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Sensation-seeking in two groups of psychopaths differentiated on the basis of E. E. G. patterns Johnston, William Elsworth 1976

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SENSATION-SEEKING IN TWO GROUPS OF PSYCHOPATHS DIFFERENTIATED ON THE BASIS OF E.E.G. PATTERNS by WILLIAM ELSWORTH 'JOHNSTON B.A..., University of British Columbia, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1976 (cT) William Elsworth Johnston, 1976 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is fo r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Depa rtment The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1WS i . ABSTRACT A review of the literature on psychopathy indicated that the concept has been defined in many different ways, causing confusion among those attempting to understand and treat the disorder. Studies were reviewed which showed there i s a high frequency of E.E.G. abnormality among psychopaths. These abnormalities usually consist of an excess of bilateral theta activity of a non-specific kind, but they may be focal, especially in the posterior temporal regions. Studies indicated that these abnormalities disappear over time. Various autonomic correlates of psychopathy were examined, and the theory evolved that psychopaths are chronically cortically underaroused, since much of the data indicated that the psychopath's optimal level of stimulation tends to be significantly higher than that which i s considered normal. Psychopaths with E.E.G. abnormalities tend to behave in a more socially acceptable manner as they get older, whereas the prognosis for psychopaths in general is poor. The central hypothesis of this study was that psychopaths with E.E.G. abnormalities manifest asocial behaviour because of their pathological need for stimulation, while psychopaths with normal E.E.G.s manifest asocial behaviour due to factors unrelated to pathological stimulation seeking. Ss were 39 male inmates of three correctional institutions. A l l Ss were volunteers. Ss were placed in four groups; psychopaths with E.E.G. abnormalities, psychopaths with normal E.E.G.'s, non-psychopaths with E.E.G. abnormalities and non-psychopaths with normal E.E.G's. Due to sampling problems, the fourth group had only 9 Ss, while the other three groups contained 10 Ss each. M.M.P.I. scores were used to assign the diagnosis of psycho-pathy, while E.E.G. recordings were made and analysed by two compet-ent technicians. Standard c r i t e r i a were used in the diagnosis of psychopathy using the M.M.P.I.; tests used for analysis of E.E.G. configurations were also standard. Both are described in the study. The Sensation Seeking Scale was used as a measure of need for stimulation. A l l Ss completed the standard S.S.S. as well as a short form of the M.M.P.I. Activity Preference Questionnaire data was also obtained, but was not used in the analysis, as S.S.S. scores rendered this information redundant. The results supported the central hypothesis that psychopaths with abnormally slow E.E.G.s have stronger needs for varied sensory experience than do psychopaths with normal E.E.G.s or non-psycho-paths. The results have important implications for diagnosis, prog-nosis and treatment of psychopaths. It appears logical to diag-nostically separate psychopaths with E.E.G. abnormalities from those with normal E.E.G.'s. Prognosis for the former group is good, and normalization of E.E.G. patterns could be speeded up through the use of biofeedback techniques. Suggestions for future research were made. i i i . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1. Introduction a. Historical variation in concepts of Psychopathy 1 b. E.E.G. correlates of Psychopathy 7 c. The sensation seeking scale and i t s 13 relation to psychopathy 2. Proposal 16 3. Method 18 4. Results 21 5. Discussion 30 iv. LIST OF TABLES Page 1. Table I Summary of Means 22 2. Table I I F-Ratios for Effects 23 3. Table I I I Summary of Simple Main Effects 2h V LIST OF FIGURES Page 1. Figure I Meansscores on general S.S.S. Scale 2 5 2. Figure 2 Mean scores on T.A. Scale 26 3. Figure 3 Mean scores on E.S. Scale 2 7 4. Figure 4 Mean scores on Dis. Scale 28 5. Figure 5 Mean scores on B.S. Scale 2 9 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Ralph Hakstian and Dr. Robert Hare for their generous assistance in the preparation of this thesis. I would also like to thank the staff and inmates at the L.M.R.C.C., the B.C. Penitentiary and the Regional Medical Centre who lent their support to this research. 1. INTRODUCTION a. HISTORICAL VARIATION IN CONCEPT OF PSYCHOPATHY Melancholia sans delire, mania sans delire, impulsive homo-cidal mania, semantic dementia, moral insanity, reasoning insanity, insanity of the acts, moral imbecility, moral idiocy, constitutional defective, defective delinquent, emotionally unstable or inferior, neurotic constitution, instinct character, constitutional immorality, psychosatipath, sociopath - these represent a sampling of the labels applied to the group to be referred to in this study as psychopaths (Maughs, 1944). Judging from the lack of success experienced by diagnosticians and therapists in dealing with the concept of psychopathy, i t would seem that the level of success achieved with this diagnostic category is inversely related to the number of labels applied to the category. The discussion to follow on the history of the concept w i l l make this point clear. Pinel (Allen, 1970; Maughs, 1941) was the f i r s t to express a concept of psychopathy when he referred to an aggressive patient's condition as "mania sans delire" (Mania without delusions). He was also the f i r s t of dozens to propose a typology of the diagnostic category, including three types: 1) impulsive insanity and moral.idiocy (degenerative insane states) 2) f o l i e raissonante, hyporaanic (slight delusions, near normal) 3) melancholia activa (constant dread of unknown, trans-lates into violence) 2. Rush (Allen, 1970; Mathis, 1971) in 1812, was the next to dis-cuss a concept similar to psychopathy, when he referred to several of his cases as being aff l i c t e d with moral alienation, defective organ-ization.of moral faculties and deranged w i l l . A bold step toward the complete classification of mental disease, and another stage in the history of the concept of psychopathy, was introduced by Pritchard (Henderson, 1939; Mathis, 1971; Maughs, 1941) in 1835. Under the t i t l e "moral insanity" he drew attention to states characterized by a disorder of affections and feelings to contradistinction to under-standing and intellect. While, as Maughs states, i t is unlikely that those individuals termed morally insane by Pritchard would be classified as psychopaths today, the seed of the concept of psycho-pathy can be seen in the following quotation taken from Pritchard's work: "There is likewise a form of mental derangement in which the mental faculties appear to have sustained l i t t l e or no injury while the disorder i s manifested, principally or alone, in the state of the feelings, temper or habits. In cases of this nature, the moral and active principles of the mind are strangely perverted or depraved; the power of self-govern-ment is lost or greatly impaired and the individual i s found to be incapable, not of talking or reasoning upon any subject proposed to him, but of conducting himself with decency and propriety in the business of l i f e " . (In Henderson, D.K., Psychopathic States). Maughs (1944), in his very comprehensive review, has divided the history of the concept into periods. The f i r s t period comprised the introduction by Pinel, Rush and Pritchard, and the second, i n -itiated by Conally in 1946, involved a 50 year debate on whether in-tellectual defect was a part of moral insanity. This debate tended to obscure the condition i t s e l f , and was much prolonged by the necessity of placing the disorder within the framework of legal insanity. 3. One of the earliest attempts to relate "moral insanity" to physiology was made by Kitching in 1857. He was a phrenologist, and f e l t that alterations in skull formation in the parietal regions were related to moral insanity. Kraft Ebbing, among many others, f e l t i t to be a prodromal stage of other disorders, primarily mania. Maudsley admitted the existence of moral insanity and f e l t he had discovered a special cerebral centre of moral sense. Verga f e l t that moral insanity was congenital, and most common among the upper classes. Until 1900, few papers were devoted to the etiology of psycho-pathy, and almost none to i t s psychology. Opinion was divided as to whether i t was a separate disease entity, or merely a stage of a l l mental il l n e s s . In 1888, Koch introduced the term psychopathic in-ferior i t y (Mathis, 1971; Maughs, 1941) which he used to refer to a disease caused by innate constitutional predisposition. The in-fe r i o r i t y included various defects which prevented the individual from adjusting to his environment. It encompassed both congenital and acquired conditions, and he distinguished three groups; psycho-pathic predisposition, psychopathic defect and degeneration. In 1908, Fernold (McGord and McGord, 1964) introduced the term moral imbecility and linked the disorder with tendencies to engage in criminal a c t i v i t i e s , an idea which had gained general acceptance by 1920. The British Mental Deficiency Act of 1913 distinguished the morally insane from "true" mental defectives. Moral imbecility was defined legally as describing those persons who from an early age display permanent mental defect and criminal tendencies on which punishment has l i t t l e or no effect. Conduct disorders were recognized as evidence of insanity by this act. 4. During the 1920's and 1930»s various psychogenic theories of psychopathy were advanced. Alexander (Cleckley, 1964) described psychopathy as a character neurosis, in which unconscious drives appear in objectively maladaptive behaviour, in contrast to ordinary neurosis in which repressed impulses find symbolic expression in subjectively unpleasant symptoms. Alexander's main thesis stated that the antisocial behaviour represented an unconscious effort to obtain punishment in order to gain r e l i e f from unconscious feelings of g u i l t . Wittels (1937, 1938) speaking for the psychoanalytic school, distinguished three types of psychopaths; the overpromiscuous (primal representation of psychopathy), the criminal, and the creative (psychopath superieurs). He f e l t that psychopaths were fixated at the phallic stage, and that neurotic psychopaths were afraid of their b i -sexuality while simple psychopaths enjoy their "boundless bisexual indulgence". His description of the Primal Woman, one who expresses her masculine and feminine side to the f u l l , is strikingly similar to Janov's description of the post-primal, "cured" patient. Wittels f e l t that criminal psychopaths have one side of their sexuality de-sexualized. He promised a future paper on the fascinating psychopath superieur, but never did write i t ; others, most notably Ar i e t i (1976) have dealt with this topic. Partridge (1928) exemplified the tendency which appeared during the 1920s to specify c r i t e r i a for selection. He selected his psycho-paths to exclude psychotics, but included those whose psychosis was secondary to their psychopathy. He described three types of psycho-paths, but his c r i t e r i a allowed for the inclusion of neurotics and simple delinquent or criminal types. He states?that psychopaths are 5. those who have strong demands accompanied by feelings of inadequacy, inferiority or insecurity, and in whom there develops a tendency to resort to tantrums, sulks and running away. He stated that he found a hereditary link in between 50 and 74% of the cases he studied. Karpman (1929) although he suggested restricting the concept, signalled the beginning of the wastebasket diagnosis status of psycho-pathy with his inclusion of those with organic complications i n his typology. His behavioural description of "constitutional psychopaths" did match well with Cleckley's (1964) c r i t e r i a . During the 1930s and 1940s the term psychopath came to be a category for psychiatric dis-turbances which could not be subsumed under other c l i n i c a l labels. Henderson (1939) for example, attempted to relate psychopathy to suicide, neurosis and erratic genius'. Menninger proposed the label "transilient personality" reflecting the psychopath's tendency to jump from activity to activity without qualms or attempts at con-tinuity. While Menninger f e l t that psychopaths were f u l l of partially suppressed hostile and aggressive impulses which are controlled by a continuously maintained pretense, the behavioural c r i t e r i a which he outlined for application of the diagnosis are very similar to those proposed by Cleckley (1964) a few years later i n the f i r s t edition of The Mask of Sanity. Cleckley attempted to make the concept of psycho-pathy functional by limiting i t s application to those whose behaviour and attitudes matched sixteen specific c r i t e r i a . Lack of genuine affect and the pursuit of antisocial a c t i v i t i e s are of primary importance in his classification. i While Cleckley was able to use his c r i t e r i a to distinguish psycho-paths from non-psychopaths, his sample was very different from that usually found in psychopathy research. Working in a private c l i n i c , his cases were usually wealthy and had escaped any long periods in j a i l . Most studies done on psychopaths involve use of convicts or university students scoring high on specific M.M.P.I. scales or other relevant questionnaires. Since Cleckley's original publication, many writers have attempted to define a genuine psychopath group in their research, but have found i t necessary to include other types of pseudo-psychopath as well. Karpman (1961) spoke of the aggressive-predatory and passive-parasitic types (both were varieties of primary psychopathy). Arieti (1967) described several categories including the simple and complex types, and Hare (1970) has frequently used a secondary (mixed) psycho-path group in addition to a primary psychopath group in his research. Quay (1965) and Jenkins (1966) have discussed delinquent behaviour in terms of neurosis, cultural pressure and psychopathy, pointing out that the same behaviour can be the result of each of the three influence The second edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (1968) labels the disorder "antisocial personality" and applies the following definition to i t : "People who are basically unsocialized and whose behaviour pattern brings them repeatedly into conflict with society. They are incapable of significant loyalty to individuals, groups, or social values. They are grossly selfish, callous, irresponsible, impulsive and unable to feel guilt or to learn from experience or punishment. Frustration tolerance is low. They tend to blame others or offer plausible rationalization for their behaviour. A mere history of repeated legal or social offences is insufficient to justify this diagnosis" (p. 43). 7. An operational definition of psychopathy was needed for this study, given that Cleckley's 15 behavioural c r i t e r i a provided a clear conception of the type of individual who could be so labelled. As Hare (1975) has indicated the use of Cleckley's c r i t e r i a in the form of a check-list is inviting experimenter bias. Thus scores on an objective test such as the M.M.P.I. seemed to offer a reasonable solution. The M.M.P.I. Handbook (Dahlstram and Welsh, 1960) stated that a diagnosis of psychopathy is generally assigned to subjects whose T. scores are highest on the Pd and Ma scales (49 or 94 profiles, given T score 70). H i l l , Haertzen and Glaser (1960) pointed out that, among heroin addicts in a prison population, the D scale also tended to be elevated. Thus, they defined their psychopathic subjects as being those with the high point pair being the Pd scale plus either the Ma or D scales (49, 94, 24 o4 42 profiles). Since many of the subjects to be used in this study were ex-heroin users, and since a l l were in j a i l at the time of this study, the operational definition for psychopathy selected was that of H i l l et a l . b. E.E.G. CORRELATES OF PSYCHOPATHY Considerable research has appeared in the past thirty years, most of i t done in the 1940s and 1950s, which indicates that a high pro-portion of psychopaths have abnormal E.E.G. patterns. Ellingson's (1954) review reported that, of 1500 psychopaths examined, between 31 and 58 percent had some form of E.E.G. abnormality, whereas only 5-15% of control groups had similar abnormalities. H i l l and Watterson (1942) in their sample of psychopathic soldiers, found 32% of the inadequate psychopath group 65% of their hostile aggressive psychopaths 8. to have one or more serious disorders in E.E.G. pattern. They were the f i r s t to state that, in view of the similarity between the aggressive behaviour of psychopaths and the bad-temper responses of children to frustration, as well as their E.E.G. similarity, E.E.G. abnormality among psychopaths may be produced by failure in development of the C.N.S. The topic of maturational defects in psychopathy w i l l be dis-cussed in detail later. H i l l and Watterson used several c r i t e r i a for selection of abnormal E.E.G. records. Among records with subject at rest, they were: 1) dominant rhythm with frequency less than 8 C.P.S. 2) bursts of two or more waves with frequency less than 7 C.P.S. voltage greater than \ dominant rhythm 3) grand mai phenomenon 4) spike and wave complexes (petit mai phenomenon) 5) isolated random waves 6 C.P.S. or less, voltage>3equal to or greater than the dominant rhythm provided that the waves are repeated from the same cortical area. With subjects hyperventilating, abnormality was diagnosed when waves of 2 - 3 C.P.S. with voltage greater than 100 microvolts occurred, persisting after the hyperventilation stopped. Knott (Wilson, 1965) points out that slow wave activity evoked by hyperventilation is not regarded as being truly abnormal unless there is some type of seizure activity. Low blood sugar or low CO2 may produce slow wave phenomena even in normal Ss. Thus, in H i l l and Watterson1s study, while 55%^of a l l those diagnosed as psychopaths had E.E.G. abnormalities, only 32% had abnormal E.E.G. at rest. This s t i l l represented a significantly higher proportion than among control subjects. Silverman (1943) applied more stringent c r i t e r i a in the selection of his sample of psychopaths. His original sample was selected through the use of Cleckley's c r i t e r i a , then he eliminated those Ss whose 9. c l i n i c a l state suggested neurosis or psychosis, or who had any signs of organic damage. With these s t r i c t selection c r i t e r i a , and using E.E.G. c r i t e r i a similar to H i l l and Watterson's, he found 53.47. of his 75 Ss to have abnormal records, with another 26.6% having border-line E.E.G.s. Less than 10% of his normal controls showed these abnormalities. In 1944, H i l l (1944) divided psychopaths into aggressive, in-adequate, and creative types, using Henderson's (1939) typology. He describes the aggressive type as those with histories of repeated hostile acts, or tendencies toward self-injury or suicide. 74% of this group had adnormal E.E.G.s; in most the dysfunction was reflected by 4 - 6 CPS waves in post-central areas of the brain. He suggested that the behaviour of these psychopaths is caused by acute failure of corti c a l inhibition of the hypothalamic activity concerned with vegetative responses to emotional stimulation. Diethelm and Symons (1945), using Ss with no organic defects, divided psychopaths into 5 types and found that over a l l five types, 49% had some abnormality of E.E.G. within the type labelled simple psychopath, which they defined along the lines of Cleckley's c r i t e r i a ; they found 58% to have 5- 7 C.P.S. activity as the predominant abnormality, Kennard, Rabinovitch and Fister (1955) drew samples of psycho-paths from Oakalla Prison Farm, schizophrenics from Essondale Hospital and normal controls. Unfortunately they do not specify c r i t e r i a for selection of psychopaths, but they found 12% of normals, 24% of psycho-paths and 46% of schizophrenics to have some E.E.G. abnormality. Theta wave activity was involved in more of the E.E.G. abnormalities among psychopaths. 10. Many studies (Gibbs et a l , 1945; Hare, 1970; H i l l , 1952; Kennard, 1953; Silverman, 1943 and 1944) have reflected on the similarity between E.E.G. patterns of some psychopaths and those of young children, suggesting the hypothesis that cortical immaturity leads to psycho-pathic behaviour. Silverman (1943) cited several studies showing slow wave patterns in children's E.E.G.s similar to those found in psycho-paths, and concluded that psychopathy is a result of inborn or early acquired cerebral dysfunction, as well as disturbed parent-child relationships. In a later paper (1944) Silverman noted a maturing-out tendency in psychopaths with brainwave abnormalities, a very important finding in view of the poor prognosis usually given to psychopaths. Pond, Ray and H i l l (1950) studied a small sample of children and adoles-cents over a number of years and noted the disappearance of brain wave abnormalities, either with the replacement of lateralized abnormal activity with normal brain waves, or the disappearance of generalized abnormality leaving a focal disturbance behind. The location of ab-normalities in posterior areas of the brain accords with studies showing this area to have, along with certain parts of the frontal lobe, the greatest post-natal development of any part of the brain. They con-cluded by hypothesizing that E.E.G. abnormalities confined to the temporal lobe reflect a defect of maturation in this area, bringing about a failure to take i t s proper part in the functional organization of the cortex. The resulting personality is one of immaturity and childishness, with the symptomatology resembling that which results from acquired dysfunction of this area later in l i f e . H i l l (1952) outlined four types of E.E.G. abnormality which suggest maturational defect. F i f t y percent of his sample of 194 psychopaths had abnormal E.E.G. compared with 20% of normals and 35% of a sample of schizo-phrenics. The psychopaths had significantly greater numbers with ab-normalities of a l l four types than the normals. Levy and Kennard (1953) found E.E.G. abnormality to be inversely related to age in a group of psychopathic prisoners selected on the basis of scores in the M.M.P.I. Pd scale. It is interesting that the data were significant in spite of the weakness of selection c r i t e r i a . In a recent study, Spilimbergo and Nissen (1971) found that, as E.E.G. abnormalities in children with behaviour problems disappeared, the behaviour problems disappeared. Some researchers (Quay, 1965; Hare, 1970), have discussed a cortical under-arousal theory of psychopathy which relates to the evidence of E.E.G. abnormality presented above. As has been pointed out, the abnormality most commonly found with psychopaths is an excess of theta activity (Hare, 1970), This evidence of excessive amounts of slow wave activity i s consistent with the hypothesis that psychopaths with E.E.G. abnormality are in a state of low cortical arousal, in that theta wave activity i s usually associated with states of drowsiness and sleep. Quay (1965) f e l t that the striving for excitement and novelty shown by most psychopaths reflected a pathological need for stimulation. He stated that impulsivity and the lack of even minimal tolerance for sameness are the primary and distinctive features of the disorder. Psychopathy is the extreme of stimulation seeking behaviour. Petrie (1967) stated that psychopaths tend to reduce the impact of incoming stimuli, thus being in a state of actual or threatened stimulus depriv-ation when not s t i r r i n g up trouble. Hare (1970) points out that many of the cues for adequate social functioning are subtle, and thus may be lost on the stimulus-reducing psychopath. 12. Heart rate information related to the cortical under arousal theory has been examined by Hare (1970). He found that the cardiac component of the orienting response was significantly smaller to psychopaths than in non-psychopaths, and concluded that the psycho-path may be somewhat less attentive and sensitive to changes in en-vironmental stimulation than is the normal person. Borkovec (1970) found lessened cardiac responsivity to a tone in psychopaths. Many researchers, Borkovec, 1970; Hare and Quinn, 1971; Lykken, 1957; Sutker, 1970, have found electrodermal under-responsivity to be related to psychopathy. The findings generally are that anticipatory skin conductance (S.C.) responses to noxious stimuli are relatively small in psychopaths, and that electrodermal responses cannot readily be conditioned. The evidence suggests a defi c i t in the psychopath's a b i l i t y to anticipate punishement, a condition which some researchers (Schachter and Latane, 1964) feel can be corrected through adrenalin injections. Lacey and Lacey (1958) suggested that heart rate and S.C. fluct-uations have excitatory effects on the cerebral cortex. The evidence presented above suggests that l i t t l e autonomic var i a b i l i t y occurs in psychopaths relative to the normal population, thus removing an important source of cortical arousal from psychopaths (Hare, 1970). This lack of A.N.S. var i a b i l i t y may explain the psychopath's lack of emotional responsivity (Karpman, 1961), or semantic dementia as Cleckley (1964) called i t . Another major factor involved in psycho-pathy (Cleckley, 1964; McCord and McCord, 1964), that of failure to learn from experience, may also be related to autonomic dysfunction, in that autonomic under.ireactivity and the consequent cortical under-arousal could lead the psychopath into anti-social activities for their stimulation value, while the psychopath's high threshold for social cues (Hare, 1970) would make him immune to the pressures of threatened sanctions from those hurt by his misdeeds. Hare (1975) has presented further evidence to support the above findings. He examined the psychopaths combination of good cardio-vascular and poor electrodermal conditioning. Psychopathic Ss showed anticipatory HR acceleration to an emotionally arousing situation, which, Hare speculated, could reflect an adaptive process that serves to reduce the emotional impact of the situation. Psychopathy could be a disorder in which there is prompt activation of psychophysiological defense mechanisms when excessive stimulation is anticipated. c. THE SENSATION SEEKING SCALE AND ITS RELATION TO PSYCHOPATHY Zuckerman, Kolin, Price and Zoob (1964) developed the Sensation Scale to quantify the construct "optimal stimulation level", with the immediate objective of predicting individual differences in response to sensory deprivation. The scale has gone through a number of revisions in the decade since i t s introduction. At present, i t contains 72 forced-choice items, with choices to be made relating to preference for extremes in sensation (heat, noise, etc.) preferences for the unfamiliar as opposed to the familiar, preferences for irregularity as opposed to routine, enjoyment of danger versus safety, and others. Of the 72 items, 22 make up the general SSS M.F. scale (the general t r a i t factor containing items which loaded .30 or higher f or both males and females on the general t r a i t factor). Further analysis yielded four second-orde factors: 14. 1) The t h r i l l and adventures seeking factor (TA) consists of items which express a desire to engage in outdoor sports or other ac t i v i t i e s involving elements of speed or danger. 2) The experience seeking factor (E.S.) contains items reflecting the desire for experience for i t s own sake. It includes items on travel, drug use and the flouting of " i r r a t i o n a l " authority. 3) The disinhibition factor (Dis) contains items expressing a hedonistic "playboy" type philosophy; drinking, sexual variety and gambling. 4) The boredom susceptibility factor (B.S.) found only with males, contains items indicating a dislike for repetition of experience, routine work, predictable, dull or boring people and restlessness when things go unchanged. Zuckerman (1972) cited several studies confirming the r e l i a b i l i t y of the scale, and he (1968) also provided evidence of construct validity for the scale. He summarized the various findings relating to personality correlates as follows: "A personality profile of the high sensation seeker is beginning to emerge from these data. He tends to be oriented to body sensations, extroverted, thrill-seeking, active, impulsive, anti-social or nonconformist, and low on anxiety. He may be eccentric but is less likely to be psychiatrically disturbed than low sensation seekers", (p. 421). Several researchers have found correlations between the S.S.S. and scales of the M.M.P.I. often used as c r i t e r i a for psychopathy. Zuckerman et al (1966) found significant positive correlations between the S.S.S. and the F, Pd and Ma scales. Zuckerman et al (1967) reported 15. a significant correlation with the Pd scale among 150 naval recruits, and also found significant correlations with the Gough socialization scale scored in the antisocial direction. Blackburn (1969) with a sample of 54 mentally i l l Ss and 21 Ss clinically diagnosed as psycho-pathic personality or psychopathic disorder, as well as 8 others defined as psychopaths for the study, found correlations with the Pa, Pd, Sc and a l l three validity scales of the M.M.P.I. The difference between psychopathic and non-psychopathic Ss was significant at .10 only, but selection criteria were vague and the sample relatively small. Blackburn stated that the diagnosis of psychopathy would not hold under stringent criteria such as those of McCord and McCord (1964). Zuckerman et al (1972) found that the Pd scale correlates with the E.S. sub-scale for both males and females and with the Dis. sub-scale for females only. The Ma scale correlates with the general factor and a l l four sub-scales for both males and females. The F scale correlated only with the E.S. sub-scale in males, butt with a l l sub-scales for females. Many studies (Blackburn, 1969; Kish and Busse, 1968; Thome, 1971) report negative correlations between the S.S.S. and age, and Zuckerman (1972) reports reliable sex differences, males scoring higher than females on the general factor. Largest sex difference appeared on the Dis. sub-scale. Kish and Busse (1968) found that the S.S.S. correlated positively with intelligence, but found indications that at normal or above normal levels of intelligence the relationship does not hold. Segal (1973) and Zuckerman (1972) report no correlation between anxiety trait scores and scores on the S.S.; however, Segal found neg-ative correlation between the S.S.S. and levels of anxiety reported to specific situations contained on the S-R Inventory of Anxiety. Thus, Zuckerman's conclusion that anxiety is orthogonal to S.S.S. scores appears to be questionable. Thorne (1971) examined scores on the S.S.S. among deviant populations, and found that juvenile delinquents got the highest scores,-followed by young adult felons, older adult felons and the mentally i l l . His personality profile for high scorers matched well with that outlined by Zuckerman and cited above. PROPOSAL The information cited above indicates that a high percentage of psychopaths have some form of E.E.G. abnormality. These abnormalities usually consist of an excess of bilateral theta activity of a non-specific kind, but they may be focal, especially in the posterior temporal regions, (Morris, M., Harper, M.A., and Bleyerveld, J., 1972). Hare (1970) has discussed research which indicates that prognosis is better for psychopaths with abnormal E.E.G. patterns. Perhaps this is related to a physiologically mediated drop in need for stimulation, an effect lacking in psychopaths without E.E.G. abnormalities. Kish and Busse (1968) suggest that age is negatively correlated with scores on the S.S.S. because older people become less interested in sensational ac t i v i t i e s as they become more experienced with them. This may be an important factor in the maturing-out of psychopaths with brain-wave abnormalities, augmented by the tendency for these abnormal patterns to become normalized with age (Levy and Kennard, 1953; Pond, 1950; Silverman, 1944; Spilimbergo, 1971). The S.S.S. provides a tool which appears to correlate with asocial or psychopathic tendencies. (Zuckerman, 1964, 1971, 1972) consistent with Quay's (1965) theory of psychopathy as a disorder reflecting pathological stimulation seeking. It was expected that psychopathic Ss with brain wave abnormalities (GROUP I), would score higher on the S.S.S. than psychopathic Ss with normal brain waves (GROUP II), or non-psychopathic Ss with slow brain waves (GROUP III) or non-psychopathic Ss with normal brain waves (GROUP IV), because GROUP I Ss are predisposed, due to cortical (E.E.G. data) and behavioural (M.M.P.I, data) factors, to engage in sensation seeking a c t i v i t i e s . It was also expected that GROUP II Ss would score relatively high on the S.S.S., but significantly lower than GROUP I Ss, due to the fact that they did not show evidence of cortical abnormalities which would predispose them to sensation seeking. GROUP III was also expected to score relatively high on the S.S.S. due to their cortical abnormalities, but significantly lower than GROUP I Ss. While i t is believed that the cortical factors have a greater influence on S.S.S. scores than behavioural factors, i t was assumed that the smallness of the subject samples would not lead to the finding of significant differences between GROUPS II and III. It was predicted that GROUP IV would score significantly lower than GROUPS I, II and III on the S.S.S. since these Ss lacked the cortical and behavioural factors which would predispose them to engage in sen-sation seeking a c t i v i t i e s . 18. METHOD SUBJECTS The 39 Ss used in the study were male inmates of various penal institutions located on the lower mainland of B.C. A l l were between the ages of 19 and 32, and a l l participated voluntarily and without pay. The researcher was given access to E.E.G. data on the inmates, and selected 19 Ss with normal brain wave patterns, and 20 Ss with abnormally slow brain wave patterns (excessive theta activity in posterior regions of the brain while S was in a resting conscious state). No S was used who was on medication or who showed evidence of seizure activity. APPARATUS Since E.E.G. recordings were provided by the institutions, i t was unnecessary to secure a polygraph for the study. Materials were 39 copies each of the sensation seeking scale, the activity pre-ference questionnaire and the M.M.P.I. mini-mult. Adequate testing environments were provided by the institutions. PROCEDURE The experimenter secured permission from one provincial and three federal prisons to examine E.E.G.files and to s o l i c i t volunteers for the study. E.E.G. recordings were taken with Ss in a state of waking rest, with eyes closed. The E.E.G. analyses were performed by two psych-? i a t r i s t s consulting with the provincial and federal prison systems. Their c r i t e r i a for the diagnosis of abnormally slow records were essentially those of H i l l and Watterson (1942). With subject at rest these c r i t e r i a are: 1) dominant rhythm with frequency less than 8 C.P.S. 2) bursts of two or more waves with frequency less than 7 C.P.S. and voltage greater than \ dominant rhythm. 19. Any records with grand mai or petit mai phenomena were not used in this study, to eliminate the possibility of selecting Ss with histories of epileptic seizure. B.G. Gibbons, M.D. at the L.M.R.C.C. and G. Wada, M.D. at the Regional Medical Centre, performed the analyses. The diagnoses assigned to Ss for the purposes of this study were made after E.E.G. analyses had been performed; thus the E.E.G. analysts were not influenced in their work by other test results pertinent to this study. Electrode placement was standard (Greenfield, N.S. and Sternbach, R.A., 1972). I n i t i a l l y the E.E.G. records were examined, and prospective Ss were selected whose brain wave patterns were normal, or whose E.E.G.s reflected abnormal quantities of theta activity in the posterior regions of the brain. The prospective Ss were then approached individually by E in their c e l l blocks. E described the study as one which involved relating brain wave patterns to interest in engaging in exciting and varied, i f somewhat deviant, a c t i v i t i e s . The concept of psychopathy was not mentioned. Propsective Ss were assured that participation was s t r i c t l y voluntary, that results of the testing were s t r i c t l y confidential and that nothing concerning results would be included in their f i l e s or communicated to prison authorities. Of 44 inmates interviewed 40 agreed to participate in the study, 20 with appropriate brain wave abnormalities and 20 with normal brain wave patterns. One S with normal brain waves was rejected on the basis of M.M.P.I, validity scale scores, leaving 19 usable Ss in that category. Upon acceptance, Ss were administered the three questionnaires in adequate testing f a c i l i t i e s provided by the institutions. Ss completed a l l tests in the same session, a procedure which took 45 minutes to two hours, depending upon the S. They were then returned tofctheir c e l l blocks, and i f they requested, were told they could receive feedback on the study. 20. Subjects were assigned to the psychopathic or the non-psychopathic groups on the basis of M.M.P.J. MINI-MULT, scores. A.P.Q. data were also obtained in this study as an alternative criterion for the diagnosis of psychopathy, but only the M.M.P.I. results were used here in the data analysis. Data on M.M.P.I. profiles and A.P.Q. scores canbe found in appendices A and B . Hare (1975,B) indicated that use of the A.P.Q. as the sole criterion in selection of psychopathic Ss is a mistake, since psychopaths often score high on this scale, contrary to prediction. The target c r i t e r i a for the assignment of the diagnosis of psycho-pathy on the basis of M.M.P.I. scores were: 1) Pd scale T. score ^ 70 5 2) Ma or D. scale T. score ^ 70 3) No other c l i n i c a l scale T. scores ^ 70 4) No validity scale T. scores ^ 70 The D-scale was included in the c r i t e r i a in accord with the findings of H i l l , Haertgen and Glaser (1960), that psychopathic subjects, especially those in prison, tend to score high on the D-scale of the M.M.P.I. While their Ss were a l l heroin addicts, i t was accepted, for the purposes of the present study, that a high score on the S-Scale, in combination with a high Pd-scale score, would be an indication of psychopathy. The sensor-i a l l y deprived environment common to prisons may explain the elevated S-scale scores among psychopathic prisoners. Due to the shortage of usable Ss, selection c r i t e r i a were made much less stringent than those listed above. The lOSs with slow brain wave patterns made up the Non Pd-Slow B.W. group. The same method was used to assign the Ss with normal brain wave patterns to the Pd-Normal B.W. and the Non Pd-Normal B.W. groups (Pd-Normal) B.W. group had 10 Ss, Non Pd-Normal B.W. group had 9 Ss, for the reason noted e a r l i e r ) . RESULTS Analyses of variance were performed on the scores for the General Scale and the four subscales of the S.S.S. The psychopathic Ss did not score significantly higher than the non-psychopathic Ss on the General Scale or on any of the subscales (see Table I ) . Only the scores on the General Scale approached significance (F= 3.01, P ^ .10). The Ss with slow brain wave patterns scored significantly higher on the General Sclae than the Ss with normal brain wave patterns (F= 6.46, P ^ .025). The relationship held to a slight, but non-significant, degree with the T.A. (F = 3.42, P ( .10) and E.S. (F = 3.08, P ( .10) scales. Because of the fact that the results obtained from the analyses of variance were generally not significant, and because the psychopathic with slow brain waves (Pd-Slow B.W.) group had higher scores on the S.S.S. scales than the other three groups (see Table I and Fig. 1), simple main effects analyses were performed to compare the scores of the Pd-Slow B.W. group with those of the Pd-Normal B.W. and the Non Pd-Slow B.W. groups. The Pd-Slow B.W. group scored significantly higher (see Table III) than the- Pd-Normal B.W. group on the General Scale F = 6.02; P { .025), the T.A. Scale (F = 5.78; p { .025) and the E.S. Scale (F = 4.94; P { .05). The Pd-Slow B.W. group scores tended to be higher than those of the Non Pd-Slow B.W. group on the General Scale ( F = 3.55; P ( .10), the T.A. Scale (F = 3.13; P { .10) and the E.S. Scale (F = 3.35; P ( .10). 22. TABLE I SUMMARY OF MEANS Psychopaths Non-Psychopaths Slow Brain Waves Normal Brain Waves Slow i Brain Waves Normal Brain Waves S.S.S. General Scale 16.3 12.0 13.0 11.0 S.S.S. T.B. Scale 12.8 9.4 10.3 10.0 S.S.S. E.S. Scale 13.0 9i6 10.2 9.8 S.S.S. Dis. Scale 8.0 6.1 6.8 8.4 S.S.S. B.S. Scale 7.7 6.2 7.1 7.0 23. TABLE II F-RATIOS FOR EFFECTS Dependent Variable (df=35) Psychopath A(df=l) P Wave B(df=l) P interaction AxB(df=l) P £>.£>.t>. General Scale 15.36 3.01 >.05 6.46 <.025 0.90 >.50 S.S.S. T.A. Scale 10.0 0.90 >.50 3.42 ^.05 2.40 >.10 S • S • S • H * S • Scale 11.71 1.44 >.10 3.08 >.05 1.92 >.10 S.S.S. Dis. Scale 9.86 0.31 >.50 0.02 y.50 3.11 >.05 S • S • S • 6«S • Scale 10.18 0.01 >.50 0.63 >.50 0.48 >.50 24. TABLE III SUMMARY OF SIMPLE MAIN EFFECTS Pd-Slow B.W. vs. Pd.-normal B.W. Pd-Slow B.W. vs. Pd. - Slow B.W. fUr-1,3^; n d r ^ l . j D ; jf S.S.S. General Scale 6.02 <.025 3.55 >.05 S • S • S • X • R. • Scale 5.78 <.025 3.13 ^.05 S • S • S« I£ • S • Scale 4.94 <.05 3.35 > .05 S.S.S. Dis. Scale 1.83 > .50 0.73 > .50 S • S • S • 6 * S • Scale 1.10 y .50 0.18 > .50 - .—. — - _ FIGURE I MEAN SCORES ON GENERAL S.S.S. SCALE 16 | Slow B.W. 12 4 • Normal B.W. No Yes Psychopaths FIGURE Z. MEAN SCORES ON T.A. SCALE 26. S C 0 R E S 18 1 16 t 14 4 12 + 10 •<• Slow Normal No Yes Psychopaths FIGURE 3 MEAN SCORES ON E.S. SCALE 27. S C 0 R E S 18 16 14 12 10 Slow -Normal No Yes Psychopaths FIGURE 4 MEAN SCORES ON DIS. SCALE Slow Normal No Yes Psychopaths 29. FIGURE 5 MEAN SCORES ON B.S. SCALE 14 h S 12 ' C 0 R 10 -E S 8 " Slow 6 Normal No Yes Psychopaths 30. DISCUSSION The results of this study lent support to the central hypothesis that psychopathic individuals with abnormally slow brain wave patterns have stronger needs for varied sensory experience than do psychopathic individuals with normal brain waves or non-psychopaths. While Quay (1965) has suggested that psychopathy is the extreme of stimulation-seeking behaviour, this study indicated that psychopathic types tend to be more prone to certain types of novel behaviour, while being similar to non-psychopathic types in terms of preference for othersforms of sensation-seeking behaviour. The psychopathic subjects showed interest in activities involving elementary speed or danger (T.A. Scale), or activities involving travel, drug use and the flouting of "irrantional" authority (E.S. Scale) to a greater extent than hon-psychopathic subjects. This finding was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant, a fact which may have been due to the relatively weak c r i t e r i a used to distinguish psychopathic from non-psychopathic types. As the composite M.M.P.I. profiles in Appendix B indicate, the non-Psychopathic groups showed elevations on several of the c l i n i c a l scales, which suggests that these groups are a mixture of neurotic, psychotic and normal individuals. It is expected that the results of this study would have been more dramatic i f non-Psychopathic subjects could have been selected whose M.M.PiT. T-scores on a l l c l i n i c a l scales were below 70, and i f psychopathic subjects had been selected whose profiles adhered to the c r i t e r i a set out by H i l l et a l . (1960). When subjects with slow brain waves were compared to subjects with normal brain waves on scores on the T.A. and E.S. scales, they were found to report significantly greater interest in such behaviours. No differences were found among the four groups in terms of interest in drinking, sexual variety and gambling (Des Scale) or in dislike for routine work, re-petition of experience or interest in du l l , boring people (B.S. Scale). Scores on these two scales for a l l groups was very similar to the norms cited by Zuckerman (1972), based upon scores of 686 male freshmen at the University of Delaware. Studies cited earlier (Blackburn, 1969; Thorpe, 1971) indicate that the scores of these students would likely be high relative to the normal population, due to the youth of the subjects. Subjects with slow brain waves scored significantly higher on the S.S.S. general (G) scale than subjects with normal brain waves, a finding which reflects the importance of the E.E.G. component in the concept of psychopathy as a stimulation-reduction disorder (Petrie, 1967). The further findings that psychopathic subjects with slow brain waves scored significantly higher than the Pd-Normal BW and the non Pd-Normal B.W. groups and tended to score higher than the Non Pd-Slow BW group on the G, T.B. and E.S. scales of the S.S.S. lend support to the central hypothesis of this study that psychopathy is a disorder reflecting cortical underarousal (Hare, 1970; Quay, 1965) and is specific to those individuals whose behaviour f i t s psychopathic c r i t e r i a and who have abnormally slow brain-waves. As was pointed out in the introduction, negative correlations have been found between scores on the S.S.S. and age (Blackburn, 1969; Kish and Busse, 1968; Thome, 1971), between appearance of abnormal quantities of theta waves in E.E.G. records and age (Levy and Kennard, 1953) and between the occurence of psychopathic behaviour and age (Hare, 1970). This study served to link psychopathy and abnormal E.E.G. to scores on 32. the S.S.S., indicating that, for those persons now labelled psychopath who have abnormally slow brain-wave patterns, the disorder may be one related to delayed cortical maturation, causing a self-limiting phase of cortical underarousal. Wisnick (Henderson, 1970) has noted a similar process with heroin addicts, stating that addiction i s a se l f - l i m i t -ing disorder for approximately two-thirds of a l l addicts. These findings have important diagnostic and treatment implications, in view of the rather bleak prognosis usually given those diagnosed as psychopaths. It would appear that there is a tendency for psychopaths with E.E.G. abnormalities to "mature-out" of their psychopathic behaviour, while psychopaths with normal brain waves tend to maintain their psycho-pathic behaviour throughout their lives. It would seem logical then, to separate the two groups diagnosticaily, perhaps labelling those without E.E.G. abnormalities "antisocial personality-psychopath" and labelling those with E.E.G. abnormalities and the appropriate psychopathic behaviour "antisocial personality-cortically immature". As for treatment implications, i t would seem that the psychopaths with slow brain waves have a relatively good prognosis. Recent research on the use of bio-feedback techniques (Stoyva et a l . , 1972) suggests that i t may be possible to train individuals with excessive quantities of theta in the posterior brain regions to alter the dominant wave patterns, producing the normal quantities of alpha during the resting state. This type of training could speed up the natural maturation process, thus normalizing the E.E.G. component which appears to be a major influence on stimulation-seeking behaviour. As noted earlier Lacey and Lacey (1958) suggested that heart rate and G.S.R. fluctuations have excitatory effects on the cerebral cortex. Since others have found that l i t t l e autonomic variability 33. occurs in psychopaths relative to the normal population (Borkovec, 1970; Hare and Quinn, 1971; Jutker, 1970) i t may be that psychopaths lack an important internal source of cortical arousal. As several researchers have indicated (Stoyva, 19/1, 1972) G.S.R. can also be conditional through biofeedback techniques. Perhaps such training could also be beneficial in the treatment of psychopathic individuals with slow E.E.G.s. The increase in A.N.S. vari a b i l i t y through such training could positively affect the degree of emotional responsivity (Karpman, 1961) of these individuals, and would alleviate the need to engage in anti-social a c t i v i t i e s for their stimulation value. 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PSYCHOANALYTIC REVIEW, 1937, 24, 276 - 291. The position of the psychopath in the psychoanalytic system. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOANALYSIS. 1938, 19, 471-488. ZUCKERMAN, M. Dimensions of sensation seeking. JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND  CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY. 1971, 36 (1) 45-52. Manual and Research Report for the Sensation Seeking Scale. Delaware: Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of Delaware, 1972. , KOLIN, E.A. PRICE, L. and Z00B, I. Development of a sensation seeking scale. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1964, 28(6). 477-482 , PERSKY, H., HOPKINS, T.R., MURTAUGH, T., BASU, G.K. and SCHILLING, M. Comparison of stress effects of perceptual and social isolation. ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY, 1966, 14, 356 - 365. 39. REFERENCES (continued) ZUCKERMAN, M. SCHULTZ, D.P. and HOPKINS, T.R. Sensation seeking and volunteering for sensory deprivation and hypnosis experiments. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1967, 31 (4), 358-363. , and LINK, K. construct validity for the S.S.S. JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1968, 32 (4) 420-425. T'OK-? BONE, R.N., NEARY, R., MANGELSFORFF, D. and BRUSTMAN, B. What is the sensation seeker? Personality t r a i t and experience correlates of the S.S.S. JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL  PSYCHOLOGY, 1972, 39 (2), 308 - 321. 40. APPENDIX A. QUESTIONNAIRE DATA BY GROUP GROUP I: Pd - Slow B.W. Ss M.M.P.I. A.P.Q S • S • S • Profiles Ve Vne S P E G T.A. E.S. Dis. B.S. 1. 42» 7-1 2 3 22 19 9 18 13 14 1 7 2. 4' 92-81 6 3 15 17 10 19 14 17 13 11 3. 8" 4' 96- 2 0 24 25 10 14 12 10 7 9 4. 24" 89» 3 3 18 10 9 15 14 13 7 7 5. 24" 13' 3 1 18 23 3 16 12 12 9 9 6. 49' 72- 3 2 9 6 6 17 14 12 11 7 7. 4'8 - 921 5 4 19 19 7 12 8 10 5 6 8. 274' 3- 4 3 16 13 3 19 14 15 9 7 9. 4' 826- 4 6 21 14 7 15 14 10 8 6 10. 8" 49'7 3 6 17 10 8 ) 18 13 17 10 8 41 GROUP I I : Pd - Normal B.W. Ss M.M.P.I. A.P.Q. • 5 Profiles Ve Vne S P E G T.A. E.S. Dis B.S. 1. 247H 8' 8 1 24 21 10 14 11 12 6 6 2. 48'26- 3- 5 13 11 7 14 11 10 8 11 3. 4*2"78' 4 1 11 15 3 13 13 10 5 4 4. 24' 78- 5 1 16 9 7 8 5 8 3 6 5. 4*9"t 27- 5 1 23 20 11 10 9 10 8 2 6. 2" 471' 2 2 25 23 12 7 4 5 5 3 7. 9" 471' 2 3 18 11 7 12 14 8 6 5 8. 2384" 5 6 21 19 6 13 4 12 7 10 9. 8472' 4 3 16 16 7 19 14 12 7 11 10. 4782' 5 4 14 19 7 10 9 9 6 4 42. GROUP III - Non Pd - Slow B.W. M.M.P.I. Profiles A.P.Q. S. S.S. Ss Ve Vne S P E G T.A. E.S. Dis. B.S. 1. 79' 23- 4 3 21 15 7 13 13 12 5 13 2. 4-817 4 4 29 27 10 1 2 1 5 3 3. 2871' 6 3 8 3 3 18 13 13 12 12 4. 8123* 4 2 4 12 4 14 11 13 10 11 5. 39» 24- 2 3 19 15 5 11 9 11 5 5 6. 7921/ 5 2 25 23 10 13 10 11 6 2 7. 2876' 4 1 15 15 9 13 10 12 10 4 8. 3721* 2 1 17 18 5 18 13 14 12 12 9. L*26"7' 2 6 23 17 14 13 9 8 2 3 10. i8*62" 6 6 8 7 8 16 13 7 0 6 43. GROUP IV: Non Pd - Normal B.W. Ss M.M.P.I. Profiles A.P.Q. S. S * S • Ve Vne S P E G T.A. E.S. Dis. B.S. 1. 8" 723» 4 6 19 18 8 13 10 9 6 7 2. 4' 6-89/ 6 4 9 10 4 9 11 3 8 7 3. 48' 76- 5 3 23 23 9 3 3 7 7 2 4. 86*29" 5 4 19 13 4 12 10 14 6 6 5. 81" 39» 4 3 18 17 10 17 13 13 9 11 6. 6" 89'4- 4 4 23 23 10 9 10 4 9 6 7. 9' 287- 3 4 19 19 7 18 14 17 12 12 8. 84" 72' 4 7 19 15 10 10 12 12 9 7 9. 1" 682' 7 8 14 10 10 9 7 9 10 5 44. APPENDIX B GROUP I - Pd-S COMPOSITE PROFILE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (I TorTc ?' L F K Hsi .SK D Hy Pd1.4K Ml ' Po PH-1K S d . l K Ma-!.2K • Si 120-115 -H O -105 -. 1 0 0 — 95 -90-85 : a l e • -130-120-110--RST= 90-80-... .70-60-50-40-45 ; 40-35 -30 -For'Rccoidmy ToiTrr Addiiionnl JJ^ olia 3 5 - .50- . 45-- 1 0 - 7 - 2 5 -1 5 -70-65-: • 60-55-: 50-45-40-35-30--2S- : 2 0 -: " 1 5 ~ 10--120 r 1 1 5 -.-no j .105 J-J0O '- 95 '- OS - 8 0 r 75 -'—•/a r 6 i '—m - 55 — 40 '^-30 7 25 — 20 TorTc ? 1. F • K Hsi-.SK D Hy Pd+.4K Mf Pa Pp-IK Sc+IK Mai.2K Si 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 9 . 0 H a w S c o r e hj±_ 1J,6 2 J b P 2J& 9*2-K to b o a d d e d .. Ra w S c o r o w i t h K 1 1.9 2 9 . 0 2 7 ^ 2_9j9 2 2.0 Ra-4'289-7361/ 45. GROUP II - Pd-N COMPOSITE PROFILE Haw H a w S c o r e w i t h K 1 hj* 3 2 3 3J, 3 3.6 2 1 4"287'639-1/ 46. GROUP III NPd-S COMPOSITE PROFILE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ro. IWbi K Hs+.5K D Hy Pd'.jK Ml Pa Pt+IK Sc + IK Ma'.^ C^^  Si TorTc Addmaiirt State K Hs+.SK 1 Hy Pd+.4K Mf Pa PH-1K SCTIK Ma+.2K Si TorTc 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R a w S c o r o . K to be a d d e d . Ra w S c o r e w i t h K L5s6 2_8Jt JL4 2 8.8 3^.3 3 6.5 2 3.9 R a 2874T963-47. GROUP IV - NPd-N COMPOSITE PROFILE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 « 9 O Tor Recording L F K Hs+.5K D Hy Pd + .IK Ml Pq PMK Sc + IK • Ma t.2K Si Tone Additions! S:al?i IZO— • 115 nd-f 105 -; ioo-^-• 35 ^ 90-|-85 -- 1 3 0 - — - -15-120-110--rap— 1 0 : 90- '• - 10-60-50-50-45 -40-35 -30 -"40- -—25-45-— HO ~z 105 [-100 10- '-: r 9 5 65- ; - - —30 60- •'• • : r 8 5 ' ss-£ -. _ 8 0 50- 1 - 40- : 3b-i5r_ - s -15-30- - 55 15- 20-^  "- 45 15^  -^40 10- - 35 10- - -" r K. - 5 " "-20 ? I f K H3+.5K D Hy Pd+.4K Mf Pa PtHK Sc*IK Ma+.2K Si TorTc 1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 . 0 R a w S c o r e . K to be a d d e d R a w S c o r e w i t h K 1 7.1 2 8.6 -L6.1. Rav .3 3.3 9,1 2 3 A 8"6472'913-

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