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UBC Theses and Dissertations

He who will not work, neither shall he eat" : German Social Democratic attitudes to labor, 1890-1914 Neufeld, Michael John 1976

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"HE WHO WILL NOT WORK, NEITHER SHALL HE EAT" : GERMAN SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC ATTITUDES TO LABOR, 1890-1914 by MICHAEL JOHN NEUFELD B.A. ( H o n . ) , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Dep t . o f H i s t o r y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1976 © M i c h a e l John N e u f e l d , 1976 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree.that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Depa rtment The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 i i ABSTRACT Two p r i m a r y i n s i g h t s may be o b t a i n e d f r om an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f German S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c a t t i t u d e s t o work between 1890 and 1914. F i r s t l y , some l i g h t may be c a s t upon t h e a c c e p t a n c e by an a vowed l y r a d i c a l s o c i a l i s t movement o f e t h i c s o f p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r i n c u l c a t e d by t h e German r u l i n g c l a s s e s . S e c o n d l y , t h e i m p a c t o f t h a t movement on t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s t o t h e demands o f i n d u s t r i a l l a b o r may be e l u c i d a t e d . F o l l o w i n g a b r i e f r e v i e w o f t h e s t a t u s o f German i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n t h i s e p o c h , and o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e S o c i a l Democracy up t o 1890, t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r o u t l i n e s a model o f t h e p a r t y ' s p o s i t i o n i n German s o c i e t y . S o c i a l i s m fo rmed a d i s t i n c t " s u b c u l t u r e " i s o l a t e d p o l i t i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y f r om t h e dominant c u l t u r e . A r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e o l o g y c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e movement, bu t i t s r e f o r m i s t t a c t i c s and t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f e x c l u s i o n f r om t h e n a t i o n a c t u a l l y e n t a i l e d t h e " n e g a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n " o f t h e s o c i a l i s t s u b c u l t u r e i n t o t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y . On t h i s f o u n d a t i o n t h e a ve r a ge p a r t y member ' s i d e a s o f l a b o r a r e t hen examined t h r o u g h t h e medium o f s o c i a l i s t a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s . The work e t h i c was t h o r o u g h l y i n d o c t r i n a t e d by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e dominan t c u l t u r e : s c h o o l , c h u r c h , f a m i l y , workshop and newspaper . The n a t u r e and i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t o f t h e c o n v e r s i o n t o s o c i a l i s m o f t e n r e i n f o r c e d t h e s e p r e v i o u s l y i n c u l c a t e d v a l u e s . T h i s i r o n y was f u r t h e r m a g n i f i e d by t h e d e s i r e o f many s o c i a l i s t w o r k e r s f o r s o c i a l " r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . " i i i The t h i r d and f o u r t h , c h a p t e r s d e a l w t t h c o n c e p t i o n s o f work i n S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c i d e o l o g y . A m i l i t a n t r e a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e work e t h i c i s v i s i b l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e w r i t i n g s o f b o t h M a r x i s t and R e v i s i o n i s t t h e o r i s t s . To some e x t e n t t h i s may be t r a c e d t o t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e i d e o l o g u e s , bu t above a l l t h e r e i n f o r c i n g b e l i e f i n work i n b o t h t h e s u b c u l t u r e and dominan t c u l t u r e must be c r e d i t e d w i t h c a u s i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r emphas i s i n German s o c i a l i s t t h e o r y . F i n a l l y , t h e s i m i l a r i t y between a t t i t u d e s t o work a t b o t h t h e t o p and bo t tom s t r a t a o f t h e p a r t y i s n o t e d . W h i l e t h e r e was u n - d o u b t e d l y some i n t e r c h a n g e between high, and p o p u l a r s o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g y , t h e u n i v e r s a l a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e work e t h i c was due p r i m a r i l y t o t h e s i m i l a r i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e dominan t c u l t u r e on bo th w o r k e r s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s . But r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e o r i g i n o f t h e s e c o n c e p t i o n s , t h e i r i m p a c t upon t h e movement i s q u i t e c l e a r . The s o c i a l i s t commitment t o l a b o r c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e " n e g a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n " o f t h e S o c i a l Democracy by s u b t l y t y i n g t h e w o r k i n g c l : a s s i n t o German s o c i e t y , and a i d e d t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f German w o r k e r s t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n by o u t f i t t i n g them w i t h new i d e a s o f work . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page PREFACE 1 C h a p t e r I. INTRODUCTION: The German S o c i a l Democracy and t h e I n d u s t r i a l i z i n g Empi re 3 I I . S o c i a l Democrats and t h e Work E t h i c 22 I I I . S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c I d e o l o g y : Work i n C a p i t a l i s t S o c i e t y 64 IV. S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c I d e o l o g y : Work i n S o c i a l i s t S o c i e t y 88 CONCLUSIONS 112 BIBLIOGRAPHY 121 As soon as s o c i e t y has become t h e owner o f a l l means o f p r o d u c t i o n , t h e d u t y o f work o f a l l a b l e - b o d i e d p e r s o n s , r e g a r d l e s s o f s e x , becomes a f undamen ta l l aw o f s o c i a l i z e d s o c i e t y . . . . The s i l l y a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e s o c i a l i s t s w i s h t o a b o l i s h work i s an a b s u r d i t y . L a zy p e r s o n s , s h i r k e r s o f w o r k , a r e met w i t h i n b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y o n l y . S o c i a l i s m i s a g reed w i t h t h e B i b l e i n a s s e r t i n g t h a t " he who w i l l n o t wo r k , n e i t h e r s h a l l he e a t . " . . . No en joyment w i t h o u t l a b o r , w i t h o u t l a b o r no e n j o y m e n t . — A u g u s t B e b e l , Woman Under S o c i a l i sm 1 PREFACE Few l a b o r movements have c a p t u r e d as much s c h o l a r l y a t t e n t i o n as t he German S o c i a l Democracy under t h e W i l h e l m i n i a n E m p i r e . The i d e o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t s , t he c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p , t h e g rowth o f t h e p a r t y and t r a d e u n i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e e l e c t o r a l b a t t l e s , and t he p a r l i a m e n t a r y maneouve r i ng s have a l l been examined t o t h e p o i n t o f r e p e t i t i o n . Yet o u r knowledge o f t h e movement i s r e m a r k a b l y o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l . A cadem i c c o n c e r n has l a r g e l y f o c u s e d on n a r r o w l y o r g a n i z a - t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s , w h i l e t he r o o t s o f t he p a r t y and un i on s i n t he w o r k i n g c l a s s r ema in o b s c u r e . The b r o a d range o f s o c i a l i s t a s s o c i a t i o n s and p u b l i c a t i o n s , w h i c h fo rmed t h e backbone o f a t r u l y s e p a r a t e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c s u b c u l t u r e , a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y men t i oned i n p a s s i n g , b u t r a r e l y t r e a t e d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h a t s u b c u l t u r e t o w o r k i n g - c l a s s c u l t u r e as a w h o l e , and t o t h e n o n - s o c i a l i s t w o r k e r s , i s v i r t u a l l y unknown. T h i s t h e s i s i s a t e n t a t i v e p robe i n t o some o f t h e s e u n c h a r t e d r e g i o n s . S i n c e t he i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s i n e v i t a b l y l i m i t e d t o r e a d i l y - a v a i l a b l e , p r i n t e d p r i m a r y s o u r c e s ( e s p e c i a l l y t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s and w o r k e r a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s ) , i t can examine o n l y t he a t t i t u d e s t o work o f c o n v i n c e d s o c i a l i s t s o f the l e a d e r s h i p and r a n k - a n d - f i l e who were a r t i c u l a t e enough t o p u b l i s h t h e i r v i e w s . N o n e t h e l e s s , much can be l e a r n e d . The S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c c o n c e p t i o n o f work and the work e t h i c i l l u m i n a t e s t he r o l e o f t he l a b o r movement i n t he a d a p t a t i o n o f German w o r k e r s t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , and c l a r i f i e s t he l i n k a g e s between the dominant c u l t u r e i n Germany and the s o c i a l i s t s u b c u l t u r e . I n s i g h t s 2 i n t o t he n a t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f s o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g y and t he f o r m a t i o n o f the s o c i a l i s t w o r k i n g c l a s s may t h e r e b y be g a i n e d . 3 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION: THE GERMAN SOCIAL DEMOCRACY AND THE INDUSTRIALIZING EMPIRE You h i d e y o u r p o w e r l e s s n e s s b e h i n d t h e i n t r a n s i g e n c e o f y o u r t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a e w i t h w h i c h y o u r e x c e l l e n t comrade K a u t s k y w i l l p r o v i d e you u n t i l t h e end o f h i s l i f e . - - J e a n J a u r e s t o Augu s t Bebe l a t t h e 1904 Cong re s s o f t h e . Second I n t e r n a t i o n a l The q u a r t e r c e n t u r y p r e c e d i n g t h e F i r s t Wo r l d War saw t h e m a t u r a - t i o n o f I m p e r i a l Germany i n t o a l e a d i n g i n d u s t r i a l power. The h i g h l y v i s i b l e i n d u s t r i a l c a r t e l s , and t h e advanced n a t u r e o f modern c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e heavy i n d u s t r i e s s uch as s t e e l , c h e m i c a l s and e l e c t r i c a l m a c h i n e r y , l e f t Germans and non-Germans a l i k e w i t h an i m p r e s s i o n o f g r e a t s c a l e and t e c h n o l o g i c a l sup remacy . But c o n c e a l e d benea th t h e g i a n t u n d e r t a k i n g s l a y a m a s s i v e s u b s t r a t u m o f s m a l l i n d u s t r y . In 1895 , 63 .7% o f a l l German w o r k e r s were employed i n e n t e r p r i s e s o f f i f t y p e r s o n s o r l e s s , and t h e number o f i n d i v i d u a l s employed i n a g r i c u l t u r e s t i l l 3 e xceeded t h e number o f t h o s e i n i n d u s t r y by a s m a l l m a r g i n . The p r o p o r t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s i n compan ie s o f more t h a n f i f t y emp loyees had i n c r e a s e d t o 4 5 . 5% by 1907, but B e l g u i m had a c h i e v e d t h e l e v e l o f 59 .8% e l e v e n y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y . ^ The i n d u s t r i a l w o r k i n g c l a s s was r e l a t i v e l y new. "The m a j o r i t y o f f a c t o r y w o r k e r s were f i r s t - o r s e c o n d - 5 g e n e r a t i o n even i n 1 9 1 4 . " Le s s u r b a n i z e d t h a n t h e i r F r e n c h o r E n g l i s h c o u n t e r p a r t s , and more accus tomed t o s m a l l u n i t s o f emp loyment , German l a b o r e r s s t i l l p r e s e n t e d numerous o b s t a c l e s t o t h e demands o f l a r g e - s c a l e 4 i n d u s t r y . ^ A c c l i m a t i z i n g w o r k e r s f r o m a g r i c u l t u r e and n o n - m e c h a n i z e d c r a f t i n d u s t r i e s t o the reg imen o f f a c t o r y l a b o r i s an o b s t r u c t i o n i n t he pa th o f e v e r y i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g c o u n t r y . P r e - i n d u s t r i a l work h a b i t s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r u s h - s l a c k p a t t e r n i n w h i c h e n e r g e t i c bou t s o f l a b o r a r e i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h e x t e n d e d p e r i o d s o f r e l a x a t i o n . L e i s u r e - t i m e and w o r k - t i m e a r e n o t c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d : t he w o r k e r , c o n t r o l l i n g h i s own t o o l s and w o r k - p a c e , may mix l e i s u r e w i t h l a b o r t h r o u g h o u t t h e day . He i s n o t o b l i g e d by the backward s t a t e o f t e c h n o l o g y t o work c o n t i n u o u s l y w i t h i n a p r e - s e t p e r i o d . In c o n t r a s t , i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n r e q u i r e s d i l i g e n c e , r e g u l a r i t y , p u n c t u a l i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y and o b e d i e n c e t o t he d i s c i p l i n e o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r and t o t he d i c t a t e s o f c e n t r a l i z e d m a c h i n e r y . As p r o d u c t i o n i s r e v o l u t i o n i z e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l change , t h e l a b o r e r r e t a i n s l e s s and l e s s c o n t r o l o v e r the w o r k - p r o c e s s . He r e l i n q u i s h e s o w n e r s h i p and c o n t r o l o f h i s t o o l s , and h i s w o r k p l a c e becomes s e p a r a t e d f r om h i s home. Thus an e n t i r e l y new c o n c e p t i o n o f work i s t h r u s t upon h i m , e n t a i l i n g a d i f f i c u l t t r a n s i t i o n t o d i f f e r e n t i d e a s , h a b i t s and customs i n h i s e v e r y d a y l i f e . 7 Because o f t he r a p i d and u n b a l a n c e d g rowth o f German i n d u s t r y , a r t i s a n s and p e a s a n t s were s t i l l mak ing t h i s f undamenta l a d j u s t m e n t between 1890 and 1914, w h i l e t h e m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f t h e more advanced s e c t o r s f o r c e d f u r t h e r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s Q on f a c t o r y worke r s a l r e a d y i n d u c t e d i n t o t he l a b o r - f o r c e . The r e l a t i v e l y g l a t e and compres sed c h a r a c t e r o f German i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n c r e a t e d arid s u s t a i n e d s w i f t a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e s i z e and c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s . 5 I t i s pe rhaps n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h i s p r o c e s s c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e appea rance o f t h e l a r g e s t European l a b o r movement o f t he p r e - 1 9 1 4 e r a . S o c i a l i s m was a s i g n i f i c a n t p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r a t an e a r l i e r s t a g e o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n Germany than i n any o t h e r Wes te rn European n a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e p r e d o m i n a n t l y a r t i s a n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s c o l l a p s e d i n the a f t e r m a t h o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n s o f 1 8 4 8 - 4 9 , 1 0 t he s o c i a l i s t movement r e v i v e d d u r i n g t he P r u s s i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c r i s i s o f t he e a r l y 1 8 6 0 ' s . German l i b e r a l i s m ' s f a i l u r e t o c a r r y t h r o u g h e i t h e r n a t i o n a l u n i f i c a t i o n o r d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n i n 1848 and i n t he s i x t i e s , and t he a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f the f o r m e r o b j e c t i v e by B i s m a r c k and P r u s s i a n arms w i t h o u t a s i g n i f i c a n t amount o f t he l a t t e r , d i c t a t e d t h a t s o c i a l i s m was t o d e v e l o p i n i s o l a t i o n a l m o s t f r om i t s o u t s e t . ^ The l i b e r a l p a r t i e s were e i t h e r c o - o p t e d i n t o t he a u t h o r i t a r i a n power s t r u c t u r e , o r were d i v i d e d , anemic and unab l e t o a t t r a c t w o r k i n g - c l a s s s u p p o r t . As e a r l y as 1863 F e r d i n a n d L a s s a l l e had l e d a breakaway f r om the l i b e r a l - s p o n s o r e d w o r k e r s ' e d u c a t i o n a l a s s o c i a - t i o n s ( A r b e i t e r b i 1 d u n g s v e r e i n e ) because o f t he t i m i d i t y o f b o u r g e o i s f o r c e s i n a d v a n c i n g the demand f o r equa l s u f f r a g e . The r e m a i n d e r o f t he a s s o c i a t i o n s d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l methods and t h e p o l i t i c a l s t r a t e g y o f L a s s a l l e ' s f o l l o w e r s , b u t t h e y t h e m s e l v e s s e p a r a t e d f r om the Saxon and South German democra t s t o f o rm the S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c W o r k e r s ' P a r t y a t E i s e n a c h i n 1869. Once n a t i o n a l u n i f i c a t i o n unde r P r u s s i a n hegemony had become a f a i t a c c o m p l i i n 1871 , and s t a t e ha ra s sment ( f o l l o w i n g t he P a r i s Commune) had been s t e p p e d up, t he c o n f l i c t s between the L a s s a l l e a n s and t h e s o - c a l l e d E i s e n a c h e r s became i n c r e a s i n g l y 12 i r r e l e v a n t . In 1875 t he two movements were j o i n e d a t G o t h a . 6 Because o f t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e Communards, t h e i r d i s s e n t f r o m t h e p r a i s e o f B i s m a r c k and t h e new R e i c h , and t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o 13 r e l i g i o n , t he S o c i a l Democrats became p a r i a h s i n t h e 1 8 7 0 ' s . The " c l a s s c l e a v a g e " between the w o r k i n g c l a s s and t he r e s t o f t h e n a t i o n was f u n d a m e n t a l , and p r e v e n t e d a r app rochement between s o c i a l i s t s and l i b e r a l s . The b a n n i n g o f t h e movement d u r i n g the S o c i a l i s t Law epoch (1878 -1890) capped t h i s p r o c e s s o f e x c l u s i o n . B i sma rdk hoped t h a t t he w o r k e r s m i g h t be wooed t o t he s i d e o f the a u t h o r i t a r i a n p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l o r d e r t h r ough t he s u p p r e s s i o n o f t he p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n on t he one hand, and the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s o c i a l i n s u r a n c e l e g i s l a t i o n on t h e o t h e r . Comp le te i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s dogged h i s e f f o r t s . I m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e f a i l u r e t o renew t he Law i n 1890 came t h e l a r g e s t S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c e l e c t i o n v i c t o r y 14 y e t : 1.4 m i l l i o n v o t e s and t h i r t y - f i v e R e i c h s t a g s e a t s . The e x p e r i e n c e o f r e p r e s s i o n and i l l e g a l i t y a l s o l e f t a c o n s i d e r - a b l e l e g a c y i n t he p a r t y . A l t h o u g h t h e n a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e had been f o r m a l l y d i s s o l v e d , the e l e c t i o n o f R e i c h s t a g d e p u t i e s had s t i l l been p e r m i t t e d . I n e v i t a b l y , t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s became t he p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p . A t t he same t i m e the n e a r - h y s t e r i c a l p ropaganda a g a i n s t t he S o c i a l Democracy , wh i ch d i d n o t d i s t i n g u i s h between s o c i a l i s t s and a n a r c h i s t s , i m p e l l e d t he movement t o empha s i z e t h e m o d e r a t i o n and r e s p e c t a b i l i t y o f 15 i t s p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n s . T a c t i c a l r e f o r m i s m was a n e c e s s i t y . Bu t t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e p o l i c e , t h e c o u r t s and t h e s t a t e i n c r e a s e d t he r e v o l u t i o n a r y temperament a t a l l l e v e l s o f the p a r t y , and a i d e d t h e v i c t o r y o f Ma rx i sm among i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l s and l e a d e r s . P r i o r t o 1878 e l e c t i c i s m was t he o r d e r o f t he day : t h e r e was l i t t l e 7 comprehen s i on o f t he d o c t r i n e s Marx and Enge l s were p r o m u l g a t i n g f r om London. I n s t e a d a r a d i c a l - d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n i n h e r i t e d f r om the L a s s a l l e a n s and E i s e n a c h e r s r ema ined pa ramount . V a r i o u s b rands o f " S t a t e S o c i a l i s m " d e r i v e d f r om L a s s a l l e , Eugen D u h r i n g , K a r l Rodbe r tu s i fi and o t h e r s o c i a l t h e o r i s t s competed i n t he f i e l d o f e conom ic t h e o r y . Under t he S o c i a l i s t Law Marx i sm made g r a d u a l advances t h r ough t he e f f o r t s o f Edua rd B e r n s t e i n , e d i t o r o f the p a r t y ' s newspaper i n e x i l e , Der S o z i a l d e m o k r a t , and K a r l K a u t s k y , who f ounded the t h e o r e t i c a l j o u r n a l D ie Neue Z e i t i n 1883. They met w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s i s t a n c e f r om the o l d g u a r d . D u r i n g the 1883-1886 p e r i o d , c o n f l i c t s between modera te s and r a d i c a l s t h r e a t e n e d t o t e a r t he o r g a n i z a t i o n a p a r t . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f B i s m a r c k ' s s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , t he r e l a x a t i o n o f s t a t e p e r s e c u t i o n , and i n c r e a s e d p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r p a r l i a m e n t a r y a c t i o n were g r e a t t e m p t a t i o n s f o r the t hen dominant r e f o r m i s t w i n g . ^ Bu t renewed h a r s h a p p l i c a t i o n o f t he Law f rom 1886 t o 1890 a s s i s t e d t he v i c t o r y o f t he M a r x i s t s , who were under the p r o t e c t i o n o f one o f t he movement ' s f o u n d e r s and f o r e m o s t l e a d e r s , A u g u s t B e b e l . Bebel h i m s e l f won u n d i s p u t e d supremacy i n the 18 p a r t y ' s h i g h c o u n c i l s i n 1887, and h e l d i t u n t i l h i s d e a t h i n 1913. D e s p i t e t he i n t e l l e c t u a l and p o l i t i c a l d e f e a t o f o p p o s i n g i d e o l o g i c a l c u r r e n t s , w h i c h c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f Ma rx i sm as t he b a s i s f o r the new E r f u r t Program o f 1891 , t he p a r t y e l i t e d i d n o t u n i v e r s a l l y ag ree w i t h the new o f f i c i a l i d e o l o g y . I gnaz A u e r , t h e i n d i s p e n s a b l e s e c r e t a r y o f t h e n a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e , e x p r e s s e d con tempt f o r the t h e o r i z i n g o f a l l S o c i a l Democrats r e g a r d l e s s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l 19 p e r s u a s i o n . The r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f Ma rx i sm was t h a t i t was now t he 8 s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f a l l t h e o r e t i c a l d e b a t e . Whether a p r o p o s e d r e v i s i o n was t o t he r i g h t , as B e r n s t e i n and h i s f o l l o w e r s advanced a f t e r 1897, o r t o the l e f t , as Rosa Luxemburg d e s i r e d f r om 1905 onwa rd s , t h e works o f Marx and Enge l s were the c e n t r a l i d e o l o g i c a l p o i n t s o f r e f e r e n c e . K a u t s k y , i n c l o s e c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h E n g e l s , was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d r a f t i n g t he a r c h i t e c t u r e o f S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c M a r x i s m . I t s k e y s t o n e was t he d u a l i t y o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e o l o g y and r e f o r m i s t p r a c t i c e . The c o l l a p s e o f b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y , t he v i c t o r y o f t he p r o l e t a r i a t and t he t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t he means o f p r o d u c t i o n i n t o s o c i a l o w n e r s h i p were p o s i t e d as i n e v i t a b l e , b u t t he p a r t y was t o f o l l o w 20 o n l y a l e g a l p a th t o power. In K a u t s k y ' s w o r d s , t he S o c i a l Democracy 21 " i s a r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t y , but n o t a maker o f r e v o l u t i o n s . " Economic d e t e r m i n i s m r e p l a c e d d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . The German r u l i n g c l a s s e s , i t was c l a i m e d , w o u l d c o l l a p s e o r concede power o f t h e i r own a c c o r d because o f the i n h e r e n t i n s t a b i l i t y o f c a p i t a l i s m . Thus t he l a b o r movement ' s t a s k was t he p r e p a r a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s 22 f o r t h a t e v e n t u a l i t y . E n g e l s ' i n f l u e n c e was d e c i s i v e . K a u t s k y , B e r n s t e i n and many 23 o t h e r S o c i a l Democrats were c o n v e r t e d by h i s A n t i - D u n r i n g , t h e f i r s t 24 r e a l a t t e m p t t o s y s t e m a t i z e M a r x i s t t h o u g h t . A f t e r M a r x ' s dea th i n 1883 E n g e l s ' t h e o r e t i c a l a u t h o r i t y was i n c o n t e s t a b l e . In h i s hands some o f t he s u b t l e t i e s o f M a r x ' s i d e a s were o b s c u r e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i r H e g e l i a n p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i g i n s , though Marx h i m s e l f has t o b e a r some blame f o r h i s f a i l u r e t o a d e q u a t e l y e x p l a i n h i s a s s u m p t i o n s . Ma rx i sm became a p o s i t i v i s t i c " s c i e n c e " w h i c h c l a i m e d t o have d i s c o v e r e d the 9 l aws o f s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n , as Darwin had d i s c o v e r e d t h e laws o f n a t u r a l 25 e v o l u t i o n . The g r e a t wave o f e n t h u s i a s m f o r the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s and f o r e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r i e s i n t he l a s t decades o f t he n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s tamped S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c i d e o l o g y w i t h i t s d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r . C a p i t a l was i n t e r p r e t e d as the s c i e n t i f i c p r o o f t h a t c a p i t a l i s m must i n e v i t a b l y e v o l v e i n t o an h i s t o r i c a l l y - n e c e s s a r y s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y . D u r i n g t he e i g h t i e s and n i n e t i e s Bebe l and K a u t s k y e x p e c t e d t he K l a d d e r a d a t s c h , o r g r e a t c a p i t a l i s t c o l l a p s e , as an imminent n a t u r a l phenomenon beyond a l l human c o n t r o l . K au t s k y a v o i d e d t he a b s u r d i t i e s o f a b s o l u t e d e t e r m i n i s m o n l y by s t r e s s i n g the r o l e o f the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a i n t he e d u c a t i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n o f t he p r o l e t e r i a t f o r i t s h i s t o r i c t a s k . H i s t h e o r y c o u l d t h e r e b y c r e d i t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h some i n d e p e n d e n t 27 i n f l u e n c e upon h i s t o r y o u t s i d e a r i g i d b a s e - s u p e r s t r u c t u r e schema. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s i d e o l o g y were r e a l i s t i c a l l y s u i t e d t o t he p o s i t i o n o f t h e SPD i n t he a f t e r m a t h o f t he S o c i a l i s t Law. The r e v o l u t i o n a r y v o c a b u l a r y c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d the i n t r a n s i g e n t o p p o s i t i o n t o the r u l i n g economic and p o l i t i c a l o r d e r w h i c h s p r a n g o u t o f t h e h i s t o r i c i s o l a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s f r o m the r e s p e c t a b l e body p o l i t i c . But the l a c k o f a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y t a c t i c r e c o g - n i z e d the o v e r w h e l m i n g power o f t he s t a t e , t h e f e a r o f new e x c e p t i o n a l l e g i s l a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e p a r t y , and the l a c k o f any o b j e c t i v e l y r e v o l u - 28 t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n i n Germany. The p o l i t i c a l p o w e r l e s s n e s s o f t h e movement was u n a v o i d a b l e . The r o a d t o f u r t h e r d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n o f P r u s s i a and the R e i c h was b l o c k e d by J u n k e r and b o u r g e o i s e l i t e s who 29 c o n s i d e r e d any change i n the s t r u c t u r e o f power u n t h i n k a b l e . The 10 e x p e c t a t i o n o f an i n e v i t a b l e c o l l a p s e c i r c u m v e n t e d t h i s p r o b l e m . A l t h o u g h t he c onque s t o f power e i t h e r by p a r l i a m e n t a r y o r r e v o l u t i o n a r y means was i m p o s s i b l e , v i c t o r y w o u l d come i n any ca se because o f t h e i n h e r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f c a p i t a l i s m . In t he meantime e n e r g i e s c o u l d be c h a n n e l e d 30 i n t o the n e c e s s a r y b u i l d i n g and e x t e n s i o n o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The ma i n t enance o f t h i s i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e u n t i l 1914 i s a t r i b u t e t o t h e a c c u r a c y w i t h w h i c h i t r e f l e c t e d the S o c i a l Democ rac y ' s d i l emma. A t t e m p t s by B e r n s t e i n and the R e v i s i o n i s t s t o r e c o n c i l e t h e o r y w i t h r e f o r m i s t p r a c t i c e , o r by Luxemburg and t he l e f t r a d i c a l s t o accommodate p r a c t i c e t o the r e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r y , f o u n d e r e d on the movement ' s p o s i t i o n i n t h e n a t i o n . The i d e o l o g i c a l d e a d l o c k i n t he p a r t y m i r r o r e d t he p o l i t i c a l d e a d l o c k i n t h e R e i c h . Unab le t o move f o r w a r d i n t o p a r l i a m e n t a r y gove rnment , o r backwards i n t o a b s o l u t i s m , I m p e r i a l Germany c o u l d n e i t h e r concede t he SPD power , n o r a n n i h i l a t e i t . The p a r t y had no c o m p e l l i n g r e a s o n t o change. A t the same t ime t he j u g g e r n a u t - l i k e g rowth o f German c a p i t a l i s m f r om y e a r t o y e a r , and the S o c i a l Democracy f r om e l e c t i o n t o e l e c t i o n , c o n f i r m e d t o many s o c i a l i s t s t he p r e d i c t i o n s o f 31 d e t e r m i n i s t Ma r x i sm . The s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t he movement f ound i t s e l f has been 32 33 d e s c r i b e d by G u e n t h e r Roth (and f o l l o w i n g h i m , by D i e t e r Groh) as " n e g a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n . " A l t h o u g h s o c i a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y i s o l a t e d , an i s o l a t i o n r e i n f o r c e d by t he m i l i t a n t r h e t o r i c o f s o c i a l i s t s and a n t i - s o c i a l i s t s , t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f a l e g a l i z e d movement a l l o w e d t he c o n t r o l l e d r e l e a s e o f much w o r k i n g - c l a s s f r u s t r a t i o n and r e s e n t m e n t . C u t o f f f r om the body o f t he n a t i o n , t he S o c i a l Democrats d e v e l o p e d a 11 " s u b c u l t u r e " w h i c h gave w o r k e r s t he s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e n i e d them by the dominan t c u l t u r e . Through the o p p o r - t u n i t i e s f o r e d u c a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n and p r o t e s t p r o v i d e d by a m u l t i t u d e o f s o c i a l i s t c l u b s , p u b l i c a t i o n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s , any p o t e n t i a l f o r c l a s s s t r u g g l e and s o c i a l c o n f l i c t was g r e a t l y a t t e n u a t e d . The S o c i a l Democracy thus i r o n i c a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o t he s t a b i l i t y o f t he German r . 34 E m p i r e . B o y c o t t s and c o u n t e r - b o y c o t t s r e a f f i r m e d the i s o l a t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l i s t s u b c u l t u r e . I t was i n c o m p a t i b l e , f o r e x a m p l e , t o b e l o n g t o 35 bo th a v e t e r a n ' s and a s o c i a l i s t a s s o c i a t i o n . The dominan t c u l t u r e made v i g o r o u s a t t e m p t s t o i n o c u l a t e i t s e l f a g a i n s t the S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c v i r u s . As an army o r d e r b a n n i n g s o l d i e r s f r om s o c i a l i s t pubs s t a t e d : " I t i s f o r b i d d e n f o r m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l t o go t o any p l a c e f r e q u e n t e d by p r o s t i t u t e s , pimps o r S o c i a l D e m o c r a t s . " W h i l e t h i s s o r t o f d i s - c r i m i n a t i o n was c o n d u c i v e t o r a d i c a l i s m i n t he SPD, t he b u r g e o n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l comp lex gave t he movement a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n i t s own l e g a l i t y . So much a rduous work had gone i n t o the b u i l d i n g o f t he s u b - c u l t u r e t h a t a p e r i o d o f renewed r e p r e s s i o n became u n t h i n k a b l e . The F ree ( s o c i a l i s t ) un i on s d e v e l o p e d as p a r t o f t h e a r r a y o f S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s , b u t i n t h e p e r i o d o f economic p r o s p e r i t y wh ich began i n 1895 t h e y were soon t r a n s f o r m e d by m a s s i v e g r o w t h . T h e i r membership i n c r e a s e d f rom 227 ,023 i n 1892 t o 2 ,599 ,781 i n 1 9 1 2 . 3 7 W i t h two and one h a l f t i m e s t he p a r t y membersh ip i n the l a s t y e a r s b e f o r e the w a r , many F ree u n i o n i s t s d i d n o t a t t e n d SPD m e e t i n g s , o r even r e a d a s o c i a l i s t newspaper . As such t he un i on s came t o occupy an i n t e r m e d i a t e 12 p o s i t i o n between t h e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c s u b c u l t u r e and t h e dominant 38 c u l t u r e , and t h e r e f o r e l i e o u t s i d e t h e scope o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . But t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e p a r t y ' s c o u r s e must no t be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . The u n i o n l e a d e r s were t h o r o u g h l y r e f o r m i s t , and a f t e r 1906 were a p o w e r f u l 39 r e s t r a i n i n g i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r p a r t y c o u n t e r p a r t s . S i n c e t h e y d i s d a i n e d a l l " i d e o l o g y " (even R e v i s i o n i s m ) , t h e e l i t e o f t h e F r e e u n i o n s n e v e r t h e - l e s s c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e t o t h e b r i d g i n g o f t h e gap between t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e i n t h e SPD. Though a m i n o r i t y , many t hou s and s o f u n i o n i z e d w o r k e r s d i d embrace t h e r a d i c a l r h e t o r i c o f S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c i d e o l o g y . I t gave them a p o w e r f u l v o c a b u l a r y t o p r o t e s t t h e i r p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l s e c o n d - c l a s s s t a n d i n g , and t o e x p r e s s t h e i r s t r o n g c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I n t h e 1 8 8 0 ' s and 1 8 9 0 ' s , d u r i n g and a f t e r t h e p e r i o d o f i l l e g a l i t y , r e v o l u t i o n a r y s e n t i m e n t s were p a r t i c u l a r l y w i d e s p r e a d i n t h e SPD r a n k - a n d - f i l e . The re were even m i l l e n a r i a n e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e imminent a r r i v a l o f t he s o c i a l i s t U t o p i a o r Z u k u n f t s s t a a t , i f we can j u d g e by t h e p o p u l a r i t y i n t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s o f books w i t h U t o p i a n d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e f u t u r e . The two s o c i a l i s t b e s t - s e l l e r s o f t h e n i n e t i e s were B e b e l ' s Woman Under S o c i a l i s m (D i e F rau und d e r S o z i a l i s m u s ) and a t r a n s l a t i o n o f Edward B e l l a m y ' s U t o p i a n n o v e l L o o k i n g Backward 2 0 0 0 - 1 8 8 7 . ^ But t h e p a r t y ' s emphas i s on t h e d a y - t o - d a y work o f o r g a n i z a t i o n - b u i l d i n g d i v e r t e d t h e s e r a d i c a l i m p u l s e s i n t o c h a n n e l s f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e g rowth o f t h e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c s u b c u l t u r e . As t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e v i s i o n a r y l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s , t h e p a r t y ' s o f f i c i a l Ma rx i sm was p o o r l y u n d e r s t o o d by t h e o r d i n a r y member. I n s t e a d a " v u l g a r M a r x i s m " may have been a m a j o r i n g r e d i e n t o f p o p u l a r s o c i a l i s t 13 41 i d e o l o g y . A 1908 a r t i c l e by O t t o B a u e r , t h e A u s t r i a n S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c l e a d e r , l i s t e d a number o f i t s d i s j o i n t e d dogmas. These i n c l u d e d : "The w e a l t h o f t h e p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s e s d e r i v e s f r om the s u r p l u s v a l u e p r o d u c e d by t he w o r k e r s , f r om the u n p a i d l a b o r o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s , " and " C a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y t end s t o i n c r e a s e more and more the m i s e r y o f t he 42 w o r k e r s . H a n s - J o s e f S t e i n b e r g has q u e s t i o n e d t he b e l i e f t h a t even t h i s much knowledge o f Ma rx i sm e x i s t e d a t the p o p u l a r l e v e l . A f t e r s u r v e y i n g t he s c a n t y d a t a a v a i l a b l e on l o a n s f r o m S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c and u n i o n l i b r a r i e s , he c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e works o f Marx , E n g e l s and K a u t s k y were r a r e l y r e a d . As W o r l d War I a pp r oached the p o p u l a r i t y o f p a r t y l i t e r a t u r e d e c l i n e d even f a r t h e r . Nove l s and l i t e r a t u r e were an i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e 43 p r o p o r t i o n o f books bo r r owed . Of a l l n o n - f i c t i o n , B e b e l s Woman Under S o c i a l i s m and v a r i o u s D a r w i n i s t and m a t e r i a l i s t t r a c t s , e s p e c i a l l y C o r v i n ' s P f a f f e n s p i e g e l , H a e c k e l ' s D ie W e l t r f l t s e l , A v e l i n g ' s D ie Da rw in sche T h e o r i e , and D o d e l - P o r t ' s Moses o d e r D a r w i n , were l o a n e d most f r e q u e n t l y . ^ The g r e a t wave o f e n t h u s i a s m f o r e v o l u t i o n and n a t u r a l s c i e n c e was a p p a r e n t l y as d e c i s i v e i n i t s i m p a c t on p o p u l a r as on o f f i c i a l 45 s o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g y . Any d i s c u s s i o n o f p o p u l a r i d e o l o g y must r ema in t e n t a t i v e because o f t h e s c a r c i t y o f r e s e a r c h i n t o w o r k i n g - c l a s s r e a d i n g h a b i t s and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , b u t c e r t a i n g e n e r a l o u t l i n e s seem c l e a r . A " s c i e n t i f i c " g l o s s , d e r i v e d f rom M a r x i s m , Da rw i n i sm o r some he te r o geneou s m i x t u r e , was i m p o r t a n t i n t he b e l i e f s o f many r a n k - a n d - f i l e S o c i a l Democra t s . As t he p a r t y i d e o l o g u e s t h e m s e l v e s s t a t e d , s o c i a l i s m was a " s c i e n c e , " and 14 s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y was an i n e v i t a b l e p r o d u c t o f human " d e v e l o p m e n t " ( E n t w i c k l u n g ) . These p r o p o s i t i o n s e n c o u r a g e d as b l i n d E n t w i c k l u n g s g l a u b e , wh i ch g u a r a n t e e d t h e a r r i v a l o f U t o p i a t h r o u g h t he i n e x o r a b l e p r o c e s s e s o f 4fi " d e v e l o p m e n t . " To t he o r d i n a r y w o r k e r i t d i d n o t m a t t e r much t h a t he c o u l d n o t u n d e r s t a n d t he l o g i c b e h i n d t h i s " s c i e n t i f i c s o c i a l i s m . " The p a r t y i n t e l l e c t u a l s had t h a t t a s k , and t he mere f a c t t h a t t h e y e x i s t e d was r e a s s u r i n g . Beneath t he p s e u d o s c i e n t i f i c c r u s t l a y an e t h i c a l c o r e . Whether moderate o r r a d i c a l , t h e o r d i n a r y s o c i a l i s t was m o t i v a t e d by a f e e l i n g o f i n j u s t i c e s p r i n g i n g f r om w o r k , l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , o r t he p e r c e i v e d i n e q u a l i t i e s o f German s o c i e t y . S e c o n d - c l a s s c i t i z e n s h i p , s o c i a l e x c l u s i o n and p o l i t i c a l p o w e r l e s s n e s s were p r o m i n e n t i nducement s t o j o i n t he movement. E q u a l l y f undamenta l were s t r e s s and a l i e n a t i o n i n f a c t o r y l a b o r cau sed by the ma s s i v e i n d u s t r i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f t h i s e r a . P o v e r t y and p o o r h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s a c c e n t u a t e d t he d i s l i k e o f t h e dominan t s o c i a l c l a s s e s . Few o f t he a p p e a l s o f s o c i a l i s m were more b a s i c than the cha r ge t h a t t h o s e c l a s s e s l i v e d i n l u x u r y and i d l e n e s s upon t he s u f f e r i n g and t o i l o f t he w o r k e r s . As we s h a l l s e e , the r e s u l t i n g 47 i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s o c i a l i s t a t t i t u d e s t o work were v e r y g r e a t . S i n c e the movement was s t r u g g l i n g t o e l i m i n a t e t h e s e i n j u s t i c e s , i t a c q u i r e d e x a l t e d meaning i n the minds o f i t s members. I t s t a s k was n o t h i n g l e s s than t h e c o n q u e s t o f u n i v e r s a l e q u a l i t y , f r eedom and h a p p i n e s s . The b r e a d t h and i n c l u s i v e n e s s o f t he s o c i a l i s t s u b c u l t u r e f u r t h e r h e i g h t e n e d i t s v a l u e t o i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s . By 1909, f o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e e x i s t e d magaz ines and n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r s o c i a l i s t b i c y c l i s t s , t e e t o t a l e r s , g ymnas t s , 15 l i b r a r i a n s , s i n g e r s and i n n k e e p e r s . The o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a b i l i t y , s o l i d a r i t y and c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n a f f o r d e d by t he p a r t y and i t s a u x i l i a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y made t he movement c e n t r a l 49 t o i t s members l i v e s . The t r u l y d e d i c a t e d c o u l d spend a l l o f t h e i r l e i s u r e hour s i n l a b o r f o r the c a u s e . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e A u s t r i a n S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c s u b c u l t u r e by an ex-member a p p l i e s e q u a l l y w e l l t o t he German: . . . F o r t en s o f t h o u s a n d s , p a r t y work was a s e l f - e v i d e n t d u t y , g l a d l y p e r f o r m e d . The v e r y annoyance a t t a c h e d t o a l l s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s seemed t o t i e them t o i t . O f t e n - - i n c h o i r s i n g i n g , a t g i a n t r a l l i e s o f t he p a r t y , i n a d m i r i n g t h e i r l e a d e r s , and under t he mag ic s p e l l o f t h e g r e a t i n c a n t a t i o n s o f t h e i r " w o r l d s t r u g g l e f o r f r e e d o m " - - t h e y l o s t t h e i r own sen se o f i n s i g n i f i c a n c e . A w o n d e r f u l s e l f - s u r r e n d e r i n g mood w o u l d s e i z e them and l e n d them a g r e a t e r d i g n i t y , more s e l f - a s s u r a n c e , more c o u r a g e , and a s t r o n g e r s o c i a l i s t f a i t h . Those were the hour s o f t h e i r u l t i m a t e b l i s s — a n d o f t h e knowledge t h a t a l l b eau t y i n t h e i r l i v e s came f r om the b e t t e r s e n t i m e n t s t h a t had b r o u g h t them t o t he s o c i a l i s t movement. T h e r e , by t h e i r u n s e l f i s h , s a t i s f y i n g e n d e a v o u r s , t h e y were t i e d up w i t h g r e a t e r e n d s - - w i t h t h e harmony t h e p a r t y p r e a c h e d between t h e i r d a i l y p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s and a h i g h e r d e s t i n a t i o n o f man. To l o s e t h e p a r t y was n o t h i n g l e s s t o them than t o l o s e home, f a t h e r l a n d and r e l i g i o n . 5 ° I t was t h i s a b i l i t y t o i n s p i r e t o t a l i n v o l v e m e n t and l o y a l t y wh ich l e n t p o p u l a r s o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g y an o p t i m i s t i c , e v a n g e l i z i n g t o n e . Under t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the u l t i m a t e v i c t o r y o f t he cause o f j u s t i c e c o u l d h a r d l y be d6„ubted. W h i l e e x c l u s i o n f r om the n a t i o n and adhe rence t o an avowed ly r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e o l o g y were i n h e r e n t f e a t u r e s o f t h e S o c i a l Democracy, c e r t a i n b e l i e f s and v a l u e s were s h a r e d w i t h t he s u r r o u n d i n g s o c i a l 16 e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s was t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t i n e v i t a b l e : as a s u b c u l t u r e t he S o c i a l Democracy was a p r o d u c t o f t he c u l t u r e i n w h i c h i t a r o s e . S o c i a l i s t s were o f t e n u n c o n s c i o u s o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y s t i l l a c c e p t e d c e r t a i n a s s umpt i on s o f t h e dominant c u l t u r e , a f a c t w h i c h c o u l d o n l y r e n d e r a r e v o l u t i o n a r y b reak w i t h German s o c i e t y even more d i f f i c u l t . The r e a l m o f p a r t y e d u c a t i o n r e v e a l s most c l e a r l y the s o c i a l Democ racy ' s u n c r i t i c a l a c c e p t a n c e o f e l e m e n t s o f I m p e r i a l German c u l t u r e . E l e v a t i n g t he c u l t u r a l and e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l o f t h e masses was a m i s s i o n t h e SPD took v e r y s e r i o u s l y . The A r b e i t e r b i 1 d u n g s v e r e i n e , w h i c h a r o s e w i t h s o c i a l i s m i n 1 8 6 0 ' s , became t he c e n t r e o f t h e p a r t y ' s g r e a t e f f o r t t o p r o v i d e p o p u l a r r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l , l e c t u r e s and d i s c u s s i o n s t o s a t i s f y t h e 51 w o r k e r s ' t h i r s t f o r e d u c a t i o n and s e l f - i m p r o v e m e n t . Bu t t h e knowledge r e l a y e d r a r e l y f o c u s e d on c r i t i q u e s o f t he dominant c u l t u r e . I n s t e a d t he s p r e a d o f K u l t u r was f e l t t o be t he goa l o f t h e B i l d u n g s v e r e i n e , and s p e c i f i c e f f o r t s t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e m i l i t a r i s m , n a t i o n a l i s m and o b e d i e n c e t o a u t h o r i t y i n c u l c a t e d by t he c h u r c h , s c h o o l and army were n e g l e c t e d i n 52 an a t t e m p t t o t e a c h e v e r y t h i n g . R e f l e c t i n g t he s p i r i t o f t he a g e , 53 n a t u r a l s c i e n c e was a p o p u l a r t o p i c . In l i t e r a t u r e t h e p a r t y l e a d e r s s t r o n g l y adhe red t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s o f m i d d l e - c l a s s i d e a l i s m and f a v o u r e d G o e t h e , S c h i l l e r and t he o t h e r c l a s s i c a l a u t h o r s . A v a n t g a r d e 54 l i t e r a r y t a s t e s were u s u a l l y g r e e t e d w i t h h o s t i l i t y . These l i n k s between t he dominan t c u l t u r e and t h e s o c i a l i s t s u b - c u l t u r e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h a t s u r r e p t i t i o u s e m a s c u l a t i o n o f t he r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r e t e n s i o n s o f t he S o c i a l Democracy w h i c h was t h e e s s e n c e o f " n e g a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n . " S o c i a l Democrats came t o a c c e p t many o f t h e e t h i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s o f t h e r u l i n g c l a s s e s even w h i l e c l o a k i n g them i n r a d i c a l 17 l a n g u a g e . The p a r t y ' s e d u c a t i o n a l m i s s i o n was o n l y one e l e m e n t o f t h i s p r o c e s s . V a l u e s and e t h i c s o f p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r were a l s o s h a r e d by t h e s u b c u l t u r e and t he l a r g e r s o c i e t y , and p r o b a b l y made an even l a r g e r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o b i n d i n g the S o c i a l Democrat i n t o a s o c i e t y t o w h i c h he was o s t e n s i b l y h o s t i l e . A t t i t u d e s t o work i n p a r t i c u l a r f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y , and i t i s t o t h a t s u b j e c t t h a t we must now t u r n . 18 REFERENCES ' ' 'Quoted i n G u e n t h e r R o t h , The S o c i a l Democrats i n I m p e r i a l Germany (To towa , N . J . , 1 9 6 3 ) , 168. 2 P e t e r N. S t e a r n s , L i v e s o f L a b o r : Work i n a M a t u r i n g I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y (New Y o r k , 1 975 ) , 156. 3 D a v i d S. L ande s , The Unbound Prometheus ( Cambr i d ge , 1969 ) , 187 -188 . 4 S t e a r n s , L i v e s , 156. 5 P e t e r N. S t e a r n s , " A d a p t a t i o n t o I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n : German Workers as a T e s t C a s e , " C e n t r a l European H i s t o r y , I I I ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 307. 6 I b i d . , 306 -307 . 7 E . P. Thompson, " T i m e , W o r k - D i s c i p l i n e and I n d u s t r i a l C a p i t a l i s m , " P a s t and P r e s e n t , 38 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , 5 6 - 9 7 ; R e i n h a r d B e n d i x , Work and A u t h o r i t y i n I n d u s t r y (New Yo rk and E v a n s t o n , 1 9 6 3 ) , 203 -204 ; S i d n e y P o l l a r d , The G e n e s i s o f Modern Management ( London , 1 9 6 5 ) , 160-208. R o b e r t B l a u n e r , A l i e n a t i o n and Freedom: The F a c t o r y Worke r and H i s I n d u s t r y ( C h i c a g o , 1964 ) , 2 0 - 2 8 , 167 - 169 , 182; L a n d e s , Unbound P r o m e t h e u s , 4 3 , 59. 8 S t e a r n s , " A d a p t a t i o n , " 306 -307 ; L a n d e s , Unbound P r ometheu s , 301 -307 , 313 -314 , 317 -321 . g Landes n o t e s t h a t because o f Ge rmany ' s l a t e s t a r t i t was s t i l l a b l e t o c a r r y o u t some o f t h e t e c h n i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s o f t he f i r s t phase o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n d u r i n g t he s o - c a l l e d " G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n " o f 1873-1895. I t was n o t g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by t h a t s lump e x c e p t f o r a few y e a r s i n t he m i d - s e v e n t i e s . German i n d u s t r y was a b l e t o expand t h r ough t o t he r e v i v a l o f t he m i d - n i n e t i e s , w h i c h was f ounded on a new wave o f i n d u s t r i a l t e c h n o l o g y i n s t e e l , c h e m i c a l s , m a c h i n e - b u i l d i n g and heavy e l e c t r i c a l goods . See I b i d . , 236. 1 0 S e e P. H. Noyes , O r g a n i z a t i o n and R e v o l u t i o n : W o r k i n g - C l a s s A s s o c i a t i o n s i n t h e German R e v o l u t i o n s o f 1848-1849 ( P r i n c e t o n , 1966 ) . 11 Vernon L. L i d t k e , The Ou t l awed P a r t y : S o c i a l Democracy i n Germany, 1878 -1890 , ( P r i n c e t o n , 1 9 6 6 ) , 1 3 - 1 8 ; R o t h , S o c i a l Democ ra t s , 8 - 1 1 , 3 2 - 3 3 , 36 -38 . 1 2 I b i d . , 3 6 - 5 5 ; L i d t k e , Ou t l awed P a r t y 18 -43 . See a l s o Augu s t B e b e l , Aus Meinem Leben ( B e r l i n , 1 9 3 0 ) , 3 v o l s , i n o n e , I, 4 7 - 2 3 6 , I I , 1-329. 13 R o t h , S o c i a l Democ ra t s , 8 5 - 105 . 19 1 4 L i d t k e , Ou t l awed P a r t y , 2 98 - 300 . 1 5 I b i d . , 8 2 - 8 3 , 111 -112 , 326 ; R o t h , S o c i a l Democ ra t s , 170 -171 . ^ H a n s - J o s e f S t e i n b e r g , S o z i a l i s m u s und d e u t s c h e S o z i a l d e m o k r a t i e : Zu r I d e o l o g i e d e r P a r t e i v o r d e m l . V f e l t k r i e g , (Hannove r , 1967 ) , 16; R o t h , S o c i a l Democ ra t s , 173 -175 ; L i d t k e , Ou t l awed P a r t y , 4 6 - 4 9 , 6 2 - 6 5 , 138 - 139 , 155 -157 , 171 -175 . See a l s o t he t e x t on the Gotha Program o f 1875 i n W i l h e l m Mommsen, e d . , Deu t s che P a r t e i p r o g r a m m e ( M u n i c h , 1 960 ) , 315 -316. 1 7 L i d t k e , Ou t l awed P a r t y , 1 29 - 135 , 138, 164 -166 , 176 -177 , 185 -190 , 194 -196 , 198 ,199 , 204 -212 . 1 8 I b i d . , 2 41 , 247 , 2 48 - 252 , 263 . 1 9 S t e i n b e r g , S o z i a l i s m u s , 114 -119 , 124. 20 See the E r f u r t P rogram i n Mommsen, e d . , Deut sche P a r t e i p r o g r a m m e , 349 -353 . 21 K a r l K a u t s k y , " E i n s o z i a l d e m o k r a t i s c h e r K a t e c h i s m u s , " D ie Neue Z e i t , X I I , ( 1 8 9 3 - 9 4 ) , 368. 22 See t he E r f u r t P r o g r am, l o c . c i t ; K a r l K a u t s k y , Fo reword t o K a r l B a l l o d ( p s e u d . A t l a n t i c u s ) , P r o d U k t i o n und Konsum im S o c i a l s t a a t , 1 s t e d . , ( S t u t t g a r t , 1 898 ) , v - x i i ; W a l t e r H o l z h e u e r , K a r l Kau t s k y s W e r k ~ a l s W e l t a n s c h a u u n g ( M u n i c h , 1972 ) , 7 9 - 8 3 , 9 0 - 9 1 , 104. 23 F r i e d r i c h E n g e l s , H e r r Eugen D u h r i n g ' s R e v o l u t i o n In S c i e n c e ( C h i c a g o , 1 935 ) . T h i s appea red o r i g i n a l l y as a s e r i e s o f a r t i c l e s i n the c h i e f o rgan o f t h e S o c i a l Democ r a t s , V o r w c l r t s , i n 1877-78 . 24 H o l z h e u e r , K au t s k y s Werk, 27 ; S t e i n b e r g , S o z i a l i s m u s , 4 3 - 4 4 ; L i d t k e , .Out lawed P a r t y , 6 1 - 6 2 . 25 F r i e d e r i c h E n g e l s , " Speech a t t h e G r a v e s i d e o f K a r l Marx " i n Marx and E n g e l s , S e l e c t e d Works (1 v o l . e d . ; Moscow, 1968) 429; George L i c h t h e i m , , Ma r x i sm : An H i s t o r i c a l and C r i t i c a l S t u d y , ( L ondon , 1 961 ) , 238 -255. S t e i n b e r g , S o z i a l i s m u s , 4 5 - 4 6 , 4 8 - 5 3 , 5 6 , 5 9 - 6 1 ; H o l z h e u e r , K au t s k y s Werk, 5 1 . 2 7 I b i d . , 7 9 - 8 1 . 28 C a r l E. S c h o r s k e , German S o c i a l Democracy 1905-1917: The Deve lopment o f t he G r e a t S ch i sm (New Y o r k , 1 972 ) , 6; R o t h , S o c i a l Democrat s . 1B5 , 167 -171 . 20 29 I b i d . , 5 9 - 7 1 . As D i e t e r Groh p o i n t s o u t t he government and the C h a n c e l l o r were a l s o under the p r e s s u r e o f t h e e x t r a - p a r l i a m e n t a r y e x t r eme r i g h t i n t h e A l l d e u t s c h e V e f b a n d , Bund d e r L a n d w i r t e , F l o t t e n v e r e i n , R e i c h s v e r b a n d gegen d i e S o z i a l d e m o k r a t i e , e t c . who w i s h e d a b s o l u t e l y no r e l a x a t i o n o f t he campaign a g a i n s t s o c i a l i s m . These groups had t h e i r f i r s t peak i n t he f i r s t h a l f o f t h e n i n e t i e s , and t h e i r s e cond a f t e r t he 1911 Morocco c r i s i s , when t h e y fo rmed a " n a t i o n a l o p p o s i t i o n " f o r a s t r o n g e r m i l i t a r i s t and i m p e r i a l i s t p o l i c y . See h i s N e g a t i v e I n t e g r a t i o n und r e v o l u t i o n a r e r A t t e n t i s m u s : D ie d e u t s c h e S o z i a l d e m o k r a t i e am Vorabend des E r s t e n W e l t k r i e g s ( F r a n k f u r t a . M . , 1 9 7 3 ) , 5 4 - 5 5 . 3 0 I b i d . , 5 9 , 62. 3 1 R o t h , S o c i a l Democ ra t s , 165, 167 -168 , 1 70 - 171 ; S t e i n b e r g , S o z i a l i s m u s , 145 -147 , 149-150. 32 R o t h , S o c i a l Democ r a t s , 8 , 315. 33 G r o h , N e g a t i v e I n t e g r a t i o n , 36. 34 R o t h , S o c i a l Democ ra t s , 8 , 2 3 1 - 2 3 2 , 315. 3 5 I b i d . , 221 -222 . 36 Quoted i n G r o h , N e g a t i v e I n t e g r a t i o n , 38. 37 H e i n z J o s e f V a r a i n , F r e i e G e w e r k s c h a f t e n , S o z i a l d e m o k r a t i e und S t a a t ( D u s s e l d o r f , 1 956 ) , 36. 3 8 R o t h , S o c i a l Democ ra t s , 160 -161 . 39 See S c h o r s k e , S o c i a l Democracy , p a s s i m . 4 0 K a u t s k y , Fo reword t o B a l l o d , P r o d u k t i o n , x i i i ; S t e i n b e r g , S o z i a l i s m u s , 138. 4 1 R o t h , S o c i a l Democ ra t s , 199 -203 . AO O t t o B a u e r , " D i e G e s c h i c h t e e i n e s B u c h e s , " D i e Neue Z e i t , XXV I , 1 ( 1 9 0 8 - 0 9 ) , 26 l i s t s t h e t e n e t s o f " v u l g a r M a r x i s m " (as he h i m s e l f c a l l s i t ) . 43 S t e i n b e r g , S o z i a l i s m u s , 129 -142 . F o r v e r y s i m i l a r r e s u l t s f r o m a V i e n n e s e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c l i b r a r y b e f o r e 1914 see R o b e r t Danneberg , " D i e E r l e b n i s s e s o z i a l d e m o k r a t i s c h e r B i l d u n g s a r b e i t , " P e r Kampf ( V i e n n a ) , V I I I ( 1 9 1 5 ) , 276. 44 S t e i n b e r g , S o z i a l i smus, 129 -142 . 4 5 I b i d . , 1 39 - 141 . 21 46 R o t h , S o c i a l Democ r a t s , 199. T h i s E n t w i c k l u h g s g l a u b e was a c r u c i a l f e a t u r e o f B e b e l ' s b e l i e f s , and he s p r e a d i t w i d e l y i n h i s Woman Under S o c i a l i s m . See Vernon L. L i d t k e , " A u g u s t Bebe l and German S o c i a l D e m o c r a c y ' s R e l a t i o n t o t h e C h r i s t i a n C h u r c h e s , " J o u r n a l o f t h e H i s t o r y o f I d e a s , XXVI I ( 1 9 6 6 ) , 260 -264 . 47 See C h a p t e r I I b e l o w , where t h e e t h i c a l appea l o f s o c i a l i s m w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n d e t a i l . 48 D i e t e r F r i c k e , Zu r O r g a n i s a t i o n und T c l t i g k e i t d e r d e u t s c h e n A r b e i t e r b e w e g u n g (1890-19"14): Dokumeiite und M a t e r i a l en ( L e i p z i g , 1 9 6 2 ) , 1 61 - 162 . 49 R o t h , S o c i a l Democ r a t s , 2 03 - 211 . 5 0 Q u o t e d i n i b i d . , 2 1 0 - 2 1 1 . 51 Pau l Gflhre i n Th ree Months i n a Workshop:^A P r a c t i c a l S t u d y ( 1895 ; r p t . New Y o r k , 1972) s t a t e s on p. 151 : "The i m p u l s e t o w a r d s e d u c a t i o n l i e s l i k e an e l e m e n t a l f o r c e , deep i n t h e h e a r t s and heads o f ou r f a c t o r y workmen . . . " See a l s o J u l i u s B r a u n t h a l , In S e a r c h o f t h e M i l l e n i u m ( London , 1 9 4 5 ) , 70 . The p a r t y ' s e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t was f u r t h e r expanded w i t h t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a n a t i o n a l B i l d u n g s a U s s c h u s s i n 1906. See P r o t o k o l l liber d i e Ve rhand l ungen des P a r t e i t a g e s d e r S o z i a l d e m o k r a t i s c h e n P a r t e i D e u t s c h l a n d s a b g e h a l t e n zu Mannheim vom 23 . b i s . 29 . September 1906 ( B e r l i n , 1 9 0 6 ) , 1 34 - 137 , 3 2 3 - 3 6 0 , 488 . A l l P a r t e i t a g P r o t o k o l I s h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as SPD P r o t o k o l l ( d a t e ) . 52 A d o l f B r a u n , " B i l d u n g s p r o b l e m e i n d e r A r b e i t e r b e w e g u n g , " Der Kampf, V I I I ( 1 9 1 5 ) , 2 42 - 244 ; Danneberg , " E r l e b n i s s e , " 279 -280 . 53 B r a u n , " B i l d u n g s p r o b l e m e , " 2 42 ; S t e i n b e r g , S o z i a l i s m u s , 1 40 - 141 . 54 R o t h , S o c i a l Democ r a t s , 2 23 - 232 . G e r h a r d A. R i t t e r a l s o n o t e s t h e S o c i a l D e m o c r a c y ' s i n c r e a s i n g dependence on b o u r g e o i s c u l t u r e . See h i s D i e A r b e i t e r b e w e g u n g im W i l h e m i n i s c h e n R e i c h ( B e r l i n - D a h l e m , 1 9 5 9 ) , 224. 22 CHAPTER I I SOCIAL DEMOCRATS AND THE WORK ETHIC My [ s o c i a l i s t ] a c t i v i t y was n o t u n n o t i c e d — t h e foremen n o t i c e d i t and spoke o f me. But I s t r o v e a n x i o u s l y t o g i v e no j u s t o c c a s i o n f o r f i n d i n g f a u l t w i t h me. F o r m e r l y l i k e t h e o t h e r s , I had o f t e n a r r i v e d l a t e ; now I a ccu s tomed m y s e l f t o be p u n c t u a l . I was p a i n f u l l y c o n s c i e n t i o u s i n my wo r k ; t he c o n v i c t i o n had i n s t i n c t i v e l y come t o me t h a t i f one w i s h e d t o s e r v e a g r e a t cause one must a l s o do o n e ' s d u t y i n s m a l l t h i n g s . - - A d e l h e i d Popp , The A u t o b i o g r a p h y o f a Wo r k i n g Woman The work e t h i c i l l u m i n e s , pe rhaps more c l e a r l y t han any o t h e r e l e m e n t o f I m p e r i a l German c u l t u r e , the s u b t l e and c o n t r a d i c t o r y n a t u r e o f t he r e l a t i o n s h i p between t he S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c s u b c u l t u r e and i t s s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . The d u t y o f o b e d i e n c e and good work p e r f o r m a n c e was c o n t i n u a l l y r e i n f o r c e d by s c h o o l , c h u r c h , a rmy, f a m i l y and w o r k s h o p , b u t s i t u a t i o n a l n e c e s s i t y and s o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g y d i d n o t a l l o w a r e j e c t i o n o f l a b o r as a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e o f p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t and s o c i a l a c c e p t a n c e . The s o c i a l i s t r e s p o n s e was q u i t e t h e r e v e r s e : t h e work e t h i c was t a k e n o v e r and t u r n e d a g a i n s t the r u l i n g c l a s s e s as a weapon f o r t he p o l i t i c a l r a d i c a l i z a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s — a p r o c e s s w h i c h had i t s own u n f o r s e e n and u n c o n s c i o u s e f f e c t s upon t h e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c w o r k e r s i n whom i t was f o s t e r e d . The r e m a r k a b l e number o f a u t o b i o g - r a p h i e s p r o d u c e d by S o c i a l Democrats f r om the r a n k - a n d - f i l e , as w e l l as f r om t h e l e a d e r s h i p , p r o v i d e l i v e l y and i n s i g h t f u l means f o r i n v e s t i - 2 g a t i n g t h e s e p r o b l e m s . 23" C h i l d h o o d s o c i a l i z a t i o n was t h e f i r s t and f o r e m o s t means emp loyed by t he dominant c u l t u r e f o r i n c u l c a t i n g t h e " c o r r e c t " a t t i t u d e s t o w o r k , r e l i g i o n , monarchy and n a t i o n . The s t a t e worked h a n d - i n - h a n d w i t h t he s c h o o l s and c h u r c h e s , and i n f l u e n c e d many young men t h r o u g h the m i l i t a r y d r a f t . The p r e s s and cheap p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e a l s o p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e . Bu t o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e f o r the f o r m a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s t o work was c h i l d l a b o r . Y o u t h f u l f a c t o r y w o r k , a p p r e n t i c e s h i p and home l a b o r ( H e i m a r b e i t ) f i g u r e p r o m i n e n t l y i n the s o c i a l i s t a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s . The needs o f r a p i d l y e x p a n d i n g i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , t h e c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o f l a r g e a g r a r i a n e s t a t e s i n P r u s s i a , and t h e s u r v i v a l o f c o n s i d e r a b l e a r t i s a n a l e n t e r p r i s e meant t h a t an e a r l y i n t r o d u c t i o n t o p h y s i c a l l a b o r w o u l d t o u c h the l i v e s o f e v e r y member o f t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s . M o r i t z Bromme was t h e son o f a S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c r a i l w a y w o r k e r i n a s m a l l T h u r i n g i a n town. The e l d e r Bromme had t he s e c u r i t y o f employment o f t he s t a t e o f f i c i a l , o r a t l e a s t he d i d u n t i l he was f a l s e l y c o n v i c t e d and j a i l e d when h i s son was abou t t w e l v e . A t t h a t t i m e M o r i t z had t o t a k e h i s f i r s t a f t e r - s c h o o l j o b s , f o r a b e e r m e r c h a n t , t hen a b e e r h a l l , and f i n a l l y an i t i n e r a n t b o o k - s e l l e r ( K o l p o r t e u r ) . D e s p i t e t h e s e s e t b a c k s , he was a l l o w e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e f u l l e i g h t y e a r s o f t h e B l i r g e r s c h u l e (whose p u p i l s were a l m o s t e n t i r e l y m i d d l e - c l a s s ) , a r a r e p r i v i l e g e f o r a 3 w o r k i n g - c l a s s c h i l d . Upon g r a d u a t i o n i n 1887 a t t he age o f f o u r t e e n , M o r i t z w i s h e d t o become a book p u b l i s h e r ' s a p p r e n t i c e , d i s p l a y i n g a r a t h e r common d e s i r e among German w o r k e r s a t t h a t t ime t o r a i s e t h e i r s t a t u s by becoming 4 p r e s t i g i o u s a r t i s a n s . H i s f a t h e r encou r a ged t h i s d e s i r e , b u t p r e c i s e l y 24 because o f t h e i r c l a s s o r i g i n t h i s a p p r e n t i c e s h i p was b l o c k e d t o Bromine. U n s k i l l e d l a b o r i n t h e b u t t o n f a c t o r i e s o f h i s home town o f S c h m d l l n was t he d i s a p p o i n t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e f o r M o r i t z , who had a d i f f i c u l t t i m e a d j u s t i n g t o w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e . He changed j o b s i n c e s s a n t l y , b r i e f l y t r i e d c o n s t r u c t i o n and c i g a r - m a k i n g , and s p e n t a few months as a w a i t e r ' s a p p r e n t i c e i n L e i p z i g , a g a i n a t h i s f a t h e r ' s i n s t i g a t i o n . A lways f o r c e d t o r e t u r n t o t he f a c t o r i e s o f S c h m d l l n , h i s i r r e g u l a r work h a b i t s were n o t l e s s e n e d by t h e backward s t a t e o f i n d u s t r y , t he weakness o f d i s c i p l i n e , and t he s u r v i v a l o f many t r a d i t i o n a l customs i n l a b o r . The workshops were n o t h i g h l y m e c h a n i z e d , and p r e s e r v e d many t r a i t s o f s e m i - a r t i s a n a l hand 5 work . A t one j o b he wo rked o n l y f o u r days a week , a common p a t t e r n , s i n c e : " A t t h a t t i m e the ' b l u e Monday ' (das ' B l a u m a c h e n ' ) e x i s t e d i n S chmf l l l n i n a bad way. On Mondays t h e f a c t o r i e s were a lway s h a l f empty , b u t t he pubs were f u l 1.1 , 6 With h i s m a t u r a t i o n and m a r r i a g e (and h i s s i m u l t a n e o u s c o n v e r s i o n t o s o c i a l i s m ) , Bromme became more s e r i o u s and h a r d - w o r k i n g . He n e a r l y a p o l o g i z e s f o r h i s e a r l i e r b e h a v i o r : The es teemed r e a d e r w i l l g e t a bad i m p r e s s i o n o f me a f t e r a l l t h i s , because I changed my work so f r e q u e n t l y a t the b e g i n n i n g o f my c a r e e r . Bu t t h a t i s so when one has no f i x e d o c c u p a t i o n ( s t a n d i g e n B e r u f ) and r e c e i v e s o n l y p o c k e t money as a wage. One seek s t o b e t t e r o n e s e l f , b u t o f t e n goes f r om t h e f r y i n g pan i n t o the f i r e (aus dem Regen i n d i e T r a u f e ) . I l a t e r wo rked between 6 and 7 y e a r s i n one and the same f a c t o r y . The key words a r e " s t a n d i gen B e r u f . " Because M o r i t z Bromme had been f r u s t r a t e d i n h i s a t t e m p t t o become a s k i l l e d a r t i s a n , he a t f i r s t saw 25 the f a c t o r i e s as o n l y a means o f s u r v i v a l . U n s k i l l e d l a b o r , l a c k i n g t he p r e s t i g e , s e c u r i t y and t r a i n i n g o f a c r a f t , had l i t t l e v a l u e f o r h im . Bromme had n o t y e t a b s o r b e d a more modern v i ew o f work w h i c h empha s i z ed the r e s p e c t a b i l i t y o f d i l i g e n c e i n any o c c u p a t i o n . As he r e v e a l s , h i s h a b i t s l a t e r became more r e g u l a r , and h i s d i s l i k e f o r i d l e n e s s i s shown a t one p o i n t when he p r o c l a i m s h i s d i s g u s t w i t h a f e l l o w w o r k e r who g s h i r k e d work and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . H e i m a r b e i t f o r p i t i f u l wages was a common f o r m a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e f o r women. O t t i l i e Baade r ( bo rn i n F r a n k f u r t am Oder i n 1847) began w o r k i n g b e f o r e she was s i x , and a t t h i r t e e n went t o B e r l i n and s t a r t e d s ew ing i n a s m a l l shop f r om 8 a.m. t o 8 p.m. w i t h o n l y a s h o r t midday b reak . A f t e r one f a c t o r y j o b she bought h e r own s e w i n g - m a c h i n e t o work a t home, b u t t h e n e c e s s a r y w o r k - t i m e was a p p a l l i n g : 7 a.m. t o m i d n i g h t w i t h one hou r o f f . She a c t u a l l y r o s e two hour s e a r l i e r t o do t he housework q f o r h e r s e l f and h e r f a t h e r . I c a n n o t say t h a t I was e v e r v e r y happy. E v e n t u a l l y I had hoped f o r s o m e t h i n g more f r o m l i f e . Many t i m e s I was so f e d u p - - y e a r a f t e r y e a r a t t he s e w i n g - m a c h i n e , w i t h o n l y c o l l a r s and c u f f s b e f o r e me, one dozen a f t e r a n o t h e r - - t h a t l i f e had no v a l u e a t a l l . One was o n l y a wo r k -mach i ne and had no f u t u r e p r o s p e c t s . And o f the beau t y i n the w o r l d one saw and h e a r d n o t h i n g ; f r om t h a t one was s i m p l y e x c l u d e d .10 B a a d e r 1 s d e e p l y - f e l t , i f u n d i r e c t e d , r e s e n t m e n t a t s p e n d i n g h e r c h i l d h o o d and y o u t h as a " w o r k - m a c h i n e " was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n h e r p o l i t i c a l c o n v e r s i o n : " . . . my l i f e has been l a b o r f r o m an e a r l y age , and a l l t h a t I w i l l r e l a t e h e r e , i s b u i l t upon t h i s l i f e o f w o r k , and can o n l y be c o r r e c t l y 26 11 u n d e r s t o o d on t h i s b a s i s . " S o c i a l i s m t u r n e d O t t i l i e B a a d e r ' s a nge r i n t o a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t he c o n d i t i o n s and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f work under c a p i t a l i s m r a t h e r t han a g a i n s t work i t s e l f - - a s i n t he ca se o f t h e G e r m a n - A u s t r i a n S o c i a l Democra t , A d e l h e i d Popp. P o p p ' s f a t h e r was a v i s c i o u s a l c o h o l i c who d i e d w h i l e she was s t i l l a s m a l l c h i l d . Her f a m i l y ' s abysmal p o v e r t y f o r c e d h e r a t age seven t o b e g i n s ew ing b u t t o n s on c a r d s a f t e r s c h o o l . A t t e n h e r s c h o o l i n g ended and she began t o c r o c h e t s haw l s t w e l v e hour s a d a y - - o f t e n more , f o r she had t o t a k e work home a t n i g h t t o make e x t r a money. Two y e a r s l a t e r she was a p p r e n t i c e d t o l a c e w o r k s e w i n g f o r t w e l v e hour s d a i l y , f o r w h i c h t h e r e was no f i x e d wage, h e r p i e c e - r a t e b e i n g r e d u c e d whenever she became more d e x t r o u s . She s u f f e r e d more t han one ne r vou s breakdown and was f r e q u e n t l y 12 th rown o u t o f work . Her mother r e p r o a c h e d h e r as l a z y : L a z y ! A t an age when o t h e r c h i l d r e n p l a y w i t h d o l l s o r go t o s c h o o l , when t h e y a r e gua rded and c h e r i s h e d so t h a t t h e y may n o t s t u m b l e o v e r any p b s t a c l e - - a t t h i s age I had t o go o u t and b e a r t he h a r d yoke o f work . A t an age when o t h e r s a r e e n j o y i n g a l l t he b l e s s e d n e s s o f c h i l d h o o d , I had " a l r e a d y f o r g o t t e n c h i l d h o o d l a u g h t e r and was t h o r o u g h l y imbued w i t h the f e e l i n g t h a t work was my d e s t i n e d l o t . 1 3 A g a i n , r e s i g n a t i o n t o l a b o r was combined w i t h r e s e n t m e n t a t t he l o s s o f o n e ' s " g o l d e n c h i l d h o o d , " a r e a c t i o n t o a c o n t e m p o r a r y b o u r g e o i s myth t h a t appea r s i n many s o c i a l i s t a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e few 14 w r i t t e n by women. The f e e l i n g o f p e r s o n a l i n j u s t i c e thus engende red was t u r n e d t o a c c o u n t by s o c i a l i s m . As we s h a l l s e e , t he h a t r e d o f unequa l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a b o r i n s o c i e t y was c o n n e c t e d t o t he d i g n i t y o f work and t he l a z i n e s s o f t he uppe r c l a s s e s - - o n e o f t he p r ime 27 arguments o f p o p u l a r s o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g y . Wenzel Ho lek moved t o Germany and j o i n e d t he SPD a round the t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , b u t grew up under the c o n d i t i o n s o f e a r l y i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n t h e Habsburg E m p i r e . Born i n an i m p o v e r i s h e d r e g i o n o f German N o r t h Bohemia i n 1864, h i s e d u c a t i o n was c o n t i n u a l l y i n t e r r u p t e d by h i s p a r e n t s ' t r a v e l s f o r s e a s o n a l l a b o r . By age e i g h t he had a l r e a d y h e l d one p a r t - t i m e j o b and wo rked a t h a r d p h y s i c a l l a b o r w i t h h i s f a m i l y on r a i l r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n and b r i c k - m a k i n g . U n s k i l l e d manual l a b o r c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d t o the c o u n t r y s i d e dom ina ted h i s e a r l y l i f e . Ho lek l e f t s c h o o l a t t e n t o work i n t he s u g a r - b e e t p r o c e s s i n g f a c t o r i e s , m a j o r w i n t e r t i m e e m p l o y e r s . D u r i n g t he " c a m p a i g n " t o p r o c e s s t he h a r v e s t t he minimum d a i l y w o r k - t i m e was t w e l v e h o u r s , and a weekend n i g h t s h i f t o f e i g h t e e n hour s was f r e q u e n t l y added. In 1876 he began t o t r a v e l t o Saxony each summer w i t h h i s f a t h e r t o l a b o r as a b r i c k - m a k e r . The work was e n t i r e l y manual and t r a d i t i o n a l . T o g e t h e r t he two o f them made b r i c k s i n t he open f r om f r e s h c l a y and f i r e d them t h e m s e l v e s . H i s f a t h e r was d e t e r m i n e d t o e a r n as much money as p o s s i b l e ; s i x t e e n hour s a day (4 a.m. - 8 p.m.) was n o r m a l , and no " b l u e Mondays" were t a k e n , a l t h o u g h i t was c u s t o m a r y . Most i n c r e d i b l e o f a l l was a d o u b l e s h i f t a t t he s u g a r - b e e t f a c t o r y i n t h e w i n t e r o f 1878: Ho l ek s t a r t e d a t noon Sunday and f i n i s h e d a t 6 p.m. M o n d a y - - t h i r t y hour s w i t h o u t a b r e a k . 1 5 D e s p i t e t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s he p r e f e r r e d t h e f a c t o r y j o b t o b e g g i n g w i t h h i s h a r m o n i c a , s o m e t h i n g h i s . mothe r f o r c e d h im t o do d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f unemployment. 28 W i t h my p l a c e i n t he f a c t o r y I was much more s a t i s f i e d , than when I had t o go p l a y i n g , as i n t he p r e v i o u s w i n t e r . And though my f o o d w a s n ' t as good as what I c o u l d g e t f r o m t h e c o u n t r y f o l k , I d i d n ' t c a r e v e r y much. A t l e a s t I was i n a warm p l a c e and was n o t e xpo sed t o t he bad w e a t h e r . And then I had an o c c u p a - t i o n , w i t h w h i c h I c o u l d l e t m y s e l f be seen and d i d n ' t have t o be s c o l d e d as a b e g g a r - m u s i c i a n . * " Above a l l Wenzel Ho lek was happy because w o r k i n g was r e s p e c t a b l e , w h i l e b e i n g a " b e g g a r - m u s i c i a n " c e r t a i n l y was n o t . He was p a r t i c u l a r l y ashamed when he had t o go d o o r - t o - d o o r , s i n c e t he p e a s a n t s b e r a t e d him f o r b e g g i n g i n s t e a d o f w o r k i n g , even though he p r e f e r r e d t he r e v e r s e . ' ' ' 7 A l t h o u g h h i s work e n v i r o n m e n t was q u i t e t r a d i t i o n a l , he had t h o r o u g h l y a b s o r b e d a work e t h i c w h i c h f r owned on i d l e n e s s and an unea rned l i v i n g . As P e t e r S t e a r n s has n o t e d , t he a r t i s a n a l t r a d i t i o n was s t r o n g i n Germany and r ema ined so because o f t he r e l a t i v e l a t e n e s s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a - t i o n . A p p r e n t i c e s h i p and W a n d e r z e i t c o n t i n u e d , and many c r a f t t r a d i t i o n s 18 were a d a p t e d t o t he needs o f t he new w o r k i n g c l a s s . F o r many s o c i a l i s t s a p p r e n t i c e s h i p i n p a r t i c u l a r was an i m p o r t a n t f o r m a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e , i n w h i c h t h e y wo r ked c o n t i n u o u s l y f o r l o n g hou r s under s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e . Augu s t B e b e l ' s w o o d - t u r n i n g a p p r e n t i c e s h i p (1854-1857) i n v o l v e d f o u r t e e n hour d a y s , seven days a week, e x c e p t f o r Sunday mo rn i ng c h u r c h s e r v i c e . 1 9 P h i l i p S che i demann , who e n t e r e d t he p r i n t i n g t r a d e some t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s l a t e r , worked t w e l v e t o t h i r t e e n h o u r s , and f i f t e e n t o e i g h t e e n hour s i n 20 t he w i n t e r . As a c a r p e n t e r ' s a p p r e n t i c e i n t he 1 8 8 0 ' s , H.P. D i k r e i t e r began work b e f o r e 6 a.m. and c o n t i n u e d t o 7 p.m. o r l a t e r w i t h o c c a s i o n a l b r e a k s . Bu t t h e r e was no midday p a u s e . The m a s t e r opposed t h i s cu s tom 21 b e c a u s e ' f r o m i t one o n l y becomes l a z y . " He was p a r t i c u l a r l y demanding 29 o f c o n s t a n t and d i l i g e n t l a b o r , and checked up on the a p p r e n t i c e s and jou rneymen r e g u l a r l y . H i s a t t i t u d e t o l a b o r sounds q u i t e modern ; t h e u l t i m a t e s i n was w a s t i n g t i m e . "The m a s t e r t h o u g h t the t ime l o s t , i n 22 w h i c h no work was done . . . " Even i n t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y c o n d i t i o n s e a sed l i t t l e . F r i t z Pauk, who began as a t o b a c c o a p p r e n t i c e i n 1902, l a b o r e d f rom 7 a.m. t o 7 p .m. ; and f o r the f i r s t two y e a r s had 23 l i t t l e p e r s o n a l f r eedom. The r o l e o f t he f a m i l y i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s t o l a b o r was a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l e , though n o t as h i g h l y v i s i b l e i n t he a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s . In p a r t t h i s i s due t o i t s i n s e p a r a b i l i t y f r om e a r l y work e x p e r i e n c e - c h i l d r e n had t o work i f t h e f a m i l y was t o s u r v i v e e c o n o m i c a l l y . P a r e n t s had no c h o i c e b u t t o t e a c h t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o be good l a b o r e r s . J o s e f P e u k e r t ' s f a t h e r p u l l e d h im o u t o f s c h o o l a t age e l e v e n s i n c e : H i s o p i n i o n was t h a t I s h o u l d l e a r n t o work b e f o r e a l l t h i n g s , i n o r d e r t o become a p r o f i c i e n t w o r k e r . B e s i d e s I c o u l d - - w h e n I was d i l i g e n t — t a k e p r i v a t e t u t o r i n g t o w iden my s c h o o l k now ledge , b u t t h a t was i t . T o g e t h e r w i t h my f a t h e r I l a b o r e d i n t h e summer f rom f o u r , i n t he w i n t e r f r om f i v e i n the m o r n i n g , u n t i l e i g h t o r n i n e a t n i g h t . . . " 24 B e s i d e s n e c e s s i t y an e l e m e n t o f t r a d i t i o n a l i s m may be p r e s e n t h e r e : t he f a t h e r w i s h e d t o r a i s e h i s son t o f i l l h i s p r o p e r s t a t i o n i n s o c i e t y as a w o r k e r . Mo the r s i n w o r k i n g - c l a s s and a r t i s a n f a m i l i e s f r e q u e n t l y p e r - fo rmed t h i s f u n c t i o n t h r o u g h r e l i g i o u s i n d o c t r i n a t i o n . Women o f t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s were much more r e l i g i o u s as a r u l e and o f t e n e x e r c i s e d g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e i n c h i l d h o o d . M o r i t z Bromine's mothe r r ema i ned a L u t h e r a n , though h e r husband was a S o c i a l Democra t , and M o r i t z m a i n - 25 t a i n e d h i s r e l i g i o u s t i e s i n t o h i s l a t e t e e n s l a r g e l y because o f h e r . 30 The chu r che s were c e r t a i n l y among t he most p o w e r f u l i n s t r u m e n t s o f s o c i a l i n d o c t r i n a t i o n by t he dominant c u l t u r e i n Germany, a l t h o u g h t h e i r d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e d e c l i n e d s t e a d i l y w i t h t he g rowth o f t he urban w o r k i n g c l a s s and t he S o c i a l Democracy. The a c t u a l i m p a c t t h a t the C a t h o l i c and E v a n g e l i c a l ( L u t h e r a n ) e s t a b l i s h m e n t s had on a t t i t u d e s t o work among t he l o w e r c l a s s e s i s n o t w e l l known. The t h e o l o g i c a l d o c t r i n e o f bo th Churches was a m b i v a l e n t abou t l a b o r , t he C a t h o l i c more so t han i t s c o u n t e r p a r t . B o t h , howeve r , n e v e r c e a s e d t o p r e a c h t h e n e c e s s i t y o f members o f t he bo t t om s t r a t a o f s o c i e t y t o work d i l i g e n t l y as p a r t o f t h e i r o b e d i e n c e t o God, and t o t h e d i v i n e l y o r d a i n e d s o c i a l s y s t e m . Obed ience was t h e key w o r d , and one w h i c h f ound e n d l e s s r e i t e r a t i o n i n I m p e r i a l Germany. A Roman C a t h o l i c w o r k e r r e v e a l s most s t r i k i n g l y t h e more t r a d i - t i o n a l v i ew o f t h a t C h u r c h . N i k o l a u s O s t e r r o t h was f o u r t e e n i n 1889 when h i s f a t h e r became s e r i o u s l y i l l , f o r c i n g h im ou t o f s c h o o l and i n t o h i s f i r s t j o b a t a h i g h l y mechan i zed b r i c k f a c t o r y . He f ound t h e monotony, h e a t , d u s t and p h y s i c a l e x e r t i o n a l m o s t i n t o l e r a b l e . R e t u r n i n g one day f r om the f a c t o r y , O s t e r r o t h met h i s p r i e s t and b r o k e i n t o t e a r s when a s ked abou t h i s w o r k . ^ He c o m f o r t e d me and s a i d t h a t work was t he c u r s e o f a s i n f u l mank i nd . ' I n the swea t o f y o u r brow s h a l l y o u e a t y o u r b r e a d , ' t h e d e a r F a t h e r had s a i d . A l l men must w o r k , some w i t h t h e i r h e a d s , o t h e r s w i t h t h e i r hands . H e r r *y. T r e t m u h l [ t h e f a c t o r y o w n e r ] pe rhaps must work h a r d e r t h a n any o f h i s w o r k e r s . B u t t h e d e a r F a t h e r had t a k e n t h e c u r s e o f l a b o r upon h i m s e l f and t h r o u g h t h a t had e n n o b l e d i t , s i n c e he h i m - s e l f had w i l l i n g l y become t h e son o f a c a r p e n t e r f r o m N a z a r e t h . One must c a r r y t h e yoke t h a t God l a y s upon one w i t h C h r i s t i a n p a t i e n c e , t h e n t h e c u r s e o f l a b o r w i l l become a b l e s s i n g . " 31 Work i s a c u r s e due t o o r i g i n a l s i n : " I n the swea t o f y o u r brow s h a l l y o u e a t y o u r b r e a d " - - a B i b l i c a l i n j u n c t i o n t h a t t u r n s up i n a number o f w o r k e r a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s s i n c e i t seemed t o c a p t u r e t h e bu rden o f n e v e r - e n d i n g 28 l a b o r so s u c c i n c t l y . But t h e c u r s e was t a k e n on by God as t h e son o f a c a r p e n t e r , and t h r o u g h t h i s a c t i o n he ' . ' ennob led " l a b o r , and t h o s e who l a b o r . The w o r k e r c o u l d f e e l h i m s e l f equa l w i t h any man b e f o r e God, p r o v i d e d he c a r r i e d o u t h i s l a b o r s w i t h " C h r i s t i a n p a t i e n c e . " The c u r s e w o u l d t hen become a b l e s s i n g i n t he eyes o f t h e L o r d . The i n n a t e goodness o f work i s n o t s t r e s s e d , b u t , i f p e r f o r m e d d u t i f u l l y , t he w o r k e r w o u l d be rewarded i n t h e a f t e r l i f e ( i n c o n t r a s t t o C a l v i n i s t d o c t r i n e , w h i c h t ook w o r l d l y r ewa rd as a s i g n o f p r e d e s t i n a t i o n ) . Even more i n t e r e s t i n g i s t he manner i n w h i c h t h i s m e d i e v a l d o c t r i n e i s c a s t by the p r i e s t i n a modern c o n t e x t . A l l must w o r k , i n c l u d i n g t he c a p i t a l i s t — p o s s i b l y a d i r e c t 29 r e spon se t o the r e c u r r e n t s o c i a l i s t cha rge o f upper c l a s s i d l e n e s s . The e f f e c t o f C a t h o l i c t e a c h i n g can be r e a d i l y d e t e r m i n e d i n one c a s e , t h a t o f A d e l h e i d Popp. In h e r own words she had a l r e a d y a c c e p t e d i n h e r c h i l d h o o d t he one rou s burden o f l a b o r as h e r " d e s t i n e d l o t . " W i t h what p i e t y and f a i t h I p r a y e d i n t h e c h u r c h f o r work . I s o u g h t o u t t h e s p e c i a l l y c e l e b r a t e d s a i n t s . I went f r o m a l t a r t o a l t a r , k n e l t down on t he c o l d s t o n e s t e p s and p r a y e d t o t he V i r g i n Ma ry , t he Mo the r o f God , t h e Queen o f Heaven , and t o o t h e r s a i n t s who were c o n s i d e r e d s p e c i a l l y p o w e r f u l and b e n e v o l e n t . - ^ In s p i t e o f menta l and p h y s i c a l breakdowns she c o n t i n u e d w o r k i n g , o r a t - t e m p t i n g t o f i n d a j o b . "I f o und work a g a i n ; I t o o k e v e r y t h i n g t h a t was 31 o f f e r e d me i n o r d e r t o show my w i l l i n g n e s s t o work . . . " More t han d i r e 32 n e c e s s i t y was b e h i n d h e r e x t r a o r d i n a r y e f f o r t s ; a sense o f r e l i g i o u s d u t y k e p t h e r f r om c o m p l e t e c o l l a p s e . C a t h o l i c t h e o l o g y was thus no o b s t a c l e t o h a r d work i n h e r c a s e , though l a b o r was n o t g i v e n r e a l p e r s o n a l w o r t h 32 u n t i l h e r c o n v e r s i o n t o s o c i a l i s m . The t r a d i t i o n a l L u t h e r a n v i ew was n e a r l y as a m b i v a l e n t . L u t h e r a l s o v i ewed work as a d i v i n e c u r s e e n n o b l e d by C h r i s t ' s l a b o r , and h i s economic s were m e d i e v a l , b u t d u t y i n o n e ' s c a l l i n g was f o r h im t he f i r s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a C h r i s t i a n . Hard work was a much b e t t e r way t o l o v e 33 o n e ' s n e i g h b o r t h a n c h a r i t y , w h i c h e n c o u r a g e d b e g g i n g . In t he words o f t h e f o r e m o s t E v a n g e l i c a l t h e o l o g i a n o f the W i l h e l m i a n E m p i r e , E r n s t T r o e l t s c h : " T h i s a l l i m p l i e s an e x t r a o r d i n a r y i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i d e a 34 o f t he d u t y o f l a b o r . . . " The h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n o f t he Church gave L u t h e r a n s o c i a l t e a c h i n g a c o n s e r v a t i v e and p a t r i a r c h a l e m p h a s i s , w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t he d o c t r i n e o f a b s o l u t e o b e d i e n c e t o t h e monarch 35 and s t a t e as an e s s e n t i a l L u t h e r a n d u t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s du t y t o l a b o r seems t o have i n s p i r e d g r e a t e r e f f o r t . One o f t he s t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r Max W e b e r ' s famous i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e " P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c " was t h e t h e n w i d e l y a c c e p t e d f a c t t h a t t h e r e were o b s e r v a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t he p r o s - p e r i t y and a s s i d u i t y o f P r o t e s t a n t s and C a t h o l i c s i n d e n o m i n a t i o n a l l y 3fi mixed a r e a s o f Germany. I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t L u t h e r a n d o c t r i n e became more p o s i t i v e about work d u r i n g t he Empi re under t he i m p a c t o f t he g r e a t s o c i a l changes t a k i n g p l a c e a round i t . T h i s may be t r u e a t l e a s t o f t he E v a n g e l i c a l - S o c i a l movements, w h i c h t r i e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t o w i n t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s t o t h e cause o f r e l i g i o n and a p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i a l o r d e r i n t h e 1 8 9 0 ' s . 33 Pau l Gdh re , one o f t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e s e g r o u p s , w r o t e t h e s e words a f t e r s p e n d i n g t h r e e months i n c o g n i t o i n a f a c t o r y i n 1890: T h i n k o f t h e e l e v e n o r t w e l v e hou r s o f t o i l i n a n o i s y s t i f l i n g f a c t o r y ; i t i s n o t so ea sy t o a p p l y h e r e t h o s e e v a n g e l i c a l i d e a s abou t l a b o r w h i c h we so o f t e n p r o c l a i m ! How can work l i k e t h i s b r i n g i n n e r peace and c o n t e n t m e n t t o any man? How can i t be t h e means t o d e v e l o p h i s c h a r a c t e r , and make h im a c o m p l e t e and harmon ious human c r e a t u r e , f u l l o f happy a c t i v i t y and c o n s c i o u s o f h i s d e s t i n y ? 3 7 T h i s o u t b u r s t sounds much more C a l v i n i s t t han L u t h e r a n i n o r i g i n , though w i t h a un i que s t r e s s on " c o n t e n t m e n t , " harmony and so f o r t h . To Gt i h re , work s h o u l d i d e a l l y be t h e c e n t e r p i e c e o f p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t i n the p r e s e n t l i f e . J o y i n l a b o r complements and i n t e g r a t e s a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y , and a t the same t i m e i s a r e d e m p t i v e f a c t o r i n t he eyes o f God w h i c h reminds t h e C h r i s t i a n o f h i s " d e s t i n y " : t h e c h o i c e o f s a l v a t i o n o r d a m n a t i o n . How much t h i s p o i n t o f v i ew i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f L u t h e r a n t h e o l o g y i n the 1890 ' s i s v e r y h a r d t o d e t e r m i n e , though i t does n o t appea r l i k e l y t o be t h e m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n . The i n c r e a s i n g f a i l u r e o f t he C h u r c h e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e L u t h e r a n , t o e x e r t any d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on t he w o r k i n g c l a s s does n o t mean t h a t t hey d i d n o t s u c c e e d i n i m p l a n t i n g t he d u t y o f work i n t he minds o f t h e w o r k e r s . The key weapons were t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s f o r t he l o w e r c l a s s e s , t h e s o - c a l l e d V o l k s s c h u l e . As W i l h e l m L i e b k n e c h t s a i d : " t h e c h u r c h c h i e f l y 38 o p e r a t e s i n and t h r ough t h e s c h o o l . " M i xed d e n o m i n a t i o n a l s c h o o l s were 39 e x c e e d i n g l y r a r e , r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t he p r e v a i l i n g o r t h o d o x y b e i n g s t a n d a r d o t h e r w i s e . P r u s s i a , as a l a r g e and h e t e r o g e n e o u s s t a t e , had t he most v a r i e d c o n d i t i o n s . In t he E a s t E l b i a n r u r a l a r e a s t he 34 g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s o f e d u c a t i o n were s c a n d a l o u s ; the J u n k e r s c o n s i d e r e d , c o r r e c t l y , t he p o s s e s s i o n by t he l a b o r e r s o f any knowledge beyond t h e c a t e c h i s m and p r a y e r book a t h r e a t t o t h e i r p o w e r . ^ The P r u s s i a n s c h o o l r e f o r m o f O c t o b e r 15 , 1872, w h i c h c u t back t h e amount o f r e l i g i o u s 41 m e m o r i z a t i o n i n f a v o r o f a more s e c u l a r e d u c a t i o n , was p r o b a b l y more e f f e c t i v e i n t he w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s . Bu t t he r o l e o f t h e chu r che s was by no means a s m a l l one : even i n 1918 t w o - t h i r d s o f a l l P r u s s i a n s c h o o l 42 i n s p e c t o r s were c l e r g y . The V o l k s s c h u l e were pe rhaps t h e most i m p o r t a n t i n s t i t u t i o n s o f s o c i a l i n d o c t r i n a t i o n , the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f w h i c h e x t e n d f a r beyond t h e i r r o l e as a p r i m a r y i n s t r u m e n t f o r the i n c u l c a t i o n o f r e l i g i o n . M i l i t a r i s m , n a t i o n a l i s m , p o l i t i c a l p ropaganda and r e l i g i o n were lumped t o g e t h e r i n t o an i d e o l o g y d e s i g n e d t o c r e a t e a d o c i l e l a b o r f o r c e o f good w o r k e r s , o b e d i e n t s o l d i e r s , and l o y a l s u b j e c t s . P a r a n o i a about t he a p p a r e n t l y i r r e v e r s i b l e g rowth o f t he S o c i a l Democracy h e l d the d i s p a r a t e e d u c a t i o n a l aims o f t he r u l i n g c l a s s e s t o g e t h e r . The n e a r l y u n i v e r s a l e x c l u s i o n o f S o c i a l 43 Democrats and t he e x a g g e r a t e d r h e t o r i c e n t a i l e d by " n e g a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n " were c o u p l e d w i t h a c o u n t e r - o f f e n s i v e i n t h e s c h o o l s and t he army a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t e f a i l u r e o f t h e S o c i a l i s t Law to s t o p the s p r e a d o f S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c i d e a s . K a i s e r W i l h e l m I I was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s c ampa i gn , w h i c h s t r e s s e d n a t i o n a l i s t h i s t o r y a l o n g w i t h r e l i g i o n as t h e two p r i m a r y t o o l s i n t h e s t r u g g l e . H i s May 1, 1889 d i r e c t i v e s t a t e d : 35 F o r a l o n g t i m e I have been o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e p l a n t o make t he s c h o o l i n i t s i n d i v i d u a l g r a d a t i o n s u s e f u l f o r c o u n t e r - a c t i n g t h e s p r e a d o f s o c i a l i s t and communist i d e a s . In t h e f i r s t p l a c e t he s c h o o l w i l l , t h r o u g h t he c u l t i v a t i o n o f the f e a r o f God and t h e l o v e o f the f a t h e r l a n d , l a y t he b a s i s f o r a h e a l t h y c o n c e p t i o n o f s t a t e and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . . . . I t must s t r i v e t o p r o v i d e y o u t h w i t h t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t he d o c t r i n e s o f S o c i a l Democracy n o t o n l y c o n t r a d i c t d i v i n e commandments and C h r i s t i a n mora l t e a c h i n g s , bu t a r e a l s o i m - p o s s i b l e i n r e a l i t y , and e q u a l l y r u i n o u s i n t h e i r consequences f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l and f o r t he who l e s o c i e t y . 4 4 S o c i a l i s m was t o be shown as m o r a l l y , r e l i g i o u s l y and s o c i a l l y d a n g e r o u s , and a c t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . B l a t a n t p o l i t i c a l p ropaganda o f t h i s s o r t was r e i n f o r c e d by t h e t e a c h i n g o f j i n g o i s t i c h i s t o r y , w h i c h empha s i z ed t h e 45 b e n e v o l e n c e o f t h e H o h e n z o l l e r n s and t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f German arms. There i s no doubt t h a t t h e s e e f f o r t s had a t l e a s t a g r e a t s h o r t - t e r m e f f e c t . P h i l i p S che i demann , Augu s t B e b e l , F r a n z R e h b e i n , Wenzel Ho lek and Hans M a r c h w i t z a (among o t h e r s ) a l l m e n t i o n p e r i o d s o f y o u t h f u l m o n a r c h i c a l 46 o r m i l i t a r y e n t h u s i a s m . A c c o r d i n g t o M a r c h w i t z a : " A t t h a t t i m e a l l t h e 47 enemies o f Germany appea red t o me as c r u e l s avages and c a n n i b a l s . " But n a t i o n a l i s t , r e l i g i o u s and a n t i - s o c i a l i s t i n d o c t r i n a t i o n had l i t t l e a p p a r e n t e f f e c t i n t he l o n g run i n p r e v e n t i n g the c o n v e r s i o n t o s o c i a l i s m o f t h e 48 w o r k e r s examined h e r e . The a c t u a l r e s u l t s were much more s u b t l e , even more so because t h e y were i n v i s i b l e t o s o c i a l i s t s and n o n - s o c i a l i s t s a l i k e . The F i r s t W o r l d War was t o r e v e a l t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e l o y a l t i e s o f the m a j o r i t y o f S o c i a l Democrats t o army and n a t i o n . The i m p a c t o f a n t i - s o c i a l i s t r h e t o r i c was a l l t he more c u r i o u s and i r o n i c , a theme t o w h i c h we s h a l l l a t e r r e t u r n . F i n a l l y , r e l i g i o n , w h i l e i t l a r g e l y f a i l e d t o m a i n t a i n even a f o r m a l h o l d o v e r t h e s o c i a l i s t w o r k i n g c l a s s , n e v e r t h e l e s s l e f t a l a s t i n g i m p a c t on i t s e t h i c a l p r e c e p t s . In the S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c b a s t i o n o f 36 C h e m n i t z , Pau l Gdhre ( t h e n a t h e o l o g y s t u d e n t ) o b s e r v e d t h a t : "The mora l l aw o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . . . i s s t i l l t he l a r g e s t f a c t o r i n t he e t h i c s o f t he w o r k i n g men w i t h whom I come i n t o c o n t a c t , and i s o f t e n q u i t e uncon - 49 s c i o u s l y t o t h e m s e l v e s , f i r m l y p l a n t e d i n t h e i r h e a r t s . " The i n f l u e n c e o f r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n on women was even s t r o n g e r . A d e l h e i d P o p p ' s d e e p l y i n g r a i n e d p i e t y and s u b m i s s i v e n e s s made h e r c o n v e r s i o n t o open 50 s o c i a l i s t a c t i v i t y a t r a u m a t i c menta l s t r u g g l e . E s t i m a t i n g t h e c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t o f e d u c a t i o n on t he w o r k - h a b i t s o f t he w o r k i n g c l a s s must r ema in r a t h e r s p e c u l a t i v e . There seems no doub t t h a t t h e r e l i g i o u s v iews o f work d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r must have been t a u g h t i n t he s c h o o l s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s l i t t l e m e n t i o n o f i t , e s p e c i a l l y by t h o s e r a i s e d as L u t h e r a n s . In te rms o f t h e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n conveyed by e d u c a t i o n , a g roup o f young German M a r x i s t s c h o l a r s have a t t e m p t e d w i t h some s u c c e s s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t " Q u a l i f i k a t i o n d e r 51 A r b e i t s k r a f t " was one o f t he p r i m a r y t a s k s o f the V o l k s s c h u l e . One o f them, F r a n z W e n z e l , r e v e a l s t h a t t he m o t i v a t i o n b e h i n d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s c i e n c e and n a t u r a l h i s t o r y t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n 1872 was t o g i v e p u p i l s some a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h t h e w o r l d o f mach ine p r o d u c t i o n i n w h i c h 52 t h e y w o u l d t a k e t h e i r p l a c e . The H a n d f e r t i g k e i t s b e w e g u n g was a f u r t h e r a t t e m p t by the l i b e r a l b o u r g e o i s i e i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . T h i s movement t r i e d t o have i n s t r u c t i o n i n manual d e x t e r i t y and work i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e s c h o o l s , i n o r d e r t o p r oduce more e f f i c i e n t l a b o r e r s . A l t h o u g h i t r e c e i v e d some o f f i c i a l f a v o r , no s e r i o u s a t t e m p t was made t o c a r r y t h i s p rog ram t h r o u g h ; no more t han one p e r c e n t o f V o l k s s c h u l e s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d 53 such t r a i n i n g a t t h e apex o f t h e s e g r o u p s ' e f f o r t s i n t he 1 8 9 0 ' s . 37 More s i g n i f i c a n t was t he d i s c i p l i n a r y p a t t e r n o f German s c h o o l s . The who l e c u l t u r a l u n i v e r s e o f t he V o l k s s c h u l e c e n t e r e d on t h e word " o b e d i e n c e " : o b e d i e n c e t o t he s t a t e , t o t he army and t o t he c h u r c h . Ext reme b u t n o t a t y p i c a l was t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f Hans M a r c h w i t z a (whose s y s t e m a t i c u l t r a - m i l i t a r i s t i n d o c t r i n a t i o n was e a r l i e r n o t e d ) . H i s t e a c h e r v i ewed h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h u s l y : "I have t he d u t y t o r a i s e 54 you as r e s p e c t a b l e and o b e d i e n t men. " T h i s was h i s t a s k , n o t h i n g more. "The d i l i g e n t w i l l one day be rewarded by l i f e , b u t an i d l e r and s l a c k e r 55 w i l l u s u a l l y end up as a j a i l - b i r d , y e s i n d e e d ! " I d l e n e s s l e a d s t o c r i m i n a l i t y s i n c e t o be i d l e i s d i s o b e d i e n t , and l e a d s t o t he u l t i m a t e d i s o b e d i e n c e t o s o c i e t y : b r e a k i n g the l a w . D i s c i p l i n e was c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y r i g i d i n s c h o o l . A c c o r d i n g t o one v e r y p o p u l a r t e x t b o o k f o r t e a c h e r s , t h i s was how t h e day was t o end : As soon as t he s c h o o l c l o c k p r o c l a i m s t he end o f s c h o o l , t he t e a c h e r g i v e s t h e s i g n a l t o f a l l i n . The l a s t o r f i r s t row m o n i t o r ( B a n k o b e r s t e ) c a l l s w i t h a l o u d v o i c e : ' O n e ! ' and goes t o the d o o r ; n o i s e l e s s l y t he p u p i l s o f the l a s t o r f i r s t row f o l l o w h i m , fo rmed up i n p a i r s . Then t h e n e x t row m o n i t o r c a l l s w i t h a l o u d v o i c e : ' T w o ! 1 a t w h i c h t he p u p i l s o f h i s row r e p e a t t h e a c t i o n o f t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s . 5 6 S t r o n g d i s c i p l i n e was common i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y European c l a s s r o o m s , b u t i n Germany i t was g i v e n a m i l i t a r i s t i c t w i s t : s c h o o l s p r e p a r e d t h e f u t u r e r e c r u i t f o r t h e army. Les s i n t e n t i o n a l l y , r e g i m e n t a t i o n a l s o p r e p a r e d t he f u t u r e f a c t o r y w o r k e r . E. P. Thompson g i v e s a s i m i l a r example o f d i s c i p l i n e f r om the M e t h o d i s t Sunday S c h o o l s i n h i s i n f l u e n t i a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t he r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o n c e p t s o f t i m e and i n d u s t r i a l 38 57 w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e . As i n E n g l a n d , t h e o b s e s s i o n o f German s c h o o l s w i t h p u n c t u a l i t y , r e g u l a r i t y and o r d e r c o u l d o n l y have p r o f o u n d l o n g - t e r m e f f e c t s on l o w e r - c l a s s work h a b i t s i n t h e s t r u g g l e t o c r e a t e t h e r e g u l a r , r e l i a b l e and t i m e - c o n s c i o u s w o r k e r . F o r many men t he i n c u l c a t i o n o f o b e d i e n c e , d i s c i p l i n e , m o n a r c h i s m , m i l i t a r i s m , n a t i o n a l i s m and r e l i g i o n d i d n o t end w i t h s c h o o l . The P r u s s i a n army had a l o n g t r a d i t i o n as " S c h o o l o f the N a t i o n , " and i n t he age o f e v e r - s p r e a d i n g s o c i a l i s m i t saw one o f i t s f i r s t t a s k s as t he c o n v e r s i o n i n t o l o y a l i m p e r i a l s u b j e c t s o f t ho se who p a s s e d t h r o u g h c o m p u l s o r y 58 m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . A f t e r 1893 r e s t r i c t i o n s i n t he armed f o r c e s on f r e e movement and t he a v a i l a b i l i t y o f newspapers and l i t e r a t u r e were combined w i t h heavy p e n a l t i e s a g a i n s t S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c a c t i v i t i e s , and a t t e m p t s 59 a t p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s and h i s t o r i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n . Even t h i s was n o t seen as enough. S i n c e t h e o f f i c e r c o r p s t h o u g h t t h e c h u r c h e s and c i v i l i a n s were n o t d o i n g an adequa te j o b f i g h t i n g S o c i a l Democracy, t h e army medd led i n t h e p o l i c e a f f a i r s , p r o s e c u t e d any s o c i a l i s t a g i t a t o r who had the s l i g h t e s t c o n t a c t w i t h m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l , and b r oke s t r i k e s w i t h e n t h u s i a s m . ^ 0 Whether m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g c o n t r i b u t e d ( u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y ) t o t he r e g u l a r i t y o f w o r k - h a b i t s i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c o v e r , though one m i gh t s p e c u l a t e t h a t t he c o n s t a n t r e i t e r a t i o n o f o b e d i e n c e and d u t y t o t h e n a t i o n must have r e i n f o r c e d t h e d u t y t o work ( w h i c h was an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t o f t he f o r m e r ) , and d a y - t o - d a y d r i l l a ccu s tomed t he w o r k e r t o monotony and p u n c t u a l i t y . However, F r a n z Rehbe in f ound army d i s c i p l i n e c o m p l e t e l y 61 a l i e n a t i n g , and speaks o f t h e c o n s t a n t hound i ng and m i s t r e a t m e n t . 39 V i s c i o u s b e h a v i o r by o f f i c e r s was n o t uncommon and i n c r e a s e d as t h e war app roached because o f t h e a p p a r e n t i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i r a n t i - s o c i a l i s t CO campa i gn s . B u t even a s t r o n g c o u n t e r r e a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f the s o l d i e r may n o t have been a b l e t o e l i m i n a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f c o n t i n u a l d i s c i p i i n e . The army f a i l e d t o h a l t t he ru sh o f new members t o t h e SPD. But f o r t he s i g n i f i c a n t number o f men who l o o k e d back on t h e i r s e r v i c e w i t h n o s t a l g i a r a t h e r t han h a t r e d , l i k e t he s o c i a l i s t w o r k e r s Pau l Gtihre met i n C h e m n i t z , a l a s t i n g d u a l l o y a l t y was c r e a t e d . G e n e r a l von C a p r i v i ( I m p e r i a l C h a n c e l l o r , 1890-94) a c u t e l y r e c o g n i z e d t he cause o f t h i s n o s t a l g i a : " . . . t h e y must have i n s t i n c t i v e l y f e l t t h a t , because t h e y must spend t h e i r l i v e s i n d u s t y , u n h e a l t h y w o r k s h o p s , t h i s t i m e o f s e r v i c e 64 was a p e r i o d o f r e c r e a t i o n f o r t h e m . " Few o f f i c e r s were so p e r c e p t i v e . On l y t h e F i r s t W o r l d War w o u l d e l u c i d a t e t he dep th o f p e n e t r a t i o n i n t he SPD o f s i m u l t a n e o u s and c o n t r a d i c t o r y l o y a l t i e s t o p a r t y and army. W r i t i n g i n d i smay i n 1915, t he German s o c i a l i s t A d o l f B raun r a t e d the " s o - c a l l e d n o n - p a r t y p r e s s " a l o n g s i d e t he s c h o o l s and t he army as one o f the t h r e e most i m p o r t a n t n o n - s o c i a l i s t i n f l u e n c e s on t h e o p i n i o n s o f 65 t he w o r k i n g c l a s s . The SPD p r e s s s e r v e d p r i m a r i l y an i n t r a - p a r t y , f u n c t i o n , p r e a c h i n g t o t h e c o n v e r t e d , so i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t many w o r k e r s , o r g a n i z e d o r n o t t u r n e d t o b o u r g e o i s newspapers f o r g e n e r a l news c o v e r a g e . Many S o c i a l Democrats r e a d l i t t l e more t han t h e p r e s s , a f a c t t h a t i s n o t o b v i o u s s i n c e a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s a r e i n e v i t a b l y w r i t t e n by t he more l i t e r a t e . . , But M o r i t z Bromme t a n t a l i z i n g l y men t i on s t he r e a d i n g h a b i t s o f many y o u n g e r w o r k e r s . T y p i c a l l y o n l y d e t e c t i v e , g i r l i e o r 40 g e n e r a l magaz ines were r e a d . A few husbands a l s o p u r c h a s e d t h e women's h o u s e h o l d magaz ine s f o r t h e i r w i v e s . ^ As t o d a y , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h i s s o r t o f p o p u l a r r e a d i n g on s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s must have been p e r v a s i ve . P o p u l a r ( K o l p o r t a g e ) l i t e r a t u r e was e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t . Two t y p e s o f cheap books seem t o have been w i d e l y c i r c u l a t e d : e s c a p i s t r o m a n t i c n o v e l s , and p a t r i o t i c h i s t o r i e s and b i o g r a p h i e s . The n o v e l s a r e f r e q u e n t l y CO m e n t i o n e d i n the a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s , h a v i n g e s p e c i a l l y p r o f o u n d i m p a c t on A d e l h e i d Popp. Books l i k e " R i n a l d o R i n a l d i n i , " " I s a b e l l a o f S p a i n , " "Mary S t u a r t " and " E m p e r o r ' s Son and B a r b e r ' s Daugh te r " p e r f o r m e d t he dua l f u n c t i o n o f e s c a p i s t f a n t a s y and s o c i a l i n d o c t r i n a t i o n . T h e i r c o n c e n t r a - t i o n on t h e a r i s t o c r a c y , o r on p o o r women m a r r y i n g p r i n c e s and r i c h m e r c h a n t s , c o n f i r m e d P o p p ' s c h i l d h o o d commitment t o t h e r u l i n g c l a s s e s 69 and t o f e m i n i n e s e x r o l e s . The n a t i o n a l i s t h i s t o r i e s p romoted p o l i t i c a l l o y a l t i e s even more b l a t a n t l y . Pau l Gbhre r e p o r t e d a f t e r h i s summer as a f a c t o r y w o r k e r i n 1890: "I f o u n d i n s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s . . . p a t r i o t i c b i o g r a p h i e s o f F r e d e r i c k I I I and W i l l i a m I i n t h e cheap w e l l - k n o w n penny pamph le t f o r m , a l t h o u g h t he heads o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s r anged t h e m s e l v e s o p e n l y w i t h t he s o c i a l - d e m o c r a t i c p a r t y . " 7 0 These books c o u l d o n l y have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f d u a l l o y a l t i e s t o t he SPD and t o t he monarchy and army t h a t Gflhre n o t e d . F r a n z Rehbe in a t t e s t s t o t h e i r c h i l d h o o d i n f l u e n c e : " A t home i n my v i l l a g e I had been r a i s e d i n an e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y p a t r i o t i c and r e l i g i o u s manner , and I l i k e d t o r e a d r e l i g i o u s and p a t r i o t i c h i s t o r i e s . " 7 1 W i t h o u t a t ho rough r e a d i n g o f the o r i g i n a l p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e 41 and p r e s s i t i s q u i t e i m p o s s i b l e t o e s t i m a t e t h e i r e f f e c t s on w o r k i n g - c l a s s a t t i t u d e s t o w o r k , j u s t as i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o know t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s f i e l d made by t he V o l k s s c h u l e and t h e army. A f t e r t h e work o f P e t e r 72 S t e a r n s i t i s h a r d t o deny t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t t r a d i t i o n a l customs r ema ined i n t he s phe re o f l a b o r b e f o r e t h e F i r s t Wo r l d War. A d a p t a t i o n t o i n d u s - t r i a l i z a t i o n was a l e n g t h y and complex p r o c e s s , and t he i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t he dominant c u l t u r e d i s c u s s e d he re c o u l d n o t e f f e c t i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y such a p r o f o u n d c u l t u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y when t he German r u l i n g e l i t e c o n t a i n e d many t h o r o u g h l y r e a c t i o n a r y e l e m e n t s who f e a r e d i n d u s - 73 t r i a l i z a t i o n i t s e l f . Y e t t he i m p a c t o f l a b o r , e d u c a t i o n , r e l i g i o n , the m i l i t a r y and p o p u l a r r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l on the m e n t a l i t i e s o f members o f t he w o r k i n g c l a s s i s u n d e n i a b l e . The n e v e r - e n d i n g r e i t e r a t i o n o f d i s c i p l i n e and o b e d i e n c e must have c o n t r i b u t e d t o i n d u s t r i a l w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e : t h e du t y t o work was an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t o f o n e ' s d u t y t o t h e s t a t e and s o c i e t y . I f s uch a work c u l t u r e d i d n o t empha s i ze t h e d i g n i t y o r j o y o f l a b o r , i t a t t he l e a s t i n s t i l l e d t h e u n r e s p e c t a b i l i t y o f i d l e n e s s and i r r e g u l a r i t y . The ne twork o f e t h i c s , v a l u e s and o p i n i o n s f o s t e r e d by c h i l d h o o d s o c i a l i z a t i o n c o u l d n o t e a s i l y be swept away by s o c i a l i s m . The o p p o s i t i o n c r e a t e d by t he SPD t o t h e o m n i p r e s e n t m i l i t a r i s m , u l t r a - n a t i o n a l i s m and a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m o f o f f i c i a l c u l t u r e was a d m i r a b l e , b u t even h e r e , as we have s e e n , i t was n o t a t ho r ough s u c c e s s . No such b reak was a t t e m p t e d w i t h t he work e t h i c . The p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l i s t c o n v e r s i o n and t he f a b r i c o f s o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g y r e i n f o r c e d t he commitment o f t h e S o c i a l Democrat t o w o r k , p r e c i s e l y by g i v i n g i t t h e d i g n i t y and i m p o r t a n c e i t o t h e r w i s e may 42 have l a c k e d . The r e a l i t y o f t h i s i r o n y can be r e a d i l y seen when one examines t he arguments o f p o p u l a r S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c i d e o l o g y (wh i ch fo rmed much o f t he i n i t i a l appea l o f s o c i a l i s m ) . Bruno B U r g e l , an e x - s o c i a l i s t w o r k e r , n e a t l y summar izes t h e o p i n i o n s o f many members o f t he w o r k i n g c l a s s : Work i s t he s o u r c e o f a l l w e a l t h and a l l c u l t u r e . We who do t h e g r e a t e s t p a r t o f t he work s h a r e l e a s t i n t h e f r u i t s o f l a b o r . We a r e b r o t h e r s , by b i r t h equa l t o one a n o t h e r . The e x i s t i n g c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e due t o t he u n f a v o u r - a b l e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e g r e a t masses . Nobody can o r s h o u l d be t h e m a s t e r o f anyone e l s e . Equa l r i g h t s , e q u a l d u t i e s , e q u a l s h a r e i n t he m a t e r i a l and c u l t u r a l b l e s s i n g s o f w o r k ! ^ 4 BUrge l c a s t s t h e s e i d e a s i n modera te t e r m s , b u t he does n o t d i s t o r t t h e i r e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s . The f i r s t l i n e i s t he i n i t i a l s e n t e n c e o f t h e SPD 75 Gotha program o f 1875, and i s n o t a M a r x i s t a rgument . Y e t " v u l g a r M a r x i s m " had e q u i v a l e n t c o n c e p t s . The l a b o r t h e o r y o f v a l u e , r e g a r d l e s s o f i t s r o l e i n M a r x ' s t h o u g h t , was t a k e n by many s o c i a l i s t s as the s c i e n t i f i c p r o o f t h a t t he w o r k e r s p e r f o r m e d a l l t h e u s e f u l l a b o r i n s o c i e t y . The " e x p l o i t a t i o n " o f the w o r k i n g c l a s s by c a p i t a l i s m f o r t he " s u r p l u s v a l u e " i t s l a b o r c r e a t e s o v e r t he amount p a i d i n wages was an i d e a i n j e c t e d w i t h s i m i l a r t one s o f i n j u s t i c e . C a p i t a l u n d e n i a b l y d e m o n s t r a t e d , t h e s e w o r k e r s b e l i e v e d , t h a t t he upper c l a s s e s l i v e d i d l y and i m m o r a l l y on the u n p a i d l a b o r o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t . 7 ^ Whether t he v o c a b u l a r y was drawn f r o m Ma rx , o r e c l e c t i c a l l y f r o m Las s a i l e and many o t h e r s , t he c e n t r a l c o r e o f p o p u l a r i d e o l o g y was t he same. The w o r k i n g c l a s s , t h r o u g h i t s l a b o r , was t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e 43 who le s o c i e t y , b u t i t r e c e i v e d l i t t l e o f t h e b e n e f i t , w h i l e the upper c l a s s e s l i v e d i n e x t r a v a g a n t i d l e n e s s on the t o i l o f the w o r k e r s . On l y equa l d i v i s i o n o f a l l work and i t s p r o d u c t s c o u l d remedy t h i s i n j u s t i c e . These i d e a s had immed ia te a p p e a l : t h e y v e r b a l i z e d t h e f e e l i n g o f m i s - t r e a t m e n t and e x p l o i t a t i o n f e l t on t he j o b , and i n German s o c i e t y as a w h o l e ; t h e y c r y s t a l l i z e d r e s e n t m e n t o f t h e r i c h ; and t hey c o n f i r m e d t h e wo r th o f each w o r k e r ' s l a b o r t h r ough c l a s s p r i d e and c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e s o c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t he w o r k i n g c l a s s . The i n i t i a l a t t r a c t i o n o f s o c i a l i s m was o v e r w h e l m i n g l y e t h i c a l , a theme w h i c h f i n d s c o n s t a n t r e a f f i r m a t i o n i n the a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s . The m i d d l e - c l a s s i n t e l l e c t u a l K a r l K a u t s k y and t h e a g r a r i a n l a b o r e r F r a n z Rehbe in t y p i f y t he i n t e l l e c t u a l deve lopment o f t he m i n o r i t y i n t h e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c movement who became i d e o l o g i c a l l y c o n v i n c e d M a r x i s t s . Both adhe red t o s o c i a l i s t t h o u g h t on e t h i c a l g r o u n d s , and o n l y r e j e c t e d an e c l e c t i c , e m o t i o n a l b r and o f s o c i a l i s m f o r " s c i e n t i f i c s o c i a l i s m " a f t e r many y e a r s o f r e a d i n g and s t u d y . 7 7 On l y a t i n y number o f u n i v e r s i t y - t r a i n e d i n t e l l e c t u a l s c o u l d p o s s i b l y have j o i n e d t he SPD o u t o f M a r x i s t c o n v i c t i o n . The a b i l i t y o f t h e movement t o a p p e a l t o t h e e m o t i o n s , and t o 78 i n s p i r e t o t a l i n v o l v e m e n t and commitment , made i t an e x c e l l e n t r e p l a c e - ment f o r t h e Church i n t h e l i v e s o f many w o r k e r s . The c o n v e r s i o n t o s o c i a l i s m was f r e q u e n t l y i n s e p a r a b l e f r om the l o s s o f r e l i g i o u s f a i t h and t he s e a r c h f o r a s u b s t i t u t e . Anna A l tmann had f o r m e r l y seen t h e a f t e r l i f e as t h e r ewa rd f o r t h e e n d l e s s s u f f e r i n g s o f the p r e s e n t , b u t when she d i s - c a r d e d t h i s b e l i e f h e r r e s e n t m e n t was i m m e d i a t e l y a r o u s e d a g a i n s t t h e 44< l u x u r y and i d l e n e s s o f t h e r i c h : I came t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i t was n o t j u s t i n t h a t ca se when t h e g r e a t mass o f t h e p e o p l e e x i s t m i s e r a b l y and go p e n n i l e s s t o an e a r l y g r a v e , w h i l e a few t hou sand l i v e r i o t o u s l y ( i n Saus und Braus l e b e n ) here on t h e e a r t h .79 " J u s t i c e " was t he key h e r e as e l s e w h e r e . S o c i a l i s m became a s e t o f mora l b e l i e f s w h i c h r e p l a c e d t he C h r i s t i a n mora l code l a r g e l y by a b s o r b i n g i t . The h a t r e d o f m a t e r i a l i n e q u a l i t i e s drew on t he New Tes tament t r a d i t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n e g a l i t a r i a n i s m . W i l h e l m Reimes g i v e s e l o q u e n t t e s t i m o n y o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t r a n s i t i o n : My g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e deve l opment b e g i n n i n g now was the t r u l y i n n e r c o n v i c t i o n o f t h e r e l i g i o u s s c r u p l e s w h i c h l a y i n m y s e l f and w h i c h I had a b s o r b e d f r o m my e n v i r o n m e n t . F o r t he economic and p o l i t i c a l g o a l s o f s o c i a l i s m , as f a r as we u n d e r s t o o d them, I was soon c o m p l e t e l y e n t h u s i a s t i c . I t was no u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i t h an h i s t o r i c a l o r o t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s ; I saw s o c i a l i s m i n t h i s l i g h t o n l y i n l a t e r y e a r s . I l e t m y s e l f be l e d by t h e n a t u r a l f e e l i n g t h a t i t was a d u t y t o s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t he i n j u s t i c e t h a t I saw, and t h i s f e e l i n g was i n harmony w i t h t h e b e s t o f t h e i n n e r r e l i g i o u s e m o t i o n s t h a t l i v e d on i n me d e s p i t e my o p p o s i t i o n t o the c h u r c h e s . 0 The s u b s t i t u t i o n o f s o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g y was a g r a d u a l b u t d i r e c t p r o c e s s . Reimes a t f i r s t s o u g h t t o u n i t e t he l e a d e r s o f t h e SPD w i t h God and an 81 a f t e r l i f e , t he f o r m e r a p p a r e n t l y t a k i n g t he p l a c e o f t h e c l e r g y as t he p r o p h e t s o f G o d ' s e a r t h l y j u s t i c e . R e l i g i o u s d u t y became t he s o c i a l i s t d u t y t o b a t t l e i n j u s t i c e , and t h e i d e a l s o f s o c i a l i s m r e s o n a t e d w i t h t h e 82 most d e e p l y s o c i a l i z e d r e l i g i o u s i m p u l s e s . 45 E r n s t P r e c z a n g had an e q u a l l y i d e a l i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e S o c i a l Democracy: In t he m o r n i n g , when I s a t , o f t e n o n l y h a l f - a w a k e , a t the t y p e - c a s e f i l l i n g t h e compos ing s t i c k w i t h l e t t e r s i n u n i f o r m arm movements, I a s ked m y s e l f s i l e n t l y : why a r e y o u d o i n g t h i s ? To l i v e . But do y o u l i v e t h e n when y o u a r e n o t p e r m i t t e d t o u t i l i z e y o u r powers a f t e r y o u r own i n c l i n a t i o n s ? When y o u r b e s t and s t r o n g e s t c r e a t i v e i m p u l s e must be f o r c i b l y s u p p r e s s e d and you a r e n o t p e r m i t t e d t o work w i t h j o y ? From t h e s e l o w l a n d s o f t he s p i r i t I was l i f t e d a g a i n and a g a i n by f a i t h i n s o c i a l i s m . I h e a r d Bebe l » t he o l d L i e b k n e c h t and t he o t h e r i n s p i r e d p r o p h e t s o f t he w o r l d l y w o r k e r s ' r e l i g i o n , I r e a d t he t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s and l e a r n e d t o know the v a l u e o f p r a c t i c a l spadework ( K l e i n a r b e i t ) , and I saw i n t he p o l i t i c a l and un i on movements t h e s l o w , l a b o r i o u s but s e c u r e advance o f the new s p i r i t w h i c h wou ld c onque r t he w o r l d . I t was f o r me, i t was f o r us a l l , t o o s l o w . Bu t we saw n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e way and t h e g o a l , and f e l t e x h a l t a t i o n and s o l a c e . A p u r e l y p o l i t i c a l o r e conomic a p p r a i s a l o f t he l a b o r move- ment does n o t s u f f i c e t o e x p l a i n i t s mean ing . F o r t en s o f t h o u s a n d s , i t has a l s o become a new s p i r i t u a l home; i t became f o r them a l i v e l y , j o y o u s meaning f o r e x i s t e n c e . . I v a l u e d c h i e f l y t he s p i r i t u a l i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e movement and t h e i r s h a r e i n a new i n t e l l e c t u a l c u l t u r e w h i c h s h a l l a r i s e f r o m the dep th s o f t he p e o p l e . F reedom, e q u a l i t y , j u s t i c e - - t h e y a r e and were f o r me n o t o n l y p o l i t i c a l , b u t R _ above a l l h u m a n - e t h i c a l ( m e n s c h l i c h - e t h i s c h e ) p o s t u l a t e s . P r e c z a n g ' s i n t e n s e i d e a l i s m was d r i v e n , a c c o r d i n g t o h i s own t e s t i m o n y , by t h e i n a b i l i t y t o f i n d c r e a t i v e o u t l e t s on t he j o b . As w i t h many S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c w o r k e r s , d i s l i k e o f h i s work grew n o t o u t o f an u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o l a b o r . On t he c o n t r a r y , i t was e x a c t l y t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f what work s h o u l d be i n c o n t r a s t t o what i t i n f a c t was t h a t p r o v o k e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . The movement was t he new C h u r c h , t he "new s p i r i t u a l home," whose c o n c e r n f o r the u p l i f t i n g and e d u c a t i o n o f t h e masses p r o v e d i t s mora l n a t u r e , and whose a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d e d meaning and h a p p i n e s s t o P r e c z a n g ' s l i f e t o f i l l 46 t h e v o i d l e f t by h i s u n s a t i s f y i n g work . Above a l l i t p r o m i s e d t h e i n e v i - t a b l e v i c t o r y o f f r e e d o m , e q u a l i t y and j u s t i c e i n t h e f u t u r e , a f u t u r e p r e s u m a b l y , i n w h i c h one c o u l d work w i t h " j o y . " T h i s v i s i o n o f t h e s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y , t h e Z u k u n f t s s t a a t , f i l l e d an i m p o r t a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l need o f many a new r e c r u i t . O t t o K r i l l e 84 e x p r e s s l y compared i t t o heaven . H e i n r i c h Pau l D i k r e i t e r c l a i m s : I t was t h e i d e a o f t h e Z u k u n f t s s t a a t t h a t r u l e d t h e minds o f t h e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c w o r k e r s a t t h a t t i m e . The g l o w i n g p i c t u r e o f a s o c i a l o r d e r , i n w h i c h t h e r e wou ld be no more want o r p o v e r t y , e x e r t e d o v e r me, as i t d i d o v e r t hou s and s upon t hou sand s o f o t h e r s , a deep and l a s t i n g i m p r e s s i o n .°5 In one o f Wenzel H o l e k ' s e a r l y g roup s t h e members wou ld spend t h e i r 86 e v e n i n g s f a n t a s i z i n g abou t t h i s f u t u r e i f n o t g i v e n s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p . Not a l l S o c i a l Democrats used t h e movement as a r e l i g i o n - s u b s t i t u t e . The c o m p l a i n t o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i n an a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l n o v e l by t h e s o c i a l i s t w o r k e r , A l f o n s P e t z o l d , i s r e v e a l i n g . Because o f f a v o r i t i s m , b r i b e r y and a r b i t r a r y d i s m i s s a l i n t h e f a c t o r y : " I t was i m p o s s i b l e f o r anyone t o o b t a i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n , and w i t h i t a h i g h e r p a y , t h r o u g h an hone s t f u l f i l l m e n t o f o n e ' s d u t i e s . " 8 7 A l t h o u g h w o r k e r s were " d i l i g e n t 88 and w i l l i n g " t h e y were f i r e d because t h e y were u n i o n i s t s o r s o c i a l i s t s . S t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a n g e r a t i n j u s t i c e on t h e j o b m o t i v a t e d t h e w r i t e r ' s a dhe rence t o s o c i a l i s m - - a s i t d i d f o r many. A g a i n i t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t t h i s f e e l i n g o f u n j u s t t r e a t m e n t s p r ang f r om an i d e a l o f what work s h o u l d be . P e t z o l d had t h o r o u g h l y a c c e p t e d t h e d u t y t o w o r k , f o r t h e o r i g i n o f h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was t h a t t h e " h o n e s t f u l f i l l m e n t o f o n e ' s d u t i e s " was 47 n o t r ewarded by f a i r t r e a t m e n t . M o r i t z Bromme s l i p p e d r a t h e r e a s i l y i n t o s o c i a l i s m a t t he end o f h i s t een s s i n c e he had been e xpo sed t o i t by h i s f a t h e r f r om an e a r l y age , and was now an u n s k i l l e d w o r k e r u n a b l e t o f i l l h i s d e s i r e t o become a s k i l l e d c r a f t s m a n . S o c i a l i s t and un i on a c t i v i t y compensated f o r h i s u n s a t i s f y i n g w o r k , h i s n a g g i n g and uneduca ted w i f e , and the g r e a t 89 f i n a n c i a l bu rden o f a r a p i d l y g r ow ing f a m i l y . The d a y - t o - d a y work o f e l e c t i o n c a m p a i g n s , p a r t y m e e t i n g s and un i on o r g a n i z i n g s e r v e d as an e s s e n t i a l l y male l e i s u r e - t i m e e s cape f r om home, and a l s o gave meaning to h i s l i f e , f o r each s m a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e p a r t y had mora l o v e r t o n e s : i t was one more s t e p toward s t he f i n a l g o a l . To i t s members the S o c i a l Democracy was above a l l a mora l movement, one t h a t was s t r u g g l i n g t o a c h i e v e t h e i d e a l s o f f r e e d o m , e q u a l i t y and j u s t i c e i n t h e government and i n t h e wo r k shop . The work e t h i c was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h i s We l t an s chauung i n t h a t i t was s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a p o i n t o f a t t a c k on t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r d e r and a l i n k t o t he p r e v i o u s l y i n d o c t r i n a t e d v iews o f t he dominant c u l t u r e . The i r o n i c and c o n t r a d i c t o r y n a t u r e o f e t h i c s i n t he s o c i a l i s t s u b - c u l t u r e can be r e a d i l y seen i n t he d e s i r e o f many s t r o n g S o c i a l Democrats f o r s o c i a l " r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . " H i s t o r i a n s o f t he B r i t i s h w o r k i n g c l a s s have a l r e a d y emp loyed t h i s c o n c e p t f r u i t f u l l y . One o f them, G e o f f r e y B e s t , has g i v e n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n : " R e s p e c t a b i l i t y was a s t y l e o f l i v i n g u n d e r s t o o d t o show a p r o p e r r e s p e c t f o r m o r a l s and m o r a l i t y ; u s u a l l y i t meant some deg ree o f f o r m a l C h r i s t i a n - i t y , b u t y o u c o u l d be r e s p e c t a b l e and v a l u e y o u r r e s p e c t a b i l i t y w i t h o u t 90 b e i n g a C h r i s t i a n . " 48 Why w o u l d a s o c i a l i s t m i l i t a n t want t o be r e s p e c t a b l e ? On t h i s q u e s t i o n many answers a r e p r o v i d e d by A d e l h e i d Popp, who r o s e f r o m the dep th s o f t he w o r k i n g c l a s s i n t o t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f the G e r m a n - A u s t r i a n S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y . The e x c e r p t q u o t e d a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f o r m a t i v e . When she began a c t i v e a g i t a t i o n i n h e r f a c t o r y t he need f o r s i n g u l a r d i l i g e n c e and a p p l i c a t i o n i n h e r d u t i e s was o b v i o u s : t h e y were an a b s o l u t e n e c e s s i t y i f she was t o r ema in emp l o yed . I d e n t i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s p r e v a i l e d t h r o u g h o u t German i n d u s t r y ; s o c i a l i s t s and u n i o n men were f i r e d f o r no o t h e r r e a s o n than t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n s . R e s p e c t a b i l i t y on t he j o b c o u l d m e r e l y be a r o l e assumed i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n a l i v i n g . I n d e e d , one h i s t o r i a n o f t h e E n g l i s h w o r k i n g c l a s s has c o n t e s t e d B e s t ' s b e l i e f t h a t r e s p e c t a b l e b e h a v i o r was a w i d e l y a c c e p t e d norm w i t h t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t i t s e r v e d p r i m a r i l y as c o n v e n i e n t c amou f l a ge t o e n a b l e t h e w o r k e r s t o 91 l i v e as t h e y wanted t o . Undoub ted l y t h i s was t h e ca se f o r some German w o r k e r s , bu t P o p p ' s a t t i t u d e i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t was n o t t r u e f o r many S o c i a l Democra t s . She s t a t e s : "I was p a i n f u l l y c o n s c i e n t i o u s i n my w o r k ; the c o n v i c t i o n had i n s t i n c t i v e l y come t o me t h a t i f one w i s h e d t o 92 s e r v e a g r e a t cause one must a lway s do o n e ' s d u t y i n s m a l l t h i n g s . " She moves q u i t e u n c o n s c i o u s l y f r o m the s i t u a t i o n a l n e c e s s i t y t o t he i d e o l o g i c a l d e s i r a b i l i t y o f d i l i g e n t l a b o r . Her commitment t o t he work e t h i c seems q u i t e u n f o r c e d : When I . . . was chosen t o d e v o t e a l l my t ime t o t he o r g a n i z a t i o n among w o r k i n g women, and h e l p work a t a newspaper f o r w o r k i n g women, I r e c e i v e d a t e s t i m o n i a l f r om my m a n u f a c t u r e r t h a t p r a i s e d my d i l i g e n c e and e x t r a o r d i n a r y a p p l i c a t i o n . He handed i t t o me w i t h the w o r d s : ' I w i s h y o u may f i n d as much a p p r e c i a t i o n i n y o u r new s p h e r e o f w o r k ' . 9 3 49 P o p p ' s C a t h o l i c u p b r i n g i n g and t e r r i b l e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h c h i l d l a b o r have been n o t e d e a r l i e r . S i n c e t h e s e f a c t o r s were more l i k e l y t o i n c u l c a t e an a m b i v a l e n t a t t i t u d e t o w o r k , the cause o f h e r q u e s t f o r j o b r e s p e c t a b i l i t y must be s ough t i n h e r s o c i a l i s t w o r l d - v i e w . A l t h o u g h she became a l e a d e r o f an " o r t h o d o x " M a r x i s t p a r t y , t he movement t o h e r was a l a r g e l y mo ra l and e t h i c a l o n e , w h i c h ( a t l e a s t u n c o n s c i o u s l y ) r e p l a c e d t he Church i n h e r l i f e . "When I e n t e r e d the s a l e s r o o m o f the S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c p a r t y f o r t he f i r s t t i m e , I f e l t as though I were 94 e n t e r i n g a s a n c t u a r y . " And she ends t he book w i t h h e r i m p r i s o n m e n t f o r s o c i a l i s t a g i t a t i o n : On my bed I f a n c i e d I was l y i n g on s t o n e s and my l i m b s ached f r om t h e h a r d n e s s ; b u t no t h o u g h t o f r e p e n t a n c e came t o me. My c o n f i d e n c e was d e e p - r o o t e d t h a t the s a y i n g o f George H e r w e g h ' s , w h i c h so o f t e n adorns t h e w a l l s a t workmen ' s f e s t i v a l s , w o u l d be r e a l i s e d by t he v i c t o r i o u s power o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a n s t r u g g l e f o r f r e e d o m : — 'What do we d e s i r e o f t he d i s t a n t f u t u r e ? Tha t we may be p r o v i d e d w i t h b r e a d and w o r k ; T h a t o u r c h i l d r e n may l e a r n i n t he s c h o o l s ; And t h a t o u r o l d p e o p l e may n o t go b e g g i n g . ' Who r e a l l y d e s i r e s t o h e l p make He rwegh ' s words r e a l i t y must s h r i n k f rom no d i f f i c u l t y . The goa l i s w o n d e r f u l l y b e a u t i f u l ; i t i s so p r o m i s i n g t h a t s t r e n g t h can be f ound t o conque r any d i f f i c u l t y i n the way. I f I have s u c c e e d e d i n h e l p i n g t h i s epd i n my modest w o r k , t hen I have a c h i e v e d my a i m . " 5 P o p p ' s s e l f - i m a g e i s mode led on t he C h r i s t i a n m a r t y r , w i t h s o c i a l i s m i n - s t e a d o f heaven as t he t r a n s c e n d e n t g o a l . A g a i n t h e c r u c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l 50 s i g n i f i c a n c e o f o n e ' s own c o n t r i b u t i o n , however s m a l l , t o t he a c h i e v e m e n t o f j u s t i c e , e q u a l i t y and f r eedom i s e v i d e n t . To d e d i c a t e d S o c i a l Democrats t h e i r work f o r t he p a r t y o r un i on s was f o r a m o r a l l y s u p e r i o r movement, and t h e y had both t h e r i g h t t o c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s , and the d u t y t o be mora l and r e s p e c t a b l e p e r s o n s . 96 Sma l l deeds became i n f u s e d w i t h a h i g h mora l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Each was a b r i c k i n t he c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e e d i f i c e o f s o c i a l i s m . The d a i l y , e s s e n t i a l l y r e f o r m i s t e f f o r t s o f t he p a r t y o r u n i o n o f f i c i a l r e c e i v e d p o w e r f u l impetu s because t h e y were c o n t r i b u t i o n s , however i n d e f i n i t e , t o t h e u l t i m a t e a i m . T h i s e x a c e r b a t e d t he danger s o f b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n and t he d i v i s i o n ( b a s i c t o the who l e p a r t y ) between r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e o l o g y and r e f o r m i s t p r a c t i s e . Once e l e v a t e d t o such a p o s i t i o n o f i m p o r t a n c e , t he K l e i n a r b e i t o f t he o f f i c i a l t e n d e d t o o b s c u r e the goa l f o r w h i c h i t was b e i n g p e r f o r m e d . E q u a l l y , t he m o r a l i t y o f each a c t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o t he need and d e s i r e f o r r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . F o r s o c i a l i s t s d i d n o t e x i s t i n a v a c u u m — t h e y had t o s t r u g g l e i n a h o s t i l e e n v i r o n m e n t , i n a s o c i e t y w h i c h c l a s s e d them as beyond t h e p a l e . To a f f i r m t h e i r own w o r t h and t o p r ove t o t he r e s t o f t he s o c i a l body t h a t t h e y were s e r v i n g a g r e a t cause r e q u i r e d mora l and r e s p e c t a b l e b e h a v i o r , the p e r f o r m a n c e o f o n e ' s " d u t y , " as Popp s a y s . I d l e n e s s o r a bohemian manner w o u l d o n l y c o n f i r m t he o p i n i o n s o f t h e m i d d l e and upper c l a s s e s . Bu t mora l e x c e l l e n c e — t h e z e a l o u s e x e c u t i o n o f s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s - - w o u l d h e l p t o d e m o n s t r a t e s o c i a l i s m ' s s u p e r i o r i t y . S o c i a l Democrats c o u l d t h e r e b y l o o k a s kance a t the b e h a v i o r o f t he upper c l a s s e s , as i n t he p o p u l a r v i e w o f w o r k , w h i c h condemned them f o r i d l e n e s s and p r a - i s ed t he w o r k i n g c l a s s as t h e Si- f o u n d a t i o n o f s o c i e t y . The SPD t a u g h t i t s a d h e r e n t s t o a c c e p t t he l a b e l " w o r k e r " w i t h p r i d e , a s t a t u s O t t o K r i l l e and A d e l h e i d Popp had e a r l i e r 97 f ound s h a m e f u l . C l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s had a d u a l - e d g e d e f f e c t : i t c r e a t e d new members f o r a s o c i a l l y s u b v e r s i v e movement ( i n t h e eye s o f bo th s i d e s ) w h i l e r e i n f o r c i n g many a s p e c t s o f t h e mora l code so e n e r g e t i c a l l y i n c u l c a t e d by t he dominan t c u l t u r e . In t h i s l i g h t P o p p ' s d e v o t i o n t o work and d e s i r e f o r r e s p e c t a b i l i t y a r e much more comprehens i b l e . The i m p o r t a n t c u l t u r a l and e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t o f t h e S o c i a l Democracy f u r t h e r b o l s t e r e d t he s e l f - i m a g e s o f t he movement and i t s members. The A r b e i t e r b i l d u n g s v e r e i n e and t he o t h e r c l u b s and a s s o - c i a t i o n s o f t he s u b c u l t u r e p r o v i d e d a b r o a d range o f a c t i v i t i e s , d i s c u s s i o n s and l e c t u r e s w h i c h f o s t e r e d t h e " e t h i c o f s e l f - i m p r o v e m e n t " i n t he w o r k i n g c l a s s . T r y g ve T h o l f s e n ' s a r t i c l e on r e s p e c t a b i l i t y i n m i d - V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n p i n p o i n t s t h a t e t h i c , as adop ted by r a d i c a l workmen, as e s s e n t i a l t o t he v i c t o r y o f t h e c u l t u r a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s o f 98 o f t he p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s e s . E d u c a t i o n and s e l f - i m p r o v e m e n t c o n t r i b u t e d t o the m o r a l i t y o f e a ch a c t i o n by c o n f i r m i n g i t s w o r t h , and s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e d o c t r i n e o f s e l f h e l p and mora l improvement p r e a c h e d 99 by t he m i d d l e c l a s s e s , even w h i l e e m p l o y i n g i t f o r w o r k i n g - c l a s s e n d s . The German w o r k e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s o p e r a t e d i n the c o n t e x t o f much g r e a t e r c l a s s h o s t i l i t y , b u t c o n t a i n e d t he same c o n t r a d i c t i o n . The e n l i g h t e n m e n t o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s was d i r e c t e d v e r y much a t g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , and r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l a ims ( t h e a t t a c k on mona r ch i sm , a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m and m i l i t a r i s m ) were n e g l e c t e d i n t h e a t t e m p t t o t e a c h e v e r y t h i n g . 1 0 0 More 52 c r u c i a l l y , t he e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f the S o c i a l Democracy r e i n f o r c e d t he s t r u c t u r e o f r e s p e c t a b i l i t y a t e v e r y p o i n t : i t r e a f f i r m e d i n t h e minds o f i t s members t he mora l n a t u r e and s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e movement; i t b o l s t e r e d t he s e l f - i m a g e o f t he s o c i a l i s t as a r e s p e c t a b l e p e r s o n ; and i t c o n f i r m e d , t h r ough i t s u n c r i t i c a l t e a c h i n g o f K u l t u r , some o f t he e t h i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s o f t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e r u l i n g c l a s s e s . The r e a c t i o n o f S o c i a l Democrats may be u n d e r s t o o d even more c l e a r l y i f t he v i t u p e r a t i o n d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t them i s e x a m i n e d . I f t h e y o f t e n s e t o u t t o p r o v e t h e y were good w o r k e r s i t was a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y because o f t he c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f p a r t y members as d i s s i p a t e d i d l e r s o r bomb - t h r ow ing a n a r c h i s t s by uneduca ted p u b l i c o p i n i o n . A t y p i c a l e a r l y v i ew appea red i n the S c h l e s w i g Government A m t s b l a t t f o r J u l y 1872: Eve ryone s h o u l d know what t o t h i n k o f p a r t y e m i s s a r i e s who do n o t h e s i t a t e t o g l o r i f y t he b l o o d y c r i m e s p e r - p e t r a t e d by the Commune i n March o f 1 8 7 1 - - r o b b e r y , p l u n d e r i n g , e x t o r t i o n , murde r , g l u t t o n y , a r s o n . T h e i r a im i s t o o v e r t h r o w e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s v e n e r a b l e , s a c r e d and d e a r t o u s - - f a t h e r l a n d , t h r o n e , a l t a r , custom and l a w - - a n d t o r e p l a c e the h e a r t h a t home w i t h the a l e - h o u s e - b e n c h , t o d i s s o l v e p r o p e r t y and p o s s e s - s i o n s and t o t u r n l a b o r , w h i c h i s t he n o u r i s h e r o f n a t i o n s , i n t o a t o o l o f a m b i t i o u s p a r t y l e a d e r s . But above a l l , work and mak ing a l i v i n g a r e d e p r e c a t e d , t he t r u s t between emp loye r s and w o r k e r s i s d e s t r o y e d , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s a r o u s e d and k i n d l e d t h r ough s t r i k e s , the i n c l i n a t i o n s t o i n d u l g e i n s l o t h f u l n e s s , t o f r e q u e n t p u b s , t o j o i n s e d i t i o u s , f r u i t l e s s a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e f u r t h e r e d . . . The image f o rmed i n t he s e v e n t i e s c o n t i n u e d f o r s e v e r a l d e c a d e s . As p a r t o f t he a n t i - s o c i a l i s t p ropaganda r e g u l a r l y d i s p e n s e d i n s c h o o l s , M o r i t z Bromme's c l a s s r e c e i v e d t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n f r om t h e i r t e a c h e r : 53 The re i s now a s o r t o f men, who c a l l t h e m s e l v e s S o c i a l D e m o c r a t s . They want t o d e s t r o y m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y l i f e , do away w i t h t h e s t a t e and t h e k i n g s , and a b o l i s h a l l p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , so t h a t t h e p r e s e n t i n - t e l l i g e n t p r o p e r t y - o w n e r w i l l have t o c a r r y manure and c a r t sand i n t h e p l a c e o f t h e s e r v a n t ( K n e c h t ) . w h i l e t h i s uneduca ted man t a k e s t h e o w n e r ' s p l a c e . 1 0 2 The p i c t u r e p r e s e n t e d i n bo th e x c e r p t s i s s i m i l a r . S o c i a l Democrats oppose e v e r y v a l u e h e l d by t h e m i d d l e and upper c l a s s e s : mona r chy , c h u r c h , p r o p e r t y , n a t i o n , l aw and wo rk . They a r e d e p r a v e d c r i m i n a l s who i n d u l g e e v e r y e x c e s s and w i s h t o smash a l l t h e p r op s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . They a r e s u b v e r s i v e o f s e x u a l m o r a l i t y and d e c e n c y , f o r t h e y w i s h t o d i s - s o l v e m a r r i a g e and t h e f a m i l y , t h e y t h r e a t e n a l l o r d e r w i t h t h e i r o p - p o s i t i o n t o t h e k i n g , t o p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and t h e r u l e o f l a w , and t h e y a r e l a z y , i g n o r a n t men who w i s h t o u s u r p t h e p l a c e o f t h e " i n t e l l i g e n t p r o p e r t y owne r " and f o r c e him t o p e r f o r m d e g r a d i n g manual l a b o r . " K n e c h t " i s e s p e c i a l l y s u g g e s t i v e . The image o f a S o c i a l Democrat he re i s v e r y J u n k e r i n o r i g i n : t h e s t u p i d , r e b e l l i o u s and s l o t h f u l f a rm-hand who wou ld l i k e t o make h i s m a s t e r c a r t sand and manure. S o c i a l i s m and r e s p e c t a b i l i t y were i r r e c o n c i l a b l e t o t h e r u l i n g c l a s s e s , bu t t h a t d i d n o t p r e v e n t S o c i a l Democrats f r om t r y i n g t o c o n - t r a d i c t t h e h y s t e r i a o f o f f i c i a l p r o p a g a n d a . The i m p u l s e t o work was p a r t i c u l a r l y a b e t t e d , f o r a c c u s a t i o n s o f l a z i n e s s were n o r m a l . In 1896 O t t o B u c h w i t z , t h e n n o t a s o c i a l i s t , r e f u s e d t o be a s t r i k e - b r e a k e r , whereupon h i s e m p l o y e r . . . p r o p h e s i e d t o me t h a t I wou ld come t o a bad end i f I d i d n o t s e p a r a t e m y s e l f f r om t h e ' w o r k - s h y r e d s ' ( ' a r b e i t s s c h e u e n R o t e n 1 ) . . . In s p i t e o f t h i s I r e - ma ined w i t h t h e m a s t e r and a s ked him i f he c o u l d n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e s t r i k e r s were n o t i d l e r s . . .103 54- The " c r i m i n a l i t y " o f S o c i a l Democrats was t h e s econd a s p e c t o f a n t i - s o c i a l i s m w h i c h had g r e a t i m p a c t . F r i t z Pauk was s u r p r i s e d when he met h i s f i r s t p a r t y member abou t 1903, s i n c e the l a t t e r was a v e r y good w o r k - man, whereas Pauk t h o u g h t " t h a t a l l S o c i a l Democrats were c r i m i n a l s and vagabonds , as t h e newspapers and pamph le t s s a i d . . . " 1 0 4 L i k e t he du t y t o w o r k , r e s p e c t f o r law and o b e d i e n c e t o a u t h o r i t y was u n c e a s i n g l y ham- mered i n t o t he s o c i a l i s t i n h i s y o u t h by t h e s c h o o l , c h u r c h , f a m i l y and work shop . Now l a b e l l e d a c r i m i n a l , he r e sponded by e m p h a s i z i n g h i s m o d e r a t i o n and r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . Pau l Gtthre met one s o c i a l i s t w o r k e r d u r i n g h i s s o j o u r n i n Chemn i t z who s a i d : We d o n ' t a l l want t o be l i k e t h e r i c h and t h e g r e a t . There w i l l a lway s be r i c h and p o o r . Tha t d o e s n ' t come i n t o o u r heads . Bu t we want f a i r e r and b e t t e r r e g u l a t i o n s i n t he works and t h e commun i ty , and I speak my mind about i t w h e t h e r i t s u i t s o r n o t . But I w i l l n e v e r do a n y t h i n g a g a i n s t t he l aw.105 A n o t h e r echoed h im: . . . r e l i g i o n may have been a l l r i g h t and u s e f u l , even n e c e s s a r y when men w e r e n ' t so f a r a l o n g , b u t n o t now. Now we have l a w s . Whoever keeps i n s i d e t he l aw i s a r e s p e c t a b l e man, whoever d o e s n ' t i s a r a s c a l . 1 ° 6 In a c e r t a i n sense t h e phenomenon o f s o c i a l i s t " r e s p e c t a b i l i t y " was l i m i t e d s i n c e i t t ook p l a c e w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f a r a d i c a l i d e o l o g y . No p r e t e n c e was made by t he p a r t y o f r e s p e c t i n g monarchy and r e l i g i o n , n o r t he o m n i p r e s e n t u l t r a - n a t i o n a l i s m o f I m p e r i a l Germany. They were t he most h i g h l y v i s i b l e symbo l s o f the r u l i n g o r d e r , and S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c o p p o s i t i o n was t h e e s s e n t i a l p r e - c o n d i t i o n f o r a m i l i t a n t c l a s s 55 c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A g a i n s t m i l i t a r i s m and t he Churches t he SPD made some o f i t s g r e a t e s t e f f o r t s and most l a s t i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n s , b u t d i d n o t s u c c e e d i n c o m p l e t e l y e l e m i n a t i n g t h e s u b t l e i n f l u e n c e s o f e i t h e r f r om the minds o f i t s f o l l o w e r s and l e a d e r s . Bu t he re t he t a c k was i d e o l o g i c a l r e s i s t a n c e . On work and l e g a l i t y t he r e s p o n s e was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . These v a l u e s were adop ted and t u r n e d a g a i n s t t h e p ropaganda o f t he r u l i n g c l a s s e s t o s t r e n g t h e n c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s f u r t h e r . The m o r a l i t y o f t he movement was d i s p l a y e d i n the mora l b e h a v i o r o f i t s members: t h e i d l e and c r i m i n a l n a t u r e o f S o c i a l Democrats was shown t o be l a u g h a b l y f a l s e . The work e t h i c thus o p e r a t e d i n a c o n t r a d i c t o r y and d u a l - s i d e d manner i n the s o c i a l i s t s u b c u l t u r e . I t was a b l y employed i n the c r e a t i o n o f a s t r o n g w o r k i n g - c l a s s movement, b u t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y and u n - c o n s c i o u s l y t h e b e l i e f i n work and s e l f - i m p r o v e m e n t t i e d t he s o c i a l i s t more d e e p l y i n t o t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m t o w h i c h he was h o s t i l e . W h i l e i t was t he b a s i s f o r p r o t e s t , i t a l s o s e r v e d t o r e i n f o r c e t h e d u t y t o l a b o r d i l i g e n t l y , and t h e q u e s t f o r r e s p e c t a b i l i t y o n l y m a g n i f i e d t h i s e l e m e n t . G r e a t i m p r o v e m e n t s , n a t u r a l l y , were demanded o f f a c t o r y work , b u t w i t h i n t he c o n t e x t o f t he i n d u s t r i a l s y s t e m and t he i d e a l o f r e g u l a r , c o n s t a n t 107 and l i m i t e d l a b o r . S i m i l a r l y , l e g a l i t y e n a b l e d t he e x i s t e n c e o f a r a d i c a l mass p a r t y , b u t s a n c t i o n e d t he r e f o r m i s t e l e m e n t s o f t he SPD ' s p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e , and t h e l e g a l p a t h t o power. The r e s pon se s o f t h e s o c i a l i s t s u b c u l t u r e t o t he dominant c u l t u r e can be d i v i d e d i n t o two b r oad c a t e g o r i e s . The i s s u e s o f o p p o s i t i o n between the two c u l t u r e s , w h i c h f u n c t i o n e d as d e f i n i t e d e m a r c a t i o n s o f c l a s s l i n e s , c o r r e s p o n d e d t o the n e g a t i v e s i d e o f " n e g a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n " 56 and t o r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e o l o g y ; the i s s u e s o f a d a p t a t i o n , i n w h i c h t h e v i ews o f t h e r u l i n g c l a s s e s were a d a p t e d t o w o r k i n g - c l a s s ends ( l i k e the work e t h i c ) c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e i n t e g r a t i v e a s p e c t and t o r e f o r m i s t p r a c t i c e . The f o r m e r i s s u e s were t he more v i s i b l e and s e r v e d t o m a i n t a i n t he c l a s s c l e a v a g e i n German s o c i e t y , b u t were s e e m i n g l y l e s s t ho rough i n t h e i r p e n e t r a t i o n o f t h e movement. The l a t t e r i s s u e s were a l l t he more c r u c i a l because t h e y o p e r a t e d l a r g e l y u n c o n s c i o u s l y , and d i d n o t r e q u i r e so r a d i c a l a b reak f r om the p a s t on t he p a r t o f t he new r e c r u i t . To the e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h i s p r o c e s s was e f f e c t i v e , i t was a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t he e v e n t u a l v i c t o r y o f r e f o r m i s m i n t h e SPD t h a t was d i f f i c u l t t o a v o i d s i n c e i t emerged n a t u r a l l y f r o m s i t u a t i o n a l n e c e s s i t y . The s o c i a l i s t a t t i t u d e t o l a b o r p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e , f o r t h e r e was l i t t l e t h a t was more i m p o r t a n t t o t he w o r k e r than h i s r e l a t i o n t o h i s wo rk . A t e v e r y p o i n t t he w o r t h o f l a b o r was r e e m p h a s i z e d by the s o c i a l i s t ' s e n v i r o n m e n t , even when he t u r n e d t o t he c o m p l e x i t i e s o f o f f i c i a l p a r t y i d e o l o g y . , To e l u c i d a t e the l a t t e r i s o u r n e x t t a s k . 57 REFERENCES A d e l h e i d Popp , A u t o b i o g r a p h y o f a Work ing Woman ( London , 1 912 ) , ' 'The a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s seem t o have been i n s p i r e d p a r t l y by t he p a r t y ' s encouragement o f w o r k e r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , p a r t l y as a means o f p r o p a g a n d a , and p a r t l y t h r o u g h m i d d l e - c l a s s and academic c o n c e r n abou t the e f f e c t s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n on the p s y c h o l o g y o f t he w o r k i n g c l a s s e s . The number o f them i s too g r e a t and l a r g e l y i n a c c e s s i b l e t o a l l o w a com- p r e h e n s i v e s u r v e y . T h e r e f o r e I have chosen a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n a u t o b i o g - r a p h i e s o f S o c i a l Democrats f r om a v a r i e t y o f c l a s s b a c k g r o u n d s . These were s upp l emen ted by Wo l f gang Emmer i c h ' s e d i t e d s e l e c t i o n f rom some n i n e t y w o r k i n g c l a s s a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s , P r o l e t a r i s c h e L e b e n s l f l u f e : A u t o b i o g r a p h i s c h e Dokumente z u r E n t s t e h u n g d e r ZweTten K u l t u r i n D e u t s c h l a i i d . Band 1: Anfclnge b i s 1914 : (Hamburg, 1974 ) . H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as L e b e n s i a u f e . A l s o u s e f u l was a p e r c e p t i v e s t u d y o f w o r k i n g c l a s s c u l t u r e i n Chemn i t z by an o u t s i d e r , P a u l Gt ih re , i n Th ree Months i n a Workshop. Gflhre p r o d u c e d t h i s book a f t e r s p e n d i n g the summer o f 1890 as an u n s k i l l e d w o r k e r i n a m a c h i n e - b u i l d i n g f a c t o r y . He was , a t t h e t i m e , a t h e o l o g y s t u d e n t and had an e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t i n g c a r e e r . In t he n i n e t i e s he was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a r i o u s E v a n g e l i c a l - S o c i a l movements unde r A l f r e d S t o e c k e r and F r i e d r i c h Naumann. In 1901 t he i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e e f f o r t s d r o ve h im t o j o i n t h e SPD and he was e x p e l l e d f r om the L u t h e r a n c h u r c h as a r e s u l t . He j o i n e d t he r e v i s i o n i s t w i n g and went on t o e d i t many o f t he most i m p o r t a n t a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s used i n t h i s c h a p t e r . 3 M o r i t z Th . W. Bromme, L e b e n s g e s c h i c h t e e i n e s modernen F a b r i k a r b e i i t e r s , Ed. Pau l Gohre ( 1905 ; r p t . F r a n k f u r t a . M . , 1 9 7 1 ) , 2 7 , 5 8 , 6 5 - 7 0 , 7 3 - 7 8 , 84 . 4 S t e a r n s , L i v e s o f L a b o r , 4 8 , 5 2 - 5 5 , 66 . 5 Bromme, L e b e n s g e s c h i c h t e , 8 9 - 9 0 , 1 0 4 - 1 0 5 , 108 , 1 12 - 113 , 1 15 - 116 , 124, 129 -130 , m^TST. 6 I b i d . , 121. I b i d . , 110. I b i d . , 248. O t t i l i e B a a d e r , E i n s t e i r i i g e r Weg: L e b e n s e r i n n e r u n g e n ( S t u t t q a r t and B e r l i n , 1 921 ) , 7, 10-157 a — 1 0 I b i d . , 16. U I b i d . , 7. 58 1 2 P o p p , A u t o b i o g r a p h y , 1 5 - 1 6 , 19, 2 1 - 2 3 , 3 1 - 3 3 , 3 5 , 4 6 - 4 7 . 1 3 I b i d . , 6 5 . 14 See a l s o L u i s e Z e i t z i n L e b e n s l a * u f e , 181. F o r a male example see J u l i u s Bruhns i n I b i d . , 105 -106. 15 Wenzel H o l e k , Lebensgang e i n e s H a n d a r b e i t e r s ( J e n a , 1 9 3 0 ) , 11 -14 , 2 1 - 2 2 , 2 7 , 5 6 - 5 7 , 6 2 - 6 3 , 72 , 7 6 - 7 7 , 7 8 - 7 9 , 9 7 - 1 0 1 , 1 40 - 141 , 143, 147 -149 . 16Ibid.V 80 . 1 7 T b i d . , 153. 1 8 S t e a r n s , " A d a p t a t i o n , " 304, 3 0 5 , 307. 1Q 1 B e b e l , Aus Meinem L e b e n , I, 2 3 - 24 . ?0 P h i l i p S che idemann , Memoirs o f a S o c i a l Democrat ( London, 1 9 2 9 ) , I, 7 - 8 . 2 1 L e b e n s i a u f e , 190 -191 . 2 2 I b i d . , 191 -192 . 2 3 I b i d . , 324. 2 4 I b i d . , 104. 2 5 B r o m m e , L e b e n s g e s c h i c h t e , 2 9 , 5 0 - 5 1 , 9 7 - 9 9 , 168-169. F r a n z Bergg i s a n o t h e r e xamp le . See h i s E i n P r o ! e t a r i e r l e b e n , Ed . N. W e l t e r ( F r a n k f u r t a . M . , 1913 ) , 17 -18 . S t e a r n s ag ree s t h a t w o r k i n g - c l a s s women were more r e l i g i o u s , t r a d i t i o n a l and d e f e r e n t i a l . See l i i v e s o f L a b o r , 275 . 2 6 N i k o l a u s O s t e r r o t h , Vom B e t e r zum Kampfer ( B e r l i n , 1 9 2 0 ) , 4 9 - 5 3 . 2 7 I b i d . , 53 . 28 See H. P. D i k r e i t e r f o r example i n L e b e n s l c l u f e , 190. pa T h i s a s p e c t o f S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c i d e o l o g y i s t r e a t e d t h o r o u g h l y i n C h a p t e r I I I . 30 Popp , A u t o b i o g r a p h y , 5 4 - 5 5 . 3 1 I b i d . , 66 . 59 32 On t h e l a t t e r p o i n t see t h e q u o t a t i o n f r o m I b i d , a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r . 33 W i l l i a m 0 . Shanahan , German P r o t e s t a n t s Face t h e S o c i a l Q u e s t i o n : Volume I: The C o n s e r v a t i v e Phase 1815-1871 ( N o t r e Dame, 1 954 ) , 4 3 - 44 . (No volume I I e v e r a p p e a r e d . ) See a l s o E r n s t T r o e l t s c h , The S o c i a l T e a c h i n g o f t h e C h r i s t i a n C h u r c h e s , I I (New Yo r k and E v a n s t o n , 1 9 6 0 ) , 554 -557 . 3 4 1 b i d . 3 5 S h a n a h a n , German P r o t e s t a n t s , 39 , 4 6 - 4 8 . Max Weber, The P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c and t h e Sp i r i t o f C a p i t a l i s m (New Y o r k , 1 9 5 8 ) , 35 , 3 8 - 39 , 1 88n . , 1 89n . ; R e i n h a r d B e n d i x , "The P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c - - R e v i s i t e d , " C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d i e s i n S o c i e t y and H i s t o r y , IX ( 1 9 6 6 - 6 7 ) , 266 , 267. The d i f f e r e n c e s between C a t h o l i c s and P r o t e s t a n t s i n t he R h i n e l a n d were m e n t i o n e d i n t h e p r e f a c e by B l u n t s c h i t o the German e d i t i o n o f E m i l e de L a v e ! e y e , P r o t e s t a n t i s m and C a t h o l i c i s m i n t h e i r ^ B e a r i n g Upon t h e L i b e r t y and P r o s p e r i t y o f N a t i o n s ( T o r o n t o , 1 8 7 6 ) . The l a t t e r , a v e r y b i a s e d p o l e m i c , men t i on s s i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e s i n a German Sw i s s c a n t o n . T h i s was o n l y one o f a number o f p i e c e s Weber c i t e s . 3 7 G B h r e , Th ree Mon th s , 190. 3 8 W i l h e l m L i e b k n e c h t , "W i s s en i s t Mach t -Mach t i s t W i s s e n , " S o z i a l d e m o k r a t i s c h e B i b l i o t h e k , I I ( 1 888 ; r p t . L e i p z i g , 1 971 ) , 25 . 39 They e x i s t e d o n l y i n Baden , H e s s e - D a r m s t a d t and t h e P r u s s i a n d i s t r i c t o f Wiesbaden ( f o r m e r l y N a s s a u ) . See R.H. Samuel and R. H i n t o n Thomas, E d u c a t i o n and S o c i e t y i n Modern Germany ( London , 1 9 4 9 ) , 100. 4 0 F r a n z W e n z e l , " S i c h e r u n g von M a s s e n l o y a l i t a t und Q u a l i f i k a t i o n d e r A r b e i t s k r a f t a l s Au fgabe d e r V o l k s s c h u l e , " S c h u l e Und S t a a t ini 18. und 19. J a h r h u n d e r t , Ed. K. Ha r tmann , e t . a l . ( F r a n k f u r t a . M . , 1974 ) , 3 30 - 331 , 368 -372 . 4 1 I b i d . , 327, 334. 42 Samuel and H i n t o n Thomas, E d u c a t i o n , 99 -100. 43 See a b o v e , C h a p t e r I. 44 Quoted i n W e n z e l , " S i c h e r u n g , " 338. 4 5 H i s t o r y was f o r m a l l y i n t r o d u c e d as a s u b j e c t i n t he P r u s s i a n s c h o o l s w i t h the 1872 s c h o o l r e f o r m , and was f rom the f i r s t v e r y m i l i t a r i s - t i c i n c o n t e n t . In c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t he l a p s e o f t h e S o c i a l i s t Law and t he "New C o u r s e " o f W i l h e l m I I i t s i m p o r t a n c e was g r e a t l y h e i g h t e n e d by t he 60 d i r e c t i v e s o f 1889 and 1890. See I b i d . , 327 , 343 and e s p e c i a l l y W a l t e r C. Langsam, " N a t i o n a l i s m and H i s t o r y i n t he P r u s s i a n E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s under Wi11 i am I I , " i n N a t i o n a l i s m and I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m : E s say s I n s c r i b e d t o C a r l t o n J . H. Hayes , Ed. E. M. E a r l e (New Y o r k , 1 950 ) , 241 -260 . 46 S che idemann , M e m o i r s , I, 9 - 1 1 ; B e b e l , Aus Meinem L e b e n , ! , 1 7 - 19 ; F r a n z R e h b e i n , Das Leben e i n e s L a n d a r b e i t e r s ( J e n a , 1 911 ) , 2 0 - 2 2 ; H o l e k , Leben sgang , 2 0 ; L e b e n s l f l u f e , 318 -319 . 47 I b i d . , 318. T h i s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g c o n s i d e r i n g t he f e r v e n t h a t r e d o f o t h e r n a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y F r a n c e , w h i c h was s t a n d a r d f a r e i n t he h i s t o r y t e x t s . See Langsam, " N a t i o n a l i s m , " 250 -259 . 48 Whether t h i s e f f o r t p r e v e n t e d o t h e r s f r om becoming S o c i a l Democrats c anno t be examined h e r e , f o r by d e f i n i t i o n I c o n c e n t r a t e o n l y on s o c i a l i s t s . 4Q G o h r e , Th ree Month s , 189. 5 0 P o p p , A u t o b i o g r a p h y , 9 1 , 9 3 - 9 4 , 9 9 - 1 0 0 , 107. 51 See above no te 40 . 5 2 W e n z e l , " S i c h e r u n g , " 327 -328 . 5 3 I b i d . , 3 62 - 365 ; See a l s o G. G r i e p , " U b e r b l i c k l i b e r d i e K n a b e n h a n d f e r t i g k e i t s b e w e g u n g i n den a c h t z i g e r und n e u n z i g e r J a h r e n des 19. J a h r h u n d e r t s i n D e u t s c h l a n d , " J a h r b u c l i f u r E r z i e h u n g s - und S c h u l g e s c h i c h t e , I ( 1 9 6 1 ) , 131-158. The SPD app roved o f t h i s e f f o r t , an i r o n y t h a t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 3. R4 0 \ e b e n s 1 3 u f e , 316. 5 5 I b i d . , 319 -320 . Quoted i n W e n z e l , " S i c h e r u n g , " 380 . 57 Thompson, " T i m e , W o r k - D i s c i p l i n e , and I n d u s t r i a l C a p i t a l i s m , " 85 . 5 8 M a r t i n K i t c h e n , The German O f f i c e r Corps 1890-1914 ( O x f o r d , 1968) 145. 5 9 I b i d . , 153 -158 , 159 -162 , 168 -172 , 174-177. 6 Q I b i d . , 1 5 5 - 1 5 6 , 161-162. 6 1 R e h b e i n , L e b e n , 177. 6 2 K i t c h e n , O f f i c e r C o r p s , 181 -182. 6 3 G t t h r e , Th ree Mon th s , 1 2 0 - 1 2 1 , 124. 61 64 Quoted i n W e n z e l , " S i c h e r u n g , 347. 6 5 B r a u n , " B i l d u n g s p r o b l e m e , " 2 4 1 . 6 6 R o t h , S o c i a l Democ ra t s , 245 -246 . fi7 Bromme, L e b e n s g e s c h i c h t e , 286. 68 Popp, A u t o b i o g r a p h y , 3 6 - 3 7 ; Bromme, L e b e n s g e s c h i c h t e , 117; L u i s e Z i e t z i n L e b e n s l f l u f e , 182; R e h b e i n , L e b e n , 8 - 1 0 . " R i n a l d o R i n a l d i n i " t u r n s up t h r e e o r f o u r t i m e s so i t must have been v e r y p o p u l a r . Bromme was g i v e n t h e s o c i a l i s t c h i l d r e n ' s book Kflni g Mammon a t t h e age o f 5 (1878) and s i n c e i t was an a t t a c k on g r e e d and t he r i c h i t w o u l d be v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o f i n d a copy o f i t . See L e b e n s g e s c h i c h t e , 31 - 32 . 69 Popp , A u t o b i o g r a p h y , 36. 7 0 G d h r e , Th ree Month s , 127. 7 1 R e h b e i n , L eben , 5 -6 . 7 2 S e e " A d a p t a t i o n t o I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n " and L i v e s o f L a b o r , p a s s i m . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g i s Kenneth D. B a r k i n ' s book, The C o n t r o v e r s y o v e r German I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n 1890-1902 ( C h i c a g o , 19707". 7 4 Q u o t e d and t r a n s l a t e d f r o m B U r g e l ' s a u t o b i o g r a p h y i n R o t h , S o c i a l Democ ra t s , 197. 7 5 S e e t h e Gotha Program i n Mommsen, e d . , Deut sche P a r t e i p r o g r a m m e , 313 ; and K a r l Ma r x , " C r i t i q u e o f t h e Gotha P r o g r am " i n Marx and E n g e l s , S e l e c t e d Work s , 315. 76 On " v u l g a r M a r x i s m " see B a u e r , " D i e G e s c h i c h t e e i n e s B u c h e s , " 2 6 ; on the e m o t i o n a l a ppea l o f t h e s e i d e a s see H e n r i k de Man q u o t e d i n R o t h , S o c i a l Democ ra t s , 202. 7 7 K a r l K a u t s k y , E r i n n e r u n g e n und E r f l t e r u n g e n (The Hague, i 9 6 0 ) , 182, 184 -187 , 198 -204 , 284 ; R e h b e i n , Leben , 8^107 78 See above , C h a p t e r 1. 7 9 L e b e n s i a u f e , 129. 8 0 I b i d . , 284. 8 1 I b i d . , 2 84 - 285 . 82 A n o t h e r s i m i l a r ca se i s t h a t o f N i k o l a u s O s t e r r o t h , who had been a p i o u s C a t h o l i c . He had g r e a t e r menta l s t r u g g l e s though because o f h i s d i s c o v e r y l a t e r o f t he SPD ' s o p p o s i t i o n t o a l l r e l i g i o n - - a p o s i t i o n 62 w h i c h t o o k c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e t o a c c e p t . Even t h e n h i s s o c i a l i s m was l a r g e l y ba sed on C h r i s t i a n i d e a l s o f b r o t h e r l y l o v e and s e l f l e s s n e s s . See O s t e r r o t h , Vom B e t e r zum K^mpfer , 1 43 - 151 . 8 3 L e b e n s l a u f e , 288 -289 . 8 4 I b i d . , 363 . 8 5 l b i d . , 286. 8 6 H o l e k , Leben sgang , 2 10 - 211 . See C h a p t e r IV f o r a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e Z u k u r i f t s s t a a t i n S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c i d e o l o g y . 8 7 L e b e n s l a u f e , 326 -327 . 8 8 I b i d . , 327. 89 ° 3 Bromme, L e b e n s g e s c h i c h t e , 221-227> 2 5 2 - 2 5 3 , 2 9 1 - 2 9 9 , 3 26 - 328 , 3 34 - 336 , 351 -359 . Of) G e o f f r e y B e s t , M i d - V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n 1851-1875 ( L ondon , 1 9 7 1 ) , 257. ~ 91 P e t e r C. B a i l e y , ' " R a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n ' : The S o c i a l C o n t r o l o f L e i s u r e and P o p u l a r C u l t u r e i n V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d , 1 8 3 0 - 1 8 8 5 , " Ph.D. D i s s . U n i v . o f B r i t i s h Co l umb i a 1974 , 363 -366 . 92 Popp, A u t o b i o g r a p h y , 8 9 - 9 0 . 9 3 I b i d . , 120. 9 4 I b i d . , 90. 95 y D I b i d . . , 135. 96 I am i n d e b t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n f o r g e n e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework t o a n o t h e r , and by f a r t h e b e s t , o f t h e s t u d i e s on B r i t i s h w o r k i n g c l a s s " r e s p e c t a b i l i t y " : T r y g ve R. T h o l f s e n , "The I n t e l l e c t u a l O r i g i n s o f M i d - V i c t o r i a n S t a b i l i t y , " P o l I t i c a i l : S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y , LXXXV I , 1 . ( 1 9 7 1 ) , 5 7 - 9 1 . 97 L e b e n s l o i u f e , 364 ; Popp, A u t o b i o g r a p h y , 67 . 9 8 T h o l f s e n , " O r i g i n s , " 6 1 , 64. " i b i d . , 6 4 - 6 9 . 1 0 0 B r a u n , " B i l d u n g s p r o b l e m e , " 242 -244 . " ^ Q u o t e d i n R o t h , S o c i a l Democ r a t s , 1 1 0 - 1 1 1 . 102 Bromme, L e b e n s g e s c h i c h t e , 60 . 1 0 3 L e b e n s i a u f e , 347. 1 0 4 I b i d . , 325 1 0 5 G f l h r e , Th ree Mon th s , 116. 1 0 6 I b i d . , 173 -174 . ^ 7 T h i s w i l l be t h o r o u g h l y e x p l o r e d i n C h a p t e r s I I I and IV. 64 CHAPTER I I I SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC IDEOLOGY : WORK IN CAPITALIST SOCIETY Today t h e i d l e r r o l l s i n w e a l t h w h i l e t h e l a b o r e r s t a r v e s . . . - - K a r l K a u t s k y , ^ The C l a s s S t r u g g l e K a u t s k y c a r p e d a t t h e s t a t i s t i c s I have adduced and r e p l i e d f i n a l l y t h a t i n d e e d t h e i d l e c a p i t a l i s t s i n c r e a s e d , as i f I had r e p r e s e n t e d t h e c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s as a c l a s s o f w o r k e r s . - - Eduard B e r n s t e i n , 2 E v o l u t i o n a r y S o c i a l i s m As a weapon i n t h e p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s , and as a r e s p o n s e t o a n t i - s o c i a l i s t p r o p a g a n d a , t h e SPD ' s M a r x i s t o f f i c i a l i d e o l o g y c o u l d n o t but p a r t a k e i n t h e s o c i a l i s t e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e work e t h i c . S i n c e t h i s body o f t h e o r y was based e x t e n s i v e l y on C a p i t a l , i t d i d n o t d e p a r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r om Marx on t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y change i n t h e n a t u r e o f work b r o u g h t abou t by t h e economic f o r c e s o f c a p i t a l i s m . The d i f - f e r e n c e s between Marx and S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c Ma rx i sm on t h e s u b j e c t o f l a b o r were e s s e n t i a l l y ones o f e m p h a s i s , i n w h i c h t h e l a r g e s t f a c t o r was t h e p e r v a s i v e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e German p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l m i l i e u upon t h e S o c i a l Democracy. The re was however t h e s u b t l e and u n c o n s c i o u s a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n o f M a r x i s t t h o u g h t e a r l i e r 3 n o t e d , t h a t t r a n s f o r m e d i t i n t o a d e t e r m i n i s t i c and p o s i t i v i s t i c d o c - t r i n e . T h i s change p r oduced e q u a l l y s u b t l e s h i f t s i n t h e way t h a t 65 German s o c i a l i s t t h e o r e t i c i a n s t r e a t e d work m o t i v a t i o n , f a c t o r y d i s c i p l i n e , and t h e n a t u r e o f man. L abo r p l a y e d a u n i q u e l y c e n t r a l r o l e i n M a r x ' s t h o u g h t . P u r p o s e f u l a c t i v i t y p e r f o r m e d a c c o r d i n g t o a p r e c o n c e i v e d p l a n was f o r him t h e one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s human b e i n g s f r o m a n i m a l s ; L abou r i s , i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , a p r o c e s s i n w h i c h bo th man and N a t u r e p a r t i c i p a t e , and i n w h i c h man o f h i s own a c c o r d s t a r t s , r e g u l a t e s and c o n t r o l s t h e m a t e r i a l r e a c t i o n s between h i m s e l f and N a t u r e . He opposes h i m s e l f t o N a t u r e as one o f h e r own f o r c e s , s e t t i n g i n m o t i o n arms and l e g s , head and hand s , t h e n a t u r a l f o r c e s o f h i s body , i n o r d e r t o a p p r o p r i a t e N a t u r e ' s p r o d u c t i o n s i n a f o r m a d a p t e d t o h i s own w a n t s . By t h u s a c t i n g upon t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d and c h a n g i n g i t , he a t t h e same t i m e changes h i s own n a t u r e . He d e v e l o p s h i s s l u m - b e r i n g powers and compe l s them t o a c t i n o b e d i e n c e t o h i s sway . . . We p r e suppo se l a b o u r i n a f o r m t h a t stamps i t as e x c l u s i v e l y human. A s p i d e r c o n d u c t s o p e r a t i o n s t h a t r e s e m b l e t h o s e o f a w e a v e r , and bee p u t s t o shame many an a r c h i t e c t i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f he r c e l l s . Bu t what d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e w o r s t a r c h i t e c t f r om t h e b e s t o f bees i s t h i s , t h a t t h e a r c h i - t e c t r a i s e s h i s s t r u c t u r e i n i m a g i n a t i o n b e f o r e he e r e c t s i n r e a l i t y . . . Man ' s p r i m a r y a t t r i b u t e i s an a c t i v e (and n o t m e r e l y r e f l e c t i v e ) c o n s c i o u s - nes s w i t h t h e power o f o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n , t h e c r e a t i o n o f o b j e c t s t h r o u g h l a b o r a l r e a d y c o n c e i v e d i n t h e m i n d . Work definesMnan and man d e f i n e s h i m - s e l f t h r o u g h work . The re i s a d i a l e c t i c a l u n i t y between c o n s c i o u s n e s s and o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y i n w h i c h t h e m a t e r i a l w o r l d l i m i t s and d e t e r m i n e s man ' s a c t i o n s , b u t h i s c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y a l t e r s t h a t r e a l i t y , i n t u r n a l t e r i n g h i s own m i n d . Marx was t hu s e n a b l e d t o see man as d e t e r m i n e d y e t d e t e r - mining,;, w i t h l a b o r as t h e m e d i a t i n g p r o c e s s . ^ I f t h e r e i s an e s s e n t i a l c o n t i n u i t y between t h e " e a r l y " and " l a t e " Ma r x , d e s p i t e t h e g r e a t s h i f t i n t e r m i n o l o g y , i t l i e s i n t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e n a t u r e o f man.^ .66 L a b o r , a c c o r d i n g t o E n g e l s , " i s t h e p r ime b a s i c c o n d i t i o n f o r a l l human e x i s t e n c e , and t h i s t o such an e x t e n t t h a t , i n a s e n s e , we have t o say t h a t l a b o u r c r e a t e d man h i m s e l f . " 7 In t h i s uncomp le ted e s s a y , "The P a r t P l a y e d by Labou r i n t h e T r a n s i t i o n f r om Ape t o Man , " work was p i c - t u r e d s o l e l y as t h e o u t g r o w t h o f e v o l u t i o n a r y d e v e l o p m e n t , t h a t i s , o f o b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s . E n g e l s and t h e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c t h e o r i s t s d i d n o t g r a s p M a r x ' s c e n t r a l a s s u m p t i o n s , because o f t h e l a t t e r ' s p r i o r d e a t h and because o f t h e u n i v e r s a l i g n o r a n c e o f h i s e a r l y w r i t i n g s a t t h e t i m e . They t ook t h e i r l e a d i n s t e a d f r om D a r w i n i a n t h e o r y , w h i c h was o f much g g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e on E n g e l s , K a u t s k y , B e r n s t e i n and Bebe l t h a n on Marx . L a b o r was s p e c i f i c a l l y human, and o b j e c t i v e l y a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y , bu t l a c k e d f o r them much o f t h e human n a t u r a l n e s s t h e e l d e r t h e o r i s t a c - c r e d i t e d t o i t . I t was a p r o d u c t o f t h e s t r u g g l e f o r e x i s t e n c e , bu t was n o t t h e e s s e n c e o f man as s u c h . The S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c t h e o r i s t s s e e m i n g l y had l e s s f a i t h i n man ' s i n n a t e d i s p o s i t i o n f o r w o r k , s i n c e t h e i r p r e o c c u - p a t i o n w i t h w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e i n c a p i t a l i s t and s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y was g r e a t e r t h a n M a r x ' s . T h i s c o n c e r n was f u r t h e r a m p l i f i e d by t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f Germany, w h i c h f o r c e d c o n t i n u a l r e a f f i r m a t i o n s o f t h e work e t h i c and t h e r e f o r e h e i g h t e n e d t h e emphas i s on d i s c i p l i n e and t h e d u t y t o work . But s u f f i c i e n t g rounds were f ound w i t h i n t h e M a r x i s t t h e o r y o f c a p i t a l i s t deve l opmen t t o j u s t i f y t h e s e v i e w s . The c l a s s i c S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h i s t h e o r y was t h e t h e o r e t i c a l s e c t i o n o f t h e 1891 E r f u r t P r o g r am, w r i t t e n by K a u t s k y , and app ro ved by E n g e l s . I t b e g i n s : 67 The economic deve l opment o f b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y l e a d s w i t h n a t u r a l n e c e s s i t y ( N a t u r n o t w e n d i g k e i t ) t o t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e s m a l l e n t e r p r i s e , whose b a s i s i s f ounded on t h e p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y o f t h e w o r k e r i n t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n . I t s e p a r a t e s t h e w o r k e r f r om h i s means o f p r o d u c t i o n and t r a n s f o r m s him i n t o a p r o p e r t y l e s s p r o l e t a r i a n , w h i l s t t he means o f p r o d u c t i o n become t h e monopoly o f a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number o f c a p i t a l i s t s and g r e a t l a n d - o w n e r s . 9 The i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n and m o n o p o l i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l a g r i c u l - t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n advance as i n e x o r a b l y as n a t u r a l l a w s . W i t h t h i s p r o c e s s " goe s t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e s p l i n t e r e d s m a l l work shops t h r o u g h t h e c o l o s s a l g r e a t f a c t o r i e s , t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e t o o l i n t o t h e m a c h i n e , and a g i g a n t i c g r owth i n t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f human l a b o r . " 1 0 T h i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e v o l u t i o n , i m p e l l e d by e v e r - q u i c k e n i n g c a p i t a l i s t c o m p e t i t i o n and g r owth (as K a u t s k y , f o l l o w i n g C a p i t a l , e x p l a i n e d e l s e w h e r e ) , i n c r e a s i n g l y a b o l i s h e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f m u s c l e - p o w e r and d i v i d e d l a b o r i n t o more and more m i n u t e t a s k s . The d e s t r u c t i o n o f s k i l l e d t r a d e s t h r o u g h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f g r e a t e r numbers o f u n s k i l l e d l a b o r e r s , i n c l u d i n g women and c h i l d r e n , f o l l o w e d i n t h e t r a i n o f t h e s e changes i n t h e t e c h n i c a l b a s i s o f p r o d u c t i o n . 1 1 But a l l t h e advan tage s o f t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a r e m o n o p o l i z e d by t h e c a p i t a l i s t s and t h e g r e a t l a n d - o w n e r s . F o r t h e p r o l e t a r i a t and t h e s i n k i n g m i d d l e c l a s s e s — p e t t y b o u r g e o i s and p e a s a n t s - i t means an e v e r - g r o w i n g i n c r e a s e i n t h e i n s e c u r i t y o f e x i s t e n c e and o f p o v e r t y , p r e s s u r e , s u b o r d i n a t i o n , debasement and e x p l o i t a t i o n . ™ The e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f t h e s m a l l p r o d u c e r and t h e smash ing o f t h e p r i v i l e g e s o f t h e s k i l l e d c r a f t s m a n c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f an " i n d u s t r i a l r e s e r v e a rmy " o f t h e unemp loyed . T o g e t h e r w i t h i n c e s s a n t economic c r i s e s , 13 t h i s g r e a t l y m a g n i f i e s t he i n s t a b i l i t y o f employment . 68 The g u l f between p r o p e r t i e d and p r o p e r t y ! e s s i s f u r t h e r w idened by c r i s e s , w h i c h a r e g rounded i n t h e n a t u r e o f c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n , and w h i c h become e v e r more e x t e n - s i v e and c a t a s t r o p h i c , r a i s i n g u n i v e r s a l i n s e c u r i t y t o a normal c o n d i t i o n o f s o c i e t y . - ^ K a u t s k y p l a c e d s p e c i a l w e i g h t on t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f c a p i t a l i s m . A b s o l u t e i m p o v e r i s a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s was n o t , t o h i s m i n d , a n e c e s s a r y r e s u l t . The gap between b o u r g e o i s i e and p r o l e t a r i a t wou ld w iden o n l y r e l a t i v e l y , w i t h an a c t u a l i n c r e a s e i n w o r k i n g - c l a s s wages , but " u n i v e r s a l i n s e c u r i t y " wou ld e n s u r e t h e a l i e n a t i o n o f t h e w o r k e r s 15 f r om t h e c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m . But t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n a r e no t o n l y n e g a t i v e . As Marx p o i n t e d o u t , t h e c o n t i n u a l v a r i a t i o n o f work e n f o r c e d by u n s t a b l e employment l e s s e n s t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f mechan i z ed d e t a i l l a b o r by l i m i t i n g t h e t i m e s p e n t a t each j o b . V e r s a t i l i t y i s 1 c t h u s e n c o u r a g e d . F u r t h e r , t h e p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s o f t h e l a r g e f a c t o r y o r g a n i z e s and s c h o o l s t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s by c o n c e n t r a t i n g i t , d i s c i p - l i n i n g i t , and t e a c h i n g i t t h e advan tage s o f l a r g e - s c a l e c o - o p e r a t i o n . K a u t s k y s t a t e s i n The S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n : No one w i l l c l a i m t h a t i n my i n v e s t i g a t i o n I have p r e s uppo sed miankind o f an a n g e l i c c h a r a c t e r . The p r ob l em t h a t we have t o s o l v e p r e s u p p o s e s i n t e l 1 i g e n c e , d i s c i p l i n e and t a l e n t f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n . These a r e t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f a s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y . Those a r e j u s t t h e ones t h a t c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y has c r e a t e d . I t i s t h e h i s t o r i c a l t a s k o f c a p i t a l t o d i s c i p l i n e and o r g a n i z e t h e l a b o r e r s , and t o w iden t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l h o r i z o n s beyond t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e workshop and t h e c h u r c h d o o r . F o r s o c i a l i s m t o r i s e on t h e b a s i s o f handwork o r a g r i c u l - t u r a l i n d u s t r y i s i m p o s s i b l e , n o t s i m p l y on economic g rounds because o f t h e l ow p r o d u c t i v i t y o f i n d u s t r y , bu t a l s o f o r 69 p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s . I have a l r e a d y shown how s m a l l [ s i c ] b o u r g e o i s p s y c h o l o g y i n c l i n e s t owa rd s a n a r c h y and opposes t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f . . . s o c i a l i n d u s t r y . I t i s one o f t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t c a p i t a l meets i n t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n , i n t h a t i t must t a k e i t s f i r s t l a b o r e r s d i r e c t l y f r om hand work o r f r o m a g r i c u l t u r e . 1 ? Though g r e a t s u f f e r i n g and i n j u s t i c e a r e a t t e n d a n t upon t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , i t must be r e g a r d e d as p r o g r e s - s i v e . The d i s c i p l i n e o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t , w h i c h i s d i r e c t e d t owa rd s t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e r e g u l a r , c o - o p e r a t i v e , i n t e l l i g e n t and h a r d - w o r k i n g l a b o r e r , t h e r e f o r e must a l s o be s o : an i n t e r e s t i n g c o u n t e r p o i n t t o t h e f r e q u e n t c l a i m o f S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c p ropaganda t h a t t h e o n l y t h i n g k e e p i n g t h e w o r k e r l a b o r i n g under c a p i t a l i s m was t h e " h u n g e r - w h i p " - - t h e I Q t h r e a t o f s t a r v a t i o n . The c r u c i a l i m p o r t a n c e o f w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e w i t h i n K a u t s k y ' s t h o u g h t i s f u r t h e r empha s i z ed by t h e p a r t p l a y e d by w o r k i n g - c l a s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e u n i o n s , i n t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t . But n o t a l o n e t h e p r e s s u r e o f c a p i t a l i n t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f g r e a t b o d i e s o f l a b o r , bu t t h e s t r u g g l e o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a n a g a i n s t t h i s e x p l o i t a t i o n d e v e l o p s t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r s o c i a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n ; i t d e v e l o p s d i s c i p l i n e i n e v e r y way, as we have a l r e a d y s e e n , o f a w h o l l y d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r . . . t h i s s t r u g g l e d e v e l o p s a l s o a t a l e n t f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n , f o r i t i s o n l y t h r o u g h t h e unanimous c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e g r e a t body o f mank ind t h a t t h e p r o l e t a r i a t can a s s e r t i t s e l f a g a i n s t c a p i t a l and t h e c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e . 1 9 C o n c e n t r a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n c au se an e v e r g r e a t e r g rowth o f t h e o r g a n i z e d e l e m e n t o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s . The f a r t h e r i n - d u s t r y d e v e l o p s under c a p i t a l i s m , t h e s t r o n g e r w i l l be t h e " d e m o c r a t i c d i s c i p l i n e " and i n t e l l i g e n c e o f t h e w o r k e r s , and t h e r e f o r e t h e e a s i e r w i l l be t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o s o c i a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n . The S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c r e a c t i o n t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t was n e c e s s a r i l y a m b i v a l e n t . The d e n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e m i n d l e s s , e n s l a v i n g and b r u t a l i s i n g c h a r a c t e r o f c a p i t a l i s t w a g e - l a b o r p l a y e d a c r u c i a l r o l e i n p o l i t i c a l p ropaganda and t h e awaken ing o f c l a s s c o n s c i o u s - n e s s . But t h e i n d i s p e n s a b i l i t y o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e f o r s o c i a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n was u n a v o i d a b l e . T h i s a rgument i n t u r n p r o v i d e d t h e o r e t i c a l b a c k i n g f o r t h e o m n i p r e s e n t c o n c e r n w i t h t h e work e t h i c w i t h i n S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c i d e o l o g y . The i s s u e s o f f e m a l e and c h i l d l a b o r g i v e c l e a r i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e s e themes . Bo th were e n d l e s s l y denounced f o r t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i v e n a t u r e i n such e m o t i o n a l te rms t h a t one wou ld t h i n k t h a t t h e i r t o t a l a b o l i t i o n 21 was demanded. T h i s was i n f a c t t h e c a s e i n t h e 1 8 6 0 ' s and 1 8 7 0 ' s b e f o r e 22 t h e o f f i c i a l a d o p t i o n o f Ma rx i sm by t h e p a r t y , bu t as Marx s t a t e d i n C a p i t a l : However t e r r i b l e and d i s g u s t i n g t h e d i s s o l u t i o n , under t h e c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m , o f t h e o l d f a m i l y t i e s may a p p e a r , n e v e r - t h e l e s s , modern i n d u s t r y , by a s s i g n i n g as i t does an i m p o r t - and p a r t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f p r o d u c t i o n , o u t s i d e t h e d o m e s t i c s p h e r e , t o women, t o young pe r s on s and t o c h i l d r e n o f bo th s e x e s , c r e a t e s a new economic f o u n d a t i o n f o r a h i g h e r f o rm o f t h e f a m i l y and o f r e l a t i o n s between t h e s e x e s . 3 M o r e o v e r , no t u r n i n g back i s p o s s i b l e . I m p e l l e d by t h e c o m p e t i t i v e s t r u g - g l e , t h e c o n t i n u a l c h e a p e n i n g o f p r o d u c t i o n a c c e l e r a t e s t h e i n d u c t i o n o f women and c h i l d r e n i n t o t h e l a b o r f o r c e , and t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e v o l u t i o n w h i c h p e r m i t s t h i s t o t a k e p l a c e . The s p r e a d i n g o f t h e f a t h e r ' s wage o v e r a l l members o f t h e f a m i l y a l l o w s a f u r t h e r c u t i n c o s t s and a r a i s e 71 24 i n t h e r a t e o f e x p l o i t a t i o n . D e s p i t e i t s i m p o v e r i s h e d f o r m , t h e f i n a n c i a l i ndependence t h i s engende r s i s t h e c o r e o f a l l women's l i b e r a t i o n , t h e S o c i a l Democrats c l a i m e d . By b r e a k i n g t h e monopoly o f husbands on w a g e - e a r n i n g , f e m a l e l a b o r c o n v e r t s women i n t o equa l w o r k e r s , a b l e t o t a k e t h e i r p l a c e s i n 25 t h e p r o l e t a r i a n s t r u g g l e . B o u r g e o i s women, a c c o r d i n g t o C l a r a Z e t k i n , a r e t u r n e d i n t o "mere p a r a s i t e s " by t h e deve l opmen t o f c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y , b u t : In t h e p r o l e t a r i a t , t h e woman c a n n o t , t h a n k s t o he r c l a s s s i t u a t i o n , l i v e as a p a r a s i t e a f t e r b e i n g r e l i e v e d o f t h e burden o f l a b o r o f t h e o l d house economy. The f a m i l y does n o t s i n k t h e r e f o r e i n t o a mere community o f p l e a s u r e , bu t r ema in s more t h a n e v e r a community o f l a b o r . The woman must p e r f o r m t h e wo r k , t h e p r o d u c t i v e s o c i a l l y - n e c e s s a r y w o r k , i n t h e s o c i a l ma r ke t as a c a r e e r , t h a t she i s no ? f i l o n g e r a b l e t o c a r r y o u t i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s o f t h e f a m i l y . E v i d e n t he re a r e t h e m o r a l i z i n g t o n e , t h e d e p t h o f t h e commitment t o t h e work e t h i c , and t h e sense o f s u p e r i o r i t y so i m p o r t a n t t o p o p u l a r s o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g y . L abo r no t o n l y l i b e r a t e s t h e woman, but a l s o c o n f i r m s he r e s - s e n t i a l s o c i a l w o r t h , and b r i n g s h e r i n t o t h e r a n k s o f t h o s e who m a i n t a i n s o c i e t y , r a t h e r t h a n l i v i n g o f f i t . C a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y , t h r o u g h f e m a l e l a b o r , t h u s p r e p a r e s t h e g round f o r t h e t r u l y e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i a l i s t com- m u n i t y i n w h i c h t h e equa l r i g h t and d u t y o f e v e r y o n e t o work w i l l be t h e c e n t r a l p r i n c i p l e . On t h e l a b o r o f young p e o p l e ( p r e s u m a b l y mean ing t e e n a g e r s who have l e f t s c h o o l ) , Z e t k i n a p p l i e d t h e same argument o f f i n a n c i a l i n d e p e n - d e n c e . On l y t h e a b i l i t y o f o l d e r c h i l d r e n t o e a r n t h e i r own wage w i l l a l l o w t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e new f a m i l y , i n w h i c h s u b m i s s i o n and dependence 72 w i l l n o t p r e d o m i n a t e . Bu t t h e E r f u r t P rogram d i d demand t h e p r o h i b i t i o n o f c h i l d l a b o r under t h e age o f f o u r t e e n , t h a t i s , f o r t h o s e c h i l d r e n s t i l l l i a b l e t o a t t e n d c l a s s e s . T h a t d i d n o t mean t h a t c h i l d r e n were n o t t o be i n t r o d u c e d t o wo r k , i n t h e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c i d e a l - - o n l y t h a t i t was t o be done t h r o u g h t h e s c h o o l s . The e d u c a t i o n o f a l l t o l a b o r was a 28 c r u c i a l f e a t u r e o f t h e image o f t h e Z u k u n f t s s t a a t . D i s c u s s i o n s o f t h i s t o p i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e speeches o f H e i n r i c h S c h u l z and C l a r a Z e t k i n a t t h e 1906 P a r t y C o n g r e s s , were v i r t u a l paeans t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l and mora l 29 i m p o r t a n c e o f wo rk . The S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c l e a d e r s were so c o n v i n c e d o f t h e s o c i a l n e c e s s i t y o f work i n s t r u c t i o n ( A r b e i t s u n t e r r i c h t ) t h e y s u p - p o r t e d , w i t h some r e s e r v a t i o n s , t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e b o u r g e o i s 31 H a n d f e r t i g k e i t s b e w e g u n g t o have i t i n t r o d u c e d . i n t o t h e s c h o o l s i m m e d i a t e l y , and pa s sed a r e s o l u t i o n a t t h a t Cong re s s i n c l u d i n g i t among t h e p r e s e n t 31 e d u c a t i o n a l demands o f t h e p a r t y . Z e t k i n ' s s peech i n 1906 , and a s i m i l a r one by Kclte Duncker a t t h e 1908 SPD Women's C o n f e r e n c e , d e a l t w i t h t h e r a i s i n g o f c h i l d r e n by s o c i a l i s t p a r e n t s i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . Duncker s t a t e d : What we s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t i s t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h c a p i t a l i s t w a g e - l a b o r , w h i c h i n i t s i n t e n s i t y and o n e - s i d e d n e s s damages t h e mind and body o f t h e c h i l d . ( R i g h t ! ) But o u r c h i l d r e n s h o u l d l e a r n t o w o r k , and t h e y s h o u l d p e r c e i v e i n work t h e d u t y and honor o f human b e i n g s . As l o n g as t h e s c h o o l s s t i l l have n o t i n t r o d u c e d o b l i g a t o r y manual d e x t e r i t y t r a i n i n g ( H a n d f e r t i g k e i t s u n t e r r i c h t ) , t h e f a m i l y i s t h e one p l a c e where young p e o p l e can be made c o n s c i o u s o f work as a s o c i a l d u t y . 3 2 Z e t k i n spoke o f e d u c a t i n g c h i l d r e n t o a " s o c i a l and s o c i a l i s t a p p r e c i a t i o n 33 o f work and t o j o y i n i t . " Here a g a i n t h e s t r o n g work e t h i c o f t h e 73 s o c i a l i s t s u b c u l t u r e gave S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c M a r x i s t t h e o r y a u n i q u e t w i s t . The w o r k - c e n t e r e d c h i l d r e a r i n g a d v o c a t e d by SPD t h e o r i s t s , and t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e p l a n s o f l i b e r a l pedagogues f o r A r b e i t s u n t e r r i c h t , w e r e , i r o n i c a l l y , a c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s by t h e p a r t y i n t h e i n c u l c a t i o n o f t h e d u t y t o work and t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a - t i o n . These i m p l i c a t i o n s were n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p e r c e i v e d by t h e p a r t y l e a d e r s . In t h e i r m i n d s , i m p l a n t i n g s o c i a l i s t a t t i t u d e s t o l a b o r had two p u r p o s e s : c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s wou ld be encou raged by c o n t r a s t i n g t h e s o c i a l i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t w i t h t h e " i d l e n e s s " o f t h e r u l i n g c l a s s e s , and t h e w o r k e r s wou ld be p r e p a r e d f o r t h e s o c i a l r e s p o n - s i b i l i t i e s o f s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y . Tha t t h e l a t t e r a im had i n t e g r a t i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s under c a p i t a l i s m seems n o t t o have o c c u r r e d t o them. The c r e a t i o n o f an i n d u s t r i a l l y - a d a p t e d l a b o r - f o r c e was seen as one o f t h e p r o d u c t s o f t h e i n e x o r a b l e l aws o f c a p i t a l i s t economic d e v e l o p m e n t , t hough t h e t h e o r i s t s ( e s p e c i a l l y K a u t s k y ) were c a u t i o u s enough n o t t o e x p e c t i t s a b s o l u t e c o m p l e t i o n by 34 t h e t i m e o f t h e s o c i a l i s t v i c t o r y . A t t h e c o n s c i o u s l e v e l o f p o l i c y t h e movement was n o t a t t e m p t i n g t o f o s t e r w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e i n c a p i t a l i s t i n d u s t r y , d e s p i t e i t s n e c e s s i t y and d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y . Tha t d i s c i p l i n e wou ld be c r e a t e d by t h e p r o c e s s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i t s e l f . The p r e s e n t t a s k o f t h e S o c i a l Democracy was t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s , as f a r as i t was p o s s i b l e , f r o m c a p i t a l i s m ' s w o r s t e x c e s s e s . Bu t t h e p a r t y ' s o f f i c i a l i d e o l o g y c o n t r i b u t e d , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t o t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f German w o r k e r s i n t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l s y s t e m . The 74 M a r x i s t t h e o r y o f c a p i t a l i s t d e v e l o p m e n t , by l i n k i n g t h e i n f u s i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e w i t h t h e emergence o f a c l a s s - c o n s c i o u s p r o l e t a r i a t , gave t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e p a r t y ' s o m n i p r e s e n t c o n c e r n w i t h l a b o r . The work e t h i c o f t h e s o c i a l i s t s u b c u l t u r e i n t u r n h e l p e d i m p a r t a s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r t o S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c Ma r x i sm by r e i n - f o r c i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f work and w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e w i t h i n t h e t h e o r y . T h i s was f u r t h e r s u b t l y h e i g h t e n e d by t h e ab sence o f M a r x ' s v i e w o f t h e 35 n a t u r a l n e s s o f l a b o r t o man. To t h e l i m i t e d e x t e n t t o w h i c h o f f i c i a l i d e o l o g y a f f e c t e d o r d i n a r y w o r k e r s , t h e p l a c e o f t h e work e t h i c w i t h i n i t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i n t e r l o c k i n g p r o c e s s e s o f c h i I d h o o d i n d o c t r i n a t i o n , c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s and " r e s p e c t a b i l i t y " examined p r e v i o u s l y , and t hu s b o l s t e r e d t h e d e s i r e o f s o c i a l i s t w o r k e r s t o p e r f o r m w e l l i n t h e i r j o b s . The commitment o f t h e t h e o r i s t s t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e i d e a l o f t h e r e g u l a r , d i l i g e n t and i n t e l l i g e n t l a b o r e r i s c o n f i r m e d by one f i n a l i s s u e . In 1880 Pau l L a f a r g u e ( M a r x ' s s o n - i n - l a w ) p u b l i s h e d i n F r a n c e The R i g h t to.,be L a z y , an a t t a c k on c e r t a i n F r e n c h s o c i a l i s t g roups who 37 advanced t h e s l o g a n " t h e r i g h t t o wo rk . A s t r a n g e d e l u s i o n p o s s e s s e s t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s e s o f t h e N a t i o n s where c a p i t a l i s t c i v i l i z a t i o n h o l d s i t s sway . . . T h i s d e l u s i o n i s t h e l o v e o f w o r k , t h e f u r i o u s p a s s i o n f o r w o r k , pushed even t o t h e e x h a u s t i o n o f t h e v i t a l f o r c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l and h i s p rogeny . . . t h e p r o l e t a r i a t , b e t r a y i n g i t s i n s t i n c t s , d e s p i s i n g i t s h i s t o r i c m i s s i o n , has l e t i t s e l f be p e r v e r t e d by t h e dogma o f wo r k . 38 39 T h i s e s s a y was c i r c u l a t e d i n Germany by t h e S o c i a l Democ ra t s . Ye t as f a r as can be d e t e r m i n e d an 1884 K a u t s k y a r t i c l e was t h e o n l y c a s e i n w h i c h " t h e r i g h t t o be l a z y " (das Rech t a u f F a u l h e i t ) was a c t u a l l y 75 r e p e a t e d . The manner i n w h i c h he d i d so i s r e v e a l i n g . As a p a r t o f B i s m a r c k ' s campaign t o woo t h e w o r k e r s away f r o m s o c i a l i s m , t h e C h a n c e l l o r had p r o c l a i m e d " t h e r i g h t t o w o r k " i n t h e R e i c h s t a g . K a u t s k y and t h e M a r x i s t s r e j e c t e d t h i s l a t t e r " r i g h t " as nonsense i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y : t h e l aws o f e conomic s wou ld no t p e r m i t t h e l e g i s l a t i v e a b o l i t i o n o f unemployment. So K a u t s k y adop ted L a f a r g u e ' s s l o g a n , bu t i n h i s hands i t became t h e r i g h t t o t h e e i g h t - h o u r w o r k - d a y t h a t i s , t h e r i g h t t o have l e i s u r e t i m e t o o n e s e l f a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f wo rk . A l t h o u g h he s a i d t h a t "man works t o l i v e , and n o t l i v e s t o w o r k , " L a f a r g u e ' s m i l i t a n t t o n e 40 and s e n t i m e n t a l i t y f o r p r e - i n d u s t r i a l t i m e s were e n t i r e l y m i s s i n g . The demand f o r t h e e i g h t - h o u r day was i n s c r i b e d on t h e banner o f e v e r y w o r k e r s ' movement o f t h e Second I n t e r n a t i o n a l , and was e n e r g e t i c a l l y 41 advanced by t h e SPD. C o n s i d e r i n g t h e work c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e t i m e i t was an e n t i r e l y j u s t and l o g i c a l g o a l , as w e l l as b e i n g p o l i t i c a l l y u s e f u l f o r g a i n i n g t h e a l l e g i a n c e o f uncommi t ted w o r k e r s . And f o r s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y , as Marx s a i d , t h e s h o r t e n i n g o f t h e w o r k i n g - d a y i s t h e " b a s i c p r e r e q u i s i t e " 42 f o r t h e deve l opment o f t r u e f r e e d o m . W h i l e a g r e e i n g w i t h a l l o f t h e s e p r o p o s i t i o n s , t h e S o c i a l Democrats f e l t t h e need t o add a n o t h e r . Bebe l s a i d : The s h o r t e n i n g o f w o r k - t i m e t o e i g h t hour s o r even l e s s i s c e r t a i n l y no remedy f o r t h e s o c i a l e v i l s t h a t a r e b a s i c t o b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y , a s e v e r y s o c i a l i s t knows. Bu t i t makes t h e w o r k e r as a w o r k e r more p r o d u c t i v e , because i t makes him s t r o n g e r and more i n t e l l i g e n t , and a l s o as a man more human, t h a t i s , f r e e r , more a m b i t i o u s , more c a p a b l e o f and c ou r a geou s i n s t r u g g l e , and more s e l f - c o n s c i o u s . 4 3 The s h o r t e r w o r k - d a y wou ld have a d v a n t a g e s f o r t h e e m p l o y e r t o o : "The 76 w o r k e r l a b o r s more w i l l i n g l y , d i l i g e n t l y and i n t e n s i v e l y , t h e r e f o r e , l e s s s u p e r v i s i o n and l e s s c o m p u l s i o n a r e n e c e s s a r y . 1 , 4 4 H i s a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e i d e a l o f i n d u s t r i a l l a b o r ( r e g u l a r i t y , a p p l i c a t i o n and l i m i t e d but i n t e n - s i v e e f f o r t ) wou ld be a i d e d by t h e e i g h t - h o u r day . I n c r e a s e d l e i s u r e was j u s t i f i e d n o t o n l y f o r i t s own s a k e , but a l s o because i t was t h e p e r f e c t complement t o good work . Eduard B e r n s t e i n s h a r e d v i r t u a l l y a l l o f t h e s e a t t i t u d e s t o l a b o r , d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e i r u n i v e r s a l i t y i n S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c i d e o l o g y . B e g i n - n i n g i n 1897, w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e r i e s o f a r t i c l e s P rob leme des S o z i a l i s m u s , B e r n s t e i n r a p i d l y moved t owa rd s t h e r e j e c t i o n o f t h e " s c i e n - t i f i c " b a s i s o f s o c i a l i s m , t h e s h a r p e n i n g o f t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e , t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f m i d d l e c l a s s e s , t h e i n c r e a s i n g s e v e r i t y o f c r i s e s , i n s e c u r i t y and p o v e r t y , and t h e sudden c o l l a p s e o f c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . In t h e i r p l a c e he p u t a p e a c e f u l g r owth i n t o s o c i a l i s m w h i c h was e t h i - c a l l y d e s i r a b l e bu t n o t o b j e c t i v e l y n e c e s s a r y . C l a s s t e n s i o n s were t o m o d e r a t e , and t h e u n i o n s , consumer c o - o p e r a t i v e s and s t a t e and m u n i c i p a l o w n e r s h i p o f e n t e r p r i s e s were t o be t h e n u c l e i (Ke ime) a round w h i c h 45 s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y wou ld f o r m . The p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s d o c - t r i n e were enormous . Between 1898 and 1903 t h e p a r t y was c o n v u l s e d by t h e d e b a t e . But t h e t h e o r y o f work r ema ined l a r g e l y unchanged , and t h e e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e work e t h i c was , i f a n y t h i n g , more e x p l i c i t i n B e r n s t e i n . The R e v i s i o n i s t s expended c o n s i d e r a b l e ene r g y s t r u g g l i n g w i t h K a u t s k y and h i s f o l l o w e r s o v e r t h e a l l e g e d d e c l i n e o f t h e s m a l l e n t e r - p r i s e , s i n c e t h e y were much l e s s c o n f i d e n t o f t h e s t e a m r o l l e r - l i k e 77 g rowth o f t h e g i a n t f a c t o r i e s and c a r t e l s w h i c h was t o c r e a t e an e a s i l y e x p r o p r i a t e d i n d u s t r i a l b a s e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e y were e a g e r t o a g r e e w i t h Marx and t h e M a r x i s t s t h a t c a p i t a l i s m was l a y i n g t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r 46 s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y i n l a r g e - s c a l e p r o d u c t i v e i n d u s t r y . B e r n s t e i n a r gued t h a t i t was p r e c i s e l y because o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e un i on s and t h e w o r k i n g - c l a s s movement t h a t two o f t h e r o u t e s t o a h i g h e r r a t e o f e x p l o i - t a t i o n — l o n g e r hour s and l o w e r w a g e s — w e r e i n c r e a s i n g l y b l o c k e d t o t h e c a p i t a l i s t , f o r c i n g him t o r e v o l u t i o n i z e t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f l a b o r and i n c r e a s e t h e m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n . 4 7 He was as much a d e v o t e e o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n as any o f t h e " o r t h o d o x M a r x i s t s . " C o n s e q u e n t l y , B e r n s t e i n was e q u a l l y c o n v i n c e d o f t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y and n e c e s s i t y o f i n d u s t r i a l w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e and i t s e x t e n s i o n o v e r t h e who le o f t h e p o p u l a c e . He p r a i s e d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y t h e f e e l i n g o f s o l i d a r i t y , i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e and s o c i a l d u t y t o work t h a t can be c r e a t e d by f a c t o r y l a b o r , and b e l i e v e d t h a t i t wou ld grow w i t h t h e e x p a n s i o n o f 48 t h e l a r g e e n t e r p r i s e s and t h e advance o f s o c i a l i s m . H i s main c o n c e r n was t h a t t h i s emo t i on m i gh t be t o o weak. In t h e l a s t a r t i c l e o f t h e Problerne des S o z i a l i s m u s s e r i e s , he was w o r r i e d t h a t S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c c r i t i c i s m o f t h e c h a r a c t e r o f work i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y wou ld b r i n g t h e w o r k e r s t o e x p e c t a s l a c k l i f e under s o c i a l i s m . A c c o r d i n g l y , he a s s i g n e d t o t h e u n i o n s and t o t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e s t h e t a s k o f p r o m o t i n g a 49 " s o c i a l f e e l i n g o f d u t y " and s e l f - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . B e r n s t e i n s h a r e d w i t h o t h e r S o c i a l Democrats a d i s l i k e f o r t h e v o l u n t a r i l y i d l e . E v o l u t i o n a r y S o c i a l i s m c o n t a i n e d a s t a t e m e n t a g a i n s t unemployment i n s u r a n c e he and Kau t s k y had made i n 1891: 78 To demand s i m p l y t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f a l l t h o s e w i t h o u t em- p l oyment o u t o f t h e s t a t e money means t o commit t o t h e t r o u g h o f t h e s t a t e n o t o n l y e v e r y o n e who c anno t f i n d work but e v e r y o n e who w i l l n o t f i n d work . . . 50 H i s commitment t o t h e work e t h i c was q u i t e o p e n , and h i s p o s i t i o n on t h e i n c u l c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l w o r k - h a b i t s was more a c t i v i s t t h a n t h a t o f t h e M a r x i s t . Because t h e c h i e f t h e o r i s t o f R e v i s i o n i s m b e l i e v e d i n a g r a d u a l t r a n s i t i o n t o s o c i a l i s m , i n w h i c h t h e l a b o r movement wou ld i n t e r v e n e a c t i v e l y , and no t m e r e l y p r e p a r e f o r t h e i n e v i t a b l e w o r k i n g - o u t o f t h e l aws o f e c o n o m i c s , he was r e a d y t o use t h e p a r t y , t h e u n i o n s and t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e s t o f o s t e r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a t t i t u d e s t o work and d u t y . Doubts B e r n s t e i n s h a r e d w i t h t h e o t h e r R e v i s i o n i s t s about t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e s m a l l e n t e r p r i s e s , and t h e ea se o f t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o a new s o c i a l o r d e r , f u r t h e r u n d e r p i n n e d h i s p o s i t i o n . I t s h o u l d b e . b r i e f l y n o t e d t h a t t h e R e v i s i o n i s t s a l s o s u p p o r t e d most o f t h e t e n e t s o f t h e t h e o r y o f f e m a l e and c h i l d l a b o r . The re were e x c e p t i o n s . Edmund F i s c h e r ' s c o n t r o v e r s i a l 1906 a r t i c l e " J u g e n d e r z i e h u n g " i n S o z i a l i s t i s c h e M o n a t s h e f t e a rgued t h a t women's p l a c e was i n t h e home r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n , bu t he was a t t a c k e d i n t h e n e x t i s s u e by Ida Hclny-Lux 51 f o r t h e s e e s s e n t i a l l y r e a c t i o n a r y v i e w s . One o f t h e most e x t e n s i v e t r e a t m e n t s o f women's l i b e r a t i o n i n German s o c i a l i s m , D i e F r a u e n f r a g e 52 ( 1 9 0 1 ) , was w r i t t e n by a n o t h e r o f t h e m o d e r a t e s , L i l y B r a u n . She c a l l e d 53 f e m a l e l a b o r t h e most " r e v o l u t i o n i z i n g " a s p e c t o f c a p i t a l i s m , and he r 54 t r e a t m e n t a g r e e d c l o s e l y w i t h o r t h o d o x p a r t y i d e o l o g y . As f o r c h i l d l a b o r , an 1897 B e r n s t e i n a r t i c l e i n D i e Neue Z e i t e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y a d v o c a t e d work i n s t r u c t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n under f o u r t e e n and r e g u l a r 79 employment f o r t h o s e no t c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n beyond t h a t a ge . He r e t r e a t e d o n l y s l i g h t l y i n W i r t s c h a f t s w e s e n und W i r t s c h a f t s w e r d e n , when he d e c l a r e d t h a t c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d e a r l y t o p u r p o s e f u l 56 a c t i v i t y , bu t t o work i t s e l f r a t h e r more g r a d u a l l y . The i n c e s s a n t c h a r g e o f m i d d l e - and u p p e r - c l a s s i d l e n e s s draws o u t c l e a r l y t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e v i e w s o f B e r n s t e i n and t h e o r t h o d o x t h e o r i s t s . I t was one w i t h a l o n g s o c i a l i s t t r a d i t i o n . The "Communist M a n i f e s t o " s t a t e s : I t has been o b j e c t e d t h a t upon t h e a b o l i t i o n o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y a l l work w i l l c e a s e , and u n i v e r s a l l a z i n e s s w i l l o v e r t a k e u s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y ough t l o n g ago t o have gone t o t h e dogs t h r o u g h s h e e r i d l e n e s s ; f o r t h o s e o f i t s members who w o r k , a c q u i r e n o t h i n g , and t h o s e who a c q u i r e a n y t h i n g , do n o t wo r k . 57 The p r o p a g a n d i s t s v a l u e o f such a c l a i m . w a s i n e s t i m a b l e . The s o c i a l i s t a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s show t h e i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e t h a t i t p l a y e d i n t h e awaken ing and m a i n t e n a n c e o f c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a f a c t w i t h w h i c h t h e t h e o r i s t s must have been c o g n i z a n t . K a u t s k y ' s b e l i e f i n t he c r u c i a l p l a c e o f t h e p a r t y ' s l e a d e r s h i p and b o u r g e o i s i n t e l l i g e n t s i a i n e d u c a t i n g and p r o p a g a n - 58 d i z i n g t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s gave him t h e p e r f e c t r a t i o n a l e f o r e m p l o y i n g t h e c h a r g e o f i d l e n e s s . I n d e e d , h i s two most s i g n i f i c a n t p o p u l a r i z a t i o n s , The Economic D o c t r i n e s o f K a r l M a r x , and The C l a s s S t r u g g l e ( i n German, Das E r f u r t e r Program) d i s m i s s e d t h e l a b o r o f c a p i t a l i s t s , and l a b e l l e d 59 them as more u s e l e s s t h a n f e u d a l l o r d s . W i t h t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y c o m p l e t e l y e l i m i n a t e d , 80 and an e t h i c a l s o c i a l i s m pu t i n i t s p l a c e , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p ropaganda among t h e w o r k e r s was even h i g h e r i n B e r n s t e i n ' s t h o u g h t . T h i s may be t h e ma in r e a s o n why h i s p r o p o s a l f o r a r e d r a f t e d t h e o r e t i c a l s e c t i o n f o r t h e p a r t y program men t i on s t h e i d l e and p a r a s i t i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e 60 b o u r g e o i s i e no l e s s t han f i v e t i m e s . But t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o doubt h i s s i n c e r i t y , n o r t h a t o f t h e o t h e r t h e o r i s t s . B e r n s t e i n c o n s i d e r e d t h e r u l i n g c l a s s e s ' l a c k o f f u n c t i o n and e x c e s s i v e c o n s u m p t i o n o f l u x u r y 61 goods t o be one o f t h e g r e a t e s t i n d i c t m e n t s o f b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y . L i v i n g i n an e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h e x a g g e r a t e d r h e t o r i c , c l a s s h o s t i l i t y and c h a r g e s o f i d l e n e s s and i m m o r a l i t y were t h e normal c o n t e n t o f p o l i - t i c a l l i f e , n e i t h e r he no r t h e " o r t h o d o x M a r x i s t s " c o u l d a v o i d a b s o r b i n g and e x p r e s s i n g t h e s e v i e w s . The t o n e o f mora l o u t r a g e i s most e v i d e n t i n B e b e l ' s Woman Under S o c i a l i s m , w h i c h was one o f t h e few S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c books r e a d w i d e l y i n Ft? t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s . The p a r t y l e a d e r denounced c a p i t a l i s m f o r (among o t h e r t h i n g s ) s e l l i n g p o r n o g r a p h y , a d u l t e r a t i n g f o o d , c o r r u p t i n g y o u t h , a n d , o f c o u r s e , h y p o c r i t i c a l i d l e n e s s . A " l a z y " f e l l o w s o c i e t y o n l y c a l l s him who has been th rown o u t o f w o r k , i s c o m p e l l e d t o l e a d a v a g a b o n d ' s l i f e and f i n a l l y does become a v agabond , o r who, grown up under i m - p r o p e r t r a i n i n g , s i n k s i n t o v i c e . But t o s t y l e " l a z y f e l l o w " t h e man who k i l l s t h e day w i t h i d l e n e s s o r d e b a u c h e r y wou l d be an i n s u l t : he i s a "good and w o r t h y man. "63 The p e t t y b o u r g e o i s t r a d e r s and midd lemen f a r e l i t t l e b e t t e r i n B e b e l ' s hands : A l t h o u g h t h i s c l a s s t o i l s a r d u o u s l y and works under t h e l o a d o f heavy c a r e s , t h e m a j o r i t y a r e p a r a s i t e s , t h e y a r e 81 u n p r o d u c t i V e l y a c t i v e , and t h e y 1 i v e upon t h e l a b o r s o f o t h e r s , j u s t t h e same as t h e c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s . 6 4 As a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o p o p u l a r s o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g y , t h e book a i d e d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s w i t h t h e s e s e n t i m e n t s . But a r e a d i n g o f i t l e a v e s no doubt t h a t t h e a u t h o r ' s con tempt f o r t h e m i d d l e and upper c l a s s e s and h i s p e r s o n a l commitment t o t h e work e t h i c were c o m p l e t e l y s i n c e r e . The m i l i t a n t and r a t h e r s i m p l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r o f e a r l i e r S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c w r i t i n g s was i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p l i c a t e d , even c o n f o u n d e d , by t h e r i s e o f t h e "new m i d d l e c l a s s " o f w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s , and t h e g r o w i n g r e c o g n i t i o n a c c o r d e d t o i n d u s t r i a l management by t h e p a r t y t h e o r i s t s . The re i s a n o t i c e a b l e s h i f t o f emphas i s i n K a u t s k y . H i s work i n t h e 1 880 ' s c o m p l e t e l y d i s m i s s e d t h e c a p i t a l i s t s as s u p e r f l u o u s , bu t The S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n o f 1902 i s w i l l i n g t o concede them a p l a c e i n t h e 65 l e a d e r s h i p o f s o c i a l i z e d i n d u s t r y . Under t h e Weimar R e p u b l i c he q u i t e re o p e n l y p r o c l a i m e d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f u s i n g t h e i r e x p e r t i s e . The i n c r e a s i n g p rom inence o f b u r e a u c r a t i c , c l e r i c a l and t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s i n German i n d u s t r y . w a s more r e a d i l y a c c e p t e d by B e r n s t e i n , who (much t o o o p t i m i s t i c a l l y ) hoped t h a t t h e y wou ld d i s c e r n t h e i r a f f i n i t y t o t h e w o r k i n g - c l a s s movement. H i s p e r c e p t i o n o f u p p e r - c l a s s i d l e n e s s f o c u s e d on s t o c k - h o l d e r s , 6 7 f o r t h e t e n d e n c y o f advanced c a p i t a l i s m t o s e p a r a t e o w n e r s h i p f r om c o n t r o l t h r o u g h j o i n t - s t o c k compan ie s was j u s t becoming i m p o r t a n t . A s t r u g g l e ensued o v e r whe the r t h i s t r e n d c o n f i r m e d o r undermined t h e M a r x i s t v i e w p o i n t , bu t K a u t s k y ' s g r e a t e r and g r e a t e r w i l l i n g n e s s t o concede management a p l a c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t h i s v i e w s 82 p a r a l l e l e d B e r n s t e i n ' s . Contempt was r e s e r v e d f o r t h e " c o u p o n - c u t t e r s " and r e n t i e r s . D i r e c t o r s , b u r e a u c r a t s and t e c h n i c i a n s were e x c u s e d on t h e g rounds o f t h e i r i n d i s p e n s a b i l i t y , o r t h e i r supposed s e m i - p r o l e t a r i a n n a t u r e . As e a r l y as 1887 Pau l L a f a r g u e advanced t h e t h e o r y i n D i e Neue Z e i t t h a t t e c h n i c a l p e r s o n n e l were g r a d u a l l y f o r m i n g a " p r o l e t a r i a t o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l a b o r , " w h i c h wou ld be s u b j e c t e d t o t h e same c o n d i t i o n s o f 68 i n s e c u r i t y and l ow wages as t h e " p r o l e t a r i a t o f manual l a b o r . " E ven t s d i d no t bea r him o u t , and K a u t s k y i n p a r t i c u l a r was l e f t w i t h some t r i c k y p r o b l e m s c o n c e r n i n g management and a u t h o r i t y i n s o c i a l i s t p r o d u c - t i o n . Our a t t e n t i o n must now t u r n t o t h e v i s i o n o f s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y i t s e l f , s i n c e i t i s he re t h a t t h e m a j o r f e a t u r e s o f t h e t h e o r y o f work i n German S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c i d e o l o g y s t a n d o u t i n g r e a t e s t r e l i e f . In f a s h i o n i n g a p i c t u r e o f t h e Z u k u n f t s s t a a t t h e t h e o r i s t s had t o r e c o n c i l e t h e needs o f p ropaganda f o r t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s w i t h t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f r e a l i t y and t h e o r y . In d o i n g s o , t h e y l a i d b a r e t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r e c o n c e p t i o n s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s . 83 REFERENCES ^ a r l K a u t s k y , The C l a s s S t r u g g l e , T r . W. E. Bohn (New Y o r k , 1 9 7 1 ) , 138. 2 Eduard B e r n s t e i n , E v o l u t i o n a r y S o c i a l i s m : A C r i t i c i s m and A f f i r m a t i o n , T r . E. C. Harvey (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 1 ) , 53n . 3 See a b o v e , C h a p t e r I. 4 K a r l Ma r x , C a p i t a l (Moscow, n . d . ) , I, 173 -174 . 5 Wa l t on and Gamble , A l i e n a t i o n , 2 7 - 2 8 . c I b i d . , C h a p t e r s 1 and 2 . See a l s o S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l Thought o f K a r l Marx ( C a m b r i d g e , 1 9 6 8 ) , 6 8 - 6 9 , 7 3 - 7 5 , 8 5 - 8 6 ; Georg L u k 5 c s , H i s T t o r y and C l a s s C o n s c i o u s n e s s ( C a m b r i d g e , MassO, 1 9 7 1 ) , x x i i - x x v i ; K a r l M a r x , E a r l y W r i t i n g s , Ed . T . B. Bo t t omo re (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 4 ) , 120 -134 , 166. ^ F r i e d r i c h E n g e l s , "The P a r t P l a y e d by Labou r i n t h e T r a n s i t i o n f r o m Ape t o Man , " i n Marx and E n g e l s , S e l e c t e d Work s , 354. g Wa l ton and Gamble , A l i e n a t i o n , 7 1 - 7 2 ; L i c h t h e i m , M a r x i s m , 237 , 2 40 , 2 45 - 246 ; H o l z h e u e r , K au t s k y s Werk, 1 9 - 2 4 , 3 3 - 3 4 ; K a r l K a u t s k y , E t h i c s and t h e M a t e r i a l i s t C o n c e p t i o n o f H i s t o r y ( C h i c a g o , n . d . ) , 1 1 9 - 1 2 1 , 1 25 - 126 ; K a r l K a u t s k y , Der Weg z u r Macht (Hamburg, 1 9 0 9 ) , 3 8 - 3 9 ; Eduard B e r n s t e i n , " D e r R e v i s i o n i s m u s i n d e r S o z i a l d e m o c r a t i e , " E i n r e v i s i o n i s t i s - ches S o z i a l i s m u s b i l d (Hannove r , 1 9 6 6 ) , 8 - 1 1 ; Augu s t B e b e l , Woman U n d e r " S o c i a l i s m , T r . D a n i e l De Leon ( 1904 ; r p t . New Y o r k , 1 9 7 1 ) , 201 -204 . The l a t t e r s t a t e s on p. 204: " D a r w i n i s m and S o c i a l i s m a r e i n p e r f e c t ha rmony . " g Mommsen, e d . , Deut sche P a r t e i p r o g r a m m e , 349. 1 0 I b i d . 1 : L K a r l K a u t s k y , The Economic D o c t r i n e s o f K a r l Marx (New Y o r k , 1 9 3 6 ) , 1 51 ; K a u t s k y , C l a s s S t r u g g l e , 2 4 - 2 6 , 7 0 ; M a r x , C a p i t a l , I, C h a p t e r XV ( " M a c h i n e r y and Modern I n d u s t r y " ) , p a s s i m . 12 Mommsen, e d . , Deu t sche P a r t e i p r o g r a m m e , 349. 1 3 I b i d . , 350 ; K a u t s k y , C l a s s S t r u g g l e , 3 1 - 3 3 . "^Mommsen, e d . , Deu t sche P a r t e i programme, 350. 84 15 H o l z h e u e r , K a u t s k y s Werk, 3 0 - 3 2 ; K a r l K a u t s k y and Eduard B e r n s t e i n , " D e r E n t w u r f des neuen Parteiprogramms," '• ' D i e Neue Z e i t , I X , 2 ( 1 8 9 0 - 9 1 ) , 7 53 - 754 ; K a u t s k y , C l a s s S t r u g g l e , 6 9 - 7 0 , 9 0 - 9 1 ; K a r l K a u t s k y , The S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n , Tr.. A . M. and M. W. S imons ( C h i c a g o , 1 9 1 3 ) , 111 -112 . 1 6 M a r x , C a p i t a l , I, 458 . 1 7 K a u t s k y , S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n , 184 -185 . 1 g I b i d . , 112 ; Eduard B e r n s t e i n , " P r o b l e m e des S o z i a l i s m u s " D i e Neue Z e i t , XV, 2 , ( 1 8 9 6 - 9 7 ) , 138 ; SPD P r o t o k o l l 1908, 516 ; KSte D u n c k e r , " D i e S c h u l r e f o r m d e r S o z i a l d e m o k r a t i e , T i e Neue Z e i t , XX IX , 2 , ( 1 9 1 0 - 1 1 ) . 698 . 19 K a u t s k y , S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n , 186. 2 0 I b i d . , 126. 2 1 B e b e l , Woman, 105 , 1 6 7 - 1 7 7 , 180 ; C l a r a Z e t k i n , A u s g e w g h l t e Reden und S c h r i f t e n ( B e r l i n , 1 9 5 7 ) , I, 2 0 2 - 2 0 5 ; K a u t s k y , C l a s s S t r u g g l e , 28 . 22 Mommsen, e d . , Deu t s che P a r t e i p r o g r a m m e , 312 , 314 f o r t h e E i s e n a c h and Gotha p r og r ams . Fo r a s h o r t and r a t h e r t h i n h i s t o r y o f t h e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c a t t i t u d e t o women's l i b e r a t i o n see Werner Tht tnnes sen, The E m a n c i - p a t i o n o f Women: The R i s e a n d ^ D e c l i n e o f t h e Women's Movement i n t h e German S o c i a l Democracy : 1863 ' -1933 ( London , 1 9 7 3 ) . ~ 2 3 M a r x , C a p i t a l , I, 460 . 24 Z e t k i n , Reden und S c h r i f t e n , I, 3 - 8 ; Z e t k i n i n SPD P r o t o k o l l . 1906, 349 ; B e b e l , Woman, 104; Marx,CapitaTT 1, 3 7 2 - 3 7 3 , 380. 2 5 Z e t k i n , Reden und S c h r i f t e n , I, 3 - 1 1 ; B e b e l , Woman, 8 9 - 9 0 . 2 6 S P D P r o t o k o l l 1906, 349. 2 7 S P D P r o t o k o l l 1908 , 523.. 28 T h i s w i l l be e x t e n s i v e l y examined i n C h a p t e r IV, 2 9 S P D P r o t o k o l l 1 906 , 3 4 0 - 3 4 3 , 3 48 , 3 5 3 ; K a t e Duncker i n SPD P r o t o k o l l 1908, 5 1 0 - 5 1 1 , 516 ; Z e t k i n , Reden und S c h r i f t e n , I, 2 64 - 265 . 3 0 S P D P r o t o k o l l , 1906 , 3 4 1 ; D u n c k e r , " S c h u l r e f o r m , " 703 . On t h e b o u r g e o i s movement see C h a p t e r I I , and G. G r i e p , " O b e r b l i c k , " p a s s i m . 85 SPD P r o t o k o l l 1906, 1 3 5 , 3 4 1 , 488 . Marx was among t h e f i r s t s o c i a l i s t s , f o l l o w i n g Owen, t o empha s i ze y o u t h f u l l a b o r as s o c i a l l y i m - p o r t a n t . See C a p i t a l , I, 4 5 3 - 4 5 4 , 4 5 8 , and " C r i t i q u e o f t h e Gotha P r o g r a m " i n Marx and E n g e i s , S e l e c t e d Work s , 330. T h i s was f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d i n R o b e r t S e i d e l , P e r A r b e i t s u n t e r r i c h t : E i n e s o z i a l e und pctdagog i sche N o t h w e n d i g k e i t ( Z u r i c h , 1885 ) . See r e v i e w o f same by H e i n r i c h Braun i n P i e Neue Z e i t , ~ " I V ( 1 8 8 6 ) , 184 -187 . An E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n o f S e i d e l ' s book e x i s t s . See I n d u s t r i a l I n s t r u c t i o n , T r . M. K. Sm i t h ( B o s t o n , 1 8 8 7 ) , 3 2 S P P P r o t o k o l l 1908, 516 . 3 3 S P D P r o t o k o l l 1906, 353 . 34 K a u t s k y , S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n , 124 -126 . Fo r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s see C h a p t e r IV.. 35 The r e a l e f f e c t s o f t h i s a r e n o t v i s i b l e u n t i l t h e Z u k u n f t s s t a a t i s e x a m i n e d . See C h a p t e r IV. 36 r 1907 ) . Pau l L a f a r g u e , The R i g h t t o be La zy and O t h e r S t u d i e s , ( C h i c a g o , 3 7 I b i d . , 3 - 5 . 3 8 I b i d . , 9 , 13. 39 I t was c i r c u l a t e d as a pamph le t i n t h e : S o z i a l d e m o k r a t i s c h e B i b ! i d t h e k s e r i e s , w h i c h was a l s o p u b l i s h e d i n t h r e e bound vo lumes i n Z u r i c h i n 1888. See Pau l L a f a r g u e , " Pa s Rech t a u f F a u l h e i t , " i b i d . , ( r p t . L e i p z i g , 1 9 7 1 ) , v o l . I I . A d e l h e i d Popp m e n t i o n s r e a d i n g t h i s e s s a y and b e i n g p l e a s e d by i t . T h i s i s i r o n i c , f o r he r a u t o b i o g r a p h y shows he r t o have t h e s t r o n g e s t commitment t o t h e work e t h i c o f any o f t h o s e e x a m i n e d . Popp, A u t o b i o g r a p h y , 97 . 4 0 K a r l K a u t s k y , " Pa s Recht a u f A r b e i t , " P i e Neue Z e i t , I I ( 1 8 8 4 ) , 2 99 - 303 . T h i s a r t i c l e was p r o b a b l y a l s o a v e i l e d a t t a c k on L o u i s V i e r e c k , a p r o m i n e n t member o f t h e p a r t y ' s r i g h t w ing who h a i l e d B i s m a r k ' s s peech and s t a r t e d a p a p e r c a l l e d Das Rech t a u f A r b e i t . C o n f l i c t w i t h i n t h e p a r t y was q u i t e p r o m i n e n t between 1884 and 1886. See L i d t k e , Ou t l awed P a r t y , 147. On t h e " r i g h t t o w o r k " see a l s o Eduard B e r n s t e i n , " E i n i g e L i t e r a t u r l i b e r das Recht a u f A r b e i t und d i e F rage d e r A r b e i t s l o s e n , " i b i d . , X I I , 2 ( 1 8 9 4 - 9 5 ) , 459 -60 and E v o l u t i o n a r y S o c i a l i s m , 153 i n w h i c h he a g r e e s t h a t a " r i g h t t o w o r k " i s i m p o s s i b l e u n d e r c a p i t a l i s m . He d i d however advance t h e i d e a o f a " d e m o c r a t i c r i g h t t o w o r k " under s o c i a l i s m i n i b i d . , and i n " P r o b l e m e des S o z i a l i s m u s , " D i e Neue Z e i t , XV, 2 ( 1 8 9 6 - 9 7 ) , 1 40 - 141 . 86 The ene r g y o f t h e p a r t y d i d d e c l i n e t owa rd s t h e F i r s t Wo r l d War. Rosa Luxemburg a t t a c k e d t h e p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p i n 1914 f o r b a c k - s l i d i n g . o n t h e e i g h t - h o u r day . See " D i e A l t e P r o g r ammfo rde rung " i n Gesammelte Werke ( B e r l i n , 1 9 7 3 ) , I I I , 380 -384 . Luxemburg w r o t e a l m o s t n o t h i n g r e l e v a n t t o work t h e o r y , and as an o u t s i d e r does n o t seem t o have i m b i b e d t h e e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e work e t h i c o f t h o s e bo rn i n Germany and n a t i v e t o German s o c i a l i s m . O t h e r p r o m i n e n t f u t u r e Communist women, such as C l a r a Z e t k i n and KHte D u n c k e r , were among t h e most m i l i t a n t p r o p a g a n d i s t s f o r work . 4? H Ma r x , C a p i t a l , I I I , 820 . 43 Augu s t B e b e l , "De r A c h t s t u n d e n - A r b e i t s t a g , " D i e Neue Z e i t , XV, 2 ( 1 8 9 6 - 9 7 ) , 4 24 - 425 . 4 4 I b i d . , 425 . 45 Eduard B e r n s t e i n . , W i r t s c h a f t s w e s e n und Wi r t s c h a f t s w e r d e h : D r e i g e m e i n v e r s t c l n d l i c h e Abhand lungen ( B e r l i n , 1 9 2 0 ) , 3 6 - 3 9 ( t h e s e l e c t u r e s were g i v e n i n 1 9 0 3 - 0 4 ) ; E v o l u t i o n a r y S o c i a l i s m , 139 , 187 -188 ; " D e r R e v i s i o n i s - mus , " 3 4 - 3 8 ; P e t e r Gay , The Dilemma o f D e m o c r a t i c S o c i a l i s m : Eduard B e r n s t e i n ' s C h a l l e n g e t o Marx (New Y o r k , 1 9 7 0 ) , 1 7 0 - 1 7 3 , 1 8 5 - 1 8 8 , 192 - 195 , 2 2 1 , 2 29 - 230 . 4 6 I b i d . , 169 -170 ; B e r n s t e i n , . W i r t s c h a f t s w e s e n , 6 3 , 7 0 - 7 1 . 47 B e r n s t e i n , E v o l u t i o n a r y S o c i a l i s m , 2 1 . 48 B e r n s t e i n , W i r t s c h a f t s w e s e n , 7 0 - 7 1 . 49 B e r n s t e i n , " P r o b l e m e des S o z i a l i s m u s , " p t . 5 , 138 -142 . 50 B e r n s t e i n , . E v o l u t i o n a r y S o c i a l i s m , 168 - 169 ; t h e o r i g i n a l i s i n K a u t s k y and B e r n s t e i n , " E n t w u r f , 824. B e r n s t e i n r e p e a t s t h i s v i e w i n " P r o b l e m e des S o z i a l i s m u s , " p t . 5 , 138. 51 Edmund F i s c h e r , " J u g e n d e r z i e h u n g , " S o z i a l i s t i s c h e M o n a t s h e f t e , ( 1 9 0 6 ) , 7 6 1 ; Ida HSny - Lux , " B e r u f und E h e , " i b i d . , 8 70 - 876 . 52 L i l y B r a u n , D i e F r a u e n f r a g e : i h r e g e s c h i c h t l i c h e E n t w i c k l u n g und w j r t s c h a f t l i c h e S e i t e ( L e i p z i g , 1 901 ) . 5 3 I b i d . , 287, 5 4 I b i d . , 2 0 9 - 2 4 4 , 287 , 3 2 5 , . 4 3 1 , 4 4 8 - 4 5 0 , 4 8 2 , 554 -557 . 55 Eduard B e r n s t e i n , " De r S o z i a l i s m u s und d i e g e w e r b l i c h e A r b e i t d e r J u g e n d , " D i e Neue Z e i t , X V I , 1 ( 1 8 9 7 - 9 8 ) , 3 7 - 4 4 . 87 56 E Marx and E n g e l s , " M a n i f e s t o o f t h e Communist P a r t y , " S e l e c t e d B e r n s t e i n , W i r t s c h a f t s w e s e n , 60 57 Work s , 4 9 . 58 H o l z h e u e r , K a u t s k y s Werk, 7 9 - 8 3 . 59 K a u t s k y , Economic D o c t r i n e s , 124 , 128 - 129 ; K a u t s k y , C l a s s S t r u g g l e , 8 6 . 60 B e r n s t e i n , " L e i t s 3 t z e f u r den t h e o r e t i s c h e n T e i l e i n e s s o z i a l - d e m o k r a t i s c h e n P a r t e i p r o g r a m m s , " A p p e n d i x t o " D e r R e v i s i o n i s m u s , " 4 4 - 4 8 . f> 1 B e r n s t e i n , W i r t s c h a f t s w e s e n , . 9 6 - 9 8 . cp R o t h , S o c i a l D e m o c r a t s , 2 35 - 236 ; S t e i n b e r g , S o z i a l i s m u s , 129 -142 . 6 3 B e b e l , Woman, 294. 6 4 I b i d . , 263 . K a u t s k y , Economic D o c t r i n e s , 124 , 1 28 - 129 ; S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n , 112. 6 6 K a r l K a u t s k y , The Labou r R e v o l u t i o n , ( L ondon , 1 9 2 5 ) , 179. 6 7 B e r n s t e i n , " D e r R e v i s i o n i s m u s , " 2 9 , 3 2 - 3 4 , and " L e i t s a t z e , " 4 6 ; B e r n s t e i n , W i r t s c h a f t s w e s e n , 101 -102 . CO Pau l L a f a r g u e , "Das P r o l e t a r i a t d e r H a n d a r b e i t und K o p f a r b e i t , " D i e Neue Z e i t , V, ( 1 8 8 7 ) , 4 52 , 4 5 5 - 4 6 1 ; VI ( 1 8 8 8 ) , 133 -135 . •B8 CHAPTER IV SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC IDEOLOGY: WORK IN SOCIALIST SOCIETY ( i n s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y ] t h e o b l i g a t i o n l i e s upon a l l , c a p a b l e o f w o r k , t o f u r n T i h a c e r t a i n measure o f 1abou r t o s o c i e t y , n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f s o c i a l w a n t s , i n exchange whe reo f s o c i e t y g u a r a n - t e e s t o each and a l l t h e means r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e deve l opment o f h i s f a c u l t i e s arid f o r t h e en joymen t o f l i f e . - - Augu s t B e b e l , , Woman Under S o c i a l i s m The d u t y o f a l l t o w o r k , e x c e p t i n c a s e s o f p r e s s i n g n e c e s s i t y and such t a s k s f o r t h e community w h i c h each member o f s o c i e t y w i l l a l t e r n a t e l y have, t o p e r f o r m , can o n l y be based on t h e u p h o l d i n g o f t h e r u l e , t h a t he who w i l l n o t w o r k , n e i t h e r s h a l l he e a t , t h a t i s , on t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e a l r e a d y V a l u e d p r i n c i p l e o f s e l f - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . - - Eduard B e r n s t e i n , ? Prob leme des S o z i a l i s m u s D e s p i t e i n n u m e r a b l e p r o s c r i p t i o n s a g a i n s t s p e c u l a t i o n abou t t h e 3 f u t u r e , t h e Z u k u n f t s s t a a t was t h e s u b j e c t o f many p o p u l a r and even t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s . The re was no doub t as t o t h e e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e t o p i c i n t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s . As n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y , Woman under S o c i a l i s m and B e l l a m y ' s L o o k i n g Backward 2000-1887 were t h e b e s t - s e l l i n g s o c i a l i s t works o f t h e 1 8 9 0 ' s . 4 The l a t t e r book was by no means M a r x i s t , bu t t h e demand f o r i t was so g r e a t t h a t i t was w i d e l y s e r i a l i z e d i n S o c i a l 5 D e m o c r a t i c n ewspape r s ; and a l t h o u g h B e b e l ' s book was o s t e n s i b l y abou t f e m i n i s m , i t s r e a l s e l l i n g p o i n t was i t s d i s c u s s i o n o f s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y . 89 The hopes g e n e r a t e d in t h e minds o f many w o r k e r s were a l m o s t m i l l e n a r i a n : t h e v i s i o n an a p p r o a c h i n g s o c i a l i s t Utopia d i s p l a c e d heaven when t h e S o c i a l Democracy d i s p l a c e d t h e C h u r c h . K a u t s k y p e r c e i v e d t h e Z u k u n f t s s t a a t 1 s a t t r a c t i o n . To h i m , t h e i n s p i r a t i o n o f t he f i n a l goa l ( E n d z i e l ) o f s o c i a l i s m was one o f t h e means o f p ropaganda w h i c h c o u l d be l e g i t i m a t e l y used by t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a t o engender c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Some o f t h e v i r u l e n c e o f K a u t s k y ' s r e a c t i o n t o B e r n s t e i n ' s f amous , i f u n h a p p i l y p h r a s e d , d i c t u m abou t t h e f i n a l a im meaning n o t h i n g and t h e movement e v e r y t h i n g , 7 can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e p o l i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e t h e d e f e n d e r o f o r t h o d o x y p l a c e d on t h a t a i m . Even t he R e v i s i o n i s t s c o u l d no t a v o i d t h e s u b j e c t e n t i r e l y . They , l i k e t h e " o r t h o d o x M a r x i s t s , " had t o base t h e i r i d e a s on t h e deve l opment o f c a p i t a l i s m p a r t l y on t h e e l e m e n t s and p r e c o n d i t i o n s o f s o c i a l i s m t h a t a r i s e w i t h i n i t , and t hu s were c o m p e l l e d t o c o n t e m p l a t e a t l e a s t t h e o u t - l i n e s o f s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y . N a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f a l l i n d u s t r y was a c e n t r a l s s s u m p t i o n . K a u t s k y and B e r n s t e i n d i f f e r e d i n t h i s r e s p e c t o n l y on t h e r a p i d i t y o f t h e t r a n s i - t i o n . W h i l e t h e l a t t e r saw a s l ow g rowth i n t o t o t a l s o c i a l o w n e r s h i p t a k i n g some decades and o c c u r r i n g bo th b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e p o l i t i c a l v i c t o r y o f t h e SPD, K a u t s k y b e l i e v e d i n a more d i r e c t change o n l y a f t e r t h e c o n q u e s t o f power. But h i s e s s a y i n The S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n , "On t h e Day A f t e r t h e Q S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n " ( pe rhap s t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e Z u k u n f t s s t a a t l i t e r a t u r e ) , d i d n o t p i c t u r e an immed ia te and t o t a l c o n f i s c a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y . Compensa t i on wou ld be p a i d t o t h e owners i n most c a s e s , w i t h a h i g h p r o g r e s s i v e income t a x t o 90 t a k e much o f i t b a c k . Some e n t e r p r i s e s wou ld be s o l d t o w o r k e r s ' c o o p e r a t i v e s , o t h e r s t o t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and t h e s t a t e . C e n t r a l i z e d g n a t i o n a l o w n e r s h i p wou ld p r e v a i l o n l y i n t h e l o n g r u n . The f undamen ta l p r ob l em o f s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y , as K a u t s k y and t h e o t h e r t h e o r i s t s r e a l i z e d , was t h e m a i n t e n a n c e and e x p a n s i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n once t h e c o m p u l s i v e a s p e c t s o f c a p i t a l i s t w a g e - l a b o r were removed. The t r a i n i n g and a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s c a r r i e d o u t by t h e c a p i t a l i s t l a b o r - p r o c e s s was n a t u r a l l y t h e b a s i s f o r a l l s o c i a l i s t w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e . In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t h e g r e a t power o f cu s tom must no t be f o r g o t t e n . C a p i t a l has accus tomed t h e modern l a b o r e r t o work day i n and day o u t and he w i l l n o t l o n g r ema i n w h o l l y w i t h o u t l a b o r . The re a r e p e o p l e who a r e so much accus tomed t o t h e i r work t h a t t h e y do no t know what t o do w i t h t h e i r f r e e t i m e and t h a t f e e l t h e m s e l v e s unhappy when t h e y a r e no t w o r k i n g , and t h e r e w i l l be few p e o p l e who f e e l t h e m s e l v e s happy f o r any l e n g t h o f t i m e w i t h o u t any work . I am c o n v i n c e d t h a t when once l a b o r l o s e s t h e r e p u l s i v e c h a r a c t e r o f o v e r - w o r k and when t h e hour s o f l a b o r a r e r educed i n a r e a s o n a b l e d e g r e e , cus tom a l o n e w i l l s u f f i c e t o h o l d t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f w o r k e r s i n r e g u l a r work i n t h e f a c t o r i e s and t h e m i n e s . 1 0 But Kau t s k y i m m e d i a t e l y adds a f a s c i n a t i n g q u a l i f i c a t i o n : " . . . i t i s s e l f - e v i d e n t t h a t we canno t t r u s t t o t h i s m o t i v e a l o n e as i t i s t h e 11 w e a k e s t . " T h i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y s t a t e m e n t u n c o n s c i o u s l y d i s p l a y s a l a c k o f f a i t h i n bo th t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e w o r k e r and t h e n a t u r a l n e s s o f work t o man. The l a t t e r nuance h i g h - l i g h t s t h e s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e between M a r x ' s p h i l o s o p h y o f l a b o r and t h a t o f t h e " o r t h o d o x M a r x i s t s . " As a r e s u l t , d i s c i p l i n e , a u t h o r i t y and t h e d u t y o f a l l t o work c a r r i e d g r e a t e r w e i g h t i n K a u t s k y ' s v i s i o n o f s o c i a l i s t i n d u s t r y . 91 The o t h e r f a c e t o f t h e d i s c i p l i n e i n d u c e d by w a g e - l a b o r i n b o u r - g e o i s s o c i e t y , t h a t i s , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and s c h o o l i n g o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s by t h e u n i o n s , t hu s comes t o t h e f o r e . K a u t s k y c o n t i n u e s : A n o t h e r much s t r o n g e r m o t i v e f o r c e i s t h e d i s c i p i i n e o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t . We know t h a t when t h e u n i o n d e c l a r e s a s t r i k e t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f o r g a n i z e d l a b o r i s s u f - f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g t o make t h e l a b o r e r s f r e e l y t a k e upon t hem- s e l v e s a l l t h e dange r s and h o r r o r s o f unemployment and t o r ema i n hungry f o r months i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e a v i c t o r i o u s c o n c l u s i o n t o t h e common c a u s e . Now I b e l i e v e t h a t when i t i s p o s s i b l e t o h o l d them o u t o f t h e f a c t o r i e s i t w i l l a l s o be p o s s i b l e t o h o l d them by t h e same f o r c e . I f t h e u n i o n once r e c o g n i z e s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f t h e unbroken r e g u l a r p r o g r e s s o f l a b o r we may be s u r e t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e who le w i l l be so g r e a t t h a t s c a r c e l y a s i n g l e member w i l l l e a v e h i s p o s t . 1 2 The w o r k e r s a r e t o be r a t i o n a l l y c o n v i n c e d o f t h e s o c i a l d u t y o f l a b o r . T h e i r s u b m i s s i o n wou ld be v o l u n t a r y because t h e y wou ld be under a 13 " d e m o c r a t i c d i s c i p l i n e " o v e r w h i c h t h e y wou ld have some c o n t r o l . Unde r - l y i n g some o f h i s c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e t r a c t a b i l i t y o f t h e o r g a n i z e d w o r k i n g c l a s s was h i s p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e F r ee ( s o c i a l i s t ) u n i o n s must a lway s be 14 s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e p a r t y . B e r n s t e i n ' s i d e a s were s i m i l a r . S i n c e t h e u n i o n s were o f even g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e i n h i s i d e o l o g y , he a l l o t t e d them p a r t o f t h e t a s k , as e a r l i e r n o t e d , o f f o s t e r i n g economic s e l f - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , s o l i d a r i t y , 15 a c c e p t a n c e o f s o c i a l d u t y and democ racy . The s o c i a l i s t t r a n s i t i o n b e i n g a g r a d u a l o n e , t h i s r o l e wou ld c o n t i n u e a f t e r t h e p o l i t i c a l v i c t o r y o f t h e l a b o r movement i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f p r o d u c t i o n . He t hu s a g r eed w i t h K a u t s k y t h a t a m a j o r component o f s o c i a l i s t w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e wou ld come f r om t h e u n i o n s . But as a R e v i s i o n i s t , B e r n s t e i n was f o r m u l a - t i n g a t h e o r y o f t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s i n t o German 92 s o c i e t y , and t h e r e f o r e c o u l d p e r m i t a d i r e c t encouragement o f t h e work e t h i c a l o n g w i t h d i s c i p l i n e i n i n d u s t r y bo th b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e s o c i a l i s t t a k e o v e r . K a u t s k y , as t h e t h e o r i s t o f w o r k i n g - c l a s s i s o l a t i o n , saw u n i o n d i s c i p l i n e p u r e l y as a p r o d u c t o f c l a s s s t r u g g l e and r e s i s t a n c e i n t h e c a p i t a l i s t f a c t o r i e s , w h i c h c o u l d be t u r n e d t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e pu rpo se s o f p r o d u c t i o n o n l y by a s o c i a l i s t gove rnment . W o r k e r s ' c o n t r o l , somet imes t h r o u g h t h e u n i o n s t r u c t u r e , was t o be t h e m a j o r f o rm o f a u t h o r i t y i n i n d u s t r y . Where d i r e c t c o o p e r a t i v e management was n o t p o s s i b l e , as i n t h e r a i l r o a d s , t h e b u r e a u c r a c y was t o be s u p e r v i s e d by a w o r k e r s ' " p a r l i a m e n t . " A t l e a s t t h i s i s K a u t s k y ' s p r o p o s a l . 1 ^ H i s R e v i s i o n i s t opponent was more s k e p t i c a l o f w o r k e r manage- ment , d e s p i t e an e n t h u s i a s m f o r c o o p e r a t i v e s . L e t any one o n l y f o r once l o o k a t t h e t h i n g i n t h e c o n c r e t e and examine any l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l u n d e r t a k i n g , a g r e a t e s t a b l i s h m e n t f o r b u i l d i n g m a c h i n e s , a l a r g e e l e c t r i c i t y w o r k s , a g r e a t c h e m i c a l f a c t o r y o r a modern p u b l i s h i n g b u s i n e s s . A l l t h e s e and s i m i l a r l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l u n d e r t a k i n g s can c e r t a i n l y be q u i t e w e l l c a r r i e d on by c o o p e r a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s , t o w h i c h a l l t h e employees may b e l o n g , bu t t h e y a r e a b - s o l u t e l y u n f i t f o r t h e a s s o c i a t e d management o f t h e employees t h e m s e l v e s . I 7 The manager , B e r n s t e i n c l a i m e d , c a n n o t be dependent upon t h e whims o f h i s emp loyees when he has t o make d a y - t o - d a y d e c i s i o n s w h i c h may g e n e r a t e I o f r i c t i o n . D e m o c r a t i c c o n t r o l must e x e r c i s e o n l y s u p e r v i s i o n and o w n e r s h i p , and must n o t i n t e r v e n e d i r e c t l y . K a u t s k y ' s i n c r e a s i n g w i l l i n g n e s s t o concede t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f a c t o r y management, and t o e x c u s e managers f r om t h e body o f r u l i n g - c l a s s 93 19 I d l e r s , r e v e a l s a s i m i l a r d i s t i n c t i o n emerg i ng i n h i s t h o u g h t . The s e p a r a t i o n o f o w n e r s h i p and c o n t r o l , t h e g rowth o f t e c h n o l o g y , and t h e advance o f b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n i n German l a r g e - s c a l e i n d u s t r y a t t h a t t i m e f a v o r e d t h e u n f o l d i n g o f c o n c e p t s o f t h e n a t u r e o f i n d u s t r i a l a u t h o r i t y a l r e a d y f o r m u l a t e d by E n g e l s . The Ma rx i sm shaped by M a r x ' s l i f e l o n g f r i e n d and bequeathed t o t h e S o c i a l Democrats p r o t r a y e d t h e s o c i a l i s t t r a n s i t i o n l a r g e l y as t h e remova l o f o b s t a c l e s t o t h e n a t u r a l and i n e v i - t a b l e upward e v o l u t i o n o f t h e human r a c e . M a r x ' s v i s i o n o f a " u n i q u e h i s t o r i c a l b r e a k t h r o u g h " t h a t l i b e r a t e s man and t r a n s f o r m s a l l h i s 20 i n s t i t u t i o n s was n o t e n t i r e l y e l i m i n a t e d , but i t was g i v e n second p l a c e t o t h e " f u l l e x p a n s i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s t h a t l i e l a t e n t i n 21 s o c i e t y . " S o c i a l i s m became a s o c i a l t e c h n o l o g y w h i c h wou l d f r e e p r o - d u c t i o n f r om t h e a n a r c h y and was te o f c a p i t a l i s m t h r o u g h s c i e n t i f i c and 22 r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . In c o n t r a s t t o Ma r x , t e c h n o l o g y was an " o b j e c t i v e , e x t e r n a l f o r c e " i n d e p e n d e n t o f a l l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h i s t e c h n o c r a t i c b rand o f 23 M a r x i s m . The r e s u l t i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s were s p e l l e d o u t by Enge l s i n an 1872 e s s a y a g a i n s t t h e A n a r c h i s t s t i t l e d "On A u t h o r i t y . " Tha t work c i t e d t h e example o f a c o t t o n m i l l w h i c h , i f i t i s t o r u n a t a l l , r e q u i r e s w o r k e r s t o b e g i n a t t h e same moment, work t h e same h o u r s , and so f o r t h . T h i s s i t u a t i o n wou ld r e q u i r e i n v e s t i n g someone w i t h a u t h o r i t y , b e c a u s e : The a u t o m a t i c m a c h i n e r y o f a f a c t o r y i s much more d e s p o t i c t h a n t h e s m a l l c a p i t a l i s t s who employ w o r k e r s e v e r have been . A t l e a s t w i t h r e g a r d t o hour s o f work one may w r i t e upon t h e p o r t a l s o f t h e s e f a c t o r i e s : f a s c i a t e e gn i a u t o n o m i a , v o i che e n t r a t e . ' ( L e a v e , y e t h a t e n t e r , a l l autonomy b e h i n d ! ) I f man, by d i n t o f h i s knowledge and .94 i n v e n t i v e g e n i u s , has subdued t h e f o r c e s o f n a t u r e , t h e l a t t e r avenge t h e m s e l v e s upon him by s u b j e c t i n g him . . . t o a v e r i t a b l e d e s p o t i s m i n d e p e n d e n t o f a l l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Want i ng t o a b o l i s h a u t h o r i t y i n l a r g e - s c a l e i n d u s t r y i s t an t amoun t t o w a n t i n g t o a b o l i s h i n d u s t r y i t s e l f . . . 4 A w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e c o n t r o l l e d f r o m above i s an i n e v i t a b l e p r o d u c t o f t e c h n o l o g y i t s e l f , and t h e r e f o r e c a n n o t be a v o i d e d by s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y . Ma rx , on t h e o t h e r hand , s t a t e d i n t h e t h i r d vo lume o f C a p i t a l : Tha t n o t h i n g i s l o s t o r wa s t ed and t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n a r e consumed o n l y i n t h e manner r e - q u i r e d by p r o d u c t i o n i t s e l f , depends p a r t l y on t h e s k i l l and i n t e l l i g e n c e o f t h e l a b o r e r s and p a r t l y on t h e d i s c i p l i n e e n f o r c e d by t h e c a p i t a l i s t f o r t h e combined l a b o r . T h i s d i s c i p l i n e w i l l become s u p e r f l u o u s under a s o c i a l s y s t em i n w h i c h t h e l a b o r e r s work f o r t h e i r own a c c o u n t , as i t has a l r e a d y become p r a c t i c a l l y s u p e r f l u o u s i n p i e c e - w o r k . " S i n c e man d e f i n e s h i m s e l f t h r o u g h w o r k , and a l l fo rms o f s o c i a l o r g a n i - z a t i o n a r e dependen t upon t h e " r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n " ( t h a t i s , t h e n a t u r e o f o w n e r s h i p o f t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n ) , e v e r y o n e under s o c i a l i s m w i l l p e r f o r m t h e i r l a b o r w i l l i n g l y and w i t h o u t e x t e r n a l c o m p u l s i o n . K a u t s k y , l a c k i n g t h e s e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s , n o t s u p r i s i n g l y f o l - l owed E n g e l s : Whatever may be t h e f o rm o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h i s c o o p e r a t i o n on a l a r g e s c a l e and t h e e m p l o y - ment o f common l a b o r i n s t r u m e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y m a c h i n e r y , w i l l a lway s i n v o l v e a r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e l a b o r p r o c e s s w h i c h makes i t i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e c a p r i c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t . I f we a r e n o t t o r enounce t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f mach - i n e r y , t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a d i s c i p l i n e t o w h i c h a l l have t o s ubm i t i s e s s e n t i a l . 2 6 95 T e c h n o l o g y and a u t h o r i t y t r a n s c e n t a l l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ; t h e l o g i c o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n imposes i t s e l f upon t h e Z u k u n f t s s t a a t . Thu s , d e s p i t e h i s e n t h u s i a s m f o r w o r k e r s ' c o n t r o l a t a l l l e v e l s , K a u t s k y was w i l l i n g i n The S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n t o l e a v e many c a p i t a l i s t s as d i r e c t o r s o f 27 t h e i r f a c t o r i e s a f t e r t h e t r a n s f e r o f o w n e r s h i p . O b s e r v a n t o f t h e v a s t changes i n t h e t e c h n i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f German i n d u s t r y , K a u t s k y i n c r e a s i n g l y conceded a p l a c e under s o c i a l i s m t o t e c h n o c r a t i c management, w h i c h wou ld i n e v i t a b l y c i r c u m s c r i b e t h e r e a l power o f t h a t d e m o c r a t i c c o n t r o l . In c o n t r a s t , B e b e l ' s Woman Under S o c i a l i s m p a i d much l e s s a t t e n - t i o n t o a u t h o r i t y as a n e c e s s a r y p r o d u c t o f i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n . H i s s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y was dependent upon t h e s p i r i t o f s o l i d a r i t y t h e r e c r e a t e d . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s i n t h e v a r i o u s b r anche s o f p r o d u c t i o n wou ld be f i l l e d by e l e c t i o n f r om among t h e w o r k e r s , w i t h t h e e v e n t u a l hope t h a t e v e r y o n e , r e g a r d l e s s o f s e x , wou ld a l t e r n a t e l y p e r f o r m t h e s e t a s k s . A s y s t em o f l a b o r , o r g a n i z e d upon a p l a n o f s uch a b s o l u t e l i b e r t y and d e m o c r a t i c e q u a l i t y , where each s t a n d s f o r a l l , and a l l s t a n d f o r e a c h , and where t h e sense o f s o l i d a r i t y r e i g n s supreme, - such a s y s tem wou ld g e n e r a t e a s p i r i t o f i n d u s t r y and o f e m u l a t i o n nowhere t o be f ound i n t h e modern economic s y s t e m . Nor c o u l d such a s p i r i t o f i n d u s t r y f a i l t o r e a c t upon t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f l a b o r and t h e q u a l i t y o f l a b o r ' s p r o d u c t . ™ The c o m p l e t e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f man i s a v i s i o n w h i c h r un s t h r o u g h o u t B e b e l ' s book. H i s c o n c e p t i o n o f s o c i a l i s t w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e c o n s e q u e n t l y a p p e a r s c l o s e r t o M a r x ' s t han t o K a u t s k y ' s o r B e r n s t e i n ' s i d e a s , though h i s knowledge o f Marx was c e r t a i n l y no b e t t e r t han t h a t o f t h e o t h e r S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c t h e o r i s t s , Women Under S o c i a l i s m , w i t h i t s p i c t u r e o f 96 a community v i r t u a l l y w i t h o u t c r i m e , i n s a n i t y o r c o n f l i c t , i n w h i c h 29 e v e r y o n e works o n l y two hour s a d a y , had more a f f i n i t y w i t h t h e Utopian s o c i a l i s t t r a d i t i o n . B e b e l ' s c o m p l e t e l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s o f g i a n t c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n , o r t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d a f t e r t h e r e v o l u t i o n f u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t e d t o h i s s u b l i m e c o n f i - dence i n t h e d i s p e n s a b i l i t y o f i n d u s t r i a l a u t h o r i t y . These v i ews were one o f t h e main p o i n t s o f a t t a c k i n v i r t u a l l y 30 t h e o n l y S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c c r i t i q u e o f t h e book. As t h e a u t h o r , Simon K a t z e n s t e i n , e x p r e s s e d i t : " E i t h e r t h e a n a r c h i s t c o o p e r a t i v e s w i t h o u t t h e d u t y o f o b e d i e n c e and w i t h o u t a u t h o r i t y — o r t h e d e m o c r a t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d s t a t e , d i s t r i c t and community w i t h t h e r i g h t o f d e c r e e and w i t h t h e d u t y 31 o f o b e d i e n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l s . " The l a t t e r c o n d i t i o n s wou l d e x t e n d t o t h e s o c i a l l y - o w n e d p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s . B e b e l ' s r e p l y h e a t e d l y r e j e c t e d K a t z e n s t e i n ' s c r i t i c i s m . W i t h t h e w i t h e r i n g away o f t he s t a t e and o f c l a s s c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , a l l i n t e r e s t s wou ld h a r m o n i z e . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n by 32 t h e p e o p l e c o u l d n o t be equa ted w i t h t h e c o m p u l s i o n o f t h e c l a s s s t a t e . Bebe l p a i d g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e M a r x i s t d o c t r i n e o f t h e s t a t e t h a n e i t h e r K a u t s k y o r B e r n s t e i n . The l a t t e r no t s u p r i s i n g l y r e p u d i a t e d i t 33 when he became a R e v i s i o n i s t , w h i l e t h e f o r m e r i g n o r e d i t i n The S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n , and r e j e c t e d i t e n t i r e l y i n t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s as s e m a n t i c q u i b b l i n g 34 o v e r w h e t h e r t h e s o c i a l i s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was a " s t a t e " o r n o t . W h i l e a d v a n c i n g h i s o p t i m i s t i c v i e w o f t h e t o t a l h a r m o n i z a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t s , Bebe l i n c o n s i s t e n t l y and r e p e a t e d l y a s s e r t e d t h e a b s o l u t e d u t y o f a l l t o wo rk . The c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s s t r i k i n g l y r e v e a l e d when he d e c l a r e s t h a t , i n t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a minimum d a i l y q u o t a o f manual l a b o r , s o c i e t y ' s " w i l l i s l a w , " bu t o n l y f o u r s e n t e n c e s l a t e r speaks o f t h e a b s o l u t e f r eedom 97 o f e a ch i n d i v i d u a l t o work when and where he l i k e s f o r t h e t i m e he w i s h e s . He g i v e s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e r e wou ld be any c o n f l i c t between n e c e s s a r y s o c i a l l a b o r and p e r s o n a l l i b e r t y . What abou t t h o s e who do n o t w i s h t o work ? In t h e o r y t h e y wou ld s t a r v e : "He who w i l l n o t w o r k , n e i t h e r s h a l l he e a t . " Y e t t h e m i l i t a n c e w i t h w h i c h t h e p a r t y l e a d e r p r o c l a i m e d t h e d u t y o f a l l t o work c a s t s doubt on whe the r even t h a t much i d l e n e s s wou ld be a l l o w e d . Some o f B e b e l ' s v i r u l e n c e and i n c o n s i s t e n c y can be t r a c e d t o t h e e f f e c t s o f a n t i - s o c i a l i s t p r opaganda . H i s Woman Under S o c i a l i s m had t o r e spond b o t h t o t h e r a t h e r c r u d e a c c u s a t i o n s o f i d l e n e s s and c r i m i n a l i t y n o t e d e a r l i e r , and t o t h e more s o p h i s t i c a t e d p o l e m i c s o f men l i k e Eugen R i c h t e r , t h e P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y l e a d e r . R i c h t e r ' s S o z i a l d e m o k r a t i s che Z u k u n f t s b i l d e r , w h i c h p a r o d i e d B e b e l ' s Z u k u n f t s s t a a t , s o l d 251,000 c o p i e s between 1891 and 1893 , and was s e r i a l i z e d i n o v e r f o r t y news- 37 p a p e r s . D e s p i t e t h e d u t y o f a l l t o work i n t h i s f u t u r e Germany, e v e r y i n c e n t i v e t o be a s s i d u o u s i s d e s t r o y e d by t h e r e i g n o f a b s o l u t e e q u a l i t y : " D i l i g e n c e and z e a l a r e l o o k e d upon as s t u p i d i t y and p e r v e r s i t y . And i n d e e d why s h o u l d one be i n d u s t r i o u s ? The most d i l i g e n t comes o f f OQ no b e t t e r t h a n t h e l a z i e s t . " The y o k e o f s o c i a l i s m i s e v e n t u a l l y th rown o f f by t h e w o r k e r s t h e m s e l v e s because o f t h e c o m p l e t e d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s . To c o u n t e r a c t t h e s e c h a r g e s Bebe l empha s i zed t h e s o c i a l i s t o r d e r ' s f r eedom f r om a r b i t r a r y a u t h o r i t y and t h e commitment o f s o c i a l i s m t o ha rd work . The p o t e n t i a l d i s c r e p a n c y he re was o n l y m a g n i f i e d by t h e s t r o n g work e t h i c he i m b i b e d f r om h i s own l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s and f r o m t h e s o c i a l i s t s u b c u l t u r e . 98 The a t t r a c t i v e power o f l a b o r under s o c i a l i s m was n a t u r a l l y a l s o s t r e s s e d by t h e S o c i a l Democra t s . A l a r g e c u t i n hour s and a r a i s e i n wages were a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f e n c o u r a g i n g m o t i v a t i o n t o work . Combined w i t h an improvement i n h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s and some deg ree o f d e m o c r a t i c 39 c o n t r o l , j o y i n work was r e g a r d e d as a r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y . But n e i t h e r was t h i s v i e w adhe red t o c o n s i s t e n t l y . In The C l a s s S t r u g g l e K a u t s k y s a i d : I t i s n o t f r eedom o f l a b o r , bu t t h e f r eedom f r om l a b o r , w h i c h i n a s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y m a c h i n e r y makes i n c r e a s i n g l y p o s s i b l e , t h a t w i l l b r i n g t o mank ind f r eedom o f l i f e , f r eedom f o r a r t i s t i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y , f r eedom f o r t h e n o b l e s t e n j o y m e n t . 4 0 H i s v a c i l l a t i o n on t h i s t o p i c m i r r o r e d a s o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g i c a l d i l e m m a : a s t r o n g d e s i r e t o b e l i e v e i n t h e t o t a l l y s e l f - d e t e r m i n i n g and f u l l y d e v e l o p e d i n d i v i d u a l was m i xed w i t h a c e r t a i n s k e p t i c i s m about t h e n a t u r a l n e s s o f work t o man, and t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f e v e r r e n d e r i n g p h y s i c a l l a b o r r e a l l y p l e a s u r a b l e . A s i m u l t a n e o u s r a i s e i n wages , r e d u c t i o n o f hou r s and u p g r a d i n g o f c o n d i t i o n s wou l d be no t r i v i a l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t . The S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n c l a i m e d t h a t i t c o u l d be done t h u s l y : These a r e t h e two methods f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e p r o d u c t i v e powers o f t h e l a b o r i n g c l a s s : The a b o l i t i o n o f p a r a s i t i c i n d u s t r y and t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i e s i n t h e most p e r f e c t p l a n t s . By t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e two means a p r o l e t a r i a n r e g ime can r a i s e p r o d u c t i o n a t once t o so h i g h a l e v e l t h a t i t wou ld be p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r a b l y i n c r e a s e wages and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r e d u c e t h e hou r s o f l a b o r . E ve r y i n c r e a s e i n wages and r e d u c - t i o n o f hour s must a g a i n i n c r e a s e t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f l a b o r and draw new l a b o r e r s t o p r o d u c t i o n who were f o r m e r l y p a r a s i t i c , such f o r e x a m p l e , as s e r v a n t s , s m a l l m e r c h a n t s , e t c . The h i g h e r t h e wages t h e more t h e l a b o r e r s . But i n a s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y one can t r a n s f o r m t h i s s a y i n g i n t o " t h e more t h e w o r k e r s t h e f e w e r t h e i l l d o e r s i n s o c i e t y , t h e more p roduced and t h e g r e a t e r t h e wages . " 41 99 The b a s i c t o o l wou ld be a v a s t i n c r e a s e i n t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y w h i c h wou l d f u r t h e r i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and d e c r e a s e t h e numbers o f t h e u n p r o d u c t i v e and i d l e . As an example o f how i t m i g h t be done , K a u t s k y p r opo sed t h a t p r o d u c t i o n l e v e l s i n t h e German t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y c o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d i f a l l p l a n t s w i t h l e s s t h a n f i f t y employees were e l i m i n a t e d and t h e l a b o r f o r c e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n two e i g h t - h o u r s h i f t s i n t h e r e m a i n i n g f a c t o r i e s . A l t e r n a t e l y , a l l w i t h under two hundred w o r k e r s c o u l d be c l o s e d , 42 and t h r e e f i v e - h o u r s s h i f t s i n s t i t u t e d . A s p e c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s , P r o d u k t i o n und Konsum im S o z i a l s t a a t , was p u b l i s h e d by Dr. K a r l B a l l o d under t h e pseudonym 43 A t l a n t i c u s i n 1898. H i s c o n c l u s i o n s were even more o p t i m i s t i c . By e l i m i n a t i n g s m a l l e n t e r p r i s e s , wa s te and p l a n l e s s n e s s , German i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n c o u l d be d o u b l e d o r even t r i p l e d w i t h a h a l v i n g 44 o f w o r k - t i m e . Whether o r n o t t h e s e i d e a s were f e a s i b l e , t h e y wou ld have engendered as many p rob l ems as t h e y s o l v e d . K a u t s k y ' s p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y were c r i t i c i z e d i n D i e Neue Z e i t on t h e g rounds t h a t t h e i n c r e d i b l e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f employment i n a s m a l l number o f p l a n t s wou ld 45 e n t a i l v a s t h o u s i n g and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s . C o m p l e t e l y b e g - g i n g t he q u e s t i o n , t h e t h e o r i s t r e p l i e d t h a t most o f t h a t c o n s o l i d a t i o n wou l d p l a c e under c a p i t a l i s m anyway. Bu t g r e a t e r o b s t a c l e s wou l d have been i n s t o r e f o r t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n B a l l o d and K a u t s k y w i s h e d t o s e t i n m o t i o n . F o r t h i s t o be f e a s i b l e , an a c c e l e r a t e d r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n , i n v o l v i n g a s s emb l y l i n e s , t i g h t e r c o o r d i n a t i o n and w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e , and m i n u t e r d e t a i l l a b o r , wou ld be n e c e s s a r y t o p r e v e n t " l o g i s - t i c a l s t r a n g u l a t i o n " on t h e f a c t o r y f l o o r . 4 7 A t t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l l e v e l 100 o f t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , t h e s e changes c o u l d o n l y r e s u l t i n i n - 48 c r e a s e d w o r k e r a l i e n a t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e y m i g h t be c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d by improvements i n wages , hour s and f a c t o r y management. An even more d r a s t i c r e d u c t i o n i n hou r s o f work was advanced by Bebe l i n Woman Under S o c i a l i s m and by H. Lux i n S o z i a l p o l i t i s c h e s HandbUch, an 1891 r e f e r e n c e work f o r p a r t y e d i t o r s and a g i t a t o r s . Bo th c i t e d t h e work o f an A u s t r i a n U t o p i a n s o c i a l i s t , H e r t z k a , who had c a l c u l a t e d t h a t t h e needs o f e v e r y A u s t r i a n c o u l d be met w i t h l e s s t han two hour s d a i l y l a b o r i f a l l p r o d u c t i o n o c c u r r e d i n f a c t o r i e s and fa rms o f l a r g e s i z e and g r e a t 49 e f f i c i e n c y . A t l e a s t i n t he 1 880 ' s and 1 8 9 0 ' s t h e s e i d e a s were t a k e n r a t h e r s e r i o u s l y i n t h e S o c i a l Democracy. B e r n s t e i n e x p r e s s l y r e p u d i a t e d them: Of a g e n e r a l r e d u c t i o n o f hou r s o f l a b o r t o f i v e , f o u r o r even t h r e e o r two h o u r s , s uch as was f o r m e r l y a c c e p t e d , t h e r e can be no hope a t any t i m e w i t h i n s i g h t , u n l e s s t h e g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d o f l i f e i s much r e d u c e d . Even under a c o l l e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f w o r k , l a b o u r must b e g i n v e r y young and o n l y c ea se a t a r a t h e r advanced a g e , i f i t i s t o be r e d u c e d c o n s i d e r a b l y be low an e i g h t - h o u r s ' d a y . 5 0 W i t h t h e r a d i c a l s h o r t e n i n g o f w o r k - t i m e t h e R e v i s i o n i s t s r e j e c t e d a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c M a r x i s t i d e a l o f l a b o r i n s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y . The f u s i o n o f menta l and manual w o r k , w h i c h t h e r e d u c t i o n o f hour s was t o 51 a l l o w , was e s p e c i a l l y r e g a r d e d as U t o p i a n . I t was o n l y i n t h e s e a r e a s t h a t t h e y d e p a r t e d g r e a t l y f r om t h e t h e o r y o f work i n " o r t h o d o x M a r x i s m . " The u n i o n o f menta l and manual l a b o r was a c e n t r a l i d e a l i n t h e M a r x i s t l i t e r a t u r e . I t was t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e manda to r y d u t y o f a l l h e a l t h y a d u l t s , r e g a r d l e s s o f s e x , t o p e r f o r m a few hours o f i n d u s - t r i a l o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o r a d a y ; v a r i a t i o n i n o c c u p a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t each day and each i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e ; and u n i v e r s a l work i n s t r u c t i o n 101 ( A r b e i t s u n t e r r i c h t ) i n s c h o o l . The a b o l i t i o n o f t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r was no t i n q u e s t i o n . Ma rx , Enge l s and t h e S o c i a l Democrats d i s t i n g u i s h e d between t h e a r t i f i c i a l c a p i t a l i s t d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r by c l a s s e s and s e x e s , and t h e n a t u r a l s o c i a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n a g e , sex 52 and i n d i v i d u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s e n t a i l . L i k e t h e t h e o r y o f work under c a p i t a l i s m , t h e u n i o n o f t h e two t y p e s o f l a b o r was d i r e c t l y d e r i v e d f rom Marx. I t i s t h e nuances w h i c h r e v e a l much abou t S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c a t t i t u d e s t o wo rk . The e s s e n t i a l p r e c o n d i t i o n s f o r e r a s i n g t h e l i n e s between menta l and manual l a b o r were t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a m i n i m a l d a i l y w o r k - t i m e , and t h e d u t y o f a l l t o do p h y s i c a l wo rk . The l a t t e r had a l o n g s o c i a l i s t t r a d i t i o n . I t was i n c l u d e d i n t h e Communist M a n i f e s t o and t h e SPD Gotha Program o f 53 54 1875, and was i n c e s s a n t l y r e s t a t e d by Bebe l and o t h e r S o c i a l Democ ra t s . The w r i t i n g s o f t h e young K a u t s k y show equa l e n t h u s i a s m . An 1875 a r t i c l e a d v o c a t e d c o m p e l l i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l s t o do manual l a b o r i f t h e y r e f u s e d t o 55 v o l u n t e e r . The S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n was more c a u t i o u s , s i n c e he was a f r a i d t h a t i f i n t e l l e c t u a l w o r k e r s a r e f o r c e d t o o r a p i d l y t o a c c e p t t h i s b u r d e n , t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y wou ld d e c l i n e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , e q u a l d u t i e s f o r a l l was 56 d e f i n i t e l y h i s g o a l . Even B e r n s t e i n , who r e j e c t e d t h e u n i o n o f head and 57 hand l a b o r a s Utopian, was i n ag reement w i t h t h i s p r i n c i p l e . Once t h e two fo rms o f l a b o r a r e f u s e d , each i n d i v i d u a l wou l d p e r f o r m a few hou r s o f d a i l y p h y s i c a l w o r k , and wou l d t h e n have f r e e t i m e t o pu r s ue s c i e n t i f i c , a cademic and a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t i e s . In t h e i d e a l s o c i e t y o f Bebe l and K a u t s k y e v e r y o n e w o u l d be as t a l e n t e d as a c l a s s i c a l 58 Greek a r i s t o c r a t . A c c o r d i n g t o Marx t h e c a p i t a l i s t s y s t em i t s e l f 102 p r e p a r e d t h e g round f o r t h i s : ' Modern I n d u s t r y , i n d e e d , compe l s s o c i e t y under p e n a l t y o f d e a t h , t o r e p l a c e t h e d e t a i l - w o r k e r o f t o d a y , c r i p p l e d by t h e l i f e - l o n g r e p e t i t i o n o f one and t h e same t r i v i a l o p e r a t i o n , and t hu s r e d u c e d t o t h e mere f r a g m e n t o f a man, by t h e f u l l y d e v e l o p e d i n d i v i d u a l , f i t f o r a v a r i e t y o f l a b o u r s , r e a d y t o f a c e any change o f p r o d u c t i o n , and t o whom t h e d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s he p e r f o r m s a r e but so many modes o f g i v i n g f r e e scope t o h i s own n a t u r a l and a c q u i r e d p o w e r s . 5 " Thus t h e c o n t i n u a l i n s e c u r i t y o f c a p i t a l i s t wage l a b o r becomes t h e fin f r eedom and a b i l i t y t o v a r y work under s o c i a l i s m . O c c u p a t i o n s w i l l a l t e r n a t e n o t o n l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e d a y , bu t t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i f e o f each i n d i v i d u a l . B e r n s t e i n a c c e p t e d t h e l a s t p o i n t h i m s e l f . Not b e l i e v i n g i n t h e d a i l y u n i o n o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f w o r k , he c o n s i d e r e d v a r i a t i o n o f c a r e e r s t h r o u g h o u t l i f e as v e r y i m p o r t a n t , and s ometh i n g w h i c h c a p i t a l i s m d i d make p o s s i b l e . ^ A " d e m o c r a t i c r i g h t t o w o r k " wou l d be a s s u r e d by s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y . The u n i o n s and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n wou ld e n a b l e each i n d i v i d u a l t o f i n d j o b s w i t h o u t t h e f e a r o f unemployment o r o f t h e v i o l a t i o n o f s o c i a l d u t i e s . I f s o c i a l i s t men and women were t o be p r e p a r e d f o r t h e i r o p p o r - t u n i t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n l a b o r t h e y wou ld have t o be i n t r o d u c e d t o them a t an e a r l y age . K a u t s k y was a f r a i d t h a t i f e v e r y o n e was g i v e n c o n s i d e r a b l e a cademic t r a i n i n g , s ometh i n g he t o o k f o r g r a n t e d , t h e n a l l manual l a b o r wou l d c e a s e . I f we a r e t o make t h e h i g h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l c u l t u r e a common good w i t h o u t e n d a n g e r i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s o c i e t y , t hen n o t s i m p l y p e d a g o g i c a l , bu t economic n e c e s s i t y demands t h a t t h i s s h o u l d be done m such a manner t h a t t h e g r o w i n g g e n e r a t i o n w i l l be made f a m i l i a r i n s c h o o l s n o t o n l y w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l bu t a l s o w i t h p h y s i c a l l a b o r and t h a t t h e h a b i t o f u n i t i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l and m a t e r i a l p r o d u c t i o n w i l l be f i r m l y r o o t e d . 4 103 I d e a l l y e v e r y p e r s o n was t o have a knowledge o f t h e e n t i r e p r o d u c t i o n 65 p r o c e s s i n i t s p r a c t i c a l and t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s . E d u c a t i o n wou ld be based upon t h e t r i a d o f academic s t u d y , work and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , i n o b e d i e n c e t o t h e d i c t u m o f Ma rx : From t h e F a c t o r y s y s tem budded , as R o b e r t Owen has shown us i n d e t a i l , t h e germ o f t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e f u t u r e , an e d u c a t i o n t h a t w i l l , i n t h e c a s e o f e v e r y c h i l d o v e r a c e r t a i n a g e , combine p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n and g y m n a s t i c s , n o t o n l y a s one o f t h e methods o f a d d i n g t o t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f p r o d u c t i o n , but as t h e o n l y method o f p r o d u c i n g f u l l y d e v e l o p e d human b e i n g s . 6 6 From t h i s s y s t em was t o i s s u e i n d i v i d u a l s c a p a b l e o f a w ide v a r i e t y o f t a s k s , w i l l i n g and eage r t o work p r o d u c t i v e l y , and h e a l t h y i n mind and b o d y . 6 7 Though t h e t h e o r y was g rounded i n M a r x , i t r e c e i v e d an e n t h u s i a s t i c i n j e c t i o n o f t h e work e t h i c by t h e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c t h e o r i s t s w h i c h was a l t o g e t h e r t y p i c a l . H e i n r i c h S c h u l z , head o f t h e SPD ' s new ly c r e a t e d B i l d u n g s a u s s c h u s s , s a i d a t t h e 1906 P a r t y C o n g r e s s : 'Work i s t h e S a v i o r o f t h e new a g e , ' e x c l a i m e d D i e t z g e n , and w i t h i t s t r u c k down a l l t h e impudent s l a n d e r e r s who i n - s i n u a t e t h e S o c i a l D e m o c r a c y ' s l o v e o f i d l e n e s s . We a l s o w i s h t o l a b o r i n t h e f u t u r e , f o r work b e l o n g s t o man as much as h i s d a i l y b r e a d . The re i s f o r an i m p r i s o n e d c r i m i n a l no more a g o n i z i n g p u n i s h m e n t , t h a n when one e d u c a t e s him w i t h l a b o r . Work has made mank ind what i t i s t o d a y , i t s t a n d s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a l l c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t , and has l e d c i v i l i z a t i o n t o i t s p r e s e n t h e i g h t s . 6 8 But i f s o c i a l i s t l a b o r i s t o be l i b e r a t i n g i n s t e a d o f e n s l a v i n g t h e c h i l d must be t r a i n e d by h i s p a r e n t s and by t h e s c h o o l s t o r e c o g n i z e i n work 69 " t h e d u t y and honor o f human b e i n g s " as Kclte Duncker s a i d , and a c q u i r e and d e v e l o p h i s t a l e n t s i n as many d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f l a b o r as p o s s i b l e . As t h e p r o d u c e r o f e n e r g e t i c , c r e a t i v e and d u t y - c o n s c i o u s c i t i z e n s , work 104 and work i n s t r u c t i o n wou ld t h e r e f o r e a l s o be t h e b a s i s f o r s o c i a l i s t m o r a l i t y . 7 ^ In D u n c k e r ' s o p i n i o n : The s o c i a l o r d e r , f o r w h i c h we s t r i v e , p r e suppo se s j o y i n w o r k , a f e e l i n g o f d u t y and a sense o f honor i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s t h e t a s k o f s o c i a l i s t u p b r i n g i n g t o a r o u s e t h e s e f e e l i n g s i n c h i l d r e n . ( A p p l a u s e . ) 7 1 S c h u l z went so f a r as t o see work n o t m e r e l y as a m a j o r p a r t o f s o c i a l i s t e d u c a t i o n , bu t as t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e e n t i r e c u r r i c u l u m . Theo r y wou ld i s s u e f r om p r a c t i c e . From a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o r , f o r e x a m p l e , wou ld come a knowledge o f p l a n t s , a n i m a l s , g e o l o g y , g e o m e t r y , c h e m i s t r y and p h y s i c a l 72 l a w s . In f a c t : i t i s n o t a q u e s t i o n of; work i n s t r u c t i o n as an a s s i g n e d s p e c i a l s u b j e c t , bu t r a t h e r as a new f o u n d a t i o n f o r a l l c l a s s r o o m s c h o o l - w o r k , i n t h e r e o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e measures t h a t work o f f e r s as t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o f t e a c h i n g and t e a c h i n g method s . 73 In t h e v i s i o n o f H e i n r i c h S c h u l z work became c o m p l e t e l y c e n t r a l t o s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y . I t was t h e b a s i s o f a l l l i f e and human l i b e r a t i o n , a p o s i t i o n o n l y s l i g h t l y more e x t r eme t h a n t h a t o f t h e p a r t y t h e o r i s t s as a w h o l e . Ma r x , who a c c e p t e d l a b o r as t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f man, d i d n o t d i s - p l a y s uch a n e a r - o b s e s s i o n w i t h d u t y and e d u c a t i o n as t o o l s f o r b r i n g i n g e v e r y p e r s o n i n t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s . The f i r s t key t o t h e t h e o r y o f work i n German S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c t h o u g h t l i e s i n t h i s s u b t l e t y o f e m p h a s i s . On t h e r e v o l u t i o n c a r r i e d o u t by c a p i t a l i s m i n t h e l a b o r - p r o c e s s , on t h e n e c e s s i t y and d e s i r a b i l i t y o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s t o i t , on t h e e l e m e n t s o f s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y w h i c h a p p e a r , o f t e n i n o p p r e s s i v e and u n j u s t f o r m s , w i t h i n b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y , and on t h e u n i o n o f menta l and manual l a b o r i n s o c i a l i s m , t h e S o c i a l Democrats drew s o u n d l y on M a r x ' s 105 C a p i t a l . B e r n s t e i n d i s p l a y e d many s i m i l a r o p i n i o n s . H i s r e j e c t i o n o f much o f t h e s u b s t a n c e o f M a r x i s t i d e o l o g y d i d n o t o b s c u r e t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l e n v i r o n m e n t o u t o f w h i c h h i s R e v i s i o n i s t t h e o r y g rew. Where t h e S o c i a l Democrats d e p a r t e d f r om Marx was i n h i s b a s i c p h i l o s o p h i c a l a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f man, w h i c h i f i t was no t e n t i r e l y m i s s i n g f rom t h e i r v i e w o f w o r k , was f r a g m e n t a r y and i n c o n s i s t e n t . Bebe l p a r t i c u l a r l y b e l i e v e d i n t h e n a t u r a l n e s s o f human c r e a t i v i t y and a c t i v i t y , bu t d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a p p l y t h i s c o n c e p t t o p h y s i c a l l a b o r . The re was a n o t a b l e h e s i t a t i o n i n many o f t h e t h e o r i s t s t o e x p e c t f r e e c o m p l i a n c e t o t h e d u t y o f wo rk . K a u t s k y , f o r e x a m p l e , spoke o f " t h e g r e a t power o f c u s t o m , " and t h e n i m m e d i a t e l y p r o c l a i m e d t h i s m o t i v e t h e " w e a k e s t . " Management and a u t h o r i t y , u n i o n d i s c i p l i n e , y o u t h f u l A r b e i t s u n t e r r i c h t , and t h e t r a i n i n g o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s by c a p i t a l i s m were a c c o r d i n g l y g i v e n g r e a t e r w e i g h t i n t h e c r e a t i o n and i n c u l c a t i o n o f s o c i a l i s t w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e . The s t r u c t u r e and c o n t e n t o f work t h e o r y p r o v i d e d an i n t e l l e c t u a l b a s i s f o r t h e s t r o n g work e t h i c o f t h e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c s u b c u l t u r e . The p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f I m p e r i a l Germany i n t u r n moulded and a m p l i f i e d e l e m e n t s o f t h e t h e o r y . Each t h e o r i s t was , f i r s t l y , s u b j e c t t o a l l o f t h e i n f l u e n c e s t h a t e v e r y S o c i a l Democrat e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . He o r she was r a i s e d w i t h t h e d u t y t o work hammered home, was c o n v e r t e d t o s o c i a l i s m f o r l a r g e l y e t h i c a l r e a s o n s , and r e a c t e d t o t h e n e v e r - e n d i n g c h a r g e s o f s o c i a l i s t i d l e n e s s w i t h a h e i g h t e n e d c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A p e r s o n a l commitment t o t h e work e t h i c was a l m o s t u n - a v o i d a b l e . S e c o n d l y , t h e i d e o l o g y was f o r g e d w i t h t h e c o n s c i o u s a im o f 106 c o u n t e r a t t a c k i n g b o u r g e o i s p r o p a g a n d a , p r o m o t i n g w o r k i n g - c l a s s c o n s c i o u s - n e s s , a n d , o c c a s i o n a l l y , f o s t e r i n g t h e v e r y a t t i t u d e s t o l a b o r w h i c h t h e y , as i n t e l l e c t u a l l e a d e r s o f t h e p a r t y , c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e f o r s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y . Thus t h e v e r y n a t u r e and p l a c e o f i d e o l o g y i n t h e movement, when combined w i t h t h e i m p a c t o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t on t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who v e r b a l i z e d t h a t i d e o l o g y , p r oduced a m i l i t a n t t one i n t h e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y o f work l a r g e l y a b s e n t i n Marx . The upper and m i d d l e c l a s s e s a r e a pack o f i d l e r s and p a r a s i t e s , work i s t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f a l l c i v i l i z a t i o n , " he who w i l l n o t w o r k , n e i t h e r s h a l l he e a t , " and so o n . The f r e q u e n c y and e x t r a v a g a n c e o f t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s i s o f t e n a s t o u n d i n g . The s i m i l a r i t y o f t h i s e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e work e t h i c t o t h a t o f p o p u l a r s o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g y i s q u i t e s t r i k i n g , d e s p i t e g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e l e v e l o f a r g u m e n t a t i o n . L a s t l y t h e n , t h e cau se s o f t h i s c o n - s i s t e n t a p p r o a c h must be e x p l o r e d . On t h a t b a s i s i t w i l l t h e n be e a s i e r t o u n d e r s t a n d how s o c i a l i s t i d e a s o f work a f f e c t e d t h e l a b o r movement and t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s as a w h o l e . 107 REFERENCES ' ' ' B e b e l , Woman, 182. Emphas i s i n t h e o r i g i n a l . 2 B e r n s t e i n , " P r o b l e m e des S o z i a l i s m u s , " p t . 5 , 1 40 - 141 . 3 K a u t s k y and B e r n s t e i n , ' " E n t w u r f , " 724 , 758 ; K a r l B a l l o d ( p s e u d . A t l a n t i c u s ) , Der Z u n k u n f t s s t a a t : P r o d u k t i o n Und K o n s u m i m S o z i a l s t a a t , 2nd e d . , ( S t u t t g a r t , 1 9 1 9 ) , 1-2. A See above C h a p t e r I. See a l s o K a u t s k y ' s Fo reword t o B a l l o d , P r o d u k t i o n , x i i i . 5 S t e i n b e r g , S o z i a l i s m u s , 138 ; see a l s o Edward B e l l a m y , L o o k i n g Backward 2000-1887 (1888 ; r p t . C l e v e l a n d and New Y o r k , 1945 ) . B e l l a m y ' s nove l was p o p u l a r enough t o p r o voke a t l e a s t one a n t i - s o c i a l i s t p a m p h l e t : H e i n r i c h F r f l n k e l , Gegen B e l l a m y ! E i n e W ide r ! e gung des s o z i a l I i s t i s c h e n Romans ' E i n R U c k b l i c k aus dem J a h r e 2000 ' und d e i s o z i a l i s t i s c h e n Z u k u n f t s s t a a t e s H b e r h a u p t , 2nd e d . , (WUrzbu rg , 1891 ) . 6 K a u t s k y ' s Fo reword t o B a l l o d , P r o d u k t i o n , v - x i i ; H o l z h e u e r , K a u t s k y s Werk, 7 9 - 8 3 , 9 0 - 9 1 , 104. 7 G a y , D i l emma, 7 4 - 7 5 ; B e r n s t e i n , E v o l u t i o n a r y S o c i a l i s m , x x i i , x x i x , 163 ; B e r n s t e i n , " De r R e v i s i o n i s m u s , " 16~. But n o t a l l R e v i s i o n i s t s r e j e c t e d s p e c u l a t i o n on t h e Z u k u n f t s s t a a t . See Wo l f gang H e i n e , "Wie i s t w i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h e r S o c i a l i s m u s m t i g l i c h ? " S o z i a l i s t i s c h e M o n a t s h e f t e , ( 1 9 0 1 ) , 6 67 - 668 . 8 K a u t s k y , S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n , 103 -189 . 9 I b i d . , 113 -117 , 1 21 - 123 , 180. 1 0 I b i d . , 125. U I b i d . 1 2 I b i d . , 125 -126 . 1 3 I b i d . , 126-127. 1 4 K a r l K a u t s k y , " P a r t e i und G e w e r k s c h a f t , " D i e Neue Z e i t , XX IV , 2 ( 1 9 0 5 - 0 6 ) , 7 4 9 - 7 5 0 , 754. 15 B e r n s t e i n , " P r o b l e m e des S o z i a l i s m u s , " p t . 5 , 141 -142 . See a l s o C h a p t e r I I I , above . 108 16 K a u t s k y , S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n , 127. 1 7 B e r n s t e i n , E v o l u t i o n a r y S o c i a l i s m , 120. 1 8 I b i d . , 119 -120 . 19 See a b o v e , C h a p t e r I I I . 20 L i c h t h e i m , M a r x i s m , 6 0 , 2 37 ; Wa l ton and Gamble , A l i e n a t i o n , 6 3 - 6 4 ; K a u t s k y , S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n , 1 88 - 189 . 21 K a u t s k y , C l a s s S t r u g g l e , 145. See a l s o E n g e l s , " S o c i a l i s m : U t o p i a n and S c i e n t i f i c " i n Marx and E n g e l s , S e l e c t e d Work s , 4 2 4 - 4 2 8 ; L i c h t h e i m , M a r x i s m , 6 0 , 237 ; Wa l t on and Gamble , A l i e n a t i o n " , 64 . 2 2 I b i d . 23 A v i n e r i , S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l Though t , 235 -236 . 24 F r i e d r i c h E n g e l s , "On A u t h o r i t y " i n Marx and E n g e l s , S e l e c t e d Works (2 v o l . e d i t i o n ; Moscow, 1 9 5 8 ) , I, 637. A l l o t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e S e l e c t e d Works a r e f r om t h e one vo lume e d i t i o n . 2 5 M a r x , C a p i t a l , I I I , 8 3 . 26 K a u t s k y , Economic D o c t r i n e s , 1 6 1 . 27 K a u t s k y , S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n , 112 . T h i s a t t i t u d e was even more e x p l i c i t a f t e r t h e war when he s t a t e d : " . . . t h e r e must be t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e f r eedom o f management, no h e s i t a t i o n abou t p a y i n g e x t r a o r d i n a r y r e m u n e r a t i o n t o s e c u r e t h e s e r v i c e s o f c a p a b l e o r g a n i z e r s . " . Labour R e v o l u t i o n , 179. 2 8 B e b e l , Woman, 278 -279 . 2 9 I b i d . , 272 -342 . 30 Simon K a t z e n s t e i n , " K r i t i s c h e Bemerkungen zu B e b e l s Buch : ' D i e F rau und d e r S o z i a l i s m u s ! " D i e Neue Z e i t , XV, 1 ( 1 8 9 6 - 9 7 ) , 293^303. 3 1 I b i d . , 296. 32 Augu s t B e b e l , " K r i t i s c h e Bemerkungen zu K a t z e n s t e i n s K r i t i s c h e n Bemerkungen l i b e r ' D i e F rau und d e r S o z i a l i s m u s , ' " D i e Neue Z e i t , XV, 1 ( 1 8 9 6 - 9 7 ) , 328 -329 . 3 3 G a y , D i l emma, 249. 109 34 K a u t s k y , M a t e r i a l i s t i s c h e G e s c h i c h t s a u f f a s s u n g , 11, 607 , 612 . 3 5 B e b e l , Woman, 292^293. 3 6 I b i d . , 275 . 37 R o t h , S o c i a l Democ r a t s , 236. 38 Eugen R i c h t e r , P i c t u r e s o f t h e S o c i a l i s t i c F u t u r e ( London , 1907) . 5 6 - 5 7 . 3 9 K a u t s k y , S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n , 1 28 ; B e b e l , Woman, 275 , 284, 318 ; Eduard B e r n s t e i n , " V o r f r a g e n e i n e r s o z i a l i s t i s c h e n T h e o r i e d e r G e w e r k s c h a f t s b e w e g u n g , " S o z i a l i s t i s che M o n a t s h e f t e , ( 1 9 0 6 ) , 845 . 40 K a u t s k y , C l a s s S t r u g g l e , 158. 4 " ' ' Kaut sky , S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n , 147. 4 2 I b i d . , 141 -142 . 43 B a l l o d , P r o d u k t i o n , p a s s i m . See a l s o t h e a u t h o r ' s summary i n " P r o d u k t i o n und Konsum im S o z i a l s t a a t , " P i e Neue Ze i t , X V I , 2 ( 1 8 9 7 - 9 8 ) , 6 61 - 666 . 4 4 B a l l o d , P r o d u k t i o n , 93 . 4 5 M i c h a e l L u s n i a , " U n b e w a f f n e t e R e v o l u t i o n ? " P i e Neue Z e i t , X X I I , 1 ( 1 9 0 3 - 0 4 ) , 562 . 4 6 K a r l K a u t s k y , " A l l e r h a n d R e v o l u t i o n A r e s , " i b i d . , 5 94 - 595 . 4 7 L a n d e s , Unbound P r ometheu s , 3 01 - 302 , 307 , 3 13 - 315 . 48 I b i d . ; B l a u n e r , A l i e n a t i o n and F reedom, 8 - 9 , 182. 4Q B e b e l - W o m a n , 2 80 - 282 ; L u x , S o z i a l p o l i t i s c h e s Handbuch, 8 , 10. H e r t z k a p u b l i s h e d two U t o p i a n b o o k s , G e s e t z e d e r s o z i a l e h E n t w i c k l u n g ( L e i p z i g , 1886) and F r e i l a n d ( L e i p z i g , 1 8 9 0 ) , n e i t h e r o f w h i c h were a v a i l a b l e t o me. See a l s o B a l l o d , P r o d u k t i o n , 1 1 , where he r e j e c t s H e r t z k a ' s v i e w s on w o r k - t i m e . 50 B e r n s t e i n , E v o l u t i o n a r y S o c i a l i s m , 220. 5 1 S P 0 P r o t o k o l l 1906, 137. 110 5 2 W a l t o n and Gamble , A l i e n a t i o n , 1 0 - 1 3 ; M a r x , C a p i t a l , I I I , 8 2 0 ; Ma rx , " C r i t i q u e o f t h e Gotha P r o g r a m , " 3 2 0 - 3 2 1 ; E n g e l s , A n t i - D ( i h r i n g , 3 0 7 - 3 0 9 ; K a u t s k y , M a t e r i a l i s t i s c h e G e s c h i c h t s a u f f a s s u n g , I I , 3 2 - 3 3 . CO Marx and E n g e l s , "Communist M a n i f e s t o , " 5 3 ; Mommsen, e d . , Deu t sche P a r t e i p r o g r a m m e , 313. 5 4 B e b e l , Woman, 181 -182 , 2 7 5 ; B e b e l , " K r i t i s c h e Bemerkungen , " 3 33 ; B e b e l , " A k a d e m i k e r und S o z i a l i s m u s " i n Augu s t B e b e l : Se i r i Leben i n Dokumenten, Reden und S c h r i f t e n , Ed . H. H i r s c h ( C o l o g n e / B e r l i n , 1 9 6 8 ) , 1 02 - 103 ; Ff. S c h u l z , and C. Z e t k i n i n SPD P r o t o k o l l 1 906 , 342 - 343 , 348 , 3 52 - 353 ; K. Duncker i n SPD P r o t o k o l l 1908 , 516 . 5 5 K a r l K a u t s k y , " D i e s o z i a l e E rage. vom S t a n d p u n k t e e i n e s K o p f a r b e i t e r s aus b e t r a c h t e i t , " P e r V o l k s t a a t , No. 113 Cl O c t . 1 8 7 5 ) , 2. See a l s o K a u t s k y , E r i n n e r u n g e n und E r f l r t e r u h g e n , 203 -204 . 5 6 K a u t s k y , S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n , 175 -176 . 5 7 B e r n s t e i n , W i r t s c h a f t s w e s e n , 7 0 - 7 2 ; B e r n s t e i n , " P r o b l e m e des S o z i a l i s m u s , " p t . 5 , 1 40 - 141 . 5 8 K a u t s k y , C l a s s S t r u g g l e , 158 ; K a u t s k y , S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n , 187 -189 ; B e b e l , Woman, 2 8 9 - 2 9 1 . 5 9 M a r x , C a p i t a l , I, 458 . 6 0 B e b e l , Woman, 288 ?289 ; SPD P r o t o k o l l 1 906 , 339 -340 . 6 1 B e r n s t e i n , " V o r f r a g e n , " 8 45 . 6 2 B e r n s t e i n , " P r o b l e m e des S o z i a l i s m u s , " p t . 5 , 1 4 0 - 1 4 1 ; B e r n s t e i n , E v o l u t i o n a r y S o c i a l i s m , 151 -153 . fi 3 K a u t s k y , S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n , 175 . 6 4 I b i d . , 175 -176. 6 5 B e b e l - W o m a n , 325 ; SPP P r o t o k o l l 1906 , 1 3 4 - 1 3 5 , 3 4 0 - 3 4 3 ; D u n c k e r , " S c h u l r e f o r m , " 6 98 , 703 . 6 6 M a r x , C a p i t a l , I, 454 . 6 7 S P D P r o t o k o l l 1906, 1 34 - 135 , 3 4 1 - 3 4 3 , 348 , 3 5 4 - 3 5 5 ; Z e t k i n , Reden und S c h r i f t e n , I, 2 6 4 - 2 6 5 ; SPD P r o t o k o l l 1908, 516 ; B r a u n , r e v . o f A r b e i t s u h t e r r i c h t , 185 -187 ; D u n c k e r , " S c h u l r e f o r m , " 703. I l l 6 8 S P D P r o t o k o l l 1906 , 342 . 69 P * S P D P r o t o k o l l 1908 , 516 . 7 0 S P D P r o t o k o l l 1906 , 341 . 7 1 S P D P r o t o k o l l 1908, 516. 72 Summar ized i n D u n c k e r , " S c h u l r e f o r m , " 703 . T h i s i s an e n t h u s i a s t i c book r e v i e w o f H. S c h u l z ' s D i e S c h u l r e f o r m d e r S o z i a l d e i t i o k r a t i e ( D r e s d e n , 1 9 1 1 ) , w h i c h was n o t a v a i l a b l e t o me. ~ 73 Quoted i n Duncke r , " S c h u l r e f o r m , " 703 . 112 CONCLUSIONS A m i l i t a n t b e l i e f i n t h e work e t h i c was an i n t e g r a l and a p p a r e n t l y u n i v e r s a l f e a t u r e o f t h e German S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c s u b c u l t u r e . Not o n l y M a r x i s t and R e v i s i o n i s t t h e o r i s t s were u n i t e d by t h i s a s s u m p t i o n : t h e s o c i a l i s t a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s show t h e d e p t h t o w h i c h i t p e n e t r a t e d i n t o t h e p a r t y r a n k - a n d - f i l e . W h i l e t h e chasm between t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a and t h e a v e r a g e member was v e r y g r e a t , c e r t a i n c o n c e r n s and i d e a s were s h a r e d . Above a l l , t h e common r e f r a i n o f r u l i n g - c l a s s i d l e n e s s sounded o v e r t h e d i n o f d i f f e r i n g i d e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n s . D i s p a r a g i n g t h e m i d d l e and upper c l a s s e s f o r t h e i r l a z i n e s s was p a r t o f t h e w a l l o f r h e t o r i c a l r a d i c a l i s m th rown up by t h e S o c i a l Democracy i n r e s p o n s e t o i t s e x c l u s i o n f r om t h e n a t i o n . C o n t i n u a l l y s u b - j e c t e d t o a c c u s a t i o n s o f i d l e n e s s and c r i m i n a l i t y , S o c i a l Democrats answered i n k i n d . Knowing t h a t t h i s i n d i c t m e n t o f t h e r u l i n g - c l a s s e s had g r e a t appea l t o b o t h o l d members and new r e c r u i t s , t h e i d e o l o g u e s c o n - s c i o u s l y employed i t t o encou rage and s u s t a i n c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s among i t h e w o r k e r s . Bu t t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s own c o n v i c t i o n s c a n n o t be q u e s t i o n e d . In K a u t s k y ' s e a r l y w r i t i n g s , f o r e x a m p l e , denun - c i a t i o n s o f t h e i d l e n e s s o f t h e r i c h were e x t r eme and h e a r t - f e l t . 1 A s u b t l e i n t e r c h a n g e was o c c u r r i n g : t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g i m p a c t o f t h e dominan t c u l t u r e upon t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s was r e i n f o r c e d by t h e e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e work e t h i c i n p o p u l a r s o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g y . H i gh i d e o l o g y i n t u r n made some c o n t r i b u t i o n t o c o n c e p t i o n s o f work and r u l i n g - c l a s s i d l e n e s s a t t h e p o p u l a r l e v e l . 113 The c o m p l i c a t e d r a t i o n a l e o f f e r e d by t h e M a r x i s t and R e v i s i o n i s t s i n t h e r e a l m o f work t h e o r y was n o t , however , u n d e r s t o o d by t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f p a r t y members. The w r i t i n g s o f t h e s o c i a l i s t i n t e l l i g e n t s i a were l a r g e l y s y m b o l i c . Through t h e " s c i e n t i f i c " j u s t i f i c a t i o n t h e y p r o v i d e d , a c e r t a i n l e g i t i m a c y was i m p a r t e d t o S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c v i ews o f work . The two M a r x i s t c o n c e p t s o f " s u r p l u s v a l u e " and " e x p l o i t a t i o n , " f o r e x a m p l e , were used t o s u p p o r t t h e i d e a t h a t t h e upper and m i d d l e c l a s s e s l i v e d u n j u s t l y upon t h e u n p a i d l a b o r o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t . But even t h i s much knowledge o f Ma rx i sm was n o t common, i f S t e i n b e r g ' s r e s e a r c h i n t o u n i o n and s o c i a l i s t l i b r a r i e s i s a c c e p t e d . I t i s t h u s l i k e l y t h a t t h e t h e o r i s t s were o n l y a m i n o r f a c t o r i n s h a p i n g t h e i d e a s h e l d by t h e o r d i n a r y s o c i a l i s t w o r k e r . Whatever i n f l u e n c e t h e y e x e r t e d was l a r g e l y i n d i r e c t , w i t h t h e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c p r e s s and p o p u l a r p u b l i c a t i o n s a s t h e med ia o f t r a n s m i s s i o n . An e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t e n t o f t h e l o c a l SPD newspaper s and t h e w i d e l y - c i r c u l a t i n g magaz ine s l i k e t h e w e e k l y D i e Neue W e l t and t h e humor magaz i ne Der Wahre J a c o b m i g h t g i v e some i n s i g h t i n t o t h i s p r o b l e m . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o w o r k i n g - c l a s s r e a d i n g h a b i t s wou l d be a n e c e s s a r y complement and c o r r e c t i v e t o any s u ch i n v e s t i g a t i o n . So f a r , however , v i r t u a l l y n o t h i n g has been done i n t h i s a r e a . The i n f l u e n c e o f p o p u l a r a t t i t u d e s t o work upon t h o s e o f t h e p a r t y e l i t e was p r o b a b l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h e l a t t e r ' s e f f e c t upon t h e c o n - c e p t i o n s o f t h e r a n k - a n d - f i l e . I n d e e d , i n t h e c a s e o f B e b e l ' s Woman Under S o c i a l i s m , Ma rx i sm was o n l y . a t h i n v e n e e r o v e r a v u l g a r m a t e r i a l i s t and Utopian s o c i a l i s t t r a c t c o n t a i n i n g some o f t h e most e x t r a v a g a n t 114 e x c l a m a t i o n s o f t h e work e t h i c . Bebe l m e r e l y a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h i n a M a r x i s t and D a r w i n i s t v o c a b u l a r y many o f t h e i d e a s o f t h e a ve rage w o r k e r . But f o r t h e l e a d i n g t h e o r i s t s , l i k e K a u t s k y , who grew up i n a w h o l l y m i d d l e - c l a s s e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e i m p a c t o f p o p u l a r i d e o l o g y was much s m a l l e r . They u n d o u b t e d l y a b s o r b e d some o f t h e m a s s e s ' p r i d e i n t h e l a b o r o f t h e w o r k i n g c i l a s s , and some o f t h e h a t r e d o f t h e " i d l e n e s s " o f t h e r u l i n g c l a s s e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h t h e w o r k e r s was m o s t l y s e c o n d - h a n d . Much o f t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f a t t i t u d e s a t t h e t o p and bo t tom o f t h e p a r t y must be a t t r i b u t e d i n s t e a d t o t h e p r e s s u r e s e x e r t e d on b o t h i n t e l l e c t u a l s and w o r k e r s by t h e dominan t c u l t u r e . These ^ p r e s s u r e s were t w o f o l d . R e g a r d l e s s o f c l a s s o r i g i n , f u t u r e s o c i a l i s t s were i n c u l c a t e d by s c h o o l , c h u r c h and f a m i l y w i t h t h e b e l i e f t h a t d i l i g e n t l a b o r was n e c e s s a r y f o r s o c i a l r e s p e c t a b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t . S e c o n d l y , a l l were s u b j e c t e d t o t h e c h a r g e s o f s o c i a l i s t l a z i n e s s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r . These r a n t h e gamut f rom t h e e m p l o y e r ' s s c o r n o f " w o r k - s h y r e d s " t o t h e s o p h i s t i c a t e d s a t i r e s o f Eugen R i c h t e r . Caught between t h e i r own s o c i a l i z a t i o n and t h e p ropaganda o f t h e r u l i n g c l a s s e s , s o c i a l i s t s r e a c t e d by r e a f f i r m i n g t h e commitment t o t h e work e t h i c o f t h e movement and i t s members. The a ve r a ge s o c i a l i s t w o r k e r a t t e m p t e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e i n h i s work t h a t p e r s o n a l r e s p e c t a b i l i t y and r a d i c a l p o l i t i c s were n o t i n c o m p a t i b l e . The S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c i n t e l l e c t u a l i n j e c t e d i n t o h i s w r i t i n g s and p o l e m i c s an e n t h u s i a s m f o r wo rk . A d u a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f p r e v i o u s l y i n d o c t r i n a t e d a t t i t u d e s was t h e i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t . In i t s a ppea l t o new members, t h i s s i t u a t i o n had f undamen ta l advan tage s f o r t h e p a r t y . U n l i k e t h e i s s u e s o f m i l i t a r i s m , n a t i o n a l i s m 115 and r e l i g i o n , t h e S o c i a l Democracy d i d n o t have t o c o n t r a d i c t y e a r s o f i n d o c t r i n a t i o n t o a l t e r w o r k i n g - c l a s s i d e a s o f l a b o r . A r a d i c a l i z i n g emphas i s was a l l t h a t had t o be added . The work e t h i c became a t o o l f o r s u s t a i n i n g c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , f o r i n d i c t i n g ; t h e r u l i n g c l a s s e s and t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f German s o c i e t y , and f o r r e g i s t e r i n g a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f l a b o r under c a p i t a l i s m . Y e t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e l a b o r move- ment were m a n i f o l d . As i s most c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d by t h e phenomenon o f w o r k i n g - c l a s s " r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , " S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c v i e w s o f l a b o r t e n d e d t o r e i n f o r c e t h e i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e and t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r o f t h e dom inan t c u l t u r e , I n d e e d , by t e l l i n g w o r k e r s t h a t t h e i r l a b o r was t h e r e a l f o u n d a t i o n o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , s o c i a l i s m may have added p o s i t i v e o v e r t o n e s o t h e r w i s e m i s s i n g f r om t h e p r e v i o u s l y i n - c u l c a t e d d u t y t o work . The p l a c e m e n t o f s o c i a l i s t i d e a s o f work w i t h i n a m i l i t a n t c l a s s - c o n s c i o u s c o n t e x t o n l y f u r t h e r e d t h e i r c o n s e r v a t i v e e f f e c t . In t h e p a t t e r n o f " n e g a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n , " r e v o l u t i o n a r y s e n t i m e n t s a r t i c u l a t e d i n an i s o l a t e d but l e g a l and r e f o r m i s t s o c i a l i s t s u b c u l t u r e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e c o n t a i n m e n t o f t h e w o r k i n g - c l a s s t h r e a t t o t h e s t a b i l i t y o f I m p e r i a l Germany. A v i g o r o u s p r o t e s t was e x p r e s s e d bu t n o t t r a n s l a t e d i n t o r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . I n s t e a d t h e s o c i a l i s t w o r k i n g c l a s s was s u b t l y t i e d i n t o t h e s o c i a l s y s tem t o w h i c h i t was a p p a r e n t l y so h o s t i l e . The i n t e g r a t i o n o f German w o r k e r s i n t o i n d u s t r y i s n e c e s s a r i l y i m - p l i e d by t h e i r s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s t h e c o i n c i d e n c e o f t h e m a s s i v e g r owth o f t h e German l a b o r movement and t h e r a p i d c r e a t i o n o f a new i n d u s t r i a l l a b o r - f o r c e was n o t e d . I t i s a p p a r e n t 116 now t h a t t h e SPD p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n a d a p t a t i o n t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a - t i o n . F i r s t l y , t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e d u c a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n and p r o t e s t p r o v i d e d by t h e s o c i a l i s t s u b c u l t u r e compensated w o r k e r s f o r t h e d i s - s a t i s f a c t i o n s o f t h e i r l a b o r . In f a c t t h e t remendous i n c r e a s e i n t h e membersh ip o f t h e p a r t y and F r ee u n i o n s was p r o b a b l y due i n p a r t t o a c r i s i s o f a d a p t a t i o n t o i n d u s t r i a l w o r k - r o u t i n e s w i t h i n t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s . S e c o n d l y , by i m b u i n g t h o s e new r e c r u i t s w i t h a r e v i t a l i z e d work e t h i c , t h e S o c i a l Democracy speeded t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e demands o f f a c t o r y wo rk . T h i s d i d n o t c o n t r a d i c t a s i m u l t a n e o u s and v i g o r o u s a t t a c k upon t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f l a b o r as t h e y e x i s t e d . But t h e i n d u s t r i a l s y s t em i t s e l f was n o t q u e s t i o n e d . The re was , however , a c e r t a i n p o t e n t i a l i n t h e s o c i a l i s t p r o t e s t a g a i n s t c a p i t a l i s t w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s t o i n s p i r e a c t i o n by m a l a d j u s t e d w o r k e r s a g a i n s t t h e n a t u r e o f i n d u s t r i a l l a b o r i t s e l f . In such c a s e s t h e S o c i a l D e m o c r a c y ' s d e n u n c i a t i o n o f c a p i t a l i s m c o u l d be used t o l e g i t i m i z e s t r i k e s w i t h b a c k w a r d - l o o k i n g a i m s : t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a r t i s a n a l p r i v i l e g e s o r r e s i s t a n c e t o new t e c h n o l o g y , f o r e x amp l e . But t h e s e p o s s i b i l i t i e s were e f f e c t i v e l y t h w a r t e d by t h e need f o r c a u t i o n and r e s p e c t a b i l i t y i n t h e f a c t o r y , and by t h e s o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g i c a l commitment t o t h e work e t h i c . P r o t e s t was c h a n n e l l e d i n t o s u p p o r t f o r t h e p a r t y and u n i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n t o t h e r a i s i n g o f c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and i n t o s t r i k e s w h i c h d i d no t q u e s t i o n t h e p r i n c i p l e o f i n d u s t r i a l work . E v i d e n c e f o r t h i s l i m i t a t i o n o r c h a n n e l l i n g o f w o r k e r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n does e x i s t . A t l e a s t f o r t h e q u a r t e r c e n t u r y p r o c e e d i n g t h e F i r s t Wor l d War, P e t e r S t e a r n s c l a i m s t o have d i s c o v e r e d a n - j - a b i l i t y o f Wes te rn European 117 l a b o r movements t o t r a n s l a t e i n t o p r o t e s t t h e r e a l g r i e v a n c e s o f l a b o r e r s abou t t h e i r w o r k . 4 Un ion s and u n i o n l e a d e r s f o c u s e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on w i n n i n g i m p r o v e m e n t s . i n wages and h o u r s . P r ob l ems o f w o r k - o r g a n i z a t i o n , d i s c i p l i n e , pace and t h e i m p a c t o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e , w h i c h most d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d t h e p o o r l y - a d a p t e d w o r k e r , were r a r e l y t a r g e t s f o r e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n . In p a r t t h i s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f e m p l o y e r s t o r e l i n q u i s h i n g c o n t r o l o v e r what were f e l t t o be b a s i c m a n a g e r i a l p r e r o g a t i v e s . Wage and hour demands were e a s i e r t o w i n , and t h u s l e s s l i k e l y t o endange r t h e s t a b i l i t y o f u n i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h u n s u c c e s s f u l s t r i k e s . The d i v i s i o n s between w o r k e r s t h e m s e l v e s , s t e m - ming f r o m d i f f e r i n g w o r k - e x p e r i e n c e s and d e g r e e s o f a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e f a c t o r y , were a n o t h e r t h r e a t t o t h e u n i o n s . T h e i r l e a d e r s a t t e m p t e d t o d i s s o l v e t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e common s o l v e n t o f r e d u c t i o n s i n t h e 5 w o r k - d a y and r a i s e s i n pay . These r e s t r i c t i o n s on s t r i k e g o a l s were a l s o a p r o d u c t o f t h e b e l i e f i n p r o g r e s s , i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and t h e work e t h i c . In Germany, t h i s f a c t o r was u n d o u b t e d l y s t r o n g , and i t i s t h e r e f o r e e a s y t o u n d e r - s t a n d why p r o t e s t a g a i n s t i n d u s t r i a l l a b o r i t s e l f was n o t e f f e c t i v e l y e x p r e s s e d . B o t h w o r k e r s and l e a d e r s i n t h e F r ee u n i o n s i m b i b e d some o f t h e v i e w s o f t h e S o c i a l Democracy on w o r k , and l i m i t e d t h e a ims o f t h e i r p r o t e s t a c c o r d i n g l y . I f t h e y were e n t h u s i a s t i c s o c i a l i s t s , t h e y d i r e c t e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p o l i t i c a l c o n q u e s t o f , r a t h e r t h a n a n a c h r o n i s t i c r e s i s t a n c e t o , t h e i n d u s t r i a l s y s t e m . Bu t w h i l e t h e i r a d a p t a t i o n t o i n d u s t r i a l l a b o r p r o c e e d e d a p a c e , " n e g a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n " e n t a i l e d t h e e v e n t u a l v i c t o r y o f r e f o r m i s m o v e r t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y g o a l s o f o f f i c i a l i d e o l o g y . I r o n i c a l l y and t r a g i c a l l y , t h e German S o c i a l 118 Democracy may t hu s have c o n t r i b u t e d much more t o t h e g r owth o f i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m , t h a n i t d i d t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a s o c i a l i s t economy. A much more t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i m p a c t o f German s o c i a l i s m upon t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s can o n l y be a c h i e v e d , however , i f t h e l i v e s o f o r d i n a r y w o r k e r s a r e e x t e n s i v e l y e x a m i n e d . What d i d t h e y r e a d ? What were t h e i r c o n c e p t s o f s o c i a l i s m ? How d i d t h e y cope w i t h m e c h a n i z a t i o n and w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e ? What a r t i s a n a l and c r a f t t r a d i t i o n s were a b s o r b e d i n t o t h e l a b o r movement? Wh ich o c c u p a t i o n a l g r oup s were t h e most s u s c e p t i b l e t o s o c i a l i s m ? None o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s has been a d e q u a t e l y a n s w e r e d , l a r g e l y because o f t h e r e l a t i v e backwardnes s o f German h i s t o r i o g r a p h y . The p r o b l e m o f r e a d i n g h a b i t s , f o r e x a m p l e , has h a r d l y been t o u c h e d . A l t h o u g h f r a u g h t w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s , i t i s an a c c e s s i b l e t o p i c . S t e i n b e r g has p o i n t e d t o t h e e x t r e m e l y w ide c i r c u l a t i o n o f p o p u l a r a l m a n a c s , many o f them p u b l i s h e d by s o c i a l i s t p r e s s e s . A l a r g e number a r e e x t a n t . The c o n t e n t and c i r c u l a t i o n o f t h e l o c a l n o n - p a r t y p r e s s and t h e K o l p o r t a g e n o v e l s wou ld bea r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , as wou ld t h e p o p u l a r S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c p u b l i c a t i o n s men t i oned e a r l i e r . F i n a l l y , t h e c u r r e n t work on w o r k i n g - c l a s s l i b r a r i e s c o u l d be e x t e n d e d i f a c t u a l r e c o r d s can be f o u n d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s e appea r t o have been d e s t r o y e d i n most c a s e s . 7 The i n n e r l i f e o f t h e s o c i a l i s t s u b c u l t u r e wou l d be f l e s h e d o u t g r e a t l y i f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e numerous s p o r t i n g and r e c r e a t i o n a l c l u b s and even l o c a l p a r t y m e e t i n g s c o u l d be o r e v e a l e d f o r i n s p e c t i o n . I f t h e m a t e r i a l i s a v a i l a b l e , a d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f t h e s u b c u l t u r e i n one l o c a l e , and i t s r e l a t i o n s w i t h w o r k i n g - c l a s s c u l t u r e as a w h o l e , wou ld be e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e . A r c h i v a l r e s e a r c h c o u l d 119 be combined w i t h , r e s e a r c h , t n t h e l o c a l p r e s s and t h e n a t i o n a l magaz i ne s o f s o c i a l i s t c l u b s . W r i t t e n [and even o r a l ) a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l wou ld add a f u r t h e r d i m e n s i o n . I l l u m i n a t i o n o f t h e m a s s i v e base o f t h e German S o c i a l Democracy i s c r u c i a l t o a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e movement ' s f a i l u r e s and s u c c e s s e s . The e x a m i n a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s t o work has g i v e n some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i n t r i c a t e p rob l ems o f p o p u l a r and o f f i c i a l s o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g y , and t h e p l a c e o f s o c i a l i s m i n German i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . Bu t t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g l y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l f o c u s o f German l a b o r h i s t o r y has i n e v i t a b l y p l a c e d s t r i c t l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e d e p t h and scope o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Open ing t h e f i e l d t o new c o n c e p t u a l t o o l s and l i n e s o f i n q u i r y i s t h e n e x t p r e s s i n g t a s k . 120 REFERENCES 1 K a u t s k y , E r i n n e r u h g e n ' u n d E r f l r t e r u n g e n , 2 03 - 204 , K a u t s k y , " D i e s o z i a l e F r a g e , " (1 O c t . 1 8 7 5 ) , 2 . 2 See C h a p t e r I. 3 D e r Wahre J a c o b had 366,000 s u b s c r i b e r s i n 1914, D i e Neue W e l t 650 ,000 . See F r i c k e , Zu r O r g a n i s a t i o n , 160 . The Neue W e l t was somet imes i s s u e d as a Sunday s upp l emen t t o S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c newspape r s . ^ S t e a r n s , L i v e s o f L a b o r , 3 00 , 327. 5 I b i d . r 3 0 7 - 3 0 9 , 323 - 325 . S t e i n b e r g , S o z i a l i s m u s , 1 4 1 . 7 I b i d . , 129. Vernon L. L i d t k e has made some as y e t u n p u b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h i n t o S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c s i n g i n g c l u b s i n I m p e r i a l Germany. See t h e N e w s l e t t e r : European Labo r and Work i ng C l a s s H i s t o r y , 7 [May, 1 9 7 5 ) , 8. He has p u b l i s h e d a r e l a t e d a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Songs and P o l i t i c s : An E x p l o r a t o r y E s say on A r b e i t e r l i e d e r i n t h e Weimar R e p u b l i c " i n A r c h i v f u r S o z i a l g e s c h i c h t e , XIV ( 1 9 7 4 ) , 2 53 - 273 . 121 BIBLIOGRAPHY I. P r i m a r y S o u r c e s A. A u t o b i o g r a p h i e s B a a d e r , O t t i l i e . E i n s t e i n i g e r Weg: L e b e n s e r i n n e r u n g e n . S t u t t g a r t / B e r l i n : J . FT. W. D i e t z / B u c h h a n d l u n g V o r w a Y t s , 1921 . B e b e l , A u g u s t . Aus Meinem Leben . Th ree v o l s , i n one . B e r l i n : J . H. W. D i e t z , 1930. B e b e l , A u g u s t . R e m i n i s c e n c e s , I. T r . E r n e s t Unte rmann. New Y o r k : S o c i a l i s t L i t e r a t u r e C o . , 1911. B e r g g , F r a n z . E i n P r o l e t a r i e r l e b e n . Ed. N i k o l a u s W e l t e r . F r a n k f u r t a . M . : Neuer F r a n k f u r t e r V e r l a g , 1913. B r a u n t h a l , J u l i u s . In S e a r c h o f t h e M i l l e n i u m . London: V i c t o r G o l l a n c z , 1945. Bromme, M o r i t z Th.W., L e b e n s g e s c h i c h t e e i n e s modernen F a b r i k a r b e i t e r s . Ed . Pau l Gf lh re . 1905; r p t . F r a n k f u r t a . M . : AthenSum, 1971. " Emmer i ch , W o l f g a n g , e d . P r o l e t a r i s c h e L e b e n s l c l u f e : A u t o b i o g r a p h i s c h e Dokumente z u r E n t s t e h u n g d e r Z w e i t e n K u l t u r i h D e u t s c h l a n d . Bd. 1: Ah fange b i s 1914. Hamburg: R o w o h l t , 1974. Gt ih re , P a u l . Th ree Months i n a Workshop: A P r a c t i c a l S t u d y . 1895; r p t . New Y o r k : A r n o , 1972.. H o l e k , W e n z e l . Lebensgang e i n e s H a n d a r b e i t e r s . Ed. Pau l Gf lh re . 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