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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An historical commentary on Cassius Dio’s Roman history, Book 59 (Gaius Caligula) Humphrey, John William 1976

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AN HISTORICAL COMMENTARY ON CASSIUS D I O ' S ROMAN HISTORY, BOOK 59 (GAIUS CALIGULA) by JOHN WILLIAM HUMPHREY B . A . ( H o n s.)j U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1967 M . A . , M c M a s t e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Depar tment o f C l a s s i c s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRIT ISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1976 © John William Humphrey, 1976 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f C ^ S S t C < > The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date Z 8 A>yri\ \9>1C i i AN HISTORICAL COMMENTARY ON CASSIUS D I O ' S ROMAN HISTORY, BOOK 59 (GAIUS CALIGULA) ABSTRACT The r e i g n o f t h e Empero r G a i u s was a p e r i o d o f c o n s i d e r a b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e Roman w o r l d . The A u g u s t a n P r i n c i p a t e had e n d u r e d v i r t u a l l y unchanged f o r t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s , and f o r most o f t h a t t i m e t h e myth o f a r e g e n e r a t e d R e p u b l i c was m a i n t a i n e d , d e s p i t e t h e w i d e s p r e a d s u s p i c i o n and even f e a r t h a t had c l o u d e d t h e l a s t y e a r s o f T i b e r i u s ' r e i g n . G a i u s ' a c c e s s i o n was g r e e t e d as t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new a g e , a r e t u r n t o t h e g l o r y o f t h e r e i g n o f A u g u s t u s . Y e t by t h e t i m e o f h i s v i o l e n t murde r o n l y f o u r y e a r s l a t e r , t h e mood o f t h e p e o p l e h a d , a c c o r d i n g t o o u r s o u r c e s , changed c o m p l e t e l y : G a i u s i n t h e meant ime had become an o r i e n t a l monarch who d e l i g h t e d i n d e b a u c h e r y , m u r d e r , and w a s t e f u l e x t r a v a g a n c e . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y o f G a i u s ' r e i g n i s t o t e s t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h o s e t r a d i t i o n a l c h a r g e s l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t t h e Empero r by h o s t i l e s o u r c e s . Any e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s p e r i o d o f Roman h i s t o r y i s hampered by t h e l o s s o f t h e r e l e v a n t b o o k s o f T a c i t u s ' Annals, a l o s s t h a t makes even more i m p o r t a n t a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e s u r v i v i n g a c c o u n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l n a r r a t i v e o f C a s s i u s D i o . Augmented b y t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y t r e a t i s e s o f S e n e c a and P h i l o , and by t h e l a t e r wo rks o f J o s e p h u s and S u e t o n i u s , D i o ' s v e r s i o n o f t h e e v e n t s f r om A . D . 37 t o 41 has been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p e r p e t u a t i o n o f t h e common t r a d i t i o n c o n c e r n i n g G a i u s . In t h i s commentary on Book 59 o f D i o ' s h i s t o r y - - i n c l u d i n g a s t u d y o f i t s s i m i l a r i t y t o and d i v e r g e n c e f r om o t h e r a c c o u n t s , i t s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and a n a c h r o n i s m s , and i t s i n d e b t e d n e s s t o D i o ' s own e x p e r i e n c e s as a s e n a t o r i n t h e l a t e r E m p i r e - - I have a t t e m p t e d a r a t i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f G a i u s ' P r i n c i p a t e f r e e f r om t h e p r e j u d i c e s t h a t have c o l o u r e d i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n u n t i l r e c e n t y e a r s . The resulting picture of the Emperor is far different from that painted by our sources, whose own evidence can frequently be used to disprove their own interpretations. Such topics as his administration of the provinces, his campaigns in Germany and Gaul, his f i s c a l policy, and his behaviour in private and public are shown to be not immoderate but rather balanced and sensible, i f subject to a certain immature rashness. Yet by seeing the Principate for what i t really was--a monarchy based on military power, in the tradition of the eastern kingdoms of Alexander and his successors — and (after A.D. 39) by openly displaying his contempt for outmoded republican institutions, Gaius damned himself in the eyes of his biographers. His claim to divinity, prompted by the obsequiousness of his courtiers, was to revolt those Romans who s t i l l believed the violent propaganda used by Octavian against Antony; and his disregard of the Senate, however justi f i e d i t may have been, was to prompt our aristocratic sources to consider him in the same light as Nero, Domitian, and Commodus. J . A . ;-j. .• vans P r o f e s s o r of C l a s s i c s i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i TEXT AND ABBREVIATIONS v i i INTRODUCTION D i o t h e Man 1 D i o t h e H i s t o r i a n 4 D i o and h i s S o u r c e s 7 D i o and t h e P r i n c i p a t e 17 N o t e s . . . . . . . . . . . 22 COMMENTARY I n d e x 26 C h a p t e r One 29 C h a p t e r Two 43 C h a p t e r T h r e e 53 C h a p t e r F o u r 72 C h a p t e r F i v e 75 C h a p t e r S i x 78 C h a p t e r Seven 89 C h a p t e r E i g h t 98 C h a p t e r N i n e . 114 C h a p t e r Ten 124 C h a p t e r E l e v e n 135 C h a p t e r Twe l ve 141 . C h a p t e r T h i r t e e n 148 V Page C h a p t e r F o u r t e e n • . . 154 C h a p t e r F i f t e e n . 159 C h a p t e r S i x t e e n 164 C h a p t e r S e v e n t e e n . 173 C h a p t e r E i g h t e e n 183 C h a p t e r N i n e t e e n 189 C h a p t e r Twenty 196 C h a p t e r Twenty -One . . . . . . . 209 C h a p t e r Twenty-Two 218 C h a p t e r T w e n t y - T h r e e • 232 C h a p t e r T w e n t y - F o u r 237 C h a p t e r T w e n t y - F i v e . . . . . 243 C h a p t e r T w e n t y - S i x 257 C h a p t e r T w e n t y - S e v e n . . 268 C h a p t e r T w e n t y - E i g h t 276 C h a p t e r T w e n t y - N i n e 290 C h a p t e r T h i r t y . . . . 303 BIBLIOGRAPHY 312 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o t h a n k P r o f e s s o r s J . A . S . Evans and W . J . D u s i n g f o r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n w h i c h t h e y gave i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n : t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s and c r i t i c i s m p r o v e d most h e l p f u l . I am d e e p l y i n d e b t e d t o P r o f e s s o r E . T . Sa lmon f o r f i r s t e n c o u r a g i n g my s t u d i e s o f t h e e a r l y E m p i r e , t o P r o f e s s o r G . M . P a u l who s u g g e s t e d t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s w o r k , and t o P r o f e s s o r M . F . M c G r e g o r f o r h i s u n e n d i n g g o o d w i l l . To my c o l l e a g u e s and s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , and most e s p e c i a l l y t o my w i f e , I s h a l l a l w a y s be g r a t e f u l f o r t h e p a t i e n c e and s u p p o r t shown me d u r i n g t h e two y e a r s when t h i s t h e s i s was b e i n g w r i t t e n . J . W . H . v i i TEXT The e d i t i o n o f D i o u s e d i n t h i s commentary i s t h a t o f U . P . B o i s s e v a i n ( B e r l i n : Weidmann, 1895 ; r p t . 1 9 5 5 ) . I h a v e a c c e p t e d h i s r e a d i n g s i n a l l c a s e s e x c e p t when o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d i n t h e n o t e s . The t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n o f Books 60 t o 8 0 , h o w e v e r , has been p r e s e r v e d , s i n c e i t i s s t i l l u s e d more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n B o i s s e v a i n * s r e a r r a n g e m e n t . ABBREVIATIONS A n c i e n t a u t h o r s and t e x t s have been c i t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t a n d a r d a b b r e v i a t i o n s f o u n d i n L i d d e l l § S c o t t and i n L e w i s $ S h o r t , e x c e p t where t h e s e w o u l d have p r o v e d a m b i g u o u s . R e f e r e n c e t o works o f modern s c h o l a r s h i p i s b y a u t h o r and s h o r t t i t l e : f u l l c i t a t i o n s f o r a l l o f t h e s e can be f o u n d i n t h e B i b l i o g r a p h y a t t h e end o f t h e commentary . The f o l l o w i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s have a l s o been u s e d ; a g a i n , d e t a i l s o f p u b l i c a t i o n f o r modern works a r e g i v e n i n t h e B i b l i o g r a p h y . AE L 'Annee Epigraphique BMC A Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum BMC Imp. 1 H. M a t t i n g l y . Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum, I: Augustus to Vitellius CAE 10 S'.\A. Cook e t a l . . The Cambridge Ancient History, X CIL Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum D e s s a u H. D e s s a u , Geschichte der romischen Kaiserzeit E!JJ V . E h r e n b e r g and A . H . M . J o n e s . Documents Illus-trating the Reigns of Augustus and Tiberius? Eph. Epig. Ephemeris Epigraphica HA Historia Augusta v i i i Henzen IG IGRR ILS M a u r e r M e r i v a l e OGIS FIR1 7 FIR RE RG R o s b o r o u g h SIG S m a l l w o o d W. H e n z e n , Acta Fratrum Arvalium Insoriptiones Graecae Insoriptiones Gvaeoae ad res Romanas pertinentes H. D e s s a u , e d . Insoriptiones Latinae Selectae J . A . M a u r e r . A Commentary on C. Suetonii Tranquilli Vita C. Caligulae Caesaris (chapters I-XXI) C . M e r i v a l e . A History of the Romans under the Empire? G . D i t t e n b e r g e r . Orientis Graeci Insoriptiones Selectae H. D e s s a u and P . de Rohden . Prosopographia Imperii Romani Saec. I. II. I l l E . G r o a g and A . S t e i n . Prosopographia Imperii Romani? A . P a u l y e t a l . Real-Encyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft Res Gestae divi Augusti R . R . R o s b o r o u g h . An Epigraphic Commentary on Suetonius ' Life of Gaius Caligula 3 G . D i t t e n b e r g e r . Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum E . M . S m a l l w o o d . Documents Illustrating the Principates of Gaius, Claudius, and Hero Ix TO T-FIS B a c r i A e i a s TTpayya OUK apexr is y o v o v a'AXa KOU emcrxriyns KCYL o \ ) v n 6 e i a s , errrep TX a\Xo, T T o X X n s 6e1!xoa, icon, oux o \ o v x£ e a x i v a v e u EKefvwv a ^ a y e v o v x i v a auxf>povrio'ai. TTOXXOI yoiK) Sjairep I s uifros xi y e y a frapa Aoyov a p 0 e v x e s O\)K rfveYKOiv T ^ v yexecopicnv, aXX' auxox xe KaxoaTeaovxes UTT' £KTTAii£;£(jos erTxaiaav KCU x a xCv apxoyevtov Travxa a u v n A o n a a v . D i o f r . 1 2 . 9 1 INTRODUCTION D i o t h e Man C a s s i u s D i o C o c c e i a n u s — h i s -praenomen, l i k e t h a t o f T a c i t u s , i s n o t known—was a n a t i v e o f N i c a e a i n t h e Roman p r o v i n c e o f B i t h y n i a ( 7 6 . 1 5 . 3 ) . 1 S i n c e he t e l l s us h i m s e l f t h a t he was i n Rome, and p e r h a p s a t t e n d i n g m e e t i n g s o f t h e S e n a t e , by A . D . 180 ( 7 2 . 4 . 2 ) , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d a t e f o r h i s b i r t h h a s been f i x e d a t A . D . 1 5 5 : t h i s w o u l d a l l o w h i m t o have been q u a e s t o r , and so a s e n a t o r , b y t h e n o r m a l age o f 2 5 . In f a c t , D i o ' s f i r s t c l e a r r e f e r e n c e t o h i m s e l f as a member o f t h e S e n a t e does n o t o c c u r u n t i l A . D . 192 ( 7 2 . 1 6 . 3 ; c f . 7 2 . 1 8 . 3 ) , and he was n o t p r a e t o r u n t i l A . D . 194 ( 7 3 . 1 2 . 2 ) . F o u r t e e n y e a r s i s t o o l o n g a gap be tween t h e q u a e s t o r s h i p and t h e p r a e t o r s h i p , even i n t h e t r o u b l e d t i m e s a t t h e end o f t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y . I t i s more l i k e l y , t h e n , t h a t D i o was b o r n c a . A . D . 1 6 4 ; t h a t he t r a v e l l e d t o Rome b e f o r e A . D . 180 and t h e r e a t t e n d e d m e e t i n g s o f t h e S e n a t e a f t e r a s s u m i n g t h e toga v i r i l i s , a common p r a c t i c e f o r s e n a t o r s ' s o n s ; 2 and t h a t he h e l d t h e q u a e s t o r s h i p i n A . D . 188 o r 1 8 9 . 3 The name C o c c e i a n u s s u g g e s t s t h a t he may h a v e b e e n a d e s c e n d a n t o f D i o C o c c e i a n u s o f P r u s a , a l t h o u g h t h e c o n n e c t i o n must have b e e n a d i s t a n t one . 1 * D i o once r e f e r s t o t h e p h i l o s o p h e r , b u t s t r a n g e l y does n o t name h im ( 6 9 . 3 . 6 ) . H i s f a t h e r was C a s s i u s A p r o n i a n u s , a Roman s e n a t o r and c o n s u l , and l a t e r g o v e r n o r o f C i l i c i a and D a l m a t i a ( 6 9 . 1 . 3 ; 4 9 . 3 6 . 4 ; c f . IGRR 3 . 6 5 4 ) . Thus D i o i n h e r i t e d two c o u n t r i e s and two c u l t u r e s : l i k e A e l i u s A r i s t i d e s b e f o r e h i m , he c o n s i d e r e d b o t h A s i a M i n o r and I t a l y as h i s home lands ( f r . 1 . 3 ; 8 0 . 5 . 2 ) , and we must assume t h a t he was as f l u e n t i n L a t i n as he was i n h i s n a t i v e G r e e k . I t i s , h o w e v e r , i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s c o v e r what fo rm o f e a r l y e d u c a t i o n D i o r e c e i v e d , a l t h o u g h i t i s o b v i o u s f r om h i s w r i t i n g s t h a t he had b e e n : t h o r o u g h l y 2 t r a i n e d i n t h e r h e t o r i c a l s c h o o l s so p o p u l a r i n . t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y , w h i l e h i s s o c i a l p o s i t i o n w o u l d s u g g e s t an u p b r i n g i n g s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f a P l i n y . 5 A f t e r a c c o m p a n y i n g h i s f a t h e r t o C i l i c i a ( 7 2 . 7 . 2 ) , he t r a v e l l e d t o Rome where he w i t n e s s e d t h e a c c e s s i o n o f Commodus i n A . D . 180 . Once he h a d e n t e r e d t h e S e n a t e , he s h a r e d i n t h a t b o d y ' s u n i v e r s a l h a t r e d o f t h e E m p e r o r , and once d e s c r i b e d h i m as " a n a V T c o v voanyaxwv KCU a i r a v x c o v KaKOUpynyaxwv xaXemJoxepos T w y c a o x s " ( 7 2 . 1 5 . 1 ) . Bu t j u s t as S e n e c a h a d s u r v i v e d G a i u s , and T a c i t u s D o m i t i a n , s o D i o e n d u r e d Commodus, and i n A . D . 193 was d e s i g n a t e d as p r a e t o r f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r by h i s s u c c e s s o r , P e r t i n a x ( 7 3 . 1 2 . 2 ) . A f t e r l e s s t h a n t h r e e m o n t h s ' r u l e P e r t i n a x was r e p l a c e d by D i d i u s J u l i a n u s , an Empero r who c a u s e d D i o much a n x i e t y y s i n c e he had o f t e n s u c c e s s f u l l y b e e n p r o s e c u t e d by D i o i n c o u r t ( 7 3 . 1 2 . 2 ) . The new E m p e r o r p r o v e d s u r p r i s i n g l y l e n i e n t , h o w e v e r , i n t h e s h o r t t i m e b e f o r e he was condemned b y t h e S e n a t e and was s u c c e e d e d b y S e p t i m i u s S e v e r u s ( 7 3 . 1 7 . 4 ) . I t was i n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f S e v e r u s ' r e i g n , t h e n , t h a t D i o assumed h i s p o s t as p r a e t o r . D i o f e l t a g r e a t a d m i r a t i o n f o r S e p t i m i u s S e v e r u s , and i t was t o h i m t h a t he d e d i c a t e d h i s f i r s t b o o k , an a c c o u n t o f t h e dreams and p o r t e n t s t h a t h a d a p p e a r e d t o S e v e r u s i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f h i s r i s e t o power ( 7 2 . 2 3 . 1 ) . T h i s l i t t l e p a m p h l e t , p a r t s o f w h i c h were l a t e r i n c l u d e d i n t h e Roman History ( c f . 7 4 . 3 ) , i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n i t s r e v e l a t i o n o f D i o ' s c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e new E m p e r o r , s i n c e he must have h e a r d t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e s e omens f r om S e v e r u s h i m s e l f . 6 I t a l s o i n d i c a t e s an i n t e r e s t i n t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l t h a t w i l l p l a g u e much o f D i o ' s l a t e r , more s e r i o u s w o r k . A s e c o n d b o o k , d e s c r i b i n g e v e n t s f r om t h e d e a t h o f Commodus t o t h e a c c e s s i o n o f S e v e r u s , he w r o t e a f t e r b e i n g a d v i s e d i n a dream t o d e v o t e h i s e f f o r t s t o t h e r e c o r d i n g o f h i s t o r y ( 7 2 . 2 3 . 1 - 2 ) . When t h i s w o r k , t o o , r e c e i v e d h i g h p r a i s e , e s p e c i a l l y f r o m t h e Empero r h i m s e l f , D i o was i n s p i r e d t o compose a c o m p l e t e h i s t o r y o f Rome ( 7 2 . 2 3 . 3 ) . 3 So the'PWUCUKTI l a x o p i a was c o n c e i v e d . D i o a p p a r e n t l y d i d much o f h i s r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g w h i l e r e s i d e n t a t Capua ( 7 6 . 2 . 1 ) , b u t s t i l l n e a r enough t o t h e c a p i t a l t o be a w i t n e s s o f e v e n t s d u r i n g t h e r e i g n s o f S e v e r u s and C a r a c a l l a . 7 W i t h a c a n d o r u n u s u a l among a n c i e n t h i s t o r i a n s , , he t e l l s us t h a t he s p e n t t e n y e a r s c o l l e c t i n g h i s m a t e r i a l f r om a l l a v a i l a b l e s o u r c e s - - a p r a c t i c e t h a t w o u l d have c o m p e l l e d h i m . t o t a k e e x t e n s i v e n o t e s - - a n d a n o t h e r t w e l v e y e a r s r e s h a p i n g t h i s m a t e r i a l i n t o an a n n a l i s t i c h i s t o r y . o f t h e Roman p e o p l e f r om t h e a r r i v a l o f Aeneas i n I t a l y t o t h e d e a t h o f S e p t i m i u s S e v e r u s and b e y o n d ( 7 2 ^ 2 3 . 5 ) . H i s p u r p o s e , as he e x p l a i n e d i t , was " 0 U Y Y P a i r | a i TTav9' 00*01 TOTS ' P a j u a i o i s <ax e i p n v o u a i KCU TroAeuoixn a£icos .uvrjuris eTrpaxSn, ware uncSev x S v a v a Y K a i u v ufJTe EKEIVOJV Tiva ur|T£ xtov aXXcov TroSrjaou" ( f r . 1 . 1 ) . D i o p l a y e d l i t t l e p a r t i n t h e awkward p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s o f h i s d a y . H i s two e a r l i e r p a m p h l e t s had d o u b t l e s s s e c u r e d h i s s a f e t y w i t h S e v e r u s , and d e s p i t e h i s s u b s e q u e n t h a t r e d o f C a r a c a l l a , w h i c h he o b v i o u s l y c o u l d n o t have r e v e a l e d u n t i l a f t e r t h a t m a n ' s d e a t h , he was s t i l l r e g a r d e d h i g h l y enough t o be a s k e d t o accompany t h e Emperor on a t r i p t o t h e E a s t i n A . D . 216 ( 7 7 . 1 6 . 7 -1 8 . 4 ) . Somet ime a f t e r h i s p r a e t o r s h i p i n A . D . 194 he had p r o b a b l y been s e n t a b r o a d as a p r o p r a e t o r i a n g o v e r n o r o f a m i n o r p r o v i n c e ; 8 and he was a p p o i n t e d s u f f e c t c o n s u l , p r o b a b l y d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f S e v e r u s ( 7 6 . 1 6 . 4 ) . 9 A t t h i s t i m e i t seems t h a t he was a l s o a member o f t h e i m p e r i a l consilium ( 7 5 . 1 6 . 4 ; 7 6 . 1 7 . 2 ) . 1 0 A p p o i n t e d c u r a t o r o f Pergamum and Smyrna by M a c r i n u s , s u c c e s s o r t o C a r a c a l l a ( 7 9 . 7 . 4 ) , he seems t o have r e m a i n e d a t t h a t p o s t f r om A . D . 2 1 9 - 2 2 1 . 1 1 A f t e r t h e a c c e s s i o n o f A l e x a n d e r S e v e r u s , and f o l l o w i n g a s h o r t v i s i t t o h i s n a t i v e B i t h y n i a , D i o went t o A f r i c a as i t s p r o c o n s u l a r g o v e r n o r ( 8 0 . 1 . 3 ) . On h i s r e t u r n t h e n c e t o I t a l y , he was s e n t as a legatus Augusti f i r s t t o D a l m a t i a and t h e n t o Upper P a n n o n i a ( 4 9 . 3 6 . 4 ; 8 0 . 1 . 3 ) . W h e n . g o v e r n o r o f 4 t h i s l a s t p r o v i n c e he i n c u r r e d t h e d i s p l e a s u r e of. t h e t r o o p s w i t h h i s s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e , by r u l i n g them eyKpaxQis, as he s a y s ( 8 0 . 4 . 2 ) . A l e x a n d e r S e v e r u s removed h i m - - h o n o u r a b l y — f r o m t h e p o s t and a p p o i n t e d h im h i s c o l l e a g u e as consul ordinarius f o r A . D . 229 ( 8 0 . 5 . 1 ) . 1 2 B e c a u s e D i o was n o t a w e a l t h y man ( c f . 7 3 . 3 . 4 ) , t h e Emperor r e l i e v e d h im o f a l l t h e e x p e n s e s o f h i s m a g i s t r a c y ; and b e c a u s e o f t h e a n t a g o n i s m o f t h e s o l d i e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f t h e P r a e t o r i a n G u a r d , he was a l l o w e d t o spend h i s t e r m o f o f f i c e o u t s i d e Rome ( 8 0 . 5 . 1 ) . Soon a f t e r w a r d s he r e t i r e d t o B i t h y n i a b e c a u s e o f m e d i c a l p r o b l e m s w i t h h i s f e e t ( 8 0 . 5 . 2 ) . S i n c e h i s n a r r a t i v e ends a t t h i s p o i n t , he must have d i e d w i t h i n a few m o n t h s . D i o t h e H i s t o r i a n In c o m p o s i n g t h e e i g h t y books o f h i s Roman History,. D i o s a y s t h a t he was t r y i n g t o p r e s e r v e f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s a l l t h a t happened t o t h e R o m a n s - - i n t i m e s o f p e a c e as w e l l as i n w a r — a l l , a t l e a s t , t h a t was w o r t h b e i n g remembered ( f r . 1 . 1 ) . The f r a g m e n t a r y c o n d i t i o n o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s work has made i t i m p o s s i b l e t o r e c o v e r t h e d e t a i l s o f h i s s t a t e d p u r p o s e , o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g themes t h a t he i n t e n d e d t o weave t h r o u g h o u t h i s n a r r a t i v e . Y e t even t h e most c u r s o r y r e a d i n g o f t h e e x t a n t p o r t i o n s — B o o k s 36 t o 6 0 — r e v e a l s t h a t D i o ' s a t t i t u d e t o h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g d i f f e r s l i t t l e , i n i n t e n t i f n o t i n s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n , f r o m t h a t o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s i n t h e f i e l d . P a s t e v e n t s and c h a r a c t e r s , b o t h good and e v i l , c a n be an i n v a l u a b l e a i d i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s m o r a l t emperamen t . I t was w i t h t h i s p u r p o s e i n m ind t h a t T h u c y d i d e s , whom D i o t o o k as h i s mode l ( P h o t . Bibl. 7 1 ; c f . L u c i a n Hist. Consor. 2 ; D i o 5 5 . 1 2 . 4 - 5 ) , had w r i t t e n o f t h e c o n f l i c t be tween A t h e n s and S p a r t a ; 1 3 s o , t o o , had L i v y r e c o r d e d t h e d e g e n e r a t i o n o f t h e Roman s p i r i t , w i t h t h e hope t h a t t h e o l d v i r t u e s c o u l d be r e s u r r e c t e d . 1 1 * 5 Even closer to Dio's view of historiography is the philosophy of Tacitus, that history is a basis for contrasting the morally good and ev i l with specific reference to the behaviour of the r u l e r . 1 5 Tacitus' theme, like that of Livy, is the decline of moral standards; and Tacitus found this decline in the per-verse flattery.and hypocrisy of the Senate and in the potentially limitless e v i l inherent in complete power that was concentrated in one individual. Like Plato, Tacitus sees the individual reflected in the State; but while he is the moral philosopher, Dio is more the p o l i t i c a l analyst;" Both historians, however, shared in the almost universal acceptance of the Principate as a satisfactory i f not ideal form of government. Their concern, then, was not so much with the system of adminstration as. with the behaviour of the individual in control of that system; and this concern was. to influence greatly their approaches to the writing of imperial history. There is no doubt that Tacitus' Annals are more successful in exploiting this theme than are the imperial books of Dio's. Roman History. Explanations for this are not d i f f i c u l t to find. In ,the f i r s t place, although he once speaks of reasoning from the facts that he has recorded and of drawing some universal significance from them (46.35.1), Dio seldom does interpret events, their causes, or effects. More often he takes the bare facts, adorns them perhaps with rhetorical and dramatic devices, and presents this mixture as factual and significant history. As a result, much of his work is a vague, almost meaningless series of events and of naive comments on human nature. Dio's rhetorical training, too, i s much more obvious than that of Tacitus. This is particularly evident in his fondness for tragic descriptions and for succinct summaries of men's accomplishments inserted when he records their deaths. 1 6 In his eagerness to make contrasts more obvious, Dio sometimes sacrifices accuracy in favour of an antithetical, dramatic account (cf. 59.3). 6 W h i l e T a c i t u s ' r h e t o r i c a l b a c k g r o u n d i s e v i d e n t i n h i s a b i l i t y t o evoke human e m o t i o n s , t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e two a u t h o r s t o s u c h e v o c a t i v e d e t a i l i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t : T a c i t u s c o n c e n t r a t e s on a r o u s i n g s y m p a t h y , f e a r , and i n d i g -n a t i o n , w h i l e D i o , l i k e S u e t o n i u s , has a f o n d n e s s f o r more gruesome and s c a n d a l o u s d e s c r i p t i o n s . 1 7 The i n s e r t i o n o f s p e e c h e s i n t o an h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e i s a t y p i c a l r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e o f a n c i e n t a u t h o r s , b u t D i o ' s p r o d u c t i o n s a r e even more i m a g i n a t i v e t h a n u s u a l . 1 8 W h i l e T a c i t u s f o l l o w s t h e p r a c t i c e o f T h u c y d i d e s Ccf. T h u c . 1 . 2 2 . 1 ) i n u s i n g f i c t i o n a l , s p e e c h e s i n a t r u l y d r a m a t i c f a s h i o n , t o i n f o r m h i s r e a d e r s n o t o n l y o f m a t t e r s of. s t a t e b u t a l s o o f t h e h i d d e n c h a r a c t e r o f t h e P r i n c e p s , D i o u s e s t h e d e v i c e t o c o n v e y h i s own p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , and t h e r e s u l t i s somet imes a n a c h r o n i s t i c . So M a e c e n a s ' a d v i c e t o A u g u s t u s ( 5 2 . 1 4 - 4 0 ) and t h e w a r n i n g s d e l i v e r e d t o G a i u s by T i b e r i u s ' g h o s t ( 5 9 . 1 6 . 5 - 7 ) a r e i n f a c t i n t e n d e d by D i o t o c o n v i n c e h i s S e v e r a n m a s t e r s t o r u l e i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e e n t i r e s t a t e . T h i s i s n o t t o deny t h a t T a c i t u s ' p e r s o n a l j udgement i n t r u d e s i n t o h i s s p e e c h e s ; D i o i s o n l y l e s s c l e v e r and so more "obv i ous . P e r h a p s more a t t e n t i o n t h a n i s n e c e s s a r y h a s been p a i d t o D i o ' s b e l i e f i n t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l . L i v y f e l t i t n e c e s s a r y t o a p o l o g i z e f o r d e s c r i b i n g omens, b u t he d i d n o t d i s m i s s t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e ( L i v y 4 3 . 1 3 . 1 - 2 ) . T a c i t u s shows e n o u g h . i n t e r e s t i n s u c h p r o d i g i e s as t h e p h o e n i x t h a t we s h o u l d l a b e l h im a s c e p t i c r a t h e r t h a n a d i s b e l i e v e r {Ann. 6 . 2 8 ; c f . Hist. 2 . 5 0 ; 4 . 2 6 ) . A l t h o u g h D i o i n t r o d u c e s p o r t e n t s t h r o u g h o u t h i s h i s t o r y , t h e y a r e u s e d n o t e x c l u s i v e l y as s t a t e m e n t s o f a c t u a l o c c u r r e n c e s , b u t . f o r d r a m a t i c e f f e c t as w e l l , a f f o r d i n g as t h e y do a p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e r e l i e f , f r o m t h e monotony o f h i s n a r r a t i v e . D i o h i m s e l f was w e l l aware t h a t h i s r e c o r d i n g o f s u p e r n a t u r a l e v e n t s i n no way a f f e c t e d t h e f a c t s t h a t he was d i s c u s s i n g , and c o u l d be d i s r e g a r d e d as n o t p r e j u d i c i a l t o h i s h i s t o r i c a l j udgement ( f r . 5 7 . 2 2 ) . 7 F i n a l l y , m e n t i o n must be made o f t h e a c c u r a c y o f D i o ' s c h r o n o l o g y . 1 9 The Roman History i s a n n a l i s t i c i n f o r m , a l t h o u g h D i o was w i l l i n g t o v i o l a t e t h i s s t r i c t o r g a n i z a t i o n i f e v e n t s i n one r e g i o n c o u l d b e s t be t r e a t e d as a w h o l e . 2 0 T h i s a r r a n g e m e n t changes somewhat a f t e r 3 1 . B . C . T h e r e a f t e r t h e b o o k s a r e n o t s t r i c t l y a n n a l i s t i c , b u t more b i o g r a p h i c a l . D i o b e g i n s e a c h r e i g n , f o r e x a m p l e , w i t h an a n a l y s i s o f t h e E m p e r o r ' s c h a r a c t e r , u s i n g t h e o p e n i n g c h a p t e r s t o s e t t h e m o r a l theme a r o u n d w h i c h t h e r e s t . o f t h e c h r o n o -l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l w i l l be o r g a n i z e d ( c f . 5 9 . 3 - 5 ) . 2 1 D a t i n g . i s , as u s u a l , by c o n s u l s , t h e names o f t h e ovdinarii b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f e a c h new y e a r . 2 2 D a t e s w i t h i n a y e a r , h o w e v e r , a r e n o r m a l l y n o t i n d i c a t e d , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e B a t t l e o f A c t i u m on 2 Sep tember 3 1 , B . C . ( 5 1 . 1 . 1 ) . From t h i s p o i n t on D i o ' s c h r o n o l o g y on t h e who le becomes more s p e c i f i c : he i s c a r e f u l t o g i v e t h e e x a c t l e n g t h , u s u a l l y t o t h e day., o f e a c h E m p e r o r ' s r e i g n f r om h i s dies imperii u n t i l h i s d e a t h . A t t h e end o f . h i s a c c o u n t . o f V e s p a s i a n ' s r e i g n , f o r e x a m p l e , he i s c a r e f u l t o d i s t i n g u i s h be tween t h e d a t e o f t h e p r a c t i c a l b e g i n n i n g o f h i s r u l e and t h e d a t e . o n w h i c h t h e g e n e r a l was h a i l e d E m p e r o r , f r om w h i c h p o i n t V e s p a s i a n h i m s e l f r e c k o n e d t h e l e n g t h o f h i s r e i g n ( 6 6 . 1 7 . 3 - 5 ) . Such s t r i v i n g f o r a c c u r a c y does n o t s u g g e s t t h a t D i o was i g n o r a n t o f t h e c o m p l i c a t i o n s o f i m p e r i a l c c h r o n o l o g y . I t i s a l l t h e more s u r p r i s i n g , t h e n , t h a t we f i n d . h i m so g r e a t l y m i s t a k e n abou t t h e d a t e s o f T i b e r i u s ' d e a t h and o f G a i u s ' a c c e s s i o n . 2 3 D i o and h i s S o u r c e s I t i s a common c o m p l a i n t t h a t no a n c i e n t h i s t o r i a n made f u l l u s e o f t h e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o h i m , and t h a t h e s e l d o m a c k n o w l e d g e d t h o s e on w h i c h h e d i d d e p e n d . 2 h . In t h i s r e s p e c t D i o i s t y p i c a l , a l t h o u g h he does s a y a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h i s w o r k : ^aveyvbiv uev u&vxa obs EITTETV . x a TTepK'.auxtlJv x i a i 8 y e y p a y y e v a , a u v e y p a ^ a 6^ ou T rav ra .aXXa oo*a e ^ e k p i v a " ( f r . 1.2; c f . 72.23.5). He has g i v e n us a h i n t , b u t he has s t i l l n o t made i t e a s y t o d i s c o v e r h i s s o u r c e s . H i s s t a t e m e n t , as i t fo rms two p a r t s , l i k e w i s e p r e s e n t s two p r o b l e m s . F i r s t , e v e n i f he c o u l d c o n s u l t e v e r y a p p r o p r i a t e a u t h o r i n h i s t e n y e a r s o f r e s e a r c h , he c l e a r l y d i d n o t make e x t e n s i v e n o t e s o f a l l o f t h e m , b u t r e l i e d now on o n e , now on a n o t h e r , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p e r i o d and t o p i c b e i n g t r e a t e d . S e c o n d l y , when he does i n d i c a t e more t h a n one s o u r c e f o r s i a p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n , he may g i v e some d e t a i l s abou t t h e o p p o s i n g v i e w s b u t he n e v e r e x p l a i n s h i s c r i t e r i a f o r - p r e f e r r i n g o n e . o v e r a n o t h e r ( c f . 59.2.6). Y e t t h e v e r y f a c t t h a t he d i d a p p l y some c r i t i c a l judgement t o h i s s e l e c t i o n , howeve r f r u s t r a t i n g i t may be f o r modern c o m m e n t a t o r s , does show t h a t D i o was n o t t h e mere c o p y i s t he i s so o f t e n t h o u g h t t o have b e e n . Roman h i s t o r y , as D i o h i m s e l f e x p l a i n e d , was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e p a r a t e p a r t s d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e n o t o n l y b y t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s b u t p r i m a r i l y , f r om t h e h i s t o r i a n ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , by t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e fo rm and r e l i a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r e a c h . O f t h e r e p u b l i c a n p e r i o d he comments t h a t , s i n c e e v e r y t h i n g was p u b l i c , . i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be v e r i f i e d by c o n s u l t i n g v a r i o u s w r i t e r s and p u b l i c documents (53.19.2). W i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e P r i n c i p a t e , h o w e v e r , " x a yev.TrA.eia) Kpi5(j>a KCVL SxVaTropprynov yxyvec r0a i npj^axo, e \ 5e TTOU x i v a <a l 6nyoaieu0eTri, aXXa aveXey icxa y e .ovxa oancxxeT/rai • Koa y a p A e y e a G a i KOX .TrpaxxeaGai xravxa Tfpos x a x S v a e i KpaxoOvxcov xSv xe TrapaSuvaaxeuovxwv acfuai BouXnyaxa UTro-rrxeuexai" (53.19.3).25 D i o p r o m i s e s t o r e p o r t f a i t h f u l l y w h a t e v e r was p u b l i c k n o w l e d g e , w h e t h e r t r u e o r n o t , and t o add w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e h i s own o p i n i o n abou t t h e v a l i d i t y o f xo 9 p u A o u y e v o v . D i o ' s t h i r d p e r i o d , i n t h e e v e n t s o f w h i c h he, h i m s e l f ' w a s a p a r t i c i p a n t (72.18.4), f a l l s o u t s i d e . t h e s c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y . We must assume t h a t D i o c o n s u l t e d p u b l i s h e d , o f f i c i a l documents d u r i n g t h e t e n y e a r s s p e n t i n r e s e a r c h : i n 53.19.2 he r e f e r s t o p u b l i c r e c o r d s as 9 u s e f u l f o r t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f h i s t o r y . Y e t t h e r e a r e o n l y a few d e f i n i t e t r a c e s i n h i s work o f s u c h documents as t h e acta senatus, w h i c h we know were c o n s u l t e d b y b o t h T a c i t u s (Ann. 1 5 . 7 4 . 3 ) and S u e t o n i u s .{Aug. 5 ) , o r a t l e a s t by t h e i r s o u r c e s . 2 6 D . R . S t u a r t , i n an o t h e r w i s e i n v a l u a b l e a r t i c l e on t h e s u b j e c t o f D i o ' s a t t i t u d e t o e p i g r a p h i c s o u r c e s , 2 7 has c o n c l u d e d t h a t D i o saw b o t h t h e Res Gestae o f A u g u s t u s 2 8 and t h e c o n s u l a r Fasti, a t Rome, b u t t h a t he p r e f e r r e d t o depend on l i t e r a r y s o u r c e s , an a t t i t u d e t h a t may seem r a t h e r i l l o g i c a l t o . u s . In f a c t I f i n d t h a t t h e e v i d e n c e g a t h e r e d b y S t u a r t w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e Fasti a r g u e s v e r y s t r o n g l y f o r D i o ' s d i r e c t use o f t h e s e documen ts . Out o f t h e t h i r t y - t w o i n s t a n c e s when p a r a l l e l p o r t i o n s o f D i o and t h e Fasti a r e e x t a n t , t h e l i s t o f D i o d i f f e r s i n o n l y e i g h t c a s e s : i n t h r e e o f . t h e s e c a s e s ( 4 6 - 4 4 B . C . ) t h e h i s t o r i a n m i s c a l c u l a t e s by one y e a r t h e number o f C a e s a r ' s d i c t a t o r s h i p s and c o n s u l s h i p s . ; 2 9 i n f o u r o t h e r i n s t a n c e s (60 B . C . , 49 B . C . , A . D . 9 , A . D . 13) D i o s i m p l y r e v e r s e s t h e o r d e r o f t h e c o n s u l s ' names as t h e y a p p e a r i n t h e Fasti;zo and f i n a l l y , f o r t h e eponymous c o n s u l s o f 23 B . C . D i o f o l l o w s t h e t r a d i t i o n o f a l l t h e Fasti e x c e p t t h e Fasti. Capitolini i n r e c o r d i n g A u g u s t u s and t h e s u f f e c t C n . P i s o r a t h e r t h a n A u g u s t u s and M u r e n a . Such d i s c r e p a n c i e s a r e m i n o r and e a s i l y e x p l i c a b l e ; t h e y c e r t a i n l y do n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t D i o i g n o r e d an a v a i l a b l e s o u r c e . o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w o u l d g r e a t l y s i m p l i f y h i s t a s k o f l i s t i n g t h e ovdinarii a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f e a c h y e a r . I m i g h t add t h a t , f o r t h e c o n s u l s o f G a i u s 1 r e i g n , D i o a n d . t h e e x t a n t i n s c r i p -t i o n a l e v i d e n c e a r e n e v e r a t v a r i a n c e . As f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f D i o ' s l i t e r a r y s o u r c e s , t h e u s u a l d i f f i c u l t y i s e n c o u n t e r e d : i n most c a s e s i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r an a u t h o r made d i r e c t use o f an e a r l i e r h i s t o r i a n , even i f , he m e n t i o n s h i m b y name, o r r a t h e r o b t a i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n abou t t h a t h i s t o r i a n ' s w r i t i n g s f r o m . a n i n t e r m e d i a t e s o u r c e . D i o c l a i m s t o have r e a d " a l m o s t e v e r y t h i n g " t h a t p e r t a i n e d t o Roman 10 h i s t o r y ; b u t o f a l l t h e s e p o s s i b l e a u t h o r s , he m e n t i o n s o n l y e i g h t b y n a m e : L i v y ( 6 7 . 1 2 . 4 ) , C i c e r o ( 4 0 . 5 4 . 2 ) , S a l l u s t ( 4 0 . 3 . 4 ; 4 2 . 5 2 . 2 ; 4 3 . 9 . 2 - 3 ) , A u g u s t u s ( 4 4 . 3 5 . 3 ) , P l u t a r c h ( f r . 4 0 . 5 ; f r . 1 0 7 ) , H a d r i a n ( 6 6 . 1 7 . 1 ; 6 9 . 1 7 . 3 ) , A r r i a n ( 6 9 . 1 5 . 1 ) , and S e p t i m i u s S e v e r u s ( 7 5 . 7 . 3 ; 7 5 . 1 5 . 2 ) . From D i o ' s own comments i n t h e s e p a s s a g e s , h o w e v e r , a l l we can s a y w i t h some c e r t a i n t y i s t h a t he had r e a d C i c e r o , A u g u s t u s , H a d r i a n , S e v e r u s (as we s h o u l d e x p e c t ) , and p e r h a p s P l u t a r c h ( a l t h o u g h r e f e r e n c e s t o h i m o c c u r o n l y i n t h e E x c e r p t s , f r o m t h e t e n t h o r e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y ) . The d i f f i c u l t y i n . I d e n t i f y i n g D i o ' s s o u r c e s f o r , t h e p e r i o d o f t h e e a r l y E m p i r e i s compounded b y t h e s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i r w r i t i n g s , s t i l l e x t a n t . Those whom he m i g h t have c o n s u l t e d , b u t . o f whose works l i t t l e o r . m o t h i n g s u r v i v e s , i n c l u d e G a i u s ' s i s t e r A g r i p p i n a , L e n t u l u s G a e t u l i c u s , M. S e r v i l i u s N o n i a n u s , A u f i d i u s B a s s u s , t h e E l d e r P l i n y ( h i s h i s t o r i c a l w o r k , t h a t i s ) , C l u v i u s R u f u s , and F a b i u s R u s t i c u s . We a r e on more s u r e g r o u n d when t r y i n g , t o d e t e c t D i o ' s dependence on S e n e c a , P h i l o , . J o s e p h u s , T a c i t u s , and S u e t o n i u s . T h a t o u r h i s t o r i a n d i d u s e more t h a n a s i n g l e s o u r c e f o r h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f G a i u s ' r e i g n i s e v i d e n t f r om h i s comments i n C h a p t e r s 2 . 6 ; 1 2 . 2 ; 2 2 . 1 ; and 2 5 . 5 ; t h i s a s s u m e s , o f c o u r s e , , t h a t he d i d n o t l i f t t h e s e v a r y i n g a c c o u n t s f r o m a n o t h e r — s i n g l e — a u t h o r . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e f i r s t c a t e g o r y — t h o s e wo rks t h a t no l o n g e r s u r v i v e — t h e f o l l o w i n g b r i e f r e m a r k s w i l l s u f f i c e t o show t h e f u t i l i t y o f t r y i n g . t o draw some s i g n i f i c a n c e f r o m a p a u c i t y o f e v i d e n c e . 1. The memoi rs o f A g r i p p i n a M i n o r were u s e d by t h e E l d e r P l i n y (HN 7 . 8 . 4 6 ) and by T a c i t u s , whose d e s c r i p t i o n o f them s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y were n o t w e l l known even by t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y (Ann. 4 . 5 3 . 3 ) . I t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t s u c h p e r s o n a l c o m m e n t a r i e s , p u b l i s h e d no doub t i n v e r y s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s , w o u l d have s u r v i v e d a n o t h e r h u n d r e d y e a r s . D i o , who makes no m e n t i o n o f A g r i p p i n a ' s l i t e r a r y a b i l i t y , 11 m i g h t have e n c o u n t e r e d v e s t i g e s o f them i n a n o t h e r s o u r c e ; i f s o , h i s a c c o u n t o f G a i u s ' - c a m p a i g n s i n Germany- and G a u l may owe s o m e t h i n g o f i t s b i a s t o a t r a d i t i o n begun b y t h e E m p e r o r ' s s i s t e r . 3 1 2 . L e n t u l u s G a e t u l i c u s had r e f e r r e d t o G a i u s ' b i r t h p l a c e , p r e s u m a b l y i n one o f h i s poems. S u e t o n i u s seems t o have r e a d t h e s e v e r s e s {Gaius 8 .1^ -2 ) , b u t a g a i n t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t D i o h a d even h e a r d o f t h e m . 3 2 3 . M. S e r v i l i u s N o n i a n u s , t h e c o n s u l o f A . D . 3 5 , was b o t h an o r a t o r and an h i s t o r i a n . T a c i t u s was a c q u a i n t e d w i t h h i s work i n b o t h f i e l d s , and d e s c r i b e s h i m as "summis h o n o r i b u s e t m u l t a e l o q u e n t i a " {Ann. 1 4 . 1 9 ; c f . Dial. 2 3 . 2 ) . The same v e r d i c t had e a r l i e r b e e n p r o n o u n c e d b y Q u i n t i l i a n , who added t h a t N o n i a n u s was " m i n u s p r e s s u s quam h i s t o r i a e a u c t o r i t a s p o s t u l a t " ( 1 0 . 1 . 1 0 2 - 1 0 3 ) . N e i t h e r a u t h o r , h o w e v e r , has g i v e n any h i n t o f N o n i a n u s ' a t t i t u d e t o t h e P r i n c i p a t e o r o f t h e p e r i o d t r e a t e d b y h i s h i s t o r y . A vague comment i n S u e t o n i u s {Tib. 6 1 . 6 : " a n n a l i b u s s u i s v i r c o n s u l a r i s i n s e r u i t . . . " ) has b e e n t a k e n as p r o o f t h a t i t d i d encompass t h e r e i g n o f T i b e r i u s . 3 3 4 . We know somewhat more abou t t h e w r i t i n g s o f A u f i d i u s B a s s u s , whom T a c i t u s {Dial. 2 3 . 2 ) and Q u i n t i l i a n ( 1 0 . 1 . 1 0 2 - 1 0 3 ) r a n k w i t h N o n i a n u s as one o f t h e g r e a t w r i t e r s o f t h e J u l i o - C l a u d i a n p e r i o d . In a d d i t i o n t o a h i s t o r y o f Rome 's wars a g a i n s t t h e Germans (unde r A u g u s t u s and T i b e r i u s ? ) , he w r o t e a h i s t o r y o f h i s own t i m e s . T h i s l a t t e r work must have begun i n t h e l a t e R e p u b l i c , s i n c e we know f r om S e n e c a R h e t o r {Suas. 6 . 1 8 ; 23) t h a t B a s s u s had d e c l a r e d h i m s e l f an a d m i r e r o f C i c e r o ; b u t t h e t e r m i n a l d a t e o f h i s h i s t o r y i s a m a t t e r o f d i s p u t e . A l e t t e r o f t h e y o u n g e r S e n e c a (Ep. 3 0 . 1 ) p r o v e s t h a t B a s s u s was s t i l l a l i v e i n A . D . 6 0 ; and t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t P l i n y t h e E l d e r ' s c o n t i n u a -t i o n o f B a s s u s ' work (see b e l o w ) c o n t a i n e d any m a t e r i a l e a r l i e r t h a n 12 A . D . 5 5 . Some, h o w e v e r , a rgue t h a t B a s s u s ' h i s t o r y ended i n T i b e r i u s * r e i g n , p e r h a p s w i t h t h e f a l l o f S e i a n u s i n A . D . 3 1 . 3 1 f 5 . B a s s u s * w o r k was c o n t i n u e d i n t h i r t y ^ o n e books b y P l i n y t h e E l d e r (P l i ny• Ep. 3 . 5 . 6 ) , who once r e f e r s t o t h e w o r k as " temporum n o s t r o r u m h i s t o r i a m " (HN p r a e f . - 2 0 ) . I f P l i n y ' s h i s t o r y , o f w h i c h n o t h i n g s i g n i f i c a n t r e m a i n s , i n c l u d e d t h e r e i g n o f G a i u s , t h e n i t was p e r h a p s "the s o u r c e o f S u e t o n i u s ' comment on t h e b i r t h p l a c e o f G a i u s (Gaius 8 . 1 ) . A l t h o u g h the . work i s m e n t i o n e d t h r e e t i m e s by . T a c i t u s (Ann. 1 3 . 2 0 . 3 [ A . D . 5 5 ] ; 1 5 . 5 3 . 4 [ A . D . 6 5 ] ; Hist. 3 . 2 8 [ A . D . 6 9 ] ) , who c l e a r l y made u s e o f i t f o r e v e n t s d u r i n g N e r o ' s r e i g n and t h e s u b -s e q u e n t c i v i l w a r s , t h e r e i s no f i r m e v i d e n c e t h a t i t d e a l t w i t h G a i u s o r even w i t h C l a u d i u s . P l i n y a l s o w r o t e a c o m p l e t e h i s t o r y o f t h e Roman wars i n Germany ( P l i n y Ep. 3 . 5 . 4 ) . S i n c e T a c i t u s c i t e s t h i s monograph when d i s c u s s i n g G e r m a n i c u s ' campa igns i n A . D . 15 (Ann. 1 . 6 9 . 3 ) , . i t seems most l i k e l y t h a t S u e t o n i u s had c o n s u l t e d i t f o r P l i n y ' s v i e w s on t h e b i r t h p l a c e o f G a i u s . 3 5 I t s h o u l d be n o t e d h e r e t h a t any c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s be tween D i o and P l i n y ' s s u r v i v i n g Histovia Naturalis a r e t o o vague and i n -s i g n i f i c a n t t o be a t t r i b u t e d t o d i r e c t b o r r o w i n g . 6 . C l u v i u s R u f u s , who had h e l d t h e c o n s u l s h i p b e f o r e A . D . 41 and was s t i l l an a c t i v e s e n a t o r u n d e r N e r o and V i t e l l i u s ( J o s . AJ 1 9 . 1 . 1 3 [ 9 1 ] ; S u e t . Nero 2 1 . 2 ; P l u . Otho 3 ; T a c . Hist. 4 . 4 3 ) , i s m e n t i o n e d once by D i o , b u t i n a c o n t e x t t h a t does n o t s u g g e s t t h a t o u r a u t h o r was aware o f h i s h i s t o r i c a l work ( 6 3 . 1 4 . 3 ) . We know f r om a l e t t e r o f P l i n y (Ep. 9 . 1 9 . 5 ) t h a t C l u v i u s h e l d s t r o n g v i e w s a b o u t an h i s t o r i a n ' s d u t y t o t h e t r u t h , and f r o m T a c i t u s .(Ann. 1 3 . 2 0 . 3 ; 1 4 . 2 . 1 ) t h a t he w r o t e o f N e r o ' s r e i g n and a t l e a s t p a r t o f t h e s u b s e q u e n t c i v i l wars ( c f . Hist. 3 . 6 5 ) . 13 A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no s p e c i f i c s u g g e s t i o n t h a t h i s h i s t o r y began as e a r l y as G a i u s ' r e i g n , Monunsen t h o u g h t t h a t C l u v i u s was t h e s o u r c e f o r J o s e p h u s ' l o n g a c c o u n t o f G a i u s ' a s s a s s i n a t i o n , p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e t h e a n e c d o t e t o l d abou t C l u v i u s i n AJ 1 9 . 1 . 1 3 (91 -92 ) must have come f r o m t h e man h i m s e l f , and t h r o u g h a w r i t t e n work r a t h e r t h a n by o r a l c o m m e n t . 3 6 Mommsen's v i e w was t a k e n up b y C h a r l e s w o r t h , who a s s i g n e d t h e s t y l e o f t h i s s e c t i o n o f J o s e p h u s ( s i n c e i t i s more m e t a p h o r i c a l t h a n u s u a l ) t o C l u v i u s as J o s e p h u s ' L a t i n s o u r c e . 3 7 U n f o r t u n a t e l y we have no i d e a o f C l u v i u s ' s t y l e , s i n c e o n l y a few m i n o r f r a g m e n t s o f h i s h i s t o r y a r e e x t a n t . 3 8 M o m i g l i a n o has gone one s t e p f a r t h e r b y c l a i m i n g t h a t C l u v i u s ' a c c o u n t o f G a i u s ' a s s a s s i n a t i o n was t h e ma in s o u r c e o f J o s e p h u s , S u e t o n i u s , and D i o . 3 9 The q u e s t i o n o f D i o ' s dependence on C l u v i u s i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d — i t i s , i n f a c t , made i m p o s s i b l e t o a n s w e r — b e c a u s e h i s a c c o u n t o f G a i u s ' mu rde r i s e x t a n t o n l y i n t h e e p i t o m e s o f Z o n a r a s and X i p h i l i n u s . h 0 7. The S p a n i a r d F a b i u s R u s t i c u s w r o t e a h i s t o r y o f h i s own p e r i o d , b u t a g a i n we know o n l y t h a t i t t r e a t e d t h e r e i g n o f N e r o (Tac.•Ann. 1 4 . 2 . 3 ) . T a c i t u s p r a i s e s h i s s t y l e and e l o q u e n c e , b u t adds t h a t he was t o o p a r t i a l t o h i s p a t r o n , S e n e c a (Ann. 1 3 . 2 0 . 3 ; Agr. 1 0 . 3 ) . H i s a c c o u n t o f A g r i p p i n a M i n o r may have been u s e d b y S u e t o n i u s (Nero 2 8 ) . 8 . F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e a t a l l t h a t G a i u s e v e r w r o t e a j o u r n a l l i k e t h e p e r s o n a l d i a r i e s (eommentarii Principis) k e p t b y many o f t h e E m p e r o r s , i n c l u d i n g T i b e r i u s ( S u e t . Tib. 6 1 . 1 ) and C l a u d i u s ( T a c . Ann. 1 3 . 4 3 . 4 ) . O f g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e and v a l u e a r e t h e f a i r l y c l o s e p a r a l l e l s t h a t e x i s t be tween p a s s a g e s o f D i o and t h e e x t a n t w r i t i n g s o f S e n e c a , P h i l o , J o s e p h u s , T a c i t u s , and S u e t o n i u s . As t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m p a r i s o n s and comments w i l l s e r v e t o show, d i r e c t dependence o f D i o on any o f t h e s e a u t h o r s i s 14 i m p o s s i b l e t o p r o v e . What can be s a i d w i t h some c e r t a i n t y i s t h a t D i o , i f he had n o t r e a d and made n o t e s o f t h e i r w o r k s , a t l e a s t r e l i e d h e a v i l y on some i n t e r m e d i a t e s o u r c e s ( the l i c a x o v x a e x i a o f A p p i a n i s a l i k e l y p o s s i b i l i t y ) i n w h i c h a n e c d o t e s f r o m S t h o s e e a r l i e r h i s t o r i a n s had been r e p e a t e d i n words v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e o r i g i n a l . 1. D i o t h r e e t i m e s r e f e r s t o t he c o m p o s i t i o n s o f S e n e c a : i n 5 9 . 1 9 . 7 he m e n t i o n s h i s e a r l y s p e e c h e s ( u n l e s s he i s t a l k i n g o f S e n e c a R h e t o r i n s t e a d ) ; i n 6 0 . 3 5 . 3 t h e Apoaolocyntosis; and i n 6 1 . 1 0 . 2 t h e Consolatio ad VoVybiwn. None o f t h e s e p a s s a g e s , h o w e v e r , p r o v e s t h a t D i o had n e c e s s a r i l y r e a d t h o s e w o r k s . Y e t a c o m p a r i s o n o f D i o 5 9 . 1 1 . 5 w i t h S e n . Cons. Polyb. 1 7 . 5 s u g g e s t s t h a t D i o m i g h t i n f a c t have done s o . One must remember , o f c o u r s e , t h a t s u c h a n e c d o t e s b a s e d on r h e t o r i c a l a n t i t h e s i s a r e memorab le on t h e i r own and w o u l d a p p e a l t o l a t e r e p i t o m i s t s . I f we a c c e p t t h e v e r d i c t o f F . P r e c h a c , 1 * 1 who seems t o have p r o v e d c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t D i o u s e d S e n e c a ' s t r e a t i s e on dementia when compos ing h i s p o l i t i c a l - p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e e c h be tween L i v i a and A u g u s t u s i n Book 5 5 , t h e n i t i s j u s t as l i k e l y t h a t he was f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h e r ' s o t h e r works as w e l l . 2 . P e r h a p s t h e most n o t a b l e o m i s s i o n f r om D i o ' s a c c o u n t o f G a i u s ' r e i g n i s any comment w h a t e v e r on t h e J e w i s h p r o b l e m . I n t h e m i s s i n g c h a p t e r s a t t h e end o f Book 59 some m e n t i o n may have been made o f t h e J e w i s h embassy f r o m A l e x a n d r i a and o f P e t r o n i u s ' d i f f i c u l t i e s i n J u d a e a , b u t i t i s odd t h a t t h e e p i t o m e s show no e v i d e n c e o f t h i s . What T a c i t u s i n h i s m i s s i n g books made o f t h e s i t u a t i o n c a n o n l y be g u e s s e d a t , b u t i t i s r e m a r k a b l e t h a t even he o t h e r w i s e d e v o t e s v e r y l i t t l e s p a c e - - H i s t o r i e s 5 . 9 - 1 0 — t o t h e s t o r y o f Rome 's r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e Jews f r om Pompey t o V e s p a s i a n . . 1 + 2 1 15 D i o ' s s i l e n c e abou t t h e Jews w o u l d i n . i t s e l f i n d i c a t e t h a t he h a d n o t r e a d P h i l o ' s in Flaccum o r Legatio ad Gaium, ..and a c o m p a r i s o n o f a n e c d o t e s f o u n d i n b o t h . a u t h o r s s u p p o r t s t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . The re a r e , f o r e x a m p l e , some s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e E m p e r o r ' s c o n t r a d i c t o r y n a t u r e , 1 * 3 b u t t h e s e r e f l e c t t h e same common t r a d i t i o n abou t G a i u s ' e r r a t i c b e h a v i o u r as we have a l r e a d y n o t i c e d i n S e n e c a . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e i s no doub t t h a t D i o ' s d e s c r i p -t i o n o f G a i u s * i m p e r s o n a t i o n o f d e i t i e s ( 5 9 . 2 6 . 5 - 8 ) has much more i n common w i t h t h e v a r i e d and d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t i n Leg. 1 1 . 7 8 - 1 5 . 1 1 3 (557 -561) t h a n w i t h t h e a b b r e v i a t e d v e r s i o n i n S u e t o n i u s (Gaius 5 2 ) . S i n c e t h e s e a n e c d o t e s seem t o have a p p e a l e d more t o t h e Greek Jew t h a n t o t h e Roman s c e p t i c ( S e n e c a , f o r e x a m p l e , does n o t m e n t i o n t h e m ) , t h e y m i g h t w e l l have been p a s s e d on t o p o s t e r i t y b y P h i l o a l o n e among G a i u s ' c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . J o s e p h u s ' a p p a r e n t i n d e b t e d n e s s t o C l u v i u s R u f u s has a l r e a d y been m e n t i o n e d . A l l t h a t can be added h e r e i s t h a t D i o does m e n t i o n J o s e p h u s o n c e , i n an a n e c d o t e abou t t h e J e w i s h : g e n e r a l ' s p r o p h e c y t h a t V e s p a s i a n w o u l d become Empero r ( 6 6 . 1 . 4 ) . The p a s s a g e e c h o e s t h e same s t o r y i n BJ 3 . 8 . 9 (399 -408 ) c l o s e l y enough t o i n d i c a t e t h a t D i o m i g h t w e l l have r e a d t h e Be Hum. D i o ' s a c c o u n t o f t h e r e i g n o f G a i u s i s , i t must be a d m i t t e d , s m a l l c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e l o s t books o f T a c i t u s . W h i l e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e how much o f T a c i t u s ' m a t e r i a l has r e a p p e a r e d i n D i o ' s Book 5 9 , an a n a l y s i s o f t h e two a c c o u n t s o f T i b e r i u s ' r e i g n a l l o w s . u s t o s a y w i t h some a s s u r a n c e t h a t t h e two h i s t o r i a n s a t l e a s t had a common, a n t i - T i b e r i a n s o u r c e f o r t h e p e r i o d , b u t o f t e n enough f o l l o w e d d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n s . The l e n g t h y German campa igns r e c o u n t e d t h r o u g h -ou t Annals 1 - 2 , f o r e x a m p l e , a r e c o m p r e s s e d by D i o i n t o p a r t o f one 16 c h a p t e r ( 5 7 . 1 8 . 1 ) ; w h i l e t h e f u n e r a l o f A u g u s t u s , b a r e l y t o u c h e d on i n Ann. 1 . 1 0 . 8 , i s expanded b y D i o i n t o s e v e n t e e n c h a p t e r s ( 5 6 . 3 1 - 4 7 ) . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e i n t e r c h a n g e be tween T i b e r i u s and C a l l u s t h a t t o o k p l a c e i n t h e S e n a t e a f t e r A u g u s t u s ' d e a t h i s a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l i n t h e two a u t h o r s . 1 * 4 A n o t h e r n o t a b l e s i m i l a r i t y i n r e p o r t e d s p e e c h o c c u r s i n t h e two a c c o u n t s o f t h e r e v o l t o f t h e R h i n e l e g i o n s i n A . D . 1 4 , when G e r m a n i c u s t h r e a t e n e d t o commit s u i c i d e r a t h e r t h a n be h a i l e d Empero r by h i s t r o o p s . O f t h e s o l d i e r who i n s o l e n t l y o f f e r e d t h e g e n e r a l h i s own s w o r d , D i o says . : " 'TOUTO ' etfin 'XafSe* TOSTO yap 6£\JT£p6v e c m v ' " ( 5 7 . 5 . 2 ) ; compare T a c i t u s ' w o r d s : " C a l u s i d i u s s t r i c t u m o b t u l i t g l a d i u m , a d d i t o a c u t i o r e m e s s e " (Ann. 1 . 3 5 . 6 ) . Such a comment i s memorable i n any c a s e , and n e e d n o t i n d i c a t e d i r e c t b o r r o w i n g ; and i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t i c e t h a t D i o and T a c i t u s t h e n g i v e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t e x p l a n a t i o n s o f G e r m a n i c u s ' f a i l u r e t o c a r r y o u t h i s t h r e a t . A common s o u r c e i s p e r h a p s i m p l i e d f o r some o f t h e s e d e t a i l s , t h e n , b u t i t w o u l d be s a f e t o assume t h a t f o r T i b e r i u s ' r e i g n D i o d i d n o t use T a c i t u s d i r e c t l y , o r a t l e a s t n o t i m p a r t i a l l y and c e r t a i n l y n o t e x c l u s i v e l y . 1 * 5 5 . The l a r g e number o f c l o s e p a r a l l e l s i n w o r d i n g be tween S u e t o n i u s and D i o l e a d s t o t h e v e r y s t r o n g s u s p i c i o n t h a t D i o was q u i t e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i m p e r i a l l i v e s o f t h a t b i o g r a p h e r . From t h e r e i g n o f A u g u s t u s onwards S u e t o n i u s was. c l e a r l y a m a j o r s o u r c e o f a n e c d o t e s . The b i o g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t o f t h e Vitae Caesarian f i t t e d i n w e l l w i t h D i o ' s i n t e n t i o n t o t r e a t t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e E m p i r e as a h i s t o r y o f i t s r u l e r s . I n d e e d , s i n c e T a c i t u s h a d managed t o do t h i s w h i l e p r e -s e r v i n g a s t r i c t l y a n n a l i s t i c a r r a n g e m e n t , one wonders i f D i o a l t e r e d h i s e a r l i e r c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n as a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f h e a v y dependence on S u e t o n i u s . T h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , so many d e t a i l s p r e s e n t 17 i n one a u t h o r b u t n o t i n t h e o t h e r t h a t we must assume t h e e x i s t e n c e o f o t h e r s o u r c e s as w e l l , f o r w h i c h D i o had an e q u a l p r e f e r e n c e . The f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f some o f t h e more n o t a b l e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s be tween t h e two w i l l s e r v e as p r o o f o f t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s : compare S u e t o n i u s Aug. 9 7 . 3 . w i t h D i o 5 6 . 2 9 . 4 101 5 6 . 3 3 . 1 Tib. 2 6 . 2 5 7 . 8 . 1 Gaius 1 7 . 1 5 9 . 2 4 . 2 19 5 9 . 1 7 2 7 . 1 - 4 5 9 . 1 0 . 3 - 4 4 1 . 1 5 9 . 2 8 . 1 1 55 5 9 . 1 4 5 6 . 1 5 9 . 2 5 . 8 ; 5 9 . 2 9 . 1 Vesp. 5 . 3 5 9 . 1 2 . 3 D i o and t h e P r i n c i p a t e As a Roman s e n a t o r u n d e r t h e S e v e r a n d y n a s t y D i o was f a c e d w i t h t h e c o n f l i c t , a l r e a d y d i s c e r n i b l e a c e n t u r y e a r l i e r i n T a c i t u s ' Annals, be tween t h e r i g h t s o f h i s o r d e r on t h e one hand a n d , on t h e o t h e r , s u p p o r t o f t h e P r i n c i p a t e as t h e o n l y w o r k a b l e f o r m o f r u l e f o r t h a t p e r i o d . So D i o e m p h a s i z e s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a f a v o u r a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween t h e P r i n c e p s and t h e S e n a t e ; he s c o r n s o p p o s i t i o n t o t he m o n a r c h y ; and he has l i t t l e use f o r t h e common p e o p l e . l f 6 D i o was w e l l aware o f t h e a n a r c h y t h a t had p r e v a i l e d d u r i n g much o f t h e l a s t c e n t u r y o f t h e R e p u b l i c ( c f . f r . 8 3 . 4 ) , and w i t h t h e b e n e f i t o f h i n d s i g h t c o u l d d e c l a r e t h a t i n 27 B . C . a r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e e a r l i e r democ racy o r o l i g a r c h y was i m p o s s i b l e , t h a t o n l y u n d e r t h e r u l e o f one man c o u l d Rome hope t o become a s t a b l e and s e c u r e s t a t e once a g a i n ( 5 3 . 1 9 . 1 ) . 4 7 O f t h e A u g u s t a n 18 s e t t l e m e n t , he comments: " A i d . xe ouv x a u x a , K o i o x i xrjv y o v a p x ^ a v x?i S n y o K p a x i a y i ^ a s xo xe eXeuOepov ac jua iv exfipncre KCU xb K o a y i o v xo xe aacf>aA.es TrpoairapeaKeuaaev, axrf e£u) y e v xou unyoicpaxiKOU Gpacrous e^a) <5e KOU XGV x u p a v v i K w v ugpetov ovxas ev xe e A e u G e p i a auxfipovi KOI ev y o v a p x f a d f i ee i £ f jv , BacriXeuoyevous xe aveu SouXeias KOU SnyoKpaxooyevous aveu S i x o a x a a i a s , 6eivCs auxov eTroBouv" ( 5 6 . 4 3 . 4 ) . H e r e , as f r e q u e n t l y e l s e w h e r e , D i o i s a c c u s e d o f i n t r o d u c i n g a n a c h r o n i s t i c r e m a r k s i n t o h i s . d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l s c e n e i n t h e e a r l y E m p i r e . T h e r e i s no doub t t h a t he d i d a p p l y t o t h a t p e r i o d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s t h a t d a t e o n l y f r om l a t e r t i m e s , b u t h i s r e a s o n s f o r d o i n g s o a r e i n t e l l i g i b l e when one r e a l i z e s t h a t D i o saw t h e P r i n c i p a t e as a s t a t i c o r g a n i s m . He r e a l i z e d p e r -f e c t l y t h a t t h e r e p u b l i c a n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y o f A u g u s t u s ' s e t t l e m e n t was a m y t h , and he c o u l d s e e t h a t t h e many a p p a r e n t changes i n t h e s y s t e m a t t r i b u t e d t o l a t e r Empero rs were l i t t l e more t h a n r e v e l a t i o n s o f p r e v i o u s l y h i d d e n f a c t s . From 29 B . C . onwards he e q u a t e s t h e P r i n c i p a t e w i t h a monarchy ( 5 2 . 1 . 1 ) : c e r t a i n l y A u g u s t u s ' d y n a s t i c p l a n s s u g g e s t t h a t i t w a s . I n t h e f i c t i t i o u s and much d i s c u s s e d s p e e c h o f M a e c e n a s , A u g u s t u s ' m i n i s t e r f i r s t s t r e s s e s t h e v a l u e o f m a i n t a i n i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l , o u t w a r d fo rms o f t h e R e p u b l i c ( 5 2 . 2 0 . 2 - 3 ) , and ends b y a s s u r i n g A u g u s t u s t h a t he w i l l be k i n g i n a l l b u t name ( 5 2 . 4 0 . 1 ) ; i n f a c t , none o f t h e s u b s e q u e n t E m p e r o r s , f r o m T i b e r i u s t o N e r o and even b e y o n d , assumed t o t h e m s e l v e s any more o f t h e o l d r e p u b l i c a n powers t h a n t h e f i r s t Empero r had p o s s e s s e d . Was D i o wrong i n i n t e r p r e t i n g A u g u s t u s ' d i v i s i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as a way o f k e e p i n g i n h i s own hands t h e m i l i t a r y f o r c e s o f t h e E m p i r e , on w h i c h t h e s t a b i l i t y o f h i s p o s i t i o n r e s t e d ( 5 3 . 1 2 . 3 ; c f . . 5 3 . 1 7 . 3 ) ? S i r R o n a l d Syme 1 * 8 has c a l l e d D i o " a f e r v e n t a d v o c a t e o f m o n a r c h i c a l r u l e , " a d e s c r i p t i o n t h a t i s p e r h a p s t o o s i m p l i s t i c . D i o r a t h e r b e l i e v e d t h a t 19 p e a c e and s e c u r i t y were m o r e . d e s i r a b l e t h a n what he saw as t h e a n a r c h y o f t h e l a t e R e p u b l i c . 1 + 9 Y e t he was n o t unaware o f t h e n e g a t i v e s i d e o f r u l e by a s i n g l e man: he o b s e r v e s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t f r e e s p e e c h i s l o s t i n a monarchy and t h a t h i s s o u r c e s f o r t he i m p e r i a l p e r i o d change f rom f r a n k s t a t e m e n t s o f v e r i f i a b l e f a c t t o a c c o u n t s w r i t t e n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e w i s h e s . o f t h e man i n power ( 5 3 . 1 9 . 3 ) . A c o m p a r i s o n o f D i o w i t h T a c i t u s i n t h i s r e g a r d i s i n e v i t a b l e ; b u t t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e be tween t h e two h i s t o r i a n s b y s a y i n g t h a t D i o i s a m o n a r c h i s t and T a c i t u s a r e p u b l i c a n no t . o n l y makes t h e p r o b l e m s p r e s e n t e d by t h e i r p o l i t i c a l v i e w s t o o s i m p l e , b u t s u g g e s t s a w i d e r d i f f e r e n c e be tween t h e i r o p i n i o n s t h a n a c t u a l l y e x i s t e d . The d i f f e r e n c e l i e s p r i m a r i l y i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e two h i s t o r i a n s : D i o was a f r a n k l y a d m i t t e d o p p o r t u n i s t who r e g a r d e d t h e P r i n c i p a t e w i t h o p t i m i s m , w h i l e T a c i t u s , e i t h e r c o n c e a l i n g o r e x p r e s s i n g shame f o r h i s p o l i t i c a l dependence on t h e E m p e r o r s , t o o k a p e s s i m i s t i c and c y n i c a l v i e w o f t h e m o n a r c h y . T a c i t u s l o n g s f o r a r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e S e n a t e ' s sup remacy as i t had been u n d e r t h e R e p u b l i c , D i o as i t was u n d e r A u g u s t u s . I t i s t h i s v e r y d i s t i n c t i o n be tween t h e two a t t i t u d e s o f men who were o t h e r w i s e q u i t e s i m i l a r t h a t makes t h e comb ined s t u d y o f D i o and T a c i t u s a . n e c e s s i t y f o r a p r o p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e a r l y E m p i r e . As a p o l i t i c a l t h e o r i s t D i o f a v o u r e d t h e compromise v i e w so t y p i c a l o f i m p e r i a l s e n a t o r s who owed t h e i r p o s i t i o n s t o an i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r t h a n t o any h e r e d i t a r y r e p u b l i c a n p r i n c i p l e . I t was an i d e a l t h a t was t o be r e s u r r e c t e d much l a t e r i n Mommsen's c o n c e p t o f a d i a r c h y . L i k e T a c i t u s b e f o r e h i m , D i o f e l t t h a t t h e dignitas o f t h e S e n a t e s h o u l d be c l o s e l y g u a r d e d . A l t h o u g h he and most o t h e r s e n a t o r s r e a l i z e d , t h a t a f t e r 200 y e a r s o f t h e P r i n c i p a t e . t h e i r r e p u b l i c a n hegemony was h o p e l e s s l y l o s t , t h e y n e v e r t h e l e s s e a g e r l y f o u g h t t o m a i n t a i n some o f t h e i r f o r m e r i n f l u e n c e , m o d i f i e d t h o u g h i t had t o b e . The s p e e c h t h a t Maecenas d e l i v e r s t o A u g u s t u s i s i m p o r t a n t i n t h i s r e s p e c t : w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e P r i n c i p a t e i n 27 B . C . t h e S e n a t e , w h i l e i t had l o s t 20 i t s t r a d i t i o n a l p o w e r s , s t i l l m a i n t a i n e d i t s dignitas as a body t o be c o n -s u l t e d by t h e r u l e r . I t i s a r e t u r n t o t h i s A u g u s t a n , a t t i t u d e , h o w e v e r , i d e a l i s t i c i t m i g h t have b e e n , t h a t D i o p l e a d s f o r t h r o u g h Maecenas ( c f . 5 2 . 3 1 - 3 2 ) . I n t h i s he f o l l o w s t h e p o l i t i c a l i d e a l s s e t down by h i s n a m e s a k e , D i o C o c c e i a n u s C h r y s o s t o m u s , i n h i s f o u r d i s c o u r s e s i rep i . . g a a x X e x a s : t h e Empero r s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e . supreme g o d ; he s h o u l d v i e w h i s power as h i s d u t y ; he i s t h e p a t r o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e m a s t e r o f h i s s u b j e c t s ; and he must s h a r e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e E m p i r e w i t h a g roup o f a d v i s o r s . T h i s i s a theme t h a t i s f o u n d t h r o u g h o u t D i o ' s h i s t o r y , f r om t h e f i r s t ominous moment when he has Romulus comment t o : h i s p a t r i c i a n s e n a t o r s : "eyQ uuas, w u a x e p e s , e£eAe£aunv ouy t v a u u e i s euou a p y n x e , aAA' v v a ey^  u y i v eTTixaxxoiut" ( f r . 5 . 1 1 ) . The Empero r G a i u s , howeve r w e l l he began h i s r e i g n , was t o be i n D i o ' s m ind a n o t h e r R o m u l u s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , j u s t as t h e o p p r e s s i v e r u l e o f D o m i t i a n had been a p p l i e d by T a c i t u s t o h i s p o r t r a i t o f T i b e r i u s , so D i o was t o p a i n t a p i c t u r e o f G a i u s ' b e h a v i o u r t h a t owed much o f i t s d e t a i l and many o f i t s j udgemen ts t o t h e a u t h o r ' s own e x p e r i e n c e s u n d e r C o m m o d u s . 5 0 The. b i t t e r n e s s and h a t r e d t h a t were s o u n i v e r s a l among t h e s e n a t o r i a l c l a s s d u r i n g t h e d e s p o t i s m o f D o m i t i a n : . a n d Commodus had been p a r t l y s o o t h e d b y t h e p r o m i s e o f b e t t e r t h i n g s t o .come u n d e r t h e i r s u c c e s s o r s , N e r v a and S e p t i m i u s S e v e r u s . I t i s t h e v i e w o f b o t h D i o and T a c i t u s t h a t i f t h e Empero r i s a good man , t h e n prinaipatus ao libertas a r e e a s i l y a t t a i n a b l e , and t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n can p r o d u c e b e n e f i t s f o r t h e common good ( e f . T a c . Agr. . 3 . 1 ) . I f , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e Emperor i s u n w o r t h y and i n c a p a b l e , dominatio t a k e s t h e p l a c e o f prinaipatus, and libertas no l o n g e r e x i s t s ( c f . D i o f r . 1 2 . 9 ) . The m a i n t e n a n c e o f r e p u b l i c a n fo rms i n t h e P r i n c i p a t e w o u l d p r o v o k e any man who s t u d i e d h i s t o r y t o make a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e two fo rms ( c f . T a c . Ann. 1 . 4 ) . A u g u s t u s had b e e n a b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h e f i c t i o n t h a t t h e , S e n a t e p l a y e d an e q u a l r o l e w i t h h i m s e l f i n t h e government o f t h e E m p i r e . H i s s u c c e s s o r s , 21 and p a r t i c u l a r l y G a i u s a f t e r A . D . 39., l a c k e d t h i s t a c t and d i p l o m a c y , and made t h e s e n a t o r s aware t h a t t h e P r i n c e p s was t h e i r m a s t e r and t h a t t h e y no l o n g e r h a d any r e a l a u t h o r i t y ( c f . T a c . Ann. 4 . 1 9 ) . Unde r t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s a s e n a t o r who w i s h e d t o s e r v e t h e s t a t e had t o f o r g e t t h e p a s t , . c u r b h i s a m b i t i o n , and obey t h e r u l e r . I t was n o t e a s y t o s t e e r a s a f e m i d d l e c o u r s e be tween t h e two e x t r e m e s o f a b s o l u t e f r eedom and a b s o l u t e s l a v e r y ; b u t , l i k e A g r i c o l a and T a c i t u s h i m s e l f u n d e r . D o m i t i a n . ( c f . T a c . Agr. 4 2 ) , 5 1 D i o managed t o do so u n d e r Commodus and S e v e r u s . H i s e x p e r i e n c e s had t a u g h t h i m t h a t a r e s p o n s i b l e monarchy was p r e f e r a b l e t o any o t h e r k i n d o f i m p e r i a l g o v e r n m e n t . I t i s when t h i s monarchy seems no l o n g e r r e s p o n s i b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e r i g h t s o f t h e S e n a t e , t h a t D i o l o s e s t h e d e t a c h e d p e r s p e c t i v e o f an h o n e s t h i s t o r i a n and r e p r e s e n t s t h e Emperor as more o f a t y r a n t t h a n he r e a l l y was ; The r e i g n o f T i b e r i u s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r i o d i n t h e h i s t o r i e s o f b o t h D i o and T a c i t u s , s i n c e t h e c a p a b l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f h i s f i r s t f i v e y e a r s was i n t h e m inds o f b o t h t h e manner i n w h i c h a P r i n c e p s . s h o u l d g o v e r n . The r a p i d change to. what was f o r them a supreme examp le o f d e g e n e r a t e r u l e a f f o r d e d t h e h i s t o r i a n s an a d m i r a b l e c o n t r a s t o f good and e v i l , a c o n t r a s t o f w h i c h b o t h t o o k f u l l a d v a n t a g e . W i t h G a i u s ' a c c e s s i o n t h e r e was a r e v i v a l o f hopes f o r a new o r d e r , b u t i n t h e s t y l e o f t r a g i c drama t h e s e d e l u s i o n s were t o be s h a t t e r e d by t h e r e v e l a t i o n t h a t t h e new E m p e r o r ' w a s n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h m a i n t a i n i n g what seemed t o h i m outmoded r e p u b l i c a n t r a d i t i o n s . Because G a i u s had l i t t l e r e s p e c t f o r t h e S e n a t e — h o w e v e r j u s t i f i e d h i s s u s p i c i o n s o f t h a t body w e r e - - o u r i m p e r i a l h i s t o r i a n s have p l a c e d h i m i n t h e same c a t e g o r y as Ne ro and D o m i t i a n . 5 2 T h i s commentary on D i o ' s h i s t o r y o f G a i u s ' r e i g n i s i n t e n d e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e w o r t h o f t h a t j u d g e m e n t . 22 NOTES 1 S i n c e a l l o u r i n f o r m a t i o n abou t D i o ' s l i f e comes f r o m ; t h e h i s t o r i a n h i m s e l f , p a r e n t h e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n r e f e r o n l y t o h i s Roman History. 2 C f . S u e t . Aug. 3 8 . 2 ; s e e on C h a p t e r 1.2 e s x o g o u X e u x f i p i o v . 3 F o r a rguments f a v o u r i n g t h e s e d a t e s , s e e G. V r i n d de Cassii Dionis Vooabulis p p . 1 6 4 - 6 5 ; F . M i l l a r A Study of Cassius Dio p p . 1 3 - 1 4 ; c f . P . L 'ambrechts La composition du Senat p . 1 7 1 , n o s . 1 1 4 8 - 4 9 . 4 C f . M i l l a r o p . c i t . p . 1 1 ; f o r o t h e r C a s s i i i n B i t h y n i a s e e BCH 24 (1900) 4 0 7 - 4 0 8 , n o s . . 9 0 - 9 2 . 5 C f . H . I . M a r r o u A.History of Education, in.Antiquity p p . 3 8 1 - 9 0 . 6 C f . M i l l a r o p . c i t . p . 1 2 0 , n . 1. 7 C f . M i l l a r o p . c i t . p p . 1 5 - 2 7 . 8 C f . M i l l a r o p . c i t . p . 1 7 , who r e f e r s t o a r e s c r i p t f r o m S e v e r u s t o a c e r t a i n D i o , a p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n o r (Digest. 50.12.2 [ P a u l u s ] : t h e r e f e r e n c e s h o u l d r e a d " 5 0 . 1 2 . 7 " ) . 9 M i l l a r (op . c i t . p p . 2 0 4 - 2 0 7 ) a c c e p t s t h e o r t h o d o x . v i e w b y d a t i n g D i o ' s f i r s t c o n s u l a r a p p o i n t m e n t t o A . D . 205 o r 206 . O t h e r s . , h o w e v e r , have s u g g e s t e d a d a t e d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f A l e x a n d e r S e v e r u s , c a . A . D . 2 2 2 , . t h u s r e d u c i n g t h e o t h e r w i s e e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y l o n g p e r i o d be tween h i s c o n s u l s h i p and h i s p r o -c o n s u l s h i p i n A f r i c a . . To a c c o u n t f o r t h e q u a r t e r o f a c e n t u r y be tween D i o ' s p r a e t o r s h i p and c o n s u l s h i p i n t h i s c a s e , s u p p o r t e r s . o f t h i s v i e w have i n v e n t e d an a n i m o s i t y b e t w e e n D i o and S e v e r u s c a u s e d , , t h e y c l a i m , by t h e h i s t o r i a n ' s c r i t i c i s m o f some o f t h e E m p e r o r ' s a c t s . O f c o u r s e , t h e r e i s no p r o o f t h a t t h i s l a t e p a r t o f t h e Roman History, was p u b l i s h e d o r even w r i t t e n b e f o r e S e v e r u s ' d e a t h ; and we know t h a t D i o , l i k e most s e n a t o r s o f t h e p e r i o d , c o u l d s u c c e s s f u l l y h i d e h i s t r u e f e e l i n g s f r om h i s r u l e r . 1 0 C f . J . C r o o k Consilium Principis p . . 8 1 ; M i l l a r o p . c i t . p p . 1 7 - 1 8 . 1 1 C f . M i l l a r o p . c i t . p . 23 . 1 2 H i s s e c o n d c o n s u l s h i p i s a t t e s t e d b y an i n s c r i p t i o n t h a t r e a d s i n p a r t : " i m p e r a [ n ] t e Domin [o ] | S e v e r o [ A l e ] | x [ a n ] d r o | c [ o s ] I I I e t C a s [ s i o ] | D i o n I I c o s " (AE 1 9 6 0 . 3 4 8 ) . 1 3 C f . T h u c . 1 . 2 2 . 4 : "ocro i 5e BouAricrovxou xGv xe yevoyevd iv T O aacj>es OKOTreiv K O U XOJV yeXXovTwv iroxe aS0is Kara xo a v O p a k i v o v xoxouxcov K O U T r a p a -.TTXriaTwv eaeo"9oa, (Ixj-eAiua i c p i v e i v a u x a aKpouvxcos e ^ e i . " 1 4 C f . L i v y p r a e f . 1 0 : " h o c i l l u d e s t p r a e c i p u e i n c o g n i t i o n e re rum s a l u b r e a c f r u g i f e r u m , omnis t e e x e m p l i documenta i n i n l u s t r i p o s i t a monumento i n t u e r i ; i n d e t i b i t u a e q u e r e i p u b l i c a e quod i m i t e r e c a p i a s ; i n d e foedum i n c e p t u foedum e x i t u quod v i t e s . " 23 1 5 Cf*. Ann. 4 . 3 3 . 2 : " s i c c o n v e r s e s t a t u , neque a l i a r e Romana quam s i unus i m p e r i t e t , h a e c c o n q u i r i t r a d i q u e i n rem f u e r i t , q u i a p a u c i p r u d e n t i a h o n e s t a ab d e t e r i o r i b u s , u t i l i a ab n o x i i s d i s c e r n u n t , p l u r e s a l i o r u m e v e n t i s d o c e n t u r " ; c f . Ann.. 3 . 6 5 . 1 ; Agr. 1 . 1 . 1 6 F o r t r a g i c d e s c r i p t i o n , s e e 5 9 . 2 9 . 6 - 7 ( t he m u r d e r o f G a i u s ) ; f o r ves gestae, s e e 5 6 . 3 5 - 4 1 ( T i b e r i u s ' f u n e r a l e u l o g y o f A u g u s t u s ) and 5 7 . 1 8 . 6 - 8 (on t h e d e a t h o f G e r m a n i c u s ) . 1 7 Compare t h e p a r a l l e l a c c o u n t s o f t h e e x e c u t i o n o f S e i a n u s ' f a m i l y ( D i o 5 8 . 1 1 ; T a c . Ann. 5 . 9 ) . 1 8 F o r D i o ' s use o f s p e e c h e s , s e e F . M i l l a r ME 18 (1961) 1 1 - 2 2 . 1 9 T h i s t o p i c has been a d m i r a b l y t r e a t e d by W . F . S n y d e r i n Klio 33 (1940) 3 9 - 5 6 . 2 0 D i o r e l a t e s , f o r e x a m p l e , C a e s a r ' s f i n a l c o n q u e s t o f G a u l f r o m 5 3 - 5 0 B . C . ( 4 0 . 3 1 - 4 4 ) , and t h e n r e t u r n s . to 53 B . C . t o d e s c r i b e e v e n t s i n Rome ( 4 0 . 4 5 f f . ) . In a s i m i l a r way he d e l a y s d i s c u s s i o n o f L u c i u s V i t e l l i u s ' campa ign a g a i n s t t h e P a r t h i a n A r t a b a n u s , w h i c h t o o k p l a c e a t t h e end o f T i b e r i u s ' r e i g n , t o t h e p l a c e where he d e s c r i b e s h i s r e c a l l t o Rome i n A . D . 40 ( 5 9 . 2 7 . 2 - 4 ) . 2 1 C f . C . Q u e s t a StudUrb 31 (1957) 4 5 - 4 8 . 2 2 R e g a r d i n g t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f t h e c o n s u l a r l i s t s appended t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f most o f t h e s u r v i v i n g b o o k s , s e e n o t e on t h e Index t o Book 5 9 . 2 3 See on C h a p t e r s 1.1 S x e S e ^ a x o ; 30 .1 e v e r e c r x . 2 h F o r a g e n e r a l s u r v e y o f D i o ' s u s e o f s o u r c e s s e e G. V r i n d Mn 54 (1926) 3 2 1 - 4 7 ; A . M o m i g l i a n o HAL 8 (1932) 2 9 3 - 3 3 6 ; R . A . . Marx Klio. 26 (1933) 3 2 3 - 2 9 ; E . Gabba RSI 71 (1959) 3 6 1 - 8 1 ; . F . M i l l a r A Study of Cassius Bio p p . 3 4 - 3 8 . 2 5 Compare t h e f o l l o w i n g comment o f T a c i t u s : " T i b e r i i G a i q u e e t C l a u d i i ac N e r o n i s r e s f l o r e n t i b u s i p s i s ob m e t u m . f a l s a e , pos tquam o c c i d e r a n t , r e c e n t i b u s o d i i s c o m p o s i t a e s u n t " (Ann. 1 . 1 . 5 ; c f . Eist. 1 . 1 ) . 2 6 F o r t h e aeta s e e on C h a p t e r 1 8 . 2 aXXoos. 2 7 University of Michigan Studies 1 (1904) 1 0 1 - 4 7 . 2 8 C f . D i o 5 1 . 2 0 . 7 . C o p i e s o f t h e o r i g i n a l i n s c r i p t i o n i n Rome had been s e t up a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l t e m p l e s o f A u g u s t u s and Roma, i n c l u d i n g . n o doub t t h a t i n B i t h y n i a n N i c o m e d i a n e a r D i o ' s home. 2 9 D i o ' s e r r o r , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d , b e g i n s w i t h t h e y e a r i n w h i c h C a e s a r c a u s e d u n e n d i n g c o n f u s i o n f o r h i s t o r i a n s b y i n t r o d u c i n g h i s r e f o r m o f t h e c a l e n d a r and a d d i n g e i g h t y days t o t h e y e a r 46 B . C . ( c f . Macr ' . Sat. 1 4 . 3 ) . 3 0 D i o ' s r e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e c o n s u l s ' names may i n f a c t be more s i g -n i f i c a n t t h a n i t f i r s t a p p e a r s : s e e t h e a r t i c l e by L . R . T a y l o r and T . R . S . B r o u g h t o n i n Eistoria 17 (1968) 1 6 6 - 7 1 . 24 31 See on C h a p t e r 21.2 TTOA'AOUS. 32 See on C h a p t e r 22.5 r c u T O u A i K O V . 33 C f . CAE 10.867. 34 C f . M i l l a r o p . c i t . p . 84; G . B . Townend Hermes 89 (1961) 227-48. 3 5 C f . Townend l o c . c i t . 36 T . Mommsen Hermes. 4 (1870) 295r-325. 37 M . P . C h a r l e s w o r t h Cambridge Historical Journal 4 (1933) 116. 38 C f . H. P e t e r Historiaorum Romanorum Reliquae 2, .114. 39 . A . M o m i g l i a n o RAL 8 (1932) 305. 40 85 C f . P . F a b i a Les Sources de Tacite p p . 169-83; (1964) 337-77. Townend l o c . c i t ; 4 1 Seneque: de la Clemence p . l v i . 4 2 D i o e l s e w h e r e (37 .16 .5 -17 .4 ) shows c o n s i d e r a b l e i g n o r a n c e o f J e w i s h h i s t o r y and l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r t h e o l o g y . E q u a l l y odd i s h i s t o t a l s i l e n c e abou t C h r i s t i a n s : t h e y a r e m e n t i o n e d t h r e e t i m e s by name, b u t a l l i n t h e e p i t o m e o f X i p h i l i n u s ( 7 0 . 3 . 1 - 2 ; 7 1 . 9 . 3 - 5 ; 7 2 . 4 . 7 ) ; and i n two o t h e r p a s s a g e s t h e y a r e a p p a r e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e Jews ( 6 7 . 1 4 . 1 - 2 ; 6 8 . 1 . 2 ) . X i p h i l i n u s i m p l i e s (71 .9 .6) t h a t D i o p u r p o s e l y f a i l e d t o m e n t i o n t h e T h u n d e r i n g L e g i o n o f C h r i s t i a n s u n d e r M a r c u s A u r e l i u s ; b u t h i s m o t i v e f o r , o m i t t i n g them i s o b s c u r e . D i o ' s r e t i c e n c e abou t t h i s r e l i g i o n i s a l l : t h e more r e m a r k a b l e s i n c e h i s home land was a f o c a l p o i n t f o r t h e s p r e a d a o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . 4 3 Compare D i o 5 9 . 4 . 5 - 6 w i t h Leg. 43.339-340 (595). 4 1 1 Compare D i o 57.2 w i t h Ann. 1.12. I * 5 O t h e r p a r a l l e l s can be f o u n d be tween D i o 58 .19 .3 -4 and Ann. 6 . 8 ; D i o 58 .23 .3 and Ann.. 6 . 4 6 . 8 . 1 * 6 The b e s t a n a l y s i s o f D i o ' s a t t i t u d e t o t h e P r i n c i p a t e can be f o u n d i n M i l l a r o p . c i t . p p . 92-118; some o f D i o ' s a n a c h r o n i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e A u g u s t a n and J u l i o - C l a u d i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n a r e a l s o d i s c u s s e d t h e r e . 1 + 7 Compare t h e s i m i l a r v i e w s o f T a c i t u s i n Hist.. 1 . 1 ; 2 .38 . h e Tacitus p . 272. 4 9 I t i s r a t h e r s u r p r i s i n g t h a t D i o saw o n l y democ racy as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o m o n a r c h y , i g n o r i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a r e s t o r e d s e n a t o r i a l o l i g a r c h y . We must r e g r e t t h e l o s s o f t h a t p o r t i o n o f h i s h i s t o r y w h i c h t r e a t e d t h e t h i r d and s e c o n d c e n t u r i e s B . C . , t h e acme o f s e n a t o r i a l s u p r e m a c y . A n t i - d e m o c r a t i c s e n t i m e n t s a p p e a r t h r o u g h o u t t h e s u r y i y i n g p o r t i o n o f h i s work ( f r . 110 .2 ; 4 4 . 2 . 1 - 4 ; 4 7 . 3 9 . 1 - 5 ; 5 4 . 6 . 1 ; c f . A p p . BC 4 .133 ) . 25 5 0 N o t i c e t h e f o l l o w i n g a n e c d o t e s t o l d o f Commodus: h i s p r e d e c e s s o r a d v i s e d t h e p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t t o d e s e r t t h e s e t t i n g f o r . t h e r i s i n g sun ( 7 1 . 3 4 . 1 ) ; he was t h e s l a v e o f h i s a s s o c i a t e s ( 7 2 . 1 . 1 ) ; he. mu rde red s e n a t o r s ( 7 2 . 5 ) and men who were wea l thy - o r l e a r n e d , t o r e p l e n i s h h i s t r e a s u r y o r ou t o f j e a l o u s y ( 7 2 . 7 . 3 ; 7 2 . 1 6 . 2 - 3 ) ; he u s e d p o i s o n f o r . t h e s e murde rs ( 7 2 . 4 . 1 ) ; h e o n c e m u r d e r e d a man whose i d e n t i t y had b e e n m i s t a k e n ( 7 2 . 6 . 3 ) ; he m u r d e r e d h i s commander o f t h e P r a e t o r i a n G u a r d s , . ( 7 2 . 9 . 1 - 1 0 . 1 ) ; he p a r t i c i p a t e d h i m s e l f i n c h a r i o t - r a c i n g ( 7 2 . 9 . 1 ; 7 2 . 1 0 . 2 - 3 ; 7 2 . 1 7 . 1 ) and as a g l a d i a t o r ( 7 2 . 1 7 . 2 - 3 ; 7 2 . 1 9 - 2 0 ) ; he i m i t a t e d s e v e r a l d e i t i e s ( 7 2 . 1 7 . 4 ) , p a r t i c u l a r l y H e r c u l e s ( 7 2 . 7 . 2 ; 7 2 . 1 5 . 2 ; 7 2 . 2 0 ; 2 ) ; he i s r e f e r r e d t o b y D i o as " t h i s H e r c u l e s , t h i s g o d " ( 7 2 . 1 6 . 1 ) . 5 1 C f . R. Syme i n Eistoire et historiens.. dans I'antiquite p p . 1 9 8 - 9 9 : "On t h e f a c e o f t h i n g s , T a c i t u s m i g h t be c l a i m e d a R e p u b l i c a n . . . . One l a y e r d e e p e r and he i s r e v e a l e d l i k e s o many o t h e r s as an o p p o r t u n i s t , a d v o c a t i n g t h e m i d d l e p a t h i n p o l i t i c s and h o p i n g t h a t c h a n c e o r d e s t i n y w o u l d b r i n g f o r t h some r u l e r who m i g h t be b e t t e r t h a n t h e w o r s t . " See a l s o T . A . Do rey G&R 7 (1960) 6 6 - 7 1 . 5 2 C f . B a l s d o n Gaius p . 156 . 26 INDEX The a u t h e n t i c i t y * o f t h e b r i e f o u t l i n e s and c o n s u l a r l i s t s appended t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f most o f t h e s u r v i v i n g b o o k s (37 t o 5 7 , and 59) i s d o u b t f u l . Not o n l y i s D i o c a r e f u l t o m e n t i o n t h e names o f t h e eponymous m a g i s t r a t e s i n t h e t e x t i t s e l f , wheneve r he b e g i n s a new y e a r , b u t i n some c a s e s t h e r e i s a d i s c r e p a n c y be tween t h e names i n t h e i n d e x and t h o s e i n t h e t e x t ( compa re , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e name ra iou/A iceppwvtou i n t he . i n d e x t o Book 59 w i t h - i t s e a r l i e r a p p e a r a n c e i n t h e t e x t a s Tva(ou [ 5 8 . 2 7 . 1 ] ) . F u r t h e r , t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t o p i c s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e o u t l i n e s i s q u i t e a r b i t r a r y and d o e s n o t a l w a y s a c c o r d w i t h what D i o i n t h e t e x t e m p h a s i z e s as i m p o r t a n t . On t h e s e p o i n t s , s e e f u r t h e r S t u r z 7 , 5 3 5 , C o n s u l s o f A . D . 37 t o A . D . 41 A . D . 37 o r d i n a r i i Cn . A c e r r o n i u s P r o c u l u s (PIR A 32) C. P e t r o n i u s P o n t i u s N i g r i n u s (PTR1 P 218) 1 J a n . - 30 J u n e c f . C h . 6 . 5 s u f f e c t i C. C a e s a r A u g u s t u s Ge rman i cus I (PIP I 217) T i . C l a u d i u s Ne ro German i cus I (PIE2 C 942) 1 J u l y - 31 A u g . c f . C h . 6 . 5 ; 7 . 9 A . C a e c i n a P a e t u s (PIR C 103) C . C a n i n i u s R e b i l u s (PIR2 C 393) A . D . 38 h 1 S e p t . - (? ) 31 D e c . c f . C h . 7 . 9 o r d i n a r i i M. A q u i l a I u l i a n u s (PIR A 982) P . N o n i u s A s p r e n a s (PIR1 N 95) 1 J a n . - 30 J u n e c f . C h . 9 .1 s u f f e c t i S e r . A s i n i u s C e l e r (PIR A 1225) S e x . N o n i u s Q u i n t i l i a n u s (PIR1 N 116) 1 J u l y - (?) 31 D e c . c f . C h . 9 .1 A . D . 39 o r d i n a r i i C . C a e s a r A u g u s t u s Ge rman i cus I I 2 L. A p r o n i u s C a e s i a n u s (PIR A 972) 1 J a n . - 30 J a n . 1 J a n . - 30 J u n e c f . C h . 1 3 . 1 - 2 ( A . D . 39) Q. S a n q u i n i u s Maximus I I (TIB1 S 136) (?) C n . D o m i t i u s C o r b u l o (PIE2 D 141) C n . D o m i t i u s A f e r (PIR2 D 126) A . D . 40 C. C a e s a r A u g u s t u s Ge rman i cus I I I Q. L u t a t i u s L u s i u s S a t u r n i n u s (PIP? £ 449') M. S e i u s V e i a n u s (PIR1 S 249) C. L a e c a n i u s B a s s u s (PIR? L 3 0 ) Q. T e r e n t i u s C u l l e o (PIR1 T 54) A . D . 41 C. C a e s a r A u g u s t u s Ge rman i cus IV C n . S e n t i u s S a t u r n i n u s (PIR1 S 296) Q. Pomponius Secundus (PIR1 P 564) 31 J a n . - 30 J u n e 1 J u l y - c a . 2 S e p t . c a . 5 S e p t . - (?) 31 D e c . c f . C h . 1 3 . 2 c f . . C h . 2 0 . 1 , 3 1 J a n . - 13 J a n . c f . C h . 2 4 . 2 , 6 14 J a n . - b e f o r e 13 M a r . c f . C h . 2 4 . 7 b e f o r e 13 M a r . -(? ) 30 J u n e c f . C h . 2 4 . 7 C O 1 J a n . - 7 J a n . 1 J a n . - (?) 30 J u n e 7 J a n . - (?) 30 J u n e c f . C h . 2 9 . 5 c f . C h . 2 9 . 5 29 CHAPTER ONE 1,1 SxeSe^axo <Se aurov o Favos; T i b e r i u s d i e d on 16 March . A . D . 14 ( T a c . Ann, 6 , 5 0 . 7 ; S u e t . Tib. 7 3 . 1 ; Fasti Oetienses = E§J p , 4 3 ) , D i o ( 5 8 . 2 8 , 5 ) wrong ly - g i v e s t h e d a t e as 26 M a r c h , a m i s t a k e t h a t i s c l e a r l y h i s and n o t t h a t o f a c o p y i s t , f o r he goes on t o s a y t h a t T i b e r i u s r u l e d 22 y e a r s , 7 m o n t h s , and 7 d a y s , w h i c h , c o m p u t i n g f r o m t h e d e a t h o f A u g u s t u s on 19 A u g u s t A , D . 1 4 , a l s o p l a c e s T i b e r i u s ' d e a t h on 26 M a r c h . T h a t t h e d a t e c o u l d n o t have been t h e 2 6 t h i s c o n f i r m e d b y t h e Acta Arvalium (CIL 6 . 2 0 2 8 c = 3 2 3 4 6 e , 10 -14 = S m a l l w o o d n o . 3 ) , w h i c h g i v e G a i u s ' dies imperii as 18 M a r c h . M . P . Grenade (BEL 33 [1955] 5 4 - 5 5 ) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t D i o ' s m i s t a k e n d a t e i s n o t t h e r e s u l t o f a s i m p l e e r r o r , b u t o f an u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o a l l o w a h i a t u s o f t w e l v e d a y s be tween r e i g n s . A c c o r d i n g t o G r e n a d e , D i o ' s s o u r c e m e n t i o n e d t h e t w o - d a y i n t e r v a l be tween T i b e r i u s ' d e a t h and G a i u s ' a c c e s s i o n , b u t s u g g e s t e d t h a t G a i u s ' dies imperii c o i n c i d e d w i t h h i s e n t r y i n t o Rome on 28 M a r c h , a d a y whose i m p o r t a n c e i s p e r h a p s e x a g g e r a t e d b y b o t h D i o and S u e t o n i u s (see n o t e on C h a p t e r 1.2 es TO ouvecSpiov). C o n c e r n i n g t h e p a r t a t t r i b u t e d t o G a i u s i n h i s p r e d e c e s s o r ' s d e a t h , s e e on C h a p t e r 1 0 . 6 xSv eicetvou and S e a g e r Tiberius p p . 2 4 4 - 4 5 ) . G a i u s o f f i c i a l l y became E m p e r o r , t h e n , on 18 M a r c h , a l t h o u g h he had p r o b a b l y been f i r s t a c c l a i m e d , a t t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f M a c r o , b y t h e P r a e t o r i a n G u a r d s s t a t i o n e d a t M isenum ( c f . P a r e t i Storia 4 . 7 6 3 - 7 6 4 ) ; he was h a i l e d as imperator b y a m e e t i n g o f t h e S e n a t e on t h a t d a y , p r e s u m a b l y i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r news o f T i b e r i u s ' d e a t h had a r r i v e d f r om C a p r e a e (see on C h a p t e r 1 . 2 ) . H i s a c c e s s i o n was g r e e t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e E m p i r e as t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new a g e , a r e t u r n t o t h e g l o r y o f t h e r e i g n o f A u g u s t u s . P u b l i c r e j o i c i n g seems t o h a v e been u n i v e r s a l . P e o p l e saw h im as t h e son o f G e r m a n i c u s , and on t h i s h i s i n i t i a l p o p u l a r i t y was b a s e d ( S u e t . Gaius 1 3 - 1 4 . 1 ) . In 30 A l e x a n d r i a , a c c o r d i n g t o P h i l o (Leg. 2 . 8 - 1 3 [ 5 4 6 - 5 4 7 ] ) , a l l were a s t o n i s h e d a t t h e p r o s p e r i t y w h i c h G a i u s i n h e r i t e d f r om h i s p r e d e c e s s o r : a f u l l t r e a s u r y , s t r o n g m i l i t a r y f o r c e , and emp i re o v e r t h e e n t i r e c i v i l i z e d w o r l d had been g r a n t e d t o a young man o f g l o r i o u s f a m i l y and e x e m p l a r y c h a r a c t e r : i t seemed t o some a r e t u r n t o t h e Age o f S a t u r n (see a l s o Leg. 32 .231 [ 5 8 0 ] ; 4 5 . 3 5 6 [ 5 9 8 ] ; in Flaoo. 1 2 . 9 7 - 1 0 1 [ 5 3 1 - 5 3 2 ] ) . In a d e c r e e o f C y z i c u s on h i s a c c e s -s i o n , he i s called o v e o s ^ H X i o s (SIG 798 = Sma l lwood n o . 4 0 1 ) ; w i t h e q u a l f l a t t e r y t h e d e c r e e o f A s s o s i n t h e T r o a d r e c o r d s that " o u S e v <Se uexpov x a P ^ s £UpnK<£>V o KOCTUOS" (SIG 797 = S m a l l w o o d n o , 3 3 ) ; t h e C o u n c i l o f A c h a e a n s , B o e o t i a n s , L o c r i a n s , P h o c i a n s , and Euboeans asked p e r m i s s i o n t o e r e c t s t a t u e s t o t h e new Empero r (ILS 8792 = Sma l lwood n o . 3 6 1 ; s e e on C h a p t e r 4 . 4 eitcovas); and t h r o u g h o u t t h e E m p i r e more than 1 6 0 , 0 0 0 s a c r i f i c e s were s a i d t o have b e e n made t o h im i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e months o f h i s r u l e ( S u e t . Gaius 1 4 , 1 ) . F o r o a t h s o f a l l e g i a n c e t o G a i u s taken by p r o v i n c i a l s , s e e J o s e p h u s AJ 1 8 , 5 , 3 [124] (Judaea); rLS 190 = Sma l lwood n o . 32 ( L u s i t a n i a ) ; and SIG 797 = Sma l lwood n o . 3 3 . ( A s i a ) . A s i m i l a r o a t h taken b y t h e C y p r i o t s on T i b e r i u s ' a c c e s s i o n i s d e s c r i b e d b y T . B . M i t f o r d i n JRS50 (1960) 7 5 - 7 9 . 1,1 b TOU TepuaviKOU KCQ THS 'AypiTnTivris ucus: G a i u s was t h e last s u r v i v i n g s o n o f G e r m a n i c u s and A g r i p p i n a . O f t h e i r n i n e c h i l d r e n , two d i e d i n i n f a n c y and a t h i r d i n c h i l d h o o d ; t h e o t h e r two s o n s , Ne ro and D r u s u s , d i e d i n A . D . 31 and 33 r e s p e c t i v e l y ; and G a i u s ' t h r e e s i s t e r s , A g r i p p i n a , D r u s i l l a , and J u l i a were t o p l a y i m p o r t a n t r o l e s i n G a i u s ' b r i e f r e i g n ( S u e t . Gaius 7 ; s e e on C h a p t e r 3 . 5 ) , F o r t h e c h i l d r e n o f G e r m a n i c u s and A g r i p p i n a who d i e d a t an e a r l y a g e , s e e R o s b o r o u g h p p . 1 1 - 1 2 ; f o r t h e f a m i l y i n g e n e r a l , T . Mommsen Hemes 13 Q 8 7 8 ) 2 4 5 - 6 5 . 31 1.1 K a X i y o A a v : He was g i v e n t h e name as a mark o f a f f e c t i o n b y h i s f a t h e r ' s t r o o p s on t h e R h i n e f r o n t i e r , where he was b r o u g h t u p , b e c a u s e he o f t e n wore a s m a l l p a i r o f oaligae o r m i l i t a r y b o o t s i n s t e a d o f s a n d a l s (D io 5 7 . 5 . 6 ; S u e t . Gaius 9 ; T a c i t u s [Ann. 1 . 4 1 . 3 ] f o l l o w s t h e e r r o n e o u s i d e a g i v e n by P l i n y t h e E l d e r t h a t G a i u s had been b o r n i n t h e l e g i o n a r y camp [ see on C h a p t e r 7 . 2 ] ; c f . S u d a , s. K a A A t y o A a s ; S e n . Const. Sap. 1 8 ) . T a c i t u s ( l o c , c i t . ) adds t h a t G a i u s wore s u c h m i l i t a r y c l o t h e s M a d c o n c i l i a n d a v u l g i s t u d i a , " and i n Annals 1 . 6 9 . 5 s t a t e s more d e f i n i t e l y t h a t A g r i p p i n a e n c o u r a g e d t h e u s e o f t h e name " C a l i g u l a " b y t h e s o l d i e r s as a means o f s h o w i n g l o y a l t y t o G e r m a n i c u s , and t h a t S e i a n u s c a u s e d T i b e r i u s c o n c e r n b y s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e b o y was t o o c l o s e t o t h e s o l d i e r s . D e s p i t e S u e t o n i u s ' s t a t e m e n t (Gaius 52) t h a t G a i u s somet imes wore speculatoviae oaligae e v e n w h i l e E m p e r o r , i t i s c l e a r f r o m S e n e c a ' s comment ( l o c . c i t ; ) t h a t G a i u s c o n s i d e r e d s u c h a s o b r i q u e t u n b e f i t t i n g h i s s t a t i o n , and p u n i s h e d a c e n t u r i o n f o r u s i n g i t . T h i s i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , p e r h a p s , s i n c e oaligae were n o r m a l l y worn o n l y by common s o l d i e r s up t o t h e r a n k o f c e n t u r i o n ( S u e t . Aug, 2 5 . 3 ; Vit. 7 . 3 ; P l i n y HN 7 . 4 3 . 1 3 5 ; S e n . Ben. 5 . 1 6 . 2 : " C . M a r i u s ad c o n s u l a t u s a c a l i g a p e r d u c t u s " ) . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g , and p e r h a p s n o t i r r e l e v a n t t o G a i u s ' d i s l i k e o f t h e name, t h a t i n 41 B . C . t h e p a r t y o f F u l v i a and L u c i u s A n t o n i u s made f u n o f t h e v e t e r a n s b y c a l l i n g them BouAnv K a A i y a x a v (D io 4 8 . 1 2 . 3 ) . The name " C a l i g u l a " a p p e a r e d on no c o i n s , and t h e o n l y e p i g r a p h i c e v i d e n c e f o r i t i s a s i n g l e i n s c r i p t i o n — a ' f o r g e d o n e — f r o m G a l l i p o l i (CIL 3 , 2 8 * ) , w h i c h b e g i n s " C . C a l i g u l a i m p . A u g u s t , p . p . p . m a x . " (see R o s b o r o u g h , p . 4 6 , f o r an a c c o u n t o f i t s " d i s c o v e r e r , " Andre 1 T h e v e t [ c a . 1 5 7 5 ] ) . 32 1.1 TW T i g e p i w xw lyy-ovo): Tw in s o n s were b o r n t o D r u s u s and L i v i l l a i n A . D . 1 9 , v e r y s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f G e r m a n i c u s f j a c . Ann, 2 . 8 4 . 1 ) . H i r s c h f e l d (Hermes 25 [1890] 3 6 3 - 7 3 ) a r g u e s t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t h a v e been b o m u n t i l A . D . 20 s i n c e , b y t h e t i m e o f T i b e r i u s ' d e a t h , G e m e l l u s had n o t y e t assumed t h e toga v i r i l i s , w h i c h (he s a y s ) u s u a l l y happened by t h e e i g h t e e n t h y e a r . In f a c t , t h e ceremony t o o k p l a c e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f pube r t y - ( G a i u s Inst, 2 . 1 1 3 ) , b u t a t l e a s t b y t h e age o f 1 7 , when boys became l i a b l e f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e (see S h e r w i n - W h i t e on P l i n y• Ep. 1 . 9 . 2 ) . Y e t G a i u s h i m s e l f d i d n o t assume t h e toga v i r i l i s u n t i l h i s n i n e t e e n t h y e a r ( S u e t . Gaius 1 0 ) , and t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t T i b e r i u s w o u l d have a c t e d d i f f e r e n t l y i n r e g a r d t o h i s g r a n d s o n G e m e l l u s (see W i l l r i c h Caligula p . 1 0 8 , n . 2 ; F u r n e a u x on Ann. 2 . 8 4 . 1 ) . The t w i n s were named G e r m a n i c u s and T i b e r i u s G e m e l l u s ( c f . ILS 1 7 0 ) : t h e f o r m e r d i e d a t t h e age o f f o u r i n A . D . 23 ( T a c . Ann. 4 . 1 5 . 1 ; D i o [ 5 7 . 1 4 . 6 ] a p p a r e n t l y r e c o r d s h i s d e a t h f o u r y e a r s b e f o r e h i s b i r t h ) . On t h e d a t e o f G e m e l l u s ' b i r t h , see f u r t h e r D e s s a u (p . 1 0 4 ) , who c a n n o t d e c i d e be tween A . D . 19 and 2 0 ; and S m a l l w o o d . Legatio p . 1 7 2 , who h e s i t a n t l y f a v o u r s a d a t e l a t e r t h a n A . D . 1 9 . L i t t l e i s known o f G e m e l l u s i n h i s y o u t h , e x c e p t t h a t he was h a t e d b y h i s g r a n d f a t h e r , who s u s p e c t e d t h a t he was n o t t h e s o n o f D r u s u s ( S u e t . Tib. 6 2 . 3 ) ; D i o ( 5 7 . 2 2 . 4 b ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s s u s p i c i o n was p l a n t e d i n T i b e r i u s ' m ind b y S e i a n u s as e a r l y as t h e t i m e o f D r u s u s ' d e a t h i n A . D . 2 3 , b u t t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t L i v i l l a was u n f a i t h f u l t o D r u s u s n j n t i l h e r a f f a i r w i t h S e i a n u s ; so T i b e r i u s c o u l d n o t have b e l i e v e d G e m e l l u s t o be a b a s t a r d u n t i l A . D . 3 1 , when S e i a n u s ' w i f e A p i c a t a r e v e a l e d t h e l i a i s o n (D io 5 8 . 1 1 . 6 ; on A p i c a t a ' s l e t t e r t o T i b e r i u s , s e e J . P . V . D . B a l s d o n CR 1 [1951] 7 5 ) . C f . M a r s h Tiberius p . 2 8 1 ; S e a g e r Tiberius p . 1 8 0 , n . 5 . 33 G a i u s , t o o , i t must be remembered , was T i b e r i u s ' l e g a l g r a n d s o n , s i n c e h i s f a t h e r G e r m a n i c u s had been a d o p t e d b y - T i b e r i u s i n A . D . 4 ( p i o 5 5 . 1 3 . 2 ; T a c . Ann. 4 . 5 7 . 5 ; S u e t . Tib. 1 5 . 2 ; Gaius 4; c f , T a c . Ann. 6 . 4 6 ; S u e t , Tib. 5 4 . 1 ; Gaius 1 4 . 1 ) . 1.1 xnv a u x a p x ^ a v Kaxe'AiTrev: C f . S u e t . Tib. 7 6 , T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t A u g u s t u s w i s h e d G e r m a n i c u s and h i s f a m i l y ; t o r u l e . No t o n l y had he f o r c e d T i b e r i u s t o adop t G e r m a n i c u s as h i s h e i r , b u t i n h i s w i l l he had named t h e t h r e e s o n s o f G e r m a n i c u s " C a e s a r e s " (D io 5 7 . 1 8 . 1 1 . On t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e t i t l e Caesar, c f . D i o 5 3 . 1 8 . 2 : i t c a r r i e d no p o w e r s , b u t showed " x n v xou y e v o u s acjuov S i a t S o y n v . " The t i t l e had come t o G a i u s and L u c i u s t h r o u g h t h e i r a d o p t i o n b y A u g u s t u s [ e . g . , E§J 7 6 ; c f . D i o 5 5 . 9 . 7 ] ) . T i b e r i u s ' d i l emma was w h e t h e r t o f o l l o w A u g u s t u s ' i n t e n t i n t h i s c a s e as c l o s e l y has he had i n a l l o t h e r m a t t e r s o f i m p e r i a l i m p o r t a n c e , o r t o advance t h e i n t e r e s t s o f h i s n a t u r a l s o n , D r u s u s (on t h i s p o i n t , see p a r t i c u l a r l y S e a g e r Tiberius p p . 1 1 8 - 2 2 ) . A l l t h e e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t T i b e r i u s i n A . D , 20 c o n s i d e r e d G e r m a n i c u s ' s o n Nero t o be h i s s u c c e s s o r ( T a c . Ann. 3 . 2 9 ) . But w i t h t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f Nero and t h e young D r u s u s b y A . D . 33 ( see on C h a p t e r 3 . 5 x a xe o a x a ) , t h e p r o b l e m o f s u c c e s s i o n was a g a i n r a i s e d ; T h e i r b r o t h e r G a i u s , now 21 y e a r s o l d , was t h e s o l e s u r v i v i n g member o f G e r m a n i c u s ' f a m i l y , and T i b e r i u s G e m e l l u s , aged 1 4 , was t h e o n l y o t h e r p o s s i b l e c o n t e n d e r as s u c c e s s o r t o t h e i m p e r i a l p o w e r . T i b e r i u s was o n c e a g a i n f a c e d w i t h d e c i d i n g be tween A u g u s t u s ' w i s h e s and t h e d e s i r e t o be s u c c e e d e d b y a d i r e c t d e s c e n d a n t . W i t h o u t c e r t a i n e v i d e n c e t o t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e r e c a n be no r e a s o n t o assume t h a t he had changed h i s h a b i t o f a d h e r i n g t o A u g u s t u s ' p r e c e p t s . On T i b e r i u s ' a t t i t u d e t o t h e s u c c e s s i o n , s e e p a r t i c u l a r l y M a r s h Tiberius p p . 1 6 0 - 9 0 ; S m a l l w o o d Legatio p p . 1 6 9 - 7 1 . 34 The e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d by- t h e s o u r c e s i n t h i s m a t t e r i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y . P h i l o c a l l s G e m e l l u s "KOIVOOVOV <S'e TQS- apxfis" (in Flacc, 3 . 1 0 [ 5 1 8 ] ; c f . Leg. 4 , 2 3 [ 5 4 9 ] ) ; and a c c o r d i n g t o S u e t o n i u s (Gains 1 9 . 3 ) , T i b e r i u s n e v e r d e f i n i t e l y d e c i d e d w h i c h o f t h e two w o u l d be h i s s u c c e s s o r , b u t i n c l i n e d t o w a r d s h i s g r a n d s o n G e m e l l u s . In s u p p o r t o f t h i s v i e w i t c a n be p o i n t e d ou t t h a t S e i a n u s had c l e a r l y t h o u g h t t h a t G e m e l l u s w o u l d be d e c l a r e d T i b e r i u s * h e i r , s i n c e he a s k e d t h e Empero r f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o m a r r y L i v i l l a , t h e b o y ' s m o t h e r , i n hopes o f b e i n g a p p o i n t e d r e g e n t ( T a c . Ann. 4 . 3 9 ; s e e M a r s h Tiberius p . 1 6 8 ; S e a g e r Tiberius p p . 1 9 5 - 9 8 ) . T h i s i n i t s e l f i s n o t s u f -f i c i e n t p r o o f o f T i b e r i u s ' i n t e n t : S e i a n u s , i t was l a t e r shown , c o u l d e a s i l y be d e c e i v e d by t h e Emperor (D io 5 8 , 9 - 1 0 ) ; and we know a l s o t h a t S e i a n u s f e l t i t n e c e s s a r y t o d i s p o s e o f G a i u s b e f o r e t h e a c c e s s i o n o f G e m e l l u s c o u l d be g u a r a n t e e d ( T a c . Ann. 6 . 3 ) . T a c i t u s , s a y s t h a t T i b e r i u s h e s i t a t e d be tween G e m e l l u s and G a i u s : t h e f o r m e r was n o t y e t an a d u l t , w h i l e t h e l a t t e r was p o p u l a r and so " a p u d avum o d i i c a u s a " ; even C l a u d i u s was c o n s i d e r e d , b u t was d i s m i s s e d b e c a u s e o f h i s i n s t a b i l i t y ; f i n a l l y , " i n c e r t u s a n i m i , f e s s o c o r p o r e , c o n s i l i u m , c u i i m p a r e r a t , f a t o p e r m i s i t " (Ann, 6 . 4 6 . 1 - 8 ) . C l e a r l y T a c i t u s t h o u g h t t h a t t o d e c l a r e j o i n t h e i r s was t o a p p o i n t j o i n t s u c c e s s o r s ( W i l l r i c h ' s s u g g e s t i o n {Caligula p , 112] t h a t G a i u s ' c o n t e m p o x a r i e s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e E m p i r e c o u l d be b e q u e a t h e d i s c e r t a i n l y t r u e o f t h e s o - c a l l e d Gemellus'partei'), J o s e p h u s f o l l o w s t h e same t r a d i t i o n as T a c i t u s , a d d i n g t h a t T i b e r i u s wan ted t o d e s i g n a t e G e m e l l u s as h i s s u c c e s s o r , bu t p r o p o s e d t o l e t t h e gods d e c i d e by-way- o f a u g u r y : and t h e gods showed h i m G a i u s i n s t e a d (AJ 1 8 . 6 . 9 [ 2 1 1 - 2 1 2 ; 2 1 9 ] ; s e e a l s o 1 8 , 6 , 6 [ 1 8 8 ] , where i t i s t a k e n as a s i g n t h a t T i b e r i u s i n t e n d e d G e m e l l u s t o be h i s h e i r , when he a s k e d Herod A g r i p p a t o w a t c h o v e r and c o u n s e l h i m ; one o f t h e r e a s o n s why- A g r i p p a was j a i l e d was t h a t he 35 i g n o r e d t h e s e o r d e r s and p a i d c o u r t t o G a i u s i n s t e a d (see on C h a p t e r 8 . 2 • A y p i T T T r a v ] ) , D i o h i m s e l f , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , g i v e s s e v e r a l i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t T i b e r i u s l o o k e d t o G a i u s as h i s s u c c e s s o r : n o t on ly - was G a i u s " C a e s a r " a f t e r A . D . 14 (D io 5 7 . 1 8 . 1 1 ) , b u t h i s c r e a t i o n a s p o n t i f e x i n A . D . 31 was a c c o m p a n i e d by i n d i c a t i o n s f r o m T i b e r i u s t h a t he w o u l d be t h e n e x t E m p e r o r , i n d i c a t i o n s we lcomed b y t h e p o p u l a c e b e c a u s e o f G a i u s ' p a r e n t a g e ( 5 8 . 8 . 1 - 2 ; TLS 1 8 9 ) . The E m p e r o r ' s i n t e n t was shown a g a i n i n A . D . 33 when G a i u s was a p p o i n t e d q u a e s t o r and was g r a n t e d p e r m i s s i o n t o h o l d o t h e r o f f i c e s f i v e y e a r s b e f o r e t h e l e g a l age ( 5 8 . 2 3 . 1 - 2 ; c f . C I L 1 2 . 1 8 4 8 , 1 8 4 9 1 The same h o n o u r o f h o l d i n g t h e q u a e s t o r s h i p f i v e y e a r s e a r l y had been g r a n t e d t o T i b e r i u s h i m s e l f (D io 5 3 . 2 8 , 3 - 4 ; c f . S u e t . Tib. 9 . 3 ) , b u t he was n o t t h e n c o n s i d e r e d A u g u s t u s ' s u c c e s s o r , s i n c e a t t h e same t i m e M a r c e l l u s was a l l o w e d a t e n - y e a r s ' a d v a n c e ( c f . T a c . Ann. 1 2 . 4 1 ) . We can r e j e c t w i t h some c o n f i d e n c e t h e n o t i o n t h a t T i b e r i u s i n t e n d e d G e m e l l u s t o s u c c e e d h i m , a t l e a s t d i r e c t l y : t h e b o y ' s age was a g a i n s t h i m , as b o t h D i o and T a c i t u s a g r e e ; W i l l r i c h {Caligula p . 105) compares t h i s t o t h e s i t u a t i o n i n 23 B . C . when t h e a i l i n g A u g u s t u s i n d i c a t e d A g r i p p a r a t h e r t h a n t h e young M a r c e l l u s as h i s s u c c e s s o r . A t m o s t , i t m i g h t be a d m i t t e d t h a t by- T i b e r i u s ' w i l l G a i u s was f o r c e d t o adop t G e m e l l u s , as T i b e r i u s h i m s e l f had a d o p t e d G e r m a n i c u s . N o r was i t i n k e e p i n g w i t h T i b e r i u s ' c a r e f u l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f i m p e r i a l a f f a i r s t o l e a v e t h e c h o i c e o f s u c c e s s o r up t o t h e gods o r t o t h e y o u t h s t h e m s e l v e s , d e s p i t e t h e a rguments o f b o t h R. Y i l l e r s QiEL 28 [1950] 249-5 0) and L . L e s u i s s e (Les etudes olassiques 30 [1962] 4 3 - 4 4 ) . The most a c c e p t a b l e e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t T i b e r i u s c o n s i d e r e d G a i u s , i f n o t t h e b e s t , a t l e a s t t h e o n l y s u i t a b l e p e r s o n t o s u c c e e d h i m . I t w a s , a f t e r a l l , G a i u s and n o t G e m e l l u s who was summoned t o C a p r e a e , p r o b a b l y b e f o r e A u g u s t A . D . 3 2 , d e s p i t e t h e s t a t e m e n t by 36 S u e t o n i u s (Gaius 10) t h a t i t was i n B i s n i n e t e e n t h y e a r ( h i s c h r o n o l o g y t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s e c t i o n i s f a u l t y ^ we know, f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t G a i u s was-p o n t i f e x two y e a r s b e f o r e h i s m a r r i a g e t o C l a u d i l l a [D io 5 8 . 8 . 1 ; T a c . Ann. 6 . 2 0 . 1 ] , y e t S u e t o n i u s r e v e r s e s t h e o r d e r o f t h e s e e v e n t s [Gaius 1 2 . 1 ; f o r C l a u d i l l a , s e e on C h a p t e r 8 . 7 ; f o r t h e p r o b l e m o f d a t i n g G a i u s ' move t o C a p r e a e , s e e F u r n e a u x and Kbes te rmann on T a c . Ann. 6 . 2 0 . 1 ] ) . I t now r e m a i n s t o e x p l a i n why , g i v e n t h a t T i b e r i u s saw G a i u s as h i s o n l y p o s s i b l e s u c c e s s o r , he d i d n o t e x p r e s s h i s w i s h e s more c l e a r l y , b u t i n s t e a d l e f t what now seems t o h a v e been an ambiguous w i l l . P a r t o f t h e answer l i e s i n t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t G a i u s , " a l s l e i b l i c h e r U r e n k e l des A u g u s t u s , des S t i f t e r s d e r D y n a s t i e " (Dessau p . 1 0 4 ) , had a much s t r o n g e r c l a i m t o t h e s u c c e s s i o n t h a n G e m e l l u s , a c l a i m t h a t was r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e Romans ( c f . J . B e r a n g e r EEL 17 [1939] 1 7 5 : " C a l i g u l a , d e s c e n d a n t d i r e c t d ' A u g u s t e , . . . s u c c e d a a T i b e r e . Ce d e r n i e r ne 1 ' a v a i t p o u r t a n t p a s d e s i g n e f o r m e l l e m e n t e t on l u i a r e p r o c h e 5 de ne r i e n decider e t de s ' e n r e m e t t r e au d e s t i n . Nous i n f e r o n s , au c o n t r a i r e , du s i l e n c e de T i b e r e , que l a s u c c e s s i o n I t a i t viglee t a c i t e m e n t " ) . I t must be remembered , t o o , t h a t T i b e r i u s , a l t h o u g h 77 y e a r s o l d i n A . D . 3 7 , e x p e c t e d t o l i v e s e v e r a l y e a r s l o n g e r (D io 5 8 . 2 7 . 3 ; S u e t . Tib. 6 2 ) . By A u g u s t o f A . D . 37 G a i u s w o u l d be 25 y e a r s o l d and l e g a l l y a b l e t o h o l d a p r a e t o r s h i p ( c f . D i o 5 2 . 2 0 . 2 ; 5 8 . 2 3 . 1 - 2 ; W i l l - r i c h Caligula p p . 1 0 4 - 5 ; A b b o t t Roman Political Institutions p . 3 7 5 ; Mommsen Staatsr. 1 . 5 5 5 , n . 3 ) . A f t e r h i s p r a e t o r s h i p i t w o u l d have been s u i t a b l e f o r h i m t o be g r a n t e d p r o c o n s u l a r imperium and p e r h a p s even t r i b u n i c i a n p o w e r , t h e two symbo ls b y w h i c h A u g u s t u s had d e s i g n a t e d T i b e r i u s as h i s s u c c e s s o r (D io 5 6 . 2 8 . 1 ; T a c . Ann. 1 . 3 ; S u e t . Tib. 2 1 . 1 ; V e i l . 2 . 1 2 1 . 1 ) . W i t h s u c h p o w e r s b e s t o w e d upon h im b y t h e S e n a t e , G a i u s wou ld n o t have been t h r e a t e n e d b y G e m e l l u s ' p o s i t i o n a s c o - h e i r i n T i b e r i u s ' w i l l ( i t s h o u l d be 37 n o t i c e d h e r e t h a t t h e r e i s r e a l l y - no s i m i l a r i t y - a t a l l be tween t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f Gemel lus - t o G a i u s i n A . D . 37 and t h a t o f G e r m a n i c u s t o T i b e r i u s i n A . D . 1 4 ) . But t h e E m p e r o r ' s b e l i e f i n h i s l o n g e v i t y - was i l l r - f o u n d e d . D i o i s t h e o n l y s o u r c e so b o l d as t o s t a t e t h a t T i b e r i u s a c t u a l l y b e q u e a t h e d t h e E m p i r e t o h i s h e i r o r h e i r s . A l t h o u g h S u e t o n i u s d i d t h i n k t h a t t h e E m p i r e c o u l d be b e q u e a t h e d ( c f . Gaius 2 4 . 1 ) , J . BeVanger (op . c i t . p . 1 7 1 , n . 3) h a s shown t h a t he d i d n o t c o n s i d e r t h e s u c c e s s i o n t o be t h e same as t h e i n h e r i t a n c e o f p r o p e r t y - . In f a c t , t h e one a l w a y s a c c o m p a n i e d t h e o t h e r , a s T a c i t u s r e a l i z e d when he had G a l b a comment " u n i u s f a m i l i a e quasi h e r e d i t a s f u i m u s " (Hist. 1 . 1 6 ) . I n h e r i t a n c e o f t h e E m p i r e i s , o f c o u r s e , n o n s e n s e , f o r w h i l e a w i l l b e q u e a t h i n g a patrimonium w o u l d d o u b t l e s s i n f l u e n c e t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h o s e s e l e c t i n g a s u c c e s s o r , i t c o u l d by no means i n c l u d e t h e i m p e r i a l p o w e r : t h i s r e m a i n e d , a t l e a s t i n t h e o r y , u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e S e n a t e , D i o made t h e same e r r o r when s p e a k i n g o f C a e s a r ' s a d o p t i o n o f O c t a v i u s , "5s KOU XOU o v o u a x o s <ca i n s e £ o i x n a s xr is xe uovapx' tas- S i a S o x o v KaxaXev^cov" ( 4 5 . 1 . 2 ; c f . 4 5 . 2 . 7 ; A p p . BC 3 . 2 . 1 9 ) , abou t w h i c h V i H e r s (op . c i t . p . 241) has made t h e r e a s o n a b l e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t " l a f i l i a t i o n a d o p t i v e de C e s a r ne l u i d o n n a i t q u ' u n a s c e n d a n t m o r a l , sans l e m o i n d r e d r o i t a l a d i c t a t u r e de s o n p e r e a d o p t i f . " A u g u s t u s ' w i l l , f o r e x a m p l e , naming T i b e r i u s and L i v i a as h i s h e i r s , was n e v e r c o n s i d e r e d t o i n c l u d e t h e i m p e r i a l powers (D io 5 6 . 3 2 . 1 ; T a c . Ann. 1 . 8 . 1 ; S u e t . Aug. 1 0 1 . 2 ) . See M a r s h Tiberius p . 217 and V e n t u r i n i p . 6 6 , b o t h o f whom a r g u e t h a t T i b e r i u s by h i s w i l l was p a s s i n g on t o o t h e r s t h e a p p a r e n t l y i n s o l u b l e p r o b l e m o f s u c c e s s i o n ; w h i l e Kornemann (Doppelprinzipat p p . 4 7 - 4 8 ) c o n s i d e r s G e m e l l u s ' i n c l u s i o n a s j o i n t h e i r t o be p r o o f o f T i b e r i u s ' r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f a d u a l monarchy was a n e c e s s i t y . On b e q u e a t h i n g t h e E m p i r e t o h e i r s , s e e Mommsen Staatsr, 3 , 1 , 4 4 8 ^ 4 5 1 ; G r e e n i d g e Roman Public 38 Life p . 3 6 1 , "For t h e p r o b l e m s c o n n e c t e d w i t h , s u c c e s s i o n i n t h e J u l i o -C l a u d i a n p e r i o d i n g e n e r a l , s e e p a r t i c u l a r l y Hammond Augustan Principate p p . 7 4 - 7 6 . 1 ,2 I s TO r j u v e d p i o v : The c h r o n o l o g y - o f t h e p e r i o d i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g T i b e r i u s ' d e a t h , i s somewhat c o n f u s e d . We know f r om t h e fasti O E $ J p . 43) and t h e Acta Avvalium (CIL 6 . 2 0 2 8 c = 32346e = S m a l l -wood n o . 3) t h a t T i b e r i u s d i e d on 16 M a r c h ; t h a t a t a m e e t i n g o f t h e S e n a t e on 18 M a r c h G a i u s was p r o c l a i m e d imperator.', and t h a t G a i u s a r r i v e d i n Rome on 28 M a r c h . When was t h e w i l l a n n u l l e d ? Many assume t h a t a m e e t i n g o f t h e S e n a t e was h e l d on 28 M a r c h ( e . g . , P a r e t i Storiq14.764) o r s h o r t l y a f t e r ( e . g . , B a l s d o n Gaius p p . 2 5 - 2 6 ) , a t w h i c h t i m e t h e w i l l was r e a d b y M a c r o and d e c l a r e d i n v a l i d b y t h e s e n a t o r s . The f a c t t h a t G a i u s was d e c l a r e d E m p e r o r more t h a n t e n days b e f o r e t h e c o n t e n t s o f T i b e r i u s ' w i l l were o f f i c i a l l y p u b l i s h e d e i t h e r c o n f i r m s D i o ' s s t a t e m e n t ( 5 9 . 1 . 5 ) t h a t many knew ahead o f t i m e who were h i s h e i r s (and were a l r e a d y p r e p a r e d t o i g n o r e t h e c l a i m s o f G e m e l l u s ) , o r t h a t t h e c h o i c e o f . s u c c e s s o r was o b v i o u s t o t h e s e n a t o r s and had p r o b a b l y been a g r e e d upon b e f o r e h a n d . I t w o u l d , t h e n , be i n t h e S e n a t e ' s i n t e r e s t t o a n n u l t h e w i l l , t o p r e v e n t any l a t e r d i s p u t e b y G e m e l l u s o r h i s s u p p o r t e r s (see W i l l r i e h Caligula p . 1 1 2 ; e v i d e n c e f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a " p a r t y o f G e m e l l u s " c a n be f o u n d i n t h e n o t e on C h a p t e r 8 .1 e 'yKAnua) . From D i o ' s s t a t e m e n t h e r e , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t G a i u s h i m s e l f was p r e s e n t a t t h i s p a r t o f t h e m e e t i n g , ( d e s p i t e W i l l r i e h Caligula p . I l l and B a l s d o n Gaius p . 25) a l t h o u g h l a t e r t h a t day he a d d r e s s e d t h e S e n a t e (see C h a p t e r 6 . 1 ) ; The p r o b l e m o f c h r o n o l o g y c r e a t e d b y S u e t o n i u s ' comment {Gaius 1 4 . 1 ) " i n g r e s s o q u e urbem . . . i n r i t a T i b e r i v o l u n t a t e . . . i u s a r b i t r i u m q u e omnium re rum i l l i p e r m i s s u m e s t , " w h i c h seems t o r e v e r s e t h e 39 o r d e r o f e v e n t s and t o compress them i n t o a s i n g l e d a y , can be r e s o l v e d i f t h e ius arbitriwnque ornnivm reman r e f e r s n o t t o h i s p r o c l a m a t i o n as E m p e r o r on 18 M a r c h , b u t t o h i s a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e f o r m a l i m p e r i a l t i t l e s l a t e i n M a r c h o r e a r l y i n A p r i l . L e s u i s s e (AC 3 0 . [1961] 4 2 0 - 2 1 ) s e e s t h e S e n a t e ' s a c c l a m a t i o n o f G a i u s as -imp erat or on 18 M a r c h as d i s t i n c t f rom t h e a c t u a l i n v e s t i t u r e o f i m p e r i a l power w h i c h he p l a c e s , on 28 M a r c h : t h e t i t l e imperator, he c l a i m s , m e r e l y d e s i g n a t e d G a i u s as T i b e r i u s ' s u c c e s s o r , b u t d i d n o t make h i m E m p e r o r o r g i v e h im i m p e r i a l p o w e r ; and i t was b e c a u s e i t c o n f e r r e d no a c t u a l power t h a t T i b e r i u s , G a i u s , and C l a u d i u s c o u l d a l l r e f u s e t o i n c l u d e i t among t h e i r o t h e r t i t l e s ( c f . M . P . G r e n a d e , EEL 33 [1955] 5 4 ) . T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n , h o w e v e r , f a i l s t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t 18 M a r c h was G a i u s ' dies imperii, w h i c h must a t t h i s p e r i o d o f t h e E m p i r e be t a k e n t o mean h i s i n v e s t i t u r e w i t h f u l l i m p e r i a l p o w e r s . 1.2 cSia. xou Maicpoovos: M a c r o ' s f u l l name a p p e a r s on a r e c e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d i n s c r i p t i o n (AE 1 9 5 7 . 2 5 0 ) as Q. N a e v i u s C o r d u s S u t o r i u s M a c r o ( c f . D i o 5 8 . 9 . 2 : N c u o u i o u Eepxoopiou MaKpuivos. F o r a f u l l commentary on t h e i n s c r i p t i o n , s e e F . de V i s s c h e r i n Melanges a. Andre Piganiol [ P a r i s , 1966] p p . 7 6 1 - 6 8 ) . The same i n s c r i p t i o n shows t h a t some-t i m e b e f o r e A . D . 31 he was praefectus vigilum: i n t h i s p o s i t i o n he must h a v e shown a b i l i t y and l o y a l t y t o t h e Empero r s i n c e , a l s o b e f o r e A . D . 3 1 , T i b e r i u s a p p o i n t e d h i m commander o f t h e i m p e r i a l b o d y g u a r d (D io 5 8 . 9 . 2 ) , p r o b a b l y a t t h e same t i m e a s s i g n i n g L a c o t o t h e v a c a n t p r e f e c t u r e o f t h e n i g h t w a t c h (D io 5 8 . 9 . 3 ) . I t was M a c r o who d e l i v e r e d t o t h e S e n a t e T i b e r i u s ' " w o r d y l e t t e r " t h a t was t o c a u s e S e i a n u s ' d e s t r u c t i o n (D io 5 8 . 9 . 2 ; T a c . Ann. 6 . 4 8 . 4 ; P h i l o Leg. 6 . 3 7 [ 5 5 1 ] ) . F o r h i s p a r t i n t h i s scheme he was o f f e r e d t h e r a n k o f p r a e t o r i a n b y t h e S e n a t e , b u t he t a c t f u l l y r e f u s e d i t , n o . d o u b t 40 m i n d f u l o f t h e f a t e o f S e i a n u s (Dio 5 8 . 1 2 . 7 ) . A t t h i s t i m e Mac ro r e p l a c e d S e i a n u s a s p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t ( T a c . Ann. 6 . 1 5 . 5 , where he i s f i r s t m e n t i o n e d b y T a c i t u s , whose s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e f a l l o f S e i a n u s i s , o f c o u r s e , l o s t ) : i n t h i s p o s i t i o n he was j u d g e d b y L u c i u s A r r u n t i u s as b e i n g even w o r s e t h a n h i s p r e d e c e s s o r ( T a c . Ann. 6 . 4 8 . 4 . A f u l l b i o g r a p h y o f L . A r r u n t i u s c a n be f o u n d i n t h e a r t i c l e by R . S . R o g e r s i n CPh 26 [1931] 3 1 - 4 5 ; c f . G o l i n i n Latomus 13 [1954] 4 0 2 ; P . Y ; F o r s y t h , Phoenix 23 [1969] 2 0 4 - 7 ) . F o r M a c r o ' s a s s i s t a n c e i n s e c u r i n g G a i u s ' a c c e s s i o n , s e e on C h a p t e r 1 0 . 6 xwv IKEIVOO EUepyExnuaxtov; on a f r e e d m a n ' s p r e s e n c e i n t h e S e n a t e , s e e on C h a p t e r 1 6 . 3 6 i a xwv aTreX£U0Ep(jov. 1.2 Tfapacj)povfiaaVTOS: C f . G a i u s Inst. 2 . 1 4 5 ( "de i n o f f i c i o s o t e s t a m e n t o " ) : " a l i o quoque modo t e s t a m e n t a i u r e f a c t a i n f i r m a n t u r , v e l u t cum i s , q u i f e c e r i t t e s t a m e n t u m , k a p i t e d e m i n u t u s s i t . " F o r a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n , s e e S a i l . Jug. 1 1 . 5 . 1 .2 TrcnSfto: Bo rn i n A . D . 19 (see above on C h a p t e r 1.1 xG T i g e p i u ) , G e m e l l u s was now 18 y e a r s o l d , b u t had n o t y e t assumed t h e toga v i v i l i s ( c f . S u e t . Gaius 14: " p r a e t e x t a t u m a d h u c " ) . T r a d i t i o n f o r b a d e praetextati t o e n t e r t h e S e n a t e ( V a l . Max . 2 . 1 . 9 ; G e l l . 1 . 2 3 ; P l i n y Ep. 8 . 1 4 . 5 ) , b u t A u g u s t u s had a l l o w e d t h e s o n s o f s e n a t o r s t o a t t e n d m e e t i n g s " q u o c e l e r i u s r e i p u b l i c a e a d s u e s e e r e n t " ( S u e t . Aug. 3 8 . 2 ) . 1 .3 xr is apxns TrapeAucrE: See on C h a p t e r 1.2 hs xo o u v e S p x o v . The a n n u l -ment o f t h e w i l l c o u l d n o t have been an a t t e m p t t o d e p r i v e G e m e l l u s o f h a l f t h e t h r o n e , s i n c e G a i u s had a l r e a d y been d e c l a r e d s o l e E m p e r o r . W i l l r i c h (Caligula p . 112) s u g g e s t s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p a r t y 41 s u p p o r t i n g G e m e l l u s , and t h a t i t was i n o r d e r t o s h a t t e r t h e hopes o f t h i s p a r t y and t o a v o i d p o s s i b l e c i v i l war t h a t t h e S e n a t e f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o r e j e c t T i b e r i u s ' t e s t a m e n t . B a l s d o n , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t r i e s t o show t h a t t h e S e n a t e was u n w i l l i n g t o a l l o w a m i n o r t o i n h e r i t so much money {Gaius p . 2 6 ) . The r i g h t answer seems t o l i e i n S u e t o n i u s ' comment " h e r e d e s a e q u i s p a r t i b u s r e l i q u i t Ga ium ex G e r m a n i c o e t T i b e r i u m ex D ruso n e p o t e s , substituit-que invicem" (Tib. 7 6 ) : t h a t i s , i f e i t h e r was t o d i e , t h e s u r v i v o r w o u l d be s o l e h e i r . The c l a u s e " s u b s t i t u i t q u e i n v i c e m " c o u l d o b v i o u s l y p r o v e a s o u r c e o f p e r s o n a l d a n g e r t o t h e new E m p e r o r ; a l s o , i t was h a r d l y f i t t i n g f o r a r u l e r t o s h a r e h a l f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r ' s e s t a t e w i t h a n o t h e r . A u g u s t u s had b e e n c a r e f u l t o b e q u e a t h T i b e r i u s t w o - t h i r d s o f h i s e s t a t e and L i v i a o n l y o n e - t h i r d ( D i o 5 6 . 3 2 . 1 ; S u e t . Aug. 1 0 1 . 2 ) . N e r o , f a c e d : w i t h a p r o b l e m s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f G a i u s , had C l a u d i u s ' w i l l s u p p r e s s e d , e i t h e r t o a v o i d p o p u l a r d i s p l e a s u r e a t h i s p r e f e r m e n t o v e r C l a u d i u s ' t r u e s o n , B r i t a n n i c u s ( T a c . Ann. 1 2 . 6 9 . 5 ) , . o r b e c a u s e C l a u d i u s m i g h t have m e n t i o n e d B r i t a n n i c u s f a v o u r a b l y i n h i s w i l l ( S u e t . Claud. 4 4 ; D i o 6 1 . 1 . 2 i s n o n c o m m i t t a l abou t t h e r e a s o n ) . The d i f f e r e n c e be tween t h e a c t i o n s o f N e r o and G a i u s i s t h a t t h e l a t t e r p u b l i s h e d t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e w i l l b e f o r e t h e S e n a t e a n n u l l e d i t , ( c f . L . L e s u i s s e . Les etudes alassiques 30 [1962] 4 7 ) . 1 .3 Tfoincrayevos aiTeKxeive: See C h a p t e r 8 . 1 - 2 . 1 .3 o T i g e p i o s : A c c o r d i n g t o D i o , T i b e r i u s f o r e s a w t h a t G a i u s w o u l d murde r G e m e l l u s , and once commented t o h i m "cru TE TOUTOV OTOKxeveis KQL\ O"E a X X o i " ( 5 8 . 2 3 . 3 ; c f . T a c . Ann. 6 . 4 6 . 8 : " o c c i d e s hunc t u , i n q u i t , e t t e a l i u s " ) . 42 1.4 OTTEp xnv ynxepa eTreirotrucet.: T i b e r i u s n o t o n l y had r e f u s e d t o p a y L i v i a ' s b e q u e s t s a f t e r h e r d e a t h , b u t a l s o r e j e c t e d a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t she be d e i f i e d (D io 5 8 . 2 . 1 - 3 a ) . See on C h a p t e r 2 . 4 x a s i n s Ax out as <5xa0riicas. 1 .4 x a 6' UTT' auxou KaxaAexrJ)6evxa: C f . S u e t . Tib. 7 6 : " d e d i t e t l e g a t o p l e r i s q u e , i n t e r quos v i r g i n i b u s V e s t a l i b u s , s e d e t m i l i t i b u s u n i v e r s i s p l e b e i q u e Romanae v i r i t i m a t q u e e t i a r a s e p a r a t i m v i e o r u m m a g i s t r i s . " See C h a p t e r 2 . 1 - 4 . 1.5 TTOXXOX xe a u x a f (6eaav : T i b e r i u s had w r i t t e n h i s w i l l two y e a r s e a r l i e r a n d , p r e s u m a b l y f o r s e c r e c y , had i t w i t n e s s e d b y humiZZimi ( S u e t . Tib. . 7 6 . 1 ) . I f he f o l l o w e d A u g u s t u s ' examp l ( S u e t . Aug. 1 0 1 . 1 ) , i t was t h e n d e p o s i t e d a t Rome w i t h t h e V e s t a l V i r g i n s . D i o ' s s t a t e m e n t seems so u n l i k e l y t h a t B o i s s e v a i n ' s s u g g e s t e d e m e n d a t i o n o a u x a t o a u x a s i s a p p e a l i n g : c e r t a i n l y p e o p l e knew o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a w i l l ( a u x a s ) b e f o r e T i b e r i u s ' d e a t h , . b u t t o have a l l o w e d o n e ' s h e i r s t o know o f i t s c o n t e n t s (auxa) w o u l d have been f o o l i s h and even d a n g e r o u s , as J u l i u s C a e s a r had r e a l i z e d ( S u e t . Caes. 8 3 . 1 ) . 43 CHAPTER TWO 2 .1 TOIS-'TE a A A o x s : T h a t i s , he p a i d T i b e r i u s ' b e q u e s t s t o e v e r y o n e e x c e p t G e m e l l u s . I r e j e c t R e i s k e ' s s u g g e s t i o n , f o l l o w e d w i t h some h e s i t a t i o n b y B o i s s e v a i n , t h a t a p h r a s e s u c h as KOU TOTS OTpaxxcoTais i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o m p l e t e t h e s e n s e . 2 .1 xous TE ouv cSop'JcJjopous: The o c c a s i o n was commemorated on t h e c o i n a g e o f A . D . 3 7 - 3 8 : a s e s t e r t i u s (SMC Imp. 1 . 1 5 1 , n o . 33) shows on i t s r e v e r s e G a i u s s t a n d i n g on a p l a t f o r m and a d d r e s s i n g f i v e s o l d i e r s , f o u r o f whom a r e c a r r y i n g s t a n d a r d s , and w i t h t h e i n s c r i p -t i o n ADLOCVT COH. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e S e n a t e was p r e s e n t a t t h e ceremony and had t h e power t o m i n t b r o n z e c o i n a g e a t Rome, t h e c o i n was n o t i s s u e d S.C.: G e l z e r (RE " J u l i u s " c o l . 386) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c o i n may -have been s t r u c k by G a i u s h i m s e l f f o r t h e s p e c i a l p u r p o s e o f p a y i n g t h e d o n a t i v e ; R o s b o r o u g h (p . 20) q u i t e w r o n g l y a s s i g n s t h e . c o i n t o t h e n o r t h e r n campa ign o f A . D . 3 9 - 4 0 . T i b e r i u s , t o o , had i n s p e c t e d t h e P r a e t o r i a n s i n company w i t h t h e S e n a t e : h i s i n t e n t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o D i o ( 5 7 . 2 4 . 5 ) , was t o i n s t i l i n t h e v S e n a t o r s a f e a r o f t h o s e t r o o p s and i n c i d e n t a l l y o f h i s own p o w e r . A l t h o u g h t h e P r a e t o r i a n s p l a y e d no g r e a t p a r t i n i n f l u e n c i n g a f f a i r s u n t i l t h e a c c e s s i o n o f C l a u d i u s , t h e i r p r e s e n c e j u s t o u t s i d e t h e c i t y f r om A . D . 20 o r 23 onwards (D io 5 7 . 1 9 . 4 ; T a c . Ann. 4 . 2 . 1 ; c f . S u e t . Aug. 49) was d o u b t -l e s s c o n s i d e r e d p r o o f o f t h e m i l i t a r y b a s i s o f t h e P r i n c i p a t e . 2 .1 Kara iTEVxriKOVTa rax Sx.aicocfxas Spaxyas S x e v e x u e : In t h e t i m e o f T i b e r i u s t h e r e were n i n e p r a e t o r i a n c o h o r t s ( T a c . Ann. 4 . 5 . 4 ; D i o 5 5 . 2 4 . 6 s a y s t e n i n A . D . 5 ) , e a c h 44 n u m b e r i n g a t h o u s a n d men ( D i o l o c . c i t . ; c f . T a c . Hist. 2 . 9 3 . 3 ) ; t h u s t h e e x p e n s e o f p a y i n g them T i b e r i u s ' b e q u e s t and h i s own a d d i t i o n a l d o n a t i v e w o u l d amount t o 18 m i l l i o n s e s t e r c e s . A u g u s t u s had a l s o l e f t 250 drachmae t o e a c h man o f t h e P r a e t o r i a n c o h o r t s ( D i o 5 6 . 3 2 . 2 ; S u e t . Aug. 1 0 1 . 2 ) , b u t i t i s most s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t G a i u s added a d o n a t i v e on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e , a p r a c t i c e t h a t i s u s u a l l y s u p p o s e d t o have b e g u n , u n d e r C l a u d i u s , p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e t h a t E m p e r o r ' s g i f t was much l a r g e r ( 1 5 , 0 0 0 s e s t e r c e s f o r e a c h man) and was i n g r a t i t u d e f o r t h e p a r t p l a y e d b y t h e P r a e t o r i a n s i n h i s a c c e s s i o n ( S u e t . Claud. 1 0 . 4 ; . J o s e p h u s ' c l a i m [AJ 1 9 . 4 . 2 (247 ) ] t h a t he gave them e a c h 2 0 , 0 0 0 s e s t e r c e s and p r o m i s e d a l i k e amount t o e v e r y l e g i o n a r y i s an o b v i o u s e x a g g e r a t i o n ) ; C l a u d i u s a l s o awarded them an a n n u a l d o n a t i v e o f 100 s e s t e r c e s on t h e a n n i v e r s a r y o f h i s a c c e s s i o n (D io 6 0 . 1 2 . 4 ) . N e r o , n o t so dependen t on t h e P r a e t o r i a n s , r e d u c e d t h e d o n a t i v e t o G a i u s ' f i g u r e o f 2000 s e s t e r c e s a man ( T a c . Ann. 1 2 . 6 9 . 3 ) . 2 . 2 TO) Sriyu . . . : Under A u g u s t u s ' w i l l t h e populus Romanus had r e c e i v e d 40 m i l l i o n s e s t e r c e s (D io 5 6 . 3 2 . 2 ; S u e t . Aug. 1 0 1 . 2 ) : s i n c e t h e t o t a l c i t i z e n p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e E m p i r e i n . A . D . 14 s t o o d a t 4 , 1 0 0 , 9 0 0 (Fasti Ostienses = E§J p . 4 0 ; b u t c f . RG 8 . 4 ) , t h e b e q u e s t must have b e e n l i m i t e d t o t h e plebs uvbana. The e x t r a 5 m i l l i o n s e s t e r c e s b e q u e a t h e d b y T i b e r i u s w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t i n t h e m a t t e r o f h i s w i l l , as on so many o t h e r o c c a s i o n s , he f o l l o w e d t h e p r e c e d e n t s e t b y A u g u s t u s by l e a v i n g t h e same amount as h i s p r e d e c e s s o r t o e a c h r e c i p i e n t , a l l o w i n g f o r a r e a s o n a b l e 12 1/2% i n c r e a s e i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h a t g roup o v e r a p e r i o d o f 23 y e a r s . 45 2 . 2 ETTi x r i eaUTGU Is TOUS. l^riBous laypa^: When G a i u s ' b r o t h e r s , Ne ro and D r u s u s , came o f a g e , T i b e r i u s had h e l d a congiavium i n t h e i r h o n o u r ( S u e t . Tib. 5 4 . 1 ) ; b u t no s u c h l a r g e s s e a c c o m p a n i e d G a i u s ' dies tivocinii ( S u e t . Gaius 1 0 . 1 ) . In c o m p e n s a t i o n , t h i s congiavium m e n t i o n e d by- D i o was h e l d on 1 J u n e A . D . 37 {Fasti OstiensSs-= S m a l l w o o d n o . 3 1 ) . . G a i u s f o l l o w e d t h e p r e c e d e n t s e t by J u l i u s C a e s a r i n a d d i n g i n t e r e s t f o r t h e i n t e r v a l be tween t h e p r o m i s e and t h e a c t u a l d o n a t i v e ( S u e t . Caes. 3 8 . 1 : " p r o m o r a " ) . A n o t h e r congiavium o f t h e same amount , b u t n o t m e n t i o n e d b y D i o , was g i v e n on 19 J u l y o f t h e same y e a r (Fasti Ostienses = S m a l l w o o d n o . 3 1 ; c f . S u e t . Gaius 1 7 . 2 ) ; and i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e , t h e r e were two more d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f g i f t s o r money t o t h e p e o p l e i n G a i u s ' s h o r t r e i g n : i n A . D . 3 8 , p e r h a p s t o c e l e b r a t e t h e r e t u r n o f t h e e l e c t i o n s t o t h e p e o p l e (see C h a p t e r 9 . 6 ) , and i n A . D . 40 on h i s r e t u r n f r om t h e n o r t h (see C h a p t e r 2 5 . 5 ) ; . b o t h t h e s e were random d i s t r i b u t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n o r g a n i z e d congiavia. The two congiavia, t o t a l l i n g 600 s e s t e r c e s f o r e a c h r e c i p i e n t , must have r e a c h e d abou t 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e ( c f . RG 1 5 . 1 - 2 ) , amoun t i ng t o an e x p e n s e o f some 150 m i l l i o n s e s t e r c e s . When t h i s i s comb ined w i t h t h e 45 m i l l i o n s e s t e r c e s b e q u e a t h e d t h e p e o p l e b y T i b e r i u s , a t o t a l o f a l m o s t 200 m i l l i o n s e s t e r c e s was p a i d ou t t o t h e plebs uvbana i n t h e f i r s t f o u r months o f G a i u s ' r e i g n ( c f . B a l s d o n Gaius p . - 1 8 3 , where a s l i g h t l y l o w e r f i g u r e i s e s t i m a t e d ) . A g i f t o f HS 300 vivitim was a common amount : t h e same was d i s t r i b u t e d by A u g u s t u s ( S u e t . Aug. 4 1 . 2 ; c f . RG 1 5 , where congiavia o f 4 0 0 . a n d 240 s e s t e r c e s a r e r e c o r d e d as w e l l ) , T i b e r i u s ( S u e t . Tib. 2 0 ; T a c . Ann. 2 . 4 2 . 1 ; c f . Ann. 3 . 2 9 ) , C l a u d i u s (D io 6 0 . 2 5 . 7 ; c f . T a c . Ann. 1 2 . 4 1 and S u e t . Claud. 2 1 ; 1 : " c o n g i a r i a p o p u l o s a e p i u s d i s t r i b u i t " ) , V e s p a s i a n (Chvon. 354, p . 1 4 6 . 1 0 ) , D o m i t i a n ( S u e t . Bom. 4 . 5 : t h r e e congiavia), and N e r v a (Chvon. S54;, p . 1 4 6 . 2 1 ) . 46 2 . 3 TCHS xe yap aoTiKcns: A g a i n , T i b e r i u s f o l l o w e d t h e l e a d o f A u g u s t u s i n b e q u e a t h i n g 500. s e s t e r c e s a man t o t h e c i t y -t r o o p s ( M o 5 6 . 3 2 . 2 ; . S u e t . Aug. 1 0 1 . 2 ) . T h e r e were ' t h ree u r b a n c o h o r t s i n t h e c i t y - i t s e l f , a f o u r t h , b e i n g s t a t i o n e d a t Lugdunum ( T a c . Ann. 3 . 4 1 . 2 ) , w i t h abou t 1500 men i n . e a c h c o h o r t (D io 5 5 . 2 4 . 6 ; , T a c . Ann. 4 . 5 . 5 ) . The 4500 e l i g i b l e t r o o p s , t h e n , r e c e i v e d a t o t a l o f 2 , 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 s e s t e r c e s u n d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f T i b e r i u s ' w i l l . 2 . 3 xois vUKTOtfjuXa^x: The vigiles were o r i g i n a l l y o r g a n i z e d by A u g u s t u s i n A . D . 6 as a t e m p o r a r y measure t o c o n t r o l t h e f r e q u e n t f i r e s t h a t s t r u c k t h e c i t y ; b u t t h e y p r o v e d so v a l u a b l e t h a t t h e y became a pe rmanen t f o r c e (D io 5 5 . 2 6 . 4 - 5 ) . B e c a u s e t h e y were e x c l u s i v e l y f r e e d m e n , t h e y were n o t a t f i r s t c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f t h e m i l i t a r y ( c f . T a c . Ann. 4 . 5 . 5 and F u r n e a u x ad l o c ) , and were n o t t h e r e f o r e l i s t e d among t h e b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f A u g u s t u s ( c f . S u e t . Aug. 1 0 1 . 2 ) . They p r o v e d , h o w e v e r , t o be a v a l u a b l e f o r c e i n t h e o v e r t h r o w o f S e i a n u s (D io 5 8 . 9 ) , and i t was d o u b t l e s s b e c a u s e o f t h i s l o y a l t y t h a t T i b e r i u s i n c l u d e d them i n h i s w i l l . T h e r e were s e v e n c o h o r t s o f 1000 men e a c h {CAE 1 0 . 2 0 0 , 2 3 4 - 2 3 5 ; L a n c i a n i Ruins and Excavations, p . 3 3 8 ) , each , c o h o r t b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f i r e -p r o t e c t i o n i n two o f t h e c i t y ' s f o u r t e e n r e g i o n s . Unde r t h e te rms o f T i b e r i u s ' w i l l , 2 , 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 s e s t e r c e s were p a i d t o t hem. 2 . 3 IK TOU KtvraAoyou: " F r o m t h e l i s t f o r s e r v i c e " ( c f . D i o 4 0 . 1 8 . 1 ; T h u c . 6 . 4 3 ; Mason Greek Terms p . 5 9 ) : t h a t i s , t h e r e g u l a r l e g i o n a r y s o l d i e r s . A f t e r t h e l o s s o f t h r e e l e g i o n s u n d e r V a r u s i n A . D . 9 (D io 5 6 . 1 8 - 2 1 ; T a c . Ann. 1 . 6 0 . 4 ; 2 . 2 5 . 2 ; 2 . 4 1 . 1 ) , A u g u s t u s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e g u l a r number a t t w e n t y - f i v e (D io 5 5 . 2 3 . 2 ; T a c . Ann. 4 . 5 . 2 - 5 ) , t h e 47 t o t a l s t r e n g t h o f e a c h a m o u n t i n g t o abou t , 5000 men (Furneaux . I . ,123; W e b s t e r Army- p p . 1 1 4 - 1 6 ) . An o u t l a y - o f 3 7 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 s e s t e r c e s was n e c e s s a r y t o p a y T i b e r i u s ' b e q u e s t s t o t h e s e 1 2 5 , 0 0 0 r e g u l a r t r o o p s . By A u g u s t u s ' w i l l as w e l l , t h e l e g i o n a r i e s - had r e c e i v e d 300 s e s t e r c e s a man (D io 5 6 . 3 2 . 2 ; S u e t . Aug. 1 0 1 . 2 ) , b u t T i b e r i u s had been f o r c e d by - .German icus t o d o u b l e t h a t amount b e c a u s e o f t h e r e v o l t s o f t h e l e g i o n s on t h e n o r t h e r n f r o n t i e r s (D io 5 7 . 5 . 3 ; 5 7 . 6 . 4 ; T a c . Ann. . 1. 3 6 . 4 ; S u e t . Tib. 4 S . . 2 ) . I t - i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t G a i u s , who must have remembered t h o s e e a r l i e r d i s t u r b a n c e s o f t h e l e g i o n s i n P a n n o n i a and on t h e R h i n e ( i n t h e drama o f w h i c h he h i m s e l f had p l a y e d a p a r t ) , d i d n o t pay t h e army an i m m e d i a t e b o n u s , as he had i n t h e c a s e o f t h e P r a e t o r i a n s . F o r a l t h o u g h h i s command o f t h e f r o n t i e r a r m i e s was n o t as i n s e c u r e as t h a t o f T i b e r i u s i n A . D . 1 4 , ,ye t t h e r e f o r m s o f t h e te rms o f s e r v i c e p r o m i s e d a t t h a t t i m e had n o t been . imp lemen ted ( D i o 5 7 . 6 . 5 ) . G a i u s d i d g i v e d o n a t i v e s t o t h e f r o n t i e r t r o o p s , as one w o u l d e x p e c t , i n A . D . 3 9 / 4 0 w h i l e he was i n Germany and G a u l (see C h a p t e r s 2 2 . 7 ; 2 5 . 3 ) . 2 . 3 Iv TOT'S u i K p o T e p o i s Tei'xecnv: See Burmann apud S t u r z 6 . 3 1 1 . D i o n o r m a l l y u s e s t h e t e r m TEIXOS as t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f legio ( c f . 5 3 . 1 5 . 2 ; 7 9 . 7 . 1 ; Mason Greek Terms p . 9 2 ) , b u t i n t h i s i n s t a n c e i t must r e f e r e i t h e r t o f r o n t i e r p o s t s g a r r i s o n e d by s e m i -r e t i r e d l e g i o n a r i e s o r t o c o l o n i e s s e t t l e d by v e t e r a n s . The f o r m e r , c a l l e d vexiltar-ii ( T a c . Ann. 1 . 3 6 . 4 ) , who were o f t e n q u a r t e r e d a p a r t f r om t h e l e g i o n s ( T a c . Ann. 1 . 4 4 . 6 ) , seem t o have numbered abou t 500 f o r e a c h l e g i o n ( T a c . Ann. 3 . 2 1 . 2 ) , amoun t i ng i n a l l t o some 1 2 , 5 0 0 men who w o u l d have r e c e i v e d a t o t a l o f 3 , 7 5 0 , 0 0 0 s e s t e r c e s as T i b e r i u s ' l e g a c y . I f , as seems l e s s l i k e l y , t h e p h r a s e r e f e r s t o t h e c o l o n i s t s m e n t i o n e d b y A u g u s t u s i n 48 h i s Res Gestae a s n u m b e r i n g abou t 1 2 0 , 0 0 0 {RG 1 5 . 3 ) , t h e e x p e n d i t u r e w o u l d have r e a c h e d some 37 m i l l i o n s e s t e r c e s . 2 . 4 x a s xr is A i o u i a s S t a O r i K a s : L i v i a had d i e d i n A . D . 2 9 , a f t e r h a v i n g b e e n v i r t u a l l y i g n o r e d b y h e r s o n s i n c e h i s r e t i r e m e n t t o C a p r e a e t h r e e y e a r s e a r l i e r (D io 5 8 . 2 . 1 ; T a c . Ann. 5 . 1 . 1 ; S u e t . Tib. 5 1 . 2 ) . S i n c e T i b e r i u s had r e f u s e d t o a t t e n d h e r f u n e r a l , t h e o r a t i o n was d e l i v e r e d b y G a i u s , h e r g r e a t - g r a n d s o n on b o t h h i s f a t h e r ' s and m o t h e r ' s s i d e s , and h e r n e a r e s t l i v i n g ma le r e l a t i v e a f t e r t h e i g n o r e d C l a u d i u s ( T a c . Ann. 5 . 1 . 1 ) . T i b e r i u s , q u i t e s e n s i b l y , r e f u s e d t o a l l o w h e r t o be d e i f i e d (D io 5 8 . 2 . 1 ) , and had h e r w i l l d e c l a r e d i n v a l i d (D io 5 8 . 2 . 3 a ; T a c . Ann. 5 . 1 . 6 ; S u e t . Tib. 5 1 . 2 ) . I t r e m a i n e d f o r G a i u s t o p a y o u t h e r b e q u e s t s , w h i c h he d i d "cum f i d e ac s i n e c a l u m n i a " ( S u e t . . Gaius 1 6 . 3 ) , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t she h a d l e f t G a l b a , t h e f u t u r e E m p e r o r , a l e g a c y o f 50 m i l l i o n s e s t e r c e s ( S u e t . Galba 5 . 2 : t h e f i g u r e quingenties i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d by a l l b u t C a s a u b o n ) . G a i u s i s s a i d t o have c a l l e d L i v i a " U l i x e m s t o l a t u m " ( S u e t . Gaius 2 3 . 1 ) , a p h r a s e u s e d b y S u e t o n i u s t o show t h a t G a i u s d e s p i s e d h e r l o w - b i r t h . But h e r g r e a t - g r a n d s o n ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o pay h e r p e r h a p s e x h o r b i t a n t l e g a c i e s s u g g e s t s a c e r t a i n a d m i r a t i o n f o r h i s " U l y s s e s i n s k i r t s , " p e r h a p s b e c a u s e o f L i v i a ' s a b i l i t y t o s u f f e r i n s i l e n c e ( c f . S e n e c a Cons. Move. 3 ) , o r , . m o r e l i k e l y , b e c a u s e o f h e r c r a f t i n e s s and d e t e r -m i n a t i o n t o p l a y an a c t i v e p a r t i n m e n ' s a f f a i r s (D io 5 6 . 3 1 . 1 ; 5 6 . 4 7 . 1 ) . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t he amount o f L i v i a ' s b e q u e s t s , b u t i t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t , u n d e r t h e te rms o f A u g u s t u s ' w i l l , she must have r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n 50 m i l l i o n s e s t e r c e s ( S u e t . Aug. 1 0 1 . 1 , 3 ) . . 49 2 . 4 KOi TOTS iSvayrcus. ; C l a u d i u s was l i s t e d , among t h e h e i r s o f t h e t h i r d d e g r e e i n T i b e r i u s ' w i l l , b y w h i c h he w o u l d have r e c e i v e d two m i l l i o n s e s t e r c e s ( S u e t . Claud. 6 . 2 ) . W i l l r i e h (Caligula p . I l l , n . 1) and G e l z e r (RE " J u l i u s " c o l . 387) must be wrong i n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e b e q u e s t was a c t u a l l y p a i d t o C l a u d i u s , who w o u l d q u a l i f y f o r i t o n l y i f t h e h e i r s o f t h e f i r s t two d e g r e e s were u n a b l e t o c o l l e c t t h e i r s h a r e s . 2 . 5 Is opxno"T0ts: By t h e t i m e o f T i b e r i u s r i o t s i n t h e t h e a t r e had become commonplace ( c f . T a c . Ann. 1 . 5 4 . 3 ; 1 . 7 7 . 1 ) . A t f i r s t T i b e r i u s had t r i e d t o c o n t r o l t h e l i c e n t i o u s n e s s o f t h e a c t o r s by s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t i n g t h e i r i ncome ( S u e t . Tib. 3 4 . 1 ) , b u t when t h i s p r o v e d i n s u f f i c i e n t t o c u r b t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g i m m o r a l i t y and d i s t u r b a n c e s , he had them b a n i s h e d f r o m Rome i n A . D . 23 (D io 5 7 . 2 1 . 3 ; T a c . Ann. 4 . 1 4 . 4 ; S u e t . Tib. 3 7 . 2 ) . A f t e r t h e r e c a l l o f t h e a c t o r s i n A . D . 3 7 , G a i u s began t o a s s o c i a t e c l o s e l y w i t h one o f t h e i r number , M n e s t e r . T h a t t h e E m p e r o r s h o u l d i n c l u d e an a c t o r among h i s f a v o u r i t e s was c o n s i d e r e d u n d i g n i f i e d and e v e n a b n o r m a l , so rumours o f s e x u a l p e r v e r s i o n s were s p r e a d t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e i r i n t i m a c y ( D i o 6 0 . 2 2 . 3 - 4 ; S u e t . Gaius 3 6 . 1 : " M n e s t e r e m . . . d i l e x i s s e fertur commerc io m u t u i s t u p r i " ) . I t i s i r o n i c t h a t s h o r t l y b e f o r e G a i u s ' a s s a s s i n a t i o n , M n e s t e r d a n c e d i n a t r a g e d y p o r t e n d i n g h i s d e a t h ( S u e t . Gaius 5 7 . 4 ; s e e on C h a p t e r 2 9 . 4 3AIT©'"\AOAU.OS) . A c t o r s c o n t i n u e d t o be a s o u r c e o f t r o u b l e t o t h e E m p e r o r s : N e r o i s s a i d t o have e n c o u r a g e d f e u d i n g among t h e i r f a c t i o n s , u n t i l i n A . D . 56 i t became s o s e r i o u s t h a t he t o o was c o m p e l l e d t o b a n i s h them ( T a c . Ann. 1 3 . 2 5 . 4 ; c f . D i o 6 1 . 8 . 1 - 4 ) . 2 . 5 KOU Is TiTTrous: C f . S u e t . Gaius 1 8 . 3 : " e d i t e t c i r c e n s e s p l u r i m o s a mane ad v e s p e r a m . " See C h a p t e r s 5 . 2 ; 7 . 3 - 4 ; 1 0 . 1 - 5 ; e t c . 50 2 . 5 ra\ EKeiva eTTeTroinjcei.: I . e . , he p a i d t h e l e g a c i e s o f T i b e r i u s and L i v i a . 2 . 6 (5s 6e I x e p o t: Such.'a p h r a s e , ' i n d i c a t i n g D i o ' s c o m p a r i s o n o f t h r e e o r more s o u r c e s , o c c u r s t h r e e o t h e r t i m e s , i n t h i s b o o k : (5s y e xwes <j>acri ( 1 2 . 2 ) on t h e u s e o f s i l k awn ings i n t h e F o r u m ; us <5e r i ves - ( j j o im ( 2 2 . 1 ) on t h e number o f t r o o p s c o l l e c t e d f o r h i s n o r t h e r n c a m p a i g n s ; and to's (J>oiai x i v e s ( 2 5 . 5 = X i p h i l i n u s ) on t h e m i x i n g o f i r o n w i t h c o i n s i n a congiavium. 2 . 6 x e O n a a u p i c r u e v a s : D i o seems t o use t h e t e r m Onaaupos i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y o f t h e p u b l i c t r e a s u r y (Aevavium Satuvni), t h e i m p e r i a l a c c o u n t s (fisci) , and e v e n p e r h a p s o f t h e E m p e r o r ' s patvimonium ( c f . D i o 5 3 . 2 2 . 3 ; Mason Gveek Tevms p . 5 4 ) . To w h i c h o f t h e s e s i n g l y , t o g e t h e r , o r e v e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e Aevavium militave, D i o i s h e r e r e f e r r i n g i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s c o v e r . On t h e c o m p l i c a t e d q u e s t i o n o f t h e aevavium and fiscus i n t h e e a r l y E m p i r e , s e e : H. L a s t . JRS 34 (1944) 5 1 - 5 9 ; C . H . V . S u t h e r l a n d . AJPh 66 (1945) 1 5 1 - 7 0 ; A . H . M . J o n e s , JRS: 40 . (1950) 2 2 - 2 9 ; F . M i l l a r . JRS 53 (1963) 2 9 - 4 2 ; JRS 54 (1964) 3 3 - 4 0 ; P . A . B r u n t , J E S 56 (1966) 7 5 - 9 1 . I t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t T i b e r i u s k e p t t h e i m p e r i a l f i n a n c e s i n e x t r e m e l y good c o n d i t i o n , • e s p e c i a l l y when compared w i t h t h e i r s t a t e i n A . D . 14 ( c f . S u e t . Aug. 101 and P h i l o Leg. 2 . 9 [ 5 4 7 ] ; see B a l s d o n Gaius p p . 1 8 1 - 8 2 ; M a r s h Tibevius p p . 1 5 6 , 2 2 7 - 2 8 ) . Some o f t h i s w e a l t h came f r o m c o n v i c t i o n s and t h e s u b s e q u e n t c o n f i s c a t i o n s o f p r o p e r t y ( c f . T a c . Ann. 6 . 1 7 . 1 ) , t h e r e s t f r om a compe ten t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f . p r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c e s . S u e t o n i u s ' f i g u r e o f 2 , 7 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 s e s t e r c e s i n t h e t r e a s u r y a t t h e t i m e o f T i b e r i u s ' d e a t h (Gaius 3 7 . 3 ) does n o t a g r e e w i t h e i t h e r o f t h e amounts 51 r e c o r d e d h e r e by- D i o : f o r t h i s r e a s o n X y l a n d e r s u g g e s t e d r e a d i n g e£ f o r Trevxe i n l i n e 7 , w h i c h w o u l d make D i o ' s f i r s t f i g u r e t h e same as t h a t o f S u e t o n i u s . Bu t b o t h t h e a m b i g u i t y o f D i o ' s . . w o r d TeBncraup ioyevas and t h e r e c o r d o f one o t h e r w i d e l y d i f f e r i n g amount s u g g e s t . t h e p o s s i b i l i t y , even t h e l i k e l i h o o d , . t h a t t h e r e was no agreement abou t t h e e x a c t sum even among c o n t e m p o r a r y h i s t o r i a n s o f G a i u s ' r e i g n . Thus W i l l r i c h {Caligula p . I l l ; 428) i n c l u d e s t h e patvimonium i n t h e t o t a l s u m , . w h i l e G e l z e r {RE " J u l i u s " c o l . 395) does n o t . See on C h a p t e r 9 . 4 xous xe Xoyio'pous. 2 . 6 oude Is xo xpixov e x o s uepos crrr' auxcov xi. uieaoocrev: S u e t o n i u s d i s a g r e e s , s a y i n g t h a t G a i u s e x h a u s t e d t h e t r e a s u r y " n o n t o t o v e r t e n t e a n n o " {Gaius 3 7 . 3 ) . To have D i o a g r e e more c l o s e l y w i t h S u e t o n i u s , L i p s i u s {de Magnitudine Romae 2 . 1 4 ) p r e f e r r e d t o r e a d Ixous, a g e n i t i v e a f t e r y e p o s ; . b u t s u c h a p h r a s e as " t h e t h i r d p a r t o f t h e y e a r " i s awkward even f o r D i o , and b o t h X i p h i l i n u s and Z o n a r a s c o n f i r m exos. D i o h i m s e l f r e c o r d s t h a t i t was n o t u n t i l A . D . 39 t h a t G a i u s was f o r c e d t o r e s o r t t o e x a c t i o n s b e c a u s e he was i n n e e d o f money (see C h a p t e r s 18 and 2 1 . 1 - 2 ; - t h e s t a t e m e n t i n 1 0 . 7 , u n d e r t h e y e a r A . D . 3 8 , t h a t t h e t r e a s u r i e s h a d been e m p t i e d i s p a r t o f t h e s e c t i o n on G a i u s ' e v i l a c t i o n s , t h e w h o l e o f w h i c h i s t o o g e n e r a l t o be c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y r e l i a b l e ) . T h i s d a t e o f A . D . 39 i s c o n f i r m e d b y J o s e p h u s , who a d m i t s t h a t G a i u s r u l e d w e l l f o r two y e a r s {AJ 1 8 . 7 . 2 [ 2 5 6 ] ) , . w h i l e t h e i n c r e d i b l e s t a t e m e n t i n t h e Suda ( s . T a i o s ) t h a t he s p e n t a l l - of" T i b e r i u s ' b e q u e s t s i n a s i n g l e day no doub t r e f e r s o n l y t o t h e p a y i n g ou t o f T i b e r i u s ' l e g a c i e s . F i n a l l y , a l t h o u g h i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o e s t i m a t e a c c u r a t e l y G a i u s ' e x p e n s e s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r o r two o f h i s r e i g n ( c f . W i l l r i c h Caligula p . I l l , n . 1 ) , i t i s a t t h e same t i m e d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e how he c o u l d spend be tween 52 two and t h r e e b i l l i o n s e s t e r c e s i n t h a t s h o r t . t i m e . T i b e r i u s ' l e g a c i e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s own d o n a t i v e s a n d .oongiaria,. amounted t o l e s s t h a n 300 m i l l i o n s e s t e r c e s ; L i y i a ' s b e q u e s t s and G a i u s ' g e n e r o u s g i f t s t o a c t o r s and g l a d i a t o r s c o u l d h a r d l y have a c c o u n t e d f o r a n . e q u a l amount . Even w i t h t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e b r i d g e a t B a i a e i n t h e sximmer o f A . D . 39 (see C h a p t e r 1 7 ) , one s u s p e c t s t h a t t h e t r e a s u r i e s c o u l d n o t have been , d e p l e t e d ; a t any t i m e i n G a i u s ' r e i g n o f f o u r y e a r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e t h e y c o n t i n u e d t o be r e p l e n i s h e d i n t h e n o r m a l way by t a x a t i o n and income f r om t h e p r o v i n c e s . The c h a r g e o f e x h a u s t i n g t h e f u n d s , t h e n , must be s e e n as no more t h a n t h e n o r m a l a c c u s a t i o n l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t one who was c o n s i d e r e d a t y r a n t b y h i s b i o g r a p h e r s . T h a t , he d i d spend f r e e l y , h o w e v e r , i s n o t d o u b t e d . T e n n e y F r a n k {AJFh. 56 [1935] 3 3 6 - 4 1 ) has shown: t h a t T i b e r i u s ' f r u g a l i t y m i g h t w e l l have c a u s e d t h e f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s o f A . D . 3 3 , i n d i c a t e d by t h e e x t r e m e l y h i g h i n t e r e s t r a t e s a t t h a t t i m e , and s u g g e s t e d f u r t h e r t h a t G a i u s ' p r o d i g a l i t y may have been e n c o u r a g e d b y t h o s e who f e a r e d a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h a t e c o n o m i c c r i s i s . 53 CHAPTER THREE 3.1 urtuoKpaTiKuxaTos ; Many- o f o u r s o u r c e s a g r e e t h a t on h i s a c c e s s i o n G a i u s was p o p u l a r ( e . g . , P h i l o Leg. 4 . 2 2 [549] : " o aoitrip Ken euepyexr is e x v a i v o y t c r S e i s " ) o r a t . l e a s t t h a t he t r i e d t o w i n t h e f a v o u r o f t h e p o p u l a c e ( e . g . , S u e t . Gaius 1 5 . 1 : " i n c e n d e b a t e t i p s e s t u d i a hominum omni g e n e r e p o p u l a r i t a t i s " ) , b u t D i o i s t h e o n l y one t o c a l l h i m " d e m o c r a t i c . " W h i l e t h e a d j e c t i v e i s j u s t i f i e d i n p a r t b e c a u s e o f G a i u s ' i n i t i a l r e j e c t i o n o f i m p e r i a l t i t l e s , h i s r e f u s a l t o c o n t r o l t h e c o u r t s , and h i s a t t e m p t t o r e s t o r e t h e m a g i s t e r i a l e l e c t i o n s t o t h e p e o p l e ( S u e t . Gaius 1 6 . 2 ; s e e C h a p t e r 9 . 6 ) , D i o h e r e u s e s i t p r i m a r i l y t o p o i n t ou t t h e c o n t r a s t s i n G a i u s ' b e h a v i o u r . C h a p t e r s 3 and 4 a r e i n f a c t l i t t l e more t h a n a s e r i e s o f r h e t o r i c a l a n t i t h e s e s r e f l e c t i n g D i o ' s r a t h e r s h a l l o w a p p r e c i a t i o n o f human n a t u r e . He b e g i n s h i s h i s t o r y o f T i b e r i u s ' r e i g n i n a s i m i l a r b u t more expanded p a s s a g e — t h a t E m p e r o r , , t o o , was Sr iuox iKOS ( 5 7 . 8 . 3 ) , a t l e a s t u n t i l t h e d e a t h o f G e r m a n i c u s removed h i s o n l y r i v a l ( 5 7 . 1 3 . 6 ) . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t b o t h onyo icpax iKOs and u r i yox iKOs a r e u s e d f r e q u e n t l y t o d e s c r i b e A u g u s t u s as w e l l ( e . g . , 5 3 . 1 2 . 1 ; 5 5 . 4 . 2 ) . F o r D i o t h e y s i g n i f y t h e same a t t r i b u t e , s o m e t h i n g be tween a d e s i r e t o m a i n t a i n R e p u b l i c a n fo rms and t h e levitas popularis t h a t Z . Y a v e t z a p p l i e s t o s e v e r a l o f t h e Empero rs (Plebs and Princeps p p . 9 8 - 1 0 0 ) . 3 .1 ynxe x S Sfiya) n xri y e BouXri ypai j ja i x i : S i n c e T i b e r i u s h a d t r a n s f e r r e d a l l t h e powers o f . m a k i n g i n i t i a l d e c i s i o n s t o t h e S e n a t e , t h e r e was no r e a s o n why G a i u s s h o u l d c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e S f i y o s . N o r was he l e g a l l y a b l e t o summon t h e S e n a t e , as T i b e r i u s had done a f t e r A u g u s t u s ' d e a t h b y v i r t u e o f h i s t r i b u n i c i a n power ( c f . T a c . 54 Ann. 1 . 7 ; c f . W i l l r i e h . Caligula p . 1 0 9 ) . G a i u s was f o r c e d t o w a i t upon t h e S e n a t e f o r t h e g r a n t i n g o f i m p e r i a l p o w e r s . J o s e p h u s ' comment (AJ 1 8 . 6 . 1 0 [234 ] ) t h a t i m m e d i a t e l y - on t h e d e a t h o f T i b e r i u s G a i u s w r o t e t h e s e n a t o r s i n f o r m i n g them o f h i s a c c e s s i o n shows a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l e g i t i m a t e p r o c e d u r e : someone who was p r e s e n t a t M isenum ( p e r h a p s M a c r o , a c t i n g as G a i u s ' l i e u t e n a n t ) p r o b a b l y - i n f o r m e d t h e S e n a t e b y l e t t e r o f T i b e r i u s ' d e a t h ( see B a l s d o n Gaius p . 2 5 ) , and a t t h e same t ime, w r o t e t h e C i t y P r e f e c t t o e n s u r e t h e l o y a l t y o f t h e u r b a n c o h o r t s . 3 . 2 - I v u i a nyepa XaQexv: T h i s p r o b a b l y t o o k p l a c e a t t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g o f t h e S e n a t e a f t e r G a i u s ' a r r i v a l i n Rome (see on 1.2 I s TO ouveSpiov), and s e r v e d m e r e l y t o c o n f i r m t h e powers t h a t he u n o f f i c i a l l y - p o s s e s s e d a f t e r b e i n g h a i l e d imperator by t h e S e n a t e on 18 M a r c h ( see on C h a p t e r 1 . 1 ) . I t was a t t h i s m e e t i n g , t o o , t h a t he must have d e l i v e r e d h i s s p e e c h r e c o r d e d i n C h a p t e r 6 .1 ( c f . B a l s d o n Gaius p p . 2 6 - 2 7 ) . The- g r a n t i n g o f a l l t h e i m p e r i a l powers and most o f t h e t i t l e s on a s i n g l e day c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d i r r e g u l a r . The p r o b l e m o f s u c c e s s i o n had b e e n e n c o u n t e r e d o n l y once b e f o r e , and i t must be remembered t h a t on A u g u s t u s ' d e a t h T i b e r i u s a l r e a d y p o s s e s s e d impevium proconsulate and tribunicia potestas, w h i c h a s s u r e d h i s a c c e s s i o n (D io 5 6 . 2 8 . 1 ; S u e t . Tib. 2 1 . 1 ; T a c . Ann. 1 . 3 . 3 ; V e i l . 2 . 1 2 1 . 1 ; c f . R. V i l l e r s . REL 28 [1950] 2 4 4 - 4 5 ) . S i n c e G a i u s had not . been g i v e n t h e s e powe rs d u r i n g T i b e r i u s ' l i f e t i m e , i t was o f c o u r s e n e c e s s a r y f o r t he c o n t i n u a n c e o f t h e P r i n c i p a t e t h a t he assume b o t h i m m e d i a t e l y - . Because o f t h e b r e v i t y - o f G a i u s ' r e i g n i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e s e powers were c o n f e r r e d on h im f o r l i f e o r f o r s t a t e d p e r i o d s o f t i m e . The d i s t i n c t i o n i s p e r h a p s ' a c a d e m i c , s i n c e 55 imperitan was a u t o m a t i c a l l y renewed every- f i v e o r t e n y e a r s ( D i o 5 3 . 1 6 . 2 ; h i s s u b s e q u e n t s t a t e m e n t t h a t Empero rs a f t e r A u g u s t u s were a p p o i n t e d f o r l i f e ( " I s TrdvTa Ka9cvrra5 ; x o v g i o v a T r o S e i . i c v u y e v o . t . " ] c o u l d w e l l be a . r e f l e c t i o n o f even l a t e r p r a c t i c e ) ; and t r i b u n i c i a n power was c o n s i d e r e d " a n n u a l and p e r p e t u a l " (D io 5 3 . 1 7 . 1 ; 5 3 . 3 2 . 5 ; c f . Mommsen Staatsr. 2 . 7 9 5 , n . 1 ) . G a i u s ' i m m e d i a t e a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e powers and t i t l e s e n j o y e d b y h i s p r e d e c e s s o r e s t a b l i s h e d t h e cus tom f o r t h o s e , who f o l l o w e d , f r om C l a u d i u s t o V e s p a s i a n ( C l a u d i u s : D i o 6 0 . 3 . 2 ; N e r o : T a c . Ann. 1 2 . 6 9 . 3 ; O t h o : T a c . Hist. 1 . 4 7 . 2 ; V i t e l l i u s : T a c . Hist. 2 . 5 5 . 3 ; V e s p a s i a n : T a c . Hist. 4 . 3 . 4 ) . The lex de imperio Vespasiani (ILS 244 = E§J 364) i s t h e e a r l i e s t p r o o f t h a t a l l t h e h o n o u r s were g r a n t e d by one d e c r e e r a t h e r t h a n . b y s e p a r a t e e n a c t m e n t s i n a s h o r t p e r i o d ( a l t h o u g h , some doub t t h a t imperium was i n c l u d e d i n t h e lex: c f . Hammond Augustan. Principate.p. 2 6 ) . T h i s p r a c t i c e c o n t i n u e d u n t i l a t l e a s t t h e t i m e o f D i o h i m s e l f ( c f . D i o 5 3 . 1 8 . 4 ) . F o r an e x c e l l e n t s u r v e y o f t h e i m p e r i a l t i t l e s and powers emp loyed b y , A u g u s t u s and h i s s u c c e s s o r s , s e e Hammond o p . c i t . p p . 2 5 - 1 1 3 . . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e powers m e n t i o n e d above., t h e r e were t h r e e i m p o r t a n t t i t l e s u s e d ( t h o u g h n o t i n v a r i a b l y ) b y t h e e a r l y , E m p e r o r s : t h e praenomen imp erat oris, Augustus, and pater patriae. S u e t o n i u s c l a i m s t h a t G a i u s u s e d o t h e r s , s u c h as pius, castrorum f i l i u s , pater exercituum, and optimus maximus Caesar (Gaius 2 2 ) , b u t t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n s c r i p t i o n a l e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h i s ( see R o s b o r o u g h p . 3 5 , who r e f e r s t o CIL 2 . 1 5 0 * ; f o r pius, s e e on C h a p t e r 3 . 3 eweBSs). A d i s t i n c t i o n must be made be tween t h e nomen imperatoris, w h i c h c o u l d be won by- t h e E m p e r o r any- number o f t i m e s t h r o u g h t h e v i c t o r i e s o f h i s legati i n t h e f i e l d (see C h a p t e r 2 2 . 2 ) , and t h e praenomen imperatoris, w h i c h e a r l y - became a p e r p e t u a l p a r t o f A u g u s t u s ' t i t l e s and o r i g i n a l l y seems t o 56 have s i g n i f i e d h i s pe rmanen t command o f t h e t r o o p s ( O c t a v i a n a p p e a r s t o have f i r s t u s e d t h e t i t l e i n 4 0 ' B . C . ; c f . D e g r a s s i Fasti, Capitolini p . 1 0 9 ; Hammond Augustan Principate p p . 4 8 - 5 0 . S e e - a l s o D i o 4 3 . 4 4 . 2 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e praenomen imperatoris was e v e n t u a l l y t o be c o n s i d e r e d t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f princeps ( c f . Mason Greek Terms p . 1 1 9 ) , i t was n o t s o b y t h e t i m e o f T i b e r i u s , who c o n s i s t e n t l y r e f u s e d t o a l l o w i t t o be u s e d e x c e p t b y t h e s o l d i e r s (D io 5 7 . 2 . 1 ; 5 7 . 8 . 1 - 2 ; S u e t . Tib. 2 6 . 2 ) . G a i u s , t o o , a v o i d e d u s i n g i t , o r p e r h a p s n e v e r a c c e p t e d i t o u t r i g h t d e s p i t e t h e d e c r e e o f t h e S e n a t e on 18 M a r c h A . D . 37 ( see on C h a p t e r 1 . 1 ) , f o r i t i s a b s e n t on a l l b u t p r o v i n c i a l i n s c r i p t i o n s (see R o s b o r o u g h p . 1 9 ; Mommsen Staatsr. 2 . 7 6 9 ) . I n t h i s he. was f o l l o w e d b y C l a u d i u s ( S u e t . Claud. 1 2 . 1 ) . See f u r t h e r Mason Greek Terms p p . 1 2 , 2 9 , 1 1 7 - 2 1 . A l t h o u g h A u g u s t u s had i n t e n d e d t o b e q u e a t h t h e name Augustus t o h i s s u c c e s s o r ( S u e t . Aug. . 1 0 1 . 2 ; Tib. 1 7 . 2 ) , b o t h D i o and S u e t o n i u s s a y t h a t T i b e r i u s n e v e r u s e d i t , e x c e p t when d e a l i n g w i t h f o r e i g n monarchs (D io 5 7 . 2 . 1 ; 5 7 . 8 . 1 ; S u e t . Tib. 2 6 . 2 ) . The f a c t t h a t t h e t i t l e A u g u s t u s (Segacnros i n G r e e k ) i s a t t a c h e d t o T i b e r i u s ' name i n i n s c r i p t i o n s f r o m t h e E a s t does n o t c o n t r a d i c t o u r s o u r c e s , f o r p r o v i n c i a l s commonly made e r r o r s r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o p e r t i t l e s o f E m p e r o r s ( s e e , e . g . , IGRR 4 . 2 0 6 = E&J 9 3 , f r om I l i u m : " . . . TOO auxoKpaxopos T i B e p i o u EegaoTou o l o u Z e B a a x o u " ; f o r a l e n g t h y , l i s t o f p r o v i n c i a l e r r o r s , , s e e S e a g e r Tiberius p . 1 4 2 , n . 2 ) . But Augustus a p p e a r s i n i n s c r i p t i o n s and on c o i n a g e f rom I t a l y as w e l l , w i t h i n a few y e a r s a f t e r t h e b e g i n n i n g o f T i b e r i u s ' r e i g n , s o m e t h i n g w h i c h w o u l d n o t h a v e been t o l e r a t e d i f t h e name had n o t e v e n t u a l l y become p a r t o f T i b e r i u s ' o f f i c i a l t i t l e s ( s e e , e . g . , BMC Imp. 1 . 1 3 0 , n o . 1 7 6 ; 1 . 1 3 1 , n o . 7 9 , 8 1 ; TLS 159 = Et |J 8 3 - 8 5 , 8 7 . I c a n n o t a c c e p t S c o t t ' s u n c o n v i n c i n g d e f e n c e o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f D i o and S u e t o n i u s c o n c e r n i n g T i b e r i u s ' r e f u s a l 57 Of t h e t i t l e Augustus [CPA 27 (1932) 4 3 - 5 0 ] ) . I f T i b e r i u s h a d a t f i r s t h e s i t a t e d t o u s e t h e name w i t h , i t s r e l i g i o u s and (by. t h e n ) d i v i n e c o n n o t a -t i o n s - , G a i u s d i d n o t , f o r i t a p p e a r s as p a r t o f h i s t i t l e s f r o m t h e f i r s t months o f h i s r u l e ( c f . ILS 180 and 183 = S m a l l w o o d 8 4 - 8 5 ; BMC Imp. 1 . 1 5 2 , n o . 36 and 38 = S m a l l w o o d 86 and 8 1 ) . Pater patriae, t h e t h i r d o f t h e p r o m i n e n t i m p e r i a l t i t l e s , was f i r s t g i v e n t o C i c e r o ( J u v e n a l 8 . 2 4 4 ) , and was a f t e r w a r d s u s e d by J u l i u s C a e s a r and A u g u s t u s ( c f . D i o 5 3 . 1 8 . 3 ) . A l t h o u g h i t was s e v e r a l t i m e s o f f e r e d t o T i b e r i u s , he a l w a y s r e f u s e d i t ( D i o 5 7 . 8 . 1 - 2 ; 5 8 . 1 2 . 8 ; T a c . Ann. 1 . 7 2 . 2 ; 2 . 8 7 . 2 ; S u e t . Tib. 2 6 . 2 ) . D i o ' s c l a i m t h a t G a i u s assumed t h e t i t l e OUK IS uaKpav i s c o n f i r m e d b y a s e s t e r t i u s d a t e d A . D . 3 7 - 3 8 , w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g . i n s c r i p t i o n on t h e r e v e r s e : S P Q R PP OB CIVES SERVATOS (BMC Imp. 1 . 1 5 2 , n o . 38 = S m a l l w o o d 8 1 ; c f . ILS 1 9 3 , d a t e d t o A . D . 3 9 ) . C l a u d i u s , t o o , r e j e c t e d i t a t f i r s t (D io 6 0 . 3 . 2 ) , b u t a c c e p t e d i t w i t h i n a y e a r o f h i s a c c e s s i o n ( c f . CIL 6 . 4 0 3 2 ) . 3 . 3 yoixiKwxaTos xe avSptov: F o r p o p u l a r e x a m p l e s , c f . S u e t o n i u s Gaius 2 4 . 3 . 3 v u v a i V a uiav uev eKoiSouevriV av<5p\ apudaas: I . e . , C o r n e l i a O r e s t i l l a , d u r i n g h e r m a r r i a g e t o C . C a l p u r n i u s P i s o . See on C h a p t e r 8 . 7 eynue. 3 . 3 aAAas <5e auvotKoucras xicriv .aTfooTTaaas: G a i u s i s s a i d ' t o have f o r c e d Memmius R e g u l u s , t h e h u s b a n d o f L o l l i a P a u l i n a , t o b e t r o t h . h e r to. h i m (see C h a p t e r 1 2 . 1 ) . The p l u r a l aA'Aas w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t D i o i n c l u d e s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y M i l o n i a C a e s o n i a , G a i u s ' f o u r t h , w i f e , a l t h o u g h , he nowhere m e n t i o n s t h a t she had p r e v i o u s l y 58 been married • (but cf. Suet. Gaius 25.3; see on Chapter 23.7 Mi.Atoviav). Gaius was also, accused.of having seduced his sister Drusilla from her f i r s t husband, L. Cass-ius Longinus (Suet. Qaius 24.1; see on Chapter 11.1 Mapicos AemSos). Those who claim that Gaius modelled his rule on that of the pharaohs of Egypt would see in this habit the traditional behaviour of those eastern monarchs (see, for example, Colin Latomus 13 [1954] 408-9; cf. A. Ermany Life in Ancient Egypt [New York, 1894 (1969)] p. 155). 3.3 auras TrAnv uias eutaricre: Gaius divorced at least two of his wives, Cornelia Orestllla in A.D. 37 or 38 (Chapter 8.7), and L o l l i a Paulina in A.D.' 39 (Chapter 23.7)while the fate of his f i r s t wife, Junia Claudilla, i s uncertain (see on Chapter 8.7.TDV xe Guyaxepa). He loved onlyMllonia Caesonia, whom he married in A.D. 39 (Chapter 23.7) and to whom he remained devoted until his death (Suet. Gaius 25.3)--there seems l i t t l e justification for Dio's statement that he would have grown to hate her as well, a remark which Ferrero (Women pp. 208-13) apparently accepts as valid. 3.3 euaeBws: His piety was depicted on coins: BMC Imp. 1.153, no. 41, minted for the dedication.of the Temple of Augustus and inscribed on the reverse PIETAS (A.D. 37-38); BMC Imp. 1.156, no. 58, with the same inscription (A;D. 39-40). It does not seem likely that Euaegfis or Pius was used by Gaius as part of his.name, despite Suetonius' claim to the contrary- (ffaius 22.). The only- epigr.aphic evidence for i t occurs in an inscription from the East and dated to the v i s i t of Germanicus' family there in A.D'. 18, when Gaius was only- six (IGRR 4.1022; cf. Rosborough p. 35). 59 On ipietas as an a t t r i b u t e o f E m p e r o r s , c f . M . P . C h a r l e s w o r t h JRS 33 Q 9 4 3 ) 1 - 1 0 . F o r G a i u s ' e a r l y - p r o p a g a n d a on b e h a l f o f t h e w h o l e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y - , c f . Mei .se Untersuchungen p p . 9 7 - 9 8 . 3 . 4 xauxnv xe yap Auyoucrxav . . . : C f . S u e t . Gaius 1 5 . 2 : " A n t o n i a e a v i a e , q u i d q u i d umquam L i v i a A u g u s t a honorum c e p i s s e t , uno s e n a t u s c o n s u l t o c o n g e s s i t . " I n A . D . 1 4 , a f t e r h e r h u s b a n d ' s d e a t h , L i v i a had been a p p o i n t e d p r i e s t e s s o f A u g u s t u s and had been g i v e n t h e name Augusta (Dio 5 6 . 4 6 . 1 - 2 ) . S u e t o n i u s (Claud. 1 1 . 2 ) s a y s t h a t A n t o n i a r e f u s e d G a i u s ' o f f e r o f t h e cognomen Augustae,,and t h a t i t r e m a i n e d f o r h e r s o n , t h e Empero r C l a u d i u s , t o b e s t o w i t on h e r p o s t h u m o u s l y ( c f • a l s o D i o 6 0 . 5 . 1 ; BMC Imp. 1 . 1 8 0 , n o . 1 1 2 , d a t e d t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f C l a u d i u s ' r e i g n and s h o w i n g on t h e o b v e r s e a b u s t o f A n t o n i a w i t h t h e words ANTONIA AUGUSTA, and on t h e r e v e r s e t h e i n s c r i p t i o n SACERDOS D IV I A U G U S T I ) . I t i s , h o w e v e r , c l e a r f r o m t h e Acta Fvatrum Arvalium (Sma l lwood n o . 3 ; c f . Henzen p p . x l i i i , 52) t h a t A n t o n i a a c c e p t e d t h e t i t l e f r om G a i u s , f o r a . s a c r i f i c e on 31 J a n u a r y A . D . 38 was c a r r i e d ou t " A n t o n i a e A u g u s t a e . " On t h e p r i e s t h o o d o f A u g u s t u s g i v e n t o A n t o n i a , c f . Kornemann Doppelprinzipat p p . 5 1 - 5 2 ; h e r p o s i t i o n i s c o n f i r m e d by CIL 6 . 9 2 1 . -3 .4 o'cra x a ? s a e i T r a p Q e v o i s UTTCXPXEV: I n 42 B . C . t h e T r i u m v i r s had g r a n t e d t h e V e s t a l s p e r m i s s i o n t o use one l i c t o r e a c h ( D i o 4 7 . 1 9 . 4 ) ; t h i s r i g h t was l a t e r g i v e n t o L i v i a i n h e r p o s i t i o n as p r i e s t e s s o f A u g u s t u s (D io 5 6 . 4 6 . 2 ) . Among t h e o t h e r r i g h t s o f t h e V e s t a l s , a l s o g r a n t e d t o . L i v i a , was p e r m i s s i o n t o o c c u p y s p e c i a l s e a t s : i n t h e t h e a t r e and a t p u b l i c games ( S u e t . Aug. 4 .4 .3 ; T a c . Ann. 4 . 1 6 . 6 ) . A s s o c i a t i o n o f i m p e r i a l women w i t h t h e V e s t a l s became a l m o s t c u s t o m a r y : O v i d 60 r e f e r s t o L i v i a i n company w i t h , them {Tvist. 4 . 2 . 1 3 - 1 4 ; Pont. 4 . 1 3 . 2 9 ) , and C l a u d i u s l a t e r a s s i g n e d a s e a t i n t h e i r a r e a o f t h e t h e a t r e t o M e s s a l i n a ( D i o 6 0 . 2 2 . 2 ) . 3.4- I v xp. auxrt T rpoeop ia ; See C h a p t e r 7 .4 f o r an i n s t a n c e . 3 . 5 xots X E euxcis . . . icat... xous optcous: C f . S u e t o n i u s Gaius 1 5 . 3 : " d e s o r o r i b u s a u c t o r f u i t u t omnibus s a c r a m e n t i s a d i c e r e n t u r : ' n e q u e me l i b e r o s q u e meos c a r i o r e s habebo quam Gaium habeo e t s o r o r e s e i u s ; f i t e m r e l a t i o n i b . u s c o n s u l u m : ' q u o d bonum f e l i x q u e s i t C . C a e s a r i s o r o r i b u s q u e e i u s : ' " T h i s h o n o u r p a i d t o G a i u s ' s i s t e r s i s h a r d l y - i r r e g u l a r , s i n c e i t was c u s t o m a r y p r a c t i c e t o i n c l u d e t h e E m p e r o r ' s f a m i l y - i n p r a y e r s and d e c r e e s ( c f . S u e t . Aug. 5 8 . 2 : " q u o d bonum, i n q u i t , f aus tumque s i t t i b i domuique t u a e , C a e s a r . A u g u s t e ! " ) . In A . D . 24 G a i u s * b r o t h e r s had been q u i t e n a t u r a l l y i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n n u a l p r a y e r f o r T i b e r i u s ' h e a l t h , and i t was o n l y t h a t E m p e r o r ' s g r o w i n g f e a r t h a t c a u s e d h i m t o s u s p e c t A g r i p p i n a ' s i n f l u e n c e ( T a c . Ann. 4 . 1 7 ; S u e t . Tib. 5 4 . 1 ) . The o a t h t a k e n b y t h e c i t i z e n s o f A s s o s on G a i u s ' a c c e s s i o n , b e f o r e t h e Emperor c o u l d have i n s i s t e d on t h e i n c l u s i o n o f h i s s i s t e r s , r e a d s i n p a r t : " o u v u u e v . . . e u v o n a e i v T a i o n K o u a a p i EsgacrxSi icon, xah auyTTavxi OXKOOI a u x o u " (SIG 797 = S m a l l w o o d n o . 3 3 ; c f . T . Mommsen. " I .us iu randum i n C . Caesa rem ' A u g u s t u n . " Ges. Sohrlft. S . 4 6 1 - 4 6 6 ) . I t i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g , t h e n , t h a t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f A . D . 38 t h e a n n u a l o a t h s and p r a y e r s , i n c l u d e d .men t ion o f G a i u s ' t h r e e s i s t e r s ( c f . [Chap te r .9.2, •,, and the, , o a t h / r e c o r d e d i n , the . Acta Pvatvum' Avvalium . f o r . 12 J a n u a r y A . D . 3 8 , :as r e s t o r e d b y Momms.en a n d . Henzen [CIL 6 . 2028b = 3 2 3 4 4 = Sma l lwood n o . 2 = Henzen p . x l i i ] ) . N o r was i t an i n n o v a t i o n f o r G a i n s t o i n c l u d e l i v i n g i m p e r i a l women on h i s c o i n a g e , . a s on t h e s e s t e r t i u s o f A . D . 37 -38 s h o w i n g on t h e r e v e r s e 61 Agrippina, D r u s i l l a , and J u l i a representing Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna (BMC Imp. 1.152, no. 36). Tiberius e a r l i e r had issued coins on the reverse of which L i v i a was shown as Pax (BMC Imp. 1.124, no. 30; cf. p. cxxx, where the coin i s dated to A.D. 16-21), The reverse was always considered secondary to the obverse (cf. M. Grant, Roman Imperial Money [London, 1954] pp. 141-43), and i t was not u n t i l Claudius' reign that the p o r t r a i t of a l i v i n g imperial woman was portrayed on the obverse of a coin (BMC Imp. 1.176, no. 82: Agrippina Minor, A.D. 51-54). For the coin showing Gaius' three s i s t e r s , see U. Kahrstedt, Klio 10 (1910) 295; G.G. Belloni i n Aufstieg und Niedergang 2.1.1045-1046. 3.5 Ta Te oara r a Te Tris uryrpos <a\ Ta TGV afieX^Sv TSV auoGavoVrtov: After the death of his own son Drusus i n A.D. 23, Tiberius entrusted to the Senate the two older sons of Germanicus, Nero and Drusus, i n language that made i t quite clear that they were to succeed him (Dio 57.22.4a; Tac. Ann. 4.8.8. On t h i s meeting of the Senate, cf. G. Kampff Phoenix 17 [1963] 53-57). Yet within four years they and t h e i r mother Agrippina were suspected of treason by the Emperor. Tiberius had by then f a l l e n under the influence of Seianus, who found i t easy to play on the old man's fear of Agrippina's ambition and arrogance (cf. W i l l r i e h Caligula p. 94). According to Suetonius (Tib. 55), Seianus was given the power to r i d Tiberius of the family of Germanicus and to ensure that Tiberius Gemellus should become Emperor. This i s d i f f i c u l t to believe of Tiberius, since Gemellus was only eight years old i n A.D. 27, when the persecution of Agrip-pina and her sons began i n earnest (Tac. Ann. 4,67.6). It i s more l i k e l y that, by forcing Tiberius to put Nero and Drusus out of the way, and at the same time by p l o t t i n g p r i v a t e l y against Gaius (see on Chapter 16.4 KOI TOV Seiavov) , S e i a n u s was p a v i n g t h e ' w a y - - f o r G e m e l l u s ' a c c e s s i o n w i t h h i m s e l f as r e g e n t ( see M a r s h Tiberius p . 194 and n . 3 ) . At. t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p r e f e c t , t h e n , A g r i p p i n a and h e r . f a m i l y were f o l l o w e d b y s o l d i e r s who n o t e d a l l t h e i r w o r d s and a c t i o n s . They we re e n c o u r a g e d t o f l e e t o t h e German l e g i o n s o r t o s e e k s a n c t u a r y , a t t h e s t a t u e o f A u g u s t u s , and a l t h o u g h t h e y r e f u s e d , t h e y were n o n e t h e l e s s c o n s i d e r e d t o have c o n t e m p l a t e d s u c h moves ( T a c . Ann. 5 . 3 and S u e t . Tib. 5 3 . 2 , b o t h o f whom c o n s i d e r t h e c h a r g e s f a b r i c a t e d ) . T a c i t u s - assumes t h a t L i v i a a c t e d as a b u l w a r k a g a i n s t T i b e r i u s a t t a c k i n g A g r i p p i n a , s i n c e a f t e r L i v i a ' s d e a t h i n A . D . 29 T i b e r i u s and S e i a n u s denounced A g r i p p i n a and Nero p u b l i c l y , c h a r g i n g t hem, n o t w i t h t r e a s o n as m i g h t be e x p e c t e d , b u t Ne ro w i t h "amores i uvenum e t i m p u d i c i t i a m " and A g r i p p i n a w i t h " a d r o g a n t i a m o r i s e t contumacem animum" ( T a c . Ann.. 5 . 3 . 3 - 4 . S u e t o n i u s [Gaius 1 0 . 1 ] s u g g e s t s t h a t A g r i p p i n a was . t r i e d and b a n i s h e d before t h e d e a t h o f L i v i a : on t h i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t y , w h i c h has n o t y e t been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n e d , s e e M . P . - C h a r l e s w o r t h CPh 17 [1922] 2 6 0 - 6 1 ; G e l z e r RE " J u l i u s " c o l . 3 8 2 ; t h e p r o b l e m was n o t n o t i c e d b y M a u r e r ) . F o r an a n a l y s i s o f t h e c h a r g e s a g a i n s t A g r i p p i n a and N e r o , s e e p a r t i c u l a r l y R o g e r s Criminal Trials p p . 9 8 - 1 0 3 , where i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e f a m i l y o f G e r m a n i c u s was g u i l t y o f c o n s p i r a c y , b u t t h a t dummy c h a r g e s were l a i d a g a i n s t them t o a v o i d open r e v o l t on t h e p a r t o f t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s (see a l s o R o g e r s ' a r t i c l e i n TAPhA 62 [1931] 1 4 1 - 6 8 ; t h e most r e c e n t t r e a t m e n t o f t h e t r e a s o n t r i a l s i s R . A . Bauman Impietas in Prinoipem [ M u n i c h , 1 9 7 4 ] ) . I n s t e a d o f b e i n g p r o s e c u t e d a l o n g w i t h h i s m o t h e r and b r o t h e r , D r u s u s was u s e d as a t o o l a g a i n s t N e r o : S e i a n u s p l a y e d o n . h i s j e a l o u s y - o f h i s o l d e r b r o t h e r , e n c o u r a g i n g h i m t o hope f o r t h e s u c c e s s i o n , i f N e r o were d i s p o s e d o f ( T a c . Ann. 4 . 6 0 . 4 - 6 ) . S i n c e T a c i t u s i s n o t . e x t a n t f o r t h e t r i a l and c o n v i c t i o n o f . A g r i p p i n a and N e r o i n A . D . 2 9 , and D i o o n l y i n b a r e f r a g m e n t s t h a t a r e c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y 63 i m p e r f e c t , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h o s e e v e n t s . We do know t h a t one o f t h e " a c c u s e r s - was A v i l l i u s f l a c c u s - . , l a t e r t h e p r e f e c t o f E g y p t , whose t r e a t m e n t o f t h e A l e x a n d r i a n Jews was t o c a u s e , G a i u s c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o b l e m s ( P h i l o in flaao. 3 . 9 [ 5 1 8 ] ; on f l a c c u s ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e A l e x a n d r i a n r i o t s d u r i n g G a i u s ' r e i g n , c f . S m a l l w o o d Legqtio pp.. 1 4 - 2 3 ) . I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e t r i a l o f A g r i p p i n a and N e r o , T i b e r i u s t o o k g r e a t p r e c a u t i o n s t o p r e v e n t them b e i n g s e e n by. t h e p o p u l a c e — p r o o f , i f a n y i s n e e d e d , o f t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f G e r m a n i c u s ' f a m i l y ( S u e t . Tit. 6 4 ) . N e r o was e x i l e d t o t h e i s l a n d o f P o n t i a , where i n A . D . 31 he c o m m i t t e d s u i c i d e . H i s r e m a i n s were s c a t t e r e d , b u t n o t s u c c e s s f u l l y enough t o p r e v e n t t h e i r b u r i a l ( S u e t . Tib. 5 4 . 2 ; t h e d a t e i s i n f e r r e d f r om Tib. 6 1 . 1 ) . A g r i p p i n a was i m p r i s o n e d on P a n d a t e r i a ( S u e t . Tib. 5 3 . 2 ) , where her . mo the r J u l i a had a l s o b e e n i n e x i l e ( T a c . Ann. 1 . 5 3 . 1 ; S u e t . Aug. 6 5 . 3 ) . D r u s u s , . n o l o n g e r o f any u s e t o S e i a n u s , was c o n v i c t e d on an unknown c h a r g e and i m p r i s o n e d i n t h e basement o f t h e p a l a c e ( S u e t . Tib. 5 4 . 2 ) , p r o b a b l y l a t e i n A . D . 30 ( h i s t r i a l must have t a k e n p l a c e a f t e r t h e p u b l i c a -t i o n o f V e l l e i u s ' work i n t h a t y e a r : c f . F u r n e a u x 1 . 6 2 4 , n . 2 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o T a c i t u s (Ann. 6 . 2 4 . 2 ) , w h i l e i n p r i s o n D r u s u s a c t e d t h e p a r t o f a madman ( " [ a l i e n a t i o n e m m e n t i s s i m u l a n s ] , q u a s i p e r d e m e n t i a m " ) . H o w e v e r , p a r t o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t a p p e a r s t o be an i n t e r p o l a t i o n (c f . . F u r n e a u x ad l o c ) , and Marsh , i s no doub t c o r r e c t when he s a y s t h a t " i t seems e x t r e m e l y p r o b a b l e t h a t d u r i n g h i s i m p r i s o n m e n t t h e p r i n c e became a c t u a l l y i n s a n e , and t h a t T i b e r i u s a t l e n g t h c o n c l u d e d t h a t h i s d e a t h was a g r i m n e c e s s i t y o f s t a t e " (Tiberius p . 2 0 8 ) . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , d u r i n g t h e o v e r t h r o w o f S e i a n u s , t h e r e was a rumour t h a t i n an emergency Mac ro was t o r e l e a s e D r u s u s and " p l a c e h i m a t t h e head o f t h e p e o p l e " C'dueem p o p u l o . i m p p n e r e " : T a c . Ann., 6 . 2 3 . 4 - 6 ) . But i n s t e a d he was a l l o w e d t o s t a r v e t o d e a t h two y e a r s l a t e r , 64 s u r v i v i n g h i s l a s t e i g h t days by- e a t i n g t h e s t u f f i n g o f h i s m a t t r e s s ( J a e . Ann. 6 . 2 3 . 4 ; S u e t . Tib. . 5 4 . 2 ) . H i s r e m a i n s , t o o , were s c a t t e r e d w i t h o u t b u r i a l ( D i o 5 8 . 2 2 . 5 ) . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r . t h e d e a t h s o f t h e \ two p r i n c e s , a s -S u e t o n i u s p o i n t s ou t w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s i g h t . ' . (Tib. 6 1 . 1 ) , must r e s t s o l e l y w i t h T i b e r i u s and n o t S e i a n u s ( c f . S e a g e r Tiberius- p p . 2 3 3 - 3 4 ) . A g r i p p i n a d i e d soon a f t e r D r u s u s , on 18 .Oc tober . A . D . -33 ( T a c . Ann. 6 . 2 5 . 5 ) , b u t n o t b e f o r e she had t h o r o u g h l y denounced , t h e E m p e r o r ( S u e t . Tib. 5 3 . 2 ) . T a c i t u s i s i n doub t abou t t h e manner o f h e r d e a t h , w h e t h e r h e r s t a r v a t i o n was v o l u n t a r y o r e n f o r c e d , b u t S u e t o n i u s d e s c r i b e s i t as s u i c i d e . T i b e r i u s , q u i t e n a t u r a l l y i n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , . r e f u s e d t o a l l o w h e r t o be b u r i e d i n A u g u s t u s ' Mauso leum a t Rome (D io 5 8 . 2 2 . 5 ) . 3 . 5 a u x o s i e iT'Aeuaas KCU a u x o s a U T o y e x p t a . a v e A o p e v o s : A c c o r d i n g t o S u e t o n i u s . . (Gaius 1 5 . 1 ) t h e j o u r n e y was made d u r i n g bad w e a t h e r , " quo . mag i s p i e t a s e m i n e r e t " ( c f . M . P . C h a r l e s w o r t h Comb. Hist. Journ.. 4 [1933] 1 0 8 - 9 ) . D i o i s , o f c o u r s e , wrong t o s u g g e s t t h a t G a i u s h e r e c o l l e c t e d t h e r e m a i n s o f b o t h h i s b r o t h e r s , s i n c e D r u s u s had d i e d a t Rome. P a n d a t e r i a and P o n t i a . a r e two s m a l l b u t m o d e r a t e l y p o p u l a t e d i s l a n d s l y i n g i n t h e Bay o f . P u t e o l i o p p o s i t e F o r m i a e , abou t 2 5 0 . s t a d e s f r om t h e m a i n l a n d ( S t r a b o 2 . 5 . 1 9 ; 5 . 3 . 6 ; P l i n y HN 3 . 6 . 8 2 ) . . The f o r m e r was a f a v o u r i t e p l a c e o f e x i l e f o r women o f t h e i m p e r i a l . f a m i l y : i n a d d i t i o n t o A u g u s t u s ' d a u g h t e r J u l i a , two o f G a i u s ' s i s t e r s were i m p r i s o n e d t h e r e (see on C h a p t e r 3 . 6 Is v r i crov) , and N e r o ' s w i f e . O c t a v i a was l a t e r t o be c o n f i n e d and e x e c u t e d on t h e i s l a n d ( T a c . Ann. 1 4 . 6 3 . 1 ; [ S e n . ] Octavia 9 7 0 - 9 7 2 . 65 3 . 5 Is TO TQQ AuyOvCTTOU uvfiua KareGeTO; F o r t h e Mauso leum o f A u g u s t u s , s e e P l a t n e r and Ashby- p p . 3 3 2 - 3 5 . The f u n e r a r y i n s c r i p t i o n s o f A g r i p p i n a and N e r o a r e b o t h e x t a n t (ILS 180 and 183 = S m a l l w o o d n o . 84a and 8 5 a ) , b u t t h e r e i s no r e c o r d o f t h a t o f D r u s u s . S i n c e S u e t o n i u s d o e s n o t m e n t i o n t h a t h e , t o o , was b u r i e d i n t h e M a u s o l e u m , p e r h a p s h i s r e m a i n s c o u l d n o t be f o u n d i n t h e p a l a c e (so B a l s d o n Gaius p . 3 0 ) . T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e , h o w e v e r , t h a t m e m o r i a l s were e r e c t e d t o h i m o u t s i d e Rome ( e . g . , ILS 1 8 7 , an i n s c r i p t i o n f r om G a l l i a T r a n s p a d i n a ) . G a i u s ' p i e t y - t o w a r d s h i s m o t h e r ' s memory d i d n o t s t o p w i t h h e r b u r i a l . He d e s t r o y e d t h e v i l l a a t H e r c u l a n e u m where she had been i m p r i s o n e d ( S e n . de Ira 3 . 2 1 . 5 ; s e e K. S c o t t , AJPh 60 [1939] 4 5 9 - 6 2 ) and d e c l a r e d a n n u a l c i r c u s games i n h e r h o n o u r ( S u e t . Gaius 1 5 . 1 ; c f . BMC Imp. 1 . 1 5 9 , n o . 1 8 0 ) . H e r b i r t h d a y , w h i c h S u e t o n i u s s a y s had been d e c l a r e d nefastus at. t h e i n s t i g a -t i o n o f T i b e r i u s (Tib. 5 3 . 2 ) , was now made t h e o c c a s i o n o f an a n n u a l s a c r i f i c e o f a b u l l by t h e A r v a l s (CIL 6 . 3 2 3 4 6 = S m a l l w o o d n o . 9 ; t h e f i g u r e s o f t h e d a t e a r e u n c l e a r , and c o u l d s i g n i f y e i t h e r 25 o r 26 O c t o b e r ) . 3 . 5 oiarrep I v ITTIVIKCOIS K o a u n Q e i s : S u e t o n i u s (Gaius 1 5 . 1 ) adds f u r t h e r t h a t t h e r e m a i n s were c a r r i e d f rom O s t i a t o Rome on two feroula, v e h i c l e s n o r m a l l y u s e d f o r c a r r y i n g s p o i l s o f war i n a t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n ( c f . S u e t . Caes. 3 7 . 2 ; RE " f e r c u l u m " c o l . 2 2 0 6 - 7 ) , and were a c c o m p a n i e d b y equites i n p r o c e s s i o n . I t i s t e m p t i n g t o s e e a p l a n n e d s i m i l a r i t y be tween t h i s p r o c e s s i o n and t h a t o f Magna M a t e r i n 204 B . C . ( c f . O v i d Fasti 4 . 2 9 1 - 3 4 8 ) ; M a u r e r (p . 58) g o e s so f a r as t o s u g g e s t an i n t e n t i o n a l emphas i s o f t h e d i v i n i t y o f G a i u s ' f a m i l y ; b u t i t w o u l d be more l i k e l y t h a t t h e Empero r was d r a w i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e pietas o f h i s a n c e s t r e s s , C l a u d i a Q u i n t a ( L i v y 2 9 . 1 4 . 1 2 ) . 66 3 .6 TQUS xe <j>£UYOVTqs 6V auxous KaxxryaYe; F o r a discussion o f t h e T i b e r i a n p r o s e c u t i o n s o f A g r i p p i n a ' s s u p p o r t e r s , s e e yiarsh. Tiberius p p . 1 6 6 - 8 8 ; S e a g e r Tiberius 1 8 7 - 9 4 ; . 2 0 6 - 8 . The c o n c e p t o f a " p a r t y " l o y a l t o A g r i p p i n a : and G e r m a n i c u s was f i r s t d e v i s e d b y f . B . M a r s h (Am. .Hist. Rep. .31 [ 1925 /1926 ] 2 3 3 - 5 0 ) , who s u g g e s t s t h a t i t was s u p p o r t e d by- t h e " l e s s e r " . n o b i l i t y , w h i l e t h e " p a r t y " o f T i b e r i u s and ( e a r l i e r ) h i s s o n D r u s u s was f a v o u r e d b y t h e h i g h e r a r i s t o c -r a c y ; M a r s h ' s v i e w s were s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d b y W. A l l e n , . . J r . , i n TAPhA 72 (1941) 1 - 2 5 . F o r a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f some o f A g r i p p i n a ' s s u p p o r t e r s , s e e on C h a p t e r 19.1..KaxFiyopriKex . 3 . 6 IKEIVTIV x £ Y a p ITTX x iunoxxaav x i auxG ks avayKr iv eicouaiou 0avaxou Kaxecrxricre: B o t h D i o and S u e t o n i u s a c c u s e G a i u s o f m a l t r e a t i n g h i s g r a n d m o t h e r and o f c a u s i n g h e r d e a t h . I t a p p e a r s t h a t A n t o n i a s e v e r a l t i m e s t r i e d t o i n t e r f e r e i n i m p e r i a l d e c i s i o n s , as when she a t t e m p t e d t o r e s t r a i n G a i u s f r om r e l e a s i n g He rod A g r i p p a i m m e d i a t e l y on T i b e r i u s ' d e a t h ( J o s . AJ 1 8 . 6 . 1 0 [ 2 3 6 ] ; c f . S u e t . Gaius 2 9 . 1 ; on t h i s p o i n t , s e e M e i s e Untersuohungen p p . 9 9 - 1 0 0 ) . P e r h a p s i t was b e c a u s e o f t h i s a t t i t u d e o f h e r s t h a t a f t e r h e r d d e a t h he n e g l e c t e d t o p a y h e r s u c h h o n o u r s as he had b e s t o w e d upon h i s m o t h e r ( c f . D i o 6 0 . 5 . 1 ; S u e t . Claud. 1 1 . 2 ) . The c h a r g e s b r o u g h t a g a i n s t G a i u s b y o u r s o u r c e s , t h a t . h e p r o v o k e d h e r d e a t h and p e r h a p s even h a s t e n e d i t w i t h p o i s o n , and t h a t he r e f u s e d t o . a t t e n d h e r f u n e r a l b u t w a t c h e d i t i n s t e a d f r o m t h e p a l a c e ( S u e t . .Gaius 2 3 . 2 ) , b e a r a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y t o t h o s e a c c u s a t i o n s l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t T i b e r i u s and L i v i a i n t h e c a s e o f G e r m a n i c u s ' d e a t h ( c f . . T a c . • Ann. 3 . 3 ) . What, i s m o r e , A n t o n i a h e r s e l f had t a k e n no p a r t i n t h e f u n e r a l , o f G e r m a n i c u s , . h e r own son and G a i u s ' f a t h e r ( i b i d . ) . 67 N o r d o e s • i n s c r i p t i o n a l e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f D i o and S u e t o n i u s . A n t o n i a d i e d on 1 M a y - A - D . 37 dFasti Ostiens.es =. E(}J p . 4 3 ] , o n l y s i x weeks a f t e r G a i u s ' a c c e s s i o n and no t . a f t e r O c t o b e r o f t h a t y e a r , a s S u e t o n i u s sugges t s - by- p l a c i n g t h e eyert t i n h i s s e c t i o n on " G a i u s t h e Madman" (.cf- G a r z e t t i L'impero pp . , 8 8 - 8 9 ) . F u r t h e r , t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r h e r b i r t h d a y was c e l e b r a t e d by t h e A r v a l s . ( C I L 6 . 2 0 2 8 c = S m a l l w o o d n o . 3 ) , w h i c h w o u l d h a r d l y have been w i s e i f , G a i u s h a d t r u l y h a t e d h e r ( c f . C h a r l e s w o r t h Comb. Hist. Journ. 4 [1933] 1 0 8 - 9 ) . 3 . 6 Tfacras r j i a ^ O e i p a s : A t t h e t i m e o f G a i u s ' a c c e s s i o n , h i s t h r e e s i s t e r s were m a r r i e d , A g r i p p i n a t o C n . D o m i t i u s Ahenoba rbus ( T a c . Ann. 4 . 7 5 . 1 ; c f . S u e t . Hero 6 . 1 ) , J u l i a t o M. V i h i c i u s ( T a c . Ann. 6 . 1 5 . 1 ; D i o 5 8 . 2 8 . 1 ) , and D r u s i l l a t o M. L e p i d u s ( c f . C h a p t e r 1 1 . 1 ; she had p r e v i o u s l y been m a r r i e d t o L . C a s s i u s L o n g i n u s [ T a c . Ann. 6 . 1 5 . 1 ; D i o 5 8 . 2 8 . 1 ] ) . T h i s r a t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l c h a r g e o f i n c e s t i s m a d e 1 a g a i n s t G a i u s o n l y b y D i o ( c f . C h a p t e r 2 2 . 6 - 7 , where i t i s j o i n e d w i t h an a c c u s a t i o n o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y ) , J o s e p h u s (AJ 1 9 . 2 . 5 [ 2 0 4 ] ) , and S u e t o n i u s (Gaius 2 4 . 1 ) , w h i l e no m e n t i o n i s made o f i t by T a c i t u s , P h i l o , o r (most s i g n i f i c a n t l y ) S e n e c a ( G e l z e r [RE " J u l i u s " c o l . 392] n o t e s t h a t S e n e c a makes no m e n t i o n , o f i n c e s t where one w o u l d most e x p e c t i t , i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n . o f G a i u s ' g r i e f a t t h e d e a t h o f D r u s i l l a [Cons. Polyb. 2 . 1 7 . 4 ] ; c f . W i l l r i e h Caligula p . . 2 9 1 ) . I t i s t e m p t i n g t o a c c e p t t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f B a l s d o n , who e x p l a i n s t h e s e s t o r i e s o f i m p r o p e r r e l a t i o n s be tween G a i u s and h i s s i s t e r s i n t h e same way as he does t h o s e o f T i b e r i u s ' o b s c e n i t i e s on C a p r e a e : G a i u s ' d e v o t i o n t o h i s f a m i l y - was as e x c e p t i o n a l as T i b e r i u s ' d e s i r e f o r s e c l u s i o n , and so some b a s e e x p l a n a t i o n needed t o be f o u n d f o r them (Gaius p p . 4 1 - 4 2 ) . I am n o t c o n v i n c e d by- t h e a rgumen ts o f C o l i n (Latomus 13 [1954] 4 0 8 f f . ) t h a t G a i u s ' i n c e s t w i t h D r u s i l l a , t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s l a s t t h r e e m a r r i a g e s , i s 68 a r e f l e c t i o n o f h i s d e v o t i o n t o t h e c u l t o f I s i s , , o r by h i s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i t was a r o y a l d y n a s t i c m a r r i a g e Q'Ce n ' e ' . t a i t p a s l e p r i n c e r o m a i n q u i g p u v e r n a i t l . ' .Egyp te : c ' e t a i . t l e ' r o i , d ' E g y p t e q u i commandai t a. Rome" [p . 4 0 8 ] ) . M o s t w o u l d now d i s m i s s : t he . c h a r g e o f i n c e s t as an u g l y rumour ( e . g . , M e i s e Untersuehungen p . 9 9 , n . 4 6 ; . C h a r l e s w o r t h Carrib. Hist. Journ. 4 [1933] 1 1 8 ; W i l l r i c h Caligula p p . 2 9 1 - 9 2 ) ; b u t ' a . f e w a c c e p t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a c c o u n t ( e . g . , F e r r e r o Women p p . 184-207. ; Kornemann Doppelprinzipat p . 5 3 ) . As an e x t e n s i o n t o t h e c h a r g e o f i n c e s t , H. M a z e l has s u g g e s t e d i n a f a s c i n a t i n g b u t a b s u r d a r t i c l e (Meraure de France 1 .5 [1913] 2 1 2 - 1 6 ) t h a t t h e f u t u r e Empero r N e r o was G a i u s ' o w n , s o n b y A g r i p p i n a . He b a s e s h i s t h e o r y n o t o n l y on p h y s i c a l r e s e m b l a n c e s , b u t p a r t i c u l a r l y on what he s e e s as " m o r a l " s i m i l a r i t i e s : " t o u s deux s o n t c a b o t i n s , p l a i s a n t i n s , r o q u e n t i n s , d e p e n s i e r s a. o u t r a n c e e t debauches au d e l a de t o u t e m e s u r e " (p . 2 1 3 ) ; t h e y b o t h p o s s e s s " l a s a l a c i t e e x a s p e r e e , l e s moeurs c o n t r e n a t u r e , l e gou t des i n c e s t e s , l e p e n c h a n t a v e r s e r l e s a n g e t a. f a i r e longuement s o u f f r i r , e t c . " (p . 2 1 4 ) . As h i s f i n a l argument he n o t e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e n i n e months f r om T i b e r i u s ' d e a t h t o t h e b i r t h o f N e r o , as i f G a i u s had been p r o m p t e d t o a c t i o n on t h e day o f h i s a c c e s s i o n . The m o r a l r e s e m b l a n c e s show t h e a n c i e n t h i s t o r i a n s ' p e n c h a n t f o r t y p e s more t h a n any r e a l s i m i l a r i t i e s , and M a z e l f a i l s t o m e n t i o n t h e most damag ing p i e c e . o f . e v i d e n c e o f a l l : when a s k e d b y A g r i p p i n a what name he w o u l d s u g g e s t f o r h e r new s o n , G a i u s showed h i s a f f e c t i o n f o r t h e boy and h i s mo the r b y p r o p o s i n g t h a t he be c a l l e d C l a u d i u s , " q u o d turn C l a u d i u s i n t e r l u d i b r i a a u l a e e r a t " ( S u e t . Nero 6 . 2 ) . 3 .6 Is vriQXJV. r a s 6oo KaTebcAei.gev: . A g r i p p i n a and J u l i a were e x i l e d t o t h e P o n t i a n i s l a n d s i n A . D . 3 9 , o s t e n s i b l y b e c a u s e o f i m p r o p e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h L e p i d u s ( C h a p t e r 2 2 . 8 - 9 ; S u e t . Gaius 2 9 ; 69 Nero 6 . 3 ) , whose w i f e D r u s i l l a had d i e d t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r ( C h a p t e r 1 1 ) . The t r u e cause o f t h e i r h a n i s h m e n t w;as r e a l i z e d b y S u e t o n i u s (Gaius 2 4 . 3 ) and u n w i t t i n g l y ; g u e s s e d by P h i l o (Leg.. 1 2 . 8 7 [ 5 5 8 ] : ) — t h e y ' w e r e s u s p e c t e d o f h a v i n g t a k e n p a r t i n L e p i d u s ' c o n s p i r a c y a g a i n s t G a i u s ( f o r . t h e c o n s p i r a c y , s e e on C h a p t e r 2 2 . 5 rouTOUAisccv). T h e y - w e r e l a t e r r e c a l l e d b y C l a u d i u s ( D i o 6 0 . 4 . 1 ) . 3 . 7 TfccTTTTOv upooxovouaCz: T i b e r i u s h a d a d o p t e d G a i u s ' f a t h e r , G e r m a n i c u s (D io 5 5 . 1 3 . 2 ) . 3 . 7 TSV aUToav xC Auyouerraj xiuaW:- C f . D i o 5 6 . 4 6 . 3 - 4 . The p r i n c i p a l h o n o u r was d e i f i c a t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h i t s a t t e n d a n t d i s t i n c t i o n s s u c h as t e m p l e s and p r i e s t s , d e s p i t e T i b e r i u s * f r e q u e n t c l a i m t h a t he d i s l i k e d t h e t h o u g h t • o f . b e i n g . c o n s i d e r e d d i v i n e ( c f . T a c . Ann. 4 . 3 8 ) . D i o ' s o r d e r i n g o f t h e s e e v e n t s i s q u e s t i o n a b l e , s i n c e i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t G a i u s w o u l d have r e q u e s t e d T i b e r i u s ' d e i f i c a t i o n b e f o r e h i s a c t u a l f u n e r a l ( c f . T a c . Ann. 1 . 1 0 . 8 , o f A u g u s t u s : " c e t e r u m s e p u l t u r a more p e r f e e t a , ' . t e m p l u m e t c a e l e s t e s r e l i g i o n e s d e c e r n u n t u r " , Ann.^ . 1 3 . 2 . 6 , o f C l a u d i u s : " C l a u d i o c e n s o r i u m f u n u s e t mox c o n s e c r a t i o " ; and HA " M a r c u s " 1 8 . 3 : " d e n i q u e , p r i u s q u a m f u n u s c o n d e r e t u r , u t p l e r i q u e d i c u n t , quod numquam a n t e a f a c t u m f u e r a t neque p o s t e a , s e n a t u s p o p u l u s q u e . . . . p r o p i t i u m deum d i x i t " ) . N o r m a l l y , t o o , some v i s i b l e p r o o f o f t he e l e v a t i o n o f . t h e dead Empero r was r e q u i r e d ( c f . D i o 5 6 . 4 2 . 3 ; 5 6 . 4 6 . 2 ; S u e t . Aug. 1 0 0 ) . I t - a p p e a r s , h o w e v e r , t h a t some o f f i c i a l s a t t h e m i n t i n Rome t h o u g h t .to a n t i c i p a t e T i b e r i u s ' d e i f i c a t i o n b y i s s u i n g c o i n s o n . t h e r e v e r s e o f w h i c h , was p i c t u r e d t h e l a t e E m p e r o r ' s h e a d r a d i a t e w i t h . a s t a r on e i t h e r s i d e , i n d i c a t i n g t h e two• divif A u g u s t u s and T i b e r i u s - (BMC Imp. 1 .146 , . n o . 1'= S m a l l w o o d n o . 1 2 4 ) . 70 L a t e r an a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l c o i n was m i n t e d w i t h o u t t h e two f l a n k i n g s t a r s ( c f . H . M a t t i n g l y JRS 10 [1920] 3 7 ; G...G-. B e l l p n i i n Aufstieg und Niedergang 2 . 1 . 1 0 4 3 - 1 0 4 4 ) . 3 .7 VUKTOS TE es- Triv TTOAIV TO oGua aCiToO ecraY^Y'^" D i o ' s b r e v i t y on t h i s p o i n t s u g g e s t s t h a t G a i u s was d i s h o n o u r i n g t h e memory- o f T i b e r i u s by- b r i n g i n g h i s body i n t o Rome u n d e r c o v e r o f d a r k n e s s . S u e t o n i u s f o r t u n a t e l y g i v e s enough d e t a i l t o d i s p r o v e t h i s ; " i t a q u e u t a M i s e n o m o v i t quamv i s l u g e n t i s h a b i t u e t f u n u s T i b e r i p r o s e q u e n s , tamen i n t e r a l t a r i a e t v i c t i m a s a r d e n t i s q u e t a e d a s d e n s i s s i m o e t l a e t i s s i m o o b v i o r u m agmine i n c e s s i t " (Gaius 1 3 ) . The body was c a r r i e d i n t o Rome a t n i g h t , as i s c l e a r f r o m S u e t o n i u s ' p h r a s e ardentis taedas. T h i s e x p l a i n s t h e c o n f u s i o n o f d a t e s f o u n d i n i n s c r i p t i o n s : t h e Acta Fratrum Arvalium (CIL 6 . 2 0 2 8 ) r e c o r d t h e d a t e as 28 M a r c h , w h i l e t h e Fasti Ostienses (E§J p . 43) g i v e 29 M a r c h . C l e a r l y t h e n i g h t o f t h e 2 8 t h and e a r l y m o r n i n g o f t h e 2 9 t h a r e meant ( c f . D e g r a s s i Insoriptiones Italiae x i i i . 1 . 2 1 9 - 2 2 0 ; G a r z e t t i L'Impero p . 8 4 ; C h a r l e s w o r t h Comb. Hist. Journ. 4 [1933] 1 0 7 - 8 ) . 3 . 8 ETTOinaaxo uev Y ^ P kc^ J O Y O U S EIT* a u r C : A g a i n D i o s u g g e s t s b y t h e b r i e f -n e s s o f h i s d e s c r i p t i o n t h a t T i b e r i u s ' f u n e r a l was p e r f o r m e d w i t h i m p r o p e r h a s t e ( c f . C h a r l e s w o r t h Comb. Hist. Journ. 4 [1933] 1 0 7 - 8 ) . Y e t i t d i d n o t t a k e p l a c e u n t i l 3 A p r i l , f i v e days a f t e r t h e body- a r r i v e d i n Rome (Fasti Ostienses = E I J . p . 4 3 : " I I I n o n . A p r . f ( u n e r e ) p ( u h l i c a ) e ( l a t u s ) e ( s t ) " ) . The b u r i a l , t o o , was a s p l e n d i d a f f a i r c a r r i e d ou t i n t h e o l d Roman manner amid t e a r s and w i t h a s u i t a b l e eu logy- ( S u e t . Gaius 1 5 . 1 ; J o s . AJ 1 8 . 6 . 1 0 [ 2 3 6 ] ; c f . D i o 5 8 . 2 8 . 5 . 71 F o r comments, on t h e r h e t o r i c a l a b i l i t y - o f G a i u s , s e e on C h a p t e r 1 9 . 3 - 5 ) . T i b e r i u s ' b o d y - w a s p l a c e d i n t h e Mauso leum o f A u g u s t u s ; h i s s i m p l e e p i t a p h (ILS 164) no l o n g e r s u r v i v e s . 3 . 8 (con xou repyaviKOU xov cSriuov avauiuvrjcfKuv: G e r m a n i c u s had a l w a y s been a h e r o o f t h e p o p u l a c e ; S u e t o n i u s c a l l s - h i m vulgo favorahilis (Gaius 4 ) , and adds t h a t i t was t h e memory- o f h i s f a t h e r t h a t made i t easy- f o r G a i n s t o assume i m p e r i a l power (Gaius 1 3 ; a c c o r d i n g t o J o s e p h u s [AJ 1 8 . 6 . 8 ( 2 0 6 - 2 1 0 ) ] G a i u s t p a r e n t a g e made h im p a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r w i t h t h e a r m y ) . A p p a r e n t l y - G a i u s t r i e d t o change t h e name o f t h e month o f Sep tember t o " G e r m a n i c u s " i n i m i t a t i o n o f t h e h o n o u r s g i v e n t o J u l i u s and A u g u s t u s ( S u e t . Gaius 15.2.).. M e i s e (Untersuchungen p . 9 4 , n . 23) n o t e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c h o o s i n g Sep tember as t h e month t o b e a r t h e name o f G a i u s ' f a t h e r : f o l l o w i n g J u l y and A u g u s t , i t w o u l d i n d i c a t e c l e a r l y t h e d y n a s t i c s u c c e s s i o n t h a t G a i u s wan ted t o e m p h a s i z e ( i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e r e had e a r l i e r been a p r o p o s a l t o rename Sep tember " T i b e r i u s " [ D i o 5 7 . 1 8 . 2 ] ) . T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e change was e v e r p o p u l a r l y a c c e p t e d ( c f . R o s b o r o u g h p p . 2 6 - 2 7 ; M a u r e r p p . 6 0 - 6 1 ) . O f r e l a t e d i n t e r e s t i s t h e Grand Cameo o f P a r i s , d a t e d t o e a r l y i n G a i u s ' r e i g n by C u r t i u s (RM 49 [1934] 1 1 9 - 5 6 ) and Gage (REA 37 [1935] 1 6 5 - 8 4 ) , who v i e w i t as p o r t r a y i n g t h i s same d y n a s t i c o r d e r . T h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s b y no means u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d , h o w e v e r ; c f . B a l s d o n (JRS. 26 [1936] 1 5 2 - 6 0 ) and H o h l (Klio 31 [1938] 2 7 3 - 8 2 ) . 72 CHAPTER fOUR 4 . 1 upo?;. Trqvxa. e v q v x i p s lue^uicei; Th is - a s s e s s m e n t o f G a i u s ' c h a r a c t e r i s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l o n e , a l t h o u g h d e t a i l s vary- . P h i l o (Leg. 4 3 . 3 3 9 - 3 4 1 [595 ] ) g i v e s a s i m i l a r a n a l y s i s o f h i s t e m p e r a -ment. (" HV p e v x o i Kai Trpos x ' aXXa . Ttavxa xr\v $ucri\) caucrros . . . " ) and t h e n , l i k e D i o , l i s t s a number o f e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t i n g how t h e Empero r c o u l d change f r o m one e x t r e m e t o t h e o t h e r (see f u r t h e r 6 . 3 4 [ 5 5 1 ] ) . B o t h D i o and P h i l o v i e w G a i u s ' r e i g n as a c o n s t a n t m i x t u r e o f good and e v i l a c t i o n s f r om b e g i n n i n g t o e n d . As e a r l y as M a r c h - A p r i l A . D . 3 7 , f o r e x a m p l e , he showed h i s a u t o c r a t i c s p i r i t by- a s s u m i n g a l l t he i m p e r i a l p o w e r s ( c f . C h a p t e r 3 . 1 ) , w h i l e even l a t e i n A . D . 40 h i s c o n d u c t was a t t i m e s . a d m i r a b l e ( c f . C h a p t e r 2 6 . 4 ) . S u e t o n i u s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , c a t a l o g u e s G a i u s ' b e h a v i o u r i n two d i s t i n c t p e r i o d s — " h a c -t e n u s q u a s i de p r i n c i p e , r e l i q u a u t de m o n s t r o n a r r a n d a s u n t " (Gaius 2 2 . 1 ) — w h i c h a r e f o r t h e most p a r t s e p a r a t e d b y t h e E m p e r o r ' s i l l n e s s i n O c t o b e r A . D . 3 7 , a l t h o u g h as we have s e e n i n t h e c a s e o f A n t o n i a ' s d e a t h ( C h a p t e r 3 .6 ) t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l d i v i s i o n i s by no means e x a c t . W i t h c o m p a r a b l e r h e t o r i c a l a n t i t h e s e s D i o i n t r o d u c e s t h e c h a r a c t e r o f T i b e r i u s i n Book 5 7 : " o u x e y^P ^ v £ T r e 6 u u e i T r p o C T e i T O i e i x o x i , KCU COV eXeyev o u 6 e v cos e i i r e i v eBouXexo OUK T\E,\OV xov a u x a p x o u v x a K a x a 6 n X o v wv (JjpoveT e i v a x " ( 5 7 . 1 . 1 - 2 ) . W h i l e T i b e r i u s i s c o n s c i o u s l y d e c e i t f u l , G a i u s i s f i c k l e , w i l f u l , and p e r v e r s e . 4 . 1 ou uovov l^nXcoorev aXXot KOU u i repega'Aev: In t h e same w a y , and w i t h a l m o s t t h e same w o r d s , D i o compares N e r o t o G a i u s ; " i T p o s - x.ov T a i o v e x e i . v e v . cos § ' airag i^riXcoaai auxov £ i re0uprLO "e 5 . raV UTfepegaXexo . . . " ( 6 1 . 5 . 1 ) . 73 4 . 2 TrpCros. xe ugp icras auxov A c c o r d i n g t o D i o , f o r t h e f i r s t two y e a r s o f h i s r e i g n G a i u s made no a t t e m p t t o h o n o u r t h e memory o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r , p r e f e r r i n g i n s t e a d t o j o i n i n t h e p o p u l a r h o s t i l i t y - f e l t t o w a r d s h i m ( c f . C h a p t e r 6 . 7 ) . , In A . D . 3 9 , h o w e v e r , h i s a t t i t u d e t o T i b e r i u s i s s a i d t o have c o m p l e t e l y c h a n g e d : i n s t e a d o f c r i t i c i z i n g h i s a c t i o n s , G a i u s now showed sympathy , f o r h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s and a d m i r a t i o n f o r h i s b e h a v i o u r (see on C h a p t e r 1 6 . 1 - 8 ) . 4 . 2 ws- I x O p o u s TOU T i g e p i o u : fox e x a m p l e s o f t h i s b e h a v i o u r , c f . S u e t . Gaius 2 8 ; 3 0 . 2 . 4 . 3 TO xe xri.s ace(3e{as eyKAr iyaxa r rauaas : G a i u s a b o l i s h e d t h e c h a r g e o f maiestas i m m e d i a t e l y on h i s a c c e s s i o n (see on C h a p t e r 6 . 2 f a x e l y K A r i y a x a ) , b u t r e s t o r e d i t two y e a r s l a t e r ( s e e C h a p t e r 1 6 . 8 ) . 4 . 3 x a y p a y y a x a auxwv. Kara ^ X e ^ a s : He s u p p o s e d l y b u r n e d t h e i n c r i m i n a t i n g l e t t e r s e a r l y i n h i s . r e i g n (see on C h a p t e r 6 . 3 x a y p a y y a x a ) • I n A . D . 3 8 , h o w e v e r , he p r o d u c e d t h e o r i g i n a l c o p i e s as e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t t h o s e who h a d b e e n i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f h i s f a m i l y ( see C h a p t e r 1 0 . 8 ) . O t h e r s were u s e d t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r t o p r o v e t h e S e n a t e ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t r i a l s f o r maiestas (see C h a p t e r 1 6 . 3 ) . 4 . 4 e\K.6vas xe arrayopeuaas K a x ' apxcts y n S e v a a y x o u t c r x a v a i : T h a t t h i s s t a t e -ment i s u n t r u e i s shown by- an i n s c r i p t i o n r e c o r d i n g a l e t t e r f r o m . t h e Empero r h i m s e l f , w r i t t e n on 19, A u g u s t A . D . 37 {ILS 8792 = •Sma l lwood n o . 3 6 1 ) . I n r e p l y t o 74 an e m b a s s y - b r i n g i n g c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s - f r om c e r t a i n G reek s t a t e s and a s k i n g p e r m i s s i o n t o e r e c t s e v e r a l s t a t u e s t o h im , . G a i u s , w i t h a c e r t a i n modes ty as w e l l a s c o n c e r n f o r t h e p u r s e o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l s , gaye them l e a y e t o s e t up s t a t u e s on ly - a t O l y m p i a , . N e m e a , . D e l p h i , , and I s t h m i a (the s i n c e r i t y o f t h e d e l e g a t i o n i s u n n e c e s s a r i l y - ' q u e s t i o n e d b y - G e l z e r [EE " J u l i u s " c o l . 3 8 6 ] ) . The c h o i c e o f s i t e s shows.no p a r t i c u l a r d e s i r e f o r d i v i n e g l o r y , s i n c e an Empero r c o u l d a l l o w s t a t u e s o f h i m s e l f a t s u c h p a n h e l l e n i c s i t e s w i t h o u t b e i n g a c c u s e d o f immodesty- ( see a l s o W i l l r i c h Caligula p . 1 1 6 ) . R a t h e r t h a n p r e v e n t i n g t h e e r e c t i o n o f any s t a t u e s a t a l l , G a i u s more l i k e l y f o r b a d e p r e c i n c t s t o be d e d i c a t e d to. h i m , p r e c i n c t s w h i c h w o u l d i n c l u d e s t a t u e s t o h i m as a g o d . T i b e r i u s had begun w i t h t h e same p r o h i b i t i o n ( D i o 5 7 1 9 . 1 ; S u e t . Tib. 2 6 . 1 ) , b u t l i k e G a i u s he l a t e r gave i n t o t h e d e s i r e o f some t o w o r s h i p h i m (see on C h a p t e r 2 6 . 5 xiJov uev npwa). 4 . 4 v a o u s eauxG C f . S u e t . Gaius 2 2 . 2 - 4 . F o r t h e c h a r g e a g a i n s t G a i u s o f e r e c t i n g t e m p l e s t o h i m s e l f , s e e C h a p t e r s 2 8 . 1 - 4 . 4 . 5 x a xe XPnyoixa . . . : C f . S u e t . Gaius 3 8 . 1 : " e x h a u s t u s i g i t u r a t q u e egens ad r a p i n a s c o n v e r t i t animum v a r i o e t e x q u i s i t i s s i m o c a l u m n i a r u m e t a u c t i o n u m e t v e c t i g a l i u m g e n e r e . " J o s e p h u s (AJ 1 9 . 2 . 5 [ 207 ] ) a c c u s e s G a i u s o f "f\ Trepi. x a axpeTa orrouSri KOU xb SarravGvxa e i s n 6 o v a s " ( c f . S u e t . Gaius 37 f o r a l i s t o f t h e s e e x t r a v a g a n c e s ) . . The b e s t examp le o f w a s t e f u l e x t r a v a g a n c e f o l l o w e d by- r a p a c i o u s e x a c t i o n s was t h o u g h t t o be t h e i n c i d e n t o f t h e b r i d g e a t B a i a e and i t s a f t e r m a t h i n A . D . 39 (see on C h a p t e r s 1 7 - 1 8 ) ; and t h e n e x t y e a r G a i u s was s u s p e c t e d of, a r r a n g i n g h i s German e x p e d i t i o n as a means o f e x p l o i t i n g , t h e w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s (see on C h a p t e r 2 1 . 1 - 2 ) . 75 CHAPTER F IVE 5 .1 TO) TOU TxgepCou epYo; K . X . A , : According t o T a c i t u s {Ann. 1 . 1 0 , 6 ) , p e o p l e h a d . s u s p e c t e d „ t h a t A u g u s t u s chose T i b e r i u s as h i s s u c c e s s o r p a r t l y a t l e a s t b e c a u s e o f t h e l a t t e r ' s u n f a v o u r a b l e c h a r a c t e r , wh i ch , w o u l d enhance t h e memory .o f Augus tus , i n r e t r o s p e c t . S u e t o n i u s r e j e c t s t h i s b e l i e f (Tid. 2 1 . 2 - 3 ) - - i t d e p e n d s , a f t e r a l l , on h i n d s i g h t — b u t n o n e t h e l e s s i t became a k i n d o f m o t i f f o r m o r a l h i s t o r i a n s , and was a p p l i e d by D i o t o T i b e r i u s ' c h o i c e o f G a i u s as h i s s u c c e s s o r : " a c r y e v t o s , cos- <J>ao~t., x r \ v a p x u v auxC e c S t o i c e v , OITCOS xa xe lauxou xri. xou r o u o u U T r e p g o X r i ca)YKpU(J)0ri" ( 5 8 . 2 3 . 4 ) . 5 . 2 IrJouXeue <Se i c a t x o i . s o p x n c n r a i s : See C h a p t e r 2 . 5 . G a i u s i s once a c c u s e d o f k i s s i n g a c t o r s i n p l a i n s i g h t o f e v e r y o n e ( C h a p t e r 2 7 . 1 ) . 5 . 2 x o v y o ^ v *k-ne\\r\v: A p e l l e s (PIR A 907) was a t r a g i c a c t o r f r om A s c a l o n on t h e c o a s t o f J u d a e a , a town n o t e d f o r i t s h a t r e d o f t he Jews ( see S m a l l w o o d Legatio p p . 2 5 5 - 5 6 ) . He was o r i g i n a l l y a p r o s t i t u t e , and t u r n e d t o a c t i n g o n l y when h i s charms had f a d e d ( P h i l o Leg. 3 0 . 2 0 3 - 2 0 6 [ 5 7 6 ] ) . He was n o t a l w a y s t h e f a v o u r e d compan ion o f G a i u s : P h i l o adds t h a t he was t o r t u r e d a t t h e E m p e r o r ' s o r d e r s . T h i s i s no doub t t h e same i n c i d e n t as t h a t m e n t i o n e d b y S u e t o n i u s (Gaius 3 3 ) , when G a i u s had A p e l l e s w h i p p e d f o r h e s i t a t i n g t o a g r e e t h a t t h e Empero r was g r e a t e r t h a n J u p i t e r . T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t he d i e d u n d e r t h i s p u n i s h m e n t , a l t h o u g h i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t an A p e l l e s m e n t i o n e d as a, t r a g i c a c t o r i n t h e r e i g n o f V e s p a s i a n ( S u e t . Vesp. 1 9 . 1 ) i s t h e same p e r s o n ( c f . P e t r . Sat. 6 4 ) . 76 5 . 2 K .a\ I v TC' firiuoaiu: Sriuoaico seems, an odd word i n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . D i p n o r m a l l y uses TO Sriudcripv as t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f res-publica o r aerarium f j p £ . (Chapte;?.'. 15 .5 ' f Mason. Greek Terms p . 3 5 ) , n e i t h e r o f w h i c h , i s a p p r o p r i a t e h e r e , The sense'. , h o w e v e r , i s c l e a r : A p c l l e s a c c o m p a n i e d h i m " e v e n w h i l e he was- c o n d u c t i n g p u b l i c b u s i n e s s . " 5 . 3 ITU TrdoTj. TTpo^ctTCt. . . . ; C f , S u e t . Gains. 1 8 . 2 : " s c a e n i c o s l u d o s e t a s s i d u e e t ; v a r i i g e n e r i s ac m u l t i f a r i a m f e c i t " Ccf. a l s o Gaius 2 0 ) . I n h i s l o v e o f games and s h o w s , G a i u s was no d i f f e r e n t f r om A u g u s t u s ( c f - S u e t . Aug. 4 3 . 1 : " s p e c t a c u l o r u m e t a s s i d u i t a t e e t v a r i e t a t e e t m a g n i f i c e n t i a omnes a n t e c e s s i t " ; a l s o 4 3 . 2 - 4 5 . 4 ) . V e n t u r i n i i s h a r d l y - r i g h t when , i n a p a s s a g e f u l l o f e x a g g e r a t i o n , he a c c e p t s D i o u n c r i t i c a l l y - and a t t r i b u t e s t o G a i u s an u n i n t e r r u p t e d and a t r o c i o u s s e r i e s o f games, b a n q u e t s , and p u b l i c e n t e r t a i n m e n t s " d ' u n a e n o r m i t a . u n i c a " [Caligola p p . 8 8 - 8 9 ) . T h e r e i s no doub t t h a t t h e Empero r was i n f a t u a t e d w i t h p u b l i c games and p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h t h e a t r i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e s , i n b o t h o f w h i c h ( l i k e N e r o ) he was an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t . F o r t h e number o f days d e v o t e d t o p u b l i c e n t e r t a i n m e n t u n d e r t h e J u l i o - C l a u d i a n s , s e e B a l s d o n Life and Leisure p p . 2 4 4 - 4 8 . 5 . 4 axjuep T \S I K TOU au/t'Xou tov; G a i u s ' l o v e o f games and t h e t h e a t r e was i n n o t i c e a b l e c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e l u c t a n t a t t e n d a n c e o f T i b e r i u s , who r e f u s e d t o f a v o u r one f a c t i o n o v e r t h e o t h e r and was p r e v e n t e d by h i s a u s t e r i t y - f r o m e n j o y i n g t h e a t r i c a l shows (D io 5 7 . 1 1 . 5 ; T a c . Ann. 1 . 5 4 . 3 - 4 ) . 77 5.4 (SuQKcAdvas xi xoTs a v x i K a CeaTPjcoa i v: The spectators' lack of enthusiasm for Gaius' favourites at spectacles often caused him considerable anger; see Chapter 13.5. 5.4 Is- ayuSvicruo; TTQMWV rrporlA0£V Suetonius (Gaius 54.1) gives an almost identical l i s t of Gaius' athletic and theatrical performances. .His active participation in games and shows was later emulated by- the Emperor Nero (cf. Dio 63.26.1). 5.5 wpxTiaocTo: The-incident, according to Suetonius (Gains 54.2), involved three senators of consular rank, who answered the summons in fear for their lives; "deinde repente magno tibiarum et,scabellorum crepitu cum pallia tunicaque talari prosiluit ac desaltato cantico abiit." Nero is said by Dio to have acted in a way so similar that both incidents might well be apocryphal (63.26.4). Some (e.g., J. Crook Consilium Principis p. 39) see this, incident as a summoning of the Emperor's consilium (TOUS Tfpooxous xfis yepoucnas = primores viri) : i f so, i t is one of only a few instances that point to the existence of a consilium at this time. 78 CHAPTER SIX 6.1 TOpovxcov ev fG' oyve$p{co .... ; Cf, Suet. Qqius 14.1: "ingressoque urbem, statim consensu senatus et irrumpentis in curiam turbae, ... ius axhitriumque omnium rexum i l l i permissum est." This speech, of Gaius, then, was delivered at h i s f i r s t meeting with the Senate late in March or early- in .April, the same meeting at which he was granted the imperial t i t l e s (see on Chapter 1.2 Is TO eruyeSpxov; 3.2). By- personally- receiving the imperial t i t l e s from the Senate when the equites and plebs were present-.-though the latter may not have been invited, i f we accept Suetonius' word irrumpentis l i t e r a l l y — G a i u s was perhaps intentionally basing his claim to power on'the same foundation as Augustus had claimed earlier: per consensum universorvm (cf. RG'3A.1; see further M.P. Grenade REL 33 [1955] 53-54). 6.1 T f o A A a i K o A a K e u e r e : • In his early relations with the Senate Gaius was careful to follow the precedents set by Augustus and Tiberius. Although that body had in effect lost a l l but i t s advisory powers, yet by continuing to respect i t s dignitas and.auotoritas the Emperors could, with notable exceptions, win i t s co-operation, i f not i t s devotion (cf. Merivale 5.411; Hammond Augustan Principate pp. 121-31). There is no evidence in our sources to support Venturini's suggestion (Caligola p. 76) that from the beginning of his reign Gaius planned to govern according to the concept of absolute oriental monarchy based, not on any extraordinary power, but simply- on the auotoritas of his own family. On the contrary, every historian, despite his antipathy towards Gaius,- is agreed that for the f i r s t six months or even two years of his principate he ruled tolerably well (see on Chapter 8.1 vooticras). As for his treatment of senators after this period, see Chapter 23.3. 79 6 .1 K.ou. ux.os Kax TpgcjH.uos autoov: As a young boy i n t h e m i l i t a r y camps o f t h e n o r t h , G a i u s had been c a l l e d legionum alumnus- (Tac. Ann. 1 . . 4 4 . 1 ) : h i . s . r e f e r e n c e t o h i m s e l f now;.as senatus alumnus- shows g r e a t t a c t t h a t b e l i e s t h e r a s h n e s s o f w h i c h he i s o f t e n a c c u s e d . The p e o p l e a s w e l l a s t h e a rmy were f o n d o f c a l l i n g h i m b y a f f e c t i o n a t e e p i t h e t s , even when he had become Empero r ( c f . S u e t . Gaius 1 3 ) . He s o o n became u n d e r s t a n d a b l y s e n s i t i v e t o t h e s e , h o w e v e r , t h i n k i n g them b o t h u n d i g n i f i e d and c r i t i c a l o f h i s y o u t h f u l n e s s (see on C h a p t e r s 3 .2 Iv u x a nyepa; 1 3 . 6 veavxatce). 6 . 2 f\y£ § 1 T r e y T r x o v KOX exKoaibv e x o s . . . : G a i u s was b o r n on 31 A u g u s t A . D . 12 (see on C h a p t e r 7 . 2 TO. y e v e Q A x a ) . A s s u m i n g i n c l u s i v e r e c k o n i n g f o r t h e p e r i o d o f f o u r days m e n t i o n e d by D i o , we a r e g i v e n t h e d a t e o f G a i u s ' f i r s t s p e e c h as 28 M a r c h , t h e d a y when he f i r s t a r r i v e d i n . R o m e and most p r o b a b l y when T i b e r i u s ' w i l l was o v e r t u r n e d (see on C h a p t e r 1.2 Is TO cnJveSpxov ) . 6 . 2 r o b s Iv TG SeauwTnpxw o v x a s ctTreAwev: No doub t t he f i r s t p e r s o n he f r e e d was - H e r o d A g r i p p a (see C h a p t e r 8 . 2 ) . Among o t h e r s r e l e a s e d a t t h i s t i m e ( c f . D i o 5 8 . 2 7 . 2 - 3 ) were p r o b a b l y Gnaeus D o m i t i u s A h e n o b a r b u s and Y i b i u s M a r s u s who , t o g e t h e r w i t h L u c i u s A r r u n t i u s , were i m p r i s o n e d e a r l y i n A . D . 37 f o r i m p i e t y t o w a r d s t h e E m p e r o r ; A r r u n t i u s had a l r e a d y c o m m i t t e d s u i c i d e b e c a u s e , he s a i d , he c o u l d n o t endu re T i b e r i u s ' s u c c e s s o r ( T a c . Ann. 6 . 4 7 - 4 8 ) . A t t he same t i m e G a i u s a l l o w e d t h e c i r c u l a t i o n o f wo rks by T i t u s L a b i e n u s , C r e m u t i u s C o r d u s , and C a s s i u s S e v e r u s , . w o r k s whose p u b l i c a t i o n had p r e v i o u s l y b e e n banned b y A u g u s t u s and T i b e r i u s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r l i b e l l o u s o r r e p u b l i c a n c h a r a c t e r ' 80 ( S u e t . Qqius 1 6 . 1 ; c f . S e n e c a Contv. 10 p r . 5 [ L a b i e n u s ] ; D i o 5 7 . 2 4 . 2 - 4 and T a c . Ann.. 4 . 3 5 . 5 [ C o r d u s ] ; D i o 5 6 . 2 7 . 1 and T a c . Ann. 1 . 7 2 . 4 [ S e v e r u s ] ) . T h i s : g e n e r a l amnesty^ of. G a i u s a t . . the b e g i n n i n g o f h i s r e i g n was n e c e s s a r y - t o p r e v e n t a n y h . o - H i . l e a l l i a n c e , o f t h o s e who may have f e a r e d h i s r e v e n g e : i n M e i s e ' s words, " d i e s w a r e n ' p o p u l a r e , geseh i .ck . te und z u g l e i c h auch. p o l i t i s c h n o t w e n d i g e Massnahmen" {JJntersuclmngen- p . 1 1 7 ) . 6 . 2 K y x v x o s noyirtovios: T h e r e i s q u i t e c l e a r l y - a c o n f u s i o n o f names h e r e , a s w e l l a s what must be an o u t r i g h t m i s t a k e on D i o ' s p a r t . The man f r e e d a t t h i s t i m e was n o t Q u i n t u s Pompon ius (PIR1 P 5 6 4 ) , b u t h i s b r o t h e r P . Pompon ius Seeundus (PIR1 P 5 6 3 ) ; and h i s r e l e a s e c o u l d n o t have t a k e n p l a c e b e f o r e h i s c o n s u l s h i p . The a c c o u n t o f t h e a c c u s a t i o n s and p r o c e e d i n g s a g a i n s t P . Pomponius Seeundus i s f o u n d i n T a c i t u s (Ann. 5 . 8 ; c f . R o g e r s Criminal Trials p . 125 f o r a summary ) . In A . D . 3 1 , d u r i n g t h e a f t e r m a t h o f S e i a n u s ' o v e r t h r o w , P u b l i u s was a c c u s e d by C o n s i d i u s P r o c u l u s o f f r i e n d s h i p w i t h a c e r t a i n A e l i u s G a l l u s , w i t h o u t doub t t h e s o n o r nephew o f . S e i a n u s ; b u t , s u p p o r t e d b y h i s b r o t h e r Q u i n t u s and by- h i s own a d m i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r , he managed t o s u r v i v e T i b e r i u s . In A . D . 33 P u b l i u s ' b r o t h e r Q u i n t u s u n d e r t o o k t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f P r o c u l u s ' s i s t e r , S a n c i a , as p a r t o f an a t t e m p t t o i n g r a t i a t e h i m s e l f w i t h t h e Empero r and so m i t i g a t e P u b l i u s ' o r d e a l ( T a c . Ann. 6 . 1 8 . 2 ) . .The e f f o r t s were i n v a i n , and P u b l i u s r e m a i n e d i n p r i s o n u n t i l h i s r e l e a s e i n A . D . 3 7 , r e c o r d e d h e r e b y - D i o (whose p h r a s e " s e v e n , w h o l e y e a r s l a t e r " s h o u l d be t a k e n as r h e t o r i c a l o v e r s t a t e m e n t . . .C f . G a r n s e y Social Status p p . 14.7-48,). D e s p i t e D i o ' s comment t h a t Pompon ius was j a i l e d ye0' UTraTeiav, n e i t h e r o f t h e b r o t h e r s h e l d t h e c o n s u l s h i p u n t i l a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f G a i u s : Q u i n t u s 81 as consul suffectus f o r G a i u s i n A . D . . 4 1 (CIL 6 . 2 0 1 4 1 ; c f . S m a l l w o o d p . 2 ; C h a p t e r 2 9 . 5 ) , and P u b l i u s i n k.J). 44, (CTL 1 0 . 6 6 3 8 ; 11 .3806, ; c f . S m a l l w o o d p . 3 ) . Because B o i s s e y a i . n c a n n o t b e l i e v e t h a t D i o n o t o n l y c o n f u s e d one b r o t h e r w i t h t h e o t h e r b u t a l s o e r r e d i n t h e i r . c o n s u l s h i p s , he s u g g e s t s t h a t D i o h e r e must be r e f e r r i n g t o a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t P o m p o n i u s . T h e r e a r e , i n d e e d , two o t h e r . P o m p p n i i whose c o n s u l s h i p s w o u l d q u a l i f y t hem: C . Pompon ius G r a e c i n u s , consul suffectus . i n A . D . 16 (Fasti Consulaves = E§J p . 4 0 ) ; and h i s b r o t h e r , L. P o m p o n i u s , F l a c c u s , c o n s u l i n A . D . 17 (D io 5 7 . 1 7 . 1 ; T a c . Ann.. 2 . 4 1 . 2 ; Fasti Consulares = E§J p . 4 1 ; c f . S u e t . Tib. 4 2 . 1 ) . F l a c c u s , h o w e v e r , d i e d i n S y r i a i n A . D . 33 ( T a c . Ann. 6 . 2 7 . 3 ) . As f o r G r a e c i n u s , . n o t h i n g more i s known o f h i m e x c e p t t h a t he was a f r i e n d o f O y i d (Pont. 4 . 9 ) . I t m i g h t be s u g g e s t e d t h a t D i o ' s p h r a s e pe0' UTraxeiav i n d i c a t e s , i f i t i s t o be a c c e p t e d , t h a t h i s Pompon ius was i m p r i s o n e d s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s c o n s u l s h i p : i f i t . were m e r e l y h i s c o n s u l a r s t a t u s t h a t was i n t e n d e d b y t h e p h r a s e , t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l UTraxeuiccos w o u l d have s u f f i c e d . G r a e c i n u s , t h e n , who h e l d h i s c o n s u l s h i p f i f t e e n y e a r s b e f o r e A . D . 3 1 , i s h a r d l y s u i t a b l e . A l t h o u g h no p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f D i o ' s a p p a r e n t e r r o r abou t t h e c o n s u l s h i p has y e t been o f f e r e d , t h e e r r o r i t s e l f must be a c c e p t e d . In t h i s c a s e we must assume , w i t h l i t t l e r e s e r v a t i o n . , t h a t D i o i n t e n d e d P . Pompon ius Secundus ( c f . F u r n e a u x and Koes te rmann on T a c . Ann. 5 . 8 ) . He w a s , i t s e e m s , a p o e t and t r a g e d i a n o f some w o r t h , whose b i o g r a p h y was w r i t t e n b y t h e e l d e r P l i n y ( T a c . Dial. . 1 3 . 3 ; P l i n y S p . 3 . 5 . 3 - 4 . ; 7 . 1 7 . 1 1 ) , a l t h o u g h c e r t a i n c r i t i c s p r a i s e d . h i s e r u d i t i o n more h i g h l y t h a n h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s ( Q u i n t . 1 Q . 1 . 9 8 ) ; as a h o b b y he i s s a i d t o have c o l l e c t e d a u t o g r a p h s o f famous r e p u b l i c a n s ( P l i n y HN 1 3 . 2 6 . 8 3 ) . 82 6 . 2 eTrxd *Q\O\S exea i .v Iv xw o i i c r i uaxv ; T i b e r i u s o f t e n p r o c r a s t i n a t e d when t r y i n g p r i s o n e r s ; ( c f . J o s : .4^-1 8 . 6 . 5 [170] -; "SeopaixGv ..qtcpoaoews o^epvQffT.o.sv 'fiV"). . D i o C 5 8 . 2 7 . 2 - 3 ] t e l l s o f how:, a f t e r T h r a s y l l u s Had f a l s e l y - p r e d i c t e d t h a t T i b e r i u s s h o u l d l i v e a n o t h e r t e n y e a r s , the . Empero r was i n no h u r r y t o p a s s s e n t e n c e s a g a i n s t t h o s e who. had been c o n v i c t e d — a n e g l i g e n c e , t h a t s a v e d t h e l i v e s o f some. D e l a y s were n o t a lways: due. t o t h e E m p e r o r , h o w e v e r , as i n t h e c a s e o f a c e r t a i n Lampo whose t r i a l i t s e l f : d r a g g e d o n . f o r two y e a r s ( P h i l o in Place. 1 6 . 1 2 8 - 1 2 9 [ 5 3 6 ] ) . On custodia as a f o r m o f p u n i s h m e n t , s e e G a r n s e y Social Status p p . 1 4 7 - 5 2 . 6 . 2 x d xe eyKXr iyaxa xr\s acreBetas: C f . Suet . . Gaius 1 5 . 4 : " p a r i p o p u l a r i t a t e damnatos r e l i g a t o s q u e r e s t i t u i t ; c r i m i n u m , s i quae r e s i d u a ex p r i o r e tempore maneban t , omnium g r a t i a m f e c i t . " The c a p i t a l c h a r g e o f maiestas ( c f . Mason Greek Terms p . 2 7 ) , c o n s i d e r e d by o u r ' s o u r c e s t o be t h e most p e r n i c i o u s a s p e c t o f T i b e r i u s ' r e i g n , i s d e f i n e d b y D i o a s . " x d ye ugpicrQcu rrpos x i v o s n KOI xb no"e(3no"0ax rrpos x i v o s " ( 5 7 . 9 . 2 ) . More s p e c i f i c a l l y i t was s a i d t o i n c l u d e any i m p r o p e r word o r a c t i o n d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t A u g u s t u s , T i b e r i u s , o r L i v i a (D io 5 7 . 1 9 . 1 ) . In e f f e c t . , a c c o r d i n g t o R . S . R o g e r s , t r i a l s f o r maiestas under T i b e r i u s were o f two t y p e s : t h e r e were 24 c a s e s o f " l e s s e r " maiestas o r lese majeste; and 82 c a s e s o f perduellio o r h i g h t r e a s o n , i n c l u d i n g s e d i t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e s and m i l i t a r y m u t i n i e s ( c f . R o g e r s Criminal Trials p . 1 9 0 ) . I t i s t h e c h a r g e o f lese maj'este t h a t a t t r a c t e d Roman h i s t o r i a n s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y T a c i t u s , who c r e a t e d t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f a g r o w i n g c a n c e r m e t h o d i c a l l y , d e s t r o y i n g t h e b e s t o f t h e Roman s t a t e . In f a c t , o f t h e 24 a t t e s t e d c a s e s ;,of l e s s e r maiestas-^-an a v e r a g e o f one e a c h y e a r t h r o u g h o u t T i b e r i u s ' p r i n c i p a t e - - o n l y s i x r e s u l t e d i n 83 c o n v i c t i o n s . I t w a s . t h i s o v e r d r a w n : c h a r g e o f lese majeste t h a t G a i u s a b o l i s h e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h i s x u l e . ..Within two! y e a r s he was f o r c e d by c i r c u m s t a n c e s - to. r e i n s t a t e i t C^ee [Chap te r . 1 6 . 8 ) . F o r g e n e r a l s u r v e y s o f mqiestas u n d e r T i b e r i u s , ..see R o g e r s Criminal Trials p p . 1 9 0 - 9 6 ; Macsh. Tiberius- pp; 2 8 9 - 9 5 ; Seagex Tiberius p p . 1 5 1 - 6 2 ; Bauman Impietas- in Prinaipem. [For more s p e c i f i c s t u d i e s , c o n s u l t t h e n o t e s on C h a p t e r 1 6 . 8 . 6 . 3 TU YpduuctTa; These l e t t e r s , w h i c h i n c r i m i n a t e d c e r t a i n w i t n e s s e s and delatores who had c o - o p e r a t e d i n t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f G a i u s ' m o t h e r , a n d b r o t h e r s as w e l l as i n . c a s e s o f maiestas., he c o l l e c t e d i n t h e Forum and b u r n e d , a f t e r c a l l i n g t h e gods t o w i t n e s s t h a t he had n o t r e a d them ( S u e t . Gaius 1 5 . 4 ) . D e c e i t f u l l y - , b u t p e r h a p s w i s e l y , he had made c o p i e s and k e p t t h e o r i g i n a l s , w h i c h h e w o u l d . l a t e r f i n d u s e f u l ( C h a p t e r s 1 0 . 8 ; 1 6 . 3 ) . G a i u s ' c o n d u c t i n t h i s m a t t e r was n o t w i t h o u t p r e c e d e n t . A f t e r A c t i u m A u g u s t u s had d i s c o v e r e d damning c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i n A n t o n y ' s s t r o n g b o x e s ; he s u p p o s e d l y bu rned , t h e l e t t e r s , b u t a c t u a l l y k e p t some and d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o make u s e o f them (D io 5 2 . 4 2 . 8 ) . C l a u d i u s l a t e r f ound t h e l e t t e r s p r e s e r v e d by G a i u s and d e s t r o y e d t hem, b u t o n l y a f t e r s h o w i n g them t o t h e S e n a t e and t o t h o s e who were i m p l i c a t e d b y them ( D i o 6 0 . 4 . 5 ) . 6 . 4 TO, T£ KpQViot; The f e s t i v a l o f t h e S a t u r n a l i a d e r i v e s i t s name f r om t h e god, ( V a r r o LL 6 . 2 2 ) and was c e l e b r a t e d i n D e c e m b e r , b e g i n n i n g on the, day -when t h e Temple o f S a t u r n had been d e d i c a t e d a t Rome ( F e s t u s , P a u l i E x e r p t a 476 1-325]; cf... L i v y 2 . 2 1 . 2 ; . M a c r . Sat. T . 8 . . 1 ) . The c e l e b r a t i o n s were o r i g i n a l l y - h e l d on a s i n g l e d a y , b u t when . J u l i u s C a e s a r 84 added two d a y s t o .December , t h e f e s t i v a l was i n c r e a s e d a c c o r d i n g l y . A p p a r e n t l y - i t was a l w a y s u n o f f i c i a l l y l o n g e r . , f o r Augus tus ; was f o r c e d .to l i m i t by- an e d i c t i t s d u r a t i o n t o t h r e e d a y s , b e g i n n i n g on 17 December ( M a c r . Sat. 1 . 1 0 . 2 3 ) . A f o u r t h day-was- added somet ime i n t h e e a r l y P r i n c i p a t e , and t h e f i f t h by G a i u s , who c a l l e d i t t h e Iupenalis ( S u e t . Gaius 1 7 . 2 ; - G e l z e r [RE " J u l i u s " c o l . 389] e r r s i n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t G a i u s added on ly - t h e f o u r t h d a y ) . Somet ime a f t e r . A . D . 37 t h i s f i f t h day was a b o l i s h e d , on ly - t o be, r e i n s t a t e d b y C l a u d i u s i n A . D . 45 (.Dio 6 0 . 2 5 . 8 ) . M a c r o b i u s m e n t i o n s t h a t t he f e s t i v i t i e s o f t e n c o n t i n u e d u n o f f i c i a l l y f o r s e v e n d a y s . (Sat. 1 . 1 0 . 2 4 ) , a p r a c t i c e t h a t , i s r e f l e c t e d i n two poems o f M a r t i a l (14 .72 . ; 79) : t h e s e two. e x t r a d a y s . w e r e d e v o t e d t o t h e . g i v i n g o f s i g i l l a r i a , t h e e i k o v o t m e n t i o n e d h e r e by- D i o ( c f . F o w l e r Roman Festivals p p . 2 6 8 - 7 2 ) . 6 . 4 ogoXov Trap" l i cdaxou K . T . A . . : The Greek d rachma o f s i x o b o l s was t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e Roman d e n a r i u s o f s i x t e e n a s s e s . I f D i o i s b e i n g a c c u r a t e , t h e n , G a i u s r e d u c e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l g i f t f r om a d e n a r i u s t o a s e s t e r t i u s (2 ,1/2 a s s e s ) . I t i s e q u a l l y p o s s i b l e t h a t he u s e s 6 g o A o s , t h e s m a l l e s t G r e e k c o i n , as t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e s m a l l e s t Roman c o i n , t h e as. Two o t h e r p a s s a g e s ( 4 6 . 3 1 . 3 ; 6 4 . 2 . 1 ) do n o t h i n g t o c l a r i f y - h i s use o f t h e w o r d . 6 . 4 T tov TO p i T r i p e c r t . o v ( j ) e p o v T a ) V : In 2. B . C . t h e r e were more t h a n 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 r e c i p i e n t s o f t h e g r a i n d o l e i n t h e c i t y (RG 1 5 . 4 ) . T h e r e were p e r h a p s a q u a r t e r o f a m i l l i o n p e o p l e e l i g i b l e by-A . D . 37 (see on C h a p t e r 2 . 2 ITTI TTI . . . ) . 85 6 . 5 KqxccAy6evxa)V . . . ; F o r the' phrase, c f . . C h a p t e r 2Q. 1 : "xobs xpxe apxovxois- K q x q A u c q s . " The c o n s u l ' s h i p o f Cn'. 2 1 A c e r r o n i u s P r o c u l u s (PTE. A 32) and C . P e t r p n i u s P o n t i u s N i g r i n u s (PIR P 218) i s r e f e r r e d t o a l s o i n S u e t . Tib. 7 3 . 2 and D i o 5 8 . 2 7 . 1 . 6 . 5 Kax' 'exos u i r a x e u e t v : In r e f u s i n g t o h o l d an a n n u a l c o n s u l s h i p G a i u s was f o l l o w i n g t h e p r a c t i c e e s t a b l i s h e d b y A u g u s t u s , who, f rom 23 B . C . u n t i l h i s d e a t h i n A . D . 1 4 , was c o n s u l o n l y t w i c e (TJio 5 3 . 3 2 . 3 ; RG 4 . 4 ; 1 4 . 1 ) . A u g u s t u s h e l d h i s c o n s u l s h i p s o f 5 B . C . and 2 B..C. s o l e l y t o i n t r o d u c e G a i n s and L u c i u s C a e s a r t o p u b l i c l i f e as h i s i n t e n d e d s u c c e s s o r s . T i b e r i u s f o l l o w e d t h e same cus tom f o r h i s t h r e e c o n s u l s h i p s , t a k i n g as h i s c o l l e a g u e s G e r m a n i c u s i n A.D. . 1 8 , D r u s u s i n A . D . 2 1 , and S e i a n u s i n A . D . 31 (D rusus b e i n g h o n o u r e d n o t as a s u c c e s s o r , b u t as t h e p o t e n t i a l r e g e n t f o r t h e sons o f G e r m a n i c u s ; and S e i a n u s as p a r t o f t h e E m p e r o r ' s p l a n t o i n f l a t e h i m . w i t h hope b e f o r e d e s t r o y i n g h i m ) . By t a k i n g as h i s c o l l e a g u e h i s u n c l e C l a u d i u s , an o b j e c t o f r i d i c u l e , G a i u s was n o t so much i n d i c a t i n g h i m as t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e h e i r t o t h e m o n a r c h y , as a v o i d i n g t h e d a n g e r o f i n s p i r i n g i n someone e l s e t h e hope f o r s u c c e s s i o n (see a l s o bn C h a p t e r 6 . 7 u n d x e u a e v ) . M e i s e (Untevsuohungen p . 101) i s c o r r e c t i n p o i n t i n g ou t t h a t G a i u s ' a t t i t u d e t o h i s u n c l e C l a u d i u s and h i s nephew D o m i t i u s ( the f u t u r e Empero r N e r o ) d i s p r o v e s any i d e a t h a t t h e Empero r c o n s i d e r e d e i t h e r as a p o t e n t i a l s u c c e s s o r . A s : f o r C l a u d i u s i n p a r t i c u l a r , G a i u s must haye e x p e c t e d t o o u t l i v e M m . ' b y many y e a r s . D e s p i t e h i s r e j e c t i o n o f t h e a n n u a l m a g i s t r a c y a t t h i s t i m e , G a i u s was c o n s u l i n e y e r y y e a r o f h i s r e i g n e x c e p t A . D . 3 8 . 86 6 . 5 auxos OTOTeucje; G a i u s t o o k o f f i c e as consul suffeotus on 1 J u l y ( S u e t . Qayus 1 7 . 1 ; Acta Arvalium a E£J p . . 4 3 ; Fasti Ostienses = S m a l l w o o d p . 2 ; c f . CXL 1 0 . 7 9 6 ) . F o r t h e - l e n g t h , o f h i s c o n s u l -s h i p , see on C h a p t e r 7 . 9 Suq x£ urtcnf. 6 . 6 ev TE x o \ s i.TTueucri: F o r the'. p h r a s e , c f . . P l u . Pomp.. 1 4 . 6 . D e s p i t e t h e n e g l e c t shown h i m by- h i s own f a m i l y , C l a u d i u s was a l w a y s h e l d i n g r e a t h o n o u r b y t h e e q u e s t r i a n s , who were a c c u s t o m e d t o r i s e wheneve r he e n t e r e d t h e t h e a t r e ( S u e t . Claud. 6 . 1 ) . Because o f t h e d i g n i t y a t t a c h e d t o even t h e most : o v e r l o o k e d member ,o f t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y , he was s e v e r a l t i m e s c h o s e n t o r e p r e s e n t t h e e q u e s t r i a n o rde r , b e f o r e t h e E m p e r o r . S u e t o n i u s m e n t i o n s two o t h e r o c c a s i o n s - (Claud. 6 . 1 ) : o n c e , when t h e equites r e q u e s t e d p e r m i s s i o n t o c o n v e y - A u g u s t u s ' body- f rom N o l a t o Rome on t h e i r s h o u l d e r s ; and a g a i n when T i b e r i u s was b e i n g c o n g r a t u l a t e d f o r t h e o v e r t h r o w o f S e i a n u s . In A . D . 39 he was a g a i n c h o s e n as a member o f , an e q u e s t r i a n embassy and was s e n t t o G a u l t o o f f e r G a i u s c o m p l i m e n t s f o r q u a s h i n g t h e c o n s p i r a c y o f L e p i d u s ( C h a p t e r 2 3 . 2 - 5 ) . 6 . 6 TOTE TrpGrov: As a c h i l d C l a u d i u s had s u f f e r e d f r om v a r i o u s p h y s i c a l a i l m e n t s , r emnan ts o f w h i c h r e m a i n e d w i t h h i m t h r o u g h o u t h i s a d u l t l i f e ( E . F . Leon [TAPhA 79 <?1948> 7 9 - 8 6 ] a t t r i b u t e s C l a u d i u s ' i n f i r m i t y t o c e r e b r a l p a l s y ) . B e c a u s e o f t h e s e , h i s f a m i l y c o n s i d e r e d h i m p h y s i c a l l y - and m e n t a l l y i n c a p a b l e o f a p u b l i c c a r e e r ( S u e t . Claud. 2 . 1 ) . A l t h o u g h A u g u s t u s was once t e m p t e d t o a l l ow , h i m t o e n t e r on t h e i m p e r i a l ouvsus Uonovum he a p p a r e n t l y - t h o u g h t b e t t e r o f i t and a d v a n c e d h i m no f a r t h e r t h a n an a u g u r a l p r i e s t h o o d ( S u e t . Claud. 4 . 7 ) . C l a u d i u s h i m s e l f , h o w e v e r , had some a m b i t i o n , and once a s k e d h i s u n c l e T i b e r i u s t o s u g g e s t 87 h i s name f o x t h e c o n s u l s h i p ; h i s r e q u e s t was r e f u s e d , and a l a t e r m o t i o n f r o m t h e S e n a t e t h a t he be g i v e n t h e h o n o u r o f v o t i n g among t h e c o n s u l a x s was a l s o r e j e c t e d ( S u e t . Claud. 5 -6 , ) . U n t i l , A . D . 3 7 , t h e n , he r e m a i n e d i n o b s c u r i t y - ; a k n i g h t , t h o u g h h e a d o f t h e C l a u d i an h o u s e . , 6 . 6 K a i TeauapaKOVTa exTi gegicoiaos: He was- b o r n i n G a u l on 1 A u g u s t 10 B . C . (Sue t . ' Claud.. 2 . 1 ; c f . Fasti Consulares = EctJ p . 3 7 ) . 6 . 7 UTOTGUcrev: C f . S u e t . Gaius 1 5 . 2 . S u e t o n i u s i s no doub t p a x t i a l l y r i g h t i n s e e i n g G a i u s ' c h o i c e o f C l a u d i u s f o r h i s c o l l e a g u e as a b i d b y t h e Empexox t o w i n t h e s u p p o x t o f . t h e e q u e s t r i a n o r d e x (Claud. 7 . 1 ) . The p o s i t i o n , howevex , i n v o l v e d C l a u d i u s i n a c e x t a i n amount o f d a n g e x , f o x he seems s t i l l t o have been h e l d i n c o n t e m p t : S u e t o n i u s g i v e s s e v e x a l examp les o f j o k e s p l a y e d b y G a i u s a t h i s expense (Gaius 2 3 . 3 ; Claud. 8 ; Nero 6 . 2 ) . He was a l m o s t xemoved .fxom o f f i c e f o x b e i n g d i l a t o x y i n l e t t i n g c o n t x a c t s f o x s t a t u e s o f t h e E m p e r o r ' s b r o t h e r s ( S u e t . Claud. 9 . 1 ) . A l l t h e s e s t o r i e s appeax g e n u i n e , i f somewhat e x a g g e x a t e d : i n W i l l x i c h ' s w o x d s , G a i u s t x e a t e d C l a u d i u s " f i i x e i n e n v o l l e n d e t e n T x o t t e " (Caligula p . 2 9 0 ) . I t i s p x o b a b l y t x u e , t o o , t h a t G a i u s once a l l o w e d a s l a v e t o b x i n g a c a p i t a l chaxge a g a i n s t C l a u d i u s ( J o s . AJ 1 9 . 1 . 2 [ 1 3 ] ) ; b u t when J o s e p h u s adds t h a t G a i u s was d i s a p p o i n t e d when u n a b l e t o s e n t e n c e h i s u n c l e t o d e a t h , s u c h a c l a i m t o k n o w l e d g e o f t h e . E m p e x o x ' s t h o u g h t s i s as u n a c c e p t a b l e fxom h i m as i t i s - fxom T a c i t u s . 6 . 7 TToAAa eTraYYeXopevos; He no d o u b t . , x e p e a t e d much o f what he had s a i d i n h i s i n a u g u x a l s p e e c h t o t h e S e n a t e t h x e e months e a x l i e x ( C h a p t e x 6 . 1 ) . Fox h i s c x i t i c i s m o f T i b e x i u s , see on C h a p t e x s 4 . 2 ; 1 6 . 1 - 8 . 88 6 . 7 K a x ' exos. a u x a a v a y i Y V w o K e a G a i : The m o t i v e o f f e a r a t t r i b u t e d b y D i o t o t h e s e n a t o r s i s h a r d l y - r e q u i r e d . I t was a cus tom t o r e a d c e r t a i n s p e e c h e s of. A u g u s t u s and T i b e r i u s a t t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g o f t h e S e n a t e i n the 'hew. y e a r (D io 6 0 . 1 0 . 2 ) . The d e c r e e t h a t t h i s s p e e c h o f G a i u s . s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d was no more t h a n a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h i s p r a c t i c e . C f . a l s o D i o 6 1 . 3 . 1 ( N e r o ) . 89 CHAPTER SEVEN 7 . 1 TO npwov TO'xpu AuyouaTOU; The t e m p l e was d e d i c a t e d on 30 -31 A u g u s t A - D . 37 ( see b e l o w , s e c t i o n s 2 - 3 ; G e l z e r [RE " J u l i u s " c o l . 388] s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c e l e b r a t i o n s f o r t h e d e d i c a t i o n b e g a n on 19 A u g u s t , t h e a n n i v e r s a r y o f A u g u s t u s 1 d e a t h , b u t none o f t h e e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t s t h i s , d a t e ) . L i v i a and T i b e r i u s h a d u n d e r t a k e n t o e r e c t t h e s h r i n e s o o n a f t e r A u g u s t u s ' d e a t h ( D i o 5 6 . 4 6 . 3 ) , b u t t h e r e i s some doub t w h e t h e r T i b e r i u s saw t h e work t h r o u g h t o c o m p l e t i o n . D i o r e c o r d s t h a t t h i s t e m p l e was t h e o n l y e n t i r e l y new b u i l d i n g e r e c t e d b y T i b e r i u s ( 5 7 . 1 0 . 2 ) , and T a c i t u s adds t h a t he c o m p l e t e d i t b u t d i d n o t d e d i c a t e i t " c o n t e m p t u a m b i t i o n i s an p e r s e n e c t u t e m " (Ann. . 6 . 4 5 . 2 ; . b u t c f . 2 . 4 9 ) . S u e t o n i u s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , c l a i m s t h a t t h e b u i l d i n g had t o be f i n i s h e d b y G a i u s (Tib. 4 7 ; Gaius 2 1 ) . Even i f T i b e r i u s d i d n o t a c t u a l l y c o m p l e t e t h e t e m p l e , he must a l m o s t have done s o , s i n c e i t was r e a d y f o r d e d i c a t i o n o n l y f i v e months a f t e r h i s d e a t h . The a p p r o x i m a t e s i t e o f t h e Temple o f A u g u s t u s i s known o n l y f rom a p a s s a g e o f S u e t o n i u s (Gaius 2 2 . 4 ) , who d e s c r i b e s t h e u n i t i n g o f t h e P a l a t i n e and C a p i t o l i n e b y a b r i d g e p a s s i n g o v e r t h e t e m p l e . U n t i l r e c e n t l y i t was i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e b u i l d i n g a t t h e f o o t o f t h e n o r t h w e s t s l o p e o f t h e P a l a t i n e , be tween t h e Temple o f C a s t o r , t h e v i c u s T u s c u s , and t h e c l i v u s V i c t o r i a e . T h i s s t r u c t u r e , h o w e v e r , i s now r e c o g n i z e d as an atrium o f D o m i t i a n ' s p a l a c e , w h i l e t h e Temple of A u g u s t u s i s t h o u g h t to be b u r i e d f a r t h e r w e s t , b e h i n d t h e B a s i l i c a I u l i a and n e a r t h e p r e s e n t p i a z z a d e l l a C o n s o l a z i . o h e Ccf- L u g l i Ii Centvo Monumentale p p . 1 8 5 - 9 5 ; L a n c i a n i Ruins and. Excavations p p . 1 2 1 - 2 3 ) . B e c a u s e of t h e c o m p l e t e l a c k of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e and t h e s c a r c i t y of l i t e r a r y r e f e r e n c e s , a n y d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e t e m p l e i s dependen t 90 e n t i r e l y - on t h e e v i d e n c e o f c o i n s . H e r e , t o o , t h e r e i s some u n c e r t a i n t y . I f i t i s t o he i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e t e m p l e on a c o i n o f T i b e r i u s (BMC Imp. 1 . 1 3 7 , n o . 1 1 6 ) , t h e n i t was C o r i n t h i a n h e x a s t y l e w i t h s c u l p t u r e above t h e p e d i m e n t and a h i g h c u r v e d w a l l , b e h i n d . M a t t i n g l y (BMC Imp. 1 , p p . c x x x v i i i ; c x l v i ) has c o n v i n c i n g l y d i s p r o v e d t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , on t h e g rounds t h a t t h i s c o i n was i s s u e d t o o s o o n b e f o r e t h e d e d i c a t i o n . M o r e . l i k e l y the . t e m p l e i s t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d on a c o i n o f G a i u s (BMC Imp. 1.153. , n o . .41; c f . p . 1 5 7 , n o . 6 9 ) , and was I o n i c h e x a s t y i e d e c o r a t e d , . w i t h s c u l p t u r e i n . t h e p e d i m e n t and a quadriga on t h e fastigium Qcf. C . G . B e l l o n i i n Aufstieg und Eiedergang 2 . 1 . 1 0 4 4 - 1 0 4 5 ) . See L u g l i , l o c . c i t . ; P l a t n e r and A s h b y Topographical Dictionary p p . 6 2 - 6 5 . 7 .1 xr\v e m v i K i o v o"xoAr\v evrSus: G a i u s was f o n d o f w e a r i n g t r i u m p h a l d r e s s , even b e f o r e he was l e g i t i m a t e l y a b l e t o do s o f o l l o w i n g h i s campa ign i n t h e N o r t h ( c f . S u e t . Gaius 5 2 ; see b e l o w , s e c t i o n 4 ) . 7 .1 OCTOI y e K0^ au<fu OaAeTs f \aav: I . e . , b o t h p a r e n t s o f e a c h c h i l d had t o be l i v i n g ; c f . t h e S c h o l i a s t t o A r i s t o p h a n e s ' Apes 1 7 3 5 ; "au<J>ox£po\s TOXS Yoveueri 6aXi\oov icon. unSevos yp,$aviau£vps." The same r e q u i r e m e n t h a d been made o f t h o s e . y o u t h s and, ma idens who were t o s i n g H o r a c e ' s Carmen Saeculare i n 17 B . C . ; " p u e r . [ X ] X V I I q u i b u s d e n u n t i a t u m e r a t p a t r i m i e t m a t r i m i e t p u e l l a e t o t i d e m carmen c e c i n e r u n t " (Acta Sacrorum Sqecularium - IBS 5050 = E§J n o . 3 2 ) . See a l s o C h a p t e r 1 6 . 1 0 . 7 .1 icon.. f\ gcuArt . . . ; He r e p e a t e d t h i s b a n q u e t i n A . D . 3 9 , on t h e o c c a s i o n o f D r u s i l l a ' s b i r t h d a y - ( C h a p t e r 1 3 . 9 ) . • S u e t o n i u s i s no doub t c o r r e c t when he s a y s t h a t t h e s e m e a l s were p r o v i d e d t o t h e 91 s e n a t o r i a l and e q u e s t r i a n o r d e r s (Cfaius 1 7 . 2 ) . I f t h e common p e o p l e were i n c l u d e d , as D i o s u g g e s t s , t h e n i t must h a v e b e e n as r e c i p i e n t s o f an e x t r a r a t i o n o f f o o d r a t h e r t h a n as p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n any- f o r m a l mea l ( c f - S u e t . Gaius 1 8 . 2 ; " p a n a r i a cum o.bsonio v i r i t i m d i v i s i t " ; and J o s . AJ'• 19 .1 . .16 [ 1 3 0 ] ) . ' These b a n q u e t s . o b v i o u s l y p r o v e d o f . some v a l u e i n w i n n i n g f o r G a i u s t h e s u p p o r t o f R o m e ' s u p p e r c l a s s e s , f o r C l a u d i u s , who must have been p r e s e n t a t t h e m , r e p e a t e d t h e cus tom i n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f h i s own r e i g n (D ip 6 0 . 7 . 4 ) . F o r s u c h d i s t r i b u t i o n s , , see H. K l o f t Liberalitas Pvincipis ( V i e n n a , 1 9 7 0 ) . 7 . 2 xfi. 6e ucrrepa ica\ xexxapaKOVxaicis; The MS r e a d i n g i s xexpcVis, w h i c h . B o i s s e v a i n emends t o x e x x a p o x o v x a i c i s on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h e o c c a s i o n demanded a d o u b l i n g o f t h e number o f r a c e s h e l d t h e p r e v i o u s d a y . . -T i b e r i u s ' b i r t h d a y had been c e l e b r a t e d i n A . D . 31 w i t h t h e r u n n i n g o f o n l y t e n c o n t e s t s , w h i c h seems t o have been t h e no rma l : number a t t h a t t i m e ( D i o 5 8 . 1 2 . 8 ; 6 0 . 2 3 . 5 ; see b e l o w , s e c t i o n 3 ) . We know t h a t G a i u s was f o n d o f a l l - d a y r a c i n g i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h o t h e r amusements ( S u e t . Gaius 1 8 . 3 ) , b u t f o r t y h e a t s i n one d a y seems an ex t reme number e v e n i f he was c o n s c i o u s l y t r y i n g t o o u t d o h i s p r e d e c e s s o r . C e r t a i n l y f o r t y r a c e s c o u l d be r un i n a d a y : M a r t i a l m e n t i o n s t h i r t y h e a t s w i t h o u t comment ( 8 . 7 8 . 1 3 ) ; D o m i t i a n c o u l d f i t a h u n d r e d r a c e s i n t o a d a y b y r e d u c i n g t h e number o f l a p s f o r e a c h f rom t h e n o r m a l s e v e n t o f i v e ( S u e t . Bom. 4 . 3 ) ; and Commodus once h e l d t h i r t y r a c e s i n two h o u r s ( D i o . 7 2 . 1 6 . 1 ) . Y e t I c a n n o t a c c e p t Bo i sseva in , ' s - r a t h e r t e n u o u s r e a s o n f o r r e j e c t i n g t h e MS r e a d i n g o f x.expaicvs, a f i g u r e . . w h i c h . m a k e s p e r f e c t s e n s e . R e i m a r p e r h a p s had t h e r i g h t i d e a i n s u g g e s t i n g t h e i n s e r t i o n o f a s e c o n d EiKoaoxis; 92 I s u s p e c t , h o w e v e r , t h a t i t s h o u l d he p l a c e d b e f o r e t h e K a i , w h i c h o t h e r w i s e m i g h t be a n o m a l o u s . T h i s , t h e n , , w o u l d be t h e f i r s t o c c a s i o n on w h i c h t w e n t y -f o u r r a c e s were h e l d , a number t h a t t h e r e a f t e r became customary- (D io 6 0 . 2 7 . 2 ) . See B a l s d o n Life and Leisure p . 3 2 0 . 7 . 2 x d yeveQXxa a u t o u : G a i u s was b o r n . o n 3 T , A u g u s t A . D . 12 (CIL 6 . 2 2 9 8 and 2300 = E§^ P. p , 5 1 ; S u e t . Gaius 8 . l ; » c f . D i o 5 6 . 2 6 . 1 ) , T h e r e i s an i n t e r e s t i n g b u t i n s i g n i f i c a n t s t o r y - t h a t someone once p o i n t e d out . t o t h e Emperor Commodus . tha t h i s b i r t h d a y was t h e same as t h a t o f G a i u s ; f o r t h i s i n s u l t t h e man was t h rown t o t h e b e a s t s (HA "Commodus" 1 0 . 2 ; c f , 1 . 2 ) . The p l a c e o f h i s b i r t h was- d i s p u t e d even b y c o n t e m p o r a r y h i s t o r i a n s . L e n t u l u s G a e t u l i c u s s a i d t h a t he was b o r n a t T i b u r , b u t he m i s t o o k f o r G a i u s h i s o l d e r b r o t h e r o f t h e same name, who had d i e d i n boyhood ( S u e t . Gaius 7 - 8 . 2 ) . I t was commonly b e l i e v e d t h a t he had been b o r n i n t h e l e g i o n a r y camp o f h i s f a t h e r , a v i e w r a t h e r s u r p r i s i n g l y h e l d b y S e n e c a (Const. Sap. 1 8 . 4 ) , P l i n y t he E l d e r ( c f . S u e t . Gaius 8 . 1 ) , and T a c i t u s (Ann. 1 . 4 1 . 3 ; c f . Suda s . v . K a A A i y o X a s ) . T h i s w a s , as S u e t o n i u s n o t e d (Gaius 8 . 1 - 5 ) , i m p o s s i b l e , s i n c e G e r m a n i c u s was n o t i n Germany u n t i l a f t e r h i s c o n s u l s h i p i n A . D . 1 2 . The m i s t a k e was p e r h a p s an e a s y one t o make , s i n c e i n e p i g r a m s p o p u l a r a t t h e t i m e o f h i s a c c e s s i o n G a i u s was s a i d t o have been b o r n in castris ( S u e t . Gaius 8 . 1 ; f o r t h e s e v e r s e s , s e e A . T a y l o r AJ'Ph 66 [1945] 4 0 8 - 1 0 ) . • S u e t o n i u s , who a l o n e seems. t o . have c o n s u l t e d t h e acta publioa on t h i s p r o b l e m , f o u n d t h a t G a i u s had been b o r n a t . A n t i u m , a town t h i r t y m i l e s s o u t h o f O s t i a (Qaius 8 . 2 ) . 7 . 3 ws irou tcoa e f iogev a u x y : F o r e x a m p l e , S u e t . Gaius 18 .3 ; "(sc. c i r c e n s e c o m m i s i t e t s u b i t o s , cum. e G e l o t i a n a a p p a r a t u c i r c i p r o s p i c i . e n t e m p a u c i ex p x o x l m i . s M a e n i a n i . s p o s t u l a s s e n t . " 7 . 3 apKTOus TexpaKoaias: I n h o n o u r o f D r u s i l l a ' s b i r t h d a y - i n A . D . 3 9 , 500 b e a r s and 500 L i b y a n b e a s t s w e r e s l a i n ( C h a p t e r 1 3 . 9 ; c f . 6 0 . 7 . 3 ) . Libycae ferae a r e mos t commonly l i o n s (Ov. Fasti 5 . 1 7 8 ; c f . S u e t . Gaius 1 8 . 3 ; P l i n y HN 8 . 1 8 . 4 5 - 4 7 ) , a l t h o u g h t h e t e r r a h e r e p e r h a p s r e f e r s t o a v a r i e t y o f b e a s t s f r o m n o r t h e a s t A f r i c a . 7.4 Tnv T p o m v vrnreuae'o; The f u l l e s t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l -d i s p l a y o f mock c a v a l r y c h a r g e s i s t o b e f o u n d i n V e r g i l ' s Aeneid 5 . 5 5 3 - 6 0 3 , w h e r e i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f u n e r a l game i n h o n o u r o f A n c h i s e s . The game was p r o b a b l y o f p r e - R o m a n o r i g i n , f o r A s c a n i u s i s s a i d t o h a v e r e v i v e d i t when h e e s t a b l i s h e d A l b a L o n g a j whence i t was b o r r o w e d b y t?ie Romans ( V e r g . Aen. 5 . 5 9 6 - 6 0 1 ) . H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h e game i s f i r s t m e n t i o n e d i n t h e t i m e o f S u l l a ( P l u . Cat. Mi. 3 . 1 ) , and t h e r e a f t e r i t o c c u r r e d r e g u l a r l y a t l e a s t u n t i l t h e t i m e o f C l a u d i u s ( S u e t . Claud. 2 1 . 3 ) . On i t s o r i g i n , s e e R . D . W i l l i a m s Aeneid V p p . 1 4 5 - 4 7 . The p a g e a n t was p e r f o r m e d b y t h e y o u n g s o n s o f p a t r i c i a n ( o r p e r h a p s n o b l e ) f a m i l i e s ( D i o 4 3 . 2 3 . 6 ; 4 9 . 4 3 . 3 ; T a c . Ann. 1 1 . 1 1 . 5 ) . T h e y w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o two tuxmae, one o f maiores and t h e o t h e r o f minores ( S u e t . Caes. 3 9 . 2 ; Aug. 4 3 . 2 ; Tib.. 6 . 4 ) ; Y e r g i l ' s r e f e r e n c e t o t h r e e t r o o p s (Aen. 5 . 5 6 0 ) h a s l e d t o some u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t t h e g a m e ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n u n d e r A u g u s t u s ( c f . B a l s d o n Life and Leisure p . 3 2 7 ; BE " L u s u s T x o i a e " c o l . 2 0 5 9 - 2 0 6 7 ) . I t s o r i g i n seems t o h a v e b e e n a t l e a s t p a r t l y r e l i g i o u s , f o r i t was u s u a l l y p e r f o r m e d a t t h e d e d i c a t i o n o f a t e m p l e ( e . g . , D i o 5 1 . 2 2 . 4 : Temp 94 o f C a e s a r ) o r a t s a c r e d games ( e . g . D i o 4 8 . 2 0 . 2 ; ludi Apollinares), A u g u s t u s , h o w e v e r , saw i t a s a cus tom u s e f u l f o r i n t r o d u c i n g young n o b l e s t o t h e p u b l i c ( S u e t . Aug. 4 3 . 2 ; ] , and, i t i n e v i t a b l y added t o ' t h e d i g n i t y o f t h e J u l i a n gens, w h i c h c l a i m e d d e s c e n t f rom t h e T r o j a n r o y a l house ( e . g . , D i o 5 4 . 2 6 . 1 : d e d i c a t i o n o f t h e T h e a t r e o f M a r c e l l u s ) . See a l s o D i o 5 3 . 1 . 4 ; 5 5 . 1 0 . 6 ; 5 9 . 1 1 . 2 . 7 . 4 TO apua TO TropinKOV ; F o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n , c f . Mason Greek Terms p . 7 7 ; , RG 2 . 9 ( C r e e k ) ; D i o 5 6 . 3 4 . 2 . I t was n o r m a l f o r o n l y f o u r h o r s e s t o d raw t h e t r i u m p h a l c h a r i o t ( c f . V e r s n e l Triumphus p . 56 and n o t e s ) . T r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e m a g i s t r a t e p r e s i d i n g o v e r C i r c e n s i a n games wore t h e t r i u m p h a l tunica palmata. ( L i v y 5 . 4 1 . 2 ) . F o r t h e r e l a t i o n be tween t h e pompa triumphalis and t h e pompa circenses, s e e V e r s n e l o p . c i t . p p . 1 0 1 - 1 5 . 7.4 TOIS nvtoxois dueanunvev: Under t h e E m p i r e i t was t h e p r i v i l e g e o f a p r a e t o r o r c o n s u l t o d rop a mappa as t h e s t a r t i n g s i g n a l f o r t h e c h a r i o t s ( S u e t . Nero 2 2 . 2 ; J u v . 1 0 . 3 6 - 4 2 ; 1 1 . 1 9 3 -1 9 5 ) . D u r i n g h i s c o n s u l s h i p s G a i u s o f t e n r e l i n q u i s h e d t h i s h o n o u r t o one o f t h e o t h e r m a g i s t r a t e s ; i n t h i s c a s e i t was p e r h a p s h i s c o l l e a g u e , C l a u d i u s , who p e r f o r m e d t h e d u t y ( S u e t . Gaius 1 8 . 1 ; Claud. 7 ) . 7 . 4 ueTo; TGV cruviepewv TWV Auyoucnreioov; T o g e t h e r w i t h S e i a n u s and h i s s o n , G a i u s was made a p r i e s t b y T i b e r i u s i n A - D . 31 (D io 5 8 . 7 . 4 ) . S i n c e t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e o f h i s h o l d i n g any o t h e r p r i e s t h o o d , we must assume t h a t he was t h e n made one o f t h e sodales Augustales-,. a c o l l e g e t h a t had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n A . D . 14 (D io 5 6 . 4 6 . 1 ) . F o r t h e te rms ouviepeus and 0 iaowns (= s o d a l i s ) , see Mason 95 Qpeek Terms p . 1 1 7 . D i o u s e s AuyouoTreioi. e l s e w h e r e o n l y o f a c o r p s o f s p e c i a l l y - s e l e c t e d s o l d i e r s o f N e r o ( 6 1 . 2 0 . 3 ) . 7 . 5 KCU yap KcJXCt'A'Ae <$ei.vGs; A c c o r d i n g t o S u e t o n i u s (G,aius 5 5 . 1 ) . , G a i u s . . was p a r t i c u l a r l y - s e n s i t i v e t o d i s t r a c t i o n s d u r i n g p e r f o r m a n c e s b y M n e s t e r ; " s i q u i s a l t a n t e , eo v e l l e v i t e r o b s t r e p e r e t , d e t r a h i i u s s u m manu s u a f l a g e l l a b a t . " 7 . 5 icou Trpb xoO Ka8frj<ovxos xpovou: G a i u s ' s u s p e n s i o n o f m o u r n i n g d i d n o t i n f a c t v i o l a t e t h e i n t e n t o f t h e l aw r e g a r d i n g t h e r e m a r r i a g e o f w i d o w s . The r e g u l a t i o n t h a t a woman c o u l d n o t r e m a r r y w i t h i n t e n months o f h e r husband's d e a t h was s i m p l y a p r e c a u t i o n t o e n s u r e t h a t she was n o t p r e g n a n t by- h i m (Digest 3 . 2 . 1 1 ; 5 . 9 . 1 ; c f . Cod. Theod. 3 . 8 . 1 , where t h e i n t e r v a l b e f o r e r e m a r r i a g e was e x t e n d e d t o t w e l v e m o n t h s ) . D i o's p h r a s e "av ye ur\ ev yacrxpi exwcr'LV" shows t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s law was m a i n t a i n e d , even i f t r a d i t i o n a l decorum was n o t . 7 . 7 dvUTroSriTOis: G a i u s ' own c h o i c e o f f o o t w e a r was s a i d o f t e n t o be d i s -r e p u t a b l e ; " a c modo i n c r e p i d i s , v e l c o t u r n i s , modo i n s p e c u l a t o r i a c a l i g a , nonnumquam s o c c o m u l i e b r i " ( S u e t . Gaius.52). To wear a l m o s t a n y t h i n g b u t t h e n o r m a l Roman oaloei.in p u b l i c was c o n s i d e r e d f o r e i g n a f f e c t a t i o n : G e r m a n i c u s a t t r a c t e d a t t e n t i o n i n E g y p t b y t r a v e l l i n g " p e d i b u s i n t e c t i s e t p a r i cum G r a e c i s a m i c t u ' V ( T a c . Ann. 2 . 5 9 . 2 ) . 7 . 7 UTT/o Tfou ^uyouaTou ev x a i s OepivaAs TravrryupeCTi; The iravnyupeis were t h e ludi .pub l i c i ( c f . W issowa Religion und Kultus p p . 5 6 8 - 9 3 ) . I t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t A u g u s t u s 96 w o u l d go b a r e f o o t , s i n c e he i s s a i d to have f a v o u r e d h i g h - s o l e d shoes t o i n c r e a s e h i s h e i g h t ( S u e t . Aug. 7 3 ) . 7 . 8 T« T£ TrppaKe^dXcu.a; These were pulvini-, s o f t s e a t - c u s h i o n s w h i c h f i r s t a p p e a r e d a t t h e C i r c u s Max imus i n t h e pulvinav o r " r o y a l b o x " e r e c t e d b y - A u g u s t u s (Suet . . Aug. 4 . 5 . 1 ; RG 1 9 . 1 ) . 7 . 8 TrrXous: The pileus was commonly worn a t f e s t i v a l s and e n t e r t a i n m e n t s (see Sma l lwood Legatio p . 194-; c f . S u e t . Aug. 8 2 . 1 ) . 7 . 8 evye Troxe e s UTrepBoXriv eTre^Xe^e: A c c o r d i n g t o S u e t o n i u s , G a i u s was known r a t h e r f o r h i s c r u e l t y i n t h i s r e s p e c t ; " g l a d i a t o r i o munere r e d u c t i s i n t e r d u m f l a g r a n t i s s i m o s o l e v e l i s e m i t t i quemquam v e t a b a t " [Gaius 2 6 . 5 ) . 7 . 8 TS 6ipi3iTO ) p { ( o : C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e D i r i b i t o r i u m , where t h e v o t e s were c o u n t e d a f t e r an e l e c t i o n , was begun b y A g r i p p a and c o m p l e t e d i n 7 B . C . by A u g u s t u s . I t s r o o f , s u p p o r t e d by beams o f l a r c h 100 f e e t l o n g , had t h e w i d e s t , s p a n o f any b u i l d i n g i n Rome b e f o r e A . D . 230 (D io 5 5 . 8 . 3 - 4 ; P l i n y - HN 3 6 . 2 4 . 1 0 2 ) . I t was s e r i o u s l y damaged by t h e f i r e o f A . D . 8 0 , and i t s m a g n i f i c e n t r o o f was n e v e r r e b u i l t ( D i o 6 6 . 2 4 . 2 ) . I t w o u l d have been most s u i t a b l e f o r p e r f o r m a n c e s b e f o r e s m a l l c r o w d s . U n t i l 1934 i t was t h o u g h t t h a t t h e D i r i b i t o r i u m was t h e s e c o n d s t o r e y o f t h e S a e p t a , where t h e a c t u a l , y o t i n g t o o k p l a c e ( c f . D i o 5 3 . 2 3 . 1 ) . T h i s theory - was r e j e c t e d when a newly- d i s c o v e r e d f r a g m e n t o f , the Forma Urbis Romae showed t h e b u i l d i n g a d j a c e n t t o t h e s o u t h end o f t h e S a e p t a , be tween 97 the Pantheon and the Temple of l s i s (cf. Lanciani Ruins and-Excavations pp. 47-48; Jordan Top.ogrqphie 1.3.558-564; Nash. P i c t o r i a l Dictionary 2.291-293; Lugli Monumenti 3.96-105.; Platner and. Ashby Topographical Dictionary p. 151). 7.8 iKptwuevco: "Fitted with. benches-*.-? ;Cf. ,Dio 43.22. 3;. n.0eaxpbv T I KUvrryexiKOv iKoiucas." 7.9 <Suo xe un.cn; <a\ nyepais doofieica: Dio errs in the length of Gaius' consulship. He resigned i t , as perhaps was to be expected, on. his birthday-., 31. August, two months exactly after entering on i t (Suet, Gains 17.1; Claud. 7; Acta Arvalium = E§J p. 43; Fasti Ostienses - Smallwood p. 2; no. 31). 7.9 xois T r p o a T r o S e 6 e i Y u e \ m s I s auxnv: The two suffecti who