you w i t h r e g r e t and g r a t i t u d e ! I l i v e d amid y o u r tumultuous h a p p e n i n g s s e r e n e l y and c h e e r f u l l y , l i k e a f r e e c i t i z e n of the world. I viewed your unrest w i t h the t r a n q u i l s o u l of a p e a c e f u l shepherd, viewed your stormy sea from a mountain. Neither your J a c o b i n s n o r y o u r A r i s t o c r a t s c a u s e d me a n y h a r m . I listened to the disputes without disputing. To d e l i g h t my e y e s a n d e a r s , I v i s i t e d y o u r b e a u t i f u l t e m p l e s , w h e r e t h e f l a s h i n g God o f t h e A r t s e m i t s r a y s o f i n t e l l e c t and t a l e n t , w h e r e t h e G e n i u s o f Fame r e s t s m a j e s t i c a l l y o n i t s l a u r e l s . I - * 4  His by  lack the  might not  of concern  about  the Revolution might  censorship i n Russia at that be  the  fact  that  concerned with  Karamzin,  revolutionary  concern, however, could  time.  He  reforms.  not diminish  literature; his  became an e a g e r and  subsequent If  prejudices,  French salon  literary  c a r e e r and  e n t h u s i a s m , he  after  This lack to  translator  language  t o E n g l a n d was  of  to  of  French  influenced  reforms.  Karamzin's  old  a disappointment.  stepped onto the shores of  England:  . . . t h i s i s the land which I loved so ardently i n my c h i l d h o o d a n d w h i c h , f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r o f i t s i n h a b i t a n t s and t h e d e g r e e o f p u b l i c e n l i g h t enment , i s w i t h o u t d o u b t one o f t h e l e a d i n g s t a t e s of E u r o p e . I 4 4  was  bring  his visit  culture which  to France d i s p e l l e d  the v i s i t  relevant  his efforts  r e a d e r and  i t was  the v i s i t  More  explained  i n his p o l i t i c a l views,  e n l i g h t e n m e n t t o t h e R u s s i a n masses France.  be  With  His  heart,  prepared  f i l l e d with  Ossian,  f o r the "coolness"  Thomson a n d Y o u n g , was n o t  h e was  to  find:  But I s t a n d , I l o o k , I see no f l a m e s , and a l l t h e w h i l e I am s h i v e r i n g . . . . T h e E n g l i s h m a n is taciturn, indifferent. He t a l k s a s t h o u g h h e were r e a d i n g , never r e v e a l i n g t h e sudden impulses o f t h e h e a r t w h i c h , l i k e an e l e c t r i c s h o c k , s h a r e our e n t i r e p h y s i c a l system. I t i s s a i d t h a t he i s more p r o f o u n d t h a n o t h e r s . Is t h i s not because h i s t h i c k b l o o d c i r c u l a t e s more s l o w l y , and t h i s makes h i m l o o k t h o u g h t f u l e v e n when he i s n o t thinking at a l l ? 1  The  letters  work. the  5  from England  There a r e cautious  parliamentary  quently, the  4  system  are the least  and e l e c t o r a l  on Germany, F r a n c e  Karamzin pays t r i b u t e  procedures. here,  t o enlightened  English  o f Englishwomen:  them  the scarlet  colored  touched w i t h  clouds." ^ 1  hospital  He p r a i s e s  i n particular), literacy.  There  historical  buildings, places  silent  Nevertheless, philanthropy,  "A p o e t m i g h t  tints  of heaven's  facilities,  are detailed  call rose-  soul.  and c o l d , and he l e f t  and t h e  descriptions of  and s t r e e t s .  cannot e x h i l a r a t e h i s sentimental reserved,  from  the h o s p i t a l s (the Greenwich  educational  widespread  Conse-  differing  and S w i t z e r l a n d .  as w e l l as t o t h e b e a u t y lilies  of the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s oftmanners, and o f  t h e n a r r a t i v e i s more s e d a t e  parts  sentimental  But a l l this He  found  Englishmen  the country  without  regret. Confidence is  the mainspring  belief  i n t h e g o o d n e s s o f o r d i n a r y human of sentimentalism.  i s "the feeling  heart"  At the centre  nature of  ( c u ' v s t v i t e l ' n o e s e r dee)  this as a  100 source For  of  a l l s t r e n g t h when r e a s o n  the true  artist,  sensibility  S t e r n e , R o u s s e a u , and of  the  age  of  G o e t h e , as  feeling,  remain  sources  of i n s p i r a t i o n .  praises  sensibility  from  the  "we"  a product  and  and  i s a necessary  quality.  f o r Karamzin  i t s riches.  easy  conventional response,  apologists  inexhaustible  than those w r i t e r s ,  "men  inclination  I t i s not  to help.  the most eloquent  less  of the European  of n a t u r a l  influence.  No  i s powerless  His of  " I " i s not d i v o r c e d  feeling."  as w e l l  as  Karamzin  of  i s  literary  t o d i s t i n g u i s h between between t r u e  he  feeling  genuine  and  literary  sentimentality. On not  taking  difficult  a closer  t o see  sentimental writing:  look at the text  the  abundance of words  "My  h e a r t was  so  full  of Letters, typical that  i t is  of  I could  not  14 7 speak."  "I left  L a u s a n n e w i t h j o y i n my  heart —  and  14 8  R o u s s e a u ' s H e ^ l o i s e i n my the  sentimentalist's  grief,  hands."  Other  vocabulary are: tears,  dream, t e n d e r n e s s , h a p p i n e s s ,  a s : t o weep, t o feel, to enjoy.  are  in  melancholy,  sorrows;  "Tears  1 4 9  f r e q u e n t words  and  verbs  contagious,  such my  150  dears,  especially  at such  a time."  " I wept  like  a  child  151  with  never  a thought  overcome w i t h g r i e f think  that  before already  of reproaching the 152 ..."  I t would  author."  "I  be  to  t h e s e words w e r e unknown t o t h e  Karamzin. existing  His words  achievement and  consisted  a mistake Russian in  e x p r e s s i o n s as w e l l  am  reader  popularizing as  in  101 introducing  neologisms,  Besides certain  not haphazardly,  a sentimental vocabulary,  characteristic  superlative  forms  techniques, such  o f an a d j e c t i v e  intensity  of h i s feelings  emotional  effect  a linguist.  which  Karamzin  However, t h e  i s most n o t a b l y  achieved  of which  l a n g u a g e was s i m p l i f i e d  the native resources of a Russian  fsubject m a t t e r .  of the Russian Traveller  from  t o make i t p a i n l e s s l y  disturbingly  left  clarified.  o f what t o s a y and as f a r as he  language. i n mood a n d  material, and  carefully  amusingly  o b s e r v a t i o n s on W e s t e r n  profound  new  i n f o r m a t i v e and e d i f y i n g .  nor strikingly  c o m m e n t s o n t h e "new d r a m a " w h i c h  ideas.  and  i s varied  various sources,  and  i n t h e course  he e x p l o i t e d  i s much h i s t o r i c a l  are philosophical  neither are  There  by Karamzin  polished  i sbetter  revolution,  strove f o r a clear understanding  gleaned  by s y n t a c t i c a l  I t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t Karamzin's  the Russian  Letters  There  as t h e u s e o f t h e  and e x p e r i e n c e s .  how b e s t t o s a y i t , a n d i n s o d o i n g could  employs  t o stress the  s t y l e was t h a t o f t h e s y n t a c t i c a l of  Karamzin  i n order  orthographic devices, the analysis to  but systematically.  clearly  culture,  original.  There,  r e v e a l h i s own  L i g h t and s e r i o u s i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e g r e a t and  near-great,  sentimental tales,  comments upon W e s t e r n  life  lyrical  d i g r e s s i o n s , and  are interposed t o appeal  to his  153 Russian  readers. Letters  provided  the Russian  audience  with  abundant  102 information time,  i t has  sentimental skill to  about European remained the journey.  w i t h which  the  Russian  Russian  he  life  and  culture.  first  and  best  Karamzin's  At  the  example of  originality  lies  His  Letters  s e n t i m e n t a l i s t s i n a l lmatters  of  set the  content  a  in  t r a n s m i t t e d E u r o p e a n t a s t e s and  reading public.  same Russian the fashions norm  and  for  style.  CHAPTER V CONCLUSION  From t h e t i m e o f P e t e r t h e G r e a t u n t i l eighteenth  c e n t u r y , R u s s i a made  up w i t h  t h e progress o f Western  period,  Russian  most d i f f i c u l t For t h i s  a tremendous Europe.  l i t e r a t u r e was s t i l l task —  the creation  effort  t o solve i t s  of a literary of that  not be expected  t o achieve the sophistication  ture  Europe,  cannot  Russian Kantemir,  language  i n Russia.  be The  finally  based The  developed always  language.  time  could  of the l i t e r a literature  language.  be i n debt  t o Lomonosov,  a n d S u m a r o k o v , who u n d e r s t o o d t h e  task involved  h i s influence  cannot  was  literature will  Tredjakovskij  tremendous  and  f o ra masterpiece of  be b o r n w i t h o u t a h i g h l y  t o catch  A t t h e end o f t h a t  trying  reason, the Russian l i t e r a t u r e  o f Western  t h e end o f t h e  i n the establishment of a  I tbefell  Karamzin  on t h e development  literary  to further  the task,  of the Russian  language  overemphasized. linguistic abandoned  on t h e spoken  hierarchy, o f Lomonosov's t h r e e i n favor  of a single  idiom of the educated,  narrative cultured  l e x i c o n w a s c l e a n s e d o f a r c h a i s m s , a n d many new  based  on F r e n c h , were  along  the lines  introduced.  o f t h e more d i r e c t  103  The s y n t a x was syntactical  styles style speaker. words,  simplified  structure of  104 French.  Despite  orientation, vehicle early  the limitations  t h e new l i t e r a r y  f o rliterary  and t h e s t r o n g  French  l a n g u a g e became a s o p h i s t i c a t e d  expression  i n the late  e i g h t e e n t h and  nineteenth centuries. In t h e hands  reached  of Karamzin,  i t s h i g h e s t peak.  moment o f t r a n s i t i o n i n f l u e n c e s were national country  Russian  H i s work  f o rRussian  sentimentalism  represents  prose,  a  crucial  i n which  foreign  a s s i m i l a t e d totproducebaev'igorous  literature.  Karamzin w e l l  understood  b o d y .of  that h i s  h a d a l o n g way t o go t o c a t c h u p w i t h t h e W e s t .  a w h i l e , R u s s i a w o u l d h a v e t o r e c e i v e more a d v a n t a g e s foreign by  literary  achievements  w a y o f i t s own a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s .  that  one day R u s s i a would  tion  t o world  response in  B u t he was  emerge w i t h  literature.  t o Western  i t could offer  Although  values  have found  enriched  the native  i n return  contribu-  Karamzin wrote i n  i n f l u e n c e s , he remained  i t n a t u r a l t o respond  and forms d i s c o v e r e d  from  convinced  an o r i g i n a l  so f i r m l y  h i s own c u l t u r e t h a t s u c c e s s i v e g e n e r a t i o n s  writers  i n Karamzin,  rooted  of Russia's  positively and have  to the  thereby  tradition.  K a r a m z i n ' s name m a r k s a n e p o c h i n o u r l i t e r a t u r e ; h i s i n f l u e n c e on h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s was s o g r e a t and s t r o n g t h a t t h e whole p e r i o d o f o u r l i t e r a t u r e f r o m t h e 1 7 9 0 s t o t h e 1 8 2 0 s may w i t h j u s t i c e be c a l l e d t h e Karamzin period.154  1  This in  than  i s how B e l i n s k i j  the history  evaluates  of Russian  For  Karamzin's  literature.  place  i nt h e  105 Karamzin  "created  previously  a Russian  exist,"  f o r he  reading  inspired  p u b l i c , which d i d i t with  the wish  not  to  read  155 —  and  to  read  most i m p o r t a n t But no  as  Russian and  of  acquainting  His  of  version of  Shakespeare's Russian  part  short his  stories  genius,  readers  with  Julius  was  the  a  were  literary  his c o n t r i b u t i o n to Russian  significant.  appraisal  Hxs  influential  a translator  less  works.  the  work.  letters  was  Caesar, with i t s  landmark  work of  the  in English  156 playwright. "Poelzi^a"  1  Of  his  e a r l y o r i g i n a l work, h i s  is significant  discussions  and  From the  for i t s distinctive  suggestions beginning,  concerning the  Karamzin's  considerable  produced  a  j o u r n a l comparable,  with  E u r o p e a n m o d e l s he  the  basic  f e a t u r e , informed  works  and  p l a y s ; he  from Western mustered  originals,  h i s own  as  "Poor L i z a "  examples the  of  L e t t e r s of and  sentimentalism  as  more u n f o r t u n a t e ,  the a  of  He content,  introduced,  Russian  range of  poetry.  revealed  journalist.  and  carefully-selected  a wide  subjects;  he  a Russian  T r a v e l l e r and  stories  Russian  Boyar's prose  p u b l i c and  literary  vogue  the  Daughter,"  day  the  i n Russia.  t h e r e f o r e , that Karamzin's  success  and,  such  provided  w r i t i n g , which  ensured  a  translations  of  the  as  foreign  leading poets  "Natalia,  of  of  the  accomplished  imagination  a  a d m i r e d ; he  criticism  on  nature  i n p r e s e n t a t i o n and  so  c o n t r i b u t i o n s from  in  as  poem  literary  Moskovskij: Zurnal  abilities  published  the  long  caught of  I t i s a l l the great contribution  106 to  Russian  Soviet  literature  authorities  should  f o r such  have been minimized a long  time.  Because o f h i s a e s t h e t i c and p o l i t i c a l was n e g l e c t e d  and even  accused  of being  omitted,  in  books, o r textbooks  the  historical  e a r l y years  major Russian  of the Soviet  w r i t e r s omitted  whose works were d e c l a r e d  was o n l y  regime.  beliefs,  he  r e a c t i o n a r y ; and h i s  name, i f n o t c o m p l e t e l y articles,  by t h e  briefly  mentioned  published  during  He w a s o n e o f t h e f e w  from a l i s t  the property  o f some  fifty-seven  of the state,  i n a  157 d e c r e e o f 1918 n a t i o n a l i z i n g in  1936, and a g a i n  as  a part  Letters  the Russian  i n 1953, were  of the Poets'  of a Russian  classics.  some o f h i s poems  L i b r a r y S e r i e s ; some t a l e s  T r a v e l l e r formed p a r t  of eighteenth-century  Russian  prose  of a 158  i n 1950.  appeared  poetry, an  a two-volume s e l e c t i o n  and i n 1966 a c o m p l e t e  i n t r o d u c t i o n by J u . Lotman.  took  the f i r s t  Russian  step  literary  i n securing  history.  Karamzin's World View  views  Among  In h i s article  (1789-1803)," which  devoting  their  Soviet  and  of h i sverse,  f o rKaramzin  and h i s c o n n e c t i o n s  other  I n 19 64  I n d e e d , i t was Lotman  Lotman shed y e t more o b j e c t i v e l i g h t sophical  and  collection  o f h i s prose  collection  published  However,  t h e r e was no a t t e m p t t o p u b l i s h a l l h i s w o r k s . there  Only  s c h o l a r s who  who  a place i n  "The E v o l u t i o n o f appeared  on Karamzin's  with  with  i n 1957, philo-  t h e Freemasons. l e d t h e way i n  s t u d i e s t o K a r a m z i n , N. L . M o r d o v c e n k o a n d  107 Victor and  s h o u l d be  named.  More and more  r e s e a r c h works have begun t o appear.  under to  Vinogradov  t h e most d i f f i c u l t  defend  h i s place i n the history  enlightenment. period"  conditions  has  Thus, B e l i n s k i j ' s  proved  t o be  articles  I t seems t h a t  Karamzin  has  been  able  of Russian l i t e r a t u r e concept  justified.  of  a  even  "Karamzin  and  FOOTNOTES  Its  "'"D. S. M i r s k y , A H i s t o r y o f R u s s i a n L i t e r a t u r e , f r o m B e g i n n i n g t o 190 0 (New Y o r k : V i n t a g e B o o k s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 4 1 . 2  Besides Yaroslav, I t a l i a n performances took p l a c e a t court during Elizabeth's reign. 3 E. E r a m e t s a , A S t u d y o f t h e W o r d " S e n t i m e n t a l " ( H e l s i n k i , S u o m a l a i n T i e d e a k a t e m a i , 19 5 1 ) , p . 2 4 . 4 The C o n c i s e O x f o r d D i c t i o n a r y o f C u r r e n t E n g l i s h (Oxford: C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1967), p. 1153. 5 . . . . L. I . B r e d v o l d , T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y o f S e n s i b i l i t y ( D e t r o i t : Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 1 2 . ^E. B e r n b a u m , The Drama o f S e n s i b i l i t y Mass.: P e t e r S m i t h , 1958), p. 119.  Mich.:  (Gloucester,  7 A. S h e r b o , E n g l i s h S e n t i m e n t a l Drama ( E a s t L a n s i n g , M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957), p. 11.  The m o c k - e p i c a n d c o m i c o p e r a i n t h e 1770s a p p e a r e d as t h e most t y p i c a l a n d i n f l u e n t i a l g e n r e s o f t h a t t i m e . D e s p i t e t h e i r d i f f e r e n t aims and methods, t h e s e two genres s e r v e d t h e common c a u s e o f b r e a k i n g o u t o f t h e r i g i d i t y o f neo-classicism. Among t h e b e s t - k n o w n p l a y w r i g h t s w e r e : N. P. N i k o l e v f o r h i s R o z a n a 1 L j u b i m ( R o z a n a a n d L i u b i m ; 1 7 7 6 ) , a n d A . A. A b l e s i m o v f o r M e l ' n i k - k o l d u n , o b m a n s c i k i s v a t (The M i l l e r - W i z a r d , C h e a t a n d Matchmaker; 1 7 7 9 ) . See P. N . B e r k o v , R u s s k a j a k o m e d i j a 1 k o m i c e s k a j a o p e r a X V I I I veka (Moskva: I s k u s s t v o , 1950). 9  Vestnik  G. N . P o s p e l o v , "U i s t o k o v r u s s k o g o s e n t i m e n t a l i z m a , " M o s k o v s k o g o U n i v e r s i t e t a , N o . 1 ( 1 9 4 8 ) , p . 3.  P . N. S a k u l i n , R u s s k a j a L i t e r a t u r a ( M o s k v a : I z d a t e l ' s t v o g o s u d a r s t v e n n o j A k a d e m i i X u d o z e s t v e n n y x Nauk ( 1 9 2 9 ) , v o l . 1 1 , p. 272. 1 U  1 1  Pospelov,  "U i s t o k o v  . . .," p . 4.  12 Ibid.,  p. 3 . 108  109 1  3  Ibid.,  p.  7.  14 L . V. P u m j a n s k i j , " S e n t i m e n t a l i z m , " I s t o r i j a r u s s k o j l i t e r a t u r y , A k a d e r a i j a X u d o z e s t v e n n y x N a u k ( 1 9 2 9 ) , v o l . 2~, " p. 9 9 . 15 G. V. P l e x a n o v , H i s t o r y o f R u s s i a n P u b l i c T h o u g h t (New Y o r k : H. F e r t i g , 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 1 4 9 . 16 A . P. S u m a r o k o v , I z b r a n n y e p r o i z v e d e n i j a ( L e n i n g r a d : S o v e t s k i j p i s a t e l ' , 1 9 5 7 ) , p~. 2 3 8 . 17 Z. D a b a r a s , T h e S i m i l e s o f S u m a r o k o v , K a r a m z i n , a n d D e r z a v i n (Ann A r b o r , M i c h . : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 91. -j  o  V. G. B e l i n s k i j , P o l n o e s o b r a n i e s . o c i n e n i j (Moskva: I z d a t e l ' s t v o A k a d e m i i Nauk SSSR, 1 9 5 6 ) , v o l . 1 0 , p . 1 2 4 . D . D. B l a g o j , I s t o r i j a r u s s k o j l i t e r a t u r y X V I I I v e k a (Moskva: Gosudarstvennoe ucebno-pedagogiceskoe izdatel'stvo, 1955) , p . 2 0 3 . 1 9  20 Sumarokov, Izbrannye p r o i z v e d e n i j a , 21 , . , Ibid.  p. 3 05.  T  22 G. A. G u k o v s k i j , O c e r k i p o i s t o r i i r u s s k o j l i t e r a tury XVIII veka (Leningrad: Xudozestvennaja l i t e r a t u r a , 1 9 3 6 ) , pp.. 2 3 7 - 2 3 8 . 2  3  l b i d . , p. 314.  24 G. A. G u k o v s k i j , I s t o r i j a r u s s k o j literatury (Moskva} L e n i n g r a d : A k a d e m i j a Nauk SSSR, 1 9 4 7 ) , v o l . 5, p. 5 5 . Ibid.,  2  5  2  ^Ibid.,  p. 134. p. 35.  27 A. G. C r o s s , N. M. K a r a m z i n — A Study o f H i s C a r e e r , 1738-1803 ( C a r b o n d a l e , 111.: S o u t h e r n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971), p. 10.  Literary Illinois 2 8  l b i d . , p . 12 .  29  Ibid.,  p. 30.  110 30  Ibid.,  p.  31.  31 (St. Part  V. V. S i p o v s k i j , O c e r k l i z i s t o r n r u s s k o g o r o m a n a P e t e r s b u r g : T i p o g r a f i j a l i t e r a t u r y A. R a s k o v a , 1 9 0 9 ) , I , p. 143. 32 C r o s s , K a r a m z i n : A S t u d y . . ., p . 4 2 . 3  3  Ibid.,  p.  47.  34 Sipovskij,  O c e r k i . . ., p .  151.  35 Ibid., 3  6  p.  153.  Ibid.  37 C r o s s , K a r a m z i n : A S t u d y . . ., p . 4 9 . 38 A. M. K e r n e y , S a m u e 1 R i c h a r d s o n ( L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e a n d K e g a n P a u l , 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 7. 39 N. M. K a r a m z i n , I z b r a n n y e s o c i n e n i j a ( M o s k v a , L e n i n g r a d : I z d a t e l ' s t v o x u d o z e s t v e n n o j l i t e r a t u r y , 1966), p. 12. 40 C r o s s , K a r a m z i n : A S t u d y . . ., p . 5 1 . 41 I b i d . , p. 57. 42 I a . K. G r o t ( e d . ) , N. M. K a r a m z i n i F . N. G l i n k a : Materialy k biografijam russkix pisatelej (St.Petersburg: T i p o g r a f i j a M. A. A l e k s a n d r o v a , 1 9 1 5 ) , p . 1 9 . 43 N-  Cross,  Karamzin:  A Study  . . ., p .  64.  Ibid. , f  45 H. M. N e b e l , S e l e c t e d P r o s e o f N. M. K a r a m z i n ( E v a n s t o n : N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 55. I b i d . , P- 6 2 . 46. 47. Ibid.,  P-  63.  48. Ibid.,  P.  55.  49. I b i d . , P-  59.  50. Ibid.,  57.  P-  51  ist  H. -M-. N e b e l , N. M. K a r a m z i n , A R u s s i a n S e n t i m e n t a l ( P a r i s , The H a g u e : M o u t o n a n d C o . , 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 1 2 8 . 5  2  Ibid.,  p.  129.  p.  130.  53 D  J  Ibid.  54 Ibid., 55 R. A . A n d e r s o n , T h e T e l l e r P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 77.  Cordovan  i n the Tale  (Houston:  ~^Nebel, Karamzin, A Russian Sentimentalist,  p.  131.  p.  131.  p.  74.  57 A n d e r s o n , The T e l l e r i n t h e T a l e , p . 80. 58 Nebel, Karamzin, A Russian Sentimentalist, 59 Karamzin, ^Cross,  I z b r a n n y e s o c d m e n i j a , p.  Karamzin: A Study  . . . , p.  95. 74.  Ibid. Ibid. 6 3, . , Ibid. 64 T  .  Nebel, Karamzin, A ^~*Ibid. , p.  .  .  .  Russian Sentimentalist,  73.  Ibid. 6  7  Ibid.,  p.  74.  6  8  Ibid.,  p.  132.  69 Nebel  (ed.),  Selected  P r o s e o f K a r a m z i n , p.  75.  70 N e b e l , Karamzin, A R u s s i a n S e n t i m e n t a l i s t , p. Ibid. 72 ' Ibid. 7  3  Ibid.,  p.  134.  p.  135.  74 Ibid.,  136.  112 (ed. ),  Nebel  7 5  Selected  P-  118.  77 ' ' i b i d . , P.  119.  Ibid.,  Prose  of Karamzin,  i  54.  Ibid. 79 ' Ibid. 3  8  0  Ibid.,  P-  123.  8  1  Ibid.,  P-  124.  8  2  Ibid.,  P-  125.  8  3  Ibid.,  P-  126.  P-  127.  P-  128.  P-  129.  P-  131.  Ibid. Ibid., ^lbi d . .  8  a  8 7  Tbid.  8  Ibid.  8  f  Ibid. Ibid. 91 , ., Ibid., T  92 Ibid., 93 J  Nebel, Karamzin,  94  v  Karamzin, 9 5. , .. , I b i d . , PT  Izbrannye  P-  678.  97 *'ibid.,  P-  679.  Nebel,  99 ^Nebel  Russian  Sentimentalist  s o c i n e n i j a , p.  515.  676.  Ibid.,  9 8  A  Karamzin, ( e d ., ) ,  A  Russian  Selected  Prose  Sentimentalist of Karamzin, ;  ).  151.  135.  113 Ibid. Ibid.,  P-  136.  I b i d . , P-  140.  10.3.. , Ibid.,  P-  142.  I b i d . , P-  143.  Ibid.,  Pi  146.  . , Ibid.,  P-  149.  Ibid. Ibid. 106.-., Ibid.  109  T V  110 . . . . Sipovskij, o  Ocerki  . . ., p .  Nebel, Karamzin, A Russian 112  _  n  P. p.  Brang,  'Stud i e n  494. Sentimentalist,  z u T h e o r i e un  Praxis  der  171.  John Locke (1632-1704), E n g l i s h p h i l o s o p h e r . In h i s EEs ay# C S n ' c e r n i h g H u m a n U n d e r s t a n d i n g h e a r g u e s t h a t a l l our knowledge i s t h e r e s u l t of e x p e r i e n c e , our b e l i e f s i n good or eszil a r i s e l a r g e l y out of t h e a s s o c i a t i o n of i d e a s . x ± 4  Karamzin,  I zb r anny e s o c i n en i j a, p.  756.  115 Ibid., V. K. 62.  1 9 2 9 ) , p.  p.  765.  KjuxeUb'eker/  Dnevnik  (Leningrad: Akademija,  117"?''*' VklS'k'skbvskij O t e o r i i prozy (Moskva-Leningrad: F e d e r a c i j a , 1 9 2 5 ) , p. 139. 118 •»• K a r a m z i n , I z b r a n n y e s o c i n e n i j a , p. 746. 119 I b i d . , p. 680. 1 2 0 , ., Ibid. X  X  3  T  114 1  2  1  Ibid.  1  2  2  Ibid.,  p.  693.  1  2  3  I b i d . , p.  722.  1  2  4  Ibid.,  p.  727.  Nebel,  Karamzin,  1 2 5  Karamzin,  1 2 6  Izbrannye  Russian Sentimentalist, s o c i n e n i j a , p.  p.  728.  N. M. K a r a m z i n , L e t t e r s o f a R u s s i a n T r a v e l l e r Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 21. 1 2 7  (New  A  1  2  ±  8  y  1  3  J  -  1  3  0  Ibid. Ibid.,  p.  58.  Ibid.,  p.  81.  I b i d . , p.  88.  i X  2  Ibid.,  p.  82.  Ibid. 134,, • , Ibid. 1  3  5  Ibid.,  p.  155.  1  3  6  Ibid.,  p.  141.  1  3  7  Ibid.  1  3  8  l b i d . ,  p.  115.  1  3  9  i b i d . ,  p.  116.  1  4  Q  Ibid.,  p.  136.  1  4  1  I b i d . , p.  164.  1  4  2  Ibid.,  p.  166.  1  4  3  l b i d . ,  p,  19 3.  1  4  4  Ibid. •  140.  115 Ibid.  f  P- 2 5 4 .  I b i d . r P- 3 2 8 . Ibid. 148,, . , Ibid.  f  P. 2 6 3 .  r  P. 29 .  1  4  9  I b i d . r P- 1 4 1 .  1  5  0  Ibid.  t  P- 6 2 .  I b i d . r P- 2 9 . 152_..,' Ibid.  f  Ibid. r  P- 6 1 .  P. 6 3 .  154 X  (Moskva: p. 35.  Belinski V . G. I z d a t e l ' s t v o A k a d e m i i Nauk SSSR,  1953), V o l . I ,  155 Nebel,  Karamzin, A Russian Sentimentalist,  p. 160.  •'"^In 1 7 4 8 , S u m a r o k o v h a d a l r e a d y p u b l i s h e d h i s G a m l e t ( H a m l e t ) , t o w h i c h he h a d g i v e n t h e f o r m o f a c o n v e n tional pseudo-classical tragedy. 157 J . G. G a r r a r d , " K a r a m z i n i n R e c e n t c i s m , " The S l a v i c and E a s t E u r o p e a n J o u r n a l , (1967) , p. 137. 15 8 Ibid.  Soviet C r i t i X I , no. 4  BIBLIOGRAPHY  P R I M A R Y SOURCES K a r a m z i n , N. M. Bednaja L i z a . Moskva: I z d a t e l ' s t v o d a r s t v e n n o j x u d o z e s t v e n n o j l i t e r a t u r y , 19 5 0 . __. Polnoe sobranie s t i x o t v o r e n i j . s k i j p i s a t e l ' , 1966. . Letters of a Russian Traveller. U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957.  Leningrad:  Sovet-  New Y o r k :  . A Memoir on A n c i e n t and Modern R u s s i a . Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959.  Columbi  Cambridge,  . I z b r a n n y e s o c i n e n i j a. Moskva, Leningrad: t e l ' s t v o xudozestvennoj l i t e r a t u r y , 1964. N e b e l , H. M. ( e d . ) a n d t r a n s . ) . Selected Karamzin. Evanston: Northwestern 1969 .  gosu-  Izda-  P r o s e o f N . M. University Press,  SECONDARY SOURCES A l l e n , W.  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