Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The ecology of Richardson’s Merlins on the Canadian prairies Hodson, Keith Alan 1976

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1976_A6_7 H63.pdf [ 8.39MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0093862.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0093862-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0093862-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0093862-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0093862-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0093862-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0093862-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0093862-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0093862.ris

Full Text

THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  THE ECOLOGY OF RICHARDSON'S MERLINS ON THE CANADIAN PRAIRIES BY KEITH ALAN HODSON B.Sc,  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  I n t h e Department of Plant Science  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1976.  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s  representatives.  It  i s understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my written  permission.  Department o The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 20 75 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  To f a c e t i t l e page  NEWLY FLEDGED RICHARDSON'S MERLIN  ii ABSTRACT  I t i s t h e g r a s s l a n d ecosystem which s u p p o r t s Canadian p r a i r i e s .  T h i s study c o n s i d e r e d  n e s t i n g M e r l i n s on the  t h e e f f e c t s o f some f a c t o r s i n t e r -  f e r i n g w i t h processes i n operation i n the n a t u r a l f u n c t i o n i n g of the grassl a n d ecosystem t h a t i n f l u e n c e s M e r l i n p o p u l a t i o n s .  An i m p o r t a n t  part of  t h i s study was t h e comparison o f s e l e c t e d h a b i t a t f e a t u r e s n e a r Hanna, A l b e r t a , where a segment o f the p r a i r i e M e r l i n p o p u l a t i o n c o n t i n u e s near K i n d e r s l e y , Saskatchewan, where M e r l i n s once n e s t e d present.  t o n e s t , and those  b u t no l o n g e r a r e  A d d i t i o n a l l y , d a t a on n e s t i n g e c o l o g y o f R i c h a r d s o n ' s M e r l i n s were  g a t h e r e d along  the South Saskatchewan R i v e r , and near Hanna, i n s o u t h e r n  A l b e r t a , d u r i n g t h e summers o f The  1968-1974.  absence o f n e s t i n g m e r l i n s n e a r K i n d e r s l e y appears t o be r e l a t e d  t o changing human l a n d use p a t t e r n s i n t h a t a r e a .  Since  1951,  627„  of the  l a n d n e a r K i n d e r s l e y has been c u l t i v a t e d , w h i l e t h e comparable f i g u r e n e a r Hanna, where M e r l i n s c o n t i n u e  t o n e s t , i s 267o.  r i t o r i e s around M e r l i n n e s t s i t e s showed t h a t have been used by M e r l i n s f o r h u n t i n g i v a t i o n s i n c e the  1940's,  over t h e same p e r i o d .  A i r photo study o f t e r 52.37»  o f t h e a r e a presumed t o  i n the K i n d e r s l e y a r e a came under c u l t -  as compared t o  25.57<,  f o r the Hanna t e r r i t o r i e s  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f 4 0 M e r l i n t e r r i t o r i e s i n use s i n c e  1 9 7 1 i n the Hanna a r e a , has r e v e a l e d t h a t M e r l i n s were h u n t i n g averaged early  grassland.  787o  has been about  1960's  l e s s than  427  Increase  0  g r a s s l a n d by  77»,  1971.  required w i t h i n a M e r l i n hunting  i n areas w h i c h  i n c u l t i v a t i o n i n b o t h areas s i n c e t h e  leaving Kindersley Merlin t e r r i t o r i e s Assuming t h a t a t l e a s t  507,  with  grassland i s  t e r r i t o r y i n order to provide  sufficient  s m a l l b i r d p r e y , i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t the K i n d e r s l e y a r e a has n o t been a '  iii prime M e r l i n n e s t i n g a r e a s i n c e t h e since the e a r l y  1960's  1940's,  i n cultivation  has p r o b a b l y reduced g r a s s l a n d below t h e t h r e s h o l d  necessary to support n e s t i n g M e r l i n s . d i e l d r i n i n the e a r l y  and t h a t i n c r e a s e s  1960's  I t i s f e l t t h a t t h e heavy use o f  p r o b a b l y had t h e e f f e c t o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e  "coupe de g r a c e " t o t h e K i n d e r s l e y M e r l i n s , p o s s i b l y through t h e r e d u c t i o n of grassland b i r d s . A n a l y s i s o f p r e y remains a t n e s t s p r a i r i e M>erlins was composed o f  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e d i e t o f these  Horned L a r k s ,  507=,  Longspurs, 67» s p a r r o w s , 47« b l a c k b i r d s and 37, o t h e r s b i r d s , rodents,  etc.).  Chestnut-collared  377=,  ( p a s s e r i n e b i r d s , shore-  D e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e h a b i t a t s o f these p r e y  must be viewed as d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e h a b i t a t f o r n e s t i n g M e r l i n s .  species The now  common p r a c t i c e o f s e e d i n g open c a t t l e range t o c r e s t e d wheatgrass and o t h e r a l i e n monocultures i s l i k e l y t o l e a d t o f u r t h e r r e g r e s s i o n i n t h e p r a i r i e ecosystem and t o reduce o r e x t i n g u i s h p o p u l a t i o n s  o f p a s s e r i n e s and,  consequently, M e r l i n s . I n A l b e r t a , from  an average o f  1971-1974,  70.97.  o f occupied nest s i t e s  ( s i t e s w i t h a p a i r o f M e r l i n s p r e s e n t p r i o r t o egg l a y i n g ) were a c t i v e , a t l e a s t t o t h e egg l a y i n g s t a g e ; 85.37o  4.6  54.97<>  o f n e s t s w i t h eggs h a t c h e d young, and  o f these s u c c e s s f u l n e s t s produced f l e d g l i n g s .  Average c l u t c h s i z e was  eggs, o f w h i c h an average o f 3 . 5 h a t c h e d p e r n e s t w i t h eggs h a t c h i n g ,  p r o d u c i n g 3 . 2 f l e d g e d young p e r n e s t w i t h young r e a c h i n g  f l e d g i n g age. A  n e t p r o d u c t i v i t y o f 0 . 6 9 f l e d g l i n g s p e r o c c u p i e d n e s t s i t e was determined. H a t c h i n g s u c c e s s f o r a l l eggs was survived to fledging.  57.87o,  and  84.47,  o f t h e young h a t c h e d  These f i g u r e s i n c l u d e r e s u l t s from 1 9 7 3 when a s i n g l e  storm accounted f o r a f a i l u r e o f  41.47,  h a t c h a b i l i t y appears t o be r e l a t e d  o f t h e n e s t s i n t h e Hanna a r e a . Egg  (p<^.02)  t o DDE and D i e l d r i n r e s i d u e s ,  iv p r o b a b l y r e s u l t i n g from l o c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f these p e s t i c i d e s f o r grasshopper c o n t r o l ; e g g s h e l l d e n s i t y was i n v e r s l e y r e l a t e d t o DDE  levels.  In Alberta,  p e s t i c i d e l e v e l s do n o t appear t o have been s u f f i c i e n t t o cause a p o p u l a t i o n decline. R e s u l t s from banding o f n e s t l i n g s and t r a p p i n g and banding o f a d u l t s showed t h a t males u s u a l l y r e t u r n t o the g e n e r a l a r e a where they have n e s t e d i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s whereas females may move as f a r as 100 m i l e s from an e a r l i e r nesting s i t e .  Apparent r e c o r d s o f two b i r d s , one o f each sex, b r e e d i n g a t an  age o f one y e a r , a r e i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t most r a p t o r s do n o t breed u n t i l second o r t h i r d y e a r .  their  L o n g e v i t y o f these b i r d s i n the w i l d i s unknown but one  i n d i v i d u a l was known t o have been 5 y e a r s o l d .  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  F i n a n c i n g o f f i e l d work f o r t h i s p r o j e c t d u r i n g t h e 1973 and 1974 f i e l d seasons was p r o v i d e d by t h e Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e (C.W.S.). Thanks a r e e s p e c i a l l y due t o Mr. R i c h a r d F y f e o f t h e Edmonton, A l b e r t a , o f f i c e o f t h a t S e r v i c e , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s u p p o r t , who p r o v i d e d encouragement f o r t h i s p r o j e c t s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n i n 1970.  My p r o j e c t on  M e r l i n s i s a p a r t o f a much w i d e r program e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e T o x i c C h e m i c a l S e c t i o n (C.W.S.) t o m o n i t o r r a p t o r p o p u l a t i o n changes and p e s t i c i d e r e s i d u e l e v e l s i n r a p t o r s on t h e Canadian p r a i r i e s .  Acknowledgement i s accorded  C.W.S. f o r t h e use, from t h e i r f i l e s , o f p o p u l a t i o n d a t a , p e s t i c i d e r e s i d u e d a t a , and e g g s h e l l d a t a , c o l l e c t e d b e f o r e I commenced work on t h i s p r o j e c t . S p e c i a l thanks goes t o Mrs. Lynne Kemper f o r h e r work d u r i n g t h e 1972 f i e l d season, f o r o n l y through h e r complete and d e t a i l e d o b s e r v a t i o n s w h i l e working  f o r C.W.S.  i s a continuous  a v a i l a b l e s i n c e 1971.  account o f the p r a i r i e M e r l i n p o p u l a t i o n  To M i s s U r s u l a Banasch, who p r o v i d e d t h e l i n k between  f i e l d o p e r a t i o n s and t h e Edmonton o f f i c e , I am most g r a t e f u l .  To t h e people  named below and many o t h e r s I g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge a s s i s t a n c e and a d v i c e : Mr. H a r r y A r m b r u s t e r ,  W i l d l i f e T e c h n i c i a n , Mr. Bob Wroe, Range S p e c i a l i s t ,  Mr. Randy Semeniuk, Mr. Tom Donald, Mr. Tom R u s s e l l , Mr. P a t H a r r i s , Mr. J i m Windsor, Mr. Mike B r a d l e y , Mr. John l e Jeune, and Mr. G l e n Fox. thanks f o r t h e sometimes m e n i a l  Particular  t a s k o f c o l l e c t i n g p l a n t specimens, and  f e a t h e r s and o t h e r p r e y r e m a i n s , and f o r t h e a i d i n t r a p p i n g and b a n d i n g M e r l i n s go t o K i p , Ken and K e l l y F y f e who spent p e r i o d s o f each f i e l d  season  vi  w i t h me, me, 1974  to my  b r o t h e r Kim who  spent much o f the 1971  and to my b r o t h e r - i n - l a w D a r r e n E t h i e r who s c h o o l v a c a t i o n s w i t h me.  f i e l d season w i t h  spent most o f h i s 1973  I hope they got as much out o f those  and field  seasons as I d i d from t h e i r h e l p . During  the 1973-74 and F a l l 1974  s e s s i o n s spent a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f  B r i t i s h Columbia a number o f p e o p l e were e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l . Mr.  Steve Borden who  Mrs. M. N o r t h who  undertook the computer a n a l y s i s o f much f i e l d  p r o v i d e d source m a t e r i a l f o r v e g e t a t i o n and  a s p e c t s o f the study a r e a , and Dr. V.C.  These i n c l u d e  the f o l l o w i n g members o f my  R u n e c k l e s , Chairman; Dr. V.C.  data,  historical  committee:  B r i n k , S u p e r v i s o r ; Dr. R.J. Copeman,  A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r , Department o f P l a n t S c i e n c e ; Dr. I a n McTaggart Cowan, Dean, F a c u l t y of Graduate S t u d i e s , and P r o f e s s o r , Department o f Z o o l o g y ; Dr. R.C.  F i t z s i m m o n s , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r , Department o f P o u l t r y S c i e n c e ;  and Mr. R i c h a r d F y f e , R e s e a r c h B i o l o g i s t , Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e . V e r y s i n c e r e thanks go t o Mr. Mr.  and Mrs.  and Mrs. R. F y f e o f F o r t Saskatchewan,  J . Armstrong o f Hanna, and Mrs. M.  Seminiuk o f Edmonton a l l o f  whom p r o v i d e d meals and accommodation f o r sometimes v e r y d i r t y and weary w o r k e r s , and  to Mr.  and Mrs. R. Gore o f S c o t f i e l d who  very k i n d l y provided  a p l a c e f o r a f i e l d t r a i l e r out o f which much o f the study was d u r i n g 1973  and 1974  field  Museum, r e t i r e d .  out  seasons.  Thanks too must be accorded Mr. R e i f e l , Waterfowl Sanctuary,  carried  B r i a n D a v i e s , Warden George C.  and Mr. F r a n k Beebe o f the B.C.  Provincial  Through t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n and f r i e n d s h i p an  and f a s c i n a t i o n f o r r a p t o r s was  k i n d l e d i n the e a r l y 1960's, and  interest sustained.  R e c e i p t o f a i r phots from the Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e L i b r a r y , Edmonton, A l b e r t a , from the A l b e r t a Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s Photo  vii Library,  from the A l b e r t a Department  from the N a t i o n a l  o f Geography A i r Photo L i b r a r y ,  and  A i r Photos L i b r a r y i s acknowledged.  To my s i s t e r - i n - l a w , Mrs. H o l l y L i n d e n , who undertook the f i n a l typing  o f t h i s t h e s i s , I am v e r y g r a t e f u l . Above a l l ,  thanks go t o my w i f e Heather who,  y e a r s , p u t up w i t h my l o n g absences i n the f i e l d .  f o r more than two  v iii TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT  i t  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ,  v  TABLE OF CONTENTS  v  LIST OF TABLES  x  LIST OF PLATES  x i i  LIST OF FIGURES  i  i  xi  1.  INTRODUCTION  x  2.  GENERAL BIOLOGY OF THE RICHARDSON' S MERLIN  2  3.  MAJOR PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE STUDY AREA  4  3.1  Physiography  4  3.2  Climate  6  3.3  Vegetation  7  3.4  Fauna  9  3.5  Agriculture  10  4.  5.  METHODS .  17  4.1  M e r l i n Surveys 1971-74  17  4.2  Land Use C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  18  4.3  The Impact o f P e s t i c i d e s  20  OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS  22  5.1  22  P o p u l a t i o n Dynamics o f R i c h a r d s o n ' s M e r l i n  5.1.1  M e r l i n P o p u l a t i o n s i n Southern A l b e r t a , 1971-1974: Some A s p e c t s 22  5.1.2  Merlin Productivity  25  ix 5.  OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS 5.2  (Continued)  PAGE  Factors Affecting Merlin Populations  25  5.2.1  Weather  25  5.2.2  Predation  30  5.2.3  Human D i s t u r b a n c e  31  5.2.4  Pesticides  33  5.2.5  Disease  38  5.2.6  Land Use Change  38  6.  DISCUSSION  46  7.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  58  8.  LITERATURE CITED  9.  APPENDICES  I  P e s t i c i d e Residue L e v e l s i n Eggs o f R i c h a r d s o n ' s M e r l i n 1971-1973.  62  II  A n a l y s i s o f F a c t o r s o f Nest S i t e s Used by R i c h a r d s o n ' s M e r l i n A l b e r t a .  63  I I I P r e y S p e c i e s U t i l i z e d by R i c h a r d s o n ' s M e r l i n  6  0  6  2  65  IV  Common P l a n t s o f the Study A r e a  V  M e r l i n P o p u l a t i o n and Nest Data  78  VI  M e r l i n P e s t i c i d e Data.  82  V I I Chemical Names o f I n s e c t i c i d e s  '  72  83  X TABLE 1 2  LIST OF TABLES Change i n the Human P o p u l a t i o n o f the Census D i v i s i o n s o f the Study A r e a .  PAGE 15  Occupancy and Use o f Nest S i t e s by R i c h a r d s o n ' s M e r l i n , 1971-1974.  23  3  P r o d u c t i v i t y o f R i c h a r d s o n ' s M e r l i n , 1971-1974.  26  4  " R e p r o d u c t i v e Success of P i g e o n Hawks"  27  5  A Comparison of P e s t i c i d e R e s i d u e L e v e l s and R a t c l i f f e I n d i c e s f o r R i c h a r d s o n ' s M e r l i n Eggs. A Comparison o f P e s t i c i d e R e s i d u e L e v e l s i n M e r l i n Eggs C o l l e c t e d D u r i n g I n c u b a t i o n and Eggs C o l l e c t e d Dead A f t e r I n c u b a t i o n .  36  A Comparison of P e s t i c i d e R e s i d u e L e v e l s i n Eggs from " S u c c e s s f u l " N e s t s and Eggs from "Unsuccessf u l " Nests.  37  The Areas Under C u l t i v a t i o n i n the Census D i v i s i o n s o f the Study A r e a .  39  P e r c e n t a g e o f Areas under C u l t i v a t i o n w i t h i n M e r l i n H u n t i n g T e r r i t o r i e s Based on S t u d i e s o f A i r Photos Taken between the 1940's and the 1970's.  40  The Acreage Under C u l t i v a t i o n ( P e r m i t and Lease) i n The S p e c i a l Areas o f A l b e r t a .  41  A Comparison o f C e r t a i n E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s Around N e s t S i t e s near Hanna, A l b e r t a , and K i n d e r s l e y , Saskatchewan.  43  S a l e o f D i e l d r i n i n Some R u r a l M u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f Saskatchewan, 1955-1965.  54  13  S p e c i e s U t i l i z e d as P r e y by M e r l i n s .  66  14.  P a i r D e n s i t y and S p e c i e s Abundance o f G r a s s l a n d B i r d s i n G r a s s l a n d and A g r i c u l t u r a l R e g i o n s .  67  "Average Number o f B i r d s Recorded a t Roadside S t o p s "  69  6  7  8 9  10 11  12  15  34  xi  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE  PAGE  1.  The V e g e t a t i o n o f the Canadian P r a i r i e s .  2.  The P a l l i s e r T r i a n g l e .  12  3.  Temperature and P r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r Hanna and M e d i c i n e H a t , A l b e r t a , June 1973.  29  Simple R e g r e s s i o n G r a p h DDE as t h e Dependent V a r i a b l e and the R a t c l i f f e Index as t h e Independent V a r i a b l e .  35  Feeding Behaviour of Grassland B i r d s .  70  4.  5.  5  - -  xii  LIST OF PLATES PAGE  FRONTISPIECE:  Newly F l e d g e d R i c h a r d s o n ' s M e r l i n .  P l a t e 1.  M e r l i n Nest S i t e A l o n g t h e South S a s k a t chewan R i v e r .  3  M e r l i n N e s t S i t e i n an U p l a n d Aspen Grove.  3  M e r l i n N e s t S i t e i n an Abandoned Windbreak.  45  M e r l i n N e s t S i t e i n S p r i n g t i m e Showing Magpie N e s t s Used by M e r l i n s .  45  P l a t e 2. P l a t e 3. P l a t e 4. P l a t e 5.  P l a t e 6.  M e r l i n N e s t S i t e i n an Abandoned Windbreak Showing E f f e c t o f C a t t l e on Windbreaks. " H i g h l i n i n g " and Breakage by C a t t l e U s i n g an Abandoned Windbreak as S h e l t e r .  49  49  1  1.  INTRODUCTION R i c h a r d s o n ' s M e r l i n , a d i s t i n c t i v e r e s i d e n t o f the g r a s s l a n d s ,  meadows and aspen p a r k l a n d s o f the G r e a t P l a i n s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , c o n t i n u e s to e x i s t d e s p i t e agriculture.  the d e s t r u c t i o n o f most o f the o r i g i n a l p r a i r i e sod f o r  T h i s study o f what has happened and i s happening t o t h i s  b e a u t i f u l r a p t o r , an o r g a n i s m a t the apex o f a p r a i r i e t r o p h i c p y r a m i d , r e f l e c t s t h e e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f man's m o d i f i c a t i o n o f g r a s s l a n d  systems.  I n Western Canada, where the M e r l i n i s r e s i d e n t from A p r i l September,  the a g r i c u l t u r a l  system has a l m o s t overwhelmed  until  the n a t u r a l system,  but i t i s n o t too l a t e t o i d e n t i f y the prime f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g M e r l i n distribution  and abundance.  The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f these f a c t o r s , a purpose  o f t h e s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d h e r e , may be an a i d i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e ways i n which the p r a i r i e environment may accomodate  man as w e l l asccomponents  n a t u r a l p r a i r i e system, such as t h e M e r l i n .  o f the  2  2.  GENERAL BIOLOGY OF THE RICHARDSON'S MERLIN The  M e r l i n i s a member o f t h e Genus F a l c o and i s one o f s i x s p e c i e s  n a t i v e to North America, v i z .  t h e M e r l i n , Falco columbarius;  F a l c o s p a r v i u s ; Aplomado F a l c o n ,  Falco femoralis,; P r a i r i e Falcon,  mexicanus; P e r e g r i n e F a l c o n , F a l c o p e r e g r i n u s ; But  one  and G y r f a l c o n , F a l c o  f o r the k e s t r e l , the M e r l i n i s t h e s m a l l e s t .  range o f 185 g- t o 255 g.  American K e s t r e l , Falco rusticolus.  Female M e r l i n s weigh i n the  The males, as i n most o t h e r r a p t o r s p e c i e s , a r e about  t h i r d s m a l l e r than the females and weigh about150g t o 220 g (Amadon and  Brown, 1968).  The female M e r l i n i s thus about t h e s i z e o f a s m a l l p i g e o n .  Temple (1970) r e c o g n i z e s  three subspecies  of M e r l i n s i n North America, F a l c o  c o l u m b a r i u s c o l u m b a r i u s ( f o r m e r l y F.c_. c o l u m b a r i u s and F.c_. b e n d i r e i ) summering i n t h e t a i g a zone, F.£. s u c k l e y i o f t h e P a c i f i c n o r t h w e s t , and F.c_. r i c h a r d s o n i i n e s t i n g i n the p r a i r i e - p a r k l a n d , the b i r d of t h i s  study.  R i c h a r d s o n ' s M e r l i n s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y b i r d s o f open o t h e r M e r l i n s a r e found b r e e d i n g  country;  i n h e a v i l y f o r e s t e d areas b u t i n such areas  they hunt over n a t u r a l openings and r i v e r v a l l e y s .  M e r l i n s a r e e x t r e m e l y ener-  g e t i c , and c a p t u r e most p r e y on t h e wing i n t h e f a s t , long-winged p u r s u i t s characteristic of falcons.  T h e i r c h i e f prey are small b i r d s , b u t i n s e c t s , at  t i m e s , form a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f t h e i r  diet.  As i n the case w i t h o t h e r f a l c o n s , M e r l i n s do n o t b u i l d t h e i r own n e s t , but use n e s t s b u i l t by o t h e r r a p t o r s , crows, or magpies, o r s i m p l y n e s t on the ground i n an e l e v a t e d p o s i t i o n on a c l i f f o r h i l l t o p . n a l l y six,eggs egg  a r e l a i d , and i n c u b a t i o n , w h i c h b e g i n s some time a f t e r t h e f i r s t  i s l a i d , l a s t s about a month.  nest before  Four o r f i v e , o r o c c a s i o -  they b e g i n t o f l y .  The young M e r l i n s spend about a month i n t h e  3  P l a t e 1.  M e r l i n N e s t S i t e A l o n g the South Saskatchewan  P l a t e 2. M e r l i n N e s t S i t e i n an Upland Aspen  Grove  River  To f a c e page 5  4 3.  '  MAJOR PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF STUDY AREA  3.1  Physiography  THE  The G r e a t P l a i n s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d on the c o n t i n e n t , extend from the G u l f o f Mexico southward,  to the A r c t i c Ocean.  the p l a i n s a r e p r a i r i e .  From south c e n t r a l Canada  By d e f i n i t i o n , p r a i r i e s are s t r e t c h e s o f  medium t o t a l l g r a s s e s i n temperate c l i m a t e s w i t h an annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f between 20 and 40 i n c h e s p e r y e a r ; however the p o p u l a r c o n n o t a t i o n o f p r a i r i e s i s g r a s s l a n d and i n c l u d e s the s h o r t - g r a s s e d p l a i n s o r s t e p p e s , the t a l l p l a i n s and t h e s p a r s e l y t r e e d g r a s s i a n d - f o r e s t t r a n s i t i o n (savannah).  grassed I n the  Canadian p l a i n s p r o v i n c e s ( p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s ) t h i s " - p r a i r i e " extends r o u g h l y i n a t r i a n g l e bounded on the south by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary, on the west by the Rocky M o u n t a i n s ,  and on the n o r t h and e a s t by a l i n e drawn from n o r t h  of Edmonton, A l b e r t a to the Red R i v e r V a l l e y o f s o u t h e r n Manitoba  (Figure 1).  I t i n c l u d e s the s h o r t g r a s s and mixed g r a s s p r a i r i e s o f A l b e r t a and  Sask-  atchewan, the t a l l g r a s s p r a i r i e o f the Red R i v e r V a l l e y o f M a n i t o b a ,  and  the aspen p a r k l a n d . The l a n d s c a p e o f the Canadian p r a i r i e s i s n o t s i m p l y t h e f l a t  and  open p l a i n p i c t u r e d by those u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the r e g i o n , but i s a broken d i v e r s e c o m p o s i t i o n o f p l a i n s and h i l l s and i n c i s e d r i v e r v a l l e y s .  A basement  of Precambrian r o c k whose o r i g i n s date back a t l e a s t two b i l l i o n y e a r s l i e much o f the p r a i r i e from depths o f h a l f m i l e t o over two m i l e s . of  and  under-  Periods  i n u n d a t i o n by sea w a t e r s , s e d i m e n t a t i o n , r e t r e a t o f seas,and e r o s i o n by  warm water and i c e are p r e s e n t e d i n the h i s t o r y o f the p r a i r i e bedrock landscape.  and  The impact o f P l e i s t o c e n e i c e over the p a s t m i l l i o n y e a r s i s  r e c o r d e d i n n e a r l y a l l p a r t s o f t h i s study a r e a -- i n i n t e r u p t e d d r a i n a g e , till  sheets, l a c u s t r i n e s o i l s ,  s a n d h i l l s and o t h e r t e r r a i n f e a t u r e s .  The  F i g u r e 1.  The V e g e t a t i o n o f the Canadian P r a i r i e s ( a f t e r S m i t h , 1972)  6  l a s t retreat of ice began over 12,000 years ago; the varied s u r f i c i a l materials of the wake became the parent materials of the present p r a i r i e s o i l s . D i f f e r e n t i a l melting of the ice resulted i n the formation of today's small pothole lakes and sloughs; meltwater cut channels, many of which today, being largely devoid of water, are referred to as coulees.  A few upland areas,  such as the Cypress H i l l s and the Porcupine H i l l s , escaped the work of advancing and retreating i c e . The comparatively l e v e l macrotopography over which the present p r a i r i e vegetation and s o i l i s established  slopes from an elevation  of about 1200 metres i n the southwestern Alberta immediately east of the Rocky Mountains to below 220 metres i n northern Manitoba, where i t merges with the Precambrian  rocks of the Canadian Shield.  Numberous upland areas occur on the  plains r i s i n g 300 to 800 metres above the general surface of the p l a i n .  Ex-  amples are the Cypress H i l l s of Alberta and Saskatchewan and Riding Mountain in Manitoba.  Many p r o g l a c i a l lakes, now  largely drained, l e f t sediments which  are l e v e l and which are the parent materials of some of the best a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s of the p l a i n s .  Windsorting of s o i l s , occurring as deglaciation pro-  ceeded (and i s s t i l l occurring i n a minor way), has been responsible for extensive l o e s s i a l loams, blow-out lands, and sandhills. 3.2  Climate The northerly latitude and the mid-continent location of the p r a i r i e  provinces accounts for wide fluctuations i n temperature in p r e c i p i t a t i o n from year to year.  and the great variations  The Rocky Mountains to the west impede the  flow of mild, moist, P a c i f i c a i r and place this study area i n a r a i n shadow with limited t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n .  The Rockies however do not impede but i n a sense  contribute to the flow of cold a i r from the north, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n winter, and to the flow of warm a i r from the south i n summer.  The climate of the study  7 a r e a i s one o f extremes both i n time and l o c a t i o n w i t h p r e c i p i t a t i o n t h a t can range from 15.24 cm (6 i n ) i n a d r y y e a r t o 70.12 cm (28 i n ) i n a wet y e a r i n the same l o c a t i o n and temperatures which c a n range from a January low o f -45.5° C (-50°F) t o a 42.2°C (108°F) J u l y h i g h . Mean annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n (30 y r normals) over the g e n e r a l a r e a i n which the s t u d y a r e a i s l o c a t e d i s 30 cm (11.79 i n ) and i s 50 cm (19.65 i n ) f o r the w e t t e r s e c t i o n s -- the A l b e r t a F o o t h i l l s , t h e aspen p a r k l a n d , the Red R i v e r V a l l e y , and eminences above t h e p l a i n such as t h e Cypress H i l l s . of  The r e g i o n  l o w e s t p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s found i n t h e s o u t h - c e n t r a l i n t e r i o r o f the r e g i o n  on t h e boundary o f s o u t h - e a s t e r n A l b e r t a and south-western Mean temperatures  Saskatchewan.  f o r t h e p r a i r i e r e g i o n range between -10°C (14°F) and -2°C  (-1°F) i n January t o between 18°C (64.4°F) and 20°C (65.3°F) i n J u l y . A c o n c i s e account o f f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s on the Canadian p r a i r i e s i s g i v e n by Laycock 3.3  ( i n Smith,  1972).  Vegetation The o r i g i n a l g r a s s l a n d s o f t h e p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s i n c l u d e d t h e t a l l  g r a s s p r a i r i e s o f the Red R i v e r V a l l e y , t h e mixed g r a s s p r a i r i e s c o v e r i n g t h e major p o r t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n and e x t e n d i n g i n t o t h e aspen p a r k l a n d t o t h e n o r t h , and t h e s h o r t g r a s s p r a i r i e o f s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan. of  t h e t a l l g r a s s p r a i r i e v e g e t a t i o n remains  Today l i t t l e  and much o f t h e mixed g r a s s p r a i r i e  has d i s a p p e a r e d as w e l l f o r t h i s v e g e t a t i o n has gone under t h e plow p r o v i d i n g some o f the most p r o d u c t i v e c e r e a l l a n d s o f t h e w o r l d .  The areas o f mixed  g r a s s p r a i r i e and s h o r t g r a s s p r a i r i e , n o t s u i t a b l e f o r a r a b l e a g r i c u l t u r e , support a l a r g e c a t t l e i n d u s t r y . are g i v e n by Laycock  General d e s c r i p t i o n s of p r a i r i e v e g e t a t i o n  ( i n Smith, 1972) and by Webb, J o h n s t o n , and Soper ( i n  Hardy, 1967); a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n f o r A l b e r t a i s g i v e n by Moss (1955).  8 P r o b a b l y t h e most complete d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p r i s t i n e n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n o f the Canadian p r a i r i e s i s t h a t by Watts  (1960).  Today the l a n d s o f the P a l l i s t e r t r i a n g l e i n which the study i s undertaken  a r e , f o r the most p a r t , r a n g e l a n d s  i n the A l b e r t a p o r t i o n and  l a n d s c u l t i v a t e d f o r c e r e a l p r o d u c t i o n i n the Saskatchewan p o r t i o n .  The  non-  c u l t i v a t e d g r a s s l a n d s o f both o f these areas are a cover o f s p e c i e s maint a i n e d by low r a i n f a l l , i n k e e p i n g w i t h the average o f 14.64  i n (37.19  cm)  These  grass-  p r e c i p i t a t i o n per y e a r (based on a 1921-1927 average, Hanna).  l a n d s f a l l l a r g e l y i n t o the mixed p r a i r i e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Johnson e t a l (1970) and are dominated by s p e c i e s o f the spear g r a s s - w h e a t g r a s s Agropyron) a s s o c i a t i o n .  (Stipa-  On the A l b e r t a s i d e o f the study area some l a n d s a r e  e s t a b l i s h e d to the s h o r t g r a s s ( B o u t e l o u a - S t i p a ) a s s o c i a t i o n but  composition  i s dependent on the n a t u r e o f g r a z i n g p r e s s u r e ; s p e c i e s such as groundsage ( A r t e m e s i a f r i g i d a) and low sedge (Car ex e l e o . c h a r i s ) are more common on more h e a v i l y g r a z e d l a n d s .  E x t e n s i v e patches  the  o f w i l l o w ( S a l i x .§_£.), w o l f  w i l l o w (Eleagnus commutata), and snowberry (Symphoricarpos  occidentalis),  as w e l l as o t h e r shrubs o c c u r on these g r a s s l a n d s throughout  the a r e a .  o f the g r a s s l a n d s occur i n n a t u r a l groves o f p o p l a r (Populus  tremuloides)  and w i l l o w ( S a l i x sp.) around s l o u g h margins,  Trees  and as stands o f p o p l a r , w i l l o w ,  and M a n i t o b a maple (Acer negundo) which are the remnants o f windbreaks p l a n t e d about s e t t l e r s ' h o m e s i t e s a t some e a r l i e r  time.  Many o f the g r a s s l a n d areas o f t h i s r e g i o n were at one  time (see  under c u l t i v a t i o n , abandoned d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n o f the 1920's and and through a slow p r o c e s s o f n a t u r a l s u c c e s s i o n reached of " n a t u r a l " grassland. under, and reseeded  1930's,  t h e i r present state  Today much o f the g r a s s l a n d i s a g a i n b e i n g ploughed  to d o m e s t i c a t e d  3.5)  a l i e n s p e c i e s such as c r e s t e d wheatgrass  9 (Agropyron c r i s t a t u m ) i n an e f f o r t t o i n c r e a s e t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h e g r a s s l a n d f o r l i v e s t o c k husbandry. 3.4  Fauna H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h e N o r t h American b i s o n ( B i s o n b i s o n ) was t h e most  i m p o r t a n t l a r g e mammal i n t h e p r a i r i e ecosystem and i t ranged over o u r s t u d y area.  T h i s m a g n i f i c a n t animal s u f f e r e d a l o s s o f h a b i t a t through r a n c h i n g  and farm homesteading and was s l a u g h t e r e d u n c o n t r o l l a b l y u n t i l by 1888 exc e e d i n g l y few were l e f t , a d e c i m a t i o n unprecedented annals.  i nnatural history  Today, few b i s o n l i v e o u t s i d e E l k I s l a n d N a t i o n a l P a r k i n c e n t r a l  A l b e r t a and Wood B u f f a l o N a t i o n a l Park i n n o r t h e r n A l b e r t a .  These p a r k s  were s e t up, i n p a r t , as c o n s e r v a t i o n areas f o r these a n i m a l s .  To some degree  the n i c h e i n t h e p r a i r i e ecosystem once o c c u p i e d by t h e b i s o n , i s , i n our study a r e a , o c c u p i e d by domestic range c a t t l e . from t h e p r a i r i e as a source o f l i v e l i h o o d  When t h e b u f f a l o  disappeared  f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e and s e t t l e r s  a l i k e , t h e h u n t i n g p r e s s u r e t u r n e d on t h e pronghorn a n t e l o p e  (Antilocapra  americana) and t h e mule deer ( O d o c o i l e u s v i r g i n i a n u s ) ; these l i k e w i s e were c o n s i d e r a b l y reduced i n numbers by t h e t u r n o f t h i s c e n t u r y .  Today,  thanks  to c o n s e r v a t i o n measures and e n f o r c e d h u n t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s , pronghorn a n t e l o p e and mule deer, as w e l l as t h e w h i t e t a i l e d deer, o c c u r i n t h e g e n e r a l study a r e a and a r e now common on many p a r t s o f t h e p r a i r i e s . velox)  have d i s a p p e a r e d from t h e p r a i r i e s ,  and c o y o t e s ( C a n i s l a t r a n s )  (Vulpes  but r e d foxes (Vulpes f u l v a )  a r e common; wolves ( C a n i s l u p u s ) , a l t h o u g h no  l o n g e r r e s i d e n t , a r e seen o c c a s i o n a l l y forests i n winter.  K i t foxes  The p r a i r i e g r i z z l y  when they move s o u t h from t h e n o r t h e r n (Ursus a r c t o s h o r r i b i l i s ) i s today  found o n l y i n t h e Swan H i l l s n o r t h o f t h e aspen p a r k l a n d ; mountain l i o n s ( F e l i s c o n c o l o r ) a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y seen on t h e p r a i r i e s a d j a c e n t t o t h e F o o t h i l l s o f t h e Rocky Mountains.  S i m i l a r l y , moose ( A l c e s a l c e s ) n o r m a l l y  r e s i d e n t i n t h e mountains have been r e p o r t e d on t h e  10 grasslands  o f w e s t e r n A l b e r t a ; one such a n i m a l was seen by the a u t h o r i n the  study a r e a i n t h e summer o f 1971. S m a l l f u r - b e a r i n g animals such as beaver ( C a s t o r c a n a d e n s i s ) ,  muskrat  (Ondatra z i b e t h i c a ) , and mink ( M u s t e l a v i s o n ) a r e numerous i n many marsh areas of the p r a i r i e s and p r o v i d e  an i m p o r t a n t source o f revenue f o r many t r a p p e r s .  Other s m a l l mammals i n c l u d e j a c k r a b b i t s (Lepus s p . ) badgers ( T a x i d e a p o r c u p i n e s ( E r e t h i z o n dorsatum), g r o u n d s q u i r r e l s  taxus),  ( C i t e l l u s s p . ) , p o c k e t gophers  (Thomomys t a l p o i d e ' s ) , b a t s ( C h i r o p t e r a ) , and mice and moles ( M i c r o t i n a e ) . For complete l i s t s and n a t u r a l h i s t o r i e s o f p r a i r i e animals t h e r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o such works as those o f Soper S a l t and W i l k ,  (1964) f o r mammals, and  (1958) f o r b i r d s .  B i r d l i f e i s v a r i e d on t h e study a r e a , and on t h e p r a i r i e s from s p r i n g through f a l l . increase greatly,each  The numbers o f b i r d s a r e n o t many i n w i n t e r b u t  spring with migrants.  p r a i r i e s t h e b e s t known are the m u l t i t u d e s each s p r i n g and f a l l .  generally,  Of the many m i g r a n t s o f t h e  of waterfowl that cloud the skies  P r a i r i e r a p t o r s i n c l u d e many s p e c i e s  that breed  there,  as w e l l as many o t h e r s which w i n t e r t h e r e , o r pass "through" i n m i g r a t i o n . Among t h e more n o t a b l e  summer r e s i d e n t s a r e G o l d e n E a g l e s ( A q u i l a  F e r u g i n o u s Hawks (Buteo r e g a l i s ) , P r a i r i e F a l c o n s , Gallinaceous  chrysaetos),  and R i c h a r d s o n ' s M e r l i n s .  b i r d s i n c l u d e S h a r p t a i l e d Grouse (Ped ioectes, p h a s i a n e l l u s ) o f the r  p l a i n s , R u f f e d Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) o f r i v e r i n e t h i c k e t s , and the i n t r o d u c e d Pheasant (Phasianus c o l c h i c u s ) common i n and near c u l t i v a t e d 3.5  land.  Agriculture It  i s p o s s i b l e t o r e v i e w the impact o f w h i t e men on t h e study  and on t h e p r a i r i e s g e n e r a l l y , i n many c o n t e x t s .  area,  Inasmuch as a g r i c u l t u r a l  impact on M e r l i n h a b i t a t i s so apparent and f a r r e a c h i n g ,  and s i n c e the  11  r e c o r d e d h i s t o r y o f t h e study a r e a i s l a r g e l y a g r i c u l t u r a l , t h e account f o l l o w s emphasizes The  a g r i c u l t u r a l development as summarized by Gray (1967).  study a r e a near Hanna, i n s o u t h e a s t e r n A l b e r t a , and K i n d e r s l e y ,  i n southwestern  Saskatchewan, l i e i n what has been c a l l e d t h e P a l l i s e r  Triangle (Figure 2).  I t was named a f t e r t h e f i r s t e x p l o r a t i o n s . o f t h i s  by Capt. John P a l l i s e r i n the p e r i o d 1867-1870. concluded  which  area  I n h i s surveys, P a l l i s e r  t h a t these l a n d s were a n o r t h e r n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e G r e a t American  D e s e r t and would n e v e r s u p p o r t a v i a b l e a g r i c u l t u r e ; h i s f o r e c a s t , made w i t h o u t a surmise o f 20th c e n t u r y t e c h n o l o g y , was i n p a r t wrong.  Palliser's  j o u r n e y s were m a i n l y on t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e study a r e a ; h i s s u r v e y s made i n a s e r i e s o f d r y y e a r s , and a c c o r d i n g l y h i s judgement o f t h e q u a l i t y o f the l a n d t o produce c r o p s was based on a s u p e r f i c i a l a c q u a i n t a n c e .  While  P a l l i s e r ' s T r a i n g l e d i d i n c l u d e m i l l i o n s o f a c r e s o f l a n d which s h o u l d n o t have been broken b y t h e plow, i t i n c l u d e d m i l l i o n s o f a c r e s s u i t a b l e f o r d r y land cereal production. was  P a l l i s e r ' s judgement o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l  on t h e whole c o r r e c t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s t a t e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l  technology  o f t h e day, f o r c e r e a l v a r i e t i e s and d r y l a n d f a r m i n g t e c h n i q u e s , f o r a n o r t h e r n p r a i r i e a g r i c u l t u r e , had n o t e v o l v e d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a .  I t was t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n  o f summer f a l l o w i n g by t h e F e d e r a l I n d i a n Head A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i o n , Saskatchewan, i n 1885, however, t h a t t u r n e d t h e P a l l i s e r T r i a n g l e i n t o a productive  breadbasket. I n t h e system o f summer f a l l o w i n g , c r o p s a r e grown e v e r y second o r  t h i r d y e a r ; between t h e crop y e a r s t h e l a n d i s ploughed  and c u l t i v a t e d t o  p r e v e n t weed growth and t o produce a summer d u s t mulch, measures which s o i l moisture.  The m o i s t u r e t h a t accumulates  used d u r i n g t h e e n s u i n g c r o p y e a r .  conserve  d u r i n g t h e f a l l o w y e a r s can be  Summer f a l l o w i n g made t h e growing o f  12  F i g u r e 2.  The P a l l i s e r T r i a n g l e -- denoted by c o a r s e vertical lines. ( a f t e r Dawson and Younge,  1940)  13 s a t i s f a c t o r y c r o p s p o s s i b l e where w i t h o u t i t none would be p o s s i b l e .  However,  i n a s u c c e s s i o n o f e x t r e m e l y d r y y e a r s , i n the s t u d y a r e a , even summer f a l l o w i n g can not conserve  enough m o i s t u r e to produce a c r o p , and the f i n e l y t i l l e d mulch  becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y s u b j e c t to wind e r o s i o n . and 1930's, i t was  I n the droughts  o f the 1920's  the bone-dry l a n d i n the summer f a l l o w which blew away.  P r i o r to the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y t h e r e was  a growing  fear that;the  P a l l i s e r T r i a n g l e a r e a would be t a k e n i n t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a .  As  the r u s h o f American homesteaders i n t o the American west c l o s e d o l d b u f f a l o p a s t u r e s to the c a t t l e m e n , American r a n c h e r s were f o r c e d westward and n o r t h ward.  The wide open and u n s e t t l e d spaces o f the P a l l i s e r T r i a n g l e , on  s i d e s o f the b o r d e r , l o o k e d - i n v i t i n g t o the d i s p l a c e d beef p r o d u c e r s .  both As  the  American r a n c h i n g i n d u s t r y d r i f t e d n o r t h o f the b o r d e r , an a g g r e s s i v e Canadian s e t t l e m e n t ^ p o l i c y developed by S i r C l i f f o r d S i f t o n , then the M i n i s t e r o f the I n t e r i o r o f the Canadian government, urged t h a t l a n d s o f the P a l l i s e r T r i a n g l e be farmed by Canadians and non-Americans.  Between 1896  and 1914  Government gave away m i l l i o n s o f a c r e s o f homestead l a n d s and  the Dominion  the r a i l w a y s and  l a n d companies s o l d m i l l i o n s more. Immediately d r i v e was  upon the d e c l a r a t i o n o f war on August 14, 1914,  launched by the Dominion Government to b r i n g more l a n d under c u l t i -  v a t i o n ; over 4,800,000 a d d i t i o n a l p r a i r i e a c r e s were brought i n t o i n 1915.  a great  cultivation  The p r e s s u r e f o r more g r a i n p r o d u c t i o n k e p t up f o r the n e x t f o u r  y e a r s and 12,000,000 c u l t i v a t e d a c r e s were added to the c u l t i v a t e d t o t a l  on  the p r a i r i e s ; o f t h i s more than 5,500,000 a c r e s were broken i n the P a l l i s e r Triangle. The  season o f 1915 was n o t a b l e f o r the h i g h per a c r e g r a i n y i e l d s  and the f a b u l o u s c r o p s d i d much t o s t i m u l a t e s e t t l e m e n t ; y i e l d s .of 30 to 40  14 b u s h e l s o f wheat to the acre were common i n the P a l l i s e r T r i a n g l e and average y i e l d o f 25 b u s h e l s was b i g crop o f 1915  the  d e s t i n e d t o be a r e c o r d f o r 40 y e a r s .  The  s p e l l e d t r a g e d y f o r the s h o r t g r a s s p r a i r i e s o f the P a l l i s e r  T r i a n g l e though, because i t r e s u l t e d i n the b r e a k i n g o f thousands o f a c r e s o f submarginal  land.  i n 1917,  1919  1918,  Crop f a i l u r e f o l l o w e d c r o p f a i l u r e on m a r g i n a l l a n d s and  1920.  I n s o u t h e a s t e r n A l b e r t a movement o f s e t t l e r s out o f the c o u n t r y b o r d e r i n g Saskatchewan became almost a stampede between 1921 1926  and 1926.  The  census r e c o r d e d more than 10,,000 abandoned farms, h a l f o f them were  n o r t h o f M e d i c i n e Hat and i n ,the a r e a o f t h i s s t u d y .  The  Agricultural  E x t e n s i o n Department i n A l b e r t a r e v e r s e d i t s p r e v i o u s p o l i c y o f emphasis on g r a i n and l i t t l e emphasis on l i v e s t o c k to one o f l i v e s t o c k f i r s t and second  and began an a c t i v e program o f d e - p o p u l a t i o n i n 1926.  to emigrate from the s t r i c k e n l a n d were g i v e n f r e e passage,  grain  Families desiring and t r a i n l o a d  a f t e r t r a i n l o a d o f d e s t i t u t e farmers were t r a n s p o r t e d to the n o r t h and t o the west.  G r a d u a l l y a l a r g e p a r t o f e a s t e r n A l b e r t a was  taken out o f g r a i n  growing and r e t u r n e d t o g r a s s l a n d s by l a r g e l y " a u t o g e n i c " p r o c e s s e s . a S p e c i a l Areas Board was  In  1927  s e t up i n A l b e r t a to manage those lands i n the s o u t h -  e a s t where much l a n d had been d e s e r t e d and r e v e r t e d t o t h e crown.  The p a t t e r n s  o f s e t t l e m e n t and l a n d abandonment are r e f l e c t e d i n the changes i n human popu l a t i o n s , i n the F e d e r a l census, 1906-1971, f o r my  study area (Table 1 ) .  I n the K i n d e r s l e y , Saskatchewan, a r e a the brown s o i l s a r e , o f a l l the s o i l s o f t h e P a l l i s e r T r i a n g l e , most s u i t e d t o t h e growing o f g r a i n ; i n add i t i o n , d e - p o p u l a t i o n was not encouraged i n t h i s a r e a by the Saskatchewan government.  Consequently,  many people remained on the l a n d on the Saskatchewan  side o f the border and the s t r u g g l e t o produce c r o p s c o n t i n u e d i n t o the d r e a d f u l  TABLE 1.  CHANGES IN THE HUMAN POPULATION OF THE CENSUS DIVISIONS OF THE STUDY AREA  Haima, A l t a . D i v i s i o n  1906  1911  1921  1931  1941  1951  1961  1971  479  16,984  30,678  25,261  15,920  13,182  15,020  12,991  1,111  12,480  35,483  42,632  36,346  30,721  32,994  30,947  K i n d e r s l e y , Sask. Division  (From:  Canada Census)  !6 y e a r s o f the 1930's. The d e p r e s s i o n o f the 1930's brought an  economic d i s a s t e r o f e q u a l  magnitude t o the c o n t i n u i n g p h y s i c a l d i s a s t e r o f drought. c o l l a p s e o f farm p r i c e s between 1930  The  calamatous  and 1933 reduced farm p u r c h a s i n g power to  near z e r o , and the p r i c e s f o r c r o p s that.were produced b a r e l y p a i d f o r t h e i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; t o market.  On top o f weather-  and economic a d v e r s i t i e s , t h e r e  were plagues o f i n s e c t s ( g r a s s h o p p e r , s a w f l y e t c . ) and b l i g h t s o f p l a n t d i s e a s e (wheat r u s t , c e r e a l smuts e t c . ) to f a c e . c l o u d s i n 1933  a good c r o p was  A go,od c r o p was  U n t i l the grasshoppers descended i n  i n the making i n p a r t s o f the P a l l i s e r T r i a n g l e .  i n p r o s p e c t too i n 1935 u n t i l the r u s t a t t a c k e d . . .  By the l a t e 1930's a glimmer o f hope appeared w i t h the r e t u r n o f the r a i n s and the b e t t e r i n g o f the w o r l d economy; g r a d u a l l y the b a t t l e a g a i n s t d r i f t i n g t o p s o i l was won w i t h new the  farming t e c h n i q u e s and e x t e n s i v e r e s e e d i n g ;  f i g h t a g a i n s t i n s e c t s g a i n e d the upper hand thanks t o new  c o n t r o l programs, and the problem o f wheat r u s t was -  development o f r u s t r e s i s t a n t s t r a i n s o f wheat. had been won"  l a r g e l y overcome by the  By the 1940's the " b a t t l e  and the p a r t o f Saskatchewan i n our study a r e a was  an a g r i c u l t u r a l economy based,again cereals.  and i n n o v a t i v e  r e t u r n i n g to  l a r g e l y on the growing o f wheat and o t h e r  17 4. 4.1  METHODS M e r l i n S u r v e y s , 1971-74 F o l l o w i n g t h e 1968 o b s e r v a t i o n o f a p a i r o f M e r l i n s n e s t i n g i n t h e  r a n c h i n g c o u n t r y o f s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a near Hanna, a r e c o n n a i s s a n c e s u r v e y f o r n e s t i n g M e r l i n s wa« undertaken  i n 1969 by the Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e ; i n  t h i s survey 14 p a i r s were found n e s t i n g . l o c a t e d 23 p a i r s n e s t i n g . i n A l b e r t a a l s o was  The  I n 1970  a more i n t e n s i v e survey  a r e a a l o n g the South Saskatchewan R i v e r system  surveyed i n t h i s same season and 30 p a i r s were found.  'Following the l o c a t i o n o f these two s i z e a b l e p o p u l a t i o n s a study by W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e o f the "dynamics" 1971 t h i s study was begun. the study was  Canadian  o f R i c h a r d s o n ' s M e r l i n was proposed; i n  D u r i n g the a u t h o r ' s absence i n A f r i c a i n  undertaken by Mrs. Lynne Kemper under c o n t r a c t t o the  1972 Canadian  Wildlife Service. The d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s r e p o r t i s based on M e r l i n surveys by v e h i c l e and by r i v e r boat u n d e r t a k e n i n 1971, 1972,  1973 and 1974.  The  data  are d e r i v e d m a i n l y from two areas i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a v i z . a p o r t i o n o f the r a n c h i n g c o u n t r y about Hanna, A l b e r t a and the a r e a a l o n g the South R i v e r as i t f l o w s through A l b e r t a . the Bow R i v e r upstream f l u e n c e o f the Bow River.  Saskatchewan  R i v e r survey i n c l u d e d a s h o r t s t r e t c h of  from i t s c o n f l u e n c e w i t h the Oldman R i v e r ; the con-  and Oldman marks the b e g i n n i n g o f the South Saskatchewan  I n each y e a r these areas were surveyed t h o r o u g h l y , a l l o c c u p i e d  sites  were mapped, and a l l a c t i v e n e s t s were " c l i m b e d " to determine r e p r o d u c t i v e s u c c e s s and t o g a t h e r o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . Banding o f young M e r l i n s and t r a p p i n g and banding o f a d u l t M e r l i n s at n e s t s i t e s p r o v i d e d some l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n on f i d e l i t y o f p a i r s and r e use o f n e s t i n g s i t e s by M e r l i n s from y e a r to y e a r .  18 A l t h o u g h M e r l i n s now do n o t i n h a b i t t h e K i n d e r s l e y a r e a o f Saskatchewan, a l l s i t e s i n t h e K i n d e r s l e y a r e a o f Saskatchewan, where M e r l i n s had been n e s t i n g i n t h e 1960's and 1970's,were No n e s t i n g M e r l i n s were found.  checked i n 1972 and 1974.  A p a i r was found i n 1972 near t h e A l b e r t a  b o r d e r which began two c l u t c h e s b u t which h a t c h e d no eggs, and another p a i r was found n e s t i n g i n Saskatchewan n e a r t h e South Saskatchewan R i v e r .  Fox  (1971) r e p o r t e d t h a t f o r t h e K i n d e r s l e y a r e a t h e l a s t r e p o r t e d n e s t i n g was i n 1962 and M e r l i n s have n o t been found s i n c e then by R. F y f e ( p e r s o n a l communication) i n p e r i o d i c c h e c k s . Throughout t h e M e r l i n s u r v e y s r e c o r d s were k e p t o f f e a t u r e s o f each n e s t i n g s i t e which were deemed t o a f f e c t n e s t i n g M e r l i n .  The type o f  r e c o r d i n g i s g i v e n i n Appendix 9.2. From an a n a l y s i s o f these d a t a , a t l e a s t some o f t h e h a b i t a t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f M e r l i n s may be p e r c e i v e d and comparisons of s i t e s i n use w i t h s i t e s no l o n g e r i n use can be made.  During these surveys  p r e y remains were c o l l e c t e d from M e r l i n n e s t s and a s s o c i a t e d p l u c k i n g perches for later i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . the 4.2  A collection  o f b i r d s k i n s o f p r e y s p e c i e s made on  study a r e a a i d e d i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p r e y remains. Land Use C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Land use p a t t e r n s s i n c e 1945-1950 were d e t e r m i n e d through i n t e r -  p r e t a t i o n o f a e r i a l photographs.  Three s e r i e s o f photographs were used both  f o r A l b e r t a and f o r Saskatchewan.  F o r A l b e r t a , photographs used were a f i r s t  set made between 1949 and 1952, a second s e t made between 1962 and 1965, and a t h i r d s e t made i n 1971.  The c o r r e s p o n d i n g s e r i e s o f photographs from Sask-  atchewan were a f i r s t s e t made i n 1946, a second s e t made between 1956 and 1961, and a t h i r d s e t made i n 1971.  F o r t y M e r l i n s i t e s o c c u p i e d n e a r Hanna, i.  A l b e r t a d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y p e r i o d and 15 s i t e s o f M e r l i n s known from the a r e a o f  19 K i n d e r s l e y , Saskatchewan were s t u d i e d i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p e r i o d s o f photo availability.  T h i r t y - n i n e s i t e s along t h e South Saskatchewan R i v e r were  a l s o s t u d i e d i n a set o f photographs from 1971. The  a r e a w i t h i n a one m i l e r a d i u s around each M e r l i n s i t e was  mapped i n t o areas o f r a n g e l a n d of rangeland  and c u l t i v a t e d l a n d .  A further c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  was n o t p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e s c a l e o f photography a v a i l a b l e . .From  photo i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a p i c t u r e o f l a n d use change, o v e r a p e r i o d o f about 25 y e a r s , was o b t a i n e d  and a comparison between l a n d use changes a t M e r l i n s i t e s  i n use i n A l b e r t a and l a n d use changes a t M e r l i n s i t e s no l o n g e r i n use i n Saskatchewan was p o s s i b l e . An o v e r v i e w o f l a n d use changes i n both A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan can be d e r i v e d from s t a t i s t i c s i n Canada Year Books, based on t h e t e n y e a r census.  S t a t i s t i c s on l a n d use f o r Census D i v i s i o n s i n which study  i n each p r o v i n c e Present  f e l l were o r g a n i z e d  f o r comparative s c r u t i n y .  l a n d use p a t t e r n s were determined by t h e simple mapping  about M e r l i n s i t e s i n use i n t h e Hanna a r e a . observations  From a p r i o r i M e r l i n b e h a v i o u r  i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t M e r l i n were h u n t i n g  up t o one m i l e away  from t h e i r n e s t i n g s i t e s , and f o r t h i s r e a s o n an a r e a o f one m i l e about n e s t s i t e s was mapped.  radius  A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o l l e c t i o n o f common and  dominant p l a n t s p e c i e s was made a t M e r l i n s i t e s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . a d e t a i l e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f rangeland  i n t o the mixed p r a i r i e c a t e g o r y  d i f f e r e n c e s observed i n t h e r a n g e l a n d The  When  i n t h e Hanna a r e a o f A l b e r t a was  c o n t e m p l a t e d i t was q u i c k l y e v i d e n t t h a t t h e r a n g e l a n d Alberta f e l l  areas  i n t h e Hanna a r e a o f  (Johnson e t a l . 1970), w i t h  due t o d i f f e r e n t i a l g r a z i n g by l i v e s t o c k .  South Saskatchewan R i v e r area study was d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f  20  Hanna i n t h a t v e r y l i t t l e  l a n d was  under c u l t i v a t i o n .  T h i s a r e a too  falls  i n t o the mixed p r a i r i e and s h o r t g r a s s p r a i r i e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f r a n g e l a n d and i s v e r y l a r g e l y s u b j e c t e d t o l i v e s t o c k g r a z i n g ; however, the s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h i s a r e a d i f f e r e d somewhat from t h a t o f Hanna as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o l l e c t i o n o f common and dominant p l a n t s p e c i e s made a l o n g South Saskatchewan R i v e r w i l l show.  The  the  S u f f i e l d M i l i t a r y Reserve along  the South Saskatchewan R i v e r , except f o r some c o n c e s s i o n s , has n o t e x p e r i enced l i v e s t o c k g r a z i n g f o r many y e a r s . 4.3  The Impact o f P e s t i c i d e s Work c a r r i e d out s i n c e 1969  f o r the Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e has  taken a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the e f f e c t s o f p e s t i c i d e s on M e r l i n s .  As a f o r e -  mentioned, M e r l i n s , l i k e o t h e r r a p t o r s are a t the " t o p " o f the t r o p h i c pyramid  and t e n d t h e r e f o r e t o consume t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f c e r t a i n c h l o r i n a t e d  hydrocarbons,  which degrade v e r y l i t t l e  i n the t r o p h i c c h a i n .  A sample o f i  eggs was  c o l l e c t e d each year and a n a l y s i s o f r e s i d u e o f DDE,  h e p t a c h l o r e p o x i d e , and mercury i n them was made. m e t a b o l i t e o f DDT  DDE  dieldrin,  i s a breakdown  which o c c u r s very, s h o r t l y a f t e r i t s e n t r y i n t o b i o l o g i c a l  t i s s u e . An e g g s h e l l i n d e x , termed the R a t c l i f f e I n d e x ( R a t c l i f f e , 1967) determined  f o r each egg.  The o u t e r dimensions  and then the c o n t e n t s were sent t o L.M. Foundation  Reynolds o f the O n t a r i o  Research This  done f o r the Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e as a p a r t o f the C.W.S.  p e s t i c i d e r e s i d u e m o n i t o r i n g program. procedure  o f eggs c o l l e c t e d were measure  t o be a n a l y z e d f o r p e s t i c i d e r e s i d u e s by gas chromatography.  a n a l y s i s was  was  r e f e r to F y f e , e_t _ a l . ,  For a complete d e s c r i p t i o n o f a n a l y s i s  1969.  E g g s h e l l s from samples c o l l e c t e d had membranes removed, were washed and were then a l l o w e d t o d r y a t room temperature.  Once d r y , the s h e l l s were  weighed t o 0.01 g. From e g g s h e l l measurements and w e i g h t s ,  the R a t c l i f f e  Index was d e t e r m i n e d f o r a c o m p a r a t i v e measure o f e g g s h e l l d e n s i t y .  This  i n d e x , d e f i n e d by the f o r m u l a Rl =  w e i g h t (mg) l e n g t h X w i d t h (mm)  has been used w i d e l y i n r e c e n t c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s o f e g g s h e l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n r a p t o r s , (Cooke (1973),  review).  P e s t i c i d e and r e s i d u e d a t a were o b t a i n e d ( u n p u b l i s h e d C.W.S. r e s i d u e d a t a ) .  f o r the y e a r s  1968-1973  U s i n g r e s i d u e l e v e l s and e g g s h e l l i n d i c e s ,  s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s were r u n t o t e s t the c o r r e l a t i o n between i n c r e a s i n g p e s t i c i d e r e s i d u e l e v e l s and d e c r e a s i n g e g g s h e l l d e n s i t y o r t h i c k n e s s . I n o r d e r t o t e s t the a s s o c i a t i o n between p e s t i c i d e r e s i d u e l e v e l s and egg h a t c h a b i l i t y , r e s i d u e l e v e l s i n eggs c o l l e c t e d from n e s t s i n which young had subs e q u e n t l y h a t c h e d were compared w i t h l e v e l s i n eggs from n e s t s which f a i l e d to h a t c h young. e  A l s o , eggs c o l l e c t e d a t random were compared w i t h "dead  § g s " (eggs which f a i l e d t o h a t c h ) .  As a p a r t o f the C.W.S. r e s i d u e  monitoring  program, average r e s i d u e l e v e l s f o r each year i n which eggs were c o l l e c t e d gave: an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e changes i n l e v e l o f p e s t i c i d e c o n t a m i n a t i o n  i n the p r a i r i e  environment (Appendix 1 ) . The e f f e c t s o f the use o f h e r b i c i d e s was n o t c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s  study  H e r b i c i d e s have n o t been w i d e l y used i n t h e p r a i r i e environment, a l t h o u g h as more areas o f g r a s s l a n d a r e p u t i n t o c e r e a l p r o d u c t i o n t h e use o f h e r b i c i d e s w i l l increase.  Use o f 2-4-D and r e l a t e d c h e m i c a l s  reducing seed-bearing  "weed" s p e c i e s t h a t support  may have an e f f e c t o f some g r a s s l a n d b i r d s .  22  5.  OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS  5.1  P o p u l a t i o n Dynamics o f R i c h a r d s o n ' s M e r l i n  5 . 1 . 1  Merlin populations  i n Southern A l b e r t a ,  1971-1974;  Some a s p e c t s .  I n the s u r v e y s undertaken i n t h e 1 9 7 1 , 1 9 7 2 , 1 9 7 3 and 1 9 7 4 seasons (see 4 . 1 ) i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d on the use o f n e s t i n g s i t e s .  Occupancy  of a M e r l i n s i t e was determined by the p r e s e n c e o f a d u l t s and t h e i r v o c a l and aggressive behaviour.  I n many cases the occupancy o f a s i t e was e v i d e n t  to egg l a y i n g b u t t h e b a s i c t e s t f o r s i t e use was the l a y i n g o f eggs. 2,  a r e s u l t of four years observations,  occupied  were used f o r egg l a y i n g and  i t i s recorded  54.97o  that  70.97.  prior  In Table  of sites  s i t e s used saw young r e a r e d t o  f l e d g i n g age. All  immature M e r l i n s ' s t u d i e d s i n c e work began i n 1 9 6 8 were banded i f  and where p o s s i b l e ; by 1 9 7 4 over 5 0 0 had been banded.  I n a d d i t i o n , from 1 9 7 0 -  1 9 7 4 1 5 9 a d u l t M e r l i n s , a l l t h a t c o u l d be t r a p p e d , were banded; o f t h e s e , 2 5 a d u l t s c a r r y i n g bands have been r e t r a p p e d recaptures  a t a c t i v e M e r l i n s i t e s and from these  some comments can be made. From the n e s t i n g and banding o b s e r v a t i o n s  i t seems h i g h l y p r o b a b l e  t h a t p a i r s p a r t each y e a r and o n l y by chance mate a g a i n i n e n s u i n g y e a r s . I t i s a l s o h i g h l y p r o b a b l e t h a t males r e t u r n t o the same s i t e i n s u c c e s s i v e w h i l e females do n o t .  years  Of 1 2 a d u l t male t r a p - r e c a p t u r e s , 9 were on the same  s i t e , 2 were l e s s than 2% m i l e s away from t h e i r e a r l i e r o c c u p a n c i e s and one was 8 m i l e s away.  The one. c a p t u r e o f a male, banded as a n e s t l i n g , was a l s o  at a l o c a t i o n 8 m i l e s away from where i t was banded. a d u l t female t r a p - r r e c a p t u r e s , o n l y 2 were c a p t u r e d 3 were c a p t u r e d  By comparison, o f 1 0  on the same s i t e ,  over 1 0 m i l e s away, 3 were c a p t u r e d  another  between 1 0 and 2 0 m i l e s  away, and 2 were c a p t u r e d more t h a n 7 5 m i l e s away from the handing s i t e .  23 TABLE 2.  Year  OCCUPANCY AND USE OF NEST SITES BY RICHARDSON * S MERLIN 1971-1974  Area •  -  # S i t e si Occupied  d  Active Sites  N e s t i n g SuccessActive Sites % Hatching % Fledging  F l e d g i n g Success % of % of Successful Occupied Sites Sites  1971  Hanna  33  69.7(23)  78.3(18)  73.9(17)  94.4(17)  54.5(18)  1972  Hanna  38  78.9(30)  53.3(16)  50.0(15)  93.8(15)  42.1(16)  1973  Hanna  31  60.6(25)  48.0(12)  44.0(11)  91.6(11)  41.9(13)  1974  Hanna  34  79.4(27)  81.4(22)  77.7(22)  94.4(21)  61.7(21)  Mean  Hanna  77.2  65.3  61.4  93.3  50.1  1971  SSR*  34  67.6(23)  69.5(16)  47.8(11)  68.8(11)  32.3(11)  1972  SSR*  37  56.6(21)  47.6(10)  42.9( 9)  80.8( 8)  24.3( 9)  1973  SSR*  35  62.9(22)  59.1(13)  45.6(10)  76.9(10)  28.6(10)  1974  SSR*  49  71.4(35)  68.5(24)  57.1(20)  83.3(20)  40.8(20)  Mean  SSR*  64.6  61.2  48.3 .  77 A  31.5  70.9  63.3  54.9  85.3  40.8  Mean Hanna & SSR*  * South Saskatchewan R i v e r a S i t e s w i t h p a i r s p r e s e n t p r i o r t o egg l a y i n g b S i t e s w i t h p a i r s p r o d u c i n g eggs c S i t e s w i t h p a i r s h a t c h i n g o u t young.  24 Two  female M e r l i n s banded as n e s t l i n g s were r e t r a p p e d as n e s t i n g a d u l t s ,  14 m i l e s away and the o t h e r 96 m i l e s away from the banding  one  sites.  There were a t o t a l o f 22 m e r l i n s t r a p p e d as a d u l t s t h a t were r e t r a p p e d a t a l a t e r d a t e , o f t h e s e , 16 were r e c a p t u r e d the year a f t e r  banding,  4 were r e c a p t u r e d the second y e a r a f t e r banding, and 5 were r e c a p t u r e d the t h i r d year a f t e r  banding.  Of the t h r e e b i r d s banded as n e s t l i n g s and c a p t u r e d as b r e e d i n g a d u l t s , one was c a p t u r e d t h e y e a r f o l l o w i n g b a n d i n g , one was  c a p t u r e d as a  b r e e d i n g female a t two y e a r s o f age; and the t h i r d , a male, was a breeding b i r d at three years of  c a p t u r e d as  age.  The n e s t i n g d a t a f o r the Hanna a r e a and the South Saskatchewan R i v e r a r e a are g i v e n s e p a r a t e l y i n T a b l e 2 s i n c e the n e s t i n g s i t e s grouped w e l l i n t o two.  fairly  However, movement o f b i r d s from a r e a to a r e a does e x i s t as  i n d i c a t e d by the r e c a p t u r e o f two b r e e d i n g females.  One b i r d was  a b r e e d i n g b i r d a l o n g the South Saskatchewan R i v e r and was l a t e r near Hanna.  The  t r a p p e d as  r e t r a p p e d one  second b i r d was banded as a n e s t l i n g on the  South  Saskatchewan R i v e r and r e t r a p p e d the f o l l o w i n g year as a b r e e d i n g b i r d Hanna.  T h i s l a s t b i r d i s n o t a b l e i n t h a t i t was  year  near  e v i d e n t l y b r e e d i n g at one  y e a r o f age w h i l e most r a p t o r s , i t i s b e l i e v e d , come o f b r e e d i n g age i n t h e i r second o r t h i r d y e a r s .  I t may  t r a p p e d as a b r e e d i n g b i r d was as judged by i t s plumage.  be o f i n t e r e s t to mention t h a t one male a l s o e v i d e n t l y b r e e d i n g a t one y e a r o f  age,  The words " e v i d e n t l y b r e e d i n g " are used s i n c e  t h e r e has been some s u g g e s t i n g t h a t . t h e s e b i r d s may  o n l y be  replacements  f o r the b i r d o r i g i n a l l y n e s t i n g at t h a t s i t e a f t e r some m i s f o r t u n e has.  25 b e f a l l e n a member o f a p a i r . through 5.1.2  T h i s v i e w however has n o t be s u b s t a n t i a t e d  any o b s e r v a t i o n . Merlin Productivity T a b l e 3 c o n t a i n s " r e p r o d u c t i v e " d a t a by y e a r and by r e g i o n .  In  c o m p i l i n g t h i s t a b l e , two assumptions were made: 1) n e s t s i n which 5 eggs hatched  o r 5 young f l e d g e d had c l u t c h e s o f 5 eggs, except  i n cases where 6  eggs were a c t u a l l y seen, and 2) b i r d s r e a c h i n g banding age were c o n s i d e r e d t o have reached  f l e d g i n g age, u n l e s s i t was noted o t h e r w i s e .  P r o d u c t i v i t y was  4.58 eggs p e r n e s t w i t h eggs and 3.23 young f l e d g e d p e r n e s t w i t h young f l e d g i n g (averages  over t h e f o u r y e a r s ) ,  Fox (1971) d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f  the K i n d e r s l e y m e r l i n d e c l i n e g i v e s a comparable f i g u r e o f 2.7 young p e r n e s t (Table 4) f o r p r a i r i e n e s t i n g m e r l i n s .  Net p r o d u c t i v i t y i s t h e number  I. o f young produced p e r t o t a l n e s t s i t e s o c c u p i e d , whether i n f a c t each n e s t s i t e produces young o r n o t .  T h i s would be a s e n s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r o f t h e s t a t e  o f h e a l t h o f the p o p u l a t i o n , b u t has n o t been used because most s t u d i e s o f r a p t o r s have n o t f o l l o w e d through on t h e n e s t i n g c y c l e from i t s b e g i n n i n g , and o n l y g i v e s f i g u r e s f o r t h e number o f s i t e s s u c c e s s f u l i n ^ p r o d u c i n g eggs o r young.  I n t h i s s t u d y , a n e t p r o d u c t i o n o f 0.69 f l e d g i n g young p e r n e s t  s i t e o c c u p i e d was 5.2 5.2.1  determined.  Factors Affecting M e r l i n Populations Weather The l o w e s t p r o d u c t i v i t y i n t h e f o u r y e a r s o f t h i s study  (Table 3) i n 1973 i n t h e Hanna a r e a .  occurred  T h i s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o a storm  o c c u r r i n g between June 13 and June 15. D u r i n g t h e two weeks p r i o r t o t h i s storm a l l n e s t s i n t h e Hanna a r e a had been checked f o r h a t c h i n g , as many  PRODUCTIVITY OF RICHARDSON'S MERLIN, 1971-1974  TABLE 3  7 Net Productivity  Year  Region  1 Eggs per Nest  2 Hatch per Nest  3 4 Fledglings Eggs per for Nest Analysis  1971  Hanna  4.85(19)  3.77(17)  3.58(17)  15  67.7  95.1  0.89  SSR*  5.1K  3.89(  9)  3.57( 7)  7  72.5  81.0  0.77  Hanna  4.24(29)  2.88(17)  2.94(16)  26  SSR*  4.81(16)  2.68( 6)  3.22( 9)  13  Hanna  4.00(18)  3.08(12)  2.73(11)  9  26.8  73.0  0.61 0.90  1972  1973  9)  Hatching Success 7o  Fledging SuccessT.  as  SSR*  4.30(10)  4.68( 6)  3.56( 9)  4  73.7  86.4  Hanna  4.76(25)  3.52(21)  3.30(20)  10  62.2  89.2  0.80  SSR* Mean 1971-1974  4.57(30)  3.64(19)  2.90(19)  14  44.1  81.4  0.63  4.58(156)  3.51(107)  3.23(108)  98  57.8  84.4  0.69  1974  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. * **  o f n e s t s w i t h eggs of nests with hatching of nests with f l e d g i n g removed p r i o r t o h a t c h i n g , i . e . a p p a r e n t l y v i a b l e o f eggs l a i d o f young h a t c h e d # f l e d g l i n g s / n e s t s i t e occupied South Saskatchewan R i v e r No comparable d a t a .  27 TABLE 4.  REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF PIGEON HAWKS  Eggs Per Nest  Young Per Nest  Hatching Success %  Hatching Failure %  4.3(3)  92  0(3)  3  Great P l a i n s  pre-1950  4.7(10)  Forested  1950-1969  4.1(9)  4.0(16)  98  13(16)  Prairie  1950-1969  4.5(10)  2.7(17)  49  41(17)  c  11  a. young o f any age; thus t h e minimum # eggs h a t c h e d b. p e r c e n t o f n e s t s w i t h advanced young w h i c h c o n t a i n e d one o r more unhatched eggs c. sample s i z e  (adopted f r o m Fox, 1971)  28 n e s t s were j u s t a t the h a t c h i n g s t a g e . the p e r i o d the winds gusted  The storm l a s t e d f o r two days, d u r i n g  t o more than 50 mph, over 4 i n c h e s o f r a i n f e l l i n  the study r e g i o n , w i t h some nearby areas r e p o r t i n g up t o 8 i n c h e s , and t h e d a i l y maximum temperature f e l l  t o 52° ( F i g u r e 3 ) , t h e l o w e s t o f the month. I  F o l l o w i n g t h i s storm, over a 5 day p e r i o d , a l l ' n e s t s were a g a i n checked, w i t h the f o l l o w i n g f i n d i n g s : A c t i v e n e s t s p r i o r t o storm  26  A c t i v e nests a f t e r storm  15  I.  Two n e s t s , s t i l l  a c t i v e , were found w i t h b o t h l i v e young and dead  young; one o f these n e s t s had one dead and one had two dead young. Of the e l e v e n n e s t s no l o n g e r a c t i v e , one was found w i t h two dead  i. young, s i x were found w i t h c o l d and dead eggs, two were found w i t h e g g s h e l l remnants ( i n d i c a t i n g t h a t something, p r o b a b l y crows, had a l r e a d y found t h e d e s e r t e d n e s t ) , and two n e s t s were empty. s  Other s p e c i e s l i v i n g a t t h e same n e s t i n g s i t e s as t h e M e r l i n s a l s o s u f f e r e d l o s s e s from the storm.  F i v e magpie n e s t s , two w i t h t h r e e dead young  and t h r e e w i t h one dead young were found:  two crow n e s t s , one w i t h f i v e c o l d  i  dead eggs and one w i t h 4 dead young were found and two f e r u g i n o u s hawk n e s t s , both w i t h one dead young were found.  Beneath one f e r u g i n o u s hawk n e s t a  dead a d u l t f e r u g i n o u s hawk was found, a p p a r e n t l y have succumbed d u r i n g t h e storm. One M e r l i n n e s t had been blown f i f t e e n f e e t o u t o f the n e s t  tree  and t h e M e r l i n e g g s h e l l s were found twenty f e e t beyond. A r e p o r t r e f e r r r i n g t o the a f f e c t s o f adverse weather on r a p t o r s i s t h a t by Rauchenbauch (1969) i n which he d i s c u s s e s r a p t o r p o p u l a t i o n s i n West  29  F i g u r e 3.  Temperature and P r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r Hanna and M e d i c i n e H a t , A l b e r t a , June, 1973. (Data from Environment Canada A t m o s p h e r i c E n v i r o n ment S e r v i c e )  To f a c e page 29  TEMPERATURE - LINE GRAPH MEDICINE HAT HANNA  JUNE  30  Germany.  He w r i t e s ( t r a n s l a t i o n ) : "Of a t o t a l o f 43 checked b u z z a r d c l u t c h e s ,  26 were d e s e r t e d , i n the nest.  and i n t h e r e s t o f t h e " s u c c e s s f u l " ones - - 9 young d i e d  O n l y 18 young were f l e d g e d .  That g i v e s t h e average o f 0.4  v. .  fledged young/clutch  started.  Most o f the c l u t c h e s f a i l e d d u r i n g (due t o )  a f i v e day r a i n f a l l , even though the f o u r t o f i v e week o l d young were a l r e a d y almost a l l f e a t h e r e d " . I t must be n o t e d t h a t , d e s p i t e h a v i n g  experienced  much t h e same  c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g t h e storm under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e M e r l i n s along t h e South Saskatchewan R i v e r seem n o t t o have s u f f e r e d from the bad weather c o n d i t i o n s . Indeed, t h e h a t c h i n g  success and f l e d g i n g success o f M e r l i n s i n 1973 a l o n g  the South Saskatchewan R i v e r were the h i g h e s t o f the t h r e e y e a r s f o r which d a t a were a v a i l a b l e . have been so:  Three reasons a r e advanced t o e x p l a i n why t h i s might  f i r s t , M e r l i n s n e s t i n g along t h e South Saskatchewan R i v e r  c o n s i s t e n t l y nested  up t o a week e a r l i e r than those around Hanna, j u d g i n g  from the development o f young M e r l i n s :  eggs t h e r e f o r e i n n e s t s a l o n g t h e  r i v e r would have h a t c h e d p r i o r t o t h e storm; s e c o n d l y , most o f t h e t r e e s i n which M e r l i n s n e s t e d  a l o n g the r i v e r were along t h e shore i n t h e r i v e r  bottom and t h e r e f o r e o u t o f t h e main b l a s t o f h i g h w i n d s ; and t h i r d l y ,  Merlins  n e s t i n g a l o n g t h e South Saskatchewan R i v e r were n e s t i n g i n b i g t r e e s w i t h much l e a f c o v e r , and i n dense stands which would serve>,as • p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e i  elements; n e s t t r e e s around Hanna by comparison were much s m a l l e r , o f t e n s p a r s e l y l e a f e d , and o f f e r e d l i t t l e p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t the elements. 5.2.2  Predation P r e d a t i o n o f n e s t s by crows i s f e l t t o be an i m p o r t a n t  a f f e c t i n g n e s t i n g success i n M e r l i n p o p u l a t i o n s .  factor  Throughout the s p r i n g o f  31 1971  53 % h o u r s were spent i n a b l i n d o b s e r v i n g  a pair of Merlins;  instances  o f the M e r l i n s f i g h t i n g w i t h crows w h i c h came too near t h e i r n e s t were r e corded 56 t i m e s .  These M e r l i n s were a t t e m p t i n g  t o n e s t i n an open  feruginous  hawk's n e s t , an attempt which f a i l e d some time d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f egg l a y i n g . It  i s suggested t h a t t h e crows f i n a l l y succeeded i n b r e a k i n g  defences d u r i n g the egg l a y i n g p e r i o d and had d e s t r o y e d  through the M e r l i n ' s  the c l u t c h .  At another n e s t a c l u t c h l a i d by May 1 had d i s a p p e a r e d  by May 19 and  a second c l u t c h was begun i n a nearby n e s t by May 27. Numerous f i g h t s w i t h crows were observed w i t h t h i s M e r l i n p a i r . h a t c h e d and a f i f t h was p i p p i n g .  By J u l y 4, f o u r o f t h e eggs had  On t h a t day t h e n e s t was b e i n g observed from  a d i s t a n c e , and a p a i r o f crows and t h e i r o f f s p r i n g were seen a p p r o a c h i n g t h e M e r l i n s i t e with obvious i n t e n t .  One p a r t i c u l a r l y determined crow was about t o  r a i d t h e n e s t when i t was b e s e t by t h e M e r l i n s who drew f e a t h e r s f r o m t h e crow i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d r i v i n g i t away.  Nearby most s i t e s i n which M e r l i n s were  n e s t i n g crows were a l s o n e s t i n g . Never was t h e r e any i n d i c a t i o n o f n e s t p r e d a t i o n -by magpies o r o f  =  q u a r r e l i n g between these b i r d s and M e r l i n s . G r e a t horned owls a r e p r o b a b l e p r e d a t o r s  of Merlins.  One n e s t w h i c h  M e r l i n s were u s i n g i n the s p r i n g o f 1971 had o n l y a g r e a t horned owl r e g u r g i t a t e d p e l l e t i n i t the f i r s t week o f J u l y .  A t another s i t e t h e i n c u b a t i o n  o f eggs ceased about h a l f way and o n l y t h e female was t o be found.  On c l o s e  i n s p e c t i o n o f the s i t e , f e a t h e r s and a wing o f t h e male M e r l i n was found. The marked antagonism o f M e r l i n s f o r g r e a t h o r n e d owls was v e r y e v i d e n t i n any encounter between t h e two s p e c i e s ; i t i s t h i s antagonism w h i c h  provided  the means f o r drawing a d u l t M e r l i n s i n t o a t r a p f o r banding. 5.2.3  Human The  Disturbance f i r s t form o f human d i s t u r b a n c e c o n s i d e r e d  i n t h i s study was t h a t  32 caused by p e r s o n a l v i s i t s  t o n e s t i n g s i t e s f o r the purpose o f s c i e n t i f i c  I t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t i n a l l v i s i t s t o keep d u r a t i o n o f v i s i t s  to n e s t s  i n t h i s s t u d y , c a r e was  study. taken  to a minimum, and  t h e s e were not made i f weather L F o r a l l n e s t i n g s r e c o r d e d o v e r the p e r i o d o f t h i s 1  c o n d i t i o n s were a d v e r s e .  s t u d y no r e l a t i o n s h i p between the number o f v i s i t s ing  s u c c e s s o f t h a t p a i r c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d .  i s g i v e n t o the c r i t i c a l p e r i o d s  o f egg  t o a n e a r s i t e and  s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on n e s t i n g  l a y i n g and  egg h a t c h i n g  At one  and v i s i t s  t o n e s t s by  researchers  i s that of  n e s t s i t e f o u r young p e o p l e were caught i n the a c t o f  a hen M e r l i n t h a t had  been s u c c e s s f u l i n r a i s i n g 5 young.  these young t o o t h e r o c c u p i e d  are  success.  A more d i r e c t e f f e c t on M e r l i n s t h a t cannot be i g n o r e d shooting.  nest-  I t i s f e l t that i f consideration  o f minimum, d u r a t i o n d u r i n g e a r l y development, v i s i t s have no  the  The  shooting  t r a n s f e r a l of  M e r l i n n e s t s n e a r b y was .'effected.  Subsequent  i n q u i r y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t r a v e l l i n g from i s o l a t e d grove to i s o l a t e d grove to shoot crows, magpies, and o t h e r " v e r m i n " i n c l u d i n g hawks, was p r a c t i s e d d i v e r s i o n f o r many p e o p l e on Sunday a f t e r n o o n s F u r t h e r checks o f M e r l i n s i t e s on the same day occurred A t one  revealed  a widely  i n the Hanna a r e a .  the s h o o t i n g r e f e r r e d to above  t h r e e s i t e s w i t h dead crows t h a t had  been shot r e c e n t l y .  o f t h e s e s i t e s where a M e r l i n nes^rf had had young a few days e a r l i e r ,  a d u l t o r young M e r l i n s were not t o be  found.  W i t h M e r l i n s so v o c a l  and  o b v i o u s a t n e s t i n g s i t e s the e f f e c t s o f a few  such s h o o t e r s  i s very serious.  t h a t annual " v e r m i n " shoots  I t was  o n l y a few y e a r s ago  on M e r l i n numbers  were h e l d i n the Hanna a r e a ; the p a r t i c u l a r t a r g e t s were ground s q u i r r e l s and hawks but d o u b t l e s s o f the Rod  and Gun  Club,  other and  s p e c i e s were s h o t .  D i s c u s s i o n s w i t h members  s p o r t i n g goods s t o r e o p e r a t o r s  were h e l d and  now  33 most show very favourable attitudes towards raptors; many l o c a l ranchers, p a r t i c u l a r l y , voice their c r i t i c i s m of weekend shooting by people from l o c a l towns on their rangelands.  I t i s by the towns' people mainly that  shooting probably w i l l continue to take a t o l l of nesting Merlins. 5.2.4  Pesticides The c o r r e l a t i o n analysis of residue levels and R a t c l i f f e Indices  favours a s i g n i f i c a n t relationship between DDE  residues and R a t c l i f f e  Indices  (r = .369); no r e l a t i o n s h i p s between R a t c l i f f e Indices and d i e l d r i n , heptachlor epoxide, or mercury residues were indicated (Table 5).  A cause and  e f f e c t relationship i s strongly indicated by the highly s i g n i f i c a n t regression of log.  DDE  against R a t c l i f f e Indices (p<\01)  j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the use of log DDE,  see Blus et a l . 1972). t  Eggs c o l l e c t e d from 1971 u n t i l 1974 into two categories, (a)  (Figure 4). (For  for p e s t i c i d e analysis, were put  those c o l l e c t e d at"random" some time during incu-  bation, and (b) those collected after hatching which had f a i l e d to hatch (Table 6).  A s i g n i f i c a n t (negative) relationship between DDE  nest success was  levels' and  indicated, but none with other p e s t i c i d e residues.  Eggs collected from nests where eggs were l e f t for incubation were also put into two categories, (a)  those from nests which succeeded i n  hatching the remaining egg(s), and (b) those from nests which did not succeed i n hatching any egg (Table 7).  A highly s i g n i f i c a n t relationship  between hatching f a i l u r e and levels of DDE  and d i e l d r i n i s indicated.  34  TABLE 5.  A COMPARISON OF PESTICIDE RESIDUE LEVELS AND RATCLIFFE INDICES FOR RICHARDSON'S MERLIN EGGS.  Pesticide Residue "  Average  DDE  14.73  18.14  0.67  0.74  -0.06519  0.75  -0.01641  0.20  -0.01513  -1  Dieldrin Heptachlor Epoxide  0.61  Mercury  0.19  Standard Deviation  1 i n p a r t s p e r m i l l i o n (ppm) wet w e i g h t .  Correlation Coefficient  -0.3693  35  F i g u r e 4.  Simple R e g r e s s i o n Graph — DDE as the Dependent V a r i a b l e and R a t c l i f f e I n d i c e s as the Independent Variable. ' DDE  - p a r t s p e r m i l l i o n wet weight  (logarithmic scale)  t = -5.089 .  P  C  .01  D a t a from u n p u b l i s h e d f i l e s o f Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e , Edmonton.  To face page 35  NON-ZERO DATA Y  =  1-E57  + -0-2E42  * LOG  X  Ld  Ld Lu U • <  or  0.7.  DDE  X  N  =  UBB  36 TABLE 6.  Pesticide''" Residue  DDE  A COMPARISON OF PESTICIDE RESIDUE LEVELS IN MERLIN EGGS COLLECTED DURING INCUBATION AND EGGS COLLECTED DEAD AFTER INCUBATION  Mean Resudue L e v e l i n Eggs Collected During Incubation (ppm) N=112  2 Probability  Dead a f t e r Incubation (ppm) N=40  12.83  24.66  0.03  Dieldrin  0.59  0.70  0.41  Hept. Epox.  0.56  0.46  0.27  Hg.  0.19  0.20  0.93  1  r e s i d u e d a t a from u n p u b l i s h e d f i l e s o f Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e , Edmonton.  2  p r o b a b i l i t y : p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between e q u a l means would be as g r e a t as t h e observed through chance a l o n e .  37 TABLE 7.  A COMPARISON OF PESTICIDE RESIDUE LEVELS I N EGGS FROM "SUCCESSFUL" NESTS AND EGGS FROM "UNSUCCESSFUL" NESTS.  Pesticide  Mean Residue l e v e l i n Eggs from Successful Nests (ppm) N=78  ProbabilityUnsuccessful Nests^ (ppm) N=53 0.001  DDE  9.97  26.81  Dieldrin  0.54  0.83  0.02  Hept. Epox  0.54  0.60  0.66  Hg.  0.19  0.19  0.93  1.  S u c c e s s f u l N e s t : a n e s t t h a t hatched any eggs  2.  U n s u c c e s s f u l N e s t : a n e s t w h i c h f a i l e d t o h a t c h any eggs  3.  P r o b a b i l i t y : p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between e q u a l means would be as g r e a t as t h e observed through chance a l o n e  *  R e s i d u e d a t a from u n p u b l i s h e d f i l e s o f Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e ,  f  Edmonton  38 5.2.5  Disease I n a n e s t i n a t r e e near the South Saskatchewan R i v e r two h e a l t h y  young M e r l i n s about t h r e e weeks o l d were found a l o n g w i t h a t h i r d i n a v e r y weak c o n d i t i o n .  The  s i c k b i r d was  taken f o r c a r e and a canker s i m i l a r t o  t h a t caused by the p r o t o z o a n p a r a s i t e Trichomonas g a l l i n a e i n o t h e r r a p t o r s was  found a d h e r i n g to the tongue and mouth l i n i n g ; t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s known  as " f r o u n c e " and i s q u i t e w e l l known to f a l c o n e r s . pigeons and domestic  fowl.  I t i s f a i r l y common i n  R e c e n t l y , i t s treatment w i t h the drug " E m t r y l "  ( D i m e t r i d a z o l ) has proved v e r y s u c c e s s f u l i n r a p t o r s , and so the M e r l i n was  t r e a t e d w i t h t h i s drug.  \ W i t h i n f o u r days o f the b e g i n n i n g o f  V treatment  the canker had d i s a p p e a r e d and t h e M e r l i n had r e g a i n e d enough s t r e n g t h t o take food w i t h o u t b e i n g f o r c e f e d . 5.2.6  Land use change One prime f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g the p r a i r i e M e r l i n p o p u l a t i o n i s  induced l a n d use change.  man-  Sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n used t o p o r t r a y l a n d use  change i n the study a r e a come l a r g e l y from the Canada Census r e p o r t s , 1 9 4 1 t o 1 9 7 1 (Table 8 ) , a e r i a l photographs (Table 9 ) ,  and r e c o r d s o f the S p e c i a l  Areas o f A l b e r t a Board's m i n u t e s ( T a b l e 1 0 ) . A s u b s t a n t i a l e x p a n s i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e between 1 9 4 1 and 1 9 7 1 i n the K i n d e r s l e y a r e a from which M e r l i n s have v a n i s h e d , as compared to t h a t o f the Hanna a r e a where they s t i l l  e x i s t , can be seen i n Canada Census s t a t i s t i c s .  By the end o f t h i s p e r i o d the K i n d e r s l e y a r e a had a t l e a s t  677o  c u l t i v a t i o n as compared to  increase at l e a s t  267°  f o r the Hanna a r e a .  A.  127o  o f l a n d under  i n c u l t i v a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i s i n d i c a t e d f o r the K i n d e r s l e y a r e a as compared to o n l y 47, f o r the Hanna a r e a . now  A i r photo study o f s p e c i f i c  areas  o r i n the p a s t known t o be M e r l i n s i t e s show a s i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e i n l a n d  TABLE 8.  The A r e a s Under C u l t i v a t i o n  1941 Hanna, A l t a . ( a c r e s ) %  1,133,506 23.1  K i n d e r s l e y , S a s k . ( a c r e s ) 2,431,338 %  55.5  i n  the Census D i v i s i o n s o f the Study A r e a  1951  1961  1,338,255  1,331,82?  27.2  25.02  2,480,875  2,830,066  56.7  64.7  1966 1,397,513 25.8 2,883,959 65.8  1971 1,408,079 26.4 2,886,171 67.5  from Canada Census S t a t i s t i c s 1 c r o p and f a l l o w 2 r e d u c t i o n due t o enlargement o f Census D i v i s i o n  to VO  TABLE 9.  P e r c e n t a g e o f A r e a s under C u l t i v a t i o n W i t h i n M e r l i n H u n t i n g T e r r i t o r i e s Based on S t u d i e s o f A i r Photos taken between t h e 1 9 4 0 ' s and the 1 9 7 0 ' s .  Hanna, A l b e r t a 1949  Saskatchewan  1946  15  51  1962-I65 21  1956-61 48  1971 22  1 c r o p l a n d and h a y l a n d  Kindersley,  1971 58  (cultivated)  TABLE 10.  The Acreage Under C u l t i v a t i o n ( P e r m i t and Lease) i n t h e S p e c i a l Areas o f A l b e r t a  1963 Acres % of T o t a l *  1964  1966  1967  1968  1969  1970  1971  1972  275,122  273,579  270,470  273,587  273,741  274,885  275,356  391,688  391,155  3.5  3.5  3.5  3.5  3.5  3.5  3.5  5.0  5.0  * S p e c i a l A r e a s T o t a l Acreage ( S t e w a r t and P o r t e r , 1942)  7,838,826 a c r e s  from S p e c i a l Areas o f A l b e r t a Board's M i n u t e s  42  use between t h e two areas ( T a b l e 9 ) ; v i z . 5 8 7 , o f the t e r r i t o r y was  under  c u l t i v a t i o n i n the K i n d e r s l e y a r e a , as compared to 2 2 7 , f o r the Hanna a r e a . the K i n d e r s l e y a r e a a 37, decrease  In 1940's  to the  1950's  i s apparent  i n a i r photos  i n c u l t i v a t e d l a n d f r o m the (Table  T h i s i s because  9 ) .  3 o f the 1 4 M e r l i n s i t e s s t u d i e d i n 1 9 4 6 a i r photos appeared as t o t a l l y c u l t i v a t e d ateas.  D u r i n g the  wheatgrass (Agropyron  1940's  these s i t e s were reseeded  to c r e s t e d  c r i s t a t u m ) i n the Teo Lake Community p a s t u r e t o I  c o n t r o l e r o s i o n o f s o i l by wind.  T h i s reseeded p a s t u r e appeared as c u l t -  i v a t e d crops i n the e a r l y photographs. on the n a t u r e o f g r a s s l a n d and was  By the  1950's  t h i s p a s t u r e had  taken  c o n s i d e r e d t o be such i n the d a t a from L  t  v  the a i r photos. A i r photo study o f 3 9 M e r l i n s i t e s along the South Saskatchewan R i v e r show t h a t 9 6 7 . o f the a r e a w i t h i n a. one m i l e r a d i u s o f n e s t i n g s i t e s i s grassland. 847>  minimum and  The h u n t i n g t e r r i t o r i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y s t u d i e d range between 1007,  maximum o f l a n d i n g r a s s l a n d .  S i n c e 1 9 7 1 an i n c r e a s e i n the amount o f c u l t i v a t i o n i n the Hanna a r e a i s to be n o t e d ; t h i s i s c l e a r l y r e c o r d e d i n the S p e c i a l Areas o f A l b e r t a Board's minutes ( T a b l e  10).  These show an i n c r e a s e o f  116,437  acres of land  i  under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the S p e c i a l Areas Board ( i . e . not deeded l a n d ) f o r which l e a s e s and p e r m i t s f o r c u l t i v a t i o n were i s s u e d between 1 9 7 0 1971.  and  T h i s i s about a 1 . 5 7 o i n c r e a s e i n c u l t i v a t i o n f o r a l l o f the S p e c i a l  Areas e x c l u d i n g deeded l a n d .  Deeded l a n d accounts  l a n d s i n the S p e c i a l Areas ( S t e w a r t and P o r t e r ,  f o r about  19.57,  o f the  1942).  A s t a t i s t i c a l comparison between Hanna and K i n d e r s l e y o f a number o f f a c t o r s which/might c h a r a c t e r i z e M e r l i n n e s t s i t e s i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 1 1 ' . I n g e n e r a l , i t can be s a i d t h a t s i t e " s t a n d s " i n the Hanna a r e a were l a r g e r ,  43  TABLE 11.  Feature  A Comparison o f C e r t a i n E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s o f Nest S i t e n e a r Hanna, A l b e r t a , and K i n d e r s l e y , Saskatchewan Category  Hanna =29)  #  %  Kindersley (N=14)  #  X  2  P  a  7o  Stand Tree Type  Acer-Populus Acer-Salix Populus-Caraaana  25 2 2  86.2 6.9 6.9  9 1 4  64.3 7.1 28.6  2.58  .30 .30  Site Tree Height  10»-19' 20'-29 30»-39'  2 18 9  6.9 62.1 31.0  4 7 3  28.6 50.0 21.4  3.54  .20  Site Origin  Upland Grove Windbreak  6 23  20.7 79.3  4 10  28.6 71.4  .68  .50  Site Density  Impenetrable Open  8 21  27.6 72.4  6 8  42.9 57.1  .98  .50  Site Size (1 o r d i a )  100m100m+  5 24  17.2 82.8  7 7  50.0 50.0  5.06  .05  Presence of Bare Branches  Yes No  23 6  79.3 20.7  8 6  57.1 42.9  3.05  .10  Presence of Bare Trunk  Yes No  26 3  89.7 10.3  6 8  42.9 57.1  10.75  .01  Presence of Under Cover  Yes No  20 99  69.0 31  13 1  92.9 7.1  3.02  .10  Presence of N e s t ( s )u  Yes No  29 100.0 0 0  7 7  50.0 50.0  17.1  .001  f  D  a P r o b a b i l i t y that u t i l i z e d Sites sites (Kindersley)  (Hanna) were the same as n o n - u t i l i z e d  b N e s t s o f crows, hawks, o r magpies which c o u l d be t a k e n over as n e s t s by Merlin.  44 had more bare branches extending above the leafy portions of the windbreak or grove, had more trees whose trunks were bare above the l e v e l of two feet, and had more often bare ground beneath the "stand". number of upland groves  There were a greater  ( i . e . natural clumps of Populus around low areas and  sloughs) i n the Kindersley area.  Merlins made greater use of windbreaks and  groves which were also used by c a t t l e for shelter i n the Hanna area.  Nest  t  "stands" i n the Kindersley area tended to d i f f e r from those of the Hanna area in thatconly 507=, of the Kindersley "stands" had nests of crows, hawks or magpies which would be p o t e n t i a l nests for Merlins.  I t may be surmised that  changes probably attributable to agriculture made the Kindersley area no longer a suitable area for these other species to nest.  45  P l a t e 3. M e r l i n Nest S i t e i n Abandoned Windbreak  P l a t e 4. M e r l i n N e s t S i t e i n S p r i n g t i m e Showing Magpie N e s t s Used by M e r l i n s  To face page 45  46 6.  Discussion M e r l i n s n e s t i n g a l o n g p r a i r i e r i v e r s are r e c o r d e d i n the w r i t i n g s  o f Houseman (1894) and D i p p i e (1895),,both o f whom c o l l e c t e d M e r l i n s a l o n g the Bow R i v e r and observed M e r l i n s h u n t i n g over the g r a s s l a n d s .  Brooks  (1896) c i t e s a p e r s o n a l communication r e p o r t i n g t h a t : " F a l c o r i c h a r d s o n i i i s a common enough b i r d throughout most o f the Rocky Mountain r e g i o n . I t breeds i n the Saskatchewan c o u n t r y i n such numbers t h a t one o f our c o l l e c t o r s took f o u r s e t s o f eggs i n a s i n g l e season." I n the f i r s t two decades o f t h i s c e n t u r y the r a p i d b r e a k i n g o f the p r a i r i e sod, d r a i n i n g o f s l o u g h s , the c l e a r i n g o f groves o f t r e e s , and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s a t t e n d e n t on homesteading, would have r e s u l t e d i n a major l o s s o f v..  h a b i t a t and, p r o b a b l y , a major p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e . D u r i n g the 1920's and the 1930's the Hanna c o u n t r y was  almost v a c a t e d  by farmers and as the p l a i n s beg^an the slow p r o c e s s o f change to g r a s s l a n d s a g a i n , the abandoned windbreaks  became a v a i l a b l e f o r m e r l i n n e s t i n g s i t e s .  Bent , (1931) w r i t e s o f R i c h a r d s o n ' s p i g e o n hawk ( M e r l i n ) : " T h i s b e a u t i f u l l i t t l e f a l c o n , the p a l e s t o f the N o r t h American m e r l i n s , i s a b i r d o f the G r e a t P l a i n s , breedi n g m a i n l y i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan, i n Montana, and i n n o r t h w e s t e r n N o r t h Dakota. I t s summer home i s on the wide r o l l i n g p l a i n s and p r a i r i e s , where they are d o t t e d w i t h s m a l l groves o f p o p l a r s , aspens, cottonwoods, and o t h e r deciduous t r e e s . " Dependence o f M e r l i n s on numbers o f p a s s e r i n e p r e y s p e c i e s t o n e s t s u c c e s s f u l l y i s documented i n t h i s s t u d y .  C o n v e r s i o n o f much of the n a t i v e  g r a s s l a n d which s u p p o r t s p a s s e r i n e p o p u l a t i o n s to a g r i c u l t u r e has  destroyed  much o f the M e r l i n s ' t r a d i t i o n a l h a b i t a t and much more so i n t h e K i n d e r s l e y a r e a than i n the Hanna a r e a . 1920,  I n the e a r l y homesteading days from 1895  e x t e n s i v e d e s t r u c t i o n o f n a t i v e g r a s s l a n d p r o b a b l y produced  to  a marked  47 decline i n Merlins i n both areas where larger percentages s o i l and moisture occur.  of land with better  In the years following the 1914-18 War,  much more of the land i n the Hanna area was  relatively  abandoned and has returned to  I.  quasi-native grassland. T h i r t y - s i x percent more land i n the Kindersley area has been brought under c u l t i v a t i o n since the 1940's than that i n the Hanna area. census s t a t i s t i c s indicate a 12% increase i n cultivated  Moreover,  land i n the Kindersley  area.) during this period, as compared to a 4% increase i n the Hanna area.  Air  photo study of Merlin hunting ranges i n both the Kindersley area and the Hanna area show the amount of land under c u l t i v a t i o n since the 1940's increased 7%. Differences between land use changes apparent those apparent  from census s t a t i s t i c s and  from a i r photo study can be explained by the more r e s t r i c t e d  areas ( i . e . hunting t e r r i t o r i e s ) considered i n a i r photos.  Most Merlin  t e r r r i t o r i e s were at one time occupied farmsites, and these were probably located^on the best farming locations.  In the Kindersley area a greater  number of these farms would have remained under c u l t i v a t i o n since the o r i g i n a l sod breaking.  In the Hanna area v i r t u a l l y a l l broken land went back to grass-  land, and the better farming sites around old homesteads would be the f i r s t areas to be subjected to c u l t i v a t i o n again.  From the a i r photo study of 40  Merlin sites i n use successfully since 1971,  95%, had more than 50% of their  area grassland; of the remaining sites one was 40%, grassland and one 45%,. In the Kindersley area, a i r photo study revealed that between 1956  and 1961,  the period i n which Merlin s i t e s were recorded i n the area,  66%, of the 15 sites were more than 50%, grassland; by 1971 only 27%, of these sites were more than 50%, grassland.  48  If,  as t h e above r e s u l t s s u g g e s t , a h u n t i n g  t e r r i t o r y must have a  minimum o f about 50% g r a s s l a n d t o s u p p o r t a p a i r o f M e r l i n s , then t h e K i n d e r s l e y a r e a cannot be c o n s i d e r e d at l e a s t s i n c e t h e 1940's.  as h a v i n g been a prime M e r l i n n e s t i n g  area,  I t i s suggested t h a t t h e r e d u c t i o n o f g r a s s l a n d s  i n the K i n d e r s l e y a r e a s i n c e 1961 c o u l d have had t h e e f f e c t o f l o w e r i n g t h e amount o f g r a s s l a n d below the t h r e s h o l d n e c e s s a r y t o s u p p o r t M e r l i n s f o r many Kindersley sites.  Therefore,  r e d u c t i o n o f g r a s s l a n d emerges as a p r o b a b l e  f a c t o r i n the d e c l i n e o f M e r l i n s i n t h e K i n d e r s l e y  area.  A n o t h e r v e r y o b v i o u s change i n Merl i n s i t e s i n t h e K i n d e r s l e y  area  s i n c e the time o f t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n by M e r l i n s i s t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f n e s t s o f hawks, magpies, and crows w h i c h M e r l i n s use. occupied  Seven o f t h e 14 s i t e s once  by M e r l i n s had no n e s t s o f any k i n d w h i c h might have been t a k e n  over by M e r l i n s i n 1974. I t i s assumed t h a t " c l e a n " farming p r a c t i c e s and e x t e n s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n s have p r o b a b l y  c o n t r i b u t e d to the disappearance of  hawks, crows and magpies as n e s t i n g b i r d s i n many areas.  I n any e v e n t , where  t h e r e a r e no v a c a n t n e s t s t o u t i l i z e , M e r l i n s do n o t n e s t i n the p r a i r i e habitat. D e s t r u c t i o n o f n e s t i n g t r e e s by c a t t l e has been suggested as a p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f M e r l i n s from the K i n d e r s l e y a r e a . ( F o x , 1964).  When c a t t l e a r e k e p t near o l d windbreaks o r o t h e r t r e e s they w i l l use  them f o r s h e l t e r and shade and i n d o i n g trees.  so a r e o f t e n v e r y d e s t r u c t i v e t o the  However, M e r l i n s were found n e s t i n g even  of occasions  i n a s i n g l e t r e e on a number  on t h e p r a i r i e s , and i n none o f t h e K i n d e r s l e y s i t e s u t i l i z e d by  M e r l i n s i n t h e 1950's and 1960's was t h e r e any s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n o f n e s t ing  t r e e s by t h e 1970's.  M e r l i n n e s t t r e e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y have  underbrush and the t r u n k s a r e w e l l - r u b b e d  up t o a l e v e l  little  o f about 4' t o 5'.  49  P l a t e 5. M e r l i n N e s t S i t e i n Abandoned Windbreak Showing E f f e c t o f C a t t l e on Windbreaks  P l a t e 6. " H i g h l i n i n g " and Breakage by C a t t l e U s i n g an Abandoned Windbreak as s h e l t e r .  50 A n o t a b l e f e a t u r e o f most o f the s i t e s f o r m e r l y o c c u p i e d i n the K i n d e r s l e y a r e a i s the l a c k o f t h e i r use by c a t t l e .  I t must be n o t e d , however, t h a t  at many l o c a t i o n s on the p r a i r i e s are remnants o f one-time windbreaks groves  and  t h a t have been u t t e r l y d e s t r o y e d by c a t t l e and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t  i n some cases c a t t l e may nesting  be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the e l i m i n a t i o n o f M e r l i n  sites. Much o f the i n c r e a s e i n c u l t i v a t i o n i n the Hanna a r e a i s a r e s u l t  o f a program i n the S p e c i a l Areas by which s e r a i g r a s s l a n d and some c l i m a x g r a s s l a n d i s b e i n g ploughed and c u l t i v a t e d f o r crops f o r a number o f y e a r s , a f t e r w h i c h they are reseeded:-in e x o t i c g r a s s e s such as c r e s t e d T h i s program i s an attempt  to r e a c h a h i g h e r l e v e l o f p r i m a r y  wheatgrass.  productivity  o f g r a s s l a n d s t o support more c a t t l e ; the p r o c e s s i s b e i n g encouraged throughout  the p r a i r i e s (Johnson,  1969).  These c u l t i v a t e d g r a s s l a n d s l a c k  d i v e r s i t y i n c o v e r s p e c i e s and seem to s u p p o r t low p o p u l a t i o n s o f p a s s e r i n e b i r d s ( p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n ) ; i n time, however, they may  take on some o f  the s p e c i e s d i v e r s i t y o f n a t i v e g r a s s l a n d s ( n a t i v e g r a s s l a n d s h e r e i n c l u d e s o l d f i e l d as w e l l as c l i m a x g r a s s l a n d ) . e r s l e y a r e a was control.  The Teo Lake p a s t u r e i n the K i n d -  seeded to c r e s t e d wheatgrass i n the 1940's f o r wind e r o s i o n  I n e a r l y a e r i a l photographs i t appeared as c u l t i v a t e d l a n d but  now has t a k e n on the appearance o f a n a t i v e g r a s s l a n d .  This pasture land-  had enough p a s s e r i n e b i r d s on i t i n the 1950's and 1960's to nesting Merlins.  support  Under p r e s e n t management programs i t i s proposed t h a t  these c u l t i v a t e d g r a s s l a n d  be ploughed and reseeded  every few y e a r s i n  o r d e r to keep p r i m a r y p r o d u c t i v i t y h i g h . S i n c e the widespread p e s t i c i d e s , e s p e c i a l l y DDT,  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c h l o r i n a t e d hydrocarbon  i n t o many w o r l d ecosystems a f t e r 1947,  population  declines falcons  i n a number o f b i r d s o f p r e y have been noted. ( F a l c o p e r e g r i n u s ) i n the n o r t h e r n  h a l i a e t u s ) and  b a l d eagles  (Haliaeetus  In p a r t i c u l a r , peregrine  hemispere, and  ospreys  (Pandion  l e u c o c e p h a l u s ) i n e a s t e r n N o r t h America  have been a f f e c t e d . . C h l o r i n a t e d hydrocarbon r e s i d u e s were g e n e r a l l y  considered  the p r i n c i p a l cause of these d e c l i n e s but  (1967)  i t was  not  until Ratcliffe  noted a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n the d e n s i t y o f r a p t o r egg and  showed a c o r r e l a t i o n between decrease i n egg  i n egg  shell  after  s h e l l weight and  an  s h e l l breakage t h a t a p h y s i o l o g i c a l b a s i s f o r these d e c l i n e s  1947, increase  was  delineated. H i c k e y and Anderson (1968) have shown t h a t f o r at l e a s t t h r e e o f b i r d s of prey, i n p o p u l a t i o n s  where decreases i n egg  amounted to 197« or more, p o p u l a t i o n s d e c l i n e or had  been e i x t i r p a t e d .  date) w i t h eggs c o l l e c t e d a f t e r I n our  Indices;  study, egg  1947  e i t h e r i n a state of  pathway by which h i g h  l e v e l s o f DDE  a  insecticide  1947. measured i n terms of R a t c l i f f e  the r e g r e s s i o n o f R a t c l i f f e Index a g a i n s t DDE The  are based on  (the p r e o r g a n o c h l o r i n e  s h e l l d e n s i t y was  (p <C-01) ( F i g u r e 4 ) .  ulations.  s h e l l weights have, -  These e g g s h e l l r e d u c t i o n s  comparison of eggs c o l l e c t e d b e f o r e use  were found to be  species  h y p o t h e s i s of t h i n e g g s h e l l s  is highly  explains well a  can cause a r e d u c t i o n  This hypothesis states that higher  residue  significant  i n r a p t o r pop-  levels result in  t h i n n e r e g g s h e l l s which, i n t u r n , r e s u l t i n lower h a t c h a b i l i t y o f eggs (probably  through breakage o f e g g s ) .  young are produced to r e p l a c e High residue  l e v e l s could  I f h a t c h a b i l i t y i s too  a d u l t m o r t a l i t y and  low,  a population  insufficient  decline results.  a l s o r e s u l t i n abberrant behaviour a f f e c t i n g  h u n t i n g or c a r e o f the o f f s p r i n g so t h a t p o s t h a t c h i n g a lowered p r o d u c t i v i t y r e s u l t s .  Much study of r a p t o r s  m o r t a l i t y occurs  and  today i s d i r e c t e d  52  towards i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s phenomena (R. F y f e , p e r s o n a l  communication).  M e r l i n s would seem to be l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e t o the e f f e c t s o f DDE an a p p a r e n t l y  i n view of  "normal" p r o d u c t i v i t y c o i n c i d i n g w i t h g e n e r a l l y h i g h  cide residue l e v e l s .  R e d u c t i o n i n the use o f DDT  (from w h i c h DDE  r i v e d ) and o t h e r c h l o r i n a t e d h y d r o c a r b o n p e s t i c i d e s s i n c e 1971 f u l l y , r e s u l t i n some r e c o v e r y o f M e r l i n p o p u l a t i o n s No p e s t i c i d e r e s i d u e or egg  i n any  pestii s de-  w i l l , hope-  areas a f f e c t e d .  s h e l l d a t a f o r M e r l i n s are a v a i l a b l e  from Saskatchewan d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f d e c l i n e , i . e . i n the 1960's.  However,  two eggs from a M e r l i n n e s t i n Saskatchewan j u s t west o f the K i n d e r s l e y i n 1972 had  2.78  and 3.24  ppm  dieldrin.  Those l e v e l s o f d i e l d r i n from the  Saskatchewan M e r l i n s were the h i g h e s t , e x c e p t forgone, o f 166 e l s e w h e r e , between 1968 0.70  ppm.  and 1973,  ment i n the 1970's.  samples c o l l e c t e d  and f a r above the mean d i e l d r i n l e v e l  Because of the v e r y slow d e g r a d a t i o n  the 1960's c o u l d s t i l l  area  of  of d i e l d r i n , i t s heavy use  account f o r i t s p r e s e n c e i n the K i n d e r s l e y  environ-  Data from our study c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t b o t h DDE  and  d i e l d r i n r e s i d u e are s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to lowered h a t c h a b i l i t y o f eggs, however, i t would appear t h a t t h e i r e f f e c t s on A l b e r t a M e r l i n s were n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o cause a d e c l i n e . One w h i c h was  a s p e c t of the heavy use o f d i e l d r i n i n the K i n d e r s l e y  area  n o t s t u d i e d i s the e f f e c t i t had on the M e r l i n p r e y , i . e . on  small b i r d populations o n l y have had  of that area.  Any  the  d e s t r u c t i o n of small b i r d s could  the e f f e c t of i n c r e a s i n g the amount o f g r a s s l a n d s  needed to hunt over t o get enough p r e y t o s u s t a i n themselves and  Merlins so reduce  f u r t h e r the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f the K i n d e r s l e y a r e a f o r n e s t i n g M e r l i n s . A l t h o u g h the d a t a are by no means s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r c o m p a r a t i v e purposes the f a c t t h a t s u b s t a n t i a l q u a n t i t i e s of d i e l d r i n were s o l d i n the  in  K i n d e r s l e y a r e a i n t h e y e a r s 1958-1964 appears m u n i c i p a l i t i e s (see T a b l e 12).  i n the records o f the r u r a l  A f t e r 1964, d i e l d r i n use f o r i n s e c t c o n t r o l  i n t h e a r e a was d i s c o n t i n u e d and o t h e r compounds such as c h l o r d a n e , and e n d r i n were used.  The heavy and w i d e s p r e a d  aldrin,  use o f d i e l d r i n i s p o s t u l a t e d  as t h e f a c t o r which r e n d e r e d t h e "coupe de g r a c e " t o t h e M e r l i n s o f t h e K i n d e r s l e y area.' Records o f d i e l d r i n use i n t h e Hanna a r e a were n o t a v a i l a b l e . Twelve m o r t a l i t i e s o f n e s t l i n g R i v e r which cannot be accounted  M e r l i n s a l o n g t h e South  Saskatchewan  f o r o c c u r r e d on a p a r t i c u l a r s t r e t c h o f t h e  r i v e r which has been an a r e a o f low p r o d u c t i v i t y and n e s t s u c c e s s f o r both M e r l i n s and P r a i r i e F a l c o n s s i n c e they were f i r s t l o o k e d a t i n 1968. a r e a i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e S u f f i e l d M i l i t a r y Reserve M e d i c i n e H a t and t h e Saskatchewan b o r d e r .  about h a l f way between  A t one n e s t i n t h i s a r e a i n 1969,  where 3 w e l l - d e v e l o p e d young were found dead, an earlier for pesticide analysis.  This  egg had been c o l l e c t e d  I n i t both DDE and d i e l d r i n l e v e l s were f a r  above the sample p o p u l a t i o n mean o f 20.47 and 0.70, b e i n g 65.8 and 2.10 ppm, respectively.  Of t h e eggs c o l l e c t e d from t h e same v i c i n i t y (SSR 23-SSR26)  (n=18) i n t h i s and o t h e r y e a r s , 4 1 % had DDE r e s i d u e and 50%, had d i e l d r i n r e s i d u e s above t h e mean o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n sample. (Appendix V I ) .  T h i s would  perhaps suggest t h a t these f a l c o n s a r e f e e d i n g on a p o p u l a t i o n o f s m a l l b i r d s from a l o c a l contaminated  area.  L o c k i e e_t a l , 1969, i n a w e l l documented study p r e s e n t s .data, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t d i e l d r i n used as a sheep d i p was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e v e r y low p r o d u c t i v i t y o f G o l d e n E a g l e s ( A q u i l a c h r y s a e t o s ) i n S c o t l a n d i n t h e e a r l y 1960's. F o l l o w i n g t h e 1966 ban o f d i e l d r i n from use i n sheep d i p s p r o d u c t i v i t y returned to a l e v e l considered normal.  The d a t a suggested "an i n v e r s e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i e l d r i n l e v e l and success i n b r e e d i n g " .  A l e v e l of  54  TABLE 12.  SALE OF DIELDRIN I N SOME RURAL MUNICIPALITIES OF SASKATCHEWAN 1955-1965  Year  Kindersley  RM  289  Smiley  Marengo  Glidden  1955  -  -  -  -  1956  -  -  -  -  1957  -  -  -  -  -  -  9 gal  -  202 g a l  1958  $2,380.00  -  1959  1,479.00  -  1960  3,960.00  - •  1961  14,742.70"  1962 1963 1964 1965  34 g a l  -  1627.00  360.00  177 g a l  2790.00  7915.00  360.00  1408 g a l  12,788.00  3546.00  3624.00  360.00  519- g a l  8,838.00  1636.00  4281.00  -  120.00  -  -  -  453 g a l  55 lppm seemed to be the l e v e l beyond which upsets to normal breeding  occurred  i n Golden Eagles. The discovery of a Merlin i n a nest which was apparently suffering from "Frounce" opens speculation into a possible cause of Merlin mortality, that of disease.  Kocan and Herman (1971) state:  "Naturally occurring infections of T. g a l l i n a e have been . reported i n raptors, and i t i s believed that these birds acquire their infections by eating infected pigeons (Stabler, 1941b; Stone and James, 1969). The large number of f e r a l pigeons i n many areas of the country make an excellent source of T. g a l l i n a e for birds of prey. There has been some speculation that the decline of certain r a p t o r i a l species may be d i r e c t l y related to their s h i f t i n diet from other wild birds to f e r a l pigeons. Although there i s no d e f i n i t e proof of t h i s , the presence of n a t u r a l l y occurring trichomoniasis i s worthy of consideration when studying the population dynamics of birds of prey". Merlins (despite the o l d name of pigeon hawk) are not large enough to prey on pigeons, and i t i s only speculation that perhaps i t i s S t a r l i n g s (Sturnus vulgaris) which are providing an intermediate host for T. g a l l i n a e . Starlings are very common along c l i f f s of the South Saskatchewan River. Reproductive data for Merlins investigated during this study have been summarized (Table 2); the wide ranges of means between data from d i f f e r e n t years and d i f f e r e n t areas indicates considerable v a r i a t i o n i n reproductive  success from year to year.  Factors which can be considered  "natural" ( i . e . not influenced by man) that affect reproductive could be responsible for this v a r i a t i o n have been outlined.  success and  In 1973 a cause  of the low net production of young Merlins can be attributed to the severe storm during the c r i t i c a l hatching over  4G7o of the nests  and post-hatching  period.  F a i l u r e of  active p r i o r to the storm can probably be attributed  56 d i r e c t l y t o i t . Of over 500 young M e r l i n s produced d u r i n g the study twenty-four  young M e r l i n s were found dead i n the n e s t .  were i n the Hanna a r e a and cause o f the r e m a i n i n g  period,  Of these d e a t h s , 7  a l l but one were a t t r i b u t e d to the storm.  m o r t a l i t y i s unknown.  R i v e r 17 m o r t a l i t i e s were d i s c o v e r e d , a t t r i b u t e d t o the s t o r m d i s c u s s e d .  The  A l o n g the South Saskatchewan  and o n l y 2 c o u l d p o s s i b l y have been  The  remaining  15, f o r w h i c h causes were  unknown, were i n a l l y e a r s between 1969  and 1974,  and at a l l stages  of  development. The  interchange  o f i n d i v i d u a l M e r l i n s between the Hanna a r e a  the South Saskatchewan R i v e r area serves Merlin population i n Alberta.  and  to e s t a b l i s h the c o n t i n u i t y o f  the  There i s no r e a s o n t o suppose t h a t a s i m i l a r  movement between M e r l i n s o f the Hanna a r e a and M e r l i n s of the K i n d e r s l e y d i d not e x i s t .  The  of o r i g i n a l c a p t u r e  f a c t t h a t a l l male r e t r a p s were a t , or n e a r b y j the  area  point  lends s u p p o r t to the i d e a t h a t i t i s the a d u l t male, o r  a male o f f s p r i n g r a i s e d i n the a r e a , w h i c h keeps a s i t e under occupancy y e a r a f t e r year.  I f a l l M e r l i n s are removed o v e r a wide a r e a f o r a number of y e a r s  so t h a t t h e r e are no male M e r l i n s w i t h a p a s t h i s t o r y o f n e s t s i t e use  for  t h a t a r e a , reoccupancy of t h a t a r e a would become u n l i k e l y .  like  I n an a r e a  K i n d e r s l e y where M e r l i n s have been absent f o r o v e r a decade and where the few pasture,>areas which might be good M e r l i n n e s t i n g h a b i t a t are so from one  another and  isolated  from areas where M e r l i n s do p r e s e n t l y n e s t , i t seems  v e r y u n l i k e l y t h a t they would be r e o c c u p i e d  a g a i n by n a t u r a l means.  How-  e v e r , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t r e - i n t r o d u c t i o n o f M e r l i n s , e s p e c i a l l y males, t o the i s o l a t e d p o c k e t s of M e r l i n h a b i t a t would be s u c c e s s f u l i n r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g M e r l i n s to a formerly vacated  area.  T h i s might be p o s s i b l e even i n the wheat  c o u n t r y o f Saskatchewan i f problems encountered by M e r l i n s i n a t t e m p t i n g  to  n a v i g a t e t o a n e s t i n g t e r r i t o r y over oceans o f wheat do n o t prove i n s u r r mountable.  A t p r e s e n t , c o n s i d e r a b l e time and r e s e a r c h i s b e i n g devoted  t o the b r e e d i n g o f r a p t o r s , i n c l u d i n g M e r l i n s , under a r t i f i c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , and the r e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f these b i r d s t o the w i l d (R. F y f e , p e r s o n a l communication),.  58 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  Changes on t h e Canadian p r a i r i e s w i t h t h e advent o f w h i t e men have been many; m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the p r a i r i e ecosystem has been as g r e a t a s , o r i g r e a t e r t h a n , i n any o f t h e major ecosystems o f the c o n t i n e n t and many p r a i r i e s p e c i e s o f p l a n t s and animals have been brought t o e x t i n c t i o n t o i t . The t h u n d e r i n g the b a w l i n g dramatic  o r very near  o f t h e f e e t o f m i l l i o n s o f b i s o n has been r e p l a c e d by  o f c a t t l e and t h e humming o f t i g h t w i r e on fence p o s t s .  The most  changes and, from a n a t u r a l i s t s p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e most d e v a s t a t i n g  changes have been e f f e c t e d by t h e p l o u g h .  S o i l , u n t u r n e d s i n c e t h e age o f  i c e , have been a g a i n exposed t o t h e p r a i r i e s u n s h i n e ,  w i n d , and w a t e r , and  an a g r i c u l t u r a l system l a r g e l y based on annual c r o p s has been e s t a b l i s h e d over l a r g e t r a c t s o f l a n d . I n s p i t e o f the g r e a t changes i n t h e ^ p r a i r i e l i f e remains o r i s a d a p t i n g  ecosystem much n a t i v e  t o the new f a c e o f t h e p r a i r i e s .  One such com-  ponent o f t h i s l i f e i s t h e M e r l i n and so l o n g as t h e r e a r e t r e e s w i t h s u i t a b l e n e s t s i t e s , and s m a l l e r b i r d s t o h u n t , some M e r l i n s "make a l i v i n g " . F o l l o w i n g t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f M e r l i n s from t h e K i n d e r s l e y o f Saskatchewan i n v e r y r e c e n t y e a r s ( t h e l a t e 1960's) as r e c o r d e d  area  by f i e l d  s u r v e y s , my study was i n s t i t u t e d w i t h t h e Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e s u p p o r t t o i n t e n s i f y documentation o f t h e major f e a t u r e s o f t h e p r a i r i e M e r l i n popu l a t i o n and h a b i t a t , and t o probe t h e cause o f the d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f M e r l i n s from t h e K i n d e r s l e y a r e a o f Saskatchewan. This study,  f o c u s i n g l a r g e l y on t h e two above mentioned  areas,  consisted of: a) Y e a r l y s u r v e y i n g o f n e s t s , r e c o r d i n g o f r e p r o d u c t i v e s u c c e s s , banding o f n e s t l i n g M e r l i n s and banding and t r a p p i n g a d u l t M e r l i n s ; t h i s was  59 done t o o b t a i n d a t a r e g a r d i n g n e s t s i t e r e o c c u p a n c y , p r o d u c t i v i t y o f M e r l i n s , and M e r l i n p o p u l a t i o n dynamics. b) I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p a s t and c u r r e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l systems and t h e i r e f f e c t s on the M e r l i n p o p u l a t i o n . disease, and  c) O b s e r v a t i o n o f p r e y c o m p o s i t i o n and i n c i d e n c e , weather, and human i n t e r f e r e n c e and t h e i r e f f e c t s on n e s t i n g M e r l i n s , and  d) S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f p e s t i c i d e r e s i d u e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o egg h a t c h a b i l i t y . In conclusion,  l e v e l s i n egg t i s s u e s ,  t h e f o l l o w i n g statements can be made:  1) P r a i r i e g r a s s l a n d areas have been i n a c o n t i n u o u s s t a t e o f change s i n c e the a r r i v a l o f s e t t l e m e n t , and p r a i r i e w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s have been a f f e c t e d . 2) The most l o n g - l a s t i n g e f f e c t on M e r l i n s (and o t h e r p r a i r i e w i l d l i f e ) has been as a r e s u l t o f t h e p l o u g h and t h e r e s u l t i n g r e d u c t i o n i n the d i v e r s i t y o f p r a i r i e h a b i t a t . 3) Abandonment o f p r a i r i e farmlands has r e - e s t a b l i s h e d g r a s s l a n d s i n d r y e r p a r t s o f the p r a i r i e s and abandoned windbreaks have r e s u l t e d i n p o t e n t i a l n e s t i n g h a b i t a t f o r M e r l i n s and o t h e r p r a i r i e b i r d s . 4) The p r o c e s s o f p l o u g h i n g p r a i r i e g r a s s l a n d s s o i l s i s a c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s , though, and o f l a t e i s expanding; p r e s e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y i n A l b e r t a i a a d v o c a t i n g t h e p l o u g h i n g and r e s e e d i n g o f g r a s s l a n d s to e x o t i c s p e c i e s such as c r e s t e d w h e a t g r a s s ; w i t h t h e improved f a r m i n g t e c h n o l o g y today these l a n d s w i l l never be r e c l a i m e d by g r a s s l a n d s a g a i n . I t may t h e r e f o r e be c o n c l u d e d from my c o m p a r a t i v e study t h a t , i f the M e r l i n i s t o be m a i n t a i n e d on the Canadian p r a i r i e s , we must m a i n t a i n a g r i c u l t u r a l systems which w i l l  l e a v e l a r g e segments o f t h e p r a i r i e l a n d s c a p e i n  a near n a t u r a l s t a t e , such as the n o t - s o - h i g h l y systems.  modified  range-livestock  The r e d u c t i o n o f f a c t o r s w h i c h reduce t h e d i v e r s i t y o f p r a i r i e  such as t h e use o f p e s t i c i d e s and h e r b i c i d e s , must be c o n s i d e r e d maintaining  life,  a part of  the n a t u r a l p r a i r i e system.  v  60  Literature Cited  Amadon, D., and L. Brown, M c G r a w - H i l l Co.,  1968. N.Y.  E a g l e s , Hawks, and F a l c o n s o f the W o r l d .  Bent, A.C. 1938. L i f e H i s t o r i e s o f N o r t h American 2. U.S. N a t l . Museum B u l l . 170. 482 pp. B l u s , L . J . , C D . G i s h , A.A. R e l a t i o n s h i p o f DDE 235,  Brooks, W.E.  Birds of Prey.  B e l i s l e , & R.M. P r o u t y . 1972. Residues to E g g s h e l l Thinning.  Part  Logarithmic N a t u r e , Lond.,  376.-7.  1896.  Remarks on R i c h a r d s o n ' s M e r l i n .  I b i s 1896,  222-28.  Cody, M.L., 1968. On the Methods o f Resource D i v i s i o n i n G r a s s l a n d B i r d Communities. Amer. N a t u r a l i s t 102(924): 107-147. Cooke, A.S. 1973. S h e l l T h i n n i n g i n Aviam Eggs by E n v i r o n m e n t a l E n v i r o n . P o l l u t . (4) pp 85-152.  Pollutants.  Dawson, C.A. & E.R. Younge. 1940. P i o n e e r i n g i n the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s . The M a c M i l l a n Co., T o r o n t o . D i p p i e , G.F.  1895.  Nesting of Richatdson's M e r l i n .  O o l o g i s t 12: 135-36.  F i s h e r , A.K.  1863.  The Hawks and Owls o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  Wash.,  D.C.  Fox, G.A.  1964. Notes on the Western Race o f the P i g e o n Hawk. Jay 12 ( 4 ) : 140-147.  Blue  Fox, G.A.  1971. Recent Changes i n the R e p r o d u c t i v e Success o f the P i g e o n Hawk. J . W i l d l . Mgmt. 35 ( 1 ) : 122-128.  F y f e , R.W., J . Campbell, B. Hayson, and K. Hodson. R e g i o n a l P o p u l a t i o n D e c l i n e s and O r g a n o c h l o r i n e I n s e c t i c i d e s i n Canadian P r a i r i e F a l c o n s . The Canadian F i e l d - N a t u r a l i s t 83 ( 3 ) ; 191-200. Gray, J.H.  1967.  Men  Hardy, W.G., ed. 1967. Vancouver.  A g a i n s t the D e s e r t . Modern P r e s s , Saskatoon. Alberta, A Natural History.  Evergreen Press L t d . ,  H i c k e y , J . J . , and D.W. Anderson. 1968. C h l o r i n a t e d Hydrocarbons and E g g s h e l l Changes i n R a p t o r i a l and F i s h - e a t i n g B i r d s . S c i e n c e , N.Y. 162: 271-273. Houseman, J.E. 1894. 11:236-237.  Nesting Habits of Richardson's M e r l i n .  Oologist  61 L i t e r a t u r e C i t e d , cont'd. J o h n s t o n , A. 1970. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Rangelands i n A l b e r t a . Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e .  Alberta  Kocan, R.M., and C M . Herman, i n I n f e c t i o u s and P a r a s i t i c D i s e a s e s o f W i l d B i r d s . J.E. D a v i e s , R.C. Anderson, L. N a r s t e a d , and D.O. T r a i n e r , e d i t o r s . Iowa S t a t e U n i v . P r e s s Iowa, 1971. Lockie,  J.D., D.A. R a t c l i f f e , and R. B a l h a r r y . 1969. B r e e d i n g Success O r g a n o c h l o r i n e R e s i d u e s i n G o l d e n E a g l e s i n west S c o t l a n d . J. A p p l i e d E c o l . 6 ( 3 ) : 381-389.  Moss, E.H.  1955. 567.  Owens, R.A. 1971. Alta. R a t c l i f f e , D.A. Prey.  The V e g e t a t i o n o f A l b e r t a . MSc.  T h e s i s (unpubl) The  B o t a n i c a l Review 2 1 ( 9 ) :  and  493-  U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary. Calgary,  1967. Decrease i n E g g s h e l l Weight i n C e r t a i n B i r d s N a t u r e 215: 208-210.  of  Rochenbauch, D. 1969. "The Good and the Bad Y e a r s " (Tr.ansl. from German) W i l d Und Hund. 7 2 ( 1 5 ) : 357-358. S a l t , W.R., and A.L. W i l d . 1958. The Queen's P r i n t e r . Edmonton. Smith, P.J.,  ed.  Sopher, J.D. 1964. Edmonton.  1972. The  The  B i r d s of A l b e r t a .  P r a i r i e Provinces.  Mammals of A l b e r t a .  Gov.  Alta.  U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto  Gov.  Alta.  Press.  Queen's P r i n t e r .  S t e w a r t , A., and W.D. Porter. 1942. Land Use C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the S p e c i a l Areas o f A l b e r t a . Ottawa Dom. o f Can. Dept. o f A g r i c . P u b l . #731 Tech. B u l l . #39. 73pp. Temple, S. 1970. MSc. T h e s i s . The e v o l u t i o n And S y s t e m a t i c s of the N o r t h American M e r l i n s . Cornell University. Ithaca, N.Y. W a t t s , F.B. 1960. The N a t u r a l V e g e t a t i o n o f the Southern G r e a t P l a i n s Canada. G e o g r a p h i c a l B u l l e t i n 14: 25-43. Weins, J.A. 1973. P a t t e r n and P r o c e s s i n G r a s s l a n d B i r d Communities. E c o l o g i c a l Monographs 43 ( 2 ) : 248-  of  62  APPENDIX 1 AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS: MEAN RESIDUE LEVELS IN EGGS OF RICHARDSON'S MERLIN 1969-1973  Residue  (ppm wet)  DDE  Dieldrin  Heptachlor  Mercury  1969 1 2  (N = 12) (N = 2)  23.2 7.82  0.99 0.22  1.05 0.94  0.36 0.22  1970 1 2  (N = 38) (N = 5)  9.53 29.11  .33 0.46  0.70 0.37  0.22 0.37  1971 1 2  (N = 13) (N 4)  25.57 47.17  0.57 0.95  0.48 0.35  0.29 0.15  1972 1 2  (N = 44) (N = 15)  9.60 20.60  0.59 0.78  0.31 0.33  0.14 0.22  1973 1 2  (N = 13) (N = 18)  10.76 21.36  1.40 0.74  0.88 0.58  0.07 0.13  20.47  .70  .60  .22  MEAN:  1 Egg c o l l e c t e d 2 Eggs c o l l e c t e d  -.  during incubation p r i o r dead a f t e r  to h a t c h i n g  incubation.  * U n p u b l i s h e d d a t a from C.W.S. F i l e s , Edmonton  63  APPENDIX 11 ANALYSIS OF FACTORS OF NEST SITES USED IN ALBERTA BY RICHARDSON'S MERLIN  Factor  Category  Nestings  #  1  S i t e Tree Type  Acer-Populus Acer-Salix Acer-Caragana  84 10 57  55.2 7.2 37.6  S i t e Tree H e i g h t  10' 20' 30' Over  15 56 35 45  10.0 37.1 23.2 29.7  Site Origin  Upland Grove R i v e r Grove Windbreak  .24 43 80  15.9 31.1 53.0  Undercover  Bare Less 6" Over  30 12 53 51  20.6 2.2 36.,3 34..9  Site Density  Impenetrable See Through Bare  37 117 2  24.5 74.2 1.3  Site  Less Than 100 yd 100 yd Over 300 yd  21 71  .14.0 47.2  Size  19' 29' 39' 39'  Ground' Than 6" 2' 2'  Presence o f Bare Branches  Yes No  136 15  90.0 10.0  Bare Trunk  Less Than 2' 2' - 6' Over 6*  10 105 36  6.6 69.6 23.8  Nest  Open Enclosed  50 71  41. 58.  6' 11'16'21'Over  44 47 9 10 12  37.6 35.9 7.7 8.5 10.3  Type  Nest H e i g h t  10' 15' 20' 26' 26'  64  APPENDIX 11 (Continued)  Factor  Category  Nestings  #  %  Nest Tree Type  Acer Populus Salix Caragana  50 62 4 0  43.1 53.5 3.4 0  Nest Tree Height  0' 10' 20' 30* Over  1 23 44 23 23  0.8 20.2 38.6 20.2 20.2  Canopy over Nest  0' - 5' 6' - 10' Over 10'  35 36 35  33.0 34.0 33.0  L i v e Branches Below Nest  0' - 5' 6' - 10' Over 10'  47 27 25  47.5 27.3 25.2  Position of Nest  A g a i n s t Trunk In Crotch On Limb  48 42 16  45.2 39.6 15.2  Distance To Roads  L e s s than % mi \ - % mi % - 1 mi Over 1 mi  31 3 33 33  31.0 3.0 33.0 33.0  D i s t a n c e To Occupied Buildings  L e s s Than \ mi \ - \ mi % - 1 mi Over 1 mi  0 2 13 85  0 2.0 13.0 85.0  D i s t a n c e To Water  L e s s Than \ mi - % mi % - 1 mi Over 1 mi  29 4 58 9  29.0 4.0 58.0 9.0  9' 19' 29' 39' 39'  65  APPENDIX I I I PREY SPECIES USED BY RICHARDSON'S MERLINS The o c c u r r e n c e s o f f e a t h e r and s k e l e t a l remains found and from  2070  identified  f e a t h e r and o t h e r p r e y remains found i n n e s t s and a t p l u c k i n g  perches i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 1 3 .  C h e s t n u t - c o l l a r e d longspurs ( C a l c a r i u s  and Horned L a r k s ( E r e m o p h i l a a l p e s t r i s ) t o g e t h e r formed 9 7 7 , o f p r e y  ornatus)  remains.  Of the stomach ( c r o p ) c o n t e n t s o f R i c h a r d s o n ' s M e r l i n s examined by Fisher  (1863),  and Brown  2  (1968)  c o n t a i n e d b i r d remains,  1  i n s e c t s , and  1  was  empty.  Amadon  g i v e the r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n s o f f o o d items o f M e r l i n s as  b e i n g about 8 0 % b i r d , 57, mammal and 1 5 7 , i n s e c t  remains.  A l t h o u g h n e s t i n g M e r l i n s are s u s t a i n e d almost e n t i r e l y by s m a l l b i r d s , r o d e n t remains were found t w i c e , and M e r l i n s are known to f e e d on i n s e c t s i n the study a r e a . grasshoppers  A f a m i l y o f new  f l e d g e d M e r l i n s was  seen p u r s u i n g and e a t i n g  d u r i n g a heavy h a t c h o f these i n s e c t s (D. O ' D e l l , p e r s o n a l  communication).  I n s e c t remains d i d n o t show up i n p r e y remains c o l l e c t e d .  I f M e r l i n s are h u n t i n g an a r e a o f one m i l e r a d i u s as b e h a v i o u r o b s e r v a t i o n s would l e a d me to b e l i e v e , t h e n , based on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f 1 9 7 1 a i r photos f o r 4 0 M e r l i n s i t e s , t y p i c a l l y M e r l i n s are u s i n g an a r e a composed o f about  757o  g r a s s l a n d and  257o  c u l t i v a t e d land.  a d j a c e n t to my study a r e a , Owens  (1971)  I n a study  immediately  has shown t h a t b r e e d i n g p o p u l a t i o n s  o f p r a i r i e b i r d s have d e n s i t i e s o f ^ 2 7 . a n d  5 4 . p a i r s / 1 0 0 a c r e s on g r a z e d  and  u n d i s t u r b e d g r a s s l a n d s r e s p e c t i v e l y , 4 1 . 5 p a i r s / 1 0 0 a c r e s on mowed h a y l a n d ( n a t i v e ) , and o n l y 6 . 3 and 7 . 5 p a i r s / 1 0 0 a c r e s on seeded and f a l l o w c u l t i vated land r e s p e c t i v e l y .  I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t M e r l i n s are h u n t i n g p r e -  d o m i n a n t l y o v e r g r a s s l a n d s where s m a l l b i r d p o p u l a t i o n s are g r e a t e s t .  *  66 TABLE 13.  SPECIES UTILIZED AS PREY BY MERLINS  Horned L a r k  (Eremophila  alpestris)  Chestnut - c o l l a r e d Longspur  (Calcarius ornatus)  Sparrows: Vesper Sparrow (Poecetes gramineus) Savannah Sparrow ( P a s s e r c u l u s  sandwichensis)  C h i p p i n g Sparrow ( S p i z e l l a p a s s e r i n a ) U n i d e n t i f i e d Sparrows Blackbirds: -Red-winged B l a c k b i r d ( A g e l a i u s p h o e n i c e u s ) Brown-headed Cowbird  (Molothrus a t e r )  Western Meadowlark ( S t u r n e l l a n e g l e c t a ) Others: McCowans Longspur (Rhynchophanes mccownii) L a r k B u n t i n g ( C a l a m o s p i z a melanocorys) Pine S i s k i n (Spinus pinus) Cedar Waswing ( B o m b y c i l l a cedrorum) E a s t e r n K i n g b i r d (Tyrannus Red P h a l a r o p e  (Phalaropus  S p o t t e d Sandpiper  tyrannus) fulicarius)  ( A c t i t i s macularis)  U n i d e n t i f i e d Shorebirds R i c h a r d s o n ' s Ground s q u i r r e l ( j u v ) ( C i t e l l u s r i c h a r d s o n i i ) Other Rodents ( F a m i l y C r e c i d a e - m i c e  and/or v o l e s )  67 TABLE 14.  PAIR DENSITY AND SPECIES ABUNDANCE OF GRASSLAND BIRDS I N GRASSLAND AND AGRICULTURAL REGIMES (Based on Owens, 1971)  Habitat  Grassland (Undisturbed)  # Pairs/100A  54.5  Grassland (Grazed and Mowed)  27.441.5  Cultivated (Seeded and Fallow)  6.37.5  S p e c i e s Most  Abundant  Sparagues P i p i t B a i r d * s Sparrow Savannah Sparrow Western Meadowlark C l a y - c o l o u r e d Sparrow Chestnut-collared Longspur Western Meadowlark  V e s p e r Sparrow Horned L a r k  68  Owens (197.1) a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t Horned L a r k s , and  Chestnut-collared  Longspurs . are found a b u n d a n t l y on g r a z e d n a t i v e g r a s s l a n d s , h a b i t a t s w i t h the l e a s t amount o f cover  ( T a b l e 15).  The preponderance o f Horned L a r k s ,  C h e s t n u t - c o l l a r e d Longspurs and V e s p e r Sparrows i n M e r l i n prey i n d i c a t e d the preference  o f M e r l i n s f o r open h a b i t a t o v e r which t o hunt.  T h i s i s to be  expected s i n c e i t i s h e r e where p r e y would f i n d the l e a s t amount o f escape cover.  D e s p i t e the h i g h e r b r e e d i n g  density of small b i r d s i n undisturbed  g r a s s l a n d t h i s h a b i t a t would p r o b a b l y be used l e s s by h u n t i n g M e r l i n s because o f the escape cover a v a i l a b l e .  I n my  study a r e a most o f the g r a s s l a n d were  grazed. The h a b i t a t most p r e f e r r e d by Horned L a r k s , n e x t to c u l t i v a t e d l a n d , i s grazed g r a s s l a n d (Owen 1971).  Weins (1973) s t a t e s , " A g a i n , however, the  response o f i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i e s t o g r a z i n g e f f e c t s was L a r k d e n s i t y was  more c l e a r c u t .  g r e a t e r i n grazed p l o t s and, a t Pawnee, i n p l o t s s u b j e c t e d  to heavy summer g r a z i n g .  Western Meadowlarks and Grasshopper Sparrows, on  the o t h e r hand, were more numerous on ungrazed p l o t s . . . "  This  preference  o f Horned L a r k s f o r open h a b i t a t would i n p a r t account f o r the h i g h centage o f Horned L a r k s found i n the M e r l i n s ' A second f a c t o r a c c o u n t i n g C h e s t n u t - c o l l a r e d Longspurs  diet.  i s t h a t o f the b e h a v i o u r  o f these b i r d s .  Study A r e a has  s c a l e o f sawtooth c u r v e s r e p r e s e n t i n g f e e d i n g b e h a v i o u r American s p e c i e s s t u d i e d ( F i g . 5 ) . a g i v e n time span, and  per-  f o r heavy u t i l i z a t i o n o f Horned L a r k s  (1968) i n h i s work on the Pawnee IBP G r a s s l a n d  behaviour.  Horned  devised  i n fourteen  and  Cody a  North  H i s graph shows the d i s t a n c e moved o v e r  the number and d u r a t i o n o f stops, made i n f e e d i n g  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t the two most " a c t i v e " b i r d s  shown are Horned L a r k s and C h e s t n u t - c o l l a r e d L o n g s p u r s .  Perhaps these b i r d s '  69 TABLE 15 AVERAGE NUMBER OF BIRDS, OF SOME SELECTED SPECIES, RECORDED AT ROADSIDE STOPS OF DIFFERENT LAND-USE SUB-TYPES.  P  w p  LAND-USE  pq  1=3  Pi  & EH CO M P  ta t=>  SPECIES Number o f stops Native  EH  w  EH CO H P  P W N  w  P W N  S3 >  \,  CO  o ta  M EH  H P M ta PQ  Pi  as  3  11  10  10  6  o  5  p  CJ  !=> a  species  Sprague's P i p i t  13.6  10.6  4.5  .4  0  0  Baird's  12.6  9.6  4.2  .8  0  0  9.0  5.0  6.0  6.8  8.5  5.6  Western Meadowlark  8.4  10.6  8.4  7.6  7.0  5.6  C h e s t n u t - c o l l a r e d Longspur  3.4  6.6  12.3  .4  .2  .5  .6  3.6  3.9  6.7  5.1  6.6  2.0  2.0  1.1  4.6  1.5  3.0  1.6  1.6  4.4  2.4  5.5  3.5  .4  2.8  1.0  4.8  Sparrow  Savannah  Sparrow  Vesper Sparrow Clay-colored Horned  Sparrow  Lark  Barn Swallow Introduced  .6  0  species  Ring-necked Pheasant  0  0  0  .8  .5  .6  Starling  0  0  0  14.2  11.8  20.6  House Sparrow  0  0  0  4.9  0  7.0  Rock Dove  0'  0  0  2.1  .3  3.1  Notes: N e i t h e r R o a d s i d e Count r o u t e p a s s e d any r e c e n t l y mowed n a t i v e g r a s s l a n d , so t h e r e i s no column f o r t h e "mowed''sub-type o f land-use, (from Owens, 1971)  To f a c e page 70  70  F i g u r e 5.  Feeding Behaviour of Grassland B i r d s (from Cody, 1968) . Sawtooth curves r e p r e s e n t i n g f e e d i n g b e h a v i o u r i n f o u r t e e n N o r t h American s p e c i e s s t u d i e d . The h o r i z o n t a l p a r t o f a " t o o t h " i s the d u r a t i o n o f the average stop i n seconds; the r a t i o : between t h i s i n t e r v a l and t h a t between s u c c e s s i v e " s t a r t s " i s the p r o p o r t i o n o f the time spent s t a t i o n a r y d u r i n g a f e e d i n g sequence; the s l o p e o f the l i n e common to a l l t e e t h i n a c u r v e i s p r o p o r t i o n a l to the average speed o f p r o g r e s s i o n f o r the s p e c i e s d u r i n g f e e d i n g .  71 more a c t i v e f e e d i n g b e h a v i o u r makes them more n o t i c e a b l e t o M e r l i n s and t h e r e f o r e e x p l a i n s i n p a r t t h e h i g h e r r a t e o f p r e d a t i o n on them.  72  APPENDIX IV COMMON PLANTS OF THE STUDY AREA (SPECIMENS LODGED I N THE BOTANY DEPARTMENT HERBARIUM) UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A. SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER GRASSES B o u t e l o u s g r a c i l i s (HBK.) l a g .  B l u e grama  S t i p a comata T r i n . and Rupr.  Spear g r a s s  Koeleria cristata  June Grass  (L.) Pers.  O r y z o p s i s hymenoides (Roem. & S c h u l t . )  Indian grass  Bromis i n e r m i s L e y s s .  Awnless brome  Agropyron  Crested Wheatgrass  c r i s t a t u m (L.) G a e r t n .  rice  S i t a n i o n h y s t r i x ( N u t t . ) J.G. Smith  Squirreltail  F e s t u c a spp.  Fescue  Poa sp.  Blue grass FORBS  Plantage p u r s h i i R & S  Pursh's Plantain  Ranunculus g l a b e r r i m u s Hook.  Buttercup  S m i l a c i n a s t e l l a t a (L.) Desf.  Star-flowered solomon's s e a l  Thermopsis r h o m b i f l o r a ( N u t t . ) R i c h a r d s  Golden bean  Lygodesmia .juncea (Pursh) D. Don  Skeletonweed  A l l i u m t e x t i l e N e l s . & Macbr.  Prairie  Viola nuttali  Nuttal's violet  (Pursh)  onion  APPENDIX IV ( C o n t i n u e d ) SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER FORBS Lithospermum  canescens  (Michx.).Jehm.  Hoary  puccoon  Tragopogon dubius Scop.  Y e l l o w g o a t ' s beard  M a l v a s t r u m coccineum (Pursh) A. Gray  S c a r l e t Mallow  Erysimum asperum ( N u t t . ) DC.  Western W a l l f l o w e r  Pentstemon  Smooth b l u e  n i t i d u s Dougl.  beardtongue  P o t e n t i l l a a n s e r i n a L.  Silverweed  Lomatium v i l l o s u m Raf.  Hairy-fruited  Comandra p a l l i d a A.D.C.  P a l e comandra  A s t r a g a l u s p e c t i n a t u s Dougl.  Narrow-leaved m i l k - v e t c h  T h l a s p i arvense L.  Stinkweed  A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m L.  Yarrow  Cleome s e r r u l a t a Pursh  Spiderflower, Pink cleome  L i s t r i s p u n c t a t a Hook  Dotted b l a z i n g s t a r  A s t r a g a l u s spp.  Milk-vetch  Hedysarum spp.  Sweet-broom  parsley  SHRUBS & TREES Populus a u g u s t i f o l i a James  Narrow-leaved c o t t o n wood  Symphoricarpos o c c i d e n t a l i s (Hook)  W o l f b e r r y , Buckbrush  S a l i x spp.  Willow  Rosa spp.  Rose  Populus spp.  Poplar  74 APPENDIX IV (Continued) B. HANNA-YOUNGSTOWN, ALBERTA AREA GRASSES Festuca s c a b r e l l a Torr.  Rough Fescue  A g r o s t i s scabra W i l l a  Northern  Agropyron  g r i f f i t h s i i S c r i b n . & Smith  A. dasystachyum (Hook.)  Agropyron  s m i t h i i Rydb.  Western wheatgrass  Agropyron  subsecundum ( L i n k ) K i t c h c .  Bearded wheatgrass  bentgrass  B o u t e l o u s g r a c i l i s (HBK.) L a g .  B l u e grama  K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a (L.) P e r s .  June g r a s s  Bromus i n e r m i s L e y s s .  Awnless brome  Hordeum iubatum L.  Wild barley  Poa i n t e r i o r Rydb.  Inland blue grass  Poa p r a t e n s i s L.  Kentucky  Poa p a l u s t r i s L.  Fowl b l u e g r a s s  Beckmannia s y z i g a c h n e (Steud.) F e r n .  Slough  S t i p a comata  Spear g r a s s  Agropyron  T r i n . & Rupr.  c r i s t a t u m (L.) G a e r t n .  blue grass  grass  C r e s t e d wheatgrass  Stipa v i r i d u l a Trin.  Green n e e d l e g r a s s  C a l a m a g r o s t i s montanensis S c r i b n .  Plains  Calamagrostis canadensis  Marsh r e e d g r a s s  (Michx.) Beauv.  reedgrass  D i s t i c h i l i s s t r i c t a ( T o r r . ) Rydb.  A l k a l i grass  C a l a m a g r o s t i s n e g l e c t a (Ehrh.) G a e r t n .  Narrow r e e d g r a s s  T r i s e t u m s p i c a t u m (L.) R i c h t .  Spike  M u h l e n b e r g i a sp.  Muhly  trisetum  75 APPENDIX IV ( C o n t i n u e d ) B. HANNA-YOUNGSTOWN. ALBERTA AREA GRASSES Stipa spartea T r i n .  Porcupine grass  C a l a m o v i l f a l o n g i f o l i a (Hook.) S c r i b n .  Sand g r a s s  Poa ampla Merr.  Big bluegrass  H e l i c t o t r i c h o n h o o k e r i ( S c r i o n . ) - Avena H o o k e r i Scribn.  Hooker's o a t g r a s s  FORBS Ranunculus g l a b e r r i m u s Hook  Buttercup  V i o l a n u t t a l l i Pursh  Nuttall's violet  Ranunculus a b o r t i v u s L.  Buttercup  C e r a s t i u m arvense L.  Field  A r n i c a fulgens Pursh  Arnica  Zygadenus venenosus Wats. - Z. gramineus Rydb.  Death camas  P e t a l o s t e m o n purpureum (Vent.) Rydb.  Purple p r a i r i e clover  G r i n d e l i a s q u a r r o s a ( P u r s h ) Dunal  Gumweed  S o l i d a g o decumbens Greene  Mountain  G u t i e r r e z i a s a r o t h r a e ( P u r s h ) B r i t t . & Rusby  Broomwood,  Orthocaropus  Owl  lutens Nutt.  chickweed  goldenrod Matchbrush  clover  Artemisia f r i g i d a Willd.  S i l v e r sage  Oenthera n u t t a l l i i Sweet  W h i t e evening p r i m r o s e  A n a p h a l i s m a r g a r i t a c e a (L.) C B . C l a r k  Pearly everlasting  Campanula r o t u n d j f o l i a L.  Bluebell, Harebell  Solidago g r a m i n i f o l i a (L.) S a l i s b .  Flat-topped goldenrod  Penstemon p r o c e r u s  Slender  Dougl.  beardtongue  76 APPENDIX IV ( C o n t i n u e d ) B. HANNA-YOUNGSTOWN, ALBERTA AREA FORBS Penstemon g r a c i l i s N u t t .  Lilac-flowered  G a l i u m b o r e a l e L.  N o r t h e r n bedstraw  Antennaria p a r v i f l o r a Nutt.  Pussytoes  Polygonum c o n v u l v u l u s L.  Goosefoot  Anemone m u l t i f i d a P o i r .  C u t - l e a v e d anemone  A r t e m i s i a sp.  Wormwood  Chamaerhodos e r e c t a ( L . ) Bunge  Chamaerhodos  A s t e r pansus ( B l a k e ) Cronq.  White p r a i r i e aster  Oxytropis s e r i c e a Nutt = ) . macounii  Locoweed  Z i z i a a p t e r a (A. G r a y ) F e r n .  Meadow p a r s n i p  Erysimum inconspicuum  Small-flowered rocket  (S. Wats.) MacM.  beardtongue  Medicago s a t i v a L.  Alfalfa  Cleome s e r r u l a t a P u r s h  S p i d e r f l o w e r , P i n k cleome  C a s t e l l e j a c o c c i n e a (L.) Spreng.  Scarlet paintbrush  A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m L.  Yarrow  G a i l l a r d i a a r i s t a t a Pursh  Great-flowered g a i l l a r d i a  Penstemon e r i a n t h u s Pursh  C r e s t e d beardtongue  Tragopogon dubius Scop.  Yellow  V i o l a n e p h r o p h y l l a Greene  N o r t h e r n bog v i o l e t  A n t e n n a r i a c a m p e s t r i s Rydo.  Prairie  Anemone patens (Bess.) Koch  Crocus anemone  Phlox h o o d i i  Moss p h l o x  Richards  goat's-beard  everlasting  Androsace s e p t e n t r i o n a l i s L.  Pygmyflower  V i o l a adunca J.E. Smith  E a r l y blue v i o l e t  77  APPENDIX IV (Continued) B. HANNA-YOUNGSTOWN, ALBERTA AREA FORBS P o t e n t i l l a sp.  Cinquefoil  P l a n t a g o p u r s h i i R. & S.  Pursh's  Carex e l e o c h a r i s  Low  Bailey  plantain  sedge  TREES AND SHRUBS Acer negundo L.  M a n i t o b a maple  Caragana a r b o r e s c e n s Lam.  Common caragana  S a l i x exigua Nutt.  Willow  Thermopsis r h o m b i f o l i a Elaeagnus  (Nutt.) Richards  commutata Bernh.  Symphoricarpos  o c c i d e n t a l i s Hook.  Rosa w o o d s i i L i n d l .  Golden bean S i l v e r b e r r y , Wolf Willow Wolfberry,  Buckbrush  P r a i r i e rose  78  APPENDIX V MERLIN POPULATION AND NEST DATA KEY Data on f i l e i n L i b r a r y Copy, Main L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C. A b l a n d e q u a l s m i s s i n g o r unknown v a l u e . Column 1.  Region  1. Hanna 2. South Saskatchewan R. 3. K i n d e r s l e y  2,3  Site Identification #  1. -85  4.  Year  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973  7. 1974 5,6,7.  Area Designation  8,9,10,11.  Location  12.  # Eggs A n a l y s e d  13.  Occupied  14.  # Eggs Layed  15.  # Eggs h a t c h e d  16.  # Young f l e d g e d  17.  # P r e - h a t c h e d Eggs Removed  18.  # V i s i t s to S i t e  19.  Beta Backscatter  1. Yes 2. NO  20.  G r e a t Horned Owl F l u s h e d  1. Yes 2. No  21.  N e s t Type  1. Open (Crow o r Hawk) 2. E n c l o s e d (Magpie)  eg. SNW,  YTE.  eg. F10, L 1 0  2  (7 = z e r o ) 1. Yes 2. No (7  0)  (8  Yes)  (9  NO)  79  APPENDIX V KEY 22.  Nest H e i g h t  23.  N e s t Tree Type  (Continued) 1. 0 - 5 ' 2. 6' - 10' 3. 11' - 15' 4. 16' - 20' 5. .21' - 25' 6. More t h a n 25'  4.  Acer Populus Salix Caragana  , 1. 2. 3.  24.  N e s t Tree H e i g h t  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  0 - 9' 10' - 19' 20' - 29' 30' - 39' More than 39'  25.  L i v e Branches Above N e s t  1. 2. 3.  0 - 5 ' 6' - 10' More than 10'  26.  L i v e Branches Below N e s t  1. 2. 3.  0 - 5 ' 6' - 10' More than 10'  27.  P o s i t i o n o f Nest  1. 2. 3.  A g a i n s t Trunk In Crotch Out on Limb  28.  S i t e Tree Type  1. 2. 3.  Acer-Populus Acer-Salix Populus-Salix  29.  S i t e Tree Height  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  0 - 9 ' 10* - 19' 20' - 29' 30' - 39' More than 39'  30.  Site  1. 2. 3.  Upland Grove R i v e r Grove Windbreak  Origin  80  APPENDIX V KEY  (Continued)  31.  Undercover  1. 2. 3. 4.  Bare Less 6" More  32.  Density of S i t e  1. 2. 3.  Impenetrable See Through Bare  33.  S i z e o f S i t e ( d i a . o r L.)  1. 2. 3.  Less than 100 yd. 100 - 300 yd. More than 300 yd.  34.  Bare Branches Above F o i l a g e  1. 2.  Yes No  35.  Bare Trunk Benearth  1. 2. 3.  Less than 2' 2' - 6' More than 6'  36,37,38  % G r a s s l a n d 1 m i l e Radius  39,40,41  7o Hay ( C u l t . ) 1 m i l e Radius  42,43,44.  7o C u l t i v a t e d 1 m i l e Radius  45.  D i s t a n c e to Roads  1. 2. 3. 4.  Less than k % mile - % mile \ mile - 1 mile More than 1 m i l e  46.  D i s t a n c e to Occupied  1. 2. 3. 4.  Less than \ m i l e \ mile - % mile % mile - 1 mile More than 1 m i l e  47.  D i s t a n c e t o Water  1. 2. , 3. 4.  Less than % m i l e % mile - % mile % mile - 1 mile More than 1 m i l e  48.  Male Behaviour  1st v i s i t  49.  Male Behaviour  Egg v i s i t  50.  Male Behaviour  Banding  Foilage  Bldgs.  visit  Ground than 6" 2' than 2'  1. A g g r e s s i v e 2. N o i s y 3. Q u i e t .  81 APPENDIX V KEY  (Continued)  51.  Female Bhvr. 1 s t v i s i t  52.  Female Bhvr. Egg  53.  Female Bhvr. Banding v i s i t  54.  Male Trapped  1. 2.  Yes No  55.  Male A l r e a d y Banded  1. 2.  Yes No  56.  Male Y e a r s S i n c e Banding  57.  Male Age a t Banding  58.  Male R e g i o n o f Banding  1. 2.  Hanna-Youngstown South Saskatchewan  59,60  Male S i t e # Where Banded  1-85  61,62,63  Male M i l e s from Banding  64.  Female Trapped  1. 2.  Yes No  65.  Female A l r e a d y Banded  1. 2.  Yes No  66.  Female Y e a r s S i n c e Banding  67.  Female Age at Banding  68.  Female R e g i o n o f Banding  1. 2.  Hanna-Youngstown South Saskatchewan  69,70.  Female S i t e # Where Banded  1-85  71,72,73.  Female M i l e s from Banding  74.  Nest A v a i l a b l e  1. A g g r e s s i v e 2. N o i s y 3. Q u i e t  visit  (Kindersley)  1. 2.  Yes No  River  River  82  APPENDIX VI M e r l i n P e s t i c i d e Data Key Data on f i l e  i n L i b r a r y Copy, Main L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C.  Column  '  1.  Region  1. Hanna-Youngstown 2. South Saskatchewan R i v e r 3. K i n d e r s l e y  2,3.  Site Identification #  1-85  4.  Year  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973  7. 1974 5,6,7.  Area Designation  8,9,10.  Site Location Designation  11.  E'gg.#  13-18.  DDE Residue  20-25.  D i e l d r i n Residue  27-32.  H e p t a c h l o r Epoxide Residue  34-39.  Mercury  41-44.  R a t c l i f f e Index ( R l )  45-49.  Random o r Dead Egg  51-55.  Nest Hatched o r Nest  57-60.  C o n d i t i o n o f Egg  eg. BOW,  (Hg) Residue  Failed  RDR, SSR, YTE  eg. B3, 015, 24A  83  APPENDIX V I I  dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane  endo-exo isomer o f 1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6,7-epoxy-l,4,4a,5,6,7,8, 8a,octahydro-1,4-5,8-dimethanonaphthalene  (HEOD)  1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-l,4,4a,5,8,Sa-hexahydro-l, 4-exo-5,8-endo-dimethanonaphthalene  (HHDN)  1,2 ,'3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6,7-epoxy-l ,4,4a,5,6,7,8, 8a-octahydro-l,4-exo-5,8-exo-dimethanonaphthalene  1,2,4,5,6,7,10,10-octachloro-4,7,8,9-tetrahydro-4, 7-endo-methyleneindane  1,4,5,6,7,10,10-heptachloro-4,7,8,9-tetrahydro-4, 7-endomethyleneindene  f i 14il-IA!".B151718847  134  j. 4 8 1 S N H H 0 7 :l 7 J 5 5 5 7  14332212088010020143  3 142HAFBi5i?3 8827  1 34  1052CPWJ05171 i 232HAWriO':.; 11 j 8 V13328UFF011114  i 11  12421  34121112 2423  ' 1 <)42DYfc'I..C)i J 1 1 1 5 4 4 7 2 :  141 _1  \  1. J.02GK?.I..07171 J062riYEH03:i.7.1 i0720YEr108>7l"' 1622YIEF0811 154812 3 532SNW009U143212 1 4 8 2 8 N W M 0 7 1 1 1 5 21 1452SNWI..0813 1 4 3 3 1  •14312212 • 141 11333221 209300700i:)34 t 143322 3 2088010020143 ' 13332212095000(.)05343  JLmLLi3aX22 2<)45J2^;m3ia^_. 1  1 0 7 3 D Y E r 3 0 8 3 71 1343SUFFp211127  3  12  1 3 0 3 P V F ) : i l O J 1165-.1 33 2 3 P V E M i 3 1 1 1 3 1223HAWM041  . 425831 131121131000000OO31  1  2  3853YTWOQ61  2  1693YTE1101115331 3 1653YI EG08111 54412 1843YfWK071115441 1753YIEM0611157 12  1054CPW.J051  2  1104GPEL071 13448UFF021  2 2  ^1324PVFM1311153326  AA1  15342212 34121112  1 2  3 41  12 32  2325::-:! 1 1324  3212  4 . -V ,' 1 <11;;; : o i f u i 1 ) I /< -; ! 4 :-v/v:< 1:•' 444 1 I -•-.' : ' ' 1 'tv-> -:o(>/t>oi ) -:/; I  12  1  12  i 4:-:37'--'l I 4 :1 ' ' J 14 -: : - -±j^.  143 141 .282531 "101002014-3 221212212331311097000003338 8 - 11 /\ • ! -;i i - . ; :i H <o -a > I -; J 3 2  1  1  ' -.'4  ' ' ! - ' ( - : >  <• • /  ( M  >("!  4  3  -.'  :l 2 31 2 12  : ••;: ••; • I ,• .•> v (> v s *) A 5 0 0 0 4 4: -:  i 4: •: ••' 1: -; () v / (> o . - s o o n 4 4 l 12 23232113311112 2 2 1 3 2 1 U 3 3 3 2 2 1 '(ivhi M K )< )f )5:-;4>: 2 4 1 4 3 1 2 4 -1 -; ' ' 1 I > >c- 6> i< 1 / i ) -: ; I  1  1  ! 4-: 1  1  v  12  12  1  1  2.  •.'( i w - W i r 11 1 tf i( 1 4 4 I  13332212  443  i 4 -.' ' -;!-(•:9 0 0 4 0 0 7 3 4 3 I ; • i 1 -1 ' 0 5 / 11 -; I o i ; -:4 -• 1 1 2 1: 1 3 1 3 1 1 (-.-•:- I >., n -, j i 1 1 1 2 1; 1 2 1 3 2 1 1 1 8 3 1 2 : 1 ,' (>4 5 ( i 5 ' »•»(i5 -: -; • 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 (-.'40001.: i  f  4 -' '  t  ','"> / ,"•(  _ j . 8 1 3 Y 11^109171 " 1234HAl#1051 2 4 1 144HAE!-;15.1 2 1334SU!-F01 1 2 1374SNF):iQ811154418 1U4GPEL131 2 1244HAW01511154413  3  33131212094000006141  1093GPF.F.13171 1083DYEN11171 U73HAFi..3 4 1 1 1 5 4 1 :l 2 3 3 H A W M 0 5 1 1 3.8 3 7 1 1 1 3 G P E ! . 131 71 5 5 5 7 2 X i 3 3 G P I - N 0 6 J 7 MS 7__ 1483SNWH07A114331 4 1543WLFC131315441 1533SNW00913137 13 14438NWL071 2 1623YTEF081 2 1483SNH£K)71iJ37 1423SNWJQ611154412 3 5 7 3 Y T E B 0 3 1 7 J 4 1 .12 14133NW1I1111 1 5 2 1 15238NW0081 2 15138NW0071 2 1463SNM..1011 1 4 3 3 1 3 1433SNW.J1511 1 5 4 4 1 14538NWI..081 U 2 7 12 1 7 1 3 Y i £ K 0 5 1 1 3 47 1 1773YIEDI 211157 12 1783Y!WAi1 1 2  'i  13331312069002029348  )  1,  1/(1  j,  t ;|.  0 5 5 ( ) ' l 4fJ>;1 1 4:-: I ' M !  !  4I 34  423 13131111232231  :064013023141  3  12  132  32  3212  222331138141221  1 32 !,7»  j 3 2 2 2 :f j. 13331312()69002029^43  32  37,  154HA!.:d.t 11 2 264PI. E C 3.2 i 7 5.55375 3:i4PVh):U02 2 254PLE1:!1211 1.57 19 204HAF-M141 2 304PVrr:):iJQJ 2 194HA!">U31718887 224HAWM04 3 7 1 8 1 1 7 4 2 1 4 H A i a 0 2 1 2 i 4 7 19 184HAEM101 2 1 7 4 H A E L 1 4 1 17 414SNWH1111 1 5 3 3 1 8 424SNW106 5 17 434SNW..J151. 2 6 ;  4448NWL.071 1.7 5248NW00817155!; 77 604YTEE041 2 614YTEKX)51.71 7 7 3 624YTEF081. 2 3 354414 454SNWI..081 474SNWL102 2 574YTEB03171 374 584YIEB051 2 4648WWL..1011154419 594YTEC051 2 554WL.WG15 3 2 484SNWH07A7155472 484SIMWH0711157 12 494SNWH0932153118 544WLEC1317187 7 5148NW007171.54418 504SNWM092 2 634YTEF101 2 534SNW009 5 2  3 443 • J 3 2 3 1 1 !33:l 25.3.23.061 0 3 9 0 0 0 3 4 3 3.2312212 322 2 2 3 1 1 3 . 2 3 2 1 3 2 1 2 2 0 7 3 0 2 7 0 0 0 3.4 3 2 3 4342212 J33 1 2 1 1 3 ; . 24332212 2 2 3 3 1 1 2 3 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 0 9 4 0 0 0 0 0 6 5 41 21 1 3 2 2 3 1 1 2 2 J 1 1 12JSX&0QQ0 15 13332312075012013443 1534223 2 441 231321213342213093007000443 523313 3 1097000008333 33311122057007036342  jmjm^.3m2ji^^  213 1 1 1 1 2 3 0 0 0 1 2  JJL  14332212 . 143 22131 1 1233U,22^95005i:)004433 33 13341312057019024843 4 4 4 1 11 1233 3 1 1 2 14312212 141 3 1.2 133322 3 2095000005348 ' 14332212 343 22343112314221305801203013 3 38 332312099001000341 13182131335 2 2 1 2 0 9 7 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 4 4 22 2 2 1 5 1 1 1 4 6 0 0 0 32 3 2 12 . 234 143323 3 1 241 121322214332212083010020 3 43 232531314382212088010020143 2 1 3 1 1 1 4 8 0 0 0 3 13 1 1 4 6 0 0 4 152413 2 3 4 1 3 2 3.2206:9004007343 3 3 3 312 32 1 14322812 • 44423 28 2 8 1 4 3 1 2 1 4 3 ' 2 2 1 3 0 9 7 0 0 3 0 0 0 4 4 1 12 5 2 12 34131152 142 1 3 3 4 2 2 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 48. 133322 3 209300700034 3 674YTEH051 2 5 3132332 381 7 6 4 Y I E N 0 6 1 .17 34111122 5.4.1 784Y1WA111 17 13332212 443 7 5 4 Y ! EI1061~ ~ 2 ~ 1 4 3 1 2 2 2 2 0 7 7 0 0 6 0 1 7 1 4 X 6 5 4 Y T P G 0 8 1 71 7 7 3 1212 213332212092008000443 844YTWK071 2 1 2 1 3 2 3 3.1331221 2 0 4 5 0 5 0 0 0 5 3 3 3 854YTW0061 2 14322312089004007343 8i4Y'l'WI09J 2 05505 4 0 3 1 1 4 3 6 4 4 Y i E G 0 2 3. 71 7 '7 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 143321 3.206701901 4 1 3 4 2 3 774YIE012171555/3 23132221 431121209900 5 00044123823312 12 6 6 4 Y I E G 0 9 5. 2 13332212 243 684YTHiH06 5 7 187 7 3 1122215 113 1 4 2 3 1 2 0 9 4 0 0 6 0 0 0 4 4 3 2 2 6 9 4 Y I E 1 1 0 1 7 143 7 3 5.3242221381.121 2 0 5 6 0 3 1 0 1 3 3 4 3 2 1 21 12 1 2 7 2 4 Y T E K 0 2 1 17 2 2 3 42123 5 3 3 2 2 1 2 1432 2 744YTEH031. 2 143312 3 2040038022343 734YTEI..041 23.53323 22 3 321 433221 1 1331 H i l l 5 2 704YTE.J021 7 1 5 4 4 7 4 122331 3 3 3 223 2 143 1 714YTEK051 2 4 3 3 22 5 1 0 6 6 0 0 7 0 3 3 3 4 1 315PVr-i:U02 2 1 5 4 4 5 5 221211112312212 322 125GPEM021 1 7 3 343 185HAEH101 1154415 13121 2 1 , . i ^ 3 2 8 1 2 0 7 5 0 1 2 0 1 8 4 4 3 3_ 3 5 1.2 305PVE.U.10! 13112118 325PVPM131 17 13331312069002029343 165HAEL1OA: 14 12 14253 115842218 383 2  ' 1355SNi;:A04i7l 7 1 1 75HAEL 141 3 :l 6 5 b 1.4 15342212 441 11 3 3 12 1 3758NE808U15441.5 22122121 232231206401 3023141231331. 5.145HAEf-:>.5l 2 134 1295PVI-.B06 3 J 14331.6 13121 112822212089011000143221121 . 1 215HAWK)21 1 137 7 2 2 1 1 1 121 0 8 5 0 0 0 0 1 5 23 23 1165HAEL1011147 12 2 2 15342213 383 3 1265PLEC123 2 3 33121121061039000143  — ^  _...t32  1255PLP!r!l21 2 3 321321220730270001.41 1225HAWM0415147 14 223211133131212094000006141 2 2 1235HAWH053 2 1 34121112 141 12381311097000003833 1425SWv-n061 2 - 1 3 3 1 2 2 1 2 0 9 7 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 4 4 31 31 2313 1465SNWLi0U5 533!7 i ! . i ^ i : ^ U 2 0 9 5 0 0 0 i ) 0 5 3 4 3 ^ 3__ 14SSSNWJ..08).M57 ?.S 1485SNWH071.1 157 7 5 232531114332212088010020143 2 2 14358NWJ151 2 •33111122057007036342 1 4 7 5 S N W L 1 0 2 1 1 2 7 1.3 1 3 4332212 34323 23 1 5 2 5 S N W 0 0 8 ! 1 1 5 115 241411 23311222095005000443221221 14158NWH1 111 1.42 19 12131221334221309300700044322 22 14958NWM091 2 34132122089004007343 1535SNW0091 17 3 • 13332212093007000841 15i5SNW00711151116 13231 148 2 2 1 3 0 9 7 0 0 3 0 0 0 4 4 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 1625YTLF081 2 14312212 141 1505SNWM0921117 14 13231.2 34131 1 12 1 4 2 1 2 12 1565WLW.J141.71 131322315312212 ,441 1385SNE..1101, 2 13312122070003027343 1395SNWA071718 7 ' 122322118142122055000045233 1575YTEB03331 1119 23122 2 3 1 4 2 2 1 3 0 5 8 0 1 2 0 3 0 1 . 3131 81 12 3 595YTEC0514151116 13222 821 2 12 2 3 4 11211 14458NWI...07 1 2 ' 14332212 ;143 . 1 6 1 5 Y IEP.051 13.37 1 13221 12813112 444322322 1 8 5 5 Y T W 0 0 6 1 3 1 5 7 14 131222 1432231208900400734321.21 1645Y!EG0211127 7 1 3 2 4 3 2 1 1 4 3 3 2 1 1.206701 90141 3 4 2 1 21. 1845YTWK071 2 121321 1 1 3 8 1 2 2 1 . 2 0 4 5 0 5 0 0 0 5 3 3 3 1715VTEK051 2 14332211066007083341 I695YTP:I: i o i 2 13811212056031013343 055014081143 1815YTW1091 17 1725VTEK021 2 15332212 143 1 7 0 5 Y T E J 0 2 ! 1 142215 132522 13332212 143 21 21111!17200112 .I685VTFH0612! 5 4 4 1 6 1 2 2 3 1 1 1 3 1 4 2 3 1 2 0 9 4 0 0 6 0 0 0 4 4 3 21 2 1 1 2 1.2 5.655YTEG0811 157 13 *^12 2 1 3 3 3 2 2 1 2 0 9 2 0 0 8 0 0 0 4 4 3 2 2 12 1835YTWK0611154415 121332213332112 343 12312 1805YTWX081J154414 241813 13332212 14 8 21 21 1. 1735YTE1..041 17 • ' 14332211 133 1775YIE01211154415 2425 21431121209900100044121 2 1 11111.7700012 1765YIPN061 2 341.11122. 141 1 7 4 5 Y I E H 0 3 1 1 1 3 7 15 122511 1 4 3 3 1 2 3 2 0 4 0 0 3 8 0 2 2 3 4 3 3 2 1755YTEM061 1431222207 7006017141 1635YTPP101 1 3 3 4 2 2 1 21000000001.43 1785YTWA1113542215 131311213332212 443323 2112 1206HAECU41 2 14342212. 1156HAB.5! 1 1. 17 8 443 1 0 3 6 B S W G 3 1 1 7 1 8 4 4 7 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 1 4 1 2 1 2 0 7 6 0 1 3 0 1 3 341 21 32 1226HAWM04 3 2 33131212094000006141 1186HAEM1 03 3 3 3.7 1 3. 13332312075012013443 34121 112. L 4 L 132322233142213086000014341 1026BSWC1217154473 1111224079 1246HAW0151 2 33147221 3 82 1176HAI:-.L143 7 1 8 7 72 25251311534223 2  1016)HSWW121 2 3414113 2 1 3.66HAE.L:! 0.1.7157 72 153422 3 3 333 2 2 :i2:i.6HAWIC»21 2 3. 2213 3 1 2 1 0 3 5 0 0 0 0 1 5 :i.3i6PVf-.):ii(>2 2 12312212 322 1256PI..E)r!3 23 2 32132122073027000141 . 1376SNh*083 73 4 7 7" . 123223120640 3 3023141 2 :i356SNF.A041 2 1306PVED101 2 133 3 21 18 1266PLEC12 3 2 38 3 2 1 1 2 1 0 6 3 0 3 9 0 0 0 1 4 3 1326PVEM1311132274 2824 1133313120690020293432222223 2 12 1 2 7 6 P L E M 11 157 7 231312113343 212 3 41 3 3 1 2 9 6 P V E B0617 1 8 4 4 7 2 183 21 3 1 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 0 8 9 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 4 3 32 1 3 3 22 15268NW008171 4 4 7 4 221321123313 2220950050004432222221121152000 1506SNWM092 2 343 3 1 1 1 2 3 42 1396SNWA07 3 2 13 3 4 2 1 2 2 0 5 5 0 0 0 0 4 5 2 3 3 1516SNW007! 2 143 2 2 1 3 0 9 7 0 0 3 0 0 0 4 4 1 1486SNWM0711154316 121331314332212088010020143 2 12112 12 1416SNWH1113147 2 2 123211218342213093007000443 2 2 1496SMWH09 3 •'Jt 341323 2 2 0 8 9 0 0 4 0 0 7 3 4 3 123313 31097000003333 i426SNWI06!l 2 2_3 2 4 241 3 12 12 1556yi.:.WG3 53 2 _ 3 2114332311 15868NW0091 1 4 7 3 " 2 3 1 3 3 3 333221209300700034 3 223223 1626Y 11;>083 2 34312212 141 1446SNWL071 2 14332212 3 43 14768IMHL3 0 2 2 14332212 343 3.576 Y T E B 0 3 1 7 3 2 7 7 2 2 1 3 2 1 2 2 3 3 4 2 2 3 3 0 5 8 0 1 2 0 3 0 3 31 1 3 8 6 S N B J 1 0 1 2 1 4 7 12 1223222133123.22070003027343 2 . j 2313112 444" T6T6YTEh-:o5i~2 33 311122057007036342 1436SNW..1153 2 13 3.32 3.3 3 3 3 1 2 2 3 2 0 9 7 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 4 4 1466SNWL103 1 1 5 / 12 13 3 3 2 2 3 1 5 8 3 2 2 1 2 4412 1566WLWJ14171 7 7 2 1586Y1EB05 31152712 22243 3 2 3 3132312099001000341 1596Ylf.;C051 2 321 2 12 234 1456SNWL081 2 1333223 2 0 9 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 3 4 3 1606YTEE0417147 73 223 4 2 1 2 1 3 3 4 1 3 1 2 0 5 7 0 1 9 0 2 4 3 4 3 2 2 2 2 1736YTFI..0417187 72 2 2 1 4 2 1 3 14332213 133 1696YTr::C 1 0 1 7 1 8 8 8 7 2 1331121205603 3 013343 12 1756YTEM06 3 2 14312222077006017141 1 7 4 6 Y ! i;:H03 3 7 1 3 2 2 7 3 1122156050 123 3 3 4 3 3 1 2 1 2 0 4 0 0 3 8 0 2 2 3 4 3 2 2 2 2 12 1706YTE.J021 2 3 333223 2 143 1 6 6 6 Y 1 E G 0 9 1 1 1 87 72 221213 2 1 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 24328 23 1646YYEG021 2 1 4 3 3 2 3.1 2 0 6 7 0 1 9 0 1 4 1 3 4 1656YVEG083 3 1 5 214 2 2 1 2 1 3 2 1 3 8 3 2 2 1 2 0 9 2 0 0 8 0 0 0 4 4 3 ' 22 2 2 1 2 12 1716YTEK051 2 14332231066007033341 JJi3Ml£b.lSll7l 8i72 Z32A11± i 3 3 4 2 2 A 2 K > Q Q 0 0 0 0 Q J 4 3 '2 212 3 7 7 6 Y T E 8 1 2 1 3 1 2 7 72 1 2 4 2 5 2 1 4 3 1 1 2 3 2 0 9 9 0 0 3 0 0 0 4 4 1 2 28 2 13 3 1 1 6 5 0 0 2 1 2 1686YTEH0611153215 123 3 2 2 2 1 3 1 4 2 3 1 2 0 9 4 0 0 6 0 0 0 4 4 8 2 1726YTEK021 2 15332212 143 1676YTEH051 2 13132312 331 1766YTEW061 2 341113 22 3 41 JLZ. 1786YTWAU1 2 13382212 443 0550 3 4031143 1816YTWI09 3 2 231332 3 13342212073007020433 1796YTWA123.7151773 1846YIWK0/1 2 1 2 3 3 2 1 1 1331223 2 0 4 5 0 5 0 0 0 5 3 8 3 1836YTWK0617183274 2 2 1 2 3 3 31 3 3 3 2 1 1 2 • 34333 33 32  ±  jLiiO&yjLmoi^^ 1856YTW0061 1107GPEI..071 1277PI..Et:il:l 1  L 4 & _ _ 3 4322312089004007843 3 2 132 33341212 1AJ_  1357SN£A04 5 2 1287PLWK02 7 1 8 8 8 7 3 2 2 U37GPtWC)6 23 23 1207HAFM14 7 5 6 6 5 7 2 2 2 3 2 8 3 2 5 3 4 3 4 2 2 1 2 2 i057CPW..305 1197HAI-M13 2433223 2 33 3 422 3 3086000014341 1027BSWC12 1 15/HAFdl3 3 4-43 1297PVFB06 21522142 5 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 2 8 2 2 2 1 2 0 8 9 0 51000 3 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1187HAEM10 7 3 5 5 5 7 3 3 23 3 3 3 2 2 1 3 3 3 2 3 5 2 0 7 5 0 1 2 0 1 3 4 4 3 1 1 2 1 1 2 1147HAF.B15 2 3 34 i127GPPM02 2 3 343 2 i267PL!;:C3 2 3 3 1 2 1 J. 2 1 0 6 1 0 3 9 0 0 0 1 4 3 2 1217HAWK>2 22131121085000015 17 l327PVr-'i"1l3 133313 3 2069002029343 115.7GPFJ..13 1307P VE1U0 13 3.5.23.13 1087i;iYPi\ll 3 1177HAI-.I 14 35842212 4412 1227HAWH04 7 3 5 7 7 3 3. 2 3 2 3 5 1.5 3 3 3 3 1 2 3 2 0 9 4 0 0 0 0 0 6 5 4 5 3 2 1037B8WG1.1 JL 321412120760 lgjOU34J 1167HAEL10 17 2 1534225 3 833 3 3 1 3 6 7 S N E A 0 7 75 3 3 3 7 4 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 5 1 8 5 4 2 1 1 2 443222222 1017BSWJ-H2 2 1 5 3 3 1 5 2 1 2 2 4 3 2 1 3 4 1 4 1 5 5 2 44 5.22 2 2 2 3 2 3 257PLEB12 323 3 2 1 2 2 0 7 3 0 2 7 0 0 0 1 4 5 . 123v f"IAWM05 1 1 5 4 1 1 4 2 1 4 2 4 2 3 1 3 4 1 2 3 15 2 1412212213 2 J3778NPB08 22A2!2lJ.m?2231206401302314,12222223 2 1247HAW01! 3 3 1 4 7 2 2 1 33 2 13 3 7PVEJ.J3 0 2 7 1 4 3 3 7 4 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 2 2 1 2 8 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 3 2 1 5 2 7 8 N W 0 0 8 1 7 1 4 7 731 2 3 3 3 32 3 3 1 1 2 2 2 0 9 5 0 0 5 0 0 0 4 4 3 1 3 31 2 14832212 143 1447SNWI..07 13132211331221209700300034412112312 1467SNWL10 1 1 5 4 4 7 5 1 443 1 1 1 1 1567WLW,J14 1 1 5 3 7 **2 133 3 2 2 3 1 5 3 3 2 2 1 2 1 5 8 7 Y T E B 0 5 7 3. 7 7 13 5 3 2 3 1 2 0 9 9 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 4 1 2 2 1387SNi;:810 2 133125 2 2 0 7 0 0 0 3 0 2 7 3 4 3 1 33422 1 2 3 1407SNWG08 17 1427SNW106 17 2 1283131.10970000033338 3 1557WL.WG15 7 1 3 7 7 3 2 2 2 2 114332311 2 4 1 2 2 22 J 5 9 7 Y T E G 0 5 _2 321 2 12 234 14378WWJ15 33111122057007036342 1 6 0 7 Y I E E 0 4 7147 7 2 2313 13 3 3 4 1 3 1 2 0 5 7 0 1 9 0 2 4 3 4 3 2 2 1617YIPE05 3 23 3 8 3 1 2 444 1487SNWM07 2 14332212038010020143 1517SNW007 2 2 143 2 2 1 3 0 9 7 0 0 3 0 0 0 4 4 1 1547yi..PC13 7 1 6 6 6 7 2 1 5 3:r32221.4ji22312 4M_ 15378WW009 187 7 3 2 1 1333223 2 0 9 3 0 0 7 0 0 0 3 4 1 1397SNWA07 2 133 4 2 1 2 2 0 5 5 0 0 0 0 4 5 2 3 3 1507S1MWHC t w 343 33 1 3 2 1A2_ 1417SNWH11 13342213098007000443 1627yir-F08 14312212 141 ,  Jj2ZZrOil!303  147/SNW!.. 1.0 14578WWL08 1497SWWH09  1837YTWK06  2 2 2  2 2 1807Y'rW103 1 6 S 7 Y I I::HO6 7 1 5 2 1 7 5 1 1797YTWA12 3 7 1827YTWI11 2 1737YTPi.,04 2  3,4332212 343 5 833223 2 0 9 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 3 4 3 34132122089004007343 18832112 343 1333221.2 143 1231 3 2 2 2 1 3 1 4 2 3 1 2 0 9 4 0 0 6 0 0 0 4 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 13342212073007020483 13313 2110540300 5 6 1 4 8 5 433225.5 3 33  12  12 12  32 52 13 3 1 1 3 7 0 0 0 32  5 2  3 747YTEH0317 1544791 122331114331212040038022343212222.1 2 13 2 5 158003 1707Y~iE.. 3071 2 13332212 143 1727YI E K 0 2 1 1 1 5 4 4 1 8 2 2 2 1 3 3 1 1 1 5 3 3 2 2 1 2 143222222 3 2 1 6 9 7 Y T O 1 0 1 7 1 5 2 2 7 5 1 23253221331.121205603101334-3222222 3 2 1717YlEK:051 2 14332211066007033341 1677YI K-. H055 115441 5 2 2 2 2 4 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 2 8 1 2 ' 331222212 3 3 3 1163006 1833223 2 243 1667YTE8091 2 3 2 17/7YIE03 21314 31752 22 3 33 31148 3 1 2 1 2 0 9 9 0 0 3 0 0 0 4 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1657 Y T E G 0 8 1 7 1 5 5 5 7 5 1 2 2 3 2 1 1 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 1 2 0 9 2 0 0 8 0 0 0 4 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 1 3. 1 3 6 5 0 0 0 18332232 443 3 1787YTWA11 3. 17 1647YIEG021 2 .143321 3 2 0 6 7 0 3 90 3.4134 1637Y IE!--101 1 1 5 4 4 1 5 2 2 3 2 4 1 1 1 1 3 3 4 2 2 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 . 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 6 5 0 0 3 1 2 1817.YTW3 091 2 . 0 5 5 0 1 4 0 3 3143 1757Y I E M 0 6 U 3 5 4 4 1 5 2 1431222207700601714122 223 3 2 143223 3 2089004007343 1857YTW0061 2 2 1 8 4 7 Y l W K 0 7 1 1 1 5 4 4 3 4 2 22133211333 22 3.20450500053832223223 2 3 2 2381SSR17A5.7 3 31 1 2 6 7 1 S S R 2 6 A 3 3 127 3 2 275183ft29)h; 1 7 1 8 8 3 7 2392S8R17K1114 1 244288R19A1115831 24928SR20D1115 269288R26C1115 1 2672SSR26AA313 3 2 5 1 2 S 8 R 2 3A1 2 34242312 2622S8R24A1715 34232113 2 ^ 7 2 S 8 R 2 6 M ! i 4 7 .  268288R26B1115371 274288R29A1114 1 273 2S3R28A3.1 1 8 8 2 3 272288R28B3118 3 2043B0W53A1718847 2033)r:0'W52):8.U544i 2023P0W52A11158213 2073B0W54A11154214 2413S3R13A1 2 210388R03)rili1.5 3 234388R3 2 A 1 U 5 3 7 1 23938SR17irqy5421 23 9 3 8 8 R 0 7 A 1 U 5 4 4 1 209388R03.A1 37 238388R17A17184 7 2133S8R05A1115441 216388R06A111 3 3 2283S3R10)H113 5/__1_ 246338R20A1115441 257388R23A113 54313 264383R25A11138312 24438SR19A1 2 267388R26A3 7 1 5 5 7 7 3 247388R20B1 2 254388R72I-: 1 7 1 8 8 3 7 269388R26C1114 1 262388R24A1115321  25 3.38SR21A1 2 26S388R26m 1157 1 253388R22A11153 1 272388R28BU157 1 2 7 3 3 S 8 R 2 8 C 1 1 1 4 71 275388R29B1 2  25242313 35242313  35242322  35242313  35232312 34232113 34242112  279388R30A i. 7 1 3337 774388R29A1 i 1 544.1 2024B0W52A1 10 712 2034B0W52B 17 133373 2044B0W53A11168314 2054B0W53B1 17 230488*11 A 5.7187 73 210488R01B1 2 24048?;; R17017 188872 209488R01A1 2 241488R18A17187 73 2074B0W54A17166678 2244S8R09A1 17 22148SR07C17 3 8837 213488R05A1 2 216488R06A1 2 220488R07B17188273 2194S8R07A1 17 265488R25B17388871 2704S8R26D1 17 4 262488R24A11157 13' 257488R23A11153 13 245488R19B1 17 4 748488R20C17155477 2694S8R26C1718 7 246488R20A1 17 2 J^OrlSJiR^^ 247488R20B17155 73 2634S8R24B17188873 2544SSR72B171;;-; 72 2594S8R23C173 83 .73 253488R22A11143 1 25848SR23B17188373 267488R26A1 2 2824SSR31B1 17 3 280488R30B1 .17 2 281488R31A1 17 3 283488R32A1718 72 279488R80A1718 73 275488R29B17154414 2744S8R29A1 17 3 2045B0W53A11154414 2015B0W34B1 17 2035B0W52B1 17 74 2055B0W53B17187 2025B0W52A1115 712 2095S8R01A1 2 2145S8R05B17187 73 210588R01B1 17 2075B0W54A1 2 2 2 33588R05A1114331 224588R09A1 3. 2415S8R3 8A1 17 23 6588R06A3 2 231588R11B17 3 8 7 2385S8R17A1 2 3 2395S8R17B3 17 2405S8R3 7C1 2 3 220588R07B1 17 3 234588R12A1 2  35242313 25242318  35242312  32  32  32  32  32  32  -  35242312  35242322  3318313 2 12  34232113 352423 3 3 35241313 35737313  1  85232313 85287317  32  12 32  32 12  35243 313 34242311 35232218 32 3 333204000 2524283 3 3524233 3  32332 23 3 2  35243212  2305SSR1J.A1 17 3 2 4 2 5 8 8 R 1 8 K 1 17 2 2 2 5 5 8 8 R 0 9 B 1 17 2 2 2 6 5 S S R 0 9 C ! 17 1 227588R1PA1 2 2 2285S8R.10B1 2 2 2 2 5 8 8 R 0 7 D 1 27 270588R26D1 2 1 2 6 3 5 8 8 R 2 4 B 131581 13 2545S8R22B! 2 2 4 7 5 8 8 R 2 0 B 1 17 3 257588R23A11153313 2465SSR20A11147/73 269588R26C1115 412 2 6 7 5 8 8 R 2 6 A 1 17 245588R19B1 2 2 2485S8R20C! 2 2 6 8 5 S 8 R 2 6 B 1 1 1 5 . 13 251588R21A1 2 2445S8R19A1 2 2 253588R22A1 2 2605S8R23D17188371 2 6 5 5 8 8 R 2 5 B 1 U 5 7 12 2 5 8 5 8 8 R 2 3 B 1 1 1 5 7 13 262588R24A1 2 2 6 6 5 S 8 R 2 5 C 1 7 1 4 7 73 259588R28i":l 1.7 2 2 6 4 5 8 8 R 2 5 A 1 1 1 5 4 14 273588R28C1 2 2 271588R28A1. 2 2 272588R23B121 53312 2 7 4 5 S 8 R 2 9 A 1 17 2 279588R80A1715557 3 2755S8R29B11158314 2835S8R32A1 2 2 2 S 2 5 S 8 R 3 1 B 1 17 2 276588R29C17188 73 280588R30B1 2 2 281588R31A1 2 2 2 7 7 5 3 8 R 2 9 D 1 1157 :L3 2016B0W34B1715557 2026B0W52A11143772 2036B0W52B17188272 2046B0W53A17188872 216688R06A1 2 2 3 4 6 8 8 R 0 5 B 1 7 1 8 7 72 2206SSR07BJ 2 1 222688R07D! 2 224688R09A17187 7 2056B0W53B1 2 2 1 9 6 8 8 R 0 7 A 1 7 1 4 7 72 1 2216S8R07C1715557 213638R05A1 2 2 2 8 6 8 8 R 1 0 B 1 17 210688R01B1 2 225688R09B1 2 2 2416S8R18A1 2 2 0 6 6 B 0 W 5 8 C 1 17 1 .226688R09C1 2 2 >  1 11. J 2: '.0001 :  35282812 85232313 3524281,3  '  35241313 35232318 34242112  35241313 34232113  85232213 34242311 35241212  12 12 35242313 25242313  32332  12  2312  85242322 35212312  12  12  12  12  23i6.SSR.tlBr/187 7 2076B0W54A1 17 2 227688R10A17187 73 239688R17B1 2 2 1 1 6 8 S R 0 2 A 1 7 1 8 7 72 . 2 3 7 6 S S R 1 6 A 1 17 23068SRI1A1 2 2 2 4 2 6 8 8 R 1 8 B 1 1 1 4 7 12 1 2346S8R12A17187 7 2 3 5 6 8 S R 1 2 B 1 17 209688R01A11154412 2406S8R17C1. 17 2 2386S8R17A1 2 2 ;> 2446SSR19A1 2 •"/ 2 4 7 6 8 8 R 2 0 B 1 17 2 6 0 6 S 8 R 2 8 D 1 17 2 263688R24B1 2 2 2 4 9 6 S S R 2 0 D 1 17 261688R23H: 1 7 1 5 5 5 7 2 2596S8R23C1.718 72 2 4 8 6 S 8 R 2 0 C 1 1.7 •2466S8R20A1 2 2546S8R22B171884? 2 2 5 5 6 S 8 R 2 2 0 1 7 1 6 6 72 2626S8R24A1. 17 2456S8R19B1 2 2 2516SSR21A1718827 2 ;7 2 5 6 6 S 8 R 2 2 D 1 17  35212313  :.^5v4821 2  11322030081111213012 12  85282818  12  1.231143097  35232312  12  12 12  34232113 35241313 34242112  12  1.121240013  35232313  257688R23A1 2 35242313 253688R22A1 2 2 258688R23B1 2 35241313 2706S8R26D1 2 2 2666S8R25C1 2 264688R25A1 2 26868SR26B1 2 265688R25B17188372 26768SR26A1 2 2696SSR26C11118712 277688R29D1 2 2 1 2 7 4 6 8 8 R 2 9 A 1 17 276688R29C11148212 35241212 2836S8R32A1 2 2 35232213 2716S8R28A1 2 2 2796S8R30A1 2 27568SR29B1 2 2 2736S8R28C1 2 2 280688R30B1 2 2 2726S8R28B1 2 2 282688R31B1 2 2 34242311 281.683R31A1 2 2 2017B0W34B1 2 2027B0W52A171883722 252533835242318 2047B0W53A1 2 203?B0W52B111544132 25253 125242313 220788R07B1 2 1 22178SR07C171537731 62533135212312 2057B0W53B! 2 22778SR10A1 2 2 2 1 2 7 8 8 R 0 2 B 1 7 1 5 7 7 1 15 2 4 2 3 2 8 5 2 4 3 3 1 2 . 2 1 0 7 S 3 R 0 1 B 1 17  12  12 12  12  2 1 5 7 8 8 R 0 5 C 1 5.17 234788R12A1 2 2307SSR  1 UM  2.  3 2  26  2  235788R12B1 2 236788R12C1 3 7 .237788R16A1 2 3 2 i 9 7 S S R 0 7 A 3.7 5.48373 5 2 6 2 5 2 3 1 3 5 2 4 2 3 2 2 2097S8R01A1 2 2 2077BOWt.4A17130 723.1 218788R06C31157 1 2 2267S8R09C3. 2 2 2387S8R17A1 2 2 2227S8R07U1 2 2067B0Wb3Cl 2 21778SR06B1 2 231788RUB3 2 239788R17B1 2 2S2788R11C1715? 7 1 242421334232313 2 3 67S8R06A1 2 2 3 3 7 8 S R 1 3 L H 1 3 5 7 131 2 6 2 5 3 3 2 3 5 2 3 2 3 1 2 223788R08A1115173 2 23243233524233.2 2407S8R17C1 3 7 3 262513235243212 2147SSR05B1 2 225788R09B3 2 2 213 7 S 8 R 0 2 A 1 1 132 3 5 3 22 6 2 5 3 3 3 3 5 2 1 2 3 1 3 2 4 1 7 8 S R 1 8 A 1 17 2 2 4 7 8 8 R 0 9 A 1 7 1 5 4 2 7 2 2 5 2 4 2 3 2 3 3 2 23 5 2 213788R05A1 2 J 242788R18B3 2 2 2 8 7 8 8 R 3 0B1 2 2 2 9 ? S S R I O C 5 1 1 4 8 5 1 3 2 2 6 2 5 2 3 3 3 5 2 3 2 3 51 2607S8R23D1 2 259788R23C17147 7 1 270788R26D1 2 2 2 5 2 7 S 8 R 2 5. B 1 7 1 8 8 2 7 2 2 5 2 4 3 3 2 3 4 2 4 2 3 3 3 264788R25A17155 732 2477SSR20B 3 71884732 262538235232313 2 6 5 7 S 8 R 2 5 B 1 1? 3 2457SSR19B3 71555732 2625 3 33352413 3 3 265/S8R25BA7117 732 2537S8R22A1 2 2 2587SSR23B3 21581132 262513135241313 26778SR26A1 2 2507S8R20E311583132 2517SSR21A571832732 252433334242112 26i7S8R23h3 2 2 4 9 7 S S R 2 0 D 1 17 3 2 6 8 7 S S R 2 6 B U 1 6 7 132 2 6 6 7 8 8 R 2 5 C 1 17 248788R20C 3 71582731 242532135232313 2 4 3 7 3 S R 1 8 C 3 7 1 5 5 5 7 3 2 26 3 2 4 6 7 S S R 2 0 A 1 17 2577S8R23A171555731 252533235242313 2 6 9 7 S 8 R 2 A C 3 1 1 5 7 131 256788R22D1 2 2 2 6 2 7 8 S R 2 4 A 1 1 1 5 8 3 3 32 2 6 2 4 1 3 2 3 4 2 3 2 1 1 . 3 244788R19A1 17 8 2557SSR22C1 2 2 2 6 3 7 3 8 R 2 4 B 1 1? 2 3 . 2 5 4 7 8 8 R 7 2 B 1 7 1 8 8 8 7 8 •76258818528281V  12  32  •  1 2  3.2 12  3 2 12 12 12  3 2 12  12  12  1.2  11312570!1  12  12  12  1 11 1. 2 5 5 0 0 5  1 2  12  2 7 4 7 8 8 R 2 9 A 1 1 1 5 7 122 2827S8R31B3 1 7 32 34242311 28278SR81BA7153 7 2 132433834242311 2717S8R28A1 2 2 275788R29B1 2 2 278788R29E111431131 242423283232113 '2727S8R28B1 2 2 2767S8R29CJ71444731 25242323524 3 212 27378SR28C1 2 2 2807S8R30B3. 17 3 279788R30A1 1 7 2 283788R32A171544732 3 62533385232213 . 2797S8R30AA7147 2 • • 1 281788R85A1 2 2 / 3087ia'iYfoNWl 83141121000000100 3127KDYPK8N 13841211084000066 3107Ki.iY.BDSN 13343 3 1 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 7 9 3027Kl.lYTl.SW 1 2 3 3 2 3 3 23 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3147KUYPK0W 12822312044000056 3037K):iYTLIM3 14312322 3 00000000 3097KliYi:.'RMW 3 3 3.22122046000054 3047Kl.iYKnEl 3 4341123 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 31 17KFiYB>:i3S 3 233112102800007 2 3057Ki.iYKl.iE2 12832111045000055 14341311050000050 3137KJJYPKSS 3067KDYE8WW 33132121002000098 3037KDYTi..8fc • 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 23 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3077KMYh8WE 33'3 3 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0  1.2  3.2  32 32  3 2 32  I 3 . 1 3 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2  - :-• K< -  to <  ->:6 •>< t-j ^ -> % <to  s  ;-K in  :v -••  JO i\\ 1T1 iTl  tt' fS>  O  iTl iTl  5j"i  —  < :n  ;  -g-  CO CO CO tO O P> tO 0.1 U.' ^;"n;m sri — O  J> ' x l  £  rr, m f t i s  < X" <  to to <  Fi r m 1:1  C  if.i  3  T  O'I •-• "'• -<  <  Z  0"  - in in 1T1 CO 0' ••• 1  ^  '~i  •>  mti33m:|5bTSa**^^^2|CCJ  :T  ,r.  :>  t.n CO 3  t r :>  ~r, O ••> -I -> ^  r CC .r  „b> i H -> :J-  ->  —  a :T  -> ->  C  tr :PCI  2  iZ  ^  £ l  JC  XT.  — ••=-  -s-  —3' "tr  T"-.  ^  j£, £. £. £~  ^  j-'"  V  2" 2  £.  £.  j£,  jSl  £~  £1  JC~  >~  X-  Ti  >>  x x c c -  I - I -' -  T  - " i -:  -0 to X-  11 I —'  274388R2'!'Ai  i . 91 2683SSR26B1 4. 9 3 2 x638SR06A 1 66 1. 5 3 3 S N W C 0 9 1 52 1 3 2 4 P V E N ! .-H 3 54 2044BQW53A1 4. 0 4 1244HAW0'i5 5 7. 5 3 2604SSR23H1 4. /;•; .! 3 7 4 S N E B 0 8 1 6 27 1 2 5 4 P U - B121 173. y 9 4 1 1.564WLWJ14 1 25848SR27A1 10. 8' 2 48SR36A1 13. 8 3. :.-;9 26248SR24A1 13848NF,.IIOI 8. l o i i..' •. .'. 1464SNHL101 15 1484SNHH072 4. 2 1 :i.2:i4l-!AWi 0 2 1 1 6 6 1 7 3 4 Y 1 IH..041. 6. 4 8 j. 7 3 4 Y T F - 1 , 0 4 2 8. 4 8 1 5 > 48NWi"iO? i 8 5 . V 202':.«H0Vi^2A ;i. 1 6 2038B0W53A1 10. 2135SSR05A1 87 2378SSR16A1 i 13 2375SSR16A7 i . :-:y 237!r.,SSRl6A3 i. 38 24658SR20A1. 72 25758SR73A1 i. 60 257588R23A2 4. 4 1 7 5 8 5 9 3 R 7 -;B1  0 221 0. 8 8 9 0. 5 9 3 0. X .8 0. 1 1 0. 10 0. .1 4 o. 08 0. 07 0. 8 9 0. 28 0. 7 4 0. 28 0. 84 0. 31 90 0. 1 7 1. 2 1 18 1. 2 5 0. 59 0. 5 0 0. 86 0. 8 9 0. • . ' • .-  26858SR24B i 26358SR24B2 26358SR24B3 264 5 8 S R 2 5 A ! 2655HSR25H1 2665SSR25C1  4. 21. 1. 3.  0. 0. 0 0.  26658SR25C2  1 9.  26658SR25C3 268588R2ARI  2695SSR26C! 2/25SSR28B1 2758SSR29B1 27758SR79H1 2 5RUR j  6. 1 0  78 6 42 74  /  1. 3 3 2 63 4. 3 6 8/  4. 07 1 SO 4 :i 1 A S H A F L \ o 1 21 1 1 6 5 H A E I 1.02 14. 4 1. ) 8"'iHA E N X 01. 9 0 6 i :» 7 5 H A E L 1 4 1 :). 1 T 2 i 5HAw;(02:i 6. 6 7 1. 2 2 5 K A W N 0 4 1. 6. 9 0 1 2<>5PVr-'BOA1 33 1 315!-'VEni.01 1. 6 1 i 375SMPB081 '.x. . 7 8 < 4 1 5 S N W H 1 i 1 3 3. 1 1 4 1 5SNWH1 1 2 4 4 . / 18 4 1455SNWL08! i 4 7 5 8 N W I .1.01 1.9. 6 i 465SNHLIOI 37. 8 9. 6 2  o. (1  . •. • U  •-.' .v  1. 1 0 0. 3 3 o. 5 0  o. j. 3  10 10  25 •Ml)  o. 1 9 83 7. 1 7 21 0. / ( > 0. 70 0. 5 7 0. 14 0. 8 8 0. 1 .i 0. 21 0. 54 0. 4 5 0. 28 0. 0 5 0. 8 7 0. 58 0. 8? 0. 30 1. SO 1. 86 6. 1 0 0 37 0. 29 1. 41  4. 0 0. 1.  o.  0.  o.  0. 0.  o.  63  39 V 497 01 1 1 32 15 14 20 23 37  0, 0. 8 7 0. 29 84 0. 3 0 0. 6 5 0. 0. 4 9 0. 0. 0. 0. 1 0. 28 0. 3 0 0. 1 9 o. 24 0. .1 9 0. 51 0. 24 0. 4 J 0. 1 2 0. 0 9 0. 1 3 0. 7 6 o. 8 0 0. 1 1 0. 6 0 0. 62 0. 6 1 0 41 0. 2 0 0. 43 0. 62 0. .1 1 0. 27 0. 1 3 0. 3 9 0. 2 7 0 23 0. 04" 0. 2 5 0. 28 0. 4 40, 3 3 0. 3 9 0. 89 0.  o. j 8  0, 13 0. 6 6 .  0. I 2 0. 12 0. 2 0 0. 58 0. 1 1 0. 2 0 0. 1 2 0. 06 0. 1 2 0. 38 0. 24 0. 2 5 0. 15 0. 2 .!' 0i. 1 7 0. 5 5 0. 14 0 1 4 0. 1 S 0. 1.4 ;!. 20 0. 1 6 0. 06 0. -.•:,-1^* 0 14 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. >..).  10 14 14 08 OS OS OS 09 09 04 15 09 08 09 08 14 08 07 10 06  0. 0. 0. 31 0i. 14 0. 0 9 0. 08 0. 22 0. 1 0 0. 0 7 0. 1 1 0. OS 0. 4 8 0. 3 0 0. 1 1 0. 2 1 0. 22 0. 2 3  1. 1.7 1. 0 8 J. 1 8 1.17 1. .I.0 1. 1 7 0. 9 3 1. 2 9 1. 0 8 0. 9 0 1. 1 8 .1. 0 6 0. 9 9 1. 0 4 1. 1 0 1. 1.0 1. 1 3 1. 2 6 0. 9 i ; 1. 0 8 1. O l 0. 8 9  RANn RANXi RANu RANU RANX' RANU ii! "nn RAN' i R A IMS'i RANK RANU RANU RANU RANU RANi i RANO RANU HE AD ill-An UFAO RANU RANU RANU  NHfCH  .1 Hi 71 3QKT 4HR'i 2HRT ..-:0R i" Anil!..  1. 1 4  KANU  NH i CH  1 CRT  1. 1. i. 1, 1.  34 30 81 03 15  I it: A C UL A C Hi-AC !9-;N)J RANU UCAH 1. 2 5 R A N U 0. I-I9 R A N U i . 0 3 HI:. A).i O. 9 6 HP A H 1. 2 1 R A N u 1. 1.8 iVANu 0. 9 5 R A N U 1. 0 0 DP A H 0. 9 8 Hi:: A O 1. 1. 1 R A N U 1. 1 7 R A N U 1. 1 3 j.ii-AH 1. 2 5 R A N U 1. 0 9 R A N U 1. 8 4 R A N U RANU 1 0 6 RANU 1. 0 4 R A N u 1. 1 3 R A N U 1. 0 5 R A N U 1. 1 9 R A N U 1. 2 7 R A N 1 1 1. 31 R A N U .1. 1.7 IvANu 1 0 9 RANu 1. 0 5 U i - A H X. OO R A N U 1. 1 1 RANXi 1. 0 6 R A N U 1. 09 R A N U  NHiCH Nx A U . N n i .; Ni- A XL NM !f H NHICH N H I PH NH I C H N H I'CH Nl-'Axi... NHICH  NPAIL NHICH NH iC H NX-AIL Ni- A l l . . NH I C H NH ! < H NH i CH  ICR"! 1 H R 1' j-RSH ADUL A OR I' 3UK ! 2HR j 1.QRT i K8I-; 2HR"i 2HKi 2HR i 3WRT I C R I'  IHR'I 1 (-!«-: I jUK i N i - A ) i.. 1 C-iR'l' N H I C H 4 C R i' Ni-i! Li-i 4 H R T ' Ni-Al!. 30R i N H I ' C H 1 Hi< i' N H I C H ADDI. Ni-i I'CH 1 C R Y FR8H Ni-A.u.. 1 H R T Ni-All.. IHRf Nt-'AH.. 1 U N I N i - A l I... 2'i'AK I 81 •.<!-'<:" I N<i i i. H 3QRT Nf| (i.;H I H R ' I NH i C H 1HRT Ni- A H . 2U.RI AD I H NX-A XX. F R 8 H PRS'H NHfi.H-1 I-R8H NHI'CH F R 8 H Nx- A XI ( - R 8 H Nl- Ax I HR3H N H I CH H R 8 H N H I C H 1HRT NX-I H.,H i R 8 H NS-A1L i~ R 8 H NX-AIL R T I N N l - A I L H i T'N Nl- A H . F R S H N H I'CH 4WR / N S - A 1 L . 1 HR i :  :  15<>:::.SNwnoy i 28 1 5 1 5SNW0071. 3. ">. 5 8'.8NW0O8 • 3 i595YTK-B0S:l 1.0. s v : W T f - i , o ;. 18 .1 5 9 5 Y , f I 66. > . 5 9 5 Y T E C 0 5 3 3 7. ;i779SYTEC054 43. 161 5 Y T F R 0 5 1 7 3 j A45Y i r 80 7 • 1 A i 655YTFH0,"; ! 4. :  .  O  S  .-  2 .,.(r» '/  y  1 /  0 3  77 •» A^tiY ! EH0A1 :l. 57 i '705V s i 97 :l. 7 4 5 Y i CHO.-O i 3. 7 .17/5Y ! E O i 21 10. 3 ' 7 8 5 V 1 WA1 1 ;i. 6. 42 i 7 8 5 Y i WA1 1 2 3. 50 1785YTWA1 18 72. 4 1805YTWJ.081 4. 5 0 1835YTHKOA , j. 5 3 1 SHAY'i'WHOA .1 3 6 •s 4 i 85AY ! WHO A 7 1 8.56 Y I'WflOAS i . 66 3 6KDY0.2 1 3 6KMYoi 1 2. 7 3 1 586YTFBO: o 17. 8 i 6 0 6 Y Cl: 1:04 1. 1 5. 3 i 606VTf:E041 1. :»..7 i A!SAY 1 I- A O H 7 7 7. 5 i A 5 6 Y IHC081 28. 4 1656Y|FG083 .1 1. 8 ;i 666Y TE !>(>':• ' 45 1686Y 1 EH061 6. A H i 7 2 6 Y T l o .04 1 6. 55 1 726YfEL047 5. 61 1776Y1EOI21 23. 0 J. 186HAEH101 82 1 416SNWH1 .1. j 23. 8 i 4 i 6SNHH1 1 7 1 7. 14 16SNWH!13 1.9. :i j 4 K't :i.486SNWnO/1 56. 9 l 8 8 A S N i 81 07 1 8 2 6 P V E C i i 81 8 97 1 566WL.W.J1 4 5 1.8. 2026B0W52A1 1.. 3 7 4. 07 2096.SSR0! A l 24 2 6 S S R 1 8 B 1 14. 4 26968SR26C 1. 8 2 A. 0 7 2766SSR29C1 i X .2 X 386SNI-..J.1. 01 :i.466SNWl..J.01 16. B !637YTI::E 1.0.1 167 7Y IEH051 172ZYT!:.K;021 1757V I E H 0 6 ! 1847Y!WHO 7:1 A377SNHB081 2  ;  137/SNHB037 137 73N):. BOS 8 5.87 /SNl:.i-:0H4  0. 0. 14 o. 51 o. 54. 0. :f 5 •• 0 .•*. 0. •• l 0. 1 l 7 09 1.. 1 8 0. 7 / 0. 4 8 0. J 8: o. 86 0. 29" o. 16 0. 0 9 o. 41 0 •53 0. 0 9 I. . U9 i. A 1.. 15 78 74 0. 4 4 0. 90 0. 8 3 0. 45 0. 4 5 0. 31 (j. 84 t 07 0. 75 (.1. 21 0. 5 / 0. 9 8 0. 63 0. 4 8 0. 4 9 4. 3 0 o. 39 0. 91 1.. :I5 1. 0. 4 7 0. 1 9 0. 7 0 1. 46 1. 2 0 o. 30 8  0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.  o. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.  1 28 27 46 i 18 :l 7 07 2  2  28 30 23 05 0 21 74 08 72 87 08  0. 0. 0. 0. ;'•"( / .• >~ 0. 0. 6 7 00 v 33 0. 50 1. 1 1 .1. 04 0. 56 0. 53 0. 84 0. 20 ,i 84 0. ' 4 /V 0. -?:' 0. 8 3 o. 42 o. 62 0. 50 0. 4 8 1. 54 o. 37 1. 61 0. 65 0. 46 0. 40 0. 16  o. 12 .1.. 10  o. A2o  70  (). 13  :i 5 0 RAN* .1 N E A I L E R 8 H 1 72 RAWli NH ! 0H R E I N 1 04 RANI! NH i i.;H E R 8 H 1 i. 2 RANl.,1 N H ! !7H 4QR F 47 1 37 RftNi.i N H i CH ER8H 57 .1 10 OifAi.i NH fHH 4HRT 47 1. 1 0 7!: AO NH i CH 8HR f 52 1 0 4 o!-" AO NH i CH 4H!-Ei o. 1 7 1. 01 RAi\iO Ni--AH. E R 8 H 0. 21 0. 94 RANi i NEA1!.. ADDS. o. 1 2 1. 06 RANf.i N!" A 1 !. R'i i'N o. 06 .!. 7 7 RAM..! N! 1 ! <. E, FRSH 0. .1 1 6 RAW)..* Nil i E.i i E R 8 H 0. 22 0. 8 7 RANK Ni- A:I !.. 1 EH-; t 0. 0 8 1 . 07 RANi.i NH ! 8H E R 8 H 0. 04 0. 9 7 RANK NH ! .El ER8l-i 0. 9 0 01:.AH Nil ! 7 rl A DDL 0. 1 8 1 . 00 B E A U NH H7H R'I 1 N 1 .0 8 RANU NH r i.;H E RSH 0. 14 0. 07 1. RANM o'i o.H I-R8H 0. 8 A DK: AD Ni- A l l . RT I N 0. 1 7 0. 70 0. 9 0 DEAD Nl- A i E R i i'N 0. 14 0. 9A RANU NI-'A.H. 1 m r o. 06 1. 30 ERE. H 0. 1 0 j . 30 ERE;!-! 0. 01 1. 1 RAND N H I C E ; 1.HRI" 0. 01 1. 1 0 DEAD N E A R . lQR'f o. 02 1 07 DEAD Ni-AH. :.-';!.-!!-.: t'' 0. 0 5 o. 1.0 DEAD Ni All.. 4HR'i 0. .i. O RANU Nl- A 11.. 2WRT 0. 04 0. 02 DEAD Nf AH.. ADD). 0. 04 ).. 1 0 D i : AD N A ' i L M 4OR | 0. 04 07 RANU N!-l 1 Ci-! 1 Hi-Ei' 1.. 0. 04 1. 17 DEAD Ni- A 1 E 4HR"! 1. 2 0 DEAD Nl- All.. 4 CRT 0. 1 9 1. 10 DEAD Nl- AH.. 1 HR j 0. 0 9 0. 0 9 DEAD Nl- A) E AD) H 0. 0 8 0. OA 0. 0 9 Di.. AD N E AH., ADD!.. o 1 8 0. 0 9 DEAD Ni- A H . 1 Hi-EE o. 07 0. 0 9 DEAD Nl- A) I. 3QRT 0. 01. X. 0 RAND NH 1 t i l 1-RSH o. 56 1. 04 DEAD Nl- A H . 4QRT 0. 7J 1. 0 9 DEAD NH 1.'. •'-!RT 1 N 0. 39 DEAD Nl-'AI E 0. 0 9 1.. 03 DE AD NH 1 i. H 4OR i o. 07 1. 17 RAN! i Nf! i C"H 4 CRT 0. 04 1. 0 9 RAND Ni- A l i . 4CR f o. 0 5 .1. 1 7 RAND 4E!R i .1. 1 8 HAND NH i CH 4HiCi o. 07 0. 0.1 1. OA RAND Ni-A 1!.. :-;oi-,: i 0. 3 3 0. 10 RANn N A}.!. CEiR i 1. 0 0 RANU Nl-i I C H ADD! 1. 1 RAND N H I'CH AUDI. 1. 17. RANU NH I C H ICjR't 0. 9 5 RAN! i NH FCH H,!!<! 1. 0 7 RANU NH I C H crui'H.. 1. 0 8 DEAD Ni- A H . 1 QR T 1. 0 7 )"!!: AD Ni- A ) E 1 CUE! 1. 04 RAN! i Ni- A1 i 1- RSH ;i . 0 0 DE AD. Nl- A H . 4HR1' 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.  07 05 76  2  2  ;  2  !  8  :  1237HAWrl05'i. 1297PVRH0A1 1.017BSWU171 :i.56/WLW-li42 :i. AB? V T E H 0 6 . 1 .  1 467SNWI . 1 0 1 i ? //;VTr: i i . , < !  :i 7 7 7Y i P O ! 2 7 1 7 7 7 Y T F . H i 23 2087B0W52B1 2) 1 7 S S R 0 2 A 1 2 % 8 7SSR051 2187SSR06i: 2 2 3 7 9 8 R 0 8 A 1. 2 2 9 7 S 8 R 10(77 250788R20F1 2627SSR74A1 2A:i77S3l7.<Aiy 2697SSR26P.1 274 788R29A1 2 7 8 7 S S R 2 9 F ;! 233788R1lUi 2587S8R23B1 221 7 8 8 R 0 /(.: i 2297SSR1088 ;  1.7; RAN!.! N P i P H IHR'f 0 0 RANU iMH i i.,H F R S H 07 RANU NH i CH AUDI... 04 RANU NN (' 8H 1 H R " ! 0 5 DFAU N i l ! C H I C R i H 1HRT .1 8 BkAU _ NHl'C ! 08 UP A)I Nidi.;: i 4-HR i" 10 DFAU Ni-i I C:H 4HR"I" 1.3 B F A U NH IV,H 4HRT A9 RANu Nl-NC H 8w^T 2 5 RANU NH •'!.:if 2HR| 0 5 RANU Ni- Al.I... 3QRT 9 3 RANU Ni- A1.I.. X H R T -14 RANU N H 8 H 2G i\'l Di-AiJ N H H i i :-:i.-!i-7i X / RANU Ni-i I (.:R 7 Hi-; I 1. 1. RANU Nf-I i CII 2UR1 15 KANi > Nl- Ai i.1 3HRT 0 3 RANU N l - A l i 3QRT 16 RANU Nl-A) i. 3QRI' 02 RANU NHIC il 8HR"i 21 RANU Ni-Al i. 4QRT 0 0 RANU NH |'i.;: i-l 4 HR l ,  H AU)'M. NH 07 Ui-.A'U NHl'C H 1.URT  A. HP A* >  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0093862/manifest

Comment

Related Items