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Study of two mothers’ verbal interaction with their language-delayed and normal language-learning children Fleming, Amy 1976

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A STUDY OF TWO MOTHERS 1 VERBAL INTERACTION WITH THEIR LANGUAGE-DELAYED AND NORMAL LANGUAGE-LEARNING CHILDREN by AMY FLEMING B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n The Department of P a e d i a t r i c s D i v i s i o n of Audiology and Speech Sciences We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA :? June, 1976 © Amy Fleming, 1976 In p resent ing t h i s t he s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree tha t permiss ion fo r ex tens i ve copying of t h i s t he s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r ep re sen ta t i ve s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t he s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n permis s ion. -Depart (frJ*J<^ op The Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 i i ABSTRACT This paper reports the f i n d i n g s of an o b s e r v a t i o n a l study of two family groups c o n s i s t i n g of a mother and her two young sons. In each fa m i l y , the older sons aged 4-5 and 4-9, were language-delayed despite a lack of apparent i n t e l l e c t u a l or p h y s i o l o g i c a l d e f i c i t , and the younger sons, aged 2-6 and 2-11, appeared to be a c q u i r i n g language normally. Over a one month p e r i o d , data c o l l e c t i o n took place i n three free play contexts i n the f o l l o w i n g order: 1. The mother i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h her normal c h i l d . 2. The mother i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h her language-delayed c h i l d . 3. The mother i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h both c h i l d r e n together. For each f a m i l y the t h i r t y minutes of audio-taped data c o l l e c t e d i n each of the three contexts were analyzed i n terms of a number of p h y s i c a l per-formance, s t r u c t u r a l , and f u n c t i o n a l parameters. In a l l contexts the mothers' speech s t y l e s were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from each other. Some evidence supports the hypothesis that mothers make d i f f e r e n t i a l assumptions about the v e r b a l input needs of t h e i r language-delayed versus t h e i r normal language-learning c h i l d r e n . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v i i CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 5 2.1 Code Switching 5 2.2 The Verbal Input to Normal C h i l d r e n A c q u i r i n g Their F i r s t Language 8 2.2.1 By Mothers 8 2.2.2 By Other A d u l t s 11 2.2.3 By C h i l d r e n 13 2.2.4 D i r e c t versus I n d i r e c t Speech . . . . 14 2.3 The Results of Ma n i p u l a t i v e Experiments . . . 15 2.4 The Verbal Input to C h i l d r e n Who are not A c q u i r i n g Language Normally 17 3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 21 4 METHOD 23 4.1 S e l e c t i o n of the Subjects 23 iv CHAPTER Page 4.2 Procedure 24 4.3 Transcription of the Data 26 4.4 Analysis of the Data 27 4.4.1 The Language of the Children 27 4.4.2 The Language of the Mother 27 4.4.2.1 Physical Performance Parameters . 27 4.4.2.2 Structural Parameters . . . . 29 4.4.2.3 Functional Parameters . . . . 30 5 RESULTS . 31 5.1 The Language of the Child 31 5.2 The Language of the Mother 32 5.2.1 Physical Performance Parameters . . . . 32 5.2.2 Structural Parameters 34 5.2.3 Functional Parameters 37 6 DISCUSSION 40 6.1 Review of the Present Results in Relation to Theory and Previous Research 40 6.2 Limitations of the Present Investigation . . . 43 6.2.1 Subjects 43 6.2.2 Procedure 43 6.2.3 Analysis 44 6.3 Implications for Theory and Future Research . . 45 6.4 Summary 46 V Page REFERENCES 47 APPENDIX 50 v i LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE 1 Number of Utterances, MLU and Upper Bound of the Two Mothers and Their Normal and Language-Delayed C h i l d r e n i n Three Contexts 33 2 P h y s i c a l Performance Parameters of the Two Mothers' Speech to Their Normal and Language-Delayed C h i l d r e n . 35 3 S t r u c t u r a l Parameters of the Two Mothers' Speech i n Three Contexts 36 4 Mothers' Utterances i n Three Contexts C l a s s i f i e d According to Bloom's F u n c t i o n a l Types 38 5 Mothers' I n t e r r o g a t i v e Forms i n Three Contexts C l a s s i f i e d According to Holzman's F u n c t i o n a l Types . . 38 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The present research could not have been accomplished without the help and encouragement of many people. I would l i k e to express my si n c e r e thanks to the f o l l o w i n g : Ms. Patience Towler, The Research and E v a l u a t i o n Committee, and a l l the t h e r a p i s t s of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Health Services who generously screened t h e i r case loads and made a c c e s s i b l e a number of s u i t a b l e sub-j e c t s . The mothers who cooperated so k i n d l y ; Dr. David Ingram f o r h i s s u p e r v i s i o n ; Dr. J.H.V. G i l b e r t , my second reader; Dr. A.-P. Benguerel f o r h i s advice and cooperation regarding the s e l e c t i o n and use of the equipment; Carolyn Johnson f o r her h e l p f u l suggestions; Wilma Haig f o r her i n s i g h t i n working w i t h language-delayed c h i l d r e n . A l l my classmates, e s p e c i a l l y Heather f o r checking my t r a n s c r i p -t i o n s , and Barbara, Naomi, and Blanche f o r t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p and support; The members of my f a m i l y f o r t h e i r patience and i n t e r e s t ; and l a s t but not l e a s t , my t y p i s t , Miss K. Cook. 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The importance of the r o l e of the environment i n which a c h i l d acquires h i s f i r s t language has been a c o n t r o v e r s i a l issue. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , two t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s have upheld opposing views on the r o l e of en-vironmental a s s i s t a n c e i n the language a c q u i s i t i o n process. A b r i e f over-view of the r a t i o n a l i s t or c o g n i t i v e p o s i t i o n i n cont r a s t w i t h the emp i r i -c i s t or l e a r n i n g p o s i t i o n w i l l s u f f i c e as an explanation f o r the emergence of the p a r t i c u l a r area of research that i s the concern of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n . R a t i o n a l i s t s such as von Humboldt, Lenneberg, and Chomsky give credence to a strong innateness hypothesis which maintains that amazingly complex but poorly described innate c a p a b i l i t i e s are the e s s e n t i a l proper-t i e s of the language a c q u i s i t i o n device (LAD). By means of the LAD, given complex primary l i n g u i s t i c data, the c h i l d must construct a grammar or set of r u l e s i n order to e v e n t u a l l y perform comparable output. I t i s acknow-ledged that input to the LAD from speakers of a s p e c i f i c language i s necessary i n order f o r the device to be a c t i v a t e d ; however, the quan t i t y and q u a l i t y of these primary l i n g u i s t i c data are not considered of impor-tance. On the other hand, the e m p i r i c i s t p o s i t i o n emphasizes the r o l e of the environment. Research r e s u l t s from a wide v a r i e t y of experiments i n the f i e l d s of c o g n i t i o n , p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s , and s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s , have revealed some of the environmental v a r i a b l e s that a f f e c t both the r a t e and q u a l i t y of the c h i l d ' s language development. For example, McCarthy (1954) c i t e s s e v e r a l studies i n which the 2 development of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c h i l d r e n does not proceed at the r a t e of c h i l d r e n r a i s e d i n f a m i l i e s . Due to a presumably impoverished environment, language development as w e l l as a l l other areas of development i s o f t e n somewhat retarded. Furthermore, when more mothering i s sup p l i e d , language development shows the l e a s t improvement and tends to remain permanently impaired. In p a r t i c u l a r , the work of B e r n s t e i n has described d i f f e r e n c e s i n the q u a l i t y of language output that i s o f t e n c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the s o c i a l c l a s s environment i n which the c h i l d i s r a i s e d . The working-class p r i m a r i l y uses a " r e s t r i c t e d code" w h i l e the middle-class c h i l d learns to use an "elaborated code". B e r n s t e i n defines these codes i n the f o l l o w i n g way: I f the speaker i s o r i e n t e d toward an elaborated code, then the code w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the speaker i n h i s attempts to make e x p l i c i t ( v e r b a l l y ) h i s i n t e n t i o n s . I f a speaker i s o r i e n t e d toward a r e s t r i c t e d code, then t h i s code w i l l not f a c i l i t a t e the v e r b a l expan-s i o n of the speaker's i n t e n t . In the case of an elaborated code the speech system requires more complex planning than i n the case of a r e s t r i c t e d code. (Be r n s t e i n , 1970, p. 31) Moreover, the q u a l i t y of the working-class c h i l d ' s language places him at a disadvantage i n the school system. In keeping w i t h the e m p i r i c i s t position, Bernstein notes from the point of view of a s o c i o l o g i s t : These two codes, elaborated and r e s t r i c t e d , are generated by a p a r t i c u l a r form of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n . Indeed they are l i k e l y to be a r e a l i z a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s . They do not neces-s a r i l y develop s o l e l y because of a speaker's innate a b i l i t y . ( B e r nstein, 1970, p. 32) Apparently the study of environmental a s s i s t a n c e i n r e l a t i o n to language development i s only v a l i d i f the e m p i r i c i s t / l e a r n i n g p o s i t i o n i s accepted. Cazden has thoroughly analyzed the t o p i c of environmental 3 as s i s t a n c e , of which the subject of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s a subcomponent. A b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the issues involved i n the l a r g e r area of research i s necessary. Throughout t h i s paper, the working d e f i n i t i o n of environ-mental a s s i s t a n c e i s " i n f l u e n c e s from the e x t e r n a l environment." (Cazden, 1972, p. 101). From the s t a r t , Cazden states that without a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the dependent v a r i a b l e , c h i l d language, there i s no research basis f o r d i s c o v e r i n g those aspects of the c h i l d ' s environment which a f f e c t the language a c q u i s i t i o n process. Therefore, i t i s understandable that , to date, most of the research on environmental a s s i s t a n c e i s l i m i t e d to as s i s t a n c e to the c h i l d ' s a c q u i s i t i o n of syntax. According to Cazden, environmental a s s i s t a n c e research accomplished to date can be viewed i n the f o l l o w i n g way. Researchers have i n v e s t i g a t e d aspects of the c h i l d ' s environment that can be grouped i n t o three general c a t e g o r i e s : (1) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the language a v a i l a b l e f o r the c h i l d to hear; (2) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g the c h i l d and at l e a s t one other i n t e r l o c u t o r ; (3) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the non-l i n g u i s t i c environment. A l s o , Cazden presents an overview of the research r e s u l t s which c a t e g o r i z e s o c i a l f a c t o r s i n terms of three categories from the l e a s t c e r t a i n to the most c e r t a i n : (A) d e t e c t i o n of an i n t e r e s t i n g and t h e o r e t i c a l l y p l a u s i b l e f e a t u r e of the c h i l d ' s environment; (B) c o r r e l a -t i o n s between these features and some aspect of the c h i l d ' s language; and (C) causal r e l a t i o n s h i p s t e s t e d by means of manipulative experiments. A great deal of research has been d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to the i n t e r a c t i o n between the.mother and the c h i l d because "the mechanism by which the c h i l d i s s o c i a l i z e d to h i s language code or codes i s i n the communicative i n t e r a c t i o n between mother and c h i l d ... therefore ... the 4 mother's language s t y l e has d e c i s i v e consequences f o r the language develop-ment of the c h i l d . " (Olim, 1970, p. 221) According to Snow (1974) the purpose of the f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n s of mothers' speech to young c h i l d r e n was to r e f u t e the p r e v a i l i n g view of the 1960's that language a c q u i s i t i o n was l a r g e l y innate. To date, the bulk of the mother-child i n t e r a c t i o n studies have been concerned w i t h the normal c h i l d ' s language a c q u i s i t i o n . Some of the i n -s i g h t gained from the studies of normal development has been used i n designing research to i n v e s t i g a t e the case of the c h i l d who i s not a c q u i r -ing language normally. S u f f i c i e n t research has demonstrated that the normal c h i l d ' s environment does a f f e c t h i s language development. Con-sequently, knowledge about the l i n g u i s t i c a l l y - d e f i c i e n t c h i l d ' s environment i s c e r t a i n to be of i n t e r e s t and importance to a l l who deal w i t h such c h i l d r e n . The primary concern of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s the v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n between the mother and her language-delayed c h i l d . 5 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Code Switching I m p l i c i t l y , the foregoing m a t e r i a l acknowledges the phenomenon of code sw i t c h i n g or s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l . The l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e on t h i s t o p i c i s extensive but, f o r the most part, p e r i p h e r a l to the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of t h i s present research. Of i n t e r e s t here i s one code: that which i s used i n addressing young c h i l d r e n . To date, t h i s p a r t i c u l a r code has been q u i t e w e l l described both i n i t s own r i g h t and as the r e s u l t of s w i t c h i n g from a d i f f e r e n t code; however, the p r e c i s e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the adjustments involved w i t h respect to the language development of the c h i l d remains i n question. In a recent paper, Berko Gleason (1973) has analyzed the code swi t c h i n g by a d u l t s when addressing c h i l d r e n as w e l l as the code switching a b i l i t y of the c h i l d r e n themselves. Stated b r i e f l y , the language addressed to the c h i l d r e n observed was f u n c t i o n a l l y a language of s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Adults used a c o n t r o l l i n g language f o r the purpose of i n d i c a t i n g to c h i l d -ren between four and eight years of age what to do, what to think, and how to f e e l . For example, the f u n c t i o n of the f r e q u e n t l y exaggerated r e -sponses of a d u l t s such as, "Hey, wow, that's almost f u l l to the top.'" (Berko Gleason, 1973, p. 162) i s to i n d i c a t e to the c h i l d what h i s r e a c t i o n ought to be, how he should f e e l . T y p i c a l l y , a d u l t s do not use t h i s code i n communication w i t h each other. Moreover, evidence of the a b i l i t y to switch to a code s i m i l a r i n some respects to that used by adults was found i n the language of c h i l d r e n 6 between the ages of four and eight when they spoke to even younger c h i l d -ren. In summary, Berko Gleason's r e s u l t s on the ways i n which c h i l d r e n switch codes when t a l k i n g to d i f f e r e n t people are: Four-year-olds may whine at t h e i r mothers, engage i n i n t r i c a t e v e r b a l p l a y w i t h t h e i r peers, and reserve t h e i r n a r r a t i v e , d i s c u r s i v e t a l k s f o r t h e i r grown-up f r i e n d s . By the time they are 8, c h i l d r e n have added to the foregoing some of the po l i t e n e s s routines of formal a d u l t speech, baby-t a l k s t y l e , and the a b i l i t y to t a l k to younger c h i l d r e n i n the language of s o c i a l i z a t i o n . (Berko Gleason, 1973, p. 167) Although Berko Gleason suggests the entailment of a l e a r n i n g process, the d e t a i l s of emergence of these codes i n the normal language a c q u i s i t i o n process are yet to be elaborated. Explanations f o r the production of a s i m p l i f i e d speech r e g i s t e r remain s p e c u l a t i v e u n t i l f u r t h e r manipulative experimentation demonstrates une q u i v o c a l l y the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t of a s i m p l i f i e d input on the language development process of the c h i l d . Snow (1974) has reviewed a persp e c t i v e of language a c q u i s i t i o n which maintains that the s i m p l i c i t y and redundancy of mother's speech are the e f f e c t s of very s p e c i f i c adjustments f o r the b e n e f i t of the c h i l d and that are cued by h i s communicative output as much as by h i s a t t e n t i v e n e s s and comprehension. Other researchers, i n c l u d i n g Moerk (1972) and Nelson (1973) confirm t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n on the c h i l d ' s f i r s t language a c q u i s i t i o n . S u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n i s not yet a v a i l a b l e to e s t a b l i s h i n what ways a s i m p l i f i e d speech r e g i s t e r s p e c i f i c a l l y aids the c h i l d i n l e a r n i n g h i s n a t i v e language. Snow (1974) st a t e s b r i e f l y that " c o n s i s t e n t s i m p l i c i t y and redundancy may p r i m a r i l y serve the purpose of minimizing confusion and h e l p i n g to co n s o l i d a t e gains i n language a c q u i s i t i o n . " (pp. 16-17) 7 The r a t i o n a l e f o r the m a j o r i t y of measurements made on the speech input" to c h i l d r e n i s that " s i m p l i c i t y " i s demonstrated by these measurements. Some of the measurements by which s i m p l i c i t y can be assessed are speech r a t e , l e x i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y , length of utterance, and incidence of u t t e r -ances without verbs. That i s , a comparatively slow speech r a t e used by adults when addressing young c h i l d r e n as opposed to other adults and o l d e r c h i l d r e n i s assumed to f a c i l i t a t e the decoding process f o r the c h i l d . A lower type-taken r a t i o corresponds to lower l e x i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y and i s i n d i c a t i v e of a more r e p e t i t i v e vocabulary which i s therefore simpler to decode. A l s o , a lower mean length of utterance reduces the load on the c h i l d ' s decoding a b i l i t i e s i n two ways. F i r s t , s h o r t e r utterances are o f t e n grammatically l e s s complex, and, i n terms of a u d i t o r y memory, a s h o r t e r utterance i s most l i k e l y to be decoded more e a s i l y . Snow (1972) found that utterances without verbs were o f t e n the r e s u l t of an incomplete r e p e t i t i o n of a f u l l y grammatical utterance that had been s a i d p r e v i o u s l y . The c h i e f value of such r e p e t i t i o n seems to be to give knowledge about the boundaries of u n i t s w i t h i n utterances (Broen, 1972). In a d d i t i o n , obviously, r e p e t i t i o n s give the c h i l d a second chance to process an utterance. F i n a l l y , the most s i g n i f i c a n t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n that can be made about code s w i t c h i n g to a s p e c i a l speech r e g i s t e r f o r addressing a young c h i l d i s the u n i v e r s a l i t y of t h i s phenomenon. An e a r l y study that demon-s t r a t e d t h i s u n i v e r s a l i t y was "Baby Talk i n S i x Languages" by Ferguson (1964). This well-known research describes the s p e c i a l i z e d l e x i c o n , exaggerated i n t o n a t i o n as w e l l as the phonological and grammatical m o d i f i -cations that are s i m i l a r i n p r i n c i p l e across d i f f e r e n t languages, although the p a r t i c u l a r form of adjustment i s u s u a l l y l a n g u a g e - s p e c i f i c . Further-more, as the subsequent s e c t i o n s of the present review w i l l demonstrate, 8 code s w i t c h i n g to a s p e c i a l r e g i s t e r when addressing young c h i l d r e n i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the speech of older c h i l d r e n and a l l a d u l t s . 2.2 The Verbal Input to Normal C h i l d r e n A c q u i r i n g Their F i r s t Language 2.2.1 By Mothers Two reviews, one by F a r w e l l (1973) and the other by Snow (1974) have thoroughly discussed most of the recent research concerned w i t h mothers' speech to t h e i r c h i l d r e n who are a c q u i r i n g language normally. In the present review, only c e r t a i n major studies which have d i r e c t relevance to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study w i l l be considered. The f i n d i n g s of some very recent studies are a l s o worthy of c o n s i d e r a t i o n . F i n a l l y , the p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e on l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d e f i c i e n t c h i l d r e n w i l l be reviewed b r i e f l y . As a s t a r t i n g point i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the v e r b a l environment of the young c h i l d , i t seems obvious to consider the speech of the mother whose r o l e i s u s u a l l y that of primary care-taker. Katherine Nelson (1973) reports a l o n g i t u d i n a l study of the a c q u i s i t i o n of f i r s t words by eighteen c h i l d r e n between the ages of one and two years. I t was found that mothers tended to use one of two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t y l e s of v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n : e i t h e r an o b j e c t - o r i e n t e d , question-asking, and r e l a t i v e l y concise s t y l e , or e l s e a behaviour-oriented, i n t r u s i v e , d i s c u r s i v e s t y l e . Moreover, at twenty-four months of age, the c h i l d ' s language maturity as measured by mean length of utterance and vocabulary shows a strong r e l a t i o n to the p r o p e r t i e s of object words i n the mother's speech at an e a r l i e r p eriod when the c h i l d was t h i r t e e n months o l d . This l a g e f f e c t demonstrates the complex manner i n which environmental v a r i a b l e s can a f f e c t the lang-uage development of the c h i l d . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that s i g n i f i c a n t 9 c o r r e l a t i o n s between aspects of the language the c h i l d hears and what he produces are d i f f i c u l t to discover. In 1972, Broen's monograph provided d e t a i l e d information about mothers' speech to t h e i r own c h i l d r e n . Each mother had one c h i l d between eighteen and twenty-six months of age, and one c h i l d aged f o r t y - f i v e months or more. The study was conducted i n an experimental s e t t i n g and speech samples were c o l l e c t e d w i t h i n a short p e r i o d of time. A l s o , the mothers were i n t e n t i o n a l l y s e l e c t e d on the basis of t h e i r language teach-i n g s k i l l . In terms of the p h y s i c a l performance parameters of speech r a t e , l e x i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y , and d i s f l u e n c i e s per every one hundred words, i n two d i f f e r e n t tasks, both f r e e p l a y and s t o r y t e l l i n g , the mother's speech to the young c h i l d was adjusted more. Thus, mothers spoke less q u i c k l y , used a l e s s d i v e r s e vocabulary, and had a lower d i s f l u e n c y r a t e when speaking to t h e i r younger c h i l d r e n r a t h e r than t h e i r o l d e r c h i l d r e n . I n the l i g h t of f i n d i n g s by previous i n v e s t i g a t o r s such as Drach (1969) and P h i l l i p s (1970), Broen c a r r i e d out a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the form of speech addressed to the younger c h i l d r e n . One technique f o r o r g a n i z i n g the data was the use of f i v e sentence c a t e g o r i e s . The corpus of utterances f o r each of the ten mothers i n a f i v e minute free play s e s s i o n w i t h the younger c h i l d was coded i n terms of s i n g l e word sentences, imperative sentences, questions, d e c l a r a t i v e sentences, and grammatically incomplete sentences. These categories were not mutually e x c l u s i v e . On the average, 14.9% were s i n g l e word sentences, 36.9% were questions, 30.47=, were d e c l a r a t i v e s , and 15.1% were grammatically incomplete (Broen, 1972, p. 29). However v a l i d the search f o r i n t e r e s t i n g g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s may be, r e s u l t s must be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h caution. For instance, Ferguson (1964) 1 0 emphasizes the v a r i a b i l i t y that e x i s t s i n the baby-talk s t y l e as i t i s used from one f a m i l y to the next. Upon examining Broen's r e s u l t s more c l o s e l y , the evidence of v a r i a b i l i t y i s s t r i k i n g . In p a r t i c u l a r , mother 1 used imperative sentences 4 3 . 5 7 0 of the time, whereas mother 4 used them 3 . 3 7 o of the time. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to judge on the basis of a small q u a n t i t y of data from each subject whether such c o n t r a s t i n g r e s u l t s could represent a sampling b i a s , or whether they c h a r a c t e r i z e a genuine d i f f e r e n c e , i n t h i s case, between how two mothers g e n e r a l l y communicate w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c h i l d r e n . Other researchers have noted v a r i a t i o n across mothers i n the v e r b a l environment they provide f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Ihe approach used by Holzman ( 1 9 7 4 ) i s to analyze both the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c uses of language by each of the dyads i n c l u d i n g c h i l d r e n that ranged i n age from f i f t e e n and one-half months to twenty-seven months. The v e r b a l development of the c h i l d r e n was matched on the basis of a mean utterance length of 2 . 0 morphemes. The data f o r each mother c o n s i s t e d of two samples of one hundred v e r b a l i z a t i o n s each. I t was concluded that the v e r b a l environment provided by Adam's mother o f f e r e d the greatest stimulus to c o g n i t i v e development due to the greater amount of e x p l i c i t teaching (Holzman, 1 9 7 4 ) . The only problem w i t h t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s that Adam was the o l d e s t c h i l d i n the study. Therefore, what appears to be an independent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the mother's v e r b a l behaviour may, i n f a c t , be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the age of her c h i l d . A recent study by Snow et a l . ( 1 9 7 6 ) proposed to examine the q u a l i t y of speech o f f e r e d by Dutch mothers from d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s to t h e i r two-year-old c h i l d r e n . The measurements on the grammatical s t r u c t u r e of the mothers' speech revealed few s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the s o c i a l c l a s s e s . The mother-child dyads were s t u d i e d i n both a free play and a 11 book reading s i t u a t i o n . A noteworthy r e s u l t was that more complex speech occurred i n the book reading s i t u a t i o n i n which no s i g n i f i c a n t c l a s s d i f -ferences occurred. Utterances were a l s o scored, by means of a modified v e r s i o n of the system o u t l i n e d by Bloom (1970),, on the basis of t h e i r f u n c t i o n . Although t h i s f u n c t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d l a r g e s o c i a l c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s , s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was not achieved. A l s o , Snow mentioned i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t y l e and content of play, emphasizing the d i f f i c u l t y of measuring these d i f f e r e n c e s objec-t i v e l y . Some mothers tended to play a " l a b e l i n g game" w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n both s i t u a t i o n s . These mothers would c o n s i s t e n t l y r e q u i r e the c h i l d to name objects or p i c t u r e s . The d e f i c i e n c i e s of t h i s approach became obvious when reading a s t o r y about a c a t e r p i l l a r : the mother taught the vocabulary items that were necessary but f a i l e d to e x p l a i n that the c a t e r p i l l a r be-came a b u t t e r f l y . At the opposite extreme were the mothers who not only discussed the s t o r y , but a l s o r e l a t e d i t to events i n the c h i l d ' s l i f e . These mothers imposed a n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e on the c h i l d ' s free play as w e l l (Snow et a l . , 1976). 2.2.2 By Other Adults In order to f u r t h e r weaken the r a t i o n a l i s t p o s i t i o n on language a c q u i s i t i o n and, at the same time, strengthen the e m p i r i c i s t p o s i t i o n , i t must be shown that young c h i l d r e n a c q u i r i n g language are c o n s t a n t l y the r e c i p i e n t s of s p e c i a l , s i m p l i f i e d v e r b a l input. A few studies have c l e a r l y demonstrated that a l l a d u l t s modify t h e i r speech i n s i m i l a r ways, although to v a r y i n g degrees, when they address young c h i l d r e n . For example, Snow (1972) compared the speech of mothers and non-mothers. A s t r i k i n g r e s u l t was the general absence of d i f f e r e n c e s between the speech of mothers and 12 non-mothers f o r communicating w i t h two-year-olds. A recent paper by Berko Gleason (1975) e n t i t l e d "Fathers and other strangers: Men's speech to young c h i l d r e n " p r i m a r i l y discusses masculine speech input to young c h i l d r e n . The p r i n c i p a l data come from two male and two female daycare teachers at a small daycare f a c i l i t y , and from three fathers and three mothers at home w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n r e c e i v i n g the v e r b a l input were a l l of preschool age. Fathers as w e l l as mothers were found to s i m p l i f y t h e i r speech, but the fathers'output was f e l t to be q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from the mothers' due to the f a t h e r s ' use of imperatives, t h r e a t s , and a f f e c t i o n a t e l y i n s u l t i n g names. In summary, according to Berko Gleason, mothers and fathers had a number of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g features i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e language s t y l e s which could be p a r t i a l l y explained by the d i f f e r e n t r o l e s occupied by the parents. Furthermore, the speech input of the male and female daycare teachers to the c h i l d r e n was both q u a n t i t a t i v e l y and q u a l i t a t i v e l y very s i m i l a r , as i n d i c a t e d by measurements of MLU, preverb length, t o p i c of "dis-course, and r e p e t i t i o n s . Berko Gleason concluded that: "Men, as w e l l as women, modify their.speech when addressing young c h i l d r e n , and where the men occupy a nurturant r o l e they become i n c r e a s i n g l y s e n s i t i v e to the needs and i n t e n t i o n s of the c h i l d r e n . " (p. 297) Further research on Serbo-Croatian examines the problem of question a c q u i s i t i o n . Savic (1974) stud i e d question a c q u i s i t i o n i n a f i r s t - b o r n p a i r of d i z y g o t i c twins and the a d u l t speech i n d i r e c t communication w i t h these twins. By d e f i n i t i o n , " d i r e c t speech" was that i n t e n t i o n a l l y aimed at the c h i l d , and was cat e g o r i z e d i n three ways: questions, commands, and statements. An a n a l y s i s of the frequency and order of appearance of t h i r t e e n question types produced by each c h i l d was c a r r i e d out i n order to 13 determine to what extent t h e i r i n t e r r o g a t i v e systems could be r e l a t e d to that of a d u l t s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study support two major p r e v i o u s l y mentioned p o i n t s . F i r s t , that there i s a l a g e f f e c t i n that the maximal con d i t i o n s i n the language environment are r e f l e c t e d at a l a t e r time i n the language produced by the c h i l d , and second, that the a d u l t and c h i l d are involved i n an i n t e r a c t i o n process. In short, c h i l d speech and a d u l t speech are phenomena that i n f l u e n c e each other. 2.2.3 By C h i l d r e n The study of speech m o d i f i c a t i o n made by c h i l d r e n addressing younger c h i l d r e n i s of i n t e r e s t f o r two reasons. F i r s t , i n order to make the c l a i m that the production of a s p e c i a l speech r e g i s t e r d i r e c t e d to young c h i l d r e n i s a learned s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l , evidence p e r t a i n i n g to the development of t h i s s k i l l i s needed. Furthermore, i n the l a t e 1960's when c r o s s - c u l t u r a l studies on the environment of c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g language were begun, i t was soon r e a l i z e d that o l d e r c h i l d r e n , and not mothers, i n some c u l t u r e s were the primary care-takers of youngjchildren. In an overview paper on the language input to c h i l d r e n , S l o b i n (1975) summarizes the information gained i n the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s . He concludes about the work by Blount (1969) and Kernan (1969) that, although the major speech input to young Luo and Samoan c h i l d r e n a c q u i r i n g t h e i r n a t i v e language i s from o l d e r c h i l d r e n and not from a d u l t s , the course and r a t e of language development do not seem to be a f f e c t e d . S l o b i n emphasizes that the input from the o l d e r c h i l d r e n to the preschoolers i s grammatically s i m i l a r to the input from a d u l t s . Despite the scanty data, the general f i n d i n g appears to be that young c h i l d r e n are exposed to a f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t s i m p l i f i e d speech r e g i s t e r . 14 In 1973, two E n g l i s h language studies e s t a b l i s h e d the a b i l i t y of young c h i l d r e n to adjust t h e i r speech s t y l e . Shatz and Gelman (1973) analyzed the speech of four-year-olds to peers, two-year-olds, and a d u l t s . In terms of measures such as amount of speech, mean length of utterance, and q u a n t i t y of various c o n s t r u c t i o n types, i t was demonstrated that four-year-olds produced sh o r t e r , simpler utterances to two-year-olds. The speech of the four-year-olds i n t h i s context was simpler i n the sense that the f r e -quency of complex c o n s t r u c t i o n s , as w e l l as the t o t a l number of long u t t e r -ances, was lower. In summary, the authors s t a t e d about the rudimentary communication s k i l l of the four-year-olds that "the younger t h e i r l i s t e n e r , the greater the tendency to use short, simple utterances and to make e f f o r t s to a t t r a c t and s u s t a i n a t t e n t i o n . " (p. 34) Furthermore, the study by Sachs and Devin (1973) elaborated on the contexts i n which the s i m p l i f i e d code occurs. As a r e s u l t of the speech m o d i f i c a t i o n s noted, the authors concluded that young c h i l d r e n do not depend on cues i n the immediate s i t u a t i o n , but have developed some more a b s t r a c t knowledge of appropriateness of speech to l i s t e n e r . A l s o , i t i s noteworthy that even the youngest c h i l d , aged two years and four months, was found to use some s o r t of s i m p l i f i e d code s i m i l a r to the t y p i c a l "mother language", although not to the same extent that t h i s s p e c i a l code was used by older c h i l d r e n . Thus, the two s t u d i e s j u s t mentioned serve to demonstrate that the s i m p l i f i e d speech code used to address young c h i l d r e n i s a learned s o c i o -l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l . Further research i s needed to gain d e t a i l e d information about the emergence of t h i s s k i l l . 15 2.2.4 D i r e c t versus I n d i r e c t Speech Much of the foregoing i n f o r m a t i o n comprises a consensus about the c o n s i s t e n t nature of the s i m p l i f i e d v e r b a l input to young c h i l d r e n . F i n a l l y , a point must be made about the aforementioned d i s t i n c t i o n between d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t speech. I t i s obvious that the c h i l d ' s environment provides input that i s not i n the s i m p l i f i e d code. For example, when adults t a l k to each other, the c h i l d i s i n d i r e c t l y exposed to a speech code that i s not adjusted f o r h i s b e n e f i t . However, many researchers noting t h i s phenomenon have agreed that the d i r e c t speech input to the c h i l d i s probably the most important i n i n f l u e n c i n g language development. E r v i n -Tripp summarizes t h i s n o t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g way: C h i l d r e n are exposed to a great deal of speech which i s not addressed to them. But they probably "tune out" a good deal that i s u n i n t e r e s t i n g or too complex, j u s t as they t u r n o f f p o l i t i c a l commentators on t e l e v i s i o n . There seem to be n e u r o l o g i c a l bases to a t t e n t i o n which simply e l i m i -nate from processing and storage a good deal to which we are exposed. So we have good grounds f o r b e l i e v i n g that at l e a s t at the beginning the most important language i n l e a r n i n g i s the speech addressed to the c h i l d . ( E r v i n - T r i p p , 1971, p. 192) A l s o , Snow (1976) c i t e s some anecdotal evidence, obtained from T. van der Geest, that there are cases of Dutch c h i l d r e n i n eastern Holland who watch German t e l e v i s i o n programs r e g u l a r l y , although they n e i t h e r achieve appreciable c o n t r o l of German nor r e a l l y understand the programs. This evidence, although i n c o n c l u s i v e , suggests to Snow that being addressed i n an a p p r o p r i a t e l y s i m p l i f i e d r e g i s t e r of a p a r t i c u l a r language may be p r e r e q u i s i t e to i t s a c q u i s i t i o n by c h i l d r e n . 16 2.3 The Results of M a n i p u l a t i v e Experiments Although the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s i m p l i f i e d speech code u t i l i z e d when addressing young c h i l d r e n have been w e l l documented, there i s l i t t l e i n formation about the extent to which c h i l d r e n attend to and make use of t h i s s p e c i a l input. The necessary and s u f f i c i e n t environmental c o n d i t i o n s fo r a c h i l d to acquire h i s n a t i v e language are not yet known, but the optimal c o n d i t i o n s have been speculated upon. Information p e r t a i n i n g to t h i s t o p i c can only be obtained by means of manipulative experimentation, the design of which i s n o t o r i o u s l y d i f f i c u l t . Few manipulative studies have been executed and only two w i l l be subsequently discussed. In 1965, Cazden performed a manipulative experiment for the purpose of separating the e f f e c t of expansions from the e f f e c t of sheer q u a n t i t y of well-formed speech. These two s o - c a l l e d t r a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s had been observed to occur i n d i f f e r e n t proportions across mothers. The experiment was performed on a group of c h i l d r e n attending a daycare center. One experimental group r e c e i v e d f o r t y minutes a day of i n t e n s i v e and d e l i b e r a t e expansions w h i l e the other group was exposed to an equal number of w e l l -formed sentences that were not expansions. A f t e r a three month period, the noted changes i n s i x measurements of s y n t a c t i c development i n d i c a t e d that the well-formed sentence treatment proved to be somewhat more bene-f i c i a l . D i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s reported by K e i t h Nelson _et al. (1973) a l s o confirm the f a c i l i t a t i o n of syntax a c q u i s i t i o n . In t h i s experimental design, a d u l t experimenters spent twenty-two sessions w i t h one treatment group to which r e p l i e s were " r e c a s t " sentences that maintained the b a s i c meaning of the c h i l d ' s utterance but provided new s y n t a c t i c information. Another group rec e i v e d responses which were grammatically complete but 17 s e m a n t i c a l l y u n r e l a t e d to what the c h i l d s a i d . In other words, the con-tent words of the c h i l d ' s utterance were excluded. F i n a l l y , a c o n t r o l group rec e i v e d no experimental treatment. On a l l of the f i v e measurements of s y n t a c t i c development, the c h i l d r e n who had r e c e i v e d the recast sentence treatment were more advanced l i n g u i s t i c a l l y than the c h i l d r e n i n the other two groups. However, trends i n two measures showed that c h i l d r e n i n the new sentence group were only s l i g h t l y l e s s advanced i n t h e i r performance than the recast sentence group. On no measure d i d c h i l d r e n i n the former group demonstrate that s i g n i f i c a n t f a c i l i t a t i o n r e l a t i v e to the c o n t r o l group's performance had occurred. The preceding d i s c u s s i o n suggests that d i f f e r e n t types of i n t e r -v e n t i o n are more b e n e f i c i a l than others. However, i t i s s t i l l u nclear what t r a i n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , among the many conceivable ones, are the most f a c i l i t a t i v e . In the context of the present paper, the information pre-sented from two manipulative experiments serves to emphasize the r o l e of the environment i n the language a c q u i s i t i o n process. 2.4 The Verbal Input to C h i l d r e n Who are Not A c q u i r i n g Language Normally I t i s undeniable that p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c research has concentrated on the language development of the normal c h i l d . Consequently, i n f o r m a t i o n about the l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d e f i c i e n t c h i l d i s r e l a t i v e l y u n a v a i l a b l e . An important c o n s i d e r a t i o n that has been mentioned c u r s o r i l y by a few other researchers i s s t a t e d thus by Menyuk (1975): " I t has been noted, but not c l e a r l y researched, that mother-child i n t e r a c t i o n i s e i t h e r d e f i c i e n t and/ or d i s t o r t e d i n the case of c h i l d r e n w i t h developmental d i s a b i l i t i e s . " (p. 135) This problem has r e c e n t l y a t t r a c t e d some researchers; however, a thorough review of a l l that has been attempted i s not necessary f o r the 18 purpose of i l l u s t r a t i n g the v a r i e t y of techniques used to i n v e s t i g a t e mothers' i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h c h i l d e e n who are not normal. For example, McCarthy (1954) c i t e s some e a r l y studies examining both the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of mother-child i n t e r a c t i o n . The various s t u d i e s i n which an independent v a r i a b l e i s the amount of contact w i t h the mother support the general c o n c l u s i o n that the degree of delay i n language development i s r e l a t e d i n some gradient to the i n t e n s i t y and d u r a t i o n of the mother's a t t e n t i o n (McCarthy, 1954). There are many commonly expressed notions about the q u a l i t y of the mother-child r e l a t i o n s h i p and i t s e f f e c t on the development of the c h i l d , although l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l evidence supports such notions. McCarthy provides the example that some i n f a n t i l e speech patterns such as l i s p i n g have been viewed as a r e f l e c t i o n i n the c h i l d of the smothering o v e r p r o t e c t i v e a t t i t u d e of the mother. More recent studies have developed t e s t a b l e measurements to describe the q u a l i t y of mother-c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s . One recent approach to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of mother-child i n t e r -a c t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h language delay i s reported by Wulbert et a l . (1975). These researchers chose to evaluate the home environment of c h i l d r e n a c q u i -r i n g language by means of the C a l d w e l l Inventory of Home S t i m u l a t i o n . This t o o l makes use of i n t e r v i e w and observation techniques. The s p e c i f i c hypo-t h e s i s of the research was that the same tendency towards greater r e s t r i c -t i o n and l e s s p o s i t i v e involvement w i t h language-delayed c h i l d r e n might be found across a l l s o c i a l s t r a t a . The r e s u l t s of the study supported the hypothesis s i n c e low C a l d w e l l scores were found throughout the socio-econo-mic s t r a t a , i n d i c a t i n g that the m a t e r n a l - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p was more s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by language delay than by socio-economic f a c t o r s . I t should be emphasized that the C a l d w e l l t o o l provides only a gross measurement of the 19 mothers' v e r b a l behaviour. For example, some of the parameters are:. 1) o f f e r s d i r e c t p r a i s e to the c h i l d at l e a s t once; 2) does not shout at the c h i l d during the v i s i t ; 3) does not express overt annoyance toward the c h i l d . Such parameters provide i n s i g h t about the q u a l i t y of the i n t e r a c t i o n but do not adequately describe the l i n g u i s t i c behaviour. In c o n t r a s t , the measurements made by Buium et a_l. (1974) i d e n t i f y more c l e a r l y the s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s that d i f f e r i n the environments of language-delayed c h i l d r e n versus normally developing c h i l d r e n . I n t h i s study, each of the f i v e mothers composing the normal group had a normal twenty-four-month-old c h i l d , w h i l e the s i x mothers i n the non-normal group each had a twenty-four-month-old Down's syndrome c h i l d . The mother-child i n t e r a c t i o n was recorded by audio-video tape i n three d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s : a play s i t u a t i o n and two 2-minute s t r u c t u r e d s i t u a t i o n s i n which the mother was to teach the c h i l d how to set a t a b l e . The data were analyzed i n terms of twenty-one parameters which the authors grouped i n t o the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : 1) grammatical features; 2) s e n t e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e ; 3) vocabulary; 4) p r o d u c t i v i t y . ^ The r e s u l t s of the study demonstrated that the frequencies of 1 The twenty-one parameters i n v e s t i g a t e d were; (1) i n d e f i n i t e pronouns, (2) personal pronouns, (3) main verbs, (4) secondary verbs, (5) negatives, (6) conjunctions, (7) i n t e r r o g a t i v e r e v e r s a l s , (8) WH questions, (9) s i n g l e word sentences, (10) imperative sentences, (11) d e c l a r a t i v e sentences, (12) grammatically incomplete sentences, (13) questions, (14) r a i s e d i n -t o n a t i o n questions, (15) Type Token R a t i o , (16) t o t a l words, (17) t o t a l utterances, (18) mean length of utterances, (19) t o t a l sentences, (20) mean length of sentences, (21) word r a t e per minute. 20 occurrence of some l i n g u i s t i c parameters i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s were s i g n i -f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n the two groups. The authors c i t e d Brown (1970) to emphasize that one f a c t o r p o s s i b l y i n f l u e n c i n g the c h i l d ' s course of language a c q u i s i t i o n i s the frequency w i t h which c e r t a i n grammatical forms are used. I t was found, f o r example, that the Down's syndrome c h i l d r e n were exposed to a higher number of utterances yet a lower mean length of utterances, and a higher frequency of grammatically incomplete sentences, imperative sentences, and s i n g l e word sentences (Buium et a l . , 1974). However, the authors acknowledge the need f o r f u r t h e r research to confirm the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c e r t a i n parameters of the e a r l y language environ-ment of retarded c h i l d r e n and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r subsequent language production. Furthermore, they maintain that because the language a c q u i s i -t i o n device of Down's syndrome c h i l d r e n must operate on l i n g u i s t i c data that i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t from the data input to normal c h i l d r e n , t h i s f a c t i s worthy of c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n any attempt to understand the language development of the non-normal c h i l d . 21 CHAPTER 3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Language i n t e r v e n t i o n programmes proceed on the assumption that the language-delayed c h i l d , who i s having d i f f i c u l t y i n a c q u i r i n g h i s f i r s t language, w i l l b e n e f i t from a d i f f e r e n t environment which provides f u r t h e r exposure to the very forms and s t r u c t u r e s he was p r e v i o u s l y unable to l e a r n . I m p l i c i t i n a l l of the foregoing m a t e r i a l i s the no t i o n that some environments f a c i l i t a t e language a c q u i s i t i o n more s u c c e s s f u l l y than others. In the past decade, p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c research has been p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the environment of the c h i l d who i s a c q u i r i n g h i s f i r s t language normally. To date, no research has i n v e s t i g a t e d the v e r b a l en-vironment of the c h i l d who i s language-delayed despite a lack of apparent i n t e l l e c t u a l or p h y s i o l o g i c a l d e f i c i t . For such a c h i l d , environmental f a c t o r s might play an e s p e c i a l l y important r o l e i n the language a c q u i s i -t i o n process. I t has been demonstrated u n i v e r s a l l y that the v e r b a l input to the young c h i l d a c q u i r i n g language normally i s s i m p l i f i e d i n comparison w i t h communication between a d u l t s or somewhat older c h i l d r e n . Many d i f f e r e n t parameters have been used to c h a r a c t e r i z e the s i m p l i f i e d speech code on p h y s i c a l performance, l e x i c a l , grammatical, and f u n c t i o n a l l e v e l s of analys i s . The primary aim of the present research was to discover the charac-t e r i s t i c s of the mother's v e r b a l input to her language-delayed c h i l d , and compare these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h those t y p i c a l of her v e r b a l input to the younger c h i l d who appeared to be a c q u i r i n g language normally. Another question asked was how the v e r b a l invironments provided by d i f f e r e n t mothers of language-delayed c h i l d r e n compare. The f i n a l issue involved c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the speech s t y l e used by the mother when she was i n t e r -a c t i n g i n a context i n which both c h i l d r e n were present. 23 CHAPTER 4 METHOD 4.1 S e l e c t i o n of the Subjects I n i t i a l l y , f i v e f a m i l i e s s a t i s f y i n g the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a were contacted: 1. The parents are both n a t i v e speakers of E n g l i s h , and E n g l i s h i s the language spoken i n the home. 2. There are at l e a s t two c h i l d r e n i n the family. 3. The ol d e r c h i l d , aged four to seven years, has been r e c e n t l y assessed by a speech t h e r a p i s t as language-delayed without the c o m p l i c a t i o n of any organic defect. 4. The younger c h i l d , aged two to four years, appears to be a c q u i r i n g language normally. Each f a m i l y was then v i s i t e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r f o r the purpose of d e s c r i b i n g the proposed research and a l s o to i n f o r m a l l y judge the l i n g u i s -t i c p r o x imity of the s i b l i n g s . A b r i e f w r i t t e n o u t l i n e was given to the mothers who were not informed s p e c i f i c a l l y that t h e i r language was of i n t e r e s t but rather-that the purpose of the research was to study the language i n t e r a c t i o n that takes place i n the home, i n v o l v i n g a c h i l d w i t h language problems, h i s or her normal younger s i b l i n g , and t h e i r mother. One f a m i l y was el i m i n a t e d a f t e r t h i s f i r s t v i s i t because the young s i b l i n g was under two years o l d and produced very l i t t l e speech. On the f o l l o w i n g home v i s i t , which occurred between two and four weeks subsequent to the f i r s t v i s i t , data c o l l e c t i o n was i n i t i a t e d . From each of the eight c h i l d r e n the i n v e s t i g a t o r e l i c i t e d a language sample f o r 24 at l e a s t f i f t e e n minutes. On the basis of the i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y and amount of speech produced by the c h i l d , two f a m i l i e s were s e l e c t e d f o r f u r t h e r study. Both f a m i l i e s chosen had two c h i l d r e n , both of whom were boys. In each case, the o l d e r boy had s t a r t e d to r e c e i v e speech therapy once a week i n September 1975, and at the same time had s t a r t e d to attend nursery school three afternoons a week. Each of the younger brothers remained at home, and n e i t h e r mother worked outside her home. The i n v e s t i g a t o r judged that both f a m i l i e s belonged to the middle c l a s s although s p e c i f i c s o c i o -economic information was not e l i c i t e d . The age and mean utterance length (MLU) f o r each boy at the time of the i n i t i a l language sample were as f o l l o w s : i n the f i r s t f a m i l y ( F l ) , the normal c h i l d (Nl) was 2-11 w i t h an MLU of 3.55; and the language-delayed c h i l d (DI) was 4-9 w i t h an MLU of 3.39. In the second family (F2), the normal c h i l d (N2) had an MLU of 2.31 and was 2-5, w h i l e the o l d e r boy (D2) was 4-4 and had an MLU of 3.66. The MLU measurement as described by Brown (1973) i s o f t e n used to estimate the c h i l d ' s language performance l e v e l . The MLU values s t a t e d above were c a l c u l a t e d on the basis of the f i r s t one hundred utterances i n the i n i t i a l language sample. On t h i s basis then, the boys i n F l appeared to be at a s i m i l a r language l e v e l , whereas N2 and D2 were c l e a r l y f u n c t i o n i n g at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . 4.2 Procedure Since no standard e x i s t s , i t was a r b i t r a r i l y decided that a t h i r t y minute language sample would be c o l l e c t e d i n free play contexts i n the f o l l o w i n g order: 1. The mother i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the younger c h i l d . 25 2. The mother i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the older c h i l d . 3. The mother i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h both c h i l d r e n together. In a l l contexts the mothers were encouraged to use toys i f they so desired. They were reminded that the goal of the study was to l e a r n about the language of each c h i l d . Data were c o n s i s t e n t l y c o l l e c t e d i n one room of the home at around 10:30 i n the morning which was the most convenient time f o r both mothers. The data were recorded on an Amplex 601 r e e l - t o - r e e l tape recorder at 1\ inches per second. Ampex 631, 1.5 m i l l i m e t r e p o l y e s t e r tape was used. The microphone used was an A l t e x 681A mounted on a stand and placed as u n o b t r u s i v e l y as p o s s i b l e . The mouth-to-microphone distance v a r i e d g r e a t l y as the subjects moved around, and consequently, even though the microphone record l e v e l was set at maximum, a few utterances i n each con-t e x t were i n a u d i b l e . The i n v e s t i g a t o r wrote o b s e r v a t i o n a l notes through-out each s e s s i o n so that c o n t e x t u a l information would be a v a i l a b l e to a i d i n t r a n s c r i b i n g the data. The data f o r a l l three contexts were c o l l e c t e d w i t h i n a two week period f o r each f a m i l y . I n c l u d i n g the i n i t i a l language sample i n v o l v i n g the i n v e s t i g a t o r , a l l the data were c o l l e c t e d w i t h i n a one month i n t e r v a l . At a l l times during the t h i r t y minute c o l l e c t i o n sessions, the i n v e s t i g a t o r remained as unobtrusive as p o s s i b l e , a v o i d i n g eye contact and v e r b a l i z a t i o n w i t h the s u b j e c t s . The mother had been forwarned about t h i s behaviour and given the explanation that thus the i n t e r a c t i o n observed would be as c l o s e to what i t would normally be w i t h the involvement of f a m i l y members only. 26 4.3 T r a n s c r i p t i o n of the Data The tapes were t r a n s c r i b e d as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r they had been recorded. Each tape was l i s t e n e d to i n e n t i r e t y three times by the i n -v e s t i g a t o r . On the f i r s t l i s t e n i n g , the c h i l d ' s utterances were t r a n s -c r i b e d by a broad phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n according to the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Phonetic Alphabet n o t a t i o n . At the same time, the mother's utterances were t r a n s c r i b e d i n t o standard E n g l i s h orthography f o r the most part. A few u n i n t e l l i g i b l e utterances were t r a n s c r i b e d p h o n e t i c a l l y . On the second l i s t e n i n g , the o r i g i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n s were modified somewhat. Prosodic information, i n c l u d i n g primary sentence s t r e s s and i n t o n a t i o n contours, was added. A l s o , t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n s of the c h i l d ' s utterances i n t o E n g l i s h orthography were made where p o s s i b l e . Then on the t h i r d l i s t e n i n g , c o n t e x t u a l information obtained from the w r i t t e n o b s e r v a t i o n a l notes was added. The d i f f i c u l t y of t r a n s c r i b i n g the t h i r d context n e c e s s i t a t e d some a l t e r a t i o n of the above procedures. A l l of the mother's utterances were t r a n s c r i b e d on the same day the data were c o l l e c t e d . At the same time, the d e s t i n a t i o n of her utterances was coded as being d i r e c t e d to one c h i l d or the other. A t h i r d category was used f o r those utterances which were ambiguous i n the sense that they could have been intended f o r both c h i l d -ren, or i t was unclear who they were d i r e c t e d a t . Subsequently, a t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the c h i l d r e n ' s utterances was made. Quite f r e q u e n t l y both c h i l d r e n were t a l k i n g at once, making noises w i t h various toys, and moving away from the microphone. At best, these circumstances y i e l d e d only one c h i l d ' s utterances that were i n t e l l i g i b l e enough to t r a n s c r i b e . Even when the i n t e r a c t i o n was t a k i n g place i t was impossible to understand everything s a i d by each c h i l d . Therefore, i t 27 was decided that, where p o s s i b l e , a t r a n s c r i p t i o n would be made of what was s a i d by the c h i l d whom the mother was addressing. This procedure proved workable most of the time. The r e s u l t i n g t r a n s c r i p t i o n was checked and prosodic and contextual information were added as i n the f i r s t two contexts. F i n a l l y , a l l the data i n the t h i r d context and at l e a s t f i f t e e n minutes of the other two contexts were checked by another i n v e s t i g a t o r who was i n s t r u c t e d to modify the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s i n any way she f e l t necessary. A l l measurements of the data took i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the m o d i f i c a t i o n s made by the second l i s t e n e r . 4.4 A n a l y s i s of the Data 4.4.1 The Language of the C h i l d r e n The language l e v e l of each c h i l d was estimated i n terms of the mean length of the f i r s t one hundred utterances i n the i n i t i a l language sample (per Brown, 1973). I n a d d i t i o n , the language l e v e l of each of the boys was c a l c u l a t e d from the f i r s t or second context according to the method of Tyack and Gottsleben (1974). This a n a l y s i s was necessary be-cause i t provides a more comprehensive p i c t u r e of the language l e v e l of the c h i l d than MLU alone. 4.4.2 The Language of the Mother 4.4.2.1 P h y s i c a l Performance Parameters The q u a n t i t y of speech produced by the mother was determined i n 28 each context by counting the number of utterances she produced. The c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d by Brown (1973) were then used to c a l c u l a t e the mean length of the t o t a l number of utterances produced by the mother i n each context. A l s o , the average of the f i v e longest utterances was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each context. Various methods f o r measuring speech r a t e have been used by other i n v e s t i g a t o r s . For the purposes of t h i s study the method o u t l i n e d by Drach (1969) was chosen. Speech r a t e i n s y l l a b l e s per second was c a l c u l a t e d as an average of the rates of t h i r t y - f i v e grammatical sentences d i s t r i b u t e d randomly throughout the sample i n each of the three contexts. Each sen-tence was timed w i t h a stopwatch to the nearest 1/10 of a second. Each measurement was repeated three times and the mean value of the three measurements was then used to c a l c u l a t e the r a t i o of the number of s y l l -ables i n each sentence to the amount of time taken to a r t i c u l a t e the whole sentence. F i n a l l y , the average value of t h i r t y - f i v e sentences was c a l c u -l a t e d . Another measurement which can be considered a p h y s i c a l performance parameter i s l e x i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y . As Broen (1972) suggested, the token s i z e used was one hundred words. Words d i f f e r i n g i n d i c t i o n a r y s p e l l i n g were counted as d i f f e r e n t types. Thus, a type-token r a t i o (TTR) f o r each mother was c a l c u l a t e d on the basis of the f i r s t one hundred words i n each of the three contexts. R e p e t i t i o n was another of the p h y s i c a l performance measurements. The procedure used was f i r s t described by Snow (1972) where three cate-gories of r e p e t i t i o n were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , but then reduced to two cate-g o r i e s i n Snow (1976). Consequently, i n the present study the e a r l i e r c r i t e r i a were used to code r e p e t i t i o n s as complete, p a r t i a l , or semantic. 29 Then the semantic r e p e t i t i o n s were added to the p a r t i a l r e p e t i t i o n s and two r a t i o s were c a l c u l a t e d . For a l l the contexts, the number of complete r e p e t i t i o n s to the t o t a l number of utterances and the number of p a r t i a l r e p e t i t i o n s to the t o t a l number of utterances were the two r a t i o s c a l c u -l a t e d . 4.4.2.2 S t r u c t u r a l Parameters In the present study utterances were grouped i n t o the f o l l o w i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n type c a t e g o r i e s : imperatives, i n v e r t e d questions, i n t o n a t i o n only questions, wh-questions, tag questions, negatives, a f f i r m a t i v e d e c l a -r a t i v e s , and s i n g l e word utterances. These categories were not mutually e x c l u s i v e . A l s o , two measurements were used f o r the purpose of d e s c r i b i n g the grammaticality of the mothers' speech. According to the p r i n c i p l e s out-l i n e d by Snow (1972), the incidence of utterances without verbs was c a l c u -l a t e d . Snow found t h i s to be a u s e f u l measurement of the formal c o r r e c t -ness of mothers' speech s i n c e a higher incidence of utterances without verbs i s i n d i c a t i v e of a tendency to produce sentence fragments. As a f u r t h e r measure of the formal s t r u c t u r e of the mothers' speech, the percentage of grammatically incomplete sentences was determined i n each context. A l l one word utterances, numbers, sentences w i t h undeter-mined elements, and stereotyped expressions such as "yes please" and "hey now" were excluded from the count of grammatically incomplete sentences. However, f a l s e s t a r t s , missing or i n c o r r e c t i n f l e c t i o n s , missing a u x i l i a r y verbs and a r t i c l e s and subject pronoun phrases caused utterances to be scored as grammatically incomplete. Previous researchers have not been so s p e c i f i c about t h e i r s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a . 30 4.4.2.3 Fu n c t i o n a l Parameters In the present study a l l utterances were coded i n t o the four f u n c t i o n a l categories used by Snow (1976) to analyze the speech of mothers. E a r l i e r , Bloom (1970) had scored c h i l d r e n ' s utterances as r e p o r t s , comments, questions, or d i r e c t i o n s and Snow modified the s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a somewhat to s u i t the purpose of a n a l y z i n g the f u n c t i o n of adu l t speech. In a d d i t i o n , the f u n c t i o n of the mothers' i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms was analyzed i n d e t a i l . According to the system described by Holzman (1972), i n t e r r o g a t i v e s were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g f i v e c a t e g o r i e s : A. Requests f o r information. B. Requests f o r behaviour. C. Questions designed to d i s p l a y or t e s t the knowledge of the hearer. D. I n t e r r o g a t i v e s i n which what i s questioned i s not i n the v e r b a l i z a t ion. E. Uses of the i n t e r r o g a t i v e form f o r purposes other than questioning. 1. Questions whose force i s a suggestion f o r the d i r e c t i o n of the c h i l d ' s behaviour. 2. Questions whose force i s a negative e v a l u a t i o n of the c h i l d ' s behaviour. 3. Questions that are r e a l l y r e p o r t s . This system appeared to be s e n s i t i v e enough to be able to detect any q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n the mothers' use of i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms. 31 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS 5.1 The Language of the C h i l d The r e s u l t s of the Tyack and Gottsleben a n a l y s i s confirmed the l i n g u i s t i c p r o x i m i t y of N l and D l who were both assigned to the f o u r t h developmental language l e v e l . D l achieved a word-morpheme index of 4.09 and h i s utterances ranged i n length from 2-2 to 12-12. This k i n d of index i s p rojected as a measurement of language competence ra t h e r than the purely performance measurement advocated by Brown. N l produced utterances ranging from 2-2 to 10-10 and h i s word morpheme index was 4.56. Both brothers i n F l demonstrated a v a r i e t y of c o n s t r u c t i o n types commensurate w i t h t h e i r language l e v e l . For the most part, the missing forms noted were considered to r e s u l t from a sampling b i a s , s i n c e p i c t u r e s were not used to e l i c i t the forms i n question. Neither brother had achieved the 907» c r i t e r i o n l e v e l f o r p l u r a l s , a r t i c l e s , the t h i r d person s i n g u l a r pre-sent tense, or the copula form. However, Dl d i d make a greater percentage of e r r o r s than N l . Therefore, t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the age d i f f e r e n c e between the two brothers, D l could be considered s l i g h t l y language-delayed. In a d d i t i o n , i t was noted that h i s phonological system was not as advanced as h i s brother's. In the other f a m i l y , N2 was assigned to the second developmental l e v e l on the basis of h i s 2.93 word-morpheme index and h i s utterance length range from 2-2 to 6-7. D2 achieved a word-morpheme index of 3.7 8, and h i s utterances ranged from 2-2 to 7-7. Consequently, he was assigned to the t h i r d developmental language l e v e l . N2 had not achieved the c r i t e r i o n f o r 32 h i s language l e v e l i n a r t i c l e s or the present progressive tense, w h i l e D2 had not reached the c r i t e r i o n l e v e l f o r a r t i c l e s , some pronouns, the copula form, and the present progressive tense. Both brothers i n F2 demonstrated a s u i t a b l e v a r i e t y of co n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e language l e v e l s . D2 was considered to be s l i g h t l y language-delayed. A l l of these r e s u l t s confirmed the i n i t i a l impressions gained by the performance MLU measurement on the i n i t i a l language sample i n which each c h i l d i n t e r a c t e d w i t h the present i n v e s t i g a t o r who was a stranger to the c h i l d . 5.2 The Language of the Mother 5.2.1 P h y s i c a l Performance Parameters The number of utterances, MLU, and upper bound of the two mothers and t h e i r normal and language-delayed c h i l d r e n i n the three contexts i s summarized i n Table 1. The most s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s occurred i n the MLU and upper bound values f o r the two mothers. Ml used an MLU of approxi-mately 6.0 morphemes when addressing e i t h e r c h i l d s e p a r a tely and when they were a l l together, and her upper bound i n a l l three contexts was around 23 morphemes. On the other hand, M2 used an MLU of about 4.4 when addressing N2, and 4.9 when addressing D2. In the t h i r d context, most of M2's utterances, 5370, were d i r e c t e d to D2 w h i l e 337, were to N2 and 147, were ambiguously d i r e c t e d . Therefore, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that the MLU of M2 i n the t h i r d context i s 5.0. S i m i l a r l y , i n contexts two and three, her upper bound i s around 16.0 morphemes w h i l e i t i s only 12.0 i n the f i r s t context. These r e s u l t s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a s t y l e that was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of each mother and furthermore, showed that M2 adjusted her speech more f o r her younger c h i l d . TABLE 1 Number of Utterances, MLU and Upper Bound of the Two Mothers and Their Normal and Language-Delayed C h i l d r e n i n Three Contexts Contexts Mother 1 Mother 2 ^Context 3 No. of Upper Utterances MLU Bound No. of Upper Utterances MLU Bound Context 1 Mother Normal C h i l d 261 417 6.11 21.00 3.46 9.80 266 240 4.39 12.20 2.15 5.40 Context 2 Mother Delayed C h i l d 217 318 6.18 22.60 3.19 10.40 420 442 4.87 16.00 2.73 7.80 Mother 320 6.14 24.00 555 5.00 16.20 *Refer to Chapter 6 f o r an explanation of the l a c k of r e s u l t s f o r the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s context. 34 Table 2 summarizes the r e s t of the p h y s i c a l performance measure-ments. In general, these r e s u l t s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s t y l e t y p i c a l of each mother. M2 spoke more q u i c k l y than Ml. I t was i n t e r e s t i n g that both mothers spoke s l i g h t l y more slo w l y i n the second context i n which they i n t e r a c t e d w i t h t h e i r language-delayed c h i l d and most slowly i n the t h i r d context. A l s o , i t was noteworthy that N2, being the youngest c h i l d i n the study, rec e i v e d v e r b a l input d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the lowest TTR and the highest number of complete r e p e t i t i o n s . 5.2.2 S t r u c t u r a l Parameters The s t r u c t u r a l parameters c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the speech of the two mothers i n three d i f f e r e n t contexts i s summarized i n Table 3. In b r i e f , the r e s u l t s g r o s s l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the s t y l e s of the two mothers. M2 tended to use a much higher p r o p o r t i o n of wh-questions, utterances that were non-grammatical, and a higher incidence of utterances without verbs than Ml. Comparing the r e s u l t s i n context one w i t h those i n context two for each mother, the most s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s occurred i n the speech of M2. In context one she produced approximately 11% more questions and 12% fewer a f f i r m a t i v e d e c l a r a t i v e utterances. An a n a l y s i s of the question types used by each mother demonstrated that M2 favoured the wh-question and played a naming game w i t h both of her sons whereas Ml used the i n v e r t e d question more often. For the t h i r d context, the r e s u l t s are comensurate w i t h the s t y -l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s evident i n the f i r s t two contexts. In the t h i r d context the mothers each asked a comparable percentage of questions, roughly 29%; however, Ml used more i n v e r t e d questions w h i l e M2 used wh-questions more often. Concomitantly, Ml used approximately 117> more 35 TABLE 2 P h y s i c a l Performance Parameters of the Two Mothers' Speech to Their Normal and Language-Delayed C h i l d r e n Mother 1 Mother 2 Parameters Contexts Contexts 1 2 3 1 2 3 To To To To Normal Delayed To Both Normal Delayed To Both Speech r a t e i n s y l l a b l e s per 5.31 5.19 4.53 7.23 6.98 second L e x i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y of the f i r s t .60 .58 .61 .49 .56 .64 100 words Percentage of r e p e t i t i o n s Complete .76 1.47 3.43 6.02 .47 3.24 P a r t i a l 12.64 15.12 18.43 16.91 13.57 11.17 TABLE 3 S t r u c t u r a l Parameters of the Two Mothers' Speech i n Three Contexts Mother 1 Mother 2 Contexts Contexts Percentage of S t r u c t u r a l Types 1 To Normal 2 To Delayed 3 To Both Tc 1 i Normal 2 To Delayed 3 To Both Imperatives 7.27 7.74 10.31 7.51 9.76 13.51 Questions I n t o n a t i o n only 6.13 5.90 4.68 6.39 6.19 7.20 In v e r t e d 11.11 8.11 12.81 6.01 3.57 3.06 Tags 11.49 5.90 4.68 7.14 3.33 4.14 Wh-questions 8.81 5.53 7.18 25.93 17.38 14.41 T o t a l questions 37.54 25.44 29.35 41.47 30.47 28.81 Negatives 12.64 8.11 4.37 4.51 5.23 7.92 A f f i r m a t i v e d e c l a r a t i v e s 30.65 43.54 41.25 20.67 32.61 31.71 S i n g l e word utterances 20.68 16.23 11.56 25.93 20.95 19.67 Utterances without verbs 29.50 29.52 24.06 36.09 34.76 29.96 Grammatically incomplete utterances 12.64 13.65 15.00 21.42 20.47 17.83 LO 37 a f f i r m a t i v e d e c l a r a t i v e sentences than M2 who used 87, more s i n g l e word utterances and 67, more utterances without verbs. 5 . 2 . 3 F u n c t i o n a l Parameters The r e s u l t s of c l a s s i f y i n g utterances by f u n c t i o n as r e p o r t s , comments, d i r e c t i o n s , and questions f o r a l l contexts are summarized i n Table 4. The f u n c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each mother's v e r b a l code are c l e a r l y demonstrated. In a l l contexts Ml used more rep o r t s , comments, and questions, w h i l e M2 used more d i r e c t i o n s . Some s i m i l a r i t i e s can be seen i n the way the mothers adjust t h e i r speech when i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e i r o l d e r sons. For example, utterances functioned more of t e n as reports and comments when the o l d e r son was addressed. A summary of the functions of the i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms used by the mothers i n a l l contexts can be seen i n Table 5 . The a n a l y s i s revealed that 237o of Mi's i n t e r r o g a t i v e s i n context one were r e a l questions and 9% were t e s t questions, whereas i n context two 547, r e a l questions and 4 7 t e s t questions were asked. M2 a l s o used more r e a l questions i n context two, that i s , 437o versus 117> used i n context one, but she used 507o t e s t ques-t i o n s i n context one and 197° t e s t questions i n context two. A higher per-centage of Mi's i n t e r r o g a t i v e s functioned as reports and suggestions i n both contexts. In both cases the mothers d i r e c t e d more i n t e r r o g a t i v e s to t h e i r o l d e r sons. There i s evidence of the same f u n c t i o n a l types being p r e f e r r e d by each mother i n context three: as' in. the f i r s t two contexts. Ml used 457. r e a l questions and 77, t e s t questions as opposed to 237, of the former and 317, of the l a t t e r form used by M 2 . These values are p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d i c a -38 TABLE 4 Mothers 1 Utterances i n Three Contexts C l a s s i f i e d According to Bloom's Fu n c t i o n a l Types Mother 1 Mother 2 Contexts Contexts Bloom's Fun c t i o n a l Types 1 To Normal 2 To Delayed 3 To Both 1 To Normal 2 To Delayed 3 To Both Reports 3.06 5.90 4.37 1.12 3.57 2.16 Comments 53.25 56.45 52.18 50.75 53.57 47.92 D i r e c t i o n s 14.55 12.17 18.12 34.21 19.76 32.43 Questions 23.37 20.29 19.68 12.03 19.04 13.69 TABLE 5 Mothers' I n t e r r o g a t i v e Forms i n Three Contexts C l a s s i f i e d According to Holzman's Fu n c t i o n a l Types Mother 1 Mother 2 Contexts Contexts Holzman's Fun c t i o n a l Types 1 To Normal 2 To Delayed 3 To Both 1 To Normal 2 To Delayed 3 To Both A 23.23 54.16 45.45 10.83 42.96 22.50 B 1.01 0 1.01 1.66 1.56 3.75 C 9.09 4.16 7.07 50.00 18.75 30.62 D 11.11 4.16 14.14 16.66 16.40 18.75 E 1.Reports 20.20 11.11 8.08 5.00 2.34 6.87 2.Sugges-t ions'. 30.30 18.05 19.19 10.83 14.06 13.75 3.Negative Evaluations 5.05 8.33 5.05 5.00 3.90 28.82 t i v e of f u n c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the mothers' usage because the percen-tage of i n t e r r o g a t i v e s i n r e l a t i o n to the t o t a l number of utterances pro-duced by each mother was so s i m i l a r . In terms of d i f f e r e n t i a l usage w i t h respect to each son, except f o r i n t e r r o g a t i v e s that functioned as suggestions, i t does not appear that Ml used any f u n c t i o n of the i n t e r r o g a t i v e form to a remarkably d i f f e r e n t extent when addressing D l versus N l . In c o n t r a s t , M2 tended to d i f f e r e n t i a t e more c l e a r l y between her sons on the basis of the f u n c t i o n of the i n t e r r o g a t i v e form she used. A s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t p r o p o r t i o n of i n t e r r o g a t i v e s i n the f i r s t and t h i r d f u n c t i o n a l categories was addressed to D2. 40 CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION 6.1 Review of the Present Results i n R e l a t i o n To Theory and Previous  Research There i s some evidence t h a t both mothers made more adjustments when speaking to t h e i r younger c h i l d r e n . Both mothers d i r e c t e d more questions than a f f i r m a t i v e d e c l a r a t i v e s and more s i n g l e word utterances to t h e i r younger sons. M2 d i r e c t e d more r e p e t i t i o n s to N2 i n context three despite the f a c t that she i n t e r a c t e d only 33% of the time w i t h him and 53%. of the time w i t h h i s older brother. S i m i l a r r e s u l t s have o f t e n been reported by other researchers as t y p i c a l o f the v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n of a mother w i t h her young c h i l d (Snow, 1972; Broen, 1972). In f a c t , Ml d i r e c t e d more r e p e t i t i o n s to her older versus younger son, contrary to what would be p r e d i c t e d . At f i r s t glance, t h i s a d j u s t -ment might be i n t e r p r e t e d as an attempt to provide a f a c i l i t a t i v e environ-ment f o r the language-delayed c h i l d . This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , however, i s not v a l i d because Ml used r e p e t i t i o n s p r i m a r i l y i n an e f f o r t to manipulate her o l d e r son's behaviour. For example, i n the t h i r d context she repeated, "Can you sing'Spiderman'?" f i v e times to D l because she wanted him to s i n g i t , d e s p i t e the f a c t that N l s t a r t e d to comply w i t h t h i s suggestion twice and D l never made any attempt to. The most c l e a r - c u t r e s u l t s were the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two mothers' s t y l e s of i n t e r a c t i o n . Ml imposed a n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e on her i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h each c h i l d i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the " l a b e l i n g game" s t y l e used by M2. These opposing s t y l e s were described r e c e n t l y by Snow et a l . 41 (1976) and e a r l i e r Katherine Nelson (1972) noted l i k e w i s e that mothers could be d i v i d e d i n t o two s t y l e s of i n t e r a c t i o n on the basis of vocabulary. The r e l a t i v e l y low percentage, 14.25%, of utterances whose d e s t i n a -t i o n was ambiguous, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of M2's speech i n context three i s f u r t h e r evidence of the f a i r l y c a r e f u l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n she made i n com-municating w i t h one versus the other son. In c o n t r a s t , about 38% of Mi's utterances i n the t h i r d context could not be assigned to e i t h e r son i n p a r t i c u l a r . These r e s u l t s are evidence that the mothers were s e n s i t i v e to the language l e v e l s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Ml d i d not need to adjust her speech code i n a remarkably d i f f e r e n t way f o r each son because they were at the same language l e v e l , whereas M2 a p p r o p r i a t e l y adjusted her speech more to accommodate her younger son's lower language l e v e l . The s e n s i -t i v i t y of mothers to the l i n g u i s t i c c a p a b i l i t i e s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n has been pointed out by previous researchers such as Moerk (1972). By f a r the most s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of M2's speech was i t s speed and lack of c l a r i t y . I t was d i f f i c u l t to t r a n s c r i b e some of her utterances i n t o E n g l i s h orthography because of t h i s tendency. At one point she s a i d : " [ u e z a u a ] put t h i s back together f i r s t , huh?" which was completely t r a n s l i t e r a t e d as: "Well I guess we have to put t h i s back to-gether again, huh?" Previous research on the v e r b a l input to young c h i l d -ren has emphasized the slowness and c a r e f u l a r t i c u l a t i o n of mothers' speech which presumably provides a s i g n a l that f a c i l i t a t e s decoding by the LAD. M2's speech could not be described as a good teaching model i n t h i s sense. I t i s p o s s i b l e that due to the presence of an a d u l t i n t r u d e r , M2 d i d not adjust her speech r a t e f o r the b e n e f i t of her sons, but since they seemed to have no t r o u b l e understanding her, t h i s e x p l a nation i s u n l i k e l y . I t was mentioned p r e v i o u s l y that the p r e c i s e amount and q u a l i t y of 42 v e r b a l input necessary and s u f f i c i e n t f o r the normal a c q u i s i t i o n of a f i r s t language i s unknown. Such a s p e c i f i c a t i o n might prove impossible due to the w i d e l y acknowledged v a r i e t y i n r a t e of f i r s t language a c q u i s i -t i o n . Roger Brown has expressed the f o l l o w i n g thoughts about the normal language a c q u i s i t i o n process: Though the order of a c q u i s i t i o n of l i n g u i s t i c know-ledge w i l l prove to be approximately i n v a r i a n t across c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g one language and, at a higher l e v e l of a b s t r a c t i o n , across c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g any language, the r a t e of progression w i l l vary r a d i c a l l y among c h i l d r e n . . . . What w i l l the determinants be? No one can know at present. No doubt there are f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n v a r i a b l e s that w i l l account f o r some of the variance but I w i l l go out on a limb and p r e d i c t t h a t , w i t h i n some as yet unknown l i m i t s of i n t e r -a c t i o n v a r i a t i o n , the r a t e w i l l a l s o prove to be dependent on what the i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t e r s c a l l g or general i n t e l l i g e n c e . (Brown, 1973, p. 408) The r e s u l t s of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n should be considered i n the l i g h t of the above suggestion. From the r e s u l t s that have been presented here, i t i s suggested that both mothers make assumptions about the language l e v e l s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The presence of a d i s o r d e r appears to cause each mother to a l t e r her speech s t y l e somewhat. I t would be u n j u s t i f i a b l e to conclude, s o l e l y on the basis of these r e s u l t s , that language delay can be explained to any extent whatsoever by the nature of the mother's v e r b a l input to the c h i l d . Nevertheless, the r e s u l t s s t a t e d here are not s u f f i c i e n t to r u l e out the p o s s i b i l i t y that the mother's speech, or even some other v a r i a b l e i n the v e r b a l environment of a language-delayed c h i l d c o n t r i b u t e s to h i s d i f f i -c u l t i e s i n a c q u i r i n g a f i r s t language. 43 6.2 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Present I n v e s t i g a t i o n 6.2.1 Subjects Only two f a m i l i e s were s t u d i e d , and the language delay of the o l d e r c h i l d was not severe. A l a r g e r number of s u b j e c t s , i n c l u d i n g c h i l d -ren w i t h more serious language problems might w e l l r e v e a l more i n t e r e s t i n g and v a r i e d speech adjustments on the part of the mothers. A l s o , i t i s acknowledged that one important v a r i a b l e might be the amount and k i n d of i n s t r u c t i o n the mother has received from a speech t h e r a p i s t . No method of c o n t r o l could be found f o r use i n the present study and any consequent bias i s unknown. 6.2.2 Procedure I t i s commonly accepted that observation studies introduce problems of construct v a l i d i t y , observer b i a s , observer and coding r e l i a b i l i t y , and behaviour sampling ( L y t t o n , 1971). Some of the steps mentioned by L y t t o n were taken i n order to reduce d i s t o r t i o n . For example, when the mother i n i t i a l l y appeared embarassed, the observer assured her that t h i s was understandable and suggested she should t r y to ignore the i n t r u d e r ' s presence. The advantages of c o l l e c t i n g f i r s t - h a n d data i n the home en-vironment were f e l t to outweigh the problems of d i s t o r t i o n caused by observation. Another l i m i t a t i o n i s that no sample of the mother's speech to another a d u l t was c o l l e c t e d f o r the purpose of comparison. This l a c k was mentioned by Snow e_t a l . (1976) but was not considered to be a serious l i m i t a t i o n to her study. The present i n v e s t i g a t i o n d i d not take i n t o account i n any formal way the non-verbal i n t e r a c t i o n between the mother and the c h i l d . At times 44 i n the t h i r d context an utterance was coded as being d i r e c t e d to one c h i l d i f the mother was l o o k i n g a t him. Broen (1972) has suggested the s i g n i f i -cance of the non-verbal dimension which could be i n v e s t i g a t e d by means of video tape recordings. In a d d i t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n about the mother's a t t i t u d e toward each of her c h i l d r e n , gained through a questionnaire, might provide valuable i n s i g h t about the q u a l i t y of the i n t e r a c t i o n . I n f o r m a l l y i t appeared that Ml found D l uncooperative, and she p r e f e r r e d i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h h i s younger brother. In s p i t e of f u r t h e r o b j e c t i v e information on the mother's a t t i -tudes, i t i s not c l e a r what the i m p l i c a t i o n s would be f o r the c h i l d ' s language development. 6.2.3 A n a l y s i s There are obvious problems w i t h any a n a l y s i s of utterance f u n c t i o n , p r i m a r i l y due to observer coding r e l i a b i l i t y and the f a c t that an u t t e r -ance may be c l a s s i f i e d a p r i o r i i n more than one f u n c t i o n a l category. A l s o , because of an i n s u f f i c i e n c y of contextual information, some judg-ments had to be made w i t h l i t t l e confidence. Despite these l i m i t a t i o n s that were stat e d by Holzman (1972), the two types of f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s used i n the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n were s e n s i t i v e enough to demonstrate the existence of a q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n the mothers' use of utterance f u n c t i o n . More importantly, the d i f f e r e n c e noted was commensurate w i t h the r e s u l t s of other analyses. 45 6.3 I m p l i c a t i o n s for Theory and Future Research A number of i n t e r e s t i n g questions about the relevance of the observed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of mothers' speech to the language-learning process remain unanswered. The i n v e s t i g a t o r would suggest that M2 i s not as good a language teacher as Ml. However, the scope of the present study d i d not a l l o w f o r a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n of the mother's speech to the language development of her c h i l d r e n . This purpose n e c e s s i t a t e s l o n g i t u d i n a l s tudies i n which speech and language s k i l l s are not being acquired normally, i n a d d i t i o n to c o n t r o l l e d i n t e r v e n t i o n studies which could determine the e f f i c a c y of environmental a s s i s t a n c e (Broen, 1972). A l s o , due to the growing p o p u l a r i t y of daycare f a c i l i t i e s f o r very young c h i l d r e n , knowledge about the e f f e c t of t h i s environment on the language development of the c h i l d i s necessary. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that both mothers i n the present study a t t r i b u t e d improvement i n the language of t h e i r o l d e r sons to attendance at nursery school r a t h e r than speech therapy. The assumed reason f o r the adjustment of speech when addressing a young c h i l d i s to s i m p l i f y the decoding task f o r him. There i s probably some t r a d e - o f f between how long t h i s s i m p l i f i e d input i s b e n e f i c i a l to the c h i l d and when i t , i n f a c t , becomes d e t r i m e n t a l . Future research may c o n t r a i n d i c a t e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n a f t e r the c h i l d has reached a c e r t a i n lang-uage l e v e l due to the d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t of continued exposure to a s i m p l i f i e d v e r b a l environment. 6.4 Summary The present research i n v e s t i g a t e d the v e r b a l environment provided i n the home by each of two mothers to her two young sons. In each case, the older sons, aged 4-5 and 4-9, were language-delayed despite no appar-ent i n t e l l e c t u a l or p h y s i o l o g i c a l d e f i c i t , and the younger sons, aged 2-6 and 2-11, appeared to be a c q u i r i n g language normally. Data were c o l l e c t e d i n three f r e e p l a y contexts i n the f o l l o w i n g sequence: 1. The mother i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the younger c h i l d . 2. The mother i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the older c h i l d . 3. The mother i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h both c h i l d r e n together. For each f a m i l y the t h i r t y minutes of data c o l l e c t e d i n each of the three contexts was analyzed i n terms of p h y s i c a l performance, s t r u c t u r a l , and f u n c t i o n a l parameters. The r e s u l t s demonstrated that i n a l l contexts the mothers' speech s t y l e s were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from each other. There was some evidence, as i n d i c a t e d p r i m a r i l y by the speech rat e parameter, that each mother made assumptions about the v e r b a l input needs of her language-delayed c h i l d , and adjusted her speech a c c o r d i n g l y . 47 REFERENCES Berko Gleason, J . (1973). "Code switching i n c h i l d r e n ' s language," i n C o g n i t i v e Development and the A c q u i s i t i o n of Language, Moore, T.E., ed. (Academic Press, Inc., New York), 159-167. Berko Gleason, J . (1975). 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" E a r l y maternal l i n -g u i s t i c environment of normal and Down's syndrome language-learn-ing c h i l d r e n , " American J o u r n a l of Mental D e f i c i e n c y , 79:52-58. Cazden, C.B. (1972). C h i l d Language and Education. (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., New York). Drach, K. (1969). "The language of the parent: A p i l o t study," i n Working  Paper No. 14: The S t r u c t u r e of L i n g u i s t i c Input to C h i l d r e n . (Language Behavior Research Laboratory, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B erkeley), 1-16. E r v i n - T r i p p , S. (1971). "An overview of th e o r i e s of grammatical develop-ment," i n The Ontogenesis of Grammar, S l o b i n , D.I., ed. (Academic Press, New York), 189-212. F a r w e l l , C. (1973). "The language spoken to c h i l d r e n , " i n Papers and Reports on C h i l d Language Development, 5-6, (Stanford U n i v e r s i t y ) . Ferguson, C.A. (1964). "Baby t a l k i n s i x languages," i n The,Ethnography  of Communication, Gumperz, J . , and Hymes, D., eds. (American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , 66), 103-114. Holzman, M. (1972). "The use of i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms i n the v e r b a l i n t e r -a c t i o n of three mothers and t h e i r c h i l d r e n , " J o u r n a l of Psycho-l i n g u i s t i c Research, 1:311-336. 48 Holzman, M. (1974). "The v e r b a l environment provided by mothers f o r t h e i r very young c h i l d r e n , " M e r r i l l - P a l m e r Q u a r t e r l y , 20:31-42. Ly t t o n , H. (1971). "Observation studies of p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n : A methodological review," C h i l d Development, 42:651-684. McCarthy, D. (1954). "Language di s o r d e r s and p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , " J o u r n a l of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 19:514-523. Menyuk, P. (1964). "Comparison of grammar of c h i l d r e n w i t h f u n c t i o n a l l y deviant and normal speech," J o u r n a l of Speech and Hearing Research, 7:109-121. Menyuk, P. (1975). " C h i l d r e n w i t h language problems: What's the problem?" i n Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y Round Table on Languages and L i n g u i s t i c s  1975, Dato, D.P., ed. (Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , 129-144. Mperk, E. (1974). "Changes i n v e r b a l child-mother i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g language s k i l l s of the c h i l d , " J o u r n a l of P s y c h o l i n g u i -s t i c Research, 3_: 101-116. Nelson, K. (1973). " S t r u c t u r e and s t r a t e g y i n l e a r n i n g to t a l k , " i n Monographs of the S o c i e t y f o r Research i n C h i l d Development, 38. (The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, Chicago). Nelson, K.E., Carskaddon, G., and B o n v i l l i a n , J.D. (1973). "Syntax a c q u i s i t i o n : Impact of experimental v a r i a t i o n i n a d u l t v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the c h i l d , " C h i l d Development, 44:497-504. Olim, E.G. (1970). "Maternal language s t y l e s and c o g n i t i v e development of c h i l d r e n , " i n Language and Poverty: Perspectives on a Theme, W i l l i a m s , F., ed. (Markham P u b l i s h i n g Company, Chicago), 212-228. P h i l l i p s , J.R. (1973). "Syntax and vocabulary of mothers' speech to young c h i l d r e n : Age and sex comparisons," C h i l d Development, 44: 182-185. Sachs, J . , and Devin, J . (1973). "Young c h i l d r e n ' s knowledge of age-appropriate speech s t y l e s , " Paper presented at LSA Annual Meeting, December, 1973. Sa v i c , S. (1975). "Aspects of a d u l t - c h i l d communication: The problem of question a c q u i s i t i o n , " J o u r n a l of C h i l d Language, 2^:251-260. Shatz, M., and Gelman, R. (1973). "The development of communication s k i l l s : M o d i f i c a t i o n s i n the speech of young c h i l d r e n as a f u n c t i o n of l i s t e n e r , " i n Monographs of the S o c i e t y f o r Research i n C h i l d Development, 3_8. (The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, Chicago). S l o b i n , D.I. (1975). "On the nature of t a l k to c h i l d r e n , " i n Foundations  of Language Development, Lenneberg, E.H., ed. (Academic Press, New York), 1:283-297. 49 Snow, C.E. (1972). "Mothers' speech to c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g language," C h i l d Development, 43:549-565. Snow, C.E. (1974). "Mothers' speech research: An overview," Paper presented a t the SSRC Conference on Language Input and A c q u i s i -t i o n , Boston, September 6-8, 1974. Snow, C.E., Arlman-Rupp, A., Hassing, Y., Jobse, J . , Joosten, J . , and Vor s t e r , J . (1976). "Mothers' speech i n three s o c i a l c l a s s e s , " J o u r n a l of Psycho U n g u i s t i c Research, 5_:l-20. Tyack, D., and Gottsleben, R. (1974). Language sampling, a n a l y s i s , and  t r a i n i n g : A handbook f o r teachers and c l i n i c i a n s . ( C o nsulting P s y c h o l o g i s t s Press, Palo A l t o ) . Wulbert, M., I n g l i s , S., Kriegsmann, E., and M i l l s , B. (1975). "Language delay and a s s o c i a t e d mother-child i n t e r a c t i o n s , " Developmental Psychology, 11:61-70. APPENDIX The Appendix contains four sample t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , one f o r each c h i l d , i n c l u d i n g the f i r s t twenty-five utterances produced by the c h i l d and the mother's responses to him during that time. 51 SAMPLE 1 (Nl i s aged 2 years, 11 months, and 11 days. He and Ml are i n the boys' bedroom and Ml has j u s t dumped a box of la r g e blocks i n the middle of the f l o o r . The observer i s seated on one of the boys' beds.) 5. 6. 10. N l [ k h e j ? ] ok [dej gow] There go [mna p^vdi] I'm gonna put t h i s -[hau bowd* b r ? g X 7 dow] How about a b i g c a s t l e ? Yeah [ ? e j ? i * x anA'Sa w/\n] Hey here's another one. [i?an/vwX p^Vdap t n a p ] Here's another one put up top. [ h i * ] Here [n hia.] And here [r, h i ^ ] And here Ml and Context Let's see what we can do. Oh I think that sounds l i k e a r e a l l y good idea. (Nl puts blocks on top of one another one by one to b u i l d a tower) 52 N l Ml and Context 11. [haup 1 haupowcu ' h t o p n i m i j ] How about h e l p i n g me? 12. Oh 13. [ k ^ X mi 'n^ e. n/\WAn] Coming down one 14. [l£*6a haj ?2f] (whispered) I t ' s a high one. 15. [m 'bekxda hajw/Cn] And make i t a high one. 16. [ d i e i dlSlcU haj w/sn] This i s a high one. 17. [ a j now gwa haepn n i t ] I know what happen next. 18. [now* g 3 i haepn n d i 7 ] Know what going happen t h i s 19. ['a'btowdau ? 3 k h ] I t f e l l down< > 20. f a b l btowdau k j u me 'mianAWAn] I f i t f e l l down, can you make me another one? 21. [qgana 5 1 t x 'dodamijj and gonna pass those to me 22. [dta] There OK. How 'bout i f I pass them to you? (one block f a l l s o f f ) [ w a P h ] (Nl whispers something) Oh i s i t a high one? What's gonna happen to i t ? OK (Nl points to some blocks out of h i s reach. Ml passes them to him.) 53 N l Ml and Context 23. [naua 7 k hae ffcow 'dau] Now i t can't f e l l down. 24. 'V? d i k h i D ] Put these here OK. (Ml adds blocks to the tower where N l has indicated.) 25. [dowde. dowda h s n e ] Those are hands Those are hands, are they? 54 SAMPLE 2 (N2 i s aged 2 years, 5 months, and 24 days. He and M2 are seated on the f l o o r i n the l i v i n g room. The toys on the f l o o r and the nearby coffee t a b l e are: a F i s h e r P r i c e puzzle board, a box of cars and tr u c k s , F i s h e r P r i c e people, Sesame S t r e e t f i n g e r puppets, and a toy barn f i l l e d w i t h p l a s t i c animals. The observer i s seated i n a c h a i r . N2 has j u s t picked up a blue truck.) N2 1. ['daawo] 2. [WA? ] Truck 3. (jbuwA 7] Blue truck 4. [du majsef] Do myself 5. [ k h e j ] OK 6. Oh M2 and Context 7. [ ?am3enafw/\' ] A man i n truck What's that? What i s that? What k i n d of truck? A blue truck, r i g h t . (M2 s t a r t s to put a toy f i g u r e i n the truck.) OK. You put the l i t t l e man i n the truck. You put one of the men i n the truck. This way. (M2 puts a man i n the truck.) See? See we put a man i n the truck. Uh-huh Put some more i n 55 N2 M2 and Context 8. [ ? e j ] OK 9. [ t ^ i c t t 'main] I t ' s a man Uh-huh 10. [ k h e j j OK 11. [ drBe t i f A ' J This a < > truck. Uh-huh What other men have you got? 12. [dSGwftn] That one 13. [dae bautjgowai dfcj] (N2 puts a man i n the f i r e truck.) That boy go r i g h t there. OK That one goes i n f i r e truck. 14. [en] In 15. [ ?£n] In 16. [dl©2>gow f a j j tw/\?] (N2 puts another man i n the f i r e truck.) This one go f i r e truck. And that one goes i n the f i r e truck too, huh? Ok 17. [ ? 3 i l gow 'bow7] Boy go boat. OK (M2 picks up a toy plane) What's t h i s ? 56 N2 18. [ f w i r j ] Plane 19. [ ™ ™ boegdwe] uh-huh boy go plane 20. [daow/\n gowait 1 . . 'wAp1] That one go r i g h t up. 21. [ m ?X] < > 22. [d^e, WAgowai 'dzu] That one go r i g h t there. 23. [bDe gowai 'dtuj Boy go r i g h t there 24. [?d 7b] Uh-huh 25. [ k e j ? ] OK M2 and Context A plane? What e l s e you gonna put i n i t ? (N2 puts a man i n a truck) Right Or e l s e you could -(N2 puts a man i n another truck.) OK (N2 t r i e s to f i t a man i n another truck but the f i g u r e i s too b i g and won't f i t in.) Hey that boy's too b i g . You f i n d a l i t t l e boy. 57 SAMPLE 3 (Dl i s aged 4 years, 9 months, and 8 days. He and h i s mother, Ml, are s i t t i n g i n the middle of the f l o o r i n the boys' bedroom p l a y i n g w i t h p l a s t i c p u l l - a p a r t " c o o t i e " bugs. The observer i s seated on one of the boys' beds.) Dl 1. [ a'nowAn dau ] Another one down? 2. ['diw7\nj This one? 3. ['p^kwAnJ Pink one? 4. [m/vmi a j u bekXIJija] Mummy are you making the -5. [ a j u - a j u pwediq bs&k1 tugs.] Are you p u t t i n g i t back toge(ther) 6. [ n t j u ] And then you -7. [nowak haet] No I can't Ml and Context I t ' s a l o t of work, i s n ' t i t ? This one's coming through t h i s one, i s n ' t i t ? OK? Get the pink one down and w e ' l l wreck i t apart too. (The pink bug i s on the dresser.) Yeah. The pink one. No, we're gonna have a race. You have to t r y and put them back together too. You d i d - You d i d them t h i s morning. 58 DI Ml and Context 8. [ajnow hseda ] I know how to 9. 10. 11. [haep1 mipvwz)' bsak 1 Agej J Help me put i t back, OK? [hae-p^ bae-k1 dgtn] Help i t back again. [ p i r ? i ? ba] Put i n box. 12. [njA?] Yeah 13. [ C i j i dA ? du Sae.] Y-you j u s t do that. 14. 15. [Qej mraia] See mama? [~?aj h i a mekSmike jk^ 1] I here make <. > And there's the eyes. OK? (Ml empties some more parts out of the box.) Good. (DI t r i e s to a t t a c h a leg.) Is that r i g h t ? That's not how i t goes, i s i t ? Think i t goes l i k e that. (Ml f i x e s the leg.) Ok i t ' s a race. You've gotta hurry. Oh good. There we are. (Ml f i n i s h e d making the blue c o o t i e bug.) There's one. (DI t r i e s to make the green bug.) That one's a hard one, i s n ' t i t ? There. (Some parts of the green bug are broken so Ml takes i t from D l and adds a leg.) And you can put the -You can put the other ones i n , OK? 59 D l Ml and Context 16. [ak^tNnuw 'bsat] I can't move i t back. 17. Yeah 18. [amaigows'm] < > 19. [nowjuduAnawAn k a aj No you do another one 'cos I do" nowawa bjuwda7 J don't know how to b u i l d i t . 20. [wac] Watch.' 21. [ a j 'g»duwi ?J I can't do i t . 22. [ow a ] < > (Dl t r i e s to f i t i n a l e g but i t f a l l s out.) Wel l maybe you'd l i k e to do the pink one, would you? (Dl s t a r t s the pink one.) Good. (Dl attaches the body pieces to-gether.) Good. We l l I ' l l put one i n but you d i d them t h i s morning so you can do the other one, OK? (Dl t r i e s to f i t a l e g i n but i t f a l l s out.) Oh, what's - you d i d i t t h i s morning. OK, I ' l l do t h i s one. (Ml takes the pink bug from Dl.) Then you can play w i t h the bugs, OK? You think you could put h i s eyes on? Find h i s eyes. 60 Dl Ml and Context 23. [ f a j h i a i x ] Find h i s eyes? Uh-huh. We're - we're missing a l e g , aren't we? This one - t h i s l e g here's broken so we can't use i t . OK he need - t h i s - t h i s bee needs some eyes and he needs some antennas. And he needs a tongue. 24. [WEC,: majaix] Where' s my eyes? Oh that doesn't matter. 25. [wtt h^maix] Where some eyes? 61 SAMPLE 4 (D2 i s aged 4 years, 5 months, and 5 days. He and M2 are seated i n the middle of the l i v i n g room f l o o r . The toys on the f l o o r and on the nearby c o f f e e t a b l e are: a box of t i n k e r toys, a F i s h e r P r i c e puzzle board, a box of cars and tru c k s , F i s h e r P r i c e people, Sesame S t r e e t f i n g e r puppets, and a toy barn f i l l e d w i t h p l a s t i c animals. The observer i s seated on a c h a i r . D2 has j u s t picked up a toy plane.) D2 M2 and Context 4. [ 3e gOWAp1 dis ] I go up this [ae gow die: J ] I go down [ a j P h v d a j d a e ? ] I put l i k e that [ n drs v w e j ] And this plane 5. [ ?/s fa jmn cwAk1 ] A fireman truck 6. [ ? a j ' h i a ] Right here 7. [waj h i y ] Right here 8. [WASISJ 'nAWAn J What's t h i s another one? Uh-huh (D2 i s making the plane f l y up and down.) What's that? (M2 points to toy f i r e engine.) (D2 makes a s i r e n noise.) Well where's the fireman i n i t ? (D2 takes a blue hat.) There's one hat. I guess we've l o s t the other hat, huh? 62 D2 M2 and Context 9. Yeah Oh w e l l . 10. j"n d l s w m b w o w k a n J And t h i s one broken (D2 can't f i t the blue hat on h i s man, so M2 does i t f o r him.) 11. [mAc z x s ] What's t h i s ? See i t goes on that one. 12. Yeah. See the -I t ' s a s a i l o r hat that goes on there l i k e t h a t . See? You guys snapped a l l the hats o f f . (D2 takes a red hat.) Who's that go to? Is that that one? Yeah that's that one. (M2 puts the red hat on another man.) There. See? [w-vz-p1] (The hat s l i p p e d o f f . ) Mummy'11 have to f i x them, won't she? Glue them a l l back on f o r you. 13. Yeah. 14. Yeah 15. Yeah OK way you go. You play w i t h the fireman (D2 takes the f i r e truck.) 16. OK 63 D2 M2 and Context 17. [ g 2>p hv d i s i w ] Gonna put t h i s here 18. No 19. [dz7] This 20. ['an da] On the-21. [''Ap-'da] Up the -22. [ ada 'bamtn J On the bottom 23. See -24. [ jcc? ad diad ] 25. [ ?A k£ ? Sis] I get t h i s . Uh-huh. Where's the f i r e ? (M2 moves the barn c l o s e r to D2) The barn on f i r e ? No Where's the f i r e then? On the bottom You gotta get a l l the animals out then. What i s that? (M2 points to the hose that D2 has detached from the f i r e truck.) 

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