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Liu Yung and his Tz’u Leung, Winnie Lai-Fong 1976

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LIU YUNG AND HIS TZ'U by WINNIE LAI-FONG LEUNG B.A. University of Calgary, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Asian Studies) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1976 Winnie Lai-fong Leung, 1976 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of A The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 i i ABSTRACT The subject of this paper is the poet Liu Yung (987-1053) and his tz'u. Tz'u, a type of Chinese poetry originally intended to be sung, was a dominant poetic genre in the Sung Dynasty (960-1279). Liu Yung was not only the most popular tz'u poet in the Sung but also an important landmark in the historical development of the tz'u genre. The body of this paper is divided into two main parts. The f i r s t part reconstructs Liu's l i f e based on the limited and scattered existing sources. This w i l l present an outline of his activities as well as sketch his personality a l l of which w i l l shed some light towards a better understanding of his poems and of his a b i l i t y to change the tz'u genre. The second part, which constitutes the main body of the paper, explores the various characteristics of his poems emphasizing his various innovations in the tz'u genre. In the course of the discussion, com-parisons and contrasts are made with the tz'u of the T'ang and the Five Dynasties in order to show how Liu departed from previous tz'u tradition. At the same time considerable attention is devoted to comparing Liu's tz'u with the Tun-huang folk songs in order to show how Liu was influenced by folk literature. More specifically, the second part uses a quantitative and analytical approach to examine in detail the form, content and technique of his tz'u. i i i In particular, this part f i r s t examines Liu's most significant contribution to the tz'u genre--his use of the man-tz'u tune-patterns. Here, emphasis is placed on Liu's innovative role in expanding and developing the use of the longer tune-patterns in the writing of tz'u. The second part next explores the three "worlds" or the three main thematic categories of Liu's tz'u--poems on women and love, poems on separation and rootless wandering and poems on city l i f e . Besides comparing and contrasting them with the Tun-huang folk songs and with the tz'u of the T'ang and the Five Dynasties, emphasis is also placed to show how Liu broadened and deepened the content of tz'u. Thirdly, the second part looks into Liu's diction including his use of images, various comparison and substitution techniques and creative imagery. Special attention is directed towards Liu's inno-vative use of colloquialisms, something which later greatly influenced the language of tz'u. Fourthly, the second part focuses on how Liu creates a strong sense of rhythm and continuity in his tz'u, partly through the con-ventional technique of repetition of sound (rhymes and tones), words (alliteration, rhyming and reduplicative disyllables) and lines (parallel-ism). Here, special attention is paid to his unique technique for creating rhythm and continuity—the use of lead-words and enjambment. Fifthly, the second part examines how Liu uses his particular expansive technique in his two types of poetic presentation—the direct narration of events and psychology and the fusion of emotion and scene. iv The general conclusion is that despite the fact that Liu was harshly attacked by orthodox scholars for his direct mode of expressing love and boudoir themes and the use of colloquialisms, s t i l l his various important innovations in the form, content and technique a l l of which greatly influenced the development of tz'u make him a pivotal figure in the history of tz'u. V TABLE OF CONTENTS Part Page INTRODUCTION 1 PART I - THE LEGEND OF LIU YUNG 3 A. Family History 4 B. Name and Birthdate 7 C. Life in Pien-ching 9 D. Attempts and Frustrations 13 E. Official Career 17 F. Place of Burial 22 G. Official Titles and Places of V i s i t 25 PART II - THE TZ'U OF LIU YUNG 27 Introduction 27 CHAPTER I - THE CHARACTERISTICS OF LIU'S TUNE-PATTERNS . . . . 30 CHAPTER II - THE "WORLDS" OF LIU YUNG'S TZ'U 42 A. Poems on Women and Love 43 B. Poems on Separation and Rootless Wandering 58 C. Poems on City Life 66 CHAPTER III - DICTION AND IMAGERY 71 A. Allusions 71 B. Images 76 C. Modifiers of Images and the Use of Implicit Comparison 88 vi Part Page D. Explicit Comparison of Images 90 E. Substitution Techniques 92 F. Colloquialisms 98 G. Creative Diction 105 CHAPTER IV - RHYTHM AND CONTINUITY 109 A. Repetition of Sound 109 B. Repetition of Words 124 C. Repetition of Lines 130 D. Caesural Patterns and the Use of Lingtzu (Lead-Words) 143 E. Enjambment and Continuity 167 CHAPTER V - THE STRUCTURE OF LIU'S TZ'U 181 A. Poems Presented in Direct Narration 182 B. Poems which Fuse Emotion and Scene 189 CONCLUSIONS 216 NOTES 224: BIBLIOGRAPHY 310 APPENDICES . .' 336 v i i ABBREVIATIONS CFC Chiao-fang chi CST Ch'uan-sung tz'u HISLH Han-yli shih-l'u hsii'eh THCCL Tun-huang-ch'U chiao-lu TWIT T'ang wu-tai tz'u ICC Yueh-chang chi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I owe a large debt of gratitude to my advisor Professor Chia-ying Yen Chao, without whose teaching and advice this thesis could not have been completed. I also wish to acknowledge a special debt to two other professors in the Department of Asian Studies: to Professor Jan Walls for having read the rough draft of the entire thesis and giving many suggestions and to Professor Pulleyblank for reading Part I and answering certain queries on rhymes. I am grateful to my husband for moral support through-out the writing of this thesis. 1 INTRODUCTION The word "tz'u""||] originally refers to "song-words". As a generic term, i t refers to a form of Chinese poetry originally meant to be sung. It evolved during the T'ang Dynasty and flourished through-out the Sung. Tz'u was replaced by Ch'u as the dominant genre in Chinese poetry in Yuan but was revived in the Ch'ing. Tz'u has been given many names and many definitions during the course of development.^ To settle the confusion surrounding the definition of tz'u I would use Professor Hightower's definition: The tz'u is a song-form characterized by lines of unequal length; prescribed rhyme and tonal sequences, occurring in a large number of variant patterns, each of which bears the name of a musical air.2 Liu Yung -^ fp fa. was an important tz'u poet of the Northern Sung. He was the f i r s t tz'u poet to devote most of his creative energy to the 3 writing of tz'u. Of a l l tz'u poets in Chinese history he enjoyed the most popularity among the general public both during his lifetime and after his death. More importantly, he made many significant innovations in form, content and technique in the writing of tz'u, a l l of which greatly influenced the later development of the tz'u genre. However, a detailed and c r i t i c a l study of his complete works is s t i l l lacking. Traditional scholars made numerous comments on Liu's tz'u, but their comments tend to be brief, repetitious, impres-2 4 sionistic and sometimes subjective. Modern literary historians have also commented on Liu's tz'u, but they generally remain on the super-f i c i a l level of citing one or two of his representative poems and a famous anecdote, rarely going into the analysis of his poems. There are some individual studies on Liu's tz'u, but they do not go into 5 detailed analysis on a f u l l scale. In view of this lack of study on Liu's works, the present thesis attempts to explore the various aspects of his 213 poems.^ This thesis is divided into two main parts. Part One reconstructs his l i f e , which, because of the scarcity of factual evidence, has been largely neglected by scholars. Part Two, which contains the main body of the thesis, focuses on his poems. It is subdivided into five chapters including Liu's use of tune-patterns, the content of his poems, diction and imagery, rhythm and continuity, and fi n a l l y the structure of his poems. P A R T I THE LEGEND OF LIU YUNG 3 PART ONE THE LEGEND OF LIU YUNG Liu Yung's biography does not appear in the Sung Shih and no scholars have written a chronological biography on him. In his poems Liu never indicates the date of writing, nor does he indicate the situation he is in. The main sources about him are only a handful of brief anecdotal accounts scattered in the pi-chi ^ "f^ (notes and sketches), tz'u-hua%^%^ (talks on tz'u) and local gazetteers. How-ever, these records frequently repeat each other. There are also several stories about him in the hua-pen%% (short stories) and Yuan drama, but we have no way of verifying the accuracy of these records. In short, factual information concerning Liu's l i f e is ex-tremely scarce. For example, basic facts about him such as his name, his native place, birthdate, the year of obtaining his ohin-shih (advanced scholar) degree, his o f f i c i a l positions, his place of burial and, more importantly, the main activities of his l i f e are either unknown or subject to different opinions. Much available material is of dubious accuracy, contradictory and repetitious. With such limited source material, I plainly cannot provide a detailed biography of Liu. Rather, I can only attempt to reconstruct a general outline of the significant points of his l i f e . 4 A. Family History The most informative record of Liu's family history is Wang Yu-ch'eng's jfc. ^ ^ (954-1001)] "An Epitaph with Preface to the Deceased Father Liu of Judicial Investigator of the High Court of Justice from the Retired Scholar of Chien-hsi" £ |&v|L rfc $ f -$ j M j p (hereafter, "Epitaph"). 2 It was written at the request of his good friend Liu Hsu'an %. , Liu Yung's f i r s t paternal uncle, in commemoration of Liu Ch'ung-^p^ , Liu Yung's grandfather. In the "Epitaph", Wang reveals that the Liu family was originally from the area of Ho-tung 5«f (present day Shansi Province). He also records that Liu Ao who was Liu Ch'ung's ancestor five gener-ations removed, followed his uncle Liu Mien^f %^ ^  a historian who had been sent to Fukien Province as an o f f i c i a l . After Liu Mien was promoted to be the Office Chief (ohang-shih-|Lj^_ ) of Chien-chou (present day Chien-ou hsien 3 ^ i ^ ) ^ )» he took up permanent residence there. From that time the Liu family, settled in a d i s t r i c t called Wu-fu-li 3i-f^S%. in Ch'ung-an hsien ^ $jjr . Thus, Ch'ung-an hsien was the ancestral home of Liu Yung, not Lo-an hsien $£$1:$$. of Kiangsi Province as some scholars say^ and definitely not Ch'ien-t'ang-^- tf£ (present day Hang-chou"M**H ) as described in a Yuan drama.^ According to Wang's "Epitaph" and the gazetteers, Liu's grand-father, Liu Ch'ung^ (whose courtesy name was Tzu-kao %j ) was brought up by his mother (surnamed Ting -5* ) after his father, Liu Teng passed away. By the time Liu Ch'ung reached adulthood, he was already 5 famous for his Confucian learning and moral integrity. Whenever there were disputes, the villagers always turned to him for final judgement. After Wang Yen-cheng Jk-$X~ ^ took control over Fukien Province, he soon heard of Liu Ch'ung's reputation and attempted to appoint him Assistant Subprefect {oh'eng ) of Sha hsien v'J/" ^ ( p r e s e n t day T'ao-sha hsien ^k, Vy$&). But Liu Ch'ung declined the offer on account of Wang Yen-cheng's notorious exploitation of the masses. From then on, he led the l i f e of a retired scholar (ch'u-shih ) under the Golden Goose Peak (Chin-o feng %~) • Liu Ch'ung had six sons.8 Liu Y i ^ f ^  , Liu Yung's father, and Liu Hsuan-^P^ were the sons of his f i r s t wife (surnamed Ting "J" ). The other four, Liu C h i h ^ ^ J , Liu H u n g , Liu T s ' a i ^ f J ^ - and Liu Ch1 a were the sons of his second wife (surnamed Yu^JL ). He also had five daughters. Wang YLi-ch'eng says that they were married into good families but he gives no further information about them. When Liu Yi was Subprefect (tsai ) of Fei hsien j f j ^ (in present day Shantung Province), Liu Ch'ung went to v i s i t him. He also visited his second son, Liu Hsu'an, who was then the M i l i t i a Prefectural Judge {t'uan-lien t'ui-kuan lH l ^ i f ) of Chi-chou ^  *\ (present day Chi-ning hsien j | - of Shantung Province). Later he went to the capital Pien-ching y\ ^ f„ (present day K'ai-feng ?#] t\ of Honan Province) and f e l l i l l there. He then returned to Chi-chou and died there in November in 980 at the age of sixty-three. Liu Yung's father, Liu Y i , Liu Ch'ung's f i r s t son, was entitled W u - y i . He was born in 9389 and obtained his chin-shih degree in 985. , u According to Wang Yu-ch'eng's "For Liu Yi on his leaving for Ch'iian-chou ^T"^ (present day Ch'u'an hsien of Kwangsi Province) to become vice-administrator {t'ung-p'an i ^ ^ ' ] ): a preface." 4$TJLii,£r-)VJ^ - 1 1 Liu Yi f i r s t served the Southern T'ang & M • As a result of his outspoken and upright attitude towards state a f f a i r s , he was highly esteemed by Li Hou-chu ^ - ^ i (937-978) 12 and was eventually promoted to be Investigating Censor (ohien-ah'a yu-shih ^ - 4 $ ? ) . After the downfall of the Southern T'ang (978) Liu Yi served the Sung. He was made the Subprefect {ling ^ ) of Lei-tse ^ (present day southeast of P'u hsien3fj£$j^ of Shantung Province) in 979, where he became acquainted with Wang Yu-ch'eng. Soon he was appointed Subprefect of Fei hsien in 980. In the year 990, as a Subprefect of Jen-ch'eng ^ - ^ ( i n present day Chi-ning hsien ^ M,%^k of Shantung Province), he went to the capital with thirty scrolls of his own writings and asked the eunuchs to deliver them to the Emperor T'ai-tsung;^ J^. . Impressed by Liu Yi's writing, the Emperor ordered the prime minister [Chao Pao-chung£Q ] to test Liu Yi the next morning. Liu Yi was soon appointed Professor of the Directorate of Education [kuo-tzu po-shih ifS) ^-£ ) in the Imperial Library. In the year 994, he was transferred to the judge-13 ship of Ch'u'an-chou, but the reason for this transfer is not known. In 996 he was appointed Critic-advisor of the heir apparent {tsan-shan According to Wang's "Epitaph" and the gazetteers, five of Liu Yung's paternal uncles were o f f i c i a l s and two certainly held a chin-shih 7 degree. Furthermore, Liu's brothers San-chieh j£. , and San-fu z-tfk^ and later his nephew Liu Ch'i ^ pv^rand his son Liu Jui ^ f > j t a l l obtained 15 the ohin-shih degree and became o f f i c i a l s . Thus, we can conclude that, from the time of T'ang Dynasty, the Liu family had been part of the scholar gentry class and not of the common people. We can also con-clude that Liu Yung grew up in a family which emphasized Confucian teaching and encouraged o f f i c i a l achievements. As we shall see in the following discussion these factors affected Liu's l i f e to a great extent. B. Name and Birthdate Liu's original name was San-pien j £ - ^ ^ and his courtesy name was Ch'i-ch'ing ^  J 7 In the hua-pen he was called Liu Ch'i ^ f - ' t (the seventh son of the Liu c l a n ) . 1 8 Wang P'i-chih_$- j^f] il_ {ohin-shih of 1068) says that, after Liu obtained his ohin-shih degree, he adopted the name Yung ^  because of illness and, at the same time, also reverted to the courtesy name Ching-chuang j j * J 9 But Ch'en Shih-tao1$L|n?*J, (1053-1101) thinks that Liu adopted the name Yung 20 in order to be promoted to another o f f i c i a l position. However, since we do not have a clear evidence, the exact reason for his adopting the name Yung can only be guessed at. The birthdate of Liu is s t i l l a controversial issue. Because traditional scholars generally accept the view that man-tz'u 8 was derived from hsiao-ling 0 N ^ , 2 1 they place Liu (who was the f i r s t tz'u poet to write a large number of man-tz'u) in time after prominent hsiao-ling writers such as Yen Shu ^ $^(991 -1055) and Ou-yang Hsiu ^ L ^ ^ i 1007-1072).22 Among modern scholars, Ch'en J u i f ^ ^ p u t s Liu after Yen Shu, Fan Chung-yen ^ e / i ^ >% (989-1052) and Chang Hsien %$L$L (990-1078).23 Cheng C h ' i e n ^ ^ - thinks that Liu was born in the early years of the reign of Chen-tsungjl ^  (whose reign was from 997-1022).24 Yeh Ch'ing-ping ^  j^. asserts that Liu, Yen Shu and Chang Hsien were a l l about the same age and Liu was more than ten 25 years older than Ou-yang Hsiu. S t i l l other scholars, probably on the basis of the statement of Ch'ao Pu-chih ^ 4#f :C (1053-1110) that Liu and Chang Hsien were famous at the same time, give Liu's birth-27 date as 990. However, none of these scholars provide any convinc-ingly sound supporting evidence for their statements. The study which provides the most evidence for establishing Liu's birthdate is T'ang Kuei-changyjj jjL and Chin Ch'i-hua's & "New Evidence on Liu Yung's Life" ^ % $ J t $ H • 2 8 I n this essay, they agree that, since Chang Hsien and Liu were simultaneously famous, Liu must have been born sometime around 990. But, the heart of their argument lies in the evidence that, according to Lo Ta-ching's ^ -K$k ( f l . c . 1224) Ho-lin y u - l u f y Liu wrote a poem wang-hai-ch'ao ~J$£$j\ for Sun Ho $M*f when the latter was Fiscal Attendant [chuan-yun shih ^-^^ ) of Liang-cheUfa (Chetung and Chehsi W\ <& of the Northern Sung and the present day 29 Chektang and Kiangsu Province). Sun Ho was born in 961 and obtained 9 his chin-shih degree in 992. He died in 1004 right after he finished 30 his term of office as Fiscal Attendant. From this, T'ang and Chin conclude that Liu would have to have been an adult when he wrote the poem. Therefore, the latest date the poem could have been written would be 1004 and they put Liu's birthdate at 987 3 1 (that i s , the fourth year of Yung-hsi during the reign of T'ai-tsung). To further verify Lo Ta-ching's record I would like to add the following evidence. In Wang Yii-ch'eng's Esiao-h.su chi >Y%^ we can find many poems written for Sun Ho and his brother Sun Chin ^ 5-% 32 (967-1017). These poems indicate that Wang and the Sun brothers were good friends. But one should not forget that Wang and Liu Yung's father and uncles.were intimate friends too. When Sun Ho obtained his chin-shih degree in 992 at the capital, Liu Yi was there holding the position of Professor of the Directorate of Education. Therefore, Wang, Liu Yi and Sun Ho could very l i k e l y have been friends. Thus, i t is very possible that Liu did in fact write the poem for Sun Ho. C. Life in Pien-ching As revealed in his own poems, the pi-chi3 and the hua-pen3 i t is evident that Liu spent his youth in the capital Pien-ching. After decades of peace since reunification of China in 960 and under the centralization policy of the government, Pien-ching had become the p o l i t i c a l , economic and cultural center of China. Along with 10 i t s flourishing trade and commerce, Pien-ching soon developed into an urbanized city with various types of urban entertainments. Accord-ing to Tung-ehing meng-hua lu -I^^lfc-in the city of Pien-ching there were wine-houses^^-, tea houses and r e s t a u r a n t s ^ ^ 33 open day and night for feasting and drinking. There were also large wa-tzu ( t i l e halls) which could accommodate several thousand people. In these wa-tzu one could attend numerous kinds of 34 entertainments such as drama, singing and story-telling. Along with the growth of these entertainments, pleasure quarters also boomed. Courtesans and prostitutes f i l l e d the wine-houses, tea-houses and restaurants as Meng Yuan-1 ao 5t_ ^  describes, Al l the front doors of the wine-houses in the capital are decorated with colorful s i l k . . . . When night comes, Lights are shining above and below. Hundreds of courtesans in heavy make-up gather along the corridor, waiting for the drinkers to c a l l . They appear like fairies at f i r s t glance. . . . ^5 Such was the urban environment that surrounded Liu. Exactly what street of Pien-ching Liu lived on is not known. In the poem kuo-lang-erh-ohin-p'ai l ^ ^ - i S L ^ ^ he reveals he lived amidst the "small alleys" {eh'u-&3 ) deep inside the "block" (fang ). According to the study of Kat5 Shigeru^P j ^ " ^ > the city of Pien-ching was divided into two sections by the Imperial Street (yu-chieh . Each section was subdivided into grids called fang. Inside each fang there were small roads called oh 'ii.37 During this period, Liu led the l i f e of a gallant. He prob-ably spent his leisure time in the wa-tzu. He participated in popu-11 lar activities such as visiting famous gardens, competing in horseback riding, watching chicken fights and also playing polo ( chu-ts1'u$j$$$i)^ [In fact, Liu's brother Liu San-fu was an expert in this ball game]. Liu was also an enthusiastic participant of a l l kinds of festive 40 ac t i v i t i e s . He spent his hours with his "crazy friends and strange 41 companions" in the wine-houses. He was an especially frequent visitor of the brothels. Often he "toured a l l over the small towers 42 and obscure alleys." He even boasted that he "bought flowers in bunches, f i l l e d wine in carts and invited courtesans at the price of 43 hundred pieces of jade and thousands pieces of gold." Liu was linked with a larger number of courtesans than any other tz'u poet. In his poems and other available sources the names 44 of eighteen courtesans are mentioned. But, as for his male friends, except for Sun Ho, Liu only wrote one poem (in shih%^ form) for a eunuch named Sun K'o-chiu A. - 4 5 He seemed to be especially 46 fond of the high class courtesans who excelled in dancing and singing, and among them Ch'ung-ch'ung^ ^  was the one with whom he was most 47 infatuated. It is described in the pi-chi that "Liu had supreme talent 48 when he was young and especially excelled in music." Since he also 49 "excelled in the writing of song words" his fame spread a l l over the capital. It is said in the hua-pen that the courtesans were extremely 50 fond of Liu's tz'u and f e l t honored to meet him. Of course, i f a courtesan could get Liu to write her a poem to sing, she could demand 51 a much higher price. Consequently, Liu became such a welcome 12 figure among the brothels.that even the heads of the courtesans competed 52 to pay for his living expenses. Liu was popular not only in the brothels but also among the chiao-fang i% (Music Institute) musicians as Yeh Meng-te *^ (1077-1148) describes, Liu Yung . . . excelled in the writing of song words. Whenever the ohiao-fang musicians composed a new tune, they would request Liu to write the words because only then could the tune become popular. . . .53 It would be reasonable to assume that Liu also received pay from the ohiao-fang musicians. Thus, Liu became a professional tz'u writer. Through the chiao-fang musicians Liu's tz'u such as oh'ing-pei-le^t&.ffl^^ ^ gained popularity even inside the Imperial Palace. 5 5 All this brought Liu fame and along with i t an enormous self-image. In his poems, he proudly says that his tz'u had such a refined style 56 that no one could compete with them. He admits e x p l i c i t l y , " a l l 57 my l i f e I have been proud of my romantic temperament and talent." He compares his talent with that of the famous poet Sung Yii ^  j£. • 58 of the Warring States. He regards himself as a "talented youth" {ts'ai-tsu $ 3jr ) that only beautiful g i r l s could match. 5 9 A l l in a l l , in the eyes of the young Liu Yung, the world was f u l l of happiness for him. His future was hopeful and successful. Yet, the world view of Liu was not an unchanging one. It developed and altered along with his later l i f e experience. 13 D. Attempts and Frustrations Having grown up in a Confucian family of the gentry, Liu natur-a l l y aspired to obtain a ohin-shih degree and become an o f f i c i a l . Exactly when he f i r s t wrote his ohin-shih examination is not known. If he was born sometime in 987 or earlier he must have started taking the examination in the early years of Chen-tsung. But he failed to obtain the ohin-shih degree. Whether he passed even the prefectural examination (chieh-shih ^ " t ^ ) or departmental examination [sheng-shih/^%%^ ) or not we do not know.60 It was probably after the f a i l -ure in the examination that he l e f t Pien-ching for Ch'ien-t'ang where he wrote his poem wang-hai-ch'ao for Sun Ho. It is unknown how long Liu stayed in Ch'ien-t'ang. After some years of travel, Liu returned to the capital. From his poems written on the "heaven book" {t'ien-shu ^ ) we can assume that he was in CO Pien-ching in 1008, the year the "heaven book" f i r s t " f e l l . " However, the fact that the "heaven book" " f e l l " again in 1019 makes i t d i f f i c u l t 64 to ascertain the date of his return. The only year that we can say for sure that Liu was in the capital was 1018 in which he wrote a poem on the crowning of the nine-year-old prince Jen-tsung ^  j ^ . . After Liu's return from the south, he probably attempted the examination several more times but without success. After one of these failures he wrote the poem ho-ch'ung-t'ien^y^^, which later became a large obstacle to his o f f i c i a l advancement. The poem says, 14 Accidentally I lost the chance to be on the top of the golden l i s t . This glorious era has temporarily abandoned a talented person. What can I do about it? As I failed to achieve a high position Why not let go myself? Why talk about gains and losses? A talented tz'u poet is naturally a prime minister in commoner's clothing. Amidst the smoke-flower paths There appear painted screens. Luckily, there is my sweetheart for me to v i s i t . I cuddle my lover like thus and Enjoy this romantic moment to my heart's content. Youth is but a short moment. I am willing to exchange my empty fame for light drinking and soft singing.6° On the surface this poem seems to show that Liu was a carefree person and did not care whether he failed or passed the examination. Taking this narrow interpretation, some scholars conclude that Liu did not care for climbing up the ladder of officialdom. But, i f we look into the poem, the words "accidentally" {ou^$x> ) and "temporarily" {chan^f ) hint that Liu s t i l l had hope of passing later. Behind the surface carefree tone of the poem, there lies his frustration and rebellious s p i r i t . Since there were so many unsuccessful chin-shih candidates CO in the capital, the poem soon gained wide appeal. As Liu says in the poem ju4yu-shuijfr;/}^ , after he failed in the examination, he led a dissipated l i f e in the capital, I led a loose l i f e in the capital. For several years I have been indulging myself in wine and women. I toured around wildly the nine paths.69 15 In a seemingly carefree manner, he also reveals that he "intends to forsake the empty fame and not to think of what is right and wrong." However, as mentioned earlier, deep inside Liu's subconscious mind his desire to get ahead always remained. He s t i l l thought "when the time comes my high ambition w i l l be f u l f i l l e d . " 7 0 In one poem he asked his lover Ch'ung-ch'ung to be nice to him, since he might pass at the 71 next examination. At times, his obsession with passing the examin-ation was so intense that he even compared the joys of sex to obtain-ing the ohin-shih degree in the Imperial Palace, My feeling is getting better and better. It is the right moment to continue our cloud-rain af f a i r . This is exactly like in late spring inside the Imperial Palace When the imperial incense burner is sending out i t s fragrance and When the Emperor has l e f t his seat to conduct the palace examination. Facing him a few feet away I w i l l definitely win the top position. Until then, you wait for my return to congradulate me. . . .'2 Afterwards, Liu's eagerness to get ahead was almost satisfied but, unfortunately, to his great disappointment, he was rejected due to his notorious reputation for writing tz'u and living in brothels. Yen Y u - y i JJ ( f l . c . 1127), in his li-hai tz 'u-huang ^ ^ records this event, Liu San-pien . . . was fond of writing small tz'u, but was poor in conduct. Once someone recommended him to the Emperor. The Emperor asked, "Is i t Liu San-pien who writes tz'u?" That person replied, "Yes". The Emperor said, "He may as well go to f i l l in the words." 16 Because of this [Liu] was very disappointed. He toured around brothels and wine-houses with gallants everyday. He no longer restrained his behavior. He called himself "Liu San-pien who writes tz'u by the Emperor's decree. . . ." With regard to the same event Wu Tseng ^  ^ (Sung) in his Neng-kai-chai Jen-tsung paid attention to Confucian teachings and elegance and attended to fundamentals and the Tao. He condemned pompous and flowery writings. In the beginning, the chin-shih Liu San-pien was fond of composing erotic songs. His songs spread everywhere. Once he wrote a tz'u ho-ch'ung-t'ien which says, "I am willing to exchange my empty fame for light drinking and soft singing." When the Emperor l e f t his seat to announce the examination result people around [Liu] said to him, "You had better go to drink light and sing low, why bother seeking the empty fame?". . . , 7 4 It is possible that Jen-tsung rejected Liu specifically because of his contemptuous remark in his poem ho-ch'ung-t'ien: comparing a tz'u poet to a prime minister and the honorable chin-shih degree to empty fame. What Wu Tseng indirectly indicates is that Liu had a l -ready passed the departmental examination, and i t was at the palace examination that he was disqualified by the Emperor. The palace examination had been practiced ever since 975 and was not abolished 75 until 1057, that i s , after Liu's death. During the palace examin-ation the emperor could f a i l thirty to f i f t y percent of the candidates. Unfortunately, Liu was one of the victims of this subjective examin-somewhat different and more detailed account, ation. 17 After f a i l i n g the palace examination, during the following period, that i s , from 1022-1034 (from the year Jen-tsung ascended the throne until the year Liu obtained his ohin-shih degree), Liu led an even more dissipated l i f e among the brothels and wine-houses as described in li-hai tz'u-huang. He calls himself "Liu Sanrpien who writes tz'u by the Emperor's decree." At f i r s t glance, i t appears to be an honorable t i t l e . In fact, i t f u l l y expresses Liu's deep frustrations and anger. E. Official Career Despite his many failures in the examination Liu did not give up trying. He f i n a l l y obtained his ohin-shih degree in 1034 (the f i r s t year of Ching-yu ) . ^ In the same year, he was appointed Prefectural Judge (t'ui kuan ) of Mu-chou ?H (present day Chien-te hsien ^ _^j|>| v^ of Chekiang Province). Not long after he assumed office, because of his popularity in tz'u, he was recommended for promotion by his colleagues. But the proposal was rejected. Yeh Meng-te in his Shih-lin yen-yu fa $t^&%% records this event, In the time of our ancestors i t did not require merit rating to recommend a person. In the middle year of Ching-yu ._,78 Liu San-pien was Prefectural Judge of Mu-chou. He was praised because of his tz'u. After he had assumed office for over a month he was soon recommended by Lu Wei % , the Administrator {ohih+ohou fyp- ^ ). Kuo Ch'u'an "fp ^ jj , the Censor {shih-yu shih ^$P^ )> 18 commented, "San-pien has just obtained his chin-shih degree and has been an o f f i c i a l only for over a month, where are his administrative achievements?" Thus, he immediately rejected the recommendation . . . .79 During the Ching-yu years (1034-1038) Liu was appointed Sub-prefect of Yu*-hang'f^;]$-^ (present day Hang-chou). During his term of office he built the Wan-chiang Tower ^ J L y £ • 8 1 He was described 82 as a good o f f i c i a l in Yu-hang hsien-chih. From the evidence of his poems Liu seems to have enjoyed his o f f i c i a l l i f e in the beginning as he said, "Since there are no lawsuits in my court, I attend many QO banquets and excursions." Later Liu was appointed the o f f i c i a l for the Hsiao-feng Salt people. This poem discloses another aspect of Liu's personality, for in i t , we see the image of a sympathetic o f f i c i a l who was deeply concerned about the hardships of the people. . . . What do the salt workers make for a liv i n g . Women have no silk-worm to weave and Men have no land to plough. Having not yet paid the government tax The local tax is already pressing. They abandon wives and sons and work hard. Although they have human shape Their faces are pale as vegetable color. How bitter is the l i f e of the salt workers! When w i l l their mothers be rich and their sons not poor?. . . .85 \ 19 In Ting-hai hsien, Liu also wrote a poem liu-k'o-ohu ^ - i t - ^ 86 which expresses his nostalgia. Afterwards, Liu seemed to have been a petty o f f i c i a l in different places, mainly in the Yangtze region, as revealed in his many poems on journeys. To a petty o f f i c i a l during 87 the Northern Sung, a transfer meant a hard journey. Therefore, after many transfers and seeing no opportunity for promotion, Liu began to feel weary of his itinerant l i f e . He said, My o f f i c i a l journey has become rootless wandering. With this endless travelling and this lengthy sickness I have faced enough the bitterness of o f f i c i a l journeys.89 Frustrated by this wandering"1 ife Liu sometimes questioned the value of fame and profit and expressed his desire to become a recluse, At this moment How can I chase fame and fight with others for profit? How can I wear the o f f i c i a l cap and face the fierce heat of the dusty nine paths? I look back at the river village, There are towers in the moonlight and pavillions in the breeze. Along the river bank and on the rocks, Fortunately, there is a place where I can untie my hair and open my lapel.90 Liu's wish to retreat from worldly affairs only reflects a common desire 91 among Chinese intellectuals. His congratulatory poems and his persistent attempts to obtain the chin-shih degree show that he was definitely not one who would easily forget fame and achievement. In fact, hoping to be promoted to a higher position, he returned to the 20 capital and went to see Yen Shu, who was then the prime minister (that i s , from 1042-1044). Liu probably thought that, since Yen Shu also wrote tz'u, he might be willing to be his sponsor. But, as Chang Shun-roin^L'^ j^ s, in his Hua-man lu~$£*f^|Lrecords, the outcome was a great disappointment. Because Liu San-pien offended the Emperor with his tz'u, the Ministry of Personnel refused to change his o f f i c i a l position. San-pien could not bear the situation and went to the government. Yen [Shu] asked [Liu], "Gentleman, do you write songs?" San-pien replied, "Just like your honor who also writes songs" Yen said, "Even though I write songs I have never written such lines as 'Idly holding a needle and thread I would s i t next to him."' Thus, Liu withdrew.93 Without considering facts such as place of origin, personality and status, i t was predictable that Yen Shu would reject Liu simply on the basis that they both represent two entirely different styles and attitudes towards tz'u. Yen Shu took the reserved and lofty hsiao-ling in the hua-chienfd\ style as his standard, whereas, Liu used abundant colloquialisms and frank expressions in the man-tz'u form. During Liu's stay in the capital, he returned to his old friends--the courtesans. But, having been an o f f i c i a l for many years, he had restrained his l i f e style and his interest in wine and women had greatly reduced as he sighed, How does she know that Restricted by the reputation as an o f f i c i a l I have totally reduced ray romantic feelings for years.94 21 In this we see the personality change in Liu. He was no longer a gal-lant who indulged in wine and women without restraint, but an o f f i c i a l who was concerned about his public behavior. This serious side of Liu's personality in fact coincides with his image of a sympathetic o f f i c i a l as revealed in his poem "Drying Sea,Song". 95 According to Liu's epitaph, he had been a Staff Author {ohu-tso-lang % \% i p ). Later he was summoned to court by Jen-tsung and was given the position Subprefect of Ling-t'ai hsien 'JP £ ( i n present day Kansu Province). Afterwards, he was promoted to be the Professor of Imperial Sacrifices (t'ai-oh'ang po-shih ^ ^ -£ ). In precisely what years he held the above positions is not known. In the Huang-yu years (1049-1055) Liu was again openly rejected by Jen-tsung because of his tz'u. Wang P'i-chih records that in the middle years of Huang-yu Liu was s t i l l unable to get a promotion. An o f f i c i a l named Shih appreciated Liu's talent and sympathized with his misfortune. One time the ohiao-fang musicians presented the new tune tsui-p'eng-lai j^jfL. At this time the astronomer also reported that the canopus appeared. Taking advantage of Jen-tsung's happy mood, Shih recommended Liu to compose a verse for the occasion. But, because Jen-tsung disliked Liu's use of the words ohien $(( (gradually) and fan$j$ (to overthrow), Liu was rejected and was never 97 used by the court again. Probably on the evidence of the fact that the canopus signifies longevity, some say that the poem was written on the birthdate of Jen-tsung. This assumption is apparently a mistake since Jen-tsung's 22 98 birthdate was on April 14, but the season described in the poem was 99 autumn. Also, according to Sung Shin, no canopus appeared during the reign of Jen-tsung (1022-1063).100 But there is a record of the appearance of the Venus {t'ai-pai ^ & ) and the Big Dipper [nan-tou vsfe ) o n September 18th in the f i r s t year of Huang-yu. (1049). 1 0 1 I think that the reason that Wang P'i-chih said that the poem was written for the appearance of the canopus was because in the poem Liu says, "Among the South Pole stars the canopus is manifesting i t s auspiciousness." Since this poem is a congratulatory one, Liu probably included the canopus mainly to add a flattering tone. I suspect that this poem was written when Liu was the Professor of Imperial Sacrifice. According to the record of Ch'en Shih-tao 102 there was a shuffle of capital o f f i c i a l s at this time. I would conjecture that Liu was transferred to be the Assistant Officer of the Agricultural Branch in the Ministry of Works {t.'un-t'ien y'uan-wai-lang ) after th is incident. He held this position until his death. F. Place of Burial As with Liu's birthdate, opinions about his place of burial are many. One hua-pen novel records that Liu was buried in Le-yu-yuan i ^ - ^ z ^ (Pleasure Field) by the courtesans. This is probably 23 based on the fact the Le-yu-yiian was the amusement area where the roman-t i c Liu Yung would often go. Another opinion is offered by Chu Mu ^ X- » . . .[Liu ] died in Hsiang-yang %_ ~% (dn present day Hupei Province). The day he died he had no money l e f t . A group of courtesans collected money and buried him outside the Southern Gate. They went to v i s i t his grave every spring and called i t 'mourning Liu Ch'i' (tiao Liu Ch'i )• Tseng Min-hsing ^ - ^ X ^ (7-1175) however gives a slightly different account, After [Liu] died he was buried on the Flower Mountain in Tsao-yang " ^ ( i n Hupei Province). Every year during the ch'ing-ming f e s t i v a l , people from near and far carried wine and meat and drank beside Ch1i-ch'ing's grave, calling i t the 'commemorating Liu meeting' (tiao Liu hui ^ " f " ) - 1 0 5 It is also recorded in the li-chen hsien-chih that "Liu Ch'i-ch'ing's grave is situated seven l i west of Yi-chen itf^Jk (present day Yi-cheng hsien ]^$JL$fcof Kiangsu Province) near the Hsu-area."^ Partly on the basis of this record, Wang Shih-chen (1634-1711) further says that "Liu Ch'i-ch'ing's grave is situated in a place called Hsien-jen-chang /\& ^ }Jj- in the west of Yi-chen hsien." 1 0 7 The records of Chu Mu and Tseng Min-hsing are similar in that they both are sympathetic towards Liu and indicate that he was popular among the common people. From Liu's poems we know that he had been to these areas. After his death the courtesans of these places started practising the tiao-Hu custom. I think this is the reason that they say that Liu was buried in Hsiang-yang and Tsao-yang. It 24 is also reasonable to assume that the courtesans who admired Liu would set up a grave for him in order to formalize the custom. This may explain the record of Yi-chen hsien-chih and Wang Shih-chen. Yeh Meng-te gives a more re a l i s t i c record about Liu's place of burial. He says, . . . [Liu] Yung died while on a journey in the monastery of Jun-chou >f4 *r] (present day Chen -chiang hsien ^ of Kiangsu Province). When Wang Ho-fu t- fa % (1034-1095) was magistrate of Jun-chou he sought Liu's descendents but he could not find any of them so he buried him. . . .1.08 But the most detailed and reliable information about Liu's burial place can be found in Chen-chiang fu-chih -J^ L IS- ^  ^ 9 In Ko Sheng-chung's % (a native of Yung-k'ang ^-M- > in Chekiang Province! Tan-yang chi jff^the Epitaph to Ch'en Ch'ao-ch'ing 7*- Jf] r|says, "When Wang Ho-fu was magistrate of Jun-chou he wanted to bury Liu, but after a long time no one claimed his body, Thus, Ch'ao-ch'ing bought a piece of land in a high and dry area and took charge of the funeral. ^  Only then San-pien was buried. In this year, Yang Tzu A , the Commander of the Navy {shui-chun t'ung-chih TJ^Jp $jL-$'j ), ordered the soldiers to dig the land. They found Liu's epitaph and a jade comb. They looked for the grave-stone and found that the epitaph was written by Liu's nephew. The heading written in seal characters says, 'The Epitaph of Mr. Liu: the late Lang-ehung%$^ of the Sung Dynasty'. . . . It also says that 'My uncle had been dead for over twenty years]" 109 Wang Ho-fu was o f f i c i a l in Jun-chou in 1075. Liu's nephew (probably Liu Ch'i who excelled in calligraphy) 1 1 1 said that he wrote the epitaph over twenty years after Liu Yung died. Based on this, T'ang and Chin in their "New Evidence on Liu Yung's Life" conclude that Liu must have died in 1053 (the f i f t h year of Huang-yu ). 25 One point to be added is that in Tan-t'u hsien-chih and Chiang-nan t'ung-chih >^-v§]^^- > Liu Ju i , Liu Yung's son, was recorded to be a native of Tan-t'u ^ ^ ( t h a t i s , Jun-chou). 1 1 3 This further confirms that Liu Yung spent his last years in Jun-chou. G. Official Titles and Places of V i s i t FromLiu's epitaph and other available sources, we can l i s t the o f f i c i a l positions Liu Yung held during his lifetime. 1. Prefectural Judge of Mu-chou 2. Subprefect of Yu-hang ^ ^ ^ 3. Staff Supervisor of Ssu-chou ycsP H-j p] ^ 4. Supervisor of Hsiao-feng Salt Field in Ting-hai hsien 5. Subprefect of Ling-t'ai hsien ^£ ^* 6. Staff Author ^ ^ 7. Professor of Imperial Sacrifices js. ^ i^f- -k. • 3. Assistant Officer of Agricultural Branch in Ministry of Works 9. Lang-chung ( t i t l e incomplete) %ty ^ he also Besides the above places where Liu Yung held his o f f i c i a l posts had been to the following places as revealed in his poems and 26 other sources (see Appendix D): Ch1ang-an Jfe_ %r , 1 1 4 Yang-chou Ch'eng-tu , 1 1 6 T'ung River > i ( i n Chekiang Province), 1 1 7 Ku-su-k£ j§L(present day Su-chou j$L fi]) J 1 8 K'uai-chi ^  ^ (present day Shao-hsing ^ ^ B - o f Chekiang Province), 1 1 9 chien-ning (Liu's native a r e a ) , 1 2 0 Yen-ling Beach J&^t^iMin T'ung-lu hsien ^ ^ ) , 1 2 1 Chiu-yi Mountain J J (sixty l i south of Ning-liao hsien o f H u n a n Province), 1 2 2 south of the Wei River y f ?K , 1 2 3 the area of Huai ^ j t (Anhwei Province), and Ch'u (Hupei and Hunan . 124 Provinee). 26a P A R T I I THE TZ'U OF LIU YUNG 27 PART II THE TZ'U OF LIU YUNG INTRODUCTION This part deals with Liu's complete works--a total of 213 poems-collected in his Yueh-chang c h i ^ ^ ^  (hereafter: YCC). My approach to study his works is both quantitative and analytical. This approach lays a heavy emphasis upon computing numerical sums in analyzing poetry. This dual approach is for two main reasons. First, because of the Chinese traditional impressionistic literary criticism, tz'u c r i t i c s tend to generalize a poet's complete works on the basis of a small number of poems they like or dislike. Consequently, they only show one aspect of the poet's works while the rest remains ignored. This is especially true with Liu who uses two differing styles in writing. To avoid this, I believe the overall examination and classification of Liu's complete works is necessary. Secondly, because of the common practice among Chinese poets to imitate their predecessors and contemporaries, there is a great tendency to use the similar poetic devices to express the similar themes. This is further encouraged by the narrow theme of the tz'u genre. It turns out that most poetic devices are used by a l l tz'u poets. Thus, in order to avoid superficial analysis and to find out the unique characteristics of a poet, I think i t is important to 28 show precisely how frequently he employs a particular poetic device. In the case of particular techniques are used by one poet, the figures w i l l make his uniqueness more distinct. Of course, poetry is not natural science. The frequency a poet uses a particular device does not necessarily reflect his literary achievement. The main point lies in how he uses that particular technique to express his poetic content. Based on this, I w i l l give examples and analyze the poetic effect various techniques bring to a poem. This part is subdivided into five chapters. Chapter One deals with Liu's tune-patterns. Scholars generally praise Liu's tune-patterns, but they seldom go further to explore their various characteristics through a quantitative method. In view of this I w i l l continually use figures to support my analysis of his tune-patterns. Chapter Two focuses on the content of Liu's tz'u. This is sub-divided into three sections according to thematic categories, namely, poems on women and love, poems on separation and rootless wandering, and, fin a l l y poems on city l i f e . Typical examples of each theme are given. The translation of examples is mainly l i t e r a l and the line length is made as close to the original as possible to show the enjambment effect. A brief discussion is provided for each thematic category. Chapter Three deals with Liu's diction and imagery. This includes his use of allusions, images, the various substitution techniques, colloquialisms, and his creative diction. Since the allusions and images used by tz'u poets are very similar, I include 29 numerical figures to show Liu's preferences in using them. I wil l discuss chronologically c r i t i c s ' opinions on his unique use of collo-quialisms. I w i l l also examine his creative diction, a topic which has been largely ignored by scholars. Of course, at the same time, I wi l l emphasize the poetic functions his language plays in his poems. Chapter Four deals with the musical quality of Liu's tz'u as revealed by the prosody and the language of his poems. To illustrate the strong rhythm of his tz'u, I w i l l examine Liu's repetition technique, i.e. the repetition of sound, word and line and his caesura! patterns. I w i l l pay special attention to his innovative use of the lead-words and enjampment which change the rhythm, syntax and structure of his tz'u. In the final chapter which focuses on the structure of Liu's tz'u I w i l l discuss his different modes of presentation based on the overall study of the "plots" of his poems. This w i l l include his use of direct narration as well as fusion of emotion and scene. I will f i r s t generalize the "plots" and then I w i l l analyze in detail a typical example, using the various poetic devices discussed in the preceding chapters. 30 CHAPTER I THE CHARACTERISTICS OF LIU'S TUNE-PATTERNS Tz'u is intended to be sung and thus always has a melody called tz'u-p'ai%$l$${ or tz'u-tiao (tune-pattern or tune). 1 Each tune-pattern has a t i t l e called tiao-ming j$ & (tune-title) and belongs to a particular kung-tiao (musical mode).2 In the writing of tz'u a poet has to choose a tune-pattern and select the words according to the prescribed meter and tonal pattern.. Tz'u is divided into hsiao-ling >Y ^  (short tune), chung* • tiao "fjfj (mi ddle tune) and oh'ang-tiao ^ j $ t \ (long tune) according to 3 the differences in length of the tune-patterns. However, in Liu's time only hsiao-ling and man - tz' u were recognized, the further division of man-tz'u into chung-Hao and oh'ang-tiao did not exist until 4 the middle Sung. Because the musical records are lacking, the real nature of man-tz'u is not known. According to the available sources, man-tz'u '5 evolved in the middle T'ang. They were written to the Yen music • The musical instrument was probably the flute. 6 How man-tz'u was sung is not known for c e r t a i n / Sung Hsiang-feng ^ ) ^ believes that man-tz'u was sung in a slow rhythm and thus was called man P (The word 'man' l i t e r a l l y means 'slow'). On the other hand, Wang l i ^ fl says that, since the rhyme scheme of man-tz'u is sparse, i t was sung in a quick rhythm. It was called man because the total amount g of time required to sing one man-tz'u was longer. 31 In the following, I wil l examine the various characteristics of Liu's tune-patterns including their quantity, their relationship to Liu's knowledge in music, and their reflection of folk influence. At the same time, I w i l l compare Liu's tune-patterns with those of the T'ang wu-tai tz'u 3*- ]\%i](The Tz'u of the T'ang and Five Dynasties, hereafter: 2 W T ) , 1 0 Tun-huang folk songs as well as his prominent contemporary tz'u poets. The most distinct characteristic of Liu's tune-patterns is his concentration on the writing of man-tz'u. If the definition of Wang Li based on poem length is applied, 1 1 among Liu's 213 poems there are 12 185 man-tz'u and only twenty-seven hsiao-ling. According to the conventional definition given by Mao Hsien-shu $L^ (1620-1688), over one-half of Liu's poems are ch'ang-tiao, one-third ohung-tiao and a l i t t l e less than one-sixth hsiao-ling. In comparison to his contemporary tz'u poets, Liu not only writes a larger number of man-tz'u, but also uses a greater number of tune patterns. In the following table I have compared his use of tune-patterns to that of three other prominent contemporary tz'u 13 poets Yen Shu, Ou-yang Hsiu and Chang Hsien. Total Total Number Tune- Number of Percent Percent of Number of Pattern Poems of Tune-patterns of Tune- and Poem Over 80 hsiao- Same as Those Poets Poems Patterns Ratio Words ling in TWTT Liu 213 127 1/1.6 122 22 21 Yen 136 38 1/3.3 3 97 45 Ou-yang 232 69 1/3.1 12 85 43 Chang 165 95 1/1.7 18 85 32 33 The statistics clearly indicate that Liu uses many more oh'ang-14" tiao and tune-patterns than his contemporary tz'u poets. He uses a 15 total of 127 tune-patterns, or over three times more than Yen, nearly twice as much as Ou-yang does and one-third more than Chang. The bureaucratic tz'u poets Yen and Ou-yang concentrate on writing hsiao-ling (which makes up ninety-seven percent of the former's output and eighty-five percent of the latter's) and use much fewer tune-patterns. It is also striking that Chang, who was highly praised for his man-tz'u by traditional scholars, 1 6 only writes fifteen percent of his tz'u in the ch'ang-tiao form. Moreover, in the choice of tune-patterns, Yen and Ou-yang closely adhere to those of the TWTT. Chang, who is more flexible, s t i l l has one-third of his tune-patterns similar to those in the TWTT. In contrast to these three, Liu not only uses a much lower number of tune-patterns from the TWTT, but also changes the form of the poem even when he uses the same tune-pattern. 1 7 In terms of tune-pattern to poem ratio, Liu shows more adven-turousness by often trying out different tune-patterns. The figures show that for each tune-pattern Liu only writes 1.6 poems. In this regard Liu resembles Chang, whose corresponding figure is 1.7. On the other hand, Yen and Ou-yang on the average write more than three poems to one tune-pattern. Indeed, Ou-yang writes thirty-four poems to the tune-pattern yu-lou-ch'un ^ ^ f c J L . and forty-four to yu-chia-ao ^ In contrast, Liu composes fewer poems to any individual tune-pattern. Among 127 tune-patterns, the ones Liu uses most frequently are: mu-lan-h.ua ^ M $L (also named yu-lou-ch'un)vihich he uses in 34 thirteen poems, shao-nien-yu 'Jf" J%-j$%_ ten poems, ch'ing-pei-le ^ j ^ ^ ^ - j c eight poems, wu-shan-yi-tuan-yun Jf*. Jv ^ and yu-hu-tieh 3>-$${ five poems, jui-che-ku J^J^^^^and man-chiang-hung y$fl ~il»^S* four poems. Those used in three poems are tou-pai-hua S\ , nu-kuan-tzu -fa 3p feng-oh 'i-wu "^Jt ^ * j tung-hsien-ko j an-kung-tzu lin-chiang-hsien-yin >f->fj* j hsi-shih ^7 '^P and mu-lan-hua-man %~ 4l£.vl''C-With Liu, poems written to the same basic tune-patterns are not always identical in terms of length and line divisions. Of his 127 tune-patterns, thirty-one of them have poems in variant forms {yi-t'i %i ^ i t )• For instance, one of the two poems to the tune-pattern feng-kuei-yunjH^i% has the line division 3-4-4-4-4-4-4r-8-4r-8r-6-4r; ?n 7_4r-4-4-4-4-4r-4-4-4r-3-6r-6-4r, and the other poem to the same tune-pattern has the totally different line division 3-7r-4-5r-4-4-5r-6-r-6r; 4-4-4-4-5-3r-4-4-5r-6-4-7r.21 In contrast, the other three poets always follow the prescribed tune-patterns. For instance, Yen's thirteen poems to the tune-pattern huan-hsi-sha >J^  •/)" are a l l the same.22 There are only four excep-tions, in which the differences between poems written to the same tune-23 pattern are only one or two words. Ou-yang's thirty-four poems to the tune-pattern yu-lou-ch'un and twenty-one poems to tieh-lien-hua { $%3&,are exactly the same.24 In the few exceptions the differ-25 ences are slight. Chang is more flexible than Yen and Ou-yang in that he writes much fewer poems to a particular tune-pattern and more variant forms in poems written to the same tune-pattern. However, the differences only involve a word or two. To il l u s t r a t e this assertion we may examine one tune-pattern used by Yen, Chang and Liu. Both Yen and Chang use the tune-pattern tin-chiang-hsieny1~^<b to write poems of fifty-eight words, but Liu besides using fifty-eight words, also uses i t to write a poem 27 of ninety-three words, a difference of thirty-five words. Liu's greater f l e x i b i l i t y is further illustrated through examining the relationship between the tune-patterns and the kung-28 tiao. In Liu's 127 tune-patterns, forty-one of them are used in more than one poem (one of the two poems written to the tune-pattern hsi-ohiang-yueh v£7 f\ has no kung-tiao). In seventeen cases out of the forty-one, poems of the same tune-patterns have different kung-29 tiao. In sixteen out of the seventeen cases, except for the hsiao-ling mu-lan-hua, poems with the same tune-patterns but different kung-tiao have variant forms. For instance, the eight poems written to the tune-pattern ch'ing-peity%. ^ ( a l s o called ku-dh'ing-pei or oh'ing'pei-le) have five different kung-tiao and six different forms (104, 106, 107, 108, HO and 116 words). 3 0 The three poems written to the tune-pattern tung-hsien-ko are listed to three different kung-31 tiao and have three different forms (121, 123 and 126 words). Twenty-three out of the forty-one tune-patterns which are used more than once are listed under the same kung-tiao. And fifteen out 32 of these twenty-three s t i l l have poems in different forms. For instance, the two poems written to the tune-pattern lun-t'ai-tzu jNfl ^  "3~ a r e listed under chung-lu-tiao -ty ^  -|)fj . One poem has 36 the line division 6-7r-6-6r-6-8r-5-7r-6-7r; 3-5-4r-5-4r-5-5r-7r-7-5r and the other has the different line division 4-5r-5-4-4r-7-9r-7-7r -3r-4-5r-5r; 8r-4-3r-5-4-4r-7r-5-4r-4-5-7r-4r-8r.33 In the case of Chang, a l l his man-tz'u with the same tune-patterns have the same kung-tiao. This shows that he is not as adven-turous as Liu in writing man-tz'u to different musical modes. Some of his hsiao-ling written to the same tune-patterns are listed under 34 different kung-tiao. S t i l l , these hsiao-ling with the same tune-patterns but different kung-tiao are identical in form. This clearly illustrates the extreme ri g i d i t y of the hsiao-ling form. Liu breaks this convention by composing two of his hsiao-ling kuei-ch'u-lai %fy ^ jjs> and yen-kuei-liang %%J$z different in form, 35 even though under the same kung-tiao. I would argue that the reason for Liu's tendency to write poems in variant forms is rooted in his deep knowledge of music. In particular, he was aware of the need to modify words at certain appropriate places in order to increase the musical effect and help the singer. The freer and more versatile form of man-tz'u at that time shows a closer tie to folk literature in contrast to the already formalized hsiao-ling in vogue among the l i t e r a t i . (In fact, in the folk ohu-kung-tiao ^ "fjf| [translated as medley], poems written to the same tune-pattern have variant forms). Here one could well borrow some of the analysis of Feng ch' i-yung ^  , who sees in the simultaneous existence of two very different types of tz'u a reflection of the broader class difference. Yen and Ou-yang, who 37 belong to the l i t e r a t i o f f i c i a l class, closely follow the highly stylized and refined hsiao-ling form and scorn the popular man-tz'u. On the other hand, Liu, who lived with the common people but had an upper class education, is able to combine the two types of literary form and produce a new, more live l y form of man-tz'u. The close relationship between Liu's tz'u and folk literature can be traced through a comparison of the tune-patterns in Ts'ui Ling-ch'in's $ (T'ang) Chiao-fang ohi ^ %Hhereafter: CFC) [The Record of the Musio Institute which includes 324 tune-patterns mostly from folk origin) with Jen E r h - p e i ' s ' j i i t Tun-huang-ch'u chiao-lu, (here-after: TECCL){The Record of Tun-huang Songs which includes f i f t y - s i x tune-patterns and a total of 545 poems). Of Liu's 127 tune-patterns, sixty-three are similar to those found in the CFC. Of these sixty-three, thirty-one tune-patterns have exactly the same t i t l e s . Twenty-five • 37 of the sixty-three have t i t l e s changed slightly through history. Surprisingly, of those tune-patterns which only appear in Liu's works, two-thirds are similar to those found in the CFC. One possible reason for this closeness can be found in the Sung shih3 which says that i t was a popular practice at that time to compose new songs based 38 on old ones. When the chiao-fang musicians composed new songs, 39 they often adopted the tune-titles from the T'ang Chiao-fang. Further-more, i t is recorded in Pi-shu lu-hua that whenever the musicians 40 composed a new tune they would ask Liu to write the song words. Therefore, we find many of Liu's tune-titles similar to those collected in the CFC. Since both the songs collected by the Music. Institute 38 of T'ang and the folk songs popular in Sung have a common origin in earlier folk songs, they not surprisingly have some similarities. Because the song words for the tune-patterns in the CFC have been lost, only the tune-titles can be compared. However, the song words for the Tun-huang folk songs are preserved and they further confirm the influence of folk literature on Liu. In THCCL sixteen tune-patterns out of the total of f i f t y - s i x are identical in name to those of L i u . 4 1 These sixteen tune-patterns usually do not follow exactly the same forms as those of Liu. The only poems which are the same are the hsiao-ling hsi-chiang-yueh and lin-chiang-hsien. Four out of the sixteen tune-patterns found in both Liu's ICC and THCCL have the ch'ang-tiao form. They are. feng-kuei-yun, tung-hsien-ko, ch'ing-pei-le and nei-chia-chiao ^ - i f f j . This documented existence of ch'ang-tiao form in the THCCL totally undermines the wide-spread 42 belief that Liu was the inventor of man-tz'u. As mentioned earlier, some of Liu's tune-patterns are the same as some of those in the TWTT. Many scholars thus hold the view that Liu simply increased the length of hsiao-ling to produce man-43 tz'u. But when comparing the forms of hsiao-ling and man-tz'u of the same tune-patterns in Liu's works, I cannot find any clear similarity between them. In this regard, I agree with Wang Li that there is no relationship between hsiao-ling and man-tz'u even though 44 their t i t l e s may be the same. In fact, they are different songs written to different music: the former written for the "old music" {chiu-sheng3k M; ), the latter for the "new music" {hsin-sheng ). 39 For instance, the line division of the tune-pattern ying-t'ien-ch'ang in the TWTT is 7r-7r-6r-7r; 6r-6r-6r-5r, 4 5 but the same tune-pattern in Liu's ICC is 4r-5-4r-4-6r-5r-7r-3-4-4r; 5r-5-4r-4-6r-5r-7r-3-4-4r.46 Only the tune-pattern chieh-hsien-pin ^<f[ by Mao Wen-hsi j£, lLj$p ( f l . c . 913) in the TWTT bears a slight relationship to Liu's chi-hsien-pin ^ ^ . The line division of chieh-hsien-pin 47 is 7r-5r-6-4r; 7-6r-7-6r-6-5r-. and the chi-hsien-pin of Liu is 7-4r-6-48 4r-6-6r-7-7r-6-5r; 7r-5r-6-4r-6-6r-7-7r-6-5r. Perhaps the last part 6-6r-7-7r-6-5r of the f i r s t and second stanza can be considered the extension of the f i r s t stanza of Mao Wen-hsi's chieh-hsien-pin. With regard to the controversial subject of the tune-patterns invented by Liu, some say that he invented 115, others say seventy-three 49 and s t i l l others say fifteen. I think that the only concrete evi-dence can be derived from the prosody books, namely Tz'u-lu ^ (prefaced dated 1687), Tz'u-p'uJ^(preface dated 1707) and Tz'u-fan ft Cpublished in 1959). The prosody books, which were compiled in a later period, contain a great number of tune-patterns. Besides providing the meter for each tune-pattern there is also a brief state-ment about the history of the tune-pattern. When we check Liu's tune-patterns in the prosody books, we typically find statements such as "this tune-pattern f i r s t appears in the yueh-chang chi" or "only Liu Yung writes one poem to this tune-pattern and there is no other poem to compare with this one." Some scholars take a l l the tune-patterns thus classified as being the invention of Liu. But this is not necessarily true. The fact that a tune-pattern f i r s t appeared in 40 Liu's works or was only used by Liu does not necessarily mean that i t is his invention. In the following I classify Liu's tune-patterns according to the different statements given in the prosody books: 1. Tune-patterns which have the comment "invented by Liu Yung" in Tz'u-p'u total 18. 2. Tune-patterns with the comment "no other tune-pattern to check with" in Tz'u-p'u total 37. 3. Tune-patterns with the comment "only Liu Yung has a poem to this tune-pattern, there i s no other poem to check with":in Tz'u-l'u total 13. 4. Tune-patterns with the comment "this tune-pattern f i r s t appears in Yueh-ehang-ehi" in Tz'u-fan total 89. When the overlaps are eliminated, ninety-five different tune-patterns remain. Among the three prosody books, only Tz'u-p'u definitely 50 indicates that Liu invented eighteen tune-patterns. When a tune-pattern is f i r s t invented the content of the poem 51 usually corresponds to the tune-title. But, many tune-patterns used only by Liu do not correspond in content to the tune-titles and this may indicate that Liu did not invent them. By comparing the content of the poems with the tune-titles I discover that the content 41 52 of only eleven of them correspond to their tune-titles. Excluding the eight of these eleven which were already indicated as inventions of Liu, the other three tune-patterns hsi-shih, wang-han-yueh ^ $ and ying-hsin-ch'unT^^ jj^-may also be considered as his inventions. Although Liu might have purposely written the content of the poem to f i t the tune-title, our most conservative estimation is that together with the eighteen indicated by Tz'u-p'u, Liu invented at least twenty-one tune-patterns. Since a majority of Liu's tune-patterns was not used by other tz'u poets, a few later tz'u c r i t i c s such as Chou Chih-mo ^j?^|\"|^Ming) and Hsieh Chang-t'ing 1$$ ^  $ i L ( f l . c . 1892) c r i t i c i z e Liu for using obscure tune-patterns (p 'i-tiao ^ " f j ^ j ) . ^  But I would argue, on the contrary, that these tune-patterns were not obscure but rather they were derived from popular songs of that time. Other tz'u poets did not use Liu's tune-patterns mainly because of upper class snobbery. They did not want to write tz'u to the man-ah'u"\^^ (man-songs) which, 54 because of i t s folk origin, was considered as vulgar. But Liu, who did not rise to high o f f i c i a l position and who was not restrained by Confucian morality, dared to include the songs from the folk origin. This unorthodoxy is probably why Liu was so harshly condemned during his lifetime. However, despite a l l these attacks,as a result of the great number of man-tz'u he wrote, Liu popularized and established i t s form. It is from this longer form of tune-patterns that Liu broadened the scope and innovated the rhythm, language and the entire structure of tz'u. 42 CHAPTER II THE "WORLDS"1 OF LIU YUNG'S TZ'U Liu's 213 poems can be broadly grouped into three major them-atic categories according to content: (1) poems about women and love, (2) poems about separation and rootless wandering and (3) poems about city l i f e . Of course, Liu also writes poems on many other themes such as congratulating the emperor and the court {ohu-sung , recalling history {huai-ku ), describing objects [yung-wu%9^$fo) and "roaming with fairies" {yu-hsien i t l ^ ) . 2 However, since they only comprise a relatively small number of his works, they w i l l not be discussed in detail here. Aside from presenting the content of Liu's tz'u, the present discussion w i l l also involve three other aspects. First, scholars generally recognize that Liu developed the form of man-tz'u, but many of them overlook the fact that Liu, while increasing the length 3 of tz u, also broadened i t s scope. Some scholars point out that Liu broke the confines of the TWTT but they f a i l to give concrete evi-4 dence or to explain how. Secondly, although some scholars have noted that Liu's tz'u were influenced by folk literature, but many of 5 them f a i l to support their statements. In the following in order to verify the above points, I wi l l compare Liu's tz'u with those of the same theme in the TWTT and in the Tun-huang folk songs. Thirdly, i t is clear that Liu's poems on various themes have generated widely 43 diverse reactions. Scholars generally harshly c r i t i c i s e his poems on women and love. On the other hand, his poems on separation, rootless wandering and city l i f e have been generally wel1-received. The reasons for this can be found through a study of the content of his poems. A. Poems on Women and Love Liu's poems on women and love together constitute over one-third of his works. Judging from their content and style, they can be con-sidered largely as works of his early years. What is common to these two themes is that they clearly demonstrate a great departure from those poems on the same themes in the TWTT as well as a strong influence from folk literature. Liu's poems on women (about thirty) can be further subdivided into two groups by differences in content and points of view. The f i r s t group mainly deals with the physical beauty and a r t i s t i c talents of women as observed from a third person point of view. The second group describes the various feelings of a woman in her chamber from her own point of view. There are many poems in the TWTT describing a woman's beauty and a r t i s t i c talents from a third person's point of view. However, the short length of hsiao-ling necessitates a brief and sketchy description. Such descriptions are frequently subordinated to other 44 dominant themes and very few poems are devoted entirely to the objective description of a woman. The woman character depicted is usually a lady heavily laden with ornaments. Liu alone devotes the entire poem to the description of the woman. He chooses his woman characters not from among noble ladies confined to luxurious chambers, but rather the courtesans, singers and dancers of the brothels. Liu's choice of this type of woman character is inseparable from his l i f e experience. During his early years he spent his time in the brothels and made friends with lower class women. According to the hua-ipen. Liu's tz'u were so popular that, i f a courtesan could get Liu to praise her in a poem, her price would rise. It was further recorded, that many courtesans fought to pay for Liu's living expenses6 and, hence, Liu wrote poems praising their beauty and a r t i s t i c talents as a source of income. As a result, some of these poems appear to be very commercial in tone. The four poems written to the tune-pattern mu-lan-hua even include the courtesans' names, the prices they ask for, and their addresses.7 Representative of this group of poems is the one written to the tune-pattern liu-yao-oh'ing J f | . ( c r e a t e d by Liu), which in-cludes the name of the courtesan and describes in detail her beauty and talents. Ying-ying is dancing beautifully with her soft waist like Chang T'ai-liu and Chao Fei-yen. Feasting in this magnificient h a l l , The gentlemen in brocade gowns and hats are a l l competing to select her with a thousand pieces of gold. Facing the perfumed stairs She starts tuning the strings of her pipe. In the gentle breeze Her jade-ring shakes slightly. 45 As she starts the quick beat of the Ni-shang song, She elegantly and gradually speeds up the castanets, She slowly lowers her cloud-like sleeves, She quickly moves her lotus feet. Back and forth she performs many wondrous actions. Her beauty not only makes one abandon the nation and c i t y , Even a short glance from her wi l l spellbind ten thousand people.8 Liu's innovation on this theme did not come out of the blue. If we examine the Tun-huang folk songs we can find poems bearing great similarities to Liu's, as in Her two eyes are as bright as a knife. Her skin is like jade. She is the most romantic beauty. Her clothing is fashionable. Her hairdo is li k e that in the capital. She is pure, beautiful and young. She excels, in the rules of music. She is also good at playing the bamboo pipes. Her songs are fresh and new. . . . 9 The similarities in theme and diction between the above poem and Liu's ho-kuan-tai are more obvious in the Chinese original, Her figure is already charming, As for her graceful bearing, i t is hard to describe. Her skin is like jade. Moreover, what makes her charming is that: When she sings and dances wonderfully, Even the orioles w i l l feel ashamed of their beautiful voice, The willows w i l l envy her slim waist. . . .10 Since this group of poems is written from an objective point of view and, more importantly, is not meant to express the profound emotions of the characters, i t appears to be rather superficial. But, 46 when compared to the TWTT, Liu's vivid descriptions of female beauty and talents, especially their actions in dancing and singing in a light-hearted manner, broadened the scope of tz'u. We may also say that Liu's "description of people" is a new theme in tz'u. As the term kuei-oh'ing)£\'f1\(boudoir feelings) suggests, this group of poems expresses the various feelings of a traditional Chinese woman in her chamber. These feelings include complaints about an unfaithful lover, the yearning for love, the sense of loneliness and the l i k e . These are common themes used both by Liu and the TWTT. However, most of Liu's kuei-ch'ing poems mark a great departure from those in the TWTT in terms of characterization, language and mode of expression. TWTT express the feelings of a woman persona in the following manner, With my back facing the red candle, Inside the closed embroidered curtain, I have a long dream but he does not know.11 Ever since the grass has turned green in the garden I have been longing for his return. Yet I s t i l l have not heard from him. He must have betrayed me. I regret having loved him. I t e l l heaven, but heaven does not l i s t e n . ^ The woman personae depicted in these poems are gentle and re-strained in expressing their sorrows. This reserved manner of expression is a standard one for the tz'u poets in the TWTT as well as for many hsiao-ling poets of the Northern Sung Dynasty. Confined by the short length of hsiao-ling and restricted by the reserved manner {han-h.su &® ) of expression, the poets of the 47 In the TWTT, there are some kuei-ch-ling poems with a direct and frank manner. The following lines from Ku Ch'iung'S/^ % forerunner of Liu's style, says. If you exchange my heart with yours Then you wil l know how much I miss you.' However, these are only exceptional cases. The majority of the kuei-oh'ing poems in the TWTT are expressed in a reserved tone. has been praised for being "the beautiful lines of the hua-ohiennl In an autumn evening Drops and drops of rain-pearls splash on the wilted After the rain has stopped, the moon appears. Coolness f i l l s the mandarin-duck shore. Leaning against the railing beside the pond, I feel sad without a partner. How can I bear this loneliness? I approach the golden cage and Repeat my lover's words to the parriot. But, when Liu uses the man-tz'u form to write on the same theme, he completely departs from the hua-chien style. Unlike the vague and fl a t woman persona in the TWTT, Liu's woman persona is a living individ-ual who undergoes psychological changes. She is not a noble lady in a confined and luxurious chamber, but often a courtesan of the lower class. She does not show her sorrow through dreams, nor does she direct her grief to heaven, but, rather, she expresses her true emotions directly, frankly, and boldly in an unpretentious manner. ( f l . c . 928) su-ahung-oh'ing Several of Liu's kuei-ch'ing poems written in the hsiao-ling 15 form resemble those in the TWTT. For instance, the following one lotus. 48 In some of Liu's kuei-eh'ing poems he describes the woman's loneliness, regrets and worries after her lover has l e f t , With whom can I confide my loneliness? After a l l he has broken a l l his previous promises. If I had known i t was so d i f f i c u l t to forget him, I would have made him stay. Besides being handsome and romantic He surely has things which specially cling to my heart. Even one day without thinking of him My eyebrows knit a thousand times.18 In some poems Liu even expresses e x p l i c i t l y her sexual desires in the absence of her lover, an aspect only dealt with in an obscure and elusive manner in the TWTT3 The unfaithful one s t i l l has not shown any sign of returning. The mandarin-duck quilt is loosing i t s fragrance. Let me ask him, Who can be as l i s t l e s s as me? 19 Now, as before, he betrayed his promises. Why did he talk me into secretly cutting my hair to make vows in the f i r s t place? When w i l l he be able to return to my deserted chamber? Wait until he asks for the cloud-rain a f f a i r , Embracing the embroidered quilt I w i l l not share the pleasure with him.20 Typical of this group of poems is the notorious ting-feng-po )f^. in which Liu portrays a lonely woman persona who pours out her feelings spontaneously with l i t t l e trace of the reserved manner of the hua-chien style. Although this poem was condemned by his contemporary Yen Shu (probably because of Liu's use of colloquialisms 21 and frank description of boudoir feelings), there can be no doubt that Liu created a vivid character through his colloquial diction. Hence, i t is not surprising that this poem was very popular among common people. It was used by the story tellers in the Sung Dynasty' and was later adopted, with slight changes, in the Yuan drama ch'ien-ta-yin chih-oh'ung hsieh-t'ien-hsiang ^% 'ff, A. % ^ This poem says, Ever since spring came with i t s grieving green and sad red I have no mood to do anything. The sun has risen to the tip of the flowers. The orioles are flying through the willow branches. I am s t i l l lying on the perfumed quilt. The warm face cream has gone. My hair is hanging down. All day long I have no mood to do my t o i l e t . What else can I do? I hate him, the unfaithful one, once gone, Not even a word to be heard! If I had known this, I would have locked his carved-saddle. Force him to s i t in front of the library window, I would give him only paper and an ivy brush and make him recite his lessons. I would follow him closely, without leaving him for a moment. Idly holding a needle and thread I would s i t next to him. He would be with me. Thus, my youth would not pass in vain.25 Liu's creation of a l i v e l y , woman persona ;is closely related to his l i f e experience. Since he had lived in the brothels, he understood the lives and emotions of lower class women. More importantly, he could imitate their language and he also learnt the direct mode of expression characteristic of folk kuei-ch'ing 50 poems. The direct and frank expression and the vivid woman persona depicted in the following poem from the Tun-huang collection i l l u s -trates folk influence on Liu's boudoir poems, My pearl-tear drops keep on f a l l i n g , wetting my si l k clothes. Most young gentlemen are ungrateful. From the beginning my sisters have clearly told me, 'Do not give him a l l your heart!1 I think about this carefully: If I had treated him like a common friend Would i t not have been better?26 The theme of love is a conventional one in Chinese poetry. In this, Liu is no exception, for over one-quarter of his 213 poems are devoted to this theme. The group of poems written from a man's point of view concerns mainly the sorrows of romantic love and erotic love. Compared to his poems on women, this group reveals an even greater departure from those in the TWTT. Popular themes in love poetry are dreaming of a lover, yearning for love and the pain of unrequited love. In the TWTT, the explicit expression of these feelings from a man's point of view seems to be infrequent. Furthermore, even when written from a man's point of view, the description is generally reserved and brief as the following poem by Li Hsuni 3%) (8557-930?) shows, It was like a dream when I saw her while on my horse. I was struck by the passion radiating from her expression and her eyes. In the setting sun, Along the willow bank, She shows boundless feelings. 51 Drunk, my golden whip about to drop, I returned home, quietly thinking of her, I was spell bound.27 The man persona portrayed in this poem is shy and timid. But, Liu's poems on the same theme are more explicit and bold. In the following two poems we can see an aggressive and daring young man who expresses his frustrations and the pains of unrequited love in an unrestrained manner and in a colloquial language rarely seen in the TWTT. Recently people are shocked and surprised to see my haggard look. This i s a l l because after parting from her I have been deeply in love. In my previous l i f e I must have owed you a debt of sorrow and thus It is so d i f f i c u l t to repay. In this long and beautiful night I have no means to realize my haunting love. Inside the brocade quilt her fragrance s t i l l remains. How can I have her here as before and Wildly love her in the lamplight. 2 8 There is a maiden who is truly adorable. When I talk to her she turns her face away from me. If you do not have any feeling towards me, Why then do you often appear in my dream? You may as well consent to my wish as soon as possible, So that you wi11 not confuse my empty soul. My romantic intestine [heart] is not strong enough. I am afraid that you w i l l cause i t to break.29 This frank and daring expression of love again can be traced to the influence of folk literature as evidenced in the following lines from the Tun-huang folk song, 52 If you have the intention to marry P'an-lang [me], Please do not cause my intestine [heart] to break!30 In the TWTT, the pain of love is usually expressed in a serious and sorrowful tone. But, Liu writes i t in a light-hearted and informal manner. The record of his passion is neither recollected in tranquilli nor is i t idealized. It is merely an actual and immediate experience. This quality removes Liu's love poems from the confines of traditional love poetry. For this reason, this group of poems was generally cr i t i c i z e d for being "shallow" and "vulgar". However, from a histor-ical perspective, i t can be said that Liu introduced a new mode of expressing love to tz'u. Since the T'ang Dynasty, visiting brothels and having romantic 31 affairs with courtesans had been common passtimes for poets. Indeed, many poems in the TWTT deal with this topic, but, because the tz'u poets are restrained by Confucian morality and controlled by the con-vention of reserved expression, they mostly write about this theme in an indirect and euphemistic manner. For example, they call brothels 32 red tower, jade tower and phoenix tower. They refer to the cour-tesans allusively as Hsieh-niang^-t-fcfLand Hsiao-niang-||,b|L . 3 3 Actual descriptions of v i s i t s to the brothels or actual love scenes are extremely rare. On the other hand, unrestrained by Confucian morality, and armed with the tool of man-tz'u, Liu e x p l i c i t l y describes in detail his v i s i t s to brothels and sometimes even spells out the courtesan's name, 53 Everywhere is small streets and slented alleys. I tour around a l l the brothels Drinking one cup after another. I am lucky to have picked a g i r l whose beauty surpasses a l l the beautiful g i r l s of Wu.34 I wildly tour a l l over the small towers and obscure alleys. Among the groups of g i r l s , The one that pleases me most is Ch'ung-ch'ung.35 Liu reveals even his promiscuous attitude towards love in a frank manner: That beauty's charming smile was worth a thousand pieces of gold. In those days I was once deeply in love with her. Several times after drinking When the lamplight faded and the incense was fragrant and warm We shared love inside the mandarin-duck quilt.36 In this wonderful moment, Since you and I are young, How can we not be tempted by the rain-cloud affair?37 I make a vow: As long as I am alive I w i l l not let you sleep alone in the mandarin-duck qui It.38 In the TWTT, poets generally describe the actual love scene in an implicit manner. For instance, Wei Ch'eng-pan j^-^t ( f l . c . 930) and Ho Ning ^ 3^(898-955) (who was notorious for his erotic poems)39 wri te, Hand in hand. We enter the mandarin-duck quilt. At this moment, who knows our feelings?40 54 Her flesh and bone are delicate, smooth and soft like pink jade. Her face and her clear eyes radiate spring passions. She is charmingly shy and Hesitant to enter the mandarin-duck quilt. In the orchid dew light Our love is deep.41 These two poems (written from a man's point of view) a l l end in a suggestive tone, arousing the reader's imagination of what would happen next. This reticence conforms to the standard rule of "to 42 leave something unsaid and to be unexhaustive" in the closing line of the hua-chien style. By contrast, as the following poem shows, Liu describes the love scene more ex p l i c i t l y , However, she does not know how to woo her lover. Very often, late at night She is not willing to enter the mandarin-duck quilt. After I take off her si l k s k i r t , She s t i l l stands with her back facing the silver lamp and says, 'You may go to sleep f i r s t . ' 4 3 This poem is similar to Ho Ning's in that they both depict the shyness and hesitation of the lover. But, Ho suddenly ends the poem with a suggestive line, whereas Liu goes further in describing the actions of the participants. Ho Ning idealizes the love scene, but Liu makes i t very down-to-earth. In the following poem (which has been cri t i c i z e d as Liu's \44 most erotic poem) Liu goes even further depicting the actions and psychological changes of the lovers, 55 Before lowering the perfumed curtain to express her love, She knits her eyebrows, worried that the night is too short. She urges the young lover to go to bed First, so as to warm up the mandarin-duck quilt. A moment later she puts down her unfinished needlework, And removes her s i l k s k i r t , to indulge in passion without end. Let me keep the lamp before the curtain That I may look at her lovely face from time to time. ^ The women character portrayed performs a series of gestures which mirrors her psychological changes: she wrinkles her eyebrows, she urges her lover to enter the quilt f i r s t , she puts down her needlework, she takes off her si l k skirt and fin a l l y she expresses her tender love. Similarly, the male character gets into the qu i l t , (he probably urges her to stop sewing) and he leaves the lamp on. Another distinct characteristic of Liu's erotic poems is his frank and bold description of the joys of sex, a theme the hua-chien poets would not dare to explore e x p l i c i t l y . In fact, the f i r s t quo-tation in the following examples is listed under the item "taboo" in Shen Hsiung'sv^.^ii ( f l . c . 1653) Ku-ohin t' zu-hua ^ %${ .46 As the strength of wine grows stronger My spring passion gets excited. The embroidered mandarin-duck quilt tosses i t s red waves.47 Boundless wild desire accentuated by the wine This pleasure gradually enters into a fine scene. 4 8 Deep inside [the mandarin-duck q u i l t ] , I caress her jade-like limbs. The contentment after the pleasure inside the warm lotus curtain is surely a special feeling.49 56 Liu's erotic poems were generally attacked by tz'u c r i t i c s . Chang Yen (1248-?) regards Liu as being "controlled by the wind and the moon"50 (wei feng-yueh so shih f\ ^ '(^.The wind and the moon together symbolize romance) and "enslaved by romantic emotions" (wei oh'ing so yi k f i a n d , therefore, his tz'u "has lost the a i r of elegance and appropriateness." 5 1 Liu Hsi-tsai J^'j J ^ , " ^ (1813-1881) believes that the reason that Liu's tz'u is not lofty is 52 mainly because he wrote too many poems on women and love. Ch en T'ing-cho^?^.^.^- (1853-1892) attacks Liu's tz'u for having improper CO content and, also, for being "debauched without return" (tang erh wang fan ^  & ) . ^ 4 Later, Ch'en Jui even says that Liu's poetry in the realm of tz'u holds the same position as the novel Golden Lotus (Chin P'ing Mei ^ ^j/^^r) in the world of f i c t i o n . 5 5 A l l these adverse opinions reflect the traditional tz'u c r i t i c s ' moral viewpoint in judging poetry. However, Liu's frank description of love scenes greatly influenced Chu-kung-tiao and Yuan drama. For instance, in The Western Chamber (Hsi-hsiang ohi & we find many erotic lines which are similar to Liu's such as ti-yu yu-y'un \& 7L (linger over rain, cling to cloud, a symbol for sex) and chin-pei fan hung-lang §0fy ^^^1 4* >|L(the brocade coverlet tosses 56 it s red waves). Hence, despite the fact that Liu was attacked for his eroticism, he had, in fact, introduced a new way of expression in love poetry. In short Liu's poems on women and love have been harshly c r i -ticized throughout history for being "vulgar" ( s u i ^ - ) 5 7 and "erotic" 57 (jen ). I think these two criticisms originate from two basic reasons: f i r s t , Liu's departure from the hua-ehien tradition and, second, his adoption of folk literature. These two aspects are inter-related and can be considered together. As discussed above, even when writing on the same theme, Liu's poems on women and love broke through the confines of the TWTT. His bold and frank description of boudoir feelings, v i s i t s to brothels, and actual love scenes indeed violate the taboos of traditional tz'u 59 poets. Furthermore, in this group of poems, Liu uses a large number of colloquialisms, something rarely seen in the TWTT. Naturally, orthodox tz'u c r i t i c s who consider the use of colloquialisms in tz'u as "vulgar" generally attack Liu's language. In addition, Liu's use of the man'tzu tune-patterns which were written to popular music also adds "vulgarity" to these poems. More importantly, Liu adopts the direct mode of expression from folk literature to write these tabooed themes. As discussed above, the standard mode of expression in the TWTT is to be reserved and "unexhaustive" {pu-dhin. The emotions are implicit rather than explicit. The reader is made to feel that "even when the words are finished the meaning is not, even when the meaning is finished the fin emotion is not." Only then a poem is considered as "elegant" {ya Jfy. ) and "lofty in style" [yuh kao-f^^ ). But Liu's frank and direct mode of expression totally went against this tradition. Hence, Ch'ao Pu-chih says that Liu's tz'u lacks the lofty style. This also explains Li Chih-yi's ^  i L i j ^ (Sung) comment on Liu's tz'u, 58 If we compare [Liu's tz'u] to those collected in the Hua-chien collection, [we can say] that his style is s t i l l inferior.62 B. Poems on Separation and Rootless Wandering Liu's poems on separation and rootless wandering constitute a l i t t l e over one-third of his 213 poems. They are largely works of his later years, especially those ones about o f f i c i a l journeys. This group of poems differs from those about women and love as each repre-sents a different stage in Liu's l i f e and a different writing style. The differing styles in writing shows how Liu's style matures as he grows older. This group of poems best expresses Liu's individual feelings and best demonstrates his high literary accomplishment. Liu's poems on separation (about thirty-six) show a marked departure from those in the TWTT. In the later, poems on separation CO are mostly written from a woman's point of view and, hence, they can be treated as a subtheme of the kuei- oh'ing poems. Furthermore, due to the short length of hsiao-ling, the description of separation is usually brief and lacks individuality. The complex individual emotions during and after separation remain largely unexplored. In contrast, through a man's point of view Liu concentrates on the theme of separation and fu l l y develops i t . His poems on separation are multifaceted. Among them, there are poems about the 59 moment of parting, about the time just after separation and about the sorrow of the state of separation. In the following poem, Liu depicts in detail the lovers' complex feelings at the parting moment, a situation rarely e x p l i c i t l y described in the TWTT, She is busy preparing a farewell drink when The magnolia boat is waiting. It is time to bid farewell along the Southern Bank. Now I realize that in this world It is impossible always to have a f u l l moon and keep the colorful clouds together. I think that in one's lifetime The most grievous thing is to take parting li g h t l y , The most painful thing is to separate during happy moments. Tears are f a l l i n g down her jade-like face. She is like a branch of pear-flowers in the spring rain. Her eyebrows look sad and l i s t l e s s . Together our souls are sinking. When I again hold her delicate hands to bid farewell, She s t i l l asks again and again, 'Do you really have to go?' She also whispers repeatedly in my ears, 'Remember, a l l your firm promises for the future and a l l my love in this l i f e w i l l be depending on the fish-and-bird messenger.6 Liu also explores on a deeper plane the contradictory and complex feelings the moment after separation as the following poems show: I am also thinking of turning back my horse, However, I have already made my travelling plans. I ponder over this many times, I try to solve i t through various means. Thus, I feel lonely for a long time. This feeling w i l l stay with me a l l my l i f e because I have betrayed your thousand lines of tears.65 60 Now when I am going further and further away from her I begin to realize that even i f I regret having l e f t her I cannot turn back. For the time being I can send her messages, But what good does i t do in the long run? I also consider rekindling the flame of our love, And yet, my ideas change and waver. Even though we may meet again I am afraid that our love w i l l not be the same as before.66 The unwillingness to part, the thought of turning back, and the worrying over the later relationship with the lover are common psychological conflicts of a just departed person. But, i t was Liu who f i r s t included them in his poems. His direct exploration of true human emotions makes his poems on separation more easy to identify with. When writing about the agony of separation, Liu broadens the scope of the theme by including many aspects of his emotions. He frequently describes his past romantic affairs, his regrets, his broken promises and f i n a l l y self-pity for his present distressed and lonely state as can be seen in the following poems, Before the window the candle light is dim. During this long night, Inside the lonely curtain, Leaning against the pillow, I find i t hard to f a l l asleep. In detail I recall my old affair and former lover: It is a l l because I did not give her a l l my love. Now I deeply regret i t and This only increases my distress. At this beautiful moment I knit my eyebrows. What kind of feeling is this? . . . .67 When a gust of wind from outside the window blows out the cold lamplight I wake up from my dream. After recovering from drunkenness 61 How can I bear to listen to the incessant dripping sound of the night rain on the empty stairs? I sigh that I have been a wanderer for so long. How many promises to her have I broken? How can I bear suddenly turning my previous romance into sorrow? . . . .68 The theme of rootless wandering is not an important one in the TWTT. There are only a small number of poems about the thoughts of a 69 traveller expressed from a man's point of view. These poems briefly reveal the traveller's loneliness, homesickness and longing for his distant lover. However, the description is so vague and sketchy that we can hardly perceive an image of an individual. On the other hand, with the greater length of man-tz'u, Liu concentrates on this theme and makes i t into a unique medium of expres-sing an individual's l i f e experience. Using nature, particularly the scene of autumn as a background, he not only writes about the common feelings shared by ordinary travellers, but he also includes new elements. Furthermore, his poems on journeys (which total about thirty-seven) are not vague and idealized but rather they contain r e a l i s t i c settings both spatially (such as names of places) and temporally (such as seasons and the time of day). According to historical records, for a low ranking o f f i c i a l a transfer meant a long hard journey.^ 0 Having been a petty o f f i c i a l at many places Liu f u l l y experienced the hardship of such journeys. Therefore, his poems on the physical hardship of journeys are r e a l i s t i c revelations of his personal experience as the following examples show, 62 The cry of a rooster again signals the end of the night. After the horse has been fed and the carriage has been hitched, I am pressed to begin my journey. In the lamplight I hastily bid farewell to the inn keeper. The mountain road is dangerous. The newly-fallen frost is slippery. The jade-bell rings and awakens the nesting birds. The golden stirrup is cold. The jade-bell and the golden stirrup are shaking in the fading moonlight. The western wind blows stronger and stronger, tears my lapels and sleeves apart.71 As soon as I f e l l asleep in the cool night I had a beautiful dream. What a pity that I was awaken by the neighbor's rooster. Hastily I whip the horse to start my journey. All I can see is the light mist and wilted grass. When I pass by the frosty woods on my horse The wind rings the b e l l , startling the nesting birds. On the Ch'ang-an road which is f i l l e d with eternal sorrow I set off my long journey On and on, again I pass by a desolate village. I look at the wide southern sky, Dawn has not broken yet.72 Liu also e x p l i c i t l y expresses his weariness of o f f i c i a l journeys, his homesickness, and his longing for the distant lover as can be seen in the following poems, I have thrown away my former happiness. At this place I have become an itinerant o f f i c i a l . I begin to realize that the journey is toilsome and the year is drawing to a close. The scenes of this strange land seem desolate before my sorrowful eyes. The capital i s distant. The Ch'in tower is beyond my reach. 63 My wandering soul is troubled. The fragrant grass merges with the wide distant horizon in the setting sun. My beloved has not sent me any messages. The broken clouds are moving into the distance.73 My o f f i c i a l journey has become rootless wandering. Leaning against the low mast, murmuring to myself, I gaze at the distance. Everywhere is enshrouded by mountainsand rivers. Where is my hometown? Ever since we parted we rarely have met at the pavillion in the moonlight. When the sorrow of parting breaks my heart Every sound of the cuckoo I hear urges: "You may as well return home."74 Very often Liu's complaints over his troublesome journeys are accompanied by a strong desire to return to the capital Pien-ching for the happy l i f e , by an account of his broken promises to his lover, and by his laments on the present distressing and disappointing situation-. Slowly I travel to the Three-wu area where there are fishing villages. I think of the distant capital. Where has my forsaken tryst gone? I cannot bear leaning against the high mast alone and gazing at the western sun because The road to the capital is beyond my reach. In vain I sigh that At that time my words and promises were without foundation. The most painful thing is being heart-broken. As evening f a l l s I am standing s t i l l and facing the blue clouds. The river gorge is faraway. How can I bear the feeling of this moment?75 I never did foresee this. When I l e f t her embroidered chamber I gave l i t t l e thought. I have not received her words for a long time. The year has passed away in such an uneventful manner. What to do now? 64 With this endless travelling and This lengthy sickness I have tasted enough the bitterness of o f f i c i a l journeys. Even i f I write down these feelings in a letter Who can deliver i t for me? How can my wife know that I am wasting away day after day.76 In some poems Liu questions and condemns the value of o f f i c i a l -dom. He even reveals a desire to be a recluse. These poems express his disappointment in o f f i c i a l career and his desire to be free from worldly responsibilities. At this time How can I chase fame and fight with others for profit? How can I wear the o f f i c i a l caps and face the fierce heat of the dusty nine paths? I look back at the village by the riverside. There are towers in the moonlight and pavillions in the breeze. Along the river bank and on the rocks, Luckily, there is a place where I can untie my hair and open my lapels. 7? The o f f i c i a l journey is toilsome. The days are moving slowly. What w i l l the fly-head's profit and wealth, the snail-horn's merit and fame, ultimately become? Their high value is a l l empty. Throw away the cloud-high ideals and Indulge in worldly happiness. Let the high ambition fade away quietly. Fortunately, there are five lakes of misty waves and one boat of wind and moonlight. I should return and join the fisherman and the woodcutter.78 Liu's poems on separation and rootless wandering have been generally recognized by tz'u c r i t i c s as his masterpieces. This opinion is supported by three considerations. In the f i r s t place, these poems 65 are records of his personal l i f e experience. As discussed previously, frustrated by his unsuccessful attempts in the chin-shih examination Liu made many trips to the south. After he became an o f f i c i a l he was transferred to many places. This unsettled l i f e provided him with good sources for writing. Using the longer form of man-tz'u he includes the various aspects of his emotional experience. This direct and frank revelation of individual feelings gives these poems a strong emotional appeal. Furthermore, in the group of poems Liu successfully fuses natural scenery with his deepest emotion. His endowment of human emotions to nature images and his use of nature as background not only provide his poems with a sense of beauty but also strengthen the emotional effect. This is why Chou Chi )t) *ff(1781-1839) praises Liu for being able to "melt emotions into scenes" {jung-ch'ing ju-ching v)^| This literary technique is also highly praised by Feng Hsu ^  ~i&L (1842-?), [Liu can] describe scenes that are hard to describe and explore emotions that are d i f f i c u l t to explore. And he writes a l l these naturally. He is certainly a master of the Northern Sung.80 Finally, in this group of poems Liu successfully combines colloquial and refined poetic diction with the direct mode of expression. 81 This makes these poems "delicate and flowing, lucid and informal" and "gentle and close to human sentiment and easy for people to under-stand. „82 66 In short, this group of poems is the essence of Liu's poetic works. It is the successful combination of his profound individual emotion and supreme poetic technique. C. Poems on City Life In the TWTT, few poems concern city l i f e and the rare examples oo are extremely limited and brief. Hence, we can say that Liu was the f i r s t tz'u poet to use the theme of city l i f e in tz'u in a s i g n i f i -cant way. Two pre-conditions can explain Liu's innovative use of this theme. In the f i r s t place, the greater length of man-tz'u combining with his expansive technique allowed him to include much more detail in one poem. Secondly, Liu was a man who took great pleasure in city l i f e . The fact that he spent most of his l i f e in the capital Pien-ching and the fact that he travelled widely provided him with good experience for writing about city l i f e . Liu's poems on city l i f e are multifaceted and re a l i s t i c . Besides Pien-ching Liu also describes the scenery and people's l i f e in many other famous cities such as Ch'ien-t'ang, Su-chouj^H] and Ch'eng-tu ^ The following poem written to the tune-pattern wang-hai-ch'ao is a typical example, The outstanding site of the south-eastern area, The capital city of the Three-wu region, Ch'ien-t'ang has been a flourishing place since antiquity. There are misty willows and painted bridges, There are swaying blinds and green jade curtains 67 Admist the hundred thousand household. Trees soar into the sky around the dykes and sands. Angry billows splash frost and snow. The river stretches endlessly. In the markets, pearls and gems are displayed. Houses are f u l l of people in si l k Each showing off their wealth. The lakes and peaks are beautiful. Between them are the cassia of autumn and ten l i of lotus flowers. The Ch'iang flutes toot in the sun. At night the water-caltrop songs are heard everywhere. Happy are the old fishermen and the lotus g i r l s . Thousands of chariots accompany the lofty banners. Drunkenly, he listens to the lutes and the drums. He recites poetry and admires the mist and clouds. [He says], some day I wi l l paint this beautiful scenery, Take i t back to the capital and flaunt i t to my col leagues.85 According to Lo Ta-ching's Ho-lin yil-lu, this poem was written oc for Sun Ho who was then fiscal attendant of Ch'ien-t'ang. In this poem, Liu expansively presents the geographical location, historical background, population, prosperity and human activities of Hang-chou. It has been said that Liu's vivid description of Hang-chou aroused the Emperor of Chin Wan-yen Liang ^ L j | | i ^ t o invade China. 8 7 This legend later even caused a Sung poet Hsieh Ch'u-hou^ {^%>J^ to satirize Liu for writing this poem. This story has l i t t l e basis in fact but i t reflects Liu's superb literary technique in depicting city l i f e as well as the wide appeal of his tz'u. Liu devoted even more poems to the various annual festive activities in the capital Pien-ching including the First Full Moon, Ch'ing-ming /jq*/],the exorcist performance by the riverside (in March), 68 the double-seventh, the double-nineth and other annual activities of 89 the royal house. In these poems, we see entertainers performing in the Chin-ming Pond; young men competing on horseback; beautiful g i r l s preparing needle and thread for the double-seventh fes t i v a l , and people boating in the lake. A ll these festive activities are histor-i c a l l y accurate and are recorded in Tung-ehing meng-hua lu and other 90 historical works. Refined poetic diction characterizes this group of poems. In writing about a festival in a poem, Liu frequently includes the temporal and spatial setting, the festive decorations, music, wine, beautiful g i r l s and handsome young men. The persona emerging from these poems is not a distant observer but an enthusiastic participant who enjoys the situation whole-heartedly. This personal involvement with the situation makes his poems on city l i f e more live l y and prevents them from being superficial and erudite. The following poem is a typical example, The bamboo pipes strike the Vernal Note, The harmonious s p i r i t of Yang begins to f i l l the Imperial city, And gentle warmth returns to the sunny scene. Let us celebrate the festival Of the First Full Moon! Florid lanterns are displayed Over thousands and myriads of doors. A l l over the nine avenues The wind lightly wafts the perfume from s i l k dresses. The "red-trees" are l i t up for miles, The Turtle H i l l stands high, And the sky resounds with flutes and drums. 69 Gradually, the sky becomes like water, As the white moon reaches i t s zenith. On the fragrant paths, Countless hat strings are broken and f r u i t thrown. As night wears on, in the candels1 shades and flowers' shadow, A young man often Has an unexpected adventure. In this time of peace, The Court and the country are f u l l of joys; the people, happy and prosperous, Gather together in contentment. Facing such a. scene, how Could I bear to go home sober alone? 9 1 Some scholars have c r i t i c i z e d Liu for the fact that his poems on city l i f e do not reflect the hard l i f e of the oppressed nor do they 92 expose the exploitation of a "feudal" society. I think that the main reason was his gentry class background and his l i f e experience which limited his understanding of people at the lower social strata, espec-i a l l y the peasants. Furthermore, the ly r i c a l nature and narrow subject matter of tz'u were not conducive to reflecting the hard l i f e of the people. Such serious topics were expressed in shih poetry. But, i f we look at i t from the perspective of the historical development of tz'u, we have to grant that Liu's poems on city l i f e greatly changed and broadened the scope of tz'u. In terms of setting, he moved the world of tz'u from the confined chamber to the outdoors. In terms of content, he enriched tz'u with r e a l i s t i c descriptions of social l i f e and city scenes. Moreover, he describes the l i f e of the common city people rather than merely the e l i t e group. Although his descriptions only reflect the peaceful and prosperous side of the Northern Sung as Ch'en Chen-sun 7^.^^(1211-1249) says, "[Liu] describes exhaus-93 tively the climate of successive peaceful reigns," this group of poems s t i l l possess social significance and more importantly i t widens the scope of tz'u. CHAPTER III DICTION AND IMAGERY Liu's diction is varied. It ranges from great elegance to ex-treme plainness and from the erudite to the colloquial. In the present discussion, I w i l l examine how he manipulates words, the basic units of poetry, to create his poetic world. This includes his use of allus-ions (the most concentrated form of language), his use of noun images and their modifiers, his use of various kinds of comparisons and substitution techniques, his use of colloquialisms (the least conno-tative language) and f i n a l l y his use of creative diction. A. Allusions For several reasons, Liu's allusions are generally explicit and commonplace. First, from a functional point of view, during Liu's time tz'u was intended to be sung. Therefore, Liu's tz'u, in order to be popular among the common people, could not contain obscure allus-ions. Secondly, a genre generally develops from simple to complex. From the point of view of literary development, Liu's tz'u belongs to the relatively early stage when meticulous and conscious use of allusions was not yet developed. The use of allusions in tz'u only 72 became popular during the period of Southern Sung when tz'u became more a literary genre than a popular musical one. This change can be seen in the works of the Southern Sung tz'u poets such as Hsin Ch'i-c h i % 'fk (H40-1207), Wu Wen-ying ^ ^ (1195-?) and Wang Yi-sun 3~ y$\ ^ (1240?-1290?). 1 Thirdly and more importantly, from the point of view of Liu's own style, he does not rely on the use of allus-ions to express his emotions but rather employs a direct, frank and expansive technique. In a l l , Liu makes use of over eighty different allusions which include, in descending order of frequency, famous historical figures and their anecdotes, literary pieces, famous places and others. Over seventy percent of Liu's allusions are used only once. Twenty-three of them are used twice. Only a small number of them are used repeatedly, for example, Sung Y ii (six times), 2 Chao Fei -yen ^  ^ ^ ( six times), 3 P'an Yu'eh 'Jfc -&f (five times) 4 and the palace waist of Ch'u % Hi (five times). When alluding to historical figures Liu tends to name them directly. Most of these historical figures are famous poets such as Sung Yii (the Warring States), Chung-hsuan^ % (Wang Ts'an J£- Ijt , 177-217),6 Ch'en-wangt^i (Ts'ao Chih % #4, 192-232),7 Meng-te ^ !\\ (Liu Yu'-hsi $\ &}$o , 772-842)8 and L o - t ' i e n ^ K (Po Chii-yi -&)k.%0 » 772-846).9 Other historical figures include Ching-wang £ (King of Ch'u, the Warring States), 1 0 Fan Li j£ J&(the Warring States), 1 1 Fang-so (Tung-fang So ^  ^ , 154-93 B.C.), 1 2 Wen Weng $) (Han Dynasty), 1 3 and Wu-hou (Chu-ko Liang "f$ , 181-234).14 73 The allusion to Sung Yu is frequently employed in connection 15 with laments for autumn in Liu's poems on rootless wandering. This association strengthens the theme of autumn and the emotions of the poem. However, except for Tung-fang So, Ts'ao Chih and Fan Li most of these historical figures appear in poems written for local o f f i c i a l s . They serve as comparisons and merely praise the merits of the local o f f i c i a l s and do not express deep emotions. Liu is fond of alluding to famous anecdotes by using conven-tional phrases. Expect for a few from the Three Kingdoms, the majority of them concern romantic and carefree figures from the Six Dynasties. For instance, pei-hai-tsun-lei }b ^ ^ ^ ( t h e wine jar of North Sea) refers to K'ung Jung ^Ltfj&C 153-208) who was fond of drinking; 1 6 lo-mao-feng-liu j ^ - ^ f j ) ^ ^ (dropping hat romance) refers to the carefree manner of Meng Chiaj&,-j£ at the banquet offered by Huan Wen (312-373)17 and / ' a n g - t a i j f j ^ ( t o v i s i t Tai) refers to the unrestrained behavior of Wang Hui-chih , 1 8 Liu s k i l l f u l l y incorporates these allusions into poems about feast and drinking occasions. Because 19 of their similarity to the poetic situation, they provide the poems an unrestrained, light-hearted and whimsical atmosphere. Liu alludes to women as well as men. Except for Meng Kuang^Trl , the ugly wife of Liang HungJ^J*!? (Han), 2 0 the majority of them are beautiful women. Those ex p l i c i t l y named are Hsi Shihvib^&. (the Warring States), Chao Fei-yen (Han), and Chang-t'ai Liu ^  £ -$f (Tang). 2 1 Liu also alludes to talented singers such as Han 0jj^-&^ (the Warring States), 2 2 Ch'in Ch'ing (the Warring States), 2 3 and Nien-nu^T^ 24 (T'ang). Related to singers are allusions to famous songs such as yang-ah'un^^^- and yim-yao • These allusions mostly appear in poems concerning women's beauty and talents. They simply serve as models for beautiful and talented women, but do not add deep emotions to the poem. In several of Liu's kuei-dh'ing poems he uses the commonly known stories of ch'ang-men f\ (long-gate), 2 5 tz'u-nien % ( t 0 r e " f u s e to s i t on the Emperor's c h a r i o t ) 2 6 and wan-shan \>&Ml ( s i l k - f a n ) 2 7 to express the loneliness of a deserted woman. Love stories are alluded to in conventional phrases, for in-stance, chieh-p'.ei j ^ - ) ) ^ undoing the jade) refers to Cheng Chiao-fu's 5*. >. 28 $f X. Jfl encounter with two beautiful fairies and 3'en-mien-t'ao-hua A. <5b ^(person face peach flower) refers to the love story of the T'ang poet Ts'ui Hu / j J " ^ . 2 9 Liu naturally incorporates these allus-ions into poems concerning love, especially those which recall his past romances. The content of these allusions serve as contrast (as in poem No. 150) or comparison (as in poem No. 17) to the poet's unpleasant mood and situations. In Liu's yu-hsien tz'u 2^>j^^»)(poems on roaming with fairies) he alludes to many legendary and religious figures. Specifically, these are M a - k u ^ ^ , 3 0 Chin-mu^-^ , 3 1 Hai-ch'ari3& JjJ 3 2 and the three Mao brothers j£- JL . 3 3 Liu also adopts lines from early literature to strengthen the themes of his poems. For instance, chin-hsi-ho-hsi ^£4*] Jl (What night is tonight?)(from Shih-ohing)^ yi-wen-hui-yu v / i C . ^ " ^ 35 (to gather friends together for literary activities) (from Lun-yu) and mu-t'ien-hsi-ti j ^ ^ J f y (sky like a curtain, earth like a mat) (from Liu Ling's^i] ^ £ poem)36 are used in poems on festive activities and banquets so as to bring out the happy atmosphere. Li-hua-yi-chih-ch'un-tai-yu fa — ^ ^ i ^ i l 9 ( h e r face is like a branch of pear flowers in the spring rain) (from Po Chu-yi's Song of unending sorrow --^L ) is u s e d to depict his lover's tearful face. 3 7 Liu also refers to Ts'ao Chin's Lo-shen-fu 24vH'-J^ A rhymeprose to the Goddess of River L o ) 3 8 and Po Chu-yi's ohing-ti-yin-yin-p'ing jf\ jfc^^] 39 (To fetch the silver jar from the bottom of the well) in order to express his sadness for a deceased lover. Liu's other allusions can be classified as names of places. Most of them are famous festive gatherings such as Le-yu-yuan (Pleasure F i e l d ) , 4 0 Wu-ling_£ f £ j F i v e H i l l s ) , 4 1 and Shang-lin X ^ ( U p p e r 42 Forest). There are places of departure such as Pa-ling-ch'iao j | ?£$|(Pa-ling Bridge) 4 3 and Nan-p'u y% (Southern Bank), 4 4 and places where courtesans dwell such as P'ing-k'ang-hsiang j ^ L ^ -(P'ing-k'ang a l l e y s ) . 4 ^ The associations traditionally linked to these place names suggest the activities of the poet. S t i l l , there are a few names of places which seem to be taken from Liu's personal l i f e . These places are alluded to in a r e a l i s t i c manner: Yen-ling-t'anjj|/ptj$ji (Yen-ling Beach), 4 6 Niu-shan (The Ox Mountain 4 7 and Chiu-yi-shan 7L \X> (The Chiu-yi Mountain). An examination of Liu's poems which have allusions reveals that the majority of them appear in poems concerning festivals and 76 feasts, and objective descriptions of women's beauty and talents. However, these poems do not fu l l y demonstrate Liu's literary accomplish-ments. The fact that very few allusions are used in Liu's celebrated poems on separation and rootless wandering indicates that he does not rely on allusions as the most effective means to expresshis emotions. B. Images Liu's images can be broadly divided into three main categories: those which reflect the world of nature, those of man-made objects, and those of human beings. Generally speaking, these images are distributed according to the themes of the poems. Nature images .. usually occur most often in poems dealing with separation and journeys, man-made images occur most often in poems dealing with city l i f e and erotic love, and human images occur most often in poems dealing with women and love-making. With regard to the number of images per poem, those poems dealing with court celebrations and city l i f e have the highest number of images, followed by poems dealing with separation and journeys. Poems depicting the psychological changes of lovers have the fewest images. 77 1. Nature images Liu's nature images are drawn from various sources such as heavenly, meteoroTpgdeal and geographical phenomena, the seasons, vegetation and animals. Generally speaking; these nature images are used mostly to provide a spatial and temporal setting. When paired with different adjectives they create mood and atmosphere for the poem. When nature images predominate in a poem, they make up a setting similar to a landscape painting. Among the many heavenly images, Liu concentrates on the moon and the sun and refers to the stars and the milky way only in a few 49 poems. His moon image, which he uses e x p l i c i t l y and allusively no less than sixty times, generally performs conventional poetic functions. Besides being the indicator of the passing of time and an element of 50 the night setting, i t is a reminder of the poet's past romances. The waxing and waning of the moon symbolizes union and separation of 51 lovers. Specifically, the fading moon frequently accompanies the 52 lonely and depressed early stages of his journey. On the other hand, the f u l l moon and the moonlight are often used to create an 53 atmosphere for festive activities and joyful night l i f e . When Liu uses the sun images (about thirty-seven times), he shows great prefer-ence for the setting sun (twenty-four occurrences). Because of i t s "f a l l i n g " and "ending" connotations, i t is often used to end a poem. 54 Moreover, these connotations echo the poet's feelings of "loneliness." The setting sun frequently arouses the poet's nostalgia, especially 55 his strong desire to return to the capital. 78 Among the many metereological images Liu uses,he .shows greatest preference for mist (in the forms of yenfcji, hsia'^ and the most frequent, occurring no less than forty-nine times), wind, rain;, clouds and waves. On the other hand, he shows less preference for cold weather images for he refers to frost'only four times, snow three times and ice.once. Liu's mist is usually used to create an enshrouded 56 setting, often a gloomy natural scene on a journey and in several 57 cases a domestic or a city spring scene. The various kinds of wind serve as season and mood indicators. Hence, the warm and gentle wind 58 signifies spring and evokes a pleasant feeling; the cold wind signifies 59 autumn and sadness. Sometimes the wind and the moon together serve as a symbol of romance.60 Liu seldom describes the pouring rain, but more often depicts an after-rain scene during which he separates from a lover or goes on 61 a journey. Liu is particularly fond of using the rain and cloud 62 together to symbolize sex. The returning cloud image arouses his CO homesickness and his sorrow on the irretrievable passing of youth. CA The wandering cloud image symbolizes the trace of his lover. The 65 wave image frequently sets the scene of a journey. It is also CC veiwed as a barrier between the poet and his beloved. Liu's abundant use of geographical images reflects his long periods of travelling. These images have creative significance in that they move the world of tz'u from a confined domestic setting to the natural world. The images of mountains (by far Liu's favorite geographical image which occurs no less than thirty-eight times), 79 rivers, streams, river banks, isles and roads have less symbolic associations than the meteorological ones. They are mainly used to-gether to provide a natural setting against which the poet (though not always) continues his journey. Sometimes, the mountain and the river image serves-as a barrier between the poet and his l o v e r . 6 7 But the unceasing flow of the river to the east symbolizes the eternal aspect of nature. 6 8 In contrast to the geographical images in the TWTT, which generally remain anonymous, many of Liu's geographical images are 69 re a l i s t i c and specified in name. The place he refers to most often is the capital Pien-ching (over twenty-times) which is usually associated with prosperity and his happy past, 7 0 but not with poli t i c s . The village image, usually a fishing settlement along the r i v e r , 7 1 besides providing a spatial setting, also arouses the poet's longing for r e s t -that i s , s t a b i l i t y , companionship and the home. In some poems, he 72 reveals his nostalgia by ex p l i c i t l y referring to the hometown image. Liu likes to specify the season and the time of day in which his poems take place. He is equally fond of spring and autumn, which he e x p l i c i t l y describes about twenty-five times each and implicitly refers to by mentioning certain plants and animals in many other poems. But, he only refers to summer three times and winter twice. Liu's spring image conveys many different feelings. Being the beginning of the year and the growing season, i t normally suggests a l i v e l y 73 and joyful scene. But, more often, Liu's spring is used to con-trast with his unhappy present state or to evoke his sorrow over the 74 passage of time and youth. In some of his kuei-ch'ing poems, spring 75 is associated with a g i r l ' s thoughts of her lover. With a few exceptions, for Liu, autumn is primarily a time of t r a v e l 7 6 and brings on sadness, in particular, complaints over his endless journeys and longings for his hometown.77 Liu is fond of setting the scene in night time (in about thirty-three poems) and dusk (in about twenty-seven poems). His night setting provides an atmosphere for romance or revelry l i f e . But, more 7ft often his night is the time for sad recollections of the past. His dusk setting is frequently associated with travelling and hence, with 79 a sense of homelessness and exile. Vegetation constitutes another significant group of nature images in Liu's poems. Apart from those blossoms which are used as metaphors for women (usually courtesans), he uses the flower image in no less than sixty-five poems. Generally, Liu's flower image performs conventional poetic functions. For instance, i t is usually used to on accompany a beautiful spring scene signifying youth and liveliness, 81 or to symbolize a women's beautiful face. The f a l l i n g of flowers op signifies the passing of time. In contrast to the TWTT, which usually uses a general term "flower" to represent a l l types, Liu specifies the precise names of 83 flowers. Most of them are used to evoke the seasons. Among a l l flowers he is particularly fond of the lotus, which he refers to about twenty-five times through names like ho ^  and H e n ^ . 84 The lotus image frequently portrays a beautiful natural scene. The 81 broken cupule of lotus and i t s broken stem symbolize a lonely detached wanderer in e x i l e . 8 5 As with the flowers, Liu's tree image is frequently referred to (no less than f i f t y times) and is of many kinds. They are generally 86 used as season indicators. Excluding the willow image, which is used metaphorically for a courtesan and her waist, Liu refers to the willow, his favorite tree, no less than twenty-five times. He uses the willow image to set a scene along the river bank as well as to set a scene of departure (because of the old custom of breaking a 87 willow twig to present to the one who is leaving). Often his willow image is that of an old and wilted one which echoes his dis-88 appointment and old age. Only in a few poems does he create a joy-89 ful scene with the willow image. Liu's tree-leaf image and grass image (which together occur in over thirty-two poems) frequently create a desolate autumn scene. 9 0 Sometimes the grass image is associated with the scene of parting and 91 sometimes i t is used to accompany a li v e l y spring scene. Over thirty insect and animal images can be found in Liu's poems with a total occurrence of nearly 110 times. In descending order of frequency, his favorite ones are the mandarin-duck, the wild-goose and wild-swan, the oriole, the horse, the swallow, the fi s h , the cricket, the cicada and the rooster. When Liu uses the mandarin-duck image (over thirty times), he does not simply refer to the bird, but, rather, he uses i t as a modifier for indoor images such as qu i l t , veil and curtain. 82 The wild-goose and the wild-swan images (which together occur sixteen times) have similar symbolic meanings in Liu's tz'u, and they can be treated together. Besides being reminders of seasonal changes, 92 they are viewed as carriers of messages between lovers. A stray wild-swan echoes the loneliness of the poet and reflects the poet's 93 state of aimless wandering and exile. Liu likes to refer to the wild-goose and fish together by a synecdoche (as wings and scale) to 94 symbolize the receiving of messages. The fish image and the water 95 image together is a symbol of sexual harmony. The oriole and swallow image, which together occur in twenty-two poems, are frequently used in one poem to accompany a li v e l y springs 96 97 scene. The sound of an oriole i s associated with a singer's voice. The swift motion of a swallow is associated with a dancer's agile 98 99 movement. A pair of swallows is seen as messengers between lovers. They are also used to contrast with the lonely state of the poet. 1 0 0 Except in one poem in which the horse image (which occurs thirteen times) is used to symbolize officialdom. 1 0 1 Liu's horse image (usually a weak and tired one) indicates separation and reflects harsh 102 and tiresome o f f i c i a l journeys. The cicada (eight times) and the cricket images)(five times), which signify the coming of autumn, 103 always evoke sadness. The rooster image (five times) which always signifies the coming of dawn is associated with an abrupt interruption, either to wake up the pc to set off on a journey. either to wake up the poet from bed with his lover or to compel him 104 83 2. Indoor images and other man-made images Liu's indoor images mainly pertain to the chamber, or more precisely to the brothel. Hence, they frequently occur in poems deal-ing with boudoir feelings and erotic love. Liu also uses many man-made images which portray outdoor scenes. Liu's indoor images mainly concern the bedroom setting. He concentrates on several bedroom images such as veil or curtain (which no less then forty-six times, by far Liu's favorite), the quil t , the pillow, the drapes and the screen. Together these images create an intimate and romantic atmosphere suitable for love-making. But, when these images are paired with unpleasant adjectives such as "empty", 105 "cold" and "lonely", they suggest the persona's solitude. Other indoor images are metallic such as the golden incense burner, the beast ring, the golden palm knob, and the jade wine cup, a l l adding to the luxurious atmosphere of an indoor s e t t i n g . 1 0 6 The candle, the lamp and the water-clock images are frequently associated with night settings. The bright and warm light of the candle and the lamp i s used to create a romantic atmosphere, 1 0 7 or a nightime festive 108 occasion. But the water-clock is always linked with unpleasant associations. The "tearful" candle, the fa l l i n g of the "lamp-flower", and the dripping sound of the water-clock a l l suggest loneliness and . 109 insomnia. Outside the bedroom we have images of the other parts of the building. These images include the lou$*L (tower or upper floor of are referred to through names 84 a building, thirty-seven times, by far Liu's favorite indoor image out-side the bedroom), the kueif^ or kot^ (chamber), the ra i l i n g , the door or gate, the inn, the courtyard, the h a l l , and the staircases. Generally speaking, these images set up an indoor environment for various human act i v i t i e s . The tower or upper floor and the chamber image are used as euphemisms for a b r o t h e l . 1 1 0 They are the places where women dwell, usually the poet's l o v e r . 1 1 1 They are also the places 112 for drinking and feasting. The tower and the railing are vantage points from which the poet gazes at the distance, usually thinking of 113 his distant lover. Only in two poems does Liu describe a woman 114 leaning against the railing longing for her lover's return. In some of Liu's kuei-ch'ing poems the closed door or gate image suggests a lonely and deserted woman.116 In one poem the residence (aha-i ^ ) image symbolizes the poet's desire for establishing a f a m i l y . 1 1 6 The inn image is unique in Liu's poems in that i t reflects the wandering l i f e of the poet and, thus, is always associated with lonely nights and sad re c o l l e c t i o n s . 1 1 7 Aside from the confined environment created by the indoor images Liu creates a broader poetic world using many other man-made images. These images include the path, the street, the pavillion, the bridge, the pond, the dyke and the boat. Liu's images of paths and streets (which together occur no less than twenty-five times) are 118 mostly euphemisms for the way to the brothels. Bridges, ponds, 119 dykes, streets and paths create the flourishing scene of a city. Sometimes, the pavillion and the bridge image are also associated with parting. 85 An important man-made image which gives Liu's poems a grand natural setting is the boat image which he ex p l i c i t l y and implicitly refers to about fifty-four times. His boat image has many associations. 121 Sometimes, i t symbolizes the pursuit of wealth and fame.. I t also 122 symbolizes the return of a lover. In several poems i t is used to reveal the happy l i f e of the city people. But most often Liu's boat 123 image is associated with parting and journeys. Related to images of transportation are those of communication, the most common of which is the letter (which occurs no less than twenty-two times). It is frequently linked with the poet's longing 124 for message from his distant lover. But in only one poem does 125 he actually receive a letter from her. 3. Human images Most of Liu's images of the human body relate to woman and, hence, these images appear frequently in poems of erotic love and in poems about the beauty and talents of woman. These images include parts of the head such as eyebrows (Liu's favorite, twenty-one times), eyes, face, hair, l i p s , and dimples. Liu also refers to other parts of a woman's body, but with less frequency. These are: the waist, the hands, and skin. Images of woman's clothes include such things;:as s k i r t , belt socks and shoes. What is noteworthy is that images of woman's orna-ments such as hair pins, jade decorations in total occur only about ten times. This small number of ornamental images shows that Liu pays more attention to depicting actions and psychological changes of a 86 woman than to describing in detail her external appearance. Not a l l these images carry strong symbolic associations. But when paired with appropriate modifiers such as red, green, fragrant, and elegant they create a picture of a beautiful woman. The only image of the human body which arouses deep emotion in Liu's tz'u is the "broken intestine" (or better translated as "broken heart", which occurs in twenty-two poems). It is frequently associated 1 nc with the sorrow of parting. In only one poem does Liu use the 127 "broken intestine" image to express the pain of unrequited love. Similarly, Liu's soul { h u n i ^ ) image is frequently a broken one and 128 is also associated with parting sorrow. His dream image is used mainly to reveal two types of emotion. There are dreams of returning 129 to his hometown and dreams about love-making. But, his dreams are often broken abruptly by external disturbances which cause him f r u s t r a t i o n . 1 3 0 Liu's images of human emotions focus upon sorrow which he expl i c i t l y refers to as oh'ou forty-six poems and implicitly refers to by related images in many poems. His sorrow is mainly over 131 separation. Other sorrows center upon autumn laments, loneliness along journeys, and regrets over the past (usually about the unful-132 f i l l e d promises to his beloved). Liu's images of human activities are multifaceted. The most frequently recurring ones are the images of singing and dancing (which together occur in no less than seventy poems). Hence, in his poems i t is not surprising that we can find references to over a dozen mu sical instruments such as hua-ku~^ Jj^(painted drum), hsiang-pan (ivory castanets) and p'i-p'a |£ ^  and to songs such as yang-oh'un and yun-yao. Singing and dancing are usually associated with happiness. But the sound of a oh Hang ^ flute and reed-pipe of the Tatar's arouse 133 the poet's homesickness. The image of wine and drinking (which occurs in no less than sixty-seven poems) is associated with sensual rather than sorrowful feelings. A drinking scene is usually followed by a scene of love-134 making. Very often Liu treats the act of drinking or the state of 135 drunkenness as a means of escape from worldly worries. In only a 1 few poems drinking is associated with parting. The broader and more r e a l i s t i c characteristics of Liu's tz'u are reflected in his many images of human ac t i v i t i e s , such as spring excursions, singing competitions, and various festive celebration ac t i v i t i e s . They are also reflected by his mention of many different groups of people. They include courtesans (by far Liu's favorite), washing g i r l s , caltrop pickers, merchants, dandies, brothel customers, chin-shih candidates, o f f i c i a l s , and fishermen. It is noteworthy that Liu treats the fisherman as an ordinary human being rather than 137 an idealized character. In only one poem is the fisherman used as 138 a symbol of a hermit. A l l these images make Liu's tz'u more reflective of the variety of l i f e of the people. 88 C. Modifiers of Images and the Use of Implicit Comparison Liu's noun images take on two types of modifiers: namely adjec-tives and other nouns. S t a t i s t i c a l l y , Liu shows great preference for choosing modifiers which bring out sensual appeal. In Liu's tz'u, color plays an important role in bringing out visual qualities. He concentrates on several strong and rich colors: gold, silver, red and green. He uses gold most often to match with indoor images such as ehin-lu /^^.(golden-incense burner) and chin--ohang & $!»^L(silk veil) in order to create a noble and luxurious ssu-139 atmosphere. The same is with silver which is used in glittering images such as yin-kung $fc£s~ (silver lamp) and yin-p 'ing^$<^ (silver screen). 1 4 0 Red and green are used more often than gold and silver. Liu frequently uses the warm color red to describe a woman's beauty and clothing such as hvng-mei 4 j - ^ (red eyebrows) and hung-hsiu (red sleeves). 1 4 1 Red is also used with less frequency to accompany man-made images such as ehu-lou jjf. $f£-(red tower) and hung-hu $ i J 142 (red gate) to create a setting suggesting nobility. Green is used almost equally among nature, human and indoor images such as ts'ui-feng Jj^ (green peaks), lil-pin (green hair) and ts'ui-mu ^ ^ 143 (green curtain). Liu also employs many modifiers .which . indirectly indicate different shades of colors such as ts'ai-yun (colorful cloud), ch'ien-t'ao (light peach), nung-K $ f t ^ ' (dark plum), and ts 'an-chen f{^( bright p i l l o w ) . 1 4 4 89 Liu's next most frequently used adjective-modifiers are mainly those which have olfactory appeal. He is especially fond of the modifier hsiang ^ (fragrant) to match with indoor images such as hsiang-pei jfc j$^(fragrant quilt) and hsiang-yin jfe $ (fragrant carpet). 1 "hsiang" is also used (with less frequency) to describe a woman's beauty as in hsiang-yeh jfj^ (fragrant dimples) and hsiang-sai Jfa (fragrant cheeks). Liu is also fond of using modifiers which con-vey a sense of temperature. The majority of them are used to describe nature as in han-ts'un ^ L^|(cold village), leng-feng ^ ^ J ^ ( c o l d maple) and nuan-yenV^-^ (warm m i s t ) . 1 4 7 The second type of modifiers Liu uses are noun-modifiers. Liu's noun-noun compounds which involve implicit comparison are mainly com-parisons between images of nature, for instance, huo-yiln^^ (fiery cloud), yiin-t'ao ^ >0| (cloudy billows), chen-chu-lujfL 2J^jj|L(pearled dew) and shuang-yiieh Tft y\ (frosty moon). Some of his noun-noun-compounds involve implicit comparisons between nature and human images such as yun-huan $ (cloudy hair), hsing-mou^. fl£ (star pupil)_, and lien-lien ~j§_$ffc[lotus f a c e ) . 1 4 9 Finally there are noun-noun-compounds which involve the implicit comparisons between man-made objects and human images such as chu-lei $J£.j^( pearl tears), ch'iung-lien S^f^ (jade face), and yu-ohi j£ ^ /L(jade f l e s h ) . 1 5 0 The use of jade in the last two examples not only has a visual effect but also possesses tactual quality. The above partial l i s t of Liu's compound nouns shows that a great majority of them are conventional diction repeatedly used in the TWTT. Except for a few, the majority of them are quite hachneyed. 90 D. Explicit Comparison of Images Liu's explicit comparison of images—that i s , the simile, takes on a variety of forms. He uses ju-JtP ( l i k e , as i f , thirty-three times) most frequently to produce a simile. He also uses ssu (as i f , seven times) and pi b-t (compare, four times). In several cases he uses ch'a-ju f a " - ^ (just like) and fang-fu (look as i f ) . Sometimes, he uses the pattern "ssu\^k j u ^ a B" (like A and B) or "A juk* B, C j'u-fco D" (A is like B, C is like D) to make up a parallel simile. The majority of Liu's similes are based on comparisons between two nature images as i n , A ^ ^ t 'ien-ju-shui sky like water 151 (The sky is 1 ike water). and yi-yeh-ch'ang-ju-sui one night lone like one year 152 (The night is as long as a year). He also compares nature images with human images, as i n , jfe & fl * 4 jg-wu-hua-k' o-pi-fang-jung no flower able compare fragrant face (There is no flower that can be compared with her beautiful face).1 and yen-yii-ssu-chiao-ying language like delicate oriole (She speaks like a delicate oriole)] In several cases Liu compares two human images, as in, % 'A > f ahiu-yu-ju-meng old travel like dream (My previous travels are 1 ike a dream)!55 He also compares human images with man-made images, as in « j & i t * * # hsien-eh' ou-nung-sheng-hsiang-lao leisure sorrow concentrated than fragrant wine (My ennui sorrow is stronger than the fragrant wine)! 5 6 The imagery is more striking when Liu uses stronger verbs in a simile, for instance, in M p. H«] po-ssu-jan-shan-ju-hsueh wave like dyed mountain as i f cut (The waves look 1ike dyed and the mountains look as i f cut). the verbs "to dye" and "to cut" convey not only fresh visual appeal but also kinesthetic imagery. 92 E. Substitution Technique Liu is very s k i l l f u l in his use of tai-tzu (substitute words). Tai-tzu is a general term in Chinese which refers to the use of one word to replace another. It includes the substitutions of nouns, adjectives, verbs and sometimes other parts of speech. The sub-stitution of nouns includes the devices of metaphor, metonymy, and synecdoche, whereas, the substitutions of verbs and adjectives involve various degrees of personification. 1. Substitution of nouns Liu's metaphors mainly concern women. He frequently calls a woman, usually a courtesan, yi-lo ^ $|. ( s i l k ) , h u a ^ (a flower), hung-fen $ i ^ " ( r e d powder), or ts 'ai-feng ) j ^ ( colorful phoenix). 1 5 8 He also names them according to their personal traits such as chiao-mei J ^ j ( d e l i c a t e and charm) and yu-wu ^ ' ^ ( s p e c i a l t h i n g ) . 1 5 9 Some-times, he names them allusively such as oh'an-chuan^J^ (the moon) and e/z'in#-efr'en^fcJl J^jxjfal 1 ing c i t y ) . 1 6 0 The parts of a woman's body are also frequently referred to metaphorically. Most of these comparisons are drawn from nature images. For instance, he uses ts'ui-yunj^. ^ (green cloud), hsiang-yiin %'jj^ (fragrant cloud) for a woman's h a i r ; 1 5 1 ohiao-po^^ J)^(delicate wave) and ts'eng-pojfijj -J§^ (layers of waves) for her eyes; 1 6 2 yao-shan OJ (distant h i l l ) and shuang-o ^jftfj((a pair of moths) for her eyebrows 1 6 3 93 and jou-yi Jp. |^ (soft young shoots) for her hands and hsidng-hsueh^ 'Jjj^  164 (fragrant snow) for her skin. Liu also addresses men metaphorically through allusions. For instance, he uses hsin-lang-chun ^ j f ityfe (new gentlemen) for the successful ohin-shih candidates and yuan-lu$lfh ^ (a line of egrets) 165 for a line of o f f i c i a l s in court. These are for the most part stereotyped allusions which do not bring out strong imagery. Apart from human beings Liu also refers to many other common objects metaphorically. He uses chin-yo^-J§^ (golden waves) and liu-hsia yjn.'^(floating cloud) for wine 1 6 6 and hsia-suf^^ (shrimp mustache) for a c u r t a i n . 1 6 7 He also uses ying-t'ou$& (a fly's head) for profit and wo-chiaojffy ^ (snail's horn) for fame and m e r i t . 1 6 8 Liu uses metonymy and synecdoche much less than metaphor. His metonymies mainly consist of the substitution of colors, especially red and green for images. Red is used in place of flower, rouge and 169 maple leaves. Green is used for leaves and trees and the eyebrow make-up.170 Red and green together also stand for woman.171 More unusual is those which convey a sensuous quality such as hsiang ^ (fragrance) and nuan fl|^(warmth) to represent a woman's body. 1 7 2 Most of ILiu's synecdoches are drawn from common nature images such as p'ien-fan )4 tyR,{a sail) and shuang-ohiang ^ ^ (a pair of oars) for a boat, 1 7 3 yi and yil ^ (wings) for a b i r d , 1 7 4 tin (scales) for f i s h , and chin-jui (golden bud) for a chrysanthemum.176 94 Generally speaking Liu's metaphors, metonymies and synecdoches are for the most part cliches. Only a few of them can claim original-i t y . However, when these common nouns are juxtaposed in a larger word-unit, such as a tetrasyllable, they can bring out striking poetic imagery. This w i l l be seen later. 2. Substitution of adjectives Apart from the modifiers previously discussed,Liu also borrows adjectives from human aspects and emotions in order to produce a stronger poetic effect. The majority of these human adjectives are endowed to nature images. These include k'uang-hsii (crazy catkins), shuai-ho'3fc~$i (withered lotus), nu-t'ao 5$$ (angry billows), ch'ou-yen jtix'^ A 176 (sad mist) and ohi-ohiang jl* £Et (hurried oars). He is particularly fond of personifying nature with human characteristics lac> j£ (old)(in as many as six poems) as in "Autumn is getting old" and "The apple flowers are growing o l d . " 1 7 7 In one poem he writes "The morning c h i l l is s t i l l young." 1 7 8 3. Substitution of verbs Liu frequently endows verbs from unidentified agents with nature images to create vivid imagery, as in if A ah'un-man-tung-ohiao-tao spring f i l l east suberb road (Spring fi11s the roads of the Eastern suburb). 1 7 9 and c/z 'i-ng-aj-ti- Vang-fang-shu light mist low cage fragrant tree 1 gg (The light mist tightly enshrouds the fragrant trees). f t & £ % ch 'ien-li-huo-yun-shao-k 'ung thousand l i f i r e cloud burn sky 181 (For a thousand l i the fiery clouds burn the sky). Liu is equally fond of endowing verbs from unidentified agents to human beings, man-made objects, or abstract concepts, as in * * • * J * * ® t chuan-chu^h-kuei,-hsin-sheng-yu-yi suddenly feel return heart grow wings 182 (Suddenly I feel that my homeward-bound heart grows wings). ch'iang-kuan-nung-ch 'ing Ch'iang pipe play fine-weather 18 (The Ch'iang pipe plays in the fine weather). & # » 7 1 jung-ts'ui-hsiang-sui honor disease mutal follow (Honor and disease follow one after the other). Liu is especially fond of applying verbs of human actions to nature. Since these verbs involve a high degree of personification, 96 they produce strong and vivid imagery as can be seen in the following examples, lu-jan-feng-ts'ai dew dye wind cut (Dyed by dew and cut by wind). & - f t * M f hem-oh H-lu-yeh cold bully green f i e l d (The cold bullies the green f i e l d ) . pai-yeh-oh'iao-oh'uang withered leaves knock window (The withered leaves knock the window). lu-so-oh'uang-ohHen green lock window frong (The leaves lock the window). * # *L m yuh-yimg-shiiang-ohing cloud embrace pair banners (The clouds embrace two banners). 97 W %t an ft >n%m liu-t1'ai-yen-yen, hua-yitn-lu-lien willow raise mist eye, flower even dew face (The willows raise their misty eyes, the flowers even their dewy faces)T190 *• * t A & shui-ts'un-ts'an-yeh-wu-ch'ou-hung water village faded leaves dance sad red (Along the fishing village, the faded leaves dance in grieving red).'"' ying-ts 'an-oh 'iao-she, liu-tu-hsien -yao oriole shame s k i l l f u l tongue, willow envy slim waist (The oriole w i l l feel ashamed of i t s voice and the willow w i l l envy her siim waist).192 4. Explicit personification Apart from personifying adjectives and verbs, Liu also uses more explicit pathetic fallacy to reveal his profound emotions. The majority of these personifications are drawn from nature images as can be seen in the following examples, I just fear that the beautiful scene w i l l a l l go away after you depart.193 Listen, every cry of Tu Yli urges, "You had better return home ".194 98 Only the newly-arrived pair of swallows on the painted roof hear me sigh a l l night t i l l dawn.195 Pairs and pairs of nesting birds are hurriedly re-turning home. They are calling each other. They seem to be laughing at me who is alone on a long journey with a confused parting soul.196 By projecting his subjective feelings onto the nature images, Liu ex-presses the themes of his poems more directly and poignantly. F. Colloquialisms The use of colloquialisms is one of the most outstanding 197 characteristics in Liu's tz'u. He was the f i r s t tz'u poet in 198 the Northern Sung Dynasty to use colloquialisms on a large scale. But, as with his eroticism, his use of colloquialisms has been harshly c r i t i c i z e d throughout history. In the following I w i l l examine Liu's use of colloquialisms under four headings: f i r s t , the conditions that allow him to use colloquialisms; second, the content of his colloquialisms; third, the distribution of his colloquialisms, and, fourth, other c r i t i c s ' comments on his use of colloquial isms. Liu's use of colloquialisms can be explained by three main reasons. First, with the longer form of man-tz'u, Liu could include more hsu-tzu^ (empty words) (which make up most of his colloquial expressions). Secondly, living among the common people, especially among the singsong girl s and chiao-fang musicians, Liu was influenced by the colloquial nature of folk songs. Unrestrained by Confucian morality (at least before he became an o f f i c i a l during his later age), he dared to include what his contemporary tz'u poets considered as 199 "vulgar language" in his poems. In fact, a great number of colloquialisms in the liin-yao chi in the Tun-huang folk songs also appear in Liu's t z ' u . 2 0 0 Thirdly, as previously discussed, during Liu's early years he made his living by writing tz'u for the sing-song gi r l s and chiao-fang musicians. Hence, in order to make his poems more easily understood and sung he included many expressions from daily speech. Liu employs a wide range of colloquialisms in his tz'u. Some of them are repeatedly used throughout his poems. His colloquialisms 201 can be grouped in the following manner: 1. colloquial adverbs and their compounds: (a) jen ^ (thus, 58 times, Liu's favorite colloquial expression) k'ung-jen $ jf»(thus in vain), ssu-jenW j | . ( l i k e thus), shen-jen %. ]%• (why thus), chih-jen ?> (only thus), ch'ang-jen -^L^ (always thus) and ts'eng-cen ^ ^ (to have been t h u s ) . 2 0 2 (b) cheng jfy (how, 35 times): cheng-pu^ ^ (how can one not?), cheng-jen Jfy jO* (how to bear), cheng-chihJjf (how can one know?), cheng-ju (cannot be compared with) and cheng-k'o(how can one?) (c) ch'u J f ^ (everywhere, over 20 times): shih-ch'u -rf^jj^L (everywhere), tsai-ch'ufy. (everywhere) and wang-ch'u ^ (the place I am gazing a t ) . 2 0 4 TOO (d) tsen ^ (how, over 10 times): tsen-sheng ^ ^jL (how), tsen-jen %L (how to bear), tsen-sheng-hsiang fe- \*\ (however) and tsen-wang-te ^(how can I forget?). 2' 2. suffixes and their compounds: (a) te ^ ( i n d i c a t i n g a b i l i t y or consequence of action, 49 times): wen-te )^j ^f"(to hear), yu .-te ^ (to have) and ahin-te ^ 4$[ (to be able to bear). 2 0 6 (b) ch'eng ^ (indicating completion of action, over 20 times): fan-ch''eng j ^ ( t o turn into), ta-eh 'eng ^ (to mix into) and shui-pu-ch 'eng ti^^J^ ( cannot f a l l asleep). 2 0 7 (c) le ^ (indicating completion of action, over 10 times): huai-le ^ (to have gone wrong), fang-le ^C. "J (to put down) and lao-le £ ^ (to get o l d ) . 2 0 8 3. colloquial pronouns and their compounds: yi J\f (he or she, 31 times), wo ^ ( I , 20 times), ni jfo (you, 7 times), yi-chia^f1 (he or she), ah-shei fZ) "fj£ (who) and tzu-chia i| |L ( s e l f ) . 2 0 9 4. colloquial measure words: yi-ch'ang (once), yi-hsiang ^ffi) (one moment), yi-eh'i — ^ (together), 2/£-/a? ^fj (one) and Hang-liang-san-san utjg Z~ (in two or three). 101 5. other colloquial expressions: cha (just), man y j ^ ( i n vain), chen^$: (always), sha ^ (very), tou-lai ( a l l , everything), t'e-ti (especially), ch 'u-tz 'u Tjj«. (casually), chei-hsieh-evh (this), k'ou-erhUi <i % ^ (in my mouth), jih-hsii-shih fc) S-f ^ ( f o r a long time), yi-chung-jen ^ ( a lover) and t'e-sha-hsieh-erh ^ 211 (too much). Liu's colloquialisms are not confined to compounds or single lines but are throughout the poem. In fact, about twenty of his poems are 212 written entirely in the colloquial style. Moreover, the fact that even some of his hsiao-ling poems have colloquialisms shows that he 213 was free from the influence of the hua-chien style. Thus, his 214 hsiao-ling poems are praised for being "fresh." Liu's colloquialisms are distributed according to differences in themes. In general, colloquialisms occur most frequent in poems on erotic love and boudoir feelings (in man-tz'u) , less so in poems about separation and rootless wandering, and least in poems on city l i f e and court celebrations. Except for those poems which are written entirely in the colloquial language, in poems which-contain some colloquialisms Liu tends to use more elegant diction to describe the scene in the f i r s t stanza, but quickly changes to a more colloquial 215 style in the second stanza. Liu's success in the use of colloquial-isms lies in his s k i l l in harmoniously blending them with conventional 102 on c and elegant diction. This s k i l l is best demonstrated in his poems on separation and rootless wandering. Liu's use of colloquialisms has been constantly c r i t i c i z e d from his time until the present day. The f i r s t person to denounce 217 Liu's use of colloquialisms was probably his contemporary Yen Shu. Although Yen did not exp l i c i t l y indicate the reason why he denounced Liu, judging from the language of the poem ting-feng-po, i t is very li k e l y that, besides disliking Liu's frank and unreserved description of the boudoir theme, Yen must also have disliked Liu's use of 218 colloquial expressions. A defense made by Ch'ao Pu-chih that "the whole world a l l c r i t -219 icizesCh'i-ch'ing's [Liu] tz'u for being vulgar, this is not true" suggests that in the Northern Sung (at least twenty years after Liu's death) the prevailing judgement of Liu's tz'u was "vulgar". Li Ch'ing-chao <^ (1084-?) who praises Liu's s k i l l in music 220 s t i l l c r i t i c i z e s Liu's language for being "low as dust." Wang Cho {d. 1160), after c r i t i c i z i n g Liu's tz'u for being "shallow and vulgar " goes even further to say, I have always compared Liu's tz'u to rich gallants of the capital. Even though they have got r i d of their village crudeness their speech and manner are disgusting.221 In the Southern Sung Dynasty, many tz'u c r i t i c s denounce Liu's use of colloquialisms. For instance, Huang Sheng-^ ^  and Shen Yi-fu ("H-c- 1247) c r i t i c i z e Liu for his using "vulgar language" 2 2 2 and Ch'en Cheng-sun remarks that "the style of Liu's tz'u is not l o f t y . " 2 2 3 103 These adverse opinions voiced by the Sung tz'u c r i t i c s reflect not only their general attitudes towards Liu's use of colloquialisms, but also their attitude towards the genre of tz'u. They consider that tz'u with colloquialisms are "vulgar tz'u" {su-tz'wj^%'i\ ) as 00 A opposed to "elegant tz'u" {ya-tz'u yfjiJL'f*] ). This is the main reason that they attack Liu's use of colloquialisms. And, perhaps, this is why Liu's tz'u is not included in Tseng Tsao's (Sung) Yueh-fu ya-tz 'u ^  j(§ %i\ whose cri t e r i a of selection is mainly based on elegance of diction. In the Ch'ing Dynasty, regardless of whether or not they praise Liu's literary achievements, the majority of the tz'u c r i t i c s c r i t i c i z e Liu's use of colloquialisms in tz'u. For instance, Ssu-k'u-ch'ihn-shu  tsung-mu t'i-yao s!9 jfy |?) i*Ulr states t n a t t n e weak point of Liu's tz'u is v u l g a r i t y . 2 2 5 Kuo L i n J ^ . (1767-1831 ), when grouping the tz'u poets under four tz'u styles, singles out Liu and cr i t i c i z e s ope his tz'u for being "lewd and vulgar." In contrast to the traditional scholars, who, being bound by the orthodox literary view point, unanimously attack Liu's use of colloquialisms, modern scholars tend to be more favorable. Rather than merely objecting to the use of colloquialisms because of their popular origin, they pay more attention to the poetic function colloquialisms serve to the tz'u of Liu. Feng Yiian-chlin ^  ~j\J%. and Lu K'an-ju " J ^ H / L " ^ » who regard the use of colloquialisms as one of Liu's seven outstanding character-i s t i c s , agree that his colloquialisms have both positive and negative 227 effects. Yeh Ch'ing-ping also praises Liu's use of colloquialisms, but, on the other hand, he concludes that some of Liu's colloquial 228 poems do give the readers bad impressions. When refuting the adverse opinions on Liu's use of colloquial-isms by traditional scholars, Hu Y u n - y i ^ ' ^ ^ in his Chung-kuo tz'u-shih lueh ^  |fj -f£] ifL^k* praises Liu's s k i l l in using colloquialisms, . . . no matter what kind of vulgar words and lines, once used by Liu they become vivid descriptions.229 Later in his Sung-ts'u hsuan he adds, . . . L i u incorporates a great deal of vivid and li v e l y folk language [into his tz'u] in order to reflect the l i f e of the middle and lower class people of the city.230 However, Hu s t i l l points out that among Liu's "vulgar poems" [li-tz'u ) some are written to cater to the low taste of the public. Among modern scholars, T'ai Ching-nung <a "f^ It is the most en-thusiastic in praising Liu's use of colloquialisms, he says, The most successful [aspect] of Liu's tz'u is his [ability] to incorporate "vulgar language" into his vernacular tz'u [pai-hua-tz'u ® ). . . . We dare say that [what is considered as] his vulgarity is in fact part of his success. . . . More than eight to nine hundred years ago, ' Liu already incor-porated colloquial words and sentences into literature. What courage that took! . . . I think that the gentlemen of today who advocate the literary revolu-tion may not have the courage that can surpass Liu Yung.231 In short, despite what scholars think of Liu's use of colloquial-isms, I think i t can be considered as one of his significant contributions 105 to the language of tz'u. The language of TWTT, which had been imitated and repeatedly used throughout the Five Dynasties, had become hackneyed and cliche-ridden in the Northern Sung Dynasty. In order to enliven the diction of tz'u, Liu, with his longer form--man-tz'u—incorporated colloquialisms in his poems. As a result, the vocabulary of tz'u was enriched and rejuvenated. And, since the colloquial expressions are mostly made up of hsu-tzu, they strengthen the rhythmic flow of Liu's tz'u. By combining colloquialisms and refined poetic diction, Liu created a new mode of expression which could be easily appreciated by the general public. This w i l l explain why his tz'u was the most popular during the Northern Sung. Even though Liu's use of colloquialism was cr i t i c i z e d during his time, he, in fact, inspired many tz'u poets such as Huang T'ing-chien JL^T (1045-1105), Ch'in Kuanj^$j[ (1049-1100) and many others to 232 use colloquialisms in tz'u. Also, as a by-product of the popularity of his tz'u, Liu indirectly promoted the development of folk literature. G. Creative Diction Tz'u c r i t i c s generally attack Liu's vulgarity but they seem to have overlooked the fact that Liu also uses abundant elegant and striking diction. Liu's main method of creating new compounds is by juxtaposing two contrasting images in a tetrasyllable (about 280 cases can be found in his YCC). What characterizes these some 280 tetra-106 syllables is that over one-half of them involve the contrasts between two nature images, one quarter involve human images and one-seventh man-made images. What is striking is that almost a l l of them are used only once. This clearly indicates the Liu is always conscious of vary-ing the word organization so as to avoid monotony and at the same time bring out fresh, vivid and striking imagery. In his use of contrasting nature images, Liu is particularly fond of contrasting two different colors in a tetrasyllable. Only several colors are used. Out of thirty-five tetrasyllables which use color contrast, eighteen of them are contrasts between red and green. Even when using similar words in a tetrasyllable Liu's tetra-syllables contain different levels of meaning and strength of imagery. This can be seen in the cases of the contrasts between red and green. The most common and direct contrasting tetrasyllable is lu-shui-chu-lou (green water red tower) 2 3 3 which conveys merely a visual image. More complex is wan-hung-ch'ien-ts 'ui J|> ^ j^. (ten thousand 234 red thousand green) in which red and green are synecdoches for flowers and leaves respectively. The numbers wan ^  (ten thousand) and ch'ien ^ (thousand) convey a scene of many plants in spring. But most complex and effective is ts'an-lu^ch'ou^hung (grieving 235 green sad red) in which green stands for leaves and trees and red stands for flowers. The strong colors green and red further symbol-ize spring, beauty, youth and l i f e . However, ts'an (grieving) and ch'ou -^(sad) are extremely unpleasant emotions. When they are 107 juxtaposed together, they create a startling effect through their sharp contrast. Liu also contrasts metereological images, especially mist, cloud, and rain to make up tetrasyllables (in about twenty-two cases). These tetrasyllables are also paired in various ways to reveal different levels of meaning and imagery. For instance, fang-yu-hsim-yun ^ ( v i s i t rain seek cloud) means the search for sexual pleasure in the brothels 2 3 6 and yu-yiin-t 4,-yu fa 'J§t^ vlo(cling to cloud linger over 237 rain) symbolizes the desire for sex. Liu likes to juxtapose two plants in a tetrasyllable (about twenty-eight cases), for example, lang-p'ing-feng-keng 5$ )fH (wave duckweed wind stem), yen-hsing-yao-t'ao ^ ^ ^ ( b e a u t i f u l apricot charming peach) and luan-hua-k'uang-hsu ^ ^ . " ^ j ? (confused 238 flowers crazy catkins). In over dozen cases he juxtaposes animal images as in tieh-hsi-feng-san #^-$L(butterfly scarce bee:, scattered) and lu-fei-yu-yiieh ^ ^ JtjPfl (egrets f l y fish jump). 2 3 9 Liu's second largest group of contrasting tetrasyllables are those involving the contrast of human images. He frequently jux-taposes images of human activities (in about twenty-seven cases) as in ya-ko-yen-wu -^-^J^^> (elegant song beautiful dance) and wen-ch'i-chiu-hui >$)'|^~(literary meeting wine gathering). 2 4 0 He also pairs images of human emotions (in about fourteen cases) such as ch'ien-ch'ing-hsi-hen ffL (cling love tie regret), chiao-hun-mei-p 'o tifh (lovely soul charming sp i r i t ) and yi-meng-lao-hun ^ (labor dream t o i l s o u l ) . 2 4 1 In pairing images of human 108 appearance (in about sixteen cases) he concentrates on women such as Ku-yao-hua-t'ai •fyj f$:$L (willowy waist flowery manner), nuan-lien-hsiu-0 young face trimmed eyebrows), and ch'i-jung-yen-se -%\%-¥LTL* (striking face beautiful c o l o r ) . 2 4 2 Liu's third largest group of contrasting tetrasyllables are those concerning man-made images. Most of them are indoor images such as ko-t' ai-wu-hsieh-$f!^4a ^ fc.'ffifi singing platform dancing pa vi 11 ion), pao-eh'in-hsiao-ehen ^ ^£ ^  thin quilt small pillow) and wu-yin-ko-shan jj^(dancing carpet singing f a n ) . 2 4 3 Liu is also fond of pairing numbers with other images to make up fresh tetrasyllabes (in about twenty cases) such as ehiu-ch'u-san-shih A. ^|ff > " ^ ( n i n e streets three markets), chiti-lun-shuang-ch-iang (single wheel pair oars), ts 'un-chu-p'ien-yu ^ ~3J^ jfc. (inch pearl piece jade), wan-pan-ch'ien-chung ^ -$£.4" (ten thousand ways thousand kinds [of feelings]), and ts'un-hsin-wan-hsu >CT ^  $ 244 (inch heart ten thousand feelings). Liu's s k i l l f u l juxtaposition of words not only accentuates unusual imagery to his tz'u but also makes those poems written to the same theme less repetitive and more original. This characteristic was pointed out by Cheng Chen-to JjL'f^ , Even though the tones of Liu's poems are uniform the words used are not the same. [The themes of] his tz'u are nothing but those of travelling and boudoir feelings, yet, he expresses them in thousands of different ways and thousands of different words, making us feel that they are not repetitive and disgusting.245 109 CHAPTER IV RHYTHM AND CONTINUITY In Liu's time tz'u was intended to be sung. If we accept Yen Meng-te's statement that "Wherever there is a well there are people who sing Liu's tz'u," 1 Liu's tz'u must have been rich in musical quality. And, since rhythm is the basic element of music, we can say that Liu's tz'u must have been strong in rhythm. Rhythm in poetry, however, is achieved through the interplay of prosody and language rather than mere musical notes. The prosody of tz'u, that i s , the tune-pattern, provides a poem with a musical pattern. It is within this given form that a tz'u poet, by manipulating language, creates his own poetic * world. In the present discussion, I w i l l examine how Liu creates rhythm in his man-tz'u. First, I w i l l look into his repetition techniques which include the repetition of sounds, words and lines. Furthermore, I w i l l analyze his two unique poetic devices, that i s , the use of lingtzu 4§. i£ (lead-words) and enjambment both of which contribute greatly to the rhythmic flow to his tz'u. A. Repetition of Sound Rhymes and tones constitute the two indispensible elements which make up the basic musical quality or rhythm of tz'u. Traditional no tz'u c r i t i c s generally praised Liu's tz'u for being "in harmony with musical rules" {hsieh-lu $)} Liu K'o-chuang jg>\ ^ j j j (1187-1269) even compared Liu with the famous ohiao-fang musician Ting Hsien-hsien * T o f the Northern Sung.3 Even those tz'u c r i t i c s , such as Li Ch'ing-chao and Wang Cho, who harshly c r i t i c i z e d Liu's language for being vulgar, s t i l l admitted that his tz'u was rich in musical 4 quality. However, since there has been no detailed study of Liu's rhymes and tones, I w i l l here attempt to examine their various characteristics. 1. Rhymes Many tz'u c r i t i c s have commented on Liu's use of rhymes, but 5 their remarks tend to be brief and generally based on a very few poems. Here I w i l l examine Liu's use of rhymes in light of a comprehensive study of his poems. In the Recent Style Poetry [ohin-tii shih i^_)^$-'t^ ), rhymes tend to be very regular and highly patterned. From the early T'ang Dynasty shih%%[ poets closely followed the rhyme book Ch'ieh-yun (compiled by Lu Fa-yen in 601 A.D.). However, for tz'u no standard rhyme book existed during Liu's time. After the Sung Dynasty, a few rhyme books for tz'u were written, but i t was not until much later in the Ch'ing Dynasty that a standard tz'u rhyme book was produced. [This was KO Tsai's^y"^ Tz'u-lin oheng-yun %t\ ^ J J - ^ . , which was a synthesis of the rhymes of previous tz'u works. He grouped the rhymes I l l into nineteen categories (pu^f> ): fourteen categories in the level [p'ingjf- ), rising {shang Jfc- ) and fa l l i n g (ch'u-% )tones and five categories in the entering (juy^ )tone]. As a result of this lack of guidance, tz'u rhyming was not s t r i c t . Thus, the rhyming of tz'u is freer and broader than that of the Recent Style Poetry. 7 On the whole, Liu closely follows the common practice of tz'u rhyming. His use of rhymes is directly related to the tune-patterns he uses. In order to f i t the music he closely observes the rhyming scheme prescribed by the tune-patterns. In the TWTT, more poems rhyme with the level tone than oblique (that i s , rising, f a l l i n g and entering) tones. In man-tz'u the use of oblique rhymes dominates. Thus, i t is not surprising that Liu has about two-thirds of his poems rhymed in oblique tones. When using oblique rhymes, Liu follows the common practice of 9 using rising and fal l i n g tone rhymes together. This happens in about 108 poems. In seven poems he uses the f a l l i n g tone rhyme through-out the entire poem. When using the entering tone rhyme (in twenty-five poems) he s t r i c t l y treats i t as a distinct group, 1 0 that i s , without mixing i t with other tones. When using the level tone rhyme, Liu also follows the common practice of using i t throughout a poem.11 In only two out of f i f t y -five poems (which rhyme with level tones) does he combine level tone 12 either with rising or fal l i n g tones (but not with entering tone). When combining rhyme categories, Liu tends to choose those with similar endings. For instance, he combines #3 (the third category) 112 13 and #5 (or #10) with their similar endings "e" and "i". He combines #6 "and #7 with their "n" endings; 1 4 #7 and #14 with their "n" and "m" endings, and #7 and #11 with their "n" and "ng" endings. The use of the nasal endings "n", "m" and "ng" together may indicate that in Liu's time the distinction between them was beginning to disappear. 1 7 Almost without exception Liu treats "k", " t " and "p" endings as 18 distinct groups. In some cases Liu borrows a pronunciation for a rhyme from a regional dialect, a practice called c h i e h - y i n ( t o borrow a sound), 19 something permissible in tz'u rhyming. In some poems, Liu also uses a "hidden rhyme" {an-yun fl^-fH ) in a position which normally does not 20 require a rhyme. For instance, in. tin-feng hsiang-•chia-li3 pieh-hou ch 'ou-yen3 2)'] fc:- J^fl chen-lien mei-feng (v) . the f i r s t feng ^{piung) is a hidden rhyme because i t belongs to the same rhyme category as the end rhyme feng \h^r(p'iwong). In his choice of rhyme words, Liu takes f u l l advantage of the large rhyme categories which contain a large number of words suitable 22 for his themes. For instance, in his favorite rhyme category #3, he uses words such as li j|[ (liei; beautiful), mei -wty (mji; charming), ts'ui (ts'wi; green) and mei (mji; pretty) to describe the physical beauty of a woman;23 words such as yi $j (-ie; to lean against), 113 shui ^% (zwie; to sleep),' mei ^ (mji; to f a l l asleep), peijfajl (b'jie; quilt) and tsui (tswi; to be drunk) for an intimate bedroom setting and words such as weivjj^imjwei; taste), t s ' u i ^ (dz'wi; distress), hsu $| (ziwo; mood), lei>^_(ljwi; tears) and hui ^ ( yyai; regret) 25 for sad feelings. Within any one rhyme category Liu tends to repeat certain words. For instance, in his thirty-one poems of #4 he uses ch'u (k'iwo; to go) twenty-three times, ch'u jjf^tts'iwo; place) eighteen times, yil^(ngiwo; to speak) fifteen times, yu \$j (jiu; rain) twelve times, and shu (ziu; tree) eleven times. When writing about the same themes in different poems, Liu tends strongly to choose the same words. In seven poems about city l i f e and festive occasions he uses only twenty-seven rhyme words for seventy-three rhyme positions. This means that each rhyme word is used an average three times. More specifically, chia4^[ (ka; price) is used six times, hua^ (ywai; paint) five times, ya $^(ngaj elegant) and yeh/f£^(ia; night) four times, hsia ~Q$&(Ya; leisure) and hsieh (zia; pavillion) three times. The open endings of these words convey a happy atmosphere. More importantly, since the meaning of these words is closely related to the theme of these poems, they can be easily integrated into.a'!line to emphasize the happy atmosphere. In short, Liu is s k i l l f u l in choosing rhyme words to f i t his themes. When these words are placed in the strategic rhyme positions, their repetitions of sound and meaning reinforce each other and make them stand out throughout the entire poem. Hence, the recurrence of 114 each rhyme not only reinforces the theme, but also strengthens the rhythm of the poem. Liu's effective use of the widespread rhyme scheme of man-tz'u to create a strong rhythmic flow to his poems is noteworthy. Except for a small number of hsiao-ling, the majority of Liu's man-tz'u have rhyme intervals more than two lines apart. In some cases the rhyme intervals are as far as five to six lines apart. For instance, the poem to the tune-pattern feng-kuei-yun has a widespread rhyme scheme: 3_4_4_4_4_4_4r_8-4r-8r-6-4r, 7-4r-4-4-4-4-4r-3-6r-6-4rP According to the conventions of Chinese poetry, the completion of the meaning, sentence and rhyme should coincide. Thus, in the TWTT, with i t s dense rhyme scheme which seldom has rhyme intervals more than po two lines apart, the syntax is compressed. But, with the widespread rhyme scheme of man-tz'u, Liu was able to employ abundant enjambed lines. As a result, the syntax is extended to a few lines rather than being compressed into one line. Moreover, since in traditional poetry the lines within one rhyme interval are conventionally to be read in one breath, the forward movement of the lines between rhymes is expedited. When applied to the entire poem, the widespread rhyme scheme greatly strengthens the rhythmic flow of a poem. 2. Tonal Patterns The tonal pattern of tz'u is much more complicated and stricter than that found in the Recent Style Poetry. In the latter there are a 115 few regular tonal patterns, but in the former every poem has a differ-ent tonal pattern because every tune-pattern in tz'u has a different melody. In the latter, only the distinction between the level and oblique tones has to be maintained, but in the former very often dis-tinctions between the y i n - p ' i n g j ^ ^ and yang-p'inq*\% ^ (that i s , the f i r s t and second tone in Mandarin), as well as rising, f a l l i n g and 29 entering tones have to be observed. However, such fine distinctions between level and oblique tones did not come into practice a l l at once. It was not until the time of Wen T'ing-yun (812-870), the leading poet of the Eua-ohien School, that distinctions between the level and oblique tones in corresponding lines in poems written to the same tune-patterns were observed. 3 0 According to the study of Hsia Ch'eng-t'ao^^-^ , Liu 31 went even further in distinguishing between different tones. This is mainly because Liu, who excels in music, observes closely the tonal patterns prescribed by the tune-patterns. Examination of Liu's tonal patterns reveals that, in identical poems written to the same pattern, he is s t r i c t in distinguishing the level and oblique tones. He observes the use of the fa l l i n g tone. In the situation of two oblique tones one after the other, he uses rising and f a l l i n g tones interchangeably. He also observes the use of the 32 entering tone. Previous examination of Liu's tune-patterns has shown that eighty-six tune-patterns are used only once. Thus, as indicated by the prosody books, we cannot compare their tonal patterns with other 116 33 poems. And, since some of his poems written to the same tune-pattern have different forms, we can only compare those with similar forms. In order to judge whether Liu is s t r i c t in distinguishing be-tween the level and oblique tones, we have to compare different poems written to the same tune-pattern. Out of his forty-one tune-patterns which have more than one poem, only eleven of them have poems identical in the number of words and line divisions. In over ninety percent of these poems, the positions of the level and oblique tones are identical. This indicates that Liu closely observes the distinctions between the level and oblique tones in identical poems written to the same tune-pattern. The tones of the final lines are very important in singing 35 man-tz u. Thus, i t is not surprising that Liu pays special attention to the tones of the final lines of a poem. In his poems (written to the same tune-pattern) which have identical number of words in the final lines, about seventy percent of them follow the same level and oblique tones. For instance, the following two poems have their final lines identical in level and oblique tones, 1. na-keng -oh 'ung-lai 2. yin-fu liang-t'ieri ttpp 37 ttpp In some cases the tones of the final lines are identical in terms not only of the level and oblique tones but also of yin-p'ing, yang-p'ing, 117 rising, f a l l i n g and entering tones. For instance, the last lines of the following two poems have the exact tones, & b & k 1. nan-shan kung-chiu^ p"p'cs^® $>% % A # 41 2. jung-tsun sheng-chu p"p'os Apart from observing the distinction between the level and oblique tones, Liu frequently keeps the fa l l i n g tone in the corresponding lines in poems written to the same tune-pattern, as in 42 1. wan-ehia ehing-chou hsin-sheng op 'cop 'p' ^ m % * «• .43 2. ts 'un-ch'ang wan-hen ying-yu qp"cop"p' Liu's f a l l i n g tones tend to occur in a position that requires a lead-word, such as: * *. *P $ % 1. chien tung-chiao fang-ts 'ao cp'p'p's /?• * ** t ,„; jan-ch'eng ch'ing-pi tp"p't A more distinct and important characteristic is Liu's frequent use of the rising and f a l l i n g tones together interchangeably in places where two oblique tones are called for in consecutive order. This characteristic provides strong musical appeal to Liu's tz'u because, 118 when the rising and fa l l i n g tones are used together, they are pleasing 45 to the ear. This can be seen in the following lines, W t& 0- If * It 1. ho-ch H hsiao-huj yu-huan^ p "p 'sop 'p ' 2. oh'iu ohien-lao eh'ivng-sheng oheng-k'u^ p'osp"p'cs_ In Liu's poems written to the same tune-pattern, when he uses the rising and f a l l i n g tones together in a poem, he frequently uses them either in the order of rising-falling or vice-versa in the corres-ponding line in the other poem, * f i * -WL ft & 4 8 l a . yiin-oh'ou yii-hen nan-wang p"p"scp"o £ 4 * ajl H 4 b. ying-ying Zei-yen hsiang-k'an'^ p"p"osp'c * 4 *. k ju-ch 'ing oh 'i-shuc t * J $ *• 2a. yu-oh'ing oh'i-shuang^ sp"os 51 b. ching-Zan chou-yung sp"os Liu observes the use of the entering tone. Very often within a poem, when an entering tone is used in the f i r s t stanza, he then uses i t again in the corresponding line in the second stanza, such as: 119 First stanza * 4 $ ch'u(t 's 'iuet)p 'ing-wei jp"p" % A H % yi-feng ch'ing-t'ai sp'p"c $b 4 & fk y'ueh ('iak)-su yao-ohih g-cp'p' Second stanza chieh (kiet) ch'ien-ch'i jp"p' mei-jen ts'ai-tzu sp"p"s ho (yap)-shih hsiang-ohih gcp'p' . o Moreover, in different poems written to the same tune-pattern, when an entering tone is used in one poem, i t is also frequently repeated in the corresponding line in the other poem. This happens in about f i f t y percent of his tune-patterns (nineteen out of forty-one) which have more than one poem, # * 4 "4 & 1. ohu-li (lidp) ahiang-lou wang-ah 'u... . SQjp 'p"oo ch'ung-tieh (d'iep) mu-shan sung-ts'ui... p"jc'p'c 120 j j p 'p"cs ojp 'p "o ojp 'p"ce p "jcp 'os sjp "p "cs sjp 'p "o The above characteristics in the use of tones later became common practice in the writing of man-tz'u. Although we cannot say that Liu alone established the standard tonal usage in tz'u, his drawing attention to distinctions between tones indeed helped to standardize its tonal pattern. The f i r s t stanza of the poem written to the tune-pattern lin-ohiang-hsien^ >i j i i * illustrates Liu's s k i l l f u l use of rhymes and tones. Line 1. tu-k 'ou warf oik $1 4 f 4*r mo-mo (mwek mwek) chu-lan ching-yi... ching-jih (nziet) k'ung ning-t'i. 2. ohien-ju (nzidp) oh'ing-ho ch'i-hsu... Hen-yeh (iap) nen-sheng ts 'ui-ohao. yi-mo (mxk) yu-jen ohien-shao... 54 ohu-li_ (lidp) k'ung ts'an-ohao. 2. hsiang-wan towards evening & i t $ 3. oh'eng shou-ma ride thin horse 56 a 4. chih oh 'ung-kang (kang) ascend high h i l l 5. hsi-ohiao yu sung oh 'iu-kuang (kwang) western countryside again send autumn • f t * * 6. twi mu-shan heng-ts'ui face evening h i l l horizontal green 7. ch 'en ts 'an-yeh p'iao-huang (ywdng) match faded leaves drifting yellow & * & "4 8. p 'ing-kao nien-yuan lean [upon] high think far 4 * * *• 9. su-ching ch'u-t'ien pale scene southern sky Jt 4 ^ ^ * 10. wu-oh'u pu ch'i-liang (liang) no place not sorrowful 121 p"os cp"p' (r) p'p'ccp'p' (v) scene cop 'p "o op"jp'p" (r) p"p' OS cssp' p"ojp'p" (r) 122 Having l e f t the warf In the evening, Upon a f r a i l horse I ascend the high h i l l . The western countryside again bids farewell to the autumn scene. I face the green evening h i l l which is carpeted with drifting yellow leaves. High up on the h i l l I think far away. Everywhere under the southern sky The dreary autumn scene is sorrowful. This poem describes the poet's sorrowful feelings during a d i f f i -cult journey in an autumn evening, a common theme of Liu. The continuous repetition of three rising and fa l l i n g tones in the f i r s t three lines gives a strong musical appeal. Each repetition reinforces the rhythm and theme of the poem. Thus, f i r s t the image of a warf by the riverside (a^spatial setting which is frequently associated with departure and journey), then the evening scene (temporal setting) and f i n a l l y the poet riding a f r a i l horse (human activity) appear in succession. The focus moves from the natural setting until i t rests on the depressed traveller. The tonal arrangement ap"p' in the fourth line departs from the tight rhythmic effect created by the f i r s t three lines. With the completion of the meaning, i t s rhythm slows down as the line comes to the end rhyme kang . This slowing down of the rhythm reflects the slow motions of the poet who is ascending the h i l l on a f r a i l horse. The f i f t h line has a tonal arrangement p'p'ccp'p'. A l l the level tones in this line are yin-p'ing. This makes the two falli n g tones in the middle of the line stand out. The meaning of yu-snxng 123 i ^ . (again bid farewell) is thus emphasized. Also, by assigning a human behavioral t r a i t to nature, sung (to send off) conveys the poet's deep sorrow about the passage of time. The tonal arrangement of line six and seven is ocp'p"a and op"jp'p" respectively. The rhythmic division of these two lines is 1/4. The stress on the two monosyllables (which are in the fa l l i n g tone) tui-%^ (to face) and ah'en^^J,to match) emphasizes their object: the green evening h i l l and the fallen yellow leaves. The tonal arrangement of the eighth line is p"p'cs. Nien-yuan / ^ ' I ^ ( t o think far away) in the f a l l i n g and rising tones contrasts with the lighter level tones of p'ing-kao ^ ftj (high on a h i l l ) . This tonal arrangement which stresses nien-yuan in both tone and meaning conveys the distant thought of the poet. Also nien-yuan and su-ohing (pale autumn scene)(which is also in the f a l l i n g and rising tone) together produce auditory appeal. The poet's emotion reaches i t s climax in the last line through the device of pathetic fallacy. The tonal arrangement p"ojp'p' f i t s the emotional state of the poet. The sharp entering tone pu (pu8t) reinforces wu-ch'uJfc (no place), and oh'i-liang-Jfc. (dreary) in the level tone at the end rhyme position conveys a lingering sorrow. 124 B. Repetition of Words Shuang-sheng ^ t _ ^ | r ( a l l i t e r a t i o n ) , the repetition of the i n i t i a l sound of two consecutive words, is a very common poetic device in Chinese poetry and one frequently used by Liu. In total Liu uses over sixty different shuang-sheng compounds a total of about 200 times. The content of the majority of his shuang-sheng compounds concerns emotions and scenes of nature. As for the sound of the shuang-sheng compounds, he prefers those with dorsal and dental i n i t i a l s . Since a shuang-sheng compound often consists of words which belong to the same semantic category, the repetition of their i n i t i a l sound strengthens the meaning as well as the auditory effect. For instance, the sense of sadness and desolation is reinforced by the repetition of the dorsal i n i t i a l s in the shuang-sheng compounds leng-lo ~J^^~(lieng lak; cold, lonely), lao-lo^ (lau lak; depressed) and ling-lo ^ (lieng lak; faded, scattered). 5 7 Similarly, the unpleasant mood is accentuated by the repetition of the dental : i n i t i a l s , as in oh'iao-ts'ui ' j j j i i ^ r (dz'iau dz'wi; distress, haggard, by far Liu's favorite) and ch'ou-eh'ang'f^ Y^Jti^u tHang; regretful, r u e f u l ) . 5 8 Some of Liu's shuang-sheng compounds are names of common objects such as chHen-chHuij$^Jjfa)i^(ts Han tsH"bu; swing) which only add 59 auditory appeal to the poem. In rare cases a proper name such as Hsiao-hsiangV^-J^ (sieu siang; the rivers Hsiao and Hsiang in Hunan Province) with the help of the "water radical", conjures up the wide 60 *>• jfe river scene. Other names such as yuan-yang %. 7fr Ciwvn 'iang; 1.25 mandarin-duck), stereotyped as they may seem, because of their inherent 61 symbolic significance, s t i l l suggest love and sexual harmony. Tieh-yun (rhyming disyll ables), the repetition of the final sound of two consecutive words is also used by Liu. He uses about forty different tieh-yun compounds about one hundred times, much less than shuang-sheng. Besides frequently repeating the same tone, tieh-yun, much like shuang-sheng, contains a repetition of meaning. It also strengthens the meaning and auditory effect of the poem. For instance, lan-man')^ y^dan muan; inundating) with i t s wide open ending emphasizes the f u l l blossom in spring, 6 2 chHen-ehuan$^j3^ (k'idn k'iwvn; entangle) and ch'an-mien^ (d'idn midn; lingering), with their etymology 63 and their long endings emphasize deep passion. Some of Liu's tieh-yun such as mien-mian ^ (midn mwan; the sound of an oriole) and chan-ehuan^J^-(tian tiwdn; toss and turn) are also shuang-sheng.^ Some names such as ch'ing-ming &f\(ts'idng miwvng; a festival) and eh'in-ahen^-^_i(k'idm tsidm; lapel and pillow) 65 contribute mainly sound effect. Liu shows the greatest preference for using tieh-tzu ^ '|r (reduplicative disyllables). In total Liu uses about one hundred (to be exact ninety-nine) different tieh-tzu, much more often than shuang-sheng and tieh-yun. By repeating sound, meaning and etymology (which sometimes gives visual imagery) tieh-tzu strengthens descriptive' power. When tieh-tzu are used repeatedly in consecutive lines they strengthen the rhythm and imagery of a poem. What characterizes Liu's tieh-tzu is that over forty percent of them are drawn from colloquial language. This is different from 126 shuang-sheng and tieh-yun which are mostly drawn from literary cliches. Moreover, Liu uses a great variety of tieh-tzu: about one-fifth of his tieh-tzu occur but twice and half of them occur only once. Liu's tieh-tzu drawn from poetic diction tend to be used repeat-edly. For instance, yen-yen^('iam 'iam; bored, his favorite) occurs seventeen times, ying-ying ^ ^ (iang icing; elegant) sixteen times and ch'iao-ch'iao ^ (ts'idu ts'idu; quietly) twelve times. Liu's colloquial tieh-tzu are drawn from a broad range of sources. They tend to be used less often than those from poetic diction. Some of them are from daily language such as yi-yi ~~ -~ Ciet'iet; each one)(twice), s h i h - s h i h ^ (zi zi; always) (twice) and p'in-p'in ^\ (b'ien b'ien; frequently) (once). Some emotional words are even more colloquial such as pa-pa £j (papa; anxious) (once), k'o-k'o "?]' "vj (k'd k'd; does not matter) (once) and ku-ku $j(^i>!ji_(kuo kuo; purposely) (once). These colloquial tieh-tzu add an informal touch to a poem. Some of Liu's tieh-tzu are onomatopoeic, which, by imitating the actual sounds of objects can produce a strong poetic effect. Liu's onomatopoeic combinations are mostly in imitation of the sounds of nature such as hsiao-hsiao^ (sieu sieu; the sound of fallen leaves) and hsi-hsi yifc (siek siek; the sound of wind). The poetic effect brought about by the onomatopoeic tieh-tzu can be seen in the follow-ing line, *D */) ^ % 67 yu-eh'iung ch'ieh ch'ieh (ts'iet ts'iet) oh'iu-yin k'u lonely cricket chirp chirp autumn chant bitter 127 Ts'iet ts 'iet ty) Xfl (the sound of the crickets) with i t s dental i n i t i a l and short entering tone " t " conveys vividly the actual sound of the crickets at night. This sound is also associated with the sound of sobbing. Here, Liu projects his subjective emotions into the crickets, through which he indirectly reveals his laments of autumn. When tieh-tzu are placed in different positions in a sentence they bring different effect to a poem. For instance, in -Jk £ -£ & % 'A & Ch'ang-an ku-tao ma eh 'ih-ehiih (d'i d'i) (r) Ch'ang-an old road horse slow slow the long final of d'i d'i (slow) when placed in the end of the sentence, especially in the end rhyme position, slows down the forward movement of the line. This helps conjure up the image of a tired and disappointed traveller riding on a tired horse, slowly going down the old road of Ch'ang-an, a road which symbolizes success, fame, and wealth. When a tieh-tzu is placed in the middle of a sentence i t gives a different poetic effect, in wan-ehiao ch 'ien-mei, ten thousand elegance and thousand charm ti-ti (tiek tiek) tsai ts 'eng-po. bright bright in her pupils 128 the f i r s t tetrasyllable describes a courtesan's beauty in an abstract manner. But the s p i r i t of her beauty does not stand out until the occurrence of tieh tiek $ ^ ( b r i g h t ) in the second line. Tieh tiek, with i t s crisp entering tone "k" attracts the reader's attention. It vividly conjures up the sparkle and the liveliness of her eye movements and her charm. When tieh-tzu are used repeatedly in two consecutive lines, usually in a parallelism, the effect is even more striking. For instance, in ch'ii-ch'u (k'iu k'iu) hsing-yi, toilsome toilsome journey jan-jan (nzidm nzidm) kuang-yin. slow slow time the repetition of k'iu t o i l some) at the beginning of the parallelism draws our attention. The recurrence of another tieh-tzu nzidm nziamjfa jjfr (slow) in the second line provides a surprise. Nzidm nzidm echoes and reinforces k'iu k'iu. Because the rhythm of this parallelism is 2/2, 2/2, therefore, placing the tieh-tzu at the beginning of a tetrasyllable is similar to alternating two strong beats and two soft beats in music. The strong beats of the tieh-tzu emphasize their meaning in the line, in this case, the hardship of the journey and the gradual passage of time. Furthermore, the repetition of the parallel form strengthens the rhythm of the poem. 128a Besides repeating words in consecutive positions Liu also repeats words in different positions in a sentence although with less frequency. In about twenty cases he repeats one word twice in a tetrasyllable such as tuo-oh'ing tuo-ping ^ ^ $ -jfo (abundant love, abundant sickness) and wei-ming wei-lu ^ %, ^ ^ . ( n o t yet famous, not yet wealthy). 7 1 Because i t involves the repetition of one word, i t can be considered as an extended use of tieh-tzu. However, the content emphasized is broader and stronger than the tieh-tzul For instance, in $ $c 4# K % tang-tz 'u hao-Hien hao-ching, face this beautiful weather beautiful scenery I I I f- I 4 tzu-chueh tuo-ch 'ou tuo-ping3 self feel abundant sorrow abundant sickness ^ ft hsing-yi hsin-oh'ing yen. (v) travel heart feeling tired (Facing this beautiful weather and beautiful scenery, I cannot help feeling very sad and very sick. I am tired of travelling).72 the repetitive pairing of hao (beautiful) with t'ien ^ (weather) and ching ^ (scenery) in the f i r s t line of the parallelism emphasizes the beauty of the natural scene. In contrast, the repetitive pairing of tuo ^ (abundant) with oh 'ou ^ N(sorrow) and ping ^ (sickness) in the second line emphasizes the depressed psychological state and poor 129 physical condition of the poet. Hence, by juxtaposing the two lines in a parallel structure the pleasant scene built up by twice using the word hao is seriously broken by the contrasting sorrowful situation produced by the double use of the word tuo. The repetition of hao and tuo in two consecutive parallel lines also increases the auditory effect and strengthens the forward movement of the poem. The third line is the continuation of the second line because both are the object of the verb ahiieh (to feel). Being placed after the tight and highly repetitive parallel structure (in sound, word, meaning and form), the flow of the third line seems comparatively relaxed. It sums up the situation by expl i c i t l y stating that the poet is tired of his o f f i c i a l journey. In several cases Liu repeats words in different positions of a sentence. The following example shows his use of contrapuntal structure, Sfc f% * % po-sheng yu-ti (r)3 wave sound fisherman flute * & % * ching-hui hao meng3 startle return beautiful dream meng-Zi yil-kuei kuei pu-te (r). in dream desire return return cannot (The sounds of the waves and the fisherman's flute broke my beautiful dream. In my dream I was on my way home but I had not reached there)'.73 130 The f i r s t two lines t e l l us that the poet is on his journey at night, in a boat. His blissful dream is broken by the sounds of the waves and by a flute played by a fisherman. Up to this point the poetic situation presented is not striking. But, as we proceed to the third line, the occurrence of another meng ^ (dream) immediately draws our attention to his dream. Now we are informed the i d y l l i c nature of the dream he has just had: in his dreams he was on his way to his hometown. The repetition of kueifyfy (return) within the third line emphasizes his strong yearning for home. The negation pu-te (pudt tdk) in the abrupt " t " and "k" entering tones strengthens his sudden disappointment. This makes his awakening by the sounds of the waves and the fisherman's flute (which may serve as symbols of obstacles to his homeward journey) more frustrating. Hence, the repetition of meng and kuei emphasizes the theme of the poem. C. Repetition of Lines -- Parallelism Like any other Chinese poet, Liu makes frequent use of parallel-ism, or repetition on a larger scale. This is more formal and force-ful than the repetition techniques we have discussed before. In this section I w i l l look into the various characteristics of Liu's use of parallelism under three headings: their tones, content and their posi-tions in a poem. Furthermore, I w i l l examine i t s function and special role in Liu's tz'u. 131 The parallelism used in tz'u is different from that used in the Recent Style Poetry, which has special requirements. In the latter, the tones of a parallelism have to be inversely parallel, that i s , the level tone is contrasted with the oblique tone or vice versa. The words in the corresponding position of each line are usually from the same semantic category. 7 4 The syntax of a parallelism tends to be symmetrical, 75 that i s , a noun is contrasted with a noun, verb with verb and so forth. The positions of the parallelisms appear mostly in the third and fourth and f i f t h and sixth lines in the l u - s h i h ( r e g u l a t e d verse). In tz'u, especially in man-tz'u, the rules for parallelisms are not as s t r i c t . The tones of the two lines in a parallelism do not have to be opposite. Sometimes even words of the same tone can be used in corresponding positions. 7 7 In the tz'u of Liu, we frequently encounter parallelisms which have words in the same tone in correspond-ing positions as in sad intestine (heart) locked In some cases Liu has three parallel lines in the same tonal pattern For instance, in the poem nu-kuan-tzu he uses three parallel lines li-hun luan ppt parting soul confused ppt(r) 132 which are not used by other poets who write poems to the same tune-pattern, #. 5*r at * yin-ho nung-tan, PPPt silver river [milky way] dark light # t *fi >A hua-hsin ming-nrieh, pppt bright star light dim i t % 4 eh'ing-yun shih-tuJ^ PPPt (?) light cloud often pass In this type of parallelism, the repetition of the same tonal arrangement strengthens the rhythm of a poem. In the above example the stress on the oblique tone words tan >^ (1 ight), m£eft>^(dim) and tujjj^ (to pass) emphasizes the various aspects of the night scene. It also strengthens the rhythm by having three light beats and one heavy beat in three consecutive lines. Since the tones of a parallelism do not have to be opposite in tz'u, the two lines of a parallelism can both end in two consecutive or) rhyme positions. In other words, the last words of a parallelism can have the same tone. In Liu's tz'u we sometimes encounter this type of parallelism. yu-yen hsiang-wei tun chHen-chiian ttppptt (v) about (to) cover fragrant curtain talk romance 133 * * L 1 f A #•**•„, hsien-lien shuang-o oh'ou yeh-tuan ptppptt (v) already knit pair eyebrows worry night short In this type of parallelism, the fact that the two lines end in two consecutive rhyme positions emphasizes the meaning of the rhyme word and thereby reinforces the theme of a poem. In rare cases Liu repeats words in a parallelism, a practice 82 permissible in tz'u. For instance, in tsai-san wei-che tptt again and again cuddle * ^ 83 tsai-san hsiang-hua tppt (v) again and again fragrant smooth the repetition of tsai-san jft 5- (again and again) is extremely effec-tive since the meaning i t s e l f conveys boundless love. In Liu's tz'u we often encounter liu-shui-tui yjk.^-^^ (running 84-water parallelism), a much freer kind of parallelism which does not require words in corresponding positions to be from the same semantic category nor does i t require them to be in contrasting tones. Instead of being parallel to each other in tone, syntax, and meaning, the two lines combine to make one complete meaning, such as: 134 tsao-dhih jen-ti nan-p'-ing tpttpt early know like thus hard abandon 4# ^ * « 11 85 hui-pu tang-shih Xiu-ohu ttpppt (r) regret not that time keep stay Since the meaning of the f i r s t line of a lin-shui-tui is incomplete, the forward movement of the f i r s t line to the second one is expedited. Thus, this type of parallelism gives the strongest sense of continuity to Liu's tz'u. Moreover, since these liu-shui-tui are frequently made up of hsu-tzu and colloquial language, they add an informal touch to a poem. Liu's parallelisms (which total nearly three hundred) are dis-tributed according to themes. In general, poems about city l i f e and court celebrations have the highest density of parallelism. Next are those poems about separation and rootless wandering and third are those about erotic love. The following poem written to the tune-pattern yung-yu-le rf-i J ^ x f c is about the birthday of the emperor. It has as many as seven paral l e i isms: 43-4r-4-4-5r-4-4-6r-5-4-4r; 4-4-6r-4-4-5r-6-4-4_r-3/4-4r. [3/4 is the rhythmic division of a 7-word-line]. Not only is the density of parallelism high in poems on city l i f e and court celebrations, but the diction is packed and ornate. (This type of parallelism con-stitutes one-seventh of the total number of Liu's parallelisms). This use of diction is not surprising since these poems are written for the o f f i c i a l s and members of the court. The following example i l l u s -trates this type of ornate parallelism, 135 yao-t'u tsuan-ah'ing jade map continue celebration pptt 87 yu-yeh t'eng-fang jade leaves radiate fragrance ttpp(r) The parallelisms in poems about separation and rootless wandering are usually made up of images from nature and human emotions. (This type of parallelism constitutes over one-third of the total of Liu's parallelisms). For instance, in pai-ho ting-to failed lotus leaves scattered tppt 4- #fr 9fc 88 shuai-yang yen-ying deteriorated willow mingling pptt the nature images "lotus leaves" and "willow" and the human words "failed 1 and "deteriorated" are drawn together to make a parallelism. The parallelisms in poems about women and erotic love are usually made up of human images. (This type of parallelism constitutes over one-seventh of Liu's total number of parallelisms). In the parallel ism, ^ 4 * i dhiang-ch 'un ch 'ing hsiao-ko ohin-ya red lips light laughter song a l l elegant tpptptt lien-pu wen ohu-ts'u chieh-oh'i lotus steps stable gesture a l l striking ,.89 pttttpp (r) 136 the physical images " l i p s " and "laughter" are contrasted with "steps" and "gesture" respectively. With regard to length, the most often used is the 4-word-line parallelism (about 62 percent). This is an expected feature since tetrasyllables are common linguistic units in Chinese and also i t is easier to juxtapose two disyllables than to compose lines of longer length. Liu's 4-word-line parallelisms are frequently introduced by a lead-word. [This is discussed in the next section], especially when they occur in positions other than the beginning or the end of a poem. The second most frequently used is the 7-word-line parallelism (about 15 percent). What characterizes Liu's 7-word parallelisms is that they are equally distributed among his hsiao-ling and man-tz'u. Moreover, those parallelisms in hsiao-ling a l l have the 4/3 rhythm and those in man-tz'u 3/4 rhythm. [This is discussed later]. Liu uses an equal number of 3-word-line and 6-word-line parallelism (each about 8 percent) and uses fewer 5-word-line parallelisms. Besides having freer tonal, grammatical and semantic rules, the parallelism in tz'u also has no definite position. In general, a parallelism can occur wherever there are two consecutive lines of 90 equal length. Frequently, with the help of lead words and short phrases a parallelism can be made in lines of unequal length as in yu_ san-ch'iu kuei-tzu3 tpptt to have three autumn cassia seed shih-H ho-hua ttpp (r) ten 1i lotus flower 1 ^ & §- h % # ^ ^ ch'ang-chih-k'ung jung-yi shun-hua t'ou-huan pttpttppt always just fear easily beautiful youth stealthily change kuang-yin hsU-tu pppt (r) time in vain pass In rare cases Liu uses tang-chu-tui ^ ^7 "^(a parallelism within one 93 1ine) such as• chien ch 'iu-kuang lao ch'ing-hsiao yung tpptppt gradually autumn scene old clear night long Three characteristics stand out when one examines the positions 95 of Liu's parallelisms. First, a great number of his parallelisms which appear in the main part of a poem other than the beginning or the end are introduced by lead-words. Secondly, he rarely uses a parallel ism as a structural device to end a poem. Of his 213 poems, he uses a parallelism to end the f i r s t stanza in only eleven poems and the 96 second stanza in only three poems. He only ends one poem with a 97 parallelism in both the f i r s t and second stanza. Thirdly, Liu prefers to start a poem with a parallelism. In thirteen of his 213 98 poems a parallelism starts the f i r s t stanza and in thirty-three poems 99 a parallelism starts the f i r s t stanza. What is noteworthy is that about f i f t y percent of the tune-patterns of the thirty-three poems which start with a parallelism are his inventions. This indicates that he consciously uses parallelism as a structural technique in starting his man-tz'u. 138 The f i r s t stanza of the following poem written to the tune-pattern ti-chia-nung $j (invented by L i u ) 1 0 0 illustrates Liu's s k i l l in the use of parallelism. Line & it & m 1. hua-fa hsi-yuan ptpp flowers bud western garden % % * n 2. ts 'ao-hsiln nan-mo tppt grass perfume southern path 41 * 3. shao-kuang ming-mei pppt beautiful scene bright charming 4. cha-ch'ing ch'ing-nuan ch'ing-ming hou (ydu) tpptppt (v) just clear light warm Ch'ing-ming after ?)< - f t #i 5. shui-hsi chou-tung tppt water play boat move ** «. £ «fl 6. hsi-yin yen-k'ai ttpp exorcism performance drink feast open #. & ¥1 ^ 7. yin-t'ang ssu-jan pptt silver pond like dyed 8. ohin-t'i Qu-hsiu (sieu) PPPt (?) golden dyke like embroidered 139 A. & 3- & 9. shih-ch'u wang-sun ttpp everywhere lord grandsons 10. chi-tuo yu-chi tppt many strolling courtesans # 4 i $ 11. wang-wang hsi hsien-shou (sidu) ttppt (r) often hold delicate hands 12. oh'ien li-gen tui-chia-ohing tpptpt cause parting person face fine scene m a 4 c 13. ohu-mu shang-huai ttpp touch eyes grieve bosom $ #K ^ % 14. chin-ch'eng kan-ohiu (g'idu) tptt (r) a l l become remember old The flowers are budding in the western garden. The grass is perfuming the southern path. The beautiful scene is bright and charming. This is the clear and warm weather after the Ch'ing-ming festival. People are Playing in the water, Paddling in the boat, Drinking the ceremonial wine,-Laying out the feast. The silver pond seems dyed. The solid dyke seems embroidered. Everywhere there are gentlemen and strol l i n g courtesans hand in hand. I, the wanderer, gaze at this beautiful scenery: Everything meets my eyes, grieves my bosom. Everything causes me to recall the past. 140 This poem describes a spring scene and the poet's resulting emotions. In total, there are five parallelisms in this stanza, namely lines 1 & 2, lines 5 & 6, lines 7 & 8, lines 9 & 10 and line 12. Except for line 12, these parallelisms are made up of two tetrasyllables. The repetition of these short parallelisms lends special intensity to the rhythm of the poem. The widespread rhyme scheme divides the fourteen lines into four large semantic groups. Since each group is to be read in one breath up to the end rhyme, i t has a strong sense of flow. The fact that the second lines of these parallelisms do not end in the end rhyme position also reduces the obstacle to the forward move-ment caused by the rhyme. Moreover, in this poem the coherent develop-ment of ideas which links these groups together similarly promotes continuity. The tonal patterns of these five parallelisms are not inversely parallel nor are they identical. Except for line 12, one thing a l l share in common is that in each tetrasyl1abic parallelism the tones of the second and fourth words are opposite: level vs. oblique (except lines 7 & 8). Furthermore, the two lines of each parallelism are tightly matched both in syntax and meaning. The syntax of the f i r s t parallelism (lines 1 & 2) is arranged in normal Chinese word order: noun-verb-noun (subject-verb-object). In these two lines, the noun "flower" i s paired with "grass" and "western garden" with "southern path." The verb "to blossom" is paired with "to perfume." This parallelism presents two sets of scenes in spring: the flowers are budding in the western garden and the grass is perfum-ing the southern path. The third line e x p l i c i t l y describes the 141 overall situation and, at the same time, reinforces what has been said in the beginning parallelism. This is a characteristic method of development in Liu's poems which begin with a parallelism. The fourth line specifies the time: that is after the Ch'ing-ming f e s t i v a l . The presentation of the scenes within one breath in a fluent flow not only catches the reader's attention but also makes the theme stand out immediately. This forceful beginning greatly contributes to the effectiveness of the poem.101 The syntactic arrangement of the second parallelism (lines 5 & 6) is noun-verb-noun-verb. In this parallelism the noun "water" is paired with "exorcism performance", "boat" with "feast";'' the verb "to play" is paired with "to drink" and "to move (or paddle)" with "to open". This parallelism is more complicated than the f i r s t one in that each line contains a parallelism within i t s e l f : "water" is also contrasted with "boat", "to play" with "to move" in the f i r s t line; "exorcism performance" is contrasted with "feast" and "to drink" with "to open" in the second line. Furthermore, the word order of the two lines is inverted by having the object before the verb: that i s , "water" and "boat" before "to play" and "to move" and "exorcism performance" and "feast" before "to drink" and "to open" respectively. This inversion of word order puts emphasis on the key images "water", "boat" "exorcism performance" and "feast". With the four sets of inverted "object-verb" structure this parallelism plays a greater role than the f i r s t one by presenting more detail in the same number of words. 142 Hence, the implied subject--people--perform four kinds of activities at the same time: playing in the water, paddling in boats, drinking wine and feasting. The third parallelism (lines 7 & 8) presents the location where the festive activities are being carried out. Its syntactic arrange-ment is noun-adverb-verb (or more precisely adjective-noun-adverb-verb).. It is in fact a juxtaposition of two similes. The noun "silver pond" is paired with "golden [solid] dyke" and the passive verb "dyed" is paired with "embroidered". The pairing of the passive verbs "dyed" and "embroidered" which involve personification emphasizes the beauty of the scene. The fourth parallelism (lines 9 & 10) has a syntactic arrange-ment in an adverb-noun pattern. The adverb "everywhere" is paired with "many" and the noun "gentlemen" with "courtesans". This parallel-ism is less formal than the previous ones in that i t includes the colloquialisms shih-ch'u ^ "everywhere" and chi-tuo "many". Using the informal language Liu s k i l l f u l l y draws two sets of human images "gentlemen" and "courtesans" to make a parallelism which naturally arouses his feelings. The last parallelism (line 12) is an example of "a parallelism within a line." Its syntactic arrangement is verb-noun. The verb "to send" is paired with "to face" and the noun "parting person" with "fine scene". Because i t s length--a 3-word-line parallelism and rhythm 3/3—differs from the predominant 4-word-line parallelisms, i t catches attention. In this parallelism the hidden emotions of the poet are 143 revealed. Therefore, i t serves as a turning point: a point at which the external scene and the internal emotions meet and a point at which happiness shifts to sorrow. The final two lines further details his sorrow. Now he is plunged into a state of introspection. And yet, at the same time, he is surrounded by the beautiful and happy spring scene f u l l of buzzing human ac t i v i t i e s . This paradoxical situation is made possible by the parallelisms which elaborate and emphasize the beauty of spring (as in lines 1 & 2, 7 & 8) and the liveliness of human activities (as lines 5 & 6, lines 9 & 10). Each line of a parallelism reveals more detail of the scene. This use of parallelism in order to further elaborate more details illustrates Liu's expansive p'u-hsu^^^k^ technique. This is why traditional scholars praised his style for " "102 being expansive and extensive, sufficient and exhaustive. D. Caesural Patterns and the Use of the Lingtzu (Lead Words) 1. Caesural patterns The positions of the pauses (or caesurae) in the lines of Liu's tz'u are very different from those in the TWTT, in the Tun-huang folk songs or in the works of his contemporary tz'u poets such as Yen Shu and Ou-yang Hsiu. In the TWTT under the influence of the Recent Style Poetry, the pauses occur most often at the end of the second word in a 144 5-word-line, thus, i t s rhythmic and semantic division is 2/3. The pauses occur most often at the end of the fourth word in a 7-word-line, thus, i t s rhythmic and semantic division is 4/3. For instance, the fifteen poems written to the tune-pattern p'u-sa-man^ ^jk-^ei ^ ^en T'ing-yiin have a rhythmic pattern no different from that in the Recent Style Poetry: 4/3-4/3-2/3-2/3; 2/3-2/3-2/3-2/3.103 Most of the Northern Sung tz'u poets divided their 5-word-line and 7-word-line in the similar manner. I think this is partly due to the influence of the prosody of the Recent Style Poetry and partly due to the music of hsiao-ling. But as one turns to the tz'u of Liu, one is struck with the changes made to the rhythm of the lines. Liu's a b i l i t y to innovate in the rhythm of tz'u lies in his deep knowledge of music. Since he knows the technique of singing man-tz'u, he writes according to it s beats. Consequently, he not only changes the musical rhythm of the lines but also this semantic rhythm. In the ICC, we frequently encounter lines of "abnormal" rhythm. The normal rhythmic division of a 4-word-line is 2/2, 1 0 4 but in the tz'u of Liu we can find over a dozen lines with a 1/3 rhythm (or 1 05 more precisely 1/2/1 rhythm). ahien hsin-yen kuo 1//2/1107 see new wild-goose pass 1^ In the TWTT and in the Tun-huang folk songs very few 5-word-lines have the 1/4 rhythm, but in the tz'u of Liu, the 1/4 rhythm 145 (or more precisely 3/2 or 1/2/2 rhythm) seems to be a norm. The follow-ing example is from his over 180 lines in the 1/4 rhythm, hen fu-ming eh 'ien-hsi hate floating fame cling t i e 109 hen fu-ming eh'ien-hsi 1//2/2 In some cases Liu uses two 1/4 rhythm in two consecutive lines, usually a parallel ism such as, k'uang hsiu-wei jen-ohing 1//2/2 however embroidered curtain person quiet keng shan-kuan eh'un-han 1//2/2 moreover h i l l inn spring cold Apart from having the normal 2/4 or 4/2 (or more precisely 2/2/2) rhythm, 1 1 1 many of Liu's 6-word-lines have 3/3 and 1/5 rhythm as in # * 1. ko-yen pa ah'ieh kuei-oh'u 2/1//I/2 song feast over may as well return 'uang yi-ohieh sheng-sheng yiu moreover already made deep deep promise I 1 q 2. k'uang yi-ohieh sheng-sheng yuan 1//2/2/1 Sometimes the 1/5 rhythm can be taken as 3/3 i f the remaining five words has a 2/3 rhythm. For instance, the rhythm of the line 146 k'uang//yi-chieh/sheng-sheng/yuan can also be divided into k'uang/yi-chiefy/sheng-sheng/yuan without causing abrupt semantic division of the line. This is because in a 5-word-line the semantic rhythm occurs after the second word, that i s , after the third word in a 6-word-line. Liu's 7-word-lines show even greater departure from those in the TWTT. In his YCC over 240 7-word-lines are divided into the 3/4 rhythm instead of the normal 4/3 rhythm. Thus, the stress occurs at the third, f i f t h and seventh word instead of the second, fourth and sixth word. 1 1 4 This again indicates his freedom from the influence of the Recent Style Poetry. The 7-word-line in the 3/4 rhythm frequently combines the 115 meaning of two lines, such as, ' M R * % ii  :M % 1]6 shui-feng ch'ing p'ing-hua chien-lao 2/1//2/2 water wind light apple flowers gradually old But, one also finds that, when the f i r s t three words are made up of hsu-tzu, frequently the 7-word-line contains only one meaning, such as: % & fa #.4 ft *# tsen-nai-hsiang tz'u-shih ch'ing-hsu 3//2/2 how to bear this moment's feeling? In many cases the 3/4 rhythm can be divided into the 1/6 (or more precisely 1/2/2/2) rhythm according to the semantic rhythm. For instance, the line 147 tui/man-mu//luan-hua/k 'uang-hsu face f u l l eyes confused flowers crazy catkins J18 1/2//2/2 can be taken as tui//man/mu/luan-hua/k'uang-hsu 1//2/2/2 without changing i t s meaning. This is because, in a 6-word-line, the pauses occur after the second, fourth and sixth word which are actually 119 the third, f i f t h and seventh word of a 7-word-line. Some of Liu's 7-word-lines have very different rhythms. In several cases he uses the 1//3/3 rhythm which contains two major pauses, 1 20 chien ah'iu-kuang lao oh'ing-hsiao yung 1//2/1//2/1 ohien ch 'iu-kuang lao ch 'ing-hsiao \ gradually autumn scene old clear night long In some cases Liu uses the 2/5 rhythm, such as: # t f l £33 ^ & 3 'an-yen fan-ch 'eng hsin keng-keng grieve so turn into heart restless restless 121 ts 'an-yen fan-ch'eng hsin keng-keng 2//2/1/2 The normal rhythmic division of a 8-word-line is 3/5, 1 2 2 but in the tz'u of Liu we can find over twenty lines in the 1/7 rhythm, such as : tui hsiao-hsiao mu-yu sa chiang-t'ie face 'hsiao-hsiao' evening rain splash river sky 123 tui hsiao-hsiao mu-yu sa chiang-t'ien 1//2/2/1/2 148 What characterizes these 8-word-lines is that, even i f the f i r s t word is taken out the remaining seven words can stand as an independent unit which has a 4/3 rhythm and a self-sufficient meaning no different from an ordinary 7-word-line. There are not many lines longer than eight words in Liu's tz'u. And yet, some of his long lines do have an "abnormal" rhythm. The normal 124 rhythmic division of a 9-word-line is 4/5 , but in Liu's tz'u we occasionally encounter the 2/7 rhythm, wei-ts 'eng Tiieh-ohan shuang-mei chan k'ai-k'ou 2//2/2/1/2 not yet slightly open pair eyebrows temporarily open mouth or more often the 3/6 rhythm, tfL 4k 4 -* -vfc -ft i t i f * ' pien-huan-tso wu-yu tsai-feng yi-mien 3//Z/2/Z I think no reason again meet her face Liu's "abnormal" caesural pattern not only changes the semantic rhythm of a line but also brings out stronger imagery, especially when a line is introduced by a monosyllable. For instance, the line | t s i * f A %L 4*\ * fan lang-p'ing feng-keng chih ho-chf'u^' 1//2/2/1/2 sigh drifting duckweed wind stem know where go? has a 1/7 rhythm. As mentioned earlier, even i f the word fan ^ (to sigh) is taken away, the remaining seven words become an ordinary 7-word-line with a normal 4/3 rhythm. With the nature images "drifting 149 duckweed" and "wind stem" this 7-word-line conveys the rootless feelings of the poet. Since fan is placed in the beginning of the line and is separated by a major pause from the rest of the line, i t s meaning is stressed. It specifies the emotional state of the poet. He is not just thinking about his unstable l i f e in general as suggested by the 7-word-line, but he is "sighing" about i t . The word fan thus gives more force and a more personal tone to the poem. 2. The use of the lead-words The use of lingtzu (lead-words) is one of the unique characteris-tics of Liu's man-tz'u. The use of lead-words is extremely rare in the TWTT and in the Tun-huang folk songs. In fact, i t did not come into 1 op practice in the Northern Sung Dynasty, and Liu was the f i r s t tz'u poet 129 to abundantly use lead words in tz'u. The lead-words not only change the rhythm and syntax of tz'u but also greatly affect i t s struc-ture. Therefore, the use of lead-words can be considered as one of Liu's most significant contributions to tz'u. In the following I w i l l examine the various characteristics of lead-words and their function to the tz'u of Liu. As the term i t s e l f suggests a lead-word always occurs at the beginning of a line. It is also called yi-tzu-tou ^ " ^ i ^ (one word pause) 1 3 0 or ling-tiao-tzu ^HlDf] (a word that 'leads' a tune). 1 3 1 132 Traditional scholars called i t hsii-tzu. The kind of hsii-tzu used here (at least in Liu's tz'u) is different from the ordinary hsii-tzu 133 in that i t includes verbs, adverbs, conjunctions, and adjectives. 150 Lead-words are mostly in oblique tones, and these are usually in the 134 fa l l i n g tone. A lead-word can be a: monosyllable, a disyllable or a t r i s y l l a b l e . 1 3 5 Liu makes use of a wide range of words in oblique tones as lead-words. He often chooses adverbs as lead-words and uses some of them repeatedly such as chien$\ (gradually) (seven times), nai (however) 1 (four times) and cheng j£. (just)(four times). Liu is fond of using transitive verbs such as n i e n f e (to remember, to think or to consider) (seven times), yu ^ (to have)(twice), yung f^C(to chant) (once) and ehi^a-(to succeed, to inherit) fonce). He i s also fond of using a variety of intransitive verbs such as hsiang^®^ (to think of)(once), fan « ^ (to sigh)(once) and teng^ (to ascend)(once) . 1 3 8 Liu uses many different disyllabic lead-words such as hsu-hsin (must believe), li-wang j L " ^ (to stand and gaze at) and yao-jen 4» "{^(to recognize from a distance). 1 3 9 Some of his disyllabic lead-words are d awn from colloquial language such as yu-shih (again i t i s ) , hsing-yu •-fy ifl (luckily to have) and wang-ch'u'^.^, (wherever I s e e ) . 1 4 0 The majority of his t r i s y l l a b i c lead-words are drawn from colloquial language such as keng-k'o-hsi^jtf^ (what a pity) and ch'ang-chih-k'icng ^ 5> fy. (always just f e a r ) . 1 4 1 In man-tz'u, lead-words perform musical and literary functions. Because the musical records had been lost, exactly how to sing man-tz'u is not known. According to Nai Te-weng<^ ^  ^ , in the singing of man-tz'u, "one starts [with a] heavy [beat] and ends [with a] light 140 [beat]." From this i t may be conjectured that lead-words are 151 located in these heavy beats. The frequent use of lead-words in the heavy f a l l i n g tones seems to confirm this conjecture. As observed by Lung Yii-sheng " ^ ^ j " lead-words are also located in positions where 143 a change of breath occurs. In defining man-tz'u Wang Li suggests that, since the rhyme scheme of man-tz'u is widespread the time required to read each word in one rhyme interval is short and thus the beats 144 are light. From a l l of these, we can conclude that a lead-word has a heavy beat. The lines i t introduces are to be read quickly in light beats. Between a lead-word and the lines i t introduces there is a pause. A greater change in structure effected by lead-words in Liu's man-tz'u is producing enjambment. Because a lead-word introduces lines, i t groups a few lines into a larger semantic unit. By linking the images together into bigger semantic units a lead-word tightens the organization of a poem. And, since these big semantic units (which usually are within one sparse rhyme interval) are to be read in one breath, they strengthen the rhythmic movement and at the same time, enhance continuity. A lead-word can also highlight changes in the poet's experience from one level to another, thus intensifying the development of a poem. Lead-words are most often used to introduce tetrasyllabic lines. Only in a handful of cases are they used to introduce parallel lines of different length other than tetrasyllables. Sometimes they are used to introduce lines of unequal length. 1 The monosyllabic lead-words are mostly used to introduce tetra-syllabic parallelisms (in about seventy cases) such as: old happiness sudden abandon (However, It is hard to keep the beautiful moment, [and moreover], I have suddenly abandoned my former lover).145 They are also often used to introduce two semantically unparallel tetra syllables such as: nai hao-ching nan-liu however beautiful scene hard keep 1//2/2 chiu-huan tun-ch'i. 2/2 hen pao-ch'ing yi-ch 'u3 hate thin love once gone 1//2/2 yin-shu wu-ko. sound letter not one 2/2 (I hate that Once my unfaithful lover has gone, There is not even one letter from him).146 The monosyllabic lead-words are very rarely used to introduce three parallel tetrasyllables but, more often, (in nineteen cases) they are used to introduce three unparallel tetrasyllables such as: 153 chien shuang-feng ch 'i-chin3 gradually frost wind c h i l l y hard 1//2/2 flfl 59 & kuan-ho leng-Zo, 2/2 mountain-pass river desolate ts'an-chao tang-lou. I l l remnant-sunshine face building (Gradually, the frosty wind rises c h i l l y and hard, The landscape looks more forlorn, The fading sun f a l l s on the balcony)J47 In a fashion similar to the monsyllabic lead-words the disyllabic lead-words are mostly used (in over twenty-cases) to introduce a tetra-syllabic parallelism, such as: (All this time I have been indulging myself in wine and have been surrounded by women).148 Only in several cases are the disyllabic lead-words used to introduce tetrasyllabic lines. Sometimes the disyllabic lines in the beginning of the second stanza (that i s , the so-called huan-t''ou [change head position] can serve the function of a disyllabic lead-word ch 1 ang-shih yin-chiu ch 'en-mi, always is because of wine sink addict 2//2/2 *JL & * * f pei-hua ying-pan by flower around hinder 2/2 even though instance, the lines i t introduces are separated by a comma, for nan-wang3 wen-ch H chiu-hui . hard to forget, literary meeting wine gathering 2//2/2 chi-ku feng-yiieh} many betray wind moon 2/2 4 t £ % Zu-pien hsing-shuang. often change star frost 2/2 (It is hard to forget The literary meetings and the drinking parties, The many romances I have betrayed and The years that have gone by).149 The t r i s y l l a b i c lead-words are often used to introduce lines unequal length and only in several cases are they used to introduce tetrasyllabic lines, as in 1L % k. •» % % & tsui-k'u-shih hao-ching tiang-t '-ten, most painful is beautiful scene fine weather 3//2/2 tsun-ch 'ien ko-hsiao3 goblet front sing laugh 2/2 k'ung-hsiang yi-yin in vain think remain sound 2/2 155 (The most painful thing is that When I sing and laugh in front of a goblet during beautiful moments I can only think of her voice in vain).150 In several cases lead-words are used to introduce parallel lines of different length. They can introduce a t r i s y l l a b i c parallelism, ehveh k'e-oh'eng lao, feel quest journey toilsome 1//2/1 n-ien-kuang wan. year light late 2/1 (I feel that My journey is toilsome, The year is coming to the end).151 or a pentasyllabic parallelism, kuan lush-in Zu-ohin yi3 observe dew wet thread gold clothes 1//2/2/1 -t «* # 4, # yeh-ying ju-huang-yu. 2/2/1 leaves hide like reed talk (Watch the dew wetting the dress threaded with gold, The leaves hiding [the oriole that] warbles like the reed-pipes).152 or a hexasyllabic parallelism, f - ft <fc ft * t ^ /zwi yueh-fu liang-ahi shen-hsien, assemble Music Bureau two register immortal 1//2/2/2 J$t i f ) ^ - 8 ? li-yuan ssu-pu hsien-kuan. 2/2/2 Pear Garden four section string pipe (Assemble are the immortals of the two divisions of the Music Bureau, The four sections of strings and pipes of the Pear Garden).153 Apart from introducing parallelisms and lines of equal length lead-words,of course, can introduce lines of unequal length. They can introduce two unequal lines, such as: 5#f K & ?K ohien t 'ien ju-shui, gradually sky like water 1//1/2 su-yiieh tang-wu, pale moon just noon 2/2 (Gradually The sky becomes as clear as water, The white moon is as bright as the noon-sun). 1 5 4 They can also introduce several unequal lines, such as: n A ' A $ L f cha- lu-leng feng-ch'ing t'ing-hu3 just dew cold wind.clear hall household 1//2/2/2 k K J* shuang-t'ien ju-shui, 2/2 crisp sky like water 157 yu-kou yao-kua. 2/2 jade hook far hang (It is the time when The dew is cold and the wind is soothing in the ha l l , The sky is as clear as water, The crescent moon hangs high in the sky)J55 3. Word order The i n i t i a l monosyllables (used in lines of "abnormal" pauses) and lead-words not only change rhythm but also alter syntax. An examination of the lines introduced by these words reveals that disyllabic lead-words and tr i s y l l a b i c lead-words do not affect the word order of a sentence at a l l . When a monosyllabic lead-word is a transitive verb i t seldom changes word order. But, when i t is an intransitive verb or an adverb, i t frequently does. What is noteworthy is that imagery is strengthened by the alteration of the word order. When a line is introduced by a transitive verb (which takes a direct object), i t rarely causes inversion of the word order, as in KL 4 k- -a 1-pao oh'ing-oh'van hsiao-hsi 1//2/2 report green spring news 1 cc (to announce the news of spring). When a line is introduced by an intransitive verb, i t often causes inversion of word order. For instance, the line 158 li shuang-shuang ou-lu 1//2/2 stand pair pair seagulls egrets in normal Chinese word order which requires a subject to precede a verb should be read as shuang-shuang ou-lu Vi_ 2/2//~\ pair pair seagulls egrets stand (There stand pairs and pairs of seagulls and egrets) J 5 7 But, when li JL (to stand) is placed in the beginning of the line, i t immediately conjures up the motions of the birds. Adverbs cause most changes in word order. For instance, the following line * £ & % ohien ah'iu-kuang lao ch'ing-hsiao yung 1//2/1//2/2 gradually autumn scene old clear night long should be read as oh'iu-kuang ohien-lao ch'ing-hsiao \chien\ yung autumn scene gradually old clear night [gradually] long (Autumn is approaching i t s end and the clear night i s getting longer).158 for a more complete meaning. When ohien (gradually) is placed in the beginning of the line, i t emphasizes the passage of time. Another line 159 flfl M « # * $ * *fc dhien liu-ching hua-yin hsi-shou pien 1//2/2/2/1 among willow path flower shade hold hand everywhere is very ambiguous. In normal Chinese word order i t can be read as ttft ft ik n\ # % tib liu-ching hua-yin chien hsi-shou pien willow path flower shade among hold hand everywhere or even hsi-shou pien liu-ching hua-yin chien hold hand everywhere willow path flower shade among (Hand in hand we walk along every willow path and and flower shade).159 The word chien f&\ (among, amidst) is changed from the fa l l i n g tone to the level tone when i t appears in the middle or at the end of the line. When i t is placed in the beginning of the line, i t emphasizes the many places the lovers have been through. Some adverbs cause so much ambiguity that certain words have to be "added" in order to complete the meaning. For instance, in the following line Kl «4 1* % % \k % & tan hsieh-yang mu-ai man p'ing-wu 1//2/2/1/2 only slanting sun evening mist f i l l f l a t land we may "add" the word chien (to see) after tan^\Q (only). Thus the line becomes tan [chien^ hsieh-yang mu-ai man p'ing-wu only [see] slanting sun evening mist f i l l f l a t land (I can only see the setting sun and the evening mist f i l l i n g the f l a t land). We may also "add" the word yu ^ (to have) after tan and, thus, the line becomes tan \_yu .] hsieh-yang mu-ai man p'ing-wu only [have] slanting sun evening mist f i l l f l a t land (There are only the setting sun and the evening mist f i l l i n g the f l a t land).160 In some cases changes of word order may involve more than one line. For instance, m *. it % % chien tung-ehiao fang-ts'ao gradually eastern suburb fragrant grass Jr^C nt jan-oh 'eng ch 'ing-pi dye become light green should be read as M P % % tung-chiao fang-ts 'ao, 2/2 eastern suburb fragrant grass 1//2/2 2/2 T6T-ohien jan-ch 'eng ch'ing-pi 1//2/2 gradually dye become light green (Gradually the fragrant grass in the Eastern suburb is dyed into light green).161 according to normal Chinese word order. In these two lines the adverb ahieny^igradually) which normally precedes the verb j'an_§^ : (to dye) is transposed to the position before the object tung-ohiao-fang-ts'ao Jj* (the fragrant grass of the eastern suburb). Thus, ohien emphasizes the gradual change of color of the fragrant grass. Moreover, after ohien is moved to the beginning of the f i r s t line the two tetra-syllabic lines are to be read in one breath rhythmically and semantically. This enhances the forward movement of the poem. Very often, when an adverb is used to introduce three tetra-syllabic lines, i t involves more change of word order and brings out stronger imagery. For instance oheng yen-hsing shao-lin 1/72/2 just beautiful apricot burn forest hsiang-t'ao hsiu-yeh 2/2 yellow peach embroider wilderness fang-ohing ju-p'ing 2/2 fragrant scene like painted screen can be explained as 162 yen-hsing cheng shao-lin 2/1/2 hsiang-t'ao cheng hsiu-yeh Z/"\/Z fang-ching cheng ju-p'ing 2/1/2 (The beautiful apricots are flaming the forest, The yellow peaches are embroidering the wilderness, The fragrant scene is^ like a painted screen).162 Again the transposition of the position of the adverb cheng j£(just) brings out the beauty, liveliness and omnipresence of spring. The imagery presented by the effective use of the verbs shaoj^ (to burn) and hsiu (to embroider) is reinforced by the word cheng (just). Moreover, the repetition of the three tetrasyllabic lines gives the poem a strong rhythmic flow and semantic continuity. After we have examined the various aspects of lead-words, now, we proceed to see how Liu uses them in the context of a single poem. The f i r s t stanza of the poem written to the tune-pattern chu-ma -tzu Vf S 3 - 1 6 3 exempli fies his effective use of lead-words. Line * 4- & * teng ku-lei huang-liang 1//2/2 ascend lonely rampart desolate wei-t'ing k'uang-wang 2/2 high pavillion far gaze ^ & %% ching-Hn yen-chu (tsiwo) 2/2 silently face misty island tui tz'u-ni kua-yu 1//2/2 face female rainbow hang rain # ) J l # * hsiung-feng fu-chien 2/2 male wind sweep porch * & * £ t wei-shou fan-shu (siwo) 2/2 slightly gather unbearable heat chien-dhveh yi-yeh ching-ch'iu 2//2/2 gradually feel one leaf startle autumn ts'an-ch'an ts'ao-wan 2/2 remnant cicada noise evening su-shang shih-hsu (ziwo) 2/2 pale autumn time order lan-eking hsiang oh'ien-huan 2/1/2 inspect scene think previous happiness e/z£7z shen-ehing 1/2 point divine capital fei-wu fei-yen shen-ch'u (ts'iwo) 2/2/2 not fog not mist deep place 164 I ascend The lonely and desolate rampart, Gaze at the distance from the high pavillion and Face the mist-enshrouded isles. I face The female rainbow that hangs in the rain, The male wind that sweeps over the porch. The summer heat slightly decreases. I am gradually aware that One fallen leaf heralds in autumn, The remaining cicadas are chirping in the evening: It is the f a l l season. Look around at the scenery I recall my past romance. There is the capital Which lie s amidst the half mist-enshrounded distance. This stanza presents a desolate autumn scene and a lonely wandere a theme typical of Liu. In this stanza, Liu uses two monosyllabic lead-words teng^ to ascend) and t u i ^ (to face) which are transitive verbs and one disyllabi lead-word chien-chueh~3$\$%J<gradually feel) which is a combination of an adverb and an intransitive verb. Chien~$\ (gradually) modifies chtleh ^ (to feel). Rhythmically, because the lines introduced by these lead-words are to be read in one breath up to the end rhyme, they have a strong forward flow. Also, the repetition of the short tetrasyllabic lines intensifies the rhythm of the poem. Semantically, "to ascend" governs lines 1, 2 & 3; "to face" governs lines 4, 5 & 6 and "gradually feel" governs lines 7, 8 & 9. The grouping of the nine lines into three big semantic units not only increases the semantic continuity but also tightens the organization of the poem. The relationship between these lead-words and the images can be illustrated by the following diagram, 165 to ascend lone rampart desolate c ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ n i 9 n p a v i l l i o n far gaze s i lence faceIfiTsty'Tsland s to face female rainbow hang rain male wind sweep porch slightly gather unbearable heat 5 gradually feel one leaf startle autumn remnant cicada noise evening pale autumn time order Each of these lead-words performs further functions in the poem. The lead-word "to ascend", which is placed in the beginning of the poem and which introduces three short tetrasyllabic lines, provides the poem with a strong start both rhythmically and semantically. It immediately identifies the action and location of the poet: he ascends the lone rampart, and he also ascends the high pavillion (on the rampart) and gazes at the distant isles. The lead-words "to face" and "gradually feel" serve as transitional agents carrying the poetic experience from one level to another. Hence, after the comparatively static spatial 166 setting and unpleasant mood set forth in the f i r s t three lines by the noun images "rampart", "pavillion" and "isles" and the adjectives "lone", "desolate", "high", "afar" and "misty", "to face" highlights the shift-ing of the poet's attention to another more dynamic aspect: that i s , the changing phenomena of the rainbow, the rain, the wind, and the change of temperature from hot to cold. The lead-word "gradually feel" extends the poet's experience to a psychological dimension. "To ascend" de-scribes the poet's overt action while "to face" conveys less overt action. But, "gradually feel" expresses the poet's covert action: that i s , he is made aware of the coming of autumn. Thus, from overt, to less overt, to covert, these three lead-words progress step by step, from external scene to internal feelings. In succession, each lead-word unfolds deeper emotions of the poet, providing the poem with a coherent development. The last three lines detail and specify the emotions of the poet. Moved by the desolate autumn scene, he recalls a past romance in the capital, which is now far away beyond the mist. The rhythm of the last three lines seems relaxed after the more intense rhythm created by the three lead-words. This slowing down of the rhythm matches the linger-ing emotions of the poet. 167 E. Enjambment and Continuity The use of enjambment is a unique characteristic of Liu's tz'u. He was the f i r s t of the Northern Sung tz'u poets to make abundant use of enjambment, which can thus be considered as one of his important innovations in the structure of tz'u. In the previous sections I have examined the relatively formal enjambment produced by parallelisms and lead-words. Here, I wish to look into Liu's less formal forms of enjambment which equally contribute strong rhythmic flow and continuity to his tz'u. In Liu's YCC, almost a l l his poems have enjambment except for 165 some hsiao-ling. By way of contrast, the use of enjambment is not a common practice in the TWTT. Most of the lines in the TWTT are end-stopped, that i s : the end of a line coincides with the completion of the meaning. In other words, each line is a sentence. Sometimes we encounter enjambed lines in the TWTT such as: it 4 m * & chi-te na-nien hua-hsia, remember that year flower beneath 5 * A . shen-yeh, deep night M f t y * ^ ch 'u-shih Hsieh-niang shih . just meet Hsieh-niang time 168 (I remember in that year Late in the night beneath the flowers When I f i r s t met Hsieh-niang).166 However, these lines can only be considered as exceptional cases. In comparison with the TWTT, more run-on lines can be found in the Yim-yao chi in the Tun-huang folk songs. Unlike Liu's enjambment which includes several lines, almost a l l of these enjambed lines run on for only two lines, as in hsing-yin chin-jih, luckily today te-tu chiao-o. able see elegant lady (Luckily I have the opportunity to see the elegant lady today).167 The greater number of run-on lines in the Yuh-yao chi reflects the fact that, the increasing length of tz'u made necessary a new type of sen-tence structure. Liu's more abundant use of enjambment is the result of four conditions. The f i r s t condition i s the greater length of man-tz'u, which can thus accommodate a greater amount of content. The second condition is the sparse rhyme scheme, which allows the extended use of syntax. The third condition is the extreme unequal length of the lines 1 CO (especially the great number of short lines) which makes the com-pletion of meaning and syntax d i f f i c u l t . The fourth condition is Liu's 169 deep knowledge of music which allows him to write the "song words" according to the musical flow rather than simply following the line length of the poemJ 6 9 What characterizes Liu's enjambment is his use of hsii-tzu. With it s "non-content" nature, hsii-tzu can "dilute" the "heaviness" caused by the closely-packed concrete images. 1 7 0 Hence, apart from contri-buting c l a r i t y to a sentence, i t also reduces ambiguity caused by iso-lative syntax, in so doing strengthening the forward movement of a poem.171 A l l these conditions contribute to the flow and continuity to Liu's tz'u. Since Liu's enjambment is characterized by his constant use of the logical linguistic sequence, the analysis of syntax becomes a key in examining his enjambment. The use of the question and the question and answer forms is Liu's favorite technique for creating enjambment (about 107 cases). His questions are.often made up of more than one line. In his use of extended questions he frequently uses explicit interrogative words such as ho^\ for ho-ch'u^\ J^j. (where) and ho-shih'ft] 4% (when). He also uses wen frf\ (ask), tsen fe. (how), shelf/ft- (who), and wen-shen (for what reason). He also frequently employs colloquial words such as cheng J£f (how), chi-shih t^j" (at what time), tuo-shao % *)f (how much) and other interrogative particles such as fou'Q and mo jjfc. • Liu often starts the questions with explicit interrogative words in the beginning lines, as in 170 h a # n chi-shih te kuei-lai3 what time able return hsiang-ko shen-kuang? (r) fragrant attic deep door (When w i l l you be able to return to my secluded chamber?)172 Liu also often describes the overall situation in the beginning line and then proceeds to ask a question in the following line, as in oh 'eng-shen tzu-weil (r) become what taste (Facing this beautiful scene at this wonderful moment with my knitted eyebrows, What kind of feeling is this)? 173 tui hao-ching liang-ch 'en3 face fine scene beautiful time chou-ehe mei-erh3 knitting eyebrows In several cases Liu combines a question and a direct speech, for instance, 171 %K A f *-shih-wen yi-chia, try ask him -M # 1 * ah-shei. hsin-hsu, whose heart mood chin-te ju-hsu wu-liao? (v) bear able like this l i s t l e s s (Let me ask him: who can bear this l i s t l e s s mood?)174 These interrogative sentences contribute to the continuity of Liu's tz'u in different ways, depending on their positions in the poems. In general, eighty percent of Liu's questions appear in positions other than the beginning or the end of the poems. The majority of them are unanswered questions. They simply raise issues and are followed by another level of poetic experience. However, whether answered or unanswered, they can arouse the reader's interest in what wil l happen next. With their appropriate positions they serve as important transitional agents for generating continuity. Questions which appear 175 at the end of the f i r s t stanza also serve as mechanism of continuity. Even i f they are separated by the formal stanzaic division, the anticipation of an answer carries the flow and sense from one stanza to the next. This method of carrying the meaning from the f i r s t to the second stanza is one technique for maintaining the flow of man-tz1u. The unresolved questions which appear at the end of the poems can carry the reader's experience beyond the end of a poem. That i s , 172 even though the words are finished, the sense and emotional impact linger. This type of poem has a strong and long-lasting forward momentum. Liu's question and answer form is mostly used to end a poem.177 The expectation of an answer imparts a strong sense of continuity between the lines. Thus, the appearance of the answer releases the tension of expectation and, hence, provides the poem with a stable and secure conclusion. In contrast to the long-lasting forward momentum provided by a question at the end of a poem, the end position of the question and answer form signifies a definite termination of the flow and meaning. For instance, in % ^ A <& shang-hsin ho-ch 'u hao? admire heart where place good H*^ % 1ft wei-yu - tsun-eh'ien. (r) only have wine-goblet front (Where is the best place to enjoy oneself? It is only in front of the goblet).178 the answer "It is only in front of the goblet" hints at a release from worldly worries. Wei-yu (only have) indicates the poet's final achievement and, thus, gives the poem an assertive ending. The use of syntactic formulae is Liu's second device for creating enjambment. In Chinese, as in a l l languages, certain grammatical particles are necessary to make up one complete meaning. 173 Thus, in English when one sees "not only" one anticipates "but also". This syntactic sequence implies a logical relationship, the occurrence of one part causes the reader to expect the occurrence of the following 179 part. Thus, when used in a poem i t enhances the forward movement. Two things characterize Liu's syntactic formulae. Fir s t , they are made up of hsu-tzu. Secondly, they are drawn from daily language and, thus, they give a poem a conversational tone. For instance, in 1. tsao-ehih jen-ti nan-p'ing, early know like thus hard abandon hui-pu tang-shin liu-chu. (v) regret not that time retain (If I had known i t was so d i f f i c u l t to get rid of this feeling I should have made him stay).180 2. tsui-k'u cheng huan-yu, the most painful just happy At $ % & pien-fen yuan-lit, (v) have to separate mandarin-duck lover (The most painful thing is that when we are just happy together we have to part).181 ... * ± 3. tzu hsiang-feng, since mutual meet 174 pien-ahiieh Ean-o ehia-chien, already realize Han-o price reduce Fei-yen sheng-hsiao. (v) Fei-yen fame disappear (Ever since we met, I became to realize that the price of Han-o has reduced, The fame of Fei-yen disappeared).182 the syntactic patterns tsao-chih- — . hui-pu^fo— ffyfc3 eheng-pien The second and third syntactic patterns are blended with elegant diction flow and informality but also elegance. The use of the copula (that i s : A is \_shih-j^_ ] B pattern) is Liu's third linguistic device for creating enjambment. For instance, are drawn from vernacular language. in ts 'ai-tzu tz *u-jen3 talented youth tz'u poet tzu-shih--pai-yi ch'ing-hsiang. (v) naturally is white clothes o f f i c i a l prime minister (A talented tz'u poet is certainly a prime minister in commoner's clothing).183 the subject "a talented tz'u poet" occurs in the f i r s t line and the predicate "a prime minister in commoner's clothing" in the second line. 175 Liu also extends the copula to several lines, as in hung-ch [en tzu-mo3 red dust purple path * & it hsien-yang mu-ts 'ao Ch 'ang-an-tao3 slanting sun evening grass Ch'ang-an-road 4L # ^ * r shih Zi-jen tuan-hun eh 'u, is parting person break soul place i i -a. & fa t'iao-t'iao p'i-ma hsi-dheng. (r) far far single horse west journey (Purple path covered with red-dust, Evening grass in the setting sun: This is the Ch'ang-an road Where I am heart-broken by parting sorrow and Where I, alone on a horse, am about to set off to the far west).184 The parallelism "red dust purple path, slanting sun evening grass" modifies "Ch'ang-an-road". These two lines can end with "Ch'ang-an-road" and s t i l l have a complete meaning. But, the appearance of the auxilliary verb shih ^ (is) immediately picks up the flow of the sentence. This makes "Ch'ang-an-road" the subject of the verb " i s " and "parting person break soul place" and "far far single horse west journey" the complement. As a result, the meaning is extended to four lines. 176 In some enjambed lines the auxiliary verb shih is suppressed, as in tsui wu-tuan oh'u} most unreasonable place & 1 " f tsung-pa liang-hsiao, always in beautiful night, A A I S , £ f chih-jen ku-mien ah'ueh. (r) only thus alone sleep (The most unreasonable thing is sleeping alone in this way during beautiful nights).185 The f i r s t line "the most unreasonable thing" arouses the question "what?" The auxiliary verb shih which should come after e ^ ' u ^ i s suppressed. The second line "in beautiful nights" again with i t s incomplete meaning and syntax increases the reader's curiosity. But, only after the reader finishes reading the third line does he feel released. Thus, these three enjambed lines effectively generate the forward movement of the poem. Liu's fourth linguistic device for creating enjambment is by using hypothetical and subjunctive sentences. He often uses words such as hsiang and suan ^  which convey the meanings of "to reckon", "to imagine" and "to consider". He also uses the subjunctive word yudnjrfj^ (to wish). The majority of these hypothetical sentences are related to woman, as in 177 suan-te yi yuan-cHin feng-chen3 think able she mandarin-duck quilt phoenix pillow *• * * & - f yeh-yimg tsen-pu ssu-liang? (r) night long how can not think (I imagine that: Embracing the mandarin-duck quilt and the phoenix pillows in this long night, She must be thinking of me).186 Liu's enjambed lines with the strongest forward flow are those with the verbs at the very end of the f i r s t line and the objects in the following line(s), such as: 1. jen cheng-su person just board ch'ien-ts!un kuan. (r) front village inn (I am staying overnight in the inn in the front village).187 A S- i t & 2. tsai-san ehui-ssu3 again and again chase think 5fl M >t A . tung-fang shen-ch 'u3 inner chamber deep place chi-tu yin-san ko-lan3 few times drink finish song end 178 4r «1 % # * t hsiang-nuan yuan-yang-vei. (v) fragrant warm mandarin-duck quilt (Again and again I recall: In her inner chamber Several times after drinking and singing We share the fragrant and warm mandarin-duck quilt).'°° In the above examples the verbs s w ^ (to board) and ehui-ssu'i%_%. (to recall) a l l occur at the very end of the f i r s t line. Their strong tendency to take an object intensifies the forward flow. Liu's enjambment is not confined within a single sparse rhyme interval (as shown in the above examples) for in many cases his run-on lines "cross" the rhyme words, as in hsiang chiao-mei3 (v) think elegant charm % % na-H tu-shou yuan-wei eking3 there alone keep mandarin-duck curtain silence 4<- Mi ~& yung-lou t'iao-t'iao3 forever water clock long long & % 4 - t yeh-ying an-t'ung tz'u-yi. (r) also ought similar this feeling (I think that my lover Alone quietly inside the mandarin-duck curtain, Listening to the incessant dripping of the water-clock, Must feel the same as I do).189 179 This type of enjambment imparts a strong sense of continuity to the poem. In general, formal and informal enjambment both contribute strongly to the rhythmic flow and continuity of Liu's tz'u. Because informal enjambment is mainly made up of hsu-tzu and vernacular language, i t provides Liu's poems with an informal tone. Formal enjambment, being usually made up of parallelisms, however, can save a poem from being formless. When these two types of enjambment are blended suit-ably in one poem, they provide a poem with strong continuity and coherence without losing i t s elegance. Liu's abundant use of enjambment has been cr i t i c i z e d by tra-ditional tz'u c r i t i c s . Shen Hsiung remarks, All the lines in Liu Yung's [tz'u] are joined together. Even after the meaning of the line has finished for a long time, his brush s t i l l does not stop. This is his weak point. 190 But, I would argue that Liu's use of enjambment is by no means his "weak point" as Shen Hsiung puts i t . On the contrary, i t is his significant contribution to the continuous rhythm and further to the structure of man-tz'u. Restricted by the short length and dense rhyme scheme and under the influence of the Recent Style Poetry, the line structure of hsiao-ling is characterized by the end-stopped lines and packed images. But, this technique is not appropriate for the writing of man-tz'u, for in man-tz'u the lines within a single rhyme interval are conven-tionally to be read in one breath. Therefore, i t does not fa c i l i t a t e 180 the making of end-stopped lines. Furthermore, i t is d i f f i c u l t and laborious to use a large number of concrete images in a long poem. Also, packed-images w i l l cause stagnancy and d i f f i c u l t y in understanding 191 a poem. In other words, the longer form of man-tz'u requires a more dynamic type of sentence structure which can generate the forward move-ment of a poem. Hence, the a b i l i t y to keep a poem going is the key in the writing of man-tz'u. In this regard, I think Liu grasps the crucial technique for composing his poetic works. By using enjambment he successfully creates a continuous rhythm which provides man-tz'u a dynamic, coherent and directional structure. This peculiar a b i l i t y explains why Hsia C h i n g - k u a n ^ ^ ^ l . praises Liu's tz'u for being "one brushstroke runs to the end [of the poem] and [thus the organization is] 1 Q? tight from the beginning to the end." 181 CHAPTER FIVE THE STRUCTURE OF LIU'S TZ'U The greater length of man-tz'u tune-patterns allows a tz'u poet to include more content in one poem. In doing so, the poet is con-fronted with the problem of how to arrange the poetic content. He cannot merely juxtapose images as with the hsiao-ling poets and let the reader f i l l in the gaps. But, rather, he has to present his poetic content in a sequence which best reveals his emotions and, at the same time, generates the movement of the poem. Thus, in the writing of man-tz'u, the crucial technique is how to organize the thematic elements or in other-words, how to start and end a poem.1 Liu was the f i r s t tz'u poet to write a great number of man-tz'u. His main structural principle is the expansive technique (p'u-hsu^\§^3 p'u means to lay out or spread out and hsu means to narrate) which emphasizes sequential presentation and the elaboration of images. His s k i l l f u l use of the expansive technique was f i r s t recognized by Li chih-yi, It was not until Liu Ch'i-ch'ing that tz'u became expansive and extensive, sufficient and exhaustive. 2 Later Cheng Wen-cho J ^ ^ j ^ p (1856-1918) remarked more precisely, When I examine carefully the subject matter of each of Liu's tz'u I find that each poem indeed has a sequence.3 182 From examining Liu's poems I conclude that he indeed presents his poetic content in a sequential manner. His technique of presentation can be broadly divided into two main categories according to differ-ences in language and "plot". The f i r s t is the direct narration of events and emotions without the help of nature images, and the second is the fusion of emotion and scene (mainly of nature). These two techniques of presentation are closely related to the themes of his poems. The f i r s t is largely used in poems on women and erotic love whereas the second appears in his most celebrated works—poems on sep-aration and rootless wandering. In the following I wil l focus on Liu's use of various kinds of sequences in presenting his poetic content. Since the arrangement of the thematic elements i s inseparable from his language, I wi l l at the same time examine how Liu manipulates his poetic devices, i.e., diction and imagery, repetition and rhythm with his expansive technique. A. Poems presented in Direct Narration Liu's poems written in direct narration (about f i f t y ) can be subdivided into two groups according to differences in plot and diction. The f i r s t group of poems (about thirty) is mostly about erotic love. The plot of these poems is very stereotyped. He usually starts the poem with a description of a v i s i t to the brothel. He then proceeds to depict the beauty and a b i l i t i e s of the courtesan. Almost without 183 exception in the second stanza he describes his love-making in detail. Along with these activities the spatial setting moves from the street to the entertainment hall and fi n a l l y to the inner chamber. The 4 temporal setting is usually at night. In these poems Liu frequently employs human images to elaborate the beauty and a b i l i t i e s of the courtesan. He also uses many indoor images to set an intimate and romantic atmosphere for love-making. The fact that these poems merely record Liu's spontaneous romantic behavior but not his profound inner feelings make them rather superficial and, thus, not worth detailed analysis here. Far more worthy of attention is Liu's other group of poems written in the plain narration, the so-called pai-miao& (plain sketch). In these poems Liu does not rely on images to reveal his emotions but rather exploits plain and colloquial language. Since this technique is used in poems on greatly varying themes including boudoir feelings (in man-tz'u form), love and the agony of separation, i t is unnecessary to delineate their plots here. The following poem written to the tune-pattern p 'o-lo-men-ling $f 1*1 ^  5 demonstrates his s k i l l in plain narration. 2* $L ^ t p'o-lo-men-ling First stanza 1 ine ^ % %t #» & 1. tso-hsiao-li jen ho-yi shui (zwie) tpttppt(r) last night in thus with clothes sleep 184 2. ohin-hsiao-l-iyu-jen ho-yi shut (zwie) tonight in again thus with clothes sleep «b Ik 14 £ 3. hsiao-yin kuei-lai small drink come back 4x7 £ ig. 3| j$f ^ 4. ch'u-keng kuo hsun-hslin-tsui (tswi) beginning watch pass drunk drunk 5. chung-yeh hou- ho-shih huan-ohing-oh 'i (k'ji) middle night after what matter s t i l l startle up 6. shuang-t'-ten long frosty sky cold )*l *fl 7. /eng hsi-hsi (siei) wind small small pptttppt(r) ttpp pptppt(v) ptppt(r) ppt ptt(r) 8. ohushu-oh'uang shan-shan teng yao-y-i (idi) tppttppt(r) touch sparse window twinkling twinkling lamplight wavering Second stanza 4 * * • * * * < i s 9. k'ung-oh'uang- chan-ohuan oh 'ung- ohui-hsiang ppttppt empty bed toss turn again chase think 4 * , f + t $ M i 10. yun-yii-meng gen yi-chen nan-chi (kiei) ptttptpt(r) cloud rain dream let lean pillow d i f f i c u l t continue 185 4 t * t 11. ts 'un-hsin wan-hsu tptt inch heart ten thousand feelings 12. chih-ch'ih ch'ien li (Iji) ttpt(r) a few feet thousand l i 13. hao-ching liang-t '-ten ttpp fine scene beautiful sky slfl 14. pi-tz'uk'ung-yu •hsiang-lien yi Ci) ttptppt(r) both empty have mutual love intention A n itf it 15. wei-yu hsiang-lien chi (kiei) ttppt(r) not yet have mutual love means Last night I slept with my clothes on in this way. Tonight I again slept with my clothes on in this way. I came back from a small drink. After the f i r s t watch I was dead drunk. After midnight, I did not know why I awoke, The frosty sky was cold. The wind blew gently through the window, making the lamplight fl i c k e r . In my empty bed, Toss and turn, I try again to recall my cloud-rain dream. Yet, leaning on my pillow, I cannot recapture i t . My heart is f i l l e d with thoughts. She is so close and yet so far. In fine days with beautiful scenery, Even though we have the intention to love each other, We do not have the means to realize i t . 1 t This poem opens strikingly. By repeating the f i r s t two lines the poet immediately shows his boredom and 1istlessness: this night.is a repetition of the previous night, and further he is sleeping with his clothes on tonight just as he did last night. He proceeds to say that he has come home from drinking (line 3) and is dead drunk (line 4) For some reason, he wakes up after midnight (line 5). Hence, from "last night" to "tonight" to "the f i r s t watch" and to "after midnight" the poet presents in succession several details of his experience, each reinforcing his unpleasant state. Lines 6-8 describe what the poet sees after he wakes up. The images—frosty sky, wind, window and lamplight--though commonplace, are carefully selected to uncover the poet's state of mind. The window which has not been tightly shut and the lamplight which has not been put out (line 8) further reflect his neglect of himself and his surroundings. Apparently, i t is the cold wind that wakes him up. The emotion flows naturally into the second stanza. Lines 9 and 10 unfold another level of the poet's psychological state. The cloud-rain dream symbolizes his desire for love. It also contrasts sharply with his present lonely state. This makes his solitude in his bed more unbearable. Chan-chuan{Han tiwan; toss and turn), an a l l i t e r a t i o n , conveys his restless state. Yi-chen (to lean on the pillow), another restless gesture, further signifies his eagerness to recapture his romantic dream. But, he f a i l s . The f i r s t line of the parallelism (line 11) expresses the poet's confusion and sorrow. The second line of the parallelism (line 12) e x p l i c i t l y 187 explains the reason: his lover is so close to him in his dream and yet so far from him in reality. The emotional climax occurs in the final two lines. They disclose to us the basic reason for his sorrow. The phrase pi-tz'u of us) which introduces the parallelism t e l l s us that their love is mutual. In the parallelism, the repetition of hsiang-lien JfQ '^(mutual love) emphasizes the strong passion between the poet and his lover. How-ever, the strong passion expressed is negated by the use of k'ung-yu . (vainly have) and wei-yu^ %.Jf\ (not yet have). The poet's frustration is also deepened because he cannot enjoy beautiful moments together with his lover. This final parallelism plays an important role in the entire poem. It echoes the beginning two lines. It further explains the entire poetic situation. Now, we know the reason for the poet's low s p i r i t , for his drinking in order to forget and for his neglect of himself and his surroundings. We also know that his sexual dream is the result of his lingering lovesickness. This parallelism also hints that his present unresolved situation w i l l last for a much longer time since he s t i l l has not found a means to realize his love. In this way, the emotion moves in a circular manner, making the poem a tightly organized entity. Repetition contributes greatly to the effect of the poem. Besides the repetition of the f i r s t two and the last two lines, we also have the tieh-tzu hsun-hsun j ^ . (yiubn yiudn; dead drunk), hsi-hsi (siei siei; gently) and shan-shanfj^ f$ (sidm siam; 188 twinkling) a l l of which strengthen the meaning and auditory effect of the poem. The rhyme scheme of this poem: 7r-8r-4-6r-8r-3-3r-8r; 7-8r-4-4r-4-7r-5r is not at a l l sparse in comparison to Liu's other man-tz'u. The repetition of the rhyme word shui$& (zwei) (to sleep) in two consecutive lines calls attention both to the night setting and to the l i s t l e s s state of the poet. Likewise, the repetition of the rhymes y i ^ . C:-i) (intention) and chi %^ (kiei) (means)Emphasizes the passion and anxiety of the poet. They also strengthen the closural force of the poem. The repetition of the other closely-spaced rhymes throughout the poem in strategic positions echo and re-echo each other, thereby reinforcing the theme as the poem progresses. Despite the closely-spaced rhyme scheme, the forward movement is strong throughout the poem. By s k i l l f u l l y avoiding the coincidence between the rhyme position and syntax, Liu maintains the reader's expectation of continuation. For instance, line 1 "Last night I slept with my clothes on in this way" w i l l arouse a reader to ask "what about tonight." Line 5 "after midnight I did not know"why I awoke" naturally arouses the anticipation of an answer. In line 14, k'ung-yu (vainly have) is only a part of a syntactic formula and the expectation of the occurrence of the other part wei-yu (not yet have) enhances continuity. Inseparable from the syntactic sequence is the coherent development of the plot as we have already discussed. What equally contributes to the flow of the poem is the simplicity of the language. Throughout the entire poem the only figurative phrase i s the images of the cloud-and-rain which together symbolize sexual intercourse (Liu's 189 favorite symbol for sex). Allusions are not used. The images employed are commonplace and direct. Colloquialism such as tso-hsiao 1| (last night), ehin-hsiao (tonight), j e n ^ ( i n this way), yu (again) and wei-yu- (not yet have) are replete throughout the poem. But the danger of formlessness is prevented by the repetition of lines 1 & 2 and the parallelisms in lines 11 & 12 and 13 & 14. The simplicity of the language also adds to the immediacy of the poem. Furthermore, the fact that this poem is written from the f i r s t person point of view gives us the impression that the poet is t e l l i n g his love story in person. This unique plain narrative technique endows Liu's poems with an intimacy and informality. B. Poems Which Fuse Emotion and Scene In praising Liu's expansive technique Hsia Ching-kuan says, Liu adopts the way of writing the wen-fu (rhyme prose) of the Six Dynasties to write his ya-tz'u %$.%^ (elegant tz'u). He lays out [his content] sequentially. He fuses emotion and scene. His brushstroke runs to the end [of the poem] and [thus the organization i s ] tight from the beginning to the end.6 Indeed, over half of Liu's poems involve the fusion of emotion and scene (mainly of nature). An examination of these poems indicates that this technique is mostly used in poems of separation and rootless wandering. Liu's use of i t varies: in some poems he presents a detailed descrip-190 tion of a scene of nature in the f i r s t stanza but shifts to personal feelings in the second stanza. However, the majority of these poems blend the two components throughout. The following are Liu's different methods of fusing emotion and scene. 1. Poems Presented in Dramatic Sequence In one group of poems Liu in the f i r s t stanza creates a happy li v e l y scene (usually a spring scene) through colorful and vivid images of nature. But, in the second stanza, he pours out his sorrow—the recollection of his past happy l i f e in thexapital, the yearning for his distant lover, the lamenting for past youth, and bewailing of his drifting l i f e . 7 This group of poems progresses in several sequences, each creating a contrast. On an emotional level, the f i r s t stanza presents a happy scene whereas the second one reveals sorrow. Temporally and spatially, the scene created in the f i r s t , i s that of "now" and "here" whereas in the second i t is that of "past" and "there". The f i r s t focuses on the external scene whereas the second emphasizes internal feelings. The turning points of these sequences coincide with the stanzaic division. This makes the sudden shift from happiness to sorrow a surprise. Hence, the happier the atmosphere created in the f i r s t stanza the greater the dramatic effect and, hence, the stronger the emotional impact. The following poem written to the 191 tune-pattern yeh-pan-le ^ J $ r 8 is a typical example of the above technique. yeh-pan-le First stanza 1 ine 1. yen-yang: t 'ien-ch 'i tppt beautiful sun weather A *£ 2. yen-hsi feng-nuan ptpt mist small wind warm 3. fang-dhiao oh'eng-lang hsien ning-ohu (d'iwo) fragrant countryside clear high leisure s t i l l stand m & it % & 4. chien chuang- tien t'ing-t.'ai gradually decorate pavillion terrace *. £ * # , 5. ts'an-tz'u chia-shu (ziu) uneven beautiful trees 6. wu-yao kun-li tptt dancing waist weary strength ppptppt (r) tptpp pppt (r) 192 7. eh'ui-yang lil-ying pptt drooping willow green dazzling 8. ch'ien-t'ao nvng-H yao-yao tpptpp light peach dark plum young young 9. nen-hung wu-shu (siu) tppt(v) young red numerous A & a . * 4 * t t 10. tu yi-yen liu-ying tou shuang-yu (ngiwo) tttpptpt (r) pass elegant swallow flow oriole compete pair talk Second stanza % J * * T f * $ 11. ts'ui-o nan-mo ts'u-ts 'u green eyebrow south path cluste 8fr -13 1* 12. ni.eh-yi.ng hung-yin tread shadow red shade 13. huan-yi chiao-pu (b'uo) leisurely move elegant steps j& # xi? 14. t'ai fen-mien raise powder face tppttt cluster ttpp tppt (r) pttpppppt (r) 193 shao-jung hua-kuang hsiang-tu (tuo) beautiful face flower light mutually envy $ ** # 15. chiang-hsiao hsiu-ahu red s i l k sleeves raise * % )*l I I 16. yun-huan feng-dh'an cloud hair wind shake 17. pan-ohe t'an-k'ou han-hsiu half cover sandlewood mouth with shyness 18. pei-jen t'ou-ku (kuo) back people steal look - * M * , 19. ohi-ng tou-ts'ao compete contest grass tptt pppt tpptpp tppt (v) tttpptpt (v) chin-ah 'ai hsiao cheng-tu (tuo) golden pin laugh fight bet Third stanza 20. tut-tz'u ahia-ching ttpt face this fine scene ****** 21. tun-chUeh hsiao-ning ttpp sudden feel disappear freeze 194 22. je-ch'eng ch'ou-hsii tppt arouse become sad feeling 23. nien ehieh-p'ei oh'ing-ying tsai ho-eh'u(ts'iwo) tttpptpt (r) think undo jade elegant at where place 24. jen liang-shih tpppttptpt (r) how to bear fine moment Hk | jr % # fl) A . ku-fu shao-nien teng-hsien tu (d'uo) betray youth leisurely pass H i 25. k'-.vng wang-ohi pttptppt (r) empty gaze end *t 1* hui^-shou hsieh-yang mu (muo) turn head slanting sun evening | i & a. ^ > ^ * 26. t'an lang-p'ing feng-keng chih ho-ah'u (k'iwo) ttpptppt (r) sigh wave duckweed wind stem know where go On this bright sunny day The mist is light and the wind is warm. I stand leisurely in the clear fragrant countryside. Gradually, beautiful trees of varied sizes are decorating the pavillions and terraces: There are willows weary of dancing, There are drooping willows dazzling in green, There are abundant light peaches and dark plums, There are numerous budding red blossoms. The flying delicate swallows and orioles are contesting their songs. 195 Along the south path Beautiful g i r l s are in groups. Leisurely they move their elegant steps under the flower shades. When they raise their powdered faces Even the flowers w i l l envy them. They raise their red s i l k sleeves. Their cloud-like hair moves gently in the breeze. Half-covering their red lips with their sleeves they shyly turn their head and steal a look at the passers-by. Laughingly, they are playing the "grass game" and betting their golden pins. Facing this beautiful scene I suddenly feel stunned. My sorrow is gradually aroused. I recall--where is the beautiful one who undid her jade? How can I bear to waste my youth in this fine moment? In vain, I look back, gazing at the setting sun as dusk f a l l s . I sigh, like a drifting duckweed and a stem in the wind, where shall I go? This poem, which is one of Liu's longest (145 words), best demon-strates his expansive technique. It is divided into three stanzas. The f i r s t stanza depicts the spring scene, the second focuses on the beauty and activities of the young g i r l s , and the third reveals the poet's sorrow. In the f i r s t stanza Liu expansively presents the spring scene through a series of tetrasyllables which are largely made up of nature images. These nature images are paired with appropriate modifiers to bring out a colorful and vivid spring scene. Moving through images of decreasing magnitude we f i r s t see the "charming bright weather" (line 1), we then feel the "thin mist and warm breeze" (line 2), and, fi n a l l y , see the "clear and high countryside" (line 3). The lead-word 196 ohien yfytfigradually) further directs our attention to another spring scene. We see the many "beautiful trees" which decorate the pavillions and terraces (lines 4 & 5), we see the "dancing" and "drooping" willows (lines 6 & 7), the "light peaches" and the "dark plums" (line 8), the "budding red blossoms" (line 9), and, f i n a l l y , the "elegant swallows" and the "eloquent orioles" (1ine 10). In the second stanza Liu presents sequentially another spring scene which is of human beings. Human images and man-made images are s k i l l f u l l y paired with appropriate modifiers to show the beauty and delicate temperament of the g i r l s . From a distance, we can see "groups" of young ladies strolling "leisurely" their "elegant steps" under the flower shades along the south path (lines 11, 12.&M3). As they come closer, we can see their "powdered face" (line 14), their "red s i l k sleeves" (line 15) and their "cloud-like hair" (line 16). We can also see their shy movements, for, when they see the passers-by, they "half-cover" their lips (lines 17 & 18). We can see them playing the grass game and we can even hear their laughter (line 19). Their laughter and the songs of the swallows and orioles echo each other, both reinforcing the liveliness of the spring scene. What adds to the liveliness of the scene i s the use of personifi-cation and repetition. The personification in the metaphor "dancing waist" and the adjective "weary" in line 6 conveys a sense of movement in the willows. The personification of the verb tou 2^ (to compete) in Tine 10 brings out the singing of the birds. The personification of the verb tu^if (to envy) emphasizes the beauty of the g i r l s . The a l l i t e r a t i o n yen-yang Jfi^flp dam long; beautiful sunshine) calls atten-tion to the bright weather. The allite r a t i o n ts'an-tz'u (ts'am ts'ie; jagged) conjures up the image of the trees of different sizes. The tieh-tzu yao-yao y\ ^  (iau iau; young) emphasizes the image of abundant young plants and ts 'u-ts 'uj$^ (tsiwok tsiwok; cluster) the image of the many beautiful g i r l s . Up to now, the whole spring scene is cheerful. However, this elaborately built up pleasant atmosphere in the third stanza is abruptly broken by the poet's negative emotional response, in the process providing a sharp contrast and startling the reader. Hence, the poet's yearning for his absent lover (as suggested by the allus-ion to Cheng Chiao-fu) (line 23) and his bewailing the passage of his youth (line 24) become more intense. As dusk comes, the spring scene becomes blurred and the gi r l s depart. He is l e f t in solitude in the setting sun (line 25). The last'line is striking because i t suddenly gives a new psychological dimension to the poem--his worries for his future. The poem ends with a question and the poet's sense of exile lingers even after the poem is finished. There are several contrasts between the f i r s t two stanzas and the third. The former focuses on describing the happy external scene whereas^ the latter on revealing the poet's sorrowful subjective feelings. The images in the former are tightly packed in order to elaborate the various aspects of spring whereas those in the latter are sparse so as to express spontaneously the emotions of the poet. The images in the former convey beauty, youth and happiness but those in 198 the latter convey the sense of hollowness, sadness and wandering. In the third stanza, the image of the setting sun not only signifies the end of the day but also indicates that the time has come to return home. The images of a drifting duckweed and a stem in the wind together reinforce the poet's sense of aimless wandering and exile. The rhyme scheme also brings out the contrast between the f i r s t two stanzas and the third. The rhyme scheme is sparse in the f i r s t and second stanzas: 4-4-7r-5-4r-4-4-6-4r-8r; 6-4-4r-9r-4-4-6-4r-8r. . Since the lines within one rhyme interval are conventionally to be read in one,breath, the cheerful scene of spring is presented in a light and quick rhythm. By contrast, the rhyme scheme of the third stanza is dense: 4-4-4r-8r-10r-8r-8r . Since almost a l l the lines (except the f i r s t three) end with a rhyme, each line stands out as an independent unit. As a result, each thematic element is emphasized. The heavy fal l i n g tone and meaning of the rhyme words hsii ^ ( z i w o ) , ch'uj%t (ts'iwo), tuj^(d'uo)3 mu jj^fmuo) and oh'u (k'iwo) used in succession throughout the third stanza makes the mood of the poem increasingly depressing. In short, the success of this poem lies in the fact that i t is developed through a series of concrete physical details and, yet, the reader is not aware of the dramatic situation. Liu achieves this purpose by deliberately directing the reader's attention to the various aspects of spring through his expansive technique. This makes his turn to subjective feelings more sudden and striking, greatly strengthening the emotional impact of the poem. 199 2. Poems Presented by Gradual Intensification of Emotion In one group of poems in the f i r s t stanza Liu emphasizes the description of scenes of nature rather than personal feelings. But, as the poem advances, the situation is reversed. The last few lines of the f i r s t stanza usually serve as a transition to the second stanza. Thus, the emotion progresses smoothly into the second stanza. 1 1 This group of poems is presented in a regular sequence. It usually starts with a parallelism which describes expansively the natural setting. The temporal setting is often an autumn evening or after a r a i n f a l l . The spatial setting is frequently on a river with mountain, clouds and mist as distant background. The persona is frequently in a boat on a journey, and, i f not in a boat, he is leaning against the railing in a tower, gazing at the. autumn scene. Stimulated by the scenery his sorrow increases towards the end of the f i r s t stanza. The emotion thus glides smoothly into the second stanza in which he continues to reveal his feelings in a more detailed and intense manner. He recollects his past happy l i f e and his romantic affairs in the capital Pien-ching. He longs for messages from his lover and bewails his endless journey. The following poem ch'ing-pei ty^jfl^ 1 2 serves as a typical example of this sequence. ch Hug-pet 200 First stanza 1 ine wu-lo shuang-chou duck f a l l frost i s l e * ML m m yen-heng yen-chu wildgoose cross mist sand-bank ^ *ft f & *C. & fen-ming hua-ch'u chHu-se (sic clearly paint out autumn color % ^ * I t mu-yu cha-hsieh evening rain just stop hsiao-chi yeh-po small oar night berth & % 6. su wei-ts'un shan-yi (iak) lodge reed village h i l l post house 7. ho-jen yUeh-hsia tin-feng ch'u. what person moon under face wind place 8. c/z ' i yi-sheng chHang-ti (d'i,ek) start one sound Ch'iang flute ttpp tppt ppttpt (r) tttt tttt ttppt (v) ppttppt ttppt (r) 201 m ft- % m 9. li-ch'ou wan-hsii pptt parting sorrow ten thousand feelings *» 10. wen an-ts'ao ch'ieh-ch'ieh . pttttpppt(r) hear shore grass, chirp chirp c/z 'iung-yin ju-chih (tsi.dk) cricket chant like weaving Second stanza % % 11. wei-yi Ci^k) recal1 4f X- *) A 12. fang-jtcng pieh-hou. beautiful face part after 13. shui-yao shan-yiian water far mountain distant *r it ?!- ft 1 14. ho-chi p'ing lin-yi (itik) what method depend scale wing ft 4 1 flfl * a t 15. hsiang hsiu-ko shen-oh 'en think embroidered chamber deep tt (v) pptt tppt ptppt (r) tttpp sink 4 *» * v# # cheng-chih ch 'iao-ts 'ui sun how know distress wound * & ^  ^  t'ien-ya hsing-k 'e (k 'vk) sky end travelling guest c/z 'u-hsia yun-kuei' Ch'u Gorge cloud return ,13 kao-yang jen-san^^ Kao-yang person disperse & % ft- Jjfc 3& chi-mo k 'uang tsung-chi (tsi.dk) solitude crazy trace 4 i IS wang ching-kuo (kwdk) gaze capital country % *r 4 * £ ppptt pppt (v) ttpp pppt ttppt (r) tpt (v) k'ung mu-tuan,yuan-feng ning^pi (pidk) in vain eye broken, distant peak frozen green ptttppt (r) The ducks are landing on the frosty isle s . The wild-geese are flying across the mist-enshrouded sand bank. They are clearly painting an autumn scene. The evening rain has just stopped. When night f a l l s , I berth my small boat by the riverside. I lodge in a post-house up the h i l l in this v reeded village. Facing the wind in the moonlight Who is there playing the Ch'iang flute? Hearing the chirping crickets in the shore grass I am f i l l e d with parting sorrow. 203 I recall that Since I l e f t her Separated by rivers and mountains I have had no means to send her messages. I think In her secluded chamber How would she know how distressed a traveller could be? The clouds have disappeared in the Ch'u Gorge. The Kao-yang persons have dispersed. What is l e f t is the wild trace of my lonely wandering. I gaze at the capital, but in vain. What I can see are the distant peaks enshrouded in the frozen clouds. By beginning with a parallelism the poet immediately presents to us in an expansive manner an autumn scene, one in which the ducks are landing on the isles and the wild-geese are flying across the river bank. The images of the ducks and the wild-geese on their migration to the south indicate the time of the year, and also hint at the poet's homesickness. The third line, which ends with a rhyme reasserts the situation. Lines 4-6 have two levels of meaning. They t e l l the progression of time from "evening" to "night" and then to "stay over night". They reveal the changes in the activities of the poet as he moves from the riverbank to the village and f i n a l l y to the post-house up the h i l l . It is not until lines 7 & 8 that the poet's subjective feelings are disclosed. He is awakened by the sound of the Ch'iang flute (or perhaps he has not fallen asleep yet), which is traditionally associated with homesickness and journey. His sorrow over separating is e x p l i c i t l y revealed in line 9 and is further echoed by the incessant chirping of the crickets (line 10). The emotion built up towards the end of the f i r s t stanza flows smoothly into the second stanza. Now he unfolds his emotion in a more 204 detailed, direct and intense manner. Lines 11 -14 t e l l the reason for his sorrow: i t is because ever since he parted from his lover he has had no means to reach her. Lines 15-17 reveal the poet's other psychological level. He imagines his lover secluded in her chamber not knowing about his distressed wandering l i f e . In this way, he juxtaposes two locations—one being the imaginary scene of his lover's secluded chamber (there) and one being the reality of his journey (here). By assuming that she is not aware of his present situation he naturally shifts the focus from her to himself, fthus, blurring the distance be-tween the two places. His lonely wandering is further elaborated in the following parallelism. Now, since he is on a journey, his romances are no more and his friends are far away from him (lines 18-19). What is l e f t is his lonely, and endless travelling and uncertain future. To console himself he gazes.at the distant capital where his lover dwells, where he had his romantic affairs, and where he used to drink with his friends. But what he sees are the distant peaks enshrouded in the cold blue clouds. The poem thus ends with a lingering emotion^ The language of this poem is refined though i t occasionally incorporates a few colloquialisms and common allusions.. The images are presented in a coherent manner. The "frosty i s l e s " , the "mist-enshrouded sand bank", the "evening rain", the "reeded village", the "post-house up the h i l l " , the "moonlight", the "crickets", and the "shore grass" a l l contribute to a desolate autumn scene. They also reflect the sad feelings and the activities of the poet. The colloquialisms fen-ming y#^$ (clearly), dhd ^f. (just), iji-sheng -~ (one sound) and 205 cheng-chih ^ Ifca (how does one know) a l l add an informal touch and personal tone to the poem. The allusion to the clouds of the Ch'u Gorge suggests the past romantic affairs of the poet. The other allusion to the Kao-yang guest implies the loss of friends, and i t may further imply the passage of his youth (line 19). These two allusions when used in a parallelism reinforce the contrast between the poet's past happiness and present loneliness. The synecdoche "scale" and "wings" (in line 14) are also allusions, but they only serve as sub-stitutes for messages and add l i t t l e to the poetic effect. The simile "the crickets chirp like weaving" (in line 10) conveys two meanings. Firs t , the sound of the crickets is like that of the weaving machine. Secondly, i t suggests that the poet's sorrow is gradually building up like a piece of material being woven. The onomatopoeia ch'ieh-ch'ieh ^V^W (ts'iet ts'iet) with i t s resemblance to the sobbing sound of human beings intensifies the emotion. Also, the alliterations ch ' iao- ts ' ui ^ ( dz 'idu dz 'wi; distress), tsung-chi 2^L ^  * s ^won9 tsidk; trace), the rhyming disyllables chi-mo (dz'iek meek; lonely) and shen-ch'en^. -^(sidm d'idm; secluded) reinforce the meaning and auditory effect of the poem. Furthermore, the depressing atmosphere is gradually strengthened by the use of the entering tone rhyme words: se%, (sidk)3 yi$j)$£ (idk), t i ^ (d'iek), chih$$( (tsidk), yi rfiL (' idk) (a hidden rhyme), y i ^ ( i d k ) , k'e%-(k'vk), chii3h_ (tsidk), kuo |fj) (kwdk) and pi ^  (pidk). The use of the entering tone words hsieh § ^ fxj»£jand po >(•) (b 'ok) in lines 3, 4 & 5 is striking. This makes the rhythm of the lines 3, 4, 5 & 6 206 (all of which end in the entering tone) more arresting. Each line increasingly emphasizes the focal image--the wandering l i f e of the poet. The sparse rhyme scheme of the poem: 4-4-6r-4-4-5r-7-5r-4-9r; 2r-4-4-5r-5-5-4r-4-4-5r-3r-7r greatly enhances enjambment. In particular, lines 1-3, 7-8, 11-14 and 15-17 can be treated as complete sentences. The sparse rhyme scheme also divides the thematic elements into groups. Hence, the coherent presentation of these themantic elements makes the sequential development more clearcut. Consequently, the rhythm and meaning flow freely from line to line throughout the entire poem. 3. Poems Presented in Dynamic Sequence In one group of poems Liu s k i l l f u l l y fuses emotion and scene of nature in a more dynamic manner. These poems usually begin with a description of a parting scene or a scene on a journey—either in a boat or on a horseback. As the poet carries on his journey he describes what he sees. Moved by the external scene his thoughts gradually turn towards himself. He recalls his past happy l i f e and romances, he longs for home, and, f i n a l l y , he worries about his future journey. The general impression these poems leave is that of a journey in progress. At the same time, we follow the poet's stream of thought from present to past and then back to the present and even to the future. Thus, 15 the whole poem is f u l l of the sense of motion. 207 4 16 Along with the frequently cited yeh-pan-le-^^T the 1? a-J7 following poem yin-ehia-hsing J^ ] ^ ^ serves as a typical example illustrating Liu's dynamic mode of presentation. ?1 % #r yin-ehia-hsing First stanza 1 ine % $% rfy 1. hung-shou ts 'an-yu . rainbow gather remnant rain * f ^ # l * r & 2. ch'an-ssu pai-Hu ah'ang-t'i mu (muo) cicada chirp failed willow long dyke evening 3. pei tu-men tung hsiao-an back capital gate move disappear sadness /^ i )i tR $! f 4. hsi-feng p'ien-fan ah'ing-chu (kiwo) west wind single sail light hoist n- «t 5. ah/'ou-tu (tuo) sadly see 6. fan hua-yi p 'ien-p 'ien float painted fishhawk flutter flutter pppt ppttppt (r) tpptpt pptppt (r) pt (r) tttpp f f H- ii -F $# 7. ling-t''o yin-yin hsia oh ''ien-p''u (p'uo) pptttpt (r) s p i r i t iguana vague vague down front shore & «? 1 # A . m & 8. yin hui -shou ohia-jen ohien-yuan tptpptt bear look back beautiful one gradually far * % A 1 * * 4 * W # 9. hsiang kao-ch'eng ke yen-shu (ziu) tpptpt (r) think high city separate mist tree Second stanza 10. ohi-hs.il (yJMio) tt (v) how many 4t 11. oh'in-lou yung-ohou pptt Ch'in tower long day 12. hsieh-kd' lien^hsiao oh'i-yu (ngiu) ttpppt (r>) Hsieh attic join night strange encounter * at * -t £; 13. suan tseng-hsiao ch'ien-ohin tttpp even though give laughter thousand gold 14. oh'ou-ko pai-p'ei pptt pay song hundred pearls 15. ehin-ch 'eng eh Hng-fu (b '-idu) a l l become slight betray * I I 16. nan-ku (kuo) south gaze 209 tppt (v) pt (v) ^S 17. nien wu-pang yiieh-kuo think Wu state Yu'eh country *. ** % % fc/Wik 18. feng-yen hsiao-so tsai ho-ah'u (ts'iwo) wind mist desolate at what place * % % -f * % 19. tu-tzu-ko eh'ien-shan wgn-shui alone self thousand mountains ten thousand water # K >£- * 20. efoih t'ien-ya-ch'u (k'iwo) point sky end go tpptt pppttpt (v) tttpptt tppt (v) The rainbow has gathered up the rain. As evening f a l l s The cicadas are chirping in the withered willows along the long dyke. Depressed, I turn my back on the capital and start my journey, My light sail is hoisted in the west wind. Sadly I see that The "painted fish hawks" are "fluttering" and The "spiritual iguanas" are heading towards the front shore. I cannot bear to look back Because my lover is getting farther and farther from me. I think of the capital But i t is blocked by the misty trees. 210 How many times Have I spent a l l day long in the Ch'ih tower? How many nights Have I had romantic encounters in the Hsieh attic? Even though I used to give away a thousand pieces of gold to buy her smile. Even though I used to pay a hundred strings of pearls for her singing.. Now, a l l these have gone. I look to the south: Amidst the desolate wind and mist Where are the States of the Wu and Yuen? Alone, facing the thousands, of mountains and rivers I head towards the end of the sky. The organization of this poem is clearcut. The f i r s t stanza (lines 1 -9) focuses on a description of the beginning part of the poet's journey on a river, the second stanza begins with the poet's recollection of his past (lines 10-15), and then in the latter part of the poem shifts back to the journey (lines 16-20). With the personified verb shoul$^{to gather) and the nature images "rainbow" and "rain", the f i r s t line immediately presents a vivid natural setting. It also reveals that the temporal setting i s after a rain. Line 2 specifies that the time of the day is at dusk. Line 3 by the west wind image suggests that the season is autumn.. The action, the poet is engaged in is hinted at by the "long dyke" image which is associated with the riverbank and, thus, with parting (line 2). Line 3 also states e x p l i c i t l y the main theme of the poem. In the following lines Liu presents a dynamic picture through the progressive use of nature images which are carefully interlocked with the dominant sense of 211 constant action and movement. The nature images which convey a sense of action are the "west wind", the "single s a i l " , the "painted fish hawk" (a metaphor for a boat), and the "spiritual iguana" (also a metaphor for a boat). What equally contributes to the sense of motion are verbs and modifiers: pei ^  (with back facing), tung^j) (move), eh'ing-chu ^ ( l i g h t l y hoist), p-lien-p 'ienjfyfyfiffi f l u t t e r ) , fany^ (float), h s i a ^ - (down stream), hui -show® (to look back), chien-yuan ^Hf iJL (9 r adually far), and ke 7vf? (separated). Each line further un-folds the action and implies that the poet is going farther and farther from shore. The nature images, the verbs and the modifiers are f i t t i n g l y blended together and presented in such a, manner that we have the feeling we are alongside the poet viewing the river scene as he sees i t . The parting sorrow of the poet gradually intensifies as the poem progresses. In fact, the negative modifiers ts'an $^.(faded) (in line 1) and pai J$>Swithered) (in line 2) have already hinted at the unpleasant mood of the poet. The chirping of the cicadas at dust echoes the "inner weeping" of the poet and his lover during the parting moment. His sorrow is ex p l i c i t l y revealed when he sees other boats returning swiftly to shore, whereas his is floating swiftly in the west wind in the opposite direction (lines 4-7). The swift motion of the other boats is conveyed by the quick rhythm of enjambment. He turns back, trying in vain to catch a last glimpse of his lover, who is s t i l l standing on the long dyke. But, he is so far from shore that everything is beyond his sight. What he can console himself with is his memories. 212 The phrase "to think of the high c i t y ' , ; i n the last line of the f i r s t stanza serves as a transition to the second stanza because i t naturally carries the poet's thought back to his happy earlier days in the capital. Lines 10-15 create a world of recollections. His happy past is presented in an expansive manner through the use of parallelism His many romantic affairs are expressed through the juxtaposition of the euphemistic images "Ch' in-tower"Jjk " ^ - ( l i n e 11) and "Hsieh-attic" The lead-word suan J^. (even though) in line 13 unfolds another psychological level of the poet. In the parallelism i t introduces, the pairing of the verbs "to give away" with "to buy"; the pairing of the human images "song" with "smile" and the pairing of the exaggerated man-made images "thousand pieces of gold" with "a hundred strings of pearls" a l l effectively convey a whimsical, luxurious and unrestrained atmosphere. But the word suan totally destroys the happy atmosphere elaborately created by the parallelism. Line 15 sums up the situation created not only by lines 13 & 14 but also lines 10, 11 & 12. The word chin~^ (all) further emphasizes the sense of hollowness and nothing-ness in the poet. Line 16 immediately brings us back to reality--the journey. Line 17 t e l l s us that the poet's destination is the Wu and Yu'eh area in the far away Yangtze region. Nien ^ ( t o think, to consider) highlights the shifting of the poet's attention: that i s , to his worries 213 for the future. Followed by a major pause, the word nien emphasizes the object "the States of Wu and Yu'eh". Hence, the question "Where are the States of the Wu and Yu'eh?" becomes more forceful. The nature images wind and mist and the alliteration hsiao-so-^ ^ (sieu sak; desolate) paint a blurred distant scene hinting at the poet's unpromising future. Lines 16-20 direct our attention back to the vast river scene. This creates a contrast between the image of the vastnessj of nature and the smallness of the poet. This contrast conveys the hardship of journey and intensifies the poet's sense of exile and loneliness. Thus, even though the poem ends, the journey i s s t i l l in progress. This poem is replete with elegant diction and occasionally has a few colloquialisms such as ehi-hsu i ^ i ^ (how many) and tu-tzu-ko i tj jf) (alone). The forward movement of the poem is enhanced by enjambment: lines 5-7, 10-12, 13-15, 17-18 and 19-20. Some of these enjambed lines such as lines 5, 10 & 16 even "cross" the "stop" caused by the rhymes. What adds to the rhythmic f l e x i b i l i t y of the poem is the "abnormal" caesural pattern of the lines. For instance, lines 6 & 7 which are introduced by the lead-word fan (to float) are to be read in one breath in the 1/4-4/3 rhythm. Lines 13 & 15 which are introduced by the lead-word suan are to be read in the 1/4-4-4 rhythm. S t i l l , there are lines divided in the 3/4 rhythm (lines 8 & 19) and 1/3 rhythm (line 20). More importantly the poem integrates the poet's various feelings: parting sorrow, happy recollections, loneliness and homesickness with 214 the scene of nature in a dynamic manner so that several sequences-spatial, temporal and psychological--are moving simultaneously. In conclusion, the above examples represent the typical struc-ture of Liu's tz'u. His unique generating principle—the sequential structure—is the successful combination of the form of man-tz'u and his poetic technique. The longer tune-pattern of man-tz'u provides a poem with a widespread rhyme scheme. Since each rhyme interval tends to include a self-contained semantic unit, the progression from idea to idea becomes more distinct. The other formal element--paral l e i ism—contributes to Liu's sequential structure in two ways. First, with regard to position, when a parallelism is placed in the beginning of a poem i t serves as a strong generating point; when placed in the middle part of the poem i t serves as an effective transitional agent; and when placed at the end of a poem i t becomes a strong closural element. Secondly, with regard to meaning, by juxtaposing images from similar semantic categories, a parallelism elaborates details. Its arrangement in two (or three) consecutive lines lays out the details in a sequential manner. Furthermore, Liu's unique use of lead-words also contributes to his sequential structure in two ways. First i s the making of the larger semantic units by enjambment which provides a poem with larger and more clearcut sequential units. Second is the function of lead-words to highlight the changes of the poet's psychological levels and overt actions. Thus, the transition from one poetic experience to another furthers the forward movement of the poem. 215 Of course, the sole determining factor of the sequential struc-ture is the thematic development i t s e l f . This has been shown in the above analysis. In his direct narration of events, Liu exploits spatial sequence and the activity sequence. In his plain narration he emphasizes the development of psychological sequence. Despite the colloquial language and eroticism in these poems, Liu's narrative technique was praised by Wang Cho (who attacks Liu's vulgar language) as "narrating 1 o in an easy manner and having a head and a t a i l " (meaning having, a beginning and an end) and also praised by Liu Hsi-tsai (who cr i t i c i z e s 19 Liu's eroticism) as "surpassing other tz'u poets." In Liu's poems which fuse emotion and scene he effectively uses nature images. In these poems nature images are distributed differ-ently. Sometimes they are concentrated in the f i r s t stanza, sometimes they appear in the beginning part of the poem and sometimes they are distributed throughout the poem. Regardless of their distribution they contribute much to the sequential development by exp l i c i t l y and implicitly indicating the temporal and spatial changes as well as reflecting the emotional changes in the poem. Liu's more significant use of nature images in his viewing nature with pathetic fallacy rather than a source of philosophical contemplation. By endowing nature with his subjective emotion, nature becomes an integral part of his poetic world. This increases the power of the moving force in his poems. As mentioned earlier, the crucial technique of writing man-tz'u is how to generate the movement of the poem. In this regard, Liu's expansive technique became the basic model for the writing of man-tz'u. 216 CONCLUSION In the preceding, despite the great lack of material, we have reconstructed a general outline of Liu's l i f e . Besides discussing the main activities of his l i f e we, at the same time, have also accessed his basic personality as revealed in the existing sources and his tz'u. In our discussion of his tz'u we examined Liu's more abundant use of man-tz'u tune-patterns and his greater adventurousness and versatility in using them. We explored the three worlds of his tz'u, and contrasted and compared them with the TWTT and the Tun-huang folk songs. We looked into Liu's use of language, ranging from the most connotative allusions to the least connotative colloquialisms. We saw how he creates strong rhythm through the various repetition techniques—words, rhymes, tones, caesural patterns and parallelisms. We also saw how he creates strong rhythmic flow through lead-words and enjambment. Finally, we analyzed his expansive technique and his various sequential structures. Putting this into historical perspective we can now judge Liu's position in the history of Chinese literature. I think the c r i t e r i a for evaluating his position in Chinese poetry should concentrate on his innovations in the form, content and technique of tz'u and their influence on other poets. I believe that Liu's most significant contribution to the tz'u genre is his use of man-tz'u tune-patterns. Before Liu, scholar poets rarely wrote man-tz'u. In the whole collection of TWTT3 only fifteen tune-patterns are over eighty words.^ Even during the early Northern Sung, hsiao-ling s t i l l continued to dominate tz'u writing. Scholar poets such as Yen Shu and Ou-yang Hsiu only wrote a handful of man-tz'u Although man-tz'u already was popular among the common people, because of i t s folk origin, scholar poets looked down upon i t . Liu, who long lived among the common people and who was talented in music and writing was able to adopt and refine the folk man-tz'u into a literary genre. Liu's man-tz'u was of vital importance to the historical de-velopment of the tz'u genre. The writing of hsiao-ling had matured by the time of the Five Dynasties with tz'u poets like Wen T'ing-yun, Wei C h u a n g ^ ^ i (836-910), Feng Yen-ssu £, (903-960) and the emperor of the Southern T'ang Li Yii ^  f% . In the early Northern Sung Dynasty, hsiao-ling reached a peak of development in the hands of Yen Shu, Ou-yang Hsiu and Yen Chi-taoj^-Jj^ ^ ( 1031-?). However, by the middle of the 11 century, i t s development had started to stagnate. Applying Wang Kuo-wei 's ) ^ $jjJL (1877-1927) theory on literary development: When a literary genre has been popular for a long time and practiced by many, i t naturally becomes stale. A writer with independence of mind, who finds i t d i f f i c u l t to say anything original in the form, wi l l turn away and develop a new form to emancipate himself. This is why each literary genre flourishes for a time and f i n a l l y declines.2 hsiao-ling had come to a dead end. In particular, i t s short length inhibited tz'u poets from making innovations. With man-tz'u, Liu liberated the tz'u genre from the restrictions of it s short form. 218 The longer form of the man-tz'u tune-patterns could accommodate more content and more sophisticated poetic techniques. This leads to Liu's second great contribution to the tz'u genre— his expansive technique. In the TWTT, the short length compels the poet to present the content of a poem in a brief manner, leaving the reader to f i l l in the details. Thus, the development of plot is simple and often f u l l of gaps. On the other hand, the greater length of man-tz'u requires a poet to lay out the thematic elements in the order with which he can best express himself as well as can generate the continuity of a poem. I believe Liu's expansive technique is the direct result of the prosody of man-tz'u and, more importantly, of his various innovative poetic devices. Liu, facilitated by the greater length of man-tz'u, it s extreme irregularity of line length and i t s widespread rhyme scheme, employs abundant enjambed lines, thus extending the thematic elements in a meandering manner. He also effectively uses a conven-tional poetic device—parallelism--to enhance his sequential structure. More significant is his innovative use of lead-words which, apart from increasing the forward flow through enjambment effect, also high-lights changes in the poetic experience and tightens the entire structure of a poem. A l l these devices later became basic elements in the writing of man-tz'u,.' Liu's expansive technique is best demonstrated in his poems which fuse emotion and scene. His various modes of fusing emotion and scene—the dramatic sequence, the gradual intensification of 219 emotion and the dynamic sequence greatly influenced later poets such as Ho Fang-hui ^ \*3 (1052-1125) and especially Chou Pang-yen )|) ?f ^ (1056-1121).3 Liu's third contribution to tz'u is his innovation in language. His great contribution to the language of tz'u lies in his abundant use of colloquialisms. The language of TWTT had been repeatedly imitated for over two hundred years and by the Northern Sung had become stagnant and cliche-ridden. In reviving tz'u, Liu, facilitated by the longer tune-patterns, unrestrained by upper class prejudice, and more importantly influenced by folk literature—especially the Tun-huang folk songs, boldly introduces colloquialisms into tz'u. The use of colloquialisms in tz'u had several important results. First, i t rejuvenates the language of tz'u and enriches i t s reportoire. Second, i t provides a poet with greater descriptive power to more re a l i s t i c a l l y and vividly depict the characters. Third, i t endows a poem with informality and liveliness, increasing the fluency and immediacy of a poem. Because of this, despite the many harsh c r i t i c -isms of Liu's vulgarity, many tz'u poets such as Huang T'ing-chien, Ch'in Kuan and many others followed Liu's steps in using colloquialisms in their poems. Liu also makes abundant use of conventional poetic diction in his poems. His images are not heavily packed but are "diluted" by empty words, plain diction and colloquialisms which together contribute to the strong rhythmic flow and immediacy of his poems. His allusions are commonplace and are f i t t i n g l y incorporated into a poem as a means of contrast and comparison to strengthen the poetic situation. But he does not rely on allusions as an important poetic technique to express his profound emotions. His images are rich in visual appeal. His abundant use of nature images moves tz'u from i t s confined environment to the scene of nature. His images of human activities and man-made outdoor images endow his tz'u with realism. However, his modifiers and implicit and explicit comparison of images are rather commonplace.. Those metaphors and metonymies related to woman are cliches. More effective is his use of substitution of adjectives and verbs which are endowed with human emotions. What most scholars ignore i s Liu's con-stant attempt to create new compounds. Hence, Liu not only introduces colloquialisms to tz'u but also fresh imagery. Liu's fourth contribution to the tz'u genre is the broadening of i t s world. Limited by the short length of hsiao-ling, the descrip-tion of the poetic situation in the TWTT is brief. Controlled by the "reserved" mode of expression,, the emotion is suggested rather than ex p l i c i t l y told. The characters depicted are generally vague and stereotyped. The setting is usually confined to the indoors. The themes are mainly groundless sorrow, love, bourdoir feelings and separation. By contrast, Liu, with the longer tune-patterns, his expansive technique, colloquialisms and the direct and frank mode of expression, even when writing on the same theme as the TWTT, enlarges the scope of tz'u and explores i t with greater immediacy. 221 In the poems objectively describing woman, Liu's emphasis on the action and a b i l i t i e s of: woman rather than mere external decorations and static gestures adds a new theme to tz'u. In the poems on bourdoir feelings, in contrast to the vague and stereotyped woman persona of the TWTT, Liu, through the use of colloquialisms and the direct and frank mode of expression, creates a vivid and down-to-earth woman persona who shows psychological changes and strong individuality. Even though he was cri t i c i z e d for not exposing the bitter l i f e of the 4 courtesans under the feudalistic system, Liu is much more rea l i s t i c than the poets of the TWTT and those hsiao-ling writers of the Northern Sung. Liu's love poems mark a great departure from the TWTT. He was harshly criticized because his bold descriptions of the frustrations of love, v i s i t s to brothels and love scenes violated the taboos of traditional poets. However, this only reflects the c r i t i c s ' particular moral literary viewpoint. From the perspective of literary development, Liu was introducing a new mode of expressing love in tz'u. The influence of Liu's love poems goes into two directions. Among scholar poets, Ch'in Kuan was quick to adopt Liu's style of 5 expressing love, but he was jeered at by his teacher Su Shih. Wang Kuan , who admired Liu so much that he named his works Kuan-liu chi ffif 4f: , was criticized for writing erotic poems similar to Liu's.^ Other poets such as Shen Kung-shu T i t b i t , Li Ching-yuan % $>JL , K'ung Fang-p'ing -f" , K'ung Ch'u-tu ^ L^M^, Ch'ao Tz'u-ying^ >k/jf andlei-ch'i Ya-yen#$4ff£"S a l l imitated Liu's love poems.' On the other hand, Liu's love poems influenced Chu-kung-tiao and Yuan drama. This influence can be seen in the bold descrip-tions of love scenes in works such as The Western Chamber. This is why K'uang Chou-yi>}[.J(|| (1859-1926) says that Liu's poems serve as the origin of the musical language [i.e., poetry for singing] of the o Chin and Yuan Dynasty. His literary achievement in expanding the world of tz'u is even greater in his most celebrated works—poems on separation and rootless wandering. It is in these poems that, Liu, employing the f i r s t person of view to express his emotional experience, elevates tz'u to the level of individual, expression. It is in these poems that, by effectively fusing emotion and scene with his expansive technique, by combining colloquialisms and refined diction, and by using the direct and frank mode of expression, he endows his poems with greater emotional intensity, immediacy and psychological depth. He broadens the scope of tz'u by delineating intensively the various psychological changes at differ-ent stages of separation—aspects seldomly explored in the TWTT. By constantly using rivers and mountains for background in his poems on journeys, he moves tz'u from i t s confined setting out to the world of nature. By mixing nostalgia, love, the sense of exile, self-pity and frustrations of officialdom in one poem, he enriches i t s ly r i c a l content. What further gives Liu's tz'u realism is his new theme to tz'u—poems on city l i f e . In these poems Liu vividly records the social activities of the common city people rather than simply the e l i t e group. He brings tz'u from the confined chamber setting to the grand city scene. Thus, despite the emphasis on the prosperous aspects rather than the dark side of society, the concrete content of these poems possesses a definite historical significance. On the whole, the worlds Liu explores are simple rather than sophisticated, r e a l i s t i c rather than conceptual, human rather than transcendental and l y r i c a l rather than philosophical. A l l these characteristics make him susceptible to attack for having no chi-t'o ^> (high ideals).^ But one should not forget that Liu was the pioneer of man-tz'u and during his time tz'u was s t i l l a musical-poetic genre. The use of tz'u as a means to convey high ideals did not come into common practice until the Southern Sung. Liu's tz'u was popular among the common people during his l i f e time and even after the downfall of the Northern Sung. 1 0 On the other hand, his tz'u were not well accepted by the upper class until after his death. Despite the scholar poets' prejudice against the folk origin, the vulgarity, the "unreserved" style of Liu's man-tz'u, Liu's great innovations in form, writing technique and content were gradually recognized. Scholar poets began to employ the long man-tz'u tune-patterns, use the expansive technique, include colloquialisms in tz'u in order to express broader themes. By the late middle 1 1 ^ century, man-tz'u replaced hsiao-ling as the dominant genre in tz'u. Hence, Liu was the medium between folk literature and orthodox literature in that he transmitted man-tz'u from i t s folk origin to the main stream of Chinese poetry. 223a N O T E S ABBREVIATIONS Ch'uan-sung tz'u Han-yii shih-lii hs'u'eh Ssu-pu ts'ung-k'an Tun-huang-ch'ii chiao-lu Tz'u-hua ts'ung-pien T'ang wu-tai tz'u YUeh-chang chi 224 NOTES INTRODUCTION ^Tz'ufa] is also named ch'u-tzu^-3" (songs), shih-:yu ^ (poems l e f t over after shin), yiieh-fu jft (music of the Music Institute), ch'ang-tuan-chu (long and short lines), ch*in-ch'u (lute amusement), yiieh-chang ^  (musical pieces) and many others. See Hsia Ch'eng-t'ao J[_ and Wu Hsiung-ho $^ fifc , Tz'u-hsueh js] ^ (Hongkong: Hung-t'u ch'u-pan-she^ i D & J ^ i n.d.), pp. 8-15. Also see Tetsumi Murakami's ^ X-ty $L "'Shi' ni taisuru ninshiki to sono meisho no rensen" "P j , \s. f$ % J Hfe * H *> A fovfjQN Apprehension of Tz'u and Various Terms applied to i t ) , Bulletin of the Sinological  Society of Japan $ ^ ^ ^ > N o- 2 3» 1 9 7 1 > PP- 100-119. 2 James R. Hightower, Topics in Chinese Literature (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1953), p. 90. 3Sung Hsiang-feng % l | L o 776-1860), Yiieh-fu yii-lun ftl^fcjk, in T'ang Kuei-changJ[ (1899-?), ed., Tz'u-hua ts'ung-pien jg| j& ^$$1 (hereafter: THTP) (Taipei: Kuang-wen shu-chu 1L% If) , 1967), Vol. 7, p. 2469. 4 I n the 12 volumns of the tz'u-hua (tz 'u talks) collected in T'ang Kuei-Chang's THTP, one can find about 300 items related to Liu. JUp to the present there are only a few c r i t i c a l studies on Liu's tz'u. These are: Cheng L i n | $ $ j ^ , "Liu-yung tz'u yen-chiu" ^V? jiKiP J m '^ .(M.A. thesis, Ssu-li chung-kuo wen-hua hslieh-yuan wen-hsueh yen-chiu-so 4^&- f I® X ht. >*f *>tf $L ¥\ , 1968); James Liu, "The Lyrics of Liu Yung," Tamkang Review, Vol. 1, No. 2, 225 1970; [This ar t i c l e is collected in his Major Lyricists of the Northern  Sung (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974), pp. 53-99]; Yuh Liou-y i , "Liu Yung, Su Shih, and Some Aspects of the Development of Early Tz'u Poetry" (Ph.D. thesis, University of Washington, 1972). However, many aspects of Liu's t'zu are s t i l l untouched by these scholars. ^Throughout this thesis each of the 213 poems is assigned a par-ticular number. The poem numbers follow the sequence found in Liu Yung's Yu'eh-chang chi (hereafter:YCC) collected in T'ang Kuei-chang's Ch'uan-sung tz'u ^r^%^\ (hereafter: CST) (Peking: Chung-hua shu-chii ^ % ^ % ) , 1968), pp. 13-55. For a complete l i s t of the poems and their tune-patterns see Appendix A. 226 PART I NOTES THE LEGEND OF LIU YUNG ]For the biography of Wang Yii-ch'eng (954-1001), see T'o T ' o ^ ^ , Ou-yang Hs'u'an $i% et aj_., ed., Sung-shih gf> (Hongkong: Wen-hslieh yen-chiu-she 3L ^ &ft%J\i., 1959, The dynastic history books mentioned in the following are published by the same company), 293.5278c- 5279c. 2Wang Yii-ch'eng, Hsiao-hsu chi «h % 4^ . , in Ssu-pu ts'ung-k'an \1#-is^'ijIL(hereafter: SPTK), f i r s t collection (Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1936), chuan 30, pp. 209-210. For the biography of Liu Mien , see Liu Hsu/£'M3<7 (Hou Chin ^-|')comp., T'ang-shu ; f ^  , 149.3479b-d; Ho Ch'iao-ylian $)2JSL [Ming] ed., Min-shu ^ (Chinese Rare Books of Peiping, item 1001 [in microfilm], photo-reproduction of 1628 edition), chuan 42, wen-li 5^5$- > PP- 6b-7a. 4For example, Chu Yi-tsun (1629-1709), Tz'u-tsung in Ssu-pu pei-yao «D^%P $l$r, No. 265 han &, ts'e -#f" 6, chuan 5,p. 7a; Tu Wen-Ian JL?$j| (Ch' ing), Tz'u-jen hsing-ming lu ts) J ^ ^ t j a $$^> in Wan Shu's % #| ( f l . 1680-1692) Chiao-k'an tz'u-lii jfc_if\\ %^ ^ (Shanghai: P'u-yi shu-chu* ^  ^ , n.d.), p. 4a; Hu Shih i f . (1891-1962) ed., Tz'u^hsuan %&\2$ (Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1928), p. 86; Ch'en Jui ft-'lfelate Ch'ing), "Liang-sung tz'u-jen shih-tai hsien-hou hsiao-lu" ^ ^ is\ A. tff ^ $L 4&.'M^(A Brief Record of the Dates of the Northern and Southern Sung Tz'u Poets), Tz'u-hsu'eh  chi-k'an "p] Vol. I, No. 3, Dec. 1933, p. 83. 227 5Kuang Han-ch'ingflfl %f{ 1230-1280), "Ch1 ien-ta-yin chih-ch'ung hsieh-f ien-hsiang" $\ -^f ^ > i n L u c h ' i e n j L l l ' j (Lu Ch1 i -yeh % , 1905-?) , ed., Yiian-jen tsa-chu ch'Uan-chi li ^ %\ (Shanghai: Shang-hai tsa-chih kung-ssu X yfytfaUb'A 1935-1936), Vol. I,' p. 29. This mistake was pointed out by Lo Chin-t'ang $^,j)L' in his Hsieh-ts'un-yu'an-jen tsa-chu pen-shih k'ao ^ j L ^ J L ^ $ $ - $ l fc^k^ ( T a i P e i : Chung-kuo wen-hua shih-yeh ku-fen yu -hsien kung-ssu * f i ^ j X % fSLtio i f lf< ^ > 1 9 6°)> p. 106. The l i f e of Liu Ch'ung is recorded in the following works which are mainly based on Wang Yli-ch'eng's "Epitaph": Min-shu, chiian 16, fang-yii ^  * ^ , pp. llb-12a; Lin Hung-nien (Ch'ing) ed., Fu-chien f ung-chih OLKS (photo-reproduction of Cheng-yi shu-ylian 5t 4* ? C , 1868 edition), chiian 175, Sung 1 ieh-chuan % 2>] ^  , pp. 24b-25a; Ling Ti-chih (Ming) comp., Wan-hsing f ung-p'u $Lf£ (Taipei: Hsin-hsing shu-chu |.Jf ^ %) » 1971, photo-reproduction of Chi-ku-ko -£ [Ming] edition), chiian 88, p. 1276. 7Fu-chien t'ung-chih, chiian 175, pp. 24b^25a records that i t was Wang Shen-chih ^ % (862-925), Wang Yen-cheng's 2 J^ t father, who appointed Liu Ch'ung to be the assistant subprefect. But Liu Ch'ung was born in 918. When Wang Shen-chih died, Liu Ch'ung was only eight years old. Therefore, the record of Fu-chien t'ung-chih seems incorrect. W^ang Yli-ch'eng's "Epitaph" records that Liu Ch'ung had six sons. But Min-shu (see Note No. 6) adds another one, Liu Mi $fj§j . Since Wang was a good friend of the Liu brothers, i t seems unreasonable that he did not know how many sons Liu Ch'ung had. Thus, the record of Min-shu would seem to be wrong. 228 g In Wang YU-ch'eng's "Liu-tsan-shan hsien chen-tsan ping-hsli" ^ - ^ j j - Hsiao-hsii wai-chi «h % £f % , chuan 10, p. 22, in SPTK, he records that Liu Yi was fifty-eight years old in 996, which would put his birthdate in 938. 10„_. Min-shu, chuan 97, ying-chiu c\\\\\J^% %•, p. lb. ^Wang Yii-ch'eng, Hsiao-hsli chi, chuan 20, pp. 140-141 1 2For the biography of Li Hou-chu 3S. (937-978), see Hsia Ch'eng-t'ao, T'ang sung tz'u-jen nien-p'u % ^ " f s j ^--^f %^ (Shanghai: Chung-hua shu-chu <f - ^ r j : %] , 1961), pp. 73-168. 1 3Loc. c i t . 1 4See note No. 9. 15 See Appendices B and C. ^ A l l records say that San-pien was Liu Yung's original .name except Yeh Meng-te^ |Mf (1077-1148), Pi-shu lu-hua alt jj f&lj , chlian hsia %r-l , p. 2a, in Hsiieh-tsin t'ao-yuan $ & & , chi 14, ts'e 2 and Feng Meng-lung iSj- (1574-1646) comp., Li T'ien^yi ^ & ed., "Chung ming-chi ch'un-feng tiao liu-ch'i rp Jflf^C » in Ku-chin hsiao-shuo ^^^-h^t (Taipei: The World Book Co., 1958, photo-reproduction of T' ien-hsii-chai ^.'If' ^  edition), Vol. I, chlian 12, p. 13a. Since Liu Yung's two other brothers were named San-chieh > and San-fu "> <i$e^ , i t is obvious that Liu's original name was San-pien. 229 1 7Hsieh Chang-t'ing "fj)} djt f 1. C 1892) thinks that Ch'i-ch'ing^^Sp was Liu Yung's second courtesy name and his f i r s t one should be Ching-chuang -J; $t . See Tu-ch'i-shan-chuang chi ^  ilt ffi d^ - , in THTP, Vol. 10, p. 3350. 1 o Loc. c i t . , Feng Meng-lung, "Chung ming-chi", 19Wang P'i-chih |$1 (chin shih of 1068), Sheng-shui yen-t'an 1u :M r £ n Pi-chi hsiao-shuo ta-kuan hsli-pien - J "f L 0- 13L A ffeL &$) (Taipei: Hsin-hsing shu-chu, 1962), Vol. 2, p. 1755. Ch'en Shih-tao (1053-1101), Hou-shan shih-hua tfL \U % % t i , in Ho Wen-huan's^i;^ (1732-1809), ed., L i - t a i shih-hua 4^ "M? It (Taipei: Yi-wen yin-shu-kuan & If 4&., 1956), p. 186. 2 Vor a brief discussion of man-tz'u f^ .»£) and hsiao-ling , see Chapter I. 2 2Ch'en t'ing-cho ^ (1853-1952) Pa.i-yti-chai tz'u-hua & 'fJi " f ^ f i . i n THTP, Vol. 11, p. 3806. ?3 See Note No. 4, Ch'en J u l , "A Brief Record of the Dates of the Northern and the Southern Sung T'zu Poets." 230 24Cheng Ch'ien^p^- , Tz'u-hsu'an'fisjiffi (Taipei: Chung-hua wen-hua ch'u-pan shih-yeh-she ^ JL 4t & %^'* 1 9 6 4 ) > P- 3 5-Earlier in his Ts'ung shih tao ch.'li $?(Taipei: K'o-hsiieh ch'u-pan-she %\ ^ & jfr$Uf£, 1961), p. 119, he says that Liu Yung was about twenty-two years older than Su Shih ^ . 2 5Yeh Ch'ing-ping-|£y|[ Chung-kuo wen-hsUeh-shih <fr ^ ( T a i p e i : Kuang-wen shu-chu, 1971), Vol. 2, p. 372. 26Quoted in Wu Tseng's ^ ^ (Sung) Neng-kai-chai man-lu ^ | ^ $1 , in THTP, Vol. 1, p. 83. Just to cite a few examples: Chao Ching-shen %Jl , Chung-kuo wen-hsueh-shih hsin-pien <}Mf(| (Shanghai: Pei-hsin shu-chu 3b , 1935), p. 150; Ch'en Ching "pjfc , Chung-kuo wen-hsueh chiang-tso $ ^ ^ (Hongkong: Ta-kuang ch'u-pan-she £ ^ & tfM* » 1958), p. 59; Lu K'an-ju and Feng Yuan-chun >#9 ?/L^ , Chung-kuo shih-shih if] i f ^  (Peking: Tso-chia ch'u-pan-she h\ $L ft flM^ , 1956), Vol. 3, p. 626? Ch'en Kuo-chih , Tz'u yli tz'u-jen So\J&;tz\^ (Hongkong: Shang-hai shu-chu X ify^fk , 1962), p. 48; Yli Ssu-mu £ " & J & , Chung-kuo l i - tai wen-hsueh-chia lueh-chuan l9 jg, l\ (Hongkong: Ch'iao-kuang shu-tien h% fy. , 1958), p. 30. T'ang Kuei-chang and Chin Ch'i-hua , "Liu-yung shih-chi hsin-cheng" -#lf>7^ lj£ $|[ f.fjf"fjfc. (New Evidence on Liu Yung's Lif e ) , Wen-hslieh yen-chiu > No. 3, 1957, pp. 91-98. Also see T'ang Kuei-chang's Sung-tz'u ssu-k'ao ^%$<SP% (Nanking: Chiangsu wen-yi ch'u-pan-she -}i j t . ^ * 1959), p. 17. 231 2 9Lo Ta-chtng j | K $ i ( f ] . 1224), Ho-lin yii-lu in Pi-chi-hsu-pien, Vol. 2, p. 2282. For the poem "Wang-hai-ch'ao" *t see poem No. 104. 3 0For the biography of Sun Ho^ M " ^ (961-1004), see Sung-shih, 306.5309d - 5310a. 3 1Later in their "Lun liu-yung t i t z 1 u"Ufa ffi?%b-?i£\(0r\ Liu Yung's Tz'u), T'ang and Chin give Liu's birthdate as 985. See T'ang  sung tz'u yen-chiu lun-wen chi & & f ^ I^T 3L ffi: (Hongkong: Chung-kuo yii-wen hsueh-she <f 0% 5L-$ fy- , 1969), p. 72. 32 ' . Wang Yu-ch eng's literary pieces written for Sun Ho can be found in his Hsiao-hsu'-chi, chiian 8, p. 52, chiian 9, p. 63; chiian 11, p. 83; chiian 19, pp. 129-130. Those for Sun Chin can be found in the same book, chiian 10, pp. 63-64 and chiian 11, pp. 81-82. For the biography of Sun Chin, see Sung-shih, 3O6.5310ab. 33Meng Yuan-lao j ^ ^ L : ^ (Sung), Teng Chih-ch'eng-^^Lfj^ ed., Tung-ching meng-hua lu chu % ^^f^f- (Peking: Commercial Press, 1959), pp. 60, 66-67 and 71. 3 4 I b i d . , pp. 68 and 137-138. 3 5 I b i d . , p. 72. 36Poem No. 130. 232 3 7Kato, Shigeru 1)* , trans. Wu Shu-^*iL , Chung-kuo ching-chi-shih k'ao-cheng v f j ^ ^ ^ ' t i (Peking: Commercial Press, 1962, 3rd edition), pp. 248-249. Poem No. 72. I am indebted to Professor Jan Walls for informing me what "chU-ts V'j^3$£is. 39 See Note No. 33, Meng Yuan-lao, Tung-ching, p. 141 40Poem Nos. 15/26.3/58/62. 41 Poem No. 84. 42Poem No. 73. 43Poem No. 119. 44 The courtesans included in Liu's poems are Hsiu-hsiang ^ (poem No. 9.2), Ying-ying (poem No. 10), Yao-ch'ing 3$^P(poems No. 19.1), Ch'ung-ch'ung^, ^  (poems No. 34/73), Hsin-niang >cf -ilk (poems No. 81.1), Chia-niang/ii(poem No. 81.2), Ch'ung-n i a n g ^ 4t|L (poem No. 81.3), Su-niang -fcjjMpoem No. 81.4), Shih-shih fafy > Hsiang-hsiang ^  % and An-an4e-4r (poem No. 160). The one mentioned in Yuan drama is Hsieh T'ien-hsiang "Hf K.% (see Note No. 5) Those mentioned in the pi-chi and hua-pen are Chou YLieh-hsien and Hsieh Yu-yingi$3 £ ( s e e Note No. 16, Feng Meng-lung, "Chung ming-chi"), C h ' u - c h ' u ^ ^ (See Ch'ing-ni lien-hua chi y)h 7$ ftJJh, 233 quoted in Yeh Shen-hsiang's*^ t $f Pen-shih tz'u t% , in THTP, Vol. 7, pp. 2247-2248), Pao-pao ^  "f , Tung-tung and Chu Yu (see Lo YehM^jf [Sung], Tsui-weng t'an-lu $T $) i^ik [Shanghai: Ku-tien wen-hslieh ch'u-pan-she -£ & , 1957], pp. 30-34). 4 5Lo O/Jl^i? (1692-1752) and Ma Yueh-kuan^^ 1% (1688-1755) ed., Sung-shih chi-shih j^j jit^ (Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1937), chiian 13, p. 354. '""See poem Nos. 9.2/ 27/ 77/ 106.3/ 106.4. For a systematic discussion of the classification of courtesans and prostitutes of the Sung, see Kishibe S'higeo ^  i2. "Sodai no Gikan," (The Brothels of the Sung Dynasty), Rekishi to Bunkafflj j? <t No. 2, 1956, pp. 133-191. 47Poem Nos. 34/73. 48 See Note No. 19. 49 See Note.No. 16, Yeh Meng-te, Pi-shu lu-hua, p. lb. See Note No. 16, Feng Meng-lung, "Chung ming-chi" p. 3a. 51 See Note No. 44. Lo Yeh, Tsui-weng t'an-lu, p. 32. Lo also records that three courtesans asked Liu to write tz'u for them (pp. 31-33). In poem No. 106.4, Liu e x p l i c i t l y describes that a courtesan requests him to write tz'u for her. 234 52 Loc. c i t . , p. 3b. 5 3See Note No. 49. 54Poem No. 12. 55 See Note No. 16, Yeh Meng-te, Pi-shu lu-hua, pp. lb-2a, 56Poem No. 28. 57Poem No. 29. 58Poem Nos. 91/ 106.4. 59Poem Nos. 2/ 106.3. fin According to E.A. Kracke Jr., for a person to obtain a chin-shih degree in the early Sung, he had to pass the prefectural examin-ation, or their equivalent, the school examination, the departmental examination, and the palace examination. See his C i v i l Service in  Early Sung China (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1953), p. 65. See also Teng S s u - y l i - ^ p ^ ^ , Chung-kuo k'ao-shih  chih-tu-shih y | f 9 | ^ , ^ | / 1 L £ . (Taipei: Hsiieh-sheng shu-chu £ ~& %1 , 1967), pp. 152-153. fil Cheng Lin thinks that during Liu's last years he visited Ch'ien-t'ang^-J/g and wrote the poem "wang-hai-ch'ao" for Sun Ho. Since Sun Ho died in 1004, Cheng's assumption is apparently incorrect. See "Liu-yung tz'u yen-chiu," p. 14. 235 62Poem No. 37.1/41.2. Aogama, Sadao (1905- )..ed.t Sodaishi nempyo (Hoku So)&VLt i f r j L ( , * f c 3 ) (Tokyo: Toyo Bunko % $ , 1967), p. 62. 6 4 I b i d . , p. 80. 65 Poem No. 26.4. Jen-tsung was made crown prince in 1018. See Sung-shih, 8.4512d. 66Poem No. 144. 67Chang Chung-chiang ii- , Chi-nu yli wen-hsueh & L - j r - ^ J L ' ^ (Taipei: K'ang-nai-ch1 ing ch'u-pan-she^. ft & , 1969), pp. 122-125. ^According to Kracke, the competition in the prefectural and departmental examinations was so s t i f f that the average for candidates passing was about ten percent. See Note No. 60, pp. 65-66. The poem "ho-ch'ung-t'ien"/^ >^^was so popular that the line "pai-yi-ch'ing-hsiang" ##L#? W (a prime minister in commoner's clothing) was incorporated into a poem in the hua-pen. See Note No.16, Feng Meng-lung, "Chung ming-chi," p. 13a. 69Poem No. 105.2. Ibid. 236 71 Poem No. 34. 72 Poem No. 103. 7 3Yen Y u - y i ^ L ^ % ( f l . c. 1127), Yi-hai tz'u-huang % & , quoted in Hu Tzu's $i\ )\ ( f l . c. 1147) T'iao-hsi yii-yin ts'ung-hua % 'Jk A T i ^ l i > second collection , in THTP, Vol. 1, p. 130. 74 Wu Tseng, Neng-kai-chai man-lu, in THTP, Vol. 1, p. 97. In retelling the same story based on Wu Tseng's record, Yeh Shen=hsiang in his Pen-shih tz'u, in THTP, Vol. 7, p.. 2247 says that i t was the Emperor who told Liu to "drink light and sing low" not the people around him. Also, when quoting the same story from Wu Tseng, Wang Yi-ch'eng 3- /!j(16447-1736?) in his Yu-hsuan l i - t a i shih-yu ffi\KX%, in THTP, Vol. 4, p. 1220 adds that, when the Emperor announced the examination result, he purposely rejected Liu. 75 The palace examination was set up by T'ai-tsung in 975 and this practice was not abolished until 1057. See Note No. 60, Kracke, Civi l Service, p. 66. 76Wang Yung £ #• (Sung), Yen-yi yi-mou 1 u j& 3H& 1& & , chuan 5, p. 12b, in HsUeh-tsin t'ao-y'u'an, chi 6, ts'e 6. 7 7Most sources say that Liu obtained his chin-shih degree in the f i r s t year of Ching-yu (1034), but Wang P'h'-chih in his Sheng-shui  yen-t'an lu (see Note No. 19) gives the last year of Ching-yu • (that is 1038). In view of fact that Liu was already an o f f i c i a l in the 237 Ching-yu years (as we shall see later) Wang's record seems inaccurate. Yeh Shen-hsiang in his Pen-shih tz'u (see Note No. 74) and Shen Hsiung >jfc (f1. 1653) in his Ku-chin tz'u-hua -fc &rjz\%% , in THTP, Vol. 3, p. 1039 give the middle year of Ching-yu.. According to Sung-shih, 10.4515b, only two examinations were held during the Ching-yu years, that i s 1034 and 1038. Thus, the records of Wang, Yeh and Shen are inaccurate. 7 8According to Shih Wen-ying's^ JL ^  ( f l . c . 1078), when Fan Chung-yen (989-1052) was demoted to be an o f f i c i a l at Mu-chou he heard the local people sing Liu's tz'u "man-chiang-hung"yfe :A (poem No. 107.1). See Hsiang-shan yeh-lu<U , ch'uan chung , pp. 17b-18a in Hslieh-tsin t'ao-yuan, chi 17, ts'e 12. Also, according to "Fang-wen-cheng-kung nien-p'u"^ jC_j£ , Fan was transferred to Mu-chou in 1034 (and was transferred again to Su-chou Jj^-H] in.1035). Therefore, Liu was appointed as an o f f i c i a l at Mu-chou in 1034, not the middle years of Ching-yu- See Fan-wen-cheng-kung chi |£ <L jfc. (Shanghai: Sao-yeh shan-fang d*^ , 1919), pp. 8ab. 79v Y^eh Meng-te, Shih-1 in yen-yli ^ ^ i j k " ! ^ , chuan 6, in Pi-chi  'ihsli-pien, Vol. 1, p. 155. 80Chang Chi-an j J i H ^ = and Chu Wen-tsao .5L^ (Ch'ing)ed., Yii-hang hsien-chih ^  jf.fi , in Chung-kuo fang-chih ts'ung-shu $J H » hua-chung ti-fang J) , No. 56 (Taipei: Ch'eng-wen ch'u-pan-she J L i t t ^ A - ^ - , photo-reproduction of 1919 edition), chlian 19, chih-kuan piao ~f^%^< , shang , p. 18a. This record says that Liu was subprefect of Yii-hang in 1034. But, based on the above discussion (see Note No. 78), this record seems incorrect. 238 8 1 Ibid., chiian 17, ku-chi "£ Sj[ ,pp. 6-7. See also Hung P ' i e n S & f l l L e d . , "Liu-ch'i-ch'ing shih-chiu wan-ehiang-lou-chi" ~A %% s*K£tL» i n Ch'ing-p'ing-shan-t'ang hua-pen ~r\ % & ^ ^ 3h (Peking: Wen-hsueh ku-chi k'an-hsing-she 5^,^ %. || ^^-i-, 1955), p. 14. 82 Loc. c i t . , chiian 21, ming-huan chuan /&2 i l f , p. 6. Poem No. 78.6. Also see poem No. 124. 84Ch'en Hsun-chengft-i)'! j t and Ma Yingl<)5j^ (Ch'ing) ed., Ting-hai hsien-chihl&jMi:, in Chung-kuo fang-chih, hua-chung ti-fang, No. 75 (Taipei: Ch'eng-wen ch'u-pan-she, 1970, photo-reproduction of 1924 edition), y i i - t i t t t , p. 44b and c h i - k u a n ^ f , p. lb. 85 See Note No. 45. Li 0 and Ma Yiieh-kuan, Sung-shih chi-shih. p. 13a. 8 6Loc. c i t . , y u - t i J ^ , p. 44b. Also see poem No. 68. 87 See Note No. 76. Wang Yung, Yen-yi yi-mou l u , chlian 2, 88Poem No. 139.1 89Poem No. 31. 90Poem No. 94. 239 91Poem Nos. 8/26.1/26.2/26.3/37.1/49.1 92 Hsia Ch'eng-t'ao, "Tang-sung tz'u-jen nien-p'u, pp. 237-241 93Quoted in Hsu Shih-luan's^ (Ch'ing) Sung-yen Sfc3fc , in Pi-chi hsiao-shuo ta-kuan (Taipei: Hsin-hsing shu-chU, 1962), Vol. 6, p. 6203. From this record, i t is not clear which poem of Liu's offended the Emperor. It should not be "ho-ch'ung-t'ien", since i t was written before he obtained his chin-shih degree. The other poem "tsui-p'eng-lai"^]|r which offended Jen-tsung was written in 1049 (as we shall see later), that i s , at least five years after Liu went to see Yen Shu. Perhaps the "tsui-p'eng-lai" incident was so well-known that Chang included i t in his record without paying attention to when i t actually took place. 94 Poem No. 79. Also see poem No. 131. 9 5Liu's epitaph appears in Wang Ying-1 in j£. M*jf$f{ 1223-1296) ed., Chen-chiang fu-chih 4$-. Il-jfa A- (Chinese Rare Books of Peiping, Item 744 [in microfilm], photo-reproduction of W a n - l i ^ ^ [1573-1620] edition), chiian 32, mu , p. 15ab and Ho Shao-chang^^P"^ and Yang L i - f i a i (Ch'ing) ed., Tan-t'u hsien-chih > in Chung-kuo fang-chih, hua-chung ti-fang, No. 11 (Taipei: Ch'eng-wen ch'u-pan-she, 1970, photo-reproduction of 1879 edition), chiian 8, ling-mu Js , p. 8. 96 jo -fc Fu-chien t'ung-chih gives Shih C h i h ^ , ^ , see Note No. 6, chiian 189, p. 10b. 9 7See Note No. 19. 240 98 See Ho Ch iao-yiian ed., Min-shu, chiian 97, p. 7b; Sung-shih. 9.4513c. 99 Poem No. 63. T'ang and Chin in their "New evidence on Liu Yung's Life," pp. 95-96 (see Note No. 28) agree that the poem "tsui-p'eng-lai" was written for the appearance of the canopus. Their conclusion is based on the records of Huang Sheng-$i ^ ( f l . 1240-1249), Hua-an tz'u-hsuan }\j(Hongkong: Chung-hua shu-chli, 1973), p. 93 and Yen Yu - y i , Yi-hai tz'u-huang (see Note No. 73). Apparently they did not consult Sung-shih. 1 0 QSung-shih, 56.4619a. 1 0 1Sung-shih, 55.4615d, 1 0 2See Note No. 20. 103 See Note No. 16, Feng Meng-lung, "Chung ming-chi", p. 14a. 1 0 4Chu Mu , Fang-yu sheng-lan # ^ , quoted^ in T'ang Kuei-chang's Sung-tz'u san-pai-shou chien-chu >- % (Hongkong: Chung-hua shu-chli, 1974, reprint), p. 26. 1 0 5Tseng Min-hsing-f 4t (7-1175), Tu-hsing tsa-chih flfj \i , in Pi-chi ta-kuan, Vol. 1, p. 228, 1 0 6Shen Chia-jui ^-Jfc and Li Wen ^  J L (Ming) ed., Yi-chen  hsien-chih ^ JL (Chinese Rare Books of Peiping, Item 706 [in microfilm], photo-reproduction of T'ien-yi-ko edition), chiian 2, p. I5b. 241 107Wang Shih-chen (1634-1711), Ch'ih-pei ou-t'an >& ft , in Pi-chi ta-kuan, Vol. 5, p. 4671. Wang's record was refuted by Yang Ch'i $D % (Ch'ing), Ching-k'ou shan-shui-^chih iL^ & , in Chung-kuo fang-chih, hua-chung ti-fang, No. 6 (Taipei: Ch'eng-wen ch'u-pan-she, 1970, photo-reproduction of 1884 edition), chiian 1, p. 43a. 1 OR See Note No. 16, Yeh Meng-te, Pi-shu lu-hua. P'an Ch'eng-pi ~M -ft^ffi) thinks that Liu died in Jun-chou;)^ and was buried in Y i -chen, but he does not give any evidence. See "Liu-san-pien shih-chi k'ao-lueh" . 2 - l i ^ (A Brief Study on Liu San-pien's l i f e ) , Shih  hs'iieh chi-k'an ^  ^ , No. 2, Oct. 1926, p. 212. 109 See Note No. 95. The record of Liu's grave also appears in Tan-t'u hsien-chih, chiian 2, shan \U ,p. 6. 1 1 0 F o r the biography of Wang Ho-fu 3- l$l (1034-1095), see Sung-shih, 327.5357d-5358b. See also T'ang and Chin, "New Evidence on Liu Yung's Life," p. 97. ^According to Tung S h i h ^ ^ , Liu's nephew Liu C h ' i ^ ^ r was a calligrapher who once wrote Li Kou's-^:^^ (1009-1059) "Yiian-chou chou-hsiieh chi"^.^] ti] and had i t engraved on a stone in Hang-chou. See Huang-sung shu-lu ^ ^% ^jf- , in Chih-pu-tsu-chai ts'ung-shu ^ ^K.%%J% > chung pien , p. 38b. 112 See Note No. 28. T'ang and Chin, "New Evidence on Liu Yung's Life," p. 97. 242 1 1 3Huang Chih-chun-"$Ticlt) (1668-1748) and others comp., Chiang- nan t'ung-chih J. in Chung-kuo sheng-chih hui-pien ^  /c,v !J§£ No. 1 (Taipei: Chung-hua shu-chu, 1967, photo-reproduction of 1737 edition);, chiian 119, hs'u'an-chii chihi^.-^- % , chin-shih l3L-£ , p. 14b. Also in Tan-t'u hsien-chih (see Note No. 95), chlian 22, k'9-mu P(§ , P. 6. 114Poem Nos. 78.1/85/109/110/133.2. 115Poem No. 121 116Poem No. 48. 117Poem No. 107.1 118Poem Nos. 49.2/59/132.3/134.2, 119 See Note No. 45, Li 0 and Ma Yueh-kuan, Sung-shih chi-shih, chiian 13, p. 355. 1 2 0 I b i d . , p. 354. 1 2 1See Note No. 117. 122Poem No. 98. 123Poem No. 137.2, 124 '"Poem Nos. 84/95/115/116/129.2. 243 PART II NOTES THE TZ'U OF LIU YUNG CHAPTER I - THE CHARACTERISTICS OF LIU'S TUNE PATTERNS 'For the translation of t z ' u - p ' a i ^ $| as "tune-pattern" see Glen William Baxter, "Metrical Origins of the Tz'u." Bishop, ed., Studies in Chinese Literature (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Univer-sity Press, 1965), p.. I l l ; for "tune", see James J.Y. Liu, The Art of Chinese Poetry (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1967), p. 30. and also his Major Lyricists, p. 3. 2For a detailed discussion of kung-tiao % ~%}$\ , see Rulan Chao Pi an, Song Dynasty Musical Sources and Their Interpretation (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1967), Chapter 2, pp. 43-58. A brief discussion of kung-tiao is given in Hsia and Wu, Tz'u-hsu'eh, pp. 16-19. 3Mao Hsien-shu %j$L'Pj' (1620-1688) regards those tz'u under fifty-eight words as hsiao-ling, those from fifty-nine to ninety words as chung-tiao^"fjf] and those over ninety words as ch'ang-tiao-^.t^ . His view was cr i t i c i z e d by many scholars such as Wang Shu (in his Preface to Tz'u-lu ^t\0^tfj , p. lb), however, i t can s t i l l serve as a c r i t e r i a for classifying tz'u. Shen Hsiung, Ku-chin tz'u-hua, in THTP, Vol. 3, p. 832. 244 5wang Cho $• (d. 1160), Pi-chi man-chih in THTP, Vol. 1, p. 75. ^Chu CKien-chih ^"tJ$!iL , Chung-kuo yin-yueh wen-hslieh-shih ^ )f| ~JL$r ^ _ ( S n a n g h a i : Commercial Press, 1935), pp. 189-190. Also see Hsu Chih-hengifriZ-^f , Chung-kuo yin-ylieh hsiao-shih<^|f| (Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1933), p. 165. ^Attempts to reconstruct the musical notes for tz'u can be seen in Rulan Chao Pian's Song Dynasty Musical Sources,:pp. 101-129.and Kuang Chih-hsiung's ] ^ Chang-yen tz'u-yuan ou-ch'li chih-yao k'ao-shih 1)0^^^^^^ (Annotation to Chang Yen's Tz'u-yuan on the Elements of Singing)(Hongkong: Hsiang-kang tz'u-ch'u hsiieh-hui ^ y$ t*] $ ^ ^ [ T h e Chinese Lyrics Society of Hongkong]), 1969. 8 J. Sung Hsiang-feng, Yueh-fu yli-lun, quoted in Wang Li 5 /) » Han-yQ shih-lu hsUeh ~A $ t ~t^4JMf (hereafter: HYSLH) (Shanghai: Hsin-chih-shih ch'u-pan-she fa fat^ifrkfa, 1958), p. 581. 9 I b i d . , Wang, HYSLH. ^Probably based on Shen Hsiung's statement (see Note No. 4), Wang Li classifies tz'u into two types: those poems under sixty-two words are considered as hsiao-ling and those over sixty-two words as manrtz'u. See HYSLH, p. 520. 1 0 L i n Ta-ch'un , T'ang wu-tai tz'u M. £ ^\%^[ (hereafter: TWTT)(Hongkong: Commercial Press, 1972). 245 ""Poem No. 155 has only one line. Although the tune-pattern "ch'iu-jui-hsiang-yin" (poem No. 47) has sixty words, i t is not counted as hsiao-ling because of differences in music. What is noteworthy is that in Liu's YCC, only "mu-lan-hua-man" (poem No. 132.1-3) bears a t i t l e with the word "man"T^ . Since Liu was the f i r s t poet to compose a great number of man-tz'u, why then he did not include the word "man" in his tune-patterns? I would conjecture that, during Liu's time, the singing of man-tz'u was so different from that of hsiao-ling that, even when using the same t i t l e s as hsiao-ling, there was no need to include the word "man" in order to differentiate between them. Furthermore, in the YCC, Liu has seven hsiao-ling written to the tune-pattern "mu-lan-hua" (poem Nos. 81.1-4/145.1-3) and one hsiao-ling to the tune-pattern "mu-lan-hua-ling" (poem No. 126). Hence, in order to differentiate them Liu adds the word "man" to "mu-lan-hua-man." The reason for choosing Yen Shu (991-1055), Ou-yang H s i u j J ^ ? ! , ^ (1007-1072) and Chang Hsien ?JL (990-1078) is partially due to their commonly recognized high position in the realm of tz'u and partially due to their comparatively greater number of poems written. Yen Chi-tao j | z l , (1031-?)(the youngest son of Yen Shu), who lived later than Liu, w i l l not be included in the present discussion despite the fact that he wrote a great number of poems, 14 For the sake of comparison I use Professor Cheng Ch'ien's freer definition that tz'u over eighty words are considered as ch'ang-tiao. See Ts'ung shih tao ch'u, p. 96. 15 My counting of Liu's tune-patterns is based on the comments given in Wen Ju-hsien's Tz'u-p'ai hui-shih "f ft) jj[ ^ (Taipei: Wen Ju-hsien, 1963). The following tune-patterns are to be counted as one: "yu-lou-ch'un" and "mu-lan-hua"; "ch'ing-pei", "ku-ch'ing-pei" and "ch'ing-pei-le"; "fa-ch'u-hsien-hsien-yin" and "fa-ch'U-ti-erh?; "hsiao-chen-hsi" and "hsiao-chen-hsi-fan".. The following tune-patterns 246 are to be counted as separate ones in. spite of their similarity in t i t l e s : "lin-chiang-hsien", "1in-chiang-hsien-1ing" and "1in-chiang-hsien-(man)"; "su-chung-ch'ing" and "su -chung-ch'ing-1ing"; "mu-lan-hua", "mu-lan-hua-man" and "chien-tzu-mu-lan-hua"; "lang-t'ao-sha-ling" and "lang-t'ao-sha-(man)"; "mi-shen-yin" and "mi-hsien-yin"; "ying-ch'un-ylieh" and "ying-hsin-ch'un"; "hung-ch'uang-t'ing" and "hung-ch'uang-ch'iung"; "yi-ti-ching" and "meng-huan-ching." Although "ts'u-p'ai-man-lu-hua" and "ho-ch'ung-t'ien" have the same variant t i t l e "man-ylian-hua", they are s t i l l counted as different tune-patterns, In total Liu uses 127 tune-patterns and 171 variant forms. •J c Ch'en T'ing-cho says that Chang Hsien's tz'u serves as a turning point in the history of tz'u. See Pai-yli-chai tz'u-hua, in THTP, Vol. 11, p. 3806. 1 7See Appendix F. I o For Ou-yang Hsiu's "yu-lou-ch'un", see CST, pp. 132-136 and pp. 156-157; for "yu-chia-ao" see CST, pp. 128-132, 136-140 and pp. 150-151. This characteristic was pointed out by Wang Yu-hua £ (Ming), Ku-chin tz'u-lun - g ^ j a ) jfej , in THTP, Vol. 2, p. 611; Wang Yi £ %) , Tz'u-ch'u shih ^ (Taipei: Kuang-wen shu-chii, 1960), p. 113; and Hsu C h ' i 4 ^ ^ "Tz'u-lU chien-ch'Ueh" |a] ^  % ^ » chiian 1 Tz'u-hsiieh chi-k'an, Vol. I I , No. 2, Jan. 1935, p. 160. 20Poem No. 71 2 1 Poem No. 122, 247 2 2For Yen Shu's "huan-hsi-sha", see CST, pp. 88-90. 23 These are "feng-hsien-pei", "shao-nien-yu", ch'ang-sheng-le" and "fu-ni-shang" 24 For Ou-yang Hsiu's "yu-lou-ch'un", see Note No. 15; for his "tieh-lien-hua" see CST, pp. 125-128 and 149-150. 25 These exceptions are, for instance, "sheng-wu-yu.", "shao-nien-yu" and "tung-hsien-ko-ling". 26 Chang Hsien only writes ten poems to his favorite tune-pattern "mu-lan-hua". Twenty-two out of his ninety-five tune-patterns have poems in variant forms. They are: "tsui-ch'ui-pien", "nan-hsiang-tzu", "p'u-sa-man", "kan-huang-en", "huan-hsi-sha", "hsi-chiang-ylieh", "tsui-t'ao-yuan", "ch' ing-pei-le", "y'u'-chieh-hsing", "yu-1 ien-huan", "wu-ling-ch'un", "ting-feng-po", "shao-nien-yu", "keng-lou-tzu", "tsui-le-p'o", "mu-lan-hua", "yli-mei-jen", "t'ien-hsien-tzu", "chiang-ch'eng-tzu", "ting-hsi-fan" "t'ou-sheng-mu-lan-hua" and "wang-chiang-nan". 27Poem Nos. 112 and 121. 28 See Appendix G. 29 These seventeen tune-patterns are: "wei-fan", "ch'ing-pei-le", "ho-ch'ung-t'ien", "nli-kuan-tzu", "mu-lan-hua", "ting-feng-po", "feng-kuei-yun", "yin-chia-hsihg", "tung-hsien-ko", "chi-t'ien-shen", "an-kung-tzu", "kuei-ch'li-lai", "yen-kuei-1 iang", "ch'ang-shou-le", "mi-shen-yin" "jui-che-ku" and "wang-yuan-hsing". 248 3 0See poem Nos. 143/12/142/56/57/14. In Ling T'ing-k'an's Yen-ylieh k'ao-yuan Yueh-ya-t'ang ts'ung-shu % » en"i 8, chiian 2, p., 5 to chiian 5, p. 23, he states that fifty-eight tiao •f)|| in the Northern Sung are "new songs composed on the basis of the old ones" ^ %1^-h\ ^ . The tune-pattern "ch 1ing-pei-le" (or ch'ing-pei) is listed under every kung-tiao. This shows that "ch 1ing-pei-le" was the most popular melody in Liu's time. I think this is the reason that Liu has many variant forms for this tune-pattern. See poem Nos. 138/108/89. The two poems written to the following tune-patterns are listed to two kung-tiao and have two forms: "wei-fan" (94 and 98 words), "ho-ch'ung-t'ien" (84 and 86 words), "ting-feng-po" (99 and 105 words), "feng-kuei-ylin" (101 and 118 words), "yin-chia-hsing" (100 and 125 words), "chi-t'ien-shen" (84 and 86 words), ch'ang-shou-le" (83 and 113 words), "kuei-ch'u'-lai" (49 and 52 words) and "yen-kuei-1iang" (50 and 52 words). These fifteen tune-patterns are: "k'an-hua-hui ", "yu-chieh-hsing", "fa-ch'u'-hsien-hsien-yin", "yung-yli-le", "shao-nien-yu", "lun-t'ai-tzu", "yeh-pan-le", "kuo-chien-hsieh-chin", "ju-yli-shui", "yli-hu-tieh", "man-chiang-hung", "1in-chiang-hsien", "hsi-shih", "ho-shen" and "hsiao-chen-hsi-fan". 33Poem No. 85 and No. 98. Chang Hsien l i s t s sixteen tune-patterns each under two differ-ent kung-tiao and six under three kung-tiao, however, the poems written to these tune-patterns are almost identical except for "kanfhuang-en", "yli-1 ien-huan", "shao-nien-yu" and "yli-chieh-hsing" which involve a word or two difference. 249 35 Liu writes two poems to the tune-pattern "kuei-ch'li-lai" (49 words [poem No. 100] and 52 words [poem No. 149] and two poems to "yen-kuei-1iang" (50 words [poem No. 101] and 52 words [poem No. 151]). Feng Ch1i-yung , "Lun pei-sung ch'ien-ch'i t i liang-chung pu-t'ung t i tz'u-feng" ft & &xfoj£&tf\ t * l (On the Two Different Styles of Tz'u in the Early Northern Sung), T'ang- sung-tz'u yen-chiu lun-wen chi, pp. 43-69. 3 7Ts'ui L i n g - c h ' i n $ ( T ' a n g ) , Jen Erh-pei ed., Chiao-fang-chi chien-ting "$£ ^  %*\ (Shanghai: Chung-hua shu-chli, 1962), pp. 63-165. 3 8Sung-shih, 142.4822a, 39 J y l b i d . 40 Yeh Meng-te, Pi-shu lu-hua, chlian hsia, p. lb. 41 These sixteen tune-patterns are "ch'ing-pei'ile", "feng-kuei-yu'n", "nei-chia-chiao", "tung-hsien-ko", "p'ao-ch'iu-le", "sung-cheng-y i " , "kuei-ch'u-lai", "ting-feng-po", "p'o-lo-men (ling)", "ch'ang-hsiang-ssu", "wang-ylian-hsing", "shih-erh-shih", "lang-t'ao-sha", "wu-shan-yi-tuan-yiin", "hsi-chiang-ylieh" and "1 in-chiang-hsien". 4 2Sung Hsiang-feng, Ylieh-fu yu-lun, in THTP, Vol. 7, p. 2468. WuMei^^S- (1883-1939), Tz'u-hsueh t'ung-lun |s] ^ 'jki^j (Hongkong: T'ai-p'ing shu-chu .1964), p. 11; Li Ping-jo $ >fc£ , "Lun pei-sung man-tz'u" ifo *k 1^ I^Jis] (On the Man-tz'u of the Northern 250 Sung), Kuo-hsueh ts'ung-k'an ^$r1} , Vol. 2, No. 3, Sept. 1924, p. 19; Chang Yu.-jen ^ . ^ . ^ , "Lun pei-sung man-tz'u", in Cheng Chen-t o , ed., Chung-kuo wen-hslieh yen-chiu ^  jC^,^ % (Hongkong: Chung-kuo wen-hslieh yen-chiu-so xj? i&ft ^ L yff » 1963), p. 225; Chao Ching-shen, Chung-kuo wen-hsiieh-shih hsin-pien, p. 150; Liu Tzu-keng^i] ^  (d. 1928), Tz'u-shih (Taipei: Hsueh-sheng shu-chu , 1972), p. 55; Chang Meng-chi 'fyJfyltfL (1941- ), Tz'u-chien^l %}. (Taichung: San-min shu-chli , 1971), p. 27; Feng Chia-hua -^ S and Liu Ting-chung^'j %_ ^  in "Liu-yung ho man-tz'u" $ f t f . i ^ j (Liu Yung and Man-tz'u), Kuang-ming jih-pao Wen-hslieh yi-ch'an J L ^ j f j | , No. 192, Jan. 19, 1958, argue that Liu was the inventor of man-tz'u. Their view was refuted by T'ang Kuei-chang and Chin Ch'i-hua in "Tsai-lun liu-yung t i tz'u Jfy f% $f ^0%^ (More Discussions on Liu Yung's Tz'u), Kuang-ming jih-pao, Wen- hslieh yi-ch'an, No. 201, March 28, 1958. 43 Wang Yi , Tz'u-ch'li shih, p. 113. His view was echoed by Wan Min-hao tytL%% > Erh-yen chi ch'i-tz'u > j § # f (Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1934), pp. 26-27. 44Wang, HYSLH, p. 529. 45TWTT, p. 117. 46Poem No. 76. 47TWTT, p. 147., Poem No. 73. 251 ^ L i u , Major Lyricist , p. 98 states that Liu invented 115 meters but he does not give the number of tune-patterns Liu invented. Cheng Lin, in her "Liu-yung chi ch'i-tz'u", p. 157 argues that Liu invented seventy-three tune-patterns. She takes the tune-patterns which have the comments such as "tiao-chien-ylieh-chang-chi" H L ^ ^ ^ (this tune-pattern f i r s t appeared in YCC), and those tune-patterns only used by Liu as his inventions. Yuh Liou-yi in her "Liu Yung, Su Shih, and some aspects of the development of early Tz'u poetry", p. 125.states that Liu invented only fifteen tune-patterns. Her c r i t e r i a in judging the number of tune-patterns Liu invented is not given. JUThese eighteen tune-patterns are: "chou-yeh-le", "k'an-hua-hui ", "liang-t'ung-hsin", "n'u-kuan-tzu", "chin-chiao-yeh", "ting-feng-po", "hsiTp'ing-ylieh", "ch'iu-jui-hsiang-yin", "ch'lieh-ch'iao-hsien", "li-chih-hsiang", "p'ao-ch1 iu-le", "ying-f ien-ch'ang", "wang-ylian-hsing", "yii-hu-tieh", "chu-ma-tzu", "ts'u-p'ai-man-lu-hua", "t'ou-pi-hsiao" and "yi-ts'un-chin". Chou Chih-mo $jp%k%% (Ming), Ylian-chih-chai tz'u-chung yfc & , in THTP, Vol. 2, p. 644. J<~These eleven tune-patterns are: "huang-ying-erh" (poem No. 1), "chou-yeh-le" (poem No. 9.2), "1iu-yao-ch'ing" (poem No. 10), "ying-hsin-ch'un" (poem No. 15), "liang-t'ung-hsin" (poem No. 24.1), "chin-chiao-yeh" (poem No. 27), "ke-1ien-t'ing" (poem No. 70), "ssu-kuei-le" (poem No. 75), "wang-han-ylieh" (poem No. 99), "hsi-shih" (poem No. 128.1) and "ho-ch'ung-t'ien" (poem No. 144). 53 Chou Chih-mo, Ylian-chih-chai tz'u-chung, in THTP, Vol. 2, p. 640; Hsieh Chang-t'ing, Tu-ch'i-shan-chuang chi, in THTP, Vol. 10, p. 3290. 5 4Sung-shih, 142.4822a. NOTES CHAPTER II - THE "WORLDS" OF LIU'S TZ'U In using the term "world" I adopt James Liu's definition that "[The world of a poem] is the concrete embodiment and individualization of a theme," Major Lyricists, p. 6. For chu-sung tz'u^L y>f|s) see poem Nos. 8/26.1-3/37.1/49.1 ; for yung-wu tz'u l ^ f c l s ) see poem Nos. 1/21/137.1/145.1-3; for huai-ku tz'u f | L $ s e e poem Nos. 59/137.2; for yu-hsien tz'uz£$>^ see poem Nos. 41.1-5. "Yu-hsien tz'u" refers to a kind of tz'u in which a poet imagines he interacts with the fa i r i e s . It usually expresses a poet's desire to get away from worldly worries. For a brief discussion on Liu's yu-hsien tz'u, see,Nagata, Natsuki - ^L^ \ "Shi sh'i kyoku no setten 'Gakushoshu - soshi oboe gaki, sono ichi -". - S H U # o)t£1k r * - f * i - * < « ] t i < * . - , Kobe Gaidai Ronso ^ f / ^ f A ^ ^ l > 19> N o- 3> 1 9 6 8> PP- 30-34. Just to cite a few examples: Liu Lin-sheng^'j/f^" %• , Chung-kuo wen-hsueh-shih ^ S3 (Hongkong: Nan-tao ch'u-pan-she tf) % & %k%*~ * .1956), p. 259; Hsi Che jf& , Chung-kuo shih tz'u  yen-chin-shih ^ igj -fgf %Q y%Y&$^ (Taipei: Hua-lien ch'u-pan-she %t\\ jfeJJM*- ' 1 9 7 2 ) ' P- 1 9 4 ' S n e Hsueh-man^^ in his She- hsiieh-man tz'u-hsUeh yen-chiang-lu ^ %_%^[ ^ yfL'tt ^ (Hongkong: Hsiieh-man yi-wen yuan ^ ^ ^ , 1955), p. 46 even points out that among the Sung tz'u poets who followed the hua-chien ?$\ style Liu was the representative one. 4For instance, Chang Chen-yung , Chung-kuo wen-hslieh-shih fen-lun iffl JL^>-jjjjjjj- (Ch'angsha: Commercial Press, 1939), 253 Vol. 3, p. 68; Huang Chen-min^"^f<-^ Ssu-ta tz'u-jen chi ch'i-tz'u ^ TV "I A & J t f£] (Taipei: Wen-yuan ch'u-pan-she ji $J$* & flkfe. , 1959), pp. 66-67; Chang Ch'ang-kung fj , Chung-kuo wen-hsueh-shih hsin-pien <f jtj^ & ^(Shanghai: K'ai-ming shu-chli )% % lj} , 1941), p. 167; Li Ping-jo, "Lun pei-sung man-tz'u", Kuo-hslieh ts'ung-k'an, Vol. 2, No. 2, Sept. 1924, p. 20. ~ 5For instance, Wang Chih-yiian % fJL'^, » Li - t a i tz'u ch'u p'ing-hsiian jfe ]\ jt\ (Taipei: Shanghai yin-shua ch 'ang Jt -J% iffy] 1964), p. 41; Su Hsiieh-1 in " J ^  (1897- ), Chung-kuo wen-hsiieh-shih (Taichung: K'uang-ch'i ch'u-pan-she jLtiLkfikfa , 1970), p. 170. ^Feng Meng-lung, "Chung ming-chi", pp. 3ab. Also Hung P'ien, "Liu-ch'i-ch'ing shih-chiu wan-chiang-1ou-chi," p. 12; Lo Yeh, Tsui-weng  t'an-lu, p. 32. 7Poem Nos. 81.1-4. 8Poem No. 10. 9Jen Erh-pei& - # , Tun-huang-ch'u chiao-lu *|$9 (hereafter: THCCL) (Shanghai: Shang-hai wen-yi lien-ho ch'u-pan-she > ^ ^ § ^ £ * & # # 4 * , 1955), p. 24. 10Poem No. 77. ]1Wen T'ing-ylin y&jtjkJk (812-870), "keng-lou-tzu", No. 1, in TWTT, pp. 60-61. 254 1 2Niu ChMao-^ i>4j ( f l . c . 890), "keng-lou-tzu", No. 2, in TWTT, p. 133. 13 Shen Hsiung, Ku-chin tz'u-hua, in THTP, Vol. 3, p. 1025. 1 4Ku Ch'iung^J ^ ( f l . c . 928), "su-chung-ch1 ing", No. 2, in TWTT, pp. 179-180. 15 For example, see poem Nos. 7.2/11/83/101/125. 16P'eng Sun-yii f ^ & j t . (1631-1700), Chin-su tz'u-hua ^ j|f£)f6 , in THTP, Vol. 2, p. 708. 17Poem No. 7.1 18Poem No. 9.1 19Poem No. 78.7. 20Poem No. 65. 21 Chang Shun-min, Hua-man l u , quoted in Hsli Shih-luan's Sung-yen5 in Pi-chi ta-kuan, Vol. 6, p. 6203. 2 2Liang Ch' i-hsun^&jfe (1879-?), Tz'u-hsueh f j ] % (Hongkong: Hui -wen-ko shu-tien ^  4? %x > n.d.), hsia p i e n ^ $ & , p. 51b. 255 23 Meng Yuan-lao, Tung-ching, p. 145. 24 Kuang Han-ch'ing, "Ch 1ien-ta-yin chih-ch'ung hsieh-t'ien-hsiang", in Lu Ch'ien, ed., Yiian-jen tsa-chu ch'Uan-chi, Vol. 1, p. 44. 25Poem No. 66. 2 6Jen Erhrpei, THCCL, "p'ao-ch'iu-le", p. 27. p. 166. 2 7 L i Hslin i 1%) (8557-930?), "hsi-hsi-tzu", No. 2, in TWTT, 28Poem No. 69. 29Poem No. 126. 3 0Jen Erh-pei, THCCL, "chu-chih-tzu", pp. 12-13. 3 1 Wang Shu-nu , Chung-kuo ch'ang-chi-shih 4? lifi-feS-k&JL (Shanghai: Sheng-huo shu-tien , 1935), pp. 78-107. Chang Chung-chiang, Chi-nii yu wen-hsueh, pp. 24-31. For example, see Wei Chuang^ (836-910), "p'u-sa-man", No. 1, in TWTT, p. 112; Niu Ch'iao, "p'u-sa-man", No. 7, in TWTT, p. 132; Feng Yen-ssu £ (903-960), "ch'ueh-t'a-chih", No. 10, in TWTT, p. 237. 256 33 For example, see Wei Chuang, "ho-yeh-pei", No. 2, in TWTT, p. 118; Feng Yen-ssu, "ts'ai-sang-tzu", No. 2, in TWTT, p. 269. 34 Poem No. 106.3. 35 Poem No. 73. 36 Poem No. 78.10. 37 Poem No. 138. 38 Poem No. 2. 39r Feng Chin-po ^  ^ ^ (Ch'ing), Tz'u-wan ts'ui-pien %3\ j£ ^ ?MH , in THTP, Vol. 5, p. 1707. 4 0Wei Ch'eng-pan ^ , 7 | c 3 ^ . ( f l . c . 930), "p'u-sa-man", No. 3, in TWTT, p. 151. 41, Ho Ning ^ 5.;^(898-955), "lin-chiang-hsien", No. 2, in TWTT, p. 103. 42 Chang Yen 5^.^ (1248-?), Tz'u-yuan %% >Jfc , in THTP, Vol. 1, p. 216. 43 Poem No. 6.3. 257 44, , Li Tiao-yuan, Yu-ts'un tz'u-hua, in THTP, Vol. 4, p. 1411 45 Poem No. 96. I adopt James Liu's translation, Major Lyricists, p. 81. 46 Shen Hsiung, Ku-chin tz'u-hua, in THTP, Vol. 3, pp. 892-893. 47 Poem No. 45.3. 48 Poem No. 9.2 49 Poem No. 32, 50 Chang Yen, Tz'u-yiian, in THTP, Vol. 1, p. 220. 51 Ibid., p. 218. 52, . 'Liu Hsi-tsaif»| t i \ (1813-1881), Tz'u-kai f£| in THTP, Vol. 11, p. 3771. 53 Ch'en T'ing-cho, Pai-yii-chai tz'u-hua, in THTP, Vol. 11 p. 3807. 54 Ibid., p. 3915. 55 Ch en Ju i , Pao-pi-chai tz'u-hua Vol. 12, p. 4211. in THTP, 258 56Tung Chieh-yLian-f" ##>L ( f l . 1189-1208), Ming chia-ching-pen  tung-chieh-yuan hsi-hsiang-chi -Jfc >f ?L >& J5J8 f (L (Shanghai: chung-hua shu-chli, 1963, photo offset from Shang-hai t'u-shu-kuan X 5 § l f l ^ r i ^ 1557 edition, Chang YLi 5JL ^  , ed.), chiian 5, p. 14a and p. l a . 57 For example, the following scholars a l l comment on Liu s "vulgarity": Huang Sheng-$f f j ( f l . c . 1240-1249), Hua-an tz'u-hsuan, p. 93; Shen Y i - f u $ l | | j ^ ( f l . c . 1247), Yiieh-fu chih-mi 4jg ffi , in THTP, Vol. 1, p. 230; Kuo Linjfj>y|. (1767-1831 ), Ling-fen-kuan tz'u-hua $ ^ # t * l l £ > in™IE.> Vol. 5, p. 1523. ^ 8For example, the following scholars a l l comment on Liu's "eroticism": Wu Yii 'flij&Jdates unknown), quoted in Shen Hsiung's Ku-chin tz'u-hua, in THTP, Vol. 3, p. 800; Wang Jo-hsli 3- y f c ( C h ' i n g ) , Hu-nan shih-hua ^ f f i f f i i ^ in Pi-chi ta-kuan, Vol. 1, p. 1183; Chiang Shun-yi >i "|j f& ( f l . c . 1862), Tz'u-hsueh chi-ch'engj$| j£s ^  , in THTP, Vol. 9, p. 3232. 59 Many traditional tz'u c r i t i c s thought that tz'u poets should avoid writing erotic poems. See Lu Ying ^  ^ (Ch'ing), Wen-hua-lou  tz' u-hua & jfeiffi f& > in THTP, Vol. 7, p. 2512; Chiang Shun-yi, Tz'u-hsueh chi-ch'eng, in THTP, Vol. 9, p. 3225. 6 0 L i C h i h - y i ^ M ^ t (Sung), "Pa wu-ssu-tao. hsiao-tzV'jU ^ H % IfL (Postscript on Wu Ssu-tao's small tz'u), Ku-hsi-ch'u'-shih wen-chi 'JkJ&'Z 5^-^- » chiian 40, p. 3a, in Ylieh-ya-t'ang ts'ung-shu. Ch'ao Pu-chih's statement, quoted in Wu Tseng's Neng-kai-chai  man-lu, chiian 16, in THTP, Vol. 1, p. 83. 259 CO Loc. c i t . , Li Chihryi, p. 2b. 63 Yuh, Liou-yi, in her "Liu Yung, Su shih, and Some Aspects of the Development of Early Tz'u Poetry", p. 24 states that in the TWTT seventy-five poems are written on the single theme sorrow of separation and fifty-three of them are written from a woman's point of view. 64Poem No. 57. 65 Poem No. 135. This poems is also translated by Ch'eng Shih-ch'lian ^f. ^ j^L , Chinese Lyrics from the Eighth to the Twelfth Centuries (Taipei: Commercial Press, 1969), pp. 72-75. 66Poem No. 82. 67Poem No. 73. 68Poem No. 52. 69 For example, see Ku Ch iung, "ho-ch'uan", No. 1, in TWTT, p. 172; Sun Kuang-hsien ^ % -jjf, ^  (d. 968), "p' u-sa-man", No. 5, in TWTT, p. 300. 7^Wang Yung, Yen-yi yi-mou lu, chiian 2, p. 13a. See also Pong Tak-sany^^-^ > "Daily l i f e in the Sung capital as reflected in the Hua-pen of the Sung, Yuan and Ming Novels" (Ph.D. thesis, University of Hongkong, 1971), p. 274. 260 7 1 Poem No. 136. 72Poem No. 85. 73Poem No. 116. 74Poem No. 139.1 75Poem No. 108. 76Poem No. 31 77Poem No. 94. 78 Poem No. 122. This poem is also translated by Yuh Liou-yi, "Liu Yung, Su Shih, and Some Aspects of the Development of Early Tz'u Poetry", pp. 165-166. 79Chou Chijfl 7$[ (1781-1839), Chieh-ts'un-chai tz'u-hsuan hsu-lun - f l * fir % %t\ ^  P? , in THTP, Vol. 5, p. 1630. Chou's opinion was echoed by Liang Ch'i-hsiin in his Tz'u-hsiieh, hsia-pien -f i$) , pp. 28ab. 8 0Feng Hsu (1842-?), Hao-an lun-tz'u %%Hfc%o\ , in THTP, Vol. 11, p. 3678. 261 °'See Note No. 52. 8 2Chi Ytin&i $j (1724-1805) and Yung Jung ^ -1%. (Ch1 ing) et al_. ed., Ssu-k'u ch'uan-shu tsung-mu t'i-yao ^% $ $14-(Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1933), Vol. 4, 40, chi-pu » tz'u-ch'u-lei J > s j 1 , p. 40. 83 For example, see Ho Ning, "hsiao-ch'ung-shan", No. 2, in TWTT, p. 104; Mao Wen-hsi J^jL^ ( f l . c . 913), "kan-chou-pien", No. 1, in TWTT, p. 148; Hs'u'eh Chao-yun || eg $|, ( f l .c. 932), "hsi-ch'ien-ying", No. 2, in TWTT, p. 124; Wei Chuang, "hsi-ch'ien-ying", No. 2, in TWTT, p. 117. 8 4See poem Nos. 5/48/49.2/104/107.1/132.3/134.2. 85 Poem No. 104. This poem is also translated by Yuh Liou-yi in her "Liu Yung, Su Shih, and Some Aspects of Development of Early Tz'u Poetry", pp. 162-163 and also by Ch'eng Shih-ch'uan, Chinese Lyrics  from the Eighth to the Twelfth Centuries, pp. 68-70. Lo Ta-ching, Ho-lin yu'-lu, in Pi-chi hsu-pien, Vol. 2, p. 2282. 8 7 I b i d . 8 8 I b i d . See poem Nos. 12/15/26.3/100; 72/132.2; 58/105.1; 62; 76. 262 uMeng Yuan-lao, Tung-ching, pp. 172-178, 186-189, 192-193, 215-218 and 222-224. 91 Poem No. 15. I adopt James Liu's translation. See Major  Lyricists, pp. 77-78. 92 Feng Ch'i-yung, "Lun pei-sung ch'ien-ch'i liang-chung pu-t'ung t i tz'u-feng", in T'ang sung tz'u yen-chiu lun-wen chi, p. 57; Wang Ch'i 2 ^ 6 , "Tsen-yang p'ing-chia liu-yung t i tz'u" % ^ ^ p 7 % #j$s] (How to evaluate Liu Yung's Tz'u), in T'ang sung tz'u yen-chiu lun-wen chi, p. 82; Hsu Hsien-hao^p 1^ and Chou Fu-ch'ang )t) % ed., "Pi-hsu yung p'i-p'an t i t'ai-tu tui liu-yung t i tz'u ch'ung-hsin ku-chia" # % ?H $ fl* |H) %Ji3\ W?K titSlf. must use a Critical Approach to Reevaluate Liu Yung's Tz'u), Kuang-ming jih-pao, Wen-hsueh yi-ch'an, No. 322, July 17, 1960. 93Ch'en Chen-sun f t - # - ^ ( f l . 1211-1249), Chih-chai shu-lu t ' i -chieh 1j ^ ^ £^|fj jtf (Taipei: Kuang-wen shu-chii, 1968), chuan 21, p. 1271. 263 NOTES CHAPTER III - DICTION AND IMAGERY ]For the comment on Hsin Ch'i-chi's JJ- (1140-1207) use of allusions, see Irving Yucheng. Lo, Hsin Ch'i-chi (New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc., 1971), pp. 128-132; for Wu Wen-ying's ^  (1195?-?) use of allusions, see Chang Yen, Tz'u yuan, in THTP, Vol. 1, p. 207 and Professor Chia-ying Chao's-^-Jk $f "Wu Wen-ying's tz'u: A Modern View", offprint from Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 29, 1969, pp. 61-63; for Wang Yi-sun's £ 5*jf 3fc (12407-1290?) use of allusions, see Wu Mei, Tz'u-hsueh t'ung-lun, pp. 93-94. 2See poem Nos. 3/84/91/106.1/106.4/156. Sung Yii i f - i (Warring States) was a student of Ch 'ii Y i i a n ^ , ^ and was famous for the writing of FuJpW rhyme prose) Poem Nos. 6.1 (twice) /54/71/77/81.1. For the biography of Chao Fei-yen £$. (Han), see Ling Hsuan , "Chao Fei-yen wai-chuan" > in Wu Tseng-ch' i ^  ^ , comp., Chiu hsiao-shuo 3| cb j& (Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1933), Vol. 1, pp. 10-14. 4Poem Nos. 15/64/77 (twice)/117. P'an Yiieh's7§-$i biography appears in T'ang T ' a i t s u n g ^ ^ ^ . et al_., Chin-shu-ffiJj^ , 55.1228d-1229c. See poem Nos. 6.3/78.2/117/140/143. The palace waist of Ch'u p r e f e r s to the King of Ch'u who was fond of slim waists. This term was later associated with willows. The fact that only a small number of Liu's allusions are used repeatedly contradicts James Liu's statement that "Liu's allusions tend to be repetitious". See Major  Lyricists, p. 87. DPoem No. 107.1. For the biography of Wang Ts'an £ (177 217), see Ch'en Shou . San-kuo chih %~ , Wei-chi h j & & 21.978bc. 7Poem No. 123. For the biography of Ts'ao Chih ^  $L (192-232), see San-kuo chih,Wei-chih, 19.974a-976a. 8Poem No. 132.3. For the biography of Liu Yu-hsi ^ f i ^ l f ? (772-842), see Ou-yang Hsiu et al_., Hsin t'ang-shu, 168.4038abc. 9Poem No. 132.3. For the biography of Po Chu'-yi (772-846), see Hsin t'ang-shu, 119.3950d-3951b. 10Poem No. 143. 1 1 Poem Nos. 59/137.2. 12Poem No. 41.1. For the biography of Tung-fang So % 1ft (154- 93, B.C.), see Pan-Ku-^1 If) , Han-shu y f j 65.521b-524a. Poem No. 48. For the biography of Wen Weng (Han), see Han-shu, 89.585cd. 14Poem No. 48. For the biography of Chu-ko Liang ^  %Jfc. (181-234), see San-kuo chih, Shu-chih 1fl & , 5.1012a-1013d. Poem Nos. 3/84/106.1/156. 265 Poem No. 106.2. For the biography of K'ung Jung ]fl (153-208), see San-kuo chih, Wei-chih, 12.954cd. 17Poem Nos. 76/106.5. For the biography of Meng Chia see Chin-shu, 98.1341b. 18Poem No. 110. For the biography of Wang Hui-chih S-^k.Z. see Chin-shu, 80.1291d-1292a. 19 For a detailed discussion on the similarity and dissimilarity of allusions, see Yu-kung K a o ^ j ^ j : and Tsu-lin Mei's i^-J^^ "Meaning, Metaphor, and Allusion in T'ang Poetry" (forthcoming), 1975. The Chinese translation by Huang Hs'u'an-fair|f % ^.appears in Chung-wai  wen-hslieh ^ f j L ^ , Vol. 4, No. 7, Dec. 1975, pp. 116-129; No. 8, Jan. 1976, pp. 66-84; No. 9, Feb. 1976, pp. 166-190. Poem No. 31. For the biographies of Meng Kuang and Liang Hung^-)^, see Fan Yeh |J dfy , Hou-han shu^f , 113.892d-893a. 21Poem No. 10. For the story of Chang-t'_ai Liu-j^ £ , see Hsii Yao-tso "l^^,^ , "Liu-shih chuan" fa ^ , in Li Fang ^ &/j (Sung) comp., T'ai-p'ing kuang-chi , in Pi-chi hsu-pien, Vol. 1, pp. 1309-1310. 22Poem No. 77. For the story of Han 0 5^-^, see Lieh Yu-k'ou£'|*f?;S (Chou), Chang Chan (Chin) ed., Lieh-tzu fl| -3" (Hongkong: T'ai-p'ing shu-chli, 1963), chiian 5, p. 15. 266 2 3 I b i d . , poem No. 9.2. 24Poem No. 81.1. For the story of Nien-nu ^ J*5^ , see Yuan Chen ji (779-831 ), "Lien-ch'ang kung-tz' u" % % % $ [ , Yiian-shih  ch'ang-ch'ing chi ^ A . ^ / 1 | , in SPTK, chuan 24, p. 87. 25Poem No. 6.1. For the story of Empress Ch'en ^ 4 , see Ssu-ma Hsiang-ju's ^ i h i ^ ^ (179-117 B.C.) "ch'ang-men-fu"^)^-!^ and the preface. Hsiao T'ung-^^,(501-531 ) comp., Li Shan J j j r (-689) ed., Wen-hsii'an (Hupei: Ch'ung-wen shu-chu ^  1k\ •> 1869), chuan 16, pp. 8a-llb. 26Poem 6.1. For the biography of Pan Chieh-yu ~fy±h%.\^ , see Han-shu, 97 B.614d-5a. 27Poem Nos. 6.1/78.4. See Pan Chieh-yli's "yiian-ko-hsing" in Hsiao T'ung, Wen-hsuan, chiian 27, pp. 17ab. 28Poem No. 150. See Lieh-hsien chuan fa d^Kin Wu's Chiu hsiao-shuo, Vol. 1, pp. 63-64. ?9 Poem No.. 17. See T'ai-p'ing kuang-chi, in Pi-chi hsu-pien, Vol. 1, p. 848. 30 Poem 41.1. See T'ai-p'ing kuang-chi, in Pi-chi hsii-pien, Vol. 1, pp. 394-395. 31 Poem Nos. 41.3/41.4. See T'ai-p'ing kuang-chi,in Pi-chi hsu- pien, Vol. 1, pp. 387-388. 267 32Poem No. 41.3. Liu Hai-ch'an^i] >^^)| was a hermit. See Sung-shih, 462.5658d. 33Poem No. 41.3/41.5. The three Mao ^  brothers are Mao Ying %. , Mao Ku ^  if) and Mao Chung • See T'ai-p'ing kuang-chi, in Pi-chi hsli-pien, Vol. 1, pp. 312-313. 34 Poem No. 26.3. Shih-ching "f^f $fk , chiian 6, T'ang-feng ^  /HI. Ch'ou-mou m\ jtjtfc, in SPTK, p. 47. 35Poem No. 123. Lun-yU - f e f t , chuan 6, Yen yuan J j | ^ 12, in SPTK, p. 56. 36Poem No. 27/72. Liu Ling f'] ^  (Chin), "Chi u-te-sung" in Hsiao T'ung, Wen-hslian, chiian 47, pp. 8a-9a. 37Poem No. 57. Po Chli-yi, Po-shih ch'ang-ch' ing chi in SPTK, chuan 12, pp. 63-64. Poem 133.3. Ts'ao Chih, "Lo-shen fu" in Hsiao T'ung, Wen-hslian, chiian 19, pp. llb-16a. 39 Poem No. 90. Po ChLi-yi, Po-shih ch'ang-ch'ing chi, in SPTK, chlian 4, p. 24. 4^Poem No. 131. Le-yu-yiiani^t was an amusement area near Ch'ang-an -fy-^C • 268 4Voem No. 72. Wu-1 ing was a place near Ch'ang-an where young people gathered for a c t i v i t i e s . Poem No. 17. Shang-lin > was a place for hunting. 4 3Poem No. 78.1. Pa- l ing b r i d g e j | " j ^ / ^ w a s in the east part of Ch'ang-an. When people bid farewell here they customarily broke a twig of wil low and gave i t to the one who was leaving. Poem No. 57. Nan-p'u refers to the place of part ing. It i s from the l i ne "bidding you farewell along the Nan-p'u surely makes me sad." See Chiang Yen$a>ft (444-505), "Pieh-fu"#) . Chiang L i -l i n g chi \& i ^ f l - - ^ > i n Han wei l iu-ch 'ao pai-san-chia chi <?; 5 - H f t i j . (Hs in-shu-t 'ang>f i l3L4 > 1879), t s ' e 70, pp. la -3a. 4 5Poem Nos. 71/79/106.4/131. P'ing-k'ang-^MI. was the d i s -t r i c t where courtesans dwelled in the T'ang Dynasty. See Sun Ch ' i 3& §t (T'ang), P e i - l i chih j \ > % i f e (with Chiao-fang-chi and Ch ' ing-lou chi ^ %t )(Shanghai: Ku-tien wen-hsiieh ch'u-pan-she, 1957), p. 25. 46 Poem No. 107.1. Yen-ling Beach ( in present day T'ung-lu hsien in Chekiang Province) was the place where Yen KuangJ^-^, went f i s h i ng . For his biography, see Han-shu, 113.892c. Poem No. 76. Ch ' i Ching-kung fff"-^. once ascended the Niu-shan %<M (The Ox Mountain, in present day L i n - t z ' u hsien ^ ^ i " Shantung Province) and was saddened by the passage of time. 269 48Poem No. 98. Yao ^  and Shun^j. were buried in the Chiu-yi Mountain -^ L j^Jw (in present day Ning-yuan h s i e n ^ - ^ ^ in Hunan Province). 49Poemj Nos. 23/25/35/62/84/122. 50Poem Nos. 43/47/106.1/142. 51Poem Nos. 57/99. 52Poem Nos. 30/38/74. 53Poem Nos. 12/15/79. 54Poem Nos. 45.2/106.1/133.1 55Poem Nos. 67.2/68. 56Poem Nos. 3/60/85/107.1 57Poem Nos. 84; 17. 58Poem Nos. 23/44/127. 59Poem Nos. 111/112. 270 60Poem Nos. 34/106.1. 61Poem Nos. 30/86; 31/50/106.1/143. 62Poem Nos. 6.3/52/65/103/138/146. 63Poem Nos. 154/78.1 64 Poem No. 91. Liu wrote the poem "chi-wu-t'ung" when he found out that his lover, Hsieh Yueh-hsien whom he had not seen for three years, went out with another man. See Feng Meng-lung, "Chung ming-chi", pp. 9b-10a. 65Poem Nos. 16/31/108/154. 66Poem Nos. 30/112/147. 67Poem Nos. 50/139.1 68Poem No. I l l 69Poem Nos. 59/76/78.1/85/95/109/110/133.2. 70Poem Nos. 13/17/56/61/64/71/84/105.2. 71Poem Nos. 52/67.1/88/141 72Poem Nos. 13/31/38/68/111/139.1/142/154. 73Poem Nos. 23/72/119. 74Poem Nos. 13/17/56/61;67.2/68. 75Poem Nos. 6.2/66/78.9/125. 76Poem Nos. 50/84/122. 77Poem Nos. 3/106.1/113/132.1/133.1 78Poem Nos. 9.2/12/24.1/27/62; 18/33/57/84/112. 79Poem Nos. 67.1/67.2/68/78.1 80Poem Nos. 13/23. 8 1 Poem No. 45.1 82Poem No. 47. 83Poem Nos. 23/41.5/72/77/106.1/110/123/132/2. 84 OHPoem Nos. 5/104/105.1/129.2/157. 272 85Poem Nos. 59/85/152. 86 For instance, the plum tree (poem Nos. 80/127/146) signifies winter, the wu-t'ung -j}^"^)(poem Nos. 76/84/142) and maple tree (poem Nos. 50/60) autumn, the apricot tree (poem Nos. 72/119/137.1) and peach tree (poem Nos. 110/132.2/152) spring. 87Poem Nos. 30/31/108; 78.2/133.2/154. 88Poem nos. 78.2/86/92. 89Poem Nos. 5/58/105.1/119. 90Poem Nos. 3/60/76/84/85/112/133.2/158. 9 1 Poem Nos. 109/17/56/80/119, 92Poem Nos. 7.2/16/101/132.1/141/142/146. 93Poem Nos. 106.1/92. 94Poem Nos. 57/107.2/143. 95Poem No. 82. 96Poem Nos. 17/44/152. 97Poem Nos. 9.2/72. 98Poem Nos. 64/72. 99Poem No. 106.1 100Poem No. 37.2. 1 0 1 Poem No. 23. 102Poem Nos. 51/60/74/85/107.4/109/133.1/136 103Poem Nos. 4/25/84/113/143/156. 104Poem Nos. 9.2; 85/114/136. 105Poem Nos. 33/112. 106Poem Nos. 9.2/11/17/24.1 107Poem Nos. 9.2/24.1/69/78.6/96. 108Poem Nos. 12/26.1. 109Poem Nos. 4/33/52/64/84/112/139.2/142.158 110Poem Nos. 13/17/43/51/86/103/116. ^Poem Nos. 18/22.2/31/65/78.9/87/92/97/107.4/111/143. 112Poem Nos. 13/127/157. 113Poem Nos. 3/16/45.2/132.1 114Poem Nos. 87/111 115Poem No. 6.1 116Poem No. 73. 117Poem Nos. 4/18/64/84/107.3/141 118Poem Nos. 24.2/73/106.3/106.4/128.2/131 119Poem Nos. 5/13/23/104/105.2/115. 120Poem Nos. 30/78.2/109. 1 2 1 Poem Nos. 31/38. 122Poem Nos. 106.1/111 123Poem Nos. 30/38/39/57/92/94/107.1/116/118/139.1/143/146, 124Poem Nos. 16/78.10/107.2/132.1/142. 125Poem No. 19.1 126Poem Nos. 39/50/51/78.2/88/139.1 127Poem No. 126. 128Poem Nos. 20/51/107.4/109. 129Poem Nos. 118/141; 42/114/126, 130Poem Nos. 9.2/37.2/118. l31Poem Nos. 30/39/51/64/92/107.4/135/139.1/142/143. 132Poem Nos. 3/84/106.1; 68/93/107.4; 4/18/19.2/33. 133Poem Nos. 98/116/118/143. 134Poem Nos. 9.2/24.1/25/32/73/78.10. 135Poem Nos. 22.1/22.2/53/72/75/76/106.5/127/132.2. 136Poem Nos. 30/57. 137Poem Nos. 93/95/139.1 138Poem No. 122. 139Poem Nos. 9.2; 138. 140Poem Nos. 6.3; 109/138. 141Poem Nos. 55; 54. 142Poem Nos. 132.3/134.2; 6.2/11/39/130. 143Poem Nos. 50; 106.4; 6.1/7.2/104/123. 144Poem Nos. 47/57; 106.2/118; 152; 97/138. 145Poem Nos. 78.8/158; 81.1 146Poem Nos. 91/117; 137.1 147Poem Nos. 137.2; 60; 1. 148Poem Nos. 94/157; 59/106.5; 21; 71 149Poem Nos. 36/62/65/152; 81.4; 109. 150Poem Nos. 87; 57; 28. 151Poem No. 15. 152Poem No. 135. 153Poem No. 73. 1 54 l04Poem No. 9.2. 155Poem No. 84. 156Poem No. 11 157Poem No. 107.1 158Poem Nos. 25/73/103/106.3/106.4/134.1; 71/106.3/128.2; 32/105.1/105.2/134.2; 17. 159Poem Nos. 18; 106.5. 160Poem Nos. 131; 109. 1 6 1 Poem Nos. 89; 138. 162Poem Nos. 129.1; 128.2. 163Poem Nos. 78.9; 128.2, 164Poem No. 136. 165Poem Nos. 23; 26.2. 166Poem Nos. 27; 4. 167Poem No. 70. 168Poem No. 122. 169Poem Nos. 3/66/111/140; 73/129.1/146/153; 132.1 170Poem Nos. 111/119/140; 73/129.1 171Poem Nos. 61/144. 172Poem Nos. 33; 60. 173Poem Nos. 86/92/146/154; 38. 174Poem Nos. 57; 143. 175Poem Nos. 57/107.2/143; 76. 176Poem Nos. 9.1; 7.1; 104; 133.2; 52; 39/95/129.2. 177Poem Nos. 67.1; 106.1. See also Poem Nos. 4/50/68/142. 178Poem No. 7.2. 179Poem No. 56. 180Poem No. 6.2. 1 8 1 Poem No. 94. 182Poem No. 38. 183Poem No. 104. 184Poem No. 22.1 185Poem No. 106.2. 186Poem No. 127. 187Poem No. 158. 280 188 Poem No. 125. 189 Poem No. 49.2. 190 Poem No. 23. 191 Poem No. 3. 192 Poem No. 152. 193 Poem No. 9.1 194 Poem No. 139.1 195 Poem No. 37.2. 196 Poem No. 107.4. Feng and Lu in their Chung-kuo shih-shih, Vol. 3, pp. 626-628 l i s t seven characteristics of Liu's tz'u and the use of colloquial-isms is one of them. 198 Liu, Major Lyricists, p. 86. 199 Yeh Ch'ing-ping suggests that, because Liu was despised by the o f f i c i a l s , he included colloquialisms in his tz'u in order to gain favor from the public. See his Chung-kuo wen-hs'u'eh-shih,Vo.2, pp. 332-333. 281 2 ^ F o r instance, the following colloquialisms in the Ylin-yao-S^l^^% also appear in Liu's YCC; shei f f i (who), yi \f (he or she), m a n ( i n vain ), wei-sheng (not yet), cheng-hsiang ^ v9 (how to face), tang-ch'u rj| \TJ (in the beginning), tsao-wan ^ (sooner or later) and cheng-jen-te - ^ ^ ^ ( h o w to bear). Jen Erh-pei in his Tun-huang-ch'U ch'u-t'an "fvC Shanghai: Shang-hai wen-yi-lien-ho ch'u-pan-she, 1955), p. 328 points out that Liu's "vulgarity" is influenced by the Tun-huang folk songs. 201 Jhe meanings of Liu's colloquialisms are based on Chang Hsiang's Shih tz'u ch'u yli tz 'u-tien jffi jg) & j& (Taipei: chung-hua shu-chlf, 1973). 202Poem Nos. 14; 78.9; 107.3; 20; 138; 106.4. 203Poem Nos. 88; 15; 111; 109; 94. 204Poem Nos. 13; 105.2; 95. 205Poem Nos. 33; 72; 46; 107.4. 206Poem Nos. 93; 2; 112. 207Poem Nos. 16; 160; 158. 208Poem Nos. 102; 96; 29. 209Poem Nos. 9.1; 69; 74; 78.7; 40. 282 210Poem Nos. 9.1; 144; 159; 92. 211Poem Nos. 10; 40; 43; 69; 77; 78.3; 2; 130; 29; 18; 144; 82. 212 Poems written in colloquial style are, for instance, Nos. 28/29/33/40/69/82/102/126. 213 The hsiao-ling poems which have colloquialisms are: for instance, Nos. 11/28/54/69/78.3/78.4/78.7/78.8/78.10/81.1-4/120/126/151 2 1 4 T ' a i Ching-nung | c , "Sung-ch'u tz'u-jen" & %J) (The Tz'u Poets of the Early Sung) in Cheng Chen-to, ed., Chung-kuo wen-hs'u'eh yen-chiu, p. 221. 215Poem Nos. 4/9.1/14/25/78.7. James Liu, see Note No. 198. Suzuki Torao in his "Kogo wo shiyo seru tenshi" \? "£ 4JEjfl*tt t » (The Use of Colloquialisms in Tz'u), Shina Bungaku Kenkyu A^Df JL'^P^f^L (K5oundo shobo %k ^fifj » 1967), p. 498 praises Liu's use of colloquial expressions in the poem "yli-1 in-1 ing" y=^] . He also praises Liu's a b i l i t y to blend sixty percent of elegant diction and forty percent of colloquialisms--the best combination in the writing of tz'u. 217 Chang Shun-man, Hua-man l u , quoted in Hsu Shih-luan's Sung-yen. see Pi-chi ta-kuan, Vol. 6, p. 6203. 283 218 In the poem "ting-feng-po" there are many colloquialisms such as k'o-k'o ~*\ (everything is alright), wu-no_$& fj^ (1 i s t l e s s ) , wu-ko |fj (not even one), tsao-chih-jen-mo ^&$,*J%k{if I had known thus earlier), chiao.;^ (to make), yi Af (he) and wo^(me). 219 Quoted in Wu Tseng's Neng-kai -chai man-^ 1 u, in THTP, Vol. 1, p. 83. But according to Chao Te-lin's ^ ^ ^ ^ ( S u n g ) Hou-chinq lu in Pi-chi ta-kuan, Vol. 1, p. 955 this statement was made by Su Shih. It is very li k e l y that Su Shih said this in front of his student Ch'ao Pu-chih as suggested by Chiang Jun-hslin in his Tz'u-hsLieh p'ing-lun-shih kao j % | ^ -jffi jftlif Hongkong: Lung-men shu-chii , 1966), p. 30. 2 2 0Quoted in T'ien T'ung-chih's ^ 1»] Z. Hsi-p'u tz'u-shuo in THTP, Vol. 5, pp. 1480-1481. 221Wang Cho (d. 1160), Pi-chi man-chih in THTP, Vol. 1, p. 34. 222 Huang Sheng, Hua-an tz'u-hsiian, p. 93. Shen Yi-fu, Yueh-fu  chih-mi, in THTP, Vol. 1, p. 230. 223 Ch en Chen-sun, Chih-chai shu-lu t'i-chieh, chiian 21, p. 1271 2 2 4Hsueh L i - j o | | . ; | ^ , Sung-tz'u t'ung-lun (Taipei: K'ai-ming shu-chii, 1974), p. 80. Tanaka Kenji ^ 3$L-^ ~ gives a discussion on "su-tz'u" ^ f j j (vulgar tz'u) and "ya-tz'u" 284 (elegant tz'u) in his "Oyoshu no shi ni tsuite" ^"-"/(On Ou-yang Hsiu's Tz'u), Toh5 Gaku ^ , No. 7, 1953, pp. 56-62. He points out that ya-tz'u tends to "refuse to include colloquialisms" (p. 56). 225 Chi YLin, Yung Jung et al_., ed., Ssu-k'u ch'lian-shu tsung-mu  t'i-yao, Vol. 4, 40, chi-pu, tz'u-ch'u-lei, p. 41. 2 2 6Kuo Lin, Ling-fen-kuan tz'u-hua, in THTP, Vol. 5, p. 1523. 2 2 7See Note No. 197. 228 See Note No. 199. Lu Ch'i-yeh in his Tz'u-ch'li yen-chiu !»] i& Zfl ^ (Shanghai: Chung-hua shu-chli, 1934), p. 46 also c r i t i c i z e s Liu's use of colloquialisms. 229 Hu Yun-yi , Chung-kuo tz'u-shih llieh (§i l£) $J&-(Hongkong: Ta-lu shu-chli ^ ? £ % > S ? , 1933), p. 54. See also his Tz'u-hslieh kai-lunjffi ^ itfujfejjHongkong: Shih-yung shu-chu-^)^)^|^7 , 1950), p. 30. 230 Hu Yun-yi, Sung-tz'u hslian ^ ^(Hongkong: Chung-hua shu-chu, 1975), p. 36. 2 3 1See Note No. 214, pp. 219-220. 232 Among the Northern Sung tz'u poets Huang T'ing-chien seems to be the most influenced by Liu's use of colloquialisms. In his tz'u 285 we can find many colloquialisms which also appear in Liu's YCC, for instance, jen-jen A. A (person person), tsen-nai (how to bear), wo (I), yi ^  (he or she), ni ^ ( y o u ) , wu-fang.^^ (does not matter) etc. 233Poem No. 132.3. 234 "Toem No. 119. 235Poem No. 66. 236Poem No. 107.2. 237Poem No. 65. 238Poem Nos. 152; 119; 9.1 239Poem Nos. 149; 107.1 240Poem Nos. 123; 106.1 2 4 1 Poem Nos. 112; 90; 34. 242Poem Nos. 43; 24.1; 107.2. 243Poem Nos. 48; 135; 78.6. 286 244 Poem Nos. 22.2; 38; 72; 78.8; 42. 2 4 5Cheng Chen-to, Ch'a-t'u-pen chung-kuo wen-hstieh-shih )^| & )^| 5 L i ^ ^ (Hongkong: Commercial press, 1973), Vol. 3, p. 486. 287 NOTES CHAPTER IV - RHYTHM AND CONTINUITY Yeh Meng-te, Pi-shu lu-hua, chlian hsia, p. 2a. 2 Hsieh Chang-t'ing, Tu-ch'i-shan-chuang chi, in THTP, Vol. 10, p. 3379; Feng Chin-po, Tz'u-yiian ts'ui-pien, in THTP, Vol. 5, p. 1689.. 3 L i u K'o-chuang'sjf'J (1187-1269) comment is quoted in Wang Yi-ch'ing's YLi-hsiian 1 i - t a i shih-yli, in THTP, Vol. 4, p. 1221. The story of Ting Hsien-hsien -f 3$^ can be found in Meng Ylian-lao, Tung-ching, pp. 68-70. 4 Li Ch ing-chao's comment is quoted in T'ien T'ung-chih's Hsi-p'u tz'u-shuo, in THTP, Vol. 5, pp. 1480-1481; for Wang Cho's comment, see Pi-chi man-chi, in THTP, Vol. 1, pp. 34-35. 5 For comment on the poem "mu-lan-hua-man" (poem No. 132.2) see Wu Shih-taoJ^I&nVi (1283^1344), Wu-li-pu tz'u-hua & 3f-tfr Iff f j , in THTP, Vol. 1, p. 241; Shen Hsiung, Ku-chin tz'u-hua, in THTP, Vol. 3, pp. 839-940. For comment on the poem "tsui-p'eng-lai" (poem No. 63), see Chiao Hsiin (1763-1820), Tiao-ku-lou tz' u-hua jflft, Jfo $ jfijt r in THTP, Vol. 5, pp. 1519-1520. For comment on the poem "su-chung- -ch'ing" (poem No. 67.1), see Wu Heng-chao (Ch'ing), Lien-tzu-chu tz'u-hua i|^#-f£|f^ , in THTP, Vol. 7, p. 2406. For comment on the poem "yin-chia-hsing" (poem No. 86) and "ying-ch'un-yueh" (poem No. 69), see Chiao Hs'un, Tiao-ku-lou tz'u-hua, in THTP, Vol. 5, pp. 1516-1518. For comment on "erh-lang-shen" (poem No. 62), see Mao Ch'i-ling 'tJ%$Z (1623-1716), Hsi-ho tz'u-hua ^yv\i^t^, in THTP, Vol. 2, pp. 572-573. 288 "The rhyme scheme of the poem "ch'uan-hua-chih" (poem No. 29) is not included in the prosody books. Poem No. 155 has only one line. So the total number of poems examined is 211. 7Chiang Shun-yi, Tz'u-hsLieh chi-ch'eng, in THTP, Vol. 9, pp. 3217-3218. 8Wang, HYSLH, p. 565. 9 I b i d . , 558. 1 0Hsia Ch'eng-t'ao, T'ang sung tz'u lun-ts 'ung ^ ffi. %*[ "f^7jK (Shanghai: Chung-hua shu-chu, 1962), p. 36; Also see Hsia and Wu, Tz'u hslieh, p. 77. ]1Wang, HYSLH, pp. 559-560. Poem No. 16 combines rhymes in the level and rising tone and poem No. 125 combines rhymes in the level and fal l i n g tone. 1 3See poem Nos. 26.4/69/106.2/128.1/137.1. Also see Wang, HYSLH, p. 546. 14Poem No. 7.2. Wang, HYSLH, p. 547. Poem No. 71. Wang, HYSLH, p. 554. 289 ,uPoem No. 153. Wang, HYSLH, p. 552. Also see Sakai, Ken-ichi "S5shi 5inji ni mirareru onin jo no ichi ni tokushoku" ^%*\ % I-<k V] iK 3^jjf-ff & (?) - > $ ^L(Some Phonological Features found in the Rimes of Sung Tz'u), T5y5 Gakuho % , 38, No. 2, Sept. 1955, pp. 226-232. ^ 8In Wang Yi-ch'ing and others ed., Tz'u-p'u ~f $) f% (n.p. preface dated 1715), chiian 13, p. 15b, the word in the poem "ch'iu-jui-hsiang-yin" (poem No. 47) is not listed as a rhyme. But in Yen Ping-tu's Tz'u-fan jjffi fyC (Taipei: Chung-hua ts'ung-shu pien-shen wei-yuan-hui <f $%k%£t^T > 1 9 5 9 ) > c h u" a n 5> P- 1 1 9 a u i s . In Tz'u-lii, chiian 2, p. 21a, is treated as a case of "chieh-ya"rffy xyjf (to borrow a rhyme). In CST, the word " $ " in the poem "lun-t'ai-tzu" (poem No. 98) is used to rhyme with other "k" ending rhymes. But both Tz'u-p'u, chiian 36, p. 3a and Tz'u-fan, chiian 8, shang _t- , p. 47a have the variant readings " and " respectively. Therefore I do not regard this poem as a case of using mixed rhyme category. 1 9See poem Nos. 9.1/51/86/91/147/154/157 for the use of the rhyme word "J| ". The use of "c h i e h - y i n " ^ -\ (to borrow a sound) was pointed out by Ko T s a i ^ " ^ (Ch'ing), Tz'u-lin cheng-yiin "fa] /frJL. jk-ff (n.p. Wen-ch'Lian ch'u-pan-she, 1967), pp. 58-59. 2^For the term " a n - y l i n " , see Liang Ch'i-hsiin, Tz'u-hsueh, shang-pien Jt- , p. 50a. It is also called "ts 'ang-ylin" (a hidden rhyme) by Shen Hsiung, Ku-chin tz'u-hua, in THTP, Vol. 3, pp. 839-840; "tuan-yun" £&-tj (short rhyme) by Tz'u-p'u, ch'u'an 29, p. 3a 290 and elsewhere and also called "chu-chung-yiin" (a rhyme within a line) by Hsia, Tang sung tz'u lun-ts'ung, pp. 32-35. 21 Poem No. 3. For more examples, see the f i r s t stanza of poem No. 8 and 132.1 and the second stanza of poem Nos. 106.1-5/143. 22 For the rhyme categories Liu uses, see Appendix H and I, 23Poem Nos. 2/32/103. 24Poem Nos. 6.3/18/32. 25Poem Nos. 31/33/45.2/87/135. 26Poem Nos. 23/48/62/72/110/127/138. 27Poem No. 71 28Wang, HYSLH, p. 578. 29Wan Shu, "Preface to Tz'u-lu"fd] , in Tz'u-ILi, p. 5b. 30 Hsiao and Wu, Tz'u-hsiieh, pp. 53-55. 31 Ibid., p. 55. Also see Hsia, T'ang sung tz'u ,lun-ts'ung, pp. 58-66. 291 32 •Ibid. 33 In the tz'u prosody books Tz'u-p'u, Tz'u-lu and Tz'u-fan we often encounter comments such as "tz'u-tz'u p'ing-tse wu pieh-shou k'o-chiao" % D<*$k%\% $L (The tonal pattern of this tz'u cannot be checked against others) for tune-patterns only used once by Liu. 34 For example, see poem Nos. 6.1/6.2; 7.1/7.2; 9.1/9.2; 45.1/ 45.2; 67.1/67.2; 116/154; 133.1/133.2, etc. 35Wan Shu, "Preface to Tz'u-lu", p. 6a. 36Poem No. 106.2. 37 I use t to represent oblique tones and p level tones. 38Poem No. 106.4. 39Poem No. 49.1 40 I use p'to represent the f i r s t tone in Mandarin, p"the second tone, s rising tone, a f a l l i n g tone and j entering rone. 41 Poem No. 49.2. 42Poem No. 132.2. 43Poem No. 132.1. 44 Poem No. 80. 4 5See Note No. 35. 46Poem No. 9.1 47 Poem No. 4. 48Poem No. 133.1 49Poem No. 133.2. 50Poem No. 67.1 51Poem No. 67.2. 52Poem No. 106.3. 53Poem No. 67.1. 54Poem No. 67.2. 55Poem No. 133.1. 293 56CST has a different reading: "chih-p'ing-kang" $ . According to the meaning of the poem I prefer the word "ch'ung" ^  used in Tz'u-p'u, chiian 17, p. 5a. 57Poem Nos. 30; 59; 77. 58Poem Nos. 31; 150. 59Poem No. 6.2. 60Poem No. 106.1 6 1 Poem Nos. 45.3/52/78.7/105.1 62Poem No. 17. 63Poem Nos. 51; 90. 64Poem Nos. 1; 42. 65Poem Nos. 44; 46. 66Poem Nos. 38; 112. 67Poem No. 25. 294 68 'Poem No. 78.1. 'Poem No. 128.2. 'Poem No. 122. Poem Nos. 142; 84. ?oem No. 95. !Poem No. 118. Wang, HYSLH, pp. 153-166. 'Ibid., p. 142. 'Ibid., pp. 142-143. t Ibid., p. 655. 'Poem No. 20. and Li Ping T^tfcp each wrote a poem to this tune-pattern but none of them used three parallel lines as Liu did. See Tz'u-p'u, chiian 4, pp. 5b-8b. Chiang Chi eh $| $L 295 80Wang, HYSLH, p. 656. 8 1 Poem No. 96. op Loc. c i t . , p. 657. 83Poem No. 114. 84Wang, HYSLH, p. 179. See also Chou Cheng-fu )% , Shih; tz'u 1 i-hua "f<^  jjffi ffi) %% (Peking: Chung-kuo ch'ing-nien ch'u-pan-she ^ l ® - ^ # ftkfa » 1 9 6 2 ) > P- 1 8 9-85Poem No. 9.2. 86Poem No. 49.1 87Poem No. 8. 88Poem No. 92. 89Poem No. 106.3. 90Wang, HYSLH, p. 651 9 1 Poem No. 104. 296 92Poem No. 36. 93Chou Cheng-fu, Shih-tz'u li-hua, p. 190. 94Poem No. 142. 95 Sometimes certain tune-patterns require a poet to use a para-llelism at a certain position. However, the rule is not a s t r i c t one. In the case of Liu's parallelisms, since a great number of his tune-patterns only appear in his YCC, i t is d i f f i c u l t to decide whether he follows the requirement of these tune-patterns or he follows his own preferences. 9 6See poem Nos.. 10/36/49.1/71/72/77/81.2/81.3/106.5/114/134.2; 49.1/49.2/135. 97Poem No. 49.1 9 8See poem Nos. 11/19.1/19.2/26.3/71/90/95/122/123/127/141/ 142/148. 9 9See poem Nos. 5/12/13/14/16/17/24.2/33/41.1-3/41.5/46/49.1/ 50/56/57/58/61/63/65/79/91/104/105.1/113/117/127/143/146. 100Poem No. 13. ^ T h i s technique was praised by Chou Chi. See Sung ssu-chia  tz'u-hu'an ffivaP (with his Chieh-ts'un-chai lun-tz'u tsa-chu 297 and Tan Hsien's [Ch'ing] Tz'u-pien ~P] fffi )(Taipei: Kuang-wen shu-chli, 1962), p. 9a. 102 Li Chih-yi, "Postscript to Wu Ssu-tao's small tz'u", Ku-hsi  chli-shih wen-chi, chUan 40, p. 2b, in YUeh-ya-t'ang ts'unq-shu. 1 0 3 I n TWTT, pp. 56-60. 1 0 4 H s i a and Wu, Tz'u-hsLieh, pp. 96-97. 105 Wang Li divides lines into groups of disyllables and each disyllable constitutes one rhythmic unit. See HYSLH, pp. 75-76. ^Poem No. 132.1. For more examples of the 1/3 rhythm, see poem Nos. 84/98/115/132.2/132.3. use "//" to represent the major pause and "/" minor pause in a line. In the TWTT, we occasionally encounter lines in the 1/4 rhythm but the number is very small. For instance, 4 « * * :« 1. man//liu-lo/tai-chieh in vain keep si l k belt knot (TWTT, p. 182) ^ -M 1 # & 2. tui//shu-ching/shei-t'ung face fine scene with whom (TWTT, p. 207) 298 1 $ 4 * 3. chien//chui-hsiang/ch 1ien-p 1ien see fallen fragrance thousand pieces (TWTT, p. 302) In the Yu'n-yao chi, I can find only one 5-word-l ine which has a 1/4 rhythm. This line i s : yuan//huang-shou/ch'ien-ch'ien wish emperor longivity thousand thousand See Jen Erh-pei, THCCL, p. 26. 1 no Poem No. 74. For more examples of the 1/4 rhythm, see poem Nos. 3/4/9.2/16/21/28/31/34/50 passim. 110Poem No. 133.2. See also poem No. 133.1 ^ H s i a and Wu, Tz 'u-hs'ueh, p. 98, 112Poem No. 100. 113 Poem No. 89. For more examples of the 1/5 rhythm see poem. Nos. 132/2/132.3. 114Wang, HYSLH, p. 634. 1 1 5 I b i d . , p. 622. 116Poem No. 106.1. Poem No. 108. 299 118Poem No. 9.1 119Wang, HYSLH, pp. 634-635. 120Poem No. 142. , 2 1 i b i d . 1 ?? Hsia and Wu, Tz'u-hsueh, p. 99. 123 Poem No. 111. For more examples of the 1/7 rhythm, see poem Nos. 32/92/93/132.1/152. 124 Loc. c i t . 125Poem No. 14. 1 pc Poem No. 40. For more examples of the 3/6 rhythm, see poem Nos. 57/61/98. 127Poem No. 152. 128Wang, HYSLH, p. 660. 129 Liu, Major Lyricists, p. 96. 130 l , 3 ULoc. c i t . , p. 659. 300 Cheng Ch'ien, Ts'ung shih tao ch'u, p. 97. 1 3 2Chang Yen, Tz'u-yuan, in THTP, Vol. 1, p. 207. Chou Fa-kao If] •/7^<$o) divides hsii-tzu into five categories including adverbs, connectives, prepositions, interjections and particles. See Chung-kuo yii-yen-hsu'eh lun-wen chi "§j£"|" ^ (Hongkong: ch'ung-chi shu-tien •> 1968), pp. 343-348. 1 3 4 H s i a and Wu, Tz'u-hsueh, p. 94. 1 3 5See Note No. 137. 136Poem Nos. I l l ; 61; 132.2. 137Poem Nos. 50; 104; 132.3. 138Poem Nos. 123; 85; 113. 139Poem Nos. 2; 16; 67.1 140Poem Nos. 122; 95. 1 4 1 Poem Nos. 71; 36. 1 4 2 N a i Te-wengfjfrf4f ^  (Southern Sung), Tu-ch'eng chi-sheng ffi (preface dated 1235), in Tung-ching meng-hua l u , wai-ssu-301 chung ^ V^^f.(Shanghai: Ku-tien wen-hsueh ch'u-pan-she, 1956), p. 96. 1 4 3Lung Mu-hsun^t ^ . ^ ( L u n g Yu-sheng'f| $ 1 ^ - ), "Sung-tz'u fa-chan t i chi-ko chieh-tuan" tjP„ % j $ i bfy Several Stages in the Development of Sung Tz'u), Hsin chien-shih• §S[j£j£$L » No. 8, Aug. 1957, p. 47. 144Wang, HYSLH, p. 530. 145 IHOPoem No. 61 146Poem No. 66. 147Poem No. I l l . 148Poem No. 71 149Poem No. 106.1 1 50 louPoem No. 90. 1 5 1 Poem No. 116. 1 52 Poem No. 1, I adopt James Liu's translation. See Major  Lyricists, p. 94. 302 1 5 3 I b i d . , poem No. 12. 154 Poem No. 15. 155Poem No. 62. 156Poem No. 146. 157 Poem No. 139.1. 158Poem No. 142. 1 59 Poem No. 89. 160Poem No. 132.1 1 6 1 Poem No. 80. 162Poem No. 132.2. 163Poem No. 113. 164 Hsu Ch'i, "Tz'u-lu chien-ch'ueh',' Tz'u-hsLieh chi-k'an, Vol. I I , No. 2, Jan. 1935, p. 160. 303 165 Liu's hsiao-ling poems which do not have enjambment are, for example, Nos. 26.1/26.4/83/101. 1 6 6Wei Chuang, "ho-yeh-pei", No. 2, in TWTT, p. 118. 167"Feng-kuei-y'u'n", No. 1, in Jen Erh-pei, THCCL, pp. 8-9. am indebted to Professor Jan Walls for his suggestion that enjambment is encouraged by the great number of short lines. 169 I am indebted to Professor Jan Walls for this suggestion. 1 7 0 L i u T ' i - j e n f ' j ' f l ^ ( f l . c . 1655), in his Ch'i-sung-t'ang  tz'u-hua.*. 'A 'f f f f i t ^ , in THTP, Vol. 2, p. 628 pointed out that "clumsiness and heaviness are the taboos [of ch'ang-tiao]" and thus "the use of ch'en-tzu [that i s , hsii-tzu] is indispensible". This idea was echoed by Hsieh Chang-t'ing in his Tu-ch'i-shan-chuang chi, in THTP, Vol. 10, p. 3283. ^Ka o Yu-kung and Mei Tsu-lin point out that in the Recent Style Poetry the compactness and density resulting from the elimination of hsii-tzu causes ambiguity which works against the forward movement of a poem. See "Syntax, Diction and Imagery in T'ang Poetry." Harvard  Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 31 , 1970, p. 64 and p. 91..-172 Poem No. 65. For more examples of this type of enjambment see poem Nos. 13/14/16/31/33/68/69/111/143. 304 173 Poem No. 33. For more examples, see poem Nos. 30/31/44/50/ 76/85/122/140. 107.3. 174 Poem No. 78.7. For more examples, see poem Nos. 65/91/ 175 Poems which end the f i r s t stanza with questions are, for instance, Nos. 33/39/60/65/78.8/82/139.2/141/142, ^Poem which end with unresolved questions are, for example, Nos. 14/30/50/51/56/107.3/108/152/154/157. 177 For more examples, see poem Nos. 10/41;3/115. 178Poem No. 22.2. 179 For a discussion on the use of syntactic formulae in poetry, see Barbara Herrnstein Smith, Poetic Closure; A Study of How Poems End (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1968), pp. 137-139. 180Poem No. 9.1. 1 8 1 Poem No. 57. ^82Poem No. 77. 183Poem No. 144. 305 184Poem No. 109. 185Poem No. 4. 1 gg Poem No. 88. For more examples of the use of hypothetical sentences, see poem Nos. 3/24.2/33/88/107.4/123/143/146; for the use of subjunctive sentences, see poem Nos. 2/8/12/34/62/89. 187Poem No. 107.4. 1 go Poem No. 52. For more examples, see poem No. 25 (the last three lines of the second stanza), No. 33 (lines 4, 5, 6, & 7 of the f i r s t stanza), No. 43 (lines 2 & 3 of the f i r s t stanza), No. 55 (lines 7 & 8 of the f i r s t stanza), No. 92 (lines 1, 2 & 3 of the third stanza) and No. 128.1 (lines 3 & 4 of the second stanza). 189 Poem No. 18. For more examples, see poem Nos. 84 (lines 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 & 13 of the second stanza), No. 106.1 (lines 1, 2, 3 & 4, of the second stanza), No. 106.4 (lines 1, 2, 3 & 4 of the second stanza) and No. 107.3 (lines 7 & 8 of the second stanza). 190 Shen Hsiung, Ku-chin tz'u-hua, in THTP, Vol. 3, p. 854. 1 9 1See Note No. 132 and 170. 1 9 2 H s i a Ching-kuan|[jHJijl (1871-?) Shou-p'ing yueh-chang chi ^ f - f ^ - f ^ , quoted in Han Sui-hsuan'sjjjtft?&[ Hsin-yiian-lou tz'u-hua ' ^ i t t i ^ l ^ (Hongkong: n.p. 1972), p. 16. 306 NOTES CHAPTER V - THE STRUCTURE OF LIU'S TZ'U 'Chang Yen, Tz'u-yuan, in THTP, Vol. 1, p. 205. 2 Li Chih-yi, "A Postscript to Wu Ssu-tao s small tz'u", Ku-hsi  chu-shih wen-chi, chlian 40, p. 2b, in Ylieh-ya-t'ang ts'ung-shu. 3Cheng Wen-cho^J £ (1856-1918), Ta-ho-shan-jen tz'u-lun J* ^  "f^J t$f) » quoted in T'ang Kuei-chang's Sung-tz'u san-pai- shou chien-chu, p. 29. 4For example see poem Nos. 2/6.3/9.2/24.1/32/73/77/78.3/89/106.3/ 106.3/106.4/129.1/138. 5 Poem No. 42. According to Tz'u-p'u, chlian 21, p. 14b, the tune-pattern "po-lo-men-1ing" was used only once by Liu. This poem is also translated by Yuh. Liou-yi in "Liu Yung, Su Shih, and Some Aspects of the Development of Early Tz'u Poetry", p. 158. c Hsia Ching-kuan, Shou-p'ing yueh-chang-chi, quoted in Han Sui-hslian's Hsin-yuan-lou tz'u-hua, p. 16. 7For example, see poem Nos. 17/44/56/61/67.2/68/108/152. Poem No. 152. According to Tz'u-p'u, chlian 38, p. 13a, Liu improvised this tune-pattern from the old one. 307 9 A game played during the May 5th festival. See Chung Lin % *)f> , Ching-ch'u sui-shih chi -$»] ^  ^ > in Wu, comp., Chiu  hsiao-shuo, Vol. 1, p. 44. 1 0For the story of Cheng Chiao-fu, see Lieh-hsien chuan, in Wu, comp., Chiu hsiao-shuo, Vol. 1, pp. 63-64. 1 1 For example, see poem Nos. 3/13/16/24.2/31/38/50/54/88/95/98/ 106.1/107.1/113/118/132.1/146/154. 12 Poem No. 143. This tune-pattern is also named "ch'ing-pei-le" and "ku-ch'ing-pei". See Wen Ju-hsien, Tz'u-p'ai hui-shih, pp. 549-551. 13 This allusion refers to the romance between the King of Ch'u with the fairy in the Wu Mountain. See Sung Yii, Kao-t'ang-fu %) j& -ffii^, Hsiao T'ung, Wen-hs'u'an, chiian 19, pp. lb-6a. Kao-yang"^ refers to the Kao-yang pond, a place for drinking. See Shan Chien chuan & ^ , Chin-shu, 43.1200bc. 1 5For example, see poem Nos. 39/51/60/85/92/107.4/109/133.2/136. 16Poem No. 92. 17Poem No. 86. 18Wang Cho, Pi-chi man-chih, in THTP, Vol. 1, p. 34. Liu Hsi-tsai, Tz'u-kai, in THTP, Vol. 11, p. 3771. 308 NOTES CONCLUSION ^These fifteen tune-patterns are: "pa-lu-tzu", "ts'u-p'ai-man-lu-hua", "yii-chung-hua", "man-t'ing-fang", "man-kung-ch'un", "lei-chiang-yu'eh", "shui-lung-yin", "ch'in-ylian-ch'un", "pu-suan-tzu-man", "ko-t'ou", "li-pieh-nan", "ch'iu-yeh-yiieh", "chin-fu-t'u", "chung-hsing-ylieh" and "yu-yu -ch'un-shui". But the authorship of most of these ch'ang-tiao are s t i l l questionable. See Wang Yi, Tz'u-ch'u shih,[pp. 65-71. 2Wang Kuo-wei 2 )S (1877-1927), Tu Chi ng-yi trans., Jen-chien tz'u-hua A> fffi &*11&(Poetic Remarks in the Human World) (Hongkong: T'ung-wen shu-tien T*] 5C_4b % , 1972), p. 38. 3 Hsiieh L i - j o , Sung-tz'u t'ung-lun, p. 112; Chiang Shang-hsien, Sung ssu-ta-chia tz'u yen-chiu ^L^ff ffif(Tainan: Chiang Shang-hsten, 1962), p. 98. 4 Hsu Hsien-hao and Chou Fu-ch'ang, "We Must Use a Critical Approach to Re-evaluate Liu Yung's Tz'u", Kuang-ming jih-jao, Wen-hsueh  yi-ch'an, No. 322, July 17, 1960. 309 ""Huang Sheng, Hua-an tz'u-hsuan, chlian 2, p. 44. c Shen Hsiung, Ku-chin tz'u-hua, in THTP, Vol. 3, p. 1047. See also Ch'en T'ing-cho, Pai-yli-chai tz'u-hua, in THTP, Vol. 11, p. 3955. 7Wang Cho, Pi-chi man-chih, in THTP, Vol. 1, p. 33. 8K'uang Chou-yi £ | (1859-1926), Wang Y; u-an j£ ^fr-^r ed., Hui -feng tz' u-hua ^ if^"f«] t&(With Wang Kuo-wei's Jen-chien tz'u-hua) (Hongkong: Commercial Press, 1961), chlian 3, p. 61. Sung Shang-mu's ^  (dates unknown) comment. Quoted in T'ien T'ung-chih's Hsi-p'u tz'u-shuo, in THTP, Vol. 5, p. 1488. This view was echoed by Wu Mei in his Tz'u-hslieh t'ung-lun, p. 71. According to Hsin Ch'i-chi, when Sung Hui-tsung was in exile in the north during the year 1138 (i.e., after the f a l l of the Northern Sung [1126]), he heard a maid sing Liu's tz'u. See Ch'ieh- fen 1uj|t$4flt, in Pi-chi ta-kuan, Vol. 1, p. 979. 309a B I B L I O G R A P H Y 310 BIBLIOGRAPHY PRIMARY SOURCES Editions of Liu Yung's Works (given in chronological order) Yiieh-chang chi ^ . One chiian. Edited with postscript by Mao Chin (1598-1659). In Ssu-pu pei-yao , chi pu ^ - f j S , Sung liu-shih ming-chia tz'u *f & . No. 267 han Jf; , ts'e 1. C h i - k u - k o e d i t i o n . It includes 192 poems listed under different kung-tiao fjf| . This edition i s riddled with errors. Yiieh-chang chi. One chiian (divided into shang .fc- , chung^ and hsia^f ). In Shan-tso-jen tz'u LU 7*-A*P] . Block print by Shih-lien-an ^ i-fk. • Edited by Wu Ch'ung-hsi -f^HL-Jj: . Book finished in and Wu's preface dated 1901 in Nanking. This edition i n -cludes 206 poems of which thirteen are from the hand-copied edition(s). A l l the poems are listed under different kung-tiao. It also includes one collated chiian by Miu C h ' i i a n - s u n , one supplement to the collated chiian by Ts'ao Yiian-chung ^jtfi&r and one chiian of yi-tz'u (ten poems) from other sources. Yiieh-chang chi. Three chiian (divided into shang, chung and hsia). In Ch'iang-ts'un ts 'ung-shu | f Jf4 ^ f L ^ • Edited with postscript dated in 1914 by Chu Tsu-mou (1857-1931 ). Text based on Mao Fu-chi's^. ^ ( M a o Chin's son) revised edition (which was based on Han-ching t'ang's Sung edition and the hand-copied editions of Chou shihjf) foj and Sun shih It includes 206 poems of which twelve are from the hand-copied edition(s). A l l the poems are listed under different kung-tiao It also includes one collated section by Chu. By far this is the best edition. 311 Yiieh-chang chi. In Ch'uan-sung tz'u & f &1 , Vol. 1, pp. 13-57. Edited and punctuated by T'ang Kuei-chang^ % (1899- ). Peking: Chung-hua shu-chli ^ 4^^ /f? » 1965, 5 Vols. Revised edition. Text mainly based on Chu Tsu-mou's edition. It includes 213 poems of which seven are from other tz'u anthologies and pi-chi-f: (notes and sketches). It also l i s t s seventeen tune-patterns (of which the content of six are given) from other sources. Liang Ping-nan ^ >?K"^ T" . Yiieh-chang chi c h i a o - c h i e h ^ jfc/^ . "M.A, thesis, Kuo-li shih-fan ta-hsiieh kuo-wen yen-chiu-so ifjt) 3L ffitifd 1$ Ktft %¥l , 1966. SECONDARY SOURCES Sources for Liu Yung's Life Aoyama Sadao (1903- ) ed. Sodaishi nempyo (Hoku So) $ J % % ^ { & % ) * Toyo Bunko % # , 1967. Chang Chung-chiang >i- . Chi-nli yli wen-hslieh -^JL-jr-^- i L > ^ . Taipei: K'ang-nai-ch'ing ch'u-pan-she J t # , 1969. Ch'en Hslin-cheng j t and Ma Y i n g ^ j ? ^ (Ch'ing) ed. Ting^hai hsien-chih fL:M§&&" • 2 Vols. Photo-reproduction of 1924. In Chung-kuo fang-chih ts'ung-shu ^ )§§ lilL^*. J r , hua-chung ti-fang ^ ^ ~% , No. 75. Taipei: Ch'eng-wen ch'u-pan-she 1970. 312 Ch'en Jui Late Ch'ing). "Liang-sung tz'u-jen shih-tai hsien-hou h s i a o - l u " ^ K Brief Record of the Dates of the Northern and Southern Sung Tz'u Poets). In Tz'u-hsueh chi-k'an iff ^ % j>\\ (Tz'u Quarterly), Vol, 1, No. 3, Dec. 1933 , pp. 81-93. Ch'en Shih-tao T ^ i f 2$. •. Hou-shan shih-hua 4 % ^  f ^ f & • In U-tai shih-hua ffi V f . j j f Edited by Ho Wen-huan ft] JL*& (1732-1809). Preface dated 1770. Photo-reproduction of 1770 edition. Taipei: Yi-wen yin-shu-kuan l | <_ £?4 ft , 1956, pp. 181-189. Chi lilao % . Liang-sung tz'u-jen hsiao-chuan xfy &*f*| A. i]** h% Preface dated 1947. 2nd ed. Taipei: Wei-hsin shu-chu $ f i | j f 4 ? , 1967. Chu Wen-tsao ^ L^L^. (Ch'ing) et^ al_. comp. Chang Chi-an ^ -'^ %h (Ch'ing) et al_., ed. Yii-hang hsien-chih • Chang's preface dated 1808. 2 Vols. Photo-reproduction of 1919 edition. In Chung-kuo fang-chih ts'ung shu, hua-chung ti-fang, no. 56. Taipei: Ch'eng-wen ch'u-pan-she, 1970. Chu Yi-tsun (1629-1709). Tz'u-tsungJCflfc-. Preface dated 1678. 36 chiian. In Ssu-pu pei-yao, No. 265 han. Edited and reprinted according to the Sung edition by Shang-hai chung-hua shu-chu. Fan Chung-yen (989-1052). Fan-wen-cheng-kung ch'u'an-chi $JLJ£^ & 'A 5* % • Preface by Su Shih j& (1036-1101) dated 1089. Lithographic edition based on the revised edition of Wen-hsiieh-she in 1919. Shanghai: Sao-yeh shan-fang 3%% , 1925. 313 Feng Meng-lung <%;^^£ (1574-1646) comp. "Chung ming-chi ch'un-feng tiao l i u - c h ' i " %&.k$- % -L . In Ku-chin hsiao-shuo - £ ^ / M & . Edited by Li T'ien-yi ^  # . 2 Vols. Photo-reproduction of T1 ien-hsii-chai edition. Taipei: The World Book Co., 1958, Vol. 1, chuan 12, pp. la-15a. Ho Ch'iao-ylian (Ming) ed. Min-shu fifl ^  . Chinese Rarebook of Peiping, Item 1001 (in microfilm). Photo-reproduction of 1628 edition. Ho Shao-chang^f and Yang L i - t ' a i ^ f j t ( C h ' i n g ) ed. Tan-t'u hsien-chih jfcjjfcfa. z Vols. Photo-reproduction of 1879 edition. In Chung-kuo fang-chih ts'ung shu, hua-chung ti-fang, No. 11. Taipei: Ch'eng-wen ch'u-pan-she, 1970. Hsia Ch'eng-t'ao |. . T'ang sung tz'u-jen nien-p'u % . Shanghai: Chung-hua shu-chu, 1961. Hsu S h i h - l u a n ^ ^ ^ (Ch'ing). Sung-yen $*$L . Preface by Shih Meng-lan % dated 1891. 12 chiian. In Pi -chi hsiao-shuo ta-kuan tjLj<$$L . Photo-reporduction of Ch'in Yli-chai's original copy. 6 Vols. Taipei: Hsin-hsing shu-chli « 1 9 6 2> V o 1- 6» PP- 6164-6257. Huang Chih-chiin^, (1668-1748) et aT. Chiang-nan t'ung-chih 5 Vols. Photo-reproduction of 1737 Tsun-ching-koj^$£$fr\ edition. In Chung-kuo sheng-chih hui-pien ^ 1^1 % . No. 1. Taipei: Chung-hua shu-chu, 1967. Huang Sheng-J! If ( f l . c . 1240-1249). 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Shina Gaku & %f ^ . Vol. VIII, No. 2, April 1936, pp. 77-123. P'an Ch'eng-pi >4^ <-^ 5. "Liu san-pien shih-chi k'ao-lueh" if 3$."%&b~ ^ Brief Study on Liu San-pien's Life). In Shih-hslieh  chi-k'an > No. 2, October 1926, pp. 209-217. Pong T a k - s a n ^ ^ - ^ . "Ts'ung hua-pen chi yi-hua-pen so-chien chih sung-tai liang-ching shih-min sheng-huo" ?J\^J%% $&^tk%r¥i%. ^ % & ^  K$->& (° a i 1y L i f e i n t n e S u n 9 Capital as reflected in the Hua-pen of the Sung, Yuan and Ming Novels). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hongkong, 1971. Shen Chia-jui (Ming) and Li Wen ^  (Ming) ed. Yi-chen hsien-chih . Chinese Rarebook of Peiping, Item 706 (in microfilm). Photo-reproduction of T'ien-yi-ko edition. Shih Wen-ying#Ji-^| ( f l . c . 1078). Hsiang-shan yeh-lu$ftj . 3 chiian. In Hsiieh-tsin t'ao-yuan ^-J^%^^ , chi 17, ts'e 12. T'ang Kuei-chang. "Hsiao-hsu-chi chung kuan-yii liu-yung chia-shih t i chi-tsai" .)> % % < % it f jfa "tft 7^^.^" bHlik (The Record of Liu Yung's Family History in Hsiao-hsu-chi). In Yi-1in ts'ung-lu ^ %^%3$f^' 7 t h collection. Hongkong: Commercial Press, 1973, pp. 252-254. T'ang Kuei-chang and Chin Ch'i-hua . "Liu-yung shih-chi hsin-cheng" $ f foifH (New Evidence on Liu Yung's Life). In Wen-hsiieh yen-chiu JL^^fi^ , No. 3, 1957, pp. 91-98. 317 Teng Ssu-yu ^ p^-fe . Chung-kuo k'ao-shih chih-tu-shih s f i S fy] fL.K • Taipei: Hsueh-sheng shu-chu £^ 1? ,. 1967. Tetsumi Murakami j$ ^ . "Ryu ki kyo kasei etsureki k o " $ r " ^ ^ P f$\J%.%? ( A Study of Liu Ch'i-ch'ing's Pedigree and His Personal History). Shukan Toyogaku <JLy$ ^ A f1} , No 25, May 1971, pp. 52-66. T'o-t'o Jfc, Ou-yang \\s\ian$?J%~& etaj_., ed. Sung-shih & . Completed in 1345. In Erh-shih-wu shih. Hongkong: Wen-hsueh yen-chiu-she, 1959. Tseng-Min-hsing^&M'j' (7-1175). Tu-hsing tsa-ch.ih j)fi ftf-JEfe. fc • Preface by Yang wan-li dated 1125. 10 chlian. In Pi-chi hsiao shuo ta-kuan. Taipei: Hsin-hsing shu-chii, 1962, Vol. 1, pp. 219-248. Tung S h i h ^ ^ (Sung). Huang-sung shu-lu j f j j L ^ ^ - . 3 chlian (divided into shang, chung, and hsia). In Chih-pu-tsu-chai  ts'ung-shu fo^fc.%%.%<> No. 15 han. Wang P' i-chih H?] i_ (chin-shih of 1068). Sheng-shui yen-t'an lu * K J & P r e f a c e dated 1095. 10 chlian. In Pi-chi  hsiao-shuo ta-kuan hsli-pien. Taipei: Hsin-hsing shu-chii, 1962, Vol. 2, pp. 1730-1759. Wang Shih-chen "S- (1634-1711 ). Ch'ih-pei ou-t'an -J$L> lt?$) Author's preface dated 1691. 36 chlian. In Pi-chi hsiao-shuo ta-kuan. Taipei: Hsin-hsing shu-chii, 1962, Vol. 5, pp. 4535-4704. 318 Wang Shu-nu )iX . Chung-kuo ch'ang-chi-shih ^  )§] k% . Shanghai: Sheng-huo shu-tien ^ . ^ " ^ ^ > 1935. Wang Ying-1 in ^ .^.^(1223-1296) ed. Chen-chiang fu-chih / f | f c . Photo-reproduction of Wan-li %j% (1573-1620) ed. Chinese Rarebooks of Peiping, Item 744 (in microfilm). Wang Yii-ch'eng 1 $o$± (954-1001). Hsiao-hs(i chi »h t & . 30 chiian. Author's preface dated 1000. Reduced photo-reproduction of Chu shih's manuscript of the Sung edition. In Ssu-pu ts'ung-k'an •cSpffi^ jjLft) , f i r s t collection. Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1936. Hsiao-hsu wai-chi . 13 chiian. Reduced photo-reproduction of the Sung manuscript. In Ssu-pu ts'ung-k'an, f i r s t collection. Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1936. Wang Yung $ (Sung). Yen-yi yi-mou l u . j k % "1^1^41:. 5 chuan. Author's preface dated 1227. In Hsiieh-tsin t'ao-ylian, chi 6, ts'e 6. Yang Ch'i (Ch'ing) ed. Ching-k'ou shan-shui-chih % ih ?]< . 2 Vols. Photo-reproduction of 1884 edition. In Chung-kuo fang- chih ts'ung-shu, hua-chung ti-fang, No. 6. Taipei: Ch'eng-wen ch'u-pan-she, 1970. Yeh Meng-te^-^Mf (1077-1148). Shih-lin yen-yU ^ ^jfeH. 10 chuan. In Pi -chi hsiao-shuo ta-kuan hs'u'-pien. Taipei: Hsin-hsing shu-chu, 1962, Vol. 1, pp. 137-169. . Pi-shu lu-hua . 2 chiian. In Hsiieh-tsin t'ao-yiian. chi 14, ts'e 2 & 3. 319 Yii Ssu-mu Chung-kuo l i - t a i wen-hsueh-chia lueh-chuan ^ ® J8 >K, %~<®%Srfy • Hongkong: Ch'iao-kuang shu-tien A%%J%% , 1958. Articles on Liu Yung's Tz'u Chou Kuo-ts'an jf| l 9 . "Lun liu-yung chi ch'i yueh-chang-chi" "f^" tyf (On Liu Yung and his Yueh-chang-chi). Journal  of the Chinese Society, University of Singapore, No. 6, June 1965, pp. 62-76. Feng Chia-hua ^  -Jfe ^  and Liu Ting-chung J^i] . "Liu-yung ho man-tz'u" $ f 7K-fcff.i»](Liu Yung and Man-tz'u), Kuang-ming jih-pao JL*fl , Wen-hsueh yi-ch'an ^ L ^ l ^ , No. 192, 19 January, 1958. Ho Fang-chou f»f ^ . "Kuanvyli liu-yung chi yueh-chang-chi" Wi^i^f (About Liu Yung and Yueh-chang-chi). In T'ang  sung tz'u yen-chiu lun-wen chi ^  ffi- jff i ffL"l&) i t tf^ . Hongkong: Chung-kuo yli-wen hsueh-she ^ if) jp. 5 1969, pp. 85-91. Hsii Hsien-hao$p^fand Chou Fu-ch'ang . "Pi-hsu yung p' i -p'an t i t'ai-tu tui liu-yung t i tz'u ch'ung-hsin k u - c h i a ' V ^ ^ tt) ^  f») & #p m ^ ^ f e h t (We must use a Critical Approach to Re-evaluate Liu Yung's Tz'u). Kuang-ming  jih-pao, Wen-hsueh yi-ch'an, No. 322, 17 July, 1960. 320 Liu, James, J.Y. "The Lyrics of Liu Yung." Tamkang Review, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1970, pp. 1-44. Nagata, Natsuki ^ L ^ ^ . / ) ^ . "Shi shi kyoku no setten 'Gakusho shu'--soshi oboe gaki, sono i c h i — " %Q & O) 3 4 •% % j — t^i i- ^ t * * T ^ - (The Meeting Point of Shih Tz'u and Ch'u: Yu'eh-chang chi, Notes on Sung Tz'u, No. 1). Kobe Gaikai Ronso i ^ f *f , 19, No. 3, 1968, pp. 27-44. Su Keng-che j $ L , ^ . "Liu yung 'yueh-chang-chi' k'ao-yi" ^ TK ^ (A Study on Liu Yung's Yueh-chang-chi).' In Wen  shih hsiieh-pao $ %$L- , No. 4, June 1967, pp. 80-93. T'ang Kuei-chang and Chin Ch'i-hua. "Lun liu-yung t i tz'u" (On Liu Yung's Tz'u). In T'ang sung tz'u yen-chiu lun-wen chi. Hongkong: Chung-kuo yii-wen hsiieh-she, 1969, pp. 70-79. . "Tsai-lun liu-yung t i tz'u" A Ot #f fr- ^  f*] (More Discussions on Liu Yung's Tz'u). Kuang-min jih-pao, Wen-hslieh  yi-ch'an. No. 201, March 28, 1958. Tetsumi Murakami. "Ryu Ki-kyo shi s5ron" General Discussion of Liu Ch'i-ch'ing's Tz'u). T5hoku Daigaku Ky5yobu kiyo. $ 3 k K$ ^L^^it^ , No. 17, February 1973, pp. 105-134. 321 Tetsumi Murakami. "Ryu ki kyo shi no keitai jo no tokushoku ni tsuite" % fa? Iffl & 3$ % i> D # 4 ^ 1 (On the External Characteristics of Liu Ch'i-ch'ing's Tz'u). Toho Gaku |tjT , No. 43, January 1972, pp. 61-76. Wang Ch'i . "Tsen-yang p'ing-chia liu-yung t i tz"u" $fcirH|[ • ^ f ifc-f«] (How to Evaluate Liu Yung's Tz'u). In T'ang sung  tz'u yen-chiu lun-wen chi. Hongkong: Chung-kuo yii-wen hsueh-she, 1969, pp. 86-90. Wang Nien-tz'u • " L i u yung t i t z' u" $?fc-1>b%il (Liu Yung's Tz'u). Jen-sheng tsa-chih tfyVfr, No. 95, October 1954, pp. 14-15. Wang Shui-chao ^ 7K 5$, • "T'an-t'an sung-tz'u ho liu-yung tz'u t i p'i-p'an t i chi-ch'eng wen V i " ^ t£ fa #P TK?«) fr\v& %k ( A D i s c u s s i o n o f S u n 9 T z ' u a n d a Critical Evaluation of Liu Yung's Tz'u). Kuang-min jih-pao, Wen-hsueh yi ch'an, No. 346, January 8, 1961. Other Articles Consulted Baxter, Glen William. "Metrical Origins of the Tz'u." In Studies in  Chinese Literature. Edited by Bishop John,L. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1965, pp. 186-224. Chang Y u - j e n f J L j L ^ • "Lun pei-sung man-tz'u" ife) *k (On the Man-tz'u of the Northern Sung). In Chung-kuo wen-hslieh yen-chiu ^  $ J L ^ t f i % . Edited by Cheng Chen-toJtp&3f . Hongkong: Chung-kuo wen-hslieh yen-chiu-so <j> |^ ) lL^"iff% i>f\ , 1963, pp. 225-230. 322 Feng Ch'i-yung 1$) ^ hfy - "Lun pei-sung ch'ien-ch'i t i liang-chung pu-t'ung t i tz'u-feng" tf, $ft flfo #f/Ms] ^ l$] )H (On the Two Different Styles of Tz'u in the Early Northern Sung). In T'ang sung tz'u yen-chiu lun-wen chi. Hongkong: Chung-kuo yu'-wen hslieh-she, 1969, pp. 43-69. Hsia Ch'eng-t'.ao. "Sung tz'u ssu-sheng" ( The Four Tones of Sung Tz'u ), In Y i - l i n ts'ung-lu. 7 t n collection. Hongkong: Commercial Press, 1973, pp. 240-243. Hsu Ch'i . " Tz'u-lij chien-ch'Lieh--chLian 1" (Comments on Tz'u-lli--Chapter One). In Tz'u-hsLieh chi-k'an, Vol. II , No. 2, . January 1935, pp. 127-162. Hu P'in-ch'ing v\. "The Origin and Growth of Tz'u, Poetry for Singing." Chinese Culture, Vol. VII, No. 1, 1966, pp. 103-119. Kao Yu-kung ^  J ^ j j . and Mei T s u - l i n ^ 7t&$$jf, "Syntax, Diction and Imagery in T'ang Poetry." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 31, 1970, pp. 49-136. _. "Meaning, Metaphor, and Allusion in T'ang Poetry," forth-coming, 1975, pp. 1-99. The Chinese Translation by Huang Hslian-fan-$„ 'J| |& appears in Chung-wai wen-hsu'eh $ JC.^ > Vol. 4, No. 7, December 1975, pp. 116-129; No. 8, January 1976, pp. 66-84; No. 9, February 1976, pp. 166-190. Li Ping-jo ^ y^%. . "Lun pei-sung man-tz'u" "fife: t f i^On the Man-tz'u of the Northern Sung). In Kuo-hs'ueh ts'ung-k'an V o 1 ' 1 1 ' N o > 3 ' p p ' 1 9 - 2 1 • 323 Liu, James, J.Y. "Some Literary Qualities of the Lyric (Tz'u)." In Studies in Chinese Literary Genres. Edited by Cyril Birch. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974, pp. 133-153. Lo Hsueh-ch'ien$ji^'tfL "Liu yung" J}4- . In Chung-kuo wen-hsueh-shih lun-chi \§j JL^&jfet^. 4 Vols. Taipei: Chung-hua wen-hua ch'u-pan shih-yeh wei-yiian-hui ^  -5L & ftk^^i^ , 1958, pp. 525-541. Lung Mu-hsiin'll (1902- ). "Liang-sung tz'u-feng chuan-pien lun" ^ ^ ^ ^ . I ^ O n the Changes in the Styles of the Tz'u of the Northern and Southern Sung). In Tz'u-hsueh chi-k'an, Vol. I I , No. 1, October 1934, pp. 1-23. (Lung Yli-sheng^jii, ). "Sung tz'u fa-chan t i chi-ko chieh-tuan" & ^ (Several Stages in the Development of Sung Tz'u). In Hsin chien-shih ^ f t j ^ ' f l t > No. 8, August 1957, pp. 44-50. Nakata Yujiro. "To Godai shiin ko" % (A Study of the Rhymes of the Tz'u in the T'ang and Five Dynasties). Shina Gaku, Vol. VIII, No. 4, November 1936, pp. 65-101. Sakai, Ken-ichi ^ ^ . "Soshi 5inji ni mirareru onin jo no ichi ni tokushoku"^-|jltf||'?^^^«n,^4-4-| ±o) - ^. (Some Phonological Features Found in the Rimes of Sung Tz'u). T5yo Gakuho, 38, No. 2, September 1955, pp. 85-113. Suzuki Torao^T ^ / J t^jt. "Kogo wo shiyo seru tenshi" <2 4$Lffl&3 i-%%a\ (The Use of Colloquialisms in Tz'u). Shina Bungaku . Kenkyu * f 3#'H. K65und6 Shob5 ^  qf % , 1967, pp. 491-499. 324 T'ai Ching-nung, ^ ^Jf J[. "Sung-ch'u tz'u-jen" §^ %1) (The Tz'u Poets of the Early Sung). In Chung-kuo wen-hs'u'eh yen-chiu. Edited by Cheng Chen-to. Hongkong: Chung-kuo wen-hs'u'eh yen-chiu-so, 1963, pp. 213-223. Tanaka Kenji . "Oyo Shu no shi ni tsuite" \§t ^0)f°) I'^"7 (On Ou-yang Hsiu's Tz'u) . Toho Gaku, No. 7, 1953, pp. 50-62. Tetsumi Murakami. "'Shi' ni taisuru ninshiki to sono meisho no rensen" riS)j V- I f t i S i h ^ £ H ^ t f ^ i t j M y Apprehension of Tz'u and Various Terms Applied to i t ) . Bulletin of the Si no- logical Society of Japan iSI ^  » N o- 2 3> 1 9 7 1 » pp. 100-119. Yuan C h a i ^ || . "Shih-tzu hsu-tzu yli yung-tien" ^  i | - % $ k JH (Concrete words, Empty words and Allusions). In Y i - l i n ts'ung-lu. 4 collection. Hongkong: Commercial Press, 1964, pp. 52-55. Other Books Consulted Chang Ch'ang-kung ? | L . Chung-kuo wen-hsueh-shih hsin-pien ^  1^ 1 Shanghai: K'ai-ming shu-chu ffi) vft % %) , 1941. Chang Chen-yung ^ f ^ ^ . Chung-kuo wen-hsiieh-shih fen-1 un )f£| T L ^ I ^ T . 4 Vols. Ch'angsha: Commercial Press, 1939. 325 Chang Hsiangfft'W . Shih tz'u ch'u yli tz'u-tien i ^ - g l ) Hi 3rd ed. Taipei: Chung-hua shu-chii, 1973. Chang Meng-chi ^ f ^ f l (1941- ). Tz'u-chienfs) \ . Taipei: San-shu-chu . 1971. •mm Chao Ching-shen jfc^  -jf"* l~jjL (1902- ). Chung-kuo wen-hsueh-shih hsin-pien t 38 " S L ^ ^ L ^1 • s h a n 9 h a i : Pei-hsin shu-chu }fc # r 4 l ? 1935. Chao Ch'ung-tsu &f j&^f (Fl. 954-965) comp. Edited by Li Yi-min ^ Hua-chien chi Chao's preface dated 940. Hongkong: Commercial Press, 1973. Chao Te-lin/t§^&Mf-(Sung). Hou-ching l u ^ ^ l j ^ f c . 8 chuan. In Pj_-chi hsiao-shuo ta-kuan. Taipei: Hsin-hsing shu-chii, 1962, Vol. 1, pp. 932-958. Ch'en Chen-sunfj^jL^fc ( f l .c. 1211-1249). Chih-chai shu-lu t'i-chieh % %\ • Preface of the revised edition dated 1773. 3 Vols. Taipei: Kuang-wen shu-chii j&tjfj& %) , 1968. Ch'en Ching r^-S'l . Chung-kuo wen-hsueh chiang-tso Hongkong: Ta-kuang ch'u-pan-she i f c ^ f c , 1958. Ch'en Kuo-chih ?<* and Wang Hsiang-ti • Tz'u yii tz'u-jen . Hongkong: Shang-hai shu-ch'ii Jt , 1962. Ch'en Shou ?Jt^f (Chin). San-kuo chih ^ - )|f) /cr . 65 chiian. Edited with preface dated 429 by P'ei Sung-chih %faZ. (372-451). In Erh-shih-wu shih. Hongkong: Wen-hsueh yen-chiu-she, 1959. 326 Cheng Chen-to. 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Chung-kuo wen-hsueh-shih ^ ^ t - ^ J L 2 Vols. Taipei: Kuang-wen shu-chli, 1965-1966. Yeh Yung-li-^j^Tp] . Man-tz'u k'ao-Tueh Privately printed, 1970. Yen Pin-tu . Tz'u-fan "If) fyh . 4 Vols. Photo-reproduction of manuscript copy. Taipei: Chung-hua ts'ung-shu pien-shen wei-yuan-huif J r J ^ , 1959. Yuh Liou-yi. "Liu Yung, Su Shih, and Some Aspects of the Development of Early Tz'u Poetry." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 1972. 335 TRANSLATIONS OF LIU YUNG'S TZ'U Ayling, Alan and Mackintosh, Duncan. A Collection of Chinese Lyrics. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1965, pp. 108-109. It includes poem No. 30. Candlin, Clara M. The Herald Wind.—Translations of Sung Dynasty  Poems, Lyrics and Songs. London: John Murray, 1933, pp. 46-48. It includes poem Nos. 45.2 and 67.1. Ch'eng Shih-ch'lian. Chinese Lyrics from the Eighth to the Twelfth  Centuries J | % - i f ^ . Taipai: Commercial Press, 1969, pp. 65-75. It includes poem Nos. 30, 104, 101, 54, 59, 135. Ch'u Ta-kao. Chinese Lyrics. Cambridge: University Press, 1937, pp. 16-17. It includes poem Nos. 30 and 101. Klemer, D.S. Chinese Love Poetry. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Co., 1959, pp. 62 & 71. It includes poem Nos. 30 and 45.2. Kotewall, Robert and Smith, Norman L. The Penguin Book of Chinese Verse. London: Penguin, 1962, pp. 39-40. It includes poem No. 101. Lai Ming. A History of Chinese Literature. London: Cassell, 1964, pp. 215 & 223. It includes poem Nos. 30 & 144. Liu, James, J.Yi Major Lyricists of the Northern Sung. Princeton New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1974, pp. 54-56; 60-63; 66-70; 75-78 and 80-82. It includes poem Nos. 30, 101, 92, 15 and 96. These translations also appear in his "The Lyrics of Liu Yung," Tamkang Review, I, No. 2, 1970, pp. 1-3; 7-9; 12-15; 20-23 and 25-26. 335a Liu Wu-chi. An Introduction to Chinese Literature. Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1966, pp. 106-107. It in-cludes poem Nos. 30 & 101. Yip Wai-lim. Tamkang Review. VI, No. 1, April 1975, pp. 20, 28-29. It includes poem No. 30. Yuh Liou-yi. "Liu Yung, Su Shih, and Some Aspects of the Development of Early Tz'u Poetry." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 1972, pp. 151-158; 162-163; 165-166; 169-170; 173-175 and 176. It includes poem Nos. 40, 42, 104, 122, 59, 26.2, 144 and 29. 335b A P P E N D I C E S 336 APPENDIX A Poem No. Page No. in CST Tune Patterns 1 13 huang-ying-erh ^ 2 13 yu-nii-yao-hsien-p'ei %Jr 3 13 hsiieh-mei-hsiang ^ ^ 4 13-14 wei-fan ^fL 5 14 tsao-mei-fang J^-^iS'-^' 6.1 14 tou-pai-hua $r~$ 6.2 14 tou-pai-hua S\- ~% 6.3 14 tou-pai-hua i f ~% ^C. 7.1 14-15 kan-ts'ao-tzu ^ 7.2 15 kan-ts'ao-tzu •% % 8 15 sung-cheng-yi i ^ , ^ i t ^ -9.1 15 chou-yeh-le ^ rfL^fe 9.2 15 chou-yeh-le 10 15-16 liu-yao-ch'ing # P # t ^ f 11 16 hsi-chiang-ylieh ^? ^ 12 16 ch'ing-pei-le #J[ i#*<R; 13 16 ti-chia-nung ^ $~-%jf 14 16-17 ch'ing-pei-le ^ ^ 15 17 ying-hsin-ch'un &-^T-^r-16 17 ch'li-yii-kuan \87 3- i£ 17 17 man-ch'ao-huan ypf^  Ofy^k. 337 Poem No. Page No. in CST Tune Patterns 18 17 meng-huan-ching ^ ISt 19.1 18 feng-hsien-pei XffL"^ 19.2 18 feng-hsien-pei 4^ ^ N 20 18 ho-ch'ung-t'ien j/jjfa >f X. 21 18 shou-en-shen ^ J§,« v%. 22.1 18 k'an-hua-hui %%$L® 22.2 18 k'an-hua-hui \s) 23 19 liu-ch'u-hsin 4tf> %V ¥f 24.1 19 liang-t'ung-hsin v^ ) 1») 24.2 19 liang-t'ung-hsin TH?? )"*) 25 19 nu-kuan-tzu 7ut "3" 26.1 19 yu-lou-ch'un \-26.2 19-20 yu'-lou-ch'un i - $ | ffr-26.3 20 yu-lou-ch'un £ % % 26.4 20 yu-lou-ch'un ^%J^-26.5 20 yu-lou-ch'un % ^%ffr-27 20 chin-chiao-yeh 28 20 hsi-ch'un-lang ^ 29 20 ch'uan-hua-chih \%[ ^A. 30 21 yii - l i n - l i n g ^ % . $ £ 31 21 ting-feng-po 32 21 yu-ch'ih-pei jf.-} z^ |. 33 21 man-ch'uan-ch'ou t i . ^ - * ^ 338 Poem No. Page No. in CST Tune Patterns 34 22 cheng-pu-yu'eh 35 22 chia-jen-tsui ^ 36 22 mi-hsien-yin E L ^ 31 37.1 22 yii-chieh-hsing 0? ffi ^ 37.2 22 y'u'-chieh-hsing ffi ^ 38 . 22-23 kuei-ch'ao-huan %ft /jlK 39 23 ts'ai-lien-ling 4^^.^ 40 23 ch*iu-yeh-ylieh $ 41.1 23 wu-shan-yi-tuan-ylin £t ~~ "J* 41.2 23 wu-shan-yi-tuan-ylin tb ~~ $L $ 41.3 23 wu-shan-yi-tuan-yiin ?£. \Xi ~" $$L 41.4 . 23-24 wu-shan-yi-tuan-ylin ii-* $2L 41.5 24 wu-shan-yi-tuan-ylin 0A ^ 'J? 42 24 p'o-lo-men-ling 2^ Pfc] ^ 43 24 fa-ch'li-hsien-hsien-yin fa^fH 44 24 hsi -p1 ing-ylieh & ^ 45.1 24 feng-ch'i-wu ^% 45.2 25 feng-ch'i-wu 1§^\% ^ 45.3 25 feng-ch'i-wu ) $ , %% # 46 25 fa-ch'U-ti-erh y&<& % — 47 25 ch'iu-jui-hsiangr-yin ^Kf<k-^ %\ 48 25 yi-ts'un-chin —• <)" ^ 49.1 25-26 yung-yli-le z$ Sfv 49.2 26 yung-yli-le ^<-2§.^ 50 26 pu-suan-tzu y ^ Poem No. Page No. in CST Tune Patterns 51 26 ch'ueh-ch'iao-hsien ^% $j 4^ 52 26-27 lang-t'ao-sha y% "JS\ yfjf 53 27 hsia-yun-feng ^ $ 54 27 lang-t'ao-sha-ling ifi^j "^4^  55, 27 li-chih-hsiang %] 56 27 ku-ch'ing-pei %fc 57 27-28 ch'ing-pei 58 28 p'o-chen yueh %JL *?| ^ 59 28 shuang-sheng-tzu ^ 60 28 yang-t'ai-lu "ffe <z M " 61 28 nei-chia-chiao T*} |<. -i^ll? 62 29 erh-lang-shen -^ "^ j5 63 29 tsui-p'eng-lai 64 29 , J>-> ^i. hsuan-ch'ing 7% 65 29 chin-t'ang-ch'un $fr^.%h 66 29-30 ting-feng-po %_ JfL 67.1 30 su-chung-ch'ing-chin '%^[%-'f^^L 67.2 30 su-chung-ch'ing-chin "ffj: i^L 68 30 liu-k'e-chu 69 30 ying-ch'un-ylieh l££ ^> ^ 70 30-31 ke-lien-t'ing ?|, J. It-71 31 feng-kuei-yiin JjH 1^  ^ 72 31 p'ao-ch'iu-le 1$ 73 31 chi-hsien-pin %^ ^  ^ 74 31-32 t i -jen-chiao ^ A. 4 ^ 340 Poem No. Page No. in CST Tune Patterns 75 32 ssu-kuei-le t^k ^ 76 32 ying-t' ien-ch'ang $|. ^ -{k 77 32 ho-huan-tai &%k1§ 78.1 32 shao-nien-yu 'Jr ^ 78.2 32 shao-nien-yu lJ>" %e 7J>1 78.3 32-33 shao-nien-yu $T T$L. 78.4 33 shao-nien-yu iJ/ •QX. 78.5 33 shao-nien-yu t]f i ^ -78.6 33 shao-nien-yu "J7 J$-78.7 33 shao-nien-yu ^/ 78.8 33 shao-nien-yu "jT z^. 78.9 33 shao-nien-yu vJ/~ ^ 78.10 33 shao-nien-yu ')/' 79 33-34 ch'ang-hsiang-ssu ^ -fa§ % 80 34 wei-fan 7iL 81 .1 34 mu-lan-hua ||$ 4^, 81.2 34 mu-lan-hua -%~ j | | 81.3 34 mu-lan-hua ^- f*L. 81 .4 34 mu-lan-hua tt^ 82 34-35 c hu -ma -11 i ng %i- 3} 83 35 su-chung-ch'ing %^ i\ 84 35 ch'i-shih ^ & 85 35 lun-t'ai-tzu f ^ ^ z "5" 341 Poem No. Page No. in CST Tune Patterns 86 35-36 yin-chia-hsing 3) % %7 87 36 wang-ylian-hsing i j ^ ^ 88 36 ts'ai-yiin-kuei 89 36 tung-hsien-ko >J»HdJ-ffc 90 36-37 li-pieh-nan 91 37 chi-wu-t'ung M yeh-pan-le ^ ^ ^ 92 37 93 37 chi-t'ien-shen K 94 37 kuo-chien-hsieh-chin l^ ziL 95 38 an-kung-tzu 'i\ 96 38 chu-hua-hsin |§ 97 38 kuo-chien-hsieh-chin >?l| ffcaiL 98 38 lun-t'ai-tzu jfe" 6-J* 99 38 wang-han-ylieh ^ $ 100 38-39 kuei-ch'u-lai 101 39 yen-kuei-liang j & |/| i $ 102 39 pa-lu-tzu ,»\ -r; ?r 103 39 ch'ang-shou-le -^L^if-104 39 wang-hai-ch'ao -jfy >J$ 105.1 39-40 ju-yu-shui -tyo )f~ 105.2 40 ju-y'u-shui Jfc, 106.1 40 yu-hu-tieh % tfy 106.2 40 yii-hu-tieh J , 342 Poem No. Page No. in CST Tune Patterns 106.3 40-41 yli-hu-tieh % 106.4 41 yu-hu-tieh £ 106.5 41 yu-hu-tieh £ #)} 107.1 41 man-chiang-hung y% 107.2 41 man-chiang-hung ~A 107.3 42 man-chiang-hung >£ $3-107.4 42 man-chiang-hung y$) Ji-108 42 tung-hsien-ko >J3) yjvl* 4|ifc 109 42 yin-chia-hsing ^) ^ "^T no 42-43 wang-yiian-hsing 2^. "^"f 111 43 pa-sheng-kan-chou y\ Ijf -tf ^ 112 43 lin-chiang-hsien >i ^ 113 43 chu-ma-tzu ^ % ^ 114 43 hsiao-chen-hsi 0 N ^ ^ 115 44 hsiao-chen-hsi-fan 0 s ^ ^ ^tL 116 44 mi-shen-yin 2 ^ . ^ ^ ) 117 44 ts'u-p'ai-man-lu-hua ^ 3 6 5 ^ 1 ^ ^ 118 44 lu-mo-ling 119 44 t'i-yin-teng 120 45 hung-ch'uang-t'ing $1-%%% 121 45 lin-chiang-hsien ]£& 122 45 feng-kuei-yiin )|J* | | 123 45 nii-kuan-tzu -^r ^ 124 45 yu-shan-chen uL» $ L 125 46 chien-tzu-mu-lan-hua ^ ^ ^- | j | 343 Poem No. Page No. in CST Tune Patterns 126 46 mu-lan-hua-1 ing >^ 127 46 kan-chou-1ing •% *H ^ 128.1 46 hsi-shih & $L 128.2 46 hsi-shih $Q ^ fe. 128.3 46 hsi-shih 3a 129.1 47 ho-ch'uan }Sj j^f-129.2 47 ho-ch'uan 130 47 kuo-lang-erh-chin-p'ai 131 47 t'ou-pi-hsiao ^ f 132.1 47-48 mu-lan-hua-man )^ a n 132.2 48 mu-lan-hua-man 132.3 48 mu-lan-hua-man jf$ i t * 133.1 48 lin-chiang-hsien-yin 1 133.2 48 lin-chiang-hsien-yin >2->^4l 133.3 48-49 lin-chiang-hsien-yin >J-fa $] 134.1 49 jui-che-ku 134.2 49 jui-che-ku S%0}ik 135 49 yi-ti-ching i f f . ify % 136 49 sai-ku 137.1 49 jui-che-ku 137.2 50 jui-che-ku ify 138 50 tung-hsien-ko -»s] 139.1 50 an-kung-tzu j£ 'A 344 Poem No. Page No. in CST Tune Patterns 139.2 50 an-kung-tzu $z 4£ -3" 140 50-51 ch'ang-shou-le 141 51 ch'ing-pei ^ \ 142 51 ch'ing-pei ] ^ "%%•> 143 51 ch'ing-pei fcfy 144 51-52 ho-ch'ung-t'ien ^ K 145.1 52 mu-lan-hua $L 145.2 52 mu-lan-hua ^ /ft. 145.3 52 mu-lan-hua -j^ ^ 146 52 ch'ing-pei-le <jvk 147 52 chi-t'ien-shen 148 53 che-ku-t'ien K 149 53 kuei-ch'u-lai ^ 150 53 liang-chou-ling ^ ^ 151 53 yen-kuei-liang || ^ 152 53 yeh-pan-le jL % ^ 153 54 ch'ing-p'ing-yiieh TJ| ^jfc 154 54 mi-shen-yin z5J-_ ^ 155 54 (tune-pattern lost) 156 54 chao-mo-li )K <jc 157 54 nii-kuan-tzu ^ -J" 158 55 shih-erh-shih 'tfq 159 55 hung-ch'uang-ch'iung % HiL 160 55 hsi-chiang-ylieh & >i> f\ 161 55 feng-huang-ko jg. j f t ) ^ 345 APPENDIX B Based on the given information we can reconstruct the family line of Liu Yung in the following: Liu Yen-chao #P Fang Mien Teng % Ao % Tan i l Ch'iung £j, Cha ^ Teng 0 ^ Ch'ung 5^ YLi (wife) 1 Ting (wife)-f Chih Hung Ts'_ai Ch'a 9. YJ 1 Hsiian 'f 5. # & San-chieh San-fu San-pien(Liu Yung) Yen-po 346 APPENDIX C Since very l i t t l e is known about the lives of Liu Yung's close family members, I could only provide their dates of passing the chin shih examination and their o f f i c i a l t i t l e s in the following: 1. Liu Yi , Liu Yung's father, obtained his chin-shih degree in 985. In the Southern T'ang he was Collator of the Prince (t'ai-tzu chiao-shu-lang Registrar (wei E$ ) of Chiang-ning hsien >iJp-l!!Min Kiangsu Province), Subprefect of Kuei-hsi hsien ^ f e ^ " ( i n Kiangsi Province), Ch'ung-jen hsien ^fcfify* (in Kiangsi Province) and Chien-yang hsien (in Fukien Province). He was also the Investigating Censor (chien-ch'a y ii -shih In the Sung, he was Sub-prefect of Lei-tse (present day southeast of P'u hsien 'J^k $Hof Shantung Province), Jen-ch'eng^$ (in present day Chi-ning hsien^Jf-<jj!jftof Shantung Province) and Fei-hsien ^ %fa (in Shantung Province), Professor of the Directorate of Education (kuo-tzu po-shih lf$ ), Officer in the Ministry of Works (kung-pu ssu-lang $ %^ ), Vice-administrator of Ch'uan-chou ^ -Hj (present day Ch'iian h s i e n - ^ " ^ of Kwangsi Province) and Critic-advisor of the heir apparent (tsan-shan ta-fu t^Kk ). Liu Hsuan-^'g. , Liu's f i r s t paternal uncle, was Judicial Investi-gator of the High Court of Justice ( t a - l i p'ing-shih ^ 3 f iiPf" ij^ ) in the Southern T'ang. In the Sung he was Collator (chiao-shu-chih (chlian 147, p. 8b) records that he obtained his chin-shih degree in 1012 but Min-shu (chlian 97, p. 2a) records 1015. Wang Yii-ch'eng in the "Epitaph" also records that Liu Chih held a chin-shih degree. Since Wang died in 1001, the records of Fu-chien t'ung-chih and Min-shu seem to be wrong. Another possibility is that there might be a misprint in Wang's "Epitaph". Liu Hung (entitled Chii-ch'ing |5 ), Liu's third paternal uncle, obtained his chin-shih degree in 998. He was Subprefect of Te-hua hsien (present day Chiu-chiang hsien of Kiangsi Province), Officer of the Ministry of Justice (tu -kuan second paternal uncle. Fu-chien t'ung-ylian-wai-lang r£ ?f #p ), Senior Lord of the Court of Imperial Banquet (kuang-lu ssu-ch' ing j t ^ j f °)%^) and Administrator (chih^o ) of Hu-chou Prefecture (Hu-chou chiin 3$ -Hj ^ ) and An-chi Prefecture (An-chi chou % £ tf) ). 348 5. Liu T s ' a i ^ f f - ^ , Liu's fourth paternal uncle, was Executive of the Ministry of Rites (li-pu ssu-lang ). 6. Liu Ch'a^ f - ^ , Liu's f i f t h paternal uncle, was Assistant Officer of Waterways (shui-pu yuan-wai-lang 7. Liu San-fu "tyf 2- 4lL , Liu's elder brother obtained his chin-shih degree in 1018. 8. Liu San-chieh , Liu's elder brother, obtained his chin-shih degree in 1034 (the same year with Liu). He was Assistant officer of the Ministry of Justice (tu -kuan yuan-wai-lang ^ J| fy\ ) and Professor of Imperial Sacrifice (t'ai-ch'ang po-shih £ ). 9. Liu C h ' i ^ ^ r ^ : , Liu's nephew (San-chieh's son), obtained his chin-shih degree in 1054 and was Professor of Imperial Sacrifice. 10. Liu Jui -/jl (entitled Wen-chihv^ p. i L ), Liu's son, obtained his chin-shih degree in 1046 and he was Staff Author (chu-tso-lang ^ 1JJ3 ), Finance Inspector (ssu-hu ts'an-chun ijj] f ^ ) of Shansi Province and Assistant Justice of the High Court of Justice ( t a - l i ssu-ch'eng APPENDIX D MAP FOR LIU YUNG'S LIFE 349 ® place where Liu Yung grew up x places where Liu Yung held o f f i c i a l positions a places visited H place of burial 350 APPENDIX E OTHER TUNE-PATTERNS CITED chiang-ch'eng-tzu li- 2 ^ chieh-hsien-pin 4^ chin-fu-t'u fl) chung-hsing-yiieh jfK ^ ch'ang-sheng-le %_ ch 1 in-yiian-ch'un -X"" )f] %~-chu-chih-tzu ch'ueh-t'a-chih % 5t & fu-ni-shang ho-ch'uan ytf llf-ho-yeh-pei l£[ % ^ hsi-ch' ien-ying jj^ ^ hsi-hsi-tzu & y% huan-hsi-sha ^ yj^ kan-chou-pien '^L kan-huang-en keng-lou-tzu ^ ^ ^ ko-t'ou ^ J J p'ao-ch'iu-le p'u-sa-man 1 lei-chiang-yueh $ man-kung-ch'un 't* 4*-man-t'ing-fang vk man-yiian-hua )j) jfii sheng-wu-yu ^ ^ shui-lung-yin su-chung-ch'ing tieh-lien-hua 4#.*@ & t'ien-hsien-tzu ^ ^•5' ting-hsi-fan % t'ou-sheng-mu-lan-hua ts'ai-lien-tzu ^ it. : f ts'ai-sang-tzu ^ ^? -J-tsui-ch'ui-pien g$ it | ^ tsui-lo-p'o %$%;b% tsui-t'ao-yiian fift jfjfe & tung-hsien-ko-1 ing >)o] ^-ffc^"" wang-chiang-nan >2 \% wu-ling-ch'un ^ 7 ^ ^ yu-chia-ao ^ 'f^L yii-chung-hua fa fi^ yii-lien-huan yii-mei-jen J [ j^A. y'u'-yu-ch'un-shui nan-hsiang-tzu APPENDIX F Note: For the Chinese of these tune-patterns see Appendix A and E Tune-Titles Tune-Titles No.of Words No.of Words Comparison of in TWTT in YCC in TWTT in YCC Forms 1. ch 1ing-pei-le 46 46 same 2. mu-lan-hua — 56 56 same mu-lan-hua-man 101 d i f f . 3. p'u-hsuan-tzu-man -- 89 89 same 4. hsi-chiang-ylieh — 50 50 same 5. wu-shan-yi-tuan ylin -- 45 45 same 6. 1in-chiang-hsien -- 58 58 same 7. tieh-1ien-hua feng-ch'i-wu 60 60 same 8. lang-t'ao-sha — 28 133 d i f f . 9. lang-t'ao-sha-1 ing — 54 52 approx. same 10. p'ao-ch'iu-le -- 30 187 d i f f . 11. ch'ang-hsiang-ssu -- 36 103 d i f f . 12. pa-1u-tzu — 90 91 approx. same 13. yu-hu-tieh — 41 99 d i f f . 14. nli-Kuan-tzu — 41 n o d i f f . 114 d i f f . 15. lu-mo-1ing — 30 94 d i f f . 16. ts 1 u-p'ai-man-lu-hua — 86 83 approx. same Appendix F (continued) Tune-Titles Tune-Titles No of Words No. of Words Comparison of in TWTT in YCC in TWTT in YCC Forms 17. ying-t 1ien-ch'ang — 50 94 d i f f . 18. chieh-hsien-pin chi-hsien-pin 57 116 d i f f . 19. ch1iu-yeh-yueh — 84 82 approx. same 20. wang-yuan-hsing — 54 104 d i f f . 21. ting-feng-po — 62 100 d i f f . 105 d i f f . 22. ho-ch'ung-t'ien — 47 84 di f f . 88 d i f f . 23. 1i-pieh-nan -- 87 112 d i f f . 24. sai-ku sai-ku* 24 95 d i f f . 25. ts' ai-1ien-tzu ts ' a i - l i e n - l i n g 28 91 d i f f . 26. kan-chou-ch' ii pa-sheng-kan-chou 23 92 d i f f . 27 su-chung-ch'ing su-chung-sh'ing-1 ing 33 44 d i f f . TWTT has %M& , YCC has Co cn 353 APPENDIX G Kung-tiao No. of Tune- No. of Patterns Poems 1. 1 in-chung-shang $~>$t-% 29 44 2. hsien-lii-tiao W&H>M 27 38 3. ta-shih-tiao -K ~h 17 24 4. chung-lu-tiao - ^ ^ i ^ H 19 19 5. shuang-tiao ^ %M 13 18 6. cheng-kung £. % 7 10 7. nan-lii-tiao jfy & 5 10 8. hsieh-chih-tiao ffi t$l 8 9 9. hsiao-shih-tiao >h %>• "t#l 6 8 10. pan-she-tiao fljl >$> 5 7 11. chung-lu-kung %. % 5 6 12. p'ing-tiao % -0\ 6 6 13. san-shui-tiao TK^1 2 2 14. hsien-lii-kung S 1 ^ 2 2 15. huang-chung-yli 1$ 1 1 16. huang-chung-kung % 1 1 17. y'u'eh-tiao $g $ft 1 1 *Totally Liu uses seventeen kung-tiao. Seven poems collected in the CST do not have kung-tiao. They are "chao-mo-1 i " )K (poem No. 156) , "nii-kuan-tzu"-^ ffc (poem No. 157) , "shih-erh-shih" + > flf (poem No. 158) , "hung-ch'uang-ch'iung" % i&L (poem No. 159) , "hsi-chiang-ylieh" $)v>f{ (poem No. 160),and "feng-huang-ko")% jfl (poem No. 161). and poem No. 155 (tune-title lost). APPENDIX H 354 A. Poems Which Use One Rhyme Category Rhyme Category No. of Poems 1. #3 33 2. #4 31 3. #7 27 4. #8 21 5. #17 13 6. #12 13 7. #2 8 #10 8 #11 8 8. #6 7 9. #18 6 #13 6 10. #9 5 11. #1 4 #15 4 12. #14 1 13. #15 1 Total 196 B. Poems Which Combine Rhyme Categories Rhyme Category No. of Poems 1. #3 / #5 3 2. #3 / #5 or #10 2 3. #3 / #8 1 4. #6 / #7 1 5. #7 / #8 1 6. #7 / #10 1 Appendix H (continued) Rhyme Category No. of Poems 7. #7 / #11 1 8. # 7 / #14 1 9. #7 / #17 1 10. #17 / #18 1 11. #11 / #17 / #2 1 12. #11 / #12 / #10 1 Total 15 356 APPENDIX I Rhyme Category Poem Number #1 3 / 73 / 133.3 / 148 #2 8 / 45.3 / 78.8 / 88 / 105.1 / 106.1 / 133.1 / 144 #3 2 / 5 / 6.3 / 18 / 22.1 / 26.2 / 27 / 31 / 32 / 33 / 35 / 42 / 45.2 / 50 / 61 / 63 / 67.1 / 74 / 78.1 / 82 / 87 / 103 / 106.3 / 107.3 / 119 / 124 / 130 / 135 / 140 / 145.1 / 145.3 / 156 / 158 #4 1 / 62 / 7.1 / 9.1 / 15 / 21 / 25 / 26.1 / 36 / 37.1 / 39 /44 / 49.2 / 51 / 57 / 75 / 81.1 / 86 / 91 / 92 / 94 / 100 / 108 / 113 / 132.1 / 139.1 / 147 / 149 / 152 / 154 / 157 #6 54 / 78.4 / 78.5 / 78.6 / 81.3 / 83 / 121 #7 6.1 / 10 / 12 / 19.1 / 19.2 / 22.2 / 37.2 / 40 / 45.1 / 55 / 58 / 60 / 65 / 84 / 89 / 96 / 106.4 / 107.4 / 116 / 117 / 125 / 126 / 129.1 / 129.2 / 131 / 139.2 / 145.2 #8 11 / 17 / 24.1 / 46 / 56 / 67.2 / 68 / 70 / 77 / 78.2 / 78.7 / 81.4 / 85 / 102 / 112 / 115 / 122 / 128.2 / 141 / 150 / 151 #9 20 / 66 / 93 / 128.2 / 160 #10 23 / 48 / 62 / 72 / 104 / 110 / 127 / 138 357 Rhyme Category Poem Number #11 9.2 / 78.3 / 79 / 97 / 109 / 120 / 132.2 / 142 #12 13 / 14 / 16 / 49.1 / 59 / 78.9 / 105.2 / 106. 111 / 132.3 / 134.2 / 137.2 / 159 #13 53 / 64 / 78.10 / 90 / 101 / 134.1 #14 95 #15 81.2 #16 4 / 107.1 / 123 / 161 #17 24.2 / 26.3 / 28 / 34 / 38 / 43 / 52 / 80 / 98 / 107.2 / 118 / 143 / 146 #18 26.5 / 30 / 76 / 99 / 114 / 136 Mixed Rhyme Category Poem Number #3/#5 26.4 / 106.2 / 137.1 #3/#5 or #10 69 / 128.1 #3/#8 41.3 #6/#7 7.2 #7/#8 41.1 #7/#10 41.2 #7/#H 153 #7/14 71 #7/#17 133.2 #17/#18 47 #11 /#l7/#2 41.4 #11/#12/#10 41.5 

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