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Lau fish taxonomy Tyhurst, Catherine H. 1976

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LAU FISH TAXONOMY  by CATHERINE H. TYHURST B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1976  (c)  Catherine H. Tyhurst, 1976  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment of  the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the I  Library shall  f u r t h e r agree  for  freely available  that permission  for  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  that  study. thesis  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or  by h i s of  make it  I agree  this  representatives. thesis  It  is understood that  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  not be allowed without my  written permission.  Department of The  J^KAAVQ^6 tiG^j M(\  University of B r i t i s h  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  tO /  f V C  Columbia  $DOlV> h & y  Supervisor:  i  Dr. P i e r r e Maranda  ABSTRACT This t h e s i s i s a p r e l i m i n a r y  attempt t o c o n s o l i d a t e  materials  p e r t a i n i n g t o Lau f i s h taxonomy (North M a l a i t a , Solomon I s l a n d s ) .  Data  u t i l i z e d ;come from two s o u r c e s : those c o l l e c t e d by Maranda and Maranda (1966-1968) and those c o l l e c t e d by t h e a u t h o r d u r i n g period  a two-month f i e l d  (October-December 1975). Two approaches t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f t e r m i n o l o g i c a l  explored f i r s t .  systems a r e  A g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Lau Taxonomic U n i v e r s e  f o l l o w s i n w h i c h t h e major components a r e i n d i c a t e d . The taxonomy.  f o c u s then s h i f t s t o a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f Lau F i s h  M a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d h e r e t a k e s t h r e e forms: (1) A comprehensive l i s t o f f i s h i d e n t i f i e d to b i o l o g i c a l  according  classifications.  (2) A summary o f d a t a o b t a i n e d from i n f o r m a n t s ' Memory L i s t s o f f i s h names.  The problems o f taxonomic  i n c l u s i o n and e q u i v a l e n c e a r e c o n s i d e r e d . (3) A d i s c u s s i o n o f those d a t a t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e g a r d e d as "Non-Taxonomic Terminology". Distinctive  F e a t u r e s a r e then c o n s i d e r e d and some examples  Upper L e v e l Taxa a r e d i s c u s s e d  first.  Following  t h i s , t h e F e a t u r e s and  C r i t e r i a f o r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Lower L e v e l Taxa a r e o u t l i n e d . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r i n q u i r y and p r o p o s i t i o n s analytical  avenues c o n s t i t u t e t h e f i n a l p o r t i o n o f t h i s  concerning  presentation.  given.  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page Acknowledgement  iv  Preface  v  Introduction  1  Chapter 1:  T h e o r e t i c a l Background  and Methodology  3  Chapter 2:  Ethnographic Context  29  Chapter 3:  Results  36  Chapter 4:  C o n c l u d i n g Remarks  65  Bibliography  78  Appendices  82  iii  LIST OF TABLES  T a b l e o f F i s h C a t e g o r i e s (Major S u b d i v i s i o n s o f Taxon jLa.) and C o n s t i t u e n t U n i t s I d e n t i f i a b l e i n M a r s h a l l (1964)  53  Table I I  S u b c a t e g o r i e s o f Upper L e v e l Taxon i a O b t a i n e d From I n f o r m a n t s ' ' C l a s s e d ' Memory L i s t s  59  Table I I I  F i s h D i s t i n g u i s h e d by Sex, L i f e S t a g e , S i z e , E t c .  63  Table I  LIST OF FIGURES  Figure 1  Diagram R e p r e s e n t i n g t h e O r d e r i n g o f L a b e l s i n a Taxonomic H i e r a r c h y by I n c l u s i o n and C o n t r a s t  Figure 2  A Diagrammatic Scheme o f U n i v e r s a l Taxonomic C a t e g o r y Types Based on C o n c l u s i o n s o f B e r l i n (1971), and B e r l i n , B r e e d l o v e and Raven (1971)  10  A Diagrammatic R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f M a j o r Domains and S u b d i v i s i o n s of the L a u Taxonomic U n i v e r s e  39  M a j o r S u b d i v i s i o n s o f t h e Four Domains o f t h e Lau Taxonomic U n i v e r s e  40  Lau F i s h Taxonomy —  45  Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5  Levels of I n c l u s i o n  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT T h i s t h e s i s was made p o s s i b l e by t h e h e l p and encouragement o f a number o f p e o p l e .  Above a l l , acknowledgement i s due t o D r s . E. and P.  Maranda whose i n s p i r a t i o n goes back t o y e a r s o f undergraduate  s t u d y and  through whom, t h e f i n a l p o s s i b i l i t y o f 'going t o t h e f i e l d ' became r e a l i z e d . I am g r a t e f u l  t o t h e Marandas and t o f e l l o w s t u d e n t s i n A n t h r o -  p o l o g y and o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s , whose l e t t e r s ( t h o s e r e c e i v e d and t h o s e  still  i n t r a n s i t ) p r o v i d e d i n v a l u a b l e i n t e l l e c t u a l f i r s t a i d d u r i n g t h e months i n the f i e l d . The p e o p l e o f L a u Lagoon and t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g B a e l e l e a r e g i o n a r e t h o s e t o whom t h e g r e a t e s t debt i s owed.  They a c c e p t e d me, f e d me,  housed me and taught me a g r e a t d e a l about t h e i r language and c u l t u r e . They gave me t h e g i f t o f t h e i r open o p i n i o n and, by p e r m i t t i n g me t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n many d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , t a u g h t me t h e r e l a t i v i t y o f t i m e and t h e importance o f space. In the w r i t i n g  of t h i s t h e s i s ,  I b o t h acknowledge t h e i r  n e s s and a s k t h e g r e a t e s t t a s k I have y e t t o demand:  kind-  that they r e c e i v e  and r e v i e w t h i s m a t e r i a l and t h a t t h e y c o n t i n u e t o s t r i v e f o r t h e i r v i d u a l i t y and c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y as they have always done.  indi-  V  PREFACE No work o f t h i s k i n d i s e x h a u s t i v e however, b e i n g l i m i t e d by the time spent i n c o l l e c t i n g t h e m a t e r i a l , t h e number and competence of the i n f o r m a n t s , and f i n a l l y t h e f i e l d w o r k e r ' s own competence, t h e e x t e n t o f h i s knowledge and t h e v a r i e t y of h i s preoccupations. ( L e v i - S t r a u s s 1962: 153) Data p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s were o b t a i n e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y two months' f i e l d w o r k , October Lau-speaking  - December 1975, among t h e  people o f N o r t h M a l a i t a , Solomon I s l a n d s .  My i n t e r e s t i n d o i n g f i e l d w o r k i n t h i s a r e a developed d u r i n g t h e it ti p e r i o d t h a t I was an undergraduate Subsequently,  s t u d e n t o f Dr. E l l i  Kongas-Maranda.  I became a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t t o Dr. P i e r r e Maranda.  Dur-  i n g t h i s t i m e I r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n the h a n d l i n g of e t h n o g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l from b o t h d e s c r i p t i v e and a n a l y t i c a l a n g l e s .  My i n t e r e s t i n  O c e a n i a , and s p e c i f i c a l l y i n M a l a i t a as a c u l t u r e a r e a o f c o n c e n t r a t e d study,became f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e encouraged me t o c o n t i n u e f u r t h e r d i r e c t e d  stu-  d i e s i n M e l a n e s i a n L i n g u i s t i c s and Ethnography i n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f my M a s t e r s Programme a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia.  Having thus chosen M a l a i t a a s an i s o l a t e d a r e a o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I began t o e x p l o r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f d o i n g f i e l d w o r k t h e r e .  In A p r i l  I was f o r t u n a t e t o be awarded t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o work as a f i e l d t a n t f o r Dr. E.K. Maranda d u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g autumn months.  1975  assis-  Although I  vi  had worked w i t h m a t e r i a l s c o l l e c t e d by Drs. E. and P. Maranda (1967-68) for  a l m o s t a year p r e v i o u s l y , I had no w o r k i n g knowledge of t h e language  and no n o t i o n o f a ' l i v i n g e n t e r p r i s e ' c a l l e d a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l f i e l d w o r k . My First,  t a s k s as a student and a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t were t h r e e .  t o a c q u i r e a f u n c t i o n a l knowledge of the Lau language and c u l t u r e ;  second, t o conduct a r e v i e w o f the f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n of a Lau d i c t i o n a r y compiled  by C E .  Fox w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by E.K.  pursue c e r t a i n problems and I had  queries concerning  encountered and t h a t had aroused my  Maranda (1974); t h i r d , t o  Lau m a r i n e taxonomy t h a t  particular  interest.  W h i l e t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of m a t e r i a l p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e  latter  c o n c e r n i s the p r i m a r y aim of t h i s t h e s i s , i t , n e v e r t h e l e s s , r e s t s upon t h e r e s u l t s of the f i r s t two t a s k s and, as s u c h , i s a document of entire field  experience.  my  1  INTRODUCTION The  c a p a c i t y , even the i m p e r a t i v e  t h e e v e n t s of the e x t e r n a l w o r l d widely recognized  of the human mind t o  i n t o some s o r t of i n t e l l i g i b l e system i s  ( c f . T y l e r 1969:  3-9).  The  growth of c o g n i t i v e a n t h -  r o p o l o g y , w i t h i t s f o c u s on the o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g i t s c o n c e r n w i t h t y p o l o g y and d e f i n i t i o n , i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n nition.  The  behaviour,  of t h i s  recog-  s h i f t i n a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l emphasis t h a t has accompanied t h i s  growth i s e v i d e n c e d by a new  p e r s p e c t i v e and  i s assumed t h a t each p e o p l e has i z i n g m a t e r i a l phenomena — enough 1957).  order  The  theoretical orientation.  a unique system f o r p e r c e i v i n g and  t h i n g s , e v e n t s , b e h a v i o u r , and  It  organ-  emotions (Good-  o b j e c t of s t u d y i s not t h e s e m a t e r i a l phenomena them-  s e l v e s , but the way  they are organized  i n the minds of men.  Cultures  then  a r e not m a t e r i a l phenomena; t h e y a r e c o g n i t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s of m a t e r i a l phenomena ( T y l e r 1969:  3).  As an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h i s a p p r o a c h , i n t e r e s t i n a b o r i g i n a l taxonomic systems has  grown r a p i d l y over the l a s t two d e c a d e s a n d numers  ous documented d e s c r i p t i o n s of n a t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems have appeared (see Turner 1974; and Raven, 1966; 1970;  B e r l i n , B r e e d l o v e and L a u g h l i n , 1970; B e r l i n , 1968;  Bulmer and T y l e r , 1968;  B r i g h t , 1965;  F r a k e , 1961;  B e r l i n , Breedlove  Metzger and W i l l i a m s , 1962; C o n k l i n , 1954;  Goss, 1967;  Bulmer,  Diamond, 1965;  P r i c e , 1967).  Bright  To my  1967, and  knowledge, t h e  o n l y d e t a i l e d s t u d y of n a t i v e z o o l o g i c a l taxonomies t h a t e x i s t s has  been  done by Bulmer (1967, 1970)  Interest  amongst the New  Guinea Karam  peoples.  2  seems t o have been p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d t o t h e c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s of ethnophytotaxonomic m a t e r i a l s . concrete,  P l a n t s , i t has been c l a i m e d ,  d i s c r e t e and v i r t u a l l y u n i v e r s a l semantic domain and f o r t h i s  reason are e x c e p t i o n a l l y u s e f u l subjects 1974).  kinship.  provide a  Many other 1 Further  f o r cognitive studies  c o g n i t i v e systems have a l s o been e x p l o r e d ,  s t u d i e s i n t h e area  (Turner, particularly  of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of n a t u r a l  organisms a r e , i n my o p i n i o n , needed t o complete such a corpus f o r two reasons. 1.  Such s t u d i e s have been l o n g n e g l e c t e d .  Botanical  classifications  have been f a v o u r e d , perhaps p a r t l y due t o an e t h n o c e n t r i c concerning  the s t a b i l i t y ,  immobility  bias  and a g r i c u l t u r a l import o f  such organisms. 2.  Animals (used here g e n e r a l l y t o d e s c r i b e a l l organisms t h a t a r e n e i t h e r humans n o r p l a n t s ) c o n s t i t u t e a unique area o f human c o g n i t i o n . 1967, The  ted c o n c e r n i n g  Tyhurst  (.1974), Levi-^Strauss  (1963, 1966,  1969, 1971), and many o t h e r s have e l a b o r a t e d  present  this  point.  t h e s i s i s an attempt t o c o n s o l i d a t e m a t e r i a l s  Lau marine taxonomy,to o f f e r some g e n e r a l  a r i s i n g from a p r e l i m i n a r y  study o f t h e  collec-  observations  d a t a and, i n t h e context  o f two  a n a l y t i c a l approaches, t o propose some a r e a s and problems f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n and c o n c e n t r a t e d  1.  examination.  K i n s h i p has been t h e area most t h o r o u g h l y examined (Wallace and A t k i n s , 1960; C o n k l i n , 1964; Lounsbury, 1964; Romney and d'Andrade,1964; A t k i n s , 1960).  3  CHAPTER 1 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY The approach ted  adopted  i n t h i s s t u d y has been i n f l u e n c e d and d i r e c -  by t h e methods and o r i e n t a t i o n s o f a number o f r e s e a r c h e r s who have  d e s c r i b e d o t h e r f o l k taxonomic systems o r who have d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h t h e problems f a c e d i n t h e study o f c o g n i t i o n . i  In t h i s c h a p t e r , ., sented b r i e f l y f i r s t .  two  e t h n o s c i e n t i f i c approaches  a  r  e  A discussion of certain notions of c r i t i c a l  tance t o t h i s study f o l l o w s .  P  r e  ~  impor-  A d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e t e r m i n o l o g y and a  d e l i n e a t i o n o f t h e methodology u l t i m a t e l y adopted  conclude the s e c t i o n .  The problem o f t h e d i s c o v e r y o f f o l k c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s by r e l a t i v e l y rigorous e l i c i t i n g  t e c h n i q u e s and t h e u n d e r l y i n g aim o f a c h i e v i n g a b e t t e r  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l e x i c a l / s e m a n t i c f i e l d s have been q u e s t i o n s o f debate among a u t h o r s f o r more than a decade. s t r e s s e d t h e inadequacy s y s t e m a t i c procedures  Many r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s f i e l d have  o f p a s t s t u d i e s and have t r i e d t o o u t l i n e more  f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f ethnosemantic  data. The growing concern w i t h t y p o l o g y and d e f i n i t i o n , w i t h d i s c o v e r ing  how d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e s o r g a n i z e and use t h e i r c u l t u r e s ( T y l e r 1969: 3 ) ,  i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e o f t h i s period i n anthropology.  A wealth of  a r t i c l e s and indeed., f u l l l e n g t h volumes, have been w r i t t e n c o n t r a s t i n g and d i s c u s s i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e n a t u r e and e v o l u t i o n o f a "New Ethnography" ( v a r i o u s l y known a s c o g n i t i v e a n t h r o p o l o g y , e t h n o s c i e n c e , f o r m a l and component i a l a n a l y s i s , ethnosemantics,  s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s , and so on) i n r e l a t i o n t o  4  other t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s w i t h i n anthropology.  Hence, n e i t h e r t h e  e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l n o r t h e h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h i s approach w i l l be d i s cussed a t t h i s t i m e . The c e n t r a l aim o f e t h n o s c i e n c e i s t o p e n e t r a t e beyond mere m a t e r i a l and v e r b a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  o f a c u l t u r e t o t h e l o g i c a l nexus of  underlying concepts, to present accurate d e s c r i p t i o n s of p a r t i c u l a r cognit i v e systems, o r o f p a r t i c u l a r semantic domains w i t h i n l a r g e r networks o f meaning ( c f . b e l o w ) . The major assumption here i s t h a t each c u l t u r e c o n s i s t s of a s e t o f l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s which o r d e r r e l e v a n t phenomena. manifestations  I t i s not the  o f m a t e r i a l phenomena b u t t h e l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s o f o r d e r -  ing that should c o n s t i t u t e the p r i n c i p a l area of i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o r the anthropologist  as "an adequate e t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r e o f  a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y presupposes  a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the  communication  system and o f t h e c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d s i t u a t i o n s i n which a l l r e l e v a n t d i s t i n c t i o n s i n t h e system o c c u r " (Goodenough, 1957).  They can be d e r i v e d  "by an e t h n o g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e which d e s c r i b e s c u l t u r e s from t h e i n s i d e o u t , r a t h e r than from t h e o u t s i d e i n .  C a t e g o r i e s of d e s c r i p t i o n a r e  i n i t i a l l y d e r i v e d from r e l e v a n t f e a t u r e s  i n a c u l t u r e r a t h e r t h a n from  t h e l e x i c o n o f a n t h r o p o l o g y " ( T y l e r , 1969: 2 0 ) .  5  1 Part I  - Representational Analysis E t h n o s c i e n t i f i c p r o c e d u r e s have been d e t a i l e d as f o l l o w s :  CI) C2) C3) (4)  (5)  An i n v e n t o r y i s made o f t e r m i n o l o g y w i t h i n a g i v e n semantic domain; I n f o r m a t i o n i s assembled on each l i n g u i s t i c form as a sema n t i c c l a s s of o b j e c t s ; When p o s s i b l e , t h e c l a s s i f i c a t o r y d i m e n s i o n s imposed upon the f i e l d by n a t i v e l i n g u i s t i c usage a r e i s o l a t e d ; Through a s e r i e s of c u l t u r a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e q u e s t i o n s , sema n t i c d i s t i n c t i o n s (components) a r e e s t a b l i s h e d w h i c h a p p o r t i o n the terms i n t o s e t s and s u b s e t s , such t h a t every i t e m i n t h e domain i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m e v e r y o t h e r i t e m by a t l e a s t one component, and i s a t t h e same time r e l a t e d t o every o t h e r i t e m by i n c l u s i o n a t some l e v e l i n a broader taxonomic c a t e g o r y ; and A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s e r e c t e d based on the s u c c e s s i v e i n c l u s i o n and e x c l u s i o n o f each d e f i n e d i t e m w i t h i n t h e domain (Lounsbury, 1963; B u r l i n g , 1964; B e r l i n , 1968).  The p r o c e d u r e s o u t l i n e d a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d through i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p r e f e r a b l y a l a r g e number o f n a t i v e s p e a k e r s . In o r d e r t h a t t h e r e be no c u l t u r a l b i a s o r m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s on the p a r t of t h e e t h n o g r a p h e r , the i n t e r v i e w s should be conducted e n t i r e l y i n the language of the n a t i v e i n f o r m a n t ( C o n k l i n , 1962; Werner, 1 9 6 7 ) , and c a r e s h o u l d be t a k e n not t o b i a s t h e i n f o r m a n t ' s r e s p o n s e s by a l l u s i o n s t o o t h e r taxonomic systems f a m i l i a r t o the r e s e a r c h e r . (Turner 1974: 13) The most s i m p l e programme of e l i c i t a t i o n i s based on the convent i o n a l ' t r e e - l i k e ' a s s o c i a t i o n of s u c c e s s i v e o r l i n k e d q u e s t i o n s responses.  and  T h i s , i t i s c l a i m e d , e n a b l e s an i n t e r v i e w e r t o b e g i n w i t h  any  g i v e n i t e m w i t h i n a domain and t o p o s i t i o n i t h o r i z o n t a l l y o r v e r t i c a l l y i n a taxonomic scheme. I d e a l l y , t h i s method i n v o l v e s a downward p r o g r e s s i o n t h r o u g h  the  taxonomic h i e r a r c h y by ( g i v e n X as the i n i t i a l s e g r e g a t e w i t h i n a c u l t u r a l l y 1.  I have chosen t h i s term here f o r purposes o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t h i s approach t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f taxonomic systems from c o m p o n e n t i a l a n a l y s i s w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r .  6  d e f i n e d domain) a s k i n g "what k i n d s of X a r e t h e r e ? " X'jX'^X'" each d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by a t l e a s t one  Given answers,  e.g.,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , one may  ceed  i n the same f a s h i o n , a s k i n g s u c c e s s i v e q u e s t i o n s about X',  X"',  u n t i l the lower  o r d e r taxa are e s t a b l i s h e d and e x p l o r e d .  X"  proand  Then, i n  o r d e r to i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s i t i o n of X w i t h i n a l a r g e r , more i n c l u s i v e taxon,  one may  ask "what i s X a k i n d o f ? " and  i n o r d e r to i n v e s t i g a t e hy-  p o t h e t i c a l congeners, "what other k i n d s of X are t h e r e ? " T h i s q u e s t i o n i n g s h o u l d , t h e o r e t i c a l l y , generate a taxonomic h i e r a r c h y which can be "mapped" p r o d u c i n g (though  a representation similar  to  g e n e r a l l y much more complex than the f o l l o w i n g (see F i g u r e 1 ) . It i s a uni-dimensional  between the taxa  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of p o s t u l a t e d r e l a t i o n s  ( t h e i r l a b e l s , and  of a f o l k taxonomy.  implicitly,  their underlying features)  I t d e s c r i b e s p i c t o r i a l l y a system of  monolexemically  l a b e l l e d f o l k s e g r e g a t e s r e l a t e d by h i e r a r c h i c i n c l u s i o n between l e v e l s and by e x c l u s i o n and Lawrence, 1951;  c o n t r a s t at a s i n g l e l e v e l  Simpson, 1961;  Frake,  1962;  1962).  Some of the a d d i t i o n a l requirements onomic systems (Woodger, 1952;  ( C o n k l i n , 1957,  Gregg, 1954;  of "model" or " r e g u l a r " t a x -  Simpson, 1961;  Conklin,  1962)  are: CI)  at the h i g h e s t l e v e l , t h e r e i s o n l y one minimal ( l a r g e s t , unique) taxon which i n c l u d e s a l l other taxa i n t h e system;  (2)  the number of l e v e l s i s f i n i t e and u n i f o r m throughout  (3)  t h e r e i s no o v e r l a p ( t h a t i s , t a x a at the same l e v e l a r e always mutually e x c l u s i v e ! .  the system;  7  F i g u r e 1:  Diagram R e p r e s e n t i n g t h e O r d e r i n g o f L a b e l s i n a Taxonomic H i e r a r c h y by I n c l u s i o n and C o n t r a s t  8  The major a s s u m p t i o n u n d e r l y i n g t h i s  'representationalanalysis'  i s that categories i n a f o l k taxa are merely l o g i c a l l y equivalent u n i t s differentiated  o n l y by t h e i r c o n t r a s t i n g h i e r a r c h i c a l  s t a t u s (Bulmer, 1967);,  t h a t f o l k taxonomies can be d e s c r i b e d by a s i m i l a r h i e r a r c h y of taxonomic t y p e s o f v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f s p e c i f i c i t y as can " o u r " s c i e n t i f i c system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , a l t h o u g h f o l k taxonomies seldom e x h i b i t the  systematic  and more h i g h l y s p e c i f i c l e v e l s of d i f f e n t i a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g c i e s " and  t o "spe-  "variety". For t h o s e who  adopt t h i s model o f s i m p l e s t r u c t u r a l  similarity,  the consequent n e g l e c t of the q u e s t i o n of r u l e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and the n a t u r e of the c o n c e p t u a l and p e r c e p t u a l p r o c e s s e s i n g n a t u r a l organisms and  of  involved i n c l a s s i f y -  t h e i r p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the q u e s t i o n of t h e  1:1  correspondence between s c i e n t i f i c s p e c i e s and t e r m i n a l f o l k t a x a i s r e g r e t t a b l e but  comprehensible. Berlin  (1971) and B e r l i n , B r e e d l o v e and Raven (1971),  according  to t h i s framework, have d e l i n e a t e d s i x v a r y i n g l e v e l s of s p e c i f i c i t y shown by f o l k p h y t o t a x a  i n t o s i x major t y p e s of c a t e g o r i e s , w h i c h , t h e y i n d i c a t e  can be found i n the l e x i c o n s of a l l languages. These, l a b e l l e d most s p e c i f i c  i n hierarchical  sequence from most g e n e r a l t o  are:  UNIQUE BEGINNER: T h i s i s the h i g h e s t l e v e l i n a g i v e n domain, i n c l u d i n g a l l o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s . I n t h e case of p h y t o t a x o n o m i e s , t h i s i s the taxonomic c a t e g o r y i m p l i e d by the term " p l a n t " .  9  MAJOR LIFE-FORM: Only a f e w a b s t r a c t g e n e r a l t a x a , such a s " t r e e " , " v i n e " , and "herb", a r e i n c l u d e d a t t h i s l e v e l . They cover t h e m a j o r i t y o f l e s s e r ranked t a x a i n t h e system, a l t h o u g h some i m p o r t a n t g e n e r i c s a r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n l i f e - r f o r m t a x a (see Bulmer, 1967). INTERMEDIATE: Taxa a t t h i s l e v e l , c a l l e d " c o v e r t c a t e g o r i e s " ( B e r l i n , B r e e d l o v e , and Raven, 1968), a r e r a t h e r ephemeral and ambiguous i n d e f i n i t i o n . They a r e more s p e c i f i c than l i f e - f o r m t a x a and more g e n e r a l than g e n e r i c t a x a , b u t show v a r y i n g deg r e e s o f s p e c i f i c i t y w i t h i n t h i s range. When t h e y do e x i s t , they are not u s u a l l y l a b e l l e d l i n g u i s t i c a l l y . GENERIC: The g r e a t e s t number o f t a x a a r e i n c l u d e d a t t h i s l e v e l w i t h i n any ethnobiotaxonomy, u s u a l l y about 500 (Raven, B e r l i n , and B r e e d l o v e , 1971). They a r e l i n g u i s t i c a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as t h e u s u a l "names" o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f p l a n t s . They c o r r e s p o n d gene r a l l y t o o u r E n g l i s h f o l k taxonomic concepts o f "oak", "columb i n e " , " a p p l e " , and "squash". SPECIFIC: T h i s i s a l e s s common type o f c a t e g o r y t h a n g e n e r i c . S p e c i f i c t a x a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y e x i s t as s e t s o f a few members w i t h i n a g i v e n g e n e r i c ( e . g . , " r e d oak", " w h i t e o a k " ) . VARIETAL: T h i s l e v e l i s r e c o g n i z e d o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y i n f o l k phytotaxonomies, u s u a l l y f o r p l a n t types of c r i t i c a l c u l t u r a l importance, such a s c u l t i v a t e d p l a n t s ( e . g . , p e p p e r s , beans, c o r n ) . ( B e r l i n , B r e e d l o v e and Raven, 1971, c i t e d i n T u r n e r , 1974) These can be r e p r e s e n t e d d i a g r a m m a t i c a l l y a s i n F i g u r e 2. The n o t i o n o f " l i f e form", i t s h o u l d be n o t e d , i s a concept b o r rowed from botany. I t was f i r s t employed by C. Raunkiaer D a n i s h B o t a n i c a l S o c i e t y December 1903.  i n a communication t o t h e  He d e l i n e a t e s t h e t h r e e f o l l o w i n g  c r i t e r i a a s a b a s i s on which t o c o n s t r u c t a l i f e - f o r m c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 1. 2. 3.  The c h a r a c t e r must, i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , be e s s e n t i a l . . . . I t must be f a i r l y easy t o u s e so t h a t we may e a s i l y see i n n a t u r e t o which l i f e - f o r m a p l a n t b e l o n g s . I t must r e p r e s e n t a s i n g l e a s p e c t o f t h e p l a n t . . . . ( R a u n k i a e r , 1934)  10  F i g u r e 2:  A Diagrammatic Scheme o f U n i v e r s a l Taxonomic Category Types Based on C o n c l u s i o n s o f B e r l i n , B r e e d l o v e and Raven (1971).  11  The  problems I e n v i s a g e i n a p p l y i n g t h i s concept i n t h e s t u d y of  n a t i v e taxonomic systems a r e two:  f i r s t , according  o t h e r modern b o t a n i s t s , the d e t e r m i n a t i o n  to Raunkiaer  of t h o s e "dominant"  and  or."general"  c l a s s e s t h a t can be i n c l u d e d i n the " l i f e - f o r m s " of a p a r t i c u l a r  geogra-  p h i c a r e a i s , i n a sense, a r b i t r a r y , depending on the d i s c r e t i o n of investigator.  S e c o n d l y , how  the  does one d e t e r m i n e the n a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s  b e l o n g t o the l i f e - f o r m l e v e l of s p e c i f i c i t y i f t h e y are not v e r b a l l y , nor coded l i n g u i s t i c a l l y by the n a t i v e  population?  that  articulated  12  P a r t I I - Componential  Another  Analysis  1 ' r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ' o f taxonomic systems i s based  on t h e  a n a l y s i s o f a l e x i c a l domain w i t h primary r e f e r e n c e t o t h e components o r f e a t u r e s o f meaning u n d e r l y i n g i t .  I n o t h e r words, t h e p r i m a r y u n i t s o f  a n a l y s i s a r e the semantic f e a t u r e s o f taxonomic u n i t s . t  t i v e o f t h i s approach  i s to d i s c o v e r the r u l e s f o r determining the c r i t e r i a l  a t t r i b u t e s °f taxonomic s e g r e g a t e s , n o t merely the segregates  The main o b j e c -  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  themselves.  The method by which t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r :  is  1.  searches f o r t h e dimensions sen semantic domain and  2.  maps t h e v a l u e s on these dimensions ( t h a t i s t h e f e a t u r e s of meaning) onto t h e s e t o f p r e v i o u s l y s e l e c t e d lexemes (Kay 1966)  known as componential  of meaning u n d e r l y i n g t h e cho-  analysis.  T h i s method, f i r s t  described i n r e l a t i o n to cognitive sys-  tems by Goodenough (1956), and s u b s e q u e n t l y expanded t o t h e a n a l y s i s k i n s h i p and o t h e r t e r m i n o l o g i c a l systems (Lounsbury,  of  1956; C o n k l i n , 1962;  Frake, 1962) has f r e q u e n t l y been d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n to t h e study of taxonomic systems ( S t u r t e v a n t , 1964; W a l l a c e , 1962; S p r a d l e y , 1972; T u r n e r , 1.  The term " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " here i s used t o d e s i g n a t e t h e f o r m a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f a taxonomy. As taxonomies, paradigms and t r e e s can be regarded as t h r e e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of semantic s t r u c t u r e , paradigms and t r e e s can be used t o r e f e r t o two d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f a taxonomic system. Thus, t h e d i s c u s s i o n here i s c o n f i n e d t o what have been d e s c r i b e d as t r e e s t r u c t u r e s and p a r a d i g m a t i c s t r u c t u r e s "with p e r f e c t taxonomy" (see Kay, 1966, f o r a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n o f these d i f ferences) .  13  1974).  I n t h e l a t t e r c o n t e x t , t h r e e s t a g e s o r "phases o f a n a l y s i s " have  been a r t i c u l a t e d by P s a t h a s (1)  (1968):  GENERATING t h e components o f a c e r t a i n domain w i t h i n t h e 1  taxonomic system by e l i c i t a t i o n .  Native informants a r e presented  with a  " s u b s t i t u t i o n frame" which they c a n complete w i t h numerous p o s s i b l e r e s ponses.  The names ( o r " t e r m s " as they a r e c a l l e d ) used by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s  to c a t e g o r i z e v a r i o u s o b j e c t s a r e recorded  a t t h e same time they a r e p r e 2  s e a t e d w i t h a " s t i m u l u s - o b j e c t " presumably b e l o n g i n g t o t h a t domain. (2)  ORGANIZING t h e terms b e l o n g i n g t o t h e domain i n q u e s t i o n  i n t o a taxonomy o f s u b - c a t e g o r i e s u s i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e s of i n c l u s i o n o f r e f e r e n c e and i n c l u s i o n by c o n t r a s t . a n a l y s i s are "segregate",  Important c o n c e p t s a t t h i s s t a g e o f 3  " c o n t r a s t s e t " and "lexeme".  d i s t i n g u i s h e d a r r a y o f o b j e c t s i s a segregate b u r y , 1956; F r a k e , 1962).  A terminologically  ( C o n k l i n 1954, 1962; Louns-  A c o n t r a s t s e t has been d e f i n e d as a s e r i e s o f  t e r m i n o l o g i c a l l y contrasted segregates  w h i c h occur i n t h e same environment  ( F r a k e , 1962) o r c u l t u r a l l y r e l e v a n t domain ( S t u r t e v a n t , 1964).  Segregates  i1.n d iThe f f e rteenrtm domain c o n t r a s ti ss used e t s ahreer re e lt aot re ed fby i noc ltuhsei ot no t ailn a taxonomy. er t semantic rangeThus, of a *=• group o f lexemes w h i c h , i n a g i v e n c u l t u r a l l y r e l e v a n t c o n t e x t share a t l e a s t one f e a t u r e i n common. A 'domain' i s t h u s v e r y p l a s t i c , i f not a r b i t r a r y , i n terms o f s e m a n t i c e x t e n s i o n a s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , i t s b o u n d a r i e s a r e chosen by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r a c c o r d i n g t o h i s own i n t e n d e d range o f i n t e r e s t and i n q u i r y ( a s i m p l i e d by t h e unf o r t u n a t e use o f t h e v e r b " g e n e r a t i n g " ) . 2. F o r example, g i v e n t h e domain o f c o l o u r and t h e s t i m u l u s o b j e c t a c o l o u r sample, t h e q u e s t i o n frame might be: The c o l o u r o f t h i s i s c a l l e d 3. A d i s c u s s i o n o f some o f t h e problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e c o n c e p t s f o l l o w s (see below).  14  these m e t h o d o l o g i c a l n o t i o n s  o f i n c l u s i o n and c o n t r a s t  enable one to con-  s t r u c t a taxonomic arrangement o f terms which i n d i c a t e t h e s t r u c t u r e o f a p a r t i c u l a r domain o f c o g n i t i v e (3)  choices.  Componential a n a l y s i s , however, seeks n o t merely t o d i s c e r n  some s t r u c t u r e i n a domain o f c o g n i t i v e c h o i c e s list  o f known members o f a c a t e g o r y ) ,  ( t h a t i s , t o compile a mere  but t o d e f i n e t h e u n i t s (words) t h a t  c o n t r a s t w i t h one another i n terms o f a s e t o f i n t e r s e c t i n g f e a t u r e s , the 1 dimensions o f c o n t r a s t . T h i s f i n a l phase o f componential a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e s a o f t h e components o r r u l e s t h a t a r e i n s t r u m e n t a l p a r t i c u l a r term t o some o b j e c t ,  determination  i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of a  i n the placing of d i f f e r e n t s t i m u l i within  p a r t i c u l a r segregates o r contrast sets the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  ( B u r l i n g , 1964).  The paradigm i s  o r "mapping" o f t h e s e d e f i n i n g a t t r i b u t e s  i n terms o f t h e lexemes t h e i r i n t e r s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s  ( T y l e r , 1969; H a r r i s ,  1971). The two  problem t h a t a r i s e s a t t h i s p o i n t concerns t h e presence o f  c o n t r a s t i n g (though i n f r e q u e n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ) o b j e c t i v e s o f r e s e a r -  chers applying  t h i s a n a l y t i c framework.  On t h e one hand, t h e ethnographer assumedly searches f o r a s e t o f r u l e s which (on t h e b a s i s o f a s t i p u l a t e d s e t o f c o n t r a s t i v e semantic dimensions that are represented 1.  i n t h e t e r m i n o l o g i c a l system) would unambiguously  Hymes (1961) a l s o makes the d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e s e two "phases" o f a n a l y s i s as he c o n t r a s t s t h e " s o r t i n g " o f terms w i t h t h e "assignment" of semantic f e a t u r e s to the u n i t s b e i n g s o r t e d .  15  s t a t e t h e c r i t e r i a by w h i c h a p a r t i c u l a r term c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o some object.  I n t h i s c a s e t h e ' t e s t ' f o r t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e a n a l y s i s has been t h e  a c c u r a c y w i t h w h i c h i t can ' p r e d i c t ' such naming. analyst purports  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e  t o augment an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c r i t e r i a by w h i c h t h e  n a t i v e s p e a k e r s themselves d e c i d e what term t o use f o r a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t . Many e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l  c r i t i c i s m s concerning the stated ' o b j e c t i -  v i t y ' o f t h e c o m p o n e n t i a l approach have been r a i s e d and debated.  These 1 debates c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n t r a d i c t o r y n a t u r e o f c o m p o n e n t i a l a n a l y s i s lead to a controversy  i n b o t h t h e o r y and p r a x i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f 2  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f taxonomic systems.  I t i s beyond t h e scope o f t h i s  the-  s i s t o comment i n d e t a i l on p o i n t s r a i s e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s e d i s c u s sions.  I w i l l , however, i n d i c a t e b r i e f l y f i v e i s s u e s o f p a r t i c u l a r r e l e -  vance t o t h i s s t u d y : (1) The n o t i o n o f " c o n t r a s t  sets" involving binary d i s t i n c t i o n s  between d e f i n i n g f e a t u r e s has l o n g been r e g a r d e d as a n e c e s s a r y p r o p e r t y o f 3 taxonomic systems. 1.  2. 3.  Which r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n amongst o t h e r s — how i s i t p o s s i b l e t o g i v e an a c c u r a t e emic d e s c r i p t i o n o f a p e o p l e s ' taxonomic system i f t h e a n a l y t i c a l framework presupposes such a h i g h degree o f p r e - s t r u c t u r i n g and e t i c deduction? See T u r n e r , 1974, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f problems encountered i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of componential a n a l y s i s i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d s i t u a t i o n . F o r example t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i s g i v e n by Frake (1962) as t h e " D e f i n i n g A t t r i b u t e s o f t h e C o n t r a s t S e t o f Stem H a b i t i n t h e Subanun P l a n t Taxonomy". C o n t r a s t Set , Dimensions o f C o n t r a s t Woodiness Rigidity gayu 'woody p l a n t s ' W R s i g b e t 'herbaceous p l a n t s ' W R belagen 'vines' R  16  T h i s tendency t o c o n f i n e c o m p o n e n t i a l a n a l y s i s t o b i n a r y t i o n s , while frequently ascribed t o the 'aesthetic arrangement, factors:  1  distinc-  q u a l i t y o f such an  ( B u r l i n g , 1964), a l s o , I b e l i e v e , stems from two a d d i t i o n a l  f i r s t , from o r i g i n a l and f o u n d i n g a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o m p o n e n t i a l  a n a l y s i s t o k i n s h i p systems i n w h i c h t h i s b i n a r y d i s t i n c t i o n between c r i 1 t i c a l f e a t u r e s has l o n g been a c c e p t e d a s an o p e r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e ;  second,  from t h e two dimension l i m i t a t i o n imposed on diagrammatic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s which has been embedded i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e paradigm ( s e e S t u r t e v a n t , 1964, i n S p r a d l e y , 1972: 141-142). (2)  A d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e term lexeme, as i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y i s :  a s e g r e g a t e whose meaning cannot be p r e d i c t e d from a knowledge o f i t s morphological constituents. The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e l e x e m i c s t a t u s o f a term r e q u i r e s , howe v e r , a thorough a n a l y s i s o f t h e d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f meaning o f t h e term and i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s (Goodenough, 1956; F r a k e , 1962).  Such an a n a l y s i s  of t h e c r i t e r i a f o r p l a c i n g o b j e c t s i n t o d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s can come o n l y a f t e r t h e term, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h o s e c o n t r a s t i n g terms r e l e v a n t t o i t s u s e , has the  been i s o l a t e d a s a s e g r e g a t e l a b e l .  The a n a l y s i s o f t h e c r i t e r i a  components o f meaning t h a t d e t e r m i n e c a t e g o r y membership —  —  i s however,  r e g a r d e d as t h e f i r s t o b j e c t i v e i n t h e f i n a l and most c r i t i c a l phase o f 1. F o r example, t h e f o l l o w i n g model i s found i n t h e c o m p o n e n t i a l d e f i n i t i o n of almost e v e r y k i n s h i p s t u d y a p p l y i n g t h i s method o f a n a l y s i s : C o n t r a s t Set Dimensions o f C o n t r a s t Generation +1+2 0 -1 -2 Sex M F Lineality Lineal Collateral  17  componential a n a l y s i s .  Thus, the p o s s i b i l i t y of the r e c u r s i v e or redundant  n a t u r e of the semantic range of a f o l k s e g r e g a t e i s d e f i n e d The  out of the  f o c u s i s on i s o l a t i n g the s e g r e g a t e s , d e t e r m i n i n g c o n t r a s t s e t s  inclusive relations. lexeme, one  and  Then, p r e s u p p o s i n g the n e c e s s a r y e x i s t e n c e of a  proceeds to examine the n a t u r e of lexemes —  r u l e s of a s s i g n i n g  system.  c r i t e r i a l a t t r i b u t e s to lexemes —  to d e l i n e a t e  the  by examining t h e i r  c r i t e r i a l attributes. 1 I f you presuppose lexemes e x i s t , t h e y can always be (3)  A c r i t i c i s m frequently l e v i e d against  found.  componential a n a l y s i s  i s t h a t , even when p r o p e r l y c o n d u c t e d , i t y i e l d s o n l y one  of s e v e r a l  f e r e n t and  terminological  p o s s i b l e models of the semantic s t r u c t u r e of a  dif-  system, each of which can a c c u r a t e l y account f o r the l e x i c a l items w i t h i n the system. There i s a v i r t u a l l y i n f i n i t e number of ways a l e x i c a l s e t can be c o m p o n e n t i a l l y d i v i d e d . ( C o l b y , 1966; c f . W a l l a c e and A t k i n s , 1960; B u r l i n g , 1964; Goodenough, 1965) Componential a n a l y s i s has become ( c o n t r a r y t o t h e and  aspirations  d i r e c t i v e s o u t l i n e d by some e a r l y t h e o r e t i c i a n s i n the f i e l d )  increas-  i n g l y o r i e n t e d towards the development o f d e t e r m i n i s t i c models based on  the  n e c e s s i t y of the d e t e r m i n a c y of a s s o c i a t i o n s r a t h e r than becoming o r i e n t e d towards the g e n e r a t i o n  of p r o b a b a l i s t i c models based on the c a r e f u l o b s e r -  v a t i o n of n o n - v e r b a l and  contextual  i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as response  i n g d e v i c e s a p p l i e d i n h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d and  elicit-  restricted socio-linguistic  situations. 1.  No one to my knowledge has ever e x p l a i n e d why they s h o u l d or i f they do e x i s t . Werner (1972) o f f e r s some i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s on the n a t u r e of lexemes and on the n o t i o n t h a t r e c u r s i v i t y and redundancy are,, p e r h a p s , p r o p e r t i e s of a l l languages.  18  Response v a r i a t i o n s , which c o u l d h y p o t h e t i c a l l y , be  incorporated  i n t o the c o n s t r u c t of a p r o b a b i l i s t i c model p r e s e n t s an unsurmountable blem to the e x e c u t i o n of componential a n a l y s i s Burling,  Jones,  1971;  1964). (4)  method.  ( T u r n e r , 1974;  pro-  An a d d i t i o n a l problem concerns the a n a l y t i c  'range' o f t h i s  " I t i s sometimes p o s s i b l e to a n a l y z e c o m p o n e n t i a l l y a c o n t r a s t s e t  which forms one l e v e l o f a f o l k taxonomy, but i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to a n a l y z e i n t h i s way  the whole taxonomy, even though the b o u n d a r i e s of the whole  must d e f i n e a domain: level"  a s i n g l e c o n t r a s t s e t i s l i m i t e d to one  ( S t u r t e v a n t , 1964;  c f . C o n k l i n , 1962«: 128, 1964;  most a l l componential a n a l y s e s o f f o l k taxonomies  S t u r t e v a n t , 1968).  posed severe problems  Frake, 1962).  F r a k e , 1962;  Werner,  The requirement of b i n a r y f e a t u r e c o n t r a s t  monstrate a m u l t i - f e a t u r e d "n-ary" s e t of c o n t r a s t i n g dimensions Werner, 1972).  has  and r a i s e d numerous q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the a p p l i -  c a t i o n of componential a n a l y s i s to l o w e r - l e v e l t a x a which f r e q u e n t l y  1967;  Al-  have been l i m i t e d to t h e  s t u d y o f u p p e r - l e v e l s e g r e g a t e s ( e . g . , C o n k l i n , 1955; 1972;  taxonomic  Increasing s p e c i f i c i t y  i n a taxonomic  de-  (Bulmer,  system  appears  to i n v o l v e an i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the a t t r i b u t e s o f the component t a x a which componential a n a l y s i s seems unable to 1 handle. 1.  Other s p e c i f i c c r i t i c i s m s o f componential a n a l y s i s i n c l u d e the f o l l o w ing. Componential a n a l y s i s i s s a i d t o i n h i b i t comparisons between two or more c u l t u r e s , s i n c e as soon as the semantic elements of a g i v e n c u l t u r e a r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o terms o f another c u l t u r e , they l o s e t h e i r d i s c r e t e and e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e ( C o l b y , 1966; Turner, 1974). Another c r i t i c i s m r a i s e d p a r t i c u l a r l y by B e r l i n (1971), B e r l i n , B r e e d l o v e and Raven (1968) and t h e i r f o l l o w e r s ( e . g . , Turner, 1974) i s t h a t componential a n a l y s i s f r e q u e n t l y does not account f o r u n l a b e l l e d f o l k segregates or " c o v e r t " c a t e g o r i e s . As I hare no d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e o f componential a n a l y s i s i n ( c o n t i n u e d . . . .)  19  The l a s t p o i n t I w i s h to r a i s e i s a g e n e r a l one:  the a c t u a l  d e l i n e a t i o n of t h e semantic b o u n d a r i e s of t a x a i n terms of i n c l u s i v e n e s s w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r domain c o n s t i t u t e s a problem common t o b o t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and c o m p o n e n t i a l a n a l y s e s .  T h i s , however, i s e s s e n t i a l l y a meth-  o d o l o g i c a l problem r e l a t i n g to t h e n a t u r e of t h e e l i c i t i n g  frameworks  adopted i n each case and t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n of t h e p o p u l a t i o n ( i n f o r m a n t ) sample. The e x i s t e n c e of t h e "taxonomic e q u i v a l e n c e " of c o o r d i n a t e terms i s a consequent and an i m p l i c i t a s s u m p t i o n of b o t h a n a l y t i c a l  approaches  u n d e r l y i n g t h e n o t i o n o f i n c l u s i v e n e s s as t h e y d e f i n e i t , and as s u c h , cons t i t u t e s e s s e n t i a l l y an e p i s t e m i o l o g i c a l problem.  I t i s e x p r e s s e d i n each  case i n a d i f f e r e n t manner: (1)  I n a t r e e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l l l e x i c a l items occupying the  same h o r i z o n t a l a x i s i n t h e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l space a r e assumed t o have e q u a l taxonomic s t a t u s .  I f t h i s e q u i v a l e n c e of taxonomic s t a t u s i s n o t a r t i c u -  l a t e d ( e i t h e r v e r b a l l y o r by l i n g u i s t i c c o d i n g ) by t h e n a t i v e i n f o r m a n t s , I b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s an a r t i f a c t o f t h i s approach — t r i c n a t u r e o f i t s b a s i c c o m p a r a t i v e model:  due t o t h e e t h n o c e n -  Modern B i o l o g i c a l Taxonomy i n  w h i c h a l l organisms a t a s p e c i f i c l e v e l o f i n c l u s i o n a r e r e n d e r e d 1 t u a l l y e q u i v a l e n t by a s u p e r o r d i n a t e and a b s t r a c t concept. 1.  1.  'concep-  ( C o n t i n u e d from p r e v i o u s page....) terms o f t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s , I o f f e r them m e r e l y on r e c o r d , as acknowledgements of l e g i t i m a t e and l e n g t h y debates c o n c e r n i n g t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s of t h i s a n a l y t i c a l method. For example a l l organisms r e g a r d e d as i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i e s may be r e g a r d e d a s d i s t i n c t and u n i q u e e n t i t i e s , but t h e y a r e f i r s t s p e c i e s ; w r a s s e s , r a i n b o w - f i s h e s , and cods may a l l be thought o f as u n i q u e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d groups o f i n d i v i d u a l organisms ( o r groups o f c l a s s e s of o r g a n i s m s ) , but they are a l l e q u i v a l e n t l y , b i o l o g i c a l f a m i l i e s . I f t h i s kind of abstracted i n t e l l e c t u a l e n t e r p r i s e does n o t e x i s t a t t h e n a t i v e l e v e l , I suggest ( C o n t i n u e d . . . .)  1  20  (2)  I n c o m p o n e n t i a l a n a l y s i s the d e l i n e a t i o n of the d i m e n s i o n s  of c o n t r a s t f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t s i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of l e x i c a l items i n t o groups w h i c h may  or may  on the p a r t of the  not be a s s i g n e d  i n an a r b i t r a r y , i n t u i t i v e manner  researcher.  Should b a l s a m , hemlock and  s p r u c e be c l a s s e d t o g e t h e r  n e e d l e d " t r e e s ( C h r i s t m a s t r e e s ) as opposed t o p i n e s or s h o u l d equivalent  taxonomic s t a t u s ?  between hemlock and b a r k , o r what? before  any  spruce?  as  "short  they a l l have  What i s the e s s e n t i a l " c o g n i t i v e " d i f f e r e n c e I s i t g r o s s s i z e , t y p e of n e e d l e , f o r m o f  These are t h e t y p e s of q u e s t i o n s  which must be answered  s i n g l e s e m a n t i c a n a l y s i s can c l a i m t o r e p r e s e n t  the  cognitive  o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p e o p l e , or even c l a i m t o be much more than an  exercise  1 of the a n a l y s t ' s  1.  1.  imagination.  ( C o n t i n u e d from p r e v i o u s page....) t h a t t h e ' e q u i v a l e n c e ' of taxonomic s t a t u s p o s t u l a t e d i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i s not j u s t i f i e d . In the c o n t e x t of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y , even c l a s s e s of organisms t h a t c o u l d be i s o l a t e d as b e l o n g i n g t o a s i m i l a r l e v e l o f i n c l u s i o n , c o u l d not be r e g a r d e d as ' e q u i v a l e n t ' i n t h e s e terms. The q u e s t i o n made no sense t o my i n f o r m a n t s , and l i t t l e sense to me, a t the t i m e , and i n retrospect. I f u l l y r e a l i z e that t h i s point requires further elaboration. To answer even the q u e s t i o n — t o what degree a r e , f o r example, f e a t h e r l e s s b i p e d s an i n t u i t i v e n o t i o n of the Western m i n d — would I f e e l , r e q u i r e a f u l l l e n g t h paper. I n t h i s c o n t e x t I w i s h m e r e l y to add t h a t a l t h o u g h c o m p o n e n t i a l a n a l y s i s i s perhaps more e x p l i c i t on t h i s p o i n t , b o t h methods engage i n the same o p e r a t i o n and even proponents of the c o m p o n e n t i a l approach seem u n a b l e t o g i v e a s u f f i c i e n t answer.  21  Part I I I - Terminology I have had c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y i n a p p l y i n g much o f t h e d e s c r i p t i v e t e r m i n o l o g y used by some r e s e a r c h e r s t o r e f e r c o l l e c t i v e l y t o t h e components o f t h e v a r i o u s ' l e v e l s ' o f o r g a n i z a t i o n p r e s e n t i n taxonomic systems t o t h e d a t a w i t h w h i c h I am w o r k i n g . Of p a r t i c u l a r problem was t h e scheme o u t l i n e d by B e r l i n , B r e e d l o v e and Raven (1971). The c a t e g o r y 'Unique B e g i n n e r ' i s I f e e l burdened by t h e n o t i o n of an a l l - i n c l u s i v e E n g l i s h term " p l a n t " t h a t d e l i n e a t e s a g e n e r a l groupi n g o f organisms t h a t a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from t h e r e s t o f t h e taxonomic universe.  This f e a t u r e (the d i s c r e t e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of p l a n t s from other  organisms) may c o n s t i t u t e a u n i v e r s a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e l e x i c o n s o f a l l languages b u t i t does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s t i t u t e a f o r m a l cause ( a s t r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e ) f o r t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e taxonomic u n i v e r s e i n t o semantic domains c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y (as i s e v i d e n c e d i n t h i s c a s e ) .  It is  i m p o s s i b l e , f o r example, t o d i s c u s s t h e semantic d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e Lau c a t e g o r y j i a w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e l a r g e r , more i n c l u s i v e term a s i and to t h e congeners o f i a w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r t a x o n ( p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e congener k i i k i i - see Chapter 3 ) .  I t would o n l y be p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r t h e c a t e -  g o r y i a a s a 'Unique Beginner.'' i f an a r b i t r a r y and imposed framework was a p p l i e d t o t h e Lau taxonomic system. The c a t e g o r y 'Major L i f e - f o r m ' a s d e f i n e d by B e r l i n , B r e e d l o v e and Raven s i m i l a r l y appears t o be a concept i n a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e L a u t a x o nomic system.  There a r e no d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e " l i f e - f o r m m a r k e r s " such a s  22  those g i v e n by Turner English  (1974: 32).  Those Lau  ' g l o s s e s ' t h a t might be c o n s i d e r e d  shellfish,  sharks,  dolphins,  consistent with  'Major L i f e - f o r m s '  to  (e.g.,  t u r t l e s , e e l s , rays, etc.) c o n s t i t u t e d i f -  f e r e n t l e v e l s o f i n c l u s i v e n e s s i n Lau i s not  as  categories corresponding  taxonomy —  a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which  the o r i g i n a l d e f i n i t i o n of the term.  Other terms f r e q u e n t l y used to d e s c r i b e the v e r t i c a l dimensions of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n (or s p e c i f i c a t i o n ) of a f o l k taxonomy have a broader scope of meaning and  a r e more l o o s e l y d e f i n e d .  These i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g :  "major" (or most i n c l u s i v e groupings)  "primary t a x a " "upper l e v e l t a x a "  intermediate  "secondary t a x a " i f they a r e immediate s u b d i v i s i o n s of primary taxa " t e r t i a r y . t a x a " i f they a r e immediate s u b d i v i s i o n s of secondary taxa " q u a t e r n a r y t a x a " i f they are immediate s u b d i v i s i o n s of t e r t i a r y taxa  groupings  u n i t s w i t h no s t a n d a r d l y named s u b d i v i s i o n s r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r h i e r a r c h i c a l status Due  t e r m i n a l taxa or s m a l l e s t u n i t s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  to the n a t u r e of these problems, I have d e f i n e d the most  important d e s c r i p t i v e terms used i n t h i s paper as they a r e to be i n the context  understood  of the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n :  Domain  The t o t a l semantic range of a group of s e g r e g a t e s which are d e s c r i b e d by the most i n c l u s i v e term p o s s i b l e , as i n d i c a t e d by the n a t i v e i n f o r m a n t s .  Taxon  Any c o n c e p t u a l l y v a l i d c a t e g o r y w i t h i n a taxonomy, or the name of such a category.  Category  Any c l a s s i f i c a t o r y d i v i s i o n w i t h i n taxonomic system.  the  23  Class  A g r o u p i n g o f lower o r d e r e n t i t i e s i n t o a c a t e g o r y regarded as f o r m i n g a group according to s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a .  Segregate  The name of any taxon  Upper L e v e l Taxon (Taxa) Lower L e v e l Taxon (Taxa) Terminal  Taxon  i n a f o l k taxonomy.  A domain and i t s major s u b d i v i s i o n s . The major s u b d i v i s i o n s , c l a s s e s and c a t e g o r i e s of upper l e v e l t a x a . Taxonomic u n i t s w i t h no s t a n d a r d l y named subdivisions regardless of t h e i r h i e r archical status.  24  P a r t i y - Method The d a t a c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e two month p e r i o d spent i n t h e f i e l d were o b t a i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g ways. No f o r m a l e l i c i t i n g p r o c e d u r e s were f o l l o w e d .  I n f a c t , as my  main o b j e c t i v e s were language a c q u i s i t i o n and t h e r e v i e w o f Fox's 'Lau D i c t i o n a r y ' , work done i n t h i s a r e a was, i n comparison, somewhat i n c i d e n t a l , although  I conducted a r e g u l a r s c h e d u l e o f i n q u i r y .  C o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h n a t i v e informants situations.  took place i n the f o l l o w i n g  D u r i n g t h e course of d a i l y s e s s i o n s w i t h my p r i m a r y  infor-  mants i n which t h e d i c t i o n a r y r e v i s i o n and language d r i l l s took p l a c e a group o f about 8-10 men and s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n would gather on t h e s t e p s of t h e l e a f hut i n w h i c h work was g o i n g on.  These men,  a l m o s t a l l o f whom  b e l o n g e d t o s u r r o u n d i n g h o u s e h o l d s i n the f e r a (from t i m e t o time men from the n e i g h b o u r i n g request  a r t i f i c i a l i s l a n d and o t h e r s who came t o o f f e r or  goods would a l s o j o i n t h e group) f r e q u e n t l y j o i n e d i n t h e con-  v e r s a t i o n , commenting on t h e m a t e r i a l b e i n g d i s c u s s e d , o f f e r i n g o p i n i o n s , q u e s t i o n i n g o r c o n f i r m i n g those o f my p r i n c i p a l Occasionally,  their  informants.  t h e group would be j o i n e d by a man r e t u r n i n g from a f i s h -  i n g e x p e d i t i o n , b r i n g i n g w i t h h i m a f i s h t o o f f e r as a g i f t .  I n the e a r l y  s t a g e s o f my s t a y i n t h e f i e l d , I would use t h i s a s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n i t i a t e a d i s c u s s i o n of f i s h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i t h the help of m y . p r i n c i p a l informants. /  25  I would ask them t o i d e n t i f y t h e specimen by name and t o d e s c r i b e to me i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o o t h e r f i s h t h a t I had come t o r e c o g n i z e . I would then ask t h e men t o i d e n t i f y t h e f i s h  ( i f i t was  possible  to f i n d a c o r r e s p o n d i n g p l a t e ) i n M a r s h a l l ' s Compendium ( M a r s h a l l 1964). Whenever a "new"  f i s h was brought t o me I t o o k a photograph as w e l l .  Towards t h e m i d d l e of my p e r i o d i n Lau Lagoon I began t o conduct p r e a r r a n g e d meetings t h r e e t i m e s a week w i t h f i v e f i s h e r m e n e x c l u s i v e l y to d i s c u s s f i s h specimens caught d u r i n g morning f i s h i n g e x p e d i t i o n s . Several d i f f i c u l t i e s arose. f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n to the households. out  of my range o f s c r u t i n y .  I had a c c e s s o n l y t o f i s h  intended  Other f i s h remained i n t h e men's a r e a  The g r e a t e s t number of f i s h b r o u g h t i n t o t h e  v i l l a g e were caught on market days and r e q u i r e d a l m o s t immediate p r e p a r a t i o n , i f t h e y were to be o f f e r e d cooked, as was most o f t e n t h e c a s e .  Fish  t a k e n raw t o markets were u s u a l l y d e l i v e r e d t o t h e women j u s t p r i o r t o t h e i r d e p a r t u r e f o r t h e r i v e r mouths where t h e u s i a a r e l o c a t e d .  I n any  c a s e , as a l l f i s h caught were i n t e n d e d f o r consumption, i n some f o r m , r e l a t i v e l y r a p i d p r e p a r a t i o n was n e c e s s a r y due t o t h e speed o f decay i n t r o p i c a l heat. Due t o t h e s e f a c t o r s i t was d i f f i c u l t t o conduct a l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n about t h e f i s h i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e specimens a c t u a l l y p r e s e n t . Most o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n I c o l l e c t e d about t h e p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each named specimen, about t h e c r i t e r i a f o r t h e g r o u p i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o named c l a s s e s , and about t h e s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s o f r e l a t e d g r o u p i n g s was thus o b t a i n e d i n t h e absence of any l i v e specimens.  26  Understandably,  due  to the s h o r t d u r a t i o n of my  s o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y of c e r t a i n v a r i e t i e s of f i s h and my specimens, I had  s t a y , the  sea-  l i m i t e d access  to  to r e l y on i n f o r m a n t s ' memory l i s t s of f i s h names, on  d i s c u s s i o n of the Maranda and Maranda 1967-1968 F i s h F i l e , on  informant  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i l l u s t r a t i o n s from M a r s h a l l (1964) f o r purposes of e l i c i t i n g a d d i t i o n a l f i s h names. I a l s o attempted, on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , to q u e s t i o n women about the naming and interest  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f i s h .  The women expressed  i n the s u b j e c t , f r e q u e n t l y i n f o r m i n g me  as they knew much more about i t ("The  men  into " l o t s "  little  t h a t I should ask the  know w e l l " ) .  More  (bata) b e f o r e cooking  men  productive  i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the women, however, t o o k p l a c e as t h e y prepared m a r k e t s , s o r t i n g the f i s h  very  fish for  i n the  fire.  I asked  them to name the f i s h ^ t o e x p l a i n to me  how  and why  c e r t a i n f i s h were s o r t e d t o g e t h e r .  i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n emerged  An  they r e c o g n i z e d them  h e r e which I s h a l l d i s c u s s l a t e r . From time to time, spontaneous evening of f i s h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n would a r i s e as i n d i v i d u a l s l y men  and young boys) passed  n o t i c e d M a r s h a l l ' s volume. enter into the d i s c u s s i o n s . two  o r more men  and  through  the hut  ( i n t h i s case predominant-  i n which I was  working  In t h e s e i n s t a n c e s , I d i d not i n i t i a t e Rather,  and  nor  they began w i t h a c o n v e r s a t i o n between  s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n c o n c e r n i n g the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  coloured i l l u s t r a t i o n s .  F r e q u e n t l y , t h e r e would be some disagreement about  the p r e c i s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a c e r t a i n f i s h and, the c r i t i c a l  s e s s i o n s on t h e s u b j e c t  i n the ensuing  debate,  f e a t u r e s f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f i s h i n q u e s t i o n would  27  be i n v o k e d , d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r and a judgement p r o c l a i m e d .  I tape-recorded  e i g h t such c o n v e r s a t i o n s which I r e g a r d t o be o f s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r e s t .  At  t h i s p o i n t , however, I have o n l y my h a n d w r i t t e n n o t e s as my tapes have n o t y e t r e t u r n e d from t h e  field.  I t was f o l l o w i n g such e n c o u n t e r s  that I seized the opportunity  1 t o ask q u e s t i o n s about o t h e r components o f t h e L a u taxonomic u n i v e r s e . In a d d i t i o n t o data concerning t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f " f i s h " , I a l s o c o l l e c t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n about s h e l l f i s h , which the L a u c l a s s i f y a s a s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r y  (kiikii).  I have numerous specimens and a r e l a t i v e l y d e t a i l e d account o f taxonomic terms and a t t r i b u t e s s t i l l on t h e i r way from M a l a i t a . t h i s I s h a l l not present the data a t t h i s time.  Due t o  I f e e l , however, t h a t  several general observations a r e of s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the m a t e r i a l contained in this presentation. The women i n t h i s case were my p r i m a r y i n f o r m a n t s .  The men r e s -  ponded t o my q u e s t i o n i n g about s h e l l f i s h i n a manner s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e women c o n c e r n i n g f i s h .  "The women know."  Some i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s  emerged, however, i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f f e r e d by men and women t h a t w i l l a l s o be mentioned l a t e r . In summary, t h e c o g n i t i v e d a t a r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e procedures 1.  elicitation  o u t l i n e d above take two forms:  Men seemed much more w i l l i n g t o d i s c u s s t h e s e s u b j e c t s i n t h i s c o n t e x t i n comparison t o t h e s t r u c t u r e d d a i l y s e s s i o n s . I t was a l s o t h e o n l y o t h e r such s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e o p p o r t u n i t y I had t o e x p l o r e t h e a r e a w i t h a group o f male a d u l t s i n an i n f o r m a l s i t u a t i o n and t o e x p l o r e f u r t h e r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i o u s t y p e s o f named o r g a n i s m s , t h e i r s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n , growth f e a t u r e s , h a b i t a t s and t o a c q u i r e some i n f o r m a t i o n about f i s h i n g t e c h n i q u e s , t e r r i t o r i e s and p r a c t i c e s .  28  1.  A s e r i e s o f a c t u a l L a u names a p p l i e d t o d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f m a r i n e organisms.  2.  Supplementary i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e form o f u n s t r u c t u r e d s t a t e m e n t s and o p i n i o n s about r e l a t i o n s h i p s between marine organisms and about d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s c r i t i c a l t o t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r taxonomic p o s i t i o n , d e r i v e d from i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s .  29  CHAPTER 2 ETHNOGRAPHIC CONTEXT  The L a u - s p e a k i n g p e o p l e o f N o r t h M a l a i t a l i v e on a r t i f i c a l i s l a n d s they have b u i l t i n a l a g o o n ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 m i l e s l o n g ) on t h e north-east coast o f the i s l a n d .  They a r e p r i n c i p a l l y f i s h e r m e n a l t h o u g h  they have s m a l l s h o r e gardens s i t u a t e d on t h e m a i n l a n d . F i s h i n g i s done by men o n l y and s h e l l f i s h c o l l e c t i n g s o l e l y by women.  The t e n d i n g o f garden p l o t s i s done by b o t h s e x e s .  and yams a r e t h e p r i n c i p a l c r o p s .  T a r o , kumara  P i g s , w h i c h can o n l y be eaten by men a t  c e r e m o n i a l o c c a s i o n s a r e kept i n r a i s e d pens b u i l t by p i l e s a t t h e w a t e r ' s edge.  S h e l l f i s h can be consumed o n l y by women, w h i l e most f i s h can be eaten 1  by everyone.  C e r t a i n f i s h , however, a r e taboo i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  There a r e two fundamental of L a u l i f e .  p r i n c i p l e s which p e n e t r a t e e v e r y a s p e c t  The a x i s o f n a t u r a l space —  s o c i a l space —  male and female —  h i l l and s e a —  and t h e a x i s o f  a r e i n v o k e d i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n and c l a s s i -  f i c a t i o n o f most o b s e r v a b l e e n t i t i e s i n t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d and i n t h e c u l t u r a l universe respectively. The s e l f d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e L a u i s t o a ' i a s i , 'sea p e o p l e ' , as opposed t o n e i g h b o u r i n g t o a ' i t o l o , ' i n l a n d d w e l l e r s ' . . . L i f e i n pagan i s l a n d s i s s t r u c t u r e d a c c o r d i n g t o two d e t e r m i n a n t s : women's b i o l o g i c a l rhythm and men's c u l t u r a l rhythm, t h e former p r i v a t e l y and t h e l a t t e r a c c o r d i n g t o c l a n s . . . The d i v i s i o n o f space i n t o m a l e - n e u t r a l - f e m a l e found i n t h e v i l l a g e d e s i g n and i n t h e d e s i g n o f t h e f a m i l y house i s r e p e a t e d i n t h e f a m i l y canoe.... (E. Kongas Maranda 1974: pp. 178, 186, 185) 1.  A d i s c u s s i o n o f taboo f i s h i s n o t w i t h i n t h e scope o f t h i s p r e s e n t work as i t would i n v o l v e a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f many d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l domains i n c l u d i n g r i t e s o f passage, r i t u a l s t a t e s and myth.  30  There a r e f i v e major c o n c e p t u a l zones i n t h e d i v i s i o n o f n a t u r a l space w h i c h a r e named as f o l l o w s : tolo  'hills,forest,inland'  hara  'shore, g a r d e n i n g zone on t h e s h o r e ; gardens'  asihara  'lagoon'  asi  'sea;  matakwa  'deep ocean'  d i v i d e d f i s h i n g grounds'  The p r i n c i p a l e x p l o i t a t i o n zones a r e h a r a and a s i . Men and women (and grown c h i l d r e n ) garden i n h a r a , men f i s h i n a s i . . . . T h e m i d d l e zone, a s i h a r a c o n s i s t s o f mai (areas exposed a t l o w t i d e ) where women g a t h e r s h e l l s , and f e r a ( a r t i f i c a l i s l a n d community v i l l a g e ) where p e o p l e l i v e (Ibid.). There a r e a l s o a number o f named r e g i o n s w i t h i n t h e zone a s i . These a r e used p r i m a r i l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o f i s h i n g —  i n describing the l o -  c a t i o n where a p a r t i c u l a r f i s h was caught o r where i t can c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y be f o u n d : matakwa h a r a  deep a r e a s near t h e s h o r e  matakwa l i u  deep a r e a s between t a a l u ' — small r e e f s i n the lagoon  fafoile  the  alata  'owned' f i s h i n g  s h a l l o w a r e a s c r e a t e d by  a r e a o f deep water j u s t o u t s i d e t h e o u t e r r e e f territory  The r e g i o n s " t o l o " , h i l l , and matakwa, s e a , a r e r e g a r d e d as two extreme p o l e s , t h e d e l i m i t e r s o f n a t u r a l space. T o l o and matakwa...are thought t o be dangerous because t h e y a r e unknown and because t h e y a r e i n h a b i t e d by a l i e n s p i r i t s ( s p i r i t s of f o r e i g n c l a n s and t r i b e s i n " t o l o " , t h e s p i r i t o f t h e ocean i n matakwa) ( I b i d . , p. 1 8 1 ) . Lau s e t t l e m e n t s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s s i m i l a r l y d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o two extreme zones:  t h e women's s e c l u s i o n a r e a , m a a n a b i s i , and  31  the men's s e c l u s i o n a r e a , maanabeu. is sexually neutral. and p l a y g r o u n d  The r e g i o n between t h e two, t h e f e r a  I t c o n t a i n s t h e f a m i l y houses and t h e v i l l a g e p l a z a  c a l l e d the l a b a t a .  t o a l l women and female c h i l d r e n .  The maanabeu i s s a c r e d and abu (taboo) " I t c o n t a i n s t h e a l t a r s , s k u l l p i t s , and  o t h e r v e r y s a c r e d r e l i c s o f t h e c l a n which o n l y a p r i e s t can be i n t o u c h , men's clubhouses  named a f t e r l i n e a g e s and men's l a v a t o r i e s o r "men's p a t h "  ( I b i d . , p. 182).  N e t s , s p e a r s , l i n e s and o t h e r f i s h i n g equipment a r e a l s o  kept t h e r e .  The s i g h t o f a n e t i s taboo t o women.  Men l e a v e t h e maanabeu  t o f i s h and r e t u r n t h e r e t o d e p o s i t t h e i r equipment b e f o r e coming back t o one o f t h e l a n d i n g p l a c e s i n t h e f e r a t o d i s t r i b u t e t h e c a t c h t o t h e i r household.  I was, under t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , u n a b l e t o conduct a study o f f i s h i n g  techniques.  Men would t a l k o p e n l y t o me about f i s h i n g methods, b u t I was  n o t p e r m i t t e d t o watch men f i s h i n g , n o r t o see o r touch n e t s , s p e a r s , o r f i s h i n g gear o f any k i n d .  The men m a i n t a i n e d  poles  t h a t i t would " b r i n g them  bad l u c k " and " r u i n t h e i r chances o f a good c a t c h " i f I c o n t a c t e d o r p a r t i c i p a t e d i n any a s p e c t s o f t h e i r f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s . to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about "taboo"  I t was a l s o d i f f i c u l t  f i s h from t h e men.  The i n f o r m a t i o n  t h a t I have was c o l l e c t e d p r i m a r i l y from women s p e a k i n g w i t h me i n t h e women's a r e a . F i s h a r e abundant i n t h e lagoon and i n t h e a d j a c e n t w a t e r s (open 1 sea).  Catches o f f i s h have f o u r p o s s i b l e d e s t i n a t i o n s :  the h o u s e h o l d o f t h e f i s h e r m a n ; t o be d i s t r i b u t e d 1.  t o be consumed b y  ( i n cases o f s u r p l u s ) t o  E x c l u s i v e o f l a r g e o r d e r s o f f i s h d e l i v e r e d t o h i l l p e o p l e f o r ceremoni a l p u r p o s e s ; c f . (P .'Maranda -1969).  32 1 the h o u s e h o l d s o f l e s s f o r t u n a t e f i s h e r m e n ;  t o be t r a d e d o r s o l d f o r vege-  t a b l e s i n one o f t h e t w e n t y - t h r e e market p l a c e s s c a t t e r e d a l o n g t h e c o a s t o r t o be g i v e n as g i f t s t o h i l l  f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s a t market  time.  As t h e n e u t r a l o r "common" v i l l a g e a r e a , t h e f e r a s t a n d s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e two d i v i s i o n s o r " p o l e s " i n t h e s e x d i c h o t o m i z a t i o n s o c i a l s p a c e , t h e market p l a c e r e p r e s e n t s and  of Lau  t h e zone o f convergence o f h i l l  s e a i n w h i c h f i s h a r e t h e p r i n c i p a l items o f exchange. As i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y t h e Lau a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y a f i s h i n g peo-  ple.  There appears t o b e , on t h e f a c e o f i t , an u n d e n i a b l y c l o s e r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between t h e L a u people and t h e p r o d u c t s and Maranda 1974; Ross 1974). however, i n t r o d u c e s  Information  c o l l e c t e d by P. Maranda ( 1 9 6 9 ) ,  some doubt as t o t h e c e n t r a l r o l e and hence t h e c u l t u r a l  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f f i s h i n Lau l i f e . preferences  rhythm o f t h e sea (E.K.  T h i s d a t a , based on a s u r v e y o f food  and a study o f consumption r a t i o n s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e L a u p r e f e r  t a r o and yam t o f i s h and t h a t t h e i r d i e t c o n s i s t s o f between 900 and 1,300 grams o f v e g e t a b l e s and o n l y 140 grams o f f i s h p e r day. Despite suggests —  t h e apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n t h a t t h e d a t a i m m e d i a t e l y  t h a t f i s h a r e n o t as c u l t u r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a c o l l e c t i o n o f  n a t u r a l organisms t o t h e L a u as one might expect — from t h e Lau i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s  contradiction  information I obtained  i n fact  (antithetically)  r e i n f o r c e s t h e i n t e g r a l importance o f f i s h i n r e l a t i o n t o p e o p l e i n L a u l i f e and thought. I a l s o was informed t h a t t h e Lau p r e f e r t a r o and yam t o f i s h . In a d d i t i o n , I was t o l d t h a t i t was " h i l l " t a r o and yam ( i t o l o ) , marketed 1.  Or t o t h e households o f men who have n o t gone f i s h i n g t h a t day.  33  t a r o and yam (e u s i a ) t h a t they p r e f e r r e d .  Taro and yam from t h e i r own  gardens were regarded as i n f e r i o r and o n l y eaten " i f no h i l l were a v a i l a b l e " o r " i f they were s e r v e d w i t h f i s h " . ous g i f t s o f raw t a r o , yam and kumara — were "good g i f t s because  t a r o or yam  I was g i v e n numer-  a l l o f which i t was emphasized,  they came from t h e t o l o " , from t h e h i l l s .  I was never g i v e n t a r o , yam o r kumara grown i n L a u gardens, u n l e s s i t was cooked and s e r v e d t o me w i t h cooked When I asked why h i l l s u p e r i o r t o the L a u produce,  fish.  t a r o , yam o r kumara were regarded as  I was always  g i v e n t h e answer t h a t they were 1  b i g g e r and they were b i g g e r because ,they came from the h i l l s . q u a l i t y o f t a r o was ever mentioned parison of h i l l  No o t h e r  i n t h i s c o n t e x t ( t h a t i s , i n t h e com-  to L a u t a r o ) , a l t h o u g h o f t h e 28 d i f f e r e n t types of t a r o  named by t h e L a u o f which 18 a r e s a i d to grow o n l y i n t h e h i l l s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t a s t e , growing q u e n t l y as c r i t i c a l to  season and g e n e r a l morphology were invoked  fre-  c r i t e r i a f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t a r o b e l o n g i n g  b o t h o f the c o n t r a s t e d c a t e g o r i e s .  used f o r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i s h  The same c r i t i c a l  c r i t e r i a are  (see below).  I was informed, and I observed m y s e l f , t h a t t h e h i l l women tend to t r a d e t a r o , yam and kumara f o r f i s h and t o s e l l and f r u i t s more f r e q u e n t l y f o r money — 1.  2.  Australian  other vegetables 2 Shillings.  A l t h o u g h I was c o n s i s t e n t l y informed t h a t h i l l t a r o a r e b i g g e r , I c o u l d observe no s y s t e m a t i c s i z e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e produce bought a t the markets and grown by the h i l l p e o p l e , and t h a t from L a u gardens. D u r i n g my s t a y I a t no time observed t h e use o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c u r r e n c y — d o l p h i n t e e t h — f o r t h e purchase o f f i s h o r any o t h e r market item.  34  The  L a u women a l s o seem t o p r e f e r t o o b t a i n t a r o and k a i  t h r o u g h t h e exchange o f f i s h .  One woman, Sousou, i n f o r m e d me one day  t h a t she was s h o r t o f t a r o and t h a t she had t h e r e f o r e i n s t r u c t e d h e r husband t o go f i s h i n g t h a t morning i n o r d e r t o have enough f i s h t o obt a i n t h e 20 a l o she needed.  Upon f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n i n g , I d i s c o v e r e d  t h a t she planned t o t a k e 50 A u s t r a l i a n c e n t s t o market —  more than  enough money t o buy t h e d e s i r e d number o f t a r o had she wished t o do s o . She  t o l d me t h a t " F i s h a r e b e t t e r f o r t a r o and I c a n buy  bananas and tobacco w i t h money ( s e l e n i ) . "  She r e t u r n e d  from t h e market  w i t h 30 c e n t s ; t e n c e n t s were spent on Chinese cabbage, t e n c e n t s on t o b a c c o , f o u r f i s h were exchanged f o r twenty t a r o and two f i s h Cone b a t a ) f o r one hand o f bananas. I t i s my i m p r e s s i o n d i f f e r e n c e between h i l l The h i l l  t h a t t h e r e i s an u n q u e s t i o n a b l e  and L a u t a r o w h i c h i s n o t l i n g u i s t i c a l l y  taro that the Lau obtain  conceptual coded.  ( u n l i k e t h e i r own t a r o ) have  been, i n a l l c a s e s , s o c i a l l y m e d i a t e d b y t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e i r exchange for f i s h .  F i s h emerge as t h e p r i n c i p a l social-cum-economic o p e r a t o r s by  w h i c h n o t j u s t t h e t r a n s f e r o f goods i s a c h i e v e d ,  but t h e i r  transformation  also. The  q u e s t i o n o f t h e c o g n i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between market f i s h  and v e g e t a b l e s w i l l be r a i s e d a g a i n l a t e r b u t , a t t h i s p o i n t , I j u s t w i s h t o s t r e s s t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r a l importance o f f i s h t o t h e L a u  35  n o t o n l y I n an economic o r s o c i a l but i n a s y m b o l i c sense s h o u l d n o t be posed m e r e l y i n terms o f what goods t h e y p r e f e r t o consume o r do consume, b u t i n terms of how t h e y t h i n k about t h e p r o d u c t s and t h e p r o c e s s o f obt a i n i n g t h e goods o f consumption.  36  . CHAPTER 3 RESULTS  P a r t I - The Lau Taxonomic U n i v e r s e I n terms of the c o l l e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s t h e s i s I was  p r i m a r i l y concerned  I found, however, t h a t i t was  w i t h t h e Lau taxonomy o f marine  organisms.  f i r s t n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h the p o s i t i o n of  these phenomena w i t h i n a l a r g e r frame of r e f e r e n c e s i n c e i t was  impossible  t o i n v e s t i g a t e the n a t u r e and t h e p r i n c i p l e s of t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n 1 complete i s o l a t i o n . The d a t a t h a t I managed t o c o l l e c t p e r t a i n i n g t o taxonomic g r o u p i n g s o t h e r than t h o s e d e a l i n g w i t h m a r i n e l i f e  (particularly  fish)  a r e v e r y i n c o m p l e t e and were n o t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d . I m e r e l y w i s h e d , g i v e n the l a c k o f s u f f i c i e n t t i m e , my l i m i t e d l i n g u i s t i c compet e n c e , and t h e number o f o t h e r t a s k s I had t o complete, r e n d i t i o n s and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s g i v e n t o me by my  to r e c o r d the  informants concerning  g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Lau taxonomic u n i v e r s e as they c o n s t r u e i t . Lau c a t e g o r y  i a was  always used as a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t i n these  the The  encounters.  Thus, b e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g the n a t u r e o f Lau e t h n o - i c h t h y o l o g y i n d e t a i l , I s h a l l d e s c r i b e b r i e f l y the s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Lau taxonomic u n i 1.  T h i s e n t e r p r i s e was n e c e s s a r y n o t o n l y f o r my purpose o f a t t e m p t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h l i n g u i s t i c b o u n d a r i e s between groups of n a t u r a l phenomena and f o r my c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s between t h e s e component p a r t s , but f o r the Lau a l s o i n t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f how the domain a s i was d e f i n e d and c o n s t i t u t e d .  37  v e r s e as I came t o understand i t , i n d i c a t i n g i t s p r i n c i p a l components as they were e x p l a i n e d t o As mentioned  me. p r e v i o u s l y , t h e c o n t r a s t between h i l l and  ( t o l o and a s i ) i s a c e n t r a l p r i n c i p l e i n Lau s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n . emerges as the dominant dichotomy l i v i n g organisms.  sea  I t also  i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of almost a l l  A c c o r d i n g to the L a u , f i s h and  'sea p e o p l e ' occupy the  same domain, but a r e not t r u e congeners as t o a i a s i a l s o has a weak, but marked, c o n c e p t u a l l i n k t o t h e domain i m o l a t o w h i c h  'hill  people'  also belong. A c c o r d i n g to one o f t h e two myths of o r i g i n o f t h e a r t i f i c i a l i s l a n d s , t h e s e were b u i l t i n o r d e r t o meet t h e demand f o r f i s h by the mountain p e o p l e . Several i n d i v i d u a l islands are said to have o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e same way: r e e f s were g i v e n t o newcomers from t h e sea by c l a n heads i n the mountains o p p o s i t e , under t h e p r o v i s i o n t h a t t h e i s l a n d e r s would t r a d e t h e i r c a t c h e s for v e g e t a b l e s i n some s p e c i f i c market p l a c e s , and, s p e c i a l l y , t h a t they would s u p p l y the c l a n s of the i n t e r i o r w i t h f i s h f o r c e r e m o n i a l purposes (Maranda 1969). I a l s o was  informed of the v e r y c l o s e a n c e s t r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p  between t h e Lau and t h e h i l l p e o p l e ( s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e B a e l e l e a ) .  The  Lau  t o l d me t h a t they came o r i g i n a l l y from Maanoba, a ' r e a l ' i s l a n d a t t h e n o r t h e r n t i p o f M a l a i t a and t h a t they were o r i g i n a l l y l a n d - d w e l l e r s u n t i l they f l e d t o the Lagoon because o f f e a r t h a t they would become i n v o l v e d ("because they might be harmed") i n w a r f a r e t h a t e r u p t e d between v a r i o u s groups o f B a e l e l e a p e o p l e . stress their individuality. c o n c e r n i n g how  Even d u r i n g r e n d i t i o n s such as t h i s , t h e Lau They r e a c t e d w i t h i n c r e d u l i t y t o my  questions  they knew t h a t they "were Lau" b e f o r e they m i g r a t e d t o the  l a g o o n i f , i n d e e d , they were once i n l a n d d w e l l e r s and now a c q u i r e s e l f -  38  d e f i n i t i o n from t h e i r  'sea e x i s t e n c e ' .  To t h e L a u , t h e s e q u e r i e s were  senseless. The Lau themselves r e p r e s e n t e d  t h e i r u n i v e r s e g r a p h i c a l l y when  e x p l a i n i n g t o me how t h e v a r i o u s domains a r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d .  Figure 3 i s  1 my r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  I n F i g u r e 4 t h e major  domains- and', s u b d i v i s i o n s o f i .the Lau taxonomic u n i v e r s e a r e g i v e n w i t h t h e i r appropriate d e s c r i p t i v e 'glosses' i n English. I was u n a b l e t o d i s c o v e r a s e g r e g a t e t h a t was l e x i c a l l y r e c o g n i z e d a l t h o u g h  f o r domesticated  plants  I was t o l d t h a t t a r o , yam and  kumara a r e n o t r e a l l y . ' a l . "because they a r e n o t k w a s i , ( w i l d ) " . I was a l s o u n a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o k o t o r o , c r o c o d i l e s ; snakes; akwa'akwa,mud hoppers,and any o t h e r t a x o n , a l t h o u g h  malo,  I was i n -  s t r u c t e d t h a t each o f these l i v e s a t ("belongs t o " ) r i v e r mouths between a s i and t o l o .  I encountered s i m i l a r problems w i t h v a r i o u s marine organisms  which I could n o t p o s i t i o n taxonomically.  Ramela, sea cucumbers; b e b e r o ,  s t a r f i s h ; b i b i n u , sea u r c h i n s ; ura, c r a y f i s h ; karu, land crabs; ua, seac r a b s , a r e a l l names f o r n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g organisms f o r which I c o u l d e s t a b l i s h no c o n s i s t e n t l y d e f i n e d taxonomic s t a t u s . ramela, bebero, b i b i n u , u r a , a l l belong  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e women,  to the category k i i k i i ,  shellfish,  a l t h o u g h they were regarded a s c o n c e p t u a l l y d i s t i n c t from o t h e r s h e l l f i s h 1. These drawings were made i n f o r m a l l y by f o u r men as a d e v i c e f o r i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e i r remarks. As they t a l k e d , they would draw w i t h t h e i r hands i n t h e a i r , i n t h e sand o r on p a p e r , t h e g e n e r a l four-component f i g u r e I have reproduced h e r e . . I have taken t h e l i b e r t y t o m o d i f y t h e i r g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s somewhat by i n d i c a t i n g some o f t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s t i t u e n t s of t h e major domains. The men acknowledged t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s o f these i n t e r n a l c a t e g o r i e s i n t h e i r v e r b a l e x p l a n a t i o n s , b u t d i d n o t i l l u s t r a t e them i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y . They d i d n o t , however, o b j e c t t o my r e n d i t i o n . On t h e c o n t r a r y they informed t h a t I was l e a r n i n g q u i t e w e l l ( n i a haitamana a s i ' a n a , "she knows").  39 F i g u r e 3.  A Diagrammatic R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Major Domains and s i o n s o f t h e Lau Taxonomic U n i v e r s e  Taxonomic s t a t u s not •«•••«••  Subdivi-  determined.  C o n c e p t u a l l y v a l i d t a x o n e x i s t s which i s n o t named i n Lau. See text. A g a l o n i a s i , a m a l e v o l e n t s p i r i t i n / o f the sea and baekwa i a s i , a name r e f e r r i n g to the magic of s h a r k s used to overcome t h e d e l e t e r i o u s h i l l magic of baekwa i t o l d , a m a g i c a l h i l l snake, a r e regarded by t h e Lau as b e l o n g i n g t o t h e domain a s i as a r e a l l marine organisms. As t h e Lau s t a t e t h a t b o t h o f t h e s e a r e d i s t i n c t from " l i v i n g " sea c r e a t u r e s t h e i r taxonomic s t a t u s i s i n q u e s t i o n and beyond the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s .  F i g u r e 4:  Major S u b d i v i s i o n s o f t h e Four Domains o f t h e L a u Taxonomic U n i v e r s e English Gloss  Major Subdivisions  English Gloss  Imola  'human b e i n g ' 'person'  toa i tolo toa i a s i  ' h i l l people' 'sea p e o p l e '  Asi  'sea'; 'sea wat er'  toa  Domain  i  asi  unknown  Continued  'hill';'land'  English Gloss  kiikii  shellfish  Approx. 30 major subcategories-not d i s cussed i n t h i s t h e s i s  ' ia  fish  4 major s u b c a t e g o r i e s : k i r i o - dolphins baekwa - s h a r k s fonu - t u r t l e s 'ia - f i s h  unknown  Includes karu, ramela, bebebero, b i b i n u , ua, u r a - see t e x t  'sea p e o p l e '  unnamed  Tolo  Additional Subdivisions  manu i a s i  'sea b i r d s '  toai asi  'hill  ngwa  'creatures that c r a w l on l a n d '  'al  'trees, plants, shrub s'  manu i t o l o  'hill  people' The s u b c a t e g o r i e s o f ngwa,were,not i n v e s t i g a t e d i n d e t a i l . The f o l l o w i n g k i n d s o f o r g a n i s m s , however, were found t o b e l o n g i n t h i s c l a s s : chickens, h i l l t u r t l e s , r a t s , pigs, dogs, c a t s .  birds' 4>O  F i g u r e 4 (Continued  Domain  Manu  . . . .)  English Gloss  Major Subdivisions  English Gloss  manu i t o l o  'hill  manu i a s i  'sea b i r d s  'creatures that f l y ' ; 'birds'; 'flying insects' bird  Additional Subdivisions  English Gloss  42  t h a t a r e (have) karongo, s h e l l s .  According  f o u r organisms were n e i t h e r k i i k i i ,  karongo n o r i a —  t i v e l y r a m e l a , b e b e r o, b i b i n u and u r a . of a " c o v e r t c a t e g o r y "  t o t h e men, however, t h e s e t h e y were  respec-  The p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e e x i s t e n c e  ( B e r l i n , B r e e d l o v e and Raven 1968) o r " c o v e r t  c a t e g o r i e s " encompassing t h e s e organisms i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e , b u t much f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r taxonomic s t a t u s i n r e l a t i o n t o each o t h e r and t o o t h e r forms of m a r i n e  life.  A n o t h e r p o i n t t h a t emerged d u r i n g t h i s c o u r s e of i n q u i r y i s , I f e e l , worth mentioning.  I t i s my i m p r e s s i o n  t h a t k i i k i i and ^ a con-  s t i t u t e a c o n c e p t u a l l y v a l i d taxon t h a t i s n o t named.  There a r e many 1  words f o r "some" i n L a u , many o f w h i c h a r e o r g a n i s m - s p e c i f i c . gwe o r more o f t e n kwe, i s l i m i t e d t o f i s h and t o s h e l l f i s h .  The word T h i s may a l s o  be a f e a t u r e o f Lau male and female s e m a n t i c s as I never heard a man use t h e word i n r e f e r e n c e -gi.  to k i i k i i .  He w o u l d , i n v a r i a b l y , use t h e p l u r a l  I a l s o have t h e i m p r e s s i o n ,  suffix  however, t h a t t h e r e i s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between t h e use o f t h e term "some" i n s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t s  ( t h a t i s , when  i t i s used t o r e f e r t o t h o s e organisms t o w h i c h i t i s l i m i t e d ) and t o t h e i d e a t h a t t h e o r g a n i s m ( s ) named have been c a u g h t , g a t h e r e d , p i c k e d ,  collec-  t e d , e t c . , f o r a purpose ( f o r example, e a t i n g , m a r k e t i n g , d i s t r i b u t i n g and so o n ) . I f t h i s i m p r e s s i o n  i s j u s t i f i e d , men would never use t h e term  gwe i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s h e l l f i s h i n any c a s e , as f o r men, s h e l l f i s h a r e taboo. 1.  I i n c l u d e h e r e words t h a t mean, l i t e r a l l y , " t e n " i n E n g l i s h , b u t t h a t can a l s o be u s e d , i n L a u , t o r e f e r t o "a number o f " s p e c i f i c t h i n g s .  43  As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , much f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , based on a r i g o r o u s l y d e f i n e d and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a p p l i e d p r o t o c o l i s needed t o g i v e  1 an a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  o f t h e Lau taxonomic u n i v e r s e .  I have a t t e m p t e d  h e r e m e r e l y t o p r o v i d e a backdrop t o t h e f o l l o w i n g comments t h a t r e l a t e t o a s p e c i f i c p o r t i o n o f t h i s system.  1.  Such a s t u d y would r e q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n from many d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l spheres i n c l u d i n g myth, economic and s o c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n s , modes o f p r o d u c t i o n and consumption i n a d d i t i o n t o v e r b a l r e n d i t i o n s and r e s ponses t o q u e s t i o n s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t i n g t o taxonomy. A complement a r y s t u d y o f ' h i l l ' f o l k taxonomy would be an e x t r e m e l y v a l u a b l e e n t e r p r i s e as would t h e r e s u l t i n g c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e two systems.  44  1 Lau  ' f i s h ' taxonomy  a t i t s g r e a t e s t d e p t h has s i x d i s t i n c t 2  l e v e l s of i n c l u s i o n , f i v e of which are l e x i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d (see Figure 5). B i o l o g i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n at the species l e v e l (according to M a r s h a l l 1964) was made f o r 230 named Lau f i s h ; 230 Lau names to  correspond  275 b i o l o g i c a l s p e c i e s . 1008 Lau names f o r f i s h were i s o l a t e d i n a l l .  A comprehensive  l i s t o f these names ( i n d i c a t i n g t h e s o u r c e o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n ) i s g i v e n i n Appendix I (Maranda and Maranda 1967-1968) and A p p e n d i x 2 ( T y h u r s t 1975). T a b l e I c o n t a i n s a l i s t o f a l l f i s h named and o r g a n i z e d  into  f i f t h - l e v e l s u b - c a t e g o r e i s by t h e Lau t h a t a r e a l s o i d e n t i f i a b l e i n Mars h a l l (1964). cated.  U n i d e n t i f i e d f i s h b e l o n g i n g t o t h e same c a t e g o r y a r e i n d i -  T a b l e I i n d i c a t e s an a s p e c t o f Lau f i s h taxonomy t h a t may be o f  i n t e r e s t t o some r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s f i e l d , but t h a t i s o u t s i d e t h e scope 3 and t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h i s i n q u i r y :  i n a l l cases b u t two  the boundaries of  Lau s u b - c a t e g o r i e s c o i n c i d e w i t h t h o s e o f t h e F a m i l y l e v e l ( o r t h e SubF a m i l y l e v e l i f such e x i s t s ) d e l i m i t e r s o f b i o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A l l c o n s t i t u e n t u n i t s named by t h e Lau a l s o c o r r e s p o n d biological identification.  t o such s u b - u n i t s o f  Whether o r n o t t h i s observed  correspondence  would be borne out i n a more comprehensive study i s n o t known a t t h i s  time  as t h e r e e x i s t s t o d a t e , no adequate i n v e n t o r y o f Solomon I s l a n d s f i s h . 1. " F i s h " h e r e have been a r t i f i c i a l l y i s o l a t e d a s a taxonomic domain and s h a l l be t r e a t e d as such f o r t h e purposes o f c l a r i t y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f lower l e v e l t a x a . As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , a l t h o u g h s h e l l f i s h c o n s t i t u t e an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t and c l o s e l y r e l a t e d c o g n i t i v e c a t e g o r y , they w i l l n o t be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l a t t h i s t i m e . 2. P r o v i d e d t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d i m p r e s s i o n t h a t k i i k i i and ia c o n s t i t u t e a c o n c e p t u a l l y v a l i d , un-named taxon i s j u s t i f i e d . 3. These two cases a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n .  F i g u r e 5:  Lau F i s h Taxonomy - L e v e l s o f I n c l u s i o n  Domain 1  Asi  taxon  Un-named  2 taxa  3  taxa  4° t a x a  5  kiikii  ia  f onu  baekwa  kirio  fonu ' i a * bulonga* f o n u akwa* fonu b a l a * fonu f a l a t a * f o n u beo*  b. l e l e o * b. l e t o * b. i i i * balenge hara* ani karongo*  kirio  gwaa  robo* unubulu* usulungwalo* taife* robo walade* robo o l o * gaia robo* goumudu*  gwaa200 named hasu* sub-categories 'ia (Tables I , I I tekwa* and I I I ) gwaa*  taxa  * T e r m i n a l Taxon.  ia  35 named classes (Tables I I & III)  Other M a r i n e Organisms (See Ch. 3, P a r t I )  46  P a r t I I - Memory L i s t s As i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f l i s t s o f f i s h names from memory was e f f e c t e d i n response t o two d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f q u e s t i o n s . In t h e f i r s t , i n f o r m a n t s were asked s i m p l y t o r e c a l l a l l t h e f i s h names t h e y c o u l d a t one s i t t i n g . bered.  These were r e c o r d e d i n t h e sequence t h e y were remem-  I n t h e second c a s e , t h e q u e s t i o n , w h i c h was posed a f t e r an i n t e r -  v a l o f a t l e a s t two weeks i n a l l c a s e s , r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e i n f o r m a n t s group 1 the f i s h names i n t o " c l a s s e s " . A t t h i s p o i n t I was aware t h a t some k i n d o f " g r o u p i n g " o f f i s h names i n t o h i g h e r l e v e l t a x a e x i s t e d as I was f r e q u e n t l y informed t h a t f i s h "had two names:  a f i r s t name and a second name."  This information  was a c q u i r e d when I n o t i c e d t h a t t h e f i r s t name o f a f i s h was f r e q u e n t l y used f o r two f i s h t h a t were r e g a r d e d as d i s t i n c t " t y p e s " and I asked how two d i f f e r e n t f i s h c o u l d have t h e same name.  The answer g i v e n was t h a t  t h e y d i d not have t h e same name a l t h o u g h t h e y were t h e same f i s h .  After  my c o n f u s i o n s u b s i d e d , I d e c i d e d t o see i f t h e c l u s t e r i n g I expected t o f i n d d i d i n f a c t e x i s t , i . e . , c o u l d I a s k t h e men t o a r r a n g e t h e f i s h groups a t a l l ?  I f s o , were t h e members o f t h e s e groups  a s s i g n e d by i n c l u s i o n ?  into  unambiguously  T h i r t y - e i g h t such " c l a s s e s " were named by f i v e o u t  of n i n e i n f o r m a n t s ( s e e T a b l e I I ) . Some i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s emerge upon comparison o f t h e "two k i n d s " o f f i s h l i s t s and upon comparison  o f t h e s e names and t h e i r  sequencing  w i t h t h o s e c o l l e c t e d i n s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s by P. Maranda 1967-68. 1. The Maranda 'memory' l i s t s , a l t h o u g h r e c o r d e d i n sequence from t h e i n f o r mants' r e c o l l e c t i o n s were a l s o a r r a n g e d , by r e q u e s t , a c c o r d i n g t o h a b i t a t .  47  The c l u s t e r i n g o f e n t r i e s i n t h e ' u n c l a s s e d ' memory l i s t s i s e x t r e m e l y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e l i s t s a r r a n g e d by c l a s s e s .  An example  might s e r v e t o c l a r i f y t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n . According to the classed l i s t s the category k i r i o  contains,  amongst o t h e r s , t h e f o l l o w i n g : robo unubulu usulurigwalo taife goumudu raa susubora saraibina  gwaa gwaaha.su i a tekwa  In a l l cases i n t h e ' u n c l a s s e d ' l i s t s , t h e s e e n t r i e s a r e l i s t e d  i n t h e im-  mediate environment o f t h e word k i r i o , e:g.: kirio unubulu raa goumudu saraibina susubora gwahaasu  kirio robo unubulu raa usulungwalo taife gwaa i a tekwa  This pattern —  kirio unubulu robo raa taife susubora  unubulu kirio robo raa goumudu gwaahasu  the c l u s t e r i n g o f f i s h i n the 'unclassed'  lists  t h a t a r e r e g a r d e d as members o f t h e same c a t e g o r y i n t h e c l a s s e d l i s t s  —  e x i s t s f o r e v e r y major c a t e g o r y named. The names o f t h e members o f t h e same c a t e g o r y seem t o s e r v e as key words i n t h e i r mutual a s s o c i a t i o n .  The c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h which  this  p a t t e r n has emerged i s , I b e l i e v e , a f i r m i n d i c a t o r t h a t such l o w e r l e v e l c a t e g o r i z a t i o n - does i n d e e d o c c u r .  48  Another i n t e r e s t i n g aspect and hanga, a l i n g a and hau.  concerns t h e c a t e g o r i e s mamada  These a r e t h e o n l y f o u r c l a s s e s t h a t do n o t  correspond to unique " F a m i l y " l e v e l groupings i n b i o l o g i c a l as do a l l o t h e r  i d e n t i f i e d classes within  classification  t h e more i n c l u s i v e taxon i a .  Rather, they d i v i d e t h e organisms c o n s t i t u t i n g one b i o l o g i c a l f a m i l y i n t o two  Lau groups. In the f i r s t  very  case, I was informed t h a t mamada and hanga a r e  s i m i l a r but t h a t a l l hanga tend t o be t h i n and s m a l l and t o have smooth  d o r s a l f i n s whereas mamada a r e t h i c k and have sharp s p i n e s fins. lists  This conceptual  proximity  o f f i s h names (both  informants,  oh t h e i r  dorsal  i s borne out by t h e f a c t t h a t i n a l l t h e  ' c l a s s e d ' and 'unclassed') c o l l e c t e d from Lau  hanga and mamada d i r e c t l y precede or f o l l o w one a n o t h e r . In t h e second c a s e , I was t o l d t h a t hau and mamula were d i s t i n c t  groups which do bear resemblances t o one another, but whose d i f f e r e n c e s , particularly  i n s i z e and markings outweigh t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s :  a l i n g a s m a l l ; hau have two p o i n t e d markings, a l i n g a have one p o i n t e d "short"  ( v e r t i c a l ) markings.  d o r s a l f i n s and " l o n g " and one " f l a t "  1  hau a r e l a r g e ,  (horizontal)  ( b l u n t ) d o r s a l f i n and  U n l i k e hanga and mamada, a l i n g a and hau seem  1 to o c c u r i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f one another i n t h e memory l i s t s . a l i n g a was o m i t t e d a l t o g e t h e r and, a f t e r w a r d s ,  ( I n one case,  t h e i n f o r m a n t , when prompted,  t o l d me t h a t he had " f o r g o t t e n " t o mention i t . ) 1.  F u r t h e r , more s y s t e m a t i c i n q u i r y would be needed t o e x p l o r e t h i s adequately. The q u e s t i o n o f t h e k i n d s o f r e s e a r c h p r o t o c o l t h a t might be a p p r o p r i a t e to o b t a i n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g Chapter of t h i s e x p o s i t i o n .  49  F o l l o w i n g t h e same l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g apparent c o n c e p t u a l  as above, perhaps the  independence i n d i c a t e d by t h e h i g h v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e  o r d e r o f r e c a l l o f c e r t a i n named c a t e g o r i e s i s a l s o a measure o f t h e i r cognitive discreteness.  50  P a r t I I I - "Non-taxonomic" Terminology  In a d d i t i o n to the t e r m i n o l o g y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a r i o u s k i n d s of p l a n t s and groups of p l a n t s ( i . e . , s p e c i f i c , g e n e r i c and l i f e form category names), each language has a s u b s t a n t i a l l e x i c o n of b o t a n i c a l terms which, a l t h o u g h perhaps r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n to one or two types of p l a n t s , cannot be c o n s i d e r e d as h a v i n g taxonomic s t a t u s . (Turner 1974: p. 65) T h i s argument, t h a t the naming of an organism a c c o r d i n g of growth, s t a t e , sex, seems to me  to be  The centric.  e t c . , does not  c o n s t i t u t e a taxonomic  model upon which t h i s assumption i s based i s perhaps ethno-  In E n g l i s h , a s i n g l e named c a t e g o r y  c o n s i s t i n g of named, morpho-  a l s o be d i v i d e d up a c c o r d i n g  common to a l l the c o n s t i t u e n t organisms.  'a k i n d of h o r s e ' , i n the same way 1974: The  p. two  to d i f f e r e n c e s  Hence, i n E n g l i s h (and  i n o t h e r , but not n e c e s s a r i l y a l l l e x i c o n s ) , "A  (Turner  classification  misdirected.  l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r organisms may  be  to stage  colt  possibly  c o u l d not be  t h a t an A p p a l o o s a i s  s a i d to  a k i n d of h o r s e "  66). p r i n c i p l e s of a taxonomic s t r u c t u r e —  i n c l u s i o n of r e f e r e n c e  and  organization  the d i s c r e t e n a t u r e o f c o n s t i t u e n t c a t e g o r i e s  (the l a t t e r b e i n g v i o l a t e d i n the above example) both e x i s t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f i s h a c c o r d i n g  to sex,  s i z e and  stages  ' d i v i d i n g - u p the u n i v e r s e '  i n the  Lau  of growth.  Whether a c o l t i s a k i n d of h o r s e i n the same way Guernsey i s a k i n d of cow  by  that a  i s a problem c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of our method of into taxonomically  equivalent kinds  of u n i t s ,  —  51  not one n e c e s s a r i l y common to the d i v i s i o n o f t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d taxonomic  i n t o named  entities. D i s t i n c t i o n s made between c o n s t i t u e n t s o f major s u b d i v i s i o n s o f  the c a t e g o r y and  i a ( a c c o r d i n g to l i f e  stage, s i z e , sex, e t c . ) a r e d i s c r e t e  unambiguous i n t h e same way t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e made a c c o r d i n g to " t a x -  onomic" c r i t e r i a i n Turner's  use o f the term.  The f o l l o w i n g example i n  which both k i n d s o f d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e made may serve t o i l l u s t r a t e point.  this  ( T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was g i v e n i n response t o my q u e s t i o n i n g o f how  the v a r i o u s k i n d s o f muu were d i s t i n g u i s h e d . ) muu muu n i f u r a i muu s i o alaga kurumusi  c l a s s name black mainly white m a i n l y w h i t e and b l a c k over the whole body s m a l l a l a g a b u t head s h o r t , l o o k s l i k e f a l a t a (head), b i g g e r than k a k a r a i muu when v e r y s m a l l , young when muu n i f u r a i i s " t o o s m a l l " but b i g g e r  kakarai babao  than  kakarai  K a k a r a i a r e j u v e n i l e muu n i f u r a i , muu s i o and a l a g a .  Kakarai,  though s m a l l and s e a s o n a l a r e o f s i g n i f i c a n t market v a l u e as they a r e f l e s h y , v i r t u a l l y boneless  and as they  j u v e n i l e s o f many o t h e r f i s h . by  t h e women i n t h e markets.  They a r e 'packed' i n bamboo tubes and s o l d Kurumusi and babao a r e c o n s i d e r e d  l i t t l e market v a l u e due t o t h e i r s i z e 'bata'  s c h o o l i n g r e a t numbers u n l i k e t h e  t o be of  (4-6") u n l e s s they a r e cooked i n  ( l o t s ) and s o l d o r t r a d e d i n t h a t way.  The prime r e f e r e n t of  k a k a r a i i s muu, t h e " k i n d s " o f k a k a r a i a r e unimportant and seldom  recog-  nized:  when asked what c a t e g o r y kurumusi belonged t o , I was always t o l d  "muu".  A kurumusi i s a s m a l l a l a g a , b u t t h e prime r e f e r e n t o f kurumusi  52  i s s t i l l muu.  I n t h e same way, a babao i s a s m a l l muu n i f u r a i , b u t i t 1  i s f i r s t a muu. Other c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s a r e i n s e p a r a b l e from s i z e , growth s t a g e , sex, e t c . i n t h e assignment o f f i s h t o s p e c i f i c o f c r i t e r i a l a t t r i b u t e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  categories.  The s u b j e c t  later.  I n t h e case o f mamula, c r i t e r i a f o r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t i t u e n t s were:  stages o f growth a c c o r d i n g t o s i z e , d i s t i n c t  morphology and t a s t e ( a c c o r d i n g t o t h e L a u i n f o r m a n t s ) .  f i s h ( P l a t e #30, #233) was c a l l e d modomu. g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e , I was informed  c o l o u r changes,  Information  l e c t e d by E. Maranda on t h e b a s i s o f M a r s h a l l i l l u s t r a t i o n s , F i s h #233, P l a t e #30 Cardux emburyi a s mamula.  o f con-  col-  identifies  I was t o l d t h a t t h e same  Upon q u e s t i o n i n g t h e t e r m i n o l o -  t h a t modomu was. indeed a mamula, b u t  t h a t t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n was u n q u e s t i o n a b l y  o f a modomu because o f t h e d i s t i n c t  c o l o u r a t i o n and t h e head shape o f t h e f i s h p i c t u r e d .  I was a l s o  informed  t h a t these f e a t u r e s ( c o l o u r and head shape) were "not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f mamula a t t h e modomu growth s t a g e and s i z e . "  1. 2.  T a b l e I I I g i v e s a d d i t i o n a l examples o f f i s h d i s t i n g u i s h e d by s e x , s i z e , s t a g e s o f growth. The f i s h i l l u s t r a t e d i n M a r s h a l l has a r e p o r t e d l e n g t h o f 21 i n c h e s . Modomu, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e L a u , i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2-3 f e e t i n l e n g t h .  TABLE I :  TABLE OF FISH CATEGORIES (MAJOR SUBDIVISION  OF TAXON _^IA) AND CONSTITUENT UNITS IDENTIFIABLE IN  MARSHALL  LAU NAME  FAMILY:  Bubu  Marshall Plate Sequence  bubu i d a i bubu b a b a l u bubu b u b u l u bubu kekedea  458** 459 461 462  Unidentified:  (458-463)*  Trigger  Genus  Species  Common Name  Balistes Balistes Balistapus Balistes  conopicillium fuscus undulatus rotundatus  b i g spotted t r i g g e r f i s h y e l l o w spotted t r i g g e r f i s h redlined trigger f i s h spotted t r i g g e r f i s h  (256-268)*  Butterfly  longirostris ocellatus auriga vagabundus lineolatus aureofasciatus trifacialis acuminatus  longbill butterfly fish six-spined butterfly f i s h threadfin butterfly f i s h criss-cross butterfly fish lined butterfly fish golden-striped b u t t e r f l y f i s h right-angled b u t t e r f l y f i s h feather-fin bull-fish  (210-213)*  Emperor  mahensa nebulosus chrystostromus fletus  y e l l o w - t a i l e d emperor spangled emperor s w e e t - l i p emperor r e d - f i n n e d emperor  BALISTIDAE  Bubu kwao, Bubu k o n i  bebe  FAMILY: CHAETODONTIDAE SUB-FAMILY: CHAETODONTINAE  bebefakatekwa bebe t a t a f i r i o g o u bebe adekwalao bebe f a k a s u s u bebe i f u r a i f o n u bebe gogoa bebe takwa bebe sulukwakio  258 260 261 262 263 265 266 268  suru  FAMILY: LUTJANIDAE SUB-FAMILY: LETHRININAE  s u r u gou suru h a o l a i s u r u kekedea suru f o t o b a l a  210 211 212 213  Unidentified:  fishes  Forcipiger Parachaetodon Chaetodon Chaetodon Chaetodon Chaetodon Chaetodon Heniochus  Lethrinus Lethrinus Lethrinus Lethrinus  fishes  fishes  s u r u akwaro, suru kekero, suru taabou, suru i matakwa, suru a g a l o , hatamela, goufu, ngwango  TABLE I (Continued)  (386-398)*  Mullets  Mugil Mugil Mugil Mugil Mugil  georan tade crenilabis ramsayi diadema  f a n t a i l mullet tade m u l l e t warty-nosed m u l l e t ramsay's m u l l e t basket m u l l e t  gogouru  FAMILY: ANT ENNARIIDAE NO SUB-FAMILY  (493-497)"  Angler  gogouru abakoa gogouru abakoa moulu gogouru gwiagwia  494 495 496 497  bougainvillii striatus moluccensis muscosus  smooth a n g l e r s t r i p e d angler black angler harlequin angler  (404-427)  S u b d i v i s i o n of mailfishes  cardinalis gnamensis bynoeusis volitans zebra horrida elongatus  red s c o r p i o n cod guam s c o r p i o n cod marbled c o r a l cod red f i r e f i s h zebra f i r e f i s h stone f i s h sandpaper f i s h  kalua  FAMILY; MUGILIDAE NO SUB-FAMILY  k a l u a goma n i o n e kalua"* kalua"' k a l u a unu tada kalua"'  387 389 394 395 396  Unidentified:  eluelu  Unidentified:  kwaibia,  Histiophryne Antennarius Antennarius Tathicarpus  fishes  gogouru n o f u  gwiagwia  FAMILY:  gwiagwia gwegwe" gwiagwia ngwangwaeso" gwiagwia gogouru gwiagwia i n a d i gwiagwia"* gwiagwia"" gwiagwia n o f u "  404 407 406 410 411 416 424  SCORPAENIDAE  Ruboralga Scorpaenodes Sebastapistos Pterois Brachirus Synanceja Adventor  TABLE I ( C o n t i n u e d ) hau  FAMILY: SCOMBRIDAE NO SUB-FAMILY  hau roomaa hau g w a r a f e t a hau'" hau g e l a hau" * hau f a r a m e l a  339 342 343 344 345 346  Unidentified:  Rasrelliger Gymnosarda Luthynnus euthynnus Cybiosarda Neothunnus  FAMILY: SCOMBRIDAE NO SUB-FAMILY  alinga bulu" alinga"" a l i n g a bokofu"  349 350 352 alinga  Scomberomorus Scomberomorus Scomberomorus  and m a c k a r e l s  kanagurta nuda pilamis deletteratus elegans macropterus  long-jawed m a c k a r e l s c a l e l e s s tuna bonito l i t t l e tuna Watson's b o n i t o P a c i f i c y e l l o w - f i n n e d tuna sangata  (349-354)  Tunas and makerels  commerson queenslandicus semifasciatus  narrow-banded makerel \ Queensland s c h o o l m a k e r e l broad-banded m a k e r e l  (317-319)  Parrot fishes  vaigensis spinidens fasciatus fasciatus  marbled p a r r o t f i s h half-toothed parrot f i s h surf parrot f i s h surf parrot f i s h  faalu  mara  FAMILY: CALLYONTIDAE NO SUB-FAMILY  maelafu" mona babali koso +  317 318 319 319  Unidentified:  Tunas  hau i n i t o , hau m a l i f u , hau k a k a l e , hau mela, f i l u f i l u ,  alinga  Unidentified:  (339-348)  Leptoscarus Cryptotomus Callyodon Callyodon  mona t a d a , s i s i l e mara, f o e f o e , m a g a l i a a l a  TABLE I (Continued)  FAMILY: LABRIDAE NO SUB-FAMILY  hanga  hanga hanga hanga hanga hanga hanga  bualafa *ia h a h a f a " bubulua" n i one" i malau gwaila"  Unidentified:  Hemigymnus Cheilie Anampses Novaculichthys Chelinus Chelinus  303 310 311 312 313 314  FAMILY: LABRIDAE NO SUB-FAMILY  mamada hanga" mamada 'ia kekedea" mamada eno"  302 301 300  melapterus inermis geographicus taeniourus f as.ciatus undulatus  black-eyed t h i c k l i p sharp-nosed wrasse s c r i b b l e d wrasse bar-cheeked wrasse s c a r l e t b r e a s t e d wrasse hump-headed wrasse  Wrasses, rainbow f i s h e s , pig fishes Stethojulis Psendolabrus Labroides  strigiventer guntheri dimidiatus  l i n e d rainbow f i s h Giinther's rainbow f i s h blue-streak  (168-173)  Sea basses and r o c k cods  bifasciatum fasciatus tauvina merra  y e l l o w emperor b l a c k - t i p p e d r o c k cod e s t u a r y r o c k cod honeycomb rock cod  mamada ubu one, mamada f a k a s u s u  ulafu  FAMILY:  ulafu u l a f u kekero ulafu a f i l u ulafu rafua  168 170 171 173  Unidentified:  Wrasses, rainbow f i s h e s , pig fishes  hanga mamada, hanga keketo  mamada  Unidentified:  (300-314)  SERRANIDAE  u l a f u h a d a i , u l a f u haga  Diploprion Epinephelus Epinephelus Epinephelus  TABLE I (Continued) ORDER:  baekwa  SELACHII  Sharks  baekwa" baekwa i i i " baekwa g o u l o " baekwa l e l e o " Unidentified:  03 019 020 Talenge h a r a , a n i karougo  kirio Subcategory  Galeidae Sphridae Oreledolobidae  Name g i v e n to 7 b i o l o g i c a l species - d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Solomons unknown galeocerdo cuvier T i g e r shark Sphrus l e w i n i hammerhead shark N e b r i u s c o n c o l o r tawny s h a r k  D o l p h i n s , P o r p o i s e s , Whales (not i l l u s t r a t e d i n M a r s h a l l ) I  Common Name  kirio robo unubulu taife goumudu raa susubora Unidentified:  D a l l ' s P o r p o i s e , Commeisous D o l p h i n Round Head P o r p o i s e , R i g h t Whale D o l p h i n Common D o l p h i n La P l a t a D o l p h i n Harbour P o r p o i s e Mangrove D o l p h i n Mangrove D o l p h i n saraibina,  usulungwalo  Subcategory I I gwaa gwaahasu o r gwaasasu i a tekwa  Gray Whale Whale Dugong  TABLE I (Continued)  fonu  Turtles Common Name  fonu i a " fonu i a bulonga Unidentified:  Green t u r t l e Hawksbill t u r t l e Leatherback fonu akwa, fonu b a l a , fonu f a l a t a ,  C h e l o n i a Mydas Chelonia Imoricata Dermochilys C o r i a c e a fonu beo  *  Numbers i n parentheses correspond t o t h e r e f e r e n c e numbers o f a l l f i s h (both those i l l u s t r a t e d and those d e s c r i b e d o n l y i n t e x t ) t h a t a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e F a m i l y i n d i c a t e d ( M a r s h a l l : 1964).  **  Numbers c o r r e s p o n d to those f i s h i l l u s t r a t e d  "  B l a c k and w h i t e i l l u s t r a t i o n s  i n M a r s h a l l and i d e n t i f i e d  by the Lau i n f o r m a n t s . .  o n l y a v a i l a b l e i n M a r s h a l l (1964) as b a s i s f o r Lau.  No o t h e r Lau name g i v e n . +  No p r e c i s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n made, b u t f i s h named i s regarded by t h e Lau as b e i n g very s i m i l a r t o , but d i s t i n c t f r o m , f i s h i l l u s t r a t e d i n M a r s h a l l .  Notes: B i o l o g i c a l  identification  See t e x t f o r d i s c u s s i o n .  o b t a i n e d e x c l u s i v e l y from d a t a c o l l e c t e d by Maranda and Maranda 1967-1968.  59  TABLE I I : SUBCATEGORIES OF UPPER LEVEL TAXON IA OBTAINED FROM INFORMANTS' 'CLASSED' MEMORY LISTS (ALPHA-SORTED)*  1.  aifatarao  2.  alia a l i a bora a l i a bala unudola angafa a n g a f a kedea a n g a f a gougou s a r u angafa ' i t o  3.  alinga alinga bulu a l i n g a bokofu alinga faalu  4.  ba'aa ba'aa b u l u menamena alagala maeto maeto i d a i maeto tabakau bolo belefa u b a l i sau  5.  baekwa baekwa l e l e o baekwa l e t o baekwa i l l talenge hara a n i karongo  6.  bebe bebe bebe bebe bebe bebe bebe bebe bebe  fakatekwa tatafiriogou adekwalao fakasusu i f u r a i fonu gogoa tekwa sulukwakio  7.  bilau bilau kilakila i a n i 'one f ailu kwasi kweo  8.  bokofu boubou b o k o f u i matakwa ngidubola faa f a a mai nara rereo isi'isi o'oto susu one isi'ofu unu'unu niginigi doo i a l o  9.  bubu bubu i d a i babalu fahato bubu i a s i bubu b u b u l u bubu kekedea bubu kwao bubu k o r u  10.  daafi d a a f i 'afu d a a f i fonu e l u akwa maelafu  11.  doru  TABLE I I (Continued) 12.  fonu fonu i a bulonga fonu akwa fonu b a l a fonu f a l a t a f o n u beo  19.  13.  geru  20.  14.  gogouru gogouru a l b k o a abakoa moulu gogouru gwiagwia gogouru n o f u  21.  kalua k a l u a goma n i ' o n e k a l u a unu t a d a kwaibia eluelu  15.  gwareo kwaikwai r a u abuni  22.  16.  gwiagwia gwiagwia gwiagwia gwiagwia gwiagwia gwiagwia  kirio_I robo unubulu usulungwalo taif e robo walade robo o l o g a i a robo boumudu  gwegwe ngwangwaeso gogouru inadi nofu  17.  hale malifu rau ' a l i t e  18.  hanga hanga hanga hanga hanga hanga hanga hanga hanga  19.  hau hau hau hau hau  gwaila bualafa ni'one i a hahafa i malau mamada kekero bubulua  roomaa gwarafeta gela faramela  (Continued) hau i n i t o hau m a l i f u hau k a k a l e hau mela filu filu sangata i a bua  kirio I I gwaa ~ gwaahasu - gwaasasu i a tekwa 23.  mamada mamada hanga mamada i a kekedea mamada eno mamada f a k a s u s u  24.  mara mara d i k w a f i s i s i l e mara moua moua t a d a koso babali burasi amera foefoe m a g a l i 'a a l a maelafu  TABLE I I (Continued)  25.  matasi matasi f o u ragaraga foukwai aga f o l o tolibaranga eno lae maf u gou mae o alo rae balibila ukauka malagwaila gwaila fakaebua kekefe'ulu guli boa mara i ' i l e magali 'a'ala gofala gofala'inomae  26.  modomu ma l a modomu g u r i modomu bora b o r a usiliae liutafa  2 7.  muu muu s i o muu n i f u r a i alaga kurumusi kakarai babao  28.  nara nara nara nara nara  bulu kwao fouboso f a k a tekwa  29.  ooa ooa ume ume ume ume  n i kwaru kweo bora hango takwalao  30.  raemae raemae i malau raemae i n i t o raemae sulubuu raemae t e t e r e ' u o  31.  rido akwasi mai  32.  rora r o r a i malau r o r a i matakwa  34.  sifo - sisifo  35.  suru suru t a a bou s u r u akwaro suru h a o l a i s u r u agalo hatamela suru gou suru kedea gouf u maa s u l u a ugwango fotobala bilu alakwaga goutoli aani ni'one  36.  tataso  37.  uala romaa mama kwai  62  TABLE I I (Continued)  37.  (Continued) maosi buma f a r a n a d i - uka kefo alifou gougou r a d a  38.  *  ulafu ulafu ulafu ulafu ulafu ulafu  rafua haga bebero kekero haolai  A l l t h e c l a s s e s l i s t e d h e r e were named by f i v e ouf of n i n e i n f o r m a n t s . Members o f these c l a s s e s r e p r e s e n t a summation of a l l those f i s h named by t h e s e i n f o r m a n t s .  63  TABLE I I I : FISH DISTINGUISHED  BY SEX, L I F E STAGE, SIZE, ETC.  C l a s s Name  Mamula  Family Mugilidae  Genus u n i d e n t i f i e d  Approx. Lengths ali uugu edaeda ululusiae modomu oroliu Criteria:  Kukurubulu  1- 2 2- 8 8-12 1- 2 2- 3 3- 8  inches inches inches feet feet feet  S i z e changes i n l i f e s t a g e s o f growth, d i s t i n c t changes, morphology, t a s t e  C l a s s Name  Gwaila ( o l d e r name)  colour  Genus u n i d e n t i f i e d  Approx. Lengths rarsifou kurubulu oba kukurubulu - gwela Criteria:  2 2- 3 3- 4  f e e t max. feet feet  3  feet  S i z e , s i z e changes i n growth, t a s t e  C l a s s Name  111  Family Carapidae  Sphyraena j e l l o P i c k handled b a r r a c u d a  Approx^ Length mamalito ono basaula Criteria:  Under .1 f o o t 1- 2 feet 2- 3 feet S i z e and c o l o u r changes d u r i n g growth,  taste  64  TABLE I I I ( C o n t i n u e d )  Mara  C l a s s Name  b a b a l i (male & female)  Family Callyontidae Callyodon fasciatus  Surf p a r r o t  fish  b a b a l i (male) B u r a s i - Amera b a b a l i (female) Malogwaila Criteria:  Sex, morphology,  colour  Note:  M a r s h a l l n o t e s t h e marked d i f f e r e n c e i n g e n e r a l morphology and c o l o u r between t h e two sexes o f t h i s s p e c i e s  Kirioa  C l a s s Name  robo  R i g h t whale d o l p h i n , h a r b o r p o r p o i s e  Dolphins & Porpoises  Size robo o l o robo walade g a i a robo  S m a l l e s t robo " t a k e s one man t o beach robo ' o l o " L a r g e r t h a n robo o l o " t a k e s f o u r men t o beach robo walade" L a r g e r than robo walade " t a k e s t e n - t w e n t y men t o beach g a i a robo"  65  CHAPTER 4  I n t h i s f i n a l c h a p t e r , -I s h a l l r e t u r n t o some o f t h e p o i n t s a l ready o u t l i n e d and d i s c u s s some i m p o r t a n t a r e a s o f f u r t h e r  investigation  a r i s i n g from t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y study o f L a u f i s h taxonomy. These p o i n t s w i l l be f o r m u l a t e d i n terms o f q u e s t i o n s and p r o p o s i t i o n s r a t h e r than d e f i n i t i v e statements about v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e m a t e r i a l a t hand.  The f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e  t o p i c o f semantic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , o f problems o f d e f i n i n g t h e c r i t e r i a l a t t r i b u t e s u n d e r l y i n g Lau taxonomy. of f u r t h e r study and a n a l y s i s .  The second s e c t i o n e x p l o r e s avenues  Features I t s h o u l d be c l e a r t h a t t h e s e ' f e a t u r e s ' or semantic a r e n o t i n themselves m i n i m a l a s p e c t s or u n i t s of meaning.  dimensions  Each  dimension  i s but an a x i s a l o n g w h i c h meaning s h i f t s , and meaning emerges on each dimension when (and o n l y when) i n a p p r o p r i a t e c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h s p e c i f i c v a l u e s a l o n g a t l e a s t two o t h e r axes o r d i m e n s i o n s . can be c o n s i d e r e d o p e r a t o r s on which o p e r a t i o n s may  These d i m e n s i o n s , take place —  then,  opera-  t i o n s w h i c h a r e e x p r e s s i o n s of r e l a t i o n s h i p , n o t i r r e d u c i b l e u n i t s of meaning. Indeed, a s e a r c h f o r m i n i m a l l y m e a n i n g f u l u n i t s more than t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l d e s i g n forms themselves  fundamental  i n a g r a p h i c system  such  as t h e S o u t h e a s t e r n Nubas as has been shown, f r u i t l e s s - l i k e s e a r c h i n g for  t h e 'meanings' of phonemes, as i t were.  t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between meaning —  " I t i s the c a t a l o g u e o f  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s —  n o t i r r e d u c i b l e u n i t s o f meaning" ( F a r i s , 1972:  t h a t we  cri-  seek,  99).  The problems f a c i n g t h e a n a l y s t i n h i s s e a r c h f o r t h e  critical  semantic f e a t u r e s o f taxonomic systems a r e v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e a r t i c u l a ted  above.  I f one a c t i v e l y s e a r c h e s f o r m i n i m a l l y m e a n i n g f u l u n i t s the  i m p o s i t i o n o f p r e - e x i s t i n g e t h n o c e n t r i c d i s t i n c t i o n s i s a c o n s t a n t danger. I f one e x p e c t s n a t i v e i n f o r m a n t s t o a r t i c u l a t e and c l e a r l y d e f i n e these u n i t s t h e y f r e q u e n t l y do n o t appear..  Those who  are p r a c t i t i o n e r s of a  c u l t u r a l code do n o t o f t e n v e r b a l l y a r t i c u l a t e i t s c r i t e r i a l  features a l -  67  though they can u s u a l l y agree to t h e i r adequacy (or inadequacy) once p r e 1 sented w i t h them. Many w r i t e r s i n t h i s a r e a have r e c e n t l y p o i n t e d out t h a t t a x o n o mic systems a r e as t h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i l l i n d i c a t e , n o r m a l l y of much g r e a t e r c o m p l e x i t y than i s suggested by the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f s i m p l e b i n a r y c o n t r a s t s between f e a t u r e s commonly c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the work o f some s t u d i e s i n 2 t h i s area 1970;  ( L e v i - S t r a u s s , 1963;  B e r l i n , Breedlove  C o n k l i n , 1962;  and Raven, 1970,  B o t h e x p l i c i t ethnomodels and  1971;  1962;  Berlin,  Lounsbury, 1964).  the i m p l i c i t p r i n c i p l e s on which  they a r e based a r e w e l l w o r t h i n v e s t i g a t i n g — h a r d to get and hard t o get a t .  F r a k e , 1961,  but they a r e s i m i l a r l y , b o t h  The n o t i o n s o f the e x i s t e n c e of t h e s e  two  ' t y p e s ' of model i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y p r o d u c t i v e , but i n terms o f p r a x i s , they t e l l us n o t h i n g about how  i t i s p o s s i b l e 1) t o e l i c i t and 2) t o  recognize  them.  1.  2.  By " p r e s e n t a t i o n " I am not j u s t r e f e r r i n g t o the a c t i v i t y of t h e f i e l d r e s e a r c h e r , but a l s o to an a c t i v i t y t h a t t a k e s p l a c e amongst the people t h e m s e l v e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when the taxonomic s t a t u s o f an o b j e c t comes into question. I n the a p p l i c a t i o n of b o t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and c o m p o n e n t i a l a n a l y s e s .  68  Upper L e v e l Taxa I n the case of Lau  ' f i s h ' taxonomy, a c u l t u r a l l y a c c e p t e d  and  agreed-upon s e t o f f e a t u r e components has emerged by w h i c h i t i s p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y the c l a s s e s , i . e . , upper l e v e l t a x a and t h e i r d i v i s i o n s , to which various f i s h  belong.  The  e l i c i t i n g and d i s c o v e r y of t h e s e f e a t u r e s w i t h i n the  lexi-  c a l l y coded f o l k c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n v o l v e s the most f o r m i d a b l e t a s k s of a s k i n g the r i g h t k i n d s of q u e s t i o n s , s e e i n g enough organisms about w h i c h to ask t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , and  being present i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s i n which  spontaneous d i s c u s s i o n s about these a t t r i b u t e s a r i s e amongst t h e  people  themselves. I d e a l l y , one would l i k e t o be a b l e t o a s k what a r e t h e m i n i m a l l y necessary  f e a t u r e s f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r organism; w i t h i n  a s p e c i f i c t a x o n j i d e a l l y one would l i k e to be a b l e to uncover a l l the semantic  dimensions n e c e s s a r y  t o e f f e c t a s h i f t i n meaning i n the taxonomic  u n i v e r s e and a s s i g n f e a t u r e a t t r i b u t e v a l u e s . case t o u n d e r t a k e a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n  I t was  i m p o s s i b l e i n my  o f a l l the components o f Lau  taxo-  nomic system. The  f e a t u r e s d i s t i n g u i s h e d a t the upper taxonomic l e v e l s , i . e . ,  a t the l e v e l s of d i s t i n c t i o n s between haekwa, k i r i o , f o n u ,  i a and between  major c l a s s e s o f ' i a can be, and a r e d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f the presence and absence o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s , of a " b i n a r y c o n t r a s t " between complement a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n many c a s e s .  The  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e l i s t s the features  69  of c r i t i c a l importance t o t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f o u r main s u b - d i v i s i o n s of a s i .  These a r e d e r i v e d from i n t e r v i e w s w i t h male i n f o r m a n t s  i n which I  asked them t o e x p l a i n t o me how they r e c o g n i z e d members o f each o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s and how they t o l d them a p a r t . Feature  C a t e g o r y Name  Lau  English  Kirio  Baekwa  lifo manga babanga bobona e'efo suu  teeth spout gills dorsal f i n scales to breach  + + +  + +  sidu aba  turtle shell arms t u r t l e penis  c o l o u r mentioned as important f e a t u r e  'Ia  Fonu  ± + + + + + +  -  -  +  -  . k i r i o , baekwa and ^ _ i a appear t o be r e l a t e d by t h e presence o r absence o f c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s c o n s t i t u t i n g a d i s c r e t e s e t .  f o n u , however, does  not seem t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h i s s e t a t a l l , b u t r a t h e r i s defined according  t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h r e e unique c h a r a c t e r s .  My  informants  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e c o u l d be no problem i n i d e n t i f y i n g a t u r t l e i n any c a s e , as a l l t u r t l e s l o o k e d from a l l o t h e r  s i m i l a r and were shaped q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y  fish.  A similar  ' k i n d ' o f d i s t i n c t i o n , made a c c o r d i n g t o t h e presence  or absence o f c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s , was made i n e x p l a n a t i o n s t o me c o n c e r n i n g  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t f i s h belonging  offered  to the  70  major c l a s s e s o f  i a . I was n o t a b l e t o conduct a comprehensive s u r v e y o f  the f e a t u r e s o f a l l named c l a s s e s b u t o f those I d i d i n v e s t i g a t e a p a t t e r n seems to emerge.  The f o l l o w i n g i s an example. C l a s s Name  Feature Lau  Suru  English  agali tekwa bobona ffaka 1 [tekwa f Chgoran |tekwaJ fkiikiiuuna\ (tasia J  +  round long dorsal f i n  5iong\  Bebe  +  '  Iii  Kalua  + +  + +  +  (mouth)  Tlongl  +  IjioseJ Cv-shaped1 {tail f i n j  +  +  +  Coloured  +  A l l p e o p l e c o n s u l t e d , b o t h men and women, seemed t o be a b l e t o agree on t h e g e n e r a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l specimen i n terms o f one o f the named c l a s s e s .  The women, d e s p i t e t h e i r marked l a c k o f i n t e r e s t  i n t a l k i n g t o me about f i s h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n everyday  s i t u a t i o n s became  much more w i l l i n g t o d i s c u s s t h e s e m a t t e r s p r i o r t o m a r k e t s , as t h e y p r e pared t h e f i s h , s o r t i n g some i n t o ' l o t s '  (bata).  They i d e n t i f i e d t h e f i s h  as they wrapped them i n l e a v e s , p o i n t i n g t o each i n d i v i d u a l specimen and c a l l i n g i t by name.  I asked them how they s o r t e d t h e f i s h i n t o l o t s , t h a t  i s , how t h e y d e c i d e d w h i c h f i s h i n the c a t c h belonged ways g i v e n the same response:  together.  I was a l -  f i s h were s o r t e d a c c o r d i n g t o s i z e and t a s t e .  F i s h t h e y r e g a r d e d as " t o o s m a l l " t o s e l l o r t r a d e i n d i v i d u a l l y were grouped together f i r s t .  F i s h t h a t were s a i d t o be "good t a s t i n g " were then d i v i d e d  71  from t h o s e thought t o be bony o r l e s s t a s t y .  Good t a s t i n g f i s h were s o r t e d  i n t o b a t a , t h e number i n each l o t depending on t h e s i z e o f each fish.  individual  L e s s d e s i r a b l e f i s h were a l s o p u t t o g e t h e r and f r e q u e n t l y t h e s e would  be eaten by t h e h o u s e h o l d o r by t h e women on the way t o market. Women always i d e n t i f i e d t h e f i s h a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r c l a s s names. S p e c i f i c names were never used, even i n cases such as mamula, a c l a s s o f f i s h c a t e g o r i z e d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e men, by s i z e and growth s t a g e .  Fish  b e l o n g i n g t o d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s were s a i d t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d because  they  e i t h e r belonged t o g e t h e r o r t h e y d i d n o t i n terms o f t h e two p r e c e d i n g criteria.  A s u r u , I was a d v i s e d , was so c a l l e d because i t t a s t e d good,  l i k e a k a l u a , b u t tended t o be s h o r t e r and more bony than a mamula. and i l l , fish.  Mamula  I was t o l d , were always s o r t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f any o t h e r c l a s s o f  Muu c o u l d be grouped w i t h any o t h e r k i n d o f f i s h a v a i l a b l e as they  were s a i d t o be g e n e r a l l y s m a l l and f a i r l y good t a s t i n g . The p a t t e r n t h a t emerges h e r e a g a i n concerns t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f two d i s t i n c t b u t i n t e r r e l a t e d semantic systems amongst t h e Lau —  one male and one female.  Men and women b o t h r e c o g n i z e t h e same  taxonomic b o u n d a r i e s i n t h e case o f f i s h , b u t d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s a r e s a i d t o be d i f f e r e n t .  A more thorough and l e n g t h y s t u d y o f f i s h naming  p r a c t i c e s would be r e q u i r e d b e f o r e any d e f i n i t i v e statement c o u l d be made concerning these p a t t e r n s .  I f e e l , however, t h a t t h e r e i s enough e v i d e n c e  to w a r r a n t such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n and t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n i s o f i n t e r e s t n o t o n l y i n t h i s c o n t e x t , b u t i n terms o f any study h o p i n g t o d i s c o v e r t h e r u l e s underlying cognitive processes of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  72  Lower L e v e l Taxa As i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s between lower o r d e r t a x a (which a r e c o n s i d e r e d h e r e to be t e r m i n a l t a x a i n terms of t h e e n t i r e taxonomic scheme), i s made almost e x c l u s i v e l y by men.  The  distinctive  f e a t u r e s of i n d i v i d u a l f i s h r e g a r d e d as b e l o n g i n g t o t h e same c l a s s a r e g e n e r a l l y of the same k i n d as those used t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between t h e c l a s s e s themselves.  There i s one i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e , however, t h a t emerges upon  comparison between t h e two l e v e l s o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  At t h e c l a s s  level,  d i s t i n c t i o n s appear t o be made a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r e s e n c e o r absence o f a number o f c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s .  A t the l e v e l o f t e r m i n a l t a x a , d i s -  c r i m i n a t i o n s a r e made n o t a c c o r d i n g t o b i n a r y d i s t i n c t i o n s but a c c o r d i n g t o r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s e f e a t u r e s :  f o r example —  bebe t a t a f i r i o g o u  i s s a i d to be rounder than bebe i f u r a i f o n u but not as round as bebe gogoa. Bebe i f u r a i f o n u has a l o n g e r mouth t h a n bebe gogoa but not as l o n g as bebe  adekwalao o r bebe f a k a tekwa.  Bebe t a t a f i r i o g o u i s s a i d to have a  l o n g d o r s a l f i n but n o t as l o n g as bebe adekwalao.  Bebe s u l u k w a k i o . i s  r e g a r d e d as h a v i n g a d o r s a l f i n l o n g e r than bebe adekwalao but a s h o r t e r tail fin.  Bebe f a k a susu i s s a i d to be l o n g e r than bebe gogoa but not as  l o n g as bebe tekwa.  A l l bebe a r e s a i d t o t a s t e s i m i l a r but d i s t i n c t a c c o r d -  i n g t o v a r y i n g degrees of f l e s h i n e s s and t e x t u r e .  They a r e a l l s a i d t o be  c o l o u r f u l , but some a r e more c o l o u r f u l than o t h e r s , some a r e s t r i p e d , some more o r l e s s t h a n o t h e r s .  As i n t h e case o f f e a t u r e s i n v o k e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h  between c l a s s e s , t h e s e r e l a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a cannot be h i e r a r c h i c a l l y r a n k e d , n o r reduced t o m i n i m a l u n i t s of meaning.  73  A c l a s s of f i s h i s d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g  t o a complex m a t r i x  of  r e l a t i o n s between d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s , an i n d i v i d u a l f i s h a c c o r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s between r e l a t i o n s between d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s .  to  T h i s has  impor-  t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s i n terms of t h e p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of methods such as c o m p o n e n t i a l and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s t o such m a t e r i a l . t i a l and  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e the manipulation  Both componenof d i s c r e t e  u n i t s of meaning. A c o m p o n a t i a l d e f i n i t i o n of f i s h c l a s s e s may p r i s e due  be a f e a s i b l e e n t e r -  t o t h e b i n a r y n a t u r e of d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s —  but  one n o t h i n g beyond i n f o r m a t i o n conveyed by t h e d a t a i t s e l f .  i t would Not  tell  only that,  as a method, c o m p o n e n t i a l a n a l y s i s would impede i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o t h e n a t u r e of d i s t i n c t i o n s between t e r m i n a l t a x a b e l o n g i n g such b i n a r y d i s t i n c t i o n s a p p a r e n t l y  to t h e same c l a s s as  do not e x i s t i n the Lau  taxonomic system.  An a l t e r n a t e approach t h a t has been developed f o r t h e purpose of c o n d u c t i n g s t u d i e s of complex c o g n i t i v e systems i s put f o r w a r d by W. gan.  I n a h i g h l y t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n , Geohegan (1971) p r e s e n t s  Geohe-  an a x i o -  m a t i c t h e o r y of semantic domains by t r e a t i n g them as c o d i n g r u l e s , t h a t i s , sequenced d e c i s i o n s about the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of s e m a n t i c f e a t u r e s i n t h e cogn i t i v e p r o c e s s of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n .  A l t h o u g h I w i l l not d i s c u s s t h i s  a t l e n g t h h e r e , I w i s h t o p o i n t out s e v e r a l of the advantages t h a t  theory I  see i n Geohegan's approach i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e o t h e r two methods I have a l r e a d y considered. .)  Geohegan t r e a t s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n as a c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g c o n c e p t u a l o p e r a t i o n s by w h i c h c e r t a i n o b s e r v a b l e e n t i t i e s a r e handled c l a s s i f i e d rendering  them i n t e l l i g i b l e t o t h e i r u s e r s .  The  other  and  two  74  approaches d e a l o n l y w i t h t h e 'end-products' and t h e ' s t i m u l i ' (the o b s e r v a b l e e n t i t i e s )  (the a c t u a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ) involved i n the construction  o f a taxonomic scheme. The n e c e s s a r y p r o p e r t y o f t h e e q u i v a l e n c e o f taxonomic s t a t u s between terms i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i s n o t a problem i n Geohegan's approach.  A c a t e g o r i z a t i o n p r o c e s s i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s case by a  network o f ' d e c i s i o n s ' made on;the b a s i s o f t h e correspondence of correspondence  or l a c k  between an e n t i t y and t h e p r o p e r t i e s o r s e t o f p r o -  p e r t i e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e a category.  T e r m i n a l t a x a would thus be  the end p r o d u c t s o f such o p e r a t i o n s o r s e r i e s o f o p e r a t i o n s .  Other  t a x a would r e p r e s e n t i n t e r m e d i a t e nodes, o r s t e p s , " s t a t e s " , i n t h e decision  process.  Redundancy i s n o t a problem i n Geohegan's approach e i t h e r , as r e c u r s i v i t y of language r e p r e s e n t s a f u n c t i o n i n i t s own r i g h t . C a t e g o r i z a t i o n can be r e p r e s e n t e d as a p r o b a b l i s t i c , process.  I n o t h e r words, t h e semantic  range o f a term i n , f o r example,  the environment o f another c o u l d be a s s e s s e d . to c l a r i f y  this point.  not deterministic  An example might h e l p  I n t h e case o f L a u f i s h taxonomy ( a c c o r d i n g t o  the p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s o f t h i s t h e s i s ) , a l l t u r t l e s a r e i a ( t h e upper l e v e l taxon) b u t no t u r t l e s a r e i a ( t h e lower l e v e l s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h e same t a x o n ) .  I t might be p r o d u c t i v e t o l o o k a t t h e f r e q u e n c y  of t h e use o f s p e c i f i c l a b e l s i n terms o f c e r t a i n s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c t e x t s and word environments.  con-  When a man c a t c h e s t u r t l e s and o t h e r  f i s h does he say t h a t he has so many f i s h o r so many t u r t l e s and f i s h , o r so many t u r t l e s and so many k i n d s o f f i s h ?  I n o t h e r words, what i s  75  t h e prime r e f e r e n t of t u r t l e ? a d i s c r e t e category, baekwa, k i r i o and Despite  or i s i t m e r e l y a term f o r a l l f i s h t h a t a r e  fonu?  e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t p o i n t t h a t he c o m p l e t e l y  one must f i r s t  a c q u i r e the r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n .  o p i n i o n , the most i m p o r t a n t problem t h a t now  does one  not  fails  I n o r d e r t o o f f e r a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a p r o c e s s or of compo-  nent o p e r a t i o n s i n my  i a (as a l o w e r l e v e l taxon) r e a l l y  t h e s e advantageous a s p e c t s o f Geohegan's s e t - t h e o r e t i c  s t r u c t u r e t h e r e i s one t o mention.  Is  This i s ,  f a c e s the a n a l y s t .  How  go about c o l l e c t i n g d a t a not o n l y c o n c e r n i n g the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  named c a t e g o r i e s but a l s o a t t e m p t i n g of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n ?  t o d i s c o v e r something about t h e r u l e s  Word a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t s might be u s e f u l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g  t h e degree of a s s o c i a t i o n of c o n c e p t s and as s u c h , p r o v i d e an assessment  1 o f s e m a n t i c c o n g r u i t y between c e r t a i n key words chosen by t h e The  researcher.  d i s c o v e r y of d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o r p r o p e r t i e s of s p e c i f i c  presents  an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t problem.  categories  Q u e s t i o n s such as t h o s e posed i n  t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y attempt to e s t a b l i s h some of t h e d e f i n i n g f e a t u r e s of c a t e g o r i e s might be p r o d u c t i v e  fish  i f a p p l i e d on a l a r g e r s c a l e a n d , i f they i n v o l v e d  a l a r g e r more s t r a t i f i e d i n f o r m a n t sample. Some a d d i t i o n a l problems mentioned e a r l i e r t h a t , i n my  opinion,  s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l a r e as f o l l o w s : 1.  The  p o s s i b i l i t y of the e x i s t e n c e of two  d i s t i n c t but  inter-  r e l a t e d s e m a n t i c systems (one male and the o t h e r female) i n t h e naming o f 1. The 'memory l i s t s ' d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y can, I f e e l , be r e g a r d e d as a t y p e of word a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t i n which the problem of the e t i c s e l e c t i o n of key words i s not a t i s s u e . The t r o u b l e w i t h r e l i a n c e on t h i s k i n d o f d a t a , however, i s t h a t one, n e c e s s a r i l y , imposes l i m i t s to the f u l l e x p l o r a t i o n of a semantic domain.  76  marine organisms s h o u l d be e x p l o r e d .  T h i s would r e q u i r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n  u s i n g two samples o f i n f o r m a n t s d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g t o sex.  The same r e -  s e a r c h p r o t o c o l would have t o be u t i l i z e d i n each c a s e , t h e r e s u l t s r e corded and a comparison made.  A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e form o f  statements made by t h e people c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r own v i e w o f t h e s e p a t t e r n s as w e l l as d a t a r e s u l t i n g from o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e a c t u a l use o f terms o f r e f e r e n c e i n s o c i o - l i n g u i s t i c c o n t e x t s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d . 2.  The taxonomic s t a t u s o f many named marine organisms r e c o r d e d  i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s study has n o t been e s t a b l i s h e d . t i o n o f t h e s e s h o u l d be conducted.  A d d i t i o n a l organisms c o m p l e t e l y un-  e x p l o r e d a t t h i s time s h o u l d be examined. seaweeds c l a s s i f i e d ?  Further investiga-  For example, how a r e c o r a l and  One would e x p e c t , on t h e b a s i s o f p r e l i m i n a r y i n f o r -  m a t i o n , t h a t t h e s t r o n g c o n c e p t u a l l i n k t h a t we make between c o r a l ,  sea-  weed and l a n d ( c o r a l a s r o c k - l i k e , seaweed a s p l a n t - l i k e ) would be o v e r r i d d e n by t h e s t r o n g nomic u n i v e r s e . 3.  d i c h o t o m i z a t i o n between t o l o and a s i i n t h e L a u t a x o -  T h i s , however, remains t o be e s t a b l i s h e d .  A f u r t h e r i n q u i r y into the a t t r i b u t i o n of d i s t i n c t i v e f e a -  t u r e s t o marine organisms a t v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f s p e c i f i c i t y —  particularly  those d e a l i n g w i t h m o r p h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c o l o u r — conducted  by a s k i n g t h e L a u people themselves  t a t i o n s o f a number o f s p e c i f i c organisms.  t o produce v i s u a l  might be represen-  Such drawings c o u l d then be  compared t o v e r b a l e x p l a n a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n c e s between same. 4.  A complementary study o f B a e l e l e a e t h n o ^ i c h t h y o l o g y might be  u s e f u l n o t o n l y f o r comparative  purposes,  b u t , i n t h e c o n t e x t o f market be-  havior,- such an i n q u i r y might s e r v e t o f a c i l i t a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  ;  77  a r t i c l e s o f exchange. That i s , .for, example, i f B a e l e l e a v e g e t a b l e s  a r e t o ' 'sea'  1 vegetables  ( t o t h e Lau) as Lau f i s h a r e t o ' h i l l '  s p e c u l a t i o n s as t o t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s  f i s h (to the Baelelea)  further  o f o b j e c t s by s o c i a l exchange m i g h t ;  be w a r r a n t e d . I n b r i e f summary, t h i s t h e s i s has been an attempt t o c o n s o l i d a t e p r e - e x i s t i n g data  (concerning  some a s p e c t s o f Lau m a r i n e taxonomy) and  t o o f f e r some p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s .  The major domains and s u b d i v i s i o n s o f  the Lau taxonomic u n i v e r s e have been p r e s e n t e d of l o w e r o r d e r t a x a .  as have a c e r t a i n number  The q u e s t i o n o f t h e e l i c i t a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f  d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s has been r a i s e d . o u t l i n e d and b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d . t i o n i s scarcely a beginning. q u s t i o n s and answered none.  C e r t a i n p r o p o s i t i o n s have been  The t o p i c i s a v a s t one and my i n v e s t i g a I have found t h a t i t has g e n e r a t e d many  I t i s my hope, however, t h a t some o f t h e p r o -  blems r a i s e d a t t h i s time can be and a r e w o r t h f o l l o w i n g t o t h e i r completion  i n the future.  I t i s my s i n c e r e d e s i r e t o be a p a r t i c i p a n t i n  t h i s endeavour.  1.  F r e s h w a t e r and f r e q u e n t l y s a l t w a t e r f i s h a r e as e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e t o the h i l l p e o p l e i f they c a t c h them t h e m s e l v e s , as a r e L a u d o m e s t i c vegetables t o the sea people.  78  BIBLIOGRAPHY  B e r l i n , B., (1971). S p e c u l a t i o n s on t h e Growth o f E t h n o b o t a n i c a l Nomenclature. Working Paper No. 29, Language-Behavior Research L a b o r a t o r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a , 51 p. c i t e d i n T u r n e r , Nancy Jean, 1974, P l a n t taxonomic systems and ethnobotany o f t h r e e contemporary I n d i a n groups o f t h e P a c i f i c Northwest, S y e s i s 7, p. 29. B e r l i n , B., D. B r e e d l o v e and R. L a u g h l i n , (1970). L e x i c a l R e t e n t i o n and C u l t u r a l S i g n i f i c a n c e i n T z e l t a l - T z o t z i l Comparative Ethnobotany. 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APPENDIX I I  A l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t i n g o f Lau f i s h names i d e n t i f i e d by t h e Lau from M a r s h a l l (1964) i l l u s t r a t i o n s and c o m p i l e d by T y h u r s t (1975).  APPENDIX I I I  Photographs o f a d d i t i o n a l f i s h i d e n t i f i e d by t h e L a u belone'in~ t o u p n e r I f v e l t a x o n ' l a and o f o t h e r marine organisms named — • taxonomic s t a t u s undetermined.  83  APPENDIX I  84  L I S T OF LAU F I S H NAMES ( M A L A I T A , SOLOMON F I N A L COPY AS OF 2 8 V I I 1 9 7 5  ISLANDS)  A L P H A B E T I C A L L I S T I N G OF L A U F I S H NAMES AND A D D I T I O N A L I N F O R M A T I O N I N C L U D E D A C C O R D I N G TO THE FOLLOWING N U M E R I C A L CODES AND C O R R E S P O N D I N G FIELD IDENTIFICATIONS. CODE/FIELD  SUB-CODE  INFORMATION  FIRST ENTRY  LAU NAME  2  ENGLISH "COMMON NAME" ACCORDING TO SOURCE GIVEN UNDER CODE 4  3  "SYSTEMATIC" NAME ACCORDING TO SOURCE GIVEN UNDER CODE 4  4  SOURCES: A SOURCE OF INFORMATION CONTAINED UNDER CODES * FIRST ENTRY* TO *3» MARSHALL PAGE # HA1STEAD PAGE # WEBSTER PAGE # FROM MARANDA & MARANDA FIELD F I L E CARDS FROM MARANDA 6 MARANDA FIELD F I L E CARDS; SLIDE OR PHOTOGRAPH AVAILABLE FOX IAU DICTIONARY  4M# 4H# 4H# 4C 4CS 4F 5 FIELD FORMAT: 5 L DIGIT HABITAT  85  SOURCES: B INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM INFORMANTS' MEMORY L I S T S OF FISH TYPES * 5 ' INDICATES CODE OR F I E L D ' D I G I T INDICATES PAGE I N FIELD NOTES AND LOCATION OF INFORMANT (1,2 = ULUFERA; 3,4,5 = ATA'A; 6,7,8 = FOUSDA) 1  6  INFORMATION GIVEN REPRESENTS EN ENGLISH "COMMON NAME" AS AN EQUIVALENT FOR THE LISTED LAU NAME BUT NC FORMAL SOURCE OF THIS TRANSLATION I S AVAILABLE  FIELD FORMAT: 7 K XX YY YY YY 0 DIGITS  SOURCES: C INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM L I S T S COMPILED IN T H F I E L D CONCERNING THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF FISHES CAUGHT AND I D E N T I F I E D BY THE INFORMANTS AND RECORDED BY MARANDA & MARANDA  »7« INDICATES CODE OR FIELD »K» INDICATES THAT INFORMATION I S FROM THE INFORMANTS• "CATCH L I S T " •XX' GIVES INFORMANTS' LOCATION: FO = FOUEDA, FF = FUNAFOU, SF = SULUFOU •YY YY YY* GIVES DATE IN DAY, MONTH, YEAR 'O' GIVES F I S H S I Z E ( S I Z E X,Y,Z, AND SHELLS) S I Z E (ACCORDING TO AUSTRALIAN CURRENCY) X= 5/Y» V Z= 10 FISHES FOR 1/S= SHELLS •DIGITS' GIVE NUMBER FISHES PER TYPE PER DATE 8T 9  FISH NAMES WITH RITUAL OR TABU SIGNIFICANCE REFERENCE: TOATA, 3 PAGES; CF. HANDWRITTEN NOTE ADDITIONAL INFORMATION E X I S T S I N ORIGINAL DATA  FIELD FORMAT 9 X DIGIT  8 6  •9' INDICATES CODE OR F I E L D 'X» GIVES ONE OF THE SOURCE-SYMBOLS OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: L = MEMORY L I S T S , K = CATCH L I S T S , C/CS = CARD F I L E S WITH/HITHOOI SLIDE/PHCTOG RAPH DIGIT INDICATES PAGE ON SOURCE L I S T S 10  "RELATED" NAMES OF LAU F I S H TYPES AND CROSSREFERENCES GIVEN BY VARIOUS INCLUDED SOURCES  11  LAU F I S H NAMES OCCURING I N R I D D L E S C O L L E C T E D Bl E L L I MARANDA IN 1 9 6 6 - 1 9 6 8 ; * FOLLOWING CODE »1' CORRESPONDS TO THE S P E C I F I C A L L Y ASSIGNED R I D D L I NUMBER #FITAU2 2BOBING MOLLUSC I N MANGROVE SWAMPS3-4FT.LONG 3KUPHUS 4F# • AD A'ADA 2A CENTIPEDE-LIKE CREATURE ON THE REEF 4F •AFU 2 GREEN SEAWEED,5 OR 6 FEET LONG 4F •AIFURU 4F 'AKWA 4F •AKWA 4F •AKWANGO 2YELLCW-FIN BREAM 3MYLIO ADSTRALIS 4M221,F 5L1AA6MATAKWA •ALAUO 4F •IME 2SP MOLLUSC, TRIDACNA SP ARE AEUABULI,DOLO K I K I 4F •MANEBA 2SP J E L L Y FISH CF KWAIRABU 4 F AA 2BLUE-BANDED SEA PERCH 3L0TJAN0S KASMIRA 4M197 5L7AA4AA AA'O 4F AABEAABE 4F AAFA 4F AALANO 5L4AA AALOKWAGA 5L6MATAKWA AANINGNI 5L6 MATAKW A AARABA 2HEART SHELL 3ISOCARDIA COR 4W994 AARAGWALA 4CS AATU 2TOP SHELL 4W2619 5L10 AAOALITE 5L6MATAKWA ABEKOA 5L6AA 4F ABUNI 2BLUE-BANDED SEA PERCH 3LUTJANUS KASMIRA 4M197 5L4AA7AA ABUNI 5L2H ADOMA 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 1 1 0 A F A L I 4F AFILU1 2BULLRCUT 3NOTESTHES ROBUSTA 4M408 5L1AA4AA7AA A F I L U 2 2ESTUARY ROCK COD 3EPINEPHELUS TAUVINA 4M171 1  A F U » U 7KSF10/06/68Y6 AFU*U AFU'U  7KSF11/O6/68Z20 7KSF12/06/68Y6  AFU'U 7KSF12/06/68Z10 AFU'U 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 AGOFOLO 5L6AA AI*FATARAA 7KFF06/05/68Y 10AEA*I* FOUEDA AIFATARAO 2SP BLACK FISH WITH R E P T I L I A N HEAD 4F AIFATOBAO 5L7AA AIGO 5L4AA A I L A I DAI 5L4AA A I N I N I U = A I N I U 2SP FISH 4F 5I6AA AINIU=AININIU 2SP F I S H 4F AKWA NIABA 2TRUMPETER PERCH 3PELATES QUADRILINEATUS 4M184CS 5L4AA7AA6MATAKWA AKWA'AKIA 5L2AH 4F AKWASIMAI 4CS 5L6MATAKWA  AKWASIMAI 5L2H ALAGA 2SP SEAWEED 4F ALAGALO 5 L 8 F A F 0 I L E ' ALAHAA 2SCARLET-FIN SOLDIER-FISH 3H0L0CENTRUM SPINIFERUM 4M142 5L3FAFOILE7AA ALAKWAGA 2SP FISH TABOO TO MAN SUFFERING FROM DIPTHERIA 4F ALAMAMU 5L6AA ALASAA 4F ALASU 5L4AA ALATE BARO 2HEBRING TREVALL Y 3CARANX KALLA 4M234 ALAUO 4F A L I UBERE 2GOLDEN TREVALLY 3CARANX SPECIOSUS 4M236 5 L 3 F A F O I L E A L I 5L2AH ALIA I KAFU 5L7AA ALIA 2HUMP-HEADED MAORI-WRASSE 3CHEILINUS UNDULATUS 4M314,F 5L6 MATAKWA ALIA 7KSF10/06/68X4 ALIA 7KSF11/06/68X2 ALIA 7KSF13/06/68X3 ALIFOU 2AUSTRALIAN PILCHARD 3ARENGUS NEOPILCHARDUS 4M77 ALIKAFO 5L1AA ALIKAFU 5 L 1 F A F O I L E ALIMANGO 2LARGEST SP CRAB, FOUND CN OUTER REEF, BLACK 4F ALINGA BOKOFU 5I6MATAKWA ALINGA BULU 5L6MATAKWA ALINGA FAALU=ALINGE FAALU 2SP LARGE FISH WITH REDDISH FINS AND T A I L , RHOMBU ALINGA FAAIU= ALINGE FAALU 5 L 8 F A F O I I E ALINGA 2SCALELESS TUNA 3GYMNOSARDA NUDA 4M342CS 5L3FAFOILE6MATAKWA ALINGA 7KSF10/06/68X2 ALINGA 7KSF11/06/68X1 ALINGA 7KSF13/06/68X2 ALINGE FAALU 7KSF10/06/68X3 ALINGE FAALU 7KSF11/06/68X5 ALINGE FAALU 7KSF12/06/68X2 ALINGE FAALU 7KSF13/06/68X2 ALINGE FAALU 7KSF14/06/68X3 ALINGE=ALINGA 4CS ALOA RAE 2SURF PARROT-FISH 3CALLYODON FASCIATUS 4M319 5L6AA6MATAKWA ALOSA 4F ALULU 4F 5L1AA ALULU 5L7AA ALUMUMU 5L6AA ALUSA 2SP F I S H 4F 5 L 1 F A F O I L E ALUSA 2SP FISH 4F 5L6MATAKWA AMERA 5L6AA 7KSF14/06/68Y12 ANAFA 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 ANGAFA IFO 2SCARLET-BREASTED MAORI-WRASSE 3CHEILINUS FASCIATUS 4M313 ANGAFA ITO 2HARLEQUIN TUSK-FISH 3LIENARDELLA FASCIATUS 4M292 5L7AA ANGAFA KEKERO 5L7AA ANGAFA OOLC 2M0CN WRASSE 3THALASSOMA LONARE 4M309 ANGAFA 4CS 7KSF11/06/68Z10 ANGAFA 5L1AA ANGAFA 5L6AA ANGILI 5 L 1 F A F O I L E A N G I I I 5L6MATAKWA ANOFI*AE 2SP. MOLLUSC 3NERITA BREVISPINA4F10DOKOFI'AE ARABA 2C0CKLE 3CARDIUM EDULE 4W428 ARAGWALA 5L7AA ARAKAO 5L7AA ARERE 7KSF13/06/68Y12Z20 ARERE1 2BLUE TUSK-FISH 3CHOEBODON ALBIGENA 4M295,F ARERE2 2VENUS TUSK-FISH 3CH0EB0DCN VENUSTUS 4M294  iRODO 5L6AA VSAUNGA 5L6MATAKWA \U 2PORCUPINE FISH 3TRAGULICHTHYS JACULIFERUS 4M483,F \U1U 5L2H iULUMAEO 5L2H iUSUSU 2TU1I SHELL 4W2619 5110 iUSUSOU 2UNICOEiN SHELL 3 I A T I R U S OR 1EUCOZONIA CINGULATUS 4iW2241 &USUU TEKWA 2TULIP SHELL 3FASCIOLARIA TOLIPA 4W2619 3A AA=MENA MENA 2SDRGEON F I S H 4H86,F 9C BA'AA BULU 5 1 8 F A F O I L E 3A * AA  NI FULA  5L4AA  3A•AA 7KFO13/06/68Y2 3A'AA 7KSF10/O6/68Y21 3A' AA 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 5 3A'AA 7KSF12/06/68Y5 3A'AA 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 1 7 BA'AA 7KSF14/06/68X16Y36 3AABABA 5L6MATAKWA 3ABA AU 5L4AA 3ABALI B I L A 4F 5L6AA 3ABALI 2SP DEEP SEA F I S H 4F 7KFF27/04/68Y 3ABALU SP. 2EUAMENA SUBSP. 4F,CS 5 L 8 F A F O I L E 8T 9SP OF LARGE AND BABALU 7KSF10/06/68Y2 3ABAO 5 L 8 F A F O I L E 3AE HANGO 5L4AA 3AE K E K E S I 5L4AA 3AE  5L4AA  88  DANGEROUS DEE  3AEKWA I ASI (TOLO) SEA SNAKE 2SP GWOULO,KAFISORO,LELEO,MANGEO,MELEO,RARASIFC BAEKWA IA K i l l 11R659 3AEKWA 2A SHARK 4F 3AEKWAILI 5L7MATAKWA 3AEKWALETO 5L7MATAKWA 3AHAULA1 2SN UB-NOSED GARFISH 31RRHAMPUS SCLEROLEPSIS 4M112 5L7AA 3AHAULA2 2STRIPED BARRACUDA 3SPH3YAENA OBTUSATA 4M382 3ALA I TOLO 2YELLOW SPOTTED ROCK COD 3EPINEPHELUS AREOLATUS 4M168 3ALA 2HAWKSBILL TURTLE 3CHEL-ONIA IMBRICATA 4«990,F BALA 2LOGGERHEAD 3CARETTA CARETTA 4W1270 BAROBARO 2PAPER NAUTILUS 3ARG0NAUTA ARGO 4W1560 BASAULA 2NAME FOR.SWORDFISH ( I L I ) AT CERTAIN STAGE OF GROWTH 4F 10 I I I BEBE 2BUTTERFLY F I S H 3C.H AETODON EPHIPPUM 4F/W363 5L1AA3AA7AA BEBE ABEKOA 5.L7AA BEBE ADEKWE I LAO 2THREADFIN BUTTERFLY-FISH 3CHAETODON AURIGA 4M261 BEBE ADIBWALAO 5L7AA3AA BEBE FAKATEKWA1 2 BEAK ED CORAL-FISH 3CHELJ30N RO STRATUS MARGINALLS 4M256 BEBE FAKATEKWA2 2LONG-BIL1 3FCRCIPIGER LONGIROSTRIS 4M258 BEBE FURAI FONU 5L7AA3AA BEBE KEKERO 2GOLDEN-STRIPED BUTTERFLY-FISH 3CHAETODON AUREOFASCIATUS 4M265 BEBE NASA 2LGNG-BILL 3FORCIPIGER LCNCIROSTRIS 4M258 BEBE NI FUEAI FONU 2 L I N E B BUTTERFLY F I S H 3CHAETODON LINEOLATUS 4M263 BEBE 0 OLO 2CRISS-CROSS BUTTERFLY-FISH 3CHAETODGN VAGABUNDUS 4M262 BEBE TATAFIRIOGU 2 S I X - S P I N E D BUTTERFLY-FISH 3PARACHAETODON OCELLATUS 4M260 BEBE TEKWA 2RIGHT-ANGLED BUTTERFLY-FISH 3CHAETODON T R I F A S C I A L I S 4M266 BEBERA GWASU 2FIVE-BANDED SURGEON-FISH 3ACANTHDRUS TRIOSTEGUS 4F,M328 BEBERIGWASU 7KSF12/06/68Z10 BELAFA 4F 5L1AA BELEFA 2SP SMALL F I S H STRIPED YELLOW AND BLACK 5L4AA BELEFA 2SP SMALL FISH STRIPED YELLOW AND BLACK 5 L 8 F A F O I L E BEO 2SP TURTLE 4F BERAGWASU 2SP SMALL FISH 4F 5 L 8 F A F O I L E BERAGWASO 2SP SMALL FISH 5L2AH  3ESAKAI  CARDINAL  FISH  11R408  BERAKAI 2BLACK-FINNED CARDINAL 3EREREGSASU 7KSF11/06/68Z10 31BI 7KSF11/06/68S15  2BLACK-FINNED  FISH  3AP0G0N  3IBILA 3IBINU  2CARDINAL 11R23,486  FISH  3AP0GGN  BIBINU BIBINU  2SEA URCHIN 3T0X0PNEUSTES 7KF011/06/68S10  BIBINU  7KSF10/06/68S20  BIBINU  7KSF10/06/68S20  BIBINU BIBINU  7KSF11/06/68S70 7KSF12/06/68S70  BIBINU  7KSF13/06/68S38  FASCIATUS  FASCIATUS  ELEGANS  BIBINU 7KSF14/06/68S72 B.IBINU=BINU 2SEA URCHIN 11R486 B I I N I MALAU 2BYNOE,S GOBI 3AMBLYGOBIUS BILADAU 5L7AA BILAU  I  BILAU  KEKERO  MALAU  BILAU  KILAU  3ILAU  4F  2CORAL  COD  BOE  4M14:9,F  5L1AA4AA6AA  4M150,F  5L1AA4AA6AA  4H50  BYNOENSIS MACULATUS  4M358 4F,M174  5L4AA6MATAKWA  5I6MATAKWA 5L6MATAKWA  5L1AA  BILAU 7KSF11/06/68X2 BILAU 7KSF12/06/68X4 BILAU 7KSF14/06/68X2 3ILU=B.ILU I MALAU 4F BINU 3INU  3PLECTROPOMUS  AT R I P E S  5 L 6 MAT AKWA  7KF010/G6/68S34 7KFG11/06/68S7 NI  FOU  2STARS  30E N I BOE 4F 30KOFU 30KOFU BOKOFU  FOU  2STARS-AND-STPIPES  AND  STRIPES  11B511  TOAADC TOADO  3TETRAODON  HISPIDUS  4M479  514 A A  11B 2 1 9 , 3 7 6 2GARFISH 11R376 2GARFISH 4C,F  BOKOFU • I KAFO BOKOFU=BUKOFU BOKORU 2 S P OF  2BLACKSPOT LONG 2SP GARFISH 4F FISH 4F  BOLO  I  BOLO BOLO BOLO  I TOLO 2YELLOW 2SP SMALL FISH 5L6AA  MATAKWA  2INKY  BLACK  SP  TOM  OF  3TYLOSURUS  BOLO  STRONGYLURUS  4IT10 3  4F  S P O T T E D ROCK COD 3EPINEPHELUS AREOLATUS APPEARING FOR 3 MONTHS 4 F 5 L 1 A A  4M168  5L4AA6AA  BOLO 7 K S F 1 2 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 BORABORA 4 F 5L6MATAKWA BORABORA 7KFO11/06/68X1 BORABORA 7KSF13/06/68X2 BGRBORA 7KSF10/06/68X2 BOU 8T BOUBABA 5L6MATAKWA BOUBOU 5L6MATAKWA BOUBU  4CS  3UAMARA BUAMENA  9SPECIES  OF  BOKOFU  511AA3AA6MATAKWA  5L4AA7AA 5L7AA  BUBU BUBU BUBU BUBU BUBU  BULU 4CS,F 9C I DAI 2BIG-SPOTTED I MATAKWA 2 S P O T T E D KORU 5L7AA KWAO 4 F  BUBU BUBU BUBU  L A MATAKWA 511AA 5L2AH  BUBU  7KF011/06/68S83  2SPOTTED  TRIGGER-FISH TRIGGER-FISH  TRIGGER-FISH  3BALISTES CONSPILLICUM 4M458 5 L 8 F A F O I L E 3CANTHIDERMIS ROTUNDATUS 4M462  3CANTHIDERMIS  ROTUNDATUS  4M462  3UBU 7KSF14/06/68Z10 BUKOFU=BOKOFU 2S.P GARFISH 3ULA=BUII=.B0IISI 2WHITE COWRIE SHELL 30VULA OVU1UH 4F BULI 2SHELL 30V0.LA 0VU.LUM 4F 301.1 2WHITE COWRIE SHELL 30VULA OVUIUM 4F BULI=BULA=BULISI 3WHITE COWRIE SHELL 4F B0LIS.I=BULA=B01I 2WHITE COWRIE SHELL 30VULA OVUIUM 4F BUL0NGA1 2A TURTLE SPECIES 4C,F 8ULQNGA2 2GBEEM TURTLE 3CHE1GNIA HYDAS 41949 9C BUL0NGA3 2LEATHERBACK 3DERM0CHELYS GOBXACEA 4W1228 BULUBULU 2RED-LINED TRIGGER-FISH 3BALISTAPUS UNDULATUS 4M461 5 1 8 F A F 0 I L E BUMA A I 4F 5L6 MATAKWA BUMA A I 5L7HATAKWA BUMA 2SARDINE 4F BUMA 11R183 BUMA 5 L 1 F A F O I L E BUMA 7KFF02/05/68Z886 BUMA 7 K F F 0 4 / 0 5 / 6 8 Z 1 4 1 2 7 0 BUMA 7KFF28/04/68Z BUNA 7 K F F 2 9 / 0 4 / 6 8 Z BUNGU KURU 2WHELK 3BUCCINUM TOTENII 4W2324 BUNGU RAU1 2HARP SHELL 3HARPA ARTICULARIS 4W985 BUNGU RAU2 2TUN SHELL 3DCLIUM PERDIX 4W2215 BUNGU TEKWA 2TRIT0N 3TRIT0N VARIE GATUM 4F,W2202 BUNGU 2QUEEN CONCH 11.H333 BUNGU 2BENTLET.BAP 3SCALASIA PRETIOSA 482321 BUNGU1 2QUEEN CONCH 3CASSIS 4F,1753 BUNGU2 2QUEEN CONCH 4F,2619 5L10 BUND 7KSF13/06/68S15 BURA NI BONGI 5L6AA BURASI 512AH BURASI 5L6AA BURASI 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 2 0 BURASI 7KSF11/06/68Z10 BURASI 7KSF14/06/68Z10 BUUBUU=BUBU 11R658,733 DA.AFI 7 K F F 0 3 / 0 5 / 6 8 Z DADA 2GECK0 3GECK0NIDAE 4W897 DA DAL A KEKEROA 20RANGE COWRIE SHELL 3C. AURANTIA 4.F 10BULI„KOLO DADALA KEKERCA 20RANGE COWRY 3CYPRAEA AURANTIUM 4F DADALA 2COWRIE SHELL 3CYPRAEA (WEBSTER) CARABICA (FOX) 4F,W521 10 DODOLO DADALA 7KSF10/06/68S45 DADALA 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 4 0 DADALA 7KSF14/06/68S19 DADALA=BALA DAFE 2PEARL SHELL,GOLDEN LIPPED PEARL 4F DAFI 5L6AA 2GGLDEN L I P PEARL 4F DALUMA N I AR.A 2BANDED TOA DO 3SPHER0IDES PLEUROSTICTUS 4M477 DALUMA1 2MARELED TOADO 3CHELONOD0N PATOCA 4M481,F 5L4AA DALUMA2 2T0AD0 3TETRAODON STELLATUS 4M480 DALUMA3 5L4AA DEDEFO 2SEA URCHIN 3AESTHEN0SOME I J I M A I YOSHIWARA 4H50 DENGE 2PRAWN (WEBSTER) SP OF FRESHWATER PRAWN (FOX) 3PENEUS 4F,,W1690 DENGE=ODG I KAFO DIADIA 2S.P LARGE F I S H 4F 5L6MATAKWA DIADIA 5 1 1 F A F 0 I L E 3 F A F O I L E DIDIFEO 2FIDDLER CRAB 3GELASINUS MINAX 4W810 DID 2SP OF F I S H 4F 514 A A 10 KWALEU DQIAIO 5L7AA DOKOFI'AE 2SP MOLLUSC WITH SPINES 3NERITA BREVISPINA 4F 1 0 A N O F I A E g o  1  D0LG1 2C0NGEB EEL 3C0NGEE 4W472 ) 0 L 0 2 2 K I L L E R CLAM 3TBICANDA GIGAS WITH SMOOTH SURFACE 4H30 91 DOL02 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 1 )ORU LA ONE 2LGNG-FINNED GURNARD 3LEPIDOTRIGLA CALODACTYLA 4M427 30RU NI ONE 2PURPLE FLYING GURNARD 3DACTYLOPTENA ORIENTALIS 4M426 DORU 5.L 1 F A F O I I E 3 F A F O I L E DORU 5L6MATAKWA 30RU=DURU DOU LA SUU 2SPOTTED HERRING 3H ARENGULA KONIGSBESGERI 4M74 DOU 4F 514AA6AA DOU 5L6AA DUFI 5L6AA DUMUAKWA 5L4AA DUMULIKOA 5L7AA DUNGE AKWA 2 S P E C K L E D PUG 3TANDYA MACULATA 4M323 5L7AA DUNIAKWA 5L7AA DURU=DORU 2FLYING F I S H 4F 9SMALL SP S.IFURU 10DURU, AIFURU E'ENG=ENO 2SP REEF F I S H 4F EDAEDA-MAMULA 4F 7KFF01/05/68Y EDAEDA=MAMULA 5L6MATAKWA EDAEDA=MAMULA 7KFF03/05/6 8Y EDAEDA= MAMULA 7KFF05/05/68X EDAEDA=MAMULA 7KFF06/05/68X BDAEDA=M AMUL A 7KFF27/04/6 8X EDAEDA=MAMULA 7KFO13/06/68X19 EDAEDA=MAMULA 7KSF10/06/68X2 EDAEDA=MAMULA 7KSF11/06/68X6 BDAEDA=MAMULA 7KSF12/06/68X6 EDAEDA=MAMULA 7KSF13/06/68X2 EDAEDA= MAMULA 7KSF14/06/68X6 EENO 4F 5L1AA SLU 7KFO10/06/68X1 ELU 7KFO11/06/6 8Z40 ELU=ELUE1U 2SHARK MULLET 3SQUALOMUGIL NASUTUS 4M383/F ELUELU 5L6AA ELUELU=ELU 4CS ENO GAUBU 5L4AA,F ENO 5L1AA4AA ENO-E * ENO 2SP REEF F I S H 4F FA'AU 11R285 FA' AU 5L7AA 7KFF03/05/68Y 1 OMAASULUA FA * AU 7 K F F 2 7 / 0 4 / 6 8 Z FAA MAI 4F FAA 5L6MATAKWA FAERE I L E 21UN AR-TAILED ROCK COD 3YARI01A LOUTI 4M164 FAERE-FAERO 2LUNAR-TAILED ROCK COD 3VARIOLA LOUTI 4M164 5 L 1 F A F O I L E 3 F A F O I L E FAERO=FAERE 2LUNAR-TAILED ROCK COD 3VARIOLA LOUTI 4M164 5L6MATAKWA PAFALUTA 4F FAFARI 2SCORPION 3SCORPION!DA 4W1898 FAFULU 5 L 8 F A F C I L E FAKAE BUA 5L6AA FAKAGQLA 5 L 8 F A F 0 I L E FALATA 2GOLDEN—LINED SPINEFOOT 3SIGANUS LINEATUS 4M335 5L1AA3AA6AA FALATA 7KFF05/05/68Y FALATA 7KSF10/06/68Y15Z3 FALATA 7KSF11/06/68Y11 FALATA 7KSF12/06/68Y24 FALATA 7KSF13/06/68I9Z10 FALATA 7KSF14/06/68Y37 PALEGO 2SP F I S H , SUCKER FISH 4F  5L1AA I  FALEGO 2SP F I S H , SUCKER F I S H 4 F 5.14 A A PALE-GO 2 S P F I S H , SUCKER F I S H 4 F 517HATAKWA P A L I ABAKW A 2R0UND S T I N G R A Y 3 U R 0 P H G I U S H A L L E R I 4 H 5 9 , 6 0 ?A.LI BORA 5 1 6 A A P A L I I L 0 L 0 1 2SPOTTED S T I N G A R E E 3 D A S Y A T I S K U H L I I 4M43 ? A 1 I I 1 0 1 0 2 2CGACHWHIP RAY 3HIMANTURA UARNAK 4M47 ? A 1 I L A SUU 2 B L U E S P O T T E D S T I H G A H E E 3 D A S Y A T I S K U H L I I 4M43 P A L I MANU 2BAT RAY E A G L E RAY 3 M Y L I 0 B A T I D A E 4H57 58 P A L I N I MATAKW A 2 B L U E SPOTTED 1 A G 0 0 H RAY 3TAEMURA IG.MMA 4M4 8 9 F A L I NI ONE 2 B L U E S P O T T E D S T I N G A R E E 3 D A S Y A T I S K U H L I I 4M43 PALI 1 1 R 1 8 6 , 2 3 0 , 4 4 6 , 9 2 4 , 9 5 1 , 9 9 3,1008 P A L I 2STI.NGHAY 3DASY A T I D A E 4 H 5 5 , 5 7 5 L 1 A A 6 A A PALUA 4 F PALUAKWA 5 1 7 A A PANAMEA 5 L 1 F A F 0 I L E 6 M A T A K W A PARAKWAOA 5 L 1 1 9 1 1 1 PARANADI 516MATAKWA ?ATA=FATU 4F ?ATU=FATA 2 T 0 P S H E L L 3TROCHUS N I L O T E C D S 4F,W2619 PAU U 4 F 5 1 7 A A PAUKWAI 2 S P F I S H 4 F 10URA N I B O U G I , M A T A S E , S I N U PAULA10 5L6MATAKWA P I F E R O 2 S P MOLLUSC 3C0LUMBE1-IA 4 F P I F I L U 2 L A R G E SP DUGONG SELDOM S E E N ON MAIA BETTER KNOWN ON G E I A 4 F FI1U.FIIU 2 S A I L - F I S H 3 I S T I 0 P H 0 R U S GLADIUS 4M337 5 L 3 F A F O I L E 6 M A T A K S A PIS.I MAM AMU 5 1 1 A A P I S I TOTOE 5 L 2 H P I S I 4F PISIARAO 511AA P I T A U 1 2SHIPWORM 3 T E R E D 0 N A V I L I S 4W2619 4 1 1 0 FOE FOE 5 L 6 A A 7.KSF 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8Z 10 POEFOE 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 9 POEFOE 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 POEFOE 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 7 Z 2 0 POEFOE 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 1 6 Z 1 0 P O F O L A A B E MALAU 5 1 7 A A P01A ABE T O K I T O K I 2 B A T F I S H 3 P L A T A X P I N N A T U S 4M275 POLA ABE 2 S I C K L E - F I S H 3 D R E P A N E PUNCTATA 4M274 5 I 1 A A 4 A A POLAOLA 4 F POLAOTA 2 S P LARGE F I S H 4 F FOLATA 4 F PONU AKWA 5 L 8 F A F 0 I L E FONU BALA 5 L 8 F A F O I L E PONU F A L A T A 5 I 8 F A F O I L E FONU I TOLG 2WOOD T O R T O I S E 3CLEMMYS I N S C U L P T A 4W2348 FONU I A 5 L 8 F A F O I L E FONU I A 1 2GREEN T U R T L E 3 C H E I 0 N I A MYDAS 4W949 FONU I A 2 2 H A W K S B I L L T U R T L E 3 C H E L O N I A I M B R I C A T A 4W990 FONU NI T O L 0 1 2 S N A P P I N G T U R T L E 3 C H E L Y D R A S E R P E N T I N A 4W1983 FONU N I T O L 0 2 2 T U R T L E 3 C H E I C P U S GUTTATUS 4W2219 FONU 2LOGGERHEAD T U R T L E 3 C A R E T T A C A R E T T A 4W1270 5 L 1 F A F O I L E 1 0 S P ARE FORAE 5 1 7 A A FORE 2 H A I R B A C K HERRING 3 N E M A I A L 0 S A COME 4M68 5 L 7 A A F O T O BALA 2 R E D - F I N N E D EMPEROR 3 L E T H R I N U S F L E T U S 4M213 5 L 3 A A 6 A A FOTG BALA 7 K F G 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 1 F O T O BALA 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 1 F O T O BALA 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 6 F O T O BALA 7 K S F 1 2 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 2 F O T O BALA 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 2 F O T O BALA 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 3  9 2  5I1FAFOII  BALA,  BEC  5L7AA ? 0 U 'ASUFE 2SHELL 3 P A L L I U MP ALLIUM 4 F ? 0 U • I M E 2SHELL 3TRIDACNA 4 F ? 0 U KURAI 7 K F F 0 3 / 0 5 / 6 8 Z ? 0 U L A L O 2GREAT T R E V A L L Y CAF.ANX 3 S E X F A S C I A T U S 4 M 2 3 2 ?OU'ASUFE 2SP MOLLUSC 3PECTEN 4 F fOUKWAI 4 C S 5L6AA ?OUKWAI 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 8 rOUKWAI 7 K S F 1 V 0 6 / 6 8 Y 9 ?OUTOBI 5L6MATAKWA ? U A S A N I ' A F U 2SEAHORSE 4 F ?UASA 2CROCODIIE 4 F 10MOKOTORO WANE,KAFG ? U F U 2SP F I S H SWOLLEN L I K E A FOOTBALL 4 F ? U L A ABU 2 J E L L Y F I S H 11R196 ?0T0  93 5 L 3 F A F O I L E 6 MAT AKWA  #  'ULA'ABU  4F  ?ULO 2 A SPONGE 4 F ?UNAMEA 5L6MATAKWA FUUFUU 2SPIDER 3ARANEIDA aAFAGAPA 5 1 2 A H J A F A L A 5L4AA7AA  4W2011  3AFAU 2SPOTTED BUTTER-FISH 3AIAROBO  5L11  3SCATOP HAGUS ARGUS 4M254  9111  3AIFESORO 5L7MATAKWA 3AIFUNU 5L7MATAKWA 5AIROBO 5L6MATAKWA 3 A L O 2 E G G S O F CRAYFISH OR 3ANALE=GANOLE 4 F  PRAWN  (LAMA OF  C R A B , B I L A OF  FISH)  4F  JANALE=GONOLE  3ANALE1 5ANALE2  2CRGWNED SOLDIER-FISH 3H0L0CENTRUM DIADEMA 4M143 5L1AA4AA7AA 2RED SOLDIER-FISH 3HOLOCENT8UM RUBRUM 4 M 1 4 5 J A N E G A N E 2SP B I V A L V E MOLLUSC, C O C K L E UF ;ANOLE=GANALE  4F  3AOFU 5L6&A 5EGESUHATO 5 L 1 F A F O I L E 3ELA 2 S P LARGE S E A F I S H 4 F 5 L 3 F A F O I 1 E 1 F A F O I L E 3ELE 5L6MATAKWA J E R U 2DIAMOND-SCALED MULLET 3HUGIL V A I G I E N S I S 4M392,F 5L1AA 9 S P POISONOUS FI5 J E R D 5L7AA SOFALA 4 F 30FALU 5 L 8 F A F O I L E 30FOU 5L6AA 30GOUBADA=GOU GORADA 5I7AA 300USU 5L6AA SOU GORADA=GOGGUBADA 5L1AA 3 0 U LA FANE 5L6MATAKWA 3 0 U M A T A N G A 2COW-FISH 3LACTGRIA CORNUTOS 4 M 4 7 3 30UFU U 5L2H6MATAKWA 30UFU 5L6AA 7 K F F 0 5 / 0 5 / 6 8 X 30UFU  7KFF27/0V68XI  30UGOU 2MUREX 4W2619 5 1 1 0 30ULO 2HAJ3MERHEAD SHARK 3SPHYRNIDAE 30UMAEO 5 L 8 F A F C I L E 30UMU RAA 5L6MATAK8A 30UMUDU 5L6MATAKWA 30URU 11B155 S O U 5L1AA 3ULI 5 L 8 F A F O I L E 3UMULI 5L6AA 3WAA 5L9 6GRAY WHALE 9 L 9 101AGWARI j i A F O L A 5L1AA  4W976  5L7MATAKWA  JWAHASU 5L6MATAKWA SWAHASU 5 L 9 919 SWA! SASU 2A WHALE 4F 10GWASASU 5HAI1A 2SP OF LARGE F I S H 4F 7KSF11/06/68X2  c  JWAILA 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 1  SMAI1I 4F 3WANGQSI AU 2BLUE-EANDED WHIPTAII 3PENTAPODUS S E T O S D S 4M205 5L3AA7AA J W A N G O S I FAFUBCNGO 517AA3AA 3WANG0SI KUKURU 2PEAR1Y SPINE-CHEEK 3SCOLOPSIS MARGARITIFER 4M204,F 3HANGOSI 5L2AH 3WAHGOSI 5L7AA3AA 3WANGWANGO 2NASS.A 3NASSA VIEEX 4W1437 3WANGWANGO 2PURPURA 1 A P I L 1 0 S 4 8 1 7 3 9 JWANOSI 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 JWARAFETA 5 L 1 F A F O I L E 5WAREO 2BLACK-SPOT SEA PERCH 31UTJANUS FULVIFLAMMA 4M201 5L1AA4AA7AA 3WARIGWARI 2SP OF RIVER F I S H 4F 511.AA 5WAR0 SUKA 2CREATURE I N SAND AT 10H WATER 4F 3WASASU 2WHA1E 4F 10KWASAS0 3WAUFUU  4F  3WIGWIA GAGAROA 4F 5I6AA 3WIGWIA GOGOURU 2flARBIED CORAL-COD 3SEBASTAPISTES B.YNOENSIS 4M406 3WIGWIA 2SE RED F I S H WITH SPINES 4F 3WIGWIA 5L2AH 3WIGWIA 5L6AA S i l O G S I O 2SP SMALL F I S H 4F 3W0FALAU=GW0FALU 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 2 3WOFALU 7 K S F 1 2 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 3 JWOUFU  7KSF11/06/68X6  3W0UFU 7KSF12/06/68X6 310UFU  7KSF13/06/68X2  3WOUFU 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 2 3WOUGWOU 2CRAB WITH NO F L E S H , WATERY 4F 3SOUGWOURU 4F 3WOUMUDU1 4F 5L11 6|ROUND HEAD| PORPOISE 9111 3W0UMUDU2 5L9 6RISS0'S D01PHIN=HARBOUR PORPOISE 9L9 10KIRIO J W O U R A D A 2SP S M A L L F I S H CLOSE TO ISLANDS, SARDINES 4F EiAANGO 5 L 7 A A EiAFA 2HAMILTCN•S ANCHOVY 3THRISSOCLES HAMILTONI 4M63 EiAFA 2WHISKERED ANCHOVY 3THRISSGCIES SETIOSTRIS 4H62 EiAFA 5 L 7 A A EiAH ANGO = H AHANO 4CS EiAHANGO=HAHA NO 5L1AA EiAHANO=HAHANGQ 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 El AKW A I MALAU 2BONE F I S H 3 AI-BULA VULPES 4M59 5L6MATAKWA EiAKWA MALAU 516MATAKWA Ei AKW A OOLOA 2B0NE-FISH 3 ALB ULA VULPES 4M59 EiAKWA S U 1 I 2GX-EYE TARPON 3 MEG A LOPS CYPRINOIDES 4.M58 5L6AA EiAKWA 511AA6AA6MATAKWA EIAKWA 5I6MATAKWA EIAKWA 7KSF14/06/68X2 EIAKWASULA  7KSF11/06/68Y6  EiALE 11R1073 EiALE 5L6 A A EIALE 7 K F 0 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 3 0 EiALE 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 EiALILI 2 P E R I W I N K L E 4 W 2 6 1 9 E i A l I I I 7KSF12/06/68S30 EiALILI 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 1 5 0 EiALILI 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6/68S118  5110  HALOA R AE 5 1 8 F A F O I L E HALU BAO 5L6AA HANA 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 95 HANGA BOEA 5 1 4 A A IANGA B U A L A F A 1 2 B L A C K - E Y E D T H I C K - L I P 3HEMIGYMNUS ME1APTEHUS 4M303 HANGA B U A L A F A 2 2 S W E E T - 1 I P EMPEROR 3 I E T H B I N U S CHRYSOSTQMUS 4M212 SANGA B D A I A F A 3 5 1 8 F A F O I L E HANGA GOUKWAG 5L4AA IANGA GWALLA 5 1 4 A A 7 A A F A F O I L E HANGA GWAILA 5 1 4 A A 8 F A F O I L E HANGA KEKERO 2SLING—JAW 3 E P I E U L U S I N S I D I A T G R 4M279 HANGA NI ONE 5L7AA •iANGA U L I F O I O 2 B I A C K - E Y E D T H I C K - L I P J U V E N I L E 3HEMIGYMNUS M E L A P T E R U S 4M303B HANGA 11R22 HANGA 5 L 2 A H IANGA 5 L 4 A A 7 A A 8 F A F 0 I 1 E HANGA 5 L 4 A A 7 A A 8 F A F 0 I I E HAO L A I 5 L 7 A A HAOLAI 5 L 7 A A 3ATAMELA 5 L 1AA3AA6AA 3ATAMELA 7KSF11/06/68Y16 HATAMELA 7 K S F 1 2 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 1 0 HATAMELA 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 8 Z 1 0 riAT AMELA 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 3 0 HATEBABA 5 L1 A A HAU FARAMELA 2 P A C I F I C YELLOWFIN TUNA 3NE0THUNNUS MACROPTERUS 4M346 HAU GELO 2L0NG-JAW ED MACKEREL 3 R A S T R E L L I G E R KANAGURTA 4M339 HAU GWARAFETG1 2 L I T T L E BGNITO 3SARDA A U S T R A L I S 4M348 HAU GWARAFET02 2N0RTHERN B 1 U E F I N TUNA 3 K I S H I N O E L 1 A TONGGOL 4M347 HAU K A R A I E 5L6MATAKW A HAU MALIFU 5I6MATAKWA HAU MELA 4CS HAU 2 L I T T L B TUNA 3EUTHYNNUS A L I E T T E B A T U S 4M344 5 L 1 F A F O I L E 3 F A F O I L E HAU 2 W A T S O N « S EGNITO 3 C Y E I G S A R D A ELEGANS 4M345 HAU 5 1 1 F A F O I L E HAU 516MATAKWA HAU 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 2 HAU»U 7KSF10/06/68X2 HULILI 7KSF10/06/68S30 CA 1 1 R 2 9 8 , 8 4 4 , 8 5 9 , 9 5 6 CA 'A AF A 5 L 6 A 1 CA A KWAIO 7 K F F 0 5 / 0 5 / 6 8 X CA A KWAIO 7 K F F 0 6 / 0 5 / 6 8 X CA ABE E I O 5 1 2 A H CA AKWALO 7 K F F 0 1 / 0 5 / 6 8 Y CA BUA 2 S P OF F I S H 4 F 514 A A CA BUA 5 I 7 A A CA EFOE 5 L 6 A A IA F I F I S I 2 S P LARGE WHITE F I S H 4F 5L4AA CA F O F O T C 2 B L U E P U L L E R 3 C H E C M I S CA FRULEOS 4M280 CA F0U1 2 B L U E - S P O T T E D B O X - F I S H 3 0 S T R A C I 0 N T U B E R C U L A I U S 4M472 5 I 4 A A 8T CA FOU2 2 L 0 N G - N 0 S E D B O X - F I S H 3RHYNCHOSTRACION NASUS 4M471 8T CA GWARI 2 S L E N D E R S U C K I N G - F I S H 3 E C H E N E I S NEUCRATES 4F,M455 10GWAA CA GWARI 5L6MATAKWA CA HAHAFA 5 L 1 A A 6 A A CA I MALAU 2 A U S T R A L I A N P I L C H A R D 3ARFNGUS NEOPILCHARDUS 4M77 CA IROA 5 L 2 A H CA KAEBURA 5 L 6 A A CA K E K I K I K I L I 5 L 2 A H CA K I L I K I L I 2 I I K E A SHARK 1 1 R 9 0 9  I A KBAKHAOA 2DE VIS,, ANCHOVY 3AMENTUM D E V I S I 4M66 9 I A KWAOA 2 B A R - F A C E D WEAVER 3 P A R A P E R C I S NEBULOSUS 4M324 , I A L A S I 5L6MATAKWA I A MELA 2MANGBOVE J A C K 3 L U T J A N U S A B G E N T I M A C O L U S 4 M 1 9 6 , C S I A NA FD L I 5 L 2 A H I A NA M A I L A D E 2 0 R A N G E A N E M O N E - F I S H 3 A M P H I P R I 0 N P E R C U L A 4 M 2 7 8 I A NGATA 5 L 6 MATAKW A I A NGENGE 5 L 1 A A I A N I MALAU 2 S T A R - G AZER 3 I C H T Y S C O P U S LEBEC.K 4 M 3 2 5 5 L 4 A A I A RAA 2 S M A L I SEA C R E A T U R E 4F I A ROBO 2 L A R G E SEA C R E A T U R E 4 F I A SASAFA 2 S P . F I S H 4F I A S O B I 2 COW-FISH 3 L A C T 0 R I A CORNUIUS 4M473 5.L4AA 8T I A S U R I 4CS I A TEKWA 5L1AA7MATAKWA I A TEKWA 5L7MATAKWA I A UNA BULU 2 M E D I U M - S I Z E D SEA C R E A T U R E 4 F I A U T O B I 5L6MATAKWA I A 2A F I S H OR ANY SEA C R E A T U R E 4 F 10MANU, WAAWAA, I I ' A N A - A L L SEA C R E A T U R E S I F I F I S I 5 L1A A I F I N G X D I 5L6AA I I A RAA 2 S M A I L SEA C R E A T U R E 4 F I I A ROBO 2 L A R G E S E A C R E A T U R E 4E I I A UNA BULU 2 M E D I U M - S I Z E D SEA C R E A T U R E 4 F I T A L I A 2A F I S H OR ANY S E A C R E A T U R E 4 F 10MANU, WAAWAA, I I ' A N A - A L L SEA CREATU I I R O I I R O 2 N A U T I L U S S H E L L F I S H 3 N A U T I L U S 4W1441 I L I 2 S W 0 R D F I S H C S , F 5 L 8 F A F O I L E 9C 1 0 B A S A U L A , ONO,MAMALITO-NAMES FOR S T A G E S OF I I I 7KSF13/06/68X4 I L I 7KSF14/06/68X3 I L O 20YSTER 5F,W2619 I M O L A 2 D E V I S * ANCHOVY 3 AMENTUM D E V I S I 4M66 INADI 11R989 I N A D I 2RED F I R E - F I S H 3 P T E R 0 I S V O L I T A N S 4 M 4 1 0 / F INADI 5L6AA I N I 20LIVE SHELL 4A2619 5110 I R O I R O 2 N A U T I L U S 4W2619 5 L 1 0 I S I A L E 2FLUTEMOUTH 3 F I S T U L A R I A P E T I M E A 4 M 1 1 7 I S I A R A O 5L4A A I S I K A W E 2AGAMOID L I Z A R D 3 S T E L L 1 0 S T E L L I O 4W41 I S I O F U 2FLDTEM0UTH 3 F I S T U L A R I A PETIMBA 4M117,F 5L7AA ISOFU 4F IWANOSI 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 KABOU 4 F K A F I S O R O S P SEA S N A K E 4 F KAKABOA 2 C R E S C E N T P E R C H 3 T H E R A P 0 N J A R B U A 4 M 1 8 3 , F 5 L 1 A A 6 A A KAKARA BCNGAEE 4 F K A K A R A I = K A K A R I 2 S P S M A L L F I S H S A I D TO BE YOUNG OF S P E C I E S MUU 4 F 5L7MATAKWA KAKARI=KAKARAI 5L4AA KAKARU 2 C R A B , U S U A L L Y L A N D CRAB 4 F 10KARU KAKAURADA 5 L 7 A A KALUA 2 B L U E T A I I MULLET 3 M U G I L S E H E L I 4 M 3 9 3 C S , F ' 5 1 1 A A 3 A A 7 A A 9WHITE BODY, UP TO KALUA 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 1 9 KALUA 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 6 KAR A I = K A K A R I = K A K A R A I 1 1 R 5 1 2 KARAO D I U 5 L 1 A A KARONGO 7 K F O 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 5 5 KARONGO 7 K F 0 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 1 9 KARONGO 7 K F O 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 2 5 KARONGO 1184 1 KARONGO1 2HARP S H E L L 3HARPA A R T I C U L A R I S 4W985 9 6  [AR0NGG2 2 S C C B E I 0 N S H E L L 3 P T E R 0 C E R A S C H I R A G R A 481898 (AR0NGO3 2 G E N E B A L NAME FOB ANYTHING C O L L E C T E D ON T H E B E E F AT LOW T I D E (ASUKASU 2COCCNUT CRAB 3 B I R G U S LATRO 4 F (ASUSU 2 L O B S T E R 3HOMARUS 4W1265 9C (AU ABA 2 D O L P H I N F I S H 3 C 0 R Y P H A E N A H I P P U R U S 4M188 5 L 1 F A F O I L E CAUTABA 2 S C O R P I O N S H E L L 3 P T E B O C E R A S C H I R A G A 4W1898 (EFO 2 A U S T R A L I A N P I L C H A R D 3ASFNGUS N E O P I L C H A R D U S 4 M 7 7 , F 5L6MATAKWA [EKEDELEG 5 L 4 A A ( E L A K E L A "BULU 5 L 7 A A (ELEKELA KEKERCA 5L7AA (ELUKELO 5L4AA7AA (EOKWEO 5 L 6 A A ( E S I K E S I 2 B L A C K S P O T LONG TOM 3TYLOSURUS STRGNGYLURUS 4 M 1 0 3 (EU 2CLAM 1 1 E 5 4 0  (EU 2VENERIDAE 3GEMMA GEMMA 4 F , 4 W 2 2 7 2  (EUBEA TEKWA 2LONG CLAM 3MY A A R E N A B I A 4W408 (EUBE A 2QUAHCG OR ROUND CLAM 3VENDS MERCENARIA 4W408 (EULOLO 2 S P B I V A L V E MOLLUSC I N MANGROVES 4 F ( I D A SP SMALL S E A CRAB NEAR MANGROVES = K I K I D A 4 F 10 K I K I D A  (IKAU 2SP GASTROPOD MOLLUSC 3TROCHUS 4 F  ( I K I 2CLAM G I A N T CLAM S H E L L C L A M S H E L L 4 H 3 1 , 3 0 ( I K I 2 T R I D A C N A OYSTER 3 T R I D A C N I D A E 4W2197 (IKI 7KF010/06/68S6 ( I K I 7KFG11/06/68S218 (IKI 7KFG14/06/68S14 (IKI 7KSF10/06/68S10 ( I K I 7KSF11/06/68S1  ( I K I 7KSF12/06/68S2 ( I K I 7KSF14/06/68S18 ( I K I I = K I K I 1 1 B 7 9 , 2 6 7 , 5 6 4 , 7 9 3 , 8 76 ( I K I F I U L A 4F  (IRIO 5L 1 FAFOILE  ( I R I O 5L6MATAKWA ( I R I O 5 L 9 6 D A L L , S P O R P O I S E C O M M E R S C N » S D O L P H I N 9 L 9 1 0 I A G W A R I , K I R AO ( J R I O 5 L 9 9 L 9 10GWOUMUDU,SABAIBINA ( I R O A 2 K I L L E R WHALE 3GRAMPUS ORCA 4H29 SOKOLA 1 1 R 9 0 8 SOKOLA 2 Q C T Q P U S , SMALL OCTOPUS (FOX) 3 0 C T 0 P O D A 4 F , W 1 4 8 9 5 L 9 KQKOSU 2 H E R M I T CRAB I N ANY S H E L L 3EUPAGURUS BERNHARDUS 4W1009 KOLO 2 S H E L L 3 C Y P R A E A T E S T U D 3 N A R I A 4 F SOLO 2 S P GASTROPOD MOLLUSC 3 C Y P R A E A T E S T D D I N A R I A 4 F SOME1 2C0NCH 3GENUS STROMEUS 4F,W462 KOME2 2CONE S H E L L 3CONUS MARMOEEUS 4 W 4 6 S , 2 6 1 9 H 4 0 5 L 1 0 K0ME3 7 K F O 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 1 KOME3 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 5 2 KOME3 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 4 9 KOSO 4 F KUKO»AFUTO 2 S P GASTROPOD MOLLUSC 4 F K U K U L I 2 S P POISONOUS F I S H 4 F 5 L 4 A A 6 A A KUKURU BALU 4 F KURUBULU=KUKURUBULU 1 1 B 1 9 9 , 2 3 2 , 1 0 1 2 , 1 0 9 4 KUKURUBULU 5 L 1 A A KUKURUBULU 516MATAKWA KUKURUBULU 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 2 KUKURUMUSI 4 F 5 L 6 A A KURU 2SHELL 3 P L A C O S T Y L U S AN E P A P U I N A 4 F KURU 2 S P LAND S H E L L 3 P L A C O S T Y L U S ALSO P A P U I N A 4 F KUUKUU 2 D R I L L 3 0 R G S A L P I N X C I N E R E A 4W674 KWADA B i l l 2 L I Z A R D 4W2619 KWAIBIA 5L6AA  C I A I G O L A 2 S P BED J E L L Y F I S H , EATEN BY T U R T L E S 4F 1 0 K H A I B A B A (W A I H ATE 1 2MACTBA 3HACTBA L A T E R A L I S 4W1293 98 ( W A I H A T E 2 2RAZOR S H E L L 4C (WAIKWAI BAD 2 T 8 U M P E T E R P E R C H 3 P E L A T E S Q U A D R I L I N E A T U S 4M183 5 L 4 A A 7 A A (WAKWARA NGADI 4F (WALANI BAEKWA 5 L 8 F A F G I L E (WALEU 4 F 5 L 4 A A 6 A A SBA.LE0 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 8 (WALEU 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 8 A 1 0 (WARANADI 5 L 7 A A SHASASO 2A WHALE 4 F 1OGWASASU (WASI 2WEST I N D I A N S P O T T E D GROUPER 3 P B O M I C B O P S I T A I B A 4 H 2 7 C S 5L6MATAKWA 9C (WASI 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 2 CMASI 7 K S F 1 2 / 0 6/6 8X1 CWASI 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 1 (WE HANGA 2HANGA F I S H 10HANGA 1 1 R 7 0 9 (WE I A 1 1 R 7 4 0 (WEO 5 L 1 A A (8ERATANI 2SP NOLLUSC 4F LAE 5 5 L 2 H 6 A A LAKENO 8T .ALAKWALO 5L6M ATAKWA - A L A S I = L A S I 2LARGE-MOUTHED L E A T H E R - S K I N N E D 3CHQRINEMUS L Y S A N 4 M 2 3 9 L A L A S I = L A S I 5L2AH6MATAKWA .AO 2 S H E L L 3CGNUS MARMORATUS 4F [.AOLAO 5 I 2 A H L,ASI=LALASI 2 1 A B G E - S C A L E D TUNNY 3CRAMMATORYCHNU S B I C A R I N A T U S 4M354 5 I 3 F A F O I L I LAU 5 1 6 A A JADFI 118149,325,891,926 L.AUFI 2 S P MOLLUSC 3 T U R B 0 P E N T H O L A T U S 4 F 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 5 1 0 S A L I L I L A U F I 2 S P MOLLUSC 3 T U R E 0 P E N T H O L A T U S 4F 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 5 •.AUFI 2 S P MOLLUSC 3TURB0 P E N T H O L A T U S 4F 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 9 L A U S I G A L E 2CGNCH 4W2619 5 1 1 0 S F F I S H , BARK , TOUGH F L E S H 4 C S , F 9C 5 L 1 A A 6 A A S E F I S H , DARK, TOUGH F L E S H 7 K F F 0 2 / 0 5 / 6 8 Y S P F I S H , DARK, TOUGH F L E S H 7 K F F 0 3 / 0 5 / 6 8 Y S P F I S H , DARK, TOUGH F L E S H 7 K F F 0 5 / 0 5 / 6 8 X S F F I S H , DARK, TOUGH F L E S H 7 K F F 0 5 / 0 5 / 6 8 Z 9KFF06/05/68 S P F I S H , DARK, TOUGH F L E S H 7 K F F 0 6 / 0 5 / 6 8 Z S P F I S H , DARK, TOUGH F L E S H 7 K F F 2 7 / 0 4 / 6 8 Y SP F I S H , DARK, TOUGH F L E S H 7 K F O 1 0 / O 6 / 6 8 Z 2 0 SE F I S H , DARK , TOUGH F L E S H 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 4 Y 1 7 Z 1 S P F I S H , DARK, TOUGH F L E S H 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 2 1 S P F I S H , DARK, TOUGH F L E S H 7 K S F 1 2 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 6 Z 1 S P F I S H , DARK, TOUGH F L E S H 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 5 Y 6 Z 1 0 S P F I S H , DARK, TOUGH F L E S H 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 4 6 Z 2 0 L E L E G 517MATAKWA LETO 2 S P F I S H WITH TOUGH BROWN F L E S H , COARSE E A T I N G 4 C S , F 5 1 6 AA LETO 5 L 2 H LIFOTANE=LIFOTANGE 7KSF11/06/68Y8 LIFQTANE=1IFGTANGE 7KSF11/06/68Z10 LIFOTANE=LIFCTANGE 7KSF12/06/68Y5 LIFGTANE=IIFCTANGE 7KSF14/06/68Z10 L I F O T A N G E = I I F O T A NE 4 C S , F LIFOTANGE=LIFOTANE 7KF01 1/06/68Z40 LIFOTANGE^LIFGTANE 7KSF10/06/68Y7 L.IIIFU 5L4AA LOBAA 2 S P OF RED F I S H 4 C S / F 9C LOFO G E R E G E R E A ANA=IOFOGEREA 5 1 1 1 9 L 1 1 LQFOGEREA=LOFG GEREGEREA ANA 5 L 1 1 9 L 1 1  L O I 2 S N A K E 4C LOIGWOUNA 2A S P . O f F I S H 4 F LOLOSI 4F LONGOSITO 2WATES S E R P E N T 1 1 R 1 6 4 L O S I 2SPONGE 4 F 1 0 I O O S I AAA A U F I S11 2 B L U E - SPOTTED ROCK COD 3 C E P H A L O P H O L I S C Y A N O S T I G M A 4J3165 514 AA MAA A U F I S I 2 2CORAL TORUT 3 C F P H A L O P H O L I S M I N I A T U S 4M167 8AA A U F I S I 3 2 F R E C K L E D ROCK COD 3 C E P H A L O P H O L I S C Y A N O S T I G H A 4 H 1 6 6 HAA KWAI 2 F R I N G E - F I N N E D T R E V A L L Y 3CARANX R A D I A T U S 4 M 2 3 5 HAA L A F U 7 K F F 0 3 / 0 5 / 6 8 Y MAA NEBA 2RED B U L L S , E Y E 3 P R I A C A N T H U S MACRACANTHUS 4M157 MAA SULUA 7 K F F 0 3 / 0 5 / 6 8 Z AAA SULUA 7 K F F 2 7 / 0 4 / 6 8 Y MADASO 2 S P MOLLUSC 4 F 9  9  MADOMU= MODOMU  N A E I ' A 2A F I S H 4 F MAELAFU 4 F 5 L 6 A A MAELAFU 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 MAELAFU 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 2 0 MAELAFU 7 K S F 1 2 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 MAETO 7KSF10/06/68Z30 MAETO F U L O 5 L 8 F A F 0 I L E MAETO 5 L 6 A A MAETO 5 L 8 F A F G I L E MAETO 7 K S F 1 2 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 2 0 MAETO 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 1 0 Z 1 0 MAETO 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 8 Z 2 0 MAFASI 7KFF0 3/05/68Z MAFU 2 S P OF S M A L L RED F I S H MAFU 2 S P OF SMALL RED F I S H MAFU 2 S P OF SMALL RED F I S H H A G A L I AALA 5 L 1 A A MAGALI AALA 5 L 1 F A F O I L E MAGALI AALA 5 L 6 A A SAGALI  4F 5L2AH 4F 5L8FAFOILE 4F 7KSF10/06/68Y4  4 F 5L1AA  MAGALI 5 L 6 A A MAGALI 7 K F F 2 7 / 0 4 / 6 8 Z MAGALI 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 2 0 MAGALI 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 HAGALI 7 K S F 1 2 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 9 Z 2 0 PI AG A L I 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 3 0 MAGALI 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 2 0 MAKAKEDEA 5 L 1 A A MAKWAI 5L6MATAKWA M A L A G H A I L A 1 2 P U R P L E T U S K - F I S H 3CHOERDCN C E P H A L O T E S 4 M 2 9 3 MALAGWAI1A2 2 S U R F P A R R O T - F I S H F E M A L E 3CALLYODON F A S C I A T U S 4 M 3 1 9 B MALAHAU 2COMMON MACKEREL 3SCOMBER J A P O N I C U S 4M340 5L1FAFOILE3FAFOILE6MATAKWA MALASAU 2 K I N G F I S H 4 F MALAUTANI 5L7AA MALEFU-MALIFU 2 S P F I S H RED I N COLOUR, GOOD E A T I N G 4 F 5 L 4 A A 6 A A MALIFU= MALEFU 5 L 2 H MAL.IFU= M A L E F U 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 4 0 MALIFU=MALEFU 7 K S F 1 2 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 8 Y 1 7 MALIFD=MALEFU 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 9 MALIFU= MALEFU 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 MALITO 4 C S MALU GWAILA 5 L 6 A A MAflA 2 S P FRESHWATER F I S H 4 F 5 L 1 F A F O I L E MAMA 5 L 1 A A MANADA I K A F U 5 L 4 A A  HAMADA 2R A I N B O S - F I S H 3 H A L I C H O E R E S 4 M 3 0 5 , 3 0 4 , F 5 I 4 A A 7 A A . 1 A M A E L A D E 2 S M A L B L U E J E L L Y F I S H ON DEAD CORAL 4 F 1QKWAIRABU,KWAIGOLA MAMALITO 2NAME FOB SWOBDFISH ( I L I ) DURING C E R T A I N S T A G E OF GROWTH 4 F 1 0 I L I # 3 A M A L I T O 2 P I C K - H A N D L E BARRACUDA 3SPHYRAENA J E L L O 4 M 3 8 1 , C S , F 5 L 1 F A F O I L E 3 F A F O I I 3AMA1ITO 7RFC 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 5 Z 5 MAMAMU 4 F 5 1 2 A H MAMU1A=EDAEDA=MAMULA 2TURRUM 3CAEANX E M B U R Y I 4 M 2 3 3 , F 5 1 1 A A 9 S P F I S H L I K E MULI MAMUIA=EDAEDA=MAMUIA 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 2 MAMU1A= EDAEDA=MAMULA 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 2 MANGEO 2 S P SEA SNAKE 4 F MAOSI 2 S P F I S H , L A R G E S A R D I N E L I K E BUMA 4F 5 1 7 A A HARA D I K H A L I 5 L 6 A A MARA I D A I 2 E L U E T U S K - F I S H 3CHOERODON A L B I G E N A 4M295 5 L 6 A A MARA 4 F 5 L 1 A A MARA 5 L 4 A A 6 A A MARA 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 1 0 SARA 7 K S F 1 2 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 9 MARA 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 3 MARA 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 MARAllKWAll 7KFF06/05/68X MARAUKWALI 7KFF27/04/68X 9KFF27/04/68 MAB EMARE 4 F MAREMARE 5 1 6 MATAKWA MASANGO 2 S P MOLLUSC,TURBO 3 T U R B 0 MARMORATUS AND TURBO SMARAGDUS 4 F W 2 2 1 6 MATANGAA 2A S T A R F I S H 4 F MATASI 4 F 5 1 6 A A MATASI 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 MATASI 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 MATASI 7 K S F 1 2 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 9 Z 1 0 MATASI 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 1 5 MATASI 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 3 0 MEAMEA 2 S P OF S M A L I F I S H I N SAND, F L A T F I S H 4F 5 L 1 A A 4 A A 7 A A MELA 2 R E D - B E L L I E D F U S I L I E R 3 C A E S I O ERYTHOGASTER 4 M 2 0 3 , F 5L6AA7AA MELA 7 K F F 0 3 / 0 5 / 6 8 Z ME1AHAU 2R0NNER 3 E L A G A T I S B I P I N N U L A T D S 4M241 5L6MATAKWA MEMEA A ALA 2 C U E E N S L A N D H A L I B U T 3 P S E T T O D E S ERUMEI 4 M 4 3 9 MEMEA LA ONE1 2 L A R G E TOOTHED FLOONDER 3PSEUDORHOMBUS A R S I U S 4M440 MEMEA LA ONE2 2PEACOCK S O L E 3 P A R D A C H I R U S PAVONINUS 4 M 4 4 9 MEMEA L A ONE3 2SHARP-HEADED S O L E 3 P H Y L L I C H T H Y S S C L E R O L E P S I S 4M452 MEMEA LA ONE4 2TWO L I N E D TONGUE S O L E 3CYNOGLOSSUS B I L I N E A T U S 4M454 MEMEA 5 L 7 A A MENA A L I T E 5 L 7 A A MENAMENA 7 K S F 1 2 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 5 MENAMENA 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 2 MENAMENA^BA AA 2SUBGEON F I S H 4 H 8 6 , F 9C 5 1 1 A A 3 F A F O I 1 E 8 F A F O I 1 E M I S I F A N I G O R E 4F MODOMU 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 2 MODOMU 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 1 MODOMU 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 1 MODOMU=MADOMU 2SP F I S H FOUND I N P A I R S ( I v E N S ) 4 F 516MATAKWA MQKGTORO 2 C R O C O D I 1 E A L L I G A T O R I N C H I L D R E N ' S L A N G U A G E S E A H O R S E 4 W 5 3 5 , 5 9 5 L 1 A A MOBEMORE 5L6MATAKWA MORO I HARA 4F 5 1 1 A A MORO I MATAKWA 5 L 1 F A F O I 1 E MOBO 2 S P FRESHWATER F I S H 4F 5 I 7 A A MOUA B A I T A 7 K F F 0 6 / 0 5 / 6 8 X MOUA H A I O 2 S P A N G I E D EMPEROR 3 I E T H R I N U S N E B U I O S U S 4M211 513AA6MATAKWA MOUA 2 S P L A R G E F I A T T I S H WHITE F I S H , GOOD E A T I N G 4F 511 AA MOUA 5 1 4 A A 6 A A MOUA 7 K F F 0 5 / 0 5 / 6 8 Y  1QUA 7KFQ10/06/68Y20Z40 10UA 7 K F G 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 8 ' SOUA 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 2 5 50UA 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 10UA 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 3 6 1O0A 7 K S F 1 2 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 2 3 MOUA 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 2 8 Z 1 0 MOUA 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 4 5 1UETG F U L O 5 L 8 F A F O I L E MUMU=MUU 5 L 2 H MUMU=MUU 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 4 MUMU=MUU 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 2 MUU 1 1 8 2 2 5 , 3 1 9 , 9 4 7 , 1 1 3 0 MUU N I F U R A I 2 V A R I E T Y OF MUU 4F 5 L 6 A A MUU 2 S P S H I T E F I S H ON R E E F , GOOD E A T I N G 4F 5 L 6 A A 7 K F 0 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 2 MUU 7 K F F 2 7 / 0 4 / 6 8 Z MUU 7 K F F 2 8 / 0 4 / 6 8 Z MUU 7KFO10/06/68Z220 MUU 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 4 0 _ MUU 7 K S F 1 2 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 3 0 MUU 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 3 0 MUU 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 7 Z 2 0 MUU=MUMU 4CS 5 L 1 A A 3 A A 6 A A MUUMUU GALAU 2YE1.LOW EMPEROR 3 D I P L C E R I G N B I F A S C I A T U M 4 M 1 6 3 5.L6AA MUUMUU LA KAFO 2YELLOW EMPEROR 3 D I P L O P R I O N B I F A S C I A T U M 4M163 MUUMUU1 2HAMLET F I S H 3 E P I N E P H E L U S S T R I A T U S 4W975 5 L 6 A A MDDMUU2 2 P A I N T E D S W E E T - L I P S 3 P 1 E C T O R H Y N C U S P I C T U S 4 M 2 0 9 NAARA 4CS 5 L 3 A A H.ADI 2 S P F I S H WITH POISONOUS S P I N E S 4F N A N A N G A L I 4F NANARA AEEKOA 5 L 6 A A NANARA A B I S A L O 5 L 4 A A NANARA AD 2RED V A R I E T Y NANARA 4 F 514AA NANARA BULU 2 S M A L L BLACK SP OF NANARA 4 F 5 L 2 A H 6 A A NANARA FOUBOSO 2 B L A C K V A R I E T Y NANARA 4F 5 L 4 A A 6 A A NANARA KWAG 2WHITE V A R I E T Y NANARA 4F 5 L 4 A A 6 A A NANARA 4 F 5 L 6 A A 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 2 0 NANARA 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 1 2 Z 1 0 NANARA 7 K S F 1 2 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 NANARA 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 1 2 Z 1 0 NANARA 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 7 NGARANGARA 2HAMMERHEAD SHARK 4CS NGIDUGOLA 5L6MATAKWA N G I S U F I K O R E 2 R I F L E - F I S H 3TOXOTES CHATAREUS 4M158 5 L 1 A A 4 A A 7 A A NG0NGORO= NGORG 5 L 4 A A NGORO-NGONGORO 5 L 7 A A NGU=NGUU 5 1 6 A A NGUU=NGU 5 L 1 A A NGWANAASI 2SEA S E R P E N T 1 1 R 6 8 4 NGW ANGWAESO 4CS. 5 L 7 A A NGWANGWAKI 11R 1 0 8 7 , 1 0 9 0 NGWANGWAKI 2 C U T T L E F I S H 3 S E P I A O F F I C I N A L I S 4 W 5 5 6 , 2 6 1 9 5L7MATAKWA NGWWANGWAKI= NUTG 1 1 R 3 0 8 NGWELA INO MAE 2ABALONE 4W2619 1 0 U B E 2 NGWENGWERE=NWENWERE 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 1 0 0 N I G I N I G I 5L7AA NOFU 5 L 2 A H NOFU 5 L 6 A A 2SQUID 1 1 R 8 6 , 2 3 5 , 3 0 8 NUTO 2 S Q U I D 30MMASTREPHES I I L E C E B R C S U S 4 H 2 0 2 6 81 (  UUTO=NGANGWAKI 2 0 C T 0 P U S S P E C I E S 4 F , C S 5L7MATAKW A JUENWE'HE=NGWENGWERE 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 5 0 102 3SENWERE=NGWENGWERE 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 1 7 0 !IWENWERE=NGWENGWERE 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 8 5 DA N I BORU 2 C H I N A M A N F I S H 3 L U T J A N U S NEMATOPHORUS 4 M 1 9 4 B 5 L 6 M A I A K W A 3A 512AH DA 5 L 7 A A DA 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8X6 DDO I KAFO=DE NGE DDO 2A PRAWN 4 F 100DO I KAFG=DENGE DDORAO 2 L A R G E SP PRAWN 4 F DGU 2SEAWORM 3 P A L O L O 100DU,NALD'OGU DIGO 4 F 5 L 8 F A F G I L E DNO 2NAME FOR SWORDFISH ( I L I ) DURING C E R T A I N STAGE OF GROWTH 4 F 10IL.I# DNO 4CS 5 L 7 A A DNOLIU 5 L 8 F A F C I L E DOA 2TOP S H E L L 3 T R 0 C H U S Z I Z Y P H I N U S 4W2172 DOA 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 4 0 DOA 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 5 5 DOA 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 3 0 DOTO 5 L 7 A A DRU 2 S C R I B B L E D A N G E L - F I S H 3CHAETODONTOPIUS D U B O U L A Y I 4 M 2 6 9 5 L 1 A A 3 A A DU 5L6MATAKWA DUGU 2 S E A B L U B B E R 3 C Y A N E A C A P I L L A T A 4 H 3 3 34 SAA 5L116MATAKWA 6MANGROVE DOLPHIN 9 L 1 1 RADA AU 5 L 4 A A 7 A A RADA I MATAKWA 5.L1 F A F O I L E RADA 2RED S O L D I E R F I S H 3HOLOCENTSDM RUBRUM 4 M 1 4 5 , F 5L1AA4AA7AA RADA 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 RADA 7 K S F 1 2 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 2 0 RADA 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 RADA 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 RADAFOUBOSO 2CRGWNED S O L D I E R - F I S H 3HOLOCENTRUM DIADEMA 4M143 5.L4AA7AA RAEMAE I MALAU 5 L 6 MATAKW A RAEMAE SULA 5 L 4 A A RAEMAE 4 C S , F 4CS 5 L 7 A A RAGARAGA 5 1 1 A A RAGARAG A 5 L6 AA RAGARAGA 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 2 0 S A G O T A I 2 S C O R P I O N S H E L L 3 P T E R O C E R A S C H I S A G R A 4W2619 5 L 1 0 BAGOTAI 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 2 0 0 RAGOTAI 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 4 3 6 RAGOTAI 7 K S F 1 2 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 5 8 5 RAGOTAI 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 1 4 4 BAGOTAI 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 1 2 5 R A G O T A I 2 2 S H E L L 3 L A M B I S L A M E L S 4F RA.LUA S I R U 5 L 6 A A RAMELA 2SEA SLUG 4 8 2 6 1 9 RARA I MALAU 5L6MATAKWA RARAGO 4F RASIFOU 5L4AA RAUALITE 4F BAUALITE 5L6AA BEOREO 2 S P MOLLUSC 3 N A U T I L U S 4 F 5L6MATAKWA REREO 5 L 1 A A BIDO B A L A 2 S P O T T E D J A V E L I N - F I S H 3PCMADASYS HASTA 4M207 RIDO I MATAKWA 5L6MATAKWA RIDO 2MANGROVE J A C K 3 L U T J A N U S A R G E N T I M A C U L U S 4 M 1 9 6 , C S , F 5L1AA4AA RIDO 7 K F F 0 1 / 0 5 / 6 8 X RIDO 7 K F F 0 5 / 0 5 / 6 8 X  JXDO 7KF010/06/68X1 JIDO 7KSF10/06/68X5 JIDO 7KSF11/06/68X6 JIDO 7KSF12/06/68X4 JIDO 7KSF13/06/68X4 JIDO 7KSF14/06/68X4 JIE 5L6MATAKWA JOBO BA* AA-BOBO 5111 9L11 JOBO OOLO 5L11 9L11 JOBO WALADE 5111 9111 JOBO 5L11 6B0UND HEAD=PORPOISE ,RIGHT WHALE DOIPHIN=HARBOR PORPOISE 9111 tJQBO=R0B0 BAVAA 51119111 30NGO I ABA 5L7AA JOOMAA 2SP LARGE F I S H 4F,CS 5I6MAIAKWA SORA I MALAU 5L6MATAKWA JORA1 2MOONFISH 3MENE MACUIATA 4M244 JORA2 2PIG-NOSED PONY FISH, SP FISH SARDINE 3SECUTOR RUCONIUS 4F,M250 JORO FOUBOSO 5I7AA JOBO SARABUMA 5L7AA RORO 2MOQNFISH 3MENE MACULATA 4M244,F JORO 5L6AA 3UTA 2SP MOLLUSC 3NAUTILUS 4F 8UTE 2BARNAC LES 4W2619 SAEBULISI'AI 2SP MOLLUSC 3VERMETUS 4F 5AFU ONI 4CS 5I7AA 3AGAFU 5L6MATAKWA 5AIBINA 5L6MATAKWA 3AKWABI 4F 9 HILL WORD FOR A FISH 5 A I I I I 2 SP MOLLUSC 3TUREO FETHGLAIUS 4F 3ANGA 4F SANGATA 2DOLPHIN FISH 3CORYPHAENA HIPPURUS 4M188 511FAFOILE 5AOGORA 2FIGURFD LEATHER-JACKET 30SBECKIA SCRIPTA 4M46 9 5AOGORO 2BLACK—FINNED TRIPLE-SPINE 3TRIACANTHUS BIACULEATUS 4M457 5I3AA SARAIBINA 5L9 9L11 3ASAGORE 5L2AH 3ASAOGQRA1 2EEAKED LEATHER-JACKET 3OXYMONACANTHUS LCNGIROSTRIS 4M467 3ASAOGORA2 2 FAN-BELLIED LEATHER-JACKET 3MONACANTHUS CHINENSIS 4M465 5ASAOGORA3 2LEATHER-JACKET 4M465,467,469 3ATAMELA 2SP OF REEF FISH 4F 3AU 4F SAUKEDO 5L4AA 3EG0=SEGOSEGO 5L2AH SEGOSEGO=SEGO 2WOLF HERRING,SP OF LONG THIN FISH 3CHIROCENTRUS DORAB 4F,M61 5IFALA 7KSF11/06/68S100 SIFAIA'A 7KSF12/06/68S60 SIFALA'A 7KSF13/06/68S53 5IFALA * A 7KSF14/06/68S32 SIFILAVA 7KSF10/06/68S40 3 I G I L I 2 BOAT SHELL 4W2619 3.IKIFAIFU 5L7AA 31NOLO 4F SINU 4F 7KSF13/06/68Y18 5ISI DAI 2FL AT-TAILED TRIGGER-FISH 3ABALISTES STELLARIS 4M460 5L3FAFOILE8FAFC 3ISIAFUFU 2SP MOLLUSC 4F 5ISIFO 2DIAMCND FISH 3MONODACTYLUS ARGENTEUS 4M191 5.L3AA6AA 5 I S I L E 2SP VERY S M A l l MOLLUSC 4F 3ISILE1 2BARNACLES CFRDTA 4F 5TOMIKAFC 5L1AA 3UKA I OIA1 2MITRA 3MITRA EPISCOPALIS 4W1385 9TO BORE HOLES IN CANOE PLANKS 5UKA I OLA2 2TEREBRA 3TEREBRA TIGRINA 4W2129 9TC BORE HOLES IN CANOE PLANKS 1  0  3  5DKUB0 5 L 4 A A , 5UKURU 5 L 8 F A F O I L E 3UL A KWAKIO 2 F E A T H E R - F I N B U L L - F I S H 3HENIOCHUS ACUMINATUS 4 M 2 6 8 5 L 4 A A 7 A A 6 A A 3ULA KWAKIO 5 I 2 A H 3ULA MELA 5L4AA7MATAKWA 3ULAMELA 5L6MATAKW A 5ULIBU 5L6AA 5UNGATA 5L6MATAKWA 3UR.I I MATAKWA 2CHINAMAN F I S H 3 L U T J A N U S NEMATOPHORUS 4M194A 5 L 3 F A F O I L E 6 M A T AK5»i SURU A F I G 5 1 6 A A 3URU AKALO 5 L 6 A A SURU AKWARO 5 1 6 A A SURU GOU 2 C O L L A B E D S E A BREAM 3GYMNOCRANIUS A U D I E Y I 4 M 2 1 5 5 L 3 A A 6 A A SURU HALO 5 1 2 H SURU KEDEA=SURUKEKEDEA 5 1 4 A A SURU KEKEDEA= SU RU KEDEA SURU K E K E R O 2YELLOW T A I L E D EMPEROS 3 L E T H R I N U S MAHSENA 4M210 SURU 2 S M A l l SP OF R E E F F I S H 4 C S , F 5 L1 A A 6 A A SURU 7 K F F 0 2 / 0 5 / 6 8 Y SURU 7 K F F 0 3 / 0 5 / 6 8 Y SURU 7 K F F 2 7 / 0 4 / 6 8 Z SURU 7 K F F 2 8 / 0 4 / 6 8 Z SURU 7 K F F 2 9 / 0 4 / 6 8 Z SURU 7 K F G 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 1 SURU 7 K F 0 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 SURU 7 K F G 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 Z 3 SURU 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 3 Z 1 SURU 7 K S F 1 2 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 3 1 SURU 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 6 Z 2 0 SUSU'AU 2 S P M O L L U S C , L I M P E T 4 F SUSUBORA 5 L 1 1 6MANGBOVE SUSUBORA 5L6MATAKWA  l f J  DOLPHIN  91-11  5USUBU 2COCKRGACH 3 B L A T I D A E 4H 5USUKA I OLA1 2 M I T R A S H E L L 3 M I T R I D A E 4W1385 SUSUKA I O L A 2 2 T E R E B R A S H E L L 3 T E R E B R A T I G R I N A 4W2129 SUSUKA I O L A 3 2 T E R E B R A 4W26 19 5 1 1 0 3USUR.I=SURI 11.8151 rABANGARU 2MUREX 3MUREX E R I N A C E U S 4W1423 I A E K E A 20.LIVE S H E L L 3 0 1 1 V A P O B P H Y B I A 4W1500 EAFIBIOGU 5L7AA rAFUIRADA KWAKWAOA 2YELLOW BANDED HUSSAR 3 L U T J A N 0 S A M A B I I I S T A F U I R A D A 2RED EMPEROR 3 L U T J A N U S S E B A E 4 M 1 9 8 516MATAKWA T A F U L U 2 S P MOLLUSC 4 F TAGAFU 5.L 1 F A F C I 1 E 6 M A T A K W A 8T T A I F A N U 5L7MATAKWA T A I F E SOBO 5L7MATAKWA TAIFE 5L11 6DOLPHIN 9L11 T A K A L A D E 2 T R I B A C N A CLAM 3 T B I C A D N A G I G A S 4 H 3 1 , W 2 6 1 9 9C TAKWALAO 1 1 3 9 6 7 , 1 0 1 3 TAKWALAO 2 S P OF R E E F F I S H 4F 5.L8FAFOILE TAKWALAO 7 K S F 1 1 / 0 6 / 6 8 Y 1 1 TAKWALAO 7 K S F 1 2 / Q 6 / 6 8 Z 1 0 TAKWANI BEBOBERO 2 S T A R F I S H 4F TA1A=TATA1A 1 1 R 1 8 9 , 1 0 0 9 I ALA 2 S E A U R C H I N 3DIADEMA SETOSUM 4H50 TALE SAIA 5L2H TAR A BUMA 2 M O O N F I S H 3MENE M A C U L A I A 4M244 I A E A KWAGA 5 L 1 1 9 1 1 1 TABA 4 F 5 L 2 A H TASO=TATASO 4CS  4M199  IATAKALADE 2SP MOLLUSC WITH COLOURED FLESH 3TB.IDACNA 4W2619 5 L 1 0 TATASO=TASO 2HAIBBACK HERBI KG 3NEMATA10SA COME 4M68 TATASO-=TASO 5L2AH6AA TAUTI 4CS 9C TAUTU 11B191,312,995 TAUTU 2POBCUPINE FISH 3TRAGULICHTHYS J A C U I I F E R U S 4M483 8T TE K E S I DO 2SP COCKLE CF GOGOBI (USED FOB SHAVING) 3PITAR 4 F TELE 5L6AA TEREUO 5L7AA T I K I 7KSF10/06/68S20 TOBAU 5L2H 8T TOBAU 516MATAKWA TOKI 11B1108 TOKI 517AA TOLOUBU 5L6MATAKWA TOU MAANA AFE 4CS 9BIBD SPECIES TUTU 7 K S F 1 0 / 0 6 / 6 8 S 1 0 0 0 BORA 2A SP OF U CF IOKE 4F U 2SP SEA EEL 4F UA FOU 2SP OF LARGE SEA CRAB 4F UA 2GENERAL TEEM FOR A CRAB CF ALMANGC,KARU,NGUDA 4F UALA 4C 9C UASUU=TATAFELA 2VEBY LARGE REEF CRAB, GOOD EATING 4C,F 9C UBE1 2SNAIL 4W2619 5 L 1 0 UBE2 2SP MOLLUSC ABALONE CF NGSELA INOMAE 3 H A L I 0 T I S 4F 10NGWELA INOMAE UGU 4CS UGWANE 7KSF10/06/68X1 UGWANGO=UGWANO 5L1AA UGWANGO=UGWANO 5L6MATAKWA JGWANGO=UGWANO 7KFO13/06/68Y3 UGWANO=UGWANGC 7KSF12/06/68X3 JKA 4F JKAUKA 5L6AA 3LA 5L6MATAKWA JLAFO 7KFO13/06/68Y2 3LAFU A ALA 2HUMP-BACKED ROCK COD 3CROMILEPTES A L T I V E L I S 4M176 ULAFU A F I L U 2ESTUARY ROCK COD 3EPINEPHELUS TAUVINA 4M171 ULAFU BEBERO1 5L4AA7AA [JLAFU BEBERO2 2GROPER 3EPINEPHELUS LANCEOLATUS 4M172 ULAFU BEEERO3 2HONEY COMB ROCK COD 3 EPINEPHELUS HEBBA 4M173 ULAFU BERA=ULAFU BOE A 5L7AA ULAFU BORA=UIAFU BERA 2PIKEY BREAM 3MYLI0 BERDA 4M222 ULAFU BULU 2PIKEY BREAM 3MYLIC BERDA 4M222 ULAFU GOUBU 5 1 8 F A F O I L E I1AFU HAAGA 5L4AA7AA U1AFU HAOIAI 2WHITE-LINED ROCK COD 3ANYPERODON lEUCOGRAMMICDS 4M175 JLAFU KEKERO 2ELACK-TIPPED BOCK COD 3EPINEPHELUS FASCIATUS 4M170 ULAFU NGUNGU 517AA JLAFU RAFU 5L4AA7AA JLAFU1 2SPECKIED PUG 3TANDYA MACULATA 4M323,CS 5L1AA4AA 8T JLAFU2 2SP LARGE F I S H UP TO 6 FT. LONG, BROWN OR B1UE SPOTS, GROPER 3EPINRPHE JLAMU 2EOCK F L A G - T A I I 3KUHIIA RUPESTRIS 4M148 J1IMU 517AA JLUMAEO 2KE1P SEA PERCH 31U1JANUS COATESI 4M202 516MATAKWA 3.1UMUU 2SPOTTED J A V E L I N - F I S H 3POMADASYS HASTA 4M207 I 1 U S I A I 5I6MATAKWA JMARI 2SP MOLLUSC, B I A C K - I I P P E D PEARI 4F 7KF011/06/68S9 JME AKWEO 5 L 6 F A F O I 1 E JME BURO 5L8FA I C U E JME 11B1004 1  0  5  I ME 2BR0HN UNICORN EISH 118420,383 JME 2BROWN UNICORN P I S H 3NAS0 UNICORNIS 4M331,F 5 L 3 F A F O I L E 8 F A F O I L E JM.E 7KSF10/06/68X11Y3 JME 7KSF11/0 6/68X9 JME 7KSF12/06/68/X4 JME 7 K S F 1 3 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 1 5 JME 7 K S F 1 4 / 0 6 / 6 8 X 1 1 JMEA1 2GIANT TH8EADFIN 3ELEUTHERONEMA TETRADACTYLUM 4H400 5L1AA JMEA2 2HAMILTCN«S ANCHOVY 3THRISS0CIES HAMILTON! 4M63 JMEA3 2THREADFIN 3POLYNEMUS 4F,M460,402,403 5L1AA JMEA4 5L2AH JMEUME 5 L 8 F A F G I L E JNANASI=UNASI 5L6AA JNASI=UNANASI 7KFG10/06/68X1Y4 9KFC10/06/68 JNASIBALE 5L4AA JNGADA 5L6MATAKWA JNU UNU DOU'I ALO 2FLAT-SIDFD GARFISH 3HEMIRAMPHUS WELSBYI 4M109 5L3AA JNU UNU 0 OTO 2SP00N-FIN GARFISH 3ZENARCHOPTERUS DISPAR 4M110 UNU UNU TAMARA 2BLACK-EAREFB GARFISH 3HEMIRAPHUS FAR 4M108 JNU UNU 2GARFISH 4M,F 5L1AA UNU UNU 5L7AA UNU UNU 7KSF10/06/68Z10 JNU 2IGWANA 4W2619 UNUBULU 11R906 JNUBULU 5L116MATAKHA 6CO MMON DOLPHIN 9L11 3 NUDGLA 5L7AA BNUDOLA 7KFO13/06/68Y4Z20 LTNUDOLA 7KSF 1 1/06/68X7 UNUDOLO 5L2H JRA GWAUBOU 2SV CRAYFISH I N ROCKS 4F USA NI ONE 2SP SMALL CRAYFISH I N SAND 4F 5L7AA JRA 2CRAYFISH 4F 10DENGE URAFOU1 2LANG0USTE 4L591 5L SFAFOILE DRAF0U2 2SPINY LOBSTER 3PALINURUS VULGARIS 4W1265 URUBULU 5L6MATAKW A URUGWOU 2SP VERY LARGE GREEN AND ELACK CRAYFISH ON OUTER REEF, RED ANTENNAE L USU ONE1 2 H A S S E I T S SPRAT 3CUSSUMIERIA H A S S E L T I I 4M70 5L4AA7AA USUFATA=USUUSUFATA 5L7AA USUUSUFATA=UAUFATA 5L4AA7AA USUUSUFATA=USUFATA 5L4AA7AA UUFIAU 5L6MATAK8A WANE A S I 2 SE A SNAKE 4F WASAKI 2SP OCTCPUS 4F IAWARI 4F 8ERESERE 2SP MOLLUSC 3CONUS 4F ,  $C0PY  *SKIP  APPENDIX I I  LAU NAME  • AGAFOLA AIFATARAO AIFATARAO AIFATARAO AKWA'AKWA AKWANGO AKWANIABA AKWANIA3A ALAHA OR ALASA AL ASA OR ALAHA ALATE BARO ALI UBERE A L I A ' I KAFO ALINGA ALINGA ALINGA ALUKWAGA ALULU ALUSA ANGAFA ANGAFA HANGA ANGAFA HANGA ANGILI ARAOO AREARE GOFALA AREARE KEDEA BA•AA HAULA BABALI BABALU BUAMENA BAEKWA BAEKWA BAEKWA BAEKWA BAEKWA BAEKWA BAEKWA BAEKWA BAEKWA BAEKWA BAEKWA BAEKWA BAEKWA BAEKWA BAEKWA BAEKWA BAEKWA BAEKWA BAEKWA BAEKWA 8AEKWA BAEKWA BAEKWA GQULO BAEKWA I LI BAEKWA I L I BAEKWA LETO  PLATE TYPE CO BW BW BW CO BW BW CO CO CO CO CO CO CO BW BW BW BW BW CO CO' CO CO BW BW CO CO CO CO CO BW BW BW BW BW . BW BW BW BW BW BW BW BW • BW BW BW BW BW BW BW BW BW BW BW BW BW  PLATE F I S H NO, NO. 55 39 59 64 61 51 36 19 20 07 07 30 31 08 49 50 50 38 30 06 45 45 45 50 19 44 44 54 48 65 02 02 04 04 04 05 05 05 0505 05 06 06 06 06 06 08 08 10 10 10 11 07 03 03 07  400 246 436 491A 431 355 208 196 198A 142 142 235 236 148 350A 352A 352B 240 146 112 297 303A 303 8 353 079 295 294 382 319A 460 001 002 005 006 007 008 009 010 Oil 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 025 026 031 032 033 034 019 003 004 021  COMMENT  108  A RIVER F I S H 491B TOP VIEW  JUVENILE  JUV.NO NAME GIV FOR ADULT JUVENILE ADULT  JUVENILE ADULT  MALE  BAEKWA LETO BW BAEKWA LETO BW BAEKWA LETO BW BEBE ' CO BEBE CO BEBE AOEKWALAO CO BEBE FAKASUSU CO BEBE GOGOA CO BEBE SULUKWAKIO CO BEBE*I FURAI FONU CO BELAFA BW BERAGWASU CO BERAKAI CO BIBILA BW BIBILA BW BIBILA CO B I B I L A DOU BW B I L A U ' I MALAU CO B I N ! MALAU CO BO' E BW BO«E NI ALO BW BOKOFU BW BOKOFU BW BOKOFU NIDUBOLA BW BOKOFU REREO BW BOKOFU REREO*I KAFO CO BORABORA CO BUBU BABALU BW BUBU KEKEDEA CO BUBU'I DAI CO BUBUKORU BW 3UBULU CO BURASI OR AMERA CO DALUMA BW DALUMA BW DALUMA CO DALUMA CO DALUMA CO DALUMA CO DALUMA'I SURU BW DALUMA'I SURU BW DAMULI KOA BW DIADIA BW DORU CO DORU CO DORU NI ONE CO DOU BW DOU CO EDAEDA BW EOAEOA A L I 1IN.BW EDAEDA UGU'UGU 8IN.BW ELUELV BW FAERO CO FAERO CO' FAKAGOLA BW FALATA CO FALI BW FALI CO FALI CO FALI CO  07 07 09 38 39 36 36 37 35 37 46 49 09 32 55 9 33 14 49 62 62 25 25 24 24 05 29 62 66 65 51 66 48 62 62 70 70 71 71 62 62 33 47 59 59 60 30 04 38 38 38 39 11 18 62 50 14 01 01 02  022 023 030B 266 269 261 262 265 258 263 326 328 149 154 398 150 161 174 32 5 476 782 110 111 102 105 103 232 459 462 458 357 461 319A 468 474 477 479 480 481 475 478 178 338 A 426 42 7 141 66 237 237 237 245 164 195B 459 335 044 43 A 43 B 47  109  CQNFLICTiFAKAGOLA CONFLlCTiSISIDAI? CONFLICT:BABALI  CONFLICT:8ILU?  ADULT CQNFLICT:BUBU BABALU ?  110 ADULT JUVENIE  CQNFLICT:GWARI TALINE?  G0UG3URADA=G0G0URADA?  CH ? ? ? CONFLICT:GAFAU?  GWIAGWIA AND/OR GOUGORU?  ADULT NO NAME GVN FOR JUV HANGA? NOT CERTAIN  COLOUR D I F F MARKED 471 472 BUT SIMILAR MORPHQLOG. JUV.NO NAME GVN FOR ADULT  393  111  386  388 389 394 39 5 188 70 069 287 330  197 087 182 289 358 169 231 61 239  194 221 222 166 167 317 329 278  319B  NOT ARAGWALA BEC OF SPOT  SIM SEEMS MORPHOL:221 2 2 2  FEMALE  304 324 298 301 302 157 441 444 445 446 447 448 450 451 449 452 203  242  NO MORPHQLOG SIM TO 2 0 3  280 283 241  233 318 175  227 209 333 334 158 101 489  MUMU=MUUMUU?  363  DORU NI ONE ?  112  106  110 195A 143 198B 251 244 250 249 465 467 469 457 466 458191 238A 268 332 215 213 210  JUVENILE ADULT NO. 1 GIVEN BY ALUTA NO.2 GIVEN BY ALUTA SAFU ONI=SAFU ONE? COLOUR D I F F MARKED 4 6 5 , 7 , 9 BUT S I M I L A R MORPHOLOG*  CONFLI CT:BUBU*I DAI? JUVENILE NO ADULT SHOWN CONFLICT:TATAFIRIOGOU? F I S H LIST  ID AS MOUA HALO  211  212 217  219 035 037 038 039 108 268 68 484 483 118 168 323 176 171  173 160 408 170 202 331 62 63 402 220 238 107 109 116 094 097 098 099 100  CONFL I GT : KAIFESQRO?  CONFLICT:SULAKWAKIO?  INFO FROM F I S H L I S T  APPENDIX I I I  114  Key  t o some a d d i t i o n a l  f i s h named by Lau informants b e l o n g i n g to  upper l e v e l taxon ' i a .  la.  lb.  C l s s s Name: mamula F i s h Name: edaeda B i o l o g i c a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n : Ulua m a n d i b u l a r i s (Family: Sub-Family: Caranginae) Common Name: Cale-Cale T r e v a l l y Size: 13.1 inches C l a s s Name: mamula F i s h Name: uugu B i o l o g i c a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n : Ulua m a n d i b u l a r i s ( F a m i l y : Sub-Family: Caranginae) Common Name: Cale-Cale T r e v a l l y Size: 10.5 i n c h e s  Carangidae;  Carangidae;  C l a s s Name: suru F i s h Name: suru akwaro B i o l o g i c a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n : Family: Lut.janidae; Sub-Family: L e t h r i n i n a e ; genus unknown Common Name: unknown 9.6 i n c h e s Size: C l a s s Name: bubu F i s h Name: bubukwao B i o l o g i c a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n : Family: Balistidae Common Name: unknown Size: 6.0 i n c h e s C l a s s Name: unknown F i s h Name: mela B i o l o g i c a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n : unknown Common Name: unknown Size: 6.0 i n c h e s C l a s s Name: F i s h Name: Biological Identification: Common Name: Size:  muu muu s i o unknown unknown 8.4 i n c h e s  115  C l a s s Name: ooa F i s h Name: hahango B i o l o g i c a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n : F a m i l y : L u t j a n i d a e ; Sub-Family: genus unknown Common Name: unknown Size: 7.4 i n c h e s  Lut.janinae;  C l a s s Name: F i s h Name: Biological Identification: Common Name: Size:  unknown a alano unknown unknown 7.2 i n c h e s  C l a s s Name: F i s h Name: Biological Identification: Common Name: Size:  unknown falata Siganus l i n e a t u s G o l d e n - l i n e d s p i n e f o o t (Family: 13.4 i n c h e s  C l a s s Name: F i s h Name: Biological Identification: Common Name: Size:  unknown leto unknown unknown 10.4 inches  C l a s s Name: F i s h Name: Biological Identification: Common Name: Size:  kuhurubulu kuhurubulu r a r a s i f o u unknown unknown 12.9 i n c h e s  C l a s s Name: F i s h Name: Biological Identification: Common Name: Size:  ulafu haolai Sewanidae: genus unknown Family: unknown 13.2 i n c h e s  C l a s s Name: F i s h Name: Biological Identification: Common Name: Size:  unknown hale Lutjanus malabricus; unknown 10.0 i n c h e s  1  Family:  Acanthuridae)  Lut.janidae  116  13.  C l a s s Name: F i s h Name: Biological Identification: Common Name: Size:  kalua kalua F a m i l y : Muglidae; genus unknown unknown 15.5 i n c h e s  14.  C l a s s Name : F i s h Name: Biological Identification: Common Name: Size:  bubu daluma Family: Balistidae: unknown 20 i n c h e s  genus unknown  15.  muumuu C l a s s Name: F i s h Name: muumuu g a l a u B i o l o g i c a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n : Family: L u t j a n i d a e : Sub-Family: Nemipterinae ; genus unknown unknown Common Name: 20 inches Size:  16.  C l a s s Name: F i s h Name: Biological Identification: Common Name: Size:  17a.  suru C l a s s Name: surukekero F i s h Name: L u t j a n i d a e ; Sub-Family: B i o l o g i c a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n : Family: genus unknown unknown Common Name: 7.6 i n c h e s Size:  mara mara ngwangwao Family: C a l l y o n t i d a e ; genus unknown unknown 10 i n c h e s  17b.  C l a s s Name: F i s h Name: Biological Identification: Common Name: Size:  raemae raemae b a r a unknown unknown 8.3 i n c h e s  18.  C l a s s Name: F i s h Name: Biological Identification: Common Name: Size:  unknown leleko Family: S p a r i d a e ; genus unknown unknown 17.2 i n c h e s  Lethrininae;  117  Other marine organisms —  taxonomic s t a t u s undetermined — see  text.  1.  L a u Name: na l i t i u Common Name: horseshoe crab B i o l o g i c a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n : unknown Class: karu; taxonomic s t a t u s undetermined  2.  L a u Name: ura fou Common Name: crayfish B i o l o g i c a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n : unknown Class: u r a ; taxonomic s t a t u s undetermined  118  PLATE 2  119  PLATE 4  120  PLATE 6  121  PLATE 8  122  PLATE 10  PLATE 12  124  PLATE 14  125  PLATE 16  PLATE 18  OTHER MARINE ORGANISMS TAXONOMIC STATUS UNDETERMINED  128  PLATE  1  PLATE 2  

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