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The political Thomas Hardy : a study of the Wessex novels and comparison with Boris Pasternak Cobley, John R. 1975

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THE POLITICAL THOMAS HARDY: A STUDY OF THE WESSEX NOVELS AND A COMPARISON WITH BORIS PASTERNAK by JOHN R. COBLEY B.A., Brigham Young University, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Programme in Comparative Literature We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1975 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes i s fo r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department o f C o m p a r a t i v e L i t e r a t u r e The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date D e c e m b e r 1 9 7 5 ABSTRACT Th i s t h e s i s puts forward the case f o r a p o l i t i c a l read ing of Thomas Ha rdy ' s Wessex Nove l s . A l though the p o l i t i c a l aspects of these nove l s can-not be seen as h i s main p reoccupa t i on , i t i s argued that an awareness of the p o l i t i c a l mo t i v a t i on of Hardy i s necessary f o r a proper and r e spons i b l e r e ad i ng . Through b i o g r a p h i c a l and t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l , and through a compar i -son of Hardy w i t h B o r i s Pas te rnak , i t can be shown tha t a cons i s t en t p o l i t -i c a l theme runs through the Wessex nove l s from the beg inn ing to the end. The main reason why t h i s p o l i t i c a l theme has not been gene r a l l y appre-c i a t e d i s a t t r i b u t e d to a misconcept ion about Hardy ' s r o l e as a n o v e l i s t . For too long Hardy has been popu l a r l y desc r ibed as a defender of the peasant or r u s t i c . In f a c t , Ha rdy ' s i n t e r e s t was w i t h those people who were j u s t above the lowest c l a s s . S ince he was h imse l f from t h i s s l i g h t l y h ighe r c l a s s , he was n a t u r a l l y s e n s i t i v e t o t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s o c i a l improve-ment. Hardy t he re f o r e a t tacked the systems i n s o c i e t y tha t p ro te c t ed the wea l th and power f o r the midd le and upper c l a s se s a t the expense of the poorer peop le . The f i r s t chapter f o l l ows Hardy ' s e a r l y ca ree r both as an a r c h i t e c t i n London, where he developed s t rong p o l i t i c a l v iews tha t tended towards so -c i a l i s m , and as an a s p i r i n g n o v e l i s t i n a market which would not accept exp ress i on of those p o l i t i c a l v i ews . The e a r l y nove l s show ev idence of h i s suppressed p o l i t i c a l anger as Hardy lapses i n t o ou tburs t s o f b i t t e r s o c i a l s a t i r e . The s a t i r e d isappears a f t e r The Hand of E t h e l b e r t a when the nove ls complete a g radua l movement towards t ragedy . Th i s meant t ha t the d i s c o r d between the e a r l y no ve l s ' gene ra l opt imism and h i s p o l i t i c a l anger was e l i m -i n a t e d . As a harmonious pa r t of the l a t e r n o v e l s , Ha rdy ' s p o l i t i c a l a t t i -tudes are not so e a s i l y d i s c e r ned . For t h i s reason a s p e c i a l c r i t i c a l i approach i s needed. The second chapter compares Hardy ' s nove ls and p o l i t i c a l v iews w i t h those of B o r i s Pas te rnak . Pa s t e rnak ' s p o e t i c p o l i t i c a l nove l p rov ides a model f o r ana l y s i ng the l a t e r more p oe t i c Wessex Nove l s . U t i l i s i n g the genre of the " l y r i c a l n o v e l , " i t i s shown how the p o e t - n o v e l i s t o f t e n pays l e s s a t t e n t i o n t o n a r r a t i v e development and concent ra tes on shaping h i s c e n t r a l concerns w i t h i n a symbol i c s t r u c t u r e . The t h i r d chapter makes a p o l i t i c a l read ing of Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s based on the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s e s t ab l i s h ed i n the f i r s t chap te r , and on the techn iques of the l y r i c a l nove l de f i ned i n the second. The cons i s tency of Hardy ' s p o l i t i c a l v iews i n the Wessex Novels becomes apparent as the same concerns of the e a r l y nove l s are found through an a na l y s i s o f the n o v e l ' s symbol i c s t r u c t u r e . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS I n t r oduc t i o n . . 1 Chapter I : P o l i t i c a l Aspects of Ha rdy ' s E a r l y Nove ls 8 Chapter I I : Hardy and Pas te rnak : The L y r i c a l Nove l . . . . . . 49 Chapter I I I : Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s : A P o l i t i c a l Reading . . 84 Se lec ted B i b l i o g r aphy 115 i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT I w i s h t o t h a n k P r o f e s s o r F u t r e l l f o r h i s h e l p a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t d u r i n g t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . i v I n t r odu c t i o n When K i ng s l e y Amis desc r i bed comparat i s t s as "non-academics work ing i n 1 a n o n - d i s c i p l i n e to a non-end," he was making a po i n t tha t no one i n Com-pa r a t i v e L i t e r a t u r e shou ld i g no r e . I n such a l a r ge area o f s tudy , which even extends beyond l i t e r a t u r e i n t o the o ther a r t s , i t i s easy f o r the com-p a r a t i s t t o become a d i l e t t a n t e , a "dabb l e r " i n o ther d i s c i p l i n e s . To put i t b l u n t l y , Comparative L i t e r a t u r e almost demands d i l e t t a n t i s m . Even such an eminent comparat i s t as George S t e i n e r has been a t tacked on t h i s account . H i s wide range o f i n t e r e s t s n e c e s s a r i l y leads him i n t o many d i s c i p l i n e s of the sc iences and a r t s ; and he f r equen t l y of fends the s p e c i a l i s t s as he " t r e s -passes" i n t o t h e i r domains w i thou t t h e i r s p e c i a l i s e d t r a i n i n g . But even i f Comparative L i t e r a t u r e i s a " n o n - d i s c i p l i n e " — s h o u l d i t be a d i s c i p l i n e of compar ison, o f i n f l u en c e s t u d i e s , o f themat ic s t u d i e s , or w h a t ? — i t s t i l l performs an important f un c t i o n i n t h i s age of o v e r - s p e c i a l i -s a t i o n . Comparative L i t e r a t u r e breaks down the boundar ies o f n a t i o n a l l i t e r -a tures and performs the d i f f i c u l t task of drawing d i s pa r a t e elements of the sc iences and a r t s i n t o the study o f l i t e r a t u r e . The comparat i s t i s ab le not on ly t o broaden and en r i c h the study of l i t e r a t u r e , he can a l s o develop new pe r s pe c t i v e s , new ways of approaching the w e l l worn paths o f l i t e r a r y c r i t -i c i s m . Th i s t h e s i s endeavours t o p rov ide some new i n s i g h t s on the p o l i t i c a l content of Thomas Ha rdy ' s Wessex Nove l s . I n order t o do t h i s i t w i l l u t i l i s e a comparison of Hardy w i t h B o r i s Pas te rnak . By us ing a comparison i n t h i s way—to f u r t h e r the understanding of Ha rdy ' s p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s—an answer , can be made to Amis ' s charge aga ins t Comparat i s t s .work ing to a "non-end . " The example of Pas te rnak , as a l y r i c a l w r i t e r w i t h unden iab ly s t rong p o l i t -i c a l content i n h i s nove l Doctor Zh ivago, w i l l b r i n g t o the r e ade r ' s a t t e n -1 -2 t i o n ways i n which Hardy ' s l a t e r nove ls can be seen as be ing more p o l i t i c a l than has p r e v i o u s l y been recogn i sed . The breakthrough i n communications dur ing the e a r l y n i ne teen th century brought s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the p o l i t i c a l o r gan i s a t i o n o f B r i t a i n . With the b u i l d i n g of the cana ls and r a i l w a y s , the " f i r s t r a p i d improvements i n 2 methods of t r anspo r t s i n ce the Roman e r a , " the v i r t u a l confinement of po-l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y to Westminster ended. The cent re of government was now con-nec ted , l i k e the b r a i n through the nervous system, t o the e x t r em i t i e s o f the count ry . The Wessex Nove ls (Desperate Remedies, A P a i r o f B lue Eyes , The  Hand of E t h e l b e r t a ) , f o r example, show how c l o s e l y Dorset was connected w i t h London. In Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s , Tess knows tha t the m i l k she and Angel d e l i v e r at the l o c a l t r a i n s t a t i o n i n the even ing , w i l l be consumed by Lon-3 doners " a t t h e i r b r eak fa s t tomorrow." With such communicat ion, the whole country became more p o l i t i c a l l y consc ious ; unions began t o spread i n t o the remote a g r i c u l t u r a l communit ies, and p r o v i n c i a l a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s which had cont inued w i t h l i t t l e change f o r generat ions were eroded w i t h i n c r e a s i n g r a p i d i t y . Ha rdy ' s awareness of these and other changes was he ightened by h i s s tay i n London from 1862 t o 1867. These were the years when England came very c l o se t o p o l i t i c a l breakthrough dur ing the Reform League's s t r u gg l e f o r u n i -v e r s a l manhood s u f f r a g e . Ha rdy ' s exposure t o the ideas of s o c i a l i s m at t h i s t ime , though d e l i b e r a t e l y p layed down a f te rwards , l e f t an endur ing mark. Th i s can be demonstrated w i t h ev idence from an unusual sou rce . The en t ry on Hardy i n the o f f i c i a l Sov i e t Encyc loped ia of 1961 comes very c l o se t o the p o l i t i c a l essence of the Wessex Novels d e sp i t e i t s s i m p l i f i e d summary: The bes t nove ls and s t o r i e s ma in ta i n a f a i t h f u l d e p i c t i o n of the v i t a l i t y of country and of p r o v i n c i a l l i f e i n England from 1830 to 1880. The i r events are dep i c ted i n the s e t t i n g o f the anc ient county of Wessex, which symbol i ses the tenor of l i f e , marking the t r a i t s of i t s p a t r i a r c h a l cha rac te r and i t s 3 dying in the conditions of capitalism. In the early novels (Under the Greenwood Tree and Far From the Madding Crowd) rural l i f e is idealised and contrasted with the cap i t a l i s t i c city. The aspiration of the writer to v i t a l truth and to psychological depth destroys the depiction of i d y l l i c set-tings . In The Mayor of Casterbridge, The Return of the Na- tive and The Woodlanders the idealisation of l i f e yields to increasingly severe realism which reveals the animosity of capitalism to man, and the narrowmindedness of agricultural l i f e with i t s s p i r i t of greed for money and i t s religious prejudice. The peak of his creativity came in his novels Tess of the D'Urbervilles and Jude the Obscure where the tragic condition of common man under capitalism i s shown. Tess, the country g i r l and farm-hand, captivating in her freshness and sincerity, i s a well-rounded character—one of the best female characters in nineteenth century English literature....The common man appeared in Hardy's work as the basic character. The democratism of the author becomes apparent in the deep sympathy for the common people's mis-ery and lack of rights, in the exposure of bourgeois civ-i l i s a t i o n and hypocritical morals, the egoism of the land-owners, bourgeois law and marriage, the complacency of the petty bourgeois and the callousness of the rich. The per-secution of Hardy by the bourgeois faction of the press ^ partly explains why Jude the Obscure was his last novel. The study of the early novels w i l l show Hardy's great d i f f i c u l t y in express-ing his socialist views as he became caught between the practicalities of the commercial writer and the idealism of the p o l i t i c a l reformer. There is a suggestion of a wish fulfillment in the portrayal of Will Strong, in The  Poor Man and the Lady, who takes up poli t i c s in London and gives rousing talks to the working classes. And clearly Hardy expected to be able to do his p o l i t i c a l reforming through his novels, u n t i l this f i r s t attempt was re-fused by Macmillans for being too p o l i t i c a l l y subversive and s o c i a l i s t i c . The requirements of the commercial world of publishing forced him to restrain, in his novel-writing, the evidently fervent p o l i t i c a l ideas that he had brought home after his five years in London. As Hardy's career progressed, this conflict between p o l i t i c a l and com-mercial interests was complicated by another conflict. This might be called 5 his "social schizophrenia" in that Hardy became divided by his radical and his conservative instincts. Coming from the lower c l a s s — h i s mother was A brought up by poor law charity, and a l l his relatives from Puddleton and 6 Stinsford had been servants or labourers —Hardy had nevertheless achieved considerable social advance through his parents' business ventures and through his self-education and success as a novelist. His newly attained status brought out his conservative instincts. Whereas, on the one hand, he 7 s t i l l "envied rebellion and non-conformity," on the other hand he grew snob-bish and "establishment." His novels become a mixture of simmering subver-siveness and laboured sophistication as the autodidacte struggled towards social and literary respectability. It i s in this social situation that Hardy's true concerns can be seen. It w i l l be argued that the popular conception of Hardy as the apologist of the peasant or rustic labourer is wrong. His real concern can be found to involve people of slightly higher status, like himself, who were endeavouring to rise i n the social scale. The rare descriptions of rural poverty, like the hiring procedure that Gabriel Oak experiences at Casterbridge, are p r i -marily included to heighten the central drama of the protagonist's attempt to establish himself i n society above the poorer classes. The f i r s t chapter follows the early part of Hardy's career. The impor-tant experiences of the p o l i t i c a l turmoil i n London during the 1860's, and the expression of those experiences in his early novels form the basis of the argument in this thesis for a more p o l i t i c a l l y orientated reading of the Wessex Novels. The f i r s t chapter w i l l discuss a l l the early novels up to The Hand of Ethelberta. It was after this novel that the overt p o l i t i c a l comments, the indignant outbursts against society, virtually ceased i n the novels. But Robert Gittings should not have claimed that i n The Hand of  Ethelberta "Hardy made his last gesture to the class to which he really be-longed. ...The note of protest, which had begun with The Poor Man and the  Lady, i s virtually dropped, i t s last flarings perhaps being Sol Chickerel's speeches to his sister." Hardy's p o l i t i c a l protests clearly continued 5 throughout h i s n o ve l s . What a c t u a l l y happened a f t e r The Hand o f E t h e l b e r t a was tha t Ha rdy ' s p o l i t i c a l f e e l i n g s became compat ib le w i t h the growing t r a g i c v i s i o n of the l a t e r n o ve l s . Whereas, i n the e a r l y nove l s , the po-l i t i c a l pessimism and anger had run counter to the opt imism and happy end-i n g s , i t was now absorbed more harmonious ly and thus l e s s o b t r u s i v e l y i n t o the symbol i c s t r u c t u r e . Thus c r i t i c s have tended to neg lec t the c on t i n ua t i o n of Ha rdy ' s p o l i t i c a l compla ints a f t e r The Hand o f E t h e l b e r t a . I n order to apprec ia te f u l l y the p o l i t i c a l content of the l a t e r major Wessex Nove l s , i t i s necessary t o make a d i f f e r e n t c r i t i c a l approach. I t i s the purpose of the second chapter to e s t a b l i s h t h i s approach. Through a • comparison of Hardy w i t h Pas te rnak , i t w i l l be shown tha t the l a t e r Wessex Novels shou ld be read as " l y r i c a l n o v e l s . " Pa s t e rnak ' s Doctor Zh ivago, w i t h a c a r e f u l symbo l i c s t r u c t u r e beneath an apparent l y fragmented n a r r a t i v e s u r -f a ce , p rov ides a key to the read ing o f the poe t ' s n o v e l . Hardy, i n f a c t , had w r i t t e n of h i s nove l s t ha t "He had most ly aimed a t keeping h i s n a r r a -9 t i v e s . . . a s near to poet ry i n t h e i r sub jec t as the cond i t i on s would a l low. '* And i t w i l l be argued tha t the important p o l i t i c a l concerns of h i s major nove l s are t o be found i n t h e i r fundamental symbo l i c s t r u c t u r e s . The t h i r d and f i n a l chapter w i l l employ the conc lus ions of the f i r s t two chapters i n a p o l i t i c a l read ing of Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s . The same po-l i t i c a l g r i evances of h i s e a r l y ca ree r w i l l be found i n t h i s nove l through the method of c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s e s t a b l i s h ed i n the second chap te r . The p h i l o s o p h i c a l and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s w i l l be seen work ing i n c l o s e harmony w i t h i n the b a s i c symbo l i c s t r u c t u r e s of the n o v e l . The e f f e c t i v e ne s s of Tess as a v e h i c l e f o r p o l i t i c a l compla int w i l l become apparent through an a na l y s i s o f these s t r u c t u r e s . I n her r o l e as the predominant ly pa s s i v e v i c t i m o f so -c i a l convent ions , she demonstrates Hardy ' s p e r e nn i a l theme o f s o c i e t y ' s l a c k of concern f o r i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s . 6 Th i s t h e s i s , then , argues f o r a g rea te r awareness o f Ha rdy ' s p o l i t i c a l message i n both h i s e a r l y and l a t e r n o ve l s . The case f o r such an argument must be e s t ab l i s h ed under a t r i p l e hand icap: Hardy ' s r e t i c en ce i n l a t e r l i f e over the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s of h i s you th , h i s tendency to avo id p o l i t i c s i n the nove ls f o r commercial reasons , and h i s c a r e f u l avoidance of " e d i f i c a -10 t i o n . " But t h i s l a s t po in t i s an important reason why Hardy ' s nove ls are s t i l l read today; as Robert Hei lman has w r i t t e n : "Mere p ro t e s t can produce 11 on ly t o p i c a l works tha t w i l l have b r i e f l i v e s . " The p o l i t i c a l e lement, o f course , was on ly one f a c t o r i n the compos i t ion of the Wessex Nove l s . Th i s t h e s i s does not argue f o r a dominant p o l i t i c a l theme i n Hardy ' s w r i t i n g . Rather , i t a s p i r e s to i n t roduce i n t o the c r i t i c a l canon an awareness of Hardy ' s complex p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s throughout h i s n o v e l - w r i t i n g y e a r s . 7 Footnotes 1 K i ng s l e y Amis, "Comparat ive L i t e r a t u r e i n B r i t a i n , " American Comparative  L i t e r a t u r e News l e t t e r , 3, No. 2 ( F a l l 1969), p . 9 . 2 G.M. T reve l yan , A Shortened H i s t o r y of England (Harmondsworth, M idd l e sex , 1967), p. 449. 3 Thomas Hardy, Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s (London, 1912), c h . XXX. I n view of the gene ra l u n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the 1912 Wessex E d i t i o n o f Ha rdy ' s nove l s , a l l r e fe rences t o the Wessex Novels w i l l be g i ven on ly by chap te r . 4 B o l s h a i a Sove t ska i a E n t s i k l o p e d i i a (Moscow, 1950—58), 46, p. 72 . My t r ans . 5 John Fowles, Rev. o f The World of Char les Dickens by Angus W i l s on , L i f e , 4 Sept . 1970, pp. 8 -9 . 6 Robert G i t t i n g s , Young Thomas Hardy (London, 1975), pp . 192-93. 7 A l b e r t J . Guerard , Thomas Hardy; The Novels and the S t o r i e s (New York , 1964), p. 4 . 8 G i t t i n g s , p. 209. 9 F lo rence Emi ly Hardy, The L i f e of Thomas Hardy 1840-1928 (London, 1962), p. 29. 10 I b i d . , p. 225. " . . . t h e drama, l i k e the n o v e l , shou ld not be f o r e d i f i c a -t i o n . " 11 Robert B. He i lman, I n t r o du c t i o n t o Jude the Obscure (New York , 1966), p. 5 . Chapter I P o l i t i c a l Aspects of Hardy ' s E a r l y Nove ls I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o make a study of Hardy ' s l i f e , e s p e c i a l l y h i s e a r l y l i f e , w i thout r e s o r t i n g t o some con je c tu re s . Purdy has shown tha t the o f f i -c i a l b iography of Hardy—The L i f e of Thomas Hardy 1840-1928 by F lo rence Emi ly Hardy—was w r i t t e n by the b iographee h i m s e l f , and tha t the s e l e c t i v i t y 1 of i t s m a t e r i a l i s des igned t o concea l much of h i s p e r s ona l l i f e . Z e i t l ow desc r ibes The L i f e as " a myth of r e t r o s pe c t i v e s e l f - j u s t i f i c a t i o n " i n sug-ges t i ng tha t Hardy, i n h i s l a s t y e a r s , dec ided upon the p u b l i c image he 2 wished t o leave t o p o s t e r i t y . For apparent ly the same reason , Hardy a l s o dest royed many of h i s p r i v a t e papers , manuscr ipts and l e t t e r s . The r e s u l t i n g absence of i n fo rmat i on and documentation has not s u r p r i s i n g l y g i v en r i s e t o excess i ve s pe cu l a t i on about some of the c a r e f u l l y h idden aspects of Hardy ' s l i f e ; b u t , i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , what has been proved by a study l i k e L o i s 3 Deacon's Prov idence and Mr. Hardy i s not tha t Hardy fa the red a c h i l d by h i s h a l f - s i s t e r , but tha t l ack of documentary ev idence i s l i a b l e t o lead t o s en sa t i o na l t h e o r i e s . In t r a c i n g the p o l i t i c a l aspects of Hardy ' s c a r ee r , the same problem e x i s t s . The c r i t i c must dea l w i t h the f i r s t nove l w i thout the a i d of a manuscr ip t . And the i n f o rma t i on i n The L i f e o f f e r s only a c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l tha t r e f l e c t s an a t t i t u d e h e l d h a l f a century l a t e r . The image of the young Hardy po r t r ayed i n The L i f e i s almost that of a complete ly a p o l i t i c a l man. Y e t , as we s h a l l s ee , t h i s p u b l i c image i s f a r removed from the way Hardy f e l t i n h i s e a r l y y e a r s . One reason f o r t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n cou ld w e l l be Hardy ' s r e t i r i n g pe r -4 s o n a l i t y , h i s s e l f - e n f o r c e d " d i s t a n c e " from l i f e , which appears as e a r l y 8 9 as h i s ch i l dhood . In a ce l eb ra ted r e c o l l e c t i o n , Hardy r e c a l l s " l y i n g on h i s back i n the sun , t h i n k i n g how use l e s s he was , " and cover ing h i s face w i t h a s t raw ha t : "he d i d not want at a l l t o be a man, or t o possess t h i n g s , but t o remain as he was, i n the same spo t , and t o know no more peop le than he 5 a l ready knew (about h a l f a dozen) . " In the same way, he had a l i f e l o n g d i s t a s t e f o r coming i n t o p h y s i c a l contact w i t h o ther peop le . I n The L i f e 6 he c a l l s t h i s t r a i t a loofness r a t he r than shyness. Wi th such a p e r s o n a l i t y , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d Hardy beg inn ing h i s l i t e r a r y ca reer w i t h l y r i c a l , contempla t ive p o e t r y , and remain ing l o y a l t o t h i s mode of exp ress i on throughout h i s l i f e . In h i s y ou th , a f t e r n i ne years o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r a i n i n g , he cons idered r e s i g n i ng h i s p o s i t i o n i n favour o f t he church because he f e l t " t ha t a r c h i t e c t u r e and p o e t r y — p a r t i c -7 u l a r l y a r c h i t e c t u r e i n London—would not work w e l l t o g e t h e r . " Late i n h i s 8 l i f e Hardy was t o say , " L y r i c a l a c t i v i t y was e s s e n t i a l f o r my e x i s t e n c e . " And at one po i n t i n h i s s e l f - e d u c a t i o n he had even gone t o the extreme of read ing no th ing but ve r se : "as i n verse was concent ra ted the essence of a l l imag ina t i ve and emot iona l l i t e r a t u r e , t o read verse and no th ing e l s e was the sho r t e s t way t o t he founta in -head of such , f o r one who had not a great dea l 9 of spare t i m e . " L a t e r on , however, du r i ng h i s years i n London, he d i d take t o read ing T r o l l o p e and t o a t tend ing the read ings of D ickens . Never the less i t was poe t ry tha t Hardy wrote i n h i s e a r l y twen t i e s . Not u n t i l he managed t o p u b l i s h a s a t i r i c a l e s say , "How I B u i l t Myse l f a House," d i d he beg in t o ques t i on the wisdom of r e s t r i c t i n g h imse l f t o poe t r y : " I t may have been the acceptance o f t h i s j e u d ' e s p r i t that tu rned h i s mind i n the 10 d i r e c t i o n o f p r o s e . " Fur ther , ev idence of Hardy ' s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h i s i n a b i l i t y t o p u b l i s h any of h i s poe t ry i s found i n another en t ry i n The L i f e : I t shou ld be mentioned that s e v e r a l months be fo re l e av i ng London he had formed an i d e a of w r i t i n g p lays i n b l ank 10 verse—and had p lanned to t r y the . stage as a supernumerary f o r s i x or twelve months, t o acqu i re t e c h n i c a l s k i l l i n t h e i r c on s t r u c t i on—go i ng so f a r as t o make use of an i n -t r o du c t i o n t o Mark Lemon, the then e d i t o r of Punch . . . f o r h i s op in i on on t h i s p o i n t . But soon a f t e r t h i s Hardy dropped such p l a n s , and i n the Summer of 1867 l e f t London t o s e t t l e i n Dorset permanent ly. Th i s move was i n par t f o r the sake o f h i s d e c l i n i n g h e a l t h ; but Hardy was growing t i r e d of urban l i f e : "He c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y shrank from the bus iness of s o c i a l advancement, ca r i ng 12 f o r l i f e as an emotion r a t he r than f o r l i f e as a sc ience of c l i m b i n g . " And away from such d i s t a s t e f u l s o c i e t y , Hardy f i n a l l y dec ided upon an a l t e r -n a t i v e mode of l i t e r a r y exp re s s i on : Almost suddenly he became more p r a c t i c a l , and que r i ed of h imse l f d e f i n i t e l y how t o ach ieve some t a ng i b l e r e s u l t from h i s desu l t o r y y e t strenuous labours at l i t e r a t u r e du r i ng the p rev ious fou r y e a r s . He cons idered that he knew f a i r l y w e l l bo th West-country l i f e i n i t s l e s s ex-p l o r e d recesses and the l i f e of an i s o l a t e d student cast upon the b i l l o w s of London w i t h no p r o t e c t i o n but h i s b r a i n s — t h e young man of whom i t may be s a i d more t r u l y than perhaps of any, tha t ' save h i s own s ou l he ha th no s t a r . ' The two c on t r a s t i n g exper iences seemed t o a f f o r d him abundant .mater ia l s out o f wh ich t o evo l ve a s t r i k i n g s o c i a l i s t i c nove l—not tha t he menta l l y de f i ned i t as such , f o r the word had probab ly neve r , o r s c a r c e l y eve r , been heard of at tha t da te . 13 Thus, "abandoning verse as a waste of l abou r , " Hardy began h i s f i r s t n o v e l , The Poor Man and the Lady. Hardy 's a p p l i c a t i o n of the word " s o c i a l i s t i c " i n the above passage suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y tha t Hardy was qu i t e deeply i n vo l v ed w i t h the po-l i t i c a l a f f a i r s of the t ime. " S o c i a l i s t " f i r s t appears i n the E n g l i s h l a n -guage i n 1833 hav ing been borrowed from the French word " s o c i a l i s m e . " So-c i a l i s m , i n i t s o r i g i n a l meaning, was " the ownership and c o n t r o l o f the means of p r oduc t i on , c a p i t a l , l a n d , p roper ty by the community as a who le , 14 and t h e i r a dm in i s t r a t i o n of d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the i n t e r e s t s o f a l l . " Th i s was indeed a r e vo l u t i ona r y theory i n the middle of the n i ne teen th cen tu ry , 11 e s p e c i a l l y f o r a n o v e l i s t . What ev idence can be found o f Ha rdy ' s p o l i t i c a l involvement up t o the t ime of h i s f i r s t " s o c i a l i s t i c " nove l? Hardy ' s s tay i n London from A p r i l 1862 t o J u l y 1867 was undoubtedly the most important f a c t o r i n Hardy ' s p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t . The impact o f the "com-15 me r c i a l c a p i t a l of the w o r l d " upon such an a l e r t and impress ionab le mind must have been cons i de rab l e . And Hardy seems t o have made every e f f o r t t o absorb as much as p o s s i b l e of t h i s t h r i v i n g c i t y . In h i s f i r s t yea r t h e r e , he wrote t o h i s s i s t e r , Mary, tha t he would go t o the Great E x h i b i t i o n "two 16 o r three times a week." The few pages i n The L i f e tha t desc r i be Hardy ' s d i scovery of London are a mass of d e t a i l about geograph i ca l changes, unusual e a t i n g p laces and e c c e n t r i c c ha r a c t e r s , s o c i e t y g o s s i p , the thea t re and the opera. He became so i n vo l v ed w i t h London tha t he knew "every s t r e e t and a l l e y west of S t . P a u l ' s l i k e a born Londoner, which he was o f ten supposed 17 t o b e . " But Hardy i s not so forthcoming w i th d e t a i l s of h i s p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i -ences. There i s , however, enough d e t a i l t o suggest cons ide rab l e i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c s . I t i s known tha t he was a frequent v i s i t o r t o the House of Com-mons and he t a l k s w i t h f a m i l i a r i t y about such l ead ing p o l i t i c i a n s of the 18 t ime aso Pa lmerston and R u s s e l l . A s t r ong i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c s i s a l s o i n d i c a t ed i n Hardy ' s statement that he knew "a lmost by h e a r t " J . S . M i l l ' s 19 On L i b e r t y . Th i s i n f o rma t i on comes from a l e t t e r t o The Times i n 1906 which g ives more i n s i g h t i n t o Hardy ' s p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e of the t ime than anyth ing e l s e he o f f e r s i n The L i f e : I t was a day i n 1865, about th ree i n the a f t e rnoon , dur-ing M i l l ' s cand idature f o r Westminster . The hus t i ngs had been e rec ted i n Covent Garden, near the f ron t of S t . P a u l ' s Church; and when I — a young man l i v i n g i n London—drew near the s po t , M i l l was speak ing . The appearance of the author of the t r e a -t i s e On L i b e r t y (which we students of t ha t date knew almost by hear t ) was so d i f f e r e n t from the look of persons who u sua l l y address crowds i n the open a i r tha t i t h e l d the a t t e n t i o n of 12 people f o r whom such a ga ther ing i n i t s e l f had l i t t l e i n t e r e s t . Yet i t was, p r i m a r i l y , tha t of a man out of p l a c e . The r e l i -g ious s i n c e r i t y of h i s speech was j a r r e d on by h i s e n v i r on -ment—a group on the hus t i ngs who, w i t h few ex cep t i on s , d i d not care t o understand h im f u l l y , and a crowd below who cou ld n o t . 2 0 But t h i s account of h i s see ing M i l l i s n o t i c e ab l y absent from the chapter of The L i f e concern ing t h i s p e r i o d i n London. S ince he has omit ted such an important expe r i ence , i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y tha t he a l s o omi t ted w i t n e s s i ng o ther important p o l i t i c a l events l i k e the famous Hyde Park c on f r on t a t i o n on May 6 t h , 1867 when between 100,000 and 150,000 people de f i e d o f f i c i a l l e g i s -l a t i o n and congregated i n order t o demonstrate support f o r manhood su f f r age . At l eas t i t i s documented t ha t Hardy knew pe r s ona l l y the leaders of t h i s important c on f r on t a t i on which l ed t o the second Reform Act of 1867. These leaders were the heads of the Reform League. In an o f f -hand way Hardy t e l l s how he came t o know these p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t s through h i s o f f i c e l o c a -I t may be added tha t the g round - f l oo r rooms of t h i s 8 Ade lph i Te r race were occup ied by the Reform League dur ing Hardy ' s s tay o v e r h e ad . . . . The heads of the League were f a m i l i a r personages t o B l o o m f i e l d ' s p u p i l s , who, as became Tory and Churchy young men, i ndu lged i n s a t i r e at the League's expense, l e t t i n g down i r o n i c a l b i t s of paper on the heads of members, and once coming nea r l y t o l ogge r -heads w i t h the worthy r e s i den t s e c r e t a r y , Mr. George Howe l l— to whom they had t o apo log ize f o r t h e i r exasper-a t i n g conduct* 2 * Hardy, i t shou ld be n o t i c e d , does not i d e n t i f y h imse l f w i t h these p ranks . Rather , the ep i t h e t "wo r thy , " which he app l i e s t o Howe l l , suggests sympathy and r e spec t . Indeed Hardy h e l d gene ra l l y the same a t t i t u d e as the Reform League towards the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e of B r i t i s h s o c i e t y . The Reform League was c reated i n o rder t o a g i t a t e f o r manhood su f f r age and f o r vote by b a l l o t . A recent h i s t o r i a n of the beg inn ings of s o c i a l i s m c la ims " the League was unquest ionab ly the most important o r gan i s a t i on of 22 work ing c l a s s r e f o rme r s . " In 1865 K a r l Marx was a c t i v e l y i n v o l v ed i n the 13 format ion of the League* He wrote t o Enge l s : "The great success of the 23 I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n i s t h i s : The Reform League i s our d o i n g . " Marx may w e l l have been a frequent v i s i t o r t o Ade lph i Ter race at t h i s t ime , and 24 i t i s not at a l l i n conce i vab l e t h a t he was even acqua inted w i t h Hardy. The c l imax o f the Reform League 's a g i t a t i o n occur red i n t h i s Hyde Park con f r on ta t i on of May 1867* I t was a nervous t ime f o r Eng land. The League had grown to 600 branches and reminded the r u l i n g c l a s ses of the f r a g i l i t y of t h e i r power. The v i c t o r y of the League i n t h i s c on f r on t a t i on was commonly known as " the great su r render " as Par l i ament passed the Second Reform B i l l . Hardy l e f t London immediate ly a f t e r these momentous e ven t s , and i t i s ha rd l y s u r p r i s i n g tha t the nove l he then se t about w r i t i n g was t o be • • ' soc i a l -25 i s t i c . " I t i s not recorded i f Hardy became at a l l i nvo lved , w i t h the Reform League, but h i s very presence i n the same b u i l d i n g , at a t ime when the whole coun t ry ' s a t t e n t i o n was focussed upon the League, must have exposed him t o a cons ide rab le amount of i t s a c t i v i t y . H i s l a t e r con fess i on tha t he knew M i l l ' s On L i b e r t y almost by hear t e s t ab l i s h e s h i s sympathy w i t h the gene ra l concepts of the League 's cause. I t was, perhaps , h i s c l a s s s e n s i t i v i t y tha t made him r e l u c t a n t t o support the league openly . Having r a i s ed h imse l f j u s t above the work ing c l a s s , he was probab ly a l s o anxious t o show h i s s epa ra t i on from them. Thus, l i k e h i s f u tu r e f r i e n d , L e s l i e S tephen, who pub l i shed Essays on Reform i n 1867, Hardy was more l i k e l y an e n t h u s i a s t i c on looker r a t he r than a p a r t i c i p a t o r . Th i s would f i t w e l l w i t h the t r a i t of v i c a r i o u s 26 exper ience that H i l l i s M i l l e r f i nds i n Hardy; Neve r t he l e s s , desp i te Hardy ' s p o l i t i c a l i n a c t i v i t y i n London, and desp i te the lack of i n f o rma t i on cn even h i s p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s , we may s a f e l y conclude t h a t he l e f t London i n 1867 extremely d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y . The key t o t h i s conc lu s i on i s The Poor Man and the Lady which he wrote as soon as he re turned to Dorse t . I t supports con jec tures drawn from the 14 very sketchy m a t e r i a l which Hardy p rov ides tha t he was much more p o l i t i c a l l y concerned w i t h r a d i c a l reform than he ever admit ted p u b l i c l y . But here again the researcher i s handicapped; The P bor Man and the Lady was never pub l i s hed and l a t e i n h i s l i f e , perhaps i n order t o h i de h i s y o u t h f u l p o l i t -i c a l excesses , Hardy had the only e x i s t i n g manuscr ipt b u r n t . The contents of t h i s f i r s t n o ve l are only a c c e s s i b l e through th ree f a r from s a t i s f a c t o r y approaches. F i r s t , the re are the r eac t i ons of the th ree eminent readers who were g iven the book t o assess w i t h a view t o p u b l i c a t i o n . Second, Hardy used pa r t s o f the n o v e l i n subsequent works so t ha t p i e c e s of i t can now be r e s t o r ed . And f i n a l l y we have a very mediocre n o v e l l a , An I n d i s c r e t i o n i n the L i f e o f an H e i r e s s , which i s based on the remain ing pa r t s of the o r i g i n a l manuscr ip t . None of these approaches makes up f o r the l oss of the manusc r i p t , but at l e a s t a f a i r p i c t u r e of h i s a t t i t u d e behind the no ve l can be ob ta ined . The recorded r eac t i ons t o the o r i g i n a l manuscr ipt o f The Poor Man and  the Lady i n d i c a t e a pass iona te p o l i t i c a l n o v e l . The f i r s t r eade r , John Mor ley , adv ised A lexander Macmi l lan of i t s "hard sarcasm" and " c y n i c a l des-27 c r i p t i o n " i n dea l i ng w i t h the upper c l a s s e s . Macmi l lan h imse l f spoke of 28 " a who lesa le b l a cken ing of a c l a s s , " and t o l d Hardy: "You 'mean m is -29 c h i e f . ' " And then Me r ed i t h , accord ing t o Hardy , c a l l e d the book " s o c i a l -30 i s t i c , not t o say r e v o l u t i o n a r y . " Hardy r e c a l l e d Mered i th l e c t u r i n g " i n a sonorous v o i c e " : h e . . . s t r o n g l y adv ised i t s author not t o " n a i l h i s co lours t o the mast" so d e f i n i t e l y i n a f i r s t book . . . . The s t o r y was, i n f a c t , a sweeping dramat ic s a t i r e of the squ i rea rchy and no-b i l i t y , London s o c i e t y , the v u l g a r i t y of the midd le c l a s s , modern C h r i s t i a n i t y , c h u r c h - r e s t o r a t i o n , and p o l i t i c a l and domest ic morals i n g e n e r a l , the au thor ' s v i ews , i n f a c t , be ing obv ious l y those of a young man w i t h a pas s i on f o r r e -forming the wo r l d—those of many a young man before and a f t e r h im. A lexander MacmiHan 's correspondence expands upon t h i s ev idence of Hardy ' s p o l i t i c a l pass i on i n The Poor Man and the Lady. In a l e t t e r accom-15 panying the manusc r ip t , a l e t t e r which was perhaps too p o l i t i c a l f o r i n -c l u s i o n i n The L i f e , Hardy exp la ined how he had p lanned h i s a t tack on the upper c l a s s e s , f r e e l y adm i t t i ng h i s subvers i ve i n t e n t i o n s : In w r i t i n g the n o v e l I w ish t o lay be fo re y o u . . . t h e f o l -lowing cons ide ra t i ons had p l a c e . That the upper c l a sses of s o c i e t y have been induced to read , be fo re any, books i n which they themselves are pa i n t ed by a comparat ive o u t s i d e r . Tha t , i n works of such a k i n d , unmi t iga ted ut te rances of s t r ong f e e l i n g aga ins t the c l a s s t o which these readers be -long may l ead them t o throw down a volume i n d i s g u s t ; w h i l s t theyvery same f e e l i n g s i n s e r t e d edgewise so t o s a y — h a l f con-cea led beneath ambiguous exp re s s i on s , or at any r a t e w r i t t e n as i f they were not the c h i e f aims of the book (even though they may be)—become the most a t t r a c t i v e remarks of a l l . 3 * Macmi l l an ' s r ep l y g ives the f u l l e s t account of a p o l i t i c a l f e rvour i n The  Poor Man and the Lady which cou ld not be c o n t r o l l e d . Hardy ' s i n t e n t i o n s f o r "edgewise" i n s e r t i o n of p o l i t i c a l c r i t i c i s m , f o r h a l f concealed c r i t i -cism of the upper c l a s s e s , were apparent ly unable t o ho l d t h e i r own aga ins t h i s emot ions: Your p i c t u r e s of cha rac te r among Londoners, and e s p e c i a l l y the upper c l a s s e s , are sha rp , c l e a r , i n c i s i v e , and i n many respec ts t r u e , but they are who l l y dark—not a ray of l i g h t v i s i b l e to r e l i e v e the darkness , and t he r e f o r e exaggerated and untrue i n t h e i r r e s u l t . The i r f r i v o l i t y , h e a r t l e s s n e s s , s e l f i s h n e s s are great and t e r r i b l e , but the re are o ther s i d e s , and I can ha rd l y conceive that they would do otherwise than what you seek t o a vo i d , " throw down the volume i n d i s g u s t . " Even the worst o f them would h a r d l y , I t h i n k , do th ings tha t you desc r ibe them as d o i n g . . . . The u t t e r hea r t l essness of a l l the conve r sa t i on you g i ve i n drawing-rooms and ba l l - rooms about the wo r k i n g - c l a s s e s , has some ground of t r u t h , I f e a r , and might j u s t l y be scourged, as you aim at do ing , but your chast isement would f a l l harmless from i t s very e x c e s s . . . . I n d e e d , no th ing cou ld j u s t i f y such a who lesa le b l a c ken i ng of a c l a s s but l a rge and i n t ima t e know-ledge of i t . 3 3 With such an i n s i g h t i n t o the vehemence of Hardy ' s p o l i t i c a l mot i ves , i t i s no s u r p r i s e t o f i n d the hero of the nove l c l o s e l y f o l l ow i ng Hardy ' s own expe r i ences ; he i s a l s o a young a r c h i t e c t who goes t o work i n London from Dorse t . Th i s W i l l S t rong seems t o be h i s au tho r ' s a l t e r ego. So when 16 34 Macmi l lan w r i t e s , " W i l l ' s speech t o the work ing men i s f u l l o f w isdom," i t suggests tha t the ep isode was something of a w i s h - f u l f i l m e n t f o r Hardy , perhaps communicating here w i t h the workers i n a way tha t J . S . M i l l had f a i l e d t o do. In the second method of r e con s t r u c t i ng The Poor Man and the Lady , r e -35 ferences t o i n d i v i d u a l scenes by Mor ley and Macmi l lan have enab led c r i t i c s t o i d e n t i f y passages i n l a t e r nove ls which Hardy had l i f t e d from t h i s un-pub l i s hed manuscr ip t . For example, the d e s c r i p t i o n of Rotten Row i n A P a i r  of B lue Eyes seems l i k e l y t o have been taken from The Poor Man and the Lady s i n ce i t i s s a i d i n Macmi l l an ' s l e t t e r : "The scene i n Rot ten Row . . . i s f u l l 36 of r e a l power and i n s i g h t . " To support t h i s M i l l g a t e has d i s covered tha t the scene i n the o r i g i n a l s e r i a l i s e d v e r s i o n of A P a i r of B lue Eyes a l s o conta ined some clumsy s a t i r e of the very k i n d which the th ree readers found 37 i n The Poor Man and the Lady. Th is connect ion w i t h A P a i r o f B lue Eyes i s the most rewarding s i n c e the b i t t e r sarcasm of t h i s l a t e r nove l i s probably the c l o s e s t example we have of the po lemic i n The Poor Man and the Lady, and i t w i l l be d i s cussed i n d e t a i l when t h i s paper comes t o A P a i r of B lue Eyes . The o ther borrowings from the manuscr ipt of The Poor Man and the Lady—the e a r l y d e s c r i p t i o n s of the t r a n t e r ' s house i n Under the Greenwood T r ee , the d e s c r i p t i o n s of Knap-water House—are not r e l evan t t o t h i s enqu i ry i n t o p o l i t i c a l content ; but they do con f i rm a pa t t e rn of borrowings from The Poor Man and the Lady man-u s c r i p t , which adds weight t o the va lue of the important ones i n A P a i r of 38 - — B lue Eyes . The f i n a l source of i n fo rma t i on on the content o f 'The Poor Man and the  Lady i s the n o v e l l a . An I n d i s c r e t i o n i n the L i f e of an H e i r e s s . Th i s work was pub l i s hed by Hardy i n 1878 but t h e r e a f t e r t o t a l l y ignored by h im. I t i s a t h i n work and more of a commercial e f f o r t than any of h i s o ther nove l s . 17 I t seems qu i t e c e r t a i n tha t t h i s n o v e l l a was the remains of the o r i g i n a l manuscr ipt o f The Poor Man and the Lady a f t e r i t had been p i l l a g e d f o r ma-t e r i a l i n o the r nove ls (Desperate Remedies, Under the Greenwood T r ee , A P a i r  o f B lue E ye s ) . I t s f a i l u r e t o use the s tanda rd i zed Wessex p l ace names, which puts i t at l e a s t be fo re Under the Greenwood T r e e , would seem t o support t h i s . I t was not u n t i l a f t e r Ha rdy ' s death tha t two book e d i t i o n s of An I n - d i s c r e t i o n i n the L i f e of an He i res s were pub l i s hed from the s e r i a l e d i t i o n . Mrs Hardy pub l i s hed an e d i t i o n of 100 cop ies at the Curwen P r e s s , P l a i s t o w , p r e f a c i ng the book w i t h the f o l l o w i n g : An I n d i s c r e t i o n i n the L i f e of an He i r e s s i s an adapta t ion by the author of h i s " f i r s t n o v e l , The Poor Man and the Lady, which was never p ub l i s h ed . The manuscr ipt o f the l a t t e r was dest royed by Thomas Hardy some years be fo re h i s death and no copy remains. 39 40 An American e d i t i o n has a much more e l abo ra te i n t r o d u c t i o n by C a r l Weber. By r e sea r ch ing every source f o r d e t a i l s o f The Poor Man and the Lady , Weber creates a long l i s t of i t s contents . He then e x t r a c t s a l l . t h o s e i n c i d en t s which appeared i n l a t e r nove ls or which were adverse ly c r i t i c i z e d by the readers of The Poor Man and the Lady manusc r i p t , and f i nds tha t he i s l e f t w i t h f o r t y i t ems , a l l o f which are to be found i n An I n d i s c r e t i o n i n the L i f e of an He i r e s s . Such a t i d y argument does not s tand up t o c l o se s c r u t i n y . F i r s t , h i s argument i s based on the roost u n l i k e l y fac t tha t a l l the b a s i c d e t a i l s of The Poor Man and the Lady were somehow mentioned by those few people who wrote about i t . Second, some of Weber's s p e c i f i c c la ims are suspec t . For example, he c la ims tha t the speech by the hero i n T r a f a l g a r Square was omit ted a f t e r adverse comments by John Mor ley ; but Morley never 41 c r i t i c i z e d t h i s pa r t of the o r i g i n a l The Poor Man and the Lady manuscr ip t . Macm i l l an , i n f a c t , d i d the oppos i te and p r a i s e d i t . L i kew ise Mor ley d i d no t , as Weber c l a ims , c r i t i c i z e the scene where the hero i s tu rned out of the A l l amon t ' s house. In s h o r t , one suspects Weber of t r y i n g too hard to 1 8 make a neat t h e s i s . Never the less Weber's argument moves i n the r i g h t d i -r e c t i o n , and does much t o support the view tha t An I n d i s c r e t i o n i n the L i f e  of an He i r e s s was adapted from the remnants of The Poor Man and the Lady manusc r ip t , a f t e r the recent u t i l i s a t i o n of i t s content f o r The Hand o f  E t h e l b e r t a . The whole process of adap ta t i on appears t o have been rushed, and the f ac t t ha t he d i d not bo ther t o change the p l a ce names t o h i s s t and -4 2 ard Wessex ones i n d i c a t e s t ha t Hardy d i d not e d i t t oo tho rough l y . I f the e d i t i n g of The Poor Man and the Lady was not tho rough , what ev idence of i t s p o l i t i c a l b i t t e r n e s s s t i l l remains i n An I n d i s c r e t i o n i n the L i f e of an He i re s s? The most important element i s the s t r u c t u r e o f the s t o r y which i s based upon c l a s s s t r i f e : " I t was a ha rd matter at f i r s t f o r me t o fo rge t y ou , c e r t a i n l y ; but perhaps I was he lped i n my wish by the s t rong p r e j ud i c e I o r i g i n a l l y had aga ins t your c l a s s and f am i l y . I have f i x e d my mind f i r m l y upon the d i f f e r en ce s between u s , and my y o u t h f u l fancy 4 3 i s p r e t t y f a i r l y overcome." As i n a l l Hardy ' s n o v e l s , the c a t a l y s t f o r s o c i a l s t r i f e i s l o ve . A r i c h h e i r e s s f a l l s i n love w i t h the hero Egber t : I t p l a i n l y had not c rossed he r young mind tha t she was on the verge of committ ing the most h o r r i b l e s o c i a l s i n — t h a t of l o v i ng beneath h e r , and owning tha t she so l o ved . Two years thence she might see the imprudence of he r conduct , and blame him f o r hav ing l ed her o n . ^ The hero i s an educated but lowly born man l i k e Hardy h i m s e l f , who through educa t i on has r i s e n t o a g rea te r unders tand ing of t he i n e q u a l i t i e s of s o c i -e t y : " . . . a n d he entered on r a t i o n a l cons i de ra t i ons of what a vast g u l f lay between tha t lady and h i m s e l f , what a troublesome wor l d i t was t o l i v e i n where such d i v i s i o n s cou ld e x i s t , and how p a i n f u l was the e v i l when a man of 4 5 h i s unequal h i s t o r y was possessed o f a keen s u s c e p t i b i l i t y . " Th i s h i ghe r educat ion i n someone not of h i gh b i r t h compounds the d i f f i c u l t i e s of c ou r t -s h i p ; the hero offends both i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and s o c i a l l y : "You t a l k i n tha t s t r a i n t o make me f e e l r e g r e t s ; and you t h i nk that because you are read i n a 19 4 6 few books you may say o r do any t h i ng . " The h e i r e s s . Miss A l l e n v i l l e , b e i ng only s i x t e e n , i s n a t u r a l l y f i c k l e and unp red i c t ab l e . And Hardy uses t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o make h i s most potent p o l i t i c a l comment. Egbe r t , the he ro , l i v e s w i t h h i s g randfa ther who i s a tenant farmer on the A l l e n v i l l e e s t a t e . The p rev ious genera t ion had l i f e tenancy, but now i t i s renewed annua l l y . And j u s t as Egbert and Miss A l l e n v i l l e f a l l i n l o v e , her f a t h e r , s qu i r e A l l e n v i l l e , dec ides t o d i spossess Egbe r t ' s g rand fa the r i n o rder t o en la rge h i s park . Through h i s f r i e nd sh i p w i t h Miss A l l e n v i l l e , Egbert i s ab le t o arrange a postponement of the p r o j e c t s i n c e h i s grand-f a t he r i s deeply at tached t o h i s home. But when Egbert exceeds h i s own d i s -c r e t i o n and emot iona l l y expresses h i s love t o Miss A l l e n v i l l e , he f i nds tha t the enlargement scheme i s t o be c a r r i e d out a f t e r a l l and tha t "Miss A l l e n -4 7 v i l l e was extremely anxious t o have i t put i n hand as soon as p o s s i b l e . " The f a t e of the g r and f a the r ' s house—and h i s l i f e , as i t tu rns ou t—are thus sub jec t t o the whims of a s p o i l t s i x t e en y ea r o l d ado lescen t . Th i s s i t u a t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y po r t r a y s a f a ce t of the s o c i a l system that Hardy found so d i s -t a s t e f u l ; the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the tenant farmer who has no f r eeho l d i s h i g h l i g h t e d by the o l d g rand fa the r ' s b i t t e r expec ta t i on of t h i s t ragedy: ' I thought i t would come t o t h i s , ' s a i d o l d R i c h a r d , vehe-ment ly . The present squ i r e A l l e n v i l l e has never been any r e a l f r i e n d t o me. I t was only through h i s w i f e tha t I have stayed here so l ong . I f i t hadn ' t been f o r h e r , we should have gone the very yea r that my poor f a the r d i e d , and the house f e l l i n t o hand. I w i sh we had now. You see , now she ' s dead, t h e r e ' s nobody t o counteract h im i n h i s schemes; and I am t o be swept away.^8 Th i s theme of the power of the squ i r e over h i s tenants i s taken up again i n 4 9 Desperate Remedies and i n The Woodlanders. In ka I n d i s c r e t i o n i n the L i f e of an He i res s i t i s most e f f e c t i v e l y conveyed by t h i s i r ony of the grand-f a t h e r hav ing t o depend on the whims o f t he s q u i r e ' s daughter f o r h i s home. Other e f f o r t s tend t o be s en t imen t a l : 20 The o l d f a rmer ' s amiable d i s p o s i t i o n and k i n d l i n e s s o f h e a r t , wh i l e they had h indered him from en r i ch i ng h imse l f one s h i l l i n g dur ing the course of a long and l abo r i ou s l i f e , had a l s o kept him c l e a r of every arrow of an tag-on i sm.^ 0 S ince the l ove s t o r y and the f a t e of the g r and f a t he r ' s house form the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e of the n o v e l l a , i t would appear tha t these s i t u a t i o n s were a l s o an i n t e g r a l pa r t o f the o r i g i n a l The Poor Man and the Lady. And they g i ve a very good i n d i c a t i o n of Ha rdy ' s e a r l y attempts to mould h i s f e e l i n g s of p o l i t i c a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t o a r t . I t seems l i k e l y , however, as Weber has argued, tha t these two themes—the love s t o r y and the d i sposses s i ng of the grandfather—were the most e f f e c t i v e pa r t s o f the longer The Poor Man and  the Lady. In h i s adap ta t i on f o r the n o v e l l a , Hardy must have omi t ted a con -s i d e r a b l e amount o f m a t e r i a l ; f o r we know from the r ea c t i on s o f the readers tha t the re was o r i g i n a l l y a l a r ge amount of y o u t h f u l p o l i t i c a l po l em ic . With Far From the Madding Crowd and The Return of the Na t i v e beh ind h im, h i s l i t e r a r y s e n s i b i l i t y would have been offended t o the po in t o f e x c l u s i o n by such excesses . And he may w e l l have remembered the c r i t i c i s m o f the p o l i t -i c a l m a t e r i a l made by the o r i g i n a l readers of The Poor Man and the Lady ten years b e f o r e . The nove l s o f Hardy were t o be deeply i n f l u en ced by those th ree readers of The Poor Man and the Lady. A f t e r h i s f a i l u r e to p u b l i s h h i s nove l i n 1868, he dec ided tha t the adv ice of h i s very exper ienced readers shou ld be heeded to the l e t t e r . I n The L i f e he concluded tha t " t he s a t i r e was ob-51 v i o u s l y pushed too f a r . " I t was s u r p r i s i n g f o r him to f i n d " t h a t , i n the op i n i on of such exper ienced c r i t i c s , he had w r i t t e n so aggress i ve and even 52 dangerous a work . " Mered i th had, i n f a c t , warned him that i f he pub l i shed The Poor Man and the Lady, " the press would be about h i s ears l i k e ho r -53 n e t s . " And he adv ised Hardy e i t h e r t o r ew r i t e the s t o r y and tone down the p o l i t i c a l con ten t , "Or what would be much b e t t e r , put i t away a l t oge the r f o r 1 21 the p r e s en t , and attempt a nove l w i t h a pu r e l y a r t i s t i c purpose, g i v i n g i t a 54 more compl i ca ted ' p l o t ' than was attempted w i t h The Poor Man and the Lady . " 55 Hardy chose the second a l t e r n a t i v e , app l i e d i t " t o o l i t e r a l l y " as he l a t e r saw i t , and wrote Desperate Remedies which was s imply crammed w i t h p l o t and which avoided p o l i t i c a l rancour almost comp le te ly . The commitment t o p l o t i s forewarned i n the ep igraph t o the n o v e l . I t i s a quo t a t i on from S i r Wa l te r S co t t : Though an unconnected course of adventure i s what most f r e -quent l y occurs i n n a t u r e , ye t the p rov ince of the romance-w r i t e r be ing a r t i f i c i a l , there i s more r equ i r ed from h im than mere compl iance w i t h the s i m p l i c i t y of r e a l i t y . T h i s , as M i l l g a t e s a y s , " se rves as an apo log i a f o r the con t r i vances of the p l o t and po i n t s towards such elements i n the s to ry as the he igh tened , melo-57 dramat ic q u a l i t y o f much of the a c t i o n . " Th i s was a v o l t e face a f t e r The Poor Man and the Lady which was s u b t i t l e d "A S to ry w i t h no P l o t ; " and Hardy cons idered Desperate Remedies " the melodramat ic nove l q u i t e below the l e v e l 58 of The Poor Man and the Lady . " Con t i nua l compla ints about the forma l de-mands of the no ve l o r i g i n a t e from t h i s t ime when, aga ins t " h i s n a t u r a l 59 g r a i n " and judgement, Hardy made great concess ions t o the commercial and formal demands of the n o v e l . In the same way Hardy a l s o toned down h i s p o l i t i c a l venom. There i s s t i l l some s o c i a l b i t t e r n e s s i n Desperate Remedies but the p o l i t i c a l comment has been d r a s t i c a l l y cut t o a few outburs ts tha t do not have c e n t r a l r e l e -vance t o the theme. But these outburs ts are important f o r t h i s t h e s i s s i n c e they con f i rm tha t Hardy s t i l l harboured the same o l d p o l i t i c a l f e e l i n g s . E a r l y i n the n o v e l , j u s t as F lauber t had done a few years b e f o r e , Hardy a t tacks the bourgeo is shopkeeper, not on ly f o r what he represents but a l s o f o r h i s lack of human sympathy: Anc ient po twa l l o pe r s , and t h r i v i n g shopkeepers, i n t h e i r i n t e r -v a l s of l e i s u r e , s tood at t h e i r s hop -doo r s—the i r toes hanging 22 over the edge of the s t e p , and t h e i r obese wa i s t s hanging over t h e i r t oes—and i n d i s courses w i t h f r i e nd s on the pavement formulated the course of the improv iden t , and reduced the c h i l d r e n ' s p rospec ts t o a shadow- l i ke a t t enua t i on . The sons of these men (who wore b r ea s t p i n s o f a s a r c a s t i c k i n d , and smoked humourous p i pes ) s t a r ed at Cytherea w i t h a s t a r e unmit -i ga t ed by any of the respect tha t had former ly so f tened i t . ** 0 Here , as a lways , the b a s i s f o r Hardy ' s compla int i s the lack o f respect f o r another ' s i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Th i s i s a l s o at the root of h i s contempt f o r the c l a s s system: Miss A l d c l y f f e , l i k e a good many others i n h e r p o s i t i o n , had p l a i n l y not r e a l i z e d tha t a son o f her tenant and i n f e r i o r cou ld have become an educated man, who had l e a r n t t o f e e l h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y , t o view s o c i e t y from a bohemian s t andpo in t , f a r ou t s i de the farming grade i n C a r r i f o r d . p a r i s h , and hence he had a l l a developed man's unorthodox op in ions about the subo rd ina t i on of the c l a s s e s . 1 Hardy ' s p o r t r a y a l of Miss A l d c l y f f e f o l l ows tha t of Squ i re A l l e n v i l i e i n An  I n d i s c r e t i o n i n the L i f e o f an He i r e s s i n t h a t , as s q u i r e , ' s h e has complete c o n t r o l over her t enan t s ; and the i n j u s t i c e of such a s i t u a t i o n i s aga in emphasised by the f a c t tha t he r de c i s i on s over Farmer Sp r i ng rove ' s s i t u a t i o n are founded upon the whims of femin ine fancy j u s t as Squ i re A l l e n v i l l e ' s were through h i s daughter . A l s o i n Desperate Remedies can be found what must be the b l a ckes t scene of pover ty tha t Hardy ever de s c r i bed . S u r p r i s i n g l y , i t i s urban pove r t y ; and a l c oho l i s seen as the immediate cause, though not the fundamental one. A l coho l i sm here i s t r e a t e d q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y from i t s somewhat comic de-p i c t i o n i n Far From the Madding Crowd; i t i s even desc r i bed more r e a l i s t i c a l -l y than the p a t h e t i c a dd i c t i o n of John Du r be y f i e l d : A few cha i r s and a t ab l e were the c h i e f a r t i c l e s of f u r n i t u r e i n the t h i r d - f l o o r back room which they occup ied . A r o l l of baby l i nen ' : l ay on the f l o o r ; bes ide i t a pap-c logged spoon and an over turned t i n p a p - c u p . . . . A baby was c r y i n g aga inst every c h a i r l e g , the whole fam i l y o f s i x or seven be ing sma l l enough t o be covered by a wash ing- tub. Mrs H igg ins sat h e l p l e s s , c l o thed i n a dress which had hooks and eyes i n p l e n t y , but never one oppos i te the o t he r , thereby render ing the dress a l -most use less as a screen t o the bo som. . . . 23 I t was a depress ing p i c t u r e of mar r i ed l i f e among the very poor of a c i t y . Only f o r one sho r t hour i n the whole twen ty - fou r d i d husband and w i f e t a s t e genuine happ iness . I t was i n the even ing , when, a f t e r the s a l e of some neces -sa ry a r t i c l e of f u r n i t u r e , they were under the i n f l u en ce of a qua r t e rn o f gin.^2 Pover ty i s an important theme i n Desperate Remedies. The f i n a n c i a l v u l n e r -a b i l i t y of Cytherea and he r b r o t he r fo r ces her i n t o an undes i red marr iage: 63 "Mar ry ing f o r a home—what a mockery i t was ! " And w h i l e one can agree w i t h Kenneth Bou ld ing t ha t " a r t almost depends on i n e q u a l i t y and i n j u s -64 t i c e , " Desperate Remedies s t i l l exposes i t s author as more d i s s a t i s f i e d than most w i t h the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e of Eng l i s h s o c i e t y—and t h i s desp i t e Hardy ' s consc ious e f f o r t t o mellow h i s p o l i t i c a l r a d i c a l i s m . Wi th h i s next n o v e l , Under the Greenwood T r ee , Hardy made even g r ea t e r concess ions t o commercial demands. Encouraged by John Mor l ey ' s p r a i s e of h i s r u s t i c charac ters i n The Poor Man and the Lady, and by:f s i m i l a r favourab le r eac t i ons i n the Spec ta to r and Athenaeum reviews of Desperate Remedies, Hardy des igned a shor t nove l around these r u s t i c t y pe s , u s i ng some o f the manu-s c r i p t of The Poor Man and the Lady. With n e a r l y a decade of l i v i n g i n Lon-don behind h im , he had the exper ience t o know what aspects of r u r a l l i f e would be l i k e l y t o p l ea se h i s predominant ly urban r eade r sh i p . And Under the  Greenwood Tree tu rned out t o be h i s most popu la r nove l i n the n i ne t een th century . Now over t h i r t y , Hardy had no doubt outgrown exces s i ve y o u t h f u l enthu-s iasm f o r l i b e r t y and i n d i v i d u a l i s m . Yet i t i s ha rd t o r e c o n c i l e h i s p r e -v ious p o l i t i c a l consc ience w i t h the d ep i c t i o n of r u r a l l i f e that appeared i n Under the Greenwood Tree . In t h i s n o ve l there i s l i t t l e ev idence of sympathy f o r the people he i s d e s c r i b i n g . In e f f e c t , Hardy has taken on the p a t r o n -i z i n g tone o f a s o p h i s t i c a t e d Londoner t o desc r i be the very r u s t i c s amongst whom he grew up. H i s avowed attempt t o "draw the charac te r s humourous ly . 24 65 w i thout c a r i c a t u r e " was not s u c c e s s f u l . As Robert Dra f fan has po i n t ed ou t , 66 Hardy ' s emphasis i s on " t he p h y s i c a l gaucher ie of t h e g roup . " And h i s attempt at humour produced " s u p e r c i l i o u s n e s s , pa t ronage, condescens ion, and 67 arrogance i n the p o r t r a y a l o f the c h o i r . " A p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t a s t e f u l i n -stance of Hardy ' s humour occurs i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the c h o i r ' s i n t e r v i ew w i t h the v i c a r ; D ra f f an puts i t w e l l when he c a l l s i t "an e x e r c i s e i n de-68 p r e c i a t i o n . " One wonders how aware Hardy was of t h i s r a the r d i s t a s t e f u l element at the time he was w r i t i n g the n o v e l . The sympathy f o r the r u s t i c s that was apparent i n the f i r s t two nove l s has d im in i shed con s i de r ab l y ; and s i n ce Hardy i s perhaps best known f o r h i s r u s t i c c ha r a c t e r s , i t i s a po i n t tha t w i l l be d i s cussed aga in . I t i s no t at a l l s u r p r i s i n g tha t Hardy l a t e r f e l t the. need t o apo log i ze f o r the n o v e l ' s t reatment of i t s sub jec t : In re read ing the n a r r a t i v e a f t e r a long i n t e r v a l there occurs the i n e v i t a b l e r e f l e c t i o n tha t the r e a l i t i e s out o f which i t was spun were m a t e r i a l f o r another k i n d of study of t h i s l i t t l e group of church mus i c i ans than i s found i n the chapters here penned so l i g h t l y , even so f a r c i c a l l y and f l i p p a n t l y at t imes . But c i rcumstances would have rendered any aim at a deeper, more e s s e n t i a l , more t ranscendent hand-l i n g unadv i sab le at the date of w r i t i n g . These " c i r cumstances" were , i n p a r t , commerc ia l , and they l ed t o a d e s c r i p -t i o n of r u r a l l i f e that c l e a r l y had no r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the h o r r i f y i n g con-d i t i o n s t ha t a c t u a l l y e x i s t e d e i t h e r at the t ime of w r i t i n g , o r i n 1835, the 70 yea r i n which Hardy c l ums i l y t r i e d t o se t h i s n o v e l . Under the Greenwood  Tree shows none of the s u f f e r i n g from s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y ; t he r e i s no r e a l -i s t i c s o c i a l c on tex t . The ha rdsh ip and b leak fu tu re tha t faced the Dorset r u s t i c s i s i gnored as Hardy p rov ides something c l o s e r t o a p a s t o r a l i d y l l : ' . . . T h a t couple between 'em have heaped up so much f u r n i t u r e and v i c t u a l s t ha t anybody would th i nk they were going t o take ho l d the b i g end of mar r i ed l i f e f i r s t , and beg in w i ' a grown-up f a m i l y . ' ^ l Wi th t h i s i d e a l i s i n g of r u r a l l i f e , Hardy went even f u r t h e r than he had 25 done w i t h Desperate Remedies t o avo id p o l i t i c a l content . The o r i g i n a l v e r -s i o n was, i n f a c t , even l e s s p o l i t i c a l l y sugges t i ve than the f i n a l i z e d one we have today . M i l l g a t e has shown t h a t i n the r e v i s i o n s Hardy made i n 1896 and 1912 the s o c i a l gap between Fancy and Dick was widened by making Geof f rey Day much more prosperous and by i n c r e a s i n g the d i a l e c t o f D i ck . Thus the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n o f Under the Greenwood Tree avo ided overtones o f c l a s s i n -e q u a l i t y and moved complete ly away from the s p i r i t of The Poor Man and the  Lady. Where Hardy had been w r i t i n g from pe r sona l c o n v i c t i o n , he was now a p r o f e s s i o n a l n o v e l i s t , hav ing mastered h i s t rade very q u i c k l y . But de sp i t e commercia l suc ces s , Hardy was not at a l l p roud o f h i s newly found s t a t u s . And through h i s t h i r t y years as a n o v e l i s t Hardy cont inued t o 72 demean n o v e l - w r i t i n g . I t was "mere journey work . " He " d i d not care much 73 f o r a r epu t a t i on as a n o v e l i s t , " and a f t e r Jude the Obscure dec ided t o "abandon at once a form of l i t e r a r y a r t he had long in tended t o abandon at 74 some i n d e f i n i t e t i m e . " And i n A P a i r o f B lue Eyes , h i s next n o v e l , one can see f u r t h e r e v i -dence tha t t h i s s t a t u s of p r o f e s s i o n a l n o v e l i s t made Hardy i l l - a t - e a s e . F i r s t of a l l , he makes h i s n a i v e he ro ine i n t o something of a s u c c e s s f u l n o v e l i s t . Then he puts some very s i g n i f i c a n t words i n t o the mouth of Knight as he t a l k s w i t h the h e r o i n e , E l f r i d e , about nove l w r i t i n g : 'Why don ' t you w r i t e n o v e l s , Mr. K n i g h t ? ' 'Because I c ou l dn ' t w r i t e one tha t would i n t e r e s t anybody. ' 'Why?' ' F o r s e v e r a l reasons. I t r equ i r e s a j u d i c i o u s omiss ion of your r e a l thoughts t o make a no ve l popu l a r , f o r one t h i n g . Neve r t he l e s s , A P a i r o f Blue Eyes , l i k e Desperate Remedies, shows tha t p o l i t i c a l matters are s t i l l nagging at Hardy. Stephen Smi th ' s s t o r y has a c l o se a f f i n i t y w i t h t h a t of the hero of The Poor Man and the Lady; Stephen i s yet another of Hardy ' s heroes who come from lowly s o c i a l p o s i t i o n but have a h i ghe r*educa t i on . Us ing Stephen as a c a t a l y s t of t h i s c l a s s p r e j ud i c e he 26 hated so much, Hardy makes one of h i s s t ronges t a t tacks on V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y , i t s c l a s s system be i ng the main method of ma in ta i n i ng a m ino r i t y c o n t r o l o f the count ry . One of the f i n e s t of Hardy ' s p o r t r a y a l s o f c l a s s p r e j ud i c e occurs when the Rev. Swancourt f i n a l l y d i s cove r s tha t Stephen i s not o f h i gh b i r t h . I n i t i a l l y the v i c a r had h igh op in ions of h im—"You be long t o a wel l -known 76 anc ient county f am i l y—no t o rd ina ry Smiths i n the l e a s t " —and even when he found Stephen was no t a member of the n o b i l i t y , he was s t i l l sure of h i s 77 b reed ing—"You may be on ly a f am i l y of p r o f e s s i o n a l men now." But the f i n a l d i s covery tha t Stephen i s on ly " the son of one of my v i l l a g e peas-r_ 78 ants" i s t o o much f o r h im and he complains t o h i s daughter: He appeared a young man w i t h w e l l - t o - d o f r i e n d s , and a l i t t l e p r ope r t y ; but hav ing n e i t h e r he i s another man. . . .And any man, on d i s c o v e r i n g what I have d i s c o ve r ed , would a l s o do as I do , and mend my m i s t a ke ; t ha t i s , get shot of him aga i n , as soon as the laws of h o s p i t a l i t y w i l l a l l o w . ^ Then Hardy adds a master l y t ouch : "But Mr. Swancourt then remembered tha t he was a C h r i s t i a n . ' I would no t , f o r the w o r l d , seem t o tu rn h im out of d oo r s , ' he added; '.but I t h i n k he w i l l have the t a c t t o see t h a t he cannot 80 s tay long a f t e r t h i s , w i t h good t a s t e . ' " Mr. Swancourt i s , o f cou r se , much more than a C h r i s t i a n ; he i s a v i c a r . Avo i d i ng d i d a c t i c i s m , Hardy has d e f t l y shown how con t ra ry t o the t rue p r i n c i p l e s of C h r i s t i a n i t y c l a s s p r e -j u d i c e i s . In A P a i r o f B lue Eyes there i s a l s o some s c a t h i ng s o c i a l s a t i r e , most o f wh i c h , a f t e r some h o s t i l e r e a c t i o n , was de l e t ed by Hardy f o r the book e d i t i o n . Th i s s a t i r e shows tha t s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y and i n j u s t i c e s t i l l weighed h e a v i l y on Hardy ' s consc i ence , but f i n d i n g s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l comment s t i l l d e t r imen ta l t o h i s c a r e e r , he again has t o accept an "om i s s i on of your own though t s . " I t i s i n chapter 14 tha t the f i r s t s t r ong s a t i r e appears. The r e c en t l y 27 mar r i ed Mrs Swan court takes a d r i v e i n Hyde Park w i t h he r f a m i l y , and t r i e s t o show he r s tep-daughter how w e l l she knows London s o c i e t y . A f t e r a long pe r i od of obse rva t i on from the o u t s i d e , she c la ims t o have l ea rn t about the " a r t i f i c i a l i t y " o f h i gh s o c i e t y j u s t as the farmer has l ea rn t " the s i gns of n a t u r e " : ' J u s t look at t h a t d a u g h t e r ' s - s i s t e r c l a s s of mamma i n the c a r r i a ge across t h e r e . . . . T h e absorb ing s e l f - c ons c i ou snes s , of he r p o s i t i o n tha t i s shown by he r countenance i s most hu -m i l i a t i n g t o a l o ve r of one's count ry . You would ha rd l y b e -l i e v e , would y o u . that members of a f ash ionab le w o r l d , whose p ro fessed z e r o i s f a r above the h ighes t degree o f the humble, cou ld be so ignorant of the e lementary i n s t i n c t s o f r e t i c e n c e . ' •How?' 'Why, t o bear on t h e i r f a c e s , as p l a i n l y as on a p h y l a c -t e r y , the i n s c r i p t i o n , "Do, p r a y , look at the coronet on my p a n e l s . ' " 8 2 There then fo l l ows the passage which has been compared t o the p robab le s t y l e of The Poor Man and the Lady. Hardy de l e t ed t h i s pa r t from the 1895 book e d i t i o n . Mrs Swancourt i s s t i l l speak ing: ' . . . o r , "Look at the leaves and pea r l s i n my co rone t ; " o r , "Look at the leaves pure and unmixed i n mine. I don ' t s a y , " they seem t o go on say ing t o the shabby peop l e , " tha t I w ish you t o th i nk us connected w i t h the Norman conquest of y o u , wretched Nobody-knows-who," or whatever the word of the s ea -son i s f o r the poore r i n hab i t a n t s o f the coun t r y , "but we a r e , and the re i s our c re s t and s i g n i f i c a n t mot to .*" ' 0 Mrs Swan c ou r t . " s a i d E l f r i d e . 'But I much p r e f e r the manners of my acquaintance of tha t c l a s s t o the way some of u s , w i t h no t i t l e but much w e a l t h , look at the s t r a gg l e r s f o r g e n t i l i t y . There ' s a spec imen—there ' s another . The g lance i n them i s mod i f i ed t o " 0 , moneyless ones, t h i s b r a c e l e t I wear , we igh ing t h r e e -quar te r s of a pound, i s r e a l gold. ' S o l i d , you know—r :\V s , o , l , i . d , — r i g h t through t o the midd le and out the o ther s i d e . ' " 8 2 Hardy ' s d i s t a s t e f o r snobbery can be seen throughout h i s n o v e l s , but i t was never dea l t w i t h i n such a b i t t e r way. Though c l e a r l y aware of the d e t r i -menta l e f f e c t such w r i t i n g would have on h i s commercial suc ces s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to see tha t Hardy can s t i l l no t r e s i s t a t t a c k i ng the e s t a b l i s h -ment c l a s s e s . 28 L a t e r , i n Chapter 36, Hardy engaged i n f u r t h e r s a t i r e . Here h i s t a r ge t was the p r o v i n c i a l equ i va l en t of the fash ionab le wo r l d of London. He be -g ins w i t h an attack on the shop-keeper who gets ha r she r treatment than he d i d i n Desperate Remedies. In these passages the re were i n t e r e s t i n g amend-ments f o r the 1877 book e d i t i o n . These w i l l appear unde r l i n ed , and the de-l e t ed o r i g i n a l w i l l f o l l ow i n b r a c k e t s . Again i t w i l l be no ted how Hardy tones down h i s s a t i r e by om i s s i on , by r educ t i on of a f f e c t ed language, and by replacement of exaggerated words: 'When we came here s i x months ago,' ' cont inued Mrs. Sm i th , ' though I had p a i d ready money (up r igh t go ld) so many years i n the town, my f r i s k i e r shopkeepers would ( t hey ' d ) on ly speak over the counte r . Meet them ('em)"Tn the s t r e e t h a l f - a n - hou r a f t e r , and t h e y ' d t r ea t me w i t h s t a r i n g ignorance of my f a c e . ' 'Look through ye as through a g l a s s window (w i nde r ) ? ' 'Yes ( A y ) , the brazen ones wou ld . The qu i e t and coo l ones ( q u i e t - c o o l ) would g lance ( g l a r e ) over the top of m_ (me) head , past my_ (me) s i d e , over my (me) shou l de r , but never meet my (me) eye . The gent le-modest would t u r n t h e i r faces southTf I were coming e a s t , f l i t down a passage i f I were (was) about t o ha l v e the pavement w i t h them. ' °3 There then f o l l ows a passage that was complete ly de l e t ed : ' The re ' s tha t J oakes ' s wi fe—knew me a g i r l — m a r r i e d a poor l i t t l e c a l i c o -need l e s - and -p i n s s o r t o f drapery man, w i t h l n o t h -i ng between him and s t a r v a t i o n but h i s counter and y a r d meas-u re . They scr imped and they pimped i n tha t mi te of a shop; en t rea ted f o r my custom; and so they got on , t i l l h e ' s now Lord Mayor of S t . K i r r s ; and as f o r she , she ' s Lo rd—* ' Lo rd knows what , you may as w e l l s a y . ' ' W e l l , t ha t woman, a f t e r t a l k i n g t o me by the h a l f - h o u r i n her shop, and g e t t i n g her shop-maids t o push a l l s o r t s o f rubb ish i n t o my hands, which I have bought on ly t o ob l i g e them many a t ime , has met me an hour a f t e r , when sunning h e r -s e l f among her dress acquaintance on the pavement, looked as i f she 'd been shot at ca t ch ing s i g h t o f me, w i t h my honest bundles and baskets a-coming a l ong , and edged a l l i n a con-s t e r n a t i o n round the co rne r , t o escape meet ing and speak ing t o me. You see they c an ' t a f f o r d very w e l l t o do the s t r ange r t o your f a c e , f o r f e a r of l o s i n g your custom, so they wamble o f f . ' 8 4 A f t e r t h i s , t he re are more amendments: 'There was the spruce young b o o k s e l l e r would p l a y the same t r i c k s ; the bu t che r ' s daughters ; the upho l s t e r e r ' s young men. Hand i n g love when doing bus iness out of s i gh t w i t h 29 you ; but ca r i ng no th ing f o r an o l d woman when p l a y i n g the gen- t e e l away from a l l - s igns of t h e i r t r ade (but ready t o spend money r a t he r than speak when c u t t i n g t h e i r dash ou t s i de the d o o r . ) ' 8 5 Hardy then goes on to a t t a ck the whole p o l i t i c a l h i e r a r chy o f the p r o v i n -c i a l E n g l i s h town: 'Why. ' t i s a l l over town. Our worthy Mayor a l l uded t o i t i n a speech at the d inner l a s t n i gh t o f the Eve ry -Man-h i s -own-Maker Club (Every-Man-his-own-Hero Club which p resented him w i t h a b e a u t i f u l s i l v e r smoking s e r v i c e and embossed set of s p i t o o n s , f o r h i s ab le support of the Soul-above-Shops A s s o c i a t i o n ; which I am happy to say we have s t a r t e d i n op-p o s i t i o n t o the Honour-your -Bet ters S o c i e t y , kept up by the country s q u i r e s ) . ' 'And what about Stephen? ' urged (screamed),,,Mrs. Smith ( e c s t a t i c a l l y , c u t t i n g a c ape r ) . 'Why your son has been f e ted ( fee ted) by deputy-gover-nors and Parsee p r i n c e s and nobody-kncws-who i n I n d i a ; i s 1 hand i n g love w i t h nabobs, and i s t o des ign a l a rge p a l a c e , and c a t h e d r a l , and h o s p i t a l s , c o l l e g e s , H a l l s , and f o r t i f i c a -t i o n s , by the gene ra l consent of the r u l i n g powers, C h r i s t i a n  and Pagan a l i k e ( C h r i s t i a n , Pagan and D e v i l i s h a l i k e ) . ' ' Twas sure t o come t o the b o y , ' s a i d Mr. Smith unas- sumingly (Mrs. Smith g r a n d l y ) . ' ' ' T i s i n y e s t e r d a y ' s S t . Launce 's Gazet te ( K i r r s Chron-i c l e ) ; and our worthy Mayor i n the c h a i r i n t roduced the sub-j e c t i n t o h i s speech l a s t n i g h t i n a mas te r l y manner. ( "Yes , " s a i d he , " S t . K i r r s has her g l o r i e s , gent lemen. And I b l u sh w i t h p l ea su re when I f i n d recorded i n t oday ' s paper the i n -t e l l e c t u a l and a r t i s t i c prowess of our f r i e n d Mr. Stephen Sm i th , son of Mr. John Sm i t h , so w e l l known t o us a l l . S t r a t -f o r d has he r Shakespeare, Penzance has h e r Davy, B r i s t o l has her Cha t t e r t on , London has he r Heaven-kncws-who, and S t . ; K i r r s has he r Smi th . Y e s , f e l l ow townsmen," he went on i n the c h a i r , "we may w e l l be proud t o f i n d that Mr. John Sm i t h , t o whom, humble i n l i f e as he i s , I am r e l a t e d on the mother ' s s i d e , was a n a t i v e of t h i s t own—" ' 'Not at a l l , ' s a i d John. ' I wer born i n Snoke's Hu t , Duddlecomelane, h a l f a m i l e out of S t . K i r r s ; I ' l l take my oath I wer* ' ' H a l f a m i l e ' s no t h i ng where g l o r y ' s concerned; don ' t be so f o o l i s h p a r t i c u l a r , John ! Qua r r e l w i ' you r own bread and cheese—tha t ' s you . ) 'Twas very good of the worthy Mayor i n the c h a i r , I 'm s u r e . * 8 6 I n view o f these cons ide rab le changes—Chapter XXXVI i s reduced t o on ly j u s t over f i v e p age s— i t i s s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d Hardy adding the f o l l ow i ng f o o t -no te t o the P re face i n 1912: 30 To the r ipe-minded c r i t i c o f t he p resen t [book] an immatu-r i t y i n i t s views of l i f e and i n i t s workmanship w i l l o f course be apparent . But t o co r rec t these by the judgement of l a t e r y e a r s , even had c o r r e c t i o n been p o s s i b l e , would have r e s u l t e d , as w i t h a l l such a t tempts , i n the d i sappear -ance of whatever f reshness and spontane i ty the pages may have as they s t a n d . 8 ? Although the changes i n A P a i r of B lue Eyes - are no t e x t en s i v e , they were co r r e c t i on s made "by the judgement of l a t e r y e a r s . " Th is footnote t o the P r e f a c e , l i k e the d i s gu i s ed authorsh ip of The L i f e , shows the ex ten t o f de-cep t i on Hardy used t o shape h i s p u b l i c image. Neve r t he l e s s , desp i t e de l e t i o n s of s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l mat ter from chapters 88 XIV and XXXVI, Hardy s t i l l l e f t some s t rong c r i t i c i s m o f s o c i e t y i n A P a i r  of B lue Eyes . And, as b e f o r e , the gene ra l theme i s aga ins t the r u l i n g c l a s s , aga ins t the systems i n s o c i e t y tha t ma inta in h i gh standards of l i v i n g f o r a few at the expense of the m a j o r i t y . E a r l y i n the s t o r y Hardy makes a mockery of the peerage system w i t h the amusing s t o r y of how the haughty L u x e l l i a n s obta ined t h e i r s t a t u s as pee r s . The o r i g i n a l Lord Luxe H i an had been a hedger and d i t c h e r who l en t h i s smock f rock t o K i ng Char les the Second; he was made a peer f o r t h i s s e r v i c e . An a t tack i s a l s o made on the s t e r i l e f o r -ma l i t y o f a r i s t o c r a c t i c l i f e . The n a t u r a l i n s t i n c t of the L u x e H i a n c h i l d r e n i s t o escape from t h e i r pa ren ts home w i t h E l f r i d e : "And s l eep a t your house a l l n i gh t ? Tha t ' s what I mean by coming t o see you . I don ' t care t o see 89 peop le w i t h ha ts and bonnets on , and a l l s t and ing up and wa l k i ng about . " The p ressu re of c l a s s d i f f e r en ce s dominates t h i s nove l more than any o ther of Hardy ' s except The Hand of E t h e l b e r t a . One o f the reasons f o r t h i s i s the c l o se p a r a l l e l between Stephen and Hardy h imse l f ; Hardy was c l e a r l y a i r i n g some of h i s own pe r sona l gr ievances aga inst the c l a s s system. But apart from t h i s , the re i s another i n t e r e s t i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of urban l i f e i n London where the d i f f e r e n c e between r i c h and poor i s so g rea t : 31 Bede 's Inn has t h i s p e c u l i a r i t y , t ha t i t f a ce s , r e c e i v e s from, and d i scharges i n t o a b u s t l i n g thoroughfare speaking on ly of wea l th and r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , w h i l s t i t s pos te rn abuts on as crowded and p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n a network of a l l e y s as are to be found anywhere i n the me t r opo l i s . The mora l conse-quences a r e , f i r s t , tha t those who occupy chambers i n the Inn may see a g rea t d e a l o f s h i r t l e s s human i ty ' s h a b i t s and en -joyments w i thout do ing more than look down from a back window; and second, they may hear wholesome though unpleasant s o c i a l reminders through the medium o f a harsh v o i c e , an unequal f o o t s t ep , the echo of a blow or f a l l , which o r i g i n a t e s i n the person o f some drunkard o r w i f e - b e a t e r , as he c rosses and i n t e r f e r e s w i t h the qu i e t o f the square . Charac ters o f t h i s k i n d f r equen t l y pass through the Inn from a l i t t l e foxho le o f an a l l e y at the back, but they never l o i t e r there .^° Th i s urban d e s c r i p t i o n , and another of the London docks , which are both qu i t e i r r e l e v a n t to the s t o r y , must have been i n c l uded by Hardy out o f pe r sona l sympathy f o r the p l i g h t o f the poor . But what i s qu i t e amazing i s tha t Hardy does not on any occas ion ment ion the equa l l y depress ing s u f f e r i n g o f the poor i n h i s own county . The s u s p i c i o n tha t he has more i n t e r e s t at t h i s t ime i n the commercial p o t e n t i a l o f h i s urban readersh ip i s hard to a vo i d . The great popu la r success of Under the Greenwood T ree , and of h i s next nove l Far  From the Madding Crowd, must be a t t r i b u t e d p r i m a r i l y to an a b i l i t y to k i n d l e the urban appe t i t e f o r p a s t o r a l f an ta sy . Ha rdy ' s somewhat r ep rehens ib l e avoidance of the r e a l i t i e s o f r u r a l l i f e i n h i s n a t i v e Dorset man i f e s t s i t s e l f most c l e a r l y i n Far From the Madding  Crowd. So f a r we have seen Hardy as a s a t i r i s t o f the upper c l a s s e s of London and the p rov i n ce s , and as a sympath iser , to va r y i ng degrees, w i t h those l e s s f o r t u na t e . Yet i t i s e s s e n t i a l to see tha t those he supports are not the r u r a l peasants and l abou re r s ; Egber t , the Sp r i ng roves , and Stephen Smith are i n a c l a s s j u s t above the poo re s t . Hardy came from the same s i t -u a t i o n as h i s e a r l y heroes , and i t i s thus not s u r p r i s i n g tha t h i s mora l sup-por t and i n t e r e s t i s beh ind them. I t i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y r ecogn i zed , however, tha t h i s a t t i t u d e to the poorest r u s t i c s tock was not one of r e a l sympathy. T h i s , o f course , goes aga ins t the most popu lar image o f Hardy as a n o v e l i s t 32 of the Dorset peasan t ry . And i t i s t h e r e f o r e a l l the more important t o set the reco rd s t r a i g h t . We have a l ready noted the lack of sympathy f o r the r u s t i c s i n Under the Greenwood T ree . Th is was accounted f o r by the demands of Hardy ' s s o c i a l c a ree r . The same may be s a i d f o r Far From the Madding Crowd. And w i t h t h i s l a t e r nove l i t r e a l l y becomes apparent tha t Hardy has very l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the great s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e be ing exper ienced by the peasant l abour ing c l a s s of h i s pa r t of the count ry . In Far From the Madding Crowd, Hardy ' s most complete study of peasant l i f e , h i s p o r t r a y a l o f the peasant i s f a r from sympathe t i c . Oak, again a roan j u s t above the s t a t u s of the peasan t , i s the centre of i n t e r e s t f o r Hardy. Th i s hero puts the r u s t i c s t o shame; where he i s capab le , they are i n capab l e : "The assemblage—belonging t o t ha t c l a s s of s o c i e t y which casts i t s thought i n t o the form of f e e l i n g , and i t s f e e l i n g s i n t o the form of commotion—set 91 t o work w i t h a remarkable confus ion o f pu rpose . " In n o t i n g t h e i r i n a b i l -i t y t o cope w i t h a f i r e , t h e i r he lp l e s sness when the sheep f a l l s i c k , t h e i r easy c o r r up t i o n by T r oy , and t h e i r p a t h e t i c f a i l u r e t o warn Bathsheba o f 92 T r o y ' s r e t u r n , i t i s ha rd t o c l a im the r u s t i c s have been i d e a l i s e d . "D r i n k , 93 Shepherd, and be f r i e n d s , f o r tomorrow we may be l i k e h e r , " says Mark C l a r k , r e f e r r i n g t o the dead Fanny, and he sums up the essence of the f a i l -ure of the r u s t i c s which puts them; only a l i t t l e above animal l i f e : a carpe  diem a t t i t u d e which never l e t s them p l an ahead o r adapt t o change. Thus a l though one enjoys the humour e x t r a c t ed from Joseph Poo rg ra s s , one must ad -mi t t ha t he i s p a t h e t i c a l l y shy , o v e r - s u p e r s t i t i o u s , e a s i l y man ipu la ted and dece i ved , and menta l l y s imp le . H i s own comment on h i s c ond i t i o n a t the sup-per p a r t y might w e l l apply t o h i s c ond i t i o n throughout l i f e : " I be a l l but 94 i n l i q u o r , and the g i f t i s want ing i n me." Hardy had in tended h i s nove l to have even more humour at the r u s t i c s ' expense, b u t , as G i t t i n g s w r i t e s , h i s "heavy-handed r u s t i c humour" was cons ide rab l y toned down under the i n f l u en c e 33 o f L i o n e l Stephens, seven pages be ing omi t ted between chapters XXII and 95 XX I I I . I t i s t h e r e f o r e s u r p r i s i n g t ha t Hardy showed such concern about h i s r ep re sen ta t i on o f the r u s t i c cha rac te r s—he expressed the hope t o h i s i l l u s t r a t o r f o r t he s e r i a l i s e d e d i t i o n tha t " t he r u s t i c s , a l though q u a i n t , 96 may be made t o appear i n t e l l i g e n t and not boo r i s h at a l l , " — f o r i t i s c l e a r t h a t , i n Far From the Madding Crowd, he had r e se rva t i ons about t h e i r way of l i f e . In f a c t , the r u s t i c s i n Far From the Madding Crowd are merely a r t i s t i c v eh i c l e s f o r comic r e l i e f from the se r i ous concerns of the main p l o t . Hardy had , i ndeed , done eve ry th ing p o s s i b l e t o avo id the c o n t r o v e r s i a l sub jec t o f a g r i c u l t u r a l un res t . Th i s f a c t has been ab ly documented by M i l l -gate . He shows tha t the s e t t i n g of the n o v e l , Puddletown, was one of the l ea s t a f f e c t ed areas of un res t . A repor t i n the Dai l y T e legraph on A p r i l 30 th , 1872 f i nds i t t o be " a model Do r se t sh i r e v i l l a g e " where the t r a d i t i o n a l 97 way of l i f e s t i l l p rov ided r e l a t i v e p r o s p e r i t y . Hardy had chosen " a v i l -98 lage where un i o n i s a t i o n had not y e t become an i s s u e . " And f u r t h e r , he set h i s s t o r y i n the p a s t , thereby avo id ing s p e c i f i c i t y and con t roversy . Nowhere i n Far From the Madding Crowd i s t he re the s l i g h t e s t i n d i c a t i o n of the unrest tha t e x i s t e d i n Dorset du r i ng the p e r i o d Hardy was w r i t i n g the n o v e l . As soon as the commercial success of Far From the Madding Crowd was as -su r ed , L e s l i e Stephen was u rg ing Hardy t o w r i t e another nove l as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . Because of t h i s , Hardy l a t e r c la imed he was fo rced t o w r i t e The  Hand of E t h e l b e r t a be fore the r e a l impact of Far From the Madding Crowd cou ld be assessed . The f o l l ow i ng ent ry i n The L i f e , i n making an excuse f o r the q u a l i t y o f The Hand of E t h e l b e r t a out of these c i r cumstances , shows how h e a v i l y Hardy depended upon the c r i t i c a l r e cep t i on of h i s n o v e l s : Th is was the means of u rg ing Hardy i n t o the unfor tunate course of hu r r y i ng forward a f u r t h e r p roduc t i on be fo re he was aware of what the re had been of va lue i n h i s prev ious one: before l e a r n i n g , t ha t i s , not on ly what had a t t r a c t e d the 34 p u b l i c , but what was o f t r ue and genuine substance on which to b u i l d a ca reer as a w r i t e r w i t h a r e a l l i t e r a r y message.^9 Hardy goes on t o e x p l a i n tha t he d i d not w i sh t o be typecas t as a r u r a l no v e i l s t—'• ' . . .he had not the s l i g h t e s t i n t e n t i o n o f w r i t i n g f o reve r about 100 sheep- farming" - - and c la ims t ha t The Hand o f E t h e l b e r t a "had noth ing what-101 ever i n common w i t h anyth ing he had w r i t t e n b e f o r e . " Th i s l a s t c l a im i s not r e a l l y t r u e : The Hand o f E t h e l b e r t a i s based on the s o c i a l s a t i r e tha t t h i s t h e s i s has t r aced through Hardy ' s e a r l y ca ree r . I t i s f a i r t o say , how-eve r , tha t s o c i a l s a t i r e had not been prominent; on ly i n the unpub l i shed The  Poor Man and the Lady had i t p layed a major r o l e . Thus i n The Hand o f E t h e l b e r t a the f u l l impact o f Hardy ' s s o c i o - p o l i t -i c a l s a t i r e became f u l l y ev ident to the p u b l i c f o r the f i r s t t ime . And i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e tha t Hardy drew from h i s manuscr ip t o f The Poor Man and  the Lady e x t en s i v e l y f o r s a t i r i c m a t e r i a l , thereby p repar ing i t f o r p u b l i c a -t i o n as An I n d i s c r e t i o n i n the L i f e of an He i r e s s two years l a t e r . The Hand of E t h e l b e r t a , however, was not s u c c e s s f u l . Ru t l and ' s e a r l y c l a im tha t "o f 102 s o c i a l s a t i r e Hardy was i n capab l e " has remained uncha l l enged . I r v i n g Howe 103 has gone so f a r as t o c a l l the nove l " i n e x e c r a b l e . " Hardy ' s f a i l u r e can perhaps be t r a ced to h i s s o c i a l p o s i t i o n and to h i s temperament. J u vena l i a n s a t i r e demands an exuberance, a gusto t ha t a w r i t e r l i k e Dickens had. Hardy was not the k i n d o f w r i t e r who had t h i s q u a l i t y ; he was too much o f an i n t r o -ve r t and not the k i n d of person t o argue v i go r ou s l y i n p u b l i c l i f e . S t e e l e ' s d ic tum that "There i s a c e r t a i n i m p a r t i a l i t y necessary to make 104 what a man says bear any weight w i t h those he speaks t o , " may w e l l r e -f l e c t an a t t i t u d e from an e a r l i e r age, but i t s t i l l p o i n t s to the weakness of Hardy ' s s a t i r e . Hardy was too removed from upper c l a s s s o c i e t y , too b i t -t e r towards i t , so tha t h i s s a t i r e appears as v i c i o u s and narrow-minded, and mot iva ted by a deep grudge. As A r thu r P o l l a r d has w r i t t e n : 35 S a t i r e i s always acu te l y consc ious of the d i f f e r e n c e between what th i ngs are and what they ought t o be . The s a t i r i s t i s o f ten a m i no r i t y f i g u r e ; he cannot, however, a f f o r d t o be de-c l a r e d an ou t ca s t . For him t o be s u c c e s s f u l h i s s o c i e t y shou ld at l e a s t pay l i p - s e r v i c e t o the ideas he upho lds . I f i t does, he i s p l a ced i n a more s ub t l e and p o t e n t i a l l y more e f f e c t i v e p o s i t i o n than t h a t o f s imp le denouncer of v i c e . He i s then able t o e x p l o i t more f u l l y the d i f f e r en ce s between appearance and r e a l i t y and e s p e c i a l l y t o expose h ypoc r i s y . In h i s e a r l y nove l s Hardy comes across as a w r i t e r w i t h a grudge; much of h i s c r i t i c i s m of the upper c l a s ses i s dangerously c l o se t o i n v e r t e d snob-be ry . And t h i s tendency was probab ly s t imu l a t ed by h i s mar r iage t o a woman s o c i a l l y h i ghe r than h imse l f who complained tha t i n The Hand of E t h e l b e r t a 1 0 6 too many of the charac te r s were se r van t s . Neve r t he l e s s , the harsh c r i t i c i s m , o r more o f t en the u n q u a l i f i e d d i s -m i s s a l , o f The Hand of E t h e l b e r t a i s no t f u l l y deserved. The tendency t o -wards a u t h o r i a l i n v e c t i v e i n h i s s a t i r e i s r ep laced l a r g e l y by p l o t man ipu la -t i o n . The s a t i r i c a l s i t u a t i o n s are se t up p r i m a r i l y through E t h e l b e r t a ' s r i s e i n t o the upper c l a s ses by he r f i r s t marr iage and through he r subsequent double l i f e dur ing which she has t o h i de he r o r i g i n s wh i l e she searches f o r a second husband. In ach iev ing maximum e f f e c t from t h i s s i t u a t i o n , Hardy has u t i l i z e d the seventeenth century Comedy of Manners techn iques of theme, c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and conven t i on , and humour. Wi th the resonances of t h i s approach t o s o c i a l prob lems, and w i t h s i t u a t i o n s p o r t r a y i n g the h y po c r i s i e s and i n e q u a l i t i e s i n s t e ad of Hardy ' s d i r e c t a u t h o r i a l v o i c e , the re i s a great improvement. In ach i ev ing t h i s . Hardy was perhaps again a c t i ng on the adv ice of L e s l i e Stephen, whose l e t t e r s , M i l l g a t e s a y s , " r e f l e c t e d i t o r i a l he s i t ancy 1 0 7 about Hardy ' s h a b i t u a l d i r e c t n e s s . " In The Hand of E t h e l b e r t a Hardy manages t o c on t r o l h i s emotions over the predominant ly p o l i t i c a l content almost a l l the t ime . For example, the p r e -ca r i ous s i t u a t i o n of E t h e l b e r t a i s not e x p l o i t e d e x c e s s i v e l y , though Hardy cou ld have made many a u t h o r i a l comments on the p r e j u d i c e i t exposes. Ins tead 36 he gene ra l l y l e t s the s i t u a t i o n speak f o r i t s e l f . Lady Pe the rw in ' s outburs t dur ing an argument w i t h E t h e l b e r t a thus comes as a great s u r p r i s e tha t shocks the reader t o great e f f e c t : "Then you are an ung r a t e f u l woman, and 1 0 8 want ing i n n a t u r a l a f f e c t i o n f o r the dead! Cons ide r i ng your b i r t h — " Only r a r e l y i s t he re a d i r e c t statement on the hypoc r i s y o f E t h e l b e r t a ' s pred icament: " ' A few weeks hence,* she thought , 'when Menlove 's d i s c l o s u r e s make me r i d i c u l o u s , he may s l i g h t me as a l a c key ' s g i r l , an u p s t a r t , an ad-1 0 9 ven tu re s s , and ha rd l y r e t u rn my bow i n the s t r e e t . " In making E t h e l b e r t a ' s f a t he r a b u t l e r—"wo r k i n g f o r h i s l i v i n g as one 1 1 0 among a p e c u l i a r l y s t i gma t i z ed and r i d i c u l e d mu l t i t ude " —Hardy he ightens the s o c i a l aspect of he r ' s i t ua t i on's And E t h e l b e r t a ' s two b ro the r s produce another k i n d of f o i l t o E t h e l b e r t a ; they can j u s t i f i a b l y be seen as f o r e -shadowing the emerging p r o l e t a r i a t . Where E t h e l b e r t a endeavours t o j o i n the a r i s t o c r a c y , he r b ro the r s are p roud ly d i s d a i n f u l o f i t and await i t s down-f a l l : 'My b r o t h e r s , you pe r c e i v e , * s a i d she , ' r ep resen t the r e spec t -ab le B r i t i s h workman i n h i s e n t i r e t y , and a touchy i n d i -v i d u a l he i s , I assure y o u , on po i n t s o f d i g n i t y , a f t e r im -b i b i n g a few town ideas from h i s l eade r s . They are p a i n f u l l y o f f -hand w i t h me, ab so l u t e l y r e f u s i ng to be i n t i m a t e , from a mistaken n o t i o n tha t I am ashamed of t h e i r dress and manners; wh i c h , o f course , i s absurd . S o l e s p e c i a l l y has l i t t l e respect f o r the a r i s t o c r a c y . In one of the f i n e s t pa r t s o f the n o v e l , when he and the a r i s t o c r a t i c Edgar Mountc lere journey from London t o Do r se t , Hardy manages t o keep the c l a s s an t ipa thy simmering j u s t below the b o i l i n g p o i n t . The c l o s e s t they come t o arguing i s when S o l uses Mount c l e r e *s s ta tus t o persuade a pub l i c a n t o open h i s doors i n the midd le o f the n i g h t : 'Don ' t be a f o o l , young chops t i c k ,* exc la imed young Mount-c l e r e . 'Get the door opened. ' *I w i l l — i n my own way,* s a i d S o l t e s t i l y . 'You mustn ' t mind my t r a d i n g upon your q u a l i t y , as ' t i s a case of n e c e s s i t y . Th i s i s a woman noth ing w i l l b r i n g t o reason but an appeal t o 37 the h i ghe r powers. I f every man o f t i t l e was as u s e f u l as you are t o n i g h t , s i r . I ' d never c a l l them lumber again as long as I l i v e . ' 'How s i n gu l a r ! * ' The re ' s never a b i t o f rubb i sh tha t won' t come i n use i f you keep i t seven y e a r s . ' H - 2 So l i s not us ing " lumber" i n the Nor th American sense of t imbe r . Lumber, i n Hardy ' s t ime , would have meant " d i s u sed a r t i c l e s o f f u r n i t u r e and the l i k e , 113 which on ly take up room: use less odds and ends . " S o l ' s image o f lumber i s repeated by him l a t e r w i t h r e vo l u t i ona r y i m p l i c a t i o n when he upra ids the newly i n s t a l l e d V iscountess E t h e l b e r t a f o r de se r t i ng he r c l a s s : " B e r t a , you have worked t o f a l s e l i n e s . A c reep ing up among the use less lumber of our n a t i o n t h a t ' l l be the f i r s t t o burn i f t he re comes a f l a r e . I never see 114 such a dese r t e r o f your own l o t as you b e ! " E t h e l b e r t a , f eeb l e i n defence of he r p o s i t i o n , t e l l s S o l ; " I t i s absurd t o l e t r epub l i c an pas s i ons so b l i n d 115 you t o f a c t , " and c la ims tha t a f am i l y w i t h a long h i s t o r i c a l background has great u n i v e r s a l appea l . Th i s g ives S o l the chance t o make another potent p o l i t i c a l s ta tement: ' " I don ' t care f o r h i s t o r y . Prophecy i s the on ly t h i ng 1 1 6 can do poor men any g o o d . ' " Having c rea ted so many s i t u a t i o n s which show the s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t i e s of h i s t ime , Hardy would seem t o have had no need t o r e s o r t t o a u t h o r i a l s a r -casm. But he d i d : "Ne i gh , and the gene ra l pha lanx of c o o l men and c e l e -b ra ted c lub yawners, were so much a f f e c t ed tha t they r a i s e d t h e i r ch ron i c look of great ob j e c t i on t o t h i n g s , t o an exp ress i on of s c a r c e l y any ob j e c t i o n 117 at a l l . " And he s t i l l had t o have h i s o c c a s i ona l a t tack on the n o b i l i t y : 'The way of ma r r i a g e , ' s a i d E t h e l b e r t a . . . . Yes , I must t r y that w a y . . . I must buy a "Peerage" f o r one t h i n g , and a "Baronetage , " and a "House of Commons," and a "Landed Gen t ry , " and l ea rn what people are about me. I must go t o Doc to r s ' Commons and read up w i l l s of the parents of any l i k e l y gud-geons I may know. I must get a He ra l d t o i nven t an escutcheon of my f am i l y , and throw a genea l og i c a l t r ee i n t o the ba rga in i n c ons i de r a t i on o f my t a k i n g a few second-hand he i r looms of a pawnbroking f r i e n d of h i s . I must get up sham ances to r s , 38 and f i n d out some no to r i ous name to s t a r t my ped igree f rom. I t does not mat ter what h i s cha rac te r was; e i t h e r v i l l a i n or mar ty r w i l l do, p rov ided tha t he l i v e d f i v e hundred years ago. I t would be cons idered f a r more c r e d i t a b l e t o make good my descent from Satan i n the age when he went to and f r o on the ea r t h than from a m i n i s t e r i n g ange l under V i c t o -r i a . ' 1 1 8 Yet t h i s h u r r i e d n o v e l — i t was researched and w r i t t e n i n l e s s than a y ea r—g i v e s i n t e r m i t t e n t ev idence tha t the improvement of Ha rdy ' s c r a f t i n Far From the Madding Crowd was be ing ma in ta ined . H i s use o f s e t t i n g and scenery as a means o f amp l i f y i ng and en r i c h i ng the s t o r y , which was to be such an e f f e c t i v e techn ique i n h i s l a t e r nove l s , i s con t i nu ing to deve lop . At the r u i n s o f Cor fe C a s t l e , f o r example, the ravages of t ime upon the r u i n s comment f o r E t h e l b e r t a upon her s o c i a l a s p i r a t i o n s : Persons waging a ha rass i ng s o c i a l f i g h t are apt i n the i n t e r e s t o f the combat t o fo rge t the smal lness of the end i n v iew; and the h i n t s tha t p e r i s h i ng h i s t o r i c a l remnants a f fo rded her of the a t t enua t i ng e f f e c t s o f t ime even upon great s t r ugg l e s c o r -r e c t ed the apparent s c a l e of her own. She was reminded tha t i n a s t r i f e f o r such a l u d i c r o u s l y sma l l ob jec t as the ent ry o f drawing-rooms, w i nn i ng , equa l l y w i t h l o s i n g , i s below the zero of the t rue ph i l o s ophe r ' s concern . There cou ld never be a more e x c e l l e n t reason than t h i s f o r going t o view the meagre stumps remain ing from f l o u r i s h i n g by -gone c e n t u r i e s , and i t had weight w i t h E t h e l b e r t a t h i s very d a y . 1 1 9 But as ye t Hardy s t i l l has t o r e l y on d i d a c t i c a u t h o r i a l d i r e c t i o n to com-municate the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the s e t t i n g . Th i s problem i s even more ev ident i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of Enckworth Court where Hardy wants the reader to draw a p a r a l l e l between the decep t i ve facade of the b u i l d i n g and tha t o f i t s owner: Without at tempt ing to t r a ce an analogy between a man and h i s mansion, i t may be s t a t ed tha t eve ry th ing he re , though so d i g -n i f i e d and magn i f i c en t , was not conce ived i n q u i t e the t rue and e t e r n a l s p i r i t o f a r t . 1 2 0 And the d i s c u s s i o n of the r e f a c i n g of Enckworth Court i s ended w i t h the s tatement: "as long as nobody knew the t r u t h , pretence looked j u s t as 121 w e l l . " Hardy i s too anxious not to l e t the s i g n i f i c a n c e escape the read^-39 e r . I t i s perhaps t h i s l a ck of conf idence i n communicating w i t h the reader t ha t h a s , up t o t h i s p o i n t , l ed Hardy t o d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l s ta tements . Never-t h e l e s s , The Hand of E t h e l b e r t a i s the l a s t nove l i n which Hardy uses h i s s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l s a t i r e . As Hardy f i n a l l y comes t o terms i n h i s l a s t nove l s w i t h the t e c h n i c a l problems o f h i s c r a f t , the p o l i t i c a l message i s absorbed harmoniously i n t o the a e s t h e t i c s t r u c t u r e . There i s another matter i n wh ich The Hand o f E t h e l b e r t a i s a p i v o t a l nove l i n Hardy ' s ca ree r . D.H. Lawrence was the f i r s t t o po in t out the new a t t i t u d e i n t h i s nove l t o the c o n f l i c t between emotion and reason: The Hand of E t h e l b e r t a i s the one almost c y n i c a l comedy. I t marks the z e n i t h of a c e r t a i n f e e l i n g i n the Wessex n o v e l s . . . t h a t the best t h i n g t o do i s t o k i c k out the c rav ing f o r "Love" and s ub s t i t u t e common sense , l e av i ng sent iment t o the minor cha rac t e r s . Th i s nove l i s a shrug o f the shou l de r s , and a l a s t taunt t o hope, i t i s the end of the happy end ings , except where s an i t y and a l i t t l e c yn i c i sm again appear i n The Trumpet- Ma jo r , t o b l e s s where they desp i se . I t i s the ha rd , r e s i s t -an t , i r o n i c a l announcement of pe r sona l f a i l u r e , r e s i s t a n t and h a l f - g r i n n i n g . I t g i ves way t o v i o l e n t , angry pass ions and r e a l t r agedy , r e a l k i l l i n g of be loved peop l e , s e l f - k i l l i n g . T i l l now, only E l f r i d e among the be l o ved , has been k i l l e d ; the good men have always come out on t o p . 1 2 With t h i s change of a t t i t u d e i n the n o v e l s , the genera l out look on l i f e becomes p a r a l l e l w i t h the p o l i t i c a l ou t l ook . Up t o t h i s p o i n t , the p o s i t i v e and hope fu l endings of Desperate Remedies, Under the Greenwood Tree and Far  From the Madding Crowd have run counter t o Hardy ' s p o l i t i c a l v iews and ex-p e c t a t i o n s . But Sou the r i ng ton ' s c l a im t h a t , at the time of t h i s change i n a t t i t u d e of the n o v e l s , Hardy "appears t o have had no c l e a r understand ing of 123 what was happening t o h i m , " i s q u i t e wrong. Poems t h a t were w r i t t e n more than ten years be fore The Hand of E t h e l b e r t a , l i k e "Hap" and "Neu t r a l Tones , " 124 show tha t Hardy had long f e l t tha t " j o y l i e s s l a i n " and tha t " l o v e de-125 c e i v e s , and wr ings w i t h wrong . " The e a r l i e r t ragedy of Fanny Robin a l s o i n d i c a t e s tha t Hardy had long been p e s s i m i s t i c about l i f e ' s dilemma between 40 emotion and reason . The change i n Hardy ' s nove l s at t h i s t ime was not due t o a newly e vo l v -i ng Weltanschauung but t o h i s g rea te r emancipat ion from s t r i c t adherence t o commercial demands. More secure a f t e r the success of Far From the Madding  Crowd, he became l e s s ob l i g ed to car ry ou t , as h i s Henry Kn ight had ex -pressed i t , " a j u d i c i o u s omiss ion of your r e a l thoughts t o make a nove l 126 popu l a r . " The Poor Man and the Lady, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , was w r i t t e n wi thout commercial r e s t r a i n t s and i t s conc l u s i on r e f l e c t s pess imism not on ly i n the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e but a l s o i n the love s t o r y . For the mature Hardy, t h i s convergence of the p o l i t i c a l and the p h i l o s o p h i c a l pess imism obv ia tes the need t o r e l y on d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l statements o r heavy p o l i t i c a l s a t i r e . The p o l i t i c a l aspects become a s s im i l a t e d i n t o the n o v e l ' s genera l ou t l ook . In order t o eva lua te t h i s i n t e g r a t e d p o l i t i c a l express ion of the l a t e r n o v e l s , a d i f f e r e n t c r i t i c a l approach must be taken . The b a s i s f o r an e f f e c t i v e approach can be found i n Pas t e rnak ' s Doctor Zh ivago. 41 Footnotes 1 R ichard L. Purdy, Thomas Hardy: A B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l Study (Ox fo rd , 1954), pp. 71-74. 2 P a u l Z e i t l o w , Moments o f V i s i o n : The Poet ry o f Thomas Hardy (London, 1974), p. 42 . 3 L o i s Deacon and Ter ry Coleman, Prov idence and Mr. Hardy (London, 1966). 4 The word i s from J . H i l l i s M i l l e r , Thomas Hardy: D i s tance and Des i r e (Cambridge, Mass . , 1970). 5 F. Hardy,, pp . 15-16. 6 I b i d . , p. 49. 7 I b i d . , p. 50 . 8 Ernest Brennecke, The L i f e o f Thomas Hardy (New York , 1925), p. 9 . 9 F. Hardy, pp . 48-49. 10 I b i d . , p. 47 . 11 I b i d . , p. 54 . 12 I b i d . , p. 56 . 13 I b i d . , p. 57 . 14 The Shor te r Oxford Eng l i s h D i c t i o na r y (Ox fo rd , 1959), p. 1936. 15 George W. Sherman, "The Wheel and the Beas t : The In f l uence o f London on Thomas Hardy , " N ineteenth Century F i c t i o n , 4 (Dec. 1949), p. 210. 16 F. Hardy, p. 38. 42 17 F. Hardy, p . 62 . 18 I b i d . , pp. 50-52 . 19 I b i d . , p. 330. 20 I b i d . 21 I b i d . , pp . 37-38. 22 Royden H a r r i s o n , Before the S o c i a l i s t s (London, 1965), pp . 140-41. 23 David McLe l l an , K a r l Marx: H i s L i f e and Thought (London, 1973), p . 368. 24 Due t o h i s p reca r i ous s i t u a t i o n as a r e s i d en t of B r i t a i n , Marx had t o p a r -t i c i p a t e i n p o l i t i c s w i t h g rea t d i s c r e t i o n . Acco rd ing l y he l e f t l i t t l e i n f o rma t i on on h i s work w i t h the Reform League. 25 F. Hardy, p. 56 . 26 The theme of H i l l i s M i l l e r , D is tance and D e s i r e . 27 Char les Morgan, The House of Macmi l l an 1843-1943 (London, 1943), p. 88 . 28 I b i d . , p. 89 . 29 I b i d . 30 F. Hardy, p. 6 1 . 31 I b i d . 32 Simon Nowe l l -Sm i th , e d . , L e t t e r s t o Macmi l l an (London, 1967), pp . 129-30. 33 Morgan, pp . 88-89. 43 34 Morgan, p . 89 . 35 Notab ly W.R. Rut l and , Thomas Hardy: A Study of H i s Wr i t i n g s and The i r  Background (Ox fo rd , 1938). 36 Morgan, p. 90 . 37 M i chae l M i l l g a t e , Thomas Hardy: H i s Career as _ N o v e l i s t (London, 1971), pp. 20 -21 . 38 Th i s theory o f borrowings i s quest ioned by Guerard , p. 31 . 39 Ru t l and , pp . 114-15. 40 Thomas Hardy, An I n d i s c r e t i o n i n the L i f e o f an H e i r e s s . ed i t ed w i t h i n t r o -duc t i on and notes by C a r l J . Weber (New York , 1965). 41 Weber g i ve s no r e f e r ence s , and I can f i n d noth ing to co r robora te h i s c l a i m s . 42 See Ru t l and , pp . 111-33, M i l l g a t e , pp . 17-25, Weber, pp . 1-20. 43 T . Hardy, An I n d i s c r e t i o n , pp . 117-18. 44 I b i d . , p. 44. 45 I b i d . , p . 23 . 46 I b i d . , p. 57 . 47 I b i d . , p . 52 . 48 I b i d . , p. 37. 49 There i s an i n t e r e s t i n g s i m i l a r i t y i n An I n d i s c r e t i o n i n the L i f e o f an He i r e s s and The Woodlanders: compare the scenes where Egbert and G i l e s r e -t u rn to the s i t e o f t h e i r former homes. An I n d i s c r e t i o n , pp. 112-13 and The Woodlanders (London, 1912), c h . XXVI. 44 50 T . Hardy, An I n d i s c r e t i o n , p . 35 . 51 F. Hardy, p . 61 . 52 I b i d . , p. 62 . 53 I b i d . 54 I b i d . 55 I b i d . , p. 63 . 56 T . Hardy, Desperate Remedies (London, 1912), t i t l e page. 57 M i l l g a t e , p. 31. 58 F. Hardy, p . 64 . 59 I b i d . , p. 85 . 60 T . Hardy, Desperate Remedies, c h . I . 61 I b i d . , c h . X I . 62 I b i d . , c h . XV I . 63 I b i d . , c h . X I I I . 64 Kenneth Bou l d i ng , Address a t Brigham Young U n i v e r s i t y i n February , 1972. 65 Morgan, p. 94. 66 Robert A . D r a f f an , "Hardy ' s Under the Greenwood T r ee , " E n g l i s h , 22 (Summer 1973), p. 57 . 67 I b i d . , p. 58 . 45 68 D r a f f a n , p. 57 . 69 Haro ld O r e l , e d . , Thomas Ha rdy ' s Pe r sona l W r i t i n g s (Kansas, 1966), p . 6 . 70 See Ru t l and , p . 153. 71 T . Hardy, Under the Greenwood Tree (London, 1912), 5, c h . I . 72 F. Hardy, p. 179. 73 I b i d . , p . 99 . 74 I b i d . , p. 291. 75 T . Hardy, A P a i r o f B lue Eyes (London, 1912), c h . X V I I . 76 I b i d . , c h . I I I . 77 I b i d . 78 I b i d . , c h . I X . 79 I b i d . 80 I b i d . 81 I b i d . , c h . XIV. 82 T . Hardy, "A P a i r o f B lue Eyes , " T i n s l e y ' s Magazine, XI , December 1872, pp . 496-97. 83 T . Hardy, A P a i r o f B lue Eyes, XXXVI and T i n s l e y ' s Magazine, X I I , June 1873, p. 498. 84 I b i d . 85 I b i d . , c h . XXXVI and pp . 498-99. 46 86 T . Hardy, A P a i r o f B lue Eyes , c h . XXXVI and T i n s l e y 1 s Magazine, X I I , June 1873, pp . 500-501. 87 O r e l , p. 8 . 88 Not c h . XXXV as M i l l g a t e says on p. 364. 89 T . Hardy, A P a i r o f B lue Eyes , c h . V . 90 I b i d . , c h . X I I I . 91 T . Hardy, Far From the Madding Crowd (London, 1912), c h . V I . 92 See chs . V I , XXI , XXXVI and L I I r e s p e c t i v e l y . 93 I b i d . , c h . X L I I . 94 I b i d . , c h . X X I I I . 95 G i t t i n g s , p. 190. 96 F. Hardy, p . 97 . 97 M i l l g a t e , pp . 100-101. 98 I b i d . , p. 102. 99 F. Hardy, p. 102. 100 I b i d . 101 I b i d . , p. 103. 102 Ru t l and , p. 106. 3I r v i n g Howe, Thomas Hardy (New York , 1967), p. 38 . 47 104 R i chard S t e e l e , T a t l e r No. 242. Quoted by A r t hu r P o l l a r d , S a t i r e (London, 1970), p. 74. 105 P o l l a r d , p. 3 . 106 See Howe, p . 41 . 107 M i l l g a t e , p . 105. 108 T . Hardy, The Hand o f E t h e l b e r t a (London, 1912), c h . X . 109 I b i d . , c h . XXXV. 110 I b i d . , c h . I X . I l l I b i d . , c h . X V I I . 112 I b i d . , c h . XLIV . 113 Shor te r Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y , p. 1176. 114 T . Hardy, The Hand of E t h e l b e r t a , c h . XLV I . 115 I b i d . 116 I b i d . 117 I b i d . , c h . I X . 118 I b i d . , c h . X IV . 119 I b i d . , c h . XXXI . 120 I b i d . , c h . XXXVI I I . 121 I b i d . 48 122 D.H. Lawrence, "Study of Thomas Hardy , " i n Se l e c t ed L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m , ed . Anthony Bea l (New York , 1966), p . 170. Quoted by F.R. Sou the r ing ton , Ha rdy ' s V i s i o n o f Man (London, 1971), p . 80 . 123 Sou the r ing ton , p. 80 . 124 T . Hardy, "Hap," The Co l l e c t e d Poems (London, 1930), p. 7. 125 T . Hardy, "Neu t r a l Tones , " The Co l l e c t e d Poems, p. 9 . 126 T . Hardy, A P a i r o f B lue Eyes , c h . X V I I . Chapter I I Hardy and Pas te rnak: The L y r i c a l Nove l I n i t i a l l y , the cho ice of Pasternak as a means of approaching the p o l i t i -c a l content of Hardy ' s l a t e r nove l s might not appear a l o g i c a l one. There a re , of course , the obvious c u l t u r a l d i f f e r en ce s between the two w r i t e r s . And Pas t e rnak ' s l i f e , though not ravaged by the Russ ian Revo lu t i on t o the extent tha t many l i v e s of Russ ian w r i t e r s were, con t r a s t s s t r ong l y w i t h the comfortab le V i c t o r i a n ex i s t ence tha t Hardy en joyed. Furthermore, the f i f t y years tha t separate them only accentuate these fundamental d i f f e r en ce s i n c u l t u r e and l i f e expe r i ence . Even the e a r l y educa t ion of the two w r i t e r s was c a r r i e d out under q u i t e d i s s i m i l a r c i r cumstances . Pa s t e rnak ' s f a t he r was one of Ru s s i a ' s l ead ing p a i n t e r s , and h i s mother was a concer t p i a n i s t . The f am i l y c i r c l e of f r i e nd s i n c l uded T o l s t o y , Verhaeren, R i l k e , S c r i a b i n , Rachmaninov, Ruben-1 s t e i n , Serov, V rube l and L e v i t a n . And as he developed i n t o a poet , P a s t e r -nak had no t r oub l e meeting and b e f r i e nd i ng the l ead ing Russ ian poets l i k e Mayakovsky and Be l y . A l l t h i s i s a complete con t ras t to the qu i e t r u r a l s e t -t i n g of Hardy ' s you th . I t i s t rue tha t he had some contact w i t h W i l l i a m Barnes and tha t Henry Moule s t imu l a t ed h i s s t u d i e s . But Hardy was e s s e n t i a l -l y a se l f -made man, a Jude w i t h an i n f e r i o r i t y complex. Even when he was i n London, w i t h Robert Browning l i v i n g i n the next s t r e e t , he made no c l o s e r contact w i t h e s t ab l i s h ed w r i t e r s than going t o hear read ings by Char les D ickens . Al though Hardy ' s i s o l a t i o n was to some extent c i r c u m s t a n t i a l , i t was predominant ly the outcome of a p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t that aga in con t r a s t s 2 w i t h Pas te rnak . Hardy ' s withdrawn " a l oo f ne s s " and the emot iona l warmth of Pasternak to a l a rge extent f o l l ow the popular concept ions of the r e -49 50 s t r a i n ed Engl ishman and the pass iona te S l a v poe t . The i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s can e a s i l y be separated w i t h e x t r a c t s from t h e i r au tob iog raph ies : Hardy was popu l a r—too popu la r a lmos t—wi th h i s s c h o o l - f e l l o w s , f o r t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p at t imes became burdensome. He loved be ing a l one , bu t o f t e n , t o h i s concealed d i s comfo r t , some of the o ther boys would vo l un tee r t o accompany him on h i s homeward journey t o Bockhampton. How much t h i s i r k e d him he r e c a l l e d long years a f t e r . He t r i e d a l s o t o avo id be ing touched by h i s p laymates . One l a d , w i t h more I n s i gh t than the r e s t , d i s c o v -ered the f a c t : 'Hardy, how i s i t tha t you do not l i k e us t o touch you? ' Th i s p e c u l i a r i t y never l e f t him.-* On the way home from s choo l the name S c r i a b i n , a l l i n snow, tumbled from the concer t b i l l on t o my back . I brought i t home w i t h me on the l i d o f my s c h o o l - s a t c h e l , water t r i c k l e d from i t on t o the window s i l l . Th i s ado ra t i on s t r u c k me more c r u e l l y and no l e s s f a n t a s t i c a l l y than a f e v e r . On see ing h im, I would t u r n p a l e , on ly to f l u sh . deep l y immediate ly a f terwards f o r t h i s very p a l l o r . I f he spoke t o me my w i t s deser ted me and amid the gene ra l l aughte r I would hear myse l f answering something tha t was not t o the p o i n t , but what e x a c t l y — I cou ld never hea r . I knew tha t he guessed eve ry th ing but had not once come to my a i d . Th i s meant tha t he d i d not p i t y me, and t h i s was j u s t tha t unanswerable i n d i v i s i b l e f e e l i n g f o r which I t h i r s t e d . Th i s f e e l i n g a l one , the more f i e r y i t was, the more i t p ro te c t ed me from the d e s o l a t i o n which h i s incommuni-cab le music i n s p i r e d . I n the same way, t h e i r nove l s show the emotion of Pasternak and the r e -s t r a i n t o f Hardy. Compare Pa s t e rnak ' s t r anscenden ta l emotion w i t h Hardy ' s i r o n i c detachment i n these two f u n e r a l scenes: What w i t h sor row, s tand ing f o r many hours on end, l a c k o f s l e e p , the deep-toned s i ng i ng and the d a z z l i n g candles by n igh t and day as w e l l as the c o l d he had caught , Yura was f i l l e d w i t h a s l e epy , e c s t a t i c , gen t l e befuddlement of g r i e f and e x a l t a t i o n . When h i s mother had d i ed ten years e a r l i e r he had been a c h i l d . He cou ld s t i l l remember h i s t ea r s o f i n c on so l ab l e g r i e f and t e r r o r . I n those days h i s s e l f was not Important t o h im. . . .What mattered then was eve ry th ing ou t s i de and round h im. From every s i d e , the e x t e r n a l wo r l d pressed i n on h im, dense, unden iab le , t a ng i b l e as a f o r e s t , and the reason why he was so shaken by h i s mother ' s death was t h a t , at he r s i d e , he had l o s t h imse l f i n the f o r e s t , and now suddenly found her gone and h imse l f a lone i n i t . . . . T h a t i n a c c e s s i b l e l o f t y heav-en bowed i t s head qu i t e low, r i g h t down t o the hem of h i s nu r s e ' s s k i r t when she was t e l l i n g him about the th i ngs o f God; i t was c l o se and i n a c c e s s i b l e l i k e the tops of h a z e l bushes i n the g u l l y when you p u l l e d down t h e i r branches and p i cked t h e i r nu t s . . . .How i t was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . . . . N o w he was 51 a f r a i d of n o t h i n g , n e i t h e r o f l i f e nor of dea th : eve ry th ing i n the wo r l d , each t h i ng i n i t , was named i n h i s d i c t i o n a r y . He f e l t he was on an equa l f o o t i n g w i t h the un i ve r se . 5 So the baby was c a r r i e d i n a sma l l d e a l box , under an an -c i e n t woman's shaw l , t o the churchyard tha t n i g h t , and bu r i e d by l a n t e r n - l i g h t , at the cos t o f a s h i l l i n g and a p i n t o f beer t o the sex ton , i n t ha t shabby corner o f God's a l l o tmen t where He l e t s the n e t t l e s grow, and where a l l unbapt i zed i n f a n t s , no to r i ous d runkards , s u i c i d e s , and o thers of the c o n j e c t u r a l -l y damned are l a i d . In s p i t e o f the untoward su r round ings , however, Tess b r ave l y made a l i t t l e c ross o f two l a t h s and a p i e ce o f s t r i n g , and hav ing bound i t w i t h f l owe r s , she s tuck i t up at the head of the grave one evening when she cou ld en -t e r the churchyard w i thou t bee ing seen, p u t t i n g at the foo t a l s o a bunch o f the same f l owers i n a l i t t l e j a r o f water t o keep them a l i v e . What mat ter was i t tha t on the ou t s i de of the j a r the eye o f mere obse rva t i on noted the words " K e e l w e l l ' s Marmalade"? The eye o f materna l a f f e c t i o n d i d not see them i n i t s v i s i o n of h ighe r t h i n g s . 6 Whi le Pasternak en te rs the ado lescent mind and r e l i v e s the emotions of a f u n e r a l , Hardy avo ids emotion o f a d i r e c t k i n d , s t r i v i n g i n s t ead fo r under-statement and i r o n y . Th i s i s a fundamental d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r a r t i s t i c v i s i o n s . I t comes i n pa r t from t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l and n a t i o n a l t r a i t s , b u t , equa l l y impor tan t , i t a r i s e s out o f t h e i r c on t r a s t i n g upb r i ng i ng s . A f t e r growing up i n a r i c h l y c u l t u r a l c i r c l e , Pasternak was ab l e t o speak w i t h con-f i dence and a u t h o r i t y ; but Hardy, the se l f -made man, o f t en be t rays i n s e c u r i t y and even an i n f e r i o r i t y complex i n h i s w r i t i n g . Hardy su f f e r ed more than most from adverse rev iews , e s p e c i a l l y from such condescending ones as the rev iew of Far From the Madding Crowd by Henry James. He c o n t i n u a l l y worked to h i de h i s r u r a l d i c t i o n beh ind a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d l i t e r a r y s t y l e . So there i s o f t en an undercurrent o f b i t t e r n e s s and anger i n Ha rdy ' s w r i t i n g ; and t h i s d i s p o s i t i o n i s at the roo t o f h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l ou t l ook . Fo r , de sp i t e h i s own statements t o the c on t r a r y . Hardy must be de f ined as a p e s s i m i s t i c n o v e l i s t . The major nove l s a f t e r Far From the Madding Crowd are t r a g ed i e s , and they o f f e r i n c r e a s i n g l y l e s s hope w i t h each n o v e l . Far From  the Madding Crowd i t s e l f i s almost a t ragedy and i t s happy ending i s most out 52 of p l a ce w i t h the o v e r a l l tone o f the n o v e l . I n c o n t r a s t , the p o s i t i v e and hope fu l ending of Doctor Zh i vago . i n the s o r r ow fu l c i rcumstances o f Sov i e t Ru s s i a , unde r l i ne s Pa s t e r nak ' s r e f u s a l t o be p e s s i m i s t i c . Though Hardy be -l i e v e d i n Evo l u t i ona r y M e l i o r i s m , the re i s l i t t l e t o support t h i s b e l i e f i n h i s n o ve l s . Doctor Zhivago i s a much b e t t e r example of f a i t h i n the progress of the human r a c e . F i n a l l y , i n t h i s accumulat ion of d i f f e r e n c e s , there i s a p a r t i a l con-t r a s t i n the way these two poets came to n o v e l - w r i t i n g . Pa s t e rnak ' s nove l emanated from the need to conf ront the i l l s o f Sov i e t R u s s i a . For the f i r s t twenty-seven years of h i s l i f e , be fo re the Revo l u t i o n , he had l i v e d i n even g rea te r comfort than Hardy. But the con t r a s t o f pos t -Revo lu t i ona r y Ru s s i a , where " S t a l i n sought t o conver t a l l c r e a t i v e t h i n k e r s i n t o ' eng ineers o f the 7 human s o u l , ' " undoubtedly had a profound e f f e c t on h i s whole p e r s o n a l i t y . The d e n i a l of f r ee speech, the d isappearance o f some o f h i s f e l l ow w r i t e r s , the o c c a s i o na l danger t o h i s own l i f e — a l l t h i s a t f i r s t l e d Pasternak to a scheme o f avoidance i n which he made h i s l i v i n g t r a n s l a t i n g o l d c l a s s i c s l i k e the works o f Goethe and Shakespeare. Only l a t e i n h i s l i f e d i d the e f f e c t s o f S t a l i n i s m e l i c i t i n him a s o c i a l and human is t i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to po r t r ay the e v i l s o f h i s country i n a n o v e l . I t i s a c l a s s i c case o f the poet answering the c a l l to defend h i s peop le ; and t h i s ne ce s s i t a t ed a change from l y r i c poe t ry t o the prose no ve l : I b e l i e v e tha t i t i s no longer p o s s i b l e f o r l y r i c poet ry t o express the immensity o f our expe r i ence . L i f e has grown too cumbersome, too comp l i ca ted . We have acqu i r ed va lues t ha t are bes t expressed i n p r o s e . 8 Fragmentary, pe r sona l poems are ha rd l y s u i t e d t o med i t a t i ons on such obscure , new, and solemn even t s . Only prose and p h i -losophy can attempt t o d ea l w i t h t h e m . . . . 9 Pasternak thus came t o h i s nove l w i t h a sense o f m i s s i o n , and h i s r e l i g i o u s awakening a t t h i s t ime was more than c o i n c i d e n t a l . 53 Hardy ' s move to n o v e l - w r i t i n g , as the f i r s t chapter has shown, was mot i va ted p a r t l y by much more mundane c on s i d e r a t i o n s . Unable t o get h i s verse pub l i s h ed , he dec ided he would have a b e t t e r chance w i t h a n o v e l . The change from poet t o n o v e l i s t was one o f a r t i s t i c r eg r e s s i on f o r Hardy; h i s condescending a t t i t u d e t o the nove l can be seen l n the f o l l o w i n g r a t h e r u n -t r u t h f u l account o f t h i s change: "Fo r the r e l i e f o f my n e c e s s i t i e s , as the Prayer Book puts i t , I began w r i t i n g nove l s , and made a s o r t o f t rade of 10 i t . " The i m p l i c a t i o n here o f f i n a n c i a l n e ce s s i t y can ha rd l y be c r e d i t e d s i n c e Hardy was by t h i s t ime a s u c c e s s f u l a r c h i t e c t . Rather we must see him as want ing t o get i n t o p r i n t , p a r t l y from h i s amb i t i on t o be a w r i t e r , and p a r t l y because of exper iences i n London which l e f t him w i t h s t rong p o l i t i c a l v i ews . Th i s second, p o l i t i c a l mo t i v a t i o n towards n o v e l - w r i t i n g has an a f -f i n i t y w i t h Pa s t e r nak ' s and b r i ng s us t o the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two w r i t e r s . Ove r r i d i ng these d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r e , p e r s o n a l i t y , upb r i ng i ng , ambi-t i o n , r h e t o r i c and Weltanschauung are two very important s i m i l a r i t i e s . F i r s t , both were n o v e l i s t s who were p r i m a r i l y of p o e t i c temperament. Thus t h e i r p e r s pe c t i v e on l i f e , and t h e i r e xp re s s i on o f i t , d i f f e r s c ons i de r ab l y from what i s found i n the conven t i ona l nove l e s t a b l i s h ed i n the n ine teen th cen -t u r y . Second, Hardy and Pasternak share an unusua l compassion f o r i n d i v i d u a l man i n s o c i e t y . The w r i t e r i s , o f course , t r a d i t i o n a l l y the consc ience o f s o c i e t y , but w i t h these two the concern i s much more pronounced than u s u a l . Th i s combinat ion of a s t rong poe t i c and a e s t h e t i c s e n s i b i l i t y together w i t h an urgent concern f o r the i n d i v i d u a l i n s o c i e t y l eads t o many s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e i r nove l s de sp i t e the unde r l y i ng d i f f e r e n c e s . A h e l p f u l common i n f l u e n c e here i s Shakespeare. Pas ternak o f t e n acknowl-edged h i s debt t o h im, hav ing t r a n s l a t e d many o f the t r aged i e s i n t o Rus s i an . Hamlet i s an e s s e n t i a l element i n the cha rac te r o f Pa s t e rnak ' s p r o t agon i s t 54 Yury ,as the f i r s t poem a t the end o f the n a r r a t i v e i n d i c a t e s . And the image of Romeo and J u l i e t as s t a r - c r o s s ed l o ve r s i s r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o the a s -11 pec t s of f a t e and l ove i n Doctor Zh ivago . Pasternak e s p e c i a l l y app rec i a ted S tua r t Hampshi re 's "unawa i ted , uncommon, and neve r the l e s s t r ue and sharp i n -12 s i g h t on Shakespeare 's i n f l u e n c e : " The use of the w i l d d i a l ogue of the cha rac te r s of the under-p l o t , the sho r t scenes tha t somehow, as i n Antony and C l eo - p a t r a , suggest the great events ac ross g rea t d i s t a n c e s , and, above a l l , i n the sugges t ion o f s i gn s o f the supe rna tu ra l i n the n a t u r a l o r d e r . Pa s t e rnak ' s Russ ia can con ta i n w i t ches and metaphys i ca l f o o l s a l ongs ide images o f i d e a l l ove escap-i n g from c o r r u p t i o n , i n which the p e r s o n a l i t i e s and i d i o s y n -c r a s i e s o f the l o ve r s and of the v i l l a i n p l a y no p a r t . There i s something Shakespearean, which I cannot now s t a t e c l e a r l y , i n the sudden b l end ing o f the imagery and the p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e f l e c t i o n s , i n the a f f i n i t i e s found between thought and n a t u r a l appearances.*3 Many of Hampshi re 's po i n t s cou ld be app l i ed t o Hardy j u s t as w e l l : the use of the d i a l ogue o f minor cha r a c t e r s , the sho r t scenes tha t f i t economica l l y i n t o the t o t a l s t r u c t u r e , the w i t ches i n Under the Greenwood T ree , The Return o f the Na t i v e and The Mayor o f Cas te rb r i dge , the r u s t i c f o o l s l i k e Joseph Poo rg rass , the i d e a l but o f t en t r a n s i t o r y l ove i n Under the Greenwood T ree , Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s , Two on a Tower and Jude the Obscure, and f i n a l l y the " b l end i ng " of nature imagery and ph i l o sophy . The ex tent o f Ha rdy ' s abso rp t i on i n Shakespeare can be measured by the f requent use of quo ta t i ons i n h i s n o ve l s . Tess o f the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s , f o r example, has a t l e a s t seven-14 teen Shakespeare quo t a t i on s . And Hardy was p a r t i c u l a r l y aware o f the a f -15 f i n i t y h i s Wessex had w i t h K ing L ea r . Hardy h imse l f has noted another q u a l i t y i n Shakespeare t ha t i s shared by our two w r i t e r s : H i s d i s t i n c t i o n as a m i n i s t e r to the t hea t r e i s i n f i n i t e s i m a l bes ide h i s d i s t i n c t i o n as a poe t , man o f l e t t e r s , and seer of l i f e , and tha t h i s exp res s i on o f h imse l f was cas t i n the form o f words f o r a c t o r s and not i n the form of books t o be read was an acc iden t of h i s s o c i a l c i rcumstances t ha t he h imse l f 55 despised. I would, besides, hazard the guess that he, of a l l poets of high rank whose works have taken a stage d i r e c t i o n , w i l l some day cease althogether to be acted, and be simply s t u d i e d . 1 6 Hardy and Pasternak were, l i k e Shakespeare, poets; and they came to be n o v e l i s t s , as he became a playwright, through "an accident of s o c i a l c i r -cumstances." And c r u c i a l l y , Pasternak and Hardy were l y r i c poets. This f a c t , despite Shelley's claim that "the d i s t i n c t i o n between poets and prose writers i s a vulgar e r r o r , " means that t h e i r novels have s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s . F i r s t , both writers held a d i s d a i n f u l l y poetic a t t i t u d e to the t r a d i t i o n a l p l a u s i b i l i t y of events i n the novel. Second, both writers use nature ex-tensively as a means of expressing t h e i r ideas metaphorically. T h i r d , t h e i r passive protagonists project a predominantly subjective point of view i n t h e i r novels. In short, the novels of Hardy and Pasternak must be read as l y r i c a l novels; f a i l u r e to do t h i s w i l l r e s u l t i n l i m i t e d appreciation, as conventional c r i t i c i s m , based on nineteenth century conceptions of the novel, has often shown. The term " l y r i c a l novel" i s a u s e f u l one with which to approach Hardy and Pasternak. A good general d e f i n i t i o n i s given by Ralph Friedman: "Lyr-i c a l novels are determined not by any preordained form but by poetic manipu-l a t i o n of narrative types which writers have found ready-made or have con-18 structed within an e x i s t i n g t r a d i t i o n of the novel." But Friedman perhaps narrows his d e f i n i t i o n too much when he says that the l y r i c a l novel uses the novel form to approach the function of a poem. He stresses, as does Georg Lukacs i n The Theory of the Novel, the s u b j e c t i v i t y of the l y r i c a l novel, and he sees i t s hero as generally being passive. Further, the l y r i c a l novel 19 "transcends the causal and temporal movement of n a r r a t i v e " as symbolic and metaphoric patterns assume precedence. And, l i k e the l y r i c poem, the l y r i c a l novel o b j e c t i f i e s experience rather than man and h i s world; i n the words of 56 Lukacs , i t o f f e r s "not the t o t a l i t y of l i f e but the a r t i s t ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p 20 w i t h tha t t o t a l i t y . " The i n d i v i d u a l aspects of the nove ls of Hardy and Pas te rnak , which have a common denominator i n t h e i r be ing s p e c i f i c a l l y r e -l a t e d t o p o e t i c c r e a t i o n , w i l l now be d i s cussed i n more d e t a i l . One of the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l aspects of t h e i r nove ls i s the use of f a t e and co inc idence as s t r u c t u r a l techn ique . C r i t i c s have gene r a l l y d i sm issed Hardy ' s use of improbable co inc idence and f a t e , see ing i t as an i n d i c a t i o n of h i s n a r r a t i v e weakness: "Le hasard es t l e p l u s grand romancier du monde," 21 as Ba l zac s a i d . Other c r i t i c s , w i t h more i ngenu i t y and w i t h more respec t f o r Hardy, have seen the use of co inc idence as an exp ress i on of h i s f a t a l i s -t i c ph i l o sophy . But an a d d i t i o n a l and more s a t i s f a c t o r y answer can be found e lsewhere. Be ing a l y r i c i s t by i n c l i n a t i o n , Hardy had l i m i t e d i n t e r e s t i n everyday r e a l i sm i n h i s w r i t i n g . H i s gestures to r e a l i t y i n p l o t were l a r g e -l y pe r f un c t o r y . The epigraph to h i s f i r s t pub l i shed nove l conf i rms h i s im -mediate awareness by s t a t i n g tha t the romance-wr i ter has to do more " than 22 mere compliance w i t h the s i m p l i c i t y of r e a l i t y . " Lack of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e i n p l o t i s e s p e c i a l l y no t i c eab l e i n Hardy ' s l a t e r nove ls where p l o t was con-s t r u c t e d more towards p o e t i c e xp re s s i on—exp re s s i on o f , among other ma t te r s , the p o l i t i c a l f e e l i n g s he had always had . The v a l i d i t y of approaching these l a t e r nove l s through a comparison w i t h Doctor Zhivago i s supported by the f a c t tha t Pasternak was a l s o a t tacked f o r h i s use of co inc idence and f a t e . From the conven t i ona l s t andpo in t , Pasternak would seem to have j u s t the same impat ience w i t h the formal demands of the nove l i n h e r i t e d from the n i n e -teenth cen tu ry . Such an a t t i t u d e l ed some c r i t i c s to underest imate Doctor  Zh ivago: . . . i t i s c l e a r l y the au tho r ' s f i r s t n o v e l . Some t r a n s i t i o n s are clumsy and tenuous, the hand l ing of the d ia logue s l o v e n l y . 57 The reader o c c a s i o n a l l y l o ses t r a c k o f who i s t a l k i n g to whom. The beg inn ing o f the book overwhelms one w i t h too many unde-ve loped cha r a c t e r s , i n too many b r i e f scenes; the end i s shad-owy, schemat ic , perhaps even u n f i n i s h e d . I t i s c l e a r tha t the author i s contemptuous of what o ther n o v e l i s t s cons ide r c o r -r e c t ne s s , and i s so impat ien t to speak about what to him are the important t h i ngs t ha t he jumps over a l l t r i v i a l ma t te r . When he wants t o move t o a new d i a l ogue or scene, he does so i n a few b o l d , b r i e f sentences , i gno r i ng c o n t i n u i t y , po i n t o f v i ew, and p r o b a b i l i t y . 2 3 But more pe r cep t i v e c r i t i c s l i k e Fo l e j ewsk i were aware tha t Pasternak knew what he was do i ng : The apparent formlessness of Doctor Zh ivago , which from the po i n t o f v iew o f n o v e l i s t i c techn ique cou ld be regarded as a hand icap , tu rns out to be almost an a r t i s t i c v i r t u e . I t i s i n e f f e c t a dev i ce f o r the author to show us the v i c i s s i t u d e s of i n d i v i d u a l human f a t e . . . . t h e a r t i s t i c impact and sugges-t i v enes s o f the nove l i s f a r g rea te r than i n works where the author arranges and rea r ranges , remodels , re-shapes human thoughts and emotions so tha t they form a c on s t r u c t i v e p a t -t e r n . 2 * In o ther words, s t r u c t u r e i n Doctor Zhivago cannot be judged accord ing t o the fo rma l demands o f the n ine teenth century n o v e l . Pasternak was w e l l aware o f the adverse c r i t i c i s m tha t h i s nove l r e -ce i ved f o r the avoidance o f conven t i ona l t e chn iques . I n h i s i n t e r v i ew w i t h Ralph Matlaw he makes an amusing re fe rence t o such c r i t i c i s m : I have f r equen t l y been asked about the co inc idences i n the book, p a r t i c u l a r l y by young people of f i f t e e n or s i x t e e n , from whom I get many l e t t e r s . Of course I made the c o i n c i -dences on purpose, t ha t _s l i f e , j u s t as I purpose ly d i d not f u l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e the peop le i n the book. For I wanted to get away from the i dea o f c a u s a l i t y . The i nnova t i on of the book l i e s p r e c i s e l y i n t h i s concept ion of r e a l i t y . 2 - * The most thorough exp l ana t i ons o f the r o l e o f co inc idence or f a t e i n h i s con-cep t i on of r e a l i t y appear i n l e t t e r s t o J a cque l i ne de P roya r t and Stephen Spender. F i r s t he e xp l a i n s t ha t the g r ea t e s t nove l s are those which c rea te t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l w o r l d , t h e i r own r e a l i t y : When we take the g rea t nove l of the l a s t century i n i t s essence, e x t o l l e d and i d o l i s e d , f o r i n s t an c e , by Henry James. When we examine the g r e a t e s t , Dostoevsky, T o l s t o y , D i ckens , 58 F l a ube r t . When from the f a b r i c o f a Madame Bovary , we g r ad -u a l l y , one a f t e r another , sub t r a c t c ha r a c t e r s , t h e i r deve lop -ment, s i t u a t i o n s , occu r rences , the p l o t , the s ub j e c t , the c on t en t . . . . T he second- ra te d i v e r t i n g l i t e r a t u r e w i l l l eave no remainder a f t e r such a s u b t r a c t i o n . But the name c r e a t i o n ( o r , f o r example, Dav id Coppe r f i e l d ) l e t s remain the c a r d i n a l ; the c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n of r e a l i t y as such; a lmost as of a p h i l -osoph ic category; as a member o r l i n k of our minds ' un i v e r s e ; as l i f e ' s pe rpe tua l companion and s u r r o u n d i n g s . 2 6 Pasternak then de f i ne s h i s own " c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n of r e a l i t y " as a " p h i l o -soph i c ca tego ry : " J ' a v a i s tou jou rs eu l a s en s a t i o n , l e gout de 1 ' un i t e de tou t ce q u i e s t , de 1'ensemble de ce qu i v i t e t qu i se meut, e t se passe e t se p re sen te , de l ' e t r e , de l a v i e e n t i e r e . J ' a i m a i s 1 'aspect de movements de toute s o r t e , l es phenomenes de f o r c e , d ' a c t i o n , j ' a i m a i s a s a i s i r ce monde a g i l e de l a tu rbu lence u n i v e r s e H e e t de l e r end re . Mais l ' image de l a r e a l i t e qu i c o n s i s t a i t de tous ces movements e t l e s r e n f e r -ma i t , ce " t o u t " qu 'on nomme "monde" ou " u n i v e r s " ce n ' e t a i t pas un cadre immobile pour mo i , une donnee ferme. Toute ce t t e r e a l i t e ( l e t ou t du monde) e t a i t a son tour animee d ' a g i t a t i o n de toute aut re s o r t e que l e s mouvements v i s i b l e s organiques ou m a t e r i e l s . Je ne peux determiner ce sent iment que pa r comparaison. Comme s i un t ab l eau de p e i n t u r e , une t o i l e • pe i n t e p l e i n e de tumulte et de commotion (La Ronde de n u i t de Rembrandt, par exemple) a v a i t e te arrachee e t emportee par l e v en t , par un mouvement e x t e r i e u r aux mouvements p e i n t s e t con-nus sur l e t a b l e au , par un movement inconnu. Comme s i c e t t e bourrasque g o n f l a i t l a t o i l e , l a f a i s a i t v o l e r , f u i r e t e r n e l l e -ment e t echapper en p a r t i e e s s e n t i e l l e a l a conna i s sance . 2 ? And i n one o f the l e t t e r s to Spender, Pasternak f i n a l l y e xp l a i n s h i s use o f co inc idence and f a te i n Doctor Zh ivago: . . . t h e r e i s an e f f o r t i n the nove l t o rep resen t the whole s e -quence o f f a c t s and be ings and happenings l i k e some moving e n t i r e n e s s , l i k e a deve l op i ng , pass ing by , r o l l i n g and rush ing i n s p i r a t i o n , as i f r e a l i t y i t s e l f had freedom and cho ice and was composing i t s e l f out o f numberless v a r i a n t s and v e r s i o n s . 2 Th i s "moving en t i r e ne s s " e f f e c t i v e l y desc r i bes the s t r u c t u r e of Doctor  Zh ivago . Indeed, a s a t i s f a c t o r y read ing of the nove l cannot be ach ieved w i t h -out an understanding o f t h i s s t r u c t u r a l t echn ique . Almost as soon as the nove l s t a r t s there i s a co inc idence so i m p l a u s i b l e , and so e a s i l y avo idab le had i t so been w i shed , tha t Pasternak i s c l e a r l y 2 9 announcing the symbol i c i n t e n t i o n o f the n o v e l . Y u r y ' s f a t h e r dec ides to 59 make a s u i c i d e jump from a t r a i n a t e x a c t l y the spot from ac ross the r i v e r where h i s son Yury i s s t a y i ng w i t h r e l a t i o n s . A t the very moment when h i s f a t h e r i s k i l l i n g h imse l f . Yury i s hav ing a r e l i g i o u s exper ience which ends i n a f a i n t i n g f i t . and the co inc idence i s s t rengthened by the f a c t t ha t when Yury r ega in s consc iousness he remembers t ha t he has not prayed f o r h i s f a t he r f o r a l ong t ime . Fu r t he r , on board the t r a i n at the t ime o f the s u i c i d e are Komarovsky, M isha Gordon and T i v e r z i n a ; and s t a y i ng i n the count ry w i t h Yury are N i cky Dudorov and N i ko l a y Vedenyapin. Thus i n one o f the f i r s t scenes of the nove l Pasternak congregates a l a r ge c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s . Such c o i n c i d e n t a l occurrences can be found throughout the n o v e l . They fo rm. 30 as Gleb S t ruve c l a ims , " pa r t o f a d e l i b e r a t e s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n . " The o v e r a l l metaphor ic s t r u c t u r e — t h e "moving e n t i r e n e s s " — o f Doctor Zhivago has been s tud i ed by the Rowlands. For the purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i t i s on ly necessary t o demonstrate a few of the major s t r u c t u r e s . The b a s i c one i s the s e l e c t i o n of the th ree "w i ves " of Yu r y . Tonya, La ra and Mar ina represent the th ree c l a s s e s o f Ru s s i a , and the sequence o f Y u r y ' s a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h them f o l l ows the order i n which these c l a s s e s dominated Ru s s i a : the 31 upper c l a s s , the bou rgeo i s i e and the work ing c l a s s . Another important 32 s t r u c t u r e i s cen t red around L a r a , who q u i t e c l e a r l y symbol i ses R u s s i a . The Rowlands w r i t e : "Pas te rnak has represented the f o r ces s t r u g g l i n g to mold R u s s i a ' s d e s t i n y by pa rab l e s of f ou r men who, i n d i f f e r e n t ways, l ove L a r i s a Gu i cha rd . These r i v a l s have man i fes t soc io-economic and p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a -33 t i o n s . . . " Two o l d e r men p l a y r o l e s i n L a r a ' s e a r l y l i f e . Komarovsky uses La ra r u t h l e s s l y to h i s own ends j u s t as he uses Russ ian s o c i e t y . Ko l og r i v o v , as a f a the r f i g u r e to L a r a , rep resents those wea l thy men i n p re -Revo lu t i ona ry Russ i a who were not e x p l o i t e r s and who worked a c t i v e l y f o r r e fo rm. A t h i r d man, Pasha An t i pov po r t r a y s the young p r o l e t a r i a n i d e a l i s t who he lp s ach ieve the Revo l u t i on on l y to f i n d i t t u r n sour on h im. On a c r u c i a l n i g h t , Decern-60 ber 27 th , 1911, " L a r a ' s a c t i on s a f f o r d a pa rab le o f Rus s i a making d i s a s t r ou s 3 4 cho ices a t a f a t e f u l c rossroads i n her h i s t o r y . " La ra has l e f t the p r o t e c -t i o n o f Ko l og r i v o v and has se t out w i t h the aim o f shoot ing Komarovsky. On her way she v i s i t s Pasha t o confess the s i n s beh ind her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Komarovsky. And wh i l e she i s doing t h i s , the f ou r t h man i n her l i f e , Yu ry , d r i v e s pas t Pasha ' s house and sees the candle burn ing i n the ve ry room where La r a i s c on f e s s i ng . La t e r i n the evening Yury sees her attempt to k i l l Komarovsky. Y u r y ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h La ra i s the c l imax of the book, exem-p l i f y i n g a t ranscendent i d e a l which no p o l i t i c a l o r s o c i a l a c t i o n can e r a se . And a l though Komarovsky i s ab le t o take her away from Yu r y , and a l though Yury must f i n a l l y take another " w i f e , " the t ranscendent q u a l i t y o f the love between Yury and La ra remains . And even a f t e r the f a i l u r e of the great i d e a l s o f the reformer Ko l o g r i v o v , o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y An t i pov , and of the poet Zh ivago, there i s s t i l l hope f o r R u s s i a . Komarovsky i s d r i v e n from the coun t r y , and L a r a ' s daughter by Yu ry , Tanya, i s found by Dudorov and Gordon. The t rue s p i r i t o f Russ i a l i v e s on both i n Tanya and i n the poems Yury wrote under the i n s p i r a t i o n of L a r a , and the nove l c l o se s on a hope fu l no te . Thus the cha rac te r s i n Doctor Zhivago must be seen me t apho r i c a l l y . Each one represents or po r t r a y s c e r t a i n s o c i a l or p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s . The p a t t e r n of events between the charac te r s t he re f o r e expresses Pa s t e rnak ' s v iew of the events sur round ing the Russ ian Revo l u t i o n . And at the very cent re o f t h i s p a t t e r n i s the au t ob i og r aph i c a l doc to r who i s a b r i l l i a n t d i a g n o s t i c i a n but who cannot c u r e . Such symbo l i c s t r u c t u r i n g o f a n o v e l , which r e l ega t e s p l a u s i b i l i t y , c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n and p l o t t o secondary importance, would not have appealed to n ine teen th century t a s t e s i n the n o v e l . Hardy, however, would have been more r e c ep t i v e than most towards such techn ique; he was i n f a c t work ing towards s i m i l a r ends h i m s e l f . The f o l l ow i ng two e x t r a c t s show how Hardy was d i s -61 s a t i s f i e d w i t h some of the t r a d i t i o n a l and commercial demands of the n o v e l : A r t i s a d i s p r o p o r t i o n i n g — ( i . e . d i s t o r t i n g , throwing out o f p r o p o r t i o n ) — o f r e a l i t i e s , t o show more c l e a r l y the f ea tu res t ha t matter i n those r e a l i t i e s , wh i ch , i f mere ly cop ied or repor ted i n v e n t o r i a l l y , might p o s s i b l y be observed, but would more probab ly be ove r l ooked . Hence " r e a l i s m " i s not a r t . 3 5 The r e a l , i f unavowed, purpose o f f i c t i o n i s t o g i v e p l easu re by g r a t i f y i n g the l ove o f the uncommon i n human expe r i ence , menta l or c o r p o r e a l . . . . The w r i t e r ' s problem i s , how to s t r i k e the ba lance be -tween the uncommon and the o rd i na ry so as on the one hand t o g i ve i n t e r e s t , on the other to g i v e r e a l i t y . I n work ing out t h i s problem, human nature must never be made abnormal, which i s i n t r oduc i ng i n c r e d i b i l i t y . The uncom-monness must be i n the even t s , not i n the cha r a c t e r s ; and the w r i t e r ' s a r t l i e s i n shap ing t ha t uncommonness w h i l e d i s g u i s i n g i t s u n l i k e l i h o o d , i f i t be u n l i k e l y . 3 6 Many c r i t i c s have apprec ia ted how c a r e f u l l y the events i n Hardy ' s major nove ls a re s t r u c t u r e d . Jean Brooks has noted the c a r e f u l c o n s t r u c t i o n i n The Mayor of Cas t e rb r i dge : "The movement of the p l o t , d i v i d e d c l e a r l y i n t o a pro logue and s i x a c t s , or the s t a n z a i c s teps of a b a l l a d , i s one o f r e v e r s a l 37 tha t r e c a l l s Greek t r agedy . " More s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , M i l l -gate sees i n The Return of the Na t i ve a new " sea r ch f o r e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c and 38 b road l y symbol i c e f f e c t s . " But probab ly the most important a pp r e c i a t i o n o f the s t r u c t u r e o f Hardy ' s nove l s came from Ma r ce l P r o u s t . Th i s f a c t b r i n g s out another connec t ion b e -tween Hardy and Pasternak; f o r where P rous t admired Hardy, Pasternak c a l l e d 39 Prous t the g r ea t e s t o f a l l l i v i n g authors i n 1921. I n La P r i s o nn i e r e (1923) , which Hardy cou ld have read s i n ce i t i s known he read the e a r l i e r volumes, Proust t a l k s o f " c e t t e geometr ie du t a i l l e u r de p i e r r e " i n the Wessex Nove l s : . . . j e r e v i n s aux t a i l l e u r s de p i e r r e de Thomas Hardy. Vous vous rappe lez assez dans Jude 1'obscur» avez-vous vu dans l a B ien-A imee, l e s b l o c s de p i e r r e s que l e pere e x t r a i t de l ' T T e venant par bateau s ' e n t a s s e r dans 1 ' a t e l i e r du f i l s ou e l l e s deviennent s t a t ue s ; dans l e s Yeux b l e u s , l e p a r a l l e l i s m e des tombes, et au s s i l a l i g n e p a r a l l e l e du ba teau , e t l e s wagons 62 cont igus ou sont l e s deux amoureux, e t l a morte; l e p a r a l -l e l i sme en t re l a Bien-Aimee ou l'homme aime t r o i s femmes, l e s Yeux b leus ou l a ferame aime t r o t s hommes, e t c . . e t en-* f i n tous ces roraans superposables l e s uns aux au t r e s , comme l e s maisons ve r t i c a l emen t entassees en hauteur su r l e s o l p i e r r eux de l ' f l e . * 0 H i l l i s M i l l e r , who h imse l f quotes t h i s c e l eb ra t ed passage, agrees tha t Ha rdy ' s 41 nove l s "a lmost always have an e legant ba lance o f a r t i f i c i a l d e s i g n . " Jude the Obscure has had the most c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n f o r i t s s t r u c t u r e . An anonymous f r i e n d of Hardy was the f i r s t t o remark on i t s form and Hardy r e p l i e d : " I t r equ i r ed an a r t i s t t o see t ha t the p l o t i s a lmost g eome t r i c a l l y 42 c on s t r u c t e d . " I n another l e t t e r Hardy desc r i bes the n o v e l ' s s t r u c t u r e say ing tha t " t he i n v o l u t i o n s of the fou r l i v e s must n e c e s s a r i l y be a s o r t o f 43 q u a d r i l l e . " Norman H o l l a n d ' s essay , "Jude the Obscure: Hardy ' s Symbol ic Ind ic tment of C h r i s t i a n i t y , " f i n d s t ha t Ha rdy ' s imagery " f a l l s i n t o com-44 p lexes and c l u s t e r s , " and sees " t he s t ronges t ev idence i n favour of the symbol i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t , through i t , so much o f the imagery f a l l s i n t o a p a t t e r n . " Fernand Lagarde has made the most exhaus t i ve s tudy of the s t r u c t u r e o f Jude the Obscure. He notes how equa l i n l eng th the s i x pa r t s are d e sp i t e the va r y i ng number o f chap te r s . He then con t i nues : Chaque p a r t i e commence generalement par une no t a t i o n de temps e t par une d e s c r i p t i o n qu i s e r v i r a de decor a 1 ' a c t i on pendant une per iode de l a v i e du he ros . Chaque c h a p i t r e , qu i n ' a t t e i n t jamais une dimension exageree, i s o l e un f a i t , d e c r i t un moment de 1 ' a c t i on ou depe int un e ta t d'ame. Lagarde i s ab le t o f i n d many other s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n s . He sees the f i r s t th ree p a r t s o f the nove l as be ing "un echec s o c i a l " f o r Jude, and the l a t t e r 47 three be ing h i s "echec s e n t i m e n t a l . " And each pa r t i s seen t o beg in w i t h a change i n the l i f e o f Jude . Fur ther symmetry i s ev iden t i n the f a c t tha t A r a b e l l a r e tu rn s from abroad i n the midd le chapter o f the book; and Lagarde f o l l ows t h i s symmetry by showing tha t the c r u c i a l event o f each pa r t occurs i n the midd le chap te r . He conc ludes : "La s t r u c t u r e es t organique et s e r t a 63 montrer que tous l e s moments de l a t r aged ie sont en r e a c t i o n mu tue l l e , que 4 8 n u l l e p e r i p e t i e n ' e s t i s o l e e . " As Robert Hei lman puts i t : " the b a s i c 4 9 method i s c o n t r a s t . " Thus P r ou s t , H i l l i s M i l l e r , Ho l l a nd , Lagarde and Hei lman have a l l supported and e l abo ra ted Hardy ' s own i n d i c a t i o n tha t Jude  the Obscure i s "a lmost geome t r i c a l l y c on s t r u c t e d . " The second aspect o f the p o e t i c s e n s i b i l i t y tha t c h a r a c t e r i s e s the nov-e l s o f Hardy and Pasternak i s a p reoccupa t i on w i t h na t u r e . The dominant metaphor ic v e h i c l e o f exp res s i on i n t h e i r l y r i c poet ry was, o f cou r se , na -t u r e ; t r e e s , r a i n , snow, b i r d s , h i l l s , l akes and streams i n s p i r e d them to t h e i r g r ea t e s t poems. Th i s i s not unusua l f o r a poet ; but i t must be s t r e s sed tha t t h e i r ex tens i ve use o f nature i n t h e i r nove l s was e x c e p t i o n a l . In Doctor Zhivago Pasternak uses nature as a con t r a s t t o the c i t y . The c i t y i s the p l a ce o f r e v o l u t i o n , o f mass c u l t u r e , o f the pe r ve r s i on o f n a t -u r a l and i n d i v i d u a l l i f e . The coun t r y , e s p e c i a l l y Va ryk i no , i s a haven from t h i s a l i e n l i f e , where man can s t i l l be h i s own master : What happiness i t i s t o work from dawn to dusk f o r your fam*-i l y and y o u r s e l f , t o b u i l d a r oo f over t h e i r heads, t o t i l l the s o i l t o feed them, t o c rea te your own w o r l d , l i k e Rob in -son Crusoe, i n i m i t a t i o n of the Crea to r o f the un i v e r s e , and to b r i n g f o r t h your l i f e , as i f you were your own mother, aga in and a g a i n . 5 0 But Pasternak r e a l i s e d tha t such a t t i t u d e s are outmoded i n the twen t i e th cen tu ry : Where, i n such a l i f e , i s p a s t o r a l s i m p l i c i t y i n a r t t o come from? When i t i s at tempted, i t s pseudo-a r t l e ssness i s a l i t -e ra ry f r a ud , not i n s p i r e d by the coun t rys ide but taken from academic bookshe lves . The l i v i n g language of our t ime i s u r -ban . 1 Yet Pasternak s t i l l uses nature throughout the n o v e l . As Yevtushenko pe r -52 c e p t i v e l y put i t , Pasternak was " a man t o r n between c i t y and coun t r y . " Pasternak b e l i e v ed tha t metaphors shou ld not be invented but d i s covered i n 53 na tu r e . Thus, f o r example, "The rowanberr ies are the bounty o f na tu r e , 64 5 4 i n c l u d i n g l o v e . " Yury sees the rowan t r e e as a f o s t e r mother b r e a s t -feeding b i r d s i n Winter and. i n a l a t e r scene, i t becomes a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of L a r a . The rowan t r e e f i n a l l y man i fes ts i t s e l f as a symbol f o r the p r o -c r e a t i v e powers of l i f e , f o r what i n s p i r e s Yury and f o r what, i n t ime , w i l l r e t u r n Russ i a t o a f u l l n e s s o f l i f e which the Revo l u t i on den i ed . D e s c r i p t i o n of nature a l s o enables Pasternak t o comment upon the de-s t r u c t i o n of l i f e tha t arose out of the Revo l u t i on . I n the f o l l ow i ng scene which comes a f t e r the Revo l u t i o n , Yury i s r e t u r n i ng to Moscow from Va ryk ino : Shaggy v i l l a g e mongre ls , turned savage, fo l l owed him at a r e s p e c t f u l d i s t a n c e , exchanging g lances as i f to dec ide on the bes t moment t o f a l l on him and t ea r him i n p i e c e s . They fed on c a r r i o n , d i d not d i s d a i n mice and eyed Yury from the d i s t a n c e , moving a f t e r him c on f i d en t l y as though w a i t i n g f o r something. For some reason they never went i n t o a wood, and whenever he came near one they g r adua l l y f e l l back , turned t a i l and van i shed . The woods and the f i e l d s o f f e r ed a complete con t ra s t i n those days . Deserted by man, the f i e l d s looked orphaned as i f h i s absence had put them under a cu r se , but the f o r e s t , w e l l r i d o f h im, f l o u r i s h e d proud ly i n freedom as though r e -leased from c a p t i v i t y . . . . He f e l t as i f he saw the f i e l d s i n the feve r o f a danger-ous i l l n e s s and the woods i n the r e l i e f o f conva lescence, as i f God dwelt i n the woods and Satan were l u r k i n g i n the f i e l d s . 5 5 Such nature d e s c r i p t i o n serves Pasternak not on ly as an a r t i s t i c mode of e xp r e s s i on , not on ly as a touchstone or con t r a s t t o the ravages of war and r e v o l u t i o n , but a l s o as a method of i n d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l c r i t i c i s m . I n the same scene, amongst the neg lec ted farmlands, Yury t r i e s t o f i n d f ood : " I n the abandoned f i e l d s the r i p e g r a i n s p i l l e d and t r i c k l e d on the g round . " And hav ing t o eat the g r a i n raw, "he s t u f f e d i t i n t o h i s mouth and ground i t 5 6 w i t h d i f f i c u l t y between h i s t e e t h . " The p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s sma l l d e t a i l i s t ha t the Bo l shev i k s had won e l e c t i o n on the promise o f b r ead . For most readers Hardy ' s name i s synonymous w i t h na tu re ; h i s long nature d e s c r i p t i o n s are the ha l lmark o f h i s n o ve l s . L i k e Pas te rnak , he seems t o 65 f i n d h i s i n s p i r a t i o n through images of nature and be t rays a p re fe rence f o r the r u r a l r a t he r than the urban. But Hardy ' s nove l s , u n l i k e Doctor Zh ivago, o f t e n use a c e n t r a l i z e d l o c a t i o n f o r a complete work. Th i s s e t t i n g pe r son -i f i e s the mood o f the nove l and g ives a power fu l sense o f u n i t y . Perhaps Hardy ' s g r ea t e s t achievement i n t h i s respec t i s the s e t t i n g of Egdon Heath f o r The Return of the N a t i v e . Egdon Heath i s such a power fu l s e t t i n g tha t i t might o f t e n be regarded as the main p ro t agon i s t o f the n o v e l . I t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s embody the p h i l o s -ophy tha t Hardy had formulated through h i s read ing o f Darwin, Hartmann and Schopenhauer. I t i s a rewarding exper ience t o v i s i t the a c t u a l a rea tha t Hardy named Egdon Heath , and t o f o l l ow the c r e a t i v i t y o f h i s mind as he adapted t h i s b l eak area i n t o a symbol o f determin i sm. As i n h i s poe t r y— "Na tu re ' s Que s t i o n i ng , " f o r example—nature seems almost t o speak t o h im; i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s echo the ab s t r a c t p h i l o s oph i z i n g o f Hardy. The e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y of Egdon Heath , or o f o ther na tu re s e t t i n g s used by Hardy, i s a complex o f meaning. As Te r ry Eag le ton says : " M a t e r i a l ob-j e c t s . . . can become beare rs of meaning: not mere ly s i gnpos t s t o a r e a l i t y b e -yond themselves, but symbols wh ich compress and a r t i c u l a t e a complex w o r l d . . . . The ob j e c t i v e wo r l d i s a k i nd o f language demanding sympathet ic i n t e r p r e t a -57 t i o n . " He then goes on to quote from The Return of the Na t i v e : "To dwe l l on the heath w i thout s tudy ing i t s meanings was l i k e wedding a f o r e i gne r w i t h -58 out l e a r n i ng h i s tongue. " Hardy here seems to be reminding the reader t ha t Egdon Heath has many "meanings." Thus when Ber t Hornback says , "The main s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s t ime-extend ing s e t t i n g i s i n what i t says about the 59 cha rac te r s who do the p r i n c i p a l a c t i n g , " he shows a tendency towards under-e s t ima t i ng many o f the o ther "meanings" t ha t the heath o f f e r s . Nature t hen , i n Ha rdy ' s mature nove ls e s p e c i a l l y , i s used to po r t r ay a l l the comp lex i t i e s o f the n o v e l ' s s ub j e c t . As the t i t l e o f Eag l e t on ' s f i n e essay i m p l i e s , 66 nature f o r Hardy i s language. The t h i r d and f i n a l b a s i c s i m i l a r i t y between Hardy and Pas te rnak i s i n t h e i r use of a pas s i ve p ro t agon i s t who r e t r e a t s t o an i nne r s ub j e c t i v e w o r l d . I n t h i s r e spec t Jude and Yury are very s i m i l a r ; Te s s . and to a l e s s e r e x t e n t . 6 0 Winterbourne and Oak can a l s o be seen i n t h i s way. Th i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c has r e ve rbe ra t i on s o f bo th the c l a s s i c a l hero b u f f e t t e d by the gods, and the e x i s t e n t i a l hero who f i n d s meaning i n l i f e s u b j e c t i v e l y . But a l though the two w r i t e r s c rea te wor lds shaped by f a te , and cha rac te r s d r i v e n from p u b l i c l i f e , these p a r a l l e l s shou ld not be c a r r i e d too f a r . Rather than emanating from a c l a s s i c a l or e x i s t e n t i a l i n f l u e n c e , these t r a i t s are the r e s u l t o f p oe t i c s e n s i b i l i t y . The pas s i ve s ub j e c t i v e out look i s tha t o f the l y r i c poe t , and f a t e i s a common p o e t i c s t r u c t u r i n g o f l i f e . And s i n ce t h e i r heroes have some q u a l i t i e s of the poe t , there i s an unusua l c loseness between these two poe t - n o v e l i s t s and t h e i r he roes . The au tob i og r aph i c a l q u a l i t i e s i n Doctor Zhivago a r e , o f cou r se , w i de l y a c -61 cep ted . Hardy ' s case i s more complex but i s b r i l l i a n t l y summarized by H i l l i s M i l l e r . He f i n d s t ha t i n h i s l a s t nove l s Hardy b r i n g s the n a r r a t o r and the p ro t agon i s t c l o s e r and c l o s e r together u n t i l the d i s j u n c t i o n between them necessary t o h i s k i n d o f f i c t i o n i s no longer p o s s i b l e . Then h i s e x p l o r a t i o n o f r e -a l i t y by means of words cou ld bes t be c a r r i e d on through the somewhat d i f f e r e n t tempora l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l s t r u c t u r e cha r -a c t e r i s t i c o f h i s l y r i c poetry,*> 2 The most important aspect o f t h i s p o e t i c i s i n g o f the nove l i s t h a t , i n moving towards autob iography, these two w r i t e r s are ab le t o o b j e c t i f y ex -pe r i e n ce . Th i s i s c r u c i a l f o r the e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e i r main compla int aga ins t modern s o c i e t y — t h e treatment o f the i n d i v i d u a l . Through the " l y r i c a l n o v e l " Hardy and Pasternak are ab le t o express t h e i r deep f e e l i n g s of compassion f o r the predicament of t h e i r f e l l o w men. Th i s compassion, which we have a l ready noted was shared w i t h Shakespeare, i s d i r e c t e d p a r t i c u l a r l y towards the 67 i n d i v i d u a l i n a changing s o c i e t y where there i s g rea te r human s u f f e r i n g through the c o n f l i c t between o l d and new. L i k e Shakespeare, they do not speak from an e s t a b l i s h ed po in t o f v iew; r a t h e r , they speak from t h e i r own exper ience and consc ience , from t h e i r "sent iment o f b e i n g " which L i o n e l T r i l -63 l i n g sees to be the b a s i s f o r an op i n i on of s o c i a l or p o l i t i c a l l i f e . And the s ub j e c t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e , p re sen t i ng the events of the nove l from the p r o t a g o n i s t ' s po i n t o f v iew, enables the author to po r t r ay t h i s i n d i v i d u a l exper ience o f l i f e . I n t h i s way, the a c t u a l r e a l i t i e s o f d a i l y l i f e take precedence over ab s t r a c t s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s . Doctor Zhivago and the major nove l s o f Hardy thus become what Joseph Campbel l c a l l s " c r e a t i v e mytho logy:" C r ea t i v e mythology, i n Shakespeare 's sense, o f the m i r r o r " t o show v i r t u e her own f e a t u r e , s co rn her own image, and the very age and body of the t ime h i s form and p r e s s u r e , " sp r i ngs no t , l i k e theo logy , from the d i c t a of a u t h o r i t y , but from the i n s i g h t s , sen t iments , thought, and v i s i o n o f an adequate i n -d i v i d u a l , l o y a l t o h i s own exper ience o f v a l u e . Thus i t c o r -r e c t s the a u t h o r i t y ho l d i ng to the s h e l l s of forms produced and l e f t behind by l i v e s once l i v e d . Renewing the ac t o f ex -pe r i ence i t s e l f , i t r e s t o r e s to ex i s t ence the q u a l i t y o f ad -ven tu re , a t once s h a t t e r i n g and r e i n t e g r a t i n g the f i x e d , a l ready known, i n the s a c r i f i c i a l c r e a t i v e f i r e o f the becom-i ng t h i ng tha t i s no th i ng a t a l l but l i f e , not as i t . w i l l be or as i t shou ld be , as i t was, or as i t never w i l l be , but as i t i s , i n dep th , i n p roces s , here and now, i n s i d e and o u t . 6 4 The l a t t e r pa r t o f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y appos i te t o Doctor Zhivago where Pasternak c o n t i n u a l l y emphasises tha t "man i s bo rn to l i v e , not t o p r e -65 pare f o r l i f e . " Reshaping l i f e ! People who can say tha t have never under-s tood a t h i ng about l i f e — t h e y have never f e l t i t s b r e a t h , i t s heart—however much they have seen or done. They look on i t as a lump o f raw m a t e r i a l which needs to be processed by them, to be ennobled" by t h e i r t ouch . But l i f e i s never a m a t e r i a l , a substance to be moulded. I f you want t o know, l i f e i s the p r i n c i p l e of s e l f - r e n e w a l , i t i s c ons t an t l y renewing and r e -making and changing and t r a n s f i g u r i n g i t s e l f , i t i s i n f i n i t e l y beyond your o r my i n ep t t heo r i e s about i t . 6 6 68 Both Hardy and Pas ternak see man i n modern s o c i e t y as " a pygmy be fo re the monstrous machine o f the f u t u r e . " Yu r y . Tess and Jude are waste land wanderers whose l i v e s a re d i s r up t ed by p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l events beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l . They become keno t i c s u f f e r e r s as t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s c l a s h w i t h va lues and changes i n s o c i e t y . Above a l l , i t i s the d e n i a l o f f r e e exp res s i on o f p e r s o n a l i t y wh ich concerns these two w r i t e r s . Th i s respec t f o r i n d i v i d u a l i t y demands what Raymond W i l l i ams c a l l s 68 " f i d e l i t y t o pe r sona l e xpe r i en ce . " W i l l i ams sees Doctor Zhivago as s t r u c -tu red round " the concept ion o f l i f e as s a c r i f i c e , which i n the end g i ves 69 meaning t o both the i n d i v i d u a l and the s o c i a l h i s t o r i e s . " Th i s read ing o f the nove l i s conf i rmed i n the f i r s t pages of the nove l where Pasternak pu r -pose ly g i v e s prominence to a very impor tant speech by N i k o l a i Vedenyapin: . . . e v e r y t h i n g necessary has been g i v en us i n the G o s p e l s . . . . F i r s t l y , the l ove of one ' s ne ighbour—the supreme form o f l i v i n g energy. Once i t f i l l s the hea r t o f man i t has t o ove r -f low and spend i t s e l f . And second ly , the two concepts which are the main pa r t o f the make-up of modern man—without them he i s i n conce i v ab l e—the ideas of f r e e p e r s o n a l i t y and of l i f e regarded as s a c r i f i c e . 7 0 Hardy expressed very s i m i l a r i deas on f r ee p e r s o n a l i t y i n a l e t t e r t o a j o u r -n a l : " I cons ide r a s o c i a l system based on i n d i v i d u a l spontane i t y t o promise b e t t e r f o r happiness than a curbed and un i fo rm one under which a l l tempera-71 ments a re bound to shape themselves to a s i n g l e p a t t e r n o f l i v i n g . " Th i s concept o f f r e e p e r s o n a l i t y i s perhaps the main impetus beh ind Ha rdy ' s con-f l i c t w i t h the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e and economic system o f Eng land . Most o f h i s nove l s are concerned, t o va r y i ng degrees , w i t h man's s u f f e r i n g i n s o c i e t y . The Hand o f E t h e l b e r t a i s r e a l l y the f i r s t nove l to dea l e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h f r e e exp ress i on o f p e r s o n a l i t y i n de f i ance of s o c i e t y . But where the comic he ro i ne , E t h e l b e r t a , i s s u c c e s s f u l , Tess , Jude and G i l e s s u f f e r and d i e as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r s t r ugg l e s w i t h s o c i o r p o l i t i c a l r e s t r i c t i o n s . They become s a c r i f i c i a l heroes i n Hardy ' s p l e a f o r more i n d i v i d u a l freedom. 69 In the same way, the outcome o f Doctor Zhivago i s the de feat of the hero and the l o s s of p e r s o n a l i t y . The Sov ie t Regime and V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y h a t t e r t h e i r p r o t agon i s t s t o the po i n t o f r e s i g n a t i o n . But a l though bo th w r i t e r s 72 have been c r i t i c i z e d f o r t h e i r weak he roes , they s t i l l ma in ta i n an u l t i -mate ly o p t i m i s t i c out look: ' Pas ternak i n h i s f a i t h i n the v i t a l i t y and c r e a -t i v i t y o f human l i f e , and Hardy, at l e a s t t h e o r e t i c a l l y , i n h i s concept of e vo l u t i ona r y me l i o r i sm . Pasternak foresaw the c r i t i c i s m tha t was t o be made aga ins t h i s weak he ro , and he conf ronted Yury through M i k u l i t s y n w i t h the very charges tha t the Sov i e t s were t o make: "You have an a t roph ied s o c i a l 73 sense, j u s t l i k e an i l l i t e r a t e peasant woman or an i n v e t e r a t e bou rgeo i s . " C h r i s t , whose l i f e i s o f t en r e f e r r e d to by both w r i t e r s , ep i t om i ze s , w i t h h i s v i c t o r y i n defeat and w i t h h i s l i f e as s a c r i f i c e , the t y p i c a l Pasternak or Hardy he ro . Jude , Clym and Yury are a l l a s soc i a t ed w i t h C h r i s t ; Hardy and Pasternak a r e , i n f a c t , s t r ong l y a t t r a c t e d to the gene ra l a t t i t u d e o f the New Testament. One reason f o r t h i s may w e l l be tha t t h e i r s tance aga ins t po-l i t i c a l r ep r e s s i on was very s i m i l a r to C h r i s t ' s aga ins t Roman r e p r e s s i o n . Pasternak even makes an analogy between Rome and the Sov ie t reg ime. He p r e -pares the reader f o r t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n e a r l y i n the nove l when N i k o l a i Veden-yap i n makes h i s famous c l a im tha t "H i s t o r y as we know i t now began w i t h 74 C h r i s t . " N i k o l a i c on t r a s t s the "upsurge of s p i r i t " i n the gospe ls w i t h the s p i r i t o f the c l a s s i c a l w o r l d : "There you had b lood and b e a s t l i n e s s and c r u e l t y and pock-marked C a l i g u l a s untouched by the s u sp i c i o n tha t any man who 75 ens laves o thers i s i n e v i t a b l y s e cond - r a t e . " Sima l a t e r e l abo ra tes on t h i s v iew o f Roman r ep r e s s i on o f the i n d i v i d u a l under which " the du ty , imposed by 76 armed f o r c e , " was " t o l i v e unanimously as a peop le , as a whole n a t i o n . " On t h i s theme the Rowlands conc lude: " I n war and r e v o l u t i o n — a s N i ko l a y Veden-77 yap i n p r ed i c t e d—Rus s i a i s undergoing a death and r e b i r t h i n t o Rome." 70 I t i s thus an almost r e l i g i o u s compassion f o r i n d i v i d u a l man tha t b r i ng s Hardy and Pasternak t o p o l i t i c a l t o p i c s . Hardy ' s 1907 d e f i n i t i o n o f " r e l i -g i ous " i s , o f course , necessary he re : " R e l i g i o u s , r e l i g i o n , i s t o be u s e d . . . i n i t s modern sense e n t i r e l y , as be ing exp res s i ve of nob l e r f e e l i n g s towards 78 humanity and emot iona l goodness and g rea tnes s . " I t i s the d e n i a l o f such va lues by s o c i e t y t ha t leads them to see i n d i v i d u a l man as a t r a g i c he ro . And i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , i t i s ab s t r a c t p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l o r r e l i g i o u s t h e o r i z i n g which i s the fundamental cause of such t ragedy . Wi th Doctor  Zhivago t h i s i s taken f o r g ran ted , but w i t h Hardy ' s l a t e r nove l s c r i t i c s have gene r a l l y avoided the p o l i t i c a l aspect and have s t r e s sed h i s gloomy p h i l o s o p h i c a l ou t l ook . The l a s t chapter o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l endeavour to red ress t h i s s i t u a t i o n . S ince Hardy and Pasternak were at odds w i t h t h e i r r e spe c t i v e s o c i e t i e s , and were i n t e n t on express ing t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , they a c co rd i ng l y faced a common problem of censo r sh i p . Aga in , o f cou r se , a comparison between the r u t h l e s s censorsh ip under S t a l i n and the commerc ia l ly mot i va ted censorsh ip o f s e r i a l i s e d nove ls i n V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n might appear wo r t h l e s s . But i n both cases the n o v e l i s t wished t o express what would c l e a r l y o f fend—mat te rs about which they f e l t s t r ong l y from a humane and mora l v i ewpo i n t . They were thus ob l i g ed t o f i n d a means of express ing t h e i r c o n t r o v e r s i a l op in ions i n a way tha t might escape the l i t e r a l - m i n d e d censor , but tha t cou ld s t i l l com-municate w i t h the more d i s c e r n i ng r eade r s . For Hardy i t became obvious tha t h i s v i t r i o l i c s a t i r e was too o f f e n s i v e ; and a f t e r The Hand of E t h e l b e r t a he 79 began t o move towards the l y r i c a l n o v e l . Pas te rnak , t oo , dec ided on the l y r i c a l nove l when he saw tha t censorsh ip was r e l a x i n g a f t e r the death of S t a l i n i n 1953. The l y r i c a l nove l as we have seen, p o e t i c i s e s the conven t i ona l nove l i n t o symbo l i c r a t he r than n a r r a t i v e p a t t e r n s . Fu r the r i t o b j e c t i f i e s expe-71 r i e n ce r a t he r than man and h i s w o r l d . Thus e x p l i c i t p o l i t i c a l comment can be " d i s g u i s e d " i n the l y r i c a l n o v e l , not on ly by showing j u s t the s ub j e c t i v e exper ience of p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s s i o n r a the r than a t t a c k i ng i t s i deo logy or system d i r e c t l y , bu t a l s o by camouf laging ideas w i t h i n a symbol i c framework. I n o ther words, the w r i t e r can express h i s p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s by u s i ng e s o t e r i c techn iques of poe t ry which w i l l not be f u l l y understood by the cen -s o r . H i s t e x t thus becomes, i n the broadest sense of the word, a s e c r e t code. Th i s i s p r e c i s e l y what Pasternak does i n Doctor Zh ivago. As Edmund Wi l son say s , " t he re i s something i n i t o f F innegan 's Wake and something of the c a b b a l i s t i c Zohar , which d i s cove r s a whole system o f h idden meanings i n 80 the t e x t o f the Hebrew B i b l e . " Cha rac te r s , and symbol i c ob jec t s and phe-nomena represent or embody l a r g e r concepts which are o f t en o f p o l i t i c a l s i g -n i f i c a n c e . For example, cha rac te r s are r e l a t e d t o r e a l l i f e f i g u r e s through 81 the techn ique o f anagrams. So, f o r western r eade r s , the e x p l i c a t i o n o f the nove l does not depend s o l e l y on p oe t i c techn ique; i t i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l t o have a comprehensive knowledge of Russ ian c u l t u r e i n order t o t r a c k down a l l the "h idden meanings." The most thorough e x p l i c a t i o n of the nove l has thus been done by two s p e c i a l i s t s I n Russ ian l i t e r a t u r e , P au l and Mary Rowland, who have unearthed a wea l th of e s o t e r i c m a t e r i a l from below the su r f ace of the book. One important techn ique i n Doctor Zhivago i s the use of cha rac te r s as metaphors. The i r names o f t en l ead the reader t o t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n s . The name Zhivago means " l i v i n g " and the t i t l e o f the nove l t o a Russ ian would be "Doctor L i v i n g " or "Doctor L i f e . " Yu ry , through h i s name, thus embodies the c e n t r a l va lue o f the n o v e l — l i f e . By name Pas ternak a l s o makes metaphor ic a s s o c i a t i o n s between Y u r y ' s mother and the Russ ian church , and between h i s 82 fos te r -mother and Impe r i a l R u s s i a . The nove l opens w i t h the f u n e r a l scene 72 o f Y u r y ' s mother: . . . t h e f u n e r a l o f Marya N iko layevna Zhivago i s a pa rab le r e v ea l i n g a melancholy f a c t , namely, tha t when the twen t i e th century opened, the Russ ian Church, was a body w i thou t s p i r i t . The neg lec ted w i f e whose i n h e r i t e d weakness, combined w i t h her husband's i l l - t r e a t m e n t , doomed her t o waste away w i t h consumption and hea r t t r o u b l e , i s a v i v i d image o f the Na-t i o n a l Church a f t e r f i v e c en tu r i e s o f " p r o t e c t i o n " by the " p i o u s " Russ ian t s a r s . 8 ^ And when Yury i s a med i ca l s t uden t , h i s f o s t e r mother a l s o d i e s . The meta-pho r i c a s s o c i a t i o n o f he r death w i t h t ha t o f Mother Russ i a has many i n t e r e s t -84 i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t aspect o f her death i s tha t i t was i n d i r e c t l y caused by her se rvant Ma r ke l ; f o r Ma r k e l , as has been s t a t e d , i s a c l o s e anagram o f K a r l Marx. She i s f a t a l l y i n j u r e d when she t r i e s to he lp Ma rke l r e cons t ru c t an ant ique wardrobe. She causes the whole s t r u c t u r e to c o l l a p s e , gets b r u i s e d and develops a pulmonary weakness. S ymbo l i c a l l y , t h i s wardrobe becomes an image o f Russ i a be ing recons t ruc ted a f t e r the a b o l i t i o n o f ser fdom. Anna r e f e r s t o i t i n a confused way: "She nicknamed i t the tomb of A sko l d ; she meant the horse o f P r i n c e O l eg , which caused i t s mas te r ' s 85 dea th . " The Rowlands e x p l i c a t e t h i s : Anna's nickname f o r the l e t h a l wardrobe, "Asko ld*s tomb," a l -ludes t o the k i l l i n g of K i e v ' s f i r s t c o r u l e r s , Asko ld and D i r , by t h e i r successo r , P r i n c e O l eg . What Anna meant—that the wardrobe was " t he horse of P r i n c e O l eg , which caused i t s mas-t e r ' s d e a t h " — r e c a l l s a legend of the nemesis tha t overtook O leg : the f a t a l b i t e by a serpent t ha t da r ted out of the s k u l l o f h i s dead ho r s e . Thus a prophecy was f u l f i l l e d : the p r i n c e ' s " s e r v an t " ( h i s steed) would become the inst rument o f h i s d oom . 8 6 The i m p l i c a t i o n would seem to be tha t the a b o l i t i o n o f ser fdom, i n l ead ing t o the format ion of the p r o l e t a r i a t , was the roo t cause, w i t h the guidance of Marx, o f the death o f Impe r i a l Ru s s i a . As the s t r u c t u r e o f Russ ian s o c i e t y broke down i n 1917 and caused the end of the T s a r i s t reg ime, so the wardrobe c o l l a p sed and m o r t a l l y wounded Anna. And j u s t as the former s e r f s o r s e r -vants take over Ru s s i a , so does Anna 's servant Marke l take over the f am i l y r e s i dence . 73 A c co rd i ng l y , much of Doctor Zhivago i s t o be read as metaphor, and much of i t has p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n . The method o f e x p l i c a t i o n can be demon-s t r a t e d w i t h an e a r l y scene i n the nove l where a s t r i k e takes p l a c e on the r a i l w a y . I n an i n c i d en t t h a t has l i t t l e to do w i t h the n a r r a t i v e , Pasternak shows a way i n which p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n i s mo t i v a t ed . I n l e s s than four pages he i s ab le t o say a great dea l about the c r u c i a l jump from r e vo l u t i o n a r y thought t o r e vo l u t i o na r y a c t i o n . T i v e r z i n i s a r a i lway worker w i t h r a d i c a l o p i n i o n s . The reader f i r s t encounters him as he i s premature ly l e a v i ng a s t r i k e meet ing w i t h An t ipov s e n i o r : ' L e t ' s walk f a s t e r , ' s a i d T i v e r z i n . ' I ' m not wo r r i ed about the p o l i c e g e t t i n g on to us but the moment those d i t h e r e r s i n t h e i r ho l e i n the ground have f i n i s h e d t h e y ' l l come out and ca tch up w i t h u s . I c a n ' t bear the s i g h t of them. What 's the po i n t o f hav ing a committee i f you drag th i ngs out l i k e t h i s ?—You p l ay w i t h f i r e and then you duck f o r s h e l t e r . You ' r e a f i n e one y o u r s e l f — s i d i n g w i t h tha t l o t . ' 8 7 Ant ipov i s h a r d l y l i s t e n i n g t o these words of T i v e r z i n , f o r he i s much more concerned about a f am i l y i l l n e s s . And when T i v e r z i n th rea tens to s t a r t a s t r i k e on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e , he aga in takes no n o t i c e . But a f t e r An t i pov* l eaves , T i v e r z i n has two exper iences which f i n a l l y d r i v e him to s t a r t the s t r i k e a l though h i s o r i g i n a l t h r ea t had not been very s e r i o u s . F i r s t , he sees the a r i s t o c r a t i c w i f e o f the r a i lway manager w a i t i n g i n her c a r r i a g e : F u f l y g i n f a J sa t admi r ing the s i l v e r beads of s l e e t g l i t t e r i n g i n the l i g h t o f the o f f i c e lamp; her unb l i n k i ng dreamy gaze was f i x e d on a po i n t above the heads o f the workers i n a man-ner suggest ing tha t i t wou ld , i n case o f need, go through them as i f they were on l y s l e e t or m i s t . 8 8 T i v e r z i n ' s r e c og n i t i o n of her exp res s i on shocks h im, and he walks on w i thout acknowledging h e r . Then immediate ly a f t e r t h i s he f i n d s a drunken o l d f o r e -man bea t i ng h i s app r en t i c e . T i v e r z i n ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n i s on ly met w i t h i n s u l t and he l o s e s h i s temper. He i s on l y r e s t r a i n e d from v i o l e n c e by other workers 74 and leaves i n d i s g u s t , going immediate ly t o sound the bo i l e r - r oom w h i s t l e f o r a s t r i k e : Th i s base wor l d o f l i e s and f r a ud , i n which an ove r - f ed madam bad the imper t inence t o s t a r e r i g h t through a crowd o f work ing men and where a d r ink -sodden v i c t i m o f t h i s s o c i e t y found p leasu re i n t a k i ng i t out o f h i s own k i n d , t h i s wo r l d was now more h a t e f u l t o him than i t had ever been b e f o r e . He h u r r i e d on as though h i s pace cou ld has ten the t ime when eve ry th ing on ea r t h would be as reasonable and harmonious as i t was now i n s i d e h i s f e v e r i s h head. He knew tha t a l l t h e i r s t r i v i n g s i n the l a s t few days , the t r oub l e s on the l i n e , the speeches at meet ings , the d e c i s i o n to s t r i k e — n o t ye t c a r r i e d out but a t l e a s t not cance l l ed—were sma l l separa te s tages on the great road l y i n g ahead o f t h e m . 8 9 Pasternak has chosen T i v e r z i n * s exper iences w i t h g rea t c a r e . The w i f e of the r a i lway manager c l e a r l y represents the p o r t i o n o f the r u l i n g c l a s s o f Russ i a who had l i t t l e concern f o r the we l f a r e o f those beneath them. And h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f he r a t t i t u d e i s f i n a l l y the twen t i e th century r e v o l u t i o n -a r y ' s understand ing o f what has t o be removed from R u s s i a . And T i v e r z i n sees the c r u e l t y o f the foreman as a r e s u l t o f the f r u s t r a t i o n caused by the r ep r e s s i v e s o c i e t y which the r u l i n g c l a s s e s have c r ea t ed . At f i r s t we see T i v e r z i n as a compassionate man p r o t e c t i n g the oppressed. But i n o rder to do t h i s he has t o r e s o r t t o v i o l e n c e . On the l a r g e r p o l i t i c a l s c a l e , i n h i s humane d e s i r e to p r o t e c t the oppressed o f Ru s s i a , T i v e r z i n aga in r e s o r t s t o v i o l e n c e . H i s a lmost insane anger i n the b u l l y i n g scene i s d up l i c a t e d i n the r e vo l u t i o na r y context as he and S t r e l n i k o v become u n i v e r s a l l y f e a r ed . La t e r i n the n o v e l , L a r a desc r i bes them both as "more f r i g h t e n i n g than wolves these 90 days . " Th i s paradox o f the humane man r e s o r t i n g t o v i o l e n c e o f an extreme k i n d has been exp la ined by A l b e r t Camus i n h i s L'Homme r e v o l t e : . . . t h e movement o f r e b e l l i o n i s founded s imu l taneous l y on the c a t e g o r i c a l r e j e c t i o n o f an i n t r u s i o n tha t i s cons idered i n -t o l e r a b l e and on the confused c o n v i c t i o n o f an abso lu te r i g h t wh i ch , i n the r e b e l ' s m ind , i s more p r e c i s e l y the impress i on t ha t he "has the r i g h t t o . . . " R e b e l l i o n cannot e x i s t w i thou t the f e e l i n g t h a t , somewhere and somehow, one i s r i g h t . I t i s i n t h i s way tha t the r e b e l s l a v e says yes and no s i m u l t a -n e o u s l y . 9 1 75 The method of analysis In the last two pages can also be effectively applied to the mature novels of Hardy. And since this thesis has already established Hardy's attitude towards society, the reading can again be po-l i t i c a l . As with Pasternak, the objects and events i n this scene from The  Woodlanders have metaphorical significance. The confrontation on the road between Giles and Mrs Charmond may seem to be a fateful meeting that leads to the eventual downfall of Giles; but a more rewarding interpretation would see the confrontation as a clash between the rich bourgeois and the working man: A load of timber was to be sent away before dawn that morn-ing....The trunks were chained down to a heavy timber car-riage with enormous red wheels, and four of the most power-f u l of Melbury's horses were harnessed i n front to draw them. In order to warn the oncoming t r a f f i c on the narrow lanes of the timber car-riage's approach, the horses wore b e l l s : There were sixteen to the team, carried on a frame above each animal's shoulders, and tuned to scale, so as to form two octaves, running from the highest note on the right or off-side of the leader to the lowest on the l e f t or near-side of the shaft-horse. Melbury was among the last to re-tain horse-bells i n that neighbourhood.^ As the timber carriage goes on i t s way, "the sixteen bells chiming harmoni-94 ously over a l l , " the image of rural harmony and industry, i t meets the carriage of Mrs Charmond who i s off to Italy as she can't stand the English Winter. It i s an implausible coincidence, no doubt, but i f the scene i s given a positive reading instead of a summary dismissal, i t i s clear that Hardy i s providing a succinct summary of the class conflict i n Victorian society: 'You can turn i f you unhitch your string-horses,' said the coachman. 'It i s much easier for you to turn than for us,' said Winterbourne. 'We've five ton of timber on these wheels i f we've an once.' 'But I've another carriage with luggage at my back.' Winterbourne admitted the strength of the argument. 'But even with that,' he said, 'You can back better than we. 76 And you ought t o , f o r you cou ld hear our b e l l s h a l f a m i l e o f f . 1 'And you cou ld see our l i g h t s . ' 'We c o u l d n ' t because o f the f o g . ' ' W e l l , our t ime ' s p r e c i o u s , ' s a i d the coachman h a u g h t i l y . 'You are on ly go ing t o some trumpery l i t t l e v i l l a g e o r o ther i n the neighbourhood, wh i l e we are go ing s t r a i g h t t o I t a l y . ' - 5 An e n t h u s i a s t i c Ma rx i s t c r i t i c might w e l l regard the outcome o f t h i s i n c i d e n t as a p r ophe t i c image of the emergence of the p r o l e t a r i a t : I n f i n e , no th ing cou ld move h im , and the c a r r i a ge s were compel led t o back t i l l they reached one of the s i d i n g s or t u rn -ou t s cons t ruc ted i n the bank f o r the purpose . Then the team came on ponderous ly , and the c l ang ing o f i t s s i x t e e n b e l l s as i t passed the d i s c omf i t ed c a r r i a ge s t i l t e d up aga ins t the bank, l e n t a p a r t i c u l a r l y tr iumphant tone t o the team's progress I t i s u n l i k e l y t ha t Hardy had any consc ious i n t e n t i o n s of prophecy i n t h i s passage. Rather he was endeavouring t o des c r i be the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n ; l a t e r , Winterbourne pa i d dea r l y f o r h i s t r iumph on the r o ad . Th i s scene se r ved , through c o n t r a s t , towards h i s broader aim o f po r t r a y i ng the r i c hne s s and harmony o f the r u r a l way o f l i f e i n Wessex. Hardy, o f cou r se , does not attempt the extreme metaphor i ca l complex i ty ach ieved by Pas te rnak . H i s need f o r h idden meaning was not as g r e a t . Fur ther the techn iques of the nove l i n the 1890's had not progressed f a r enough f o r him to have attempted such a method. We can see Hardy r a t he r as an i nnova to r whose ideas were extended by l a t e r genera t ions of w r i t e r s l i k e Pas te rnak . Ha rdy ' s su r f ace p l o t s are much more i n t e g r a t ed than those o f Doctor Zh ivago , bu t i t i s important t o remember tha t he was s t i l l o f t en c r i t i c i s e d f o r h i s r e gu l a r use of c o i n c i dence s . Thus i n comparison w i t h Hardy ' s nove l s , Doctor Zhivago i s a v e r i t a b l e l a b y r i n t h o f metaphor ic meanings. And i n order to accomodate such comp lex i t y , the su r f ace n a r r a t i v e i s i n e v i t a b l y d i s j o i n t e d and many of the cha rac te r s a re l e f t as l oose ends i n the t o t a l s t r u c t u r e of the n o v e l . So the t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s o f t en offended a t f i n d i n g cha rac te r s a c t i ng mere ly as mouthpieces 77 f o r c e r t a i n po i n t s o f v i ew . The t a l k between Vosbo in ikov and Vedenyapin, f o r example, has no n a r r a t i v e va lue i n the no ve l ; i t i s used t o e s t a b l i s h the b a s i c t e n s i o n i n the nove l between Lenin ism-Marxism and C h r i s t i a n i t y . The t r u e s t r u c t u r e of Doctor Zh ivago , as has been argued, i s metaphor i c ; and c r i t i c s , who a t t a ck the nove l f o r i t s co i n c i dences , i t s f l a t c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n or i t s l oose ends, are not read ing the work i n the way Pasternak in tended i t to be r e ad . Yet d e sp i t e t h i s d i f f e r e n c e between Hardy ' s "shap ing tha t uncommonness" and Pa s t e rnak ' s "moving e n t i r e n e s s , " t h e i r nove l s are s t i l l based on the same gene ra l concepts . They both wrote l y r i c a l n o v e l s . I t i s t h e i r p o e t i c s e n s i b i l i t i e s t ha t form t h e i r nove l s and a s p e c i a l method o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d . Both n o v e l i s t s a l s o i d e n t i f y c l o s e l y w i t h t h e i r p r o -t a g o n i s t s . And these " a u t ob i o g r aph i c a l " p r o t agon i s t s are predominant ly pa s s i v e ; t h e i r exper iences o f l i f e a re the contents o f the n o v e l s . Thus na r -r a t i v e i s secondary to " the render ing o f o b j e c t s , s en sa t i on s , even i d e a s , 97 w i t h immediacy." N a r r a t i v e p rog re s s i on g i v e s way t o l y r i c a l p r og r e s s i o n . And as i n much l y r i c a l poe t r y , na ture p l a y s an important r o l e , becoming a l -most a language i n i t s e l f . So, w i t h Ha rdy ' s p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t e s t ab l i s h ed i n the f i r s t chap te r , and w i t h the techn ique o f h i s l a t e r , major nove ls e s t a b l i s h ed through a comparison w i t h a p o l i t i c a l ye t l y r i c a l n o v e l i s t , t h i s t h e s i s w i l l now move t o a p o l i t i c a l read ing of Tess o f the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s . 78 Footnotes 1 Mary F. and Pau l Rowland, Pa s t e rnak ' s Doctor Zhivago (Carbondale, 1967), p. 4 . 2 F .E . Hardy, p. 49 . 3 I b i d . , pp. 24-25. 4 B o r i s Pas te rnak , Safe Conduct (New York , 1958), pp. 16-17. 5 Pas te rnak , Doctor Zh ivago, t r a n s . Max Hayward and Manya H a r a r i (London, 1958), pp. 84-85. 6 T . Hardy, Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s , c h . XIV . 7 James H. B i l l i n g t o n , The Icon and the Axe (New York , 1970), p. 532. 8 Olga C a r l i s l e , " I n t e r v i ew w i t h B o r i s Pas te rnak , " Wr i t e r s at Work (New Yo rk , 1963), p. 124. 9 Renato P o g g i o l i , The Poets of Russ i a 1890-1930 (Cambridge, Mass . , 1960), p. 336. 10 M i l l g a t e , p. 352. L e t t e r t o Edmund Gosse, 1918. 11 See e s p e c i a l l y "Winter N i g h t . " 12 Pas te rnak , "Three L e t t e r s , " Encounter , 15, No. 2 (Aug. 1960), p. 3. 13 S tua r t Hampshire, "Doctor Zh i vago , " Encounter , 10, No. 11 (Nov. 1958), p. 4 . 14 See Robert He i lman, "Notes on the Te x t , " Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s (New Yo rk , 1971), pp. 395-408. 15 See 1892 P re face t o T . Hardy, The Return of the Na t i v e , O r e l , p. 13. 16 F .E . Hardy, p. 341. 79 17 Percy Bysshe S h e l l e y , "A Defence of P o e t r y , " i n The Great C r i t i c s , e d . J . H . Smith and E.W. Parks (New York , 1967), p. 560. 18 Ralph Fr iedman, The L y r i c a l Nove l ( P r i n c e t on , 1963), p. 3. 19 I b i d . , p. 1. 20 Georg Lukacs , The Theory of the Nove l , t r a n s , from the German by Anna Bostock (Cambridge, Mass . , 1971), p. 53 . 21 Honore de B a l z a c , ' 'Avant -Propos , " Oeuvres completes, 1 ( P a r i s , 1912), p. x x i x . 22 See t i t l e page of T . Hardy, Desperate Remedies. 23 George G i b i a n , I n t e r v a l o f Freedom: Sov i e t L i t e r a t u r e dur ing the Thaw  1954-57 (M inneapo l i s , 1960), p. 150. 24 Zbigniew Fo l e j ewsk i , "Notes on the Problem of I n d i v i d u a l Vs . C o l l e c t i v e i n Russ ian and P o l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , 1954-1957," Ind iana S l a v i c S t u d i e s . 3 (1963) , pp. 32-33. 25 Ralph E. Mat law, "A V i s i t w i t h Pas te rnak , " N a t i o n . 12 Sep t . 1959, p. 134. 26 Pas te rnak , "Three L e t t e r s , " p. 4. 27 Pas ternak , L e t t e r t o J a cque l i ne de P r o y a r t , 20 May 1959, i n P r o y a r t , Pasternak ( P a r i s , 1964), pp. 235-37. 28 Pas te rnak , "Three L e t t e r s , " p. 5 . 29 Pas te rnak , Doctor Zh ivago, pp. 18-23. 30 Gleb S t r uve , "The Hippodrome of L i f e : The Problem o f Co inc idences i n Doctor  Zh i vago . " Books Abroad, 44 (1970), p. 231. 31 Rowland, pp . 45-46. 32 See Pas te rnak , Doctor Zh ivago, chapter 13, pa r t 7. 80 33 Rowland, p. 66 . 34 I b i d . , p. 72 . 35 F .E . Hardy, p. 229. 36 I b i d . , p. 150. 37 Jean R. B rooks , Thomas Hardy; The P oe t i c S t r u c t u r e ( I t h a c a , 1971), p. 197. 38 M i l l g a t e , p. 130. 39 See Joseph ine Pas te rnak , " P a t i o r , " London Magazine, 4 (Sept . 1964). 40 Ma r ce l P r ou s t , La P r i s o nn i e r e ( P a r i s , 1954), pp . 453-54. 41 H i l l i s M i l l e r , p. 207. 42 F .E . Hardy, p. 271. 43 I b i d . , p. 273. 44 Norman Ho l l a nd , J r . , "Jude the Obscure; Hardy ' s Symbol ic Ind ictment of Chris t i a r i i t y , " N ine teenth Century F i c t i o n , 9 (June 1954), p . 50 . 45 I b i d . , p. 59 . 46 Fernand Lagarde, "A propos de l a c on s t r u c t i o n de Jude the Obscure," C a l i b an , 3 ( J an . 1966), p. 188. 47 I b i d . , p . 191. 48 I b i d . , p. 192. 49 He i lman, I n t r odu c t i o n to Jude the Obscure, p. 1. 50Pas te r ak , Doctor Zh ivago, p. 249. 81 51 Pas te rnak , Doctor Zh ivago, p. 434. 52 Yevgeny Yevtushenko, " I n t e r v i e w . " P l ayboy , December 1972, p. 204. See Rowlands, p . 7 . 54 John Wain, "The Meaning of Doctor Zh i vago , " i n A House f o r the T ru th (New Yo rk , 1972), p. 147. 55 Pas te rnak , Doctor Zh ivago, p. 416. 56 I b i d . , p. 415. 57 Ter ry Eag l e t on , "Nature as Language," C r i t i c a l Qua r t e r l y , 13 (1971) , p. 157. 58 I b i d . 59 Ber t G. Hornback, The Metaphor of Chance; V i s i o n and Technique i n the Works  o f Thomas Hardy (Athens, Oh io , 1971), p . 20. 60 See Guerard , p. 29. 61 E . g . Robert Payne, The Three Worlds of B o r i s Pasternak (London, 1961), p. 171. 62 H i l l i s M i l l e r , p. x . 63 L i o n e l T r i l l i n g , S i n c e r i t y and A u t h e n t i c i t y (Cambridge, Mass . , 1971), p. 92 . 64 Joseph Campbel l , The Masks of God; C rea t i v e Mythology (New York , 1968), pp. 6 -8 . 6 5 Pas te rnak , Doctor Zh ivago , p. 266. 66 I b i d . , pp. 303-304. 67 I b i d . , p. 166. 82 68 Raymond W i l l i a m s , Modern Tragedy (London, 1966), p. 167. 69 I b i d . 70 Pas te rnak , Doctor Zh ivago , p. 17. 71 F .E . Hardy, p. 258. 72 See D.H. Lawrence, "Study o f Thomas Hardy , " and Hans Mayer, "Doctor Zh i vago , " Steppenwolf and Everyman, t r a n s . Jack D. Z ipes (New York , 1971). 73 Pas te rnak , Doctor Zh ivago, p. 303. 74 I b i d . , p. 17. 75 I b i d . 76 I b i d . , p . 368. 77 Rowland, p. 87. 78 F .E . Hardy, p. 332. 79 Note Hardy ' s awareness o f the need to express c o n t r o v e r s i a l ideas i n a cove r t way appears i n the l e t t e r accompanying h i s f i r s t n o v e l , The Poor Man  and The Lady. See Nowe l l -Sm i th , pp . 129-30. 80 Edmund W i l s on , "Legend and Symbol i n Doctor Zh i vago , " Na t i o n , 25 A p r i l 1959, p. 5 . 81 S t r e l n i k o v i s a c l o s e anagram of Leon T ro t s k y , and Marke l o f K a r l Marx. 82 Rowland, pp. 17 and 19. 83 I b i d . , p. 19. 84 Her name, Anna Ivanovna, r e c a l l s Empress Anna (1730-1740) and the f i r s t T sa r , I v an . 83 85 Pas te rnak , Doctor Zh ivago . p. 65 . 86 Rowland, p. 17. 87 Pas te rnak , Doctor Zh ivago, p. 33 . 88 I b i d . , p. 34. 89 I b i d . , p. 36, except " t h i s s o c i e t y " r ep l a ces the words " those ways" o f t r a n s l a t o r s Hayward and H a r a r i . I am g r a t e f u l t o P r o f e s so r A . Busza f o r p o i n t i n g out t h i s improvement i n t r a n s l a t i o n . 90 I b i d . , p. 365. 91 A l b e r t Camus, The Rebe l , t r a n s . Anthony Bower (New York , 1956), p. 13. 92 T . Hardy, The Woodlanders (London, 1912), c h . X I I I . 93 I b i d . 94 I b i d . 95 I b i d . 96 I b i d . 97 Fr iedman, p. 9 . Chapter I I I Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s : A P o l i t i c a l Reading Desp i te Ru t l and ' s i n s i g h t s on the p o l i t i c a l aspects of Hardy ' s 2 ea r l y career i n 1938, i t x*as not u n t i l the 1950's tha t the debate on the p o l i t i c a l elements of Ha rdy ' s nove l s r e a l l y began. In 1951 Arno ld K e t t l e , i n h i s chapter on Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s i n An I n t r oduc t i o n to the Eng l i s h Nove l , c la imed tha t " the sub jec t o f Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s i s s t a t ed c l e a r l y by Hardy to be the f a t e of a 'pure woman'; i n f a c t i t i s the d e s t r u c t i o n of the Eng l i s h 3 peasan t r y . " And i n 1954 Douglas Brown desc r i bed the p o l i t i c a l p a t t e r n of " the f i v e great nove l s of Hardy" i n h i s book Thomas  Hardy t The s t o r y un fo lds s l ow l y , and the theme of urban i n v a s i on dec l a res i t s e l f more c l e a r l y as the count ry , i t s l abou r , i t s people and i t s past conso l i da t e t h e i r p r e s e n c e . . . . i t i s a c l a s h between a g r i c u l -t u r a l and urban modes of l i f e . . . . T h i s p a t t e r n records Hardy ' s dismay at the predicament of the a g r i c u l -t u r a l community i n the south of England du r i ng the l a s t pa r t of the n ine teen th century and at th^ s p r e -ca r i ous ho l d of the a g r i c u l t u r a l way of l i f e . But the ma j o r i t y of subsequent Hardy c r i t i c i s m has not looked favourab ly upon such arguments f o r the importance of the p o l i t i c a l content of the Wessex Nove l s . The genera l consensus, l i k e Guerard, 5 saw the approach as be ing l i t t l e more than " d r ama t i c a l l y u s e f u l " 84 as background f o r Hardy ' s main concerns . Th i s p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e , i n f l u en ced no doubt by the t e x t u a l p r i o r i t i e s of New C r i t i c i s m , can be summarised by Guerard ' s a u t h o r i t a t i v e statement: "Hardy was 6 not the h i s t o r i a n of Dorset but the n o v e l i s t and poet of Wessex." Even I r v i n g Howe, probably the most p o l i t i c a l l y consc ious of Hardy c r i t i c s , f i nd s that the p o l i t i c a l approach "does not b r i n g us t o 7 the v i t a l h ea r t " of Hardy ' s n o ve l s . In view o f such unsympathet ic r e a c t i o n to a p o l i t i c a l i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of Hardy, i t i s not a l t oge the r s u r p r i s i n g tha t both K e t t l e and Brown have recanted t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . K e t t l e , i n a 1966 address , s a i d : "What I wrote now seems t o me a b i t one-s ided and 8 i n s u f f i c i e n t l y c l o s e to Hardy ' s deepest i n t e n t i o n and i m p a c t . . . " L i kew i se Brown, i n a monograph on The Mayor of Cas te rb r i dge , ad-m i t s the l i m i t a t i o n s of the theme of urban i n v a s i o n : " I used to i d e n t i f y Fa r f r ae as the Invader , but I can no longer read The Mayor of Cas te rbr idge i n that way. Fa r f r ae comes from ou t s i d e , but he 9 j o i n s ; he i s f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l community, not a d i s r u p t e r . " But de sp i t e t h e i r f a i l u r e to ach ieve acceptance of t h e i r ideas on the p o l i t i c a l aspect of the Wessex Nove l s , K e t t l e and Brown d i d co r r e c t an imbalance i n Hardy c r i t i c i s m . Where the p o l i t i c a l had p r e v i ou s l y been i gno red , i t was now at l e a s t cons idered a long w i t h other more f ash ionab le approaches. Th i s new a t t e n t i o n , however, soon brought to l i g h t a problem tha t had a c t u a l l y been suggested by contemporary r ev i ewer s : 86 . . . t h e reader who has any genera l acquaintance w i t h the c i v -i l i s a t i o n of the W i l t s h i r e or Do r se t sh i r e l abou re r , w i t h h i s average wages, and h i s average i n t e l l i g e n c e , w i l l be d isposed t o say at once tha t a more i n c r e d i b l e p i c t u r e than tha t of the group of farm labourers as a whole which Mr. Hardy has g i ven us can ha rd l y be c on c e i v e d . . . The country f o l k i n the s t o r y have not heard of s t r i k e s , or of Mr. A rch ; they have, t o a l l appearance, p l en ty t o e a t , and warm c lo thes to w e a r . . . The E n g l i s h Boeot ian has never been so i d e a l i z e d b e f o r e . . . . Under h i s hand Boeot ians became Athenians i n acuteness , Ger-mans i n capac i t y f o r p h i l o s oph i c s p e c u l a t i o n , and P a r i s i a n s i n p o l i s h . 2 There i s an unmistakable i n cong ru i t y between the h i s t o r i c a l records of Dorset peasant s u f f e r i n g dur ing the pe r i od of the Wessex Novels and the de-p i c t i o n by Hardy h imse l f of r u s t i c cha rac te r s who r a r e l y s u f f e r severe ha rd -s h i p s . Such an avoidance of the r e a l f a c t s would ha rd l y i n d i c a t e the a t t i -tude of a p o l i t i c a l l y mot iva ted w r i t e r , and i t quest ioned the v a l i d i t y of the arguments of K e t t l e and Brown f o r Hardy ' s concern about the peasant and the o l d r u r a l way of l i f e . • I n 1958, W i l l i a m Hyde's "Hardy ' s View of Rea l i sm: A Key to the Rus t i c Charac te r s " made an e loquent answer to t h i s apparent i n cons i s t ency of de-t a i l i n Hardy ' s n o ve l s . He argued, l i k e Guerard , tha t Hardy was not a " s o -c i a l p ropagand i s t , " nor a "photographer of s o c i a l m i nu t i a e , " but an a r t i s t o f " imag ina t i ve r e a son . " But h i s a r t i c l e does not come to terms w i t h the ques t i on of Hardy ' s p o l i t i c a l commitment which t h i s t h e s i s has e s t a b l i s h e d . I t i s not enough to s h i e l d Hardy beh ind an a e s t he t i c i d e a l . The r e a l answer to the ques t i on of Hardy ' s f a i l u r e to po r t ray h i s r u s t i c s accord ing to t h e i r a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n has a l ready been d i scussed i n the f i r s t chap te r . Hardy was not w r i t i n g about peasant l i f e ; h i s main concern was f o r those born j u s t above peasant s tock who were t r y i n g to r i s e h igher i n the 13 14 87 s o c i a l and economic s c a l e . The major misconcept ion about Hardy has always been t ha t he i s a n o v e l i s t of the Wessex peasant . Wr i t e r s d i s c u s s i n g and suppor t i ng t h i s m isconcept ion w i l l u s u a l l y f i n d the need to r e f e r t o h i s 15 16 essay "The Do r se t sh i r e Labourer" and h i s famous l e t t e r to R i de r Haggard. f o r the re i s not a great amount of m a t e r i a l on the sub j e c t t o be drawn from the no ve l s . The argument tha t Hardy se t h i s nove l s i n the p a s t , and thus avoided d e s c r i b i n g the hardsh ips which he h imse l f must have o f t en seen, i s no defence f o r Hardy e i t h e r . A l l h i s nove l s , w i t h the excep t i on o f the h i s t o r i c a l The Trumpet-Major and the i d y l l i c Under the Greenwood T ree , a re s e t a f t e r 1840 when r u r a l s u f f e r i n g i n Dorset became more pronounced. One must accept the f a c t tha t Ha rdy ' s nove l s ignored the peasant s u f f e r i n g tha t was a pa r t o f t h e i r r e a l l i f e s e t t i n g . Brown and K e t t l e were t he r e f o r e on the wrong t r a c k . Brown overempha-s i s e d the urban th rea t t o r u r a l l i f e and K e t t l e misjudged Hardy ' s a t t i t u d e toward the peasant . A l a t e r c r i t i c , Merryn Wi l l i ams,makes the same mis take by concen t ra t i ng her approach " f a i r l y h e a v i l y on modern h i s t o r i e s of a g r i c u l -17 t u r e . " A l though she capably d i sm i sses two c r i t i c a l f a l l a c i e s — t h a t the theme i s the d e s t r u c t i o n e i t h e r of the a r i s t o c r a c y o r o f the peasant ry—Mer-r yn W i l l i ams puts too much emphasis on the r u r a l aspect o f Tess o f the  D ' U r b e r v i l l e s ; l i k e many o thers she does no t , f o r example, take account o f the l a r ge p r opo r t i o n of the nove l devoted to Ange l . Raymond W i l l i a m s , who comes from a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n very s i m i l a r t o Ha r d y ' s , i s perhaps the most pe r cep t i v e c r i t i c o f the genera l a t t i t u d e i n the Wessex Nove l s . W i l l i ams sees Hardy concerned w i t h " the problem of the r e -l a t i o n between customary and educated l i f e ; between customary and educated 18 f e e l i n g and thought . " Time and t ime aga in the Hardy p ro t agon i s t i s educated above h i s o r her f a m i l y , and the t en s i on between o l d and new, between cu s -tomary and educated, becomes the c a t a l y s t o f the s t o r y . Th i s common theme i n 88 the Wessex Nove ls I s o f course cons i s t en t w i t h Ha rdy ' s own exper ience o f b e -coming educated above h i s s o c i a l s t a t i o n . W i l l i ams a l s o makes an important s tep i n d i sm i s s i ng the term "peasant" from d i s c u s s i o n of Hardy, a l though Hardy does use the word h imse l f . W i l l i ams po i n t s out tha t " the a c t u a l coun-t r y people were landowners, tenant fa rmers , d e a l e r s , craf tsmen and l abou r -19 e r s . " H i s d i s c u s s i o n i s marred, however, by h i s f a i l u r e to take i n t o a c -count the r a d i c a l element of the l a t e r n o ve l s . He makes no mention of the f e e l i n g o f outrage tha t pervades Tess o f the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s and Jude the Ob- s cu r e . There i s noth ing i n W i l l i a m s ' argument t o suggest t ha t Hardy was 20 anyth ing more than " the incomparable c h r o n i c l e r o f h i s Wessex." An improved view of Ha rdy ' s Tess o f the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s sees the nove l f i t t i n g n ea t l y i n t o J u l i a n Moynahan's concept ion of the development of paste— r a l i s m towards c oun t e r - cu l t u r e dur ing the n ine teen th cen tu ry . Moynahan f i n d s : . . . a r e a l l y profound c u l t u r e o f p a s t o r a l i sm , e n t a i l i n g a whole v iew of E n g l i s h l i f e and of l i f e gene r a l l y t ha t i s expressed i n some nove l s about people l i v i n g away from the l a r ge towns, w r i t t e n i n the course of the n ine teen th cen tu ry , t ha t are among the p r i n c i p a l g l o r i e s o f the Eng-l i s h l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n . As the century goes on t h i s whole and wholesome v iew becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o s u s t a i n . 2 * The d i f f i c u l t y emanated from developments i n V i c t o r i a n England which came about as the bourgeo is c l a s s began t o e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f as an i n f l u e n t i a l e l e -ment o f s o c i e t y . The emerging u r ban i s a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n , the i n -c r e a s i ng l y mercenary q u a l i t y o f l i f e , the compet i t i veness o f the p l u t o c r a t i c c l a s s system, and r e l i g i o u s dogma and prudery a l l c on t r i b u t e t o the a r r i v a l o f a new type of n o v e l i s t , whose attachment t o the pr imary va lues a s soc i a t ed w i t h " the permanent t r a d i t i o n o f the count ry " causes him to conce ive h i s task as a s o r t o f rescue ope ra t i on of these v a l u e s , and whose po ignant sense of c leavage between the i nsensa te aims of s o c i e t y and the permanent t r u t h s of l i f e and na tu re l ead him to compose p a s t o r a l f i c t i o n s the themes and va lues o f which run d e l i b e r a t e l y counter t o the p r o j e c t s and va lues o f s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . 2 2 89 Teas of the D'Urbervilles clearly comes at the end of this development: Was once lost always lost really true of chastity? she would ask. herself. She might prove i t false i f she could v e i l bygones. The recuperative power which pervaded or-ganic nature was surely not denied to maidenhood alone (XV). It i s , i n fact, the maiden like Tess that i s often used as a touchstone for this change In society. As Moynahan points out, the greater the cul-tural gap between pastoral l i f e and modern society, the greater the idealisa-tion of the maiden w i l l be. Thus the earlier maiden like Gwendolyn Harleth who embodies the values of English culture i s not idealised: Could there be a slenderer, more insignificant thread i n human history than this consciousness of a g i r l , busy with her small inferences of the way i n which she could make her l i f e pleasant?—in a time too, when ideas were with fresh vigour making armies of themselves, and the universal kin-ship was declaring i t s e l f fiercely...a time when the soul of man was waking to pulses which had for centuries been beating in him unheard, u n t i l their f u l l sum made a new l i f e of terror and of joy. What i n the midst of that mighty drama are g i r l s and their blind vision? They are the Yea or Nay of that good for which men are enduring and fighting. In these delicate vessels i s born onward through the ages the treasure of hu-man affections. 2 3 This description of a somewhat selfish pastoral innocence contrasts those made in the last part of the nineteenth century when the "delicate vessel" i s adapted to something more primitive and carnal. Tess i n this way re-places Gwendolen Harleth: "...women whose chief companions are the forms and forces of outdoor Nature retain i n their souls far more of the Pagan fantasy of their remote forefathers than of the systematised religion taught their race at later date"(XVI). Since the heroine of the late nineteenth century novel becomes an em-bodiment of counter-culture, she also becomes the victim of society, i t s scapegoat. This i s basically the attitude of Naturalism which Moynahan sur-prisingly does not discuss: 9 0 Naturalism characteristically deals i n heroines: perhaps specifically heroines rather than female heroes. There i s a long line stretching from Emma Bovary to Esther Waters and Crane's Maggie which would include examples as diverse as the Goncourts' Woman of Paris and Hardy's Tess. In this perspective, heroines are not so much saving consciousnesses as consecrated victims, passive sufferers of brutal pro-cess ....Through their portraits of women, novelists i n this period seem to focus a double sense of human nature as the passive victim and the active embodiment of compulsive, car-nal forces. 2 4 These dual features of passivity and carnality are responsible for Tess 2 5 becoming a "maiden nor more" for society, while she remains idealised for 2 6 Hardy, "a pure woman" — j u s t as another fallen woman, Lara, i s "the purest 27 being i n the world" for Pasternak. And like Pasternak, Hardy i s able to exploit this counter-cultural potential of his heroine i n using her as a vehicle for his p o l i t i c a l grudges against Victorian society: the class structure, religious suppression, exploitation of the lower classes, the de-cline of a reasonably humane rural society i n the face of capitalist develop-ment, and the bias against women. Tess's situation i n society as a woman embodies the essence of the plight of the individual i n Victorian society. And she makes a more power-- f u l protagonist for Hardy precisely because her suffering at the hands of 2 8 society i s compounded by the fact that she i s a woman. But the subject of women in society should not be underestimated i n this novel just because i t i s also exploited symbolically. It i s a matter that had lurked in the background of many of Hardy's early novels. Tess i s , i n this way, the summation of many female characters that preceded her. Several early heroines had suggested the social vulnerability of women. Cytherea's helplessness, for example, arose out of her being without a father or a husband. But the direct pro-genitors of Tess are Fanny Robin and Marty South. They portray sexual and social vulnerability respectively. And Fanny's beauty and Marty's purity are combined for the character of Tess. 91 To s t r e s s t h i s s o c i a l v u l n e r a b i l i t y , there i s another t r a i t i n Tess tha t harks back to e a r l i e r cha rac te r s of Hardy. The m a t r i a r c h a l , dominat ing s p i r -i t o f E u s t a c i a and E t h e l b e r t a and. t o a l e s s e r e x t en t , o f Bathsheba, P a u l a , V i v e t t e , F e l i c e and Luce t ta , i s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Tes s . A l e c says she a c t s l i k e a P r i n c e s s ( X I I ) , and apar t from her be ing f r equen t l y a s soc i a t ed w i t h goddesses, i t i s c l e a r tha t from an e a r l y age Tess was r e a l l y the head o f the Du rbey f i e l d househo ld . I n the n o v e l , t h i s i nna te s u p e r i o r i t y o f Tess i s subjugated by s o c i e t y , thereby he igh ten ing the e f f e c t o f the pe r ve r s i on of i n d i v i d u a l l i f e t ha t Hardy i s p o r t r a y i n g . Before Tess o f the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s Hardy had not gene r a l l y conf ronted h i s female cha rac te r s w i t h the harsher r e a l i t i e s of p u b l i c l i f e . Cytherea and Bathsheba do face some degree o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y but i t i s on l y w i t h E t h e l -b e r t a tha t a Hardy hero ine takes on s o c i e t y w i thout s o c i a l advantages. The  Hand of E t h e l b e r t a , however, i s a comedy. A more s e r i ou s p o r t r a y a l o f the predicament of woman i n s o c i e t y can be d i s ce rned i n The Woodlanders, the nove l p reced ing Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s : He knew tha t a woman once g i ven to a man f o r l i f e took , as a r u l e , her l o t as i t came, and made the bes t o f i t , w i t h -out e x t e r n a l i n t e r f e r e n c e ; but f o r the f i r s t t ime he asked h imse l f why t h i s so g ene r a l l y shou ld be done. 2 ^ Such are the thoughts of G ra ce ' s f a t he r as she tu rns to him f o r he lp i n dea l i ng w i t h her ph i l a nde r i n g husband. D i v o r c e , however, i s not ob ta i nab l e because her husband has not done "enough harm" and Grace has to bear her 3 0 c ross w i t h " d i g n i f i e d sorrow" and s t i l l be " sub j e c t t o h i s beck and c a l l . " The problem o f mar r i age , the c o n f l i c t between a n a t u r a l and a l e g a l husband, i s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d i n Tess o f the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s . The predicament of woman i n these two nove l s i s w e l l summarized by the emascu la t ion symbol o f Ma r t y ' s l o s s of h a i r . As dairyman C r i c k s ay s : "But o n l u c k i l y the poor woman gets the wors t o ' i t " ( X X I X ) . The tragedy of Tess 92 has been a t t r i b u t e d t o many t h i n g s , but perhaps the bes t summary o f he r f a t e i s by F.R. Sou the r ing ton : "He r ed i t y , economic f o r c e s , Time, Chance, and Consequence shape Te s s '8 c a ree r and b r i n g about her d o w n f a l l . Only s o c i a l 31 convent ion causes i t . " Wi th the p r e j ud i c e s of s o c i a l convent ions be ing most disadvantageous to women, a female p ro t agon i s t would seem to be the l o g i c a l cho i ce f o r . a nove l about i n d i v i d u a l freedom i n s o c i e t y . The l y r i c a l nove l enables Hardy to use h i s female p ro t agon i s t to g rea t e f f e c t . Wi th Tess as a predominant ly pas s i ve p r o t agon i s t , the v i c i s s i t u d e s of l i f e can ac t upon he r as she i s t o rn between her power fu l n a t u r a l appe-t i t e s and the i ncompat ib l e demands of s o c i e t y . The nove l shows her s ub j e c t i v e r e a c t i o n s t o those v i c i s s i t u d e s . L i f e , as i t a f f e c t s the i n d i v i d u a l , can thus be exper ienced by the readers themselves, and t h e i r empathy and compassion f o r Tess g i v e weight to Hardy ' s arguments on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s predicament i n so -c i e t y . The e s s e n t i a l po i n t s i n Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s , Hardy ' s pr imary mo-t i v e s f o r w r i t i n g the work, can bes t be a s ce r t a i ned by an e x p l o r a t i o n of the n o v e l ' s s t r u c t u r e . The poe t , w i t h g rea te r l o y a l t y t o a e s t h e t i c form than to n a r r a t i v e and the coherent f o rmu la t i on o f i d e a s , w i l l g ene r a l l y s t r u c t u r e h i s nove l around h i s pr imary p reoccupa t i ons . "A nove l i s an imp res s i on , not an 32 argument," repeated Hardy i n a p re face t o t h i s n o v e l . The importance of s t r u c t u r e f o r the understanding o f Doctor Zhivago has a l ready been d i s cu s sed , and the a pp r e c i a t i o n o f the s t r u c t u r e o f Jude the Obscure by so many eminent c r i t i c s has a l s o been demonstrated. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the s t r u c t u r e o f Tess o f the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s w i l l aga in p rov ide the essence o f Hardy ' s mot ives o r " imp r e s s i on s . " T e s s ' s t r a g i c s t o r y i s c o n t r o l l e d by two images, the c i r c l e and the c r o s s . These two geometr ic images, wh ich were probab ly the f i r s t symbols tha t 33 man deve loped, s t r u c t u r e s ymbo l i c a l l y the c e n t r a l themes of the n o v e l . 93 S ince the e s s e n t i a l femaleness and f e cund i t y o f Tess i s s t r e s s ed t ime and t ime aga in by Hardy to con t r a s t the l i f e - d e n y i n g q u a l i t i e s o f V i c t o r i a n so -c i e t y , the c i r c l e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y apt because from p r i m o r d i a l t imes i t has been symbo l i c of the womb, " the Great Round" as E r i c h Neumann c a l l s i t i n 34 h i s major study of woman i n myth. The c i r c l e mo t i f supports o ther more d i r e c t r e f e r ences , l i k e those a s s o c i a t i n g her w i t h Ar temis and Demeter, t o b u i l d Tess i n t o a r ep r e sen t a t i on of the Great Ea r th Mother . Mar ion Brady has shown how w e l l Tess f i t s t h i s archetype which has been so e f f e c t i v e l y de-35 l i n e a t e d by Neumann. T e s s ' s q u a l i t y o f femin ine potency i s c l e a r l y appar-ent to Angel who sees her as " a v i s i o n a r y essence o f womanhood—a whole sex condensed i n t o one t y p i c a l fo rm"(XX) . The c i r c l e and the c ross un i f y i n t o one important image near the end o f the book where the torments of Te s s ' s l i f e f i n a l l y prove too much f o r h e r . At t h i s p o i n t i n the s t o r y she has g i v en i n t o A l e c and i s l i v i n g w i t h him at Sandbourne. Suddenly Ange l reappears to ask f o r g i v enes s , but i t i s too l a t e i n Te s s ' s eyes s i n c e she has g i ven h e r s e l f t o A l e c . " I wa i ted and wa i ted f o r y o u , " she t e l l s him p a t h e t i c a l l y ( L V ) . I t i s soon a f t e r t h i s t ha t the l a n d -lady hears some unusual sounds as Tess murders A l e c u p s t a i r s : " A l l t h a t she cou ld a t f i r s t d i s t i n g u i s h of them was one s y l l a b l e , c o n t i n u a l l y repeated i n a low note of moaning, as i f i t came from a s o u l bound to some I x i o n i a n whee l " ( LV I ) . I x i o n ' s whee l—the human body i n the shape o f a c ross bound on a r e v o l v i n g w h e e l — i s a p e r t i n en t image s i n c e I x i o n ' s punishment was a l s o i n -vo l ved w i t h i n f i d e l i t y and murder; and coming as i t does a t the c l imax o f the s t o r y , i t i s s u i t a b l y p l aced f o r the n o v e l ' s c e n t r a l image. The c ross w i t h i n the wheel a l s o appears as the Ma l tese c ross on a r eap -i n g mach ine(XIV) , and i t s d e s c r i p t i o n as "hav ing been dipped i n t o l i q u i d f i r e " ( X I V ) suppor ts a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h I x i o n ' s f i e r y whee l . The c ross t r a d i -t i o n a l l y symbol i ses the fundamental dua l i sm of the s p i r i t u a l ( the v e r t i c a l 9 4 l i n e ) and the f l e s h ( the h o r i z o n t a l l i n e ) . Th i s u n i v e r s a l c o n f l i c t i s p e r -s o n i f i e d i n T e s s ' s l i f e by the cha rac te r s of Ange l and A l e c . The d e s t r u c t i v e emphasis t ha t V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y put on t h i s dua l i sm i s c e n t r a l t o Ha rdy ' s argument: " . . . t h e coarse an imal i sm of A l e c and the s t e r i l e i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m 36 of A n g e l — a l i k e inhumane, l i f e - d e n y i n g , d e s t r u c t i v e o f the i n d i v i d u a l . . . . " The t ens i on o f t h i s dua l i sm i s ac ted out i n the s t o r y o f Tess as she moves between the extremes of Ange l and A l e c , between the c a l l o f the s p i r i t and the c a l l o f the f l e s h ; and, f i n d i n g such a t en s i on i n c r e a s i n g l y unbearab le , she i n s t i g a t e s her own d e s t r u c t i o n . The va r i ous c i r c l e and wheel images, which Hardy employs throughout Tess o f the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s , support t h i s concept of unbearable t en s i on i n the c r o s s . They i l l u s t r a t e the power of the l i f e f o r ce and i t s o f t en d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t on human l i f e i n modern s o c i e t y . " L i f e i s movement" i n Tess o f the D 'Urber -37 v i i l e s , as Tony Tanner say s , and a l l the c i r c u l a r moving images l i k e I x i o n ' s whee l—the seasons, the m a i l c a r t whee l s , the maypole, the m i l k churn , the Ma l tese c ross of the reap ing machine, and the wheels o f A l e c ' s d o g c a r t — a l l these suggest the l i f e f o r c e , o r "Nature" as Hardy o f t en c a l l e d i t . I n Hardy ' s cosmic v i s i o n , t h i s l i f e f o r ce shows no c on s i d e r a t i o n f o r man or wom-an . , As Brady say s , " l i k e the sp inn ing o f I x i o n ' s whee l , the humming wagon-wheels m i r r o r the r o t a t i o n of the Ea r t h on i t s a x i s , a movement complete ly 38 o b l i v i o u s to human needs or a s p i r a t i o n s . " Tess w i l l not " b e l i e v e tha t the g rea t Power who moves the wor l d would a l t e r H i s p lans on [he r ] accoun t " (XLVI ) . As a symbol o f the l i f e f o r c e , the wheels o f A l e c ' s dogca r t , which hum " l i k e a t o p " ( V I I I ) as he and Tess descend the h i l l ( i n symbol i c r e fe rence to the F a l l ) , comment upon the ensuing seduc t i on as an event c o n t r o l l e d by the l i f e f o r c e — T e s s ' s p h y s i c a l beauty a t t r a c t i n g A l ec—wh i ch cannot be avoided and which cop ies the behav i ou r a l p a t t e r n o f every gene ra t i on back t o Adam and Eve . Th i s i n c i d e n t of the dogcart i n t roduces ye t another concept i n the 95 Images of mot ion , f o r a l though the wheels are humming e f f i c i e n t l y the c a r t i s " r o c k i ng r i g h t and l e f t , i t s a x i s a cqu i r i ng a s l i g h t l y ob l i que se t i n r e l a -t i o n t o the l i n e of p rogress . . . .Somet imes a wheel was o f f the g r ound " (V I I I ) . Tess has t o grasp A l e c ' s wa i s t to avo id be ing thrown ou t . The smooth mot ion of the whee l s , the l i f e f o r c e , i s juxtaposed w i t h the r o ck i ng o f the c a r t and Tess ; t h i s l a t t e r phenomenon i s the d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t o f the l i f e f o r ce upon human l i f e . At Ta lbo thays , under t h i s e f f e c t o f the l i f e f o r c e , the m i l k -maids "w r i t hed f e v e r i s h l y under the oppress iveness of an emotion t h ru s t on them by c r u e l Na tu re ' s law—an emotion they had n e i t h e r expected nor des i redS ( X X I I I ) . Tess i s a person who i s s t a r t l e d by " t he l e a s t i r r e g u l a r i t y o f mo-t i o n " ( V I I I ) . I r r e g u l a r mot ion had, i n f a c t , been i n f l i c t e d upon her from the moment she was bo rn : "The c r ad l e rocke r s had done hard duty f o r so many y ea r s , under the weight of so many c h i l d r e n . . . t h a t they were worn nea r l y f l a t , i n consequence of which a huge j e r k accompanied each swing o f the c o t , f l i n g -i ng the baby from s i d e t o s i d e l i k e a weaver ' s s h u t t l e " ( I I I ) . At F l in tcombe-Ash the t h r e sh i ng machine i l l u s t r a t e s the e f f e c t o f the l i f e f o r ce even more g r a p h i c a l l y than the dogca r t . Aga in i t i s a machine running e f f i c i e n t l y and aga in Tess i s impr isoned upon i t , t h i s t ime feed ing corn on t o a r e v o l v i n g drum. Th i s job i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y always g i ven to a woman and there i s an i r o n i c aptness i n tha t Tess , the corn goddess, feeds the "buzz ing red g l u t -t on " (XLVII I ) w i t h co rn . Aga in Tess undergoes d i s r u p t i n g mot ion : "She was the on ly woman whose p l a ce was upon the machine so as to be shaken b o d i l y by i t s s p i n n i n g . . . . T h e i ncessan t q u i v e r i n g , i n which every f i b r e of her frame p a r t i c i a p t e d , had thrown her i n t o a s t upe f i e d r e v e r i e i n which her arms worked on independent ly o f her cons c i ousnes s " (XLV I I I ) . A l l t h i s imagery of human d i s r u p t i o n a t the hands of a ( l a r g e r f o r ce has p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s as w e l l as p h i l o s o p h i c a l . The d i s r u p t i v e mechan ica l q u a l i t i e s o f the dog-c a r t , c r ad l e and th reshe r are a l s o t o be found i n s o c i a l convent ions and laws: 96 In the i l l - j u d g e d execu t i on of the we l l - j udged p l an of t h i ngs the c a l l seldom produces the comer, the man t o l ove r a r e l y co i n c i de s w i t h the hour of l o v i n g . Nature does not o f t en say " S e e l " t o her poor c r ea tu re at a t ime when see ing can l ead t o happy do i ng ; o r r e p l y "He re I " t o a body ' s c r y o f "Where?" t i l l the h ide-and-seek has become an i rksome, outworn game. We may wonder whether at the acme and summit o f the human progress these anachronisms w i l l be co r rec ted by a f i n e r i n t u i t i o n , a c l o s e r i n t e r a c t i o n o f the s o c i a l machinery than tha t which now j o l t s us round and a l ong : but such completeness i s not to be p rophes ied , o r even conce ived as p o s s i b l e . Enough t ha t i n the present case , as i n m i l -l i o n s , i t was not the two ha lves of a/perfect whole tha t conf ronted each other at the pe r f e c t moment; a m i s s i ng coun-t e r p a r t wandered independent ly about the ea r th w a i t i n g i n c rass obtuseness t i l l the l a t e t ime came. Out o f which ma l -a d r o i t de lay sprang a n x i e t i e s , d i sappo in tments , shocks , ca tas t rophes , and pass ing - s t range d e s t i n i e s ( V ) . S ince i t f a i l s t o take account of the fundamental human d i f f i c u l t i e s of l i v -i n g , " the s o c i a l m a c h i n e r y . . . j o l t s us round and a l o n g . " The need i s f o r s o c i a l changes t o make " a c l o s e r i n t e r a c t i o n of the s o c i a l machinery" w i t h the obv ious l y immutable cond i t i on s o f l i f e . But under e x i s t i n g s o c i a l con-d i t i o n s Tess must exper ience " a n x i e t i e s , d i sappo in tments , shocks , c a t a s -t r ophe s , " and such s u f f e r i n g " g r a d u a l l y d r i v e s her t o r e c o i l from l i f e i n s o -39 c i e t y . She does t h i s e i t h e r by w i l l e d s ch i zoph ren i c sepa ra t i on — " I do know tha t our sou l s can be made t o go ou t s i de our bod ies when we are a l i v e " ( XV I I I )—o r by despe ra te l y h i d i n g i n a deser ted house w i t h Ange l : Whenever he suggested they shou ld leave t h e i r s h e l t e r . . . s h e showed a s t range unw i l l i ngnes s to move . . . . " A l l i s t r oub l e ou t s i de t h e r e ; i n s i d e here con t en t . " He peeped out a l s o . I t was q u i t e t r u e ; w i t h i n was a f -f e c t i o n , un i on , e r r o r f o r g i v en ; ou t s i de was the i nexo rab l e ( LVTI ) . When Tess f i n a l l y emerges from t h i s haven to conf ront the " i n e xo r ab l e s o c i a l mach inery , " she aga in encounters , at Stonehenge, a humming no i se l i k e tha t o f A l e c ' s dogca r t . But t h i s t ime the subsequent d i s r u p t i n g fo r ce i s not the w i l d d r i v i n g o f A l e c , but the pena l t y f o r h i s dea th—the hangman's noose. Dup l i c a t i o n s of the shape of I x i o n ' s wheel are t o be found throughout the n o v e l . The c ross and the c i r c l e a l s o shape the schema of T e s s ' s fou r 9 7 journeys tha t she makes from the womb-l ike Va le o f Blackmoor i n t o the ou t -s i d e wor ld of V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y . Leav ing i n Sp r ing ( u s ua l l y May) and r e -t u rn i ng i n the Autumn, she makes each journey i n a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n . Robert Hei lman w r i t e s : Tess t r a v e l s out o f the narrow Ma r l o t t wo r l d i n d i f f e r e n t d i -r e c t i o n s t ha t are a l l bu t symbo l i c ; t o the east when she v i s i t s the S t o k e - d ' U r b e r v i l l e s ; to the south when she moves t o f e r t i l e Ta lbothays and the love of Ange l ; t o the west when she has t o take a job a t Groby ' s " s t a r v e - a c r e " farm. When she f i n a l l y j o i n s A l e c , she goes t o an urban environment ( the f i r s t i n the nove l ) t ha t i s more sou the r l y than any o ther scene. Her b r i e f journey w i t h Ange l means a l i t e r a l r e v e r s a l o f d i r e c t i o n s , and when the p o l i c e f i n a l l y surround her a t Stonehenge, the a c t i o n i s a t i t s most n o r t h e r l y po i n t .^° Thus each of T e s s ' s f ou r journeys go t o a d i f f e r e n t po i n t o f the compass and i n to to form a c r o s s . The f i r s t th ree are a l s o c i r c u l a r , d u p l i c a t i n g the c r i c u l a r use o f the seasons, i n t ha t she r e tu rns each t ime to her s t a r t i n g p o i n t . But each journey i r o n i c a l l y f a i l s t o accompl ish what Tess c on f i d en t l y hoped f o r and what i s u s u a l l y expected i n journeys o f i n i t i a t i o n . As Brady po i n t s ou t , " T e s s ' s journeys f o l l ow the formula represented i n the r i t e s of passage—depar tu re , i n i t i a t i o n , r e t u r n . Un l i k e most my tho l og i c a l accounts of the h e r o ' s adventures , however, T e s s ' s journeys are s e l f - d e f e a t i n g and de-41 s t r u c t i v e . " And Brady f u r t h e r shows tha t " t he c y c l e s of exper ience i n the 42 nove l are arranged i n ever-expanding c i r c l e s . " Th i s i s t r ue not on ly i n the geog raph i ca l sense but a l s o from the po i n t o f v iew of Te s s ' s expe r i ences . These expanding c i r c l e s are those o f Y e a t s ' s "w iden ing gyre" where f i n a l l y "Things f a l l apa r t ; the cen t re cannot h o l d , " and where, l i k e Tess , " t he bes t 43 l a c k a l l c o n v i c t i o n . " There i s a l s o another mo t i f o f c i r c l e s which runs counter to tha t o f the widening c i r c l e . Th i s i s o f the c i r c l e as containment and i t cu lminates w i t h the image o f the noose around T e s s ' s neck . Her f a t h e r ' s death w i l l come from a s i m i l a r c l o s i n g o f the c i r c l e : 98 Joan Durbeyfield, as she spoke, curved a sodden thumb and fore-finger to the shape of the letter C..."Your heart is enclosed a l l round there, and a l l round there; this space i s s t i l l open... As soon as i t do meet, so,"—Mrs. Durbeyfield closed her fingers into a c i r c l e complete—"off you w i l l go like a shadder, Mr. Durbeyfield"(III). But the most powerful portrayal of this motif comes during the reaping scene at Marlott: The narrow lane of stubble encompassing the f i e l d grew wider with each c i r c u i t , and the standing com was reduced to smaller area as the morning wore on. Rabbits, hares, snakes, rats, mice, retreated inwards as into a fastness, unaware of the ephemeral nature of their refuge, and of the doom that awaited them later i n the day when, their covert shrinking to a more and more horrible narrowness, they were huddled to-gether, friends and foes, t i l l the last few hundred yards of upright wheat f e l l also under the teeth of the unerring reaper, and they were every one put to death by the sticks and stones of the harvesters(XIV). Other images of birds and animals, trapped i n springs or with their necks broken, are frequently related to Tess. And this passage seems particularly to foreshadow the f i n a l capture of Tess at Stonehenge where sixteen policemen surround her and close i n . More generally, this c i r c l e motif of containment expresses the restrictive aspect of society which continually s t i f l e s the free expression of Tess's 'elan v i t a l . Ixion's wheel i s thus the central symbolic image of Tess of the D'Urber- v i l l e s . The cross within the c i r c l e symbolises Tess's suffering and sacrifice to society, her dilemma between mind and body, between "social convention and 4 4 doing what comes naturally," and the suppression of her innate zest for l i v i n g . What i s i t i n society that Hardy feels i s so harmful to the natural l i f e force which Tess personifies? Basically, his complaints are s t i l l those he harboured on returning from London i n 1867. On the basis of Meredith's de-scription of his f i r s t novel's contents—"a sweeping dramatic satire of the squirearchy and nobility, London society, the vulgarity of the middle class, 9 9 modern C h r i s t i a n i t y , c hu r c h - r e s t o r a t i o n , and p o l i t i c a l and domestic mora ls i n 45 gene r a l " — a p a r t from h i s t o t a l a t t e n t i o n on r u r a l s o c i e t y , Ha rdy ' s p o l i t i -c a l g r ievances had ha rd l y changed. There was, however, one a d d i t i o n a l t o p i c which f u r t h e r threatened the freedom of the i n d i v i d u a l . Th i s was the spread of i n d u s t r i a l i s m which had i nc reased i n the two decades s i n c e 1867. The sub jec t had f i r s t been in t roduced i n The Mayor of Cas te rb r i dge where Hardy makes i t p l a i n tha t r u r a l s o c i e t y cannot t u r n i t s back on mechanised fa rm ing . But i n Tes8 o f the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s , w i t h the image o f " the red t y r an t tha t the women had come t o se rve " and t ha t "kept up a despo t i c demand upon the endur-ance of t h e i r muscles and nerves"(XLVII ) has a much more ominous f l a v o u r , sugges t ing tha t Hardy had changed h i s a t t i t u d e towards mechan i sa t i on . But i n the ma in , Ha rdy ' s compla in ts i n Tess o f the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s a re s t i l l over the c l a s s system, r e l i g i o n , and the l a c k of concern , i n the upper c l a s s e s and i n s o c i e t y as a who le , f o r the p l i g h t of the i n d i v i d u a l . Seve ra l o f these p o l i t i c a l aspects of Tess o f the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s are a l s o expressed through the two cha rac te r s who possess Tess dur ing the n o v e l : A l e c and Ange l . On the n a r r a t i v e l e v e l they make a love t r i a n g l e w i t h Te s s . Th i s s t r u c t u r e i s foreshadowed w i t h the f i r s t appearance of A l e c from a "dark t r i a n g u l a r d oo r " ( V ) . But on the symbol ic l e v e l , as b e f i t s a l y r i c a l n o v e l , A l e c and Ange l a re loaded w i t h i m p l i c a t i o n and meaning. B e l i e v a b l e cha rac te r s i n themselves, they become much l a r g e r than i n d i v i d u a l s as they represen t p o l i t i c a l elements o f s o c i e t y . Through such r ep r e s en t a t i o n , and through t h e i r own s t r ugg l e f o r Tess , Hardy i s ab l e t o ca r r y out a d i a l e c t i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n of 46 h i s p o l i t i c a l themes through the n a r r a t i v e . On the symbol i c l e v e l , through t h e i r possess ion o f Tess , Ange l a c t s as the agent of r e l i g i o u s e x p l o i t a t i o n and A lec as the agent of c l a s s and c a p i -t a l i s t e x p l o i t a t i o n . I n t h e i r l ove a f f a i r s , they are i n c l i n e d to ignore T e s s ' s concerns when t h e i r own are i n jeopardy; t h i s p a r a l l e l s the tendency 100 of the r e l i g i o u s , c a p i t a l i s t and c l a s s systems they represent to neg lec t the i n d i v i d u a l ' s needs and v a l u e s . For the p o r t r a y a l of the r e l i g i o u s s i t u a t i o n i n s o c i e t y , Hardy i n c l ude s i n h i s s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n the p r e v i o u s l y d i s cussed p o l a r i t y between mind and body where A l e c ' s c a r n a l i t y and Ange l ' s r a t i o n a l i t y 47 impose upon Tess the a l ready f a m i l i a r t en s i on o f the c r o s s . Th i s d i s r u p -t i v e t en s i on i n T e s s ' s exper iences i s a p t l y a s soc i a t ed w i t h the fundamental r e l i g i o u s t r i a n g l e o f Eve, Adam and Sa tan , through a s e r i e s of a l l u s i o n s to the Garden of Eden where, i n C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e , the c o n f l i c t between mind and body f i r s t began. Angel and Tess are compared w i t h Adam and Eve; A l e c i s l i k ened t o the serpent or Sa tan . A l e c tempts Tess on t h e i r f i r s t meeting and l a t e r says : "A j e s t e r might say t h i s i s j u s t l i k e P a r a d i s e . You are Eve, and I am the o l d Other One come t o tempt you i n the d i s gu i s e of an i n f e r i o r a n ima l " ( L ) . Here the ea t i ng o f the s t rawberry rep l aces the apple and t h i s a c -counts f o r " the red i n t e r i o r o f her mouth as i f i t had been a snake ' s " (XXVI I ) which Ange l n o t i c e s but does not unders tand, see ing her i n s t ead as " a f r e sh and v i r g i n a l daughter o f Na t u r e " ( XV I I I ) . Hardy completes the Genesis t r i a n g l e w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of a f e e l i n g Tess and Ange l had wh i l e they were a lone i n 48 the f i e l d s — " a f e e l i n g o f i s o l a t i o n , as i f they were Adam and Eve" (XX) . Th i s r e l i g i o u s imagery a l s o has i r o n i c i n t e n t s i n c e Hardy was a t t a c k i ng the r e s i due of such r i g i d Old Testament do c t r i n e i n V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y . I n -deed, Ha rdy ' s a t t a ck on s o c i e t y has i t s s t ronges t t h r u s t aga ins t r e l i g i o n . The i n t e n s i t y o f Ha rdy ' s f e e l i n g s on t h i s sub jec t can be judged by a l e t -t e r he wrote t o F rede r i c k Ha r r i s on about Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s : " I n the f i r s t d r a f t of the s t o r y I s a i d much more on r e l i g i o n as apar t from theo logy . But I thought i t might do more harm than good, and omit ted the 49 arguments, merely r e t a i n i n g the c on c l u s i o n s . " Th i s statement i s a l s o important f o r i t s s epa ra t i on of r e l i g i o n from theo logy . For a l though Hardy ' s own complex problems of r e l i g i o u s f a i t h cannot be complete ly de-101 tached from his attacks on the Church of England, his main arguments do seem to be based on practical and social grounds rather than on theoretical and doctrinal ones. What Hardy was primarily concerned about was the effect of religion upon the everyday lives of individuals. Tess's seduction, her re-enactment of the F a l l , i s the root cause of her tragedy. But she would have recovered, Hardy implies, i f i t had not been for the unrepentant teachings of the Church of England, Similar basic assump-tions can be found i n the attitude of Pasternak in Doctor Zhivago; laws and rules, written i n abstract form without sufficient humane consideration, cause too much suffering to be of much value. Thus Hardy's depiction of the Clare family i s f u l l of criticism. The large proportion of the book devoted to the Clares, especially to Angel, has generally been underestimated i n c r i t i c a l assessment. Apart from the opening scene, Angel i s the only char-acter who appears as protagonist i n major scenes without Tess. In the f i r s t part of the story, Angel i s depicted most favourably. In almost every aspect he seems admirable. His strength of character i s evident in his refusal to follow i n his father's footsteps, as expected: "I cannot honestly be ordained her minister, as my brothers are, while she refuses to liberate the mind from an untenable redemptive theolatry"(XVIII). Further, Angel i s no snob like his brothers and at Talbothays mixes "communistically" (XXII) with other farm workers. He appears genuine i n his distaste for "material distinctions of rank and wealth"(XVIII) and his progressive a t t i -tude supports his claim to "intellectual liberty"(XVIII). Finally i n his courtship with Tess i t i s hard to disagree with Hardy when he says that Angel i s "a man with a conscience"(XXV). In short, i t i s d i f f i c u l t not to associate Angel with the character of the younger Hardy himself. And this suggestion of autobiography i s strengthened by Angel having had a period of livi n g i n London, where like 102 Hardy, he got a broader out look on l i f e . And there i s a l s o another reason f o r b u i l d i n g the cha rac te r o f Angel t o such an admirab le s t a t u s . He was a l s o t o ac t as a f o i l t o the r e s t of h i s f am i l y which p e r s o n i f i e s so many of the i l l s o f V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y . Such a c r e d i t a b l e emancipat ion from the r i g i d and b i go t ed v iews of the C l a r e f am i l y was to be Ange l ' s h ighes t achievement, however s h o r t - l i v e d . The f i r s t ment ion o f Ange l ' s f a t h e r comes from the f a n a t i c a l s i g n w r i t -e r . As the i n s t i g a t o r of t h i s f a n a t i c , the Rev. C l a re i s immediate ly exposed f o r the damage he i s do ing . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , tha t the farm hands at Ta lbothays c a l l him " the earnes tes t man i n a l l Wessex" and " t he l a s t of the o l d Low Church s o r t " ( X V I I ) . He i s even cons idered extreme by h i s co l l e agues . Hardy s t r e s s e s h i s r i g i d a t t i t u d e : "An e v a n g e l i c a l o f the evan-g e l i c a l s . . . he had i n h i s raw youth made up h i s mind once f o r a l l on the deeper ques t ions of e x i s t e n c e , and admit ted no f u r t h e r reason ing on them henceforward"(XXV). The r i g i d i t y of h i s f a i t h i s most e f f e c t i v e l y demon-s t r a t e d when Angel shows d isappointment over the b l a c k pudding and mead sent as a present t o the C l a re f am i l y by the C r i c k s . Ange l t e l l s h i s parents tha t he wants t o t e l l the C r i c k s tha t the g i f t s were en joyed. Mr. C l a r e ' s r e p l y , "You cannot , i f we d i d no t " (XXV) , has an inhuman r i n g t o i t . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y h i s two o the r sons have developed i n t o narrow-minded p r i g s . The i r a t t i t u d e s have been formed not on ly by t h e , r e l i g i o u s dogma of t h e i r f a t he r but a l s o by the U n i v e r s i t i e s which Hardy a t tacked i n h i s l a s t n o v e l , Jude the Obscure, f o r t h e i r maintenance o f c l a s s p r e j ud i c e and of r e -l i g i o u s s t e r i l i t y and supp ress i on : Each b ro the r cand id l y recogn ised tha t there were a few unimportant scores of m i l l i o n s of ou t s i de r s i n c i v i l i s e d s o c i e t y , persons who were n e i t h e r U n i v e r s i t y men nor churchmen; but were t o be t o l e r a t e d r a t he r than reckoned w i t h and respected(XXV) . 103 Th i s i s ha rd l y the a t t i t u d e worthy of a l o c a l cu ra te l i k e F e l i x . Another i n d i c a t i o n of the a t t i t u d e s of the C la re fam i l y can be found i n t h e i r p r i o r -i t i e s over Ange l ' s p ro spec t i v e w i f e . F i r s t her r e l i g i o n i s cons i de red , then her c l a s s , and on ly f i n a l l y he r pe r sona l accompl ishments. Hardy, however, makes i t q u i t e c l e a r tha t the f a the r was s i n c e r e , and tha t he and h i s w i f e cou ld be moved to compassion. He says i n d i r e c t l y , t h e r e f o r e , t ha t i t i s r e l i g i o n tha t tu rns the C la res i n t o l i f e - d e n y i n g and m i se ry - caus ing agents i n s o c i e t y , and tha t there i s even g rea te r p o t e n t i a l danger from the l a t e r gen-e r a t i o n o f people l i k e Ange l ' s b r o t h e r s , i ndeed , l i k e Ange l h imse l f . Ange l ' s r e a c t i o n t o T e s s ' s con fe s s i on i s the c e n t r a l c r i s i s o f the n o v e l . I t demonstrates not on ly the con t i nu ing power of church do c t r i n e to i n f l u en ce s o c i a l a c t i o n , but a l s o the e s s e n t i a l inhumanity o f t h i s d o c t r i n e . I f there i s any doubt as to the f e a s i b i l i t y o f such a v o l t e face by Ange l , Gide shows tha t t h i s phenomenon was widespread enough t o have become known across the Eng l i s h Channel: Tu me r appe l l e s c e r t a i n s A n g l a i s : p l u s l eu r pensee s 'emanc ipe, p lus i l s se raccrochent a l a mora le ; c ' e s t au po in t q u ' i l n ' y a pas p lus p u r i t a i n que c e r -t a i n s de l eu r s l i b r e s p e n s e u r s . . . 5 0 Hardy, i n f a c t , speaks of Ange l i n almost the same terms as G i de : With a l l h i s attempted independence of judgement t h i s advanced and we l l -mean ing young man, a sample product o f the l a s t f i ve -and- twenty y ea r s , was ye t the s l a ve t o custom and c onven t i o na l i t y when s u r p r i s e d back i n t o h i s e a r l y teach ings(XXXIX) . Custom and c onven t i o na l i t y are here desp ised by Hardy i n one o f h i s more f o r t h r i g h t statements aga ins t B r i t i s h s o c i e t y . R e l i g i o n i s the root cause of Ange l ' s r e j e c t i o n of Tess and the power of i t s ho l d i s immediate ly apparent t o Tess : . . . s h e was appa l l ed by the de te rm ina t i on revea led i n the depths of t h i s gen t l e be ing she had ma r r i ed - - t he w i l l t o subdue the g rosse r to the s u b t l e r emot ion, the 104 substance t o the concep t i on , the f l e s h t o the s p i r i t ( X X X V T ) . The i n j u s t i c e o f Ange l ' s r e j e c t i o n o f Tess a f t e r her con fess i on i s h i g h -tened by the f a c t t ha t he had a l s o committed a s i m i l a r c r ime—even a worse one s i n c e i t was an ac t of pure l u s t . Ange l had a l s o kept h i s own cr ime a s e c r e t , thereby dece i v i ng Tess , whereas she had i n good f a i t h pushed a note of con fe s s i on under h i s door . I n a l l t h i s , over and above the obv ious c r i t -i c i s m o f s o c i e t y ' s double s tandards f o r the sexes , Hardy i s making h i s a t t a c k on the v e s t i g i a l elements of church do c t r i n e tha t s t i l l had a s t rong i n f l u en c e upon convent ions and laws of V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y . On the other s i d e of T e s s ' s t r i a n g l e i s A l e c . Represent ing the c a r n a l on one l e v e l , as has a l ready been shown, he a l s o e xemp l i f i e s the o ther aspect of V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y t ha t Hardy has most g r ievances about a f t e r r e l i g i o n . Th i s might bes t be termed as c l a s s opp ress i on ; i t i s the s o c i a l system where-by Hardy sees the r i c h e x p l o i t the poor and cause widespread misery and s u f -f e r i n g . I n h i s e a r l y nove l s Hardy had o f t en used the landed gentry as cha r -ac te r s but by the 1890's they were van i sh i ng f a s t and a new breed was ap-pea r i n g . A l e c comes from t h i s new group o f parvenus who began t o s e t t l e i n Wessex: When o l d Mr. Simon S toke , l a t t e r l y deceased, had made h i s fo r tune as an honest merchant (some s a i d moneylender) i n the No r t h , he dec ided t o s e t t l e as a county man i n the South of Eng land . . . and i n do ing t h i s he f e l t the ne ce s s i t y o f recommencing w i t h a name tha t would not too r e a d i l y i d e n t i f y him w i t h the smart tradesman of the pa s t . . . Conn i ng f o r an hour i n the B r i t i s h Museum the pages o f works devot -ed t o e x t i n c t , h a l f - e x t i n c t , obscured, and ru ined f a m i l i e s . . . he cons idered D 'Urberv i l l e s looked and sounded as w e l l as any of them: and D ' U r b e r v i l l e a c co rd i ng l y was annexed to h i s own name f o r h imse l f and h i s h e i r s e t e r n a l l y ( V ) . Hardy d i d have some respec t f o r the o l d f a m i l i e s of the n o b i l i t y ; Angel seems t o be speaking f o r him when he s a y s : " P o l i t i c a l l y I am s c e p t i c a l as t o the v i r t u e of t h e i r be ing o l d . . . . b u t l y r i c a l l y , d r a m a t i c a l l y , and even h i s t o r i c a l -l y , I am tende r l y a t tached t o them"(XXVI). But t o Hardy the nouveau r i c h e 105 n o b i l i t y were much more od i ous . They are "compounded o f money and amb i t i on" ( X IX ) , and show, l i k e A l e c , even l e s s mora l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than t h e i r p r e -decesso r s . Y e t , s i n c e Hardy ' s audience was l i k e l y t o be composed of much of t h i s group, h i s c r i t i c i s m of them i s s t i l l guarded, even i n t h i s l a t e r n o v e l . Hardy thus keeps much o f h i s c r i t i c i s m on the symbol i c and s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l s . But A l e c , as a f i c t i o n a l cha r a c t e r , s t i l l s tands up t o c l o s e ana-51 l y s i s ; he i s not the s te reo type , seducer tha t many commentators c l a i m . He i s a dynamic and l i f e - l i k e cha ra c t e r , and does indeed agonise over h i s s t rong sexua l d r i v e , lament ing "women's faces have had too much power over roe"(XLV). He a l s o comes to r eg re t the damage he has done t o Tess . Neve r the l e s s , Hardy i s c a r e f u l to show him as the product o f the parvenu c l a s s ; h i s f i r s t pangs of consc ience over T e s s ' s predicament e l i c i t on ly o f f e r s o f f i n a n c i a l h e l p . And i n h i s e a r l y dea l i ng s w i t h Tess he shows a condescens ion towards her which almost den ies her s t a t u s as a human b e i n g : "You are mighty s e n s i t i v e f o r a cot tage g i r l " ( V I I I ) . The dynamism of A l e c ' s cha rac te r i s ev ident i n h i s p a r t i a l escape from these q u a l i t i e s of the new i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s . From a s e l f i s h and i r r e s p o n -s i b l e seducer , he becomes, through h i s abo r t i v e conve r s i on , t o a somewhat more humane and s i n ce r e out look on l i f e . H i s b r i e f r e l i g i o u s pe r i od has l i t t l e importance t o the gene ra l d i s c u s s i o n of r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e s i n the n o v e l . I t was " the mere f reak of a c a r e l e s s man i n search of a new sensa-t i o n , and tempora r i l y impressed by h i s mother ' s dea th " (XLV I ) . But i t does a l l ow Hardy to e x t r a c t some i r ony out of A l e c be ing converted by Ange l ' s f a t h e r . And f u r t h e r , i t enables Hardy t o make the s t r u c t u r e of the nove l more i n t e g r a t e d : bo th Ange l and A l e c , emancipated i n d i f f e r e n t ways from r e l i g i o n , r e s o r t t empora r i l y t o the church . Te s s ' s s exua l p l i g h t at the hands of A l e c and Ange l , and by ex tens i on her s p i r i t u a l and s o c i a l p l i g h t , becomes symbo l i c o f the s i t u a t i o n of the 106 unp r i v i l e g ed i n d i v i d u a l i n V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y . Such an i n d i v i d u a l ' s attempts to make a b e t t e r l i f e f o r h i m s e l f . Hardy i m p l i e s , w i l l be as abo r t i v e as the journeys Tess undertakes w i t h hope and r e s o l u t i o n . S o c i a l improvements w i l l be denied him by convent ions and laws tha t p r o t e c t the vested i n t e r e s t s o f the midd le and upper c l a s s e s ; human improvements i n l i f e w i l l be den ied by r i g i d s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s do c t r i n e s that take l i t t l e heed o f i n d i v i d u a l needs. L i k e Tess . the unde rp r i v i l e ged are t rapped w i t h i n a c i r c l e o f con-ta inment , and are des t i ned f o r a l i f e o f want and unhappiness. Soc i e t y ap-pears t o be r un , not f o r the genera l w e l l - b e i n g of the m a j o r i t y , but f o r the maintenance of w e l l - b e i n g f o r a few. The minor cha rac te r s i n the nove l complement the th ree major ones i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the argument t ha t s o c i e t y makes l i f e unbearable f o r the under-p r i v i l e g e d m a j o r i t y . T e s s ' s f a t h e r , impover ished and hum i l i a t e d by changes i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y , takes to d r i n k . Not on ly does s o c i e t y se t him o f f on the path t o s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n , i t a l s o leaves h i s f am i l y d e s t i t u t e at h i s dea th . The system o f l i f e h o l d i n g s , which e f f e c t i v e l y prevented the poorer c l a s s e s from ever a c qu i r i n g p rope r t y , evokes one o f Hardy ' s most d i r e c t c r i t -i c i sms of s o c i e t y and forms an impor tant pa r t o f the s o c i a l background of the n o v e l : The v i l l a g e had fo rmer ly con ta i ned , s i de by s i de w i t h the a g r i -c u l t u r a l l a bou re r s , an i n t e r e s t i n g and be t t e r - i n f o rmed c l a s s , rank ing d i s t i n c t l y above the fo rmer—the c l a s s to which T e s s ' s f a t he r and mother had belonged—and i n c l u d i n g the ca rpen te r , the sm i t h , the shoemaker, the huck s t e r , together w i t h nonde-s c r i p t workers other than farm l abou re r s ; a se t o f people who owed a c e r t a i n s t a b i l i t y o f aim and conduct t o the f a c t o f t h e i r be ing l i f e - h o l d e r s l i k e T e s s ' s f a t h e r , or copyho lders , o r , o c -c a s i o n a l l y , sma l l f r e eho l d e r s . But as the long ho ld i ngs f e l l i n they were seldom aga in l e t to s i m i l a r t enan t s , and were most-l y p u l l e d down, i f not ab so l u t e l y r equ i r ed by the farmer f o r h i s hands. Cot tagers who were not d i r e c t l y employed on the land were looked upon w i t h d i s f a v ou r , and the banishment o f some s ta rved the t rade of o t he r s , who were thus ob l i ged t o f o l l o w . These f a m i l i e s , who had formed the backbone of the v i l l a g e l i f e i n the p a s t , who were the d epo s i t a r i e s o f the v i l l a g e t r a d i t i o n s , had to seek re fuge i n the l a r ge cen t r e s ; the p roces s , humorously 107 des ignated by s t a t i s t i c i a n s as " t he tendency of the r u r a l popu l a t i on towards the l a r g e towns," be ing r e a l l y the t e n -dency of water to f low u p h i l l when fo rced by mach ine r y ( L I ) . The f a c t tha t the peop le who concern Hardy here are " r ank ing d i s t i n c t l y above" the farm l abou re r aga in emphasises t ha t Hardy was not p r i m a r i l y con-cerned w i t h the r u s t i c o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a bou re r . Aga in he argues f o r the people j u s t above t h i s lowest c l a s s , f o r the people o f h i s own f am i l y back-ground. I n the same way, the on ly farming people tha t Hardy po r t r ay s i n t h i s nove l—apa r t from Tes s ' s l abou r i ng female f r i e n d s , whose ances tors were a c t u a l l y o f the upper c l a s s — a r e people of h ighe r s tand ing than the l abou re r . C r i c k represents the i d e a l o f the o l d type of farmer; Groby runs a new k i nd of farm founded on the type of e x p l o i t a t i o n tha t came w i t h i n d u s t r i a l i s m . Here a ga i n , w i t h these two fa rmers , Hardy uses a s i m i l a r b i n a r y j u x t a p o s i t i o n to the one of A l e c and Ange l . Where C r i c k exudes warmth and sympathy f o r h i s employees, Groby, the " t y r a n t " ( X L V I ) , works h i s t o the l i m i t s o f endurance. Where C r i c k , i n h i s s h i n i ng wh i te c l o t h e s , works s i d e by s i d e w i t h h i s worke rs , Groby i s an absentee owner who appears i n t e r m i t t e n t l y to d r i v e h i s w i t h t h r e a t s . Thus the " s tu rdy midd le-aged"(XVII ) churchgoer faces the " w e l l - t o -do boor" (XLI ) i n ye t another s t r u c t u r a l d i a l e c t i c . But the con t ra s t here i s f a r too heavy handed. The good i s too good and the bad too bad; the d i a l e c t i c i s too loaded t o be of much e f f e c t . A s i m i l a r j u x t a p o s i t i o n e x i s t s between the two o ther purveyors of r e -l i g i o n ou t s i de the C l a r e f am i l y . The s i g n - w r i t e r and the Parson of Ma r l o t t both serve the same God but t h e i r a t t i t u d e s are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . Appear ing i n the n a r r a t i v e immediate ly be fo re and a f t e r the b i r t h of T e s s ' s i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d , they form a c a r e f u l s t r u c t u r a l c on t r a s t of r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e s . Where-as the Parson i s humane and f i n a l l y w i l l i n g t o adapt the r u l e s of h i s r e l i g i o n to c i r cumstances , the s i g n - w r i t e r i s r i g i d and "cannot s p l i t h a i r s " ( X I I ) . The 108 s i g n - w r i t e r ' s t e x t s a re thus p roud ly "C ru sh i ng ! K i l l i n g ! " and Hardy sees them as " the l a s t grotesque phase of a creed which had served mankind w e l l i n i t s t i m e " ( X I I ) . The Pa r son , a l though perhaps t r a i n e d i n the mode o f t h i n k i n g fo l l owed by the s i g n - w r i t e r , has exper ienced " t e n years o f endeavour t o g r a f t t e c h n i c a l b e l i e f on a c t u a l s c e p t i c i sm " ( X IV ) . Un l i k e the s i g n - w r i t e r , the Parson has had to contend w i t h the r e a l i t i e s o f l i f e through human I n t e r -a c t i o n . He i s thus ab le to f e e l the "nob le r impu lses"(XIV) of g ran t i ng tha t Te s s ' s unbapt ised c h i l d has r i g h t s o f C h r i s t i a n b u r i a l . But the re was s t i l l cons ide rab l e d i f f i c u l t y f o r him i n coming to t h i s : "The man and the e c c l e -s i a s t i c fought w i t h i n h im, and the v i c t o r y f e l l to the man"(XIV). Here i s a most e x p l i c i t i n s t ance of Hardy see ing r e l i g i o n as b a s i c a l l y opposed t o man's own i n t e r e s t s . Throughout the n a r r a t i v e , Tess " o s c i l l a t e s " between the wor lds of these d i a l e c t i c a l l y opposed cha rac t e r s—Ange l and A l e c , the s i g n - w r i t e r and the parson. , farmers C r i c k and Groby. They cause her to undergo severe emot iona l d i s r u p t i o n , and her p o t e n t i a l l y h e r o i c , even goddes s - l i k e cha rac te r i s g r ad -u a l l y subdued. Her exper iences d i scourage her to the extent tha t she o f t en contemplates s u i c i d e i n o rder to escape the s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s o f l i f e . Bu t , unable t o r e s o r t to such a d r a s t i c remedy, she r e s o r t s , as we have seen, to p r a c t i s i n g s ch i zoph ren i c s epa ra t i on from l i f e i n s t e a d . T e s s ' s s o c i e t y i s not i n t e r e s t e d i n her as an i n d i v i d u a l , as Te r ry Eag le ton says , r a t he r " i t takes 52 her body f o r s e xua l or economic p r o f i t . " Never the less her defeat i s not i g nob l e ; she ma in ta ins her d i g n i t y and does f i g h t f o r her i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s t o the degree she i s humanly ab le t o . Her c l o s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h na tu re , and the p u r i t y o f her i n t e n t i o n s s tand i n d i r e c t con t ra s t to the " a r t i f i c i a l " requirements tha t s o c i e t y makes on i n d i v i d u a l s . Tess thus stands as a symbol f o r p o l i t i c a l freedom and i n d i v i d u a l com-53 pa s s i o n . And i n t h i s , as James Hazen has demonstrated, she has an obvious 109 antecendent i n Sophoc les ' s An t igone . The two hero ines both oppose mora l b l i ndness and become agents f o r improv ing mankind. Bernard Lev i n has c la imed tha t An t igone ' s "mora l or p o l i t i c a l dilemma" i s "perhaps the best 54 s i n g l e example i n a l l l i t e r a t u r e . " Jus t as h igh a c l a im can be made f o r the l e s s he r o i c n i ne teen th century Tess as a v e h i c l e of p o l i t i c a l and mora l di lemmas. In t h e i r c r i s e s , both hero ines " a c t on the b a s i s o f consc ience 55 a lone , r e j e c t i n g prudence;" both b e l i e v e i n b a s i c laws r a the r than doc-t r i n e s ; both are s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e and s u i c i d a l , become i n f a c t scapegoats whose examples cause Creon and Ange l to undergo "mora l t r ans fo rmat i on " a f t e r 56 t h e i r dependence on man made laws and v a l u e s . E s s e n t i a l l y , bo th Sophocles and Hardy exp lo re the p e r e nn i a l antagonism between the i n s t i n c t u a l laws of nature and the p o l i t i c a l laws c reated by man. And l i k e many o ther w r i t e r s , i n c l u d i n g Pas te rnak , they make a p l e a f o r understand ing and compassion t o -wards man as he t r i e s to cope w i t h h i s own human nature w i t h i n organ ised and s t r u c t u r ed s o c i e t y . In making t h i s p l e a , Hardy ' s Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s covers a wide range of s o c i a l phenomena. And i n i t s exposures and condemnations of V i c t o -r i a n s o c i e t y t h i s nove l c l e a r l y has p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . Many of the b a s i c systems tha t were u t i l i s e d to ma in ta i n the s t a t u s quo, to ma in t a i n the power of the r i c h , are shown to cause hardsh ip and unhappiness. The unde rp r i v i l e ged are prevented by the l i f e h o l d system from owning p rope r t y , are denied h igher educat ion necessary f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l advancement, and are obs t ruc ted by the c l a s s system i n any progress towards s o c i a l , m a t e r i a l or human advantages. Above a l l i t i s r e l i g i o n tha t i s a t tacked i n t h i s n o v e l . The con-t i n u i n g a p p l i c a t i o n of outmoded do c t r i n e makes the church the l ead ing o f fender i n s o c i e t y f o r p reven t i ng the enjoyment of a f u l f i l l i n g i n d i v i d u a l 110 l i f e . Hardy saw o l d r e l i g i o u s do c t r i n e i n the same way tha t So l z hen i t s yn sees Communist ideo logy i n the Sov ie t Union today: Ideology i s dead indeed , but i t s mal ignant po i son f l oods our sou l s and a l l our l i f e . Ideology i s dead, but i t s t i l l makes of a l l o f us s l a ves—and vthat i s most t e r r i f y i n g i n our r e -gime i s not tha t we are subord inated to r u l e r s w i t h un l im i t e d power, but tha t our sou l s are i n the claws of t h i s i d e o l o g y . . . . Ideology maims our s o u l s , i t co r rup t s u s . 5 7 Hardy argued, through Ange l , that r e l i g i o n shou ld be f o r " the honour and g l o r y of man" r a t he r than of God(XVI I I ) . He saw h i s s o c i e t y t rapped between outmoded r e l i g i o u s ideo logy and the th rea t o f i n d u s t r i a l i s m , both of which would deny the human va lues of everyday l i f e . He was no t , as a n o v e l i s t , i n a s t rong p o s i t i o n - t o i n f l u en c e a change i n the a f f a i r s o f h i s count ry . In l i t e r a t u r e , as George S t e i n e r has w r i t t e n , " t he re are no s o l u t i o n s , merely attempts to make our responses more adequate and of a more p r e c i s e modesty." As the comparison w i t h Pasternak has shown, Hardy a t t a c k s V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y through a p oe t i c c e l e b r a t i o n of the human s p i r i t . Avo id ing d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l debate or propaganda l i k e Doctor Zh ivago, Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s concen-t r a t e s i n s t ead upon evok ing sympathet ic response t o i t s p r o t a g o n i s t ' s t r a g i c exper ience of l i f e i n s o c i e t y . In t h i s way Hardy g r e a t l y improves upon the p o l i t i c a l s a t i r e of h i s e a r l y nove l s , and he has l e f t us one of the f i n e s t examples o f tha t t r a d i t i o n o f V i c t o r i a n f i c t i o n tha t speaks f o r humanity aga ins t the inhumanity of s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s and systems. I l l Footnotes 1 A l l quota t ions from t h i s nove l w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the t e x t by chapter re fe rence to the 1912 e d i t i o n . 2 W.R. Ru t l and , Thomas Hardy: A Study of H i s Wr i t i n g s and The i r Background (Oxford , 1954). 3 A rno ld K e t t l e , An I n t r odu c t i o n t o the Eng l i s h Nove l (London, 1951), 2, -p. 49. 4 Douglas Brown, Thomas Hardy (London, 1954), p. 30. 5 Guerard, p. 17. 6 I b i d . , p. 19. 7 Howe, p. 129. 8 K e t t l e , Hardy the N o v e l i s t : A Recons ide ra t i on (Swansea, 1966), p. 8 . 9 Brown, p. 31. 10 R.H. Hu t ton , Spec ta to r , 19 December, 1874, pp. 1597-99. Quoted i n Cox, p. 22. 11 Andrew Lang, Academy, 2 January , 1875, p. 9 . Quoted i n Cox, p. 35. 12 Unsigned Review, Saturday Review, 9 January , 1875, pp. 57-58. Quoted i n Cox, pp. 40-41 . 13 W i l l i a m Hyde, "Hardy ' s View of Rea l i sm: A Key to the Ru s t i c Cha ra c t e r s , " V i c t o r i a n S t ud i e s , 2 (Sept . 1958), pp. 45-59. 14 I b i d . , pp. 54, 56 and 59 . 15 T . Hardy, "The Do r se t sh i r e Laboure r , " Longman's Magazine, J u l y 1883, pp. 252-69. 112 16 F. Hardy, The L i f e , pp. 312-14. 17 Merryn W i l l i a m s , Thomas Hardy and Ru ra l England (London, 1973), p . x i i . 18 Raymond W i l l i a m s , The Country and the C i t y (London, 1974), p. 198. 19 I b i d . , p. 199. 20 I b i d . , p. 197. 21 J u l i a n Moynahan, " P a s t o r a l i sm as Cu l t u re and Counte r -Cu l tu re i n E n g l i s h F i c t i o n , 1800-1928," Nove l , 6 ( F a l l 1972), p. 21 . 22 I b i d . 23 George E l i o t , Dan i e l Deronda (London, 1966), p. 24. 24 G a b r i e l Pearson, "The Nove l t o End A l l Nove l s : The Golden Bow l , " i n The  A i r o f R e a l i t y : New Essays on Henry James, ed . John Goode (London, 1972), p. 315. 25 The t i t l e o f "Phase the Second" i n Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s . 26 The s u b - t i t l e o f Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s . 27 Pas te rnak , Doctor Zh ivago, p. 30. 28 Note a l s o the attempted s u i c i d e of Ret ty P r i d d l e and the a l coho l i sm o f Mar ian as f u r t h e r examples o f the v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f women. 29 T. Hardy, The Woodlanders, c h . XXX. 30 I b i d . , c h . XXXIX. 31 Sou the r ing ton , p. 133. 32 T . Hardy, "P re f ace t o La t e r E d i t i o n s , " Tess o f the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s . 113 33 E r i c h Neumann, The Great Mother (London, 1955), p . 19 . 34 I b i d . 35 Mar ion Brady, "The Wheel of F i r e : An A r che t ypa l Ana l y s i s o f Tess of the  D ' U r b e r v i l l e s . " P e r spe c t i v e (Brigham Young U n i v e r s i t y ) , 1969, pp. 1-31. 36 M i l l g a t e , p. 277. 37 Tony Tanner, "Co l ou r and Movement i n Ha rdy ' s Tess o f the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s , " C r i t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y . 10 (1968) , p. 235. 38 Brady, p. 10. He a l s o p o i n t s out tha t S i r James F raze r has demonstrated how " the w h i r l i n g , s p i n n i n g , b l a z i n g wheel has been a s soc i a t ed from p r e -h i s t o r i c t imes w i t h the l i f e - f o r c e . " 39 See Tanner, pp . 225 and 230. 40 He i lman, "Notes on the Te x t , " Tess o f the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s (New York , 1971), p. x x i i . 41 Brady, p . 6 . 42 I b i d . 43 W.B. Yea t s , "The Second Coming," i n Se l e c t ed Poems and Two P l a y s o f W i l l i a m  B u t l e r Yea t s , e d . M.L. Rosentha l (New Yo rk , 1966), p . 9 1 . 44 H i l l i s M i l l e r , p . 80 . 45 F. Hardy, The L i f e , p. 6 1 . 46 S ince w r i t i n g t h i s , I have found Ian G r e g o r , ! i n h i s new book, The Great Web (London, 1974), a rgu ing tha t Ha rdy ' s wo r l d of Wessex "was c rea ted i n terms of d i a l e c t i c , a d i a l e c t i c which took a v a r i e t y of fo rms. " See pp . 47-49, where h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the d i a l e c t i c nature of Ha rdy ' s j u x t a p o s i t i o n of pas s i on and s ob r i e t y c l o s e l y f o l l ows my own d i s c u s s i o n of the c ross symbol ism. 114 47 See Dorothy Van Ghent, The E n g l i s h Nove l : Form and Func t i on (New York , 1953), p. 254, where Ange l and A l e c are seen as "extremes of human behav i o r . " 48 For M i l t o n i c aspects o f the Adam and Eve imagery see A l l a n B r i c k , " Pa r ad i s e and Consciousness i n Hardy ' s T e s s , " N ineteenth Century F i c t i o n , 17 (1962) , pp . 115-34. 49 Ann Bowden, "The Thomas Hardy C o l l e c t i o n , " L i b r a r y Ch ron i c l e o f the  U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas, 7 (Summer, 1962), p. 10. 50 Andre G ide , Les Faux-monnayeurs ( P a r i s , 1925), p. 63 . 51 I . e . Bernard J . P a r i s , " ' A Confus ion of Many S t anda rd s ' : C o n f l i c t i n g Value Systems i n Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s , " N ine teenth Century F i c t i o n , 24 (1969), p. 64 : " A l e c i s presented throughout as a v i l l a i n . " 52 Eag l e t on , p. 161. 53 James Hazen, "Tess o f the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s and An t i gone , " E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e i n T r a n s i t i o n . 1880-1920, 14 (1971), pp . 211-19. 54 Bernard L e v i n , "Argument: A r t and P o l i t i c s — A n t i g o n e and Mother Courage," The L i s t e n e r , 9 S ep t . , 1974, p. 297. 55 Hazen, p. 212. 56 I b i d . , p. 218. 57 J a n i s S ap i e t s , "Conversa t i on w i t h S o l z h e n i t s y n , " Encounter , March 1975, pp . 67 -68 . 58 George S t e i n e r , To l s t oy or Dostoevsky (New York , 1959), p. 318. 59 W i l l i a m Arche r , "Rea l Conversa t ions : Conversa t ion 1—With Mr. Thomas Hardy , " C r i t i c . 38 ( A p r i l , 1901), p. 317. Se lec ted B i b l i og r aphy 115 1. Pr imary Sources The Wessex Nove l s , pub l i shed between 1871 and 1897, were r e v i s ed by Hardy f o r a s p e c i a l Wessex E d i t i o n which was pub l i shed i n London by Macmi l l an i n 1912. A l l re fe rences are t o t h i s d e f i n i t i v e e d i t i o n , but i t seems pre-f e r ab l e here t o p rov ide the o r i g i n a l dates of p u b l i c a t i o n so tha t a sense of chronology i s e s t a b l i s h e d . Hardy, Thomas. Desperate Remedies. 1871. . Under the Greenwood T ree . 1872. . A P a i r o f B lue Eyes . 1873. . Far From the Madding Crowd. 1874. . The Hand of E t h e l b e r t a . 1876. . The Return of the N a t i v e . 1878. The Trumpet-Major. 1880. A Laod i cean . 1881. Two on a Tower. 1882. The Mayor of Cas t e rb r i dge . 1886. The Woodlanders. 1887. Tess o f the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s . 1891. Jude the Obscure. 1895. The We l l - Be l o ved . 1897. . An I n d i s c r e t i o n i n the L i f e of an H e i r e s s . Ed. C a r l . J . Weber. New York : R u s s e l l & R u s s e l l , 1965. Rpt . New Qua r t e r l y Magazine, J u l y 1878. . The Co l l e c t e d Poems. London: Macm i l l an , 1930. . Thomas Hardy ' s Pe r sona l W r i t i n g s . Ed . Ha ro ld O r e l . Lawrence, Kansas: Un iv . of Kansas P r e s s , 1966. Pas te rnak , B o r i s . Doctor Zh ivago. T rans . Max Hayward and Manya H a r a r i . London: C o l l i n s & H a r v i l l , 1958. 116 2 . Secondary Sources Amis, K i n g s l e y . "Comparat ive L i t e r a t u r e i n B r i t a i n . " American Comparat ive  L i t e r a t u r e News l e t t e r . 3, No. 2 ( F a l l 1969), p. 9 . A r che r , W i l l i a m . "Rea l Conversa t ions : Conversat ion 1—With Mr . Thomas Hardy . " C r i t i c , 38 (Apr . 1901), p. 317. B a l z a c , Honore de. "Avan t -p ropos . " Oeuvres completes. P a r i s : Conrad, 1912. I , pp. x x v - x x x v i i i . Barzun, Jacques . "Ha rdy ' s One Wor l d . " I n The Energ ies of A r t . New York : Harper , 1956. B i l l i n g t o n , James. The Icon and the Axe. New York : V i n tage , 1970. Bowden, Ann. "The Thomas Hardy C o l l e c t i o n . " L i b r a r y Ch ron i c l e of the  U n i v e r s i t y of Texas, 7 (Summer 1962), p. 10. Brady, Mar i on . "The Wheel o f F i r e : An A r che typa l Ana l y s i s o f Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s . " Pe r spec t i v e (Brigham Young U n i v e r s i t y ) , 1969, pp. 1-31. Brennecke, E r ne s t . The L i f e of Thomas Hardy. New York : Greenberg, 1925. B r i c k , A l l a n . "Pa rad i se and Consciousness i n Hardy ' s Te s s . " N ineteenth  Century F i c t i o n , 17 (1962), pp. 115-34. Brooks , Jean R. Thomas Hardy: The P o e t i c S t r u c t u r e . I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971. Brown, Douglas. Thomas Hardy. London: Longmans, 1954. Campbel l , Joseph. The Masks of God: C rea t i v e Mythology. New York : V i k i n g , 1968. Camus, A l b e r t . The Rebe l . T rans . Anthony Bower. New York : V i n t age , 1956. C a r l i s l e , O lga . " I n t e r v i ew w i t h B o r i s Pas te rnak . " I n Wr i t e r s at Work. New York : V i k i n g , 1963. Conquest, Rober t . Courage of Gen ius . London: C o l l i n s and H a r v i l l , 1961. Cox, R .G. , e d . Thomas Hardy: The C r i t i c a l He r i t a g e . London: Rout ledge, Kegan & P a u l , 1970. Dav ie , Donald. The Poems of Doctor Zh ivago . Manchester: Manchester U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. Deacon, L o i s and Ter ry Coleman. Prov idence and Mr. Hardy. London: Hutch inson , 1966. De M a l l a c , Guy. "Pas te rnak and R e l i g i o n . " The Russ ian Review, 32 (1972) , pp. 360-75. 117 De P r o y a r t , J a c que l i n e . Pas te rnak . P a r i s : G a l l ima r d , 1 9 6 4 . D r a f f an , Robert A. "Hardy ' s Under the Greenwood T r e e . " E n g l i s h . 2 2 (Summer, 1 9 7 3 ) , pp . 5 5 - 6 0 . Eag l e t on , T e r r y . "Nature as Language." C r i t i c a l Qua r t e r l y , 1 3 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , pp . 1 5 5 - 6 2 . E l i o t , George. Dan i e l Deronda. New York : Harper , 1 9 6 6 . F o l e j ew s k i , Zg ign iew. "Notes on the Problem of I n d i v i d u a l Vs . 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Thomas Hardy: The Nove ls and the S t o r i e s . New York : New D i r e c t i o n s , 1 9 6 4 . Hampshire, S t u a r t . "Doctor Zh ivago: As from a Los t C u l t u r e . " Encounter , 1 0 , No. 1 1 (Nov. 1 9 5 8 ) , pp . 3 - 5 . Hardy, Ba rba ra . The Appropr ia te Form. London: A th lone , 1 9 6 4 . Hardy, F lo rence Em i l y . The L i f e of Thomas Hardy 1 8 4 0 - 1 9 2 8 . London: Macm i l l a n , 1 9 6 2 . H a r r i s o n , Royden. Before the S o c i a l i s t s : S tud ies i n Labour and P o l i t i c s  1 8 6 1 - 1 8 8 1 . London: Rout ledge, Kegan & P a u l , 1 9 6 5 . Hazen, James. "Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s and An t i gone . " E ng l i s h L i t e r a t u r e i n T r a n s i t i o n 1 8 8 0 - 1 9 2 0 . 1 4 ( 1 9 7 1 ) . P P . 2 0 7 - 1 5 . Hei lman, Robert B. I n t r oduc t i on t o Jude the Obscure. New York : Harper & Row, 1 9 6 6 , pp . 1 - 4 5 . . "Notes on the T e x t . " I n Tess of the D ' U r b e r v i l l e s . New York : Bantam, 1 9 7 1 . Ho l l a nd , Norman, J r . "Jude the Obscure: Ha rdy ' s Symbol ic Indictment of C h r i s -t i a n i t y . " N ine teenth Century F i c t i o n , 9 (June 1 9 5 4 ) , pp. 5 0 - 6 0 . 118 Howe, I r v i n g . P o l i t i c s and the Nove l . New York : World P u b l i s h i n g , 1957. • •-• • Thomas Hardy. New York : Macm i l l an , 1967. Hyde, W i l l i a m J . "Hardy ' s View of Rea l i sm: A Key to the Ru s t i c Cha r a c t e r s . " V i c t o r i a n S t ud i e s , 2 (Sep t . 1958), pp. 45-59. K e t t l e , A r no l d . Hardy the N o v e l i s t : A Recons i de ra t i on . Swansea: U n i v e r s i t y Co l l ege o f Swansea P r e s s , 1966. . An I n t r oduc t i o n t o the Eng l i s h Nove l . 2 v o l s . London: Hu tch inson , 1951. Lagarde, Fernand. "A propos de l a c on s t r u c t i o n de Jude the Obscure." C a l i b a n . 3 ( J an . 1966), pp. 185-214. Lawrence, D.H. "Study of Thomas Hardy . " I n Se lec ted L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m . Ed . Anthony B e a l . 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