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Blake’s printing house in hell : metaphors of illuminated printing in the poetic works of William Blake Kobelka, Eugene John Dmitri 1976

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BLAKE'S PRINTING HOUSE IN HELL: METAPHORS OF ILLUMINATED PRINTING IN THE POETIC WORKS OF WILLIAM BLAKE  by  EUGENE JOHN DMITRI KOBELKA B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1972 •I  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Department of English We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming required  to the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1976  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e  for  I agree  for  that  r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood that copying o r  of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l written  g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  publication  Columbia  ABSTRACT  W i l l i a m B l a k e was a poet,  and  poetry.  he  an  literally  I t i s easy  artist  and  t o see  concerned  of poetry,  s i n c e f o r him,  with  t h a t , as  primarily  illuminated o f h i s work. yet  form  physical  o f the  famous i l l u m i n a t e d  the  things.  vocabulary,  form  at the metaphors  The  first  i m a g e r y , and  rhetorical  of the  attempt  thesis  discussion  i n t h e i r most m a t u r e ,  thesis  the then  t h e m e t a p h o r s as  and w i t h h i s t e c h n i c a l  attempts  early  Once t h i s  they e v o l v e  identify  forward  is  Blake's  emergence and  t o look  to  accomthe  p a t t e r n s which c h a r a c t e r i z e  i s t o look back i n t o  to p l o t  t h e s e m e t a p h o r s , and trace  veiled,  created h i s  goal i s to clearly  the  an  metaphoric  aspect  books.  h a n d l i n g of the metaphors.  in  of a c a r e f u l l y  detailed  Blake's aim  verse.  literary  o f p r o d u c t i o n by w h i c h he  looking f i r s t  two  was  i n the production of h i s  most f u l l y - d e v e l o p e d e x p r e s s i o n , t h i s plish  o f h i s works  e x p r e s s i o n i n the  c o n s i s t e n t and  actual stages  By  finds  fun-  of h i s books  the c o n t e n t of the  interest  as of  B l a k e was  the  There i t takes  surprisingly  artist,  production  artistic  books a l s o  an  the p h y s i c a l  as much a p a r t o f t h e i r m e a n i n g as this  as w e l l  made as w e l l as w r o t e h i s b o o k s  damentally  But  a craftsman  accomplished, early  development  poetry of  t o h i s l a t e r work  to  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h h i s myth  experimentation.  I n t h e e a r l y work "The  Tyger,"  ii  Blake  is clearly  infusing  h i s d e v e l o p i n g myth w i t h  the elements  duction, but at this  early  metaphoric  available  potential  w r i t i n g The M a r r i a g e make f u l l America, The  t o him.  I t i s i n the course of  o f H e a v e n and H e l l  that Blake  of their  and i n t h e s u b s e q u e n t  detail,  theless,  the general p a t t e r n s of Blake's  testament  production  and  steadily  But b e f o r e  f o r h i m and i n t h e l a t e r  frequency w i t h which they  — a  work o f  Blake  c a r e e r , t h e m e t a p h o r s p e r s e seemed t o l o s e  interest  remain  printing  and f r e q u e n c y .  relative  production  begins t o  The Book o f U r i z e n , The Book o f A h a n i a ,  i n coherence,  ended h i s p o e t i c  of pro-  i s not y e t tapping the  Book o f L o s t h e m e t a p h o r s o f i l l u m i n a t e d  increase  part  stage, Blake  use o f t h e metaphors, Europe,  of h i s process  as i m p o r t a n t  of the fact  occur drops  exerted a fundamental  iii  markedly.  process  structural  that Blake's  poem M i l t o n , t h e  influence  o f book r e -  elements  physical  Never-  o f t h e poem  techniques of  on h i s p o e t i c  vision.  CONTENTS  Chapter  I. II. III. IV.  Page  INTRODUCTION  1  THE BOOK OF URI2EN  12  THE POETRY BEFORE URIZEN  39  THE POETRY AFTER URIZEN  77  NOTES  102  BIBLIOGRAPHY  118  iv  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS following page 101  1.  Frontispiece to Europe, Copy L.  2.  Plate 5 of The Book of Urizen, Copy G.  3.  Plate 6 of The Marriage of Heaven and H e l l , Copy D.  4.  Plate 14 of The Marriage of Heaven and H e l l , Copy Ii.  5.  Plate 1 of Milton, Copy B.  6.  Plate 45 of Milton, Copy B [Plate 50 i n Copy D] .  v  NOTE ON CITATIONS  All  quotations of Blake's  of W i l l i a m Blake, (Garden C i t y ,  works a r e from  e d . D a v i d V. Erdman,  N.Y.: D o u b l e d a y ,  have c h a n g e d Erdman's s q u a r e  1970).  brackets  The P o e t r y  4th p r i n t i n g r e v . On a few o c c a s i o n s I [thus]  <thus) t o a v o i d c o n f u s i o n w i t h my own s q u a r e quote from text, been  t h e N o t e b o o k on page  except  forellipsis.  and P r o s e  t o angle brackets.  79 i s v e r b a t i m  brackets The  as i n Erdman's  The f o l l o w i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s have  used:  A  America:  A Prophecy  Ah  The Book o f All an i a  E  The P o e t r y and P r o s e ed. D a v i d Erdman  E  Europe: A Prophecy  IM  An I s l a n d i n t h e Moon  BL  The Book o f L o s  M  Milton  MIIH  The M a r r i a g e  ST.  Songs o f I n n o c e n c e  U  The Book o f U r i z e n  VLJ  A Vision  of William  o f Heaven and H e l l  o f t h e L a s t Judgement  vi  Blake,  . . . I am under the d i r e c t i o n o f Messengers from Heaven D a i l y & N i g h ' l y but the nature o f such t h i n g s i s not as some suppose, without trouble or care. Temptations a r e on the r i g h t hand & l e f t behind the sea o f time & space r o a r s & f o l l o w s s w i f t l y he who keeps not r i g h t onward i s l o s t & i f our f o o t s t e p s s l i d e i n c l a y how can we do otherwise than f e a r & tremble. — W i l l i a m Blake i n a l e t t e r to Thomas B u t t s , January 10, 1802 (E 688)  vii  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  W i l l i a m Blake — by  trade.  with  the  thought  For Blake,  t o paper.  At  text  tiser  and  every  aspect  and  Blake  took  bare  of the paper.  i n k he  had  and  printed  hand.  form, s t r u c t u r e ,  of h i s experience  and  content  d i s c u s s i n g t h e way  and  leave  their  for unlike of of  adver-  verse the  mixed,  and  and  fact  then  coloured  before  of Blake's  life  producing  a m a j o r i n f l u e n c e on  the  as  his ultimate  poems.  l e t us n o t be  a direct  com-  copperplates  manufacture  of p h y s i c a l l y  form  the  t h e poems h i m s e l f  i n which Blake's  their physical  d e s i g n was  The  of those  influenced h i s poetry,  the obvious:  the  etched  p l a t e w i t h p a i n t s o f h i s own  b o o k s o f p o e t r y was  text  from  personally responsible for  g r o u n d and  illuminated  both  again,  stop  w r i t t e n work i n t o a v i s i o n  prepared  and  of  d i d not  c r e a t e d h i s books  After writing  a craftsman  duction  craftsman  As w e l l as b e i n g h i s own  h i s w i f e b i n d them by  In  a  o f h i s books' p h y s i c a l p r o d u c t i o n e x c e p t  a watercolour  having  i t up  physically  design.  the d e s i g n s , Blake  the p r i n t e d  of h i s poetry  t h e p o i n t where most p o e t s  w i t h w h i c h h i s b o o k s were p r i n t e d , with  p r o p h e t — • was  of h i s mental conception  b o o k s e l l e r , B l a k e was  manufacture posing  creation  t u r n i n g the poet's  interwoven  poet,  as a r t i s t  o t h e r major poet,  poetry,  the  successful transfer  c r e a t i v e work B l a k e any  artist,  techniques afraid  as p a i n t e d page  result  of the  of  pro-  to take  note  including  technique  of  2  production  that Blake  himself innovated.  S u c h an  elementary,  p h y s i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n i s n o t i n a p p r o p r i a t e because, technical sical  craftsman,  form  an  of imaginative visions.  interest  increasingly  ivhich B l a k e ' s  important  Indeed,  element o f h i s p o e t r y  s u b j e c t matter  inspired  concerns  songs a c h i e v e p h y s i c a l  a s "Samson" i n P o e t i c a l  own r o l e  i n them as p h y s i c a l this  primarily  i n h i s b o o k s as an e v o l v i n g a r t f o r m  part of i t s manifest  early  i n v o l v e d i n t h e phy-  o f h i s b o o k s and v e r y i n t e r e s t e d  manifestations technical  B l a k e was m i n u t e l y  as a  as p o e t / p r o p h e t  Sketches,  i t s e l f , and  t h e p r o c e s s by form.  Blake's  i s involved with  Even as  vision  the physical  d u c t i o n and, by e x t e n s i o n , d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f h i s p o e t i c "0 w h i t e - r o b e d lofty  rock with  may r e a d  Angel, iron  creation  t o t h e poem p r o p e r , takes  t h e form  to the directions  timorous  such  1  o f t h e poem i s p r e s e n t e d  of Blake  or dictation  sitting  a fairy,  proword:  a l l who  pass  the discussion as a p r e l u d e  o r i n t r o d u c t i o n , and  down t o w r i t e i n r e s p o n s e  of a s p i r i t u a l  F o r example, t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y p l a t e catching  that  Characteristically,  as a p r e l u d i u m  of h i s  h a n d t o w r i t e as on a  pens t h e words o f t r u t h ,  ("Samson," E 4 3 4 ) .  of the p h y s i c a l  often  g u i d e my  becomes  friend  or fairy.  t o Europe d e s c r i b e s Blake  symbol o f h i s p o e t i c  t o " w r i t e a b o o k on l e a v e s o f f l o w e r s "  i m a g i n a t i o n , who (E i i i : 1 4 ,  promises  E 59) a n d e n d s :  when I came I n t o my p a r l o u r and s a t down, and t o o k my p e n t o w r i t e : My F a i r y s a t upon t h e t a b l e , and d i c t a t e d EUROPE. (E i i i : 2 2 - 2 4 , E 59) This  passage f o l l o w s a p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h e d  earlier  i n Songs o f  3 Innocence. first  the  first  poem o f h i s  t r u e book o f i l l u m i n a t e d p r i n t i n g ,  Blake  self-consciously  focuses  I n what i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the reader's a t t e n t i o n  production to  o f t h e poem as he  the d i c t a t e  like  of another  on  the p r o c e s s  carefully  spiritual  of the  outlines his  friend,  this  physical response  time  a  fairy-  child: P i p e r s i t t h e e down and w r i t e I n a book t h a t a l l may r e a d So he v a n i s h ' d f r o m my s i g h t . And I p l u c k ' d a h o l l o w r e e d . And And And  I made a r u r a l p e n , I s t a i n ' d the water c l e a r , I w r o t e my happy s o n g s  Every  child  may  joy to hear  This motif of Blake's graphically operating  i n the  a s s o c i a t e d d e s i g n w h i c h shows a  a printing  account  press  this  early  and  (left  of Blake's  The  articulated  purpose  fundamental  his entire  of  t h o s e b o o k s embody a c o h e r e n t  Before discussing  thesis  of  developed  c a n o n , and  the Blake's  throughout  production  the  length  t h a t t h e d e s i g n and  and  detailed  of i l l u m i n a t e d  the d e t a i l s  from  i s t o show t h a t  concern with the p h y s i c a l  of  of h i s process  panel  t h e poem's q u a i n t ,  description  of t h i s  h i s b o o k s i s s u s t a i n e d and illuminated  third  figure  process of p r o d u c t i o n are  of  account  hand s i d e ,  T h i s d e s i g n and  p r e c u r s o r s o f a more f u l l y p r i n t i n g methods.  13-20,E  1  process of production i s r e i n f o r c e d  the t o p , c o p i e s I & V ) . idealized  ( " I n t r o d u c t i o n , ' 11.  text  metaphorical  printing.  of Blake's  techniques  of  7)  4  printing,  and  before explicating  t h a t p r o c e s s , i t must be d i d not  abstracted  By  t h a t he  used  the s t a r t  Blake's  d e n i e d him  assuming complete  his vision  accounts  o f p r o d u c t i o n as  of the a r t i s t  p r o d u c t i o n and  realized  techniques  role  position.  the p h y s i c a l  distribution  of t o t a l  that a  Blake  strictly  integrated  such  a  vision  comfortable,  responsibility  of h i s p o e t i c a l  artistic  of  for texts,  e x p r e s s i o n , and  the  i n p r o d u c i n g h i s b o o k s a r e as much a  p a r t o f t h e i r m e a n i n g as mattev  from  o r n e u t r a l means t o an end.  of the u n i f i e d  Blake  emphasized  l o o k upon t h e t e c h n i q u e s  technical  the m e t a p h o r i c a l  the imagery,  symbols,  c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n them, f o r as R o b e r t  and  subject  Essick. observes:  When d e a l i n g w i t h v i s u a l images we u s u a l l y assume t h a t meaning i s a f u n c t i o n of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h a t i s , t h e a r t i s t r e p r e s e n t s a l i o n , and t h e n we b e g i n t o d e t e r m i n e what a l i o n s i g n i f i e s i n t h i s or t h a t i c o n i c language. B u t m e a n i n g c a n a l s o be a f u n c t i o n of s t y l e or technique.3 Essick  is referring  specifically  t h e p o i n t i s as  applicable  books.  unique  Blake's  to the t e x t  part  In o p p o s i t i o n to Blake's  relief  mented c o m m e r c i a l  printing p l a t e was  integrated  the  text  resulting  and  the  system  of  design  from  the s p e c i a l i z e d  forced union  in real  books.  and  producing the s u r f a c e  therefore frag-  method o f p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e d a y .  o f p r o d u c t i o n d e p e n d s on  but  sur-  ink surfaces i s a very  of the meaning b e h i n d h i s i l l u m i n a t e d  of a s i n g l e  images,  as t o t h e d e s i g n s o f h i s  h i s method o f i n k i n g  l i n e s w i t h heavy, r e t i c u l a t e d  t h e e n t i r e book and  visual  method o f e t c h i n g away most o f t h e  f a c e o f h i s c o p p e r p l a t e s and thick  to Blake's  This  of d i s t i n c t  system  entities  5 in  the G u t t e n b e r g i a n  flat  forms w i t h  c o u p l i n g o f conventional type s e t i n  the o c c a s i o n a l i n t a g l i o engraving  when t h e book was b o u n d .  In Blake's  pernicious  s p e c i a l i z e d method o f p r o d u c t i o n  result  of this  eyes,  inserted  was t h e g r a d u a l l o w e r i n g o f e n g r a v e r s role  as c r e a t i v e  hacks,  artists  t o the p o s i t i o n  of production.  apprenticeship  Blake's  i n t h e methods o f I t a l i a n  t h e p o i n t home, and i n t i m e  style  of engraving  r e a s o n s were a t l e a s t concerns tation  and t e c h n i c a l  techniques  eyes  a l l that  "doctrinal"  as a e s t h e t i c  and e c o n o m i c  Blake's  i n n o v a t i o n t h a t produced  of that  experimen-  a method t h a t i s  the opposite of i n t a g l i o engraving  and i n i t s v e r y  and s t a g e s o f p r o d u c t i o n embodies many o f B l a k e ' s  o f a r t and v i s i o n . ^ Given  important  that  the p h y s i c a l  techniques  to Blake, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g  o f h i s p o e t r y he d i s c u s s e s t h e d e t a i l s cations before  seven-year  reproductive engraving  These  i n p r o v i d i n g t h e Impetus b e h i n d  technically  of a  the very techniques  against.'*  as i m p o r t a n t  original  assembly-line  came t o r e p r e s e n t i n B l a k e ' s  a s an a r t i s t was r e a c t i n g  t h e most  o f mere r e p r o d u c t i v e  own e x p e r i e n c e  drove  ideas  their  t h e cogs i n t h e wheels o f a mechanized,  process  he  from  perhaps  o f h i s unique t h i s metaphoric  process  to find  that  i n much  and e x p l o r e s t h e r a m i f i -  o f book r e p r o d u c t i o n .  discussion  a b a s i c knowledge o f B l a k e ' s  o f p r o d u c t i o n were s o  c a n be i n t e l l i g i b l y  etching, painting,  However, explicated,  and c o l o u r i n g  techniques  i s required.  A l l of the following  details  ofh i s  techniques  are important  i n r e c o g n i z i n g and " t r a n s l a t i n g " t h e  6 metaphorical of  language t h a t Blake  illuminated Blake  raving,  uses t o d i s c u s s h i s p r o c e s s  printing.  experimented  and e a r l y  w i t h most forms o f e t c h i n g and e n g -  on was i n t e r e s t e d  a r e p r o d u c t i v e engraver  t o develop  i n using h i s training an e c o n o m i c a l l y  method o f r e p r o d u c i n g h i s own b o o k s . a prose  etched  viable  An I s l a n d i n t h e Moon,  s a t i r e w r i t t e n when B l a k e was t w e n t y - s e v e n ,  a fragmentary  contains  r e f e r e n c e t o a scheme o f r e p r o d u c i n g b o o k s  copperplates.  passage begins  as  Part of the manuscript  i s lost,  from  and t h i s  abruptly:  them I l l u m i n a t i n g t h e M a n u s c r i p t . . . . T h e n s a i d he I w o u l d have a l l t h e w r i t i n g E n g r a v e d i n s t e a d o f P r i n t e d & a t every other leaf a high f i n i s h d p r i n t a l l i n three Volumes f o l i o , & s e l l them a h u n d r e d pounds a p i e c e , t h e y w o u l d P r i n t o f f two t h o u s a n d . . . (IMx, E 456) This  technique  Blake  continued  several years.  still  treats  text  t o wrestle with  and d e s i g n  the problem over  I n 1787, t h r e e y e a r s  after  Moon was w r i t t e n , B l a k e ' s  b r o t h e r Robert  Robert's  the o r i g i n a l  spirit Blake  spirit—probably  the next  An I s l a n d i n t h e  died.  Blake  said  of the d i c t a t i n g  that  child-  o f t h e " I n t r o d u c t i o n " t o Songs o f I n n o c e n c e — a p p e a r e d t o and i n s t r u c t e d  t e x t t h a t i s today  him i n t h e t e c h n i q u e  One o f B l a k e ' s  relief  way as t h e common r u b b e r printed  d e s i g n and  making.  plates prints  stamp.  which  i n basically  The w o r d s o r d e s i g n  a p p e a r i n r e v e r s e on t h e r a i s e d  the spaces  of p r i n t i n g  r e c o g n i z e d a s a t r u e i n n o v a t i o n and B l a k e ' s  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the a r t o f p r i n t  and  separately, but  a r e t o appear white  t h e same  t o be  surface of a copperplate on t h e f i n i s h e d  print  7  are r e c e s s e d so t h a t the i n k . from  only the surface  When p r e s s e d o n t o  the p l a t e side  plate  i s commonly r e f e r r e d  around.  Eighteenth Century, graver's  rather  Beaten  hardened  (In Blake's metaphoric t o as a cave  and even  than r o l l e d  copper  he  on t h e p a g e  language  o r a rock.)  an e n g r a v i n g t o o l  the Twentieth Century, eno r hammered  to a certain  i s cutting  copper  tends  a curve.  into the required  gauge a s t h e y a r e  identifies  the s u r f a c e  fact  i n one d i r e c t i o n , the a r t i s t  i s significant  the f i n i s h  i s more c r u c i a l  i n intaglio  of a copperplate i s prepared f o r r e l i e f i t to a fine,  B l a k e would w r i t e h i s t e x t  sheet o f paper,  perhaps  When t h e p a p e r was s o a k e d  printing,  on a s p e c i a l l y  on t h e p l a t e , w r i t t e n  the text  finish.  as s t o p p i n g treated  i n gum  t h e paper w i t h the t e x t  o f f i n water,  on t h e d e s i g n a r o u n d  as a  etching or  on t o p o f t h e c o p p e r p l a t e , and b o t h were s e n t t h r o u g h  brushed  Blake  mirror-like  one t h a t h a d b e e n s o a k e d  c o p p e r p l a t e was t h e n h e a t e d ,  appeared  when  since  T h e n , u s i n g some f o r m o f a c i d - r e s i s t e n t medium s u c h out v a r n i s h ,  in a l l  I o f The Book o f A h a n i a .  i n t a g l i o e n g r a v i n g by p o l i s h i n g  resist  i t i s  t h e c o p p e r p l a t e i n h i s metaphors  " b e a t e n mass," as i n C h a p t e r Although  i s softer  t o r u n away f r o m  This  copper-  In the  b y t h e b e a t i n g and becomes u n i f o r m l y r e s i s t e n t  occasionally  The  this  i s p r e f e r r e d by e n g r a v e r s because  d i r e c t i o n s , whereas r o l l e d and  into  receives  the ink i s transferred  and d e s i g n a p p e a r  c o p p e r p l a t e s were b e a t e n  thickness today.  the paper,  and t h e l e t t e r s  right  o f the p l a t e  arabic. laid  the press.  i n the acid  i n reverse.  Blake  t h e t e x t I n t h e same r e s i s t  then and t h e  8  p l a t e was t h e n r e a d y t o b e e t c h e d . The laborious perly  actual  etching  s t a g e i n B l a k e ' s method o f p r o d u c t i o n .  prepared,  t h e c o p p e r p l a t e was submerged  what i s g e n e r a l l y acid).  was p e r h a p s t h e m o s t t e d i o u s and  liquid  assumed t o h a v e b e e n aqua f o r t i s  appropriately,  which d i s s o l v e s  fire:  fire  water,  w h i c h p r o d u c e h e a t b u t no l i g h t the chemical reaction with  coursa, plate  colourless  the surface  (nitric  intents colour  the p l a t e ) .  Nitric  i s , of  b u t as i t r e a c t s  with a  without  nitric  dioxide,  as a l i n e  first  etching  surface  brushed  away; B l a k e r e f e r s  that  "according  In f a c t , f o r a l l bluish  i n solution, for When e t c h i n g  retard  bubbles which the action  t o thsm m e t a p h o r i c a l l y  Blake:  The A r t i s t ,  t o the temperature  w h i c h t h e b i t i n g was b e i n g done, i t w o u l d  with This  form around t h e  of the acid  i n The Book o f A h a n i a  h i s h e l p f u l book W i l l i a m  a r e ex-  a noxious gas, i s produced.  of small  and w i l l  unnatural production"  left  not bite properly.  appears  estimates  properties  always have t h i s  copper i s always  i tthe acid w i l l  aqua f o r t i s ,  and a f t e r i t has  b e a d a r k muddy b l u e / g r e e n .  a little  warm  acid  and i t s c o r r o s i v e  and purposes t h e a c i d w i l l since  and f i r e s  ( t h e a c i d becomes q u i t e  i t assumes a f a i n t b l u i s h g r e e n t i n g e  hausted, i t w i l l  of this  of the plate i s ,  rivers of fire,  i n i t s pure s t a t e ,  e t c h e d numerous p l a t e s  pro-  i n a bath of  B l a k e ' s most common m e t a p h o r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n  consuming  in  Once  i f not  a s "Eggs o f  (3:10, E 8 4 ) . I n Ruthven Todd o f t h e room i n  take  from about s i x  9  to  eight hours"'  eternity."  Although  attention, few  examination  resist,  and  so  America  t h e p l a t e was  acid with  i s most e v i d e n t on poetry,  book o f i r o n , Blake's acid  are  relief  called  i n k i n g were n o t  a p p l i e d by  without  placing press  the  the  Blake  Songs o f  or c l i f f .  not  acid  (This  resist  plates.)^  i s often called  areas the  created  bitten  i n by  p l a t e on  to reduce the  top,  the  manner.  Rollers  Century, the  Blake  pressure.  passing The  and  ink  to  ball  apparently  of ink to a blank  then  the  These s u r f a c e s of  the N i n e t e e n t h  coat  by  the  ingenious  surfaces.  the  surface of  g r e a t enough t o a l l o w  recessed  the  touching  Innocence  landscape  while  up  occasionally refine  tool.  recessed  until  touched  re-  at a l l times.^  would  i n the  i n an  and  p r i n t e d , the  copperplate  applying a thin  relief  adjusted  hand  and  or v a l l e y s ,  i n use  and  t h e u s u a l method o f a d a u b e r o r p r i n t e r ' 3  smearing  t h e p r o b l e m by  on  an e n g r a v i n g  inked  t h e d e p t h o f b i t i n g was be  inked  images, the  c o p p e r p l a t e were t h e n  experiments  periodically  t o be  p l a t e becomes a h i l l  every  apparently  etched  furrows  away  fragment, Blake  or a l t e r n a t i v e l y ,  metaphoric  and  constant  Experience  some o f The  the  brushed  of  of  removed f r o m t h e p l a t e and  In Blake's  for  Innocence  t h a t someone had  t h e work o f t h e up  Songs o f  the  require  t o John Wright's  p l a t e from the b a t h  Before was  w o u l d h a v e t o be  according  o f The  electrotypes  a•single p l a t e : — " t h e labours  the p l a t e would not  the bubbles  m i n u t e s and  moved t h e  to etch  solved  plate,  them t h r o u g h  p l a t e s were  a  then  10  separated, act  with  the  relief  plate being  of separation producing  teristic  of Blake's  After  i n k i n g , Blake  t h e p l a t e was  laid  most o f B l a k e ' s plates,  inked  Blake  the  was  ready  i n the bed  of the  requires very  little  into  the  fissures  taken  from the while  rollers being  i n the  p l a t e are  The  common h o u s e h o l d  laid,  press:  and  two  runs  In B l a k e ' s  a pale desert  p r i n t e d page i s t h e n  (the  the  printed  at t h i s  stage  t e x t and  the  of the process  outline  by  copperplate.  of  be  Two bed  impression to  is  a  landscape,  a l o u d rumble (the p r i n t )  the of sud-  page).  separated  f r o m i t s m i r r o r image on  the  pressure  similar  metaphoric  t h u n d e r as b l a c k w i n d s o f p e r t u r b a t i o n  only  plate,  copper.  when an  i s often associated with  monochromes,- and  the  large horizontal  rolling  The  on  or  plates.^  a f l a t metal  of p r i n t i n g  sweep o v e r  press  a great deal of  operation i s therefore very  mangle.  relief  s u r f a c e o f the p l a t e  process  denly  Although  relief,  exerted  s u r f a c e of the  between w h i c h t h e p l a t e bed  pulled.  not  and  i n t a g l i o p l a t e s i n c e t h e p a p e r must  main elements c h a r a c t e r i z e a r o l l i n g on w h i c h p a p e r and  the  charac-  a rolling  for intaglio,  pressure, an  and  impression  plate press.  actual p r i n t i n g with  impression  required to p r i n t  forced  an  i l l u m i n a t e d books are p r i n t e d from  d i d the  a relief  surface  to p u l l  e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e i s the p r e s s u r e  since  is  reticulated  inked  lines.  p l a t e press which i s designed The  cleanly  stage  the  pulling Blake  generally  paper would  the d e s i g n .  of p r o d u c t i o n , Blake  i t away  In the  contain  penultimate  " f l e s h e d out"  the  11  d e s i g n and t e x t b y h a n d - p a i n t i n g t h e page w i t h w a t e r c o l o u r s , sometimes h e i g h t e n e d w i t h g o l d w a s h e s . description minated  book  gradually nerves  (print  of  to life  a page  physical  form,  Blake  landscape  illubody  human b o n e s and  flesh  f i l l e d out grows  imagery,  over  the p a i n t i n g  d e s c r i b e d as i n t e n s e and c o l o u r f u l  and b r i n g i n g fires  o f a human  are gradually  and c o l o u r f u l  i n Blake's  i s sometimes  the c r e a t i v e  and l i n e a r  o f design)  as l i v i n g  Alternatively,  sweeping through as  s h a p e as s t a r k  and o u t l i n e  metaphoric  s t a g e s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f an  i s o f t e n embedded i n an a c c o u n t  taking  and b r o u g h t them.  of the l a t e r  Blake's  life  to a pale desert.  s u b s i d e d and t h e book occasionally  flames  Finally,  achieved i t s f i n a l  had h i s w i f e c o m p l e t e i t s  p h y s i c a l p r o d u c t i o n by b i n d i n g t h e p a g e s b y  hand.^  CHAPTER I I THE BOOK OF  URIZEN  A l t h o u g h t h e m e t a p h o r s o f i l l u m i n a t e d p r i n t i n g emerge quite  early i n Blake's poetic  career,  phorical  treatment of the process  includes  a l l the stages o f production  Urizen.  We  shall  see t h a t  metaphors g e n e r a l l y  the f i r s t  full  meta-  of i l l u m i n a t e d p r i n t i n g which occurs  i n The Book o f  i n t h e poems b e f o r e  oocur i n d i s c r e t e , o f t e n  Urizen,  isolated units  o f t h e poem s u c h as a "Memorable F a n c y " o r a p r e l u d i u m , treat at  only  best,  the  i n d i v i d u a l stages o f the process  only  incomplete  c e n t r a l poetry  and,  that  i t contains  metaphors, there Urizen,  the f i r s t  fully  developed  presentation  i s a problem i n d i s c u s s i n g  of the  t h e metaphors i n  the s t r u c t u r e  enforce  until  Yet i n s p i t e of the f a c t  fully-developed  and i t i s a p r o b l e m t h a t  I t i s not  or  The Book o f A h a n i a ,  The Book o f L o s t h a t  o f t h e metaphors o c c u r .  and  of production,  o f them.  o f The Book o f U r i z e n ,  t o a l e s s e r extent,  treatments  combinations  the  strategy  o f t h e poem w i l l  involves  a c a u s a l l y - l i n k e d sequence o f e v e n t s ,  and n a r r a t i v e  on any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t s u c h as a p r i n t i n g  process. The it  Book o f U r i z e n  i s the Genesis of h i s proposed  Blake,  Blake's v i s i o n of the "Bible of Hell."  t h e F a l l was n o t a u n i q u e p r i m o r d i a l  once a p r o c e s s man  transmits  and a c o n d i t i o n  today as i n the b i r t h  as p r e s e n t  of the universe  But f o r  incident.  I t i s at  i n the b i r t h eons ago.  F a l l —  o f one  It i s ,  13  if  you w i l l ,  "idea"  of the F a l l ,  so-called fall  Blake's  narrative  as seen  from  vision  of the archetypal F a l l ,  that i s presented simply  recounts  a variety  or the  i n U r i z e n , and t h e poem's  the ramifications  of perspectives.  of this  The r e v o l t o f  U r i z e n , h i s b i n d i n g by L o s , t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f E n i t h a r m o n , and the b i r t h actually  o f Ore a r e n o t f o u r d i f f e r e n t a series  o f modulations  four versions of the F a l l each i m p r i n t e d w i t h  o f t h e same e v e n t .  are l i k e  one c o l o u r .  narratives,  four sheets  Each sheet  Fall—and  t o weave t h e f o u r a c c o u n t s  narrative  sequence,  four separate  thus making  events.  lies  one.  i n i t s metaphoric  and t h e m a t i c  of the F a l l  stylistic  The r e a l  u n i t y o f The Book o f  echoes t h a t l i n k  and t h e r e p e a t e d  or heart t h a t punctuates of s t r i k i n g  repeated  clues to indicate  s t r u c t u r e and t h e a b u n d a n c e o f  a r e two r e c u r r i n g  of the F a l l ,  into  found i t  resemble  the major e p i s o d e s .  apart of eternals that i s present  type  of the  t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e poem  tearing  this  vision  coherent  among t h e s e  globe  o v e r l a p p e d and  page, B l a k e  notable  accounts  when  a  B u t he l e f t  the four are r e a l l y  stylistic  o f a c o l o u r key,  of Blake's  of the printed  necessary  Urizen  These  i t s implications—emerge.  Bound by t h e f o r m a t  that  1  i s interesting  v i e w e d a l o n e , b u t o n l y when a l l a r e c a r e f u l l y v i e w e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y does t h e s p i r i t  but are  e l e m e n t s o f t h e poem:  the  i n each o f the f o u r  image o f t h e r e d , b e a t i n g  the f i r s t imagery  Most  three versions.  It is  that provides the reference  points  o r c o - o r d i n a t e s w i t h w h i c h we c a n l i n e  up t h e v a r i o u s  sheets  o f t h e c o l o u r k e y and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y v i e w t h e f o u r  14  versions fold  of  the F a l l  w i t h something  way,  each m o d u l a t i o n p l a y s Blake  sets  it  is  easy t o  see  on t h e  central  theme.  fox-th t h e b a s i c  image o f  t h e ' p r i m a l u n i t y and t h e  Urizen, tation  which, of  seen  from a n o t h e r  an o b j e c t i v e  Chapter  IV  another  perspective.  concept  of  the  progression throughout the  the in  duality,  reality  the  ters  all  of  of  earlier  four- .  polar  Fall.  Urizen*s as  i n the  creation  of  a universe  of  of  the is  also three  universe  "beast,  Los  disruption  the  manifes-  seen  i n Chapter  a  the  present  In C h a p t e r V  pursues  the  chapters.  Ore's  by U r i z e n , fish,  forth  the  for  sexuality.  "Many forms  basic  as  Ore i n Chapaccount  Urizen  £ element" of  fish,  of The  birth parallels  just  serpent  depicted  concept  t h e b i r t h and b i n d i n g o f  a modulation of  Urizen  separations  dimension of  new  narrative  b i n d i n g of III.  the  contraries,  latently  and h i s  yet  adding  i n t r o d u c t i o n of of  the  In  from  Urizen,  or Blakean  been  and B l a k e  of  dominance.  impression  has  added  bird,  Enitharmon brings  is  are  and b i n d s  the  described  Fall,  the  I-III  p h y s i c a l w o r l d by  gains  Urizen  Enitharmon p a r a l l e l s  first  the  faculty  activity  by i n t r o d u c i n g t h e of  the  Although the  t h e poem,  that  In Chapters  Fall:  of  opposites  gives  variations  caused by the d i s r u p t i o n  appears  two v e r s i o n s ,  V I and V I I ,  69),  of  the  within  version  cribed  Los  the  perspective  struggles  and i n c i d e n t s  separation  final  the  same " F a l l "  duality  E  & b)  theme o f  characters  is  (a  the  creation  human p s y c h e when t h e r a t i o n a l  to  Blakean  vision. Viewed t h i s  of  approaching  desthe  creates (U3:16,  bird  & beast  (U19:34, imagery  E 7 8 ) . 1 The p a r a l l e l o f these passages  narrative  structure  supersedes  extension  i s woven i n t o t h i s  encounter problems  the four  fourfold  unless  versions  linked episodes, can expect any  it  that  Blake w i l l  since  d o e s n o t want o n e . s u c h as  t o be p r e s e n t narrative expect again  strategy  o f t h e poem.  a metaphorical  and a g a i n  it  That  is,  causally  the boundaries a narrative  any n a r r a t i v e  account  the e n t i r e  element  This  poem,  y e t cannot  where he of the  extend  i n fact  exactly  is  its  we c a n  t h e same n a r r a t i v e  is  of  of the p r i n t i n g process,  o f any one v e r s i o n ,  of e s s e n t i a l l y  and a g a i n .  linear  o f t h e same e v e n t , we  would e n f o r c e  However, i f  a repetition  a  a v o i d i n t r o d u c i n g a n a r r a t i v e on  this  throughout  demands  are n o t , i n f a c t ,  renditions  beyond the b o u n d a r i e s  sequence  what  occurs  Urizen. There  governs  is  i n a d d i t i o n another  development. the F a l l  account, within  structural  the h a n d l i n g o f t h e metaphors  t h e poem embodies  of  a  the l i m i t a t i o n s .  l e v e l o f t h e poem t h a t w o u l d t r a n s c e n d  poem,  as  v i s i o n of the F a l l ,  observes  of the F a l l  but r e a l l y  any one v e r s i o n ,  in  relationship  sequence t h a t  i m p o s e d on i t b y t h e n a r r a t i v e since  their  shared  sequence.  Thus when any n a r r a t i v e  will  and a b u n d a n t  It  an image is  clear  Blake  i n Urizen*s struggles  i n a sense,  embodies  the i m p l i c a t i o n s  i n The Book o f  of the F a l l that  p r i n c i p l e which  within  presents  of Chapters  the o t h e r  three  of the a r c h e t y p a l  its  Urizen;  own s t r u c t u r a l  his basic I-III.  account  This  in potential  action  presented  first form in i t .  16  But  i n the  bodies  the  Chapters account we  same s e n s e t h a t  are  other  II  and  set  three,  this  the  in  chapter,  and  a different vision  compact l a n g u a g e and Book o f  explodes in  Urizen  i n t o the  primal  Fall  structural  of  thus  primal  illuminated The  and  "form'd  [an]  a poem t h a t  this  the of  the  original Chapter  different  action that  the  and  "it" in the  in line  the  i n t o r e p e t i t i o n s and  that  the  opens w i t h  of  the  the  com-  elaborations metaphors  a p p a r i t i o n of  power,"  of  of  t h a t has  creator  and  and  This  a  "shadow  ostensibly  mine] :  i n t e n t i o n a l ambiguity  function  this  understood.  appellation "Urizen."  fact  begins  the  a n t i c i p a t i o n of densely  abominable v o i d " [ i t a l i c s  6 that both  The  repeats  image o f  It i s within  that Blake's handling  the  aspects  Chapter I.  rehearses  episodes  abstracted...dark  i s c l e a r from  II,  poem b e g a n ,  L o , a shadow o f h o r r o r i s r i s e n In E t e r n i t y . ...what Demon Hath form'd t h i s abominable v o i d This soul-shudd'ring vacuum?—Some s a i d " I t i s U r i z e n " , B u t unknown, a b s t r a c t e d B r o o d i n g s e c r e t , t h e d a r k power h i d . (U3:l-7, E It  em-  a p r i m o r d i a l mass w h i c h  i t i n t o being.  p r i n t i n g must be  "an  as  of  account of  significant  Fall itself,  beginning  exploring  initial  of  with  Book o f U r i z e n  of h o r r o r , "  the  e.labor;-.ting  that brought  action  the  i n time at which  functions  p a c t e d meaning expanding the  At  the  version  elaborations  archetypally  and  context  first  Blake i s simply  universe  ever-expanding  I.  same p o i n t  account of  that  basically  f o r t h i n Chapter  back t o  first  within  I I I are  and  The  the  of  creation  the  69)  antecedent  are p a r t i c i p a t i n g  i s Blake's dramatization  identity  of  the  of  perspective  of  17  which U r i z e n r e p r e s e n t s i s i n s e p a r a b l y interwoven equally  Urizenic objective  equally  t r u e t o say t h a t  E 96)  as t o s a y t h a t  identifies  both  " U r i z e n " because  who  E  that  altering  476).  alters  the c r e a t i v e  Eternal  A familiarity  abstract and  to note  is  vocabulary of printing  appears  account,  William Blake.  of verse that  as e l s e w h e r e ,  reveals  a t the  i n t a g l i o e n g r a v i n g and  relief  e n g r a v e r bends o v e r the dark  A close  follows w i l l  Blake  conflates  pictured  the v o i d  i n the  to l i m i t  frontispiece  void  of the  t o Europe  in  as  styles  of  intaglio  just  divide as U r i z e n  the compasses 4 (figure 1):  T i m e s on t i m e s he d i v i d e d , & m e a s u r ' d S p a c e by s p a c e i n h i s n i n e f o l d d a r k n e s s Unseen, unknown! (U3:8-10, E 69)  the  this  copperplate to tools,  stage  copper-  reading of  Blake  i t s expanse w i t h  that  of Chapter  of a  the d i s t i n c t  and measure i t s s u r f a c e w i t h h i s e n g r a v i n g bends o v e r  crafts-  initial  show t h a t  e t c h i n g , and void  that  Blake's  a t the s t a r t  t h e poem t h e r e f o r e b e g i n s  p l a t e b e f o r e the a r t i s t  the  the dark  of the p r o c e s s of p r o d u c t i o n w i t h the appearance  dense passage  process  as  working.  w i t h the t y p i c a l  shadow w h i c h  and  that  his creation  creative  form  h a n d l i n g o f the p r o c e s s o f i l l u m i n a t e d  the p l a t e ,  and  ("The  I to I I I , "Urizen," i s both Blake  o f t h e c o p p e r p l a t e on w h i c h he  is  (M3:29,  all"  I t i s important  the  i t is  became what he b e h e l d "  b r i n g s t h e poem i n t o p h y s i c a l  the dark,  i t creates:  i n the metaphors o f the  f o l l o w i n Chapters man  "he  "the Eye  M e n t a l T r a v e l l e r , " 1.62, Blake  reality  with  as  I  18  The  division  actual  and  "cutting  paration  measurement o f t h e i n " can  of a plate  a l s o be  copperplate before  taken  i n the process  to represent  of p a r a l l e l h o r i z o n t a l rately  transfer  the  In the v e r y  and  design  Chapter  next  l e a p s from  account been  the  lines  engraving  plate with  i n order  reproduced  on  it.  to  I, the account  of the process  the  o f a page b e i n g p r i n t e d  from  a plate  t h a t has  production to  an  already  etched:  " d e s o l a t e mountains" which are  used  s e v e r a l times  i n The  "rifted  i n the  printed  form  sheets.  identification presented  The  blank.  Given  bation"  that r i f t  this  the  any  this  f o r "mountains" a metaphor f o r  i n h i s workshop, or of  " d e s o l a t e mountains" vocabulary,  identification,  newly  reinforces  the  t h e page i s r e pale,  "the b l a c k winds o f  the d e s o l a t e mountains i s c l e a r l y  or  petur-  a metaphor  sequence i s t h e r e f o r e a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  of a p l a t e  level  Blake  69)  in  number o f f o r m s t h a t a r e w h i t e ,  the e n t i r e  of the p r i n t i n g On  term  of paper,  unbroken bundles  since i n Blake's  through  i n k , and  of f r e s h ,  furious"  Book o f U r i z e n as  stacks of paper t h a t surrounded  either  for  series  accu-  of  the p r e p a r a t i o n of the p l a t e  s e c t i o n o f t h e poem r e p r e s e n t s h e e t s is  a  5  ... c h a n g e s a p p e a r d In h i s d e s o l a t e mountains r i f t e d f u r i o u s By t h e b l a c k w i n d s o f p e r t u r b a t i o n (U3:10-12, E The  pre-  condensed h a n d l i n g o f the metaphors which  characterizes suddenly  vertical t o be  the  of reproductive  i n w h i c h B l a k e would sometimes " s q u a r e "  the  o f the  i n Blake's  process  surface narrative,  of p r o d u c t i o n . Urizen  continues  19  his battle  t o g i v e form  this metaphorical process This  l e v e l we move on t o t h e n e x t  of illuminated  intensely  t o h i s universe i n verse  printing:  creative  aspect  the books i s d e s c r i b e d here struggle  or c o n f l i c t  the p a i n t i n g  3, w h i l e on  step i n the of the p l a t e s .  of the p h y s i c a l production of  as i t u s u a l l y  i s , as an i n t e n s e  i n which B l a k e / U r i z e n b a t t l e s with the  elements t o g i v e b i r t h  t o images o f l i v i n g  physical  forms:  F o r he s t r o v e i n b a t t l e s d i r e In unseen c o n f l i c t i o n s w i t h shapes Bred from h i s f o r s a k e n w i l d e r n e s s , Of b e a s t , b i r d , f i s h , s e r p e n t & e l e m e n t C o m b u s t i o n , b l a s t , v a p o u r and c l o u d . (U3:13-17, E 69) With t h i s formed  z o o l o g i c a l p o p u l a t i o n now i n h a b i t i n g  world,  completed, the p r o c e s s  Blake/Ufizen s creative 1  and t h i s b r i e f  and  the process earlier displays  of production.  with  transitions  the pattern of r e p e t i t i o n of the narrative  I c o n t a i n s y e t another Although  typical  strategy account of  i t i s s h o r t e r than the  i t h a s much g r e a t e r m e t a p h o r i c a l  the vocabulary,  account o f  7  i n keeping  poem, C h a p t e r  account,  are e s s e n t i a l l y  p r i n t i n g ends.''  e l a b o r a t i o n which i s a product  of the e n t i r e  activities  and c o n d e n s e d m e t a p h o r i c a l  of illuminated  Nevertheless,  t h i s newly -  d e n s i t y and  c o n f l a t e d i m a g e s , and p a r a d i g m a t i c  of Blake's  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the metaphors  o f book r e p r o d u c t i o n : H i s c o l d h o r r o r s s i l e n t , dark U r i z e n Prepar'd: h i s t e n thousands o f thunders Rang'd i n gloom*d a r r a y s t r e t c h o u t a c r o s s The d r e a d w o r l d , & t h e r o l l i n g o f w h e e l s As o f s w e l l i n g s e a s , s o u n d i n h i s c l o u d s I n h i s h i l l s o f s t o r ' d snows, i n h i s m o u n t a i n s  20  Of h a i l & i c e ; v o i c e s o f t e r r o r , A r e h e a r d , l i k e t h u n d e r s o f autumn, When t h e c l o u d b l a z e s o v e r First digmatic of  of a l l ,  that Blake  T h i s account  typically  of production are presented  they proceed  t o do b a t t l e  but  o f thunders  until  line  a r e ready  and r o l l  silence  Dark U r i z e n opening  I take  he i s s i l e n t . t o be t h e l i n e s  stretched out across the world  but  as y e t , t h e y  ling  A similar  are not auditory.  i n a state  the wheels o f the p l a t e seas.  I t i s only after  t e x t have b e e n t r a n s f e r r e d human v o i c e s a r e " h e a r d "  dispel  pattern  that  speech.  of  o f the text) a r e ranged  They a r e p r e s e n t e d  like  right  earlier, as a  i s as i f t h e y  The s i l e n c e  activity,  t o t h e paper  from  a t the  H i s t e n thousands  press r o l l this  still  t h a t we saw c r e a t e d  of potentiality.  of  press  or a r t i c u l a t e  image and a r e n o t meant t o be h e a r d — i t  are s t i l l until  a p a u s e and t h e p r o m i s e  (theplate) i s not only p h y s i c a l l y  (which  before  h i s ten  i s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g movement  and  visual  f o r us t o i n s p e c t  t o t h e s o u n d o f human c r i e s  o f the passage,  thunders  o f a pause;  and "Rang'd i n g l o o m ' d a r r a y , "  i n t o motion.  r e p e a t s a g a i n and a g a i n  initial  t h e sense  30 when t h e w h e e l s o f t h e p r i n t i n g  t h e momentary c a l m Blake  the para-  i n h i s handling  Urizen i s "Prepar'd,"  as y e t t h e r e i s no a c t i v i t y — o n l y  action  E 70)  i n the metaphorical landscape/battle-  o f Blake's workshop.  thousands  uses  opens w i t h  the elements  field  (U3:2 7-35,  I w o u l d n o t e what I h a v e c a l l e d  transitions  t h e metaphors.  the harvests  i s n o t broken  thunder after side  i n t h e mountains o f h a i l  and s w e l -  the l i n e s of around and i c e .  that  21  Another  characteristic  p a t t e r n which i s present here  which Blake repeats elsewhere the stages of p r o d u c t i o n . images w h i c h c l o s e s Blake  alludes  the p r i n t i n g  this  to both  the b e g i n n i n g .  i s the c o n f u s i o n of the o r d e r  In.the union account  Clearly  fication  of t h i s  text  on  passage  it:  the  hills  o f i c e and  as a m e t a p h o r i c  the v o i c e s are l i k e n e d  association  runs  throughout  later Milton  i n t o t h e u n i o n o f wheat and lyptic  " G r e a t H a r v e s t and  the imagery  of the passage  finds  which  of paper  the  developed  o f autumn,/ When t h e 70)  [italics  and  mine] .  imagery  i t s fulfilment  grapes/ bread  i n the  i n k metamorphoses  and w i n e i n t h e  V i n t a g e " a t t h e end sets  re-  identi-  process with harvest  B l a k e ' s p o e t r y and  near  representation of  t o "thunders  i n which the union  The  the h a r v e s t imagery  o f the p r i n t i n g  of  snow r e p r e s e n t  paper.  c l o u d b l a z e s o v e r t h e h a r v e s t s " (U3:34&35, E This  t h e end  "voices of t e r r o r "  stacks of white  p r i n t i n g p r o c e s s i s s u p p o r t e d by in  o f a page n e a r  the e n t i r e m e t a p h o r i c a l passage  i n t h e m o u n t a i n s and  the newly p r i n t e d  and a u d i t o r y  to the e t c h i n g of a copperplate  p r e s e n t s t h e p r i n t i n g p r o c e s s , and are heard  of v i s u a l  of  of the process of production,  the p r i n t i n g  p r o c e s s and  arid  apoca-  o f t h e poem.  i t firmly w i t h i n Blake's  Thus  typical  handling  of the harvest of h i s e t e r n a l  f o r m s a t t h e moment o f  printing  them.  o f autumn, and  a cloud blazing  But  these are thunders  over the h a r v e s t .  image o f t h e t h u n d e r s t o r m , is  used  of the  repeatedly i n Blake's  As  I will  flash  landscape  go  there i s  on t o show,  of l i g h t n i n g  i n dark  of the c r e a t i v e  t o r e p r e s e n t n o t o n l y t h e moment o f A p o c a l y p s e  the clouds,  process  as i n M i l t o n ,  but  22  a l s o the e t c h i n g of a p l a t e :  the f i e r y  r e p r e s e n t e d by a f i e r y  of lightning  represented  flash  alternatively  which the l i g h t n i n g  by a d a r k  strikes.^  of production i s confused t h e end o f t h i s  account,  to the beginning in  fact  i n this  etched  press  Blake's  This stages flation and  stages  o v e r l a p p i n g tendency  and  i t i s not u n t i l  table  a f t e r p l a t e was cycle  i n the process  sequence o f t h e  of  the metaphors,  as t h e c o n -  of illuminated of this  and i m a g e r y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  nition  of t h i s  I  explodes  o f p r o d u c t i o n become more  developed.  However, o n c e handling  the t y p i c a l  voca-  these metaphors, the r e c o g -  p a t t e r n becomes an a i d i n u n s c r a m b l i n g metaphoric  condensing  compacted group o f  are f a m i l i a r with  bulary  t h e more d i f f i c u l t  level of  as a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f B l a k e ' s  and o n c e we  printing,  s t r a t e g y o f t h e poem  densely  and more f u l l y  appreciate i t s position  first  i s a f u n c t i o n of the  o f t h e poem t h a t t h i s  reach  of activity.)  b e t t e r understood  of the n a r r a t i v e  we  as we  t o a c i d bath t o  t h e p r i m o r d i a l mass o f C h a p t e r  distinct  cliff  (This p a t t e r n  of the proper  m e t a p h o r s i s u n r a v e l l e d and t h e s t a g e s individually  being  o f e t c h i n g and p r i n t i n g  engraving  This conflation  and  being  c a s t us b a c k  of production.  t o be one o f t h e h a l l m a r k s  poetry.^  i n t o the r e s t  for just  i n an e n d l e s s  of production i s actually  proves  passage  as p l a t e  confusion or s h i f t i n g  i n fact  Blake's  from  trial-proofed  of d i s t i n c t  cloud or a large  own e x p e r i e n c e  and b a c k a g a i n  and t h e n  and t h e p l a t e  t h e images u n e x p e c t e d l y  w h i c h moved h i m c o n t i n u a l l y printing  of the a c i d  Thus, t h e o r d e r o f t h e s t a g e s  of the process  parallels  action  passages.  some o f  23  Chapter  I ends, t h e n , w i t h  r e a d e r back t o the b e g i n n i n g in  fulfilment  and  beginning  of the c y c l e  of the narrative  increasingly  the imagery p o i n t i n g the  strategy involving  of Chapter  I I does i n f a c t move us  moments o f C h a p t e r  gravitating  t o w a r d s a more h i s t o r i c  vision  of the F a l l ,  t h e o u t s e t and locale this  as  process easily  I.  repeated  this  back i n time  ( i . e . temporal  account  f o r i t s events.  i n a more e x t e n d e d  i s less sense  and  expanding  In a d d i t i o n ,  to  of a  metaphors,  e l a b o r a t e account  Blake  takes  on s e v e r a l themes t h a t he w i l l  the  from  physical  In terms o f these  and  genera-  abstract  of  o f p r o d u c t i o n t h a t i s t h e r e f o r e more c o h e r e n t recognized.  the  However, s i n c e t h e poem i s  p r o j e c t s a much c l e a r e r  a stage  results  and  e l a b o r a t e r e n d i t i o n s o f the p r i m a l F a l l ,  the i n i t i a l  tive)  of production,  the  and  more  opportunity  develop  of  i n conjunction  with h i s metaphors. One process will  of these  i s his consistent identification  of production with  explore i n d e t a i l  later,  the e t c h i n g of the p l a t e plate with lead  t o and  perception  the Apocalypse. Blake  or the  t h e moment o f A p o c a l y p s e are metaphors of the of the  appearance o f o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y "end start on  of the world."  And  actions  of the  both  surface  for that perceiver—hence  account  of i l l u m i n a t e d  trumpet" printing  the s u r f a c e n a r r a t i v e p a r a d o x i c a l l y announces the  the  spiritual  consumes t h e  "sound o f the  we  either  o f t h e p a p e r by  improvement  hence the  of t h i s metaphorical  that  identifies  s i n c e these  reader that e f f e c t i v e l y  the  For reasons  variously  impressing  of  the at  the  that  creation  24  of  the m a t e r i a l w o r l d by U r i z e n ,  reality  by t h e p o i n t o f  E a r t h was  not:  •  •  D e a t h was  not,  the  view t h a t  nor globes •  Urizen  of  •  creation  objective  represents:  attraction •  but e t e r n a l  of  life  sprung  The s o u n d o f a t r u m p e t t h e h e a v e n s Awoke & v a s t c l o u d s o f b l o o d r o l l ' d Round t h e d i m r o c k s o f U r i z e n . . . ( U 3 : 3 6 - 4 2 , We e n t e r  this  The " r o c k s (We w i l l caves, joins the  of  at  Urizen,"  later  cliffs,  see  t h e moment o f  of  this  course,  craggy  and t h e s i d e s  of  "rocks"  that w i l l  of blood  represents  [that  answer  cliffs  roll]  for /  ink.  a page t h a t  occurs  i n the f o l l o w i n g  suddenly appear Shrill  the  a plate  3,  a  plate.  images grow t o or  "steeps.") that  include "Blood"  flows  of  i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of  over  "vast Urizen" the p r i n t i n g  verse.1!  once a g a i n  on t h e b l a n k s h e e t s  trumpet:  of  copperplate.  Round t h e d i m r o c k s  of  words  the  70)  Therefore the  inking  of verse  inking  any l i q u i d  the  At the s t a r t  the  represent  group of  w i n e , mud, and e s s e n t i a l l y  clouds  of  account  E  the of  trumpet b l a s t s  and  paper:  & myriads of E t e r n i t y ,  Muster around the b l e a k d e s a r t s Now f i l l ' d w i t h c l o u d s , d a r k n e s s & w a t e r s That r o l l ' d p e r p l e x ' d l a b r i n g & u t t e r ' d Words a r t i c u l a t e , b u r s t i n g i n t h u n d e r s That r o l l ' d In t h i s  tumultuous  characteristic with  on t h e  scape of  that  of  confusion of  association  the rumble o f  human words  tops  rolling  of  his  mountains  (U3:44-45,  s o u n d and a c t i o n ,  the workings of  t h u n d e r and t h e  the  there  E  is  rolling  same movement  clouds  rolling  through a bleak  the press  towards  suddenly sound i n a f a m i l i a r m e t a p h o r i c a l  d a r k and s t o r m y  70)  land-  expanse  25  of white  and f o r m l e s s  distinct  stages  tinction  i s made between t h e i n k i n g p r o c e s s  of p r i n t i n g mediately desarts"  with  of production i s also present  i n verse  3 we d i s c o v e r t h a t " t h e b l e a k  g r e a t e r coherence account  through  allowed  as i n C h a p t e r  B u t now,  o f thunder  initial  us b a c k i n t i m e  battle with  formation  precedes  by t h e s h r i l l  blast of  transition  and i n t o time  to present  i n passing.  into  creative  the elements  reality.  that  from  articulate  i n t h e poem,  o f t h a t speech;  and as he s p e a k s he i n t e r r u p t s  to relate h i s earliest  silence  f o r the f i r s t  the content  v i o u s l y was o n l y m e n t i o n e d  and  time  of physical  t o the paradigmatic  mass h a s e x p a n d e d s u f f i c i e n t l y  poem and t a k e s  I, t o l d — t h i s  the e e r i e  i t i s punctuated  the r o l l i n g  t o hear  clouds, darkness  t h e same p a t t e r n , t h e same l a n d -  opens w i t h  and a l t h o u g h  with  i s i n k e d and im-  and a g r e a t e r s e n s e  trumpet, i t adheres  hear,  and t h e p r o c e s s  afterwards  human u t t e r a n c e . are  dis-  2 the plate  and t h e same e v e n t  silence  s i n c e no  i n verse  I t i s essentially  creation  conflation of  a plate:  This  the  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  have a l r e a d y been " f i l l ' d  waters." scape,  land.  we  the p r i m o r d i a l  i n d e t a i l what p r e -  I t i s U r i z e n ' s v o i c e we  the narrative  line  of the  the depths of p r e - e x i s t e n c e  activities.  He t e l l s  that ultimately  l e d t o t h e slow  o f t h e u n i v e r s e t h a t we h a v e b e e n o b s e r v i n g  poem: F i r s t I f o u g h t w i t h t h e f i r e ; consum'd Inwards, i n t o a deep w o r l d w i t h i n : A v o i d immense, w i l d d a r k & d e e p , Where n o t h i n g was; N a t u r e s w i d e womb^.S (U4:14-17, E 70)  us o f h i s  i n the  26  Again, the  Blake  " I " that fights with  at a very  early  b o o k s , and with is,  is intentionally  fiery  then,  the  fire  acid  the  copperplate  o r be  completely  e t c h i n g of the  events over  the  after  itself  hills  interesting  t y p i c a l Blakean  of  aspect  process  metaphorical the  copperplate  bath.  The  interior are  account  reached  of the stood  as  finite  of the  copperplate.  metaphor i s s u p p o r t e d  us  in  poem, of  these  articulate  thunder  i s that, i n a  the  a c i d becomes  This  "void" t h a t i s reached  and  again  in virtually  t h e v o i d and  Properly  the  infinite  spaces  spaces  acid.-^  v o i d c a n be  imthe  speaking, acid the  In  terms  under-  infinity  p r i n t e d from the  surface  of t h i s r e c u r r i n g  c o n t i n u a t i o n of our  a  within i t that  t h a t open i n t o  interpretation  the  every  a metaphor f o r , s p e c i f i c a l l y ^  defining lines  i n the  in  n e i t h e r i s the  consuming a c t i o n o f the  Such an  outer,  "a deep w o r l d w i t h i n : / A v o i d  again  formless and  i s recounted  i t i s consumed by  copperplate,  the white  battle  the  i s not  thx*ough t h e  Urizen's  tell  account  appearance o f the p r i n t e d page, t h i s  between t h e of the  could not  battle  and  v o i d seems t o be  of the  fiction  of the e t c h i n g p r o c e s s .  itself  his  inner world  70).  of e t c h i n g recurs  produces  consumed.  of this  movement i n t o a v a s t e x p a n s e : (U4:15-16, E  who,  snow.^  i n v e r s i o n of the  movement i n t o t h e p l a t e as  mense..."  and  of  w h i c h must do  the dark waters b u r s t i n t o  d e s e r t s and  The  as he  copperplate which  not yet a r t i c u l a t e  until  antecedent  U r i z e n as B l a k e  acid  r e t r o s p e c t because, a c c o r d i n g t o the U r i z e n was  f o r the  i s both  s t a g e must work w i t h  U r i z e n as  the  the  obscure,  almost  27  m i c r o s c o p i c voyage i n t o the elemental world of an e t c h i n g c o p p e r p l a t e as U r i z e n , probably w i t h the h e l p of an a c i d  resist,  i s saved from the v o i d , r e p e l s the v a s t waves of a c i d , and  rises  on a wide world of s o l i d o b s t r u c t i o n ( i . e . the s u r f a c e of the copperplate): And s e l f b a l a n c ' d s t r e t c h ' d o'er the v o i d I alone, even II the winds m e r c i l e s s Bound... [an a l l u s i o n t o "the b l a c k winds of perturbation ' of Chapter I?] ...strong I r e p e l l ' d The v a s t waves, & arose on the waters A wide w o r l d of s o l i d o b s t r u c t i o n (U4:18-23, E 1  71)  U r i z e n ' s account of the e t c h i n g process ends here, and l o o k i n g back a t the l a s t s t a n z a of Chapter I, we n o t i c e another p a t t e r n of p a r a l l e l development; i n f a c t , Chapter Chapter I I i n l i t t l e .  I, verse 6 adumbrates  Verse 6 moves through an account of the  p r i n t i n g p r o c e s s and ends w i t h a r e f e r e n c e t o the e t c h i n g of a p l a t e , and Chapter  I I , f o l l o w i n g the same p a t t e r n of development,  recounts the i d e n t i c a l p r o c e s s e s of p r o d u c t i o n , although the m e t a p h o r i c a l landscape has been reworked completely. At t h i s p o i n t , the m e t a p h o r i c a l depths  of the poem r i s e  t o the s u r f a c e as B l a k e / U r i z e n addresses the reader from h i s P r i n t i n g House i n H e l l and s t a t e s q u i t e openly: Here alone I i n books formd o f metals Have w r i t t e n the s e c r e t s of wisdom The s e c r e t s o f dark contemplation By f i g h t i n g s and c o n f l i c t s d i r e (U4:24-27, E  71)  A f t e r t h i s d e c e p t i v e l y obvious r e v e l a t i o n of h i s " s e c r e t s of wisdom," B l a k e / U r i z e n c o n t i n u e s h i s r e t r o s p e c t i v e account of the stages of p r o d u c t i o n t h a t preceded  the p r i n t i n g of the p l a t e  28  that opened the chapter: Lo! I unfold my darkness: and on This rock, place with strong hand the Book Of eternal brass, written i n my solitude. (U4:31-33, E 71) This passage, which i s at the end of Urizen*s description of his  e a r l i e s t creative a c t i v i t y , recounts the l a s t act before  an impression i s pulled: the laying of the f u l l y etched  copper-  plate ("the Book/ Of eternal brass") on the bed of the plate press (represented here as a r o c k ) . ^ 1  Thus, by the end of  Chapter II Urizen*s retrospective account of his e a r l i e s t creative a c t i v i t i e s has brought us to the point at which the chapter began and we are ready to resume the narrative of production that had been interrupted by his speech. Urizen had begun to speak just at the point when the plate had been inked and sent through the press; at that point the text came i n t o being and provided Urizen with a medium for recounting h i s i n i t i a l creative a c t i v i t y .  Once his speech has  ended, the narrative returns to the point of interruption and describes Blake/Urizen at the other end of the plate press l i f t i n g up the copperplate that had been inked and sent through the press at the s t a r t of Chapter I I : . The voice ended, they saw his pale visage Emerge from the darkness ;^-5 his hand On the rock of eternity unclasping The Book of brass (U4:41-44, E 71) In t y p i c a l Blakean fashion, t h i s passage operates i n several ways at once.  I t is_ a description of Blake/Urizen as craftsman  l i f t i n g the copperplate from the bed of the plate press, but i t  29  is  also a d e s c r i p t i o n of Urizen  page o f T h e Book o f U r i z e n o f t h e dark copperplate  the  press.  the  above l i n e  f a c i n g page visage/ The as  before  t h e p l a t e i s removed  i s not the p r i n t i n g  cf just  ( s e e f i g u r e 2 ) . ^ Thus we r e a l i z e  i tis lifted  any p a g e , f o r on t h e  from t h e darkness; h i s h a n d . . . u n c l a s p i n g / i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of Urizen's  o f f o f the copper,  t h a t we h a v e f o l l o w e d (Urizen's  coloured.)  from  that the "pale  1  Book o f b r a s s "  yet  printed  i s the t e x t u a l r e f e r e n t f o r the design  [Emerging]  stages.  freshly  e m e r g i n g i n t o v i e w as i t i s l i f t e d  off  But t h i s  as a p a l e ,  f a c e on p l a t e 5  and i t h a s b e e n t h i s  through the etching,  plate  i n k i n g , and p r i n t i n g  face here i s p a l e because inked  F u r t h e r m o r e , as a p i c t o r i a l  only  and n o t  reinforcement  of the  m e t a p h o r s we have b e e n d i s c u s s i n g , t h e p o s i t i o n o f U r i z e n ' s book and t h e e c h o o f i t s p a g e s by t h e c o l u m n s o f B l a k e ' s surely in  t h e poem w i t h  that the  creation. events  very the  a s k s us t o i d e n t i f y  The Book o f U r i z e n This  reader's  a general  transmits  of this  process  between  i n the text.  n o t a hard-bound  rule,  i n producing  Blake's  t h e book i n  as t h e p r o d u c t  i n t h e metaphors the s p e c i f i c  t h a t were u s e d  the story of  theme, i n w h i c h  recounted  t r u t h , although  those  contains  created  on t h e page r e v e a l s  hand i s f r e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t e d  describes  production  that  of close i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p  self-conscious handling  usually  "  type  book t h a t i s b e i n g  i n t h e t e x t and t h e d e s i g n  metaphoric p r i n t i n g is  Urizen's  text  of the  Indeed, i t that  Blake  techniques  the p a r t i c u l a r  poem  of that  metaphors.  By t h e end o f t h e f i r s t  verse  of Chapter  I I I , then, t h e  30  printed  page has  the p l a t e ,  and  i s now  of p r o d u c t i o n . dramatically  emerged f r o m  At  ready  this  f o r the next  point,  the tone  a s , i n "Rage, f u r y ,  cataracts of f i r e  blood  smoke"  (U4:45-47, E  poem.  On  71)  & gall  landscape  creative  sweep o v e r  activity  that t h i s  o f t h e poem  whirlwinds of  the s t a r k  this  the next  sulphurous  landscape  i s the s t a r t  which g i v e s f i n a l On  And  indeed, the passage  to  the  the metaphoric  tone  logic  and seen  level  demands landscape  intense i n as an  of creative  forms t o l i f e  t o the p r i n t e d  ...Rage s i e z ' d  fury  c a n be  tremendous u p s u r g e  Blake/Urizen brings his eternal c o l o u r and  the  of Urizen*s  form  have been e x p l o r i n g ,  d i g n a t i o n which dominate t h i s o f the  of  stage i n the process of p r o d u c t i o n : the  of the p l a t e s .  dramatization  process  shifts  sudden b u r s t o f c o l o u r i n t o t h e m e t a p h o r i c  represents  adding  stage i n the  from  intense indignation...  of h i s newly-created world.  o f book p r o d u c t i o n t h a t we  by  [and]  [and]  the s u r f a c e n a r r a t i v e ,  tumultuous  painting  the p r e s s , been s e p a r a t e d  and  effective  activity  final  as  creation  page:  the s t r o n g  Rage, f u r y , i n t e n s e i n d i g n a t i o n In c a t a r a c t s of f i r e blood & g a l l I n w h i r l w i n d s o f s u l p h u r o u s smoke: And enormous forms o f e n e r g y ; •  In  •  living  In the  landscape  •  creations  flames  Again, ten l i n e s stark  •  •  appear'd  of e t e r n a l  later, o f dark  flames deserts  fury. and  (U4:44-5:2, E  b l o o d pour  ( p a p e r now  through  darkened  a n o t h e r page i s p a i n t e d : The r o a r i n g f i r e s r a n o ' e r t h e h e a v ' n s In w h i r l w i n d s & c a t a r a c t s of b l o o d  71)  by  Urizen*s ink)  as  And o ' e r t h e d a r k d e s a r t s o f U r i z e n F i r e s p o u r t h r o ' t h e v o i d on a l l s i d e s On Urizen's  Urizens  s e l f - b e g o t t e n armies  which can are  thus  and,  be  pulled  in itself,  extension  followed  by  this  the  original  colourful,  apparently  shifted  metaphors: flames  flames  as  e t c h i n g of the  acid,  as t h e  action  designs  on  the  as  almost  But  everywhere i n Blake's  by  the  that " l i v i n g  of production  and  is  by  acid/flames.  in this  a c c i d e n t a l or  to  both  section of  simply  by  n a r r a t i v e s t r a t e g y o f t h e poem, f o r B l a k e  tently  identifies  t h e e t c h i n g o f a p l a t e and  and  i t i s a mistake  f o r elements of  present  the  literally  the  page; t h e s e  because,  life  v e r s e . A n d the  creations  (U5:l&2, E 71)  poetry,  processes  i s not  etching  as p a i n t i s t o page  e x c l u s i v e reading of a passage, are i n f a c t  of h i s  identifying  emerges and  demand an  combination  o f one  the a c t i o n of the  i s to copperplate  Blake  the i n t e n s e l y  t h e page a r e g i v e n d e p t h the d e s i g n  co-  have  that  represent  represent  of e t e r n a l fury"  c o p p e r p l a t e by  In o t h e r words, a c i d here,  representational value  roaring fires  of the p a i n t / f l a m e s ,  g i v e n d e p t h on  a demonstrably  problem  i t a l s o makes s e n s e t o s a y flames  flames/paint,  plate.  a c t o f p a i n t i n g a p r i n t e d page.  appear'd/ In the just  the  i . e . Urizen),  o f p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h we  elsewhere c o n s i s t e n t l y  a c i d , whereas here creative  the  72)17  impressions  pouring  There i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , the m a n i f e s t has  of  copperplate,  reading produces  of the process  from the  (U5:12-16, E  (the m u l t i t u d e  from a s i n g l e  brought to l i f e  taken  herent  s e l f - b e g o t t e n armies.  inspired consis-  the p a i n t i n g of  a r e h i s most f r e q u e n t l y c o n f l a t e d s t a g e s  of  a  production,  32  a f a c t w h i c h p o i n t s t o an  important element  of Blake's  artistic  vision—the  essential unity  o f c o n c e p t i o n w i t h w h i c h he  garded  c o p p e r p l a t e and  printed  both  Consequently,  page. ^ 1  much o f t h e i m a g e r y  4 and  5 demands t h a t we  plate  as w e l l  see  and  a description  as t h e p a i n t i n g  re-  vocabulary of verses  of the e t c h i n g of a  of a p r i n t e d  copper-  plate:  And o ' e r t h e d a r k d e s a r t s o f U r i z e n F i r e s p o u r t h r o ' t h e v o i d on a l l s i d e s On U r i z e n s s e l f - b e g o t t e n a r m i e s . B u t no In the Although  l i g h t f r o m t h e f i r e s , a l l was darkness flames of E t e r n a l f u r y (U5:12-18, E 72)  a l l modern commentators  etched h i s plates  i n an a c i d  evidence to suggest wax is  and  poured  the a c i d  i n almost  Furthermore, account  onto the copper.^°  as t h e f i r e s  As we  shall  complete  castles latter  and  void  as i n The  see, the  lines  chariots,  Marriage  a wall  "void,"  combine t o c r e a t e a U r i z e n ' s armies of t e x t  o f Heaven and  " t e n thousands  stretched  o u t as  and  of  which  metaphoric  suddenly  cn the p l a t e  are  or thunderous w a r r i o r s ,  Hell  and  plate  even  26,  c o n g l o m e r a t i o n o f images r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e d e s i g n  Urizen's and  strong  identification  elephants, banners,  o p p o s e d t o t h e more r e g i m e n t e d  Blake  of the e t c h i n g process.  t o as U r i z e n ' s a r m i e s  with  This  of another mysterious  every other account  frequently alluded often  bath, there i s i n f a c t  o f the e t c h i n g o f a p l a t e ,  appear.  that  t h a t B l a k e edged the p l a t e s w i t h  coupled w i t h the presence  occurs  assume o u t o f hand  linear  files  of text.  this as (Cf.  o f t h u n d e r s / Rang'd i n gloom'd a r r a y "  for battle  i n Chapter  I.)  Significantly,  33  Urizen's  armies  landscape acid  and  at just the  s u r f a c e and  i n Blake's  t h e p o i n t when t h e p l a t e  "thunderous w a r r i o r s " begin thus  characteristic  enjoyed  most f r e q u e n t l y march t h r o u g h  "appear"  t o our  a d a p t a t i o n o f M i l t o n ' s dark potential  w a t e r y , y e t c o n s u m i n g and  no  g o e s on  c e s s e s y e t more  now  acid  i n verse  and  lies  obviously and  h i s most  rlame t h a t  6 t o make t h e  fury  flames  of c r e a t i v e to both  activity  printed  produces  conflation  flames  landscape  that w i l l  As  of  pro-  a t t a c k the r o c k / c o p p e r p l a t e  and  and  valleys  become more f a m i l i a r  page a f t e r  the completed t h e end  of the  as we  flames to l i f e  by  relief  examine  are a p p l i e d and  the  page i s p a i n t e d , t h e y  t h e m o u n t a i n s and  mine]  a p p l i e s the As  b r i n g i n g the designs As  72) [ i t a l i c s  copperplate.  B l a k e / U r i z e n back i n t o  reach  Blake/Urizen  p a i n t , t h e same, q u e n c h l e s s  to completion.  constitute  (U5:19-23, E  page and  i t s s u r f a c e c r e a t e the h i l l s  As we  most  passage 3lake  acid,  is liquid  them i n i n c e s s a n t l a b o u r  the quenchless  by  into i t s  explicit:  t o the desarts/pages,  piled  the  of the p a r a d o x i c a l l y c l e a r  piled  o t h e r poems.  nearer  flames.  He  Thus, i n t h e  plate  in this  f i e r c e anguish & quenchless flames t h e d e s a r t s and r o c k s He r a n r a g i n g h i d e , b u t He c o u l d n o t : combining dug m o u n t a i n s & h i l l s i n v a s t s t r e n g t h  rifting  etched  perhaps the  In To To He  polysemous  to  light.  Blake  acid,  But  heat-generating  prominent metaphor f o r the  figurative  i s exposed  t o be  reference to etching acid  the symbolic  heat but  view.  Blake's  hills  book are  that  book.  of t h i s  extended  account  of the  process  34  of production, subside  until  despair  and  the he  the  fires  of  is left  " h o a r y , and  shadows o f d e a t h "  poem u n d e r g o e s a s i m i l a r of the to  Urizen's  transformation  into its final  a c t i n the p a g e s by  as  petrifaction  the  newly-created  a hard  of  gradually  aged,/ Urizen  cover,  In as  " E t e r n a l Form" imagination  the  limit  o f a book, t h e  "fall"  the  enclosing  a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e s c r i b e d by or roof  begins  of i t s  This p o i n t i s analogous to  of a r o c k - l i k e s h e l l  world  72)  the  i n Blake's  physical production  o f the  as  p h y s i c a l f o r m as  i n t o m a t e r i a l i t y i s reached. final  a g e - b r o k e , and  (U5:26&27, E  poem t h a t once e x i s t e d o n l y  petrify  creative activity  around  Blake the  Urizen.  And a r o o f , v a s t p e t r i f i c a r o u n d , On a l l s i d e s He f r a m ' d : l i k e a womb; Where t h o u s a n d s o f r i v e r s . . . . . . p o u r down t h e m o u n t a i n s t o c o o l The e t e r n a l f i r e s b e a t i n g w i t h o u t l i k e a black globe •  The The  •  •  vast world  world  *  •  of U r i z e n  appear*d  o f U r i z e n w h i c h U r i z e n has  Book o f U r i z e n w h i c h B l a k e has f o r m and start  this  is  initial  rehearsed  and  p a t t e r n of  repeated  from the  p r i m o r d i a l mass w i t h  Book o f U r i z e n .  myth i s o b s c u r e d t h a t are  the  and  Fall  in varying  o f The  illuminated  created,  thus appears i n  The  finished the  ends.  chapters  tions  c r e a t e d , which i s a l s o  account of i l l u m i n a t e d p r i n t i n g which began a t  o f C h a p t e r I I now This  (U5:28-37, E 7 2)  But  recounted  forms i n t h e as  the  upon i t .  So,  p r i n t i n g w h i c h so d o m i n a t e d t h e  outward  initial  the d e t a i l s too,  I-III  remaining  poem e x p a n d s  which i t began, the  a l m o s t submerged by  superimposed  i n Chapter  of  creation  the  the metaphors  opening  chapters  variaof are  35  essentially  lost  i n the rest  i m a g e r y and g e n e r a l are  still  patterns  of Blake's  d i s c e r n i b l e as t h e u n d e r l y i n g  o f much o f t h e r e m a i n i n g In  o f t h e poem, a l t h o u g h  the f i r s t  process  the b a s i c  of production  informing  principles  "narrative."  reworking  of the primal  Fall  sequence  from  a n o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e , L o s a p p e a r s and t h e c o n c e p t o f d u a l i t y , o f distinct solves the  subject  and o b j e c t , p r e c i p i t a t e s i n t o t h e poem.  the methodological  problem Blake had faced  This  i n weaving  account o f a c r e a t i o n i n t o t h e i n t e n s e l y i n t r o s p e c t i v e sub-  jectivity required  o f the opening chapters. t o represent  "Urizen"  i s no  b o t h c r e a t o r and c r e a t u r e ,  longer  and, a c c o r -  d i n g l y , when L o s a p p e a r s i n t h e poem he subsumes u n d e r h i s identity  Blake's  to represent  role  as c r e a t i v e a r t i s t ,  o n l y T h e Book o f U r i z e n  physical  evolution.  creation  o f a world  leaving Urizen  i n i t s various  stages  T h u s , when L o s a p p e a r s , U r i z e n ' s apart  "obscure separation."21  t h e c r e a t o r who g i v e s  As t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  of  recent  s u d d e n l y becomes t h e r e n d i n g  away f r o m L o s and L o s i s now  free  of Urizen  form t o t h e  of Blake the  poet, Los i s t h e " E t e r n a l Prophet";  as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f  Blake  f i g u r e who g i v e s  the craftsman,  U r i z e n by b i n d i n g just  he i s a V u l c a n  him w i t h  as B l a k e g i v e s  binding  of iron"  f o r m t o U r i z e n by b i n d i n g  form i n t o t h e c o p p e r p l a t e The  "fetters  and " s o d o r s o f b r a s s " its  and, u l t i m a t e l y , l e a v e s  imaginative o f paper.  o f U r i z e n which f o l l o w s t h e appearance o f Los  a t t h e e n d o f C h a p t e r I I I i s t h e same e v e n t , materiality  form t o  that i s recounted  i n Chapters  t h e same f a l l  I-III.  As a l e s s  into  36  distinct binding  manifestation of  Urizen  the p r o g r e s s i v e Whereas  is  of  the metaphors  superimposed  stages  of  on t h e  the e t c h i n g of  i n the opening chapters,  we w i l l the  of  the m a t e r i a l  universe,  examine,  the metaphors  formation of  a human b o d y .  Although the  formation of  are  C h a p t e r IV(b) c a n b e  understood  it  is  seen  of  intaglio  ficantly, begins, 13&14, This  etching present  i n verses  he i s E 74)  is  if  at  the  which s e t t l e s lake  prominent,  realized  i n an a c c o u n t  of  i n terms  start  flesh  of  the e a r l y  "fleshed  i n the  course  now p r i m a r i l y as presence  of  poem.  as  emergence  out" of  is  lines  as  by t h e  of  Chapter IV.^3  techniques  is  of  (U10:  lake. during  etched,  the  biting  first  filled  out  as  pattern  can  be  and r i b s limbs,  although  for  Signi-  the p l a t e  organs,  Thus,  I.  liquid"  Urizen's spine  a d d i t i o n of  metaphors  Urizen's binding  start  This  etching,  foaming  then gradually  an o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e  Blake's  be r e c o g n i z e d  the  Chapter  design  the p l a t e b e g i n to b i t e .  later  of  copperplate  relief  of  a c i d which covers  finer  are  on a  of  told that  and h e a v i e s t  the d e s i g n  the poems  When an i n t a g l i o  darkest,  of  i n some l a t e r  of  to  illuminated  as  and t h e d e t a i l  compared  of  into a sulphurous, of  of  copperplate.22  through imagery  here,  the  pattern  o b s c u r e d by a " s u r g e i n g / S u l p h u r e o u s  t h e man-made  lines  a  an e x t e n s i o n  2 and 3 we a r e  the e t c h i n g process. most  as  general  U r i z e n ' s image  in  more e f f e c t i v e  production,  the p r o c e s s  p r i n t i n g was m e t a p h o r i c a l l y p r e s e n t e d creation  of  it  which and  functions  che n a r r a t i v e ,  i l l u m i n a t e d p r i n t i n g can  an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t  in this  later  part  the  of  the still the  37  As mythic  The Book o f U r i z e n c o n t i n u e s t o move f u r t h e r  source  and c l o s e r t o t h e l i n e a r e x t e n s i o n o f h i s t o r y  w i t h which i t ends, more s p o r a d i c . crucial It  point  these echoes  of Blake's  o f the next v e r s i o n that  of the F a l l  i n Blake's  i n Chapter  treatment  In the p r i n t i n g  as t h e y momentarily  the passive  t h a t .takes p l a c e i n t h e dark  bed  press.  Again,  these i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s  e x p l o r e d i n o t h e r poems, b u t t h e r e c u r r e n t  white  female  a r e more  image o f t h e  p a g e a t t h e c l i m a c t i c moment o f s e p a r a t i o n f r o m  does f i g u r e  Enitharmon's  female  and m y s t e r i o u s  fully  the p l a t e  i s seen  become one i n t h e consummation o f t h e  creative process of the plate  with  o f a page, t h e p l a t e  as t h e a c t i v e m a l e p r i n c i p l e who f e c u n d a t e s  V.  o f them, t h e  a s p e c t s o f book r e p r o d u c t i o n become i n f o r m e d  s e x u a l symbolism.  paper  t e c h n i q u e become  They do emerge once a g a i n , however, a t t h e  i s not surprising  physical  from i t s  importantly i n Blake's presentation of  s e p a r a t i o n from L o s :  A f e m a l e f o r m t r e m b l i n g and p a l e Waves b e f o r e h i s d e a t h y f a c e A l l E t e r n i t y shudderd a t s i g h t Of t h e f i r s t f e m a l e now s e p a r a t e P a l e a s a c l o u d o f snow Waving b e f o r e t h e f a c e o f Los The  imagery  other  and h a n d l i n g o f t h e metaphors i s t y p i c a l  accounts  of the process of i l l u m i n a t e d  I am n o t s u g g e s t i n g t h a t account  this  passage  i s part  of Blake's  printing.  Although  of a coherent  o f book r e p r o d u c t i o n , i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e e l e m e n t s  Blake's p r i n t i n g his  (U18:7-12, E 77)  t e c h n i q u e s have s t r o n g l y  presentation of this  event.  In f a c t ,  influenced  of  Blake i n  the patterns o f  38 illuminated later  printing  events  o f The  A study of  o f The  form  p a r t of the  f o u n d a t i o n on which  Book o f U r i z e n a r e s e t . Book o f U r i z e n i n t e r m s o f t h e  illuminated printing  i s particularly  poem c o n t a i n s most o f t h e v o c a b u l a r y , transitions Blake  of  the  from  of this  i m a g e r y , and  aspect  silence  these  chapter  the r e p e a t e d  of the  stages  t o speech  vocabulary  of Blake's  and  metaphors  from  work.  level  o f p r o d u c t i o n and and  from  i m a g e r y , and  recog-  the  conflation repeated  pause t o a c t i v i t y .  Book o f U r i z e n .  p o e t r y up  of h i s matter  An  and  use  of  re-  movement awareness  f o u n d a t i o n of the  t r a c e the development of Blake's his earlier  Since  a  as t h e t y p i c a l  elements of the p o e t r y s e t s the as we  paradigmatic  of r e a d i n g the metaphors i s l a r g e l y  r e c u r r e n t p a t t e r n s such  ordering  The  trick  identifying  nizing  of  characteristic  metaphors  r e v e a l i n g because t h a t  i s q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t i n h i s handling of t h i s  poetry,  the  next  these  t o the mature p e r i o d of  CHAPTER  III  THE POETRY BEFORE One  advantage of  patterns which Blake of  r e c o g n i z i n g the v o c a b u l a r y  then proceed  to  that  identify  with this  fully  developed.  examining the poetic  poetry  career.  1792-93, surface  This of  as  ability  of  an e l e m e n t  will  it  detect Blake  the metaphors first  phoric  experience. after  180 4,  s i n k back Blake that  fully point,  of  become  and c e a s e t o a s s e r t  the p o e t r y .  Once a g a i n ,  characteristic  handling of  their  and i n f l u e n c e  the  l o o k back  at  around  this  to  the  his  poetry  the  themselves  produced  i n the poetry  and  In other  fabric  o u r knowledge will  meta-  identity  as  as  artistic  middle years,  with  point  poetry,  watch  develops  later  the metaphors  Blake's  metaphors  and i n e f f e c t  in his  fused  in  From o u r v a n t a g e  lose their d i s t i n c t  the metaphors  when  just beginning  from out o f  i n the  because  produced  substrata of Blake':" poetry.  the metaphors  presence  stages  one  in  useful  form t h a t  to  organically  other hand,  develops  t h o u g h t and m y t h , elements  possible  these metaphors  i n t o the  is  and t h e n c o n s c i o u s l y  emerging  On t h e  the  i n embryonic form,  recognizes  potential  is  familiarity,  especially  poetry.1  awareness o f  take,  is  t h e s e metaphors  in Blake's  metaphors  remain unrecognized  i n the poetry  and w i t h o u r e d u c a t e d ultimately  rhetorical  the metaphors  two w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d  On t h e one h a n d ,  the presence  basic  and i n t e r p r e t  p a s s a g e s where t h e y m i g h t o t h e r w i s e not  and  t y p i c a l l y u s e s when h a n d l i n g t h e  illuminated printing is  can  URIZEN  words,  and of  after  his  distinctive of  h e l p us  Blake's to  e v e n when t h e y  recognize are  no  40 longer presented tive  of  i n the  the p r o c e s s  Of  course,  context  o f book  this  illuminated printing is  of  his  In f a c t ,  by and e v e n r e f l e c t mentation aspects of  of B l a k e ' s  the metaphors  within  art  t h e metaphors that  their  and p o e t r y .  l o p i n g myth and h i s  as  own form t h e  1793  179 4,  evidentally the  quite  techniques  other  spans  two components The  point,  stage of  emerging  emerged  of  to  his  limit  of  from out  179 4-9 5 ,  poetic his  career,  his  deve-  initial  of  and s t a b i l i z e d ,  Ahania, his  the  of  Blake  book r e p r o d u c t i o n  myth was process  his  Blake's  even s o l i d i f y ,  The Book o f  the metaphors  artistic  A m e r i c a , and E u r o p e .  and t h e r e actively  a l s o going through a corresponding  Urizen,  use  Expe-  p r i n t i n g were  of  his  The Songs o f  Meanwhile B l a k e ' s  and p e r h a p s  of  a p e r i o d which i n c l u d e s  and t h e m e t a p h o r s  bilize,  other  to  satisfied  In the c r u c i a l years  experi-  from 1790/91  w h i c h he h a d r e c e n t l y p e r f e c t e d  in effect,  elements affected  in  development  and c h a n g i n g ,  were,  metaphors  the y e a r s  early  experimentation.2  the  a framework o f  r i e n c e , The M a r r i a g e o f H e a v e n and H e l l / relatively  narra-  concurrent  technical experimentation.  the metaphors  In t h i s  of  pursuing  Thus t h e  its  development o f and e a r l y  use  were p r o f o u n d l y  c a n be v i e w e d w i t h i n  includes  coherent  n o t d i v o r c e d from t h e o t h e r  and d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h B l a k e was  of his  evolution  an e x t e n d e d ,  reproduction.  progression  of  verse.  of  of  to  is  little  evolving  illuminated evolution  physical  i n t h e m a t u r e work o f  and The Book o f L o s .  At  sta-  T h e Book this  p r o c e s s o f p r o d u c t i o n had a l s o flexible  and  techniques.  myth had begun t o  and y e t were s t i l l  was  enough  fully to  41  encompass and  reflect  w h i c h B l a k e was  the i n t e n s e t e c h n i c a l  pursuing i n these y e a r s .  the metaphors a t t h i s a reflection process a partly  of the  fact  historic  integrated  i n the U r i z e n - Ahania  America,  Europe,  when B l a k e  and  m a t u r e and  etching, but  had  at this  c h a n g e s and  Nine  that  of Blake's  prominent  - Book o f  they d i s s o l v e  Los  poem,  later  Milton, obviously  r e t u r n e d t o t h e o r i g i n a l method o f i n and  as d i s t i n c t  i n t o what has  artistic  use  of the  entities  become t h e  expression.  t h e s e m e t a p h o r s emerge d i r e c t l y  Tyger,"  than  and  relief meta-  are  foundation  of  T h i s e v o l v i n g d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n myth, m e t a p h o r ,  e x p e r i e n c e , and "The  rather  B l a k e ' s myth was  t e c h n i c a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n s e r v e s t o remind unity  creative  or ten years  illuminated  point his interest  assimilated  thought.  h i s next  changed, a g a i n :  he had  be  " c o n t i n e n t " poems o f  Song o f L o s . )  began t o produce  the c o n f i g u r a t i o n  completely  The  of  also  c o n t e x t , f o r t h e m e t a p h o r s a r e more  t h a n i n t h e more h i s t o r i c a l  his  c a r e e r may  t h a t B l a k e ' s metaphors o f the  sequence  phors  "arrival"  seem t o work b e t t e r w i t h i n a p u r e l y m y t h i c  and more f u l l y  fully  (The  3  point i n his poetic  experimentation  even a t t h e i r  embody a r e e n t i r e l y  out of Blake's  the  to  note  artistic  i n an e a r l y  the a c t u a l  compatable w i t h  fundamental  I t i s important  inception  b o t h m e t a p h o r s and  us o f t h e  and  poem  techniques  like  that  fundamentals.of  they  Blake's  thought. Although  an e - i r l y work, "The  poem w h i c h e a s i l y I n n o c e n c e and  outstrips  of Experience  Tyger"  is clearly  a great  i t s companion poems o f The as w e l l  as most o f t h e  Songs  of  s h o r t poems  42  of  the  great  English  language.  And  power b o u n d w i t h i n  the  this  frame of  which i s g e n e r a t e d because the much g r e a t e r other  conception  this  most i m p o r t a n t  i s my  t o see  thought are  larger mythological  t h e ways i n w h i c h  manifest within  the  and,  concern with  specifically,  that discussion sical  act of  as  through  or  the  subject  the  poem p r o g r e s s e s .  and  the  the  of  as  an  nature of  of  a  of  the  requires  created,  "The  and  Tyger" Blake's  t h i s poem.  We  e a r l y example the  the  medium o f t h e  beast:  that  of the  awe-inspiring  of  "The  will  creative  of  process  presentation  metaphors of  of  the  tiger  course of the i t i s the  phy-  is inherently  i s , i f not  an  poem.  tiger  or  on  good o r a true  He  animal which belongs i n the  the  as true  inherently God.  abundant c l u e s  i s a fearsome, forests of  A  itself,  unnecessary question,  f o r Blake supplies poem.  some-  comes i n t o b e i n g  a U r i z e n i c God,  of the  that  b e e n much s p e c u l a t i o n  w h e t h e r he  one  i n the  reveals  poem, w h i c h  T h e r e has  this  Tyger"  reveal that  namesake o f t h e  a misdirected  the n a t u r e  Tyger"  any  o u t l i n e s of  s i x stanzas  created  a c r e a t i o n of a d e v i l ,  seems t o me  least  the  reading  more a t t e n t i v e r e a d i n g  evil;  large  a power  Tyger"  in discussing  e a r l y example o f  someone i s b e i n g  nature of  "The  the  creation.  Even a c u r s o r y thing  an  Unlike  w o r l d B l a k e has  the  p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n "The  Blake's pervading  it  concern  lyric,  distillation  space.  Songs, a c o r r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the  are  a little  poem i s t h e  i n t o a small  a grasp of  here:  i s l a r g e l y because of  the  as  But at to  ferocious, night.  43  Morton  Paley's account of the t i g e r  sublime wrath attempt  o f t h e Godhead i s a p t , b u t I w o u l d  to mitigate  and c r e a t e a v i s i o n  d o m i n a n t l y good o r p o s i t i v e energetic tially  creation  beyond  primordially matter  good and e v i l fearsome  least  f i g u r e because  derived  t h e one t h a t  fearsome  energy  Blake scholars is  level,  i t i s the i d e n t i t y  that  i s brought  reflexive  of the  increasingly  i s figured  question:  one b e c a u s e ,  aware, B l a k e  and a t l e a s t  t h a t he had c r e a t e d  is a  on one  reduce  But r e s o l v i n g  i t s power b e c a u s e  remains  The creature  and f o c u s o f t h e q u e s t i o n  i s identified  as t h e c r e a t o r .  r e a l q u e s t i o n p o s e d b y "The T y g e r " or creator,  a few  t h e q u e s t i o n i n t h i s way does n o t  the impact  a f t e r Blake himself  level  "The T y g e r " and  t h a t he who h a d made "The T y g e r " h a d a l s o made "The Lamb" years e a r l i e r .  as  himself  i n t h e poem. "The T y g e r "  comment on i t s own c r e a t i o n ,  t h e s p e a k e r knows v e r y w e l l  into  11.1-4, E 24)  question i s a rhetorical  a r e becoming  the creator that  by b a s e r  c a n a c t u a l l y m a n i f e s t and c o n t r o l t h e  o f the t i g e r ,  this  i s essen-  an u n q u a l i f i e d a n d  f i g u r e untouched  Tyger Tyger, burning b r i g h t , In the f o r e s t s o f the n i g h t ? What i m m o r t a l h a n d o r e y e , C o u l d f r a m e t h y f e a r f u l symmetry? ("The T y g e r , " But u l t i m a t e l y ,  from t h e  the imaginative r o l e Blake s e t f o r i t .  on t h e s u r f a c e  creator,  as a p r e -  The t i g e r  and must r e m a i n  and f e r o c i o u s  b a l k a t any  of the tiger  o f an i m a g i n a t i v e God.'*  i fi ti s to f u l f i l At  as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e  i s f o c u s e d n o t on  b u t on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c r e a t i v e  process  44  itself.  Any t r u e a r t i s t  attempts  forms o f i m a g i n a t i v e e n e r g y , o f h i s own b e i n g . he may g i v e f o r m  and m a n i f e s t  a l l o f which a r e i n f a c t  He may s t r i v e  t o c r e a t e a benign  to the t e r r i f i c  t o frame t h e v i o l e n t  t o capture  many  facets  lamb o r  tiger, but i f h i s object i s  and f e r o c i o u s e n e r g y  c r e a t o r he w i l l  take s a t i s f a c t i o n  he  successfully  captures a t e r r i f y i n g  of  t h e p a r a d o x i c a l and d i s t u r b i n g l y  o f t h e u n i v e r s e , as  and j o y i n t h e d e g r e e form.  amoral  t o which  T h i s i s one a s p e c t creative  process  B l a k e e x p l o r e s i n "The T y g e r , "  and i n d e e d ,  pelling  process which allows Blake t o  bind  energy  of the creative  the t e r r i f i c  form  of the t i g e r  the powerful  finally  f e a r s o m e and a w e - i n s p i r i n g e l e m e n t a l n a t u r e in  stanza  deadly  4 when t h e s p e a k e r  terrors  to the deadly  clasp," terrors  asks  [italics  that  and com-  participates  i n the  of i t s product, f o r  "what d r e a d  g r a s p , / Dare i t s  mine] he i s r e f e r r i n g  o f t h e hammer a n d a n v i l ,  directly  tools o f the  c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , and o n l y s e c o n d a r i l y t o t h e t i g e r . If Blake as w e l l in  i s describing  as t h e t i g e r  as a n i m a l ,  t h e poem c a n be s e e n  elaborate follow  accounts  the creation  o f "The T y g e r "  t h e n t h e c r e a t i o n myth  of the process  of illuminated  printing  Many o f t h e e l e m e n t s  B l a k e ' s h a n d l i n g o f the metaphors a r e p r e s e n t : as an i m p o r t a n t  with  the actual the t o o l s  locale  there i s the  element o f c r e a t i v e  of the creation,  that Blake/Los  typically  t h e smithy, uses  which  associated with  activity;  the c r e a t o r o f t h e t i g e r o b v i o u s l y a n t i c i p a t e s Blake's and  presented  as a p r e c u r s o r o f t h e more s u s t a i n e d and  as h i s myth m a t u r e s .  e m p h a s i s on f i r e  a s poem  Los f i g u r e ;  i s cluttered  t o shape h i s c o p p e r -  45  plate/hard  steel:  importantly, accounts of tive  the the  be  fire,  and  forge.  i d e n t i f i e d with  Blake's  i n The  artistic  a work o f  paradoxical Tyger."  Book o f  Urizen,  activity:  the  and  i s the  an  Nature"  of  eternal  the  but  (VLJ,  E  545).  t h i s i s also to s p a c e and  the  of  the  putting  freeze  the  process activity  "creating" form  form i n the  i s the  World of  of  to  imagi-  Eternity..  Permanent R e a l i t i e s  r e f l e c t e d i n t h i s Vegetable Glass  Part  Milton,  is  i n the  giving physical  artist's  form i n p h y s i c a l s u b s t a n c e .  later  bonds o f  see  This  creative  ..[and] T h e r e E x i s t i n t h a t E t e r n a l W o r l d the o f E v e r y T h i n g w h i c h we  from  process of  eternal  Imagination  narra-  c e n t r a l problem  eyes, the  process of  e x i s t s as  "world of  the  It is implicit  i n Blake's  art is really  f o r the  nature of  i n "The  something which a l r e a d y nation,  a  c r e a t i o n w h i c h e n t a i l s a movement  the  more  later  c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s because i t p r e s e n t s  i s explored  described  that  But  untamed e l e m e n t a l e n e r g y t o e n e r g y b o u n d .  other aspect of  all  poem can  of p r o g r e s s i v e  fierce,  that  hammer, a n v i l ,  the  time—and  on  This  of the  imaginative  t h i s i s an  r o l e i s to  embody  i s , i n the  clothes form  of  of  imagery  generation,  i n t o the  static  essentially Urizenic  activity. There  i s a c l o s e p a r a l l e l between the  that  i s given  form i n the  that  e f f e c t s t h i s formation:  tiger's  e y e s , and  to give  form t o h i s  both  are,  by  the  poem and  other  the  creative  one  i s the  i s the  fire  creation.  fire which  Both i n v o l v e  implication, portions  free, primal energy  burning the  itself in  creator  "deadly  of e t e r n i t y too  energy  the seizes  terrors" great  for  and the  46  e y e s o f man.  I t i s the a r t i s t ' s  to  with f i r e  fight  fire  into perceptible binding  and  form.  of e t e r n a l  As  energy  heroic  freeze  and  these p o r t i o n s  a fulfilment into  yet satanic  fixed  form,  "The  and  essentially  that  and  pacified  physical in  form.  restricted  This  o f "The  objectified  the into  tiger "The  and  poem on p r i n t e d  and  as i t " f a l l s "  the primal  energy  that  are both formless:  the paradoxical  progressively energy which  freeze existed  becomes, i n s t a n z a 2, physical and  eyes.  t o n g s and  confining  into a physical independent  As  and  tiger con-  physical,  shaped  i s t o be  into  shaped  light,  pure  the b l a c k s m i t h / p o e t the energy begins  form:  what was of  i s emanating  the c r e a t o r  p h y s i c a l h e a r t which  energy,  the  they a r e pure  the f o r m l e s s energy  a physical brain  seizes into  then s t a r t s  once  to  pure  materiality out of fire,  hammer,  t h e shape  to beat.  two  of  a  In the  next  i s f a s h i o n e d t o e n c l o s e the o n c e - f r e e  i n t h e c o n d e n s a t i o n o f t h e poem's s y n t a x , t h e  seems t o emerge f r o m i t s p h y s i c a l and  into  of the t a i n t  a l i g h t which  stanza,  the  Blake's  i s t o be  act of creation,  I n s t a n z a 3, twists  into  page.  e n e r g y b u r n i n g i n an e l e m e n t a l s t a t e . performs  displays  as i t i s bound  the imaginative conception t h a t  Tyger"  the  f o r m l e s s energy  i t i s a p a t t e r n which  Tyger" m i r r o r s  s t a n z a 1,  In  Tyger"  i s t h e p a t t e r n o f movement w h i c h  t h e poem u n d e r g o e s ,  ception  eternity  o f t h e theme o f  a g e n e r a l movement f r o m p u r e i s gradually  of  job  creation  complete  tiger  w i t h hands  feet. By  t h e end o f s t a n z a 4,  t h e f u r y of. c r e a t i v e  activity  has  47 p e a k e d and we c a n assume t h a t has b e e n f o r m e d . tiger  Although  into physical  form  presentation of Blake's from  the t i g e r  this  form  i s n o t d e s i g n e d as a m e t a p h o r i c a l r e e n t i r e process of production, i t i s c l e a r  that  on one l e v e l  copperplates  and ham-  adumbrates  Thus t h e c r e a t i o n  alluded of the  t h e e t c h i n g o f one o f B l a k e ' s  and t h e emergence o f t h e image o f t h e t i g e r  ther, metaphoric  an i m p l i c i t  bound t h e O r c i c  on ano-  level.  I n s t a n z a 5, t h e c r u c i a l sents  t o metals  the stage of Blake's process  to i s the e t c h i n g of a copperplate. tiger  and as poem  p r o g r e s s i v e emergence o f t h e  t h e image o f a b l a c k s m i t h a p p l y i n g . f i r e  m e r i n g , them i n t o  The  as animal  comment on t h e c r e a t i v e f r e e energy  f  image i s t h a t  w h i c h he h a s j u s t  s t a n z a o f t h e poem, B l a k e activity  pre-  t h a t has  of stanza 1 into physical  form.  o f B l a k e g a z i n g down a t t h e c o p p e r p l a t e frozen  the e t e r n a l  into  form o f t h e t i g e r :  When t h e s t a r s t h r e w down t h e i r s p e a r s And w a t e r ' d h e a v e n w i t h t h e i r t e a r s : D i d he s m i l e h i s work t o s e e ? The  "stars"  l i g h t which f o r eyes,  of line  17 w h i c h  are lines  i n this  at h i s creation  ("The T y g e r , "  t h r o w down b o t h  of sight)  case t h e eyes  and t e a r s  f o r " ' s t a r s ' i n Blake's  the unexpected  identification  metaphor  as he l o o k s  The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f symbolism  a r e always  T h i s passage of Blake  a r t i s t w i t h Ux'izen t h e demon o f m a t e r i a l i t y i n h i s h a n d l i n g o f the metaphors  (shafts of  of the c r e a t o r Blake  a s s o c i a t e d w x t h U r i z e n and m a t e r i a l i s m . " anticipates  spears  are a natural  and s e e s what he h a s done.  t h e image a r e c l e a r  11.17-19, E 25)  that  thus  as c r e a t i v e  i s implicit  i n The Book o f U r i z e n . ^  The  48  creation  o f t h e t i g e r may  a Promethean fire  figure  dares  to p h y s i c a l  form,  member o f t h e d e v i l ' s "capture"  p l e x when he  as t h e v e r i t a b l e the  of the  divine  party certainly form  may  of energy  from  Thus B l a k e  2,  animal  perched  but  t h e q u e s t i o n more com-  t h e u l t i m a t e emergence o f t h e b o u n d  stuffed  a  have s m i l e d a t h i s  i n s t a n z a 1 and  and  as  like  energy  a show dog  beneath  text. H e r e , as  t i v e process as t h e v i s u a l tion  that  appears final  i n many e t h e r v . i e t a p h o r i c a l a c c o u n t s  (Urizen, plate fulfilment  t o the eyes  o f man  that i s recounted  and  burning  as t h e image on  The  i s therefore only a domesticated  Thus I w o u l d tiger,  i n t h e poem.  and  most t r u l y  see  "The  not p r i m a r i l y as an  i n which both j o y and  f o r the eyes  As  of  the p l a t e  i s the  and  design that  Tyger"  i s the  tiger's  n o t as  an e x a m i n a t i o n  of  o f the c r e a t o r , creative  c a n meet i n t h e f e a r f u l  a discussion  t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , "The  of the  of  shadow o f what was  of the mysterious  tiger  form  once  man.  as an e x a m i n a t i o n  examination  creator  fear.  Tyger"  produc-  Thus t h e tame c a t w h i c h  c r a f t s m a n s h i p i s the l i m i t  too b r i g h t l y  crea-  the design f u n c t i o n s  or product of the n a r r a t i v e of  i s p r e s e n t e d i n the t e x t .  product of Blake's fall  5 f o r example),  of the  stage of the p r o g r e s s i v e b i n d i n g of the e t e r n a l  energy  of  i s tamed.  must be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t views  act i n which  i n the process of t r a n s i t i o n  the t i g e r  of a t e r r i f i c  response  a sublime c r e a t i v e  to capture a portion  f o r m o r t a l eyes, but  flame  his  be  but  process symmetry  of the p a r a d o x i c a l nature r e p r e s e n t s the s t a r t  the  of  of a long  49 and  c o n t i n u i n g concern  presented  through  process.  As  represents  of Blake's poetry that  the v e h i c l e  of h i s metaphors of the  an e a r l y  stage i n Blake's development.  v o c a b u l a r y and  and n o t  Although  part  enough f o r us  c o g n i z e d h i s own and  effective  used  that  they  c o u l d pursue  experience, but  h a s b e e n made, and and  i n the next  plotting  Marriage  are. n o t  an  could  the depth  emerging  years Blake  o f Heaven and  Hell  printing.  in  p r o b a b l y completed  re-  available  that  the e s s e n t i a l  be  and to are  from out  visionary develops to  the  of leap  the turn  o f h i s work.  i s a c r u c i a l work i n  the development of B l a k e ' s use  and  are s t r o n g  As y e t t h e m e t a p h o r s still  few  and  p o i n t B l a k e had  of the g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s  illuminated 1790  they  s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h a l l o w him  t h e s e m e t a p h o r s i n t o one The  sequence.  Tyger"  not yet r e a l i z e d  more p o t e n t i a l t h a n a c t u a l ,  vocabulary  o f "The  at t h i s  the analogy.  a  the  some o f h i s d i s c u s s i o n s o f a e s t h e t i c s  w h i c h he  artistic  of  of the t i g e r  i n s t a n c e of the c r e a t i v e process  p r o c e s s , b u t he had  Blake's  step  t e c h n i q u e s o f p r o d u c t i o n t o be  to dramatize  para-  sense  Some o f  are d e l i b e r a t e ,  I t i s as t h o u g h  creative  still  s t e p by  plate  The  clearly  i s present, but i t i s  between t h e c r e a t i o n  illuminated  t o say  developed.  setting  of a developed,  the p a r a l l e l s  the c r e a t i o n o f the  fully  there i s l i t t l e  o f p r o d u c t i o n r e a l i z e d , i n metaphor.  characteristic sketchy  creative  an embodiment o f t h o s e m e t a p h o r s , t h e poem  d i g m a t i c movement i s p r e s e n t , b u t narrative  i s generally  o f the metaphors  In the course of t h i s (certainly  of  s i n g l e work, b e g u n  first  published) i n  50  1793, t h e m e t a p h o r s predates that  "The Tyger"  bear  developed  etching  (the  this  first  "The  begun i n 1 7 9 0 ,  true  and i t  newly d e v e l o p e d  place  is  years,  poetic  L i b e r t y " had b e e n  its  growing myth,  technique  that  the  of  fully  is  a c r u c i a l work i n t h i s  because the development of but a l s o surface  the metaphors  s i m p l y because the metaphors of  The M a r r i a g e ,  which begins  pointedly:  s u c h as " I was  t h e method i n w h i c h k n o w l e d g e In  addition,  ments nique,  of as  his  Blake  points  work w i t h  often  i n the  illu-  in a Printing is  traced  house  transmitted..."  explicit to  references the  reader  a body d i s t i n c t  that  printing  i n f e r n a l m e t h o d , by c o r r o s i v e s ,  and m e d i c i n a l . . . "  (MHH 14,  work.^ only  in  it,  the  in Hell  (MHH 1 5 ,  to h i s  man h a s  i n the  not  t h e way t o t h e s e m e t a p h o r i c a l  when he a n n o u n c e s  salutary  of  "Memorable F a n c y , "  the n o t i o n t h a t  are  his  emerge o n t o  third  for  into  later  regard  c a n be  time  etching  his  of  i n 179 3 ,  incorporated  of  the  permanent  and he h a d begun t o h a n d l e t h e m e t a p h o r s  Marriage  relief  B u t by' t h e  relief  m i n a t e d p r i n t i n g i n a manner c h a r a c t e r i s t i c The  of  re-  implications  c o m p l e t e d and e t c h e d  were  burden.  found t h e i r  vision.  the process  ramifications  poetry  had b e e n p r i n t e d  t e c h n i q u e had n o t y e t of h i s  the  the p o e t i c  difficult  not s u r p r i s i n g  Blake; h a d b e e n w o r k i n g w i t h five  his  of  that  B l a k e had o n l y v e r y  i l l u m i n a t e d books  i n the vocabulary Song o f  heavy p o r t i o n of  and m a s t e r e d  first  year before),  f r o m an u n t a p p e d p o t e n t i a l i t y  to f u l l y - d e v e l o p e d elements  an i n c r e a s i n g l y  When t h e poem was cently  develop  E 38).  E  39).  treat-  printing  he w i l l  from h i s  & saw  "  tech-  [expunge]  soul...by which i n  Hell  As a r e s u l t  of  51  this  o v e r t h a n d l i n g o f t h e metaphors i n The M a r r i a g e ,  more a c c e s s i b l e  than  i n most o t h e r w o r k s , and B l a k e  have b e e n q u i c k t o r e c o g n i z e and e x p l i c a t e several sections The in  first  The M a r r i a g e  r a b l e Fancy,"  o f The  satiric  activity  of i l l u m i n a t e d  printing  "Memo-  among t h e f i r e s o f  Here, as t h r o u g h o u t  The M a r r i a g e , t h e  p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e poem a s s i g n s t h e c r e a t i v e printing  doing so, Blake develops  to the realm of the d e v i l s .  and e x p l o i t s  i n "The T y g e r "  printing~-especially vity  occurs i n the f i r s t  b e g i n n i n g "As I was w a l k i n g  inverted  implicit  t h e metaphors i n  Marriage.8  o f H e a v e n and H e l l  (MHH 6, E 3 5 ) .  phor  scholars  emergence o f t h e m e t a p h o r s o f i l l u m i n a t e d  hell..."  In  they are  the a c i d - a s - f i r e  and t h e p r o c e s s o f i l l u m i n a t e d  the etching stage—becomes  of the d e v i l / a r t i s t  meta-  as he burns  in Hell  the f i e r y  acti-  to his eternal  delight. This  "Memorable F a n c y , "  "Proverbs o f H e l l , " of  c o n f o r m s t o one o f B l a k e ' s  h a n d l i n g t h e metaphors i n t h a t  introduction sage  that  "fire" lar  which immediately  that  typical  methods  i t s e r v e s as a p r e l u d i u m o r  recounts the physical  i t precedes.  precedes the  Interestingly,  production of the pasBlake again  develops  i n t o a p o l y s e m o u s s y m b o l and i n t r o d u c e s a p a r a l l e l  to that  i n "The T y g e r "  in which the e t e r n a l  simi-  i n that both the imaginative realm  forms o f h i s p o e t r y e x i s t  and t h e t e c h n i c a l  p r o c e s s by w h i c h  t h e y emerge o n t o t h e p h y s i c a l  fied with f i r e .  That  Blake i s walking  a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e passage  i s , the f i r e s  of Hell  plane  are i d e n t i -  i n which the d e v i l represent the  52  fires  of h i s imagination  material world, a different if  he  "the  s e t of  abyss of the  five  "corroding f i r e s "  must r e t u r n t o senses,"  i n the  "Proverbs  are  of H e l l "  told  etching  that i t i s , specifically,  which Blake  i n f e r n a l w a l k , and  as he  as  d e v i l has  the  and work  with  process  i s t o t r a n s m i t h i s knowledge f o r the b e n e f i t o f I n d e e d , we  his  f r o m w h i c h he  man.  the  been c o l l e c t i n g  comes home t o t h e  " r e a l world"  in he  q paradoxically  d i s c o v e r s h i m s e l f e t c h i n g them on  a  copperplate.  When I came home; on t h e a b y s s o f t h e f i v e s e n s e s , where a f l a t s i d e d s t e e p f r o w n s o v e r t h e p r e s e n t world. I saw a m i g h t y D e v i l f o l d e d i n b l a c k c l o u d s , h o v e r i n g on t h e s i d e s o f t h e r o c k , w i t h c o r r o d i n g f i r e s he w r o t e t h e f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e now p e r c i e v e d by t h e m i n d s o f men, & r e a d by them on e a r t h . How Is  do y o u know b u t e v ' r y B i r d t h a t c u t s t h e a i r y way, an immense w o r l d o f d e l i g h t , c l o s ' d by y o u r senses f i v e ? (MHH 6&7, E 35)  Erdman c o r r e c t l y over  the p r e s e n t world"  appears t o the Devil Blake surface  or  sentence fairly his of  notes  t h a t "the i s the  i n i t s clouds  and  easy.  The  r e a l value  o b s e r v a t i o n o f the  the  (fig.3)  f i r s t word o f t h e This design  sentence  i s i n fact  the  that  Since  the d e v i l  f o r he  inscribing  printing  is writing a  with Blake  is  lies  p o i n t s out t h a t the to c l i f f  :-s i t  "[the]  the  o f Erdman's comments h e r e  design,  is? a c t u a l l y  t o add  identification  l i g h t n i n g which d a r t s from clouds  the p l a t e  goes on  copperplate  i s h i m s e l f a t work on  ' s i d e s of the rock.'"10  i n corroding fires,  s i d e d s t e e p t w h i c h ] frowns  s u r f a c e of the  returning devil,  sees  flat  bolt  a t the bottom  t h e word  on p l a t e 7 b e g i n n i n g  in  of  "How"—the  "How  do y o u  know...."  g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r e c u r r i n g  53  l i g h t n i n g metaphor o f the e t c h i n g p r o c e s s met  in Urizen  (3:35, E 70),  and  Blake's  plate  process  of production recounted  Eight  account  15,  E  39).  will  very b r i e f l y  where n e c e s s a r y , pretation Blake's  see  the design  analogue of  Marriage  printing  occurs  process:  in a Printing  p a s s a g e as an  use  the  another the  "Memo-  house i n H e l l . . . " a  substantially  account  of  illuminated  summarize h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s , e x p a n d i n g and  on  repeat material already available,  i n the p r o c e s s . t e s t t h i s  f o r correspondences  typical  have a l r e a d y  text.  already offered  of t h i s  so r a t h e r than  1 1  i n the  i n The  " I was  Erdman has  correct explication printing,  on  of Blake's  r a b l e Fancy" b e g i n n i n g (MHH  can  f u n c t i o n i n g a g a i n as t h e v i s u a l  pages f u r t h e r  metaphorical  t h u s we  t h a t we  on  independent  w i t h what I have s u g g e s t e d  o f t h e m e t a p h o r s as  they  them inter-  is  emerge i n o t h e r  poems. The  cave which appears  the p r o c e s s craggy  first  of production, i s , of course,  rock-cliff  already  i n the  familiar,  chamber, o r s t a g e a modulation  m e t a p h o r s o f t h e p l a t e w i t h w h i c h we the  three-dimensional  of  o f an  etched  "clearing as an  Erdman i d e n t i f i e s  away t h e r u b b i s h f r o m  engraver,  and  sees  the  a caves  the  c a v e as o p p o s e d t o  s i d e d s t e e p " more p o i n t e d l y r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e added copperplate.  the  mouth"  of  are  "flat  the  depth  Dragon-Man (MHH  15,  "number o f D r a g o n s " t h a t  E  39)  are  1? "hollowing this Blake  t h e cave", as t h e v a r i o u s e n g r a v i n g  account has  g o e s on  either  tools.  t o d e s c r i b e the e t c h i n g o f t h e  c o n f l a t e d the d i s t i n c t  processes  of  I  Since "cave," intaglio  54 and  relief  printing  reordered Urizen,  as i n C h a p t e r  I of Urizen, or at  the stages o f h i s r e l i e f  since  relief  technique  p l a t e s were o c c a s i o n a l l y  a g r a v e r o n l y a f t e r h a v i n g been chamber, t h e  viper  folding  the r o c k r e i n f o r c e s  paper  and  plate  and  "quenchless  "rocks" i n Chapter  mously  the f l a t  a d o r n m e n t s and that  c a v e ; we  refer  and  process.  of h i s p h a l l i c  colour, but,  as we  shall  lation  of the  acid.  T h e r e f o r e we  cating  that  developed With  fiery  acid  Ore  house":  representatives  by  "Metonyand  impression i s also  or paper  as  a  plate.  "adorning  Lthe  15, E  i s a representation  39)  cave]  with  gold  Blake's  p a i n t b r u s h a d o r n i n g t h e page w i t h see  i n America,  i s also  t h e s n a k e as  a metaphor o f the  as p a i n t  the p h a l l i c  a modu-  consuming  i s t o paper,  symbol o f the  this  inditime  snake. '* 1  o f Erdman's commentary t o g e t h e r w i t h can see  t a k i n g p l a c e i n the second,  "Printing  of  inscriptions  I t i s , more s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  what I h a v e a d d e d h e r e , we is  these  have a n o t h e r v e r s i o n o f t h e p a r a l l e l  an o v e r v i e w  the  i n Blake's  Erdman n o t e s t h a t  t o copper  (MHH  i s to plate  through  with  run over the " d e s a r t s "  upon w h i c h  the v i p e r  precious stones"  of the p a i n t i n g rendition  that  is implicit  are. r e p r o d u c e d  variously  up  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  that  III of Urizen.  infinities  touched  associated with  flames" that  sheet of paper  Erdman a l s o n o t e s silver  imagery  i n Blake's v i s i o n  h a n d l i n g o f the  does i n  etched.  In t h e second round  as he  least  that i n fact  third,  V i p e r , E a g l e , and  of the f i e r y ,  and Lion  t h e same  fourth  activity  chambers o f  are a l l f u n c t i o n i n g  consuming a c i d  that  causes  the  the as  55  illuminations (Even  t o appear i n the c l i f f - r o c k - c o p p e r p l a t e .  the f i r s t  chamber c a n b e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s  s i n c e t h e dragons h o l l o w i n g t h e cave of  the vipers  and  clearest  throughout  folding  poetry.  "chambers"  T h i s i s one o f t h e s i m p l e s t tendency  realized  o f words, such  of the printing  artistic  vision,  modulation  that  L i k e any g r e a t p o e t ,  t o create a f u l l y  very small expenditure  Blake's  it.)  a r e an e a s y  examples o f a fundamental  Blake's  the a b i l i t y  round  grouping  house.  runs  Blake has  image o r s c e n e w i t h a as i n e a c h  o f the  But i n t h e f l u i d i t y o f  the imaginary  landscape—i.e. the  s u r f a c e textuore o f t h e poem and t h e i m a g i n a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i t presents—may  shift  r a d i c a l l y with the i n t r o d u c t i o n  e l e m e n t o r a new p o i n t o f v i e w , a l t h o u g h process  is still  t h e same e v e n t o r  being described.  Blake's bold dramatization of this from  the f i e r y  the f o u r t h his of  Leviathan.  poetry  abyss  when. B l a k e ' s  are frightened  and i n a m e t a p h o r i c a l a c c o u n t  can suddenly  of a mudslide  turn into  account.^  see the f i r s t  Blake's  p r o c e s s , what  o v e r mountains and v a l l e y s a rock with  i t s blood  dauber i s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the  I n t h e "Memorable F a n c y "  formed r e a d i n g w i l l same e v e n t ,  inking  by t h e v i s i o n  throughout  of the inking  a snake s t a i n i n g  when t h e i d e a o f a p h a l l i c  c o m p a n i o n A n g e l and  operates  rolling  i s the s h i f t  takes p l a c e i n  out of the "picture"  B u t t h e same p r i n c i p l e  was once a v i s i o n  principle  t o t h e p l e a s a n t bank t h a t  "Memorable F a n c y "  metaphysics  o f a new  i n q u e s t i o n , then,  an i n -  t h r e e o r f o u r chambers a s t h e  a n d we must l o o k t o t h e d i f f e r e n t  aspects,  implica-  56  tions,  and  duction for  metaphorical conflations  that Blake  offers  us  o f U r i z e n and  i s always  Indeed,  Morris Fancy"  lots,  offers  and  interprets  an A n g e l  printing  the f i e r y  A n g e l hang as a v i s i o n  Blake's  actual  show one  of Blake's  Eaves's  most i m p o r t a n t  t h a t he  sees  section  o f t h e poem.  another  abyss  over which Blake and  he  As  a verification  notes  that  i n the  combined d r a m a t i c a l l y b u t  n  d  goes on  o f L e v i a t h a n as of  illuminated  bath...[and  "  the]  plate  to interpret  after  processes  the to  18  obserperh-.ps  in  " r e p r e s e n t s two  of inking,  a r e n o t shown i n a s t a g e - b y - s t a g e  i s taken  printing,  process."  i  1 9  stages  illogically  the r e s u l t i n g  the p l a t e  this  allegory,"  emergence  [ r e p r e s e n t i n g ] a l l t h a t happens i n the  printing  Eaves  conflation  "artistic  of  a  o f my  of production presented  e r u p t s on  the e t c h i n g process  and  g o e s on  o b s e r v a t i o n i s the pronounced  He  eter-  Blake's  t y p i c a l h a n d l i n g of the metaphors,  i n the processes  1  their  t o have b e e n p u b l i s h e d .  the b l a c k tempest t h a t  i n t o one" **  "Memorable  o f t h e p a s s a g e as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  techniques.  vations  metaphors.  Blake.' fourth  o f an e t c h i n g b a t h ,  e x p l a i n many o f t h e d e t a i l s of  of  the only f u l l y - d e v e l o p e d r e a d i n g of  metaphors o f i l l u m i n a t e d correctly  t o k e e p i n mind  Blake's h a n d l i n g of the  i n h i s r e a d i n g of the  i n which Blake  account  cave-palace-cliff.  an i m p o r t a n t p r i n c i p l e  t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Eav.es,  pro-  of l o o k i n g at the n a r r a t i v e s t r a t e g y  to understand  i t i s basic  of  i n order to  o f V i p e r - E a g l e - L i o n and  a n o t h e r way  when a t t e m p t i n g  nal  i s d e v e l o p i n g i n each  the m o d u l a t i o n  This  of the process  from and  process  i t s acid  coloring  In addition, 7  57  when he the  observes  t h a t "the major c o n t r i b u t i o n of L e v i a t h a n  abyss i s c o l o r , " 0 Eaves i s p o i n t i n g out  another  2  of Blake's  c u r i o u s union  colourful,  phallic  as  crest with  a fiery  clearly acid  another  t h a t we  from the sentation and  two  with  genius  o f p l a t e 20  through  the  as  the  now  Blake's  The  but,  and  t h a t he  once a g a i n  that i s presented characteristic  dramati-  has  handling  Thus  followed  the d e s i g n  i n the  been c l e a r l y  repre-  bath.  fulfilment  the  recognizes  109-10) , i t is_ a l s o a acid  of  Leviathan  i t is a  as E a v e s  of the  bath  i s also  emergence o f  analogue or v i s u a l  has  acid  on  a  of the  text. of the  nar-  2 1  metaphors  e s t a b l i s h e d , and  I would  t o l o o k a t some o f t h e ways t h a t t h e m e t a p h o r s f u n c t i o n fulfilment  Blake's actual vision. closely with  acid;  from out  etching process,  of i l l u m i n a t e d p r i n t i n g  the  (pp.  emerging  of production By  like  of the  this  serpentine genius  d i s c o v e r s t h a t i t i s p l a t e 20  p l a t e doubles rative  before.  fire  abyss i s the p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s ;  o f the  the reader  of crimson  m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the  ingeniously explains  zation  globes  instance  painting, for  s e r p e n t w h i c h emerges f r o m t h e  h a v e met  fiery  o f e t c h i n g and  to  art.  o r d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f some, o f This i s i n fact  techniques For  one  identified  t h a t of the  examination  of Blake's 22  observation.  f i t i n t o h i s myth and l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d  h i s work w i t h  alchemist use  and of  ideas basic  t a n t a m o u n t t o l o o k i n g a t how  of production t h i n g , i t has  the  c o r r o s i v e a c i d s and  h i s "Great  Work,"  the metaphors w i l l  and  as  to Blake'  artistic  that  Blake  metal  plates  a close  strengthen  this  53  The of  basic  importance  t h e p r o c e s s e s and  niques  and  The  the preeminent  from  figure  where he  i n the e a r l y , Blake  that  "Any  man  22  o n l y h i s most i m p o r t a n t  techbe  of P a r a c e l s u s ,  o f The  of mechanical  Marriage  talents  Behman, p r o d u c e  t o John  (MHH  may  ten 22,  Flaxman about  l a t e r Blake mentions P a r a c e l s u s i n a b r i e f  cludes  physical  v o l u m e s o f e q u a l v a l u e w i t h Swede::borg's" in a letter  vision  f o r m a t i v e work o f  i n c l u d e s mention  of P a r a c e l s u s or Jacob  more s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  years  of both h i s a c t u a l  i n a l c h e m y , on p l a t e  states  the w r i t i n g s  thousand And  in fact,  i n shaping Blake's  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f them c a n n o t  especially  Marriage.2 3  itself  purpose  h i s metaphoric  overestimated,  o f alchemy  E  42).  eight  poem t h a t i n -  influences:  Now  my l o t i n t h e Heavens i s t h i s , M i l t o n l o v ' d me i n c h i l d h o o d & shew'd me h i s f a c e . E z r a came w i t h I s a i a h t h e P r o p h e t , b u t Shakespeare i n r i p e r y e a r s gave me h i s h a n d ; P a r a c e l s u s & Behmen a p p e a r ' d t o me, t e r r o r s a p p e a r ' d i n t h e Heavens above And i n H e l l b e n e a t h , & a m i g h t y & a w f u l change t h r e a t ened t h e E a r t h . The A m e r i c a n V7ar b e g a n . . . (To J o h n F l a x m a n , S e p t e m b e r 12,  1800, If  E  680)  Paracelsus d i d influence Blake strongly,  found  i t s clearest  physical The  details action  away t h e a p p a r e n t finite fire  w h i c h was  expression i n Blake's v i s i o n  be  influence and  use  of  the  of h i s process of production. of Blake's  "medicinal" corrosives which  s u r f a c e of the copperplate t o r e v e a l h i d i s , of course, analogous  of the a l c h e m i s t which melts  d r o s s may  that  removed and  the  to the  the base metal  "hidden"  gold  melt  the i n -  purifying  so t h a t i t s  revealed.24  Indeed,  59  the balanced  dance i n B l a k e ' s  technique  of production  between  t h e a c i d / f i r e w h i c h consumes and t h e w a t e r w h i c h washes t h e acid  away a n d s t o p s  flection  the etching process  of the elemental  progression  contraries that give r i s e  i n the alchemical process:  the principle...compose twofold p r i n c i p l e of these  two p r i n c i p l e s active  alchemist progresses  i t s artist." *'  to gold, physical to s p i r i t u a l Blake's  Vulcan's  i s Los s  a c t i o n which takes  i s nothing  other  catalysts  t o produce gold.  fire....and  place.  Vulcan's  Again, the  acid bath,  and a s t h e  are r e i n f o r c e d .  The  crucible  the action of f i r e  breaks  i s essen-  down t h e i m p u r e m e t a l  2  into i t s  b a c k up i n  This r e t u r n t o prima materia,  primal substance" ^  to  i n the alchemist's  which takes  first  and t h e a d d i t i o n  i t s component p a r t s a r e b u i l t  analogous t o the a c t i v i t y  Vulcan  o f the metaphors a r e obvious:  the p a r a l l e l s  first  but the a r t  from pure t o impure,  place i n the alchemist's  form b e f o r e  undifferentiated  that the  forge of  takes  forge i s Blake's  one o f r e g r e s s i o n :  elemental  is  handling  1  metaphors a r e pursued  order  "... a l c h e m y  that the alchemical transformation  forge  the inter-  various manifestations  i n t o t h e pxire t h r o u g h  p a r a l l e l s with  of  and t h e i r  Thus i t i s i n t h e f i e r y  2  tially  i t i s through  i n h i s "vJreat Work" f r o m l e a d t o g o l d .  w h i c h makes t h e i m p u r e  dross  o f which  and p a s s i v e , h o t and c o l d  In P a r a c e l s u s ' words,  smithy  "...fire,  to a l l  t h e famous H e r m e t i c a n d r o g y n e , t h e  o f a l l metals."25  as m a l e and f e m a l e ,  is  as a r e -  i s t h e principle...Qand] water, o f which mercury i s  sulphur  action  c a n be s e e n  "still forge  place i n Blake's  60  etching bath  and a c c o u n t s  etching plate  as an e l e m e n t a l  chemical matrix, formless  of  the a f f i n i t y  always b e f o r e B l a k e ' s analogy  more c l e a r l y  t o an  void, theequivalent of the a l -  2 8  o f alchemy w i t h  eyes,  II.  h i s own t e c h n i q u e s  p e r h a p s nowhere a r e t h e l i n e s  drawn t h a n  passage o f U r i z e n , Chapter of  allusions  t h e " P r i m a l womb, p r i m a l m o t h e r , t h e s t i l l  receptacle of form."  Although was  f o r the frequent  i n the p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d  In this  passage, t h e e t c h i n g  a c o p p e r p l a t e i s d e s c r i b e d as a r e t u r n t o t h e a l c h e m i c a l  prima  materia  i n t h e a l c h e m i s t ' s c r u c i b l e , which i s t h e c r e a t i o n  of  "The p h i l o s o p h e r ' s e g g . . . a n a r t i f i c i a l  of  nature."  2 9  And i n t h i s  also the figurative with world  replica  return t o elemental  o f t h e womb  chaos which i s  etching of a copperplate, Urizen  and overcomes t h e f o u r p r i m a r y  elements o f P a r a c e l s u s '  v i e w as t h e e t c h i n g o f t h e p l a t e  progresses:  F i r s t I f o u g h t w i t h t h e f i r e ; consum'd I n w a r d s , i n t o a deep w o r l d w i t h i n : A v o i d immense, w i l d d a r k & deep, Where n o t h i n g was; N a t u r e s w i d e womb<".> And s e l f b a l a n c ' d s t r e t c h ' d o ' e r t h e v o i d I a l o n e , even I ! the winds m e r c i l e s s Bound; b u t c o n d e n s i n g , i n t o r r e n t s They f a l l & f a l l ; s t r o n g I r e p e l l ' d The v a s t waves,& a r o s e on t h e w a t e r s A wide world o f s o l i d o b s t r u c t i o n (U4:14-23, E 70-71)  [fire]  [air] [water] [earth]  T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l o t h e r ways i n w h i c h B l a k e ' s t h e m e t a p h o r s make h i s t e c h n i q u e s alchemy, such processes form  as t h e f a c t  present  fire  battles  figuratively  that the symbolic  handling of  analogous  with  systems o f b o t h  as a p a r a d o x i c a l l y l i q u i d  element i n t h e  o f w a t e r , 3 0 b u t i t i s a l s o w i s e t o remember t h e s i m p l e  fact  61  that for  t h e two p r o c e s s e s  are l i t e r a l l y  e x a m p l e , aqua f o r t i s  etching of a copperplate causes a s o l i d perties.  i s used simply  i n both processes, i s a chemical  But Blake's  the s i m i l a r i t y  of p h y s i c a l techniques  r e s p e c t i v e symbolic  Blake,  i n fact,  pursues the analogies  in  producing  the ultimate  to turn lead into g o l d — t h a t  the  symbolic  In the a l c h e m i c a l down—in his  perfect,  process,  t o be l a t e r  harmonious,  f a l l e n world. ambitious simply  the formation  h i s own  purpose  o f alchemy i s  i t s ostensible  transformation  regenerated  purpose,  of i t s true  goal,  of the alchemist.  psyche i s f i r s t  and s l o w l y  rebuilt  form f r e e o f t h e t a i n t  corresponding  technique  broken  into a of the  i s similarly  aim o f h i s e t c h i n g p r o c e s s  i snot  o f i l l u m i n a t e d books, b u t i s t h e c l e a n s i n g so t h a t the i n f i n i t e  the d e s t r u c t i v e f i r e s  are u l t i m a t e l y p o s i t i v e , are i n fact  goal  point  and d i s s o l v e d i n t h e p u r i f y i n g f l a m e s o f  f o r the ultimate  same way t h a t  rosives  i s only  the alchemist's  "golden"  Blake's  o f man's p e r c e p t i o n the  spiritual  e f f e c t melted  forge,  The t r u e  g a r m e n t and e x t e r n a l r e f l e c t i o n  which i s the i n n e r ,  vocabularies.  t o a-much d e e p e r  g o a l o f alchemy w i t h  not  do n o t s t o p  o r even a t t h e s i m i -  and m e t a p h o r i c  h i s i l l u m i n a t e d books.  pro-  between  of illuminated printing  of their  identifies  r e a c t i o n which  development o f the a n a l o g i e s  larity  that  and t h e  m e t a l t o d i s s o l v e and c h a n g e i t s p h y s i c a l  a l c h e m y and h i s own p r o c e s s at  a n a l o g o u s i n s e v e r a l ways:  Blake claims  may be r e v e a l e d . of the alchemist's  In forge  that h i s d i s s o l v i n g cor-  " s a l u t a r y and m e d i c i n a l "  i n that  they  cleanse  62  the perceptions display  the  and  melt  infinite  apparent  w h i c h was  These o b s e r v a t i o n s as when M o r t o n P a l e y the poet-prophet phorically, But  the  what h a s  literal  important phorical  place  "the  i n which Blake that Blake's of  coherence of h i s thought. p l a t e i n The  before,  activity  into  appreciated before  a p p l i e d the  analogy  P l a t e 14  i n the  regard,  Uhe and  the  the  h i s meta-  development  i s certainly  in this  gold."31 is  and  actual techniques—and them—hold  of  o f mankind i s , meta-  t u r n i n g base metals  Marriage  t a n t enough t o q u o t e i n  imaginative  the perceptions  Work o f  representations  important  that  in raising  to  hid.  not been s u f f i c i e n t l y  spirit  away i n o r d e r  h a v e b e e n made s e v e r a l t i m e s  notes  Great  surfaces  and  most i t i s impor-  full:  The a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n t h a t t h e w o r l d w i l l be consumed i n f i r e a t t h e end o f s i x t h o u s a n d y e a r s i s t r u e , as I h a v e h e a r d f r o m H e l l . F o r t h e c h e r u b w i t h h i s f l a m i n g sword i s h e r e b y commanded t o l e a v e h i s g u a r d a t t r e e o f l i f e , and when he d o e s , t h e w h o l e c r e a t i o n w i l l be consumed, and a p p e a r i n f i n i t e , and h o l y w h e r e a s i t now appears f i n i t e & corrupt. T h i s w i l l come t o p a s s by an i m p r o v e m e n t o f s e n s u a l enjoyment. B u t f i r s t t h e n o t i o n t h a t man has a body d i s t i n c t f r o m h i s s o u l , i s t o be expunged; t h i s I s h a l l do, by p r i n t i n g i n t h e i n f e r n a l method, by c o r r o s i v e s , w h i c h i n H e l l a r e s a l u t a r y and m e d i c i n a l , m e l t i n g a p p a r e n t s u r f a c e s away, and d i s p l a y i n g t h e i n f i n i t e w h i c h was h i d . I f t h e d o o r s o f p e r c e p t i o n were c l e a n s e d e v e r y t h i n g w o u l d a p p e a r t o man as i t i s , i n f i n i t e . F o r man has c l o s e d h i m s e l f up, t i l l he s e e s a l l t h i n g s t h r o ' narrow c h i n k s of h i s c a v e r n . (MHH 14, E 38-39) In Blake's to  the  hands, then,  f r e e i n g of  the  the  e t c h i n g o f a p l a t e becomes  perceptions  i n man,  but  analogous  i t i s much more  63  than simple analogy. saw  the  fundamental  the s p i r i t u a l  It i s essential purpose  o f h i s a r t as  p e r c e p t i o n o f the r e a d e r .  the p r o c e s s e s o f p r o d u c i n g t h a t symbolically and  Blake's  t o remember t h a t  the agents analogy  of  the c l e a n s i n g  improvement  I t follows,  a r t are l i t e r a l l y  of a p o t e n t i a l  then,  as w e l l  that as  of h i s f i e r y a c i d with the p u r i f y i n g  forge  an i n t e r e s t i n g  of perception i s l i t e r a l l y  parallel,  t h e u l t i m a t e aim  both, It  i s but  fundamental  a s h o r t jump f r o m h e r e  ideas that  i s also  t o another  frequently  of the Apocalypse. primarily, crete,  For B l a k e , the Apocalypse  the c l i m a c t i c  future point  primordial  i n time,  incident.  sages  a t t h e end  of p l a t e  that w i l l  just  Although  presents the t r a d i t i o n a l fire  event  end  view t h a t  early  the world  poem B l a k e  true Apocalypse  as  a r t and  t h e improvement o f t h e s p i r i t u a l  the i n d i v i d u a l — a n "whenever any  event  t h a t may  upon t h a t  be  i n s e e i n g how  the metaphors here;  consumed pasthe  through  & Embraces T r u t h a L a s t  that i s important  exploits  also  g i v e n moment:  (VLJ, E 551).  causal link  dis-  perception of  Individual"  apparent  or  distinct  view o f  effected  o c c u r a t any  Individual Rejects Error  Judgement p a s s e s  not a  to h i s r a d i c a l  apocalypse  idea  at a  y e a r s , " the subsequent  14 p r o v i d e t h e l i n k s  through  i s the  i s not simply,  "the world w i l l  of s i x thousand  Blake's through  this  as t h e F a l l was  in this  an i n d i v i d u a l  of  expressed  a n a l o g y w i t h h i s t e c h n i q u e s o f p r o d u c t i o n , and  in  of  s p i r i t u a l transformation,  o f t h e a l c h e m i s t does more t h a n h i g h l i g h t for  the  Blake  t h e improvement o f  I t i s the Blake  spiritual  64  perception  causes  t h e J i p o c a l y p s e f o r when B l a k e s a y s t h a t " I f  the doors  o f p e r c e p t i o n were c l e a n s e d e v e r y t h i n g w o u l d  t o man  as  i t i s , infinite"  vision  of the Apocalypse:  not t i l l  cease  t e n t s and  purposes  the Apocalypse; same i m a g e r y also  flames  i s obviously speaking of h i s  "...Creation w i l l  then T r u t h or E t e r n i t y w i l l  Moment Men  but  he  to behold  f o r both,  i n the rock  as a c i d  it"  that  i s brought  imagery  dissolve  inherently  I t i s Burnt But  the Stone flames  identifying  cannot  human s k u l l )  limited  figuratively faces  in  since  fiery  flames  and  the  imagery,  of dis-  a c c e p t s i t as  acid/flames  ( i . e . both of both "real."  also  apprehend  copper-  the  stone  (Blake's  "[melts] apparent  t h e i n f i n i t e w h i c h was  rock  hid" is a  surparti-  f o r p r e s e n t i n g t h e consummation o f C r e a t i o n  a t the Apocalypse,  i t i s the e n t i r e  finished  b u t we  product  must remember  that  as i l l u m i n a t e d book  effects  the improvement o f s p i r i t u a l  any  o f i t s s t a g e s o f p r o d u c t i o n can p a r t i c i p a t e  one  the  go—Blake  liberating  the d i s s o l u t i o n  e t c h i n g process which  apt v e h i c l e  literal  herald  form,  perception that  away... d i s p l a y i n g  cularly  fire  a s s o c i a t e s w i t h i t the p e r c e p t i o n t h a t would  the narrow " c h i n k s " i n the c a v e r n  the  of  the p l a t e w i t h the  t h a t expand  and  p e r c e p t i o n is_  as God's j u d g e m e n t  o f o p a c i t y beyond which the F a l l  physical  the  o f N i g h t , emblem  a solid,  and  up  &  for a l l i n -  of the  t h e r o c k as  plate  & then  s i n c e t h e r o c k whose s u r f a c e t h e  i s also  By  Up  home by h i s u s e  o b v i o u s l y i n the use  solve i n the Apocalypse. limit  appear  (VLJ, E 555).  the Newtonian u n i v e r s e , t h a t the  —the  be B u r n e d  t h e improvement of s p i r i t u a l  a point  appear  p e r c e p t i o n i n the  that  reader,  i n the  65  a p o c a l y p t i c imagery,  as  the p r i n t i n g p r o c e s s - t r u m p e t s  association  32 of  U r i z e n Chapter We  can  I I reminds  us.)  f o l l o w B l a k e ' s use  of the metaphors of  printing  through yet another  theme by  r e a d i n g them as t h e v e h i c l e  lypse in  in i t s specifically  "A Song o f L i b e r t y . "  application  political In t h i s  t h e m e t a p h o r s a r e n o t as c l e a r l y passages of  of the poem—they  the passage  than  of the  apocalyptic  through which the  Apoca-  manifestation i s presented  late  addition  t o The  Marriage,33  d e f i n e d as i n some o f t h e  seem t o be  simply something  less  the deeper  allegory  t h a n w i t h t h e e a r l i e r poems we o f t h e m e t a p h o r s , t h e n , "A  somewhat o f an e a r l y d i v i d i n g and  t h e m i n o r p r o p h e c i e s , as  Ore  and  U r i z e n , and  suggest  o f the  have been d i s c u s s i n g .  Song o f L i b e r t y "  c a n be  nar-  i s presented  many o f t h e p a t t e r n s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e d e v e l o p e d  a s t y l e more i n k e e p i n g w i t h B l a k e ' s m a t u r e u s e  metaphors In  seen  terms as  p o i n t between t h e e a r l i e r the presence  other  subject  which p r o v i d e s the  r a t i v e p a t t e r n through which the p o l i t i c a l —but  illuminated  work  o f the p r e c u r s o r s o f  the s t r o n g a f f i n i t i e s  w i t h America  would  suggest.34 Northrop  F r y e reminds  us  that  "Revolution i s the s i g n  a p o c a l y p t i c y e a r n i n g s . . . a c o n v u l s i v e lunge g i n a t i o n " 35 of  The  Ore,  a  n  d  Marriage,  the s p i r i t  political  i f we  extend  the p a r a l l e l  a connection i s easily of revolution,  p l a n e , and  who  the c o r r o s i v e  forward  o f the  established  ima-  on p l a t e  seen between t h e  c l e a n s away d r o s s on acid  of  fiery the  of the process of  pro-  d u c t i o n which c l e a n s the c o n c e a l i n g s u r f a c e of the c o p p e r p l a t e  14  66  to r e v e a l the i n f i n i t e . i 3 made e x p l i c i t °f A m e r i c a , Liberty"  but  The  identification  in his first this  t r u e appearance i n the  nameless  "new  f u n c t i o n s as e s s e n t i a l l y  this battlefield  variation  imagery i s , o f course, dramatization  born  of Blake's  specifically  to visualize  c o n f l i c t with  the  where i d e n t i f i e d  aging, cold, as U r i z e n .  m e t a p h o r s a r e more c o h e r e n t a g a i n emphasizes  process the  as t h e  "grey  artist  brow'd"  Blake  and  Once t h e s e of the process  and  of  pronounced pause, c e r t a i n l y  a brief  25, both  verse  both  8, E 4 3 ) .  the p l a t e  begins  born  and  the b a t t l e  shield  (metaphor f o r t h e  principle  a  is  else-  creative  as i n U r i z e n , as b o t h  the  working.  case  narrative  the e t c h i n g of the sense  v e r s i o n of the  acid  a  of  the  starry king!"  as  copperplate i n Ahania,  of  starry  Blake/Urizen  action (MHH  "standing" i n front artist  a  familiar  opponents b e f o r e  process.  in  Book o f U r i z e n ,  identified  j u s t before the  of the c r e a t i v e  as  p e r s p e c t i v e , the  i n The  s t o o d b e f o r e the  This i s the Blake,  Ore  i s , i f not  of the s t a t i c  fire  foe i n  i t i s per-  are e s t a b l i s h e d , the  of production, i n t h i s  " t h e new  of  landscape  aspect of the  on w h i c n he  There  starts:  this  b e c a u s e , as  "gloomy k i n g " c a n be  introduction  Song  His  activity,  creative  Seen f r o m  identifications  "A  the c o p p e r p l a t e , but  " E t e r n a l Forms," and  the p l a t e  Preludium  repressive principle  p l a t e , becomes q u i t e c l e a r .  formalized  metaphoric  Ore  t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n i n more  the n e g a t i v e  freezing  of  t h e same e n t i t y .  g e n e r a l t e r m s : thf* y o u t h f u l , f i e r y ,  Blake  terror"  of the elements of c r e a t i v e  h a p s more e f f e c t i v e  of a c i d with  king  grasps  Chapter  I)  and  a c i d , and  pours the  a c i d onto the  plate:  . . . u n b u c k l e d was t h e s h i e l d , f o r t h went t h e hand o f j e a l o u s y among t h e f l a m i n g h a i r , and h u r l ' d t h e new b o r n wonder t h r o ' t h e s t a r r y n i g h t . The f i r e , t h e f i r e , i s f a l l i n g l (MHH 25&26, v e r s e 10&11, E 43) The  moment o f e t c h i n g  significance that b r i e f is  i t i s on  p l a t e i s expanded i n t o plate  i n t e r r u p t i o n , the  continued  into contact on  as  the  with  14  as  a d e s c r i p t i o n of the  the  M a r r i a g e , and  n a r r a t i v e of  w i t h . t h e p l a t e and  i t s surface  o f The  lengthy  the  the  etching  after process  a c i d a c t u a l l y coming  design  etching  apocalyptic  and  process  text  appearing  extends i n t o  the  night: Wak'd f r o m h i s e t e r n a l s l e e p , t h e h o a r y e l e m e n t r o a r i n g f l e d away: Down r u s h d b e a t i n g h i s w i n g s i n v a i n t h e j e a l o u s k i n g ; h i s g r e y brow'd c o u n c e l l o r s , t h u n d e r o u s w a r r i o r s , c u r l ' d v e t e r a n s [ t h e t e x t ] , among h e l m s , and s h i e l d s , and c h a r i o t s (,) h o r s e s , e l e p h a n t s : b a n n e r s , c a s t l e s , s l i n g s and r o c k s , F a l l i n g , r u s h i n g , r u i n i n g ! b u r i e d i n the r u i n s , on U r t h o n a ' s d e n s . A l l night beneath the r u i n s , then t h e i r s u l l e n f l a m e s f a d e d emerge r o u n d t h e gloomy k i n g , (MHH 26, v e r s e s 14-17, E 43) As w e l l as b e i n g element chemical  [which]  and  begins f r o n t of  and  the his  o c e a n on  immediately  to evaporate, the  design armies  flowing and  as  the  h e a t s up  forming acid.  As  "fall"  level,  image o f  acid hits i n the  a white  t e x t i n t o the  literally  one  away" i s an  r e a c t i o n which occurs  copperplate,  etch  Atlantic  roaring fled  the  in  the  s o o n as  "the the  the  the  dramatic  surface  ensuing  foam t h a t  hoary  reaction,  i s pushed  acid begins  copperplate,  into vegetative  the  of  gloomy  existence  to king as  68  t h e y t a k e s h a p e on t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e c o p p e r p l a t e . starry  k i n g who  began t h i s  account  U r i z e n undergoes a t r a n s i t i o n copperplate  c o v e r e d by  flames which g r a d u a l l y the  longer the p l a t e  account  v e r y much t h e a c t i v e  t h a t makes h i m  t h e once a c t i v e  flames  exclusively  suggest  (common beeswax i s u s e d  larger  the  G.  i n this  earlier,  Blake  and  etched  and  other  pouring  acid/  Blake  I would argue  un-  t h a t he  today)and  also  etched  way.  t o B l a k e , and w o u l d most commonly h a v e b e e n  plates.  b o r d e r around that  acid/  i s t h e most e c o n o m i c a l method o f e t c h i n g , w h i c h  have a p p e a l e d for  i n the  However t h i s  o f e t c h i n g methods.  walled  This  that  representations of f a l l i n g  an a c i d b a t h , b u t  plates  salts  corrosive property  assumed  d o u b t e d l y d i d use  individual  as t h e e t c h i n g  as I h a v e m e n t i o n e d  i n an a c i d b a t h .  a combination  the p l a t e s  Blake/  d e s c r i p t i o n o f p o u r i n g the a c i d i n  i s notable because,  s i m i l a r metaphoric  copper  the  i s etched.  modern c o m m e n t a t o r s have u n i v e r s a l l y his plates  end  fade, i . e . lose t h e i r  Blake's unmistakable this  Thus  Of  course, t h i s  t h e o u t s i d e edge o f t h e p l a t e  E. B e n t l e y notes  largest  technique would  size  that  i n America,  and  d e s i g n shows; t h e s e b o r d e r s  copies printed  a f t e r h i s death,  five years  a f t e r Blake died."37  b o r d e r may  have b e e n r e t a i n e d  e.g.  copy  Although  heavy  i t i s interesting  for his  b o o k s , " [ B l a k e ] wiped the i n k o f f the heavy b o r d e r s the i n t e g r a l  used  leave a  w h i c h was  o f c o p p e r p l a t e Blake used  would  printed  on  illuminated so t h a t  are v i s i b l e  only  only i n  P watermarked  1832,  i t i s possible  that  to provide s t a b i l i t y  i n inking  a or  69  printing, Blake  I would argue  t h a t America  u n d e r t h e beeswax e d g i n g .  method o f e t c h i n g s u g g e s t e d an o b s c u r e  lished  rounded fortis  and  perhaps  the drawing  b e i n g poured  adopted  eccentric  genius...."  daybreak  and  left  in relief.  this  as  "A Song o f L i b e r t y "  denies  i n "A Song o f L i b e r t y , "  f o r they  A Prophecy  o f Heaven and  thematic  and  i n fact  they  a r e most c l e a r l y  and  nar-  the  of the  unifying  as  meta-  throughout  elements  structural  of  elements  links  and  deve-  concerns. contemporary displays  a  with  successfully  The  similar  d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e m e t a p h o r s as p r e s e n t i n t h e e a r l i e r that  the  a l l , more  emerge h e r e ,  i s essentially  Hell,  towards  subject of  through which Blake  l o p s some o f h i s m o s t i m p o r t a n t  Marriage  after  the importance  o f the most i m p o r t a n t  a l s o p r o v i d e the v e h i c l e  America:  of g r e a t but  continues  p a t t e r n than the r e a l  i n no way  M a r r i a g e , a s one  t h e method  climax, i t leaves behind  t h e poem t h a t n o t o n l y p r o v i d e i m p o r t a n t but  aqua-  3 9  i t s apocalyptic  But  i s sur-  T h i s was  o f t h e e t c h i n g o f a p l a t e w h i c h was,  passage.  substance  t e r m e d , and  by W i l l i a m B l a k e , an a r t i s t  p a r t of the s t r u c t u r a l  The  "When t h e  pub-  upon i t , a l l t h e u n p r o t e c t e d p a r t s a r e  the drawing  rate,  the  u n r e l i a b l e book on w o o d c u t t i n g  as i t i s t e c h n i c a l l y  generally  .. A t any  i t was  the metaphors i s c o r r o b o r a t e d  i s made becomes s e t . . . t h e p l a t e  with a wall,  c o r r o d e d , and  rative  by  that  Interestingly,  3 8  twelve years a f t e r Blake's death:  i n which  phors  a border  i n v a r i a b l y w i p e d away b u t d i d n o t remove b e c a u s e  the p o r t i o n  by  possesses  developed  poem i n i n the  70 portion  o f t h e poem w r i t t e n l a s t  the P r e l u d i u m . ^ lines  lypse that  The poem p r o p e r  as "A Song o f L i b e r t y "  analogies  that  and added  identified  i n The M a r r i a g e .  late,  i n this  f u n c t i o n s a l o n g much t h e same  and p a r t i c i p a t e s  i n t h e same g e n e r a l  the e t c h i n g o f a p l a t e w i t h the Apoca-  But i f the a p o c a l y p t i c " f i r e s  consume C r e a t i o n i n a g e n e r a l c o n f l a g r a t i o n , by consuming t h e " f i v e  hinges  a t t h e e n d o f t h e poem a r e i n any b u t t h e most t o Blake's  gates"  o f Ore"  and f r e e man's  senses  way a n a l o g o u s  case,  and m e l t i n g t h e i r b o l t s and  e t c h i n g process, the l i n e s  distant  o f analogy  have r e c e d e d  s o f a r i n t o t h e t e x t u r e o f t h e poem as t o b e  indistinct.  In f a c t ,  t h e r e i s no c o h e r e n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e  metaphors o f i l l u m i n a t e d the g e n e r a l o u t l i n e s present.  essentially  unrealized  in  i n t h e poem p r o p e r ,  I t appears,  Preludium  i n time,  fire  falling  then, that  argues  probably  although  from  the sky  t h e metaphors a r e  i n t h e body o f A m e r i c a ,  p o e t r y , and t h e v e r y c l e a r  the l a t e r  point  printing  of b a t t l e with  are c l e a r l y  earlier  almost  a s i n some o f t h e  development o f t h e metaphors  again  f o r us t o e n v i s i o n  i n 1793, when B l a k e  "realized"  a discrete h i s mature  d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e m e t a p h o r s and went b a c k t o r e w o r k a l r e a d y written  passages  by r e v i s i n g  and a d d i n g  a more c o h e r e n t ,  controlled,  and s e l f - c o n s c i o u s  these  s e c t i o n s which  handling of  metaphors. As  a fully-realized  of i l l u m i n a t e d  printing,  metaphoric  treatment  the Preludium  of the process  i s consistent  throughout  w i t h what we h a v e r e c o g n i z e d as t h e t y p i c a l v o c a b u l a r y , and  display  paradigmatic  transitions  that  c h a r a c t e r i z e Blake's  imagery, handling  of t h e metaphors. as  The a c c o u n t  the elements o f the process  specifically and  begins  with  a f o r m a l i z e d pause  of production, i n this  the etching process,  are presented  case  t o each  other  t o the reader: The  shadowy d a u g h t e r o f U r t h o n a s t o o d b e f o r e •  •  •  •  '  •  •  r e d Ore.  *  «  His  food she brought i n i r o n baskets, h i s d r i n k i n cups o f i r o n ; Crown'd w i t h a h e l m e t & d a r k h a i r t h e n a m e l e s s f e m a l e stood; (A 1 : 1 - 4 , E 50)  Ore,  of course,  the  raetalic  represents  carries  iron  a metal  utensils)  i s herself  she  him (she i s  i s also called  t h e food she b r i n g s  i s metaphorically f i r s t  of Blake's  t h e book o f i r o n .  t o Ore as t h e d e v o u r i n g , And, a l t h o u g h  the opening  remain s i l e n t  she i s of Los,  c o u s i n t o U r i z e n , t h e shadowy,  f e m a l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e unknown, a b s t r a c t e d ,  d a r k shadow o f h o r r o r t h a t emerges b e f o r e the b e g i n n i n g  Cl.9],  tongue  as t h e d a u g h t e r o f U r t h o n a , e t e r n a l a s p e c t  nameless., d a r k  at  before  h e l m e t , h a s an i r o n  s e x u a l a t t a c k t h a t f o l l o w s makes c l e a r . identified  o f t h e a c i d , and  i s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n  c o p p e r p l a t e which, once e t c h e d , She  principle  and w a r - l i k e woman who s t a n d s  armed, i s c r o w n e d w i t h and  the f i e r y  o f The Book o f U r i z e n . ^ 1 o f the Preludium until  the etcher Blake a t  B u t most  she i s s i l e n t ,  significantly, and she w i l l  t h e a c i d embraces h e r i n t h e a c i d  makes h e r a r t i c u l a t e b y e t c h i n g words i n t o h e r n a k e d  b a t h and form:  . . . s i l e n t she s t o o d as n i g h t ; • F o r n e v e r f r o m h e r i r o n t o n g u e c o u l d v o i c e o r sound a r i s e ; B u t dumb t i l l t h a t d r e a d day when O r e a s s a y ' d h i s f i e r c e embrace. (A 1:8-10, E 51) Ore,  though bound, i s a l r e a d y  articulate  and t e l l s  us o f  72  his  corrosive  power i n h i s v a r i o u s  screaming eagle,  stalking lion,  and whale  abyss"  p l a t e ) . 42  T h e image o f t h e c h a i n e d O r c / a c i d  n a t e l y — "The limiting  copper-  c a n be s e e n a s a  aspect  of the crea-  The n a t u r e o f a c i d i s t o devour a l l i n d i s c r i m i 'real'  Ore i s d e s i r e  and c o n t r o l l i n g h i s  timed b i t i n g s , Blake/Los creative  the "raging,  metaphor f o r t h e e t c h i n g  p o s i t i v e , though r e p r e s s i v e ,  t i v e process.  as s e r p e n t ,  lashing  fathomless  paradoxically  (a r e c u r r e n t  manifestations  unrestrained"43—  fierce  energy w i t h  a n c  |  through  a c i d r e s i s t and  s u c c e s s f u l l y performs h i s  f u n c t i o n as  artist.  After  t h i s formal  opponents, t h e c r e a t i v e principle  i sreleased  passive  female p l a t e  several  of Blake's  introduction activity  and a d d r e s s by t h e s t a t i c  begins  and a l l o w e d  as t h e f i e r y ,  t o attack  male  acid  theloins of the  i n a c l i m a c t i c passage t h a t  t y p i c a l methods o f h a n d l i n g  displays  the  metaphors:  S i l e n t as d e s p a i r i n g l o v e , a n d s t r o n g as j e a l o u s y , The h a i r y s h o u l d e r s r e n d t h e l i n k s , f r e e a r e t h e wrists of fire; Round t h e t e r r i f i c l o i n s he s i e z ' d t h e p a n t i n g s t r u g g l i n g womb; I t j o y ' d : she p u t a s i d e h e r clouds & smiled h e r f i r s t - b o r n smile; As when a b l a c k c l o u d shews i t s l i g h t ' n i n g s t o t h e s i l e n t deep. (A 2:1-5, E 50-51) T h i s w o m b / p l a t e i m a g e r y i s a v a r i a t i o n o f t h e "womb o f N a t u r e " we  have a l r e a d y  encountered  etching-as-lightning clearest  i n Urizen  and P a r a c e l s u s ,  imagery o f t h e l a s t  line  i s perhaps t h e  e x a m p l e o f a m e t a p h o r t h a t we have a l r e a d y  through both design  and t e x t .  here i s the i n t r o d u c t i o n  of yet  and t h e  traced  The most i n t e r e s t i n g e l e m e n t another paradigmatic t r a n s i t i o n  73  t h a t occurs between l i n e s 3 and 4.  Blake o f t e n d e s c r i b e s the  p r e p a r a t i o n and p r e l u d e t o c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y i n very v i o l e n t terms such as war  o r , i n t h i s case, rape, which suddenly  revert  t o p o s i t i v e images when t o l d from the p o i n t of view of the "victim."  Thus the v i o l e n c e of Ore's rape of the p l a t e i n  l i n e 3 ("Round the t e r r i f i c  l o i n s he s i e z ' d the p a n t i n g s t r u g -  g l i n g womb") i s completely r e v e r s e d i n the next l i n e w i t h the female's unexpected "It  accommodating response 'to h i s f i e r c e embrace:  j o y d : she put a s i d e her clouds & s m i l e d her 1  smile...."44;-  first-born  But a f t e r a l l , " O p p o s i t i o n i s t r u e F r i e n d s h i p "  (MHH  20, E 41) and t o an imaginative, eye these are the d e l i g h t s of the f i r e s of H e l l as they are c e l e b r a t e d by Blake and the d e v i l s i n The Marriage of Heaven and In  Hell.^  f u l f i l m e n t of Blake's paradigmatic t r a n s i t i o n  from  s i l e n c e t o speech, as soon as the a c i d begins t o e t c h the p l a t e words appear and the shadowy female becomes a r t i c u l a t e : "Soon as she saw the t e r r i b l e boy then b u r s t the v i r g i n c r y " (A 2:6, E 51). In  d i c t i o n h i g h l y r e m i n i s c e n t of the d i r e c o n f l i c t i o n s  rendings of U r i z e n , the shadowy female recounts how plains  (literally  her  and American  the p l a t e s of America) are r e n t i n furrows by  the l i g h t n i n g / a c i d as a Whale/Leviathan/serpent/acid d r i n k s her s o u l away i n the South-sea of the a c i d bath.  What i s t a k i n g  form  i n t h i s c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y i s , o f course, a p l a t e from the poem America,  o r , more c o r r e c t l y , the p l a t e s of America  l e c t i v e l y etched i n one mythic, a r c h e t y p a l a c t i o n .  as seen The  ludium, although w r i t t e n l a s t , a f t e r the metaphors had  col-  Prejelled,  74  functions just  as an a c c o u n t o f t h e c r e a t i o n  as The  Book o f U r i z e n  t h e c o u r s e o f t h a t poem.  is itself In terms  the e t c h i n g This  follows  since  of the plates tendency  of  indistinct brief with  that  what i s t a k i n g  shape i n  causes her t o give  a clear  Ore's  birth  process i s , s p e c i f i c a l l y , 4  follows  to represent  the  " B l a k e * s *Europe':  physical  c a n be t r a c e d , t h o u g h  f o r m , ?.n t h e P r e l u d i u m t o E u r o p e . D e n n i s  article  then,  America. ^  o f the metaphors  c r e a t i o n o f t h e poem t h a t  America,  o f the metaphors,  r a p e o f t h e shadowy female, l i t e r a l l y t o t h e poem t h a t  o f t h e poem  A Note  i n very  Douglas'  on t h e P r e l u d i u m , " o p e n s  summary o f t h e theme o f t h i s  prefatory  passage:  The p r e l u d i u m o f B l a k e ' s E u r o p e c o n c e r n s t h e p r o c r e a t i v e f o r c e o f n a t u r e w h i c h i t t r e a t s i n t e r m s o f a myth i n v o l v i n g two s y m b o l i c f i g u r e s , t h e 'nameless shadowy f e m a l e * , who...produces f i e r y b e i n g s , a myriad o f l i v i n g f o r m s , and E n i t h a r m o n , who stamps ' t h i s v i g o r o u s p r o g e n y ' w i t h the s e a l o f m a t e r i a l form. The n a m e l e s s shadowy female pleads w i t h Enitharmon not t o continue i n f l i c t i n g on h e r t h e t a s k o f p r o p a g a t i o n . She p r o t e s t s t h a t t h e s t a r s ' r a i n down p r o l i f i c p a i n s ' upon h e r , and t h a t she a n d h e r o f f s p r i n g s u f f e r a n g u i s h and t o r m e n t . 4 7 In terms  o f the metaphors,  as t h e p l a t e w h i c h second  we  produces  a myriad of l i v i n g  a s , p e r h a p s , C a t h e r i n e B l a k e who  p r o p a g a t i o n on t h e p l a t e by with  can r e a d t h e f i r s t  the s e a l  of material  stamping  form.  symbolic  forms  inflicts  and  the task  figure the of  i t s " v i g o r o u s progeny"  ( I t has  l o n g been  recognized  48 that  Catherine played Enitharmon T h i s passage  in  picks  to Blake's  Los.)  up t h e n a r r a t i v e where i t was  left off  t h e P r e l u d i u m t o A m e r i c a , w i t h t h e e m e r g e n c e o f t h e same  shadowy f e m a l e / p l a t e f r o m o u t o f t h e a c i d  b a t h : "The  nameless  75  shadowy f e m a l e r o s e her  voice arose"  immediately as  she  articulate,  And  emerges f r o m o u t  expresses  s o n s upon h e r  59).^  s i n c e she  plate.  foreknowledge of the and  t h e b r e a s t o f Ore...And  (E 1:1-3, E  a fully-etched  plate,  from out  trial  as  Significantly,  a r e w o r k e d and  of the  acid bath  0 mother To c a u s e F o r I am L i k e the [Blake's  is  identity  time  overworked  with  i n the p l a t e press  etch her  she  e n t e r s t h e poem t h i s  f e a r s that Enitharmon w i l l and  thus  apparent  t h a t i s t o come,  r e l e a s e more O r e - l i k e  away  completely:  Enitharmon w i l t thou b r i n g f o r t h o t h e r sons? my name t o v a n i s h , t h a t my p l a c e may n o t be f o u n d . f a i n t with t r a v e l ! d a r k c l o u d d i s b u r d e n d i n t h e day o f d i s m a l t h u n d e r . t y p i c a l i m a g e r y f o r t h e p r i n t i n g p r o c e s s ] (E 1:4-7, E  T h i s p a s s a g e a l s o d i s p l a y s a g r o w i n g theme o f t h i s Blake's  poetry:  the n e g a t i v e  binding  of imaginative  c h a r a c t e r i z e s her as p a i n f u l ,  both  role  i n the  for herself  into generation:  symbols  of generative  E  A c c o r d i n g l y , the  cyclic and  f o r her  " a l lthe  nature]  p l a t e asks  t h a t Enitharmon  but,  of course,  with  t h e p l a t e d i s a p p e a r i n g between t h e  does n o t h e e d and  f o r m t o more v i g o r o u s  shady c l o u d s / I n t o t h e  ludium,  but  level  is clearly  the g e n e r a l  [Neoplatonic pains"  (E  "Stamp  (E 2:8,  1:15,  not 60),  the Preludium  ends  of the p l a t e p r e s s ,  ceast & r o l l d  (E 2:17-18, E  of secondary  are  E  rollers  p r o g e n y : "She  secret place"  the  plate  o f f s p r i n g who  v i g ' r o u s progeny of f i r e s "  Catherine  The  down p r o l i f i c  solid  This  c r e a t i o n as  overflowing stars  rain  of  p r o d u c t i o n o f p h y s i c a l forms  with  giving  form t h i s  of a r t i s t i c  forms i n t o m a t e r i a l f o r m .  ushered  59).  aspect  level  59)  importance  her  60). i n the  o u t l i n e s o f t h e n a r r a t i v e and  the  Prefact  76  that in  i t i s a c o h e r e n t e x t e n s i o n o f t h e metaphors  the Preludium  creative  force  to America  we  t h a t t h i s myth o f t h e  In that  from sense,  have e x a m i n e d i n t h i s  metaphoric  discussions  printing.  The  the p a t t e r n s of Blake's  fact  of Blake's process of  general rise  illuminated  i n the a r t i c u l a t e n e s s  t h a t they are approaching  the next  and  The  chapter.  creative  c h a p t e r , a l l o f which have p r e s e n t e d  and  self-  these metaphors p o i n t s the mature  t h a t t h e y a c h i e v e i n The. Book o f U r i z e n , w h i c h we discussed,  pat-  i t i s l e a g u e d w i t h t h e o t h e r poems  consciousness w i t h which Blake handles to the  pro-  o f n a t u r e d e r i v e s a l a r g e p a r t o f i t s own  t e r n of development activity.  argue  developed  Book o f A h a n i a , w h i c h we  will  development have a l r e a d y discuss i n  CHAPTER I V THE  The pletion  year  1795,  179 3 and  1795  The is  o f Heaven and  He11,  the p u b l i c a t i o n  o f E u r o p e and  The  Blake by  continued this  p r o d u c i n g The  Book o f L o s , b u t  the tremendous upsurge o f t e c h n i c a l  completing  o r e t c h i n g any  In in  o r about  colour printing,  In  Blake  First,  as w e l l  etched p l a t e s  (even  the  printed purely  on  lettering a blank  artistic  of  the designs  *  A Large  minated  two  America  great  in  creative  poetic  element of t h i s and  of  output  Book o f A h a n i a ,  artistic  work f o r a l m o s t  and  year  experi-  he b e g a n e x p e r i m e n t i n g  f o r The  as f o r t h e  Song o f L o s ,  reissue  progressed  from  from  ten years.  expanded h i s t e c h n i c a l  t h e method o f p r o d u c t i o n u s e d  the p r o c e s s , Blake  from  n  179 5,  literary  c o p i e s o f U r i z e n , and  Book o f L o s  com-  a p p a r e n t l y r e c h a n n e l l e d h i s e n e r g i e s away  s e v e r a l ways.  six  and  p e r i o d of p r o l i f i c  t h e most s t r i k i n g  that  the  Book o f U r i z e n i n  of Blake's  Song o f L o s , The  mentation  saw  Songs o f I n n o c e n c e and  Marriage  r e p r e s e n t s t h e peak o f one  phases.^" in  w h i c h ends t h e p e r i o d t h a t  o f , among o t h e r w o r k s , The  E x p e r i e n c e , The  1794,  POETRY AFTER URIZEN  horizons  i n earnest f o r the  first  Ahania,  and  of s e v e r a l e a r l i e r colour printing  the  plate).  title  page o f The  This interest  and  i n t h e same y e a r w i t h  plates i s colour  i n colour printing  o f h i s i l l u m i n a t e d books d i v o r c e d from  2  designs  Song o f L o s  e x p r e s s i o n l e d to the r e p r o d u c t i o n of  Book o f D e s i g n s  The works.  (Urizen) to c o l o u r p r i n t i n g with blank on  with  as  several the  A S m a l l Book o f D e s i g n s ,  text  and  t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f h i s famous  cullarge  78  colour prints  o f 179 5.  the V a l a manuscript 1796)  and,  as G.  (Keynes  ceed  for  Blake never  in uniting  Ahania  and The  changing  clear  that  within  written  completed  intaglio  the s t y l e  Erdman  t h a t B l a k e was  that project,  b u t he  colour-printed  B l a k e may  have had  first  form the s i g n s o f Blake's  simply  of t h i s  to the p h y s i c a l differently,  rich  printed rising  and  d i d suc-  several  reasons  i t is  i n 179 5  interest  display in  experimentation i s not  form o f the books.  Because  d i f f e r e n t metaphors are  i n order to successfully  of the p r i n t i n g  since  Los was  the t e x t  printed  interpret  process presented  among t h e s e a r e , p r e d i c t a b l y , etching,  text  designs i n  i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h a new  accounts  from  contem-  o f h i s book r e p r o d u c t i o n , ^ b u t  the i n f l u e n c e  techniques  the  o f b o t h The  i n the  t h e book t h a t Another  of  the metaphorical  Book o f A h a n i a the  Primary  in  intaglio  and The  Book  metapnors,  t e c h n i q u e s used  to  produce  c o n t a i n s them. closely  related  t h e m e t a p h o r s o f The  Blake c a l l e d  used  i n the t e x t .  i n t a g l i o method and  the  variety  techniques involved  as u s u a l , t e n d t o r e c o u n t t h e s p e c i f i c  in  1795,  r e p r o d u c t i o n of both  text with  Book o f L o s •  books are p r i n t e d  of  i t from  started  experimentation.  But limited  time Blake a l s o  indicates  a l l t h r e e o f the books  their  technical  and  dates  a conventional intaglio  design.  this  E. B e n t l e y s u g g e s t s , ^ the e l e g a n t c o p p e r p l a t e  hand i n w h i c h i t was plating  At about  J  "woodcut on  new  technique  Book o f A h a n i a copper,"  first  that i s introduced  i s the technique used  that  i n reproducing  79  America  i n 1793  and  d e s c r i b e d i n h i s Notebook ca.  1794:  To Woodcut on C o p p e r L a y a G r o u n d as f o r E t c h i n g , t r a c e &. & i n s t e a d of E t c h i n g the b l a c k s E t c h the whites & b i t e i t i n (E 672) • . c  This i s r e a l l y cut  a variation  on p e w t e r , " w h i c h he  of a technique Blake  called  d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l  "wood-  i n the  Note-  book: T o Woodcut on P e w t e r , l a y a g r o u n d on t h e P l a t e & smoke i t as f o r E t c h i n g , t h e n t r a c e y o u r o u t l i n e < s ^ [& draw them i n w i t h a n e e d l e ]. and b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e s p o t s o f l i g h t on e a c h o b j e c t w i t h an o v a l p o i n t e d needle scrape o f f the ground....as a d i r e c t i o n f o r y o u r g r a v e r t h e n p r o c e e d t o g r a v i n g . . . (E 672) In  o t h e r w o r d s , t o w o o d c u t on  applied was  t o t h e c o p p e r p l a t e and  scraped  before being substance is  hard,  exposing through because,  o f f i n lines with etched.  w i t h which an  artist  then  (A g r o u n d the p l a t e  can c o n t r o l  the ground.) although  fine  term  i s simply  s i m p l y by  "woodcut on  plate,  copper"  into  the  actually  the t h i n dark  Milton plate  ground  1  i d e n t i c a l with in intaglio,  lines  copperplate  printed  background (figs.  by  i s used  recessed  technique  the t e x t  resistent  scratching  copper"  for printing  hard  echoppe  Once t h e  preparation f o r etching a design i n the  plate  or  acid  initial  i s thus  once  first  the e t c h i n g o f the p l a t e  against a solid  t o E u r o p e and  an  i s covered.  t h e p l a t e was  a relief  appearing white  smoked, and  l i n e s were e t c h e d  printing,  a w o o d c u t , i . e . as  frontispiece  The  t h e g r o u n d was  an e t c h i n g n e e d l e  p a r t s of i t t o the a c i d  as i n i n t a g l i o  thus  copper,  like  lines as i n t h e  1 and  5).  "woodcut  on  the p r e p a r a t i o n o f as i n The  The  Book o f  a  80  Ahania:  an  e t c h i n g ground i s f i r s t  in  each case.  The  of  the p l a t e s — o n e G r o u n d may  a liquid.  Blake  only difference is in relief  be  o b v i o u s l y used  design of h i s standard  and  especially  liquid  heated is  "wi. .1... t e n d 1  lines  very hot.  dabbed o n t o  face of the p l a t e Immediately  smooth.  the p l a t e , then  printing  intaglio.  a solid  or  f o r the  text  acid  To  7  of ground  until  passed  are then  i t i s covered  afterwards, while i t and  lay this  hard  more o r  "The  t o ensure  ground i t s e l f  smokes.  i s heated  I t i s then  ground  apart.  i n the other.  hot,  the  b l a c k on  the wet  leaving  cooling."**  after  as p o s s i b l e , and  plate  the s t i l l  the ground,  to cool  hand  The  flames, with  mixes w i t h  as h o t  sur-  evenly.  is still  immediately  left  inch  a r e h e l d i n one  t h e edge o f t h e  O c c a s i o n a l l y , b e f o r e i t i s c o o l e d and  of  that i t s surface i s  soot w i l l blend e n t i r e l y with  b e e n smoked, t h e p l a t e  less  the p l a t e  i n the hand-vice,  slowly over  a b o u t an  and  smeared a c r o s s the  A handful of candles  still  of  especially  enough, a b a l l  being  work  ground s i n c e a  to crack o f f i n the  e a c h dab  as  i t s abundance  a b r i l l i a n t b l a c k s u r f a c e w h i c h becomes d u l l  has  and  for intaglio  a solid  g r o u n d e d s i d e down, s o t h a t t h e c a r b o n ground.  but  with  When i t i s h o t  g r o u n d i s smoked t o d a r k e n  is  as  ground  cross each o t h e r . "  the p l a t e ,  These s m o k i n g s p o t s  and  a liquid  smoked  inking  other i n  either  copper"  then  ground, the c o p p e r p l a t e i s h e l d i n a hand-vice  until  perfectly  the  l i n e s he w o u l d h a v e u s e d  ground  "ball"  and  r e l i e f plates,  f o r "woodcut on  where a number o f or  i s i n the  added t o a p l a t e  and  crosshatched  a p p l i e d and  the  ground  till  harden.  the  81  As one m i g h t e x p e c t , B l a k e saw p o t e n t i a l i n the hot, f i e r y smoking of  a plate,  and t h i s  a wealth of metaphoric  business of laying  potential  a ground  i s realized  A h a n i a — a poem i n w h i c h B l a k e ' s d e v e l o p m e n t  p h o r s i s a t i t s peak. U r i z e n was  written,  and s o p h i s t i c a t e d  enough  stage of h i s career,  just  ones,  and y e t i s r e c e n t l y are s t i l l  after  i s detailed  to present h i s o l d techniques  so t h a t the metaphors  form f i r m b e f o r e  Book  o f t h e meta-  B l a k e ' s use o f the metaphors  and t o i n c o r p o r a t e new newly mature  In t h i s  i n The  and  clearly  evolved  holding  and  their  f a d i n g b a c k somewhat i n t o t h e t e x t u r e  of  Blake's  t h o u g h t as t h e y do i n t h e l a t e r poems.  In the very  complex  and d e n s e g r o u p o f m e t a p h o r s  The Book o f  t h a t opens  A h a n i a , B l a k e ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f w o r k i n g an i n f l e x i b l e  and  sheet of metal with  i s deve-  loped i n t o attacking of  a myth o f a y o u t h f u l , an a g e d , i n f l e x i b l e ,  the o l d order.  for  Ore;  as t h e s p i r i t  Ore  representative a  stand-in  he s p e c i f i c a l l y acid  assumes  and i s a s s o c i a t e d  of f i r e  sense r e -  i n i t s various  o r beam o f l i g h t .  In t h i s  c a n be s e e n as an embodiment o f t h e c r e a t i v e  i s closely  of the r e l e a s e  identified  mani-  sense  role  f o r t h e s p e a r and a r r o w images w i t h w h i c h  Ore p r i n c i p l e ,  symbols  figure  i m a g e r y , b u t i n a more g e n e r a l  as f l a m e , a c i d ,  Blake himself as  impotent  of the f i e r y  the e n e r g e t i c p r i n c i p l e  festations Fuzon  and  phallic  In Chapter I , Fuzon i s c l e a r l y  t h e same p h a l l i c  presents  fiery,  i n terms o f the metaphors,  Ore's r o l e with  f l a m e , e t c h i n g n e e d l e , and a c i d  dark  of he,  "are q u a s i - p h a l l i c  o f i m a g i n a t i v e power."  9  But i n t h i s  82  respect of  they  also  function  as t h e m e t a p h o r i c  the v a r i o u s q u a s i - p h a l l i c  production: and  literal  flames,  of Blake's  literal  predictably,  creative  U r i z e n , who  In t h i s  activity.  we  do  a "beaten  the w i n t e r / B e a t s mitting  endur'd  find  e m p h a s i s on  that  Chapter  poetry, but tion  the  (i.e.  the  and  i t as  where  (The  the e t c h e r ' s  beaten,  of laying  i t i s possible t h e g r o u n d , and  Pictured  principle  printing  as  the  densest  i n Blake's  identifica-  to trace smoking  out and  a Christ-like warrior principle),  in its literal  form,  Fuzon the  i n the process  F u z o n , on  a chariot  of p r o d u c t i o n : iron-wing'd  first  flaming  smoking group of c a n d l e s which c o n f r o n t the d a r k e n i n g  plate early  a  disk/Unre-  83).  c l e a r metaphoric  aspect of the c r e a t i v e  fire  the  (Ah 2:23-25, E  of i l l u m i n a t e d  major opponents,  copperplate.  emerges as t h e  d e s c r i b e d as  forg'd i n mills  [for) t e n w i n t e r s  g i v e n the r e l a t i v e l y  the a c t i v e  course,  "Disk of U r i z e n "  embodies what i s p r o b a b l y  of the processes  coherent d e s c r i p t i o n s  of  is  copperplate.)  I of Ahania  o f t h e two  etching  "was  t h e hammering i d e n t i f i e s  as o p p o s e d t o r o l l e d ,  conflation  mass" w h i c h  t h e c o l d hammer"  opponent  i n f o r m i n g c r e a t i v e energy  indeed  incessant;  itself;  the p a s s i v e , though  (metonymy f o r U r i z e n h i m s e l f ) i s e f f e c t i v e l y copperplate,  of  dramatiza-  Fuzon's  c o n t e x t , t h a t medium w o u l d b e ,  t h e c o p p e r p l a t e , and  acid  r e a d as a  f u n c t i o n s as  r e s i s t e n t medium upon w h i c h t h e released.  process  g r a v e r , e c h o p p e , and  F u z o n ' s a t t a c k c a n t h e r e f o r e a l s o be  t i o n of Blake's is,  elements  representations  copper-  83  On s p i k e d f l a m e s r o s e ; h i s h o t v i s a g e Flam'd f u r i o u s ! sparkles h i s h a i r & beard •  •  •  •  •  •  On c l o u d s o f smoke r a g e s h i s c h a r i o t And h i s r i g h t hand b u r n s r e d i n i t s c l o u d  *  Son o f  *  *  the  are  then the speech  proceed  to b a t t l e .  full  the  of  plate,  *  burnings  transitions first  active  malized  *  before  last  t h e two e l e m e n t s  one t h a t  the  speech ciple  that  this is  taunting  has  attacks  almost  i n America:  of  a somewhat  the  a fiery  the copperplate  for-  creative  challenge to  one  process  to Urizen  associate with  a  is copper-  j u s t b e e n d a r k e n e d by s m o k i n g :  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  itself  83)10  by now  observed  S h a l l we w o r s h i p t h i s Demon o f smoke, Said Fuzon, t h i s abstract non-entity T h i s c l o u d y God s e a t e d on w a t e r s Now s e e n , now o b s c u r ' d . . . (Ah 2 : 1 0 - 1 3 , After  E  pictured simply confronting  i m a g e r y we w o u l d e x p e c t  especially  again  principle delivers  Fuzon's  TS\  (Ah 2 : 1 - 9 ,  t w o , we o b s e r v e  paradigmatic  two o p p o n e n t s  another,  *  Urizens silent  I n m o v i n g on t o v e r s e formulaic  *  the  flame,  E  opponents the  fiery,  i n what i s  the  83)11 and  caustic  creative  start  of  prin-  the  true  c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y o f t h e poem: The G l o b e o f w r a t h s h a k i n g on h i g h R o a r i n g w i t h f u r y , he t h r e w The h o w l i n g G l o b e : b u r n i n g i t f l e w L e n g t h n i n g i n t o a h u n g r y beam. Swiftly Oppos'd to the e x u l t i n g The b r o a d D i s k o f In t h i s attack several  c o n f l a t i o n of of  Urizen  reasons  various  takes that  Urizen  the  flam'd  beam  upheav'd stages  form of  of  (Ah 2 : 1 6 - 2 1 , production,  Fuzon's  a lengthening fiery  c a n be e x p l a i n e d  i f we r e t a i n  E 83)  beam  a clear  for sense  84  o f what i s b e i n g techniques.  d e s c r i b e d on t h e p h y s i c a l l e v e l o f B l a k e ' s  First,  Fuzon's  lengthening  fiery  beam a t t a c k i n g  U r i z e n i s an image o f t h e echoppe s c r a t c h i n g a l i n e the ground  and e x p o s i n g  figuratively the  the surface of the copperplate  upheaves as a s o l i d  edge o f t h e n e e d l e .  attacks  as a c i d ,  burning,  ( I ti s interesting  h u n g r y beam i s d i r e c t e d specifically  Preludium path  with  f o r when e x e c u t i n g of l i g h t  [scrapes]  o f f the ground"  o f Blake's  a description  beaten  mass:  just  (Ah  Fuzon's  as t h e f i e r y loins  i nthe  track that cuts  Blake  [and] w i t h  (E 6 7 2 ) .  a  "[begins]  an o v a l  pointed  I n o t h e r w o r d s , when  " e x u l t i n g flam'd  beam" w i l l  appear  a g a i n s t a d a r k b a c k g r o u n d a s do t h e ,  techniques  t o Europe thus  ( f i g . 1).  develops  o f t h e d e s i g n on t h e p l a t e ,  bodiment o f a p o r t i o n o f t h a t d e s i g n essentially  loins  that  "woodcut on c o p p e r , "  s u n ' s beams o n t h e f r o n t i s p i e c e  not  t o note  on e a c h o b j e c t  a white s h a f t of l i g h t  matization  a  of Urizen dividing  B u t t h e same f i e r y  the p l a t e i s p r i n t e d , Fuzon's as  Fuzon  t h e smoke/ground o f t h e p l a t e i s a l s o a beam o f  the spots  needle  at Urizen's  That  a t t a c k s t h e shadowy f e m a l e ' s  t o America.)  through  light,  principle  t h e same l i n e becomes q u i t e l i t e r a l l y  loins  which  i n opposition to  B u t when t h e f i r e  i t s d i r e c t i o n / The c o l d  2:27-29, E 8 3 ) .  Ore  substance  h u n g r y beam t h a t " [ t e a r s ] t h r o u g h /  keeping  through  dra-  i n t o what i s , at least  s i n c e Fuzon's  i s the c o l l e c t i v e d e f i n i n g l i n e s  This  i f  t h e em-  spear/beam  of that  design.  Thus i n one b l o w , as i t w e r e , we h a v e s e e n t h e g r o u n d applied,  the design  scraped  into  i t , the p l a t e etched,  and h a v e  85  caught of  a glimpse  o f the p r i n t e d  t h e beam o f l i g h t  tely  actually  used  section  of the chapter  account  of the physical  contains  the a c i d which d i v i d e s  to  be m a n i f e s t e d  in  a strangely potential  Furthermore, Urizen's cold  loins  form,  that  fiery  also  although  "Unseen, u n b o d i e d ,  I n o t h e r words, t h e Ahania  attack  causes she  bodies  i t .  Thus  although  84) u n t i l  from  remains  i n the narrative Ahania  the copperplate which, i n a sense,  "Ahania"  manifests  she remains  the void  Ahania  unknown"  f u n c t i o n s as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e poem  as d i s t i n c t  first  feature of Blake's  Fuzon's  as U r i z e n ' s p a r t e d s o u l ,  itself  such  and t h i s  p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e a c t u a l book  as  logically  accura-  c a n t h e r e f o r e be r e a d as a m e t a p h o r i c a l  those m e t a p h o r s — a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  (Ah 2:42, E 8 4 ) .  the exception  i n intaglio plates  f o r The Book o f A h a n i a ,  h a n d l i n g o f the metaphors.  etched,  But, with  i n t h e d e s i g n , t h e same m e t a p h o r s  d e s c r i b e the formation of text  as t h o s e  E  design.  em-  as soon as t h e p l a t e i s  " [hidden] ... i n s i l e n c e "  of the copperplate i s f i l l e d  (Ah 2:36,  with  i n k and  stamped on p a p e r . 1 3 The  narrative  out Ahania, of  l e a d i n g through  level  o f t h e poem c o n t i n u e s  the progressive stages  becomes a r t i c u l a t e ,  Although  d e l i v e r i n g h e r lament  t h e r e i s some c o n f l a t i o n  of d i s t i n c t  completed i n Chapter  stages of  Blake's  techniques  Chapter  I I p i c k s up t h e p r o c e s s where t h e p l a t e h a s b e e n  f o l l o w s i t through  o f p r o d u c t i o n , the general.development  i t s inking  and ends w i t h  through-  of the process  p r o d u c t i o n t o t h e p o i n t where t h e book i s f i n a l l y  and A h a n i a V.  of this  the p u l l i n g  of etched, o f an  86  impression.  As  i s common, t h e m e t a p h o r i c  between c h a p t e r s  that represent d i f f e r e n t  o f p r o d u c t i o n and sentative with  of Blake  the p r i n t i n g  p a s s i v e t o an Urizen's  the  artist—a  process  reflection  the p l a t e  shifts  p r i n c i p l e which  o f p r e p a r i n g a bow  and  phasis of  t h e p l a t e p r e s s and  an on  impression, silence  and  laying  of the  as t h e  of the  repre-  from  in i t a  i s Blake's  the  t h a t we- have come t o e x p e c t  a  same  i n this  Thus  rock  activity  i n the bed  i s associated with  that  the paper.  placing  the p l a t e  shift  process  fact  i t s role  fecundates  ( f a m i l i a r metaphor f o r the c o p p e r p l a t e )  pulling  stages  U r i z e n assumes F u z o n ' s r o l e  active  activity  arranging  identifications  of  before em-  stage  production: T h e n ( U r i z e n ] a Bow b l a c k p r e p a r ' d : A poisoned rock p l a c ' d i n s i l e n c e :  •  •  •  •  •  on  this  Bow,  •  . . . t h e Rock Poisonous source! p l a c ' d with a r t , l i f t i n g d i f f i c u l t I t s weighty b u l k : s i l e n t the rock l a y . (Ah 3:23-35, E 84-85) This in  i s t h e same r o c k / c o p p e r p l a t e t h a t makes a n o t h e r  Chapter  responsible  I I I as  a rock/ Barren;  had  petrified"(Ah Before being course,  versions cribed  "rock" which B l a k e / U r i z e n h i m s e l f i s  f o r shaping with  on  of  the  appearance  h i s own  i m a g i n a t i o n : "...he s a t  a r o c k w h i c h h i m s e l f / From r e d o u n d i n g 3:56-58, E laid  at the s t a r t of  85).  i n the press, the  inked, a process  t h a t was  the  in quite accessible  copperplate/rock i s ,  recounted  chapter.  i m a g e r y as  down f r o m U r i z e n ' s m o u n t a i n s  fancies  to s e t t l e  First,  i n two the  inking  t o r r e n t s o f mud thick  alternate i s des-  rushing  i n the v a l l e y s  of  the i n t a g l i o plate, but t h i s account modulates into a v i s i o n of a poisonous (Ah 3:17,  serpent which approaches and " [pushes] furious"  E 84) at Urizen:  Great the c o n f l i c t & great the jealousy In cold poisons: but Urizen smote him F i r s t he poison'd the rocks With'his blood Then polish'd his r i b s . . . •  •  •  •  •  •  Then a Bow black prepar'd: on t h i s Bow, A poisoned rock plac'd i n s i l e n c e . . . (Ah 3:18-24, E 84) This struggle and smearing of the rock with the blood of a snake I take to be a metaphorical account of Blake smearing the ink on the copperplate with a s i m i l a r l y p h a l l i c and snake14 l i k e dauber or printer's b a l l .  The d i s t i n c t p a r a l l e l with  i n t a g l i o techniques i s continued with Urizen's polishing of the r i b s , which can be read as the next step i n i n t a g l i o p r i n t i n g : the c a r e f u l wiping of the ink around the f i n e , r i b - l i k e l i n e s of the copperplate. Once the plate i s inked, wiped, and l a i d i n the press, Blake moves on to describe the printing process.  In an extension  of the b a t t l e imagery that has consistently been applied to t h i s stage of production, the p u l l i n g of an impression i s dramatized as a v i o l e n t act that, l o g i c a l l y , reproduces f l i g h t of Fuzon's beam i n Chapter I.  i n reverse the  As a representation of the  p r i n t i n g process, Urizen's attack on Fuzon (who here represents the page) i s presented i n imagery that i s very reminiscent of "the black winds that darken the pale, white landscape of The Book of Urizen:  88  Sudden sings the rock, swift & i n v i s i b l e On Fuzon flew... His b e a u t i f u l visage, his tresses, That gave l i g h t to the mornings of heaven Were smitten with darkness...  (Ah 3:39-43, E 85)  Urizen's r e t a l i a t o r y attack thus at once depicts the p r i n t i n g process, and dramatizes the manifestation of the p r i n t as the reverse impression of the design on the copperplate. The completion of this stage of production actually occurs i n the next chapter with Urizen/Blake n a i l i n g Fuzon's newlysmitten "pale... Corse"  (Ah 4 :10 , E 86)  [ i t a l i c s mine] to the  Tree of Mystery just as an etcher often hangs a freshly printed 15 leaf of paper to dry.  The only remaining stage of production  i s the f l e s h i n g out and enlivening of the corpse i n the painting process that i s recounted i n Chapter IV.  As i n The Book of  Urizen, the formation of the book i s likened to the formation of a human body, *' although i n Ahania, the addition of paint i s 1  described not as quenchless f i r e s , but as clouds of pestilence swirling about the corpse.  At any rate, these clouds produce  l i v i n g forms and the covering of the s k e l e t a l outline and text with colour and shape i s presented as the gradual covering of bare bones with l i v i n g f l e s h : The clouds of disease hover'd wide •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Perching around the h u r t l i n g bones Disease on disease, shape on shape, Winged screaming i n blood & torment. The shapes screaming f l u t t e r ' d vain Some combin'd into muscles & glands Some organs for craving and l u s t (Ah 4:22-33, E 86-87) This f i n a l emergence of l i v i n g , substantial form into the poem  1 7  89  heralds  i t s emergence as a c o m p l e t e d  account  o f i t s p h y s i c a l p r o d u c t i o n , which  Of  i t s v e g e t a t i o n from e t e r n a l  the  conclusion With  physical  entity,  i s really  into physical  form,  and t h e  the story ends w i t h  o f Chapter IV.  t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l book i n C h a p t e r I V ,  A h a n i a becomes a r t i c u l a t e throughout  and we. h e a r h e r e x t e n d e d  the next chapter.  This  i s i n fact  lament  the f u l f i l m e n t  of  t h e most i m p o r t a n t g e n e r a l p a t t e r n p r e s e n t i n t h e poem.  in  s o many o t h e r poems we h a v e l o o k e d a t , t h e a c c o u n t o f i t s  p h y s i c a l p r o d u c t i o n precedes case,  the  lament  end.  This  and what might  reduced  transition  that  the s h i f t The  to  c h a p t e r added  occurs with Chapter  surrealistic  of Ahania pitches  t o t h e always account  that  f o u r c h a p t e r s o f t h e poem. c a n b e r e a d as t h e g r i e f generation:  occurs  o f view.  "lamenting" voice  contrast  observed i n  i n tone that  actually  raises  o f B l a k e ' s minor  account of her experience of the c r e a t i v e  direct  at the  V i s also i n  t h a t we f i r s t  the dramatic s h i f t  one o f t h e h i g h e s t l y r i c  this  and  i n point  t h e poem  t h e t r u e book o f A h a n i a —  to a single  typical pattern  Preludium t o America;  with  be c a l l e d  itself—is  keeping with another the  t h e poem p r o p e r , a l t h o u g h i n t h i s  t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l book d o m i n a t e s  completely,  As  t h e poem p r o p h e c i e s and  process i s i n  awesome a n d o c c a s i o n a l l y i s transmitted  I n g e n e r a l terms,  grotesque  t o us i n t h e f i r s t Ahania's  lament  o f an E t e r n a l Form a t b e i n g c a s t  into  90  Why d i d s t t h o u d e s p i s e A h a n i a To c a s t me f r o m t h y b r i g h t p r e s e n c e I n t o t h e W o r l d o f L o n e n e s s (Ah 4:62-64, E And  this  bliss Urizen  sorrow  s h e had  i s compounded by  experienced with  her  longing f o r the  the masculine,  a t t h e moment o f u n i o n between p a p e r To To  87) sexual  impregnating  and  plate:  a r i s e t o the mountain s p o r t , the b l i s s of e t e r n a l v a l l e y s :  To embrace A n a n i a s j o y On t h e b r e d t h o f h i s open bosom: From my s o f t c l o u d o f dew t o f a l l In  showers o f  This exulting of  Blake's  passage i s charged  over  lost  introduction  essentially production In  j o y s and  and  fact,  t h e w h o l e o f The creation  the development of Blake's which Blake  view of the  imagery  process, but  be  the nature  88)  characteristic i t s reality  i t s p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n an  intensely  overlooked  as  of the process  [ t a k e s ] an  fate  U r i z e n , bound b o r n e o u t by  of a predominantly  to i t s father  entity.  so s e l f - c o n s c i o u s  i t as 18  entirely  of Energy."^  the h i g h l y  Book o f A h a n i a  thought"  B l a k e ' s myth w h i c h s e e s  physical  5:8-14, E  an of  itself.  T h e m a t i c a l l y , Morton P a l e y sees  in  (Ah  c o n c l u s i o n cannot  n e g a t i v e comment on  an e x e r c i s e i n t h e  in  with  p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p r i n t i n g  as a l a m e n t bitter  . l i f e on h i s h a r v e s t s .  T h i s dark  Which i s s i m p l y  and  principle  vision.  first  in  poem  pessimistic  as  cyclic  development the son  of  pattern i s  n a t u r e o f t h e poem as t o say  as  important  i s "The  thematic  in a recurring  "Urizenic"  an a r t i s t  ironical  seen  negative  " a work v e r y which  the energy  c a n be  a  t h a t when d e a l i n g w i t h  as W i l l i a m B l a k e , one  cannot  ignore  91  the thematic °f  ?  n  e  implications  Book o f A h a n i a  differences  as o n l y  of the s t r i k i n g l y  different  appearance  o r The Book o f L o s , o r s i m p l y d i s m i s s t h e experimentation.  Two o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h a r e i m m e d i a t e l y is  their  style  of lettering  and t h e c o m p l e t e  obvious  lack of physical  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e t e x t "of t h e p o e t r y and t h e d e s i g n s , and  both  of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  o f t h e s e poems as e s s e n t i a l l y statements. headings  o f both  after the text  poems a r e p a s s e d  o f t h e poem comes designs  and c h a p t e r  and t h e poem p r o p e r  t o an end.20 flies  poem  This  i n t h e f a c e o f one o f  of text  the d i f f e r e n t  style  and d e s i g n as an i n t e g r a t e d of lettering,  since  of technique, Blake  the r e a d e r w i t h  the f a c t  t h e poems were p r o d u c e d  ~-i.e.  Robert  saw t h i s closely  commercial  that  E s s i c k has, I think c o r r e c t l y ,  technique tied  processes  as i n t r i n s i c a l l y  that  stifled  and  engravers.  Again, Essick  but  t h e p o i n t c a n be e x t e n d e d  t o the text  of Los because t h e very p r o c e s s e s as  the symbolic  antithesis  i n intaglio  argued  assembly-line  t o Blake's of Ahania  of i n t a g l i o  of the "true"  that  and " U r i z e n i c "  t r u e a r t and d e g r a d e d  i s referring  unit.  i s confronting  limiting  t o the Eighteenth Century's  books:  physical  i s a function  Blake  until  complete  appearance here  printing.  begins,  aims i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f h i s i l l u m i n a t e d  the dynamic m a r r i a g e Regarding  titles,  e x c e p t i o n , no d e s i g n i n e i t h e r  l a c k o f even i n t e r l i n e a r primary  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  n e g a t i v e , o r a t l e a s t ambiguous,  Once t h e p r e f e r a t o r y m a t e r i a l ,  there i s , without  Blake's  reinforce  etchers  designs,  a n d The Book  e t c h i n g a r e seen  a r t of Blake's  relief  92  technique. This point phorical of Los, the  comes t h r o u g h q u i t e c l e a r l y  account of the which should  etching  process  compared t o t h e the  liberating  i n The, M a r r i a g e o f Heaven and the  a c t i o n o f The  the  l a t e r poem i s t o l d  metaphorical fierce  and  flaming  as  o f The  the b i n d i n g  Urizen,  i n t o t h e p l a t e and  emerge i n t o an  high/  Where n o t h i n g  3:36-38, E 9 0 ) .  poem, The of  the  rivers  divided only  and  of  in intaglio  etching,  d e f i n e d by  powerfully  liquid  and  a plate. 5,  the  abyss,  I n t o vacuum: i n t o But  the the  In  an  flames  Nature's  non-entity./  u n l i k e the  earlier  s t r o n g l y emphasizes the dominant p o s i t i o n  word i s c o m p l e t e l y  c o n t r a s t to the  the  (BL  Book o f L o s  copperplate  etched in  was!"  of  but  Chapter I i s  Chapter I I , verse  w i d e womb: " m o u n t i n g on  Hell  Urizen,  similar  Los,  etching  of  However,  very  Book Of  of the  of  Book o f Los i n t e r s e c t s  o f b o t h poems a r e  account  pattern with  acid eat  The  salutary fires  from Los's p e r s p e c t i v e .  activity  another metaphorical identical  Hell.  Book  demonic c e l e b r a t i o n o f  and  Book o f U r i z e n w i t h  constructs  meta-  e t c h i n g o f i n t a g l i o p l a t e s i n The  be as  i n Blake's  the  leagued  flame i n i n t a g l i o  weakened as  f o r the  shape o f  the  o b s t r u c t i n g metal,  f l a m e s o f The etching  Marriage,  are  in  fact  each group of flames i s allowed  a s i n g l e word, o r even a s i n g l e l e t t e r ,  and  i n t o the  to  bite  plate:  ...the e t e r n a l f i e r c e - r a g i n g R i v e r s of wide flame; they r o l l round And r o u n d on a l l s i d e s making t h e i r way I n t o d a r k n e s s and shadowy o b s c u r i t y Wide a p a r t At  the  end  stood  of t h i s  the  f i r e s . . . (BL  account, i n s t e a d of  3: 39-43, E the  triumph  90) of the  acid/  93  flame  principle  the Apocalypse side  and  Los  as  i n The  Marriage,  (personification  representation ceptions  i n c l e a n s i n g t h e p e r c e p t i o n s and h e r a l d i n g  of the a r t i s t  d e f e a t e d and  t h e weakened  of the c r e a t i v e Blake)  bound i n by  flames  sub-  principle  f i n d s h i m s e l f and  the domineering  and  his  "Stone  perof  Night": The  gigantic  flames  trembled  and  hid  ... a S o l i d Ytfithout f l u c t u a t i o n , h a r d as adamant B l a c k as m a r b l e o f E g y p t ; i m p e n e t r a b l e Bound i n t h e f i e r c e r a g i n g I m m o r t a l . And t h e s e p e r a t e d f i r e s f r o z e i n A vast s o l i d without f l u c t u a t i o n , Bound i n h i s e x p a n d i n g - c l e a r  senses  This d e f e a t of the e n e r g e t i c flames of o p a c i t y — i s ,  i n part,  Blake's  nique;; i d e n t i f y i n g  i t as  f o r h i s own  method.  two  poems  getic has  relief  as l i m i t i n g  potential  This process,  But  throughout  behind  limiting  logical  e x t e n s i o n o f a theme  a l l of Blake's  Blake's form,  printing.  that  As  I have  creative  Forms  into  t h e medium o f t h e of the c e n t r a l  i n the metaphoric  as  demonstrated,  p r e s e n t a t i o n of the b i n d i n g of the t i g e r i s implicit  ener-  are seen  that binds Eternal  I t i s one  these  poetry.  books o f p o e t r y themselves  of a U r i z e n i c process  tech-  substitute  i s t h e theme o f t h e p a r a d o x i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e  of illuminated  physical  and  intaglio  ultimately betray their  theme i s g e n e r a l l y p r o j e c t e d t h r o u g h  phors  the  90)  limit  t h e n e g a t i v e comment on  the h a r d bonds of v e g e t a t i v e e x i s t e n c e . this  4:3-10, E  stone~the  comment on  forms t h a t  i n which Blake's  the product  the  an u n a c c e p t a b l e  i s a l s o the  been r u n n i n g  by  (BL  parallel  meta-  points into  of h i s  own  94  creation  o f The  u n i v e r s e by creation central  Book o f U r i z e n w i t h  U r i z e n , and  is explicit  theme i n A h a n i a theme o f B l a k e ' s  minated p r i n t i n g Blake's t h i n g we  i n the  handling  have seen  parallels  can be  and  The  later  i n the p r e v i o u s  of Blake's  into h i s p o e t i c vocabulary.  the g e n e r a l  of the broad  artistic  T h e r e i s no  are  est  colour printed).  aspects  And  extended n a r r a t i v e of  this  just  i s not  simply  any  a  a re-  unifying  more t h a n stages  two  of the  Therefore  stages  of Blake's  techniques,  level  and  is  i s not  coherent  patterns i s no  Blake  Jerusalem  p a r t of the  " [is]  of  to  and  i n M i l t o n , Blake  sense the  Milton,  of e i t h e r M i l t o n or  t h i s metaphoric  pro-  process  etching techniques  the metaphors i n t o as  s t r u c t u r e d around  of h i s a r t , f o r with  (no c o p i e s  upon t o i n c o r p o r a t e new  obviated.  merging  of the metaphors i s r e l a t e d  to his basic r e l i e f  of developing  just  and  d i s r e g a r d o f n a r r a t i v e as  T h i s mature use  longer experimenting  called  the  What d o e s emerge, t h o u g h , i s a s t r o n g  developments i n o t h e r  no  experience  o u t l i n e s o f t h e poem b e i n g  solidly  illu-  i f any  p o e t r y when t h e y were  g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s o f movement o f t h e  returns  although  d i s c u s s i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l  of production.  production.  poetry,  poem, f o r n e i t h e r a r e t h e r e  or three i n d i s t i n c t cess  the  o f the metaphors o f  o f book r e p r o d u c t i o n , and  element of the  It i s also  drawn, i t i s m o s t r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e way  from out  of  the  o f t h e metaphors i n M i l t o n i s u n l i k e any-  emerging  flection  Book o f L o s .  of  poem M i l t o n .  i n the e a r l y  process  c r e a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l  i n his handling  application  metaphors f i g u r e d  the  the  longer  inter-  concerned  95 with  the  mere e x p o s i t i o n o f h i s myth, b e c a u s e i t s d i s t i n c t i v e  features no  [are]  longer  by  now  second nature t o h i m , "  concerned with  t h e mere e x p o s i t i o n  of i l l u m i n a t e d p r i n t i n g f o r the  same r e a s o n ,  c i d e d l y more i n t e r e s t e d i n u s i n g the  themes o f t h e  p h o r s and  poem t h a n i n f o c u s i n g  developing  Nevertheless, which the of  the  Milton's  is clearly  p l a t e 15 article  an  But  a few  too,  only  in  the  and  seems  he  poem on  literal  de-  develop the  meta-  interest.  passages  i n the  poem i n  i s the  d e s c e n t , one  Blake's  fully-developed  account  poem.  As  "Blake's Milton:  bosom and  Edward J . Rose has The  P o e t as P o e m , "  poem i s c.lso t h e  e x i s t s i n the  s t a t e which that  a shadow o f t h e  the  is  t h u s an  imagination.  image o f  into generation.  the  I f these  s p i r i t which f r e q u e n t l y  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , we  can  l i t e r a l l y Blake's  out  see  poem M i l t o n ;  the  c r e a t i o n of  Milton's  analogies  is  actu-  121);  i t  are  descent  a  descent true  into  state into  poem  applied in  characterizes Blake's  the  poem  i n d i v i d u a l represents.  d e s c e n t o f the  that Milton's  in  figure  t r u e poem M i l t o n w h i c h e x i s t s as  e t e r n a l realm of the  of  Generation  pointed 23  and  most  the metaphors of  from Eden i n t o A l b i o n ' s  of the  of the  poem w h i c h a p p e a r s i n t h e w o r l d o f g e n e r a t i o n  generation Milton  is  metaphors  v e h i c l e s to the  he  of h i s  a " g l o r i o u s s p i r i t u a l / V e g e t a t i o n " (M 25:60-61, E  is  is  This  embodiment o f t h e  this  ally  are  charged with  printing.  descent  M i l t o n who is  there  s e v e r a l accounts of Milton's  illuminated  his  them f o r t h e i r own  so  p r e s e n c e o f t h e m e t a p h o r s becomes q u i t e d i s t i n c t ,  important  on  them as  2 2  the  symbolic generation  p h y s i c a l poem, w h i c h i s  96  why  the  account of Milton's  Blake's  metaphors of  Our  printing but  of  establish  ation  of  being  created  the  important  the metaphors.  i n The  typical  on  innovation  i s informed  handling  this  of  later  present-  T y g e r " where t h e  p h y s i c a l poem i t s e l f ,  i n which U r i z e n  only  an  as  imaginative  a p p e a r s as tity,  the  f o r m , and  p r i n t e d page.  remains  speak,  t r u e poem, t h e  i n E d e n , and  f o r only  formation  Thus t h e  f i g u r a t i v e l y is_  vegetative Milton  distexists which  true Milton r e t a i n s i t s iden-  i s present  at  i t s shadow d e s c e n d s  of the  tiger and  i d e a of M i l t o n which  the  the Milton,  poem t h a t i s t a k i n g s h a p e , i n M i l t o n , B l a k e draws a between the  with  the  p l a t e of  in this  i n "The  is_ t h e  Book o f U r i z e n  15  that i t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y  Unlike  figuratively  inction  to  plate  printing.  Blake's  clearly  on  a page t h a t i s r e p r e s e n t e d  B l a k e makes an  unlike  illuminated  f a m i l i a r i t y with  metaphors w i l l  descent  i t s own  into  creation,  vegetation  so  with  p h y s i c a l book;;  As when a man dreams, he r e f l e c t s n o t t h a t h i s b o d y s l e e p s , E l s e he w o u l d wake; s o seem'd he e n t e r i n g h i s Shadow: b u t With him the S p i r i t s o f the Seven A n g e l s of the P r e s e n c e E n t e r i n g ; t h e y g a v e him s t i l l p e r c e p t i o n s o f h i s S l e e p i n g Body; W h i c h now a r o s e and w a l k ' d w i t h them i n E d e n . . .  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  T h e y saw h i s Shadow v e g e t a t e d u n d e r n e a t h t h e Of d e a t h . . . (M 15: 1-io, E 108) This plate  i s why, as  as  Milton's  objectified  the p u l l i n g  o f an  Once t h i s  shadow d e s c e n d s , he  forms w i t h  w h i c h he  Couch  sees the  fuses  at the  paper  and  moment  of  impression.  slight  refinement  the metaphors i s i n c o r p o r a t e d  into  i n Blake's our  method o f  vision,  the  presenting  passage  be-  97  comes q u i t e c l e a r ,  f o r the  rock;  p a g e as  form, o u t s t r e t c h e d  rock)  are  pale  already  familiar  other  to  metaphors and  {copperplate  as  snowy c o l d upon  the  us:  F i r s t M i l t o n saw A l b i o n upon t h e Rock o f A g e s , D e a d l y p a l e o u t s t r e t c h d and snowy c o l d , s t o r m c o v e r d ; «  #  *  •  •  •  «  . . . t h e Sea o f Time & Space t h u n d e r d a l o u d A g a i n s t t h e r o c k . . . i n i t s v o r t e x M i l t o n b e n t down To t h e bosom o f d e a t h , what was u n d e r n e a t h s o o n seemd a b o v e . •  •  •  •  •  •  '  •  . . . s o M i l t o n s shadow f e l l , l o u d t h u n d r i n g i n t o t h e S e a o f Time & S p a c e .  Precipitant  (M 15:36-46, E  109)  Thus, a t the  moment when t h e  i n k below i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o  the  p a p e r above,  t h e poem M i l t o n  "enters"  becomes  "fixd 134)  i n t o a frozen bulk i n the w o r l d  of  subject  t o decay  passage which i s very a handful  vision  and  in this  see  a f t e r Blake's  the  & death"  much t h e  of t h i s  exception  poem o f f i f t y  type  techniques.  This  which  f o r c e s , us  i s the  t o see  a temporal perspective they the  are  reduced  "Period  From t h e entire  34:54, E  we  (there  can  inter-  a whole  the  on  in Milton,  s e q u e n t i a l events from  both  f r o m an e t e r n a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n w h i c h  t o a s i n g l e moment, a " p u l s a t i o n o f t h e  [ i n which]  our  patterned  Central to this poem as  are  expand  double p e r s p e c t i v e maintained  a s e r i e s of and  metaphoric  e n t i r e poem as  p r e t a t i o n i s a problem which permeates the level.  of  i n Milton  plates),  l a r g e r themes o f t h e  reproductive  every  (M  generation.  ' From t h e m i n u t e p a r t i c u l a r s  only  A l b i o n ' s bosom and  P o e t s Work i s Done"  eternal perspective  of t h i s  sequential c r e a t i v e process  (H 29:1,  p u l s a t i o n o f an  from the  etching  artery," E  126).  artery, of the  the  copper  98  to  the p r i n t i n g  single,  symbolic  manifested  painting  action  symbolic  major stages  casting  to  In terms o f the metaphors,  a c t which p a r a d o x i c a l l y takes  t h e poem t o t r a n s p i r e ,  two  of the p l a t e s i s reduced  a  i n which a l l the p l a t e s of M i l t o n  simultaneously.  instantaneous of  and  i s represented  are  this  the  length  in a conflation  of  of p r o d u c t i o n : the e t c h i n g of the p l a t e  o f f S a t a n ) and  the p r i n t i n g  of the paper  the  (Milton  (Milton's union  with Ololon). On  the t i t l e  forward, and  h i s hand u p r a i s e d t o c u t through  false  d o c t r i n e s w h i c h he  c o p i e s he by  very  in  fire),  is striding  pronounced  Milton,  and  J . A.  gation. ^  goes f o r w a r d  flames  Wittreich,  etching  belongs  [his]  of the p l a t e .  and  In a t l e a s t  fire and  (in C Milton's feet  i n D he  are  i s completely  Jr. interprets  these  as  o f f from  the  t o a human  vision  flames  of  this  T h i s i s why purge  d e f e a t the Negation  a c t i s analogous  away w i t h  w h i c h i s "an  hilated  a l w a y / To  E  i s so  cleanse the  strikingly  Face of  purhe  the  2 5  Milton's pledge  [error]  of  ego  individual  community."  two  licked  "the unregenerate isolated  errors  enveloped  to Blake's  to  the  at the  end  Fire"  (M  41:27,  I n c r u s t a t i o n over  I m m o r t a l / S p i r i t ; a S e l f h o o d , w h i c h must be  141),  striding  must a n n i h i l a t e .  terms of the metaphors,  t h e poem t o " w h o l l y  E. 141)  the poet  smoke o f t h e  to cast o f f his Selfhood,  'Opacity'...screens  .In  see  the  i n h i s r e c e n t book d e v o t e d  k n o w l e d g e t h a t he  of  into  we  I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e d e s i g n r e p r e s e n t s M i l t o n as  2  whose  page o f M i l t o n ( f i g . 5 )  put  [his] S p i r i t "  reminiscent of Blake's  off & anni(M  40:35-37,  salutary  and  99 medicinal acids that w i l l  expunge man's f a l s e  c l e a n s e h i s p e r c e p t i o n s i n The M a r r i a g e Thus on p l a t e  o f Heaven and H e l l .  1, M i l t o n as t h e a r c h e t y p a l p l a t e  M i l t o n b e g i n s h i s movement t o w a r d s t h e f i n a l tage  o f t h e poem  Harvest  and V i n -  a t t h e e n d o f t h e poem b y s t e p p i n g i n t o t h e p u r g i n g and  corrosive  fires  The  of the acid  /"Great H a r v e s t  bath.  & Vintage  o f t h e poem i s t h e s y m b o l i c and  c o n c e p t s and  bread,  itself. process cation  i n k and p a p e r  union o f grapes  throughout  of the Harvest  o f h a r v e s t imagery  M i l t o n where we a r e t o l d  that  wine-press,  plate  The  of Milton  with the p r i n t i n g  B l a k e ' s work, b u t a s p e c i f i c  & Vintage with p r i n t i n g  i . e . Blake's  a t the end  a n d wheat, w i n e  that heralds the c r e a t i o n  The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n runs  of the Nations"  this  activity  identifi-  occurs e a r l i e r i n  takes p l a c e i n Los's  press:  W i n e - p r e s s on t h e R h i n e g r o a n s  loud...  Where Human T h o u g h t i s c r u s h d b e n e a t h t h e i r o n hand o f Power. There Los puts a l l i n t o t h e Press, the Opressor & the Opressed [ i . e . p l a t e and paper] T o g e t h e r , r i p e f o r t h e H a r v e s t & V i n t a g e . . . (M 25:3-7, E 120) Two p l a t e s ...is  later,  we a r e t o l d  explicitly  that  "This Wine-press  t h e P r i n t i n g - P r e s s / Of L o s ; and h e r e he l a y s h i s w o r d s . . .  above t h e m o r t a l b r a i n / As c o g s a r e f o r m d I n a w h e e l t o t u r n t h e cogs o f t h e a d v e r s e This Harvest  wheel"  a n d V i n t a g e w h i c h is_ t h e p r i n t i n g  of M i l t o n i s dramatized the p l a t e s  o f t h e poem.  simultaneously  (M 27:8-10, E 1 2 3 ) .  pictorially On p l a t e  stepping into  of the p l a t e s  by t h e v e r y p o s i t i o n i n g o f  1 we s e e M i l t o n as c o p p e r p l a t e  the acid bath  and t o w a r d  the f i n a l  100  harvest this  of h i s union with Ololon  design  where we her  i s plate  see  Ololon  50 as  (fig.6), the  as the  passive,  sexual that  as  he  symbolism  Ololon  and  in this her  part  to the  erect phallus  This  sexual  u n i o n o f m a l e p l a t e and  length  general  of  the  period,  the  represented  use  of  structured. the  tion  of  from Felpham's V a l e  the  poem M i l t o n ,  metaphors o f  they  one  this  thesis offers a rather  way  limiting,  In  the  evolved  the  relating  plate  a l s o the  various  the  1.  spans the  same the  mature  into a  when M i l t o n  final  in  counter-  around which  basic  and  Ololon  f u l f i l m e n t and f u l f i l m e n t of been s l o w l y  creathe  developing  career.  and  i n so  f a r as  limited perspective  for this  reading  political  t a t i o n s o f what i s o b v i o u s l y ture.  are  l e v e l of Blake's poetry,  denies  on  i l l u m i n a t e d p r i n t i n g are,  only  no  as  course of Blake's  These metaphors o f  i t i s not  Milton  i l l u m i n a t e d p r i n t i n g t h a t had  throughout the  sexual  Clearly, in this  and  the  f e m a l e pudendum  female paper t h a t  m e t a p h o r s has  the  creative process  creative process  s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e of h i s poetry, ascend  by  by  ink/wine of  e n t i r e poem r e p r o d u c e s p i c t o r i a l l y  t e x t are  Blake's  the  s t a l k s o f wheat, t h e  o u t l i n e s of Blake's  events of  paper f l a n k e d  arms f o r m t h e  thighs  the  of the  the  to  poem,  Blake underlines  f u l f i l m e n t of  outstretched  counterpart  p l a t e i n the  receptive  moves t o w a r d h e r .  between the  But  final  The  emblems o f wheat, arms r e a d y t o r e c e i v e  plate Milton  up  paper.  a very  and rich  metaphors t o the  of  of  this  is  true,  of Blake's  work.  t h e s e metaphors  psychological and  course,  in  interpre-  complex p o e t i c  l a r g e r o u t l i n e s of  texBlake's  101  thought,  what i s i n t e r e s t i n g  i n t h e poem M i l t o n i s t h a t  when t h e m e t a p h o r s h a v e l a r g e l y  dropped  out of Blake's  even work,  the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s o f h i s p r o c e s s o f p r o d u c t i o n remain  as  an i m p o r t a n t  ten-  dency  structural  c a n be o b s e r v e d  principle  throughout  i n t h e poem. h i s poetic  d e v e l o p m e n t o f h i s i d e a s on t h e A p o c a l y p s e  And t h i s  c a r e e r i n the and on p e r c e p t i o n ,  in  t h e p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e O r e and U r i z e n  in  t h e abundance o f s e p a r a t i n g forms,  s p i c u o u s e m p h a s i s on c o n t r a r i e s poetry?. his from  the  are expressed  o r analogous  printer  that  this  fundamental  poetic  and, i n d e e d , i n t h e con-  and f a v e r s c i l s  So many a s p e c t s o f h i s p o e t r y ,  thought  vision.  governing  throughout  s o many e l e m e n t s  Blake's of  i n terms o f , o r a r e e i t h e r d e r i v e d  t o the basic experience process  figures,  clearly  o f an e t c h e r and  establishes  itself  and o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s  as one o f of Blake's  1  1  3.  Plate  6 o f The M a r r i a g e o f Heaven and H e l l ,  Copy  lOld  tc ancient tradition that the vfoAA nil/ he ten in Jrre <rf- the end of six thmisandy^rr < ts? true. as- J luive heard Jivm Hell,  hi consumed and appear in finite, andTudy whereat ct nciv appears 1 finite corrupt. come tcpais by on improvement Ol .sensual enjoyment. «rC> -s^r (> Mut first flic notion that man has a ocdv 1 tltstuict Jivm ins' Si>ul, ts tv be erptaii>ed; Utu  ff the^dcers' of perception n'm cleansedtiirytnin^ would appear to miutjisjit iH.'lnJ'or man Tra r closed Jnmscil iip ull he S<eesf oil tiling* thro 1Jiartvrt chinks; ctAi'st cavern ,  4.  Plate  14 o f T h e M a r r i a g e o f Heaven a n d H e l l ,  Copy H.  102  NOTES  Chapter  I: Introduction  A 1 t h o u g h 31oom (E 889) i d e n t i f i e s t h e i r o n pens as d e r i v e d f r o m J o b 19:24 and J e r e m i a h 17:1, t h i s r e f e r e n c e a n t i c i p a t e s B l a k e ' s l a t e r v e r y common m e t a p h o r o f a r o c k f o r a c o p p e r p l a t e , and an i r o n pen i s a n a t u r a l m e t a p h o r for a burin or graver. The p a s s a g e may t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e u s w i t h an e a r l y g l i m m e r o f B l a k e ' s a m b i t i o n o f u s i n g h i s c r a f t as a method o f d i s s e m i n a t i n g h i s "words o f t r u t h . " ( T h i s poem was a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h e y e a r s o f B l a k e ' s a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t o an e n g r a v e r . ) . A  Erdman notes t h a t the " I n t r o d u c t i o n " i s " p o s s i b l y o f l a t e c o m p o s i t i o n " (E 7 1 4 ) , w h i c h may s u g g e s t t h a t i t was w r i t t e n i n retrospect a f t e r the experience of producing s e v e r a l poems h a d i m p r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h i s t e c h n i q u e s upon B l a k e . We . w i l l s e e t h a t B l a k e ' s m e t a p h o r i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of h i s p r i n t i n g techniques i s o f t e n p r e s e n t e d i n an i n t r o d u c t o r y p a s s a g e t h a t was w r i t t e n a f t e r t h e poem p r o p e r . 2  ^ R o b e r t E s s i c k , " I n t r o d u c t i o n " t o The V i s i o n a r y Hand (Los A n g e l e s : H e n n e s s e y & I n g a l l s , 1 9 7 3 ) , p . 2 . F o r a c o n v e n i e n t summary o f t h e ways i n w h i c h B l a k e ' s t e c h n i q u e o f r e l i e f e t c h i n g embodied h i s c o n c e p t s o f v i s i o n and a r t , s e e R o b e r t E s s i c k , "The A r t o f W i l l i a m B l a k e ' s E a r l y I l l u m i n a t e d B o o k s , " D i s s . U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , S a n D i e g o 1969, p p . 1 - 1 0 . ^For a d i s c u s s i o n o f B l a k e ' s n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards i n t a g l i o e n g r a v i n g , s e e R o b e r t E s s i c k , " B l a k e and t h e T r a d i t i o n s o f R e p r o d u c t i v e E n g r a v i n g , " B l a k e S t u d i e s , 5 (1972), r p t . i n T h e V i s i o n a r y Hand, pp.493-525. E s s i c k sees the f i r m and s i m p l e o u t l i n e s o f B l a k e ' s e t c h e d p l a t e s as a c o n s c i o u s r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e i l l u s o r y jumble o f l i n e s produced by t h e v i s u a l s y n t a x o f c o m m e r c i a l i n t a g l i o e n g r a v i n g . F o r a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f i n t a g l i o e t c h i n g and e n g r a v i n g s e e Norman E p p i n k , 101 P r i n t s (Norman: U. o f Oklahoma P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 ) , pp.57-59. ^ I n B l a k e ' s method o f r e l i e f p r i n t i n g , t h e i n k i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e paper from t h e r a i s e d s u r f a c e s o f t h e copperplate. I n i n t a g l i o p r i n t i n g , however, f u r r o w s a r e c u t or etched i n t o t h e p l a t e , the i n k i s d e p o s i t e d i n these c u t l i n e s , and i n p r i n t i n g , t h e p a p e r i s f o r c e d i n t o t h e f u r r o w and r e c e i v e s t h e i n k .  103  N o t e s t o Pages  7-15  ^S. W. H a y t e r , New Ways o f G r a v u r e (19 49; r p t . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p.33. H a y t e r was t h e t e c h n i c a l g e n i u s b e h i n d R u t h v e n T o d d ' s 19 4 3 r e - d i s c o v e r y o f B l a k e ' s e t c h i n g m e t h o d s , and t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y t h e most h e l p f u l t e c h n i c a l book i n my b i b l i o g r a p h y . R u t h v e n Todd, W i l l i a m B l a k e : The A r t i s t ( L o n d o n : S t u d i o V i s t a , and New Y o r k : D u t t o n , 1 9 7 1 ) , p.21. ^See J o h n W r i g h t , "Toward R e c o v e r i n g B l a k e ' s R e l i e f E t c h i n g P r o c e s s , " B l a k e N e w s l e t t e r 26 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 37. The America fragment, p a r t o f a c a n c e l l e d p l a t e o f America: A P r o p h e c y , i s t h e o n l y one o f B l a k e ' s c o p p e r p l a t e s t o have survived. The Songs e l e c t r o t y p e s a r e e x a c t r e p r o d u c t i o n s of t e n o f B l a k e ' s c o p p e r p l a t e s (see G e o f f r e y Keynes, B l a k e S t u d i e s , 2nd e d . , r e v . [1949; r p t . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 197TT, p p . 1 2 4 - 2 5 ) . 9See K e y n e s , B l a k e S t u d i e s , p.125. ^ B l a k e was p r o b a b l y u s i n g t h e p r e s s he h a d r e t a i n e d from the d i s s o l u t i o n o f h i s p r i n t - s e l l i n g b u s i n e s s w i t h James P a r k e r , as G. E. B e n t l e y s u g g e s t s i n B l a k e R e c o r d s ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p.29, n.3.  rpt.  ^ A l e x a n d e r G i l c h r i s t , L i f e of William Blake New Y o r k : P h a e t o n P r e s s , 1969J, 1/ 70.  Chapter  I I : The  (1880;  Book o f U r i z e n  "'"Northrop F r y e ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i m a g i n a t i v e r e c r e a t i o n o f t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t J o s h u a i n t h e New T e s t a m e n t J e s u s p r o vides i n s i g h t i n t o a t r a d i t i o n a l t y p o l o g i c a l precedent f o r Blake's c r e a t i o n of apparently s e q u e n t i a l s t o r i e s that are r e a l l y v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e same i m a g i n a t i v e e v e n t ; s e e F e a r f u l Symmetry ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 4 7 ) , p.317. See a l s o Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , p.315 where F r y e o b s e r v e s t h a t " t h e two t e s t a ments a r e n o t s o much a l l e g o r i e s o f one a n o t h e r as m e t a p h o r i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s o f one a n o t h e r . " B y p a r a l l e l i n g t h e b i r t h o f a v e g e t a t i v e man w i t h t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s e and t h e d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e human p s y c h e , B l a k e d r a m a t i z e s i n U r i z e n one o f h i s f u n d a m e n t a l concepts: t h e c r e a t i o n and f a l l o f a man i s t h e c r e a t i o n and f a l l o f the u n i v e r s e . F o r more on t h i s theme, s e e F r y e , F e a r f u l Symm e t r y , p. 41. 2  104  Notes t o Pages  17-19  T h i s engraver's copperplate i s dark because the p l a t e s a r e commonly "smoked" ( i . e . h e a t e d and c o v e r e d w i t h a f i l m o f c a r b o n ) t o d a r k e n and smooth t h e g r o u n d . The c o p p e r p l a t e i s a v o i d f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s , some o f w h i c h we w i l l g e t t o l a t e r . F i r s t , i t i s a v o i d because a f r e s h c o p p e r p l a t e i s an e x p a n s e o f unformed,, u n o r g a n i z e d m a t t e r u n t o u c h e d by t h e h a n d o f t h e c r e a t o r . It i s also t r u e t h a t b e f o r e b e i n g e n g r a v e d , a p l a t e was p o l i s h e d t o a f i n e f i n i s h and l o o k i n g i n t o i t , 31ake may h a v e i m a g i n e d h i m s e l f l o o k i n g i n t o a v a s t expanse t h a t would, moreover, become i n f i n i t e and h a v e p a l a c e s b u i l t i n i t s c l i f f s i n t h e e t c h i n g p r o c e s s ( s e e MHH: 15). In the course of t h i s t h e s i s , i t w i l l a l s o -become c l e a r t h a t t e r m s s u c h as "shadow" and " a b s t r a c t e d " a r e a l s o commonly a p p l i e d t o the copperplate f o r s i m i l a r reasons. J  ^ I n h i s a n n o t a t i o n s i n The I l l u m i n a t e d B l a k e ( G a r d e n C i t y : A n c h o r , 1 9 7 4 ) , p.156, D a v i d Erdman has a l s o n o t e d t h a t The A n c i e n t o f Days i s a comment on B l a k e ' s own eng r a v i n g t e c h n i q u e : " Y e t we c a n s e e t h a t a r t t r a n s c e n d i n g t i m e has f i x e d t h i s v i s i o n , t h a t b e n e a t h t h e s h i f t i n g c o l o r masses o f t h e c l o u d s an e n g r a v e r w i t h t o o l s as p o i n t e d as t h e compasses has f i x e d t h e i r s h a p e s w i t h i n f i n i t e labor of cross-hatching." Urizen i s also d i s t i n c t l y an i n t a g l i o e t c h e r on t h e t i t l e page o f U r i z e n where he i s h o l d i n g an echoppe ( e t c h i n g n e e d l e ) i n h i s r i g h t h a n d . ^Keynes, B l a k e  Studies,  p.146.  ^"Mountains" o c c a s i o n a l l y i d e n t i f i e s the r a i s e d s u r f a c e o f t h e c o p p e r p l a t e (as i n Ah 3 ) , b u t t h i s i s r a r e and i s a l w a y s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f m o u n t a i n s o r h i l l s and v a l l e y s ( v a l l e y s r e p r e s e n t i n g the etched d e p r e s s i o n s of the p l a t e ) . ^ A l t h o u g h a " s e l f c o n t e m p l a t i n g shadow" i s a f a i r l y a p t d e s c r i p t i o n o f U r i z e n as a c o p p e r p l a t e t h a t i s a l w a y s c o n f r o n t e d by i t s own r e v e r s e i m a g e , t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l y U r i z e n i c p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h i s e n t i r e book p r o d u c e s a d e c i d e d l y glum i f n o t b i t t e r s e l f - p o r t r a i t o f the o b s c u r e and n e g l e c t e d poet/prophet p e r f o r m i n g the l a b o u r s of E t e r n i t y f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f f u t u r i t y : "Unseen i n t o r m e n t i n g p a s s i o n s ; / An a c t i v i t y unknown and h o r r i b l e ; / A s e l f - c o n t e m p l a t i n g shadow,/ I n enormous l a b o u r s o c c u p i e d " (U 3:18-22, E 6 9 ) .  165 Notes t o Pages  20-26  p  The t h u n d e r o f t h e r o l l i n g p r e s s i n o p e r a t i o n i s l i k e n e d t o t h e r o a r o f s w e l l i n g seas because B l a k e ' s works h o p i s s i t u a t e d on t h e s h o r e s o f t h e S e a o f Time and S p a c e . I t i s w i t h the r o l l i n g of the p l a t e p r e s s t h a t the e t e r n a l f o r m o f B l a k e ' s poems v e g e t a t e s i n t o p h y s i c a l e x i s t e n c e , s o B l a k e f i n d s h i m s e l f w o r k i n g knee deep i n b r i n e w i t h t h e r o a r o f t h e waves i n h i s e a r s .  on MHH:  See, f o r example, A 2:5 6 ( f i g . 3 ) d i s c u s s e d on  (E 5 1 ) , and pp.52-53.  the bottom  design  i ^ S e e p p » 3 1 f f . and 83-84 b e l o w , a n d f o r i n d e p e n d e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h i s same phenomenon i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e m e t a p h o r s o f i l l u m i n a t e d p r i n t i n g , s e e D a v i d Erdman "A Temporary Rep o r t o n . T e x t s o f B l a k e , " i n W i l l i a m B l a k e : E s s a y s F o r S. F o s t e r Damon ( P r o v i d e n c e : Brown U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p.413 and M o r r i s E a v e s , "A R e a d i n g o f B l a k e ' s M a r r i a g e o f H e a v e n and H e l l , P l a t e s 17-20, " B l a k e S t u d i e s , 4 (1972) , 107. UMany of the p r e c i s e d e t a i l s of Blake's techniques remain obscure, but o c c a s i o n a l l y the metaphors of t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e p o e t r y may be u s e f u l i n i l l u m i n a t i n g them. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o .note t h a t t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i n k i n g o f a p l a t e i s i d e n t i f i e d as a r o l l i n g p r o c e s s : "... c l o u d s o f b l o o d r o l l ' d / Round t h e d i m r o c k s . . . . " T o d d h a s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t B l a k e i n k e d h i s copper not w i t h a r o l l e r , b u t w i t h a n o t h e r i n k e d p l a t e , and n o t e s t h a t r o l l e r s were n o t u s e d i n i n k i n g u n t i l a b o u t 183 3 ("The T e c h n i q u e s o f W i l l i a m B l a k e ' s I l l u m i n a t e d P r i n t i n g " [19 48] , i n The V i s i o n a r y Hand, p . 4 0 ) . J o h n W r i g h t has c h a l l e n g e d t h i s on t e c h n i c a l g r o u n d s and s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i n n o v a t i v e B l a k e " u s e d a wooden r o l l e r , p e r h a p s a l a r g e p r e s s c y l i n d e r , b o t h t o i n k p l a t e s d i r e c t l y and t o d i s t r i b u t e t h e i n k on an i n k i n g p l a t e " ( B l a k e N e w s l e t t e r , 2C [l973j , 3 9 ) . The e v i d e n c e h e r e i n s u p p o r t o f W r i g h t ' s c l a i m i s s l i m , b u t we w i l l f i n d t h a t B l a k e ' s h a n d l i n g o f t h e m e t a p h o r s c a n be r e m a r k a b l y p r e c i s e . T h e d e s i g n on t h i s p l a t e (U 4) shows t h e p l a t e as U r i z e n submerged i n t h e a c i d b a t h , s u r r o u n d e d by l i q u i d f l a m e s o f a c i d w h i c h a l s o seem t o p o u r down upon h i m . l 2  • ^ B l a k e ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an e t c h e d c o p p e r p l a t e as a cavern a l s o emphasizes the depth t h a t the e t c h i n g p r o c e s s adds t o t h e o t h e r w i s e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l s u r f a c e o f t h e c o p p e r plate.  106  Notes  t o P a g e s 28-3 2  14  B l a k e seems t o have done h i s b e s t t o make t h i s p a s s a g e more o b s c u r e . T h i s r o c k , i d e n t i f i e d i n C h a p t e r I I I as t h e " r o c k o f e t e r n i t y " s h o u l d n o t be c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e c o p p e r p l a t e . In a d d i t i o n , although the l o g i c a l order o f the stages o f production c l e a r l y r e q u i r e s that t h i s a c t i o n precedes the p r i n t i n g of the p l a t e a t the opening o f the chapter, Blake i n t e n t i o n a l l y c o n f u s e s t h e i s s u e by s h i f t i n g t h e tense i n t o t h e p r e s e n t , thus rearranging the stages of production. This i s a favourite • p l o y — s e e Erdman* s a r t i c l e i n E s s a y s f o r S_. F o s t e r Damon, p. 411. •^The m y s t e r i o u s a n d t r a n s f o r m i n g p a s s a g e w a y b e t w e e n t h e r o l l e r s o f t h e p l a t e p r e s s i s o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as a d a r k o r s e c r e t p l a c e , a s i n E 2:18, E 60. ^ A c t u a l l y B l a k e g i v e s u s two a l t e r n a t i v e p a s s a g e s w h i c h may d e s c r i b e t h i s d e s i g n : U 4:31-33, E 71 a n d U 4:41-44, E 71. The s e c o n d p a s s a g e i s more l i k e l y b e c a u s e , s p e a k i n g t e c h n i c a l l y , a t t h e t i m e o f t h e e a r l i e r p e s s a g e , The Book o f U r i z e n h a s n o t y e t b e e n m a n i f e s t e d a s a p r i n t e d book a n d t h u s some o f t h e p o t e n t i a l power o f B l a k e ' s m e t a p h o r w o u l d be l a c k i n g . ^ T h e s e two p a s s a g e s d e s c r i b i n g t h e p a i n t i n g o f t h e p a g e s are s e p a r a t e d by l i n e s which d e s c r i b e i n dramatic language the c l i m a c t i c s e p a r a t i o n o r r e n d i n g o f paper and p l a t e which p r e c i p i t a t e s t h e emergence o f U r i z e n ' s w o r l d / b o o k o n t h e p h y s i c a l plane. T h i s i s the f i r s t o f s e v e r a l such accounts o f s e p a r a t i n g forms i n U r i z e n , s e v e r a l o f w h i c h seem t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e same g e n e r a l a n a l o g y w i t h B l a k e ' s t e c h n i q u e s . In this case, the i n t e r j e c t e d n a r r a t i v e o f s e p a r a t i o n suggests the a l t e r n a t i n g p u l l i n g and p a i n t i n g o f t h e many p l a t e s t h a t make up T h e Book o f U r i z e n . T h e s h i f t i n the representational value of the f i r e i s s i m p l y a n o t h e r example o f t h e w e l l - r e c o g n i z e d p o l y s e m o u s n a t u r e o f B l a k e ' s s y m b o l i s m i n w h i c h a s n a k e may b e t h e s e r p e n t o f m a t e r i a l i s m o r a modulation o f t h e l i b e r a t i n g Ore f i g u r e , dep e n d i n g on c o n t e x t , o r a t i g e r may s y m b o l i z e t h e d e m o n i c o r d i v i n e f o r c e s o f t h e w o r l d , d e p e n d i n g on o u r p e r s p e c t i v e . 1 8  E r d m a n comments on t h e o f t e n i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e metaphoric r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c o p p e r p l a t e a n d . p r i n t e d p l a t e on p.411 o f h i s a r t i c l e i n E s s a y s f o r S. F o s t e r Damon. 1 9  ^ T h i s t e c h n i q u e , w h i c h i s d i s c u s s e d on pp.68-69 b e l o w , h e l p s t o e x p l a i n t h e abundant imagery o f f i r e f a l l i n g from o u t o f the sky i n Blake's poetry. Compare a l s o t h e d e s i g n on U 4 w h i c h shows an E t e r n a l — U r i z e n I s u s p e c t — t o r m e n t e d i n a downpour o f raining fire. 2  107  Notes t o Pages  35-39  ^-^Interestingly, there i s a d i s t i n c t concomitant shift i n the moral i m p l i c a t i o n s of each c r e a t i o n . Urizen"s e s s e n t i a l l y negative c r e a t i v e act ( i t i s the p h y s i c a l express i o n of the c a t a s t r o p h i c d i s r u p t i o n of the p r i m a l unity) m o d u l a t e s i n t o t h e more p o s i t i v e c r e a t i v e a c t o f C h a p t e r IV. L o s ' s b i n d i n g o f U r i z e n i s t h e same e v e n t , b u t now we l o o k a t i t f r o m a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e and s e e t h e p o s i t i v e a s p e c t o f what r e m a i n s an i n h e r e n t l y n e g a t i v e a c t i v i t y . Los's b i n d i n g o f U r i z e n i s d e s i r a b l e b e c a u s e n e c e s s a r y ; he i s e s s e n t i a l l y g i v i n g f o r m t o e r r o r s o t h a t i t c a n be c a s t o u t . f h e d e s i g n on t h i s p l a t e (U 10) p r e s e n t s t h i s e t c h i n g o f a p l a t e p i c t o r i a l l y by d r a m a t i z i n g L o s as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the a c i d t h a t i s h i s t o o l "going a t the rock [ i . e . t h e c o p p e r p l a t e ] w i t h h i s h a n d s , c a u s i n g g a p s t o open b e t w e e n t h e r o c k s " (Erdman, The I l l u m i n a t e d B l a k e , p . 1 9 2 ) . 2 2 ,  **This p r o g r e s s i v e f l e s h i n g out of U r i z e n ' s p h y s i c a l form i n t h e s u l p h u r o u s l a k e o f f i r e c a n a l s o be t r a c e d t h r o u g h t h e d e s i g n s on p l a t e s 8, 11, and 12. See a l s o Erdman's comments on t h e s e d e s i g n s i n The I l l u m i n a t e d B l a k e f o r h i s a w a r e n e s s t h a t Blake i s p r e s e n t i n g aspects of h i s e t c h i n g process i n the d e s i g n s o f The Book o f U r i z e n . 2  Chapter  I I I : The  Poetry Before  Urizen  •""I am t h i n k i n g h e r e o f "The T y g e r " and The M a r r i a g e o f Heaven and H e l l . The c h r o n o l o g y o f t h e s e two poems, and o f America: A Prophecy which I w i l l a l s o d i s c u s s i n t h i s c h a p t e r , i s a d i f f i c u l t p o i n t : t h e a c t u a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f The M a r r i a g e and A m e r i c a e x t e n d e d o v e r s e v e r a l y e a r s and as a r e s u l t t h e r e is considerable overlapping. M a r t i n N u r m i c i t e s 179 2, o r a t t h e l a t e s t 1793, as t h e d a t e o f c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e N o t e b o o k d r a f t s o f "The T y g e r " ( " B l a k e ' s R e v i s i o n s o f 'The Tyger,'" PMLA 71 ( 1 9 5 6 ) , r p t . i n The T y g e r , e d . W i n s t o n W e a t h e r s ( C o l umbus, O h i o : M e r r i l l , 1 9 6 9 ) , p.36, and Erdman n a r r o w s t h i s f u r t h e r , s e t t i n g l a t e 1792 as t h e l i m i t i n g d a t e (E 7 1 4 ) . The c o m p o s i t i o n o f The M a r r i a g e e x t e n d e d f r o m 1790-9 3, b u t s i n c e a l l o f t h e p a s s a g e s I am c o n c e r n e d w i t h ( e x c e p t i n g p l a t e 6) a r e i d e n t i f i e d by Erdman as l a t e a d d i t i o n s t o t h e poem (E 723) , I t a k e 179 3 t o be t h e o p e r a t i v e d a t e . A m e r i c a was w r i t t e n 1792-94 (E 724) and s i n c e I d e a l -with t h e P r e l u d i u m , w h i c h was composed a f t e r t h e r e s t o f t h e poem was c o m p l e t e d , I t a k e l a t e 1793 o r 1794 as i t s p e r i o d o f c o m p o s i t i o n . For the passages which I d i s c u s s i n t h i s chapter, the l i k e l y order o f c o m p o s i t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e "The T y g e r , " The M a r r i a g e o f H e a v e n and H e l l , and America.  108 Notes t o Pages  copper  40-50  ^ B l a k e does i n t r o d u c e t h e t e c h n i q u e a r o u n d 1793 ( s e e E 6 7 2 ) . 3  See  o f woodcut  on  pp.77-78.  ^See M o r t o n P a l e y , E n e r g y and the- I m a g i n a t i o n ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ) , pp.51-52 and H a z a r d Adams, "'The Tyger', as an Example" f r o m W i l l i a m B l a k e : A R e a d i n g o f t h e S h o r t e r Poems ( S e a t t l e : U. o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , r p t . i n The "Tyger, e d . W. W e a t h e r s , pp.52-66. A d a m s , i n The T y g e r , p.59. A l s o , although the t e a r s c a n b e r e a d as a s y m b o l o f t h e c r e a t o r ' s c o n t r i t i o n , " t h e w a t e r i n g " o f heaven a t t h i s p o i n t i n the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s a l s o s u g g e s t s t h e w a s h i n g o f t h e c o p p e r p l a t e , w h i c h must be done i m m e d i a t e l y t o s t o p t h e a c t i o n o f t h e a c i d . 5  ^See W a r r e n S t e v e n s o n , D i v i n e A n a l o g y , S a l z b u r g S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , No.25 ( S a l z b u r g : I n s t i t u t F u r E n g l i s c h e S p r a c h e und L i t e r a t u r , U n i v e r s i t a t S a l z b u r g , 1 9 7 2 ) , pp.287-90 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e a n a l o g i e s b e t w e e n t h e c r e a t i o n myth p r e s e n t e d i n "The T y g e r " and The Book o f U r i z e n , a l t h o u g h he s e e s t h e c r e a t i o n as an unambiguous " v i c t o r y o v e r t h e p r i m o r d i a l powers o f d a r k n e s s . "  7 I t i s p o s s i b l e t o p l o t the development o f B l a k e ' s use o f t h e m e t a p h o r s i n The M a r r i a g e t o some e x t e n t by a p p l y i n g D a v i d Erdman's d a t i n g o f B l a k e ' s s t y l e o f l e t t e r i n g . Accord i n g t o t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s e r i f on t h e l e t t e r " g , " Erdman c o n c l u d e s t h a t p l a t e s 4, 7-10, 14-20, 25-27 h a v e a l a t e r s t y l e o f l e t t e r i n g t h a n t h e r e s t o f The M a r r i a g e ( s e e E 7 2 3 ) . B l a k e ' s o v e r t and m e t a p h o r i c r e f e r e n c e s t o h i s e t c h i n g p r o c e s s e s o c c u r on p l a t e s 6-7, 14-20, 25-27 ( p e r h a p s e x c l u d i n g p l a t e 1 6 ) . The i n c i d e n c e o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i s s t r i k i n g and may e v e n s u g g e s t p a r t o f B l a k e ' s r e a s o n f o r r e w r i t i n g t h e s e c t i o n s he d i d . A s s u m i n g t h a t l a t e e t c h i n g means l a t e c o m p o s i t i o n , we c a n e n v i s i o n a v e r t - i o n o f The M a r r i a g e w i t h o n l y l i m i t e d r e f e r e n c e t o B l a k e ' s t e c h n i q u e s o f p r o d u c t i o n e m e r g i n g a r o u n d 1790-91 and b e i n g e x t e n s i v e l y r e w o r k e d ( p e r h a p s a f t e r t h e s t a g e o f r e a l i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e m a n u s c r i p t o f "The T y g e r " c a . 1792) t o i n c l u d e t h e m e t a p h o r s o f i l l u m i n a t e d p r i n t i n g t h a t s o d o m i n a t e t h e p a s s a g e s w h i c h w e r e added l a t e .  109 Notes t o Pages  51-55  p  In f a c t , a l l o f t h e p u b l i s h e d s c h o l a r s h i p w h i c h d i s cusses the metaphors o f i l l u m i n a t e d p r i n t i n g i n B l a k e ' s t e x t h a s b e e n l i m i t e d t o The M a r r i a g e : on pp.410-13 o f E s s a y s f o r F o s t e r Damon, D a v i d Erdman a p p l i e s B l a k e ' s a c t u a l t e c h n i q u e s t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t h i r d "Memorable F a n c y ; " on pp.81-116 o f B l a k e S t u d i e s 4 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , M o r r i s E a v e s o f f e r s a r e a d i n g o f t h e f o u r t h "Memorable F a n c y " a s an a l l e g o r y o f B l a k e ' s p r i n t i n g t e c h n i q u e s as s e e n f r o m t h e d e v i l s ' p e r s p e c t i v e ; and i n " R e a d i n g t h e I l l u m i n a t i o n s o f B l a k e ' s o f Heaven and H e l l " i n W i l l i a m B l a k e : E s s a y s i n h o n o u r o f S i r G e o f f r e y K e y n e s ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1973) , pp.162207 Erdman p r e s e n t s " a r e a d i n g o f t h e e n t i r e M a r r i a g e as a p r i n t e d and i l l u m i n a t e d a c c o u n t o f B l a k e ' s 'method' o f t r a n s - ... m i t t i n g k n o w l e d g e t h r o u g h p r i n t and i l l u m i n a t i o n " (p.163). I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e t h r e e a r t i c l e s , Erdman's a n n o t a t i o n s i n T h e I l l u m i n a t e d B l a k e d i s p l a y an a w a r e n e s s t h a t B l a k e ' s d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f h i s method o f p r i n t i n g e x t e n d s t h r o u g h o u t h i s i l l u m i n a t e d canon. (These n o t e s a r e , h o w e v e r , ' l i m i t e d " - t o t h e designs.) ^The i l l o g i c a l i t y o f B l a k e " d i s c o v e r i n g h i m s e l f " e t c h i n g a c o p p e r p l a t e must s i m p l y be u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e "dream l o g i c " t h a t i n f o r m s t h e e n t i r e M a r r i a g e . ^Erdman, 1  ^See  i  Essays  n  W i l l i a m Blake: Essays  f o r K e y n e s , p. 176.  f o r S. F o s t e r Damon, p p . 4 1 0 - 1 3 .  1 2  Ibid.,  p.412.  1 3  Ibid.,  p.411.  ^ T h e r e i s a s p e c i a l l o g i c i n t h i s u n i o n as d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h t h e s n a k e / p a i n t b r u s h , s i n c e i n t h e common t e c h n i q u e of " s p i t - b i t i n g , " a c i d i s a p p l i e d t o s m a l l p o r t i o n s o f the p l a t e by a p a i n t b r u s h . T h i s image o f t h e v i p e r / p a i n t b r u s h t h a t s p i t s o u t p o i s o n / a c i d i s d e v e l o p e d f u r t h e r i n The Book o f A h a n i a where t h e e t c h i n g p l a t e i s a r o c k p o i s o n e d w i t h t K e b l o o d o r venom o f a s e r p e n t (E 84&85). 15 See t h e m o d u l a t i o n o f t h e O r c / a c i d f i g u r e i n t o e a g l e , l i o n , w h a l e ( p i c t u r e B l a k e ' s s e r p e n t i n e L e v i a t h a n , n o t MobyD i c k ) , and s e r p e n t p r o p e r i n t h e P r e l u d i u m t o A m e r i c a , E 50 f o r a n o t h e r r e n d i t i o n o f t h e same m e t a p h o r c l u s t e r . l fi See A h a n i a , C h . I I : 2-5 (E 8 4 ) . We h a v e a l s o n o t i c e d t h i s p r i n c i p l e dramatized i n the d i f f e r e n t metaphoric lands c a p e s f o r t h e p r i n t i n g p r o c e s s i n U r i z e n C h . I : 6 and C h . I I : 3 (E 70) .  110  Notes t o Pages  56-60  •"•'In a d d i t i o n , we c a n n o t e m passing t h a t t h i s account i s t y p i c a l o f B l a k e ' s h a n d l i n g o f t h e m e t a p h o r s s i n c e Erdman a l s o s e e s B l a k e as p r e s e n t i n g t h e s t e p s o f t h e p r o c e s s o f p r o d u c t i o n i n " s c r a m b l e d s e q u e n c e " and o b s e r v e s t h a t " t h e r e i s a c o n f l a t i o n of processes throughout the account" (Essays f o r S. F o s t e r Damon, p . 4 1 3 ) . 1 8  Eaves  i n Blake  1 9  Ibid.,  p.108.  20 I b i d . ,  p.108.  Studies  4  (1972),  107.  ^ A l t h o u g h I w o u l d d i s a g r e e w i t h some o f h i s m i n u t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , I g e n e r a l l y agree w i t h Eave's e x p l i c a t i o n . Any e r r o r s he makes a r e g e n e r a l l y e r r o r s o f o m m i s i o n , . a s i n h i s f a i l u r e t o n o t e t h e p r i n t i n g i m a g e r y p r e s e n t on p l a t e 18 i n which the r o l l i n g of b l a c k e n i n g c l o u d s i s f o l l o w e d immediately by t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f L e v i a t h a n , i . e . t h e p a i n t i n g o f t h e p l a t e . The o n l y s e r i o u s f l a w o f E a v e s ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s h i s p e r s i s t e n t c o n f u s i o n o f i n t a g l i o and r e l i e f e t c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s , as on p.107 where he w o u l d h a v e B l a k e s m o k i n g a r e l i e f p l a t e , o r i n t h e l a s t s e n t e n c e o f t h e a r t i c l e w h e r e he d e s c r i b e s a l i n e o f t e x t as e t c h e d i n t o t h e p l a t e as i n i n t a g l i o e t c h i n g : " L e v i a t h a n i s t h e g e n i u s o f t h e a c i d i n w h i c h he swims as i t f l o w s a t t h e b o t t o m o f an e t c h e d l i n e , a c a n y o n i n t h e f i e r y l a n d s c a p e o f t h e c o p p e r plate" (p.116). F o r e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n s o f the p a r a l l e l between B l a k e ' s p r o c e s s and a l c h e m y , s e e P a l e y , E n e r g y and t h e I m a g i n a t i o n , pp. 58-59 & 145-46, and M i l t o n O. P e r c i v a l , W i l l i a m B l a k e ' s " C i r c l e o f D e s t i n y , (1938; r p t . New Y o r k : O c t a g o n , 1 9 6 4 ) , pp.197 ff. 2 2  23j. s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t Bloom a s s e r t s t h a t " w r i t i n g s were p r o b a b l y of s m a l l i n t e r e s t t o B l a k e " n  Paracelsus' (E 8 1 2 ) .  2 4 p r c i v a l s e e s t h e f i r e s y m b o l i s m i n B l a k e as " u n d o u b t a l c h e m i c a l " (William Blake's C i r c l e of Destiny, p.214). e  edly  2 5  Ibid.,  p.201.  ^ P a r a c e l s u s , S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s , ed. J o l a n d e J a c o b i , t r a n s . N o r b e r t G u t e r m a n (London: R o u t l e d g e & K e g a n P a u l , 1 9 5 1 ) , pp.217-18 2 7  Ibid.,  p.330.  2 8  Ibid.,  p.328.  2 9  Percival,  William Blake's  Circle  of Destiny,  p.199.  Ill  Notes t o Pages 60-65 3  ^ F o r f i r e as water i n a l c h e m i c a l  symbolism, s e e i b i d . ,  p.213.  3 1 p a l e y , Energy and t h e Imagination, p.59. B l a k e ' s use o f t h e metaphors o f i l l u m i n a t e d p r i n t i n g as v e h i c l e s f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g the A p o c a l y p s e . i s a l s o c a r r i e d o v e r i n t o the designs as a n examination o f p l a t e 14 ( f i g , 4 ) w i l l show. The d e s i g n can be e f f e c t i v e l y read as a p i c t o r i a l r e n d e r i n g o f Blake's most common c o n f l a t i o n : e t c h i n g and painting. The dead and s t o n y - c o l d male f i g u r e i s an easy r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of many of B l a k e ' s v e r b a l images f o r a copperp l a t e ; t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s f i g u r e b e i n g enveloped i n flames i s obvious i n view o f t h e h a n d l i n g o f the metaphors i n the t e x t o f t h i s p l a t e . The female f i g u r e o u t s t r e t c h e d above t h e recumbent f i g u r e would be t h e paper. (For v a r i a t i o n s o f t h i s c e n t r a l v i s u a l r e n d e r i n g of p l a t e and paper, s e e the " r e c u r r i n g images o f a b i l l o w y and very much a l i v e , f e m a l e f i g u r e s t r e t c h e d over a recumbent, dead male f i g u r e t h a t i s f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h metal o r armour, a s i n the t i t l e page o f America.) I n t h e c o n f l a t i o n of t h e p r o c e s s e s , then, t h e consuming flames of a c i d would double as t h e l i v i n g flames of p a i n t t h a t rage across the paper. Blake makes t h e same a n a l o g y w i t h the Apocalypse as i n h i s t e x t i n t h a t , as E s s i c k p o i n t s out i n "The A r t of W i l l i a m B l a k e ' s E a r l y I l l u m i n a t e d Books," D i s s . U. of C a l i f . , San Diego 1969, p.153, t h i s d e s i g n i s e v i d e n t l y intended as an image o f t h e Apocalypse, t h e p i c t o r i a l r e n d e r i n g of t h e l i n e s "For the cherub w i t h h i s f l a m i n g sword i s hereby commanded t o leave h i s guard a t t r e e of l i f e , and when he does, t h e whole c r e a t i o n w i l l be consumed, and appear i n f i n i t e . . . " (MHH 14, E 38), s i n c e when t h e d e s i g n was p r i n t e d s e p a r a t e l y i n A Small Book o f Designs, i t was p r i n t e d w i t h t h e c a p t i o n "a Flaming Sword/ R e v o l v i n g every way" (E 6 6 2 ) , 3 2  I t has g e n e r a l l y been assumed t h a t t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e poem was composed l a s t , and Erdman's d a t i n g o f t h e l e t t e r i n g i d e n t i f i e s i t as a l a t e section. 3 3  34j. B l a k e : Prophet A g a i n s t Empire, 2nd e d . (1954 : r p t . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n Unxv. P r e s s , 1969), p.193, Erdman sees "A Song o f L i b e r t y " as a p r e l i m i n a r y s k e t c h o f America, and i t i s c l e a r t h a t the p o l i t i c a l apocalypse p r e s e n t i n the "Song" f i n d s i t s f u l l e s t e x p r e s s i o n i n America, which was p u b l i s h e d l a t e r i n the same y e a r . S i n c e t h e development of i t s metaphors as w e l l as i t s symbolism tends t o p r e f i g u r e t h a t of America, i t i s h e l p f u l t o keep one eye on the Preludium of t h e l a t e r poem w h i l e r e a d i n g t h i s f i n a l s e c t i o n o f The M a r r i a g e . n  JL Jl 2  Notes to Pages 65-72 3 5  F r y e , Fearful Symmetry, p.201.  *>Hayter, New Ways of Gravure, p. 11.  3  W i l l i a m Blake, America: A Prophecy, introd, G. E. Bentley, J r . , Materials for the Study of William Blake, Volume I (Normal, I l l i n o i s : The American Blake Foundation, 1974), p.4. 37  ^ I would suggest that Blake's other books of large size that underwent posthumous p r i n t i n g s , Europe and Jerusalem, may also display a s i m i l a r l y erased heavy border, although b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l descriptions of s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l are as yet unavailable. The American Blake Foundation's planned facsimile of Europe (which should be published l a t e r this year) may help to resolve the question. 3  39John Jackson, A Treatise on Wood Engraving Charles Knight, 1839), p.139."  (London:  ^Erdman describes the Preludium as "added a f t e r the f i r s t etched state of [America] " i n The Illuminated Blake, p.139. B l a k e i s always very c a r e f u l with the sexual i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s of the elements of his process of production. In the etching process, i t i s most appropriate that the active acid be male (e.g. Ore) and the passive plate female (e.g. the daughter of Urthona), whereas i n the p r i n t i n g process, the plate i s active and male (e.g. Milton) and the paper passive and female (e.g. Ololon). This higher c a l l f o r symbolic consistency often supersedes l i t e r a l consistency and partly explains Blake's habit of s h i f t i n g names and sexual roles of the elements of production at. w i l l ( i . e . the plate may be male or female i n the same poem, or Fuzon may be acid at one time and paper i n a l a t e r stage of production) . Occasionally, Blake w i l l s t i c k with one i d e n t i f i c a t i o n through several stages, as with the male etching and p r i n t i n g plate of Urizen—which accounts f o r some of the hermaphroditic figures i n Blake's poetry. 41  ^ C f . the Dragon-Viper-Eagle-Lion modulation of the acid i n MHH 15, E 39. 2  Edward J . Rose, "Good-bye to Ore and A l l That," Blake Studies, 4 (1972), 144. 43  Notes  t o Pages  73-75  ' i i 4 T h i s t r a n s i t i o n f r o m v i o l e n c e t o j o y and t h e l a u d a t o r y t o n e o f t h e shadowy f e m a l e ' s u t t e r a n c e i n c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e c r e a t i v e p r i n c i p l e t h a t g a v e h e r s p e e c h and e s s e n t i a l l y b r o u g h t h e r t o l i f e s h o u l d be c o m p a r e d t o t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l t o n e o f A h a n i a ' s s p e e c h a t t h e end o f T h e Book o_f A h a n i a w h e r e she as p a i n t e d page c e l e b r a t e s h e r c r e a t o r i n t h e form o f U r i z e n , the p l a t e . 4^The f i e r y embrace o f t h e e t c h i n g p r o c e s s i s p r e s e n t e d g r a p h i c a l l y on A8 and A10., w i t h O r e and U r i z e n c o n f r o n t i n g one a n o t h e r as t h e o p p o s i n g e l e m e n t s o f t h e p r o c e s s o f p r o d u c t i o n : O r e i s t h e a c i d and U r i z e n i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e p l a t e ( p l a t e 8 has a p p r o p r i a t e l y b e e n dubbed " T h e S c o n e o f N i g h t " ) . The m i r r o r e d g e s t u r e s s u r e l y i n v i t e us t o make a c o m p a r i s o n (see J a n e t W a r n e r , " B l a k e ' s Use o f G e s t u r e , " i n B l a k e ' s V i s i o n a r y Forms D r a m a t i c , e d . D a v i d Erdman and J o h n G r a n t • [ P r i n c e t o n ! P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 197 0] , p p . 174-95), and when t h e s e c l e a r l y complementary m i r r o r - i m a g e s are r e - a l l i g n e d , the Stone of N i g h t i s e n g u l f e d i n the f i e r c e flames of the acid bath. 46rrnis metaphoric f u n c t i o n o f the P r e l u d i u m p a r a l l e l s i t s r o l e on o t h e r t h e m a t i c l e v e l s as G e o r g e Quasha p o i n t s o u t i n h i s d i f f i c u l t , t h o u g h v a l u a b l e a r t i c l e " O r e as a F i e r y P a r a d i g m o f P o e t i c T o r s i o n " i n B l a k e ' s V i s i o n a r y Forms D r a m a t i c , p p . 2 6 3-8 4. A l t h o u g h he i s n o t r e a d i n g the metaphors o f i l l u m i n a t e d p r i n t i n g , Quasha s e e s t h e P r e l u d i u m as " a m y t h i c a l r e g r e s s i o n to a time ' e a r l i e r ' than [America p r o p e r ] " ( p . 2 7 0 ) and adds t h a t " t h e P r e l u d i u m a p p e a r s t o p r o d u c e t h e P r o p h e c y , t h e p r i m a l r a p e g e n e r a t i n g . . . t h e s y m b o l i c drama o f apocalypse" (p.276). D e n n i s D o u g l a s , " B l a k e ' s ' E u r o p e ' " A N o t e on t h e P r e l u d i u m , " J o u r n a l o f t h e A u s t r a l i a n U n i v e r s i t i e s L a n g u a g e and L i t e r a t u r e A s s o c i a t i o n , 23 ( 1 9 6 5 ) , 1 1 1 . 4 7  48i a d d i t i o n , we know t h a t B l a k e " t a u g h t M r s . B l a k e t o take off the impressions [from h i s r e l i e f c o p p e r p l a t e s ] w i t h c a r e and d e l i c a c y " ( G i l c h r i s t , L i f e o f W i l l i a m B l a k e , I , 70). n  4 ^ i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t the f i g u r e of the same shadowy f e m a l e r e p r e s e n t s t h e p l a t e i n b o t h poems, s i n c e E u r o p e was e t c h e d on t h e r e v e r s e o f t h e p l a t e s f o r A m e r i c a (see A m e r i c a , M a t e r i a l s f o r t h e S t u d y o f W i l l i a m B l a k e , Volume I , p . 5) .  5°Douglas,  p.114.  114  Notes t o Pages  Chapter  IV:  The  Poetry A f t e r  77-79  Urizen  T h e o t h e r g r e a t p e r i o d c e n t e r s on t h e y e a r 1 8 0 4 i n w h i c h B l a k e b e g a n e t c h i n g b o t h M i l t o n and J e r u s a l e m . A  The e a r l i e s t colour-printed Natural Religion (1788). 2  is  No  i l l u m i n a t e d book i s  There  F o r the d e t a i l s of t h i s development i n B l a k e ' s c o l o u r p r i n t i n g t e c h n i q u e , s e e M a r t i n B u t l i n , "The E v o l u t i o n o f B l a k e ' s L a r g e C o l o u r P r i n t s o f 1 7 9 5 , " i n E s s a y s f o r S. F o s t e r Damon, p p . 1 0 9 - 1 6 . For the range o f B l a k e ' s t e c h n i c a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , see L a u r e n c e B i n y o n , The E n g r a v e d D e s i g n s o f W i l l i a m B l a k e (London: E r n e s t Benn, and New Y o r k : S c r i b n e r ' s , 1 9 2 6 ) . 3  Jr.  ^ W i l l i a m B l a k e , V a l a o r the Four Zoas, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1 9 6 3 ) , p.158.  ed.  G.  E.  Bentley  ^Keynes s u g g e s t s t h a t "The manner o f t h e i r [ i . e . The Book o f A h a n i a and The Book o f L o s ] e x e c u t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t Blake was w e a r y i n g w i t h t h e e f f o r t o f m a k i n g t h e s p l e n d i d b o o k s t h a t p r e c e d e d them, and was s e e k i n g f o r a l e s s l a b o r i o u s method o f p r o d u c t i o n . He a c c o r d i n g l y e x p e r i m e n t e d i n t h e s e two s m a l l e r b o o k s w i t h t e x t s e t c h e d on c o p p e r i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l way and p r i n t e d i n i n t a g l i o p l a t e s " ( G e o f f r e y K e y n e s , e d . , W i l l i a m B l a k e , The Book o f A h a n i a ( P a r i s : T r i a n o n P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 J , p.i). Keynes's c o n j e c t u r e of B l a k e ' s motives here i s a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y wrong; i t i s p r e c i s e l y t h e e a s e o f p r i n t i n g d e s i g n and t e x t f r o m a s i n g l e r e l i e f p l a t e t h a t i s t h e b e a u t y o f B l a k e ' s method f r o m a t e c h n i c a l s t a n d p o i n t . Granted t h a t t h e e t c h i n g o f a r e l i e f p l a t e t a k e s l o n g e r t h a n an i n t a g l i o p l a t e , b u t once the p l a t e s a r e e t c h e d , t h e subsequent p r o d u c t i o n o f any number o f c o p i e s f r o m r e l i e f p l a t e s i s much e a s i e r f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s : t h e p a p e r d o e s n o t h a v e t o be w e t , o r s t r e t c h e d t o d r y ; p o l i s h i n g and i n k i n g o f t h e p l a t e i s much q u i c k e r ; and p r i n t i n g i s p h y s i c a l l y and t e c h n i c a l l y e a s i e r anc more r e l i a b l e . A l s o , s i n c e t h e d e s i g n s on t h e s e i n t a g l i o b o o k s were c o l o u r p r i n t e d s e p a r a t e l y from t h e t e x t , the p r o c e d u r e f o r p r o d u c i n g a s i n g l e page o f d e s i g n and t e x t became q u i t e involved. A c r a f t s m a n o f B l a k e ' s e x p e r i e n c e w o u l d h a v e known t h e s e t h i n g s i n a d v a n c e , and we w o u l d be w i s e t o l o o k f o r r e a sons o t h e r than ease o f p r o d u c t i o n t o e x p l a i n B l a k e ' s e x p e r i mentation. 6  T o d d , W i l l i a m B l a k e : The  Artist,  p.31.  Notes t o Pages  80-87  115  Anthony Gross, E t c h i n g , Engraving, & I n t a g l i o P r i n t i n g ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ) , p.76. See G r o s s pp.73-77 and H a y t e r pp.48-52 f o r t h e d e t a i l s o f l a y i n g and s m o k i n g ground. 7  ^Hayter,  New  Ways o f G r a v u r e ,  ^ F r y e , F e a r f u l Symmetry,  p.51.  p.215.  3-OAS t h e f i e r y f l a m e s l i c k i n g a c r o s s t h e c o p p e r p l a t e , F u z o n i s t h e s u n as w e l l as t h e s o n o f U r i z e n * s s i l e n t b u r n i n g s . The pun i s c l i n c h e d a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e p l a t e w h e r e F u z o n ' s f i e r y beam becomes p h y s i c a l l y one w i t h t h e body o f t h e s u n . This m e t a p h o r i c a l a c c o u n t o f t h e s m o k i n g o f a p l a t e s h o u l d be comp a r e d w i t h t h a t on p l a t e 18 o f The M a r r i a g e d i s c u s s e d by E a v e s i n h i s a r t i c l e i n Blake S t u d i e s 4 (1972) 107. 7  ^ U r i z e n ( t h e c o p p e r p l a t e ) i s an a b s t r a c t e d , shadowy demon and an a b o m i n a b l e v o i d i n C h a p t e r I o f U r i z e n , and i n t h e P r e ludium t o America, the p l a t e i s r e p e a t e d l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h clouds ( t h e r e p o s s i b l y r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e a c i d r e s i s t s i n c e t h e y seem t o p a r t i a l l y thwart Ore's embrace). A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e r e a d i n g o f t h i s passage would see B l a k e a p p l y i n g t h e g r o u n d t o t h e p l a t e b e f o r e i t i s smoked. In t h i s r e a d i n g , the "Globe o f wrath" which F u z o n / B l a k e throws a t the p l a t e / U r i z e n w o u l d be t h e b a l l o f g r o u n d w h i c h l e n g t h e n s i n t o a f i e r y beam as t h e d a b s o f s m o k i n g g r o u n d a r e t h e n s m e a r e 1 across the s u r f a c e of the p l a t e . 1 2  T h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f A h a n i a w i t h t h e poem i t s e l f w h i c h i s embodied i n the c o p p e r p l a t e i s a l s o p r e s e n t i n t h e f r o n t i s p i e c e t o The Book o f A h a n i a w h i c h shows an awakened, e x p r e s s i v e , and a p p a r e n t l y a r t i c u l a t e A h a n i a c o m p l e t e l y e n c l o s e d by t h e h u l k i n g , i n t r o s p e c t i v e , b r u t e form t h a t i s U r i z e n . 1 3  A l t h o u g h t h e i n k i n g d a u b e r o r p r i n t e r ' s b a l l was t h e s t a n d a r d method o f a p p l y i n g i n k i n B l a k e ' s d a y , B l a k e h i m s e l f w o u l d h a v e u s e d t h i s t e c h n i q u e o n l y i n i n k i n g an i n t a g l i o p l a t e , thus the metaphors are a g a i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e b o o k s t h a t embody them. It i s inter e s t i n g that a snake-like or p h a l l i c instrument i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i n k i n g p r o c e s s o n l y i n t h i s i n t a g l i o - p r i n t e d poem. The s e r p e n t c a n a l s o be r e a d as a n o t h e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e s e r p e n t i n e genius of the a c i d , born of the bubbles/eggs o f the e t c h i n g b a t h and a t t a c k i n g t h e p l a t e w i t h i t s p o i s o n , o r a c i d . In t h i s r e s p e c t , t h i s a c c o u n t may a l s o m o d u l a t e i n t o a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the s p i t - b i t i n g technique i n which a s n a k e - l i k e paintbrush s p i t s i t s c o r r o s i v e venom on t h e c o p p e r p l a t e . 1 4  116  Notes t o Pages 88-98 l ^ i f i t i s indeed the p r o d u c t i o n of The Book o f Ahania i t s e l f t h a t i s b e i n g d e s c r i b e d , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t Fuzon's corpse i s hung l i k e a l e a f "On the topmost stem of t h i s Tree" (Ah 4:7, E 86) j u s t as h i s corpse appears at the bottom o f the l a s t p l a t e of the poem. •^In t h i s case, t h i s body would most a p p r o p r i a t e l y be. i d e n t i f i e d , as Ahania's, although even i n the f i n a l c h a p t e r , we are t o l d t h a t "no form/ Had she" (Ah 4:49-50, E 87). T h e v e r y c l o s e a f f i n i t y of t h i s p o r t i o n o f Ahania w i t h the s t o r y of U r i z e n ' s b i n d i n g by Los i n Chapter I V - l b ) o f U r i z e n i s the key t h a t i n d i c a t e s t h a t the p a i n t i n g o f the p l a t e s here i s again t y p i c a l l y c o n f l a t e d w i t h the e t c h i n g p r o c e s s . The "noxious c l o u d s ; [that hover] t h i c k / Over the d i s o r g a n i z ' d Immortal" (Ah 4:18-19, E 86) r e p r e s e n t the v a r i o u s l i t e r a l l y noxious gases t h a t are produced as a by-product of the e t c h i n g p r o c e s s , depending on the type of a c i d used. (Etching should always be done near an open window o r w i t h a fume e x t r a c t o r . ) Robert W i l s o n , a p r o f e s s i o n a l e t c h e r , engraver, and p r i n t maker, t e l l s me t h a t when e t c h i n g copper w i t h f e r r i c c h l o r i d e , a dark y e l l o w i s h c h l o r i n e gas t h a t i s h e a v i e r than a i r w i l l c o l l e c t over the s u r f a c e of the e t c h i n g bath and s p i l l onto the f l o o r : another i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f o r "The c l o u d s o f d i s e a s e [that] hover'd wide/ Around the Immortal i n torment" (Ah 4:22-23, E 86)? 1 7  M o r t o n P a l e y , "Method and Meaning i n Blake's Book o f Ahania," B u l l e t i n o f the New York P u b l i c L i b r a r y , 70 (1966), 18  P a l e y , Energy and the Imagination,  1 9  27.  p.81.  ^^There i s , o f course, no t e c h n i c a l impediment i n p r o d u c i n g designs i n an i n t a g l i o p l a t e , as proved by some of Blake's o t h e r i n t a g l i o work such as The Gates o f P a r a d i s e . T h e t i t l e page o f The Book of Los, which shows Los bound i n by the r o c k / i n t a g l i o c o p p e r p l a t e , s h o u l d be compared t o U r i z e n p l a t e 10 which shows Los e n e r g e t i c a l l y b r e a k i n g h i s way through the "rock" of the r e l i e f p l a t e . 2 1  22  Stevenson,  D i v i n e Analogy, p.148.  E d w a r d J . Rose, "Blake's M i l t o n : The Poet as Poem," B l a k e S t u d i e s 1 (1968), 16-38. 23  O A  Joseph A. W i t t r e i c h , J r . , Angel o f Apocalypse U. of Wisconsin P r e s s , 1975), p.20. 2  ^ P a l e y , Energy and the I m a g i n a t i o n , p.154.  (Madison:  117  Note  t o Page  100  ^ E r d m a n s u r e l y confuses the s e x u a l symbolism o f the poem i n h i s commentary on p l a t e 2 (The I l l u m i n a t e d B l a k e , p. 218) i n w h i c h he i d e n t i f i e s t h e f e m a l e e m b r a c i n g t h e g r a p e s on t h e r i g h t as t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f e m a l e g r a p e s / w i n e , and t h e m a l e e m b r a c i n g t h e wheat on t h e l e f t as t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e male w h e a t / b r e a d . I would s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s p l a t e , t o o , d r a m a t i z e s t h e H a r v e s t & V i n t a g e theme and e a c h f i g u r e i s in fact embracing i t s o p p o s i t e . The t r u e s e x u a l i d e n t i t y o f t h e s e emblems i s g l e a n e d f r o m t h e s m a l l s h a f t o f wheat t h a t s p r i n g s f r o m t h e f e m a l e ' s t h i g h and t h e s m a l l v i n e t e n d r i l t h a t c i r c l e s towards the male's t h i g h .  118 A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  Primary  Sources  Blake, W i l l i a m . America: A Prophecy. I n t r o d . G. E . B e n t l e y , J r . M a t e r i a l s f o r the Study of W i l l i a m B l a k e , V o l . 1 . N o r m a l , 111.: A m e r i c a n B l a k e F o u n d a t i o n , 1974. . Complete W r i t i n g s . Ed. G e o f f r e y Keynes. r e v . O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1972. _______  The N.Y.:  I l l u m i n a t e d B l a k e . Ed. Anchor, 1974.  4th  printing  D a v i d Erdman. G a r d e n  City,  . The M a r r i a g e o f Heaven and H e l l (Copy H ) . I n t r o d . G e o f f r e y K e y n e s . L o n d o n & New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s (in association with the Trianon Press), 1975. •  The P o e t r y and P r o s e o f W i l l i a m B l a k e . E d . D a v i d Erdman. 4 t h p r i n t i n g r e v . G a r d e n City., N.Y. : D o u b l e d a y , 1970. . Songs o f I n n o c e n c e and o f E x p e r i e n c e (Copy z ) . New Orion ( i n a s s o c i a t i o n with the T r i a n o n P r e s s ) , 1967. . V a l a on t h e F o u r Z o a s . C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1963.  ________  G.  E. B e n t l e y , J r . Oxford:  F a c s i m i l e s o f t h e i l l u m i n a t e d b o o k s , e d i t e d w i t h comm e n t a r i e s by G e o f f r e y K e y n e s , P a r i s : T r i a n o n , as f o l l o w s : The Book o f U r i z e n (Copy G ) , 19 58. The M a r r i a g e o f H e a v e n and H e l l (Copy D ) , 1960. A m e r i c a (Copy M ) , 19 63. M i l t o n (Copy D), 196 7. The Book o f A h a n i a , 1973.  Secondary 1.  Ed.  York:  Sources  Books  Bentley,  G.  E. J r . B l a k e  Records.  Oxford:  Clarendon  Press,  B i n y o n , L a u r e n c e . The E n g r a v e d D e s i g n s o f W i l l i a m B l a k e . E r n e s t Benn, and New Y o r k : S c r i b n e r ' s , 1926. E p p i n k , Norman. 101 P r i n t s : The H i s t o r y and T e c h n i q u e s m a k i n g . Norman: U. o f Oklahoma P r e s s , 19 71.  of  1969.  London: Print-  119 Erdman, D a v i d V. B l a k e : P r o p h e t A g a i n s t E m p i r e . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , " 19 69.  Rev.  , and J o h n E . G r a n t , e d s . B l a k e ' s V i s i o n a r y Dramatic. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n Univ. P r e s s ,  ed.  Forms 1970.  E s s i c k , R o b e r t N. "The A r t o f W i l l i a m B l a k e ' s E a r l y I l l u m i n a t e d B o o k s . " D i s s . U n i v . o f C a l i f . , San D i e g o , 1969. . e d . The V i s i o n a r y Hand: E s s a y s f o r t h e S t u d y o f W i l l i a m B l a k e ' s A r t and A e s t h e t i c s . L o s A n g e l e s : Hennessey & I n g a l l s , 1973. F r y e , N o r t h r o p . F e a r f u l Symmetry. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 19 47. . Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m . P r e s s , 19 57.  P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n Univ.  G i l c h r i s t , Alexander. L i f e of W i l l i a m Blake. r p t . New Y o r k : P h a e t o n , 1969.  2 vols.  Gross, Anthony. E t c h i n g , E n g r a v i n g , & I n t a g l i o L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1970. H a y t e r , S. W. New Ways o f G r a v u r e . U n i v . P r e s s , 1966.  19 49;  I v i n s , W i l l i a m M. J r . P r i n t s and V i s u a l R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 19 53.  1880;  Printing.  r p t . . London:  Oxford  Communication.  London:  J a c k s o n , J o h n . A T r e a t i s e on Wood E n g r a v i n g , H i s t o r i c a l P r a c t i c a l . L o n d o n : C h a r l e s K n i g h t , 1839.  and  K e y n e s , G e o f f r e y . B l a k e S t u d i e s : E s s a y s on H i s L i f e 1949; r p t . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1971.  Work.  and  . A S t u d y o f t h e I l l u m i n a t e d Books o f W i l l i a m B l a k e , P o e t , P r i n t e r , P r o p h e t . L o n d o n : Methuen ( i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the T r i a n o n P r e s s ) , 1965. , and E d w i n W o l f 2nd, comps. W i l l i a m B l a k e s I l l u m i n a t e d B o o k s : A C e n s u s . 1953; r p t . New Y o r k : K r a u s R e p r i n t , 1969. 1  L i s t e r , Raymond. I n f e r n a l M e t h o d s : A S t u d y o f W i l l i a m B l a k e ' s A r t T e c h n i q u e s . L o n d o n : G. " B e l l , 197 5. P a l e y , M o r t o n . E n e r g y and t h e I m a g i n a t i o n : A S t u d y o f t h e Development o f B l a k e ' s Thought. O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 . -  120  , and M i c h a e l P h i l l i p s , e d s . W i l l i a m B l a k e ; E s s a y s i n honour o f S i r G e o f f r e y Keynes. O x f o r d : Clarendon P r e s s , 1973. Paracelsus. Selected Writings. Ed. Jolande Jacobi, trans. N o r b e r t Guterman. L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e & K e g a n P a u l , 19 51. P e r c i v a l , M i l t o n 0. W i l l i a m B l a k e ' s C i r c l e r p t . New Y o r k : O c t a g o n , 1964.  o f D e s t i n y . 1938;  R o s e n f e l d , A l v i n , e d . W i l l i a m B l a k e : E s s a y s f o r S. F o s t e r Damon. P r o v i d e n c e : Brown U n i v . P r e s s , 19 69. Stevenson, Warren. D i v i n e A n a l o g y : A Study o f t h e C r e a t i o n M o t i f i n B l a k e and C o l e r i d g e . S a l s b u r g S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , R o m a n t i c R e a s s e s s m e n t , No.25. S a l s b u r g , A u s t r i a : I n s t i t u t F u r E n g l i s c h e S p r o c h e und L i t e r a t u r , U n i v e r s i t a t S a l s b u r g , 197 2. Todd, R u t h v e n . W i l l i a m B l a k e : , T h e A r t i s t . V i s t a , and New Y o r k : D u t t o n , 1971. Weathers, Winston,  e d . The T y g e r .  London: S t u d i o  Columbus, O h i o :  M e r r i l l , 1969.  W i t t r e i c h , J o s e p h A., J r . A n g e l o f A p o c a l y p s e : B l a k e ' s M i l t o n . M a d i s o n : U. o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 19 75. 2.  Idea o f  Articles  D o u g l a s , D e n n i s . " B l a k e ' s ' E u r o p e ' : A N o t e on T h e P r e l u d i u m . " J o u r n a l o f t h e A u s t r a l i a n U n i v e r s i t i e s L a n g u a g e and L i t e r a t u r e A s s o c i a t i o n , 23 (1965), 111-16. Eaves,  M o r r i s . "A R e a d i n g o f B l a k e ' s M a r r i a g e o f H e a v e n a n d H e l l , P l a t e s 17-20." B l a k e S t u d i e s , 4 (1972), 81-116.  Erdman, D a v i d . "The S u p p r e s s e d a n d A l t e r e d P a s s a g e s i n B l a k e ' s J e r u s a l e m . " S t u d i e s i n B i b l i o g r a p h y , 17 (1964), 1-54. E s s i c k , R o b e r t . " J e r u s a l e m 25: Some T h o u g h t s on B l a k e N e w s l e t t e r , 27 (1973-74), 64-66.  Technique."  P a l e y , M o r t o n . "Method and M e a n i n g i n B l a k e ' s Book o f A h a n i a . " B u l l e t i n o f t h e New Y o r k P u b l i c L i b r a r y ,~70~(T9~6 6) , 27-33. Rose, Edward J . " B l a k e ' s M i l t o n : The P o e t  1  (1968),  16-38.  . "Good-bye t o O r e and A l l T h a t . "  135-51.  a s Poem." B l a k e S t u d i e s ,  B l a k e S t u d i e s , 4 (1972),  121  Toomey, Deirdre. "The States of Plate 25 of Jerusalem. Blake Newsletter, 22 (1972), 46-48. Wright, John. "Toward Recovering Blake's Relief-Etching Process. Blake Newsletter, 26 (1973), 32-39.  

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