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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Retirement housing: towards a comprehensive planning and design approach Sharp, Ross William 1976

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RETIREMENT HOUSING - TOWARDS A COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING AND DESIGN APPROACH by ROSS SHARP B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the req u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1976 In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is fo r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. School of Community and Regional Planning Department of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e 21 A p r i l 1976 i ABSTRACT Over the past f i f t e e n years m u l t i p l e housing f o r the e l d e r l y has assumed a growing importance i n the Canadian housing scene. Planners, A r c h i t e c t s and F i n a n c i e r s have combined t h e i r e f f o r t s to produce a v a r i e t y of a t t r a c t i v e , f u n c t i o n a l and s o c i a l l y p o s i t i v e m u l t i p l e housing environments f o r the aged. This t h e s i s , through a case study e v a l u a t i o n of two r e c e n t l y completed h i g h r i s e retirement centres and an extensive l i t e r a t u r e review of current and past research, w i l l i d e n t i f y and evaluate many of the planning and design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s that have evolved w i t h i n the search f o r an optimal l i v i n g environment f o r the aged. The planning, designing and c o n s t r u c t i n g of m u l t i p l e housing developments f o r o l d e r people o f t e n take place without enough cons i d e r -a t i o n being given to those l i m i t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are a r e s u l t of the aging process. I t i s a f a c t that advancing years do impose many and v a r i e d l i m i t a t i o n s on the d a i l y l i v i n g h a b i t s of the aged. This t h e s i s supports the c l a i m that knowledge of such common l i m i t i n g c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s i s imperative to the design process. A l i t e r a t u r e review covering the common p h y s i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , economic and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of aging i s thus provided. Much of the past research concerned w i t h m u l t i p l e housing f o r the aged has focussed on design and planning c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e l a t e d to a s i n g l e aspect of the ageds' r e s i d e n t i a l environment. The s i t e , f o r example, i s o f t e n examined i n i s o l a t i o n from the surrounding neighbour-hood. This t h e s i s i s based on the c o n v i c t i o n that a c o n s t r u c t i v e planning approach must i n v o l v e a comprehensive and simultaneous examination of design and planning c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to the i i s u i t e , b u i l d i n g , s i t e and neighbourhood. This thesis covers the f i v e defined areas c i t e d below: 1) the design and features of common spaces; 2) the design and features of bachelor, one bedroom and board residence s u i t e s ; 3) the planning and design of b u i l d i n g s i t e s ; 4) neighbourhood and l o c a t i o n a l design and planning considerations; 5) preference and generalized housing questions. A l i t e r a t u r e review covering current and past design and planning considerations as outlined by the foregoing defined areas represented the i n i t i a l phase of analysis. This review not only outlined varying considerations but also attempted to explain the r a t i o n a l e f or them i n terms of the needs and l i m i t a t i o n s of the aged. The second phase of the analysis involved a d e s c r i p t i o n of p a r t i -cular elements and spaces within two h i g h r i s e retirement complexes i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Burnaby, New V i s t a and Seton V i l l a . Photographs, and sketches supplement the verbal descriptions of e x i s t i n g features, rooms and areas. The f i n a l phase of analysis was based on data obtained from in-depth interviews conducted with f o r t y respondents l i v i n g at New V i s t a and Seton V i l l a . The intent of t h i s phase was to a s c e r t a i n the extent to which r e s i d e n t i a l accommodation b u i l t i n accordance with e x i s t i n g planning and design guidelines meets the needs and desires of e l d e r l y f o l k . The r e s u l t s of the interviews indicate that older people do have opinions with regard to what they consider good planning and design. The respondents were not only able to indicate the p o s i t i v e and i i i n egative aspects of planning and design considerations,'but they a l s o provided a number of suggestions i n terms of how such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s could be improved to b e t t e r meet t h e i r needs. The most s i g n i f i c a n t conclusions that can be drawn from t h i s t h e s i s are presented below: 1) Those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r o v i s i o n of housing f o r the aged should possess a b a s i c understanding of those t h e o r i e s of aging which are a p p l i c a b l e to planning and design. 2) Planners, A r c h i t e c t s and F i n a n c i e r s must be f a m i l i a r w i t h the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the aged i n order to f u l l y understand the s i g n i f i c a n c e of va r i o u s design g u i d e l i n e s that p e r t a i n to the s u i t e , b u i l d i n g , s i t e and neighbourhood. By developing a greater s e n s i t i v i t y to the problems of the e l d e r l y , planners and designers w i l l be able to improve upon what has been b u i l t i n the past. 3) I t i s important f o r those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r housing the aged to be aware of the views and suggestions the aged have toward planning and design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n order to be able to judge the merits and downfalls of e x i s t i n g design and planning p r o v i s i o n s . Many e x i s t i n g p r o v i s i o n s do not meet the d e s i r e s of the e l d e r l y , w h i l e a l e s s e r number do not even meet the most b a s i c of the e l d e r l y ' s needs. In the f u t u r e our s o c i e t y w i l l be made up of an even greater p r o p o r t i o n of e l d e r l y than e x i s t s .today. People are simply l i v i n g longer and the trend w i l l l i k e l y continue. This f a c t i m p l i e s that i n c r e a s i n g pressure w i l l be a p p l i e d by t h i s group i n demanding housing that meets t h e i r needs and a s p i r a t i o n s . I t i s no longer f e a s i b l e f o r i v Planners and A r c h i t e c t s to f o l l o w e s t a b l i s h e d sets of planning standards and design c r i t e r i a without f u r t h e r examining the p o i n t s made i n the conclusions expressed above. This t h e s i s w i l l o u t l i n e the major concerns that must be examined i n order to evolve a comprehensive planning approach, capable of promoting a p o s i t i v e r e s i d e n t i a l environment f o r the aged. V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT x i i CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION 1 THE PROBLEM . 1 OBJECTIVES OF THE THESIS 3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE THESIS 5 CHAPTER TWO - THE AGING PROCESS 7 CHAPTER THREE - THE NEEDS OF THE AGED 11 ECONOMIC RESOURCES AND GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS 11 SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF AGING . 18 PHYSIOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS 23 P h y s i c a l Strength 23 Balance 24 Seeing 24 Hearing 27 Smell 28 Temperature and R e s p i r a t o r y Requirements 28 I n t e l l i g e n c e 29 Processing Sense Information 30 CHAPTER FOUR - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 32 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF SETON VILLA AND NEW VISTA . . 32 FINANCIAL BACKGROUND 33 ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS AND RENTAL RATES 34 CONTACTING THE SAMPLE 36 THE INTERVIEW 38 THE QUESTIONNAIRE 39 CHAPTER FIVE - CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE 45 SEX 45 AGE • . 45 MARITAL STATUS 45 LENGTH OF RESIDENCE . . 46 PHYSICAL LIMITATIONS 46 v i '. .... _.... . Page FINANCIAL SITUATION 46 PRESENT EMPLOYMENT 47 PAST WORKING EXPERIENCE 47 TYPE OF SUITE OCCUPIED 47 PAST HOUSING EXPERIENCE . . . . . . . 48 PAST LIVING EXPERIENCE 48 MEANS OF GETTING AROUND 49 RELATIONSHIP WITH CHILDREN 49 RELATIONSHIPS WITH RELATIVES, NEIGHBOURS AND FRIENDS . . 50 CHAPTER SIX - SPACES WITHIN THE BUILDING 53 INTRODUCTION 53 LOBBY - MAIN FLOOR LOUNGE, MAIL AREA 53 Analysis of Data 55 FRONT DOOR OF THE BUILDING 67 Analysis of Data . 70 ELEVATORS 72 Analysis of Data 73 STAIRWAYS 79 Analysis of Data 79 LAUNDRY ROOMS 82 Analysis of Data 86 CORRIDORS 89 Analysis of Data 90 PENTHOUSE LOUNGE 95 Analysis of Data 103 ARTS AND CRAFTS - WORKSHOP AREA 110 Analysis of Data 114 HEALTH FACILITIES . 117 Analysis of Data 117 BARBER SHOP/BEAUTY PARLOR - Seton V i l l a . . 120 Analysis of Data . 120 AUDITORIUM . 122 Analysis of Data 125 STORAGE ROOM - New V i s t a '. 128 Analysis of Data 128 v i i Page CHAPTER SEVEN - INDIVIDUAL SUITES . . . . . 131 DOOR TO THE SUITE 131 Analysis of Data 134 SIZE OF SUITE . . 137 Analysis of Data . 143 STORAGE SPACE 144 Analysis of Data 145 LIGHTING 148 Analysis of Data . 149 KITCHEN (Self-contained Suites) 150 Analysis of Data 156 DINING/EATING AREA . 159 Analysis of Data 161 BEDROOM AREA - PERTAINING TO ONE-BEDROOM SUITES ONLY WITHIN BOTH COMPLEXES 161 Analysis of Data . 164 BATHROOM . 166 Analysis of Data 171 Recommendations . . 177 BALCONIES . . . 179 Analysis of Data 179 LIVINGROOM AREA (Exclusive Board Residence Suites at Seton V i l l a ) . 183 Analysis of Data 184 BEDROOM/LIVINGROOM AREA (Board Residence Suites, Seton V i l l a ) 190 Analysis of Data 190 HEATING . 191 Analysis of Data 193 SOUNDPROOFING 194 Analysis of Data . 195 CHAPTER EIGHT - SITE 197 Analysis of Data . . . . . . . . . . 205 CHAPTER NINE - NEIGHBOURHOOD DESIGN AND LOCATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS 211 Analysis of Data . 223 PARKS 230 PUBLIC TRANSIT 233 v i i i Page SIDEWALKS AND CROSSWALKS • . 237 OTHER ACTIVITY AREAS OF THE NEIGHBOURHOOD 241 CHAPTER TEN - PREFERENCE AND GENERALIZED HOUSING QUESTIONS . 245 CHAPTER ELEVEN - CONCLUSION 256 BIBLIOGRAPHY 260 APPENDIX A 265 APPENDIX B • 280 i x LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Page Lobby, Seton V i l l a , Sketch . 56 Lobby, New V i s t a , Sketch 57 Main F l o o r Lounge, Seton V i l l a , Photos 58 Main F l o o r Lounge, Seton V i l l a , Sketch 59 Main F l o o r Lounge, New V i s t a , Sketch 60 Main F l o o r Lounge, New V i s t a , Photos 61 M a i l Area, Seton and New V i s t a , Photos 62 Front Door, Seton V i l l a , Photos 68 Front Door, New V i s t a , Photos 69 E l e v a t o r s , Seton V i l l a , Sketch 74 E l e v a t o r s , New V i s t a , Photos 75 Stairways, Seton V i l l a and New V i s t a , Photos . . . 80 Laundry Room, Seton V i l l a , Sketch 83 Laundry Room, New V i s t a , Sketch 84 Laundry Room, Seton V i l l a and New V i s t a , Photos 85 C o r r i d o r , Seton V i l l a , Sketch 91 C o r r i d o r , New V i s t a , Sketch 92 Penthouse Lounge, Seton V i l l a , Sketch 96 Penthouse Lounge, Seton V i l l a , Sketch 97 Penthouse Lounge, Seton V i l l a , Photos 98 Penthouse Lounge, Seton V i l l a , Photos 99 Penthouse Lounge, New V i s t a , Sketch . . . 100 Penthouse Lounge, New V i s t a , Photos 101 Penthouse Lounge, New V i s t a , Photos . . 102 A r t s and C r a f t s Room, Seton V i l l a , and New V i s t a , Photos . . - I l l X Page A r t s and C r a f t s Room, New V i s t a , Sketch 112 A r t s and C r a f t s Room, Seton V i l l a , Sketch 113 Health F a c i l i t i e s , Seton V i l l a , P r i n t i n g . . . 118 Barber Shop/Beauty P a r l o r , Seton V i l l a , P r i n t i n g 121 Auditorium, Seton V i l l a , Sketch . 123 Auditorium, Seton V i l l a , Photos . . 124 Storage Room, New V i s t a , Photos 129 Door to the S u i t e , Seton V i l l a and New V i s t a , Photos . . . 133 Size of Bachelor S u i t e , New V i s t a , Sketch 138 Si z e of One Bedroom S u i t e , New V i s t a , Sketch 139 Size of Board Residence S u i t e , Seton V i l l a , Sketch . . . . 140 Size of One Bedroom S u i t e , Seton V i l l a , Sketch 141 Size of Bachelor S u i t e , Seton V i l l a , Sketch 142 Storage Space, Seton V i l l a and New V i s t a , Photos 146 L i g h t i n g , Seton V i l l a and New V i s t a , P r i n t i n g 149 Ki t c h e n , New V i s t a , Photos 154 Ki t c h e n , Seton V i l l a , Photos 155 Dining/Eating Area, Seton V i l l a and New V i s t a , Photos . . . 160 Bedroom (One Bedroom S u i t e s ) , Seton V i l l a and New V i s t a Photos and Sketch 163 Bathroom Layouts, C.M.H.C., Sketches 168 Bathroom, Seton V i l l a , Photos and Sketch 172 Bathroom, New V i s t a , Photos 173 Bathroom, New V i s t a , Photos 174 x i Page B a l c o n i e s , Seton V i l l a and New V i s t a , Photos and Sketch . . 180 Livingroom, New V i s t a , Photos . ' 185 Livingroom, Seton V i l l a (Except Board Residence), Photos ..' 186 B e d s i t t i n g Area, Seton V i l l a (Board Residence), Photos . . 189 Heating, Seton V i l l a and New V i s t a , Photos 192 S i t e , New V i s t a , Photos 201 S i t e P l a n , New V i s t a , Sketch 202 S i t e , Seton V i l l a , Photos 203 S i t e , Seton V i l l a , Sketch • . . 204 Neighbourhood, Seton V i l l a , Sketch 224 Neighbourhood, New V i s t a , Sketch 225 Shopping Near New V i s t a and Seton V i l l a , Photos . . . . . . 228 Parks Near Seton V i l l a and New V i s t a , Photos 231 P u b l i c T r a n s i t , Photos 234 Sidewalks and Crosswalks, New V i s t a , Photos 238 Sidewalks and Crosswalks, Seton V i l l a , Photos . . . . . . . 239 Other Neighbourhood Elements, New V i s t a , Photos 242 Neighbourhood Elements, Seton V i l l a , Photos 243 x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The w r i t e r wishes to express h i s g r a t i t u d e to Dr. Gutman, Department of Psychology, f o r her guidance and encouragement throughout the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l to Dr. S e e l i g f o r h i s c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s and suggestions. A s p e c i a l note of g r a t i t u d e must be extended to the tenants and management of New V i s t a and Seton V i l l a . Without t h e i r g e n e r o s i t y of time and in f o r m a t i o n t h i s t h e s i s could not have been w r i t t e n . I would a l s o wish to thank Bonnie Schoenberger f o r the many hours she spent t y p i n g t h i s t h e s i s . F i n a l l y , I wish to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to Deb Lewin f o r her support and encouragement. 1. CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION THE PROBLEM The p r o p o r t i o n of e l d e r l y w i t h i n our s o c i e t y has been continuously r i s i n g thereby c r e a t i n g strenuous demands f o r l i v i n g space, space s u i t a b l e to t h e i r needs and a s p i r a t i o n s . Advanced age creates many p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s f o r aged people. L i m i t a t i o n s i n s i g h t , hearing and movement, a l l d i r e c t l y a f f e c t the l i f e s t y l e of the o l d e r i n d i v i d u a l . The design and planning of the ageds' home environment i n terms of the s t r u c t u r e s they i n h a b i t , the s i t e upon which the s t r u c t u r e i s l o c a t e d and the neighbourhood w i t h i n which the s t r u c t u r e i s found, can act to compensate f o r many i n f i r m i t i e s and help to maintain m o b i l i t y , comfort and d i g n i t y i n o l d age. The aged i n h a b i t a wide v a r i e t y of r e s i d e n t i a l forms. The vast m a j o r i t y occupy p r i v a t e homes or s u i t e s w i t h i n i n t e g r a t e d r e s i d e n t i a l environments (Golant, 1972, pg. 37). In Canada l e s s than 10% of those over the age of s i x t y - f i v e l i v e w i t h i n a v a r i e t y of congregate l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s designed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the aged. These u s u a l l y provide s e l f - c o n t a i n e d accommodation and range i n s t r u c t u r a l form from row housing to h i g h r i s e apartment towers. Included w i t h i n t h i s percentage are those aged i n d i v i d u a l s who i n h a b i t the more, i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d r e s i d e n t i a l forms. Within the province of B r i t i s h Columbia these l a t t e r forms of housing have been r e c e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d as Personal Care, I n t e r -mediate Care and Extended Care f a c i l i t i e s (Dept. of Health and Welfare, 1973, Appendix A). Although t h i s t h e s i s focusses p r i m a r i l y on s e l f -contained accommodation w i t h i n h i g h r i s e retirement c e n t r e s , the f i n d i n g s are a p p l i c a b l e to a l l but the most i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d forms of housing f o r the aged. 2. H i g h r i s e retirement centres are a r e l a t i v e l y new form of housing f o r the aged. H i g h r i s e complexes s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to meet the needs of r e t i r e d people o f f e r a number of advantages. The companionship of a l a r g e number of i n d i v i d u a l s who are experiencing s i m i l a r l i f e s t y l e s i s but one of these advantages. Common f a c i l i t i e s such as a r t s and c r a f t s workshopsi lounges and game rooms provide the r e t i r e d - i n d i v i d u a l an opportunity to spend many l e i s u r e hours i n a s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g manner. A number of disadvantages e x i s t w i t h i n h i g h r i s e complexes as w e l l . The n e c e s s i t y of e l e v a t o r s f o r example, poses a major problem to those r e t i r e d people who fear u s i n g them. The l a c k of p r i v a t e green space i s another aspect of h i g h r i s e l i v i n g that many ol d e r people are thought to have t r o u b l e adapting t o . This research w i l l i n v o l v e a case study e v a l u a t i o n of two such h i g h r i s e complexes i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Burnaby, Seton V i l l a and New V i s t a . The design of the ageds' environment can be an instrume n t a l f a c t o r i n s t i m u l a t i n g the e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of l e i s u r e time, c r e a t i n g new r o l e s and p r o v i d i n g a sense of purpose. The planning of the r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r -onment f o r the aged must go beyond the p r o v i s i o n of s p e c i a l i z e d f i x t u r e s and appliances i n order to counter the r e a l t h r e a t s of p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . Past research i n the f i e l d s of psychology,; gerontology, s o c i o l o g y , a r c h i t e c t u r e and planning have o f t e n generated design standards or c r i t e r i a p e r t a i n i n g to the features and spaces of retirement housing without p r o v i d i n g any i n d i c a t i o n of the b a s i c needs of the aged which have l e d to the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of such standards. I n conj u n c t i o n w i t h the foregoing, design standards or c r i t e r i a are o f t e n put i n t o e f f e c t w i t h i n a r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t i n g f o r the aged and l i t t l e a d d i t i o n a l e f f o r t i s a p p l i e d to an examination of the use that i s made of such 3. p r o v i s i o n s . Furthermore, conside r a b l y l e s s a t t e n t i o n i s paid to the f e e l i n g s , perceptions and a t t i t u d e s the aged have toward such design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The problem i s to provide a comprehensive and cohesive l i n k between these l a x areas of i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i t h i n the design process by s y n t h e s i z i n g current and past l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d and through an e m p i r i c a l case study e v a l u a t i o n of two e x i s t i n g h i g h r i s e retirement centres. OBJECTIVES OF THE THESIS When planning f o r the aged i t i s important to have some understanding of the aging process. There are a number of t h e o r i e s of human aging, some of which are p r i m a r i l y b i o l o g i c a l . The i n i t i a l o b j e c t i v e i s to review those which attempt to r e l a t e b i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s to the design process. There are a number of p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s that are common amongst people over the age of s i x t y - f i v e . Such l i m i t a -t i o n s have profound i m p l i c a t i o n s i n terms of design. The second o b j e c t i v e i s to i d e n t i f y these common l i m i t a t i o n s and i l l u s t r a t e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to s p e c i f i c design elements w i t h i n the ageds' r e s i d e n t i a l environment. The t h i r d o b j e c t i v e i s to determine the q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e use r e t i r e d people make of v a r i o u s features and spaces w i t h i n t h e i r own s u i t e s , the b u i l d i n g , s i t e and neighbourhood. This w i l l i n v o l v e an a n a l y s i s of how many times they make use of a feature or space, how long they spend w i t h i n c e r t a i n areas and what form of a c t i v i t y they engage i n w h i l e w i t h i n a s p e c i f i e d area. What are the tenants' views on the design and planning of t h e i r s u i t e , b u i l d i n g , s i t e and neighbourhood? What suggestions can they o f f e r that would serve to improve upon v a r i o u s p h y s i c a l elements of t h e i r e n v i r o n -ment? The f o u r t h o b j e c t i v e i s not only to i d e n t i f y major l i k e s and d i s l i k e s but to examine the ideas proposed by r e t i r e d people on how the p h y s i c a l elements of t h e i r surroundings may be improved. The f i f t h o b j e c t i v e i s to determine the use r e t i r e d people make of s p e c i a l s a f e t y features which have become commonplace w i t h i n most forms of retirement housing. Grab bars; w i t h i n the bathroom are an example of such f e a t u r e s . A u t h o r i t i e s c l a i m that these features provide the ol d e r i n d i v i d u a l w i t h necessary support w h i l e they are r i s i n g from or lowering themselves i n t o the bathtub. Do the aged make use of grab bars and does the design of t h i s feature meet t h e i r needs? What can r e t i r e d people suggest to improve upon such features? The i n t e n t i s to determine the importance of such s p e c i a l i z e d design features to the tenant of a retirement centre. The s i x t h o b j e c t i v e i s to q u a l i f y the preferences r e t i r e d people have f o r a home environment. Do ol d e r people l i v e i n h i g h r i s e retirement complexes because they want t o , or i f given the choice would they p r e f e r some other form of accommodation? What of the neighbourhood w i t h i n which the complex i s located? Are they s a t i s f i e d w i t h i t or would they p r e f e r another form of s e t t i n g ? What are the major advantages and disadvantages of h i g h r i s e l i v i n g f o r r e t i r e d people? The seventh o b j e c t i v e i s not only to i d e n t i f y these elements but to a s c e r t a i n whether the advantages outweigh the disadvant-ages. Are h i g h r i s e developments a v i a b l e s o l u t i o n to retirement housing? The f i n a l o b j e c t i v e i s to determine why the i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the two h i g h r i s e retirement centres chose t h i s form of retirement housing over 5. other a l t e r n a t i v e s and i f , indeed, other a l t e r n a t i v e s even e x i s t e d . SIGNIFICANCE OF THESIS An important c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h i s study i s i t s attempt to define the s i g n i f i c a n c e of planning and p h y s i c a l design to the p r o v i s i o n of adequate s h e l t e r f o r the e l d e r l y . Adequate s h e l t e r i n the terms of t h i s t h e s i s r e f e r s to s h e l t e r that meets the needs and a s p i r a t i o n s of the aged. Although each of us are a f f e c t e d d i f f e r e n t l y by the aging process there do e x i s t a number of common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( p h y s i o l o g i c a l , p y s c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l and economic) that f r e q u e n t l y are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h growing o l d . This study w i l l c l a r i f y those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which have l e d to the formation of v a r y i n g planning and design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Over the years numerous planning and design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have evolved w i t h respect to the p r o v i s i o n of m u l t i p l e housing f o r the aged. Past research has focussed on o u t l i n i n g such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s but that i s as f a r as the a n a l y s i s i s u s u a l l y taken. This study i s one of the few that attempts to a s c e r t a i n whether such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n f a c t do produce housing that meets the needs and d e s i r e s of the aged. I t i l l u s t r a t e s that o l d e r people do have opinions w i t h regard to what c o n s t i t u t e s good planning and design, and that they are w i l l i n g and able to express ideas on how design and planning considerations.can be a l t e r e d or improved to b e t t e r meet their.needs. This t h e s i s i l l u s t r a t e s that planning and design must go beyond the l e v e l of the i n d i v i d u a l s u i t e to i n c l u d e the b u i l d i n g , s i t e and the immediate neighbourhood. I t s h a l l attempt to e x p l a i n that a h o l i s t i c approach to the c r e a t i o n of a p o s i t i v e environment f o r the aged must evaluate a l l four l e v e l s of development i n order to be meaningful. 6. The m a t e r i a l provided w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s • s h o u l d a s s i s t both laymen and p r o f e s s i o n a l s who are at v a r i o u s stages i n the conception and planning of housing environments f o r the aged. Much of the knowledge presented w i l l supplement e x i s t i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l and planning g u i d e l i n e s w h i l e s e r v i n g to o u t l i n e the major areas of concern that need to be examined i n order to produce a comprehensive planning and design approach, capable of promoting a p o s i t i v e r e s i d e n t i a l environment f o r the aged. 7. CHAPTER TWO - THE AGING PROCESS Aging i s only p a r t of the t o t a l l i f e process. I t r e f e r s to a change r a t h e r than a l e v e l of d e c l i n e or d e t e r i o r a t i o n . While i n d i v i d u a l s of the same c h r o n o l o g i c a l age group can be expected to possess c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s i t should be even more apparent that the cumulative e f f e c t s of years of i n d i v i d u a l experiences w i l l produce extensive i n d i v i d u a l differences.. Aging must be viewed as a multi-dimensional process, a combination of p s y c h o l o g i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l f o r c e s (Golant, 1972, pg. 4). E i s e n s t a d t i n h i s book, "From Generation to Generation," emphasized t h i s p o i n t i n the f o l l o w i n g passage: "Every human being passes t h r o u g h . d i f f e r e n t ages w i t h i n h i s l i f e t i m e , and at each age he a t t a i n s and uses d i f f e r e n t b i o l o g i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t i e s . Every stage i n t h i s progression c o n s t i t u t e s an i r r e v e r i s b l e step i n the u n f o l d -i n g of h i s l i f e from i t s beginning to i t s end. At each stage he performs d i f f e r e n t tasks and r o l e s i n r e l a t i o n to other members of h i s s o c i e t y : from a c h i l d he becomes a f a t h e r ; from p u p i l , a teacher; from a vigorous youth, a g r a d u a l l y aging a d u l t . "... i n every human/society t h i s . b i o l o g i c a l process of t r a n s i t i o n through d i f f e r e n t age stages, the process of growing up and of aging, i s subject to c u l t u r a l d e f i n i t i o n s . I t becomes a b a s i s f o r d e f i n i n g human beings, f o r the formation of mutual r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a c t i v i t i e s , and f o r the d i f f e r e n t i a l a l l o c a t i o n of s o c i a l r o l e s . " ( E i s e n s t a d t , 1964, pg. 21). C h r o n o l o g i c a l age i s composed of b i o l o g i c a l age, p s y c h o l o g i c a l age and s o c i a l age. B i o l o g i c a l age can be defined as the degree to which an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p h y s i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g has been a l t e r e d . P s y c h o l o g i c a l age r e f e r s to the l e v e l of adjustment or self-awareness the i n d i v i d u a l possesses. S o c i a l age r e f e r s to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i a l h a b i t s or r o l e s w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l context of h i s s o c i a l system 8. (Golant, 1972, pg. 4). These f o r c e s do not operate i n i s o l a t i o n f o r there i s continuous i n t e r a c t i o n between them. A r c h i t e c t s and planners seldom take note of the extensive i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s that e x i s t w i t h i n the aged p o p u l a t i o n grouping. Comfortable and f u n c t i o n a l design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w i l l only a r i s e when the d e c i s i o n making i s based on such expectations of d i v e r s i t y . There e x i s t a number of t h e o r i e s of aging that i n v o l v e the b i o l o g i -c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e s mentioned above. Two of the most well-known t h e o r i e s , that operate i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to one another, are the " a c t i v i t y theory" and the "disengagement theory". Both of these t h e o r i e s focus on the f i n a l stages of the l i f e span. Their'primary focus i s on how the aging i n d i v i d u a l . r e l a t e s to h i s s o c i a l environment. The "disengagement theory" was advanced by Cummings and Henry i n 1961 on the b a s i s of a f i v e year study conducted i n Kansas C i t y (Golant, 1972, pg. 5). The theory d e r i v e s . i t s roots from the f o l l o w i n g statement: "Although i n d i v i d u a l s d i f f e r , the exp e c t a t i o n of death i s u n i v e r s a l and a decrement of a b i l i t y i s probable. Therefore a u n i v e r s a l severing of t i e s w i l l take place between a person and others i n h i s s o c i e t y . " (Cummings, 1961, pg. 211). The aging process i s explained as a stage of development that i s both accepted and d e s i r e d by the aged person. Cummings and Henry c l a i m that the process of disengagement manifests i t s e l f i n terms of b i o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustments (Golant, 1972, pg. 7). They c l a i m that the p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment p o r t i o n of the disengagement process i n v o l v e s an increased pre-oceupation w i t h oneself which i s r e f l e c t e d by a r e d u c t i o n i n emotional investment f o r one's environment and a r e d i r e c t i n g of thoughts toward a review of one's memories, f a n t a s i e s and 9. past accomplishments (Golant, 1972, pg. 7). The s o c i a l adjustment that forms p a r t of the process i s represented by a r e d u c t i o n i n the number and d u r a t i o n of s o c i a l r o l e s and patterns of i n t e r a c t i o n . B i o l o g i c a l adjustment"implies a d e c l i n e i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e v e l of p h y s i c a l energy and b i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g (Golant, 1972, pg. 7). In summary, the theory claims that along w i t h the aging process there e x i s t s an accepted c o n s t r u c t i o n of l i f e space - p h y s i c a l l y , s o c i a l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y (Golant, 1972, pg. 8). I f one were to draw i m p l i c a t i o n s from the disengagement theory and r e l a t e them to the design process a number of design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s become p l a u s i b l e : 1) Accommodation f o r the aged should focus on the p r o v i s i o n of the bare e s s e n t i a l s i n terms of food, warmth and s h e l t e r . 2) F a c i l i t i e s that provide f o r i n t e r a c t i o n between the other members of the community are not important to the aged. 3) R e s i d e n t i a l p r o x i m i t y between young and o l d i s not a favourable r e l a t i o n s h i p . 4) Attempts to r e l a t e planning and design to the needs of the aged i n terms of the surrounding neighbourhood of a retirement centre are r a t h e r p o i n t l e s s . One can assume that designers would not s t r i c t l y apply t h i s theory to any r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t i n g f o r the aged. Proponents of the " a c t i v i t y theory" maintain that normal aging should i n v o l v e the maintenance of the a c t i v i t i e s and a t t i t u d e s of middle age and when these a c t i v i t i e s and a t t i t u d e s are l o s t new s u b s t i t u t e s should be found. The " a c t i v i t y theory" s t a t e s that disengagement i s not a v o l u n t a r y or i n t r i n s i c process but one that i s imposed upon the 10. i n d i v i d u a l as a r e s u l t of h e a l t h problems or as a r e s u l t of s o c i e t y withdrawing from the aging i n d i v i d u a l by f a i l i n g to encourage p a r t i c i -p a t i o n (Golant, 1972, pg. 8 ) . Segregation and i s o l a t i o n of the e l d e r l y are viewed as negative c o n s i d e r a t i o n s promoting negative s t e r e o t y p i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s amongst the o l d . Those who support the theory argue that the best estimate of how a c t i v e an o l d e r person i s at any age i s based upon p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n s of l e a r n i n g and s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . By understanding an i n d i v i d u a l ' s previous l i f e s t y l e one can p r e d i c t h i s or her degree of engagement or disengagement (Golant, 1972, pg. 10). The a c t i v i t y theory has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r design very d i f f e r e n t from those drawn from the disengagement theory. 1) Accommodation f o r the aged must be f l e x i b l e and s t i m u l a t i n g i n order to accommodate and e s t a b l i s h new r o l e s . 2) F a c i l i t i e s that provide f o r i n t e r a c t i o n between the aged and other members of the community should be encouraged. 3) Residences f o r the aged should be w e l l i n t e g r a t e d i n t o e x i s t i n g neighbourhoods. 4) The planning and design of the elements w i t h i n the surrounding neighbourhood of a retirement residence are important i n that they can support a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s of the aged. Numerous e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s have been conducted i n an e f f o r t to r e s o l v e the question as to which of these two t h e o r i e s i s most a p p l i c a b l e to the aging process. The bulk of the s t u d i e s have been concerned w i t h c o r r e l a t i n g a c t i v i t y and morale. There appears to be more support f o r the a c t i v i t y theory than the disengagement theory but the f i n d i n g s are not unequivocal. Perhaps the most, c o n s t r u c t i v e answer i s that n e i t h e r theory of aging i s s t r i c t l y a p p l i c a b l e to a l l aging persons. 11. CHAPTER THREE - NEEDS OF THE AGED De f i n i n g the housing needs of a mixed p o p u l a t i o n i s an almost impossible task due to the vast d i f f e r e n c e s i n t a s t e s and values that e x i s t amongst i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n any given p o p u l a t i o n . When d e a l i n g w i t h the aged the task i s l e s s d i f f i c u l t p r i m a r i l y because one i s d e a l i n g w i t h a defined age grouping. Although i t has been emphasized that the aging process i s a complex i n t e r a c t i o n of many d i s t i n c t f o r c e s which u l t i m a t e l y l e a d to vast d i f f e r e n c e s amongst aged i n d i v i d u a l s , i t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e to define a number of common v a r i a b l e s which a f f e c t t h e i r housing needs. Planners and A r c h i t e c t s must be made aware of the common economic, p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s that e x i s t amongst o l d e r people before they can begin to devote t h e i r energies toward b e t t e r design s o l u t i o n s . I t i s on the b a s i s of t h i s c o n v i c t i o n that the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s on economic resources and government programs, s o c i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and p h y s i o l o g i c a l l i m i t a -t i o n s are presented. ECONOMIC RESOURCES AND GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS M a t e r i a l resources are a v i t a l determinant of i n d i v i d u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . The income l e v e l of those over the age of s i x t y - f i v e plays a major r o l e i n determining the form of housing the ol d e r i n d i v i d u a l w i l l i n h a b i t . Perhaps the f i r s t question that needs to be resolved i s what are the common sources of income that an average Canadian c i t i z e n has access to once he or she has o f f i c i a l l y r e t i r e d from the working world. Old Age S e c u r i t y Pensions are pa i d to a l l persons who have reached the age of s i x t y - f i v e and who meet the f o l l o w i n g residence requirements: 12. 1) The Individual has resided i n Canada a f t e r reaching the age of eighteen for a t o t a l period of at le a s t f o r t y years. 2) The i n d i v i d u a l has resided i n Canada ten consecutive years immediately before approval of the a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a pension. 3) The i n d i v i d u a l has been present i n Canada a f t e r reaching the age of eighteen and p r i o r to the ten years above, for periods which equal when t o t a l l e d , at le a s t three times the length of absence during the ten year period. In t h i s case the person must have resided i n Canada f o r at l e a s t one year immediately preceding the approval of one's a p p l i c a t i o n . (Hunnisett, 1975, pg. 32). Exceptions to these rules of residence are usually r e l a t e d to foreign employment by the Canadian Government, overseas posting i n the Armed Forces and missionary work. Payments are made one month a f t e r an i n d i v i d u a l reaches the age of s i x t y - f i v e . Monthly payments are adjusted quarterly with the cost of l i v i n g index. Payments f or the f i r s t quarter of 1975 were $120.01 per month. An a d d i t i o n a l sum of $84.21 for a sing l e and $74.79 for married couples i s paid monthly to those who have l i t t l e or no other source of income. This payment i s c a l l e d the Guaranteed Income Supplement (Hunnisett, 1975, pg. 33). The Canada Pension i s separate and d i s t i n c t from the Old Age Security Pension. The rules of e l i g i b i l i t y are summarized below: 1) must be s i x t y - f i v e years of age; 2) must have worked i n some form of "pensionable.employment" as defined by the Canada Pension Plan and have paid premiums into the fund at some time but not necessar i l y a l l the time, since January 1, 1966; 13. 3) must have a s o c i a l insurance number. (Hunnisett, 1975, pg. 33). Monthly pension cheques are based upon the t o t a l amount of pension-able earnings on which one has paid premiums since the inception of the plan i n 1966. An i n d i v i d u a l ' s annual pension i s approximately 25% of one's average annual pensionable earnings from January 1, 1966. The s t a r t i n g Canada Pension i n 1975 for those who had earned the s p e c i f i e d maximum of $6,600 in, 1974 was $122.48 per month. These pensions are adjusted annually with the cost of l i v i n g index. More d e t a i l e d informa-t i o n can be attained from any Canada Pension Plan o f f i c e (Hunnisett, 1975, Pg. 34). Recently r e t i r e d i n d i v i d u a l s often benefit from having paid into personal or i n d u s t r i a l pensions. Personal pensions have usually been purchased from an insurance company and the obligations and payments are a matter of contract formulated at the time of purchase. I n d u s t r i a l pension plans most often come with the job and vary greatly from one company to the next. If an i n d i v i d u a l has c a r e f u l l y planned for h i s or her retirement i t i s quite possible that he or she could benefit from both of these plans. Income from previously owned investments remains as part of r e t i r e -ment income and w i l l vary greatly from i n d i v i d u a l to i n d i v i d u a l . Once an i n d i v i d u a l reaches the age of s i x t y - f i v e he i s e n t i t l e d to an extra $1,174 exemption i n taxable income. Henry S. Hunnisett i n h i s book, "How to Survive Retirement i n Canada," provided an estimate of a t y p i c a l retirement income for a couple. This estimate i s based upon the fa c t that the husband's l a s t year of employ-ment was i n 1973 and the couple's combined earnings were $10,999. A f t e r 14. retirement (both of them are s i x t y - f i v e ) t h e i r estimated income would be: Annual Monthly Old Age Security Pension $1440.72 $120.06 Old Age Security Pension (Spouse) 1440.72 120.06 Canada Pension 1469.88 122.48 Investment Income 850.00 70.83 Spouse's Earnings 300.00 25.00 Gross Income $5501.32 $458.43 (Hunnisett, 1975, pg. 37) This example of retirement income i s a p o s i t i v e example of possible earnings. Single or widowed i n d i v i d u a l s would obviously not receive the benefit of two old age sec u r i t y pensions nor of a spouse's earnings. Those who r e t i r e d p r i o r to 1966 may not: be able to benefit from the Canada Pension Plan. For many, low income leads to a low q u a l i t y of accommodation. Skid-row hotels, hostels and small rooms i n old deter-iorated houses are at times the only choice of accommodation a v a i l a b l e to the les s fortunate of the aged. -The opportunities f o r l i v i n g with r e l a t i v e s or non-relatives has also diminished with increasing geographical mobility and the shrinkage of moderately priced housing stock that could accommodate such a use. Louise Gelwicks and Robert Newcomer i n t h e i r text, "Planning Housing Environments f or the E l d e r l y , " produced a de t a i l e d table l a b e l l e d , "Housing Types and Services". Three columns have been abstracted from t h i s table i n order to i l l u s t r a t e the approximate percentage of aged i n d i v i d u a l s who are accommodated within the various types of housing. 15. Ty£e Sin g l e Family House Apartment House Retirement Community Mobile Home Sin g l e Family House Apartment House Boarding House Residence w i t h C h i l d r e n or Other R e l a t i v e s Retirement Hotels or Apartments Homes f o r the Aged Intermediate Care Nursing Care I n d i v i d u a l C a p a b i l i t y F u l l y independent, s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t Semi-independent, not s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , not s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t , capable of own personal care, but may r e q u i r e a s s i s t a n c e i n cooking '.and housekeeping S e l f - c o n t a i n e d , but l e s s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , capable of personal care, cooking and housekeeping are incorporated i n t o the housing program; h e a l t h care i s a v a i l a b l e on emergency b a s i s Neither s e l f - c o n t a i n e d nor s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , extended care a v a i l a b l e f o r h e a l t h and household tasks Approximate % of Persons Housed 69.5 21.3 1.0 1.0 8.7 .5 2.0 11.2 .5 1.0 .2 5.0 Although t h i s t a b l e i s based upon American data and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems the s i t u a t i o n i s s i m i l a r i n Canada. Perhaps the greatest d i f f e r -ence would be that i n Canada an even higher percentage of r e t i r e d people own t h e i r own houses. A major c o n f l i c t a r i s e s w i t h such a high percentage of r e t i r e d people owning and l i v i n g w i t h i n s i n g l e f a m i l y homes. This form of d w e l l i n g i s o f t e n too la r g e f o r t h e i r needs and a gross u n d e r u t i l i z a t i o n of space r e s u l t s . Even though the m a j o r i t y of these homes are mortgage fr e e the costs of simply r e p a i r i n g and maintaining the s t r u c t u r e s , and paying property taxes, puts an added s t r a i n on retirement incomes. Often the homes are not only l a r g e but they are a l s o o l d and thus are 16. subject to constant r e p a i r . I f the d w e l l i n g i s allowed to d e t e r i o r a t e f o r any length of time due to a l a c k of funds i t may soon lo s e i t s market value making i t d i f f i c u l t f o r . t h e r e t i r e d i n d i v i d u a l to s e l l i t i n order to purchase a more s u i t a b l e form of accommodation. The p r o v i s i o n of s p e c i a l i z e d housing f o r the e l d e r l y who are not s e r i o u s l y i n c a p a c i t a t e d i s one way of compensating f o r income d e f i c i e n -c i e s . W i t h i n Canada there appears to be a r i s i n g l e v e l of community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the welfare of the aged, perhaps because a l a r g e r percentage of Canada's pop u l a t i o n now reach the retirement age. Not only do e l d e r l y persons represent a l a r g e r p o r t i o n of the po p u l a t i o n but they have a l s o become more urban based and thus t h e i r presence i s h i g h l y v i s i b l e . Ties between younger and ol d e r members of a f a m i l y are not as strong as they were i n the past and-this may be an a d d i t i o n a l reason why community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s evident from the increase i n the number of retirement centres that provide s p e c i a l i z e d accommodation f o r the aged. P r i o r to World War I I such developments were p r a c t i c a l l y non-existent but now every urban centre i n Canada has at l e a s t one. The Federal Government a s s i s t s i n the b u i l d i n g of housing f o r the e l d e r l y by p r o v i d i n g mortgage loans and grants to both p u b l i c and non-p r o f i t sponsors through the N a t i o n a l Housing Act administered by Ce n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Non-profit sponsors g e n e r a l l y a t t a i n NHA' a s s i s t a n c e under Sect i o n 16 of the Act. CMHC may lend a sponsor up to 95% of the len d i n g value of a low r e n t a l housing p r o j e c t . Mortgage loans are u s u a l l y repayable over a f i f t y year term at a p r e f e r e n t i a l i n t e r e s t r a t e which i s u s u a l l y 1.5% below the current NHA ra t e f o r home ownership. CMHC r e t a i n s c o n t r o l of the rents f o r the f i r s t f i f t e e n years of the loan. 17. B r i t i s h Columbia has one of the highest p r o p o r t i o n s of e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s i n Canada and t h i s creates an extensive demand f o r s u i t a b l e housing (Dept. of Housing, 1975,. pg. 16). According to the 1971 census there were 205,000 people s i x t y - f i v e years of age or ol d e r l i v i n g w i t h i n B.C. and at that time there were 4,761 s e l f - c o n t a i n e d d w e l l i n g u n i t s a v a i l a b l e that had been sponsored under the p r o v i s i o n s of the N a t i o n a l Housing Act (Audain, 1973, pg. 67). Most p u b l i c housing i n B.C. i s b u i l t j o i n t l y by the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments under Sect i o n 35A of the N a t i o n a l Housing Act. Under Section 35A the Federal Government, through CMHC, advances 75% of the c a p i t a l cost of a housing p r o j e c t and the province advances the remaining 25%. The province now shares rent supplements w i t h CMHC so that s e n i o r c i t i z e n s do not have to pay more than 25% of t h e i r income on r e n t . The P r o v i n c i a l Government makes grants to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and non-p r o f i t c o rporations f o r up to on e - t h i r d of the c a p i t a l costs f o r s e l f - c o n t a i n e d retirement developments and grants of up to 35% f o r boarding residences and f a c i l i t i e s o f f e r i n g s p e c i a l care to s e n i o r s . The d e f i n i t i o n of cost u s u a l l y takes i n t o account the cost of la n d , p r o f e s -s i o n a l f e e s , landscaping and hea t i n g , cooking and l i g h t f i x t u r e s (Audain, 1973, pg. 87). The spo n s o r i n g ' m u n i c i p a l i t y or n o n - p r o f i t c o r p o r a t i o n i s u s u a l l y required to make a c o n t r i b u t i o n of at l e a s t 10% of the cost of s e l f - c o n t a i n e d housing and 15% of the cost of boarding home accommodation (Audain, 1973, pg. 88). The remaining costs are u s u a l l y met under Secti o n 16 of the N a t i o n a l Housing Act. P r o v i n c i a l expenditure f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n housing has g r e a t l y increased over t h i s l a s t year (see graph). O F 18. S l W W U ) U ) ( O < O < O C 0 ( D t O ID (O (D <D N N N N N Federal, provincial and municipal levels of government and the private sector, are a l l becoming more responsive to the provision of adequate shelter for the aged. At some point in the future the alternative of moving from one's own single family house to government funded accommoda-tion may be the most attractive choice a senior can make. SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF AGING It i s very d i f f i c u l t to isolate the social and psychological aspects of aging from the economic and physiological aspects. In the majority of cases a cause and effect relationship exists between a l l of these variables. The familiar story of poverty leading to health problems is a good example. Thus although the discussion that follows attempts to 19. p o i n t but the more profound s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects of aging there i s an i m p l i e d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the economic and p h y s i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s as w e l l . Retirement i m p l i e s the l o s s of one's occupation and t h i s l o s s has important i m p l i c a t i o n s i n s o c i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l terms. The r o l e of a wage earner represents the c e n t r a l component of s e l f - i d e n t i t y f o r , w i t h i n our s o c i e t y , one's r o l e i n l i f e i s o f t e n defined by one's occupation. The end of one's occupation may have negative e f f e c t s on one's s e l f - i d e n t i t y . " Another of the more important r e s u l t s of l e a v i n g one's job i s the f a c t that the i n d i v i d u a l suddenly has a surplus of time on h i s or her hands. Hunnisett supports t h i s phenomenon when he describes the f i r s t morning of retirement. "On the f i r s t morning, there i s s i l e n c e . You have no demands upon your time. There i s nowhere you must go, no one you must obey, no job you must do to earn your income. Is t h i s not good? Well there i s a j o k e r unless you have prepared f o r t h i s day. Most people soon f i n d t h a t , not only i s there nothing they must do, but there i s l i t t l e they can f i n d to do. They are bored s t i f f and t h i s i s worse than working. The change has been too great, too sudden and they are not prepared f o r i t . " (Hunnisett, 1975, pg. 3) Thus l o s i n g one's job has f a r more i m p l i c a t i o n s than monetary concerns. Work has come to play an important r o l e w i t h i n our s o c i e t y . In order f o r modern man to r e t a i n some degree of meaning to h i s l i f e he has to consider himself as u s e f u l to the world about him. Perhaps the work element should continue to be emphasized past the p o i n t of retirement f o r those who have problems i n making the t r a n s i t i o n . There are many ways i n which a r e t i r e d i n d i v i d u a l may r e l i n q u i s h the bulk of h i s or her r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w h i l e s t i l l keeping a foot i n the door. Having the r e t i r e d i n d i v i d u a l f u l f i l l the r o l e of a part-time advisor i s only one 20. example of how such a task may be accomplished. In terms of design, the work element may be promoted through the p r o v i s i o n of f u n c t i o n a l workshops and a r t s and c r a f t s f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n a retirement centre. Designers should accommodate the "need to work" w i t h i n t h e i r plans. As has been a l l u d e d t o , changes i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the f a m i l y have generated a number of problems f o r the aged. In the past, e l d e r l y members of the f a m i l y played a v i t a l r o l e i n the maintenance of the f a m i l y u n i t i n both economic and s o c i a l terms. Within a g r a r i a n s e t t i n g s t h i s f a c t was even more evident. Today c l o s e f a m i l y t i e s , u s u a l l y do not e x i s t as they were known i n the past. Contact between parents and c h i l d r e n may be as p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y meaningful as i t was i n the past but i t now takes a d i f f e r e n t form i n that i t i s " d i s t a n t " contact and not a day to day occurrence. Furthermore, seldom does i t imply shared residence. Grandparents continue to pla y an important r o l e i n the r a i s i n g of c h i l d r e n but even t h i s r o l e has diminished i n scope and i n t e n s i t y as household s i z e has decreased. Related to design, the most important r e s u l t of t h i s trend i s that the aged must now provide f o r themselves. L i v i n g w i t h ' one's c h i l d r e n i s becoming l e s s f e a s i b l e and t h i s trend w i l l undoubtedly continue. A r c h i t e c t s and Planners should.acknowledge t h i s trend and be able to promote both the. q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of developments that w i l l permit the aged to provide f o r themselves. As one ages the p r o b a b i l i t y of c o n t a c t i n g disease and s u f f e r i n g from lengthy periods of i l l n e s s increases and most e l d e r l y persons have one or more chronic c o n d i t i o n s . What most people f a i l to r e a l i z e i s that most o l d e r people can f u n c t i o n independently and adequately manage t h e i r l i v e s i n s p i t e of these c o n d i t i o n s . Nevertheless, the stereotype of the aged as being s i c k and weak s t i l l p e r s i s t s w i t h i n our s o c i e t y . I f rtbt 21. provided w i t h a s t i m u l a t i n g and manageable p h y s i c a l environment the aged would undoubtedly soon l e a r n to b e l i e v e i n such a stereotype and r e a c t a c c o r d i n g l y . R e t i r e d tenants tend to match t h e i r competence w i t h the resources of the environment i n which they l i v e : (Gelwicks, 1974, pg. 32). A high degree of resources i n terms of p o s i t i v e design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s should enhance t h e i r l e v e l of competence and help to overcome most p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e l a t e d problems. As Lawton s t a t e s , "the higher death r a t e among males that begins at b i r t h and increases throughout the l i f e s p a n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r one of the major s o c i a l phenomena a f f e c t i n g the behaviour of the aged popula-t i o n : the l a r g e number of widows and the consequent overbalancing of most s o c i a l groups i n the female d i r e c t i o n " (Lawton, 975, pg. 13). Throughout t h i s d i s c u s s i o n a number, of design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w i l l be emphasized that take t h i s phenomena i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The l o s s of one's spouse coupled w i t h the gradual l o s s of f r i e n d s w i l l undoubtedly increase the sense of d i s p a i r and l o n e l i n e s s f o r most aged i n d i v i d u a l s . Research has demonstrated that upon, the death of a spouse there i s a r a d i c a l s h r i n k i n g of the widower person's s o c i a l world a n d ' t o t a l a c t i v i t y space (Lawton, 1975, pg. 13). In terms of design, a number of p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s should e x i s t f o r o l d e r people to i n t e r a c t w i t h one another. I n t e r a c t i o n amongst members of a peer group i s perhaps one of the best ways of a t t a i n i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l support when one l o s e s a spouse or a dear f r i e n d . A number of g e r o n t o l o g i s t s have stud i e d the f r i e n d s h i p patterns of the aged. The most general c o n c l u s i o n that can be a b s t r a c t e d from such s t u d i e s i s that people of the same age are important to o l d e r people (Lawton, 1975, pg. 20). Cross generation f r i e n d s h i p s • a r e apparently l e s s 22. frequent than f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h age peers. Given that o l d e r people have l i v e d through a l i f e t i m e of common h i s t o r i c a l experiences t h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g . As noted above, f r i e n d s who are e x p e r i e n c i n g . s i m i l a r l i f e -s t y l e s provide companionship to the l o n e l y and provide an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a comfortable o u t l e t to share memories and l i f t morale when the need a r i s e s . A number of r e s i d e n t s w i t h i n retirement centres s e l e c t t h e i r housing because they have f r i e n d s l i v i n g there. Contact between f r i e n d s thus becomes frequent and often.a d a i l y occurrence. Design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s should work toward accommodating t h i s type of i n t e r a c t i o n . A number of p s y c h o l o g i s t s have attempted to i s o l a t e d some of the more common p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of o l d e r people. Neugarten i d e n t i f i e d some important d i f f e r e n c e s between middle-aged and e l d e r l y a d u l t s . Studies have shown that o l d e r persons are more i n c l i n e d to be passive and pursue means of adapting to t h e i r environment r a t h e r than a c t i v e l y attempting to shape i t . As Neugarten c l a i m s , " t h i s withdrawal from the 'a c t i v e mastery' of middle l i f e seems r e l a t e d to a l o s s of confidence i n t h e i r energy, t h e i r a b i l i t y to solve, problems, and t h e i r a b i l i t y to d e a l w i t h others" (Lawton, 1975, pg. 24). Further s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d that the aged are l e s s concerned w i t h the s u b t l e t i e s of day to day l i f e than most middle-aged or younger people. By maintaining a few simple a l l -encompassing a t t i t u d e s they are capable of e x p l a i n i n g the world around them. Perhaps by implementing design elements that a i d the aged i n conserving energy and strengthen t h e i r awareness of the world about them i t may be p o s s i b l e to perpetuate the " a c t i v e mastery" r o l e of middle l i f e i n t o the l a t e r years of l i f e i f , indeed, such a r o l e e x i s t s . The m a j o r i t y of o l d e r people are capable of a d j u s t i n g q u i t e adequately to changing values and d i f f e r i n g l i f e s t y l e s generated by 23. retirement. One of the primary reasons why i n d i v i d u a l s are capable of experiencing s u c c e s s f u l aging i s that.they have been able to maintain a high l e v e l of independence. The more independent an i n d i v i d u a l i s the higher the p r o b a b i l i t y that he or she w i l l be able to l i v e a f u l f i l l i n g l i f e during o l d age ( R i r a , 1973, pg. 8). A major factor- i n the maintenance of s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and independence i s the p r o v i s i o n of adequate housing • i n a w e l l designed environment. E f f i c i e n t and f u n c t i o n a l design can help to overcome minor i n f i r m i t i e s and provide a r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t i n g that w i l l serve as a " r e v i t a l i z i n g c a t a l y s t " f o r a l l those who d w e l l w i t h i n i t . PHYSIOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS In terms of the e l d e r l y s ' p h y s i c a l use of t h e i r environment the most important aspect of the aging process i s the gradual d i m i n i s h i n g of p h y s i o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . As p r e v i o u s l y s t r e s s e d , the aged possess as many i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s as any other age group. There are, however, a number of p h y s i o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s that r e s u l t from growing o l d , none of which apply u n i v e r s a l l y but a l l of which are common amongst e l d e r l y people. When p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs are not met through design, the r e s u l t may not j u s t be inconvenience f o r the aged but danger to l i f e and limb ( K i r a , 1973, pg. 5). The next s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s many common p h y s i o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s of the aged. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of these l i m i t a t i o n s w i l l be incorporated i n t o the d i s c u s s i o n d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c aspects of design. P h y s i c a l Strength Although the evidence i s sparce, the aging process does seem to r e s u l t i n a d e c l i n e i n p h y s i c a l strength. Studies have shown that the l o s s of strength i s considerable during the l a t t e r years of one's l i f e ( K i r a , . 24. 1973, pg. 13). A decline in strength has a number of important implica-tions to the design process, given that p h y s i c a l strength i s such an important element of so many of our - a c t i v i t i e s . Climbing s t a i r s , washing dishes, bathing and climbing aboard a bus are a l l a c t i v i t i e s that require strength. Perhaps what i s more important i n terms of t h i s discussion i s that the elements that accommodate such a c t i v i t i e s can be designed to require even l e s s strength. Balance With increasing age there i s considerable evidence that the sense of balance diminishes (Kira, 1973, pg. 15). Lack of balance'is usually a combination of diminished psycho-motor functioning coupled with a lack of strength. These two factors also lead to a poor l e v e l of adjustment once the person becomes off-balance. As K i r a states, "some aged people lose t h e i r balance i f they merely r a i s e an arm above t h e i r shoulders". Vertigo i s another well-documented cause of loss of balance amongst older f o l k . The obvious r e s u l t of the lack of balance i s that the aged are highly susceptible to f a l l s . The implications for design are c r i t i c a l i n t h i s case. Climbing on chairs to reach things, changing l i g h t bulbs or completing some s i m i l a r chore can become a dangerous a c t i v i t y when one's balance i s impaired. E f f i c i e n t design reduces the need for climbing, reaching or stooping i n addition to providing support areas where f a l l s are l i k e l y to occur. Seeing V i s u a l Acuity: Snellen chart measurements for varied age groups indi c a t e no major differences i n v i s u a l acuity up to the age of f i f t y ; past t h i s 25. p o i n t , however, t e s t s have revealed a considerable drop i n a c u i t y . By the time an i n d i v i d u a l reaches the age of seventy, poor v i s i o n i s the r u l e r a t h e r than the exception (Botwiniek', 1973, pg. 121). Decline i n psycho-motor f u n c t i o n i n g u s u a l l y places a greater r e l i a n c e upon v i s i o n i n order f o r the aged person to complete o r d i n a r y p h y s i c a l t a s k s . ( K i r a , 1973, pg. 15). P h y s i c a l tasks must be c l e a r l y seen i n order to be performed adequately and s a f e l y . In terms of design i t i s thus important to have things v i s u a l l y as w e l l as p h y s i c a l l y a c c e s s i b l e . Shallow depth cupboards are an e x c e l l e n t example of how one may design to accommodate t h i s need. Such cupboards make i t p o s s i b l e to c l e a r l y see everything on a s h e l f and thus there i s no need f o r " b l i n d " searching. Accommodation: As one ages there i s a l o s s i n the e l a s t i c i t y of the lenses of the eyes. Presbyopia i s the c l i n i c a l r e s u l t which r e f e r s to the i n d i v i d u a l becoming f a r s i g h t e d ( d i f f i c u l t y f o c u s i n g on near o b j e c t s ) . The l o s s of v i s u a l accommodation i s gradual, beginning at childhood (Botwiniek, 1973, pg. 121). I l l u m i n a t i o n : I t has been proven that o l d e r people r e q u i r e greater l e v e l s of i l l u m i n a t i o n than younger people.. Lawton's review of the research on t h i s subject pointed out that the increase i n the i l l u m i n a t i o n l e v e l r e q u i r e d to compensate f o r decreased v i s u a l a c t i v i t y doubled at s i x t y years of age and t r i p l e d by the age of s e v e n t y - f i v e (Lawton,' 1970, pg. 36). The research i n d i c a t e s that there i s an immense d i f f e r e n c e i n the amount of l i g h t r e q u i r e d to have the same p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t on the young as opposed to the o l d e r i n d i v i d u a l . One of the documented p h y s i o l o g i c a l reasons underlying t h i s f i n d i n g i s that o l d e r people have smaller eye 26. p u p i l s than do younger people. I t i s through the p u p i l that l i g h t reaches the„retina (Botwiniek, 1970, pg. 122). The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l ' l i m i t a t i o n i n terms of design focus p r i m a r i l y on the p r o v i s i o n of adequate l i g h t i n g w i t h i n the s u i t e , b u i l d i n g and outdoor areas of a retirement centre. Brightness D i s c r i m i n a t i o n : Although the evidence i s l i m i t e d , c o n t r a s t s e n s i t i v i t y to v a r i o u s brightnesses seems to d e c l i n e w i t h age (Botwiniek, 1970, pg. 123). Adapting to the .Dark: There are two b a s i c dimensions to dark adaptation. The f i r s t r e f e r s to how long i t takes the i n d i v i d u a l to develop maximum seeing a b i l i t y . The second r e f e r s to the q u a l i t y of s i g h t that i s f i n a l l y reached. I t has been proven that the l e v e l of s i g h t reached by the o l d i s not n e a r l y as adequate as that reached by the young. Proof u n d e r l y i n g the f i r s t dimension i s not as concrete. B i r r e n and Schook suggest that there i s no d i f f e r e n c e between young and o l d i n the time i t takes to develop seeing a b i l i t y i n the dark. On the other hand, Damey concluded that i t takes the aged longer than the young to reach t h e i r optimum l e v e l of s i g h t (Botwiniek, 1970, pg. 122). I t i s imperative that the designer be aware of such a p h y s i o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n and produce plans that w i l l serve to overcome t h i s problem. The placement of l i g h t switches and the p o s i t i o n i n g of the bathroom i n order to provide a d i r e c t path from the bedroom are two such design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s that w i l l be discussed i n f u r t h e r depth l a t e r . Colour V i s i o n : "The y e l l o w i n g of the le n s of the eye w i t h age and the p o s s i b l e changes i n the r e l a t i v e s e n s i t i v i t y of the l i g h t receptors 27. combine to produce a greater l o s s i n colour s e n s i t i v i t y i n the b l u e -green range than i n the yel l o w p a r t of the spectrum" (Botwiniek, 1970, pg. 122). The aged t h e r e f o r e , have greater success i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g among the reds, oranges and yell o w s . The design i m p l i c a t i o n s that, can be drawn from the above are numerous. For example, i t may.be advantageous to pai n t such f u n c t i o n a l elements as doors, s t a i r w a y s , h a n d r a i l s and emergency buzzers w i t h those colours f a l l i n g w i t h i n the yel l o w p a r t of the spectrum. The p o s s i -b i l i t y of the aged v i s u a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g these elements from others w i l l thus be enhanced. Hearing The aged have l e s s acute hearing than the young. Research i n d i c a t e s that f o r the aged higher p i t c h sounds are l e s s audible than lower p i t c h sounds. This appears to be more pronounced i n men than women. Rees and Botwiniek report that the aged have a d e f i n i t e l o s s of hearing. However, they q u a l i f y t h e i r research by o u t l i n i n g two ex t r a n -eous f a c t o r s that may play a c r i t i c a l r o l e i n e v a l u a t i n g hearing l o s s . The f i r s t p e r t a i n s to the general cautious nature of the e l d e r l y . They r e f r a i n from responding to a sound stimulus u n t i l they are c e r t a i n i t i s aud i b l e . The second po i n t i s that the a b i l i t y to concentrate on the sound plays an important r o l e i n determining i t s nature. The problem could t h e r e f o r e be one of p e r c e p t i o n r a t h e r than a p h y s i o l o g i c a l l o s s i n hearing (Botwiniek, 1970, pg. 123). In terms of design, i t i s important that d o o r b e l l s or any other s i g n a l l i n g devices that emit sound be louder and lower p i t c h e d than normal. Soundproofing i s another important design c o n s i d e r a t i o n 28. e s p e c i a l l y i n congregate l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s f o r the e l d e r l y . Frequently older people turn t h e i r T.V. sets and/or radios up to a high volume i n order to hear them. This may be rather disturbing to the neighbours i f the soundproofing i s poor. Smell The amount of data a v a i l a b l e on human sensation other than v i s i o n and hearing i s rather sparce. What l i t t l e evidence there i s indicates that the o l f a c t o r y senses of the aged . s u f f e r a general and progressive decline. On occasion the aged's sense of smell may be suddenly o b l i t e r -ated, either temporarily or permanently (Kira, 1973, pg. 16). Any decrease i n the sense of smell has important ramifications with respect to design for often the safety of the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be i n jeopardy. The aged may, for example, have trouble i n detecting smoke or escaping gas fumes from a stove. Automatic f i r e alarm systems and automatic shut-offs on gas stoves are two design considerations that would eliminate these problems. Temperature and Respiratory Requirements Various p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes i n metabolism and vasomotor controls, together with the general atrophy of the sweat glands, r e s u l t i n an i n s t a b i l i t y of body temperature which usually cause the aged to require higher temperatures and to avoid d r a f t s (Kira, 1973, pg. 18). It i s well documented that 80°F i s the most desirable room temperature for the aged. The aged s u f f e r from an atrophy of the mucous membrances and a general lowered resistance to i n f e c t i o n , thus they are highly susceptible to various r e s p i r a t o r y ailments (Kira, 1973, pg. 18). Adequate v e n t i l a t i o n i s necessary to o f f s e t the p r o b a b i l i t y of r e s p i r a t o r y ailments. The fa c t 29. that the aged f i n d higher room temperatures d e s i r a b l e f u r t h e r compli-cates the problem f o r high temperatures imply low humidity and t h i s has the e f f e c t of f u r t h e r d r y i n g out the mucous membrances thereby i n c r e a s i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r r e s p i r a t o r y i n f e c t i o n s . The designer i s faced w i t h the d i f f i c u l t task of c r e a t i n g an atmosphere that has high temperatures yet s t a b l e humidity and adequate v e n t i l a t i o n without d r a f t s . I n t e l l i g e n c e I t i s commonly s t a t e d that during o l d age there i s a gradual d e c l i n e i n mental a c u i t y - f o r g e t f u l n e s s , r i g i d i t y and the i n a b i l i t y to l e a r n new ways are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s d e c l i n e i n mental a c u i t y (Lawton, 1975, pg. 6). Although a number of s t u d i e s using the Wechsler Adult I n t e l l i -gence Scale would tend to support t h i s stereotype one must view the supportive data w i t h a great deal-of s k e p t i c i s m . The f a c t that o l d e r people do tend to score lower, on such t e s t s than younger people may be a t t r i b u t e d to a number of s o c i a l f a c t o r s . Three common reasons f o r the discrepancy i n scores may be that younger people are more f a m i l i a r w i t h the t e s t i n g environment, they are u s u a l l y more inv o l v e d i n i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s than o l d e r people and that they i n general have a higher l e v e l of education than o l d e r people (Lawton, 1975, pg. 7). These l o g i c a l reasons make the v a l i d i t y of cross s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s that have supported the f i n d i n g that the aged have a lower l e v e l of i n t e l l i g e n c e h i g h l y questionable. Although there i s no unequivocal d e f i n i t i o n of s e n i l i t y many people b e l i e v e that i t r e f e r s to o c c a s i o n a l f o r g e t f u l n e s s and i s an i n e v i t a b l e concomitant of aging. " S e n i l i t y " c h a r a c t e r i z e s a m i n o r i t y of o l d e r people and i s not an i n e v i t a b l e aspect of aging. The m a j o r i t y of people l i v e i n t o advanced age without ever s u f f e r i n g major l o s s of memory. Those who do experience m i l d disturbances i n i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g w i l l 30. u s u a l l y take compensatory measures to minimize the a c t u a l e f f e c t of the c o n d i t i o n on behaviour (Lawton, 1975, pg. 10). Processing Sense Information Studies have suggested that when the aged are s t i m u l a t e d twice i n a row, the t r a c e of the f i r s t stimulus p e r s i s t s , i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h the processing of the t r a c e of the second st i m u l u s . Research i n d i c a t e s that the nervous systems of the aged are apparently capable of r e t a i n i n g stimulus i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a greater length of time than the nervous systems of younger people. Evidence suggests that s t i m u l i coming i n r a p i d succession w i l l be fused;more r e a d i l y f o r the o l d than f o r the young. This has been proven f o r v i s i o n ( C r i t i c a l F l i c k e r F u s i o n ) , a u d i t i o n (Auditory C l i c k s ) and touch (Shocks to the Hand). D e f i n i t e perceptual e r r o r s are committed by the aged when they are faced w i t h a complex s e r i e s of s t i m u l i . Rapid speech f o r example, can become l e s s i n t e l l i g i b l e f o r e l d e r l y people due to the longer p e r s i s t e n c e of the auditory t r a c e of one word or sound i n a sentence i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h the processing of the next word (Botwiniek, 1970, pg. 150). Perception r e q u i r e s v i g i l a n c e and a t t e n t i o n . Studies have shown that v i g i l a n c e and a t t e n t i o n tend to d e c l i n e w i t h age. Perception i s t h e r e f o r e d u l l e d as one ages (Botwiniek, 1970, pg. 150). Another important form of stimulus processing i n v o l v e s s p a t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n . Research has proven that older subjects have problems i n t e g r a t i n g d i s s o c i a t e d p a r t s and f i n d i n g them i n complex backgrounds. Once they have made up t h e i r minds about a c e r t a i n matter they are u s u a l l y r e l u c t a n t to change i t even i f they are wrong. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to draw many design i m p l i c a t i o n s from t h i s research. Perhaps the most outstanding c o n c l u s i o n one can reach from these f i n d i n g s 31. i s that the elements w i t h i n an o l d e r person's environment should be arranged i n a r a t h e r simple manner. The designer should not c l u t t e r any given space w i t h a wide assortment of ob j e c t s f o r t h i s w i l l undoubtedly generate a source of confusion f o r most aged i n d i v i d u a l s . Design elements that r e q u i r e d a i l y use, such as the instrument panel i n an e l e v a t o r , should be presented i n a simple manner w i t h the f l o o r buttons c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . 32. CHAPTER FOUR - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY P r i o r to an a l y z i n g the b a s i c steps w i t h i n the research process i t i s perhaps important to provide a b r i e f background i n t o the two complexes that were s e l e c t e d f o r e v a l u a t i o n ; Seton V i l l a and New V i s t a . HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF SETON VILLA AND NEW VISTA Seton V i l l a i s l o c a t e d i n the northwest corner of the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Burnaby at 3755 M c G i l l S t r e e t . P r i o r to i t s development a C a t h o l i c g i r l s ' school e x i s t e d on the s i t e . The eighteen storey h i g h r i s e tower p r e s e n t l y stands i n the exact same l o c a t i o n that the school occupied. Seton V i l l a Mansion which at one time served as a residence f o r the g i r l s and nuns who taught i n the school s t i l l remains i n i t s o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n . The school's auditorium was a l s o r e t a i n e d and l a t e r adapted i n t o the o v e r a l l design of Seton V i l l a . The reason why the n o n - p r o f i t ' A c t i o n Line Housing So c i e t y was able to acquire t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i t e was probably because t h e i r proposal represen-ted the l e s s e r of two e v i l s to the immediate neighbours. X-Kalay, a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s o c i e t y f o r e x - p r i s o n e r s , o r i g i n a l l y planned to develop a half-way house on t h i s s i t e which would have served to give ex-cons an opportunity to adjust to l i f e o utside of the p r i s o n environment. The l o c a l r e s i d e n t s were opposed to t h i s form of development and generated enough o p p o s i t i o n to prevent the proposed X-Kalay development from being b u i l t . A c t i o n L i n e Housing Society proposed another a l t e r n a t i v e f o r the s i t e and thus Seton V i l l a was allowed to be developed. The New V i s t a complex i s l o c a t e d i n southeast Burnaby at Mary Avenue, j u s t o f f Edmonds S t r e e t . The New V i s t a Society was founded by Mr. Ernest Winch, M.L.A., i n 1943. Mr. Winch f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d a home 33. for female ex-mental patients i n order to a s s i s t them i n t h e i r r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n and return to society. This home was l a t e r taken over by the P r o v i n c i a l Government and transformed into accommodation f o r r e t i r e d people. The takeover by the P r o v i n c i a l Government a l t e r e d the objective of the New V i s t a Society into one of b u i l d i n g and operating accommodation fo r older people and t h i s objective remains today. The New V i s t a Society has possessed the e x i s t i n g s i t e o f f Mary Avenue since 1943. Some f o r t y - f i v e single storey cottages have been the major form of dwelling since 1949. In order to provide accommodation fo r a greater number of people, the New V i s t a Society with the a i d of the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Burnaby and the Burnaby Host Lions Club, developed two fourteen-storey highrise towers on the s i t e . The development of the towers necessitated the removal of some twenty cottage duplexes. The Ernest Winch Tower and New V i s t a Place, the two hig h r i s e towers which are the basis of t h i s case study, were completed i n 1971 and 1972 res p e c t i v e l y . FINANCIAL BACKGROUND Action Line Housing Society entered into an agreement under Section 15 of the National Housing Act with Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation f o r the construction of Seton V i l l a i n 1971. The o r i g i n a l date of completion was to be i n the f a l l of 1972 but due to a construc-t i o n s t r i k e and a subsequent elevator union s t r i k e that year, the construction completion date was set back. This setback forced the Action Line Housing Society to reapply for a further commitment of funds i n May, 1973. A loan of $3,758,000 with an amortization period of f i f t y years at a 7.5% i n t e r e s t rate was the sum t o t a l of funds required. Repayment began on January 1, 1975 with monthly payments of $23,000. 34. The authorized r e n t a l r a t e s are c o n t r o l l e d through CMHC who e s t a b l i s h f a i r r e n t a l r a t e s based upon the costs of operation. The f i r s t people moved i n t o Seton V i l l a on December .31, 1973. The P r o v i n c i a l Government'provided the New V i s t a S o c i e t y w i t h one-t h i r d of the c o n s t r u c t i o n costs f o r the Ernest Winch Tower. The Soci e t y entered i n t o an agreement under Secti o n 15 of the N a t i o n a l Housing Act wi t h C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation f o r the remainder of the funding r e q u i r e d . The t o t a l funding f o r t h i s tower was approximately $1,123,650.00. The New V i s t a Place Tower was completed i n 1972, however, i n t h i s case the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the New V i s t a S o c i e t y d i d not apply f o r a grant from the P r o v i n c i a l Government. The funding r e q u i r e d to complete t h i s second tower was approximately $1,637,860.00 which was again a t t a i n e d through CMHC. ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS AND RENTAL RATES There i s no formal a p p l i c a t i o n procedure at Seton V i l l a . A l l those who are admitted, however, must go through a personal i n t e r v i e w w i t h the management of the complex. The mandatory requirement i s that the i n d i v i d u a l must be r e t i r e d from a c t i v e f u l l - t i m e employment. This u s u a l l y i m p l i e s that the i n d i v i d u a l i s over the age of s i x t y - f i v e , but they w i l l accept people below t h i s age i f p h y s i c a l problems have l e d to premature retirement. An a d d i t i o n a l requirement i s a l e t t e r from the ap p l i c a n t ' s doctor i n d i c a t i n g the general s t a t e of h e a l t h of the a p p l i -cant. This precaution l i m i t s the p o s s i b i l i t y of f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s g i v i n g f a l s e i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h respect to the a p p l i c a n t ' s s t a t e of h e a l t h . Not a l l of the accommodation at Seton V i l l a i s s e l f - c o n t a i n e d . There i s a l s o room and board, and personal care accommodation w i t h i n the 35. same b u i l d i n g . This leads to a r a t h e r v a r i e d r e n t a l r a t e s t r u c t u r e . The rent f o r a l l of the s u i t e s , however, does in c l u d e heat, l i g h t , c a b l e v i s i o n , p a r k i n g , f i t n e s s c l a s s e s , r e c r e a t i o n and emergency nursing s e r v i c e s . The ra t e s f o r the s e l f - c o n t a i n e d s u i t e s are c u r r e n t l y (1975) as f o l l o w s : Bachelor s u i t e s $135 - $161 One bedroom s u i t e s $172 - $201 The ra t e s f o r room and board accommodation are: Shared accommodation $282 - $326 P r i v a t e rooms $305 - $360 One bedroom s u i t e s $500 - $520 (1 person) One bedroom s u i t e s $620 - $640 (2 persons) Room and board accommodation allows an i n d i v i d u a l to have three meals a day w i t h i n the d i n i n g room on the main f l o o r of the complex. Personal Care inc l u d e s maid and laundry s e r v i c e i n a d d i t i o n to the p r o v i s i o n of three meals per day. To estimate the ra t e s charged f o r Personal Care, add $75 per person to the above ra t e s or $100 per couple i n one room and $150 i n two rooms. There i s an a d d i t i o n a l r e n t a l charge of $10 per month i f the i n d i v i d u a l cannot supply h i s or her own f u r n i s h i n g s . The New V i s t a Society u t i l i z e s a s i m p l i f i e d questionnaire to screen i t s a p p l i c a n t s which i s f i l l e d out i n the presence of an i n t e r v i e w e r . Almost a l l of the a p p l i c a n t s to the New V i s t a Place and Ernest Winch Towers are over the age of s i x t y - f i v e . Since a l l of the s u i t e s are s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , the management i s somewhat r e l u c t a n t to accept i n d i v i d u a l s who have been forced to r e t i r e e a r l y due to some p h y s i c a l problem. The new Personal Care complex which has j u s t r e c e n t l y opened upon the same s i t e i s more s u i t a b l e to the needs of such i n d i v i d u a l s . Thus a l l 36. a p p l i c a n t s to the s e l f - c o n t a i n e d form of accommodation must be able to adequately manage t h e i r own l i v e s . The r e n t a l r a t e s t r u c t u r e f o r the Ernest Winch Tower and New V i s t a P lace i s much l e s s complex than that of Seton V i l l a s i n c e s e l f - c o n t a i n e d accommodation i s the only form of accommodation a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n these two h i g h r i s e towers. The primary d i f f e r e n c e i n the rents i s the r e s u l t of the New V i s t a Place Tower being constructed a year l a t e r than the Ernest Winch h i g h r i s e . The r e n t a l r a t e s l i s t e d below i n c l u d e h e a t i n g , e l e c t r i c i t y and c a b l e v i s i o n : Ernest Winch Tower: Bachelor s u i t e $ 80 One bedroom s u i t e $ 90 New V i s t a P lace: Bachelor s u i t e $ 99 One bedroom s u i t e $113 CONTACTING THE SAMPLE The i n i t i a l aim was to conduct in-depth i n t e r v i e w s w i t h a sub-sample of subjects who had p r e v i o u s l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a study co-sponsored by the Centre f o r Continuing Education (U.B.C.), and C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation. The names, addresses and phone numbers of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n theCC.E.-C.M.H.C. study were obtained and twenty p o t e n t i a l respondents were s e l e c t e d from each complex. Since i t was only p o s s i b l e to gain the co-operation of 65% of the twenty respon-dents at each s i t e who had been p r e v i o u s l y i n t e r v i e w e d , names of other p o t e n t i a l respondents were obtained from the managers of the two complexes. The process of c o n t a c t i n g p o t e n t i a l respondents was continued u n t i l a quota of twenty was a t t a i n e d at each site."'" "*" The C.C.E.-C.M.H.C. study, conducted by Dr. G l o r i a Gutman, was designed to determine the expectations and housing preferences of Senior C i t i z e n s by i n t e r v i e w i n g Seniors p r i o r to moving i n t o retirement housing and 12 to 18 months a f t e r they had moved i n . This t h e s i s followed up the .above 37. The twenty respondents from each of the complexes represent 12% of the t o t a l i n h a b i t a n t s of Seton V i l l a and 10% of the t o t a l i n New V i s t a . The length of the questionnaire and the time r e q u i r e d to complete each i n t e r v i e w l i m i t e d the sample s i z e that could have been f e a s i b l y contacted. I t was f e l t that a comprehensive i n t e r v i e w i n v o l v i n g fewer respondents would be more productive than a l e s s i n v o l v e d i n t e r v i e w or questionnaire u t i l i z i n g a l a r g e r sample. I n i t i a l contact was made wi t h each of the respondents by means of the l e t t e r i n cluded i n Appendix B. The l e t t e r provided a b r i e f summary of who was conducting the research, the purpose of the study and the l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n that would be r e q u i r e d from each respondent. The l e t t e r informed the i n d i v i d u a l that he or she would be contacted by phone i n order to arrange a time f o r an i n t e r v i e w . This l e t t e r proved to be v a l u a b l e i n a s s u r i n g the r e t i r e d i n d i v i d u a l of the l e g i t i m a c y of the study. The use of a formal l e t t e r h e a d was an added feature that helped to v a l i d a t e the a u t h e n t i c i t y of the research. Each of the p o t e n t i a l respondents was contacted by phone immediately a f t e r they had r e c e i v e d the i n t r o d u c t o r y l e t t e r i n order to arrange a time f o r an i n t e r v i e w . I t was deemed advi s a b l e to make phone contact w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r r e c e i p t of the l e t t e r f o r many aged people have a short memory span and i f a great d e a l of time elapses between the l e t t e r and phone c a l l i t was f e l t that they might be unable to r e c a l l what was w r i t t e n i n the l e t t e r . study by p r o v i d i n g a more in-depth examination of design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n terms of the s u i t e , b u i l d i n g , s i t e and neighbourhood 38. THE INTERVIEW A l l but one of the respondents were interviewed w i t h i n t h e i r own s u i t e . The exception chose to be interviewed i n the common lounge of one of the complexes. The range of time i t took to complete a s i n g l e i n t e r v i e w was from f o r t y - f i v e to n i n e t y minutes w i t h the average being approximately s i x t y minutes. Each of the questions w i t h i n the qu e s t i o n -n a i r e ( r e f e r to Appendix A) was read to the respondent and c l a r i f i e d i f the need arose. By reading the questions aloud and w r i t i n g the responses i n abbreviated form i t was p o s s i b l e to reduce the amount of time r e q u i r e d to complete the que s t i o n n a i r e . Another notable advantage of t h i s technique was that those who had d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h reading and w r i t i n g were able to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. At l e a s t f i v e out of twenty respondents from each complex would probably not have been able to complete the survey had i t been i n any other form than an i n t e r v i e w . Throughout the i n t e r v i e w s i t was o f t e n necessary to repeat a question two to three times, e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of those who were hard of hearing. While conducting the i n t e r v i e w simple abbreviated notes were taken regarding the respondent's p e r s o n a l i t y and p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . For example, obvious p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s were noted i f the respondent f a i l e d to mention them during the i n t e r v i e w . I f the i n d i v i d u a l appeared to possess obvious i n t r o v e r t e d or ext r o v e r t e d q u a l i t i e s , these were a l s o recorded. Information such as t h i s helped to e x p l a i n the m o b i l i t y p a t t e r n s of c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s when clues were not a v a i l a b l e from t h e i r responses. The most important f u n c t i o n of t h i s technique was that i t allowed me to meet f o r t y i n d i v i d u a l s on a fa c e - t o - f a c e b a s i s . I t brought me 39. r i g h t i n t o the respondents' homes which helped to e s t a b l i s h an i n f o r m a l and f a m i l i a r atmosphere f o r the i n t e r v i e w . I t gave me the opportunity 2 to appreciate and o b t a i n a glimpse of f o r t y somewhat unique l i f e s t y l e s . THE QUESTIONNAIRE The questionnaire was designed to be as c l e a r and concise as p o s s i b l e i n order f o r the respondents to f u l l y comprehend the p r e c i s e meaning of each question. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e covered s i x d i s t i n c t t o p i c areas i n c l u d i n g : 1) personal background i n f o r m a t i o n 2) spaces and features w i t h i n the b u i l d i n g 3) spaces and features w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l s u i t e s 4) s i t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s I t was o r i g i n a l l y intended that at a l a t e r date each respondent would take p a r t i n a "Cog n i t i v e Mapping" e x e r c i s e . " C o g n i t i v e mapping" r e f e r s to a research technique whereby a respondent;.-draws a map or diagram which e l i c i t s h i s or her c o g n i f i e d p e r c e p t i o n of a given area. I f the subject area i s a neighbourhood f o r example, the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l u s u a l l y only draw or name elements of that neighbourhood w i t h which he or she i s f a m i l i a r or aware of. Often the s i z e of an element w i t h respect to other elements that have been drawn w i l l s i g n i f y the importance the i n d i v i -dual a t t r i b u t e s to that given element. The p o s i t i o n and s p a t i a l arrangement of elements that are drawn a l s o may provide clues to t h e i r importance. By i d e n t i f y i n g a common set of perceived elements one can i n f e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the importance of c e r t a i n environmental elements and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to a p a r t i c u l a r p o p u l a t i o n grouping. The objec t was to compare drawings made by school c h i l d r e n w i t h those drawn by the" r e t i r e d people w i t h i n the two complexes. N a t u r a l l y the school c h i l d r e n that were to be se l e c t e d f o r the study l i v e d w i t h i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to each of the r._ complexes. This form of inf o r m a t i o n could have e a s i l y supplemented and been compared w i t h the knowledge obtained through d i r e c t questions. The reasons f o r not conducting t h i s p a r t of the survey are based upon time c o n s t r a i n t s . The most e f f i c i e n t means of conducting the c o g n i t i v e mapping e x e r c i s e was to have a l l those who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the in t e r v i e w s come together at a c e r t a i n time. Unfortunately there was no common time or day that was convenient.for any more than two people. The only s o l u t i o n would have been to set up appointments w i t h each of those interviewed and to have had them complete the e x e r c i s e i n d i v i d u a l l y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , time c o n s t r a i n t s forbade such an a l t e r n a t i v e . 40. 5) neighbourhood features and spaces, s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l 6) housing preference. A t o t a l of se v e n t y - f i v e questions were asked but many of these had from two to s i x sub-questions which r e s u l t e d i n more than 200 p o s s i b l e responses per qu e s t i o n n a i r e . Whenever p o s s i b l e " c l o s e ended" questions were u t i l i z e d i n order to permit ease of r e p l y and reduce the task of ev a l u a t i n g the responses. Many of the subject areas however, d i d not lend themselves to the use of cl o s e d form questions and as a r e s u l t a la r g e number of "open ended" questions were a l s o used. Such "open ended" questions allowed f o r a more in-depth view of the respondents' f e e l i n g s and thoughts towards various design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and the use they made of such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The f i r s t group of questions d e a l t w i t h personal i n f o r m a t i o n . These questions e s t a b l i s h e d such b a s i c background i n f o r m a t i o n as the sex, age and m a r i t a l status of the respondent, t h e i r length of residence w i t h i n the complex and the type of s u i t e they p r e s e n t l y occupy. Questions of t h i s nature were asked i n order to i d e n t i f y any p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the respondents and the use they made of c e r t a i n spaces, and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and views toward v a r y i n g design c r i t e r i a . These questions were a l s o asked i n order to al l o w comparisons to be made between the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the tenants i n h a b i t i n g each of the two complexes. Background informa t i o n was a l s o sought on the type of housing and environmental s e t t i n g that the respondent had p r e v i o u s l y l i v e d i n . These questions were intended to measure how adaptive senior c i t i z e n s were to a h i g h r i s e s e t t i n g . 41. This s e c t i o n a l s o included a number of question designed to determine whether the respondent had any p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y and i f so, what that d i s a b i l i t y was. The i n t e n t here was to e s t a b l i s h s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n -ships between p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s and the use the respondents made of var y i n g spaces. The l a r g e s t group of questions w i t h i n the Personal Information s e c t i o n , however, d e a l t w i t h the respondents' r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n , r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s and neighbours. The questions p e r t a i n i n g to the c h i l d r e n not only e s t a b l i s h e d how many c h i l d r e n the respondent had, where they l i v e d and how o f t e n he or she was i n contact w i t h them, but al s o attempted to e s t a b l i s h how important i t was f o r the respondent to l i v e i n the same neighbourhood or c i t y as- h i s or her c h i l d r e n . The i n t e n t was to i d e n t i f y the e f f e c t that c h i l d r e n have on the m o b i l i t y p a t t e r n of the aged i n a d d i t i o n to determining whether the r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n of t h e i r c h i l d r e n a f f e c t e d the respondents' choice of housing. The questions p e r t a i n i n g to f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s attempted to s a t i s f y s i m i l a r l i n e s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The second group of questions d e a l t w i t h spaces w i t h i n the b u i l d i n g . The spaces that were s e l e c t e d were f e l t to be the most commonly used spaces w i t h i n the b u i l d i n g . A l l of the respondents were w e l l aware of the design and use they made of each of these spaces and the r e f o r e i t was p o s s i b l e f o r them to make l e g i t i m a t e comments concerning them. The i n t e n t of the questions p e r t a i n i n g to these common spaces was to i d e n t i f y common p o s i t i v e and negative aspects of design and to i d e n t i f y the d i f f e r e n t use respondents made of such spaces. The a n a l y s i s of use was c r i t i c a l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g r e l e v a n t comparisons between the two complexes. I f , f o r example, an area such as the penthouse lounge was used many 42.: more times and i n many more ways w i t h i n one b u i l d i n g than another, meaningful conclusions could be drawn concerning the. design and fea t u r e s of the space and the patterns of use i t e l i c i t e d . By i d e n t i f y i n g p o s i t i v e and negative aspects of design based upon the respondents' preference and use of defined spaces i t was considered p o s s i b l e to develop a l i s t of design c r i t e r i a that could be used i n f u t u r e b u i l d i n g s . The t h i r d group of questions p e r t a i n e d to the i n d i v i d u a l s u i t e s . Since a l l but one of the i n t e r v i e w s was conducted w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u i t e , i t was p o s s i b l e f o r the respondent to r e f e r to the p a r t i c u l a r f eature as he or she commented upon i t . This increased the c l a r i t y and d e t a i l of the comments that were provided. The questions w i t h i n t h i s s e c t i o n d e a l t w i t h the door to the apart-ment, s i z e of the s u i t e , storage space, l i g h t i n g , k i t c h e n , d i n i n g area, bedroom area, bathroom, b a l c o n i e s , l i v i n g and b e d s i t t i n g area, heating and soundproofing. Questions d e a l i n g w i t h the emergency buzzer and board residence were a l s o included i n the case of Seton V i l l a . The major i n t e n t was to determine the use respondents made of c e r t a i n d efined areas and features w i t h i n t h e i r s u i t e and to e l i c i t t h e i r comments concerning the design of such features and areas. The f o u r t h s e c t i o n of the questionnaire d e a l t w i t h s i t e c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s . Questions 50 through 54 attempted to a s c e r t a i n the type and degree of use respondents made of the outdoor area immediately surrounding the b u i l d i n g . Their views on e x i s t i n g f eatures of the s i t e and what they would add to enhance the s i t e were also.sought. These questions were designed to a s c e r t a i n the degree to which each complex s a t i s f i e d the respondent's requirements. They would a l s o permit cross comparisons of s i t e usage. By knowing the features of each s i t e , i t was thought to be 43. p o s s i b l e to draw some s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the l e v e l . d f use that was made of each. The f a c t that the most e x t e n s i v e l y used s i t e had p a t i o f u r n i t u r e may, f o r example, be s i g n i f i c a n t . This s e c t i o n a l s o included questions d e a l i n g w i t h outdoor s e a t i n g , night use and a t t i t u d e s toward sidewalks and outdoor ramps l o c a t e d on s i t e . S e c t i o n f i v e of the questionnaire pertained to the immediate neighbourhood surrounding each of' the complexes. Immediate neighbourhood i n t h i s case r e f e r s to the area w i t h i n average walking d i s t a n c e of the complex. The questions range from g e n e r a l i z e d ones such as what were the most common reasons f o r l e a v i n g the s i t e , to s p e c i f i c questions d e a l i n g w i t h the design of curbs. The i n t e n t of t h i s p o r t i o n of the questionnaire was to cover as many elements w i t h i n the neighbourhood as p o s s i b l e . Question 58 was perhaps the most in s t r u m e n t a l of a l l the questions i n measuring the l e v e l of a c t i v i t y of the respondents. Estimating the number of times one l e f t the s i t e allowed f o r v a r y i n g comparisons between the respondents of each complex and between the complexes themselves. The second part of t h i s question d e a l i n g w i t h the reason f o r l e a v i n g helped to f u r t h e r c l a r i f y s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s of a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s at the neighbourhood l e v e l . Questions 59 to 63 covered a number of neighbourhood f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g shopping areas, parks, p u b l i c t r a n s i t , sidewalks and crosswalks and others. The questions were designed to measure the l e v e l of use the respondents made of c e r t a i n neighbourhood f a c i l i t i e s , what t h e i r major d i s l i k e s or l i k e s were concerning such f a c i l i t i e s , and what recommenda-t i o n s they would make to improve upon them. The f i n a l set of questions d e a l t w i t h general impressions and preferences regarding retirement housing. 44. One of the more informative, questions of the survey was Question 64, which set out to define why the respondents"had moved to each of the complexes. The i n t e n t here was to determine the major drawing forc e each of the b u i l d i n g s possessed i n a d d i t i o n to understanding the circum-stances under which r e t i r e d people choose or are forced to move. The twelve defined reasons from which the respondent chose from were capable of accommodating the m a j o r i t y of the reasons. Questions 65 through 68 attempted to i d e n t i f y the b a s i c perferences that r e t i r e d people d i s p l a y f o r housing. By r e l a t i n g these p r e f e r e n t i a l responses to t h e i r present l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n i t was considered p o s s i b l e to provide an e s t i m a t i o n of current housing s a t i s f a c t i o n . Question 71 set out to have the respondents d e f i n e the major advantages and/or disadvantages of h i g h r i s e l i v i n g f o r r e t i r e d people. Once again i t was p o s s i b l e to make cross comparisons between b u i l d i n g s and between respondent types through such a question. Questions 72 to 75 d e a l t w i t h the respondents' preference f o r the form of retirement housing. Questions 73 and 74 were designed to gain the respondents' views on a r a t h e r new concept i n retirement housing, that of p r o v i d i n g s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , board and room, and nur s i n g care accommodation w i t h i n the same b u i l d i n g . Since those i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r -viewed at Seton V i l l a p r e s e n t l y l i v e i n such a b u i l d i n g i t was i n t e r e s t i n g to compare t h e i r responses to those of the New V i s t a r e s i d e n t s who had never experienced such a r e s i d e n t i a l environment. Question 75 attempted to de f i n e the s o c i a l atmosphere of each of the complexes by o f f e r i n g the respondents a l i m i t e d choice of c o n t r a s t i n g statements that described the r e s i d e n t s , b u i l d i n g atmosphere and management of the complexes. 45. CHAPTER FIVE - CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE The i n t e n t of t h i s chapter i s to provide a b a s i c d e s c r i p t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a t t i t u d e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the respondents. The chapters that f o l l o w w i l l provide an in-depth a n a l y s i s of how such c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s , a t t i t u d e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s a f f e c t the design process. Seventy-five percent of both the New V i s t a and Seton V i l l a respondents were female. This percentage supports the f a c t that h i g h r i s e retirement centres u s u a l l y accommodate more women than men. The average age of the female respondents was 77 at Seton V i l l a and 75.8 at New V i s t a . The average age of the male respondents was 71.5 at Seton V i l l a and 72.5 at New V i s t a . . These f i g u r e s r e f l e c t the f a c t that on the average females l i v e longer than males. MARITAL STATUS The m a r i t a l s t a t u s of the respondents i s i l l u s t r a t e d below: Status Seton V i l l a New V i s t a SEX AGE Widowed Married Separated Never Married 80.0% 10.0% 5.0% 5.0% 65.0% 25.0% 5.0%. 5.0% These percentages emphasize the f a c t that retirement' centres u s u a l l y accommodate a high p r o p o r t i o n of widowed i n d i v i d u a l s . 46. LENGTH OF RESIDENCE Average Occupancy Standard D e v i a t i o n Range Seton V i l l a New V i s t a 1.25 years 0.66 years 1.60-0.10 years 1.60 years 1.38 years 3.60-0.10 years PHYSICAL LIMITATIONS The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s the percentage of subjects who i n d i c a t e d that they had e i t h e r s e r i o u s or moderate l i m i t a t i o n s i n walking, seeing or hearing. Moderate L i m i t a t i o n Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Serious L i m i t a t i o n Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Walking Seeing Hearing 25% 25% 20% 35% 30% 5% 20% 10% 15% 35% 5% Only 20% of the Seton group and 40% from New V i s t a however, i n d i c a t e d that t h e i r p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e i r d a i l y l i f e a c t i v i t i e s . The data supports the c l a i m that o l d e r people are capable of l e a d i n g a normal l i f e d e s p i t e a high incidence of p h y s i o l o g i -c a l l i m i t a t i o n s . The percentage of the respondents that i n d i c a t e d they were i n need of the f o l l o w i n g p h y s i c a l aids i s provided below: Eye glasses Cane Hearing A i d Wheelchair Seton V i l l a New V i s t a 85.0% 15.0% 15.0% 5.0% 85.0% 10.0% 5.0% FINANCIAL SITUATION Twenty-five percent of the Seton V i l l a respondents and 30% of the New V i s t a group claimed that t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n l i m i t e d them i n 47. t a k i n g p a r t i n c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s . Not one of the respondents from e i t h e r ' o f the complexes were on the Mincome program which seemed to i n d i c a t e that t h e i r income s t a t u s was, although l i m i t e d , not a s e r i o u s problem. When asked what they would do i f income was not a l i m i t a t i o n the m a j o r i t y of the respondents i n d i c a t e d they would l i k e to t r a v e l . PRESENT EMPLOYMENT A s i n g l e respondent from each of the complexes was p r e s e n t l y employed at a part-time j ob. Although many of the remaining respondents were a c t i v e w i t h i n v a r i o u s forms of v o l u n t a r y employment, none of them he l d a pa i d p o s i t i o n . PAST WORKING EXPERIENCE The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s the form of employment that the respondents spent most of t h e i r l i v e s working a t . Form of Employment Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Housewife Nurse Trade sman/woman C l e r i c a l Teacher J a n i t o r Construction/labour Manager S a i l o r Self-employment Agent 55% 5% 5% 15% 5% 5% 45% 10% 5% 10% .'5% 5% 10% 5% 5% 5% 5% TYPE OF SUITE OCCUPIED Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Bachelor One bedroom Board residence 50% 15% 35% 75% 25% 48. PAST HOUSING EXPERIENCE The respondents were asked to l i s t the type of housing they had spent most of t h e i r adult l i f e l i v i n g i n . The r e s u l t s f o l l o w : Seton V i l l a New V i s t a S i n g l e f a m i l y Duplex Lowrise apartment H i g h r i s e apartment S i n g l e f a m i l y and duplex S i n g l e f a m i l y and h i g h r i s e apt. Si n g l e f a m i l y and l o w r i s e apt. Duples and l o w r i s e apt. Other (mobile home, h o t e l , etc.) 45% 10% 10% 75% 5% 10% 10% 5% 5% 5% 10% 10% In terms of design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s there are two important f a c t s that a r i s e from t h i s data. The f i r s t i s that the m a j o r i t y of respondents had spent most of t h e i r l i v e s w i t h s i n g l e f a m i l y forms of accommodation and, secondly, only two of the f o r t y respondents had any lengthy previous experience w i t h h i g h r i s e l i v i n g . These two f i n d i n g s are important to the a n a l y s i s of housing preference and adaptation to h i g h r i s e l i v i n g that w i l l be covered l a t e r on w i t h i n the t h e s i s . PAST LIVING EXPERIENCE As a follow-up to the above question, the respondents were asked to l i s t the form of environment that they had spent most of t h e i r l i f e w i t h i n . The r e s u l t s f o l l o w : Form of Environment Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Urban s e t t i n g ( c e n t r a l c i t y ) 50% 50% Suburban s e t t i n g 40% 45% The vast m a j o r i t y of the respondents were thus c i t y d w e l l e r s e i t h e r of the i n t e r u r b a n or outerurban v a r i e t y . R u r a l s e t t i n g 10% 5% 49. MEANS OF GETTING AROUND In order to evaluate the l e v e l of beha v i o u r a l response the respondents had to t h e i r neighbourhood environment i t was important to gain some i n s i g h t i n t o what was the most "dominant" source of m o b i l i t y . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s the respondents' more common means of g e t t i n g around. Means of M o b i l i t y Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Own car 10% 5% The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a high dependence on the p u b l i c t r a n s i t system. Even those who owned a car or had access to a f r i e n d ' s or r e l a t i v e ' s car i n d i c a t e d that they depended to some degree on t a k i n g a bus. The r e l a t i o n -ship between the m o b i l i t y patterns of the aged and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of p u b l i c t r a n s i t systems w i l l be discussed i n depth at a l a t e r time. RELATIONSHIP WITH CHILDREN Eighty percent of the Seton V i l l a respondents and 85% of the New V i s t a respondents had at l e a s t one or more l i v i n g c h i l d . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s the percentage of the respondents who have one or more c h i l d l i v i n g w i t h i n Burnaby and those who have one or more c h i l d l i v i n g w i t h i n the G.V.R.D. P u b l i c t r a n s i t P u b l i c t r a n s i t and walking P u b l i c t r a n s i t and car Wheelchair Tax i 40% 25% 15% 5% 5% 50% 25% 20% Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Percentage of those w i t h c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n Burnaby 62.5 29.0 Percentage of respondents w i t h c h i l d r e n i n G.V.R.D. but not Burnaby 62.5 70.0 50. Of those with chil d r e n , 95% at Seton V i l l a and 100% at New V i s t a had contact with t h e i r c h i l d r e n by phone or mail at le a s t once a week. Face to face contact with t h e i r c h i l d r e n was not as frequent as contact by phone or mail. Face to Face Contact with Children Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Percentage claiming contact once a week 75 76 Percentage claiming contact once - a month 21 24 Percentage claiming contact le s s often 4 A f t e r the l e v e l s of contact has been ascertained those respondents with c h i l d r e n were asked f i r s t of a l l how important i t was to l i v e within the same neighbourhood as t h e i r c h i l d r e n and, second, how important i t was for them to l i v e within the same c i t y . The r e s u l t s to these questions follow: Same Neighbourhood Level of Importance Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Very important 18% 18% Somewhat important 47% 27% Not Important 35% 55% Same C i t y Very important 30% 23% Somewhat important 46% 60% Not important 24% 17% Close neighbourhood a f f i l i a t i o n with t h e i r c h i l d r e n was deemed by the respondents not to be of primary importance while having them l i v e within the same c i t y was thought to be more important. RELATIONSHIPS WITH RELATIVES, NEIGHBOURS AND FRIENDS S i x t y - f i v e percent of the Seton V i l l a respondents and 50% of the New V i s t a respondents had one or more r e l a t i v e s other than c h i l d r e n l i v i n g 51. w i t h i n the greater Vancouver area. The extent to which they heard from at l e a s t one of them e i t h e r by phone, m a i l or i n person i s represented by the t a b l e below: L e v e l of Contact Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Once a week 55% 80% Once a month 45% 10% Less o f t e n - 10% The percentage of Seton V i l l a respondents who knew at l e a s t one or more neighbours w i t h i n the complex w e l l enough to ask a favour of them was 95%. The average number of neighbours that any given respondent knew w e l l as 6.7. Wi t h i n an average week each respondent from Seton would v i s i t any one of these neighbours on the average of 5.45 times. E i g h t y - f i v e percent of the New V i s t a respondents knew one or more of t h e i r neighbours w i t h i n the complex w e l l enough to ask a favour of them. Each New V i s t a respondent knew on the average approximately 4.19 neighbours and would v i s i t any one of them on the average of 2.4 times per week. A p r e l i m i n a r y overview of t h i s data leads one to the co n c l u s i o n that the l e v e l of i n t e r a c t i o n amongst neighbours w i t h i n the two complexes was s u b s t a n t i a l l y higher at Seton V i l l a . The respondents from Seton V i l l a not only knew more of t h e i r f e l l o w neighbours but a l s o i n t e r a c t e d w i t h them more o f t e n . Forty percent of the Seton V i l l a group and 25% of the New V i s t a respondents i n d i c a t e d that they had some a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h people l i v i n g w i t h i n the immediate neighbourhood. . The Seton V i l l a respondents a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an average of 1.75 people per respondent w h i l e the respondents from New V i s t a a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an average of 4.6 people per respondent. Thus 52. although the New V i s t a respondents had on the average fewer a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h immediate neighbours than the Seton V i l l a group, they d i d know a l a r g e r number of neighbours. In terms of cl o s e f r i e n d s l i v i n g w i t h i n the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , 85% of the Seton V i l l a group a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one or more c l o s e f r i e n d s . The term cl o s e f r i e n d was defined as those i n d i v i d u a l s who one would count on i n times of need. On the average each of the Seton respondents had 4.15 cl o s e f r i e n d s l i v i n g w i t h i n Greater Vancouver. Seventy-five percent of the New V i s t a people i n d i c a t e d that they had one or more c l o s e f r i e n d s l i v i n g w i t h i n the greater Vancouver area. The average number of clos e f r i e n d s per respondent was a l s o 4.15. T h i r t y - f i v e percent of the Seton respondents i n d i c a t e d that one or more c l o s e f r i e n d s l i v e d w i t h i n Seton V i l l a w h i l e 40% of the New V i s t a people i n d i c a t e d a s i m i l a r c l a i m . The average number of clos e f r i e n d s that these respondents had w i t h i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e complexes was 1.5 f o r Seton V i l l a and 2.2 f o r New V i s t a . T h i r t y - f i v e percent of both the Seton and New V i s t a respondents i n d i c a t e d that they had clos e f r i e n d s l i v i n g w i t h i n walking distance of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e complexes. Each of these respondents made on the average 1.4 v i s i t s per week i n the case of Seton V i l l a and .6 v i s i t s per week i n the case of New V i s t a to t h e i r c l o s e f r i e n d s w i t h i n walking d i s t a n c e . For v i s i t s to c l o s e f r i e n d s not w i t h i n walking d i s t a n c e the most common means of tra n s p o r t was the bus. 53. CHAPTER SIX - SPACES WITHIN THE BUILDING INTRODUCTION The format to be used w i t h i n t h i s chapter w i l l be continued w i t h i n the subsequent chapters d e a l i n g w i t h spaces w i t h i n the s u i t e , the s i t e and neighbourhood. The framework provides a t h r e e f o l d examination of s p e c i f i c design c r i t e r i a r e l a t e d to defined f e a t u r e s and spaces w i t h i n h i g h r i s e retirement centres. F i r s t a b r i e f review of theory and c r i t e r i a r e l a t e d to a given design c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l be provided. Second, e i t h e r p i c t u r e s , sketch or d e s c r i p t i o n w i l l be provided, of the p a r t i c u l a r space or feature i n question as i t e x i s t s i n New V i s t a and Seton V i l l a . T h i r d , an a n a l y s i s of the data p e r t a i n i n g to the given design c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l be put forward. LOBBY - MAIN FLOOR LOUNGE, MAIL,AREA The lobby i s the f o c a l p o i n t of a c t i v i t y i n most congregate l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s f o r the e l d e r l y . I t i s important f o r the designer to provide f o r p assive observation i n a s u b t l e manner without i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h the flow of t r a f f i c . An' e f f i c i e n t s e a t i n g arrangement can provide the l e s s mobile i n d i v i d u a l w i t h hours of enjoyment through the observation of others coming and going. People should be granted the opportunity to meet here, read signs and poster boards, s i t around and gossip or j u s t p a s s i v e l y watch the surrounding a c t i v i t y . In a h i g h r i s e s i t u a t i o n i t i s probably even more important to emphasize the lobby as an a c t i v i t y centre. Once the i n d i v i d u a l enters the e l e v a t o r the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n become l i m i t e d . C o r r i d o r s and the i n d i v i d u a l s u i t e s provide even fewer p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n . The lobby should be a place where some c o n t r o l can be e x e r c i s e d over 54. who i s allowed access to the upper f l o o r s of a; complex.. The p r o v i s i o n of adequate s e c u r i t y i s a c r i t i c a l element i n the design of h i g h r i s e retirement centres. By p r o v i d i n g the space and f u r n i t u r e f o r a number of tenants to s i t and observe one i s i n essence c r e a t i n g a n a t u r a l s u r v e i l l a n c e system during d a y l i g h t hours. A more s t r i n g e n t means of c o n t r o l l i n g access w i l l o b v i o u s l y be necessary at n i g h t . The designer should be aware that r e t i r e d people spend numerous hours at home and as a r e s u l t are o f t e n harassed by.door to door salespeople. C o n t r o l l e d access can l i m i t such harassment i n a d d i t i o n to p r o t e c t i n g the p h y s i c a l l y weak r e t i r e d tenant from any c r i m i n a l element that may attempt to gain access. The p r o v i s i o n of t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s near the lobby, a main f l o o r lounge or any common a c t i v i t y area i s another e s s e n t i a l aspect of design f o r o l d e r people o f t e n have bladder and bowel c o n t r o l problems. Main f l o o r lounges are u s u a l l y an extension of the lobby area. Lounges of t h i s type should be able to accommodate a l a r g e number of people. This e n t a i l s adequate space and the p r o v i s i o n of f u n c t i o n a l f u r n i t u r e . The lounge area should augment the passive observation q u a l i t i e s of the lobby. From the lounge i n d i v i d u a l s should have the chance to s i t and observe those coming and going. The f u r n i t u r e should be comfortable and supporting, yet easy to move about. A number of retirement centres have had success i n s a t i s f y i n g these aims by using the "Danish Modern" type of c h a i r s and sofas. Their ease of movement i s an a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e p e r m i t t i n g r e t i r e d f o l k to create t h e i r own s e a t i n g arrangements f o r i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s or group conversations. The a d d i t i o n of a T.V. or piano w i t h i n the lounge may f u r t h e r i t s use as an a c t i v i t y centre. As one enters a retirement centre the f i r s t two spaces that one comes 55. i n contact w i t h are u s u a l l y the lobby and a main f l o o r lounge. I f the f l o o r s have no rugs, the w a l l s are drab and l i f e l e s s and there i s l i t t l e or no p r o v i s i o n f o r ' a c t i v i t y and i n t e r a c t i o n , the impression one w i l l r e c e i v e whether tenant or v i s i t o r , w i l l not be an i n v i t i n g one. The p r o v i s i o n of rugs, bold and b r i g h t w a l l c o l o u r s , p a i n t i n g s on the w a l l , p l a n t s and p l a n t e r s , c o ffee t a b l e s , n o t i c e boards and adequate s e a t i n g w i l l a l l help to promote a sense of home to those who may enter. An important part of the day f o r the aged l i v i n g w i t h i n a congre-gate l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n i s when the m a i l i s d e l i v e r e d . A separate m a i l area should be set aside w i t h i n e i t h e r the main f l o o r lounge or, i f . t h i s i s not p o s s i b l e , the lobby. The lounge i s the .preferred area f o r i t can e l i c i t an optimum l e v e l of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w h i l e the people wait f o r t h e i r m a i l . Coffee, magazines, newspapers and, as noted, comfortable s e a t i n g w i l l undoubtedly a l l help to ensure and promote a c e r t a i n l e v e l of i n t e r a c t i o n . A n a l y s i s of Data - Lobby, Main F l o o r Lounge, M a i l Area The q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i d not co n t a i n any s p e c i f i c questions r e l a t e d to the lobby area f o r i t was f e l t that t h i s defined space u s u a l l y represents an extension of the main f l o o r lounge area w i t h i n most h i g h r i s e r e t i r e -ment centres. As the i l l u s t r a t i o n f o r Seton V i l l a shows, there was l i t t l e formal separation of these areas. New V i s t a , on the other hand, had an expansive lounge area separated from the. lobby by means of a few steps and a double doorway. The m a j o r i t y of the respondents from both complexes f a i l e d , however, to draw any d i s t i n c t i o n between the area that c o n s t i t u t e d the lobby and the area defined as the main f l o o r lounge. LOBBY* SETON VILLA GLASS MANUAL DOORS T AUTOMATIC DOQRS I FRONT - n p p . p , DESK OFFICES IROOM LOBBY* NEW V I S T A STEPS — T h ELEVATORS /IAIN Fl OOR IQUNGE SFTON VILLA F l F M F N T ^ orange rugs modern paintings lamps tropical plants cO bronze mail boxes IAIN F IQOR L O U N G E - N F W VISTA / I A I N F L O O R 1 O U N G E N E W V I S T A yJALL A R E A S E T O N & N E W V I S T A C L O S E - U P N E W V I S T A 63. The respondents were asked how many times per week they v i s i t e d the lounge area and the amount of time they u s u a l l y spent on each o c c a s i o n . The r e s u l t s f o l l o w : Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Average number of v i s i t s a week per respondent Average l e n g t h of v i s i t per respondent 6.85 6.35 30 minutes 36 minutes The respondents thus spent an average of 30 or more minutes every day of the week w i t h i n t h i s defined area. This l e v e l of use would support the need f o r the design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s et out i n the beginning of t h i s s e c t i o n . The respondents were next asked to s t a t e the most common a c t i v i t y they engaged i n while w i t h i n the lounge area. Most Common A c t i v i t y P i c k i n g up m a i l V i s i t i n g w i t h neighbours and f r i e n d s Attending meetings Signing i n and out Reading b u l l e t i n or n o t i c e boards Seton V i l l a New V i s t a 45% 35% 10% 10% 55% 20% 25% A l l of the respondents at New V i s t a r e c e i v e d t h e i r m a i l w i t h i n assigned m a i l boxes. At Seton. V i l l a 65% of the respondents l i v e d i n s e l f - c o n t a i n e d s u i t e s and each had h i s own mailbox; the remaining 35% who l i v e d i n board residence s u i t e s r e c e i v e d t h e i r m a i l at the f r o n t desk. A l l but one i n d i v i d u a l at Seton V i l l a and two w i t h i n New V i s t a checked f o r m a i l f i v e times per week. For the r e t i r e d i n d i v i d u a l who spends a great d e a l of time s i t t i n g alone i n h i s or her room, the opportunity to check f o r m a i l provides an excuse to get about and i n t e r a c t w i t h neighbours. The p r o v i s i o n of f u n c t i o n a l s e a t i n g arrangements w i t h i n the m a i l area undoubtedly adds to 64. the p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The mail area i s also an excellent place to post announcements given the frequency of v i s i t s to t h i s area. The fa c t that the lounge area was used for v i s i t i n g with friends and neighbours was not only brought out by the responses to the above question but i t was also evident when the respondents were asked to l i s t the forms of a c t i v i t y they took part i n while waiting for the mail. F i f t y percent of the respondents from each of the complexes claimed they sat about and v i s i t e d with t h e i r fellow tenants while waiting for the mail. The fact that 25% of the New V i s t a respondents indicated that the most common a c t i v i t y they engaged i n was attending meetings can be a t t r i b u t e d to the expansive s i z e of the New V i s t a lounge. The New V i s t a lounge was planned to accommodate formal a c t i v i t i e s while the penthouse lounge and the auditorium i n Seton V i l l a were used to accommodate such a c t i v i t i e s . This became more evident when the respondents were asked to l i s t some of the other a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n within the lounge area. P r i o r to examin-ing these r e s u l t s perhaps the common a c t i v i t y of signing i n and out that was indicated by 10% of the Seton V i l l a respondents requires explanation. The management of Seton V i l l a have established a r u l e whereby each tenant must sign out at the front desk when they leave the complex and sign i n when they return. This procedure helped to keep tabs on the tenants' whereabouts. When the respondents were asked to l i s t any other a c t i v i t i e s that they took part i n while i n the lounge area the following responses were provided (multiple responses were permitted). 65, Other A c t i v i t i e s Seton V i l l a New V i s t a P i c k up m a i l J u s t pass through V i s i t w i t h f r i e n d s Attend planned entertainment Hymn s i n g Wait f o r the laundry Read Wait f o r the minibus No response 20% 40% 25% 5% 10% 33% 16% 10% 16% 10% 10% 5% P i c k i n g up the m a i l was thus not only the most common a c t i v i t y l i s t e d but i t a l s o had the highest frequency amongst the c l a s s of "other" a c t i v i t i e s . Although " j u s t passing through" i s a r a t h e r i n s i g n i f i c a n t form of a c t i v i t y i t does imply a number of design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Clear unobstructed pathways, f o r example, are important elements of a lobby or main f l o o r lounge ensuring an ease of movement through such areas. No t i c e boards should be l a r g e and h i g h l y v i s i b l e so the passing i n d i v i d u a l can q u i c k l y perceive any up-and-coming events. The arrangement of the f u r n i t u r e e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n the lounge area should a l l o w the i n d i v i d u a l the o p t i o n of e i t h e r t a k i n g p a r t i n a conversation or a c t i v i t y or to simply pass through i f she or he so d e s i r e s . The responses "attend planned entertainment" and "hymn s i n g " both i l l u s t r a t e the multi-purpose nature of the New V i s t a lounge. "Waiting f o r the laundry" was another commonly expressed New V i s t a a c t i v i t y which r e s u l t e d from the laundry room being constructed adjacent to the lounge area. The multi-purpose nature and s i z e of the New V i s t a lounge makes i t d i f f i c u l t to j u s t i f y a one to one comparison w i t h the l e s s complex and smaller Seton V i l l a lounge. Perhaps a more c o n s t r u c t i v e approach would be to evaluate the general l o c a t i o n of the New V i s t a lounge. Is i t d e s i r a b l e to have a major a c t i v i t y area l o c a t e d adjacent to the f r o n t lobby? The major advantage of l o c a t i n g an a c t i v i t y area i n t h i s area i s 66, that p r a c t i c a l l y eveyone passing i n and out i s r e a d i l y aware of any a c t i v i t y and thus the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of that i n d i v i d u a l t a k i n g p a r t are increased. The major disadvantage i s that the h i g h l y v i s i b l e nature of t h i s a c t i v i t y centre may generate undue pressure on an i n d i v i d u a l to take p a r t when he or she would r a t h e r enjoy t h e i r p r i v a c y . A great d e a l can be done through design to provide a happy medium between these two p o s s i b l i t i e s . The f i n a l question p e r t a i n i n g to the lounge area asked the respon-dents to suggest improvements i n design. Suggested Improvements Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Adequate as i s , no improvements necessary 10% 30% More s e a t i n g i s r e q u i r e d 10% 10% F l o o r space should be increased 10% 25% More equipment f o r entertainment purposes r e q u i r e d - 5% Reduce indoor comfort - 5% Construct a small c o f f e e shop - 5% Needs more open space f o r carpet bowling - 5% A l t e r p o s i t i o n of the f r o n t desk 10% -No response 60% 15% The m a j o r i t y of the responses, are s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . I t was again evident from the New V i s t a responses that the lounge area was u t i l i z e d as an a c t i v i t y centre. Responses such as more seating,-more entertainment equipment, increased f l o o r space and more open space f o r carpet bowling support such a c l a i m . I t i s questionable whether a space that serves as an extension of a lobby could ever support such games as carpet bowling which not only r e q u i r e a l a r g e area but a l s o a r e l a t i v e l y open one. The f u n c t i o n and design of most lounge areas would d e f i n i t e l y not meet the needs of such a c t i v i t i e s . The two responses that perhaps r e q u i r e explanation are "reduced indoor comfort" and " a l t e r the p o s i t i o n of the f r o n t desk". The New V i s t a respondent who suggested that the design should reduce indoor comfort reasoned that i f the indoor space was. l e s s i n v i t i n g tenants might be i n c l i n e d to get outside more. This comment deserves c o n s i d e r -able a t t e n t i o n . Is there some poi n t i n the planning and design of a h i g h r i s e retirement centre where too much comfort i s being provided and too many needs are being met? This question continues to be debated by housing a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h few c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s yet emerging. The two respondents from Seton V i l l a who i n d i c a t e d that the p o s i t i o n of the f r o n t desk should be a l t e r e d were concerned w i t h the e f f i c i e n c y of s u r v e i l l a n c e the e x i s t i n g f r o n t desk area o f f e r e d . I f the f r o n t desk was o r i e n t e d more towards the east any s u p e r v i s o r or tenant on duty would undoubtedly have a much greater opportunity to observe who was coming and going. FRONT DOOR OF THE BUILDING The entrance to a retirement centre should be extremely f u n c t i o n a l . As Marie McGuire p o i n t s out, .... . "Almost u n i v e r s a l l y , the f r o n t door i s heavy, whether g l a s s or wood. I f a r e s i d e n t i s f r a i l , c o n v a l e s c i n g , c a r r y i n g a bag of g r o c e r i e s or using a m o b i l i t y a i d , i t takes a major e f f o r t or a s s i s t a n c e to get i n t o one's own home." (McGuire, 1972, pg. 6) D i f f e r i n g wind pressures between the e x t e r i o r and i n t e r i o r spaces of a h i g h r i s e tower o f t e n create a vacuum making t h e " f r o n t door even more d i f f i c u l t to open. A v i a b l e s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem i s to have automatic doorways, set at a slower than normal speed i n order to accommodate slower moving people and those i n wheelchairs. Another fe a t u r e of the f r o n t entrance that i s o f t e n overlooked i s the p r o v i s i o n of a canopy. An extended canopy can o f f e r the r e t i r e d F R O N T D O O R » S E T O N V I L L A rRQNT DOQR> NEW VISTA 70 v i n d i v i d u a l p r o t e c t i o n from the elements as he or she approaches the f r o n t door of the b u i l d i n g . I f the canopy i s extended out to a d r i v e -way the r e t i r e d i n d i v i d u a l may be saved from g e t t i n g soaking wet as she or he moves from a car to the f r o n t door. The aged, o f t e n take c o n s i d e r -ably longer to f i n d t h e i r keys and open the f r o n t door than younger people and thus the canopy can o f f e r them necessary p r o t e c t i o n w h i l e they are performing t h i s task. A n a l y s i s of Data - Front' Door of B u i l d i n g W i t h i n an average week the f r o n t door i s used to enter the b u i l d i n g an average of 10.15 times per respondent at New V i s t a and 10.25 times at Seton V i l l a . Thus the respondents u t i l i z e the f r o n t door of t h e i r complex at l e a s t once a day w i t h the m a j o r i t y of respondents us i n g i t two or three times a day. This frequency of use i m p l i e s that considerable emphasis should be a p p l i e d to the f u n c t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s of the f r o n t door. When the respondents were asked to l i s t t h e i r l i k e s and d i s l i k e s concerning the f r o n t door an apparent d i f f e r e n c e i n the l e v e l of s a t i s -f a c t i o n i n the two complexes became evident. Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a - completely s a t i s f i e d w i t h e x i s t i n g door 95% 55% - too easy to gain unauthorized access - 10% - l a c k of p r i v a c y as one enters - 5% - entrance l o c a t e d i n the wrong place - 5% - door too heavy - 25% - w a s t e f u l having two doors 5% The Seton V i l l a group o b v i o u s l y appreciated the advantages that automatic doors can provide. By simply stepping on the rubberized t r e a d l e the door a u t o m a t i c a l l y opens. Since the door i s set at slower than normal opening and c l o s i n g speed i t can e a s i l y accommodate those w i t h 7 1 . walking d i f f i c u l t i e s and those forced to use wheelchairs. The tenants of Seton need not worry about the weight of the door or how easy i t i s to manually open or c l o s e i t f o r a minute degree o f p h y s i c a l contact i s re q u i r e d to operate i t . The problem of the weight of the door being too heavy was one a s i g n i f i c a n t percentage of the New V i s t a respondents r e f e r r e d t o . As the d e s c r i p t i o n i l l u s t r a t e d , the New V i s t a towers both had manually operated doors. The major c o n f l i c t that a r i s e s when designing manual doors f o r retirement centres i s that of ensuring dur-a b i l i t y and st r e n g t h and yet making them l i g h t enough to be e a s i l y opened by aged i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h l i m i t e d s t r e n g t h . This c o n f l i c t i s not e a s i l y r e s o l v e d . Ten percent of the New V i s t a respondents noted that i t was f a r too easy to gain unauthorized entrance to the b u i l d i n g s . This response was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the intercom system u t i l i z e d w i t h i n the complex. A number of respondents f e l t that many tenants were c a r e l e s s i n t h e i r use of t h i s system and consequently the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r unauthorized i n d i v i d u a l s g a i n i n g access to the b u i l d i n g s were increased. C o n t r o l l e d access to a retirement centre i s c r i t i c a l f o r without i t the aged tenants would soon l o s e t h e i r sense of p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l s e c u r i t y . Perhaps i n the case of New V i s t a where considerable expense has already been i n c u r r e d i n p r o v i d i n g an intercom system the best answer may be to o f f e r an intense t r a i n i n g program i n the use and misuse of the e x i s t i n g system. The fea r of unauthorized entrance i s not a problem at Seton V i l l a f o r 24 hour s u r v e i l l a n c e i s provided from the f r o n t desk. The automatic doors at Seton are locked a f t e r 10:00 p.m. and tenants are r e q u i r e d to use the adjacent manual door a f t e r t h i s time. As one respondent i n d i c a t e d 72. the added expense of t h i s e x t r a manual door i s somewhat questionable given that 24 hour s u r v e i l l a n c e i s o f f e r e d . Although only a s i n g l e respondent from New V i s t a noted that the l a c k of p r i v a c y was a negative aspect of the door arrangement, t h i s comment does have important design i m p l i c a t i o n s . This i n d i v i d u a l f e l t that the p o s i t i o n i n g of the f r o n t door immediately adjacent to the main lounge d i s r u p t e d her p r i v a c y f o r i t was impossible f o r her to come and go without being under the wa t c h f u l eyes of those s i t t i n g i n the main lounge. Thus we have a c o n f l i c t between the p r o v i s i o n of passive observation and i n v a s i o n of p r i v a c y . E f f e c t i v e use of c u r t a i n s may be the simplest means of r e s o l v i n g the c o n f l i c t w i t h i n New V i s t a . Another p o s s i b i l i t y f o r those l i v i n g w i t h i n the Ernest Winch Tower, would be to f o l l o w the suggestion of one of the respondents and r e l o c a t e the entrance on the west side of the b u i l d i n g . Since access to the complex i s o f f Mary, Avenue which l i e s d i r e c t l y west of the tower t h i s idea deserves c o n s i d e r a t i o n . R e l o c a t i n g the entrance on the west s i d e would a l s o provide more d i r e c t access to the b u i l d i n g . ELEVATORS The C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation i n t h e i r b o o k l e t , "Housing the E l d e r l y " set out the f o l l o w i n g design c r i t e r i a f o r e l e v a t o r s : - l i g h t i n g should be higher than normal - should have a minimum i n t e r i o r cab s i z e of f i v e f e e t by .seven f e e t i n order to adequately accommodate a s t r e t c h e r - should have access to a secondary b u i l d i n g entrance from the e l e v a t o r f o r s t r e t c h e r cases and f o r moving f u r n i t u r e - h a n d r a i l s should be provided on three sides of the cab at a height of two f e e t nine inches 73. - a s h e l f or bench should be provided i n the cab f o r r e s t i n g packages - doors should open and c l o s e at a slower than normal speed and should have a very quick response re-opening sensor - c o n t r o l buttons should be arranged h o r i z o n t a l l y not more than four f e e t e i g h t inches from the cab f l o o r to permit use from a wheelchair - there should be a v o i c e intercom system connecting the e l e v a t o r cab w i t h an alarm b e l l and r e c e i v e r l o c a t e d i n the manager's o f f i c e or i n the lobby (C.M.H.C., 1972, pg. 18). A number of these .design c r i t e r i a w i l l be expanded upon w i t h i n the a n a l y s i s of the data. Some aged f e a r using the e l e v a t o r . Whether t h i s i s due to t h e i r u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h i t or some other set of reasons has yet to be f u l l y q u a l i f i e d . I t seems l o g i c a l to assume that d i s t r a c t i o n s such as n o t i c e boards would help to a l l e v i a t e such fear.. The e l e v a t o r i s an e x c e l l e n t place to p i n up n o t i c e s s i n c e i t i s used d a i l y by most tenants. I n v i t i n g c o l o u r s , adequate i l l u m i n a t i o n and c a r p e t i n g may a l s o be important elements i n making e l e v a t o r t r a v e l more acceptable to the aged. A n a l y s i s of Data - E l e v a t o r s The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s the d a i l y use respondents made of the e l e v a t o r s w i t h i n t h e i r complex. Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Average times per day per respondent Standard d e v i a t i o n 4.3 1.34 3.15 1.9 These f i g u r e s r e f e r to separate t r i p s . Going down and coming up were considered as c o n s t i t u t i n g a s i n g l e t r i p . The greater frequency of e l e v a t o r use at Seton V i l l a can be p a r t i a l l y a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t that O N VILLA RAILING B\NEL-E L E M F N T c ; orange rug wood grained walls instrument paneli lettered Buttons numbers along side ten person capacity 90*height of cals two available 43" DUAL DOORS El-Mg NTS - F R F i f i H T Fl FVATORfone onlyj linoleum floor flourescent lighting railing,40 high instrument panel same as above length 8 width 43 F l E V A T O R . N E W V I S T A TWO ELEVATORS IN EACH TOWER I i L t u L . v _ A j r \ o INSTRUMENT PANEL FLOURESCENT LIGHTING 76: 35% of the Seton respondents l i v e d w i t h i n board residence s u i t e s and the r e f o r e used the e l e v a t o r at l e a s t three times a day to gain access to the d i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s on the main f l o o r . The average use per day f o r the board residence respondents was 5.28, th e r e f o r e accounting f o r the o v e r a l l higher average at Seton. I f a retirement centre i s to provide board residence one can assume that heavy use of e l e v a t o r s w i l l occur at meal times. Management may f i n d i t a d v i s a b l e to stagger e a t i n g hours i n order to reduce e l e v a t o r congestion at meal time. The o v e r a l l degree of frequency of use i n d i c a t e s that e l e v a t o r s are ra t h e r c r u c i a l to the m o b i l i t y of r e t i r e d people w i t h i n h i g h r i s e complexes. C a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n to design i s thus warranted. A v a r i e t y of responses were a t t a i n e d when the respondents were asked to express t h e i r views on the design and/or f u n c t i o n of the e l e v a t o r s . Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Adequate i n terms df design and f u n c t i o n 25% 45% Other people cannot operate i t p r o p e r l y 20% 5% Frequent maintenance problems 20% Size of e l e v a t o r too sm a l l 15% Runs too slow 10% Instrument panel should have numbers only 5% Stops w i t h a sudden j e r k - 5% I t can accommodate a s t r e t c h e r (a favourable p o i n t ) - 5% P e r s o n a l l y f e a r using i t - 5% No response 5% 35% The i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n New V i s t a were somewhat more s a t i s f i e d w i t h , the design and f u n c t i o n i n g of t h e i r e l e v a t o r s than the r e s i d e n t s of Seton V i l l a . A common problem i d e n t i f i e d by both groups of respondents d e a l t w i t h how other tenants used the e l e v a t o r s . I n d i v i d u a l s p r e s s i n g the wrong f l o o r button or p r e s s i n g two or three at one time were among the most common of the grievances. The use of canes and mechanical walking aids to keep the door from c l o s i n g was another common e r r o r i n use c i t e d by the respondents. The f a c t that Seton V i l l a ' s e l e v a t o r instrument panels possessed numbers as w e l l as l e t t e r s to i n d i c a t e f l o o r s may have l e d to a higher l e v e l of confusion i n operation than was i n d i c a t e d by the data. Although a great deal of the l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h the aged claims that o l d e r people fea r using e l e v a t o r s the data that were a t t a i n e d w i t h i n t h i s study do not s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s f i n d i n g . Only one out of the 40 that were interviewed mentioned a f e a r of e l e v a t o r use. Given that the m a j o r i t y of the respondents (95%) had never l i v e d w i t h i n a h i g h r i s e complex p r i o r to moving to Seton and New V i s t a , t h e i r l e v e l of adaptation to e l e v a t o r use would appear to be s a t i s f a c t o r y . A female respondent w i t h i n New V i s t a i n d i c a t e d that the f a c t that the e l e v a t o r w i t h i n t h i s complex could accommodate a s t r e t c h e r was one of the primary reasons f o r her moving to New V i s t a . A past experience of having to be wheeled down the stairway of a h i g h r i s e complex because the e l e v a t o r would not accommodate a s t r e t c h e r was the b a s i s of her reasoning. The f a c t that a number of respondents w i t h i n -Seton i n d i c a t e d that the e l e v a t o r i s . t o o small may be a t t r i b u t e d to the p a t t e r n of movement w i t h i n the b u i l d i n g r a t h e r than the p h y s i c a l design of the e l e v a t o r . As noted, the board residence and personal care p o p u l a t i o n of Seton, which accounts f o r approximately 37% of the t o t a l tenant p o p u l a t i o n , are served three meals a day w i t h i n three s p e c i f i e d time p e r i o d s . The r e s u l t i s that a l a r g e number of people, some of whom are i n wheelchairs, use the e l e v a t o r s simultaneously at- l e a s t three times a day. The e l e v a -t o r s can only accommodate ten people at any given time and t h e r e f o r e a number of i n d i v i d u a l s • a r e forced to w a i t . Those periods of heavy use 78. may have l e d to the pe r c e p t i o n that the e l e v a t o r s at Seton are too s m a l l . Maintenance problems accounted f o r 20% of the respondents d i s s a t ^ i s f a c t i o n at Seton. These problems can be l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t e d to the c o n s t r u c t i o n s t r i k e which developed during the time when the e l e v a t o r s were being constructed. At the time of the s t r i k e the e l e v a t o r s h a f t at the top of the b u i l d i n g was l e f t open and a great deal of r a i n damage was i n c u r r e d . The damage that r e s u l t e d has l e d to innumerable maintenance problems over the past years. Although only one respondent s p e c i f i c a l l y p o i n t e d out t h a t the instrument panel was the major source of-problems, one can speculate that i t s design created problems i n ' o p e r a t i o n f o r a number of r e s i d e n t s at Seton. The panel has buttons which are l e t t e r e d to i n d i c a t e the f l o o r s . These l e t t e r s have created confusion amongst the tenants and as a r e s u l t s t i c k - o n numbers were u t i l i z e d as w e l l . In view of the experience at Seton V i l l a , l e t t e r s should be avoided. Ten percent of the respondents at Seton i n d i c a t e d that the e l e v a t o r s were too slow. This impression may again have developed from the heavy peak hour use of the e l e v a t o r s r a t h e r than t h e i r a c t u a l speed. The respondents of the two complexes suggested the f o l l o w i n g l i s t of improvements to the design and fe a t u r e s of the e l e v a t o r . Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Adequate as is/cannot suggest improvements Larger Smoother running Doors on both sides are r e q u i r e d Faster Doors should c l o s e slower Have operators, e s p e c i a l l y during peak hour use Numbers only (not both or l e t t e r s ) on panel 10% 10% 5% 10% 15% 40% 10% 85% 10% 5% The m a j o r i t y of these responses are s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y w i t h the l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the design and operation of the New V i s t a e l e v a t o r s being higher than of Seton's e l e v a t o r s . One response that r e q u i r e s c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s that of doors on both s i d e s . This comment was o f f e r e d by a wheelchair tenant at Seton V i l l a who f e l t that i t was e a s i e r to enter and e x i t an e l e v a t o r w i t h doors opening on both sides when confined to a wheelchair. One of the three e l e v a t o r s at Seton had such a f e a t u r e . STAIRWAYS While most b u i l d i n g designs emphasize e l e v a t o r use they u s u a l l y de-emphasize stairway use. Stairways that are i n compliance w i t h f i r e r e g u l a t i o n s and b u i l d i n g standards are seldom u t i l i z e d by the i n h a b i t a n t s of a m u l t i - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g . Stairways are an e x c e l l e n t source of ex e r c i s e and the aged should be encouraged to use them e s p e c i a l l y f o r between f l o o r t r a v e l . In order to f o s t e r t h e i r use i t i s e s s e n t i a l to make the:stairways i n v i t i n g . They should a l s o be both v i s i b l e and e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e . These two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are u s u a l l y accounted f o r i n that most stairways serve as f i r e escape routes i n h i g h r i s e towers and thus are c l e a r l y marked. F i r e p r o o f g l a s s doors may make them even more v i s i b l e w h i l e warm colours and sure g r i p surfaces w i l l undoubtedly f u r t h e r t h e i r use. Handrails on both sides of the s t a i r s and above normal l i g h t i n g should be considered as s a f e t y b a s i c s . By p r o v i d i n g l e v e l landings between a s e r i e s of steps the l i m i t e d p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h and endurance of the aged may i n par t be compensated f o r . A n a l y s i s of Data - Stairways The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s the b a s i c degree of use that the respondents made of the stairways w i t h i n the two complexes. S T A I R W A Y S . S F T O N V I L L A & N E W V concre+e steps- 28 from floor to floor dual stairways painted gray metal self closing doors railing along right side exit lights in the corridors SETON VILLA NEW VISTA dual stairways concrete steps landing mid way railing along right side pam+ed yellow me+al self closing doors each floor clearly marked 81. Seton V i l l a New V i s t a % of respondents that used the s t a i r s Average number, of times/week the s t a i r s were used Average number of f l o o r s ascended or descended/trip 65.0 5.46 3.07 60.0 3.83 3.41 I t i s l o g i c a l to assume that those tenants who l i v e on the lower f l o o r s of a m u l t i - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g w i l l be more i n c l i n e d to use the s t a i r -ways to gain access to t h e i r s u i t e s and to leave the b u i l d i n g than those who l i v e on the upper f l o o r s . This assumption, however, rec e i v e d l i t t l e support s i n c e the major emphasis was on between f l o o r t r a v e l and those interviewed occupied s u i t e s on a v a r i e t y of f l o o r s w i t h i n both complexes. Furt h e r , at Seton V i l l a personal care s u i t e s are on the lower f l o o r s and t h i s group of tenants are u s u a l l y i n r e l a t i v e l y poor p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n and t h e r e f o r e would be l e s s i n c l i n e d to use the stair w a y s . The m a j o r i t y of respondents u t i l i z e d the s t a i r s p r i m a r i l y f o r reasons of convenience. When v i s i t i n g f r i e n d s on d i f f e r e n t f l o o r s , going to the laundry rooms on a l t e r n a t e f l o o r s or v i s i t i n g the penthouse, i t was at times f a s t e r to use the s t a i r s than the e l e v a t o r . T r i p s that i n v o l v e d c l i m b i n g more than three f l o o r s u s u a l l y prompted the i n d i v i d u a l to take the e l e v a t o r . The l e v e l of use that was i n d i c a t e d , however, does i l l u s t r a t e that as a source of e x e r c i s e the stairways do have p o t e n t i a l . Perhaps i f they were made more i n v i t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s would use them f o r other reasons than pure convenience. Responses p e r t a i n i n g to what the respondents l i k e d or d i s l i k e d about the stairways were l i m i t e d . This stands to reason i n that by conforming to f i r e r e g u l a t i o n s the design of the stairways i s extremely b a s i c . 82. Responses Adequate as they are L i k e d the f i r e p r o o f q u a l i t i e s of s t a i r s Step design good/easy to climb L i k e d having two stairway a l t e r n a t i v e s No response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a 35% 15% 5% 40% 30% 5% 5% 65% Perhaps the only response that r e q u i r e s explanation i s the one p e r t a i n i n g to the two stairway a l t e r n a t i v e s . Seton V i l l a and New V i s t a both have two s e r i e s of stairways that lead to two d i f f e r e n t areas of the b u i l d i n g s . A ; S e t o n . V i l l a respondent perceived t h i s arrangement as being an e x c e l l e n t s a f e t y f a c t o r i n that i f access to one stairway was cut o f f a second a l t e r n a t i v e does e x i s t . When asked to suggest improvements to the design of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e stairways the responses were even l e s s d e t a i l l e d . Responses M a i n t a i n f i r e standards R a i l i n g s are r e q u i r e d on both sides of the stairways No response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a 5% 5% 25% 70% 5% 90% The most important p o i n t evident from these responses was the need f o r r a i l i n g s on both s i d e s of the s t a i r s . Those who have d i s a b l e d r i g h t arms or hands f i n d i t almost impossible to s a f e l y use the stairways if~ the only r a i l i n g provided i s on the right-hand s i d e . This design consider-a t i o n would a l s o a l l o w two people to s a f e l y walk side-by-side down the stairways. LAUNDRY ROOMS Laundry rooms should be designed to provide at l e a s t two f u n c t i o n s , doing the laundry and p r o v i d i n g an opportunity f o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n . A f o l d i n g t a b l e , c o f f e e or tea making equipment, and c h a i r s i n which to Al JNDRY ROOM iSETON VILLA DRYJ :RS o 5 00 .GARBAGE ELEMENTS two ironing boards one iron ventilation duct flourescent lighting coi n operated mach i nes inoleum-floors located on the <Sth and 10th floors XUNDRY R O O M « NEW VISTA SETON VILLA SETON VILLA 86. s i t and gossip w i l l c o n t r i b u t e g r e a t l y to the p o s s i b i l i t y of unstructured i n t e r a c t i o n . The laundry room should never be i s o l a t e d i n a hidden corner of the basement. I f i t i s not p o s s i b l e to ass i g n enough f l o o r space to provide f o r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the laundry room i t s e l f , the next best a l t e r n a t i v e i s to l o c a t e the laundry room near a lounge or r e c r e a t i o n room. The laundry room should have good l i g h t i n g to help compensate f o r the v i s u a l l i m i t a t i o n s of those u t i l i z i n g i t . Good v e n t i l a t i o n i s another important aspect of a laundry room, given that the dryers and washers u s u a l l y generate a f a i r amount of heat. Perhaps one concern that i s of t e n overlooked i n terms of the laundry f a c i l i t i e s i s the r e s t r i c t e d income of the aged.. I f i t i s e s s e n t i a l that the equipment be c o i n operated i t at l e a s t can be reasonably p r i c e d . The p r o v i s i o n of an i r o n , i r o n i n g board and enough space to f o l d bedding are added features that add to the f u n c t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s of the laundry room. A n a l y s i s of Data - Laundry Room The average use of the laundry room per respondent was 2.55 times per month at New V i s t a and 2.41 times per month at Seton V i l l a . The m a j o r i t y of the respondents l i v e d alone and thus d i d not accumulate a l a r g e amount of s o i l e d laundry during the'week. Even those who were married f e l t that doing laundry every second week was more than adequate f o r t h e i r needs. When asked to express t h e i r l i k e s and d i s l i k e s concerning the laundry room' of t h e i r b u i l d i n g a wide assortment of comments were provided. 87. Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a E x i s t i n g laundry room and f a c i l i t i e s adequate Poor i r o n i n g f a c i l i t i e s Convenient to lounge areas Machines out of order o f t e n Clean and t i d y Requires b e t t e r v e n t i l a t i o n I r o n i n g f a c i l i t i e s good No response 5% 5% 5% 20% 55% 5% 60% 5% 10% 10% 20% A moderate l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s was expressed by both groups of respondents. The l o c a t i o n of the laundry room near the lounge area at New V i s t a was a p o s i t i v e aspect of the f a c i l i t i e s expressed by two of the respondents. While w a i t i n g f o r the laundry one could u t i l i z e the lounge f o r reading, v i s i t i n g or s i t t i n g ' i n comfortable c h a i r s . The need to accommodate such a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the laundry room i t s e l f i s not e s s e n t i a l i n t h i s case. In Seton V i l l a , ' even though no mention was made of the f a c t , the tenants can u t i l i z e a smaller corner lounge w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r t h e i r laundry. The negative comments expressed d e a l t w i t h the f u n c t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s of the r o o m r a t h e r than w i t h a e s t h e t i c concerns. Poor • i r o n i n g . f a c i l i t i e s was mentioned by respondents i n Seton and New V i s t a . However, i n Seton t h i s c l a i m was countered by a respondent who' claimed the i r o n i n g f a c i l i t i e s were good. Many of today's o l d e r generation were r a i s e d i n an era when wash and wear c l o t h e s were unheard of and thus they have grown accustomed to having to i r o n most of t h e i r c l o t h i n g . Designers should be aware of t h i s f a c t and accommodate i t through the p r o v i s i o n of s u i t a b l e i r o n i n g f a c i l i t i e s . Ten percent of the New V i s t a respondents noted that the machines were f r e q u e n t l y out of order. This i s a common problem that most commer-c i a l c o i n l a u n d r i e s face but i n t h e i r case i t i s u s u a l l y due to heavy and 88;V improper use of the machines. Since the m a j o r i t y of tenants use the laundry f a c i l i t i e s r a t h e r i n f r e q u e n t l y and when they do use them they u s u a l l y have only l i g h t loads one can question why the New V i s t a machines had breakdown problems. Perhaps the answer i s to purchase b e t t e r q u a l i t y machines i n the case of h i g h r i s e retirement centres. Another common f a u l t of the.laundry rooms mentioned w i t h i n both complexes was the l a c k of space f o r f o l d i n g bedding and l a r g e r laundry items. In a d d i t i o n one respondent from Seton noted that the laundry room was o f t e n "hot and s t u f f y " and pointed out that a more e f f i c i e n t v e n t i l a t i o n system would r e s o l v e the problem. Both these f a u l t s can be e a s i l y ,remedied through e f f i c i e n t design. Unfortunately, a rat h e r poor l e v e l of response was a t t a i n e d when the respondents were asked to suggest improvements i n terms of the f i x t u r e s and design of the laundry room. Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Machines should be f r e e 15% 5% Coin-operated features should be r e t a i n e d 5% 5% Bet t e r q u a l i t y of -machines r e q u i r e d - 5% Improve v e n t i l a t i o n 5% 5% i Larger f o l d i n g area 5% No response 70% 80% The most s i g n i f i c a n t - r e s p o n s e s were based upon the pros and cons of charging money f o r the use of the washer and dryer. A few respondents from Seton V i l l a claimed that t h e i r rent was s u b s t a n t i a l l y ; h i g h e r than i n most retirement centres and as a r e s u l t b e l i e v e d that amenities such as laundry f a c i l i t i e s should be provided f r e e of charge. Those who opposed i t h i s view b e l i e v e d that by charging money the tenants d i s p l a y e d a c e r t a i n respect f o r the machinery and i n a d d i t i o n would be l e s s i n c l i n e d to use 89. the f a c i l i t i e s numerous times per week f o r smaller loads. This l a t t e r comment deserves c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r w i t h i n both of the complexes the respondents claimed they "saved up" s o i l e d laundry i n order to have a reasonably f u l l l o a d every second week or so. The obvious i n t e n t was to reduce the cost of washing and. dryi n g smaller loads more f r e q u e n t l y . This f a c t would lead to the recommendation that some p r o v i s i o n should be made i n the design of the s u i t e to accommodate a c l o t h e s hamper or s i m i l a r f a c i l i t y . CORRIDORS The c o r r i d o r s w i t h i n a m u l t i p l e housing arrangement can be designed i n order to compensate f o r the p h y s i c a l and v i s u a l l i m i t a t i o n s that were set out e a r l i e r w i t h i n the t h e s i s . Colour, f o r example, e s p e c i a l l y those colours f a l l i n g w i t h i n the yellow to red p o r t i o n of the spectrum, can be used as a means of o r i e n t a t i o n . By having the c o r r i d o r w a l l s on each f l o o r a d i f f e r e n t colour an i n d i v i d u a l immediately knows whether he or she i s on the r i g h t f l o o r . Colour can a l s o be used to emphasize doors and s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n a l elements of the design. Elements such as p l a n t s , s c u l p t u r e s and graphics may a l s o help i n d i v i d u a l s to o r i e n t a t e themselves. Long and narrow c o r r i d o r s should be avoided. Windows are mandatory at the end of the c o r r i d o r s i n order to p r o v i d e - n a t u r a l l i g h t ; A minimum width of f i v e f e e t should be emphasized i n order to f a c i l i t a t e the easy-movement of tenants past one another. The aged o f t e n r e q u i r e v a r i o u s forms of m o b i l i t y a i d s (canes, walkers, etc.) and these o f t e n take up considerable room. Han d r a i l s are important features of the c o r r i d o r design that ensure m o b i l i t y by p r o v i d i n g support to those who are unsteady on t h e i r f e e t . 90. Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation has set out a few basic design standards for handrails: - required on both walls of the corridor so that an elderly person with a disabled right or l e f t hand can use the support on either side - should be thick to ensure a good grip - tubular handrails should be at least 13/4 inch in diameter - should be mounted at a height of two feet, nine inches; on floors where a number of wheelchairs w i l l be utilized i t may be advisable to also provide a ra i l i n g two feet, six inches in height - when interrupted by a doorway or opening, the handrail should return to the wall before being terminated or have some form of tactile warning about six inches from the end (C.M.H.C., 1972, pg. 20). Another important feature of the corridors that should be encouraged throughout the building i s the use of carpeting. Industrial carpeting i s usually less expensive than t i l e . Its primary feature i s that i t ' s much homier than hospital polished floors while being just as easy to maintain. Carpeted floors also have l i t t l e disruptive effect on the mobility of the elderly and may provide for a soft landing i f a person should f a l l . The last feature.of the corridor to be stressed is that of the lighting. As within most common spaces in retirement centres, .the level of illumination should be higher than normal. Analysis.of Data - Corridor The number of times per day the respondents made use of the corridor was approximately the same in each of the complexes. At New Vista the average was 6.6 times per day per respondent; Seton V i l l a ' s average was 5 times per day per respondent. CORRIDOR,SETON VIQ A EXIT 1 ELEMENTS; flourescent lighting intercom 2 fire alarms fire hose railing 36 hicjn doors set back 6 4exit lights carpet ing EXIT STORAGE ROOM CORNER LOUNGE 93. When the respondents were asked to l i s t important design features of the corridor i n terms of safety, convenience and pure pleasure, a wide array of responses were provided. If dual responses were given, both were recorded. Responses Seton V i l l a New V i s t a E x i s t i n g c o r r i d o r adequate as i s 30% 30% Handrails - a p o s i t i v e design feature 40% 30% Wider hallways required 5% 8% Improved l i g h t i n g required 5% 2% Improved v e n t i l a t i o n required 5% 12% Colour d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n for or i e n t a t i o n purposes i s an important consideration 5% Carpeting - a good feature - 8% Cleanliness - a good c h a r a c t e r i s t i c - 8% Doorways should be set back - 2% No response 10% The response "adequate as i s " was often provided when the respondent could not i s o l a t e any single important factor or when they believed they were being asked to f i n d f a u l t with the corridor i n t h e i r b u i l d i n g . On a number of occasions i t was repeatedly explained to the respondents that they were being asked to l i s t design features of the corridor that they f e l t were important, however a few p e r s i s t e n t l y f e l t they were being asked to make a judgement of t h e i r c o r ridor. Handrails were considered to be the most important feature of the corridor p r i m a r i l y because of the basic functional purpose they serve. To those with walking d i s a b i l i t i e s the handrails were obviously c r i t i c a l to thei r mobility outside of t h e i r s u i t e . To many of those respondents without walking problems the handrails were also thought to be a c r i t i c a l design feature. To t h i s l a t t e r group i t was simply comforting to know that the handrails were there i f they should ever need to use them. 94. The commonly expressed negative responses d e a l t w i t h the width, l i g h t i n g and v e n t i l a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g c o r r i d o r s . I t was s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a few of the respondents mentioned that the c o r r i d o r s should be wider f o r at f i r s t glance the width of the c o r r i d o r s appeared to be more than adequate w i t h i n both of the complexes. As was noted w i t h i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y comment to t h i s s e c t i o n perhaps the respondents' reasoning was based upon the f a c t that a number of tenants i n each complex u t i l i z e d wheelchairs or some form of walking a i d and therefore would be i n c l i n e d to use more space while moving along the c o r r i d o r . The presence of h a n d r a i l s on both s i d e s of the c o r r i d o r would a l s o tend to reduce i t s apparent width. The l i g h t i n g of the c o r r i d o r seemed to be more of a problem at Seton V i l l a even though only one i n d i v i d u a l from each complex noted t h i s . New V i s t a has a window at each end of a long c o r r i d o r adding n a t u r a l l i g h t to the a r t i f i c i a l w h i l e Seton V i l l a ' s c o r r i d o r s form an i n t e r n a l square (see i l l u s t r a t i o n ) and therefore there i s l i t t l e n a t u r a l l i g h t e n t e r i n g the c o r r i d o r . V e n t i l a t i o n of the c o r r i d o r was another problem expressed i n both complexes. The windows at the end of the c o r r i d o r s i n New V i s t a d i d l i t t l e to help the s i t u a t i o n . The c o r r i d o r s i n both complexes were thought to be hot and s t u f f y e s p e c i a l l y during the summer months. Ei g h t percent of the New V i s t a respondents f e l t t h a t c l e a n l i n e s s was an important aspect of the c o r r i d o r . Upkeep of t h e i r own s u i t e s was f e l t to be e a s i e r i f one d i d not have to t r a c k i n mud and d i r t from the c o r r i d o r . Another respondent from New V i s t a noted that by s e t t i n g the s u i t e doors back at v a r i e d p o s i t i o n s i t was p o s s i b l e to reduce the u n i n v i t i n g q u a l i t i e s of a long continuous c o r r i d o r . A respondent from Seton mentioned that the colour of the c o r r i d o r was important to h i s own o r i e n t a t i o n . When he stepped o f f the e l e v a t o r he was immediately aware that he was on the r i g h t 9 5 . f l o o r by observing the colour of the c o r r i d o r . The question that followed asked .the'respondents to l i s t t h i n g s that they would i n c l u d e i f they were designing a c o r r i d o r . The responses were l i m i t e d . Responses Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Include good l i g h t i n g , adequate v e n t i l a t i o n , h a n d r a i l s and c a r p e t i n g 10% 10% Handrails on both s i d e s of the c o r r i d o r 15% 10% Adequate v e n t i l a t i o n 5% 10% P i c t u r e s should be included 5% Co r r i d o r c o lours should be bold and b r i g h t 10% Seats along the c o r r i d o r are r e q u i r e d 5% -Should be wide - 10% Include improved l i g h t i n g - 5% No response 50% 55% I t was o r i g i n a l l y assumed that respondents would suggest i n c l u s i o n of such f a c i l i t i e s as p i c t u r e s , w a l l graphics•and a d d i t i o n a l s e a t i n g , however only two of the respondents d i d . The most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c l u s i o n that can be drawn from these responses i s that the f u n c t i o n a l elements of the design of such spaces as c o r r i d o r s are more obvious and perhaps more important than any a e s t h e t i c or comfort concerns. PENTHOUSE LOUNGE The top f l o o r of a h i g h r i s e s t r u c t u r e makes an i d e a l l o c a t i o n f o r a common lounge. The view that i s o f f e r e d from the top f l o o r of a h i g h r i s e b u i l d i n g i s an important fe a t u r e of h i g h r i s e l i v i n g . An opportunity should e x i s t f o r a l l of the i n h a b i t a n t s w i t h i n a h i g h r i s e retirement centre to e q u a l l y share such a view. For those r e t i r e d people who are no longer able to take an a c t i v e r o l e i n many events passive observation becomes t h e i r major a l t e r n a t i v e . The height of a h i g h r i s e tower u s u a l l y a l l o w s one to observe the happenings below f o r many m i l e s . Thus the i n d i v i d u a l BOOK BALCONY BALCONY VA ROCKING * VCHA1RS • t ELEMENTS CHAIRS: 50 to 60 folding chairs 14 rocking chairs 12 easy chairs 25 single chairs green carpeting _ white walls expansive glass windows ENTHQUSE LOUNGE SETON VILLA ENTHOUSE LOUNGE. SEION VII LA" DC N T H O U S F I Q U N ^ F MF\A/ \/IQTA 100. s YELLOW CARPET RAILING EXPANSIVE WINDOWS o T.V. LAUNDRY H PLANT E R ^ ^ O SOLARIUM >ENTHOUSE lOUNf iF -NFW VISTA PFN1THOIJSE 1 g INGE NFW VISTA 103. can become p a s s i v e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the world around through observation. The greater the f l o o r space the l a r g e r the number of planned a c t i v i t i e s and the more people a penthouse lounge can"accommodate at the same time. A penthouse lounge i s an i d e a l place to hold a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l gatherings given that the view w i l l d e f i n i t e l y provide an ent e r -t a i n i n g background. E f f o r t should be made through design to a l l o w f o r simultaneous a c t i v e and passive a c t i v i t i e s . Often the seat i n g arrange-ment i s enough to s a t i s f y t h i s aim. At other' times d i r e c t e f f o r t must be made through the use of screening to accomplish t h i s g o a l . Good i l l u m i n a -t i o n , comfortable e a s i l y movable f u r n i t u r e , c a r p e t i n g and adequate v e n t i l a t i o n are important features of any common space i n c l u d i n g a penthouse lounge. A n a l y s i s of Data - Penthouse Lounge The data p e r t a i n i n g to the penthouse lounges proved to be u s e f u l i n ev a l u a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the design of a common space and the corresponding use the aged made of i t . As the photographs and diagrams i n d i c a t e , there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the penthouse lounges i n the two complexes. These d i f f e r e n c e s i n the design and featu r e s of the lounge areas c o n t r i b u t e to s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r a s t s i n both the degree of use and the form of a c t i v i t y which can be accommodated w i t h i n the space. A s u b s t a n t i a l d i s p a r i t y was evident i n the average number of times per week each of the respondents used the penthouse lounge. Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Average use per week Percentage of respondents u t i l i z i n g the lounge at l e a s t once a week 4.5 1.9 100 65 104. Data p e r t a i n i n g to the amount of time each of the respondents spent per v i s i t to the lounge area i s provided below: Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Average l e n g t h of v i s i t per respondent 1.35 hours 1.15 hours Percentage of respondents spending at l e a s t two hours or more per v i s i t 60 40 The .data c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e that the respondents at Seton V i l l a not only v i s i t e d the lounge more o f t e n than the New V i s t a group, but a l s o that they spent a greater p r o p o r t i o n o f time w i t h i n the lounge area per v i s i t . This discrepancy i n the degree of use w i l l be f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e d as we proceed through the a n a l y s i s of the questions that f o l l o w e d . Respondents were asked to l i s t the a c t i v i t y most f r e q u e n t l y engaged i n w h i l e w i t h i n the penthouse lounge area. The percentages are based only on the p r o p o r t i o n of respondents t h a t used the space. Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a P l a y cards and games (monoploy, scrabble and aggravation; i n c l u d i n g s h u f f l e b o a r d and pool at Seton) 40% 53% Simply enjoy the view 15% 8% V i s i t the l i b r a r y 15%' ' 8% Wait f o r the laundry 5% 15% Attend meetings 5% 8% Watch t e l e v i s i o n Attend Vesper Hour 15% V i s i t the beauty p a r l o r 5% 8% The question that followed supplemented the above data by having the respondents l i s t other a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n w h i l e v i s i t i n g the lounge. The responses .do o v e r l a p , f o r what may have been the most common a c t i v i t y f o r one i n d i v i d u a l was only c l a s s i f i e d as a secondary a c t i v i t y f o r another. The respondents were permitted to l i s t more than one "other a c t i v i t y " but few d i d so. 105. Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a V i s i t w i t h f r i e n d s and neighbours P l a y cards/games ( i n c l u d i n g s h u f f l e b o a r d and pool at Seton) Enjoy the view Watch t e l e v i s i o n P l a y bingo Attend e x e r c i s e c l a s s e s Attend Vesper Hour 30% 15% 15% 10% 30% 13.3% 20% 7% 7% 40% The v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d gives one some conception of the d i f f e r e n t uses a penthouse lounge may-accommodate. The m a j o r i t y of the a c t i v i t i e s i n d i c a t e d r e q u i r e minimal equipment and l i t t l e o r g a n i z a t i o n . The most common a c t i v i t y mentioned w i t h i n both complexes; that of p l a y i n g cards and a v a r i e t y of other games, u s u a l l y r e q u i r e s l i t t l e more than a few card t a b l e s and a number of f o l d i n g c h a i r s . Even though a pool t a b l e and shu f f l e b o a r d were included as feat u r e s of the Seton V i l l a lounge and not of the New V i s t a lounge, the New V i s t a group had a higher percentage of respondents who engaged i n card and game p l a y i n g . One can thus question w h e t h e r - i n f a c t such, expensive fe a t u r e s as shuffleboards and pool t a b l e s are r e a l l y e s s e n t i a l a t t r i b u t e s of a lounge. At best they should be probably regarded as a l u x u r y r a t h e r than a n e c e s s i t y . A s l i g h t l y higher percentage of the Seton V i l l a respondents i n d i c a t e d that enjoying the view was one of t h e i r most common a c t i v i t i e s w h i l e i n the penthouse lounge. There are anumber of reasons why-the view from Seton V i l l a could be c l a s s i f i e d as being much more specta c u l a r than that o f f e r e d from either"one of the h i g h r i s e towers at New V i s t a . The f i r s t i s that Seton V i l l a ' s penthouse lounge has expansive windows on three s i d e s w h i l e New V i s t a o f f e r s only one f o c a l view from the a c t u a l lounge and a more r e s t r i c t e d view from the narrow Solarium (see d e s c r i p t i o n ) that a d j o i n s the lounge. The topographic l o c a t i o n of the Seton h i g h r i s e 106. i s perhaps a second reason f o r supporting an advantage i n view. I t s i t s on one of the highest pieces of land i n Burnaby and i n a d d i t i o n i t i s i s o l a t e d from any other h i g h r i s e f o r m i l e s around and thus does not have to compete f o r a view. The New V i s t a towers are s i t u a t e d on a f l a t p l a t e a u and thus the e f f e c t i s l e s s dramatic. The t h i r d reason deals w i t h the nature of the environment that surrounds the two complexes. At New V i s t a row upon row; of single- family.houses and r i b b o n s - o f t r a f f i c roads c o n s t i t u t e the"major view. At Seton V i l l a the mountains, the boat a c t i v i t y along the Burrard I n l e t , the t r a f f i c along-the Second Narrows Bridge, the on-going a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the PNE grounds, downtown Vancouver and the endless row of homes p r i o r to and a f t e r Hastings S t r e e t a l l make f o r a myriad of s t i m u l a t i n g views. Perhaps the fourth"and f i n a l reason f o r the p o p u l a r i t y of s i g h t s e e i n g from the penthouse lounge at Seton V i l l a can be a t t r i b u t e d to the expansive f l o o r space of t h i s common space. I t i s at l e a s t t r i p l e that o f f e r e d at New V i s t a . This expansive s i z e makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l or smaller group to s i t and observe the a c t i v i t y below without d i s r u p t i n g any on-going a c t i v i t i e s . On most occasions i t i s u s u a l l y p o s s i b l e to . f i n d a quiet corner f o r a b i t of p r i v a c y and s o l i t u d e and the enjoyment of a moment of passive observation. The importance of an expansive f l o o r space was apparent in'Seton V i l l a ' s case f o r the management was able to plan a c t i v i t i e s such as e x e r c i s e c l a s s e s and a Vesper Hour every Sunday w i t h i n the penthouse lounge. The Awareness E x e r c i s e Program which was conducted Monday through Thursday at Seton r e q u i r e s s u b s t a n t i a l f l o o r space. : The c l a s s e s u s u a l l y contained 25 to 30 i n d i v i d u a l s who were r e q u i r e d to s t r e t c h r i g h t out and w h i l e l a y i n g on t h e i r back or stomach perform a v a r i e t y o f v e x e r c i s e s designed to make one aware of h i s or-her p h y s i c a l make up. The Vesper Hour was another 107. a c t i v i t y that n e c e s s i t a t e d s u b s t a n t i a l f l o o r space f o r a l a r g e number of tenants took p a r t i n t h i s weekly Sunday s e r v i c e . Watching T.V., attending teas and p l a y i n g bingo were three of the more common a c t i v i t i e s mentioned at. New V i s t a but not at Seton V i l l a . The i n c l u s i o n of a colour t e l e v i s i o n w i t h i n the penthouse lounge was obv i o u s l y a welcomed amenity f o r those who could not a f f o r d to purchase or rent t h e i r own. Teas were conducted o c c a s i o n a l l y i n the penthouse but those respond-ents who mentioned t h i s as an a c t i v i t y commented that attendance was u s u a l l y poor. The bingo games that were s p o r a d i c a l l y planned seemed to a t t r a c t a few more of the tenants. When the respondents were asked to express t h e i r l i k e s and/or d i s l i k e s concerning the design and feat u r e s of the penthouse lounge a wide range of responses were provided. M u l t i p l e responses were recorded. Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a View o f f e r e d i s great 55% 15% Seating i s comfortable 30% - 5% Kitc h e n f a c i l i t i e s were a good design feat u r e 10% 10% Poor v e n t i l a t i o n 5% 5% Coloured T.V. appreciated - 15% Colours are b r i g h t and c h e e r f u l - 5% Separate space f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ..is r e q u i r e d - 5% No response 40% A s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher p r o p o r t i o n of the respondents at Seton V i l l a than at New V i s t a mentioned that the seat i n g was comfortable. As was noted w i t h i n the d e s c r i p t i o n , Seton's penthouse lounge o f f e r s a wide v a r i e t y of se a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s . The s o f t cushioned two and three person sofas, the "Danish Modern" s t r a i g h t back and ro c k i n g c h a i r s and the padded metal f o l d i n g c h a i r s s a t i s f y a wide v a r i e t y of se a t i n g needs. With the exception of the l a r g e r sofas the m a j o r i t y of the f u r n i t u r e i s e a s i l y movable and t h e r e f o r e the tenants have the opportunity of c r e a t i n g t h e i r own s e a t i n g arrangements. The p r o v i s i o n of k i t c h e n f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n the penthouse lounge was an a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e of both of the complexes. These f a c i l i t i e s could be u t i l i z e d f o r teas or common gatherings or by i n d i v i d u a l s who wanted to make themselves a coffee or snack while v i s i t i n g the area. The coloured t e l e v i s i o n at New V i s t a was mentioned as a p o s i t i v e design f e a t u r e even though the general concensus seemed to i n d i c a t e that i t was i n f r e q u e n t l y used. Another respondent from New V i s t a i n d i c a t e d that she enjoyed the b r i g h t and c h e e r f u l colour scheme of the lounge. Bold and s t i m u l a t i n g colours can do a . l o t to generate l i f e and v i t a l i t y w i t h i n a given space. Designers of h i g h r i s e retirement centres should be r e c e p t i v e to t h i s f a c t . Although only one respondent c l e a r l y stated that a separate space f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s was re q u i r e d w i t h i n the New V i s t a lounge, a number of other respondents a l l u d e d to the idea. The l i m i t e d f l o o r space of the New V i s t a penthouse lounge does not a l l o w f o r the p h y s i c a l separa-t i o n of non-related and o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t , f o r example, to f i n d a qui e t corner f o r reading when a number of card games are i n progress. The expansive f l o o r space of the Seton lounge, as has been mentioned, overcomes such problems. Perhaps the best s o l u t i o n i n the case of New V i s t a would be to provide movable b a r r i e r s that could create separate p h y s i c a l spaces when r e q u i r e d . A design a l t e r n a t i v e of t h i s s o r t would reduce the c o n f l i c t between simultaneous passive and a c t i v e forms of a c t i v i t y . 109. The only negative comment that was o f f e r e d by a respondent from each of the complexes was that p e r t a i n i n g to poor v e n t i l a t i o n . This should be l e s s of a problem at Seton given that open a i r access to the balcony e x i s t s on three sides of the lounge.. At New V i s t a there i s l i t t l e oppor-t u n i t y f o r f r e s h a i r to flow through the penthouse i n that the space i s completely enclosed. When the respondents were.asked to suggest improvements i n the design and/or features of the penthouse-lounge the responses were extremely l i m i t e d . Responses Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Cannot suggest any improvements 85% 65% Provide l a r g e r k i t c h e n f a c i l i t i e s 5% Provide a c o c k t a i l lounge or bar f a c i l i t i e s • 10% Design to i s o l a t e passive and a c t i v e forms of a c t i v i t y - 5% Larger f l o o r space required - 5% Penthouse lounge should face n o r t h * - 5% Improve v e n t i l a t i o n system - 5% Provide a higher c e i l i n g , e x i s t i n g c e i l i n g too low - 5% *.The penthouse lounge i n the New V i s t a Place h i g h r i s e faces south w h i l e the Ernest Winch h i g h r i s e has a lounge f a c i n g north. The l i m i t e d responses are l a r g e l y s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . I t was r e f r e s h i n g to see that not a l l e l d e r l y people are s t r i c t tea d r i n k e r s f o r two of the respondents beamingly noted the p o t e n t i a l the Seton V i l l a lounge had to i n c o r p o r a t e a small bar or c o c k t a i l lounge w i t h i n i t s design. The preference f o r a northern view at New V i s t a can be a t t r i b u t e d to the mountains which form an i n t e g r a l part of the greater Vancouver landscape. The comment p e r t a i n i n g to the height of the New V i s t a c e i l i n g was an i n t e r e s t i n g one. Personal observation showed that the c e i l i n g was indeed c l o s e to the minimum height standard. Perhaps a higher c e i l i n g may 110. have reduced the s p a t i a l c o n s t r a i n t s of the New V i s t a lounge. ARTS AND CRAFTS - WORKSHOP AREA One of the most important a t t r i b u t e s of any space i n a congregate l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n i s that i t should t y p i f y the f u n c t i o n i t e l i c i t s . A d i n i n g area should have the a t t r i b u t e s of a d i n i n g area. A pub should come complete w i t h bar s t o o l s , dim l i g h t s and s i m i l a r f e a t u r e s . This concept should a l s o be extended to group a c t i v i t y areas such as a r t s and c r a f t s rooms. By adhering to t h i s r u l e the designer a i d s the aged i n d i v i d u a l i n her or h i s l e v e l of o r i e n t a t i o n . The i n d i v i d u a l i s immediately made aware of what s o c i a l behaviour i s more or l e s s expected through the design and f e a t u r e s of a given common room. Group a c t i v i t y areas need to be f u n c t i o n a l w i t h adequate room to store s u p p l i e s and accommodate equipment (p o t t e r y wheels, looms, e t c . ) . A c t i v i t y areas should be wide open and. a c c e s s i b l e to everyone. Unless a c t i v i t i e s c o n f l i c t they should not be separated from one another. Those who are p a i n t i n g should be allowed to i n t e r a c t w i t h and enjoy the work of those who are engaged i n p o t t e r y . In t h i s manner the d i v e r s i t y of i n t e r e s t s i s increased. An exception to t h i s r u l e would be the p r o v i s i o n of separate rooms f o r sex segregated a c t i v i t i e s . A sewing room f o r the women and a workshop area f o r the men are good examples. Since the women u s u a l l y outnumber the men i n most aged housing s i t u a t i o n s the p r o v i s i o n of space to s u i t the men's needs should take precedence. The reason f o r t h i s i s that being outnumbered u s u a l l y i m p l i e s being outlobbied when a vote i s taken to organize some form of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y or to generate some form of common space. The unbalanced male to female r a t i o a l s o makes the s i n g l e men much more a t t r a c t i v e i n the eyes of the many women who u s u a l l y occupy RTCft.DRAFTS iSETONft.NEW VKJA " 313 & C R A F T S « NEW YL3IA \ WINDOWS / VARIETY SHOP & WORK ROOM ELEMENTS: red indoor-outdoor rugs fburescent lighting washrooms (near by) GLASS \ -LLL o LOOMS 0 in L U _ J < 114. a retirement centre, thus the men need a space where they can do t h e i r t h i n g i n i s o l a t i o n from the opposite sex. A n a l y s i s of Data - A r t s and Crafts/Workshop Area The use that i s made of the a r t s and c r a f t s areas i s l i m i t e d i n both of the complexes. T h i r t y percent of the New V i s t a respondents and only 10% of the Seton respondents i n d i c a t e d that they made use of the e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . The data i n the case of New V i s t a , however, are misrepresen-t a t i v e of the a c t u a l use that i s made of the e x i s t i n g a r t s and c r a f t s f a c i l i t i e s f o r w i t h i n the area designated f o r such a c t i v i t i e s there i s a pool t a b l e and shuff l e b o a r d t a b l e . Four of the s i x respondents who i n d i c a t e d that they used t h i s area were r e f e r r i n g to t h e i r use of the r e c r e a t i o n a l t a b l e s r a t h e r than being involved w i t h a r t s and' c r a f t s . These four were a l l male. I t seemed t h a t a small group of men had staked out a cl a i m to the r e c r e a t i o n t a b l e s and they were r a t h e r r e l u c t a n t to a l l o w any women to enter t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . This i s an e x c e l l e n t example of sex-segregated space. The a r t s and c r a f t s a c t i v i t i e s that a few of the respondents were in v o l v e d i n were mostly of the "small c r a f t " v a r i e t y . Small c r a f t s r e f e r to the making of ornaments and the l i k e out of common household items such as egg cartons, j u i c e c o n t a i n e r s , t o i l e t t i s s u e tubes and s i m i l a r items. The l e v e l of these f a c i l i t i e s was so l i m i t e d that an examination of the respondents l i k e s and d i s l i k e s of the area seems p o i n t l e s s . Perhaps the best a l t e r n a t i v e i s to examine some of the p o s s i b l e reasons why there was a l a c k of use of the e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . 1) At the time when the i n t e r v i e w s were being conducted there were r e l a t i v e l y few planned a r t s and c r a f t s programs being o f f e r e d w i t h i n e i t h e r of the complexes. The m a j o r i t y of such programs take place during the winter months -when the tenants are l a r g e l y confined to indoor a c t i v i t i e s . They e v i d e n t l y r e c e i v e t h e i r g reatest use j u s t p r i o r to Christmas when the tenants get i n v o l v e d i n making g i f t s and decorations f o r the f e s t i v e c e l e b r a t i o n s . 2) New V i s t a l a c k s the equipment and space necessary to provide i n s t r u c -t i o n i n the common a r t forms such a s ' p o t t e r y , weaving, s c u l p t u r e and s i m i l a r p u r s u i t s . The form of a r t s and c r a f t s that has' been p r e v i o u s l y defined as " s m a l l c r a f t s " i s thei'.dominant a c t i v i t y . Although Seton V i l l a ' s a r t s and c r a f t s area does have both the space and some of the equipment (see d e s c r i p t i o n ) necessary to f a c i l i t a t e i n s t r u c t i o n i n the common a r t forms, the emphasis has i n the past a l s o been d i r e c t e d to "small c r a f t s " . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y a number of respondents from both complexes f e l t that the " s m a l l c r a f t " , form of a r t was an i n s u l t to t h e i r c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s and o f f e r e d them'neither challenge nor s t i m u l a t i o n . Judging by some of the-work that was d i s p l a y e d w i t h i n the respondents' s u i t e s t h e i r judgement i s c l e a r l y j u s t i f i e d . 3) The l o c a t i o n of the f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n both complexes may be another reason behind the l a c k of use. At New V i s t a the f a c i l i t i e s are l o c a t e d i n the basement w i t h i n a closed room adjacent to the furnace room and expansive storage area. The f a c i l i t i e s at Seton V i l l a are a l s o l o c a t e d i n the basement although they would appear to be'more i n v i t i n g than the New V i s t a f a c i l i t i e s due t o the f o l l o w i n g p o s i t i v e f eatures of the design: a) The open and h i g h l y a c c e s s i b l e nature of the room added to i t s i n v i t i n g " q u a l i t i e s . U n l i k e the New V i s t a f a c i l i t i e s the area was not hidden behind closed doors. In order to gain access to the 116. auditorium or the heated e x e r c i s e or s w i r l p o ols, one would have to pass through t h i s area and as a r e s u l t almost a l l of the tenants would be aware at l e a s t that such f a c i l i t i e s e x i s t e d . At New V i s t a a number of the respondents were s u r p r i s e d to l e a r n that such f a c i l i t i e s even e x i s t e d . b) Washrooms were l o c a t e d immediately adjacent to the a r t s and c r a f t s rooms w i t h i n both the complexes. c) Large windows border the eastern w a l l s of the Seton f a c i l i t i e s w h i l e a g l a s s w a l l makes up a p o r t i o n of the northern w a l l . N a t u r a l l i g h t t h e r e f o r e supplemented ..the a r t i f i c i a l i l l u m i n a t i o n . At New V i s t a l i t t l e n a t u r a l l i g h t entered'the f a c i l i t i e s . d) Carpets and rubber t i l i n g covered the f l o o r space i n Seton making the area much more a t t r a c t i v e . Only a p o r t i o n of the New V i s t a rooms had s i m i l a r f l o o r treatment. The above design features are important i n that they do imply that through design one can create an i n v i t i n g space w i t h i n a congregate l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n d e s p i t e disadvantages i n the l o c a t i o n of that space. Perhaps the most outstanding d i f f e r e n c e between the complexes i s the openness and a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the rooms. Making the tenants aware of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s that such spaces o f f e r i s perhaps the f i r s t step i n g e t t i n g the tenants i n v o l v e d i n meaningful a r t s and c r a f t s programs. 4) Another p o s s i b l e reason why the respondents f a i l e d to i n d i c a t e any s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l of use of the f a c i l i t i e s may be that r e t i r e d f o l k simply do not value a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r t s and c r a f t s . Most of us are r a t h e r l i m i t e d i n our c r e a t i v e p u r s u i t s . Why t h i s should change when one reaches the retirement age d e f i e s l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g . 117. A co m p l i c a t i o n that a r i s e s w i t h i n most comparative case study e v a l u a t i o n s i s the extent to which one complex o f f e r s a c e r t a i n f a c i l i t y or space and the other does not. The h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s , beauty p a r l o r and barber shop and auditorium at Seton V i l l a and the storage room at New V i s t a are examples of such spaces. Their uniqueness to each of the complexes should not, however, undermine the importance of e v a l u a t i n g the p o s i t i v e and negative aspects, of t h e i r design and f u n c t i o n . I t i s on the b a s i s of t h i s c o n v i c t i o n that the e v a l u a t i o n of the above spaces i s presented. HEALTH FACILITIES - Seton V i l l a The term " h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s " i n t h i s case r e f e r s to the e x e r c i s e and thermal pools l o c a t e d w i t h i n the basement of Seton V i l l a . Such f a c i l i t i e s would d e f i n i t e l y be a lu x u r y w i t h i n any retirement centre. Perhaps i n some cases congregate l i v i n g represents the only form of housing that would a l l o w many aged i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h l i m i t e d budgets to experience such f a c i l i t i e s . Swimming has been long regarded as an e x c e l l e n t means of e x e r c i s e f o r young and o l d a l i k e . Heated thermal or s w i r l pools help j-.to s t i m u l a t e the c i r c u l a t i o n and provide r e l i e f to those who s u f f e r from a r t h r i t i c p a i n . The convenience of having such f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n one's b u i l d i n g would c e r t a i n l y be an a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e of any retirement centre. A n a l y s i s of Data - Health F a c i l i t i e s , Seton V i l l a R e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e use was made of these f a c i l i t i e s by the m a j o r i t y of the respondents. Seventy-five percent of the sample i n d i c a t e d they d i d not use e i t h e r the thermal or the e x e r c i s e p o o l . The 25% that d i d make use of the pool u t i l i z e d the f a c i l i t i e s on the average of 2.6 times per E A L T H FAC IL IT IES . S E T O N VII 1 A - SWIRL AND HEATED POOL LOCATED IN THE SAME ROOM • FLOOR OF ROOM COMPLETELY TILED • SINGLE ENTRANCE • ROOM ADJACENT TO WASHROOMS WITH SHOWERS •M1RPORS ALONG ONE WALL HEATED POOL*. 26 FEET IN LENGTH 12 FEET WIDE 3 FEET DEEP 2 SHALLOW STEPPED ENTRIES RAILINGS AT BOTH ENDS OF FOOL RAILING BETWEEN THE TWO POOLS SWIRL POOL: 8 FEET LONG 4 FEET WIDE 2 FEET 6INCHES DEEP 119. week. Thus although a very few of the respondents used the f a c i l i t i e s , those that d i d used them on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . The l i m i t e d extent of use, however, does r a i s e the question of whether the cost of such f a c i l i t i e s j u s t i f i e s t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n senior c i t i z e n housing. Perhaps what i s l a c k i n g are programs that encourage the tenants to use the f a c i l i t i e s . When asked to express t h e i r l i k e s and/or d i s l i k e s concerning the h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s only the view of those respondents who i n d i c a t e d they used the f a c i l i t i e s were recorded. Three out of f i v e of those using the f a c i l i t i e s approved of both the design and f e a t u r e s . The f a c t that the e x e r c i s e pool was heated was e s p e c i a l l y appreciated. One respondent b e l i e v e d that i f a r a i l i n g was provided around the complete circumference of the e x e r c i s e pool more people would be i n c l i n e d to use i t . This f e a t u r e would undoubtedly a i d those r e t i r e d i n d i v i d u a l s who were p h y s i c a l l y l i m i t e d or unstable. Another respondent who was confined to a wheelchair noted that i t was impossible f o r her to obey the p r e v a i l i n g r u l e s and take a shower before e n t e r i n g e i t h e r one of the pools. The shower s t a l l s were too narrow to accommodate a person w i t h i n a wheelchair. I t i s recommended that if., such h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s are provided w i t h i n a retirement centre at l e a s t one shower s t a l l f o r each of the sexes should be provided-that would be of s u f f i c i e n t width to accommodate i n d i v i d u a l s using m o b i l i t y a i d s or wheelchairs. This group of people perhaps more than any other could g r e a t l y b e n e f i t from the use of such f a c i l i t i e s . E f f o r t through design must be made to meet t h e i r needs. Three suggestions were o f f e r e d when the respondents were asked to i n d i c a t e what improvements they would make to the e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . 120. 1) provide wider shower s t a l l s 2) provide a deeper and longer e x e r c i s e pool that would f a c i l i t a t e a more advanced l e v e l of swimming 3) provide more showers f o r the women than f o r . the ..men.. The f i r s t two suggestions r e q u i r e no f u r t h e r e x p l a nation but the b a s i c premise of the t h i r d needs to be q u a l i f i e d . A r c h i t e c t s and planners must be made aware of the f a c t that h i g h r i s e retirement centres accommodate many more women than they do men. Taking i n t o account the l i m i t e d p o s s i b l e use of space and f a c i l i t i e s by males, designers should a l l o c a t e more space and f a c i l i t i e s to females than to males. BARBER SHOP/BEAUTY PARLOR - Seton V i l l a Beauty p a r l o r s and barber shops are perhaps more important elements i n the l i v e s of today's older generation than the younger generation. Older women g e n e r a l l y get t h e i r h a i r done two to three times a month or p r i o r to any s p e c i a l occasion. Many r e t i r e d women have been accustomed to making weekly or bi-weekly v i s i t s to the beauty salon throughout much of t h e i r past l i f e . Today's " n a t u r a l look" i n women's h a i r s t y l e s was simply not f a s h i o n a b l e when they were growing up. Older men have a l s o been accustomed to g e t t i n g - t h e i r ' h a i r cut on a frequent b a s i s . Today's p r i c e s i n the neighbourhood shops o f t e n make i t d i f f i c u l t to f i t such an expense w i t h i n t h e i r l i m i t e d budgets. The pro-v i s i o n of a s i n g l e barber's c h a i r and the h i r i n g of a b a r b e r on a co n t r a c t b a s i s may s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduce the cost of a h a i r c u t . A n a l y s i s of Data - Barber and Beauty P a r l o r F a c i l i t i e s , Seton V i l l a E ighty percent of the men used the barber f a c i l i t i e s w h i l e only 40% of the women interviewed made use of the beauty p a r l o r . F i f t y percent of \RRFR SHOP/ REALITY PARLOR, SETON I S M , L O C A T E D W I T H I N T H E P E N T H O U S E L O U N G E B E A U T Y P A R L O R F A C I L I T I E S A N D B A R B E R F A C I L I T I E S L O C A T E D I N T H E S A M E R O O M E L E M E N T S O F B E A U T Y P A R L O R T W O SINKS T W O C H A I R S F O R W A S H I N G H A I R T W O C H A I R S F O R S E T T I N G H A I R F O U R H A I R D R Y E R S • B E A U T Y P A R L O R O P E N F R O M 9 A M . T O 2 P M . T U E S D A Y ' S A N D T H U R S D A Y S ' B A R B E R S H O P F A C I L I T I E S C O N S I S T O F A S I N G L E C H A I R * B A R B E R S H O P O P E N O N E D A Y E V E R Y T H I R D W E E K ^ l o i n s HOURS T U E S D A Y ' S THURSDAY 7^ . 122. of the respondents i n d i c a t e d that they u t i l i z e d the f a c i l i t i e s on the average of 1.5 times per month. When asked to express t h e i r l i k e s and d i s l i k e s concerning the f a c i l i t i e s , 50% of those using the f a c i l i t i e s commented that convenience was the major p o s i t i v e aspect of the f a c i l i t i e s . The simple f a c t that they could get t h e i r h a i r done without l e a v i n g the premises was reason enough to generate an appreciation, f o r such f a c i l i t i e s . A s i n g l e respon-dent mentioned that the p r i c e charged was too high and that t h e r e f o r e he took h i s business elsewhere. A l i m i t e d number of responses were provided when the respondents were asked to suggest improvements'to the e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . Ten percent thought that the present f a c i l i t i e s - were more than adequate w h i l e f i v e percent f e l t that the s e r v i c e should be provided more f r e q u e n t l y than the customary two to three times per week. One gentleman objected to having the barber f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n the same space as the beauty p a r l o r and f e l t that a separate room or p a r t i t i o n e d area should be provided. The frequency of use and the l i m i t e d number of male tenants would not appear to warrant a separate room but p r o v i d i n g a s i n g l e c h a i r i s o l a t e d by a p a r t i t i o n would seem f e a s i b l e . AUDITORIUM An auditorium having a f i x e d stage, comfortable seats, podium and screen i s a feat u r e that could w e l l be u t i l i z e d i n most m u l t i p l e housing s i t u a t i o n s f o r the aged. Unf o r t u n a t e l y , auditoriums are u s u a l l y a c o s t l y l u xury. When they are provided they can be used f o r dances, p a r t i e s , movies, singsongs, plays and a myriad.of other a c t i v i t i e s . Those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the design and c o n s t r u c t i o n of Seton V i l l a JD1TOR1UM.SETON VII LA 123. AUDITORIUM-SETON VILLA 125. were f o r t u n a t e i n that they were able to in c o r p o r a t e an e x i s t i n g auditorium i n t o the o v e r a l l design of the complex. As was noted i n a previous chapter the auditorium was part of the g i r l s ' school that o r i g i n a l l y was s i t u a t e d on the s i t e . A n a l y s i s of Data - Auditorium, Seton V i l l a A l l of the respondents made use of the auditorium on the average 2.6 yimes per week. This l e v e l of use i l l u s t r a t e s that the auditorium was one of the most important a c t i v i t y areas w i t h i n the complex: a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s sense r e f e r r i n g to planned group a c t i v i t i e s r a t h e r than i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l use. The l e v e l of use that- i s made of such l a r g e areas as an auditorium i s d i r e c t l y the r e s u l t of the number of planned programs f o r t hat given area. The management of Seton V i l l a must be commended fo r the number of on-going programs that were being o f f e r e d w i t h i n t h i s area. The most common a c t i v i t i e s t h a t the respondents engaged i n w h i l e w i t h i n the auditorium are l i s t e d below. The percentages represent m u l t i p l e responses. Response Seton V i l l a B i r t h d a y p a r t i e s 80% Played bingo 20% Watched f i l m s 55% * Watched l i v e entertainment 30% Carpet bowling 15% " Attend meetings 10% Birthday p a r t i e s were the major a c t i v i t y that the auditorium accommodated. Almost a l l of the tenants w i t h i n the complex attended t h i s f u n c t i o n which was held once a month. Those i n d i v i d u a l s having b i r t h d a y s w i t h i n the month were the guests of honour. As one respondent put i t , "once you pass the 126. age of s i x t y - f i v e , every b i r t h d a y becomes an important milestone." When asked to express t h e i r l i k e s and d i s l i k e s concerning the design and f e a t u r e s of the auditorium the f o l l o w i n g responses were obtained. P o s i t i v e Remarks Seton V i l l a Design and features adequate as they are 10% P r o v i s i o n of k i t c h e n f a c i l i t i e s was good idea 5% Convenient t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s 5% Negative Remakrs Uncomfortable s e a t i n g 20%'. Area too c o l d 15% Le v e l entrance required 10% Poor a c o u s t i c s set up 10% No response 25% When e n t e r t a i n i n g l a r g e groups of people i t i s ' o b v i o u s l y convenient to have k i t c h e n f a c i l i t i e s to prepare food and refreshments. The k i t c h e n at Seton V i l l a comes complete w i t h a f r i d g e , stove, s i n k and cupboards and was capable of meeting the needs o f 1 the v a r y i n g groups who u t i l i z e d the auditorium. The p r o v i s i o n of washroom f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n t h i s area helped to overcome the e f f o r t i n v o l v e d i n r e t u r n i n g to.one's own s u i t e or u sing the common f a c i l i t i e s i n some other part of the b u i l d i n g . The s e a t i n g provided i s the metal type commonly found w i t h i n most auditoriums. Seating of t h i s type i s r e l a t i v e l y inexpensive, durable and r e q u i r e s a l i m i t e d amount of storage space. Unfortunately these p r a c t i c a l a t t r i b u t e s of the f u r n i t u r e don't make f o r the most comfortable form of se a t i n g . A number of the respondents were w e l l aware of t h i s f a c t and l e t i t be known. A group of women d i d get together and t r y to r e c t i f y the problem by making a l a r g e number of cusions. Their e f f o r t s have o b v i o u s l y not s a t i s f i e d a l l the tenants. 127. F i f t e e n percent of the respondents noted that the auditorium was r a t h e r c o l d e s p e c i a l l y during the winter months. The high c e i l i n g , concrete block w a l l s and t i l e d f l o o r s undoubtedly make i t d i f f i c u l t to create a warm atmosphere. Another 10% of the respondents noted that the entrance l e a d i n g to the auditorium presented a problem to those using m o b i l i t y a i d s and wheelchairs. A shallow grade ramp approximately 60 f e e t i n l e n g t h provided the major form of access to the auditorium. Although the slope of the ramp would not c o n s t i t u t e a problem to the average person i t does generate problems f o r r e t i r e d f o l k . The h a n d r a i l s and suregrip f l o o r s admittedly helped to overcome the problems w i t h the slope. Poor a c o u s t i c s were mentioned as a t e c h n i c a l problem of the auditorium i n that the e x i s t i n g speaker system was inadequate f o r use i n such an expansive area. E v i d e n t l y the system was c o n s t a n t l y breaking down, which may have been the reason why tenants f e l t n e g a t i v e l y about the a c o u s t i c s . The respondents, when asked to 'suggest improvements to the area, f o r the most part commented that they would improve upon what they had p r e v i o u s l y suggested were the f a u l t s of the auditorium. Three o r i g i n a l responses were provided however: 1) reduce the height of the c e i l i n g 2) provide a double s i n k i n the k i t c h e n 3) construct a l a r g e r stage. Perhaps f u t u r e designers can u t i l i z e these suggestions when planning f o r an auditorium w i t h i n a retirement centre. 128. STORAGE ROOM - New V i s t a New V i s t a has expansive storage rooms•that take up 3/4 of the basement w i t h i n both towers. These rooms conta i n numerous wooden c l o s e t s that are capable of s t o r i n g items as l a r g e as t a b l e s and c h a i r s . Each s u i t e i s u s u a l l y assigned one storage closet, w i t h i n the storage area. Asj.was pointed .out.!in the C.M.H.C. p u b l i c a t i o n , Housing the E l d e r l y , past experience has shown that i n d i v i d u a l l o c k e r s i n common storage rooms are n e i t h e r popular nor f u l l y used (C.M.H.C., 1972, pg. 34). A n a l y s i s of Data - Storage Room, New V i s t a F i f t y percent of the respondents used the storage room an average of 3.8 times permonth. Forty percent of those who i n d i c a t e d they used the storage area used i t only once a month. This group u t i l i z e d the space f o r the storage of items that were seldom used. T h i r t y percent used i t at l e a s t f i v e times per month. These people stored items that were f r e q u e n t l y used on a d a i l y basis.. A few respondents mentioned that they would take advantage of l o c a l s t o r e s a l e s and stock up on non-perishable goods and st o r e them i n t h e i r designated l o c k e r s f o r l a t e r use. The ma j o r i t y of the respondents, however, f e l t that the e f f o r t i n v o l v e d i n going down to the basement to get something they needed from t h e i r l o c k e r was a b i t much, e s p e c i a l l y on a day-to-day b a s i s . When the respondents were asked to express t h e i r likesc?and d i s l i k e s concerning the storage rooms only the responses of those who u t i l i z e d the f a c i l i t i e s were recorded. Responses Percentage of Those Using I t Adequate as i s Storage room i s dark and co l d More s h e l v i n g i s r e q u i r e d 50 40 10 STORAGE R O O Mi NEW VISTA located in the basement concrete floors visi bl e f jxtures(water pipes .heating ducts ect.) limited lighting expansive storage space 130. The storage rooms may have appeared dark and c o l d to a number of respondents because of the f a c t that they were l o c a t e d i n the basement, had bare concrete f l o o r s and minimum l i g h t i n g . Another response was that more shelving'was r e q u i r e d . The storage space was designed f o r the storage of l a r g e bulky items. Those who used the space f o r smaller items u s u a l l y ended up adding s h e l v i n g to that which e x i s t e d . A low l e v e l of response was provided when the respondents were ... asked to suggest improvements to the area. One respondent suggested that improved l i g h t i n g may help the s i t u a t i o n w h i l e two respondents thought that the storage area should be developed to s u i t some other purpose. When one considers that only 50% of the respondents were using the storage f a c i l i t i e s and most of these only, o c c a s i o n a l l y , there i s d e f i n i t e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r suggesting that the storage space should be transformed to meet some other purpose. Perhaps a small auditorium would be u t i l i z e d by a l a r g e r number of tenants. 131. CHAPTER SEVEN - INDIVIDUAL SUITES Chapter seven deals w i t h the design and feat u r e s of the i n d i v i d u a l s u i t e s found w i t h i n New V i s t a and Seton V i l l a . New V i s t a o f f e r s two b a s i c types of s u i t e s , the bachelor and one-bedroom, w h i l e Seton V i l l a has four b a s i c types, s e l f - c o n t a i n e d bachelor, s e l f - c o n t a i n e d ' one-bedroom, board residence and personal care. A number of d i f f e r e n c e s i n s i z e and s u i t e amenities e x i s t w i t h i n each of these types, e s p e c i a l l y at Seton V i l l a . These d i f f e r e n c e s are, however, i n s i g n i f i c a n t to the purposes.of 1.this t h e s i s s i n c e the focus i s on more common spaces and feat u r e s of the s u i t e s . D i f f e r e n c e s w i l l only be mentioned t h e r e f o r e , when c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . The same format that was used i n Chapter S i x w i l l be u t i l i z e d . A review of design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to a given f e a t u r e or space w i l l be f i r s t , f ollowed by a d e s c r i p t i o n of the f e a t u r e or space as i t e x i s t s w i t h i n the two complexes and f i n a l l y an a n a l y s i s of the data p e r t a i n i n g to the use the tenants made of such features and spaces. DOOR TO THE SUITE The s i z e of the door opening i s an important design c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Door openings that are a minimum of three feet i n width can r e a d i l y accommodate wheelchairs, persons using crutches or the passage of s t r e t c h e r s . C.M.H.C. suggests that s u i t e doors should be at l e a s t two feet ten inches wide (C.M.H.C, 1972, pg. 33). I f p o s s i b l e the door threshold should be l e v e l w i t h the f l o o r of the s u i t e and the c o r r i d o r . When r a i s e d door thresholds cannot be avoided due to changes i n f l o o r l e v e l , they should be rounded o f f . Precautions such as these prevent unnecessary f a l l s . 132. Suite doors within a h i g h r i s e retirement centre should be capable of being opened with a master key so that immediate assistance could be provided i f an emergency arose. Dead b o l t s , chains or any other device that i s not f u n c t i o n a l from both sides of the door should be prohibited. In times of an emergency seconds are precious and every e f f o r t should be made to allow quick access to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u i t e i f the need a r i s e s . Peepholes or v i s i o n panels are added door features that are important to f u n c t i o n a l design. Such features provide a source of p h y s i c a l and psychological security to the tenant. They provide the r e t i r e d i n d i v i d u a l with a clear view of who i s on the other side of the door before he or she opens i t . In terms of the aged's v u l n e r a b i l i t y to physical attack, t h i s feature has obvious merits. Each door should have some personal i d e n t i f i c a t i o n mark that w i l l help the i n d i v i d u a l know immediately h i s or her own door from the neighbour's. I f numbers or l e t t e r s are used to d i s t i n g u i s h i n d i v i d u a l suites they should be bold and v i s i b l e . Colour i s an excellent means of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g doors when a varied colour scheme would f i t into the o v e r a l l decor of the c o r r i d o r . The l i m i t e d strength of the average older i n d i v i d u a l warrants the use of lever type handles rather than the conventional round door knobs which are harder to grip. I f i t i s impossible to u t i l i z e lever type handles then octagon or hexagon knobs are preferred to round door knobs. Numerous older people suff e r from a r t h r i t i s which often a f f e c t s t h e i r grip and thus they f i n d lever type handles much more f u n c t i o n a l . Special e f f o r t should be made to make c e r t a i n that doors f i t properly and that they do not bind. Gaps between the door and frame should be kept to a minimum to prevent dra f t s from the hallway entering )QOR TO THE SUITF.SETQN&NEW V NEW VISTA-INTERIOR VIEW 134. the s u i t e . Weather s t r i p p i n g i s an inexpensive yet adequate means of l i m i t i n g t h i s problem. A n a l y s i s of Data - S u i t e Door The New V i s t a respondents e x i t e d through the door of t h e i r s u i t e an average of s i x times per day. The Seton respondents e x i t e d through t h e i r doors an average of f i v e times per day. The l e v e l of use the respondents claimed they made of t h e i r doors was thus reasonably i n t e n s i v e thereby supporting the need f o r the doors being f u n c t i o n a l l y e f f i c i e n t . The t a b l e that f o l l o w s i n d i c a t e s what the respondents claimed as being important features of the door i n terms of s a f e t y , handling and l o c k s . . Response Features of door design adequate S e l f - l o c k i n g f e a t u r e good Metal door framing i d e a l L i k e d l e v e r door handles Gap i n door frame too wide No response provided Seton V i l l a New V i s t a 15% 35% 10% 15% 5% 20% 45% 20% 10% 10% 15% A s i z e a b l e p r o p o r t i o n of the respondents f a i l e d to i s o l a t e any s p e c i f i c f e atures of the door as being p o s i t i v e or negative but were s a t i s f i e d w i t h i t s o v e r a l l design. The s e l f - l o c k i n g mechanisms were considered p o s i t i v e features p r i m a r i l y because of the convenience they a f f o r d e d . Tenants could not l o c k themselves out of t h e i r s u i t e s f o r the door had to be locked w i t h a key from the o u t s i d e . As o l d e r people are o f t e n f o r g e t -f u l t h i s , f e a t u r e undoubtedly.saved many tenants from the embarassment of asking the managerial s t a f f f o r a master key. The s e l f - l o c k i n g mechanism could a l s o be considered as a p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e given the number of times the respondents were i n and out of t h e i r s u i t e s . 135. Metal door frames'were considered as p o s i t i v e design f e a t u r e s f o r reasons of d u r a b i l i t y and s a f e t y . They provided an added sense of s e c u r i t y to a number of the respondents. I t was f e l t that metal door frames would provide f u r t h e r p r o t e c t i o n from f i r e than wooden door frames. They would a l s o be an adequate deterent to - anyone attempting to gain forced entry. The p o s s i b i l i t y of such occurrences a r i s i n g i s o b v i o u s l y remote yet the added s a f e t y f a c t o r i s there i f these events should a r i s e . F i f t e e n percent of the Seton V i l l a respondents claimed, that the l e v e l type of door handles were important design f e a t u r e s . The f u n c t i o n a l advantage of t h i s type of door mechanism over the conventional door knob i s that an i n d i v i d u a l merely has to exert downward pressure on the l e v e l without g r i p p i n g i t i n order f o r i t to f u n c t i o n . Most l e v e r type door handles are extremely responsive to the s l i g h t e s t touch. A small p r o p o r t i o n of the respondents from both complexes noted that the gap between the door frame and the door of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s u i t e s was too wide. I t was deemed d e t r i m e n t a l because i t allowed d r a f t s and noise from the c o r r i d o r to enter the s u i t e . When the respondents were asked to suggest how designers could improve the design or features of the doors i n retirement c e n t r e s , the f o l l o w i n g responses were given. Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Peepholes should be provided Door chains should be i n s t a l l e d Door must be completely burglar-proof S e l f - l o c k i n g mechanism should not be included Buzzer or door b e l l s are r e q u i r e d Doors should be t i g h e r . f i t t i n g Chains, should..not ^b"e. i n s t a l l e d Each door should have d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s No response 5% •5% 10% 65% 5% 5% 5% 35% 15% 5% 5% 30% 5% 5% 136. As the data i l l u s t r a t e the l e v e l of response was' much higher from the New V i s t a residents than the group from Seton V i l l a . This may be due to the high degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n the people at Seton had for the design of t h e i r doors. Most f e l t improvements were not necessary and thus did not respond i n any meaningful manner. Peepholes were considered important design features by respondents from both complexes. As noted previously, t h i s added feature promotes a sense of sec u r i t y among tenants allowing them to i d e n t i f y people knocking on t h e i r doors. The fac t that a higher percentage of New V i s t a respondents indicated the need to add t h i s feature may be at t r i b u t e d to the number of unauthorized i n d i v i d u a l s suspected of entering the complex due to the mis-use of the front door intercome system. The f a c t that New V i s t a respondents claimed that chains should be i n s t a l l e d and that the doors should be made completely burglar^proof' may also be att r i b u t e d to the foregoing. Since unauthorized entry was not a problem at Seton V i l l a one can assume that the reasons behind 10% of the respon-dents claiming the ;doors should be made burglar-proof are purely precautionary. The reason why a sing l e i n d i v i d u a l from each complex claimed that the s e l f - l o c k i n g mechanisms should be removed can be re l a t e d to convenience. The e f f o r t of locking one's door with a key every time one l e f t the sui t e was considered as an inconvenience. On the whole, however, t h i s design feature was acceptable to the majority of the respondents. A respondent from Seton V i l l a noted that a buzzer or doorbell would be a useful feature to add. If such a feature i s i n s t a l l e d i t should emit a higher than normal p i t c h of sound i n order to compensate for the loss in-hearing many r e t i r e d people experience. Another Seton respondent 137. noted that the f i t of her s u i t e door was somewhat loose and as a r e s u l t r a t t l e d when people walked along the c o r r i d o r . There was.no evidence of t h i s f a u l t i n other s u i t e s . To many people a r a t t l i n g door undoubtedly seems t r i v i a l but given the l i m i t e d s i z e of many retirement s u i t e s a problem such as t h i s can be extremely annoying. A respondent from New V i s t a supported t h e - t h e o r e t i c a l reasons p r e v i o u s l y mentioned f o r not using door chains and suggested they should be p r o h i b i t e d . Another respondent suggested that each door should have some d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c other than a d i f f e r e n t s u i t e number. As noted, a suggestion of t h i s nature would c e r t a i n l y help those w i t h o r i e n t a t i o n problems. SIZE OF SUITE The p r o v i s i o n of v a r i e t y i n the s i z e s of d w e l l i n g u n i t s i s seldom a f e a t u r e of retirement centres. Most complexes house e l d e r l y s i n g l e s i n i d e n t i c a l bachelor u n i t s and couples i n i d e n t i c a l one-bedroom s u i t e s . Imaginative planning i s needed to produce a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t s i z e d bachelor and one-bedroom s u i t e s that would serve to accommodate a d i v e r s e set of needs f o r s i n g l e s and couples. Extensive research i s c a l l e d f o r i n examining the f e a s i b i l i t y of p r o v i d i n g s e l f - c o n t a i n e d u n i t s f o r small groups such as f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s . R e l a t i v e s and/or f r i e n d s who have l i v e d together f o r extensive periods of time are seldom granted the opportunity to share accommodation w i t h i n a retirement centre. At a time i n the l i f e when the m a j o r i t y of tenants are widows the need f o r sharing may be important. The s i z e of the i n d i v i d u a l s u i t e f o r reasons of economy and conven-ience should be r a t h e r compact. I t should minimize the problems of ZEOF BACHELOR SUITE- NEW VISTA 138. LIVING-SLEEPING AREA E O F ONE BEDROOM SUITE NEW V 139. S I Z E 405scy£f. EOFBOARDRFS. S U 1 T F . S E T O N VII 1 A 140. BALCONY-OVERALL SIZE 227 SQ FEET :E O F O N E R F H R O O M SI 1 1 T F « S F T O N 141. BALCONY 5 X 1 5 OVERALL SIZE 68B SQ.FEET E_OF BACHELOR SU1TE»SETQN VILLA 142. BALCONY 5X16' O V E R A L L SIZE 3BBSQFEET 143. housekeeping yet e a s i l y accommodate d a i l y l i f e a c t i v i t i e s . I t should a l s o guarantee some degree-of v a r i a t i o n and i s o l a t i o n of a c t i v i t y areas. There should f o r example, be adequate square footage to a l l o w f o r a p r i v a t e bathroom space and a semi-private k i t c h e n , bedroom and livingroom.. Semi-private r e f e r s to the use of p a r t i t i o n s , part w a l l s or c u r t a i n s to create a separate a c t i v i t y area. A n a l y s i s of Data - Si z e of S u i t e The respondents were f i r s t asked to s e l e c t the v a r i a b l e which expressed t h e i r f e e l i n g s toward the o v e r a l l s i z e of t h i s s u i t e s . Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a W i t h i n Seton V i l l a , of those who noted t h e i r s u i t e was too s m a l l , 50% were l i v i n g w i t h i n board residence s u i t e s and the remaining 50% l i v e d w i t h i n bachelor s u i t e s . Ninety percent of the New V i s t a respondents who noted t h e i r s u i t e s were too small l i v e d w i t h i n bachelor s u i t e s . On the whole, however, the data i n d i c a t e s that the m a j o r i t y of respondents w i t h i n both complexes were s a t i s f i e d w i t h the s i z e of t h e i r s u i t e . The emphasis i n design should l o g i c a l l y be d i r e c t e d toward improving the v a r i a t i o n and u t i l i t y of the smaller u n i t s . The c o n s t r a i n t s of l i m i t e d f l o o r space undoubtedly make the task a d i f f i c u l t but not impossible problem to solve. The responses to the question of what areas should be smaller or l a r g e r f o l l o w : J u s t r i g h t Too small Too l a r g e 65% 30% 5% 60% 40% 144. Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a E n t i r e s u i t e should be l a r g e r Bedroom should be l a r g e r Separate bedroom re q u i r e d Larger k i t c h e n and d i n i n g area needed.... S u i t e should be reduced i n width Bedroom should be smaller and l i v i n g r o o m l a r g e r No improvements suggested 20% 5% 10% 5% 60% 5% 15% 10% 5% 5% 5% 45% The l a r g e s t percentage of respondents w i t h i n both complexes i n d i c a t e d they were s a t i s f i e d w i t h the e x i s t i n g s i z e of t h e i r s u i t e s and thus d i d not suggest any improvements. A l l but two of the remaining responses are s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . Reference to a separate bedroom area wa's made by respondents l i v i n g w i t h i n bachelor and board residence accommodation. As w i t h i n most retirement centres t h i s type of s u i t e seldom o f f e r s any d i s t i n c t i o n between bedroom and l i v i n g r o o m space. The advantages of a separate s l e e p i n g alcove or s i m i l a r area w i l l be described i n a subsequent s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h the bedroom. A New V i s t a respondent l i v i n g w i t h i n a one-bedroom s u i t e noted that the bedroom should be smaller and the l i v i n g -room l a r g e r w i t h i n h i s s u i t e . A.more e f f i c i e n t a l l o c a t i o n of space would have r e s u l t e d w i t h i n the New V i s t a one-bedroom s u i t e s had l e s s f l o o r space been a l l o t e d to the bedrooms and more to the l i v i n g r o o m area. STORAGE SPACE Adequate storage space i s an important element of the r e t i r e d i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u i t e that i s o f t e n neglected i n terms of design. R e t i r e d f o l k have had almost an e n t i r e l i f e t i m e to c o l l e c t odds and ends, and as such there i s probably more reason to provide adequate storage f o r them than f o r any other age grouping. In a d d i t i o n to storage space w i t h i n the s u i t e , m u l t i p l e housing 145. complexes o f t e n have common storage areas which* provide one l o c k e r per s u i t e . Evidence from a number of sources i n d i c a t e s that e l d e r l y tenants p r e f e r storage f a c i l i t i e s i n the u n i t as opposed'to being a l l o t e d storage space i n a common room. H a l l , bedroom and linen:, c l o s e t s are a standard requirement i n accordance w i t h the Canadian Code f o r R e s i d e n t i a l Construc-t i o n , but storage c l o s e t s are not mandatory (C.M.H.C., 1972, pg. 30). In terms of simple convenience, storage f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n the s u i t e should be provided when i t ' s f e a s i b l e . C.M.H.C. has set out the f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of general storage c l o s e t s : "When general storage c l o s e t s are provided i n the u n i t s , they should have a minimum of s i x t y - f o u r cubic f e e t of space f o r bachelor and n i n e t y - s i x cubic f e e t f o r one bedroom u n i t s . At l e a s t three shelves should be provided each w i t h a minimum width of one foot four inches. The lowest s h e l f should be about two fe e t s i x inches from the f l o o r , w i t h other shelves spaced upwards one foot four inches apart. A d j u s t a b l e shelves are an i d e a l s o l u t i o n . " (C.M.H.C, 1972, pg. 30). A number of sources i n c l u d i n g C.M.H.C. suggest that the bedroom and l i n e n c l o s e t s should be combined i n order to reduce the o v e r a l l amount of space u t i l i z e d f o r storage. Storage compartments should be equipped w i t h s l i d i n g doors to f a c i l i t a t e easy use. C l o s e t s or storage compartments without doors are not recommended f o r they u s u a l l y demand more i n t e n s i v e housekeeping. A n a l y s i s of Data - Storage Space F i f t y - f i v e percent of the respondents claimed that there was adequate storage w i t h i n t h e i r s u i t e s . Seventy-one percent of those occupying board residence s u i t e s , however, i n d i c a t e d a l a c k of storage TQRAGE SPACEiSE lON&NEW VISTA ARD RESIDEN6E-SET0N BACHELOR SUITE-SETON 1BEDR30M-SETON 1 BEDROOM-SETON 1 BEDROOM-NEW VISTA 147. space while 30% of those occupying bachelor suites had s i m i l a r claims. The board residence suites at Seton V i l l a are d e f i n i t e l y lacking i n storage space. The compact siz e of t h i s type of su i t e undoubtedly leaves l i t t l e a d d i t i o n a l space for the storage of goods. There i s no reason, however, why storage space should be given lower p r i o r i t y i n board residence suites than any of the other forms of accommodation. At New V i s t a 46% of those occupying .bachelor suites noted a lack of storage space while 20% of the respondents l i v i n g i n one-bedroom suites had a s i m i l a r claim. The l e v e l of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n that evolved would lead one to the recommendation that adequate storage f a c i l i t i e s should be provided within the su i t e rather than within a locker room i n a common storage room. If the respondents answered "no" to the question of whether t h e i r apartment had enough closet or storage space they were subsequently asked to i d e n t i f y the areas i n which i t was lacking. Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Clothes and/or broom closet 34% 36.4% Throughout su i t e 66% 63.6% Clothes and broom clos e t s were the only s p e c i f i c storage areas noted that required more storage space. Perhaps a more e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of space would m a t e r i a l i z e i f there two types of clo s e t s were combined into one serving both needs. The provision of an adequate l e s s s p e c i a l i z e d storage compartment i n addition to the foregoing may s a t i s f y the majority of the tenant's storage needs. 148. LIGHTING V i s u a l l i m i t a t i o n s have been proven to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of o l d age. As mentioned e a r l i e r such l i m i t a t i o n s demand higher than normal l e v e l s of i l l u m i n a t i o n . Some st u d i e s have i l l u s t r a t e d that an aged person may r e q u i r e as much as three times the l i g h t necessary f o r a younger person (Botwiniek, 1973, pg. 121). A great deal can be done to overcome v i s u a l l i m i t a t i o n s through the p r o v i s i o n of adequate f i x t u r e s w i t h i n ' t h e d w e l l i n g u n i t . Conventional f l o o r i l l u m i n a t i o n l e v e l s that normally range from two to f i v e footcandles should be doubled f o r the aged. Strong c o n t r a s t i n g areas of l i g h t and shadow must be avoided i n order to overcome the v i s u a l accommodation problem that many-aged people s u f f e r from. A uniform d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i g h t and c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n of l i g h t f i x t u r e s that adequately s h i e l d l i g h t w i l l help to overcome such problems. I t i s important to provide a s u f f i c i e n t number of p r o p e r l y placed o u t l e t s , switches and f i x t u r e s so that a l l areas w i t h i n the s u i t e r e c e i v e enough l i g h t . L i g h t switches w i t h small l o c a t e r l i g h t s should be provided i n the h a l l , bathroom and bedroom. I t should always be p o s s i b l e f o r the aged i n d i v i d u a l to be able to f l i c k a s w itch and'have the path i n f r o n t of him or her l i t up. This r e q u i r e s a more i n t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s of the lighting'arrangement than i s u s u a l l y conducted i n the design of the average s u i t e . E f f i c i e n t l i g h t i n g arrangements prevent the i n d i v i d u a l from stumbling about i n the dark and perhaps having a s e r i o u s accident as a r e s u l t . C e i l i n g f i x t u r e s should be avoided i f at a l l p o s s i b l e due to the n e c e s s i t y of c l i m b i n g on c h a i r s or ladders to change the l i g h t bulb or c l e a n the f i x t u r e s . Since the aged o f t e n have problems w i t h balance a c c i d e n t s are bound to happen . i f i t i s necessary to perform such house-hold d u t i e s . The management seldom has the s t a f f - necessary to go around 149. changing c e i l i n g l i g h t bulbs w i t h i n the s u i t e s . An adequate number of w a l l o u t l e t s should be provided a t l e a s t two or three f e e t from the f l o o r . The e l d e r l y are prone to d i z z i n e s s and the l e s s stooping or bending that i s required the b e t t e r . IGHTING-SETON VILLA - W k e c \ G e i l , ^ li^Wb \r\ m\^e\\e VTOOVNA - acWc^e A o m W o ? O o W e V b '^(VWin e\j<5 )^ NEW VISTA - UOQ1\ O^A-W-VS <o" c\U>^ Me -?\oovr Wvje.\ A n a l y s i s of Data - L i g h t i n g The respondents were f i r s t asked to c l a s s i f y the l i g h t i n g and l i g h t f i x t u r e s w i t h i n t h e i r s u i t e as adequate or inadequate. F i f t y - f i v e 150. percent of the respondents from New V i s t a i n d i c a t e d that the l i g h t i n g was adequate w h i l e 75% of the Seton V i l l a respondents claimed i t to be adequate. The d i f f e r e n c e i n the l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n may be a t t r i b u t e d to the s p e c i a l care that was taken i n the p r o v i s i o n of o u t l e t s and l i g h t i n g f i x t u r e s at Seton V i l l a ( r e f e r to the d e s c r i p t i o n provided). The responses given to the next question asking f o r suggestions d e a l i n g w i t h the improvement of the l i g h t i n g or l i g h t f i x t u r e s were r a t h e r l i m i t e d . Suggested Improvements Seton V i l l a New V i s t a More c e i l i n g l i g h t s r e q u i r e d e s p e c i a l l y i n the middle of the room 50% 35% More w a l l plugs needed - 5% Wall plugs too high - 5% Be t t e r q u a l i t y l i g h t f i x t u r e s r e q u i r e d 5% No response 45% 55% The l i m i t e d response to t h i s question may i n part be a t t r i b u t e d to the general l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n that was d i s p l a y e d toward the e x i s t i n g f e a t u r e s . S u r p r i s i n g l y a s u b s t a n t i a l percentage of the respondents i n d i c a t e d that c e i l i n g l i g h t s should be provided. This suggestion i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to g u i d e l i n e s o f f e r e d by C.M.H.C. and many others who c l a i m that such features are a hazard due to accidents r e s u l t i n g from cl i m b i n g on c h a i r s or ladders to change l i g h t bulbs or cle a n f i x t u r e s . The respondents w i t h i n t h i s study d i s p l a y e d l i t t l e concern f o r such f e a r s . Perhaps both p a r t i e s could be s a t i s f i e d i f the pulldown v a r i e t y of c e i l i n g l i g h t was provided. KITCHEN ( S e l f - c o n t a i n e d Suites) The term s e l f - c o n t a i n e d u n i t u s u a l l y i m p l i e s that k i t c h e n f a c i l i t i e s are part of the design. S p e c i a l e f f o r t i s r e q u i r e d i n making the k i t c h e n 151. a f u n c t i o n a l element of the ageds' l i f e , r a t h e r than a danger. Meal pr e p a r a t i o n i s a c r i t i c a l aspect of the o l d e r person's l i f e and a con-venient and safe k i t c h e n may w e l l make the d i f f e r e n c e between an aged person e a t i n g s u b s t a n t i a l meals or not. Of the s e l f - c o n t a i n e d s u i t e s s t u d i e d , only one, the e x t r a l a r g e one-bedroom'suites at Seton V i l l a , had enough f l o o r space to a l l o w f o r both a separate k i t c h e n and d i n i n g area. The l i m i t e d f l o o r space of most s u i t e s simply cannot accommodate the s i z e of k i t c h e n common to s i n g l e f a m i l y homes. Separation of the k i t c h e n from other l i v i n g ' a r e a s , however, i s p o s s i b l e by means of f a l s e w a l l s or moveable p a r t i t i o n s . A separate k i t c h e n area helps e l i m i n a t e the negative f e e l i n g of l i v i n g i n one extended room. Since the e l d e r l y spend considerable time w i t h i n t h e i r s u i t e t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s important. Pullman type k i t c h e n e t t e s are not recommended, f o r t h e i r compact-ness u s u a l l y r e s u l t s i n a l a c k of e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e cupboard space and cramped working quarters. This.type of arrangement i s commonly v i s i b l e from every part of the s u i t e and thus the tenant u s u a l l y f e e l s o b l i g a t e d to keep things i n order. F u l l s c a l e k i t c h e n s overcome such problems. The recommended s i z e of k i t c h e n to accommodate the aged i s f i f t y square.Jfeet or s l i g h t l y l e s s ( K i r a , 1973, pg. 36). This standard accom-modates a minimum f l o o r space without l o s i n g any of the common u t i l i t a r -i a n amenities of the k i t c h e n . A . S c o t t i s h Housing Advisory Committee studying Housing of S p e c i a l Groups formulated the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n supporting minimum s i z e d k i t c h e n s : "The labour of housekeeping increases i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n to the s i z e of the k i t c h e n and the s i n g l e person does not enjoy the compensating advantages which the a d d i t i o n a l space provides i n f a c i l i t a t i n g the numerous, complex tasks which have to be performed i n a f a m i l y household. We 152. b e l i e v e that the greatest labour-saving device which can be- provided f o r the s i n g l e person i s a compactly planned and equipped k i t c h e n of the minimum s i z e compatible w i t h e f f i c i e n t performance of the e s s e n t i a l • t a s k s . o f cooking and c l e a n i n g . " ( K i r a , 1973, pg. 36). The m a j o r i t y of k i t c h e n s w i t h i n h i g h r i s e developments are i n t e r i o r k i t c h e n s and thus they do not b e n e f i t by having windows c l o s e at hand to provide adequate v e n t i l a t i o n . A mechanical v e n t i l a t i o n system i s t h e r e f o r e c a l l e d f o r . A study conducted by G.H. Beyer of C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y i l l u s t r a t e d that the most e f f i c i e n t and convenient arrangement of k i t c h e n equipment was the sequence of r e f r i g e r a t o r - c o u n t e r - s i n k - c o u n t e r - r a n g e - s e r v e (Beyer, 1952, pg. 11). A number of follow-up s t u d i e s have si n c e v e r i f i e d the advantages of t h i s sequence. Recommendations d e a l i n g w i t h cupboard space have not followed such w e l l accepted standards. There are two important things that should be kept i n mind when designing cupboard space f o r the aged; cupboards should be a c c e s s i b l e without a r e t i r e d i n d i v i d u a l having to climb on a c h a i r to reach them nor should they be too low r e q u i r i n g an i n d i v i d u a l to bend over. C.M.H.C. recommends that the height of the top s h e l f over the counter cupboards should not exceed four f e e t , eight inches and that under the counter cupboards should be a minimum of one f o o t , three inches above the f l o o r . Shelving widths should be approximately eleven inches to twelve inches (C.M.H.C, 1972, pg. 29). Cupboards over stoves and f r i d g e s should be avoided due to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the r e t i r e d i n d i v i d u a l f a l l i n g w h i l e making use of them. L i m i t a t i o n s i n v i s i o n n e c e s s i t a t e the use of higher than normal l i g h t i n g over the s i n k and stove so that the aged can u t i l i z e these f a c i l i t i e s to t h e i r f u l l c a p a c i t y . 153. The design of k i t c h e n equipment must be given c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . E l e c t r i c ranges are p r e f e r r e d over gas stoves s i n c e older people o f t e n have l i m i t a t i o n s i n smell and thus have d i f f i c u l t y i n d e t e c t i n g gas leakages due to an extinguished p i l o t l i g h t or some other circumstance. E l e c t r i c ranges should have c o n t r o l s at the frontDof the u n i t that are easy to reach and i d e n t i f y through s i g h t or touch (C.M.H.C, 1972, pg. 30). R e f r i g e r a t o r s of s i x cubic foot c a p a c i t y are reported as adequate f o r the needs of the aged ( K i r a , 1973, pg. 39). These u n i t s should have adequate f r e e z i n g compartments f o r the aged can u s u a l l y reduce t h e i r expenditure on food by purchasing food on s a l e and f r e e z i n g i t . The doors of the f r i d g e should be easy to open due to the l i m i t a t i o n s i n st r e n g t h that c h a r a c t e r i z e o l d e r f o l k . Double s i n k s w i t h l e v e r type faucet handles are recommended. Double s i n k s can f a c i l i t a t e hand laundering and thus save the r e t i r e d tenant both the expense and e f f o r t of using the common laundry f a c i l i t i e s to wash a few s o i l e d a r t i c l e s . Lever type handles are e x c e l l e n t f o r use by r e t i r e d f o l k f o r they r e q u i r e l i t t l e s t r e n g t h to operate. When l e v e r type handles are not a v a i l a b l e and other types of faucet handles are used, they should be easy to g r i p and r e q u i r e l i t t l e e f f o r t to t u r n . K i r a , Tucker and CederStrom i n t h e i r book, Housing Requirements of  the Aged; A' Study of Design C r i t e r i a , o f f e r a number of miscellaneous c o n s i d e r a t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h the design and features of the k i t c h e n . These are t h a t : "1) Garbage d i s p o s a l should be made p a r t i c u l a r l y convenient, s i n c e l i m i t e d energy and l i m i t e d m o b i l i t y l e a d many of the aged to s t o r e t r a s h and garbage f o r dangerously long p e r i o d s . 2) I n a c c e s s i b l e and hard-to-clean spaces should be avoided wherever p o s s i b l e . [ITCHEN* NEW VISTA 154. <ITCH EN» SETON VILi A 1 BEDROOM SUITE BACHELOR SUITE (ALLOW DEPTH CUPBOARDS 156. 3) A wooden f a s t e n i n g s t r i p should be provided to accommodate va r i o u s items such as can openers, towel r a c k s , e t c . 4) F l o o r should be of a non-skid m a t e r i a l . 5) A t t e n t i o n should be paid to l i g h t i n g and sw i t c h i n g . 6) ... i f cupboard doors are provided, s l i d i n g doors are pr e f e r r e d over hinged doors ... ( K i r a , et a l . , 1973, pg. 40). The o v e r r i d i n g theme when designing k i t c h e n s f o r the e l d e r l y should be to over-emphasize s a f e t y , convenience and f u n c t i o n i n a l l of the normal aspects of the everyday k i t c h e n . A n a l y s i s of Data - Kit c h e n The d a i l y use made of the k i t c h e n w i t h i n the s e l f - c o n t a i n e d s u i t e s was an average of 5.15 times at New V i s t a and 3.3 times at Seton V i l l a . The l e v e l of use was th e r e f o r e r a t h e r i n t e n s i v e w i t h i n both of the complexes. The m a j o r i t y of the respondents l i v i n g w i t h i n s e l f -contained s u i t e s i n d i c a t e d they prepared t h e i r own meals f o r two b a s i c reasons. F i r s t i t was much more economical than e a t i n g out and second, i t was e a s i e r to s a t i s f y i n d i v i d u a l t a s t e s and e a t i n g h a b i t s . As one respondent noted, "by the time an i n d i v i d u a l reaches the age of s i x t y -f i v e h i s or her e a s t i n g h a b i t s are u n l i k e l y to be a l t e r e d " . When asked to express t h e i r l i k e s and d i s l i k e s concerning the design of the. k i t c h e n and i t s f i x t u r e s the f o l l o w i n g responses were obtained (percentages are based on the t o t a l number of responses f o r more than one response was allowed per respondent). 157. P o s i t i v e Responses Seton V i l l a New V i s t a S a t i s f i e d w i t h the design and features Enjoyed the compactness of the k i t c h e n Shallow depth cupboards - good idea Raised f r i d g e good idea 40% 5% 10% 5% 36% 4% Negative Responses Lack of cupboard space Fridge too small Sink overflows Area l a c k s width Sink r e q u i r e s r e g u l a r faucet knobs r a t h e r than l e v e r type handle More area r e q u i r e d f o r a t a b l e Cupboards too h i g h Cupboard shelves too deep Kitchen should be l a r g e r Dual entry w a s t e f u l Colour of c e i l i n g should be same as liv i n g r o o m 15% 10% 5% ,57. 5% 4% 16% 8% 12% 4% 12% 4% The p o s i t i v e aspects of the design and features of the k i t c h e n i n c l u d e an o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the area and a l i k i n g f o r the compact nature of the k i t c h e n w i t h i n both of the complexes. The shallow depth cupboards and r a i s e d f r i d g e r e c e i v e d p r a i s e from s e v e r a l Seton respondents. Shallow depth shelves ensure that items are w i t h i n easy reach i n a d d i t i o n to a l l o w i n g f o r easy c l e a n i n g . A r a i s e d f r i d g e reduces the need to bend down but i t a l s o u s u a l l y i m p l i e s a r e d u c t i o n i n s i z e . Ten percent of the respondents f e l t the f r i d g e was too small at Seton. In terms of negative comments the m a j o r i t y were made by New V i s t a respondents. Lack of cupboard space, however, was mentioned by respon-dents from both complexes. Many designers are faced w i t h the problem of p r o v i d i n g cupboard space that i s a c c e s s i b l e and that does not r e q u i r e an ol d e r person to bend or reach w h i l e u s i n g i t . In meeting these r e q u i r e -ments the number of p o s s i b l e l o c a t i o n s that cupboards can be placed i s 158. l i m i t e d . Convenient and safe cupboard space thus often implies l e s s cupboard space. The overflow problem noted at Seton was a d e f i n i t e f a u l t within the design of the sink. They had no safety overflow and thus the tenants had to make c e r t a i n that they did not leave the water running when the plug was i n . A respondent from Seton claimed that the lever type of faucet handle was a negative feature i n that problems were often encoun-tered with i t s use. He believed that older people were prone to burning themselves by putting the water on f u l l when the lever was i n the hot pos i t i o n . Lever type controls d e f i n i t e l y require l e s s strength than conventional faucet knobs but as the gentleman noted they may present problems i n use. A number of New V i s t a respondents claimed t h e i r kitchen cupboards were both too high and too deep. Cupboards that are too high are unsafe f o r the reasons noted within the introduction of t h i s section. When they are too deep they are d i f f i c u l t to clean and i t i s hard to reach things i n the back. The New V i s t a kitchens were also thought to be too small by a few respondents. A respondent from the Ernest Winch Tower at New V i s t a noted that having an entry to the kitchen from two sides was a waste of space i n the bachelor s u i t e s . This arrangement was changed i n the subsequent design of New V i s t a Place. The question that followed asked the respondents to l i s t the changes they would make to the kitchen area i f they were- given the opportunity. 159. Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Provide a s i n g l e entry to k i t c h e n Wider drawers are r e q u i r e d Cupboards must be lowered Remove a l l drawers between f r i d g e and stove A bigger f r i d g e i s re q u i r e d More counter space needed Double s i n k should be provided K i t c h e n should be expanded i n s i z e Overflow problem of s i n k must be solved Wider k i t c h e n area r e q u i r e d P o s i t i o n of stove and f r i d g e : s h o u l d be rearranged Breadboard should not be against the w a l l More cupboards are needed A l i g h t i n the stove i s r e q u i r e d No response provided 5% 5% 20% 5% 40% 10% 5% 5% 5% 45% 5% 5% 10% 5% 5% 5% 5% 15% Since the responses are s e l f ^ explanatory ..they r e q u i r e l i t t l e f u r t h e r examination. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note however, the number of i n d i v i d u a l -i s t i c remarks d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c elements of the k i t c h e n . The respondent's awareness of the features and d e s i g n o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r space was greater than most other spaces w i t h i n the s u i t e as w e l l as i n the b u i l d i n g . Perhaps t h i s i s r e l a t e d to the extent and type of use that i s made of the k i t c h e n . DINING/EATING AREA The l i m i t e d f l o o r space of most s e l f - c o n t a i n e d s u i t e s allows f o r l i t t l e f l e x i b i l i t y i n terms of p r o v i d i n g a d i n i n g or e a t i n g area. The d i n i n g area u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s of a small k i t c h e n t a b l e w i t h i n e i t h e r the k i t c h e n or liv i n g r o o m . Given t h i s obvious c o n s t r a i n t a number of design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s t i l l seem worthy of mention. 1) :.If not a c t u a l l y w i t h i n the k i t c h e n , the d i n i n g area should be l o c a t e d as near to the k i t c h e n as p o s s i b l e i n order to reduce the amount of movement req u i r e d to serve a meal. lNING/FATINC-, AREA i SETON & NEW V < BEDROOM SE TON V liLA BACHELOR NEW VISTA 161. 2) I f p o s s i b l e the d i n i n g area should be l o c a t e d near a window. In the case of s i n g l e person occupancy the need f o r t h i s design p r o v i s i o n i s important. The i n t e r n a l p o s i t i o n of the k i t c h e n arid e x t e r n a l p o s i t i o n of windows makes i t d i f f i c u l t to accomplish t h i s g o a l . 3) Dining areas should be at l e a s t f o r t y square f e e t f o r one person w i t h f i f t e e n square f e e t added f o r every other person that would be u t i l i z i n g the space ( K i r a , 1973, pg. 35). A n a l y s i s of Data - Dining/Eating Area Those respondents l i v i n g w i t h i n s e l f - c o n t a i n e d s u i t e s were f i r s t asked to i n d i c a t e the number of times per day they used the d i n i n g area of t h e i r s u i t e f o r a meal or snack. Almost every respondent u t i l i z e d t h e i r d i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s at l e a s t three times per day, an average compar-able to the use that an average f a m i l y would make of such f a c i l i t i e s . The question that followed pertained to the respondent's l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r d i n i n g areas. At New V i s t a , 85% i n d i c a t e d they were s a t i s f i e d w h i le 92% of the Seton respondents from s e l f - c o n t a i n e d s u i t e s claimed that the d i n i n g area met t h e i r needs. This high l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n - i n r e l a t i o n to the p r o v i s i o n of r a t h e r i n c i d e n t a l d i n i n g space w i t h i n both the complexes leads one to the c o n c l u s i o n that a l i m i t e d s i z e d d i n i n g area can meet the needs of r e t i r e d people. This l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n was again emphasized when the respondents were asked to suggest improvements to t h i s area. BEDROOM AREA - PERTAINING TO ONE-BEDROOM SUITES ONLY WITHIN BOTH COMPLEXES The bedroom w i t h i n t h i s - s u b - s e c t i o n r e f e r s to a separate room ra t h e r than being part of the l i v i n g r o o m as i s common-in many of the bachelor s u i t e s . One-bedroom s u i t e s were f o r couples only at New V i s t a 162. whereas a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l a t Seton V i l l a could occupy a one-bedroom s u i t e i f they were w i l l i n g , to pay the a d d i t i o n a l c o s t . S i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l s at Seton V i l l a u s u a l l y occupied the smaller one-bedroom s u i t e s whereas the l a r g e one-bedroom s u i t e s were u s u a l l y rented to couples. The i n t e n s i t y of use of the bedroom w i l l be l a r g e l y dependent upon the s l e e p i n g h a b i t s of the i n d i v i d u a l and t h e i r general p h y s i c a l c o n d i -t i o n . A healthy o l d e r i n d i v i d u a l w i l l spend comparatively l e s s time i n bed than i n t h e i r younger years. Daytime naps and a general r e d u c t i o n i n sleep requirements are the two most common reasons c i t e d f o r t h i s . As one ages however, the frequency and du r a t i o n of periods of i l l h e a l t h u s u a l l y i n c r e a s e , and as such the l e v e l of time spent i n one's bedroom a l s o i n c r e a s e s . By accepting lengthy periods of convalesence as the norm designers of retirement centres should plan f o r bedroom space that w i l l be capable of adapting to such a l i f e s i t u a t i o n . Adequate l i g h t i n g , good v e n t i l a t i o n and a window that can be looked out of wh i l e l y i n g i n bed are p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r making the s l e e p i n g area as pleasant as p o s s i b l e . A separate bedroom i s e s s e n t i a l i n the case of two person occupancy. I t i s recommended that such bedrooms have enough f l o o r space to accom-modate twin beds. The twin bed layout i s d e s i r a b l e when one member of a couple i s bed-ridden f o r any len g t h of time. The p r o v i s i o n of a screen or c u r t a i n to separate beds i s a l s o a d e s i r a b l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s regard. As K i r a p o i n t s out, "the recommended s i z e s f o r bedrooms vary somewhat, although the average s i z e i s approximately 120 square fee t whether the room i s to be occupied by one or two persons" ( K i r a , 1973, Pg. 23). EDRQQM (ONE BEDROOM SU1TFS) SETON&NEWV 163 . EXPANSIVE WINDOWS NEW VISTA 164. A number of d e t a i l e d bedroom design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s repeatedly occur throughout the l i t e r a t u r e . These have been summarized below: 1) Access to the bathroom should not be'obstructed i n any manner. The path should be both d i r e c t and. short from the bedroom to the bathroom. 2) A minimum space of 18 inches should be permitted on three sides of the bed to f a c i l i t a t e bed making and nursing i f the need a r i s e s . Twin beds should have at l e a s t three f e e t between them. At l e a s t f i v e f e e t of c l e a r space on one s i d e of the bed i s recommended f o r a wheelchair. 3) As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , an i n d i v i d u a l should be able to look out of a window w h i l e l y i n g i n bed. This f e a t u r e i s extremely important to those aged who s u f f e r from lengthy periods of i l l n e s s and are o f t e n bedridden. 4) Two to three e l e c t r i c a l o u t l e t s should be provided i n the room w i t h one l o c a t e d c l o s e to the bed. Such features can accommodate ni g h t l i g h t s and bed lamps h e l p i n g to add to the convenience and s a f e t y of the room. 5) There should be enough space to accommodate a good-sized bedside t a b l e that can be used to s t o r e t o i l e t r i e s and medicines. 6) Bedrooms should, e a s i l y accommodate an e x t r a c h a i r and a t e l e v i s i o n i n a d d i t i o n to the normal bedroom f u r n i t u r e . (C.M.H.C., 1972, pg. 27; K i r a , 1973, Pg. 23). A n a l y s i s of Data - Bedroom (one-bedroom s u i t e s only) Twenty-five percent of the New V i s t a respondents and' 15% of the Seton group occupied one-bedroom s u i t e s . The average number of hours w i t h i n a 165. 24-hour day that these people spent w i t h i n t h e i r bedrooms was 9.2 hours f o r the New V i s t a group and 9 hours f o r . t h e Seton V i l l a respondents. The data i l l u s t r a t e s that the respondents were i n r e l a t i v e l y good p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n f o r none of them included lengthy periods of convalesence i n t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n of the number of hours spent w i t h i n the bedroom. Contrary to much of the l i t e r a t u r e the'respondents d i d not i n d i c a t e a lower than normal length of time spent i n t h e i r bedroom. Since the number of respondents who occupied one-bedroom s u i t e s was r a t h e r l i m i t e d one can question the v a l i d i t y of the responses. Given t h i s c o n s t r a i n t the r e p l i e s to the question, "What are your l i k e s and/or d i s l i k e s concerning the bedroom area" f o l l o w . The percentages are based on the t o t a l number of responses r a t h e r than respondents. Response Adequate as i s Should be reduced i n s i z e Larger c l o s e t s r e q u i r e d More room to change c l o t h e s , r e q u i r e d Seton V i l l a New V i s t a 33.33% 33.33% .33.33% 42.6% 28.4%. 14.25% 14.25% The responses are l a r g e l y s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y except perhaps the response made by two New V i s t a r e s i d e n t s who claimed that the bedroom should be reduced i n s i z e . These people f e l t that the l i v i n g r o o m area . of t h e i r s u i t e s could be expanded by reducing the s i z e of t h e i r bedroom. They both f e l t that the bedrooms were ov e r - s i z e d whereas the livingrooms were undersized. Their comments deserve c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n when one i s faced w i t h the design problem of foregoing l i v i n g r o o m space f o r bedroom space. These respondents would undoubtedly support smaller bedrooms and l a r g e r l i v i n g r o o m s . When asked to suggest improvements i n terms of bedroom design the 166. respondents f o r the most part suggested improvements based upon t h e i r s t a t e d d i s l i k e s . Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Larger c l o s e t s r e q u i r e d Reduced window area Reduced o v e r a l l s i z e Increased o v e r a l l s i z e No response 33.33% .28.4% 14.2% 28.4% 33.33% 33.33% 29.0% S u r p r i s i n g l y i n the case of New V i s t a , although the major suggestions were based upon a re d u c t i o n i n both the s i z e and window sur f a c e , two respondents i n d i c a t e d that l a r g e r c l o s e t s were r e q u i r e d . C o n f l i c t i n g statements such as they can only lead one to the co n c l u s i o n that space has been i n e f f i c i e n t l y a l l o c a t e d i n the bedroom layout of New V i s t a . The two comments o f f e r e d by the Seton V i l l a respondents are compatible and r e f l e c t a d e s i r e f o r bigger bedrooms. Although the data has severe l i m i t a t i o n s i t does i l l u s t r a t e the point that r e t i r e d tenants are per c e p t i v e to the negative aspects of bedrooms that are e i t h e r too small or too l a r g e . A bathroom designed to accommodate f o r the p h y s i c a l and v i s u a l l i m i t a t i o n s of the aged i s an important design c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i t h i n any type of d w e l l i n g u n i t . Designers have the c a p a b i l i t y of he l p i n g the aged to r e t a i n t h e i r d i g n i t y and s e l f - r e s p e c t by c r e a t i n g bathrooms that are f u n c t i o n a l , safe and convenient. The i n t e r i o r l o c a t i o n of the bathroom i s by f a r the most common i n most s u i t e arrangements. Such a l o c a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s the use of a mechanical v e n t i l a t i o n system p r e f e r a b l y operated from the l i g h t switch. BATHROOM 167. The p o s i t i o n of the bathroom i n respect to the bedroom has already been mentioned but i t s importance deserves, f u r t h e r emphasis. The aged o f t e n make use of the t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s at night and i n order to prevent f a l l s or s i m i l a r accidents i t i s important that a d i r e c t and unobstructed path be created from the bed to the bathroom.' This design c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y easy to accommodate i n the case of bachelor s u i t e s when one i s l a r g e l y d e a l i n g w i t h an extended room, but i n the case of one-bedroom s u i t e s a c o n f l i c t a r i s e s between having the bathroom d i r e c t l y a c c e s s i b l e from the bedroom and a l s o having i t a c c e s s i b l e from other areas of the dwe l l i n g u n i t f o r use by guests. I t ' s o b v i o u s l y not the most d e s i r a b l e s i t u a t i o n to have guests trod through one's bedroom to use the bathroom f a c i l i t i e s . •Given t h i s p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t one can only recommend that p r i o r i t y be given to the tenant's needs r a t h e r than h i s or her guests'. C.M.H.C. recommends that the door to the bathroom should be a minimum two f e e t eight inches wide'and that i t should open outwards. They a l s o suggest that l o c k i n g mechanisms should be operable from the o u t s i d e to al l o w immediate access to an i n d i v i d u a l i n the event of an accident. The s i z e of the room i t s e l f should range from 35 to 40 square f e e t (C.M.H.C, 1973, pg. 20). I t should be noted that a room of t h i s suggested s i z e would not adequately accommodate a wheelchair. A space double the s i z e would be considered s u f f i c i e n t but f o r obvious reasons t h i s s i z e of bathroom i s u s u a l l y not f e a s i b l e . The p o s s i b l e arrangements f o r the b a s i c three types of bathroom equipment, the v a n i t y , t o i l e t and bathtub/shower, have been given c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n by many a u t h o r i t i e s d e a l i n g w i t h housing f o r the aged. Three p o s s i b l e arrangements that were suggested by C.M.H.C. are presented below along w i t h a summary of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e advantages. DESIGN A i. . .1 5 - 0 X 7 - 3 DESIGN B S I 2 E ^ \ » W S ' -o"x7'-5" DESIGN C 169. One arrangement not mentioned i n the C.M.H.C. recommendations but considered advantageous by other a u t h o r i t i e s i s to have the t o i l e t placed between the s i n k and the bathtub. In t h i s arrangement the t o i l e t can serve as a seat f o r an i n d i v i d u a l using the s i n k or f o r t e s t i n g the bath water, soaking one's f e e t i n the bathtub or r e s t i n g a f t e r c l i m b i n g out of the bath or shower. As K i r a notes, the e l d e r l y o f t e n tend to f a l l onto seats and as such the t o i l e t seats should be of the s t u r d i e s t , most shock-proof c o n s t r u c t i o n i n order to avoid excess maintenance and r e p l a c e -ment costs ( K i r a , 1973, pg. 26). Grab bars placed i n a s u b t l e yet f u n c t i o n a l manner are important i n a i d i n g the aged i n using the bathtub and t o i l e t s a f e l y . For the use of the t o i l e t two p o s s i b l e grab bar arrangements are recommended. A v e r t i c a l bar alongside the t o i l e t would a i d the i n d i v i d u a l i n lowering himself to the seat and a l s o r i s i n g from i t . C.M.H.C. recommends that such a bar should be capable of withstanding a 300 l b . p u l l (C.M.H.C, 1972, pg. 28). Another p o s s i b l e arrangement i s to have a p a i r of arched bars set i n the f l o o r adjacent to the t o i l e t . The advantages of t h i s arrangement over the former are that an i n d i v i d u a l can use two hands and that i t can serve as an arm r e s t and thereby provide added support. Two bars being of non-corrosive metal and capable of withstanding a d i r e c t p u l l of at l e a s t 300 l b s . should be u t i l i z e d i n the bathtub. A v e r t i c a l grab bar mounted at chest height w i l l provide support w h i l e running the water i n a d d i t i o n to a i d i n g the i n d i v i d u a l i n g e t t i n g i n and out of the tub. A longer s l o p i n g h o r i z o n t a l bar i s recommended along the adjacent w a l l of the tub i n order to a l l o w an i n d i v i d u a l to ease h e r s e l f / h i m s e l f i n t o the bath. "Perhaps the most d e s i r a b l e arrangement 170. i s the combined bar which begins as the v e r t i c a l bar at the outer f r o n t edge of the tub then runs h o r i z o n t a l l y along the f r o n t of the tub at approximately waist height and then slopes down along the s i d e " ; ( K i r a , 1973, pg. 31). An arrangement of t h i s s o r t would provide an added l e v e l of support f o r an i n d i v i d u a l would not have to switch from one bar to the next as he s e t t l e s i n or r i s e s up from the bathtub. A point concerning grab bars that w i l l be covered more f u l l y w i t h i n the a n a l y s i s of the data p e r t a i n s to the o b t r u s i v e and i n f l e x i b l e nature of such f e a t u r e s . The use of grab bars i s a h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c t h i n g dependent upon one's h e i g h t , weight and p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s . The i n f l e x i b i l i t y of most grab bar arrangements f a i l s to accommodate f o r such i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . One may question whether i n f a c t the bathtub i s a b e t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e than a shower when one considers the expense in v o l v e d i n making the tub convenient and safe f o r the aged. A number of a u t h o r i t i e s c l a i m that a shower i s much cleaner and s a f e r than a tub r e g a r d l e s s of the s a f e t y measures that are i n s t a l l e d . Some people f e e l that s i n c e the bathtub has been the t r a d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e i n the past the aged perceive the shower as being new and d i f f e r e n t and t h e r e f o re -are r e l u c t a n t to use i t . Theories of t h i s s o r t f a i l to take i n t o account the power of adaptation most e l d e r l y f o l k possess. Shower arrangements are commonplace w i t h i n most households today and thus the problems of u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i l l soon disappear w i t h the f u t u r e populations of o l d e r people. I f a shower i s to be provided a number of design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s should be kept in'mind. The f l o o r of the shower should be of a non-s l i p m a t e r i a l which i s r e s i l i e n t , impervious to water and easy to maintain ( K i r a , 1973, pg. 27). Some form of supportive f e a t u r e such as a v e r t i c a l 171. grab bar mounted at waist l e v e l on the s i d e w a l l would a l s o be h e l p f u l . A f e a t u r e that would make showering more pleasant f o r the aged i s a sturdy fold-down p o r t a b l e seat on:which the aged person could r e s t w h i l e having a shower. The taps r e g u l a t i n g the water should be e a s i l y reached from the outside of the s t a l l i n order to make sure the water temperature i s r i g h t before e n t e r i n g . Some a u t h o r i t i e s recommend that shower s t a l l s be equipped w i t h s l i d i n g doors r a t h e r than c u r t a i n s i n order to cut down on the amount of water leakage and the maintenance such leakage neces-s i t a t e s ( K i r a , 1973, pg. 31). Further minor bathroom c o n s i d e r a t i o n s would i n c l u d e the p r o v i s i o n of a medicine cabinet capable of accommodating a l a r g e q u a n t i t y of medicines and the need f o r a number of towel racks that are sturdy enough to be used f o r support as one moves about the bathroom. Enough space should be a v a i l a b l e f o r a small c l o t h e s hamper to put s o i l e d c l o t h e s i n . A n a l y s i s of Data - Bathroom The frequency of use of the bathroom was a s c e r t a i n e d by having the respondents simply l i s t the number of times i n an average (24-hour) day they would use t h e i r bathroom; The averages were 10.2 times per day at New V i s t a and 9 times per day at Seton. This i n t e n s i v e l e v e l of use would support the need to emphasize a number of design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the bathroom. The next question asked the respondents to l i s t t h e i r l i k e s and/or d i s l i k e s concerning the design or features of t h e i r bathroom. Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a P o s i t i v e L i k e d grab bar set-up E x i s t i n g design and fe a t u r e s adequate Non-slip tub e x c e l l e n t idea 30% 20% 5% 5% 15% WHRQOM.SETON VILLA TYPICAL BATHROOM ARRANGEMENT TOILET 172. ADDED STORAGE BATHTUB GRAB-BAR Q £>LD BATH TUB HO^  REGULATOR EMERGENCY CALL WHRQQM« NEW VISTA 173 BACHELOR SUITE BEDROOM SUITE HOME MADE SHOWER ARRANGEMENT W H R O O M . N F W VISTA SUPPORT NEAR THE TOILET CEILING FAN STRONG TOWEL RACK 175. Response Seton V i l l a . New V i s t a Negative D i s l i k e d l a c k of shower Si z e of room too small Overflow problem w i t h s i n k T o i l e t seat too low Pipes not covered Grab bars were inadequate 10% 15% 20% 40% 5% 5% 5% 25% O v e r a l l i t would appear that the Seton V i l l a tenants had more good things to say about the design and features of t h e i r bathroom than the New V i s t a respondents. A notable d i f f e r e n c e was evident i n the l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the grab bar arrangement. A number of respondents from New V i s t a s p e c i f i c a l l y noted that t h i s was one of the major f a u l t s of t h e i r bathroom w h i l e respondents from Seton V i l l a i l l u s t r a t e d p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward the grab bar arrangements. On the negative s i d e of the ledger some i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g s evolved. The respondents from New V i s t a claimed d e f i n i t e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the l a c k of shower f a c i l i t i e s . To a l e s s e r degree the respondents from Seton V i l l a i n d i c a t e d the same. This d i f f e r e n c e i n percentages may be a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t that Seton V i l l a tenants had access to common shower f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n the l o c k e r room adjacent to the w h i r l and swim-ming pools. The New V i s t a tenants lacked such f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e i r complex. This l e v e l of response leads one to the c o n c l u s i o n that the aged themselves view shower f a c i l i t i e s as a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to t y p i c a l bathtub arrangements. The need f o r l a r g e r bathrooms was expressed by respondents i n both complexes. The overflow problem w i t h the s i n k s i n Seton V i l l a was a l s o mentioned w i t h respect to the k i t c h e n s i n k . Once again t h i s was a t e c h n i c a l f a u l t that was not r e a l i z e d u n t i l the s i n k s were i n s t a l l e d . A s i n g l e respondent from New V i s t a noted that the 176. t o i l e t seat was too low and thus presented problems i n g e t t i n g up from i t . Another respondent noted that the c l e a r v i s i b i l i t y of the plumbing detracted from the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y of the bathroom. The problems noted w i t h i n the above question were f u r t h e r emphasized when the respondents were asked to suggest improvements to t h e i r present bathroom that would make i t s a f e r and more convenient f o r t h e i r use. Response S u b s t i t u t e shower f o r bath Increase s i z e of bathroom Provide v a n i t y Redesign grab bars Make the t o i l e t seat higher Provide overflow i n s i n k Provide razor o u t l e t Seton V i l l a New V i s t a 15% 10% 10% 15% 10% 40% 5% 15% 20% 15% The New V i s t a tenants' preference f o r a shower over a bath was again emphasized. In terms of s a f e t y , convenience and c l e a n l i n e s s a shower designed w i t h the co n s i d e r a t i o n s - set out w i t h i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y p o r t i o n of t h i s s e c t i o n i s a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . Perhaps a common tub could be provided on each f l o o r f o r those aged who d e s i r e to soak t h e i r limbs. The excuse that the aged l a c k f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h shower arrangements and that t h i s leads to t h e i r r e l u c t a n c e to use them'was d e f i n i t e l y not borne out by the data. These people were w e l l acquainted w i t h the advantages of a shower arrangement. Respondents from both complexes i n d i c a t e d that there was a need f o r a v a n i t y w i t h i n t h e i r bathrooms. Being t h a t the aged often-use a l o t of medicines of v a r y i n g types and i n the case of females, cosmetics and va r i o u s other sundries, i t i s important that adequate space be made a v a i l a b l e to st o r e such goods. Medicine cabinets a l s o should be provided 177. that are spacious enough to accommodate a l a r g e q u a n t i t y of medicines and cosmetics. S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n should be paid to the height of s h e l v i n g w i t h i n any v a n i t y arrangement making sure that the aged i n d i v i d u a l does not have to stoop or climb upon something to get at t h i n g s . Cupboards, p r e f e r a b l y w i t h s l i d i n g doors, are mandatory so that things can be hidden from view. The need to redesign grab bars was again reemphasized w i t h i n the suggestions f o r improvement. Several negative design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were mentioned by the respondents which l e d to the f o r m u l a t i o n of a number of s p e c i f i c improvements. These are l i s t e d below. 1) The h i g h l y v i s i b l e nature of grab bars was resented by approximately 15% .of the respondents. These people f e l t that the grab bars i m p l i e d p h y s i c a l i n f e r i o r i t y and since they themselves d i d not r e q u i r e them, they were c o n s t a n t l y embarassed by the s i g h t of them. 2) A number of respondents who were dependent upon such bars i n d i c a t e d that the e x i s t i n g arrangements d i d not meet t h e i r needs. The h e i g h t , weight and s p e c i f i c p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s of some i n d i v i d u a l s made the e x i s t i n g grab bars r e l a t i v e l y u s e l e s s . For example, the p o s i t i o n of most grab bars o f t e n i m p l i e s the use of the r i g h t hand but when one's whole r i g h t s i d e i s paralyzed an obvious major c o n f l i c t r e s u l t s . Recommendations 1) A d e f i n i t e e f f o r t i s required to blend the grab bar arrangement i n t o the e x i s t i n g decor of the bathroom. 2) There i s a need f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n grab bar arrangements. They should be capable of being adjusted to s u i t i n d i v i d u a l needs and 178. s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . This p r o v i s i o n : a l s o i m p l i e s that they could be completely removed i f so d e s i r e d . Both of the recommendations could be accommodated without d e t r a c t i n g from t h e ^ s t r u c t u r a l soundness of such arrangements. Twenty-five percent of the respondents from both complexes i n d i c a t e d that the t o i l e t seat should be higher than that which e x i s t s . C.M.H.C. recommends that a t o i l e t mounting height of one foot f i v e inches i s p r e f e r a b l e to the more common height of one f o o t three inches (C.M.H.C., 1972, pg. 28). This higher height w i l l e l i m i n a t e the problems older people o f t e n experience i n lowering to a s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n and subsequently r i s i n g from that p o s i t i o n . Two male respondents noted that razor o u t l e t s should be included w i t h i n the design of the bathrooms. This i s an obvious male need that could e a s i l y be accommodated. An important element of the bathroom which d i d not m a t e r i a l z e from the review of the data i s a push button alarm system. A l l bathrooms w i t h i n retirement centres should come complete w i t h an alarm button that can be pressed i n the event of sickness or an a c c i d e n t . This button could a l e r t someone to come and help i n a d d i t i o n to a u t o m a t i c a l l y opening the f r o n t door of the s u i t e . I t should be conveniently reached, c l e a r l y marked and i l l u m i n a t e d f o r n i g h t use. The bathroom i s a common place f o r accidents f o r the e l d e r l y and as such an emergency alarm system would undoubtedly produce an added sense of s e c u r i t y among the tenants. They would know that i f i l l n e s s should s t r i k e they at l e a s t have a b e t t e r chance of summoning help w i t h an alarm system. 179. BALCONIES Balconies are important aspects of design that are o f t e n overlooked. Balconies can provide a f e e l i n g of openness to those who i n h a b i t h i g h r i s e complexes. They o f f e r a welcomed change of a i r , an opportunity to enjoy the sun, observe the a c t i v i t y below or grow a flower or two. They must be designed i n a manner that w i l l . g e n e r a t e a f e e l i n g of s e c u r i t y f o r those that use them. Balconies should not be considered beyond the t w e n t i e t h f l o o r due to wind problems. C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation have put together a l i s t i n g of design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to b a l c o n i e s ; these include; the recommendation that the balcony: -should be protected from p r e v a i l i n g c o l d autumn and s p r i n g winds; - a l l o w maximum sun p e n e t r a t i o n ; -provide a view from a s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n ; -provide p r i v a c y from adjacent b a l c o n i e s ; -be a minimum of s i x f e e t wide to provide space f o r s e v e r a l c h a i r s and access to the s u i t e -provide f o r p l a n t e r boxes or.flower pots; -be a rough t e x t u r e on the underside to d i s p e r s e i n c i d e n t sounds; and -have a minimum threshold height to a l l o w easy access from the u n i t . A n a l y s i s of Data - Balconies A l l of the respondents from New V i s t a had access to a " m i n i " balcony (1.5 f e e t wide and 3 f e e t long) w h i l e only 35% of the Seton V i l l a respondents had access to a balcony from t h e i r s u i t e . The l i m i t e d s i z e of the New V i s t a b a l c o n i e s and the f a c t that only a small percentage of the Seton V i l l a respondents had s u i t e access to a balcony produced VALCONIFS. SETON VII I A&NEW VISTA ' MINI' BALCONY- NEW VISTA WINDOW ACCESS FROM EVERY SUTE \CCESS TO BALCONIES AVAILABLE FROM COMMON AREAS AS WELL ACC ESS TO BALCONY- SETON -ACCESS FROM CORNER LOUNGE - PENTHOUSE HAS LONGER BALCONIES - SUITE ACCESS NOT ALWAYS 181. l i m i t e d data. Seton V i l l a people were not.questioned i f they i n d i c a t e d that they d i d not have access to a balcony. When the respondents were asked to i n d i c a t e the number of times per week they would use t h e i r balcony i n good weather a problem of d e f i n i t i o n arose w i t h respect to the term "use". Since the term "use" was defined to mean a c t u a l l y going out on the balcony and u t i l i z i n g i t i n some manner the responses from' the New Vista.group were n i l s i n c e p h y s i c a l access to t h e i r b a l c o n i e s was impossible. For those w i t h u s u i t e access to a balcony at Seton, the average use was 5.*8 times per week. This f i g u r e i m p l i e s that the aged w i l l make use of a balcony given access to one. The question that followed asked the respondents to l i s t what they used t h e i r balcony f o r . Use i n t h i s case was not r e s t r i c t e d to meaning going out on the balcony. Response S i t o u t s i de on lawn c h a i r s Eat meals outside Walk around and enjoy the view Put p l a n t s on i t Hang c l o t h e s outside to dry Too small/not used f o r any purpose No s u i t e access to balcony Seton V i l l a New V i s t a 20% 5% 5% 40% 5% 55% 65% The m a j o r i t y of New V i s t a respondents f e l t i t was f u t i l e to use the balcony f o r any purpose because of i t s l i m i t e d s i z e . Those who d i d use i t put a few potted p l a n t s out or used i t to hang up wet c l o t h e s that had been washed i n the si n k . The Seton V i l l a respondents used t h e i r balcony i n more conventional ways. A l l of the respondents from both complexes were asked to suggest improvements to the b a l c o n i e s . Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Provide access to i t Construct l a r g e r b a l c o n i e s Adequate as i t e x i s t s A l l o w potted p l a n t s on the balcony No response provided 5% 10% 50% 35% 75% 20% 5% The m a j o r i t y of the New V i s t a respondents perceived t h e i r e x i s t i n g b a l c o n i e s as being t o t a l l y , d i s ' f u n c t i o n a l . They d i d not appreciate the s a f e t y q u a l i t i e s of the " m i n i " b a l c o n i e s but i n s t e a d viewed them as a waste of money. The discontent that these people f e l t f o r not having access to an outdoor area from t h e i r s u i t e supports the recommendation that f u l l - s i z e d b a l c o n i e s should be included i n the design of a l l h i g h -r i s e accommodation f o r the aged. Balconies can e a s i l y be made safe enough f o r the aged to u t i l i z e them i n a v a r i e t y of ways. The f a c t that a l a r g e number of Seton V i l l a tenants do not have access to the e x i s t i n g b a l c o n i e s from t h e i r s u i t e i s the unfortunate consequence of a l a c k of funds during the f i n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n phase of the complex. The cost of having a door put i n has climbed from $200 to estimates as high as $1200 over a couple of years. Perhaps the most f e a s i b l e way of g e t t i n g doors put i n those tenants' s u i t e s that d e s i r e them would be to sponsor some form of fund r a i s i n g campaign. I f a l a r g e group of tenants could tender out a s i n g l e contract to one f i r m to i n s t a l l a l l the r e q u i r e d doors the p r i c e could be reduced. Several Seton respondents i n d i c a t e d they were d i s p l e a s e d w i t h management p o l i c y of not a l l o w i n g potted p l a n t s to be placed on the balcony. According to some people p l a n t s were thought to be unhealthy a d d i t i o n s to the :complex i n that they could p o s s i b l a t t r a c t i n s e c t s and b a c t e r i a i n t o the b u i l d i n g . The problems of watering the p l a n t s and 183. having water s p i l l onto lower b a l c o n i e s was a l s o c i t e d as a reason f o r the p o l i c y . The enjoyment that many aged could d e r i v e from tending and c a r i n g f o r a few potted p l a n t s would seem to supercede the fea r s expressed by management. LIVINGROOM AREA (Excluding Board Residence Suites, at Seton V i l l a ) There i s l i t t l e l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e d e a l i n g w i t h the design and features of livingrooms w i t h i n retirement centres. Given the amount of l e i s u r e time that i s commonly spent w i t h i n such rooms t h i s f a c t i s s u r p r i s i n g . Perhaps the l a c k of l i t e r a t u r e may i n part be due to the reduced need f o r s a f e t y and convenience standards w i t h i n the l i v i n g r o o m . The l i v i n g r o o m i s a l e i s u r e room and. each i n d i v i d u a l s h o u l d b e able to use i t as e x t e n s i v e l y and i n t e n s e l y as he or she chooses. Since most aged people spend hours w i t h i n t h e i r livingrooms they should have the oppor-t u n i t y of making i t as appealing and i n t e r e s t i n g as p o s s i b l e . Each tenant should be allowed to create t h e i r own i n t e r i o r decor i n accordance w i t h h i s or her t a s t e s . Accommodating personal choice w i t h i n the decor of livingrooms can be enhanced by a number of design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Window s i l l s , f o r example, should be wide i n order to accommodate p l a n t s , books, or to serve as a d d i t i o n a l s e a t i n g space. Some means of hanging p i c t u r e s should be made a v a i l a b l e to avoid damage to the w a l l s by d i r e c t f a s t e n i n g . Perhaps the most important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s to make the room look as spacious a s , p o s s i b l e . The bachelor s u i t e s ' e s p e c i a l l y are very l i m i t e d i n f l o o r space w i t h i n most h i g h r i s e retirement centres. By p r o v i d i n g e f f i c i e n t p roportions i n space allotment and encouraging v a r i a t i o n i n layout the adverse a f f e c t s of l i m i t e d f l o o r space may be overcome. A 184. f i n a l point i s that openly designed suites often cannot e a s i l y accom-modate the old, bulky f u r n i t u r e some older f o l k bring with them when they move into a highrise retirement centre. This c o n f l i c t i s seldom resolved, for the attached f e e l i n g s many older people possess toward t h e i r f u r n i t u r e outweighs the l o g i c a l premise that such things are d i f f i c u l t to f i t into confined spaces. A bachelor apartment within most h i g h r i s e retirement centres does not usually have a separate bedroom but instead the livingroom becomes the bedroom at night. The formal name for such an arrangement i s a bed-s i t t i n g room. I t should be possible however, to separate the sleeping area from the livingroom. The most f e a s i b l e s o l u t i o n i s to provide a separate alcove f o r sleeping that can'be divided o f f by means of a cur t a i n or f o l d i n g doors. This alcove should be able to accommodate a bed, night-table and some formal storage f a c i l i t y . This arrangement makes i t possible for the bed to form part of the livingroom f u r n i t u r e by day and yet a separate bedroom i s a v a i l a b l e by simply drawing a cu r t a i n or fo l d i n g door. Analysis of Data - Livingroom It was d i f f i c u l t formulating a question dealing with the livingroom without running into the c o n f l i c t invoked by the nature of the bachelor su i t e . Within a one-bedroom sui t e there i s a d e f i n i t e separation of the bedroom and livingroom but i n most bachelor suites there i s usually only one extended room and i t functions as both a bedroom and livingroom. Despite t h i s fact s i m i l a r questions dealing with the livingroom were used for both types of s u i t e s . * This section does not deal with board residence suites at Seton V i l l a . I V I N G R O O M > N E W V I S T A ARS ALONG FRONT WINLXW B A C H E L O R S U I T E ONE BEDROOM SUITE l i b •IVINGROOM»SETQN VLLAitei BQ^BD£ES1D£HS£ iiiiiiiiii c | CALL ; INTERCOM BACHELOR SUITE - WAUL TO WALL CARPETING -DOUBLE DRAPERY TRACK WITH UNDERLAY SHEER DRAPES -THERMO-PANE WINDOWS - SLIDING WINDCWS - WEST SIDE OF THE BUILDING IS AIR CONDITIO ED The i n i t i a l question asked the respondents to s t a t e the number of hours i n an average day that they used the l i v i n g r o o m or b e d - s i t t i n g area of t h e i r s u i t e . R e s u l t s : Seton V i l l a - Bachelor s u i t e s Ave. 12.6 hours/day One-bedroom s u i t e s 10.6 New V i s t a - Bachelor s u i t e s 12.13 One-bedroom s u i t e s 9.4 The f a c t that those l i v i n g w i t h i n bachelor s u i t e s would probably u t i l i z e the room f o r s l e e p i n g makes the f i g u r e s somewhat questionable. Subtract eight hours of s l e e p i n g time from the average provided and one i s l e f t w i t h s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s time being spent i n the b e d - s i t t i n g room than i n the . l i v i n g r o o m of a one-bedroom s u i t e . The h y p o t h e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s f i n d i n g may be that most people have trouble' i n d i c a t i n g the a c t u a l amount of time they spend w i t h i n a given room when that room represents 2/3 of t h e i r l i v i n g space. When the respondents were asked to i n d i c a t e t h e i r l i k e s and d i s l i k e s of t h i s space the f o l l o w i n g responses were obtained: Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a D i s l i k e d having bed i n the same area Requires more l i g h t Should be expanded i n s i z e Livingroom area should be reduced i n s i z e Window surface area needs to be reduced Provide l i v i n g r o o m access to balcony Adequate as i t e x i s t s No response 7% 21% 7% 7% 15% 20% 15% 5% 5% 7% 28% 23% 10% 30% 188. A number of the responses have been d e a l t w i t h i n previous s e c t i o n s and w i l l not be explored again here. A s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g was that four or f i v e of those .occupying bachelor s u i t e s i n d i c a t e d that there should be a separate area f o r the bed and that the s i z e of the s u i t e should be enlarged. An alcove arrangement could perhaps s a t i s f y both these problems. The i n d i v i d u a l from New V i s t a who suggested that the window surface area be reduced had the unfortunate experience of r e n t i n g a s u i t e w i t h a southern exposure. The l i m i t e d s i z e of the balcony provided no outdoor r e l i e f and thus the i n t e n s i t y of l i g h t through the expansive windows made the s u i t e uncomfortable. When the opportunity to s i t outdoors does not e x i s t one would recommend that the g l a s s surface area of the s u i t e be reduced. The remaining question d e a l i n g w i t h the l i v i n g r o o m asked the respon-dents to suggest improvements i n terms of design and f i x t u r e s . Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Provide a separate area f o r a bed 7% 30% Provide a l i g h t i n the middle of the room 21% 5% Wider and l a r g e r bachelor s u i t e s are requ i r e d 7% Provide a door to the balcony 7% -Remove the e x i s t i n g bars from the windows - 25% Improve v e n t i l a t i o n - 5% No response 58% 35% The m a j o r i t y of the responses are s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y , however, the response p e r t a i n i n g to the removal of the bars from the windows at New V i s t a perhaps r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n . As a s a f e t y precaution the f r o n t windows of the s u i t e s had an array of bars p a r a l l e l i n g the gl a s s w i t h i n the i n t e r i o r of the s u i t e . Twenty-five percent of the New V i s t a respondents f e l t that the bars gave one the impression of being DEDS 1TT1MG A R E A ' S E T O N V I L L A gSs 190. caged i n a zoo. These people f e l t the designers had gone too f a r i n t h e i r concern f o r s a f e t y . The bars were^considered u n a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e s f u n c t i o n a l b a l c o n i e s would have reduced the need f o r such negative f e a t u r e s . BEDROOM/LIVINGROOM AREA - (Board Residence S u i t e s , Seton V i l l a ) Board residence accommodation u s u a l l y r e f e r s to s u i t e s that have no cooking f a c i l i t i e s and that are subsequently smaller i n s i z e than most bachelor s u i t e s . Meals are u s u a l l y provided w i t h i n a common diningroom w i t h i n the complex. The b e d - s i t t i n g area and the bathroom are the only major defined areas of such s u i t e s . The de t r i m e n t a l a f f e c t s of l i v i n g i n one extended room are experienced more by board residence tenants than any other grouping. As much as p o s s i b l e must be done through design to o f f s e t t h i s e f f e c t . A n a l y s i s of Data - B e d s i t t i n g Room/Board Residence Of the respondents interviewed at Seton V i l l a , 35% l i v e d i n board residence s u i t e s . The f i r s t question asked them to i n d i c a t e t h e i r l i k e s and/or d i s l i k e s of t h e i r s u i t e s . of t h e i r s u i t e . Reduced window surface area and the p r o v i s i o n of Responses Seton V i l l a Adequate as i s Separate bed area r e q u i r e d No response 28.6% 28.6% 42.8% Given the compactness of t h e i r s u i t e s the responses were l e s s negative than expected. Perhaps the common features of Seton V i l l a made up f o r the l a c k of space w i t h i n t h e i r own s u i t e s . 28.6%; of ..the respondents 191. noted that a separate area for the bed was required. An alcove arrange-ment would not only expand the s i z e of the s u i t e but would also reduce the a f f e c t of l i v i n g i n an extended room (refer to discussion'of livingroom). When asked to suggest improvements to t h e i r s u i t e the responses were l i m i t e d to 28% of the group who suggested that a separate bed area should be provided. HEATING The heating and v e n t i l a t i o n systems within most hi g h r i s e apartments usually s a t i s f y the needs of the average tenant. Older f o l k , however, cannot be classed as average tenants for various p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes occur with advancing age r e s u l t i n g i n d i f f e r e n t heating and v e n t i l a t i o n requirements. The aged often spend long i n a c t i v e hours within t h e i r s u i t e and thus are more susceptible to v e n t i l a t i o n and heating problems than outgoing younger f o l k would be. Their proneness to r e s p i r a t o r y i n f e c t i o n s and the problems of adjusting to temperature change complicate the matter. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s demand higher temperatures, uniform d i s t r i b u t i o n of heat and freedom from d r a f t s . C.M.H.C. has formulated the following c r i t e r i a with respect to heating, cooling and v e n t i l a t i o n systems: - heat system should be capable of maintaining a^temperature of 75 degrees fahrenheit at a height of s i x inches from the f l o o r - at two feet s i x inches above the f l o o r l e v e l the temperature v a r i a t i o n s should not exceed three degrees fahrenehit - the i n s t a l l a t i o n of a system to maintain a r e l a t i v e humidity of at l e a s t 25% i s desirable - a higher-than^normal mechanical v e n t i l a t i o n system i s recommended EAT 1N G»SETON Vll 1 A & N F W X/ISJA ETON VILLA 192. EACH SUITE HAS ITS OWN THERMOSTAT GAS FURNACE BOILER ROOM LOCATED ON THE ROOF CARPETING &THERMOPANE WINDCWS HELP TO RETAIN HEAT W VISTA » I I W I i i 9 TALK a - EACH SUITE HAS ITS OWN THERMOSTAT - ELECTRIC FURNACE - ELECTRIC HEATING DUCTS ALONG THE BASEBOARD IN EACH SUITS -WALL TO WALL CARPETING 193. - forced a i r systems should i n c l u d e e f f i c i e n t a i r f i l t e r i n g and l o w - v e l o c i t y d i f f u s e r s . (C.M.H.C, 1972, pg. 21). . H i g h r i s e retirement centres o f t e n have a great deal of window surface area. W i t h i n northern areas i t i s important that such windows be of the double glazed v a r i e t y i n order to reduce the l e v e l of heat l o s s . The f l o o r of the s u i t e should a l s o be given s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n terms of i t s a b i l i t y to provide a warm environment. The proper choice of f l o o r coverings and adequate i n s u l a t i o n of the f l o o r s can reduce the problems of " c o l d f e e t " . I n d i v i d u a l thermostatic c o n t r o l i s a must i n any h i g h r i s e retirement centre. The heating system should be quick a c t i n g and provide a uniform d i s t r i b u t i o n of heat. These b a s i c requirements should be met re g a r d l e s s of whether the system i s by r a d i a t o r s or an e l e c t r i c or gas forced a i r system. A n a l y s i s of Data - Heating The respondents were asked to s t a t e what they thought about the heating i n t h e i r s u i t e by s e l e c t i n g one of three responses - too hot, too col d or j u s t r i g h t . The r e s u l t s f o l l o w ; Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Too hot 10% 15% Too c o l d 5% Just r i g h t 85% 85% The m a j o r i t y of the respondents i n both complexes were o b v i o u s l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h the heating systems. 194. SOUNDPROOFING Housing a u t h o r i t i e s have put together a number of reasons why a high standard of sound c o n t r o l i s important w i t h i n retirement centres. I t i s a w e l l documented f a c t t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s hearing c a p a c i t y d e c l i n e s w i t h age and a t times to the p o i n t of deafness. This l o s s i m p l i e s that the aged r e q u i r e higher volumes of sound to be able to hear what i s being s a i d . The common t a l e of the o l d f e l l a t u r n i n g h i s r a d i o up f u l l b l a s t to hear i t i s o f t e n a r e a l i t y w i t h i n retirement centres. I t only takes one hard-of-hearing i n d i v i d u a l to d i s r u p t an e n t i r e f l o o r i f the sound-p r o o f i n g i s inadequate. As K i r a p o i n t s out, "there i s a strong d e s i r e on the p a r t of the aged to p r o t e c t t h e i r sedentary preoccupations and to be assured of qu i e t during naps and i n the event of i l l n e s s " ( K i r a , 1973, pg. 55). The aged o f t e n show great v a r i a t i o n i n terms of the times they choose to sleep and the dur a t i o n of t h e i r sleep. Noises t r a n s m i t t e d from adjacent w a l l s w i l l o f t e n serve to i n t e r r u p t a neighbour's sleep. Soundproofing overcomes t h i s problem. C.M.H.C. recommends that w a l l s and f l o o r s separating d w e l l i n g u n i t s f o r the e l d e r l y should be designed f o r a Sound Transmission C o - e f f i c i e n t (STC) r a t i n g of 50 ra t h e r than the standard of 45 (C.M.H.C, 1972, pg. 23). In simple terms t h i s means that w a l l s and c e i l i n g s separating u n i t s should be designed so as to minimize both d i r e c t impact noises and air-borne sounds. Windows and doors are two a d d i t i o n a l sources.of noise that are of t e n overlooked. C.M.H.C. o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g suggestions on how one may help to soundproof them: - windows f a c i n g noise should be double glazed and have weather s t r i p p i n g - s o l i d - c o r e doors w i t h weather s t i p p i n g should be used -'balconies should have a rough t e x t u r e to help d i s p e r s e r e f l e c t e d sound (C.M.H.C., 1972, pg. 23). •lNHPROnriMr-, - SETON VILLA -- c^ouViW-<^\c\-2.ec\ ^j>m<^ovj^S NEW VISTA A n a l y s i s of Data - Soundproofing The respondents were f i r s t asked to evaluate the importance to them of soundproofing i n an apartment s e t t i n g . Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Extremely important Moderatly important Not important at a l l 50% 20% 25% 75% 25% 5% 196. The question that followed asked - i f the soundproofing w i t h i n t h e i r b u i l d i n g met the respondent:!^ needs. Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Yes 90% 65% The r e s u l t s of both questions leads one to the co n c l u s i o n that Seton V i l l a was super i o r i n terms of i t s soundproofing q u a l i t i e s over New V i s t a . The Seton V i l l a respondents appeared to be a more c r i t i c a l group than the New V i s t a people and yet t h e i r l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n was cons i d e r a b l y higher. The r e s u l t s , i n p a r t , may be a f f e c t e d by the type of neighbourhood each complex i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n ; Seton V i l l a i s l o c a t e d i n a quiet r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood w h i l e New V i s t a i s l o c a t e d a block away from two major t r a f f i c c e n t r e s , Edmonds S t r e e t and Canada Way. The styrofoam i n s u l a t i o n that was used i n Seton V i l l a may be another c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r . 197. CHAPTER EIGHT - SITE This chapter deals w i t h the land that immediately surrounds the b u i l d i n g ( s ) . L o c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a such as how f a r the s i t e should be lo c a t e d from a h o s p i t a l , church, school, e t c . , are defined as neighbour-hood design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are are discussed i n the chapter that f o l l o w s . The e l e v a t i o n of the s i t e can o f f e r both advantages and drawbacks. Constructing h i g h r i s e towers on s i t e s l o c a t e d at high e l e v a t i o n s may provide advantages i n terms of the view that r e s u l t s . Many o l d e r people, e s p e c i a l l y those l i v i n g i n congregate l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s , are l i m i t e d i n t h e i r l e v e l of a c t i v e involvement w i t h t h e i r environment and thus are dependent on p a s s i v e l y observing l i f e ' s events from t h e i r s u i t e or a common lounge. S i t e s l o c a t e d at higher e l e v a t i o n s , however, invoke problems i n walking, a necessary form of e x e r c i s e and a source of d a i l y enjoyment f o r those aged who are r e l a t i v e l y mobile. Higher e l e v a t i o n s o f t e n imply steep walking grades and thus f o r c e the r e t i r e d i n d i v i d u a l to expend a great d e a l of energy w h i l e on a l e i s u r e l y walk. Based on these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s one could assume that the optimum s i t e f o r a h i g h r i s e complex would be one that i s l o c a t e d at a high e l e v a t i o n and yet has enough surrounding f l a t land to ensure the p o s s i b i l i t y of being able to walk f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l d i s t a n c e . The s i t e must have the c a p a b i l i t y of accommodating b u i l d i n g s i n a manner that w i l l ensure that lounges, common areas and as many of the s u i t e s as p o s s i b l e r e c e i v e some s u n l i g h t during the day. Western exposures are not recommended f o r they u s u a l l y imply excessive g l a r e and heating during the summer (C.M.H.C. 1972, pg. 8 ) . The m a j o r i t y of people over the age of s i x t y - f i v e have gone through 198. l i f e w i t h some form of a s s o c i a t i o n with,the automobile. This a s s o c i a t i o n i s being strengthened w i t h every successive generation. Those re s p o n s i b l e f o r the planning of h i g h r i s e retirement centres seldom are w i l l i n g to acknowledge or accommodate the car. Extended good h e a l t h of the aged and t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g acceptance of the car as a b a s i c need w i l l f u r t h e r i t s use i n the f u t u r e . Although cars are u s u a l l y d r i v e n l e s s f r e q u e n t l y and u s u a l l y during the day by e l d e r l y people, they s t i l l p rovide that added sense of s e c u r i t y by i n s u r i n g p r i v a t e m o b i l i t y . Driveways should be provided r i g h t up to the f r o n t door so that people i n wheelchairs w i l l have immediate access to the b u i l d i n g . The dis t a n c e from a v e h i c l e to the f r o n t door should be sh o r t , d i r e c t and without steps. Overhead cover i s another important f e a t u r e of the d r i v e -way o f f e r i n g p r o t e c t i o n from the elements as one moves from a ear to the f r o n t door. Within l a r g e r developments a separate s e r v i c e driveway and entrance would be d e s i r a b l e for. d e l i v e r i e s ( K i r a , 1972, pg. 70). Parking areas should be able to accommodate v i s i t o r s as w e l l as tenants and employees. The approximate number of parking spaces r e q u i r e d w i l l o b v i o u s l y be l i n k e d to the l o c a t i o n of the b u i l d i n g ( s ) . C.M.H.C. gu i d e l i n e s f o r parking are as f o l l o w s : L o c a t i o n Approx. No. of Spaces Downtown, good access to p u b l i c transport and f a c i l i t i e s 1 space per 6 u n i t s Suburb, f a i r access to p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t and f a c i l i t i e s 1 space per 5 u n i t s Poor access to p u b l i c transport and f a c i l i t i e s and/or high r a t e of l o c a l car use 1 space per 4 u n i t s (C.M.H.C., 197" pg. 24). 199. Parking spaces whether above or below ground should be wider than normal i n order to compensate f o r d i f f i c u l t i e s the aged may have i n manoeuvring t h e i r cars due to l i m i t a t i o n s i n v i s i o n and str e n g t h . Under-ground f a c i l i t i e s should be w e l l i l l u m i n a t e d and a c c e s s i b l e by e l e v a t o r at each parking l e v e l . Outdoor parking should be provided as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e to the b u i l d i n g entrances. The immediate topography of t h e - s i t e should be as l e v e l as p o s s i b l e . What may be regarded as a meaningless change i n ground l e v e l to the average person may present s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s to those r e q u i r i n g a m o b i l i t y a i d or wheelchair. Gradually sloped rampways should be provided at a l l p o i n t s where a change i n ground l e v e l i s encountered. A l l rampways r e q u i r e a s i x i n c h curb to prevent wheelchairs from s l i p p i n g over the edge. A s h o r t , d i r e c t and easy means of access i s e s s e n t i a l to a l l l common f a c i l i t i e s that may be detached from the c e n t r a l residence. In areas where snow covers the ground f o r a good part of the year a t t e n t i o n should be paid to l i m i t i n g the d i s t a n c e of walkways to reduce the need f o r snow removal. A w e l l designed, f u n c t i o n a l and e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e outdoor area i s e s s e n t i a l to the development of a s u c c e s s f u l r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t i n g . The s i t e should be l a r g e enough to permit the development of e x t e r i o r spaces and f a c i l i t i e s a wide v a r i e t y of a c t i v e and passive a c t i v i t i e s . Gardening, f o r example, i s an e x c e l l e n t form of r e c r e a t i o n p r o v i d i n g many meaningful hours of enjoyment and some economic b e n e f i t s as w e l l . Maintenance costs may be reduced by p e r m i t t i n g the r e t i r e d tenants to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the landscaping and, i n a d d i t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l food budgets may be.reduced by a l l o w i n g the i n h a b i t a n t s to gr vegetables w i t h i n s m all garden p l o t s . For those who have problems i n bending down, the 200. garden p l o t s can take the form of " a r t h r i t i c gardens" which are simply r a i s e d boxes of ea r t h which can be tended from a standing p o s i t i o n . Outdoor games such as s h u f f l e b o a r d , horse shoes, checkers and lawn bowling are f u r t h e r examples of a c t i v e forms of r e c r e a t i o n that u s u a l l y can be accommodated on a s i t e . These games not only b r i n g enjoyment to those who pl a y them but a l s o to those who become p a s s i v e l y i n v o l v e d through observation. Quiet areas f o r group d i s c u s s i o n s or p r i v a t e i n t i -mate conversations are a l s o important. Outdoor workshop areas, spaces f o r barbecue p a r t i e s or simply room to s t r o l l along a garden pathway are c o n s i d e r a t i o n s that are conducive t o ' f u n c t i o n a l s i t e design. Outdoor areas should be e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e to s h e l t e r i n the case of a sudden change i n weather. E f f o r t s can be made to make them useable during the evening as w e l l as the day. I n t e n s i f i e d outdoor l i g h t i n g can o f f s e t the n i g h t v i s i o n problem that many older people s u f f e r from. The designer should use tr e e s and shrubs i n a manner that w i l l o f f e r adequate shade yet not i n t e r f e r e w i t h open a c t i v i t y areas and sources of v i s u a l i n t e r e s t . Trees provide p r o t e c t i o n from the elements, screen u n d e s i r a b l e views, reduce wind v e l o c i t y and provide ..a refuge and food area f o r b i r d and animal l i f e which some ol d e r people enjoy observing. Trees a l s o tend to s o f t e n the overpowering s c a l e of h i g h r i s e towers and i n doing so help to r e t a i n a degree"of intimacy w i t h one's environment. Benches are another element of the outdoor area that r e q u i r e c a r e f u l planning. They need to be comfortable yet f u n c t i o n a l . An o l d e r person must be able to e a s i l y s i t down and get up from a bench. In terms of p l a c i n g the benches on the s i t e a number of s e a t i n g arrangements should SITE* NEW VISTA CHECKER BOARD HORSESHOE PIT PARKING 11 i n n C CXOACTN HE. SETON VILLA SETON MANSION X . DITCH IN FRONT OF SETON CHECKER BOARD/FOOL T BENCH 205. be provided. Some should be grouped to encourage group conversations w h i l e others should be i s o l a t e d to provide a s e t t i n g f o r i n t i m a t e t a l k s . The s i t t i n g areas should be interwoven w i t h the c i r c u l a t i o n and a c t i v i t y p atterns of the s i t e . They should not be placed d i r e c t l y on the s t r e e t f o r tenants u t i l i z i n g them would be subjected to the st a r e s of those passing by. They should, however, o f f e r d i s t a n t and unobtrusive views of the a c t i v i t i e s that a nearby s t r e e t may o f f e r . S i t t i n g areas r e q u i r e both sun and shade and need to be protected from p r e v a i l i n g and pr o j e c t ^ c r e a t e d winds. I f outdoor areas are used e x t e n s i v e l y i t may be necessary to provide storage space f o r garden t o o l s and f u r n i t u r e . The f a c i l i t i e s o f f e r e d on the immediate s i t e should depend upon those o f f e r e d w i t h i n the surrounding neighbourhood. I f f a c i l i t i e s such as a lawn bowling green are a v a i l a b l e a short block away i t would be p o i n t l e s s to spend l a r g e sums of money to provide the same f a c i l i t y on the s i t e . Whenever p o s s i b l e the f a c i l i t i e s of the s i t e should be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h those of the immediate neighbourhood. A n a l y s i s of Data - S i t e The respondents from New V i s t a u t i l i z e d the outdoor area of t h e i r complex an average of 2.9 times per week as compared to 3.7 f o r the Seton group. The most common a c t i v i t i e s that were engaged i n wh i l e w i t h i n the area are l i s t e d below: Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Walking along the pathways Jus t passing through ( l e a v i n g or e n t e r i n g the s i t e ) S i t o u t s i d e / v i s i t w i t h f r i e n d s Gardening i n the small p l o t s No response 45% 10% 5% 35% 15% 10% 50% 10% 25% 206. When the respondents were asked to point out the features of the outdoor space surrounding t h e i r b u i l d i n g ( s ) that they found the most appealing the f o l l o w i n g responses were obtained: Response Landscaping'(grass, f l o w e r s , shrubs, t r e e s , etc.) Horseshoe p i t c h Shuffleboard Canopy at entrance Small garden p l o t s No response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a 75% 10% 15% 75% 10% 5% 10% Judging by the responses the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s of the landscaping would appear to be the most important element of the s i t e . The l a n d -scaping provided hours of passive entertainment for'numerous tenants. When asked, " I f you were designing a retirement centre what would you i n c l u d e i n your plans f o r the outdoor area?", tenants responded as f o l l o w s : Response Adequate s e a t i n g i n a v a r i e t y of l o c a t i o n s Extensive landscaping Outdoor checkerboard A p u t t i n g green A sh u f f l e b o a r d game Lawn bowling green P a t i o area Swimming pool Fence the s i t e o f f No response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a 25% 5% 5% 10% 5% 5% 5% 40% 10% 35% 10% 10% 10% :.5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Basic concerns such as adequate se a t i n g and extensive landscaping represented the m a j o r i t y of the responses. The v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t y -o r i e n t e d f a c i l i t i e s that were mentioned i n d i c a t e that some aged p r e f e r a c t i v e forms of r e c r e a t i o n over passive and, that there i s l i t t l e 207. concensus on what form of a c t i v i t y f a c i l i t y should be provided. Some of those interviewed were g o l f e n t h u s i a s t s , others lawn bowlers, w h i l e others enjoyed swimming; seldom d i d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s o verlap. I t i s recommended that a c t i v i t y f a c i l i t i e s should be l i m i t e d i n s i z e i n order to s a t i s f y a v a r i e t y of preferences by o f f e r i n g more than one r e c r e a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e . One New V i s t a respondent i n d i c a t e d that the s i t e should be fenced o f f . New V i s t a i s loc a t e d near a school and a number of the c h i l d r e n u t i l i z e the s i t e as a short cut to and from the school. A number of cases of harassment and vandalism by younger people may have strengthened the respondent's f e e l i n g that fencing was needed. When i t i s not p o s s i b l e to a t t a i n p r i v a c y through landscaping and other l e s s o b t r u s i v e means, perhaps fencing may be the only a l t e r n a t i v e . Regardless of how i t i s achieved, r e t i r e d tenants should be able to enjoy e i t h e r i a c t i v e or passive r e c r e a t i o n without the i n t r u s i o n and i n t e r f e r e n c e of others. When asked whether the wind and shade produced by the b u i l d i n g ( s ) hampered t h e i r use of the s i t e 90% of the respondents from both of the complexes i n d i c a t e d that i t d i d not. When asked to i n d i c a t e what type of outdoor s e a t i n g they p r e f e r r e d and where and how i t should be arranged, the f o l l o w i n g responses were obtained: Response - Seating Type Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Wooden benches 20% 45% Padded benches - 5% P l a s t i c lawn c h a i r s 30% 10% Canvas f o l d i n g c h a i r s - 5% R u s t i c old-fashioned benches 5% No response 45% 35% 208. Response - Where and How Located Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Overlooking a c t i v i t y areas At the f r o n t entrance of the complex Wi t h i n areas o f f e r i n g sunshine and shade On the grass W i t h i n the garden Near the mansion No response 10% 10% 5% J5% .5% 5% .60% 55% 20% 5% 10% 10% The s p e c i f i c responses are r a t h e r conventional and r e q u i r e no f u r t h e r e x p l anation. Perhaps the l a c k of response may be a t t r i b u t e d to t the d i f f i c u l t y of d e f i n i n g preferences f o r . t y p e s of s e a t i n g and where and how such s e a t i n g should be l o c a t e d . Seventy-five percent of the New V i s t a respondents and 95% of the Seton V i l l a group i n d i c a t e d that they d i d not use the outdoor area at nig h t or i n the evening. Those that d i d at New V i s t a used i t an average of 2.6 times per week and at Seton V i l l a an average of 2 times per week. The small p r o p o r t i o n using the outdoor space i m p l i e s e i t h e r that the feat u r e s and design of the e x i s t i n g s i t e d i d not f a c i l i t a t e more extensive use or that the respondents were not accustomed to l e a v i n g t h e i r b u i l d i n g a f t e r dark. Judging by the o v e r a l l r e a c t i o n to the question the l a t t e r seems,the more probable reason. The f o l l o w i n g l i s t ' o f improvements was:.suggested to make the s i t e s a f e r and more convenient f o r r e t i r e d f o l k during darkness. Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Improved l i g h t i n g / q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y S e c u r i t y guards on duty F i l l i n u n l e v e l areas No response 5% 65% 30% 75% 20% 5% 209. The n i g h t v i s i o n problem that many aged s u f f e r from d e f i n i t e l y warrants the need f o r improved l i g h t i n g i f the s i t e i s to be u t i l i z e d at n i g h t . The need f o r l . l i g h t i n g w i l l , however, ob v i o u s l y be r e l a t e d to the at n i g h t , e s p e c i a l l y during the summer. A c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l areas would ob v i o u s l y r e q u i r e more i n t e n s i v e l i g h t i n g than passive ones when u t i l i z e d at n i g h t . Several New V i s t a respondents claimed there was an immediate need f o r b e t t e r l i g h t i n g w i t h i n the parking l o t . They f e l t such l i g h t i n g would reduce the amount of vandalism to the tenants' cars and o f f e r f u r t h e r p r o t e c t i o n from a t t a c k at n i g h t . As one Seton respondent pointed out, uneven walking areas and open d i t c h e s are extremely hazardous, at night e s p e c i a l l y , due to the l i m i t a -t i o n s i n s i g h t most o l d e r people experience. To avoid needless f a l l s a l l u n l e v e l areas should be e i t h e r w e l l i l l u m i n a t e d , l e v e l l e d o f f or some p r o t e c t i v e b a r r i e r should be erected to l i m i t access to such areas. When the respondents were asked to express t h e i r views on the design of the sidewalks and ramps on t h e i r s i t e the f o l l o w i n g responses were given: f a c i l i t i e s that are o f f e r e d . The expense of c o n s t r u c t i n g and maintaining a lawn bowling green f o r example, would promote the use of such a f a c i l i t y Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Adequate as they e x i s t Sidewalks should be made more l e v e l Garden area r e q u i r e s a rampway Handrails should be provided along pathways Greater p h y s i c a l separation between car and p e d e s t r i a n areas required More walkways needed No response 76% 5% 10% 5% 5% 10% 5% 30% 45% 10% 210. The majority of the respondents were pleased with the design of t h e i r e x i s t i n g sidewalks. The improvements suggested would, however, c e r t a i n l y help to promote further use of the s i t e . Those dependent on wheelchairs at Seton V i l l a had d i f f i c u l t y i n gaining access to the garden area due to the lack of a rampway. The p r o v i s i o n of handrails along pathways would a i d those with walking and balance problems. However, the "extensive" use of handrails would c e r t a i n l y d i s t r a c t from the aesthetic q u a l i t i e s of the s i t e . Handrails should therefore be provided i n moderation, perhaps only within the more act i v e areas of the s i t e . The suggestion of greater p h y s i c a l separation of pedestrian and automobile i s an important consideration when i n t e r n a l car access i s provided, such as at New V i s t a . Although i t i s imperative to provide short and d i r e c t access from a car or bus to the front door of a h i g h r i s e , such access should not i n t e r f e r e . w i t h pedestrian areas of the s i t e . Protective b a r r i e r s of low shrubs, concrete or b r i c k would help to ensure p h y s i c a l separation of such areas and provide an added sense of se c u r i t y to slow moving and l e s s a g i l e tenants. 211. CHAPTER NINE - NEIGHBOURHOOD DESIGN AND LOCATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS The neighbourhood i s the s e t t i n g i n which constructive planning has the greatest p o t e n t i a l i n d i r e c t i n g and inf l u e n c i n g p o s i t i v e forms of development. While i t i s important for the planner to be aware of s p e c i f i c b u i l d i n g and s i t e design considerations these areas of concern are p r i m a r i l y under the control of the f i n a n c i e r , developer and a r c h i t e c t . This chapter i s based on the premise that the neighbourhood i s as import-ant to an aged person's comfort and happiness as the su i t e of b u i l d i n g . As integrated planning approach based on an awareness of the ageds' needs i n terms of i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r l i v i n g space i s the best means of f a c i l i t a t i n g p o s i t i v e housing developments for the aged. In Canada the urban s e t t i n g takes precedence over the r u r a l for the majority of congregate l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s for the e l d e r l y . Rural settings usually imply i s o l a t i o n and inconvenience with respect to access to e s s e n t i a l services. A number of American examples, however, i n Arizona and C a l i f o r n i a , provide a l l the common services l i k e l y to be found i n an urban area within the perimeter of a development while benefiting from the lower land costs of an i s o l a t e d r u r a l s e t t i n g . Some not only provide churches, stores, beauty shops and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , but come complete with a h o s p i t a l and numerous other domestic services. Large scale a l t e r n a t i v e s such as these are nevertheless p r o h i b i t i v e l y expensive. The European experience with segregated r u r a l developments has been for the most part negative. As K i r a points out the European school of thought which supported i s o l a t e d community of e l d e r l y people wrongly construed the desire and needs of the aged. Desire to escape the noise and confusion of the c i t y was interpreted as desire to escape 212. from s o c i e t y e n t i r e l y , w h i l e preferences of o l d e r people f o r the company of others the same age was i n t e r p r e t e d as preference f o r communities e x c l u s i v e l y of o l d e r people ( K i r a , 1973, pg. 62). While the d w e l l i n g u n i t i s important i n terms of the p h y s i o l o g i c a l requirements of the aged, the neighbourhood i s important i n s a t i s f y i n g s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs. The neighbourhood tends to be a s o c i a l and personal space w h i l e the d w e l l i n g u n i t takes on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of being a r a t h e r impersonal and mechanical space i n i t s accommodation of d a i l y l i v i n g h a b i t s ( K i r a , 1973, pg. 60). The m a j o r i t y of o l d e r people l i v e alone and thus there i s l i t t l e r e g u l a r s o c i a l contact w i t h i n the context of the d w e l l i n g u n i t . W i t h i n congregate l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s the b u i l d i n g and the neighbourhood become the major s e t t i n g s f o r p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n . Retirement i m p l i e s a r e d u c t i o n i n the normal range of d a i l y s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e . The job and the d a i l y route to work that once o f f e r e d a v a r i e t y of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l contact are r e l i n q u i s h e d w i t h retirement. The neighbourhood begins to take on greater importance w i t h i n the r e s t r i c t e d l i f e s p a c e of the aged i n d i v i d u a l . A younger person may go f a r a f i e l d to seek companionship or adventure. Due to p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s and l i m i t e d income, the aged i n d i v i d u a l i s u s u a l l y somewhat r e s t r i c t e d to h i s or her immediate neighbourhood. The neighbourhood i s thus important i n that i t must compensate f o r the d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the circumstances i n which most aged people f i n d themselves. A p e r f e c t l o c a t i o n f o r a h i g h r i s e retirement centre i s seldom 213. r e a l i z e d f o r as w i t h most developments, t r a d e - o f f s and compromises are i n e v i t a b l e . W i t h i n the urban s e t t i n g , however, there e x i s t a number of l o c a t i o n a l advantages and disadvantages w i t h respect to the s p e c i f i c area of the c i t y i n which a complex i s s i t u a t e d . A number of p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s w i t h t h e i r corresponding advantages and disadvantages are l i s t e d below. Urban V i c i n i t y Advantages Disadvantages C e n t r a l Core convenient to shopping, p u b l i c t r a n s i t , community s e r v i c e s u t i l i t i e s f u l l y developed zoning favourable s t i m u l a t i n g environment, win-dow shopping observing people higher d e n s i t i e s may imply lower r e n t s e n t e r t a i n i n g mixture of land uses and e n t e r p r i s e s high land cost l a r g e s i t e s seldom a v a i l a b l e p o s s i b i l i t y of crime heavy automobile t r a f f i c / n oise and confusion churches scarce l i t t l e a l t e r n a t i v e other than a h i g h r i s e Area Immediately Surrounding C e n t r a l Core lower land c o s t s u t i l i t i e s f u l l y developed convenient to p u b l i c t r a n s i t zoning favourable semi-convenient to shopping o f t e n r e s t o r a t i o n area community s e r v i c e s adequate l a r g e s i t e s d i f f i c u l t to assemble heavy n o i s e and t r a f f i c unpleasant commercial, i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t e d land uses few churches or c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s r e c r e a t i o n a l areas l i m i t e d o l d e r s t r u c t u r e s / r i s k of f i r e p o s s i b i l i t y of crime Pre-War Suburbs moderate land c o s t s u t i l i t i e s f u l l y developed 1 to 2 b l o c k access to p u b l i c t r a n s i t numerous churches q u i e t / l e s s h u s t l e b u s t l e moderate t r a f f i c f l o w / l e s s noise and confusion neighbourhood r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s moderate convenience to shopping l e s s crime - zoning, problems i n acceptance of group housing - c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s scarce - l a r g e s i t e s d i f f i c u l t to a c q uire - p o s s i b i l i t y of i s o l a t i o n 214. Urban V i c i n i t y Advantages Disadvantages Post War Suburbs - moderate land costs - quiet and p e a c e f u l / v i s u a l l y - l e s s noise and confusion from low t r a f f i c flow - observation of young c h i l d r e n u t i l i t i e s may be inadequate/ overloaded zoning adverse to group residences public transportation infrequent few c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s d i s tant community services not f u l l y developed shopping may be di s t a n t youthful neighbourhood may s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d e l d e r l y M u l t i p l e housing f o r the aged often implies a large number of inhabitants. A group of any substantial s i z e w i l l n a t u r a l l y generate a number of demands on the surrounding neighbourhood. Direct e f f o r t s must be made to integrate t h i s form of housing into the immediate neighbourhood i n order to avoid the d i s r u p t i v e consequences that may otherwise r e s u l t . Both the inhabitants of the neighbourhood and the r e t i r e d tenants s u f f e r i f no e f f o r t i s directed toward i n t e g r a t i o n . Although l i t t l e empirical research has been conducted on t h i s topic one can speculate that neighbours may become overwhelmed by the number of aged and begin to resent t h e i r existence, while the aged may be deprived from taking part i n community a c t i v i t i e s . E f f i c i e n t planning can resolve the brunt of p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s through the c r i t i c a l s e l e c t i o n of l o c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a and the implementation of modest design considerations within the neighbourhood. Through such means multiple housing for the e l d e r l y can become an asset to a neighbourhood rather than a l i a b i l i t y . 215. A c c e s s i b i l i t y to v a r y i n g community f a c i l i t i e s has i n the past been a primary c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n determining where a h i g h r i s e retirement centre should be l o c a t e d . A f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d study which examined t h i s problem was conducted by Paul Niebanck. Niebanck surveyed 117 retirement housing p r o j e c t s i n Pennsylvania and attempted to d e r i v e c r i t i c a l d i s t a n c e s from these p r o j e c t s to a l i s t of s p e c i f i e d f a c i l i t i e s . C r i t i c a l d i s t a n c e was defined as the d i s t a n c e which an e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l would be w i l l i n g to t r a v e l before d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was expressed. Niebanck a l s o asked the respondents to rank the importance of the stat e d a c t i v i t i e s i n terms of r e s i d e n t i a l p r o x i m i t y . The r e s u l t s of h i s study are summarized below: The c r i t i c a l d i s t a n c e s Niebanck derived should not be viewed as exact standards f o r given the number of i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s that are p o s s i b l e i n any given s i t u a t i o n , they can only be seen as r e l a t i v e ! approximations. Convenient access to a grocery s t o r e i s a l o c a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n that i s imperative to the h e a l t h of aged people i n h a b i t i n g s e l f - c o n t a i n e d F a c i l i t y ( i n rank order) C r i t i c a l Distance Grocery s t o r e Bus stop Church Drugstore C l i n i c or h o s p i t a l Bank S o c i a l centre L i b r a r y News-Cigar store Restaurant Movie house Bar 2-3 blocks 1-2 blocks 1/4-1/2 m i l e 3 blocks 1/4-1/2 m i l e 1/4 m i l e indeterminable 1 m i l e 1/4 m i l e 14/-1/2 m i l e 1 m i l e ind e t erminab1e (Niebanck, 1965, pg. 64) 216. s u i t e s . A n u t r i t i o u s d i e t i s as important to o l d e r people as i t i s to younger f o l k . Given the c o n s t r a i n t s of l i m i t e d m o b i l i t y i t i s important to have a grocery s t o r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n a minimum of three blocks of a retirement centre. As Niebanck s t a t e d , "such f a c i l i t i e s are used f r e q u e n t l y and must be l o c a t e d w i t h i n a block or two or the t r i p l e n g t h becomes disagreeable to the aged tenant" (Niebanck, 1965, pg. 64). Lengthier t r i p s would l o g i c a l l y imply that the aged i n d i v i d u a l may forego grocery shopping and t h e r e f o r e might sometimes j e o p a r d i z e h i s or her h e a l t h . In a d d i t i o n to f o o d s t u f f s , shops o f f e r i n g a wide assortment of goods p e r t a i n i n g to the needs and budgets of the e l d e r l y should be encouraged to l o c a t e w i t h i n reasonable and a c c e s s i b l e walking d i s t a n c e of a given s i t e . By f o c u s s i n g the development of m u l t i p l e housing f o r the aged i n d i s t i n c t areas of the c i t y i t i s p o s s i b l e to generate a drawing f o r c e that may a t t r a c t many merchants. The K e r r i s d a l e shopping area;_in Vancouver i s an e x c e l l e n t example of the p o t e n t i a l that does e x i s t even though i t i s a high income area. The merchants i n t h i s area have responded to the f a c t that there are a l a r g e number of o l d e r people l i v i n g w i t h i n the v i c i n i t y and have attempted to s a t i s f y t h e i r needs. The b a k e r i e s , beauty p a r l o r s , boutiques, dress shops and small g i f t shops r e l y h e a v i l y on the aged customer. Few shops i n t h i s area, however, o f f e r inexpensive items that f i t w i t h i n the meager budgets of the l e s s advantaged aged. Access to a shopping area provides not only the shopping a c t i v i t y but a l s o the opportunity to observe others. I t i s a means of s t a y i n g i n tune w i t h what's happening w i t h i n the community f o r many ol d e r 217. people. Planners may put i n t o e f f e c t a number of design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s that w i l l serve to accommodate many of these i n d i r e c t forms of a c t i v i t y . A number of a p p r o p r i a t e l y placed, comfortable benches w i l l , f o r example, f a c i l i t a t e the ageds' use of such areas. Benches should o f f e r some p r o t e c t i o n from the elements by being p o s i t i o n e d under a tre e or s t o r e awning. They serve as a place to s i t and observe or r e s t w h i l e shopping. S i t t i n g areas, separated from the main pede s t r i a n flow, may o f f e r the o l d e r person an opportunity to t a l k w i t h f r i e n d s or momentarily d i s a s s o -c i a t e himself from the h u s t l e - b u s t l e of shopping areas. The s t r e e t l i g h t i n g of a shopping d i s t r i c t used e x t e n s i v e l y by o l d e r people should be i n t e n s i f i e d above normal standards to compensate f o r v i s u a l l i m i t a -t i o n s . When walking access to shopping i s not p o s s i b l e l a r g e r retirement complexes may be able to j u s t i f y the cost of a s h u t t l e bus s e r v i c e . S h u t t l e buses are u s u a l l y more convenient than p u b l i c t r a n s i t i n that they can f a c i l i t a t e door-to-door s e r v i c e . The s i z e of a p a r t i c u l a r housing p r o j e c t may a l s o be l a r g e enough to support a co-operative s t o r e . The tenants themselves may take the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of managing such a f a c i l i t y thereby p r o v i d i n g a source of v o l u n t a r y work and a chance to i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e i r immediate neighbours. Niebanck's study i n d i c a t e d that the c r i t i c a l d i s t a n c e from a given s i t e to a h o s p i t a l or c l i n i c i s between 1/4 to 1/2 m i l e (Niebanck, 1965, pg. 64). Although the aged u t i l i z e these f a c i l i t i e s l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than l o c a l stores or other c o m m u n i t y ' f a c i l i t i e s , they s t i l l remain as an imperative l o c a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Frequency of use cannot be equated w i t h the importance of having c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s such as a c l i n i c 218. lo c a t e d nearby. The p r o x i m i t y of a retirement centre to a h o s p i t a l or c l i n i c may make the d i f f e r e n c e between l i f e and death. This f a c t i s more profound f o r the aged i n t h a t they are v u l n e r a b l e to lapses i n h e a l t h . When f e a s i b l e , f a c i l i t i e s f o r minor check-ups and l e s s i n v o l v e d medical a t t e n t i o n should be provided on s i t e . Minimal investment i n f l o o r space and equipment can provide a f u n c t i o n a l o f f i c e that can be u t i l i z e d by a p h y s i c i a n on a part-time b a s i s . As Lawton p o i n t s out, "the minimum that every p r o j e c t should provide i s the names of s e v e r a l p h y s i c i a n s who w i l l agree to accept telephone c a l l s from tenants or s t a f f and i n an emergency guarantee t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to make house c a l l s to the s i t e " (Lawton, 1975, pg. 298). The p r o v i s i o n of such f a c i l i t i e s on the s i t e or l o c a t e d nearby w i l l undoubtedly add to the ageds' sense of s e c u r i t y and independence. . Lack of adequate t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s a f a c t o r that may have a more profound a f f e c t on the aged than most other age groupings. As Ken p o i n t s out, " t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has a ... ' m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t ' . With i t , a couple or s i n g l e person can more e a s i l y cope w i t h adjustments or hardships that come w i t h age. Without i t , they may enter i n t o what has been described as a 'syndrome of d e p r i v a t i o n ' . You get low income; you get poor h e a l t h ; you get an absence of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , and thei.net r e s u l t of t h i s i s something-that i s very d i f f e r e n t than any of these t h i n g s i n d i v i d u a l l y " (Kent, 1970, pg. 1). R e s t r i c t e d access to adequate p u b l i c t r a n s i t decreases access to the ageds' e x t e r n a l environment thus a c c e l e r a t i n g the disengagement process and i n s u r i n g a r e d u c t i o n i n the q u a l i t y of l i f e . Even though the p r i v a t e automobile i s enjoying greater use by the 219. aged, the m a j o r i t y of the e l d e r l y are s t i l l dependent upon p u b l i c t r a n s i t f o r t h e i r m o b i l i t y . The general design and f u n c t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s of present day buses do l i t t l e to accommodate the needs of the aged. The use of p u b l i c t r a n s i t i s considered a n e c e s s i t y not a preference of the aged. The aged have problems cl i m b i n g the steep steps that provide access to the bus. Many fear the doors w i l l c l o s e upon them. Once aboard the ageds 1 l o s s of s t r e n g t h and a g i l i t y make the r i d e anything but comfortable. Those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the approval of bus purchases should be more r e c e p t i v e to the f a c t that a high l e v e l of dependence e x i s t s between the aged and p u b l i c t r a n s i t systems. They should begin to exert pressure on bus designers to produce a u n i t that w i l l make the use of p u b l i c t r a n s i t more pl e a s u r a b l e f o r the aged. Bus s h e l t e r s that provide adequate p r o t e c t i o n from the elements are e s s e n t i a l . The m a j o r i t y of tenants i n m u l t i p l e housing u s u a l l y catch the bus at one or two stops. The cost of p r o v i d i n g s h e l t e r s at f r e q u e n t l y used stops would be f a r exceeded by the b e n e f i t s that would r e s u l t . Another important aspect of the bus stop that could e a s i l y be improved upon i s the w a i t i n g area. Curb heights and concrete platforms could be r a i s e d i n order to provide l e v e l access to the bus. This design f e a t u r e would help to overcome the problem of the f i r s t step that many e l d e r l y people have d i f f i c u l t y g a i n i n g access t o . In most major c i t i e s the p u b l i c . . t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network i s o r i e n t e d to p r o v i d i n g access to the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t w h i l e the p e r i p h e r a l and l a t e r a l movement f a c i l i t i e s are o f t e n inadequate. A l l bus l i n e s i n p e r i p h e r a l areas that have a high p r o p o r t i o n of e l d e r l y c i t i z e n s should l i n k up w i t h major l i n e s i n order to provide convenient one-transfer 220. access to the centre of the c i t y . An i d e a l , l o c a t i o n f o r m u l t i p l e housing f o r the aged i s at the end of a bus l i n e where buses c o l l e c t before doing the route once more:. In cases of t h i s s o r t the e l d e r l y are at l e a s t granted the p r i v i l e g e of waiting:'on' the bus. A problem that i s o f t e n encountered but seldom r e s o l v e d i s the f a c t that many e l d e r l y people do not understand the macrostructure of the p u b l i c t r a n s i t system. Golant eluded to t h i s problem when he s a i d , "Their n o t i o n of the complexity.or s i m p l i c i t y of the t r a n s i t system i s r e l a t e d to t h e i r p erception of how d i f f i c u l t i t i s to use the system. A d i f f i c u l t system i s e x e m p l i f i e d by one that r e q u i r e s persons to t r a n s f e r f r e q u e n t l y and/or inconveniently'.' (Golant, 1972, pg. 133). The e l d e r l y o f t e n have problems i n o b t a i n i n g or understanding p u b l i c t r a n s i t informa-t i o n . "Schedules are o f t e n complex and those hard of hearing cannot make use of telephone i n f o r m a t i o n systems" (Golant, 1972, pg. 133). A simple means of r e s o l v i n g t h i s problem would be to have p u b l i c t r a n s i t a u t h o r i t i e s v i s i t m u l t i p l e housing complexes to e x p l a i n the s e r v i c e o f f e r e d w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r ! l o c a l i t y . P r o v i d i n g s i m p l i f i e d i n f o r m a t i o n packets to new tenants may be a l e s s c o s t l y means of s o l v i n g the problem. Walking access to a park i s another d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e of the neigh-bourhood. Pass i v e observation should be the key design element to be s t r e s s e d . The aged should have :the opportunity to observe c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g , s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s and s i m i l a r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s . Park benches p o s i t i o n e d i n a manner that w i l l a f f o r d p r o t e c t i o n from the elements and observation of a c t i v i t i e s w h i l e not being o b t r u s i v e are e s s e n t i a l . Louis Gelwicks' d e s c r i p t i o n of MacArthur Park i n downtown Los Angeles helps to emphasize the importance of a nearby park to the aged. 221. "We have done a l o t of work i n t h i s area and have made T.V. tapes of the behaviour, of o l d e r people i n the park. There are many people l i v i n g i n retirement h o t e l s nearby who come d a i l y to the park .... we do know d e f i n i t e l y that there are many, many people who use t h i s park as t h e i r l i v i n g r o o m . They l i v e i n one l i t t l e room where there i s no space to do anything. They come out at eig h t o'clock i n the morning and spend a l l day i n the park and go home at'..night-. ... I t ' s an outdoor room. This i s i n e f f e c t a compartmentalized multi-purpose room. (Gelwicks, 1973, pg. 93). A park should o f f e r a wide assortment of areas, some that w i l l e l i c i t group i n t e r a c t i o n and others that w i l l o f f e r a quiet place to t a l k p r i v a t e l y . The p o s s i b i l i t y of adequate s u r v e i l l a n c e by park s t a f f , p o l i c e or from residences bordering the park i s another important a t t r i b u t e of a park. The p r o v i s i o n of t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s i s an added feat u r e appreciated by most e l d e r l y people. F a c i l i t i e s such as bowling greens, horseshoecpitches, and outdoor checkerboards would c e r t a i n l y encourage the aged to use a park more f r e q u e n t l y . Other elements of the neighbourhood such as banks, l i b r a r i e s , theatres and churches are u s u a l l y shared by a number of a d j o i n i n g communities. Although these f a c i l i t i e s should be c l o s e at hand, w i t h i n 1/4 to 1 m i l e walking r a d i u s , most of the l i t e r a t u r e would support the contention t h a t , w i t h the exception of churches, access to these f a c i l i t i e s i s l e s s c r i t i c a l to the aged since t h e i r frequency of use i s l i m i t e d . Convenient access to church i s more important i n that many e l d e r l y f o l k attend s e r v i c e s at l e a s t once a week. A current trend i n a number of m u l t i p l e housing developments i s to provide interdenominational church s e r v i c e s once a week thereby reducing the need f o r the complex to be l o c a t e d w i t h i n easy walking d i s t a n c e of a church. 222. Often c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to a school may be a negative l o c a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Although many older.people p e r i o d i c a l l y enjoy watching youngsters at play they u s u a l l y do.not appreciate 'constant' i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h c h i l d r e n . A nearby school, may generate unwanted noise and the p o t e n t i a l of p h y s i c a l and emotional-harassment by a few unruly students. As Lawton r e p o r t s , "many instances come to mind where harassment by a few c h i l d r e n creates i n tenants an overwhelmingly negative view of the c h i l d r e n as a c l a s s " (Lawton, 1975, pg. 97). Planners should discourage p h y s i c a l access between c h i l d r e n and the aged r a t h e r than emphasize such a r e l a t i o n s h i p . Depending upon the flow of v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c , a number of a l t e r a -t i o n s can be made to the walking surface to offsettsome of the p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s or p s y c h o l o g i c a l f e a r s the aged may have. In areas of heavy t r a f f i c w e l l marked pede s t r i a n crosswalks are a must. The use of s p e c i f i c s i g n s , s i m i l a r to those used f o r c h i l d r e n w i t h i n school zones, should be produced and placed in.areas where there i s a heavy c o n c e n t r a t i o n of e l d e r l y people. P e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c l i g h t s i g n a l s should be adjusted to a l l o w the i n d i v i d u a l more time to cross a road. Where the t r a f f i c flow i s heavy, p e d e s t r i a n overpasses should be i n s t a l l e d . Sidewalks, f r e q u e n t l y u t i l i z e d by e l d e r l y f o l k , that run p a r a l l e l to heavy t r a f f i c a r t e r i e s should have a b a r r i e r of t r e e s and grass between the road and sidewalk. W i t h i n a one to two block r a d i u s of a m u l t i p l e housing development f o r the aged, the t e x t u r e of the sidewalk should vary at d i f f e r e n t spots i n order to f a c i l i t a t e o r i e n t a t i o n . A design element of t h i s nature would help to overcome l i m i t a t i o n s i n s i g h t f o r merely by f e e l i n g the t e x t u r e of 223. the sidewalk beneath one's f e e t one would be aware that he or she was w i t h i n a block or two of home. This f e a t u r e coupled w i t h the f a c t that sidewalks should be g r a d u a l l y sloped i n order to reduce the height of curbs at the s t r e e t ends would accommodate the p e d e s t r i a n needs of the more d i s a b l e d aged i n d i v i d u a l s . S t r e e t l i g h t i n g w i t h i n the v i c i n i t y should complement the walkways by o f f e r i n g above normal i l l u m i n a t i o n . The i d e a l neighbourhood f o r many e l d e r l y f o l k i s the one i n which they have spent most of t h e i r a d u l t l i f e . F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h shops, community f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s , and the p o s s i b l e f r i e n d s h i p s and neighbourhood acquaintances that have developed over time represent powerful s o c i a l f o r c e s that are d i f f i c u l t to r e l i n q u i s h i f one chooses or i s forced to move. Those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the planning and development of h i g h r i s e retirement centres o b v i o u s l y cannot be expected to accommodate a l l i n d i v i d u a l circumstances, yet by emphasizing development i n o l d e r e s t a b l i s h e d neighbourhoods where many ol d e r people have t h e i r r o o t s they may r e s o l v e the problems as s o c i a t e d w i t h r e l o c a t i o n f o r many. This c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y important f o r those of a strong e t h n i c back-ground f o r they are r e p o r t e d l y l e s s w i l l i n g to move to;a new area than those having l e s s defined e t h n i c backgrounds (Golant, 1972, pg. 75). A n a l y s i s of Data - Neighbourhood The average number of times per week the respondent l e f t the s i t e was 4.7 at Seton V i l l a and 6.1 at New V i s t a . M u l t i p l e , responses were recorded when the respondents were asked to i n d i c a t e what t h e i r most common reason f o r l e a v i n g the s i t e was. The percentages that f o l l o w are based on the t o t a l number of responses. BURRARD 1MET 1 M - ~ * " < _ i > Z, O UJ Q O o UJ a z UJ y In ct O <D Z 8: z UJ 226. Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Shopping Walking f o r e x e r c i s e or pleasure V i s i t i n g f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s Work Attend meetings Lawn bowling 48% 16% 28% 4% 4% 35% 50% 11% The a c t i v i t i e s of shopping and walking c o n s t i t u t e the primary reasons f o r l e a v i n g the s i t e w i t h i n both complexes. This f a c t coupled w i t h the frequency the respondents l e f t the s i t e would support the concept that the design of sidewalks and the l o c a t i o n of shopping f a c i l i t i e s are important planning c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w i t h respect to the m o b i l i t y patterns of the aged. <l The next question explored i n greater depth the 'grocery' shopping a c t i v i t i e s of the respondents. Seton V i l l a respondents claimed they went shopping f o r g r o c e r i e s on the average of 2.15 times per week w h i l e those from New V i s t a i n d i c a t e d an average of 3.2. These d i f f e r e n c e s i n frequencies may be l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t that 35% of the Seton respondents l i v e d w i t h i n board residence s u i t e s and t h e r e f o r e had three meals a day provided. (Computer average f o r Seton group excluding board residence - 2.8) The respondents were next asked to s p e c i f y where they d i d the m a j o r i t y of t h e i r grocery shopping. Although s p e c i f i c s t o r e s were named the responses have been regrouped i n t o one of the f o l l o w i n g four c a t e g o r i e s . Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Downtown Vancouver L o c a l corner s t o r e ( w i t h i n 2-3 blocks) Large chain s t o r e ( w i t h i n 1/2 m i l e r a d i u s ) Large chain s t o r e (> 1/2 m i l e r a d i u s , excluding downtown stores) 10% 10% 35% 45% 5% 15% 45% 35% 227. When asked to indicate the mode of transportation they most often used to gain access to a shopping area the respondents indicated the following. The a t t r a c t i v e q u a l i t i e s of shopping downtown were emphasized by a l i m i t e d number of respondents. Despite the e f f o r t and time i t takes, e s p e c i a l l y from New V i s t a , to t r a v e l to downtown Vancouver, a few respondents claimed that they made the journey frequently. The convenience of shopping at a l o c a l corner store was not an important factor to the majority of the respondents. Most respondents claimed they u t i l i z e d t h i s type of f a c i l i t y only as a l a s t resort because they believed;;the -prices were much higher than at the larger chain stores. Given that the aged often have more l e i s u r e time than most other age groupings i t stands to reason that they may devote more time to 'price-conscious' shopping. Limited budgets would also necessitate c a r e f u l shopping. The large chain stores such as Safeway and IGA were patronized for more extensive shopping because they were thought to have lower p r i c e s . Both Safeway and IGA were within easy walking distance of New V i s t a . Walking access to a large chain store was not convenient from Seton V i l l a and thus the majority of the tenants had to u t i l i z e e i t h e r the public t r a n s i t system or the Seton Shuttle Bus to do t h e i r grocery shopping. Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Public t r a n s i t Walking Car Seton V i l l a 'mini' bus Taxi 35% 15% 5% 35% 10% 35% 55% 15% HOPPING NFAR NFW VISTA fK S F J O N : CHAIN STORE ALONG EDMONDS SHOPPING PLAZA ADJACENT TO NEW VISTA SHOPS ALONG HASTINGS* SETON) 229. This f a c t leads to an imperative c o n s i d e r a t i o n that the m a j o r i t y of the l i t e r a t u r e f a i l s to acknowledge. Not only i s i t important to have shopping f a c i l i t i e s l o c a t e d w i t h i n walking d i s t a n c e of a retirement centre but such f a c i l i t i e s should a l s o be of a s u f f i c i e n t s i z e to warrant moderate p r i c e s . L o c a l corner st o r e s do not s a t i s f y the extensive shopping needs of the e l d e r l y simply because of t h e i r higher p r i c e s . A s u b s t a n t i a l number of respondents i n d i c a t e d a preference f o r shopping at a s p e c i f i c s t o r e r e g a r d l e s s of how f a r i t was l o c a t e d from t h e i r complex. F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the s t o r e and a l i k i n g f o r the s e r v i c e provided were given as the major reasons why some tenants were w i l l i n g to t r a v e l more than 1/2 m i l e to shop. When the respondents were asked what they l i k e d a n d / o r " d i s l i k e d about the area i n which they shopped and how they would improve upon i t , t h e i r responses were: P o s i t i v e Responses Seton V i l l a New V i s t a D i r e c t bus s e r v i c e to shopping (or s h u t t l e bus s e r v i c e from Seton) 10% 15% Convenient walking access - 20% V a r i e t y of goods o f f e r e d i n l a r g e stores 10% Negative Responses C o n g e s t i o n / t r a f f i c and pedestrians 5% 15% Lack of s e a t i n g 5% No f r e e d e l i v e r y s e r v i c e 10% 10% No response 60% 40% Recommended Improvements Large s t o r e should be l o c a t e d nearer to complex 20% 10% Place to eat or have a c o f f e e i s r e q u i r e d 5% L e v e l walking s e r v i c e needed - 10% More places to s i t and r e s t 10% 10% No response 45% 70% 230. Although the responses were r a t h e r l i m i t e d a number of important c o n s i d e r a t i o n s evolved. An a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r e i t h e r . d i r e c t bus or walking access to a shopping area was emphasized. The expressed need to provide s e a t i n g and an opportunity f o r the aged to momentarily escape the confusion and movement that o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e a shopping area supported a few of the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o u t l i n e d w i t h i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s s e c t i o n . The f a c t that there was no f r e e d e l i v e r y s e r v i c e was an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n to a number of respondents. Stores l o c a t e d w i t h i n the v i c i n i t y of these two complexes that o f f e r e d a f r e e d e l i v e r y s e r v i c e would be c e r t a i n of i n c r e a s i n g the number of aged customers. PARKS T h i r t y - f i v e percent of the New V i s t a respondents u t i l i z e d one of the l o c a l parks an average of 1.8 times per month, w h i l e only 25% of the Seton V i l l a group v i s i t e d a l o c a l park on an average of 3.6 times per month. Given that both complexes are l o c a t e d w i t h i n two blocks of a l l o c a l neighbourhood park t h i s frequency of use i s extremely low. One can hypothesize a number of reasons that may e x p l a i n these r e s u l t s : 1) the needs of the aged:.are:;not accommodated w i t h i n these l o c a l parks i n terms of the f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e and the a c t i v i t i e s they support; 2) the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of the tenants are l a r g e l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h i n the confines of t h e i r own development ( e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of Seton V i l l a ) ; 3) there i s simply a l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n the l o c a l parks. Despite the f a c t that only.a l i m i t e d number of the respondents used the l o c a l parks f u r t h e r questions were asked p e r t a i n i n g to what the respondents d i d i n the park, what they liked::.arid/or d i s l i k e d about i t s ARKS NEAR SETON VLLA&NEW VISTA f a c i l i t i e s and how they would improve upon them. Common A c t i v i t i e s Walking through the park S i t t i n g down and watching the a c t i v i t i e s P l a y i n g bingo w i t h i n the r e c r e a t i o n centre No response D i s l i k e s Lack of pathways Lack of f a c i l i t i e s (bathroom) Few places to s i t and watch a c t i v i t i e s C h i l d r e n n o i s y and bothersome No response Suggested Improvements Provide s e a t i n g along pathways Snack bar r e q u i r e d More pathways re q u i r e d P r o v i s i o n of sea t i n g o v e r l o o k i n g a c t i v i t y areas No response From the l i m i t e d responses provided i t i s obvious that the parks w i t h i n the immediate area of the two complexes had few amenities that accommodated the needs of the e l d e r l y . The m a j o r i t y of the respondents d i s p l a y e d a t o t a l l a c k of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the l o c a l parks. This f a c t would lead one to question whether i f f a c i l i t i e s such as t o i l e t s , snack bars, more s e a t i n g and pathways were provided more of the o l d e r tenants would u t i l i z e the parks. Undoubtedly a few may, but i t i s u n l i k e l y that the i n c rease i n use would warrant the expense of p r o v i d i n g such added amenities. Another f a c t that may have l e d to the low l e v e l of ap p r e c i a -t i o n and use of these l o c a l parks i s the youth centred f u n c t i o n s that each supported. As the d e s c r i p t i o n s i l l u s t r a t e the f a c i l i t i e s were s t r i c t l y o r i e n t e d to a c t i v i t i e s such as b a s e b a l l , tennis, and b a s k e t b a l l Seton V i l l a New V i s t a 15% 20% 5% 10% 5% 70% 65% 5% 15% 10% 5% 5% 70% 85% 10% 15% 5% 5% 5% 10% 10% 80% 70% 233. w i t h few amenities supporting passive observation of these a c t i v i t i e s . As one respondent put i t , " l o c a l parks are f o r k i d s and we would only get i n the way". Given the r e s t r i c t e d budgets of most m u n i c i p a l Parks and Recreation Departments, i t i s perhaps imperative f o r them f i r s t to accommodate the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of the neighbourhoods. A f t e r time, one would hope such departments would see the need to accommodate l e s s a c t i v e forms of a c t i v i t y thereby f a c i l i t a t i n g the needs of young and o l d a l i k e . PUBLIC TRANSIT The New V i s t a respondents u t i l i z e d the p u b l i c t r a n s i t system on the average 4.4 times per week w h i l e the Seton respondents used i t an average of 2.45 times. This d i f f e r e n c e i n frequency of use may be a t t r i b u t e d to the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : 1) New V i s t a has a bus stop l o c a t e d w i t h i n 1/4 of a block w h i l e the Seton tenants have to walk about 3/4 of a block .to the nearest bus stop. In a d d i t i o n to the p h y s i c a l d i s t a n c e , the Seton V i l l a tenants have to walk up and down a moderate h i l l to gain access to the bus while access from New V i s t a i s by l e v e l ground. 2) New V i s t a i s adjacent to a major bus l i n e w h i l e Seton was served only by a secondary l i n e . At New V i s t a the buses run every 15 minutes w h i l e at Seton they run every hour. 3) Seton V i l l a o f f e r s a s h u t t l e bus s e r v i c e to a few major shopping areas two or three times per week so that tenants are l e s s dependent on the p u b l i c t r a n s i t system than-at New V i s t a . When the respondents were asked to l i s t t h e i r l i k e s and d i s l i k e s concerning the bus s e r v i c e the f o l l o w i n g responses were provided. PUBLIC TRANSIT 235. Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a S e r v i c e f a s t and convenient D i s l i k e d i n c o n s i d e r a t e d r i v e r s Too crowded to be comfortable Inconvenient scheduling Problems g e t t i n g on the bus No response 75% 5% 20% 80% 5% 5% 10% The d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s e r v i c e provided i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d by the above responses. The next question was worded, "What changes, i f any, i n the design of the bus and bus stop would make .the use of- t h i s p u b l i c s e r v i c e more convenient and enjoyable f o r you?" I i Response Construct an adequate, s h e l t e r Improve ' f i r s t - s t e p ' access to the bus Sidedoors should open a u t o m a t i c a l l y Design of l o a d i n g area could be improved F a c i l i t i e s at loop should be improved Bus should be re-routed More convenient s e r v i c e to loop r e q u i r e d B e t t e r s e r v i c e , i s needed No response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a 15% 10% 15% 15% 20% 5% 15% 5% 60% 5% 5% 5% 25% The New V i s t a respondents, apparently s a t i s f i e d w i t h the s e r v i c e o f f e r e d , d i r e c t e d t h e i r suggestions to improving the bus stop area and the bus. Given that the m a j o r i t y of tenants catch the bus at one or two stops, i t would seem that the cost of p r o v i d i n g a s h e l t e r at these stops would be minimal. Even the most b a s i c s h e l t e r would o f f e r at l e a s t some p r o t e c t i o n from the elements a~ the tenants waited f o r the bus. Improving the f i r s t step was another of the more important suggestions o f f e r e d by a member of the New V i s t a group. The v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e from the f i r s t to the second step of most buses i s u s u a l l y great 236. thereby making i t . d i f f i c u l t f o r the l e s s mobile aged to climb aboard. This design f a c t o r coupled w i t h the f a c t that customers are expected to q u i c k l y board the bus present problems to most aged people. Perhaps through dramatic changes i n the design of buses a more convenient means of gaining'access can be developed. As noted w i t h i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n a number of improvements could be made t o the l o a d i n g area as w e l l . Such areas should be l e v e l yet r a i s e d s l i g h t l y above the curb height i n order to provide b e t t e r access on and o f f the bus. A p r o v i s i o n of t h i s nature would cost l i t t l e and could be e a s i l y molded i n t o the e x i s t i n g walking surface. Although the Seton V i l l a respondents a l s o made suggestions w i t h respect to the bus f a c i l i t i e s t h e i r primary concern was w i t h the e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e . In terms of p r i o r i t i e s i t i s perhaps most important to improve the s e r v i c e . A few of the respondents suggested an a l t e r n a t e route f o r the bus which i s i l l u s t r a t e d below. T m IM IT —i *sn. v\»-U\ Re-routing the bus i n t h i s way would provide s i t e ' a c c e s s ; f r o m Seton V i l l a yet add l i t t l e d i s t a n c e to the e x i s t i n g route. The convenience a f f o r d e d to the l a r g e number of tenants dependent upon the p u b l i c t r a n s i t system 237. would warrant such a minor,change i n the route. Rescheduling the bus may be a more d i f f i c u l t task. Being that t h e u e x i s t i n g . l i n e i s only a secondary one i t would be d i f f i c u l t to j u s t i f y scheduling a. bus at more frequent i n t e r v a l s . SIDEWALKS AND CROSSWALKS The f i r s t question d e a l i n g w i t h sidewalks and crosswalks asked the respondents to i n d i c a t e how many times they would be r e q u i r e d to cross a major (two lane) s t r e e t w h i l e on one of t h e i r average journeys. The New V i s t a group's average response was 3.05 times w h i l e that of the Seton V i l l a respondents was 2.75. Although these f i g u r e s are h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e they do r e f l e c t the f a c t that the aged encounter busy s t r e e t s f r e q u e n t l y . The question that followed asked what they d i s l i k e d most about c r o s s i n g a major s t r e e t . S i x t y percent of both'New V i s t a and Seton V i l l a respondents r e p l i e d that f e a r of t r a f f i c was t h e i r dominant concern. I t i s important f o r planners to be aware of the l i m i t a t i o n s i n s t r e n g t h , a g i l i t y and v i s i o n that are a product of age and to design crosswalks and walking surfaces that w i l l provide added s e c u r i t y to the aged as they move through an urban area. The suggestions o f f e r e d w i t h i n the i n t r o d u c -t i o n of t h i s s e c t i o n would reduce the l e v e l of f e a r of t r a f f i c many aged possess. When asked to suggest improvements i n the design of sidewalks and crosswalks the respondents r e p l i e d w i t h the f o l l o w i n g ideas. JDFWAI KS&CROSSWAI KS« NFW VISTA Z3& MARY AVE. jnEWALK^CROSSWALKSiSETQN VILL> 240. Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a A l l crosswalks on major roads should have l i g h t s Seats should be placed p e r i o d i c a l l y along sidewalks Cross l i g h t s should a l l o w more time to t r a v e l from curb to curb Sidewalks should have ramps at the corners Minor s t r e e t s should have marked cr o s s i n g s Overpasses are needed over major s t r e e t s No response 10% 50% 10% 20% 5% 5% 25% 60% 5% 5% 5% A supplemental question to the above asked the respondents to i n d i c a t e whether they have problems w i t h curbs. Twenty percent from both groups r e p l i e d "yes". The m a j o r i t y of responses need no f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n , however, s e v e r a l ideas do r e q u i r e f u r t h e r explanation s i n c e they are seldom mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The idea of p l a c i n g seats i n a number of places along a sidewalk was r a t h e r i n n o v a t i v e . The opportunity to r e s t p e r i o d i c a l l y w h i l e on a walk would be appreciated by most aged people. W i t h i n most r e s i d e n t i a l areas, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Burnaby, there are r e l a t i v e l y few places f o r an i n d i v i d u a l to s i t comfortably w h i l e out f o r a walk. A Seton respondent noted that the long walk from the bus loop to Seton V i l l a would be a much simpler.!-task i f s e a t i n g was provided midway along Boundary S t r e e t . Another l e s s common suggestion was that i n areas having a h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n of o l d e r people the secondary roads should have marked crosswalks. Several of the respondents f e l t that the p o s s i b i l i t y of g e t t i n g h i t w h i l e c r o s s i n g such roads was much greater than while c r o s s i n g major roads. The p o s s i b i l i t y of such accidents occurring"would c e r t a i n l y be reduced by p r o v i d i n g 241. marked crosswalks. OTHER ACTIVITY AREAS OF THE NEIGHBOURHOOD To gain an overview of the frequency that o l d e r people u t i l i z e a few of the more common neighbourhood f a c i l i t i e s , the respondents were asked to i n d i c a t e the number of times per month they would partake i n each of the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s : A c t i v i t y Mean Times Per Month Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Attend c l u b s , lodges or other retirement centres w i t h i n the v i c i n i t y .90 2.45 Attend l o c a l s p o r t i n g events .50 .25 P l a y g o l f , swim, or take part i n some other s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t y .45 1.15 Do volunteer work .60 .20 Eat out i n a restaurant 1.95 2.25 Go to .the pub .15 .25 Pl a y bingo i n nearby community centre .30 1.75 V i s i t a doctor or d e n t i s t .85 .80 Attend a church .80 1.20 On the whole the Seton V i l l a group appear to be l e s s i n v o l v e d i n neighbourhood a c t i v i t i e s than the respondents from New V i s t a . The d i f f e r e n c e may be a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t that Seton V i l l a had many more planned a c t i v i t i e s than New V i s t a . A number of. Seton respondents i n d i -cated that they were kept so busy w i t h a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e i r own complex that they had l i t t l e , time to become inv o l v e d w i t h neighbourhood a c t i v i t i e s . The New V i s t a respondents seemed much more i n c l i n e d to look to the surrounding neighbourhood to s a t i s f y t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l and l e i s u r e needs. Thus to some degree these two cases represent a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s to the problem of p r o v i d i n g a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s that the aged may take part i n . rHER NEIGHBORHOOD ELEMENTS NEW VISTA  AUTOBODY SHOP WITH E.WINCH TOWER IN THE BACKGROUND LOCAL RECREATION CENTER NEIGHBORHOOD ELEMENTS* SFTON 14-3. SINGLE STOREY RESIDENCES WITH SFTON VILLA IN BACKGROUND STREET IN FRONT OF SETON VILLA E a t i n g out i n a r e s t a u r a n t was the most f r e q u e n t l y engaged i n a c t i v i t y by respondents from both complexes. Because many of the tenants l i v e d alone i t i s of l i t t l e wonder that most enjoyed having a meal i n a r e s t a u r a n t two to three times a month. Cooking f o r and e a t i n g by oneself can be an u n s t i m u l a t i n g and r a t h e r monotomous e x e r c i s e . An inexpensive restaurant l o c a t e d w i t h i n convenient walking d i s t a n c e of a retirement centre may provide an opportunity to experience v a r i e d foods i n a d d i t i o n to maintaining an i n t e g r a t e d l i n k withiLthe community. The combined averages f o r both complexes i n d i c a t e that attending s p o r t i n g events, doing volunteer work, and going to the pub are a c t i v i t i e s few respondents engaged i n . Although frequency of use does not n e c e s s a r i l y c o i n c i d e w i t h the importance of being l o c a t e d w i t h i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to some f a c i l i t i e s such as a h o s p i t a l , one may conclude from the foregoing that there would be l i t t l e reason to provide a pub, sport complex, or volunteer employment o f f i c e near a h i g h r i s e retirement centre. Using common sense w i t h respect to the importance of c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , a planner should be able to formulate a number of l o c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a by c o n t a c t i n g a l a r g e sample of o l d e r people and c o l l e c t i n g data w i t h respect to the frequency w i t h which they u t i l i z e defined neighbourhood f a c i l i t i e s . 245. CHAPTER TEN - PREFERENCE AND GENERALIZED HOUSING QUESTIONS Chapter Ten examines a few gen e r a l i z e d questions that the preceding chapters have f a i l e d to cover i n any depth. These questions i n c l u d e : 1) What motivates o l d e r people to move i n t o h i g h r i s e retirement centres? 2) Do aged people p r e f e r age-segregated housing? 3) What do r e t i r e d people perceive as the advantages and/or disadvantages of h i g h r i s e l i v i n g ? 4) What are t h e i r views on having three l e v e l s of care w i t h i n a s i n g l e complex f o r r e t i r e d f o l k ? A b r i e f l i t e r a r y review of the f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d to the above questions w i l l be provided, followed by an a n a l y s i s of the data that were obtained from the i n t e r v i e w s . The m a j o r i t y of the l i t e r a t u r e u t i l i z i e s a l i f e - c y c l e approach to provide an explanation of why ol d e r people move. M o t i v a t i o n to move i s l i n k e d w i t h changes i n f a m i l y composition and change i n r o l e s . The most important of these changes in c l u d e the c o n t r a c t i o n of the household w i t h the departure of grown c h i l d r e n ; retirement w i t h the l o s s of work r o l e and remunerative b e n e f i t s ; the death of a spouse ( u s u a l l y male); or a change i n p h y s i c a l h e a l t h accompanied by i n c r e a s i n g i n f i r m i t i e s and p a r t i a l or f u l l d i s a b i l i t y (Golant, 1972, pg. 76). When the c h i l d r e n leave there i s l i t t l e need f o r a l a r g e house or apartment and married couples o f t e n seek smaller l i v i n g accommodation. Retirement u s u a l l y i m p l i e s reduced income and thus i t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t to pay taxes and the maintenance costs of a home. The death of one's spouse br i n g s w i t h i t l o n e l i n e s s and a r e s i d e n t i a l move may be i n i t i a t e d to seek companionship or to be near one's c h i l d r e n . F a i l u r e i n one's h e a l t h 246. may prompt an i n d i v i d u a l to seek i n s t i t u t i o n a l or q u a s i - i n s t i t u t i o n a l accommodation (Golant, 1972, pg. 77). There are, however, equal f o r c e s that motivate the e l d e r l y not to move. Stephen Golant provides a concise summary of the most important of these f o r c e s . ... -"Most of these fo r c e s can be summarized under the symptomatic 'axion of cumulative i n e r t i a ' which s t a t e s : For a given i n t e r v a l of time and w i t h i n s p e c i f i c age groups, the p r o b a b i l i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l m i g r a t i n g diminishes as h i s r e s i d e n t i a l d u r a t i o n s t a t u s increases. The und e r l y i n g cause of t h i s r e s i d e n t i a l i n e r t i a and the preference of the e l d e r l y to remain where they are rat h e r than move to another l o c a t i o n i s r e l a t e d to the s e c u r i t y and attachments which have grown and matured throughout the past, thereby p r o v i d i n g a strong s t a b i l i z i n g s t a tus quo i n f l u e n c e . The f a m i l i a r i t y of the e l d e r l y ' s neighbourhood r e s u l t i n g from a cumulative sustained contact i s r e i n f o r c e d by an o v e r a l l d e c l i n e i n s o c i a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , thereby m o t i v a t i n g the e l d e r l y to r e t a i n what possessions and memories he now has ... the d e s i r e to maintain independent l i v i n g arrangements i s fundamental to the e l d e r l y and they w i l l attempt to avoid a r e s i d e n t i a l move that e i t h e r j e o p a r d i z e s or s a c r i f i c e s t h e i r independence." (Golant, 1972, pg. 78). A b s t r a c t i n g from the foregoing i t i s c l e a r that there i s no s i n g l e answer to why people choose to move i n t o h i g h r i s e retirement centres. The reasons are based on a mult i t u d e of i n d i v i d u a l circumstances. One th i n g that i s c e r t a i n , however, i s that when i n d i v i d u a l s do move they b r i n g w i t h them the experience of a past environment as w e l l as v a r i e d r e s i d u a l values which c o n d i t i o n t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward t h e i r present surrounding (Carp. 1970, pg. 163). The respondents were asked to s e l e c t reasons why they had moved i n t o e i t h e r Seton V i l l a or New V i s t a from a l i s t that was provided. Since m u l t i p l e responses were accepted the f o l l o w i n g percentages are based on the o v e r a l l responses provided. Reasons Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Need to be near nursing or medical f a c i l i t i e s P r e f e r r e d room and board Unable to keep up own house F i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of home too great F e l t a need f o r company Planned move as p a r t of retirement Knew other people who had moved there R e l a t i v e s , doctor, f r i e n d s , thought I should go F i n a n c i a l l y i t was the best move F e l t need f o r s e c u r i t y and s a f e t y More comfortable than former housing Boarding w i t h f a m i l y and they needed more room Other - v i c t i m of urban renewal, wanted to be near f a m i l y 15.0% 5.0% 5.0% 6.0% 10.0% 8.0% 10.0% 2.5% 11.0% 20.0% 5.0% 2.5% 15.0% 25.0% 5.0% 11.0% 10.0% 8.0% 5.0% 15.0% 2.0% 2.0% 2.5% The responses i n d i c a t e that the reasons f o r moving i n t o these complexes v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y amongst the respondents. Although there was l i t t l e o v e r a l l agreement on any one of the l i s t e d reasons i t i s perhaps u s e f u l to provide a few b r i e f comments on some of the reasons given by the respondents. A number i n d i c a t e d that they planned the move as part of t h e i r retirement. The d e c i s i o n was thus n e i t h e r forced upon them nor n e c e s s i t a t e d by t h e i r circumstances. Retirement housing was regarded as a favourable form of housing i n which to spend t h e i r remaining years. These f a c t s , to a l i m i t e d degree, may support the n o t i o n that retirement housing i s becoming more acceptable i n the views of the aged. Ten years ago homes f o r the aged were u s u a l l y deemed as the l a s t r e s o r t i n terms of s u i t a b l e accommodation. Today they are a p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e to a considerable p r o p o r t i o n of r e t i r e d f o l k . F i f t e e n percent of the respondents i n d i c a t e d that they made the 248. move on the advice of t h e i r r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s or doctor. In terms of informati o n t r a n s f e r these three sources are perhaps the most important and are u t i l i z e d the most e x t e n s i v e l y by r e t i r e d f o l k . /Frequently i t i s the r e t i r e d i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l a t i v e s who o b t a i n the i n i t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the a v a i l a b i l i t y , of accommodation w i t h i n retirement centres. Secondary sources are f r i e n d s who have already made the move or doctors who have obtained knowledge of c e r t a i n complexes from t h e i r p a t i e n t s . In most cases, however, the f i n a l d e c i s i o n to move seems to r e s t w i t h the o l d e r i n d i v i d u a l h i m s e l f . At New V i s t a the major reason f o r moving was f i n a n c i a l . Undoubtedly one of the most favourable a t t r i b u t e s of New V i s t a was that i t s r e n t a l r a t e s were r e l a t i v e l y low. The question of whether or not to provide age-segregated developments f o r r e t i r e d f o l k has long been debated by those concerned w i t h p r o v i d i n g a p o s i t i v e environment f o r the aged. Although the question has yet to be completely r e s o l v e d the m a j o r i t y of the evidence would seem to favour age-segregated housing. As Lawton'reports, "those who r e s i d e i n age-segregated housing seem contented and e x p l i c i t l y approve of the e x c l u s i o n of c h i l d r e n and teenagers" (Lawton, 1975, pg. 114). A number of s t u d i e s have shown that o l d e r people l i v i n g i n age-segregated developments have more frequent s o c i a l contact w i t h f r i e n d s than those who l i v e i n s e t t i n g s w i t h a high p r o p o r t i o n of young people.(Lawton, 1975, pg. 115). The p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i n t e r a c t i o n are undoubtedly enhanced by the presence of others w i t h s i m i l a r l i f e s t y l e s and s i m i l a r l i m i t a t i o n s . Admittedly, p u b l i c l y sponsored housing developments have seldom created c o n d i t i o n s where young and"old could l i v e together i n mutual enrichment. I t i s c e r t a i n l y p o s s i b l e to design an environment where 249. i n t e r a c t i o n between young and o l d could be transformed i n t o a..positive r e l a t i o n s h i p . The mixing of supportive a c t i v i t i e s and the sep a r a t i o n of c o n f l i c t i n g ones may be a t t a i n e d through c o n s t r u c t i v e design. Innovation and experimentation may help to evolve s u c c e s s f u l examples of i n t e g r a t e d housing developments that serve the needs of young and o l d a l i k e . When the respondents were asked to i n d i c a t e ^ t h e i r preference w i t h regard to ages of co-tenants responses were as f o l l o w s : Type of B u i l d i n g P r e f e r r e d Seton V i l l a New V i s t a For r e t i r e d people only 55% 70% For middle-aged and r e t i r e d people only 25% 10% For people of a l l ages i n c l u d i n g c h i l d r e n 20% 20% • Many i n d i c a t e d that the noise and confusion u s u a l l y generated by younger c h i l d r e n was bothersome to them even though they d i d p e r i o d i c a l l y enjoy watching youngsters play. A few st a t e d that the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r companionship was t h e i r primary reason f o r p r e f e r r i n g to l i v e i n a complex f o r r e t i r e d people only. C o n t r a s t i n g statements made by 20% of the respondents at each s i t e were that i t was depressing having only r e t i r e d people l i v i n g i n the same b u i l d i n g and that one was c o n s t a n t l y reminded of one's age wh i l e l i v i n g w i t h i n a retirement centre. When the"respondents were"asked t h e i r preference i n terms of the age composition of the neighbourhood the f o l l o w i n g responses were obtained: Would r a t h e r l i v e i n a neighbourhood where there were: Seton V i l l a New V i s t a Mostly r e t i r e d people 15% 20% Middle-aged people w i t h o l d e r f a m i l i e s 50% 50% Young f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n 30% 30% Young a d u l t s , few c h i l d r e n 5% 250. In terms of the age composition of the neighbourhood; the responses would suggest that r e t i r e d f o l k p r e f e r more of an age i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g than an age-segregated one. Another question that o f t e n confronts those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the design and planning of retirement centres i s whether a development should take the form of a h i g h r i s e or l o w r i s e . H i g h r i s e l i v i n g o f f e r s a number of advantages and disadvantages, many.;of which have been covered i n the preceding chapters. Many a u t h o r i t i e s c l a i m that i t i s impossible to reach any all-encompassing c o n c l u s i o n as to whether a h i g h r i s e i s p r e f e r r e d over other forms of accommodation because there are countless i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s that may support e i t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e i n any given s i t u a t i o n . For example, i f a h i g h r i s e tower i s l o c a t e d amidst towers of comparable height the view w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d . P l a c i n g the same tower i n an area dominated by l o w r i s e and^single storey s t r u c t u r e s on the other hand, may r e s u l t i n a spectacular view. S i m i l a r l y , i f one i s f o r t u n a t e enough to have acquired an expansive s i t e upon which one can e a s i l y construct a number of l o w r i s e s t r u c t u r e s , i t may be p o s s i b l e to provide each tenant w i t h adequate garden space. I f such a s i t e i s s i t u a t e d i n a high crime area, however, i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to provide adequate s e c u r i t y i f there are a number of b u i l d i n g s that have to be p a t r o l l e d . Powell Lawton has conducted numerous surveys w i t h r e t i r e d tenants l i v i n g w i t h i n both forms of housing. The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of p o i n t s that seem to repeatedly appear i n both h i s and other people's research. A s i g n i f i c a n t m i n o r i t y of people have some question as to whether they w i l l be comfortable i n a h i g h r i s e b u i l d i n g . Another l a r g e m a j o r i t y of people would not a c t i v e l y choose h i g h r i s e 251. l i v i n g i f they had completely f r e e choice. People w i t h e a r l i e r h i g h r i s e l i v i n g experience s t r o n g l y p r e f e r to l i v e i n h i g h r i s e "projects f o r the e l d e r l y . The very great m a j o r i t y of people who move i n t o a h i g h r i s e b u i l d i n g end up s t r o n g l y l i k i n g t h i s arrangement. S i m i l a r l y , the great m a j o r i t y who move i n t o l o w r i s e p r o j e c t s p r e f e r that kind of l i v i n g . Anecdotal evidence from some a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r both types of p r o j e c t s suggests that i t i s the h e a l t h i e r and more independent people who choose the l o w r i s e or detached d w e l l i n g u n i t s . There seems to be greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o n - s i t e a c t i v i t y programs i n h i g h r i s e b u i l d i n g . Other.things being equal, tenants i n l o w r i s e b u i l d i n g s seem to be more l i k e l y to leave the premises and engage i n more outwardly-directed a c t i v i t y . " (Lawton, 1975, pg. 142). Even these common a s s e r t i o n s are questionable and h i g h l y dependent on a multi t u d e of i n d i v i d u a l circumstances. When the respondents were asked to i n d i c a t e the form of housing they would l i k e to l i v e i n , the f o l l o w i n g responses were obtained: Form Seton V i l l a New V i s t a S i n g l e storey detached home 15% 20% Lowrise apartment (under 4 storeys) 25% 30% Hi g h r i s e (4 storeys and above) 60% 50% These r e s u l t s can be compared to the responses to question 6 which asked the respondents to i n d i c a t e the type of housing they had spent most of t h e i r a d u l t l i f e l i v i n g i n . 252. Form Seton V i l l a New V i s t a S i n g l e f a m i l y detached S i n g l e f a m i l y duplex Lowrise apartment (under 4 storeys) H i g h r i s e (4 storeys and above) Other: h o t e l , or back of business, or mobile home 70% 10% 10% 80% 5% 5% 10% 10% Note that not a s i n g l e respondent from e i t h e r of the two complexes had any lengthy previous experience l i v i n g w i t h i n a h i g h r i s e , yet i n terms of current preferences s u b s t a n t i a l percentages from both complexes i n d i c a t e d they would l i k e to l i v e i n t h i s form of b u i l d i n g . These r e s u l t s would support Lawton's c o n c l u s i o n that the aged are capable of r e a d i l y adapting to v a r i a t i o n i n housing form and that once they have experienced l i v i n g i n a h i g h r i s e . t h e y p r e f e r i t to other forms. When the respondents were asked to l i s t the major advantages and/or disadvantages of h i g h r i s e l i v i n g the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s were made: Advantages - economically f e a s i b l e i n that you can accommodate many people on a small s i t e - e l e v a t o r s e r v i c e i s n e c e s s i t a t e d - greater opportunity f o r the p r o v i s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s - safe i n that v.highrise b u i l d i n g s are made of concrete - u s u a l l y have l o t s of windows - o f f e r a great view - l a r g e numbers of people help to f a c i l i t a t e companionship - more space a v a i l a b l e f o r landscaping - hallways are u s u a l l y not as long as i n l o w r i s e s - s e r v i c e advantages - l i t t l e upkeep in v o l v e d as w e l l as few maintenance :costs. - e a s i e r to provide s e c u r i t y Disadvantages - t h r e a t of f i r e - having to use an e l e v a t o r on a d a i l y b a s i s - l a c k of v e n t i l a t i o n , too hot i n summer months - b a l c o n i e s are useless means of outdoor space - windows are d i f f i c u l t . t o clean - l i t t l e o pportunity to garden - fe a r of heights Perhaps the only c o n c l u s i v e remark that can be made i s that the number of advantages c i t e d outweighed the disadvantages. Seton V i l l a i s a.-rather ..unique retirement complex i n that i t i s one of the f i r s t i n Canada to provide three l e v e l s of h e a l t h care under the same roof. As noted, s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , board and room, and personal care accommodation are a v a i l a b l e upon v a r y i n g f l o o r s . The philosophy behind t h i s concept i s that i f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s h e a l t h should d e t e r i o r a t e w h i l e he/she was occupying a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d s u i t e (upper f l o o r s ) i t would be p o s s i b l e to o b t a i n more i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d care e i t h e r i n the form of board and room or personal care accommodation (lower f l o o r s ) without moving from the complex. A secondary b a s i s f o r t h i s form of housing i s that a c e r t a i n degree of i n t e r a c t i o n would evolve between those r e t i r e d f o l k who are d i s a b l e d and those who are not. The more able f o l k would be able to a s s i s t the l e s s f o r t u n a t e i n terms of emotional u p l i f t i n g as w e l l as d i r e c t p h y s i c a l a i d . 254. In e n q u i r i n g about r e a c t i o n s to the m u l t i - l e v e l concept tenants were asked, "Do you f e e l that i t i s a good idea f o r .housing complexes f o r r e t i r e d f o l k to i n c l u d e a mix of s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , board and room, and nursing care accommodation?" The responses are shown below. Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a D e f i n i t e l y yes 65% 15% Yes, but w i t h q u a l i f i c a t i o n s 20% 40% DonIt know 15% 25% No, but w i t h q u a l i f i c a t i o n s 15% 10% D e f i n i t e l y no - 10% This question was followed by asking the respondents whether a l l three l e v e l s of care should be housed i n the same b u i l d i n g . Response Seton V i l l a New V i s t a D e f i n i t e l y yes 60% 15% Yes, but w i t h q u a l i f i c a t i o n s 25% 20% Don't know 15% 20% No, but w i t h q u a l i f i c a t i o n s - 15% D e f i n i t e l y no - 30% There i s an appreciable d i f f e r e n c e between the responses of the Seton group who were c u r r e n t l y experiencing such an arrangement and those of the New V i s t a group who had no p r a c t i c a l experience w i t h such a complex. Although New V i s t a respondents were i n favour of having three l e v e l s of care w i t h i n a retirement complex, they were r e l u c t a n t ..to approve of these l e v e l s being w i t h i n the same b u i l d i n g . The Seton group d i s p l a y e d strong approval of both concepts. The data would seem to i n d i c a t e that they had few problems i n adapting to t h i s arrangement. The success i n implementing such a l i v i n g arrangement i n Seton V i l l a can be a t t r i b u t e d to the care and a t t e n t i o n that were given to every d e t a i l of the complex. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n needs amongst those seeking v a r y i n g l e v e l s of care are w e l l accommodated. Innumerable p o i n t s of i n t e r a c t i o n are p o s s i b l e through e f f i c i e n t programming and good design. I f f u t u r e retirement centres were to d u p l i c a t e the planning and design c r i t e r i a that went i n t o Seton V i l l a , i t i s l i k e l y that the p r o v i s i o n of three l e v e l s of care w i t h i n any h i g h r i s e b u i l d i n g would be met w i t h equal success. 256. CHAPTER ELEVEN - CONCLUSION Many of the p r o v i s i o n s discussed w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s are nothing more than sound p r i n c i p l e s of good design and planning which are a p p l i -cable to a l l housing. The p r o v i s i o n of a w e l l marked and easy to reach instrument panel w i t h i n an e l e v a t o r i s as important i n a h i g h r i s e populated by younger people as one f o r r e t i r e d f o l k . Safe and convenient bathrooms and k i t c h e n s are e q u a l l y d e s i r a b l e f o r the younger f a m i l y and the aged person l i v i n g alone. Convenient r e l a t i o n s h i p s between spaces, adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r p r i v a c y and proper o r i e n t a t i o n to the sun are b a s i c design p r i n c i p l e s important to a l l age groups. In terms of s i t e and neighbourhood c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the avoidance of n o i s e , heavy t r a f f i c and the d e s i r a b i l i t y of conveniently l o c a t e d community f a c i l i t i e s are again e q u a l l y important to most age groups. This t h e s i s has emphasized a wide range of housing requirements that could be c l a s s i f i e d as simple conveniences or matters of b a s i c s a f e t y . I f we are to accept the premise that o l d e r people are the age group l e a s t capable of adapting to unsafe and inconvenient r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t i n g s i t i s perhaps imperative that such c r i t e r i a be emphasized f i r s t and foremost i n housing accommodation f o r them. Given that i n the f u t u r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y more i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l be l i v i n g longer, the aged are destined to form an even l a r g e r percentage of the o v e r a l l p opulation than they do today. Their needs i n terms of design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and l o c a -t i o n a l c r i t e r i a w i l l thus become f a r more pronounced i n the near f u t u r e . While a d m i t t i n g that most aged people have many of the same b a s i c housing needs as other age groups,there do e x i s t many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that set them apart from the young and that generate s p e c i f i c demands i n 257. terms of what c o n s t i t u t e s s u i t a b l e housing. At some point i n almost everyones' l i f e they w i l l experience a d e c l i n e i n p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , l i m i t a t i o n s i n s m e l l i n g , hearing and v i s i o n as w e l l as impairments i n a g i l i t y and balance. These are common a t t r i b u t e s of the aging process that d i f f e r i n the degree to which they a f f e c t each and every one of us. Many ol d e r f o l k are capable of a d j u s t i n g to such p h y s i o l o g i c a l l i m i t a -t i o n s without the need of any of the s p e c i a l r e s i d e n t i a l f e a t u r e s that t h i s t h e s i s has explored. Others however, are not as for t u n a t e and are dependent upon a f u l l range of s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n order to maintain t h e i r m o b i l i t y and independence. By f u l f i l l i n g the needs of the l e s s advantaged through minor a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l environment i t i s obvious that the needs of the more advant-aged w i l l a l s o be served. F l e x i b l e design and planning c r i t e r i a w i l l serve to b e n e f i t both groups even though i n the case of the l e s s advantaged such c r i t e r i a are n e c e s s i t i e s r a t h e r than added measures of convenience and s a f e t y . Some of the planning and design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s discussed would not be a p p l i c a b l e to any other age grouping than r e t i r e d f o l k . For example, the concept of maintaining a high constant temperature w i t h i n the s u i t e s ( i e . , 80°F) would be i n t o l e r a b l e to most younger f o l k . The n e c e s s i t y of adj u s t a b l e grab bars w i t h i n the bathroom would be another needless p r o v i s i o n . The importance of not l o c a t i n g a retirement centre .immed-i a t e l y adjacent to a school i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to the f a c t that most young f a m i l i e s p r e f e r l o c a t i n g near a school. P h y s i c a l design cannot operate i n i s o l a t i o n to produce an optimum r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t i n g f o r the aged. Although t h i s t h e s i s has fbcussed 258. p r i m a r i l y on p h y s i c a l design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i t must be. acknowledged that s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and management play an e q u a l l y important r o l e i n the p r o v i s i o n of s u i t a b l e accommodation. Of what use i s an e f f i c i e n t l y designed auditorium i f management i s incapable of c o - o r d i n a t i n g programs that w i l l make use of the space? P h y s i c a l and s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n a d d i t i o n to management are inseparable aspects of the same task, that of improving the r e s i d e n t i a l environment of the aged i n terms of the b u i l d i n g , s u i t e , s i t e and neighbourhood.. This t h e s i s has examined a number of common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the aged and attempted to c l a r i f y why an a n a l y s i s of such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s e s s e n t i a l to the design and planning of r e s i d e n t i a l environments f o r the e l d e r l y . The e m p i r i c a l research that was conducted helped to i l l u s t r a t e that o l der people do have opinions w i t h regard to design and planning p r o v i s i o n s and are w i l l i n g and able to express ideas on how such p r o v i s i o n s can be improved to b e t t e r meet t h e i r , needs. In w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i t became c l e a r that the above concerns are seldom considered i n any depth by those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r housing the aged. Past research has o u t l i n e d numerous planning and design considera-t i o n s but seldom has any study gone f u r t h e r to e x p l a i n how such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e l a t e to the needs and d e s i r e s of the aged. Feedback p e r t a i n i n g to what older people t h i n k of design and planning p r o v i s i o n s and how they would improve upon them i s seldom documented. This type of info r m a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l to the design process. Without i t , planning and design p r o v i s i o n s that n e i t h e r s a t i s f y the needs nor the a s p i r a t i o n s of the aged w i l l continue to be promoted. 259. What i s r e q u i r e d i s an assemblance.of inform a t i o n that, covers a l l of the concerns noted above. Planners, a r c h i t e c t s and f i n a n c i e r s of retirement housing should have at t h e i r d i s p o s a l , i n f o r m a t i o n that not only o u t l i n e s design and planning c r i t e r i a , but a l s o reviews the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the aged that have lead to such c r i t e r i a . The i n f o r m a t i o n should a l s o i n c l u d e the s e n i o r ' s views toward e x i s t i n g c r i t e r i a as w e l l as t h e i r suggestions on how to improve*their r e s i d e n t i a l environment. The m a t e r i a l presented w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s has attempted to c l a r i f y the major areas of concern that would need to be examined i n order to produce a more complete planning and design approach, capable of promoting a d e s i r a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l environment f o r the aged. 260. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Anthony, Harry A. Housing f o r the E l d e r l y . New York: New York State Federation of O f f i c i a l P l anning O r g a n i z a t i o n s , 1964. Audain, M.J., et a l . Beyond S h e l t e r . Ottawa: The Canadian C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Development, 1973. Beyer, Glenn and F.H. N i e r s t r a s z . Housing the Aged i n Western Countries. New York: E l s e v i e r P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1967. B i r r e n , J . The Psychology of Aging. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1964. B i r r e n , J . Handbook of Aging and the I n d i v i d u a l : P s y c h o l o g i c a l and B i o l o g i c a l Aspects. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1959. B l a l o c k , Hubert M. S o c i a l S t a t i s t i c s . New York: McGraw H i l l , 1960. Botwinich, Jack. Aging and Behavior. New York: Springer P u b l i s h i n g Co., Inc., 1973. C l a r k , Margaret and Barbara G. Anderson. Cul t u r e and Aging. S p r i n g f i e l d , 111.: Charles C. Thomas, 1967. Cumming, E l a i n e and W i l l i a m E. Henry. Growing Old. New York: B a s i c Books, 1961. E i s e n s t a d t , S.N. From Generation to Generation. New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1964. Frush, James. The Retirement Residence; An A n a l y s i s of the A r c h i t e c t u r e  and Management of L i f e Care Housing. S p r i n g f i e l d , 111.: Thomas, 1968. Gelwicks, L o u i s . Planning Housing Environments f o r the E l d e r l y . Washington: N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on the Aging, 1974. Golant, Stephen. The R e s i d e n t i a l L o c a t i o n and S p a t i a l Behavior of the  E l d e r l y . Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1972. Green, I . , et a l . Housing the E l d e r l y : The Development and Design Process. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1975. Havighurst, Robert J . , et a l . Adjustment to Retirement. Assen, Netherlands: Van Gorcum and Co., 1969. H a z e l l , Kenneth. S o c i a l and Medical Problems of the E l d e r l y . London: Hutchinson Medical P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1965. 261. Hunnisett, Henry. How to Survive Retirement i n Canada. Vancouver: I n t e r n a t i o n a l Self-Counsel Press, 1975. Kaplan, Jerome and Gordon A l d r i d g e . S o c i a l Welfare of the Aging. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r ess, 1962. K i r a , Alexander, et a l . Housing Requirements of the Aged: A Study of  Design C r i t e r i a . I t h a c a , N.Y.: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1973. Lawton, Powell M. Planning and Managing Housing f o r the E l d e r l y . New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1975. Michener, M.P. and K. Mckenzie. Adequate L i v i n g Accommodation f o r the Aging. Ottawa: Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , 1962. Moss, Bertrand M. Caring f o r the Aged. Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1966. Musson and Hevsinkveld. B u i l d i n g s f o r the E l d e r l y . New York: Reinhold P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1963. Niebanck, Paul N. The E l d e r l y i n Older Urban Areas. I n s t i t u t e f o r Environmental Studies, U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania, 1965. Pa s t a l a n , Leon A., and D.H. Carson. S p a t i a l Behavior of Older People. Michigan: The U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, Wayne State U n i v e r s i t y , I n s t , of Gerontology, 1970. Roscow, I . S o c i a l I n t e g r a t i o n of the Aged. New York: Free Press, 1968. Shanas, E t h e l , et a l . Older People i n Three I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t i e s . New York: Atherson Press, 1968. T i b b i t s , C l a r k and Wilma Donahue. Aging i n Today's Soc i e t y. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e H a l l Inc., 1960. Weiss, J.D. B e t t e r B u i l d i n g s f o r the Aged. New York: Hopkinson and Blake, 1969. REPORTS AND STUDIES American Jewish Committee. A Ten Poi n t Guide f o r S c a t t e r - S i t e P u b l i c  Housing. 1971. Bairstow, D. Demographic and Economic Aspects of Housing Canada's E l d e r l y . Ottawa: C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corp., 1973. C a p i t a l Region Planning Board of B r i t i s h Columbia. Retirement Study  P r e l i m i n a r y S t a t i s t i c s . V i c t o r i a , 1969. Caravaty, R.D. and D.S. Haviland. L i f e Safety from F i r e : A Guide f o r Housing the E l d e r l y . Washington: HUD, 1968. 262. Gutman, G l o r i a M. Senior C i t i z e n s ' Housing Study - Report No. 1. Vancouver: Centre for Continuing Education, U.B.C., and C.M.H.C, 1975. Helleyer, Paul T. Report of the Federal Task Force on Housing and Urban  Development. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1969. Howell, Sandra. Design Evaluation Workshop: Housing for the E l d e r l y . Waltham, Mass.: Brandeis U n i v e r s i t y , 1972. Lefevre, A l l a n and Gordon E. P r i e s t . Locating the Senior C i t i z e n Housing  Development. Vancouver Housing Association, 1969. McGuire, M. Design of Housing for the E l d e r l y : A Checkl i s t . Washington, D.C: National Assn. of Housing and Redevelopment O f f i c i a l s . Vancouver Housing Association. B u i l d i n g f or Senior C i t i z e n s . Vancouver, 1967. Vancouver Housing Association. B u i l d i n g for the E l d e r l y i n B.C. Vancouver, 1971. West Vancouver Community Council. Report on the Concerns and Woes of  Senior C i t i z e n s i n West Vancouver. January, 1971. West Vancouver Community Council. The B r i t i s h Columbia C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  Types of Care. The Department of Health, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, September, 1973. West Vancouver Community Council. F i r s t Annual Report. The Department of Housing, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975. West Vancouver Community Council. Housing the E l d e r l y . Ottawa: Central Mortgage and Housing Corp., 1972. UNPUBLISHED THESES Boaden, Bruce Geoffrey. A F e a s i b i l i t y Study for the Private Development  of a Retirement V i l l a g e i n Metropolitan Vancouver. Master of Business Administration Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969. Chang, P h i l l i p . R e s i d e n t i a l F a c i l i t y f o r the E l d e r l y . Bachelor of Architecture Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1975. Cuthbert, Eyvolle Pearl. How Old People L i v e . Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1961. Donaldson, John C. An Urban Environment for the E l d e r l y . Bachelor of Architecture Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1966. 263. Hemingway, B r i a n . Aspects of Improving L i v a b i l i t y i n an Urban R e s i d e n t i a l  Area. Bachelor of A r c h i t e c t u r e T h esis, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1972. Mackinnon, D o l i n a F. and Jerome H. Angel. Housing Needs and Preferences  Among Senior C i t i z e n s (West Vancouver). Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1957. Markoff, Anthony W. The L o c a t i o n a l Needs of the E l d e r l y f o r Housing. Master of A r t s , School of Community and Regional Planning, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1970. Morgan, L e s l i e . L i v i n g Arrangements f o r the E l d e r l y . Bachelor of A r c h i t e c t u r e T h esis, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1972. 0'Gorman, Denis P a t r i c k . Housing f o r the E l d e r l y : A Comprehensive P o l i c y  and Coordinated Program. Master of A r t s Thesis, School of Community and Regional Planning, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1965. Parenta, Ivan. Home Wanted: Senior C i t i z e n . Bachelor of A r c h i t e c t u r e Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1970. P r i e s t , Gordon. An I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the E l d e r l y i n the Urban Environment  w i t h S p e c i a l Reference to t h e i r Housing. Master of A r t s Thesis (Geography), Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , 1970. Rapanos, Dino. An Urban Focus; Environment f o r the E l d e r l y . Bachelor of A r c h i t e c t u r e Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1965. Sproule, J.D.K. Housing the E l d e r l y . Bachelor of A r c h i t e c t u r e Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1974. PERIODICALS Ashford, N. and F.M. Holloway. " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P a t t e r n s of Older People i n S i x Urban Centers," The G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 12 (March, 1972): 43-47. B e a t t i e , Walter. "The Design of Supportive Environments f o r the L i f e Span," The G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 10:3 (1970): 190-193. B i r r e n , James. "The Aged i n C i t i e s , " The G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 9 (Autumn, 1969): 163-170. Burnside, Irene M. "Loneliness i n Old Age," Mental Hygiene, 55 ( J u l y , 1971): 391-397. Carp. Frances M. " M o b i l i t y Among Members of an E s t a b l i s h e d Retirement Community," The G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 12:1 (Spr i n g , 1972): 48-56. Carp, Frances M. "The M o b i l i t y of Older Slum D w e l l e r s , " The G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 12:1 (Spring, 1972): 57-65. 264. Carp, Frances M. " R e t i r e d People as Automobile Passengers," The  G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 12:1 (Spring, 1972): 66-72. Carp, Frances M. "Retirement T r a v e l , " The G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 12:1 (Spring, 1972): 73-78. Fried e n , E l a i n e . " S o c i a l D i f f e r e n c e s and t h e i r Consequences f o r Housing the Aged," American I n s t i t u t e of Planners J o u r n a l , 26 (May, 1960): 119-124. G.W. G r i e r . "Housing f o r the E l d e r l y Given Hard Look i n Search of New Approaches," J o u r n a l of Housing, 20 (December, 1963): 566-569. Kaplan, Jerome. "The Home f o r Aged/Nursing Homes: Past, Present and Future," The G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 10:4 (Winter, 1970): 230-235. Lawton, Powell M. "Planning Environments f o r Older People," American  I n s t , of Planners J o u r n a l , 36 (March, 1970): 124-129. Mumford, Lewis. "For Older People not Segregation but I n t e g r a t i o n , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record, 119 (May, 1955): 191-194. Mumford, Lewis. "Housing f o r Older People," Town and Country Planning, 26 (November, 1958): 440-446. Pincus, A l l e n . "The D e f i n i t i o n and Measurement of the I n s t i t u t i o n a l Environment i n Homes f o r the Aged," The G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 10 (Autumn, 1970): 207-210. Schwartz, Arthur N. and Hans G. Proppe. "Toward Person/Environment T r a n s a c t i o n a l Research," The G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 10:3 (1970): 228-232. Shanas, E. "What's New i n Old Age?," American B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n t i s t , 14 (September, 1970): 5-13. APPENDIX A INTRODUCTION :.: : ' 265. As my le t ter stated my name is Ross Sharp and I am a graduate student in the School of Community and Regional Planning at the University of Br i t i sh Columbia. The purpose of this study Is to gain some insight into your views on the housing needs and preferences of ret ired people. Please be assured that the data gathered from you and others co-operating i n the study w i l l be analyzed and used only within my thesis. The information w i l l be confidential as far as you personally are concerned. The interview material i s for research purposes only and w i l l not be ident i f ied with the persons who are interviewed fhe f i r s t section of the questionnaire deals with personal background information The remaining sections concern this bui lding, the s i te upon which i t i s located and the surrounding neighbourhood. I want to sincerely thank you for your co-operation! I. PERSONAL INFORMATION 1. Sex: " (1) male (2) female 2. Age: years 3. Marital Status: (1) married (2) separated/divorced (3) never been married (4) widowed 4. How long have you l ived in this building? . years or months %. What type of suite are you presently l i v ing in? (1) single (bachelor) self-contained " (2) double (one-bedroom) self-contained (3) board residence (Seton V i l l a only) . 5a. Do you share a room with: - -• • (1) husband/wife - (2) re lat ive /_ (3) fr iend (4) Other, specify 6. What type of housing have you spent most of your adult l i f e l i v ing in? (1) single-family detached (2) duplex (3) low-rise apartment (below four stories) . . (4) high-rise apartment (4 stories and above) (5) Other, specify 7. In what form of environment have you spent most of your adult l i f e ? (1) rura l (4) Other, specify ; • • - • (2) urban (central core and surrounding) (3) suburban (Burnaby, Surrey, Langley, etc.) 266. 8. At present, which do you use most often for getting around? (1) car (see 8a) (4) walking (2) bike (5) wheelchair (3) bus (6) Other, specify 8a. Do you or your spouse presently drive your own car? (1) yes Where at, or near, (Seton Villa/New Vista) (2) no do you park your vehicle? 9a. Do you have any physical problems which interfere with your participation as f u l l y as you wish in any daily l i f e activity? (1) yes (2) no 9b. Are you seriously limited in the area of: (1) walking (1) yes (2) no (2) seeing (1) yes (2) no (3) hearing (1) yes (2) no (4) other, specify (1) yes (2) no 9c. Are you moderately or s l ight ly l imited in the area of: (1) walking (1) yes (2) no (2) seeing (1) yes (2) no (3) hearing (1) yes (2) no (4) other, specify (1) yes (2) no 9d. Do you have any other physical problems that interfere with your ab i l i t y to communicate or interact with others? (1) yes, specify (2) no Are you in need of any of the following physical aids? (!) cane or crutch or other brace, a r t i f i c i a l limb (2) wheelchair (5) e ye glasses (3) hearing aid (6) other, specify (4) special shoes Does your f inancia l situation l imi t your participation in any act iv i t ies? , (1) yes, specify (2) no ~~ ~ If yes, what more would you do i f finances were not a problem? 13. Are you presently employed at a job in which you are paid? (1) yes (2) no 267. If yes, what type of work i s i t ? f u l l or part-time What type of work have you done most of your adult l i f e ? How many l i v ing children do you have, including adopted children? number How many of your children l i ve here in Burnaby? number How many l i ve in the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t ( ie . , Bowen Island, Coquitlam, Delta, loco Buatzen, Lion's Bay, New Westminster, Vancouver, Port Coquitlam, Port Moody, Richmond, Surrey, White Rock) - but not i n Burnaby? number How often are you in contact by phone or mail with one or more of your children? (1) at least once a week (3) less often (2) at least once a month (4) never (don't read this response) How often are you in personal (face to face) contact with one or more of your children? (1) at least once a week (3) less often (2) at least once a month (4) never (again, don't read) If children, then ask - How important do you think i t i s for you to l i ve in the same neighbourhood as your children? (1) very important (3) not very Important (2) somewhat important How important is i t to l i ve within the same c i ty or close to the c i t y in which your children l ive? (1) very important (3) not very important (2) somewhat important Do you have any relat ives other than your spouse or children l i v ing within the Greater Vancouver Regional Distr ict? (1) yes, specify How many? (2) no How often do you see or hear from one or more of them? (1) at least once a week (3) less often (2) at least once a month (4) never (don't read) How many of your neighbours in this building do you know well enough to be able to ask a favour of them? number 268. 19. In an avercgG xrzc:*. how many times do you visit any one of them either by phone or in person? nuabor 20. Do you associate v i t h any of the people l i v ing within the immediate neighbour-hood of Setcn V:'-!. ".w'asw Vista? (1) yes number (2) no 21. How many people in the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r ic t do you consider as close friends? Focple v7ho would be wi l l ing to help you when you need i t? number (if zero, skip to next question, #22) 21b. How many of ycur close friends l i ve at Seton Villa/New Vista? number 21c. How many of your close friends l i ve within walking distance of this building but not in the building? nuaber 22a. How many times per waek do you v i s i t close friends who are not within walking distance of this building? number 22b. What mode of t r — r p - r t do you use to v i s i t friends not within walking distance? (1) ov.-n car (3) bus (2) fr iend's car (4) other, specify . SPACES WITHIN TE3 BUILDING The second group cf questions are directed towards specif ic areas of this building. Please be assured that your responses w i l l be kept in confidence. 23* Lounge area - ririn f loor a. How many times par wnek do you v i s i t the lounge on the main floor? number b. At any one of those times approximately how long do you spend in this area? hours cr minutes c. What is the cost ccr~;on thing you do while you are in this area? d. What ot!:... 0.. __. ^ „ lo in this area? If you were a d...3±y:.z~ c..l mcnay was no object, how would you improve the design of the lovr^e area on the main floor? 269. 24. Front Door to the Building a. In an average week how many times do you use the front door to enter the building? b. What do you like or dislike about the front door in terms of its design or the way i t works? c. What things do you feel are important for architects to keep in mind when they are designing such important features as the front door of a retirement centre? 25. Elevator a. How many times per day do you use the elevator? b. What do you like and/or dislike about the design or function of the elevator? c. In what ways would you improve on the design of the elevator? 26- Stairways (Fire Escape) a. How many times per week do you use the stairway? (if zero skip to 27) b. Approximately how many floors do you climb or go down each time you use the stairs? c. What do you like and/or dislike about the design of the stairs? d. Can you suggest any way in which the stairs can be made more appealing and convenient to use? 27. Mail Area a. By what means do you receive your mail? (1) box in the mail area (3) through the apartment door (2) front desk b. How many times per week do you check for mail? number c. While waiting for or collecting the mail what other form of activity do you take part in while in the mail/front desk area? d. What do you like and/or dislike about the mail boxes and mail area? e. What things in terms of design would you do to improve this area? 270. 28. Laundry Room a. How many times per week do you do laundry in the laundry room(s) in this building? number (i f zero, specify how or where laundry i s done and skip to 29) b. What are your likes and/or dislikes about the laundry room(s)? c. How would you improve on i t in terms of fixtures (chairs, lamps, etc.) and or design? 29. Corridor Areas a. On an average day how many times would you make use of the corridor on your own or any other person's floor? b. What do you feel are the important design features of the corridor i n terms of safety, convenience and pure pleasure? c. If you were designing a corridor what things would you include? 30. Lounge (Top Floor) a. In an average week how many times would you use the top floor lounge area of this building? b. About how long do you usually spend on one of your average v i s i t s to the top floor? hours or minutes c. What i s the most common thing you do while in the top floor lounge area? d. What other types of things do you do in this area? e. What are your likes and/or dislikes about the top floor lounge area? f. Can you suggest any way in which the area can be improved? 31. Arts/Crafts/Workshop areas a. How many times during an average week do you use the arts/crafts/workshop areas in this building? b. What is the most common activity that you take part i n within this area? c. What are your likes and/or dislikes about these areas? d. Do you have any suggestions on how to improve these spaces? 271. 32, 33, 34 apply to Seton V i l l a Only 32. Health F a c i l i t i e s a. How many times per week do you use the exercise and thermal pools i n the basement? b. What do you like and/or dislike about these f a c i l i t i e s ? c. What would you suggest to improve on these areas? 33. Barber Shop/Beauty Parlor a. How many times each month do you v i s i t the Barber Shop/Beauty Parlor? b. What are your likes and/or dislikes about those f a c i l i t i e s ? c. What would you suggest to improve on them? 34. Auditorium a. How many times per week do you v i s i t the auditorium? b. What i s the most common activity that you take part in within this area? c. What other types of things do you do in this area? d. What are your likes and/or dislikes about the auditorium? e. How would you improve on this area in terms of fixtures and design? 35. Storage Area Basement (New Vista only) a. Within an average month how many times do you make use of your designated storage space in the basement? b. What are your likes and/or dislikes about this area? c. What improvements would you make to this area? [I. INDIVIDUAL SUITES The next group of questions pertain to your own suite. 36. Door to the Apartment a. In an average day how many times would you exit through the front door of your suite? 272. b. What do you feel are the important features of the door in terms of safety, handling and looks? c. How can designers improve on the design or features of the doors that are used in retirement housing? 37. Size a. How do you feel about the overall size of your suite? (1) just right (3) too large (2) too small (4) other, specify b. What areas do you feel should be larger/smaller and for what reasons? 38. Storage Space Does your apartment have enough closet or storage space (1) yes (2) no If no, in what areas i s i t lacking? 39. Lighting a. How do you feel about the lighting in your suite? This question refers to the light fixtures as well. (1) adequate (2) inadequate b. What things can you suggest to improve the lighting or light fixtures? 40. Kitchen (Self-contained suites only) a. How many times per day do you use the kitchen area of your suite? b. In terms of i t s fixtures (cupboards, stove, fridge, etc.), and i t s overall design, what do you like and/or dislike about your kitchen area? c. What changes would you make to the kitchen area i f given the opportunity? 41. Dining/Eating Area a. How many times per day do you use the dining or eating area in your suite for a meal or snack? b. Does this area satisfy your needs? (1) yes (2) no If no, please explain why not? 273. 41c. How would you improve upon it? 42. Bedroom Area (Self-contained suites only) a. In an average 24-hour day how many hours do you spend in the bedroom, either sleeping, resting or whatever? b. What do you like and/or dislike about your bedroom? c. Do you have any suggestions on how to improve i t in terms of design? 43. Bathroom a. How many times i n an average day (24-hours) would you make use of your bathroom? b. What do you like and/or dislike about the design or features of your bathroom? c. What would you change in your bathroom to make i t safer or more convenient for you? 44. Balconies a. Does your suite have access to a balcony? (1) yes (2) no (i f no, skip to 45) b. In good weather, how many times per week do you use your balcony? c. What do you use i t for? d. What changes would you recommend to improve the balcony? 45. Emergency Buzzer (Seton V i l l a only) a. How many times have you used the emergency buzzer in your suite? b. Do you feel i t i s an important feature of the suite? (1) yes - why (2) no 46. Living Room Area a. How many times in an average day do you use the livingroom area of your suite? b. What do you like and/or dislike about this area? c. In terms of design and fixtures how would you improve on this area? 274. 47. Bedroom/Livingroom (Board Residence only) a. What do you like and/or dislike about this area? b. What improvements would you recommend to improve this area of your suite? 48. Heating What do you think about the heating in your suite? (1) too hot (2) too cold (3) just right 49. Sound Proofing a. How important i s sound proofing to you in an apartment setting? (1) extremely important (3) not important at a l l (2) moderately important b. Does the soundproofing i n this building meet your needs? (1) yes (2) no J. SITE CONSIDERATIONS (The Outdoor Area Immediately Surrounding the Building) The next group of questions refer to your use of the immediate outdoor area surrounding the highrise. 50. How many times per week during the day do you use the outdoor space immediately surrounding the building? 51. What i s the most common activity you take part in while in this area? b. What other act i v i t i e s do you engage in, in this area? 52. What features of the outdoor space surrounding this building do you find the most attractive? 53. If you were the architect designing a retirement centre what would you include in your plans for the outdoor area? 54. Does the wind and shade produced by the building hamper your use of the outdoor area? (1) yes (2) no 55. Seating (Outdoor) a. What type of outdoor seating do you prefer? b. Where and how should this seating be arranged? 56. Night Use 275. a. How many times per week do you use the outdoor area at night or in the evening? b. What improvements can you suggest to make the outdoor area safer and more convenient for retired people during dusk or darkness? 57. Sidewalks and Outdoor Ramps on Site What are your views on the design of the existing sidewalk and ramps that are found on the site? NEIGHBOURHOOD The next group of questions are directed toward the surrounding neighbourhood of Seton Villa/New Vista. 58. General a. How many times per week do you leave the building site? b. What is your most common reason for leaving? 59. Shopping a. How many times per week do you go shopping? b. Where do you do the majority of your grocery shopping? c. By what means do you get there? (1) own car (4) B.C. Hydro Bus (2) friend's car (5) Other, specify (3) S.V. mini bus d. What do you like and/or dislike about the area in which you shop? e. What recommendations would you make in terms of design or fixtures to improve these shopping areas for use by retired people? 0. Park a. How many times per month do you visit one of the local parks within the neighbourhood? b. What type of things do you do in the park? c. What do you like and/or dislike about the facilities in the park? 276. 60d. What improvements would you recommend in order to make the park a more enjoyable spot for yourself and other retired people? 61. Public Transit a. How many times per week do you take a public (B.C. Hydro) bus? b. What do you like and/or dislike about the bus service? c. What changes i f any in the design of the bus and bus stop area would make the use of this public service more convenient and enjoyable for you? 62. Sidewalks and Crosswalks a. While on an average journey approximately how many times would you be required to cross a major (two lane) street? • b. What do you dislike the most about crossing a major street? c. What suggestions in terms of design can you make that would assist an individual in crossing a street? d. Do you have any problems with curbs? (1) yes (2) no HOT* can designers improve on the design of curbs to make them easier to negotiate? 63. Other Activity Areas of the Neighbourhood Approximately how many times per month do you a. attend clubs or lodges in the neighbourhood (or retirement centres) b. sporting events c. play golf, swim or take part in some other sporting activity d. do volunteer work in the area e. eat out in a restaurant (specify usual place i f any) f. go to the pub g. play bingo at a nearby centre h. go to a doctor or dentist i . go to church PREFERENCE AND GENERALIZED HOUSING QUESTIONS The last set of questions deal with your general impressions and preferences regarding retirement housing. We are almost finished. 277. 64. Why did you decide to move into Seton Villa/New Vista. I w i l l read a l i s t of reasons and you decide which one or ones f i t s your own case. (1) needed to be near nursing or medical f a c i l i t i e s (2) preferred boardroom (3) unable to keep up own home (4) financial responsibility of home too great • (5) f e l t a need for company (6) planned move as part of retirement (7) knew other people who had moved here (8) relatives, doctor, friends, thought I should go (9) financially i t was the best move (10) f e l t need for security and safety (11) more comfortable than former housing (12) boarding with family and they needed more room (13) other, specify 65. If the rents were the same would you prefer l i v i n g in a building: (1) for retired people only (2) for middleaged and retired people only (3) for people of a l l ages including children Why? 66. At present, a l l things being equal, would you prefer to l i v e i n a (1) single storey detached house (2) low-rise apartment (under 4 stories) (3) high-rise (4 stories and above) 67. Would you prefer to li v e in a (1) rural country-like setting (2) dense city centre type setting (3) suburban quiet area 68. Would you rather li v e i n a neighbourhood where there (1) were mostly retired people (2) middle-aged people with older families (3) young families with children (4) young adults, few children 69. In general, are you satisfied with the location of this development? (1) yes (2) no 70. What are your reasons for being satisfied and/or dissatisfied? 278. What do you think are the major advantages and/or disadvantages of highrise livi n g for retired people? Advantages Disadvantages Would you prefer to rent a suite (1) furnished (3) doesn't matter (don't read) (2) unfurnished Do you feel that i t i s a good idea for housing complexes for retired people to include a mix of self-contained, board and room, and nursing care accommodation? (1) definitely yes _ (2) yes, but with qualifications (3) don't know (4) no, but with qualifications (5) definitely no Do you feel that a l l three levels of care should be housed i n the same building? _____ (1) definitely yes (2) yes, but with qualifications (3) don't know i (4) no, but with qualifications t (5) definitely no If you were to describe this housing to others, which one of the contrasting statements would you select with regard to the aspects mentioned. (1) residents are generally an active bunch ______ (2) residents are inactive (3) don't know ' (1) residents my own social type ' (2) somewhat different social type (3) don't know (1) residents friendly (2) residents unfriendly (3) don't know (1) building atmosphere warm, homelike (2) atmosphere formal, reserved (3) don't know (1) management allows freedom of action (2) has manv rules, reeulations (3, don't know 279. We have now completed the questionnaire. You have been extremely helpful and I would like to thank you for your participation. Later on in June I am conducting the second and final phase of my survey. This phase will involve a l l those who have been interviewed and should take about 15 to 20 minutes at the most. It involves map drawing and therefore will not be as long and tedious as the questionnaire you have just completed. Are you willing to take part? yes no. What day would be the most convenient for you to take part in the exercise? M T W Th F S Sn, What time of the day is most convenient? morning afternoon evening APPENDIX B 280. THE UNIVERSITY 01 BRITISH C O L U M B I A 2075 WT.SISROOK PLACT. VANCOUVER, H.C.,CANADA V6T IW5 SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY & REGIONAL PLANNING June 9, 1975. Dear My name i s Ross Sharp and I am a Masters student i n the School of Community and Regional Planning a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. I am i n t e r e s t e d i n o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n concerning Retirement Housing w i t h i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Burnaby. Your name has been given to me by M a r j o r i e Smith of the Centre f o r Continuing Education. I understand you were very h e l p f u l to her and I would very much l i k e to i n c l u d e your opinions i n my study. I need your help to p i n p o i n t a number of design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h Retirement Housing. The data gathered from you and others cooperating i n the study w i l l be analyzed and used w i t h i n my Thesis. The i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be c o n f i d e n t i a l as f a r as you p e r s o n a l l y are concerned. The i n t e r v i e w m a t e r i a l w i l l not be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the persons who are int e r v i e w e d . The time r e q u i r e d to complete the i n t e r v i e w w i l l be minimal. This'week I w i l l be c o n t a c t i n g you by phone i n order to arrange a convenient time to v i s i t you. Thank you f o r your cooperation. I am l o o k i n g forward to meeting you i n person. Yours t r u l y , 

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