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Hardy’s allusions to the visual arts : The return of the native, Tess of the D’Urbervilles and Jude the… Pringle, Heather Anne 1976

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HARDY'S ALLUSIONS TO THE VISUAL ARTS: THE RETURN OF THE NATIVE, TESS OF THE  D'URBERVILLES AND JUDE THE OBSCURE by HEATHER ANNE PRINGLE B. A., University of Alberta, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of English) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 19?6~ (c) Heather Anne Pringle, 1976 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of this thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1WS Date frjj. 7t\} \Ylb i i Abstract This thesis i s concerned with Thomas Hardy's use of v i s u a l a rt a l l u -sion i n The Return of the Native. Tess of the D'Urberyl l i e s and Jude the Obscure, three of Hardy's major novels i n which the technique of v i s u a l a rt a l l u s i o n i s most c l e a r l y and consistently exemplified. The v i s u a l a rt a l l u -sions i n these novels are e s s e n t i a l l y of two diff e r e n t types. The f i r s t , which I s h a l l c a l l overt al l u s i o n s , e x p l i c i t l y name an a r t i s t , a school of art or a s p e c i f i c work of art . The second, which I s h a l l c a l l submerged, do not e x p l i c i t l y name an a r t i s t , a school of art or a s p e c i f i c work of a r t , but are recognized primarily by piecing together fragmentary d e t a i l s within a scene. Both types of allusions function both l o c a l l y at the l e v e l of the in d i v i d u a l episode to illuminate theme at that stage of the action, and, i n combination, generally at the l e v e l of larger pattern, to illuminate and enrich the thematic meaning of the novel. The patterns formed by these a l l u -sions are of two diff e r e n t kinds as well. The f i r s t type of pattern, depen-dent on a central or key p i c t o r i a l a l l u s i o n i s found i n both The Return of  the Nativeeand Jude the Obscure, while the second type, not dependent on a central a l l u s i o n , i s found i n Tess of the DfUrbervilles. The various pat-terns formed by the v i s u a l a rt allusions i n each of these novels suggest that these three have i n common a certain theme, the struggle of an i d e a l -i s t i c or free s p i r i t to reach s p i r t u a l f u l f i l l m e n t . The discussion of these novels i n chronological order makes clear a change i n attitude on Hardy's part toward t h i s theme. i i i Table of Contents Introduction , 1 Chapter One The Return of the Native 14 Chapter Two Tess of the D'Urbervilles 51 Chapter Three Jude the Obscure 8 0 Conclusion ^ Footnotes 1 2 0 Bibliography i 3 3 Appendix i 1 3 ? Appendix I I l W Appendix I I I 14-2 Introduction Although the power of Thomas Hardy's conceptions, and the intensely imaginative q u a l i t y of his f i c t i o n have not, since the opening of the twentieth century at le a s t , been questioned seriously, his technical a b i l -i t i e s as a novelist have been the subject of constant c r i t i c i s m . Patron-ized as "a t r a d i t i o n a l t e l l e r of tales and a great poet who stumbled upon 1 the art of f i c t i o n and practiced i t very waywardly" i n the nineteen s i x t i e s Hardy received rough, and i n my opinion, careless treatment even at the hands of his advocates. The o r i g i n of t h i s view of Hardy as a "great pop-2 u l a r novelist and not a great deliberate a r t i s t " may be traced, I think, to the Bloomsbury group, who perceived him as a poet, struggling through-out his f i c t i o n a l career to emerge through the thick hide of a novelist. V i r g i n i a Woolf, f o r example, attributed the most s t r i k i n g passages i n Hardy' f i c t i o m t o his "wild s p i r i t of poetry which saw with intense irony and grim-ness that no reading of ' l i f e can possibly outdo the strangeness of l i f e i t s e l f " . David C e c i l , who associated with the Bloomsbury group i n his youth, s i m i l a r l y observed of Hardy, that "the poetic s t r a i n i n his creative imagination-is of the romantic type - sublime, i r r e g u l a r , quaint, mysterious and extravagant, showing i t s e l f most t y p i c a l l y , now i n a wil d grandeur of conception, now i n some v i v i d p a r t i c u l a r i t y of d e t a i l " . This c r i t i c a l view of Hardy was the widely accepted one i n the nineteen twenties and t h i r t i e s (D. H. Lawrence, who praised Hardy's c r a f t i s perhaps the one not-able exception-') and persisted i n the years immediately following the Sec-ond World War, not only among c r i t i c s , but among other writers. Graham Greene, f o r example, noted i n a digression i n The Lost Childhood, "Hardy wrote as he pleased, just as any popular novelist does, quite unaware of - 2 -the p a r t i c u l a r problems of his a r t , and yet i t i s Hardy who gives the impres-sion of being cramped, of being forced into melodramatic and laocoon a t t i -tudes, so that we begin to appreciate his novels only f o r the passages 6 where the poet subdues the no v e l i s t . " Richard Carpenter, i n his study published i n 1964, praised Hardy f o r his adept use of symbol and myth, but concluded his book with a l i s t of Hardy's technical f a u l t s ; "Hardy i s with-out a doubt of ten clumsy and careless, a good hand at a s e r i a l . His over-written figuresj his notions of the problems of t e l l i n g a story are puer-i l e compared with James."' Hardy's technical a b i l i t i e s were thus placed at a serious discount, and i t was only recently that t h i s view of Hardy, as an uncontrolled and unsophisticated craftsman, was seriously challenged. Two recent studies, those of Michael Millgate and Penelope Vigar, have done much to destroy t h i s view and throw l i g h t on the subtleties of his technique. Millgate p a r t i c u l a r l y praises the sophisticated manner i n which Hardy presents the i n t e r n a l states of his characters (not by "direct analysis o r even by dram-3 a t i c revelations of dialogue" but by "the externalization of emotional 9 states" ) and Hardy's method of patterning his novels so that i n i t i a l "moments of prefi'guration become, at a l a t e r stage i n the narrative, points for retrospective reference, heightening the emotional i n t e n s i t y of each 10 successive c r i s i s . " Despite his perceptive Sariticism* however, Millgate thinks that as a craftsman, Hardy i s s t i l l l i m i t e d : "Although Hardy was from the beginning a conscious and indeed conscientious a r t i s t , he seems never to have grasped comprehensively either the p o s s i b i l i t i e s or the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s inherent i n the adoption of certain techniques." Vigar, while s i n g l i n g out f o r praise the techniques that Millgate was most struck with, attributes to Hardy a greater measure of control and craftmanship than either Millgate or those few e a r l i e r c r i t i c s who have granted him some technical s k i l l , and devotes p a r t i c u l a r attention to the p i c t o r i a l nature of Hardy's novels. She "believes that the i r r e g u l a r , distorted and frequently grotesque surface of Hardy's f i c t i o n , which i s manifested, i n Cecil's words, "now i n a wild grandeur of conception, now i n some v i v i d p a r t i c u l a r i t y of d e t a i l " ' i s due to the fa c t that Hardy regarded "plot as a thread on which to display his pictures of l i f e , his 'seemings' or 12 glimpses into 'the heart of the matter"' and she concludes that "Hardy's novels are, i n my opinion, better understood i f seen as narrative pictures." i Norman Page refers to t h i s same technique as " l i t e r a r y picture-making" and considers i t an essential part of Hardy's f i c t i o n a l technique. Most such "pictures" r e s u l t , i n his opinion, from the s i g n i f i c a n t recurrence i n Hardy's novels of the hidden spectator who observes another character through a door frame or a chink i n a wall or a window. The effect of such a v i s i o n i s , i n Page's opinion, to i s o l a t e "a portion of the scene outside fo r scrutiny, to some extent depriving i t of i t s mundane r e a l i t y - or more accurately, exchanging t h i s f o r a di f f e r e n t type of r e a l i t y possessed by a work of a r t ; " J Lloyd Fernando whiifce recognizing the b r i l l i a n c e of such "pictures" as pieces of verbal description regards them as a weakness to the flow of 16 the novel's forward movement and even Norman Page, who sees them as functioning constructively i n t h i s regard, remarks disparagingly that 17 they occasionally smack "of the language of the l i f e drawing class . " The most positive statement of i t as a f i c t i o n a l technique i s ' t h a t of Penelope Vigars "at aM possible stages of the p l o t , events are portrayed as tableaux rather than as continuing actions... Every d e t a i l i s c a r e f u l l y arranged and detailed so that a l l elements relate 'to one another and to _ K _ the whole preconceived scheme as i n a painting'." There i s , of course, nothing o r i g i n a l i n Hardy's use of t h i s technique: i t was a cha r a c t e r i s t i c of most Vic t o r i a n f i c t i o n , c e r t a i n l y of that of Thackeray, Dickens, George E l i o t and Henry James. The technique and the 19 v i s i o n i t embodied were related to and sometimes derived from the school of painting known as, i n the eighteenth century, "the conversation picture" and i n the nineteenth, as "the narrative painting". And both of these kinds of painting were themselves related to the drama. Thus one might say of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r technique of "events... portrayed as tab-leaux" that although s u p e r f i c i a l l y i t may appear to be, one related to painting, i t i s more properly and p r o f i t a b l y to be regarded, i n Hardy's novels as i n those of other nineteenth century novelists, as an inheritance from the drama: as a technique adopted from the drama to the art of f i c t i o n . Hardy's in t e r e s t i n the v i s u a l arts was a deep and long-standing one, as the numerous and varied references to gallery openings, a r t i s t s , spec-i f i c paintings and art c r i t i c s i n the l a r g e l y autobiographical The L i f e of  Thomas' Hardy c l e a r l y reveals. As A l a s t a i r Smart has noted, Hardy himself had a talent f o r drawing and " i t was the highly developed v i s u a l s e n s i t i v i t y which i s so c l e a r l y reflected i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n s to Wessex Poems that 20 drew Hardy to the study of a r t . " As a young man working i n London for the architect, Arthur Blomfield, Hardy would devote, "on every day that the National Gallery was open twenty minutes a f t e r lunch f o r an inspec-t i o n of the masters that hung there, confining his attention to a single 21 master on each v i s i t and forbidding his eye to stray to another." Hardy's in t e r e s t i n painting extended beyond the old masters, however, f o r i n 1862 he noted i n a l e t t e r : "P.S. i s reading to me extracts from Ruskin's "Modern Painters" which accounts f o r the wretched composition - 5 -of the e p i s t l e as I am o b l i g e d to make comments et c . on what he reads. Both Hardy and h i s w i f e , a f t e r t a k i n g up residency i n Dorchester i n I 8 8 3 , made annual v i s i t s to London where, as he notes i n the L i f e , they saw 23 " p i c t u r e s , plays^ and f r i e n d s " . His acquaintances numbered s e v e r a l import-ant f i g u r e s I n the E n g l i s h V i c t o r i a n a r t world, G. E. Watts, W h i s t l e r , Alma^fadefila a n d Burne-Jones and he kept h i m s e l f w e l l informed about the new a r t movements o r i g i n a t i n g i n Europe by t o u r i n g s e v e r a l of the major g a l l e r i e s of Europe i n h i s t r i p s to France and I t a l y . He was, i n f a c t , i n P a r i s on such a t r i p i n 1882, the year of a major i m p r e s s i o n i s t e x h i b i -t i o n . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g then, t h a t when Hardy attempts t o d e f i n e the nature and method of h i s a r t , he f r e q u e n t l y turns to the v i s u a l a r t s , and to the work of i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t s , f o r s u i t a b l e a n a l o g i e s . I n I 8 7 8 , the year The Return of the Native was p u b l i s h e d , Hardy noted approvingly i n h i s notebook t h a t the "method of B o l d i n i , the p a i n t e r of "The Morning Walk" i n the French G a l l e r y two or three years ago (a young l a d y beside an ugly blank w a l l on an u g l y highway) - o f Hobbema, i n h i s view of the road w i t h the formal lopped t r e e s and f l a t tame scenery i s t h a t of i n f u s i n g emotion i n t o the boldest e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s e i t h e r by the presence of a human f i g u r e 24 among them, o r by the mark o f some human connection w i t h them." Hardy hi m s e l f employs t h i s method i n the v i s i o n of Egdon Heath which opens and c o n t r o l s the thematic development of The Return of the Native. I n 1886, he noted t h a t "my a r t i s to i n t e n s i f y the t h i n g s , as i s done by G r i v e l l i , B e l l i n i , e t c . " A year l a t e r he wrote "the 'simple n a t u r a l ' i s i n t e r -e s t i n g no longer. The much d e s i r e d , mad, l a t e Turner rendering i s now necessary to create my i n t e r e s t . The exact t r u t h as to m a t e r i a l f a c t 26 ceases to be of importance i n a r t - i t i s aastudent's s t y l e . " I n 1886, - 6 -Hardy commented; "the impressionist school i s strong. I t i s even more suggestive i n the d i r e c t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e than i n that of art. As usual i t i s pushed to absurdity by some. But t h e i r p r i n c i p l e i s , as I under-stand i t , that which you carry away with you from a scene i s the true feature to grasp; i s i n other words, what appeals to your i n d i v i d u a l eye and heart i n p a r t i c u l a r amid much that does not appeal, and which you 27 therefore omit to record." Later i n his l i f e he wrote, i n perhaps the most succinct statement of his fictional.aims.: "Art i s a disproportioning -( i . e . distonrting, throwing out of proportion) - of r e a l i t i t e s , which i f copied or reported i n v e n t o r i l y , might be observed, but would more prob-28 ably be overlooked." This i s , e s s e n t i a l l y a restatement i n other terms of his idea of impressionism and of C r i v e l l i and B e l l i n i ' s a r t . A l l the d e f i n i t i o n s repeat an essential point that I would put as follows; that an Individual v i s i o n of the facts compose them into something new and that such a composition places i n the proper proportion - v i s u a l l y as well as mentally - the meaning of what i s seen. This point, which i s central to Hardy's idea of his f i c t i o n a l method, i s , I think, consistently exemplified i n the technique that i s the topic of my thesis; Hardy's use of allusions to the v i s u a l a r t s . This technique has received much less c r i t i c a l attention than that of "events... portrayed as tableaux." In f a c t Hardy's v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n s , l i k e many of those he makes to c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and myth have been regarded as pedantic intrusions i n which Hardy i s "simply trying to win golden opinions... f o r himself as a 'man of culture' - and not merely as 1 "29 someone 'who was a good hand at a s e r i a l ' . " Two serious studies, how-ever, have been written on the purpose and effect of t h i s technique. The f i r s t , by A l a s t a i r Smart, asserts that "the extraordinary number of v i s u a l art allusions are more than merely decorative embellishments. Smart thinks that Hardy alludes to the v i s u a l arts f o r three s p e c i f i c purposes. The f i r s t i s to make a description precise, f o r Hardy''"seizes upon some qual i t y that i s p e c u l i a r l y characteristic of the a r t i s t i n question, so that the reader at once receives an impression of a general f a c i a l type before 31 being i n v i t e d to consider i t s p a r t i c u l a r manifestation." J These allusions are also used "to suggest the attitude of a character at a p a r t i c u l a r moment 33 and Smart uses the a l l u s i o n to a "modern Moroni" i n Under the Greenwood Tree as an example. According to Smart, " i t was c l e a r l y Moroni's practice of putting a frame, as i t were, around a single figure, and of i s o l a t i n g him 34 i n the context of his d a i l y work, that Hardy found i n t e r e s t i n g . " F i n a l l y , Smart notes that as Hardy mastered "this technique he employs i t more and 35 more f o r dramatic ef f e c t . 1 ^ Norman Page i n his a r t i c l e on Hardy's p i c -t o r i a l a r t , draws the more general disparaging conclusions that the a l l u -sions "at best genuinely illuminate and i n t e n s i f y a p a r t i c u l a r l i t e r a r y e f f e c t , at worst, and at least as often, they can s t r i k e the reader ( l i k e some of the allusions to c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and legend) as an attempt to introduce a kind of synthetic s t i f f e n i n g of respectable metropolitan c u l -36 ture into the f o l k - t a l e material of the novels." I t i s my thesis, however, that the v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n s i n Hardy's novels function ... .• s i g n i f i c a n t l y at two l e v e l s , to enrich and to extend meaning both i n the p a r t i c l a r episodes i n which they occur and i n the whole course of the novel. On the f i r s t l e v e l , they function l o c a l l y , within the scene i n which they occur to: illuminate theme at that stage of the p l o t ; mark s i g n i f i c a n t turns i n the action; reveal the Internal states of the characters and suggest psychological forces i n the characters which are beyond t h e i r awareness. The second - 8 -and I think more o r i g i n a l and innovative function was hinted at by Hardy himself i n his comment that the reader would do well "to inquire whether the story forms a regular structure of i n c i d e n t . " 3 7 This function i s to focus, form and control larger patterns of allusions (of various kinds) i n the novels i n which they occur. These v i s u a l a r t allusions f a l l into two main categories: the f i r s t of which I w i l l c a l l overt and the second submerged. The overt allusions are those which name e x p l i c i t l y either an a r t i s t , a school of a r t i s t s , or a p a r t i c u l a r painting or sculpture. As a r u l e , these overt allusions d i r e c t l y and openly illuminate theme: because they are immediately iden-t i f i a b l e , they illuminate immediately an aspect of the scenes i n which they occur. The submerged allusions are those made without the e x p l i c i t naming;' of an a r t i s t , a school of art or a p a r t i c u l a r painting or sculp-ture, but which are i d e n t i f i e d by the correspondences between d e t a i l s i n one scene, or i n several thematically related scenes, and those i n a work of a r t . Permeating tKe;-n» an entire scene, the presence of a submerged a l l u s i o n may only become apparent by: the piecing together of what may at f i r s t appear as fragmentary d e t a i l s of, or hints and suggestions i n , a p a r t i c u l a r episode; the noticing of the reappearance of these d e t a i l s or hints i n other episodes and sometimes by the l i n k i n g of these with l i t e r -ary allusions i n the same context. Both kinds of v i s u a l a rt a l l u s i o n , whether overt or submerged, function both l o c a l l y at the l e v e l of the i n d i v i d u a l episode and, i n combination, generally at the l e v e l of the larger pattern. The patterns formed by the v i s u a l a rt allusions i n Hardy's "Novels of Character and Environment" are of two diff e r e n t kinds. The f i r s t type of pattern i s that which c l e a r l y exists i n The Return of the Native, The Mayor of Casterbridge and Jude the Obscure. In these novels, one - 9 -central v i s u a l a r t a l l u s i o n establishes either a mythic or a l l e g o r i c a l base, a prototype of character and essential action that makes a pattern of what might otherwise appear as scattered and simply l o c a l l i t e r a r y , verbal and v i s u a l a r t references. Thus f o r example, i n The Mayor of Cas- terbridge, the central v i s u a l a r t a l l u s i o n occurs i n the middle of the novel and i s to a T i t i a n painting of Acteon intruding into Diana's sanctuary. This a l l u s i o n provides a key to the understanding of both the character of Henchard and Lucetta, as well as of the nature of the central t r a g i c action. The second type of pattern, that which i s found i n Tess of the  D'Urbervilles, and I think i n the other novels of "Character and Environ-ment", does not contain a central or key v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n . The a l l u -sions are linked together by the fact that each' presents a p a r t i c u l a r ; v i s i o n , either that of the narrator or a major character, of the central c o n f l i c t i n the novel. Thus, f o r example, i n Under the Greenwood Tree, the allusions present the romantic, i d e a l i z e d visions of the young and the r e a l i s t i c , often grotesque visions of the old, to illuminate the central theme of the novels the c o n f l i c t between generations. I have chosen to l i m i t my thesis to a discussion of v i s u a l a r t a l l u -sions i n three novels from among the novels of "Character and Environment"s The Return of the Native, Tess of the D'Urbervilles, and Jude the Obscure. These are generally regarded as Hardy's best and most s i g n i f i c a n t novels. The technique of v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n and the two kinds of larger pattern which r e s u l t from i t are most c l e a r l y and consistently exemplified i n them. Moreover, a l l three have i n common, as my discussion w i l l make clear, a certain theme that includes a s p e c i f i c emphasis (a s i g n i f i c a n t c r i t i c i s m of nineteenth century, V i c t o r i a n , forms of C h r i s t i a n i t y ) . I have excluded The Mayor of Casterbridge (which i s generally regarded - 10 -as of equal importance with these three) because I think t h i s p a r t i c u l a r thematic emphasis i s missing from i t and because the allusions - and the r e s u l t i n g patterns that depend on the central v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n (to the T i t i a n ) i n i t - are largely dramatic. This novel i s then, i n my opin-ion, most p r o f i t a b l y to be considered i n those terms. I w i l l discuss the three novels i n chronological order: Chapter One w i l l deal with The Return of the Native (1&78), Chapter Two with Tess of  the D'Urbervilles (1891), and Chapter Three with Jude the Obscure (I896). This order of discussion does not, on my part, imply an increasing sophis-t i c a t i o n or subtlety i n Hardy's use of t h i s technique, but i t does, make > clear a change i n attitude on Hardy's part towards the theme that i s com-mon to a l l three novels. In The Return of the Native, the central v i s u a l a r t a l l u s i o n i s to a context, the Galerie d'Apollon, i n which the relevant painting by Dela-croix,' "Apollo's Victory over the Python", (not alluded to s p e c i f i c a l l y ) i s found. This key a l l u s i o n establishes a prototype of character and a mythic version of the central action which makes a pattern of what might otherwise appear as scattered and purely l o c a l l i t e r a r y , verbal and v i s u a l art a llusions. This pattern f a l l s into two main parts. In the f i r s t part Clym i s i d e n t i f i e d with Apollo and Eustachia with Diana, while i n the sec-ond Clym i s i d e n t i f i e d with Christ and Eustachia with Hecate... While the technique at work i n the o v e r a l l pattern made by v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n i n the novel i s , as I have said, e s s e n t i a l l y the same as that i n Jude the  Obscure, there are two differences between the nature of Hardy's use of i n d i v i d u a l a l l u s i o n i n The Return of the Native and the other two novels. Commonly i n The" Return of the Native, as i s not the case i n the others, reference i s as often made to a q u a l i t y of v i s i o n peculiar to a p a r t i c u l a r - 11 -a r t i s t as to a s p e c i f i c work of ar t , a r t i s t or school of art. Moreover, Hardy, i n The Return of the Native, stresses the emblematic meanings of facts i n the paintings to which he does re f e r , and i t i s these meanings that predominate i n the r e s u l t i n g larger patterns. The major thematic emphasis that emerges i n these patterns Is on ..the destructive consequences of a f a l s e idealism:, engendered p a r t l y by a l i m i t e d environment and p a r t l y by a form of modern paganism, and on the creative p o s s i b i l i t i e s s t i l l present i n that environment as well as i n a p u r i f i e d version of C h r i s t i -anity that i s i t s r e l i g i o n . In Tess of the D'Urbervilles, the v i s u a l art allusions are lin k e d together by the f a c t that each presents a v i s i o n , either that of the nar-rator, Angel or Tess, of the central c o n f l i c t of the novels that between a spontaneous, passionate being, Tess, and the conventions of a repressive society. This major pattern of overt and submerged allusions stresses the r e l i g i o u s meaning of both action and environment and prima r i l y presents the novelist's sense of the degree to which Tess may, while s t i l l being presented as r e a l woman, be conceived of as i d e a l . Within t h i s major pattern, however, exists a second composed of submerged allusions to Pre-Raphaelite paintings which stresses the tr a g i c nature of the concluding action, increases the stature of Tess's character, and enables the reader to disengage her from the sordid r e a l i t y i n which the f i n a l movement of the novel takes place. The pattern of v i s u a l a rt allusions i n Jude the Obscure resembles, although i t i s more complicated than, that found i n The Return of the Native. The i n i t i a l , submerged a l l u s i o n to the standard i l l u s t r a t i o n s of Beulah i n The PilgrimVs Progress functions as the central a l l u s i o n which makes a pat-tern of both l i t e r a r y and v i s u a l art'.allusions i n the novel. This a l l u s i o n , - 12 -l i k e the central one i n The Return of the Native, i s to be interpreted i n both Christian and c l a s s i c a l terms. Seen as the f i r s t , i t i n i t i a t e s a pattern of Chris t i a n moral allegory i n which Jude and "Sue are pilgrims; seen as the second, i t i n i t i a t e s a pattern of mythic p a r a l l e l s i n which Jude i s Hephaestus to '.Sue's Athena. This pattern with i t s double (Chris-t i a n and c l a s s i c a l ) connections divides (and hence divides the novel) into three major parts, i n each of which the proportion of Christian to c l a s s i c a l connection s i g n i f i c a n t l y varies. Each of these parts e s s e n t i a l l y corres-ponds to the major movements of Jude's s p i r i t towards and away from " H e l l -enism" and a repressive form of nineteenth century C h r i s t i a n i t y . The begin-ning of the l a s t of these major parts coincides with the beginning of the f i n a l ("At Christminster Again") section of the novel. Here two separate v i s u a l art allusions are introduced, one to the mask of Melepomene, and the other to a painting of The Last Judgement, that make a pattern of the further c l a s s i c a l references (two of which are to Greek tragedy) and of the Old Testament references, and stress the tragic meaning of the conclu-ding section of the novel as well as the unremittingly pessimistic v i s i o n of l i f e as t r i a l and'judgement.. - 13 -Postcript There axe i l l u s t r a t i o n s by several d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t s to the s e r i a l publication of each of the three novels that I am discussing i n the thesis. My examination of these indicates that a detailed study of them would require a fourth chapter of the same length as the other three that I have written. The contents of t h i s chapter however would not be a necessary or i n t e g r a l part of t h i s thesis. I have therefore included 39 i n the footnotes to each chapter a summary statement of what, i n each case, the patterns revealed by the i l l u s t r a t i o n s are. -14 -Chapter One Several modern c r i t i c s have noted the singularly p i c t o r i a l q u a l i t y of The Return of the Native and one of them, Lloyd Fernando, has even gone so f a r as to suggest that "the painter i s never again so predominant over the novelist" i n Hardy's f i c t i o n . Although t h i s l a s t opinion i s an exaggeration (there are twelve overt and submerged allusions i n The Return  of the Native [ 1878 ] and at lea s t twelve i n each of Tess of the D'Urbervilles [1891J and Jude the Obscure [ 1 8961 ) the general impression of The Return of  the Native i t expresses -is", I think," a-valid one dependent not only on the many verbal descriptions of Egdon Heath at each s i g n i f i c a n t point i n the action,but also on Hardy's d i f f e r e n t handling of v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n i n t h i s novel from his method i n the other two. In both Tess of the D'Urbervilles and Jude the Obscure the p r e v a i l i n g method might be described as follows: a s p e c i f i c reference (overt or sub-merged) at a p a r t i c u l a r point i n the action extends the meaning of the action at that point as well as forming a larger pattern of v i s u a l art a l l u -sion (and of verbal reference) that extends or q u a l i f i e s the novel's general thematic meaning. This i s so with, f o r example, the reference to C r i v e l l i ' s "Dead Christus" i n Chapter Fifty-Three of Tess of the D'Urbervilles as i t i s with the references to the paintings of Lely and Reynolds i n Chapter Two 2 of "At MelChester" i n Jude the Obscure. The general method i n The Return of the Native d i f f e r s however from t h i s . Reference i s as often made toaa q u a l i t y of a r t i s t i c v i s i o n as to a sp e c i f i c work of a r t , a r t i s t or school of art. Thus i n the i n i t i a l bon-f i r e scene (Chapter Three of Book F i r s t ) the a l l u s i o n i s merely to "Dur-3 eresque vigour and dash". This a l l u s i o n , however, while i t extends the - 15 -meaning of the action at t h i s point, does not so much form part of a larger pattern of v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n (and of verbal reference) as r e i n -force a major symbolic contrast i n the novel between light:, which i s asso-ciated with the i d e a l and with positive value, and darkness, which i s associated with loss of an i d e a l , destructiveness and a l l that i s nega-t i v e . When the a l l u s i o n , whether overt or submerged,lis to a s p e c i f i c paint-ing the method again i s , f o r the most p a r t d i f f e r e n t from that i n the other two novels. Hardy makes use not only of the facts i n the p a r t i c u -l a r painting referred to (as i n , f o r example, the a l l u s i o n to the por-t r a i t s of Sappho and Mrs. Siddons) but also to the emblematic meaning of those facts and i t i s rather that emblematic meaning which i s part of the larger pattern of the novel (which I s h a l l describe i n a moment) than the surface meaning of the facts i n the painting. By emblematic I mean those f a c t s , objects, figures or compositional elements i n a painting that are to be found i n e a r l i e r renderings of the same subject and that reveal by t h e i r presence i n both the painting and e a r l i e r renderings, an a l l e g o r i c a l or symbolic meaning common to both. The meaning of the fact i n the p a r t i c u l a r painting then is'.not "read" primarily as o r i g i n a l either with the painting i n which i t occurs or with Hardy's use of i t . Thus i n the a l l u s i o n to the Sappho painting, the f a c t s , as I s h a l l demonstrate (see p. 21 below),.as emblems suggest a "reading" of Sappho as Diana, Goddess of the Moon, and i t i s t h i s "reading" or meaning rather than that of the figure of Sappho:, that forms part of the s i g n i f i c a n t larger pattern i n the novel. - 16 -This larger pattern then may be defined as d i f f e r i n g e s s e n t i a l l y from that i n Tess of the D'Urbervilles and ( i n some pa r t i c u l a r s ) from that i n Jude the Obscure and I would describe i t as follows. One central v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n (that to the Galerie d'Apollon) establishes a mythic base, a prototype of character, relationship, and the essential central action, that makes a pattern of what might otherwise appear as scattered and purely l o c a l , l i t e r a r y , and verbal references (that include a number of references to the seasons and to s p e c i f i c times of the year) and that also emphasizes and hence draws into that larger pattern (enlarging and enriching i t s mean-ing) the emblematic meaning of facts i n p a r t i c u l a r v i s u a l artuallusions of every kind. The central v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n , which provides a key to t h i s pattern, occurs i n Glym's reference to the Galerie d'Apollon, a room i n the Louvre that features sun-disc carvings on the wooden doors and a c e i l i n g decor-ated by Delacroix with a portrayal of Apollo and Diana destroying Typhon. Moreover, t h i s reference contains a description of sunlight entering the east window.of the room, creating a dazzling display of l i g h t as i t i s r e f l e c t e d o f f the valuable plate and jewels. This central v i s u a l art a l l u -sion c l a r i f i e s the preceding/ and following references to Glym as Apollo and Eustachia as Diana, providing emblematic prototypes f o r the roles they assume i n the action that both preceeds and follows the a l l u s i o n , while the central description of the sunlight i s , i n i t s context, a state-ment of the symbolic meaning of l i g h t as the i d e a l i n the rest of the novel. As Clym's thought progresses from Hellenism to C h r i s t i a n i t y i n the course of the novel, so the novelist's sense of Clym as Apollo i s subtly •.  transformed into one of Clym as Christ; Clym as Apollo, i n the f i r s t part, being the prototype of which Clym as Christ, i n the second, i s a version. - 17 -Apollo was the god of truth and enlightenment and the source of divine l i g h t as Christ was; Apollo l e f t Olympus to l i v e among the hinds as Christ became man; and l i k e Christ, Apollo "was a purely beneficient power, a d i r e c t l i n k "between the gods and man, guiding man to know the divine w i l l " . - * That Hardy was suggesting nothing unusual i n drawing these p a r a l l e l s may be dem-onstrated by an examination, >of s i m i l a r p a r a l l e l s i n S i r James Frazer's The Golden Bough. According to Frazer, the early Christian church bor-rowed from f e s t i v a l s associated with pagan sun gods and he concludes that "the Christian church chose to celebrate the birthday of i t s founder on the twenty-fifth of December i n order to transfer the devotion of the heathen from the Sun to him who was ca l l e d the Sun of Righteousness."^ Eustachia also undergoes a metamorphosis i n the course of the novel, f o r she i s i n i t i a l l y regarded by Clym and the novelist as the creative form of the moon goddess, Diana, and she subsequently develops, a f t e r her b r i e f experience of i d e a l existence during the honeymoon section, into an increasingly destructive character. The sense i n which Eustachia as Diana i s the emblematic prototype of her other roles i n the novel i s per-haps less clear than i n the case of Clym as Apollo/Christ. However, Diana, the chaste goddess, whose domain i s the earth, i s only one of the forms of the goddess associated with the moon: Selene i s the form of thegoddess associated with f e r t i l i t y whose domain i s the sky, while Hec-ate i s the destructive form of the goddess whose domain i s "the lower world and i n the world above when i t i s wrapped i n darkness." Thus Eustachia contains both Diana and Hecate-like elements within her before her marriage. She b r i e f l y transcends t h i s duality to become an i d e a l form of the goddess (Selene) during her honeymoon and f i n a l l y , as her i d e a l i s t i c dreams are shattered, the Hecate-like aspect of her character - 18 -p r e v a i l s . I w i l l discuss the Galerie d'Apollon reference i n d e t a i l f i r s t i n order to demonstrate the v a l i d i t y of the propositions I have already made about i t . I w i l l demonstrate the a l l e g o r i c a l statement of the Delacroix • painting concerning Glym, his own and Eustachia's sense of him, and his i n i t i a l ambition. I w i l l then discuss i t as i t refers to Eustachia and to her d u a l i s t i c nature before her marriage. Then I w i l l indicate the l i t e r a r y and verbal references that connect with the Delacroix a l l u s i o n to form the larger pattern and move on to a discussion of the development i n both Glym and Eustachia a f t e r t h e i r marriage i n the context of that pattern. At relevant points i n thisvargument, I s h a l l discuss the func-t i o n of the other v i s u a l art allusions and note the way i n which t h e i r emblematic meanings enrich and extend the meaning of the novel's major pattern. The central v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n , which i s i n d i r e c t , does not occur u n t i l mid way through the novel, when Clym refers to a v i s i t he made to the Galerie d'Apollon: "I hate t a l k i n g of P a r i s ! Well I remember one sunny a f t e r -noon i n the Louvre which would make a f i t t i n g place f o r you to l i v e i n - the Galerie d'Apollon. I t s windows are mainly east and i n the morning, when the sun i s bright, the whole apartment i s i n a perfect blaze of splendour. The rays b r i s t l e and dart from the encrustations of g i l d i n g to the magnificent i n l a i d coffers, from the coffers to the gold and s i l v e r p l a t e , from the plate to the jewels and precious stones, from there to the enamels, t i l l there i s a perfect network of l i g h t which quite dazzles the eye. But now about our marriage -" (p. 220) This description of l i g h t entering the room and r e f l e c t i n g o f f the s i l v e r and gold plate i s s i g n i f i c a n t , f i r s t of a l l , because the source of l i g h t i n the Galerie i s the sun, the heavenly body associated with Apollo. However, t h i s reference becames more important i n view of the room's contents - 19 -and decorations. The doors to the Galerie bear carvings of Louis the fourteenth's emblem, the sun disc , and as the name of the room might imply, the c e i l i n g i s decorated with a painting depicting an episode i n the l i f e of Apollo. This painting by Delacroix e n t i t l e d "Apollo's Victory over the Python"" represents Apollo, the sun god, leaning from out of hi s char-i o t to aim an arrow at the serpent, Typhon, below him i n the water.. Beside Apollo i s Diana, holding out a quiver of arrows to a s s i s t the sun god. Hardy's precise knowledge of the effect of sunlight upon the room at a s p e c i f i c time of day, and his accurate knowledge of the room's contents makes i t reasonable to assume his knowledge of the c e i l i n g , an inescapable feature of the room to anyone who had seen i t , although no dir e c t r e f e r -ence i s made to i t . I f one accepts the hypothesis that the novelist does make an i n d i r e c t reference to the Delacroix painting i n the a l l u s i o n to the Galerie d'Apollon, i t i s then reasonable to refer to the painting as a submerged a l l u s i o n and to discuss i t as such. At t h i s point i n the novel, Clym wishes to establish a school to edu-cate farmer's sons, f o r as the narrator notes: Yeobright loved his kind. He had a conviction that the want of most men was knowledge of a sort which brings wisdom rather than affluence... Was Yeobright's mind well-proportioned? No. A well-proportioned mind i s one which shows no p a r t i c u l a r bias: one which we may safely say that i t w i l l never cause i t s owner to be confined as a madman, tortured as a heretic, or c r u c i f i e d as a blasphemer. Also on the other hand, that i t w i l l never cause him to be applauded as a prophet, revered as a p r i e s t , or exalted to a king. I t produces the poetry of Rogers, the paint-ings of West, the stagecraft of North, the s p i r i t u a l guidance of Tomline... .(pp. I 9 6 - 97) Clym's ambition to set up a school to provide a progressive education f o r farmers? sons i s c l e a r l y a Utopian one and Hardy contrasts Clym's unconven-Q t i o n a l idealism with West's conventional r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . Hardy's view of West corresponds to that held then and now of West as a painter of - 20 -" l i m i t e d imagination and moderate g i f t s " and t h i s reference suggests that Clym, unlike West, has an inspired imagination which informs his dreams. This v i s i o n of Clym as an inspired i d e a l i s t who wishes to educate the ignor-ant suggests a connection between Clym and the Apollo of the Delacroix painting: one of the conventional emblematic readings of the Apollo-Typhon c o n f l i c t i d e n t i f i e s Apollo with Reason, Wisdom, Knowledge,and• Typhon with the I r r a t i o n a l and Ignorance. S i m i l a r l y , the portrayal of Diana as a s s i s t i n g Apollo i n the Delacroix painting, r i c h l y illuminates Clym's i d e a l i s t i c notions of Eustachia before t h e i r marriage. He believes that she " i s excellently educated, and would make a good matron i n a boarding school" (p. 215) and he regards her, mis-takenly, as the perfect helpmate to a s s i s t him i n his Utopian scheme. Clearly then the role Eustachia. would play i n Clym's scheme p a r a l l e l s that of Diana i n the Delacroix painting. This notion of Eustachia as Apollo's helpmate has been hinted at e a r l i e r i n the novel, however, i n a v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n found i n the nar-rator's f i r s t description of her i n "The Figure Against the Sky" chapter: The handkerchief which had hooded her head was now a l i t t l e thrown back, her face being somewhat elevated. A p r o f i l e was v i s i b l e against the monochrome of cloud around her; and i t was as though side-shadows from the features of Sappho and Mrs. Siddons had converged upwards from the tomb to form an image l i k e neither but suggesting both. (p. 82) The p o r t r a i t of Sappho, to which Hardy alludes i s , I think, the w e l l -known version by Baron Gros, e n t i t l e d "Sapho a Leucate" (Musee de Bayeux) which was f i r s t exhibited i n the P a r i s Salon of 1801 and was consequently engraved by Laugier. In t h i s version Sappho i s portrayed, i n p r o f i l e , • as a romantic, distressed maiden, frozen i n time just at the moment before she leaps off the c l i f f because her love f o r phaon has been rejected. - 21 -Several of the d e t a i l s i n t h i s painting, and t h e i r emblematic meanings, cl e a r l y suggest a connection between i t and the Apollo-Diana pattern. On the l e f t hand side stands an engraved pedestal bearing a form which resembles a g r i f f i n , a mythological creature t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated with Apollo i n c l a s s i c a l myth, while the l y r e which Sappho embraces was the emblem of Apollo i n the conception of him as the god of poetry and 10 music. The presence of the moon, which gently i r r a d i a t e s Sappho's outline i n the painting, i s v i s u a l l y suggestive of Eustachia as Diana, the moon goddess. Thus Hardy uses the emblematic facts that surround the Sappho i n the painting to suggest her a: .and hence Eustachia's - i d e n t i f i -cation with Diana. The notion of Eustachia as Diana i s q u a l i f i e d by the narrator i n both the references to the Galerie d'Apollon and i n the Sappho - Mrs. Siddons a l l u s i o n . The Galerie d'Apollon reference, i t should be noted, Is embed-ded i n the proposal scene, which takes place during an eclipse of the moon. Eustachia appears under the barrow i n t h i s scene as "the shadow on the moon perceptibly widened" (p. 218), a fact which strongly suggests the sense of Eustachia as Hecate "the goddess of the Dark of the Moon, the 11 black nights when the moon i s hidden." According to c l a s s i c a l myth, Hecate was the malignant form of the moon goddess associated with e v i l magic, r e c a l l i n g the numerous references i n the novel to Eustachia as 12 witch. This suggests an ambiguity i n one's reading of the Delacroix that l a t e r action and several of the allusions confirm: Eustachia i s the bright figure of Diana, but the figure of the serpent that blends, i n the painting, with the dark clouds surrounding i t , i s emblem not only generally of e v i l but s p e c i f i c a l l y of the goddess Hecate. - 22 -The darker, Hecate side of Eustachia's character was also hinted at i n the narrator's f i r s t detailed description of her, i n the a l l u s i o n to the portrait-:of Mrs. Siddons. Although Mrs. Siddons was the subject of many-p o r t r a i t s i n the eighteenth and nineteenth century, the most notable being S i r Joshua Reynolds' "Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse" (Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery), the d e t a i l s i n t h i s passage suggest that Hardy had another p o r t r a i t i n mind, that of S i r William Beechey's " P o r t r a i t of Mrs. Siddons with the Emblems of Tragedy" (which was exhibited i n the Royal Academy i n 1878). Beechey's p o r t r a i t contains s i g n i f i c a n t elements from the scene i n the novel which are missing from the Reynold's p o r t r a i t . In the Reynolds' p o r t r a i t , Mrs. Siddons i s seated, facing the viewer, i n a carved chair attended by two figures, P i t y and Terror. In Beechey's por-t r a i t , Mrs. Siddons appears i n p r o f i l e , with a handkerchief wound about her head, just as Eustachia i s described wearing one, and i n the r i g h t hand corner of the painting i s a tomb which r e c a l l s the novelist's description of side-shadows converging "upwards from the tomb" (p. 82). Further, i n Beechey's p o r t r a i t , Mrs. Siddons i s represented as standing almost sil h o u -etted against the sublime landscape holding a mask; Eustachia, i n the scene i n the novel, stands i n a p o s i t i o n of i s o l a t i o n on the barrow overlooking Egdon Heath and her face i s described as s t i l l and almost mask-like'"for the mobile parts of her countenance could not be s e e n " (p. 82). Beechey's painting provides a p i c t o r i a l image of Eustachia which i s i n sharp contrast to that found i n Gros's painting of Sappho. In the Beechey painting, the moon i s covered by cloud and we are confronted not with Diana, helpmate of Apollo, but with the unabashedly scheming and mur-derous face of Mrs. Siddons as Lady Macbeth. This expression, the f a c t of the p r o f i l e , i n combination with the emblems of the mask, the tomb, the - 23 -turban-like handkerchief covering the head, the darkness and the sublime landscape against which the figure stands reinforce the meaning of the a l l u s i o n to t h i s painting as Eustachia as Hecate (destructive manifesta-t i o n of the moon goddess associated with graveyards) rather than as Diana. The Sappho - Mrs. Siddons a l l u s i o n then, l i k e the Galerie d'Apollon reference, stresses the notion of Eustachia as a d u a l i s t i c character (Diana - Hecate). The reference i n the novel then, at the point at which the a l l u s i o n occurs, to "side shadows" converging "upwards from the tomb to form an image l i k e neither but suggesting both" acts, i n combination with these "readings" of the two p o r t r a i t s , as a very important comment on Eustachia. The t h i r d "image" that transcends the other two i s ( i n terms of the mythic p a r a l l e l ) Selene, the i d e a l personality of Eustachia. The terms i n which t h i s i s presented stress the i n a b i l i t y of Eustachia to resolve the c o n f l i c t between the Diana s- Hecate elements, the l i g h t and the dark, the po s i t i v e and the negative within her. This notion i s further reinforced by an i n d i r e c t v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n , which relates, as I w i l l argue to Eustachia's dream. This a l l u s i o n occurs i n the chapter e n t i t l e d "Eustachia i s l e d on to an Adventure" i n which Eustachia decides to take part i n the mumming play! Eustachia had occasionally heard the part recited before. When the l a d ended she began, precisely i n the same words, and ranted on without hitch or divergence t i l l she too reached the end. I t was the same thing, yet somehow d i f -ferent. Like i n forms, i t had the added softness and f i n -i s h of a Raffaelle a f t e r Perugino, which, while f a i t h f u l l y reproducing the o r i g i n a l subject e n t i r e l y distances the o r i -g i n a l art. The significance of t h i s reference i n i t s immediate context i s to convey the impression that Eustachia's polished and graceful r e c i t a t i o n of the mumming speech i s to Charley's less graceful one * as the f l u i d i t y and elegance - 24 -of Raphael's style i s to the sharper and less graceful style of Perugino. However, upon close examination of the d e t a i l s i n t h i s and related scenes, i t seems quite probable that Hardy may have had i n mind a s p e c i f i c paint-ing of Raphael's e n t i t l e d "The Knight's Dream" (National Gallery, London). This painting, according to a Raphael scholar, Charles M i t c h e l l , reveals the influence of Perugino upon his pu p i l and i n fact M i t c h e l l notes that the figure of the sleeping knight i n the Raphael painting was copied from the two figures of the apostles i n Perugino's "Christ i n Gethsemane" (Gal-. \ 14 erie d Arte Agtica e moderne, Florence;. "The Knight's Dream" portrays three figures (a sleeping knight flanked by two feminine figures) i n the foreground of a landscape that consists of a road winding through a v a l l e y and which contains several of the elements found i n the descriptions that precede and follow the scene i n which the a l l u s i o n i s made. To begin with, the winding road dotted with human figures r e c a l l s the preceding scene i n the novel i n which Eustachia has observed Clym's return to the heath: She had not f a r retraced her steps when sounds i n front of her betokened the approach of persons i n conversation along the same path. Soon t h e i r heads became v i s i b l e against the sky. They were walking slowly: and though i t was too dark f o r much discov-ery of character from aspect, the ga i t of them showed they were not workers on the heath. Eustachia stepped a l i t t l e out of the footpath to l e t them pass. They were two women and a man... (p. 140) Moreover, the posture of the Knight i n the Raphael painting, as a physical f a c t , corresponds to the posture that Eustachia assumes at the end of the mumming play i n her role as Turkish Knight (this correspondence between physical facts i n the painting and mumming scene should not, however, be interpreted to suggest that Eustachia i s i d e n t i f i e d with the Knight i n the painting)'*'-': - 25 -The gradual sinking to the earth was i n f a c t , one reason why Eustachia had thought that the part of the Turkish Knight, though not the shortest, would s u i t , her "best. A d i r e c t f a l l from the upright to the horizontal, which was the end of other f i g h t i n g characters, was:not an elegant or decorous part f o r a g i r l . But i t was easy to die l i k e a Turk, by dogged decline. Eustachia was now among the number of the s l a i n , though not on the f l o o r , f o r she had managed to sink into a sloping po s i t i o n against the clock case, so that her head was well el e -vated, (p. 16o) More importantly, I w i l l argue, the figure of the knight i n t h i s dream painting resembles the description of Glym as Knight i n s i l v e r armour i n Eustachia's dream: She was dancing to wondrous music, and her partner was the man i n s i l v e r armour who had accompanied her through the previous fa n t a s t i c changes, the v i s o r of his helmet being closed. The mazes of the dance were ec s t a t i c . Soft whisperings came into her ear from under the radiant helmet, and she f e l t l i k e a woman i n Paradise. Suddenly these two wheeled out from the mass of dancers, dived into one of the pools of the heath, and came out somewhere beneath an iridescent hollow, arched with rainbows. ' I t must be here', said the voice by her side, and blushingly looking up she saw him removing his casque to k i s s her. At that moment there was a cracking noise,vand his figure f e l l into fragments l i k e a pack of cards, (p. 1^3) Although the Knight i n the Raphael painting does not wear a visored helmet or face-covering, he does wear s i l v e r coloured armour, and can, I think, be associated with the knight Eustachia envisages. The relevance of t h i s p i c t o r i a l image to the Apollo - Diana pattern and to Eustachia's dream of Glym before t h e i r f i r s t meeting becomes clear, i f one examines the Raphael painting closely.' The Knight i n the painting, whom-1 have suggested corresponds with Eustachia's dream-vision of Glym, may also be i d e n t i f i e d with Apollo, f o r the l a u r e l which appears to be growing out of the Knight's shoulder i s his emblem: the tree was sacred to Apollo ( i n remembrance of his f i r s t love, Daphne). I f then, the figure of the knight i s seen as an i d e a l form of Clym, then the two women who - 26 -stand on either side of the knight are emblems not only of the two pos-s i b i l i t i e s of action open to Clym (return to the world of pleasure, P a r i s , or the establishment of a school) but of the two elements i n Eustachia's character. The figure that conventionally emblemizes Pleasure may be i n t e r -preted as the manifestation of Hecate i n Eustachia; an interpretation reinforced by the serpentine ribbon that winds along her shoulder. On the other side stands the figure which conventionally emblemizes Duty. This figure, which holds a sword and book, emblems of the battle against ignorance,.may be interpreted as the manifestation of Diana i n Eustachia. The other emblematic facts i n the painting then - the f a c t of the central figure being asleep, the winding road behind him, the mountain i n the d i s -tant background - a l l may be read as prefiguring the future progress of Clym - just as the elements of Eustachia's dream, recorded i n the novel, prefigure her f i n a l end i n the weir. This interpretation of the painting suggests a double meaning i n the description of Eustachia's dream which I have quoted above. The obvious meaning i s that the Diana-like q u a l i t y i n Eustachia has been united with her i d e a l " i n paradise" and that the collapse of the dream has been a re s u l t of the knight's k i s s i n g her, the int r u s i o n of the physical, the breaking of the s p e l l , the reawakening into the r e a l world. There appears to be another meaning, however, i n which Eustachia plays the role of Hecate rather than Diana i n the dream. In t h i s interpretation, she leads the knight down from paradise "into one of the pools of the heath" where the act of love i s destructive. This reading obviously emphasizes the dream as a prefiguring of the fact at the end of the novel i n which Eustachia 16 drags both Clym and Wildeve down into the weir. This painting then - 27 -c l e a r l y represents i n the forms of emblems the disparate elements i n Eustachia's character of which she i s not f u l l y aware, and the f i g u r e of the knight sleeping and apparently unconscious of the two f i g u r e s that stand, one at each side of him, represents Clym's i n a b i l i t y to see or understand these two quite disparate elements within her. Clym's d e s c r i p t i o n of the p l a y of l i g h t i n the Galerie d'Apollon reference states f o r the f i r s t time as f u l f i l l e d i d e a l , the meaning of l i g h t as symbol and s p e c i f i c a l l y Clym's notion of both himself and Eustachia i n terms of, or i n relationship, to i t . As Clym describes the sunlight enter-ing the east window of the room, the r e s u l t i n g "perfect network of l i g h t " reminds him of the subject of t h e i r marriage. This l i g h t i s comprised of both d i r e c t sunlight, which suggests the l i g h t of Apollo (Clym), and r e f l e c -ted sunlight, which suggests the moonlight associated with Diana (Eustachia). 17 The completely u n i f i e d network of l i g h t - the i d e a l - prefigures the nar-r a t o r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the f i r s t i d y l l i c week i n the marriage of Clym and Eustachia: "They were enclosed i n a sort of luminous mist, which h i d from them the .surroundings of inharmonious colour and gore to a l l things the character of l i g h t . When i t rained they were charmed, because they could remain indoors together a l l day with such a show of reason; when i t was f i n e they were charmed, because they could s i t together on the h i l l s . They were l i k e double s t a r s , which revolve round and round each other and from a distance appear to be one" (p. 26l). The double stars which appear to blend i n t o an i d e a l unity suggest once again the motif of the sun and moon (Apollo and Diana). Eustachia's emergence as an i d e a l f i g u r e i n t h i s honeymoon d e s c r i p t i o n s i g n i f i e s a b r i e f r e a l i z a t i o n of her p o t e n t i a l to transcend the d u a l i t y - 28 -of her nature. Eustachia i s , however, unable to maintain t h i s i d e a l state beyond the duration of her honeymoon and becomes an increasingly destruc-t i v e f i gure, and as the description of the night i n which she i s drowned makes clear (the moon i s e n t i r e l y obscured by cloud), our f i n a l view of her i s as Hecate. The central v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n to the Galerie d'Apollon, and i n d i -r e c t l y to the Delacroix painting, provides an a l l e g o r i c a l statement of Clym's i d e a l i s t i c ambitions as well as a v i s u a l representation of Eustachia's d u a l i s t i c nature. Other elements i n the novel correspond to elements i n the Christian version of t h i s myth, the Legend of St. George and the Dragon 18 (and to p i c t o r i a l representations of i t ) . These elements are scattered throughout the scenes-in which Eustachia dreams of Clym before t h e i r acquain-tance and tend to clu s t e r around the mumming play scene. The detailed rend-ering of the action In the mumming scene suggests that the play i s intended to bear thematic significance rather than simply to infuse l o c a l colour. Further, the longest quotation from the r i t u a l i s t i c play i s that devoted to the speech concerning St. George k i l l i n g the dragon: Here come I , Saint George, the v a l i a n t man, With naked sword and spear i n hand, Who fought the dragon and brought him to slaughter, And by t h i s won f a i r Sabra, the king of Egypt's daughter, What -man could dare to stand Before me with sword i n hand? (p. 159) Although t h i s i s the most e x p l i c i t reference to the legend of St. George and the dragon, components of the legend and the p i c t o r i a l representations of i t appear piecemeal throughout the early scenes. The f i r s t such r e f e r -ence i s to be found i n one of the i n i t i a l descriptions of Eustachia: She often repeated her prayers; not at p a r t i c u l a r times, but l i k e the unaffectedly devout, when she desired to pray. Her prayer was always spontaneous, and often ran thus, 'o deliver - 29 -my heart from t h i s f e a r f u l gloom and loneliness: send me great love from somewhere, else I s h a l l die. (p. 9?) In t h i s "brief and i r o n i c description of Eustachia as a devout maiden i n distress who prays to "be rescued, she corresponds to the descriptions of Gleodolinda, kneeling i n prayer i n the legend and p i c t o r i a l representations of St. George. The description of Eustachia's dream introduces the figure of a knight i n s i l v e r armour, which corresponds to the appearance t r a d i -t i o n a l l y ascribed to St. George, and the role of t h i s knight i s specified further i n the novel, as the narrator describes Eustachia's thoughts set-t i n g out f o r the mumming play: She had come out to see a man who might .possibly have the power to d e l i v e r her soul from a most deadly oppression. What was Wildev.e?' Interesting but inadequate. Perhaps she would see a s u f f i c i e n t hero tonight, (p. 155) As the passage implies, the role of Knight i n Eustachia's dream i s that of rescuer, just as i n the St. George legends and paintings, the knight's role i s to rescue Gleodolinda from the dragon threatening her. One f u r -ther quotation reinforces the p a r a l l e l between Eustachia and Gleodolinda as'princess removed from the greater, courtly world and forced to reside i n a desolate heath. This passage occurs i n "The Fascination" section, i n which Sam informs Clym that Eustachia would not have taken part i n the mumming play: Her notions be different. I should rather say her thoughts were f a r away from here, with lords and ladies s h e ' l l never know, and mansions s h e ' l l never see again! (p. 202) Thus Eustachia's v i s i o n of herself corresponds to the figure of Cleodollnda i n the St. George legends and p i c t o r i a l representations, while her v i s i o n of Clym corresponds to St. George. The significance of these p a r a l l e l s between elements i n the novel and those found i n the legends and paintings of St. George i s to suggest the - 30 -nature of Eustachia's i d e a l i s t i c dreams of herself and Clym. The terms from the legend that she uses romantically d i s t o r t the fa c t s . Thus the meaning of the legend i s quite di f f e r e n t from the meaning (which i s that of the novelist) of the myth of Apollo and Diana, and they both enrich the meaning of the r e a l action between Clym and Eustachia - f o r the myth does not d i s t o r t the facts but restates them at the l e v e l of i d e a l action. See-ing herself as distressed maiden, Eustachia envisions Clym as a noble deliverer who w i l l free her from the oppression of the heath and who w i l l transport her to the greater world of l i g h t (Paris) i n which she may assume her r i g h t f u l place. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g however, to note the general compo-s i t i o n of several nineteenth century p i c t o r i a l treatments of t h i s legend (which Hardy would very l i k e l y have been f a m i l i a r with) f o r i n many of them the form of the dragon i s v i s u a l l y l i n k e d with that of the distressed 19 maiden. An extreme version of t h i s v i s u a l motif i s found i n Holman Hunt's 20 "The Lady of Shallot" (Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Conn.) i n which the v i s u a l l i n k between dragon and maiden i s complete, the lady's bodice of serpentine scales ,'incombination with the sinuous l i n e s of her a t t i t u d e , making her the serpent. Thus the nineteenth century p i c t o r i a l treatments of t h i s theme, which v i s u a l l y unite the serpent and the distressed maiden into one form, c l e a r l y convey the duality of Eustachia's nature as v i r t u -ous maiden (or Diana) and destructive serpent (or Hecate) and lend further emphasis to the meaning of the contrast i n the novel between Eustachia's idea of her role i n the Christian legend of St. George and the demonstr-t i o n i n the l a t e r action of what that role i n fact i s . The f i r s t of the l i t e r a r y , verbal (and largely mythological) r e f e r -ences ,.,of which the central v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n to the Delacroix painting makes a pattern,occurs i n the bon-fire scene i n the description of the - 31 -nameless turfcutter who "carries across his shoulder the singular heart shaped spade of large dimensions used i n that species of labour; and i t s well-whetted edge gleamed l i k e a s i l v e r bow i n the beams of the f i r e " (p. $1). The s i l v e r bow i s the char a c t e r i s t i c emblem assigned to both Apollo and Diana and the a l l u s i o n here introduces ( i n the context of the Delacroix alone) a suggestion of t h i s figure as a form of Apollo, a suggestion that w i l l l a t e r attach i t s e l f to Glym when he makes a s i m i l a r entrance among the heath-dwellers. The context of the action and the description of the bon-fire reinforces t h i s suggestion and lends i t a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l empha-s i s : "the great ones had perished, but these remained. They occupied the remotest v i s i b l e portions - sky backed summits r i s i n g out of r i c h coppice and plantation d i s t r i c t s to the north, where the s o i l was d i f f e r e n t , and heath foreign and strange, save one; and t h i s was the nearest of any, the moon of the whole shining throng"' (p. 5°) . One might refer to Frazer's The Golden Bough to support the proposition that the metaphorical descrip-t i o n of the f i r e s i n the passage indicates that they are of ancient r e l i -21 gious o r i g i n and associated with the worship of the moon goddess. The heath-dwellers'confused and superstitious ideas about the meaning of the f i r e and the influence of the moon on t h e i r l i v e s functions,.as does the reduction of the s i l v e r bow to the l e v e l of mere simile, to draw attention to a contrast between these debased modern r i t e s and the o r i g i n a l s p i r i t u a l energy of the ancient r i t e s . Yet another interpretation of the scene i s suggested by a correspon-dence between d e t a i l s i n the description of the t u r f - c u t t e r and to those i n Durer's woodcut e n t i t l e d "Christ appears to Mary Magdalene" which i s part of the Small Passion series. In i t Christ appears i n the clothes of a working man, bearing a bow-shaped spade over his shoulder, and Mary - 32 -Magdalen who i n i t i a l l y mistakes Christ f o r a simple gardener, has just recognized him. On the l e f t hand side, the sun.appears p a r t i a l l y obscured on the horizon. The meaning of the composition, the prominent p o s i t i o n of the emblems of the sun,and the bow shaped spade suggest an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the central figure with Apollo as with Christ. Hardy's description, of the tu r f - c u t t e r interpreted i n terms of Durer' s p i c t o r i a l image p r e f i g -ures then the movement of a Christ or Apo l l o - l i k e figure, Clym Yeobright, into the heath-dweller community. Mary Magdalen i n relationship to the Christ figure, plays the same kind of role that the heath-dwellers are to play i n relationship with Clym. She and they both misunderstand the motives and significance of the figure who enters t h e i r world from what they con-22 ceive of as an i d e a l one. Either interpretation of the tu r f - c u t t e r , as a debased p r i e s t p r e s i -ding over the r i t u a l f i r e s of Diana, or as a Christ/Apollo figure, unrec-ognized by the heath-dwellers because he has w i l l i n g l y concealed his d i v i n -i t y i n a human form, conveys the, notion of the heath-dwellers as simple, elemental people, who are unable to perceive the Ideal or r e l i g i o u s s i g -nificance i n t h e i r world. This notion i s further reinforced by an overt a l l u s i o n to Durer's work e a r l i e r i n the same bon-fire scene: to l i g h t a f i r e i s the i n s t i n c t i v e and resistant act of man when, at the winter ingress, the curfew i s sounded throughout nature. I t indicates a spontaneous, Promethean rebelliousness against the f i a t that t h i s recurrent season s h a l l bring f o u l times, cold dark-ness, misery and death. Black chaos comes, and the fettered gods of earth say, Let there be l i g h t . The b r i l l i a n t l i g h t s and sooty shades which struggled upon the skin and clothes of persons round caused t h e i r lineaments and general contours to be drawn with Dureresque vigour and dash. Yet the permanent moral expression of each face i t was impossible to discover as the nimble flames towered, nodded and swooped through the surrounding a i r , the blots of shades and flakes of l i g h t upon the countenances of the group changed shape and p o s i -t i o n endlessly. A l l was unstable; quivering as leaves, evanescent - 33 -as lightning. Shadowy eye-sockets, deep as those of a death's-head, suddenly turned into p i t s of l u s t r e : a lantern jaw was cavernous, then i t was shining; wrinkles were emphasized to ravines, or obliterated e n t i r e l y by a changed ray. N o s t r i l s were dark wells; sinews i n old necks were g i l t mouldings; things with no p a r t i c u l a r p o l i s h on them were glazed; bright objects, such as the t i p of a furze hook one of the men carried, were as glass; eye b a l l s glowed l i k e l i t t l e lanterns. Those whom nature had depicted as merely quaint became grotesque, the grotesque became preternatural; f o r a l l was i n extremity, (p. 45) The transfiguration of the faces by f i r e - l i g h t i s a verbal rendering of a s i m i l a r d i s t o r t i o n i n several of Durer's woodcuts, p a r t i c u l a r l y those depic-t i n g the martyrdom of saints. In "The Martyrdom of St. John" (The B r i t i s h Museum, London) the v e r t i c a l l y ascending l i n e s of the flame reach- out from under the cauldron to transform and d i s t o r t a l l the other forms i n the woodcut, creating the impression that the whole world i s distorted by the central act of cruelty. Thus on the r i g h t hand side of the woodcut, the l i n e s of the flames stretch out along the s t i c k - l i k e legs of the cauldron to the twisted arm muscles of the saint and continue along the stream of b o i l i n g o i l flowing from a long handled bucket, the form of which v i s u a l l y resembles the form of the cauldron supported by s t i c k - l i k e legs. These flame-like l i n e s are continued i n the face of the man i n front 6'f the tree-trunk- (which resembles billowing smoke) and the billowing l i n e s of the tree-trunk touch those of the dark panoply, drawn with diagonal, radiating flamerlike lines,. S i m i l a r l y , i n "The Martyrdom of St. Catherine" (National Gallery, Melbourne) the flame-like l i n e s of the broken wheels i n the l e f t foreground appear to radiate out i n a l l directions of the woodcut: they stretch out along the folds of St. Catherine's dress, to the spiky, flame-l i k e plant i n the lower r i g h t hand corner and along the r i g h t hand side of the painting to meet the spike-like shapes that emerge l i k e broken spokes from the f i e r y , explosive cloud dominating the upper-area of the woodcut. - 3 4 -These flame-like l i n e s once again serve to transform and d i s t o r t a l l other forms i n the woodcut, f o r the angular l i n e s of the executioner's sword are those of the elongated executioner himself and the beards of the men on the r i g h t hand side appear as flame l i k e . E v i l represented by the f i r e i n both woodcuts radiates out and transforms the appearances of the i m p l i -cated spectators and hence the inner r e a l i t i e s . The man-made h e l l of the saints' torment envelopes the whole universe i n which i t i s shown as taking place. Hardy's introduction and conclusion to the central bon-fire descrip-t i o n exemplifies t h i s technique i n verbal terms. The opening passage, "Moreover to l i g h t a f i r e . . . Let there be l i g h t " indicates a view of man as a romantic, god-like rebel against the facts of nature, f o r i t i s man who says "Let there be l i g h t . " The description that follows, however, sug-gests that man's l i g h t , when r e a l i z e d , I s f a r from the i d e a l he desires. The actual l i g h t transforms the human r e a l i t y into an unstable, fragmented 23 version of a possible i d e a l . J As the concluding sentence of the passage makes clear, "Those whom nature... a l l was i n extremity" the ordinary becomes as a consequence endowed with a supernatural qual i t y . The term "grotesque" however suggests, i n contrast to "Let there be l i g h t " that t h i s supernatural q u a l i t y i s negative rather than p o s i t i v e , e v i l rather than good. The heath-dwellers, themselves, who have no conception of t h i s v i s i o n , are transformed by i t into figures reminiscent of the devi l s i n h e l l . This appearance i s p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate given the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Eustachia, who presides over the whole of t h i s section of the action on Egdon Heath, as Hecate. The other v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n that i s submerged i n the bon-fire scene reinforces the notion of the heath-dwellers as incapable of appreciating - 35 -the i d e a l i n the commonplace". This a l l u s i o n occurs when Fairway notices Diggory approaching the f i r e : Lord's sake, I thought, whatever f i e r y mommet i s t h i s came to trouble us? No s l i g h t to your looks reddleman, f o r ye hain't bad looking i n the groundwork, though the f i n i s h i s queer. My meaning i s j u s t to say how, curious I f e l t . Ihhalf thought 'twas the d e v i l or the red ghost the boy t o l d of. ' I t gied me a turn likewise,'.said Susan 'Nunsuch, f o r I had a dream l a s t night of a deaths head.' 'Don't ye ta l k o't no more,' said Christian. ' I f he had a handkerchief over his head he'd look f o r a l l the world l i k e the Devil i n the picture of Temptation.' (p. 59) Although'.it would be d i f f i c u l t to establish the precise picture of the Temptation that Hardy had i n mind here, the possible choices are few, f o r "The Temptation of Jesus i n the wilderness has never been a common theme. 24 of A r t . " In many of the versions, the d e v i l i s portrayed as an angel or as a beautiful woman, but i n one of the versions, that by the Follower of P a t i n i r , e n t i t l e d "Landscape with the Temptation of Christ" (Banbury, Upton House, National Trust), there are certain correspondences between the painting and the passage i n the novel. In t h i s painting, the land-scape background resembles the descriptions of Egdon Heath i n the opening chapters of the novel. The d e v i l i n the painting, moreover, wears a hood over his head, which may have suggested to Hardy a woolen handkerchief. Further the attitude of the d e v i l i n the painting and the manner i n which the cloak covers h i s face and body does suggest a ghost. Fairway's description of Diggory Venn as a " f i e r y mommet", " d e v i l " , and "red ghost" implies that the heath-dwellers perceive the reddleman as not altogether human, as d e v i l and t h i s perception reinforces the notion of the f i r e as the f i r e of h e l l and the world of the heath as haunted by e v i l . However, as one c r i t i c , John Paterson, has noted, Diggory Venn was conceived by Hardy as a pagan figure, " s p i r i t of fen and forest" J who - 36 -was intended to symbolize "the values of a Pre-Christian way of l i f e . " < c u Diggory Venn's character and his intimate association with "forest and fen" further suggest, however, that he i s to be associated with Diana, the god-dess who presided over woodlands, and that Hardy may have had i n mind 27 Diana's p r i e s t , Virbius. These suggestions about the nature of Diggory Venn as both Christian d e v i l and pagan p r i e s t act to reinforce the major mythic pattern that i s organized about the Delacroix a l l u s i o n . In t h i s episode the heath-dwellers' v i s i o n has been defined i n largely r e l i g i o u s terms as primitive and superstitious. Another overt, v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n i n the novel defines i t more precisely as fac t . This a l l u s i o n i s found i n "The Fascination" section, chapter three, i n which Mrs. Yeobright discusses with Clym his plans to become a school-teachers What was the great world to Mrs. Yeobright? A multitude whose tendencies could be perceived, though not i t s essences. Com-munities were seen by her as from a distance; she saw them as we see the throngs which cover the canvases of S a l l a e r t , Van Al s l o o t , and others of that school - vast masses of beings, j o s t l i n g , zig-zagging, and processioning i n d e f i n i t e directions, but whose features are indistinguishable by the very comprehen-siveness of the view. (p. 212) Although both Anthonis S a l l a e r t and Denis Van Alsloot painted a number of procession scenes, the painting which most closely corresponds to the d e t a i l s i n t h i s scene i s Anthonis S a l l a e r t ' s "Procession de 1'Ommenganck, l e s Ser-ments" ( V i c t o r i a and Albert Museum, London). This painting, i n which f i l e s of men march i n different directions, waging a mock battle under the banner of St. George i n the main square of a town, portrays v i v i d l y the type of bustling confusion evoked by the description of Mrs. Yeobright's v i s i o n . Her view of l i f e i s a simple one; a l l she sees i s ther:<surface con-fusion of r e a l i t y and she i s unable to see the pattern or order that, the reference implies, underlies i t as the underlying composition does that i n - 37 -i n the Van Alsloot p a i n t i n g . " w The references concerning Eustachia a l l draw p a r t i c u l a r attention to the difference between the educated and peasant visions i n the novel, a difference which i s i n t h i s case however one of degree. Thus Clym and Diggory envision Eustachia d i f f e r e n t l y on the basis of the facts of t h e i r d i f f e r i n g experiences, but both these visions of her coalesce and translate 29 "the q u a l i t i e s that are already there - half-hidden, i t may be." Although Diggory i s superior i n many ways to the other heath-dwellers, he i s s t i l l l i m i t e d i n his experience to the facts of the heath. For him, she has no mythic connections and as the narrator notes: "there was a certain obsur-i t y i n Eustachia's beauty and Venn's eye was not trained. In her winter dress, as now, she was l i k e the t i g e r beetle, which when observed i n d u l l s i t uations, seems to be of the quietest neutral colour, but under f u l l i l l u -mination blazes with dazzling splendour" (p. 1 1 6 ) . Although no mythic con-nection i s made e x p l i c i t , a suggestion of Eustachia as moon i s however implied i n the f i n a l clause. The mythological and verbal references to Eustachia as Diana are those of the narrator. The f i r s t , e x p l i c i t r e f e r -ence to her as such occurs i n the "Queen of Night" chapter: "In a dim l i g h t and with a s l i g h t rearrangement of hair, her general figure might have stood f o r that of either of the higher female d i e t i e s . The new moon behind her head... would have been.. .• s u f f i c i e n t to s t r i k e the note of Artemis" (p. 9*0. The second, verbal reference to her as a moon goddess figure occurs l a t e r i n the novel, i n a scene following Mrs. Yeobright's death: "one evening, about three weeks a f t e r the funeral of Mrs. Yeobright, when the s i l v e r face of the moon sent a bundle of beams d i r e c t l y upon the f l o o r of Clym's house at Alderworth, a woman came f o r t h from within. She reclined over the garden gate as i f to refresh herself awhile. The pale - 38 -lunar touches which make "beauties of hags len t d i v i n i t y to t h i s face, already b e a u t i f u l " (p. 237). While Clym does not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r to her as Diana i n the novel, his notions of her as an i d e a l figure, whether pos i t i v e or negative, are phrased i n such a way as to suggest that he con-sciously associates her with the moon or moon goddess. Thus i t would seem to me reasonable to i d e n t i f y the narrator's v i s i o n and the s p e c i f i c references to Eustachia as moon goddess as those of an educated conscious-ness, e s s e n t i a l l y corresponding to that of Clym. EustachiavVs f i r s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Clym as an i d e a l , Apollo-figure, occurs i n the scene i n which she f i r s t hears of his return to the heath: "a young and clever man was coming into that lonely heath, from, of a l l the contrasting places i n the world, Paris. I t was l i k e a man coming from heaven" (p. 134). This i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s made more e x p l i c i t a few chapters l a t e r , when Eustachia, considering what she may be missing i n not attend-ing the Yeobright's mumming party, speculates: "but had she been going, what an opportunity would have been afforded her of seeing the man whose influence was penetrating her l i k e the summer sun" (p. 149). Eustachia's f i r s t sight of Clym at the mumming play confirms her fan-tasies about him: I t was however, not with those who sat i n the s e t t l e that Eustachia was concerned. A face showed i t s e l f with marked distinctiveness against the dark-tanned wood of the upper part. The owner, who was leaning against the s e t t l e ' s outer end, was Clement Yeobright or Clym as he was ca l l e d here; she knew i t could be nobody else. The spectacle constituted an area of two feet i n Rembrandt's intensest manner. A stranger power lay i n the fact that, though his whole figure was v i s i b l e , the observer's eye was only aware of his face... As f o r his look, i t was natural cheerfulness s t r i v i n g against depression from without, and not quite succeeding. The look sug-gested i s o l a t i o n , but i t revealed something more. As i s usual with bright natures, the diety that l i e s ignominiously chained within an ephemeral human carcase shown out of him l i k e a ray. (p. I63) - 39 -Hardy's reference to Rembrandt develops Eustachia's v i s i o n of Clym and he refers , I think, not to a p a r t i c u l a r painting of a young man, "but to Rembrandt's unique technique. In his paintings, the i s o l a t i o n of. human faces by l i g h t suggests the s p i r i t u a l or divine nature of his subjects. Hardy's s p e c i f i c phrase "the diety that l i e s ignominiously chained within an ephemeral human carcase" i n combination with the l i n k between s p i r i t and l i g h t and the reference to Rembrandt emphasize the role of Clym as Apollo (as shepherd l i v i n g among men). The f a c t that Rembrandt painted several versions of Christ as a young man i n t h i s "intensest manner" leads one to make the further connection once more from Apollo to Christ. Eustachia's i d e a l i z e d notions of Clym are not substantially affected by increasing knowledge of his character as t h e i r acquaintance progresses, f o r i n the proposal scene these notions emerge unchanged: "Clym, the eclipsed moonlight shines on your face with a strange, foreign colour, and i t shows i t s shape as i f i t were cut out i n gold. That means youoshould be doing better things than t h i s " (p. 221). Clym himself l a t e r becomes aware of the nature of her i d e a l i z a t i o n of him: "as his sight grew accustomed to the f i r s t blinding halo kindled about him by love and beauty, Yeobright began to perceive what a s t r a i t he was i n . Sometimes he wished he had never known Eustachia" (p. 223). As the passage implies, t h i s i d e a l i z e d v i s i o n temporarily dazzles him as well as her and prevents him from seeing t h e i r essential incompatibility. Later s t i l l , when Clym has become physi-c a l l y b l i n d , he reminds Eustachia of her o r i g i n a l v i s i o n : '"I suppose when you f i r s t saw me and heard about me I was wrapped i n a sort of golden halo to your eyes - a man who knew glorious things and had mixed i n b r i l l i a n t scenes - i n short, an adorable, d e l i g h t f u l d i s t r a c t i n g hero" (p. 2?8). - 40 -In the f i r s t part of the novel, Hardy strongly emphasizes the con-nection between the major events i n Clym's l i f e and s i g n i f i c a n t points i n the sun's movement. Thus, Clym's return to the heath coincides not only roughly with Christmas, hut exactly with the winter s o l s t i c e : " i t was a fine and quiet afternoon, about three o'clock, but the winter s o l s t i c e having s t e a t h i l y come on, the coldness of the sun caused the hour to seem l a t e r than i t was" (p. 132). In many ancient r e l i g i o n s , according to Frazer, the winter s o l s t i c e was "regarded as the Nati v i t y of the Sun, because the day begins to lengthen and the power of the sun to increase 30 from that turning point of the year." This coincidence further streng-thens the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Clym with Apollo i n the f i r s t part of the novel. Again, the day on which Clym and Eustachia are married follows the summer s o l s t i c e , a date which t r a d i t i o n a l l y f a l l s on the twenty-fourth of June. The narrator s p e c i f i c a l l y draws the reader's attention to the prox-imity of these two dates i n the description of the weather the morning aft e r t h e i r wedding: "the dawn grew v i s i b l e i n the north-east quarter of the heavens, which the clouds having cleared o f f , was bright with a soft sheen at t h i s midsummer time, though i t was only between one and two o'clock" (p. 257). Frazer notes that the summer s o l s t i c e was regarded i n ancient r e l i g i o n as the "great turning point i n the Sun's career, when af t e r climbing higher and higher by day i n the sky, the luminary stops 31 and thenceforth retraces his steps down the heavenly road." Thus, the date of Clym's marriage closely approximates that which was t r a d i t i o n a l l y . thought to be a turning point i n the sun's career. From t h i s turning point, which i s marked by the b r i e f , i d y l l i c honeymoon, there follows a gradual decline i n Clym's physical powers and a gradual disintegration of his o r i g i n a l i d e a l i s t i c v i s i o n of himself and Eustachia. - 41 -Glym himself notes, i n terms of commonplace action, the significance of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r event, as does the narrator i n his descriptions of Clym's thoughts-before and a f t e r his marriage. Thus, i n the scene i n which Glym and Eustachia set the date of t h e i r wedding, Clym notes: "there are f o r t y years of work i n me yet, and why should you despair? I am only at an awkward turning. I wish people wouldn'-t "be so ready to think that there i s no progress without uniformity" (p. 228). The narrator's des-c r i p t i o n of t h e i r happiness i n the weeks following t h e i r marriage suggests, at the l e v e l of action, t h e i r future decline: "The absolute solitude i n which they l i v e d i n t e n s i f i e d t h e i r reciprocal thoughts, yet some might have said that i t had the disadvantage of consuming t h e i r mutual affec-tions at a f e a r f u l l y prodigal rate. Yeobright did not fear f o r his own part; but r e c o l l e c t i o n of Eustachia's old speech about the evanescence of love, now apparently forgotten by her, sometimes caused him to ask him-s e l f a question; and he recoiled at the thought that the quality of f i n i t e -ness was not foreign to Eden" (p. 262). The reference to Eden anticipates the s h i f t i n the second part of the novel from an idealism that might be described as pagan to one which i s Christian, from a view that associates Clym with Apollo to one that associates him with Christ. This s h i f t i s c l e a r l y marked by a substition of b i b l i c a l and Christian references, both verbal and v i s u a l i n the l a t e r part of the novel, f o r the pagan and gener-a l l y mythic ones i n the e a r l i e r part. The v i s u a l art allusions.--in..the f i r s t part, of the novel revealed the p o t e n t i a l of Eustachia to be Hecate-like and she becomes increasingly so i n the action following her marriage. She believes that "once married to Clym, she would have the power of inducing him to return to P a r i s . He had c a r e f u l l y witheld a l l promise to do so; but would he be proof against -us. -her coaxing and argument?" (p. 262). She becomes self-destructive i n her idispair, she deceives Clym i n her f l i r t a t i o n s with Wildevs, and she nearly destroys Clym as well as destroying Wildeye i n the weir. Her movement toward t o t a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as a Hecate figure i s not recorded e x p l i c i t l y i n the v i s u a l art allusions i n the second part, but may be traced c l e a r l y i n the action and i n one further major reference to the moon, immediately preceeding her death. Clym becomes aware of his threatened loss of sight when his r e l a t i o n -ship with Eustachia begins to disintegrate, a fact that continues into the action that follows the marriage, the symbolic associations of l i g h t with the i d e a l , from the action that proceeds i t : "One morning a f t e r a severer s t r a i n than usual, he awoke with a strange sensation i n his eyes. The sun was shining d i r e c t l y upon the window b l i n d and at his f i r s t glance t h i t h e r -ward a sharp pain obliged him to close his eyes quickly. At every new attempt to look about him the same morbid s e n s i b i l i t y to l i g h t was mani-fested, and excoriating tears ran down his cheeks. He was obliged to t i e a bandage over his brow while dressing, and during the day i t could not be•abandoned" (p. 270). This c l e a r l y suggests his increasing i n a b i l i t y now to tolerate or appreciate his e a r l i e r i d e a l v i s i o n . Moreover, his physical context becomes increasingly shadowed and darker. Thus when Clym sets out towards his mother's house the night of her death, the narrator notes: "Although the heat of summer was yet intense, the days had consider-ably shortened" (pp. 3H - 12). In the room i n which Clym l i e s a f t e r his mother's death, only "a shaded l i g h t was burning" (p. 327) and Clym himself expresses the wish "that I s h a l l never see another day" (p. 328). Thus Clym's blindness c l e a r l y represents his gradual f a l l i n g away from h i s o r i g i -nal idea of himself and his ambitions into an i n i t i a l d i s p a i r and confusion. His "blindness however has a p o s i t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e as w e l l , which i s sug-gested i n h i s d e c i s i o n to accept the r o l e of a humble f u r z e - d i g g e r : "the more I see of l i f e the more do I per c e i v e t h a t there i s nothing p a r t i c u l a r l y great i n i t s g r e a t e s t walks, and t h e r e f o r e nothing p a r t i c u l a r l y s m a l l i n mine of f u r z e - c u t t i n g . I f I f e e l t h a t the g r e a t e s t b l e s s i n g s vouch-safed to us are not very v a l u a b l e , how can I f e e l i t to be any great hardship when they are taken away? So I s i n g to pass the time" (p. 277). The des-p a i r consequent upon p h y s i c a l b l i n d n e s s i s g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d by an i n n e r s p i r i t u a l v i s i o n ("the more I see of l i f e " ) t h a t grows as the p h y s i c a l f a c t s fade. This s p i r i t u a l v i s i o n , i n the context of i n c r e a s i n g C h r i s t i a n r e f e r -ences, r e d e f i n e s h i s o r i g i n a l i d e a l v i s i o n as now,Christian, w i t h which he f u l l y i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f a t the end of the novel. E u s t a c h i a i n i t i a l l y responds to Clym's l o s s of s i g h t and adoption <of C h r i s t i a n s t o i c i s m w i t h d e s p a i r , f o r her "dream of b e a u t i f u l P a r i s was not l i k e l y to cohere Into substance i n the presence of t h i s misfortune. As day a f t e r day passed by, and he got no b e t t e r , her mind ran more and more i n t h i s mournful groove, and she would go away from him i n t o the garden and weep d e s p a i r i n g t e a r s " (p. 2 ? l ) . P e r c e i v i n g t h a t Clym no lo n g e r wishes to share I n the i d e a l world she has envisaged, she d i r e c t s her a f f e c t i o n s away from him, and i n the v i l l a g e dance scene, f e e l s t h a t "she had entered the dance from the t r o u b l e d hours of her l a t e r l i f e as one might enter a b r i l l i a n t chamber a f t e r a ni g h t walk i n a wood. Wildeve- by hi m s e l f would -. have been merely an a g i t a t i o n ; Wildeve added to the dance, and the moon-l i g h t , and the secrecy, began to be a d e l i g h t " (p. 238). Her encourage-ment of Wildeve i n t h i s scene in t r o d u c e s deception and dishonesty i n t o her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Clym and she becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y d e s t r u c t i v e and c a r e l e s s . She complains l a t e r to Wildeye of the change i n her husband: - kk -"he's an enthusiast about ideas, and careless about outward things. He often reminds me of the Apostle Paul... the worst of i t i s that though Paul was an excellent man i n the Bible he would hardly have done i n r e a l l i f e " (p. 302). She no longer fe e l s attracted to.him and intends to pur-sue her dreams of pleasure, which now include Wildeive, despite him. She recklessly and f l i r t a t i o u s l y entertains Wildeve i n her home while Clym sleeps i n the adjoining room. Her destructiveness increasingly radiates out to affect others and contributes to the death of Mrs. Yeobright. The death of Mrs. Yeobright marks a new phase i n the action. Clym emerges not simply as a Christian figure but i s increasingly i d e n t i f i e d with Christ, and Eustachia emerges as an e n t i r e l y destructive, Hecate f i g -ure. These changes are most c l e a r l y signalled by the narrator's descrip-t i o n of Eustachia nursing Clym a f t e r the death of his mother: "Eustachia was always anxious to avoid the sight of her husband i n such a state as t h i s , which had become as dreadful to her as the t r i a l scene to Judas I s c a r i o t " (p. 329). Eustachia regards Clym's suffering and mental anguish as C h r i s t - l i k e , while she has a sense of herself as having betrayed his tru s t and love as Judas did that of Christ's. The notion of Clym as an emerging Christ-figure i s further reinforced by an overt v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n i n the scene i n which Clym returns to his mother's home: As he surveyed theroom he f e l t strongly d i s i n c l i n e d f o r the a l t e r -ations which would have to be made i n the time-honoured furnish-ings of his parents and grand-parents, to su i t Eustachia's modern ideas. The gaunt oak-cased clock, with the picture of the Ascen-sion on the door panel and the Miraculous Draught of Fishes on the base... Whither would these venerable a r t i c l e s have to be ban-ished? (p. 337) I was unable to discover a reproduction of the type of clock (complete with pictures of the Ascension and the Miraculous Draught of Fishes) which Hardy - 45 -here refers to,"^ so I w i l l discuss t h i s a l l u s i o n only i n terms of the two p i c t o r i a l emblems described on the clock. In most paintings of the Draught of Fishes, Christ i s portrayed standing or s i t t i n g i n a boat laden with fishes before the kneeling figure of Simon Peter who acknowledges h i s power. In the Ascension paintings, Christ i s triumphantly carried to heaven while the figures of the Apostles, and occasionally i n some versions, that of the V i r g i n Mary stand worshipping and r e j o i c i n g below. Thus both p i c t o r i a l emblems contain images of the Christ figure i n i s o l a t i o n , asserting unique miraculous powers while being acknowledged as divine by his d i s c i p l e s . This a l l u s i o n , then, i n a scene preceeding that i n which Clym learns of the circumstances surrounding his mother's death, figures his movement away from Eustachia's modernized pagan world. The decorative clock repre-sents values (those of the t r a d i t i o n a l , Christian world which Mrs. Yeobright inhabited)" a l i e n to those which Clym now ascribes to Eustachia and he i s reluctant to remove i t i n favour of furnishings more suited to her pagan tastes. Yet another and more important l e v e l of interpretation i s implied, however, i n these images of Christ i n i s o l a t i o n . They prefigure the role Clym w i l l assume f u l l y l a t e r i n the novel as he rejects Eustachia and Thomasin before adopting the Christian l i f e he ardently desires. They v i s u a l l y anticipate also the f i n a l scene i n which Hardy himself s p e c i f i c -a l l y refers to the Sermon on the Mount and i n which Clym stands, l i k e Christ of the two allusi o n s , i n i s o l a t i o n , elevated above the other l i s t e n i n g figures. The destructive elements within Eustachia begin to predominate i n the scene i n which Clym confronts her with his suspicions concerning his mother's death. These destructive elements become evident i n her desire to commit suicides "'Why should I not die i f I wish?' she said tremulously. 'I have - 46 -made a bad bargain with l i f e and I am weary of i t - weary. And you have hindered my escape. 0, why did you, CharleyL What makes death pai n f u l except the thought of others' g r i e f ? - And that i s absent i n my case f o r not a sigh would follow me'"" (p. 354). Prevented from taking her l i f e , Eustachia desperately searches f o r other means of escape, and decides to accept Wildeve's o f f e r to accompany her to Budmouth. That such a decision marks the ascendancy of Hecate within her i s suggested by the description of the sky the night they are to elope: "the moon and the stars were closed up by cloud and r a i n to the degree of extinction. I t was a night which l e d the t r a v e l l o r ' s thoughts i n s t i n c t i v e l y to dwell on nocturnal scenes of disaster i n the chronicles of the world, on a l l that i s t e r r i b l e and dark i n history and legend - the l a s t plague of Egypt - the destruction of Sennacherib's host, the agony of Gethsemane" (p. 371)• The juxtapostion of the o b l i t e r a t i o n 'of the moon and a l l l i g h t with what i s " t e r r i b l e and dark" confirms the notion of Eustachia's absorption into the Hecate side of her nature. Moreover, the b i b l i c a l references i n t h i s passage a l l r e i n -force t h i s i n i t i a l sense of t o t a l destruction. However, a l l three i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l contexts not only are foretold by prophecy (as so much of the action i n the novel i s prefigured by dream and allusion) and involve the destruc-33 t i o n of a central male f i g u r e ^ by means of treachery but contain the prom-ise of the emergence of positive value '. out of the chaos. In the novel Eustachia's destructiveness w i l l lead not only to her own death and that <3f Wildeve» but also to the o b l i t e r a t i o n of the values which, as Hecate, she represents, while Clym's survival w i l l mark the ascendancy of Christian ones. This ascendancy of Christian values, as embodied i n Clym, i s taken a step further by a submerged v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n , which occurs i n the description - 4 ? -of Glym after Eustachia's death, when Charley requests to see her body: 'I dare say you may see her' said Diggory gravely, 'But hadn't you better run and t e l l Captain Vye?' 'Yes, yes. Only I hope I s h a l l see her again.' 'You s h a l l ' said a low voice behind; and s t a r t i n g round they beheld by the dimlight a t h i n , p a l l i d , almost spectral form, wrapped i n a blanket, and looking l i k e Lazarus coming from the tomb. I t was Yeobright. (p. 3 9 3 ) I t seems quite l i k e l y that Hardy here refers to Sebastiano del Piombo's "The Raising of Lazarus" (National Gallery, London). That Hardy was i n fact f a m i l i a r with t h i s version i s clear from the overt reference he makes 34 to i t i n Jude the Obscure. Further, the d e t a i l s i n the description (with t h e i r emphasis on Clym's spectral appearance and the reference to the blanket wrapped about him) correspond to the d e t a i l s i n the painting, f o r Lazarus i s represented as ghost-like i n appearance (the covering around his head places his face i n shadow and gives him the eerie appearance of being headless) and encircled i n the serpentine folds of a white shroud. In t h i s painting Lazarus, as f a l l e n man struggling with death, d i s -entangles himself with his r i g h t hand and foot from the serpentine folds of the shroud, while Christ, as r i s e n man standing triumphantly on the tomb, beckons Lazarus to l i v e again. These two figures then suggest Clym's s p i r i t u a l movement i n the concluding section of the novel, f o r he may be said to undergo a s p i r i t u a l death and subsequent r e b i r t h a f t e r Eustachia's death. Like Lazarus, struggling against the shroud to return to l i f e , Clym at t h i s point i n the novel, attempts to free himself from Eustachia's destructive influences to return to the Christian values of the world of his mother. The figure of Christ, who wears a serpentine sash as a garment, conveys emblematically the notion of Christ's v i c t o r y over the destructive forces which threaten him and c l e a r l y adumbrates Clym's ultimate s p i r i t u a l - 48 -r e b i r t h as " i t i n e r a n t open a i r preacher" (p. 422). Our f i n a l view of Clym then, standing on the Rainharrow, which i s i n fact a grave, corresponds to Piombo's v i s i o n of Christ as r i s e n man on the tomb; On the Sunday af t e r t h i s wedding an unusual sight was to be seen on the Rainbarrow. From a distance there simply appeared to be a motionless figure standing on the top of the tumulus, just as Eustachia had stood on that lonely summit some two years and a half before. But now i t was fine warm weather, with only a sum-mer breeze blowing and early afternoon instead of d u l l t w i l i g h t . Those who ascended to the immediate neighborhood of the Barrow perceived that the erect form i n the centre, piercing the sky, was not r e a l l y alone. Round him upon the slopes of the Barrow a number of heathmen and women were r e c l i n i n g or s i t t i n g at t h e i r ease. They li s t e n e d to the words of the man i n t h e i r midst who was preaching, while they abstractedly pulled heather, stripped ferns, or tossed pebbles down the slope. This was the f i r s t of a series of moral lectures or sermons on the mount, which were to be delivered from the same place every Sunday afternoon as long as the f i n e weather lasted, (p. 422) Clym i s shown as having f i n a l l y transcended the l i m i t a t i o n s of l i f e on-'the heath and has become completely i d e n t i f i e d with the i d e a l figure, Christ. His movement from Pagan values to C h r i s t i a n i t y i s complete and his role as Apollo, god of moral enlightenment i s f i n a l l y submerged into that of Christ, teacher of men. Hardy's o r i g i n a l description of the heath, on which t h i s f i n a l scene takes place, makes clear, when connected with i t , a f i n a l general and impor-tant thematic meaning. The heath was described as a place; " f u l l of watchful intentness now; f o r when other things sank brooding to sleep the heather appeared slowly to awake and l i s t e n . Every night i t s Titanic form seemed to await something; but i t had waited thus, unmoved, during so many centuries, through crises of so many things, that i t could only be imagined to await one l a s t c r i s i s - the f i n a l overthrow" (p. 3*0. I t may appear that as Clym emerges as triumphantly I d e n t i f i e d with Christ, that _ 49 -the ascendancy of Christian values (and involvement with society) have been asserted and the awaited " f i n a l overthrow" has occurred. However i t has done so only as the events have been considered a l l e g o r i c a l l y , as emblematic elements i n both character and action have been stressed, just as the declension of Eustachia from Diana to Hecate, and the o b l i t e r a t i o n of negative values (and i s o l a t i o n ) have occurred only as events have been interpreted as myth. The implication of Hardy's constant emphasis on the a h i s t o r i c a l , amoral, unchanging nature of the heath from the perspective of the f i n a l scene how seems to be that the reader should draw a s i m i l a r con-clusion here to that which he draws at the end of Tess of the D'Urbervilles, simply that a l l human explanation i s inadequate to explain the mystery of experience. - 50 -Appendix This l i s t includes the source of reproductions of a l l v i s u a l art matter discussed i n the text of the chapter i n order of reference. Eugene Delacroix's "Apollo's Victory oyer Python". The World of Delacroix  1798 - 1863. New York: Time Incorporated j 1966*1 p. 141. Baron Gros's "Sapho a Leucate". Charles Blanc. Histoire des Peintres,  Ecole Francaise. n. d. n. p. p. 5» S i r William Beechey's " P o r t r a i t of Mrs. Siddons with the Emblems of Tragedy". An Exhibition of Paintings from the Col l e c t i o n of Dr. D. M-. McDonald. London: Leggatt Brothers, 1970. p. 9. Raffaello Sanzio's "The Knight's Dream". Raphael. Introduction by W. E. Suida. New York: Phaidon, and London: Oxford Univ. Press* 1941. :p. 5« Albrecht Durer&s "Christ Appears to Mary Magdalene". Durer: The Complete  Engravings, Etchings and Woodcuts. Ed. K a r l Adolphe Knapp. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd., I965. ' i p l . 36. Albrecht Durer's "The Martyrdom of St. John". Durer.lfr The Complete Engrav- ings, Etchings and Woodcuts. Ed. K a r l Adolphe Knapp. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd., I965. pl7 152. Albrecht Durer's "The Martyrdom of St. Catherine". Durer:: The Complete  Engravings, Etchings and Woodcuts. Ed. Ka r l Adolphe Knapp. London: Thames' and Hudson Ltd., I965. p i . 145. Follower of Patiner's "Landscape with Temptation of Christ". Joachim Patiner. Ed. Robert A. Koch. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, I968. p i . 66. Denis Van -Alsloot's "Procession de 1'Ommenganck, l e s Serments". !Erik Larson., • "Denis Van Alsloot: Peintre de l a Forret de Soignes". Gazette-''des'  Beaux-Arts, 34(1948) p. 345. Sebastiano del Piombo's "The Raising of Lazarus". The National Gallery:  I l l u s t r a t e d General Catalogue. London: Publications Department The National Gallery, 1973. p. 6?1. Chapter Two The wider thematic significance which Hardy conveys i n the pattern o f - v i s u a l art allusions throughout Tess of the D'Urbervilles relates p r i -marily, I think, to the c o n f l i c t between a spontaneous, passionate being, Tess, and the conventions of a repressive society, or as Hardy himself phrased i t "the inherent w i l l to enjoy, and the circumstantial w i l l against 1 enjoyment" . Brimming with v i t a l i t y and sexuality i n the opening sections 2 of the novel, Tess i s slowly drained of t h i s "psychic energy" as the re s u l t of her c o n f l i c t with s o c i e t a l pressures. Immediately a f t e r her seduction Tess sees herself, as Angel sees her after her confession to him, as a "figure of Guilt" (p. 121). In the action that follows, u n t i l the con-frontation i n the Sandbourne hotel (Chapter F i f t y - F i v e ) both Angel and Tess may be said to be struggling, more or less successfully, to reject t h i s view that coincides with society's view of her as " f a l l e n woman". In the f i n a l movement of the novel (Chapter Fifty-Seven through Fifty-Nine), the implication of Tess's passive surrender to the po l i c e , society's agents, i n the Stonehenge scene, i s less that she has accepted i t than that she has transcended i t , while Angel may be said to have arrived at a view of Tess's innocence which approximates that which the narrator has constantly emphasized throughout the novel. A l l but three of the v i s u a l art allusions i n Tess are expressions of the-narrator's point of view and illuminate t h i s central c o n f l i c t i n one way or another. Of those which do not express the narrator's point of view, two express that of Angel and one expresses that of Tess. Both the overt and submerged allusions i n the novel perform both l o c a l and patterned thematic functions and, i n the course of t h i s chapter, I w i l l examine the - 52 -overt allusions f i r s t and then proceed to an examination of the submerged ones. 3 The f i r s t major overt a l l u s i o n ^ to a school of paintings occurs i n the "Maiden No More" section, i n the scene i n which Tess determines to work i n the f i e l d s a f t e r the b i r t h of her c h i l d : In the afternoon and evening the proceedings of the morning were continued, Tess staying on t i l l dusk with the body of harvesters. Then they a l l rode home i n one of the largest wagons, i n the com-pany of a broad tarnished moon that had risen from the ground to the eastwards, i t s face resembling the outworn gold-leaf halo of some worm-eaten Tuscan Saint. Tess's female companions sang songs, and showed themselves very sympathetic and glad at her reappearance out-of-doors, though they could not r e f r a i n from mischievously throwing i n a few verses about the maid who went into the merry greenwood and came back a changed person, (p. 12?) Many of the de t a i l s i n Giotto's "The Ascension of St. Mary Magdalen" (Lower Church of San Francesco, A s s i s i ) suggest that Hardy may have had i t speci-f i c a l l y i n mind i n t h i s reference to the "worm-eaten Tuscan Saint". In t h i s painting, which i s i n want of repair and looks worm-eaten, the action i s represented as taking place out of doors and i n the early evening; the suspension of the central figure i n midair and the four atten-dant angel figures suggest a representation of the Magdalen figure as a form of the moon goddess (a suggestion reinforced by the figure's golden halo, the bare, c i r c u l a r outline of which behind her head suggests the contours of the moon). These d e t a i l s correspond with the facts i n the novel fo r Tess i n t h i s scene i s r i d i n g on the wagon with her friends i n the early evening and she i s i d e n t i f i e d generally throughout the novel and s p e c i f i c -a l l y i n Chapter Twenty ("He ca l l e d her Artemis" [p. 170]) with the moon and Artemis. This, i n combination with the connection between the moon and the golden h a l o , l e a ( l °ne to understand t h i s v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n as something more than an i n c i d e n t a l , simply l o c a l adverse comment on the Christian v i s i o n . -53 -At every point i n the novel natural facts are described i n such a way as to associate them, p o s i t i v e l y or negatively, with a general r e l i g i o u s meaning. Thus, f o r example, at the beginning of "The Rally " section the descriptions of the sun and moon and of the landscape define a world envel-oped i n a r e l i g i o u s atmosphere both f r u i t f u l and beautiful. In t h i s par-t i c u l a r episode, as i n the whole "phase" of the novel of which i t i s a part, Hardy constantly emphasizes the pagan quality (debased but f o r the figure of Tess) of Tess's world i n which only the conscious values are Chris-t i a n . The image of the Giotto painting helps one to understand the complexity of meaning that follows from t h i s . The Magdalen i s figured as pagan goddess and Christian saint: as the f i r s t , she i s goddess of Chastity, as the second, repentant harlot. She i s a r e a l woman i n contrast to the atten-dant figures - yet e x i s t s , as shown, suspended between the world of the r e a l and of an ideal towards which she i s moving. Thus Tess, i n t h i s "Phase", i s tarnished moon or g u i l t y woman and yet, as Hardy constantly i n s i s t s , s t i l l as e s s e n t i a l l y pure (despite her sexual experience) as she was.in the f i r s t phase of the action. She i s both simple and seduced v i l l a g e g i r l and "The Pure Woman", r e a l arid i d e a l at once. The description of the. moon.'as "the outworn gold-leaf halo of some worm-eaten Tuscan Saint" i s , as my following discussion w i l l demonstrate, • one d e t a i l i n an accumulated series, that form, by the end of the novel, a pattern. This pattern expresses a c r i t i c i s m of a society of Christian v i s i o n that would condemn as g u i l t y a woman l i k e Tess, while i t states the contin-uing existence, i n that v i s i o n , of i t s o r i g i n a l s p i r i t that society i s shown as having debased. This pattern may be said to reach i t s appropriate climax i n the Stonehenge scene i n which Tess, l y i n g on the stone within i t s c i r c l e , i s r e a l woman waiting f o r society's punishment; central actor - 54 -i n a pagan r i t u a l of s a c r i f i c e and tragic expiation; and figure of the Vi r g i n about to be released from the d i s f i g u r i n g world of the r e a l into that of the i d e a l . The next major overt v i s u a l a rt a l l u s i o n occurs i n the opening scene of "The Rally" section, i n which Tess looks down from a summit upon the valley of the Great Dairies, and the landscape below her i s b r i e f l y des-cribed by the narrators These myriads of cows stretching under her eyes from the f a r east to the f a r west outnumbered any she had seen at one glance before. The green l e a was speckled as t h i c k l y with them as a canvas by Van Alsloot or Sa l l a e r t with burghers. The ripe hues of the red and dun kine absorbed the evening sunlight, which the white-coated animals returned to the eye i n rays almost dazzling, even at the distant elevation on which she stood, (p. 139) According to A l a s t a i r Smart, the best-known works of either of these two painters are the "two pictures by Van Alslo o t i n the V i c t o r i a and Albert Museum representing the annual procession i n Brussels known as the Ommenganck" and Smart states that the figures i n these paintings "seem above a l l to have caught Hardy's f a n c y . C e r t a i n d e t a i l s of these Van Alsloot paintings, both of which present a bird's eye view of a patterned arrangement of bur-ghers, would seem to support Smart's proposition. However, I would argue that Hardy i s here re f e r r i n g rather to a painting by Anthonis S a l l a e r t e n t i t l e d "Les Archidues Albert et Isabelle assistant a l a Procession des Pucelles du Sablon" (Musee Ancien de Bruxelles, Brussels) which contains more d e t a i l s which correspond to those found i n t h i s and related passages. For example, Hardy refers to the evening sunlight and to a green l e a i n th i s passage and both of these d e t a i l s , which do not occur^in the Van Alslo o t paintings, occur i n the Sa l l a e r t . Moreover, a series of figures i n white dress i n the S a l l a e r t painting suggest the "white coated figures" i n Hardy's description. Their central foreground p o s i t i o n i n the painting, the fact - 55 -th a t they are women and tha t each c a r r i e s a wand or s t a f f r e c a l l s an e a r l i e r p r o c e s s i o n i n the novel: The handed ones were a l l dressed i n white gowns - a gay s u r v i v a l from the o l d s t y l e days, when cheerfulness and Maytime were synonyms - days before the h a b i t o f t a k i n g l o n g views had reduced emotions to a monotonous average. T h e i r f i r s t e x h i b i t i o n o f themselves was i n a p r o c e s s i o n a l march of two and two round the p a r i s h , i d e a l and r e a l clashed s l i g h t l y as the sun l i t up t h e i r f i g u r e s a g a i n s t the green hedges and creeper l a c e d house f r o n t s . . . I n a d d i t i o n to the d i s t i n c t i o n o f a.white f r o c k , every woman and g i r l c a r r i e d i n her r i g h t hand a peeled w i l l o w wand...,(p. 41) The a l l u s i o n to the p a i n t i n g s of S a l l a e r t then, i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of Tess's view o f the v a l l e y , r e i n f o r c e s a thematic connection between the proces-s i o n s of l i f e i n the V a l l e y of the Great D a i r i e s and t h a t h e l d i n Blackmoor. I n the i n i t i a l p r o c e s s i o n h e l d by "the Club of M a r l o t t which alone l i v e d to uphold the l o c a l c e r e a l i a " (p. 40) , Tess's innocence and freshness are e s p e c i a l l y emphasized by Hardy. I n one sense, t h i s i n i t i a l image o f a procession,fand of Tess's p a r t i n i t . , suggest the beginning o f her journey i n t o experience. The r e c o l l e c t i o n of the image of the o r i g i n a l p r o c e s s i o n i n the novel i n the wand-carrying f i g u r e s i n the S a l l a e r t p a i n t i n g a l l u d e d to i n the opening scene of "The R a l l y " s e c t i o n i m p l i e s a new beginning f o r Tess and a new chance f o r happiness. The reader understands t h a t n e i t h e r her sexual experience nor her own subsequent sense o f g u i l t have i n any way impaired her e s s e n t i a l innocence. As the n a r r a t o r noted a few pages before the S a l l a e r t r e f e r e n c e , "Tess's misery had been generated by her conven-t i o n a l aspect, and not by her innate s e n s a t i o n s " (p. 127). The next overt a l l u s i o n i s to a seventeenth century school of E n g l i s h p o r t r a i t ' p a i n t i n g and i t occurs i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the p o r t r a i t s o f the D ' U r b e r v i l l e women, which hang i n the house "once p o r t i o n o f a f i n e manor-i a l r esidence, and the property and seat of a d ' U r b e r v i l l e " (p. 253) t h a t Tess and Angel t e m p o r a r i l y occupy a f t e r t h e i r marriage: - 56 -These p a i n t i n g s represent women of middle age, of a date some two hundred years ago, whose lineaments once seen can never be f o r g o t t e n . The long p o i n t e d f e a t u r e s , narrow eye, and smirk of one, so suggestive o f m e r c i l e s s treachery; the b i l l - h o o k nose, .large t e e t h , and b o l d eye of the other, suggesting a r r o -gance to the p o i n t of f e r o c i t y , haunt the beholder afterwards i n h i s dreams, (p. 2 6 0 ) K n e l l e r ' s p a i n t i n g of Margaret, Countess of Ranelagh (Hampton Court); L e l y ' s p a i n t i n g of Lady G i f f o r d ( i n the p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n of S i r Robert W i t t ) and Joseph Michael Wright's p a i n t i n g o f Mary F a i r f a x , Second Duchess o f Buck-ingham (Heron Court) resemble the d e s c r i p t i o n Hardy p r o v i d e s of the f i r s t p o r t r a i t . The second p o r t r a i t r e f e r r e d to i n the passage i s l e s s easy to i d e n t i f y , but there are c e r t a i n resemblances between Hardy's d e s c r i p t i o n and L e l y ' s p a i n t i n g of Anne Digby, Countess of Sunderland (Hampton Court). The importance of these a l l u s i o n s l i e s i n the r e a c t i o n of both Tess and Angel to the p a i n t i n g s . Tess i s s t a r t l e d by the p o r t r a i t s and remarks "Those h o r r i d women... How they f r i g h t e n me" (p. 2 5 9 )• Angel's r e a c t i o n i s more complex. I n i t i a l l y he t h i n k s "the unpleasantness of the matter was t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r e f f e c t on Tess, her f i n e f e a t u r e s were unques-t i o n a b l y t r a c e a b l e i n these exaggerated forms" (p. 2 6 0 ) . He p e r c e i v e s t h a t Tess has i n h e r i t e d her f i n e f e a t u r e s from her a r i s t o c r a t i c f o r e b e a r s , but f e a r s a l s o t h a t she may have i n h e r i t e d those s i n i s t e r and treacherous q u a l -i t i e s apparent i n the exaggerated f e a t u r e s of the p o r t r a i t s . A f t e r the conf e s s i o n scene, Angel r e t u r n s to the p o r t r a i t s and regards them again i n a new l i g h t : the painting was more than unpleasant, s i n i s t e r design l u r k e d i n the woman's f e a t u r e s , a concentrated purpose of revenge on the other sex - so i t seemed to him then. The Caroline bodice of the p o r t r a i t was low - p r e c i s e l y as Tess's had been when he tucked i t i n t o show the n e c k l i n e ; and once again he experienced the d i s t r e s s i n g sensation of a resemblance between them. (p. 2 6 0 ) He i s no longer able to regard the p a i n t i n g as merely a grotesque or exaggerated - 57 -image of Tess but now sees i t as a dis t r e s s i n g l y accurate representation of h is wife. He fe e l s that she has trapped and deceived him and he believes that she has lured him into an i l l - a d v i s e d marriage out of a private desire f o r revenge: Tess, seduced by a man more sexually experienced than she, has lured him into marriage to exploit him-as she had been exploited. The novelist's continuing sense of Tess as a pure woman i s suggested by her appearance i n the next chapter wearing "a pale blue woolen garment with neck f r i l l i n g s of white" (p. 280) f o r blue i s the t r a d i t i o n a l colour of the V i r g i n Mary and of the i d e a l , and even Angel receives an impression of her as "absolutely pure" (p. 280). His perceptions are s t i l l diseased and distorted however, as he attributes t h i s impression of her to "Nature, i n her fanta s t i c t r i c k e r y " (p. 280). That Angel's view remains e s s e n t i a l l y unchanged i n the action that f o l -lows i s conveyed i n the next two vi s u a l a rt allusions. Both of these a l l u -sions occur i n the following passage: The picture of l i f e had changed f o r him. Before t h i s time he had known i t but speculatively; now he thought he knew i t as a p r a c t i c a l man; though perhaps he d i d not, even yet. Never-theless humanity stood before him no longer i n the pensive sweetness of I t a l i a n art but i n the staring and ghastly a t t i -tudes of a Wiertz Museum and with the l e e r of a study by Van Beers, (p. 304) Both Wiertz and Van Beers had won a certain measure of acclaim i n Hardy's time f o r t h e i r decadent style of painting and i n A l a s t a i r Smart's words, Q t h e i r "Poe-like h o r r i f i e s " . In the Van Beers reference, Hardy may well have had i n mind the study f o r the painting, "My Model" which portrays a 9 young woman seductively draped over a velvet settee. The coquettish pose and the - a r t i f i c e the woman employs both i n her dress and heavily accentu-ated eyes, suggest that Angel regards his wife as a seductress who simply desires conquest and revenge. This further implies that Angel f a i l s to - 58 -perceive the extent of Tess's remorse and s u f f e r i n g at t h e i r separation i and sees her as she had seen h e r s e l f a f t e r her seduction, as a "fi g u r e of G u i l t " . The Wiertz Museum reference, however, i n d i c a t e s a new emphasis i n Angel's attitude toward Tess. I t i s c l e a r from t h i s a l l u s i o n that he i s preoccupied with her not merely as g u i l t y woman hut as the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the f l e s h , as he i s with the destructive consequences of h i s continuing r e l a t i o n s h i p with her. These destructive consequences are f i r s t conveyed i n the opening of the scene i n which the Wiertz Museum reference occurs, as Angel returns to h i s father's home: "with h i s downward course the tower of the church rose i n the evening sky i n a manner of in q u i r y as to why he had come; and no l i v i n g person i n the tw i l i g h t e d town seemed to notice him, s t i l l l e s s to expect him. He was a r r i v i n g l i k e a ghost and the sound of h i s own f o o t -steps was almost an encumherance to be got r i d of" (p. 304). His sense of himself as detached from experience, and hence i n a death-like state, i s stressed i n the same scene i n a passage that continues and develops the meaning of h i s ghost-like a r r i v a l s " his mood transmuted i t s e l f i n t o a dog-ged i n d i f f e r e n c e t i l l at length he fancied he was looking on h i s own e x i s -tence with the passive i n t e r e s t of an outsider" (p. 304). Although i t would be d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h , the Wiertz p a i n t i n g which best, portrays Angel's sense of the destructive consequences of h i s r e l a t i o n -ship with Tess and which most c l o s e l y corresponds to the d e t a i l s i n the scene i n which the a l l u s i o n i s found and i n r e l a t e d passages, i s Wiertz's 10 most famous work, "La Belle Rosine" (Musee Wiertz, Brussels). In t h i s p a i n t i n g , a voluptuous and sensual woman p a r t i a l l y draped i n gauze mater-i a l stands t r a n q u i l l y f a c i n g a skeleton. The. appearance of the woman i n - 59 -i n the painting corresponds to Angel's description of Tess as " f i n e i i n f i g u r e ; roundly b u i l t ; had deep red l i p s l i k e a Cupid's bow; dark eye-lashes and brows; an immense rope of hair l i k e a ship's cable; and large eyes violety-bluey-blackish" (p. 30?). Angel's association of himself with the skeleton i s suggested i n three widely separated passages. The f i r s t occursoin t h i s same scene: "he was becoming i l l with thinking; eaten out with thinking; withered by thinking; scourged out of a l l his former flexuous domesticity" (p. 285). The second passage occurs a f t e r his return from B r a z i l : "you could see the skeleton behind the man, and almost the ghost behind the skeleton" (p. 417). The f i n a l reference, occurring i n the scene at Sandbourne, contains Angel's own observation: "mere yellow skeleton that he was, he now f e l t the contrast between them and f e l t h is appearance d i s t a s t e f u l to her" (p. 428). Hardy appears then to use the reference to the "staring and ghastly attitudes of a Wiertz Museum" (p. 304) f o r a variety of purposes. The f i r s t and simplest i s to reinforce the.reader's already formed idea of Angel as e s s e n t i a l l y " i n c l i n e d to the imaginative and ethereal" (p. 234). The second and more important purpose i s to indicate a s i g n i f i c a n t new stage i n Angel's perceptions not only of himself and of Tess, but of the relationship between them, foreshadowed by a passage that immediately pre-cedes the entire scene: "he thus beheld i n the pale morning l i g h t the resolve to separate from her; not as a hot and indignant i n s t i n c t but denuded of the passionateness which had made i t scorch and burn: standing i n i t s bones, nothing but a skeleton, but none the. less there" (p. 294). As t h i s quotation implies, Angel fee l s a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the relationship.' -By ;the time of the Sandbourne scene, h i s sense of the r e l a -tionship changes, and, as his observation on the nature of his appearance - 60 -as s k e l e t a l and therefore d i s t a s t e f u l to Tess implies, he begins to f e e l , himself, the g u i l t he had formerly ascribed e n t i r e l y to her. Thus a hid-den and secondary meaning i m p l i c i t at the point of the Wiertz a l l u s i o n (Angel's sense of himself as g u i l t y ) becomes e x p l i c i t as Angel's sense of the relationship changes and becomes clearer. The v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n that opens "The F u l f i l l m e n t " section i s c l e a r l y an important one. I t occurs i n the passage which describes Angel's appear-ance upon his return to Emminster Vicarage a f t e r his t r i p to B r a z i l : You could see the skeleton behind the man, and almost the ghost behind the skeleton. He matched C r i v e l l i ' s dead Ghristus. His sunken eye-pits were a morbid hue, and the l i g h t i n his eyes had waned. The angular hollows and l i n e s of his aged ancestors had succeeded to-their reign i n his face twenty-years before t h e i r time. (p. 4 17 ) A l a s t a i r Smart i d e n t i f i e s the painting referred to i n t h i s passage as Criv-e l l i ' s "Dead Christus" which hangs i n the National Gallery i n London. He chooses t h i s p a r t i c u l a r version ( C r i v e l l i did several) because, as I noted e a r l i e r , i t i s well documented that Hardy paid frequent v i s i t s to the National Gallery and c e r t a i n l y would have seen t h i s version. Yet i t i s more l i k e l y 11 that another "Dead Christus" by C r i v e l l i , which hangs i n the Vatican, was a model f o r t h i s description. In the National Gallery version, the Christ figure i s flanked by two angels and his expresssion i s calm and reposed, which suggests that he has already been transfigured into the Son of God and i s being given comfort i n Paradise. In the Vatican version, however, the Christ figure has only just been removed from the cross and i s surrounded by several human, grieving figures. Given the emphasis i n Hardy's description on the s k e l -e t a l , mortal and suffering appearance of Angel, the Vatican version seems a more appropriate p a r a l l e l than that suggested by Smart. Further evidence - 61 -to support t h i s , can he found i n the other d e t a i l s that Hardy includes i n the scene. In the text Angel i s described as nearly collapsing a f t e r his entrances "his legs seemed to give way, and he suddenly sat down to save himself from f a l l i n g " (p. 417), and t h i s p o s i t i o n corresponds to Christ's posture i n the painting. There is'.'.more than one character present i n the scene from the novel and Mrs. Clare looks at her son's face w i s t f u l l y , just'-as i n the painting, Mary, mother of Christ, gazes sadly at her son's face. There i s an important difference between the figure Angel i s i d e n t i -f i e d with i n t h i s painting and that with which he i s i d e n t i f i e d i n the Wiertz painting. In the Wiertz painting, the figure i s the fl e s h l e s s skeleton, denoting death, and, as my discussion has already made clear, i t also acts to emphasize Angel's distaste f o r the f l e s h and f o r the human. In the C r i -v e l l i painting, on the other hand, the suffering flesh-covered skeleton of Christ suggests Angel's own human suffering and his movement towards f o r -12 giveness f o r human f a i l i n g s . Moreover i n the Wiertz reference, the f i g -ure i d e n t i f i e d with Tess i s the personification of the f l e s h , whereas i n the C r i v e l l i reference, t h i s figure becomes that of the repentant Mary Mag-dalen (which r e c a l l s the novelist's e a r l i e r v i s i o n of Tess i n the Tuscan Saint reference) reconciled to the dead Christ. The contrast between these two figures makes a very obvious comment on Angel's changed view of Tess (which i s drawing closer to the narrator's o r i g i n a l sense of her) as well as of himself. The f i n a l overt reference to the v i s u a l arts occurs i n the closing scene of the novel, i n the description of Angel and Liza-Lus One of the p a i r was Angel Clare, the other a t a l l budding crea-ture - h a l f - g i r l , half-woman - a s p i r i t u a l i z e d image of Tess, s l i g h t e r than she, but with the same beautiful eyes - Clare's - 62 -sister-in-law,' Liza-Lu. Their pale faces seem to have shrunk to half t h e i r natural s i z e . They moved on hand i n hand, and never spoke a word, the drooping of t h e i r heads being that of Giotto's "Two Apostles", (p. 448) Although Giotto i s presently not known to have painted a work e n t i t l e d "Two Apostles", Smart notes that "the picture to which Hardy here refers i s a fragment of a fresco purchased f o r the National Galley i n I856. I t comes from a larger decoration i n the Carmine i n Florence which was at that time believed to be by Giotto but which has since been reattributed 13 to Spinello Aretino." The t i t l e of t h i s fragment today i s "Two Haloed Mourners" but evidence f o r Smart's assertion can be found i n the 1889 edit i o n of A Popular Handbook to the National Gallery, i n which the fr a g -14 ment i n question i s simply e n t i t l e d "Heads of St. John and St. Paul". I t i s quite conceivable that Hardy chose, f o r the sake of brevity, to con-dense the t i t l e of the painting to "Two Apostles". Hardy's intentions i n r e f e r r i n g to t h i s painting may only have been, as Smart suggests, to v i s u -a l l y capture the posture of the two mourners as they ascend the h i l l out of Wintoncester. However t h i s evidence that Giotto was i n Hardy's mind while writing the l a s t scenes of the novel suggests another p o s s i b i l i t y . This p o s s i b i l i t y i s dependent upon one's recognizing a further reference, that i s not overt, to a Giotto painting i n the Stonehenge scene. As the police encircle the slab upon which Tess l i e s , the narrator notes that they saw where she lay, which they had not done t i l l then, they showed ho objection, and stood s t i l l as the p i l l a r s around... Angel went to the stone and bent over her, holding one poor l i t t l e hand; her breathing now was quick and small, l i k e that of a lesser creature than a woman. A l l waited i n the growing l i g h t , t h e i r faces and hands as i f they were silvered, the remainder of t h e i r figures dark, the stones g l i s t e n i n g green-gray, the p l a i n s t i l l a mass of shade. Soon the l i g h t was strong, and a ray shone upon her unconscious form, peering under her eyelids and waking her. (p. 44?) - 63 -The grouping of figures i n t h i s description corresponds closely to the arrangement of those around the V i r g i n i n Giotto's "Dormition of the V i r g i n " (Kaiser Friedrich Museum, B e r l i n ) . Moreover i n the n o v e l l a s i n the painting, the figure of the woman l i e s on a stone slab. Further the figure of St. Paul i n the Giotto painting (whose head bears a close physical resemblance to the head of the St. Paul i n the Spinello Aretino fragment) leans over the body of the V i r g i n and encircles her form just as i n the scene i n the novel, Angel bends over Tess. The presence at the head and foot of the Virgin's tomb, i n the painting, of four angelic figures i n l i g h t coloured dress bearing wand-like candles, dwarfed and almost l o s t among the larger figures, suggests a connection between t h i s scene and those i n which the Tuscan Saint and Sa l l a e r t r e f e r -ence were found, as well as with the Marlott procession scene e a r l i e r i n the novel. In the Marlott procession scene,- the female figures i n l i g h t coloured dress suggested Tess's essential innocence and the beginning of her journey into experience. Their recurrence i n the S a l l a e r t reference implied a new beginning f o r Tess as well as the novelist's continuing sense of her as "the pure woman", while the presence of the angelic figures i n the Tuscan Saint reference served a s i m i l a r purpose f o r they suggested not only Tess's s p i r i t u a l purity despite her sexual experience but a v i s i o n of her as i d e a l . The appearance of the angelic figures i n l i g h t coloured dress i n t h i s reference, adoring the figure i d e n t i f i e d with Tess and wait% ing, one might suggest, to escort the V i r g i n from the tomb-like stone to an i d e a l l i f e , adds yet another d e t a i l to the pattern of meaning of which the Stonehenge scene i s the climax. In Giotto's "Dormition"" the angelic figures i n light-coloured dress are dwarfed i n comparison with the figure of the V i r g i n . They are also - 64 -proportionately much smaller than the s i m i l a r figures I have already mentioned as parts of the corresponding patterns i n scenes i n the novel and i n v i s u a l a rt allusions. This, I would suggest, reinforces the reader's sense at the point of the Stonehenge scene of Tess's stature, of her growth through experience. In the Marlott scene she was only one of such a group of figures (as inexperienced v i r g i n ) but she now exists apart from and superior to i t and to herself as she was then. The Aretino reference i n the l a s t chapter then, subtly harks back to the submerged Giotto one. The significance of the connection i s , f i r s t of a l l , to define Angel as the survivor of the c o n f l i c t that has destroyed Tess. The fact that t h i s connection depends, at least p a r t l y , on the resem-blance between the St. Paul figures, emphasizes the difference i n qu a l i t y between Angel's "Imaginative... ethereal" (p. 234) nature at t h i s point and e a r l i e r i n the novel. Liza-Lu represents an e a r l i e r stage i n Angel's thought (she i s described as " H a l f - g i r l , half-woman" and s p i r i t u a l i z e d " which suggests an association between her and the dwarfed angelic figures i n white i n the Giotto painting) which he has now passed beyond. The r e f -erence to Angel and Liza-Lu passing through "a narrow barred wicket i n a high w a l l " (p. 448) as they walk away from the c i t y of Wintoncester r e i n -forces thistnotion, f o r Hardy evokes the descriptions i n The Pilgrim's  Progress of the "wicket gate", through which pilgrims had to pass on t h e i r journey from the d t y of Destruction to Beulah. -^This evocation suggests that Angel acts as the Interpreter to LIza-Lu's Christian pilgrim. Just as the submerged Giotto a l l u s i o n i n the Stonehenge scene i s con-cerned primarily with Tess's confrontation with the conventions of society, the f i r s t submerged a l l u s i o n i n the novel suggests c l e a r l y Tess's sense of g u i l t and fear of punishment as a r e s u l t of t h i s confrontation. This a l l u s i o n X - 65 -i s found i n the scene i n which Tess r e a l i z e s that her c h i l d i s dying and fears f o r the child's fate because i t has not been baptized: In her misery she rocked herself upon the bed, The clock struck the solemn hour of one, that hour when thought stalks outside rea-son, and malignant p o s s i b i l i t i e s stand rock-firm as facts. She thought of the c h i l d consigned to the nethermost corner of h e l l , as i t s double doom f o r lack of baptism and lack of legitimacy; saw the arch-fiend tossing i t with i t s three-pronged fork, l i k e the one they used f o r heating the oven on baking days; to which picture she added many other quaint and curious d e t a i l s of torment taught to the young i n t h i s Christian country, (p. 129) Although I have been unable to discover the precise painting-6f which t h i s i s a verbal description, the significance of t h i s submerged a l l u s i o n seems clear. Tess perceives herself at t h i s point not only as s o c i a l l y stigmatized, but believes that her c h i l d , and herself, have transgressed stern r e l i g i o u s laws, f o r which they w i l l both be punished. The narrator's i r o n i c tone i n the concluding clause of the passage indicates c l e a r l y the adverse nature of his comment on t h i s r e l i g i o u s view. The fact that Tess should hold such a view at t h i s point acts as an important comment on her condition. Before her seduction and the b i r t h of her c h i l d Tess, i n con-t r a s t to her mother, expressed views that were given her context, i n t e l -l e c t u a l l y enlightened. As the narrator noted: "Between the mother, with her f a s t perishing lumber of superstitions, f o l k - l o r e , d i a l e c t , and o r a l l y transmitted ballads, and the daughter, with her trained National teachings and standard knowledge under an i n f i n i t e l y Revised Code, there was a gap of two hundred years as o r d i n a r i l y understood" (pp. 50 - 51)• I* 1 t h i s baptism scene Tess has reverted to the simpler, less educated view of l i f e held by her mother. The next submerged allusion 7'occurs i n the same scene i n the descrip-t i o n of Tess baptizing her c h i l d : - 6 6 -Her figure looked singularly t a l l and imposing as she stood i n her long white nightgown, a thick cable of twisted dark hai r hang-ing straight down her back to her waist. The kindly dimness of the weak candle abstracted from her form and features the l i t t l e blemishes which sunlight might have revealed - the stubble scrat-ches upon her wrists, and the weariness of her eyes - her high enthusiasm having a transfiguring effect upon the face which had been her undoing, showing i t as a thing of immaculate beauty, with an impress of dignity... The children gazed up at her with more and more reverence, and no longer had a w i l l f o r questioning. She did not look l i k e Sissy to them now, but as a being large, tower-ing and awful - a divine personage with whom they had nothing i n common, (pp. 130— 3l) Hardy verbally renders i n t h i s scene a technique of l i g h t i n g found frequently i n the paintings of Joseph Wright of Derby, and although no p a r t i c u l a r paint-ing of Wright's corresponds to the scene i n the novel, an understanding of the significance of the technique enhances the meaning of the baptism scene. In the scene from the novel, Tess's face and figure are illuminated by candlelight, transforming her appearance into that of a "divine person-age", her face into "a thing 6f immaculate beauty, with an impress of dig-n i t y " . S i m i l a r l y i n several of Wright's most well-known paintings, human figures i n dark rooms are illuminated by candle-flame (for example "Three Persons Viewing "The Gladiator' by Candlelight") and according to Ronald Paulson, "behind Wright's pictures of a i r pumps and orreys, statues and bubble-blowing i s the t r a d i t i o n of the candle-flame i t s e l f as both secular 1 i l l u m i n a t i o n and transcience - the merely human equivalent of God's candle." In paintings of t h i s candle-light t r a d i t i o n , human figures are transfigured i into d i v i n i t i e s and ordinary experience into "miracles of the modern world". Thus, Hardy, i n verbally rendering Wright's technique, transforms Tess from what she i s , i n f a c t , into an i d e a l , divine and mythic personage i n t h i s scene. The passage quoted above then c l e a r l y reveals Tess's i d e a l essence (as do the scenes that included the Tuscan Saint and S a l l a e r t references) before the f i n a l t r a g i c movement of the novel begins, i n which, as I s h a l l - 67 -now demonstrate, Tess i s primarily i d e n t i f i e d , through several v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n s , with regal t r a g i c heroines. The other four submerged allusions i n the novel are a l l to Pre-18 Raphaelite paintings, the subjects of which are drawn from legend and l i t e r a t u r e , and they a l l occuroin that section of the novel which begins just before Tess's marriage to Angel and which ends with the death of Alec. Moreover, i n a l l four Tess i s represented as, or regards herself as, g u i l t y Queen (Guinevere) or i d e a l , innocent, courtly lady (Beatrice and Ophelia). Perhaps the f i r s t and most obvious of these submerged references occurs i n the scene i n which Angel gives Tess clothes to wear, before t h e i r marriage: She did return upstairs, and put on the gown. Alone she stood before the glass looking at the effect of her s i l k a t t i r e ; and then there came into her head her mother's ballad of the mystic robe -That never would become that wife That once had done amiss, which Mrs. Durbeyfield had once used to sing to her as a c h i l d , so b l i t h e l y and so archly, her foot on the cradle which she rocked to the tune. Suppose t h i s robe should betray her by changing-col-our, as her robe had betrayed Queen Guenever. (p. 248) Several d e t a i l s i n t h i s description correspond closely to those found i n William Morris's painting "Queen Guinevere" (Tate Gallery, London). In Morris's painting, Queen Guinevere stands before a mirror, looking at her r e f l e c t i o n i n the same way that Tess i s said to stand before "the glass looking at the effect of her s i l k a t t i r e . " Also, the gown Guinevere wears appears to be changing colour, as the sleeves are s o l i d red, while the remainder of the gown i s mottled red and white. The minstrel i n the cor-ner of the painting may have suggested to Hardy the idea of Tess r e c a l l i n g a balladoof Guinevere heard i n her childhood. - 68 -This a l l u s i o n then reinforces the reader's understanding of Tess's perception of herself. She regards herself as a figure of g u i l t , an adulteress, who has "broken the laws of society. Further, the/allusion may be intended to r e c a l l an e a r l i e r remark of Tess, when she supplies Angel with her reasons f o r not wishing to be further educated: "What's the use of learning that I am one of a long row only - finding out that there i s set down i n some old book, somebody just l i k e me, and to know that I s h a l l only act her part, making me sad, that's a l l " (p. I65). Tess sees her l o t i n l i f e as pre-ordained and the f a c t that at t h i s point i n the nov-e l she perceives herself i n terms of a Guinevere figure has a- further two-f o l d significance: i n the context of the passage I have just quoted, i t suggests that i n Tess's imagination there e x i s t s a confused idea of her-s e l f as rqueen-like, as an a r i s t o c r a t i c D'Urberville? while secondly, i t introduces the notion that the events i n t h i s section of the novel are the prelude to a tragedy of which Tess i s the heroine. The next submerged a l l u s i o n comes at a p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l point i n the action, i n the midst'of the sleep-walking scene. In t h i s scene Angel carries Tess to the ruined choir of the Abbey church. Against the North wall was the empty stone c o f f i n of an abbot, i n which every t o u r i s t with a turn f o r grim humour was accustommed to stretch himself. In t h i s Glare c a r e f u l l y l a i d Tess. Having kissed her l i p s a second time, he breathed deeply, as i f a greatly desired end were attained, (p. 293) The physical d e t a i l s of t h i s scene correspond to those i n one of Dante Gabriel Rossetti's most well known works, "Dante's Dream" (Tate Gallery, London). In t h i s painting Dante stands detached i n the foreground, watch-ing an angel (whose hand he holds) lean over and k i s s the forehead of Bea-t r i c e , who l i e s dead on a tomb. The l i n k i n g of hands between the angel - 69 -(Angel Glare) and Dante may well have suggested to Hardy the c o n f l i c t s between Angel i n a waking and sleeping state and between the r e a l Angel and the i d e a l . Angel exclaims that Tess i s "dead, dead" (p. 291) and he 19 i s , i n the passage I have quoted, enacting her b u r i a l . These recorded actions suggest the nature of Angel's dream of which the reader i s t o l d nothing. I t seems clear, however, from what we are t o l d of the action, that the meaning of the dream f o r Angel i s Tess's presence as_-pure s p i r i t , to whom, at least In his dream, he i s able to respond i d e a l l y . He kisses her and feel s he has attained "a greatly desired end". Angel's behaviour while awake has been of quite a diff e r e n t order: cold, stern and unre-lenting. This aspect of Angel i s captured i n the stance of Dante i n the painting, as he stands back s t i f f l y and detached ( i n the p u r i t a n i c a l gar-ment of black) from the shrouded figure of Beatrice. The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Tess with Beatrice i s made e x p l i c i t l a t e r i n the scene, when Tess urges Angel to return to the farm-house: To her r e l i e f , he unresistingly acquiesced, her words had appar-ently thrown him back into his dream which thence seemed to enter on a new phase, wherein he fancied she had ri s e n as a s p i r i t , and was leading him to heaven, (p. 243) In the r i g h t hand corner of the Rossetti painting, there i s a s p i r a l s t a i r -case. This emblem of s p i r i t u a l enlightenment may have further suggested to Hardy the ascent to s p i r i t u a l f u l f i l l m e n t , While the Queen Guinevere reference suggested an idea within Tess of herself as a tra g i c heroine, t h i s reference suggests an idea within Angel of Tess. His idea i s obviously s t i l l complicated, but Hardy presents i t s contrasting elements quite c l e a r l y . On one hand, Angel's sense of Tess's g u i l t s t i l l compells him to reject her, but on the other hand, his o r i g i n a l sense of her as an i d e a l woman i n the t r a d i t i o n of courtly love i s shown as p e r s i s t i n g . - 70 -Shortly after t h i s episode, Angel leaves f o r B r a z i l and i n his absence Tess i s forced by circumstance to work as a peasant labourer, and i t i s i n t h i s state that Alec meets her once again. In the complications of the action that follows, the relationship between Alec and Tess i s renewed and both her and her family become f i n a n c i a l l y dependent on him. They do so immediately following a scene i n which Tess i s confronted suddenly by Alec i n Kingsbere Church: She musingly turned to withdraw, passing near an a l t a r tomb, the oldest of them a l l , on which was a recumbent figure. In the dusk she had not noticed i t before, and would hardly have now but f o r an odd fancy that the e f f i g y moved. As soon as she drew close to i t she discovered a l l i n a moment that the figure was a l i v i n g person; and the shock to her sense of not having been alone was so violent that she was quite overcome and sank down nigh to f a i n t i n g , not however t i l l she had recognized Alec d'Ur-b e r v i l l e i n the form. He leapt o f f the slab and supported her. 'I saw you come i n , ' he said smiling,''and got up there not to interrupt your meditations. A family gathering, i s i t not, with those old fellows under us here? Listen.' He stamped with his heel heavily on the f l o o r ; whereupon there arose a hollow echo from below. "That shook them a b i t , I ' l l warrant!' he continued. 'And you thought I was the stone reproduction of one of them. But no. The old order changeth. The l i t t l e finger of the sham d'Urberville can do more f o r you than the whole dynasty of the re a l underneath, (p. 413) Alec's quotation from the Morte d'Arthur, "The old order changeth" suggests a connection with a water colour painting by Eossetti, e n t i t l e d "King Arthur's Tomb" (Tate Gallery, London) which i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s proverb. In the painting, Guinevere, weakly r e p e l l i n g the advances of Lancelot, kneels beside the tomb of her dead husband, Arthur, on the base of which i s depicted the knighting of Lancelot. Following the hint embed-ded i n the Mort'e d'Arthur quotation, I would claim that the action i n the scene evokes the Rossetti painting and that to examine the one i n terms of the other, as I have already done i n the- case of "Dante's Dream", i s to - 71 -throw new l i g h t on the meaning of t h i s scene. E a r l i e r Tess has i d e n t i f i e d herself as Guinevere, and i n t h i s scene I would suggest that Hardy intends the reader to i d e n t i f y her with Guinevere once again. Relating the scene to the painting, i f Tess i s Guinevere, then Angel i s the dead Arthur and Alec i s Lancelot. Seen i n these terms, the significance of the action i n the novel i s both to emphasize and define Tess's attitude toward Angel, Alec and herself. In the painting, Guinevere's kneeling posture beside the e f f i g y of Arthur states her desire to p e r s i s t i n the old relationship, a f a c t empha-sized by the carved figures of Arthur knighting Lancelot on the tomb. Lancelot then i s destroying her idea of that relationship and demanding that she renew her former relationship with him. In the scene i n the novel, Tess, who s t i l l regards herself as i n relationship with Angel, i s being offered a new one by Alec. The nature of t h i s new one, as he offers i t , stresses the sense of Tess as descendant of the a r i s t o c r a t i c D'Urbervilles and Alec's words, "Now command me. What s h a l l I do" (p. 413) suggest that Hardy intends the reader to understand his proposal almost as a parody of the courtly lover's attitude toward his lady. The connection between the major physical d e t a i l s i n t h i s scene (and the painting connected with i t ) and with those i n the sleep-walking scene (and "Dante's Dream") i s so obvious as to not need detailed comment. The contrast between the use of these physical d e t a i l s however i s important. In the sleepwalking scene i t i s Tess who l i e s i n a tomb and Angel who bends to k i s s her. The sense of Angel's divided s e l f i s c l e a r l y conveyed and that sense, as I have already indicated, makes p l a i n precisely what Angel's attitude toward his relationship with Tess i s . In the Ki-ngsberescene, however, i t i s Angel who i s dead to Tess and i t i s she who i s shown as - 72 -clinging to the old relationship. The significance of the connection between these two scenes seems clear. The reader sees Angel and Tess as having arrived, as the f i n a l movement of the novel begins, at a s i m i l a r point i n t h e i r relationship with each other. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Tess with Guinevere i n t h i s scene i s not e x p l i -c i t as i t was i n the f i r s t scene before her wedding but i t i s dependent on the acceptance of a correspondence with Rossetti's "King Arthur's Tomb". Once t h i s correspondence i s accepted, an extension of the significance of Tess's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Guinevere to that which I pointed out i n the d i s -cussion of the i n i t i a l Guinevere a l l u s i o n i s clear. I f Tess i n the scene before her wedding may be said to have a confused sense of herself as a r i s t o c r a t i c D*Urberville, the fact that the action here takes place among the tombs of her D'Urberville ancestors suggests both that Tess's sense of herself as ar i s t o c r a t i s becoming clearer and that Hardy i s consciously drawing the reader's attention to i t . Between the action of the f i r s t scene and t h i s , Tess has expiated her g u i l t and has a new sense of Angel as being responsible f o r her state and the condition of t h e i r relationship, as the accusations i n her l e t t e r to him suggests "0, why have you treated me so monstrously, Angel! I do not deserve i t . I have thought i t a l l over c a r e f u l l y , and I can never, never forgive youI You know that I did •not intend to wrong you - why have you so wronged me? You are cruel , cruel indeed! I w i l l t r y to forget you. I t i s a l l i n j u s t i c e I have received at your hands" (p. 417). This change i n Tess's sense of herself i s ref l e c t e d i n the s h i f t from the red garb Queen Guinevere wears i n Morris's painting to the nun's habit i n Rossetti's. The implication i s then, as the tragedy moves forward from t h i s point, that Tess, as pure woman, has been trans-formed into a more complex being. The l a s t submerged reference occurs i n the Sandbourne scene, i n which Angel i s confronted with the news that Tess i s l i v i n g with Alec. Angel reacts to the news s i l e n t l y ; he had a vague consciousness of one thing, though i t was not clear to him t i l l l a t e r , that his o r i g i n a l Tess had s p i r i t u a l l y ceased to recognize the "body before him as hers - allowing i t to d r i f t , l i k e a corpse upon the current, i n a d i r e c t i o n d i s -sociated from i t s l i v i n g w i l l " (p. 429 ) 20 There have been several e a r l i e r l i t e r a r y allusions to Hamlet i n the imme-dia t e l y preceding, action which i d e n t i f i e s Angel as Hamlet and Tess as Ophelia, and there are three other widely scattered passages, which taken i n conjunction with the passage I have just quoted, suggest that Hardy i s here evoking John Everett M i l l a i s ' s "Ophelia" (Tate,Gallery, London) i n order to define as precisely and subtly as possible Angel's conscious reactions to his sense of Tess at t h i s point i n the novel. The f i r s t of these passages i s A n g e l a s remark to Tess as he carries her over the flooding waters i n Chapter Twenty-Three: "You are l i k e an undulating billow warmed by the sun. And a l l t h i s f l u f f of muslin about you i s the f r o t h " (p. 1 8 5 ) . The implication of t h i s quotation i s a po s i t i v e one, that Tess, at one with the water,. Is l i f e . The next passage occurs i n the scene i n which Tess promises to give Angel an answer to his proposal; At l a s t she got away, and did not stop i n her retreat t i l l she was i n the thicket of p o l l a r d willows at the lower side of the barton, where she could be quite unseen. Here Tess flung herself upon the r u s t l i n g undergrowth of spear grass, as upon a bed, and re-mained crouching i n p a l p i t a t i n g misery broken by momentary shoots of joy, which her fears about the ending could not altogether suppress. In r e a l i t y , she was d r i f t i n g into acquiescence, (p. 218) Here the emphasis i s on- Tess's sense of an escape from sexual involvement with Angel as well as on her merging with nature, as " d r i f t i n g into acquie-scence". The t h i r d passage occurs l a t e r i n the same scene and i s 'more - 74 -obviously connected with the d e t a i l s of M i l l a i s ' s "Ophelia" than the other i n the same scene: • She soon rose from the table, and with an impression that Glare would follow her, went along a l i t t l e wriggling path, now step-ping to one side, and now to the. other,, t i l l she stood by the mainstream of the Var. Men had been cutting water weeds higher up now on the r i v e r and masses of them f l o a t i n g past her - mov-ing islands of green crowfoot, whereon she might almost have ridden... (p. 221) Here the implication Is s t i l l of escape, but the sense now i s of her moving with a purpose away from the complexity that Angel represents. These then prepare one f o r an understanding of the passage from the Sandbourne scene that most d i r e c t l y relates to M i l l a i s ' s painting. Angel's "vague consciousness" i s defined i n terms of the painting as a much more complicated one than that found i n the scene i n which he carried her over the water. His o r i g i n a l sense of her s t i l l exists f o r she i s now once more recognizable to him as essentially iinnocent s p i r i t . The g u i l t y Tess now appears to him as no longer e x i s t i n g , _ . . " l i k e a corpse upon the cur-rent". However, the passage also states an important new insight.on Angel's part as to how Tess perceives herself and he expresses t h i s i n a s t r i k i n g image derived from M i l l a i s ' s painting. This image suggests both some pro-cess of a r i t u a l cleansing i n which the g u i l t y s e l f i s drowned and a sense of Tess as dissociated, at t h i s point, from her physical being, f o r "Tess had s p i r i t u a l l y ceased to recognize the body before him as hers." Thus the passage combines a succinct and-"accurate description of Angelas state of mind and, since the body d r i f t s " i n a d i r e c t i o n dissociated from i t s l i v i n g w i l l " , with a b r i l l i a n t and disturbing description of the psychol-ogical condition of Tess. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Tess with Ophelia, another form of the inno-cent lady of the courtly love t r a d i t i o n , emphasizes once more Tess's role - 75 -as a tra g i c heroine. Further, the peculiar function of the a l l u s i o n , which I have just described, indicates c l e a r l y the destructive nature of Angel's i d e a l i z a t i o n of Tess ( i n i t s effect on her as well as on himself) that has been revealed at several points i n the action before t h i s scene. What i s more important about t h i s a l l u s i o n , however, i s the sense that Angel f i n a l l y appears to begin to understand t h i s . While the v i s u a l art allusions i n Tess do not form, as they do i n The Return of the Native and Jude the Obscure, a single clear pattern (as my discussion has indicated) they do form two patterns that may be said to interloc k , to complete a single meaning. The major pattern which runs through the whole novel is.composed of both overt and submerged allusions which are discussed i n the f i r s t part of t h i s chapter. These stress the r e l i g i o u s meaning of both action arid environment. They either express the point of view of the narrator or of Angel. Those which express that of the narrator suggest the degree to which Tess may, while s t i l l being presented as r e a l woman, be conceived of as i d e a l . He hints at and suggests Tess's i d e a l q u a l i t i e s rather than asserting that she i s , i n fa c t , a form of the i d e a l . This pattern con-t i n u a l l y emphasizes the essential c o n f l i c t between "the inherent w i l l to enjoy, and the circumstantial w i l l against enjoyment". Those which express Angel's v i s i o n a f t e r the confession present an image of Tess which i s at the opposite pole from his idea of her before that scene. Before that scene he saw her as an i d e a l , following i t he sees her as. a grotesque, distorted and debased version of what she i n fact i s . In the contrast between these two views of Angel i s Hardy's comment upon the corruption of the courtly love i d e a l and hence on the destructive double standard of society i n the novel. - 76 -Within t h i s major pattern exists the second which i s composed of the submerged allusions to Pre-Raphaelite paintings and which i s confined to the action just before Tess's wedding and Alec's death. These stress the t r a g i c nature of the concluding action, increase the stature of Tess (while not i n any way blurring her own sense of g u i l t ) , i s o l a t e her and enable the reader to disengage her- from the sordid r e a l i t y i n which the f i n a l movement of the p l o t takes place. Both patterns meet-in the climactic Stonehenge scene i n which Tess, at the centre of the c i r c l e of stones, emerges as the single complex image, the separate parts of which each of the patterns has contributed through the prece'eding action; tragic heroine; worthy descendent of a r i s t o c r a t i c family; embodiment of pagan, spontaneous s p i r i t ; victim of society's double standards as well as of her own weakness; superior s p i r i t destroyed by an i n f e r i o r and c r i p p l i n g environment. As t h i s single complex image Tess i s superior to either of the two simple and exaggerated versions of her that each of the patterns alone presents, as she i s c l e a r l y intended to be ("The Pure Woman") to any and a l l interpretations of her and her experience. Eachoof the concluding sentences i n the f i n a l paragraph disposes of any of the versions of Tess's experience that the novel's patterns have offered as t o t a l explanation of her experience. The action has been t r a g i c , l i n k e d to h i s t o r i c a l implications of her family,.as to the society i n which i t has occurred,.and enveloped throughout i n r e l i g i o u s significance. But the experience i t s e l f has transcended a l l explanations of i t . "Justice" i s no more than an abstract concept. "The President of the Immortals" exists only " i n Aeschylean phrase." The dead D'Urbervilles are "unknowing". Angel and Liza-Lu bend "as i f i n prayer". -77 -Hardy remarks i n h i s preface: "Let me repeat that a novel i s an 21 impression, not an argument: and there the matter must r e s t . " Tess (and her experience ). i s the "impression": a l l explanation even though i t may enrich and complicate the impression i s always, inescapably,• .nomore than argument. Appendix This l i s t i n c l u d e s the source of reproductions of a l l v i s u a l a r t matter discussed i n the t e x t of t h i s chapter i n order of r e f e r e n c e , G i o t t o d i Bondone\'s"The Ascension of Mary Magdalene". G i o t t o . Ed. Gesare Gnudi. M i l a n ; Aldo M a r t e l l o E d i t o r e , ri. d. p i . 149a. Anthonis S a l l a e r t ' s "Les Archiducs A l b e r t e t I s a b e l l e a s s i s t a n t a l a Pro-c e s s i o n des P u c e l l e s du Sablon". Hippolyte F i e r e n s - Gevaert. Le  P e i n t u r e au Musee Ancien de B r u x e l l e s . B r u s s e l s ; L i b r a i r i e Nationale D'Art et D ' H i s t o i r e , 1923. p i . 100.. S i r Godfrey K n e l l e r ' s "Margaret, Countess of Ranelagh". Lord K i l l a n i n . S i r Godfrey K n e l l e r and His Times. London; B. T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 1948. p i . I ? . P e t e r L e l y ' s "Lady G i f f a r d " . L e l y . Ed. R. B. Beckett, Boston: Boston Book and A r t Shop, 1955. p i . 70. Joseph Michael Wright's "Mary F a i r f a x " . Charles Baker. L e l y and the S t u a r t  P o r t r a i t P a i n t e r s . London: P h i l l i p Lee Warner, 1912. I , p. 182. P e t e r L e l y ' s "Anne Digby, Countess of Sunderland". O l i v e r M i l l a r . The  Tudor. S t u a r t and E a r l y Georgian P i c t u r e s i n the C o l l e c t i o n of Her  Majesty the Queen P l a t e Volume. London: Phaidon P r e s s , 19&3* P i * Jan Van Beer's "My Model". M. H. Speilman. "Jan Van Beers". Magazine of  A r t , 15 (1892) p. 400. Antoine Wiertz's "La B e l l e .-Rosine". F r a n c i n e - C l a i r e Legrand. Le Symbolisme  en Belgique. B r u s s e l s : a r t s du temps, 1971. p i . 1. Carlo C r i v e l l i ' s "Dead G h r i s t u s " . N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y Catalogues: E a r l i e r  I t a l i a n Schools. London: The Trustees, 1953- 1, P« 105> Carlo C r i v e l l i ' s "Dead C h r i s t u s " ( V a t i c a n V e r s i o n ) . Carlo C r i v e l l i . Ed. P i e t r o Zampetti. M i l a n : Aldo Montello, I96L p i . 114. S p i n e l l o A r e t i n o ' s "Two Haloed Mourners". The N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y Catalogues: E a r l i e r I t a l i a n School. London: The Trustees, 1953. •!!» p. 399. G i o t t o d i Bondone's "Dormition of the V i r g i n . " G i o t t o . Text by E m i l i o Cecchi. M i l a n : S i l v a n a E d i t o r i a l e D'Arte and London: Oldbourne Pr e s s , i960, p i . 48. W i l l i a m M o r r i s ' s "Queen Guinevere". The E n g l i s h Dreamers: A C o l l e c t i o n o f  Pre-Raphaelite P a i n t i n g s . Ed. David L a r k i n . Toronto: Peacock P r e s s and Bantam Books, 1975. pl« 20. - 79 -Dante Gabriel Rossetti's "Dante's Dream". H. G. M a r i l l e r . Dante Gabriel  Rossettis An I l l u s t r a t e d Memorial of His Art and L i f e . London: George B e l l and Sons, 1899. p. 72. Dante Gabriel Rossetti's "King Arthur's Tomb". H. G. M a r i l l e r . Dante  Gabriel "Rossettis An I l l u s t r a t e d Memorial of "His Art and L i f e . London: George B e l l and Sons, 1899« p. 60 John Everett M i l l a i s ' s "Ophelia". The English Dreamerss A Collection of  Pre-Raphaelite Paintings. Ed. David Larkin. Torontos Peacock Press and Bantam Books, 1975- pl« 6. . . - 80 -Chapter Three The v i s u a l a r t allusions i n Jude the Obscure function i n a way that resembles that which I have already described i n The Return of the Native. There i s a central a l l u s i o n ( i n t h i s case Jude's v i s i o n of Christminster as Beulah) that acts as the key to make clear a pattern formed by a num-ber of verbal and v i s u a l art allusions l a t e r i n the novel. There are, however, a number of important differences i n the development of t h i s single technique between the one novel and the other. In The Return of the Native, as I have demonstrated, Clym and Eustachia are i n i t i a l l y i d e n t i f i e d with the figures of Apollo and Diana i n the Dela-croix and the myth portrayed i n i t becomes a prototypical pattern of the action up to the b r i e f i d y l l of t h e i r honeymoon. From that point, the Delacroix a l l u s i o n and the figures within i t take on a di f f e r e n t and more complex meaning as both action and reference s h i f t the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Clym from Apollo to Christ and that of Eustachia from that of Diana to Hecate. Thus, there i s a single central a l l u s i o n , and both sets of iden-t i f i c a t i o n s and the patterns that depend on them are inherent within i t . The actions and patterns swing on the single pivot of the i d y l l described i n the honeymoon chapter. The s i t u a t i o n i n Jude the Obscure i s less simple and clear than t h i s . The key a l l u s i o n occurs at the beginning of the novel and i t i s l i k e the Delacroix, i n The Return of the Native, i n that i t may be interpreted i n both Christian and c l a s s i c a l terms. Jude's v i s i o n of the c i t y i s not only Christian's view of Beulah, however, but also the view of the exil e d Hephaestus of Olympus. Seen as the f i r s t , i t i n i t i a t e s a pattern of Christian moral allegory i n the novel ( i n which Jude and Sue are p i l -grims and Arabella i s temptation) that s t a r t s where Bunyan's ended and ends where his began. Seen as the second, i t i n i t i a t e s a pattern of mythic p a r a l l e l s i n which Jude i s Hephaestus to Sue's Athena and Aphrodite Urania, and to Arabella's Aphrodite, goddess of sexual love. This a l l u s i o n controls the patterns of the novel u n t i l the f i n a l return of Jude and Sue to Christminster. U n t i l that point, the action, i n terms of these patterns, f a l l s into two main parts, the d i v i s i o n between which i s marked by the episode i n which Sue comes to Jude's room i n the night and i n which the reference to the Parthenon f r i e z e occurs. This episode, as I s h a l l demonstrate, functions as the climax of both patterns and t h e i r meanings up to that point. Although both the Christian and c l a s -s i c a l connections are present i n a l l of the allusions, the main connection i n each case:, before t h i s episode, i s with the Christian moral".allegory (though i n each case that concerns Sue, t h i s i s not so c l e a r l y true). In the patterns that follow the a l l u s i o n to the Parthenon f r i e z e u n t i l Sue and Jude's return to Christminster, the main connection i s with the c l a s s i -c al myth of Hephaestus. The proportionate emphasis r e f l e c t s the movement of Jude away from his own early Christian b e l i e f towards the "pagan" scep-2 ti c i s m , the "Greek joyousness", that he learns from Sue. At the point of the return to Christminster there are two v i s u a l art allusions that act i n r e l a t i o n to the f i n a l action as the i n i t i a l a l l u -sion, i n the view of Christminster, does to the action up to that point. Both of these refer to L i t t l e Father Times one of them i s c l a s s i c a l (the l i k e n i n g of his face to the mask of Melepomene); the other i s Christian (his l i k e n i n g of the procession of d i g n i t a r i e s to the Last Judgement). - 82 -The meaning of the pattern of l i t e r a r y and mythic reference that follows (there are no further v i s u a l art allusions) i s tragic and Hardy refers d i r e c t l y to C l a s s i c a l tragedy, but his interpretation of that tragedy i s such as to make I t s . meaning coincide with that i m p l i c i t i n the B i b l i c a l v i s i o n of l i f e as t r i a l and judgement. The function of the allusions then and of the patterns they form and control i s to emphasize and restate i n t h e i r own terms what appears to be the general meaning of t h i s novel (a meaning more t o t a l l y pessimistic than that of either The Return of the Native or Tess of the D'Urbervilles)s that Sue's i d e a l of "Greek joyousness" has been as much of an i l l u s i o n as Jude's of Christian mercy, love and redemption. A l l that exists i s a repres-sive, destructive society. Jude's v i s i o n of Christminster from Marygreen coincides with Hardy's e x p l i c i t l i t e r a r y reference to Apollyon and corresponds i n several d e t a i l s to standard i l l u s t r a t i o n s of Beulah i n The Pilgrims Progress; In the course of ten or f i f t e e n minutes the thinning mist dissolved altogether from the northern horizon, as i t had already done else-where, and about a quarter of an hour before the time of sunset the westward clouds parted, the sun's po s i t i o n being p a r t i a l l y un-covered, and the beams streaming out i n v i s i b l e l i n e s between the two bars of s l a t y cloud. The boy immediately looked back i n the old d i r e c t i o n . Someway within the l i m i t s of the stretch of landscape, points of l i g h t l i k e topaz gleamed. The a i r increased i n transparency with the lapse of minutes, t i l l the topaz points showed themselves to be the vanes, windows, wet roof slates, and other shining points upon the spires, domes, freestone work, and varied outlines that were f a i n t l y revealed. I t was Christminster, unquestionably; either d i r e c t l y seen or miragediin the peculiar atmosphere... . He anxiously descended the ladder and started homewards at a run, tr y i n g not to think of giants, Heme the Hunter, Apollyon l y i n g i n In wait f o r Christian... (p. 41) This i n i t i a l image of Christminster as a c i t y radiating topaz or golden hued l i g h t corresponds both to Bunyan's verbal description of Beulah as a c i t y 3 of l i g h t , b u i l t of "pearls and precious stones"^ whose streets were "paved - 83 -with gold" iand to the i l l u s t r a t i o n s of Beulah found i n several editions of The Pilgrim'Is Progress, notably the i l l u s t r a t i o n s b y P r i o l o , Cruikshank and an unnamed i l l u s t r a t o r i n an 1804 edition.'' In the 1804 edition, the gates of Beulah are depicted as emerging between two clouds. Light streams fo r t h from the gates i n bar-like l i n e s and the two pilgrims, Christian and Hopeful (suggesting two elements i n Jude's character, his desire f o r s p i r -i t u a l l i f e and his ambitions to advance himself) are portrayed i n the River of Death, praying f o r admission. In the P r i o l o i l l u s t r a t i o n , Christian stands i n his s u i t of armour, with Hopeful kneeling at his side, gazing w i s t f u l l y at Beulah which radiates l i g h t . In George Cruikshank's i l l u s t r a -tions f o r The Pilgrim's Progress, the c i t y of Beulah i s portrayed i n a r c h i -t e c t u r a l d e t a i l and one may observe the "vanes, windows... and other shin-ing points upon the spires and domes." Thus although there are no e x i s t i n g records, to my knowledge, specifying the edition of The Pilgrim's Progress which Hardy was most f a m i l i a r with, there are enough points of resemblance between his verbal description and popular nineteenth century i l l u s t r a t e d editions to assume some such i l l u s t r a t i o n s to have been present i n his imagination as he wrote his description. This v i s i o n of Christminster as Beulah occurs as the action opens, while i n The Pilgrim's Progress i t occurs at the end of the pilgrimage as Christian and Hopeful stand ready to cross the River of Death to enter Beulah. This fact contributes an irony to the episode i n that i t suggests from the beginning the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of Jude r e a l i z i n g his ambition during his l i f e t i m e . This also suggests a further comment on the nature of human idealism that l a t e r modern novelists l i k e James Joyce, F. Scott Fitzgerald have made a central concern of t h e i r f i c t i o n : that the ideals man imagines himself as pursuing i n his future e x i s t only i n his past; that - 84 -they are i n fact already dead and l o s t as he sets out-on his pilgimage to a t t a i n them. The fact that there are two figures i n the Bunyan episode reinforces, at t h i s point,.the notion of the dual nature of Jude's desires, one aspect of which one might legitimately i d e n t i f y with the figure of Christian (the manifestation of Jude's desire f o r a Christian l i f e ) and the other with Hope-f u l (the manifestation of Jude's ambitious desire f o r a career within the church). Both of these elements are c l e a r l y present i n the narrator's des-c r i p t i o n of Jude's plans: "he continued to dream and thought he might become a bishop by leading a pure, energetic, wise Christian l i f e . And what an example he would set. I f his income were E5000 a year, he would give away £4500 i n one form and another, and l i v e sumptuously (for him) on the remain-der. Well on second thoughts a bishop was absurd. He would draw the l i n e at an archdeacon. Perhaps a man could be as good and as learned and as useful i n the capacity of an archdeacon as i n that of a bishop. Yet he thought of the bishop again" (p. 57 )• The figure of Jude i n t h i s episode suggests yet another version of the i d e a l i s t viewing the manifestation of his i d e a l . This i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Jude may appear to be based on rather s l i g h t evidence - an interpretation that iden-t i f i e s a figure i n one of the i l l u s t r a t i o n s to The Pilgrim's Progress with the figure of Hephaestus. But there are a s u f f i c i e n t number of p a r a l l e l s between Jude's role and the action i n which he i s involved l a t e r and with the pattern of the Hephaestus 'myth to see Jude here as not only Christian seeking admittance to Beulah, but as Hephaestus seeking readmittance to Olympus, i n company with Dionysus who brought him back af t e r his f i r s t e x i l e i n the caves. F i n a l l y , the episode may be interpreted i n more general terms as a statement of the relationship between the young i d e a l i s t as p i l g r i m and his v i s i o n of the f u l f i l l m e n t of that i d e a l . This interpretation i s reinforced - 85 -by the fact that Jude climbs a ladder, an emblem s i g n i f y i n g the ascent to the i d e a l world of s p i r i t u a l f u l f i l l m e n t , to see the c i t y . That Jude's relationship with Arabella i s to be regarded as one of the f i r s t t r i a l s that he undergoes on h i s pilgrimage i s c l e a r l y suggested by the next v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n i n the novel, which i s to a painting of Samson and De l i l a h . There are three separate and scattered allusions to t h i s painting or the b i b l i c a l episode. The f i r s t occurs i n the scene i n which Jude and Arabella stop at a pub on the f i r s t Sunday afternoon they spend together: The maidservant recognized Jude, and whispered her surprise to her mistress i n the background, that he, the student, 'who kept h i s -s e l f up so particular',, should have suddenly descended so low as to keep company with Arabella. The l a t t e r guessed what was being said, and laughed as she met the serious and tender gaze of her lover - the low and triumphant laugh of a woman who sees she i s win-ning her game. They sat and looked round the room, and at the picture of Samson and Deli l a h which hung on the w a l l , and at the c i r c u l a r beer stains on the table, and at the spittoons underfoot f i l l e d with sawdust. The whole aspect of the scene had that depressing effect on Jude which few places can produce l i k e a tap-room on a Sunday evening when the setting sun i s slanting i n , and no l i q u o r i s going and the unfortunate wayfarer finds himself with no other haven to rest. (p. 66) The second reference to the painting occurs i n the scene which follows that i n which Jude attempts to commit suicide unsuccessfully a f t e r r e a l i z i n g his marriage to Arabella i s a f a i l u r e : What could he do of a lower kind than self-extermination; what was there less noble, more i n keeping with his present degraded position? He could get drunk. Of course that was i t ; he had forgotten. Drinking was the regular, stereotyped resource of the despairing worthless. He began to see now why some men boozed at inns. He struck down the h i l l northwards and came -to an obscure public-house. On entering and s i t t i n g down the sight of the p i c -ture of Samson and D e l i l a h on the wall caused him to recognize the place as that he had v i s i t e d with Arabella on the f i r s t Sunday evening of t h e i r courtship, (p. 91) One other, related reference i s made i n the f i n a l movement of the novel, not e x p l i c i t l y to the picture of Samson and D e l i l a h , but to Jude as Samson. - 86 -This reference occurs i n the scene i n which Arabella decides to keep Jude i n a drunken stupor so that she may remarry him; Arabella ascended the s t a i r s , s o f t l y opened the door of the f i r s t bedroom, and peeped i n . Finding her shorn Sampson was asleep she entered to the bedside and stood regarding him, the fevered f l u s h on his face from the debauch of the previous even-ing lessened the f r a g i l i t y of his ordinary appearance... (p. 3^7 ) The increasingly sordid descriptions i n each of these three passages i n combination with the Samson and De l i l a h references serve to mark stages i n c i d e n t a l l y i n the progress of Jude's relationship with Arabella, that of a drunken Hephaestus with a debased and altogether sexual Aphrodite, as well as, and more importantly, stages i n his progress as wandering Christian p i l g r i m and young i d e a l i s t . Although i t would be extremely d i f f i c u l t to establish which painting of t h i s subject Hardy had i n mind, certain schools of paintings and cer-t a i n well-known renderings may be excluded. The nineteenth century ver-sions of t h i s theme emphasize the demonic or witch-like q u a l i t i e s of D e l i l a h and stress the violence and cruelty of her act. In the e a r l i e r andomost w e l l -known paintings of t h i s subject, by Van Dyck and Rubens, Delil a h i s portrayed as coldly calculating i n her destruction of Samson and attended i n the act by male servants. None of these seems p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate i n view of Hardy's presentation of Arabella as a crude woman of powerful sexuality who does not deliberately p l o t the destruction of Jude but who acts rather to s a t i s f y that sexuality and to escape from an environment i n which she fee l s herself trapped. Keeping i n mind, then, t h i s characterization of Arabella and the circumstances of the scenes i n which the three allusions are found, I think that Hardy may well have had i n mind either Andrea Mantegna's "Samson and D e l i l a h " (National Gallery, London) or Durer's "Samson and De l i l a h " ( R i t t e r Vom Turn, Basel). In the-Mantegna-painting, Samson l i e s - 87 -sleeping on Delilah's lap while she shears his hair. The atmosphere i s quiet and peaceful, f o r the act appears to "be taking place i n an edenic-l i k e garden, complete with a snake-like vine wrapped about the trunk of a tree laden with grapes. The presence of the large hunches of grapes and the attitude of Samson i n t h i s painting r e c a l l as well the paintings of the drunkeness of Noah. In the Durer woodcut, Samson l i e s sleeping on Delilah's lap i n an edenic-like walled garden. His face i s turned away from the c i t y scene revealed through an aperture i n the wall behind him and two men are depicted leaning against the bar-like ledge of the apera-ture. The edenic-like q u a l i t i e s of both these p i c t o r i a l images suggest that Jude's relationship with Arabella w i l l mark a f a l l from innocence. Jude cl e a r l y may be regarded as one who i s undermined primarily by his awakened sexual desires and who turns his "back on the i d e a l he was s t r i v i n g f o r , just as Durer's Samson turns his back on the c i t y scene (and as Hephaestus turned from his work to indulge himself with Aphrodite). Further, l i k e Samson, who was born to deliver I s r a e l from the P h i l i s t i n e s , but whose noble ambitions were betrayed by the cunning of a woman, Jude's dreams of entering Ghristminster as a student are betrayed by Arabella who t r i c k s him into an i l l - a d v i s e d marriage. Thus these paintings c l e a r l y image a central and important c o n f l i c t within Jude himself that contributes c e n t r a l l y to his tragedy: that between his powerful sexual nature and his s p i r i t u a l ambi-t i o n and i d e a l , or between, i n the s i m p l i f i e d terms of an allegory, the s p i r i t and the f l e s h . The presence of the bar-like ledge upon which the two casual specta-tors lean i n Durer's woodcut, and the presence of. the grapes and Samson's attitude i n the Mantegna painting suggest that Samson's f a l l i i s at l e a s t - 88 -p a r t l y due to excessive drinking. This aspect of -both paintings i s p a r t i c -u l a r l y appropriate i n view of the scenes i n which the allusions to Samson and D e l i l a h are found. In the two early scenes, the painting i n the novel i s described as hanging on the wall of a pub which Jude has entered. In the f i r s t of these scenes, Jude enters the pub quite innocently with Arabella, whom he has only recently met, f o r a Sunday afternoon tea, while i n the second scene he enters the pub deliberately to get drunk so that he can temporarily forget about his marital problems. In the l a s t a l l u s i o n , he l i e s sleeping o f f a night of heavy drinking after he has renewed his r e l a -tionship with Arabella. As Jude himself remarks to Sue l a t e r i n the novel, his two greatest weaknesses (weaknesses he shares with his mythic counter-part, Hephaestus) are "myvweakness f o r womankind and my impulse to strong li q u o r " , (p. 373) The next v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n occurs i n Chapter Three of the "At Christ-minster" section i n which Sue's re j e c t i o n of primitive Christian values f o r those of the c l a s s i c a l pagan world i s figured i n two separate passages. The f i r s t of these i s found i n the scene i n which Sue purchases the pagan statues: On the other side of the s t i l e , i n the footpath, she beheld a foreigner with black hair and a sallow face, s i t t i n g on the grass beside a large square board whereon were f i x e d , as closely as they could stand, a number of p l a s t e r statuettes, some of them bronzed, which he was re-arranging before proceeding with them on his way. They were i n the main reduced copies of ancient marbles, and comprised d i v i n i t i e s of a very d i f f e r e n t character from those the g i r l was accustommed to seeing portrayed, among them being a Venus of standard pattern, a Diana, and the other sex, Apollo, Bacchus and Mars. Though the two figures were many yards away from her the south-west sun brought them out so b r i l -l i a n t l y against the green herbage that she could discern t h e i r contours with luminous distinctiveness: and being almost i n a l i n e between herself and the church towers of that c i t y they awoke i n her an oddly foreign and contrasting set of ideas by comparison, (p. 113) - 89 -In t h i s passage, the church spires of Christminster are nearly "blocked out and e f f i c i e n t l y dwarfed i n Sue's sight by the pagan statues interposed between her and the spires. The c l a s s i c a l world and i t s philosophy impres-ses Sue, at t h i s point, as more r e a l , immediate and compelling than the Christian i d e a l with which she i s already vaguely d i s s a t i s f i e d . F i n a l l y 7 deciding to purchase the statues from the peddlar , • •' she carries them home, attempting to hide them i n leaves (suggesting her uneasiness i n t h i s new conviction), and takes them to her room where; she looked up at the statuettes, which appeared strange and out of place, there happening to he a calvary p r i n t hanging between them, and, as i f the scene suggested the action, she at length jumped up and withdrew another book from her box - a volume of verse - and turned to the f a m i l i a r poem -"Thou hast conquered, 0 pale Galilean: The world hast grown grey from thy breathI' which she read to the end. Presently she put out the candles, undressed, and f i n a l l y extinguished her own l i g h t . She was of an age which usually sleeps soundly yet tonight she kept waking up, and every time she opened her eyes there was enough diffused l i g h t from the street to show her the white plas-t e r figures standing on the chest of drawers i n odd contrast to t h e i r environment of text and martyr, and the Gothic framed cru-c i f i x - p i c t u r e that was only discernible now as a L a t i n cross, the figure thereon being obscured by the shades, (pp. 116 - 17) Although Hardy does not provide s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l s i n the description of the calvary painting to establish with certainty which version he had i n mind here, one i n the National Gallery,.London, by Antonello Da Messina, e n t i t l e d "Christ Crucified" i s "Gothic framed". Moreover, i n t h i s p a r t i c -u l a r version, a male Christian saint, St. John, and the V i r g i n Mary, flank the figure of Christ on the cross,as i n the scene i n the novel, the.'-- s t a t -ues of the pagan god, Apollo, and the pagan goddess, Venus, flank the Cal-vary picture. The replacement i n the scene i n the novel of the Christian Apostle of - 90 -of Love and evangelist (St. John) by the pagan god associated with moral enligh-Q tenment, who was "the i d e a l of f a i r and manly youth" (Apollo) and of the V i r -o gin who epitomized "the sweetness of womanhood" "by the pagan goddess of heavenly and earthly love (Venus) suggests c l e a r l y the subtle transformation, already well-advanced i n Sue's ideals from p u r i t a n i c a l Christian ones to less repressive pagan ones. The play on perspective i n t h i s scene, i n which the figure of Christ i s obscured by the shadows of the two pagan statues, and the quotation from Swinburne's "Hymn to Proserpine" c l e a r l y suggest that the Christian world, f o r Sue, i s drained of significance and that she i s conse-quently moving towards pagan idealism. The composition formed by the two pagan statues and the GaLvary painting suggests, however, not only Sue's disenchantment with Christian r e l i g i o n but her strong c r i t i c i s m of i t . Just as the large, three dimensional statues e a r l i e r blocked out the church spires of Christminster, they now e f f e c t i v e l y overshadow the figure of Christ him-s e l f , leaving only the impression of a bare cross, the symbol now to Sue of an inhuman, s t e r i l e r e l i g i o n which she wishes to reject. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the f i n a l passage, which I have discussed, i s juxtaposed by the novelist with a scene i n which Jude i s described reading from the Greek New Testament. Both Jude and Sue are shown at t h i s point as partaking i n the world of Greek ideas, but Jude's attachment does not include, as hers does, a necessary c r i t i c i s m of Christian values - those of which Christminster i s s t i l l , to him, the appropriate symbol. Jude's agonized struggle to a t t a i n an Idealized, s p i r i t u a l existence despite the hindering facts i n which he finds himself i s r i c h l y i l l u s t r a t e d by the a l l u s i o n to the Laocoon statue i n the scene i n which he i s f i n a l l y forced to recognize that he w i l l not be admitted to a Christminster college as a student! - 91 -Refreshed by some breakfast, he went up to his old room and lay down, i n his s h i r t sleeves, a f t e r the manner of an artisan. He f e l l asleep f o r a short time, and when he awoke i t was as i f he had awakened i n h e l l . I t was h e l l - 'the h e l l of conscious f a i l -ure; both i n ambition and i n love. He thought of that previous abyss into which he had f a l l e n before leaving t h i s part of the country; the deepest deep he had supposed i t then; but i t was not so deep as t h i s . That had been the breaking i n of the outer bulwarks of his hopes t h i s was of the second l i n e . I f he had been a woman he must have screamed under the ner-vous tension which he was now undergoing. But that r e l i e f being" denied his v i r i l i t y , he clenched his teeth i n misery, bringing l i n e s about his mouth l i k e those of the Laocoon, and corruga-tions between his brows, (p. 144) The statue which Hardy here refers to i s now e n t i t l e d '"The Laocoon Group" (The Vatican, Rome) and i t depicts the torment of the Laocoon, a Trojan prophet and p r i e s t of Apollo, as he struggles against the serpent sent from the sea by Athena as punishment. Jude, at t h i s point i n the novel, c l e a r l y regards himself as one who has f a i l e d either to accomplish his worldly ambitions or to win his i d e a l woman and who i n consequence f e e l s himself to have "awakened i n h e l l " . The statue of Laocoon struggling with the serpent thus illuminates Jude's in t e r n a l torment. The figure of the serpent, whether one i d e n t i f i e s i t , as one might legiti m a t e l y , with the d e v i l , with e v i l , or with the entangle-ment of the "abyss" into which he imagines himself to have f a l l e n , relates the c l a s s i c a l subject of the statue to a reading of Jude's condition i n terms of the allegory based i n The Pilgrim's Progress. One might speci-f i c a l l y relate t h i s to the p a r t i c u l a r episode i n The Pilgrim's Progress i n which Christian f i g h t s with the serpentine monster Apollyon. While the Hephaestus connection seems less obvious one might suggest that the cen-t r a l figure of the group might be i d e n t i f i e d with Hephaestus, struggling i n the caves beneathethe ocean to which Hera had exiled him as punishment. The compositional resemblance i n the s i t u a t i o n of the Laocoon figure - 9 2 -to the t r a d i t i o n a l renderings of'the c r u c i f i e d Christ, of the central larger figure between two smaller ones, suggests another reading of the meaning of the serpent and hence of the meaning of the a l l u s i o n . Jude, l i k e the Lao-coon (seen i n the context of a Christ f i g u r e ) , struggles to f u l f i l l h i s i d e a l i n c o n f l i c t with the force of e v i l . This i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and the notion that follows from i t i s reinforced by Jude's e x p l i c i t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of himself as a Christ figure i n the passage that almost immediately pre-cedes the one i n which the a l l u s i o n to Laocoon i s found: "He reached -the ancient hamlet while people were at breakfast. Weary and mud be-spattered, but quite possessed of his ordinary clearness of brain, he sat down by the w e l l , thinking as he did so what a poor Christ he made" (p. 144). Jude's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of himself as a "poor Ch r i s t " ' c l e a r l y implies that he regards himself at t h i s point as an inadequate r e a l i z a t i o n of the i d e a l man and unworthy' to enter the i d e a l kingdom he has envisaged and towards which he s t i l l sees himself as journeying. Jude, i t should be noted, i m p l i c i t l y stated his desire to become the i d e a l figure, Christ, e a r l i e r i n the novel, when he remarked: "Christminster s h a l l be my Alma Mater; and I ' l l be her beloved son, i n whom she s h a l l be well-pleased" (p. 58). The a l l u s i o n to the Laocoon, f i n a l l y , while i t accurately records the r e a l torment of Jude's s p i r i t , acts as a comment also (as do the verbal comments i n the context i n which i t appears) on his exaggerated sense of his own g u i l t and his mistaken view that he i s e s s e n t i a l l y unworthy to enter the i d e a l world. For as the action makes clear, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r his i n a b i l i t y to r e a l i z e his s p i r i t u a l ambitions i s less that of Jude 10 himself than of the Christminster college system that rejects him. The next overt v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n i s related to i t s context i n the novel i n a way that i s di f f e r e n t from that i n which the e a r l i e r a l l u s i o n s , - 93 -already discussed, were related. In the case of those a l l u s i o n s , the r e l a -tionship was confined, although i t s implications necessarily were not, to one immediate sentence i n the novel. In t h i s case however, there are a num-ber of verbal descriptions of f a c t and action which form the context over three chapters, and that a l l concern the struggle within Jude to repress h i s sexual desires so that he may pursue his s p i r i t u a l i d e a l . , This v i s u a l a r t allusioneoccurs i n a scene which follows Jude's deci-sion to follow Sue to Melchester to adopt an " e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and a l t r u i s t i c l i f e as d i s t i n c t from the i n t e l l e c t u a l and emulative l i f e " (p. 148) he had previously desired. He attempts to persuade himself that he w i l l l l o v e Sue only "as a f r i e n d and kinswoman" (p. 149) and w i l l free himself of h i s sex-' ual f e e l i n g toward her. The a l l u s i o n i t s e l f occurs i n the scene that follows these decisions, i n which Jude i s described as a r r i v i n g at Melchester and passing by the school at which Sue i s t r a i n i n g to be a teacher: Then a wave of warmth came over him as he thoughtfehow near he stood to the bright-eyed vivacious g i r l with the broad forehead and p i l e of dark h a i r above i t ; the g i r l with the k i n d l i n g glance, daringly soft at times - something l i k e that of the g i r l s he had seen i n engravings from paintings of the Spanish School, (p. 150) Although i t would be d i f f i c u l t to establish with certainty, i t seems quite possible that Hardy may have had i n mind a p a r t i c u l a r painting i n . t h i s a l l u s i o n , that of Jean Bautista del Mazo's "Queen Mariana of Spain i n Mourning" (National Gallery, London)(. In t h i s painting a central nun-like figure i n the foreground s i t s holding a l e t t e r i n her hand, while i n the middle ground stand three other nun-like figures which appear to be i n s t r u c -t i n g children, and behind these stands a pedestaled statue of Venus, the head of which i s obscured by a curtain. The nun-like quality of the cen-t r a l figure i n t h i s painting corresponds to Jude's f i r s t v i s i o n of3Sue at the school: "She wore a murray-coloured gown with a l i t t l e lace c o l l a r . - 94 -I t was made quite p l a i n , and hung about her s l i g h t figure with c l i n g i n g gracefulness. Her h a i r , which she had worn according to the custom of the day, was now twisted up t i g h t l y , and she had altogether the a i r of a woman clipped and pruned to severe d i s c i p l i n e , an underbrighthess shining through from the depths which that d i s c i p l i n e had not yet been able to reach" (p. 51)• A l l the d e t a i l s in.the verbal description contribute here to the impression of Sue as a nun, "a woman clipped and pruned by severe d i s c i p l i n e " and the tr a i n i n g school as a convent. In the next two chapters Sue i s described emerging from the t r a i n i n g school " i n a nun-like s i m p l i c i t y of costume that was enforced rather than desired" (p. I56) and the t r a i n i n g school i t s e l f i s described as a "species of nunnery" (p. 160). The l e t t e r which Queen Mariana, i n the painting, holds i n her hand r e c a l l s the l e t t e r that Sue had sent Jude requesting him to "come immediately" (p. 150) and the three teaching nun-figures i n the background r e c a l l Sue's ambition to become a teacher. The juxtaposition of the central nun-like figure and the beheaded Venus figures the divided nature of Jude's feelings f o r Sue at t h i s point i n the action, a "contradictoriness to which he was not b l i n d " (p. 149). As the image of the nun i n the foreground suggests, Jude attempts to envisage Sue as a s p i r i t u a l helpmate who w i l l a s s i s t him i n his endeavour to lead an e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l i f e . However, as. the image of the beheaded Venus i n the background suggests, Jude also regards Sue as the embodiment not of heavenly (Venus Urania) but of worldly love and continues to f e e l sexually attracted to her despite his resolutions. The r e l a t i v e positions of the two figures i n the painting are c l e a r l y a measure of Jude *s attempt to remove Sue, as a sexual being, from the centre of his attention. As the novelist notes Jude's "excessive human int e r e s t i n the new place was e n t i r e l y of Sue's making, - 95 -while at the same time Sue was to he regarded even less than formerly as proper to create i t " (p. 149). Thus t h i s a l l u s i o n p l a i n l y conveys Jude's attemptsto regard Sue only as a s p i r i t u a l helpmate who w i l l guide him on his pilgrim's progress. Again here, as i n the other allusions before t h i s , the connection with the myth of Hephaestus i s less clear and obvious than that to the moral allegory which I have already noted. The relevance of the myth i s however, I think, drawn to one's attention by the r e l a t i v e positions of T Venus and the nun-like central figure. Just as f o r Sue (as "pagan"), i n the e a r l i e r scene, the c l a s s i c a l statues dwarfed the distant Christminster spires, so now f o r Jude (as only emerging Hephaestus), the figure of the nun dwarfs the c l a s s i c a l statutes of the goddess of physical love. I f one looks back from t h i s connection to the e a r l i e r hints of Heph-aestus i n the allusions that precede i t and forward to i t s clear emergence i n the a l l u s i o n to the Parthenon f r i e z e then, i t seems to me, that the r e f -erence to i t i n t h i s a l l u s i o n makes clear (and hence makes clear elsewhere) what Jude's v i s i o n as Hephaestus means. I t means what Sue l a t e r c a l l s "Greek joyousness"; the l i f e of Jude's s p i r i t free of society's r e s t r i c -tions. In each a l l u s i o n before t h i s one, as i n t h i s one, that v i s i o n , that l i f e , i s r e s t r i c t e d , blurred, incomplete, frustrated. In the a l l u s i o n to the Parthenon f r i e z e , i t frees i t s e l f to e x i s t as the counterpart to Athena, that is.the free s p i r i t of Sue. The a l l u s i o n to the Parthenon f r i e z e i s preceded-- by a group of v i s u a l art allusions that might be said to show us Sue leading Jude toward that momentary f u l f i l l m e n t that I have just described. These allusions c l e a r l y suggest the discrepancy between Jude's Christian idealism and Sue's pagan, r e a l i s t i c view of the world at t h i s stage, just as the context of action i n - 96 -which the allusions appear makes d e a r Sueis acceptance of a natural, r e a l view of t h e i r relationship and Jude's continuing attempt to keep i t at the l e v e l of an unrealizable i d e a l . They occur i n the scene i n which Jude and Sue take a t r i p to Wardour Castle: They reached the Park and Castle and wandered through the p i c -t u r e - g a l l e r i e s , Jude stopping by preference i n front of the devotional picture's by Del Sarto, Guido Reni, Spagnoletto, Sassoferato, Carlo Dol c i , and others. Sue paused pa t i e n t l y beside him, and stole c r i t i c a l looks into his face, as regarding the Virgins, Holy Families, and Saints, i t grew reverent and abstracted. When she had thoroughly estimated him at t h i s , she would move on and wait f o r him before a Lely or Reynolds. I t was evident that her cousin deeply interested her, as one might be interested i n a'vman puzzling h i s way along a labyrinthe from which one had one's s e l f escaped, (p. 157), The paintings to which Jude i s most attracted i n the g a l l e r i e s are those which are es s e n t i a l l y Christian devotional paintings. Moreover, the work of the group of a r t i s t s that the novelist singles out f o r Jude's p a r t i c u l a r attention i s characterized by i t s extravagantly i d e a l conceptions of pea-sant women as the V i r g i n Mary and by the absorption of the c l a s s i c a l influence (both thematic and technical) into the Christian meaning. Sue, on the other hand, i s attracted to the work of painters i n which the cla s s -i c a l influence has not been adapted to any Christian purpose and i n which the women portrayed, although i n a sense ide a l i z e d , are c l e a r l y and recog-nizably the upper-class women that they are. This a l l u s i o n also functions i n much the same manner as did the e a r l i e r Galvary p r i n t and pagan statues a l l u s i o n to prefigure the movement Jude's thought w i l l take i n the next move-ment of the novel, under Sue's d i r e c t i o n . The action i n t h i s scene, i n which Sue leads Jude to the Lely and Reynolds paintings i n which the women are portrayed as r e a l , and away from the Christian devotional paintings i n which the women are portrayed as i d e a l , symbolizes the role she w i l l play - 97 -from t h i s point on, as a teacher (Pallas Athena) to Jude (as Hephaestus), fo r she leads him from a puritan C h r i s t i a n i t y to-Hellenism. Jude's recognition of Sue i n t h i s role and his subsequent adoption of pagan values i s signalled i n the next overt v i s u a l a rt a l l u s i o n which occurs i n the scene i n which Sue runs away from the t r a i n i n g school and comes to Jude's room i n the night: He palpitated at the thought that she had f l e d to him i n her trouble as he had f l e d to her i n hi s . What counterparts they were! He unlatched the door of his room, heard a stealthy r u s t l e on the dark s t a i r s , and i n a moment she appeared i n the l i g h t of his lamp. He went up to seize her hand,:,and found she was as clammy as a marine diety, and that her clothes clung to her l i k e the robes upon the figure i n the Parthenon f r i e z e , (p. 164) The figure from the Parthenon f r i e z e which I think Hardy here refers to i s 11 that of the central figure, P a l l a s Athena and the mythic role he assigns to Jude i s that of Hephaestus, close and intimate f r i e n d of Athena. Since both were protectors of human c i v i l i z e d l i f e (Hephaestus i s often i d e n t i -f i e d with Prometheus) and patrons of the c i t y , Hephaestus was often consid-ered as the male counterpart of Athena. Athena, i n c l a s s i c a l myth, was not only the goddess of wisdom, but was also "the inventor of the s a i l and pro-12 tectoress of ship building." Moreover, the figure of Athena, i n the f r i e z e , i s covered by a clinging tunic, and as one archaeologist has observed: "the thinner material of t h i s undergarment manifests i t s e l f just as i t does i n the pedimental figures, by i t s p l i a b i l i t y , c l inging to the figure and suggesting to the eye the forms which i t covers, the r i s e and f a l l which'it obediently follows."^" 3 Athena's role as an "inspirercand t e a c h e r " ^ corre-sponds to Sue's role i n her relationship with Jude i n t h i s section, f o r she acts as a teacher to him, suggesting books he should read and more i n t e l l e c t u a l l y advanced attitudes he should adopt. Further, Athena's role as goddess of the c i t y and of c i v i l i z e d l i f e , corresponds to Jude's - 98 -perception of Sue as "quite a product of c i v i l i z a t i o n " (p. 158) and as an "urban miss""' (p. 159)'• The head of the Athena figure i n the f r i e z e i s v i r t u a l l y featureless, but one nineteenth century archaeologist suggested that the missing fea-tures portrayed "a mixture of maidenly p u r i t y and graceful n o b i l i t y . There i s no accentuation of the d i s t i n c t l y feminine charms, nay, from one aspect the head i s almost boyish i n character. And t h i s quality of head combined with the feminine forms of the body, produces that mixture of attributes which characterized the Vir g i n daughter of Zeus i n the less stern concep-ts t i o n of the patron goddess of Athens." This same boyish q u a l i t y i s an important char a c t e r i s t i c of Sue commented upon by Jude i n t h i s scene when he notes that Sue does not "talk l i k e a g i r l " (p. I67) and that her appear-ance i n his s u i t i s that of a "slim and f r a g i l e being masquerading as him-s e l f on a Sunday" (p. 164). This a l l u s i o n to the Athena figure of the Parthenon f r i e z e , depicted i n the less stern conception of the goddess, with only the emblem of "two 16 snakes... indicated on her l e f t wrist" to remind the reader of her more fi e r c e and negative qu a l i t i e s , expresses then i n mythic terms the •:.momentary r e a l i z a t i o n f o r both Sue and Jude of t h e i r i d e a l of the freedom of t h e i r s p i r i t s from r e s t r i c t i o n . Jude notes that he and Sue are counterparts and they s i t side by side as Athena and Hephaestus s i t side by side i n the f r i e z e . But the a l l u s i o n expresses also, f o r the one and only time i n thennovel, the r e a l i z a t i o n of the New Testament Christian i d e a l of love and f u l f i l l m e n t . The snakes that harmlessly c i r c l e the Athena's arm as a bracelet i n the f r i e z e r e c a l l the several e a r l i e r allusions to serpents as representative of e v i l , c o n f l i c t , repression and death, and act as the climax of t h i s sequence: - 99 -Apollyon; the serpentine vine i n the Mantegna painting of "Samson and Deli l a h " ; the serpents i n the Laocoon, that i n combination with the context ("hell" and "the abyss") suggest the serpent of C h r i s t i a n i t y . The V i r g i n goddess Athena hast.conquered the serpent as the Christian Madonna ( i n both the Bible and'paintings) has done and i s enthroned i n the temple of the i d e a l c i t y with her male counterpart, as Christian and Christiana were intended to be i n Beulah. This episode then acts i n the Christian moral allegory i n much the same climactic way as i t does i n the mythic p a r a l l e l . In the action, Jude and Sue enact i n human terms t h i s successful c l i -max, i n which the i n d i v i d u a l c o n f l i c t s of each dissolve, i n which the i d e a l relationship i s shown i n i t s momentary f u l f i l l m e n t as free of g u i l t and as having the same meaning and value as both Christian moral allegory and c l a s -s i c a l myth. Hardy's verbal description of the scene i n which the next v i s u a l a rt a l l u s i o n occurs conveys the rather t i n s e l l y and sordid r e a l i t y of the Christ-minster .-jtjgj^  that Jude has v i s i t e d several times before and enters a f t e r Sue's marriage. Jude, i t should be noted, walks the streets of Christminster before entering the bar, mourning the absence of Sue. His v i s i o n of the c i t y as a place of s p i r i t u a l , Christian pursuit has been shattered and he believes that she, who had been as a form of Athena, representative of Christ-minster "was as i f she were dead, and nobody had been found capable of suc-ceeding her... Hers- was now the City phantom, while those of the intel-r l e c t u a l and devotional worthies who had once moved him to emotion were no longer able to assert t h e i r presence there" (p. 198). The two visions of Christminster which have u n t i l now inspired his love and ambition no longer ex i s t . In t h i s state of mind, Jude enters the bar, one "of the great p a l -p i t a t i n g centres of Christminster l i f e " (p. I98) and as the narrator notes: 100 -At the back of the bar-maids rose bevel-edged mirrors, with glass shelves running along t h e i r front, on which stood precious l i q u i d s that Jude did not know the name of i n bottles of topaz, sapphire, ruby and amethyst. The moment was enlivened by the entrance of some customers into the next compartment, and the s t a r t i n g of the mechanical t e l l - t a l e of monies received, which emitted a ting-tang every time a coin was put i n . The bar-maid attending to t h i s compartment was i n v i s i b l e to Jude's direct glance, though a r e f l e c t i o n of her back i n the glass behind her was occasionally caught by his eyes. He had only ob-served t h i s l i s t l e s s l y , when she turned her face f o r a moment to the glass to set her hair t i d y . Then he was amazed to discover that the face was Arabella's. I f she had come on to his compartment she would have seen him. But she did not, t h i s being presided over by the maiden on the other side. Abby was i n a black gown, with white l i n e n cuffs and a broad white c o l l a r , and her f i g u r e , more developed than formerly, was accentuated by a bunch of daffodils that she wore on her l e f t bosom. In the compartment she served stood an elec-troplated fountain of water over a s p i r i t lamp whose blue flame sent a steam from the top, a l l t h i s being v i s i b l e to him only i n the mirror.behind her; which also r e f l e c t e d the faces of the men she was attending - one^of them a handsome, dissipated young f e l -low... (p. 199) Although Hardy does not mention any painting d i r e c t l y i n t h i s passage, there i s such a marked resemblance between the d e t a i l s of t h i s description and those i n Manet's "Le Bar au F o l i e s - Bergeres" (Courtauld I n s t i t u t e , London) that was f i r s t exhibited i n 1882 (a year which Hardy was i n P a r i s ) , as to make i t reasonable to assume that t h i s painting may well have been i n his imagination when he wrote t h i s episode. The d e t a i l s that the narrator chooses to emphasize i n t h i s f i r s t desh c r i p t i o n , which coincide with the d e t a i l s i n the Manet painting, stress the material richness of the bar: "gutted and newly arranged throughout" (p. 198), "mahogany f i x t u r e s " (p. 199), "screens of ground glass" (p. 199), •7'rows:©f l i t t l e s i l v e r taps" (p. 199), "precious l i q u i d s " (p. 199), and "bottles of topaz, sapphire and ruby and amethyst" (p. 199). However, u n t i l Jude recognizes the central bar-maid as Arabella, these d e t a i l s , and the place which they describe have no further meaning f o r Jude than t h i s . His - 101 -f i r s t v i s i o n of her that resembles almost exactly the central figure of the bar-maid i n the Manet painting (both the figure i n the painting and Arabella wear a black- gown, with white cuffs and a broad white c o l l a r ; both have "developed" figures and wear a bouquet of yellow flowers o n t h e i r bodice and both are i n conversation with a man) transforms, I would suggest, his i n i -t i a l v i s i o n of the bar from that which I have described, to a place repre-sentative of a debased modern world. Arabella, l i k e the woman i n the paint-ing, i s the presidihg-goddess, the bar her a l t a r , the " s i l v e r taps", "pewter 17 trough", the bottles of "topaz, sapphire, ruby and amethyst" her shrine. I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d that Jude's o r i g i n a l v i s i o n of Christminster from Marygreen was that of "points of l i g h t l i k e topaz gleamed... the topaz points showed themselves to be the vanes, windows, wetroof slates and other shining spots upon the spires, domes, freestone work... I t was Christminster, unquestionably" (p. 41). The r e p e t i t i o n of the same motif i n t h i s scene i s a very obvious measure of the declension of the o r i g i n a l v i s i o n of Jude, as a version of Christian i n a moral allegory of the pilgrimage to the i d e a l c i t y , to I t s present version. The shining points of the "freestone work" have become a row of shining bottles i n a bar, and no trace i s l e f t of the o r i g i n a l significance. I t now bears no resemblance at a l l to the c i t y of Beulah with which The Pilgrim's Progress ends but, i n f a c t , bears a marked resemblance to the City of Destruction i n which The Pilgrim's Progress begins and of which Arabella i s a most appropriate patron goddess. Interpreting^ Jude's v i s i o n of Arabella i n terms of the Hephaestus myth ( i n which Jude i s Hephaestus) there has been a s i m i l a r declension of value since the climactic r e a l i z a t i o n of i t s i d e a l value i n the a l l u s i o n to the Parthenon f r i e z e . The figure of Sue, as Athena, goddess of an i d e a l c i t y has been replaced by t h a t i o f Arabella, as Aphrodite, goddess only of - 102 -physical love and of Lemn 0s, the place of e x i l e from the i d e a l c i t y , Olympus. In Hardy's description however, as i n Manet's painting, there s t i l l e xists traces ( i n the appearance of Arabella as i n that of the figure i n the painting) of the s p i r i t of Athena that Hardy associates with Sue ("Hers was now the City phantom"). In the painting, t h i s i s suggested "by the bar-maid's earrings and bracelet, and "the serious and thoughtful countenance, 18 her eyes... large and steady" f o r t h i s jewellry and expression are found i n the t r a d i t i o n a l paintings of Athena. In Hardy's description, t h i s i d e a l i z a -i t i o n of "the figure i s 'suggested by i t s being v i s i b l e to him only i n the mirror behind her. These l i n g e r i n g traces of an i d e a l immediately disappear when Arabella begins her f l i r t a t i o u s dialogue with Mr. Gockman (whose name s t i l l keeps an a l l e g o r i c a l pattern i n mind). Jude's t o t a l return to the world of prosaic f a c t i s recorded i n his having watched them ta l k "with the eye of a dazed philosopher" (p. 200). Jude's determination to reject Christminster and a l l that i t now repre-sents, to him i s v i s u a l l y conveyed i n the next v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n i n the scene i n which Jude v i s i t s h is dying aunt a f t e r spending the night with Arabella: On entering, there indeed by the f i r e p l a c e sat the old woman, wrapped i n blanket and turning upon them a countenance l i k e that of Sebastiano's Lazarus, (p. 210) In t h i s passage Hardy overtly refers to Sebastiano del Piombo's "The Raising of Lazarus" (National Gallery, London). I f one interprets the a l l u s i o n quite l i t e r a l l y , then one i d e n t i f i e s the Lazarus figure i n the painting with Jude's aunt. In the painting, the countenance of the figure Is almost t o t a l l y shadowed so that the figure i s almost non-human. The implication then of Miss Fawley "turning upon them a countenance l i k e that of Sebastiano's Lazarus" i n the text i s that the - 103 -old. woman has become l e s s h e r s e l f , Jude's aunt, than a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f i g u r e . As such, I would suggest t h a t she v i s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t s , as a f i g - - : ure s t r u g g l i n g a g a i n s t the bindings of the shroud, the nature of the f a m i l y curses "There's sommat i n our blood t h a t won't take k i n d l y to the n o t i o n of being bound to do what we do r e a d i l y enough i f not bound. That's why you ought to have hearkened to me and not ha' married" (p. 91). At the l i t e r a l l e v e l of a c t i o n , what binds the F a w l e y s ; are t h e i r l e g a l o b l i g a -t i o n s , which i n the h i s t o r y of the f a m i l y have always l e d to d i s a s t e r . At t h i s p o i n t i n the a c t i o n , the q u e stion of Jude's l e g a l (Obligation to A r a b e l l a has been brought to the reader's a t t e n t i o n i n such a way as to suggest t h a t , i n t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the meaning of the a l l u s i o n , Jude i s to be i d e n -t i f i e d w i t h the f i g u r e of C h r i s t , which has r i s e n and been f r e e d from the shroud-for Jude has l e arned t h a t A r a b e l l a has married another man, and t h a t he i s f r e e of l e g a l o b l i g a t i o n to her. Jude has been i d e n t i f i e d e a r l i e r i n the novel e x p l i c i t l y w i t h C h r i s t ( i n the "poor C h r i s t " reference [p. 144] and i n the "beloved son" reference tp» 581)» j u s t as he has been seen i n s e v e r a l e a r l i e r v e r b a l and v i s u a l a r t a l l u s i o n s (the e a r l y reference to A p o l l y o n , Mantegna's "Samson and D e l i l a h " and "The Laocoon") as a human f i g u r e s t r u g g l i n g a gainst e n t a n g l i n g serpen-t i n e shapes. Thus I would suggest t h a t i t i s reasonable, as w e l l as reward* i n g , to apply the Lazarus reference i n a more general and f r e e r i n t e r p r e -t a t i v e f a s h i o n to Jude, f o r to do so enables one to summarize h i s e s s e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to both h i s ambition and h i s i d e a l woman, as the movement of the novel now takes a new t u r n i n regard to both. I n these terms then, the d e p i c t i o n of C h r i s t t u r n i n g h i s back on the c i t y i n the background o f the p a i n t i n g i s a v i s u a l statement of Jude's.sense of h i m s e l f , a t t h i s p o i n t , as f r e e from h i s e a r l i e r i d e a l of C h r i s t m i n s t e r and ready to move towards - 104 -a more human and more r e a l view of l i f e , f o r as the narrator notes, Jude now regards Christminster as a "place too sad to hear" (p. 213). Immediately preceding t h i s a l l u s i o n , Jude has spent the night with Arabella, and regards himself as both g u i l t y and s i n f u l f o r having done so, f o r he f e e l s "a sense of degradation at his revived experiences with her, of her appearance as she lay asleep at dawn, which set upon his motionless face a look as of one accurst" (pp. 205 - 06). He f e e l s g u i l t y also about his passionate love f o r Sue and determines to mortify: "by every possible means his wish to see her, nearly starving himself i n attempts to exting-uish by f a s t i n g h i s passionate tendency to love her. He read sermons on discipline;- and hunted up passages i n church history that treated of the Ascetics of the second century... returned with feverish desperation to his study f o r the priesthood - i n the recognition that the single-mindedness of h i s aims, and his f i d e l i t y to the cause had been more than questionable of l a t e " (pp. 211 - 12). In terms of the painting then, t h i s aspect of Jude, I would suggest, i s v i s u a l l y represented i n the figure of Lazarus, s t i l l struggling to free himself from the serpentine bonds, while the Christ figure, that wears the serpentine shroud as a garment, i s a v i s u a l state-ment of what to Jude the meaning of his v i c t o r y i n t h i s struggle .(and-•""•him-s e l f back i n r e l a t i o n to the c i t y ) might be. The statement of the Hephaestus myth"in t h i s a l l u s i o n i s less clear and obvious than was the case i n the two allusions that preceeded i t . One might ex-pect I t hot to be, as the painting i s referred to p r i m a r i l y and e x p l i c i t l y i n terms of Jude's aunt. However the point i n the action at which i t occurs suggests that as Hephaestus, Jude i s poised between two p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r his future that'tthe two figures considered "iconographically" (outside the terms of t h e i r purely Christian context) represent. He might emerge as - 105 -Hephaestus triumphant, returned from e x i l e to the eternal l i f e of the i d e a l and i n r e l a t i o n once more with the i d e a l c i t y or he might emerge (as he i n f a c t does) as Hephaestus s t i l l engaged i n his e x i l e d labour i n the cave, trapped and enslaved, with no sign of the c i t y behind him, only a bleak, broken and r e a l landscape. Only one more a l l u s i o n i s to suggest the continuing p o s s i b i l i t y of the f i r s t image (Jude as Hephaestus triumphant) before the f i n a l movement of the novel begins iin which Jude's f i n a l progress towards the second image (as Hephaestus defeated) i s charted as inevitable. This overt v i s u a l a r t a l l u s i o n occurs i n the scene i n which Jude and Sue discuss the p o s s i b i l i t y of marriage and Jude observes! 'Sue, you seem when you are l i k e t h i s to be one of the women of some grand old c i v i l i z a t i o n , whom I used to read about i n mY bygone, wasted, c l a s s i c a l days, rather than a denizen of some mere Christian country. I almost expect you to say at these times that you have just been t a l k i n g to some f r i e n d whom you met i n the Via Sacra, about the l a t e s t news of Octavia or L i v i a , or have been l i s t e n i n g to Aspasia's eloquence, or have been watching Praxiteles c h i s e l l i n g away at his l a t e s t Venus, while Phyrne made complaint that she was t i r e d of posing.' (pp. 290 - 91) I t i s known that Phyrne, a courtesan, was the model f o r the Praxitelean Aphrodite that i s now e n t i t l e d "Aphrodite at Cnidos" (The Vatican, Rome). Jude makes these comments to Sue at a point i n the action at which they are about "to take the i n i t i a l step towards t h e i r marriage" (p. 290), and i n the dialogue that immediately precedes t h i s passage, Sue has appeared as calm, controlled and reconciled, even to Arabella, and scornful of con-ventional marriage t i e s . At a l a t e r point i n the action, when t h e i r circum-stances are less i d e a l than t h i s , Sue comments on the i n t e r i o r of the Christminster cathedral, that "under the picturesqueness of those Norman d e t a i l s , one can see the grotesque childishness of uncouth people t r y i n g - 106 -to imitate the vanished Roman forms, remembered by dim t r a d i t i o n only" (p. 325)« This statement, I think, helps to c l a r i f y the point of Jude^s a l l u s i o n , i n the passage I am discussing, the meaning of which i s that Sue i s not attempting to imitate an i d e a l of behaviour but i s , i n f a c t , being i t . The Aphrodite i n question presents the goddess as a symbol of both 19 s p i r i t u a l and physical love. The role assigned by Jude then to Sue i n the passage and re f l e c t e d i n what she herself says about Arabella ("I can't help l i k i n g her - just a l i t t l e b i t " f p . 2903) and marriage ("how hopelessly vulgar an i n s t i t u t i o n l e g a l marriage i s - a sort of trap to catch a man" p.[29l]) in..the dialogue that preceeds i t , i s r e a l i z e d i n the irony that the Praxitelean "Aphrodite" was modeled from a courtesan, The i d e a l of behaviour of "some grand old c i v i l i z a t i o n " that Jude sees i n Sue and the fact that i t gives him such pleasure to see i t indicates that, f o r the l a s t time i n the action, he has himself arrived at a point, ( l i k e that i n the episode that contained the a l l u s i o n to the Parthenon f r i e z e ) i n which he fe e l s happy and free of r e s t r i c t i v e conventional a t t i -tude. I t i s the sense that Sue how reconciles the matron (Octavia and L i v i a ) and the courtesan (Phyrne, Aspasia), and that she i s now as easy i n communi-cation with the one as with the other, that seems to him i d e a l . Clearly i n t h i s sense P r a x i t e l e s , c h i s e l l i n g his i d e a l Aphrodite figure from the fact of Phyrne ( i n the context of Octavia and L i v i a ) , i s a figure that may be i d e n t i f i e d with Jude himself i n t h i s i d e a l state of understanding. As such, I would suggest, he might further be i d e n t i f i e d , by extension, not only with Praxiteles c h i s e l l i n g his i d e a l woman but with Hephaestus, who modelled two golden women (two of the Graces i n one form of the myth) to support his lameness. - 107 -With t h i s a l l u s i o n ends the second part of the pattern formed by those allusions i n which c l a s s i c a l referencesand connection predominate over those that r e f e r to the Christian allegory, and with the next two allusions (that-to Melepomene and the ;other to the Last Judgement) the f i n a l movement of the novel, and the l a s t pattern within i t dependent on v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n s , begins. The overt a l l u s i o n to Melepomene occurs i n the scene i n which L i t t l e Father Time arrives to l i v e with Jude and Sue: Him they found to be i n the habit of s i t t i n g s i l e n t , his quaint and weird face set, and his eyes resting on things which they did not see i n the substantial world. 'His face i s l i k e the t r a g i c mask of "Melepomene,' said Sue. (p. 299) I t i s hardly necessary to i d e n t i f y any p a r t i c u l a r example of the mask of Melepomene; Hardy would have seen t h i s emblem over the proscenium arch of any London theatre. There i s , however, a p a r t i c u l a r version of i t i n 20 the Vatican, i n which Melepomene stands holding i n her r i g h t hand, by the hair, a bearded male mask. In her l e f t hand she holds a sword or club and her l e f t foot i s raised (so that her knee i s bent) and rests on the top of a small tree stump or broken column,.- I f one assumes that t h i s version, echoing as i t does the b i b l i c a l episode of Judith and Holofernes, i s the one which Hardy had i n mind, then i t reminds one of the three widely separated references to Samson and D e l i l a h . In doing so, i t restates, i n terms that deliberately stress a t r a g i c significance, the meaning of the Samson and D e l i l a h reference: the reduction of a man to weakness by a woman and Jude's "weakness for womankind" which may be defined as one part,. at least, of his t r a g i c flaw. The description of L i t t l e Father Time as the face of tragedy occurs at a point preceeding the f i n a l movement of the novel i n which the action - 108 -involving Jude and Sue becomes t r a g i c . This f i n a l movement might be said to begin with t h e i r return to Christminster. U n t i l then, Sue and Jude have l i v e d , f o r a b r i e f time, i n an i d e a l world, or what the narrator describes as "a dreamy paradise" (p. 2 9 1 ) . L i t t l e Father Time functions,'then,..during t h i s i n t e r v a l as a symbol of the coming tr a g i c action, f o r as Sue remarks at the a g r i c u l t u r a l show: J'we have returned to Greek joyousness, and have blinded ourselves to sickness and sorrow, and have forgotten what twenty-f i v e centuries have taught the race since t h e i r time, as one of your Christ-minster luminaries says... There i s one immediate shadow, however - only oneI And she looked at the aged c h i l d , whom though they had taken to every-thing l i k e l y to a t t r a c t a young i n t e l l i g e n c e , they had f a i l e d to i n t e r e s t . " (p. 316 ) L i t t l e Father Time himself also expresses, i n one of the few remarks he makes ("I should l i k e the flowers very, very much, i f I didn't keep on thinking they'd a l l be withered i n a few days" p. 316 ) a part of the meaning of that t r a g i c action, and, as Hardy describes him, his role i n the tragedy seems clear. His v i s i o n of l i f e as harsh and cruel i s a pr i m i t i v e one, and i n the context of both what Sue has described as "Greek joyousness" and of New Testament C h r i s t i a n i t y , i t expresses a Greek tr a g i c view that, at l e a s t as Hardy interprets i t , coincide s with the Old Testament view of l i f e that increasingly predominates i n the f i n a l section. This point i s stated very c l e a r l y i n the scene immediately following the Melepomene a l l u s i o n i n which L i t t l e Father Time (performing the function of B i b l i c a l prophet and c l a s s i c a l soothsayer) wants Sue and Jude not to marry. Sue remarks: "How horrid that story was l a s t night! I t s p o i l t my thoughts of today. I t makes me f e e l as i f a t r a g i c doom overhung our family, as i t did the house of Atreus" (p. 302). - 109 -The second of the v i s u a l art allusions that control the pattern of l i t e r a r y and mythic reference i n the f i n a l section i s a submerged a l l u -sion which occurs i n the opening chapter of "At Christminster Again". This a l l u s i o n i s a clear statement of L i t t l e Father Time's v i s i o n o f 3 l i f e , which coincides with a repressive p u r i t a n i c a l view of l i f e (deriving from the Old Testament) as e s s e n t i a l l y cruel and r e t r i b u t i v e . I t occurs i n the scene i n which Jude, Sue and t h e i r children return to Christminster i n time f o r the Remembrance Day celebrations: Today, i n the open space stretching between t h i s building and the nearest college, stood a crowd of expectant people. A pas-sage was kept clear through t h e i r midst by two barriers of tim-ber, extending from the door of the college to the door of the large buildihg between i t and the theatre. 'Here i s the place - they are just going to pass!' c r i e d Jude i n a sudden excitement. And pushing his way to the front he took up a p o s i t i o n close to the barrier, s t i l l hugging the young-est c h i l d i n his arms, while Sue and the others kept immediately behind him. The crowd f i l l e d i n at t h e i r back and f e l l to t a l k -ing, joking and laughing as carriage a f t e r carriage drew up at the lower door of the college and solemn stately figures i n blood red robes began to a l i g h t . The sky had grown overcast and l i v i d , thunder rumbled now and then. ' Father Time shuddered, ' I t do seem l i k e Judgement Day!' he whispered, (p. 3^3) Since I was unable to f i n d a p i c t o r i a l version of the Last Judgement which corresponds i n any marked degree to the scene i n the novel, I w i l l discuss the a l l u s i o n - o n l y i n terms of the emblematic elements I have found i n com-mon i n most v i s u a l art versions of the Last Judgement and i n the description of the scene i n which the a l l u s i o n occurs. In most versions of the Last Judgement, the figures of the damned, those of Christ and the judge-like apostles and saints, and those of the elect are separated into three d i s t i n c t groups. Clear boundaries separate each group from the others (one such boundary often being the River of Death). The inhabitants of Paradise, Christ and the judge-like apostles appear i n formal - 110 -and gracious attitudes, t h e i r faces are calm and grave, they are dressed i n vestments or rotes denoting very often p o s i t i o n i n an i d e a l hierarchy and they are arranged i n ordered formations i n a world of l i g h t . The damned are naked or dressed i n rags, t h e i r attitudes are distorted, they are a mob i n a state of confusion and chaos i n a world of darkness. L i t t l e Father Time's v i s i o n defines Christminster as.a place of cruel punishment and "gaols" (p. 349). Enclosed behind the bar r i e r s , the c h i l d perceives himself and his family as damned, the Christminster stu-dents who bear "the opinion written large on them, that no q u a l i f i e d human beings had l i v e d on earth u n t i l they came to grace i t " (p. 3^2) as the ele c t , and the college members i n "blood-red robes" as the judge-like saints and apostles. His v i s i o n , then, i s c l e a r l y derived from the Old Testament. Sue immediately and consciously rejects t h i s apocalyptic v i s i o n : "They are learned Doctors" (p. 3^3)• However, l a t e r i n the same scene, she her-s e l f describes t h e i r presence i n Christminster i n terms of another b i b l i c a l judgement: "leaving Kennetbridge f o r t h i s place i s l i k e coming from Caiaphas to P i l a t e " ' (p. 3^9)• Jude's sense of the same procession i s lacking i n a l l r e l i g i o u s meaning: "new Doctors emerged, t h e i r red and black gowned forms passing across the f i e l d of Jude's v i s i o n l i k e inaccessible planets across an object glass" (p. 34?). In the context of L i t t l e Father Time's v i s i o n , those of Jude and Sue indicate that each of them i s already moving towards the new i n t e l l e c t u a l outlook described l a t e r by Jude: "Sue and himself had mentally t r a v e l l e d i n opposite directions since the tragedy: events which had enlarged his own views of l i f e , laws, customs and dogmas had not operated i n the same manner on Sue's. She was no longer the same as i n the independent days, when her i n t e l l e c t played l i k e lambent li g h t n i n g over conventions and forma l i t i e s which he at that time respected, though he did not now" (p. 364). - I l l -Jude's perception of the Remembrance Day celebrations, even though i t i s an expression of a t o t a l l y areligious point of view, occurs i n a context which suggests that he i s s t i l l , at t h i s point, t i e d to Christminster attitudes, f o r he sees himself i n both his speech to the Remembrance Day crowds and i n h i s observations to Sue, as a character i n a moral allegory. ti In his speech to the Remembrance Day crowds, he notes: " I t i s a d i f f i c u l t .question, my friends, f o r any young man - that question I had to grapple with, and which thousands are weighing ^ at the present moment i n these uprising times - whether to follow u n c r i t i c a l l y the track he finds himself i n , with-out considering what his aptness or bent may be, and reshape his course accordingly. I t r i e d to do the l a t t e r and f a i l e d " (p. 345) and "I may do some good before I am dead - be a sort of success as a f r i g h t f u l example of what not to do; and so i l l u s t r a t e a moral story" (p. 3^5)• He t e l l s Sue: "How good of you to wait i n the r a i n a l l the time - to g r a t i f y my infatua-t i o n ! I ' l l never care anymore about the i n f e r n a l cursed place~, upon.my soul I won't" (p. 347). As a Christian p i l g r i m , he sees himself as having f a i l e d , but he also now perceives that his longed Beulah, as o b j e c t i f i e d i n Christ-minster, has never been the paradise that he o r i g i n a l l y envisaged i t as i n Marygreen. Moreover, as the f i n a l quoted passage suggests, his i n i t i a l reaction to t h i s i s to describe what he had thought of as a heaven as hell..: He now recognizes, himself, what Hardy has already made clear to the reader: that his City of Light i s , i n f a c t , the City of Destruction. Sue, from t h i s point, increasingly sees herself, as Jude has just done, as a character i n a moral allegory (and s p e c i f i c a l l y as Bunyan's Christiana leaving the City of Destruction a f t e r passing through the wicket gate) and she expresses t h i s sense of herself to both Jude and P h i l l o t s o n . She t e l l s Jude: "'We must conform!' she said mournfully. ' A l l the ancient wrath of - 112 -the Power above us has been vented upon us, His poor creatures, and we must submit. There i s no choice. We must. I t i s no use f i g h t i n g against God" (p. 362) and "I have thought that we have been s e l f i s h , careless and even impious, i n our courses, you and I. But abnegation i s the higher road. We should mortify the f l e s h - the t e r r i b l e f l e s h - the curse of Adam" (p. 364.). She remarks to P h i l l o t s o n s "My children - are dead - and i t i s r i g h t that they should bel I am glad - almost. They were sin-begotten. They were s a c r i f i c e d to teach me how to l i v e l Their death was the f i r s t stage of my p u r i f i c a t i o n " (p. 383). The f i r s t of these passages describes the submissive state of mind she considers proper f o r such a pilgrimage; the second, through the metaphor of the road, the motive f o r i t ; and the l a s t , the i d e a l to which she sees herself as moving. The narrator provides yet another reading of t h i s f i n a l movement of the novel, i n two important c l a s s i c a l references. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Jude and Sue, themselves, make no such c l a s s i c a l reference, but f o r Sue's reference to Atreus which I have already noted and two allusions Jude makes to Greek tragedy. The f i r s t of Jude's references i s to Aeschylus's Agamemnon, "Nothing can be done... Things are as they are, and w i l l be brought to "Hheir destined issue" (p. 359). The second i s to Sophocles'- Antigone 1 "I am neither a dweller among men nor ghosts" (p. 413). The Agamemnon passage Is an expres-sion, i n a different context ,of a f a t a l i s t i c acceptance of events that coin-cides with that i n the book of Job from which Jude quotes on his death bed. And as such, i t . s t r e s s e s once again the lack of p o s s i b i l i t y or hope to f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t i n either of the points of view that at the beginning of the novel had served as ideals f o r the two major characters. The Antigone passage a n t i -cipates the condition of Sue as she sets out on her pilgrimage at the end of the novel as well as expressing the condition of both herself and Jude (that - 113 -i s a r e s u l t of t h e i r loss of f a i t h i n t h e i r former ideals) before that point. The two c l a s s i c a l references that the narrator himself makes,, i n t h i s section of the novel, obviously keep before the reader's attention, as do the Agamemnon and Antigone references, the tragic nature of the action which had been foreshadowed by the comparison between L i t t l e Father Time and the tra g i c maskjbefore the f i n a l movement of the novel. They also make a f u r -ther point about the two major characters that i s important. The f i r s t of these references occurs i n the scene i n which Sue informs Jude that she i s returning to P h i l l o t s o n : "Jude was too much affected to go on t a l k i n g at f i r s t ; she, too, was now such a mere cluster of nerves that a l l i n i t i a t o r y power seemed to have l e f t her, and they proceeded through the fog l i k e •" 21 Acheronic shades f o r a long while, without sound or gesture" (p. 379 ) • 22 The second occurs l a t e r , a f t e r Jude has seen Sue f o r the l a s t time , and walks with Arabella through the streets of Christminster: "I see i n a way, those s p i r i t s of the dead again, on t h i s my l a s t walk, that I saw when I f i r s t walked herel... I seem to see them, and almost hear them r u s t l i n g . But I don't revere a l l of them as I once did then. I don't believe i n half of them. The theologians, the apologists, and t h e i r k i n the-metaphysicians, the high-handed statesmen, and others, no longer interest me. A l l that has been s p o i l t f o r me by the grind of stern r e a l i t y " (p. 412). Both pas-sages describe Christminster as a place of death. In the f i r s t , both Jude and Sue are seen, as themselves, inhabitants of the world of death (they are no longer what they were). In the second, Jude i s shown as a l i v i n g man, moving through the land of the dead, and t h i s i s c l e a r l y a measure of the distance he has already t r a v e l l e d from the scene i n which he regarded Christ-minster as "the i n f e r n a l , cursed place" (p. 347). The implication now i s - 114 -that Jude no longer f e e l s about Christminster with any i n t e n s i t y at a l l . On his deathbed, Jude quotes from the book of Job, as a man severely tested and punished, despite his innocence, with misfortune, and who i s f i n a l l y unable to perceive order or r e l i g i o u s significance i n the universe: "Let the day perish wherein I was born, and the night i n which i t was said, there i s a manchild conceived... Wherefore i s l i g h t given to him that i s i n misery, and l i f e unto the b i t t e r i n soul" (pp. 423 - 24). I r o n i c a l l y , Jude's pilgrim's progress has not f i n a l l y l e d him to s p i r i t u a l f u l f i l l -ment, but to an acceptance of l i f e as "stern r e a l i t y " (p. 412) i n which s p i r i t u a l meaning i s denied. This point i s reinforced by the i r o n i c ver-sion of the sounds of r e j o i c i n g at the end of Bunyan's book i n the c r u e l l y i r r e l e v a n t choirs and ringing b e l l s of Christminster. Sue, a f t e r the death of Jude i s shown as a version of Christiana set-t i n g out on her own pilgrimage and the choral roles of the Widow E d l i n and Arabella i r o n i c a l l y echo those of Mrs. Timorous and Mercy at the begin-ning of the second part of The Pilgrim's Progress. Arabella's comment that "she's never found peace since she l e f t his arms, and never w i l l again t i l l she's as he i s now" (p. 428) suggests that Hardy's sense of the out-come of that pilgrimage i s that i t w i l l be no more rewarding than Jude's was. The fact that the emphasis at the end of the novel should be so exclu-s i v e l y on the moral allegory (even more so than i t was at the beginning) reinforces the sense of a world t o t a l l y deprived of the p o s s i b i l i t y of change or any sense of an i d e a l of freedom. Jude ( l i k e Sue) has not simply been the "paltry victim to the s p i r i t of mental and s o c i a l restlessness, that makes so many unhappy i n these days" (pp. 345 - 46) that he regards himself as, but i s the embodiment of the f r u s t r a t i o n of a l l human yearnings for s p i r i t u a l meaning and l i f e . The patterns formed and controlled by the - 115 -v i s u a l art allusi o n s , as I have discussed them here, have, I think, both reinforced and amplified t h i s , the novel's major meaning. The i r o n i c misplacing of the key a l l u s i o n to the v i s i o n of Beulah marks, from the beginning, the i l l u s o r y nature of Jude's search f o r his i d e a l , as the developing mytheof Hephaestus, with i t s paradox concerning the nature of Aphrodite, does that of Sue. The Hephaestus myth, with i t s restatement of the choice confronting Jude, defines the enrighment of his o r i g i n a l Christian b e l i e f with H e l l e n i s t i c i d e a l u n t i l events contribute to bring a l l ideals to an end. I t i s only i n terms of the v i s u a l art allusions ( i n that to the Parth-enon f r i e z e and i n that to the Praxitelean Venus) that Hardy expresses and describes the b r i e f f u l f i l l m e n t , i n the l i v e s of his two major characters, of t h e i r search f o r an i d e a l . And the essential point he makes i s an impor-tant one. The f u l f i l l m e n t may be expressed i n terms of both the major id e a l s , Christian and H e l l e n i s t i c , tha tthe novel has presented; just as at the end of the novel the t o t a l loss of a l l p o s s i b i l i t y of such f u l f i l l m e n t i s expressed i n terms of both systems of which those ideals are the expres-sion. In i t s f u l f i l l m e n t a l l c o n f l i c t s were shown as resolved i n being transcended; i n i t s loss a l l are resolved i n being destroyed. The sense i n the other two novels of the p o s s i b i l i t y of another future f u l f i l l m e n t being re a l i z a b l e i s not offered. In the episode that includes the a l l u s i o n to the Parthenon f r i e z e there i s a sense that the experience transcends a l l explan-ation of i t . At the novel's end, t h i s sense has been l o s t . The voices of the Widow E d l i n and Arabella, with which the novel ends, may promise a con-tinuance of l i f e but both imply a version of i t precisely l i k e that which the reader has witnessed as destructive of the ideals Jude and Sue have attempted to l i v e . - 116 -Appendix This l i s t includes the source of reproductions of a l l v i s u a l art matter discussed i n the text of t h i s chapter i n order of reference. Anon. "The Pilgrims Pass the Fiver". John Bunyan. The Pilgrim's Progress. London: J. Baxter Hewes, 1804. p. 202. P r i o l o ' s "Christian and Hopeful Enter the Land of Beulah". John Bunyan. Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress and Holy War. London: Cassell and Com-pany, 1 8 8 4 . p . 216. George Cruikshank's "The Pilgrims Passing through the River of Death". John Bunyan. The Pilgrim's Progress. London: Henry Froude and Oxford Univ.'Press, 1912. p. 186. Andrea Mantegna's "Samson and Delila h " . The National Gallery Catalogues: E a r l i e r I t a l i a n Schools. London: The Trustees, 1'953- I I p. 265. Alhrecht Durer's "Samson and Del i l a h " . The Complete Woodcuts of Albrecht Durer. Ed. Dr. W i l l i Kurth. New York: Crown Publishers, 1946. p i . 44. Antonello Da Messina's "Christ Crucified". The National Gallery Catalogues: E a r l i e r I t a l i a n Schools. London: The Trustees, 1953. I , p. 15. "The Laocoon Group". Treasures of the Vatican.-ed. Deoclecio Redig de Campos. Rome: Editions d'art Albert Shirn, I962. p. 125. Juan Bautista del Mazo's "Queen Mariana i n Mourning". The National Gallery  Catalogues: The Spanish School Plates. London: The Trustees, 1952. p. 15. "Pallas Athena i n the Parthenon Frieze". Charles Waldenstein. Essays on  the Art of Phidias. Cambridge: University Press, I885. p i . 10. Edward Manet's "Le Bar au Folies Bergeres". The Complete Paintings of  Manet. Intro, by Phoebe Poole. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., I9677 p i s . 60 - 61. Sebastiano del Piombo's "The Raising of Lazarus". The National Gallery  I l l u s t r a t e d General Catalogue. London: Publications Department The National Gallery, 1973. p. 67I. Praxitele's "Venus at Cnidos". Les Musees Du Vatican. Ed. Redig de Campos. Novara: In s t i t u t o de Agostino, I963. p. 3^ . - 1 1 ? -Conclusion As I suggested, i n the introduction of t h i s thesis, the three novels, The Return of the Native, Tess of the D'Urbervilles and Jude the Obscure may a l l be regarded as treatments of a common theme-, and t h i s theme, the struggle of an ess e n t i a l l y i d e a l i s t i c or free s p i r i t to reach f u l f i l l -ment (the r e a l i z a t i o n of an i d e a l state) despite the hindrances or repres-sions of a society which does not recognize or i s destructive of t h i s Ideal, i s c l e a r l y expressed i n the v i s u a l art allusions and resolved d i f f e r e n t l y i n each novel. In The Return of the Native, Eustachia's e s s e n t i a l l y f a l s e , romantically distorted idealism leads to her destruction, while Clym's more honestly and a l t r u i s t i c a l l y envisioned idealism i s r e a l i z e d , f o r he f i n a l l y transcends the l i m i t s of l i f e on the heath, to become his i d e a l of man, Christ. Hardy's conclusion i n t h i s novel i s an ess e n t i a l l y p o s i t i v e one, f o r p o s s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t within the world of the heath and within a p u r i f i e d version of Ch r i s t i a n i t y f o r such s p i r i t u a l f u l f i l l m e n t . In Tess  of the D'Urbervilles, Hardy's v i s i o n of t h i s c o n f l i c t i s less p o s i t i v e . Tess, who i s i n every sense, as Hardy reminds us at each s i g n i f i c a n t point i n the action, pure woman, i s unable to transcend the l i m i t s of her c r i p -p l i n g environment and i s destroyed by a repressive society and a puritan-i c a l , debased form of Ch r i s t i a n i t y . In Jude the Obscure, the protagonist i s presented as one who has continually moved towards an i d e a l of s p i r i t -ual freedom (which can be -expressed both i n Christian and H e l l e n i s t i c terms) which he assumes to exis t i n the future but that was l o s t before he set out on his pilgrimage. Like Tess, Jude i s crushed and destroyed by a repres-sive society and a d e b i l i t a t i n g , nineteenth century version of Ch r i s t i a n i t y . - 118 -The change i n Hardy's attitude toward t h i s theme i s c l e a r l y exem-p l i f i e d i n the evocations of The Pilgrim's Progress at the end of each of these novels and i n the pattern of v i s u a l a rt allusion-connected to t h i s moral allegory i n Jude the Obscure. In The Return of the Native, the evo-cation takes the form of an echo, i n the text of Clym's sermon of the end of the f i r s t part of the allegory, i n which Christ, the king, welcomes the pilgrims into Beulah. This suggests that an i d e a l balance has been established between the demands of the free s p i r i t and society. In Tess of  the D'Urbervilles, Hardy evokes the allegory more e x p l i c i t l y , i n his r e f e r -ence to the wicket gate and t h i s suggests that Angel and Liza-Lu have pas-sed through the f i r s t stage of a pilgrimage and are proceeding toward s p i r i t u a l f u l f i l l m e n t . In Jude the Obscure, i n which Bunyan's moral a l l e -gory i s constantly evoked both i n the patterns of v i s u a l art allusions and verbally at s i g n i f i c a n t points i n the action, Hardy suggests at the end of the novel that t h i s a l l e g o r i c a l action has become r e a l action f o r the major characters. The t i g h t , r i g i d s i m p l i c i t y of the a l l e g o r i c a l pattern i s the meaning to which l i f e has been reduced. The evocation of the a l l e -gory at the conclusion of Jude the Obscure, i s to the i n i t i a l scene of the f i r s t part of The Pilgrim's Progress. This suggests that at the end of t h i s novel his p i l g r i m , Sue, i s not st a r t i n g out, as were Angel and Liza-Lu at the end of Tess of the D'Urbervilles, with any assured knowledge of Beulah's existence, much less that she has already reached any...kind of s p i r i t u a l f u l f i l l m e n t , as was the case with Clym at the end. of The Return of the Native. The future outcome of her pilgrimage i s l e f t f o r the reader to decide, _on the basis of the facts he has read i n the novel. As I have demonstrated i n the preceeding chapters, Hardy's technique of v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n i s a subtle, sophisticated andinnovatiave one. - H a -His l i f e - l o n g study of painting, sculpture and architecture l e d him, whether consciously (as i n the case of the overt allusions) or unconsciously (as may well he the case i n the submerged allusions) to employ images from the v i s u a l arts to both.enrich and illuminate the meaning of his novels. Seen s t r i c t l y as i s o l a t e d references within t h e i r immediate l o c a l contexts, the allusions serve to stress the inner meaning or significance of a scene which i s embed-ded, often half-hidden, within/-'• the f a c t s . Regarded i n terms of pattern i n a given novel, the allusions blend into a coherent and u n i f i e d layer of meaning which expresses, with remarkable complexity and richness, the nar-rator's v i s i o n of the problems and c o n f l i c t s he explores. I t i s t h i s second function, that of contributing to the t o t a l pattern and- hence the thematic meaning of the novel, which reveals the greatest subtlety i n Hardy's use of the technique. I t i s such patterns that reveal Glym and Eustachia as more than merely the disappointed schoolteacher and the destructive dreamer; that reveal Tess as not simply v i l l a g e g i r l but as "pure woman"; Jude and Sue as more than over-ambitious artisan-and neurotic teacher. I t i s such allusions and such patterns that enlarge the scope of Hardy's f i c t i o n beyond the narrow confines of the world of pastoral, nineteenth century Wessex, that make of the in t e r a c t i o n between Hardy's characters and t h e i r environment tragedies - c l a s s i c a l i n reference and connection, but modern also i n theme and material. - 120 -Footnotes Introduction 1 Albert Guerard, Thomas Hardy (New York: New Directions Paperbook, 1964), p. 1. 2 Guerard, p. 15?. 3 V i r g i n i a Woolf, "The Novels of Thomas Hardy", i n Collected Essays (London: Hogarth Press, I966) p. 265. 4 David C e c i l , Hardy The Novelist:• An Essay i n C r i t i c i s m (London: Constable and Co. Ltd. , 1 9 5 0 ) p. $%. 5 D. H. Lawrence, "A Study of Thomas Hardy" i n Phoenix: The Posthu- mous Papers of D. H. Lawrence, ed. E. D. McDonald (I963: rpt. London: Wm. Heinemann, 1961), I , pp. 398 - 516. 6 Graham Greene, "The Lesson of the Master" i n The Lost Childhood (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1951) P« 50« 7 Richard Carpenter, Thomas Hardy (New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc., 1964) p. 205. 8 Michael Mill g a t e , Thomas Hardy: His Career as a Novelist (London: Bodley Head, 1971) p. 272. 9 Millgate, p. 272. 10 Millgate, p. 2?1. 11 Millgate, p. 24. 12 Penelope Vigar, The Novels of Thomas Hardy: I l l u s i o n and Reality (London: Athlone Press, 1974) p. 8. 13 Vigar, p. 15. 14 Norman Page, "Hardy's P i c t o r i a l Art i n The Mayor of Gasterbridge",  Etudes Anglaises, 25 (1972) p. 492. 15 Norman Page, "Visual Techniques i n Hardy's Desperate Remedies," A r i e l , 4 (1973) P» 66. E s s e n t i a l l y the same point i s made by Lloyd Fernando i n "Thomas Hardy's Rhetoric of Painting" Review of English Literature, 6, No. 4 (1965). 62 - 73. He writes s p e c i f i c a l l y of the i n i t i a l long description of Eustachia i n The Return of "the Native; "He treats Eustachia as a subject c a r e f u l l y posed, as a painter's model might have been posed i n the past, among accidents of d e t a i l that are intended to increase her beauty" (p. 67). 121- -16 Lloyd Fernando suggests i n "Thomas Hardy's Rhetoric of Painting" that the "cumulative results of repeated effects of t h i s kind i s that the forward movement of the novel as a whole i s put at serious discount" (p. ?0) and he notes that these l i t e r a r y pictures : i"are l e s s pictures of r e a l i t y than pictures of pictures" (p. 71) and are therefore "thrice removed from r e a l i t y " ' (p. 71)• 17 Norman Page, "Hardy's P i c t o r i a l Art i n The Mayor of Casterbridge" 488. 18 Vigar, pp. 135 - 3 6 . 19 This i s the case with Fielding&s use of Hogarth p r i n t s i n the des-c r i p t i o n of Mistress Allworthy i n Tom Jones. 20 AlastairsSmart, " P i c t o r i a l Imagery i n the Novels of Thomas Hardy" RES, 12 (1961) p. 264. 21 Florence Hardy, The L i f e of Thomas Hardy (London: MacMillan, I965) p. 52. 22 Florence Hardy, p. 3 8 . Q J 23 Florence Hardy, p. 1 5 9 . 24 Florence Hardy, p. 120. 2 5 Florence Hardy, p. 171. 26 Florence Hardy, p. I 8 5 . 27 Florence Hardy, p. 184. 28 Florence Hardy, p. 2 2 9 . 29 Ian Gregor, The Great Web: The Form of Hardy's Major F i c t i o n (London: Faber, 1974) p. 8 9 . 30 Smart, p. 2 6 3 . 31 Smart, p. 2 6 6 . 32 Smart, p. 2 6 6 . 33 Thomas Hardy, Under the Greenwood Tree (London: MacMillan 1974) p. 8 8 . 34 Smart, p. 2 6 7 . 35 Smart, p. 2 6 9 . 36 Norman Page, "Hardy's P i c t o r i a l Art i n The Mayor of Gasterbridge" p. 486. - 122 -37 Thomas Hardy, "The P r o f i t a b l e Reading of F i c t i o n " i n Thomas Hardy's  Personal Writings, ed. Harold Orel (Lawrence, Kansas: Univ. of Kansas Press, 1966) p. 116. 38 Although, as my Appendix w i l l , indicate, I have found most of the major v i s u a l a rt allusions i n Under the Greenwood Tree, Far From the Madding Crowd and The Woodlanders, I would not wish at t h i s time to be as certain as I can be about Tess of the D'Urbervilles that they form the second type of pattern which I am here defining i n those novels- as well. P r o v i s i o n a l l y I would say they do. 39 Copies of the i l l u s t r a t i o n s o r i g i n a l l y appearing i n the s e r i a l i z e d forms of':the novels are included i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n appendix and I have numbered them i n sequence: The Return of the-Native ( l - 11), Tess of the  D'Urbervilles ( l - 25) and Jude the Obscure ( l - 12). Further comments on the i l l u s t r a t i o n s and the patterns they form w i l l be found in'*: footnote 23 to Chapter one, footnote 17 to Chapter two and footnote l l t o Chapter three. One a r t i c l e , has been published on t h i s subject by Norman Page, "Thomas Hardy's Forgotten I l l u s t r a t o r s , " ' ' B u l l e t i n of the New York Public Library No. 4 (Summer, 1974) 454 - 64. In t h i s a r t i c l e Page l i s t s the i l l u s t r a t o r s of Hardy's novels and Hardy's opinion of the i l l u s t r a t i o n s . He concentrates primarily on Hardy's relationship with three of the i l l u s t r a t o r s : Helen Paterson, DuMaurier and Hatherell. Chapter One 1 Fernando, pp. 72 - 73. 2 For a discussion of the C r i v e l l i reference see pp. 60-61-.below and of the Lely, Reynolds' reference pp. 96 - 97• 3 Thomas Hardy, The Return of the Native (London: MacMillan, 1974) p. 45. A l l further references to t h i s novel w i l l be taken from t h i s e d i t i o n and referred to by page number i n the text. 4 Hardy's sense of the Hellenism which Clym moves away from , and the C h r i s t i a n i t y which he progresses toward: appears to be very much l i k e that of Matthew Arnold. 5 Edith Hamilton, Mythology (New York: Mentor, 1942) p. 31. 6 S i r James Frazer, The Golden Bough: A Study in^Magic and Religion, Abridged Edition (1922; rpt. London: MacMillan, 1971) p. 4?3. 7 Hamilton, p. 31' 8 F. R. Southerington has noted that Clym holds a "lunatic b e l i e f that he can transform Eustachia into the matron of a boarding school" i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "The Return of the Native: Thomas Hardy and the Evolution of Con-sciousness" i n Thomas Hardy and the Modern Worldj ed. F. B. Pinion (Dorchester, - 123 -Dorset: The Thomas Hardy Society, 1974) p. 38. This opinion i s , I think, too extreme given the terms i n which Hardy presents Clym's idealism i n the passage I quoted above. 9 Richard McLanathan, The American Tradition i n the Arts (Few York? Harcoiort, Brace and World Inc., 1968) p. 99. 10 Although the form of what I think i s a g r i f f i n i s blurred i n the ' '.: reproduction of the painting I have seen, the p o r t r a i t of Sappho by Gustave Moreau i s thought to have been influenced by Gros's renderings In Moreau's painting, the outline of Apollo's g r i f f i n ^ c a n be seen quite c l e a r l y on the pedestal on the r i g h t hand side of the painting. 11 Hamilton, pp. 31 - 32. 12 There are eight e x p l i c i t references to Eustachia as a witch or as possessing witch-like powers: "the lonesome dark-eyed creature up there some say i s a witch" (p. 77); "the witch of Endor" (p. 9l); "People say she i s a witch" (p. 187); Christian remarks of Eustachia "ay, sure, about a witch" (p. 200); "the witch story w i l l be added to make me blacker" (p. 229); " a t t r i b u t e d his indispositions to Eustachia's influence as a witch" (p. 340); Clym remarks of Eustachia's influence on him: "How bewitched I was" (p. 348); "to counteract the malign s p e l l which she imagined poor Eustachia to be work-in g " (p. 372). 13 The reference to Mrs. Siddons did not appear i n the o r i g i n a l s e r i a l version of The Return of the Native (January, 1873). T n t h i s version Hardy referred to a p r o f i l e of Sappho and Lord Byron, !however' i n the book ed i t i o n (November, I878) the Byron reference was replaced by that to Mrs. Siddons and i t i s int e r e s t i n g to speculate whether the exhibition of the Beechey painting i n the Royal Academy induced Hardy to make the change. 14 Charles M i t c h e l l expresses the opinion that the central knight figure i n "The Knight's Dream" i s a "free version of the two figures to the l e f t of Perugino's "Agony i n the Garden" i n the book he edited, e n t i t l e d Raphael (London: Elek Books, 1970) p. 35. 15 I t might be objected that i n every other v i s u a l a r t a l l u s i o n I have taken physical fact as meaning to interpret scenes i n the novel. I t does not, however, seem reasonable to do t h i s here. Although i t may be argued that the figure of the sleeping knight i n the painting figures Eustachia's i n a b i l i t y to transcend, the two opposing elements within: her (Diana-Hecate) which take the form , i n the painting, of Duty and Pleasure, t h i s i n t e r p r e t -ation does not accord with the facts of the novel. In the mumming scene i n which Eustachia enacts the role of the Knight, she i s i d e n t i f i e d with the Turkish knight, the antithesis of the i d e a l . 16 Jean Brooks interprets t h i s scene quite d i f f e r e n t l y as a prefiguration of Eustachia's death i n her book, Thomas Hardy: The Poetic Structure (Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell Univ. Press, 1971). She thinks that "a -comparison with her mumming adventure (Book Second, V, VI), the Egdon gipsying and her death reveals the f a n t a s t i c action of the dream i r o n i c a l l y transformed and r e a l -ized i n a complex love/death sequence. The shining knight with whom she - 124 -dances and plunges i n t o the water i s transformed from her p a r a d i s a l Glym to the commonplace Wilde.ve. The v i s o r t h a t hides h i s f a c e turns i n t o the mummer's ribbons t h a t hide hers, as t h e i r t r u e natures are concealed by t h e i r p r o j e c t e d r o l e s . The e c s t a t i c dance becomes D i o n y s i a l r e v e l t h a t r e p l a c e s a 'sense o f s o c i a l order' w i t h the s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e sexual impulse. The expected consummation under the p o o l i s rev e a l e d f i r s t as her r i t u a l a t the hands o f a C h r i s t i a n Knight i n the mummers p l a y , and f i n a l l y as the r e a l embrace o f death w i t h Wildeve i n the weir, f o r which her i d e a l k n i g h t i s p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e " 17 I n one of Rembrandt's e t c h i n g s , "Faust i n h i s Study" ( B i h l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , P a r i s ) an amulet, symbolizing i d e a l knowledge, give s o f f a b r i l -l iahtdnetwork of l i g h t , such as Clym d e s c r i b e s , and i t i s not i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t Hardy may have had i n mind t h i s e t c h i n g while w r i t i n g the d e s c r i p t i o n of the p l a y o f l i g h t i n the G a l e r i e d'Apollon. 18 Hardy was suggesting nothing unusual i n t h i s p a r a l l e l f o r Mrs. Jameson makes a s i m i l a r suggestion i n her Sacred and Legendary A r t (London: Longmans, Green and Co.1,. I883), II, 398. She w r i t e s : "The Legend of St. George came down to us from the East, where under v a r i o u s forms, as A p o l l o and the Python, as Bellerphon and the Chimera, as Perseus and the sea monster, we see per -p e t u a l l y r e c u r r i n g the mythic a l l e g o r y by which was f i g u r e d the conquest achieved by be n e f i e i e n t power over the tyranny of wickedness". 19 I n Burne-Jones' "Saint George", the d i s t r e s s e d maiden (painted upon St . George's s h i e l d ) i s e n c i r c l e d by a s e r p e n t - l i k e dragon; and i n Walter Crane's i l l u s t r a t i o n (which i s c l e a r l y a v e r s i o n of the St. George p a i n t i n g s ) e n t i t l e d : "The L a i d l y Worm", the serpent i s once again p o r t r a y e d as e n c i r -c l i n g about the d i s t r e s s e d maiden and t h e i r two forms appear almost as one. 20 There i s an extremely i n t e r e s t i n g passage i n John Ruskin's Modern  P a i n t e r s (London: George A l l e n , Sunnyside, Orpington, I898) v i , i n which he t r a c e s the ancestry o f Typhon and de s c r i b e s Echnida, Typhon's mother i n a way which corresponds to Holman Hunt's p o r t r a y a l of the c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n "The Lady of S h a l l o t " : "Echnida (the adder) i s a descendant o f Medusa... I n form she i s half-maiden, h a l f - s e r p e n t ; t h e r e f o r e she i s the s p i r i t of a l l f a t a l e s t e v i l , v e i l e d i n gentleness: o r , i n a word t r e a c h e r y " (p. 336). 21 F r a z e r notes i n The Golden Bough of the r o l e of f i r e i n Diana's r i t u a l s : " f i r e p l a y e d a foremost p a r t i n her r i t u a l , For during her annual f e s t i v a l , h e l d on the t h i r t e e n t h o f August, a t the h o t t e s t time o f t h e j y e a r , her grove shone w i t h a multitude of t o r c h e s " (p. 4 ) . 22 Although there i s nothing i n the a c t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t j u s t i f i e s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Eustachia w i t h Mary Magdalen i n the woodcut, to make such an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s to p r e f i g u r e , a t t h i s e a r l y stage ~, the C h r i s t i a n reading of the emblematic elements such as those t h a t e x i s t i n the woodcut. Thus E u s t a c h i a as Diana-Hecate i s Eustachia as v i r t u o u s helpmate and s i n f u l destructiveewoman. 23 Hardy's symbolic use of l i g h t and darkness i n t h i s scene may have sug-gested to the i l l u s t r a t o r o f t h i s novel, Arthur Hopkins, the b a s i s f o r h i s p a t t e r n o f i l l u s t r a t i o n s which appeared i n the s e r i a l i z e d form o f the novel - 125 -i n B e l g r a v i a (January to December I878). The f i r s t i l l u s t r a t i o n i n t h i s s e r i e s , t h a t o f the B o n - f i r e scene, e s t a b l i s h e s a p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between the world of conventional l i g h t (or i n s o c i a l terms, the educated world) and the world o f darkness (which i s the simple world of the heath-d w e l l e r s ) . The r i g h t hand s i d e of t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n , i n which "George DuMaurier gentlemen:" are f u l l y i l l u m i n a t e d by f i r e l i g h t suggests conven-t i o n a l , conscious, mental va l u e s , while the l e f t hand s i d e , i n which grotesque and obviously peasant f i g u r e s are s i l o u h e t t e d by f i r e l i g h t , suggest uncon-v e n t i o n a l , complicated,•uunconscious v a l u e s , This p a t t e r n i n v o l v i n g the sym-b o l i c use of l i g h t and dark i s p a r t i c u l a r l y emphasized i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n s concerning E u s t a c h i a (numbers 2, 7, 8, 9) where i t i s made c l e a r t h a t the l i g h t of Eustachia's conventional world i s spurious and only d i s g u i s e s dark-ness. Diggory Venn and Thomasin.. "play a p a r t i c u l a r l y important r o l e i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n s (numbers 3» 4,-6, 10). Thomasin i n i l l u s t r a t i o n number 4 i s presented as Geres, the symbol o f f e r t i l i t y , i n the world o f l i g h t . Diggory i n i l l u s t r a t i o n numbers 3» 6> 10 c a r r i e s h i s own l i g h t nad i s presented as one who has come to terms w i t h the conventional world and who i s a s t a b l e character. I t i s evident from the i l l u s t r a t i o n s t h a t Hopkins considered Diggory Venn and Thomasin as the true hero and heroine o f the s t o r y , f o r they are presented as people i n balance w i t h the conventional world. 24 F r e d e r i c W. F a r r a r , The L i f e o f Chr i s t s As Represented i n A r t (London: Adam and Charles Black, 1901) p. 310. 25 John Paterson,""The Return o f the Native: An Attempt a t Grand Tragedy" i n Hardy: The Tragic Novels, ed. R. P. Draper (London: MacMillan, 1975) p." 117. 26 Paterson, p. 117. 27 A d e s c r i p t i o n of V i r b i u s and h i s r o l e as Diana's p r i e s t may be found i n F r a z e r ' s The Golden Bough pp. 6 - 10. 28 There are two other passages i n the novel which s i m i l a r l y d e s c r i b e Mrs. Yeobright's v i s i o n o f l i f e . The f i r s t occurs i n the chapter e n t i t l e d "The Journey across the Heath" i n which Mrs. Yeobright i s d e s c r i b e d obser-v i n g "independent worlds of ephmerons" (p. 297) and the second o c c u r s e i n the chapter e n t i t l e d "A Conjecture, and i t s R e s u l t upon the P e d e s t r i a n " i n which Mrs. Yeobright observes "a colony of a n t s " (p. 308). 29 Florence Hardy, The L i f e o f Thomas Hardy (London: MacMillan, I965) p. 185. 30 F r a z e r , p. 471. 31 F r a z e r , p. 8I5. 32 I d i d however f i n d an i l l u s t r a t i o n of a Georgian long-case clock which had a p a i n t i n g o f the Garden o f Gethsemane on i t s f a c e , i n Edward T. Joy's book e n t i t l e d The Country L i f e Book of Clocks (London: Country L i f e L i m i t e d , 1967) p. 71. - 126 -33 The b i b l i c a l reference to the Last Plague of Egypt i s found i n Exodus XII 29, the reference to the destruction of Senna ch e rii) i s found i n Isaiah X, and the reference to the agony i n Gethsemane i s found i n Matthew XXVI. More than one eldest son was obviously involved i n the l a s t plague, but the p a r a l l e l , I think, s t i l l holds. 34 For a discussion of the Sebastiano del Piombo reference i n Jude the •Obscure see pp. 102 - 05 below. 35 Jean Brooks makes much the same point, when she notes that the "poetic development of the novel i s completed by a return to the v i s u a l image of a 'motionless figure standing on the top of the tumulus, just as Eustachia had stood on that lonely summit some two years and a h a l f before1 But the transformation of Eustachia into Glym has replaced the dark winter night . with summer afternoon, i s o l a t i o n with relationship to man" (p. 194). Chapter Two 1 Thomas Hardy, Tess of the D'Urbervilles (London: MacMillan, 1974) p. 332. A l l further references to t h i s novel w i l l be taken from t h i s e d i t i o n and referred to by page number i n the text. 2 W. F. H a l l , "Hawthorne, Shakespeare and Tess: Hardy's Use of A l l u s i o n and Reference", English Studies 52, No. 6 (1971), p. 4. 3 There has been, i n f a c t , one e a r l i e r reference to the v i s u a l a r t s , r e l a t i n g only to a minor character, i n the description of the Queen of Spades as "some Praxitelean creation" (p. 100). This a l l u s i o n , which i s undoubt= edly to a Praxitelean Venus, suggests that the Queen of Spades, who i s pre-sented as a crude, coarse and purely sexual being, i s a debased version of t h i s goddess. Tess herself, as the v i s u a l art a l l u s i o n to the Tuscan Saint (Mary Magdalen' w n 0 ^ s both saint and harlot) w i l l make clear, becomes as a r e s u l t of her sexual experience, a true form of t h i s pagan goddess who presided over heavenly and earthly love. Two other v i s u a l art allusions made i n the novel w i l l not be discussed i n the body of t h i s Chapter. The f i r s t of these i s to "Carreggio'^Holy Families... Velasquez" (p. 200). I have chosen not to discuss t h i s a l l u s i o n because I think that Hardy only uses i t as an i r o n i c comment on the fashionable tastes of the two older Clare brothers. One other reference, to "some early I t a l i a n conception of the two Marys" (p. 332) w i l l not be discussed because I could not f i n d the p a r t i c u l a r painting to which Hardy refers. However such a painting, por-traying Tess as a Christian saint (either Mary Magdalen or the V i r g i n Mary) would continue the pattern of reference i n which she i s regarded as pure, i d e a l woman. 4 That the world of the Valley of Great Dairies i s enveloped i n a Christian r e l i g i o u s atmosphere i s suggested, f o r example, by the following passages: "The Froom waters were clear as the pure River of L i f e shown to the Evangelist" (p. 140), "the spectral, h a l f compounded, aqueous l i g h t - 12? -which pervaded the open mead, impressed them with a f e e l i n g of i s o l a -t i o n , as i f they were Adam and Eve" (p. 140). That the world of the Valley i s enveloped i n a pagan r e l i g i o u s atmosphere i s suggested, f o r example, by the following passages: the sun i s described as casting shadows of cows on the ground*7 "as d i l i g e n t l y as i t had copied Olympion shades on marble facades long ago" (p. 142) and the narrator describes the labouring, pea-sant women of the v a l l e y as retaining "far more of the pagan fantasy of t h e i r remote forefathers than of the systematized r e l i g i o n taught t h e i r race at t h i s l a t e date" (p. 141). There i s at least one reference i n t h i s section to ancient f e r t i l i t y r i t e s : "Amid the oozing fatness and warm f e r -ments of the Froom Vale, at a season when the rush of juices could almost be heard below the hiss of f e r t i l i z a t i o n , i t was impossible that the most f a n c i f u l love should not grow passionate" (p. 188). S i m i l a r l y , there i s at l e a s t one reference to the sun which alludes to Mithraic b e l i e f s : "Ethiopic scorchings browned the upper slopes of the pasture" (p. 188). 5 Smart, p. 267. 6 Smart, p. 267. 7 This reference to the Gerealia r i t e s (and the l a t e r reference to Tess as Demeter p. 170 and the threshing machine she works on, l a t e r i n the novel, as a "Plutonic master" p. 373 ) suggests that another mythic pat-tern, that of Tess as Demeter/Persephone figure operates In the novel. This interpretation of Tess appears to have been, i n fact, the idea which was the basis f o r the o r i g i n a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s to Tess of the D'Urbervilles found In the s e r i a l i z a t i o n - of the novel i n The Graphic (July to December, 1891). There were four i l l u s t r a t o r s involved i n the production of these: Professor H. Herkomer ( i l l u s t r a t i o n s number 1, 8, 13, 22, 24), J. Sydall ( i l l u s t r a -tions number 4, 5» 9> 18, 21), B. Johnson ( i l l u s t r a t i o n s number 7, 10, 11, 15, 19)land D. Wehrschmidt ( i l l u s t r a t i o n s number 2, 6, 12, 14, 1?, 20, 23, 25), Each of these i l l u s t r a t o r s seems to have been working with t h i s cen-t r a l idea of Tess as Demeter/Persephone (and the world of women as the world of l i g h t ) and both Alec and Angel as versions of Dis (and the world of men as the world of darkness). Each of the four i l l u s t r a t o r s places a dif f e r e n t emphasis on the central pattern and presents i t i n a d i f f e r e n t set of terms. In Herkomer's i l l u s t r a t i o n s , the emphasis i s overtly mythological and he seems to deliberately evoke classical'..statuary (numbers 1 and 13) i n order to make i t so. Numbers 1 and 22 are very fi n i s h e d , and the f i r s t i s more d i r e c t l y c l a s s i c a l than number 22 (Tess i n h e l l with attendant deviL Alec). Herkomer's contribution i s , however, extremely uneven i n style and hence meaning. Sydall's i l l u s t r a t i o n s are a l l of outdoor scenes. Number 5» 9, and 12, show Tess engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r a l pursuit and suggest her connection with i t . Numbers 4, 5 i 9» and 21 a l l show her i n r e l a t i o n to the male figures and these stress the Dis-Persephone pattern. In a l l but one of these, Persephone i s triumphant i n the world of l i g h t , while number 18 shows her as witch-like, and i n darkness as Persephone, Queen of the Underworld. A l l Sydall's i l l u s t r a t i o n s then are d i r e c t l y connected with the myth as i t relates to the agriculture working conditions. But f o r number 10, a l l d'f Johnson's i l l u s t r a t i o n s are concerned with the relationship between Angel and Tess, or Alec and Tess. Each one represents - 128 -t h i s as a violent c o n f l i c t and i n each there i s a v i s i o n of Tess being attacked by a male from the underworld. In i l l u s t r a t i o n number 19, Tess herself appears entering the underworld. Generally speaking, Johnson's i l l u s t r a t i o n s are much more' melodramatic than Herkomer's. D. Wehrschmidt's i l l u s t r a t i o n s are much more consistent i n his pres-entation of his version of the pattern: he portrays the same symbolic objects i n several i l l u s t r a t i o n s . For example, i n numbers 6, 12, 17, and 20 a chair design i s repeated while i n numbers 6 and 23 a whip i s repeated. There i s an obvious use of l i g h t and darkness and r e p e t i t i v e patterns of attitudes, as i n the male figures i n numbers 14 and 17. I t i s only by i m p l i -cation from Sydall's and Herkomer's i l l u s t r a t i o n s that one interprets num-bers 12 and 14 as having mythological significance as w e l l , although the dark, approaching figures i n number 25 strengthen that emphasis. The major preoccupation i n the D. Wehrschmidt series appears to be a comment on the society in" which Tess exis t s . He portrays i t as male dominated and repres-s i v e l y so. Although Roberts i s not l i s t e d among the other i l l u s t r a t o r s , h is s i g -nature appears on two i l l u s t r a t i o n s , numbers 3 and 16. These two i l l u s -t rations portray episodes that might be related to the Persephone myth. In number 3 the.male figure attempts to seduce Tess, while i n number 16 he carries her to the tomb. 8 Smart, p. 269. 9 I am not aware of the l o c a t i o n of t h i s study during the period before I 8 9 I , however Smart asserts that Van Beer's work was exhibited i n England i n 1886. This study could conceivably have been part of t h i s exhibition. 10 The Wiertz Museum was o r i g i n a l l y the studio of Belgian painter A. J. Wiertz (1806 - 65) and since Wiertz's death has housed many of his paintings. 11 Hardy did spend some time i n Rome i n I887 and wrote a poem marking the occasion of a v i s i t to the Vatican, e n t i t l e d "The Vatican: S a l l a Delia Muse". 12 The emblematic meaning of a body which i s half f l e s h and h a l f skeleton i s that of the state of dream. 13 Smart, p. 2 ? 0 . 14 A Popular Handbook to the National Gallery, ed. Edward T. Cook (Lon-don: MacMillan, I898) p. 69 . . 15 In Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress, Christian passes through the wicket Gate i n Chapter four as he journeys from the City of Destruction to Beulah. I t i s interesting to note that there was one e x p l i c i t reference to Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress e a r l i e r i n the novel, when Tess wonders of Angel, "how could t h i s admirable and poetic man ever have descended into the Valley of Humiliation" (p. I63) 16 Ronald Paulson, Emblem and Expression: Meaning i n English Art of the  Eighteen Century (Cambridge, Mass:Harvard Univ. Press, 1975) P« 190. 1? Paulson, p. 191. - 129 -18 Although to my knowledge, Hardy's use of Pre-Raphaelite paintings as submerged allusions has not been commented upon by c r i t i c s , Penelope Vigar has suggested that " i t i s conceivable that t h e i r s t y l e may have affected his own l i t e r a r y approach, which was by nature,'painterly'" (p. 4l). 19 W. F. Ha l l expresses a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t interpretation of t h i s scene i n h is a r t i c l e "Hawthorne, Shakespeare and Tess; Hardy's Use of A l l u s i o n and Reference." He suggests that Angel "wishes her death but at the same time his love i s powerful. Consequently he wishes her resurrection - her r e b i r t h as "The Maiden' - a s much as he does her physical death" (p. 6). Albert Guerard, on the other hand, suggests that t h i s scene " i s of course a major scar on the surface of a great book: i t i s so appallingly s e n t i -mental and melodramatic v.that the problem of p l a u s i b i l i t y i s not worth r a i s i n g " (p. 108). 20 For a discussion of the l i t e r a r y allusions to Hamlet i n Tess of the  D'Urbervilles see ¥. F. Hall's "Hawthorne, Shakespeare and Tess: Hardy's Use of A l l u s i o n and Reference". 21 Thomas Hardy, "Preface to the F i f t h and Later Editions" i n Tess of  the D'Urbervilles (London: MacMillan, 19?4) p. 30. Chapter Three 1 Both Michael Millgate and David C e c i l have noted certain resemblances between elements i n Jude the Obscure and Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress. Michael Millgate has noted that i n Jude the Obscure "points are driven home with the firmness andexplicitness of marginal commentary i n The Pilgrim's  Progress" (p. 331)» and that the towns i n the novel "serve, l i k e stages i n Tess's pilgrimage, as Bunyanesque testing-places of the soul" (p. 331)• C e c i l notes that " s t o i c and l a b e l l e d , as much as an a l l e g o r i c a l figure as the Giant Despair i n 'Pilgrim's Progress', L i t t l e Father Time exists on a plane of allegory" (p. 121). 2 Thomas Hardy, Jude the Obscure (London: MacMillan, 19?4) p. 316. . A l l further references to t h i s novel w i l l be taken from t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be referred to by page number i n the text. 3 John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress (London: The Religious Tract Society) n. d., p. I67,1 4 Bunyan, p. I67. 5 The i l l u s t r a t i o n s that I ref e r to may be found i n the following e d i -tions. The f i r s t by an unknown i l l u s t r a t o r i s found i n : John Bunyan, The  Pilgrim's Progress (London: J. Baxter Hewes, 1804) p. 202. The P r i o l o i l l u s t r a t i o n i s found i n John Bunyan, Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress and Holy  War (London: Cassell and Company, 1884) p. 216. The Cruikshank i l l u s t r a -t i o n i s found i n : John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress (London: Henry Froude and Oxford Univ. Press, 1912) p. 186. - 130 -6 I might conveniently summarize at t h i s stage, the main points of the myth of Hephaestus that w i l l become relevant l a t e r : Hephaestus was exi l e d from Olympus f i r s t by Hera and spent nine years i n a cavern below the ocean. He was f i n a l l y allowed to return but had to be brought back by Dionysus and was drunk when he arrived. He was exil e d a second time to Lemnos by Zeus and did'inot return to Olympus again. He was married to Aphrodite ( i n some versions to two of the graces) and was said to-have wooed Athena unsuccessfully. He made two golden maidens to help his lameness and was the master craftsman s k i l l e d i n metal work and an a r c h i -tect and designer of c i t i e s . 7 I t i s possible that the figure of the peddlar i s to'.Obe i d e n t i f i e d with that of Mercury (who i n human shape adopted the role of peddlar and t r i c k -ster) i n his role as messenger of the Gods, intermediary between the world of the i d e a l and the r e a l . He i s c l e a r l y acting here as the introducer of Sue to the world of "Greek joyousness" and i t i s he who i s "rearranging" the statues - he therefore who places them so they block her v i s i o n of Church spires to "awaken i n her an oddly foreign... set of ideas". His figure blends with that of Dr. V i l b e r t who performs a s i m i l a r function f o r Jude at the beginning of the novel (when he promises to s e l l him the old textbooks), reappears as the s e l l e r of quack medicines i n the fairground scene and f i n a l l y escorts Arabella (grotesque Aphrodite) away from the sordid r e a l i t y of Jude's death bed. 8 Charles Gayley, Classic Myths i n English Literature and i n Art (Boston: Ginn and Company, 1939) p. 27. 9 George Ferguson, Signs and Symbols i n Christian Art (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, I 9 6 I ) p. 94. 10 One might see another, submerged a l l u s i o n to t h i s same sculpture much l a t e r i n the novel i n the description of Phillotson's anguish as he faces the fact of his loss of Sue to Jude: "Phillotson lay writhing l i k e a man i n h e l l as he pictured the p r e t t i l y dressed maddening compound of sympathy and adverseness who bore his name, returning impatiently to the home of her lover" (p. 272). 11 This image of the Athena figure (and by implication, the Hephaestus figure) of the Parthenon Frieze i s v i s u a l l y echoed i n one of the i l l u s t r a i ? tions (number 9) Hatherell did f o r Jude the Obscure when i t was f i r s t ser-i a l i z e d i n Harper's New Monthly Magazine from December 1894 to November 1895' Hardy, according to Norman Page, admired these i l l u s t r a t i o n s greatly. Hatherell's twelve i l l u s t r a t i o n s form a pattern which i s e s s e n t i a l l y a n a t u r a l i s t i c one, the key to which i s i n the combination of numbers s i x and seven and t h e i r play with Hardy's metaphor i n "At Shaston" chapter two. Two of the i l l u s t r a t i o n s , however have suggestions of the Christian a l l e -gory (numbers 3 and 4) while the other eight have hints and suggestions, i n the -.-context of the mythic patterns and tr a g i c action of the novel, of mythic and Greek t r a g i c reference. Numbers 5> 10 > a n d 11 hint of Antigone to which Hardy refers l a t e r i n the novel, while 1, 2, 9 i and 12 contain more general c l a s s i c a l reference. The n a t u r a l i s t i c element i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n s - 131 -i s r e i n f o r c e d by compositional permutations i n the p o s i t i o n s o f Sue i n r e l a t i o n to male f i g u r e s and Jude i n r e l a t i o n to female f i g u r e s . The f a c t t h a t there i s not, i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n s to t h i s n o v e l , the c l e a r i d e a of mythic reference t h a t i s found i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n s to the other two novels would confirm the i d e a of the s h i f t i n Hardy's a t t i t u d e toward his-theme t h a t I a r r i v e d a t from the examination of the t e x t s of the novels themselves. 12 Charles Waldenstein, Essays on the A r t of Pheidas (Cambridge: Univer-s i t y P r e s s , 1884) p. 194. 13 Waldenstein p. 211. 14 Thomas K e i g h t l e y , The Mythology of Ancient Greece and I t a l y , ed. Leohhard Schmitz (London:George B e l l and Sons, 1896) p. 138. 15 Waldenstein p. 215. 16 Waldenstein p. 211. 17 W. F. H a l l d i s c u s s e s Hardy's p l a y on p e r s p e c t i v e i n the Calvary p r i n t scene and i n t h i s scene and a r r i v e s a t a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n concerning the f u n c t i o n of t h i s v i s u a l a r t a l l u s i o n i n an unpublished paper e n t i t l e d "Impressionism and Realism i n Jude the Obscure: A Comment". 18 K e i g h t l e y , p. 140. 19 The combination o f both a t t r i b u t e s of the Goddess i n t h i s statue has been n o t i c e d by Redig de Campos i n Le Musees De V a t i c a n (Novara: I n s t i t u t o Geographica De Agostino, I963) p. 34. De Campos notes: "the goddess i s dep i c t e d i n the a c t of l a y i n g down her c l o t h e s prepatory to having a bath. The composition shows a harmonious balance o f u p r i g h t s and curves, a l l i n r e l a t i o n to the s o f t surfaces of the body, to which the chiaroscuro o f the c l o t h i n g a c t s as an o f f s e t . The high s p i r i t u a l i t y of the face w i t h i t s deep eyes, spacious forehead and s l i g h t l y p a r t e d l i p s i s apparent." 20 There i s a l i n e drawing of the statue i n Harper's D i c t i o n a r y o f C l a s s - i c a l L i t e r a t u r e and A n t i q u i t i e s , ed. H. T. Peck (New York: Harpers, I898) p. 1028. This statue i s found i n the Room of the Muses i n the V a t i c a n ( t h a t which Hardy wrote the poem about) according to a V a t i c a n Guide e n t i t l e d P o n t i f i c a l Museums and G a l l e r i e s : Guide to the V a t i c a n Museum of Sculpture (Rome: V a t i c a n P o l y g l o t Typography, 1923) p. 24. 21 Acheron, the r i v e r o f woe, was one o f the r i v e r s running through Hades. There are i n t e r e s t i n g echoes i n these references to one of the speeches i n Sophocles's Antigone (sc. 4, Strophe l ) as she passes on her way to execu-t i o n . These r e i n f o r c e the sense i n the n a r r a t o r ' s references of Sue and Jude as condemned, o f t h e i r f a t e s as i r r e s i s t a b l e , and t h e i r sense o f them-se l v e s as no longer a l i v e . 22 On h i s way to v i s i t Sue a t Marygreen, Jude i s des c r i b e d as oddly swathed, p a l e as a monumental f i g u r e i n a l a b a s t e r , and much s t a r e d a t by the other passengers" (p. 407). The d e s c r i p t i o n c l e a r l y suggests t h a t he - 132 -i s already a corpse a r r i v i n g at the necropolis. I t i s conceivable that Hardy may have had i n mind the monumental statue of John Donne by Nicholas Stone i n St. Paul's Cathedral, London. - 133 -A Selected Bibliography A Popular Handbook to the National Gallery. Ed. Edward T. Cook. London: Macmillan, 1888. An Exhibition of Paintings from the Collection of Dr. D. M. McDonald. London: Legatt Brothers, 1970. Baker, Charles, JLely and the Stuart P o r t r a i t Painters. 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Paulson, Ronald, Emblem and Expressions Meaning i n English Art of the  Eighteenth Century. Cambridge, Mass.s Harvard Univ. Press, 1975. Raphael. Ed. Charles M i t c h e l l . London: Elek Books, 1970. - 136 -Raphael. Intro, by W. E. Suida. New York: Oxford Univ. Press and London: Phaidon, 1941 . Ruskin, John. Modern Painters. 6 vols. London: George Alle n , Sunnyside, Orpington, 1898. Smart, A l a s t a i r . " P i c t o r i a l Imagery i n the Novels of Thomas Hardy," Review of English Studies. 12 (l96l), 262 - 280. Speilman, M. H,. "Jan Van Beers". Magazine of Art. 15 ( 1 8 9 2 ) , 397 - 403. •The Complete Paintings of Manet. Intro, by Phoebe Poole. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.!., I967. The Complete Woodcuts of Albrecht Purer. Ed. Dr. W i l l i Kurth. New York: Crown Publishers, 1946. The English Dreamers: A Collection of Pre-Raphaelite Paintings. Ed. David Larkin. Toronto: Peacock Press and Bantam Books, 1975. The National Gallery: I l l u s t r a t e d General Catalogue. London: Publications P Department The National Gallery, 1973. The National Gallery Catalogues: E a r l i e r I t a l i a n School. 2 vols. London: The Trustees, 1953. The National Gallery Catalogues: The Spanish School Plates. London: The Trustees, 1952. The World of Delacroix 1798 - 1863. New York: lime Incorporated, I966. Thomas Hardy and the Modern World. Ed. F. B. Pinion.'Dorchester, Dorset: The Thomas Hardy Society, 1974. Treasures of the Vatican. Ed. Deoclecio Redig de Campos. Rome: Editions d'art Albert Shim, 1962. Vigar, Penelope. The Novels of Thomas Hardy: I l l u s i o n and Reality. London: Athlone Press, 1974. Waldenstein, Charles. Essays on the Art of Pheidos. Cambridge: University Press, 1885. Woolf, V i r g i n i a . Collected Essays. London: Hogarth Press, I966. - 137 -Appendix This l i s t includes the major v i s u a l art allusions i n the other four "Novels of Character and Environment" and the paintings, sculptures or ohjets d'art which I think that Hardy refers to i n each a l l u s i o n . Under the Greenwood Tree 1. "Shuffling, h a l t i n g , i r r e g u l a r footsteps of various kinds were now heard coming up the h i l l , and presently there emerged from the shade sever-a l l y f i v e men of different ages and g a i t s , a l l of them working v i l l a g e r s of the parish of Mellstock. They, too, had l o s t t h e i r rotundity with the daylight, and advanced against the sky i n f l a t outlines, which suggested some processional design on Greek or Etruscan pottery. They represented the chief portion of Mellstock choir" (p. 5)« An a l l u s i o n to Franz Pocci's work, "Harlekin "bekommt von Columbine den B r i e f " . 2. "Remaining steady f o r an instant, the b l i n d went upwards from before i t , revealing to t h i r t y concentrated eyes, a young g i r l , framed as a p i c -ture by the window architrave and unconsciously i l l u m i n a t i n g her coun-tenance to a v i v i d brightness by a candle she held i n her l e f t hand, close to her face, her r i g h t hand being extended to the side of the window" (p. 55) • An a l l u s i o n to Gerard Dou's "Madchen mit kerze am Fenster"; 3. "Good luck attended Dick's love-passes during the meal. He sat next to Fancy, and had the t h r i l l i n g pleasure of using permanently a glass which had been taken by Fancy i n mistake; of l e t t i n g the outer edge of the sole of his boot touch the lower verge of her s k i r t " (p. 78). An a l l u s i o n to Hendrick Pot's "A merry company at table". 4. "Mr. Penny himself being invariably seen working inside l i k e a framed p o r t r a i t of a shoemaker by some modern Moroni" (p. 88). Giambattista Moroni's "The T a i l o r " (The National Gallery, London) i s an example of the type of composition which Hardy verbally renders i n t h i s scene. 5. "Here, upon the bright after-glow about the horizon, was now v i s i b l e on i r r e g u l a r shape, which at f i r s t he conceived to be a bough standing a l i t t l e beyond the l i n e s of i t s neighbours... i t was a l i v i n g being s i t t i n g i n the bank, head bowed on hand" (p. I56). An a l l u s i o n to Francis Danby's "Disappointed Love". 6. " I f ever a woman looked a d i v i n i t y Fancy Day appeared one that day as she floated down those school steps, i n the form of a nebulous c o l -l e c t i o n of colours i n c l i n i n g to blue... she had actually donned a hat and feather and lowered her hitherto p l a i n l y looped-up h a i r , which now f e l l about her .shoulders i n a profusion of c u r l s " (p. 177). An a l l u -sion to Peter Ruben's "Helen Fourment". - 138 -Far From The Madding Crowd 1. Gabriel's hut i s described as a "small Noah's Ark on a small Arafat, allowing the traditionary outlines and general form of the Ark which are followed by toy-makers" (p. 48). An i l l u s t r a t i o n of the type of toy Ark Hardy refers to may be found i n Harry Symon's book e n t i -t l e d Playthings of Yesterday (Toronto: The Ryerson Press, I963) p. 56. 2. George, one of Gabriel Oak's dogs, i s described as having a coat of grey which "after years of sun and r a i n , had been scorched and washed out of the more prominent locks, leaving them af a reddish brown, as i f the blue component of the grey had faded, l i k e the indigo from the same kind of colour i n Turner's pictures (p. 70). This kind of colour i s found i n Joseph Turner's "Mercury and Argus". 3. Liddy's face i s described as "a surface of high rotundity that we meet with i n a Terbourg or a Gerard Dou, • and l i k e the presentations of those great co l o u r i s t s , i t was a face which kept well back from the boundary between comeliness and the i d e a l " (p. 107). Gerard Ter Borsch's "Der B r i e f " contains a servant whose face corresponds to that which • Hardy describes i n t h i s a l l u s i o n . 4. The shearing barn i s described as a "picture of today i n i t s frame of four-hundred years ago" (p. 177). The long description of the bar pre-ceeding t h i s passage i s an a l l u s i o n to Samuel Palmer's "Sheep-Shearing". 5. Maryanne i s described as brown i n complexion and wearing "the working wrapper of rusty linsey which had at present, the mellow hue of an old sketch i n o i l s - notably some of Nicholas Poussins" (p. I83). An example of t h i s type of sketch i s Nicholas Poussins?- "A woman with a V e i l over her Head". 6'. A After the wedding dance, the peasant-workers are described as a "pro-cession... not unlike Flaxman's group of the suitors t o t t e r i n g on towards the i n f e r n a l regions under the conduct of Mercury" (p. 285). An a l l u s i o n to John Flaxman's "Mercury Conducting the Souls of the Suitors to the Infernal Regions." "7. The landscape a f t e r a storm i s described as "now sparkling and varnished by the raindrops to the brightness of s i m i l a r effects i n the landscapes of Ruysdael and Hobbema" (p. 342). An a l l u s i o n to Meindert Hobbema's "Une Eglise Dans Un Paysage Boise" and Salomon Ruysdael's "The Cemetary". .8. The show-ring i n which Troy performs i s described as having the "strange luminous semi-opacities of a fin e autumn afternoon and eyes i n t e n s i f i e d into Rembrandt effects the few yellow sunbeams which came through holes and divisions i n the canvas" (p. 367). An a l l u s i o n to Harmensz Rem-brandt's "Large Equestrian P o r t r a i t " . 9. The scene following Troy's murder, i n which Bathsheba holds Troy's head "pillowed i n her lap" (p. 402) i s a submerged a l l u s i o n to William Shakespeare Burton's "the Wounded Cavalier." - 139 -The Mayor of Casterbridge 1. The espaliers i n Henchard's garden are described., as having "grown so stout, and cramped, and gnarled that they pulled t h e i r stakes out of the ground and stood distorted and writhing i n vegetable agony, l i k e leafy Laocoons" (p. 107). An a l l u s i o n to "The Laocoon Group". 2. Elizabeth-Jane's eyes are described as "beaming with a long l i n g e r -ing l i g h t , as i f Nature had been advised by Gorreggio i n t h e i r crea-t i o n " (p. I 3 6 ) . This type of expression may be found i n Antonio Gor-reggio 's Madonna i n "The Holy Family with St. James". 3. Lucetta i s described as "throwing her arm aboverher brow - somewhat i n the pose of a well-known conception of T i t i a n - talked up at Elizabeth-Jane invertedly across her forehead and arm" (p. 178). An a l l u s i o n to Tiziano Vecellio's "Diana and Acteon". The Woodlanders 1. The i n i t i a l description of Marty South as an "impression-picture of the extremest type, wherein the g i r l ' s h a i r alone, as the focus of obser-vation, was depicted with i n t e n s i t y and distinctness, while her face, shoulders, hands, and figure i n general were a blurred mass of unimport-ant d e t a i l l o s t i n haze and obscurity" (p. 41). This i s a verbal rend-ering of the impressionist technique found i n Eugene Garriere's work. 2. Grace Melbury i s described as having "well-formed eyebrows which had her p o r t r a i t been painted, would probably have been done i n Prouts's or Vandyke brown" (p. 69). The colour which Hardy here refers to i s found i n Samuel Prout's "Hastings"as well as i n Van Dyck's "B i l d n i s der Grafin, Amalia Von Solms - Braunfels". The women i n the Van Dyck por-t r a i t bears a resemblance to Grace Melbury as Hardy describes her. i n the scene. 3. Giles Winterborne's dinner-table i s described: "the hot-baked meats from the oven, l a i d on snowy cloth fresh from the press, and re t i c u l a t e d with folds as i n Flemish Last-Suppers" (p. 105). This type of scene i s found i n Jacques Jordaens "La Gene". 4. Mrs. Charmond i s described as "a woman of elegant figure r e c l i n i n g upon a couch i n such a p o s i t i o n as not to disturb a p i l e of magnifi-cent hai r on the crown of her head. A deep purple dressing gown formed ah admirable f o i l to the p e c u l i a r l y r i c h brown of her h a i r - p l a i t s ; her l e f t arm, which was naked nearly up to the shoulder, was thrown upwards", (p. 217). This attitude corresponds to Lucetta's i n The Mayor of Gast-erbridge and I tftuink Hardy refers once again to Tiziano Vecellio's 'Diana and Acteon". 5. Grace watches her husband F i t z p i e r s r i d i n g away on her horse Darling: the sky behind" him being a deep v i o l e t she could s t i l l see white - 140 -Darling i n r e l i e f upon i t - a mere speck now - a Wouverman's eccen-t r i c i t y reduced to microscopic dimensions" (p. 235). An a l l u s i o n to P h i l l i p Wouverman's "On the Sea Shore". - 141 -Appendix I I This appendix includes xeroxes of reproductions of the v i s u a l a rt material discussed In the text and l i s t e d i n the source of reproduction appendix f following each chapter. The following l i s t of xeroxes of reproductions are included i n t h i s appendix: 1. ' Eugene Delacroix's "Apollo's Victory over Python." 2. Baron Gros's "Sapho a Leucate." 3. S i r William Beechey's " P o r t r a i t of Mrs. Siddons with the Emblems of Tragedy." 4. Raffaelo Sanzio's "The Knight's Dream." 5. Albrecht Durer's "Christ Appears to Mary Magdalene." 6. Albrecht Durer's "The Martyrdom of St. John." 7. Albrecht Durer's "The Martyrdom of St. Catherine." 8. Follower of Patiner's "Landscape with Temptation of Christ." 9. Denis Van Alsloot's "Procession de 1'Ommenganck, l e s Serments." 10. Sebastiano del Piombo's "The Raising of Lazarus." 11. Giotto d i Bondoni's "The Ascension of Mary Magdalene." 12. Anthonis Salaert's "Les Archiducs Albert e t l s a b e l l e assistant a l a Procession des Pucelles du Sablon." 13. S i r Godfrey Kneller's "Margaret, Countess of Ranelagh." 14. Peter Lely's "Lady G i f f a r d . " 15. Joseph Michael Wright's "Mary Fairfax." 16. Peter Lely's "Anne Digby, Countess of Sunderland." 17. Jan Van Beer's "My Model." 18. Antoine Wiertz's "La Belle Rosine." 19. CarM> C r i v e l l i ' s "Dead Christus." 20. Carlo C r i v e l l i ' s "Dead Christus." (Vatican Version) 21. Spinello Aretino's "Two Haloed Mourners." 22. Giotto d i Bondone*s "Dormition of the V i r g i n . " 23. William Morris's "Queen Guinevere." 24. Dante Gabriel Rossetti's "Dante's Dream." 25. Dante Gabriel Rossetti's "King Arthur's Tomb." 26. John Everett M i l l a i s ' s "Ophelia." 27. Anon. "The Pilgrims Pass the River." 28. P r i o l o ' s "Christian and Hopeful Enter the Land of Beulah." 29. George Cruikshank's "The Pilgrims Passing Through the River of Death." 30. Andrea Mantegna's "Samson and D e l i l a h . " 31. Albrecht Durer's "Samson and D e l i l a h . " 32. Antonello Da Messina's "Christ Crucified." 33. "The Laocoon Group." 34. Juan Bautiste del Mazo's "Queen Mariana i n Mourning." 35« "Pallas Athena i n the Parthenon Frieze." 36. Edward Manet's "Le Bar au Folies-Bergeres." 37. P r a x i t e l e s I "Venus at Gnidos." * Available unbound i n the Special Collections D i v i s i o n , UBC Library _ :142 _, Appendix I I I Xeroxed reproductions of the i l l u s t r a t i o n s to The Return of the Native, Tess of the D'Urbervilles and Jude the Obscure found i n the s e r i a l i z e d , magazine e d i t i o n of each of these novels are included i n t h i s appendix. The i l l u s t r a t i o n s to The Return of the Native (numbering one to eleven) are found f i r s t , followed by the i l l u s t r a t i o n s to Tess of the D'Urbervilles (num-bering one to twenty-four) and the i l l u s t r a t i o n s to Jude the Obscure (number-ing one to twelve). Available unbound i n the Special Collections D i v i s i o n , UBC Library t { H.M'IO A LlltOAfti • . I I . .• . . * ' U f l i e Xu|iultioii ilsuis la pliMiilnde de ses contours 1 Oros it snmi ntieux que pui-sonne In pliysionoinie fl'i '"1'nnl" du fiilur cmpereur, pliy*ionomie oi'dlnoiremenl peimlvB at colmo, co jour-lit llliimliieo par un |,:' tiiir <re\iillnlion. Lit resMmblnnce Tut tlrielnrtta pnrfnite; il cut vrni que le portrnlt paint fut executo iV The Knight'i Dream. About 1502. London, National Gallery. (Wood, 17x17 cm., 7x7 in.) 66. Follower of Patinir, Landscape with Temptation of Christ. Banbury, Upton House, Beamed Coll . , National Trust (Cat. N o . 35) irges rivieres, nous rianiste. L'esprit qui du Christ de Pate-il avait deja amal->. Enregistrons done J- d'essais de classifi-a l'aide de quelques it fait defaut sur le er celui-ci apres le doit pas etre perdue oeuvre au gre de sa lujours — et, meme, ompue, semblable a iposerions une date tide de Latone et les uite disparaitre sans >mme etant par Co-en juger par la re-:e. Tres proche du t du feuillage, elle a nature. Le Bruxel-lont s'amuseront ses : certains sont deja : vue bien delimitee, peu qu'ils s'en don-oenendael — la pre-mais. 3 trouvons, cette f ois, foret. A gauche, un :c son troupeau de vallonnee, s'ornant mces. Nous sommes avec les "vedutas" D E N I S V A N A L S L O O T 345 ^^^^^^^^7^***, . « S ^ c n t , -Vic tor - and Albert Museum, Andres lie. 12. — DKSIS VAK ALSLOOT. — Procession ae vrom ^  L'annce 1612 nous apporte la belle representation de UAbbaye de Groenen-dael dans la Foret de Soignes, des Musees Royaux de Bruxelles (Fig. 5 ) , traitee dans le meme esprit. Des arbres vigoureux encadrent les etangs, qui se refletent dans un soleil printanier et forment glacis pour les beaux batiments gothiques du vaste prieure. II s'agit probablement du premier panneau d'une serie des "quatre saisons," dont le meme musee conserve la splendide vue d'hiver de YAb-baye de la Cambre (Fig. 6), datee 1616, tandis que VEte et VAutomne sont mal-hcureusement perdus. Les Hirers de van Alsloot occupent une assez grande place dans sa produc-tion et sont tous particulierement bien venus. Nous en possedons des exemplaires dates depuis 1614 — mais rien ne dit que Tartiste n'en ait pas deja peint ante-rieurement. Le charmant tableau de Schloss Mosigkau, pres de Dresde (Fig. 7) — H'nni. enaisse couche de neige U9 ON VI.I.SVH'.IS A N T O I N E S A L L A E R T . L e s A r c h i d u c s A l b e r t et Isabelle assistant a l a Procession des Pueel les d n S a h l o n . COUNTESS OK ESSEX 15. DIANA, DUCHESS OF ST. AI.HANS II.M. The King, lldiiiplau (Uiurt (1691-92) I ; ; ! \ Uerm Court JOSEPH M I C H A E L W R I G H T - MARY F A I R F A X , a m D U C H E S S O F B U C K I N G H A M [1659] \ n 6 . S I R P E T E R L E L Y : A N N E D I G B Y , C O U N T E S S O F S U N D E R L A N D (Cat.no.263) 400 T H E M A G A Z I N E O F A R T . of his love of areb«frologyr a portion of tin- l*ress denounced his temerity, langhed at the size of his canvases, condemned his love of finish and delicacy of touch, sneered at his aims; and, as so often happens, the more reasonable counsellors were shouted down by the leathern-lunged. In-stead of ignoring his persecutors, M. Van Beers, perhaps a little too ready to listen to what the were so thoroughly in consonance with the taste of the people, there is little surprise that in these popular works A'an Beers found his financial sal-vation. It is all very well to paint " high art," hut " high art," as Haydon, Barry, and many another have found, will not pay your way. And, in fact, the artist's rapid transition from the severity of the historical to the lightness of the MI MODEL. (FI'OMI the Painting by Jan Ta« Beers.) world is saying, was stung to the quick, and, daintily pretty, was an entirely genuine one; only adopting the method of Alfred Stevens, fimile in Paris he found the encouragement lie might Wauters, and other great painters who could not have lacked in his own country for the develop-support the pettiness of a jealous coterie, he left ment of this less serious phase. Belgium for Paris, where he hoped to find a In Paris he was received with great cordiality, wider ami more lilieral field than that which he and he set to work with a will. He painted the had sought in vain in his own country. well-known picture of " La Shine "—which has By this time Van Kep»s luul wniwlomJ «»*>™» •— P L I / Antoine Wiertz La belle Rosine PLATE 48 DANTE'S DREAM: FROM THE WATER-COLOUR a r * — * rag® TheKlorijiis pais die R i v e r . .Now t farther faw, that ; n J the Gate was a River, r.o Bridge to go over, and very deep. At the Sight tl River, the Pilgrims were hie die Men that went w You mult go through, i come at the Gate. The Pilgrims then bega there was no other Way t vhich they anfwered, Yes, not 2ny, fave two, to wit, 1 been permitted to tread l the Foundation of the \^ until the lair Trumpet fh? Pilgrims then (efpecially < p defpond in their Minds, \Vay and that, but no Wai ly them, by which they rr Kiver. Then they afked Waters were all of a De] yet they could not h T I? : F o r , faid they, you s {•• fccUower, us yen believe i Place. They then addrefied tl Water, and entering, Ci Hnk, and crying out to ] iitpeful, he faic£ I fink i: Kizu, ztrji hoi hoii: tie htlj I Chuds eretbcirClfOriets, £sgi ll'Li •m.'culd sat Bert fur kits « That thus ini'uUpr til, wh • SI S S s f n I I » " . . . 'sis'-- tat" 2 16 PILGRIMS PROGRESS. stood in the way: to whom the pilgrims said, Whose goodly vine-yards and gardens are these ? He answered, They are the King's, and are planted here for his own delights, and also for the solace of pilgrims. So the gardener had them into the vineyards, and bid them refresh themselves with the dainties: he also showed them 4* CHRISTIAN AND HOPEFUL E S T E R T H E LAND OF BEULAH. there the Kings walks and the arbours, where he delighted to be: and here they tarried and slept. Now I beheld in my dream, that they talked more in their sleep a* this time than ever they did in all their journey: and being in a muse thereabouts, the gardener said even to me, Wherefore musest thou at the matter? It is the nature of the fruit of the grapes these vineyards "to go down so sweetly as to cause the lips of then* that are asleep to speak." So I saw that when they awoke they addressed themselves to ' - J - t - ~ — < W f ; ^ r , r>f t h e siU\f§| US PROGRESS they did in all their Journey ; ;>ut, the Gardener said even to the mutter? It is the nature these Vineyards to go down so f them that are asleep to speak, yoke, they addressed themselves as I said, the reflections of the i^ty was pure Gold) was so ex-juld not, as yet, with open face strument made for that purpose, i n , there met them two men, in also their faces shone ns the light, glims whence they came ? and asked them, Where they had (1 dangers, what comforts and the way ? and they told tlicni. met them, You have but two Ii, and then you are in the City, lompunion asked the men to go >ld them they would; but, said your own faith. So I saw in my igethcr till they came in sight of ctwlxt tlieni and the Gate wits a •re was no Uridge to go over, the lie sight therefore of this River, oimded; hut the men that went go through, or you cannot come to enquire if there was no other ite ; to which they answered, Yes, Ii not any, save two, to wit, Enoch iceii permitted to tread that path, Dilation of the World, nor shall, excluding black bant), 18J x 14J (0,47 x 0,37) Samson and Delilah •I 1 B| 1 1 It; J 11 II THE LAOCOON GROUP, HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE OF THE SECOND CENTURY B.C. PIO-CLEMENTINO MUSEUM. LEFT, AS RECONSTRUCTED IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY; RIGHT, AS RESTORED TO ITS ORIGINAL STATE. The Laocoon group was unearthed on January 14, 1506, in the ruins of the so-called Baths of Titus, in the vineyard of one Felice de' Freddi. who in the epitaph on his tomb in Santa Maria d'Aracoeli boasts of his wonderful discovery. The group was at once recognized as the one described by Pliny the Elder as the work of . --A TJ^Urrlnnis Pooe I ulius II acquired the statue and had it C A H I N O T M A W J U K B : Venusdo Guide M A S K S IIUOM: Venus of Cmdos. Les Ancienn t>stiniaient que cette statue en nuuiire d'Anlirodite etnil. le ehef-d'unt-vie de I'rnxit.ele. Kile etait veneree duns n sunctuuire de la deesse Venus Euplo'ut i Unide, a l'interieur d'un sat-cllum dont. i' coi.c poslerioiir unssi etait ouvert ulin I I'on puisse inieux hi. voir. Son rerioin ettiil i * * I qu'un j^ rn ml nnmlire de personnes se rem iltiient a Cnide iiiiitpionienf pour I'odiuiror. iii statue ill's Musees du Vuticiui que nous voyoiiH ici est In ineilleure des inuoiit-•rahlcs copies, plus ou mains ltdeles, qui nut ete I'niles do I'original. Lu lakle main dmite, le lirus gnuelie et le cou out Ate restauros, tiindis qui! In. tele est nncieime mais ne rorri'spniiil pus a I'original. 1.11 deesse depose ses vtttements iiviuil tie sit luii^ 'ucr. I'liiliereiuenf nue, elle in1 peril rien de su dimension ideulc grace nil nuturel de son Rente el, il, In serenite lie sun regni'd. La composition unit d'un eipii-lilne de li^ nes cnurlies el, vertienles ell I'mu-1 ion des vastes surfaces du eorps ivuquel repiind le cliiir-ohsiur de In drnperie. Moine le mediocre travail du cnpiste u rendu lu liiuile spirifunlife, du visu^e. L'uillvrc, (III IV* siecle, represent!! une lies neuvros-clef de I'liistoiro de l'art anolen, comme le pl'ouvent les iimniuliriililes imitntiuns et lei'iiiiipositiiilis rcii Usees pentl iiisnie. I ' lli 'tlle-Tlie mnrhle slulue of Aphrodite, coll-sidered liy (lie uneielits lo lie I'ruxileles' lines), Work, wlis venerated in the siiuel-iniry of Aplirodile l'!ltptuitt nl, (Initios, where il, was 11 In it't I in n shrine opeli ill Hie Illicit us well in order In lie morn clenrly visible. Ils I'nnle wus such that ninny people cunie In Ciiiiliis for I lie sole purpose of seeing it. The best of tile iiiliiinieriilili' mid morn or less I'n ill if ul copies is the one in the VII-licnn, in which the ii;dy fight liiiuil, the left iirm umi neclt nre the work of ivslu-rn tit MI , while Hie heiid is undent hilt tint's mil IHJIOIIU to the siiiiie iiuu'lile. The goddess iH depicled in the net ul' laying down her Hollies preparatory in having ii liiilii, Tint composition shows II hiii'lliiiliioilH hiilulice of uprights illlil curies, nil ill relation to the soft sill'filci's nl' file body , to which the chiurosclil'o of Hie clothing WtN us un ol'fsel. The high spifi-luiillly of the In no with ils deep eyes, spacious forehead nut! slightly purled lips is apparent The slulue, which inny de dated a Utile nfler I he middle ul' the fourth century, constitutes one of the lliilt'slones in ilie history of aneient ail und wus tin* object of u mtiltifutle uf imitations anil re-elnliuriiliniis during the period of 11«• I -leiiisni. Ill >". -!-•*•.>»«! *f ' ;' •. II pinoo IT ! > * » * * '."•"I .un jo iK'rj H% •it if w| 13 |KMM|lri . 't| !•! »rtii('i'-' n • ••• nunj « 4n|»ie». 1 m 1 .tit HP jo 1 ' in w.Mi.>p « * • >•>! HTJMS oi() ijjf # i : '•: ' ! • I f ( . \ \ I T l O l i t H t f WMK, n ' 1 -tip ;.•.•>[.' tfg ' " . j ' l : . U t l | * % f .van LLVS v ••" • MM ;r. i | ! 1 * 1 1 1 ^ ' " »• '•• •<[»•» .J" » | i 4 > ;i • " l . H . ' I f I • I • i • 1 ;•! n • ; r. I Tiiiisn.-i;. lot kod :w 11 quite overcurmj imnm.i. • lu wean* ju.ii whai ', m.irTJed,' KIIC ri*|>!if>d with fori <l ..ah' wan Iiaril im !-. he her \v;(s iii i tunc 1 Iv.,-;. I (Ite ! am tmtr\ for i i . liu 1 I r • .Mr V i u i i i . «H' • "• ' II. mu n i i - ' • i . marry 1. • I eeatj •V illlt. Wi. |> • I lioii't ku •• to tljinl> all day in• • • - . . not tliink when I v.i nl .. . . like t h i n . ' It being .'i.uk, '1 i f . ; . . . her by the Bileul waj of Ut&rs, v. hie,. un.-««?n. • 1 could almost, »av I ua-f it w i •.• < • thai you don't deserve it,' • ui-«. I '.' two iliM ili«;». lni-K.ll-- : i • • • it Hf'W ff >l;\ C.I.. ... '}-•.. • i .. Thomi) in, tbii • 'i:a.-'.: --. first, when you bc^an to t r c i r -ho. Would not make you haji|i;. whal I rt.ni'.i i • ••.i v hn\e IM i i i . Up i i , t i e • i| , . . . n ... h 1, i • llUl i l . ; . ' y i M - l ) I . • ! -Thorn • • lovi 14tu, • would not ,,. hoiiso is t he oid inarrii .1 in tt •:. ' I wish i. . The reddleman re-reads an old love letter. 1ARUY. OND. I mlvnnce in unconsciously helped m ranger's arrival; this event, by gi*b* lipitatos affairs in another with I. C O M I i l t . uid earlier, certain ephemow sir trifling way, the njajettJ*.*, tctivities which, beside th«*S voulil have appeared as tib* ig of the flesh of immobility, shut in by the stable b m H i novelty of pageantry, andI slf to be Adam without th» E ention of every bird withl» p, and set the surrounding | ks at a safe distance. »ing together and building umphrey had been cutting oing fine days. The staek i men engaged in building an looking on. bout three o'clock, but tbtt on, the lowness of the «W actually was, there being hat he must unlearn hto In the course of many a quarters from north-ea*C north-west to south-wAtl e. r-room, which was really r and a gaping cbimnwr* s lingered a moment her» ame to her ears directly tess, and, listening, looked 480 :n of tfoc IJntitoc. ' 'HOMAS IMTtPT. )OK THIRD. ascribed j and lie bogim his work. B u t » f t * hampor It iH plans, and oivuso n ibarp din , rjp , w* him to an irrotrlovablo stop which B fow moot** !BAPW» I, vo MB A mvawM »," mid be dimly seen the typical count*'* [ there be a classic period to art here" e such faces. The spirit of Bufferanm ce which was so intense in early civilhw so thoroughly into the constitution cial expression will become accepted jauty which is beauty for no materi quence as an index of some chasten ireasingly appreciated as the wori People already feel that a man mrve of feature, or setting a mark on himself, is too far removed fr< a modern type. Physically beaut when it was young—are almost iay wonder whether, at some time women may not be an anachron capacity to enjoy is at bottom idi 3duce; and the civilised world's laefc r combinations of art the old SJMJCW would imply that its sympathies , despite any transient fashion. ^ eye, for this requires behind it i long line of disillusive centuries The solecisms of ancient thouj What the Greeks only suspected lylus imagined, our nursery chil 'elling in the general situation gro*t ) uncover the defects of cosmic ln«*« lan is in by their operation. ' Tie a rope round him; it is dangerous' 7 -.11 (•• t-if;-'tii,: r*.l.ti :•. th« H m <-f • . 1 'I if: fljll - ' i " , h e ' l t h r t 1*1 ,• (if tii'-- v •'!', and, Ibp was gorgeonsj ' •-.v : 1(1(9 (1ivihi"n alone won? n jicrii"! Mi* ' i r i i ' - l . wli-n tl".'* (:ii«.vi .• •)(' .-veiling : Lo ' at i i i " *v i n f e r [M»riod, wjwe* Ii':! IKIUSC a i Ahlenvoith, ivere •|. fcfn] to them. Ti." lath 1 Hiit. from tin •i ' htminoas mi*', •! ; •-. i«hi 'iiiouiouf! colon'. • 7 A n i l it rained tie j • " i : Ulfioot! tOgothcl aH f>1 ••• J finft !In v wore charnieii, - b;Jli. Th'-v wim \;ko fcboii ••' '.mill i,i. !i other, aiid fr.'.Ii"! BolitmJo in v.bich Mn-;i ••i ; ' -: ii hnil l\H< di »~ •! tionji sit a fm&a&f h.-tve' n '•'•)! ••'! I tool .'I-. fri •-•«iir< I • ir:,|;ne:tar»',<M. 1 ... I. O'.II.T (."• : or ^ day. will ' i .- •.;' :! • ii iv.) indnlgo h» • ¥>'"!;! • ' Dot fear for A jt i- '.0 S I B M l : Unconscious of her presence, he still went on singing.' X dayt) during- i w«-re treats; when cr called earthquakes It, were discovered it* t iufttu.'tH haunted h. to be fotlliil. In Mrs. Jfaobrigl kind flagged by t. . i •.aril at eleven , ami It was about > I \ i frUrtod ucmss the heal effecting a reeoncilial with Iter words i, , ti advanced in h^ r wajfc I but after letting our, s MIU had branded the v h*iitb-dowt.'is liaving , the few preceding j •J a kiln, ami tin , |e which form* .1 i ituuuci tit.Q since the drought In cool tVisb tv.Mt Inconvenience in wutki attack made Uie joiim middle age ; and .it ,;; •jbjfj had hired Fairway M . xaari, NO, Mi II " Tn stagnant blackness they united through an interval which seemed endless " I L t U S T R A T I N C . M R . T H O M A S H A R D Y ' S N E W S T O R Y , " T E S S O F T H E D ' U R B E R V I L L E S " ' • • ' . U S T R A T I N (i M R . T H O M A S " / would rather late ,t, sir, in my own hand" H A R D Y ' S NEW S T O R Y , " T E S S O F T II K D ' U R B E R V I L L E S s P i t t Iff " Tess stooa still, anti turned la loot ieh'mt her ' T E S S O F T H E D ' U R B E R V I L L E S " SERVED I*S THE 1 SITED STATES OF AMERICA! BY T H O M A S H A R D Y , u Tess in Dairyman Dirlsyard™ T E S S O F T H E D ' U R B E R V I L L E S " " V B I C M T R E S E R V E D I N . T H E ITCrTTB S T A T E S O F A M E B I C \ j B Y T H O M A S H A R D Y , A U T H O R O F " F A R F R O M T H E M A D D I N G C R O W D . " " T H E M A Y O R O F C A S T E R B R I D G E . " 4 C . &C. ILL . U 8.TRATIKC MR. T u o Ni AS . . A w ' s ^ ' f ftMI' b S E E K S T O R Y , « " Hejumped up from his seat, and mut quietly towards the desire of his eyes1' " T E S S O F T H E D ' U R B E R V I L L E S ' •T m u r e * AND B R O T H E R S . A l l R I G H T S K I S E K T O BY T H O A I A S H A R D Y , AUTHOR OF " F A R FROM T H E MADDING CROWD." " T H E MAYOR O F CASTERBRIDGE." 4 C 4C. ILLUSTRATED BY PROFESSOR H U B E R T H E R K O M E R . R.A., AND ins PUPILS, MESSRS. W E H R S C H M I D T , J O H N S O N , AND S Y D A L L T H E GRAPHIC, SEPTEMBER I 9 > ,891 329 rustling sfifar-grass as upon, a led " B * HARPER A X , A X D Boor: T E S S O F T H E D ' U R B E R V n T r. C » a « They reacted the drnter-garti, where were the grates of the monks. Upon«m* of ties, grates ie earefulfy laid herdoum" .. ILLUSTRATING M R . T H O M A S H A R P Y ' S S.T O R Y » "T E S S O F T H E D ' U R B E R V I L L E S " " She slid down upon her knee\ liesiile Iii': fool ' In Ihe. name of fhaven, forgive me I' she w/iisfered" was merely engage 1 in :i chromatic ts around announced their irrcsponsi-Aml yet nothing had changed since sense of the inadequacy of his nr-coits to, convey the complexity of his ideas and ihe perfunctortness which comes of heart-sickness, l ie bent over a chair, and stood up again. She had followed 1,;,,, in tiir* n . i r U I r nt i l ie room where he was. standing there with " Wel l , of course, I know that." " I thought, Angel, that yon loved mc - mc, my .is I you do love, oh how can it be that you look a fii'ditens me! Having begun to love'ce, 1 lov il - As ke passed then, he hissed them m succession where they stood, saying ' Good-bye' to each ashe didso" T E S S O F T H E D ' U R B E R V I L L E S " ' ~ I 8 5 , B v T H O M A S H A R D Y . AUTHOR OT " F A R FROM T H E M A D D I N G CROWD,- " T H E MAYOR OF CASTERBRIDGS." * , * „ * The plantation wherein she had taken shelter ran down at this spot into a peak, which ended it hitlierward, outside the hedge being arable ground. their rich plumage dabbled with blood" T T? O O r v r T I T T? T \ 1 TT n D r T ) W T " T E S S O F T H E D ' U R B E R V I L L E S ' 23 "He lay on his back as if he had scarcely moved'-' DRAWN BY PROFESSOR HUBERT HERKOMER, R.A. T E S S O F T H E D ' I I R R F R V T T r See"The Simpletons." • O S THE F A R T H E R S ! D E O F T H E S T R E A M T H R E E Y O U S O WOMEN W E R E K N E E L I N G ' himself, On tli<" )c n boy still, hard-(lien ho had stood tlmt hill, In word I) 0 with at'dot* for lolai'ship. "Yet I " J hnvo a wiff nt Mic still ri|wr Wy disagreed Willi parted from her." 1 l l lUl llO WBB Sl i l l l l l ( spot ut which thi-ther and hii inothcr t'l'i'd, II wim (he B U t m n i l r, or what ho had ad scorned to bo vi« ow, n s always, gtiw-d joy, Jiu|o drew near n read Ihe mileage ••• nbered that onco oh ad proudly cut with an inscription o n th«-ine embodying his «*• ecu done in the Hint fcesbip, before he liml his purposes by an i lie wondered if [ible still, and g o i n g l» stone, brushed away Jo light of a match br what be had cut so en tag ago; Unimpaired within it* nettles lit i n his soul ( i r e , Surely h i s plni> onward through morbid sorrow, ovrh ;1 in esses in tho world I (lo do good cheerful icard as being tlic pint sa, might be h i s o«» itli bis evil star, ni>«J nal intention, ipot a little way oh* Ii* in a northeatferij JtnalIy rose the futiit ncbuloiisness, liartl!* y the eye of faith. 1' He would g« i f as the term of hit •ed. lodgings in a UdM prayers. CONTINUED.] I I tr 1 k i n o z a le w igin a s \: im eh • 1 s fix pit |to his i DK i/on actu iiiin soon b i s I i i I I l i b Urn y i IM AW'rM 11 •A rawftjr, Flow • • niorily lo a*l< lirna I • bly to herself »« *» * i were different *.<•• m Wns it that II |>i'o sensitive, lid less imnaiii • " ]e? Or wns Stu- • she wilfully c*i < in for (be odd practising IOUK • ' lerson, und uf t pity at having i' » • could poind \ I fusly set, mid It" • ing ordeal of •' hon she could l>.v»; inninly, huwei H 11 ft now led ire rif " ' " whom slit- ||pcl i 1 and lit t from »»'' b woulti go nn -t ain and ng.-iin. w • or again niifl onsislency. not (o notice. In '«» 1st which piwvi K ons of other*. .t» ed tiieir nnnii'* «••• -I suspense was <>>*" lodging was n v*r* . two o'clock iJ «• sing the |IHVMI»«< i back, and llmrv •• • t her eyes. (.'nil with such un"-- >•  ngc into s i c 1.1 • • of asserting b«» > retaliating i>n ! Imps Stic W»»* I •n because sb<- < i > f that side of U«« 1 but WOllll'll's I • • ' IS Oil the r:o 1 1 • < » lid, saying Ihnl • fug. Jutle inn t it. l in ing back how whore I M l • b u c k . S c . - 1 •-» holding il in I > to his eves \< l b |l her lips su... -goinjr to sill 'i « |t on, : i l1 « I I A I * • • • eniained UII*|*< TIXl'KP. 1 m low! T know v " ' i , octrines. l l i inl; tJ:..• trouble of a kii i ' l loi'lal sin in inakinir f i l , us I diil \ mi, I Ir," IIP Raid. " T l i view, lull m y ii"- - -I'lU'l company." icw it! A n i l lli.it' i I n't disturb y<nir In 9 (//«'/ In see y i.ti: II to sco von again. :cn us, A u n t DIUIMI ami ami kissed it, i' one left," In' said, ml m y duel H u e s or »r0| L e t iiie I • * -11 • ve you, ami even i f were froing- to miy; ,'uu't admit so iinieli uoss what you like, |) answer qiiewtiotix." c Imppy, whati \ ci' I few could enter into vould say 'twas m y >ss, or something "f Icmn me. , , . it is al tragedies of hue tragedy in c i v i l i " <l artificially manufne iople together who in |ld find relief in )>ui l lave been wrong -, per m y distress tu you, if ;11 it to anybody el.se, r. A n d I must (• i ! efore I married h i m I Iviiat marriage nieuiit i—there is mi exeiee and I thought I w;ii So I rushed o n . when |iat T r a i n i n g • Sel i coeksureness of t! . ' ,. I uni certain m i d to undo what one ti»n .. I dure say il hap lien : only they submit, iien men of a later lie barbarous eust<»t»i» of the t i m e s that "• • ess to live in, what til bitter, d a r l i n g S • H i - " u now.'' l u a m o m ' ' Soo " llcrirls Iii8iirp-rit," piifjo 956. • J U M P S A T P A V O I C R . T T M I D L Y — S T T K ' S V O I C E . " 1 1 m I lb m w. ill IP ••if » ma m 3u m mi ' i 'TIS** **'.••• ' im with a three-pror over the flames. T cd up the back of und his own face, less consumed. Though lie was now, passing cotta the garden hedge. " Burning up bidge, I suppose? up iu nooks ant lived eighty year It was nearly c ing before the lea of Jeremy Taylo ley, Pusey, New gone to ashes; I mill the sense of erile to himself mind wbicli em He might go on he professed n owned and exl which, as their tirully he suppo first of all. I i could now stan and not as a wl Meanwhile S earlier in the d station, witli te run hack and ought not lo h not a lover, an impulse to ac wrongly. 8h< hitter; for Sue compounded, ihut before a I right to do, 1 came wrong; things which wrong iu prui " I havo be jerked out a down teurdri WUH burning, And I won't at least for c with my di; hurt him ve to-morrow I the next, and fur then wit all I And I of pity for J mingled wit pity for her.' Then the Voi. XCU-[*8 11 m m ? ' But let t o h e r . But as should have said that-was "Ah, well! d o y o u think of f o r supposing th I divorced hcr-Yes, indeed ! A " She has tal since, anyhow, i • ' l l ' i n ! That t o have waited. At the end o h a m had gone Sluiston, Phillo w e n t to All'rei again on Ava' w a l k e d down t n o w n before istory had no incline. * bought bis usu when be bad 1 f r e s h himself fi he pulled the r e a d awhile. '1 suicide of tw< m e t his eye. TJnimpassio h i m painfully t i e , for he eoi of t h e eldest s t a t e d to be. doubt Unit th sonic way tni •• Their en| said, and tin a n d what si h i m . Arabella h f f e d s L o i i , und m a r k e t there W o n d e r f u l t l a g a i n —the \ h e r return ft h a d staid in first inlende o n Jude, tin. o f h e r . Phi w f i f d when s i t e w a s app "You lik Cai'tluiU" In "I 've jit* "It's when a n d all the uve interest up with tbi stirred up i VOL . X O I . -m II *' P r o m i s e never to speak " V e r y well. I do." " I take y o u r word," liesaid| as he loosened her. " B r w o r t h I can't, say."' " Y o u couldn't ki l l the c o u l d k i l l n i e ! " " A h — there you have couldn't kil l y o u — e v e n i T a u n t a w a y ! " H e then began coughing a n d she estimated bis life praiser's eye as lie sank b pale. " I'll send for her," A m u r e d , " i f you' l l agree to the r o o m with you all thj here." T h e softer side of his natu to see Sue, made him unable otfer even now, provoked as and he replied, breathless] agree. O n l y send for her." I n the evening he inquire written. " Y e s , " she said; " I wrot ing h e r you w e r e i l l , and a come to-morrow or the d haven't posted it yet." T h e next day Jude won really did post it, but would and foolish Hope, that l ivi und a c r u m b , made him res pectatiou. H e knew the tin sible trains, and listened ou for sounds of her, She did not eome: but Ju address Arabel la again there und expected all the next di appeared; neither was ther reply. T h e n Jude decided of his Blind that Arabella b cd hers, although she hu There was something iu her told it. H i s physical would that lie shed tears at the il when she was not there to picions wore, in fact, well liella, like other nurses, the duty towards yoiir invalid hirn by a n y means short c Upon his fancies. H o never said another wt his wish or his conjecture, discerned resolve grow up gave h i m , if not sirengtl c a l m . One mid-day who sence of two hours, she room, she beheld the chaii D o w n she Hopped on tl VOL . X C I . - N O . MO.-100 

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