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Study of two mothers’ verbal interaction with their language-delayed and normal language-learning children Fleming, Amy 1976

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A STUDY OF TWO MOTHERS VERBAL INTERACTION 1  WITH THEIR LANGUAGE-DELAYED AND NORMAL LANGUAGE-LEARNING CHILDREN  by  AMY FLEMING B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  in  The Department o f P a e d i a t r i c s D i v i s i o n o f A u d i o l o g y and Speech S c i e n c e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA :  ?  ©  June, 1976 Amy Fleming, 1976  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s  representatives.  It  i s understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d without my written  permission.  (frJ*J<^  op  -Depart The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  ii ABSTRACT  T h i s paper r e p o r t s t h e f i n d i n g s o f an o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t u d y o f two f a m i l y groups c o n s i s t i n g o f a mother and h e r two young sons.  I n each  f a m i l y , t h e o l d e r sons aged 4-5 and 4-9, were l a n g u a g e - d e l a y e d d e s p i t e a l a c k o f apparent i n t e l l e c t u a l o r p h y s i o l o g i c a l d e f i c i t , and t h e younger sons, aged 2-6 and 2-11, appeared t o be a c q u i r i n g language n o r m a l l y . Over a one month p e r i o d , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n took p l a c e i n t h r e e f r e e play contexts i n the f o l l o w i n g order: 1. The mother i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h h e r normal c h i l d . 2. The mother i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h h e r l a n g u a g e - d e l a y e d c h i l d . 3. The mother i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h b o t h c h i l d r e n t o g e t h e r . For each f a m i l y t h e t h i r t y minutes o f a u d i o - t a p e d d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n each o f t h e t h r e e c o n t e x t s were a n a l y z e d i n terms o f a number o f p h y s i c a l p e r formance, s t r u c t u r a l , and f u n c t i o n a l parameters. I n a l l c o n t e x t s t h e mothers' speech s t y l e s were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from each o t h e r .  Some e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t s t h e h y p o t h e s i s  t h a t mothers make d i f f e r e n t i a l assumptions about t h e v e r b a l i n p u t needs o f t h e i r l a n g u a g e - d e l a y e d v e r s u s t h e i r normal l a n g u a g e - l e a r n i n g c h i l d r e n .  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page  ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  i i i  LIST OF TABLES  v i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  v i i  CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION  1  2  LITERATURE REVIEW  5  2.1  Code S w i t c h i n g  5  2.2  The V e r b a l Input t o Normal C h i l d r e n A c q u i r i n g T h e i r F i r s t Language  8  2.2.1  By Mothers  8  2.2.2  By Other A d u l t s  11  2.2.3  By C h i l d r e n  13  2.2.4  D i r e c t versus  I n d i r e c t Speech  . . . .  14  . . .  15  2.3  The R e s u l t s o f M a n i p u l a t i v e Experiments  2.4  The V e r b a l Input t o C h i l d r e n Who a r e n o t A c q u i r i n g Language N o r m a l l y  17  3  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM  21  4  METHOD  23  4.1  23  S e l e c t i o n o f the Subjects  iv  CHAPTER  5  6  Page 4.2  Procedure  24  4.3  Transcription of the Data  26  4.4  Analysis of the Data  27  4.4.1  The Language of the Children  27  4.4.2  The Language of the Mother  27  RESULTS  4.4.2.1  Physical Performance Parameters  .  4.4.2.2  Structural Parameters  . . . .  29  4.4.2.3  Functional Parameters  . . . .  30  .  27  31  5.1  The Language of the Child  31  5.2  The Language of the Mother  32  5.2.1  Physical Performance Parameters  . . . .  5.2.2  Structural Parameters  34  5.2.3  Functional Parameters  37  DISCUSSION 6.1  40  Review of the Present Results  i n Relation to Theory  and Previous Research 6.2  32  Limitations of the Present Investigation  40 . . .  43  6.2.1  Subjects  43  6.2.2  Procedure  43  6.2.3  Analysis  44  6.3  Implications  6.4  Summary  for Theory and Future Research  .  .  45 46  V  Page  REFERENCES  47  APPENDIX  50  vi LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE 1  Number o f U t t e r a n c e s , MLU and Upper Bound o f the Two Mothers and T h e i r Normal and Language-Delayed  Children  i n Three C o n t e x t s  2  P h y s i c a l Performance Parameters o f the Two Mothers' Speech t o T h e i r Normal and Language-Delayed  3  33  Children  .  S t r u c t u r a l Parameters o f the Two M o t h e r s ' Speech i n Three C o n t e x t s  4  36  M o t h e r s ' U t t e r a n c e s i n Three C o n t e x t s C l a s s i f i e d A c c o r d i n g t o Bloom's F u n c t i o n a l Types  5  35  38  M o t h e r s ' I n t e r r o g a t i v e Forms i n Three C o n t e x t s C l a s s i f i e d A c c o r d i n g t o Holzman's F u n c t i o n a l Types  .  .  38  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h c o u l d n o t have been a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h o u t the h e l p and encouragement o f many people.  I would l i k e t o express my  s i n c e r e thanks t o t h e f o l l o w i n g : Ms. P a t i e n c e Towler, The Research and E v a l u a t i o n Committee, and a l l the t h e r a p i s t s o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h S e r v i c e s who g e n e r o u s l y s c r e e n e d t h e i r case l o a d s and made a c c e s s i b l e a number o f s u i t a b l e  sub-  jects. The mothers who c o o p e r a t e d so k i n d l y ; Dr. D a v i d Ingram f o r h i s s u p e r v i s i o n ; Dr. J.H.V. G i l b e r t , my second r e a d e r ; Dr. A.-P. Benguerel f o r h i s a d v i c e and c o o p e r a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e s e l e c t i o n and use o f t h e equipment; C a r o l y n Johnson f o r h e r h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s ; Wilma H a i g f o r h e r i n s i g h t i n w o r k i n g w i t h language-delayed A l l my c l a s s m a t e s , e s p e c i a l l y Heather  children.  f o r c h e c k i n g my t r a n s c r i p -  t i o n s , and B a r b a r a , Naomi, and Blanche f o r t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p and s u p p o r t ; The members o f my f a m i l y f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e and i n t e r e s t ; and l a s t but n o t l e a s t , my t y p i s t , M i s s K. Cook.  1  CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION  The  importance o f t h e r o l e o f the environment i n w h i c h a c h i l d  a c q u i r e s h i s f i r s t language has been a c o n t r o v e r s i a l two  theoretical positions  vironmental assistance  issue.  Traditionally,  have u p h e l d opposing views on t h e r o l e o f en-  i n t h e language a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e s s .  view o f t h e r a t i o n a l i s t o r c o g n i t i v e c i s t or learning p o s i t i o n w i l l  p o s i t i o n i n contrast  A b r i e f over-  w i t h the empiri-  s u f f i c e as an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the emergence  of t h e p a r t i c u l a r a r e a o f r e s e a r c h t h a t  i s t h e c o n c e r n o f the p r e s e n t  investigation. R a t i o n a l i s t s such as von Humboldt, Lenneberg, and Chomsky g i v e credence t o a s t r o n g i n n a t e n e s s h y p o t h e s i s w h i c h m a i n t a i n s t h a t  amazingly  complex but p o o r l y d e s c r i b e d i n n a t e c a p a b i l i t i e s a r e t h e e s s e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e language a c q u i s i t i o n d e v i c e (LAD).  By means o f t h e LAD, g i v e n  complex p r i m a r y l i n g u i s t i c d a t a , t h e c h i l d must c o n s t r u c t a grammar o r s e t of r u l e s  i n order t o eventually  ledged t h a t  p e r f o r m comparable output.  i n p u t t o the LAD from speakers o f a s p e c i f i c language i s  n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r f o r t h e d e v i c e t o be a c t i v a t e d ; and  I t i s acknow-  however, the q u a n t i t y  q u a l i t y o f these p r i m a r y l i n g u i s t i c d a t a a r e not c o n s i d e r e d o f impor-  tance. On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e e m p i r i c i s t p o s i t i o n emphasizes t h e r o l e o f the environment. the  Research r e s u l t s from a wide v a r i e t y o f experiments i n  f i e l d s of cognition,  psycholinguistics,  r e v e a l e d some o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s  and s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s , have t h a t a f f e c t both t h e r a t e and  q u a l i t y o f t h e c h i l d ' s language development. For example, McCarthy (1954) c i t e s s e v e r a l  studies  i n which the  2 development  o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c h i l d r e n does not proceed a t t h e r a t e o f  children raised i n families. language development somewhat r e t a r d e d . development  Due t o a presumably i m p o v e r i s h e d environment,  as w e l l as a l l o t h e r areas o f development  i s often  Furthermore, when more m o t h e r i n g i s s u p p l i e d ,  language  shows t h e l e a s t improvement and tends t o remain permanently  impaired. I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e work o f B e r n s t e i n has d e s c r i b e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n the q u a l i t y o f language output t h a t i s o f t e n c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e s o c i a l c l a s s environment i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d i s r a i s e d .  The w o r k i n g - c l a s s p r i m a r i l y  uses a " r e s t r i c t e d code" w h i l e t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s c h i l d l e a r n s t o use an " e l a b o r a t e d code".  B e r n s t e i n d e f i n e s t h e s e codes i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way:  I f t h e speaker i s o r i e n t e d toward an e l a b o r a t e d code, then the code w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the speaker i n h i s attempts t o make e x p l i c i t ( v e r b a l l y ) h i s i n t e n t i o n s . I f a speaker i s o r i e n t e d toward a r e s t r i c t e d code, then t h i s code w i l l n o t f a c i l i t a t e t h e v e r b a l expans i o n o f t h e speaker's i n t e n t . I n t h e case o f an e l a b o r a t e d code t h e speech system r e q u i r e s more complex p l a n n i n g t h a n i n t h e case o f a r e s t r i c t e d code. ( B e r n s t e i n , 1970, p. 31) Moreover,  the q u a l i t y o f t h e w o r k i n g - c l a s s c h i l d ' s language p l a c e s  him a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e i n t h e s c h o o l system. position, Bernstein  notes from the p o i n t  I n keeping w i t h the e m p i r i c i s t  of view o f a s o c i o l o g i s t :  These two codes, e l a b o r a t e d and r e s t r i c t e d , a r e generated by a p a r t i c u l a r form o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n . Indeed they a r e l i k e l y t o be a r e a l i z a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s . They do not necess a r i l y develop s o l e l y because o f a speaker's innate a b i l i t y . ( B e r n s t e i n , 1970, p. 32) Apparently the study of environmental a s s i s t a n c e i n r e l a t i o n to language development accepted.  i s o n l y v a l i d i f the e m p i r i c i s t / l e a r n i n g p o s i t i o n i s  Cazden has t h o r o u g h l y a n a l y z e d t h e t o p i c o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l  3 assistance,  o f w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s a subcomponent.  A brief discussion is necessary.  involved  i n the l a r g e r area of research  Throughout t h i s paper, t h e w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f e n v i r o n -  mental a s s i s t a n c e 1972,  of the issues  i s "influences  from t h e e x t e r n a l  environment." (Cazden,  p. 101). From t h e s t a r t , Cazden s t a t e s  that without a d e t a i l e d  description  of t h e dependent v a r i a b l e , c h i l d language, t h e r e i s no r e s e a r c h b a s i s f o r discovering  those a s p e c t s o f t h e c h i l d ' s environment w h i c h a f f e c t t h e  language a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e s s .  Therefore, i t i s understandable that, to  date, most o f the r e s e a r c h on e n v i r o n m e n t a l a s s i s t a n c e assistance  i s limited to  t o the c h i l d ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f s y n t a x .  A c c o r d i n g t o Cazden, e n v i r o n m e n t a l a s s i s t a n c e to date c a n be viewed i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way.  research accomplished  Researchers have  investigated  a s p e c t s o f t h e c h i l d ' s environment t h a t c a n be grouped i n t o t h r e e g e n e r a l categories:  (1) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the language a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e c h i l d t o  hear; (2) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n s c h i l d and a t l e a s t one o t h e r i n t e r l o c u t o r ; l i n g u i s t i c environment.  Also,  (3) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e non-  Cazden p r e s e n t s an overview o f t h e r e s e a r c h  r e s u l t s which c a t e g o r i z e s o c i a l factors the  i n v o l v i n g the  i n terms o f t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s from  l e a s t c e r t a i n t o t h e most c e r t a i n : (A) d e t e c t i o n  o f an i n t e r e s t i n g and  t h e o r e t i c a l l y p l a u s i b l e f e a t u r e o f t h e c h i l d ' s environment; (B) c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e s e f e a t u r e s and some a s p e c t o f t h e c h i l d ' s language; and (C) c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s  t e s t e d by means o f m a n i p u l a t i v e experiments.  A g r e a t d e a l o f r e s e a r c h has been d i r e c t e d  s p e c i f i c a l l y to the  i n t e r a c t i o n between the.mother and t h e c h i l d because " t h e mechanism by which the c h i l d i s s o c i a l i z e d t o h i s language code o r codes i s i n t h e communicative i n t e r a c t i o n between mother and c h i l d ... t h e r e f o r e ... t h e  4 mother's  language s t y l e has d e c i s i v e consequences  ment of the c h i l d . " (Olim, 1970, p. 221)  f o r the language d e v e l o p -  A c c o r d i n g t o Snow (1974) the  purpose of the f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f mothers' speech t o young c h i l d r e n  was  to r e f u t e the p r e v a i l i n g view of the 1960's t h a t language a c q u i s i t i o n was largely  innate. To d a t e , the b u l k o f the m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s t u d i e s have been  concerned w i t h the normal c h i l d ' s language a c q u i s i t i o n .  Some o f the i n -  s i g h t g a i n e d from the s t u d i e s o f normal development has been used i n d e s i g n i n g r e s e a r c h t o i n v e s t i g a t e the case o f the c h i l d who i n g language n o r m a l l y .  i s not a c q u i r -  S u f f i c i e n t r e s e a r c h has demonstrated t h a t the  normal c h i l d ' s environment does a f f e c t h i s language development. s e q u e n t l y , knowledge about the l i n g u i s t i c a l l y - d e f i c i e n t  child's  Conenvironment  i s c e r t a i n t o be o f i n t e r e s t and importance t o a l l who d e a l w i t h such children.  The p r i m a r y c o n c e r n o f the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s the v e r b a l  i n t e r a c t i o n between the mother and h e r l a n g u a g e - d e l a y e d c h i l d .  5 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW  2.1  Code S w i t c h i n g  I m p l i c i t l y , the f o r e g o i n g m a t e r i a l acknowledges the phenomenon o f code s w i t c h i n g or s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l .  The  literature  a v a i l a b l e on t h i s t o p i c i s e x t e n s i v e b u t , f o r the most p a r t , p e r i p h e r a l t o the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h i s p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . code: t h a t w h i c h i s used i n a d d r e s s i n g  Of i n t e r e s t h e r e i s one  young c h i l d r e n .  To d a t e , t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r code has been q u i t e w e l l d e s c r i b e d b o t h i n i t s own r i g h t and as the r e s u l t o f s w i t c h i n g from a d i f f e r e n t code; however,  the p r e c i s e  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the a d j u s t m e n t s i n v o l v e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o the language development o f the c h i l d remains i n q u e s t i o n . I n a r e c e n t paper, Berko G l e a s o n (1973) has a n a l y z e d s w i t c h i n g by a d u l t s when a d d r e s s i n g a b i l i t y o f the c h i l d r e n themselves. t o the c h i l d r e n observed was  the code  c h i l d r e n as w e l l as the code s w i t c h i n g S t a t e d b r i e f l y , the language a d d r e s s e d  f u n c t i o n a l l y a language o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  A d u l t s used a c o n t r o l l i n g language f o r the purpose of i n d i c a t i n g t o c h i l d r e n between f o u r and e i g h t y e a r s o f age what t o do, what t o t h i n k , and how t o f e e l .  For example, the f u n c t i o n o f the f r e q u e n t l y exaggerated r e -  sponses o f a d u l t s such as, "Hey, wow,  t h a t ' s almost f u l l t o the top.'"  (Berko G l e a s o n , 1973, p. 162) i s t o i n d i c a t e t o the c h i l d what h i s r e a c t i o n ought t o be, how he s h o u l d  feel.  T y p i c a l l y , a d u l t s do not use t h i s  code  i n communication w i t h each o t h e r . Moreover, e v i d e n c e o f the a b i l i t y t o s w i t c h t o a code s i m i l a r i n some r e s p e c t s t o t h a t used by a d u l t s was  found i n the language o f c h i l d r e n  6 between t h e ages o f f o u r and e i g h t when t h e y spoke t o even younger ren.  child-  I n summary, Berko Gleason's r e s u l t s on t h e ways i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n  s w i t c h codes when t a l k i n g t o d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e a r e : F o u r - y e a r - o l d s may whine a t t h e i r mothers, engage i n i n t r i c a t e v e r b a l p l a y w i t h t h e i r p e e r s , and reserve t h e i r narrative, discursive talks f o r t h e i r grown-up f r i e n d s . By t h e time they a r e 8, c h i l d r e n have added t o t h e f o r e g o i n g some o f t h e p o l i t e n e s s r o u t i n e s o f f o r m a l a d u l t speech, babyt a l k s t y l e , and t h e a b i l i t y t o t a l k t o younger c h i l d r e n i n t h e language o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n . (Berko G l e a s o n , 1973, p. 167) A l t h o u g h Berko G l e a s o n suggests t h e e n t a i l m e n t o f a l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , the d e t a i l s o f emergence o f t h e s e codes i n t h e normal language a c q u i s i t i o n process a r e y e t t o be e l a b o r a t e d . E x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a s i m p l i f i e d speech r e g i s t e r remain s p e c u l a t i v e u n t i l f u r t h e r m a n i p u l a t i v e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n demonstrates u n e q u i v o c a l l y t h e p o s i t i v e e f f e c t o f a s i m p l i f i e d i n p u t on t h e language development p r o c e s s o f t h e c h i l d .  Snow (1974) has r e v i e w e d a p e r s p e c t i v e  o f language a c q u i s i t i o n w h i c h m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e s i m p l i c i t y and redundancy o f mother's speech a r e t h e e f f e c t s o f v e r y s p e c i f i c adjustments f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e c h i l d and t h a t a r e cued by h i s communicative output as much as by h i s a t t e n t i v e n e s s and comprehension.  Other r e s e a r c h e r s ,  including  Moerk (1972) and N e l s o n (1973) c o n f i r m t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n on the c h i l d ' s f i r s t language a c q u i s i t i o n .  Sufficient detailed  information  i s n o t y e t a v a i l a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h i n what ways a s i m p l i f i e d speech r e g i s t e r s p e c i f i c a l l y a i d s t h e c h i l d i n l e a r n i n g h i s n a t i v e language.  Snow (1974)  s t a t e s b r i e f l y t h a t " c o n s i s t e n t s i m p l i c i t y and redundancy may p r i m a r i l y s e r v e the purpose o f m i n i m i z i n g c o n f u s i o n and h e l p i n g t o c o n s o l i d a t e g a i n s i n language a c q u i s i t i o n . " (pp. 16-17)  7 The r a t i o n a l e f o r the m a j o r i t y o f measurements made on the speech input" t o c h i l d r e n i s t h a t " s i m p l i c i t y " i s demonstrated by these measurements. Some o f the measurements by w h i c h s i m p l i c i t y can be a s s e s s e d a r e speech r a t e , l e x i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y , l e n g t h o f u t t e r a n c e , and i n c i d e n c e o f u t t e r ances w i t h o u t v e r b s .  That i s , a c o m p a r a t i v e l y slow speech r a t e used by  a d u l t s when a d d r e s s i n g young c h i l d r e n as opposed t o o t h e r a d u l t s and o l d e r c h i l d r e n i s assumed t o f a c i l i t a t e the decoding process lower t y p e - t a k e n r a t i o corresponds  f o r the c h i l d .  A  t o lower l e x i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y and i s  i n d i c a t i v e o f a more r e p e t i t i v e v o c a b u l a r y w h i c h i s t h e r e f o r e s i m p l e r t o decode.  A l s o , a lower mean l e n g t h o f u t t e r a n c e reduces  c h i l d ' s decoding a b i l i t i e s  i n two ways.  o f t e n g r a m m a t i c a l l y l e s s complex, and,  the l o a d on  F i r s t , s h o r t e r utterances are i n terms o f a u d i t o r y memory, a  s h o r t e r u t t e r a n c e i s most l i k e l y t o be decoded more e a s i l y .  Snow (1972)  found t h a t u t t e r a n c e s w i t h o u t verbs were o f t e n the r e s u l t o f an r e p e t i t i o n o f a f u l l y grammatical  the  incomplete  u t t e r a n c e t h a t had been s a i d p r e v i o u s l y .  The c h i e f v a l u e o f such r e p e t i t i o n seems to be t o g i v e knowledge about the boundaries  o f u n i t s w i t h i n u t t e r a n c e s (Broen, 1972).  In addition, obviously,  r e p e t i t i o n s g i v e the c h i l d a second chance t o process an u t t e r a n c e . F i n a l l y , the most s i g n i f i c a n t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t can be made about code s w i t c h i n g t o a s p e c i a l speech r e g i s t e r f o r a d d r e s s i n g a young c h i l d i s the u n i v e r s a l i t y o f t h i s phenomenon. s t r a t e d t h i s u n i v e r s a l i t y was (1964).  An e a r l y s t u d y t h a t demon-  "Baby T a l k i n S i x Languages" by Ferguson  T h i s well-known r e s e a r c h d e s c r i b e s the s p e c i a l i z e d  exaggerated  lexicon,  i n t o n a t i o n as w e l l as the p h o n o l o g i c a l and grammatical m o d i f i -  c a t i o n s t h a t a r e s i m i l a r i n p r i n c i p l e a c r o s s d i f f e r e n t languages, the p a r t i c u l a r form o f adjustment i s u s u a l l y l a n g u a g e - s p e c i f i c . more, as the subsequent s e c t i o n s o f the p r e s e n t review w i l l  although Further-  demonstrate,  8 code s w i t c h i n g t o a s p e c i a l r e g i s t e r when a d d r e s s i n g  young c h i l d r e n i s a  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the speech of o l d e r c h i l d r e n and a l l a d u l t s .  2.2  The V e r b a l Input t o Normal C h i l d r e n A c q u i r i n g T h e i r F i r s t Language  2.2.1 Two  By Mothers reviews,  have t h o r o u g h l y  one by F a r w e l l (1973) and the o t h e r by Snow (1974)  d i s c u s s e d most o f the r e c e n t r e s e a r c h concerned w i t h  mothers' speech t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n who the p r e s e n t  review,  a r e a c q u i r i n g language n o r m a l l y .  In  o n l y c e r t a i n major s t u d i e s w h i c h have d i r e c t r e l e v a n c e  t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d .  The  r e c e n t s t u d i e s a r e a l s o worthy o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  f i n d i n g s of some v e r y F i n a l l y , the p e r t i n e n t  l i t e r a t u r e on l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d e f i c i e n t c h i l d r e n w i l l be reviewed b r i e f l y . As a s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the v e r b a l environment o f the young c h i l d , i t seems obvious t o c o n s i d e r the speech o f the mother whose r o l e i s u s u a l l y t h a t o f p r i m a r y c a r e - t a k e r .  K a t h e r i n e N e l s o n (1973)  r e p o r t s a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y o f the a c q u i s i t i o n of f i r s t words by c h i l d r e n between the ages of one and  two y e a r s .  I t was  eighteen  found t h a t mothers  tended t o use one o f two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t y l e s of v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n : e i t h e r an o b j e c t - o r i e n t e d , q u e s t i o n - a s k i n g , or e l s e a b e h a v i o u r - o r i e n t e d , twenty-four  months of age,  and  r e l a t i v e l y concise  intrusive, discursive style.  style,  Moreover, a t  the c h i l d ' s language m a t u r i t y as measured by  mean l e n g t h of u t t e r a n c e and v o c a b u l a r y  shows a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n to the  p r o p e r t i e s of o b j e c t words i n the mother's speech a t an e a r l i e r p e r i o d when the c h i l d was  t h i r t e e n months o l d .  T h i s l a g e f f e c t demonstrates  the complex manner i n w h i c h e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s can a f f e c t the uage development of the c h i l d .  lang-  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t  9  c o r r e l a t i o n s between a s p e c t s of the language the c h i l d hears and what he produces a r e d i f f i c u l t to I n 1972,  discover.  Broen's monograph p r o v i d e d d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n  mothers' speech t o t h e i r own e i g h t e e n and  children.  t w e n t y - s i x months of age,  months or more.  The  study was  Each mother had and  one  c h i l d between  c h i l d aged f o r t y - f i v e  conducted i n an e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t t i n g  speech samples were c o l l e c t e d w i t h i n a s h o r t p e r i o d mothers were i n t e n t i o n a l l y s e l e c t e d ing s k i l l .  one  about  of time.  Also,  and the  on the b a s i s o f t h e i r language t e a c h -  I n terms o f the p h y s i c a l performance parameters of speech r a t e ,  l e x i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y , and  d i s f l u e n c i e s per  every one  hundred words, i n  two  d i f f e r e n t t a s k s , both f r e e p l a y and  s t o r y t e l l i n g , the mother's speech t o  the young c h i l d was  Thus, mothers spoke l e s s q u i c k l y , used  a d j u s t e d more.  a l e s s d i v e r s e v o c a b u l a r y , and  had  a lower d i s f l u e n c y r a t e when s p e a k i n g  t o t h e i r younger c h i l d r e n r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r o l d e r  children.  I n the l i g h t of f i n d i n g s by p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t o r s such as Drach (1969) and  Phillips  (1970), Broen c a r r i e d out a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f  form of speech a d d r e s s e d t o the younger c h i l d r e n . organizing  the d a t a was  the use  One  technique f o r  of f i v e sentence c a t e g o r i e s .  The  o f u t t e r a n c e s f o r each of the t e n mothers i n a f i v e minute f r e e s e s s i o n w i t h the younger c h i l d was  the average, 14.9%  p.  These c a t e g o r i e s  15.1%  play  grammatically  were not m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e .  were s i n g l e word s e n t e n c e s , 36.9%  were d e c l a r a t i v e s , and  corpus  coded i n terms of s i n g l e word s e n t e n c e s ,  i m p e r a t i v e s e n t e n c e s , q u e s t i o n s , d e c l a r a t i v e s e n t e n c e s , and incomplete sentences.  the  On  were q u e s t i o n s , 30.47=,  were g r a m m a t i c a l l y i n c o m p l e t e (Broen,  1972,  29). However v a l i d the s e a r c h f o r i n t e r e s t i n g g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  r e s u l t s must be  interpreted with caution.  For  instance,  may  be,  Ferguson (1964)  10  emphasizes the v a r i a b i l i t y t h a t e x i s t s i n the b a b y - t a l k s t y l e as i t i s used from one f a m i l y t o the n e x t .  Upon examining Broen's r e s u l t s more  c l o s e l y , the e v i d e n c e o f v a r i a b i l i t y i s s t r i k i n g . used i m p e r a t i v e sentences o f the t i m e .  43.57  0  I n p a r t i c u l a r , mother 1  o f the time, whereas mother  4  used them  3.37o  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o judge on the b a s i s o f a s m a l l q u a n t i t y o f  d a t a from each s u b j e c t whether such c o n t r a s t i n g r e s u l t s c o u l d r e p r e s e n t a s a m p l i n g b i a s , or whether t h e y c h a r a c t e r i z e a genuine d i f f e r e n c e , i n t h i s case, between how two mothers g e n e r a l l y communicate w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e children. Other r e s e a r c h e r s have noted v a r i a t i o n a c r o s s mothers i n the v e r b a l environment t h e y p r o v i d e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . (1974)  I h e approach used by Holzman  i s t o a n a l y z e b o t h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c uses o f language by each o f  the dyads i n c l u d i n g c h i l d r e n t h a t ranged i n age from f i f t e e n and o n e - h a l f months t o twenty-seven months.  The v e r b a l development o f the c h i l d r e n was  matched on the b a s i s o f a mean u t t e r a n c e l e n g t h o f 2 . 0 morphemes.  The d a t a  f o r each mother c o n s i s t e d o f two samples o f one hundred v e r b a l i z a t i o n s each. I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t the v e r b a l environment p r o v i d e d by Adam's mother o f f e r e d the g r e a t e s t s t i m u l u s t o c o g n i t i v e development due t o the g r e a t e r amount o f e x p l i c i t t e a c h i n g (Holzman, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t Adam was  1974).  The o n l y problem w i t h t h i s  the o l d e s t c h i l d i n the s t u d y . T h e r e f o r e ,  what appears t o be a n independent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the mother's b e h a v i o u r may,  verbal  i n f a c t , be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the age o f h e r c h i l d .  A r e c e n t s t u d y by Snow et a l .  (1976)  proposed t o examine the q u a l i t y  o f speech o f f e r e d by Dutch mothers from d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s t o t h e i r two-year-old c h i l d r e n .  The measurements on the g r a m m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f  the mothers' speech r e v e a l e d few s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the s o c i a l classes.  The m o t h e r - c h i l d dyads were s t u d i e d i n both a f r e e p l a y and a  11 book r e a d i n g s i t u a t i o n .  A noteworthy r e s u l t was t h a t more complex speech  occurred  i n the book r e a d i n g s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h no s i g n i f i c a n t c l a s s d i f -  ferences  occurred.  U t t e r a n c e s were a l s o s c o r e d ,  by means o f a m o d i f i e d  v e r s i o n o f t h e system o u t l i n e d by Bloom (1970),, on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r function.  Although t h i s f u n c t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n established large s o c i a l  c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s , s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was n o t a c h i e v e d . A l s o , Snow mentioned i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t y l e and c o n t e n t of p l a y , e m p h a s i z i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f measuring these d i f f e r e n c e s tively.  objec-  Some mothers tended t o p l a y a " l a b e l i n g game" w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n  i n both s i t u a t i o n s .  These mothers would c o n s i s t e n t l y r e q u i r e t h e c h i l d t o  name o b j e c t s o r p i c t u r e s .  The d e f i c i e n c i e s o f t h i s approach became obvious  when r e a d i n g a s t o r y about a c a t e r p i l l a r : t h e mother taught t h e v o c a b u l a r y items t h a t were n e c e s s a r y b u t f a i l e d t o e x p l a i n t h a t the c a t e r p i l l a r became a b u t t e r f l y . discussed  At the opposite  extreme were t h e mothers who not o n l y  t h e s t o r y , but a l s o r e l a t e d i t t o events i n t h e c h i l d ' s l i f e .  These mothers imposed a n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e on t h e c h i l d ' s f r e e p l a y as w e l l (Snow e t a l . , 1976).  2.2.2  By Other A d u l t s  I n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r weaken t h e r a t i o n a l i s t p o s i t i o n on language a c q u i s i t i o n and, a t t h e same time, s t r e n g t h e n  the e m p i r i c i s t p o s i t i o n , i t  must be shown t h a t young c h i l d r e n a c q u i r i n g language a r e c o n s t a n t l y t h e r e c i p i e n t s of s p e c i a l , s i m p l i f i e d verbal input.  A few s t u d i e s have c l e a r l y  demonstrated t h a t a l l a d u l t s modify t h e i r speech i n s i m i l a r ways, a l t h o u g h t o v a r y i n g degrees, when they address young c h i l d r e n . (1972) compared t h e speech o f mothers and non-mothers.  F o r example, Snow A striking result  was t h e g e n e r a l absence o f d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e speech o f mothers and  12 non-mothers f o r communicating w i t h  two-year-olds.  A r e c e n t paper by Berko G l e a s o n (1975) e n t i t l e d " F a t h e r s and o t h e r s t r a n g e r s : Men's speech t o young c h i l d r e n " p r i m a r i l y m a s c u l i n e speech i n p u t t o young c h i l d r e n .  discusses  The p r i n c i p a l data come from  two male and two female daycare teachers a t a s m a l l daycare f a c i l i t y , and from t h r e e f a t h e r s and t h r e e mothers a t home w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n . children receiving  t h e v e r b a l i n p u t were a l l o f p r e s c h o o l age.  The  F a t h e r s as  w e l l as mothers were found t o s i m p l i f y t h e i r speech, but the f a t h e r s ' o u t p u t was f e l t t o be q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e mothers' due t o the f a t h e r s ' use o f i m p e r a t i v e s , t h r e a t s , and a f f e c t i o n a t e l y i n s u l t i n g names.  In  summary, a c c o r d i n g t o Berko Gleason, mothers and f a t h e r s had a number o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g f e a t u r e s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e language s t y l e s w h i c h c o u l d be p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d by t h e d i f f e r e n t r o l e s o c c u p i e d  by the p a r e n t s .  Furthermore, t h e speech i n p u t o f the male and female daycare teachers  t o t h e c h i l d r e n was both q u a n t i t a t i v e l y and q u a l i t a t i v e l y v e r y  s i m i l a r , as i n d i c a t e d by measurements o f MLU, p r e v e r b c o u r s e , and r e p e t i t i o n s .  Berko Gleason concluded  l e n g t h , t o p i c o f "dis-  t h a t : "Men, as w e l l as  women, modify t h e i r . s p e e c h when a d d r e s s i n g young c h i l d r e n , and where t h e men occupy a n u r t u r a n t r o l e they become i n c r e a s i n g l y and  intentions  o f the c h i l d r e n . "  (p. 297)  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on S e r b o - C r o a t i a n acquisition.  examines t h e problem o f q u e s t i o n  S a v i c (1974) s t u d i e d q u e s t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n i n a f i r s t - b o r n  pair of dizygotic these t w i n s .  s e n s i t i v e t o t h e needs  twins and t h e a d u l t speech i n d i r e c t communication w i t h  By d e f i n i t i o n , " d i r e c t speech" was t h a t i n t e n t i o n a l l y aimed  a t t h e c h i l d , and was c a t e g o r i z e d i n t h r e e ways: q u e s t i o n s , commands, and statements.  An a n a l y s i s  o f the frequency  and o r d e r o f appearance o f  t h i r t e e n q u e s t i o n types produced by each c h i l d was c a r r i e d out i n o r d e r t o  13 determine t o what e x t e n t t h a t of a d u l t s .  The  mentioned p o i n t s . conditions  t h e i r i n t e r r o g a t i v e systems c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o  r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y s u p p o r t two major p r e v i o u s l y  F i r s t , t h a t t h e r e i s a l a g e f f e c t i n t h a t the maximal  i n the language environment a r e r e f l e c t e d a t a l a t e r time i n  the language produced by the c h i l d , and are i n v o l v e d i n an i n t e r a c t i o n p r o c e s s .  second, t h a t the a d u l t and  child  I n s h o r t , c h i l d speech and  adult  speech are phenomena t h a t i n f l u e n c e each o t h e r .  2.2.3 The  By  Children  s t u d y o f speech m o d i f i c a t i o n made by c h i l d r e n  younger c h i l d r e n i s of i n t e r e s t f o r two the c l a i m t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n  reasons.  First,  i n o r d e r t o make  of a s p e c i a l speech r e g i s t e r d i r e c t e d t o  young c h i l d r e n i s a l e a r n e d s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l , the development of t h i s s k i l l  addressing  i s needed.  evidence p e r t a i n i n g t o  Furthermore, i n the l a t e 1960's  when c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s on the environment of c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g language were begun, i t was  soon r e a l i z e d t h a t o l d e r c h i l d r e n , and not mothers, i n  some c u l t u r e s were the p r i m a r y c a r e - t a k e r s  of  youngjchildren.  I n an o v e r v i e w paper on the language i n p u t to c h i l d r e n , S l o b i n (1975) summarizes the i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d i n the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s . He concludes about the work by B l o u n t (1969) and Kernan (1969) t h a t , a l t h o u g h the major speech i n p u t t o young Luo  and Samoan c h i l d r e n a c q u i r i n g  t h e i r n a t i v e language i s from o l d e r c h i l d r e n and not  from a d u l t s ,  the  c o u r s e and r a t e o f language development do not seem t o be a f f e c t e d .  Slobin  emphasizes t h a t the i n p u t from the o l d e r c h i l d r e n to the p r e s c h o o l e r s grammatically the g e n e r a l  s i m i l a r t o the i n p u t from a d u l t s .  Despite  the scanty  is data,  f i n d i n g appears to be t h a t young c h i l d r e n are exposed t o a  f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t s i m p l i f i e d speech r e g i s t e r .  14 I n 1973,  two E n g l i s h language s t u d i e s e s t a b l i s h e d the a b i l i t y  young c h i l d r e n t o a d j u s t t h e i r speech s t y l e . analyzed  the speech o f f o u r - y e a r - o l d s  of  Shatz and Gelman (1973)  t o peers, t w o - y e a r - o l d s , and  adults.  I n terms of measures such as amount of speech, mean l e n g t h o f u t t e r a n c e , q u a n t i t y of v a r i o u s c o n s t r u c t i o n types,  i t was  o l d s produced s h o r t e r , s i m p l e r u t t e r a n c e s the f o u r - y e a r - o l d s  i n t h i s c o n t e x t was  demonstrated t h a t  to two-year-olds.  simpler  The  and  four-yearspeech o f  i n the sense t h a t the  fre-  quency o f complex c o n s t r u c t i o n s , as w e l l as the t o t a l number of l o n g u t t e r ances, was  lower.  I n summary, the a u t h o r s s t a t e d about the r u d i m e n t a r y  communication s k i l l of the f o u r - y e a r - o l d s the g r e a t e r the tendency t o use t o a t t r a c t and  t h a t "the younger t h e i r  short, simple utterances  s u s t a i n a t t e n t i o n . " (p.  and  listener,  t o make e f f o r t s  34)  Furthermore, the s t u d y by Sachs and D e v i n (1973) e l a b o r a t e d contexts  i n w h i c h the s i m p l i f i e d code o c c u r s .  on  the  As a r e s u l t of the speech  m o d i f i c a t i o n s noted, the a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t young c h i l d r e n do not depend on cues i n the immediate s i t u a t i o n , but have developed some more a b s t r a c t knowledge of a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  of speech t o l i s t e n e r .  t h a t even the youngest c h i l d , aged two years and use  A l s o , i t i s noteworthy  f o u r months, was  found t o  some s o r t of s i m p l i f i e d code s i m i l a r t o the t y p i c a l "mother language",  a l t h o u g h not t o the same e x t e n t  t h a t t h i s s p e c i a l code was  used by  older  children. Thus, the two  s t u d i e s j u s t mentioned s e r v e to demonstrate t h a t  s i m p l i f i e d speech code used t o address young c h i l d r e n i s a l e a r n e d linguistic skill.  Further research  about the emergence o f t h i s  skill.  i s needed t o g a i n d e t a i l e d  the  socio-  information  15  2.2.4  D i r e c t versus  I n d i r e c t Speech  Much o f the f o r e g o i n g i n f o r m a t i o n comprises a consensus about the c o n s i s t e n t n a t u r e o f the s i m p l i f i e d v e r b a l i n p u t t o young c h i l d r e n . F i n a l l y , a p o i n t must be made about the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d d i s t i n c t i o n between d i r e c t and provides  i n d i r e c t speech.  I t i s obvious t h a t the c h i l d ' s environment  i n p u t t h a t i s not i n the s i m p l i f i e d code.  For example, when  a d u l t s t a l k t o each o t h e r , the c h i l d i s i n d i r e c t l y exposed t o a speech code t h a t i s not a d j u s t e d f o r h i s b e n e f i t .  However, many r e s e a r c h e r s  noting  t h i s phenomenon have agreed t h a t the d i r e c t speech i n p u t t o the c h i l d i s probably  the most important  i n i n f l u e n c i n g language development.  Ervin-  T r i p p summarizes t h i s n o t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g way: C h i l d r e n a r e exposed t o a g r e a t d e a l o f speech which i s not a d d r e s s e d t o them. But they p r o b a b l y "tune o u t " a good d e a l t h a t i s u n i n t e r e s t i n g or too complex, j u s t as they t u r n o f f p o l i t i c a l commentators on t e l e v i s i o n . There seem t o be n e u r o l o g i c a l bases t o a t t e n t i o n w h i c h s i m p l y e l i m i n a t e from p r o c e s s i n g and s t o r a g e a good d e a l t o w h i c h we a r e exposed. So we have good grounds f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t a t l e a s t a t the b e g i n n i n g the most important language i n l e a r n i n g i s the speech a d d r e s s e d t o the c h i l d . ( E r v i n - T r i p p , 1971, A l s o , Snow (1976) c i t e s some a n e c d o t a l  evidence,  p.  192)  obtained  from  T. van der Geest, t h a t t h e r e a r e cases o f Dutch c h i l d r e n i n e a s t e r n H o l l a n d who  watch German t e l e v i s i o n programs r e g u l a r l y , a l t h o u g h they n e i t h e r  a c h i e v e a p p r e c i a b l e c o n t r o l o f German nor r e a l l y u n d e r s t a n d the programs. T h i s evidence,  although  i n c o n c l u s i v e , suggests to Snow t h a t b e i n g a d d r e s s e d  i n an a p p r o p r i a t e l y s i m p l i f i e d r e g i s t e r o f a p a r t i c u l a r language may p r e r e q u i s i t e t o i t s a c q u i s i t i o n by c h i l d r e n .  be  16 2.3  The R e s u l t s o f M a n i p u l a t i v e  Experiments  A l t h o u g h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the s i m p l i f i e d speech code  utilized  when a d d r e s s i n g young c h i l d r e n have been w e l l documented, t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n about the e x t e n t t o w h i c h c h i l d r e n a t t e n d to and make use this special input. for  The n e c e s s a r y and s u f f i c i e n t environmental c o n d i t i o n s  a c h i l d t o a c q u i r e h i s n a t i v e language a r e not y e t known, but  o p t i m a l c o n d i t i o n s have been s p e c u l a t e d upon.  the d e s i g n of w h i c h i s n o t o r i o u s l y d i f f i c u l t .  was  discussed.  Cazden performed a m a n i p u l a t i v e experiment  o f w e l l - f o r m e d speech. observed  experimentation,  Few m a n i p u l a t i v e s t u d i e s  have been executed and o n l y two w i l l be s u b s e q u e n t l y  o f s e p a r a t i n g the e f f e c t o f expansions  the  Information p e r t a i n i n g to  t h i s t o p i c can o n l y be o b t a i n e d by means of m a n i p u l a t i v e  In 1965,  of  f o r the purpose  from the e f f e c t o f sheer q u a n t i t y  These two s o - c a l l e d t r a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s had been  t o occur i n d i f f e r e n t p r o p o r t i o n s a c r o s s mothers.  The  experiment  performed on a group o f c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g a daycare c e n t e r .  One  e x p e r i m e n t a l group r e c e i v e d f o r t y minutes a day o f i n t e n s i v e and d e l i b e r a t e expansions  w h i l e the o t h e r group was  formed sentences  exposed t o an equal number o f w e l l -  t h a t were not expansions.  A f t e r a t h r e e month p e r i o d ,  the noted changes i n s i x measurements o f s y n t a c t i c development i n d i c a t e d t h a t the w e l l - f o r m e d sentence  treatment proved t o be somewhat more bene-  ficial . D i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d by K e i t h N e l s o n _et al. c o n f i r m the f a c i l i t a t i o n  of syntax a c q u i s i t i o n .  d e s i g n , a d u l t experimenters  In t h i s  (1973) a l s o experimental  spent twenty-two s e s s i o n s w i t h one  group t o w h i c h r e p l i e s were " r e c a s t " sentences  t h a t maintained the b a s i c  meaning o f the c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e but p r o v i d e d new A n o t h e r group r e c e i v e d responses  treatment  syntactic information.  w h i c h were g r a m m a t i c a l l y complete but  17 s e m a n t i c a l l y u n r e l a t e d t o what the c h i l d s a i d .  I n o t h e r words, the con-  t e n t words o f the c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e were excluded. group r e c e i v e d no e x p e r i m e n t a l  Finally, a control  treatment.  On a l l o f the f i v e measurements o f s y n t a c t i c development, the c h i l d r e n who  had r e c e i v e d the r e c a s t sentence  treatment were more advanced  l i n g u i s t i c a l l y than the c h i l d r e n i n the o t h e r two groups. i n two measures showed t h a t c h i l d r e n i n the new  However, t r e n d s  sentence group were o n l y  s l i g h t l y l e s s advanced i n t h e i r performance than the r e c a s t sentence  group.  On no measure d i d c h i l d r e n i n the former group demonstrate t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t f a c i l i t a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o the c o n t r o l group's performance had The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n suggests v e n t i o n a r e more b e n e f i c i a l than o t h e r s .  occurred.  t h a t d i f f e r e n t types o f i n t e r However, i t i s s t i l l  unclear  what t r a i n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , among the many c o n c e i v a b l e ones, a r e the most facilitative.  I n the c o n t e x t o f the p r e s e n t paper, the i n f o r m a t i o n pre-  sented from two m a n i p u l a t i v e experiments  s e r v e s t o emphasize the r o l e o f  the environment i n the language a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e s s .  2.4  The V e r b a l Input t o C h i l d r e n Who I t i s undeniable  a r e Not A c q u i r i n g Language N o r m a l l y  t h a t p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c r e s e a r c h has  on the language development o f the normal c h i l d .  concentrated  Consequently,  information  about the l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d e f i c i e n t c h i l d i s r e l a t i v e l y u n a v a i l a b l e . i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t has been mentioned c u r s o r i l y by a few  An other  r e s e a r c h e r s i s s t a t e d thus by Menyuk (1975): " I t has been noted, but c l e a r l y researched,  not  that mother-child i n t e r a c t i o n i s e i t h e r d e f i c i e n t  or d i s t o r t e d i n the case o f c h i l d r e n w i t h developmental  and/  disabilities."  (p. 135)  T h i s problem has r e c e n t l y a t t r a c t e d some r e s e a r c h e r s ; however,  a thorough  r e v i e w o f a l l t h a t has been attempted  i s not n e c e s s a r y  f o r the  18  purpose of i l l u s t r a t i n g the v a r i e t y o f techniques mothers' i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h c h i l d e e n who  used t o i n v e s t i g a t e  a r e not normal.  For example, McCarthy (1954) c i t e s some e a r l y s t u d i e s examining b o t h the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f m o t h e r - c h i l d  interaction.  The  various  s t u d i e s i n w h i c h an independent v a r i a b l e i s the amount o f c o n t a c t w i t h mother support  the  the g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the degree o f d e l a y i n language  development i s r e l a t e d i n some g r a d i e n t t o the i n t e n s i t y and d u r a t i o n o f the mother's a t t e n t i o n (McCarthy, 1954).  There a r e many commonly  n o t i o n s about the q u a l i t y o f the m o t h e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p and on the development o f the c h i l d , a l t h o u g h such n o t i o n s .  expressed  i t s effect  l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l evidence  supports  McCarthy p r o v i d e s the example t h a t some i n f a n t i l e speech  p a t t e r n s such as l i s p i n g have been viewed as a r e f l e c t i o n i n the c h i l d the smothering o v e r p r o t e c t i v e a t t i t u d e o f the mother.  of  More r e c e n t s t u d i e s  have developed t e s t a b l e measurements t o d e s c r i b e the q u a l i t y o f motherchild interactions. One  r e c e n t approach t o the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f m o t h e r - c h i l d  inter-  a c t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h language d e l a y i s r e p o r t e d by W u l b e r t et a l . (1975). These r e s e a r c h e r s  chose t o e v a l u a t e the home environment o f c h i l d r e n a c q u i -  r i n g language by means o f the C a l d w e l l I n v e n t o r y o f Home S t i m u l a t i o n . t o o l makes use o f i n t e r v i e w and o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . t h e s i s o f the r e s e a r c h was  The  This  s p e c i f i c hypo-  t h a t the same tendency towards g r e a t e r  restric-  t i o n and l e s s p o s i t i v e involvement w i t h language-delayed c h i l d r e n might be found a c r o s s a l l s o c i a l s t r a t a . hypothesis  The r e s u l t s o f the study supported  s i n c e low C a l d w e l l scores were found throughout the  socio-econo-  mic s t r a t a , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the m a t e r n a l - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p was i n f l u e n c e d by language d e l a y t h a n by socio-economic f a c t o r s .  the  more s t r o n g l y  I t should  be  emphasized t h a t the C a l d w e l l t o o l p r o v i d e s o n l y a gross measurement o f the  19 mothers' v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r .  F o r example, some o f t h e parameters are:.  1) o f f e r s d i r e c t p r a i s e t o t h e c h i l d a t l e a s t once; 2) does n o t shout a t the c h i l d d u r i n g t h e v i s i t ; 3) does not express o v e r t annoyance toward  the c h i l d .  Such parameters p r o v i d e i n s i g h t about t h e q u a l i t y o f the i n t e r a c t i o n but do not a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e t h e l i n g u i s t i c  behaviour.  I n c o n t r a s t , t h e measurements made by Buium e t a_l. (1974) i d e n t i f y more c l e a r l y t h e s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s t h a t d i f f e r i n t h e environments o f language-delayed  c h i l d r e n versus normally developing c h i l d r e n .  In this  study, each o f t h e f i v e mothers composing t h e normal group had a normal twenty-four-month-old  c h i l d , w h i l e t h e s i x mothers i n t h e non-normal group  each had a twenty-four-month-old  Down's syndrome c h i l d .  The m o t h e r - c h i l d  i n t e r a c t i o n was r e c o r d e d by a u d i o - v i d e o tape i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t  situations:  a p l a y s i t u a t i o n and two 2-minute s t r u c t u r e d s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e mother was t o t e a c h t h e c h i l d how t o s e t a t a b l e .  The data were a n a l y z e d  i n terms o f twenty-one parameters w h i c h t h e a u t h o r s grouped i n t o t h e following categories: 1) grammatical  features;  2) s e n t e n t i a l  structure;  3)  vocabulary;  4)  productivity.^  The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y demonstrated t h a t t h e f r e q u e n c i e s o f 1 The twenty-one parameters i n v e s t i g a t e d were; (1) i n d e f i n i t e pronouns, (2) p e r s o n a l pronouns, (3) main v e r b s , (4) secondary v e r b s , (5) n e g a t i v e s , (6) c o n j u n c t i o n s , (7) i n t e r r o g a t i v e r e v e r s a l s , (8) WH q u e s t i o n s , (9) s i n g l e word s e n t e n c e s , (10) i m p e r a t i v e sentences, (11) d e c l a r a t i v e sentences, (12) g r a m m a t i c a l l y i n c o m p l e t e sentences, (13) q u e s t i o n s , (14) r a i s e d i n t o n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s , (15) Type Token R a t i o , (16) t o t a l words, (17) t o t a l u t t e r a n c e s , (18) mean l e n g t h o f u t t e r a n c e s , (19) t o t a l sentences, (20) mean l e n g t h o f s e n t e n c e s , (21) word r a t e p e r minute.  20  o c c u r r e n c e o f some l i n g u i s t i c parameters i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n t h e two groups. emphasize t h a t one f a c t o r p o s s i b l y  The a u t h o r s c i t e d Brown (1970) t o  influencing  the c h i l d ' s course of  language a c q u i s i t i o n i s t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h c e r t a i n grammatical forms are used.  I t was found, f o r example, t h a t the Down's syndrome c h i l d r e n  were exposed t o a h i g h e r number o f u t t e r a n c e s y e t a lower mean l e n g t h o f u t t e r a n c e s , and a h i g h e r frequency o f g r a m m a t i c a l l y i n c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e s , i m p e r a t i v e s e n t e n c e s , and s i n g l e word sentences (Buium e t a l . , 1974). However, t h e a u t h o r s acknowledge t h e need f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h t o c o n f i r m the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c e r t a i n parameters o f the e a r l y language e n v i r o n ment o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i r subsequent production.  language  Furthermore, they m a i n t a i n t h a t because t h e language a c q u i s i -  t i o n d e v i c e o f Down's syndrome c h i l d r e n must o p e r a t e on l i n g u i s t i c d a t a t h a t i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t from t h e d a t a i n p u t t o normal c h i l d r e n ,  this  f a c t i s worthy o f c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n any attempt t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e language development o f t h e non-normal  child.  21 CHAPTER 3  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM  Language i n t e r v e n t i o n programmes proceed on t h e assumption t h a t the l a n g u a g e - d e l a y e d c h i l d , who i s h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n a c q u i r i n g h i s f i r s t language, w i l l  b e n e f i t from a d i f f e r e n t environment w h i c h p r o v i d e s  f u r t h e r exposure t o t h e v e r y forms and s t r u c t u r e s he was p r e v i o u s l y u n a b l e to l e a r n .  I m p l i c i t i n a l l o f the f o r e g o i n g m a t e r i a l i s the n o t i o n  that  some environments f a c i l i t a t e language a c q u i s i t i o n more s u c c e s s f u l l y than others. I n t h e p a s t decade, p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c r e s e a r c h has been p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h t h e environment o f t h e c h i l d who i s a c q u i r i n g h i s f i r s t language n o r m a l l y .  To d a t e , no r e s e a r c h has i n v e s t i g a t e d the v e r b a l en-  vironment o f the c h i l d who i s l a n g u a g e - d e l a y e d d e s p i t e a l a c k o f apparent i n t e l l e c t u a l or p h y s i o l o g i c a l d e f i c i t .  F o r such a c h i l d , e n v i r o n m e n t a l  f a c t o r s might p l a y an e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e language a c q u i s i t i o n process. I t has been demonstrated u n i v e r s a l l y t h a t the v e r b a l i n p u t t o the young c h i l d a c q u i r i n g language n o r m a l l y i s s i m p l i f i e d i n comparison w i t h communication between a d u l t s o r somewhat o l d e r c h i l d r e n .  Many d i f f e r e n t  parameters have been used t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e s i m p l i f i e d speech code on p h y s i c a l performance, l e x i c a l , g r a m m a t i c a l , and f u n c t i o n a l l e v e l s o f analys i s . The p r i m a r y a i m o f t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h was t o d i s c o v e r t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e mother's v e r b a l i n p u t t o h e r language-delayed c h i l d , and compare these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h those t y p i c a l o f h e r v e r b a l i n p u t t o the younger c h i l d who appeared t o be a c q u i r i n g language n o r m a l l y .  Another  q u e s t i o n asked was how  the v e r b a l i n v i r o n m e n t s p r o v i d e d by d i f f e r e n t  mothers o f l a n g u a g e - d e l a y e d c h i l d r e n compare.  The f i n a l i s s u e i n v o l v e d  c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the speech s t y l e used by the mother when she was a c t i n g i n a c o n t e x t i n w h i c h b o t h c h i l d r e n were p r e s e n t .  inter-  23  CHAPTER 4  METHOD  4.1  S e l e c t i o n of the Subjects Initially,  f i v e f a m i l i e s s a t i s f y i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a were  contacted: 1.  The p a r e n t s a r e both n a t i v e speakers o f E n g l i s h , and E n g l i s h i s t h e language spoken i n t h e home.  2.  There a r e a t l e a s t two c h i l d r e n i n t h e f a m i l y .  3.  The o l d e r c h i l d , aged f o u r t o seven y e a r s , has been r e c e n t l y a s s e s s e d by a speech t h e r a p i s t as l a n g u a g e - d e l a y e d w i t h o u t the  4.  c o m p l i c a t i o n o f any o r g a n i c d e f e c t .  The younger c h i l d , aged two t o f o u r y e a r s , appears t o be a c q u i r i n g language n o r m a l l y .  Each f a m i l y was t h e n v i s i t e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r f o r t h e purpose o f d e s c r i b i n g t h e proposed r e s e a r c h and a l s o t o i n f o r m a l l y judge t h e l i n g u i s t i c proximity of the s i b l i n g s .  A b r i e f w r i t t e n o u t l i n e was g i v e n t o t h e  mothers who were n o t i n f o r m e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t t h e i r language was o f i n t e r e s t but r a t h e r - t h a t t h e purpose o f t h e r e s e a r c h was t o s t u d y t h e language i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t takes p l a c e i n t h e home, i n v o l v i n g a c h i l d w i t h language problems, h i s o r h e r normal younger s i b l i n g , and t h e i r One f a m i l y was e l i m i n a t e d a f t e r t h i s f i r s t v i s i t  mother.  because t h e young s i b l i n g  was under two y e a r s o l d and produced v e r y l i t t l e speech. On t h e f o l l o w i n g home v i s i t , w h i c h o c c u r r e d between two and f o u r weeks subsequent t o t h e f i r s t v i s i t ,  d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was i n i t i a t e d .  From  each o f t h e e i g h t c h i l d r e n t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r e l i c i t e d a language sample f o r  24  at  l e a s t f i f t e e n minutes.  On the b a s i s of the i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y and amount  of  speech produced by the c h i l d , two f a m i l i e s were s e l e c t e d f o r f u r t h e r  study. Both f a m i l i e s chosen had two c h i l d r e n , b o t h o f whom were boys.  In  each case, the o l d e r boy had s t a r t e d t o r e c e i v e speech t h e r a p y once a week i n September  1975, and a t the same time had s t a r t e d t o a t t e n d n u r s e r y  s c h o o l t h r e e a f t e r n o o n s a week.  Each o f the younger b r o t h e r s remained a t  home, and n e i t h e r mother worked o u t s i d e h e r home.  The i n v e s t i g a t o r judged  t h a t b o t h f a m i l i e s belonged t o the m i d d l e c l a s s a l t h o u g h s p e c i f i c economic  i n f o r m a t i o n was not e l i c i t e d . The age and mean u t t e r a n c e l e n g t h (MLU)  of the  f o r each boy a t the time  the i n i t i a l language sample were as f o l l o w s : i n the f i r s t f a m i l y normal c h i l d ( N l ) was 2-11 w i t h an MLU  d e l a y e d c h i l d (DI) was 4-9 w i t h an MLU the  socio-  normal c h i l d (N2) had an MLU  (D2) was 4-4 and had an MLU  (Fl),  o f 3.55; and the language-  o f 3.39.  I n the second f a m i l y ( F 2 ) ,  o f 2.31 and was 2-5, w h i l e the o l d e r boy  o f 3.66.  The MLU measurement as d e s c r i b e d by  Brown (1973) i s o f t e n used t o e s t i m a t e the c h i l d ' s language performance level.  The MLU v a l u e s s t a t e d above were c a l c u l a t e d on the b a s i s o f the  f i r s t one hundred u t t e r a n c e s i n the i n i t i a l language sample.  On t h i s b a s i s  then, the boys i n F l appeared t o be a t a s i m i l a r language l e v e l , N2 and D2 were c l e a r l y f u n c t i o n i n g a t d i f f e r e n t  4.2  whereas  levels.  Procedure  S i n c e no s t a n d a r d e x i s t s , i t was a r b i t r a r i l y d e c i d e d t h a t a t h i r t y minute language sample would be c o l l e c t e d i n f r e e p l a y c o n t e x t s i n the f o l l o w i n g order: 1.  The mother i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the younger  child.  25 2.  The mother i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the o l d e r c h i l d .  3.  The mother i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h b o t h c h i l d r e n t o g e t h e r .  I n a l l c o n t e x t s the mothers were encouraged t o use desired.  toys i f they  They were reminded t h a t the g o a l o f the study was  the language o f each c h i l d . o f the home a t around 10:30  t o l e a r n about  Data were c o n s i s t e n t l y c o l l e c t e d i n one i n the morning w h i c h was  so  the most  room  convenient  time f o r both mothers. The d a t a were r e c o r d e d a t 1\ used.  inches per second.  on an Amplex 601 r e e l - t o - r e e l tape r e c o r d e r  Ampex 631,  The microphone used was  as u n o b t r u s i v e l y as p o s s i b l e .  1.5  m i l l i m e t r e p o l y e s t e r tape  an A l t e x 681A  mounted on a s t a n d and  t e x t were i n a u d i b l e .  The  placed  The mouth-to-microphone d i s t a n c e v a r i e d  g r e a t l y as the s u b j e c t s moved around, and c o n s e q u e n t l y , microphone r e c o r d l e v e l was  was  even though the  s e t a t maximum, a few u t t e r a n c e s  i n each con-  i n v e s t i g a t o r w r o t e o b s e r v a t i o n a l notes  through-  out each s e s s i o n so t h a t c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n would be a v a i l a b l e t o a i d i n t r a n s c r i b i n g the  data.  The d a t a f o r a l l t h r e e c o n t e x t s were c o l l e c t e d w i t h i n a two week p e r i o d f o r each f a m i l y .  I n c l u d i n g the i n i t i a l language sample i n v o l v i n g  the i n v e s t i g a t o r , a l l the data were c o l l e c t e d w i t h i n a one month i n t e r v a l . A t a l l times d u r i n g the t h i r t y minute c o l l e c t i o n s e s s i o n s , i n v e s t i g a t o r remained as u n o b t r u s i v e as p o s s i b l e , a v o i d i n g eye and v e r b a l i z a t i o n w i t h the s u b j e c t s . t h i s behaviour  the  contact  The mother had been forwarned about  and g i v e n the e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t thus the i n t e r a c t i o n observed  would be as c l o s e to what i t would n o r m a l l y be w i t h the involvement o f f a m i l y members o n l y .  26 4.3  T r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Data The  recorded. vestigator.  tapes were t r a n s c r i b e d as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r they had been Each tape was l i s t e n e d t o i n e n t i r e t y t h r e e times by t h e i n On t h e f i r s t l i s t e n i n g , t h e c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e s were t r a n s -  c r i b e d by a broad p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Phonetic Alphabet n o t a t i o n .  A t t h e same time, the mother's u t t e r a n c e s  were t r a n s c r i b e d i n t o s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h orthography  f o r t h e most p a r t .  A  few u n i n t e l l i g i b l e u t t e r a n c e s were t r a n s c r i b e d p h o n e t i c a l l y . On t h e second l i s t e n i n g , t h e o r i g i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n s were m o d i f i e d somewhat. P r o s o d i c i n f o r m a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g p r i m a r y sentence c o n t o u r s , was added.  s t r e s s and i n t o n a t i o n  A l s o , t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n s o f the c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e s  E n g l i s h orthography were made where p o s s i b l e .  Then on t h e t h i r d  into  listening,  c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from t h e w r i t t e n o b s e r v a t i o n a l notes was added. The d i f f i c u l t y o f t r a n s c r i b i n g t h e t h i r d c o n t e x t n e c e s s i t a t e d some a l t e r a t i o n o f the above procedures.  A l l o f t h e mother's u t t e r a n c e s were  t r a n s c r i b e d on t h e same day t h e data were c o l l e c t e d .  A t t h e same time, t h e  d e s t i n a t i o n o f h e r u t t e r a n c e s was coded as b e i n g d i r e c t e d t o one c h i l d o r the o t h e r .  A t h i r d c a t e g o r y was used f o r those u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h were  ambiguous i n t h e sense t h a t they c o u l d have been i n t e n d e d f o r both  child-  r e n , o r i t was u n c l e a r who they were d i r e c t e d a t . Subsequently, made.  a t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s u t t e r a n c e s was  Q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y both c h i l d r e n were t a l k i n g a t once, making n o i s e s  w i t h v a r i o u s t o y s , and moving away from t h e microphone.  A t best,  these  c i r c u m s t a n c e s y i e l d e d o n l y one c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e s t h a t were i n t e l l i g i b l e enough t o t r a n s c r i b e .  Even when t h e i n t e r a c t i o n was t a k i n g p l a c e i t was  impossible t o understand  e v e r y t h i n g s a i d by each c h i l d .  Therefore, i t  27  was d e c i d e d t h a t , where p o s s i b l e , a t r a n s c r i p t i o n would be made o f what was s a i d by t h e c h i l d whom t h e mother was a d d r e s s i n g . proved w o r k a b l e most o f t h e time.  This procedure  The r e s u l t i n g t r a n s c r i p t i o n was checked  and p r o s o d i c and c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n were added as i n t h e f i r s t two contexts. F i n a l l y , a l l t h e d a t a i n t h e t h i r d c o n t e x t and a t l e a s t  fifteen  minutes o f t h e o t h e r two c o n t e x t s were checked by a n o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r who was  i n s t r u c t e d t o m o d i f y t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s i n any way she f e l t n e c e s s a r y .  A l l measurements o f t h e d a t a took i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n s made by t h e second l i s t e n e r .  4.4  A n a l y s i s o f t h e Data  4.4.1  The Language o f t h e C h i l d r e n  The language l e v e l o f each c h i l d was e s t i m a t e d i n terms o f t h e mean l e n g t h o f t h e f i r s t one hundred u t t e r a n c e s i n t h e i n i t i a l language sample ( p e r Brown, 1973).  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e language l e v e l o f each o f t h e  boys was c a l c u l a t e d from t h e f i r s t o r second c o n t e x t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e method o f Tyack and G o t t s l e b e n (1974).  T h i s a n a l y s i s was n e c e s s a r y be-  cause i t p r o v i d e s a more comprehensive p i c t u r e o f t h e language l e v e l o f the  c h i l d t h a n MLU a l o n e .  4.4.2  The Language o f t h e Mother  4.4.2.1  P h y s i c a l Performance Parameters  The q u a n t i t y o f speech produced by t h e mother was determined i n  28  each c o n t e x t by c o u n t i n g the number o f u t t e r a n c e s she produced.  The  c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d by Brown (1973) were t h e n used t o c a l c u l a t e the mean l e n g t h o f the t o t a l number o f u t t e r a n c e s produced by the mother i n each context. for  A l s o , the average o f the f i v e l o n g e s t u t t e r a n c e s was  calculated  each c o n t e x t . V a r i o u s methods f o r measuring speech r a t e have been used by o t h e r  investigators.  For the purposes o f t h i s s t u d y the method o u t l i n e d by Drach  (1969) was chosen.  Speech r a t e i n s y l l a b l e s per second was c a l c u l a t e d as  an average o f the r a t e s of t h i r t y - f i v e g r a m m a t i c a l sentences d i s t r i b u t e d randomly throughout the sample i n each o f the t h r e e c o n t e x t s . tence was  timed w i t h a s t o p w a t c h t o the n e a r e s t 1/10  Each sen-  o f a second.  Each  measurement was r e p e a t e d t h r e e times and the mean v a l u e o f the t h r e e measurements was  t h e n used t o c a l c u l a t e the r a t i o o f the number o f s y l l -  a b l e s i n each sentence t o the amount o f time t a k e n t o a r t i c u l a t e the whole sentence.  F i n a l l y , the average v a l u e o f t h i r t y - f i v e sentences was  calcu-  lated. A n o t h e r measurement w h i c h can be c o n s i d e r e d a p h y s i c a l performance parameter i s l e x i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y . s i z e used was  one hundred words.  were counted as d i f f e r e n t t y p e s .  As Broen (1972) suggested, the t o k e n Words d i f f e r i n g i n d i c t i o n a r y  spelling  Thus, a t y p e - t o k e n r a t i o (TTR) f o r each  mother was c a l c u l a t e d on the b a s i s of the f i r s t one hundred words i n each of  the t h r e e c o n t e x t s . R e p e t i t i o n was a n o t h e r o f the p h y s i c a l performance measurements.  The procedure used was  f i r s t d e s c r i b e d by Snow (1972) where t h r e e c a t e -  g o r i e s o f r e p e t i t i o n were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , but then reduced t o two c a t e g o r i e s i n Snow (1976).  C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y the e a r l i e r  c r i t e r i a were used t o code r e p e t i t i o n s as complete, p a r t i a l , or semantic.  29  Then t h e semantic  r e p e t i t i o n s were added t o t h e p a r t i a l r e p e t i t i o n s and two  r a t i o s were c a l c u l a t e d .  F o r a l l t h e c o n t e x t s , t h e number o f complete  r e p e t i t i o n s t o t h e t o t a l number o f u t t e r a n c e s and t h e number o f p a r t i a l r e p e t i t i o n s t o t h e t o t a l number o f u t t e r a n c e s were t h e two r a t i o s  calcu-  lated.  4.4.2.2  S t r u c t u r a l Parameters  I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y u t t e r a n c e s were grouped i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n type c a t e g o r i e s : i m p e r a t i v e s , i n v e r t e d q u e s t i o n s , i n t o n a t i o n o n l y q u e s t i o n s , wh-questions,  tag questions, negatives, a f f i r m a t i v e decla-  r a t i v e s , and s i n g l e word u t t e r a n c e s .  These c a t e g o r i e s were n o t m u t u a l l y  exclusive. A l s o , two measurements were used f o r t h e purpose o f d e s c r i b i n g t h e g r a m m a t i c a l i t y o f t h e mothers' speech.  According to the p r i n c i p l e s  out-  l i n e d by Snow (1972), t h e i n c i d e n c e o f u t t e r a n c e s w i t h o u t verbs was c a l c u lated.  Snow found t h i s t o be a u s e f u l measurement o f t h e f o r m a l c o r r e c t -  ness o f mothers' speech s i n c e a h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f u t t e r a n c e s w i t h o u t i s i n d i c a t i v e o f a tendency t o produce sentence  verbs  fragments.  As a f u r t h e r measure o f t h e f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e o f the mothers' speech, t h e percentage i n each c o n t e x t . mined elements,  o f g r a m m a t i c a l l y i n c o m p l e t e sentences was  determined  A l l one word u t t e r a n c e s , numbers, sentences w i t h u n d e t e r and s t e r e o t y p e d e x p r e s s i o n s such as "yes p l e a s e " and "hey  now" were e x c l u d e d from t h e count o f g r a m m a t i c a l l y i n c o m p l e t e  sentences.  However, f a l s e s t a r t s , m i s s i n g o r i n c o r r e c t i n f l e c t i o n s , m i s s i n g a u x i l i a r y verbs and a r t i c l e s and s u b j e c t pronoun phrases s c o r e d as g r a m m a t i c a l l y i n c o m p l e t e .  caused u t t e r a n c e s t o be  P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s have n o t been so  s p e c i f i c about t h e i r s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a .  30 4.4.2.3  F u n c t i o n a l Parameters  In the present  study a l l u t t e r a n c e s were coded i n t o t h e f o u r  f u n c t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s used by Snow (1976) t o a n a l y z e  t h e speech o f mothers.  E a r l i e r , Bloom (1970) had s c o r e d c h i l d r e n ' s u t t e r a n c e s questions,  o r d i r e c t i o n s and Snow m o d i f i e d  as r e p o r t s , comments,  t h e s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a somewhat  t o s u i t the purpose o f a n a l y z i n g t h e f u n c t i o n o f a d u l t speech. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e mothers' i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms was analyzed  i n detail.  According  t o t h e system d e s c r i b e d by Holzman  (1972),  i n t e r r o g a t i v e s were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g f i v e c a t e g o r i e s : A.  Requests f o r i n f o r m a t i o n .  B.  Requests f o r  C.  Q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o d i s p l a y o r t e s t t h e knowledge o f t h e  behaviour.  hearer. D.  I n t e r r o g a t i v e s i n w h i c h what i s q u e s t i o n e d  i s not i n the  v e r b a l i z a t ion. E.  Uses o f t h e i n t e r r o g a t i v e form f o r purposes o t h e r  than  questioning. 1. Q u e s t i o n s whose f o r c e i s a s u g g e s t i o n the c h i l d ' s  behaviour.  2. Q u e s t i o n s whose f o r c e i s a n e g a t i v e child's  f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f  evaluation o f the  behaviour.  3. Q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r e r e a l l y r e p o r t s . T h i s system appeared t o be s e n s i t i v e enough t o be a b l e t o d e t e c t any q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e mothers' use o f i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms.  31 CHAPTER 5  RESULTS  5.1  The Language o f t h e C h i l d  The r e s u l t s o f the Tyack and G o t t s l e b e n a n a l y s i s c o n f i r m e d t h e l i n g u i s t i c p r o x i m i t y o f N l and D l who were both a s s i g n e d t o t h e f o u r t h developmental  language l e v e l .  D l a c h i e v e d a word-morpheme index o f 4.09  and h i s u t t e r a n c e s ranged i n l e n g t h from 2-2 t o 12-12.  This k i n d of index  i s p r o j e c t e d as a measurement o f language competence r a t h e r than t h e p u r e l y performance measurement advocated  by Brown.  N l produced u t t e r a n c e s  r a n g i n g from 2-2 t o 10-10 and h i s word morpheme index was 4.56.  Both  b r o t h e r s i n F l demonstrated a v a r i e t y o f c o n s t r u c t i o n types commensurate w i t h t h e i r language l e v e l .  F o r the most p a r t , t h e m i s s i n g forms noted  were c o n s i d e r e d t o r e s u l t from a s a m p l i n g b i a s , s i n c e p i c t u r e s were not used t o e l i c i t t h e forms i n q u e s t i o n .  N e i t h e r b r o t h e r had a c h i e v e d t h e  907» c r i t e r i o n l e v e l f o r p l u r a l s , a r t i c l e s , the t h i r d person s i n g u l a r p r e sent tense, o r t h e c o p u l a form. o f e r r o r s than N l .  However, D l d i d make a g r e a t e r  percentage  T h e r e f o r e , t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e age d i f f e r e n c e  between t h e two b r o t h e r s , D l c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d s l i g h t l y  language-delayed.  I n a d d i t i o n , i t was noted t h a t h i s p h o n o l o g i c a l system was n o t as advanced as h i s b r o t h e r ' s . I n the o t h e r f a m i l y , N2 was a s s i g n e d t o the second  developmental  l e v e l on the b a s i s o f h i s 2.93 word-morpheme i n d e x and h i s u t t e r a n c e l e n g t h range from 2-2 t o 6-7.  D2 a c h i e v e d a word-morpheme index o f 3.7 8, and h i s  u t t e r a n c e s ranged from 2-2 t o 7-7. t h i r d developmental  language l e v e l .  Consequently,  he was a s s i g n e d t o t h e  N2 had n o t a c h i e v e d t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r  32  his  language l e v e l i n a r t i c l e s o r t h e p r e s e n t p r o g r e s s i v e tense, w h i l e D2  had n o t reached  t h e c r i t e r i o n l e v e l f o r a r t i c l e s , some pronouns, t h e c o p u l a  form, and t h e p r e s e n t p r o g r e s s i v e tense.  Both b r o t h e r s i n F2 demonstrated  a s u i t a b l e v a r i e t y o f c o n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e language l e v e l s . D2 was c o n s i d e r e d t o be s l i g h t l y All  language-delayed.  o f these r e s u l t s c o n f i r m e d t h e i n i t i a l i m p r e s s i o n s gained by  the performance MLU measurement on t h e i n i t i a l language sample i n w h i c h each c h i l d i n t e r a c t e d w i t h t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r who was a s t r a n g e r t o the c h i l d .  5.2  The Language o f t h e Mother  5.2.1  P h y s i c a l Performance Parameters  The number o f u t t e r a n c e s , MLU, and upper bound o f the two mothers and t h e i r normal and language-delayed summarized i n Table 1.  c h i l d r e n i n the three contexts i s  The most s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d i n t h e MLU  and upper bound v a l u e s f o r t h e two mothers.  M l used an MLU o f a p p r o x i -  mately 6.0 morphemes when a d d r e s s i n g e i t h e r c h i l d s e p a r a t e l y and when they were a l l t o g e t h e r , and h e r upper bound i n a l l t h r e e c o n t e x t s was around 23 morphemes. N2,  On the o t h e r hand, M2 used an MLU o f about 4.4 when a d d r e s s i n g  and 4.9 when a d d r e s s i n g D2.  I n t h e t h i r d c o n t e x t , most o f M2's  u t t e r a n c e s , 537 , were d i r e c t e d t o D2 w h i l e 337, were t o N2 and 147, were 0  ambiguously d i r e c t e d .  T h e r e f o r e , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the MLU o f M2  i n t h e t h i r d c o n t e x t i s 5.0.  Similarly,  i n c o n t e x t s two and t h r e e , h e r  upper bound i s around 16.0 morphemes w h i l e i t i s o n l y 12.0 i n t h e f i r s t context.  These r e s u l t s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a s t y l e t h a t was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f  each mother and f u r t h e r m o r e , showed t h a t M2 a d j u s t e d h e r speech more f o r h e r younger c h i l d .  TABLE 1 Number o f U t t e r a n c e s , MLU and Upper Bound o f the Two Mothers and T h e i r Normal and Language-Delayed C h i l d r e n i n Three Contexts  Mother 2  Mother 1  Contexts  No. o f Utterances  MLU  Upper Bound  No. o f Utterances  MLU  Upper Bound  Context 1 Mother  261  6.11  21.00  266  4.39  12.20  Normal Child  417  3.46  9.80  240  2.15  5.40  Mother  217  6.18  22.60  420  4.87  16.00  Delayed Child  318  3.19  10.40  442  2.73  7.80  320  6.14  24.00  555  5.00  16.20  Context 2  ^Context 3 Mother  * R e f e r t o Chapter 6 f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n o f the l a c k o f r e s u l t s f o r the children i n t h i s context.  34  T a b l e 2 summarizes ments.  t h e r e s t o f t h e p h y s i c a l performance  measure-  I n general, these r e s u l t s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s t y l e t y p i c a l o f  each mother.  M2 spoke more q u i c k l y t h a n M l .  I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t both  mothers spoke s l i g h t l y more s l o w l y i n t h e second c o n t e x t i n w h i c h they i n t e r a c t e d w i t h t h e i r l a n g u a g e - d e l a y e d c h i l d and most s l o w l y i n the t h i r d context.  A l s o , i t was noteworthy t h a t N2, b e i n g t h e youngest c h i l d i n t h e  s t u d y , r e c e i v e d v e r b a l i n p u t d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e l o w e s t TTR and t h e h i g h e s t number o f complete r e p e t i t i o n s .  5.2.2  S t r u c t u r a l Parameters  The s t r u c t u r a l parameters c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e speech o f t h e two mothers i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s i s summarized  i n T a b l e 3.  In brief,  the r e s u l t s g r o s s l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t h e s t y l e s o f t h e two mothers.  M2  tended t o use a much h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f w h - q u e s t i o n s , u t t e r a n c e s  that  were non-grammatical, and a h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f u t t e r a n c e s w i t h o u t verbs than M l .  Comparing t h e r e s u l t s i n c o n t e x t one w i t h those i n c o n t e x t two  f o r each mother, t h e most s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d i n t h e speech o f M2.  I n c o n t e x t one she produced a p p r o x i m a t e l y 11% more q u e s t i o n s and 12%  fewer a f f i r m a t i v e d e c l a r a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s .  An a n a l y s i s o f t h e q u e s t i o n  types used by each mother demonstrated t h a t M2 f a v o u r e d t h e w h - q u e s t i o n and p l a y e d a naming game w i t h b o t h o f h e r sons whereas M l used t h e i n v e r t e d q u e s t i o n more o f t e n . For t h e t h i r d c o n t e x t , t h e r e s u l t s a r e comensurate w i t h the s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e v i d e n t i n t h e f i r s t two c o n t e x t s .  I n the t h i r d  c o n t e x t the mothers each asked a comparable p e r c e n t a g e o f q u e s t i o n s , r o u g h l y 29%; however, M l used more i n v e r t e d q u e s t i o n s w h i l e M2 used whq u e s t i o n s more o f t e n .  C o n c o m i t a n t l y , M l used a p p r o x i m a t e l y 117> more  35 TABLE 2 P h y s i c a l Performance Parameters o f the Two Mothers' t o T h e i r Normal and Language-Delayed  Speech  Children  Mother 1  Mother 2  Contexts  Contexts  Parameters  1 2 To To Normal Delayed Speech r a t e i n s y l l a b l e s per second  Lexical variability o f the f i r s t 100 words  3 To Both  1 2 To To Normal Delayed  3 To Both  5.31  5.19  4.53  7.23  6.98  .60  .58  .61  .49  .56  .64  .76  1.47  3.43  6.02  .47  3.24  12.64  15.12  18.43  16.91  13.57  11.17  Percentage of repetitions Complete Partial  TABLE 3  Structural  Parameters of t h e Two Mothers' Speech i n Three C o n t e x t s  Percentage of S t r u c t u r a l Types  1 To Normal  Mother 1  Mother 2  Contexts  Contexts  2 To Delayed  3 To Both  1 Tci Normal  2 To D e l a y e d  3 To Both  Imperatives  7.27  7.74  10.31  7.51  9.76  13.51  Questions Intonation only  6.13  5.90  4.68  6.39  6.19  7.20  Inverted  11.11  8.11  12.81  6.01  3.57  3.06  Tags  11.49  5.90  4.68  7.14  3.33  4.14  8.81  5.53  7.18  25.93  17.38  14.41  37.54  25.44  29.35  41.47  30.47  28.81  12.64  8.11  4.37  4.51  5.23  7.92  30.65  43.54  41.25  20.67  32.61  31.71  S i n g l e word u t t e r a n c e s  20.68  16.23  11.56  25.93  20.95  19.67  U t t e r a n c e s w i t h o u t verbs  29.50  29.52  24.06  36.09  34.76  29.96  Grammatically incomplete utterances  12.64  13.65  15.00  21.42  20.47  17.83  Wh-questions Total questions Negatives Affirmative  declaratives  LO  37 than M2 who used 87, more s i n g l e word  a f f i r m a t i v e d e c l a r a t i v e sentences  u t t e r a n c e s and 67, more u t t e r a n c e s w i t h o u t  5.2.3  verbs.  F u n c t i o n a l Parameters  The r e s u l t s o f c l a s s i f y i n g u t t e r a n c e s by f u n c t i o n as r e p o r t s , comments, d i r e c t i o n s , and q u e s t i o n s f o r a l l c o n t e x t s a r e summarized i n T a b l e 4. The  f u n c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each mother's v e r b a l code a r e  c l e a r l y demonstrated.  I n a l l c o n t e x t s M l used more r e p o r t s , comments, and  q u e s t i o n s , w h i l e M2 used more d i r e c t i o n s .  Some s i m i l a r i t i e s c a n be seen  i n t h e way t h e mothers a d j u s t t h e i r speech when i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e i r o l d e r sons.  F o r example, u t t e r a n c e s f u n c t i o n e d more o f t e n as r e p o r t s and  comments when t h e o l d e r son was  addressed.  A summary o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms used by t h e mothers i n a l l c o n t e x t s c a n be seen i n T a b l e 5 .  The a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t  237o o f M i ' s i n t e r r o g a t i v e s i n c o n t e x t one were r e a l q u e s t i o n s and 9% were t e s t q u e s t i o n s , whereas i n c o n t e x t two 547, r e a l q u e s t i o n s and 4 7 t e s t q u e s t i o n s were asked.  M2 a l s o used more r e a l q u e s t i o n s i n c o n t e x t two,  t h a t i s , 437o v e r s u s 117> used i n c o n t e x t one, but she used 507o t e s t quest i o n s i n c o n t e x t one and 197° t e s t q u e s t i o n s i n c o n t e x t two.  A higher per-  centage o f M i ' s i n t e r r o g a t i v e s f u n c t i o n e d as r e p o r t s and s u g g e s t i o n s i n both contexts. I n both cases t h e mothers d i r e c t e d more i n t e r r o g a t i v e s t o t h e i r o l d e r sons.  There i s e v i d e n c e o f t h e same f u n c t i o n a l types b e i n g p r e f e r r e d  by each mother i n c o n t e x t t h r e e : as' i n . t h e f i r s t two c o n t e x t s .  M l used 457.  r e a l q u e s t i o n s and 77, t e s t q u e s t i o n s as opposed t o 237, o f t h e former and 317, o f t h e l a t t e r form used by M 2 .  These v a l u e s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y  indica-  38  TABLE 4 Mothers  1  U t t e r a n c e s i n Three C o n t e x t s  C l a s s i f i e d A c c o r d i n g t o Bloom's F u n c t i o n a l Types  Bloom's Functional Types  1 To Normal  Mother 1  Mother 2  Contexts  Contexts  2 To Delayed  3 To Both  1 To Normal  2 To Delayed  3 To Both  3.06  5.90  4.37  1.12  3.57  2.16  Comments  53.25  56.45  52.18  50.75  53.57  47.92  Directions  14.55  12.17  18.12  34.21  19.76  32.43  Questions  23.37  20.29  19.68  12.03  19.04  13.69  Reports  TABLE 5 Mothers'  I n t e r r o g a t i v e Forms i n Three C o n t e x t s  C l a s s i f i e d A c c o r d i n g t o Holzman's F u n c t i o n a l Types  Holzman's Functional Types  1 To Normal  Mother 1  Mother 2  Contexts  Contexts  2 To D e l a y e d 54.16  2 To Delayed  3 To Both  1 To Normal  3 To Both  45.45  10.83  42.96  22.50  A  23.23  B  1.01  0  1.01  1.66  1.56  3.75  C  9.09  4.16  7.07  50.00  18.75  30.62  D  11.11  4.16  14.14  16.66  16.40  18.75  E 1.Reports  20.20  11.11  8.08  5.00  2.34  6.87  2.Suggest ions'.  30.30  18.05  19.19  10.83  14.06  13.75  5.05  8.33  5.05  5.00  3.90  28.82  3.Negative Evaluations  t i v e of functional differences  i n t h e mothers' usage because t h e p e r c e n -  tage o f i n t e r r o g a t i v e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t o t a l number o f u t t e r a n c e s p r o duced by each mother was so s i m i l a r . I n terms o f d i f f e r e n t i a l usage w i t h r e s p e c t t o each son, except for i n t e r r o g a t i v e s that functioned  as s u g g e s t i o n s , i t does not appear  that  Ml used any f u n c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r r o g a t i v e form t o a r e m a r k a b l y d i f f e r e n t e x t e n t when a d d r e s s i n g D l v e r s u s N l . I n c o n t r a s t , M2 tended t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e more c l e a r l y between h e r sons on t h e b a s i s o f the f u n c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r r o g a t i v e form she used. s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t proportion functional categories  was  A  o f i n t e r r o g a t i v e s i n t h e f i r s t and t h i r d  a d d r e s s e d t o D2.  40  CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION  6.1  Review o f the P r e s e n t R e s u l t s i n R e l a t i o n To Theory and  Previous  Research  There i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t b o t h mothers made more adjustments when speaking  t o t h e i r younger c h i l d r e n .  Both mothers d i r e c t e d more q u e s t i o n s  than a f f i r m a t i v e d e c l a r a t i v e s and more s i n g l e word u t t e r a n c e s t o t h e i r younger sons.  M2  d i r e c t e d more r e p e t i t i o n s t o N2  i n context three despite  the f a c t t h a t she i n t e r a c t e d o n l y 33% o f the time w i t h him and 53%. o f the time w i t h h i s o l d e r b r o t h e r .  S i m i l a r r e s u l t s have o f t e n been r e p o r t e d  by  o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s as t y p i c a l o f the v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n o f a mother w i t h h e r young c h i l d (Snow, 1972;  Broen, 1972).  I n f a c t , M l d i r e c t e d more r e p e t i t i o n s t o h e r o l d e r v e r s u s son, c o n t r a r y t o what would be p r e d i c t e d .  At f i r s t glance, t h i s a d j u s t -  ment might be i n t e r p r e t e d as an attempt t o p r o v i d e a f a c i l i t a t i v e ment f o r the language-delayed c h i l d .  younger  environ-  T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , however, i s not  v a l i d because M l used r e p e t i t i o n s p r i m a r i l y i n an e f f o r t t o m a n i p u l a t e h e r o l d e r son's b e h a v i o u r .  For example, i n the t h i r d c o n t e x t she  "Can you s i n g ' S p i d e r m a n ' ? " f i v e times it,  repeated,  t o D l because she wanted him t o s i n g  d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t N l s t a r t e d t o comply w i t h t h i s s u g g e s t i o n  twice  and D l never made any attempt t o . The most c l e a r - c u t r e s u l t s were the d i f f e r e n c e s between the mothers' s t y l e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n .  M l imposed a n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e on  two her  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h each c h i l d i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the " l a b e l i n g game" s t y l e used by M2.  These o p p o s i n g s t y l e s were d e s c r i b e d r e c e n t l y by Snow et a l .  41 (1976) and  e a r l i e r Katherine  c o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o two The t i o n was  N e l s o n (1972) noted l i k e w i s e t h a t mothers  s t y l e s of i n t e r a c t i o n on the b a s i s o f  r e l a t i v e l y low p e r c e n t a g e , 14.25%, of u t t e r a n c e s  ambiguous, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of M2's  speech i n c o n t e x t  vocabulary.  whose d e s t i n a three i s  f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e of the f a i r l y c a r e f u l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n she made i n comm u n i c a t i n g w i t h one v e r s u s the o t h e r son. utterances  i n the t h i r d c o n t e x t  particular.  I n c o n t r a s t , about 38% o f  c o u l d not be a s s i g n e d  Mi's  t o e i t h e r son i n  These r e s u l t s a r e e v i d e n c e t h a t the mothers were s e n s i t i v e to  the language l e v e l s o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  M l d i d not need t o a d j u s t  speech code i n a r e m a r k a b l y d i f f e r e n t way a t the same language l e v e l , whereas M2  her  f o r each son because they were  a p p r o p r i a t e l y a d j u s t e d her  more t o accommodate h e r younger son's lower language l e v e l .  speech  The  sensi-  t i v i t y of mothers t o the l i n g u i s t i c c a p a b i l i t i e s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n has p o i n t e d out by p r e v i o u s  researchers  such as Moerk (1972).  By f a r the most s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f M2's speed and utterances  lack of c l a r i t y .  put t h i s back t o g e t h e r  Previous  her  A t one  point  f i r s t , huh?" w h i c h  was  research  on the v e r b a l i n p u t to young c h i l d -  emphasized the slowness and c a r e f u l a r t i c u l a t i o n of mothers' speech  w h i c h presumably p r o v i d e s M2's  d i f f i c u l t t o t r a n s c r i b e some o f  its  t r a n s l i t e r a t e d as: " W e l l I guess we have t o put t h i s back t o -  g e t h e r a g a i n , huh?" r e n has  speech was  i n t o E n g l i s h o r t h o g r a p h y because of t h i s tendency.  she s a i d : " [ u e z a u a ] completely  I t was  been  a s i g n a l t h a t f a c i l i t a t e s decoding by the  LAD.  speech c o u l d not be d e s c r i b e d as a good t e a c h i n g model i n t h i s sense.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t due  t o the presence o f an a d u l t i n t r u d e r , M2  d i d not  a d j u s t her speech r a t e f o r the b e n e f i t o f h e r sons, but s i n c e they seemed t o have no t r o u b l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g her, I t was  this explanation  is unlikely.  mentioned p r e v i o u s l y t h a t the p r e c i s e amount and  q u a l i t y of  42  v e r b a l i n p u t n e c e s s a r y and s u f f i c i e n t f o r the normal a c q u i s i t i o n o f a f i r s t language i s unknown.  Such a s p e c i f i c a t i o n might prove i m p o s s i b l e  due t o the w i d e l y acknowledged v a r i e t y i n r a t e of f i r s t language a c q u i s i tion.  Roger Brown has e x p r e s s e d the f o l l o w i n g thoughts about the normal  language a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e s s : Though the o r d e r o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f l i n g u i s t i c knowledge w i l l prove t o be a p p r o x i m a t e l y i n v a r i a n t a c r o s s c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g one language and, a t a h i g h e r l e v e l of a b s t r a c t i o n , a c r o s s c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g any language, the r a t e o f p r o g r e s s i o n w i l l v a r y r a d i c a l l y among c h i l d r e n . . . . What w i l l the d e t e r m i n a n t s be? No one can know a t p r e s e n t . No doubt t h e r e a r e f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n v a r i a b l e s t h a t w i l l account f o r some o f the v a r i a n c e but I w i l l go out on a l i m b and p r e d i c t t h a t , w i t h i n some as y e t unknown l i m i t s o f i n t e r a c t i o n v a r i a t i o n , the r a t e w i l l a l s o prove t o be dependent on what the i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t e r s c a l l g or g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . (Brown, 1973, p.  408)  The r e s u l t s o f the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n the l i g h t of  the above s u g g e s t i o n . From the r e s u l t s t h a t have been p r e s e n t e d h e r e , i t i s suggested  t h a t b o t h mothers make assumptions about the language l e v e l s o f t h e i r children. her  The p r e s e n c e o f a d i s o r d e r appears t o cause each mother t o a l t e r  speech s t y l e somewhat.  I t would be u n j u s t i f i a b l e t o c o n c l u d e , s o l e l y  on the b a s i s of t h e s e r e s u l t s , t h a t language d e l a y can be e x p l a i n e d t o any e x t e n t whatsoever by the n a t u r e o f the mother's v e r b a l i n p u t t o the c h i l d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the r e s u l t s s t a t e d here a r e not s u f f i c i e n t t o r u l e out the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the mother's speech, o r even some o t h e r v a r i a b l e i n the v e r b a l environment o f a l a n g u a g e - d e l a y e d c h i l d c o n t r i b u t e s t o h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a c q u i r i n g a f i r s t language.  43 6.2  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the P r e s e n t I n v e s t i g a t i o n 6.2.1  Subjects  Only two f a m i l i e s were s t u d i e d , and the language d e l a y o f the o l d e r c h i l d was n o t s e v e r e . ren  A l a r g e r number o f s u b j e c t s , i n c l u d i n g c h i l d -  w i t h more s e r i o u s language problems might w e l l r e v e a l more i n t e r e s t i n g  and v a r i e d speech adjustments  on the p a r t o f the mothers.  Also, i t is  acknowledged t h a t one i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e might be the amount and k i n d o f i n s t r u c t i o n the mother has r e c e i v e d from a speech t h e r a p i s t . c o n t r o l c o u l d be found f o r use i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y and any  No method o f consequent  b i a s i s unknown.  6.2.2  Procedure  I t i s commonly a c c e p t e d t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n s t u d i e s i n t r o d u c e problems of c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y , o b s e r v e r b i a s , o b s e r v e r and c o d i n g r e l i a b i l i t y , b e h a v i o u r s a m p l i n g ( L y t t o n , 1971).  Some o f the s t e p s mentioned  were t a k e n i n o r d e r t o reduce d i s t o r t i o n . i n i t i a l l y appeared  and  by L y t t o n  For example, when the mother  embarassed, the o b s e r v e r a s s u r e d her t h a t t h i s  was  u n d e r s t a n d a b l e and suggested she s h o u l d t r y t o i g n o r e the i n t r u d e r ' s presence.  The advantages  o f c o l l e c t i n g f i r s t - h a n d d a t a i n the home en-  vironment were f e l t t o outweigh the problems o f d i s t o r t i o n caused  by  observation. Another l i m i t a t i o n i s t h a t no sample o f the mother's speech a n o t h e r a d u l t was mentioned  c o l l e c t e d f o r the purpose o f comparison.  by Snow e_t a l . (1976) but was  to  This lack  was  not c o n s i d e r e d t o be a s e r i o u s  l i m i t a t i o n t o h e r study. The p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n d i d not take i n t o account i n any f o r m a l way  the n o n - v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n between the mother and the c h i l d .  A t times  44  i n t h e t h i r d c o n t e x t an u t t e r a n c e was coded as b e i n g d i r e c t e d t o one c h i l d i f the mother was l o o k i n g a t him. cance o f t h e n o n - v e r b a l  Broen (1972) has suggested t h e s i g n i f i -  d i m e n s i o n w h i c h c o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d by means o f  v i d e o tape r e c o r d i n g s . I n a d d i t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n about the mother's a t t i t u d e toward each o f h e r c h i l d r e n , gained t h r o u g h a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , might p r o v i d e i n s i g h t about the q u a l i t y o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n . Ml found D l u n c o o p e r a t i v e , brother. tudes,  valuable  I n f o r m a l l y i t appeared t h a t  and she p r e f e r r e d i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h h i s younger  I n s p i t e o f f u r t h e r o b j e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on the mother's a t t i -  i t i s n o t c l e a r what t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s would be f o r the c h i l d ' s  language development.  6.2.3  Analysis  There a r e obvious problems w i t h any a n a l y s i s o f u t t e r a n c e f u n c t i o n , p r i m a r i l y due t o o b s e r v e r  c o d i n g r e l i a b i l i t y and t h e f a c t t h a t an u t t e r -  ance may be c l a s s i f i e d a p r i o r i i n more than one f u n c t i o n a l c a t e g o r y . A l s o , because o f an i n s u f f i c i e n c y o f c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n , some j u d g ments had t o be made w i t h l i t t l e c o n f i d e n c e . t h a t were s t a t e d by Holzman (1972), used i n t h e p r e s e n t  D e s p i t e these  limitations  t h e two types o f f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s  i n v e s t i g a t i o n were s e n s i t i v e enough t o demonstrate t h e  e x i s t e n c e o f a q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e mothers' use o f u t t e r a n c e function.  More i m p o r t a n t l y , the d i f f e r e n c e n o t e d was commensurate w i t h  the r e s u l t s o f o t h e r  analyses.  45  6.3  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Theory and F u t u r e Research A number o f i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n s about the r e l e v a n c e o f the  observed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f mothers' speech t o the l a n g u a g e - l e a r n i n g process remain unanswered.  The i n v e s t i g a t o r would suggest t h a t M2  as good a language t e a c h e r as M l . did  i s not  However, the scope o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y  not a l l o w f o r a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n o f the mother's speech t o the language  development o f h e r c h i l d r e n .  T h i s purpose n e c e s s i t a t e s  longitudinal  s t u d i e s i n w h i c h speech and language s k i l l s a r e not b e i n g a c q u i r e d n o r m a l l y , i n a d d i t i o n t o c o n t r o l l e d i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d i e s w h i c h c o u l d determine the e f f i c a c y o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l a s s i s t a n c e (Broen, 1972). A l s o , due t o the growing p o p u l a r i t y o f daycare f a c i l i t i e s f o r v e r y young c h i l d r e n , knowledge about the e f f e c t o f t h i s environment on the  language development o f the c h i l d i s n e c e s s a r y .  t h a t b o t h mothers  I t is interesting  i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y a t t r i b u t e d improvement  i n the  language of t h e i r o l d e r sons t o a t t e n d a n c e a t n u r s e r y s c h o o l r a t h e r t h a n speech t h e r a p y . The assumed r e a s o n f o r the adjustment o f speech when a d d r e s s i n g a young c h i l d i s t o s i m p l i f y the d e c o d i n g t a s k f o r him. some t r a d e - o f f between how  There i s p r o b a b l y  long t h i s s i m p l i f i e d input i s b e n e f i c i a l to the  c h i l d and when i t , i n f a c t , becomes d e t r i m e n t a l .  Future research  may  c o n t r a i n d i c a t e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n a f t e r the c h i l d has reached a c e r t a i n l a n g uage l e v e l due t o the d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t o f c o n t i n u e d exposure t o a s i m p l i f i e d v e r b a l environment.  6.4  Summary  The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e v e r b a l environment p r o v i d e d i n t h e home by each o f two mothers t o h e r two young sons.  I n each case,  the o l d e r sons, aged 4-5 and 4-9, were l a n g u a g e - d e l a y e d d e s p i t e no apparent i n t e l l e c t u a l o r p h y s i o l o g i c a l d e f i c i t , and t h e younger sons, aged 2-6 and 2-11, appeared t o be a c q u i r i n g language n o r m a l l y . Data were c o l l e c t e d i n t h r e e f r e e p l a y c o n t e x t s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g sequence: 1.  The mother i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e younger  child.  2.  The mother i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e o l d e r c h i l d .  3.  The mother i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h b o t h c h i l d r e n t o g e t h e r .  For each f a m i l y t h e t h i r t y minutes o f d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n each o f t h e t h r e e c o n t e x t s was a n a l y z e d i n terms o f p h y s i c a l performance, s t r u c t u r a l , and f u n c t i o n a l parameters. The r e s u l t s demonstrated t h a t i n a l l c o n t e x t s t h e mothers' speech s t y l e s were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from each o t h e r .  There was  some e v i d e n c e , as i n d i c a t e d p r i m a r i l y by t h e speech r a t e parameter, t h a t each mother made assumptions about t h e v e r b a l i n p u t needs o f h e r languaged e l a y e d c h i l d , and a d j u s t e d h e r speech a c c o r d i n g l y .  47 REFERENCES  Berko G l e a s o n , J . (1973). "Code s w i t c h i n g i n c h i l d r e n ' s language," i n C o g n i t i v e Development and the A c q u i s i t i o n o f Language, Moore, T.E., ed. (Academic P r e s s , I n c . , New Y o r k ) , 159-167. Berko G l e a s o n , J . (1975). " F a t h e r s and o t h e r s t r a n g e r s : Men's speech t o young c h i l d r e n , " i n Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y Round T a b l e on Languages and L i n g u i s t i c s 1975, Dato, D.P., ed. (Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , 289-297. B e r n s t e i n , B. (1970). "A s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c approach t o s o c i a l i z a t i o n : W i t h some r e f e r e n c e t o e d u c a b i l i t y , " i n Language and P o v e r t y : P e r s p e c t i v e s on a Theme, W i l l i a m s , F., ed. (Markham P u b l i s h i n g Company, C h i c a g o ) , 25-61. Bloom, L. (1970). Language Development: Form and F u n c t i o n i n Emerging Grammars. (The M.I.T. P r e s s , Cambridge). Broen, P.A. (1972). "The v e r b a l environment o f the l a n g u a g e - l e a r n i n g c h i l d , " American Speech and H e a r i n g A s s o c i a t i o n monograph 17, (Washington, D.C.). Brown, R. (1973). A F i r s t Language: The E a r l y Stages. s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge).  (Harvard U n i v e r -  Buium, N., Rynders, J . , and Turnure, J . (1974). " E a r l y m a t e r n a l l i n g u i s t i c environment o f normal and Down's syndrome l a n g u a g e - l e a r n i n g c h i l d r e n , " American J o u r n a l o f M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y , 79:52-58. Cazden, C.B. (1972). C h i l d Language and E d u c a t i o n . Winston, I n c . , New Y o r k ) .  ( H o l t , R i n e h a r t and  Drach, K. (1969). "The language o f the p a r e n t : A p i l o t s t u d y , " i n Working Paper No. 14: The S t r u c t u r e o f L i n g u i s t i c Input t o C h i l d r e n . (Language B e h a v i o r R e s e a r c h L a b o r a t o r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y ) , 1-16. E r v i n - T r i p p , S. (1971). "An o v e r v i e w o f t h e o r i e s o f grammatical d e v e l o p ment," i n The Ontogenesis o f Grammar, S l o b i n , D.I., ed. (Academic P r e s s , New Y o r k ) , 189-212. F a r w e l l , C. (1973). "The language spoken t o c h i l d r e n , " i n Papers and R e p o r t s on C h i l d Language Development, 5-6, ( S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y ) . Ferguson, C.A. (1964). "Baby t a l k i n s i x languages," i n The,Ethnography o f Communication, Gumperz, J . , and Hymes, D., eds. (American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , 6 6 ) , 103-114. Holzman, M. (1972). "The use o f i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms i n the v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h r e e mothers and t h e i r c h i l d r e n , " J o u r n a l o f Psychol i n g u i s t i c R e s e a r c h , 1:311-336.  48  Holzman, M. (1974). "The v e r b a l environment p r o v i d e d by mothers f o r t h e i r v e r y young c h i l d r e n , " M e r r i l l - P a l m e r Q u a r t e r l y , 20:31-42. L y t t o n , H. (1971). "Observation s t u d i e s of p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n : A m e t h o d o l o g i c a l r e v i e w , " C h i l d Development, 42:651-684. McCarthy, D. (1954). "Language d i s o r d e r s and p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , " J o u r n a l o f Speech and H e a r i n g D i s o r d e r s , 19:514-523. Menyuk, P. (1964). "Comparison o f grammar o f c h i l d r e n w i t h f u n c t i o n a l l y d e v i a n t and normal speech," J o u r n a l o f Speech and H e a r i n g Research, 7:109-121. Menyuk, P. (1975). " C h i l d r e n w i t h language problems: What's the problem?" i n Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y Round T a b l e on Languages and L i n g u i s t i c s 1975, Dato, D.P., ed. (Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , 129-144. Mperk, E. (1974). "Changes i n v e r b a l c h i l d - m o t h e r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g language s k i l l s o f the c h i l d , " J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c Research, 3_: 101-116. N e l s o n , K. (1973). " S t r u c t u r e and s t r a t e g y i n l e a r n i n g t o t a l k , " i n Monographs o f the S o c i e t y f o r Research i n C h i l d Development, 38. (The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , C h i c a g o ) . N e l s o n , K.E., Carskaddon, G., and B o n v i l l i a n , J.D. (1973). "Syntax a c q u i s i t i o n : Impact o f e x p e r i m e n t a l v a r i a t i o n i n a d u l t v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the c h i l d , " C h i l d Development, 44:497-504. O l i m , E.G. (1970). " M a t e r n a l language s t y l e s and c o g n i t i v e development of c h i l d r e n , " i n Language and P o v e r t y : P e r s p e c t i v e s on a Theme, W i l l i a m s , F., ed. (Markham P u b l i s h i n g Company, C h i c a g o ) , 212-228. P h i l l i p s , J.R. (1973). "Syntax and v o c a b u l a r y o f mothers' speech t o young c h i l d r e n : Age and sex comparisons," C h i l d Development, 44: 182-185. Sachs, J . , and D e v i n , J . (1973). "Young c h i l d r e n ' s knowledge o f agea p p r o p r i a t e speech s t y l e s , " Paper p r e s e n t e d a t LSA Annual M e e t i n g , December, 1973. S a v i c , S. (1975). "Aspects o f a d u l t - c h i l d communication: The problem q u e s t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n , " J o u r n a l o f C h i l d Language, 2^:251-260.  of  S h a t z , M., and Gelman, R. (1973). "The development o f communication s k i l l s : M o d i f i c a t i o n s i n the speech o f young c h i l d r e n as a f u n c t i o n of l i s t e n e r , " i n Monographs o f the S o c i e t y f o r Research i n C h i l d Development, 3_8. (The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , C h i c a g o ) . S l o b i n , D.I. (1975). "On the n a t u r e o f t a l k t o c h i l d r e n , " i n Foundations of Language Development, Lenneberg, E.H., ed. (Academic P r e s s , New Y o r k ) , 1:283-297.  49  Snow, C.E. (1972). "Mothers' speech t o c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g language," C h i l d Development, 43:549-565. Snow, C.E. (1974). "Mothers' speech r e s e a r c h : An o v e r v i e w , " Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the SSRC C o n f e r e n c e on Language Input and A c q u i s i t i o n , B o s t o n , September 6-8, 1974. Snow, C.E., Arlman-Rupp, A., H a s s i n g , Y., J o b s e , J . , J o o s t e n , J . , and V o r s t e r , J . (1976). "Mothers' speech i n t h r e e s o c i a l c l a s s e s , " J o u r n a l o f Psycho U n g u i s t i c R e s e a r c h , 5_:l-20. Tyack, D., and G o t t s l e b e n , R. (1974). Language s a m p l i n g , a n a l y s i s , and t r a i n i n g : A handbook f o r t e a c h e r s and c l i n i c i a n s . (Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo A l t o ) . W u l b e r t , M., I n g l i s , S., Kriegsmann, E., and M i l l s , B. (1975). "Language d e l a y and a s s o c i a t e d m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s , " Developmental P s y c h o l o g y , 11:61-70.  APPENDIX  The Appendix c o n t a i n s f o u r sample one f o r each c h i l d ,  i n c l u d i n g the f i r s t  transcriptions, twenty-five  u t t e r a n c e s produced by t h e c h i l d and t h e mother's responses t o him d u r i n g t h a t time.  51 SAMPLE 1  ( N l i s aged 2 y e a r s , 11 months, and 11 days.  He and M l a r e i n t h e boys'  bedroom and M l has j u s t dumped a box o f l a r g e b l o c k s i n the m i d d l e o f the f l o o r .  The o b s e r v e r i s s e a t e d on one o f the boys' beds.)  Nl  M l and Context L e t ' s see what we c a n do.  [k ej ] h  ?  ok [dej  gow]  There go [mna p ^ v d i ] I'm gonna put t h i s [hau bowd* b r  ?  gX  7  dow]  How about a b i g c a s t l e ?  5. 6.  Yeah [ ej ?  ?  i*x  anA'Sa w/\n]  Hey here's a n o t h e r one. [i?an/vwX  p^Vdap  t ap] n  Here's a n o t h e r one put up t o p . [hi*] Here [ n hia.] And h e r e 10.  Oh I t h i n k t h a t sounds l i k e a r e a l l y good i d e a .  [r, h i ^ ] And here  ( N l puts b l o c k s on top o f one a n o t h e r one by one t o b u i l d a tower)  52  Nl 11.  Ml and C o n t e x t  [haup  1  haupowcu  'htop imij] n  How about h e l p i n g me? 12.  Oh  OK. How 'bout i f I pass them t o you? (one b l o c k f a l l s o f f ) [wa ] h  P  13.  [ k ^ X mi 'n^e. n/\WAn]  Coming down one  14.  [l£*6a  h a j ?2f]  ( N l w h i s p e r s something)  (whispered)  Oh i s i t a h i g h one?  I t ' s a h i g h one. 15.  [m 'bekxda hajw/Cn] And make i t a h i g h one.  16.  [ d i e i dlSlcU  h a j w/sn]  T h i s i s a h i g h one. 17.  [ a j now gwa haepn n i t ] I know what happen n e x t .  18.  What's gonna happen t o i t ?  [now* g 3 i haepn n d i ] 7  Know what g o i n g happen t h i s 19.  ['a'btowdau It  20.  ?  3k ] h  f e l l down<  >  f a b l btowdau k j u me'mianAWAn] I f i t f e l l down, can you make me a n o t h e r one?  21.  [qgana and  22.  51  tx  'dodamijj  gonna pass those t o me  [dta] There  OK  ( N l p o i n t s t o some b l o c k s o u t o f h i s r e a c h . M l passes them t o him.)  53  Nl  23.  [naua Now  24.  M l and Context  7  k ae ffcow 'dau] h  i t c a n ' t f e l l down. 'V? d i k i D ] h  Put these here 25.  OK. (Ml adds b l o c k s t o the tower where N l has i n d i c a t e d . )  [dowde. dowda h s n e ] Those a r e hands  Those a r e hands, a r e they?  54 SAMPLE 2  (N2 i s aged 2 y e a r s , 5 months, and 24 days. f l o o r i n t h e l i v i n g room.  He and M2 a r e s e a t e d on t h e  The toys on t h e f l o o r and t h e nearby c o f f e e  t a b l e a r e : a F i s h e r P r i c e p u z z l e board, a box o f c a r s and t r u c k s , F i s h e r P r i c e people,  Sesame S t r e e t f i n g e r puppets, and a t o y barn f i l l e d w i t h  p l a s t i c animals. up a b l u e  The o b s e r v e r  i s seated  i n a chair.  N2 has j u s t p i c k e d  truck.)  N2  M2 and Context What's t h a t ?  1.  ['daawo] What i s t h a t ?  2.  [WA?  ]  What k i n d o f t r u c k ?  Truck 3.  (jbuwA ] 7  Blue  4.  truck  [du majsef] Do m y s e l f  5.  OK. You put t h e l i t t l e man i n the truck.  [k ej] h  OK 6.  A blue truck, r i g h t . (M2 s t a r t s t o put a t o y f i g u r e i n the truck.)  You put one o f the men i n t h e truck.  Oh T h i s way. (M2 puts a man i n the t r u c k . ) See? See we put a man i n t h e t r u c k .  7.  [ am3enafw/\' ] ?  A man i n t r u c k  Uh-huh Put some more i n  55  N2  8.  M2 and C o n t e x t  [?ej]  OK 9.  [t^ictt It's  10.  'main] a man  Uh-huh  [k ejj h  OK 11.  [ drBe  tifA'J  This a <  12.  > truck.  Uh-huh What o t h e r men have you got?  [dSGwftn] That one  13.  [dae bautjgowai dfcj] That boy go r i g h t  (N2 puts a man i n t h e f i r e there. OK That one goes i n f i r e  14.  truck.)  truck.  [en]  In 15.  [ £n] ?  In 16.  [dl©2>gow f a j j tw/\ ] ?  T h i s one go f i r e  (N2 puts a n o t h e r man i n the f i r e truck.)  truck. And t h a t one goes i n the f i r e too, huh? Ok  17.  [ 3 i l gow ?  'bow ] 7  Boy go boat. OK (M2 p i c k s up a t o y plane) What's t h i s ?  truck  56 N2  18.  M2 and C o n t e x t  [fwirj] A plane?  Plane 19.  [™™  boegdwe] What e l s e you gonna put i n i t ? (N2 puts a man i n a t r u c k )  uh-huh boy go plane  20.  [daow/\n gowait  1  . . 'wAp ]  That one go r i g h t 21.  22.  [m  ?X]  <  >  1  up.  Or e l s e you c o u l d -  [d^e, WAgowai 'dzu] That one go r i g h t there.  23.  Right  [bDe gowai  'dtuj  Boy go r i g h t there  (N2 puts a man  i n another t r u c k . )  OK (N2 t r i e s t o f i t a man i n a n o t h e r t r u c k but the f i g u r e i s too b i g and won't f i t i n . ) Hey t h a t boy's too b i g .  24.  [d ?  b]  7  Uh-huh 25.  [kej?] OK  You f i n d a l i t t l e  boy.  57  SAMPLE 3  ( D l i s aged 4 y e a r s , 9 months, and 8 days.  He and h i s mother, M l , a r e  s i t t i n g i n t h e middle o f t h e f l o o r i n t h e boys' bedroom p l a y i n g w i t h p l a s t i c p u l l - a p a r t " c o o t i e " bugs.  The o b s e r v e r  i s s e a t e d on one o f t h e  boys' beds.)  Dl  M l and  Context  I t ' s a l o t o f work, i s n ' t i t ?  1.  T h i s one's coming through t h i s one, i s n ' t i t ? OK? Get t h e p i n k one down and w e ' l l wreck i t a p a r t t o o . (The p i n k bug i s on t h e d r e s s e r . )  [ a'nowAn dau ] A n o t h e r one down?  2.  ['diw7\nj Yeah. The p i n k one.  T h i s one?  3.  ['p^kwAnJ P i n k one?  4.  [m/vmi a j u bekXIJija] Mummy a r e you making t h e -  5.  [ a j u - a j u pwediq  bs&k  1  tugs.]  Are you p u t t i n g i t back toge(ther) 6.  [ntju] And then you -  7.  No, we're gonna have a r a c e . You have t o t r y and put them back t o g e t h e r too.  [nowak aet] h  No I c a n ' t  You d i d - You d i d them t h i s morning.  58 DI 8.  M l and Context  [ajnow hseda ] I know how  9.  And t h e r e ' s t h e eyes. OK? (Ml empties some more p a r t s out o f t h e box.)  to  [haep mipvwz)' bsak 1  Agej J  1  Help me put i t back, OK? 10.  [hae-p^ bae-k dgtn] 1  H e l p i t back a g a i n .  11.  [pir? i  ?  ba]  Put i n box.  12.  Good. (DI t r i e s t o a t t a c h a l e g . ) Is t h a t r i g h t ?  [njA?]  Yeah 13.  [ C i j i dA  ?  du  Sae.]  Y-you j u s t do t h a t .  That's not how i t goes, i s i t ? Think i t goes l i k e t h a t . (Ml f i x e s t h e l e g . ) Ok i t ' s a r a c e . You've g o t t a h u r r y . Oh good. There we a r e . (Ml f i n i s h e d making t h e b l u e c o o t i e bug.) There's  14.  one.  [ Q e j mraia] See mama?  15.  [~ aj h i a mekSmike j k ^ ] ?  I here make <.  1  (DI t r i e s t o make t h e green bug.)  > That one's a h a r d one, i s n ' t i t ? There. (Some p a r t s o f t h e green bug a r e broken so M l takes i t from D l and adds a l e g . ) And you can put the You can put t h e o t h e r ones i n , OK?  59  M l and Context  Dl  16.  [ak^tNnuw  ( D l t r i e s t o f i t i n a l e g but i t f a l l s out.)  'bsat]  I can't move i t back. W e l l maybe you'd l i k e t o do t h e p i n k one, would you? 17.  18.  19.  Yeah  ( D l s t a r t s t h e p i n k one.) Good. ( D l a t t a c h e s t h e body p i e c e s t o gether.) Good.  [amaigows'm] < >  W e l l I ' l l put one i n but you d i d them t h i s morning so you c a n do the o t h e r one, OK?  [nowjuduAnawAn  k a aj  No you do a n o t h e r  one 'cos I  do" nowa a bjuwda J w  7  don't know how t o b u i l d i t . 20.  [wac] ( D l t r i e s t o f i t a l e g i n but i t f a l l s out.)  Watch.'  21.  [ a j 'g»duwi J ?  I can't do i t . 22.  [ow  a]  <  >  Oh, what's - you d i d i t t h i s morning. OK, I ' l l do t h i s one. (Ml takes t h e p i n k bug from D l . ) Then you c a n p l a y w i t h t h e bugs, OK? You t h i n k you c o u l d put h i s eyes on? F i n d h i s eyes.  60  Dl  23.  [faj h i aix]  F i n d h i s eyes?  24.  M l and C o n t e x t  Uh-huh. We're - we're m i s s i n g a l e g , a r e n ' t we?  [WEC,: m a j a i x ]  Where' s my eyes?  Oh t h a t doesn't m a t t e r . T h i s one - t h i s l e g here's broken so we c a n ' t use i t . OK he need - t h i s - t h i s bee needs some eyes and he needs some antennas. And he needs a tongue.  25.  [wtt ^maix] h  Where some eyes?  61  SAMPLE 4  (D2 i s aged 4 y e a r s , 5 months, and 5 days. m i d d l e o f the l i v i n g room f l o o r .  He and M2 a r e s e a t e d i n the  The toys on the f l o o r and on the  nearby  c o f f e e t a b l e a r e : a box o f t i n k e r t o y s , a F i s h e r P r i c e p u z z l e board, a box o f c a r s and t r u c k s , F i s h e r P r i c e p e o p l e , Sesame S t r e e t f i n g e r puppets, and a toy barn f i l l e d w i t h p l a s t i c animals.  The o b s e r v e r i s s e a t e d on a c h a i r .  D2 has j u s t p i c k e d up a t o y plane.)  D2  M2 and Context  [ 3e gOWAp  dis ]  1  I go up t h i s  Uh-huh (D2 i s making the p l a n e f l y up and down.)  [ae gow die: J ] I go down  [aj  h P  vdajdae ] ?  I put l i k e  4.  [ n drs And  5.  that  v ej ] w  t h i s plane  engine.)  [ /s f a jmn cwAk ] ?  1  A fireman truck  6.  What's t h a t ? (M2 p o i n t s t o t o y f i r e  (D2 makes a s i r e n n o i s e . ) W e l l where's the f i r e m a n i n i t ?  [ aj'hia] ?  R i g h t here 7.  [waj  hiy]  R i g h t here 8.  [WASISJ  'nAWAn J  What's t h i s a n o t h e r one?  (D2 takes a b l u e hat.) There's one h a t . I guess we've l o s t the o t h e r h a t , huh?  62 M2 and Context  D2  9.  Yeah Oh w e l l .  10.  j"n d l s w m b o w k a n J w  And t h i s one broken  11.  [mAc  zxs]  What's t h i s ? 12.  (D2 c a n ' t f i t t h e b l u e h a t on h i s man, so M2 does i t f o r him.)  See i t goes on t h a t one.  Yeah. See the I t ' s a s a i l o r h a t t h a t goes on there l i k e that. See? You guys snapped a l l the h a t s o f f .  13.  Yeah. (D2 takes a r e d h a t . ) Who's t h a t go t o ? Is t h a t t h a t one? Yeah t h a t ' s t h a t one. (M2 puts the r e d h a t on a n o t h e r There.  man.)  See? [w-vz-p ] 1  (The h a t s l i p p e d o f f . )  Mummy'11 have t o f i x them, won't she? 14.  Yeah G l u e them a l l back on f o r you.  15.  Yeah OK way you go. You p l a y w i t h t h e f i r e m a n (D2 takes the f i r e t r u c k . )  16.  OK  63  M2 and Context  D2  17.  [g2>p v  disi ]  h  w  Gonna put t h i s  here  Uh-huh. Where's t h e f i r e ? (M2 moves t h e b a r n c l o s e r t o D2) The b a r n on f i r e ?  18.  No No  19.  [dz ] 7  Where's t h e f i r e  This 20.  then?  ['an d a ] On t h e -  21.  [''Ap-'da]  Up t h e 22.  [ ada 'bamtn J On t h e bottom  23.  On t h e bottom  See You g o t t a g e t a l l t h e a n i m a l s out then.  24.  [ jcc? ad d i a d ]  What i s t h a t ? (M2 p o i n t s t o t h e hose t h a t D2 has detached from t h e f i r e t r u c k . ) 25.  [ A k£ ?  ?  Sis]  I get t h i s .  

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