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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The essence of Hagakure Alexander, Howard Kevin 1976

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THE ESSENCE OF HAGAKURE by HOWARD KEVIN ALEXANDER B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e , 1972  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f A s i a n S t u d i e s  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY" OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1976  (cT)  Howard Kevin Alexander, 1976  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u r t h e r agree  for  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  make i t  freely available  that permission  for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  that  study. thesis  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or  by h i s of  in p a r t i a l  this  written  representatives. thesis  It  is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  permission.  Department of  Asian  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V 6 T 1W5  Studies  Columbia  not be allowed without my  i ABSTRACT  In 1700  Yamamoto Tsunetomo, a samurai o f the p r o v i n c e o f  Saga i n n o r t h e r n Kyushu, r e t i r e d from a c t i v e duty i n o r d e r to spend h i s remaining years p r a y i n g f o r h i s l o r d , who t h a t year.  had  died  In c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h a younger a s s o c i a t e , T a s h i r o  Tsuramoto, who  recorded h i s l e c t u r e s and c o n v e r s a t i o n s , Tsune-  tomo authored a book e n t i t l e d Hagakure.  F i n i s h e d i n 1716,  the  work had taken s i x y e a r s , and upon completion i t c o n s i s t e d of eleven volumes o f s h o r t passages, mainly of a moral or a n e c d o t a l nature.  Through d i d a c t i c i l l u s t r a t i o n s Tsunetomo d e l i n e a t e d  behaviour proper to the samurai  class.  R e a l i z i n g t h a t the extended p e r i o d was  age of peace of the Tokugawa  having a d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t on the morals of the  w a r r i o r c l a s s , Tsunetomo attempted i n Hagakure to r e v e r s e t h i s trend.  Aware o f the changing circumstances, i n which the  samurai  were i n c r e a s i n g l y assuming the r o l e of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s r a t h e r than w a r r i o r s , Tsunetomo emphasized  the development of mental  a t t i t u d e s a p p r o p r i a t e to the b a t t l e f i e l d .  Self discipline  u n q u e s t i o n i n g l o y a l t y , such as might be expected o f an  and  ideal  w a r r i o r , even to the e x t e n t o f b e i n g r e s i g n e d to death a t any time, was,  he b e l i e v e d , a p r e r e q u i s i t e to s e r v i c e of any k i n d .  By d e v e l o p i n g such moral v i r t u e s as r e c t i t u d e , courage, honour, decorum, compassion,  u n s e l f i s h n e s s , f r u g a l i t y , and, most im-  p o r t a n t l y , l o y a l t y , Tsunetomo expected a samurai h i m s e l f to serve h i s l o r d i n any c a p a c i t y . he d e r i d e d samurai who  to prepare  On the o t h e r hand,  were obsessed w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l or a r -  t i s t i c p u r s u i t s , s t a t i n g t h a t they o f t e n became e x c e s s i v e l y  proud and l o s t t h e i r a b i l i t y to c a r r y out t h e i r d u t i e s e f f e c tively. Because of Tsunetomo's emphasis on r e g i o n a l h i s t o r y and on l o y a l t y to h i s p r o v i n c i a l l o r d , Hagakure, would most  certain-  l y have d i s p l e a s e d the a u t h o r i t i e s i n Edo had i t been widely circulated.  T h e r e f o r e , f o l l o w i n g the author's o r d e r s , i t r e -  mained s e c r e t among the l e a d i n g samurai o f Saga u n t i l the middle of  the n i n e t e e n t h century.  Then the r i g o r o u s l o y a l t y found i n  Hagakure was r e d i r e c t e d away from the r e g i o n a l l o r d to the emp e r o r , i n keeping w i t h the r i s i n g sense o f n a t i o n a l i s m which accompanied the i m p e r i a l r e s t o r a t i o n . a new the  function.  Hagakure thus took on  During the p e r i o d of" m i l i t a r i s m l e a d i n g t o  P a c i f i c War, Tsunetomo's d e c l a r a t i o n that a w a r r i o r must  be r e s i g n e d to death i n the cause of l o y a l t y brought widespread r e c o g n i t i o n to Hagakure.  In f a c t , the book came to be equated  w i t h a d e t e r m i n a t i o n to d i e f o r the sake o f the emperor. To g i v e a manageable s t r u c t u r e to the hundreds o f l o o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d passages o f which Hagakure i s composed, a m o d i f i e d framework o f Confucian mores has been employed i n t h i s essay. Since the most p r e v a l e n t philosophy o f the book, and indeed o f the  whole Edo p e r i o d , was Neo-Confucianism, t h i s  however a r t i f i c i a l ,  seems a p p r o p r i a t e .  framework,  Other approaches may  a l s o have been p o s s i b l e f o r Hagakure c o n t a i n s much more than only Neo-Confucian p h i l o s o p h y . the  The emphasis on s i m p l i c i t y  and  r e l i a n c e on one's own e f f o r t s , concepts which form i n t r e g a l  p a r t s o f Zen Buddhism, a l s o h e l d g r e a t appeal to Tsunetomo. He d i d not c l e a r l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e h i s b e l i e f s as b e i n g C o n f u c i a n , B u d d h i s t , o r n a t i v e Japanese components.  Rather a l l h i s ideas  were amalgamated i n t o a s y n c r e t i s m which he expresses Hagakure as the way o f the w a r r i o r .  iv PREFACE'  I f i r s t became aware of the e x i s t e n c e of Hagakure a decade ago, y e t I remember the circumstances w e l l .  At t h a t time I had  been i n Japan t r a i n i n g i n m a r t i a l a r t s f o r almost two years f e l t t h a t I was  f i n a l l y making p r o g r e s s .  My misplaced p r i d e  soon d i s l o d g e d , however, by a r e s p e c t e d i n s t r u c t o r who although p h y s i c a l l y r was  body.  was  said that  s t a r t i n g to l e a r n the techniques,  mind had not y e t begun t o c o n t r o l my  and  my  Unless, he advised,  I s t u d i e d the contents o f books such as Hagakure I would never be able to comprehend the true s p i r i t o f the Japanese m a r t i a l arts.  In the f o l l o w i n g y e a r s , as I became more i n t e r e s t e d i n  the h i s t o r i c a l and s p i r i t u a l aspects o f Japanese budo, I heard repeated r e f e r e n c e s to Hagakure, p a r t i c u l a r l y by those  practi-  t i o n e r s o f the more t r a d i t i o n a l forms o f m a r t i a l a r t s .  I came  to  r e a l i z e t h a t Hagakure i s indeed a seminal work i n the e t h i c s  of  the samurai  c l a s s d u r i n g the Edo p e r i o d .  Because o f t h i s i n t e r e s t i t was s e l e c t Hagakure as the t o p i c o f my due  n a t u r a l t h a t I would  Master's  Unfortunately,  to the book's g r e a t l e n g t h , I have found i t p r a c t i c a l to  l i m i t my  s t u d i e s f o r t h i s t h e s i s to the f i r s t chapter, which I  b e l i e v e t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the whole. of  thesis.  the remaining p o r t i o n of Hagakure may  Close  examination  i n d i c a t e a need f o r a  s l i g h t s h i f t i n emphasis and p r o v i d e more e x a c t i n g examples. However, I b e l i e v e t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h would almost support the c o n c l u s i o n s reached i n t h i s  paper.  certainly  V TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter I . 1.  Introduction  p. 1  2.  H i s t o r i c a l Background  p. 8  3.  Yamamoto Tsunetomo  p. 17  4.  Compilation  p. 26  and T e x t u a l Information  Chapter I I . 1.  I n t e r n a l Aspects  p. 34  2.  Training  p. 44  3.  Loyalty  p. 51  4.  A t t i t u d e Toward Death  p. 55  5.  P e r s o n a l Appearance  p. 6 3  Chapter I I I . 1.  Conduct i n S o c i e t y  p. 66  2.  Rectitude  p. 71*  3.  Compassion  p. 76  4.  Courage and Honour  p. 78  5.  Etiquette  p. 82  Chapter IV. 1.  Conclusion  p. 85  1 Chapter I . 1. By  Introduction the t u r n o f the eighteenth had,  century  the Tokugawa bakufu  a f t e r a hundred years o f r u l e , f i r m l y secured i t s  p o s i t i o n o f supremacy i n Japan.  A s t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p had been  s t r u c k between the c e n t r a l regime i n Edo/:C and  Tokyo,  o f the v a r i o u s han )J^~. The r e s u l t a n t baku3  the, dainty o 7\ jfc  2  h a n ^  , the p r e s e n t  system had proven i t s e l f  as an e n t i t y s u f f i c i e n t l y  v i a b l e t o have r e a l i z e d a p e r i o d o f extended peace.  The absence  of war eroded the need f o r , and t h e r e f o r e the q u a l i t y o f , the m i l i t a r y techniques o f the samurai.  In t h e i r p l a c e s p e c i a l i z e d  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and b u r e a u c r a t i c s k i l l s became more h i g h l y as the demand f o r such t a l e n t i n c r e a s e d .  valued  As the p o s i t i o n o f the  samurai a t the top o f the f o u r c l a s s s o c i a l system^ had not y e t been threatened production teenth  by the r i s i n g merchant c l a s s  6  and the surge o f  and p r o s p e r i t y d u r i n g the l a t t e r p a r t o f the seven-  century had b e n e f i t e d the samurai as w e l l as o t h e r s , i t  was only n a t u r a l t h a t a r e l a x a t i o n o f the moral f i b r e o f the code o f bushi  "fyj^C ^  Hagakure ^  ,  8  Nabeshima r o n g o f f l  e t h i c s should  known a l s o as Hagakure rongo ^$f[*g^Nffiv  j&f%*,  o r Hizen rongo  e x c e l l e n t l y one attempt t o counteract impotency o f bushi  result.  fflijfc)^ffi*/  exemplifies  the movement toward the  conduct and t o r e s t o r e the q u a l i t i e s which  had enabled the samurai to r i s e t o the p i n n a c l e o f s o c i e t y .  En-  compassing w e l l over a thousand passages o r paragraphs o f v a r y i n g l e n g t h , each more o r l e s s a complete u n i t i n i t s e l f , was n o t intended  Hagakure  to c o n s t i t u t e m a t e r i a l f o r c a s u a l r e a d i n g nor  entertainment but was r a t h e r composed as a book o f moral and  2 social injunctions.  As such, s t r u c t u r a l q u a l i t i e s and  smoothness were f o r c e d i n t o a p o s i t i o n s u b s e r v i e n t as i t e r a t i o n of the samurai code of e t h i c s .  literary-  to such  things  In s p i t e of c e r t a i n  l i t e r a r y d e f i c i e n c i e s s u f f e r e d because of t h i s requirement, the manner of p r e s e n t a t i o n , mainly through the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s forms of d i d a c t i c , permits Hagakure to be designated 9 of the important books o f Japanese c i v i l i z a t i o n . tial  importance o f t h i s book may  be  The  literature.  found p a r t l y i n the  g r e a t amount of h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n which may it.  Yet the essen-  value o f Hagakure i s not p r i m a r i l y as a work o f The  one  be gleaned from  v a r i e d passages, through the p r o v i s i o n o f d i v e r s e  ex-  emplary d e s c r i p t i o n s , i n c l u d e much of the h i s t o r y o f the N a b e s h i m a h a n / ^ a n d  thus o f f e r innumerable f a c t s concerning  opment of S a g a ^ p r e f e c t u r e . ^  the  devel-  To s c h o l a r s o f l o c a l h i s t o r y  i n t e n t on c a r e f u l l y d e t a i l i n g the p a s t o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r p a r t 12 of Kyushu, Hagakure has long been a source o f v a l u a b l e d e t a i l s . S o c i a l h i s t o r i a n s , too, have d i s c o v e r e d a great d e a l o f m a t e r i a l 13 r e g a r d i n g m a r i t a l and  family conditions.  References to  c i a l documents, d e l i b e r a t i v e meetings, d u t i e s r e q u i r e d o f t i c u l a r o f f i c e s , and expected behavior between v a r i o u s  regarding  offipar-  intercourse  ranks of samurai e x i s t as concrete  examples.  For i n s t a n c e , the n o t i f i c a t i o n o f a r a i s e i n s t i p e n d a r r i v e d by 14 means of an o f f i c i a l l e t t e r from the l o r d . Another paragraph 15 deals w i t h methods by which a new group member was s e l e c t e d . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y attached to duty i s c l e a r l y d e p i c t e d i n a statement e x p l a i n i n g the p r e c a u t i o n s  r e q u i r e d when d e l i v e r i n g a  16 message at  and  i n the a l l u s i o n to the r o l e o f an o f f i c i a l witness 17 the r i t u a l o f seppuku j f l j f f . Furthermore, h i s t o r i a n s i n t e r -  10  3 e s t e d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l development o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e appa18 ratus w i l l  f i n d many passages o f s p e c i f i c  interest.  The r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f Hagakure, though, l i e s beyond a s u p e r f i c i a l examination  of the t e x t i n search o f s p e c i f i c  d e p i c t i n g c e r t a i n aspects o f h i s t o r i c a l study.  accounts  Rather i t e x i s t s  as an o u t s t a n d i n g r e c o r d o f the code o f conduct o f the i d e a l i z e d samurai  i n the p r o v i n c e o f Saga.  The f a c t t h a t i t indeed rep-  resents but a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f the whole country does not det r a c t from i t s c r e d i t a b i l i t y because i t s author, Yamamoto Tsunetomo ^  f  l  ? (1659-1719), w h i l e drawing on l o c a l events f o r  i l l u s t r a t i o n , propounds what may be regarded as the c u l m i n a t i o n o f - t h e s e t o f e t h i c s which l a t e r came t o be known as bushido Tsunetomo was i n f l u e n c e d by v a r i o u s sources and the b u s h i which he so c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y p o r t r a y s were i d e a l models who, i n a c t u a l i t y , d i d not e x i s t a t any time i n Japanese h i s t o r y . This f a b r i c a t i o n i s openly  admitted.  At p r e s e n t , models o f g r e a t r e t a i n e r s have disappeared. T h e r e f o r e i t i s probably b e s t to make one's own model and i m i t a t e t h a t . The way t o c r e a t e t h i s model i s t o take the decorum o f one person, the courage o f another and a t h i r d ' s way o f u s i n g words. Add someone's proper b e h a v i o r and the f i r m o b l i g a t i o n of someone e l s e . Study y e t another man's way of q u i c k l y and f i r m l y making good d e c i s i o n s . I f from among people one s e l e c t s men who each have an o u t s t a n d i n g q u a l i t y , and s e l e c t s o n l y the b e s t o f these q u a l i t i e s , he can make a model.20 The Utopian q u a l i t i e s d e p i c t e d i n Hagakure n e v e r t h e l e s s c o i n c i d e d almost e x a c t l y w i t h the e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i a o f the standard b u s h i i n o t h e r p a r t s o f Japan.  The p o i n t o f d i f f e r e n c e ,  then, l i e s n o t so much i n the content as i t does i n degree.  For  Tsunetomo p i c t u r e d h i s model i n s u c c i n c t and f o r c e f u l terms and,  4 because o f t h i s emphasis  which bordered on the i l l u s i o n a r y ,  Hagakure p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t example of the b a s i c p r e c e p t s which the bushi o f the middle Edo p e r i o d were expected to emulate. While i t i s p o s s i b l e and e x c i t i n g to s e l e c t s p e c i f i c sentences o r paragraphs and attempt t o r e l a t e them to s i t u a t i o n s o f theppresent age, c a u t i o n on t h i s p o i n t i s i m p e r a t i v e .  However  much c e r t a i n passages lend themselves to t h i s p r a c t i c e , i t does not serve the purpose o f f i n d i n g the true essence o f the book. For, as i t w i l l be seen, Hagakure was  produced w i t h a c e r t a i n  i n t e n t i o n and subsequently the passages, a l b e i t v a r i e d and  color-  f u l , c o n s t a n t l y r e t u r n to the e x p o s i t i o n o f p r i n c i p l e s meant to strengthen t h a t o r i g i n a l i n t e n t .  N a t u r a l l y the words themselves  have an important r o l e to p l a y and each must be c o n s i d e r e d c a r e fully.  The use o f these words by the author, however, sometimes  p l a y i n g on t h e i r shock v a l u e , sometimes on t h e i r emotional v a l u e , and o t h e r times upon t h e i r a b i l i t y to impart l o g i c ,  constantly  reconfirms and s o l i d i f i e s Tsunetomo's p o i n t of view. Common sense was,  i n h i s day, based on fundamentals o f  reasoning d i f f e r e n t from the p r e s e n t age.  With the modern  em-  p h a s i s upon the f e e l i n g s and r i g h t s o f the i n d i v i d u a l , i t i s not expected t h a t an employee w i l l have the degree o f commitment 21 which was  demanded o f the r e t a i n e r s o f the Nabeshima han.  By  p r e s e n t standards t h a t d e d i c a t i o n to s e r v i c e would appear to be f a n a t i c i s m b o r d e r i n g on i n s a n i t y . q u e n t l y mentions  Indeed, even Tsunetomo f r e -  the need f o r a b l i n d and unreasonable d e v o t i o n 22  which he c a l l s s h i n i g u r u i  ^fcj^£wi, "death madness."  In appa-  r e n t o p p o s i t i o n to t h i s he a l s o s t a t e s the need f o r l o g i c  and  23 self control.  To Tsunetomo adherence to two such c o n t r a d i c t o r y  5 viewpoints p r e s e n t e d no problem because i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s c o u l d be caused only by d e v i a t i o n from the main duty of a bushi which was  to f u l f i l l h i s r o l e i n l i f e . Tsunetomo b e l i e v e d t h a t the Nabeshima House was  foremost  i n Japan. "Among the generations of l o r d s of our House  there have been no bad men been any who of  among the  Japan.  and no s t u p i d men.  have dropped to second or t h i r d among the daimyo  This marvelous House must have been d i v i n e l y p r o t e c t e d  by the p i e t y of our a n c e s t o r s . " entire l i f e  Nor have there  He  f u r t h e r b e l i e v e d t h a t the  of a b u s h i , p a r t i c u l a r l y one who  was  a r e t a i n e r of  such an unequalled House, c o u l d center around o n l y one  thought,  the u t t e r and complete devotion to the s e r v i c e o f one's l o r d . ...having been born by happy chance i n t o a House where the vows between l o r d and f o l l o w e r are s t r o n g , the r e t a i n e r s , and even the peasants and townsmen, have such deep indebtedness, the inheritance of successive generations, that words are inadequate to express i t f u l l y . When one t h i n k s of t h i s w i t h the r e s o l u t i o n f i x e d i n h i s h e a r t t h a t i n the repayment o f t h i s indebtedness he has to somehow be employed, he serves even more s e l f l e s s l y . Even i f ordered to become a m a s t e r l e s s samurai o r to commit seppuku, he knows these to be d u t i e s . From the depths o f the mountains and from under the e a r t h , from l i f e to l i f e and age to age, determining to serve i s the fundamental stage o f the r e s o l u t i o n of the samurai of the Nabeshima. This i s our h e a r t and s o u l . Although i t does not s u i t my p r e s e n t s e l f , Iwithdrawn as I am from the world as a monk,] I never pray f o r such t h i n g s as a t t a i n i n g Buddhahood. Being born as a Nabeshima samurai f o r seven l i v e s , and the d e t e r m i n a t i o n to serve the f i e f , i s s t a i n e d on my very l i v e r as long as I l i v e . A b i l i t y i s not needed. A l l t h a t i s necessary i s the d e t e r m i n a t i o n to bear the House by m y s e l f . ^ No  a c t i o n c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d insane o r i l l o g i c a l i f i t were  s i n c e r e l y intended to f u r t h e r the cause o f the l o r d . any e f f o r t which was  Conversely,  made i n an attempt to b e t t e r one's p e r s o n a l  6 lot  i n l i f e was  regarded as wicked.  T h e r e f o r e , the use o f exam-  p l e s , s t o r i e s , i n c i d e n t s taken from h i s t o r y f a m i l i a r t o the b u s h i of  the time, q u o t a t i o n s from other books, admonitions, accusa-  t i o n s employing harsh and c r u e l words f o r the purpose of shocking the of  r e a d e r , the use o f humour, the s t i m u l a t i o n o f the emotions love and compassion and o f h a t r e d f o r cowardice, and even the  appeal to the vengeance of the gods, are a l l employed when needed to  convince the young samurai i n one way  t i s e of chu way  of  o r another t h a t the p r a c -  , " l o y a l t y , " c o n s t i t u t e d the main f a c t o r i n t h e i r  life. There are i n d i c a t i o n s that the author was  c l e a r l y aware t h a t  the  age i n which the major s e r v i c e o f the r e t a i n e r was  for  h i s l o r d on the b a t t l e f i e l d had passed.  to f i g h t  Tsunetomo h i m s e l f  had had no b a t t l e e x p e r i e n c e and the i n c i d e n t s d e a l i n g w i t h war which are s p r i n k l e d throughout Hagakure are a l l drawn from e a r l i e r p e r i o d s as examples war.  More o f t e n the passages o f Hagakure attempt to d e a l w i t h the  problem o f how in  of accepted behaviour i n the contingency o f  t o m a i n t a i n the proper a t t i t u d e o f complete  a p e r i o d o f peace.  loyalty  The young samurai o f the mid-Edo p e r i o d  were d e s t i n e d to become o f f i c i a l s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s r a t h e r than w a r r i o r s , but i n the d i s c h a r g e of t h e i r d u t i e s they were expected to  fulfill  the requirements o f l o y a l t y and d e v o t i o n to t h e i r  lord.  Thus, Hagakure deals d i r e c t l y w i t h the d e l i c a t e problem o f a c h i e v ing  a mental a t t i t u d e o f preparedness o r r e s o l u t i o n  (kakugo,^(j^^f)  and s u s t a i n i n g t h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f purpose throughout a l i f e t i m e i n which there may  have been no c o n c r e t e o p p o r t u n i t y to consummately  demonstrate i t . Taken as a whole, the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f e f f o r t must be d i r e c t e d toward the c u l t i v a t i o n and development o f an  awareness  7 of the d i s c i p l i n e which i s necessary to p r o p e r l y serve one's lord.  I t i s i n t h i s r e s p e c t t h a t Hagakure d i f f e r s from the  g r e a t c l a s s i c s o f war i n two main but r e l a t e d r e s p e c t s . 25 Sun Tzu ffi Jj- ,  26 M a c h i a v e l l i ' s The A r t o f War,  The  and On War  by  27 Clausewitz,  a l l but ignore the mental a t t r i b u t e s o f s o l d i e r s  as i n d i v i d u a l s , emphasizing i n s t e a d i n s t r u c t i o n s to the commander o f the army and the a c t u a l s t r a t e g y to be employed commander i n l e a d i n g h i s army to v i c t o r y .  Hagakure,  by t h a t  on the  other hand, i s a book which r e v o l v e s around the i n d i v i d u a l s make up the army, not around the l e a d e r .  These  individuals  e x i s t only i n response to the needs of t h e i r l o r d . p r o v i d e s them w i t h d i r e c t i o n s on how  who  Hagakure  t o become commendable r e -  t a i n e r s and i n c i t e s them to do t h e i r utmost to a t t a i n a degree of mental d i s c i p l i n e which would enable them to achieve the most favorable  results.  Hagakure's amalgamation  concept o f d e v o t i o n to s e r v i c e i n c o r p o r a t e s an  o f C o n f u c i a n , Buddhist, and T a o i s t ideas t o g e t h e r  with e x p r e s s i o n s r e m i n i s c e n t o f n a t i v e Japanese modes o f thought. The d o c t r i n e s o f "reason" o r " r a t i o n a l i s m " ism"  ( r i , / ? _ ) and "human28  (j i n , •fa- ) are c e n t r a l to orthodox Confucianism  supported by such C o n f u c i a n v i r t u e s as " l o y a l t y " piety"  and are  (chu),,  (ko, j% ) and " r i t u a l " or "decorum" ( g i , ) .  The  "filial reiter-  a t i o n of these elements i n the Neo-Confucianism of the Sung dynasty i n the p h i l o s o p h i c a l teachings o f Chu H s i \ , (113 029 1200, Japanese name Shushi) and the o f f i c i a l adoption o f t h i s 30 s c h o o l by the Tokugawa bakufu i n f l u e n c e o f Chinese thought. s e r v a t i s m and the maintenance  gave f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h to the The emphasis  on moderation, con-  of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n d i v i d -  8 u a l s and among groups e x e m p l i f i e s the d i r e c t e f f e c t o f Neo-Confucianism  on Hagakure.  orthodox  I n c l i n a t i o n s toward ethnocentrism  and h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s a l s o i n d i c a t e an indebtedness  to  Confu-  31 danism.  Apparent,  a n c i e n t yin-yang  too, i s the harmonizing  e f f e c t of the  (in-yo, ffip^ ) philosophy o f C h i n a .  3 2  The  legacy  from Buddhism i s a l s o p r e s e n t , and the expressed n e c e s s i t y to gain r e l e a s e from w o r l d l y d e s i r e s and the acknowledgment o f the 33 t r a n s i t o r y nature of the world  p l a y s an obvious r o l e i n Hagakure•  E s o t e r i c p a t t e r n s , i n the methods o f t r a n s m i t t i n g knowledge f o r example, are a l s o c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r a c t i s e s of  Bud-  34 dhist sects.  On  the other hand, Zen Buddhism added the recog-  n i t i o n f o r s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s e l f - r e l i a n c e t o Tsunetomo's 35 ideal bushi.  Furthermore,  Tsunetomo's support o f the very  h i e r a r c h i c a l system, while i n f l u e n c e d by Confucianism, s o c i a l phenomenon which appeared times.  is a  i n Japan even i n very e a r l y  Some o f the elements r e g a r d i n g r i t u a l and e t i q u e t t e 37  can a l s o be t r a c e d to very e a r l y n a t i v e t r a d i t i o n s . of  rigid  these components are d i f f u s e d throughout  become i n t r i n s i c  Hagakure and have  p a r t s o f the t e x t , f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n w i l l  given them a t e to the contents o f t h i s 2. H ias s t othey r i c a lr e lBackground  themselves  w i t h armed men.  be  paper.  During the n i n t h century p r o v i n c i a l governors surround  Since a l l  began to  By the e l e v e n t h century the  bushi had emerged w i t h enough power t o become a source o f a n x i e t y to  the government i n Kyoto, and b e f o r e the t w e l f t h century  come t o a c l o s e they had e s t a b l i s h e d a bakufu  had  i n Kamakura^ 38  which h e l d a wide range o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e power. the samurai  c l a s s continued to be a tremendously  Thereafter, powerful f o r c e  9 i n Japanese h i s t o r y .  Beginning w i t h the Onin/ciWar  (1467-  39 1477),  armed c o n f l i c t ravaged Japan almost c o n s t a n t l y f o r  n e a r l y a century and a h a l f .  H o s t i l i t i e s continued u n t i l  culminated i n the u n i f i c a t i o n o f the country i n 1600  they  by Tokugawa  40 Ieyasu. .  .  A f t e r he had s o l i d x f i e d h i s g r i p on the n a t i o n through . 41  the e l i m i n a t i o n o f the Toyotomi f a c t i o n at Osaka i n 1615,  any  m i l i t a r y a c t i o n s which o c c u r r e d , such as the s u p p r e s s i o n of l o c a l i z e d u p r i s i n g s , c o n s t i t u t e d only minor s k i r m i s h e s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the C h r i s t i a n u p r i s i n g a t Shimabara  in  42 1638.  Ieyasu e s t a b l i s h e d a - p e r i o d of peace which was  to l a s t  f o r more than two hundred and f i f t y years u n t i l the M e i j i  Restor-  a t i o n o f 1868.  through  The m i l i t a r y s k i l l s of the b u s h i d e c l i n e d  the p r o t r a c t e d p e r i o d o f i n a c t i v i t y  and the f u n c t i o n o f the  samurai evolved from one of p h y s i c a l combat i n t o one o f administrative responsibilities. the s t a t u s of the samurai Soko who bushi.  attempted  Among those who  were concerned  d u r i n g the prolonged peace was  t o j u s t i f y the continued importance  He b e l i e v e d t h a t samurai, who  with Yamaga  o f the  r e c e i v e d sustenance  as a  r e s u l t of the e f f o r t s of the o t h e r s o c i a l c l a s s e s , must earn t h e i r y e a r l y s t i p e n d , not only by m a i n t a i n i n g proper m i l i t a r y preparedness, but by d i s c i p l i n i n g themselves  i n a r t s and  virtues  which would equip them as proper models and l e a d e r s f o r o t h e r s 43 to f o l l o w . Yamaga was samurai.  One  not alone i n h i s concern f o r the f u t u r e o f the  hundred years a f t e r the b a t t l e o f Osaka and e i g h t y  a f t e r Shimabara, a t a time when the n a t i o n was j o y i n g the b e n e f i t s o f peace, Hagakure was  engrossed i n en-  w r i t t e n (1716).  Con-  demning the l a c k of m i l i t a r y v i r t u e s i n terms which were o f t e n  10 extremely harsh and b r u t a l , such as, " A l l the work o f men  used  to  have the stench o f b l o o d about i t .  this  is  s a i d to be f o o l i s h .  In the p r e s e n t age  Through c l e v e r n e s s i n the use of words  people t i d y up t h e i r appearance,  and i f there happens to be a  s l i g h t l y d i f f i c u l t t a s k , they a v o i d i t .  I would l i k e the young  44 people to r e f l e c t c a r e f u l l y on t h i s , " a r e t u r n t o the s t r i c t e r mental  Tsunetomo appealed f o r  and p h y s i c a l d i s c i p l i n e of e a r l i e r  times. Why,  i t may  be asked, d i d Tsunetomo f e e l the need to  r e v e r t to what appears  to be a more p r i m i t i v e l i f e  style?  The  author h i m s e l f d e s c r i b e s g r a p h i c a l l y the circumstances which induced him to w r i t e .  In the t h i r t y years p r i o r to the compila-  t i o n o f Hagakure, ...the c h a r a c t e r o f the world changed. When the young samurai get t o g e t h e r , t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n c o n s i s t s e n t i r e l y of such t h i n g s as c h a t t e r about money, accounts o f p r o f i t and l o s s , t a l k o f the private a f f a i r s of families, styles of clothing, and g o s s i p r e l a t e d to l u s t . I f the c o n v e r s a t i o n does not turn to t h i s k i n d o f t h i n g , they are a l l bored. T h i s t r u l y has become a custom devoid of a sense o f r i g h t and wrong. In the o l d days, u n t i l the age of twenty or t h i r t y young men d i d not t a l k o f such t h i n g s because they d i d not have such d e s p i c a b l e t h i n g s i n t h e i r minds i n the f i r s t p l a c e . The o l d e r men, too, i f they s a i d something i n a d v e r t e n t l y , r e c o g n i z e d i t as an error. I t must be because the world has become g a r i s h and o n l y the way to get r i c h e r i s seen to be important.^5 Instead o f d e v o t i n g themselves  completely t o p r e p a r a t i o n f o r  46 proper s e r v i c e , goods which may  they show much more i n t e r e s t i n the m a t e r i a l 47 be found on the s h e l v e s o f merchant's s t o r e s 48  .and t r y t o a v o i d any duty which may  be a t a l l d i f f i c u l t .  The a n x i e t y expressed i n Hagakure r e g a r d i n g the i l l e f f e c t s of the process o f moral degeneration which was  taking  11 place i s mirrored  i n other works as w e l l .  (1666-1728), i n Seidan  Ogyu S o r a i ^  h i n t s t h a t the l a c k o f  JL  jO^s^  discipline  49 was  the r e s u l t of poor government c o n t r o l .  •^jtfr -jjH&fl^' w r i t t e n i n 1732 ^  JjL.  had  A few years e a r l i e r Kaibara  5 0  was  Muro Kyuso state  Ekken ^ ^ l ^ j ] ^ ( 1 6 30-  s t r e s s e d the need f o r proper e t h i c a l conduct i n h i s  Yamatozokukun XJjfl jfafy^, 1691)  i n 1750,  (1658-1734) i n d i c a t e s h i s g r i e f f o r the dismal  of s o c i e t y . 1714)  and p u b l i s h e d  In Sundai zatsuwa  jl\ (1619-  and Kumazawa Banzan  51  being o s t r a c i z e d by  the bakufu f o r suggesting  action  which might be taken to remedy p o l i t i c a l and economic d e f i c i e n 52 53 cies. The Imagawa l e t t e r , a t t r i b u t e d to Imagawa Ryoshun )l  j  T $Ml325-1420) , governor of S u r u g a j j ^ ^ ,  fundamental p r i n c i p l e s of m o r a l i t y . 200  years before  to a t t a i n and  Although w r i t t e n  Hagakure, i t s c l a r i t y  and  r e v i v e d i n the Edo  f o r i n s t a n c e , was Tokugawa p e r i o d .  republished 5 5  The  which moral advice was temporary to H a g a k u r e .  era.  at l e a s t 220  the  q u i t e common  The  and  Imagawa l e t t e r ,  times d u r i n g  the  given 56  )'|  j* i l l u s t r a t e s a s i m i l a r method by to r e t a i n e r s at a time n e a r l y  con-  Only s l i g h t l y l a t e r D a i d o j i Yuzan  (1639-1730) wrote Budo shoshin  the major p o i n t s of l o y a l t y and c o i n c i d e s c l o s e l y w i t h Hagakure. as the  During  memorandum o f Tokugawa Mitsukuni  (1628-1700) of Mi to ^  T\i^A.ik  about  the p r a c t i s e o f w r i t i n g such l e t t e r s of i n s t r u c t  t i o n to incoming heads of m i l i t a r y houses was 54 t h i s custom was  the  s t r u c t u r e allowed i t  s u s t a i n a high degree of p o p u l a r i t y .  Muromachi p e r i o d  ^|^|  expounds  avoidance o f f r i e n d s who  ideas o v e r l a p w i t h Tsunetomo s. 1  shu -jfr jjjS-ri H*  views r e g a r d i n g 58  On  5 7  death^this  text  On minor p o i n t s a l s o , such seek only p l e a s u r e ,  Daidoji's  12 A response to moral degeneration made i t s e l f v i s i b l e i n p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e as w e l l . had  The  — 59 f o r t y seven r o n i n S k . K  gained t h e i r revenge i n 1703  diately following  i n the mid,  The  I t was  The  w r i t t e n by  (1653-1724) and  Chikamatsu, o f t e n p r a i s e d  the years imme-  stage v e r s i o n s  f i r s t successful  Chikamatsu Monzaemon jfr  fjO.  JZJ -^ 1  ^  kabuki^|| $jJ*  and  as Japan's g r e a t e s t p l a y w r i g h t ,  i n c u l c a t e d w i t h the Confucian themes of l o y a l t y and and  generally  cjiri^^,,  depict  the  c o n f l i c t between f e u d a l  human emotions, n i n j o A'ffi • ^  and  I h a r a Saikaku 4 $  (1642-1693)  are  filial  piety  obligations,  While the  i s celebrated  6 4  and  ninjo.  The  f e a t u r i n g the  novelist  mainly f o r h i s  incompatibility of  ffjty  These men,  Ihara,  Chikamatsu and  5  a  n  d  centuries.  By  o f e t h i c s was  as the l e a d i n g  always as i t s h o u l d be,  t e n t i o n t h a t Hagakure was particularly of morality  which was  placed  early eighteenth  to the  advocated code  they v a l i d a t e the  compiled as a measure to  con-  counteract, the  decline  obvious throughout Japan. be  the degeneration and  regarded not only ostentation  66  authors of pop-  among the samurai of the Nabeshima han,  Hagakure, then, may against  l a t e seventeenth and  i l l u s t r a t i n g that dedication not  are  Budo d e n r a i k i ^ x J L f a ^ j ? ^  u l a r l i t e r a t u r e , i n d i c a t e through t h e i r works the value on moral b e h a v i o r i n the  also  giri  most important of h i s works i n t h i s f i e l d  Buke g i r i monogatari-^  60  by  2  prose f i c t i o n concerning townsmen and e r o t i c adventures, he wrote d i d a c t i c m a t e r i a l  of  play,  e n t i t l e d Gob an t a i h e i k i  p l a y s produced f o r bunraku  —  r  e i g h t e e n t h century drama  c a l l e d Chushingura t^'l£yf& appeared.  f^frjjtff^  during  t h e i r mass s u i c i d e , v a r i o u s  t h i s story,, c u l m i n a t i n g  appeared i n 1706.  and  o  of the  as a p r o t e s t age  but  also  as  13 p o s i t i v e a c t i o n toward c o r r e c t i n g those e v i l s .  Tsunetomo, acutely-  aware o f the c o n t i n u i n g v u l g a r i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y , s t a t e s t h a t the beginning  of a r e v e r s a l must emanate from sound knowledge of  h i s t o r y of the han.  He  f e l t t h a t the value of the  the  traditional  the young r e t a i n e r s o n l y i f r t h e y were  mores c o u l d be seen by  f i r s t e n l i g h t e n e d about the deeds and p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n the  history  68 of  the Nabeshima han.  In e a r l i e r y e a r s , he d e c l a r e s , "...  r e t a i n e r s a l l worked d i l i g e n t l y The  l o r d s searched  f o r persons who  o r d i n a t e s were eager to comply. lower c l a s s e s met,  and  p o s s i b l e with  w i t h i n the  occupations.  would serve w e l l , and the sub-  The h e a r t s o f thev.upper and 69  the House prospered."  the honest endeavor o f both was  at t h e i r family  l e a d e r s and  That i s , through  f o l l o w e r s , cooperation  the r e s u l t t h a t there was  peace and  success  fief.  Tsunetomo, i n r e f e r r i n g to the men  of o l d ,  understandably  i g n o r e s the numerous i n s t a n c e s o f i n s i n c e r i t y , t r e a c h e r y , d e c e i t which abound throughout Japanese h i s t o r y . the commendable t r a i t s o n l y , admittedly some of the f a c t s , he history.  fails  By  a b i a s e d use of o n l y  i n the cause of p r e s e n t i n g a true  However, t o do so was  not h i s i n t e n t i o n .  l o c a l h i s t o r y o n l y to encourage t h e i r emulation the  and  emphasizing  With a s i n g l e -  mindedness b o r d e r i n g on the f a n a t i c he drew i l l u s t r a t i o n s  of  the  from  by the youths  han. I t i s necessary  at t h i s p o i n t to d e s c r i b e b r i e f l y  the  social  and economic s i t u a t i o n o f the country i n g e n e r a l and o f Saga han in particular.  The  response of the s o c i e t y to the g r e a t peace  t h a t accompanied Tokugawa r u l e was  profound.  q u a n t i t y and v a r i e t y of a g r i c u l t u r a l products  Increases and  i n the  freedom of  14 movement on the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes prompted economic  expansion,  i n i t i a l l y i n the l a r g e r centers of p o p u l a t i o n , and l a t e r ,  through  the process of d i f f u s i o n , to the c a s t l e c i t i e s of r e g i o n a l c a p i tals.  In a d d i t i o n t o i n c r e a s e d m a t e r i a l goods, p r o s p e r i t y brought  a g r e a t c u l t u r a l surge which o r i g i n a t e d i n the major c i t i e s Edo,  of  Kyoto, and Osaka and which i s epitomized i n the f l o w e r i n g ,  e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the Genroku/L-^era kabuki  (16 88-170 3) , of bunraku and  t h e a t e r , the a r t s t y l e known as ukiyoe ^ ^ J l f f t ^ ,  ious forms o f l i t e r a t u r e and p o e t r y .  and  The entertainment  var-  quarters  of every c i t y and town c a r r i e d on an i n c r e a s i n g l y l i v e l y  business.  Forms of t h i s c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y spread to even the most remote provinces.  One  main c a r r i e r of t h i s c u l t u r e was  of sankin k o t a i  w i t h i t s requirement  the  institution  t h a t the daimyo,  with.a number of t h e i r r e t a i n e r s , make frequent t r i p s between t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l s and Edo.  Yet there were other means,  too, by which the p r o v i n c e s came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h the  cultural  a c t i v i t i e s of the l a r g e c i t i e s .  Contained  ample, i s the s t o r y of a man  had been s t a t i o n e d i n Osaka f o r  a number of y e a r s . because o f h i s new  who  i n Hagakure, f o r ex-  When he r e t u r n e d to Saga he was accent and a f f e c t e d manner.  ridiculed  In t h i s  connection  Tsunetomo s a i d , "In our p r o v i n c e , s i m p l i c i t y i n the country is best.  I t may  style  be s a i d t h a t i m i t a t i o n of the manners of o t h e r 73  provinces i s f a l l a c i o u s . " While much of the b e n e f i t from the new way  p r o s p e r i t y found i t s  i n t o the purses o f the r i s i n g merchant c l a s s , the samurai  c l a s s , too, was  a b l e , through  f o r c e d o r otherwise,  s t i p e n d s , s p e c i a l taxes and  to procure enough funds  g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l expansion.  loans,  to take p a r t i n the  Even the s e l e c t i o n of marriage  part-  70  15 ners began t o take on some of the aspects o f an open market, as each f a m i l y p l a c e d an i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on wealth r a t h e r than upon s o c i a l s t a n d i n g , much to the dismay of Tsunetomo, who  called  74 this  "outrageous  and i n e x c u s a b l e . "  In view o f the above-described s o c i a l and economic s t a t e of a f f a i r s , i t i s not s t a r t l i n g to see the appearance o f a r e a c t i o n a r y movement.  C o n s e r v a t i v e men  were concerned  t h a t the  samurai  c l a s s , which i n p r a c t i s e s u p p l i e d v i r t u a l l y a l l o f the a d m i n i s t r a tive o f f i c i a l s  to the governments, both n a t i o n a l and l o c a l , would  j e o p a r d i z e i t s a b i l i t y to r u l e e f f e c t i v e l y .  Tsunetomo  laments,  "When there i s peace the world g r a d u a l l y becomes a gaudy showp l a c e ; people become extravagant and i n d i f f e r e n t t o the ways o f war.  They have many f a i l u r e s .  Persons  of both h i g h and  low  ranks are s o r e l y t r o u b l e d and people, both i n s i d e and o u t s i d e o f 75 the f i e f ,  are ashamed.  The  f i e f may  even f a l l i n t o r u i n . "  o t h e r words Tsunetomo f e l t t h a t war may the moral r i g o r of the samurai.  be necessary to m a i n t a i n  Without war  to matters o f moral conduct a t t e n t i o n may the f u l f i l l m e n t o f d u t i e s .  In  to ensure d e d i c a t i o n  be d i v e r t e d away from  Through n e g l e c t of t h i s s o r t the  very f a t e o f the c l a n c o u l d be i n jeopardy.  Thus, through  proper  m o r a l i t y one's p e r s o n a l f a t e and the d e s t i n y of the han c o u l d be influenced.  Tsunetomo's l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g i n t h i s r e g a r d  was  c l o s e r to the Confucian concept of r e c t i t u d e than t o Buddhist t h e o r i e s o f an i n a l t e r a b l e f a t e . Bakin  One Hundred years l a t e r Takizawa  (1767-1848), one o f the most popular w r i t e r s of  d i d a c t i c f i c t i o n o f the Edo p e r i o d , expressed a s i m i l a r view. "Fate i s indeed c a p r i c i o u s , but m o r a l i t y can sway i t . Morality 76 i s more c r u c i a l than f a t e . " The Nabeshima han, i n s p i t e of i t s remoteness, was not f r e e  16 from the degenerative  i n f l u e n c e s of the age.  tomo, the p r o h i b i t i o n o f junshiffi] jf^, f a m i l y headship,  According to Tsune-  i n f a n t s u c c e s s i o n to  and the c e s s a t i o n o f the custom o f c h i l d pages,  a l l newly i n t r o d u c e d measures, were not good f o r s o c i e t y i n gene r a l , and the young samurai o f Saga han each of these new good r e t a i n e r s .  elements was  i n p a r t i c u l a r , because  d e t r i m e n t a l to the t r a i n i n g o f  I n s t e a d o f l e a r n i n g t h i n g s which would help to  serve the l o r d and the House, he says, they become a d d i c t e d to m i s c h i e f d u r i n g t h e i r spare time.  Because they are t r e a t e d as  a d u l t s a t the age o f f i f t e e n or s i x t e e n and as y e t have no they spend a l l t h e i r time e a t i n g , d r i n k i n g and  taste,  t e l l i n g obscene  78 stories.  In h i s o p i n i o n they would do b e t t e r to ignore a l l  o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s and apply themselves only to the study of kokugaku||]  , the h i s t o r y and accepted t r a d i t i o n s o f the Nabe79  shima f i e f . at  E a r l y i n Hagakure Tsunetomo makes a statement  which,  f i r s t g l a n c e , seems to be a t odds w i t h h i s r e a c t i o n a r y views. 80  He gen  d e c l a r e s t h a t s i n c e Buddha, C o n f u c i u s , Kusunoki, ,^  and  had never served w i t h i n the Nabeshima han,  had not experienced the circumstances  of that f i e f , 82  ings are of no relevance to Nabeshima r e t a i n e r s .  so  t h e i r teachAfter  gained the a t t e n t i o n o f h i s readers by means o f t h i s statement,  and  Shin-  having  startling  however, Tsunetomo proceeds to use the i n s t r u c t i o n s  and p r i n c i p l e s o f these men  throughout  Hagakure.  The  essential  purpose i n i n t r o d u c i n g such a p r o v o c a t i v e d e c l a r a t i o n was,  no  doubt, to emphasize h i s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t a l l l e a r n i n g i s v a l i d only i f i t d i r e c t l y a s s i s t s the samurai o f the Nabeshima han in serving their  lord.  17 3.  Yamamoto Tsunetomo  fc'ffi]  Although Yamamoto Jinuemon Tsunetomo was h i m s e l f  times.  83  a product o f the age o f peace, h i s i n s t i n c t was to  r e a c t a g a i n s t what he considered the  P^^ty^ ,  to be the degenerate t r e n d o f  Born i n the K a t a t a e k o j i f^j $ yS->\>.$&  s e c t i o n o f Saga  84 c a s t l e town i n 1659,  twenty years a f t e r the Shimabara r e v o l t ,  he had no b a t t l e e x p e r i e n c e .  As no war took p l a c e d u r i n g h i s  l i f e t i m e , h i s c o n t a c t w i t h a c t u a l combat e x i s t e d only the s t o r i e s o f the o l d e r bushi  through  o f Saga han, those who had taken  p a r t i n the b a t t l e o f Shimabara.  The t a l e s o f such men d o t the  pages o f Hagakure, e i t h e r as d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n s  o r as s p e c i f i c  p r.  i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f Tsunetomo s standards. 1  Tsunetomo s own p a t e r n a l g r a n d f a t h e r , Nakano Jinuemon 1  Kiyoaki f v  (1555-16 20) , was the n i n t h generation  scended from Nakano Goto Y o r i a k i ^ $ f i % J ^ 4 * 5 a branch o f the m i g h t l y G o t o f | t ^ c l a n . f a s h i o n , gained r e c o g n i t i o n under Nabeshima Naoshige.  de-  $\ , who had founded  Kiyoaki  had, i n true  f o r m i l i t a r y e x p l o i t s while  bushi  serving  Tsunetomo s f a t h e r , Yamamoto Jinuemon 1  Shigezumi  hJfffifr^P^iLi'ft  (1590-1669), the t h i r d son o f K i y o a k i ,  became the adopted h e i r o f Yamamoto Sukebei Muneharu and in  so assumed the f a m i l y name o f Yamamoto.  Qpfy^ffififcA  He p a r t i c i p a t e d both  the Osaka campaigns and i n the Shimabara i n c i d e n t , and was 86  renowned f o r h i s m i l i t a r y v a l o r .  He was seventy years o l d a t  the time o f Tsunetomo's b i r t h but even a t t h i s advanced age he was an a c t i v e man who, according health  t o Tsunetomo, r e t a i n e d h i s  and energy by using moxa cautery 87  and b e i n g prudent i n  sexual i n t e r c o u r s e . He remained vigorous u n t i l h i s death i n the y e a r t h a t Tsunetomo turned e l e v e n . T h e r e a f t e r Tsunetomo  18 r e c e i v e d much o f h i s t r a i n i n g from Yamamoto Gorozaemon Tsuneharu  i /^JLtf^.%t^ ] ^l<a r  f  s  (1639-1687) whose b l o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p to Tsune;  88 tomo was  t h a t o f a nephew although he was  twenty years o l d e r .  Both Shigezumi and Tsuneharu were among those who wave of d e t e r i o r a t i o n which was remote Nabeshima While ^  resisted  b e g i n n i n g t o appear even i n the  han.  Shigezumi remained "as a shadowy f i g u r e "  ^ ^ ^ t l ^ ) ^  the  (kageboshi  he s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d Tsunetomo s t h i n k i n g  during h i s e a r l y years.  1  Shigezumi had earned  a commendable rep-  u t a t i o n w i t h i n the f i e f , a n d the f i r s t han l e a d e r , Nabeshima K a t s u s h i g e ^ f t *%>% (1580-1657), had s a i d t h a t the men under 90 Shigezumi were the most trustworthy i n the p r o v i n c e .  He i n -  stilled  t h i s s t r o n g sense of l o y a l t y not o n l y i n the minds of  his  but a l s o i n the mind o f h i s young son by  men  "You must become a s t r o n g man of  whispering,  and serve the l o r d , " i n t o the ears  Tsunetomo, even while he was an i n f a n t too young to understand. 92 Tsunetomo l i s t s some o f the o t h e r remarks which h i s f a t h e r was fond of s a y i n g . I f one comprehends one t h i n g he comes t o understand many t h i n g s . I t i s b e s t to t h i n k t h a t people who. laugh a t the wrong times are, i n the case o f men, f e l l o w s w i t h no sense o f d i g n i t y , and i n the case women, shameless. When t a l k i n g , e i t h e r on formal o c c a s i o n s o r i n normal circumstances, i t i s b e s t to speak while l o o k i n g i n t o the o t h e r person's eyes. I t i s s u f f i c i e n t to bow w i t h one's head lowered only when g r e e t i n g someone. To t a l k while l o o k i n g downward i s i n a t t e n t i o n . To put one's hands i n s i d e one's c l o t h i n g i s i n a t t e n t i o n . A f t e r reading a l e t t e r or document, i t i s to be burned immediately. Looking at documents i s the job o f o f f i c i a l s , and the duty of the Nakano f a m i l y i s to grasp swords of oak and be d i l i g e n t i n the m a r t i a l way. An e c c e n t r i c man [who i s not concerned w i t h making an impression] i s a man to be t r u s t e d . Rise at f o u r i n the morning, have a bath and arrange  19 the h a i r every day, r e t i r e when the sun Although he may n o t toothpick. E x h i b i t  e a t with the r i s i n g sun, and sets. have eaten, a bushi uses a the f u r o f a t i g e r on the  o u t s i d e even though the i n s i d e may be the f u r o f a dog. Most o f these i n j u n c t i o n s are s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and need no exp l a n a t i o n b u t the l a s t i s the source o f some puzzlement.  The  p o i n t o f focus here i s t h a t while a bushi may, i n the manner o f a dog, f e e l p e r s o n a l f e a r , he must show the world an e x t e r i o r 93 of courage,  confidence, and composure.  Tsuneharu, t o o , continued as an important i n f l u e n c e i n Tsunetomo's l i f e , by sending him, f o r i n s t a n c e , a g i f t o f encouragement when he had done a f i n e job o f kaishaku /^^nf .  9 4  In  a d d i t i o n t o moral support, Tsuneharu r e l a t e d s t o r i e s o f g r e a t m i l i t a r y heroes  and p r o v i d e d i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f proper bushi con-  95 duct  u n t i l 1687 when, assuming r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a f i r e , he 96  committed s u i c i d e m  atonement.  In a d d i t i o n t o these f a m i l i a l i n f l u e n c e s , Tsunetomo's c h a r a c t e r was molded by three o t h e r f o r c e s , each i n a d i v e r s e way.  When he was nine years o l d , Tsunetomo was given the name  Fukei-^-1^ and assigned the p o s i t i o n o f p e r s o n a l page t o and p l a y mate  9 7  o f Tsunashige^Kjj^  (1652-1706) , the son o f the second  o f the Nabeshima House, M i t s u s h i g e .  head  Although i t must be granted  t h a t M i t s u s h i g e was a s t r o n g l e a d e r , he was o f the b e l i e f t h a t the sphere o f the l o r d of a han encompassed more than m i l i t a r y exploits.  A t an e a r l y age he developed  a deep i n t e r e s t i n p o e t r y ,  much to the c h a g r i n o f h i s f a t h e r , Katsushige, who, a t one stage when h i s son was s t i l l young, even burned h i s c o l l e c t i o n o f 98 p o e t r y books. involvement  N e v e r t h e l e s s , M i t s u s h i g e maintained h i s a c t i v e  i n p o e t r y and Tsunetomo, through  c o n t a c t with h i s  20 l o r d , developed an i n t e r e s t i n poetry.  H i s t a l e n t was soon r e c -  ognized, and he was o f f e r e d the o p p o r t u n i t y Kuranaga R i h e i ^.»\<.V}^^\ Mitsushige.  ,the o f f i c i a l  to become a p u p i l o f  i n charge o f poetry  under  Tsunetomo d e c l i n e d t h i s o f f e r on the grounds t h a t  i t would i n t e r f e r e w i t h the c a r r y i n g o u t o f h i s primary duty as 99 a companion t o Tsunashige. When he was i n h i s t w e l f t h o r t h i r t e e n t h • y e a r - ^ 0 T f  was  allowed t o withdraw temporarily  from s e r v i c e i n order  S u n e  tomo  to l e t  h i s h a i r grow out o f the p a r t i a l l y shaved s t y l e o f a c h i l d .  This  p e r i o d o f i n a c t i v i t y was expected to be about one y e a r b u t i t grew l o n g e r .  During t h i s time Tsunetomo was c o n s t a n t l y  w i t h the d e s i r e t o serve h i s l o r d and h i s determination i s demonstrated by h i s a c t i o n s .  filled t o do so  Having been t o l d t h a t h i s  face  e x h i b i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e , and that the l o r d d i s l i k e d such f a c e s , Tsunetomo s t u d i e d h i s f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n i n t e n t i o n of a l t e r i n g i t s appearance. regard, it  i n a m i r r o r w i t h the He was s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s  f o r at the end o f the p e r i o d h i s countenance had changed,  i s s a i d , from one o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t o one o f s l e e p i n e s s , which,  apparently,  was p r e f e r a b l e .  1 0 1  f e e l i n g s by s a y i n g t h a t during  He r e l a t e s the i n t e n s i t y o f h i s t h i s p e r i o d he had seen the pro-  c e s s i o n o f h i s l o r d s pass by and was so d r i v e n by h i s anxiety to serve  t h a t he went to a c e r t a i n s h r i n e and made a p e t i t i o n to the  gods.  Because h i s true f e e l i n g s were thus known t o the gods, h i s  prayers  were not denied and w i t h i n a s h o r t time he was once , . , , 102 serving his lord.  again  In 1672 h i s name was changed t o I c h i j u r o ^t£j!> and seven years l a t e r , a t the age o f twenty, he e x p e r i e n c e d the ceremony of manhood, genpuku /L ^JL'  At t h i s time he assumed the name  21 Gonnosuke  tlx .  During these teen-age years another major  f o r c e e n t e r e d Tsunetomo's  life  and helped t o mold h i s c h a r a c t e r .  He met the Zen monk Tannen Ryoju Osho i&fZL'fctfc^ (died 1680)  104  whom he p r a i s e d as the most l e a r n e d and understanding o f a l l the 105 monks i n Japan.  A man of f i r m moral c o n v i c t i o n s , Tannen had  r e s i g n e d h i s p o s t as the head monk o f Kodenji v£) . .  .  107  t e s t o f a d e c i s i o n t o punish a f e l l o w monk. the  i n pro-  He r e t i r e d t o  s m a l l v i l l a g e o f Matsuze4&&l[in Saga Gun and i t was: ihere  t h a t Tsunetomo came to him f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n Zen Buddhism. the  At  age o f twenty-one Tsunetomo had the Buddhist name Kyokuzan  Jocho  c o n f e r r e d upon him."*"^  tivity  The compassion and s e n s i -  f o r human emotion which may be found i n Hagakure no doubt  r e f l e c t s the t r a i n i n g which Tsunetomo r e c e i v e d under Tannen. prominent example i n t o Tsunetomo's  One  o f the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f Tannen's benevolence thought i s i t s appearance as one o f the Four  109 Vows  which Tsunetomo e s t a b l i s h e d as the foundation upon which  a good b u s h i s h o u l d base h i s l i f e .  Other examples o f ideas which  o b v i o u s l y d e r i v e from h i s Buddhist background are found i n various passages throughout Hagakure.  ^  These i n j u n c t i o n s to l o v e ,  e s p e c i a l l y as expressed i n the f o u r t h vow, are apparently i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o the Sun Tzu which s t a t e s e x p l i c i t l y  that com-  p a s s i o n i s a f a u l t i f found i n a general."^"'" The f o u r t h g r e a t i n f l u e n c e , one which permeated a l l of  h i s u p b r i n g i n g and l a t e r l i f e , was Neo-Confucianism.  aspects This  m o d i f i e d form o f Confucianism had the support o f the Tokugawa bakufu because i t s p r e c e p t s upheld t h e , c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the s o c i a l o r d e r i n s t i t u t e d by Tokugawa Ieyasu.  I t i s u n c l e a r as t o whether  Tsunetomo had d i r e c t access t o the w r i t i n g s o f such noted Con-  22  (1618-1682) , o r I t o J i n s a i {f%- f=.|j-(1627-1705) .  z a k i Ansai  As much of h i s t r a i n i n g had been i n l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s not i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t he had read at l e a s t some of t h e i r works.  The  f a c t t h a t no mention i s made o f them i n Hagakure may  indicate  nothing more than h i s devotion to h i s own  Confucian  teacher of  ethics. Ishida I t t e i ^ W —  T h i s was  (1628-1693)^ who  occupied the p o s i t i o n of top Confucian  had once  s c h o l a r i n the Nabeshima  112 han.  He had been a c l o s e and r e s p e c t e d a d v i s o r to  but found, upon Katsushige's those o f the new  han  i s more important t i o n i n l i f e was  Katsushige  death, t h a t h i s views c l a s h e d w i t h  c h i e f , Mitsushige.  His b e l i e f t h a t n o t h i n g  than working d i l i g e n t l y  to f u l f i l l  one's s t a -  not f a v o u r a b l y accepted by M i t s u s h i g e , who  from an e a r l y date, showed h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r p o e t r y .  had,  Remaining  s t e a d f a s t to h i s c o n v i c t i o n s , I t t e i  r e f u s e d to compromise h i s  views and  from the l o r d ' s c a s t l e .  consequently  was  banished  A f t e r e i g h t years of e x i l e i n YamashirogoJ^^V^k i n Matsuura Gun  r e s p e c t of the s e n i o r r e t a i n e r s o f the han s o j o u r n , he was l e c t u r e s and  o f t e n i n v i t e d to t h e i r homes, where he gave  advice.  r e t i r e m e n t was  and, even d u r i n g t h i s  113  Among those who  Tsunetomo, who  v i s i t e d h i s p l a c e of  not only l e a r n e d from him the b a s i c  tenets of Neo-Confucianism but a l s o developed faithfully  f o l l o w these p r e c e p t s .  what, i f one  a determination  Such phrases  as, "No  matter  concentrates one's mind, there i s n o t h i n g which  to  cannot be done,"  were to remain i n t e n s e i n Tsunetomo's con-  s c i o u s n e s s f o r the r e s t of h i s l i f e .  Another recorded thought  i l l u s t r a t e s I t t e i ' s d a i l y r e s o l u t i o n to s e r v i c e . maxim, "Important  To  Naoshige's  thoughts must be taken l i g h t l y , " he added, 115  "Unimportant  thoughts must be taken s e r i o u s l y . "  By t h i s he  meant t h a t as there are only a few thoughts which are very s e r i o u s , they can be c o n s i d e r e d i n advance and one w i l l be prepared to deal w i t h them as the o c c a s i o n demands.  On the o t h e r hand, be-  cause there are so many unimportant thoughts, one has the tendency to overlook them and t h e r e f o r e does not a d m i n i s t e r to them competently.  For t h a t reason one must be p a r t i c u l a r l y  careful  to g i v e a p p r o p r i a t e a t t e n t i o n to a l l t h i n g s , no matter how they may  trivial  appear.  Yamamoto's c h a r a c t e r , then, was  b u i l t upon the s t r o n g  foundation o f Confucian e t h i c s which had been i n s t i l l e d by h i s f a t h e r and nephew.  When added to t h i s b a s i s , the  Neo-Confucian  teachings of I s h i d a I t t e i formed an extremely s o l i d understanding of the p r e c e p t s o f moral and s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s of h i s c l a s s , the samurai.  The harshness o f these c o n v i c t i o n s was,  at certain  times and i n p a r t i c u l a r areas, s o f t e n e d by the more humanitarian and compassionate  tones o f Buddhism.  A t h i r d element o f h i s  p e r s o n a l d i s p o s i t i o n , t h a t centered around h i s t r a i n i n g i n l i t e r a t u r e , p r o v i d e d the t o o l s and perhaps p a r t o f the i n c e n t i v e f o r the composition o f the book, Hagakure. Hagakure p r i m a r i l y expresses views demonstrative o f the Confucian p r i n c i p l e s harboured n a t i o n a l l y , and as c l e a r l y ex— — 116 p r e s s e d by Yamaga Soko, Kumazawa Banzan, and Ogyu S o r a i . The i n f l u e n c e o f Zen Buddhism tends, however, to moderate the c o l d -  24 ness o f Confucianism i s a sharp  with the warmth o f Buddhism.  c o n t r a s t between the harsh  Thus there  and r a d i c a l words used to  emphasize the d u t i e s o f the w a r r i o r and the almost g e n t l e o f the passages advocating  love.  The  combination  effect  of these  con-  t r a s t i n g s t y l e s i n t o a u n i t y shows the l i t e r a r y aspect of Tsunetomo' s t r a i n i n g . Buddhism was  But  the a b i l i t y  to combine Confucianism  not merely i n d i c a t i v e o f l i t e r a r y  two were i n s e p a r a b l e i n h i s mind. of the two was  For him  d i f f e r e n t from the way  and  t a l e n t , f o r the  to b e l i e v e t h a t e i t h e r  which the w a r r i o r must 117  f o l l o w was  wrong, f o r they were one  and the same.  In what  appears to be a conscious e f f o r t to show t h a t the two were, i n f a c t , i d e n t i c a l , Tsunetomo quotes I t t e i f e l t at an e a r l y age d i d not f i r s t mediately  as s a y i n g t h a t he  t h a t he must devote h i s l i f e  to study  had and  accumulate knowledge and then become a sage.  f o l l o w i n g t h i s , Tsunetomo repeats the same  Im-  concept  i n a Buddhist  sense by s t a t i n g t h a t at the time of r e l i g i o u s 118  awakening one  already has  r e l i g i o n i n one's h e a r t .  L i t e r a r y a b i l i t y , although d u t i e s o f the samurai, was  vital  f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  not a p a r t i c u l a r l y commendable  a c c o r d i n g to Tsunetomo, f o r a devoted b u s h i .  skill,  Indeed, i t w i l l  be  seen t h a t there are numerous p l a c e s i n Hagakure where such accomplishments are b e r a t e d as b e i n g o b s t a c l e s to the t r u e duty of a b u s h i , namely s e r v i c e to the l o r d .  Nevertheless,  Tsunetomo's  l i t e r a r y i n t e r e s t s were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the w r i t i n g of Hagakure. Furthermore, i t was  h i s c a p a b i l i t y i n l i t e r a t u r e which p r o v i d e d  him w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y to serve h i s l o r d .  In 16 82 he was  ithe n 16d u86t i he appointed Yakut*)'-} to the p<f$ o s tULro f " Shoshamono e s was of Okakimono O f f i c e r of Books,"  given and  25 If} /"Copier of Books/' i n Edo. %%tyt&  Twice he served Kyoto Zume  /"Duty a t Kyoto," f i r s t i n 1687  and again i n  From t h i s d i v e r s e background of t r a i n i n g and  1696. service,  Tsunetomo e v o l v e d what he c o n s i d e r e d to be the key to the t i n u a t i o n o f an ardent d e s i r e to s e r v e .  con-  Each bushi should i n -  120 tone the Four Vows possess  every morning so t h a t he w i l l  the s t r e n g t h o f two men  i n the p r e s c r i b e d way. which, i f pursued  One  to apply t h i s power  Here, he b e l i e v e d , was  the magic  formula  s e r i o u s l y , would make even a weak person  a commendable b u s h i . Bushido  and the w i l l  come to  into  The Four Vows a r e :  n i o i t e okure t o r i mosu m a j i k i koto.  must not be behind i n t a k i n g up the way  of the  warrior.  2' i S f l Iffffll< i L ^ A* 3 ^ Shukun no goyo n i t a t s u b e k i koto. One  must be of s e r v i c e to the  lord.  Jfr-  3.  Oya n i koko tsukamatsuru One  b e k i koto.  must serve one's parents w i t h f i l i a l  piety.  D a i j i h i o okoshi h i to no tame n i naru b e k i koto. One  must give r i s e to g r e a t good w i l l  and  compassion  and thus serve o t h e r s . As the f i r s t three vows are o b v i o u s l y founded  on Confucian  c i p l e s , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to d i s c o v e r t h a t they,  prin-  together  w i t h the i d e a o f p r e s e n t i n g one's c e n t r a l b e l i e f s i n the form of an o a t h , were d e r i v e d from the works o f h i s Confucian  teacher,  26 Ishida I t t e i .  In 1672 I t t e i had w r i t t e n a document e n t i t l e d  Bushido yokansho  i n which he d e l i n e a t e d the f o l -  , . 121 lowing three vows:  Bushido One  n i o i t e miren o t o r u bekarazu.  must n o t be u n s k i l l f u l i n the way o f the w a r r i o r .  Senzo no myoji o danzetsu One  subekarazu.  must not d i s c o n t i n u e the f a m i l y name o f one's  ancestors.  Hikkyo,  shukun no goyo n i t a t s u b e s h i .  U l t i m a t e l y , one must stand i n the l o r d ' s The  f o u r t h and l a s t vow d i f f e r s  i s imbued w i t h Buddhist thought  service.  from the o t h e r three i n t h a t i t r a t h e r than C o n f u c i a n i s t .  That  i t s content was e x t r a c t e d from the teachings o f Tsunetomo's Zen teacher i s c l e a r l y expressed w i t h i n Hagakure i t s e l f . a t t r i b u t e s the f o l l o w i n g statement  Tsunetomo  - 122 t o Tannen Osho:  Bushi wa y u k i o omote n i s h i t e n a i s h i n n i wa hara no waruru hodo d a i j i h i s h i n o motazareba, kagyo wa t a t a z a r u mono n a r i . Unless a bushi does not have w i t h i n him deep compassion w h i l e e x h i b i t i n g outward courage, he w i l l n o t be s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s occupation. 4.  Compilation and T e x t u a l Information  In 1694 M i t s u s h i g e t r a n s f e r r e d the headship  o f the Nabeshima  27 123 House t o h i s son, Tsunashige. a c l o s e companion t o Tsunashige  Although  Tsunetomo had been  s i n c e c h i l d h o o d and may have  had a chance to a t t a i n a p o s i t i o n o f h i g h e r p r e s t i g e under the new a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , he b e l i e v e d t h a t h i s l o y a l t y must remain with his l o r d , Mitsushige.  In speaking o f t h i s d e c i s i o n he ex-  h i b i t s a c e r t a i n amount o f p r i d e and shows h i s d i s d a i n f o r o t h e r r e t a i n e r s who had been very l o y a l i n t h e i r words but who q u i c k l y changed t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e t o the new l e a d e r when the time was 124 most advantageous to themselves.  In order to serve M i t s u s h i g e ,  Tsunetomo had h i m s e l f appointed to a minor p o s t i n Kyoto and devoted h i m s e l f to the procurement o f a book o f p o e t r y , the Kokin  {i>J$sL^~^ which M i t s u s h i g e had d e s i r e d f o r many y e a r s .  denju  F i n a l l y , w i t h t h i s book on h i s back, he r e t u r n e d to Saga on the f i r s t day of the f i f t h month o f the t h i r t e e n t h year o f Genroku 126 (1700).  On the s i x t e e n t h day o f t h a t month M i t s u s h i g e d i e d ,  l e a v i n g Tsunetomo w i t h a sense o f g r a t i t u d e t h a t he had been able to complete h i s task i n time.  Y e t , he a l s o f e l t a s t r o n g  c o n v i c t i o n t h a t h i s duty t o h i s l o r d remained u n f u l f i l l e d .  He  says t h a t i n o r d e r to be able to accomplish h i s l o n g - c h e r i s h e d ambition o f s e r v i c e he would have to be born i n t o the House o f 127 Nabeshima seven times  over.  M i t s u s h i g e ' s demise and the f e e l i n g o f u n f u l f i l l e d  obliga-  t i o n s l e d Tsunetomo t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the most a p p r o p r i a t e course o f a c t i o n would be to commit j u h s h i so t h a t he might t i n u e t o serve h i s l o r d i n the next world.  T h i s was rendered  i n f e a s i b l e , however, by the ban on such a c t i o n . t h i s s i t u a t i o n w i t h the statement, t h a t n o t even one person  con-  He lamented  " I t i s t r u l y a lonesome t h i n g  accompanies a daimyo a t the time of h i s  28 death."  128  Because o f f i c i a l s who  had been important men  under 129  M i t s u s h i g e merely  turned t h e i r backs upon t h e i r l o r d ' s  Tsunetomo c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f to be the o n l y honourable  death, retainer.  Such honour had been a c q u i r e d through h i s d e c i s i o n t h a t the next b e s t t h i n g to j u n s h i was assumption  r e t i r e m e n t from t h i s mundane world  and  o f the l i f e o f a monk so t h a t he would be b e t t e r able  to devote h i s l i f e  to prayers f o r h i s departed l o r d . 131 . . 132 At the age of f o r t y two he took h i s w i f e and s e t t l e d i n a s e c l u d e d spot c a l l e d K u r o t s u c h i b a r a ^ i n a f o r e s t e d - A. -* 133 area near Kinryu/f^JL mountain i n the n o r t h e r n p a r t o f Saga. Here he passed h i s remaining y e a r s , although he o f t e n l e f t f o r memorial s e r v i c e s  134  and p e r s o n a l v i s i t s .  135  Nor was  of r e t i r e m e n t so i s o l a t e d t h a t he had no v i s i t o r s . f e l t somewhat g u i l t y about the many f r i e n d s who him and about the kindness they showed him.  h i s spot  In f a c t ,  he  came to c a l l  on  He s a i d , "The  kind  treatment given to me by v a r i o u s people i s more than I deserve 136 and s u r e l y I w i l l be punished f o r i t . " One  o f those v i s i t o r s , T a s h i r o Matazaemon Tsuramoto )31 (1678-1748), came to K u r o t s u c h i b a r a on the f i f t h  day  v.  of the t h i r d month i n the seventh year o f H5ei*f?-fj^ (1710).  On  the o c c a s i o n o f h i s f i r s t meeting w i t h Tsunetomo, they exchanged the f o l l o w i n g h a i k u  fy>Q  .  1  3  7  Ukiyo k a r a i k u r i aro ka yamazakura. From the mundane world, how —  many m i l e s might i t be?  mountain c h e r r y blossoms. Kogan tfcTtft, (Tsunetomo)  1  Shirakumo ya tadaima hana n i tazune a i . Among the s i l v e r clouds —  now t o g e t h e r we ask the  cherry blossoms. Kizui  (Tsuramoto)  The q u e s t i o n b e i n g asked by Kogan, the name Tsunetomo used when w r i t i n g p o e t r y , i n the f i r s t h a i k u i s n o t the p h y s i c a l d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d b u t r a t h e r the degree t o which Tsuramoto has made the t r a n s i t i o n from the s e c u l a r d i v e r s i o n s o f the mundane world t o an awareness of a more s p i r i t u a l e x i s t e n c e .  That i s , i n a d d i -  t i o n t o s e t t i n g the season and the mood, the c h e r r y blossoms m e t a p h o r i c a l l y s i g n i f y the p u r i t y o f a mental o r s p i r i t u a l enlightenment.  Thus, behind  deeper s i g n i f i c a n c e .  the obvious, there appears a query of  In response  to the q u e s t i o n o f whether he  knows h i s d i r e c t i o n and d e s t i n a t i o n , Tsuramoto, under h i s pen name, K i z u i , admits h i s u n c e r t a i n t y . "white,"  F o r the word s h i r a  ity ,  because o f i t s o r a l s i m i l a r i t y t o s h i r a n a i %p ^/"jTn , "not  knowing," i s a kakekotoba^|- Y]  , a p l a y on words.  As such, the  s i l v e r o r white clouds p r o v i d e not only a metaphor f o r c o n f u s i o n or u n c e r t a i n t y but a l s o a n e g a t i v e answer t o Tsunetomo's question.  Yet he expresses  h i s d e s i r e t o search, t o g e t h e r w i t h  Tsunetomo, f o r an e n l i g h t e n i n g escape fromvthe.:perplexity o f the mundane world. Tsuramoto took up r e s i d e n c e nearby and c a l l e d r e g u l a r l y on Tsunetomo, making c o n v e r s a t i o n and l i s t e n i n g t o a d v i c e . he recorded and compiled as Hagakure.  A l l this  i n t o a c o l l e c t i o n which came t o be known  Tsuramoto was w e l l q u a l i f i e d f o r t h i s task o f p r e -  s e r v i n g Tsunetomo's ideas f o r , u n t i l b e i n g r e l i e v e d of "his d u t i e s  30 i n 1709, he had spent t h i r t e e n years as amanuensis t o the t h i r d 13 8 and f o u r t h l o r d s o f the Nabeshima han. Tsunetomo and Tsuramoto c o n t i n u e d to work t o g e t h e r u n t i l 1716 when they completed Hagakure.  I t had come t o c o n s i s t o f  eleven volumes c o n t a i n i n g about 1,350 s e c t i o n s o r a r t i c l e s , of which d e l i n e a t e d a s p e c i f i c thought o r i n j u n c t i o n .  each  Of vary-  i n g l e n g t h s , from one sentence to s e v e r a l paragraphs, and d i v e r s e s t y l e , these passages were more o r l e s s verbatim accounts o f Tsunetomo's d i s c o u r s e s .  In a d d i t i o n , e x t e n s i v e use was made of  documents which had been w r i t t e n by Tsunetomo h i m s e l f i n e a r l i e r years.  Those known to have been used are Gukenshu ^  Tsunetomo k a k i o k i vffe-*)  '0i't>  ^L^l^t  (  J^$fc ht  1  i  7  1  ( 5  )  1 7 1 1  ^  (1708),  *npffij^(1714) , Juryoan Chuza no n i k k i  j^^jk-*  ) ' Sembetsu  o r Tsunetomo sembetsu sho tfjp ^  ' Yamamoto Jinuemon K i y o a k i nempu ^ %ffl%$T\f \ e  and Yamamoto Jinuemon Shigezumi  '^^h  nempu  139 •  Works o f former han l e a d e r s , such as Naoshige's Nao-  shigedono goheki sho  ffiffi^ffiffi^,"*" ^ 4  were a l s o c a r e f u l l y  studied.  Furthermore, almost constant r e f e r e n c e i s made throughout Hagakure to t h i n g s s a i d by o t h e r han l e a d e r s , by famous persons i n Japanese h i s t o r y , and by the t e a c h e r s , r e l a t i v e s , and acquaintances of Tsunetomo h i m s e l f .  I t was h i s s t y l e t o use such phrases as  "a c e r t a i n person" o r "a certain., r e t a i n e r " without mentioning names. of which  He a l s o had a penchant  f o r o l d e x p r e s s i o n s the sources  cannot be i d e n t i f i e d , and these appear a t v a r i o u s p l a c e s  i n the t e x t .  Consequently, w h i l e Hagakure i s outwardly a com-  p i l a t i o n m i r r o r i n g the i d e a s o f Tsunetomo, i t more r e a l i s t i c a l l y reflects  the thoughts and concepts which he b e l i e v e d to be the  most important elements  i n the l i t e r a t u r e w i t h which he was  31 f a m i l i a r and  the s o c i e t y i n which he  lived.  U n l i k e the authors of most o f the o t h e r books o f moral i n s t r u c t i o n s mentioned e a r l i e r , Tsunetomo s p e r s o n a l 1  t i o n s are unimpressive. s e r v i c e , he was House.  He  qualifica-  At the time o f h i s r e t i r e m e n t  from a c t i v e  but a lowly-ranked samurai w i t h i n the Nabeshima  r e c e i v e d a modest r i c e allowance o f about one  hundred  141 twenty f i v e koku.  Although he had  shown i n t e l l i g e n c e and  e r a r y t a l e n t d u r i n g h i s youth, much o f h i s a d u l t l i f e was  lit-  spent  i n performing r e l a t i v e l y minor c l e r i c a l d u t i e s , and he never  ful-  f i l l e d h i s dream o f a c h i e v i n g a p o s i t i o n o f importance i n the han.  He h i m s e l f r e g r e t f u l l y admits t h a t , due  to c e r t a i n o b s t a -  c l e s which he was unable to overcome, he could not succeed as w e l l 142 as he had hoped. Because I have been the i n s i g n i f i c a n t f e l l o w you see b e f o r e you s i n c e I was young, I have not done any e x c e p t i o n a l s e r v i c e . Whenever I saw persons who a s s e r t e d themselves, I f e l t envious. But I knew i n my h e a r t t h a t probably there was no one who compared with me i n t e n d e r i n g concern f o r the lord. This one t h i n g i s enough to soothe my f e e l i n g s . I served i n t o t a l d i s r e g a r d o f my low s t a t u s and lack of t a l e n t . Tsunetomo's purpose i n w r i t i n g Hagakure may the d e s i r e to implant han.  He  be t r a c e d to  such an a t t i t u d e i n other r e t a i n e r s o f  d i d not, however, favour  the  a program of mass i n d o c t r i n a 143  t i o n as the method f o r a c h i e v i n g h i s aim.  Some e d i t i o n s  of  Hagakure i n c l u d e a p r e f a c e which i n d i c a t e s t h a t Tsunetomo c e r t a i n l y d i d not i n t e n d t h i s document to be read w i d e l y , w i t h i n Saga han. w i t h han  He  a f f a i r s and  doubtlessly r e a l i z e d that i t s the repeated  even  preoccupation  demands f o r undivided  loyalty  to the Nabeshima House, r a t h e r than to the Tokugawa bakufu, would have p l a c e d i t and  the han  i n an unfavourable p o s i t i o n with  re-  32 gard  t o the Edo regime.  144  He i n s t r u c t e d Tsuramoto t h a t , as  Hagakure was w r i t t e n f o r the p e r s o n a l  use o f s e l e c t e d samurai o f 145  Saga, i t was meant t o be burned a f t e r having been Throughout the remaining century  read.  and a h a l f o f Tokugawa r u l e ,  Hagakure r e t a i n e d i t s s t a t u s as a s h i e l d e d book, p a s s i n g i n t o t r u s t e d hands to be copied  clandestinely.  only  No doubt t h i s  secrecy was due a t l e a s t i n p a r t to f e a r o f bakufu r e t r i b u t i o n , but  there  can a l s o be sensed an aspect  found i n many areas o f Japanese l i f e , m i l i t a r y sciences. widely  read,  o f the e s o t e r i c element i n c l u d i n g r e l i g i o n and the  Y e t , although Hagakure was not p u b l i s h e d and  i t was f a m i l i a r enough t h a t a commentary  Hagakure k i k i g a k i koho ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ / ^ i w a s  entitled  w r i t t e n near the end o f  the Edo period."'" ^ 4  Perhaps because o f Tsunetomo's e x p l i c i t l y  stated desire,  the o r i g i n a l manuscript, gempon j^jf^ t i s no longer  in.'existence .  T h i s regrettable d e f i c i e n c y i s , i n p a r t , compensated f o r by a number o f copied manuscripts, shahon to be e x t a n t  are the Kohaku hon  Those which are known  -fa ^ , the Nakano hon \J3  the Yamamoto hon )L\Jf jfc*., the Furukawa hon $C > }jf> , the Go jo hon {  J2L v^p'jfc  i and the Matsumoto hon yfej^fc.  47  As the p o s s i b i l i t y no  longer e x i s t s t o make a comparison between these copies o r i g i n a l manuscript, there  and the  i s no way o f a s c e r t a i n i n g which o f  them f o l l o w the r e c o r d o f Tsuramoto most c l o s e l y .  During t r a n -  s c r i p t i o n , the c o p i e r o f any shahon was bound to commit c e r t a i n e r r o r s o f omission and e d i t i o n , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t no two copies has hon  are i d e n t i c a l .  A c a r e f u l study o f the e x t a n t  manuscripts  l e d the foremost s c h o l a r o f Hagakure t o s e l e c t the Kohaku 148 as the most accurate and r e l i a b l e , p a r t l y because i t was  copied by a contemporary o f Tsuramoto, Kabahara Kohakuiffl The e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h and r e v i t a l i z a t i o n which l e d to the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Hagakure i n the t w e n t i e t h century was almost e x c l u s i v e l y by one man,  carried  out  K u r i h a r a Arano (or Koya) ^J^L 149  who  devoted almost h i s e n t i r e a d u l t l i f e t o the study o f Hagakure.  His c a r e f u l l y o r g a n i z e d ,  f u l l y researched,  and complete work,  Kochu hagakure !^ tl.^^fehas p r o v i d e d the b a s i c t e x t , sokuhon  Jjj^fc ,  for  most modern p u b l i c a t i o n s , as i t has  Through  his  e f f o r t s of arrangement, Hagakure has  The  general i n f o r m a t i o n presented  for this p a p e r .  taken i t s p r e s e n t  In g e n e r a l , the f i r s t  form.  i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n ,  which i s c a l l e d Yain no kandan chapters.  1 5 0  f o l l o w e d by two  chapters  eleven  l i s t moral i n s t r u c -  tions.  Chapter three deals w i t h the deeds o f Naoshige, the  founder  o f the Nabeshima l i n e of han  leaders.  The  feats of  the  f i r s t head o f the House, Katsushige, are d e p i c t e d i n the f o u r t h s e c t i o n , and the f i f t h  depicts Mitsushige  and h i s son  Tsunashige.  Chapters s i x through eleven give concrete examples of the t o r i c a l i n c i d e n t s and t r a d i t i o n s o f Saga han, outstanding  his-  and r e c o r d the  a c t i o n s of the samurai o f t h a t p r o v i n c e .  34 Chapter I I .  1.  I n t e r n a l Aspects  As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, Hagakure was  not w r i t t e n as a  manual f o r generals to guide t h e i r armies to v i c t o r y as were Sun Tzu and M a c h i a v e l l i ' s The A r t of War.  As a book o f  i t s d e s i g n i s c l e a r l y to i n s t r u c t the w a r r i o r s , who  conduct,  i n the Japan  of the Edo p e r i o d were v i r t u a l l y a l l members o f the samurai i n the proper a t t i t u d e b e f i t t i n g men i s almost no mention  of t h e i r p o s i t i o n .  class,  There  of the a c t u a l p h y s i c a l techniques o f b a t t l e ,  and m i l i t a r y s t r a t e g y , i f r e f e r r e d to a t a l l , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h some o t h e r matter."'" ''" 5  i s d e a l t w i t h only  In p l a c e o f the e l e -  ment o f p h y s i c a l prowess, Hagakure concerns i t s e l f more w i t h the mental d i s c i p l i n e which a samurai must undergo i n o r d e r to become a man  worthy of the d e s i g n a t i o n b u s h i . A l l people are human and t h e r e f o r e i t i s o n l y n a t u r a l  they have shortcomings.  The emotions  that  of greed, s e l f i s h n e s s ,  p r i d e , l u s t , cowardice, and h a t r e d , however n a t u r a l they may are a l l i n d i c a t i v e of the worst aspects o f human n a t u r e . are a l s o most commonly manifested among people who t h e i r own  be,  They  think of  i n d i v i d u a l b e i n g as the most v i t a l element  i n the world.  T h e r e f o r e , the e x i s t e n c e of i n d i v i d u a l i t y among members of the samurai  c l a s s o f the Edo p e r i o d was  i n d i v i d u a l was  not a r e s p e c t e d v i r t u e .  The  consequently expected, indeed r e q u i r e d , to f o r f e i t  h i s p e r s o n a l goals and adopt those which would b e n e f i t the group."'" Such conformation ensured t h a t he would have no enemies among 153 his associates.  From the viewpoint of the p r e s e n t day  w o r l d , which p l a c e s so much emphasis on the r i g h t s o f the  western indi-  35 v i d u a l , t h i s appears the samurai, who  to be an extremely  c o n f i n i n g f a t e , but to  had never experienced anything s i m i l a r to the  freedom of our age, i t was  a t r a d i t i o n a l aspect of the s o c i e t y  and had proven i t s e l f a most e f f e c t i v e f o r c e f o r m a i n t a i n i n g the system.  I t was,  a c t u a l l y , w i t h i n t h i s framework t h a t the  samurai  found h i s reason f o r e x i s t e n c e . The statements,  "Nothing should p l e a s e one more than to  pass on to others t h a t which ones possesses, i f i t i s i n the b e s t 154 i n t e r e s t s of the l o r d , " 155 benefit of others,"  and,  " A l l people must a c t f o r the  are s i m p l i s t i c i n t h e i r meaning but are  not e a s i l y c a r r i e d i n t o p r a c t i s e .  Human nature d i c t a t e s  when a person i s d e v e l o p i n g a course o f a c t i o n , he may  that  think that  he i s b e i n g i m p a r t i a l , but i n r e a l i t y h i s plans a l l r e v o l v e around himself.  The end r e s u l t of any s e l f i s h a c t i o n cannot be  but f a i l u r e .  "People who  to be b e t t e r , and who  anything  aim a t c e r t a i n d u t i e s , which they fancy  work f o r the sake o f p e r s o n a l g a i n and  s e l f i s h n e s s by gauging the moods of t h e i r l o r d and group l e a d e r s , may  be s u c c e s s f u l i n ten cases but when they f a i l i n one 156  t h i n g i s r u i n e d , and they are d i s g r a c e d . " unselfish i s a d i f f i c u l t  task.  every-  To become completely  The Buddhist b e l i e f t h a t the  hard road to Nirvana c o u l d be covered only i n many l i v e s o f v i r 157 tue and s e l f s a c r i f i c e can be seen here i n a d a p t a t i o n to the system of f e u d a l l o y a l t i e s . Tsunetomo b e l i e v e d t h a t o n l y through u t t e r d e v o t i o n to the l o r d and continuous d e d i c a t i o n t o the Four 15 8 Vows  c o u l d such s e l f l e s s n e s s be achieved. Accounts  o f deeds which were c o n s i d e r e d to be s e l f i s h  u n s e l f i s h abound i n Hagakure.  The  two  f o l l o w i n g examples  and  indi-  cate a s u b t l e awareness of the s l i g h t shades of d i f f e r e n c e b e t -  ween the  acceptable  deals w i t h a man nence and He  who  and  the unacceptable.  had  f i r s t of these  sent g i f t s by a number of people.  d e c l i n e d these g i f t s , •ostensibly - '  because he was  neither  to Tsunetomo, t h i s r e f u s a l was  done i n  a manner so as to a t t r a c t n o t i c e to the righteousness man  himself,  says,  "To  and  so was  159  been promoted to a p o s i t i o n of promi-  i n t h a t p o s t was  greedy nor p a r t i a l , but,  The  of  the  not t r u l y w i t h o u t s e l f i s h motive.  He  remove s e l f i s h n e s s from the bottom of your h e a r t  with160  out drawing a t t e n t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t . " of a man  who  had  There i s a l s o an  account  been i n s e r v i c e f o r many years and was  i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l reward f o r h i s e f f o r t s . i n s t e a d he  r e c e i v e d only  threatened  to r e t i r e  expect-  He became angry when  a small i n c r e a s e i n h i s s t i p e n d  from s e r v i c e .  and  His conduct i s r i d i c u l e d  by  Tsunetomo f o r , "...the r e s o l u t i o n to s e r v i c e i s f o r g o t t e n comp l e t e l y , because he i s t h i n k i n g only o f p e r s o n a l  pride."  S e l f - s a c r i f i c e underwent a q u a l i t a t i v e change d u r i n g  the 16  years o f peace.  The  decreasing  need f o r men  with m i l i t a r y s k i l l s  and  the i n c r e a s i n g t r e n d toward a c t i v i t i e s o f p l e a s u r e  end  of the seventeenth century  p r a c t i s e of o f f e r i n g o n e s e l f l e s s o f a n e c e s s i t y and men  weakened s t r i c t observance . of  f o r the sake o f o t h e r s .  little  become f a r more enjoyable  goods d i s p l a y e d on the shelves I t i s impossible  f o r any  to e x i s t w i t h i n the mind o f one  There  the  was  d e s i r e to f o l l o w the example of  l i k e Yamasaki K u r a n d o h ^ r f j ^ w h o  I t had  near the  disdained material  goods.  to spend time l o o k i n g a t 163  of the  the  shops.  e t h i c such as l o y a l t y or courage person.  only when they are the accepted norm.  Mores are  recognizable  Because o r i e n t a t i o n i s  w i t h the i d e a l o f group u n i t y , the presence o f such e t h i c s  can  1 6 2  37 be v a l i d only w i t h i n the l a r g e r c i r c l e o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Nevertheless,  values must be i n t e r n a l i z e d by each i n d i v i d u a l f o r  i t i s from w i t h i n the mind o f each person s t r e n g t h o f the concept c i p l e s may be regarded  i s created.  t h a t the u n d e r l y i n g  In t h i s r e s p e c t moral p r i n -  as i n t e r n a l e n t i t i e s which must be sup-  p o r t e d by a g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f the members o f s o c i e t y before become v i a b l e mores.  they  F o r t h i s reason, Tsunetomo, although he  r e a l i z e d t h a t i t was the s o c i e t y which was degenerating,  appealed  to the i n d i v i d u a l s to i n t e n s i f y t h e i r i n n e r d e t e r m i n a t i o n .  Each  man must, w i t h i n h i m s e l f , come t o recognize the proper way. To shun unrighteousness and p e r s i s t i n r i g h t e o u s ness i s a d i f f i c u l t t h i n g . . . . Over and above l o y a l t y to p r i n c i p l e there i_s a Way. But to f i n d it is difficult. Those who can do i t are the poss e s s o r s o f s u p e r i o r wisdom. When one t h i n k s about i t from t h i s s t a n d p o i n t , even p r i n c i p l e and t h i n g s of t h a t s o r t are r a t h e r s m a l l matters. Unless one has experienced t h i s by h i m s e l f , he probably cannot understand. But even i f one cannot experience t h i s alone, there i s a method by which he can achieve the Way. That i s to have dialogue with o t h e r s . ^ 4 x  The  Tokugawa bakufu i n s t i t u t e d v a r i o u s l e g a l c o n t r o l s such  as the Buke shohatto ^  ,  the Tokugawa seiken hy akk a j o  the Shoshi h a t t o |p§-JT fe^x  165  and  i n an attempt t o  s u s t a i n the r i g o r o u s mental d i s c i p l i n e o f the samurai c l a s s and to d i r e c t t h a t d i s c i p l i n e toward the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the regime 166 i n Edo.  A d d i t i o n a l l y there were numerous methods o f s o c i a l  c o n t r o l , both formal and i n f o r m a l , by which the samurai were c o n s t a n t l y o b s e r v i n g each other to m a i n t a i n ,  through v a r i o u s 167  degrees of s o c i a l p r e s s u r e , i n c l u d i n g systems o f i n s p e c t o r s 16 8 and s p i e s ,  r i d i c u l e , and o s t r a c i s m , a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s  able to the bakufu.  favour-  In the l a s t a n a l y s i s , however, i t , too, was  dependent upon the determination  o f each i n d i v i d u a l to r e i n f o r c e  38 moral standards through i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n . Tsunetomo o b v i o u s l y b e l i e v e d t h a t the moral p r e s s u r e b e i n g a p p l i e d by the samurai as a group upon i t s wayward members had become, i n r e a l i t y , i n e f f e c t i v e because o f the g e n e r a l l y  wide-  spread divergence from s t r i c t observance o f proper morals. d i c a t i n g t h a t men  In-  no l o n g e r had the courage nor d e s i r e to make  use o f t h e i r weapons, the symbol o f the samurai c l a s s , he says, "Proof t h a t manly courage has f a i l e d i s shown i n the f a c t there are few persons who  that  have even cut o f f the heads o f con-  demned c r i m i n a l s , l e t alone any who  have a s s i s t e d a t seppuku.  I t has become an age i n which people who  skillfully  d e c l i n e are  169 c o n s i d e r e d c l e v e r persons or accomplished people." Phrases such as "be r e s o l v e d , " "be determined," "make up 170 one's mind," " s e t one's h e a r t , " " s e t t l e one's b e l l y , " "decide," p r e v a i l i n almost every p o r t i o n o f Hagakure.  and Tsunetomo  i s e v i d e n t l y aware o f the n e c e s s i t y to support the mental  deter-  mination o f the i n d i v i d u a l and throughout the book d i r e c t s a rep171 etxtous campaign toward t h a t end. In doing so he demands, 172 173 174 cajols, teases, reasons, appeals to emotions and i n 175 176 stinct, c a l l s on the r e p u t a t i o n s o f a n c e s t o r s , and t h r e a t e n s 177 w i t h the 'curse o f the gods. tude and the b e s t way  He d e l i n e a t e s the proper a t t i -  o f a t t a i n i n g the d e t e r m i n a t i o n to achieve  t h a t a t t i t u d e by d e s c r i b i n g improper conduct o f c e r t a i n people and e x p l a i n i n g why  i t i s c o n s i d e r e d to be improper.  In o t h e r  i l l u m i n a t i n g s t o r i e s and i n c i d e n t s he p r a i s e s the proper elements of  behaviour. He s t a t e s r e p e a t e d l y such t h i n g s as, Upon l o o k i n g a t the r e t a i n e r s o f the p r e s e n t time, one n o t i c e s t h a t t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s are low. The way they use t h e i r eyes reminds one o f p i c k p o c k e t s .  39 G e n e r a l l y t h i s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o p e r s o n a l selfishness. By g i v i n g a i r s of c l e v e r n e s s , they appear t o be at ease w i t h themselves, but t h i s i s n o t h i n g more than a b l u f f i n f r o n t o f people. When one does not f a s t e n one's eyes upon the s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f the foundations of the p r o v i n c e , attend to one's d u t i e s and r e p o r t to the l o r d , c o n s i d e r the l o r d ' s w e l f a r e s e r i o u s l y a l l day and n i g h t , and o f f e r o n e s e l f to the l o r d , w h i l e b e i n g r e s i g n e d t o death, one cannot be s a i d to be a r e a l r e t a i n e r . 8 x 7  Mistakes are to be expected and are not condemned. knows h i s mistakes When one  "When one  and c o r r e c t s them, they are i n s t a n t l y  erased.  t r i e s to g l o s s over those e r r o r s , they become a l l the 179  more d i s g r a c e f u l and one comes t o s u f f e r f o r i t . " Perhaps the most e s s e n t i a l r e q u i s i t e i n a bushi i s a comp l e t e d e v o t i o n to s e r v i c e i n which he advances b l i n d l y w i t h no thought o f anything but the e x e c u t i o n of what he knows to be h i s duty. In bushido, forward p r o g r e s s i o n with a r e c k l e s s n e s s borderu i n g on rashness i•s i' n dJ i' s p e n s a b l e . 180 I f s e r v i c e i s s t r i v e n f o r without regard to reason or substance, and i f e v e r y t h i n g i s f o r g o t t e n and only the l o r d i s thought to be important, t h a t i s a l l t h a t i s needed. Such i s a good r e t a i n e r . By b e i n g too fond o f s e r v i n g and being too concerned about the l o r d , i t i s p o s s i b l e to f a l l i n t o e r r o r , but t h a t i s what a r e t a i n e r ' s b a s i c wish should be." T h e r e f o r e , w h i l e i t may  sometimes be b e t t e r to advance c a u t i o u s l y , 182  i n many cases i t i s b e s t to proceed wholeheartedly.  Tsunetomo  183 reinforces  t h i s concept by r e i t e r a t i n g the a n c i e n t e x p r e s s i o n ,  "Seven breaths make a p l a n , " by q u o t i n g R y u z o j i Takanobu, "Even a good p l a n becomes r o t t e n i f l e f t too l o n g , " and Naoshige, " I f one  takes too much time i n e v e r y t h i n g , seven  i t w i l l t u r n out bad. to a c t . "  times out of ten  In any s i t u a t i o n a b u s h i must be quick  The space of seven breaths g i v e s s u f f i c i e n t time f o r  a b u s h i to g a i n composure and determine  to do what must be done.  40 This i s t r u e o f a l l aspects o f l i f e , characters.  even the w r i t i n g of Chinese  "A w a r r i o r need only w r i t e from h i s h e a r t and  c o n s i d e r the q u a l i t y of h i s work. job o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l .  D e c i d i n g good or bad  not  i s the  A bushi does things i n an unwavering  ,,184 manner. Advocacy.!  of impetuous a c t i o n i s one p o i n t i n which the  thought o f Hagakure stands m i l i t a r y manual of China, of the Sun  d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed to the the Sun  Tzu were meant d i r e c t l y  and c o n c e d i n g  Tzu.  Granting  classic  t h a t the words  f o r the commander o f the army  t h a t he must be more c o n s e r v a t i v e i n h i s a c t i o n s  than the average s o l d i e r , nowhere i s there an e x p r e s s i o n  to the  e f f e c t t h a t the w a r r i o r must forsake l o g i c . Instead, one o f the most dangerous q u a l i t i e s t h a t a g e n e r a l might possess i s s a i d to be r e c k l e s s n e s s , f o r a commander who  i s courageous but s t u p i d  185 i s a calamity.  " I t i s the business  o f a g e n e r a l to be 186  and i n s c r u t a b l e , i m p a r t i a l and s e l f c o n t r o l l e d . " of e x p e c t a t i o n s was armies.  serene  This view  v a l i d a l s o f o r the lower ranks o f the Chinese  In a d i s c u s s i o n between Confucius'-  and one  of h i s d i s -  c i p l e s , the f o l l o w i n g exchange i s s a i d to have taken p l a c e . T z u - l u s a i d , Supposing you had command of the Three Hosts, whom would you take to h e l p you? The Master s a i d , The man who was ready to beard a t i g e r or rush a r i v e r without c a r i n g whether he l i v e d or d i e d - t h a t s o r t of man I should not take. I should c e r t a i n l y take someone who approaches d i f f i c u l t i e s with due c a u t i o n and who p r e f e r r e d to succeed by s t r a t e g y . ^ 7 x  When i t i s r e c a l l e d t h a t Hagakure was of peace and t h a t the emphasis was  w r i t t e n during a period  upon the upgrading of mental  d i s c i p l i n e , the o b s e s s i o n with r e c k l e s s n e s s and rashness can brought more c l e a r l y i n t o focus.  By means of such a d o c t r i n e  be  41 Tsunetomo i s attempting to reduce the i n d e c i s i o n and p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n which he observed i n the young samurai around him. t h i s Hagakure i s weakened, i n comparison to be f o l l o w e d i n winning wars.  In  w i t h Sun Tzu, as a t e x t  Yet i t i s strengthened i n i t s  purpose o f a l l e v i a t i n g the e v i l s of s o c i e t y as seen by Tsunetomo. A s t r o n g l y s t a t e d d i s r e g a r d f o r i n t e l l i g e n c e and an o f t e n repeated theme i n Hagakure, may  logic,  be a t t r i b u t e d to the 188  Zen p r e f e r e n c e f o r i n t u i t i o n over i n t e l l e c t . to one's duty r e q u i r e s t h a t one  Utter devotion  " . . . r e l i n q u i s h one's mind and 189  body and come t o t h i n k only of the l o r d . "  I f , i n addition  to t h i s frame of mind, one a l s o has i n t e l l i g e n c e and  talent,  190 one i s able to g i v e even b e t t e r s e r v i c e . a very r e a l danger t h a t mistakes may  But there i s a l s o  be committed because  of  191 an e x c e s s i v e d e v o t i o n t o l e a r n i n g .  That i s , d u t i e s may  n e g l e c t e d i f a person comes t o value h i s accomplishments  be  more  192 than h i s reason f o r a t t a i n i n g them.  I f he develops a f e e l i n g  of immoderate p r i d e , he becomes u s e l e s s i n h i s work. how  "No  matter  s u p e r i o r one's t a l e n t s , a person w i t h a d i s p o s i t i o n which  i s not l i k e d by people i s u s e l e s s .  A person who  humbles h i m s e l f  and who  f e e l s happy a t b e i n g i n a lower p o s i t i o n than h i s 19 3  panions  cannot be  disliked."  T h e r e f o r e , people who ments may  com-  are o u t s t a n d i n g i n t h e i r  be regarded as f o o l s , because  outstanding s k i l l s ,  accomplish-  i n o r d e r to achieve such  they have exhausted much time and e f f o r t .  what they have l e a r n e d i s not u s e f u l , i t has been a  complete  194 waste of time. A samurai who has a r t i s t i c accomplishments, then, has h i s s t a t u s as a bushi r u i n e d . He begins to serve as . 195 an e n t e r t a i n e r , and t h i s i s not the o c c u p a t i o n o f a b u s h i .  If  42 While,  as mentioned e a r l i e r , Tsunetomo h e l d the b e l i e f t h a t a  bushi must pay daily  careful  l i f e , he d i d not f e e l t h a t such i s s u e s should become the  end i n themselves. are,  a t t e n t i o n to d e t a i l s o f conduct i n h i s  He says, "People who  i n most cases, o v e r l y p a r t i c u l a r  are b r i g h t i n l o g i c  about minute d e t a i l s ,  and  196 spend t h e i r whole l i v e s w a s t e f u l l y . His view on t h i s p o i n t appears  This i s regrettable."  to be i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to K a i b a r a 197  Ekken's b e l i e f t h a t the study o f the c l a s s i c s i s a u n i v e r s a l Yet i t was  duty.  not l e a r n i n g i t s e l f which Tsunetomo frowned upon, f o r  he h i m s e l f had a r e l a t i v e l y sound background i n the Chinese s i c s and i n Buddhist d o c t r i n e s .  His concern was  clas-  t h a t an over-  emphasis on knowledge t o r knowledge's sake had begun to  obliterate  the bushi's c o n c e p t i o n of h i s true duty, s e r v i c e t o the  lord.  A number of m i l i t a r y ity,  particularly  men  are remembered f o r t h e i r l i t e r a r y  i n the composition o f wakafa^fcJt ^p o e t r y , 9  indeed Tsunetomo h i m s e l f was  accomplished  s u r e l y t h i s t r e n d away from m i l i t a r y skill  abil-  i s the very reason why  t i s t i c a c t i v i t i e s was  matters  field.  But  and toward l i t e r a r y  d i s d a i n f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l and a r -  not l i m i t e d . -  common element i n bushido  in this  and  to Hagakure alone, but was 199  throughout  a  the country.  Because the main o c c u p a t i o n of the samurai was  to serve,  l o g i c was  unnecessary.  "In whatever l o g i c i s a p p l i e d , r e a l  reason  is  lost."  2 0 0  It  i s b e s t i f one d i s c a r d s e v e r y t h i n g and s e t s h i s mind only on  "To become confused w i t h excess ideas cannot be 201 s a i d to be the Way." A bushi i s able to serve much b e t t e r , t h e r e f o r e , i f he avoids t h i n k i n g about too many i r r e l e v a n t things. " I t i s not good to be confused over one t h i n g and another. 20 2 service."  T h i s i s a p p l i c a b l e whether one i s a b u s h i o f a  low o r a high rank.  When one i s a country b u s h i , f o r example,  he imagines t h a t the o f f i c i a l s who are i n high p l a c e s must necess a r i l y have s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s , but t h i s , is not true.  a c c o r d i n g t o Tsunetomo,  "When one becomes i n t i m a t e w i t h the House e l d e r s  and s e n i o r a d v i s o r s and exchanges c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n , one sees t h a t they never f o r g e t t h a t they are i n s e r v i c e and worry about v a r i o u s things i n p o l i t i c s , but apart from t h a t , are no d i f f e r e n t from o n e s e l f . " Konan Osho  2 0 4  The head monk o f S o r y u j i ^ C ^  ^ )>j  0  temple,  5  e x p l a i n s why knowledge may be a d e t r i -  c  ment t o proper  2 -  s e r v i c e by s a y i n g , "The more one knows about con-  c r e t e t h i n g s , the f a r t h e r one i s removed from the Way. reason  i s t h a t by having  t i o n s of o t h e r people, h i m s e l f equal  The  read o r heard about the words and ac-  one acquires knowledge, comes t o b e l i e v e  t o the Sages, and t h e r e f o r e looks down upon the  207 common people as though they were i n s e c t s . "  Furthermore,  Tsunetomo says, A c a l c u l a t i n g person i s a cowardly person. Because he always t h i n k s about the c a l c u l a t i o n o f l o s s and g a i n , the i d e a o f p r o f i t and l o s s i s c o n s t a n t l y on h i s mind. Because death i s a l o s s and l i f e i s a g a i n , he w i l l not l i k e death. That i s why he i s a coward. Again, a l e a r n e d person hides c o n g e n i t a l cowardice and greed with c l e v e r n e s s and eloquence. This i s something by which people are f o o l e d . ^ Of course, without  a c e r t a i n degree o f i n t e l l i g e n c e a bushi  be unable t o c a r r y out even the most b a s i c d u t i e s .  will  I f i t can  be s a i d t h a t a cunning man does n o t succeed i n l i f e ,  i t can a l s o  209 be s a i d t h a t a f o o l i s h man does n o t succeed e i t h e r . It i s particularly and  to a c t without  cernment u n t i l  important  t o have s t r e n g t h o f s e l f  will  o b t r u s i v e l y using one's i n t e l l i g e n c e and d i s -  the age o f f o r t y .  After that, i f i n a p o s i t i o n  44 of  l e a d i n g o t h e r s , i n t e l l i g e n c e and discernment  v i t a l r o l e i n prompting  response  p l a y a more  from one's charges.  Slightly  p a r a p h r a s i n g the words of Confucius-",^ Tsunetomo s t a t e s , "In the f i r s t f o r t y years of one's l i f e i t i s b e s t to be b o l d i n everything.  From the age of f i f t y i t i s more s u i t a b l e to be r e s e r v e d . "  A t a l a t e r p o i n t i n the t e x t he adds, "Whether one i s wise or f o o l i s h , when one of  reaches  the age of f o r t y he achieves the degree  m a t u r i t y a p p r o p r i a t e to h i m s e l f , and i s no l o n g e r i n doubt 211  as to h i s course o f a c t i o n . "  Tsunetomo's view t h a t a bushi  must forsake l e a r n i n g and the a r t s only to rush b l i n d l y  forward  i n s e r v i c e takes on a much more f l e x i b l e appearance w i t h statements.  Devotion  to s e r v i c e must evolve from  these  experience  and experience can be gained only by f o l l o w i n g the way  o f the  true bushi w i t h a l l one's h e a r t .  intellect  The use o f l o g i c and  to q u e s t i o n the v a l i d i t y of commands forms a d i v e r s i o n from way In  i n the same manner as the s a t i s f a c t i o n of s e l f i s h  the  desires.  e i t h e r case, the y o u t h f u l bushi would be d i r e c t e d away from  the path o f bushido.  To ensure  t h a t , upon r e a c h i n g middle  age,  he would have gained s u f f i c i e n t experience to q u a l i f y as a l e a d e r o f men,  Tsunetomo f e l t , samurai  should undergo a s t r i c t  regime o f t r a i n i n g . 2.  Training  Even though there were no wars a f t e r 1638,  the p h y s i c a l  t r a i n i n g o f the Japanese bushi c o u l d not be separated from  the  values o f the samurai  learn-  ing,  bun  class.  The  combination  of s c h o l a r l y  on one hand and m i l i t a r y s k i l l , b u ^  , on the o t h e r  212 had  a t r a d i t i o n o f some l e n g t h i n Japan.  The placement of  45 the concept o f bun-bu i n the  f i r s t a r t i c l e o f the Buke shohatto  i n d i c a t e s the importance i n i t i a l l y authorities.  accorded i t by  Yet each time the code was  the Tokugawa  reissued,  s h i f t e d s l i g h t l y i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the c i v i l  the  and  emphasis  away from  the  213 martial.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t r a i n i n g i n the p h y s i c a l use  continued to be the end  o f weapons  an important aspect o f samurai e d u c a t i o n  o f the Edo  until  period.  K a i b a r a Ekken once expressed the b e l i e f t h a t a bushi needed 214 only moral t r a i n i n g and  military skills.  the  l a t t e r decreased d u r i n g  was  given the  former.  military skills  the p e r i o d  Thus the  When the need f o r  of peace, more a t t e n t i o n  d i s t i n c t i o n between b u j u t s u ^ f o ' ^ ,  used i n combat, and  budo  ffi^jf  p r a c t i s e d as a means o f s e l f c u l t i v a t i o n and  martial  moral d i s c i p l i n e ,  215 is  a v a l i d one.  t i o n s had tics,  . . Furthermore, as success i n m i l i t a r y opera-  come, to jdspehd.almost s o l e l y on  the o l d e r  firearms  and  a r t s of archery, swordsmanship, and  came p r i m a r i l y methods o f s p i r i t u a l t r a i n i n g . m a r t i a l a r t s were expected not only  the proper mental a t t i t u d e and s e l f improvement.  instill  The  group t a c r i d i n g be-  Teachers o f  the  to i n s t r u c t the students i n  the p h y s i c a l aspects o f a technique, but  perpetual  arts  a l s o to guide them i n  i n them the w i l l  for  e t h i c s of r e c t i t u d e , l o y a l t y ,  courage, honour, e t i q u e t t e , r e s p e c t f o r s u p e r i o r s , compassion, and r e s o l u t i o n to s e r v i c e , were c o n s t a n t l y being s u b s t a n t i a t e d 216 w i t h i n the framework o f the t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n . Because Yamaga Soko recorded h i s thoughts on the r o l e o f moral s e l f - c u l t i v a t i o n 217 through p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g ,  he  i s perhaps the best-known e a r l y  proponent o f the u n i t y o f mental and p h y s i c a l d i s c i p l i n e i n martial arts.  Yet most of the concepts which he  taught were  the  — a l s o being d r i l l e d i n one throughout the country.  218  do j o jji T%  form or another i n v a r i o u s The  o  p h y s i c a l techniques became a form  of s e l f c u l t i v a t i o n s i m i l a r t o Zen-oriented p r a c t i s e s such as In Hagakure the a r t s of y a r i ^ ^ , yumi Zj ,  the  tea c e r e m o n y .  and  j u j u t s u ^ f f i j " , as w e l l as the p r a c t i s e of 219  are i n t r o d u c e d ,  2x9  r e n g a o e t r y  not i n the d e t a i l of t h e i r p h y s i c a l appearance,  but i n r e l a t i o n to how  they may  be employed to improve one's  a b i l i t y to serve one's l o r d . While i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f the mores o f the s o c i e t y within  the i n d i v i d u a l , methods o f t e a c h i n g  h e a v i l y upon group t r a i n i n g .  them r e l i e d more  Instruction generally  w i t h a number of students a t the same time and, even i n p r i v a t e l e s s o n s ,  there was  bound to be  took  as was  ical  a r t s occurred  cepted m o r a l i t y  says t h a t , f o r him, gave him  t r a i n i n g was  and  case  a c e r t a i n amount student.  l e a r n i n g process o f the phys-  i n a s e t t i n g s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by  o f the l o c a l i t y  place  the  of' i n t e r c o u r s e , spoken or unspoken, between teacher and Because o f t h i s human element, the  rested  the i n s t r u c t o r .  the  ac-  Tsunetomo  a f u l l - t i m e a f f a i r which never 221  a chance to bend h i s knees and  rest.  He  such extended e f f o r t s were r e q u i r e d so the d i s c i p l i n e  felt  that  attained  through guided p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g would provide the samurai with the  r e s o l u t i o n t h a t , i f , on a b a t t l e f i e d , ...one leads the charge and i s determined to destroy the enemy ranks, he w i l l not f a l l beh i n d o t h e r s , h i s h e a r t w i l l become brave, and he w i l l be able to make a g l o r i o u s d i s p l a y o f m a r t i a l courage. One must have, as a usual p r a c t i s e , the r e s o l u t i o n t h a t when he d i e s i n a b a t t l e , he w i l l f a l l f a c i n g i n the d i r e c t i o n of the e n e m y . Furthermore, he must not regard s u p e r i o r people as b e i n g i n v i n 222  47 cible,  f o r they, t o o , are human.  " I f one makes up h i s mind t h a t 22  he i s i n f e r i o r t o no one, e v e r y t h i n g w i l l soon t u r n o u t f i n e . " Of c o u r s e , t h i s does n o t mean t h a t a samurai should be content w i t h what he has. E x e r t your mind t o the utmost. F i r s t of a l l , grasp the seeds f i r m l y and c u l t i v a t e your conduct, a l l your l i f e , i n such a way t h a t these seeds r i p e n . Whatever you may have found, do not t h i n k i t i s sufficient. Think only t h a t i t i s wrong and t h a t i t i s n o t enough. In a l i f e l o n g quest one must s e a r c h f o r the way i n which the t r u t h can be f o l l o w e d . Herein l i e s the r e a l W a y . 224  N a t u r a l l y , d u r i n g the g r e a t peace, s k i l l  i n combat was o f  l e s s importance to the samurai than i t had been i n time o f war. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t r a i n i n g i n the c l a s s i c a l methods o f combat was c a r r i e d on t o impart to the practitioners -.the mental  discipline  which was r e q u i r e d o f them i n t h e i r r o l e s as samurai and as ad. .  225  ministrators.  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g was r e c -  ognized c l e a r l y by the samurai o f the Edo p e r i o d .  Kumazawa Ban-  zan and Yamaga Soko are b u t two men who expressed t h e i r o p i n i o n s on t h i s matter.  2  2  6  Yagyu Munenori <#p£,£££-.(1571-1646) , the  founder o f the o f f i c i a l in  f e n c i n g s c h o o l o f the bakufu, i s quoted  Hagakure as having s a i d , "I don't know how to win a g a i n s t 227  o t h e r s ; I only know how t o c o n t r o l myself."  Although he was  a master swordsman and could handle the weapon extremely w e l l , he c o n s i d e r e d i t s main f u n c t i o n t o be an instrument of t r a i n i n g . The f a c t t h a t Tsunetomo quotes Yagyu shows t h a t he, t o o , was aware o f the importance o f p r o f i c i e n c y i n the m a r t i a l  arts  as a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o mental c o n t r o l , and hence t o c o n f i d e n c e . He a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h i s t r a i n i n g was n o t an easy nor a s u p e r f i c i a l task.  He e x p l o i t s the words o f an u n i d e n t i f i e d o l d  48 master o f swordsmanship who says t h a t people i n the lower of  the samurai  c l a s s are n o t u s e f u l even i f they t r a i n .  in  the middle l e v e l s a l s o f a i l  of  t h e i r shortcomings.  of  being b e n e f i c i a l because  levels Those  to serve but a t l e a s t are aware  People i n the upper ranks are capable they have a f u l l e r understanding.  But w i t h t h i s understanding comes a f e e l i n g o f p r i d e , and they begin t o b e l i e v e t h a t they are s u p e r i o r t o o t h e r s . titude i s detrimental.  Such an a t -  Men o f r e a l s e r v i c e are found only above  t h i s l e v e l , b u t i t i s n o t easy t o a t t a i n such h e i g h t s . becomes deeply i n v o l v e d i n such advanced ly  d i s c o v e r s t h a t there i s no l i m i t .  has completed his  life  it.  When one  t r a i n i n g , "...one  final-  One never t h i n k s t h a t he  R e a l i z i n g t h a t he has shortcomings, a l l o f  he never f a n c i e s h i m s e l f t o have succeeded, he doesn't  preen h i m s e l f , and he doesn't b e l i t t l e o t h e r s . by day and there i s no l i m i t t o h i s improvement.  He improves day This i s the  228 way  one advances."  I t i s t r u l y lamentable, says Tsunetomo,  t h a t t h e r e are so few such persons. There are n o t even any who w i l l  "There are no g r e a t men.  l i s t e n to advice which would 229  b e n e f i t them, l e t alone t r a i n to become g r e a t men." Attainment o f the proper a t t i t u d e o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n to serve w i t h o u t f l i n c h i n g i s something which must be accomplished 230 through many years o f p r a c t i s e . A c c o r d i n g to the o l d s a y i n g , 231 "Great genius comes s l o w l y , " be gained r a p i d l y .  proficiency i n service  I f a young person t r i e s  cannot  to p r o g r e s s too  q u i c k l y , he becomes rude and o v e r c o n f i d e n t , and develops an a i r of  insincerity.  ered a f a i l u r e .  He i s then scorned by o t h e r s and may be c o n s i d To p r e v e n t t h i s one must s u f f e r h a r d s h i p s i n  t r a i n i n g and adopt the a t t i t u d e t h a t , "...nothing i s i m p o s s i b l e . . .  49 moving the u n i v e r s e without u s i n g any s t r e n g t h i s but a q u e s t i o n 232 of d e t e r m i n a t i o n . " t h i s statement,  The d o c t r i n e o f Zen Buddhism  pervades  f o r Zen, w i t h i t s emphasis on s i m p l i c i t y ,  ness, and s e l f - r e l i a n c e , may  direct-  be regarded as a r e l i g i o n of w i l l  233 power. Shitsuke J j ^ , "proper u p b r i n g i n g , " very e a r l y age.  2 3 4  should begin a t a  A c c o r d i n g to Tsunetomo, a boy must be  taught  to f e a r n o t h i n g , f o r i f he i s a coward as a baby, i t w i l l become a lifetime habit.  He should not, t h e r e f o r e , be s c o l d e d s t r o n g l y  l e s t he come to have a t i m i d nature. made to pay  G r a d u a l l y he should be  a t t e n t i o n to the ways of speaking and to c o u r t e s y .  S e l f i s h n e s s must not be p e r m i t t e d . develop w e l l .  I f he i s normal he  will  I f the parents do not get along there can be  f i l i a l p i e t y because c h i l d r e n i m i t a t e t h e i r p a r e n t s .  "Even  b i r d s and animals, a f t e r they are born, always do what they and hear and thus determine not always defend  their characters."  i n g i n e a r n e s t to make a s o l i d foundation so t h a t he may  may who  does,  son.  From about the age of f i f t e e n , a youth must s t a r t  pared t o d e a l w i t h any  see  The mother should  the c h i l d from the f a t h e r because i f she 235  d i s c o r d w i l l develop between f a t h e r and  no  trainbe p r e -  contingency.  I f he has a s t r o n g base he 2 36 persevere through any setbacks caused by e r r o r s . People have served as pages d u r i n g t h e i r youth are e s p e c i a l l y use237  f u l , because they are f a m i l i a r w i t h performing v a r i o u s d u t i e s . T r a i n i n g was seniors.  a l s o c a r r i e d out through  admonitions  by  Tsunetomo c i t e s one l e c t u r e which he h i m s e l f d e l i v e r e d  to a young man father-in-law.  who  was  having a problem p l e a s i n g a very  difficult  50 To begin w i t h , i t must be r e a l i z e d t h a t b e i n g born as a human b e i n g i s a t o t a l l y unexpected s t r o k e o f good f o r t u n e . Besides t h a t , b e i n g able to serve as one of the r e t a i n e r s of t h i s Nabeshima House i s a l i f e l o n g d e s i r e . I f one looks a t the peasants or townsmen one w i l l understand t h i s . Being born the e l d e s t son and i n h e r i t i n g the e s t a t e of one's true f a t h e r i s indeed a very b l e s s e d t h i n g but a l l the more so f o r you, born the youngest c h i l d , to i n h e r i t another household and c l e a r l y become one of the r e t a i n e r s of our l o r d i s a r a r e b l e s s ing. To f a i l i n t h i s and become a bushi who has no s t i p e n d i s d i s l o y a l t y and d i s p l e a s i n g one's father i s u n f i l i a l . A person who has s t r a y e d from the way o f l o y a l t y and f i l i a l p i e t y has no p l a c e i n t h i s world. Return to the proper path and c o n s i d e r t h i s very c a r e f u l l y . Now, the l o y a l t y and f i l i a l p i e t y which concern you i s only to p l e a s e your f a t h e r - i n - l a w . You have to take i n t o account the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t , no matter how hard you t r y to p l e a s e him, he might not accept you. So I w i l l teach you a way to a l t e r h i s mood. You should pray to the f a m i l y god, c r y i n g t e a r s of b l o o d , t h a t your f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , i n whatever you do, may p l e a s e him. This i s not f o r p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t , but a matter o f p r i n c i p l e . The mere thought w i l l s t r i k e a responsive chord i n your father-in-law's heart. Go home and t r y i t . Before you know i t your f a t h e r - i n - l a w ' s mind w i l l be changed. This phenomenon of heaven, e a r t h , and man on the same wave l e n g t h i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f the mysterious incomprehensible t r u t h . What I've j u s t s a i d to you i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n t h i s case because your f a t h e r has long been i l l . He can't l a s t l o n g . Being f i l i a l f o r a s h o r t time i s easy, even s t a n d i n g on your head.238 Advice  o f t h i s type was  e s s e n t i a l f o r a young samurai to develop  the s t r e n g t h o f c h a r a c t e r which would be r e q u i r e d a t a l a t e r time.  He must l e a r n to honour h i s d u t i e s and  riors.  For example, upon h i s f i r s t audience before  a c e r t a i n young samurai was bow  and  the  lord,  i n s t r u c t e d , "At the time t h a t  you  lower your head, swear to y o u r s e l f , 'This i s a f o r t u n a t e  t h i n g indeed!  Not having  have l i v e d i n o b s c u r i t y . From now  r e s p e c t h i s supe-  r e c e i v e d an i n t e r v i e w u n t i l now, I am  on I must d i s c a r d my  as happy as one own  life  and  I  can p o s s i b l y be.  serve my  lord.  1  This  51 thought w i l l be t r a n s m i t t e d to the l o r d and you w i l l be able ..239 to s e r v e . Rewards were given f o r work w e l l done and punishments f o r behaviour o t h e r than the expected norm.  But o f more consequence  was  the f a c t t h a t a b u s h i was  t r a i n e d to respect p r o p r i e t y .  was  taught to be c a r e f u l i n e v e r y t h i n g he d i d and to do i t w e l l .  Even when w r i t i n g , f o r example, each l e t t e r was 240 as though  i t were f o r a p i c t u r e s c r o l l .  d o c t r i n a t i o n , the b u s h i was  He  to be w r i t t e n  Through l i f e l o n g i n -  taught to be s e l f c o n f i d e n t y e t hum-  b l e , compatible y e t r e s e r v e d , brave y e t cautious,'compassionate y e t s t e r n , p o l i t e y e t prudent, and above a l l , 3.  loyal.  Loyalty  L o y a l and devoted s e r v i c e to one's l o r d i s c e n t r a l , to the maintenance o f any f e u d a l s o c i e t y .  Tokugawa Japan was  t i o n , and bushido, which developed as the code o f the  no  excep-  samurai  d i d , i n f a c t , c o n s i s t e s s e n t i a l l y o f d i l i g e n c e i n the duty o f s e r v i c e , even to the e x t e n t t h a t i t may tones.  have had r e l i g i o u s  over-  Adherence to the p r i n c i p l e s o f bushido r e q u i r e d a l o y a l t y 241  which would o v e r r i d e o t h e r r e l i g i o u s commitments  and by doing  t h i s , bushido became what might be c a l l e d a r e l i g i o n of l o y a l t y . A c c o r d i n g to Tsunetomo, the bushi must preoccupy h i m s e l f w i t h bushido, and the:.ma;jor duty of bushido b e i n g devotion to the l o r d , he must dwell on l o y a l t y .  These bare f a c t s , he says, de242  s c r i b e the ambitions o f a p e r f e c t r e t a i n e r . l o r d was  Support f o r the  i n r e a l i t y support f o r the group o f which the l o r d  was  but a f i g u r e h e a d , but t h i s f a c t i s e i t h e r d e l i b e r a t e l y n e g l e c t e d by Tsunetomo or not comprehended.  The d u t i e s performed  f o r the  52 l o r d and the r e t u r n o f c e r t a i n b e n e f i t s p r o v i d e d the group with s o l i d a r i t y which allowed i t to overcome o b s t a c l e s and t o r e t a i n i t s p o s i t i o n o f power.  The p a t e r n a l i s t i c form o f t h i s  arrange-  ment, i n which the l o r d may be seen as a f a t h e r f i g u r e to h i s r e t a i n e r s , i s common to Japanese s o c i e t y , even i n the p r e s e n t day.  W i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n s under v a r i o u s daimyo, such  forms  were a l s o p r e s e n t , n o t a b l y i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the 243 groups and t h e i r l e a d e r s .  On a broader s c a l e , the bakufu may 244  be seen as an e x t e n s i o n o f the p a t e r n a l i s t i c phenomenon. i s such a concept l i m i t e d t o Japan.  Nor  The Sun Tzu says, "Because  ...a g e n e r a l regards h i s men as i n f a n t s they w i l l march w i t h him i n t o the deepest v a l l e y s .  He t r e a t s them as h i s own beloved 245 sons and they w i l l d i e w i t h him." The o b l i g a t i o n o f l o y a l t y to a s u p e r i o r i s a b a s i c t e n e t 246 i n the teachings o f Confuciusand i s p a r t i c u l a r l y obvious i n Japanese f e u d a l i s m . The e t h i c . o f d e v o t i o n t o a s o v e r e i g n 247 may be found throughout  Japanese h i s t o r y .  Nitobe says t h a t "  the v i r t u e s o f homage and f e a l t y to a s u p e r i o r i s a d i s t i n c t i v e 2 48 feature of feudal morality.  The duty o f l o y a l t y stood a t the  a x i s o f bushido, and such sentences  as, "We bushi know n o t h i n g  249 but to t h i n k o f our l o r d , "  are found i n abundance i n Hagakure.  By a c t u a l count one hundred twenty s i x o f the two hundred three a r t i c l e s comprising the f i r s t chapter mention a t l e a s t some aspect o f l o y a l t y , and o f these, s i x t y f i v e are p r i m a r i l y  con-  cerned w i t h d e v o t i o n t o s e r v i c e . Because l o y a l t y c o u l d n o t be ensured by a w r i t t e n c o n t r a c t alone, s t r e s s was p l a c e d , i n a manner d i s t i n c t i v e o f Japanese bushido, upon i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f the concept o f l o y a l t y w i t h i n  53 the minds o f i n d i v i d u a l b u s h i .  While there were innumerable  i n s t a n c e s o f d i s l o y a l t y throughout the h i s t o r y o f Japan, most n o t a b l y i n the Sengoku p e r i o d but a l s o i n the b a t t l e o f Sekigahara, the concept o f l o y a l t y remained a v i a b l e e t h i c i n the code o f bushido.  I n d i c a t i o n s are t h a t t h i s was n o t the case i n the armies  of China and Europe.  There the p r a c t i s e s o f corvee and c o n s c r i p -  t i o n p l a c e d a l i m i t on the amount o f l o y a l t y which might be ex250 pected.  Although the samurai r e c e i v e d s t i p e n d s f o r t h e i r  s e r v i c e s , and so may  be c o n s i d e r e d , i n a sense, mercenaries, i n  a c t u a l p r a c t i s e by the Edo p e r i o d t h e i r e f f o r t s were almost s o l e l y administrative.  Furthermore, from about the middle of t h i s  onward, when the economic p r o g r e s s i v e l y worse,  s i t u a t i o n o f the bakufu was  period  becoming  the s t i p e n d s o f many r e t a i n e r s were c u r t a i l e d 251  f o r i n d e f i n i t e p e r i o d s of time.  In s p i t e o f t h i s ,  outward  symptoms o f d i s l o y a l t y d i d not appear u n t i l near the end of the Edo p e r i o d .  A d d i t i o n a l l y , the r e c e i p t o f an allowance and the  r e l a t i o n o f the s o l d i e r s to the commanders was  not o f the same  nature as t h a t i n China.  the s o l d i e r s  In Japan, a f t e r a l l ,  and  the o f f i c e r s were, i n the Tokugawa p e r i o d o f peace, drawn s o l e l y from the samurai c l a s s , and thus the "...payment o f a l a r g e 252 bounty to assure the l o y a l t y o f the army..."  was n o t as nec-  essary as i t was w i t h the c o n s c r i p t armies o f China. Of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o y a l t y and punishment,  Sun  Tzu s t a t e s , " I f troops are punished b e f o r e t h e i r l o y a l t y i s secured they w i l l Be:~disdbedient. f i c u l t to employ them.  I f not o b e d i e n t , i t i s d i f -  I f troops are l o y a l , but punishments 253  not e n f o r c e d , you cannot employ them."  are  Of course, punishment  f o r l a c k o f d e d i c a t i o n and f o r d i s o b e d i e n c e f u n c t i o n e d i n Japan  54 also,  254  and there i s no doubt t h a t i t had a g r e a t deal o f i n -  fluence i n preserving l o y a l i n c l i n a t i o n s .  There remain, however,  many cases, such as the r e t i r e m e n t o f Tsunetomo h i m s e l f , i n which u n c a l l e d - f o r acts o f l o y a l t y were e x h i b i t e d .  Tsunetomo would  undoubtedly have been i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n had he continued to serve i n the Nabeshima House under Tsunashige a f t e r the death o f M i t s u s h i g e , b u t he f e l t t h a t to turn h i s back on the l o r d was 255 not  i n keeping w i t h h i s b e l i e f s . It  of  was Tsunetomo's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t persons who make a fuss  s e r v i n g , and outwardly appear to be very l o y a l i n t h e i r ac-  t i o n s , may i n r e a l i t y n o t have the same depth o f c h a r a c t e r as lowly-ranked persons who are devoted i n t h e i r h e a r t s .  Natu-  r a l l y i t i s hard t o m a i n t a i n an i n t e n s e degree o f l o y a l t y .  Still,  i f one remembers t h a t the oaths between r e t a i n e r and l o r d are n o t something remote from r e a l i t y , but r a t h e r are something very near at  hand, and i f one. r e i n f o r c e s h i s r e s o l u t i o n to them d a i l y by  r e p e a t i n g the Four Oaths over and over, one w i l l  f u l f i l l the  requirements o f a r e t a i n e r admirably. The l o y a l t y so o f t e n mentioned by Tsunetomo i s l i m i t e d a l most e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h a t o f a r e t a i n e r f o r h i s l o r d and does n o t  c a r r y w i t h i t the seeds o f g r e a t e r l o y a l t y , to the emperor, as i t d i d 257 i i v . the w r i t i n g s o f Yamaga Soko and Motoori Norinaga. o t h e r hand, he gives some f l e x i b i l i t y  On the  to h i s concept o f l o y a l t y  by s t a t i n g t h a t s i n c e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l o r d and h i s r e t a i n e r resembles t h a t between f a t h e r and son, the l o y a l t y  which  a samurai has f o r h i s master i s n o t d i f f e r e n t i n essence from the  p i e t y he has f o r h i s p a r e n t s .  his  Tamba Yosaku P^y&Jfrtff,^^  Some authors, Chikamatsu i n  f o r example, c e n t e r e d t h e i r  stories  around a c o n f l i c t between l o y a l t y to the l o r d and f a m i l i a l l o v e . While  r e c o g n i z i n g l o y a l t y as an extremely  important  virtue,  Takizawa Bakin was i n c l i n e d t o p l a c e f i l i a l p i e t y i n an even 259 more  .exalted p o s i t i o n .  Tsunetomo's approach d i f f e r e d some-  what i n t h a t he b e l i e v e d t h a t no such c o n f l i c t c o u l d e x i s t , because l o y a l t y and f i l i a l p i e t y c o n s t i t u t e d the same b a s i c e l e ment.  Both show i n t r i n s i c involvement w i t h h e l p i n g others by 260  giving of oneself unselfishly. addresses  In the morning, when one  the gods, the l o r d should r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n  then one's p a r e n t s , and f i n a l l y  first,  the gods and buddhas.  I f prayers  are c a r r i e d o u t i n t h i s manner a l l w i l l be w e l l because, " I f the l o r d i s served s e r i o u s l y , parents w i l l a l s o r e j o i c e , and the gods 261 and buddhas w i l l be s a t i s f i e d . " F o l l o w i n g t h i s Confucian l i n e o f reasoning Tsunetomo repeats the o l d s a y i n g , "Look f o r a 26 2 l o y a l r e t a i n e r , i n the home o f a f i l i a l son." For i t i s only a f t e r one has l e a r n e d how to serve one's parents t h a t one can 26 3 fulfill  one's duty t o the s o v e r e i g n .  Under normal circum-  stances t h i s devotion e i t h e r to the l o r d o r to the parents i s not r e a d i l y observed;  the s t r e n g t h o f f a i t h f u l n e s s i s e x h i b i t e d  most c l e a r l y when there i s an emergency o r h a r d s h i p . samurai in  Yet a  must be s i n g l e m i n d e d l y devoted every minute f o r , " T h i s ,  r e l a t i o n to one's l o r d i s l o y a l t y , t o one's p a r e n t s ,  filial  p i e t y , to m i l i t a r y matters, b r a v e r y , and i s something which can be used i n a l l t h i n g s . " 4.  2 6 4  A t t i t u d e Toward Death  S o l d i e r s who r e a l i z e t h a t there i s no escape from the battlefield will  f i g h t much more i n t e n s e l y .  T h i s f a c t has l o n g  56 been r e c o g n i z e d as the n a t u r a l i n s t i n c t o f any man who  i s cornered.  Use of t h i s d e s i r e to f i g h t to the death  recorded as p a r t o f the s t r a t e g y o f the Sun Tzu. surrounded  or animal was  To d e f e a t a  enemy more e a s i l y , a commander must always leave j.  an avenue o f escape,  265  o . , , J_ , 266 and he must not press an enemy a t bay.  Thorough comprehension o f t h i s f a c t w i l l a l s o allow i t t o be a p p l i e d i n a r e v e r s e f a s h i o n , t h a t i s , toward of one's own  army.  of s u r v i v a l . surrounded;  the management  Make i t " . . . e v i d e n t t h a t there i s no chance  For i t i s the nature o f s o l d i e r s to r e s i s t when to f i g h t to the death when there i s no  alternative, 26 7  and when desperate to f o l l o w commands i m p l i c i t l y . "  "Throw  the troops i n t o a p o s i t i o n from which there i s no escape even when faced w i t h death they w i l l not f l e e .  For i f they  are prepared to d i e , what can they not achieve? and men  t o g e t h e r put f o r t h t h e i r b e s t e f f o r t s .  Then o f f i c e r s In a desperate  s i t u a t i o n they f e a r n o t h i n g ; when there i s no way stand  firm."  and  out they  2 6 8  C e r t a i n l y Hagakure was  g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the  thought  o f Sun Tzu, which had been f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d i n t o Japan as 269 e a r l y as the eigii.th century. Many l e a d i n g w r i t e r s o f the 270 Edo p e r i o d wrote commentaries on the Sun Tzu i n Japanese. Hayashi Razan, f o r i n s t a n c e , wrote Sonshi genkai }%^t%'ffi^~ i n 1626. Yamaga Soko wrote a t l e a s t three e s s a y s , Sonshi gengi Sonshi kuto Both Sonshi k o k u j i k a i produced  V$  a  n  d  Sonshi k o g i 3$ }- B-|^ •  } )|] $?$jp and Sonshi k a i  by Ogyu S o r a i , and Muro Kyuso was  Sonshi kibun  ffiWhether  were  responsible for  o r not Tsunetomo had  direct  access to a l l or any of these secondary works i s u n c e r t a i n ,  57 but i t i s h i g h l y l i k e l y t h a t , due t u r e , he was  to h i s i n t e r e s t i n l i t e r a -  f a m i l i a r w i t h the ideas c o n t a i n e d i n Sun  Tzu.  However, because Hagakure i s not d i r e c t e d toward m i l i t a r y commanders, Tsunetomo views the f i g h t i n g a t t i t u d e o f cornered men Tzu.  He  even i n  from a d e c i d e d l y d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e than  f e e l s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l bushi must t r a i n to be .his d a i l y a c t i o n s and devotion  a p o s i t i o n of having no escape. l o y a l t y i s manifested even one's l i f e , House.  The  concerning life  The  extreme e x p r e s s i o n  f o r the sake of the l o r d and  of  everything,  the good of  the  g e n e r a l e s t i m a t i o n i n which Hagakure i s h e l d by  the expressed  in service.  Japan r e s t s mainly upon i t s views n e c e s s i t y f o r a r e t a i n e r to g i v e  The most famous words i n Hagakure,  those most o f t e n quoted, appear very e a r l y i n the book. are,  loyal  as though he were i n  i n the w i l l i n g n e s s to s a c r i f i c e  the p u b l i c i n p r e s e n t day  his  Sun  up and They  58 Bus h i do t o i u via, s h i n u koto t o mitsuke t a r i . F u t a t s u f u t a t s u no ba n i te > havaku s h i n u ho n i katazuku b a k a r i n a r i . Betsu n i s h i s a i n a s h i . Mune suwatte susumu n a r i . Zu_ni ataranu wa i n u j i n i riado i u koto wa, kamigatafu no u c h i a g a r i t a r u budo riaru b e s h i . F u t a t s u f u t a t s u no ba n i te., zu n l a t a r u yo n i suru wa oyobanu koto nari. Warehito, i k u r u ho ga s u k i n a r i . Tabun s u k i no ho n i r i g_a tsuku b e s h i , moshi z u r h i hazurete i k i taraba k o s h i nuke n a r i . Kono s a k a i ayauki n a r i . H a j i n i wa narazu. Kore ga budo n i jobu n a r i . Mai asa mai yu, aratamete wa s h i n i shi'ni, j o j u s h i n i m i n i marite o r u t o k i wa, budo n i j i y u o e_, i s s h o ochido naku, kashoku o shios u beki n a r i . :  ;  The way o f the w a r r i o r amounts to b e i n g r e s i g n e d to death. In a s i t u a t i o n o f two c h o i c e s , l i f e o r death, there i s nothing but t o decide upon death immediately. I t i s as simple as t h a t . I t i s t o make up one's mind and proceed. The statement, 'To d i e without a t t a i n i n g one's goal i s a u s e l e s s deaths' must s u r e l y be the c o n c e i t e d Kyoto v e r s i o n of bushido. In a s i t u a t i o n o f two choices i t i s not necessary t o a c t so as t o always achieve one's g o a l . We a l l p r e f e r t o l i v e . Our p r e f e r e n c e would seem t o p r e v a i l . I t i s cowardice i f one l i v e s without a t t a i n i n g one's g o a l . This p o i n t i s c r i t i cal. I f one misses the g o a l and d i e s , i t simply proves t h a t he was f a n a t i c a l l y determined to d i e i n v a i n . But t h i s i s no d i s g r a c e . On the c o n t r a r y , t h i s i s h e r o i c behaviour. Every morning and every evening, when one r e p e a t e d l y t h i n k s o f dying and dying, and i s always as a dead body, he should be able to a c q u i r e mastery i n the m a r t i a l way, l i v e a l i f e f r e e o f f a u l t s , and f u l f i l l h i s occupation in life.271 At f i r s t  glance  these words can be, and o f t e n are, mistaken  to mean t h a t a w a r r i o r must d e s i r e death. not the i n f e r e n c e here.  On the c o n t r a r y , t h i s paragraph means  t h a t the bushi' must recognize upon having  This i s d e f i n i t e l y  the i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f death, and  done so, must be determined t h a t when the time  comes t o d i e , he w i l l be prepared b e f i t t i n g one o f h i s c l a s s .  to g i v e h i s l i f e  i n a way  Sun Tzu s t a t e s , i n a s i m i l a r  t h a t good o f f i c e r s have no e x p e c t a t i o n o f long l i f e ,  vein,  but t h i s  272 is  n o t because they have d i s d a i n f o r l i f e . If  a bushi c o n f r o n t s  a predicament i n which there are  59 but two  c h o i c e s , l i f e o r death, he should without  hesitation  273 choose death.  That i s , he must be r e s o l v e d beforehand  i f a l i f e - o r - d e a t h s i t u a t i o n arose, he would not waver. his  mind, as a l o y a l r e t a i n e r , there would be but one  s e r v i c e to h i s l o r d . there i s no c h o i c e . in ing  P e s s i m i s t i c as t h i s may  initially  thought: death,  appear,  t h i s p r a c t i c a l form of reason-  perhaps even a somewhat o p t i m i s t i c way  the s i t u a t i o n .  For i n  Even though p a r t o f t h a t s e r v i c e be  a c t u a l i t y , f o r a m i l i t a r y man was  that,  of r e g a r d i n g  "When as a usual p r a c t i s e one has  carefully  accustomed one's mind to the f a c t o f death, i t i s p o s s i b l e to 274 die  w i t h peace of mind."  A d m i t t i n g the i n s t i n c t i v e human  d e s i r e to remain a l i v e , and  f u r t h e r g r a n t i n g t h a t a l l people  n a t u r a l l y f e a r death, Tsunetomo reasons to  stay a l i v e a w a r r i o r may  h e s i t a t e i n the e x e c u t i o n of h i s  duty by attempting to f i n d a way though one may  that i n this desire  i n which to a v o i d death.  f a i l i n the endeavour, he must not c o n s i d e r 275  t a k i n g a roundabout route but must advance d i r e c t l y . cond of i n d e c i s i o n c o u l d prove  A se-  f a t a l , i n t h a t i t might allow  the enemy to s t r i k e a l e t h a l blow. t h a t he may  Al-  Thus by  predetermining  d i e , and p r e p a r i n g h i m s e l f mentally f o r t h a t death,  the b u s h i demarcated the path which he was  o b l i g e d to f o l l o w  while e l i m i n a t i n g a l l o t h e r courses.  A Chinese  commentator on  the Sun Tzu says t h a t the g e n e r a l who  esteems l i f e  above a l l  e l s e w i l l be overcome w i t h h e s i t a n c y , and t h i s , i n a commander 276 is  a calamity.  Hagakure, too, s t a t e s r e p e a t e d l y t h a t i n  o r d e r to serve h i s l o r d and avoid shame, there i s only one for  a b u s h i to f o l l o w .  The  r e q u i r e d r e s o l u t i o n to accept  ity  i s i l l u s t r a t e d a l s o i n the f o l l o w i n g account.  At the  path realtime  60 of not  a c e r t a i n - f e s t i v a l , " . . . t h e r e was a sudden shower.  In o r d e r  to get wet some people ran q u i c k l y down the road and o t h e r s  walked along under the eaves, y e t t h i s d i d n o t stop them from g e t t i n g wet.  Had they been r e s o l v e d to get wet from the be-  g i n n i n g , they would n o t have had unpleasant thoughts. would have gotten wet no matter what they d i d .  F o r they  This i s an  277 understanding which permeates  everything."  The fundamental statement b e i n g made here, then, i s simply t h a t death i s l i f e , For  a concept very r e m i n i s c e n t o f Zen thought.  by r e c o g n i z i n g death as the only v i a b l e choice,, a b u s h i ,  when c o n f r o n t e d by the enemy, i s n o t a t a l l encumbered by any i n d e c i s i o n as to the course o f a c t i o n which he must take.  Free-  dom from d i v e r s i o n a r y n o t i o n s allows him t o c o n c e n t r a t e f u l l y upon the immediate the of  problem a t hand, namely, the d i s p a t c h i n g o f  enemy, o r , i n the time o f the Edo peace, the f u l f i l l m e n t duty.  improved.  Thus, h i s chances o f l e a d i n g a commendable l i f e are Here the s i m p l i s t i c appeal o f Zen, w i t h i t s b e l i e f 2 78  t h a t d e s t i n y i s determined by f a t e , the  f e a r o f death.  tended to h e l p erase  Suzuki D a i s e t z expresses the Zen a t t i t u d e  toward death i n the f o l l o w i n g way, "When one i s r e s o l v e d t o die, of  t h a t i s , when the thought o f death i s wiped o f f the f i e l d c o n s c i o u s n e s s , there a r i s e s something i n i t , o r , r a t h e r ,  apparently from the o u t s i d e , the presence o f which one has never been aware o f , and when t h i s strange presence begins to d i r e c t one's a c t i v i t i e s i n an i n s t i n c t u a l manner wonders are achieved. In of  emphasizing the extreme  one's l i f e ,  form o f s e r v i c e , the s a c r i f i c e 2 80 Tsunetomo attempts to shock the young samurai  61 out o f t h e i r l a c k a d a i s i c a l a t t i t u d e toward s e r v i c e .  He r e a l -  i z e d , o f course, t h a t i n a time o f peace there would be very little  call  f o r a bushi  to s a c r i f i c e h i s l i f e  i n battle.  Still  he was t r y i n g t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t the same a t t i t u d e was a p p l i c a b l e , n o t only on the b a t t l e f i e d , b u t to any o f a samurai's various duties.  Making r e f e r e n c e  Sato Tsugunobu  to the a n c i e n t example o f  (1158-1185), who gave h i s l i f e  i n the  2 81 service of h i s l o r d , Yoshitsune,  Tsunetomo says,  "More than  the k i l l i n g o f an enemy, the d i s t i n c t i o n o f a w a r r i o r i s dying 282 for  the sake o f the l o r d . "  T h i s s u p e r i o r q u a l i t y should be  c a r r i e d over i n t o one's d a i l y l i f e .  R e f l e c t i n g an a t t i t u d e 28 3  toward l i f e  and death s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f Taoism,  Tsunetomo  a s s e r t s t h a t one must go about h i s d u t i e s w i t h the thought t h a t the p h y s i c a l body i s not h i s own b u t i s r a t h e r t h a t o f a g h o s t l y being  a c t i n g i n s e r v i c e to the l o r d . 2 84  that one should  always be as a dead body,  When he says he means t h a t  one's body i s n o t one's own but, i n f a c t , belongs to the l o r d . Nitobe c l a r i f i e s such t h i n k i n g even f u r t h e r w i t h the statement, "Him  who has once d i e d i n the bottom o f h i s b r e a s t , no spears 285  of Sanada nor a l l the arrows o f Tametomo can p i e r c e . " P l a c i n g one's own b e s t i n t e r e s t s foremost and t h i n k i n g  that  because one may make a mistake i n an important p o s i t i o n , i t is  b e t t e r to r e t i r e  from t h a t p o s i t i o n i s the same as showing  one's back t o the enemy on the b a t t l e f i e l d . 286 and  I t i s cowardly  unworthy o f a b u s h i . While the Tokugawa bakufu had banned the t r a d i t i o n o f  j u n s h i , the i n s t i t u t i o n o f seppuku came t o be e s t a b l i s h e d on a formal  basis.  Although there  are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t i t was  62 used l e s s as the years passed, there i s l i t t l e was  doubt t h a t i t  an e v e r - p r e s e n t f e a t u r e of the samurai c l a s s d u r i n g the  Edo p e r i o d .  The a c t of s e l f disembodiment as a form of honour-  able death f o r a samurai developed from a spontaneous ment i n the l a t e Heian p e r i o d  2 87  commit-  i n t o a r e g u l a t e d and very 288  s t y l i z e d ceremony i n the Edo p e r i o d .  B a s i c a l l y there were  but a few accepted and s a n c t i o n e d reasons f o r performing seppuku, and i l l u s t r a t i o n s of each are found i n Hagakure.  The three 289 mam motives were t o atone f o r a crime o r f a u l t , to demon290 291 s t r a t e one's s i n c e r i t y , and to draw a t t e n t i o n t o one's cause. A d e c i s i o n t o commit s u i c i d e was  not i r r e v o c a b l e , whether  t h a t d e c i s i o n was  the r e s u l t of the p r i n c i p a l ' s own  or  from the l o r d .  of a d i r e c t i v e  One  resolution  account i n Hagakure deals  w i t h an o f f i c i a l who  used the t h r e a t o f s u i c i d e as a l e v e r to  manipulate the l o r d .  Tsunetomo condemns such a c t i o n as a de-  p r e c i a t i o n o f the true meaning o f the i n s t i t u t i o n reason that i t was  f o r the 292  not behaviour r o o t e d i n s e r v i c e .  o t h e r hand, a request by Nakano Kazumaf  I^J^(1627-1699) ,  repeated seven times, f o r the pardon o f f i v e c o n v i c t e d gains h i s s y m p a t h y .  294  On the  The case of Sagara KyubaJJ!Q  2 9 3  men, %fyS-1619-  29 5 1670)  i s somewhat of an o d d i t y i n t h a t he was  and f o r g i v e n , but l a t e r committed embarassment.  once sentenced  seppuku to save h i s l o r d  from  Tsunetomo a l s o r e l a t e s advice put f o r t h when a  c e r t a i n person was  c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y o f b e i n g  charged w i t h an e r r o r of s e r i o u s consequences.  In the f i r s t  p l a c e , even though the i n c i d e n t has o c c u r r e d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i t w i l l be o v e r l o o k e d . l i e s must not be t o l d .  I f there i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,  R e l y i n g on the good r e p u t a t i o n of your  63 a n c e s t o r s , p l e a d your case, and i f you are not f o r g i v e n even 296 a f t e r t h i s , be r e s o l v e d t o d i e . The duty of kaishaku, a s s i s t i n g a t seppuku, i s c l e a r l y c o n s i d e r e d by Tsunetomo to be an appointment of honour, and proper e x e c u t i o n o f t h i s task i n d i c a t e d a b i l i t y . in  integrity  297  a bushi.  Many o f the young samurai  s i o n to the work of beheading, of  and  felt a definite  and thereby became the o b j e c t s  Tsunetomo's s c o r n . 5.  P e r s o n a l Appearance  The degree  t o which each b u s h i accepted and  the values o f the s o c i e t y as a p a r t o f h i s own  internalized  e x i s t e n c e was  g e n e r a l l y v i s i b l e o n l y through the manner i n which he out h i s d a i l y d u t i e s .  His conduct i n emergencies,  e x e c u t i o n o f matters o f g r e a t importance, his  aver-  degree of i n n e r c o n v i c t i o n .  clearly  carried  or i n the indicated  The most p e r c e p t i b l e mani-  f e s t a t i o n of the i n t e r n a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n , as expressed on a d a i l y b a s i s , was personal  the meticulous care a samurai p a i d to h i s  appearance.  The b u s h i o f u n t i l about f i f t y o r s i x t y year ago took baths, shaved t h e i r heads, scented t h e i r h a i r , cut the n a i l s of t h e i r hands and f e e t , f i l e d them w i t h pumice and p o l i s h e d them beaut i f u l l y w i t h golden g r a s s , and without f a i l , arranged t h e i r appearance every morning. Of course, no t a r n i s h became a t t a c h e d to t h e i r weapons, dust was wiped away, and they were p o l i s h e d and s t o r e d away. The g r e a t a t t e n t i o n p a i d to appearance, although i t was somewhat gaudy, was not f o r f a l s e elegance. Every day they r e s i g n e d themselves to i n e v i t a b l e death. In the event t h a t they d i e d i n b a t t l e w i t h an u n s l i g h t l y p h y s i c a l appearance, the degree o f t h e i r p r e v i o u s l a c k of d e t e r m i n a t i o n would be r e v e a l e d , they would be scorned by t h e i r enemies, and would be d i s g r a c e d . Therefore both o l d and  64 young it is bushi thing  men d i d t h e i r grooming c a r e f u l l y . Although troublesome and takes a l o t of time, a has no o t h e r b u s i n e s s . Nor i s there anye l s e which can i n t r u d e on h i s t i m e . ^ 2  A secondary  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the matter o f a t t e n t i o n to  p h y s i c a l appearance i s the f a c t t h a t the h a b i t s i n s t i l l e d i n the i n d i v i d u a l through  the custom o f p e r s o n a l c l e a n l i n e s s c o u l d  be extended to o t h e r segments o f l i f e . o r design, was ing,  A samurai who,  by h a b i t  s o l i c i t o u s i n the care o f h i s weapons, h i s c l o t h -  and h i s body, would be f a r more l i k e l y to develop  able customs r e g a r d i n g the manners, l e a r n i n g , and expected  o f a man  in his position.  One  and s t e r n l y handsome" countenance and and behaviour."  " I f a man  commend-  behaviour,  must have a "modest  "be  calm i n deportment  has no s u b s t a n t i a l d i g n i t y  and  majesty, h i s appearance, p o s t u r e , and b e a r i n g w i l l not good."  As i n w r i t i n g Chinese  3 0 0  logographs,  look  one must be d i s 301  t i n c t i v e i n h i s a c t i o n s and y e t true to the accepted  form.  Speech, too, i s very e s s e n t i a l to the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a proper  impression  f o r , as K a i b a r a Ekken says, words are  c l o t h i n g of one's body and show the f e e l i n g o f a person  the  on  302 the i n s i d e .  One  must always be c a r e f u l i n choosing one's 303  words as they i n d i c a t e one's mental d e t e r m i n a t i o n . must pay  A bushi  a t t e n t i o n not to say anything l i g h t l y i n d a i l y  even as a joke, because t h i s exposes h i s true h e a r t . h i m s e l f determined  life,  Tsunetomo  when he was young t h a t he would use o n l y 304 one word i n the p l a c e o f t e n . " I t i s b e s t to appear q u i e t 305 on the s u r f a c e but to c o n t a i n s t r e n g t h underneath." But to remain completely s i l e n t shows c o n f u s i o n and t h i s too i s , . ,306 undesirable.  65 Because the e x t e r n a l appearance i s b u t a r e f l e c t i o n o f internal  thoughts, a bushi must s t r i v e t o p u r i f y  h i s mind.  When given a post, be g l a d of the assignment. When there i s a f e e l i n g o f e x c e s s i v e p r i d e , i t appears on one's f a c e . I have seen s e v e r a l such people and they are d i s g r a c e f u l . 'As a u s e l e s s person assigned to t h i s p o s t , how can I c a r r y i t out. T h i s i s r e a l l y an anxious and d i s t r e s s i n g t h i n g . ' People who t h i n k i n t h i s way are aware o f t h e i r own weakness and, even i f they do n o t express i t i n words, show t h i s h u m i l i t y on t h e i r f a c e s , and appear modest. "7 3u  66 Chapter  III  1.  Conduct i n S o c i e t y  While c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the importance o f s e l f d i s c i p l i n e , . Tsunetomo does not l o s e s i g h t o f the f a c t t h a t the whole must be considered along w i t h the p a r t s . t r a i n e d and l o y a l r e t a i n e r s was,  The  development of •'•properly  he b e l i e v e d , f o r the purpose  of  g e n e r a t i n g a harmonious s o c i e t y w i t h i n Saga han.  The  of  harmony can, as has been mentioned, be t r a c e d back to the  d u a l i t y of the a n c i e n t yin-yang p h i l o s o p h y of China. mentary to t h i s , Buddhist,  ideal  Supple-  Confucian, and Neo-Confucian ideas 30 8  s t r e s s e d the maintenance o f an o r d e r l y s o c i e t y . the adherence of each person  Through  to h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t a t i o n i n  harmony c o u l d be achieved and  continued i n d e f i n i t e l y .  life,  To  Tsunetomo, harmony a l s o meant c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h one's f e l l o w bushi i n s e r v i n g the l o r d . harmony and t r u s t i n the way of  mind."  are i n  o f the gods, they w i l l have peace  Acknowledgment t h a t the e s s e n t i a l nature of mutual  endeavour had work.  He says, " I f a l l people  c o n s i d e r a b l e importance i s apparent  i n Tsunetomo's  In a n c i e n t times, he s t a t e s , the i n t i m a c y between group  l e a d e r and the members o f h i s group l e f t no room f o r o t h e r 309 matters. "Bad f e e l i n g s between the r e t i r e d and the present heads of the f a m i l y , between f a t h e r and son, and between e l d e r 310 and younger b r o t h e r s a r i s e from base s e l f i s h n e s s . " r e l a t i o n s d e t e r i o r a t e to the p o i n t where attendance and d i s c u s s i o n s begins may  occur.  to f a i l ,  For i f people  When a t meetings  consequences of a s e r i o u s nature  are not used to working t o g e t h e r they 311 w i l l be u s e l e s s i n a time of emergency. I t i s imperative,  then, f o r samurai n o t only t o maintain c o r d i a l  friendships  but to t r y t o develop these i n t o i n t i m a t e and meaningful r e lationships.  Lord Naoshige b e l i e v e d t h a t a determined  samurai  312 was one who a s s o c i a t e d w i t h many f r i e n d s .  In o r d e r to be-  come and remain f r i e n d l y w i t h many people, each must be addressed i n the proper way. So the c o r r e c t use o f words i s e s s e n t i a l .  Many are the  people who t a l k b o a s t f u l l y as a h a b i t but who, i n a c r i s i s , 313 are g e n e r a l l y s p e e c h l e s s . "People who are d i s c r e e t w i t h t h e i r mouths are w e l l employed i n p e r i o d s o f good government 314 and i n times o f bad government are n o t punished."  A bushi  should n o t open up h i s h e a r t completely t o s t r a n g e r s but r a t h e r should express h i s f e e l i n g s through h i s d a i l y conduct and 315 . . . . speech. When t a l k i n g to f r i e n d s i n d a i l y c o n v e r s a t i o n , care must be taken n o t to lose c o n c e n t r a t i o n on what they are s a y i n g . I f one agrees w i t h them on every matter, duty i s b e i n g n e g l e c t e d . Pay  a t t e n t i o n and d i s c u s s anything which does not c o i n c i d e w i t h  one's own o p i n i o n , because s m a l l o v e r s i g h t s may grow i n t o  large  316 errors.  When t h i n g s are going w e l l , one must be doubly c a r e -  f u l to guard a g a i n s t p r i d e and extravagance,  f o r a person who 317  becomes happy e a s i l y can j u s t as e a s i l y become discouraged. A w e l l - t r a i n e d bushi uses h i s f r i e n d s and a s s o c i a t e s i n the proper way.  F r i e n d s who are c l o s e to the l o r d are o f  s p e c i a l value when a samurai needs to communicate an i d e a to the l o r d .  But unless they are completely l o y a l to the l o r d ,  they may m i s r e p r e s e n t one's i n t e n t i o n s to promote t h e i r own 318 cause.  In any case, although i t may be necessary a t times  to r e q u e s t a i d from o t h e r s , t h i s should be avoided as f a r as  68 p o s s i b l e l e s t i t appear to be begging.  319  Furthermore, the  use o f f r i e n d s can only be condoned i f the e f f o r t i s made, not 320 f o r a s e l f i s h purpose, but f o r the sake o f the  lord.  Another element which Tsunetomo c o n s i d e r e d c r i t i c a l r e garding f r i e n d s must be presented. t h i n g s one e a s i l y makes mistakes  In the course o f doing  and, even more s e r i o u s l y ,  there i s a tendency to become s e l f i s h .  Through c o n s u l t a t i o n  with o t h e r s , one's a c t i o n s can be tempered and and one  solidified,  can become as s t a b l e as a g r e a t t r e e w i t h many r o o t s 321  r a t h e r than l i k e a twig which j u s t has been stuck i n the ground. There i s no one  from a lowly f o o t s o l d i e r to a l o r d who  not b e n e f i t from the advice o f o t h e r s . p l a t e s h i s own the Way  mistakes  "A person who  contem-  as a usual r o u t i n e and searches  d u r i n g h i s whole l i f e ,  i s a t r e a s u r e to the  would  for 322  han."  Various methods o f o b t a i n i n g knowledge are open to those  who  search.  The maxims o f p r e v i o u s generations can be good models 323 f o r the men o f the p r e s e n t but may be hard to understand.  In f a c t , t h a t which i s understood  may  be only  superficial  324 knowledge. T h e r e f o r e , do not be a f r a i d t h a t by seeking advice from others you w i l l be showing ignorance f o r , " . . . t o 325 request the advice o f others i s to surpass them." The way of righteousness i s very d i f f i c u l t to understand by o n e s e l f 326 and may  be f o l l o w e d more e a s i l y by c o n s u l t i n g o t h e r s .  the o t h e r hand, i n c e r t a i n circumstances disadvantageous,  c o n s u l t a t i o n may  On be  and a t those times one must be prepared to 327 use one's own judgment. In such i n s t a n c e s , " . . . i n o r d e r to make a proper d e c i s i o n , study the Four Oaths and the s o l u 32 8 t i o n w i l l appear n a t u r a l l y . " In a l l cases i t i s b e s t to  69 accept any advice g l a d l y and l a t e r decide whether o r n o t to adopt i t .  F o r i f one r e f u s e s advice i t may be t h a t t h a t  person  329 w i l l never again o f f e r i t . I t i s a l s o the duty o f a bushi to advise o t h e r s .  In t h i s  there must be no i n t e n t i o n o f r i d i c u l i n g o r shaming the o t h e r party.  The s o l e purpose l i e s i n b e t t e r p r e p a r i n g him f o r s e r v -  330 ice. "In the world there are many people who give moral instructions. However, there are few people who l i s t e n g l a d l y 331 to  instructions.  And people who obey them are even fewer."  I t i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e t h a t the person whom one wishes to advise be brought to the proper  frame of mind so t h a t he i s l i k e "a  t h i r s t y man d r i n k i n g water."  T h i s may be done by c a r e f u l l y  s t u d y i n g the r e c e p t i v e c a p a c i t y o f the person mate w i t h him. bility.  and becoming i n t i -  Use words i n a way so as to g i v e them c r e d i -  Talk f i r s t about t h i n g s which he l i k e s and t h i n k about  how t o speak.  Choosing the proper o p p o r t u n i t y , t a l k about one's  own f a u l t s i n such a way as to make him understand.  Be sure 332  to p r a i s e h i s good p o i n t s and speak t o him from your h e a r t . Only i n t h i s way w i l l your advice be b e l i e v e d and t r u s t e d . A l though i t i s g e n e r a l l y thought to be kindness the f a u l t s i n o t h e r people, are thoroughly  only t o p o i n t o u t  t h i s does no good unless  suggestions  d i s c u s s e d i n a p e a c e f u l manner so t h a t they  will  333 be accepted.  Once good advice i s adopted by the other p a r t y ,  he w i l l be b e t t e r equipped t o serve h i s l o r d . An even more d i f f i c u l t task i s the admonishment o f one's superiors.  I f one's p o s i t i o n i s n o t o f s u f f i c i e n t s t a t u s to  advise t h a t s e n i o r d i r e c t l y , i t i s b e s t t o do so through the 334 medium o f a f r i e n d who i s c l o s e to him. I f one's a c t i o n s  70  are motivated  by l o y a l t y , i t i s not necessary  t h a t the r e c i p i -  335 ent know the source o f the a d v i c e .  A serious f a u l t that  o b v i o u s l y r e q u i r e s c o r r e c t i o n must be p o i n t e d o u t immediately, f o r i f one waits f o r a b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y , there i s the chance 336 t h a t f u r t h e r damage w i l l accrue.  Fear t h a t the l o r d might  r e t a l i a t e i f given advice when he i s i n an unfavourable mood should n o t d e t e r your d e c i s i o n t o c o r r e c t him.  I f one i s  s i n c e r e i n h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o s t a t e h i s p o i n t o f view, the 337 lord w i l l listen. On the o t h e r hand, i f he i s a l o r d who i s e x c e l l e n t i n a l l t h i n g s , advice on very p e t t y matters can 33 8 do naught b u t harm. A l l advice and admonition must be meted out f o r the s o l e end o f l o y a l t y . When t h i s i s n o t the case, and i t i s done only t o e x h i b i t one's own power, i t i s s e l f i s h 339 and  shameful. One  f u r t h e r type o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s d e a l t w i t h  i n Hagakure.  Although  to homosexuality.  few i n number, t h e r e a r e some a l l u s i o n s  This i s n o t a p a r t i c u l a r l y s u r p r i s i n g r e -  v e l a t i o n when one r e a l i z e s the low s o c i a l p o s i t i o n o f women and the d i s d a i n which samurai had f o r p a s s i o n a t e love between man  and woman.  In f a c t , homosexuality  had a long t r a d i t i o n  i n Japan, being recorded i n l i t e r a t u r e as e a r l y as the e i g h t h century i n the Manyoshu 7^"^.%^' The p r o h i b i t i o n o f women 340 from monasteries  resulted i n close p h y s i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s bet-  ween the monks.  The t r a d i t i o n o f homosexuality  thus e s t a b l i s h e d  i n the Buddhist orders continued t o t h r i v e through  subsequent  341 centuries.  A s i m i l a r s e t o f circumstances  i n the armies  of the samurai l e d t o a corresponding p o p u l a r i t y o f homosexua l i t y among b u s h i .  Tsunetomo, t h e r e f o r e , does not i n t r o d u c e  any new  elements, but r a t h e r tenders advice on how  to s e l e c t  342 male companions p r o p e r l y .  He s t r e s s e s the f a c t t h a t a f r i e n d -  s h i p must be a l a s t i n g one  i n order to be a c c e p t a b l e .  s t o r y of a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between two men of  t h e i r f i r s t meeting and t e l l s 344  mutual a f f e c t i o n . man  Information  The  3 4 3  gives the  details  of the deep s i n c e r i t y o f i s a l s o r e l a t e d on how  their the  Tsunetomo c o n s i d e r s to be the founder of homosexuality i n  Saga han,  Hoshino Ryotetsu Iff  7$  (1607-1680), e s o t e r i c a l l y 345  passed s e c r e t i n s t r u c t i o n in' the p r a c t i s e to o t h e r s .  Thus  Tsunetomo deals w i t h the matter of homosexuality w i t h no  hint  of  sensationalism.  Instead he i n d i c a t e s only t h a t , as i n a l l  other conduct, a bushi must behave as r e q u i r e d by p r o p r i e t y . 2.  Rectitude  The  teachings o f the Sung s c h o l a r , Chu H s i , p r o v i d e d  foundations  f o r orthodox Neo-Confucianism which, under the  auspices o f Hayashi Razan, became the o f f i c i a l 346 the Edo  regime.  (t'ai-chi ^  Chu H s i  , taikyoku  The  "principle"  manifestation ( l ifff, r i _ i n  " m a t e r i a l f o r c e " ( c h ' i % . , k i i n Japanese).  c i p l e e x p l a i n s the r e a l i t y m a t e r i a l f o r c e epitomizes d u a l i s t i c nature  a t h i n g o r a man  i s counteracted..'by  The  apparently  the f a c t t h a t n e i t h e r l i  the o t h e r .  i s h i s very nature  i s p e r f e c t goodness.  Prin-  and u n i v e r s a l i t y o f t h i n g s w h i l e the p h y s i c a l form.  nor c h ' i can e x i s t without  it  of  i n Japanese) c o n s i s t s of p r i n c i p l e  the great u l t i m a t e i n v o l v e s both  Japanese) and  philosophy  h e l d t h a t the "great u l t i m a t e "  i n i t s t o t a l i t y but takes no p h y s i c a l form. of  the  The p r i n c i p l e , l i , o f  and,  P h y s i c a l nature  in i t s original state, i s p r i n c i p l e mixed  72 w i t h m a t e r i a l f o r c e and i n v o l v e s both good and e v i l . r e s u l t of t h i s mixture i s expressed i n f e e l i n g s .  The  I t i s the  mind which u n i t e s human nature and human f e e l i n g s , and so i t i s the mind which must be c u l t i v a t e d i n m o r a l i t y .  This  culti-  v a t i o n simply serves to b r i n g human f e e l i n g s back i n t o harmony with l i .  Combined w i t h the concept of jen^= ( j i n i n Japanese),  "humanity," the r a t i o n a l i s m of Chu H s i ' s p h i l o s o p h y dominated all official  s c h o l a r s h i p d u r i n g the Tokugawa p e r i o d i n Japan.  To Tsunetomo such s c h o l a r l y debate was, mentioned, not the concern of the b u s h i . Hagakure s t u d i e d f o r t h i s paper, ference to Neo-Confuciah theory.  as has been  In the p o r t i o n of  Tsunetomo makes no d i r e c t r e On  the o t h e r hand, most of  the f i r s t chapter of Hagakure i s devoted  to the p r a c t i c a l  ap-  p l i c a t i o n of Neo-Confucian p r e c e p t s to the l i f e s t y l e o f the samurai.  Tsunetomo f e l t t h a t a l l the e f f o r t o f a b u s h i , i f  not put f o r t h i n the way A c t i o n s of samurai,  o f the w a r r i o r , bushido, was  meritless.  i f they do not f o l l o w reason and moral 34 7  r i g h t e o u s n e s s , were regarded as shallow and u s e l e s s .  The  bushi's concept o f righteousness centered around r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to one's p o s i t i o n i n l i f e , r. ,. , , 348 cause o f h i s l o r d . The at  f o r the  term g i r i ^ f f j , i n t r o d u c e d p r e v i o u s l y as o b l i g a t i o n ,  t h i s p o i n t needs to be e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f i t s r e l a t i o n -  ship with r e c t i t u d e . duty performed  In i t s o r i g i n a l sense g i r i meant duty,  only because to do so was  reason" or " p r i n c i p l e . " to  t h a t i s , t o duty performed  the way  of r i , "right  The meaning changed, as time  encompass o b l i g a t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i a l  parents and c h i l d r e n , and master and f o l l o w e r .  passed, classes,  I t became the  a u t h o r i t y used t o compel the performance  o f d u t i e s which were  then done as moral requirements and not n e c e s s a r i l y  spontaneous  349 acts o f l o v e .  In t h i s c o n t e x t the o b l i g a t i o n s of g i n  be seen as the e n f o r c e r of the t r u e p r i n c i p l e , r i . was  The  may  samurai  kept on the path o f r i g h t e o u s n e s s by the more c l e a r l y r e -  c o g n i z a b l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of g i r i . Adherence to the way was  o f r i g h t e o u s n e s s , o r proper  expected of a l l bushi' r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r rank o r  conduct, age.  Tsunetomo commands them to conduct themselves i n accordance 350 with t h e i r s t a t u s at a l l times. N a t u r a l l y , the h i g h e r one's p o s i t i o n and the c l o s e r one becomes to the l o r d , the more c a r e 351 f u l l y one must abide by reason and j u s t i c e . In a d d i t i o n t o reprimanding those under him, a s e n i o r statesman must a d m i n i s t e r 352 the p r o v i n c e j u s t l y . strict  He must be f i r m , but i f he i s too  t h i n g s cannot p r o s p e r .  J u s t as f i s h grow b e t t e r i n the  shade of duckweed than they do i n c l e a r water, the people 353 f l o u r i s h when c o n t r o l s are loosened s l i g h t l y . "By p u n i s h i n g w i t h a h e a r t o f benevolence and working w i t h a h e a r t o f com354 p a s s i o n , there i s no l i m i t to s t r e n g t h and r i g h t e o u s n e s s . " Furthermore, compassion d i c t a t e s that reason may sometimes be 355 found o u t s i d e o f j u s t i c e .  T h e r e f o r e , i f the proper way o f 356 government i s pursued, there w i l l be peace and harmony. I f the people are l i v i n g i n t r a n q u i l i t y and the r e t a i n e r s f e e l happy i n g i v i n g s e r v i c e , the government of the p r o v i n c e goes 357 well.  However, i f the way  the r u l e r s may  expect d i v i n e  o f r e c t i t u d e i s not f o l l o w e d , 358 retribution.  Revenge, too, had long been a t r a d i t i o n a l method of r i g h t i n g an i n j u s t i c e .  The case o f the r o n i n of Ako, which  74 has a l r e a d y been i n t r o d u c e d , i l l u s t r a t e s the degree to which revenge, c a r r i e d out i n the name of r i g h t e o u s n e s s , was  accepted  359 and praxsed.  In Hagakure, Tsunetomo, w h i l e condoning  a c t u a l l y a d v o c a t i n g the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f revenge  and  f o r any obvious  i n j u s t i c e , expresses some r e s e r v a t i o n s as to the manner i n which it  should be achieved.  A t t e n t i o n to the c r i t e r i a o f honour  and r e c t i t u d e i s e s s e n t i a l .  In keeping w i t h the element o f  l o y a l t y , he i n d i c a t e s that a vendetta should be undertaken o n l y as a p a r t o f the duty to one's l o r d . In a d d i t i o n , revenge i s not something which should be c a r e f u l l y planned.  By c a u t i o u s l y d e l i b e r a t i n g the methods to  be used, the odds may  appear overwhelming,  t a t e that the whole a f f a i r be f o r g o t t e n . be  and l o g i c may  dic-  Such a r e s u l t would  disgraceful. The way o f revenge i s to f l y i n t o a c t i o n immediately, u n t i l one i s cut and k i l l e d . I f one does t h i s there w i l l be no shame. When one t h i n k s t h a t he must def e a t the enemy, he misses h i s chance.... Even i f the enemy i s s e v e r a l thousand, i f one proceeds w i t h the enthusiasm t h a t he w i l l k i l l many w i t h each sweep o f h i s sword, a l l he has to do to succeed i s stand up and face them.... N e i t h e r wisdom nor a r t i s necessary. Those people who are s t r o n g men do not t h i n k about v i c t o r y o r d e f e a t ; without second thoughts they are madly i n t e n t upon death.^60  While r e c o g n i z i n g the p o p u l a r i t y o f the two most famous cases of revenge, Tsunetomo c r i t i c i z e s the vendettas o f the r o n i n o f Ako and of the S o g a ^ ^ b r o t h e r s . -  3 6 1  That the men o f Ako d i d not disembowel themselves a t Sengakuji Ik-fc^ must be regarded as a f a u l t . In a d d i t i o n , the time from the death o f t h e i r l o r d u n t i l the k i l l i n g o f the enemy was too l o n g . I f d u r i n g t h a t time Lord K i r a had d i e d o f s i c k n e s s , i t would have been most d e p l o r a b l e . . . . The v e n d e t t a o f the Soga b r o t h e r s , too, took a very l o n g time.... I do not, i n g e n e r a l , make c r i t i c i s m of t h i s s o r t , but s i n c e t h i s i s a c l o s e  75 examination  _ 3 62 o f budo, I am mentioning i t .  Many years o f experience fore the average samurai was  and t r a i n i n g were r e q u i r e d be-  able to d i s c e r n c l e a r l y the  ference between good and e v i l .  dif-  Some f a c t o r s , such as the  ab363  horence o f "underhanded d e a l i n g s and crooked were obvious,  undertakings,"  but i n more s u b t l e i n s t a n c e s problems o c c u r r e d .  I t t e i p r o v i d e d a r u l e of thumb f o r samurai to f o l l o w when i n doubt.  He s a i d t h a t any behaviour  was  good i f i t was  accom364  panied by s u f f e r i n g , and e v i l i f there was In t h i s statement he which he has The  appears to be  no such s u f f e r i n g .  formulating a p r a c t i c a l  guide  d e r i v e d from the Neo-Confucian view of human nature.  r e s o l v i n g of the c o n f l i c t between p r i n c i p l e , r i , and  selfish  human d e s i r e s i s a matter only o f c l e a r i n g away these d e s i r e s so 36 5 that the i n h e r e n t goodness o f human nature w i l l  prevail.  I t t e i seems to be s a y i n g t h a t a samurai must s u f f e r i n the a t tempt to p u r i f y h i m s e l f of s e l f i s h n e s s and righteousness.  He must not succumb to the temptation  an u n d i s c i p l i n e d l i f e . unslackening  f o l l o w the way  A b u s h i , furthermore,  should  to l e a d maintain  e f f o r t s to serve w i t h utmost r e c t i t u d e .  one's c o n c e n t r a t i o n at any  of  To break  time r e v e a l s one's weakness, but  t h i s i s even more a p p l i c a b l e to a person  s e r v i n g i n an  official  post.  By a c t i n g i n a r e l a x e d manner when not performing  of-  ficial  f u n c t i o n s , he r e v e a l s the exact amount of e f f o r t which 366  he expends on h i s d u t i e s . Leadership  gave a samurai an o p p o r t u n i t y to i n c o r p o r a t e  observe o f righteousness any s e c r e t s i in n tthe s u b o rof d i n aextes. the p r e c espitgsn s o f o h ifaces s d u t of i e s h. i s Years p e r i e n c e p l u s a c o n s c i e n t i o u s e f f o r t gave him  the a b i l i t y  to  36 7  Of the many examples o f l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s d e s c r i b e d i n Hagakure, two are t y p i c a l .  One, i n which a c e r t a i n  official  o f f e r s to sponsor a bushi' who has once been c o n v i c t e d o f drunken d i s o r d e r l y conduct, i l l u s t r a t e s i n s i g h t and understanding. t h i s instance the o f f i c i a l  In  had s a i d , "To abandon a person who  has e r r e d o n l y once does n o t educate o t h e r s .  A person who has  committed an i n d i s c r e t i o n only once i s one who has repented 368 that e r r o r .  He behaves h i m s e l f w e l l , and i s u s e f u l . "  The  second s t o r y d e p i c t s the o p p o s i t e q u a l i t i e s i n a l e a d e r .  While  t r a v e l l i n g on a boat, a young page became rowdy and began an argument w i t h the s h i p ' s c a p t a i n .  He took out h i s sword, and  the  c a p t a i n h i t him on the head with a p o l e .  the  group o f samurai t r a v e l l e r s d i d n o t h i n g , n o t even a p o l o g i z e .  Tsunetomo  The l e a d e r o f  f e e l s t h a t the proper a c t i o n f o r the l e a d e r i n t h i s  i n s t a n c e would have been to c u t down both the c a p t a i n and the • , . .• , 369 page w i t h h i s sword.  3.  Compassion  The a l r e a d y mentioned v i r t u e o f jen /^=. ( j i n i n Japanese) , "humanity" o r "benevolence," was a key concept to the Confu. 370 c i a n i s m o f Confucius h i m s e l f , o f Mencius, and o f Chu H s i . The scope o f i t s meaning was extremely wide, ranging from the b a s i c goodness o f man t o the s u g g e s t i o n o f a cosmic f o r c e , depending on the context and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  However, as  w i t h the t h e o r i e s o f r i _ and ki_, Tsunetomo does not concern hims e l f w i t h e x p l a n a t i o n s o f the meaning o f the term j i n . he amalgamates  Instead  i t w i t h the somewhat s i m i l a r term j i h i ffiffi* /  concept o f Buddhism.  a  In h i s mind the two s c h o o l s o f thought,  77 Confucianism and Buddhism, d i d not d i f f e r on the p o i n t o f love f o r one's f e l l o w man. the word j i h i ,  T h e r e f o r e , he uses both the word j i n and  often interchangeably.  In emphasizing benevo-  lence and compassion f o r o t h e r s , Tsunetomo f o l l o w s a tendency 371 which was  apparent throughout Japan.  He says, "We  must t h i n k  and a c t i n a l l t h i n g s f o r the sake o f our l o r d and p a r e n t s , f o r the sake o f o t h e r people, and f o r the sake o f our descendants. This i s g r e a t compassion.  The wisdom and courage which come 372  from compassion are fundamental elements." When i n a p o s i t i o n o f s u p e r i o r i t y , a person must conduct himself c a r e f u l l y  f o r his. a c t i o n s are e a s i l y seen by o t h e r s .  Yet people i n h i g h posts o f t e n f o r g e t t o c a r r y out t h e i r w i t h compassion.  duties  Tsunetomo s t a t e s r e p e a t e d l y t h a t f o r a supe-  r i o r t o be k i n d t o an i n f e r i o r i s an a c t worthy o f p r a i s e . Nakano Kazuma, even though very busy, always found time to s t o p , on h i s way  home from s e r v i c e a t the c a s t l e , at the homes o f  those of h i s group who were s i c k or who 373 g r e a t l y loved f o r t h i s . s a i d , "Where h o l d i n g men s e l f alone. held." ^ 3  4  had a problem.  He  was  Tsunetomo's f a t h e r , Shigezumi, once i s concerned, one cannot e a t by one-  I f one shares h i s meal w i t h h i s men,  A group l e a d e r who  p r a i s e s h i s men  they can be  l a v i s h l y whenever  they do something commendable w i l l f i n d t h a t they w i l l 375 a f t e r commit t h e i r l i v e s to him w i t h o u t r e g r e t .  there-  In s p i t e  of the need f o r t h i s s o r t o f kindness, i t i s dangerous to be l e s s than f i r m i n managing men.  Even though Shigezumi was  a  compassionate group l e a d e r , on one o c c a s i o n one o f h i s men made a mistake.  Shigezumi d i d not mention anything about i t u n t i l 376 the end o f the y e a r , and then he d i s c h a r g e d the man.  78 Compassion should be h e l d f o r a l l o t h e r people of rank.  One  should convey sympathy to a bushi who  hardships o r misfortunes  regardless i s having  and thus h e l p him i n becoming coura-  geous enough to overcome h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s .  Once he does t h i s ,  377 he w i l l be able to serve the han. the l o r d .  In t h i s way,  I f , f o r the sake o f one's own  one  p r i d e , one  a l s o serves  embarrasses  others i n s t e a d o f h e l p i n g them, i t i s not only unkind but a l s o 37 8 does not serve to h e l p the l o r d .  When f i v e men  were  sentenced  to punishment, Nakano Ka.'zuma,at the r i s k o f i n c u r r i n g anger upon h i m s e l f , begged seven times f o r t h e i r pardon u n t i l i t was 379 f i n a l l y granted. He a l s o had the r e p u t a t i o n of a man who 380 gave l i g h t e r sentences  than o f f e n s e s c a l l e d f o r .  He exem-  plifies  the f a c t t h a t there i s no l i m i t to the amount o f l o v e 381 and a f f e c t i o n which can be d i s t r i b u t e d . I t i s therefore not good to speak badly o f anyone, even a c r i m i n a l . Instead, 382 h e l p people who are i n d i r e s t r a i t s . To r e c e i v e help when one i s having t r o u b l e i s wonderful, but one must not n e g l e c t 3 83 to be compassionate when times are good. 4.  Courage and Honour  In c o n t r a s t to the g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e toward m i l i t a r y t i o n i n China, where there was  ac-  a tendency " . . . t o disesteem 384  heroism finitely  and v i o l e n c e , not t o g l o r i f y i t , " a c h e r i s h e d v i r t u e i n Japan.  sake of p e r s o n a l g a i n , however, was disgraceful.  v a l o u r was  Bravery  de-  f o r the s o l e  c o n s i d e r e d m e r i t l e s s and  Courageous s p i r i t must be c u l t i v a t e d f o r the 385  purpose of s e r v i n g the l o r d or the House.  Naturally, l i f e  or death s t r u g g l e s on the b a t t l e f i e d p r o v i d e d the b e s t  opportu-  nity  f o r r e t a i n e r s to demonstrate p h y s i c a l courage.  b u s h i once s a i d words t o the f o l l o w i n g e f f e c t .  "An o l d  I f a t the time  of a r e a l b a t t l e , determined t h a t he w i l l outdo even famous b u s h i , a man c o n t i n u o u s l y wants to somehow k i l l  t h i n k s , morning and n i g h t , t h a t he  a s t r o n g enemy, h i s h e a r t w i l l become  brave, he w i l l n o t become t i r e d , and he w i l l be able to d i s p l a y 3 86 courage."  Bravery  on the b a t t l e f i e l d may be regarded as  c o n t r o l o f the f e a r o f death and d i s i n t e r e s t i n w o r l d l y cerns.  con-  For t h a t purpose Zen Buddhism was p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l 387  as a g u i d i n g d o c t r i n e . But the Edo p e r i o d was a time o f peace, and courage had to be e x h i b i t e d i n ways o t h e r than b a t t l e .  "In a p e r i o d o f 3 88 peace the way to d i s p l a y bravery i s by words." "This i s the way one wants to be, n o t only a t the time o f a r e a l b a t t l e , 389 . . but a l s o i n normal times." Sentences such as these i n d i c a t e t h a t Tsunetomo was attempting  t o t r a n s f e r the courage r e q u i r e d  i n b a t t l e to the d a i l y d u t i e s o f a samurai.  Yet, while  showing  a h e r o i c frame o f mind to the whole world, a bushi must n o t 390 become c o n c e i t e d .  A t no time, even as a joke o r d u r i n g  one's s l e e p may a bushi say such words as, " I t i s f r i g h t e n i n g , " o r , "Ouch," f o r these may i n d i c a t e a subconscious weakness, 391 o r may be misunderstood by o t h e r s . Instead, one should have the d e t e r m i n a t i o n  to perform as Mitsushige  d i d when he  was r e q u i r e d to read a s u t r a i n f r o n t o f a monk.  A t t h a t time  he s a i d , "Everybody come and l i s t e n to me f o r i t i s d i f f i c u l t 392 to read when there are o n l y a few l i s t e n e r s . " I t i s i n n e r confidence v i d e s a man w i t h courage.  i n one's own a b i l i t y which pro-  "For both s e r v i c e and courage one  80 must be determined  to become completely  singleminded."  393  As a d a i l y p r a c t i s e one must p o l i s h and expand confidence conviction. to  "Courage must be f o s t e r e d by always b e i n g  surpass brave men  and  determined  and by t h i n k i n g t h a t one w i l l not be  beaten  394 by o t h e r s . "  I t i s important, n a t u r a l l y , t h a t d e t e r m i n a t i o n  does not become o b s t i n a t e n e s s . t r e a t from the way  However, a bushi must not r e -  of righteousness.  As mentioned e a r l i e r ,  a bushi must t r y to c o r r e c t the e r r o r s of o t h e r s , even the I f by doing so he i n c u r r e d the wrath o f h i s l o r d and was tenced to commit seppuku, i t was A second  lord.  sen-  a f a t e he had to accept b r a v e l y .  form of c a s t i g a t i o n which ca bushi might be f o r c e d to  undergo c o n s i s t e d of b e i n g ordered to f o r f e i t h i s s t i p e n d and become a r o n i n .  Becoming a r o n i n was  and Tsunetomo expressed not as uncomfortable  not n e c e s s a r i l y  the o p i n i o n t h a t l i f e 395  as u s u a l l y p o r t r a y e d .  as a r o n i n was Repeated s o j o u r n s ,  he says, are perhaps necessary to make a samurai courageous.  final,  s t r o n g and  In t h i s connection Katsushige s a i d , "Someone  who  has not become a r o n i n seven times cannot be s a i d to be a r e a l 396 servant. F a l l down seven times and get up e i g h t . " In f a c t , a l l bushi "...must be r e s o l v e d from the b e g i n n i n g t h a t the u l t i m a t e end o f s e r v i c e i s e i t h e r to become a r o n i n or to commit 397 seppuku."  Thus a t r u e bushi shows h i s courage and  determi-  n a t i o n to serve the House, and f e a r s n o t h i n g i n the e f f o r t to do so.  "One  who  i s a f r a i d o f f a i l u r e i n assigned d u t i e s i s  398 a coward." mistake  That i s , one must not worry about making a  i n h i s duty, but must advance w i t h complete d e v o t i o n .  As there were no wars a t the time i n which Hagakure was w r i t t e n , mental courage i n one's d a i l y l i f e was  f a r more p r a c t i c a l  than  81 p h y s i c a l courage  shown on the b a t t l e f i e l d .  Honour, too, c o u l d b e s t be gained i n the t r a d i t i o n a l manner of d i s p l a y i n g bravery on the b a t t l e f i e l d , but war not an i n d i s p e n s a b l e requirement.  was  To a p r o p e r l y t r a i n e d b u s h i ,  honour o r i g i n a t e d i n the judgment o f one's a c t i o n s by one's peers and s u p e r i o r s .  Accomplishments deemed honourable  were  d i v e r s i f i e d , but p r a i s e normally came from others f o r a c t i o n i n accordance w i t h the accepted conduct  for specific  circum-  stances, whether the s i t u a t i o n e n t a i l e d p h y s i c a l b a t t l e or the proper g r e e t i n g o f an acquaintance. was  G e n e r a l l y speaking, i t  p o s s i b l e to earn honour i n two broad ways, by doing h e r o i c  or m e r i t o r i o u s deeds and by a v o i d i n g mistakes w h i l e s e r v i n g 399 unselfishly.  In keeping w i t h Confucian p r i n c i p l e s , poverty  and d i s t r e s s d i d not d e p r i v e a man  o f honour.  Confucius him-  s e l f i s r e p o r t e d to have s a i d , "Having only coarse food to e a t , p l a i n water to d r i n k , and a bent arm f i n d happiness  therein.  eous means are to me  f o r a p i l l o w , one  can  still  Riches and honour a c q u i r e d by u n r i g h t -  as d r i f t i n g c l o u d s . "  4 0 0  Thus, any  action  done f o r the purpose  o f g a i n i n g wealth or fame, even death i n 401 b a t t l e or seppuku, was not c o n s i d e r e d proper nor honourable. When a b u s h i has honour i n h i s h e a r t , i t w i l l c e r t a i n l y 402 appear i n a time o f emergency. Yet i t i s something which i s a l s o expressed i n d a i l y behaviour and speech. One example of the way  i n which honour can be expressed v e r b a l l y i s by 403  not speaking i l l  o f a man  a f t e r h i s death.  i n adherence t o t r u t h , so t h a t a man times.  "The word o f a samurai  may  Another  lies  be t r u s t e d at a l l  i s f i r m e r than metal.  Because  I have d e c i d e d , not the Buddha, the gods, nor anything e l s e  82 w i l l move me.  5.  ,,404  Etiquette  Harmonious i n t e r a c t i o n between members o f any s o c i e t y d i c t a t e s t h a t an accepted t u t e d and f o l l o w e d . s o c i e t y , deeply  s e t o f r u l e s o f e t i q u e t t e be i n s t i -  T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y v i t a l i n a f e u d a l  i n f u s e d as i t was with a h i e r a r c h y i n which  even the s l i g h t e s t d i f f e r e n c e o f s o c i a l p o s i t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e d f a m i l i a r i t y with the proper  social  response.  F o l l o w i n g the example s e t by the Chinese c l a s s i c , The Book o f R i t e s  ( L i Chi ^L.j>£)/ Japanese R a i k i )  a  n  (  j  s  u  c  n  early  Japanese documents as Shotoku T a i s h i ' s seventeen a r t i c l e contitution of 604,  4 0 6  much o f Hagakure i s devoted to i n d i c a t i n g ,  e i t h e r through d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n s o r by c i t i n g examples, the proper  conduct a p p l i c a b l e to a c e r t a i n circumstance.  o f the course  Knowledge  o f a c t i o n t o be taken on a s p e c i f i c o c c a s i o n was  not only commendable, b u t the l a c k o f such p r e p a r a t i o n was considered d i s g r a c e f u l . T h e r e f o r e , one must prepare i n advance what one would do and say i n a given s i t u a t i o n .  When i n v i t e d somewhere, a  b u s h i should p l a n from the p r e v i o u s n i g h t and make notes so 407 t h a t he could a c t smoothly. f i r s t words."  4 0 8  "Nothing i s as important  When speaking,  as one's  speak o n l y a f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g  409 who i s p r e s e n t  and then do not say anything  t h a t might  410 shame o t h e r s .  V e r b o s i t y i n a b u s h i was d i s r e s p e c t a b l e . 411  Tsunetomo decided while young to use l e s s words than expected. 412 People i n h i g h p o s i t i o n s made a h a b i t o f n o t u s i n g many words, and  f o r a person o f lower rank to say too much when f a c i n g supe-  83 r i o r s was  "discourteous  and bad mannered."  i n one's d a i l y speech was  413  Even more care  r e q u i r e d when one was  one's p o s t , f o r to become e x c i t e d and  very busy i n  speak h a r s h l y was .  way  o f lowly servants  and was  the 414  not b e f i t t i n g a samurai.  A minor c o n t r a d i c t i o n appears r e g a r d i n g the proper quette  f o r bowing.  Tsunetomo quotes h i s father, Shigezumi, as  s a y i n g , " I t i s b e s t to bow distinction.  r e s p e c t f u l l y to everyone  without  People of r e c e n t times have no courtesy 415  have become impetuous."  Shigezumi maintained  ever broke h i s back from bowing.  and  t h a t no  one  But Tsunetomo a l s o p r a i s e s  the c o n v i c t i o n o f another bushi who h u r t at the New  eti-  says t h a t because h i s h i p s  Year from e x c e s s i v e bowing, he has  decided  that 416  he w i l l not bow unless he i s the r e c i p i e n t o f a bow first. This same person had furthermore s t a t e d t h a t d u r i n g the New  Year c e l e b r a t i o n s he would completely  r e f u s e to d r i n k  417 liquor. Tsunetomo c e r t a i n l y agrees t h a t l i q u o r should not be drunk i n g r e a t volume, because when one becomes drunk one 418 w i l l not be able to a c t without mistakes. Besides, one's 419 true mental c o n v i c t i o n s may  be seen by a l l .  On  the  other  hand he s t a t e s t h a t i t i s a l s o poor manners to r e p e a t e d l y *  4-  *  •  1  4  2  re-  0  fuse to d r i n k . People who  r e l y on n a t u r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e w i l l make many 421 . . mistakes i n e t i q u e t t e . S u r e l y , a t times a quick w i t i s very important  to save a p o t e n t i a l l y d i s a s t r o u s  as i n the case of a samurai who When a palanquin and prevented completely  was  situation,  searching f o r a c r i m i n a l .  passed, he thought the c r i m i n a l was  inside  i t s passage, but i t turned out to be someone  different.  He  saved the s i t u a t i o n by s a y i n g t h a t  84 he thought i t was  a f r i e n d whom he had l o n g been w a i t i n g f o r , 422  and begged f o r g i v e n e s s . b e s t way  Tsunetomo h i m s e l f saw  t o c o r r e c t t h i s type o f mistake was  to r e p e a t the same e r r o r .  When he was  t h a t the  to remember not  young he began to com-  p i l e a d i a r y ^ c o n t a i n i n g the mistakes t h a t he had made each day. Still,  He soon gave i t up because  there were j u s t too many.  even as an a d u l t he took a few moments w h i l e he  was  l y i n g i n bed every n i g h t to t h i n k over the mistakes o f the 423 day, and no day passed when there were none. One must a l s o be c a r e f u l o f appearances. is  to be avoided except perhaps  Extravagance  f o r f a n s , t i s s u e paper, w r i t -  i n g paper, and bedding, which may be o f s l i g h t l y b e t t e r q u a l 424 . . . . lty. When r e a d i n g a l o u d , be c e r t a i n to read u s i n g the d i a 425 phragm, and the r e s u l t s w i l l be much more e f f e c t i v e . Do 426 not yawn o r sneeze i n p u b l i c .  Such g u i d e l i n e s on s m a l l  matters o f e t i q u e t t e , found throughout Hagakure, show the degree o f a t t e n t i o n which any samurai must g i v e toward proper manners.  In a s t r i c t and c l o s e d f e u d a l s o c i e t y ,  upon obedience and r e s p e c t , adherence p o l i t e n e s s was  dependent  t o accepted norms o f  essential for i t s continuation.  85 Chapter IV  1.  Conclusion  Tsunetomo intended t h a t Hagakure be s e l e c t e d r e t a i n e r s o f Saga han. copied  by hand and  t h i s book was  oriented  not  few  Reproductions were, however,  Hagakure, w h i l e not  sumption, c e r t a i n l y was  read only by a  a book f o r popular con-  completely i n a c c e s s i b l e .  toward han  a f f a i r s and  Because  l o y a l t y to  the  p r o v i n c i a l l o r d , i t c o u l d not be expected t h a t the regime i n Edo  would approve of i t .  T h e r e f o r e , when i n 1781  Nabeshima  Harushige/jfiA $ j? (1745-1805) b u i l t the f i e f school which f e a r of o f f e n d i n g ment prevented Hagakure from being i n c l u d e d curriculum.  427  the Edo  as p a r t of  governthe  In s p i t e of t h i s Hagakure, or at l e a s t the  essence o f the thought s t a t e d t h e r e i n , served as a constant g u i d e l i n e i n the i n s t r u c t i o n o f the young samurai o f Saga. In a number o f p l a c e s  i n the  as i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s , appear to be sages.  t e x t statements, i f s t u d i e d contradictory  to o t h e r pas-  Yet when taken as i n t e r r e l a t e d elements a l l d i r e c t e d  toward the same end,  the  differences  For Tsunetomo, the major aim i n the  samurai o f Saga han  lord.  He  believed  resolve  into a unity.  i n w r i t i n g Hagakure was  an intense  t h a t the e f f o r t put  of devotion to one's l o r d and  instill  l o y a l t y toward t h e i r f o r t h i n the  pursuit  one's duty would act as a  a l y s t f o r other r e v e r e d i d e a l s such as f i l i a l p i e t y , courage, honour and  to  cat-  rectitude,  etiquette.  Apart from the purpose f o r which i t was  written,  namely  to a s s i s t the samurai o f Saga i n a t t a i n i n g a h i g h e r l e v e l  of  86 moral e x i s t e n c e , Hagakure p r o v i d e s an a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t . By c r i t i c i z i n g the a c t i o n s of the samurai o f h i s day and  sug-  g e s t i n g methods o f improving behaviour, Tsunetomo i n d i c a t e s , and perhaps  exaggerates, the moral degeneration o f the times.  C l e a r and emphatic  statements c a l l  P o i n t i n g out the Way  f o r a r e t u r n to the  through a d v i c e , examples, and  Way.  admonitions,  Tsunetomo g i v e s a c e r t a i n degree o f i n s i g h t i n t o the psychol o g i c a l composition of r u r a l samurai century.  i n the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h  Scorn f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l reasoning and l o g i c , as w e l l  as f o r e x c e s s i v e emphasis on a r t i s t i c p u r s u i t s , i s o f t e n v o i c e d . The fundamental  appeal of Hagakure i s to the emotions,  there i s l i t t l e  doubt t h a t Tsunetomo i s attempting t o e l i c i t  an emotional response from h i s r e a d e r s . f l e c t s the i n t u i t i v e elements Buddhism and the Oyomei J ! ^ ® ^ s c h o o l of  and  Such an appeal r e -  expressed i n the Zen s e c t o f (Wang Yang-ming i n C h i n e s e )  4 2 8  Neo-Confucianism.  The concepts d e p i c t e d i n Hagakure t y p ^ i f y the p r i n c i p l e s which the samurai of the Edo p e r i o d h e l d to be those d e s e r v i n g of emulation.  The ending of the f e u d a l age w i t h the r e t u r n  to i m p e r i a l government i n 186 8 d i d not e l i m i n a t e f e u d a l values with one  c l e a n sweep.  V i r t u a l l y a l l of the a c t i v e l e a d e r s  of the R e s t o r a t i o n movement, and o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n upon the i n i t i a t i o n of the new  government, were samurai.  Most be-  longed to the lower s t r a t a o f the samurai c l a s s o f the r u r a l han of Satsuma, Choshu w^JI'j , Tosa  and Hizen  (Saga)  itself.  A c t u a l l y , f o u r o f the primary l e a d e r s of the R e s t o r a t i o n were from Hizen. Shigenobu  These were Eto Shimpei^Xrfk f f f ^ (1834-1874) , Okuma  /\.$=Lf 11 (1838-1922),  Soe jima Taneomi  % 4f £  (1828-  87 1905), and 5 k i the  T a k a t o j C ^ f j j ^ f c (1832-1899) .  Abolishment o f  4 2 9  f o u r - c l a s s system c l e a r e d away the o f f i c i a l s t a t u s o f the  samurai but i t d i d not change the f a c t t h a t the M e i j i had been educated i n the manner o f samurai.  leaders  The i n f l u e n c e o f  Hagakure and s i m i l a r works i s apparent i n the words and deeds of many statesmen o f the p e r i o d , but i s most v i s i b l e i n the Satsuma g e n e r a l Saigo Takamori.  F o l l o w i n g very c l o s e l y the  l i n e o f thought s t a t e d i n Hagakure he s t r e s s e d , " . . . t h a t one must f r e e h i m s e l f from a l l f e a r o f death and be c o n s t a n t l y prepared f o r i t s advent as an i n d i s p e n s a b l e c o n d i t i o n f o r .... selflessness."  4 3 0  Although he uses the word makoto fifa ,  " s i n c e r i t y , " as h i s key term> i t bears many s i m i l a r i t i e s to Tsunetomo's concept o f devout l o y a l t y . garding moral t r a i n i n g , compassion,  In h i s a t t i t u d e r e -  f r u g a l i t y , and e x c e s s i v e  p r i d e , Saigo shared an almost i d e n t i c a l viewpoint w i t h Tsune431 tomo. To the end he remained a f o l l o w e r o f the ethos o f the  r u r a l samurai as p o r t r a y e d i n Hagakure. As c l o s e as Saigo's b e l i e f s were to those expressed i n  Hagakure, of  there i s no p r o o f that he had f i r s t h a n d knowledge  the book.  That i t was  a v a i l a b l e and b e i n g read by o t h e r  n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s , however, i s a f a c t .  Okuma Shigenobu,  l a t e r founded Waseda ^f"4$j V£? U n i v e r s i t y , may illustration.  be taken as an  He s t r o n g l y f e l t t h a t the scope of l o y a l t y as  s t r e s s e d i n Hagakure, b e i n g s o l e l y d i r e c t e d as i t was l o c a l l o r d , was  who  f a r too r e s t r i c t e d .  to the  In h i s view, the w o r l d  extended f a r beyond Tsunetomo's r e g i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s .  Yet,  432 i n s p i t e o f h i s d e p r e c i a t o r y view o f Hagakure, schooled i n i t s t r a d i t i o n .  he had been  The p r o g r e s s i v e nature o f the  88 i n s t i t u t i o n a l changes wrought by the M e i j i l e a d e r s i s w e l l documented, and the tremendous i n f l u e n c e of western i d e a s and technology cannot be doubted.  Yet the advances  o f the M e i j i  p e r i o d were f a s h i o n e d upon a base of t r a d i t i o n a l e t h i c s . gakure , and viding  Ha-  o t h e r such works, p l a y e d a d e f i n i t i v e r o l e i n p r o -  the f o u n d a t i o n of m o r a l i t y upon which reforms c o u l d be  1 * * moulded.  4  3  3  The words bushido and Yamato damashii T\%o-*$ki "the Japanese s p i r i t , "  came i n t o widespread use as Japan  asserted  h e r s e l f m i l i t a r i l y w i t h v i c t o r i e s over China and R u s s i a .  The  two words were commonly employed t o s i g n i f y i d e n t i c a l meanings although, t e c h n i c a l l y damashii was  speaking, they were d i f f e r e n t .  Yamato  a term which had been used a thousand years e a r l i e r 434  to designate a s p i r i t o f l o y a l t y to the emperor and country. Bushido, on the o t h e r hand, only became more o r l e s s s t a n d a r d i z e d d u r i n g the f e u d a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Edo p e r i o d . so e m p h a t i c a l l y shown i n Hagakure, l o y a l t y was regional lord.  In i t , as  directed  Such s u b t l e nuances soon l o s t t h e i r  t o the  significance  as the M e i j i a d m i n i s t r a t i o n attempted t o r e d i r e c t the l o y a l t y . . of bushido away from p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s and toward the emperor. In t h i s they were s u c c e s s f u l f o r by 1907 Haga Y a i c h i was  able to say, "The s p i r i t o f bushido which has been d e v e l -  oped by the w a r r i o r c l a s s over a l o n g time now has come to be 436 d i r e c t e d s o l e l y toward the i m p e r i a l throne." During the i n t e n s i f y i n g m i l i t a r i s m to the P a c i f i c War,  o f the p e r i o d l e a d i n g  the p r e c e p t s of bushido p l a y e d an e v e r -  i n c r e a s i n g p a r t i n encouraging Japanese  soldiers  to maximum  437 efforts.  By t h i s time no doubt remained  as to the o b j e c t  435  89 of l o y a l t y .  One study of Hagakure, t y p i c a l o f the many pub-  l i s h e d d u r i n g the decade up to and i n c l u d i n g the Second World 438 War,  d e c l a r e s t h a t i f Tsunetomo had been born i n the w o r l d  o f t h a t time, the second o f h i s Four Vows would c e r t a i n l y have 439 demanded l o y a l t y to the emperor r a t h e r than to the l o r d . The contents of t h i s book are f u r t h e r d i s t o r t e d by the s t a t e ment t h a t the s p i r i t o f Hagakure d i c t a t e s t h a t a l l  people,  i n c l u d i n g farmers, t e a c h e r s , s t u d e n t s , workers, merchants, officers,  and s o l d i e r s should l i v e w i t h d e t e r m i n a t i o n to serve 440  the emperor.  Thus moral i n s t r u c t i o n s o r i g i n a l l y meant s o l e -  l y f o r the samurai class, were extended to cover a l l  segments  o f s o c i e t y , and l o y a l t y was r e d i r e c t e d to the head o f the n a t i o n , In t h i s converted v e r s i o n , Hagakure formed one o f the b a s i c elements o f the bushidp o f the P a c i f i c War.  Recently,  Hagakure has been c a l l e d , "...the most i n f l u e n t i a l of a l l 441 samurai t r e a t i s e s w r i t t e n . "  Indeed, i t i s u n l i k e l y  there was any Japanese s o l d i e r who  that  d i d n o t know a t l e a s t the  t i t l e o f Hagakure, and i n f a c t most were able to quote some l i n e s which had been l e a r n e d by h e a r t .  Perhaps the s i n g l e most  important aspect of Hagakure's c o n t e n t s , w i t h r e s p e c t to World War I I , can be s i n g l e d out i n the a t t i t u d e toward death.  Mag-  n i f i e d f a r beyond Tsunetomo's i n t e n t i o n , Hagakure became almost 442 synonymous w i t h the w i l l to d i e .  Toward the end o f the war  e s p e c i a l l y , as i t became apparent t h a t there were s e r i o u s def i c i e n c i e s i n the supply o f war m a t e r i a l s , the Japanese bel i e v e d even more deeply t h a t t h e i r u l t i m a t e s t r e n g t h l i e i n 443 t h e i r moral supremacy.  A t the same time, a t t i t u d e s  regard-  i n g the p u r i t y and s i n c e r i t y o f death i n s e r v i c e to the emperor  90 became more e x p l i c i t l y expressed,  both i n word and deed.  kamikaze or shimpu ffi ^ s q u a d r o n s o u s l y face death.  One  young man,  4 4 4  were taught how  to courage-  the p i l o t of a s u i c i d e  quotes, i n a f a r e w e l l l e t t e r , the words of one tors.  The  "Never s h i r k f a c i n g death.  torpedo,  of h i s i n s t r u c -  I f i n doubt whether to  live  445 or d i e , i t i s always b e t t e r to d i e . . . . " taken almost verbatim  These words are  from Hagakure, and  serve as an  indica-  tion of i t s influence. A f t e r Japan's c r u s h i n g d e f e a t , a l l m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g n a t u r a l l y banned.  Even s p o r t s such as judo and kendo were  p r o h i b i t e d because they had a r t s and  had  Due  i t no  longer  a p l a c e i n the i n d i v i d u a l i s m and p e r s o n a l independence of system/which c h a r a c t e r i z e d postwar Japan.  the p e r v a s i v e p a t t e r n of i n t e n s e w e s t e r n i z a t i o n which Japan  experienced has,  Hagakure, too, s u f f e r e d 446  to i t s f e u d a l i s t i c i d e o l o g y  the western value But  developed from t r a d i t i o n a l m a r t i a l  stressed a r i g i d d i s c i p l i n e .  a setback.  was  d u r i n g the two  decades f o l l o w i n g the P a c i f i c  i n r e c e n t y e a r s , cqme to be counterbalanced  War  somewhat by  the development o f a growing r e s p e c t f o r the t r a d i t i o n s of Japan's own  history.  i n c r e a s e d enrollment  I n d i c a t i o n s o f t h i s are apparent i n the i n n a t i o n a l h i s t o r y courses  v e r s i t i e s and i n the p o p u l a r i t y of new a r c h a e o l o g i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l , and  at the u n i -  books d e a l i n g w i t h  the  c u l t u r a l aspects o f Japan.  Thus, w h i l e the i m p o r t a t i o n o f d i v e r s e c u l t u r a l and t e c h n i c a l elements from o u t s i d e c o u n t r i e s continues tablishment  o f an as y e t s u b t l y manifested  coming more and more v i s i b l e .  unabated, the chauvinism  es-  i s be-  Though o n l y c l e a r l y p e r c e p t i -  b l e i n a s m a l l segment of the p o p u l a t i o n , s i g n s r e v e a l t h a t  91 the number o f i n d i v i d u a l s assuming a r e a c t i o n a r y viewpoint i s expanding.  One  o f the e a r l i e s t and perhaps most e a s i l y  seen  d e l i n e a t o r s o f t h i s t r e n d i s the appearance and p u b l i c ance of a number o f authors whose works r e s u l t e i t h e r  acceptdirectly  from a study o f the h i s t o r y and customs of Japan or i n d i r e c t l y from the b a s i c precepts and themes i n h e r e n t i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Japan. o f the r e s u l t ranges  traditional  The depth o f r e s e a r c h and the q u a l i t y  from s u p e r f i c i a l i t y to exhaustive  accuracy.  Mishima Yukio p r o v i d e s one obvious example o f a modern n o v e l i s t who  b e l i e v e d i n and expressed  the o p i n i o n t h a t r e -  v e r s i o n to t r a d i t i o n a l values w i t h a minimum concession to the requirements  of the age c o n s t i t u t e s the o n l y v a l i d cure f o r  the d e s p i c a b l e c o n d i t i o n i n t o which he thought Japan had generated.  His book Hagakure nyumon i s e s p e c i a l l y  o f t h i s l i n e of thought.  de-  illustrative  The p o p u l a r i t y of i t s r e c e n t p u b l i c a -  t i o n serves to show the degree to which such a work can  find  447 a c c e p t a b i l i t y i n p r e s e n t day Japan.  In many o f Mishima's  448 o t h e r works,  a l s o , the reader can sense the same s o r t of  s p i r i t t h a t moved Tsunetomo to w r i t e Hagakure. attempted  Both  i n t h e i r works to d e f l e c t the s o c i e t y away from a  course of s e l f d e s t r u c t i o n and moral degeneration. men  men  The  tw.o  a l s o shared a r e s p e c t f o r the i d e a l s of the p a s t and  f o r a study o f h i s t o r y .  Mishima r e c o g n i z e s the g r e a t 449  of Hagakure i n the P a c i f i c War, mises on one main p o i n t .  called  importance  but d i f f e r s with i t s p r e -  As i l l u s t r a t e d i n " E r e i no koe,"  he  b e l i e v e s t h a t a l l devotion must be to the emperor as a d e i t y and as a n a t i o n a l l e a d e r .  In a s h o r t a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d  to watashi," Mishima s t a t e s t h a t s i n c e the war  "Hagakure  he kept Hagakure  92 near at hand, and each time he r e f e r r e d to i t he was  emotionally  450 moved i n a way  no other book c o u l d move him.  d e c l a r e s t h a t Hagakure was life,  i t was  indeed  He  furthermore  not only a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on h i s  the womb of h i s l i t e r a t u r e and the  source  451 of h i s energy.  Thus, through the. words o f Mishima and  other  modern w r i t e r s , Hagakure has once more been r e v i v e d . In Japanese there are a number o f e x c e l l e n t books a v a i l able on the s u b j e c t o f bushido i n g e n e r a l and Hagakure i n particular. English.  Yet almost no e x t e n s i v e work has been done i n  There have been only two  e f f o r t s to t r a n s l a t e Hagakure,  and both of these have l i m i t e d themselves to s e l e c t e d passages only.  Beyond the b a r e s t e s s e n t i a l s n e i t h e r work provides i n -  formation  regarding  the h i s t o r i c a l background of the p e r i o d ,  the p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f the-men i n v o l v e d i n i t s composition, t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n , o r an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t s c o n t e n t s . Suzuki, cognized  texDaisetz  Robert B e l l a h , and more r e c e n t l y , Ivan M o r r i s have r e and quoted Hagakure, but u n f o r t u n a t e l y have c o n f i n e d  t h e i r e x t r a c t s to Hagakure's views on death.  Surely a t e x t o f  Hagakure's importance has merited more e x t e n s i v e  research.  93 FOOTNOTES  1 The  bakufu was  the h e a d q u ^ e r s o f the m i l i t a r y  ment under the sho gun-,  "commander i n c h i e f . "  govern-  The word o r i g i -  n a l l y designated the commander's t e n t , from which orders anted d u r i n g  f i e l d operations.  K o j i e n j^&f'TtL, ed.  I z u r u l ^ - r t ^ (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten %  em-  Shinmura  , 1969), pp.  1776-77.  2 Although they had e a r l i e r o r i g i n s , d u r i n g the Tokugawa period  (1600-186 8), daimyo, " r e g i o n a l l o r d s , " were d i r e c t r e -  t a i n e r s o f the shogun who more than 10,000 koku ^ K o j i e n , p.  c o n t r o l l e d t e r r i t o r y which produced  of r i c e .  (1 koku = 4.96  bushels).  1831.  3 The  general  t r a t i o n , and  term a p p l i e d to the t e r r i t o r y , the  adminis-  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c i a l s under the c o n t r o l of  a daimyo d u r i n g the Tokugawa p e r i o d .  K o j i e n , p.  1831.  4 The  f e u d a l p o l i t i c a l system of the Tokugawa i n which  the c e n t r a l bakufu e x i s t e d as the supreme a u t h o r i t y and  de-  l e g a t e d daimyo to c o l l e c t taxes from the peasants i n r e t u r n f o r m i l i t a r y obedience.  K o j i e n , p.  1776.  5 The  f o u r major d i v i s i o n s o f s o c i e t y under the Tokugawa  regime were samurai^^f- ( s h i -jT ) , peasants (ko_;£ ) , and merchants  (sho  (no.Jt,) , a r t i s a n s  ) .  6 G.B. The  Sansom, Japan: A Short C u l t u r a l H i s t o r y  Cresset Press,  1931), pp.  511-12.  (London:  94 7 Although the term bushi may samurai, the connotation mained while  of w a r r i o r or m i l i t a r y personnel  the meaning o f samurai became broader as  samurai expanded i n t o the f i e l d p.  of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  re-  the  See  Kojien,  1935. The  ^  a t times be synonymous with  characters  of Hagakure mean "hidden"  o r , "hidden i n the l e a v e s . "  The  t i t l e was  and  "leaves"  most l i k e l y  de-  s i g n a t e d i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f the f o r e s t e d area of Yamamoto Tsunetomo' s p l a c e of r e t i r e m e n t , where the book was  written.  It  may  a l s o i n d i c a t e , as Suzuki suggests, t h a t i t was  a virtue  for  a samurai to be reserved  Suzuki  D a i s e t z , Zen Inc.,  i n h i s demeanor.  and Japanese C u l t u r e  1959), p. 70.  (New  York: Pantheon Books  Yet again, Iwado s t a t e s t h a t the  came from a poem by the monk Saigyo *5> i'f Iwado Tamotsu 3 (1939), p.  See  title  (1118-1190).  See  "Hagakure Bushido," C u l t u r a l Nippon, V I I , 34.  9 An e d i t i o n i n the modern Japanese language has i n c l u d e d i n a s e r i e s o f the  fifty  g r e a t books o f Japan.  moto T a t s u y a ^ / M * J&>&, Hagakure ^ $2,  fo%  , V o l . 17  v i n c e , was  1967).  a l s o known as H i z e n ^ ^ j  l o c a t e d i n the northwest p a r t of Kyushu.  l a t e stages 3 o f the Sengoku the Ryuzoji " C i ^ r f - c l a n .  p e r i o d the area was  governed by  Nabeshima N a o s h i g e ^ f j %  upon h i s l o r d ' s death.  pro-  During the  served under Ryuzoji T a k a n o b u ( 1 5 2 9 - 1 5 8 4 ) , c o n t r o l of the han  Nara-  Nihon no meicho B % *)  (Tokyo: Chuo Koronsha*f 7 v £ $ ^ t ,  The Nabeshima or Saga han,  been  (1538-1618) and  The han was  assumed  formally  95 p l a c e d i n h i s charge by Tokugawa Ieyasu^») J^^^(1543-1616) i n l  1601 w i t h a r i c e p r o d u c t i o n value of 357,000 koku. moto, Hagakure, p.  See  Nara-  447.  11 The modern p r e f e c t u r e i n Kyushu occupying the same general r e g i o n as the f e u d a l Nabeshima han. One example d e a l s w i t h the  Benzaigatake-^"border  d i s p u t e between Hizen and C h i k u z e n ^ ^ ^ j i n 16 92. Arano ( K o y a ) ^ ^ %^j> Shobo J ^ k f " " ^  , Kochu hagakure  , 1940), p. 81  ffifjjffffi^Tokyo:  (# 99) and p. 571  a l s o Naramoto, Hagakure, p. 452.  See K u r i h a r a  Throughout  Naigai  (# 685).  See  t h i s paper, when-  ever d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e i s b e i n g made to the t e x t of Hagakure, the source used w i l l be K u r i h a r a ' s Kochu hagakure.  In t h i s  thorough commentary on Hagakure, K u r i h a r a has numbered the passages are  c o n s e c u t i v e l y from 1 to 1353.  These same numbers  o f t e n employed by l a t e r s c h o l a r s when r e f e r r i n g to the  corresponding passages  although i n some books no numbers are  used a t a l l , and i n others the passages ly d i f f e r e n t order.  are arranged i n s l i g h t -  T h e r e f o r e , a l l t e x t u a l notes i n t h i s  paper w i l l c i t e the page number f o l l o w e d by the designated passage  number i n p a r e n t h e s i s f o r the sake o f convenience i n  l o c a t i n g the passage  i n question.  Commentaries o t h e r than  K u r i h a r a ' s work w i l l be used as sources o f secondary m a t e r i a l only. 13 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure,  pp. 73-74 (# 86), f o r i n s t a n c e ,  d e s c r i b e s the proper methods f o r t r a i n i n g a c h i l d and so p r o v i d e s a glimpse i n t o household a c t i v i t y .  The problems o f d e a l -  ing with pp.  a d i f f i c u l t f a t h e r - i n - l a w are a l s o recorded.  Ibid.,  57-58 (# 59). 14 I b i d . , p. 75 (#88). 15 I b i d . , pp. 62-63 (#63). 16 I b i d . , p. 66 (#66). 17 I b i d . , p. 82 (# 100).  Seppuku o r hara k i r i ,  through s e l f disembowlment, w i l l be d e a l t w i t h more l a t e r i n t h i s paper.  suicide thoroughly  See K o j i e n , p. 1251.  18 For example, the d u t i e s o f a metsuke jflffi / " i n s p e c t o r , are c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d . (# 110).  K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, pp. 85-86  See a l s o i b i d . , pp. 70-71 (#78) and pp. 62-63 (# 63)  f o r o t h e r examples o f the d u t i e s o f o f f i c i a l s . 19 Bushido, "the way o f the w a r r i o r , " r e f e r s t o a code of e t h i c s which developed w i t h i n the bushi to evolve  class.  I t began  d u r i n g the middle ages and was f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d  by the Edo p e r i o d .  Confucianism p l a y e d  a strong r o l e i n i n -  fluencing i t s ideals of loyalty, s e l f s a c r i f i c e ,  fidelity,  i n t e g r i t y , courtesy, modesty, f r u g a l i t y , honour, and l o v e . Yamaga Soko  (1622-1685) was one of the f i r s t  to expound on bushido a t l e n g t h . Soko bunshu jL.Jt-jff'^T> (Tokyo: Yuhodo Bunko /*j  e  d  <  See "Shido  i n wide use even i n the e i g h t e e n t h  f^Zsfa ^» =-  1930), pp. 45-207.  says t h a t the term bushido i s comparatively  A Short  i n Yamaga  Tsukamoto Tetsuzo  fifj %.jjf-,  century.  scholars  Sansom  r e c e n t and was n o t See Sansom, Japan  C u l t u r a l H i s t o r y , p. 487. Most modern h i s t o r i a n s , how  97 ever, make no mention o f t h i s p o i n t a t a l l . use o f the term i n Hagakure  The p r e v a l e n t  i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t was, i n f a c t ,  i n e x i s t e n c e and use i n the e a r l y p a r t of the e i g h t e e n t h century. As y e t the b e s t work on the s u b j e c t o f bushido i n E n g l i s h i s Nitobe Inazo rpt.  ^iiLf' Bushido : The Soul o f Japan (1905;  Tokyo: K e n k y u s h a ^  i n Japanese, see Morikawa  , 1935).  F o r two e x c e l l e n t works  Tetsuro $%) \  5. , Nihon bushido s h i  x  (Tokyo: Nihon Bungei sha EJ F u j i Naomoto  M^t^flf  Jtj&Jftj 1972), and  $J$f , Buke j i d a i no shakai s e i s h i n ^  (Tokyo: Sogensha^'l&jft- '  1 9 6 7  ^  ) / PP- 3-316.  20 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, pp. 65-66 (# 65). 21 A c c o r d i n g t o the author o f Hagakure, a l l o t h e r regions of the  Japan were a t that time i n f e r i o r t o the Nabeshima han i n s e r v i c e and a t t i t u d e o f i t s r e t a i n e r s .  I b i d . , pp. 75-76  (# 89) and p. 86 (# 111). 22 I b i d . , p. 88 (# 114). 23  See a l s o Suzuki, p. 70.  K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, pp. 83-84  (#105).  24 I b i d . , pp. 4-5 (# 1 ) .  The wish to be reborn seven  times i n order t o serve the f i e f i s very r e m i n i s c e n t o f a statement g e n e r a l l y a t t r i b u t e d to Kusunoki Masashige  jEjfy  (1294-1336), b u t a c t u a l l y made by h i s b r o t h e r , Kusunoki Masasue ^ ^ £ ? f r (died 1336) i n 1336.  Ivan M o r r i s , The N o b i l i t y o f  F a i l u r e : T r a g i c Heroes i n the H i s t o r y o f Japan Reinehart and Winston, 1975) , p. 133. can  be found i n the T a i h e i k i  (New York: H o l t  The o r i g i n a l statement  Nihon koten bungaku t a i -  98 kei  %  saburo  '  e d  «  G o t  Tanji^j^fblWd  °  Kamada K i -  (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1960), I I , 159.  The phrase s h i c h i s h o hokoku -t^^_^$J%^, "to serve the Emperor f o r seven l i v e s , " See M o r r i s , p.  l a t e r became a famous p a t r i o t i c  slogan.  386.  25 Samuel B. G r i f f i t h , t r a n s . , Sun Tzu: The A r t o f War (Oxford: Claredon P r e s s , 1963). 26 N i c c o l o M i c h i a v e l l i , The A r t o f War, Farneworth  trans.  Ellis  (New York: Bobbs M e r r i l l Company, 1965).  27 K a r l von C l a u s e w i t z , On War,  t r a n s . J . J . Graham  (London:  Routledge and K. P a u l , 1968). 28 Wm.  Theodore de Bary, W i n g - t s i t Chan, and Burton Watson,  Sources o f Chinese T r a d i t i o n , ed. Wm.  Theodore de Bary  (New  York and London: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970), I , 16-17. 29 I b i d . , I , 455-57. 30 Sansom, Japan,: A Short C u l t u r a l H i s t o r y , pp. 49 3-96. 31 Ryusaku Tsunoda, Wm.  Theodore de Bary, and Donald  Keene, Sources o f Japanese T r a d i t i o n , ed. Wm. Bary  Theodore de  (New York and London: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969),  I, 342-43. 32 The Chinese p r i n c i p l e s o f the cosmic f o r c e s , y i n and yang, are apparent even i n the e a r l i e s t Japanese r e c o r d s . Tsunoda, Sources o f Japanese T r a d i t i o n , I , 56-59. faces o f both the K O j i k i Jb^tZj  The p r e -  (712) and the Nihon s h o k i  99 (or Nihongi Q^£to / 720) i n t r o d u c e these p r i n c i p l e s . See B a s i l H a l l Chamberlain, K o j i k i o r Records o f A n c i e n t Matters  (Kobe: J.L. Thompson and Co., 1932), p. 37; Donald L.  Phillippi, Kojiki p. 37; and W.G.  (Tokyo: U n i v e r s i t y o f Tokyo P r e s s , 1968),  Aston, Nihongi.: C h r o n i c l e s o f Japan From The  E a r l i e s t Times To A.D.  69 7 (London: George A l l e n and Unwin  L t d . , 1956), p. 1. 33 De Bary, Sources o f Chinese T r a d i t i o n , I , 26 8. 34 Tsunoda, Sources o f Japanese T r a d i t i o n , I . 135. 35  I b i d . , I , 226.  36 This aspect .is a t t e s t e d to even by the o r i g i n myths i n which the gods have a d e f i n i t e order o f h i e r a r c h y .  Ibid.,  I , 14-15. 37 For example, k n e e l i n g with both hands on the ground was  a s i g n of r e s p e c t to a s u p e r i o r even i n the t h i r d  century.  Reported i n an o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y o f Han China i n 297 A.D.  Ibid.,  I, 5. 38 For accounts o f t h i s r i s e to power see George Sansom, A H i s t o r y Of Japan  (19 58; r p t . Tokyo: Charles E. T u t t l e Company,  1974), I, 234-38 and 312-18; John Whitney H a l l , Japan; From P r e h i s t o r y to Modern Times  (Tokyo: Charles E. T u t t l e Company,  1971), pp. 78-79; and H. Paul V a r l e y , Samurai P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1970), pp. 47-68. see Takeuchi B±zo^jP\ no r e k i s h i $ ^  $L  #Cc:,  (New York: D e l l  For a more complete account  Bushi no to jo  "fy^/i- 0 ^ ,  , V o l . 6 (Tokyo: Chuo Koronsha, 1965).  Nihon  100 39  H. P a u l V a r l e y , The Ohin War  University  (New York: Columbia  P r e s s , 1967).  40 F o l l o w i n g the p a t t e r n o f expansion s e t by h i s predec e s s o r s , Oda N o b u n a g a M ^ ® {T^L (1534-15 83) yoshi the  and Toyotomi Hide-  O (1536-1598), Ieyasu extended h i s i n f l u e n c e over  g r e a t e r p a r t o f Japan w i t h a v i c t o r y i n the b a t t l e o f  Sekigahara^fj4YV|t  xn  1600.  The events l e a d i n g to t h i s  decisive  b a t t l e are covered i n d e t a i l i n Hayashiya Tatsusaburo Tenka i t t 6  ~f\^ ^"&1L> >  Nihon no r e k i s h i , V o l . 12 (Tokyo: Chuo  Koronsha, 1966) . In the Genna  Embu&J$o {l^jft^, the summer and w i n t e r  campaigns a g a i n s t Osaka C a s t l e , a c o a l i t i o n o f s u p p o r t e r s o f Hideyoshi's h e i r , H i d e y o r i ^ * H i d e y o r i was k i l l e d .  , was d e c i s i v e l y beaten and  T s u j i T a t s u y a i j ^ ^ t " ^ , Edo k a i f u ; x J~f^^  Nihon no r e k i s h i , V o l . 13 (Tokyo: Chuo Koronsha, 1973), pp. 311-12. 42 T s u j i , Edo k a i f u , pp. 392-418. 43 44 45 46 47 48  Tsunoda, Sources o f Japanese T r a d i t i o n , I , 385-86. K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 41 (# "37) . I b i d . , pp. 64-65  (# 64).  I b i d . , p. 17 (# 2) I b i d . , p. 24 (# 11). I b i d . , p. 40 (# 36).  ,  101 49  "Seidan," i n Ogyu S o r a i mjL^iJUfc  ^ %&?v^XJfw pp. 444-45.  e d  «  Nihon no s h i s o  taikei  T s u j i Tatsuya (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1973),  This passage i s t r a n s l a t e d i n Tsunoda, Sources o f  Japanese T r a d i t i o n , I , 420-21. 50 "Sundai zatsuwa" i n Me Ik a z u i h i t s u shu ^ %  rS' % , ed.  Tsukamoto Tetsuzo (Tokyo: Yuhodo Bunko, 1930), I , 109-26. For as E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n see George Wm.  Knox, "A Japanese  P h i l o s o p h e r , " T r a n s a c t i o n s o f the A s i a t i c S o c i e t y o f Japan, XX  (1893), 1-133.  Pages  81-91  the extravagance o f s o c i e t y .  d e a l w i t h Muro s views r e g a r d i n g 1  For a r e p r i n t o f p a r t o f t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n see Tsunoda, Sources o f Japanese T r a d i t i o n , I , 431-33. 51  o >  , ,  "Yamatozokukun" i n Ekken jukun ^jr Iffi *f p'L ed. Tsukamoto Tetsuzo  (Tokyo: Yuhodo Bunko, 19 30) , or i n Ekken  ed. Ekken K a i  (Tokyo: Ekken Zenshu Kanko  1881), I I I , 44-164.  For an e d i t i o n i n modern Japanese, see  Matsuda Michio./J2v &j^jfyr 14  z e n s h u 4 f f | / ^ ^ ,  K a i b a r a Ekken, Nihon no meicho, V o l .  (Tokyo: Chuo Koronsha, 1969).  F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f Ekken's  works i n r e l a t i o n to bushi e t h i c s see Sakurai S h o t a r o - ^ ^ i  Meiyo to c h i joku  S f s ^ ^ M J l  '  1 9 7 1 )  '  Jf-fsf,^ ,  (Tokyo: Hosei Daigaku Shuppan Kyoku  '  PP  -'  104 30  52 Tsunoda, Sources of Japanese T r a d i t i o n , I , 377. the K y o h o | ! ^ 1751)  During  e r a (1716-1736), Tokugawa Yoshimune $j^>)J  (1684-  i n s t i t u t e d reforms, known as the Kyoho Reforms, i n an  attempt to overcome the f i n a n c i a l and s o c i a l problems o f the country.  These were o n l y p a r t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l .  See Sansom,  102 A H i s t o r y o f Japan, I I I / 15.5-66. 53 A d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s and t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s document i s C a r l S t e e n s t r u p , "The Imagawa L e t t e r , " Monumenta N i p p o n i c a , XXVIII, 3 (1973), 295-316.  See examples o f t h i s and o t h e r  such documents i n Yoshida Y u t a k a ^ l S ^ / Buke no kakun "if\ ^ (Tokyo: Tokuma S h o t e n f ^ ^ ^ / l - , 1972). 54, Ishikawa Ken,  "On Kaibara's Thought  and Reasoning as  Expressed i n His Yamatozokukun," C u l t u r a l Nippon, V I I , 1 (1939) , 24. 55 Steenstrup, p.  296.  E n t i t l e d Giko m e i r e i  £\  .  See E r n e s t W.  Clement,  " I n s t r u c t i o n s of a Mito P r i n c e t o His R e t a i n e r s , " T r a n s a c t i o n s o f the A s i a t i c S o c i e t y of Japan, XXVI (1898) , 115-53. 57 D a i d o j i Yuzan, Budo shoshin shu i n Yamaga Soko shu D a i d o j i Yuzan shu, Dai Nihon s h i s o zenshu j\ Uemura K a t s u y a j l ^ r ^ $ ^ (Tokyo: Senshinsha 2 31-334.  1932) , pp.  For a modern commentary on t h i s book see D a i d o j i  Yuzan, Budo shoshin shu, ed. Yoshida Yutaka Shoten,  6 j& J l ^ T ^ ^ J j ^ / ed.  (Tokyo: Tokuma  1971).  58 A comparison o f the a t t i t u d e toward death i n these two books i s summarized i n Suzuki, pp. 71-72. 59 The death or d i s i n h e r i t a n c e o f a l o r d , punishment,  or  p e r s o n a l c h o i c e c o u l d l e a v e a samurai i n a p o s i t i o n i n which he owed a l l e g i a n c e to no p a r t i c u l a r l o r d .  In such a case he  103 was  a r o n i n o r masterless samurai.  See K o j i e n , p-. 2355.  The  account o f the vendetta o f the f o r t y seven r o n i n o f Ako i s w e l l known, and may See, f o r example,  be found i n a number of E n g l i s h  versions.  Shioya Sakae, Chushingura: An E x p o s i t i o n  (Tokyo: The Hokuseido P r e s s , 1949).  For a more r e c e n t  trans-  l a t i o n see Donald Keene, t r a n s . , Chushingura;. Treasury of L o y a l Retainers  (New York and London: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  1971). "Goban t a i h e i k i , " i n Chikamatsu j o r u r l shu jjfjfex  ffi^jj^  ed. Tsukamoto Tetsuzo (Tokyo: Yuhodo Bunko, 1930), I I , 85-109. 61 A form of drama performed by puppets and by b a l l a d music.  K o j i e n , p. 1982.  The Puppet T h r e a t r e o f Japan  accompanied  See Donald Keene, Bunraku,  (Tokyo and Palo A l t o :  Kodansha  I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1965),. 62 A dramatic performance which became p o p u l a r w i t h the common people a t the end o f the seventeenth century. p l a y u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d h i s t o r i c a l events o r s o c i a l which happened before or d u r i n g the Edo p e r i o d .  The  situations Stage sets  are used, and performances are always accompanied by Japanese music. 445.  There i s a l s o an element o f dancing.  See K o j i e n , p.  See a l s o T o i t a Y a s u j i , Kabuki: The Popular T h e a t e r ,  t r a n s . , Don Kenny  (New York and Tokyo: W a l k e r / W e a t h e r h i l l ,  1970), and Zoe K i n c a i d , Kabuki: The Popular Stage o f Japan (New York: Benjamin Blom, 1965). 63 Donald Keene, t r a n s . , Major P l a y s o f Chikamatsu  (New  York and London: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961), pp. 33-35.  %  104  See a l s o Sansom, J a p a n  :  A Short C u l t u r a l H i s t o r y , pp. 476-80,  and Tsunoda, Sources o f Japanese T r a d i t i o n , I , 436.  For a  d i s c u s s i o n on h i s c o n f l i c t between g i r i - and n i h j o see Minamoto Ryoen £ ^ f  , G i r l to nih j o ^ ^ ) t A'i^" v  (Tokyo: Chuo Koronsha,  1969), pp. 98-153. 64 H. Paul V a r l e y , Japanese C u l t u r e : A Short H i s t o r y (New York and Washington: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1973), pp. 123-26. 65 Ihara Saikaku, "Buke g i r i monogatari,  >&5tfc/fe4\ ' ed. Ohashi Taro J\ffi,  1894), pp. 361-454.  c u s s i o n o f the- g i r i to  Hagakure  Tv^jS  11  i n Saikaku zenshu  (Tokyo: Teikoku Bunko np7)£)  See Minamoto, pp. 70-97 f o r a d i s -  i n t h i s s t o r y , and f o r a s h o r t comparison  see Iwado, p. 91.  66 I h a r a Saikaku, "Budo d e n r a i k i , " i n Saikaku zenshu, ed. Ohashi Taro (Tokyo: Teikoku Bunko, 1894), pp. 729-910.  For a  d i s c u s s i o n o f b u s h i p r o p r i e t y i n S a i k a k u s works see S a k u r a i , 1  Meiyo t o c h i j o k u , pp. 333-36. 67 An emphasis on h i s t o r y i s a mark o f orthodox Neo-Confucianism. is  Tsunoda, Sources o f Japanese H i s t o r y , I , 384. I t  a l s o a common element i n o t h e r Chinese p h i l o s o p h i e s .  See  Hajime Nakamura, Ways o f T h i n k i n g o f E a s t e r n P e o p l e s : I n d i a , China, T i b e t , Japan, ed. P h i l i p P. Wiener  (Honolulu: E a s t West  Center P r e s s , 1964), pp. 204-16. 68 For see Ku I b i d .examples , p. 2 (# 1) .r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 1 (# 1 ) , p. 39 (# 35), p. 51 (# 52), and pp. 65-66 (# 65). 69  105 70 Thomas C. Smith, The A g r a r i a n O r i g i n s o f Modern Japan ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959), p. 204 and Sansom, Japan  A S h o r t C u l t u r a l H i s t o r y , p. 505.  ;  71 L i t e r a l l y the " f l o a t i n g world," t h i s s t y l e o f a r t dep i c t e d the mundane o r genre aspects o f l i f e . medium f o r e x p r e s s i o n was  the woodblock  The b e s t known  print.  See K o j i e n ,  p. 178; Frank A. Turk, The P r i n t s o f Japan (Worcester and Arco P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1966); and Takahashi S e i i c h i r o ,  London  Traditional  Woodblock P r i n t s o f Japan, t r a n s . Richard Stanley-Baker (New York and Tokyo: W e a t h e r h i l l / H e i b o n s h a , 1972). 72 Sankin k o t a i was  the bakufu r e g u l a t i o n which  required  t h a t each daimyo spend p a r t o f each y e a r s e r v i n g the shogun i n Edo.  I t was e n f o r c e d by the r e t e n t i o n o f hostages i n Edo.  K o j i e n , p. 916.  See Toshio George T s u k a h i r a , "The Sankin K o t a i  System o f Tokugawa Japan, 1600-1868," D i s s . Harvard 1951, o r Toshio G. T s u k a h i r a , Feudal C o n t r o l i n Tokugawa Japan, The Sankin K o t a i System  (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966).  73 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 50  (# 50).  74 I b i d . , p. 125  (#' 198) .  75 I b i d . , p. 3 (# 1) 76 Leon M. Zolbrod, Takizawa Bakin (New York: Twayne Publ i s h e r s , 1967), p. 120. 77 J u n s h i , a l s o known as o i b a r a jjj_ff%or t s u i f uku ^ was  flffi^  the custom o f f o l l o w i n g one's l o r d i n death by committing  106 suicide.  Kojien-, p. 10 75.  As i t was w a s t e f u l o f t r a i n e d  men  and d i s t r u p t i v e t o the c o n t i n u i t y o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i t was f o r b i d d e n by an e d i c t o f the bakufu i n 166 3.  I t had been p r o -  h i b i t e d even e a r l i e r i n Saga han by Nabeshima M i t s u s h i g e ^iffj J*-j (1632-1700) i n 1661.  See Sagara Toru  gunk an : g o r l n s h o : hagakure (Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo  ^f^/^'jffgL'  shu  ^H.J^'^M '  1 9 6 9  )  jflj ^  , KOyo  > P«  2 8 6  «  F  ^fj^-jj^  •  3 L $ ^ £ o  more de-  r  t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on j u n s h i , see Furukawa T e s s h i "^T^j  ^ SJ^_ >  J u n s h i : H i g e k i no i s e k i Oraisha no  J\fty ^JL  de-flto  Q^  ^?t£  /  *)  J  (T° Y° k  :  yL^ ,  Jimbutsu  , 1967) ; Furukawa T e s s h i , Nihon r i n r i s h i s o  I^vf ^  {% iftj (Tokyo: sSgensha, 1965), pp.  86-154; and Furukawa T e s s h i , " J u n s h i , " i n Edo j i d a i b u s h i no seikatsu  j*  ^  S, f) jii^  (Tokyo: Yuzankaku Shuppan jfe. shi in  i s a l s o the theme of Mori Mori Ogai zenshu  , ed. S h i n j i Yoshimoto ^ j f T ]^^  1 9 6 6  )  ' PP«  249-58.  i  Jun-  OgaiJ^i^^^f) Abe i c h i z o k u p£j^"p^^j^  ^ $$j4\-Jt^ , V o l . 3 (Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo,  1959), pp. 111-34. 78 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 87  (# 113).  79 Tsunetomo uses the term kokugaku to i n d i c a t e a study of  the h i s t o r y o f Saga han.  f o r e , f o r the kokugaku alistic  I t i s not to be mistaken, t h e r e -  fej^which  was  d e s c r i b e d by such n a t i o n -  t h i n k e r s as Motoori Norinaga 4v^1»C'^--( 730-1801) . 1  y  l a t t e r c e n t e r e d around the study o f e a r l y Japanese  literature  and developed i n t o a consciousness o f n a t i o n a l p o l i t y . Tsunoda, Sources of Japanese T r a d i t i o n , I I , 1-35; A n e s a k i , H i s t o r y o f Japanese R e l i g i o n Charles E. T u t t l e , 196 3),  The  See  Masaharu  (Rutland, Vt. and  p. 30 8; and Motoori Norinaga  Tokyo: zenshu  107 •^/^T^-Sj^^ed.  and Okubo Tadashi X A  Ono S u s u m u A ^ ^  "ff;  (Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo, 1968). Kusunoki Masashige.  A powerful g e n e r a l from Kawachi^J ll/sj  who  l o y a l y supported Emperor Godaigo j j ^ ^ j | _ ^ ^ ( r .  the  Kemmu^L^^Restoration o f 1334.  He d i e d i n the defense o f the  Court a g a i n s t Ashikaga T a k a u j i Jl_% }(1305-1358)  .  {  pp.  See M o r r i s ,  106-42. . >.  8 1  Takeda Shingen ^ Kai his  1318-1336) i n  T# % \  (1521-1573).  p r o v i n c e i n 1541 and through m i l i t a r y territory.  Became l o r d o f a b i l i t y expanded  Considered one of the g r e a t generals o f Japanese  h i s t o r y , he d i e d w h i l e b e s i e g i n g the f o r c e s o f Oda Nobunaga. 82 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 2 (# 1 ) . 83 May a l s o be pronounced Yamamoto Jinuemon Jocho. 84 Saga ken s h i ^ ^ 4 $ ^ ' >fc|[i^^/||^^|-^(Saga:  e d  «  S a  g a Ken S h i Hensan  Iinkai  Saga ken, 1968), I I , 185.  85 Examples o f such s t o r i e s may be found i n K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 72 (# 84), pp. 80-81 and  (# 98), p. 106  (# 163),  pp. 119-20 (# 189). 86 T h i s b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n was  shi,  taken from Saga ken  I I , 185; Naramoto, Hagakure, pp. 19-2 5;  K u r i h a r a , Kochu  hagakure, pp. 3 0-33; and K u r i h a r a Arano (Koya), Hagakure no s h i n z u i l|[ 87  *) %f ^  (Saga: Hagakure S e i s h i n Fukyu K a i |j^^)\J5  , pp. hagakure, 66-72 K^u r i,h a1935) r a , Kochu p. 93 (# 12 9).  ,  108 88 89  Naramoto, Hagakure, p. 20. _.. _ K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 93  (# 129).  90 I b i d . , p. 95 (# 132) . 91 I b i d . , p. 541  (#.742).  92 I b i d . , pp. 59-60 (# 61) . 93 I b i d . , p. 101  (# 146) .  94 I b i d . , pp. 28-29 (# 17).  The duty o f a kaishaku was  to a s s i s t i n the r i t u a l o f seppuku by beheading the samurai committing s u i c i d e .  I t demanded complete composure as w e l l  as e x c e l l e n t swordsmanship. 95 The manner i n which he handled h i m s e l f i n the i n v e s t i gation of a certain f i r e ,  f o r example.  I b i d . , p. 35 (# 29).  96 Naramoto, Hagakure, p. 20. 97 98  Saga ken s h i , I I , 187, and Naramoto, Hagakure, p. 21. I b i d . , p. 21.  99 I b i d . , p. 22 . 100 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 85 (#M08)'and (# 195). 101 102  I b i d . , p. 85 I b i d . , p. 123  (# 108) . (# 195).  p. 123  109 103  Saga ken shi-, I I , 187. ;  104 Tannen Osho was the e l e v e n t h head p r i e s t o f the Nabeshima f a m i l y temple, K o d e n j i .  See a more complete biography  of Tannen i n K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, pp. 36-37; K u r i h a r a , Hagakure no s h i n z u i ,  pp. 73-74; Saga ken s h i , I I , 187; and  Naramoto, Hagakure, p. 450. 105 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 107 (# 166). 106 _ J* Located i n H o n j o m a c h i ^ ^ l ^ y , Saga C i t y has been t h e f a m i l y temple  ^  I t was founded i n 1552  and i n 1655 was extended c o n s i d e r a b l y by Nabeshima  Katsushige.  See Saga ken s h i , I I , 187; Saga gun s h i ^ ^ J t ^ j J i G f Saga Gun Kyoiku K a i J$A"ft tfc^l&^ffity^  ^ty^>  , Kodenji  ( b o d a i j i ^ t ^ ^ C ) o f the Nabeshima  House s i n c e the seventeenth century.  ]k%  -  e d  «  Shiritsu  (Tokyo : Meicho Shuppan  1973), pp. 430-31; and H o r i Yoshizo ^  , ed.,  Dai Nihon j i i n soran T v ^ / f c ' ^ j ^ ^ ^ f t (Tokyo: Meicho Kahko K a i  ?*%y)tf\^'  1 9 1 6 )  '  *  PP  - '  2648  49  S p e c i f i c a l l y Sonryo Osho-^  5-^°)^) '  w  n  o  monk a t the s m a l l temple c a l l e d Enzoin Hagakure, p. 22.  n  a  d  been  chief  See Naramoto,  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the d e t a i l s o f the o r i g i n a l  disagreement are obscure, but Tsunetomo t e l l s h i s v e r s i o n i n K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, pp. 468-70 (# 653). 108 Saga ken s h i , I I , 187. 109 These Four Vows w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more depth a t a l a t e r p o i n t i n t h i s paper.  110 110  These passages w i l l be presented l a t e r i n t h i s paper.  Ill See G r i f f i t h , p. 115. 112 More i n f o r m a t i o n on I s h i d a I t t e i may  be found i n  Saga gun s h i , pp. 469-71; Dai Nihon jlmmel j i s h o ed. Dai Nihon Jimmei J i s h o Kanko K a i j\0  T\)b%*kjb. £ f " ^ '  Jfc J\fa.  (Tokyo :  N a i g a i S h o s e k i , 1937), p. 195; Saga ken s h i , I I , 187; Naramoto, Hagakure, p. 23; K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, pp. 34-36; and K u r i h a r a , Hagakure no s h i n z u i , pp. 64-66. 113 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 108  (# 168).  114 I b i d . , p. 83  (# 103).  I b i d . , p. 47  (# 47).  See a l s o i b i d . , p. 100  (# 144).  115 For the o r i g i n a l statement see  i b i d . , p. 1023. 116 P a r t i a l t r a n s l a t i o n s o f the works o f these men  may  be found i n Tsunoda, Sources o f Japanese T r a d i t i o n , I , 385401, 378-83, and 413-24 r e s p e c t i v e l y . 117 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 99  (# 140).  118 I b i d . , p. 89  (# 117).  119 See Saga ken s h i , I I , 187, and Naramoto, Hagakure, p. 24. 120 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, pp. 5-6  (# 1 ) .  erences are found i n o t h e r p l a c e s i n the t e x t . p. 18  (# 5 ) , p. 31 (# 20), p. 36  See  (# 31), and p. 95  Further ibid., (# 109).  ref-  Ill  These vows are t r a n s l a t e d i n Iwado, p. 37 as: 1. We w i l l be second to none i n performance o f our duty: 2. We w i l l make o u r s e l v e s u s e f u l to our l o r d : 3. We w i l l be d u t i f u l t o our p a r e n t s : 4. We w i l l  a t t a i n greatness i n c h a r i t y .  A more r e c e n t t r a n s l a t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : 1. Never l a g behind i n t h e i p r a c t i s e o f Bushido. 2. Always be l o y a l and devoted i n the s e r v i c e to your l o r d . 3. Do your duty to your p a r e n t s . 4. S t i r up your compassion  f o r a l l s e n t i e n t beings  i n o r d e r to devote y o u r s e l f to the s e r v i c e o f others. See Tanaka Minoru, Bushido, Way New  Mexico: Sun Books, 19 75),  p.  o f the Samurai  (Albuquerque,  21.  121 See K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, pp. 1034-35., and Saga ken s h i , I I , 188. yokansho  T h i s book has a l s o been known as Bushido  r f ] % y ,  o r simply as Yokansho.  p r o o f t h a t the word bushido was century.  I t provides  i n use even i n the seventeenth  A complete e d i t i o n o f t h i s t e x t may be found i n  K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, pp. 1033-57. 122 I b i d . , p. 474  (# 654).  12 3 Naramoto, Hagakure, p. 24. 124 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 26  (# 13).  112 125  This book, one o f many o f the same t i t l e ,  passed down i n the S a n j o n i s h i Naramoto, Hagakure, p. 24.  family  had been  of Kyoto.  See  Tsunetomo's request f o r the Kyoto  appointment may be found i n K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 84 (# 107). 126 Naramoto, Hagakure, p. 24. 127 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure , p. 93 (# 129) . 128 I b i d . , p. 24 (# 13).  See a l s o i b i d . , p. 87 (# 113).  129 I b i d . , p. 23 (# 10). 130 I b i d . , p. 24 (# 13), and p. 123  (# 195).  131 I b i d . , p. 41 (# 38). 132 S t r i c t l y speaking, the term shukke practise  ^applies  t o the  o f c u t t i n g o f f t i e s with the common world and assum-  i n g a l i f e o f t r a i n i n g i n Buddhism.  Technically  t h a t a man s h o u l d leave h i s w i f e behind.  t h i s meant  However, the e x i s t -  ence o f a s p e c i a l tax, shukke s a i t a i yaku ^ ^ " ^ ^ f ^ a g a i n s t c e r t a i n married monks i n the s i x t e e n t h that the p r a c t i s e o f t a k i n g  X, 371.  N  See  , ed. Nihon D a i j i t e n  (Tokyo: Shogakkan  J o f ^ ,  1974),  Furthermore, i t i s not completely c l e a r whether Tsune-  tomo a c t u a l l y the  ^£f$  century, shows  one's w i f e was not unknown.  Nihon kokugo d a i j i t e n # ^ )|]^r j\ Kanko K a i  / levied  took the tonsure or whether he merely assumed  r o l e o f a l a y monk.  The l a t t e r case seems more p r o b a b l e .  113 133  A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s area, as i t i s today, i s given  i n Naramoto Tatsuya, Nihoh r e k i s h i no s u i g e n c h i (Tokyo: Bungei Shunj u  , 1972), pp.  ^h]^.%S)  J^j^&l  9-29.  134 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 108 :  (# 168) .  135 I b i d . , p. 122  (# 195) .  136 I b i d . , p. 41 (# 38). 137 I b i d . , p. 1.  O r i g i n a l l y a haiku ^ ^ w a s  the f i r s t  p o r t i o n of l i n k e d v e r s e , renga ^ j f f i , but l a t e r , through popu l a r i z a t i o n by the poet Basho Matsuo came to stand as a type o f poetry by i t s e l f .  4-1694), i t I t consists of  a t o t a l o f seventeen s y l l a b l e s which are c l e a r l y d i v i d e d  into  three s e c t i o n s o f f i v e , seven, and f i v e s y l l a b l e s each.  A  word which s i g n i f i e s the season o f the year i s r e q u i r e d . 138 F o r b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n see K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure , pp. 33-34; K u r i h a r a , Hagakure no s h i n z u i , pp. 72-73; and Kamiko Tadashi ^$?T  ' ed. , Hagakure  (Tokyo: Tokuma  Shoten, 1973), p. 23. 139 See K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, pp. 1059-1108  f o r trans-  c r i p t s o f Gukenshu, Sembetsu, Tsunetomo k a k i o k i , and Juryoan Chuza no n i k k i .  See a l s o Saga ken s h i , I I , p. 180.  140 See K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, pp. 1009-31; Kamiko Tadashi, Busho goroku, ^ $ f jfcl&fc  (Tokyo: Hyakusen Shobo 13  pp. 121-26; and Yoshida, Buke ho kakun, pp. 261-72.  fk > 1969) ,  114 141 Naramoto/ Hagakure, p. 29.  T h i s compares w i t h amounts  of from three to s i x thousand koku which were p a i d to the karo  r "house e l d e r s , " o f about the same p e r i o d . shi,  I I , 110.  T o s h i y o r i ^^if  See Saga ken  , " C o u n c i l l o r s , " such as Sagara  K y u b a ^ %J[i ,^(1618-1696) , r e c e i v e d one thousand two hundred koku.  See Naramoto, Hagakure, p. 449.  Nabeshima K o j i r o / ^  In 1767 a c e r t a i n karo,  i r e c e i v e d 6,262 koku, which he  d i v i d e d among 237 r e t a i n e r s .  T h e i r allowances ranged from one  koku f o r t h e lowest f o o t s o l d i e r t o f i f t y senior advisor.  ^&3jKl-%fifj  See Kimura Motoi ^s^^j" /^jlL  four koku f o r the '  K a k  , 1967)  (Tokyo: Hanawa Shobo  Y  u  bushi ron  , pp. 165-66.  142 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 123 (# 195). See Wa t s u j i Tetsuro Hagakure  and Furukawa T e s s h i , ed.,  (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1965), I , 16; and K u r i h a r a ,  Kochu hagakure, p. 3. 144 Furukawa, K i n s e i Nihon s h i s 5 no kenkyu, pp. 255-57. 145 Saga ken s h i , I I , 190-91. 146 I b i d . , I I , 191. was w r i t t e n i n 1852. Kokusho k a i d a i Hflj^  This may be the same p r e f a c e which  See Samura H a c h i r o  f% IS>( Tokyo :  Rokugokan A j ^ t f f 1926), p. 1625,  147 These shahon are mentioned i n Saga ken s h i , I I , 181; K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, pp. 19-24; W a t s u j i and Furukawa, Hagakure, I, 12; Naramoto, Hagakure, p. 51; Kamiko, Hagakure, p.  8;'..and Sagara, Koyo gunkan: go r i n sho: hagakure shu, p, 206.  115 148  The reasons f o r t h i s s e l e c t i o n may be found i n K u r i h a r a ,  Kochu hagakure, pp. 19-24.  For another d i s c u s s i o n  o f the shahon  see W a t s u j i and Furukawa, Hagakure, pp. 12-14. 149 Naramoto, Nihon r e k i s h i no s u i g e n c h i , pp. 19-21; and Saga keh s h i , I I , 180-81. 150 The f o l l o w i n g  books a l l use K u r i h a r a s Kochu hagakure 1  as t h e i r s o u r c e : Kamiko, Hagakure; Naramoto, Hagakure; Mishima Yukio iC*  ^jf]  JL^tf  Hagakure nyumon  l^ft^^y  1967); and Shiroshima Seisho  (Tokyo : Kobunsha "$J$^  Hagakure  (Tokyo: Jimbutsu O r a i s h a , 196 8). 151 For example, the r e c e i p t o f i n s t r u c t i o n s Yoshitsune  jf^feh (1159-1189)  purpose o f e s t a b l i s h i n g  from T e n g u ^ ^ w a s only f o r the  a d i f f e r e n t s t y l e of m i l i t a r y  K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 84 (# 106).  The s t o r y  Yoshitsune and the Tengu i s recounted i n E n g l i s h . C r a i g McCullough, Y o s h i t s u n e : A F i f t e e n t h Chronicle  by Minamoto  (Tokyo: U n i v e r s i t y  tactics.  regarding See Helen  Century Japanese  o f Tokyo P r e s s , 1966), pp. 37-38.  152 Nakamura, Ways o f T h i n k i n g o f E a s t e r n Peoples, p. 409. 153 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 34 (# 27). 154 I b i d . , p. 92 (# 125) . 155 I b i d . , p. 31 (# 20). 156 ' I b i d . , pp. 105-06 (# 161). 157 De Bary, Sources o f Chinese T r a d i t i o n , I , 271.  116 158  I t w i l l be  t a i n the i d e a o f  r e c a l l e d t h a t three o f the Four Vows con-  unselfishness.  159  _ Kochu hagakure, pp.  Kurihara,  121-22 (#  193).  160 I b i d . , p. 75  (#  88).  161  the age  P r e v i o u s l y , m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e i n the han  had  been from  of t h i r t e e n to s i x t y , and  had  lied  t h e i r age  to stay i n longer.  hagakure shu,  p.  See  the o l d e r men  Sagara, Koyo gunkan:  about gorinsho:  320.  162 Kurihara,  Kochu hagakure, p. 25  (# 12).  Yamasaki  Kurando, mentioned a number of times i n the t e x t , served s e n i o r r e t a i n e r under Nabeshima M i t s u s h i g e . tion provided  i n Hagakure, l i t t l e  as a  Except f o r informa-  i s known about t h i s  man.  163 I b i d . , p. 25  (#  12).  164 I b i d . , pp. passage i s the way  45-46 (# 45).  The Way  r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s  of bushido.  165 These laws were r e i s s u e d p e r i o d i c a l l y d u r i n g period.  the  Edo  T r a n s c r i p t s o f the e d i t i o n s of v a r i o u s years may  found i n I s h i i S h i r o Nihon s h i s o t a i k e i  ^  be  , K i n s e i buke s h i s o i ^ - t ^ f ^ ^  Kr^V  , V o l . 2 7 (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten,  1974), pp.  454-75.  A d i s c u s s i o n may  k a i f u , pp.  313-16.  E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s o f the Buke shohatto  may  be  be  found i n T s u j i ,  Edo  found i n Tsunoda, Sources of Japanese T r a d i t i o n , I,  326-29; and  Sansom, A H i s t o r y of Japan, I I I ,  7-8.  117 166  _ . . For example through the system o f sankin k o t a i which  has already been 167  defined.  _ _ K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, pp. 85-86 (# 110)  mentions  the metsuke system of i n s p e c t i o n w i t h r e f e r e n c e to i t s operat i o n i n Saga. 168 Each daimyo, as w e l l as the bakufu i t s e l f , a number o f s p i e s c a l l e d n i n j a K ^ ^ J  retained  o r shinobimono  iX"^  to  f o l l o w the a c t i o n s of neighbours. 169 170  K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, pp. 40-41  (# 37).  " S e t t l e one's b e l l y , " i s only an approximate  t" 3 and hara o  t i o n o f the phrases hara o o c h i ts uke ru shizumeru ffi.'fc^ffi'ff? <3 •  transla-  Both phrases mean to gather composure  o r get c o n t r o l of o n e s e l f .  The haraijjj^, " b e l l y , " o r , "abdomen,"  i n d i c a t e s , to the Japanese, the seat o f the human s o u l and the source o f human energy.  See K a r l f r i e d Graf von  Hara: The V i t a l Center o f Man  Durckheim,  (London: George A l l e n and Unwin,  1962) . 171 As i n d e l i n e a t i n g d r i n k i n g h a b i t s .  See K u r i h a r a ,  Kochu hagakure, p. 33 (# 24). 172 By s a y i n g not to i m i t a t e the poor example of people from o t h e r p r o v i n c e s .  See i b i d . , p. 105  (# 158).  173 He s a y s , f o r example, women.  See i b i d . , p. 40  t h a t men  (# 37).  have become s i m i l a r to  118 174 He declined  gives medical p r o o f t h a t the bodies of men  physically.  I b i d . , p. 40  (#  have  37).  175 He I b i d . , p.  calls 72  for a return  (#  o f the  t r a d i t i o n of b r a v e r y .  84).  176 I b i d . , p. 125  (#  197).  177 He  t e l l s how  the poor p l a n n i n g of a f e s t i v a l  heavenly r e t r i b u t i o n .  I b i d . , p.  37  (# 34).  persons w i t h e x c e s s i v e p r i d e w i l l be p.  91  He  caused  a l s o says  s t r u c k down.  See  that  ibid.,  (# 133) .  178 I b i d . , pp. t h i s pas&age as, no  39-40 (# 36).  "their aspirations  tsuke tokoro n a r i o ? -j {{^  literally place."  translated The  The  as,  phrase t r a n s l a t e d  are  low,"  i s iko h i k u i  <?) ^ fl] H j . . i t may  " t h e i r eyes are  f i x e d on  been rendered i n t o E n g l i s h  a very  of r i k o hatsumei ^T'j t3,ffi^fl)jand as  me  be more  word r i h a t s u iftjffi^, which appears l a t e r i n  passage, i s a c o n t r a c t i o n  in  low  the has  "cleverness."  179 I b i d . , p.  78  I b i d . , p.  120  (# 91) .  180 (#  190).  181 I b i d . , pp.  124-25 (#  196).  182 I b i d . , p.  67  (# 68) .  I b i d . , p.  91  C# 122).  183  i  o r  The  e x p r e s s i o n , s h i c h i s o k u shian  undetermined o r i g i n , may  e i t h e r t h a t one  be understood to mean  s h o u l d take one's time i n r e a c h i n g a  decision  119 or t h a t one should not w a i t too long t o make a d e c i s i o n .  It  i s obvious i n the p r e s e n t passage t h a t Tsunetomo took i t to mean the l a t t e r .  The t e x t o f R y u z o j i Takanobu's statement may  be found i n Kamiko, Busho goroku, p. 123; Yoshida, Buke no kakun, :  p.  272; and K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 1027. 184 I b i d . , p. 36 (# 30). 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192  G r i f f i t h , p. 114. I b i d . , p. 136. I b i d . , p. 41. Suzuki, p. 61. K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 18 (# 4) . I b i d . , p. 18 (# 4%  t  I b i d . , p. 69 (# 73). I b i d . , p. 71 (# 81).  193 I b i d . , pp. 91-92 (# 123). 194 I b i d . , pp. 124-25 (# 196). 195 I b i d . , pp. 75-76 (# 89). 196 I b i d . , p. 125 (# 196). 197 are  See Tsukamoto, ed., Ekken jukun, I , 67.  These ideas  summarized i n R.P. Dore, E d u c a t i o n i n Tokugawa Japan  (Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s ,  120  1969) , p.. 35. 198 Waka i s the g e n e r i c term used to d e s i g n a t e Japanese forms o f p o e t r y as opposed to Chinese. t h e r e f o r e , are choka ^Jeffij 5-7  I n c l u d e d among waka,  long poems w i t h a r e p e t i t i o n o f  s y l l a b l e s and u s u a l l y  ending w i t h 7 - 7; tank a  s h o r t poems c o n s i s t i n g o f 5 - 7 - 5 - 7 - 7  s y l l a b l e s ; sedoka  poetry i n which the f i r s t h a l f and the l a s t h a l f cont a i n the same number o f s y l l a b l e s such as 5 - 7 - 5 — 5 - 5; and k a t a u t a  tf^fi^  poetry o f 5 - 7 - 7  or 5 - 7 - 5  - 7 syl-  l a b l e s and used mainly i n the form o f a q u e s t i o n d u r i n g the Nara p e r i o d .  See K o j i e n , p. 2368.  199 N i t o b e , pp. 17-18.  Takeda Shingen, a l s o , s a i d  that  those r e t a i n e r s who were only s l i g h t l y i n t e l l i g e n t were n o t useful.  See Kamiko, Busho goroku, p. 29.  200 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 125 (# 198). 201 I b i d . , p. 99 (# 140) . 202 l b i d . , p. 125 (# 196) . 203 I b i d . , p. 40 (# 36) . 204 I b i d . , p. 201 (# 200). 205 A temple i n Saga C i t y , b u i l t i n 1588 by Nabeshima Naoshige t o honour the memory o f R y u z o j i Takenobu.  See i b i d . ,  p. 48. 206 Almost n o t h i n g i s known about t h i s monk o t h e r than  121 what i s found i n t h i s passage.  I b i d . , p. 48.  207 I b i d . , p. 47  (# 48).  I b i d . , p. 87  (# 112).  208 209 I b i d . , p. 113  (# 180).  I b i d . , p. 102  (#149).  210  "At  The words o f Confucius were,  f i f t e e n , I s e t my h e a r t on l e a r n i n g .  firmly established.  At f o r t y , I had no more doubts.  I knew the w i l l of Heaven. to i t .  At t h i r t y , I was  At s i x t y , I was  At  fifty,  ready to l i s t e n  At seventy, I could f o l l o w my h e a r t ' s d e s i r e w i t h o u t  transgressing  what was  right."  This English  translation i s  found i n De Bary, Sources of Chinese T r a d i t i o n , I, 22. a l s o Kimura E i i c h i ^ v . ^ " a n d Rongo  Suzuki K i i c h i / ^ ^ ^ ^ - ,  Chugoku kotan bungaku t a i k e i ^ I f c H f - ^  3 (Tokyo: Heibonsha  ^ f f * l ^ i l , 1970), p. 9.  See ed. , i Vol.  A slight variation  of t h i s theme, and one which more c l o s e l y f i t s  Tsunetomo's  statement, may  $L>^\,  be found i n Takeuchi Teruo  TH.  Raiki ^[.jf  Chugoku koten bungaku t a i k e i , V o l . 3 (Tokyo: Heibonsha, 19 70), p. 435.  Takeda Shingen a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d t h i s concept i n t o h i s  writings.  See Kamiko, Busho goroku, p. 32.  211 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, pp. 109-110 (# 171). 212 See Dore, pp. 16-17. 213 See I s h i i , pp. 454-62; Dore, p. 151; H e r b e r t P a s s i n , Society  1  and E d u c a t i o n i n Japan  Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ,  (New York: Teacher's C o l l e g e ,  1965) , p. 13; and Donn F. Draeger,  u  122  C l a s s i c a l Budo.; The M a r t i a l A r t s and Ways o f Japan, V o l . I I (New York and Tokyo: W e a t h e r h i l l , 1973), pp. 20-21. 214  _ . . Tsukamoto, ed., Ekkeh jukun, I , 8-12.  215  _ . Draeger, C l a s s i c a l Budo/ pp. 33-36.  216 I b i d . , pp. 24-30, and 41-65. 217 His d i s c o u r s e e n t i t l e d Shindo has been p r e v i o u s l y noted. 218 Although a dojo may be a s c h o o l o r a p l a c e where Budd h i s t s e r v i c e s are h e l d , i n t h i s context i t r e f e r s to a p l a c e where m a r t i a l a r t s are taught and p r a c t i s e d .  A f u r t h e r mean-  i n g designates a p l a c e where a group o f people t r a i n and l i v e f o r the achievement o f a common o b j e c t i v e such as s e l f cipline.  dis-  See K o j i e n , p. 1570.  219 For d i s c u s s i o n s o f the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between budo, Zen, and chado  " t e a ceremony," see F u j i , pp. 317-516;  and Suzuki, pp. 269-314.  D o g e n ^ ^(1200-1253) , a Zen monk,  had e a r l i e r advocated Zen enlightenment through d i s c i p l i n e o f the body.  See Nakamura, Ways o f T h i n k i n g o f E as t e r n Peoples,  pp. 366-67. 220 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 72 (# 83).  Yari  designates  a form o f m a r t i a l a r t which uses the spear as a weapon. came i n t o p o p u l a r i t y from the end of the Kamakura p e r i o d .  It See  K o j i e n , p. 2154; Donn F. Draeger, C l a s s i c a l Bujutsu,- The M a r t i a l A r t s and Ways of Japan, V o l . I (New York and Tokyo: W e a t h e r h i l l , 1973), pp. 71-72; and Imamura  Yoshio/^ft  , ed. , Nihon budo  zenshu  iz] - ^ A i ^ E ^  (Tokyo: Jimbutsu O r a i s h a , 1967) , V I I , 193-  25 2, and VI, 11-372. Kojienp.  2178;  Yunti i s the m a r t i a l a r t o f a r c h e r y .  See  Draeger, C l a s s i c a l B u j u t s u , pp. 81-83; and  Inamura, I I I , 13-27, and 43-458.  An empty handed  bat, j u j u t s u i s an o l d e r form o f judo. s t r e n g t h and motion to overcome him. Budo, pp. 106-22.  form of com-  I t uses the opponent's See Draeger,  Classical  During the Edo p e r i o d a l l o f these forms  l o s t much o f t h e i r combat e f f e c t i v e n e s s and became i n s t e a d methods of achieving a h i g h l e v e l o f mental d i s c i p l i n e .  Renga  designates a form of Japanese p o e t r y i n which poems are l i n k e d together.  One person reads the f i r s t stanza and a second caps  t h i s w i t h a stanza o f h i s own. to become very l o n g .  I t i s p o s s i b l e f o r such p o e t r y  See K o j i e n , p.  2261.  221 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 90  (# 120).  222 I b i d . , p. 106  (# 163).  223 I b i d . , p. 89  (# 117).  I b i d . , p. 59  (# 60).  224 225 Dore says, "The samurai's v o c a t i o n was good government was  government and .  l a r g e l y a matter o f c o r r e c t moral d i s p o s i -  t i o n s on the p a r t o f the governors.  Hence moral t r a i n i n g  was  the fundamental element o f the samurai's v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n See Dore, pp. 41-42. 226 Yamaga Soko b e l i e v e d t h a t a major o b l i g a t i o n o f the samurai was  the proper p r e p a r a t i o n to serve as good  o f conduct f o r the lower c l a s s e s .  examples  See "Shido" i n Yamaga Soko  124 bunshu, pp. 45-48.  For a v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n o f how  b u s h i t r a i n e d , see the account o f Kumazawa Banzan.  at l e a s t The  one  English  t r a n s l a t i o n i s found i n Galen F i s h e r , "Kumazawa Banzan, His L i f e and I d e a l s , " Trans a c t i o n s o f the A s i a t i c S o c i e t y o f Japan, :  second s e r i e s , XVI  (1938), 230-31.  produced i n Tsunoda,  T h i s passage has been r e -  Sources Of Japanese T r a d i t i o n , I , 378-79. 1  227 P a r t o f t h i s t e x t has a p p a r e n t l y been o m i t t e d i n K u r i hara, Kochu hagakure, p. 46  (# 46).  however, i n two o t h e r t e x t s .  The phrase i s complete,  See W a t s u j i and Furukawa, Hagakure,  I, 41; and Sagara, Koyo gunkan: g o r i n s h o ; hagakure shu, p. For a comprehensive  295.  account o f the Yagyu s c h o o l of swordsman-  s h i p see Murayama Tomoyoshi ^  X\  , Muto no den: Yagyu s h i n -  kage r y u gokui fa 73 t) ^^^^^ikJ^%^°^°'Shuppansha  2).  o f Yagyu's i d e a s may  s  h  i  n  Nihon  E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s o f many  be found i n S u z u k i , pp. 95-113, and 147-68.  228 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 46  (# 46).  229 I b i d . , pp. 107-08 (# 167) . 230 I b i d . , p. 75  (# 87).  231 I b i d . , p. 104  (# 156).  This s a y i n g was  originally  used i n the f o r t y f i r s t chapter o f the Chinese c l a s s i c , Tzu  See Morohashi T e t s u j i  fis'&fri^  ^ (Tokyo: Taishukan Shoten  Dai kanwa j i t e n  T\A$?A*% ^ [ ,  384. 232  Lao  K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 100  (# 144).  1955), I I I ,  125 233  Suzuki, pp.  62-63.  234 The  term: s h i t s u k e designates  both i n s t r u c t i o n i n the  accepted  decorum and the manners possessed  p. 989.  One  by a person.  of the-most famous d i s c o u r s e s on t r a i n i n g  K a i b a r a Ekken's Shogakukun ;]\ ^ f  1 1  .  was  See Ekken zenshu, I I I ,  Regarding t r a i n i n g , P a s s i n says, "Samurai c h i l d r e n f i r s t steps i n education  Kojien,  i n t h e i r own  1-43.  took t h e i r  homes, a c q u i r i n g not  only  some rudimentary, r i t u a l m i l i t a r y s k i l l s but, more i m p o r t a n t l y , the elements of a s e l f - i m a g e proper status.  The  u p b r i n g i n g was  to t h e i r c l a s s  severe, emphasizing the  ment of c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s considered r u l e r ' s proper manners, proper  appropriate  to  and  family  developpotential  language to s u p e r i o r s and i n -  f e r i o r s , s e l f r e s p e c t , f r u g a l i t y , toughness, and moderation in  food and d r i n k . "  -^tfft^ffi ance.  P a s s i n , p. 22.  The  g r e a t N £ master, Zeami  (1363-1443) , wrote a t r e a t i s e on t r a i n i n g f o r No While the t e c h n i c a l  ilarity  aspects o f h i s t r a i n i n g have no  to the t r a i n i n g of a b u s h i , the emphasis on  mental d i s c i p l i n e i s q u i t e s i m i l a r . t r a n s . Sakurai C h u i c h i ^ ^ p ^ Kaife>£-  perform-  1968), pp.  See  sim-  improving  Zeami, Kadensho  *  (Tokyo: Sumiya-Shinobe Shuppan 17-24.  235 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 74  (# 86) .  2 36 I b i d . , p. 93  (# 127) .  I b i d . , p. 87  (# 113) .  237 238 I b i d . , pp. f^^^O  fc^^has  57-58 (# 59).  The phrase udonge ho  been t r a n s l a t e d  shiawase  as, "a r a r e b l e s s i n g . "  The  126 udonge was a f l o w e r o f I n d i a s a c r e d to Buddhism, and was s a i d to bloom only once i n three thousand y e a r s . dered i t s meaning i n t h i s context as " r a r e . "  Thus I have r e n See H o j i e n , p. 203.  239 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 96 (# 135). 240 I b i d . , p. 76 (# 90) . 241 B e l l a h , p. 81. 242 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 18 (# 4 ) . 243 See, f o r example, i b i d . , p. 119 (# 187). 244 Tsunetomo quotes Tokugawa Ieyasu as s a y i n g , " I f a l l people thought l i k e c h i l d r e n , they would t h i n k o f me as t h e i r father."  I b i d . , p. 113 (# 179).  245 G r i f f i t h , p. 12 8. 246 De Bary, Sources o f Chinese T r a d i t i o n , I , 25. 247 Nakamura, Ways o f T h i n k i n g o f E a s t e r n Peoples, p. 429. 248 Nitobe, p. 86. 249 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 36 (# 32) . 250 The s i t u a t i o n i n China i s d e s c r i b e d i n H e r b e r t Franke, "Siege and Defence o f Towns i n Medieval China," Chinese Ways i n Warfare, ed. Frank A. Keirman, J r . and John K. Fairbank (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974), p. 156. For  the European e x p e r i e n c e see M a c h i a v e l l i , p. 26.  127 251  _ ._ See K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, pp. 122-2 3 (# 195).  Tsunetomo c a l l s t h i s c u r t a i l m e n t denial k y u s o k u ^ ^ l b f c f ^ • • exact meaning i s not c l e a r , however. p e r i o d , demai was coupons.  for special  See Nihon kokugo d a i j i t e n , XIV, 275.  e  a temporary leave o f absence from h i s d u t i e s .  rice  A c c o r d i n g to  K u r i h a r a , d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f demai kyusoku a samurai was  Kochu hagakure, p. 124. 252  n  In Osaka d u r i n g the Edo  r i c e r e c e i v e d i n exchange  to r e c e i v e a s t i p e n d but t h i s was  T  He  reduced i n s i z e .  given  continued See K u r i h a r a ,  See a l s o Naramoto, Hagakure, p. 454.  Charles P e t e r s o n , "Regional Defense A g a i n s t the C e n t r a l Power, The H u a i - h s i Campaign 815-817," Chinese Ways i n Warfare, ed. Frank A. Kierman, J r . and John K. Fairbank Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19 74), p. 12 9.  (Cambridge, Mass.:  Peterson a l s o mentions  r e c u r r i n g schemes to p r e v e n t the army from t a k i n g over more c o n t r o l than the c e n t r a l government wanted t o g i v e  it.  253 G r i f f i t h , p. 122. 254 Most n o t a b l y b e i n g ordered to become a r o n i n o r to commit seppuku.  Both o f these punishments w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  at a l a t e r p o i n t .  I f demoted to r o n i n s t a t u s o r f o r c e d to  commit seppuku, a good r e t a i n e r was  expected to e x h i b i t  courage, even when g u i l t y of no crime. hagakure, p. 75  great  See K u r i h a r a , Kochu  (# 88) .  255 Tsunetomo does not see any c o n f l i c t between t h i s act i o n and h i s statement t h a t those who  r e f u s e d an appointment  o r r e s i g n e d from a p o s t because o f something they d i d not l i k e  12 8 were a c t i n g  i n treason.  256  A discussion  i n Tsunoda,  ibid  p. 105  (# 158).  pp. 23-24 (# 10) .  Ibid 257  See  o f Yamaga's views on l o y a l t y may  Sources o f Japanese T r a d i t i o n , I , 38 8.  be found  A sample  of Motoori's works i n t r a n s l a t i o n are found i n i b i d . , I I , 1-35. 258  II  Tamba Yosaku,"  i n Chikamatsu  joruri  shu  ed. Tsukamoto Tetsuzo (Tokyo: Yuhodo Bunko, 1930), I I , 223-62. An E n g l i s h  t r a n s l a t i o n may  Major P l a y s o f Chikamatsu  be found i n Donald Keene,  trans.,  (New York and London: Columbia Uni-  v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961). 259 See Z o l b r o d , p.  65.  260 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 31 Bellah,  p.  (# 20).  See  also  93.  261 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 36  (# 32).  262 I b i d . , p. I l l (# 176).  Although there are numerous  idioms o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e , t h i s phrase i s almost i d e n t i c a l to one found i n the l a t t e r Han dynasty document, the GOkanjo f&^Uf • Morohashi, IV, 971. 263 De Bary, Sources i n Chinese T r a d i t i o n , p. S  e  e  264 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 61 265 266  G r i f f i t h , p. I b i d . , p.  109.  110.  (# 62).  169.  129 267  I b i d . , p. 133.  268 I b i d . , p. 134.  F o r a very s i m i l a r p o i n t o f view see  K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, pp. 17-18 (# 3 ) . 269 G r i f f i t h , p. 169. 270 The Kokusho somokuroku l i s t s on  n i n e t y one commentaries  the Sun Tzu, a l l of which begin w i t h the word Sonshi.  Kokusho s o m o k u r o k u T o k y o : V, 349-51.  See  Iwanami Shoten, 1970),  A f o u r t h essay by Yamaga, e n t i t l e d Sonshi Kyokai  If/ftkj^ '  k  e  f  o  u  n  d  i  n  Tsukamoto, ed. , Yamaga Soko bunshu,  pp. 39-43. 271 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 17-18 (# 3). The f i r s t sentence o f t h i s passage has been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h by four authors.  These are as f o l l o w s :  "I have seen i t eye to eye: Bushido, the way o f the w a r r i o r , means death."  Iwado, p. 38.  "I have found the essence o f Bushido: to d i e ! " Tanaka, p. 22. "Bushido means the determined w i l l  to die."  Suzuki,  pp. 72-73. "The way o f the w a r r i o r i s [ f i n a l l y ] r e v e a l e d i n the act  o f dying."  M o r r i s , p. 15.  272 G r i f f i t h , p. 135. 273 Tsunetomo r e i t e r a t e s t h i s statement i n other p l a c e s also.  See K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 49 (# 49), and p. 88  130 (# 115). Muro Kyuso, i n Sundai zatsuwa,  says almost the same  thing. Nothing i s more important to the samurai than duty. Second i n importance comes l i f e , and then money. Since both money and l i f e are a l s o o f v a l u e , a man i s l i k e l y when c o n f r o n t e d by a l i f e - o r - d e a t h s i t u a t i o n o r when faced w i t h money matters to d e p r e c i a t e the p r e c i o u s t h i n g c a l l e d duty. Hence, o n l y i f the samurai i s c a r e f u l n o t to speak o f greed f o r l i f e or greed f o r money can he remove h i m s e l f e n t i r e l y from a v a r i c i o u s d e s i r e s . What I c a l l a v a r i c i o u s d e s i r e s i s n o t l i m i t e d to l o v e o f money, f o r concern w i t h one's own l i f e i s a l s o a v a r i c e . Is one's l i f e n o t more p r e c i o u s than money? When faced w i t h however unpleasant a duty, the way o f the samurai c o n s i s t s i n r e g a r d i n g h i s own wishes - even l i f e i t s e l f - as o f l e s s value than r u b b i s h . " Tsukamoto, ed., Meika  z u i h i t s u shu, I , 293.  This English  t r a n s l a t i o n was taken from Tsunoda, Sources o f Japanese  Tradi-  t i o n , I , 428. 274 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure,  p. 79 (# 93). T h i s a t t i t u d e  was a l s o observed i n Mito and r e p o r t e d i n Clement, p. 153. See a l s o Furukawa, Nihon  r i n r i s h i s o no dento, p. 79.  275 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure,  p. 120 (# 190).  276 Griffith,  p. 114.  277 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 71 (# 80). 278 Nakamura, Ways o f T h i n k i n g o f E a s t e r n Peoples, p. 49 4. 279 S u z u k i , p. 197. 280 As w e l l as to encourage,  f o r he a l s o says, "In a g r e a t  emergency one must advance w i t h j o y and be i n h i g h K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure,  p. 89 (# 116).  spirits."  131 281  I b i d . , p. 110 .(# 172).  See a l s o McCullough, p. 20.  282 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p.'110 (# 172). that s e r v i c e cut o f f .  He a l s o says  can be performed even a f t e r one's head has been  See I b i d . , p. 90  (# 121).  283 De Bary, Sources o f Chinese T r a d i t i o n ,  I , 246.  284 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 18  (# 3) .  285 N i t o b e , p. 132. a samurai who flee or hide."  Nitobe a l s o says, "Talk as he  ne'er has d i e d  may,  i s apt i n d e c i s i v e moments t o  I b i d . , pp. 131-32.  286 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 105  (# 160). 287 _ The account o f the s u i c i d e o f Sato Tadanobu ^  , jffe. flj.  (1161-1186) i s given i n McCullough, pp. 201-06. 288 The term seppuku has been d e f i n e d e a r l i e r . s i c a l western account of seppuku i s by M i t f o r d . T a l e s o f O l d Japan 63.  The c l a s -  See A.B.  (London: Macmillan and Co., 1883), pp.  See a l s o N i t o b e , pp. 117-33.  Mitford, 329-  A l e s s s c h o l a r l y but more  r e c e n t work i s Jack Seward, H a r a k i r i : Japanese R i t u a l  Suicide  (Rutland, Vermont and Tokyo: Charles E. T u t t l e Company, 1968). 289 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 82 290 I b i d . , p. 84  (# 107).  I b i d . , p. 86  (# 111).  I b i d . , p. 86  (# 111).  291 292  (# 101).  132 293  Kazuma was  Mitsushige  was  a house e l d e r d u r i n g  chord.  See  the time t h a t Nabeshima  a s h o r t biography i n i b i d . , p.  29.  294 I b i d . , pp.  97-98 (#  137).  295 Kyuba was  the c h i l d h o o d playmate of Mitsushige  l a t e r became a House e l d e r . For r e f e r e n c e s 23  See  a biography i n i b i d . , p.  to h i s s u i c i d e see i b i d . , p. 20  (# 9 ) , and pp.  97-98 (#  and 21.  (# 8), pp.  22-  137).  296 I b i d . , pp.  80-81  (#  98).  I b i d . , pp.  28-29 (#  17).  297 298 M i t f o r d a l s o makes the p o i n t t h a t people who  could  do  a commendable job as kaishaku were so r a r e t h a t c e r t a i n daimyo were o f t e n f o r c e d to borrow someone to perform the task when they were r e s p o n s i b l e M i t f o r d , p.  f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t o f a sentence.  See  330.  299 Kurihara, p e r i o d i t was  Kochu hagakure, p. 64  the custom f o r a d u l t men  p a r t o f t h e i r heads.  This custom and  were r e f e r r e d to as sakayaki VIII,  Js-jf^.  (# 64).  to shave the top  Edo  front  the h a i r s t y l e i t s e l f  See Nihon kokugo d a i  646.  300 Kurihara,  Kochu hagakure, p. 85  I b i d . , p.  79  (#  108).  301 (# 92) .  302 See  During the  Tsukamoto, ed., Ekken jukun, I,  178.  303 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 100  (#  142).  jiten,  304 I b i d . , p. 90 (# 120). 305 I b i d . , p. 76 (# 90). 306 I b i d . , p. 68 (# 72). 307 I b i d . , p. 68 (# 72). 308 The f i v e human r e l a t i o n s h i p s father  o f Confucianism (between  and son, r u l e r and subjiect, husband and w i f e ,  and younger b r o t h e r , and between which are c o n g e n i a l t o f e u d a l the Edo p e r i o d .  friends)  society  emphasize  as i t e x i s t e d  See Tsunoda, Sources o f Japanese  The c o n s t i t u t i o n o f Shotoku T a i s h i ^JtzJk  I, 342.  older rules during  Tradition, J ~ (573-621),  a l s o , had the concept o f harmony as i t s f i r s t a r t i c l e . I b i d . , I , 48 f o r an E n g l i s h shi  j u s h i c h i j o kempo ^j?  Kyoiku  309  "j"*t.  See a l s o Shotoku T a i -  iv^ / ed. , Mombusho Shakai  Kyoku^||>^ ^^/5^|j /|j (Tokyo: Shakai Kyoiku Kyokai ,  /  Mm%> ' i936)  j\  translation.  p  24  See  ^i.^  •  K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 62 (# 63). 310 I b i d . , p. 92 (# 126). 311 I b i d . , pp. 106-07 (# 164). 312 I b i d . , p. 94 (# 130). 313 Tsunetomo r e l a t e s l i k e d dragons very much.  the s t o r y o f a person i n China who He had p i c t u r e s  and images o f dragons  throughout h i s house, and t a l k e d o f dragons c o n t i n u a l l y .  One  134 day a r e a l dragon appeared i n h i s garden. so much that he f a i n t e d .  I b i d . , p. 72  This s u r p r i s e d him  (# 82).  The phrase  Yeh Gong hao l u n g "jj^ 4A ^ - ^ ^ r e f e r s to Yeh Gong, a man who dragons.  I t was  o r i g i n a l l y used i n the Chuang Tzu  ^JT. See  Huang Yen-kai, A D i c t i o n a r y of Chinese I d l o m a t i c Phrases Kong: The Eton P r e s s , 1964), p. 1176. found i n Ch'iu T ' i n g jsj^  loved  (Hong  The complete s t o r y i s  , L i - s h i h ch'eng-yu  ku-shih J% ^fc ^ jfe  (Hong Kong: Ch'iao Kuang S h u - c h u ,  1968), pp.  -07. 314 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 96  (# 135).  315 I b i d . , p. 90  (# 119).  316 I b i d . , pp. 73-74 (# 86). 317 I b i d . , p. I l l (# 175). 318 I b i d . , p. 102  (# 151).  319 I b i d . , p. 71  (# 79).  I b i d . , p. 92  (# 124).  320 Naoshige had once s a i d t h a t a  bushi must a s s o c i a t e even w i t h d i s t a s t e f u l persons i n the course o f duty.  See Kamiko, Busho goroku, p.  321 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 19 322 I b i d . , p. 102  (# 148).  323 I b i d . , pp. 19-20 324  (# 7 ) .  I b i d . , pp. 129-30 (# 203).  (# 6 ) .  126.  106  135 325 I b i d . , p. 99 326  I b i d . , pp.  (# 138) .  45-46.  l e a r n s from watching and  Naoshige s a i d t h a t a s u p e r i o r l i s t e n i n g to o t h e r s , and  most lowly ranked person may Busho goroku, p. 327 328  have a good i d e a .  man  t h a t even the  See  Kamiko,  126.  K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 122 I b i d . , p.  85  (#  194).  (# 109) .  329 I b i d . , p. 103  (# 152) .  330 I b i d . , p. 27  (# 15).  331 I b i d . , p. 103  (#  154).  332 I b i d . , p. 27  (#  15).  333 I b i d . , p. 103  (#  154).  334 I b i d . , p. 92  (#  124).  335 I b i d . , pp.  44-45 (#  44).  I b i d . , pp.  44-45 (# 44), and p. 92  Ibid.  97-98 (# 137).  336 (#  124).  337 pp.  Tsunetomo h i m s e l f  turned  down a post i n Nagasaki so t h a t he c o u l d remain with h i s l o r d . His request was 338 339  granted.  I b i d . , p. 103 I b i d . , p.  86  (# (#  See 153). 111)  i b i d . , p.  84  (#  107).  136 340 . The Manyoshu i s the o l d e s t and perhaps the g r e a t e s t c o l l e c t i o n s o f Japanese p o e t r y .  I n d i c a t i o n s of i t s r e f e r e n c e  to homosexuality i s given i n I c h i k o T e i j i ^7 %. shosetsu  , Chusei  no kenkyu *jpt£ ;)fJL<9 ffijffi (Tokyo: Tokyo Daigaku Shuppan N  Kai f t f \ f ^ ^ K ^ 341  , 1962), p. 131, .  See "Chigo m o n o g a t a r i ^ ^ " i f f r "  i n I c h i k o , pp. 130-42.  342 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, pp. 113-14 (# 181). 343 I b i d . , p. 114  (# 181) .  344 I b i d . , pp. 116-17 (# 183). 345 I b i d . , p. 115  (# 182).  346 A summary o f the philosophy  o f Chu H s i may  W i n g - t s i t Chan, A Source Book i n Chinese Philosophy New  be found i n (Princeton,  J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969), pp. 588-93; and  i n Maruyama Masao, S t u d i e s i n the I n t e l l e c t u a l H i s t o r y o f Tokugawa Japan, M i k i s o Hane, t r a n s .  (Tokyo: U n i v e r s i t y o f Tokyo  P r e s s , 1974), pp. 20-24. 347 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 19  (# 6 ) .  348 I b i d . , p. 18  (# 4 ) .  349 See N i t o b e , pp. 25-26; Nihon kokugo d a i j i t e n , VI, 26 8; and K o j i e n , p.  589.  350 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 68 351 I b i d . , p. 121  (# 192).  (# 70).  352  I b i d . , p. 31 (# 20). The i d e a t h a t a statesman was bound  to r u l e j u s t l y a l s o d e r i v e s from Confucism thought.  The views  of Mencius on t h i s s u b j e c t may be found i n De Bary, Sources o f Chinese T r a d i t i o n , I , 92-9 3. 353 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 33 (# 25). 354 I b i d . , pp. 112-13 (# 179). 355 I b i d . , pp. 112-13 (# 179). 356 For example, the head monk o f a c e r t a i n temple was a very able a d m i n i s t r a t o r because he r e a l i z e d t h a t he c o u l d not do e v e r y t h i n g h i m s e l f and employed deputies See  effectively.  i b i d . , p. 39 (# 35). 357 I b i d . , p. 103 (# 153) . 358 This statement s t r o n g l y r e f l e c t s the i n f l u e n c e o f the  a n c i e n t Chinese concept o f the mandate o f heaven. pp.  6-8.  One concrete example given i n Hagakure r e l a t e s the  events which o c c u r r e d -01  ^  See Chan,  i n 1713.  a t the annual f e s t i v a l o f K i n r y u  Preparations  Shrine  f o r the f e s t i v i t i e s had n o t  been c a r r i e d o u t p r o p e r l y w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t a d i s t u r b a n c e broke out over the proper way to beat the drums. ensued and some people were k i l l e d .  A fight  I t was s a i d t h a t due to  d i v i n e r e t r i b u t i o n , many o f the e l d e r s who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p l a n n i n g o f the event f e l l upon bad times, and some d i e d by a c c i d e n t o r by e x e c u t i o n .  See i b i d . , p. 37 (# 34).  359 Although the f o r t y seven r o n i n were ordered  t o commit  138 seppuku, t h i s was n o t because of t h e i r a c t of revenge but r a t h e r i t was because they had broken a bakufu law by d i s t u r b i n g the peace and b r e a k i n g i n t o a nobleman's house.  Before they were  sentenced, there was  a g r e a t d e a l o f debate as to whether they  should be pardoned.  See Naramoto Tatsuya, Bushido no k e i f u  jk^^Ly  (Tokyo: Chuo Koronsha, 1971), p. 92.  360 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 54 361  (# 56).  >j.  Soga Sukenari Juro  *$.|jfc^'t'tf  b r o t h e r , Soga Tokimune Goro  (1172-1193) and h i s  ^ fy^ l ^ l ^ & f f  (1174-1193) suceeded  i n avenging t h e i r f a t h e r ' s death by k i l l i n g Kudo Suketsune only a f t e r a p e r i o d of eighteen y e a r s . monogatari ^ ifc  See  Soga  , ed. Sshima T a t e h i k o %Jfa*S$L.ff and I c h i k o  Teiji (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1966). 362 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 54  (# 56).  363 N i t o b e , p. 23. 364 365 366 367 368 369 370  K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 118  (# 184).  See Maruyama, pp. 35-36. K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 66 I b i d . , p. 83  (# 67).  (# 104).  I b i d . , p. 51 (# 51). I b i d . , p. 120  (# 190).  E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s of the views o f Confucius r e g a r d -  i n g j e n are found i n De Bary, Sources o f Chinese T r a d i t i o n , I , 26-2 7.  See a l s o Chan, pp. 16-17.  Comments on the a t t i t u d e o f  Mencius toward j e n are g i v e n i n Chan, p. 50, and pp. 788-89; and i n De Bary, Sources o f Chinese T r a d i t i o n , I , 86-92. H s i ' s i d e a s are r e c o r d e d i n i b i d . ,  Chu  I , 501-02; and Chan, pp.  593-97. 371 Nakamura, Ways o f T h i n k i n g o f E a s t e r n Peoples, pp. 381-83. 372 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 112  (# 179) .  373 I b i d . , p. 119 (# 187) . 374 I b i d . , p. 95 (# 132). 375 I b i d . , p. 95 (# 132). 376 I b i d . , p. 80 (# 97). 377 I b i d . , p. 69 (# 74). 378 I b i d . , pp. 31-32  (# 21).  379 I b i d . , pp. 97-98 (# 137). 380 I b i d . , p. 51 (# 52). 381 I b i d . , p. 112  (# 179).  3 82 I b i d . , p. 121 (# 192).  See a l s o i b i d . , p. 112  (# 179).  383 I b i d . , p. 80 (# 95). 384  John K. F a i r b a n k , " I n t r o d u c t i o n : V a r i e t i e s  of the  140 Chinese M i l i t a r y Experience," i n Chinese Ways i n Warfare, ed. Frank A. Kierman, J r . and John K. Fairbank  (Cambridge, Mass:  Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974), p. 25. 385 "Courage was s c a r c e l y deemed worthy to be counted among v i r t u e s , unless i t was e x e r c i s e d i n the cause o f Righteousness." Nitobe, p. 29. 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396  K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 72 (# 84) Nakamura, Ways o f T h i n k i n g o f E a s t e r n Peoples, p. 492. K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 100 (# 142). Ibid.  p. 72 (# 84) .  Ibid.  p. 31 (# 20).  Ibid.  pp.  Ibid.  p. 36 (# 31).  Ibid.  p. 99 (#139).  Ibid.  p. 106 (# 162).  Ibid.  p. 79 (# 93).  Ibid.  p. 93 (# 12 8).  89-90 (# 118).  A search has f a i l e d to unearth  any document i n which t h i s i s s t a t e d by Katsushige.  As Tsune-  tomo s t a t e s t h a t i t was a f a v o u r i t e e x p r e s s i o n o f Katsushige, i t may have been t r a n s m i t t e d o r a l l y . 397  I b i d . , p. 79 (# 93). T h i s a t t i t u d e i s very s i m i l a r to  141 that r e f l e c t e d by Saigo Takamori Y$)jtj£$  (1827-1877), o f  the nearby S a t s u m a ^ iff' han, when i n 1862 he was e x i l e d t o a s m a l l i s l a n d near Okinawa.  Told  t h a t he need n o t remain i n the  small cage which had been b u i l t f o r him once the s h i p had l e f t port,  he answered, "Thank you, b u t whatever happens I must  obey the l o r d a convict  [of Satsuma],  I am a c o n v i c t  and must be where  should be...." M o r r i s , p. 362 q u o t i n g the t r a n s l a t i o n  of Sakamoto M o r i a k i , The Great Saigo: The L i f e o f Takamori Saigo  (Tokyo: 1942).  398 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 79 (# 94). 399 I b i d . , pp. 18-19 (# 5 ) . 400 De Bary, Sources o f Chinese T r a d i t i o n , I , 20. See a l s o i b i d . , I , 16-17, and 27. 401 See Morikawa, pp. 82-83; N i t o b e , pp. 102-04; and K u r i hara, Kochu hagakure, p. 56 (# 57). 402 I b i d . , p. 90 (# 119) . 403 I b i d . , p. 126 (# 199) . 404 I b i d . , p. 81 (# 99). 405 A Japanese e d i t i o n o f t h i s book i s e d i t e d by Takeuchi. I t has been noted e a r l i e r .  An E n g l i s h  made by James Legge, L l C h i B o o k  t r a n s l a t i o n has been  o f Ri tes :  (18 85;  r p t . New  York: New Hyde Park, 1967). 406 A r t i c l e Four o f t h i s document i n c i t e s o f f i c i a l s t o  142 behave w i t h decorum.  An E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n may  Tsunoda, Sources of Japanese- T r a d i t i o n , I , 48. Shotoku T a i s h i j u s h i c h i j o kempo, pp. 25-26. 407 K u r i h a r a , Kochu hagakure, p. 30 408 409  I b i d . , p. 42  (# 39).  I b i d . , p. 78  (# 91).  (# 19).  410 I b i d . , p. 32 (# 21), and p. 34 411 I b i d . , p. 90  (# 120).  412 I b i d . , p. 118 413  I b i d . , p. 34  (# 185). (# 27).  414 I b i d . , pp. 70-71  (# 78).  415 I b i d . , p. 100  (# 145).  416 I b i d . , p. 42  (# 38).  I b i d . , p. 42  (# 38).  I b i d . , p. 67  (# 69).  I b i d . , p. 33  (# 24).  I b i d . , p. 30  (# 19).  417 418 419 420 421 I b i d . , p. 110  (# 173).  422 I b i d . , p. 70 423  I b i d . , p. 110  (# 76). (# 173).  (# 26).  be found i n See  also  143 424 I b i d . , p. 57 (# 58) . 425 I b i d . , p. I l l (# 174) . 426 I b i d . , pp. 29-30 427  (# 18) .  . . . Saga ken s h i , I I , 191. ;  :  428 See Tsunoda, Sources o f Japanese T r a d i t i o n , I , 369-83; Maruyaraa, pp. 31-32; and M o r r i s , pp. 181-83. 429 H a l l , p. 268. 430 M o r r i s , p. 235. 431 I b i d . , pp. 243-47. 432  433 See Sagara Toru, N i h o n j i n no d e n t o t e k i r i n r i kan  ^fcKtL^j  <f)  ^ ^ j ^ (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1972), p. 102  435 F u j i , p. 246-47. 436  o f T h i n k i n g o f E a s t e r n P e o p l e s , p. 467. 437  F u j i , p. 221.  $  144  438  Some o f the books p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d were:  Ogasawara A k i r a J\ fifc B)?J , "Hagakure" h i miru j i n s e i no kangaes  k a t a ^frs<4lj  !t\%ftJt'i-'  (Tokyo: S h i n s e i Shuppansha ^ )  1 9 3 4  Nakamura Y u i c h i Jj j ^ 1 ^ ^ ^ y f c - | r  hagakure zehshu  fUj^t'  H  a  g  a  k  u  r  /^}>-—, Nabeshima rohgo (Tokyo: 1 9 3 6 ) ; Oki Yodo  zensho - ^ ^ ^ " ( T o k y o : Kyozaisha  e  1936) ; O k i Yodo/ Hagakure kowa: Nabeshima rongo ^ ^ ( T o k y o : Mikasa Shobo Z.$l%fj$,  f  >ti}>  H  a  g  a  k  u  r  e  Tsuneichiro  1938);  /$^$t^>  '^^^^•^ > Hamano S u j i r o  ^ i s h i n t o kyoiku %  fa  £\^j#r>^ ,  (Tokyo: D a i i c h i Shuppan Kyokai  1939);  \ Nakamura  ^^tf> / Hagakure bushido s e i g i ^ f^J.^ 1 9 4 2 ) ; O k i Shunkuro 7\^Fv $ W  (Tokyo: Takunansha ^ Hagakure no s e i s u i  °)  1942) ; Yamagami Sogen ^ £ If  ^FJ^r^V^ ^$j#f (Tokyo:  £|\  (Fukuoka: Junshindo f f f| ^ , ' Hagakure bushi no s e i s h i n  Sanyusha  Chushaku hagakure Z^^fJjfffyj.Tokyo:  1942);  Kyozaisha,  and Oki Yodo, 1943).  439  Yamagami, p. 6 . 440 441  I b i d . , p. 8. M o r r i s , p. 3 1 5 .  442  See, 443  f o r example, F u j i , p. 2 4 6 ; and M o r r i s , pp. 315-16  Morris, p. 285.  444  An e x c e l l e n t account o f these s u i c i d e squadrons  may  be found i n M o r r i s , pp. 2 7 6 - 3 3 4 . 445  M o r r i s , p. 320.  ^  The o r i g i n a l t e x t o f these words may  145 found on pages 57 and 58 o f t h i s paper. 446  _  _  Furukawa T e s s h i , K i n s e i Nihon s h i s o ho kenkyu j^_iJhi )|^ft-fd^£(Tokyo: 447  Koyama Shoten >V)l^^  , 1 9 4 8 ) , p. 2 5 5 .  By October, 1 9 7 5 , Hagakure riyumon had been  reprinted  62 times. i 448 Some o f these are " E i r e i no koe " ^ ^ . 0 ^ ," i n M i s h iima Yukio zenshu  ^  $$.Zj.f-\  '  V o 1  -  1  7  (Tokyo: Shinchosha  H> 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 5 1 1 - 6 5 ; "'Hagakure' to watashi ^ j^-j f  "  i n Mishima Yukio bungakuron shu ^ j^j $1fotj'fcX . ^ i f ^ ' ^ (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1 9 7 0 ) , pp. 4 3 5 - 3 9 ; Ken/^)(Tokyo: Kodansha, 1 9 7 1 ) ; and "Yukoku^l^J This  last  ," i n Mishima Yukio zenshu, V o l . 1 3 , pp. 2 2 1 - 2 4 1 .  s t o r y has been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h .  W. Sargent, " P a t r i o t i s m , " Stories  See G e o f f r e y  i n Death i n Midsummer and Other  (New York: New D i r e c t i o n s , 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 93-118.  449 In  " E i r e i no koe" the ghosts o f the kamikaze f i g h t e r s  t e l l o f t h e i r f a v o u r i t e passages  from Hagakure.  " E i r e i no koe," pp. 551-52. 450 Mishima 451 452  "'Hagakure' to w a t a s h i , " p. 4 36.  I b i d . , p. 4 3 9 . by Iwado i n 1939 and Tanaka i n 1 9 7 5 .  See Mishima,  146  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  E d i t i o n s and Commentaries on Hagakure ;  1.  In Japanese  Kamiko Tadashi ^  }" f/vj.  Hagakure ^/^j-  Tokyo: Tokuma Shoten  ffeffi-r£l973. K u r i h a r a Koya chushaku  ^^f"  (Arano) ^  fffe  Hagakure no s h i n z u i : bunrui  <0%f$^'^$^f£,$J^  •  Saga: Hagakure S e i s h i n  1935.  Fukyu K a i $^^f4A^ .  •  ^ ) ^ - Tokyo: N a i g a i Shobo $ ^Hf*J- ,  Kochu hagakure  1940.  ^$Z^f\  Mishima Yukio Kobunsha  %j X7rK  Morikawa Tetsuro ^.^\  .  Hagakure  nyumon^^$>j\f^.  Tokyo:  196 7.  Hagakure nyumon ' ^ T ^ X l ^  $t^>.  Nihon Bungeisha 0 Jf.  , 1975.  Nakamura T s u n e i c h i r o  Hagakure bushido  ^ l ^ ^ i O f ^ -  Tokyo:  seigi  Tokyo: Takunanshaf^ l ^ ^ i , 1 9 4 2 .  Naramoto T a t s u y a ^ $,2J>> °) fo% t V o l . 1 7 .  .  H a g a k u r e .  Nihon no meicho  Tokyo: Chuo Koronsha f  1967.  Oki Yodo X ^ j ^ ^ 1  Hagakure jj^j^;•  2 vols.  Tokyo: Kyozaisha  147 Sagara T o r u ^ ^  f PI %  '  .  Koyo gunkan: go g i n sho:  2- # j l P % f&Jk  T o k Y  °  :  hagakure shu  c h i k u i n a  S h o b  ° %  ,  1969. jHl/^ .  Shiroshima Seisho Oraisha  A^fl&ft*  Watsuji Tetsuro ^jfffe-  ^^and  vols.  3  2.  Tokyo: Jimbutsu  • Furiikawa T e t s u j i % "| ^  •  .  Hagakure  jfe, , 1965 .  Tokyo: Iwanami S h o t e n ^  Yamagami Sogen ht-^tffi .  1 9 6 8  Hagakure -J^T^.  Hagakure b u s h i no s e i s h i n •jj^'p&y  •j^-jc  < 9  Tokyo: Sanyusha Z${frt- , 1942.  In E n g l i s h  Iwado, Tamotsu  "'Haaakure B u s h i d o  the W a r r i o r . "  1  o r the Book o f  C u l t u r a l Nippon, V I I (1939), 3,  33-55,  4, 57-78. Tanaka, Minoru.  Bushido: Way  Mexico: Sun Books,  of the Samurai.  Albuquerque, New  1975.  Secondary Works  1.  I n Japanese  Chikamatsu Monzaemon  "Goban t a i h e i k i  Chikamatsu j o r u r i s h u j f e j j f c »  Ed. Tsukamoto  Tokyo: Yuhodo Bunko ^ ^ $ ^ / | . 85-109.  , 1930.  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Ekken  -  f$;f j>%Jfr^  ^f\^Af)\V%  ^ J") • "  "Yamatozokukun  , Vol. 45.  >  W&Jzf  Ryuzo j 1 Takanobu  .  ^\-ti^_l  , 1971.  {\_ .  Nihon  Tokyo: Jimbutsu O r a i s h a ,  1967.  Kimura M o t o i j ^ ^ J - ^ ^ .  Kakyu bushi ron  Hanawa Shobo ^ ' f y ^ Kori Junshi-^*  ^ .  t  Tokyo:  / 1967.  Hagakure mono gat a r i  N i c h i b o Shuppansha 0 %%^sj%1-> Hagakure shikon ^ " ^ r < ? ^  ^fys-StyPfc*  Tokyo:  1973 . Tokyo: S e i j u s h a i |  ^ i - >  1975.  Matsuda Michioj}& £  .  K a i b a r a Ekken  ^J^^J^ -  Nihon no  150 Meicho, V o l . 14. Minamoto  Ryoen '/fg ^ P] %  Tokyo: Chuo Koronsha, 1969. G i r l to n i n j o -f^$1Li J\j^ .  .  Tokyo:  Chuo  Koronsha, 1969. Tokugawa s h i s o shoshi  ffillj  Tokyo: Chuo Koronsha,  1973. Mishima Yukio ^  $fej% .  $&lL%JtJ^.  Yukio zenshu  fy'Mft*  1 9 7 3  *  " E i r e i no  PP'  5 1 1  "  6 5  V o l . 17.  s  ______  Tokyo: Shinchosha  '  T o k  Y  0:  Kodansha, 1970.  Tokyo: Kodansha, 1971.  "Yukoku "f-f )^| ." pp.  Mishima  h ^ (, ." Mishima Yukio  bungakuron shu ^ |tj & &L>f %Jfi$l^ Ken/jfy .  ."  -  "'Hagakure' to watashi %$rjt  ______  koe^%0  Mishima Yukio zenshu.  V o l . 13.  221-241.  Morikawa Tetsuro. - f t ^ j j L ."  "'Hagakure' n i arawareta bushido ^  Nihon bushido s h i Q ^ A ^ i - ^ -  j^j  Tokyo: Nihon  Bungeisha, 1972. pp. 67-86. Motoori N o r i n a g a ^ ^ Ed.  Motoori Norinaga zenshu  Ono S h i n ^ l ^ ^  and Okubo Tadashi  \% j j ^ .  l^/^jj^ • Tokyo:  Chikuma Shobo, 196 8. Muro K y u s o ^ / t | f | L shu  ffi  "Sundai zatsuwajjjf^ $ | # . f | ."  ^fj^'  Bunko, 1930. Naramoto Tatsuya.  E d  "  T  s  u  k  a  m  o  t  o  Tetsuzo.  Me Ik a  zuihitsu  Tokyo: Yuhodo  I , 1-313. Bushido no k e i f u  ^\^i^J\  Tokyo: Chuo  151 Koronsha, 1973. t I^L^-  '"Hagakure : H i t o to fudo ?f\^A 1  r e k i s h i no s u i g e n c h i  ^  ." Nihon  Tokyo:  vf^~$li  Bungei  S h u n j u l ^ 4 * 4 ^ • 1972. Naramoto  Tetsuya and Kinugasa Yasuki f) j f ^ i ^ .  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