Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Administrative and planning issues of native communities : a case study evaluation Kozey, Stephen William 1976

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1976_A8 K69.pdf [ 5.38MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0093830.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0093830-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0093830-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0093830-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0093830-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0093830-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0093830-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0093830-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0093830.ris

Full Text

ADMINISTRATIVE AND PLANNING ISSUES OF NATIVE COMMUNITIES: A CASE STUDY EVALUATION by STEPHEN WILLIAM KOZEY .A., University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon), 19 M.S.W., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS in The School of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1976 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s / h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date A p r i l , 1976 ABSTRACT The p s y c h o l o g i c a l , c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l and economic problems of Indian communities have been w i d e l y p u b l i c i z e d . In s p i t e of t h i s t h e r e e x i s t s a l a c k of documentation of the c o n f l i c t s between our a b o r i g i n a l n a t i v e s and the F e d e r a l government. This study has i d e n t i f i e d some of these con-f l i c t s by f o c u s i n g on: 1) The c u r r e n t inter-governmental r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Department of Indian A f f a i r s (a c l i e n t c e n t r e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e bureaucracy) and the Indian Band C o u n c i l ( l o c a l government) and i t s e f f e c t on p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n at the l o c a l l e v e l . 2) The p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e process a t the l o c a l government l e v e l . The main purpose of the study i s to propose a p o l i c y of s e l f - r e l i a n c e f o r the Indian people. A gra d u a l phasing out of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s i s a means towards a c h i e v i n g t h i s p o l i c y . Though t h i s i s not a study about a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i t i s suggested t h a t any proposed F e d e r a l government p o l i c y would be unworkable i f i t d i d not acknow-ledge the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i s s u e f o r the Indian people. i i The study i s an a n a l y s i s of m a t e r i a l gathered over a three year p e r i o d d u r i n g which the author was s e r v i n g as a S o c i a l S e r v i c e C o n s u l t a n t t o the Squamish Indian Band. The m a t e r i a l drawn on i n c l u d e s i n t e r - o f f i c e memoranda, r e l a t e d p u b l i s h e d documents, i n f o r m a t i o n gained as a r e s u l t of attendance a t meetings, and p e r s o n a l d i s c u s s i o n s i n the course of the c o n s u l t i n g work. Use i s made of a p p l i c a b l e theory and p r a c t i c e t o help understand the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s t h a t e x i s t a t the b u r e a u c r a t i c and l o c a l l e v e l . T h i s study has i d e n t i f i e d v a r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l changes t h a t are r e q u i r e d i n order to c o r r e c t f a u l t s i n the c u r r e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and plan n i n g p r o c e s s . These f a u l t s must be c o r r e c t e d i f the program of s e l f - r e l i a n c e i s t o succeed. Case study m a t e r i a l of the Squamish Indian Band i s used t o i l l u s t r a t e c o n f l i c t areas between an Indian Band and the Department of Indian A f f a i r s . The r e s u l t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s and recommendations may be u s e f u l to p l a n n i n g p e r s o n n e l and to Indian communities i n pursuing t h e i r f u t u r e developmental o b j e c t i v e s . TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v INTRODUCTION 1 I. DEPARTMENT OF INDIAN AFFAIRS POLICY 9 a) The Si g n i f i c a n t Past 10 b) Indian Policy 15 (i) A general trend 15 ( i i ) Contemporary p o l i c y 18 II. METHOD OF REVIEW 22 III . ANALYSIS OF SELECTED PROGRAMS 25 a) Local Government 25 b) Social Services and Education 32 c) Economic Development 47 d) Housing 54 IV. ANALYSIS OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND PLANNING PROCESSES 72 a) A New Federal Approach 7 3 b) Local Requirements 78 V. CONCLUSION 88 BIBLIOGRAPHY 92 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Undertaking a post-graduate t h e s i s i s a for m i d a b l e task, not o n l y f o r the candidate but a l s o f o r the people upon whom the candidate i s dependent f o r a i d and guidance. Through-out the t h e s i s p r o j e c t Doctor Gordon Stead of the School of Community and Regional Planning, p r o v i d e d c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m and encouragement f o r which I am in d e b t e d . Dr. Henry Hightower, D i r e c t o r o f the School o f Community and Regional P l a n n i n g was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n my p u r s u i t o f the t h e s i s t o p i c by p r o v i d i n g encouragement i n the i n i t i a l stages along w i t h c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m throughout the study. Mr. Glen Newman, D i r e c t o r of the S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Department o f the Squamish Indian Band deserves a s p e c i a l note of thanks f o r p r o v i d i n g me w i t h access to h i s p e r s o n a l documents which proved t o be a unique and i n v a l u a b l e source o f l i t e r a t u r e . A note o f thanks t o the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department s t a f f f o r t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n and forbearance i n my a n a l y s i s of the case study. I am t h a n k f u l to Naydeen f o r her contagious enthusiasm over the past two y e a r s , f o r her understanding and encourage-ment. I am a l s o t h a n k f u l t o C l a r a Shamansky f o r her s k i l l and p a t i e n c e i n e d i t i n g and t y p i n g . Such a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement has made the task a p l e a s a n t one. v INTRODUCTION There i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t r e s o l u t i o n of the Canadian Indian dilemma p e r s i s t s as one of the d e l i c a t e problems f a c i n g Canadian governments over the y e a r s . In 1969 the F e d e r a l government proposed a p o l i c y of t o t a l e q u a l i t y f o r the Indian people i n the form of the Statement of the Govern- ment of Canada on Indian P o l i c y . 1 (See E x h i b i t A, page 8, f o r the p o l i c y summary.) T h i s p l a n proposed t o remove the Indian Act from the F e d e r a l S t a t u t e s w i t h i n a f i v e year p e r i o d . The s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s and r i g h t s embodied w i t h i n the Act were viewed as having the e f f e c t o f i s o l a t i n g Indian people from the r e s t of s o c i e t y . A s e r i e s o f seventeen " c o n s u l t a t i o n meetings" across Canada were h e l d by members of a P a r l i a m e n t a r y Standing Committee on I n d i a n A f f a i r s w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from Indian Bands p a r t i c i p a t i n g . The House of Commons Committee debates c l e a r l y show t h a t a l a c k of communication between the F e d e r a l committee and l o c a l r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n e x i s t e d . For v a r i o u s reasons the proposed p o l i c y was r e j e c t e d by Indian people. Many Indian groups f e l t they were not c o n s u l t e d adequately, others f e l t t h e i r p r e v i o u s l y n e g o t i a t e d r i g h t s and t r e a t i e s would be j e o p a r d i z e d . Canada, Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian P o l i c y , June 25, 1969. 1 2 In a d d i t i o n the White Paper P o l i c y o f 1969 d i d not address i t s e l f t o a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s of the Indian people. In the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia there are no t r e a t y agreements hence the s u b j e c t of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s and l a n d c l a i m s i s a c t i v e l y pursued by o r g a n i z e d groups such as the Union of B r i t i s h Columbia Indian C h i e f s . "The h i s t o r i c p a t t e r n of d e a l i n g s w i t h the n a t i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s a d e s i r e on the p a r t o f the Indians to o b t a i n a p r e c i s e l e g a l statement of the s t a t u s of t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . These r i g h t s , i t has been shown, were r e c o g n i z e d by the c o l o n i a l government, and l a t e r the P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l Governments at C o n f e d e r a t i o n and i t i s incumbent on Canadians t h a t these r i g h t s should be d e a l t w i t h f a i r l y and j u s t l y . " 1 One of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the ongoing debates about a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i s t h a t a p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n about what c o n s t i t u t e s a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i s not r e a d i l y apparent. However, evidence from p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l and i n d i v i d u a l Indian Band submissions shows t h a t a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i s a d o c t r i n e which r e c o g n i z e s t h a t Indian people have s p e c i a l claims to l a n d by v i r t u e of being the f i r s t i n h a b i t a n t s of Canada. A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i s a g e n e r a l i z e d c l a i m t h a t supports s p e c i f i c c l a i m s . Out of t h i s arose the F e d e r a l government's e a r l y r e c o g n i t i o n of these r i g h t s i n the form o f t r e a t i e s w i t h I n d i a n people r e s i d i n g i n most p a r t s of Canada except B r i t i s h Columbia, Quebec, and the North West Cumming, P e t e r A. and N e i l H. Mickenberg, N a t i v e  Rights i n Canada (second e d i t i o n ) . Toronto: General P u b l i s h i n g Co. L t d . , 1970, p. 193. 3 T e r r i t o r i e s . In the case of those areas where t r e a t i e s e x i s t , the issue i s whether the t r e a t i e s were f a i r . The The Indians claim that the o r i g i n a l t r e a t i e s were allegedly made under duress. In those areas of Canada where no t r e a t i e s e x i s t , the issue i s whether reserve allotments were of proper s i z e . Following Confederation the Federal government varied i t s formula for reserve size allotment a number of times. As a r e s u l t the size of some reserves was reduced. In these cases the Indian Bands involved are saying that parcels of reserve land were unjustly and i l l e g a l l y removed as a r e s u l t of the Federal government's inconsistent reserve allotment p o l i c y . Indian aboriginal rights submissions generally request forms of compensation for lands other than reserve lands which are now owned by the Provinces or private i n d i v i d u a l s . Compen-sation takes the form of cash settlements, designation of areas of land for Indian Bands and long term Federal funding to a s s i s t Indian Bands i n s o c i a l and economic development programs. At the present time a l l Indian Bands i n B r i t i s h Columbia have organized regionally into f i f t e e n d i s t i n c t groups that w i l l each be presenting separate proposals for aboriginal claims. One of the d i f f i c u l t i e s at the l o c a l l e v e l has been the lack of a c l e a r l y defined statement of these r i g h t s . There are variations i n the d e f i n i t i o n of these rights based on geographic location of the various Bands. In spite of t h i s , there i s a consensus among Indian people in B r i t i s h Columbia that these rights must be recognized 4 before the Indian people are preapred to give up t h e i r special status as Indians as provided for i n the Indian Act. The Federal government approach has been to propose a phasing out of the special status arrangement (Indian Act) without con-sidering aboriginal r i g h t s . The aboriginal r i g h t s are psychological b a r r i e r s to progress and Indian people w i l l not accept any proposed government policy change unless the aboriginal rights are recognized by the Federal government. The objective of t h i s study i s not to discuss aboriginal rights and other Indian claims. The purpose i s to develop a process for a gradual disengaging of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and an increased s e l f - r e l i a n c e of l o c a l Indian Bands. However because of the importance of aboriginal r i g h t s to the Indian people, i t i s suggested that any proposed Indian policy would be incomplete i f i t did not recognize t h i s strong Indian atti t u d e . The Act of Proclamation of 1763 has been spoken of as the "Charter of Indian Rights." Like so many great charters i n English history, i t does not create rig h t s but rather affirms old ri g h t s . "The Indians and Eskimos had t h e i r aboriginal rights and English law has always recognized these r i g h t s . " 1 The 1973 Supreme Court decision i n the 2 "Calder v. Attorney General" case i s viewed as a major vi c t o r y by the Indian people. In t h i s Supreme Court judge-ment there was a narrow four to three decision cast against the Nishga Indians' claim to aboriginal rights however the ^Ibid., p. 33. 2 Ibid., p. 35. 5 d e c i d i n g judge r u l e d a g a i n s t the c l a i m on p r o c e d u r a l r a t h e r than s u b s t a n t i v e grounds. In h i s o p i n i o n , the Nishga Indians d i d not f o l l o w proper procedure by not f i r s t g a i n i n g approval from the P r o v i n c i a l government to proceed t o the Supreme Court. The s t r u g g l e f o r r e c o g n i t i o n of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c o n t i n u e s , f o r the Indian peoples r e c o g n i t i o n of these r i g h t s i s the paramount o b j e c t i v e . Because the White Paper p o l i c y of 1969 d i d not address i t s e l f to t h i s i s s u e , i t was unanimously r e j e c t e d by Indian people. The Indian people want r e c o g n i t i o n of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s f i r s t and then p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n s o c i e t y as equals. Indeed, most Indians w i l l always c o n s i d e r themselves as never having been brought w i t h i n Canadian s o c i e t y u n t i l the a b o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n i s s e t t l e d . The F e d e r a l government and the Indian people have both shown a d e s i r e t o e s t a b l i s h a new r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s Indian d e s i r e e x i s t s i n s p i t e of continued resentment towards the Department of Indian A f f a i r s f o r s t e r e o t y p i n g Indians as being i n c a p a b l e of h a n d l i n g t h e i r own a f f a i r s . They say, and c o r r e c t l y so, t h a t they were not r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c r e a t i n g t h i s s p e c i a l s t a t u s r e l a t i o n s h i p i n i t i a l l y . I t was the F e d e r a l government who e s t a b l i s h e d a separate bureaucracy i n order t o p r o t e c t the Indian people from the e f f e c t s of European m i g r a t i o n and settlement. While awareness of Indian problems e x i s t h a r d l y a beginning has been made toward t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n . A quote from our Prime M i n i s t e r i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s : 6 "I think that a l l of us f e e l a sense of g u i l t , not so much toward the Indian as toward the fact that we haven't r e a l l y addressed our minds to his problems." 1 This study reviews the two areas from which the future developmental process must grow. F i r s t , the Federal Ministry, the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development i s clos e l y associated with a l l the a f f a i r s of the Indian people. Hence, the opportunity exists for t h i s Department to make a notable contribution i n the 1970's and 1980's towards the goal of greater independence and well being f o r Indian people. To achieve t h i s goal the Department requires a fresh approach to p o l i c y formulation, and the provision of technical and consul-tat i v e services. The relationship between the Federal government and the l o c a l Band w i l l be examined by i d e n t i f y i n g c o n f l i c t areas. The second area from which the development process can grow i s the l o c a l Band l e v e l . Decision-making at t h i s l e v e l rests with the Indian people alone and t h i s presents the most encouraging p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The role and influence of various professionals (Indian or non-Indian) associated with l o c a l decision-making i s quite s i g n i f i c a n t . That i s , t h i s process of consultation and technical advice should not be p a t e r n a l i s -t i c . How well professionals and other key persons understand, perceive and respond to these situations w i l l a f f e c t how well the Indian communities w i l l fare in t h e i r attempt to become Trudeau, Pierre E., An address to students meeting him in London, Ontario. Press Release, January 12, 1969. 7 s e l f - r e l i a n t , self-governing with c u l t u r a l and socio-economic opportunities equal to those of other communities. The role of the administrator and planner, whether Indian or non-Indian, i s most challenging at t h i s l o c a l l e v e l . An e f f e c t i v e planning and administrative process i s required i n a s s i s t i n g those Indian Bands who are i n a p o s i t i o n to become t o t a l l y or p a r t i a l l y s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g socio-economically. This w i l l be required regardless i f the aboriginal issue i s solved i n the near future or not. The objective of the Federal government should be to a s s i s t Bands in a s e l f - r e l i a n t , s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g developmental process as they become ready for i t . At the present time these are the urban Bands with land of high market value plus some r u r a l bands with a s o l i d marketable resource base. This study suggests that programs and services during t h i s t r a n s i t i o n a l period of development must be designed and attuned to the objectives of the Federal government and the Indian people. Any progress i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n must provide for the f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Indian people. '-• " Exhibit A Summary of the Statement of the Government of Canada  on Indian Policy June 25, 1969 Summary 1 Background The Government has reviewed its pro-grams for Indians and has considered the effects of them on the present situ-ation of the Indian people. The review has drawn on extensive consultations with the Indian people, and on the knowledge and experience of many people both in and out of government. This review was a response to things said by the Indian people at the consulta-tion meetings which began a year ago and culminated in a meeting in Ottawa in April. This review has shown that this is the right time to change long-standing policies. The Indian people have shown their de-termination that present conditions shall not persist. Opportunities are present today in Can-adian society and new directions are open. The Government believes that Indian people must not be shut out of Canadian life and must share equally in these op-portunities. The Government could press on with the policy of fostering further education; could go ahead with physical improve-ment programs now operating in reserve coTT'.f*!Tj.niti^ s> cc"''3 prscs iOr\v£irCi in tHs directions of recent years, and eventually many of the problems would be solved. But progress would be too slow. The change in Canadian society in recent years has been too great and continues too rapidly for this to be the answer. Something more is needed. We can no longer perpetuate ihe separation of Canadians. Now is the time to change. This Government believes in equality. It believes that all men and women have equal rights. It is determined that all shall be treated fairly and that no one shall be shut out of Canadian life, and espec-ially that no one shall be shut out because of his race. This belief is the basis for the Govern-ment's determination to open the doors of opportunity to all Canadians, to re-move the barriers which impede the de-velopment of people, of regions and of the country. Only a policy based on this belief can enable the Indian people to realize their needs and aspirations. The Indian people are entitled to such a policy. They are entitled to an equality which preserves and enriches Indian ident-ity and distinction; an equality which stresses Indian participation in its creation and which manifests itself in all aspects of Indian life. The goals of the Indian people cannot be set by others; they must spring from the Indian community itself-but government can create a framework within which all persons and groups can seek their own goals. 2 The New Policy True equality presupposes that the Indian people have the right to full and equal participation in the cultural, social, econ-omic and political life of Canada. The government believes that the frame-work within which individual Indians and bands could achieve full participation re-quires: 1 that the legislative and constitutional bases of discrimination be removed; 2 that there be positive recognition by everyone of the unique contribution of Indian culture to Canadian life;. 3 that services come through the same channels and from the same government agencies for all Canadians; 4 that those who are furthest behind be helped most; 5 that lawful obligations be recognized; 6 that control of Indian lands be trans-ferred to the Indian people. The Government would be prepared to take the following steps to create this framework: 1 Propose to Parliament that the Indian Act be repealed and take such legislative steps as may be necessary to enable Indians to control Indian lands and to acquire title to them. 2 Propose to the governments of the prov-inces that they take over the same respon-sibility for Indians that they have for other citizens in their provinces. The take-over would be accompanied by the transfer to the provinces of federal funds normally pro-vided for Indian programs, augmented as may be necessary. 3 Make substantial funds available for In-dian economic development as an interim rneasure. 4 Wind up that part of the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development which deals with Indian Affairs. The resi-dual responsibilities of the Federal Govern-ment for programs in the field of Indian affairs would be transferred to other ap-propriate federal departments. In addition, the Government will appoint a Commissioner to consult with the Indians and to study and recommend accept-able procedures for the adjudication of claims. The new policy looks to a better future for all Indian people wherever they may be. The measures for implementation are straightforward. They require discussion, consultation and negotiation with the Indian people-individuals, bands and associations-and with provincial governments. Success will depend upon the co-operation and assistance of the Indians and the provir.css. The Government seeks this co-operation and will respond when it is offered. 3 The Immediate Steps'' Some changes could take place quickly. Others would take longer. It is expected that wiihin five years the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development would cease to operate in the field of Indian affairs; the new laws would be in effect and existing programs would have been devolved. The Indian lands would require special attention for some time. The process of transferring control to the Indian people would be under continuous review. I. DEPARTMENT OF INDIAN AFFAIRS POLICY A l l aspects of an Indian's rights are defined i n a special Act known as the Indian Act, which was l a s t revised i n 1951. Interpretations of the Act by c i v i l servants, government o f f i c i a l s , p o l i t i c i a n s , etc. have tremendous bearing on how the Indian people w i l l be treated, how they w i l l f e e l towards those who administer, and what s e l f -i n i t i a t i v e s they w i l l take towards establishing themselves within Canadian society. Aside from various c u l t u r a l programs which other ethnic populations of Canada maintain at t h e i r own expense, h i s t o r i c a l aspects of these other ethnic groups do not have a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e i r a b i l i t y to sustain themselves. The Indian population however, was given special rights as defined i n the Indian Act. This special r e l a t i o n -ship between the Federal government and the Indian people has set them apart from a l l other populations i n Canada; i t has created attitudes that are very r e a l , s i g n i f i c a n t and relevant today i n any discussion of Indian p o l i c y . In the words of the Federal government of 1969, "to be a Canadian Indian today i s to be someone d i f f e r e n t i n another way. It i s to be someone ap a r t — a p a r t i n law, apart i n the provision of government services, and too often, apart i n s o c i a l contacts."^ Canada, Department of Indian A f f a i r s . Statement of the  Government of Canada on Indian Policy, 1969, p. 3. 9 10 For t h i s purpose a short section tracing the p o l i c i e s and attitudes of the Federal government i s e s s e n t i a l for looking at the p o l i c y of the present. "Has there been a change i n policy? To what degree? Why are there s t i l l problems?" a) The.Significant .Past The o r i g i n a l Indian Act was based on two postulates, the f i r s t i s that, "Indians were pri m i t i v e , backward people who were not capable of handling t h e i r own a f f a i r s , and must be protected from s e l f and others. The second postulate was that Canadian Indians were a l l the same and that one Act could apply to a l l of them."1 A review of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s annual reports from the 1800's up to 1951 w i l l confirm t h i s general attitude. A s l i g h t l y more p o s i t i v e outlook was taken by the Department o f f i c i a l s from 1951 onward. The Marsh report of 1950 i s c i t e d because i t was a p r a c t i c a l study attempted by two univ e r s i t y departments who were apparently interested i n becoming fa m i l i a r with reserve l i f e . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h i s report found that many Indians, unlike non-Indians, had no s k i l l or experience i n building houses and recommended that building projects must be seen as part of a community, and that Band p a r t i c i p a t i o n and co-operation helps make projects on reserves successful. Marsh, L., North Shore Reservation: Housing and  Planning Project. Report #2, August 1950, Departments of Social Work and.Architecture, U.B.C., p. 94. F u r t h e r proof of the government's a t t i t u d e towards Indians h a n d l i n g t h e i r own a f f a i r s i s seen i n the a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n of Family Allowances as l a t e as 194 6. A s e c t i o n i n the Family Allowance A c t of t h a t year s t a t e d the f o l l o w i n g : "provided t h a t i n the case of Indians and Eskimos payment of the allowance s h a l l be made to a person a u t h o r i z e d by the Governor i n C o u n c i l t o r e c e i v e and apply the same."l Indians who were v e t e r a n s , however were exempted from t h i s p r o v i s i o n . No doubt there had been abuses of the allowance, but t h i s was p a r t of the dependency t h a t a r o s e , e v i d e n t f i r s t i n the economic sphere when Indians were f o r c e d t o adapt to a new means of s u b s i s t e n c e . While Indians i n some p a r t s of Canada were r e l y i n g on t h e i r own s u b s i s t e n c e , o t h e r s were t o t a l l y dependent upon government funds. For t h i s reason a review o f Indian problems must be made i n a r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t , and t h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . As examples from t h i s case study w i l l bear out, "most Indians who have achieved s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y have done so i n s p i t e o f , and not because o f the Indian A c t and i t s i n f l u e n c e s We must wonder t h e r e f o r e why the Act conti n u e s t o be admin-i s t e r e d i n i t s p r e s e n t form, i f a s i d e from the p r o t e c t i o n o f land, f o r In d i a n people, i t has not through the years s i g n i f i -c a n t l y a c hieved i t s intended purpose of making Indian communities more a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y independent 1Holmes, A l v i n Ishmael, The S o c i a l Welfare Aspects and I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the Indian Act. Master o f S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961, p. 211. 2 I b i d . , p. 28. In 1951 we see a p a r t i a l recognition by the Federal government of the p o s s i b i l i t y for self-management and control of resources by in d i v i d u a l Indian Bands. This i s evidenced i n sections 82, 61, 69 and 63, however, i n a l l sections word-ing i s very general and powers may be revoked by the Governor i n Council, at the pleasure of the Crown. For example, section 60 (1) states: "The Governor i n Council may at the request of a Band grant to the Band the rig h t to exercise control and management over lands i n the reserve occupied by that Band as the Governor i n Council considers d e s i r -able."! The d i f f i c u l t y of t h i s change i n attitude i s that while recogn t i o n of l o c a l management i s now possible, i n every case i t requires assessment and approval of the Minister of Indian A f f a i r s or his duly appointed representative. The greatest d i f f i c u l t y aside from the duplication aspect, i s that any decisions made at the l o c a l l e v e l must wait for bureaucratic response. This creates confusion and administrative d i f f i c u l -t i e s that revolve around the i n a b i l i t y of the bureaucracy to respond quickly to l o c a l Band decision-making. After 1951 the Department assisted Bands i n organizing Council meetings and el e c t i o n procedures. However, up u n t i l 1970 the c i v i l servant s t i l l executed the role of decision-maker on behalf of a Band. This prevented Indian personnel from becoming d i r e c t l y involved i n th e i r own a f f a i r s . I t i s CANADA, An Act Respecting Indians, Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada, 1970, p. 27. 13 o n l y i n the p a s t few years t h a t Band C o u n c i l s p a r t i c i p a t e i n a more d i r e c t r o l e as decision-makers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of program funds s u p p l i e d by the Department. T h i s a t t i t u d e of Department o f f i c i a l s as w e l l as some l o c a l Band-employed a d v i s o r s s t i l l p r e v a i l s today. I t i s a u t h o r i t a r i a n , i t c r e a t e s dependency, and does not a s s i s t Indian communities i n making t h e i r own c h o i c e s . I t perpetuates the need f o r the e x p e r t , which i s e s s e n t i a l l y what the whole Department has done, i . e . perpetuated the need f o r i t s own e x i s t a n c e by f a i l i n g t o g i v e proper c o n s u l t a t i v e a d v i c e t o make Indian communities more s e l f - r e l i a n t . In s p i t e o f being granted v o t i n g and l i q u o r p r i v i l e g e s 1 none of these i s a s u b s t i t u t e f o r economic and s o c i a l w e l l being. "I must express a f e a r which e x i s t s i n the minds of many of them ( I n d i a n s ) . Too o f t e n i n the p a s t the government has given w i t h one hand and taken away w i t h the o t h e r . I t has made the Indians s u s p i c i o u s and r i g h t l y so . . . of any a c t i o n which i n any way changes t h e i r s t a t u s . " 2 For example, while the Act takes away o r c o n t r o l s a l l of the Indian's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , i t assumes t h a t Indians are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r own w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . That i s , t h e r e i s no mention i n the Act about p r o v i s i o n s of r e l i e f or w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . "Health and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s are o f f e r e d t o Indians 1 P r i o r t o 1951 I n d i a n persons were not allowed i n p u b l i c l i q u o r l i c e n s e d premises i n Canada. Holmes, A. I., op. c i t . , p. 38. 14 as a matter of grace and there i s the expectation that Indians w i l l look to t h e i r own community r e s o u r c e s . T h e conclusion of Holmes' study adequately summarizes the p l i g h t of the Indian person i n Canada throughout our history. "This study has indicated that Indians have neither the c i v i l r i g h t s nor the welfare services of the ordinary Canadian c i t i z e n . They have been born, raised and educated apart from t h e i r fellow Canadians. Indians are not only considered i n a stereotyped and d i f f e r e n t manner, but the stereotype i s based on n e g a t i v i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s . Because of t h i s , services have been rendered i n a p a t e r n a l i s t i c or punitive manner, both of which have had a demoralizing e f f e c t while inadequately meeting needs."2 It becomes apparent that i n order to improve Indian conditions there must be good communication and co-ordination between a l l lev e l s of government and l o c a l Indian Bands. A growing number of experts are beginning to r e a l i z e that t h i s co-ordination and communication must be sincere, i t must be supplemented by mutual understanding and acceptance between Indians and non-Indians of Canada. In the past, Indians have been greatly influenced by non-Indian expectations of f a i l u r e . While i t i s unfair to c r i t i c i z e a l l o f f i c i a l s connected with the Department of Indian A f f a i r s through the years, the intent, even behind enlightened l e g i s l a t i o n and p o l i c y can be d i s -torted i n the hands of ultra-conservative administrators and policy makers, whose p r i o r i t i e s of Departmental paper work Hawthorn, H. B., Stuart M. Jamieson and C. S. Belshaw, The Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1958, p. 48. 'Holmes, A. I., op. c i t . , p. 107. 15 and o f f i c e procedures take precedence over f i e l d work on l o c a l reserves involving planning for Indian needs. b) Indian Policy i) A General Trend In reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e on Indian p o l i c y , i t becomes clear that the opinion of the government and i t s representa-ti v e s has never envisaged the Indians as becoming independent while s t i l l retaining a special status i n law. Early annual reports of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s bear t h i s out as well as the recent major statement on Indian p o l i c y i n 1969. Mr. La i r d , an agent of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s i n 1876, declared that the "moral character of the Indians was good, considering t h e i r upbringing" and he held some hope that they might become as responsible as other c i t i z e n s provid-ing they could shed t h e i r special rights and become enfran-chised. Enfranchisement clauses i n s t i t u t e d then, and a part of the Indian Act today, allow Indians to r e l i n q u i s h a l l t h e i r Indian rights and thus i t i s assumed that an Indian i s a c i t i z e n on equal par ; with any other Canadian c i t i z e n following enfranchisement. Said Mr. L a i r d i n 1876: "Our Indian l e g i s l a t i o n generally rests on the p r i n c i p l e that the aborigines are to be kept i n a condition of tutelage and treated as wards or children of the State. The soundness of the p r i n c i p l e I cannot admit. On the contrary, I am firmly persuaded that true interests of the aborigin-es and of the State a l i k e require that every e f f o r t should be made to aid the Red man i n l i f t i n g himself out of his condition of tutelage and dependence, and that (it) i s c l e a r l y our wisdom and our duty, through education and every other means, to prepare him for a 16 higher c i v i l i z a t i o n by encouraging him to assume the pr i v i l e g e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of f u l l c i t i z e n s h i p . In t h i s s p i r i t and with t h i s object the enfranchise-ment clauses i n the proposed Indian B i l l have been framed. n l The underlying assumption by Mr. Laird's statement i s that the Indians must r e l i n q u i s h t h e i r Indian status in order to improve themselves. The Indian people r e j e c t t h i s view because of the importance that the Indian people place upon t h i s status as we s h a l l see l a t e r . In l i n e with Mr. Laird's optimism, one of the enfranchisement clauses of the Indian Act of 1876 declared that Indians who had attained the position of a doctor, lawyer, minister or graduated from a "University of Learning" were ipso facto enfranchised. S i m i l a r l y the 1969 pol i c y statement states of Indians that: "They are e n t i t l e d to an equality which preserves and enriches Indian i d e n t i t y and d i s t i n c t i o n ; an equality which stresses Indian p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t s creation and which manifests i t s e l f i n a l l aspects of Indian l i f e . . . . It i s expected that within f i v e years the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Develop-ment would cease to operate i n the f i e l d of Indian A f f a i r s . " 2 Since the formulation of the Indian Act i n 1869, government policy towards improving the socio-economic well being of the Indians has always been t i e d to the.implied goal of eventual "'"CANADA, Department of Indian A f f a i r s , Annual Report, 1876, p. 14. o CANADA, Department of Indian A f f a i r s , Statement of  the Government of Canada on Indian Policy, 1969, p. 6. 17 d i s s o l u t i o n o f the A c t and hence s p e c i a l r i g h t s o f the I n d i a n p e o p l e . In a d d i t i o n , I n d i a n people have c o n s i s t e n t l y pursued t h e i r c l a i m of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s to the l a n d . B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l law has c o n s i s t e n t l y r e c o g n i z e d these r i g h t s embodied i n the A c t o f P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1 7 6 3 . 1 The I n d i a n peop le c o n -s e q u e n t l y have no t f avoured any change i n t h e i r s t a t u s f o r f e a r t h a t t h i s may a f f e c t t h e i r argument f o r a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . Government s o l u t i o n s through the year s appear to have been based on the premise t h a t somehow t h i s I n d i a n a t t i t u d e would d i s a p p e a r o r e l s e become redundant w i t h t i m e . S e t t l e m e n t o f the l a n d q u e s t i o n i s o f paramount importance to the I n d i a n p e o p l e . They saw the 1969 p o l i c y s tatement o f the government as a q u i c k s o l u t i o n and p r o p o s a l by the government w h i c h , i f accepted by them, would i n t e r f e r e and hence d e s t r o y t h e i r o r i g i n a l c l a i m s t o the l a n d as i t s f i r s t c i t i z e n s . The consequences o f t h i s approach by the F e d e r a l government and the r e s u l t i n g responses and o p p o s i t i o n from the Ind ian peop le throughout the y e a r s has had a p ro found e f f e c t upon the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two and e s p e c i a l l y on the accompl i shments (or l a c k of) o f the range o f programs o f f e r e d by the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s which were and are supposed t o r a i s e the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , c u l t u r a l and p s y -c h o l o g i c a l a s p i r a t i o n s o f the I n d i a n p e o p l e . Cumming, P e t e r A . and N e i l A . M i c k e n b e r g , N a t i v e  R i g h t s i n Canada. T o r o n t o : G e n e r a l P u b l i s h i n g Co . L t d . , 1970, p . 16. 18 i i ) Contemporary P o l i c y For a b r i e f look a t what the F e d e r a l p o l i c y i s one has to t u r n t o s e v e r a l sources such as government p o s i t i o n papers, speeches and statements of the M i n i s t e r and s e n i o r c i v i l s e r v a n t s , the debates of the House of Commons Standing Committee on Indian A f f a i r s , p ress r e l e a s e s , e t c . A thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f these over a c e r t a i n time span w i l l g i v e one the impression o f what the p o l i c y i s supposed to be. A f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n i s whether the p o l i c y as proposed i s i n f a c t being implemented as s t a t e d , but t h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . The apparent p o l i c y i s extremely important i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , f o r i t e x p l a i n s to a l l Canadian c i t i z e n s i n a gen e r a l way how government i s approaching the matter o f s e r v i c e s t o Indian people. References t o the apparent p o l i c y w i l l be b r i e f , f o r i t i s the a c t u a l d e l i v e r y o f s e r v i c e s and programs a t the l o c a l r e s e r v e l e v e l t h a t determine how e f f e c -t i v e the apparent p o l i c y i s . I t i s here, i n the day-to-day i n t e r a c t i o n s o f government o f f i c i a l s and l o c a l I n dian people t h a t r e a l l y exposes p o l i c y , and i t i s these p r o c e s s e s t h a t the study w i l l examine. But f o r the moment, i t can be s a i d t h a t the F e d e r a l government p o l i c y on the s u r f a c e appears t o be a ve r y a c c e p t a b l e one. For example, from the Statement on Indian P o l i c y o f 1969 we see statements such as; "those who are f a r t h e s t behind must be helped most . . . c o n t r o l of Indian lands should be t r a n s f e r r e d t o the Indian people, . . . l a w f u l o b l i g a t i o n s 19 (claims and Treaties) must be recognized , . . . . There can be l i t t l e question that special services, and e s p e c i a l l y enriched services, w i l l be needed for some time."l In an address to the annual meeting of the Big Brothers Association of Canada, the former Minister, Jean Chretien, said: "Consultation i s going today with a depth and an Indian involvement never before equalled . . . . Last week I announced a summer employment program which w i l l be operated by the Indian people and which w i l l function at the community l e v e l . The cost of t h i s program i s $500,000 . . . . Involve-ment of Indian people through t h e i r associations i s the key to future program planning and administra-t i o n . "2 A document e n t i t l e d "Background Paper: History of Indian Policy" emphasizes that: "the government has accepted an obligation to consult Indian people on a l l aspects of policy and program planning, preparation and implementation. . Objectives for some programs have been agreed upon and a consul-ta t i v e mechanism w i l l enable further productive talks to take place. Future p o l i c y w i l l emerge i n l i g h t of these discussions." 3 From the House of Commons Proceedings and Evidence of the Standing Committee, Mr. Connelly of the Community A f f a i r s Branch of the Department r e p l i e s to M.P. Mr. Smith: "*"op. c i t . , pp. 10 and 11. 2 Chretien, Jean, An Address to the Big Brothers Associa-t i o n Annual Meeting. Petersborough, Ontario, June 11, 1971, pp. 5, 7, 8. 3 CANADA, Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s . Background Paper: History of Indian Policy. DIAND Publica-t i o n No. 23 0344-000-EE-A1, 1974, p. 3. 20 "So, community recreation f a c i l i t i e s , preventative s o c i a l services, a good number of things that were not p r i o r i t y issues three or four years are go be-coming p r i o r i t y issues."! The available evidence on Indian Policy i n Canada suggests that some very serious planning and po l i c y formula-ti o n i s being devised on an ongoing basis i n order to improve the socio-economic standards of Indian people. In p a r t i c u l a r the policy statements suggest that: a) Indian people now have the opportunity to become involved i n decision-making of the Department and that they are consulted on a l l aspects of pol i c y formulation. b) The p r i o r i t y of the Department i s to encourage l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e i n regards to economic development and communication with l o c a l municipal governments. c) In terms of s o c i a l services, education, health services, etc., the preventative approach along with "enriched services to help those who are farthest behind" i s favoured. An examination of several programs i s now required i n 2 order to ascertain whether the objectives as stated by the "'"CANADA, House of Commons Proceedings and Evidence of the Standing Committee on Indian A f f a i r s . F i r s t session, T h i r t i e t h Parliament, Thursday, May 8, 1975, p. 28:11. 2 While a cl e a r p o l i c y towards provision of services does not e x i s t the Federal government intent can be ascertained from other sources such as the Estimates which state the following objective. "In consultation with Indian and Eskimo peoples to innovate, support and encourage coordinated a c t i v i t i e s whereby Indians and Eskimos may achieve t h e i r c u l t u r a l economic and s o c i a l aspirations within Canadian Society." i n CANADA, Depart-ment of Finance, Estimates 1975. 21 Department are i n fact r e f l e c t e d i n the programs and service delivery at the l o c a l Band l e v e l . While the government has proposed a statement of p o l i c y regarding land claims, and removal of special status (Indian Act) t h i s was rejected by the Indian people as was indicated e a r l i e r . At the present time there i s a loose agreement on the process of providing services that Indian people require.. The agreement i s that policy w i l l not be changed without the consent of the Indian people. In a c t u a l i t y , changes i n procedure as stated i n program guidelines are having the desired e f f e c t that the Federal government has intended i n i t s 1969 proposed p o l i c y statement. For example, Indian persons with assets are required to contribute to t h e i r costs of health care and education. . Therefore, while a clear p o l i c y does not exi s t broadly stated objectives as defined i n the Estimates and in program guidelines do give an expression of Federal government intent. I I . METHOD OF REVIEW The task a t hand i n v o l v e s r e v i e w i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and pl a n n i n g processes o f n a t i v e communities. P r o j e c t s o f i n q u i r y such as t h i s can be c a r r i e d out through survey r e s e a r c h or the case study method. Since the o b j e c t i v e i s not t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on the extent of a s p e c i f i c a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problem, the survey r e s e a r c h technique was not pursued. In a d d i t i o n , the survey technique would r e q u i r e i n t e r v i e w s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , e t c . t o be taken from a d m i n i s t r a t i v e heads, government o f f i -c i a l s , and Band c o u n c i l l o r s who would h o l d much of the informa-t i o n r e q u i r e d as c o n f i d e n t i a l , and hence o n l y p r o v i d e s u p e r f i c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o the study. Nonetheless, the w r i t e r used i n t e r v i e w s wherever necessary and f e a s i b l e . The case study approach r e q u i r e s a k i n d o f long-term commitment and f o r t u n a t e l y the w r i t e r was p l a c e d i n a f a v o r -able p o s i t i o n having been employed with a n a t i v e community i n the lower m a i n l a n d 1 f o r a p e r i o d o f t h r e e y e a r s and encouraged by h i s employer throughout t h i s time t o c a r r y out a review of t h i s n a t u r e . The c a p a c i t y to be accepted and t r u s t e d by the group i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a p a r t i c i p a n t observa-t i o n r o l e t o be e f f e c t i v e . The type of i n v e s t i g a t i o n done Squamish Indian Band. 22 23 here was not a short-term, deliberate i n v e s t i g a t i v e exercise. Rather, with the f u l l knowledge of the employer, a continuous observation and c o l l e c t i o n of data was made which i n turn has been used by the organization for i t s own continued improve-ment i n administration and planning. Types of observation include i n d i v i d u a l interviews with a l l administrative s t a f f , attendance at committee and Band Council meetings dealing with every aspect of business within the community, j o i n t meetings and interviews with the Department of Indian A f f a i r s * s t a f f as well as surrounding lower mainland B. C. Indian Bands, as well as a meeting with the Miniter of Indian A f f a i r s , the Honourable Judd Buchanan. The procedure by d e f i n i t i o n was unsystematic, however, i t i s a unique approach to gaining a wide range of information about a group about which previously, not as much was known. At best, t h i s method i s capable of revealing "a de t a i l e d , rounded, probing grasp of the system as a whole.""'" Since the nature of the relat i o n s h i p between Indian Bands and the Federal Department of Indian A f f a i r s i s so inter l o c k i n g , a review of planning and administration of Indian communities must include an examination of the planning and administrative practices of that Department. For indeed what occurs at the l o c a l Band l e v e l i s influenced by the bureaucratic responses from the Federal l e v e l . Riley, Matilda. Sociological Research: A Case  Approach. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1963, p. 70. 24 The procedure o f t h i s s tudy i n v o l v e s i d e n t i f y i n g gaps , i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , and n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e s a t the F e d e r a l l e v e l by r e v i e w i n g a number o f programs o f the Department. In p a r t i c u l a r , the s u b s t a n t i v e c o n t e n t , r a t i o n a l e and s t r a t e g y o f p r o p o s i n g a p o i n t o f v iew o r a new program o r p o l i c y w i l l be observed amidst t h i s dynamics o f exchange between bureau-c r a t i c and l o c a l Band i n t e r e s t s . A v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s f o r a n a l y s i s were u sed . The a n a l y s i s o f the l o c a l government program c o n s i s t e d o f a thorough rev iew o f a l l r e l a t e d documents, i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Depar tmenta l and Band o f f i c i a l s , and a t tendance a t m e e t i n g s . In the s o c i a l s e r v i c e program case example, use was made o f the above t e c h n i q u e s but i n a d d i t i o n , the w r i t e r had the b e n e f i t o f h i s own invo lvement i n the s o c i a l s e r v i c e program i n the c a p a c i t y as a c o n s u l t a n t t o the l o c a l Band. Compar i -sons were made i n program d e l i v e r y e f f e c t i v e n e s s between the Department and the l o c a l Band. The h o u s i n g case example i n v o l v e d the w r i t e r as p a r t i c i p a n t i n d o i n g a hous ing s t u d y . T h i s approach a l l o w s the r e v i e w e r to see the na ture o f the prob lem and t o i d e n t i f y the type o f d e c i s i o n s and q u e s t i o n s t h a t the l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h . I I I . ANALYSIS OF SELECTED PROGRAMS a) L o c a l Government Because o f the s p e c i a l l e g a l r e l a t i o n s h i p where the Crown a c t s as t r u s t e e f o r a l l Indian l a n d s , l o c a l Bands i n B. C. who have o n l y begun to become i n v o l v e d i n development of t h e i r lands i n a l a r g e way s i n c e 1970 have come head on to the problem of not being able to a c t o f f i c i a l l y i n t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s i n a l e g a l way. The Indian people have been and s t i l l a r e : "a people yoked to two systems o f law: f i r s t the body o f laws a f f e c t i n g a l l White men; and secondly, the s p e c i a l body of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e laws d e v i s e d f o r the Red man a l o n e . " ! While the problems c i t e d here are those of the more urban Bands of lower mainland B. C., the i s s u e s w i l l s i m i l a r l y a f f e c t v i r t u a l l y every Indian Band i n the f u t u r e . For example, a Northern B. C. Band wi t h very d i f f e r e n t l i f e s t y l e socio-economic c o n d i t i o n s and development o p p o r t u n i t i e s may face s i m i l a r problems i n i t s attempt to develop a f o r e s t i n d u s t r y o p e r a t i o n on i t s own or j o i n t l y w i t h p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s . ^chumiatcher, M o r r i s C. Welfare: Hidden Backlash. Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L t d . , 1971, p. 53. In order to obtain a flavour of the magnitude and ensuing complexities of the development examples used here, a b r i e f review of some developments of lower mainland Bands w i l l be h e l p f u l . The Sechelt Band with over 5 00 members and 33 reserves has the majority of i t s residents residing on a reserve adjoining the v i l l a g e of Sechelt. The Band has become increasingly known for i t s economic development and land management programs. "The Band-developed Tsawcome Properties subdivision i s currently being marketed under the d i r e c t i o n of four Band members appointed as Agents of the Crown for the purpose of managing th i s development." 1 The Squamish Band i s the largest i n the lower mainland with an on-reserve population of.over.1,000. It has 26 reserves with major land holdings i n West Vancouver, North Vancouver and Squamish. One of the largest regional shopping centers (Park Royal) i s located on the Band's Capilano Indian Reserve No. 5. This Band operates i t s own Marina, j o i n t l y developed the International Plaza Hotel, and i s presently involved i n a series of economic development negotiations that w i l l further enhance i t s reputation. The Musqueam Band has an on-reserve population of some.400 people and i s success-f u l l y developing the Sali s h Park subdivision near the University.Endowment .Lands. Musqueam, Sechelt, and Squamish Indian Bands. The  Al l i a n c e . A submission to the Minister of Justice and the Minister of Indian A f f a i r s , February, 1975, p. 2. 27 Legal C o n f l i c t s : Department of J u s t i c e , Department o f Indian A f f a i r s and Indian Bands Because o f s i m i l a r l e g a l problems encountered w i t h the s e n i o r governments i n t h e i r attempts t o pursue economic developments, Squamish, S e c h e l t and Musqueam Indian Bands i n e a r l y 1975 found i t necessary to come tog e t h e r to form what i s known as The A l l i a n c e , i n order to d e a l w i t h common i s s u e s i n land use and l o c a l government on t h e i r r e s e r v e s . In t h e i r words: "We f e e l t h a t the combination of m u l t i p l e c l i e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by the Department of J u s t i c e (with i t s attendant c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t i m p l i c a t i o n s ) and d u p l i c a t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s between the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of the two Departments i s s e v e r e l y p r e j u d i c i n g Bands such as our own who are committed to s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n through economic development of r e s e r v e l a n d s . " ! The A l l i a n c e has researched t h i s problem v e r y thoroughly and have d e f i n i t e l y made t h e i r case, namely, t h a t an Indian Band cannot have i t s own l e g a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n making d e c i -s i o n s about lan d management of t h e i r l a n d s . The most d i s t r e s s i n g t h i n g f o r the Bands i s t h a t n e i t h e r F e d e r a l Department has o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h i s c o n f l i c t . R e c o g n i t i o n i s the f i r s t step and of course a r e q u i r e d step b e f o r e reasonable d i s c u s s i o n can f o l l o w towards s o l u t i o n . The A l l i a n c e show t h a t the U n i t e d S t a t e s ' government c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e s t h i s problem as s t a t e d i n a message to Congress on J u l y 8, 1970, when former P r e s i d e n t Nixon commented, I b i d . , p. 3. 28 "The S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r and the A t t o r n e y General must at the same time advance both the n a t i o n a l i n t e r -e s t i n the use of l a n d and water r i g h t s and the p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s o f Indians i n land which the government holds as t r u s t e e . . . no s e l f - r e s p e c t i n g law f i r m would ever a l l o w i t s e l f to r e p r e s e n t two opposing c l i e n t s i n one d i s p u t e ; y e t the F e d e r a l government has f r e q u e n t l y found i t s e l f i n p r e c i s e l y t h a t p o s i t i o n . There i s con-s i d e r a b l e evidence t h a t the Indians are the l o s e r s when such s i t u a t i o n s a r i s e . More than t h a t , the c r e d i b i l i t y o f the F e d e r a l government i s damaged whenever i t appears t h a t such a c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t e x i s t s . " 1 In Canada, the former A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r of Indian A f f a i r s , Mr. John C i a c c i a , has p a r t i a l l y acknowledged the Bands' concern: " i n the p a s t , i t was f i n e f o r J u s t i c e to a d v i s e us because we c o u l d t e l l you what t o do so t h a t we d i d n ' t need a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a lawyer and the Band. We were the bosses and you d i d what we t o l d you t o do. But the r e l a t i o n s h i p has changed . . . . Yet the o l d r e l a t i o n s h i p between the J u s t i c e Department and Indian A f f a i r s has stayed the same. They are not your lawyer, they are our lawyers . . . . But t h i s l e a v e s the Indian  People w i t h l e s s e r r i g h t s than o t h e r Canadians. You  cannot even have your own lawyer. . . . The S t a f f of the J u s t i c e Department are i n a very d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n because by t r a i n i n g and by law, they t h i n k f o r the Crown. They t h i n k on b e h a l f of the government and you want someone e l s e who w i l l t h i n k on your b e h a l f , f o r your i n t e r e s t s . I would t h i n k t h i s c r e a t e s a c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t i n c e r t a i n cases. While t h i s c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t i s s u e i s understood and pursued m i n i m a l l y by most Indian people, c r e d i t must go t o those t h a t do, f o r r e s o l u t i o n of the c o n f l i c t and s t r e a m l i n i n g o f the Department of Indian A f f a i r s i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e towards f u t u r e s e l f - d e t e r m i n e d economic developments of Indian Bands. The I b i d . , p. 4. 2 , . , I b i d . , p. 7. 29 problem s t a t e d simply means t h a t whenever an Indian Band en t e r s i n t o an agreement i n v o l v i n g l a n d use w i t h another j u r i s d i c t i o n (municipal government) o r p r i v a t e company, e t c . , i t has taken as long as two years or more b e f o r e the i n i t i a l l e g a l documents are r e t u r n e d from J u s t i c e to Indian A f f a i r s , and then back to the Bands. The r e s u l t s are obvious, i n cases where d i s p u t e s a r i s e , Bands have l o s t thousands o f d o l l a r s i n revenue and l i t i g a t i o n c o s t s , due t o the slow and i n e f f e c t u a l p r o c e s s . For example: "The d e c i s i o n of about a year ago by the Depart-ment to r e f e r a l l documents to the J u s t i c e Department has had t r a g i c r e s u l t s i n s o f a r as we are concerned. The normal s i t u a t i o n i s t h a t i t takes weeks o r months to o b t a i n a n y t h i n g back through the channels from J u s t i c e t o I n d i a n A f f a i r s . In a number of cases we have s t i l l had no word back whatsoever on documents submitted to J u s t i c e through Indian A f f a i r s many months ago. The Department of Indian A f f a i r s and J u s t i c e have been on very bad terms wi t h each o t h e r a t the l o c a l l e v e l and t h e r e appears to be misunderstand-i n g and d i s t r u s t as w e l l as mutual d i s l i k e amongst some of the o f f i c i a l s concerned. T h i s of course does not help us to get our business c a r r i e d out e f f e c t i v e l y . " 1 A submission t o Prime Minister- Trudeau on October 14, 1972, c l e a r l y d e s c r i b e s the f r u s t r a t i o n a t the l o c a l l e v e l . "In the p a s t we have l i s t e n e d t o the statements of your government u r g i n g Indian Communities t o become s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . . . . Documents and p r o p o s a l s n e g o t i a t e d by Band C o u n c i l s and forwarded to Department of Indian A f f a i r s ' F i e l d O f f i c e s i n some cases have not reached Ottawa f o r s i g n a t u r e months a f t e r they were sent t o f i e l d o f f i c e s . . . . In one c a s e , J u s t i c e Squamish Indian Band C o u n c i l A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Problem Encountered With the Departments of Indian A f f a i r s . J u s t i c e and Urban A f f a i r s ! September, 1972. ~ 30 c o u l d not o b t a i n an e s s e n t i a l f i l e from Department of Indian A f f a r s f o r many months and as a r e s u l t , l i t i g a t i o n b e f o r e the Supreme Court of Canada has been delayed at l e a s t one year. The Band i n v o l v e d i s the l o s e r to the extent of over one hundred thousand d o l l a r s . n l P o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o the c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t problem might i n c l u d e the prospect of conducting a f u l l i m p a r t i a l independent i n q u i r y i n t o the c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t problem. The Department of J u s t i c e Act might be amended to a l l o w Band-r e t a i n e d lawyers the r i g h t to a c t as Agents o f the Band f o r a l l Band l e g a l work. In the United S t a t e s Senator Edward Kennedy proposed t h a t Indian t r i b e s or t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s should be g i v e n f u l l o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n any d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g them, i n c l u d i n g the f o r m u l a t i o n of p o l i c i e s and 2 r u l e s . He suggests t h a t Indians should be assured competent, independent c o u n c i l and t h a t the Government should f i n a n c e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h i s Department (Indian A f f a i r s ) does not appear to have ever a s c e r t a i n e d i n an e f f e c t way the wishes of the very people i t i s s e t up to s e r v e . P e t e r S e l f l i s t s s e v e r a l ways t h a t p u b l i c wishes may be a s c e r t a i n e d by a bureaucracy. While i t i s not an easy task a t b e s t , one method of c o n s u l t a t i o n " i s the submission o f p u b l i c p o l i c i e s "'"Squamish and S e c h e l t Indian Band C o u n c i l s ' P r e s e n t a t i o n to Prime M i n i s t e r P. E. Trudeau, October 14, 197 2, Item 6. 2 Kennedy, Edward M. "A Study o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Con-f l i c t s o f I n t e r e s t i n the P r o t e c t i o n of Indian N a t u r a l Resources." Paper prepared f o r the Subcommittee on Admin-i s t r a t i v e P r a c t i c e and Procedures of the Committee of the J u d i c i a r y of the U n i t e d States Senate. December, 1970. 31 to the t e s t s o f o p i n i o n p o l l s , open m e e t i n g s , and o t h e r p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e v i c e s be fore these p o l i c i e s are f i n a l i s e d . " 1 I f such an e x e r c i s e and focus was e n l i s t e d by the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , submiss ions such as those o f the A l l i a n c e , a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s , would a s s i s t a l l concerned i n r e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e s o l u t i o n s . Such p r o c e s s e s e x i s t w i t h i n o t h e r Departments , f o r example, the c o u n t r y - w i d e meet ings h e l d by the Department o f Manpower and Immigrat ion about immigra-t i o n p o l i c y , the Department o f N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e and i t s s p o n s o r s h i p o f the LeDain Commission h e a r i n g s . But the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s approach t o p o l i c y f o r m u l a -t i o n has been r e a c t i v e and p a s s i v e , i t has c o n s i s t e n t l y opera ted i n a p a t e r n a l i s t i c manner, i t has no t opened up and e n l i s t e d a s s i s t a n c e from the I n d i a n p e o p l e and th e p u b l i c f o r a more p r o g r e s s i v e and amiable d i s c u s s i o n o f i t s p o l i c i e s . S o l u t i o n s t o these and s i m i l a r problems have been a c h i e v e d i n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s ; the Department might s t a r t by a d a p t i n g some o f these precedent s to t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i t may work out o t h e r s through s e r i o u s n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h the Bands concerned who, i n many c a s e s , have done more r e s e a r c h than the Department i t s e l f . Time and space do not p e r m i t a complete d i s c u s s i o n o f the range o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i s s u e s t h a t the t h r e e Bands o f the A l l i a n c e a lone have p r e s e n t e d t o v a r i o u s Departments o f government ( F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l ) f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . C l a r i f i c a t i o n on mat ter s o f t a x a t i o n , S e l f , P e t e r . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e T h e o r i e s and P o l i t i c s . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1973, p . 288. 32 proposals for the creation of a legal e n t i t y under the Indian Act, as well as submissions for c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the powers of l o c a l government of an Indian Band have a l l been thoroughly documented and i d e n t i f i e d . It remains now for the Federal government not only to react but to p a r t i c i p a t e with those Bands already deeply involved to c l a r i f y administrative procedures so that f r u i t f u l development can proceed. b) Social Services and Education One of the clearest examples of Departmental p o l i c y contradictions and an example of a human service delivery program which does not have as i t s focus, service de l i v e r y , but rather f i n a n c i a l accountability, i s the Social Assistance Program as i t i s administered by the Department of Indian A f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The B. C. Region p o l i c y guide-l i n e s manual states the procedures and extent of s o c i a l services that are to be administered by the d i s t r i c t s , as well as those Bands who administer t h e i r own s o c i a l assistance program. The Squamish Band has administered i t s own program since 1969 and has developed a wide range of s o c i a l services which i t offers to i t s members."'" (See Exhibit B, p. 33.) The Squamish Band numbers approximately 1,200 persons residing on 8 of t h e i r 26 reserves. The Mission reserve i n North Vancouver (800 members), Capilano reserve i n West Vancouver (200 members), and some 200 members reside on 6 various reserves i n Squamish. From a central North Vancouver o f f i c e , services are provided to a l l residents and co-ordinated with a l l off-reserve P r o v i n c i a l and Municipal agencies which are located i n three d i f f e r e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . T S> I 5 L l a VA 0 -A vi 5 2 VJ VA o 2 8 Q ? 8: fit it i s 1 u IA 0 IA (A < ci <• 9 3 > o 1 » X in 5. Mi 3 «-> 3 Several other Bands within the Vancouver D i s t r i c t have or are i n the process of setting up a si m i l a r program with variations based on need and location", L i l l o o e t D i s t r i c t Council, Chilliwack Area Council, Sechelt, Powell River and Saanich T r i b a l Council to name a few. While i t i s known that the program's aim i s primarily to provide f i n a n c i a l assistance, the p o l i c y manual c l e a r l y states as the Program's objectives the need for s o c i a l workers to provide various support services as required. "The primary objectives of the Departmental Social Assistance program i n the B. C. Region are: 1. to a s s i s t persons l i v i n g on reserves i n maintaining a basic standard of l i v i n g , 2. to make available and help u t i l i z e r e h a b i l i t a t i v e treatment and services, and 3. the prevention of dependency."1 This i s consistent, of course, with proposed p o l i c y statements emanating from the 'Department i n the past. "So, community recreation f a c i l i t i e s , preventa-t i v e s o c i a l services, a good number of things that were not p r i o r i t y issues three or four years ago are becoming p r i o r i t y i s s u e s . " 2 As indicated e a r l i e r , the p o l i c y statement of 1969 suggests phasing out the Department yet i t c l e a r l y stresses the need Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, B r i t i s h Columbia Region, Social Assistance Regulations and  Procedures. November 25, 1975. 2 CANADA. House of Commons, Proceedings and Evidence of the F i r s t Session, T h i r t i e t h Parliament, Thursday, May 8, 1975, p. 28:11. 35 for "enriched services" as do various statements made by the Minister, his deputy and senior advisors. In fa c t , a memo-randum from the Regional Supervisor of Social Services i n B. C. to the D i s t r i c t Supervisors outlines a dra f t paper e n t i t l e d , "Preventative and Rehabilitative Services," the substance of which has some encouraging examples of how programs might be administered by the Department to the l o c a l communities. From a l i s t of "assumptions" on which the paper i s based, the following i s stated: "If preventative and r e h a b i l i t a t i v e s o c i a l service programs are to be e f f e c t i v e there must be a large increase of community involvement i n the design and operation of the program . . . i f an Indian community i s provided with services through any of the alternatives described l a t e r , the community w i l l i n s i s t on having a higher qu a l i t y of service with appropriately trained s t a f f , adequate f a c i l i t i e s and so on."1 The contents of t h i s memorandum display recognition and sym-pathy for the problems at the l o c a l l e v e l . Referring to the proposals that various Indian communities submit the memoran-dum states, "response time i n r e l a t i o n to these proposals has been deplorably slow because of a lack of a clear policy respecting the part the Federal government should play . . . i t also i s evident that the Indian people have been provided with few support services to a s s i s t them i n coping with the day-to-day stresses of l i f e . " 2 A memorandum, Regional Supervisor of Social Services, B.C. Region to A l l D i s t r i c t Supervisors, January 22, 1974, p. 2. 2 Ibid., p. 3 . 36 One wonders why t h i s attitude which seems to be i n tune with stated Federal government p o l i c y i s not recommended to the Minister. In any event, i t i s c l e a r that some senior l e v e l c i v i l servants within the Department appear to support a preventative approach i n .the provision of s o c i a l services, i n order to organize the resources at the l o c a l reserve l e v e l , increase awareness, and decrease dependency. However, at a meeting of November 18, 1974, c a l l e d by the Department i n connection with the Squamish Indian Band Social Assistance program, the Regional Director of Community A f f a i r s advised the Squamish Band that i t s previously approved administration budget of $59,000 for administering the Social Assistance program was being cut to $45,000. His reason was that i t had become apparent that the Band was providing "enriched s o c i a l services" and that while he personally approved of the Band's e f f o r t s , the Department po l i c y could not approve a budget for "enriched" services that the Band was providing. His c r i t e r i o n for the provision of s t a f f to Bands was based on the number of persons receiving s o c i a l assistance only and, i n his opinion, every 200 families on a caseload would require 1 s t a f f person. He explained that the Department was only responsible for those services provided under the heading of " f i n a n c i a l " on the Band organizational chart (see Exhibit B, p. 33). Band representatives then explained to Departmental s t a f f that not a l l c l i e n t s required finances, and that i n f a c t , most required counselling, information, day care, employment, etc., and hence the Band 37 approach was to u t i l i z e i t s s t a f f i n community development projects which would lessen dependency and d r a s t i c a l l y cut the s o c i a l assistance budget within a few years. Following a thorough documentation and submission of these facts, the former. Departmental decision was changed and the budget cut was restored. This point i l l u s t r a t e s that the po l i c y makers or decision-makers i n the B. C. Region Office are the finance personnel and f i n a n c i a l accountability i s the primary focus with a lesser concern for non-financial program account-a b i l i t y . Proof of t h i s i s revealed . i n a D i s t r i c t l e v e l memorandum from the D i s t r i c t Supervisor of Social Services to his D i s t r i c t Supervisor i n which the s o c i a l service supervisor comments, "If we are t r u l y to respond to the i n i t i a t i v e s that come from the Indian people themselves, then we must accept the concept of a comprehensive Social Services program as expressed by the Squamish Band . . . . Furthermore, i f we f a i l to recognize and act upon the expression of the.Squamish Band, but rather, be guided by antiquated numbers on Social Assistance c r i t e r i o n , we w i l l also f a i l to recognize the fact that people have other problems besides f i n a n c i a l . . . . .. F i n a l l y , past performance by the Squamish Band Social Service Department shows a decrease of over 20% i n both the number of cases on assistance and s o c i a l assistance d o l l a r s paid out comparing f i s c a l years 1972-73 and 1973-74. n l Those Bands who have a source of revenue (economic power) and are situated i n large c i t i e s (urbanization) near I n t e r - o f f i c e Memorandum, Department of Indian A f f a i r s , July 23, 1974. 38 Departmental o f f i c e s (location) tend to be more e f f e c t i v e i n pressuring the Department for required funds. This i s so because many l o c a l communities are not s u f f i c i e n t l y organized to p e r s i s t i n consistent use of strategies and p o l i t i c a l support for th e i r ideas, most do not have the technical expertise and knowledge of the bureaucracy i n order to e f f e c t i v e l y present t h e i r proposals, and many of those that have t r i e d i n the past have become apathetic i n t h e i r own pursuits as a re s u l t of the lack of posit i v e Departmental response. Bands with the required resources and s t a f f are able to make some progress by a f f e c t i n g bureaucratic a t t i -tudes to t h e i r proposals. However, Bands cannot afford to sustain shrewd dialogue and pressure upon the Department because they are dependent on that very system for what few services they do receive. Lobbying for improved services may jeopardize e x i s t i n g services. Deployment of s t a f f and ca l i b r e of s t a f f within the Department of Indian A f f a i r s . S o c i a l .Services program i s i n -adequate. When.we think of the high unemployment, the high rates of s o c i a l problems within the Indian population i n comparison to the non-Indian population, i t i s easy to see that any a l l o c a t i o n of finances and other resources must include programs of s o c i a l development, with variations from community to community. For t h i s the Department should be restructured to provide a regional focus. Problems of the Indian people of Terrace are very d i f f e r e n t from the problems of the Indian people of North Vancouver. Indeed, 39 they are a d i f f e r e n t people, a d i f f e r e n t ethnic group, as di f f e r e n t as Lithuanians are from Yugoslavians. For t h i s reason, Department programs and s t a f f s k i l l s should r e f l e c t these regional differences. Instead,, we have i n the Depart-ment one mind set, and one set of p o l i c i e s for each Departmental program that apply equally to a l l B. C. Indian people. 1 For example, to execute the Department's Social Service program at the D i s t r i c t l e v e l , there are three s o c i a l workers. The t o t a l d i s t r i c t Indian population they serve numbers some 5,000 persons. For over a year.they have not had the position of Social Service Supervisor f i l l e d . Con-sequently those Bands dependent upon the Department D i s t r i c t o f f i c e for t h e i r s o c i a l services have received i n f e r i o r attention. In fa c t , the s o c i a l assistance cheque i s b a s i c a l l y the only service the 'District o f f i c e provides. The three s t a f f members are charged with an impossible task. In thi s type of f r a n t i c c r i s i s orientated operation, many human needs are neglected, s o c i a l assistance payments are duplicated simply because of lack of s t a f f time to do a complete job. It i s not unfortunate only from the standpoint that there i s no d i r e c t i o n or service coming from the Department, but worse than that, people at the l o c a l Band leve l s are hurt and set back as a r e s u l t of thi s disorganization and skeleton service. The need for Social Services i s to a degree, See Exhibit C, p. 40. (Comparison between Department of Indian A f f a i r s h i e r a r c h i c a l organizational structure and Squamish Indian Band evolving dynamic organizational structure.) 40 EXHIBIT C A. DEPARTMENT OF INDIAN AFFAIRS ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE. j Z> .  v *^ 5CC. ZL j o e R g L O C . 1 1 VOC. P O S T 1 Primary function i s to i n t e r p r e t p o l i c y , provide f i n a n c i a l account] a b i l i t y to Treasury Board and administrative supervision to thej D i s t r i c t s . The "B. C. Region" serves an area] c o n s i s t i n g of B. C. and Yukon. •>CC/A<- eNPu '7. sec. B. SQUAMISH INDIAN BAND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE. J o € D£PT- ,' /'LCCAU • 6MJT. X>gf>7 ' Primary function i s to carry out the administrative function of Departmental programs. There are approximately 14 D i s -t r i c t s within the "B. C. Region" serving approximately 200 Indian Bands. Department Heads form the Management Committee (chaired) by the Band Manager.) Management Committee advises council on p o l i c y and program) formulation 41 r e c i p r o c a l l y related to the success of development programs. From discussions with Departmental s t a f f and observation of program operations, i t i s evident that there i s l i t t l e or no co-ordination between various programs of the Department. The former D i s t r i c t Supervisor of Social Services resigned his position because of t h i s deficiency. In August of 1975, the Department issued a p o l i c y directive on s o c i a l assistance known as Pink C i r c u l a r Number 104 2. This d i r e c t i v e outlined some new procedures and reviewed some old procedures for a Band.Vs f i n a n c i a l account-a b i l i t y . Included was a section requiring Bands to submit a l i s t of a l l names, cheque numbers and Band numbers of s o c i a l assistance r e c i p i e n t s , to the D i s t r i c t o f f i c e , i n order to prevent duplication of payments that may occur between Band o f f i c e s and Prov i n c i a l Human Resources o f f i c e s . 1 Members of the Squamish Band, Social Service Department, the Band Council and general membership could not see how the Departmental D i s t r i c t could undertake t h i s additional task of reviewing and cross-referencing s o c i a l assistance l i s t s . They suggested that the most e f f e c t i v e procedure would be co-ordination between l o c a l Band s t a f f , with those of the Human Resources Department. In any event aside from the fact Residents of Indian reserves (whether Indian or non-Indian) apply for Social Assistance to the Band ( i f i t i s administering the program) or to the nearest Department of Indian A f f a i r s D i s t r i c t . Social assistance rates of the Department program are p a r a l l e l to the benefits provided by the P r o v i n c i a l Human Resources Department. The Department's concern i s that some applicants i l l e g a l l y obtain benefits from both o f f i c e s by declaring false information. of the obvious i m p r a c t i c a l i t y and i m p o s s i b i l i t y of admin-i s t e r i n g t h i s p o l i c y , the Squamish people decided to protest against following the d i r e c t i v e , not purely on the grounds of issuing names and numbers, for presumably every organization must be accountable to the funding source as a rule of thumb, but on the grounds that Bands should be consulted p r i o r to implementation of new Department p o l i c y a f f e c t i n g Indian people. In a lengthy b r i e f presented to the Minister of Indian A f f a i r s (the Honourable Judd Buchanan) i n Vancouver on October 27, 1975, they stated t h e i r case and.quoted numerous sources i n which the Department has t o l d the people of Canada that they consult and try to involve Indian people i n a l l t h e i r p o l icy making. The Department meanwhile ceased forwarding funds to the Squamish Band Social Service Department and r e c i p i e n t s were referred to the Vancouver o f f i c e for t h e i r s o c i a l a s s i s -tance for months of October, November and December, 1975. A considerable amount of chaos, inconvenience and bitterness (towards the Department) occurred. Discussionswere held with l o c a l members of Parliament and other senior o f f i c i a l s i n Ottawa without any s i g n i f i c a n t response from the Department. The Regional Director stood firm i n his stand, explaining only that t h i s new d i r e c t i v e was an audit procedure that was required and that he was not prepared to discuss i t further. At t h i s point the Band weighed the consequences of returning the administration of t h i s program back to the Department as opposed to complying with new Department procedures and 4 3 retaining administration at the Band l e v e l . The decision was made to comply with Department procedures as returning the program would have inconvenienced the Band membership. F a c i l -i t i e s such as a Rest Home and Day Care Centre were developed with l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e . Returning the program would jeopardize involvement of l o c a l members i n similar developmental projects, i n addition there was no assurance that the Department would continue operating f a c i l i t i e s which the Band had developed. A passage of the b r i e f i n d i c a t i n g the Band's wishes to become more intensively involved i n the administration and management of t h e i r own a f f a i r s merits attention. "We f e e l that t h i s type of l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e , involving our own people i n the i n i t i a l planning, operation and management of s o c i a l service programmes, i s an extremely useful s o c i a l development process for our people to be involved i n . As indicated i n the enclosed summary, we fin d that t h i s approach corresponds to various statements of p o l i c y of your Department i n Ottawa, made i n annual reports, Indian p o l i c y papers, and the House of Commons Standing Committee on Indian A f f a i r s , etc. Yet at the l o c a l D i s t r i c t and Regional l e v e l there Is very l i t t l e r e f l e c t i o n of t h i s i n t e r e s t i n involving our people i n decision-making that affects our current and future l i v e l i h o o d . While we c e r t a i n l y appreciate that the -Department must follow and issue regulations from time to time, we also f e e l that i t would be of great benefit to us to become equally involved with your Department i n the decision-making process. Not only would t h i s a s s i s t us towards becoming more independent generally, but i t would help us and the Department i n designing programmes that correspond more pr e c i s e l y to actual community needs. We are extremely concerned about the seeming lack of i n t e r e s t by the B. C. Region i n these matters of recognition and support of "essential pre-ventative services", and more Band involvement i n decision and policy making."1 Squamish Indian Band Social Service Department. Social  Service Delivery to the Squamish.. A submission to the Honour-able Judd Buchanan, Minister of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Hotel Vancouver, Vancouver, B. C , October 27, 1975. 44 An in t e r e s t i n g observation was made of the So c i a l Assistance f i n a n c i a l amounts paid to Squamish re c i p i e n t s during the months of November and December, 1975, while the Department administered the program for the Squamish popula-t i o n . Duplication, overpayments, etc. t o t a l l e d $6,347.00 for the two months concerned. Extended over a period of one year, t h i s amounts to approximately $40,000 more that the Department would issue i n comparison to what.the Band Social Service Department would all o c a t e . The reasons are self-evident, an e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t l o c a l Band o f f i c e i s f a m i l i a r with every c l i e n t , not only i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of fraud, duplica-t i o n , etc. less l i k e l y , but the l o c a l o f f i c e has the advantage of immediate r e f e r r a l , consultation, etc., to other immediate resources. The irony of t h i s example i s that i t demonstrated that the very s k i l l that we would assume t h i s type of bureau-cracy to excel i n , was i t s weakest point. It was mismanaging government funds because i t completely l o s t sight of the program aspect of i t s function. Education With minor exceptions a l l Indian children attend schools of the p r o v i n c i a l public school system. 1 Through an agreement known as the "Master Agreement" the Department provides per capita funds to the Province. The Department's Several residences are maintained by the Department to house school children whose families are residing far from school f a c i l i t i e s . In recent years Department po l i c y has been to phase out these residences as school f a c i l i t i e s improve i n r u r a l areas. Education branch provides funding for t u i t i o n and l i v i n g allowance for vocational education, adult education programs, and post-secondary education. Duplication of service occurs i n most instances where the Band i s administering the s o c i a l assistance program. Since the l o c a l population looks to i t s own s t a f f and Band support services f i r s t , the l o c a l s o c i a l service worker provides i n i t i a l contact, hence counselling and assistance with applications. However, since the l o c a l Band does not have authority to approve applications for pay-ment of school t u i t i o n s , these are forwarded to Departmental s t a f f for approval. The Departmental approach i s again based heavily on f i n a n c i a l accountability, hence the applicant applies without any reasonable feedback and preparation and approval of applications depends e s s e n t i a l l y on "whom one i s interviewed by." For example, one counsellor, a native Indian and long time employee of the Department, stated to the writer that he did not f e e l i t was proper to refer Indian people to Bartender courses as thi s might encourage alcoholism. The writer had referred several people for such courses as a re s u l t of the development of a large hotel complex that has been developed on one of the Squmish reserves in North Vancouver. In many instances the interested student i s subjected to petty p a t e r n a l i s t i c sermons which are detrimental i n every way. For example, a female applicant, highly recommended by her employer, was refused f i n a n c i a l support for t u i t i o n of a short s i x week course i n mixerology on the basis that "mixerology i s no f i e l d for a native female." 46 The applicant's consequent action supported by the P r o v i n c i a l Human Rights Commission l a t e r forced the Departmental counsel-l o r to reverse his decision. Because of the absence of personal involvement, the administrative and communication barri e r s between po t e n t i a l applicant and Department personnel are overwhelming. Decen-t r a l i z a t i o n of Department s t a f f , to work at the Band l e v e l , i s e s s e n t i a l i f the l e v e l of service from the Department i s ever to improve. Departmental education s t a f f are very attached to t h e i r o f f i c e s and most communication between them and l o c a l Band members i s v i a telephone or l e t t e r . Because of the distances separating Departmental o f f i c e s from the l o c a l community, administrative e f f i c i e n c y , as opposed to qual i t y of service becomes the paramount objective. The present wardship status of the Indian people which excludes them from decision-making requires that wherever possible the decision-making machinery be removed from the area of personal control and placed within government contr o l . The individual's capacity to control his own a f f a i r s v i r t u a l l y disappears. Local community members are reduced to the status of children and become amenable to manipulation and management by those i n authority. The measure of whether they are good Indian c i t i z e n s i s measured by t h e i r d o c i l i t y and the degree to which they co-operate with the Department. I t must be emphasized that removal of the Indian Act and s h i f t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to the provinces as outlined by the proposed Federal p o l i c y of 1969 would not remove the c o n t r o l l i n g influence of the government upon the Indian people. The only difference that p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s might bring about i s that the Indian's masters w i l l change i n number from one to ten. In other words, the important issue i s not merely to change government r e p o n s i b i l i t y for Indian people from the Federal government to the P r o v i n c i a l government but rather to help Indian people become more s e l f - r e l i a n t . "Regard-less of which governmental.body i s responsible, the process i n dealing with Indian people must involve Indian people i n the i n i t i a l planning of programs, po l i c y , and philosophy in order to restore l o c a l confidence and i n i t i a t i v e . c) Economic Development The section on l o c a l government has shown how the Indian Act regulates and.limits the Band Council i n pursuing t h e i r economic development objectives. Most cou n c i l l o r s f e e l that i f the Act were amended to guarantee t h e i r rights to the land and to allow the Band Council to l e g a l l y represent i t s e l f that t h i s would bring a measure of security and confidence to the l o c a l community which would lead to a f e e l i n g of f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Canadian society. It i s only i n the past f i v e years or so that the more progressive and geographically more economically able Bands have made th e i r own economic development decisions with technical assistance from t h e i r own appointed consultants. Aside from t h i s , Indian agents or t h e i r representatives have had primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for decision-making. Stanbury, Hawthorn and others have found that assessed land values of leasing arrangements approved by 48 the Department on behalf of native communities have been grossly underestimated as compared to actual land values of those areas. The consultative advice of the Department there-fore causes losses of revenue to the l o c a l community. The Park Royal Shopping Centre, one of the largest shopping centres i n Canada, situated on Squamish Band land, has been i n existence for twenty-five years now. This complex consists of several large department stores along with one hundred and f i f t e e n stores and specialty shops. "In 1974 over 82 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s was poured into the economy generated by the centre. Park Royal and i t s companies paid over a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n . taxes.to West Vancouver l a s t year."''" In contrast the Band received approximately one-quarter t h i s amount as the lessor. In terms of any d i r e c t s o c i a l benefit to Squamish Band members, Park Royal represents a develop-mental disaster as only three or four Band.persons are employed i n t h i s complex. The yearly economic return from leases i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to pay for the basic maintenance of u t i l i t i e s (roads, sewers, public buildings) and support s t a f f required to maintain the Indian v i l l a g e s on Squamish reserves. Therefore, the general public has a f a l s e impression that t h i s Band i s extremely wealthy. A great deal of potential e x i s t s , but pot e n t i a l must be developed i n order to be of benefit to the Indian residents as a whole. The Times of North and West Vancouver. "Park Royal History," Volume XXXVI, Number 40, Oct. 1, 1975, p. 37. A review of the development of the recently construc-ted International Plaza Hotel gives some insight into why the human and s o c i a l aspects of planning have been neglected. F i r s t of a l l , the land,of the Capilano reserve i s situated i n a strategic urban location thereby making i t a very desirable location for development to development entrepreneurs. This r e s u l t s i n many submissions of proposals for development. In addition, up to f i v e per cent of Indian lands are subject to expropriation by the P r o v i n c i a l government for i n s t a l l a t i o n of public u t i l i t i e s . 1 However, the Band does not as yet have a clear long term development plan of i t s own. An urban design study of the area i s currently i n progress and t h i s should a s s i s t the Band i n developing future p o l i c y . Pressured by BRITISH COLUMBIA, Order In Council 1036 (1938), V i c t o r i a : Queen's Printer 1938. The B.N.A. Act defines the ownership of land as f a l l i n g within the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the provinces. When the Department of Indian A f f a i r s was formed in 1869, the l e g a l description of land set aside for Indians was not p r e c i s e l y defined. Indeed, the amount of land to be set aside for the Indian people was a matter of debate between the Federal and P r o v i n c i a l governments for many years. In 1938, through agreement between the two senior governments., lands reserved for Indians o f f i c i a l l y became known as Indian reserves and j u r i s d i c t i o n of those lands was transferred to the Federal government who held these lands i n t r u s t for the Indian people. This was done through the mechanism of an Order i n Council. The Order i n Council stated that as a condi-t i o n for turning over these lands to the Federal government, the Pr o v i n c i a l government would r e t a i n the r i g h t to expropriate up to f i v e per cent of each parcel of such land (reserve) for the erection of public u t i l i t i e s as may be required i n the future. Any reserve land already u t i l i z e d for public u t i l i t i e s (including p r o v i n c i a l roads and railways) p r i o r to 1938 were excluded from the f i v e per cent amount that could be expropri-ated. 50 developers, along with fear of expropriation for t r a n s i t routes, etc., Band Council's business and time i s consumed by reacting to outside proposals. The development of p o l i c y and guidelines r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r own peoples' aspirations i s completely overlooked. Because the reactive development process of the Band i s concerned with matters of a technical nature, only a few Council members and others are r e a l l y involved i n the process. The average l o c a l Band member i s not concerned with the aspirations of outside developers and entrepreneurs, hence they disassociate themselves from Council and community a f f a i r s . This i s one of the most serious gaps within the community at present, which can only be corrected by a change i n attitude of l o c a l Band leadership or by i n f u -sion of community organization and community planning expertise. Approximately one year p r i o r to completion of the hotel complex, the writer became involved i n a consulting capacity to the l o c a l Band Social Services Department for the purpose of implementing a vocational t r a i n i n g program to prepare residents for some one hundred employment positions that would.become available. The number of persons who successfully completed t h e i r studies included eight mixer-o l o g i s t s , ten waitresses and six chambermaids. In addition to completing the courses, these candidates possessed consis-tent work patterns. The personnel department of the hotel had verbally assured Band Social Services s t a f f that p r i o r i t y would be given to Indian people. Therefore, while over one 51 hundred l o c a l Band members had applied for employment at the hotel, at least twenty-five were as q u a l i f i e d as anyone else i n the types of positions available. However, when competi-ti o n for employment closed, only three persons were selected and two of those were persons who were previously employed as floormen with other hotels. Reasons given for t h i s small number of Band employees hired were: business was slow, there were many other candidates with excellent q u a l i f i c a -tions, etc. A closer look at the i n i t i a l leasing agreement between the developer and the Band shows only token reference to employment. A short paragraph merely states that " i t i s the intention of the developer and the Band to hire Band employees wherever appropriate." This.statement i n i t s e l f can be viewed as discriminatory from the viewpoint of the Indian person. The lease agreement reveals that the Band Council and/or i t s negotiating personnel placed l i t t l e emphasis on the s o c i a l welfare returns of the project to t h e i r people. One would assume that the Department of Indian A f f a i r s ' personnel involved would have stressed t h i s aspect of the project. However, the hotel i s now i n operation, i t s mandate to do so i s neatly phrased i n the ninety-nine year lease agreement and l o c a l residents who were so enthused about the project l a s t year have become apathetic and have withdrawn to a dependency on s o c i a l assistance, following i n i t i a l outbursts of f r u s t r a -t i o n and disappointment. 52 No other community has the pot e n t i a l for a zero rate of unemployment as do the Squamish. That i s , there are approximately two-hundred and f i f t y employable persons and of these, approximately one-hundred and f i f t y are already employed. If each development and business i n t e r e s t leasing Squathish. land would hire a mere f i v e per cent of t h e i r s t a f f from the l o c a l Indian community, th i s i n i t s e l f would remove the necessity of s o c i a l assistance for employables. The "welfare" stigma would be removed, attitudes and aspirations of a once proud people would resurface. Of course t h i s choice rests with the Squamish people themselves, for through t h e i r leaders they should set policy that would ensure a greater s o c i a l return from the developments of t h e i r lands. One would expect that a Federal government department charged exclusively with providing services for a special i n t e r e s t group would strongly advocate l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n develop-ment of native communities. Unfortunately, the Department of Indian A f f a i r s has not played a posi t i v e role i n t h i s regard. .'Recognizing the need for some orderly assembly of land, along with pressure from entrepreneurs to develop t h e i r land, the Squamish Band with consultative advice from the Department have engaged an urban design team to do an o v e r a l l development design for the Capilano reserve, I.R. No. 5. This study i s i n i t s t h i r d year and i s due to be completed i n mid-1976. To date, the reports given c l e a r l y show that t h i s i s a physical design plan i l l u s t r a t i n g various physical layouts and t h e i r marketing p o t e n t i a l . Now i n i t s f i n a l 53 stage, the design team has suggested that there be l o c a l input expressing the s o c i a l needs of the Band population. This type of t r a d i t i o n a l planning t y p i c a l l y . g i v e s token reference to opportunity for s o c i a l input once the physical plan has been completed. How unfortunate that a study of t h i s magnitude did not begin to involve the Squamish Indian people i n a developmental planning process from the i n i t i a l stages. Again, Department planning personnel can be c r i t i c i z e d for not following up on Band Council's statements that "our people are our greatest resource." It i s i r o n i c a l that the most.underprivileged and highest unemployed community i n the lower mainland possesses the greatest potential for f u l l employment, t o t a l independence and a stable s o c i a l and economic base. This i s not an i d e a l -i s t i c dream, i t requires only a basic commitment by the Federal government and l o c a l leadership. The Department as well as l o c a l leadership must get out of the reactive role and begin planning positvely for the future of t h e i r people. Service contracts for landscaping, garbage disposal,, j a n i t o r i a l services, etc., with business interests already occupying Indian land on the Capilano reserve would provide a large employment base. In future, restaurant, hotel, marina, native c r a f t s stores and workshops, logging and construction-related industries, are a l l p o t e n t i a l developments that could be operated by the Band on i t s various reserves providing interim financing was available. Instead, the Federal government maintains, i t s own massive unresponsive bureaucracy for 54 administering menial dependency type programs and allows Indian Bands to lease most of t h e i r land and hence cut themselves o f f from t h e i r opportunities. Thus, a large gap exists between l o c a l leadership and the general membership of urban Indian communities. While leaders are approving leases that lead to m u l t i - m i l l i o n d o l l a r developments, most members are unaware of the existence, l e t alone the consequences of such transactions. For t h i s reason a community development approach i n Band planning and admin-i s t r a t i o n i s recommended. Community development as an educa-t i o n a l and organizational process.is capable of changing peoples' attitudes and practices which.hinder s o c i a l and economic progress. The ultimate measure of success i s not the number of buildings constructed.but whether people have gained greater confidence, whether they can solve t h e i r own problems with l i t t l e or no outside assistance, and whether they are prepared to abandon certa i n customs which retard economic development. A community development program w i l l reach maturity when the people become capable of running t h e i r own a f f a i r s without any f i n a n c i a l and technical assistance from the government. d) Housing This section consists of a submission to Band Council on the subject of "Housing Needs and Social Implications." The report i n i t s entirety i s presented to i l l u s t r a t e what has bee n referred to i n t h i s study as a need for basic analysis of community problems p r i o r to implementation of any major economic developments which commit 'the use of available reserve land without providing any apparent or visable improvement i n basic s o c i a l necessities such as housing or employment for l o c a l residents. This i s occurring e s s e n t i a l l y because any planning that has occurred to date has used the t r a d i t i o n a l planning model, namely physical design and land assembly which maximizes return.on investment for the outside developer. This report i l l u s t r a t e s from the beginning the need to involve l o c a l residents i n the d e f i n i t i o n of needs, including the d e f i n i t i o n of terminology and measures that are used to define those needs. This basic process-oriented involvement i n planning i s essential for Indian communities i n order to improve the awareness, remove the apathy, and to create new visions of hope i n the residents themselves. SQUAMISH INDIAN BAND DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT DATE: February 1, 1975 TO: Squamish Indian Band Council SUBJECT: Housing Needs and Social Implications CLASSIFICATION: Analysis and Recommendation The Director of Social Development reports as follows: The Nature of the Problem While large t r a c t s of land are increasingly committed to various major economic development enterprises (Park Royal, International Plaza, Environment Canada—see Appendix A), there e x i s t s no cle a r statement of p o l i c y or Council d i r e c -t i o n with respect to current and future housing needs of the Squamish people. In addition, there has been a lack of recog-n i t i o n of the hardships and re s u l t i n g s o c i a l problems that are occurring because of the current lack of housing. 56 T r a d i t i o n a l single family housing units are being b u i l t at a rate of 6 to 8 units per year, by the Band Housing Authority at various s i t e s throughout both Reserves. At present, only a minimum number of l o t s remain available for building at defined v i l l a g e s i t e s . Only a few of these exi s t on.the Mission Reserve, where there i s almost no other land available for additional single family housing expansion. On November 5th, 1975, the Urban Design firm of Gaboury, Lussier and Sigurdson, who are involved i n a major study of Capilano IR #5, released Part I of a three part conclusion to the three year study. In our opinion t h e i r assessment of Band Housing needs to date t o t a l l y eliminates the s o c i a l consequences p r e v a i l i n g as a r e s u l t of the current lack of housing, as well as the inadequacy of ex i s t i n g housing stock. For t h i s reason our Dept., has undertaken a 2 month study to determine "actual" current housing needs including an assess-ment of s o c i a l problems generated as a r e s u l t of the i n -adequacy of e x i s t i n g housing stock. Background Information On January 1st, 1975, the t o t a l population of the Band numbered 1150, with 296 residing off reserve (See Appendix B for age d i s t r i b u t i o n of population). The Capilano Reserve area consists of 420 acres, while Mission consists of 45 acres (see Appendix C). P r i o r to 1969 the Dept. of Indian A f f a i r s granted loans to families for house construction. Building amounted to 2 or 3 houses a year. Contracts were given to private builders, usually carpenters who were known to Indian A f f a i r s ' personnel. In 1969 the Band established i t s Housing Authority and i n 1971 along with C.M.H.C. and Indian A f f a i r s financing, constructed 41, 3 & 4 bedroom town-house units. A $90,000 per year administration subsidy to Housing Authority ends i n 1976. This w i l l leave the Housing Authority without es s e n t i a l operating funds. The amount of revenue available for the operation of Housing Authority, i s hampered by a lack of consistency i n payment of housing loans and rentals. A large number of Band families do not pay t h e i r loans or re n t a l s . Nor does there e x i s t any e f f e c -t i v e p o l i c y or procedure to improve on c o l l e c t i o n of loans. As a r e s u l t the o v e r a l l housing program i s f i n a n c i a l l y un-stable. Previous studies have dwelt on the development potential of the Band's prime land location but have offered l i t t l e or no assistance to the Band i n terms of i d e n t i f y i n g l o c a l needs or suggesting basic management and p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s . This l e v e l of organization, and d e f i n i t i o n of l o c a l needs can only be done e f f e c t i v e l y by u t i l i z i n g Band personnel (including Band membership) i n the planning and assessment process. Some of the studies done to date include: 57 (a) Acres A Development Plan for the Squamish Band, 1969 Study c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d that "mediocre and poor qual i t y housing accommodates Band members on 36 acres of land north of the P.G.E. Railway" P. 3. L i t t l e useful information on Band needs or sugges-t i o n of how to define Band needs was put fo r t h . (b) D'Aquino, S. Thomas, A Survey of the Welfare Services  and Needs of the Squamish Indian Band, July, 1970 Study discusses the state of s o c i a l work services and makes only one recommendation with respect to housing. It suggests a group be formed to stimulate i n t e r e s t i n housing programs for marginal families. (c) Gaboury, Lussier and Sigurdson (G.L.S.) Squamish Indian  Band Capilano Reserve No. 5 Urgan Design Study, Development Options Phase C, Part 1 November 1975 This major urban Design Study of Capilano IR #5 desig-nates area C along the banks of the Capilano River as an alternative s i t e for future Band housing. (See Appendix.A.) While the four housing options i n the study present alternatives i n terms of location of future housing s i t e s , the study to date does not present any suggestions i n terms of types of housing and costs. G.L.S. figures (acquired from the^Department of Indian A f f a i r s ) i n d i c a t i n g the number of e x i s t i n g units are completely erroneous, as i s t h e i r suggestion that there i s no overcrowding. 1 In summary previous studies have contributed minimally, i f at a l l , towards providing Band Council with an accurate assessment of Band housing needs and ensuing s o c i a l implications. The Social Development Department Survey 1. Method .of Survey The f i r s t task undertaken was to determine the "actual" current need. This was done by i n d i v i d u a l l y surveying each home, i d e n t i f y i n g condition of home, number of persons i n home, number of family and singles, doubled or t r i p l e d up i n e x i s t i n g homes, who require and desire t h e i r own accommodation. In many instances sons or On Page 2 0 of t h i s study the statement i s made that " s t a t i s t i c a l l y speaking there i s no overcrowding as there are 248 houses for 215 f a m i l i e s . " 58 daughters residing with parents did not request that they required t h e i r own accommodation. These persons were not included i n the category of persons requiring accommodation. The writer and two other Social Service s t a f f , both members of the Squamish Band and residents of t h i s community were involved i n t h i s study. Over-crowding was defined by us, along with input from a random sample of d i f f e r e n t family members. Overcrowding was anything i n excess of two persons per bedroom, plus more than 1 person per l i v i n g room. For example f i v e persons i n a two bedroom house would not be classed as overcrowding but 6 persons i n a two bedroom unit would. The l i v i n g room c h e s t e r f i e l d thus, i s f e l t to be adequate accommodation for at le a s t 1 person, i n t h i s community. Attention was paid to the fact that crowding i s a s o c i a l and subjective measure varying with c u l t u r a l and l i f e s t y l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Information on population, b i r t h , death and marriage rates for the past ten years were obtained from Band records. Every housing unit was v i s i t e d and data recorded on appropriate category columns for easy tabulation. Because every unit was surveyed the degree of error in c a l c u l a t i o n of t o t a l units, number of persons i n the home, etc., i s f e l t to be n e g l i g i b l e . The number of persons r e s i d -ing o f f reserve who would l i v e on reserve, i f housing was available, was calculated from family f i l e s , i n which those persons have i n the past two years, requested or applied for housing accommodation on reserve. 2. Results (A) Number of dwelling units e x i s t i n g now: Mission - Single family (S.F.) house 74 - Townhouse 41 Capilano - S.F. house 41 Squamish - S.F. house 30 186 However, 9 units are occupied by non-Band members, thus making only 177 units available for. Squamish members. i . e . some Squamish persons own two or more houses and rent to non-Band members. The G.L.S. study indicates 248 houses or an over estimate of some 62 units. (See Appendix E) (B) Number of dwelling units "inadequate" now: "Inadequate unit", i s defined as a unit not worth repairing, i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l include at least a combination of two or more of the following; s t r u c t u r a l l y unsound, leaking roof, new plumbing and wiring required, heating inadequate, severe 59 r o t t i n g , openings i n doors, walls, etc., and rodent i n f e s t a t i o n . Mission - 27 (24%) inadequate Capilano - 7 (17%) Squamish - 1 ( 3%) " units Total of - 3_5 (19%) inadequate units G.L.S. Study does not i d e n t i f y the number of "inadequate" units. (C) Number of dwelling units with overcrowding: "Overcrowding", defined as two or more families residing i n one unit and/or more than two persons per bedroom plus more than one person per l i v i n g room per unit. Mission -15 i n single family house units - 6 i n townhouse units Capilano - 3 Squamish - 9 Total of 33 units (18%) with overcrowding conditions (D) Number of families and singles on reserve requiring housing: i ) Families Singles Mission - S.F. 15 Mission - S.F. 17 Townhouse 15 Townhouse 20 Capilano 14 Capilano 10 Squamish 11 Squamish 10. Total Family Units 5_5 Total Single Units 57 i i ) Number of families and singles o f f reserve requesting housing: Families - 25 Singles - 25 i i i ) Total family units required = number of new units on reserve (55) plus number o f f reserve (25), plus number of inadequate units (35) = 115 family units. iv) Total single units required =57 (on reserve) plus 25 (off reserve) = 82 single units. v) In addition, 8 senior c i t i z e n s would benefit from intermediate or minimal l e v e l supervisory care i n a rest home type of f a c i l i t y . 60 (E) The number of current units that w i l l become inadequate i n 10 years: Mission -9 Capilano -0 Squamish -3 Total of 12 units that w i l l be inadequate i n 10 years. (F) Population data for 10 year period 1965 to 1974: 1. Births - 313 or a 10 year average of 31 2. Deaths - 101 " " " " 10 3. Marriages - 114 or a 10 year average of 11* *Since 1971 there have been not more than 9 marriages per year. Population data confirm that a high percentage of the population are under 25 years of age. (See Appendix B). This, coupled with the s h i f t of child-bearing out of wedlock s t a t i s t i c (See Appendix D), makes i t d i f f i c u l t to predict the type and number of family formations i n future. Women marrying non-Band members are of course not e l i g i b l e for any benefits from the Band and they usually leave the reserve. Unmarried women with children are low on the p r i o r i t y , for housing units, because i t i s f e l t that they often develop common-law r e l a t i o n -ships with non-Band spouses who do not contribute towards support or upkeep of the unit. In spite of t h i s , i f we assume that 30% of new family units w i l l relocate off reserve, t h i s shows a continuing need for approximately 8 new family units per year. Also because of the high percentage of young popula-t i o n , there w i l l be a great demand, for at least the next 10.years, for single accommodation. (See Appendix B). (G) Other Findings i) Overcrowding conditions are causing severe s o c i a l and emotional hardship to many fam i l i e s , e s p e c i a l l y the female with one or more children. Many attempt to relocate o f f reserve, but the high rental inevitably r e s u l t s i n e v i c t i o n within afew months. Coincidentally, the young parent's attempt to take vocational upgrading i s broken and the person usually i s forced to retreat back to the reserve. The i n a b i l i t y to cope with a l l the imposing urban elements along with having no place to go to ra i s e one's family, often culminates i n the removal of the children by the Social Service Department. 61 Overcrowding i s causing problems of sanitation and poor health i n many homes. A malfunction-ing t o i l e t , sink and shower, etc., i s hardly adequate for twelve or more persons residing in one home. Housewives i n overcrowded.homes suggested that they never can catch up with t h e i r housework due to the large number of persons residing i n some houses. i i ) Accommodation for singles and single parent families i s non-existent. A great deal of mental anguish and suffering occurs as a re s u l t . These people have a complete lack of privacy, most do not have t h e i r own sleeping rooms and bathroom. There i s l i t t l e or no opportunity for s o c i a l i z i n g or entertaining friends. This forces the adult out of the house, to the bar, etc., where there i s a tendency to "live i t up as much as .possible i n the least time possible," since there i s no opportunity for thi s type of expression at home. The lack of housing contributes to i n s t a b i l i t y i n l i v i n g patterns which leads to a variety of related s o c i a l adjustment problems, e.g. children have no adequate place to study. i i i ) Unsafe conditions e x i s t i n a l l "inadequate" units. Combinations of the following conditions make l i f e hazardous for those inhabiting these units, e s p e c i a l l y the young children; badly leaking hot water l i n e s and taps, leaking o i l l i n e s and tanks to o i l burners, exposed elec-t r i c a l wiring, malfunctioning doors, windows, stoves, etc., rodent i n f e s t a t i o n due to accumulation.of garbage p i l e s i n backyards, lack of safety valves on hot water tanks, no f i r e escapes or basement doors, etc., i n homes where basements are used as bedrooms. iv) Rental and loan payments are i n arrears i n most cases and neither the Band nor Housing Author-i t y have any program or procedure for the c o l l e c t i o n of these payments. Almost 60% of families having loans and rents a c t u a l l y do not make any payments toward t h e i r debt. v) Unlike Capilano, there i s l i t t l e e x i s t i n g land available on the Mission Reserve for expansion of single family construction i n i t s present form. A program of land assembly and owner-ship i s desperately required. Some families own 2 and 3 lo t s while many do not own a l o t . 62 vi) We detected an expressed attitude by many families that they are e n t i t l e d to a new house without cost to them and that they were waiting for t h e i r turn. There i s an obvious lack of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and communica-ti o n by members in the a f f a i r s of the community. Many expressed apathetic and negative comments and few knew about the content of various Band projects that were i n progress with major economic development entrepreneurs. Discrimination against women i s apparent, i . e . women have no role on Council and new houses are constructed only for those families which consist of a Squamish male as head of the household. v i i ) A large number of persons reside off the reserve simply because of the lack of housing on reserve. Many of these possess a stable employment history and good communication pattern with off-reserve i n s t i t u t i o n s , agencies and adjacent community members. In a sense, t h e i r l i v i n g o f f the reserve presents a loss to the reserve community. That i s , these people tend to be well motivated to organiza-t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i r vocational, educational and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . Broad Housing Policy Options 1. Continue current program of t o t a l cost subsidy. NOT RECOMMENDED Unless massive financing i s made available for housing, t h i s would l i m i t the number of new units b u i l t to about six to eight per year. In the long run, only a propor-ti o n of families would secure housing and more than half the population requiring housing would be forced to leave t h e i r community. 2. Institute a 10 year building program., i . e . calculate t o t a l housing units required i n the next 10 years (including replacement and new units required each year) divide t h i s by 10 i n order to define the number of units to be b u i l t each year and to design a program to accom-modate t h i s . NOT RECOMMENDED While t h i s p o l i c y should solve the housing need at the conclusion of the ...tenth year, i t does not provide any immediate r e l i e f from the current housing c r i s i s and 63 the associated s o c i a l conditions. The s o c i a l cost would be too great i n l i g h t of the fact that other, more immediate alternative solutions e x i s t . 3. Provide land and servicing subsidy, but make each family responsible for the cost of the unit i t s e l f . RECOMMENDED Providing land which i s communally owned now, would make the cost of a unit on reserve substantially less than a unit o f f reserve. Placing the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the ind i v i d u a l family for upkeeping a mortgage or rent a l would coincide with the process of making the family become more independent and prepare them to cope more successfully with the s o c i a l milieu of the surrounding community. 4. Devise a two year program of construction to provide housing for those who need i t now. RECOMMENDED This would f u l f i l l the current housing need. In succeed-ing years a building program .constructing 6 to 10 units per year would be s u f f i c i e n t to accommodate new family formations. Recommendations Towards Solution of Immediate Housing Needs 1. The s t a t i s t i c s c l e a r l y show that the housing c r i s i s i s an immediate one which could be solved with a large development program over a one or two year period. Individual f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the unit would ease the burden on Band finances and make such a building program possible. Hence, p o l i c y options 3 and 4 should be brought to the people i n the form of a plebescite. Majority approval would provide the authority required to proceed. 2. Council should meet immediately with G.L.S. to discuss the apparent inaccuracy of t h e i r information of Band housing needs and to determine as c l e a r l y as possible t h e i r role i n assessment of Band housing needs. G.L.S. reliance on s t a t i s t i c s of other agencies for purposes of determining Band needs should be cautioned. 3. For f i n a n c i a l , as well as obvious reasons of f a m i l i a r i t y with the community, Council should r e l y more on the use of th e i r own personnel, consultants and Band members, i n determining l o c a l needs. For example, a good deal of the work done by G.L.S. on Band housing could have been 64 e a s i l y done by Band l o c a l resources. Involvement of l o c a l residents and s t a f f i n the process of planning and p o l i c y formulation i s extremely b e n e f i c i a l i n broadening awareness and improving on l o c a l technical s k i l l s and expertise. This i s i n c i d e n t a l l y one of the Band's stated developmental: objectives. 4. That the proposed new v i l l a g e s i t e C on Capilano be accepted as an area for future Band housing as recommended by G.L.S. (See Appendix A), with the proviso that s i t e A would be relocated only when required for future economic development expansion. A p l e b i s c i t e of Capilano residents should be held when necessary to determine whether s i t e B should remain, relocate or expand i n future. 5. That Council amend or extend the Frame of Reference of the G.L.S. Study to include a series of s i t e plans showing various ways in which the current housing needs could be accommodated. To compliment th i s Council summon the heads of a l l departments along with t h e i r consultants to s i m i l a r l y design and define various ways of accommodating the current need. Location, d e n s i t i e s , amenities, land assembly, etc., to be part of the task for both groups. This double e f f o r t of outside and l o c a l expertise would quickly provide Council with a series of s i t e and design options i n order to proceed with the building program of 115 family units (2 and 3 bedroom) and 82 singles units (bachelor and 1 bedroom). 6. That the Housing Authority.Director, along with appropri-ate health, plumbing and e l e c t r i c a l inspectors, examine each dwelling unit on the reserve for the purpose of i d e n t i f y i n g safety d e f i c i e n c i e s and that they devise a plan for immediate correction of these d e f i c i e n c i e s , including a proposed budget. An amendment to the current Band budget should be made i f necessary i n order to make the required improvements and thus make the "inadequate" units safe for occupancy. 7. Because of overcrowding and poor qu a l i t y construction of many older homes, a f i r e prevention program should be implemented by the Band Housing Authority. This should include i n s t a l l a t i o n of smoke and f i r e detection devices. Since the Band owns a l l . units, i t would be i n i t s own i n t e r e s t to pay for t h i s i n s t a l l a t i o n and protect i t s investment. However, an incentive program i n the form of a shared cost or Band Subsidy would a s s i s t towards getting t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program. 8. That as soon as possible Council devise a p o l i c y and a system of loan and r e n t a l c o l l e c t i o n . To impress upon the urgency of t h i s , a special mass meeting requiring 65 a majority vote by secret b a l l o t should be held i n order to give Council and/or Housing Authority the power to execute i t s p o l i c y . 9. In order to get away from the present piecemeal b u i l d -ing, Housing Authority or the Band should embark upon a plan or series of plans, including land assembly i n order to make more e f f i c i e n t use of space, building materials and cost of building. For example, 115 units on Mission reserve are spread over an area of 36 acres. New single family homes are being constructed amidst dilapidated older homes and buildings. An o v e r a l l s i t e plan of t h i s area designating various locations for building would produce a more orderly pattern to building, improve immensely the v i s u a l and landscaping components as well as accommodate ten f o l d more units, i . e . a subdivision consisting of 150 units with an F.S.R. of .5 could be constructed on four or f i v e acres of land, s t i l l leaving some 30 acres for future expan-sion . 10. Since Housing Authority i s now an established-''builder and hence major pote n t i a l employer of Band members, i t should become incorporated as a company, i n order to b u i l d for the private market during times when there i s no building a c t i v i t y within the Band community. Employment of i t s own sub-trade personnel, i . e . plumber and e l e c t r i c i a n , may help to cut current subcontracting costs. These sub-trades could, i n addition, assume the duties of the house maintenance and repair program. At present a great deal of Band funding i s i n e f f i c i e n t l y used for home repair, i . e . the Band employs several maintenance men yet sub-contracts i n plumbing, painting, e l e c t r i c a l , heating, etc., are consistently used. 11. In the event that the majority of Band members decide that they wish a l l Band revenue to go into new housing, (instead of d i s t r i b u t i n g Band revenues among members) as opposed to i n d i v i d u a l families assuming the cost of housing, Band Council should prepare i t s e l f now and investigate a l l the ramifications of such a decision. This occurrence:is not u n l i k e l y i n view of the attitudes held by many that they are e n t i t l e d . t o housing without cost. For example, the cost of 150 units with an average area of 1100 sq. f t . , at a price of $40.00 per sq. f t . , would cost approximately ;$6,600,000. Assuming the yearly revenue was $500,000, members would be required to give up t h e i r share of revenues for approximately.14 years. The cost of housing i s increasing rapidly, i t may be a great saving to the Band to catch up to the backlog of units required and make the decision to b u i l d them now. Certainly the saving i n terms of s o c i a l cost would be i r r e t r i e v a b l e . 66 12. Band Council or i t s designated Departments, should begin an educational program of awareness and information to Band membership. For example, many members are not aware that they are e l i g i b l e to obtain a mortgage for the purchase of housing. If they knew t h i s , perhaps some families would select t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e . This might help to change the dependent attitude and hence markedly improve the s o c i a l and economic s t a b i l i t y of the whole community. For example, many people have never heard of or seen what a rental agreement looks l i k e or under-stand what purpose i t serves. The Band administration must become more involved i n informing and communicating thi s basic information to i t s members. It would be i n -correct to assume, for example, that a l l individuals and families are not prepared to assume more s o c i a l and f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e i r own a f f a i r s . Many indiv i d u a l s , families and single parent families have advised us that they are prepared to enter into agree-ments of ownership and r e n t a l providing that t h i s was done on a more orderly basis as compared to the present system. Many of these stated also that they are unaware of the procedures that are required i n order for them to pursue t h i s . In addition, i s land available to a Band member or group of members who wish to be responsible for the payments and hence ownership of t h e i r units? W i l l Council or l o c a l leadership support persons who wish to become more independent and responsible for t h e i r own a f f a i r s ? In our opinion, i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of l o c a l leadership and administrative s t a f f to make known to the membership the f u l l range of available housing options; to designate s i t e areas, coincident housing types and suitable density le v e l s per s i t e , i . e . provide the physical space i n which these various housing types could be developed i n stages i n future years. Having provided the family or i n d i v i d u a l with the required information along with a building s i t e , the role of the Band administration then becomes one of a f a c i l i t a -tor, helping i n d i v i d u a l persons achieve t h e i r perceived needs. From a s o c i a l , educational and psychological context, the value of t h i s process i s favoured over that of complete subsidy where persons i n h e r i t complete housing units without p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the planning, f i n a n c i a l management and other components that are part of home ownership.and maintenance. If a more e f f e c t i v e program i s not implemented soon, the housing c r i s i s and related s o c i a l problems w i l l escalate to even greater proportions. 1 PARK ROYAL ^ ' , 5 AMBLESIDE PARK 2 CAPILANO RIVER - EAST BANK ' 6 TREATMENT PLANT 3 UNCOMMITTED LANDS - VILLAGE *A' 7 ESTUARY 4 CAPILANO VILLAGE *B' , 8 DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT 70 A P P E N D I X D •SQUAMISH -INDIAN--BAND--:&HIIDR£^BORN..-FROM---^ .LEGEND.L... \__ : _J : ; --•-A.— children born to married. women,.'.. - - : B , c h i l d r e n born to unmarried womea, 71 APPENDIX E SQUAMISH BAND HOUSING NEEDS A recent study commenced by D . I . A . N . A . and to be further augmented by the Band's housing department gives the following background on the Band's population and residential needs. Population trend (1964-74) has slowly but steadily increased and will continue to do so at a rate of approximately 2%. On Reserve Population Trend (1970-74) has been stable and assumed to remain at approximately 76%. Statistically speaking there is no overcrowding as there are 248 houses for 215 families. (Average persons per unit = 4.7 for Band average and 4. 8 for Capilano and Mission Reserves). The 10 year total housing requirements covering both new growth and replace-ment varies from 113 units to 158 units (depending on a life span of 25 or 50 years per house). This corresponds to a total new lot requirement of 45 lots. The "on Reserve" population is divided as follows: Mission I.R. 1 - 61? , Capilano I .R.5 - 35%, Squamish Valley - 4%. post script: This data has yet to be processed and reacted upon by the Band's Housing Department 1974 1984 (projections) Total Band Membership On Reserve Off Reserve 1, 150 persons 854 " 296 " 1,401 persons 1,065 " 336 G A B O U R Y L U S S I E B S I G U R D S O N A R C H I T E C T S & U R B A N D E S I G N E R S IV. ANALYSIS OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND PLANNING PROCESSES In reviewing the programs administered by the Department and the Bands, the most s t r i k i n g finding i s that while the Department supports a course of self-determination, indepen-dence and self-development for the Indian people, there e x i s t s no apparent mechanism within i t s administrative machinery to support, l e t alone provide, a leadership role i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . This i s evidencedin the cl o s i n g remarks of the A l l i a n c e group of Bands which l i t e r a l l y pleads with the Department of Justice and the Department of Indian A f f a i r s to a s s i s t them i n the resolution of some of the very well documented administrative problems that they submitted to these 'Departments i n 1975. "So many of the most b e n e f i c i a l proposals from the two Departments have resulted from ' c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s ' ; the concept of ongoing c r e a t i v i t y i s apparently spurned. It appears l e f t to Bands such as our own to research and present proposals that w i l l break new ground and help Indian people advance yet t h i s i s surely a Departmental r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Does the Department always intend to be merely ^ responsive and never constructively innovative?" It has been shown i n the International Plaza example, the area of economic development, and s o c i a l assistance programs Musqueam, Sechelt and Squamish Indian Bands. The  A l l i a n c e . Submission to the Minister of Justice and the Minister of Indian A f f a i r s , February, 1975, p. 44. 72 that no constructive leadership or energies are directed towards changes i n administration, i n program and service delivery. What i s even more d i s t r e s s i n g i s that the 'Depart-ment i s not responsive to r e a l i s t i c proposals from Bands which would have the e f f e c t of improving conditions at the l o c a l l e v e l . D i s t r i c t O ffice s t a f f f u l f i l l the function of rubber stamping decisions made by Band personnel, with Bands who administer t h e i r own programs. The Regional Director of the B. C. Region i n his communication to Ottawa about the need for increased funding states: "Inevitably, the cost increases partly because the Band s t a f f s are apt to do a more intensive job than we formerly did and partly because there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t reduction i n D i s t r i c t expense when they discontinue service to one out of many bands." 1 Of course the point i s that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t reduction i n Departmental s t a f f when Bands assume administra-t i o n of programs funded by the Department. . There i s no apparent conscious e f f o r t by the Department to reduce i t s s t a f f and to d i r e c t funding for administrative purposes to the Bands who become the administrators of programs i n these si t u a t i o n s . a) A New Federal Approach It must be said that the f i r s t p r i o r i t y of the Depart-ment should be to devise a p o l i c y for the gradual transfer of Musqueam, Sechelt and Squamish Indian Bands The A l l i a n c e . Submission to the Minister of Justice, and the Minister of Indian A f f a i r s , February, 1975, p. 31. 74 administrative r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of matters a f f e c t i n g - I n d i a n people to Indian people. Such a p o l i c y c a r r i e d out i n a sincere and comprehensive manner would be the most honourable and progressive step that could be taken towards t r u l y giving the Indian people a chance at equal c i t i z e n r y . In l i g h t of what has been found i n t h i s review, previous attempted government po l i c y towards Indian people has been viewed with skepticism by the Indian people because i t has always involved or at least appeared to impart, a ri n g of f i n a l i t y to the special status they enjoy. It may well be necessary how to allow the Indian people themselves to administer t h e i r programs for a period, before the Department's presence can be phased out. What i s proposed here i s that i n future each Band or group of Bands would contract with the government to take over complete administration of various programs formerly admin-iste r e d by the D i s t r i c t Offices of the Department. This would be done over ten, f i f t e e n or twenty year periods with variations of time, goals, and types of programs as among Bands. For example, the f i n a n c i a l assistance provided to some Bands for the purpose of .setting up t h e i r own Housing Authorities could be s i m i l a r l y applied to other programs. A Band may receive a certain sum of monies for a s p e c i f i e d number of years during which time i t i s expected to become both administratively and f i n a n c i a l l y independent. Some areas such as provision of health or s o c i a l welfare services which are equally available to a l l Canadian c i t i z e n s would not have .75 f i n a n c i a l phasing out terms attached.. Instead, through con-tinuous Departmental technical assistance i n the f i e l d on the various reserves, the Department's, involvement might continue for a number of years u n t i l such time that the Band Agency had reached equal status i n s k i l l s to execute the job, adequate administrative and other expertise equal to that of any other p a r a l l e l agency at a' P r o v i n c i a l , Federal or Munici-pal l e v e l . Once a Band agency achieves t h i s status, i t matters not from where i t s funds for Social Assistance come, that i s , the Federal or P r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , since the Band agency would then be i n a position to negotiate i n i t s own in t e r e s t s . A word of advice to the P r o v i n c i a l government would be to s i m i l a r l y allow native communities to administer t h e i r own services i f they so desire. The Family and C h i l -drens 1 Law Commission has already recommended that native communities be allowed to administer t h e i r own s o c i a l services as independent Community Resource Boards.''' When we s t a r t implementing t h i s type of programming, we w i l l be s t a r t i n g out on the road towards o f f e r i n g the Indian people equality of opportunity. There w i l l be no special treatment as i s the stigma now, because the Indian people will.be treated equally. This new proposed policy should require complete phasing out of D i s t r i c t Offices within ten years and sooner in various areas which are already advanced i n t h e i r Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Native Familes and the  Law. Tenth Report of the Royal Commission on Family and Childrens' Law. May, 1975, p. 46. development. In the t r a n s i t i o n period D i s t r i c t s t a f f ' s function should be to act i n an advisory capacity wherever fe a s i b l e , working with several Bands at the Band l e v e l . The option would be provided for Bands to chose t h e i r own qual-i f i e d advisors who would i n e f f e c t be responsible for implementing Department p o l i c y . This w i l l be required due to the large number of Departmental s t a f f that would be either unqualified for the new role by v i r t u e of the s k i l l s required, or who would be unable to move to t h e i r new job s i t e s , the native communities. The whole process w i l l require of s t a f f a working knowledge and appreciation of community develop-ment s k i l l s , s o c i a l change and innovation and a r e a l i z a t i o n that the object of t h e i r work i s to work themselves out of a job. Many persons, whether former.Departmental employees or other, may f i n d that t h e i r services w i l l be required even after the Department's involvement ceases. Decisions such as these w i l l be l e f t to the Indian Band administration. There i s .an apparent fear i n non-Indian thinking that i t i s wrong to allow Indian people to.administer t h e i r own programs because t h i s w i l l somehow lead to i s o l a t i o n and that i s o l a t i o n w i l l further reactivate past problems. On the contrary, i f a p o l i c y such as stated above were implemented and Indian people given a r e a l opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e , we may f i n d an increased intermingling, sharing and communica-ti o n between. Indian and non-Indian peoples. But f i r s t the suspicions have to be removed, our intent must be sincere and 77 the government of Canada must introduce a p o l i c y s i m i l a r to what i s being proposed here. Following complete phasing out.of D i s t r i c t - O f f i c e s , a program of phasing out Regional Offices of the Department should be implemented, with a time l i m i t to be set by Indian people. Following that, only a skeleton s t a f f w i l l be re-quired i n Ottawa for purposes of overseeing the Special Government Act protecting Indian lands i n perpetuity unless otherwise agreed upon by the Indian people and the government of Canada. Human beings generally react to others as they are expected to react. If burdens are withheld from them, or they are not compelled to carry them, they are not l i k e l y to reach out to assume them. There are c l e a r l y many examples today of Indian communities reaching out to assume respon-s i b i l i t y for t h e i r own a f f a i r s , what remains now i s progressive and acceptable government po l i c y to promote and further that end. A policy cannot be creative, e f f e c t i v e and successful without conscious human behavioral and d i r e c t i o n a l guidance. Administrators and planning o f f i c i a l s at a l l lev e l s must then coi n c i d e n t a l l y and consistently execute the p o l i c y with additional unwritten and unspoken goals i n mind. Such con-stant goals are; to execute the pol i c y without an authori-tari a n f l a r e , to have the ideal of reducing dependency at a l l times, as well as to have some personal commitment toward the ultimate p o l i c y implementation. The Indian people 78 cannot be viewed as mere d i g i t s i n the Department's admin-i s t r a t i v e machine. The services provided must be instruments geared to consider each Indian person as an i n d i v i d u a l who may need t h i s special service at this time.. For too long administrative e f f i c i e n c y and not treatment of the problem at hand has been the government's paramount objective. b) Local.Requirements Most Indian leaders are suspicious of the Federal government and resentful that the Federal Government has not r e a l l y taken a clear position on Indian p o l i c y . The Statement of the Government of Canada on . Indian Policy i n 1969 was interpreted by the Indian people as an attempt by the Govern-ment to take away the special p r i v i l e g e s and to enforce complete assimilation of Indian people. They f e e l that the 1969 p o l i c y statement only reaffirms t h e i r f e e l i n g that the government v i a the Department of Indian A f f a i r s has never r e a l l y been committed towards a s s i s t i n g the Indian to become s e l f - r e l i a n t and independent i n White society terms. An attitude of d i s t r u s t s t i l l pervades a l l i n t e r a c t i o n between the Federal government and the native community. The requirements and terms under which an Indian Band takes over various programs are too s i m p l i s t i c and do not o f f e r the required technical assistance, e s p e c i a l l y . a t the i n i t i a l stages of management by the l o c a l Bands. For example, a t y p i c a l agreement between the Department and a l o c a l Band consists of the following procedures whose orientation to-wards f i n a n c i a l accountability supercede any c r i t e r i a such 79 as program effectiveness i n meeting l o c a l needs, or assurance of adequate program management, hence adequate program personnel. "We agree: a) to manage the program and maintain a suitable set of records for recording wages, holiday pay and unemployment insurance deductions; b) to remit unemployment insurance deductions and employer's matching contributions to the Department of National Revenue-Taxation i n accordance with prescribed regulations; c) to use any contributions received from the Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s for t h i s program s o l e l y for wages and costs d i r e c t l y associated with the payment of wages to Indian High School students; d) to arrange for the audit of the funds used for t h i s program by our Band's auditor; e) to return upon completion of t h i s year's project to the Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s by cheque payable to the Receiver General of Canada any unexpended funds which were contributed by the Depart-ment to our Band for this program; f) to make the records pertaining to th i s project available for inspection by O f f i c e r s of the;Department or the Department's auditor; g) to provide Band funds of $ i n 1975 in support of t h i s program. "J-Once a Band takes over a program the communication between the Band and the Department i s often minimal, i t occurs only at budget time or at some point i n the process where f i n a n c i a l problems occur. To t h i s degree, the administration 1975, '''Department of Indian A f f a i r s , Administrative Directive, 80 of many programs by Bands are token. That i s , there i s l i t t l e improvement i n community well being at the l o c a l l e v e l , there i s no proportionate reduction i n s t a f f at the D i s t r i c t or Regional o f f i c e of the ..Department. For example, i f a group of Bands decide they w i l l take over the administration of the Education program and the population of these Bands represents f i f t y per cent of the Indian population served by t h e i r Indian A f f a i r s agency, i t would follow that the workload of the agency should diminish by f i f t y per cent. The ultimate goal of the Department should be to provide expertise to the Band for the f i r s t year or two so as to permanently entrench and make a success of the program administered by those Bands. I t i s not necessary for the Indian A f f a i r s advisor to require that Bands duplicate Departmental systems of bookkeeping, s t a f f develop-ment, program delivery, etc. In f a c t , t h i s i s one of the greatest problems of Departmental consultation with Bands. For t h i s reason i t would be advantageous for the government not to use former employees of the Department as advisors or consultants to Bands who take over administration of programs. As Bands take over r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e i r programs, the number of Departmental s t a f f should proportionately be phased out. Only when thi s occurs w i l l there be any r e a l evidence that the Indian people are indeed becoming more independent and that there i s a s h i f t of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y from the bureau-cracy to the l o c a l community l e v e l . It i s necessary to c i t e some examples of what i s meant by basic administrative technical assistance that Bands 81 require i n order to assume control of programs. A wide range of variations w i l l occur depending upon the size of Band or groups of Bands who work out of one administration o f f i c e , t h e i r location, etc. If a population of two thousand Indian people decide to administer t h e i r own education program, part of the agreement should require the Band or Bands concerned to have on s t a f f a person with p r a c t i c a l teaching as well as administrative experience. This person need not be a Band Department Head, or ultimate decision-maker at the Band l e v e l , but rather an advisor, f a c i l i t a t o r , educator and resource person for the l o c a l leadership involved with education. This person should have a two-fold terms of reference, i.e he or she would be responsible for seeing that a l l Departmental requirements were met, such as preparation of budget, job descriptions for employees, a basic but workable f i l i n g system, etc. Secondly, the person would a s s i s t l o c a l s t a f f i n executing the education program as defined by the l o c a l community. This would require the person to be sensitive to varying opinions on education by l o c a l members, i . e . the person should not be judgmental but rather concentrate on establishing the mechanics of programs r e f l e c t i n g the l o c a l l y defined goals. Most programs i n Indian communities require a developmental approach. For t h i s reason, the two-fold terms of reference for the advising person i s e s s e n t i a l . The f i r s t , to e s t a b l i s h a basic sense of order and accountability which i s required of any organization, and the second, to f a c i l i t a t e 82 i n developing a program r e f l e c t i n g the needs and aspirations of the l o c a l people. Another deficiency i n the current system l i e s i n the fact that the Department does not have any evaluative process to apply to Band administered programs. As a r e s u l t some Bands take on several programs before achieving a basic success with ones they currently administer. The selection of key personnel should be i n consultation with the Department. At present the Band i s i n complete control of s t a f f s e l e c t i o n . On occasion t h i s allows for some unsuitable appointments of unqualified personnel. The Department should maintain advisory input into s e l e c t i o n of s t a f f i n i t i a l l y , when a Band assumes administration of a new program. Once the program i s s u f f i c i -ently established and evaluated as a viable and useful pro-gram, the decision-making on such matters should revert to the Band. As mentioned e a r l i e r , Departmental advisors should work i n the Band o f f i c e s to help phase i n required systems and procedures. This would insure a certa i n l e v e l of operation that does not e x i s t i n many Band o f f i c e s today. The Department should a s s i s t Bands taking over programs in computing wage scales compatible with workload and similar jobs o f f reserve. Non-payment of income tax to those Indian persons working on reserve i s the only adjustment to be made in comparing on and off reserve wage scales. Fringe benefits such as dental plans, pension plans, l i f e insurance, etc., should a l l be set up as part of Band employment procedures. This would make jobs on reserves more appealing to q u a l i f i e d 83 Indian people who are employed i n the outside community. In fact, because of thi s lack of security along with the d i s -organization and lack of c l a r i t y of job roles and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , many q u a l i f i e d and educated Indian people are seeking employment outside t h e i r communities. The lack of basic management t r a i n i n g to the Bands by the Department has proven to be one of the Department's greatest f a i l u r e s and unfortunately, because of t h i s deficiency at the Band l e v e l , the Department i n turn j u s t i f i e s i t s con-tinued existence. Because t r a i n i n g i n the basic procedures of management was not p r a c t i c a l l y applied, fa l s e i l l u s i o n s of various roles have emerged.at the Band l e v e l . That i s , persons hired as managers, d i r e c t o r s , etc., interpreted loosely the meaning and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of that o f f i c e to.the extent that i t has discouraged these people from pursuing further education and t r a i n i n g . Lack of s t a f f who are q u a l i f i e d i n a vari e t y of technical and managerial s k i l l s i s apparent i n most Band administrations. T r a d i t i o n a l l y the Chief and Council are i n charge of a l l matters pertaining to reserve l i f e . While many Bands are administering large programs with up to a dozen s t a f f members and a department head for each, program, the -Department con-tinues to forward a l l written material, i . e . d i r e c t i v e s , memos, etc. to the Chief and Council. The l i n e workers and Band department heads i n turn may not receive information c r u c i a l to the operation of t h e i r program. The Department i s very i n s e n s i t i v e i n recognizing the l o c a l organizational 84 structures of various Bands. Frustration occurs at the l o c a l Band o f f i c e s . Neither i s the Department's p o l i c y to deal only with the Chief and Band Council on a l l business and program matters a r e a l i s t i c or sensitive position to take. It i s well known that there are varying degrees of expertise and knowledge about various programs by Band Councillors, i t therefore becomes impractical for the Department to i n s i s t on discussing program matters without those s t a f f d i r e c t l y involved i n the program. Again, i t i s the developmental process that the Department i s either unaware of or d e l i b e r -ately ignores. Of course, the best p o s i t i o n for any Depart-mental person to take i s to involve the Chief and Council but they should also include the key.staff persons executing the program. This gives the opportunity for the Department to observe any c o n f l i c t s at the Band l e v e l which might be harm-f u l to administration of a program. One of the d i f f i c u l t i e s at the Band l e v e l i s the question of determining "who i s responsible for what?" Occasionally problems are passed about from department to department, to Band Manager and to Band Council without resolution. The people requiring the service are hurt most by t h i s consistent i n a b i l i t y of the Department to help the l o c a l Bands c l a r i f y roles and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . By choosing only to communicate to the p o l i t i c a l , authority (i . e . Chief and Council), the Department i s taking a very s i m p l i s t i c p o s i t i o n . Band Councils whose magnitude of business i s increasing rapidly, must delegate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for these programs to 85 Band Departmental s t a f f . This i n no way minimizes Council's authority as the ultimate decision-maker, i t merely allows the s t a f f to do t h e i r job more e f f e c t i v e l y i f t h e i r respon-s i b i l i t i e s are defined. This would also allow Council members to become more fa m i l i a r with various programs as they would gain t h i s information from contacts with t h e i r s t a f f . Because of the Department p o l i c y to communicate with Council only, some Council members chose to contact the Indian A f f a i r s Department for information rather than t h e i r own Band Depart-ment s t a f f . As a r e s u l t , the Department s t a f f develop a very negative view of Band administration. Since the Departmental s t a f f are not p o l i t i c i a n s , there should be no reason why the Department should take a very strong position by communicating with Band Council only. Local personnel should be encouraged to pursue higher leve l s of t r a i n i n g wherever possible. Bands need to r e a l -i s t i c a l l y sort out the apparent dilemma between t r a d i t i o n a l and modern leadership structures. For example, some members of Council p a r t i c i p a t e minimally i n the a f f a i r s of Council. Since the Squamish Band, for example, follows the hereditary system of e l e c t i o n of persons to Council positions, Council members' terms of o f f i c e are held for l i f e . Minimal p a r t i c i p a -t i o n of some members presents a heavy workload to those Council members that do participate. Under section 78(2) (b) ( i i ) of the Indian Act, the o f f i c e of chief or c o u n c i l l o r becomes vacant when the Councillor who holds o f f i c e "has been absent from meetings of the Council for three consecutive 86 meetings without being authorized to do so." 1 V i o l a t i o n s of t h i s section are r a r e l y pursued by the Bands or the Depart-ment even though they occur. In general, there i s a lack of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by Band membership i n the a f f a i r s of a Band. In part, t h i s i s due to a lack of a consistent communication procedure from the Band administration to i t s members. The Federal government, through i t s regional development programs should be encouraging labour-intensive development i n areas.where native communities e x i s t , to provide jobs and other s o c i a l welfare benefits. In turn, the Department of Indian A f f a i r s should be providing an "on-the-job" management service to the Bands for a period of time, following which t h e i r ser-vices should be phased out. Several Bands are well under way i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , i . e . h i r i n g t h e i r own consulting, admin-i s t r a t i v e and planning personnel, however, t h i s i s a very small beginning toward solution of a major problem for the Indian people. Without th i s assistance, the administrative process i s a helter skelter a f f a i r . While basic p r i o r i t i e s or guidelines are required along with consistent follow through, some Councils spend hours debating other organization's procedures, etc. i n order to adapt them to t h e i r system. Usually t h i s e f f o r t i s f u t i l e because the character of an organization must be r e a l i s t i c and include a l l factors existent at the l o c a l community l e v e l . The most d i s t r e s s i n g observation one makes i s that the Indian organizations are not ^CANADA. An Act Respecting Indians. Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada. 1970. p. 36. 87 s e t t i n g up t h e i r own a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p l a n n i n g procedures designed to r e f l e c t the nature and scope of work to be done. A r a t h e r unusual problem a t the l o c a l l e v e l i s the i n a b i l i t y of the C o u n c i l t o u t i l i z e s t a f f more e f f e c t i v e l y . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s probably not d e l i b e r a t e , but r a t h e r one of u n f a m i l i a r i t y and unawareness of b e t t e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f s t a f f . S t a f f should be viewed by C o u n c i l as a v e h i c l e towards s o l v i n g problems and as such, they should be given more d i r e c t i o n i n the form of p r o v i d i n g assessment, r e p o r t s and recommendations on problem areas f o r C o u n c i l ' s c o n s i d e r -a t i o n . T h i s would ease the workload of C o u n c i l as w e l l as d e f i n e s t a f f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . V. CONCLUSION The planning process i s a dynamic process and i t must be f l e x i b l e , p r i o r i t i e s require change with time, and component parts require i n d i v i d u a l attention, nurture and consequent f i t t i n g into the larger scheme of things. Planning with and for Indian communities cannot be anything l e s s . Throughout the various examples i n t h i s study, i t i s evident that the Department of Indian A f f a i r s planning approach has ignored these planning requirements. Departmental s t a f f contact with Indian people at the reserve l e v e l i s minimal. As a r e s u l t , there i s no forward or progressive advocative planning done by c i v i l servants on behalf of the people that the Department i s set up to a s s i s t . E s s e n t i a l l y , the role of the c i v i l servant i s a reactive one only, i . e . responding to Bands' and i n d i v i d u a l s ' requests for program monies, loans, etc. The type of assistance offered consists of the Department s t a f f i n t e r p r e t i n g the Departmental p o l i c y guidelines and then advising whether the Band request f i t s into the guidelines or not. In most cases t h i s i s the extent of the Departmental consultation. For t h i s reason, i t can be stated that planning as a continuous ongoing learning and developing process i s non-existent i n the Department. There is.no evidence of 88 89 attempts by the Department to make Indian people more knowledgeable about how that Department works, to explain the scope and range of programs that i t provides. This i s t r a g i c i n l i g h t of the fact that t h i s bureaucracy, by design a client-centred bureaucracy, has evolved for the very pur-pose of making the Indian more aware of and involved in the non-Indian system. Any constructive change i n general focus and i n the delivery of services, hence restructuring of the Department, i s u n l i k e l y at the administrative or departmental l e v e l . M i n i s t e r i a l and p o l i t i c a l intervention i s required i n order to d i r e c t changes i n departmental and administrative p o l i c y . From interviews held with over t h i r t y Department employees, only two or three expressed optimism and enthusiasm towards th e i r work and towards the future aspirations of Indian people. This i s why m i n i s t e r i a l intervention seems to hold the only hope for constructive change. As i t exists the current relationship between a Band and the Federal govern-ment i s more often a hindrance rather than an asset for the l o c a l Indian Band i n pursuing i t s s e l f - r e l i a n t developmental goals. This need not be so, and for t h i s reason a gradual phasing out (as compared to complete and abrupt severing) of the administrative duties of ...the Department i s recommended. This i s a c r u c i a l time i n the modern development history of Indian people. For t h i s reason a restructuring of the Department's function could be of great assistance to l o c a l communities. A p o l i c y requiring a l l Departmental s t a f f to 90 work out of l o c a l Band o f f i c e s over the next ten years, p r i o r to complete phasing out of the Department, would i n i t s e l f cause s i g n i f i c a n t impact and p o s i t i v e s o c i a l change to occur. That i s , i t i s important that the l o c a l Band have a basic but operational system within i t s community in order to execute i t s a f f a i r s . I t has been shown that i t i s not important, useful or f i n a n c i a l l y feasible to continue the current r e l a t i o n s h i p . In closing, i t i s re-emphasized that the main objective of t h i s study has been to i d e n t i f y attitudes and changes i n administrative structure that are required at the Federal and Band leve l s i n order to e f f e c t i v e l y encourage a p o l i c y of s e l f -r e l i a n c e , self-determination and.self-development for the Indian people. It has been shown that Land claims issues are of great significance to the Indian people but the pro-posals put forward here are not dependent upon a resolution of these claims. The unresolved land claims issues are seen as a b a r r i e r towards complete implementation of the p o l i c y of s e l f - r e l i a n c e that has been suggested. Changes are also required at the l o c a l Band l e v e l and for t h i s reason, there i s an obligation on Band Councils to improve t h e i r admin-i s t r a t i v e system. In p a r t i c u l a r , increased and improved communication between Band leadership and i t s people i s required. It i s recognized that administrative and planning shortcomings at the Band l e v e l are,a d i r e c t r e s u l t and r e f l e c t i o n of past Departmental p o l i c i e s and administrative approaches. For t h i s reason the onus i s on the Department 91 to improve i t s attitude and i t s p o l i c i e s . Once the Federal government has done i t s part, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for Indian people achieving t h e i r objectives w i l l be t h e i r own. I t i s urgent that the continuing c o n f l i c t between aboriginal natives and the Federal government be set t l e d . The major components of a settlement aside from the lands issue, are development of s e l f - r e l i a n c e for the Indian people and a phasing out of the p a t e r n a l i s t i c role of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s . BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Barnett, H. G. Indian Shakers. London: Feffer & Simons, Inc. 1957. Bowles, Richard P., et a l . The Indian: Assimilation, Integration or Separation? Scarborough, Ontario: Prentice-Hall of Canada Ltd. 1972. Cardinal, Harold. The Unjust Society. Edmonton: M. G. Hurtig Ltd. 1969. Cumming, Peter H. and Mickenberg, N e i l H.. Native Rights i n  Canada. Toronto: General Publishing Co. Ltd. 1972. Dosman, Edgar J. Indians: The Urban. Dilemma. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd. 19 72. Draper, James A. C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : Canada. Toronto: New Press. 1971. Drucker, P h i l i p . Indians of the Northwest Coast. Garden City, New York: The Natural History Press. 1955. Duff, Wilson. The Indian: History of B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a : Queen's Printer. Anthropology i n B r i t i s h Columbia Memoir No. 5. 1964. E t z i o n i , Amitai. A Soc i o l o g i c a l Reader on Complex Organiza- tions . Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969 (Second E d i t i o n ) . F r i e r e , Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Harder and Harder, 1970. Fuchs, E s t e l l e and Havighurst, Robert J. To Live on This Earth. Garden C i t y , New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc. 1972. Gordon, Milton M. Assimilation i n American L i f e . New York: Oxford University Press. 1964. Greer, Scott. The ,.Logic of Inquiry. Chicago: Aldine. 1969. 92 93 Hawthorn, H. B., Jamieson, Stuart M. and Belshaw, C. A. The Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 1958. Hendry, Charles E. Beyond Traplines. Toronto:.Marade Press Ltd. 1973. Kahn, A l f r e d J. Theory and Practice of Social Planning. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. 1969. Patterson, I I , E. Palmer. Andrew Paull and Canadian Indian  Resurgence. Doctor of Philosophy d i s s e r t a t i o n . University of Washington. 1962. . The Canadian Indian: A History Since 1500. Don M i l l s , Ontario: Collier-Macmillan Canada Ltd. 1972. Perlman, Robert and Gurin, Arnold., Community Organization and Social Planning. Toronto: John Wiley & Sons Inc. 1972. Rein, Martin. Social P o l i c y : Issues of.Choice and Change. New York: Random House. 1970. Riley, Matilda. Soc i o l o g i c a l Research:. A Case Appraoch. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World. 1963. R i v l i n , A l i c e M. Systematic Thinking for Social Action. Washington, D.C: The Brooklyn I n s t i t u t e . 1970. Robertson, Heather. Reservations Are For Indians. Toronto: James Lewis & Samuel. 1970. Schumacher, E. F. Small Is Beautiful: A Study of Economics As If People Mattered. London, England: Abacus. 1974. Shumiatcher, Morris C. Welfare: Hidden.Backlash. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd. 1971. Tyler, S. Lyman. A History of Indian Pol i c y . U.S. Dept. of Interior Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s . Washington, D.C. 1973. Waddell, Jack 0. and Watson, 0.-Michael. The American. Indian  i n Urban Society. Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Company. 1971. Wuttunee, William I. C. Ruffled Feathers. Calgary, Alberta: B e l l Books Ltd. 1971. 94 ARTICLES AND PERIODICALS CANADA, Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s , Indian  News, Vol. 17, No. 4, Sept. 1975. Marsh, L. North Shore Reservation: Housing and Planning  Project. Report #2 Department of Social Work and Architecture. U.B.C, August, 1950. Union of B r i t i s h Columbia Indian Chiefs,.NESIKA, 1972-1975. PUBLIC DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS CANADA, Department of Indian A f f a i r s , Annual Report. 1876. CANADA, Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern.Development Background Paper, History of Indian Policy IAND Publication Number 23-344-000-EE-A1. 1974. CANADA, Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern-Development B r i t i s h Columbia Region, Social Assistance Regulations  and Procedures, November 1975. CANADA, Department of Indian. A f f a i r s and Northern Development, Statement of the Government of. Canada on Indian Policy. 1969. CANADA, House of Commons Proceedings and Evidence of the Standing Committee on Indian A f f a i r s . F i r s t session Thirteenth Parliament, Thursday, May 8, 1975. Chretien, Jean. An Address to the Big Brothers Association Annual Meeting. Peterborough, Ontario, June 11, 1971. Kennedy, Edward M. A Study of Administrative C o n f l i c t s of Interests i n the Protection of-Indian Natural Resources. Paper prepared for the Subcommittee on Administrative Practice and Procedure of the Committee of the J u d i c i -ary of the United States Senate, December, 1970. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Native Families and the Law. Tenth Report of the Royal Commission on Family and Childrens' Law, May 197 5. Queen's Printer. An Act Respecting Indians. Ottawa. 1970. UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL Holmes, A l v i n Ishmael. The Social Welfare Aspects and Implications of the Indian Act. Master of Social Work thesis, U.B.C. 1961 95 Musqueam, Sechelt and Squamish Indian Bands The A l l i a n c e . A submission to the Minister of Justice and the Minister of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, February, 1975. Squamish Indian Band Council. Administrative Problems Encountered With the Department of Indian A f f a i r s . September, 1972. Squamish Indian Band Council. A l e t t e r to the City of West Vancouver, August 18, 1975. Squamish Indian Band, Council and Committee Meeting Minutes 1972-1975. Squamish, Musqueam and Sechelt Indian Bands, The A l l i a n c e . Regular Meeting Minutes 1975. Squamish Indian Band, Social Services Department. Social  Service Delivery to the Squamish. A submission to the Honourable Judd Buchanan, Minister of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, Vancouver, B. C , October, 1975. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0093830/manifest

Comment

Related Items