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Land-use capabilities for recreation at hydro-electric reservoirs in British Columbia : a case study Griggs, Robert Mark 1976

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LAND-USE CAPABILITIES FOR RECREATION AT HYDRO-ELECTRIC RESERVOIRS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA (A CASE STUDY) by ROBERT MARK GRIGGS B.A., Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the School of Community and Regional Planning We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February, 1976 0 Robert Mark Griggs, 1976 In p resen t ing t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at The Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s ha l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r re ference and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree that permiss ion fo r ex tens i ve copy ing of t h i s t he s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s en t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copy ing or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t he s i s fo r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a 1 lowed "without my w r i t t e n pe rm i s s i on . Department o f Community and Regional P lann ing The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P lace Vancouver, B.C. , Canada V6T 1W5 Robert Mark Griggs i ABSTRACT This thesis develops an approach to integrated resources manage-ment for h y d r o - e l e c t r i c energy development and an a p p l i c a t i o n of the method to an es tab l i shed s ing le purpose p ro jec t . T r a d i t i o n a l l y hydro-e l e c t r i c projects in B r i t i s h Columbia have been or ienta ted towards the s ing le purpose of energy generat ion. Yet as demands for water-based recreat ion r i s e , h y d r o - e l e c t r i c reservo i r s become increas ing ly valuable for other uses, as has been demonstrated by mult i -purpose projects in the United States. Thus, improved planning and management of reservo i rs is necessary to achieve an increased level of resource use and env i ron-mental q u a l i t y . It is suggested in th i s thes is that an ana lys i s of land-use c a p a b i l i t i e s (biogeophysical) is a log ica l i n i t i a l phase in determining the l im i t a t i on s for recreat iona l use at r e se rvo i r s . It is fur ther postu lated that the use of a methodology which integrates land-use c a p a b i l i t i e s of the reservo i r ecosystem with recreat ion-user re -quirements for se lected recreat iona l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l minimize the i r environmental impact. Such a framework is based on the eco log i ca l p r i n c i p l e that a l l land has the inherent capac i ty to generate d i f f e ren t levels of b i o l o g i c a l production under various combinations of c ircum-stances. Furthermore, based on these combinations of circumstances, the land and water may be c l a s s i f i e d into d i s t i n c t landtypes for recreat iona l use. Such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was developed and app l ied in a case study to Hayward Lake (a Run-of- the-River Reservoir) located near the coast of i i southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia. The r e su l t s demonstrated c l e a r l y that the f i v e landtypes (probably genera 1 i zab le to o ther r e s e r vo i r s ) were i d e n t i f i a b l e , and that w i t h i n these d i v i s i o n s , va ry i ng degrees of c a p a b i l i t y fo r r e c rea t i on e x i s t e d . Wi th in the Reservo i r ecosystem, f i v e land-based and water-based landtypes are d i s t i n g u i s h e d . These are the d i v i s i o n o f the water sur face i n t o : 1) the Open Water Zone, and 2) the L i t t o r a l Zone, and the d i v i s i o n of the land i n to )) the Beach Zone, 2) the Foreshore Zone (of ten preceded by a Subforeshore Zone), and 3) the Upland Zone. These zones may be f u r the r c l a s s i f i e d for s e l e c t ed r e c r ea t i ona l a c t i v i t i e s on the bas i s of va r i ous biogeophysica1 a t t r i b u t e va lues : e . g . , s o i l t e x t u r e s , s l ope , water temperature, sur face c u r r en t s , exposure to sun and wind, e t c . The p r e l im i na r y a na l y s i s a l s o i nd i ca ted that f i v e a d d i t i o n a l components fo r i n teg ra ted r e s e r v o i r management were necessary , namely: sed imentat ion c o n t r o l , r e s e r vo i r c l ea rance , regu la ted water f l ows , on-water zon ing , and proper des ign s tandards . These were d i s cussed b r i e f l y in the conc lud ing chap te r . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , i t i s suggested that the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n framework should be expanded to assess not on l y the r e c rea t i on c a p a b i l i t i e s of the r e s e r v o i r (which forms one component of i n teg ra ted management) but a l s o the t o t a l uses of the water resource (based on c a p a b i l i t y , s u i t a b i l i t y , and f e a s i b i l i t y ) f o r the maximum benefi t of s o c i e t y . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION 1 Statement of Intent 1 Thes is Out l ine 3 Def in i t i on of Terms k CHAPTER ONE THE IMPORTANCE OF INTEGRATED RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT . . 8 Integrated Resources Management: The General Concept 8 Reservoir Management: From Single Purpose to Integrated Use 11 The S i gn i f i cance of Recreation in Integrated Reservoir Management 15 Potent ia l Con f l i c t s of Integrated Reservoir Management 17 TWO THE RESERVOIR ECOSYSTEM: ITS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES . . . 21 Development of the Man-made Ecosystem 21 An Examination of the River Basin Hydrograph and Importance to Reservoir Management 2k Four Stages in the L i f e History of Man-made Reservoirs 29 Reservoir Classes in B.C.: Their Phys ical Propert ies 33 THREE A METHODOLOGY AND FRAMEWORK FOR IDENTIFYING RECREATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AND CAPABILITIES OF RESERVOIRS • . hi The Ecolog ica l Basis for Land-use Planning . . . . kl The Importance of So i l s as a Factor in Land-use Capabi1i ty Techniques of Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n The Purpose of the Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Technique . The Reservoir C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Framework Step One. I den t i f i c a t i on of the Reservoir Si te Region Step Two. I den t i f i c a t i on of Landtypes within the Reservoir S i te Region Step Three. Establishment of Recreation Management Units (R.M.U.) Step Four. I den t i f i c a t i on of Land-use C a p a b i l i t i e s for Recreation A c t i v i t i e s . . Degree of L imitat ions for Recreational Use . . . . L imi tat ions of the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Framework . . . RECREATIONAL LAND-USE CAPABILITIES OF THE HAYWARD LAKE RESERVOIR SITE REGION Physical Cha rac te r i s t i c s of the Reservoir S i te Region D e f i n i t i o n of the S i te Region Geography and Hydrology Climate and Vegetation F ish and W i I d l i f e Ex i s t i ng Land Use and Access The Rusk in Power Development Landtypes at Hayward Reservoir: The Mapping Procedure Water-based Landtypes V CHAPTER Page Land-based Landtypes 95 Method f o r E s t a b l i s h i n g the Subforeshore, Foreshore and Upland Zones 100 D i scuss ion of C a p a b i l i t y Rat ings 102 Water-based Landtypes 103 Land Management P o l i c y Recommendation f o r the Open Water Zone . : 106 Land Management P o l i c y Recommendation f o r the L i t t o r a l Zone 109 Land-based Landtypes 109 Land Management P o l i c y Recommendation fo r the Beach Zone 110 Land Management P o l i c y Recommendation fo r the Subforeshore Zone 113 Land Management P o l i c y Recommendation f o r the Foreshore Zone 116 Land Management P o l i c y Recommendation fo r the Upland Zone 119 Summary 119 FIVE MANAGEMENT CONDITIONS FOR INTEGRATED RESERVOIR USE . . 120 Reservo i r C learance 121 Sedimentat ion Contro l 124 Regulated Flows fo r Optimal Water Resources A l l o c a t i o n 128 Water -sur face Zoning and A c t i v i t y Segregat ion . . 130 The Implementation of Reservo i r Zoning 133 Design Standards 13** Summary and Conc lus ions 135 Page BIBLIOGRAPHY 139 APPENDICES 1 The Components of the Basin Hydrolog ica l Cycle . . . . \k6 2 Ground Drainage Classes 1^ 7 3 Classes of Stoniness 148 vi i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 The Flood Hydrograph 28 2 Recreational A c t i v i t i e s at the Reservoir S i te Region . 57 3 C r i t e r i a Considered in Rating Capab i l i t y for the Open Water Zone ~. 68 A C r i t e r i a Considered in Rating Capab i l i t y for the Li t to ra l Zone 69 5 C r i t e r i a Considered in Rating Capab i l i t y for the Beach Zone 70 6 C r i t e r i a Considered in Rating Capab i l i t y for the Camp Areas ( Intensive Use) 71 7 C r i t e r i a Considered in Rating Capab i l i t y for the P i cn i c Areas 72 8 C r i t e r i a Considered in Rating Capab i l i t y for the Paths and Trai Is 73 9 The Degree of Environmental Mod i f i ca t ion Required for D i f fe rent Recreation Experiences (U.S. Forest Serv ice , 1973) 136-7 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES F igure Page 1 Synthes i s o f Annual Demand Curve from the Est imated Requirements of the Var ious Uses f o r an In teg ra ted -Use Reservoi r 18 2 Model f o r Mu l t i p l e - pu rpose Integrated R iver Bas in Development 19 3 The Three Major Zones o f a Lake (Odum, 1971) 23 k Schematic Diagram of the Hyd ro log i c Cyc le . 2k 5 B lock Diagram of the R iver Bas in 27 6 Components of a Hydrograph 29 7 The Rese rvo i r S i t e Region 50 8 Landtypes of the Rese rvo i r S i t e Region 52 9 Zonat ions Wi th in the L i t t o r a l Region 5k 10 The Sub-foreshore Zone 55 11 Da i l y Demand Curve of an E l e c t r i c a l U t i l i t y w i th Mixed Generat ion A v a i l a b l e 64 12 Rec rea t ion C a p a b i l i t i e s : The Foreshore Zone 75 13 Run-of f C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t o Stave Lake 83 ]k Reservo i r Leve ls at Hayward Lake ( da i l y ) 93 15 The Foreshore Zone 101 16 Schematic Drawing o f the Sediment Accumulat ion in a Typ i ca l Reservo i r 125 17 Sedimentat ion Cond i t i ons 126 18 The Components of the Bas in Hyd ro l og i ca l Cyc le . . . . 146 i x LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS Photograph Page 1 N.E. Area of S i t e Region. Note steep Subfore-shore and Upland Zones 81 2 N.W. Area of S i te Region character ized by steep Subforeshore. Foreshore not shown in photo . . . . 81 3 Mature Coni fers among Deciduous Forest Cover, S..W. Shore 85 k Pr ivate access road along west shore l ine . Note reservo i r at l e f t of photo 87 5 & 6 Then and Now 91 7 & 8 Contrasts 92 9 & 10 Typica l examples of small boulders and stone accumulations along the reservo i r shore l ine . . . . 96 11 A typ ica l p r o f i l e of the Subforeshore Zone, N.W. area of S i t e Region 98 12 S 13 Examples of the. Beach Zone along the N.W. Shore l ine. Re s t r i c t i n g factors are width and exposure. Note Wet Beach area 107 \h Wet Beach, bordered by grass covered a l luv ium sands to l e f t of photo 107 15 Potent ia l Class 1 Beach, present ly covered by scrubs and grasses 107 1 6 The Subforeshore, Foreshore (hidden from view), and Upland Zones 116 X LIST OF MAPS Map Page 1 Loca t i on of the Study Area 78 2 Hayward Lake S i t e Region 80 3 E x i s t i n g Zoning 88 k E x i s t i n g Land Use 89 5 Open Water, L i t t o r a l and Beach Zones 97 6 ' Subforeshore, Foreshore and Upland Zones 99 7 Recreat ion C a p a b i l i t i e s : Open Water, Beach and L i t t o r a l Zones 104 8 Recreat ion C a p a b i l i t i e s : Subforeshore Zone . . . . . 112 9 Rec rea t ion C a p a b i l i t i e s : Foreshore Zone 115 10 Rec rea t ion C a p a b i l i t i e s : Upland Zone 118 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would l i ke to express his s incere apprec ia t ion to Professors W. E. Rees and I. K. Fox for the i r many comments and suggestions throughout this thes i s . The i r patience and const ruct ive c r i t i c i s m s added great ly to the f i n i shed qua l i t y of the work. Acknowledgement must a l so be given to the former executive d i rec to r of B.C. Hydro and Power Author i ty , Mr. J . Wilson who provided f i n a n c i a l ass i s tance for the study through the Land D i v i s i on . Grate-fu l apprec iat ion is expressed to Mr. E. S. C o l l i n s , manager, and Mr. G. Schnarr (Land D i v i s i on , B. C. Hydro and Power Author i ty) for the i r support and cooperat ion. F i n a l l y , to Mr. P. T a t t e r s a l , Superintendent of Ruskin Power Development (B. C. Hydro and Power Authority) for his valuable time and ass i s tance in the prov i s ion of much of the hydro log ica l data. LAND-USE CAPABILITIES FOR RECREATION AT HYDRO-ELECTRIC RESERVOIRS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA (A CASE STUDY) INTRODUCTION The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s i s to develop a framework tha t i d e n t i f i e s the r e c rea t i on c a p a b i l i t i e s of h y d r o - e l e c t r i c r e s e r v o i r s and t h e i r ad jacent s h o r e l i n e s . I t i s based on the premise that l a nd -use c a p a b i l i t y is a fundamental s t a r t i n g po in t in e s t a b l i s h i n g fu tu re r e c r e a t i o na l land management op t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , the r e c r e a t i o na l demands on the l i m i t e d resource base of the prov ince are i nc reas ing a t a r a t e f a s t e r than the p r o v i s i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s . These demands, wh i l e not d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g the r e c r ea t i on c a p a b i l i t y framework de-veloped in t h i s t h e s i s , nonethe less increase the re levance of the work. STATEMENT OF INTENT The i n t e r e s t in t h i s sub jec t was generated by the r e cogn i t i on that h y d r o - e l e c t r i c r e s e r vo i r s in B r i t i s h Columbia are p r i m a r i l y o r i e n t ed toward a s i n g l e purpose, wh i l e o ther p o t e n t i a l l y va luab le uses of the same resource base have gone undeveloped by the managing agenc ies i n vo l ved . This prompted an i n v e s t i g a t i o n in to the ques t i on : cou ld an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n framework be developed that would i d e n t i f y the land-use c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a t h y d r o - e l e c t r i c r e s e r v o i r s ? It i s the purpose of t h i s t he s i s to develop such a methodology that i d e n t i f i e s 1 2 land-use c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n , based on se l e c ted b iogeophys i ca l a t t r i b u t e l i m i t a t i o n s , and to i l l u s t r a t e the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the technique in a case s tudy . . . . i f the demand for water f o r r e c r e a t i o na l purposes cont inues to r i s e to the end of the century at the same ra te as in the l a s t f i f t e e n yea rs , r e s e r v o i r s w i l l gather i nc reas ing importance as a d d i t i o n a l r e c r ea t i ona l resources (Boan, 1969). Th is not too s u r p r i s i n g f a c t has a l ready been recognized in the Un i ted S t a t e s . Rec rea t ion i s incorpora ted i n t o the o v e r a l l use of many water impoundments (Reservo i r s o f the T . V . A . , Bureau of Reclama-t i o n , and U.S. Army Corps of Eng inee r s ) , and has proved to be both s o c i a l l y and economica l l y f e a s i b l e . The p r o v i s i o n of r e c r ea t i ona l f a c i l i t i e s as one component of i n teg ra ted use i n the Un i ted S ta tes has a r i s e n out of p u b l i c demand and an i n c r ea s i ng awareness that such oppo r t un i t i e s e x i s t . The cha l l enge of the federa l bureaus invo lved has been to meet these r i s i n g demands, and at the same t ime, to ma in ta in a des i r ed l eve l of r e c r e a t i o na l q u a l i t y . Whi le open space standards have been e s t ab l i s h ed and serve as gu i d e l i n e s f o r r e c r e a t i o na l d e n s i t i e s and s p a t i a l l ayouts of the f a c i l i t i e s , few methods have been developed that determine the i n i t i a l inherent c a p a b i l i t i e s o f the land for s u s t a i n i ng c e r t a i n types of r e c r e a t i o n . For t h i s reason, i t is f e l t that such an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n framework i s necessary . Two a d d i t i o n a l reasons support c a p a b i l i t y a na l y s i s as a method fo r e s t a b l i s h i n g f u tu r e r e c r e a t i o na l o ppo r t u n i t i e s at r e s e r v o i r s . F i r s t l y , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f land accord ing to land c a p a b i l i t y i s the 3 l og i ca l i n i t i a l phase in determining maximum resource-use of the land (see H i l l s , 1961), and a l so tends to minimize the adverse env i ron -mental impacts. Secondly, an approach that incorporates land capa-b i l i t y with soc ia l and economic r e a l i t i e s as governing factors in opt imiz ing land use implies a sustained y i e l d plus maximum soc ia l benef i t s from the land and associated resources. THESIS OUTLINE Chapter One of th i s thes is examines the concept of Integrated Resources Management. It proposes that to increase the net soc i a l benef i t s of man-made water impoundments, the use of reservo i r s be expanded to a more integrated use of the same water resource. The second chapter is introduced by a d i scuss ion of the man-made reservo i r as an ecosystem. The b i o l o g i c a l impact of the four stages in developing a hydro project is discussed in add i t ion to a review of the various types of hydro reservo i r s in the prov ince. A b r i e f d i scuss ion of the operat iona l requirements of hydro projects and the i r po tent ia l for recreat iona l use is a l so g iven. In Chapter Three, the land-use c a p a b i l i t y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n frame-work is developed. Four stages are es tab l i shed in i den t i f y i ng land-use c a p a b i l i t i e s for se lected recreat iona l oppor tun i t i e s . The land assessment procedure involves i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and desc r ip t i on on a biogeophysical basis of various units of land and water, and an assess-ment of the i r land-use c a p a b i l i t y (based on a t t r i b u t e values) for se lected recreat iona l uses. In Chapter Four, a case study i s presented that t e s t s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n framework. The r e s e r vo i r examined in l i g h t of i t s land-use c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r r e c r ea t i on i s Hayward Lake, loca ted in the A l oue t t e , Stave F a l l s , Ruskin Generat ing Complex, B r i t i s h Columbia. The f i n a l chapter examines b r i e f l y f i v e r e s e r v o i r management cond i t i on s fo r i n tegra ted resource use. DEFINITION OF TERMS Throughout t h i s t h e s i s , a number of recu r ren t terms are used fo r which there is no commonly accepted d e f i n i t i o n . For the purpose of un i f o rm i t y in t h i s paper, these terms have been de f i ned as f o l l ows 1. Rec rea t i on . Recreat ion i s a form of a c t i v i t y in which i n d i v i d u a l s v o l u n t a r i l y engage in dur ing l e i s u r e time ( C . L . I . Report No. 6, 1962). 2. Rec rea t i ona l A c t i v i t y . The a c t i v i t i e s recogn ized in t h i s study that p e r t a i n to man-made r e s e r vo i r s are grouped in to "wate r -based" and " l and-based" a c t i v i t i e s . Water-based Land-based Boat ing Sunbathing - s a i l i n g Gather ing and c o l l e c t i n g - rowing/ Unorganized games padd l i ng H i k i ng - motor ing P i c n i c k i n g Water S k i i n g Organized camping 5 Water-based (cont 'd) Land-based (cont 'd ) Fi sh ing W i l d l i f e v iewing Swimming Scen ic v iewing Wadi ng Nature study 3. Rec rea t iona l Ca r ry ing Capac i ty is the l eve l o f r e c r e a t i o na l use in man/days per year that can be supported over a s p e c i f i e d a rea , wi thout caus ing excess i ve damage to e i t h e r the phys i c a l environment or to the o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n o f the r e s e r vo i r v i s i t o r . h. Land-use C a p a b i l i t y . The term land c a p a b i l i t y r e f e r s to the bas i c e c o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e that land has the inherent capacity to produce l i v i n g organisms of va r i ous k inds under va r i ous combinat ions of c i rcumstances ( H i l l s , 1961) wi thout i n t e r ven t i on on the landscape by man. Th is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a s soc i a t ed w i th land is r e f e r r ed to as i t s " b i o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y " and forms the bas i s f o r e c o l o g i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e land-use p l ann i ng . In t h i s t h e s i s , land-use c a p a b i l i t y con-s i de r s the i n t e r a c t i o n of the phys i ca l and b i o l o g i c a l components o f the land in determin ing resource a l l o c a t i o n s and op t im i z a t i o n (see d i s c u s s i o n of " o p t i m i z a t i o n , " p. 9 ) ' 5. Recreat ion C a p a b i l i t y . Fo l l ow ing from the d e f i n i t i o n of land c a p a b i l i t y , r e c r ea t i on c a p a b i l i t y imp l ies that the va r ious com-b ina t i ons of the b i o l o g i c a l and phys i ca l community i n t e r a c t to produce d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e land c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , some being more su i t ed to su s t a i n r e c r ea t i ona l a c t i v i t i e s than o t h e r s . In t h i s t h e s i s , land-use capa-b i l i t y fo r r e c r ea t i on r e f e r s to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the land to 6 susta in various se lected recreat iona l a c t i v i t i e s on the basis of biogeophysica1 a t t r i bu te values (see d i scus s ion , p. 59). 6. Reservoir , and Reservoir S i te Region. The term reservo i r re fers to a man-made water impoundment. Reservoir in the text of th is paper, unless otherwise spec i f i ed app l ies only to those reservo i r s created for the generation of h y d r o - e l e c t r i c i t y . The term reservo i r when deal ing with i t s recreat iona l use app l ies to the to ta l surface area of the impoundment. The term Reservoir S i te Region includes the surface area of the reservo i r and that land away from the water 's edge to e i t h e r (1) the surrounding height of land or (2) one mile from the re se rvo i r . 7- Integrated Resources Management, " . . . is the a p p l i c a t i o n of management s t ra teg ies to achieve maximum output from the optimized use of natural resources of a s p e c i f i c area for the benef i t of a r e f e r -ent group and i t s successors . " ( Je f f rey et a l . , 1969). This type of management ob jec t i ve would suggest that the t r a d i t i o n a l approach of s ing le purpose resource development be replaced by a more s o c i a l l y des i rab le set of management a l t e r n a t i v e s ; a l t e rna t i ve s that maximize the j o i n t u t i l i z a t i o n of a l l resources. 8. Integrated Reservoir Management, is the a p p l i c a t i o n of Integrated Resources Management to a p a r t i c u l a r resource: the hydro-e l e c t r i c r e s e r v o i r . Integrated Reservoir Management implies that reser -vo i r s can serve more than one purpose, provided that proper management ob jec t i ves are def ined. This study examines one component of integrated reservo i r use, namely i t s recreat iona l c a p a b i l i t y . A project designed 7 for one purpose but which produces inc identa l benef i t s for other pur-poses should not, however, be considered as an integrated-purpose r e s e r v o i r . Only those p ro jec t s which are designed and operated to serve two or more purposes should be descr ibed as mu l t ip le -use ( i n t e -grated-use) reservo i r s ( H i l l , 19^9)• 9- Reservoir Operations Requirements. Hydro -e lec t r i c p lants require c e r t a i n condi t ions for the i r normal operat ion: drawdown of the reservo i r poo l , r i ght s of way for transmission l i n e s , the a c q u i s i -t ion of land for the generating p lant and re lated f a c i l i t i e s , road access , the c learance of f l o a t i n g and subsurface debr i s , e t c . These condi t ions are re ferred to c o l l e c t i v e l y as the reservo i r operat ions requirements. CHAPTER ONE THE IMPORTANCE OF INTEGRATED RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT INTEGRATED RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: THE GENERAL CONCEPT In the report of the Sub-committee on mu l t i p l e - u se ( J e f f r e y , e t a l . , 1969), In tegrated Resource Management i s de f i ned as: . . . the a p p l i c a t i o n of management s t r a t e g i e s to ach ieve maximum output from the opt im ized use of na tu ra l resources of a s p e c i f i c area fo r the bene f i t of a r e f e ren t group and i t s successo r s . In l i g h t o f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , i t i s suggested tha t implementat ion of such a management s t r a tegy would i nvo l ve four phases: (a) De f i n i ng the geographic area intended to bene f i t from in teg ra ted resources management. (b) De f in ing management o b j e c t i v e s based on a c on s i d e r a -t i on of r e f e ren t group needs in the a r e a , as we l l as o u t l i n i n g the t r adeo f f s ( resource , env i ronmenta l , s o c i a l , and economic) between a l t e r n a t i v e management o b j e c t i v e s . (c) Determining the types of i n fo rmat ion necessary f o r r a t i o n a l dec i s ion-mak ing by the re fe ren t groups f o r i n tegra ted resources management (env i ronmenta l , economic, s o c i a l impacts, e t c . ) . 8 9 (d) The c r e a t i o n o f c e r t a i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e mechanisms tha t would a l l ow adequate p lann ing and the t r a n s l a t i o n of i n tegra ted resources management p lans in to p r a c t i c e ( J e f f r e y , e t a l . , 1969). Since Integrated Resources Management invo lves the " op t im i z ed " use of na tu ra l resources , i t i s suggested that the term " resources o p t i m i z a t i o n " invo lves the syntheses of two components: ( l ) determin ing the c a p a b i l i t y o f the resource base ( e . g . , i t s b iogeophys i ca l suppo r t i ve systems under va r ious management o b j e c t i v e s , and (2) i d e n t i f y i n g the va lues that determine demand fo r the resource . "Op t im i z a t i o n " i s t he r e -f o re the s yn the s i z i ng and t y i ng together of these components to maximize net s o c i a l bene f i t s f o r a r e f e ren t group. The methodology developed in t h i s t he s i s examines one aspect of resources o p t i m i z a t i o n : namely, suppor t i ve systems ( c a p a b i l i t y ) a n a l y s i s . In tegra ted Resources Management i s c l e a r l y a s soc i a t ed to r e -f e r en t group needs and pub l i c b e n e f i t s . This b e l i e f i s examined by Rowe and McCormack (1970) who suggest that such a resource management p o l i c y i s fundamenta l ly a s o c i a l concept . The idea of m u l t i p l e use of f o r e s t land in North America i s modern and popu la r ; i t a r i s e s not so much from the t r a d i t i o n a l resource p roducers—the timberman, the g r a z i e r , the hunte r - -as from the genera l p ub l i c as consumers. It appears today as a democrat ic idea in which the assumption i s i m p l i c i t that the land ( p a r t i c u -l a r l y the l a rge areas that a re p u b l i c l y owned) has s o c i a l va lues that take precedence over the economic i n t e r e s t s o f the i n d i v i d ua l producer , or o f the s i n g l e user . As such i t i s the concern of government respqns ive to pub l i c needs. It i s an important po int that in North America "mu l t i p l e use" i s o r i en t ed to people , to the p ub l i c as consumer; i t i s o r i en t ed 10 ne i t he r to the s i ng l e resource user nor to the tenant or owner as producer . In o the r words, the idea d id not a r i s e as a l o g i c a l and economica l l y sound p r opo s i t i o n for the i n d i v i d ua l resource deve loper , but ra the r as an express ion o f what c i t i z e n s be l i e v e t h e i r country can c on t r i b u t e to the "good l i f e . " Th is r ed i r e c t ed ph i losophy toward resources management stems from the b e l i e f that w i th i n c reas ing s i z e , a f f l u e n c e , m o b i l i t y , and l e i s u r e t ime of the North American popu l a t i on , the demands upon w i l d -land resources w i l l i n c rease . If such management p o l i c i e s are not implemented, the pub l i c enjoyment of w i l d l ands may be pursued at the expense of some resources , thereby con t i nu ing the present c o n f l i c t s between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e use o f the same resource base ( J e f f r e y , e t a l . , 1969). These c o n f l i c t s are we l l known in B r i t i s h Columbia. The Fores t Se rv i ce has r e cen t l y begun to adopt s i m i l a r programs to those of the U.S. Forest S e r v i c e . In 1970, as a response to changing t imes , the Fores t Se r v i ce reassumed a f o r e s t - r e c r e a t i o n ro l e i t had vacated in 1956. Th is new involvement adds the dimension of people adm in i s t r a t i o n to our t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e of na tu ra l resources adm in i s t r a t i o n and w i th the growing pub l i c i n t e r e s t in eco logy and environmenta l q u a l i t y , i t is u n l i k e l y that we as resource managers wi11 be a l lowed to conduct our a f f a i r s as pea ce f u l l y as we have in the pas t . (Marshal 1, 1971) . The B.C. Forest Se rv i ce i s not the on ly agency invo lved w i th In tegrated Resources Management. The r e cen t l y formed Environment Land Use Committee and S e c r e t a r i a t (1971), wh i l e a c t i n g as a l i a i s o n be-tween va r i ous resource departments, i s a l s o keenly i n t e r e s t ed in the concept of i n tegra ted resources use and the accruement o f maximum pub l i c 11 b e n e f i t s . Recent s tud i e s (Chambers, 197^; S locan Va l l e y Report , 197^ *) f o r se l e c ted reg ions of B r i t i s h Columbia on Integrated Resources Management have a r r i v e d at s i m i l a r c onc l u s i on s : that Integrated Re-sources Management inc reases the net bene f i t s v i s - a - v i s s i n g l e purpose management o b j e c t i v e s . The fundamental d i f f e r e n c e in t h i s r e d i r e c t ed approach to resources management i s that t r a d i t i o n a l l y resource p r o j e c t s were o r i en ted toward a s i ng l e purpose: that i s , the development and manage-ment of the resource for a s p e c i f i c management o b j e c t i v e , whereas In-tegrated Resources Management p rov ides the oppo r tun i t y f o r the t o t a l i t y o f the resource base to be developed to the maximum bene f i t s of s o c i e t y . RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT: FROM SINGLE PURPOSE TO INTEGRATED USE I t has been suggested in t h i s t h e s i s that s i n g l e purpose re -source management i s being rep laced s low ly by in tegra ted management: that f o r e s t lands are no longer t r a d i t i o n a l l y areas of on l y t imber ha r ve s t i ng , e t c . S i m i l a r l y , i t i s proposed that man-made hydro r e s e r v o i r s adopt analogous management p o l i c i e s of i n teg ra ted use. Such uses would i n c l ude : spo r t s f i s h e r i e s , domestic water s upp l i e s , h y d r o - e l e c t r i c i t y gene ra t i on , f l o od c o n t r o l , n a v i g a t i o n , i r r i g a t i o n , and r e c r ea t i ona l uses. In the pas t , most developments of water impoundments through-out the wor ld have been i n i t i a l l y conceived for a l im i t ed number of purposes ( Lag l e r , 1969). In most o f these i n s t ances , the cos t s and 12 bene f i t s fo r such pr imary purposes were es t imated and eva lua ted we l l in advance of the f i n a l p l ann i ng , w i th the f i n anc i ng of the p ro j e c t based on such cos t s and bene f i t s ( Lag l e r , 1969). This s i ng le -pu rpose management ob j e c t i v e i s s t i l l ev ident in the con t i nu i ng development of h y d r o - e l e c t r i c generat ing r e s e r vo i r s in B r i t i s h Columbia even though secondary and complimentary uses are now conce ived in the i n i t i a l f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s . The reason f o r t h i s stems back h i s t o r i -c a l l y to the development of government bu reauc rac i e s . In the pas t , resource departments have been developed a long s i ng l e purpose l i n e s , w i t h few m u l t i -d i s c i p l i n a r y ob j e c t i v e s and/or coord ina ted management w i th other resource departments (see Power Development Ac t , 1961; B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power Au tho r i t y A c t , 1962, 1964). Th is exp l a i n s in pa r t the slow e vo l u -t i on o f Integrated Resources Management, a l though r e l a t e d ph i l o soph i e s of resources management and f o r e s t conse rva t i on were p r a c t i c e d in Europe in the 18th century (Murphy, 1967). Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t breakthroughs in the f i e l d of i n t e -grated Resources Management and water resource p lann ing have taken p lace in the United S t a t e s . These water resource p lans were o f the i n d i v i d ua l p r o j e c t type for b u i l d i n g smal l m i l l s or fo r improving a s t r e t c h of water-way fo r nav iga t i on purpose. They were u sua l l y s i n g l e purpose p r o j e c t s , gene ra l l y undertaken by p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s (Fox, 1964). With i n c reas i ng concerns to s t rengthen na t i ona l u n i t y , the governments of the day qu i c k l y became invo lved in the f i e l d of water resource developments ( e . g . , the canal b u i l d i n g e r a ) . The Corps of Engineers a l s o held r e s p o n s i b i l i t y dur-ing the l a t t e r par t o f the 19th century for improvements of nav iga t i on f a c i l i t i e s and i n c i d en t a l con t ro l o f f l o o d s . By 1900, many of the ideas 13 concern ing r i v e r bas in management were i n cuba t i ng . Th is inc luded the b e l i e f that water development and management should be approached on a reg iona l b a s i s . In a d d i t i o n , i t was f e l t that the p ro j e c t by p ro j e c t ap-proach was not e f f e c t i v e enough, and tha t each p r o j e c t be i n teg ra ted i n t o a t o t a l water management scheme (Fox, 1964). The concept of the i n teg ra ted use of r i v e r bas ins s l ow l y became accepted, as we l l as the r e cogn i t i on that the land and water resources o f the r i v e r bas in were pa r t o f an enor -mous system. Accord ing to G. P. White, the concept o f i n teg ra ted r i v e r bas in management cons i s t ed of three a s soc i a t ed ideas: mu l t i p l e purpose s torage r e s e r v o i r s ; the bas in-wide program; and a r ed i r e c t ed p o l i c y towards comprehensive reg iona l development. However, the s i g n i f i c a n t impetus to r i v e r bas in management and mul t ipurpose ( in teg ra ted) r e s e r v o i r s took p lace dur ing the decade of the 1920's. This per iod saw three important deve lop-ments that st rengthened the argument in favour o f m u l t i p l e purpose r e se r -v o i r s (Fox, 1964). These were: a) the passage of the Boulder Canyon Ac t , p rov i d i ng f o r f ede ra l c on s t r u c t i o n of the f i r s t t r u l y l a r g e - s c a l e mu l t i p l e purpose p r o j e c t — t h e Hoover Dam, b) the adopt ion of a r e s o l u t i o n request -ing the Corps of Engineers to prepare comprehensive repo r t s on major r i v e r bas ins o f the count ry , and c) the es tab l i shment of the Tennessee Va l l e y Au t ho r i t y (and t h e i r p o l i c y of t r e a t i n g the r i v e r bas in as a t o t a l u n i t ) . In a d d i t i o n , the U.S. Federal Water Power Act o f 1920 requ i red cons i de r -a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n and other b e n e f i c i a l p ub l i c uses in any p l a n f o r improving or deve lop ing a waterway (Cooke, 1950). The Hoover Dam i s a s i g n i f i c a n t landmark in that i t i s the f i r s t example of an eng ineer ing design which uses a s i n g l e s t r u c t u r e 14 for a number of integrated uses (White, 1969): i r r i g a t i o n for the Imperial Va l ley ( C a l i f o r n i a ) ; h y d r o - e l e c t r i c i t y generat ion; f lood c o n t r o l ; and water to the r e s i d e n t i a l , i ndus t r i a l and manufacturing needs in Southern C a l i f o r n i a . While there were numerous small water management p ro jec t s , with two or three purposes, none were as conspicuous as the Hoover p ro jec t . By 1940, integrated water resource projects in the United States were the order of the day, with s ing le purpose pro-jec t s no longer dominant. The Flood Control Act of 1944 re inforced the pos i t ion that: . . . the recreat ion and conservat ion values inherent in the development of . . . re servo i r s should, where p r a c t i c a b l e , be made f u l l y ava i l ab le for pub l ic use, [and that] . . . r e -c reat ion and f i s h and w i l d l i f e oppor tun i t ie s , both present and p o t e n t i a l , sha l l be considered throughout the p lanning, cons t ruc t ion , operat ion, and maintenance of reservo i r pro -j e c t s . . . (Dept. of the Inter ior Information Serv i ce , August 18, 1959). Since World War II, the American model of integrated basin and reservo i r management has been appl ied to some Internat ional pro-j e c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y with United Nations and Food and Ag r i cu l tu re Organizat ion supervised developments (Lag ler, 1969). Here the recogn i -t i on has been that whi le most reservo i r s are conceived for a l im i ted number of purposes, a host of secondary problems a r i s e in connection with the project that have not been adequately provided f o r . Proper planning act ion minimizes these secondary problems of economic loss, soc ia l d i s rup t i on , and environmental degradation through the a p p l i c a -t ion of integrated management programs. Furthermore, integrated manage-ment of a p r o j e c t ' s f a c i l i t i e s may increase the net benef i t s without a 15 p ropo r t i ona l increase in cos t s and thus enhance the economic j u s t i f i -c a t i o n for the p ro j e c t ( L i n s l e y , F r a n z i n i , 1972). THE SIGNIFICANCE OF RECREATION IN INTEGRATED RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT Increas ing r e c r ea t i on demands, and the overuse of e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o na l f a c i l i t i e s are commonplace throughout North America (Clawson, Knetsch, 19^6). B r i t i s h Columbia, endowed w i t h the ma je s t i c combinat ion o f mountains, sea , and l akes , i s not w i thout i t s share of problems in keeping up w i th i t s growing r e c r e a t i o n demands. Water based r e c r ea t i on i s growing p a r t i c u l a r l y r a p i d l y in the p rov ince , and shows every i n d i c a t i o n of i n c reas ing at an a c c e l e r a t i n g ra te in the fo reseeab le fu tu re (Parks Branch, 1974; P. Pearse, 1968). As these r e c r e a t i o na l demands r i s e , i t is ev ident that water impoundments c l o s e to urban areas w i l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y more va l uab l e in terms of t h e i r r e c r e a t i o na l v a l ue . A decade ago, i t was d i f f i c u l t to speak w i t h much assurance on t e chn i ca l and economic aspects o f outdoor r e c r ea t i on deve lop-ment a t mu l t ipurpose r e s e r v o i r s and farm ponds. A l though a great many d i f f i c u l t problems s t i l l con f ron t water and r e c r e a -t i on resource managers, complete f r u s t r a t i o n is no longer i n -e v i t a b l e or f a sh ionab le (Stroud, 1959)-Accord ing to Stroud (1959) t h i s has been the r e s u l t o f three s i g n i f i c a n t conse rva t i on developments: a) Improved understanding of the l imnology of man-made water impoundments, and t h e i r env i ronmenta l impacts. b) The development o f measurements of the economic va lue of i n c l ud i ng r e c r ea t i on a t water resource developments. 16 c) A growing acceptance of r e c r ea t i on as an i n teg ra ted use of water management by government and p r i v a t e u t i l i t y companies. In B r i t i s h Columbia, there are a number of reasons that he lp to e xp l a i n the slow acceptance of r e c r ea t i on as an in tegra ted pa r t of water resource p r o j e c t s . In the f i r s t p l a ce , the vastness of the p r o v i n c e ' s na tu ra l resource base has led to widespread conf idence in i t s i n e x h a u s t i b i l i t y . Secondly, the economic b ene f i t s from r e c r ea t i on a c t i v i t i e s have been d i f f i c u l t to quan t i f y . Eby (1975) suggests , however, that the ex i s t ence of outdoor r e c r ea t i ona l o ppo r t un i t i e s does add to the rea l wea l th o f the p rov i n ce , and that the va lues created by these opportun-i t i e s are no l ess rea l than the more r e ad i l y measured va lues of min- . i ng , a g r i c u l t u r e , and o ther resource uses (see a l s o Damback, 1956; Knetsch, 1964; Mi l i k e n , Mew, 1969; Stone, F r i e d l a nd , 1972). F i n a l l y , a lack of government c oo rd i na t i on and p o l i c y has not encouraged in tegra ted uses at water resources p r o j e c t s . The recent format ion of the Environment Land Use Committee and S e c r e t a r i a t , and a r e d i r e c t i o n in the p o l i c y of va r i ous government departments (notab ly in the Department of Lands, Fores ts and Water Resources, and in the Crown Corpora t ion of B.C. Hydro) is changing the ph i losophy of s i n g l e purpose to a more h o l i s t i c approach to water resources management. For the f i r s t time in B r i t i s h Columbia, a pub l i c u t i l i t y company (B.C. Hydro) i s p rov i d i ng r e c r ea t i on o ppo r t un i t i e s as an added bene f i t to h y d r o - e l e c t r i c generat ion r e s e r v o i r s (Buntzen Lake and Seaton Lake, B r i t i s h Columbia, both coas ta l r e s e r v o i r s , and land conveyances at the 17 Arrow Lakes to the B.C. Parks Branch) . Th i s i s not to suggest tha t these r e se r vo i r s are examples of Integrated Reservo i r Management (see d e f i n i t i o n , pp. 6-7), but on ly that a r e d i r e c t i o n in management in response to i n c reas ing concerns over resource use i s t ak ing p l a ce . POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEGRATED RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT Th i s chapter has dea l t w i th the concept o f Integrated Resources Management in the general sense, and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of . i n t eg ra ted use of r e s e r v o i r s w i th the emphasis on r e c r ea t i ona l use ( r e c r ea t i on being one component o f Integrated Rese rvo i r Management). I t has a l s o been suggested that a change in p o l i c y i s r e d i r e c t i n g the focus o f r e se r -v o i r s to adopt a d d i t i o n a l uses as management o b j e c t i v e s . Integrated Reservo i r Management, w i t h equal c on s i d e r a t i on to. more than one -use, however, is s t i l l not ev ident in B r i t i s h Columbia. As p r e v i ou s l y d i s -cussed , the reasons f o r t h i s stem back to the e vo l u t i o n of s i n g l e -purpose bureaucrac ies and the confinement of e x i s t i n g resource l e g i s -l a t i o n . Because of the mu l t i p l e concerns a s soc i a t ed w i th the water resource , the i n i t i a l c o n f l i c t to be reso lved i s in the es tab l i shment of management o b j e c t i v e s , fo l l owed by the d i v i s i o n of management r e s -pons ib i1? t i e s . Two a d d i t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s concern ing i n teg ra ted use must a l s o be r e so l v ed . In the f i r s t p l a ce , r e l a t ed to the ques t i on of management p r i o r i t i e s , are the f un c t i o na l requirements of i n t eg ra ted r e s e r v o i r use. Integrated use imp l ies compet i t i on for the r i g h t s to the use of the same land and water s t o rage . F igure 1 i l l u s t r a t e s the es t imated 18 requirements of the va r i ous uses at an i n teg ra ted -use r e s e r v o i r . I t i s r e a d i l y apprec i a ted that in tegra ted p lann ing of a r e s e r v o i r invo lves s u b s t a n t i a l l y more than the combinat ion of s i ng le -pu rpose elements (see a l s o F igure 2) . 5 ° o o o o| I o Extra Release * Navigation Release * Water Supply Release Irrigation Release Power Release Recreation Release A . Annual Demand Curve for Power ' ' f' V>' " ' ?'—*~ J F M A M J J A S / O N Water Used Jointly Total Release for Navigation, Water Supply & Irrigation v . Power Demand F igure 1. Synthes i s of Annual Demand Curve from the Est imated Requirements of the va r i ous uses f o r an Integrated Use Reservo i r Source: L i n s l e y , F r anz i n i (1972). None o f the uses shown i s e n t i r e l y compat ib le w i th any o ther use, a l -though under many c i rcumstances i t i s po s s i b l e to b r i ng some of these uses i n to agreement. The bas i c f a c t o r of i n tegra ted-use i s "com-promise . " A p lan the re fo re must be dev ised that permits reasonable e f f i c i e n c y in ope ra t i on fo r each use, a l though maximum e f f i c i e n c y is not n e c e s s a r i l y a t t a i ned for any s i ng l e purpose. 19 i . Multiple-purpose reservoir. 3. Hydroelectric station. 4. M u n i c i p a l water supply. 6. Pump to equalizing reservoir for irrigation. 8. High-level irrigation canal. 10. Erosion control: stream dams and contour terracing. 13. Low-level irrigation canal. 15. Contour ploughing. 17. Community water treatment plant. 19. Re-regulating reservoir with locks. 2. Recreation; swimming, fishing, camping. 5. City and industrial waste treatment plant. 7. Diversion dam and lake. 9. Levees for flood control. 11. Regulating basin for irrigation. 12. Wildlife refuge. 14. Gravity irrigation. 16. Sprinkler irrigation. 18. Navigation: barge trains, locks, etc. 20. F a r m pond with pisciculture. Figure 2. Model for Mult ip le-purpose Integrated River Basin Development 20 Secondly, i n teg ra ted use o f the water resource p laces a d d i t i o n a l s t r a i n s on the q u a l i t y o f the wate r . I n du s t r i a l uses f o r c o o l i n g and consumptive purposes, e f f l u e n t d i s cha rges , domest ic use o f the water , r e c r e a t i o na l uses o f the water , and water fo r i r r i g a t i o n purposes, con-t r i b u t e to the o v e r a l l problem of ma in ta in ing a des i r ed l eve l o f water q u a l i t y . In pa r t , t h i s problem can be so lved by the i n i t i a l e s t a b l i s h -ment o f the management o b j e c t i v e s f o r the r e s e r v o i r . For long-term p lann ing o f the r i v e r bas in and r e s e r v o i r , t h i s f i n a l problem must be g iven cons ide rab l e a t t e n t i o n in that i t a f f e c t s not on ly the economic components of resources management, but u l t ima t e l y the more se r i ous consequences of p ub l i c hea l t h and s a f e t y . CHAPTER TWO THE RESERVOIR ECOSYSTEM: ITS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES DEVELOPMENT OF THE MAN-MADE ECOSYSTEM Man-made r e s e r v o i r s are the r e s u l t of two d i s t i n c t ecosystems: the r i v e r i n e superimposed over the t e r r e s t r i a l . Th is conf luence p ro -duces the beg inn ing of a l a c u s t r i n e ecosystem, the p r ope r t i e s of which are r e ad i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e and d i s t i n c t from na tu ra l lake ecosystems: The new ecosystem is a complex hybr id which demonstrates a mixture of cha rac te r s of the two parent ecosystems both in phys i ca l terms as we l l as in behaviour (Dussart , Lag l e r , Scudder, Szesz tay , Whi te, 1972). Both c on t r i bu t e to the newly forming l a c u s t r i n e ecosystem: the t e r r e s -t r i a l by i t s chemical cha rac te r of the s o i l s and geo log i c s t r u c t u r e being re leased in to the water , and by the r i v e r i n e supp l y ing the mate r i a l s t r u c t u r e to the newly formed system ( i . e . , the water) in a d d i t i o n to supp ly ing the community ( f l o r a and fauna) that w i l l succeed in the man-made l a ke . In the i n i t i a l f i l l i n g of the r e s e r v o i r , most impress ive is the sudden beginn ing and rap id development of the l a c u s t r i n e system. Th is i s due in par t to the re l ease o f n u t r i e n t s from both the submerged o rgan i c mat ter , and the top hor i zons of the inundated s o i l s . Th is ex-p l o s i o n o f n u t r i e n t s is q u i c k l y cyc l ed in to pr imary p roduc t ion (the i n i t i a l harness ing of s o l a r energy by p l ank ton i c a l g a e ) . Th i s i nc rease 21 22 in pr imary product ion i s t r an s f e r r ed through va r i ous food cha ins and i s t y p i c a l l y fo l l owed by a r i s e in f i s h p r oduc t i on . As the r e s e r vo i r reaches a more s t a b i l i z e d s t a t e , the product ion of biomass f a l l s g r e a t l y and is f i n a l l y mainta ined a t a lower l e v e l . The r e s e r vo i r begins to e x h i b i t c ond i t i on s s i m i l a r to those found in na tu ra l l a ke s . However, s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r en ce s do occu r . Man-made Versus Natura l Lakes In the f i r s t p l a c e , the l e v e l s of man-made r e s e r v o i r s are sub jec t to human man ipu la t i on , and the re fo re do not n e c e s s a r i l y c o i n c i de w i th na tu ra l r un -o f f p a t t e r n s . In a d d i t i o n , the "drawing down" ( d r a f t i ng ) of water l e ve l s in a man-made r e s e r vo i r i s o f ten both much g rea t e r and very much more rap id (P. Jackson , 1966) than a na tu ra l l a ke . Th is o f t en g ives r i s e to a lack of l i t t o r a l vege ta t i on that i s t y p i c a l of na tu ra l lake s h o r e l i n e s . Accord ing to Dussar t , e t a l . , (1972) the r e s e r v o i r w i l l be deeper in pa r t s than o r i g i n a l maximum r i v e r depths, but even the l imne t i c zones may be v i r t u a l l y s t a t i o na r y and the re fo re may not support the b i t oa normal ly a ssoc i a ted w i th l e n i t i c h a b i t a t s . F i n a l l y , thermal s t a t i f i c a t i o n (the heat budget) and sed imentat ion in the profunda l zone may be markedly d i f f e r e n t (see F igure 3 ) • The heat budget o f man-made r e s e r vo i r s depends in la rge degree upon the cu r ren t water f l ow regime developed in them as a r e s u l t of subsur face in f lows and subsur face or su r face d i scharges (B. A l l a n s on , 1973). The des ign of the dam and l o c a t i o n of the penstocks is the re fo re c r i t i c a l to the degree of thermal s t r a t i f i c a t i o n (Odum, 1971). Where 23 F igure 3- The Three Major Zones of a Lake (Odum, 1970 water i s re leased from the bottom, as i s o f ten the case w i th dams designed fo r h yd r o e l e c t r i c power, c o l d , n u t r i e n t - r i c h , but oxygen poor water i s re leased downstream w i t h warm water being re ta ined in the r e s e r v o i r . The impoundment the re fo re becomes a heat t rap and nu t r i e n t expor te r in c on t r a s t to na tu ra l lakes which d i scharge from the sur face and are nu t r i e n t t raps and heat e xpo r t e r s . Wright (1967) l i s t s four a d d i t i o n a l e f f e c t s to thermal s t r a t i -f i c a t i o n w i th dams whose penstocks re l ease deep water: 1. Water is re leased w i th a h igher s a l i n i t y than would be obta ined from sur face water w i thd rawa l . 2. E s s en t i a l n u t r i e n t s are l o s t from the r e s e r v o i r , which tends to dep le te the p roduc t i ve c apac i t y of the r e s e r v o i r wh i l e a t the same time caus ing eu t r oph i c a t i on downstream. 3. The evapora t i ve loss of the r e se r vo i r is increased by the s t o r i n g of warm water and the r e l e a s i ng of c o l d hypo l imn ia l water . 2k k. Low d i s so l ved oxygen in the d ischarged water reduces the capac i t y o f the stream to rece i ve o rgan i c p o l l u t a n t s . Whether man-made or n a t u r a l , r e s e r v o i r s are sub jec t to the on -going fo rces o f na ture , and are in f luenced d i r e c t l y by the amounts of water i n f l ow from the r i v e r i n e to the l a c u s t r i n e ecosystem. The importance o f understanding the hyd ro l og i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n the r e s e r v o i r ecosystem i s e s s e n t i a l in assess ing f u tu r e management op t i ons of the water resource base. For t h i s reason, c on s i de r a t i on i s g iven to the genera l h yd ro l og i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that a f f e c t the r e s e r v o i r . AN EXAMINATION OF THE RIVER BASIN HYDROGRAPH AND IMPORTANCE TO RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT An e s s e n t i a l component of r e s e r v o i r management i s an understand-ing of the environmental processes that make up the hyd ro l og i c c y c l e (see F igure k). Source: F igure k. Schematic Diagram of the Water-Resources Eng inee r ing , 1972. Hydro log i c Cyc le 25 Figure 4 (p. 24) i l l u s t r a t e s the processes involved in the t rans fer of moisture from the sea to the land and back to the sea again and needs l i t t l e exp lanat ion . The r i v e r basin (drainage bas in) , subject to both surface and subsurface water flows forms the l o g i c a l a e r i a l un i t for hydro log ica l a n a l y s i s . For reservo i r management, ana lys i s of the r i v e r basin is useful in that one can conveniently draw up a water balance and assess the water resources of the to ta l a rea . Two add i t iona l fac tors that are a f fec ted by the hydro log ica l cyc le must a l s o be recognized by the water resources planner. These are the water balance and the r i v e r basin hydrograph. 1. The Water Balance. From a land use perspect ive , a study of the water balance is important for two reasons. In the f i r s t place i t ensures: . . . that the i11 e f f e c t s of wrong systems of land-use do not impair, or lead to less e f f i c i e n t c o l l e c t i o n and use of a most important natural resource—water (R.G. Downes, 1963). Secondly, a thorough understanding of the water balance ensures that the i l l e f f e c t s of mismanagement prac t i ces of the land w i l l not upset the water balance in such a way as to lead to the dest ruct ion of another important natural resource: namely, the s o i l . This second point needs fur ther c l a r i f i c a t i o n . Man's inf luence on the land is c l e a r l y ev ident , with changes in the water balance being commonplace. These changes in both the water balance and water d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns have not been without adverse environmental impacts. Some of the more f a m i l i a r consequences inc lude: increas ing a r i d i t y in c e r t a i n parts of 26 the wor l d , sur face depos i t s of s a l t , s o i l e ro s i on and d e p o s i t i o n , and water logg ing (pond ing) . Accord ing to R. More ( 1 9 6 9 ) , the r i v e r bas in c y c l e (or t r a n s -f e r s of water in the bas in) may be viewed s imply a s : . . . inputs of p r e c i p i t a t i o n (p) being d i s t r i b u t e d through a number of s torages by a s e r i e s of t r a n s f e r s , l ead ing to ou t -puts of bas in channel runof f (q ) , evapo t r ansp i r a t ion (e) and deep ou t f l ow of ground water ( b ) . The general ope ra t i on of the bas in hyd ro l og i c a l c y c l e may be s i m p l i f i e d as f o l l o w s : P r e c i p i t a t i o n = Bas in channel runof f + Evapo t ransp i r a t ion + Changes in Storage F igure 5 i l l u s t r a t e s in more d e t a i l the features of the r i v e r ba s i n . 2 . The R i ve r Bas in Hydrograph. The amount of water s torage w i t h i n a r e s e r v o i r i s determined c h i e f l y by the quan t i t y of runof f from the r i v e r ba s i n , which in turn is a f un c t i on of the e f f e c t i v e p re -c i p i t a t i o n of the r eg i on . The runoff i s tha t r e s i dua l o f the p r e c i p i -t a t i o n which f lows in to a su r face s t ream. In o ther words, i t i s : . . . that po r t i on of p r e c i p i t a t i o n which reaches a na tu ra l channel a f t e r l oss by evapora t ion and t r a n s p i r a t i o n , and a f t e r s o i l mois ture d e f i c i e n c i e s have been s a t i s f i e d (D. Mackay, 1969). To reach the channel and u l t i m a t e l y the r e s e r v o i r , the water moves above and through the ground. I t s movement i s i n f l uenced and regu la ted by such f a c t o r s as landforms, s o i l s , vege ta t i on and man's a c t i v i t i e s (see 27 where: p = p r e c i p i t a t i o n m = through flow s = seepage q Q = overland flow G = ground water storage G ' = deep storage R = surface storage S • channel storage M = s o i l moisture storage L q 1 f d g b d = aerat ion zone storage = basin channel runoff = in ter f low = i n f i l t r a t i o n = ground water recharge = base flow = deep outflow = deep perco la t ion Figure 5. Block Diagram of the River Basin (See a l so Appendix 1, the Schomatic I n te r - re l a t i onsh ip s of the Basin Components). Table 1 below). Continuous monitoring of th is runoff measured over time resu l t s in a graph of flow c a l l e d the hydrograph (see Figure 6). During dry per iods , the flow of the r i ve r n a t u r a l l y decreases. This base flow continues un t i l p r e c i p i t a t i o n (rain) f a l l s at which point the discharge rate increases rap id ly to a peak. The peak is usua l ly reached short ly a f t e r the ra in has ceased although the time lag depends upon loca l physiographic and c l i m a t i c cond i t i ons . The amount of flow is therefore large ly determined by the amount of moisture not reta ined. 28 TABLE 1 The Flood Hydrograph Inf luencing Factors General Statement 1. The Bas i n Area 2. The Basin Shape 3- Basin E levat ion 4. The Drainage Network 5• Bas in Slope 6. CIimate 7. Vegetation and Land-use The greater the catchment area, usua l ly the higher the peak d i scharge. Length and width o f - the basin a f f e c t the t rave l time of the surface and subsurface flows to the main channel of the r i v e r . E levat ion is a funct ion of e f f e c t i v e p r e c i p i t a t i o n , and inf luences vegetat ion, s o i l types, e t c . D i f ferent patterns of drainage can impact the magnitude and shape of the hydrograph, ( i . e . , a quick r i s e in the hydrograph is an ex-ample of a we l l -dra ined network of short, steep gradient streams). A f fec t s discharge rates of the water into the re se rvo i r , and is c l o s e l y re lated to basin shape, and local drainage patterns. Influences the a v a i l a b i l i t y of prec i pi tat ion, evapotranspi rat i on, the amount of water held in ground storage, snow pack, e t c . Vegetation or lack pf, can impede or increase surface runoff, and a f f e c t the degree of surface and subsurface eros ion , mova1 has been shown surface runoff , with of the hydrograph to Forest r e -to increase a marked s h i f t the l e f t , and an increase in i t s magnitude. 29 • »»e now - line F igure 6. Components o f a Hydrograph The shape and magnitude of the hydrograph, which is use fu l in p r e d i c t i n g the t o t a l a v a i l a b l e volume of water d ischarged in the r i v e r ba s i n , is in f luenced by a number of f a c t o r s . Whi le these f a c t o r s are on l y g iven b r i e f mention in statement form, i t i s we l l t o remember tha t each should be cons idered in l i g h t of i t s r e s t r a i n t s to in tegra ted use of the r i v e r ba s i n . The i n f l u en c i ng f a c t o r s on the hydrograph are 1 i s ted in Table 1 (p. 28). FOUR STAGES IN THE LIFE HISTORY OF MAN-MADE RESERVOIRS Four stages have been i d e n t i f i e d (Dussart , e t a l . , 1973) in the h i s t o r y of a man-made r e s e r v o i r : (1) f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s , and con s i de r a t i on of a l t e r n a t i v e p l an s , (2) p lann ing and c o n s t r u c t i o n , (3) i n i t i a l f i l l i n g and s t a b i l i z i n g of the r e s e r v o i r , (4) s t a b i l i z e d ( lake management s t a ge ) . 30 The f i n a l phase is sedimentation of the reservo i r and a return to the r i v e r i n e environment. The contro l o f th i s process is discussed in more d e t a i l in Chapter F ive , Management Condit ions for Integrated Reservoir Use. The s a l i en t points of each stage are b r i e f l y discussed be 1ow. (1) Feas i b i1 i ty Studies. The f i r s t stage is character ized by a ser ies of impact s tud ies : from p re fea s i b i1 i t y to f i n a l design p lans. While the emphasis in the report is on the b io l og i ca l impl icat ions of c reat ing a reservo i r ( i . e . , the e f f e c t s on the t e r r e s t r i a l and aquat ic organisms) during this stage, most pre l iminary studies are concerned with the technica l aspects of the dam, developable storage of the re se rvo i r , and the phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (geology and topography) of the s i t e . Geology and topographic condi t ions are a l so important determining fac tor s in the locat ion of the dam. These i n i t i a l s tudies are fol lowed by economic s tud ies , the f e a s i b i l i t y of a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s ( technica l and economic aspects ) , and f i n a l l y , pre l iminary design stud ie s . (2) Planning and Construct ion. During the second stage, the main features of the pro jec t are f i n a l i z e d and const ruct ion is begun. This stage is p a r t i c u l a r l y important in that the new b i o t i c community can be planned f o r . This can be accomplished in part by preparat ion of the lake bottom which is e s sent ia l for a number of reasons. (a) In the f i r s t p lace, the i n s t a l l a t i o n of cover or spawning beds may be provided for preferred f i s h species (Lagler, 1968; P. Jackson, 1966). 31 (b) Second ly , r e s e r v o i r c l ea rance adds to sa fe ty and con-venience in both n a v i g a t i o n , commercial f i s h e r i e s , and r e c rea t i on . (c) F i n a l l y , p repa ra t i on of the f u tu r e l a c u s t r i n e bottom reduces the p o s s i b i l i t y of hea l th hazards from d i sease vec to r s (Dussar t , et a l . , 1972). Throughout the c on s t r u c t i o n of the dam, se r i ous e c o l o g i c a l consequences c a n . r e s u l t , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i th respect to the m ig ra t i on of anadromous f i s h spec ies (W. Hourston, 1958). For t h i s , and other reasons, the t iming of the va r ious stages in the cons t r u c t i on of the dam i s c r u c i a l . Cons ide ra t i on of these problems should be g iven adequate a t t e n t i o n , in that l e f t unchecked, they develop in to a host o f secondary r e l a t ed problems that a f f e c t i n teg ra ted use of the r e se r vo i r (Midgely , 1971). (3) F i l l i n g and S t a b i l i z i n g . The t h i r d stage i s c ha r a c t e r i z ed by f i l l i n g of the r e s e r v o i r , and i t s " p r og r e s s i on " to s t a b i l i z a t i o n . The f i l l i n g stage i s important for two reasons, as both t e chn i ca l ( ope ra t i ona l ) and b i o l o g i c a l c ons i de r a t i on s should be c a r e f u l l y moni-t o r ed . The t e chn i c a l c on s i de r a t i on s i n so fa r as impoundment of the water behind the dam regu la tes and changes the f low of water downstream. From an ope ra t i ons v iew, t h i s n a t u r a l l y a f f e c t s the degree to which downstream s i t e s can f unc t i on e f f e c t i v e l y in the p roduc t ion of hydro-e l e c t r i c i t y . This o f t en causes increased demands on the downstream r e s e r v o i r s and r e s u l t s in g rea te r drawdowns, the consequences of which a f f e c t both the b i o l o g i c a l community and aqua t i c vege ta t i on in the 32 marginal areas of the s ho r e l i n e (P. Jackson, 1966; W. Hourston, 1968), in a d d i t i o n to the p ub l i c use of the r e s e r v o i r . During f i l l i n g and s t a b i l i z i n g , the b i o l o g i c a l system must a l s o be c l o s e l y moni tored, f o r i t i s dur ing t h i s stage that va r ious spec ies may be encouraged or^suppressed. In some ins tances , " rescue ope r a t i o n s " have been c a r r i e d out for organisms that have been threatened by drown-ing . Such a c t i o n i s o f ten u n j u s t i f i e d , w i t h the except ion of non-mobile ra re spec i e s , and in some cases , has not demonstrated to be b i o l o g i c a l l y success fu l (Dussar t , et a l . , 1972). In the i n i t i a l f i l l i n g , the r e s e r v o i r i s c ha r a c t e r i z ed by a rap id inc rease in b i o l o g i c a l p roduc t ion ( i . e . , p l ank ton i c blooms) caused by nu t r i e n t s being re leased from the f looded sub s t r a t e . Th is is fo l lowed by the rap id es tab l i shment of aqua t i c vegeta t ion and organisms, i n c l u d -ing f i s h (P. Jackson, 1966 ) . A de c l i n e from t h i s high leve l of pro-d u c t i v i t y u sua l l y f o l l ows due to nu t r i e n t s being taken up by the aqua t i c vege ta t i on in a dd i t i o n to downstream l o s s . Upon f i l l i n g of the r e s e r v o i r , the s ho r e l i n e benchmark i s e s t a b l i s h e d , and through a complex s e r i e s of i n t e r a c t i o n s , the s ho r e l i n e g radua l l y becomes s t a b i l i z e d . Aqua t i c p l an t s and an imals a long the s ho r e l i n e and in the l i t t o r a l zones are u sua l l y mainta ined w i th great d i f f i c u l t y at man-made r e s e r v o i r s (E. Vernon, 1958). This is due to the p l an t s and animals being subjected to sub-mersion to great depths, to exposure w i th consequent d e s s i c a t i o n and f r e e z i n g , and to phys i ca l damage by wave a c t i o n . (4) S t a b i l i z e d . The s t a b i l i z e d s t a t e of a man-made lake i s reached when: 33 . . . f l u c t u a t i o n s in i t s b i o l o g i c a l parameters of p roduct ion exceed on ly l i t t l e , i f a t a l l , those in a na tu ra l lake of s i m i l a r phys i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and l i k e l a t i t u d e and e l e v a t i o n (Dussar t , e t a l . , 1972). S t a b i l i z a t i o n would a l s o be cha r a c t e r i z ed by a seasona l l y c y c l i c balance in the oxygen balance of the l a ke . In an i d e a l i z e d s t a t e , the b i o l o g i c a l s t a b i l i z a t i o n of the r e s e r vo i r would be thought to occur when an e q u i l i b r i u m between m o r t a l i t y and n a t a l i t y of the organisms in the system is reached, and when the spec ies and community make-up of the system becomes r e l a t i v e l y f i x e d . However, even na tu ra l l a cu s -t r i n e systems are f a r from being b i o l o g i c a l l y s t a t i o n a r y . Consequent ly, wide f l u c t u a t i o n s may occur in abundances of organisms from year to year , even though the p r o d u c t i v i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( t o t a l biomass) r e -mains f a i r l y cons tan t . This is a l s o t y p i c a l o f r e s e r v o i r s where s i m i l a r pa t t e rns of f l u c t u a t i o n are e x h i b i t e d . S t a b i l i t y of a r e se r -v o i r ecosystem is the re fo re a r e l a t i v e matter , w i th f u l l s t a b i l i z a t i o n never being assu red . RESERVOIR CLASSES IN B.C.: THEIR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES H y d r o - e l e c t r i c developments in B r i t i s h Columbia may be c l a s s -i f i e d in to three (3) d i s t i n c t groups, ( s to rage , r u n - o f - r i v e r , and d i v e r s i o n r e s e r v o i r s ) , each w i th an e s t ab l i s h ed set of opera t ions r e -qu i rements, damsite c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and i d e n t i f i a b l e r e s e r v o i r f e a t u r e s . Th is se c t i on dea ls b r i e f l y w i t h the d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s of r e se r -v o i r w i t h emphasis on how s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and opera t ions i n f l uence the degree to which i n teg ra ted r e s e r vo i r management can be incorporated i n to the o v e r a l l p r o j e c t . Such a d i s cus s i on cannot avo id the use o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . Un fo r tuna te l y , the use o f such g ene r a l i z a t i o n s a l s o i n v i t e s m i s rep resen ta t i on of the f a c t s , i f not i n t e rp re t ed w i th extreme c au t i o n . For t h i s reason, the statements made in t h i s s e c t i on on the nature of r e s e r v o i r s should not be taken out o f con tex t , nor app l i ed to s p e c i f i c cases , as topography and c l ima te w i t h i n the prov ince pro-v ide a wide range of r e s e r v o i r morpholog ies . The Storage Rese rvo i r A storage r e s e r vo i r i s one where the s i z e of the impoundment is o f s u f f i c i e n t s i z e to permit ca r r y -ove r s torage from the wet season to the dry season, and " thus to develop a f i rm f l ow s u b s t a n t i a l l y more than the minimum na tu ra l f l ow" (R. L i n s l e y , J . F r a n z i n i , 1972). They are the re fo re used to augment the f low between both high and low years of runof f as we l l as between seasons w i t h i n a year , wh i l e ma in ta in ing e f f i c i e n t power genera t ion at the damsite and at s i t e s f u r t h e r down-stream. In B r i t i s h Columbia, t h i s type of r e s e r vo i r i s most common ( in a c r e / f e e t o f water s t o r e d ) . ' Storage r e s e r v o i r s can be f u r t h e r c l a s s i -f i e d i n to three (3) c a t ego r i e s : the c y c l i c ope ra t i ons r e s e r v o i r ; the normal annual r e f i l l r e s e r v o i r ; and the coas ta l r e s e r v o i r , (a) The C y c l i c Operat ions Reservo i r C y c l i c r e s e r v o i r s bu lk l a rge w i t h t h e i r prime f un c t i on being to augment the f low of the r i v e r dur ing dry seasons. The p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r Informat ion for d i s cu s s i ons w i th Sen ior Energy Management Eng ineer , B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , Vancouver, B.C. 35 that i s o l a t e s the c y c l i c r e s e r vo i r from other storage r e s e r v o i r s ( in a d d i t i o n to s i z e ) , is t h e i r drawdown c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . C y c l i c r e s e r vo i r s r e l ease water (and at the same time generate e l e c t r i c i t y ) , to even out the f lows from the r i v e r ba s i n . The drawdown of the r e s e r vo i r i s de-pendent upon l o c a l surcharge c ond i t i o n s , and i s a r e f l e c t i o n of weather p a t t e r n s . Due to the l a rge storage capac i t y of the c y c l i c r e s e r v o i r , the pool is seldom drawn down to the minimum l e v e l . However, where i n -f low is low one yea r , and w i th water requirements remaining constant downstream, the pool l e ve l i s n a t u r a l l y drawndown. Because the " s u r -charge p e r i o d " (the pe r iod of time requ i red to r e f i l l the r e s e r vo i r to ope ra t i ona l pool l e v e l s ) is o f t en g rea te r than one year , con t i nua l low-water years r e s u l t in i n c reas i ng d r a f t s of the r e s e r v o i r , w i t h the r e f i l l pe r iod being extended f u r t he r onto the time ho r i z on . For i n t e -grated use of the r e s e r v o i r , t h i s presents se r i ous problems in that not on l y are l a rge , unaes the t i c and unuseable pa r t s of the sho re l i ne exposed, but use of the r e s e r vo i r fo r nav iga t i on ( e . g . , log booming and r e c r ea t i ona l boat ing) becomes i n c r ea s i ng l y d i f f i c u l t and hazardous. Once the c y c l i c r e s e r vo i r is under normal ope r a t i on s , g iven a se r i e s of average c l i m a t i c years , expected drawdowns are not l a r g e . From a r e c r e a t i o na l s tandpo in t , t h i s is advantageous in that beaches and sho re l i nes become s t a b i l i z e d and are more usab l e . With the s ho r e l i n e benchmark we l l e s t a b l i s h e d , proper c lea rance of stumps and t rees can a l s o be undertaken in accordance w i th the ob j e c t i v e s of the in tegra ted management p o l i c y fo r the r e s e r v o i r . (b) The Normal Annual R e f i l l Reservo i r The second type of s torage r e se r vo i r i s the normal annual r e f i l l r e s e r v o i r . The main d i s t i n c t i o n between t h i s and the c y c l i c r e s e r vo i r i s the drawdown component. As the term would suggest, annual r e f i l l imp l i es that the water l eve l is drawn down annua l l y to some minimum l e v e l , though not n e c e s s a r i l y to the dead s to rage . Annual r e f i l l r e -s e r v o i r s are co r respond ing l y sma l l e r than c y c l i c r e s e r v o i r s , and are ab le to surcharge in one year . They are governed by a bas i c annual rhythm of r i s e and f a l l , somewhat as f o l l ow s : (1) A peak f l ood f low - u sua l l y in l a te s p r i n g . (2) A somewhat i r r e g u l a r de c l i n e in f low over the f o l l ow i ng f r o s t - f r e e months—vary ing w i th l oca l p r e c i p i t a t i o n and temperature. (3) A con t i nu i ng dec l i ne o f a more uni form charac te r w i th the onset of f r e e z i ng w in te r weather as streamflows become almost e n t i r e l y dependent on groundwater s t o r a g e — u n t i l the annual minimum f low is reached in l a t e w in te r or e a r l y s p r i n g . (4) The s t a r t o f an upward t r end , gradual at f i r s t as the warm-ing temperatures of sp r i ng take e f f e c t , then more rap id as snow melts and r a i n f a l l s u n t i l the peak f l ood a r r i v e s to s t a r t the c y c l e over aga in (Sexton, 1974 ) . The pa t t e rn i s changed fo r those r i v e r s on the west coast that d r a i n the P a c i f i c s lopes of the Coast Mounta ins. These r i v e r s are r a i n -charged which causes the h igh f lows to occur in w in te r and the lows in, summer. Most annual r e f i l l r e s e r v o i r s are c l a s sed as snow-melt r e s e r -v o i r s and are in f luenced by the former c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . They are r e f i l l e d dur ing the sp r i ng and summer, and d ra f ted dur ing the f a l l and w in te r months. Depending on the a v a i l a b l e s torage capac i t y o f the r i v e r ba s i n , the annual r e f i l l r e s e r vo i r c a r r i e s the same f u n c t i o n , though on a sma l l e r s c a l e , as the c y c l i c r e s e r v o i r ; that of averag ing the ou t f l ow between minimum and maximum f low pe r i od s . Local c l i m a t i c c ond i t i on s and upstream opera t ions can a f f e c t the degree of drawdown on the r e s e r v o i r . F l u c t ua t i on s can vary from a few fee t on a d a i l y bas i s to over seventy fee t from season to season. Such f l u c t u a t i o n s have caused cons ide rab le concern w i th l o ca l r e s i d en t s . Where a c y c l i c r e s e r vo i r does con t ro l the headwaters of a r i v e r , down-stream annual r e s e r vo i r s can become extremely p r ed i c t ab l e in t h e i r drawdown c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a l though other v a r i a b l e s must a l s o be con-s i d e r e d . Where such p r e d i c t a b i l i t y occu rs , f u tu re land management can be planned and prov ided f o r . Th i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t where r e c r ea t i on opt ions are a v a i l a b l e . As most surcharg ing of the r e s e r v o i r u s ua l l y takes p lace dur ing the e a r l y summer, w i th the maximum pool l eve l being reached in Ju l y -Augus t , t h i s co i n c i des w i th summer demands fo r water-based r e c r e a t i o n . Because of t h i s p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , annual r e f i l l r e s e r v o i r s become i n c r e a s i n g l y a t t r a c t i v e for o ther i n teg ra ted uses. C learance programs are a l s o more e a s i l y managed and can be planned and undertaken dur ing c e r t a i n per iods o f the r e s e r v o i r schedu le . Sho re l i ne and aqua t i c vege ta t i on adapts more r e a d i l y to the rou t ine pa t te rn of drawdowns than the i r r e g u l a r c y c l i c r e s e r vo i r s chedu l i ng . Furthermore, 38 the annual r e f i l l reservo i r tends to exh ib i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s im i l a r to natural lakes in i t s discharge and r e f i l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , (c) The Coastal Reservoir The coasta l reservo i r is the smallest type of storage reservo i r in B r i t i s h Columbia. It is d i s t ingu i shed by two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : a small storage capac i ty , and a large inflow of water (rain-charged) in the r i ve r bas in. During a few periods of the year, there is often more water f lowing into the reservo i r than power generating demands requ i re . Consequently, the reservo i r pool is held f u l l by s p i l l i n g the excess water, and drawn down by generat ion. In loose terms, these reservo i r s are re ferred to as " f i l l and s p i l l " reservo i r s in that they f i l l and s p i l l more than once a year. F i l l and s p i l l reservo i rs are inf luenced d i r e c t l y by local c l i m a t i c condi t ions and are subject to immediate d r a f t i n g when p r e c i -p i t a t i o n is p r o l i f i c in the catchment area over a short period of time. This is due to the lead-time between p r e c i p i t a t i o n and inflow into the reservo i r being r e l a t i v e l y short . Because the coasta l f i l l and s p i l l reservo i r s are subject to local c l i m a t i c condit ions and often need to s p i l l with l i t t l e warning, the i r recreat iona l c a p a b i l i t y is not as high as the annual r e f i l l r e -servo i r where pred ic t ions on drawdown can be made. In add i t i on , due to the i r regu l a r drawdown and r e f i l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , there is not always an es tab l i shed shore l ine as the pool level is constant ly f l u c t u a t i n g . This inf luences not only the recreat iona l use of the shore l ine and l i t t o r a l zones, but a l so the establishment of a we l l -de f ined b i o t i c and l imnet ic community. 39 The Run - 6 f - r i ve r Reservoir Next to storage reservo i rs in B r i t i s h Columbia, r u n - o f - r i v e r plants are most common. Like the storage re servo i r , they too withhold and then re lease water down the natural r i ve r bed a f t e r using the developed head to generate e l e c t r i c i t y . However, the main d i f f e rence with the r u n - o f - r i v e r system is that genera l ly i t has very l im i ted storage capaci ty due to the surrounding topography (steep, narrow v a l l e y s ) , and can only use water as i t comes. Nearly a l l r u n - o f - r i v e r reservo i r s therefore, are su i t ab le only on those streams that a lready have a sustained flow during the dry season. This means that run-of-r i v e r plants re ly almost e n t i r e l y on upstream reservo i r s ( c y c l i c storage and annual r e f i l l reservo i r s ) to even out the flow for the i r . use. Because r u n - o f - r i v e r plants have l i t t l e or no storage, they a l so re ly on the natural storage of the r i ve r to supply a head of water. Consequently, the drawdown on r u n - o f - r i v e r reservo i r s is of minor importance and maintains a f a i r l y constant l e v e l . From the operations perspect ive, th is is des i rab le in that the higher the head, the greater 2 the e f f i c i e n c y of the p lan t . Equal ly des i rab le from the recreat iona l side are the regular pool l eve l s , the advantages of which have been discussed in the previous sec t i on . While r u n - o f - r i v e r reservo i r s are not large, they are of ten located in narrow r i ve r basins with r e l a t i v e l y Power operat ion e f f i c i e n c y versus the level of the reservo i r de-pends upon the design of the generators, e t c . Usual ly a small drop in water level does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t power generat ion. AO lower gross heads than o ther streams, hence the l a ck of a v a i l a b l e s torage capaci t y . Due to the steep v a l l e y wa l l s that encompass many r u n - o f - r i v e r p r o j e c t s , the r e s e r vo i r pools are a l s o f a i r l y narrow in d imens ion. Where the volumes of i n f l ow are s u f f i c i e n t l y l a rge , the problems of su r face cu r r en t s in the r e s e r v o i r can a r i s e . Th i s can impede both r e c r ea t i on and nav iga t i on on the r e se r vo i r where cu r ren t s are s t r ong . The dynamics of r i v e r f lows ( i n s t r a i g h t channels) are such that the f a s t e s t f lows are in the middle of the r i v e r and a t the su r f a ce , wh i l e the s ho r e l i n e and bottom of the r i v e r r e ta rd the f low (Wunder l ich, E l d e r , 1973). For r e c r ea t i ona l use on or near the s h o r e l i n e , r e s e r v o i r cu r r en t s may not be s e r i o u s . Use of the r e s e r v o i r , however, on the open water zone, where cu r ren t s are apt to be f a s t e r , might requ i re segregat ion and s upe r v i s i o n , but would depend upon the nature of the a c t i v i t i e s . In gene ra l , r u n - o f - r i v e r r e s e r vo i r s prov ide for a wide range of Integrated Rese rvo i r Management p r a c t i c e s , a l though each p ro -j e c t must be judged on the bas i s of i t s s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The D i ve r s i on Rese rvo i r The t h i r d and f i n a l type of r e s e r vo i r in the p rov ince , wh i l e not as common as the storage or r u n - o f - r i v e r r e s e r v o i r , never the less d i s p l a y s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r to the former. D i v e r s i on r e s e r vo i r s d i f f e r from the s torage r e s e r v o i r on ly by the s imple feature that whereas the storage system s to res and re leases water down the same r i v e r bas i n , the d i v e r s i o n r e se r vo i r s t o res and then d i v e r t s the water through a s e r i e s of penstocks in to another r i v e r ba s i n . The reason for t h i s 41 d i v e r s i o n i s o f t en to augment the f low of the second r i v e r bas i n , as we l l as to generate e l e c t r i c i t y in the d i v e r s i o n p rocess . In t h i s f a s h i on , the water can be used more than once. D i ve r s i on r e se r vo i r s tend to be small in nature ( l e s s than 200,000 a c r e / f e e t ) , are u sua l l y par t o f o lde r power systems, w i th the r e s e r v o i r s e x h i b i t i n g s t a b i l i z e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . For t h i s l a t t e r reason, d i v e r s i o n r e s e r v o i r s are more s u i t a b l e to in tegra ted uses in tha t the sho r e l i n e s are we l l e s t a b l i s h e d , c lea rance programs have o f ten been i n i t i a t e d , p lus the generat ing c a p a c i t i e s are r e l a t i v e l y sma l l e r , w i t h i n c reas ing power demands being met by the l a rge r developments in the i n t e r i o r of the p r ov i n ce . Th is would imply that con t r o l o f the pool l e v e l s f o r p ub l i c use cou ld be made p o s s i b l e , even a t the expense of power p roduc t ion cu tbacks . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , the losses from these sma l l e r p l an t s cou ld be o f f s e t by the s o c i a l and economic bene f i t s o f i n c l ud i ng r e c r ea t i on as par t o f the in teg ra ted r e s e r v o i r management p lan (see d i s c u s s i o n , Chapter F i v e ) . CHAPTER THREE A METHODOLOGY AND FRAMEWORK FOR IDENTIFYING RECREATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AND CAPABILITIES OF RESERVOIRS THE ECOLOGICAL BASIS FOR LAND-USE PLANNING Man does not seem t o be a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d a system he d i d n o t b u i l d and, t h e r e f o r e , he s e e m i n g l y must p a r t i a l l y d e s t r o y and r e b u i l d b e f o r e use l i m i t a t i o n s a r e u n d e r s t o o d . ( L e o p o l d , 1941). I t i s perhaps u n f a i r t o c r i t i c i z e p a s t a c t i o n s on the b a s i s o f p r e s e n t knowledge, a l t h o u g h we have ample cause t o r e g r e t them because o f t h e c o s t s t o c o r r e c t m i s t a k e s . ( S. C a i n , 1968). As s o c i e t y i n c r e a s e s i t s a l a r m i n g r a t e o f non-renewable r e -s o u r c e s c o n s u m p t i o n , a more c o n s c i e n t i o u s e f f o r t must be g i v e n t o the e n v i r o n m e n t a l s i d e - e f f e c t s and f u t u r e consequences i f p r e s e n t t r e n d s c o n t i n u e . Today, w i t h the a v a i l a b l e t e c h n o l o g i e s , i t i s un-r e a s o n a b l e not t o manage lan d s i n such a manner so as t o a v o i d m a s s i v e s o i l e r o s i o n : t o p r o t e c t w a t e r s h e d s and manage wa t e r r e s o u r c e s so as t o m a i n t a i n water q u a l i t y and a v o i d f l o o d i n g : t o m a i n t a i n p r o d u c t i v i t y w i t h i n f o r e s t s and g r a s s l a n d s : and t o manage f i s h and w i l d l i f e i n a way t h a t they w i l l c o n t i n u e t o s u p p l y us and g i v e us p l e a s u r e ( C a i n , 1968). The knowledge t h a t p e r m i t s such sound l a n d management p r a c t i c e s stems from a l l t he n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s : from g e o l o g y , s o i l s , c l i m a t o l o g y , geography, as r e l a t e d t o l i v i n g n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s : from botany and z o o l o g y , w i t h t h e i r many r e l a t e d s u b - d i v i s i o n s , and from p h y s i c s and c h e m i s t r y , " e s p e c i a l l y as they b r i d g e t h e l i f e s c i e n c e s t h r o u g h b i o c h e m i s t r y and 42 43 b i ophy s i c s " (Ca in , 1968). Yet important as they a re , these s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e s are e s s e n t i a l l y too a n a l y t i c a l and compartmenta l i zed, w i th few i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y exchanges. If a comprehensive understanding of nature i s des i r ed i t is suggested that these s p e c i a l i z e d d i s c i p l i n e s must work toge the r . The r o l e of eco logy , t he re f o r e , i s the development of a s yn t he s i s , that draws together the processes and cond i t i on s of nature and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s among them. As Odum wr i t e s (1971), ecology is " the study of. the s t r u c t u r e and f unc t i on of na t u r e . " Ecology as i t pe r t a i n s to land-use the re fo re must cons ider such concepts as: n u t r i e n t c y c l i n g , e c o l og i c a l n i ches , p r o d u c t i v i t y , and energy t r a n s f e r s , w i th man, not as the cen t re f o r c e , but f u n c t i o n i ng on l y as one pa r t of na tu re . B i o l o g i c a l and e co l og i c a l systems are susta ined p r i m a r i l y by s o l a r and geothermal energy. This energy i s s tored by pho tosyn the t i c and chemosynthet ic a c t i v i t y and transformed in to o rgan i c s u b s t a n c e s -ch i e f l y by green p l an t s (Odum, 1971). For resource management purposes, the most e f f i c i e n t long term energy u t i l i t y occurs under natura l c ond i -t i ons (Watt, 1968; Spencer, 1972). This suggests that mod i f i c a t i o n s of an ecosystem cause a reduc t i on in pr imary p roduc t i on . Land management should therefore coincide closely with the natural supportive systems of the environment, thereby maximizing and optimizing on the resource productivity of the ecosystem. Accept ing t h i s premise, resource e va l ua -t i o n should be based i n i t i a l l y on the inherent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the land: i t s na tu ra l c a p a b i l i t y to produce va r i ous l i v i n g organisms of va r i ous k inds under va r i ous combinat ions of c i rcumstances ( H i l l s , 19&1). This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s r e f e r r ed to as " land c a p a b i l i t y , " and i t i s the kk fundamental s t a r t i n g po in t in eva l ua t i ng land in terms of i t s na tu ra l p r o d u c t i v i t y . In t h i s t h e s i s , the concept of land c a p a b i l i t y i s app l i ed to the development of a land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n technique fo r r e c r e a t i o n on man-made hydro r e s e r v o i r s . THE IMPORTANCE OF SOILS AS A FACTOR IN LAND-USE CAPABILITY From the d i s cu s s i on above, i t is suggested that an assessment of l oca l s o i l c ond i t i on s w i t h i n w e l l - d e f i n e d , and r e ad i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e landtypes of the r e s e r v o i r r eg ion , w i l l prov ide much in fo rmat ion necessary to i d e n t i f y r e c r e a t i o na l c a p a b i l i t i e s at any p a r t i c u l a r s i t e . Whi le s o i l assessment i s p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t ed toward land-based r e c r ea -t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , i t s importance can a l s o be recognized in the i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t i e s w i t h i n the l i t t o r a l zone of the r e s e r v o i r , where sur face bottom, t e x t u r e , e t c . , are important l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s . The parameters of aqua t i c c o n d i t i o n s , and ope ra t i ona l requirements of the hydro p lan t must a d d i t i o n a l l y be cons idered in e va l ua t i ng open-water zones of the r e s e r v o i r . " S o i l " r e f e r s to a l l of the unconso l idated ma t e r i a l s cover ing the e a r t h ' s su r f a ce—the r e g o l i t h . As used in t h i s paper, the " s o i l " r e f e r s to that po r t i on of the r e g o l i t h that has had some form of s o i l processes take p l a ce . These s o i l processes are the r e s u l t of f i v e f a c t o r s of s o i l f o rmat ion , the c l a s s i c a l equat ion be ing: S o i l = f (Parent m a t e r i a l , C l ima te , B i o t a , R e l i e f or topography, and T ime). The s o i l i s a dynamic resource that has seldom been g iven due r e cogn i t i on in the past as an i n f l u en c i ng f a c t o r in determin ing land management op t i o n s . Yet the s o i l i s an i r r e p l a c e ab l e resource , and as pressures upon land i nc rease , t h i s resource becomes more and more v a l u ab l e . A need e x i s t s t h e r e f o r e , in any comprehensive reg iona l p lann ing program to examine not on l y how land and s o i l s are p re sen t l y used but how they can best be used and managed. This requ i res an areawide s o i l survey which shows the geograph ica l l o c a t i o n of the va r i ous k inds of s o i l s , i d e n t i f i e s t h e i r p h y s i c a l , chemi-c a l , and b i o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s , and i n t e r p r e t s these p r ope r t i e s fo r land use and pub l i c f a c i l i t i e s p lann ing ( l . Bauer, 1966). S o i l s assessment i s important in that i t prov ides data fo r d e f i n i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g each s o i l , as we l l as making p r ed i c t i o n s as to the behaviour of s o i l under s p e c i f i c land management. The p rope r t i e s of s o i l can then be used to determine the type, l o c a t i o n , and degree of r e c r ea t i ona l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n s p e c i f i e d " l a nd t y pe s . " The term " l and type" suggests that land may be c l a s s i f i e d i n to i d e n t i f i a b l e components, based on se l ec ted c r i t e r i a . The f o l l ow i ng s e c t i on is the re fo re devoted to a b r i e f examinat ion of va r i ous land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n techn iques , w i th the purpose being to syn thes i ze aspects of each technique in to a land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n framework for man-made reservo i r s . TECHNIQUES OF LAND CLASSIFICATION Th i s t h e s i s adopts the d e f i n i t i o n by G. A. H i l l s (1970) that land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i nvo l ves va r ious processes which: 46 i d e n t i f y , desc r ibe and name areas in terms of t h e i r na tu ra l f ea tu res wi thout at tempt ing to ra te them. H i l l s ' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t e r r e s t r i a l areas i s based on the pe r ce i vab l e fea tu res o f both vege ta t i on and phys iography, where the t o t a l s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n invo lves the subd i v i s i on of land i n t o : s i t e reg ions , landtypes, and phys iograph i c s i t e types (see l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n ) . Accord ing to Mabbutt (1968) there are a t l eas t three (3) approaches to land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : the genetic, where land is. subd iv ided in to na tu ra l reg ions on the bas i s of causa t i ve environmental f a c t o r s ( i . e . , c l i m a t i c r eg i ons ) ; the landscape approach, where land is sub-d i v i ded on the bas i s of d i f f e r e n t land forms, s o i l s , and vege ta t i on (at the l eve l of v i s ua l expe r i ence ) ; and f i n a l l y , the parametric, which subd iv ides and c l a s s i f i e s a long g rad i en t s of se l ec ted a t t r i b u t e va lues ( i . e . , mois ture reg imes) . Whatever the approach, land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s the f i r s t o f many processes in the assessment of man's po s s i b l e use of the land for a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , r e c r e a t i o n , minera l e x t r a c t i o n , e c o l o g i c a l p r e -serves and so on. Whi le the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n processes depend upon natura l f ea tu res of the land, or the environmental components ( i t s geo l og i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y f o r example), the next stage in determin ing land use invo lves " l and e v a l u a t i o n " ; i t s s u i t a b i l i t y and f e a s i b i l i t y ( H i l l s , 1970), and imp l ies man ipu la t ion of the natura l system by man; the use of t e chno log i e s , f i n ance , labour , and i n c l u s i o n of s o c i a l param-e t e r s . Whi le land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n suggests a permanent c l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on the r e l a t i v e s e i f - p e r p e t u a t i o n and e q u i l i b r i u m of the e n v i r o n -ment under c l imax c ond i t i o n s , the concept of land eva l ua t i on suggests hi l e ss permanence as s o c i e t a l goa ls and va lues and the technology de-veloped to ach ieve them changes over t ime. Accord ing to Stewart (1918): Land e va l u a t i o n i s not something that can be done once and fo r a l l t ime, but must be repeated when s i g n i f i c a n t changes take p lace in any of the human resources . THE PURPOSE OF THE LAND CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE Outdoor r e c r ea t i ona l p lann ing should requ i re a comprehensive environmental assessment to make f u l l use o f , and to be com-p a t i b l e w i t h , environmental cond i t i ons (Morton, Fox,.1975). This means that any biogeophysica1 assessment of a reg ion should i n d i -cate where the l o ca l c ond i t i on s w i l l h inder or a i d s p e c i f i c development. I t should a l s o inc lude the p o t e n t i a l environmental impact of s p e c i f i e d r e c r ea t i ona l uses at the s i t e . F a i l u r e to meet these cond i t i on s can r e s u l t in overuse , or misuse of the land, and an inc rease in en v i r on -mental d e t e r i o r a t i o n . Proper land management w i th an app r e c i a t i o n of the ecosystem bypasses the more, common phenomena r e l a t ed to mismanage-ment land p r a c t i c e s . F i n a l l y , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the land i n to i t s b iogeophys i ca l components prov ides the background data necessary to make f u r t h e r de c i s i o n s w i t h respect to land use, and can be app l i ed in con junc t i on w i th the economic, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l parameters that are a l s o requ i red in f o rmu la t i ng a comprehensive land management p l a n . THE RESERVOIR CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system developed in t h i s t he s i s combines the gene t i c , landscape and parametr i c approaches to resource c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 4 8 and inc ludes as par t of these approaches the method developed by H i l l s (1970) as "The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and Eva l ua t i on of Land fo r B i o l o g i c a l and Graph ica l P r odu c t i o n . " The s i g n i f i c a n c e of H i l l s ' approach i s that i t enables the cont inuous mantle of the ea r t h to be subd iv ided i n t o phys iog raph i c s i t e un i t s " s u i t a b l e fo r s tudy ing s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the phys iog raph i c environment and the s e r i e s of b i o t i c commun-i t i e s which i t suppo r t s " ( H i l l s , 1970). H i l l s ' approach invo lves the s ubd i v i s i o n of land i n t o three d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e ca tego r i e s based on the three approaches to land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o u t l i n e d above. These are the d i v i s i o n of land i n t o : 1. The S i t e Region, which i s an area w i t h i n which " s i m i l a r combinat ions of r e l i e f and parent s o i l ma te r i a l have s i m i l a r c l ima te and consequent ly a s i m i l a r success ion of p l an t communi t ies . " (The Gene t i c ) . 2. The Landtype, which i s a s ubd i v i s i o n of the S i t e Region based on recogn i zab le f ea tu res o f : (a) Landform (b) Soi1 tex ture (c) M inera l compos i t ion of bedrock (d) Depth of parent s o i l ma te r i a l and inc ludes the m i c r o c l ima t i c fea tu res of the s i t e reg ion to the three landform f ea t u r e s . (The Landscape). 3- Phys iog raph i c S i t e Type, which is a s ubd i v i s i o n of l and-types based on: (a) Mo is ture regime i»9 (b) Local c l imate (c) S i g n i f i c a n t var ia t ions in s o i l depth more s p e c i f i c than those which character ize the landtype. (The Parametr ic) . Thus in adopting the assessment procedure out l ined above, the fo l lowing four stages have been established) in i dent i f y ing the land-use c a p a b i l i t y for se lected recreat iona l a c t i v i t i e s : (a) I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Reservoir S i te Region (b) I den t i f i c a t i on of Landtypes with in the Reservoir S i te Region (c) Establishment of Recreation Management Units (R.M.U.) (d) I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of landuse c a p a b i l i t i e s for recreat iona l a c t i v i t i e s . F i n a l l y , in th is chapter, various c r i t e r i a are es tab l i shed that can be used to i dent i f y the degree of l im i t a t i on that Recreation Manage-ment Units have for se lected a c t i v i t i e s . The degree of l im i ta t ions are rated: None to s l i gh t (Class 1); Moderate (Class 2); Severe (Class 3)• In summary, the land assessment procedure involves two components: 1. the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n , on a biogeophysical bas is , various units of land and water, and 2. the assessment of these blocks for spec i f i ed recreat iona l uses based on a t t r i b u t e values. Step One. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Reservoir S i te Region Step One involves the establishment of (a) the surface area and (b) the land area of the reservo i r s i t e region. Extent of the reservo i r includes that surface area up to the maximum pool l e v e l . The s i t e region 50 includes the surface area of the reservo i r and that land away from the water 's edge (at maximum level ) to e i ther (1) the surrounding height of land, or (2) one mile from the r e s e r v o i r . The f i gure of one mile has been se lected on the premise that most recreat iona l a c t i v i t i e s centred around water bodies (camping, p i cn i ck i ng , play areas, e t c . ) , usual ly are located with in th is d istance from the shore l i ne . The locat ion of the dam estab l i shes the downstream l im i t of the Reservoir S i te Region (see Figure 7). The scale of the mapping for the Reservoir S i te Region na tu ra l l y depends upon the s ize of the reservo i r being examined and the degree of de ta i l that is to be shown. / Figure 7. The Reservoir S i te Region 51 Step Two. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Landtypes  w i th in the Reservoir S i te Region "Landtypes" wi th in the Reservoir S i te Region form the basis fo r land-use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and are recognized by d i s t i n c t i v e physiographic features . These features are the r e s u l t of in terac t ions between three components of the environment, namely: - the topography - the s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - the vegetat ion . The i n t e r a c t i o n of these three components produces f i v e d i s t i n c t zones (Jaakson, 1970, 1972) s p e c i f i c to reservo i rs and t h e i r adjacent shore-1 ines . They are : (a) The Open Water Zone (b) The L i t t o r a l Zone (c) The Beach Zone (d) The Foreshore Zone (e) The Upland Zone. Examples of the d i f f e r e n t combinations o f landtypes can be d iagramat i -c a l l y shown as fo l lows (see Figure 8) . D e f i n i t i o n of Reservoir Zones (a) The Open Water Zone The Open Water Zone refers to the tota l water surface area of the reservo i r extending from the f i v e - f o o t contour interva l of the L i t t o r a l Zone (see d e f i n i t i o n below). As discussed l a t e r , the p r i n c i p a l a c t i v i t i e s in t h i s zone are re la ted to boat ing . Because of the nature of 52 j Upland Figure 8. Landtypes of the Reservoir S i te Region 53 these a c t i v i t i e s , s t r i c t r egu l a t i on s need to be adopted in order to ensure maximum pub l i c s a f e t y . The con t r o l of these a c t i v i t i e s can be made more p l a u s i b l e by r e l a t i n g the dimensions of t h i s zone to the lake morphology. "Whereas a round lake renders a c t i v i t y con t ro l d i f f i -c u l t , a lake w i th bays and headlands makes a c t i v i t y segregat ion e a s i e r " (Jaakson, 1972). The water sur face can a l s o be c l a s s i f i e d i n to three " a c t i v i t y zones" fo r those lakes where the management ob j e c t i v e i s to minimize incompat ib le on-water a c t i v i t i e s (see p. 130). (b) The Li t tora1 Zone Th is zone i s de f ined as the a r ea , below water , from the wa t e r ' s edge to the f i v e - f o o t depth contour . This contour i s of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r r e c r ea t i on s ince i t forms the l i m i t where most swimming, wading, and other a c t i v i t i e s take p l a c e . Due to the nature of r e s e r v o i r s and t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of pool l eve l drawdowns, i t is important to recogn ize that the L i t t o r a l Zone i s v a r i a b l e in s i z e . During per iods of minimum water l e v e l , the L i t t o r a l Zone can be d i v i ded in to the " low water zone" (area from the wa te r ' s edge up to the f i v e - f o o t contour depth) , and the exposed "wet beach" (area from the wa te r ' s edge up to the h igh water mark, see F igure 9)- At per iods of maximum water l e v e l , the extent of the L i t t o r a l Zone remains a t the f i v e - f o o t depth e s t ab l i s h ed a t minimum l eve l (the permanent L i t t o r a l Zone), a l though the new f i v e - f o o t depth i s now c l o s e r to the s h o r e l i n e . (c) The Beach Zone The Beach Zone i s de f ined as the area above the wa te r ' s edge (from the maximum high water mark), to the f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t change of 5h M A X . P O O L L E V E L M I N . P O O L L E V E L E X T E N T O F L I T T O R A L Z O N E Pe rmanen t L i t t o r a l Z o n e Trans ien t L i t to ra l Z o n e Dry B e a c h 5 at Max . \ L o w Water Z o n e at Min. Wet B e a c h at Min. F igure 9. Zonat ions w i t h i n the L i t t o r a l Region s l ope , and/or beginning of t e r r e s t r i a l v ege t a t i o n . Beach g rad ien t s can range from 2—15% w i th beach ma te r i a l s va ry ing from f i n e sands (no l i m i t a t i o n s fo r r e c r e a t i o n ) , to sharp, unsorted rocks (severe l i m i t a t i o n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n ) . (d) The Foreshore Zone The Foreshore Zone i s de f ined as that area extending in land from the Beach Zone to the beg inn ing of the Upland Zone. This zone inc ludes a range of s lope cond i t i on s to a maximum of 15%, w i th vary ing degrees of vege ta t i ve cover and s o i l c o n d i t i o n s . In some ins tances where the Beach Zone i s absent , the Foreshore and/or Upland Zone may begin at the wa te r ' s edge. Where t e r r aces are ev ident a long the v a l l e y s i d e s , a steep, o f t en heav i l y eroded bank (s lope >15%) may r i s e from the wa te r ' s edge preced ing the Foreshore Zone. Th is zone (u sua l l y less than 1000 fee t ) i s r e f e r r ed 55 to as the " sub - f o r e sho re " and can be rated accord ing to i t s r ec rea t i ona c a p a b i l i t y (see photos 1 and 2, Chapter Four ) . Foreshore iSubfore-i shore Upland Open Water Zone F igure 10. The Sub-foreshore Zone (e) The Upland Zone The Upland Zone i s de f ined as the area of u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d steep v a l l e y w a l l s , extending in land away from the Foreshore Zone. This zone i s c ha r a c t e r i z ed by: 1. s lopes in excess of f i f t e e n per cent 2. sha l low s o i l depths to bedrock 3. the coarse fragment of the s o i l g rea te r than f i f t y per cen t . Using these c r i t e r i a , the Reservo i r S i t e Region would be i n v e s t i ' gated and mapped a c co rd i ng l y i n to the f i v e i d e n t i f i a b l e l andtypes . 56 Step Three. Es tab l i shment of Recreat ion  Management Un? ts (R .M .iTTl The f i v e i d e n t i f i a b l e landtypes of the r e s e r v o i r have been determined on the bas i s of general phys i ca l land and water cha ra c t e r -i s t i c s . V a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n each landtype, depending upon s i z e of the landtype, a re n a t u r a l l y to occu r , which l i m i t the degree to which recrea-t i on can take p l a ce , va ry ing amounts of s o i l wetness in the Foreshore Zone, f o r example. For t h i s reason, a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the landtype based a long g rad ien t s of s e l e c t ed "geophys i ca l v a l ue s " ( a l so r e f e r r ed to as c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s ) i s undertaken. The r e su l t i s a s ubd i v i s i o n of the landtype in to un i t s c a l l e d Recrea t ion Management Un i ts (R .M.U . ) . The importance of t h i s step i s that the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a Recreat ion Management Uni t determines the degree to which i t i s capable o f suppor t ing se l e c ted r e c r ea t i ona l a c t i v i t i e s . ' Th is i s be-cause the va r i ous g rad ien t s of each c on t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r (sur face tex -t u r e , s l ope , s o i l wetness, water c u r r en t s , temperature, e t c . ) determine the degree o f s e v e r i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o na l use. These c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s of topography, s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and aqua t i c c ond i t i on s are f u r t he r developed in the f i n a l s t ep . Step Four. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Land-use  C a p a b i l i t i e s fo r Recrea t ion A c t i v i t i e s ' In the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of land-use c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r the Reservo i r S i t e Region, an a na l y s i s of both the land and water cond i t i on s must be Rec rea t i ona l are 1i s ted in Table 2. a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r r e spec t i v e mapping codes TABLE 2 Recreational A c t i v i t i e s at the Reservoir S i te Region Reservoi r Landtype Recreat iona1 Acti vi t ies Open Water Li t to ra l Beach Foreshore Up 1 and Boati ng Family Bathi ng Sunbathing (S) Organi zed Hi ki ng - sa i1 i ng (S) (FB) campi ng - rowing/ Gathering & Scenic Viewing paddling (C) Wading (W) Co l l ec t i ng P i cn i ck ing Nature Study - motoring (P) Swimming (S) Unorgan i zed H i ki ng Water ski i ng games (G) Wi ld l i fe (ws) Gathering & Gathering & Viewing (W)* Co l lec t i ng (G) Hiking (H) C o l l e c t i ng Nature Nature Study Nature Study Study (NS)* Access (A) Seen i c Viewi ng Seen i c Viewi ng (V)* * See Explanatory Note (p. 58). Explanatory Note to Table 2 Many of the terms l i s t e d in Table 2 are c l o se l y assoc iated with other recreat iona l a c t i v i t i e s As a consequence, their d e f i n i t i o n needs further explanat ion: Nature Study (NS) Scenic Viewing (V) W i l d l i fe Viewing (W) Nature study areas occur where vegetation or wetland w i l d l i f e is outstanding in uniqueness and a t t rac t i venes s . A mature stand of Douglas f i r , marshland p lants , or upland meadows would a l l be rated as susta in ing high c a p a b i l i t y for recreat iona l use (1 NS). S im i l a r l y , shore l ine nest ing areas, migration routes marsh birds and aquatic mammals (C.L. I . Report No. 6) would rate high in c a p a b i l i t y for a nature study area. Refers to that a c t i v i t y of viewing outstanding port ions of the Reservoir S i t e Region, surrounding t e r r a i n , and hydro generating f a c i l i t i e s . Viewpoints are not necessar i l y the highest point of land, although topographic condit ions (E) are largely taken into cons iderat ion, (steeply s lop ing gradients and rock outcrops normally o f f e r superior views to undulating slopes fac ing away from the re servo i r , and/or creek g u l l i e s ) . Refers to the viewing of Upland Ungulates. Capab i l i t y rat ings are on the basis of B.C. Land Inventory Information (Ungulates); ex i s t i n g s lopes, depth to bedrock; and surface runoff streams. These r e s t r i c t i n g fac tors are c o l l e c t i v e l y grouped into one r e s t r i c t i n g category: slope (SL) . Other a c t i -v i t i e s associated with w i l d l i f e viewing included in th i s grouping are: p r im i t i ve camping, h ik ing, and nature study. 59 made. C a p a b i l i t y r a t i ng s are the re fo re determined on the bas i s o f : (1) Geophysica l p r ope r t i e s (2) Aquat i c c o n d i t i o n s . The s a l i e n t po in t s o f these c ond i t i o n s are d i scussed below. 1 . Geophysica l P r ope r t i e s It has p r ev i ou s l y been submitted (pp. kk-kS) that the i d e n t i f i -c a t i on of s o i l p r ope r t i e s enables the land manager to make i n i t i a l assessments of the land based on i t s inherent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . This process is done on ly a f t e r the Rese rvo i r S i t e Region is f i r s t c l a s s i -f i e d i n to i t s va r ious l andtypes . A l l s o i l s have the p o t e n t i a l to be used for some r e c r e a t i o na l a c t i v i t y . Some o f f e r no l i m i t a t i o n s fo r s p e c i f i e d r e c r ea t i ona l uses, wh i l e o thers have moderate to severe l i m i t a -t i on s (see l a t e r d e f i n i t i o n s ) f o r c e r t a i n uses. In some cases, l o ca l s o i l c ond i t i on s may be dangerous i f developed fo r r e c r ea t i ona l purposes: s o i l s subjected to f l a s h f l o o d i n g , o r l a nd s l i d e s , fo r example. In a d d i -t i o n , wh i l e the emphasis of s o i l and topography appears to be d i r e c t ed toward land-based r e c r e a t i o n , as developed below, these cond i t i on s a l s o a f f e c t water-based r e c r e a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y in the L i t t o r a l Zone. Accord ing to P. Montgomery and F. Edminster (1966), there are at l eas t ten geophys ica l p r ope r t i e s o f the land that s i n g l y or in combinat ion w i t h o t he r s , a f f e c t r e c r e a t i o na l use. B r i e f l y , they a re : (a) Lands sub jec t to f l o o d i n g . These lands have severe l i m i t a -t i on s f o r r e c r ea t i ona l uses (camp s i t e s , r e c r e a t i o na l b u i l d i n g s , p lay a reas , e t c . ) . Unless p recaut ions are taken: p r o v i s i o n of d i k e s , levees , 60 and f l o od p r o t e c t i o n s t r u c t u r e s , e t c . , these s o i l s should not be used. Ins tead, they should be l e f t as green be l t spaces, h i k i n g , or nature study areas , i f f l o od i ng i s not too f requen t . (b) Wet So i I s ( F i b r i s o l s ) . These s o i l s are o f ten wet a l l year , and are c ha r a c t e r i z ed by f l u c t u a t i n g water t ab les a t or near the ground su r f a ce . For t h i s reason, they are poor l y su i t ed to camps i tes , t r a i l s , p i c n i c a reas , and p laygrounds . S o i l s that dry out s low ly a f t e r ra ins a l s o present problems i f i n t ens i ve r e c rea t i on use i s contemplated. (c) Draughty S o i I s . Draughty s o i l s , in some cases, can present l i m i t a t i o n s f o r r e c r ea t i ona l use. Grass cover for p l ay i ng f i e l d s , e t c . , i s o f t en d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h and ma in t a i n . Without c o r r e c t i v e mea-sures , access roads can be dusty , v eh i c l e s can be mired down in sandy s o i l s , and sand blowing i s common. (d) Soi1 Compact i on . S t ruc tu re and tex tu re of the soi1 e f f e c t in par t the degree to which the s o i l i s " compac t i b l e " and can sus t a i n r e c r e a t i o na l use. Some s o i l s , when wet, w i l l f a i l to support s t r u c t u r e s , roads, and t r a i l s . An understanding of the s h r i n k - swe l l potent ia1--how the s o i l behaves w i th the a dd i t i o n of water , and the p l a s t i c and l i q u i d l i m i t s o f the s o i l should a l s o be understood. (e) S lope . Slope a f f e c t s the use of s o i l s fo r r e c r e a t i o n . F l a t to nea r l y f l a t ( l e s s than 8%), we 11-drained, permeable, s tone - f r ee s o i l s have few to no l i m i t a t i o n s f o r use as camps i tes , p laygrounds, p i c n i c and beach a reas , and t r a i l s , wh i l e s lopes in excess of 10% have moderate to severe l i m i t a t i o n s , as we l l as having higher e ros ion p o t e n t i a l . Slopes in excess of 15% u sua l l y suggest sha l low s o i l depths to bedrock and 61 the re fo re p r o h i b i t s e p t i c tank d i sposa l f i e l d s fo r both campsite and second home development. Slopes of less than 10% in the L i t t o r a l Zone would a l s o favour r e c r ea t i ona l use. ( f ) Soi1 Depth. The depth of the s o i l to bedrock a f f e c t s many po t en t i a l r e c r e a t i o na l uses: sha l low s o i l s r e s t r i c t dra inage and are the re fo re not s u i t a b l e fo r s ep t i c tank l o c a t i o n s . Where bedrock i s c l o se to the su r f a ce , these s o i l s are d i f f i c u l t to l eve l fo r camps i tes , roads, and t r a i l s , except at h igh co s t . The es tab l i shment of vege ta t i ve cover on sha l low s o i l s , or on s o i l s over impervious l a y e r s , i s d i f f i c u l t , and r e s t r i c t s the l o c a t i o n fo r p l a y i ng ' f i e l d s , and i n t ens i ve r e c rea t i on a rea s . (g) Soi1 Tex tu re . The sur face tex tu re i s an important proper ty of the s o i l that must be cons idered in assess ing i t s r e c r e a t i o na l cap-a b i l i t y . S o i l s high in c l ay content are not s u i t a b l e f o r i n t ens i ve r e c r ea t i ona l areas in that they become s t i c k y when wet, and are slow to dry a f t e r r a i n s . Sandy s o i l s are a l s o undes i rab le ( in the Foreshore Zone), in that when dry , are r e l a t i v e l y uns tab l e . A combinat ion between these extremes, the sandy loam, and loam textured s o i l s are the most favourab le fo r r e c r ea t i ona l use. Texture of the l i t t o r a l bottom a l s o l i m i t s r e c r ea t i ona l use, w i th s o i l s h igh in c l a y content being l ea s t desi r ab l e . (h) Ston i ness. The presence of s tones , rocks , cobb les , or grave l l i m i t s the degree of r e c r ea t i ona l use on the s o i l . Those s o i l s that have very s tony, s tony, rocky, or g r a v e l l y s o i l s ( fo r d e f i n i t i o n s , see U.S.D.A. S o i l Survey Manual) , have severe to moderate l i m i t a t i o n s f o r 62 use as camps i tes . In some cases , the removal of stones is po s s i b l e (based on s u i t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i a ) , a l though in s e l f - c hu r n i n g s o i l s , t h i s removal process would have to be cont inued on a regu la r ba s i s , and at h igh c o s t s . Angular and sub-angular rocks on the f l o o r of the L i t t o r a l Zone a l s o presents hazards to water-based r e c r e a t i o n . On steep s l opes , the occurrence of g rave l s and stones are hazardous where paths and foot t r a i l s are planned in that these s o i l s are gene ra l l y unstab le when walked on (see Coarse Fragment). ( i ) Coarse Fragment. The coarse fragment r e fe r s to those par -t i c l e s i z e s of the s o i l between 3mm to 10 inches in d iameter . The percentage of coarse fragment i n the s o i l determines in l a rge pa r t the compaction o f the s o i l . S o i l s w i th a high per cent o f coarse fragment gene r a l l y have l i t t l e compact ion. A l s o , coarse fragments are less l i k e l y to move as a r e s u l t of running water , and can help thwart the movement of f i n e r p a r t i c l e s , j However, i f the coarse fragment content is e x ce s s i v e , the few f i n e r p a r t i c l e s w i l l not bind the coarser f r a g -ments toge ther . As a r e s u l t , the coarse fragment can e a s i l y s l i p i f walked on, e s p e c i a l l y on steep s lopes (Morton, Fox, Chilliwaak Study, 1975). ( j ) Permeabi1i t y . The term " pe rmeab i l i t y " r e fe r s to the q u a l i t y o f the s o i l that enables i t to t ransmi t a i r and water . S o i l s t r u c t u r e and t ex tu re are d i r e c t l y r e l a t ed to the pe rmeab i l i t y of the s o i l . S o i l s that are compact ib le w i l l reduce pe rmeab i l i t y and remain wet ter than those s o i l d that have good a i r - t o - w a t e r r a t i o s . In tens ive r e c r ea t i ona l areas requ i r e s an i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s and in many cases , s e p t i c tanks are 63 the on ly means of waste d i s p o s a l . For t h i s reason, i t i s important that s o i l s are w e l l - d r a i n e d , permeable, have s u f f i c i e n t depth to bedrock, and are not sub jec t to f l o o d i n g . F a i l u r e to meet these cond i t i ons can pro-duce ground water contaminat ion , sur face ponding, as we l l as unpleasant cond i t i ons fo r r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . These ten geophys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are by no means exhaus t i ve . For the purposes of the framework e s t ab l i s h ed in t h i s t h e s i s , they a r e , however, c l o s e l y a s soc i a t ed w i th va r i ous types of outdoor ( land and water-based) r e c r ea t i ona l a c t i v i t i e s , and prov ide a foundat ion f o r a d d i -t i o n a l and more i n t ens i ve a n a l y s i s . With the a i d of s o i l s maps; and knowing the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and behaviour of s o i l s under va r i ous cond i -t i o n s , the land manager can begin to develop b iogeophys i ca l i n t e r p r e t a -t i ons f o r s p e c i f i e d r e c r ea t i ona l uses. 2 . Aqua t i c Condi t i ons In a dd i t i o n to s o i l s data and topographic c ond i t i o n s , equa l l y important is assess ing land-use c a p a b i l i t y f o r r e c r ea t i on in r e cogn i t i on of the l o ca l aqua t i c cond i t i ons of the r e s e r v o i r , the ope ra t i ona l re -quirements of the hydro p lan t and t h e i r impact on the r e s e r v o i r . Whi le the main c r i t e r i a to be cons idered are the drawdown fea tu re of the r e s e r v o i r , the phys i c a l p rope r t i e s of water temperature, t u r b i d i t y , wind and wave a c t i o n , e t c . , must a l s o be cons idered and the degree to which they a f f e c t r e c r ea t i ona l use of the water . The drawdown of the r e s e r v o i r i s determined main ly by energy demands, and the i n s t a l l e d capac i t y of the p lan t to re lease water; the 64 i n s t a l l ed capaci ty being determined c h i e f l y by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of water ( inflow into the reservo i r ) and the r e s e r v o i r ' s capable storage. Evaporation and seepage losses only somewhat a f f e c t reservo i r l e ve l s . Both large storage and coastal reservo i r s fo l low drawdown patterns (see p. 33). On many of the coastal re se rvo i r s , a d i s t i n c t i v e s i tua t i on p r e v a i l s . Generation from these reservo i r s often operates in a peaking mode, f i l l i n g the e l e c t r i c i t y demand peaks during the day (see Figure 11). This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c is true of both storage and run-of - the r i ver reservo i r s of the Coastal System in summer. Depending upon the * - Peaking (probably thermal with some hydro) * - Hydro ••—Base Load (usually thermal) MID 6 A M NOON 6 P M MID E lapsed Time — Figure 11. Dai ly Demand Curve of an E l e c t r i c a l U t i l i t y , with mixed generation a v a i l a b l e . s i ze of the re se rvo i r , th i s operat ing requirement often resu l t s in d ra f t ing of the reservo i r twice d a i l y to supply the demand peaks, with 65 the genera t ing p l an t s i d l i n g dur ing the n igh t to a l l ow fo r surcharg ing f o r the f o l l ow i ng day. Hayward Lake, a r u n - o f - t h e - r i v e r r e s e r vo i r i s a good example of t h i s phenomenon. Whi le ope ra t i ng under these normal c ond i t i o n s , t h i s can a l s o increase the sur face water cu r ren t s and pre-sent increased hazards to on-water a c t i v i t i e s . Reservo i r s a l s o s p i l l excess water dur ing high run -o f f pe r i ods , thereby a l l u v i a t i n g f l o od i ng by having f i s t u t i l i z e d a v a i l a b l e s t o rage . I d ea l l y , the s p i l l e ven tua l l y passed i s less than the peak i n f l ow , g i v i n g a secondary f l ood con t ro l b e n e f i t . This a c t i o n increases the normal C . F .S . of the water a long the lake and can f u r t he r r e s u l t in increased c u r r en t s . In a dd i t i o n to the geophys ica l and aqua t i c c ond i t i o n s , there are a l s o c e r t a i n b i ophys i c a l requirements that must be cons idered in determin ing land c a p a b i l i t i e s for r e c r ea t i ona l use. These a re : (a) Vegeta t i ve and t ree cover must be examined and the degree to which they prov ide wind and sun s h e l t e r fo r campground and p i c n i c f a c i1 i t i e s . (b) The o r i e n t a t i o n of the land w i th respect to the r e s e r v o i r , and the degree of s lope must a l s o be cons idered f o r v iewing of the r e s e r v o i r s i t e r eg i on , surrounding t e r r a i n , and hydro generat ing f a c i -l i t i e s . (c) Access to the water f o r power boats , s a i l b o a t s , and canoes should inc lude a na l y s i s of beach and foreshore s l opes , subsurface s lopes and tex tu res in the L i t t o r a l Zone, water cu r ren ts where p r eva l en t , in a dd i t i o n to the p r o v i s i o n o f park ing f a c i l i t i e s for automobi les (U.S. Bureau of Outdoor Recreat ion) in the Foreshore Zone. 66 (d) Beach exposures to sun and wind and b io l og i ca l p roduc t i v i t y in the L i t t o r a l Zone, s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f fec t the degree of recreat iona l use and c a p a b i l i t y for s pec i f i ed recreat ion a c t i v i t i e s . While an empir ica l rat ing cannot be assigned to each of these cont r ibut ing f ac to r s , the i r r e l a t i v e importance to recreat iona l requ i re -ments is paramount and should be based on the prevalence of the ex i s t i n g cond i t i on . For example, a southwest exposure during the summer is more des i rab le than a northern exposure for beach and foreshore recreat iona l a c t i v i t i e s . S i m i l a r l y , a dense tree stand located in an area exposed to high winds would be more des i rab le for recreat iona l use (e.g . , camp-grounds) than an area with sparse vegetation cover and subjected to s im i l a r wind cond i t ions . DEGREE OF LIMITATIONS FOR RECREATIONAL USE In th i s study, the biogeophysica1 condit ions determine the degree of l i m i t a t i o n : None to S l i ght (Class 1); Moderate (Class 2); and Severe (Class 3) for s pec i f i ed recreat iona l uses within each manage-ment un i t . These three c lasses are described as fo l lows: 1. None to S l i ght L im i ta t ion . Refers to the s o i l , the local aquat ic cond i t ions , and operat ions requirements being r e l a t i v e l y free of l im i t a t i ons that a f f e c t the intended use, or that the l im i ta t i ons are easy to overcome. None to s l i gh t l im i ta t ions suggest that s pec i f i ed recreat iona l a c t i v i t i e s can a l so be sustained with minimum e f f ec t s to the environment. 67 2. Moderate L imi ta t ions . Moderate l im i ta t ions for land-based recreat ion resu l t from the e f f e c t s of s lope, wetness, s o i l depth, tex-ture, exposure, vegetat ive cover, e t c . For water-based recrea t ion , s lope, texture, stones, e t c . , can r e s t r i c t l i t t o r a l a c t i v i t i e s , in add i t ion to water t u r b i d i t y , temperature, and hazardous water cond i t ions . Normally, the l im i t a t i ons can be overcome with correct planning, proper land management, and carefu l design. Areas of moderate l im i t a t i on may imply f i nanc i a l management costs to r e c t i f y local cond i t ions , and should therefore include s u i t a b i l i t y and f e a s i b i l i t y assessment. 3. Severe L im i ta t ions . Severe l im i ta t i ons represent condit ions that are unsuitable for pub l i c use. On land, these condit ions resu l t from excessive s lopes, high water tab les, f lood ing , s toniness, unfavour-able so i l condit ions (texture) e t c . Severe l im i ta t ions in the L i t t o r a l and Open Water Zones resu l t from hazardous lake bottoms, surface currents , high water t u r b i d i t y , advanced stages of eutrophicat ion, cold water temperatures, e t c . Due to the sever i t y of these cond i t ions , these l i m i -tat ions p roh ib i t most recreat iona l use of the land and water, unless major reclamation work is undertaken. The fo l lowing tables are used to determine the subd iv i s ion of the landtype into Recreational Management Units and the degree to which the biogeophysica1 l im i ta t ions a f f e c t s pec i f i ed recreat iona l uses. The degree of l im i t a t i on (Classes 1-3) is es tab l i shed by the prominence of one or more f a c to r s . Due to the complex in teract ion and cause-ef fect re l a t ionsh ips that occur on the land and water, the occurrence of one cont r ibut ing fac tor often leads to other i d e n t i f i a b l e factors within 68 TABLE 3 C r i t e r i a Considered in Rat ing C a p a b i l i t y fo r the Open Water Zone Con t r i bu t i ng > i nc reas ing s e v e r i t y of l i m i t a t i o n > Factors None to S l i g h t Severe Water 1 or more pub l i c 1 p ub l i c access No access Access access po in t s per per 1000 lake (A) 300 lake acres acres (Jaakson 1970) Wind Speed less than 10 mph 10-15 mph greate r than 15 mph (W) Lake Large lake s i z e Shal low water depths Morphology wi thout ob s t r u c - Shore l i ne reeds and (M) t i o n , (stumps, sedges reeds, e t c . ) Narrow bay and i n -Deep open water l e t s Large, w e l l - Submerged stumps rounded bays >• Bottom debr i s High water qua l i ty Steep sho r e l i n e c l i f f ' Lack of bottom Advanced stages of debr i s eutrophi cat i on D i v e r s i t y of shore- Water po i1ut ion 1i ne 1andforms High water t u r b i d i t y S i ze of Zone- >1000 acres 500-1000 <500 acres Boa t i ng Less than 1 boat 5-10 Greater than 10 boats Dens i ty per acre of per acre (exi s t i ng) Open Water su r -(D) face (Jaakson, 1970) Spec i a l Water c u r r en t s , d a i l y water f l u c t u a t i o n s Hazards > (Seve r i t y of l i m i t a t i o n depends on preva lence >• (H) of condi t i on) Note: Lake morphology a f f e c t s the degree to which d i f f e r e n t boat ing a c t i v i t i e s can coex i s t w i t h i n the same zone. Sma l l , narrow r e s e r v o i r s , f o r example, prec lude motor boats , but are s u i t a b l e f o r canoes and s a i l b o a t s (see d i s cus s i on Chapter F i v e , "Water-Zoning") . * Refers to power boats o n l y . 69 TABLE k C r i t e r i a Considered in Rat ing C a p a b i l i t y f o r the L i t t o r a l Zone Con t r i bu t i ng '• >- i n c reas ing s e v e r i t y of l i m i t a t i o n -Factors None to S l i g h t Moderate Severe Water Qual i ty (Oj C lear water Balanced nu t r i e n t l e ve l s y Suspended s o l i d s Water t u r b i d i t y Advanced e u t r o p h i -ca t i on High nu t r i e n t l e v e l s Temperature (mean summer months) g rea te r than 65 F 55-65 F Less than 55 F Subsurface Texture (T) Sands, smal l pebb les , and stones subangular s tones, and rocks submerged logs and stumps, angular rocks Slope (SL) Less than 5% 5-10% Greater than 10% Width of Greater than L i t t o r a l 100 f e e t 50-100 fee t Less than 50 f e e t Zone (W) Spec ia l Water c u r r en t s , d a i l y water f l u c t u a t i o n s Hazards (H) >• (Seve r i t y o f l i m i t a t i o n depends on preva lence of condi t i ons ) Note: The presence of s tand ing t rees in the L i t t o r a l Zone does not a f f e c t the c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g o f the zone. However, f e a s i b i l i t y and s u i t a b i l i t y f o r r e c r ea t i ona l use w i l l be r e s p e c t i v e l y a f f e c t ed where s tand ing t rees are p reva len t s ince t h e i r occurrence impl ies management dec i s i ons and f i n a n c i a l cos ts for t h e i r r e -mova1 . 70 TABLE 5 C r i t e r i a Considered in Rat ing C a p a b i l i t y f o r the Beach Zone Con t r i bu t i ng • i nc reas ing s e v e r i t y o f l i m i t a t i o n Factors None to S l i g h t Moderate ' Severe Surface Texture (T) Sand, Sand-gravel Sand-stones, Grave 1-sand Gravel , Sand-boulders Grave l - s tones Grave 1-boulders Ti 11 and Shale Stones-sand Stones S tones-bou1ders Bou lders-sand Bou lders -s tones Boulders Mi see 1 - < Beach Exposed on preva lence laneous (M) (L i mi t a t i on depends — of condi t i o n ) . Width (W) Greater than 100 fee t 50-100 feet Less than 50 fee t Slope (SL) 2-8% Less than 1% 8-15% Greater than 15% Specia1 Hazards (H) Exposure (E) Dangerous s l opes , cu r ren ts or undertows (Seve r i t y of l i m i t a t i o n depends on preva lence of condi t i on) 71 TABLE 6 C r i t e r i a Considered in Rating Capab i l i t y for the Camp Areas ( intens ive use) ' Contri buting Factors increas ing sever i ty of l im i t a t i on None to S1i ght Moderate Severe Wetness (D) (See Drain-age Classes Appendix 2) Wel1 to moderate 1y we 11 drained soi1s wi th no pond i ng and wi th water table below 3 feet Moderately wel1 d ra i ned s o i l s wi th water table less than 3 feet and some-what poorly dra i ned so i 1 s wi th no pond i ng Well dra ined, moder-a te ly we 11 dra i ned and somewhat poor ly , with occasional pond-ing of short durat ion, poorly and very poorly dra i ned soi Is Flooding (F) None None Subject to f lood ing during season of use Exposure (E) depends upon prevalence of condi t ion Permeabi l i ty Very rapid to (P) moderate Moderately slow Slow and very slow Slope (SL) less than 9% 9-15% 15% '+ Surface soi1 texture (T) s i , fs 1 , v f s1 , 1, and Is wi th tex-tura l b hor izon, not subject to blowi ng c, s c l , si c l , s i1 , Is, and sand other than loose sand Organic, c, s i c , sc, loose sand, and s o i l s subject to severe blowi ng Coarse Fragment (CF) Less than 15% 15-50% 50% + Ston i ness' (S) or rocki ness None Classes 1 and 2 Classes 3, 4 and 5 Depth to Bedrock (B) More, than 6 feet Less than 6 feet Sha11ow, wi th rock outcrops Vegetati ve Cover (V) Sever i ty of l im i ta t i on depends upon prevalence of cond i t ion Based on s o i l l im i ta t ions during use season. In low r a i n f a l l areas s o i l s may be rated one c lass better, For d e f i n i t i o n s see USDA So i l Survey Manual. Source: (Montgomery, Edminster, 1966) 72 TABLE 7 C r i t e r i a Considered in Rating the Capab i l i t y for the P i cn i c Areas Contr ibut ing *• increas ing sever i ty of l im i t a t i on • Factors None to S l i gh t Moderate Severe Slope (SL) Less than 8% 8-15% Greater than 15% Flooding (F) None May f lood for short per iods, but not during season of use F looding, may f lood in season of use. Surface soi 1 texture (T) gravels , loams clay loams sandy loams c l ay s , loamy sands, sands, s i l t loams, si 1 ts Coa rse Fragment (F) 15% 15-50% 50% + Wetness (D) We 11 to moderate 1y wel1 dra ined, with no ponding We 11 dra i ned, moderately we 11 drained, occas-Poor ly, and very poorly dra ined, somewhat poorly ional ponding drained, subject to ponding, wet at least k weeks dur-ing season of use Compact-a b i l i t y (C) grave 1 s sands loamy sands clays (when s i l t s , loams, sandy loams not wet) s i I t y loams, c lay loams Exposure Sever i ty of l im i ta t i on depends upon prevalence of condi t ion Vegetation Cover II II Source: (Montgomery, Edminister, 1966). 73 TABLE 8 C r i t e r i a Considered in Rat ing C apab i l i t y fo r the Paths and T r a i I s ' Con t r i bu t i ng >• i n c reas ing s e v e r i t y of l i m i t a t i o n -Factors None to S l i g h t Moderate Severe Wetness Well and moderately Well and moder-we l l d ra ined s o i l s a t e l y we l l w i t h seasonal dra ined s o i l s water t ab l e below sub jec t to 3 fee t seepage or ponding and somewhat poor l y dra ined s o i1 s . Seasonal water tab le 1-3 fee t Poor l y d ra ined and very poor l y dra ined soi 1 s F lood i ng Not sub jec t to f l o od i ng dur ing season of use Subject to occas iona l f l o o d i n g . May f l ood 1-2 times dur ing season of use Frequent f l o od i ng dur ing season of use Slope^ Less than 30% 30-70% 70% + Surface so i 1 tex tu re s i , f s l , v f s l , 1 s i 1, s i c l , sc 1, c l , s c , I s . s i c , c, sand and so i1 sub ject to severe blowing 0 rgan i c s o i1 s Coarse fragment 10-15% 0-10%; 15-80% Greater than 80% Ston iness or rock i ness C lasses 0,1 ,2 Class 3 Classes 4, 5 The pa t te rns of these t r a i l s should f i t the landform, i . e . , d i f f e r e n t design on steep s l opes , and on d i f f e r e n t s o i l s may d im in i sh the impacts on the environment. 2 Season of use should be cons idered in e va l ua t i ng these f a c t o r s , S o i l e r o d i b i l i t y i s an important item to eva luate in r a t i ng t h i s c o n d i t i o n . 4 Based on d e f i n i t i o n s in USDA So i l Survey Manual. Source: (Montgomery, Edminster , 1966) 74 the same degree of l i m i t a t i o n . As a consequence, lower case symbols (the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r ) in the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n for an R.M.U. are o f ten r e l a t e d ; i . e . , s o i l t e x t u r a l c l a s ses to dra inage c l a s s e s . The c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s that are cons idered do not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t the cond i t i on s f o r a l l r e c r ea t i ona l uses. For t h i s reason, a maximum of three se l e c t ed r e c r ea t i ona l a c t i v i t i e s are rated accord ing to t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y fo r each un i t (see F igure 12). LIMITATIONS OF THE IDENTIFICATION FRAMEWORK The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n framework e s t ab l i s h ed in t h i s chapter does not purpor t to be complete, but ra ther serves the land management p lanner as a tool to i d e n t i f y areas of c o n f l i c t between pub l i c r e c r ea -t i o n a l use and loca l phys iograph i c c ond i t i o n s . It does not meet the general problem of competing uses fo r the same r e c r ea t i ona l space, p a r t i c u l a r l y on the Open Water Zone, where canoe i s t s and water s k i e r s c o n f l i c t . For t h i s reason, an examinat ion of po s s i b l e water zoning in terms o f space (area) or time (hours, days) or combinat ion of these i s necessary , and cannot be so lved s o l e l y on the bas i s o f c a p a b i l i t y . S i ze and shape of the r e s e r vo i r does, however, p lay an important ro l e in e f f e c t i n g the degree to which these a c t i v i t i e s can be accommodated (see l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n , Chapter F i v e ) . Secondly, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g system i s based s o l e l y on the phys iograph i c components of landform and s o i l c ond i -t i o n s . L i t t l e c on s i d e r a t i o n i s given to vege ta t i on : the types and amounts of vege ta t i on f o r shade, nature s tudy, and a e s t h e t i c s . This par t 75 Figure 12. Recreat ion C a p a b i l i t i e s : The Foreshore Zone D i scuss ion of C apab i l i t y Rat ings f o r F igure 12 R.M.U. 1 rated as: 3 C 3 P 2 N S t t s i In t h i s management un i t , the c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g f o r the s e l e c t ed r e c r ea t i ona l a c t i v i t i e s are severe . Campground f a c i l i t i e s are severe l y r e s t r i c t e d due to sur face t e x t u r a l c ond i t i on s (t) (most probably s i l t loams and very f i n e s i l t loams), w i t h p i c n i c f a c i l i t i e s a l s o being seve re l y r e s t r i c t e d due to the same l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . The management un i t does have i n t e r e s t i n g nature study cond i t i ons (f\ $) , but is some-what r e s t r i c t e d due to s lope cond i t i on s in the area making access s l i g h t l y d i f f i c u l t . R.M.U. 2 rated as : 2 C I V 21 s i t This management un i t has moderate to h igh c a p a b i l i t y fo r r e c r ea -t i o n . Slope cond i t i on s ( s i ) (10-15%) do r e s t r i c t campground f a c i l i t i e s moderate ly , w i th sur face t e x tu r a l cond i t i ons (t) a l s o a f f e c t i n g t r a i l s and footpaths through the u n i t . Scen ic v iewing (IV) o f the Rese rvo i r S i t e Region and/or the hydro genera t ing f a c i l i t i e s is ra ted h i gh . R.M.U. 3 ra ted as : 1 C 1 P 1 T This management un i t presents unique oppo r t un i t i e s fo r r e c r ea t i ona l uses (Camping (C) , P i c n i c k i n g (P ) , and T r a i l s ( T ) ) . There a re no r e s t r i c t -ing f a c t o r s f o r the three r e c r ea t i ona l uses in the management u n i t . 76 is p r imar i l y considered in the overa l l descr ip t ion of the area. Areas of sparse to no vegetation cover would natura l l y rank lower than areas with vegetat ive cover. This part of the assessment is more subject ive rather than empir ica l in form. T h i r d l y , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system should not be confused with "best use" for the term "be s t " implies improvements to the l a n d — i t s s u i t a b i l i t y and f e a s i b i1 i t y . This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system i d e n t i f i e s recreat iona l potent ia l based on the natural condit ions of the land, with l i t t l e or no improvements being necessary in order to develop this p o t e n t i a l . For th i s reason, the technique should only be used as the f i r s t stage in developing a comprehensive land management plan for the reservoi r s i te. F i n a l l y , the l im i t i ng factors that are examined are done purely on the avai1abi1 i ty of ex i s t i n g data. F i e l d sampling to v e r i f y the data is done where poss ib le in the case study. Because only se lected c r i t e r i a are examined, the f u l l range of l im i t i ng factors are not covered. This exc lus ion of c e r t a i n components na tu ra l l y leads to i n -herent weaknesses in the technique and v a l i d i t y of the r e s u l t s . CHAPTER FOUR RECREATIONAL LAND-USE CAPABILITIES OF THE HAYWARD LAKE RESERVOIR SITE REGION In t h i s chap te r , the r e c r ea t i on i d e n t i f i c a t i o n framework i s app l i ed to a hydro generat ing r e s e r v o i r ; Hayward Lake, B r i t i s h Columbi. The purpose o f the case study serves two use fu l f u n c t i o n s . F i r s t , i t t e s t s the re levance and a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the developed framework. Secondly , i t p rov ides the necessary background in format ion f o r comprehensive l and -eva l ua t i on of the Reservo i r S i t e Reg ion. Th is chapter covers three main t o p i c s : the phys i ca l c ha r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f the study a rea ; an o u t l i n e of the procedure fo l l owed in the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n techn ique; and a d i s cu s s i on of the c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s . PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESERVOIR SITE REGION D e f i n i t i o n o f the S i t e Region This case study examines Hayward Lake, a r e s e r v o i r formed by the c on s t r u c t i o n of Ruskin Dam on the Stave R i v e r . The p ro j e c t i s located at the southern boundary of the B r i t i s h Columbia Coasta l Mountains and t h e i r conf luence w i th the Fraser R i ve r Lowlands, approx-imate ly f o r t y m i les east of Vancouver (see Study A rea , Map 1 ) . As p r e v i ou s l y de f ined (p. 6) the extent of the Rese rvo i r S i t e Region inc ludes the sur face area of the r e s e r vo i r and that land area 77 M A P 1. L O C A T I O N O F S T U D Y A R E A SCALE IN MILES CX' away from the wa te r ' s edge to e i t h e r , (1) the surrounding he ight of land, or (2) one m i l e from the r e s e r v o i r . In t h i s s tudy, the upstream extent of the S i t e Region i s deter mined by the Stave F a l l s and B l i n d Slough Dams. The t a i l waters of these two dams en te r Hayward Lake both by means of a r i v e r channel approx imate ly one -ha l f m i l e long (see S i t e Region and Map 2 ) . The l a t i t u d i n a l upstream boundary is determined by a l i n e drawn p a r a l l e l to the two dams fo r a d i s t ance of one m i l e . The l o ng i t ud i n a l boundari of the r e s e r vo i r a re drawn one mi le e qu i d i s t a n t from the r e s e r vo i r or to the surrounding he ight of l and . The ex ten t of the S i t e Region downstream i s determined by the Ruskin Dam. The northern l a t i t u d i n a l boundary f o l l ows a r i dge from the he ight of land and i s ad jacent to a s t eep l y g u l l i e d creek that f lows in to the r e s e r v o i r . The southern l a t i t u d i n a l boundary is located a long the "break of s l ope " on the west s ide of Hars ine Ridge to one m i l e from the r e s e r v o i r . Geography and Hydrology @ Hayward Lake Rese rvo i r occup ies the o l d r i v e r channel of the Stave R i v e r . Operat ing a t a l eve l of 211 fee t above sea leve l (datum based on a lower low t i d e 70.22 fee t h igher than t rue mean sea l e v e l ) , the r e s e r v o i r covers approx imate ly 31.51 x 10^ square fee t (700 acres) w i th a t o t a l length of 3.5 m i l es and an average width of 0.3 m i l e s . The land r i s e s s t eep l y from the r e s e r vo i r to the eas t to a maximum e l e v a t i o n o f 1750 f ee t A . S . L . and less s t eep l y to the west to < maximum e l e v a t i o n 1150 fee t A . S . L . (see Photos 1 and 2 ) . 80 81 Photo 2. N.W. Area o f S i t e Region c ha r a c t e r i z ed by steep Subforeshore . Foreshore not shown in photo. 82 The area has been sub jec t to heavy g l a c i a t i o n and was covered by a con t i nen t a l i ce sheet 15,000 years ago ( l . P . E . C , 1969). E v i -dence of t h i s is found by the g l a c i a l and p o s t - g l a c i a l depos i t s of up to severa l hundred feet t h i c k a long the v a l l e y bottoms. In the upland a reas , the overburden c on s i s t s of a r e l a t i v e l y t h i n cover of g l a c i a l d r i f t . The surrounding mountains are a l s o t y p i c a l l y rounded in form and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f g l a c i a t i o n . The reg ipn i s unde r l a i n by g r a n i t i c rocks of the Mesozoic Age. D i o r i t e i s the dominant rock type. Whi le the reg ion i s covered by a mantle of overburden, outcrops around the Ruskin and Stave F a l l s Dams are e v i d en t . Slopes here are in excess of 70%. The s u r f i c i a l ma te r i a l in the region con s i s t s o f : grave l and sand depos i t s (outwash depos i ted by the g l a c i e r s and Stave R i v e r ) ; s i l t s and c l a y s (u sua l l y g l a c i oma r i ne ) ; and t i l l s (unsorted ma te r i a l s depos i ted by g l a c i e r s ) . Hyd ro l og i ca l c ond i t i on s a t Hayward Lake are governed p r i m a r i l y by water re l eases at Stave Lake (catchment area of approx imate ly 450 square m i l e s ) . Th is can r e s u l t in a maximum in f low of approx imate ly 120,000 cub ic fee t per second (c f s ) in to Hayward dur ing peak run-o f f per iods (based on a 100 year re turn f l o o d ) . The average annual p r e -c i p i t a t i o n at Stave F a l l s is 80 inches, w i th the peak per iod o c cu r r i ng between November to January . During these months, monthly t o t a l s average 9-11 inches ( l . P . E . C , 1969). Since much of the p r e c i p i t a t i o n in the catchment area f a l l s in the form of snow, the g rea tes t volume of run -o f f occurs in the sp r i ng 83 months, w i th the f l ood hydrograph peaking in June. A second in f l ow per iod occurs in the autumn months (October through December) w i th the run -o f f p r i n c i p a l l y being der i ved from r a i n f a l l and aggravated by ( po t en t i a l ) snowmelt. Due to the geophys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the dra inage bas in (see p. 28) the run -o f f pe r iod in the catchment area i s approx imate ly 48 hours and can cause rap id r i s e s in Stave Lake. This can po s s i b l y lead to a s p i l l through Hayward Lake (see F igure 13). J F M A M J J A S O N D A (months) F igure 13. Run-off C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s in to Stave Lake C l imate and Vegeta t ion The c l ima te of the Hayward Lake S i t e Region i s c l assed as i n -shore Mar i t ime w i th warm wet w in te r s and dry summers.' The temperature a t Stave F a l l s and M i s s i on record a w in te r mean of 2.2 C and a summer 84 mean of 17-7 C w i th temperatures in August reaching 29 C. K r a j i n a ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (Biogeoclimatic Zones of British Columbia) de f ines the area as the Coasta l Western Hemlock, a l though the S i t e Region i s located on the i n t e r f a c e of t h i s c l a s s and the Coasta l F i r reg ion of the Fraser V a l l e y . For t h i s reason, the f o r e s t canopy is v i s i b l y mixed and may be r e f e r r ed to as a Temperate Marine Rain Con i ferous Fores t ( K r a j i n a , 1965). Tree spec ies c on s i s t o f : Douglas F i r {Pseudotsuga menziesii), Western hemlock (Tsuga hetrophylla), Western red cedar (Thuja plicata) , Broad lea f maple (Acer macvophyllum) , and A lde r (Alnus spp.) . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system of the Soc ie ty of American Fores te rs would rate the area as Type 230: Douglas F i r -Western Hemlock, where Douglas F i r o f ten predominates but does not make up 80% o f the dominant canopy, and where conve r se l y , Western Hemlock can a l s o be present in s i g n i f i c a n t amounts and may predominate up to 80%. Th is f o r e s t type i s u sua l l y in the mid-phase in the na tu ra l success ion from the subcl imas Douglas F i r to the c l imax Hemlock. Evidence of t h i s success ion was found in the va r ious f i e l d t r i p s to the Rese rvo i r S i t e Region (see Photos 1 (p. 8 l ) and 3 ) . F i sh and W i l d l i fe F i sh spec ies in Hayward Reservo i r a re not p r o l i f i c for two reasons: (1) due to the lack of l i t t o r a l vege ta t i on , there i s l i t t l e feed ing stock around the s h o r e l i n e , and (2) the Ruskin Dam has impeded f i s h from pass ing in to the r e s e r v o i r . The lake however does support Photo 3- Mature Con i f e r s among Deciduous Fores t Cover, S.W. Shore. smal l popu l a t i ons of Rainbow and Cu t th roa t Trout and Kokanee. The s loughs below the Ruskin Dam are used by Chum salmon, and to a l e s s e r degree by P ink sa lmon. A l though f l u c t u a t i o n s in water l e ve l and r ap i d surges in the f low of the t a i l race have s e r i ou s e f f e c t s on the j u v e n i l e f i s h and eggs, t h i s appears to be the most f avou rab l e area fo r spawning. The on l y ungulate present i n the study area i s the b l a c k -t a i l e d deer . Acco rd ing to the B r i t i s h Columbia Land inven to ry ( B . C . L . I . ) fo r ungulates the area is c l a s sed as : ift where C l a s s L\ i s de f i ned as : d Lands in t h i s c l a s s have moderate ly severe l i m i t a t i o n s to the p roduc t i on o f ungu la te s . The area so c l a s sed w i l l s u s t a i n 86 a popu la t i on of (or equ i va l en t to) 10-20 w h i t e - t a i l e d deer per square mi le per year ( B . C . L . I . Ungu lates , 1973). Sub-c lass "R" i n d i c a t e s : . . . l i m i t a t i o n s due to depth to bedrock or o ther impervious l a y e r s . Map symbol " d " i n d i c a t e s : . . . the presence of deer [Odocoileus hemionus and Odoooileus virginianus). Waterfowl on the r e s e r vo i r are not abundant due to the lack of aqua t i c vege ta t i on and sho r e l i n e nes t i ng a reas . The B . C . L . I . fo r W i l d l i f e c l a s s e s t h i s area as: 5 ^ Class 6 lands have severe l i m i t a t i o n s to the produc t ion of wa te r f ow l . C a p a b i l i t y on these lands i s very low. L i m i t a -t i o n s are e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d . They may inc lude a r i d i t y , s a l i n i t y , very f l a t topography, s teep-s ided l akes , extremely porous s o i l s , and s o i l s c on ta i n i ng few a v a i l a b l e m ine ra l s . The c a p a b i l i t y subc lasses " J " and " Z " r e f e r to a reduced marsh edge and deep o f f - s ho r e waters which l i m i t the development of optimum waterfowl h a b i t a t s . E x i s t i n g Land Use and Access The Hayward Reservo i r S i t e Region f a l l s w i t h i n the Mun ic ipa l D i s t r i c t o f M i s s i on and i s sub jec t to zoning r e g u l a t i o n s . F i ve zones w i t h i n the study area were i d e n t i f i e d : RSV-l L im i ted Use Reserve Area - 80 acres minimum l o t , RSV-2 I n s t i t u t i o n a l Reserve Area - 80 acres minimum l o t , RRL-1 Acreage Rural Area - 5 acres minimum l o t , RRL-2 Upland Rural Area - 10 acres minimum l o t , RRL-3 Lowland Rural Area - 20 acres minimum l o t . Res i d en t i a l development in the study area i s ev iden t in the nor thern and southern pa r t s of the S i t e Region, a long Dewdney Trunk Road, Keystone Road, and Shaw RoadSo Minimum s i z e l o t s are 5 a c r e s . Access to the S i t e Region i s prov ided by three hard s u r f a c e , a l l weather roads . In a d d i t i o n , a p r i v a t e road ( c l o sed to the p u b l i c ) runs the e n t i r e length of the r e s e r v o i r a long the west s h o r e l i n e (see Map 3 and k and Photo k). Photo k. P r i v a t e access road a long west s h o r e l i n e . Note r e s e r v o i r a t l e f t o f photo. The Ruskin Power Development The s t o r y of Ruskin i s one of conquest , o f bending the rush ing t o r r en t to the w i l l o f man, of removing n a t u r e ' s b a r r i e r s and r e p l a c i n g man 's . Could the s tones and r i p p l e s o f the r i v e r but speak, they would t e l l a t a l e of speed, how in twenty months the s w i r l i n g eddies and rap ids gave way to a p l a c i d l a ke , how 88 89 E X I S T I N G L A N D U S E SCALE |IHHj nesiDEMTiAi F/vV DCHRA. lnr ,)Mfar ' . -st cover) . R C H H A . l a r d s (phys ica l P'irit cp.:'.i:;on:,) i ! rOKEGT coven <.. ' (Uliit P E A O H E A O S & STU ' . 'PS 90 men suddenly came and as suddenly departed l eav ing a new land-scape and a new s t r u c t u r e con t a i n i ng i t s humming machinery d r i ven by the fo rce of pent-up water . (B.C. Power Co rpo ra t i on , 1930). This excerpt d r ama t i c a l l y emphasises the romant ic ism and eng ineer -ing determinism that was generated by the r ap i d l y growing hydro p r o j e c t s that began in B r i t i s h Columbia ( C i r c a , 1897). The p ro j e c t s developed were impress ive monuments to an e ra that s t r e s sed expedient p r o j e c t complet ion and s i n g u l a r i t y in t e chno log i ca l f u n c t i o n . The Ruskin Power Development, designed to produce power fo r the growing Vancouver r eg i on , e x h i b i t e d a s i m i l a r q u a l i t y of surgence and was accompl ished wi thout i n t e r f e r ence from c o s t l y union and management c o n t r o l s . Completed in l e s s than two years , the p ro j e c t was i n i t i a t e d in December of 1928 and was conceived as the t h i r d and f i n a l step in the use o f water from the Stave R ive r system. P r i o r to development, the Stave R i ve r meandered through the te r raced v a l l e y below Stave F a l l s . At the Ruskin Dam s i t e , the r i v e r had cut i t s way deeply through a rock b a r r i e r that had once b locked i t s course (see Photos 5, 6, 7 and 8 ) . Continued e ros i on formed a gorge some 160 fee t deep and steep enough to develop approx imate ly 130 f ee t o f head. The Ruskin Dam, cons t ruc ted of dimensions 195 f ee t h igh and 370 f ee t long captures the t o t a l a v a i l a b l e head of water before i t debouches i n to the f l o o d p l a i n of the Fraser Ri v e r . At f u l l c a pa c i t y , the Ruskin P l an t generates 105,600 k i l owa t t s of power us ing 12,000 cub i c f ee t of water per second. I t s ope ra t i ng schedule may be def ined as a peaking system, which invo lves f u l l output T H E N AND H O W Photo 6 C O N T R A S T S PhO"tO 7 I n e c' , a nfi e 'hat has taken place in less than two years. Above is I B ~ , the mouth of the canyon across ; - i which the clam, seen in the lower picture, was built. Photo 8 o u r c e i British Columbia Power Corporation, Ruskin, 1 9 3 0 . at the p lan t on ly dur ing peak demands, normal ly a few hours in the morning and even ing . Because the genera t ing capac i t y of the Ruskin p l an t i s g rea te r than at Stave F a l l s a t f u l l ope ra t i ng c ond i t i o n s , the r e s e r vo i r i s drawn down an average of 2-3 fee t twice d a i l y (assum-ing no s p i l l c o n d i t i o n s ) , and a l lowed to surcharge f u l l y overn igh t fo r use the f o l l ow i ng day. In add i t i o n to 12,000 c f s used fo r genera-t i o n , an a dd i t i o n a l 130,000 c f s can be s p i l l e d over the dam c r e s t when f l ood c ond i t i o n s . p r e va i 1 (see F igure 14) . co 140 LU UJ < > UJ _ l UJ LU < 137 136 MID 6 A M N O O N 6 P M MID F igure 14. Reservo i r Leve ls at Hayward Lake ( d a i l y ) . Note: These l e ve l s represent year round cond i t i on s s i nce the ope ra t i ng p o l i c y i s to ma inta in Hayward Lake at maximum leve l fo r maximum ope ra t i ng e f f i c i e n c y . 94 LANDTYPES AT HAYWARD RESERVOIR: THE MAPPING PROCEDURE As p r e v i ou s l y de f ined (p. 5l)» s i x landtypes can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n a Rese rvo i r S i t e Region. The f i e l d research at Hayward Reser-v o i r conf i rmed t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , w i th some landtypes being be t t e r de-f i ned than o t h e r s . Th is can be exp la ined in par t due to the l eve l of sho re l i ne and r e s e r v o i r s t a b i l i z a t i o n , and the phys ica l" morphology of the a r e a . See l a t e r e xp l ana t i on . The s i x landtypes of the r e se r vo i r were d i v i ded in to Water-based (Open Water and L i t t o r a l Zones) and Land-based - (Beach, Sub-fo reshore and Upland Zones) c a t ego r i e s . Water-based Landtypes (a) The L i t t o r a l Zone The L i t t o r a l Zone was e s t ab l i s hed by f i e l d survey of the wa te r ' s edge and a thorough examinat ion of the e n t i r e sho re l i ne us ing a e r i a l photographs. Except in i s o l a t ed cases , i t was found that t h i s zone extended to a maximum of 10 fee t from the s ho r e l i n e (at h igh and low water l e ve l s ) w i t h average s lopes in excess of 20%. Sur face t e x -tures ranged from g r a v e l l y sands to stones mixed w i th bou lde rs . Aqua t i c vegeta t ion was not e v i den t . Due to the s ca l e of mapping employed in the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n techn ique, the " l a t e r a l ex ten t " (d i s tance from sho re l i ne to the f i v e foot contour depth) of the L i t t o r a l Zone cou ld not be mapped in i t s e n t i r e t y . Four areas w i t h i n the L i t t o r a l Zone of s i g n i f i c a n t s i z e 95 were i d e n t i f i e d in the nor thern s e c t i on of the r e s e r v o i r . The i r r e -c r e a t i o n c a p a b i l i t i e s a re d i scussed on page 108 o f t h i s chapter , (b) The Open Water Zone The Open Water Zone i s i d e n t i f i e d as that sur face area of the r e s e r v o i r exc l ud ing the L i t t o r a l Zone. At Hayward Rese rvo i r , the Open Water Zone inc luded p r a c t i c a l l y the t o t a l su r face of the r e se r vo i r as the L i t t o r a l Zone occup ied on ly a smal l r ibbon a long the s h o r e l i n e . The sho r e l i n e of. the r e s e r v o i r cou ld be rated " i r r e g u l a r " w i th a mod-e ra te number of i r r e g u l a r i t i e s per l i n e a r mi le of s ho r e l i n e (Adams, Z o l t a i , 1969), and a few prominent i n l e t s and pen insu las (see Map 5 ) . Land-based Landtypes (a) The Beach Zone. Beach Zones a t the s i t e were not s i g n i f i c a n t and have been slow to develop f o r two reasons: (1) the lack of sediment and suspended load in the d ischarges from the Stave F a l l s Dam has reduced the l i k e l i h o o d of depos i t i on and sho re l i ne beach format ion and (2) beach format ion from bank e ros i on has been retarded by the heavy vege ta t i on cover that a c t s as a s o i l " s t a b i l i z e r . " Th is cover extends up to the wa t e r ' s edge in most i n s t ances . The steep sho re l i ne counte rac ts t h i s semi - s tab le c o n d i t i o n , w i th the r e su l t being that a r ibbon of small bou lders and stones has accumulated at the land/water i n t e r f a ce which can be seen at both high and low water l e v e l s (see Photos 9 & 10 and Map 5 ) . Photo 9 Photo 10. Photos 9 and 10. Typical examples of small boulders and stone accumulations along the reservoir shoreline. 97 98 (b) The Subforeshore Zone The Subforeshore Zone i s de f i ned as tha t land su r f a ce away from the wa t e r ' s edge and immediately border ing the fo resho re where s lopes are in excess of )5%. The subforeshore i s g e n e r a l l y an em-bankment and pa r t o f the o r i g i n a l t e r r a ced v a l l e y (Photo 11). De-pending upon the sur round ing t e r r a i n , a s e r i e s of sub foreshores can Photo 11. A t y p i c a l p r o f i l e o f the Subforeshore Zone, N„W„ area of S i t e Reg ion . e x i s t . In the case s tudy, t h i s zone occup ied a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of the sho r e l i n e in the c e n t r a l and southern po r t i on s of the r e s e r v o i r reg ion (see Map 6). 99 J i i i i i i i l l l v l i i i i i i i t k i i i i i i i i i m i i i p— * %»•••••••«•••••••••••••«•••••••••••••*• • •^•••••••••••••••if•••••••••••••••••v'> • *••*•••••••••••••»•••«••••*•••••>•••• - • • ->••••••••••«•*••«•••••••••*>•a«av 4«tll Miif IIIIIU . t « • • • a n v i l f T , , y % r ' rt w;^:::-:::: :^ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : » ^ METHOD FOR ESTABLISHING THE SUBFORESHORE, FORESHORE AND UPLAND ZONES Because the subforeshore fo reshore and upland zones are de-termined c h i e f l y on s lope c r i t e r i a , s lope g rad i en t s had to be determined fo r the S i t e Region. Four (4) steps were invo lved in e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r boundar ies . B r i e f l y , they are as f o l l ows : 1. A one -ha l f inch g r i d was drawn over a map of the "study a r ea . A map sca l e of 1:12,500 w i t h a contour i n t e r v a l of 25 fee t was used. Th is produced a mat r i x compr is ing approx imate ly 1700 u n i t s . 2. The average s lope f o r each un i t was computed us ing an averag ing formula where: /. * D i f f e rence (Max-min Contour + 1 C . I . ) S ope ( i n per cent) = - s—p ' K K Radius 3. Using an i sa ry thmic mapping techn ique, a s e r i e s of e i gh t (8) s lope grad ient were drawn based on the f o l l ow i ng c l a s s i n -te rva1s : 1. l ess than 5% 5. 20-29% 2. 5-9% 6. 30-49% 3. 10-14% 7. 50-69% 4. 15-19% 8. 70% + 4. F i n a l l y , these s lope i n t e r v a l s , a long w i th spot checks in the f i e l d were used to e s t a b l i s h the boundaries o f the three zones. 101 (c) The Foreshore Zone Four d i s t i n c t areas of fo reshore were i d e n t i f i e d a t the r e s e r -v o i r s i t e , three of which were separated from the r e se r vo i r by a sub-foreshore zone. The foreshore zones were cha r a c t e r i z ed p r i m a r i l y by land areas having s lopes 15% or l e s s . In the mapping technique employed, the foreshore zone o f ten r e su l t ed in the i n c l u s i o n of some areas in excess of t h i s s l ope . These anomalies were the r e s u l t of land promon-t o r i e s and creek g u l l i e s and comprised a small percentage of the t o t a l fo reshore zone (see F igure 15) . F igure 15- The Foreshore Zone 102 (d) The Upland Zone The Upland Zone cons i s t ed o f that land away from the r e se r vo i r that was cha r a c t e r i z ed by s lopes in excess of 15%. W i th in the s i t e reg ion the upland zone was on l y we l l def ined at two l o c a t i o n s : the nor theas tern sec tor where the zone began ab rup t l y at the wa te r ' s edge (s lopes 50-70%); and the southwestern sec to r which a l s o d i sp l ayed s i m i l a r cond i t i on s of s lope and topography (see Map 6).-Having i d e n t i f i e d the s i x landtypes of the r e s e r v o i r , the f i n a l step invo lves a n a l y s i s o f the b iogeophys ica l c ond i t i o n s w i t h i n each l and type . The r e s u l t i n g subd i v i s i on s are r e f e r r ed to as "Rec rea -t i o n Management Un i t s " (see p. 56). On the bas i s of s e l e c t ed a t t r i b u t e r e c r ea t i ona l requi rements, each Recreat ion Management Un i t i s rated acco rd ing to i t s a b i l i t y to support three d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . The c a p a b i l i t y r a t i ng s are d i scussed below. DISCUSSION OF CAPABILITY RATINGS The c a p a b i l i t y r a t i ng s e s t ab l i s hed fo r each Recreat ion Manage-ment Uni t are based on the b iogeophys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Hayward Lake Reservo i r S i t e Region. They are not intended to recommend uses w i t h i n each un i t s ince they prov ide on ly the inherent p o t e n t i a l o f the area to support va r ious types of r e c r ea t i ona l use. C a p a b i l i t y r a t i ng s do, however, p rov ide answers to at l e a s t two quest ions (Spencer, 1972). ( l ) What are the b iogeophys i ca l cond i t i ons that l i m i t use of the par -t i c u l a r s i t e , and (2) what l eve l of resource-use can the area be ex-pected to ach ieve given c e r t a i n s ta ted c o n s t r a i n t s . 103 Based on these f i n d i n g s , a Land Management P o l i c y Recommenda-t i on i s g iven fo r each landtype of the r e s e r vo i r s i t e r eg ion . Water-based Landtypes (a) The Open Water Zone The Open Water Zone presents many r e c r ea t i ona l o ppo r t un i t i e s f o r on-water a c t i v i t i e s . The ma jo r i t y of the southern po r t i on of the r e s e r v o i r i s rated C lass 1 fo r canoe and s a i l b o a t s w i t h moderate r e s t r i c t i o n s f o r power boats due to lake s i z e l i m i t a t i o n s . ' The smal l i n l e t s (Hars ine Creek) prov ide good oppo r t un i t i e s fo r canoe ing , f i s h -ing and nature study wh i l e s a i l i n g and power boat ing are r e s t r i c t e d . Access to the r e s e r v o i r i s rated C lass 1 and 2 in the northern s e c t i o n , w i th C lass 3 r a t i ng s f o r the southern p o r t i o n . The area immediately ad jacent to the Ruskin Dam is a l s o rated C lass 3 fo r a l l on-water a c t i v i t i e s due to sur face and sub-sur face cu r ren t s caused by the power genera t ing f a c i l i t i e s . In the northern po r t i on o f the Open Water Zone, cond i t i ons are in f luenced d i r e c t l y by re l eases from the B l i n d Slough and Stave F a l l s Dam. The boundaries o f these zones (see Map 7) were determined on the bas i s o f s i t e i n spec t i on a t a time when 48,500 cub i c feet o f water per second (c f s ) were being re leased from the combined opera t i ons of both dams. An examinat ion of s p i l l records to 1964 showed that the ma jo r i t y ' Water s k i i n g in t h i s zone would be rated C lass 3 due to i t s s i z e and dimensions (Jaakson, 1972). Th is i s even more c r i t i c a l in the nor thern po r t i on o f the r e s e r v o i r where the Open Water Zone is l ess than one - t h i r d o f a m i le w ide . 104 % » f f I I I t r • i f i l * i i i i i MAP 7. (RECREATION CAPABILITIES / OPEN WATER , BEACH & LITTORAL ZONES SCALE miles 105 o f re leases ( fo r s p i l l i n g ) occurred dur ing October through January. Maximum s p i l l s o f 4,850 c f s were recorded f o r June of 1964. Under normal power generat ing cond i t i ons (October to June) , the Stave F a l l s P l an t i s run a t f u l l c apac i t y (8,000 c f s ) 24 hours a day. Channel f lows below the dam are the re fo re kept r e l a t i v e l y cons tan t . Dur-ing the months of June, J u l y , and August, w i t h lower power demands, the average f low is decreased to 2,000-3,000 c f s . During t h i s per iod maximum 2 genera t ion occurs on ly when the re s t o f the power g r i d requ i res i t , or when Stave Lake i s "topped o f f " to maximum e l e v a t i o n . Th is l a t t e r c ond i -t i on r e s u l t s when the l a s t of the snowpack i s r e l eased , and Stave Lake reaches maximum e l e v a t i o n . In some ins tances , a check s p i l l a t the B l i n d Slough Dam is r equ i r ed , u sua l l y less than 4,000 c f s . Accord ing to Mr. B. Creer , a D i r e c t o r of Whitewater Canoe Sports in B r i t i s h Columbia, the channel below the Stave F a l l s Dam, under normal ope ra t i ng cond i t i on s (steady f low) is rated Grade 1-2. The In te rna t i ona l R i ve r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n desc r ibes these Grades as f o l l ows : Grade 1 S u i t a b l e for nov ices in c l osed canoes, kayaks, and Open Canadians. Easy. Waves smal l and regu l a r ; passages c l e a r ; occas i ona l sand banks and a r t i f i c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s 1i ke br idge p i e r s . Grade 2 Su i t ab l e f o r in termed ia te padd lers in c losed canoes, kayaks and Open Canadians. Qui te easy . Rapids of medium d i f f i c u l t y ; passages c l e a r and wide. Occas iona l bou lders in streams. Open canoes may sh ip water in p l a c e s . Short per iods of 8,000 c f s (approx. 2 h r s . ) in the e a r l y morning and evening pe r i od s . 106 The Open Water Zone o f the Reservo i r S i t e Region has been ana lyzed w i th r e c r ea t i on c a p a b i l i t y r a t i ng s being ass igned to va r i ous po r t i on s o f the zone. These r a t i ng s have been determined by the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f e x i s t i n g hyd ro l og i c a l da ta , f i e l d resea rch , and in con junc t i on w i t h the in fo rmat ion presented in Table 3, (p. 68). I t should be po in ted out that P o l i c y Recommendations f o r each landtype are based s o l e l y on c a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s . The recommendations do not cons ider demand and cos t f a c t o r s , implementat ion and management r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and t r ade -o f f s between energy-use of the r e s e r vo i r and r e c rea t i on oppor-t u n i t i e s . These cond i t i on s u l t ima te l y 'mus t be inc luded in the f i n a l a n a l y s i s o f the Hayward Lake S i t e Reg ion. LAND MANAGEMENT POLICY RECOMMENDATION FOR THE OPEN WATER ZONE 1. Thorough examinat ion of h yd ro l og i c a l c ond i t i on s should be made and a team of h yd ro l og i s t s and r e c r ea t i on exper ts should examine the cu r ren t s in the Open Water Zone dur ing the r e c r ea t i on season. 2. Canoeing of the channel below the Stave F a l l s Dam should on ly be permi t ted in con fo rmi ty w i t h l o ca l ope ra t i ng cond i t i on s at the p l a n t . 3. Due to the smal l and narrow dimensions of the r e s e r v o i r in the nor thern po r t i o n i t is recommended that power boats be e l im i na t ed and that power boats in the southern po r t i on of the r e s e r v o i r be kept to a maximum of f i v e horsepower. 107 Photo 12 Photo 13 Photos 12 and 13 Examples of the Beach Zone along the N.W. Shore l i ne . Res t r i c t -ing f ac to r s are width and exposure. Note Wet Beach a rea . if, men Photo 14. Wet Beach, bordered by grass covered a l luv ium sands to l e f t of photo. Photo 15. Po tent i a l C lass 1 Beach, present ly covered by scrubs and grasses. 108 k. An ex tens i ve stump c l e a r i n g program should be c a r r i e d out to f a c i l i t a t e on-water a c t i v i t i e s . Th i s should inc lude the removal o f a l l stumps p ro t rud ing above 120 fee t ASL. At present su r face and sub-sur face stumps present a se r i ous hazard to boat ing on the l a ke . (b) The L i t t o r a l Zone Development of the L i t t o r a l Zone was not s i g n i f i c a n t a long the r e s e r vo i r s h o r e l i n e . For t h i s reason, the g rea tes t percentage of the zone was rated 3 B 3 W 3 A ^ u e t o t n e f o l l ow i ng r e s t r i c t i n g f a c t o r s : s 1 t s 1 3 3 ( s i ) subsurface s lopes in excess o f 20%; ( t ) bottom tex tu res ranging from sands and g r a ve l s , to subangular s tones , rocks , and decayed logs; (A) and r e s t r i c t e d access from the beach and fo resho re . As shown by Map 7 (p. 104) s i g n i f i c a n t l i t t o r a l areas are con-f i ned to the northern po r t i o n of the r e s e r v o i r . I t is in these reg ions that hazardous water c ond i t i on s are more p r e va l en t . Sur face cu r r en t s generated by re leases from the B l i n d Slough Dam and to a l e s se r ex tent from Stave F a l l s Dam, c o n s t i t u t e the major c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to s u r -face c u r r e n t s . The c a p a b i l i t y r a t i ng s f o r these zones are based on the maximum po s s i b l e re leases dur ing the summer months and t h e i r degree o f i n f l uence on water c u r r e n t s . Consequent ly, wh i l e a zone rece i ves a C lass 3 r a t i n g due to hazardous water cond i t i on s (h ) , t h i s does not imply con t i nua l hazardous cond i t i on s s ince the de c i s i on to s p i l l water is de-termined l a r ge l y by l o ca l meteoro log i ca l c i r cumstances . C lass 3 r a t i ng s 109 based on "hazardous water c u r r en t s " are g iven on the "1 i k e l i h o o d " that such occurrences "may" o c cu r . Due to the d i s pe r s a l e f f e c t as the water en te r s the r e s e r vo i r from the s p i l l channe ls , water cu r ren t s decrease r ap i d l y and e x h i b i t l e s s severe c o n d i t i o n s . However, cap-a b i l i t y r a t i ng s remain C lass 3 s i nce the r e s t r i c t i n g f a c t o r s have s h i f t e d from water c ond i t i on s to s lope and subsur face t e x t u r a l r e s -t r i c t i o n s . Moderate c a p a b i l i t y r a t i ng s e x i s t a t on ly one l o ca t i on (northwest s ide o f the r e s e r v o i r ) , w i t h the r e s t r i c t i n g f a c t o r s being width o f the zone and moderate water cu r ren t s (3 S 2 W 1 A)• w d LAND MANAGEMENT POLICY RECOMMENDATION FOR THE LITTORAL ZONE I. The s e v e r i t y of the cur ren ts generated by re leases from both dams should be i n ve s t i ga t ed by a team of h yd ro l og i s t s and r e c r ea t i on exper ts to determine the degree to which va r ious hydro ope ra t i ona l c ond i t i on s a f f e c t r e c r ea t i ona l use of t h i s zone. Th is cou ld be accompl ished at the same time that h yd r au l i c versus r e c r ea t i ona l uses of the Open Water Zone are a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d . Land-based Landtypes (a) The Beach Zone For reasons d i scussed e a r l i e r (p. 95) beach format ion a long the r e s e r v o i r s ho re l i ne has been l i m i t e d . Three beach areas are ev iden t in n o the nor thern po r t i on of the r e s e r v o i r ; two of which occur on the western shore, and the l a t t e r o c cu r r i ng on a small mid-channel s p i t which i s sub jec t to r i s i n g waters and c u r r en t s . Access to the shore-l i n e beaches are good w i th the nor thern beach being r e s t r i c t e d by i t s exposure and width (see Photos 12 and 13). The second sho r e l i n e beach, unde r l a i n by f i n e sands and g rave l s ( a l l u v i um) , i s p re sen t l y covered by grasses and smal l shrubs. As shown by Photos }k and 15, i t i s bordered by a wet beach comprised of sands and smal l s tones . I ts re -c r e a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y i s rated l/\ 2s 1G> wi th the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r LAND MANAGEMENT POLICY RECOMMENDATION FOR THE BEACH ZONE Examinat ion of subsurface tex tu res of the l i t t o r a l and immediate open water zone has e s t ab l i s hed that tex tu res become more f i n e r away from the s h o r e l i n e . Excess i ve s lopes in the l i t t o r a l zone a l s o g ive way to a more gradual s lope g rad ien t u n t i l reach ing the o l d r i v e r channel (see exp lanatory diagram below). e being i t s nor theas te rn exposure. s t e e p v " s l ope 4> in t h e / L i t to ra l Z o n e sha l l ow s lope gradienT O P E N WATER Z O N E L i t t o ra l Z one r iver channe l Approx imat ion of Hayward Reservo i r P r o f i l e 1 ] ] 1. I t i s the re fo re suggested that r e s e r vo i r l e ve l s be dropped 10-15 fee t below the present ope ra t i ng range (140-137 fee t ASL) to an ope ra t i ng range of 122-125 fee t ASL. Th is w i l l p rov ide for an increase in the beach zone at var ious l o ca t i ons around the s ho r e l i n e , thereby g r e a t l y enhancing i t s r e c r ea t i ona l p o t e n t i a l . (b) The Subforeshore Zone The Subforeshore Zone i s most ev ident a long the southern and c en t r a l reg ions o f the r e s e r v o i r . Widths average between 500-1000 f e e t , w i t h a mean s lope of approx imate ly 30%. On the western s ho r e l i n e , the predominant r a t i n g i s "^J^ 2^T 2^ V w j th the r e s t r i c t i n g f a c t o r s being excess i ve s lopes ( s i ) , t e x t u r a l c ond i t i on s ( t ) , s i l t y c l ays and s i l t y c l a y loams w i th topographic cond i t i on s ( e ) , on l y enhancing the v iewing c a p a b i l i t y moderate ly . C lass 1 v iewing areas occur on both s ides of the r e s e r v o i r near a l l three dams. On the east s ide of the r e s e r v o i r , severe s lope cond i t i on s are a l s o a r e s t r i c t i n g f a c t o r . However, t r a i l s and footpaths are rated C lass 1 and 2 due to s lopes (30-50%) and sur face t e x t u r e s . T r a i l s are somewhat moderate ly r e s t r i c t e d in the nor theas tern sec tor (near Stee lhead Creek) due to s o i l s being on ly moderately d ra i ned . Camping and p i c n i c i n g are seve re l y r e s t r i c t e d by excess i ve s lope g rad-ien ts (see Map 8 ) . C lass 1 and 2 nature study areas occur a long the southeast po r t i on s (Hars ine Creek—waterfowl nes t i ng and marsh areas) and southwest (o ld stands of Douglas f i r , 120-150 f ee t in he ight) r eg ions . 112 » 113 LAND MANAGEMENT POLICY RECOMMENDATION FOR THE SUBFORESHORE ZONE 1. T r a i l s should be developed in on ly areas ra ted C lass 1 and 2, and should inc lude Viewing and Nature Study areas rated C lass 1 and 2 where p o s s i b l e . Where sur face tex tures are moderately r e s t r i c t i n g , t r a i l s should be developed on a grave l base and should f o l l ow c l o s e l y the contours of the landform. Viewing areas (p l a t fo rms , e t c . ) , should be con-s t r u c t ed a long the t r a i l s and at l o ca t i ons where scen i c views present themselves. The l o ca t i on o f t r a i l s should a l s o be c l o s e l y a s soc i a ted to beach and foreshore zones that have high capab i1 i t i e s . 2. T r a i l s should on ly be developed fo r use by foo t or eques t r i an t r a f f i c . These t r a i l s may be c l a s sed in to the f o l l ow i ng categor i e s : (1) w i l de rness and l ong -d i s tance h i k i ng t r a i l s (connected to the Upland Zone), (2) connect ing t r a i l s ( i . e . , beach to camps i t e ) , (3) shor t h i k i n g and nature t r a i l s , (4) snowshoeing and c ross - coun t ry sk i t r a i l s . (c) The Foreshore Zone The Foreshore Zone comprised over 50% o f the t o t a l land sur face w i t h i n the Reservo i r S i t e Reg ion. Average s lopes are less than \5% w i th 114 land promontor ies and creek g u l l i e s prominent in a l l a reas . The Fore-shore Zone o f f e r s a wide range of r e c r ea t i ona l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h va ry ing degrees of c a p a b i l i t y . C lass r a t i ngs range from J_c Jp IT ( n o l i m i t a -V "7 Q t i ons f o r campgrounds, p i c n i c s i t e s and t r a i l s ) t o p ^ ^ (severe l i m i t a t i o n s to camping ( s l ow ly permeable s o i l s ) , r e s t r i c t e d v iewing due to topographic c o nd i t i o n s , and moderate c a p a b i l i t y f o r t r a i l s due to s o i l t e x t u r e s . In gene ra l , the east s ide of the r e s e r vo i r o f f e r s a h igher c a p a b i l i t y fo r r e c r ea t i ona l use, a l though s o i l c ond i t i ons do c on t r i bu t e to va ry ing degrees of s e ve r i t y fo r r e c r ea t i ona l use. Nature study areas were c l a s sed as C lass 2 w i th s lope and moderately permeable s o i l s being the r e s t r i c t i n g f a c t o r s . V iewing areas C lass 1 occur red where rock outcrops and/or scen i c v i s t a s of the lake were a f f o r d ed . T r a i l s were rated predominant ly C lass 1 and 2 w i th some C lass 3, w i t h s lope and s o i l t ex tu re moderately r e s t r i c t i n g use (Map 9 and Photo 16). On the west s i de of the r e s e r v o i r , the r e c r ea t i ona l c a p a b i l i t y of the fo reshore was gene ra l l y lower. Th is was accounted for by the Whatcom s o i l s s e r i e s : a s i l t y c l a y , s i l t y c l a y loam s o i l w i t h slow per -m e a b i l i t y . The s o i l i s moderately we l l dra ined (wi th imper fec t l y dra ined areas in the low l y i n g r eg i on s ) , w i th water perch ing in the upper solum being common. As a r e s u l t , i n t ens i ve r e c r ea t i ona l a c t i v i t i e s are seve re l y r e s t r i c t e d . Two nature study areas are rated C lass 1 ( l a rge Douglas f i r s t ands ) . Scen ic v iewing is ra ted C lass 3 as a r e s u l t o f topograph ic c ond i t i on s (undu la t ing s lopes that r e s t r i c t any s i gh t o f the 115 A 0 miles C A P A B I L I T Y i HIGH M M MCCcflATE Photo 16. The Subforeshore , Foreshore (hidden from v i ew ) , and Upland Zones. r e s e r v o i r and/or sur round ing t e r r a i n ) . T r a i l s and pathways are p r e -dominant ly rated C lass 2 w i t h s o i l t e x tu re r e s t r i c t i o n s . LAND MANAGEMENT POLICY RECOMMENDATION FOR THE FORESHORE ZONE 1. That i n t en s i v e development f o r campground and p i c n i c f a c i l i t i e s be l i m i t e d to the southeas te rn s e c t i o n of the s i t e r eg i on , and on l y i n C lass 1 a r e a s . Access to the water i s l i m i t e d due to e x ce s s i v e s lopes a l t hough r e q u i r e -ments f o r t r a i l s and footpaths through the p re fo resho re 1 are rated C lass 1 and 2. T r a i l s should run l i n e a r l y a long the sho re l i ne to take advantage of the views where p o s s i b l e . T r a i l s should a l s o inc lude nature study a reas . 2. That s e l e c t i v e logg ing take p lace in C lass 1 areas f o r campgrounds in order to " t h i n out" and prepare the s i t e fo r fu tu re r e c r ea t i ona l use. 3. That, on the west s i d e , fo reshore a c t i v i t i e s be l im i t e d to foo tpa ths , t r a i l s and v iewpo int o f the r e s e r vo i r and hydro genera t ing f a c i l i t i e s . 4. That access po in t s to the water rated C lass 1 be developed where adequate park ing and turnabout space i s a v a i l a b l e . (d) The Upland Zone The Upland Zone prov ides a wide range of h i k i n g t r a i l s and paths , and scen i c v i s t a s of the Reservo i r S i t e Region. The Upland Zone in the nor theas te rn sec to r in general is rated moderate f o r such a c t i v i t i e s , except where s lopes and unstab le ground cond i t i on s are severe . Unorganized h i k i n g is r e s t r i c t e d moderate ly , due to unstab le ground c ond i t i o n s , s l ow ly permeable s o i l s , and excess i ve s t on i n e s s . S i m i l a r c ond i t i o n s e x i s t on the southwest upland zone. Scen ic views of the r e s e r v o i r and surround ing reg ion are a f f o rded from ou t c rops , land promontor ies ( r i d g e s ) , and from the general l i e o f the land (see Map 10) . 118 119 LAND MANAGEMENT POLICY RECOMMENDATION FOR THE UPLAND ZONE 1. That the Upland Zone be developed a t the same ra te that demands fo r paths and t r a i l s increase due to excess i ve use o f such f a c i l i t i e s in the foreshore and pre foreshore zones o f the r e s e r vo i r s i t e r eg i on . SUMMARY In t h i s chapter , the r e c r ea t i on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n framework has been app l i e d to a case s tudy . In the i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s , the r e s u l t s suggest that the Reservo i r S i t e Region can be c l a s s i f i e d in to d i s t i n c t zones. Furthermore, w i t h i n these zones, a c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g may be ass igned fo r se l ec ted r e c rea t i on a c t i v i t i e s based on var ious b iogeo-phys i c a l a t t r i b u t e va l ues . Whi le these f i nd i ng s are by no means con-c l u s i v e , they nonethe less prov ide the necessary background data f o r a more complete study of the S i t e Region. Such a study would n a t u r a l l y inc lude those cond i t i on s necessary f o r implementation of an in tegra ted r e se r vo i r management p l a n . These cond i t i on s are developed f u r t he r in the conc lud ing chap te r . 120 CHAPTER FIVE MANAGEMENT CONDITIONS FOR INTEGRATED RESERVOIR USE This thes is has developed a methodology for the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of land-use c a p a b i l i t i e s for recreat ion at r e se rvo i r s . It is suggested that such an approach be the i n i t i a l phase (followed by s u i t a b i l i t y and f e a s i b i l i t y ana lys i s ) in assess ing future land management opt ions f o r the maximum benef i t of a referrent group. Furthermore, i t is proposed that integrated reservo i r use prov ides 'an a l t e r n a t i v e to the t r a d i t i o n a l s ing le-purpose use of re se rvo i r s . Impl ic i t in a d i scuss ion of integrated use are the necessary management condit ions for p o l i c y implementation. Some of these requ i re -ments have a lready been discussed (p. 17). However, recognized in t h i s thes i s are f i v e (5) add i t iona l condi t ions fo r integrated reservo i r management. The s a l i en t points of each are discussed as perta in ing to recreat ion within the Reservoir S i te Region. 1. Reservoir c learance programs, 2. Sedimentation c o n t r o l , 3. Regulated flows for Optimal Water Resources A l l o c a t i o n , 4. Water-surface Zoning and A c t i v i t y Segregation, 5. Design Standards. 121 RESERVOIR CLEARANCE In the pas t , few p r ov i s i on s were made fo r r e s e r vo i r c l ea rance , and such c lea rance when undertaken was normal ly on the i n s t i g a t i o n of the ope ra t i ng agency to ensure e f f i c i e n t and safe ope ra t i on o f the hydro-generat ing f a c i l i t y . Under the present system, va r i ous r equ i r e -ments have been e s t ab l i s h ed by the B r i t i s h Columbia Water Comptro l l e r before a water l i c e n c e is issued to the respons ib l e agency. Th is schedule a l l ows fo r the surcharg ing of the r e s e r vo i r and for the i n i t i a l e r o s i on on beaches and the s t a b i l i z a t i o n of the angle of repose of s h o r e l i n e s . The Peace and Arrow P ro j e c t s are noteworthy in that fo r the f i r s t time i t is i n s t r u c t ed that c l e a r i n g be completed in a s p e c i f i c time a f t e r the i n i t i a l f l o od i ng (Bakewel1, 1965). Such a schedule was a l s o instrumenta l in the p lann ing of pulp m i l l s on W i l l i s t o n Lake, B .C. , where p re - c l ea rance was s t i p u l a t e d by the l o g -towing companies and pulp m i l l o f f i c i a l s as a necessary c ond i t i o n fo r nav i ga t i on on the r e s e r v o i r . ' Rese rvo i r s developed at the beginn ing of the century in B r i t i s h Columbia, which are now approaching the s t a b i l i z e d stage have a l s o r e ce i ved , or are in the process of r e c e i v i n g , some form 2 o f c l ea rance program. In many cases , the r e l i a n c e from ou t s i de he lp has a c ce l e r a t ed these programs. From d i s c u s s i o n w i th J . Dah, General Manager, F i n l a y Fores t I ndus t r i e s , Mackenzie, B r i t i s h Columbia. 2 B r i t i s h Columbia P e n i t e n t i a r y inmates have been invo lved in c l ea rance programs at Stave Lake s ince 1970. 122 The debr i s problem, both s tand ing and f l o a t i n g vege t a t i on , i s accentuated by a number of f a c t o r s : 1. Most o f the recent developments in the p rov ince , are loca ted in heav i l y f o res ted a reas , and as expected, p ro -p o r t i o n a l l y l a rge r q u an t i t i e s o f f l o a t i n g debr i s are 1 i k e l y to occu r . 2. Those r e s e r vo i r s exposed to harsh w in te r s ( e s p e c i a l l y in the i n t e r i o r and northern pa r t s of the prov ince) are sub-j e c t ed to sho re l i ne e ros i on from snow and i c e . Due to e ro s i ona l f o r c e s , these c ond i t i o n s inc rease the bu i l d -up of woody mate r i a l on the sur face of the r e s e r v o i r , as we l l as accumulat ions o f submerged deb r i s on the lake bottom. 3. The exposure of a r e s e r v o i r to winds adds to unprecendented hazards in that wave a c t i o n concea ls both f l o a t i n g and submerged woody m a t e r i a l . These cond i t i on s n a t u r a l l y i n -c rease the degree of l i m i t a t i o n fo r in tegra ted use, par -t i c u l a r l y f o r nav iga t i on and r e c r ea t i on purposes. Reservo i r c l ea rance can be d i v i d ed in to two major c a t ego r i e s : p r e - f l o od and po s t - f l o od c l e a r i n g . P r e - f l o od c l e a r i n g invo lves removal and d i sposa l of woody mate r i a l from the r e s e r vo i r area before f i l l i n g . In some cases , the wood i s prepared fo r f l o a t a t i o n p r i o r to f i l l i n g o f the r e s e r v o i r . In p o s t - f l o od c l e a r i n g , the removal and d i sposa l of f l o a t i n g mate r i a l and stumps i s accompl ished by: 123 (a) c o r r a l l i n g and s i n k i ng (b) beach and burning (c) load ing and burn ing out (R. B l a kewe l l , I965) (d) i n d i v i d ua l stump removal. The advantages of r e s e r v o i r c l ea rance have been a l l uded to in P lann ing and Cons t ruc t i on (p. 30). Add i t i o na l advantages may be summarized as f o l l o w s : r e s e r v o i r c l ea rance reduces the p o s s i b i l i t y o f deb r i s c o l l e c t i n g over the t r a sh racks located in the dam, and thereby i n t e r f e r i n g w i th the e f f i c i e n t y of the power genera t ing f a c i l i t i e s , c l ea rance prevents the decomposi t ion of o rgan i c matter which may c rea te undes i rab le t a s te s or odors in the water (K. L i n s l e y , J . F r a n z i n i , 1972), c l ea rance reduces the uns i gh t l y appearance of s tand ing t rees and stumps in the water which a l s o r e s t r i c t opera-t i o n o f commercial f i s h e r i e s , r e c r ea t i on and n a v i g a t i o n , r e s e r v o i r c l ea rance increases the s torage capac i t y of the p o o l . The volume of wooded ma te r i a l i s c a l c u l a t e d p r i o r to f l o od i ng to determine the losses in s to rage c apac i t y i f c l ea rance i s not undertaken. Th is amount though i s very smal1. 124 pre - f lood c learance increases the access and ease to which development and preparat ion of s i te s on the reservo i r shore l ine can be accomplished ( i . e . , dock f a c i l i t i e s , i ndus t r i a l p lant s i t e s , recreat ion s i t e s , and so on). re servo i r clearance increases the integrated use potent ia l of the water impoundment and encourages the f a c i l i t a t i o n of such management a l t e r n a t i v e s . SEDIMENTATION CONTROL The ult imate destiny of a l l reservo i rs is to be f i l l e d with sediment since every stream ca r r i e s with i t a suspended load as well as larger so l i d s along the stream bed ( referred to as bedload). When the sediment-laden water reaches the re se rvo i r , the v e l o c i t y and tur -bulence of the stream is g reat ly reduced. There is a natural tendency for the larger suspended p a r t i c l e s and most of the bedload to be de-pos i ted in the t r a n s i t i o n zone between the r i ve r i ne and lacus t r ine areas. The net resu l t is the formation of a de l ta at the head of the re se rvo i r . The f i ne r c lays and s i l t s are kept in suspension longer, and are de-pos i ted further down the re se rvo i r . Some f i n e r p a r t i c l e s may be kept t o t a l l y in suspension and are ca r r i ed past the dam (see Figure 16). An understanding of the sedimentation process in a reservo i r is important to the water resources manager for at least three (3) reasons. In the f i r s t p lace, while ce r t a i n port ions of the reservo i r pool are usua l ly designated for sediment storage, sediment depos i t ion is 125 F igure 16. Schematic drawing o f the sediment accumulat ion in a t y p i c a l r e s e r vo i r ( L i n s l e y , F r a n z i n i , 1972). i n d i s c r im i na t e and i s a f unc t i on o f the physiochemica1 p r ope r t i e s of the sediment. For t h i s reason, sediment depos i t i on does not always take p l ace in the dead s to rage capac i t y of the r e s e r v o i r , but i s de-pos i t ed in d i f f e r e n t v e r t i c a l zones in the r e s e r v o i r (see F igure 17), each having a s e r i e s of impacts on both the opera t i ons of the p l an t and o the r uses o f the water and ad jacent l ands . Secondly, as i nd i ca ted above, sediment accumulat ion can impact on the ope ra t i on o f the phy s i c a l p l an t to the ex tent that use fu l s t o r -age capac i t y is l o s t to sediment d epo s i t s . Whereas the range of the r e s e r v o i r drawdown w i l l remain constant s i nce t h i s i s determined by the l eve l of the s lu i ceways , as a r e s e r vo i r f i l l s w i th sediment, the amount of water necessary to generate the same power w i l l i nc rease , thereby i n c reas i ng the ra te at which the r e s e r vo i r is d r a f t e d . S ince power genera t ion demands begin to increase in the f a l l , t h i s would mean a f a s t e r r a te of drawdown dur ing the l a t t e r par t o f the r e c r ea t i on season. 126 Backwater effect Streombcd Reservoir ondsr initial conditions No sediment deposited. FIG. T Reservoir poilially filled with sediment. Oominontly in course particle sizes. Reservoir pcrtially filled with sediment. Dominantly in silt or.d fine* particle sizes. FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 bl \ Reservoir portially filled with sediment. Dominantly in silt and cloy particle sizes. Reservoir filled with sediment Al this stcge trap efficiency becomes 2cro and remaining available storage is maintained by sluicing at outlets. FIG. 5 a - FLOOD CONTROL SPACE b - CONSERVATION STORAGE C - INACTIVE STORAGE d - DEAD STORAGE « OUTLETS F igure 17. Sedimentat ion Cond i t i ons Source: Reservoirs: Problems and Conflicts. Water Resources Research I n s t i t u t e , 1968. 127 An understanding of the sed imentat ion process fo r an in teg ra ted r e s e r v o i r management program is even more c r u c i a l s i nce o ther uses would be a f f e c t ed by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of usable water . In a r e s e r v o i r where the e n t i r e opera t ing s torage i s reserved fo r one purpose, the l o c a t i o n of the sediment depos i ted in a r e s e r v o i r might not be important . In m u l t i p l e purpose rese r -v o i r s , however, where the s torage in va ry ing zones of e l e v a t i o n is reserved fo r i n d i v i d ua l purposes such as power p roduc t i on , i r r i g a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n , and f l ood c o n t r o l , i t Is d e s i r a b l e to know j u s t how much s torage w i l l be l o s t in each zone owing to sed imentat ion and what the backwater e f f e c t on upstream f a c i l i -t i e s might be (Bondurant and L i vesey , 1973). F i n a l l y i t must be remembered that f i n e s i l t s and c l a y s have con t r i bu t ed to the r i c h a l l u v i a l farm lands in many v a l l e y bottoms. The Fraser V a l l e y in southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia bears t r i b u t e to t h i s phenomenon. The impoundment of water behind a dam a r t i f i c i a l l y impedes t h i s sediment f l ow, caus ing a bu i l d -up w i t h i n the r e s e r v o i r . F a i l u r e to re lease sediments from the r e se r vo i r may have severa l e f f e c t s on the downstream b i o l ogy . These inc lude the lack of s i l t which i s e s s e n t i a l in ma in ta in ing the s t a b i l i t y and f e r t i l i t y of s o i l on the a l l u v i a l r i v e r banks, reduc t ion in nu t r i e n t l e v e l s , and changes in the e s t ua r i n e environment (Midg ley , 1972). Unfor tuna te l y r e s e r v o i r sed imentat ion cannot be prevented, a l though i t may be r e t a rded . One way to accompl i sh t h i s i s to s e l e c t those s i t e s where the sediment in f low is low. Some bas ins a re more p r o l i f i c sources of sediment than others because of s o i l type, land s l opes , vegeta l cover , and r a i n f a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( L i n l e y and F r a n z i n i , 1972). 128 S o i l conse rva t i on w i t h i n the r i v e r bas in can a l s o r e ta rd the sediment i n f l ow i n t o the r e s e r v o i r us ing such techniques as t e r r a c i n g , s t r i p c ropp ing and contour p low ing . In a d d i t i o n , heavy vegeta l cover in the catchment area impedes over land water f l ow and e r o s i o n . Spec ia l s lu i ceways designed w i t h i n the dam and located at va r ious l e v e l s may a l s o permit the f i n e r sediments to be d i scharged past the dam. The phy s i c a l removal o f sediment i s r a r e l y f e a s i b l e and even a t the most f avourab le o f p r i c e s , removal by e x i s t i n g methods would not prove economi ca1 . REGULATED FLOWS FOR OPTIMAL WATER RESOURCES ALLOCATION The problem of determin ing optimum a l l o c a t i o n of water resources f o r m u l t i p l e purposes is a sub jec t of con t i nu ing resea rch . However, g i ven the o b j e c t i v e that in tegra ted uses are d e s i r a b l e , the s o l u t i o n l i e s in a l l o c a t i n g the resource in such a way that the net bene f i t s to s o c i e t y a re maximized (economic, env i ronmenta l , and s o c i a l ) . Such a p o l i c y would i nvo l ve r egu l a t i on s regard ing the t im i ng , and re l eases o f water , the a v a i l a b l e s to rage , as we l l as a mainta ined l eve l of water qua l i t y . Research i n to the combined e f f e c t s of mainta ined water l e ve l s as p e r t a i n i n g to in tegra ted uses has not rece ived adequate a t t e n t i o n . In t h i s f i e l d , the emphasis has been on deve lop ing mathematical models in determin ing opt imal uses based on mu1 t i ob jec t i ves and maximiz ing b e n e f i t - c o s t s . These techniques are by and l a rge s t i l l t h e o r e t i c a l a l though they do p rov ide the necessary framework fo r app l i ed resea rch . 129 Ha l l (1968), proposes that the a p p l i c a t i o n o f l i n ea r programming can help to determine the set of de c i s i on s regard ing re l eases of water from the r e s e r v o i r that w i l l maximize the t o t a l economic re turns from opera t i ons (subject to p h y s i c a l , lega l and s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s ) . It i s f u r t h e r developed that use of such a procedure can help to op t ima l l y i n t eg ra t e complex systems of r e s e r vo i r management ( i n c l ud i ng f i s h and w i l d l i f e enhancements, r e c r e a t i o n , s a l i n i t y c o n t r o l , p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , e t c . ) . Eastman and ReVe l le (1973), develop an emp i r i c a l model that min imizes the r e s e r v o i r ' s s torage c apac i t y sub jec t to c on s t r a i n t s de-s igned to meet the needs of water supp ly , r e c r ea t i on and f l ood c o n t r o l . The a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the model i s g rea tes t when such uses are a l l de-s i r a b l e f ea tu res of the p r o j e c t . Mobasheri and Harboe (1970), develop a mathematical model to help in determin ing the optimum design and opera t i on of a mul t ipurpose r e s e r v o i r . The development purposes inc lude water supp ly , hydropower p roduc t i on , f l o od c o n t r o l , and low f l ow augmentat ion. It takes i n t o cons i de r a t i on the f a c t tha t water re leased from the r e s e r vo i r can serve more than one purpose. Furthermore, i t suggests that the economic re tu rns from a p ro j ec t are a f unc t i on of both des ign and ope ra t i ona l ru les of the p r o j e c t . Marsha l l (1973), examines the concept of cos t shar ing a t m u l t i p l e o b j e c t i v e r e s e r v o i r s . The pr imary o b j e c t i v e i s to demonstrate how a c o s t - s h a r i n g r u l e can be des igned to induce l o c a l i n t e r e s t s to s e l e c t the most e f f i c i e n t p ro j e c t based on three c r i t e r i a ; environmental q u a l i t y , 130 reg iona l economic development, and s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g . The importance of t h i s approach i s that i t f i r s t l y encourages l o ca l i n t e r e s t s to s e l e c t the n a t i o n a l l y e f f i c i e n t p r o j e c t , and second ly , i t encourages these l o ca l i n t e r e s t s to app ly pressures to the p lanners in the con-s t r u c t i o n agencies to keep pos s i b l y i n f l a t e d bene f i t f i gu r e s at reasonably accura te l e v e l s . Th i s approach would have p a r t i c u l a r l y re l evan t s i g -n i f i c a n c e in i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to Integrated Resources Management. The a p p l i c a t i o n of combining s imu l a t i on and mathematical p ro -gramming techniques has not rece ived adequate a t t e n t i o n (Mobasheri and Harboe, 1970). Th is i s probably the r e s u l t of a lack of suppor t i ve ev idence and research in the f i e l d of opt imal water resources a l l o c a -t i o n , as we l l as a r e l u c tance to t e s t the techniques fo r an a l l - p u r po s e in teg ra ted r e s e r v o i r system in view of e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n f l i c t s . I t has been the. purpose of t h i s s e c t i on to h i g h l i g h t some of the research that dea l s w i th water re l eases fo r in tegra ted uses and to suggest that such a l t e r n a t i v e systems are in the realm of r e s e r v o i r management. As noted in Chapter One, the bas i c f a c t o r of i n t eg r a t ed -use i s a "compromise" which permits reasonable e f f i c i e n c y in ope ra t i on f o r each use rather than maximum e f f i c i e n c y for a s i n g l e purpose. WATER-SURFACE ZONING AND ACTIVITY SEGREGATION The framework developed in t h i s t he s i s a l l ows the water sur face of r e s e r v o i r s to be c l a s sed i n to management un i t s based on b iogeo-phys i ca l r e s t r i c t i o n s . Whi le these r e s t r i c t i n g f a c t o r s per se can a f f e c t the degree of on-water a c t i v i t i e s , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n technique 131 does not separate c o n f l i c t i n g r e c r ea t i ona l uses w i t h i n the same manage-ment un i t ( e . g . , wa t e r - s k i i n g versus canoeing in the Open Water Zone). Another method fo r c l a s s i f y i n g the on-water area of a r e s e r v o i r , wh i l e having s i m i l a r aspects to the method developed in t h i s t h e s i s , has the added advantage o f separa t ing c o n f l i c t i n g on-water a c t i v i t i e s . Th is approach dea l s w i th a c t i v i t y , seg rega t i on , and i s r e f e r r ed to as "water z o n i n g . " Accord ing to Jaakson ( 1 9 7 2 ) : . . . the key to water-use zoning i s to d i v i d e incompat ib le a c t i v i t i e s i n to groups which e x h i b i t s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and which take p lace under s i m i l a r c i r cumstances . Three zones are recognized in the "zon ing approach" to c o n t r o l l i n g on-water r e c r ea t i on (Jaakson, 1972). B r i e f l y they are as f o l l o w s : (1) The Sho re l i ne A c t i v i t y Zone. S ince the sho r e l i n e i s that area where the concen t ra t i on of wa te r - o r i en ted r e c r ea t i on i s the g rea t -e s t , management o b j e c t i v e s are necessary to min imize c o n f l i c t s be-tween sedentary and slow moving (swimming, sunbath ing , wading, e t c . ) and high speed water a c t i v i t i e s (water s k i i n g , power boat ing e t c . ) . The over lap of these r e c r ea t i ona l a c t i v i t i e s a long the sho r e l i n e a l s o adds to i t s p o t en t i a l f o r a c c i den t s , and st rengthen the argument in favour of s t r i c t e r c o n t r o l s . Furthermore, vu l ne r -ab le sha l low-water area p lan t and animal l i f e can be p a r t l y p ro-tec ted by a s ho r e l i n e a c t i v i t y zone designed to minimize water a c t i v i t y c o n f l i c t s . Three f a c t o r s are invo lved in the des igna-t i on o f a Sho re l i ne A c t i v i t y Zone: 132 (a) Motorboat a c t i v i t y should be l im i t e d to a maximum speed of 5 mph. (b) Boat movement w i t h i n t h i s zone should be l im i t e d to t r ave l at r i g h t - ang l e s to the shore, as f a r as t h i s i s p r a c t i c a l a long the g iven sho r e l i n e c o n f i g u r a t i o n . Movement would the re fo re be r e s t r i c t e d to boats approaching and depar t ing from docks, launching ramps, e t c . (c) A di.stance o f 250-500 f ee t from shore i s recommended fo r t h i s zone. The Sho re l i ne A c t i v i t y Zone i s s i m i l a r to the L i t t o r a l Zone c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n used in t h i s t he s i s except that the l a t e r a l ex tent of the former i s determined l i n e a r l y ra the r than to the f i v e foot contour depth. (2) The Open Water Zone. This zone re fe r s to the cent re of most lakes beyond the sho re l i ne a c t i v i t y zone, and i s des ignated as "unres -t r i c t e d use" o f the wate r . A l though a number of boat ing a c t i v i -t i e s take p lace in t h i s zone, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to separate these on the bas i s o f speed. However, the con t r o l of water a c t i v i t i e s can be made more p l a u s i b l e by r e l a t i n g the dimension of t h i s zone to the c on f i g u r a t i o n of the sho r e l i n e and lake morphology. Where-as la rge round lakes render a c t i v i t y con t ro l d i f f i c u l t , lakes w i th bays, i n l e t s , and headlands make a c t i v i t y segregat ion e a s i e r . The use o f s ho r e l i n e r a t i o s (based on the number of i r r e g u l a r i t i e s per m i l e of sho re l i ne ) would be one method in e s t a b l i s h i n g the dimen-s ions of t h i s zone (Adams, Z o l t a i , 1969). (3) The Wi lderness Zone. Whi le the purpose of the Sho re l i ne A c t i v i t y Zone and Open Water Zone i s to min imize p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s between 133 on-water a c t i v i t i e s which are incompat ib le due to t h e i r s p a t i a l requirements and speed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the purpose of the W i l de r -ness Zone i s to p ro tec t the ecosystem o f a lake from adverse con-sequences as a r e s u l t o f r e c r ea t i ona l a c t i v i t i e s . Th is zone should the re fo re inc lude those sec t i ons of the lake where w i l d l i f e i s most vu l ne rab l e to the e f f e c t s o f r e c r e a t i o n . This would inc lude the L i t t o r a l Zone where aqua t i c vege ta t i on i s present s i nce i t i s in t h i s hab i t a t where both producer and consumer organisms are s i g -n i f i c a n t . Recrea t ion in t h i s zone should be r e s t r i c t e d to those a c t i v i t i e s that are sedentary or s low moving: canoe ing, f i s h i n g , and nature s tudy . A l l h igh-speed a c t i v i t i e s that tend to develop h igh d en s i t i e s should be s t r i c t l y r e s t r i c t e d in t h i s zone. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF RESERVOIR ZONING I t is recognized that implementat ion of such water sur face zoning w i l l pose many l e g a l , t e chn i ca l and adm i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s . Whi le p lan implementat ion i s pe r i phe r a l to t h i s s tudy, i t should be po in ted out that the a dm i n i s t r a t i o n and management of a r e s e r v o i r in B r i t i s h Columbia r a i s e s se r i ous problems s i n ce no one a dm i n i s t r a t i v e agency i s s o l e l y r e spons i b l e . As a r e s u l t , r e c r ea t i ona l use a t r e s e r v o i r s in the prov ince has developed in a haphazard f a sh ion w i th a l l the c o n f l i c t i n g issues (both on and around the r e se r vo i r ) being v i s i b l e . Given that such a dm i n i s t r a t i v e mechanisms are p rov i ded , a s o l u t i o n to the t e chn i c a l problems can be prov ided in pa r t by the use of buoys of d i f f e r e n t shapes and c o l o u r s , w i t h s igns being located 134 on the shore and p laced to be both e a s i l y v i s i b l e and yet meld w i th the background. Other a i d s in the implementat ion cou ld inc lude the p u b l i c a t i o n and f ree d i s t r i b u t i o n of " l a ke pamphlets" which: . . . desc r i be in s imple w r i t t e n and map format what a c t i v i t y and area r e s t r i c t i o n s e x i s t . A system of f i ne s and other p ena l t i e s f o r the v i o l a t i o n o f water-use regu l a t i ons appears o b l i g a t o r y , i f the measures are to be e f f e c t i v e (Jaakson, 1972). The s i g n i f i c a n c e of water zoning i s that i t enables the land-use p lanner to separate incompat ib le a c t i v i t i e s in to groups which e x h i b i t s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Furthermore, i t can be used in con junc t i on w i th the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n technique e s t a b l i s h ed in t h i s t he s i s by separa t ing those a c t i v i t i e s that have high c a p a b i l i t i e s w i t h i n the same management u n i t . DESIGN STANDARDS The implementat ion of an Integrated Reservo i r Management scheme invo lves the es tab l i shment o f both the a dm i n i s t r a t i v e and t e chn i ca l aspects of the water resource base. Some of the more common requirements as p e r t a i n i ng to r e c r ea t i ona l use have been d iscussed in the prev ious s e c t i o n s . These c ond i t i o n s are by no means a l l - i n c l u s i v e nor d e f i n i t i v e on the sub j e c t . However, they do cover the more pe r t i n en t aspects of i n teg ra ted use. In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , c on s i de r a t i on must a l s o be given to proper des ign standards fo r r e c r ea t i on in that u l t i m a t e l y the design and layout o f f a c i l i t i e s a f f e c t s the degree to which the resource base can be mainta ined a t a des i r ed l eve l of q u a l i t y . This l eve l o f q u a l i t y is determined i n i t i a l l y by the " c a r r y i n g c a pa c i t y " of the r e c r ea t i on 135 resource to su s t a i n c e r t a i n l e v e l s of use wi thout permanent damage, and that t h i s " n a t u r a l " c apac i t y : . . . can be increased through des ign and/or s t r u c t u r a l i n t e r -vent ions by management; and that the r e c r e a t i o n i s t s 1 percept ion o f the q u a l i t y of the f a c i l i t y and l eve l o f use are important cons i de ra t i on s in e s t a b l i s h i n g the "des igned c apa c i t y " o f any r e c r ea t i ona l use (Verburg and Rees, 1974). With i n c r eas i ng concerns in recent years fo r environmental p r e s e r v a t i o n , there has been a cor respond ing increase in the need for in fo rmat ion on standards used by r e c r ea t i on p l anne r s , a u t h o r i t i e s , and o r gan i z a t i on s throughout the coun t ry . Much of the research , undertaken by government agenc ies and p lann ing departments i n the Uni ted S t a t e s , has been adopted by the Parks Branch and Regional D i s t r i c t s of B r i t i s h Columbia. By way of example, the f o l l ow i ng t ab l e , taken from the U.S. Fores t S e r v i c e , i l l u s t r a t e s the degree of development for campgrounds and p i c n i c s i t e s and the necessary l e ve l o f env i ronmenta l m o d i f i c a t i o n . For a more comprehensive index to gu i d e l i n e s f o r outdoor r e c r ea t i ona l f a c i l i t i e s , see Verburg and Rees (1975), The Carrying Capacity of Selected Outdoor Recreation Facilities. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This t hes i s has demonstrated the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of a developed framework fo r a s p e c i f i c resource . Furthermore, i t has been e s t a b l i s h ed that the resource base of the Reservo i r S i t e Region c rea tes o ppo r t un i t i e s to ach ieve in teg ra ted uses. The i n i t i a l es tab l i shment of these o ppo r t un i t i e s is de f ined on the bas i s of c a p a b i l i t y ( suppor t i ve TABLE 9 The Degree of Environmental Mod i f i c a t i o n Required f o r D i f f e r e n t Recreat ion Exper iences (U.S. Fores t S e r v i c e , 1973). C A M P G R O U N D S & P I C N I C S I T E S L E V E L S O F E N V I R O N M E N T A L M O D I F I C A T I O N D E V E L O P M E N T S C A L E L E V E L S O F R E C R E A T I O N E X P E R I E N C E S M i n i m u m s i t e m o d i f i c a t i o n . R u s t i c o r r u c i i -m e n t a r y i m p r o v e m e n t s d e s i g n e d f o r p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e s i t e r a t h e r t h a n c o m f o r t o f t h e u s e r s . U s e o f s y n t h e t i c m a t e r i a l s a v o i d e d . M i n i m u m c o n t r o l s a r e s u b t l e . N o o b v i o u s m e a n s r e g i -m e n t a t i o n . S p a c i n g i n f o r m a l a n d e x t e n d e d t o m i n i m i z e c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r s . M o t o r i z e d a c c e s s n o t p r o v i d e d o r p e r m i t t e d . 1 p r i m i t i v e P r i m i t i v e f o r e s t e n v i r o n m e n t i s d o m i n a n t . R u d i m e n t a r y a n d i s o l a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t s i t e s b e y o n d t h e s i g h t o r s o u n d o f i n h a r m o n i o u s i n f l u e n c e s . M a x i m u m o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e x p e r -i e n c i n g s o l i t u d e , t e s t i n g s k i l l s a n d c o m p e n -s a t i n g f o r t h e r o u t i n e s o f d a i l y l i v i n g . U s e r s e n s e s n o r e g i m e n t a t i o n . F e e l i n g s o f . p h y s i c a l a c h i e v e m e n t i n r e a c h i n g s i t e i s i m p o r t a n t . L i t t l e s i t e m o d i f i c a t i o n . R u s t i c o r r u d i -m e n t a r y i m p r o v c n e n t - S d e s i g n e d f o r p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e s i t e r a t h e r t h a n c o m f o r t o f t h e u s e r s . U s e o f s y n t h e t i c m a t e r i a l s a v o i d e d . M i n i m u m c o n t r o l s a r e s u b t l e . L i t t l e o b v i o u s r e g i -m e n t a t i o n . S p a c i n g i n f o r m a l a n d e x t e n d e d L o m i n i m i z e c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r s . M o t o r i z e d a c c e s s p r o v i d e d o r p e r m i t t e d . P r i m a r y a c c e s s o v e r p r i m i t i v e r o a d s . 2 s e c o n d a r y p r i m i t i v e N e a r p r i m i t v e f o r e s t e n v i r o n m e n t . O u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s p r e s e n t b u t m i n i m i z e d . F e e l i n g o f a c c o m p l i s h m e n t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o w s t a n d a r d a c c e s s i s i m p o r t a n t b u t d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y p h y s i c a l e x e r t i o n t o r e a c h s i t e . O p p o r -t u n i t y f o r s o l i t u d e - a n d c h a n c e t o t e s t o u t d o o r s k i l l s i s p r e s e n t . S i t e m o d i f i c a t i o n m o d e r a t e . F a c i l i t i e s b u i l t e q u a l l y f o r p r o t e c t i o n o f s i t e a n d c o m f o r t o f u s e r s . C o n t e m p o r a r y / r u s t i c d e s i g n o f i m p r o v e -m e n t s i s u s u a l l y b a s e d o n u s e o f n a t i v e m a t e r i a l s . I n c o n s p i c u o u s v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s u s u a l l y p r o v i d e d . R o a d s m a y b e h a r d s u r f a c e d a n d t r a i l s f o r m a l i z e d . D e v e l o p m e n t d e n s i t y a b o u t 3 f a m i l y u n i t s p e r a c r e . P r i n a r y a c c e s s t o s i t e i n a y b e o v e r h i g h s t a n d a r d w e l l t r a v e l e d r o a d s . V I S , i f a v a i l a b l e , i s i n f e r - . m a i a n d i n c i d e n t a l . 3 i n t e r m e d i a t e L F o r e s t e n v i r o n m e n t , i s e s s e n t i a l l y n a t u r a l . I m p o r t a n t t h a t a d e g r e e o f s o l i t u d e i s c o m -b i n e d w i t h s o m e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s o c i a l i z e w i t h | o t h e r s . C o n t r o l s a n d r e g i m e n t a t i o n p r o v i d e d f o r s a f e t y a n d w e l l - b e i n g o f u s e r s u f f i c i e n t l y o b v i o u s t o a f f o r d a s e n s e o f s e c u r i t y b u t s u b t l e e n o u g h t o l e a v e t h e t a s t e o f a d v e n t u r e . TABLE 9 (Cont 'd) LEVELS OF ENV IRONMF.NTAL MOD IF IC AT ION S i t e h e a v i l y modified. Some f a c i l i t i e s designed s t r i c t l y for comfort and convenience of users but luxury f a c i l i t i e s not provided. F a c i l i t y designs may tend toward and incor-porate synthetic materials. Extensive use of a r t i f i c i a l surfacing of roads and t r a i l s . Vehicular t r a f f i c controls present and usually obvious. Primary access usually over paved roads. Development density 3-5 family units per acre. Plant materials usually native. V i s i t o r Information Services frequently a v a i l a b l e . High degree of s i t e modification. F a c i l i t i e s mostly designed for comfort and convenience of users include f l u s h t o i l e t s ; may include showers, bath houses, laundry f a c i l i t i e s , and e l e c t r i c a l hookups. Synthetic materials co:nmonly used. Formal walks or surfaced t r a i l s . Regimentation of users i s obvious. Access u s u i ] l y by high speed highways. Develop-ment density 5 or more family units per acre. Plant materials may be foreign to the environ-ment. Formal VIS services usually a v a i l a b l e . Designs formalized and arch i t e c t u r e may be contemporary. Mowed lawns and clipped shrubs not unusual. (Class 5 s i t e s only provided i n s p e c i a l situations or close to large c i t i e s where other lands are not available.) DEVELOPMENT SCALE LEVELS OF RECREATION EXPERIENCES Forest environment i s pleasing and a t t r a c t i v e but not ne c e s s a r i l y n a t u r a l . Blending of opportunities f o r so l i t u d e and s o c i a l i z i n g A with others. Testing of outdoor s k i l l s on s i t e mostly l i m i t e d to the camping a c t i v i t y , secondary Many user comforts a v a i l a b l e . Contrast to modern d a i l y l i v i n g routines i s moderate. Invites marked sense of s e c u r i t y . 5 modern Pleasing environment a t t r a c t i v e to the novice ' or highly gregarious camper. Opportunity to s o c i a l i z e with others very important. S a t i s -f i e s urbanites need for compensating exper-iences and r e l a t i v e s o l i t u d e but l e s s i n t e n -sive than i n classes 1-4. Obvious to user that he i s i n secure s i t u a t i o n where ample pr o v i s i o n i s made for his personal comfort and he w i l l not be c a l l e d upon to use undeveloped s k i l l s . systems) a n a l y s i s . The c a p a b i l i t y approach developed i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n g iven that the management o b j e c t i v e i s to maximize the net bene f i t s from the resource base fo r p ub l i c use. The degree of l i m i t a t i o n for r e c r e a t i o na l c a p a b i l i t i e s is determined on the bas i s of se l ec ted a t t r i b u t e b iogeophys ica l v a l ue s . This approach recognizes tha t c a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s i s the l o g i c a l i n i t i a l phase in determin ing resource-use of the l and , and tends to min imize adverse" environmental impacts. Secondly, an approach that incorpora tes land c a p a b i l i t y w i th s o c i a l and economic r e a l i t i e s as a governing f a c to r in op t im i z i ng land-use imp l ies a sus ta ined y i e l d p lus maximum so c i a l b ene f i t s from the land and a s soc i a t ed resources for a r e f e r r en t group. The b iogeophys i ca l va lues used in t h i s study to e s t a b l i s h land management un i t s fo r r e c r ea t i on provided a u s e f u l , a l though l im i t e d foundat ion , f o r assess ing the e c o l o g i c a l c ons i de ra t i on s of land-use c a p a b i l i t y . In the fu tu re development of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n framework, the e c o l o g i c a l concepts of r e s e r v o i r s d iscussed in Chapter Two should be g iven more accura te and d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s than was used in t h i s study, e s p e c i a l l y regard ing aqua t i c vege ta t i on and organisms in the l i t t o r a l zone, sho re l i ne and beach fo rmat ions , and the sur face and sub-sur face water cu r r en t s in the r e s e r v o i r . U l t ima t e l y , the i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n framework should invo lve a complete assessment of not on ly the r e c r e a t i o n c a p a b i l i t i e s of the r e s e r vo i r (which form one par t o f i n -tegra ted management), but a l s o the t o t a l uses of the water resource base fo r the maximum bene f i t of s o c i e t y . Bi bliography Adams, G. D. and S. C. Z o l t a i . 1969. "Proposed open water and wetland c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , " Guidelines for Bio-Physical Land Classification. 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U n p u b l i s h e d T h e s i s , S choo l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V an couve r , B .C . L e o p o l d , A . 1949. " T he Land E t h i c , " q u o t e d i n Fundamentals of Ecology, (Odum, 1971), W.B . Saunde r s Company, P h i l a d e l p h i a . L i n s l e y , R. K. and J . B. F r a n z i n i . 1964. Water-Resources Engineering. M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, 2nd e d i t i o n , New Y o r k . Mabbu t t , J . A . 1968. " R e v i ew o f Concep t s o f Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , " Land Evaluation. E d i t e d by G. A . S t e w a r t , D i v i s i o n o f Land R e s e a r c h , CSIRO, C a n b e r r a , A u s t r a l i a . M a c m i l l a n o f A u s t r a l i a . MacKay, D. 1969. " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f R i v e r D i s c h a r g e and Runo f f i n C a n a d a , " Water: Selected Readings. M. J . Chambers and J . G. We l son ( e d s . ) , T o r o n t o , Me thuen , 43 -55-M a r s h a l l , H . E . 1973. " C o s t S h a r i n g and M u l t i o b j e c t i v e s i n Water Resou r ce D e v e l o p m e n t , " Water Resources Research. V o l . 9, no . 1. M a r s h a l l , H. N. 1971. " F o r e s t r y and Ou tdoo r R e c r e a t i o n i n B . C . " The Present and Future of Outdoor Recreation in British Columbia. B .C . W i l d l i f e and R e c r e a t i o n Commi t t ee o f t he Canada Land I n v e n t o r y , V i c t o r i a , B .C . 11 — 19. M e r e w i t z , L. 1966. " R e c r e a t i o n a l B e n e f i t s o f Water Resou r ce Deve l o pmen t , " Water Resources Research. V o l . 2, n o . 4, 625-640. M i d g l e y , P. T . 1972. An Impact Identification Framework for Large Reservoirs. U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r s T h e s i s , S c hoo l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , The U n i v e r s i t y o f - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V an c ou ve r , B .C . M i l l i k e n , J . G. and H. E. Mew. I969. Recreational Impact of Reclama-tion Reservoirs. U n i t e d S t a t e s Depar tment o f the I n t e r i o r , Bu reau o f R e c l a m a t i o n , Denve r . M o b a s h e r i , F. and R. C. Ha rboe . 1970. "A Two-S tage O p t i m i z a t i o n Model f o r De s i gn o f a M u l t i p l e Pu rpose R e s e r v o i r , " Water Resources Research. V o l . 6, F e b r u a r y , n o . 1, 22-31. Montgomery , P. H. and F. C. E d m i n s t e r . I966. "Use o f S o i l Su r vey s i n P l a n n i n g f o r R e c r e a t i o n , " i n L. J . B a r t e l l i e t a l . , ( e d s . ) , Soil Surveys and Land Use Planning. S o i l S c i . S o c . Am . , M a d i s o n , W i s -c o n s i n , 104-112. More , R. 1969. "The Water B a l a n c e , " Water, Earth and Man. R. J . C h o r l e y , ( e d . ) , Methuen and Co . L t d . , G r e a t B r i t a i n . 144 Morton, W. M. and L. K. Fox ( e d s . ) . 1975. Regional Natural Resources Planning. A Framework and Its Application to the Chilliwack River Basin in British Columbia. The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Murphy, E. F. 1967. Governing Nature. Quadrangle Books, Inc . , Ch icago. Odum, E. P. 1971- Fundamentals of Ecology. W. B. Saunders Company, Th i rd E d i t i o n , P h i l a d e l p h i a . Pavel i s , G. 1972. Planning Natural Resource Development. An I n t r o -ductory Guide by Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Economic Research Se r v i c e , A g r i c u l t u r a l Handbook no. 431, Washington, D.C. Pearse, P. H. 1968. "Water-Based Recrea t ion Demands," Forecasting the Demands for Water. W. R. D. Sewel1, B. T. Baver ( e d s . ) , P o l i c y and P lann ing Branch, Department o f Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, On ta r i o , 161-203-Rowe, J . S. and R. J . McCormack. 1968. Forestry and Multiple Land Use. Paper prepared f o r 9th Commonwealth Fo res t ry Conference, I nd i a . Canadian Department o f Fo re s t r y and Rural Development, Ottawa. Sexton, J . K. 1974. "Water Storage Rese rvo i r s—A Conservat ion o f Natura l Resources . " Presented at Seminar on Water Resources, November 8, 1974, The Un i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Sigma Resource Consu l tan ts L t d . 1974. Hayward Lake Recreation Pro-posal. Compiled f o r B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power Au t ho r i t y , Vancouver, B.C. S locan Va l l e y Community Fores t Management P r o j e c t . 1974. Final Report. Spencer, J . F. 1972. A Technique for Resource Classification and Capability Analyses in Coastal Zone Management. Unpubl ished Masters Thes i s , School of Community and Regional P l ann i ng , The Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. S t e rn , C D . 1974. "Hydropower v s . Wi lderness Waterway: The Economics of P r o j e c t J u s t i f i c a t i o n through the S i x t i e s , " Journal of Leisure Research. V o l . 6, no. 1, W in te r , 46-57-Stewar t , G.A. ( ed . ) . 1968. Land Evaluation. MacMi l l an Pub l i s h i n g Co . , Melbourne, A u s t r a l i a . Stone, R. and H. F r i e d l a nd . 1972. "Socioeconomics of M u l t i p l e Use," Journa l o f AWWA. June, 351-353-S t roud , R. H. 1959. " M u l t i p l e Purpose Wate rs , " Journal of Soil & Water Conservation. V o l . 59, 251-256. 145 Symington, D. F. 1970. Land Use in Canada: The Canada Land Inventory. Department of Regional Economic Expansion, Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. Symons, J . M. 1974. Multiple Usage Reservoirs: Protection of the Water Quality as a Potable Water Source. Standards Atta inment Branch, Water Supply Research Laboratory , Nat iona l Environmental Research Cent re , U.S. Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Agency, C i n c i n n a t i , Ohio. T a t t e r s a l , P. 1971. Some Operations Problems within the Electric Utility of British Columbia Hydro & Power Authority. Unpubl ished M.B.A. Thes i s , Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby, B.C. United States Department of the I n t e r i o r . 1967. Bureau of Outdoor Rec rea t i on . Outdoor Recreation Space Standards. U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, D.C. Verburg, K. and W. E. Rees. 1974. The Carrying Capacity of Selected Outdoor Recreational Facilities. Compiled for Parks Canada, and Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s . School of Community and Regional P l ann ing , The Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Vernon, E. H. 1957. "Power Development on Lakes in B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , " The Investigation of Fish-Power Problems. H. R. MacMi l lan Lectures in F i s h e r i e s , The Un i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Ed i ted by P. A. L a r k i n , 11-14. Water Resources Research I n s t i t u t e . 1968. Reservoirs: Problems and Conflicts. Water Resources Research I n s t i t u t e , Oregon State U n i v e r s i t y , C o r v a l l i s , Oregon. Watt, K. E. F. 1968. Ecology and Resource Management. McGraw-Hi l l Book Company, New York. Weber, E. W. 1966. "Rec r ea t i on : A Purpose of Water Resource Develop-ment," Journal of Civil Engineering. September. White, G. F. 1969- Strategies of American Water Management. Ann A rbo r , The U n i v e r s i t y of Mich igan P re s s . Wr ight , J . C. 1967. " E f f e c t s of Impoundments on P r o d u c t i v i t y , Water Chemistry , and Heat Budgets of R i v e r s , " Reservoir Fishery Resources Symposium. Amer. F i s h . S o c , Washington, D.C., 188-199-Wunder l i ck , W. and R. E l d e r . 1973- "Mechanics of Flow Through Man-made Lakes , " Man-made Lakes: Their Problems and Environmental Effects. Geophys ica l Monograph 17, American Geophysica l Un ion, Washington, D.C. APPENDIX 1 THE COMPONENTS OF THE BASIN HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE 146a F igure 18. The Components of the Bas in Hyd ro l og i ca l Cyc le Source: R. More, 1969. APPENDIX 2 GROUND DRAINAGE CLASSES 147a GROUND DRAINAGE CLASSES Ground drainage classes Drainage class .QUBCtcristics Excessively drained Water is removed from the ground very rapidly. JViost excessively drained ground is very porous or occurs on steep slopes, or both, and is free of mottlings. Somewhat excessively drained Water is removed from the ground rapidly. Most somewhat excessively drained ground is sandy and very porous, and tree of mottling through the profile. Well-drained Water is removed from the ground readily, but not.rapidly. Most well-drained ground is intermediate in texture and is free of mot-tling to depths of several feet. Moderately well-drained Water is removed from the ground somewhat slowly, and it is wet for a small but significant part of the time. Most moderately well-drained ground has a slowly permeable layer at a depth of 2 to 3 feet, a relatively high water table, .-dditions of water through seep-age or combinations thereof. Most moderately well-drained ground is mottled at depths of 2 to 3 feet. Impcrfecdy or somewhat poorly drained Water is removed from the ground slowly enough to keep it we: for significant periods, but not all the time. Most imperfectly or poorly drained ground has a slowly permeaole layer at a depth of i to 2 feet, a high water table, additions through seepage, or combinations thereof. Most of the imperfectly, or somewhat poorly, drained ground is mottled at depths of 6 to 16 inches. Poorly drained Water is removed from the ground so slowly that it remains wet for a large part of the time. In poorly drained ground, the water table commonly is at, or near, the surface during a considerable part ot the year and is due to a high water table, to a slowly per.•'.cable layer, to seepage, or to some combination thereof. Poorly J:ained ground is light gray from the surface downward, with or without motdings. Very poorly drained Water is removed from the ground so slowly that the water table remains at, or near, the surface most of the time. Most very poorly drained ground occurs in level, or depressed, sites, frequently ponded. Most very poorly drained ground has cark-gray or black surface layers and is light gray, with or without mottlings, in deeper pans. Stunt: VXD A. Soil Survey Manual, 1951. Source: U.S.D.A. S o i l Survey Manual, 1951. 148 APPENDIX 3 CLASSES OF STONINESS 148 a CLASSES OF STONINESS C lasses of s ton iness a re o u t l i n e d as f o l l ows : C lass 0. No stones or too few to i n t e r f e r e w i th t i l l a g e . Stones cover l ess than 0.01 percent o f the a r ea . C lass 1. S u f f i c i e n t stones to i n t e r f e r e w i t h t i l l a g e but not to make i n t e r t i l l e d crops imp ra c t i c ab l e . ( i f stones are 1 foot in diameter and about 30 to 100 fee t apa r t , they occupy about 0.01 to 0.1 percent of the su r f ace , and there are about 0.15 to 1.5. cub i c yards per a c r e - f o o t ) . C lass 2. S u f f i c i e n t stones to make t i l l a g e o f i n t e r t i l l e d crops imp ra c t i c ab l e , but the s o i l can be worked f o r hay crops or improved pasture i f o ther s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a re f a vo r ab l e . ( I f stones are 1 foot in diameter and about 5 to 30 f e e t apa r t , they occupy about 0.1 to 3 percent of the su r face and there are about 1.5 to 50 cub i c yards per a c r e - f o o t ) . C lass 3. S u f f i c i e n t stones to mane a l l use o f machinery imp rac t i c ab l e , except fo r very l i g h t machinery or hand t oo l s where o ther s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are e s p e c i a l l y f avo rab l e f o r improved pas tu re . S o i l s w i th t h i s c l a s s of s ton iness may have some use f o r w i l d pas ture or f o r e s t s , depending on o ther s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . ( I f stones are 1 foot in diameter and about 2.5 to 5 fee t apa r t , they occupy about 3 to 15 pe r -cent of the su r f a ce , and there are about 50 to 240 cub i c yards per a c r e - f oo t ) . C lass 4. S u f f i c i e n t stones to make a l l use o f machinery imp ra c t i c ab l e ; the land may have some va lue fo r poor pas ture or fo r f o r e s t r y . ( I f stones are 1 foot in diameter and are about 2.5 f ee t or less apa r t , they occupy 15 to 90 percent of the su r f a ce , and there are more than about 240 cub i c yards per a c r e - f o o t ) . C lass 5. Land e s s e n t i a l l y paved w i t h stones that occupy more than 90 percent of the exposed sur face (Rubble) . Source: U.S.D.A. S o i l Survey Manue1, 1951. 

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