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Four Kyōgen plays on Haikai Morley, Carolyn Anne 1976

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FOUR KYOGEN PLAYS ON HAIKAI CAROLYN ANNE MORLEY B.A., O b e r l i n C o l l e g e , 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF ' - MASTER OF ARTS i n the department of ASIAN STUDIES We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o thi r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1976 (c) Carolyn Anne Morley, 1976 In presenting th i s thes is in ..partial fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scholar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i cat ion of this thesis for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Abstract Four plays of the medieval comic t h e a t r e o f Japan, Kyogen , are presented here i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n ; Fujimatsu, C h i g i r i k i , Ml&Kazuki, and Hachiku Renga. The plays a l l d e a l w i t h the medieval comic l i n k e d verse form of po e t r y , H a i k a i no Renga. They were s e l e c t e d f o r the i n s i g h t which they o f f e r i n t o both a r t forms. The a n a l y s i s i n t r o d u c i n g the plays discusses the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the H a i k a i no Renga and Kyogen i n terms of h i s t o r i c a l development and a e s t h e t i c a t t r i b u t e s . The t r a n s l a t i o n s were made as l i t e r a l as p o s s i b l e , r e l y i n g on the c o l l e c t i o n of Kyogen plays by Koyama H i r o s h i , Kyogen J o , Ge/ Koyama based h i s c o l l e c t i o n on a t e x t of the Okura school,the Yamamoto Azuma  J i r o hon. This i s the t e x t c u r r e n t l y used by the Okura sc h o o l i n performance. Because of the terseness of the o r i g i n a l s c r i p t s , the a n a l y s i s of the plays i s supported i n l a r g e part by observations of a c t u a l p e r f o r -mances of the plays i n Japan. This was thought t o be va l u a b l e i n t h a t the plays depend h e a v i l y on mime f o r t h e i r humor. Chapters I through IV present the a n a l y s i s of the four p l a y s . The plays themselves comprise the f i n a l s e c t i o n of the paper. i i Table of Contents I . I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 I I . H i s t o r y 8 I I I . Form and Humor.... !5 IV. Conclusion ' V. Footnotes • • 2 6 VI. F u j i mat su 30 V I I . Footnotes f o r Fujimatsu ^ V I I I . C h i g i r i k i 1 + 6 IX. Footnotes f o r C h i g i r i k i ••• ^2 X .HMi-hKazuE-i-K.sg- ' 6 3 XI. Footnotes.-- f o r Mi.cKazukiten.ga. 69 X I I . Hachiku Renga. TO X I I I . Footnotes €«5r Hachiku Renga ' 83 XIV. B i b l i o g r a p h y 8 6 L i s t of Figures Diagram of the Kyogen stage 1 I . . I n t r o d u c t i o n Humor i s oft e n s a i d t o "be a uniquely c u l t u r a l phenomenon, i n -comprehensible t o o u t s i d e r s . I f t h i s i s t r u e then KyogenJJL q , the c l a s s i c a l comic t h e a t r e of Japan i s an anomaly. The impish mimic movement, the d e l i g h t f u l v a r i e t y of sound words, the enactment o f the u n i v e r s a l weaknesses and embarrassments of man combine t o reach the viewer on a very c h i l d l i k e l e v e l of enjoyment. Indeed the actors themselves seem very l i k e c h i l d r e n as they copy and at the same time make fun of the adult world t o which they do not appear t o belong. Led along by the a n t i c s on stage, the audience enters a f a i r y l a n d where everything seems t o be an exact r e p l i c a of the r e a l w o r l d and yet i s s l i g h t l y askew. The t h i e f c a r e f u l l y hopping over i n v i s i b l e melons i n the farmer's melon'patch, the henpecked husband's d i s p l a y of bravery i n combat w i t h a non-existent opponent, the j i n g l e of the temple b e l l s d e l i c i o u s l y r o l l e d o f f the servant's tongue, any one of these scenes w i l l b r i n g t o : the mind of the viewer echoes of h i s childhood. Kyogen i s fun. In a harmless, r e l a x i n g way Kyogen r e v i v e s i n us an innocent joy i n l i f e which crosses g e n e r a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l b a r r i e r s t o d e l i g h t us again and again. The purpose of t h i s essay i s t o introduce four plays of the Kyogen r e p e r t o i r e i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n . The plays i n c l u d e d are Fujimatsu||" '^'/X,Chigiriki -^f~ \Jj 7 J \ ,Hachiku Renga •' \ ^ V$. 'K > a n d Mikazuki ffi Each o f the plays p e r t a i n s t o some aspect of the l i n k e d verse form of p o e t r y , H a i k a i no R e n g a 2 a popular form of entertainment, as was the Kyogen, during the Muromachi p e r i o d . The i n -c o r p o r a t i o n o f H a i k a i i n t o the Kyogen play s was a n a t u r a l development c o n s i d e r i n g the s i m i l a r i t y i n humor, subject matter, and a e s t h e t i c con-cepts. Moreover, both a r t s appear t o have been fashionable during periods of s o c i a l t u r m o i l . 3 At such times i n h i s t o r y people have demanded a f r e s h outlook on l i f e which the humorous a r t s provided. In t h i s essay I w i l l present the h i s t o r i c a l and a r t i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two a r t s , based on the plays appended. 2 In a d d i t i o n t o these p l a y s , there remain at l e a s t four other p l a y s concerning H a i k a i ; Renga Bishamon j?j z{Z. fx* •>]/i~ '1 , Renga Nusubito Vf I;^la":i2 / Renga J i t t o k u y f '^j; -V~ ffj^, and Daikoku Renga zf- 1,^ ^ The plays which I have chosen a f f o r d the greatest i n s i g h t i n t o the va r i o u s aspects of both Kyogen and H a i k a i because of the v a r i e t y of verse and the d e s c r i p t i o n of the H a i k a i meetings. The t e x t from which the plays were t r a n s l a t e d i s , t o my knowledge, one of the most recent annotated c o l l e c t i o n s o f Kyogen a v a i l a b l e , Kyogen Jo*, Gejf'jfc. J t l K , by Koyama Hi r o s h i ' J - ^/L NJT^- He has based h i s e d i t i o n on the o r i g i n a l s c r i p t s of Yamamoto Azuma J i r o of the Yamamoto Azuma l i n e of the tJkura school7vf;|f£ . ^  The plays appear i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t form i n the Izumi s c h o o l ^ ? Jj? ^  texts.''' Kyogen was f i r s t r e f e r r e d t o i n conjunction w i t h H a i k a i i n the H a i k a i Sho Gakusho j^iy? tj)^^\;l6k2, by S a i t o Tokugen%: ^  - j ' ^ Tvl,, of the Teimon s c h o o l ^ p o f poetry. He simply notes t h a t i f one r e f e r s t o Renga, i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h NOf^; i f one r e f e r s t o H a i k a i , i t must be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Kyogen. ^  L a t e r , Okura ToraaMT^Vjilf^/^^j^) repeats t h i s adage i n h i s work, the Waranbe G u s a ^ of 1 6 6 0 . As both the schools of Kyogen and H a i k a i were f o r m a l l y d e f i n i n g t h e i r a r t s at t h i s time, one may assume that the H a i k a i poetry appearing i n Kyogen was introduced and recorded i n the plays at about t h i s time. Because of the i n f o r m a l nature of both of these a r t forms at t h e i r i n c e p t i o n , a more d e f i n i t e d a t i n g i s not p o s s i b l e . Kyogen i s g e n e r a l l y assumed t o have f i r s t appeared i n the e a r l y Muromachi p e r i o d . However, as the e a r l y Kyogen was an improvised t h e a t r e , t r a n s m i t t e d o r a l l y , t h ere are no h i s t o r i c a l records p r i o r t o the l a t e s i x t e e n t h century. The Kyogen scenarios performed today date from the l a t e Muromachi-early Edo p e r i o d , when the f i r s t schools of Kyogen were formed and the plays were f i r s t recorded. A c c o r d i n g l y , the costumes and most of the vocabulary date from the s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth ce n t u r i e s although t r a c e s of e a r l i e r language s t r u c t u r e s do r e m a i n . ^ G e n e r a l l y , Kyogen actors chose f o r t h e i r subject matter, the every-day l i f e s i t u a t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the common man. The plays r e -maining w i t h us are n a t u r a l l y those d e a l i n g w i t h u n i v e r s a l l y r e c u r r i n g 3 dilemmas. The humor or t r u t h of Kyogen i s t o be found i n the gentle exposure of the v a n i t i e s and s t u p i d i t i e s found i n a l l people. Because of t h i s , Kyogen has succeeded i n touching a responsive chord i n men of every age si n c e i t s beginning. We are d e l i g h t e d t o see the pompous would-be poet brought down t o eart h by h i s p r a c t i c a l w i f e i n Mi k a z u k i . In C h i g i r i k i we cannot help but sympathize w i t h Taro's attempt t o d i s -guise h i s shame before h i s domineering w i f e . In each case, the poignant p o r t r a y a l of human f e e l i n g s i s overwhelming. 1 The a c t o r s ' a b i l i t y t o e l i c i t a strong response from the audience i s the more amazing i n that the r e p e r t o i r e i s extremely l i m i t e d i n scope. The plays are a l l one act w i t h s i m i l a r form and content. So much so i n fa c t t h a t b l a t a n t r e p e t i t i o n of e n t i r e scenes i s not uncommon. In Fujimatsu ; f o r example, the f i r s t quarter of the p l a y can be found I n i d e n t i c a l format i n the p l a y s Bunzo"5£ fjj^and BoBo Gashira^XL. Q fsM^ . The opening scenes of Fujimatsu and Hachiku Renga d e p i c t i n g the i r a t e s u p e r i o r c a l l i n g on h i s i r r e v e r e n t subordinate, are a l s o s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r . The characters belong t o one of a dozen or so Kyogen character-types. Of them, the f i g u r e s of the master and the servant, Taro K a j a , are the most f a m i l i a r i n th a t they appear i n approximately o n e - t h i r d of the 210 13 plays i n the r e p e r t o i r e . The master may be r e f e r r e d t o a l t e r n a t e l y as I>aimyo 7*V Qp " l a r g e l a n d owner," or Shomyo -I- " s m a l l l a n d owner." These t i t l e s ' a r e not t o be mistaken as references t o the great l o r d s of the Edo p e r i o d . Rather, they r e f l e c t the a s p i r a t i o n s of the newly r i s e n l a n d owning farmer of Muromachi Japan whose t o t a l holdings may have a-1^ mounted t o no more than one or two f i e l d s and a house serva n t , Taro Kaja. Another character type of n o t i c e a b l e importance i n the H a i k a i p l a y s i s the woman. Dressed i n a woman's low b e l t e d robe, w i t h a le n g t h of white c l o t h wrapped about her head, she i s otherwise without make-up or mask. The roughness of the undisguised masculine face compliments her b e l l i g e r a n t manner and often crude strength.' In these plays she appears both passionate and domineering. There are prototypes f o r t h i s woman i n f o l k t a l e s . Often they t e l l of a poor simple charcole vender who r i s e s i n the world due t o h i s wife's sPlfl I S -fortune and wisdom. However, the Kyogen woman a l s o has a place i n the h i s t o r y of the middle ages i n Japan. During a p e r i o d of constant warfare k the woman had t o be capable of managing the home and the economic support of her f a m i l y . In Mikazuki t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s exaggerated w i t h the husband p u t t i n g on the a i r s of a wandering poet w h i l e h i s w i f e works at home t o keep them both a l i v e . The c o n f l i c t which develops, i s e v e n t u a l l y , d e l i c a t e l y and humorously r e s o l v e d through the very passion of t h e i r l o v e . The Kyogen plays are d i v i d e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g c a t a g o r i e s ; Waki  Kyogen j f f i \\_ % " c e l e b r a t o r y plays , " Daimyo Kyogen, 7 \ ~% »Shomyo Kyogen jjx ^ j l » Muko Onna Kyogen l ^ ^ ^ J r J ^ c i "son-in-law, woman p l a y s , " Oni Yamabushi Kyogen % j . 5 "devil,mountain p r i e s t p l a y s , " Shukke Zato Kyogen Hi hM.ff§ "novice,blindman p l a y s , " and f i n a l l y Atsume Kyogen "miscellaneous p l a y s . " The de s i g n a t i o n of the plays v a r i e s not only from school t o sahool but among the various f a m i l i e s w i t h i n a school. The p r i n c i p l e behind the c a t a g o r i z i n g of the plays i s de r i v e d from No. I t r e f l e c t s the e f f o r t made by the Kyogen schools t o give the th e a t r e some s t r u c t u r e . The a p p e l l a t i o n s , however, are not p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate f o r Kyogen and many of the plays q u a l i f y f o r two or more , d i f f e r e n t groupings. The plays are designated according t o the l e a d character or the S h i t e . For example, i n the master-Taro Kaja p l a y s , i f the S h i t e i s the l a n d l o r d , then he i s r e f e r r e d t o as a Daimyo and the p l a y i s c a t a g o r i z e d as a Daimyo p l a y . On the other hand, i f the S h i t e i s Taro K a j a , the l a n d -l o r d i s introduced as a Shomyo, a man of the area, or a fortunate f e l l o w , and the p l a y i s ca t a g o r i z e d as a Shomyo p l a y . According t o the d e s i g n a t i o n , the dress of the character v a r i e s s l i g h t l y . Aside from these t e c h n i c a l p o i n t s the characters of the master and servant are e s s e n t i a l l y the same. Among the p l a y s i n c l u d e d here, only Fujimatsu has been l a b e l e d a Daimyo p l a y . However, the same subordinate-superior r e l a t i o n s h i p can be i d e n t i f i e d i n C h i g i r i k i and Hachiku Renga. C h i g i r i k i i s i n f a c t a Muko Onna p l a y , as i s Mikazuki. Hachiku Renga f a l l s under the heading o f Atsume p l a y s . The. a c t i n g technique i n Kyogen i s h i g h l y s t y l i z e d . Although an independent t h e a t r e from the No, Kyogen's long a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h _No may have encouraged the r i t u a l i z e d a c t i n g method which developed. Every move-ment and every speech f o l l o w s a p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n p e c u l i a r t o Kyogen. Just as the audience immediately recognizes the f a m i l i a r Taro Kaja , so too, they are acquainted w i t h the movement and speech of each of the character-types. 5 The aim of t h i s method of a c t i n g i s t o produce the i l l u s i o n of spontaneity so c r i t i c a l t o the faumor o f Kyogen. The importance of t h i s i s apparent i n the H a i k a i p l a y s . I t has "been s a i d of the p l a y s de-p i c t i n g H a i k a i sessions t h a t they are among the most d i f f i c u l t t o 16 perform. An a c t u a l H a i k a i s e s s i o n was a spontaneous b a t t l e of w i t s . More than the beauty of the verse, the quick and w i t t y response was v a l -ued. Therefore, a great d e a l of s k i l l i s r e q u i r e d on the part of the actors who w i t h a few gestures and exclamations and accurate t i m i n g , must recr e a t e the i n t e n s i t y of such an atmosphere. Probably because of t h e i r d i f f i c u l t y , the H a i k a i plays are r a r e l y performed. In the plays i n c l u d e d two forms of H a i k a i verse appear. One i s the o n e - l i n k verse, or Tan Renga }lLj!/o appearing i n Mikazuki and Fujimatsu. The other i s the long l i n k e d verse which appears i n eight verses i n Hachiku Renga. Tan Renga i s made up of two verses of 5 - 7 - 5 and 7-7 s y l l a b l e s . Sometimes, they may be presented i n reverse order, a p r a c t i c e popular at the c l o s e of the Muromachi p e r i o d and during the Tokugawa p e r i o d . The verses form a r i d d l e w i t h i t s s o l u t i o n . They may be l i n k e d together by kakekotoba or a p i v o t word expressing two meanings; an engo or word a s s o c i a t i o n r e l a t i n g d i s p a r a t e elements i n the poem; or simply by c o n t r a s t s 17 and comparisons i n imagery, f e e l i n g or meaning between the verses. Most of the Tan Renga are taken from the Shin Sen Inu Tsukubashu^l'ij'^'/c Jj(/k by Yamazaki SokanJ-> JJCJ | f i 6 l U 6 5 - 1 5 5 3 . This was the f i r s t , independent co m p i l a t i o n of H a i k a i verse. In longer H a i k a i such as those appearing i n Hachiku Renga, an attempt was made t o preserve a harmonious mood throughout. This r e q u i r e d more s t r e s s on the r e g u l a t i o n s f o r l i n k i n g than i n the i n f o r m a l Tan Renga. However, the process of l i n k i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same and much of the f e e l i n g of the r i d d l e remains. H a i k a i i n Kyogen are i n e v i t a b l y r e f e r r e d t o as Renga. The term Renga r e f e r s t o the serious form of l i n k e d verse d a t i n g back t o the Kamakura — n -b p e r i o d . At t h a t time, the court poet N i j o Y o s h i m o t o — ^ ^ ' 7 £ r 1320 - 1 3 8 8 , compiled the f i r s t c o l l e c t i o n of l i n k e d verse c a l l e d the Tsukubashu HAjJ^^fL^ He a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d an elaborate set of r u l e s f o r l i n k e d verse which e l -evated i t from a f r i v o l o u s amusement t o an accepted a r t form. I n r e a c t i o n 6 t o the s e r i o u s l i n k e d v erse, an i n f o r m a l form a l s o developed. They were d i s t i n g u i s h e d as Ushin or verse with s i n c e r i t y and Mushin or verse i v - + 18 l a c k i n g i n s i n c e r i t y . Although some form of the f r i v o l o u s or comic l i n k e d verse e x i s t e d along s i d e the Renga during the e a r l y Muromachi p e r i o d , no c o l l e c t i o n s of i t were compiled u n t i l those of Yamazaki Sokan and Arakida Moritake ^ 7i\ \-R'-^f[H"'l 1t73-15^9. Therefore, we may conclude t h a t the comic l i n k -ed verse was not a recognized form u n t i l the advent of the Inu Tsukubashu. This suggests t h a t one reason f o r the reference t o Renga r a t h e r than t o H a i k a i i n the plays i s t h a t the term H a i k a i was not used u n t i l the l a t e Muromachi p e r i o d i n reference t o comic verse. Furthermore, as H a i k a i was not an e s t a b l i s h e d form, a l l l i n k e d verse was probably r e f e r r e d t o as Renga. A second reason f o r the use of the term Renga i n Kyogen i s t h a t i t r e f l e c t e d the yearnings of the lower cl a s s e s a f t e r c u l t u r e . The characters are a s p i r i n g Renga poets who not only f a i l t o produce poetry but--are. ignorant of t h e i r f a i l u r e . The Kyogen poets are a l l beginners of the lowest rank, as i s apparent from the c r u d i t y of the C h i g i r i k i ses-s i o n . Although a formal Renga group would have been r e f e r r e d t o as a Kor"^, the popular lower c l a s s groups such as that described i n C h i g i r i k i were known as Shoshinko jcJl/xjr, =i§?'beginners' groups'.' The organizer of the group or the host was s e l e c t e d as an honor by the group. He i s r e f e r r e d t o i n C h i g i r i k i as To_ . As the guests a r r i v e each gives a formal g r e e t i n g o f , "Host of the Renga meeting, c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s ! " The C h i g i r i k i group f u r t h e r attempted t o conform t o the formal Renga r e -g u l a t i o n s by hanging a s c r o l l i n the Tokonoma rjR. C) » an i n s e t i n t o the w a l l , and by d i s p l a y i n g an arrangement of f l o w e r s . The s c r o l l which would have been f o r m a l l y shown on such occassions would have been one of the god of poetry, Yamato Takeru No Mikoto B^K ? or of the p o e t i c genius of the Manyoshu, Kakimoto Hitomaroyfcf) yf\ f\ most often one of the patron s a i n t of Renga,- Tenmangu y~^~ The Tenmangu was i n f a c t Sugawara Michizane'jZ/F^ «=§ 8 U 5 - 9 0 3 , a poet c o u r t i e r of the e a r l y Heian p e r i o d . In a formal group, the meeting would commence w i t h the teacher or Sosho^,' Iff and the s c r i b e or S h u h i t s u g ^ ' f c b e i n g seated at the head of the group. Although the o f f i c e of the teacher was a vague one, the s c r i b e ' s duties were s t r i c t l y formulated. He was the keeper of the elaborate set of 7 r u l e s and i t was up t o him t o judge whether or not the verses were' c o r r e c t . I f they were, he would r e c o r d them on the formal Renga paper, the K a i s h i . F o l l o w i n g the Renga meeting a s m a l l banquet would take p l a c e at the expense of the host. The themes of Mikazuki and Hachiku Renga rev o l v e around the debts i n c u r r e d due t o the expenses of such Renga banquets. H a i k a i i s e s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d t o Kyogen humor i n t h a t both forms aim at exposing the o s t e n t a t i o u s p r e t e n t i o n s of the serious a r t s and t h e i r p r a c t i t i o n e r s . In t h i s regard, H a i k a i c o n c i e n t i o u s l y thwarted the r e -g u l a t i o n s of Renga i n terms of word use and l i n k i n g p r a c t i s e s . The r e -s u l t i s a sometimes mocking, sometimes vul g a r humor. In the next two chapters, I w i l l discuss the h i s t o r i c a l and a r t i s t i c i n f l u e n c e s on the plays presented here. The h i s t o r i c a l s e c t i o n w i l l emphasize two b a s i c periods i n Kyogen's development, the e a r l y and l a t e Muromachi p e r i o d . The second chapter w i l l present a d i s c u s s i o n of the form and humor i n the plays and poetry. 8 I I . H i s t o r y The dearth o f h i s t o r i c a l records a v a i l a b l e on Kyogen p r i o r t o the s i x t e e n t h century has l e f t the o r i g i n s shrouded i n o b s c u r i t y . How-ever some i d e a o f Kyogen's past may be gained from the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the e a r l i e r a r t s o f Sarugaku %*£J ^  and Dengakur£[ . Records i n d i c a t e a con-v i n c i n g s i m i l a r i t y between the Kamakura Sarugaku and Dengaku and the Kyogen. For example, a passage i n the Gunsho R u i j u^ f ^ - J ^ y?3$ ^ f e 1 7 8 0 - 1 8 2 3 , records a sequence of Sarugaku p l a y s from the Shin Sarugakuki^-T <#<jj=fil % LJ p u b l i s h e d i n 1 2 8 7 , and a t t r i b u t e d t o F n j i w a r a A k i h i r a ^ ) ; f v ^nJ'Sj 9^9-1066 The passage i n c l u d e s the t i t l e s o f Sarugaku s k i t s such as, " P r i e s t Fukko Begs For Robes," "The Nun Myotaka Asks For Swaddling C l o t h e s , " "A Country Gentleman Goes t o the C a p i t a l , " and "The T r i c k s o f a Lad from the C a p i t a l . " The l a s t two i n p a r t i c u l a r c o n t a i n the main character-types of the Kyogen p l a y s , as w e l l as r e v e a l i n g a tendancy toward i r o n y which f i g u r e s prominent-• . „ - 20 l y i n Kyogen. I f we compare the Shin Sarugakuki account w i t h a reference t o Kyogen• i n the Kanmongyoki ^  j^j -ffip ~t?lkl6, the r e l a t i o n becomes obvious. I n t h i s passage, a Kyogen troup i s s a i d t o have performed a p l a y e n t i t l e d , "' The Impoverishment of a Court Noble," at the palace of the Emperor of Fushimi. L i k e t h e Sarugaku, t h i s p l a y i s i n d i c a t i v e o f a s a r c a s t i c a t -t i t u d e toward the e s t a b l i s h e d order. I n t h i s case, i t r e s u l t e d i n the d i s m i s s a l o f the head of entertainment and a reprimanding o f the Kyogen 2 1 troup f o r the inappropriateness o f the performance. Another e a r l y reference i n the E i g a MonogatariTJyJP 1 -f-<J 5 ^ describes a scene o f v i l l a g e Dengaku which has been i n t e r p r e t e d as a predecessor o f the Okina No performance. As a Kyogen p l a y e r has always performed i n Okina, the d e s c r i p t i o n i s r e v e a l i n g o f the e a r l y Kyogen. The account i s of a r i c e p l a n t i n g ceremony, " A f t e r peasant women marched i n , there appeared an o l d man, master o f ceremonies, h o l d i n g a t o r n umbrella i n h i s hand and c l a d i n a strange garment. He was fo l l o w e d by a group o f ten or more Dengaku performers. With crude drums t i e d t o t h e i r w a i s t s and drum s t i c k s i n t h e i r hands, they marched along i n odd g a i t and played t h e i r f l u t e s , w h i l e they sang r u s t i c songs and went through v a r i o u s dance 2 2 _ motions.' The choreographic q u a l i t y i n Kyogen today may be considered 9 t o have been de r i v e d i n p a r t from the ceremonial aspects of Dengaku. Kyogen a l s o appears t o be l i n k e d , h i s t o r i c a l l y , t o the t r a d i t i o n of Sarugaku and Dengaku. This can be noted i n the t r a n s i t i o n from the e a r l i e r t o the l a t e r t h e a t r i c a l modes.Throughout the Kamakura p e r i o d , Sarugaku and Dengaku troups i n c r e a s e d i n p o p u l a r i t y under the patronage of the major s h r i n e s i n the Kansai r e g i o n around Mt. Hie. The troupe t r a v e l l e d about the area g i v i n g performances. They a t t r a c t e d both the upper and lower segments of s o c i e t y . Towards the end of the Kamakura p e r i o d , major disturbances and d i v i s i o n s i n the government r e s u l t e d i n a r e l o c a t i o n o f power i n the l o c a l v i l l a g e s . The v i l l a g e headmen began t o form contracts w i t h the performing troupes t o engage them f o r v i l l a g e f e s t i v a l s . This provided a stimulus f o r the c r e a t i o n of l o c a l v i l l a g e 23 troupes. According t o T o r a a k i , Kyogen f i r s t appeared at t h i s time, i n l o c a l areas around Mt. Hie. He i d e n t i f i e s the p r i e s t Gen'e<- -rB- of 2k Mt. Hie as the f i r s t t o r e c o r d Kyogen. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e i s no d i r e c t evidence t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s view. However, scholars agree t h a t some form of Kyogen emerged at about t h i s time as there are references t o a t h e a t r e c a l l e d Sarugaku Kyogen and Dengaku Kyogen. The exact r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v i l l a g e Sarugaku and Dengaku and the Kyogen remains a mystery. The f i r s t important p e r i o d f o r Kyogen was the e a r l y Muromachi period.. At t h i s t i m e , the great unrest and turnover i n s o c i a l c l a s s e s which elevated the former lower c l a s s farmer t o a landowning r e t a i n e r created a new audience f o r Kypgen. From t h i s new audience was drawn the character-types and every day l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s which form the core of - 25 Kyogen as w e l l as H a i k a i . Subjects such as the r i s i n g lower c l a s s man's attempts at formal poetry and h i s v a n i t y i n h i s new p o s i t i o n are frequent i n Kyogen. Examples of t h i s are numerous i n the H a i k a i p l a y s . I n C h i g i r i k i , the host of the beginner's Renga group attempts t o emulate the procedure f o r the. formal meetings. However, Taro's appearance on the scene d i s p e l s any i l l u s i o n of decorum. He c r i t i c i z e s the flower arrangement with,"You c a l l t h a t an arrangement ? They've j u s t been thrown t o g e t h e r . " L a t e r , he mocks the w a l l hanging,"Can't you, y o u r s e l v e s , see how crooked i t i s ? U s u a l l y t h a t ' s a very important concern f o r the host of a Renga. gathering or t e a ceremony. 10 Exposure of the a s p i r i n g poet occurs again M i k a z u k i . Here, the character opens w i t h a h i g h l y p r e t e n t i o u s speech, "Though I*m a r a t h e r common f e l l o w , I r e a l l y love l i n k e d verse. Whenever I hear o f a l i n k e d verse meeting, anywhere, I j u s t can't r e s i s t . I t ' s so i n t o x i c a t i n g t h a t I forget t o go home." Reminded of the f a c t t h a t he w i l l be host of the next meeting he decides t o hurry home but f a l l s again i n t o pedantic revery. "Oh, r e a l l y , t h ere's nothing so f a c i n a t i n g as l i n k e d verse. The excitement of g i v i n g the opening v e r s e , the s u p r i s e of the answering l i n k , and t o be the h o s t , how u t t e r l y d e l i g h t f u l ! " -When h i s w i f e complains of h i s extended absence from home, he chides her with,"You nag th a t way because you don't appreciate 1:he joys of l i n k e d verse...'!1 Most examples of a c t u a l l i n k e d verse occur i n Fujimatsu and Hachiku  Renga. The a b s u r d i t y of many of'the verses and the u l t e r i o r motives behind them r e v e a l a complete d i s r e g a r d . f o r the ideas espoused by Nijo-Yoshimoto and p r a c t i s e d by the more r e f i n e d groups of poets. In F u j imatsu, the master suggests a.bout of Renga t o determine whom shall.h a v e the l a r c h t r e e . Taro K a j a uses the opportunity t o r i d i = . cule the v a n i t y and blu n d e r i n g s t u p i d i t y of h i s master. The p l a y ends w i t h the enraged master r e c i t i n g , as he s t r i k e s Taro K a j a , "Achhhh! I y e l l s t r i k i n g / My v o i c e i s a l s o fearsome/ You tremble at i t . " To t h i s the c l e v e r Taro Kaja r e p l i e s , "When a c r i c k e t gets angry/ the thrush i s always happy." The a l l u s i o n t o the master's rage, which exposes h i s v u l n e r a b i l i t y i s inescapable. The master forces Taro Kaja t o h i s knees i n punishment. The l i n k e d verse i n Hachiku Renga l i k e t h a t i n Fujimatsu i s crude and r e f l e c t s the u l t e r i o r motives of the cha r a c t e r s . The two poets argue over the r u l e s f o r l i n k e d verse although n e i t h e r i s very c l e a r about them. The i r argument i s o s t e n s i b l y on-the high plane of p o e t i c s , but i s a c t u a l l y a c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h e i r e a r l i e r dispute concerning money. Ne i t h e r i s happy w i t h the pointed remarks i n the other's verse. The lender complains, "That's not current usage f o r an opening verse." The Borrower urges him t o c o r r e c t i t . The Lender suggests t h a t the l i n e , " 0 h wind w a i t i n g midst the p i n e s / Won't you please r e f r a i n , " sounds discordant. He a c t u a l l y objects t o the Borrower's p l e a t o put o f f the repayment of the debt. 11 The Borrower i n s i s t s t h a t the l i n e , " r e f r a i n , r e f r a i n , " i s p o p u l a r l y used. This sequence recurs i n the reverse order w i t h the Borrower o b j e c t i n g . N a t u r a l l y , the c r u d i t y of the lower c l a s s l i n k e d verse sessions i s exaggerated i n the Kyogen. However, there i s evidence t o suggest t h a t such sessions of l i n k e d verse were not uncommon i n the e a r l y Muromachi p e r i o d . SogiTK t"'X 1^20-1502, a renowned Renga poet of the f i f t e e n t h century, i s known t o have composed H a i k a i as w e l l . One re'ason f o r the p r a c t i c e of H a i k a i by the Renga masters was that t h e i r patrons were the uncultured country l o r d s . ' I t i s easy t o conceive how the attempts at ser i o u s Renga meetings must have d e t e r i o r a t e d i n t o l i t t l e more than H a i k a i j e s t s and r i d d l e s . Some evidence of t h i s i s a v a i l a b l e i n the S e i s u i s h o ^ l ^ \\%-^l62h, a c o l l e c t i o n of humorous s t o r i e s from the c a p i t a l . There are numerous accounts of ignorance and s t u p i d i t y i n the Renga se s s i o n s . Although these s t o r i e s , may be t o t a l l y f i c t i t i o u s , the very existence of them sug-28 gests t h a t they had some b a s i s i n s o c i e t y . I n one s t o r y , the teacher warns a p a r t i c i p a n t t h a t the boat i s too near. He i s r e f e r r i n g t o the r u l e i n Renga d i c t a t i n g that the suihen, or words having t o do w i t h water, couldn't be used more than once i n seven verses. The obtuse p a r t i c i p a n t responded with,"having no boat, I r i d e 29 i n a hallowed out t r e e . " Another s t o r y , a t t r i b u t e d t o an i n c i d e n t between Sogi and a d i s c i -p l e , i n d i c a t e s t h a t l i n k e d verse was used t o t e s t the opponent's s k i l l . I n t h i s sequence, Sogi and h i s d i s c i p l e are walking on the beach. Sogi asks a fisherman what the seaweed i n h i s net i s c a l l e d . The fisherman r e p l i e s t h a t i t can be c a l l e d e i t h e r me or mo. Sogi then r e c i t e s a verse i n which the verb' c a l l e d ' c a n a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d a s ' c a l l i n g ' . "They can be(are) / \ " I' c a l l e d ! c a l l i n g J e i t h e r me or mo. The p u p i l responded w i t h , p u l l e d i n , " 30 from the pa s t u r e / the cows r e t u r n i n g . From these s t o r i e s and o t h e r s , i t seems c l e a r t h a t H a i k a i was p r a c t i s e d i n f o r m a l l y by the e s t a b l i s h e d poets of the day. Furthermore, many of the formal Renga sessions must have r e v e r t e d t o H a i k a i humor when the untutored country l o r d s p a r t i c i p a t e d . » 12 The type- of humor i n these examples from the S e i s u i s h o appears i n i-amazaki Sokan*s compilation of H a i k a i , the Shin Sen Inu Tsukubashu.-Perhaps h i s approval of the H a i k a i humor i s most apparent i n an a l t e r n a t i v e verse he o f f e r s t o t h a t of Sogi. Sogi wrote, "A robe of m i s t / the sleeves are soaked." and added, "From the white foam/ the gopse l i f t s o f f and r e t u r n s . " Sokan added the a l t e r n a t i v e v e r se,"Princess Sawa/ standing 31 — _ there i n s p r i n g / p i s s i n g . " C l e a r l y , u n l i k e h i s predecessor S o g i , Sokan r e v e l l e d i n the vulgar humor of the H a i k a i which indeed he e s t a b l i s h e d as an independent ]3oetic form. Although not r e a l l y v u l g a r , the verses appearing i n Fujimatsu and taken from the Inu Tsukubashu display, a s i m i l a r want of elegance. The master r e c i t e s , "In-the Western Sea/ a thousand fathoms deep/ the deer are c r y i n g . " The verse probably a l l u d e s t o the Tale of the Heike i n which the Heike c l a n drowned i n the Western Sea. Taro Kaja's response has a double meaning. I t may be t r a n s l a t e d t o read, " L i k e a spotted fawn/- we, know not where i t stands." In t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the fawn r e f e r s t o the young emperor who drowned along w i t h the H e i k e i w a r r i o r s . However, the verse may a l s o be rendered, "White foam r i s i n g on the waves/ l i k e white spots on a young fawn." By i g n o r i n g the c l a s s i c a l a l l u s i o n which the master-i n t e n d s , the second i n t e r p r e t a t i o n destroys the tone of g r a v i t y i n the f i r s t verse e n t i r e l y . I n the same p l a y Taro K a j a takes an opportunity t o tease h i s master. The master o f f e r s the verse, "In f r o n t of Sanno s h r i n e / the s h r i n e gate has been p a i n t e d / b r i g h t v e r m i l l i o n red." Taro Kaja responds with,"Red i t i s the c o l o r / of the monkey's mug, how strange!" The master c o r r e c t -l y perceives t h i s t o be a d i r e c t reference t o h i s own face red from d r i n k -i n g , and vents h i s rage on Taro Kaja. This verse i s a l s o from the Shin  Sen Inu Tsukubashu. The humor i n the above verses i s the more pungent because of the master's u t t e r f a i l u r e t o produce good poetry. No doubt the Renga teachers of t h i s p e r i o d were plagued by the i m i t a t i v e or p r e t e n t i o u s verses of t h e i r country patrons. They must have been tempted, as Taro Kaja was, t o respond w i t h s u b t l e i r o n y . Although v u l g a r i t y and impropriety have been e l i m i n a t e d from the c Kyogen performed today, various comments of Seami suggest t h a t at one 13 time Kyogen approached H a i k a i i n i t s humor. I n the Jurokubushu, Seami recommends t h a t , " n e i t h e r i n speech nor i n gesture should there be any-t h i n g low. The jokes and repartee should be appropriate even t o the ears of the nobles and the r e f i n e d . However funny they may be, one should never introduce the v u l g a r . This i s of utmost importance t o bear i n 32 -mind." His concern f o r the p r o p r i e t y of Kyogen was n a t u r a l consider-i n g t h a t Kyogen were performed w i t h the No during h i s l i f e t i m e . No doubt, Seami, l i k e h i s Renga counterparts, was f o r c e d t o perform f o r the untutored l o r d s whose t a s t e s demanded the i n c l u s i o n of Kyogen. A f t e r the death of Seami, there are almost no references t o Kyogen aside from the c o l l e c t i o n of p l o t summaries i n the Tensho book 1573-1586. The next p e r i o d i n which Kyogen as w e l l as H a i k a i appear i s again a time of d i s r u p t i o n and upheaval i n s o c i e t y . The end of the Muromachi p e r i o d saw the r i s e of the lower c l a s s and the s u b j e c t i o n of Japan under the hand of the former farmer, Hideyoshi Toyotomi jgAr v-'-v ., ,<^_ . Under the patronage of Hideyoshi, Kyogen formed i t s f i r s t s c h o o l , the Okura. One of the e a r l i e s t master's of the s c h o o l , Torakiyo 33 — 1 5 6 6 - 1 6 H 6 , was granted a f i e f by Hideyoshi. The Okura sch o o l was f o l -by the formation of the Sagi school(no longer extant) which r e c e i v e d the patronage of the Tokugawa Shogunate, and f i n a l l y the Izumi school formed during the Tokugawa p e r i o d . Kyogen i n t h i s p e r i o d was forced t o respond t o the u n r e f i n e d t a s t e s of the newly r i s e n w a r r i o r audience. The c r u d i t y and exaggerated humor increased w i t h the competition from the newly formed Kabuki t h e a t r e . I n f a c t the p o p u l a r i t y of Kabuki became so great t h a t Kyogen actors were forced t o perform r o l e s i n the Kabuki. In t h i s way, Kyogen began t o l o s e i t s independence as an e s t a b l i s h e d t h e a t r e and the terms Kabuki and Kyogen began t o be used interchangeably. In order t o rescue Kyogen from the t h r e a t of Kabuki, "Okura T o r a a k i , the son of Torakiyo, recorded the Kyogen play s which had u n t i l t h i s time e x i s t e d almost s o l e l y as an o r a l t r a d i t i o n and i m p r o v i s a t i o n . He f u r t h e r d i c t a t e d the t h e a t r i c s of Kyogen i n h i s t r e a t i s e , the Waranbe G u s a ^ -V yiS In t h i s work Toraaki defends the Okura t r a d i t i o n which he maintains i s the t r u e Kyogen. He notes that people complain t h a t the Okura t r a d i t i o n i s too close t o the No_ i n s t y l e . This i s due, he says, t o the f a c t t h a t 11+ the p u b l i c has no experience o f the t r u e Kyogen. What has i n f a c t hap-pened, he c l a i m s , i s t h a t the p o p u l a r l y performed No_ has d e t e r i o r a t e d i n t o a semi-Kyogen a r t . L i k e w i s e , the Kyogen of other troupes has a l s o 35 d e t e r i o r a t e d i n t o a v u l g a r , gaudy show. Toraaki then sets out t o define the t r u e a r t of the Kyogen. The r e s u l t i s more or l e s s the h i g h l y r i t u -a l i z e d form which we see today. H a i k a i t o o underwent severe renovations under.the guidance o f Matsunag T e i t o k u 1 5 7 1 - 1 6 5 3 . However, the H a i k a i w i t h which the Kyogen i s concerned seems t o date from the e a r l i e r p e r i o d , during the Muromachi times. The sources f o r the Haikai. i n Kyogen i s , g e n e r a l l y , the e a r l i e r c o m p i l a t i o n of H a i k a i , the Inu Tsukubashu by Yamazaki Sokan. The second chapter of t h i s essay w i l l be a d i s c u s s i o n of the form and humor i n the H a i k a i p l a y s . 15 I I I . Form And Humor This chapter w i l l provide an a n a l y s i s of the four H a i k a i p l a y s i n terms of form and humor. A d i s c u s s i o n of the formal elements of Kyogen must emphasize the importance of speech and mime upon which the a c t i n g i s based. These elements are i n t u r n made up of an i n t r i c a t e b l e n d of r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n s . The s t r u c t u r e o f Kyogen can best be under-stood by t u r n i n g d i r e c t l y t o the plays.• F i r s t , l e t us consider the importance of speech and mime i n c r e a t -i n g scenes on a t o t a l l y unadorned stage. One of the more v i v i d examples can be observed i n C h i g i r i k i . Taro b a t t l e s h i s i n v i s i b l e opponent c r y -i n g out, " Y a i ! I f you're not home, come out and show me! (He puts down h i s s t i c k and p u l l s out h i s fan.) This time, swish, I ' l l p u l l out my sword. I ' l l s t r i k e o f f your r i g h t arm, I ' l l s t r i k e o f f your l e f t arm. With my r e t u r n t h r u s t s I ' l l s l i c e and s l i c e u n t i l I leave you l i m b l e s s ! " Otherescenes though l e s s v i o l e n t , o f f e r d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the surrounding areas. In Hachiku Renga the Borrower elaborates on a new remodeling j o b , " W e l l , w e l l , what e x c e l l e n t design. You put the k i t c h e n over t h e r e ? " Then l o o k i n g around again, he continues, "Everywhere the planning shows such e x q u i s i t e t a s t e . Ah, ha,.did you put the Tokonoma here?" When the Lender asks him whatbhe t h i n k s ; r o f hit\,ahe^fDiatters him, "Usually they say t h a t the Tokonoma i s d i f f i c u l t t o s i t u a t e but i n t h i s room, there i s no other place f o r i t . " F i n a l l y , he spots a s c r o l l i n the Tokonoma , "Ah ha! A s c r o l l of Renga poetry. • Excuse me but whose c a l l i g r a p h y i s t h a t ? " The very p e r s o n a l c o l o r i n j e c t e d by h i s exclamations and h i s constant g l a n c i n g about him b r i n g s the scene i n t o focus f o r us. Another example i s the t r a v e l scene i n Fujimatsu. The master and Taro K a j a have a r r i v e d at the s h r i n e . "Ah yes," sighs the master, "whenever we come, i t ' s always q u i e t , t r a n q u i l , and h o l y before the s h r i n e , i s n ' t i t . " Then he e x c l a i m s , "Aha! I haven't been here f o r some time. The s h r i n e gate has been redone. Let's o f f e r a poem about the s h r i n e gate." Here t o o , we are s t r u c k by the c l a r i t y o f the scene. The dependence on mime and speech has s e v e r a l functions i n Kyogen. One i s t o allow f o r freedom i n changing and r e f o c u s i n g scenes. I n the example i n Hachiku Renga of the remodeled a r c h i t e c t u r e , the Borrower v e r b a l l y decorates the stage w i t h the f i x t u r e s i n the room. In one moment 16 the stage i s c l u t t e r e d w i t h the newly designed house. However, i n the next minute, the scenery has receded t o the backround and the two actors dominate the stage i n t h e i r l i n k e d verse bout. This e l i m i n a t e s the problem of any d i s t r a c t i o n from the focus intended i n a p a r t i c u l a r sequence. A second f u n c t i o n o f the mime and speech i s t o al l o w freedom o f movement on the stage. Despite the l i m i t e d space on the stage, i n each of the plays there i s a scene which e n t a i l s t r a v e l l i n g some d i s t a n c e . In C h i g i r i k i the master remains seated on stage w h i l e Taro K a j a departs t o make an announcement f o r the Renga meeting. For a l l i n t e n t s and pur-poses, the master i s i n v i s i b l e t o the audience* -shifte;.Taro Kaja makes h i s journey. According t o the stage d i r e c t i o n s , Taro Kaja stands at the Jo p i l l a r and faces f r o n t w h i l e the master seats h i m s e l f at the Fueza. Taro K a j a c i r c l e s the stage and stops at the f i r s t pine on the Has h i g a k a r i . Here he greets the neighbors and a conversation ensues. In M i k a z u k i , both the man and woman enter the stage. The woman seats h e r s e l f at the Fue p i l l a r , w h i l e the man proceeds t o the Jo_ p i l l a r t o introduce h i m s e l f . The woman does not enter the scene u n t i l much l a t e r . In the meantime, we l e a r n t h a t the man i s on h i s way home from a poetry s e s s i o n . He c i r c l e s the stage and stops again at the Jo_ p i l l a r . " ,Hei-indicates t h a t he has a r r i v e d home and c a l l s f o r h i s w i f e . The woman now stands and approaches the Waki p i l l a r t o enter the scene. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , i n t h i s case, as i n the o t h e r s , the movement i s t o t a l l y i l l o g i c a l i n the u s u a l sense. The man has, a f t e r a l l , merely returned t o the p o i n t on stage from which he s t a r t e d . Furthermore, the woman, i n s t e a d of c r o s s i n g the stage toward him, walks i n another d i r e c t i o n , i n answer t o h i s c a l l . However, i t a t -t e s t s t o the s k i l l of the a c t i n g t h a t the audience accepts t h i s method of c r e a t i n g distance on stage. In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , the scene i s ex-pansive w i t h the man t r a v e l l i n g a long distance. I n the second, the scene has been t e l e s c o p e d t o i n c l u d e only the house and i t s immediate surround-in g s . The woman must walk through the rooms i n the house t o reach the door. She t h e r e f o r e approaches i n what o r d i n a r i l y would appear t o be a c i r c u i t o u s route. N a t u r a l l y , t h i s method of c r e a t i n g scenes and d e l i n e a t i n g the stage re q u i r e s the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the audience. In f a c t , the incompleteness of the suggested movement and image encourages the viewer t o complete the scene i n h i s mind. When Taro i n C h i g i r i k i p o i n t s out the various 17 flaws i n the Renga meeting, the scene i s f i x e d i n the host's home. But, i n the next moment when he i s r o l l i n g about outside on the ground i n f e a r , the home has t o t a l l y vanished from the mind of the viewer. Thus, w i t h the s k i l l f u l a i d of the a c t o r s , the minds of the viewers perform a c r o b a t i c adjustments i n t h e i r v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n . The speech and mime encourage and even r e q u i r e the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the audience. In t h i s sense, Kyogen resembles the l i n k e d verse meeting, i n which each member of the group was both a l i s t e n e r and c r e a t o r . Both a r t s r e f l e c t the concept of the " c r e a t i v e process," an a e s t h e t i c theory adhered t o by many a r t s of the middle ages. Wishio Minoru, i n h i s book Chusei.Teki Nq Mono To Bono Tenkaifot^. t H YS't , e x p l a i n s t h i s term by r e f e r r i n g t o the Tsurezure Gusa-fg f*^g 1331 by Yoshida Kenko 7S" \±j "^-r • He describes the importance of the incomplete and t r a n s i e n t image t o the c r e a t i v e process. As Kenko w r i t e s , concerning the beauty of m o r t a l i t y , " I f man were never t o fade away l i k e the dews of Adashino, never t o vanish l i k e the smoke over Toribeyama, but l i n g e r e d f o r e v e r i n t h i s w o r l d , how t h i n g s would l o s e t h e i r power t o move us! The most pre-37 cious t h i n g i n l i f e i s i t s u n c e r t a i n t y . " Kenko f u r t h e r elaborates on t h i s p o i n t by asking r h e t o r i c a l l y , "Are we t o look at cherry blossoms only i n f u l l bloom, the moon only when c l o u d l e s s ? " He answers unequivocal-l y , "Branches about t o blossom or gardens strewn w i t h faded flowers are 38 w o r t h i e r of our admi r a t i o n . " The essence o f beauty l i v e s then i n i t s power t o move us through the ephemeral, incomplete q u a l i t y of a l l t h i n g s . For man t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the beauty o f t r a n s i e n c y i s f o r him t o l i v e and create a r t . To use Kenko's own image, we see i n the faded f l o w e r s , the buds th a t w i l l f o l l o w and i n . t h e buds, the f a l l e n p e t a l s . Thus we become i n v o l v e d i n the process of l i f e . Kyogen c l e a r l y e x h i b i t s t h i s theory through i t s emphasis on audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c r e a t i o n of the suggested scenes of the play. Speech i n Kyogen f u r t h e r promotes p a r t i c i p a t i o n through various techniques of dialogue. The actors almost always face the audience when speaking t o each other. One speaks; then there f o l l o w s a b a r e l y percep-t i b l e pause before the other character's face becomes animated and he responds. For example, when the master c a l l s Taro"Kaja, Taro K a j a stands motionless and without any expression t o one s i d e . A h a l f second elapses before Taro Kaja's face l i g h t s up i n a d e l i g h t f u l g r i n . He then c a l l s out, "Ye-e-s, s i r , " making an absurdly low bow. The r e s u l t i s t h a t the audience f e e l s as though the dialogue must pass through t h e i r minds 18 before reaching Taro Kaja. Another device i n dialogue which r e q u i r e s a c t i v e audience p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i s the overlapping of two d i f f e r e n t speeches on stage. The sud-den appearance of another separate dialogue on stage f o r c e s the audience t o r e s o l v e the two speeches as i s o l a t e d s i t u a t i o n s . Thus, a sense of . s p a t i a l d i s t a n c e i s created. As the focus o f the audience's a t t e n t i o n moves toward the new d i a l o g u e , a s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n between the two p a r t s of the p l a y is•accomplished. In C h i g i r i k i t h i s occurs when Taro enters. The guests and host have been c o n f e r r i n g on the center stage when Taro begins h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n from the H a s h i g a k a r i . The e f f e c t i s t o a l t e r the focus from the Renga meeting t o the o u t s i d e r Taro. This i s used f r e q u e n t l y i n C h i g i r i k i , which i s complicated by s e v e r a l d i s p a r a t e themes. The mime and speech i n Kyogen are confined t o p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n s of a c t i n g . These patterns extend from such b a s i c areas of performance as the rhythm of speech and the particuILar method of w a l k i n g > t o the r e -p e t i t i o n s among the s c r i p t s of p a r t i c u l a r scenes throughout the r e -p e r t o i r e . The patterns provide a cohesive element t o the otherwise rambling p l o t s . They a l s o create an atmosphere of intimacy and f a m i l i a r -i t y necessary t o the humor and mood of Kyogen. Aside from the i n e v i t a b l e i n t r o d u c t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r , the Sake d r i n k i n g scene, the calling-on=the -neighbor scene, and the concluding s~cene of the p l a y s , the H a i k a i p l a y s preserve the r i t u a l o f the l i n k e d verse. The r i t u a l however, does not c o n s i s t of the f o r m a l i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n a Renga meeting but r a t h e r i s a unique Kyogen r i t u a l . I t c o n s i s t s of a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n as t o who s h a l l give the opening v e r s e , f o l l o w e d by a. d i s c u s s i o n ©f whaththehversei'shouilid be^niillWhat ^ s h a l l i t .be." "Yes, what s h a l l i t be?" "How about t h i s ? " "Have you one a l r e a d y ? " and so on. I d e n t i f i a b l e sequences l i k e t h i s help t o anchor the p l a y t o a s p e c i f i c Kyogen mood, a mood of the intimacy of-one's own l i v i n g room. In t h i s i n t i m a c y , the audience can r e l a x w i t h the assurance of the f a m i l i a r and thus become vu l n e r a b l e t o suggestions by the a c t o r s . Kypgen e x p l o i t s t h i s complacency i n the audience t o create l a u g h t e r through the sudden r e v e r s a l of the expected procedure or p a t t e r n . The r e s u l t i s an i l l u s i o n of spontaneity i n the a c t i n g . This w i l l be d i scussed more f u l l y i n the a n a l y s i s of humor. 19 Perhaps the acheivement of a f e e l i n g of complacency i n the audience can b e t t e r be comprehended i f we r e f e r t o a quotation from Proust's Remembrance of.Things Past. Proust speaks of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment man must make i n order t o accept the u n f a m i l i a r . I t i s e x a c t l y t h i s adjustment p e r i o d which Kyogen succeeds i n e l i m i n a t i n g through the r e -current p a t t e r n s of behavior. " I t i s our n o t i c i n g them t h a t puts t h i n g s i n a room, our growing used t o them th a t takes them away again and c l e a r s a space f o r us. Space there was none f o r me i n my bedroom (mine i n name only) at Balbec, i t was f u l l of t h i n g s which d i d not know me, which f l u n g back at me, the d i s t r u s t f u l look t h a t I had cast at them, and w i t h -out t a k i n g any heed of my existence showed th a t I was i n t e r r u p t i n g the "39 course of t h e i r s . In Kyogen, the audience i s e a s i l y ensconced i n the f a m i l i a r r i t u a l s of speech and recurrent scenes d e r i v e d from everyday l i f e . In Mikazuki and Fujimatsu, the Sake d r i n k i n g scene r a d i a t e s a f e e l i n g of warmth and harmony. The audience recognizes the'sequence and can t h e r e f o r e p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t and r e l a t e t o i t without p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s i s t a n c e . This i s t r u e too of the l i n k e d verse scenes i n M i k a z u k i , Fujimatsu, and Hachiku Renga, i n which each character r e c i t e s the expect-ed number of s y l l a b l e s and h i s p a r t n e r responds w i t h one of the f a m i l i a r l i n k i n g methods. In t h i s way, the patterns a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o the par-t i c i p a t i o n of the audience as they w i l l i n g l y become i n v o l v e d i n the f a m i l i a r w o r l d of Kyogen. Before proceeding t o a d i s c u s s i o n of the humor, some mention should be made of the importance of the s t r u c t u r e of the stage i n Kyogen.  Kyogen i s performed on the No stage. I t s asymmetrical shape encourages i n t e r a c t i o n from the audience. The stage i s open on three sides w i t h a roof and eaves reaching out over the audience. An open passageway ex-tends out t o one s i d e and i s used both as an entrance way and as part of the stage proper. The r e s u l t of the openness of the stage i s t h a t space seems t o flow out i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . The flow i s enhanced by the evenness of the l i g h t i n g on and o f f the stage. The audience i s drawn i n t o the s e t t i n g and the demarcation l i n e between on stage and o f f i s obscured. Thus, the very s t r u c t u r e of the stage compliments the a c t i n g method, i n which p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a l l present i s of prime importance. 20 There are s e v e r a l b a s i c devices used i n the c r e a t i o n of laughter or humor i n Kyogen. Perhaps the most e s s e n t i a l i s the i l l u s i o n of spontaneity created through sudden reverses i n the accepted p a t t e r n s of the p l a y ; As the audience and actors become absorbed i n a p a r t i c u l a r procedure, a sudden r e v e r s a l causes t e n s i o n and a r e l e a s e i n laughter. This p a r t i c u l a r technique forms the b a s i s of H a i k a i as w e l l , which de-pends on reverses i n the expected response. Another device i s t h a t of r e p e t i t i o n . The exact word f o r word r e p e t i t i o n e i t h e r of one's own words or another's deprives them of t h e i r impact and renders them r i d i -culous. F i n a l l y , displacement of the emphasis of a remark or a verse i n poetry occurs when an i n s i g n i f i c a n t d e t a i l i s responded t o at the expense-of.the main p o i n t . Laughter p r e c i p i t a t e d by a r e v e r s a l of an a n t i c i p a t e d p a t t e r n i s best i l l u s t r a t e d by the l i n k e d verse sequence i n Hachiku Renga. The s e s s i o n begins s l o w l y w i t h arguments over the f i r s t and second verses. Then the momentum p i c k s up i n the t h i r d v erse, which i s f o l l o w e d im-mediately by the f o u r t h . At t h i s p o i n t , the audience a n t i c i p a t e s the immediate r e c i t a t i o n of the f i f t h verse. However, the Borrower a b r u p t l y breaks the rhythm, p r o t e s t i n g , "Oh! I t ' s become too s t r a i n e d . Let's take more care." The two begin again and there f o l l o w s the f i f t h , s i x t h , and seventh v e r s e s , g r a d u a l l y approaching the i n t e n s i t y of a climax. This time, the Lender breaks up the sequence, c a l l i n g out,"You t h e r e ! " The sudden break i s u p s e t t i n g and r e s u l t s i n laughter because of the comical nature o f the complaints of the poets. They are of course f i n d -i n g f a u l t not w i t h the poetry but w i t h the content. The sudden breaks i n the sequence occur at p r e c i s e l y the moment when the audience too becomes aware.of the double edged meanings i n the l i n k s . Therefore, though j o l t i n g , the r e v e r s a l s do not seem unnat u r a l . Fujimatsu o f f e r s another example o f t h i s method of humor. The master introducers'--himself and e x p l a i n s t h a t h i s d i s r e s p e c t f u l servant, Taro K a j a , has taken leave without asking permission. The master i s enraged at such t e m e r i t y . He b l u s t e r s h i s way t o Taro Kaja's d w e l l i n g and a f t e r c a l l i n g him out, orders him t o h i s knees. Taro Kaja's response i s completely out of accord w i t h the scene and w i t h h i s character. He f a l l s f l a t on h i s face before the master i n an exaggerated abeyance. Even the master 21 i s s t a r t l e d by t h i s extreme response and r e t r e a t s w i t h , " What a d i s p l a y ! You're so i r r i t a t i n g . Oh, do get up." The p r o g r e s s i v e anger i s suddenly abated by the unexpected r e a c t i o n of Taro Kaja. The s u r p r i s e and the knowledge t h a t Taro Kaja d i d t h i s purposely t o outwit the master, causes the audience t o react w i t h l a u g h t e r . In C h i g i r i k i a s i m i l a r i n c i d e n t occurs when Taro i s r o l l i n g about on the ground a f t e r h i s b e a t i n g . "Ohhh, l e t me go. I ' l l never come again. Please f o r g i v e me, p l e a s e , p l e a s e , f o r g i v e me," he pleads. J u s t then, h i s w i f e comes running t o him, "Come, come, what's happened here? P u l l y o u r s e l f together! P u l l y o u r s e l f together!" When Taro recognizes h i s w i f e , he suddenly jumps t o h i s f e e t and swaggers o f f t o the s i d e . " E - i woman. Why have you come?" To her e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t she heard he was being-beaten, he pretends t o be offended. He shows h i s d i s d a i n s a y i n g , "Don't be absurd. Can a man be thrashed so e a s i l y ? " Taro's sudden r e v e r s a l of stance i s comical. In M i k a z u k i , t h i s type of u n a n t i c i p a t e d r e v e r s a l of the p a t t e r n i s evident i n the concluding song. The song i s o r i g i n a l l y from the No p l a y , A s h i k a r i i n which a couple i s r e u n i t e d a f t e r a long s e p a r a t i o n . The audience would o s t e n s i b l y recognize the song and a n t i c i p a t e the l i n e s . However, i n the Kyogen v e r s i o n , the l i n e s have been a l t e r e d . The o r i g i n a l song contains the l i n e s , "We cast aside a l l our g r i e f s and take up again the pledge of the p a s t . " In Mikazuki these l i n e s read, "Let'us shoulder the vexations and take up again the pledge of the p a s t . " Here too the sudden change i n the expected order evokes l a u g h t e r . F u r t h e r -more, ihethiJ!s.rcase;lit 14ehcouragesda comparison between the a b s u r d i t y of the q u a r r e l i n Mikazuki w i t h the t r a g i c s e p a r a t i o n i n the No p l a y . R e p e t i t i o n i s the second most f r e q u e n t l y employed technique of humor. The e f f e c t of r e p e t i t i o n i s t o render the phrase or motion r i d i c u l o u s . This i s used i n Fujimatsu when the master and Taro.Kaja bargain over the l a r c h t r e e . Each time the master asks, "What s h a l l we t r a d e ? " Taro Kaja-responds w i t h , "Yes, what s h a l l i t be." This r e c u r r s so o f t e n t h a t the e f f e c t of the r e p e t i t i o n i s compounded by the r e p e t i t i o n of the se-quence i t s e l f . The r e s u l t i s h i l a r i o u s . R e p e t i t i o n i s a l s o an important element i n the l i n k e d verse sessions i n the p l a y s . In Hachiku Renga the s e s s i o n opens w i t h the Borrower's verse. He r e c i t e s h i s f i r s t l i n e , the Lender repeats i t . He f i n i s h e s h i s verse and the Lender repeats the f i n a l l i n e s as w e l l . The verse has l i t t l e v i t a l i t y a f t e r the frequent r e p e t i t i o n s . Next the Borrower 22 repeats the Lender's verse a f t e r h i s r e c i t a t i o n . By t h i s time, i t i s impossible t o take the verses s e r i o u s l y . The use of r e p e t i t i o n i s then followed by the technique o f absorption and sudden r e v e r s a l s i n the next s i x l i n k s . By using one technique of humor on top of another the f e e l -i n g o f spontaneity i s secured and w i t h i t both the. humor and t h e ' i n t e n s i t y of an a c t u a l H a i k a i sessions.- This occurs a l s o i n the Fujimatsu p l a y . R e p e t i t i o n of the same phrase by one character i s p r a c t i s e d i n C h i g i r i k i by the woman. She rushes on stage, c r y i n g , "Oh no, oh no! Yaa! Yaa! Can i t be? How h o r r i b l e ! " When Taro attempts t o deny h i s b e a t i n g , she reacts w i t h , "That's shocking, j u s t shocking!" L a t e r she p r a i s e s Taro's courage, "Ahhh, b r a v e l y done, b r a v e l y done. Now indeed you are my l o r d . " The constant r e p e t i t i o n of her outbursts makes i t impossible t o take h er s e r i o u s l y . The same t h i n g i s t r u e o f the guests at the Renga meeting, i n C h i g i r i k i , who speak i n chorus. In a d d i t i o n t o the reverses i n patter n s and the use of r e p e t i t i o n , displacement of emphasis i s a l s o an element i n the humor o f Kyogen and more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , of H a i k a i . For example, the verses i n Fujimatsu con-t a i n numerous examples of d i s p l a c e d emphasis. The master r e c i t e s , "You who f o l l o w behind me/ Wait, wait f o r a l i t t l e w h i l e . " Instead of an-swering t h i s w i t h a ve r s e , Taro Kaja takes the verse l i t e r a l l y and s i t s down t o w a i t . When the master c h a s t i z e s him, he exclaims, "Ohhh, ohhh, was t h a t p o e t r y , s i r ? " He thus removes emphasis from the l i n k t o the l i t e r a l meaning which appears the f u n n i e r i n t h a t Taro Kaja has ob v i o u s l y done so i n t e n t i o n a l l y . In another v e r s e , Taro Kaja responds t o h i s master's, "In f r o n t of Sanno Shrine/ the shrine gate has been p a i n t e d / b r i g h t v e r m i l l i o n r e d . " By l i n k i n g h i s verse s o l e l y to-the word "red," Taro Kaja removes the emphasis from the s h r i n e . He r e c i t e s , "Red i t i s the c o l o r / of the monkey's• mug, how strange!" Displacement of emphasis a l s o occurs outside o f the l i n k e d verse sessions i n the Mikazuki p l a y . The couple have been arguing over the serious i s s u e of divo r c e . From t h i s major c r i s i s , the emphasis suddenly switches t o the question of what a r t i c l e should be used as proof of d i -vorce. U n l i k e the r e v e r s a l of a p a t t e r n , the switch of emphasis proceeds qu i t e n a t u r a l l y out of the preceeding sequence. The couple's con-v e r s a t i o n moves n a t u r a l l y from the question of divorce t o the proof. However, i n f a c t ( the a r t i c l e of proof i s such a minor d e t a i l t o dwe l l on th a t i t makes the question of divorce i t s e l f seem s i l l y . 23 As may be gathered from t h i s a n a l y s i s , the form, mood, and humor are interdependent. Although I have attempted t o discuss them s e p a r a t e l y , they must i n the f i n a l e s t i m a t i o n , be regarded i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y . The form supports the mood which both e f f e c t s and i s e f f e c t e d by the humor i n t u r n r e l a t e d t o the patterns of the form. The spontaneity and l i v e l y humor of Kyogen must be a t t r i b u t e d t o the s k i l l of the ac t o r s i n manipu-l a t i n g the techniques o f Kyjgen. 2k IV. Conclusion The s e l e c t i o n of Kyogen plays d e a l i n g w i t h the subject of H a i k a i sessions i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a number of reasons. F i r s t of a l l , Kyogen provides perhaps the only opportunity f o r experiencing an e a r l y H a i k a i meeting. Few records of e a r l y H a i k a i sessions remain. Moreover, not only i s Kyogen one of the only v e h i c l e s f o r H a i k a i but i t i s also p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d t o H a i k a i . When Toraaki c o d i f i e d Kyogen he i n s i s t -ed on p r e s e r v i n g the spontaneity of the e a r l y improvised t h e a t r e . I t i s t h i s atmosphere which i s e s s e n t i a l t o a H a i k a i s e s s i o n as w e l l . The i n c o r p o r a t i o n of H a i k a i i n t o the Kyogen plays was n a t u r a l i n terms of both the p a r a l l e l h i s t o r i c a l development of the a r t s and the s i m i l a r i t y of form and content. H i s t o r i c a l l y , both a r t s f l u c t u a t e d i n p o p u l a r i t y w i t h t h e i r more serious counterparts, the Renga and the No. They sur f a c e d i n times of s o c i a l t u r m o i l when t h e i r s a t i r i c a l humor was welcomed by the r i s i n g c lasses i n s o c i e t y . L a t e r , when the age demanded t h a t these h i t h e r t o improvised a r t s be formulated or l o s t t o p o s t e r i t y , both attempted t o c o d i f y and s t a b i l i z e t h e i r a e s t h e t i c forms. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n the case of H a i k a i t h i s meant a d r a s t i c change i n the o r i g i n a l p o e t i c s e n s i b i l i t y . As t o s t r u c t u r e , both Kyogen and H a i k a i are performances demanding the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l present. A H a i k a i s e s s i o n c o n s i s t s of a group of people i n which each member must create a verse which both grows out of the previous verse and can give b i r t h t o a new one. In the t h i r d chapter I have t r i e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t Kyogen too r e q u i r e s the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of both audience and actors i n order t o take p l a c e . The p l a y i t s e l f i s constructed much on the l i n e s of l i n k e d verse. There are a s e r i e s of d i s t i n c t and independent sequences which are l i n k e d t o -gether by i n t r i c a t e t r a n s i t i o n s r e q u i r i n g the acknowledgement of the viewers. The overlapping of dialogues was one such technique. F u r t h e r , i n both cases, the p l o t or theme i s of l i t t l e consequence. The p l a y or poem depends f o r u n i t y upon a c e r t a i n u n d e r l y i n g mood preserved through-out. In H a i k a i as i n Kyogen, i t i s a mood of joyous c e l e b r a t i o n . 25 The f i n a l s e c t i o n of t h i s paper i s a t r a n s l a t i o n of the fo u r p l a y s which I have discussed above. I n making the t r a n s l a t i o n s as l i t e r a l as p o s s i b l e I have perhaps s a c r i f i c e d much of the humor of Kyogen. However, one must remember t h a t Kyogen i s t h e a t r e . L i k e the H a i k a i  Kyogen was never intended t o be read as l i t e r a t u r e . Therefore, I have chosen t o present the plays i n as exact a form as p o s s i b l e w h i l e r e l y i n g f o r a n a l y s i s on the a c t u a l l i v e performances. i 2 6 Footnotes 1. Each of these plays can be found i n the t e x t s of any of the Kyogen sch o o l s . 2 . The term H a i k a i no Renga r e f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the comic l i n k e d verse of the Muromachi p e r i o d , as opposed t o Renga or s e r i o u s l i n k e d v e r s e , and H a i k a i or the l i n k e d verse of the Tokugawa p e r i o d . However, f o r the sake of convenience, the term H a i k a i alone w i l l be used throughout t h i s essay when r e f e r r i n g t o H a i k a i no Renga. 3 . H i r o s h i Koyama , Kyogen Shu Jo , (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, i 9 6 0 ) , p.11. k. Renga Bishamon i s found i n a l l the schools however i t i s known i n the Izumi School as Bishamon Renga. Renga Nusubito and Daikoku  Renga are found i n a l l schools. Renga J i t t o k u i s found i n the Okura scho o l and i n the Izumi as T e n j i n . 5 . Yamamoto Azuma was adopted by the Yamamoto Azuma J i r o f a m i l y and r e c i e v e d h i s Kyogen p r a c t i s e under Okura Sentaro. He became prominant i n the t h e a t r e world f o l l o w i n g the M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n and r e t i r e d under the name of Azuma. He l e f t two c o l l e c t i o n s of Kyogen. The e a r l i e r one upon which Koyama has based h i s c o l l e c t i o n was copied during Yamamoto's t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . The second volume which i s kept secret from the p u b l i c , was copied l a t e r i n h i s l i f e f o r h i s descendents. However, the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two c o l l e c t i o n s appear t o be minor. The Yamamoto c o l l e c t i o n i s the s c r i p t book f o r the Okura school and i s t h e r e f o r e very c l o s e t o the c o l l e c t i o n by Okura T o r a h i r o . The d i f f e r e n c e s are p r i m a r i l y the r e s u l t of g r e a t e r s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and d e t a i l i n the p l a y s . Yamamoto a l s o added t h i r t y - f i v e post M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n plays t o the e a r l i e r c o l l e c t i o n . There are 19*+ plays i n a l l as opposed t o the 180 e x i s t i n g plays of the Okura family t e x t s . 6. The Izumi school formed during the Tokugawa p e r i o d . The Okura scho o l was the f i r s t o f four schools of Ky-egen which formed i n the l a t e Muromachi p e r i o d . The other schools were the Sagi which r e c i e v e d patronage during the Tokugawa p e r i o d but l a t e r disappeared a l t o g e t h e r , 27 and the Yamamoto branch of the Okura school. 7. The e a r l i e s t c o l l e c t i o n of Kyogen plays i s a c o l l e c t i o n of actor's notes i n the Tensho bon which dates from sometime during the Tensho p e r i o d ( 1 5 7 3 - 1 5 8 6 ) . The next e x i s t i n g c o l l e c t i o n s belong t o the Okura sc h o o l . The Okura Toraaki bon l6h2 was compiled by Okura Toraaki i n eight volumes w i t h 210 p l a y s . The Okura Torakiyo bon 16U6 was compiled by the f a t h e r of T o r a a k i . Only ei g h t plays remain from t h i s c o l l e c t i o n . The e a r l i e s t Izumi school t e x t i s probably the T e n r i bon, a l s o known as Kyogen R i k u g i . The exact o r i g i n s and date are obscure but i t seems t o have been from about the time of the l a t e r Okura school t e x t s . Poems, speeches, and songs are kept i n a separate volume. For the Sagi s c h o o l , the e a r l i e s t t e x t ap-pears t o have been the' Sagi Denuemon hon from around 1 6 8 8 . The Kyogen K i , f i r s t p r i n t e d i n l 6 6 0 and r e p r i n t e d i n 1699 seems t o have been c o l l e c t e d f o r the convenience of the audience r a t h e r than f o r any s p e c i f i c s chool. In 1 7 9 2 , the Okura sch o o l p u b l i s h e d the To r a h i r o bon which prec'eeds the Yamamoto Azuma t e x t s although very s i m i l a r t o them. The Torahiro bon contains 165 p l a y s . F i n a l l y , the Sanbyakubanshu hon was recorded by Izumi Kohayakawa Shotaro i n 1909 f o r the Izumi school. I t seems t o have been based on e a r l i e r Izumi t e x t s and contains 200 p l a y s . In a d d i t i o n t o these e a r l y e d i t i o n s of Kyogen, numerous c o l l e c t i o n s have been made, based on them,in recent times. The c o l l e c t i o n by Koyama H i r o s h i i s one of these. 8. H i s a s h i Furukawa > Kyogen no Sekai(Tokyo: Shakai Shiso Sha, 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 39-h0. 9 . I b i d . 1 0 . H i r o s h i Koyama , Kyogen Shu Jo (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, i 9 6 0 ) , p.27-1 1 . I b i d . p. 1 9 5 . 1 2 . I b i d . p. 2 1 0 . '28 1 3 . Faubion Bowers, Japanese Theatre (New York: H i l l and Wang, 1952) p.2 6 - 2 8 . l U . H i r o s h i Koyama, Kyogen Shu Jo (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, I960) , p.Ik 1 5 . M i c h i z o Toida, Kyogen Rakuhaku S h i t a Kamigami no Heribo (Tokyo: Iwanami, 1 9 6 7 ) , p.7*+-1 6 . Miyoko Sugimori, Kyogen Kenkyu Kosatsu t o Kansho (Tokyo: Ofusha, 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 1 7 0 , 1 7 1 , 2 5 6 . 1 7 . Tetsuo I j i c h i , Renga no Sekai (Tokyo: Furukawa, 1 9 6 7 ) , p.9-17-1 8 . Brower, An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Japanese Court P o e t r y ( C a l i f o r n i a : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , p . U l 5 . 1 9 . From the t r a n s l a t i o n of the C h i g i r i k i p l a y appended t o t h i s essay. Henceforth, a l l c i t a t i o n s from the t r a n s l a t i o n s w i l l not be footnoted. The reader i s urged t o r e f e r t o the t r a n s l a t i o n s . 2 0 . Shio S a k a n i s h i , Japanese Folk. P l a y s ( Vermont: Charles E. T u t t l e , 1 9 5 7 ) , p.5 . 2 1 . H i r o s h i Koyama, Kyogen Shu J o , p.13 . -2 2 . Shio S a k a n i s h i , Japanese Folk P l a y s , p . 6 . 23. Tatsuzaburo Hayashiya, Chusei Bunka no Kicho ( Tokyo: Tokyo U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 3 ) , p . l U 7 - 1 5 6 . 2k. I b i d . p.1 6 8 . 2 5 . I b i d . p. 1 6 8 - 1 8 5 . 2 6 . C h i g i r i k i p l a y . 2 7 . Tatsuzaburo Hayashiya^ungaku Ge Koku Jo V o l . 6 Nihon Bungaku no 29 R e k i s h i (Tokyo: Kadagawa, 1 9 6 7 ) , p . ^ 0 6 . 2 8 . I b i d . p.1+05. 2 9 . I b i d . p . U 0 5 . 3 0 . I b i d . p. 1+06. 3 1 . I b i d . p. 1+09. 3 2 . Shio Sakanishi , Japanese Folk P l a y s , p.9-3 3 . H i r o s h i Koyama, "Kyogen no K o t e i " Bungaku 7 , p. *+09. 3h. T o r a a k i . Okura, Waranbegusa, ed. Sasano Ken (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, I 9 6 3 ) . 3 5 . Toraaki Okura, Waranbegusa , p . l 5 « 3 6 . MInoru N i s h i o , Chusei Teki Na Mono t o Sono Tenkai (Tokyo: Iwanami, 1967) , p. 3 7 . Donald Keene, t r a n s . Essays i n Idleness(New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967) , p.7 . 3 8 . I b i d . p.115. 39. Marcel P r o u s t , W i t h i n A Budding Grove, Remembrance of Things Past  V o l . 1 (New York: Random House, 1 9 2 5 ) , p - 5 0 6 . 30 F u j i Matsu f ± -The Master enters f o l l o w e d by Taro Kaja. The Master announces h i m s e l f at the Jo j j i l l a r w h i l e Taro Kaja seats h i m s e l f at the back of the stage. Master: I am a l o r d of t h i s neighborhood. My only servant ran o f f some-where without so much as asking f o r permission. Now I hear that he r e -turned l a s t night and he s t i l l hasn't p a i d h i s respects t o me. How i n -f u r i a t i n g ! The r a s c a l ! I'm going t o h i s place r i g h t now and give him a good t h r a s h i n g ! I ought t o be on my way. ( He s t a r t s out.) Honestly, i f he'd come t o me, I'd have allowed him f i v e o r t e n days, but t h i s i s inexcusable. (He c i r c l e s the stage and stops at the center.) I'm already here. I f he recognizes ray v o i c e , he won't come out, so I ' l l d i s g u i s e i t . (He goes t o the' Waki p i l l a r , opens h i s fan and hides h i s face be-hin d i t . ) Excuse me? Is anyone home? Taro Kaja: (He r i s e s and goes t o the Jo p i l l a r . ) How p e c u l i a r . I j u s t got back l a s t night and already someone i s c a l l i n g at the gate. Who's there? Master: Is anyone home? Taro Kaja: Who i s i t , please? (He approaches the Master and peers over h i s fan.) Master: (He drops the fan.) On your knees! Taro Kaja: Yes, s i r . (He drops t o h i s knees and p r o s t r a t e s h i m s e l f suddenly before the Master.) Master: (He i s s t a r t l e d . ) What a d i s p l a y ! You're so i r r i t a t i n g . Oh, do get up. Taro Kaja: Yes, s i r . Master: You didn't even recognize your own Master's voice j u s t now. 31 What an u n f a i t h f u l servant! Besides t h a t , you've been o f f somewhere w i t h -out requesting permission.' Taro Kaja: P l e a s e , s i r . Since I'm your only servant, I knew t h a t even i f I asked I wouldn't be allowed t o go. So, I made a pilgrimage t o Mt. F u j i i n s e c r e t . Master: I f i t ' s f o r a pilgrimage t o Mt. F u j i , you needn't bother t o ob-t a i n my permission, i s th a t i t ? Taro Kaja: Yes, s i r . Master: Shameless r a s c a l . (He looks away and speaks t o h i m s e l f . ) How do you l i k e t h a t ? When I t h i n k I ' l l g i ve him a good b e a t i n g , he t e l l s me t h a t he's made a pilgrimage t o Mt. F u j i . I ' l l have t o overlook i t t h i s time or face the wrath of the s h r i n e gods. (He turns t o Taro Kaja.) A l l r i g h t , a l l r i g h t , I'm l e t t i n g you o f f so stand up. Taro Kaja: Can i t be true? Master: I t ' s t r u e . Taro Kaja: In a c t u a l f a c t ? Master: A b s o l u t e l y . Taro Kaja: Oh, what a r e l i e f . (He stands.) Master: Were you- scared? . . . . . . . 1 Taro Kaja: T'Ve never seen you i n such a rage! I feared you might even k i l l me. I t made my h a i r c u r l ! Master: E x a c t l y ! I was i n a much worse temper than u s u a l . But when yo u - t o l d me of the pil g r i m a g e t o Mt. F u j i , I was f o r c e d t o f o r g i v e you. Now, t e l l me about your t r i p . 32 Taro Kaja: As you wi s h , s i r . As the l a n d i s at peace and the I m p e r i a l r e i g n prospers, there were many, many p i l g r i m s coming and going amidst the mountains and v a l l e y s . Master: Indeed, there must have been. I hear you've c a r r i e d back a n i c e l a r c h t r e e from Mt. F u j i . I s t h a t r i g h t ? Taro Kaja: Oh no, I didn't do anything of the s o r t . Master: Don^t f i b . The c h i l d r e n have t o l d me o f i t . Taro Kaja: Have they? Master: Yes. Taro Kaja: True, I d i d b r i n g one back, but i t ' s f o r someone e l s e . Master: Even so, can't you-at l e a s t show i t t o me? Taro Kaja: There's no harm i n your seeing i t , s i r . P l e a s e , come t h i s way. Master: A l l r i g h t . Taro Kaja: (He opens h i s fan and goes from the J i u t a i seat towards the Waki p i l l a r . ) Swish, swish, swish. (He s l i d e s sideways across the stage, a c t i n g out the opening of a s l i d i n g door.) Excuse me, s i r , but t h i s i s the l a r c h t r e e . Master: (He walks t o the center of the stage.) So, i s t h i s i t ? Taro Kaja: Yes, s i r . Master: As long as I'm l o o k i n g i t over, I may as w e l l get comfortable and r e a l l y study i t - . (He s i t s at the center ofajhe stage and faces the Waki p i l l a r . ) 33 Taro Kaja: That's a thought, s i r . Master: (He looks i n f r o n t of him.) OK my, t h i s i s a superb l a r c h t r e e . Taro Kaja: (He speaks t o the c u r t a i n . ) Hey, hey t h e r e ! The Master i s here, so b r i n g out the Sake cups. What's t h a t ? No money f o r Sake. ? W e l l , go pawn th a t o l d t a t t e r e d robe. Go on! ( A f t e r g i v i n g t h i s order t o someone o f f stage, he-returns and s i t s down beside the Master.) Master: Hey, Taro Kaja. Taro Kaja: At your s e r v i c e , s i r . Master: The shape of the branches i s even b e t t e r than I'd heard. Taro Kaja: People admired i t a l l along the way. Master: Of course, they must have. You know, s i n c e you l e f t , I've been working i n the garden. There's a p e r f e c t spot i n f r o n t of the a r t i f i c i a l island.', f o r the l a r c h t r e e . Why not l e t me have i t ? Taro Kaja: But I j u s t e x p l a i n e d , i t ' s f o r someone e l s e , so I can't p o s s i b l y o f f e r i t t o you. Master: In t h a t case, how about t r a d i n g ? Taro Kaja: What would you trade? Master: Ah ha! I f y o u ' l l speak of i t a l r e a d y , you must be w i l l i n g t o consider an exchange, am I r i g h t ? Taro Kaja: Not e x a c t l y , but I might discuss the matter w i t h the p a r t y i n v o l v e d and see. Master: That's only c i v i l . So, what s h a l l we trade? 3h Taro Kaja: Yes, what s h a l l i t be? Master: How about my great sword made by the famous Samuro of Bizen? Taro Kaja: An e x c e l l e n t a r t i c l e t o swap. However, my f r i e n d hasn't even enough rank t o have a sword b e a r e r , so t h a t wouldn't do. Master: C e r t a i n l y , we can't exchange a formal sword i f he doesn't have a sword bearer. What s h a l l we trade? Taro Kaja: Yes, what s h a l l i t be? Master: Ah ha! How about my dog t r a i n e d f o r f a l c o n r y ? Taro Kaja: That's an e x c e l l e n t i d e a . However, he hasn't got a f a l c o n so he wouldn't need a dog. Master: C e r t a i n l y , he wouldn't want the dog without a f a l c o n . What s h a l l i t be? Taro Kaja: Yes, what s h a l l i t be? Master: Ah ha! I'm r e l u c t a n t , but what about my b l a c k horse? Taro Kaja: There's no place t o t i e him up. Master: Is t h a t so? T i e him t o your house. Taro Kaja: Oh, now h o l d on, t h a t horse i s v i o l e n t . He'd demolish a s m a l l one or two room shack l i k e t h i s . Master: Of course, he'd probably p u l l i t down. I t ' s a shame about the t r e e , but there's nothing t o exchange. I guess I ' l l be o f f . Taro Kaja: Oh, p l e a s e , wait a moment. I have h o l y wine from Mt. F u j i , won't you have some? 35 Master: P l e a s e , "bring i t here. Taro Kaja: Yes, s i r . (He goes t o the back o f the stage, opens h i s fan and c a r r i e s i t forward.) I present the h o l y wine. Master: Pour i t i n here. (He opens h i s fan.) Taro Kaja: Yes, s i r . Master: That's enough. Taro Kaja: F i l l e d t o brimming. Master: (He takes i t . ) Ahhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh! (He smacks h i s l i p s . ) Ex-c e l l e n t wine. F i l l i t up again. Taro Kaja: Yes, s i r . (He does.) Master: D r i n k i n g t h i s i s the same as making the pilgrimage t o Mt. F u j i , don't you agree? Taro Kaja: E x a c t l y , s i r . Master: Ahh, t h i s h o l y wine reminds me, I've heard t h a t you go around t o a l l the l i n k e d verse beginner groups, c r i t i c i z i n g and p e s t e r i n g everyone. Is t h a t true? Taro Kaja: Not at a l l , I do nothing of the s o r t . Master: Don't playre Anno cent. I've heard you're a good poet. Let's d r i n k up and.then r e c i t e a b i t of poetry. Taro Kaja: An e x c e l l e n t i d e a , s i r . Master: What s h a l l i t be? 36 Taro Kaja: Yes, what s h a l l i t be, s i r . Master: How about t h i s ? Taro Kaja: Have you got one a l r e a d y , s i r ? Master: C a r r y i n g i n hand, Taro Kaja: Carrying i n hand, Master: an o l d muddy co l o r e d robe,/ d i r t y and t a t t e r e d . 1 Taro Kaja: Now then, w i l l you have another round of drinks? Master: Hurry, go f i l l i t up. Taro Kaja: (He stands and goes toward the e x i t o f f stage. He faces the c u r t a i n . ) You, t h e r e , don't y e l l so loud. He's a l l ready made an opening verse about the t a t t e r e d robe. Understand? •EasbeKaja: (He returns t o the stage.) I've f i l l e d i t up. Master: Pour. Taro Kaja:• Yes, s i r . Master: (He takes i t . ) Ahhhhhhhhhhhh, p e r f e c t i o n ! Taro Kaja: F i l l e d t o the brim. Master: W e l l , aren't you going t o add a verse? Taro Kaja: What was your verse again? Master: C a r r y i n g i n hand,/ aheold muddy colo r e d robe/ d i r t y and t a t t e r e d . Taro Kaja: S p l i t i t i s at every spot/ from seam t o seam i t ' s mended.^' 37 Master: S p l i t i t i s at every spot/ from seam t o seam i t s mended. You're even b e t t e r at composing than I'd heard. I've had p l e n t y now, take i t . (He closes h i s fan.) Taro-Kaja: Won't you have one more? Master: Wo, no, I s a i d I've had enough. Taro Kaja: In t h a t case, I s h a l l put i t away. (He closes h i s fan.) Master: W e l l , I'm f e e l i n g so good from t h i s h o l y wine, t h a t I'm going t o make a pilgrimage t o the s h r i n e of the p r o t e c t o r god, Sanno, of Mt. Hie. Taro Kaja: S h a l l I accompany you? Master: ( S a r c a s t i c a l l y . ) Oh, but you probably have other t h i n g s t o do. Taro Kaja: Not at a l l , I ' l l come along. Master: Of course you w i l l ! Stand! Taro Kaja: I obey, s i r . (The two r i s e . The master goes t o the Waki p i l l a r w h i l e Taro Kaja goes t o the Jo_ p i l l a r . ) Master: Now then, as we're on our way t o the Sanno S h r i n e , w e ' l l compose l i n k e d verse, and i f I win, then I ' l l take the t r e e . Taro Kaja: That's not f a i r , s i r . Master: Why not? You who f o l l o w behind me/ Wait, wait f o r a l i t t l e w h i l e . (He s t a r t s out.) Taro Kaja: Yes, s i r . (He seats h i m s e l f at the Taisho seat.) Master: Taro Kaja! Taro Kaja! Hey, Taro Kaja! What are you doing there? 38 Taro Kaja: The Master said,"You who f o l l o w behind me, w a i t , wait f o r a l i t t l e w h i l e . " So I'm w a i t i n g here. Master: That was poetry!: Taro Kaja: Ohhh, Ohhh, was th a t supposed t o be poe t r y , s i r ? Master: Indeed, i t was. Taro Kaja: I f I'd r e a l i z e d then I'd have added a l i n k immediately. Master: Hurry up, make a verse! Taro Kaja: I f together we go/over the f l o a t i n g b r i d g e / s u r e l y i t w i l l sink.** / You who f o l l o w behind me,/ w a i t , wait f o r a l i t t l e w h i l e . (Taro Kaja p o i n t s rudely at the Master behind him as he f i n i s h e s r e c i t i n g . ) Master: Look you? The verse was a l l r i g h t but stop t h a t ! (He r e f e r s t o the p o i n t i n g a c t i o n . ) Taro Kaja: I obey, s i r . Master: Above t h e r e i s but one s i d e , / below there i s but one s i d e . ^ Taro Kaja: The crescent o f the moon/ when we see i t ' s image/ r e f l e c t e d i n the water^/ abowe there i s but one s i d e , / below there i s but one s i d e . (He points up and down.) Master: Didn't I f o r b i d you t o do t h a t ! Taro Kaja: Yes, s i r . Master: Below there i s but one s i d e , / above there i s but one s i d e . Taro Kaja: Oh, excuse me, but t h a t ' s the l a s t poem w i t h the "above" and 39 "below" p a r t s reversed. Master: I t ' s my l i n e so I ' l l do as I p l e a s e , whether I want "above-below," or "below-above." I'm t a k i n g the l a r c h t r e e i f you don't come up w i t h a l i n k . (He comes a f t e r Taro Kaja.) Taro Kaja: (He r a i s e s h i s arms t o p r o t e c t h i m s e l f . ) Oh, I ' l l add one, I ' l l add one! Master: Be quick about i t ! Taro Kaja: In the hollraw t r e e / along the trunk and branches/ the wood-Q pecker pecks/ Below there i s but one s i d e , / above t h e r e i s but one s i d e . Master: That was superb. Now I'm r e a l l y going t o stump you. Taro Kaja: A hard one? I tremble, Master. Master: I ' l l give you b o t h , t r e m b l i n g and a verse. (He s t a r t s t o walk.) In the Western sea Taro Kaja: In the Western sea,' \9 Master: A thousand fathoms deep,/ the deer are crying."" Taro Kaja: White foam r i s i n g on the waves/ l i k e white spots on a young fawn.' Master: That was too forced. Take more care! Taro Kaja: I obey, s i r . Master: Deep i n the mountains Taro Kaja: Deep i n the mountains Master: Why do we hear the sounds/ of a.boat rowing?" ko Taro Kaja: (He stops at the Jo p i l l a r . ) Excuse me, s i r , but may I make a suggestion? Master: W e l l , what i s i t now? Taro Kaja: I f you were t o change the "Western sea where the deer c r y , " from the l a s t poem t o "deep i n the mountains," and change "deep i n the mountains where the boats are.heard," t o "Western sea," you-could make two good poems. Master: They're my l i n e s so I ' l l do as I please whether deer cry i n the sea, o r boats are rowed i n the mountains! I f you can't make a l i n k , then the l a r c h t r e e i s mine! (He approaches t h r e a t e n i n g l y . ) -Taro Kaja: (He r a i s e s h i s arms t o s h i e l d himself._)_ Oh, I ' l l add a l i n k , I ' l l add one! Master: Be quick about i t ! Taro Kaja: F r u i t s from every mountaint'tree/ everywhere, c r o s s i n g the sea. Master: F r u i t s from every mountain tree'/everywhere, c r o s s i n g the sea. What? We've already a r r i v e d at the s h r i n e . Come around and worship t oo. Taro Kaja: Very w e l l , s i r . (The two s i t s i d e by s i d e i n the center of the stage. They open t h e i r fans, place them before themselves, and c l a p t h e i r hands together i n worship.) Master: (He closes h i s fan and t u r n s . ) Ah yes, whenever we come, i t ' s always q u i e t , t r a n q u i l and h o l y before the s h r i n e , i s n ' t i t ? Taro Kaja: Indeed, i t i s always holy before the s h r i n e . Master: Aha! I haven't been here f o r some time. The s h r i n e gate has hi been redone. Let's o f f e r a poem about the s h r i n e gate. Taro Kaja: I f y o u - l i k e , s i r . Master: How about t h i s ? Taro Kaja: Have you got one a l r e a d y , s i r ? Master: In f r o n t of Sanno s h r i n e Taro Kaja: In front'ofSSanno shrine 13 Master: the s h r i n e gate has been p a i n t e d / b r i g h t , v e r m i l l i o n red. - , l U Taro Kaja: Red i t i s the c o l o r / of the monkey's• mug, how strange. Master: Hey, you t h e r e ! Taro Kaja: Yes, s i r . Master: You're r e a l l y i n s u f f e r a b l e . You know how I l i k e wine and t h a t when I d r i n k , I get red. So you-went on and on about i t being the h o l y wine of Mt. F u j i and had me drink some. Now my red face i s funny, i s i t ! Taro Kaja: Wait, calm.yourself, p l e a s e , and l i s t e n a moment. Aren't the monkeys the h o l y messengers of Sanno? I was d e s c r i b i n g the red faces of the monkeys, not your mug. Master: Mug! Again you- say mug? Taro Kaja: Yes, s i r . Master: Oh w e l l , we're before the shrine,; so I ' l l l e t you o f f . Stand! (He stands and goes t o the Waki p i l l a r . ) Taro Kaja: I obey, s i r . (He stands and goes t o the Jo p i l l a r . ) 1+2 Master: Humphl •• You've got a l l the answers, haven't you. No matter what I say, I can't exhaust your s t o r e . There are l i n k e d verse c o n t a i n i n g words which can only be-used once i n every thousand l i n k s . Let's t r y one of those. Taro Kaja: An e x c e l l e n t i d e a , s i r . Master: Come before me. Taro Kaja: I obey, s i r . Master: C l o s e r . Taro Kaja: Yes, s i r . Master: D i r e c t l y i n fr o n t of me. Taro Kaja: Yes, s i r . (The two c i r c l e the stage i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s and meet i n the middle.) Master: (He s t r i k e s Taro K a j a on the shoulder w i t h h i s fan.) This i s a l s o a verse!) Taro Kaja: Making s t r i k i n g verses! Master: (He returns t o the Waki p i l l a r . ) Achhhhhh! I y e l l s t r i k i n g . Taro Kaja: Achhhhhhh! I y e l l s t r i k i n g Master: My v o i c e i s a l s o fearsome/ you tremble at i t ^ Taro Kaja: When the c r i c k e t gets angry/ the thrush i s always happy."^ Master: Nonsense! On your knees! ^3 Taro Kaja: Yes, s i r . (He drops t o h i s knees.) Master: Hey! (He c a l l s , rebuking Taro Kaja.) Taro Kaja: Yes, s i r . (He obeys f o l l o w i n g the Master. The Master e x i t s followed- by Taro Kaja. ) kk Footnotes 1. Te n i moteru/ kawarake i r o no/ furuawase ( 1 3 ft) ¥0 5 ( ~) O / c? pc? 7 The master i s r e f e r r i n g t o the robe which Taro Kaja ordered h i s h e l p t o pawn f o r wine. 2. Sakegoto n i am/ t s u g i me n a r i k e r i ^ L ) 2 ' ^ 1^ "2b 3/^ € T l ') O j There i s a pun on Sakegoto which may mean "every r i p " or "wine." There i s a l s o a p.un on Tsugi me which can mean e i t h e r "continuous," or "pouring." Therefore an a l t e r n a t i v e t r a n s l a t i o n would be, "Once the Sake i s begun,/ you can not stop the p o u r i n g . " This r e f e r s t o the Master's i n o r d i n a t e l o v e o f wine. 3. Ato naru mono yo/ s h i b a s h i todomare 3o T 1 C>'<3<t/ l- l |= 1^ 1-- 1-'^ This i s l o c a t e d i n the Inu Tsukubashu. U. F u t a r i tomo/ watareba shizumu/ u k i h a s h i wo ^) ' This i s l o c a t e d i n the Inu Tsukubashu. 5. Ue mo k a t a k a t a / s h i t a mo k a t a k a t a h^LA) t Z*f " C / J *~ — This found i n the Inu Tsukubashu w i t h a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t wording. 6. Mikazuki no / mizu n i utsu r o kage mireba 3 ^ Q ^ tf^/K ( I ? ^  3 Y^K I K ^ -This i s found i n the Inu Tsukubashu. 7. S h i t a mo k a t a k a t a / uemo k a t a k a t a f •£ A v > V f L / i l " 6 ^ fc- t^^Z. . 8. Utsuogi no/ motosue t a t a k u / k e r a t s u t s u k i ^  ^t^^/fcfc-^ltf-^ There i s an a l l u s i o n made u s i n g the word Utsuo which means hollow. I t a l l u d e s t o Utsuro from the previous v e r s e , meaning t o r e f l e c t . 9. N i s h i no umi/ c h i i r o no soko n i / s h i k u n a k i t e £t) (T) ^^))[^ (I)iro ''^ C C N i s h i umi ro western sea a l l u d e s t o the Ta l e of the Heike i n which the c l a n drowned i n the western sea. The fawn may r e f e r t o the young emperor who a l s o drowned here. 1+5 10. Ka no ko madara n i / t a t s u wa s h i r a nami jj^ (f) T C V ' l l ° v ^ - ^ The term "shiranami" i s a p o e t i c word f o r " I don't know." The verse may be t r a n s l a t e d a l t e r n a t e l y a s, " L i k e a spot t e d fawn/ we know not where i t stands." 11. Okuyama n i / fune kogu oto no/ k i k o y u r u wa.fl.J-i <• 5 1 ^ O t j ^ ^ 3 li£ Found i n the Shunrai Z u i No j f t l ^ f ^ p a n d the Tsukuba shu. 12. Yo mo no ko no mi ya / umi wataruran \j3 / j " CQ-^C <Dl|f f/7^ 2^ . 3 5 ^ -Located i n the Inu Tsukubashu. There i s a pun on "umi" which can mean e i t h e r "to r i p e n , " or "sea." This poem e x h i b i t s the technique of l i n k i n g o p p o s i t e s , i e . mountain and sea. 13. Sanno no mae no t o r i i n i / n i wo n u r i t e J j 1 O °0 )%J^(-^t^-^^-Found i n the Inu Tsukubashu. Ik. Akaki wa sa r u no/ t s u r a zo, o k a s h i k i •''TkIL ^  ^-ix. ^  ^ ^ ~^ . Found i n the Inu Tsukubashu. 15. A t t o i u / koe n i mo onore/ o j i yokashi L 1 ^/^rJo^)f^/^^^-16. Kera h a r a t a t e b a / tsugumi .yorokobu (') t> WL ^- ^ ^ / ^ ' % A form o f t h i s verse appears i n the Tensho book 1578, The verse appears i n t h i s form i n t h e Toraaki book 16U6, and the Ke Fuki Gusa 1 6 1 + 7 4 ^ ^ by Matsue S h i g e y o r i ^ X " T ^ ^ £ . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Mt. F u j i pilgrimmage dates the theme o f the p l a y at the end of the Muromachi p e r i o d when i t was popular t o make pilgrimmages t o F u j i t o o f f e r p r a y e r s . The F u j i Matsu i s thought t o be a Kara Matsu or a l a r c h t r e e which though common i n Tohoku, was a n o v e l t y i n the Kansai area. k6 C h i g i r i k i 4 - t / ] 7 f \ The Master enters f o l l o w e d by Taro Kaja. The Master announces h i m s e l f at the Jo_ p i l l a r , Taro Kaja seats h i m s e l f at the back of the stage. Master: I am the master of t h i s house. Today, I w i l l host the Renga beginner's group which I have formed w i t h the young men of the v i l l a g e . I t ' s almost time f o r the meeting so I ' l l send Taro Kaja t o make the announcement. Y a i ! Y a i ! Taro Kaja! (He goes t o the Waki seat.) Taro Kaja: (He stands.) Yes, s i r . (He goes t o the Jo p i l l a r . ) Master: There you are! Taro Kaja: In your presence, s i r . Master: How quick! I don't want anything i n p a r t i c u l a r . I t ' s j u s t t h a t i t ' s about time f o r you t o announce the meeting. Taro Kaja: Very w e l l , s i r . Master: Y o u ' l l d e l i v e r t h i s message, "Since i t i s almost time t o b e g i n , I would be honored i f you would a l l be my guests f o r the Renga g a t h e r i n g . " Taro Kaja: I understand, s i r . Master: Oh, and don't go by Taro's p l a c e . We've always i n v i t e d him but when the r a s c a l comes, he's so bo i s t e r o u s t h a t he upsets everything. Taro Kaja: Yes, o f course, s i r . Master: Hurry now. Taro Kaja: Very w e l l , s i r . Master: O ff w i t h you! ^7 Taro Kaja: Yes, s i r ! (The Master seats h i m s e l f at the Fueza.) Taro Kaja: (He stands at the Jp_ p i l l a r and faces f r o n t . ) W e l l , w e l l , how grand! My Master i s t o be host f o r the Renga gathering and I must make the announcement. But, whom s h a l l I c a l l on f i r s t ? Ah, the f a m i l y at Shimio no cho i s nearest. I ' l l h urry over t h e r e . (He s t a r t s out.) I c e r t a i n l y hope he's at home. (He takes a t u r n around the stage and stops at the f i r s t pine on the Hashigakari.) Here I am already. I ' l l c a l l on him. (He faces the c u r t a i n . ) Excuse me? Is anyone there? F i r s t guest: (He comes out t o the f i r s t pine.) There's someone at the door. Who i s i t ? Taro Kaja: It'stme. F i r s t guest: Oh, i s i t you, Taro Kaja. Why stand at the gate? You should have come r i g h t i n . Taro Kaja: Thank you, but I thought you might have guests. F i r s t guest: Very considerate of you. W e l l then, what b r i n g s you-here? Taro Kaja: Nothing s p e c i a l . My Master sent me as h i s messenger. F i r s t guest: What i s the message? Taro Kaja: Just;:thi>s, "Since i t i s almost time t o b e g i n , I would be honored i f you would a l l be my guests f o r the Renga g a t h e r i n g . " F i r s t guest: How very t h o u g h t f u l . However, you're a l i t t l e l a t e . Every-one has already gathered at my house. We'll come along together s h o r t l y . Taro Kaja: I n t h a t case, I needn't c a l l on the others? F i r s t guest: No, there's no need f o r t h a t . Taro Kaja: A l l r i g h t then, s h a l l I go on ahead? F i r s t guest: Fine. Taro Kaja: Very good, s i r . F i r s t guest: Thank you f o r stopping by. Taro Kaja: You're most welcome, s i r . (He faces f r o n t . ) Ha, ha, ha, marvelous, marvelous! That was e a s i l y done. How, q u i c k l y , I can r e t u r n . (He goes t o the center stage and kneels before the Master.) Excuse me, are you i n ? Master: Taro Kaja! You're back so soon? Taro Kaja: Everyone had gathered at the Shimo no cho home by the time I a r r i v e d . T h e y ' l l be here s h o r t l y . Master: What luck . First.' guest: ( A f t e r p a r t i n g from Taro K a j a , he stands at the f i r s t pine of the Hashigakari , faces the c u r t a i n and c a l l s . This occurs over the conversation between the Master and Taro Kaja.) H e l l o ? Is everyone here? Other guests: (The c u r t a i n i s r a i s e d and they come out.) Here we are. (They stand i n a row on the Hashigakari.) F i r s t guest: Taro Kaja was j u s t sent here by the Lord(the Master*s name.) S h a l l we. be o f f ? Other guests: That's f i n e w i t h us. F i r s t guest: Very w e l l , then, l e t ' s go. (He s t a r t s out.) Other guests: We're coming, we're coming. (They f o l l o w him.) F i r s t guest: (He stops at the entrance t o the stage proper.) We've h9 already a r r i v e d . Go on i n . o Other guests: Very w e l l . Taro Kaja: Ah, they're here already. Master: Indeed, they have a r r i v e d . (He goes out ot the Waki p i l l a r and seats h i m s e l f . ) Guests: (They enter the stage together and l i n e up by the Waki p i l l a r . ) F i r s t guest: Host of the Renga meeting (The other guests j o i n him i n chorus.) c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s ! (They a l l s a l u t e him.) (Taro Kaja r e t i r e s t o the Taisho seat and seats h i m s e l f . ) F i r s t guest: Everyone had gathered at my house before the message a r r i v e d so we've come along together. Master: How good of you. U s u a l l y w e i n v i t e Taro t o j o i n us but he's so d i s r u p t i v e t h a t I didn't c a l l f o r him t h i s time. F i r s t guest: We passed h i s gate but we didn't ask him e i t h e r . Master: F i n e ! Now then, w i l l someone please give the opening verse? F i r s t guest: Of course, s i r , but l e t ' s open w i t h our host's verse. Master: No, no, f i r s t , I'd l i k e t o hear your thoughts. F i r s t guest: Oh no, I i n s i s t , you must do us the honor. Master: In t h a t case, s h a l l whoever has an i n s p i r a t i o n begin? Guests: ( i n chorus.) An e x c e l l e n t i d e a , s i r . Earo: (During the above exchange, a man has entered the stage and an-nounces h i m s e l f at the f i r s t pine of the H a s h i g a k a r i . His monologue i s heard over the others.) I am Taro and I l i v e i n t h i s neighborhood. Today, there i s a Renga meeting at the home of the Lord(The Master's name.) 50 U s u a l l y i someone informs me but today no one came t o c a l l . How I n s u l t i n g ! I'm j u s t going t o barge r i g h t i n ! (He comes onto the main stage area and seats h i m s e l f i n the center.) Honorable h o s t , c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s . Master: Taro! You've come? Taro: What do you mean, "Taro! You've come?" Master: J u s t t h a t . Taro: Hey, you t h e r e . Master: Yes? Taro: You must have a teacher f o r a beginner's group. Today, no one . came f o r me. Master: Oh, no, Taro Kaja was sent. Taro: What? "Taro K a j a was s e n t ? " Master: E x a c t l y . Taro: (He t u r n s . ) Y a i ! Taro Kaja! Why didn't you come by? Taro K a j a : I f o r g o t . Taro: Can you forget, your Master's orders? (He looks over the other guests w i t h a sweeping glance.) You're a l l t o blame! Didn't you pass my gate? Why didn' t you stop f o r me? F i r s t guest: We(He i s j o i n e d i n chorus by the other guests.) f o r g o t . Taro: What? "You f o r g o t ? " That's too much, j u s t too much! You a l l f o r g o t , i s t h a t i t ? (He t u r n s t o the Master.) Anyway, l e t ' s hear the opening verse. 51 Master: I t hasn't been presented y e t . Taro: What's t h a t ? " I t hasn't been presented y e t ? " Master: That's r i g h t . Taro: What have you "been doing t i l l now? Is i t p o s s i b l e t h a t you haven't composed the opening verse yet? I y a ! Who arranged the flowers? Master: I d i d them myself. Taro: You c a l l t h a t an arrangement? They've j u s t been thrown together. (He breaks i n t o laughter.) Master: (He stands and goes t o the f r o n t of the stage.) Taro, come over here. Taro: (He stands and f o l l o w s . ) Yes? Master: • You're so c r i t i c a l , you're annoying everyone. Wait i n the k i t c h e n and I ' l l c a l l you when the opening verse has been composed. Taro: I have come as a teacher. I don't wait i n any k i t c h e n ! (He returns t o h i s seat.) Master: What s h a l l I do now? Taro: (He turns t o the other guests.) A l l r i g h t , I'd l i k e t o hear your opening verse. Master: (During the actions of Taro, he stands at the Fueza.) Y a i , y a i ! Taro Kaja! T e l l Taro t h a t y o u ' l l c a l l him when the food i s prepared and t h a t u n t i l then, he can go t o the k i t c h e n . Taro Kaja: ( In fr o n t of the Master.) As you wi s h , s i r . ( A f t e r r e c e i v i n g the order, he goes t o the Hashigakari and the Master returns 52 t o h i s seat.) F i r s t guest: I t hasn't been presented, y e t . Taro: Not presented yet? Impossible! I y a ! Who's re s p o n s i b l e f o r t h a t WH±S>lh angi ng ? F i r s t guesti: The honored host of today's meeting. Taro: Can't you, y o u r s e l v e s , see how crooked i t i s ? U s u a l l y , t h a t ' s a very important concern f o r the Host of a Renga gathering o r Tea ceremony.; Taro Kaja: (From the Hashigakari.) Taro! Oh, Taro! Taro: What? (He goes over t o the Hashigakari.) Taro Kaja: Your presence i s annoying. You've been asked t o wait i n the k i t c h e n u n t i l the banquet i s ready. Then, I ' l l c a l l you. Taro: What would you know about i t ! Get away from me! (He goes back on stage, Taro Kaja f o l l o w s him.) Master: (While the other two are t a l k i n g on the Hashigakari.) Oh, what a pest. When he comes back t h i s t i m e , let.'s give him a b e a t i n g t o remember. F i r s t guest: A great (The guests i n chorus.) i d e a . Master: W i l l you be ready? Guests: Yes, s i r . Taro: (He comes back t o the center of the stage.) Hey t h e r e , hey t h e r e , honored host. Master: What i s i t ? 53 Taro: J u s t now, Taro Kaja s a i d t o me, "Go t o the k i t c h e n and wait u n t i l I t e l l you t h a t the dinner i s prepared." I came t o i n s t r u c t , not t o eat! Master: I t ' l l "be a l l t h e worse f o r you i f you re f u s e . . Taro: A l l the w o r s e f f o r me? Why? Master: W e ' l l give you an i d e a . Taro: Who w i l l ? Master: We (The guests j o i n i n . ) a l l w i l l ! Taro: (Laughing.) So, you'd t h r e a t e n me? I may be only one against many but Taro i s f e a r l e s s ! Master: R e a l l y ? Are you sure? Taro: Of course! Master: Y o u ' l l regret i t . Taro: What w i l l I regret? Master: Y o u ' l l see. A l l r i g h t everyone,let's give Taro h i s b e a t i n g ! (He stands and everyone stands.) Together the Master and guests s u r -round Taro.) You worm! Taro: What are you up to? Master: What are we doing? We're going t o thr a s h you t o a pulp! Master and Guests: Scoundrel! Wretch! Fiend! (At once they act out beat i n g him, f u r i o u s l y , and k i c k i n g him.) Master: Enough. Come, l e t ' s go. Guest. 5h Guests: Yes, s i r . (They go together from the Wakizaa t o the J i u t a i seat. They l i n e - u p and then, one by one, they s i t and face the r i g h t . ) Taro: (P r o s t r a t e d . ) Ohhh, l e t me go. I ' l l never come again. Please f o r g i v e me, p l e a s e , p l e a s e , f o r g i v e me. WSman:- • (She" stands at the' f i r s t pine on the Hashigakari w i t h her sword drawn from over her r i g h t h i p and a long s t i c k i n her other hand.) Oh no, on no! Yaa! Yaa! Can i t be? How h o r r i b l e ! My husband, where are you? (She discovers Taro.) Whatjs happened t o you? (She leaves her s t i c k at the Jozaa and goes t o him.) Come, come, what's happened here? P u l l y o u r s e l f together! P u l l y o u r s e l f together! Taro: Please f o r g i v e me, pl e a s e , p l e a s e , f o r g i v e me. I ' l l do anything! Woman: Is .something wrong? I t ' s me, me. Taro: You? Woman: That's r i g h t , me. Taro: Who's t h i s "me." My wife? Woman: Of course, i t j s me. Taro: (He r i s e s and goes t o the Wakiza.) E - i , woman! Why have you come? Woman: (Going t o the Joza.) Why?! I heard £hat you were being beaten so I dropped everything and ran. But t e l l me, what's happened? Taro: Don't be absurd! Can a man be beaten so e a s i l y ? Woman? You make me so mad! W i l l you t r y t o deceivedmme? There's proof here, r i g h t here! 55 Taro: Where? Woman: Here and here, what's t h i s , what's t h i s ? (She goes up t o Taro and shows him the f o o t p r i n t s a l l over h i s sleeves.) Taro: Oh, t h i s ? Woman: E x a c t l y . Taro: Everyone s a i d , " Since Taro hasn't decided on a f a m i l y c r e s t , from now on, l e t him have t h i s one." Woman: That's shocking, j u s t shocking! Does a man r e c e i v e men's f o o t -p r i n t s as a c r e s t and leave i t at th a t ? You must k i l l them! K i l l them! Earo: Hold on, you shrew! I f I go a f t e r them, I ' l l he k i l l e d . Woman: I know t h a t hut even at the r i s k o f your own l i f e , you must get revenge. Taro: Ahh, you're a "brave one! I f you're so eager, take t h i s and k i l l them y o u r s e l f . (He o f f e r s her the sleeve w i t h f o o t p r i n t s covering i t . ) Woman: That's outrageous! D i s g r a c e f u l ! You're the man here. Would you have me go? I f you don't get them, you s h a l l never step across our thr e s h h o l d again! Taro: I f I don't k i l l them, I can't come home?' Woman: You can't come home. Taro: I guess I've decided. I ' l l k i l l them. Woman: Brav e l y s a i d , b r a v e l y s a i d . Now, indeed, you are my Lord. 56 Taro: But, you w i l l come too? Woman: How could I not stand by you? Taro: Let's go then and k i l l them. Woman: Come here and I ' l l prepare you f o r b a t t l e . Taro: Very w e l l , get me ready. Woman: Yes, my Lord. Taro: (He goes t o the Tai-sho seat. The woman hands him a sword and p u l l s the robe o f f one of h i s arms t o fr e e i t f o r b a t t l e . ) Woman: F i r s t o f a l l , put on t h i s sword. Taro: A l l r i g h t . W e l l , w e l l , nothing gets by you. I f you had been w i t h me today, I wouldn't have been shamed i n t h i s way. What a p i t y . Woman: I f I'd come, no one would have dared t o l i f t a f i n g e r t o you. I t ' s r e a l l y too bad. Taro: How do I look? Woman: E x c e l l e n t ! Take t h i s s t i c k too and club, them w i t h i t . ( S h e hands him the s t i c k . ) Taro: Ah, you're as strong as a man. (He takes the s t i c k and goes t o the Wakiza and.stands there.) Woman: (She stands at the Joza.) That's p e r f e c t . Now, who was the host today? Taro: The host today? Woman: That's r i g h t . 57 Taro: The host today was Lord (the Masteries name.) Woman: He's always been a f o u l character. Hurry now, go and get Mm. Taro: A l l r i g h t , come along. (He s t a r t s out.) Woman: Coming, coming. (She fo l l o w s him.) Taro: As I s a i d , i f you'd accompanied me today, I wouldn't have s u f f e r e d such abuse. What a shame. Woman: J u s t as you say, i f I'd been t h e r e , no one would have dared t o l i f t a f i n g e r t o you. I t ' s such a p i t y . Taro: (He c i r c l e s the stage and at the center of the stage he turns toward the woman.) Here we are. This i s i t . This i s the home of Lor d (the Master's name.) Woman: (At the Joza .) Is t h i s i t ? Taro: Yes. Woman: Quick! Run i n and whip him! Taro: What's come over you? Be q u i e t ! Woman: Why? Go on now, go on, don't dawdle! Taro: (He trembles and trembles f a c i n g the Wakiza.) Excuse me. I've come t o pay a c a l l . Woman: (From behind Taro.) Hey! (He tu r n s t o face her.) Why announce y o u r s e l f ? Burst i n and k i l l him! Taro: Hold on. You're such a shrew! I t i s . s a i d that,"A man does w e l l t o e r r on the si d e of p o l i t e n e s s . " Now j u s t be q u i e t . Woman: Even i f , "A man does w e l l t o e r r on the side of p o l i t e n e s s , " t h i s 58 d i l l y d a l l y i n g i s i n s u f f e r a b l e ! Taro: (He trembles.) Excuse me, i s Lord(The Master's name.) at home? Master: (He doesn't move.) He's out. Taro: He's out. (He looks t o h i s w i f e . ) Hey t h e r e , woman. Woman: What i s i t ? Taro: They say he's out. Woman: Is he out? Taro: (Facing f r o n t w i t h v i g o r . ) Y a i ! I f you're not home, come out andpprove i t ! I ' l l take my s t i c k and waving i t at your chest, I ' l l shove you back.shaking and t o t t e r i n g and.pound you t i l l you drop! (He acts t h i s out w i t h h i s s t i c k . ) Woman: (She waves him on w i t h her r i g h t hand.) Ahhhh, b r a v e l y done, b r a v e l y done. Now, indeed, you are my Lord. W e l l , who's next? Taro: The next i s (The name of a guest.) Woman: That f e l l o w (The name o f the guest.) i s r o t t e n t o the bone, t o t a l l y out of Keeping w i t h h i s age. Qui c k l y now! Taro: Yes. (He s t a r t s out.) Come on, come on. Woman: (She f o l l o w s him.) Coming, coming. Taro: Now then, t h i s fellow(The guest's name.) i s not at a l l what he appears, he has a very hot temper. So don't make such a racket t h i s time. Woman: Yes, my Lord. But you t o o , don't you behave as you have, j u s t 59 barge i n and trounce him. Taro: Very w e l l . (He takes a t u r n around the stage t o the f i r s t p i ne on the Hashigakari and then back.) Here we are. This i s i t . Woman: (At the Joza.) What? Taro: This i s the home of (The name of the guest.) Woman: A l l r i g h t , now bur s t i n and k i l l him! Taro: W i l l you-cut t h a t out! You're a r e a l shrew! Let me do t h i s my own way. Woman: Go on, go on, stop t h i s nonsense. Taro: (Again he trembles as he faces the c u r t a i n . ) Excuse me, s i r ( The name of the Guest.) Woman: (Abruptly.) Hey you! Taro: (He i s s t a r t l e d by her voice.) What! Woman: Why do you- c a l l him " s i r ? " J u s t rush i n and attack him! Taro: Shrew! You s t a r t l e d me. I thought maybe Lord( the guest's name.) had come out! Woman: So what i f he had, you should k i l l him when he does come out. Taro: They say t h a t , "A man does w e l l t o e r r on the si d e of p o l i t e n e s s . " Wow, wait over t h e r e . Woman: Wo matter how much, "A man does w e l l t o e r r on the si d e of p o l i t e n e s s , " such stammering and s t u t t e r i n g i s too much! J u s t too much! Taro: Excuse me, i s S i r (The guest's name) at home? 60 F i r s t guest: (He doesn't move.) He's out. Taro: He's out.. Here, here, woman! (He re t u r n s t o the Joza.) Woman: (She goes t o the Wakiza.) What's happened? Taro: They say he's out to o . • Woman: He's out too? Taro: (With v i g o r . ) Y a i ! I f you're not at home, come out and show me! (He puts down h i s s t i c k and p u l l s out h i s fan.) This t i m e , swish, I ' l l pttllicoubl^yysword. I ' l l s t r i k e o f f your r i g h t arm, I ' l l s t r i k e o f f . your l e f t arm. With my r e t u r n t h r u s t s I ' l l s l i c e and s l i c e u n t i l I leave you l i m b l e s s ! (While speaking, he acts out h i s speech w i t h h i s fan.) Woman: (She waves him on w i t h her r i g h t hand.) Ann, b r a v e l y done, b r a v e l y done! Now, indeed, you are my l o r d . W e l l , who's next? Taro: Since the others were a l l sympathetic, we needn't c a l l on them r i g h t away need we? Woman: I n t h a t case, w e ' l l go around t o thank them tomorrow morning. Taro: That's a good i d e a . Everyone must see how I've.put them i n t h e i r p l a c e s ! Woman: Indeed, everyone must know! Taro: I'd r e a l l y l i k e t o s i n g of t h i s as we r e t u r n home. Come along t h i s way. Woman: Yes, my l o r d . Taro: (He i s at the Taisho seat.) "When I c a l l at t h i s p l a c e , they say no one i s home." 61 Chorus: (Made up of the Master, Taro Ka j a , and the Guests.) "When he c a l l s at tha t p l a c e , they say no one i s home. J u s t l i k e the o l d sa y i n g , "What use i s a s t i c k / when the b a t t l e i s l i c k e d ? / What use i s a s t i c k / when the b a t t l e i s licked?"'3 Taro: (As the chorus sings,)he dances w i t h the s t i c k and f i n i s h i n g he c a l l s t o h i s w i f e . ) Hey, and hey and up! (He l i f t s the s t i c k onto h i s shoulder) Woman: Oh, my dearest d a r l i n g , come t o me, come t o me... Taro: Yes, oh yes. (He goes up the Hashigakari.) Woman: P l e a s e , come t o me, come t o me.... Taro: (He fo l l o w s her.) Yes, oh yes. (The two e x i t f o l l o w e d by the Master, the guests, and Taro K a j a , i n t h a t order.) 62 Footnotes 1. The term C h i g i r i k i A"t7) ./tvrefers t o a pole or s t i c k used t o carry-t h i n g s by b a l a n c i n g it-rover-the shoulders o f one or two people. Here i t i s b e i n g used as a weapon. Furukawa H i s a s h i i n Kyogen no Sekai i d e n t i f i e s C h i g i r i k i a s ^ j j "£/}yf^ or a pole cut t o the hieght of the b r e a s t . 2 . The blank l e f t f o r the l o r d ' s name i s a custom d a t i n g back t o the t r a d i t i o n o f improvised t h e a t r e i n which the names o f i n h a b i t a n t s . of the p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l e would have been s u b s t i t u t e d . There i s a p l a y on the word C h i g i r i k i which a l s o means a "pledge o f peace." This would demand t h e a l t e r n a t e t r a n s l a t i o n o f , "When the "ba t t h a t t l e i s over, the pledge o f peace." This term may a l s o r e f e r t o a c o n t r a c t as i n the marriage vows. Therefore, the saying r e f e r s both t o the q u a r r e l between Taro and the Renga group and between Taro and h i s w i f e . A f t e r the q u a r r e l , t h e i r marriage i s renewed. Taro takes up the symbol o f power, the C h i g i r i k i or the s t i c k , which h i s w i f e had entered c a r r y i n g , and o f f they go togethe r . An element o f of humor i s added by having Taro f o l l o w h i s w i f e o f f stage r a t h e r than the u s u a l order o f man f o l l o w e d by woman. • According t o Furukawa H i s a s h i , t h i s song i s one of a group of Iroha songs u s i n g the l e t t e r s of the alphabet t o make rhymes. I t i s found i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t form i n the Heike Monogatari 7 ^ Q (T) ~||? l > tT^L.MiZ"C^3-£M)S.#tJ., and i n the Ke Fu k i Gusa£-. q£ 5 $ ; ^ j -£ yy ) \^X.L(T>\t* 1 under the s e c t i o n on S e w a . j ^ # ^ t 63 Mi. Kazuki Man enters followed: by a woman. The man announces h i m s e l f at the Joza. The woman seats h e r s e l f by the Fue p i l l a r . Man: I l i v e i n t h i s neighborhood. Though I'm a r a t h e r common f e l l o w , I r e a l l y l o v e l i n k e d - v e r s e . Whenever I hear of a l i n k e d - v e r s e meeting, anywhere, I j u s t can't r e s i s t . I t ' s so i n t o x i c a t i n g t h a t I f o r g e t t o go home. Tomorrow, I ' l l be the host.a Since everyone w i l l be coming, I' d b e t t e r get back home t o s t a r t the p r e p a r a t i o n s . I should be on my way. (He s t a r t s out.) Ah, r e a l l y , t h e r e i s nothing so f a c i n a t i n g as l i n k e d -verse. The excitement of g i v i n g the opening v e r s e , the s u r p r i s e of the answering l i n k , and t o be the h o s t , how u t t e r l y d e l i g h t f u l ! (He c i r c l e s the stage once and stops at the Joza.) What's t h i s ! I'm already here. Oh woman! Where are you? Are you home? Woman: (She stands.) Sounds l i k e he's home. So, you've returned? (She goes t o the Waki p i l l a r . ) Man: I j u s t got back. Woman: You did n ' t get l o s t ? What a s u r p r i s e ! You've a c t u a l l y found your way back here. Man: Yes, w e l l you know how i t i s . There were l i n k e d - v e r s e meetings everywhere and I kept a t t e n d i n g one a f t e r another. I t was a l l so cap-t i v a t i n g t h a t I've only j u s t r e t u r n e d today. Woman: That's i t , c h a t t e r awgy, "Oh how c a p t i v a t i n g , how enchanting!" Your h e a r t ' s been taken over by l i n k e d - v e r s e . A night h e r e , a day t h e r e , do you care t h a t at home we haven't even enough t o get by on? I t ' s un-bearable f o r me already! You'd b e t t e r pay more a t t e n t i o n t o your home! Man: You nag t h a t way because you don't appreciate the j o y s of l i n k e d -verse. Anyway, tomorrow, I ' l l be the host of the gathering and everyone w i l l be coming. Malce the necessary p r e p a r a t i o n s . 6k Woman: What! You're mad, you're s t a r k , r a v i n g mad! There's b a r e l y enough t o cook f o r t h i s morning and evening. How are we t o get through t h i s day? You'd b e t t e r f o r g e t i t . Man: W e l l , you, you've no s e n s i t i v i t y at a l l . D i d n i t your parents a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e i n l i n k e d - v e r s e gatherings? Wot only t h a t , but once before when I was h o s t , d i d n ' t you make the p r e p a r a t i o n s ? Well? Woman: I had no choice then. I went home and borrowed everything.from f a t h e r . Man: So, go and do i t again. Woman: How can you even suggest t h a t ? Not j u s t once or t w i c e but! Even i f they are my own pa r e n t s , how can I make such demands? I f you're s t i l l set on t h i s , p l e a s e g i v e me a d i v o r c e . Man: A d i v o r c e ? Woman: That's r i g h t . Man: You don't mean i t . Woman: l i d o . Man: Honestly? Woman: P o s i t i v e l y . Man: Oh, t o t h i n k t h a t you cou l d be so unreasonable! I've been counting on b e i n g the host and I j u s t can't back out now. There's no a l t e r n a t i v e . How shameful, I ' l l have t o d i v o r c e you. Get out, go back t o l i v e w i t h your p a r e n t s . Woman: Then evenviif i t means a d i v o r c e , you s t i l l won't g i v e up t h i s nonsense? 65 Man: P r e c i s e l y . Woman: I t ' s hopeless, I ' l l go home. Give me some s i g n of di v o r c e . Man: Take what you l i k e and leave. Woman: Even i f i t ' s j u s t a scr a p , they say i t must come from the husband's •own hand. So, i f you p l e a s e , give me something from your own hand. Man: I'd l i k e t o hut I haven't anything. (He p i c k s up the winnow t h a t the stage hand has placed by the Joza.) Ah, here's a winnow. The very winnow you've had i n your hand from morning t o evening. Take t h i s and go. (He gives i t t o the woman.) Woman: (She takes the winnow.) Then I s h a l l put t h i s on my head and be o f f . (She holds i t t o her headwwith her r i g h t hand.) Man: How embarrassing! Woman: I'm going now. Man: Are you on your way already? I f you're ever i n the neighborhood, stop by, I ' l l serve you some t e a . Woman: I'm very much ob l i g e d . (She walks s l o w l y toward.the Hashigakari.) Man: (He watches her leave.) Oh, how miserable! She looks j u s t l i k e the shedded s k i n of a cicada. Watching her reminds me of an opening verse. (He c a l l s out t o the woman.) Hey t h e r e , hey! Woman: (She turns back at the f i r s t p p i n e . ) What i s i t ? Can I do something f o r you? Man Man: No, no, nothing i n p a r t i c u l a r b u t , watching you-reminded me of an opening verse and so I c a l l e d . Woman: What was i t : 66 Man: T i l l now unseen/ w i t h a winnow on her head,/ Eve of the T w e n t i e t h . 1 That's i t . (He faces f r o n t . ) T i l l now unseen/ w i t h a winnow on her r head,/ Eve of the Twentieth. W e l l , w e l l , t h a t was s p l e n d i d ! (He goes t o the Fue p i l l a r and seats Himself.) Woman: (Aside.) Oh, hut wait a moment. They say tha t i f you don't r e p l y t o an opening v e r s e , y o u ' l l be reborn as a worm without a mouth. So I'd b e t t e r go back and give the answering l i n k . (She returns t o the Joza.) Oh, excuse me, are you there? Hello? Man: (He stands.) What? Th'at's my wif e ' s v o i c e ! (He goes t o the Waki p i l l a r . ) So woman, have you come back? Woman: No^yno, nothing of the s o r t , but u s u a l l y they say t h a t i f you don't answer an opening v e r s e , y o u ' l l be reborn as a worm without a mouth. I've returned t o give the responding l i n k . Man: Yes? Why th a t ' s wonderful! Such s e n s i t i v i t y ! And so, what i s your l i n k ? Quick, l e t me hear i t ! 2 Woman: I t i s I who must s u f f e r / cast o f f i n the dead of n i g h t . Man: Ha ha! Not even the god of poetry, Sugawara no Michizane could have done b e t t e r ! I n my w i l d e s t dreams, I never imagined t h a t you were so s k i l l e d at l i n k e d - v e r s e . From now on I won't go anywhere, ever. And I won't be host f o r the gathering e i t h e r . I ' l l stay home, and w e ' l l enjoy l i n k e d - v e r s e together. How about i t ? Come back t o me. Woman: Oh, you make me so happy! I f y o u ' l l only stay home, how can I refuse you? Man: Ha, ha! We must c e l e b r a t e ! But f i r s t , come over here. Woman: Yes,, my l o r d . (She goes t o the Waki p i l l a r , s i t s and places the winnow beside her.) Man: (He seats h i m s e l f at center stage.) I f e e l l i k e I'm meeting you 67 again f o r the v e r y . f i r s t . t i m e . Woman: That's e x a c t l y how I f e e l ! .Man: W e l l , w e l l , I never dr'eamed you cou l d compose such poetry. Let's c e l e b r a t e and d r i n k our wedding vows again. Woman: That would be heavenly. Man: (He t u r n s h i s back t o the audience, opens h i s f a n , and c a r r i e s i t i n h i s r i g h t hand; he p i c k s up the top o f a s t o o l w i t h M s l e f t hand, and s i t s at center stage.) Have some wine and then pour a b i t f o r me. (He hands her the l i d and l a d l e s the wine w i t h h i s fan.) Woman: Yes, my l o r d . (Taking i t , she d r i n k s . ) Now, l e t me o f f e r t h i s t o you. (She passes t h e l a d l e . ) Man: (Then, I s h a l l d r i n k . (He pours and drinks the wine.) So, l e t me o f f e r you some more. (He passes i t t o her.) Woman: Thank you. (The man sings a c o n g r a t u l a t o r y song as he serves her wine.) F i n i s h i n g t h i s cup, I t o a s t our reunion. (She puts the l i d down beside her and the stage hand takes i t away.) Man: A l l r i g h t now, hand me t h a t winnow and I ' l l dance f o r you. Woman: Yes, my l o r d . (She hands him the winnow.) Man: (He holds the winnow i n h i s hand as he sings and dances.). An e n t i r e beach of sand/ Can be counted t o the l a s t g r a i n , / But the d e l i g h t s o f p o e t r y / Are not t o be numbered;/Cherish, them!/ Here by Naniwa Bay, renowned i n p o e t r y , / Let us shoulder the v e x a t i o n s / ( A f t e r p u t t i n g the winnow back on h i s w i f e ' s head, he dances.) And t a k e up again the pledge o f the p a s t , / Our heart s are f i l l e d w i t h j o y . " (He f i n i s h e s dancing and stands before the Taisho.) Ah, my belo v e d , come, come t o me. (He c a l l s her.) Woman: Yes, my l o r d , yes. (She stands w i t h the winnow on her head 68 and goes up the Hashigakari.) Man: Come, come t o me. (He f o l l o w s her.) Woman: I'm coming, I'm coming. Man: Come, come t o me. Woman: I'm coming, lorn coming. (The woman goes o f f stage f o l l o w e d by the man.) 69 Footnotes 1. 1. There i s a pun on the word " M i k a z u k i . " The poem can he t r a n l a t e d T i l l now unseen/ the crescent shape o f a new moon/ Eve of the Twentieth. I.'i.'s.i«}l:ln'ithis case, "Mikazuki,"--refers t o the l a t e r i s i n g new moon on the ... - t w e n t i e t h o f each month. There i s a pun on "Mi." "Ml" r e f e r s both t o the winnow basket, and the moon. I t a l s o may r e f e r t o the woman h e r s e l f . T his passage i s a l s o recorded i n the No p l a y A s h i k a r i which has a s i m i l a r theme of a couple u n i t e d through l i n k e d - v e r s e . I n the No however, the l i n e , "uchi kazukete," reads "uchi wasurete." The Kyogen used "kazukete," because o f the pun on "mikazuki." This .. a l s o adds a parody t o ve r s e . The couple takes on the vexations o f marriage r a t h e r than as i n the N_o , f o r g e t t i n g t h e i r sorrows. The word " k a z u k i " a l s o r e f e r s t o the b r i d e i n her wedding gown because she i s covered from.head t o f o o t . I n the Kyogen, the man p l a c e s t h e winnow on h i s w i f e ' s head as he says the l i n e , "uehi kazukete." The passage i s quoted from Donald Keene's, 20 Plays o f  the No Theatre, p. l 6 2 , the p l a y A s h i k a r i . The seventh and ei g h t h l i n e s have been changed t o r e f l e c t t h e Kyogen text../ These l i n e s i n the Keene v e r s i o n read, "We cast aside a l l our g r i e f s / And take up again the pledge of the p a s t . " "Uchi wasurete/ a r i s h i c h i g i r i k i n i k a e r i au." ' 2 . TO Hachiku.Renga The Lender enters f o l l o w e d by the Borrower. ' The Lender announces h i m s e l f at the Jo p i l l a r . The Borrower seats h i m s e l f at the back of the stage. Lender: I l i v e i n t h i s neighborhood. Although I l e n t some r i c e and money t o a f r i e n d q u i t e a w h i l e ago, he s t i l l hasn't r e p a i d me. When I've sent my man t o h i s house, he pretends t o be out,:or i f he does appear, my messenger r e p o r t s t h a t he gossips about me. I f he simply s a i d t h a t he couldn't pay, I wouldn't mind, but as he's j u s t b e i n g rude, I'm going t o go and forc e him t o pay. I should get s t a r t e d . (He s t a r t s out.) Ah t r u l y , as they say these days, " When borrowing, i t i s w i t h the face of the compassionate J i z o Buddha, when rep a y i n g , i t i s w i t h the h o r r i b l e face o f Emma the God of H e l l . " How t r u e . ( A f t e r t a k i n g a t u r n around the s t a g e, he stops at the center of the stage.) I'm already here. I f he recognizes my v o i c e , he won't come out, so I ' l l d i s g u i s e i t . (He walks t o the Waki p i l l a r and hides h i s face behind h i s fan.) Excuse me? Is anyone home? Borrower:. (He goes t o the Jo_ p i l l a r and speaks t o h i m s e l f . ) That's s u r e l y t he v o i c e of S i r ( t h e Lender's name.), c a l l i n g at the gate. He's probably come f o r the money. I t ' l l be awkward t o meet him. I ' l l pretend t o be out. Lender: Excuse me? Borrower: (He opens h i s fan and hides h i s face-behind, i t . ) He's out. Lender: Who's speaking? Borrower: I'm a neighbor but I'm watching the house w h i l e he's away. Lender: What? You're a neighbor but you're watching the house? Borrower: That's r i g h t , s i r . 71 Lender: In t h a t case, when he r e t u r n s , please r e l a y a message f o r me. I am (the Lender's name.) and I'm here about a p r i v a t e t r a n s a c t i o n . As he's away, please inform him t h a t l l l l l he home and he must stop by. Borrower: I understand, s i r . Lender*:! I'm depending on you t o t e l l him. Borrower: Yes, s i r . Lender: Oh, what an obnoxious character. He's pretending t o be out again. What am I t o do? (He t h i n k s f o r a moment.) I have i t ! They say t h a t he always leaves by the back a l l e y so I ' l l c i r c l e around t h a t way. The more I t h i n k of i t , the a n g r i e r I get. I f I meet him, I won't l e t him get away w i t h t h i s ! (He goes t o the f r o n t of the stage.) Borrower: (He speaks over the Lender's speech.) Marvelous! I'm so pleased. I c a r r i e d i t o f f i n g e n i o u s l y . But sometimes he comes back again r i g h t away, so I'd b e t t e r sneak out the back way. (He s t a r t s t o go.) Ah, r e a l l y , i t was s p l e n d i d the way I maneuvered the "he's out" ruse today. What a s a t i s f y i n g f e e l i n g ! (At tike Metsuke p i l l a r , he t u r n s , faces f r o n t and meets the Lender.) Lender: E-y! (He goes back t o the Waki p i l l a r . ) Borrower: E-y! S i r (The lender's name.), where are you o f f to? (He returns t o the Jo p i l l a r . ) Lender: I've j u s t come from your house. Borrower: Then I greet you w i t h both joy and sorrow. Lender: You t h e r e ! There i s an e t i q u e t t e f o r g r e e t i n g people. T h i s , "joy and sorrow" has never been a pa r t of i t ! 72 Borrower: Of course, but s i r , didn't you say t h a t you'd been j u s t now t o my home? Lender: E x a c t l y , I was ther e . Borrower: Then, i t ' s a shame th a t I wasn't there t o greet you, but again what happiness t o meet you here. And so, I s a i d , "with both joy and sorrow." Lender: You've c e r t a i n l y become a smooth t a l k e r s i n c e our l a s t meeting. Borrower: Yes, s i r . Lender: Anyway, what about the money you owe me? Borrower: Yes, w e l l , I've been t r y i n g t o r a i s e the money and I've managed t o get most of i t together but I'm s t i l l a b i t sh o r t . How about i t ? W i l l you.give me two or three days? Lender: Oh no, I'm s i c k of h e a ring you pleas f o r "two or three days!" Today, I'm t a k i n g you home w i t h me and I ' l l f o r c e you t o pay so r e s i g n y o u r s e l f t o i t . Borrower: But, today I have an appointment. I ' l l drop by your place tomorrow. Lender: Such obstinacy! Y o u ' l l go t o your engagement tomorrow. Today, you're coming w i t h me! Borrower: Oh, but what you suggest i s impossible. Even i f I do come, I can't pay. I t '"'won't matter t o you i f I come tomorrow. Lender: No, no ,no, whether or not you can pay, I say t h a t you must come! Borrower: In t h a t case, as you wish. Lender: Go on ahead! Go on ahead! 73 Borrower: P l e a s e , a f t e r you, s i r . Lender: Huh! Do you t h i n k I'd t r u s t a r a s c a l l i k e you t o f o l l o w me? I i n s i s t you l e a d the way! Borrower: A l l r i g h t , I ' l l go f i r s t . (He s t a r t s out.) W e l l , come along, come along. Lender: ( Following.) I'm coming, I'm coming. You're so u n r e l i a b l e . Borrower: Whjr am I u n r e l i a b l e ? Lender: Why? When I send a messenger, e i t h e r you pretend t o be out or i f you do admit t o being i n , you gossip about me. Was there ever such impudence? Borrower: Wait one minut'e! Why i s i t me who does the gossiping? Your messenger simply l i e s t o s u i t h i m s e l f . Lender: W e l l , t h a t ' s a l s o a p o s s i b i l i t y . (They take a t u r n around the stage and stop at the center.) So, we've already a r r i v e d . Go r i g h t i n . Borrower:. (At the Jc_ p i l l a r . ) This w i l l be f i n e . Lender: No, no, go i n . Borrower: Very w e l l , s i r . (He goes t o the Waki p i l l a r . ) Lender: (Changing places w i t h the borrower, he stops at the Jo p i l l a r . ) Make y o u r s e l f comfortable. Borrower: Thank you, s i r . Lender: (At the Jo p i l l a r , he turns t o the c u r t a i n . ) Y a i , y a i ! I've come w i t h (the Borrower's name.) today so l o c k the back door and the gate. A l l r i g h t ? Ik Borrower: Excuse me! Lender: What i s i t ? (He seats h i m s e l f i n the area of the Jo_ p i l l a r . ) Borrower: How can you he so h e a r t l e s s ! Now t h a t I'm here, I ' l l h a r d l y be running o f f . I t ' s overdoing i t a b i t t o l o c k the door and gate! Lender: Oh no, you misunderstood. U s u a l l y , i t ' s imprudent t o have someone i n t r u d e on a p r i v a t e business t r a n s a c t i o n . That's a l l . Borrower:. Yes, of course, a noble sentiment. Lender: Now then, pay me, pay me! Borrower: C e r t a i n l y . (He looks around.) Ah! Ah ha! Why, I see you've remodeled the house. Lender: You didn't know about the remodeling? Borrower: Not at a l l . Lender: I t was done l a s t month. Borrower: What? Last month? Lender1:' That's r i g h t . Borrower: Then, of course, I wouldn't know. I was i n the country l a s t month, but i f I'd been here I'd have helped w i t h the s c a f f o l d i n g . Lender: Oh, yes, w e l l , I might have c a l l e d on you. Now then, pay me! Borrower: D i r e c t l y , d i r e c t l y . (He looks around.) W e l l , w e l l , what e x c e l l e n t design. You put the k i t c h e n over there? Lender: Do you t h i n k i t ' s a l l r i g h t ? 75 Borrower: I t ' s a-superb k i t c h e n , s i r . Lender: Now t h e n , pay me, pay me! Borrower: This minute. Everywhere the design, shows such e x q u i s i t e t a s t e . (He t a l k s as he looks around and faces t he f r o n t . ) Ah ha, d i d you put the Tokonoma here? Lender: What do you t h i n k o f i t ? Borrower: U s u a l l y , they say t h a t the Tokonoma i s d i f f i c u l t t o s i t u a t e , but i n t h i s room t h e r e i s no other p l a c e f o r i t . Lender: Now, I've s a i d t h a t you must pay me! Borrower: I s h a l l , r i g h t away. W e l l , w e l l , , an e x c e l l e n t Tokonoma. Ah ha! A s c r o l l of Renga poetry. Excuse me but whose c a l l i g r a p h y i s t h a t ? Lender: Oh, j u s t a c h i l d ' s hand. Borrower: Ah, h i s honor, the c h i l d . Lender: W e l l , yes. Borrower: My, my, t h a t i s a superb hand. Excuse me f o r b e i n g b o l d but I didn't r e a l i z e t h a t you c o u l d w r i t e so w e l l . Lender: I'm t o l d t h a t i n the f u t u r e I may develop a good hand. Borrower: You have remarkable s t y l e , s i r . Lender: Oh, the Renga poetry reminds me. I've heard t h a t you c i r c u l a t e among the Renga - beginner groups' and c r i t i c i z e ' e v e r y o n e , i s t h a t r i g h t ? 16 Bearower: I'd never do t h a t . Lender: Don't pretend. I've heard t h a t you're q u i t e a poet. S h a l l we compose t he f i r s t e i g h t l i n e s f o r the f r o n t of the Re'nga paper? Borrower: An e x c e l l e n t i d e a . Lender: F i r s t of a l l , put y o u r s e l f at ease. Borrower: I f you w i l l a l l o w me, s i r . Lender: P l e a s e , f e e l f r e e . Borrower: Thank you. I s h a l l then. (They change from the formal seated p o s i t i o n and s i t down cr o s s e d - l e g fashion.) Lender: So, f i r s t , you g i v e the opening l i n k . Borrower: No:j no, I i n s i s t , a f t e r you. Lender: I t i s s a i d , "To the guest's opening v e r s e , the host responds." I must atte n d you. Borrower: I see, have you designated me the guest? Lender: At l e a s t f o r today, you are the guest. Borrower: I am so very g r a t e f u l . Then, whoever has an i n s p i r a t i o n should b e g i n . Lender: F i n e . Borrower: What s h a l l i t be, s i r ? Lender: What s h a l l i t be. Borrower: How about t h i s ? 77 Lender: Have you one already? Borrower: Flowers i n f u l l bloom Lender: Flowers i n f u l l bloom Borrower: Wind w a i t i n g midst the p i n e s / won't you pl e a s e r e f r a i n . 1 How's t h a t ? Lender: Wind w a i t i n g midst the p i n e s / won't you please r e f r a i n . Borrower: Yes, t h a t ' s i t . Lender: That's not current usage f o r an opening verse. Borrower: Why not? I'm j u s t a n o v i c f : so i f t h e r e are awkward se c t i o n s p lease c o r r e c t them. Lender: I don't know i f I could improve a verse o f your s , but s h a l l I j u s t t r y and see? Borrower: Please do. Lender: F i r s t of a l l , as f a r as the "Flowers i n f u l l bloom," i t ' s f i n e . But somehow the f o l l o w i n g , "Windlwaiting midst t h e p i n e s / won't you ple a s e r e f r a i n , " sounds disc o r d e n t t o me. Borrower: Oh, you mean t h e , "Won't you please r e f r a i n , " l i n e ? Lender: Yes. Borrower: Oh no, I'm p o s i t i v e t h e v e r s e , " r e f r a i n , r e f r a i n , " i s i n popular usage. 78 Lender: W e l l , i n t h a t case, there must be a r e j o i n d e r . What s h a l l i t be? Borrower: Yes, what s h a l l i t be. Lender: How about t h i s ? Borrower: Have you one already? 2 Lender: B r i n g f o r t h the cherry blossoms/ r a i n laden clouds on h i g h . Well? Borrower: Ahhh. B r i n g f o r t h the cherry blossoms/ r a i n laden clouds on high. Lende r$: E x a c t l y . Borrower: That's not current usage f o r a l i n k i n g verse. Lender: Why not? I'm a l s o s t i l l l e a r n i n g so please c o r r e c t me. Borrower: To speak of c o r r e c t i n g your poem! W e l l , I c e r t a i n l y didn't i n t e n d t o change anything but s h a l l I j u s t t r y ? Lender: Please do. Borrower: From the "cherry blossoms," on i t ' s f i n e , but the opening, "Bring f o r t h " l i n e i s u n s e t t l i n g . Lender: The " B r i n g f o r t h " s e c t i o n ? Borrower: That's r i g h t . Lender: I'm sure t h a t , "Bring f o r t h , b r i n g f o r t h , " i s what makes the l i n k . Borrower: 79 Borrower: Very w e l l , s h a l l we compose the t h i r d verse? Lender: Fine. Borrower: What s h a l l i t be? Lender: Yes, what s h a l l i t be? Borrower: How about t h i s ? Lender: Have you one already? Borrower: Oh so many times/ only mist and the evening moon/ around my poor o l d hut." Lender: P r e s s i n g my appeals for. l o v e / the gong resounds at sunset. Borrower: Oh! I t ' s becoming too s t r a i n e d . Let's take more care.'' Lender: A l l r i g h t . Borrower: Even the r o o s t e r Lender: Even the r o o s t e r Borrower: At the hour of p a r t i n g / must put o f f h i s c r i e s . ^ Lender: Don't be t r a y them t o o t h e r s / oh b a r r i e r guard of love . Borrower:, Lest i t become known/ Don't send the messenger/ t o your secret g w i f e . Lender: You t h e r e . Borrower: Yes, s i r . 80 Lender: When have I disgraced you by sending my messenger t o you? Borrower: Now, now, please c o n t a i n y o u r s e l f and l i s t e n . Didn't you say e a r l i e r , "When from time t o t i m e , I have sent a messenger t o h i s home he's e i t h e r pretended t o be out or when he does admit t o b e i n g t h e r e , he gossips about me." I t was a l l the t a l k of the messenger. Now, t h i s verse doesn't mean, "don't send the messenger," hut r a t h e r "messenger don't t e l l o t h e r s / o f my s e c r e t w i f e . " Lender: Ah ha! "Messenger, don't t e l l o thers/ of my secret w i f e . " Borrower: E x a c t l y . tender: Marvelous! Now, I s h a l l give you one. 9 As she l o v e me so/ I must send at l e a s t t h i s note. (He takes the promissory note from h i s robe and tosses i t out before the Borrower.) Borrower: As she loves me so/ I must send at l e a s t t h i s note. LendenS. That's i t . (He pushes the note toward him.) Borrower: (He looks at the note.) What i s t h i s , s i r ? Lender: The promissory note t h a t we signed. Borrower: Oh, but w a i t a moment. This isr.nob-timettotth'row.^away,the-note. Sometime i n the near f u t u r e I s h a l l pay. Now, p l e a s e , put t h i s away. (He pushes i t back.) - • Lender: No, no, you-misunderstand. Your poem j u s t now was so good t h a t I wished t o honor you. Borrower: Oh my, you're g i v i n g me t h i s ? 81 lender: Right. Borrower: I'm overwhelmed but (He takes i t up.) even though I've been neglig e n t up t i l l now, how can I accept? I must refuse. (He pushes i t back.) Lender: W e l l , w e l l , you-have such h i g h p r i n c i p l e s ! But, as I've something s p e c i a l i n mind, take i t . Borrower: S t i l l , I simply must refuse. (He pushes i t back.) Lender: No, no, you must accept. (He pushes i t back.) Borrower: But, I must re f u s e . Lender: W e l l , i f you're r e s o l v e d on i t then I ' l l have t o r e s i g n myself. (He takes up the note.) Borrower: Oh, excuse me, but... (He gives an embarrassed smile.) Lender: Yes? Borrower: U s u a l l y , you mustn't take what i s o f f e r e d . On the contrary i t i s s a i d t o be i m p o l i t e t o do so. I s h a l l accept w i t h many thanks. Lender: Ahh, very good. (He puts the note down again.) Borrower: 2?hank you very much. (He takes i t up g r a t e f u l l y . ) Lender: This r e a l l y i s n ' t so unusual. As you know, I a l s o enjoy Renga. However, u n t i l now, I hadn't found a s u i t a b l e p a r t n e r . From now on, you mustlcomeifromutimeqtentimeato j o i n me i n composing Renga. Borrower: Of course, I haven't c a l l e d on you i n some time "hut t h a t was due t o my debts. From now on, I s h a l l v i s i t you f r e q u e n t l y as your Renga pa r t n e r . 82 Lender: I'd l i k e t o remain and discuss t h i s w i t h you, but as I've some duties i n the k i t c h e n , I must go. Please r e l a x w i t h a cup of t e a . Borrower: I should be l e a v i n g soon too. Lender: Must you go so soon? Borrower: Yes, thank you. Lender: You are most welcome.. Borrower:Th9Jhank you, s i r . (He bows i n thanks. The two stand and the lender leaves the stage.) Borrower: (He goes t o the Taisho seat and seats h i m s e l f ; he takes the note i n both hands.) Ah, ah, i t i s l i k e waking from a nightmare. This i s owing t o my love of Renga, a g i f t of Michizane, the God of poetry. I can't simply r e t u r n home now. I must o f f e r a song. (He stands.) Kind indeed i s the heart of man;/ I never expected t o see,/ the shape of a blossom/ r e v e a l i n g such hues,/ the heart of a man/ f o r g i v i n g my dues;/ Oh, p r i n c e l y indeed i s the heart of man.^ (He goes t o the f r o n t of the stage.) Whom s h a l l I f e a r i n a l l the w o r l d now t h a t I am f r e e of t h i s ? (As he says t h i s he r i p s up the note, throws i t away, and leaves the stage.) 83 Footnotes lC gS' '1 v t l ^V>t)S(- -^'^ ^ There i s a double meaning i n t h i s verse h i n g i n g on the phrase, "gomenarekashi," which has been t r a n s l a t e d as "Won't you please r e f r a i n , " but which may a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d as "Please f o r g i v e me." The Borrower i s aski n g t h a t h i s debts be f o r g i v e n . There i s a l s o a pun on the word "matsu," meaning pine t r e e and "matsu" meaning t o w a i t . The flowers r e f e r t o cherry blossoms which are e a s i l y l o s t ot the wind. The Borrower i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h t he cherry blossoms and pleads w i t h the wind (the Lender.) t o w a i t . This verse i s a hokku(opening verse) contained i n t h e Inu Tsukubashu. The o r i g i n a l verse reads, "Hana no koro komemu arekashi matsu no kaze." This d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y from the Kyogen which reads, "Hana s a k a r i gomen narekashi matsu no kaze." 1* ^ <0 ^ 4 ' ^ • There i s a p l a y on the word "nase y a * which has been t r a n s l a t e d as, " B r i n g f o r t h , " but which may a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d as, "Pay me." The lender has t u r n e d the image around and i d e n t i f y i n g h i m s e l f w i t h the elegance of the cherry blossoms demands t h a t he be p a i d . The r a i n laden clouds may be considered an a l l u s i o n t o the f l o a t i n g w o r l d or p l e a s u r e quarters of which the Borrower seems t o be a f r e q u e n t e r . A form of t h i s verse can be found i n the S p r i n g poems of the Shinkokinshu. 7§£ JC-~U z j f " ! (.L \Az> "^X- ^ <0 ^ . There are s e v e r a l puns i n t h i s verse. "Kasumi n i wabin" has been t r a n s l a t e d as "my poor o l d hut" but may a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d as "kasu" meaning "to borrow," "mi" meaning " I " and "wabin" meaning "excuses." In whichccase "Tsuki no kure" may be taken as "end of the month" r a t h e r than "evening moon." An a l t e r n a t e t r a n s l a t i o n might be," Oh so many ti m e s / f o r me, the borrowing one/ end of the month excuses." i f 5 A / f R <0 'JlfL. " K o i " i s used here as a pun t o r e f e r t o both " l o v e " and t o the ''demands" of the l e n d e r . Kane r e f e r s t o the b e l l i n " i r i a i no kane" which r e f e r s t o the r i n g i n g :of the temple b e l l at the end of the day, but may a l s o r e f e r t o "money." Th e r e f o r e , an a l t e r n a t e t r a n s l a t i o n would read, " P r e s s i n g s t r o n g l y my demands/ f o r money I should r e c e i v e . " Bh 5. The Borrower uses the term, tsuke noberu meaning "to take i t easy. However, the "noberu" may a l s o mean postpone. The Borrower uses i t w i t h t h i s added meaning i n reference t o h i s debts. 6 . % H Z J) 1 ) P\\X 5L| / < " C ' J-l' l- J . This verse has the u n d e r l y i n g meaning o f , "At l e a s t at p a r t i n g / postpone the payments." 7 . A. Q € "^  X %4 O '"f . "Don't b e t r a y " has the u n d e r l y i n g meaning o f "don't postpone," as i n the payments. "Morasuna" means don't s l i p , don't t e l l o t h e r s . 8. #2 CD CZ. 4^  ^ 4*3* ^  G- ^r. There, i s a p l a y on the word, "Tsuke so" which has been t r a n s l a t e d a s , "to send" but may a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d as "To pass on," or "g o s s i p . " This caus.es a misunderstand-i n g between t he two men. The Borrower claims t h a t he.intended t h e poem t o read, "Lest i t become known/ messenger don't t e l l o t h e r s / of my s e c r e t w i f e . " The Borrower i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h the s e c r e t w i f e who must be sad and l o n e l y . The s e c r e t w i f e i s of course the m i s t r e s s . 9 - fo^)|fl>^^ ">C1L — ^ . The love note r e f e r s t o t h e promissory note. The u n d e r l y i n g meaning here i s , "As you p l e a d so o f t e n / I must give at l e a s t t h i s note." "Shitaeba" may mean yearn f o r , d e s i r e , o r l o v e . ' 1 o A. O. 4W) 1^ "^.Mb 3 "3 £&. " I co A.oo./u 1* _ The song i n t h i s case i s i n f r e e verse and i s probably a simple c h i l d r e n ' s song. The term waka has simply been used t o r e f e r t o a song r a t h e r than a formal waka poem. 85 1 T h i r d pine of the H a s h i g a k a r i . '31 J ^ u 2 Second pine of the H a s h i g a k a r i . ^ / 3 T h i r d pine of the H a s h i g a k a r i . — / X ^ ^ A . k S h i t e p i l l a r . 7JC±. - - f — Ha J o z a . tfj 5 Metsuke p i l l a r . . J = H ^ ^jfc-6 Waki p i l l a r fljgj ^c£. 6a W a k i z a . ^ j g 7 Fue p i l l a r . ^ ^ 7a Fueza. ^ 86 B i b l i o g r a p h y 1. A r a k i , Y O SM OV L J . Chusei Nihon no SemMn Bungaku "fL 13 /fv O ffi.JX, ">C ^  Osaka: Shin Nihon Tosho, 19 Vf. 2 . B l y t h i R.H. Haiku, v o l . I , Tokyo: The Hbkuseido P r e s s , 1 9 U 9 . 3. B l y t h , R.H. A H i s t o r y of Haiku, v o l . V I I , Tokyo: The Hokuseido P r e s s , 196U. k. Bowers, Faubion, Japanese Theatre, New York: H i l l and Wang, 1 9 5 9 . 5 . Brower, Robert and Miner, E a r l , An I n t r o d u c t i o n To Japanese Court  P o e t r y . C a l i f o r n i a : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 . 6 . Furukawa,Hi's as h i )l\ . No No Sekai ^  ( Q l I J l M. Tokyo: Shakai Shiso Sha, I 9 6 0 . 7 . Furukawa, H i s a s h i o " u l . Kyogen .Furu Hon Nishu $z.%^t2 ^ — Tokyo: Wanya, 1 9 6 U . 8 . Furukawa, H i s a s h i '^! ^  and Nonomura, Kaizo ^ H v %i — K y o g e n  Shu Jo j j % ( f L h . Nihon Koten Zen Shu. Tokyo: Asahi Shimbun, 1 9 5 3 . 9 . Furukawa, H i s a s h i ^ " ^ \ ^ Kyogen No Sekai 4 i - ^ Tokyo: Shakai S h i s o Sha, 1 9 6 8 . 1 0 . Hayashiya, T a t s u z a b u r o / ^ / ^ ; f ^ ^ - k P "Kyogen N i Okeru Warai." f t f t 3-#V 1 1 ' 3 7 ^ U ' Bungaku 8 , 1 9 5 3 . 1 1 . Hayashiya, T a t s u z a b u r o / ^ / ^ J R . •—- '-^ • Chusei Bunka no Kicho , Tokyo: Tokyo U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 3 . 1 2 . Hayashiya, T a t s u z a b u r o ^ / ^ j i w K . — R i ' "Chusei Gei No no Shakai T e k i Kipan" ^ i^Sfe^ ^ i^^Sla Bungaku 1 2 , 1 9 U 8 . 13. Hayashiya, Tatsuzaburo/K^j|?Jf? ~~ Nihon Bungaku No R e k i s h i v o l . 6 Q^Sot ^ ^ / f f >2 4> Tokyo: Kadogawa, 1 9 6 7 . 8 T Ik. I j i c h i , T e t s u o - l f fe>£^ J-j Renga. No Sekai \4 •$^J-^^ Tokyo: Furukawa, 1 9 6 7 . 15. Inoura, Yoshinobu. A H i s t o r y o f Japanese Theatre I . Tokyo: Kokusai Bunka S h i n k o k a i , 1 9 7 1 . 16. Keene, Donald, t r a n s . Essays I n I d l e n e s s , The Tsurezuregusa by Kenko. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 . 1 7 . Keene, Donald, ed. 20 P l a y s o f the No Theatre. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 . 1 8 . Kenny, Don. A Guide To Kyogen. Tokyo: H i n o k i Shoten, 1 9 6 8 . 1 9 . Koyama, Hir o s h i ' K ^  rC- . Kyogen Shu J o , Ge x ~% ' ^ j X— ^ • Nihon Koten Bungaku T a i k e i . Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, i 9 6 0 . 2 0 . Koyama, HiroshL-!-J-v %L 7\L- "Kyogen No Hen Bo" "g ^^[35 Bungaku 7 1 9 5 6 . 2 1 . Koyama, Hiroshi-J. J_v "Kyogen No Engi Sei"|3Ll§ <f) ' K £ Kokugo Kokubungaku 1 0 , I 9 U 7 . . 2 2 . Koyama, H i r o s h i - l - i L ^ " K o t e i Mae No Kyogen J o , Ge" f|] T Kokugo Kokubungaku 1 0 , 1 1 , 1 9 5 0 . 23. Koyama, Hiroshi-UvL it^ "Kyogen No JKotei" 4 i . 5 O^S X . Bungaku 7 , 1 9 ^ 8 . 2 V . K o n i s h i , J i n i c h i ' N 1 - ^ vS,' S o g i ^ ? i X • Nihon S h i h i n Shu 1 6 . Tokyo: Ka b u s h i k i Sha, 1 9 7 1 . 2 5 . Mckinnon, R i c h a r d n. S e l e c t e d P l a y s of Kyogen. Tokyo: Komiyama, 1 9 6 8 . 88 2 6 . Matsumoto Kamematsu^l.C^'^-^^. Kyogen R i k u g i No Kenkyu + '% 7 \ " f j | (T) ~kf{ "^T • Tokyo: Wany a Shoten, 1 9 7 2 . 2 8 . Matsumoto, S h i m p a c h i r o ^ ^ . " K y o g e n N i Okeru Toshi t o Noson" 3'£f t M . ^ Bungaku 1 2 , 1 9 U 8 . 2 9 . N i s h i o , Minoru>S / ^„ i '5< Chusei Teki No. Mono To Sono Tenkai v f e t i . t J 3"TjjtixDlL-X O Tokyo: Iwanami, 1 9 6 7 . 30. Okura T b r a a k i ^ j f ^ J f ^ J Q p i Waranbegusa ^ . Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1 9 6 3 . 31. O ' N e i l l , P.G. E a r l y No Drama. London: Lund Humphries, 1 9 5 8 . 32. P r o u s t , Marcel, t r a n s . C.K. S c o t t M o n c r i e f f . W i t h i n A Budding  Grove: Remembrance of Things Past v o l . 1 . New York: Random House, 1 9 2 5 . 3 3 . T o i d a , Michizo.jr' f t S"S ihL -—- Kyogen Rakuhaku S h i t a Kamigami no Henbo * I % i§ Q / I L I l I ^ S < 0 ^ \ ^ Tokyo: Heibonsha, 1 9 7 3 . 3 ^ . S a k a n i s h i , Shio t r a n s . Japanese Folk P l a y s . Vermont: Charles E. T u t t l e Company, i 9 6 0 . 3 5 . Sugimori, Miyoko/fv> ;fc^-^5L'\\ ~J~ Kyogen Kenkyu Kosatsu t o Kansrio. I+. 5; ^ " • I f F . L ^ ' S T o k y ° : Ofusha, 1 9 6 9 . 3 6 . Ueda, Makoto. L i t e r a r y And A r t Theories In Japan. Ohio: The Press of Western Reserve U n i v e r s i t y , 1967-37- Yasuda, Kenneth. The Japanese Haiku. Vermont: Charles E. T u t t l e , 1 9 5 7 . 

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