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Chinese social bandits and their role in history : some possible Sino-Western parallels May, Louise-Anne 1976

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CHINESE SOCIAL BANDITS AND THEIR ROLE IN HISTORY: SOME POSSIBLE SINO-WESTERN PARALLELS by Louise-Anne May B.A. (Hons.) Brock University, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF GF ARTS THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of History We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1976 (o) Louise-Anne May In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes i s fo r f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Depa rtment The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 7 i i ABSTRACT The Chinese social bandit (yu-hsia tradition i s a time-honoured and v i t a l element of Chinese cultural expression. It has been present from the earliest Chinese written works and continues to appear in the contemporary Chinese cinema and paperback novel. Nevertheless, the subject has been vi r t u a l l y untouched by social historians. The present discussion i s , therefore, an attempt to establish the value of this tradition for the student of Chinese social history and to suggest particular problems i n the study of the yu-hsia which appear to warrant future investigations. Specifically, this thesis suggests that the yu-hsia may be seen as the Chinese equivalents of Western social bandits such as Robin Hood and that the female yu-hsia (nu-hsia ^  m a y be seen as equivalent to the amazonian figure i n European culture. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS, Rage , INTRODUCTION 1_ I. THE RELATIONSHIP OF LITERATURE AND SOCIETY 3 Notes 16 I I . A REVIEW OF THE SECONDARY LITERATURE ON THE YU-HSIA 20 Notes 32 III. A DISCUSSION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOCIAL BANDIT 35 Notes 58 IV. A DISCUSSION OF THE AMAZONIAN FIGURE IN CHINESE FICTION 6 l Notes 86 CONCLUSION 9U BIBLIOGRAPHY 97 INTRODUCTION From the folktales, ballads and popular f i c t i o n of past centuries, to the. contemporary cinema and paperback novel, the heroic figure of the yu-hsia or Chinese social bandit, has continued to play a major role i n Chinese cultural expression. However, there i s at present a paucity of secondary literature devoted to the study of the yu-hsia and a general absence within this literature of discussions of interest to the social historian. Therefore, i n the following thesis the discussion w i l l range over an extensive time period and encompass elements of seemingly diverse cultures i n an effort to indicate that the neglect of this tradition by historians i s unwarranted. In addition, this study w i l l attempt to establish an awareness of the benefits for the social historian which would accrue from an intensive analysis of the yu-hsia tradition at some future date and to suggest particular aspects of that tradition which appear to warrant such thorough investigations. The study of the yu-hsia i s primarily an investigation of li t e r a r y mateeicmals. At present there i s l i t t l e agreement among historians as to the correct approach to such sources. Therefore, the f i r s t chapter w i l l be devoted to a discussion of an appropriate methodology for use i n the . study of the yu-hsia. The second chapter w i l l concentrate on the available secondary literature devoted to the hsia and in particular, on the attempts to define the fundamental characteristics of these hetidSte£S$&pBBa« In the third chapter the subject of social outlawry w i l l be examined and an attempt w i l l be made to demonstrate i n what respect the yu-hsia may be seen as part of the tradition which includes Robin Hood and certain American outlaws. While the yu-hsia tradition i n general has received l i t t l e attention from social historians, the nu-hsia or female social bandits, have received vi r t u a l l y none. Therefore, the f i n a l chapter of this thesis w i l l be devoted to a discussion of these unusual Chinese heroines who have been variously described as anti-women, amazons and as the antithesis of the ideal Confucian woman. -3-I. THE RELATIONSHIP OF LITERATURE AND SOCIETY In the early months of spring, when those who had lived together [for the winter] were about to disperse, an o f f i c i a l messenger would stand on the road and shake a wooden-tongued b e l l i n order to collect popular songs. The songs were submitted to the grand master who regulated them i n accord with notes and tunes for presentation to the prince. Thus i t i s said: though a prince does not watch beyond the window and the door, yet he knows the world. 1 While the means employed by the social historian to gather evidence may d i f f e r from those of the prince, the ends are the same. For through an examination of particular forms of popular culture both attempt to familiarize themselves with aspects of various communities. The historian however, separated i n time from the singers of the tales, i s less able immediately to discern a l l that the songs may be saying about the milieu from which they arose. At present, there seems to be l i t t l e agreement among historians as to what i s to be discovered about a society from a study of i t s cultural expressions and there i s less agreement on the means to be employed in such investigations. As one historian notes: ...George Sand describing the February uprising i n letters to her friends i s an eyewitness, to be treated no differently from any other witness at the bar of history even though she also wrote novels: Flaubert evoking (however meticulously) the storming of the Tuileries i n 1848 i s also a.witness, but the examination of his evidence i n the form i n which i t appears i n his novel L'Education sentimentale i s another, and more intricate operation. Or should be. • • • ...In both ancient and modern h i s t o r y . . . l i t t l e systematic attempt has been made to put imaginative literature to a more extended form of cross examination than that accorded to direct evidence or testimony. 2 As the study of the yu-hsia i s primarily an investigation of li t e r a r y sources, the following chapter w i l l attempt to outline a suitable metho-dology which may be employed by the social historian for just such an examination. In order to determine what sort of evidence literature may be expected to yield, one must f i r s t ascertain the relationship which exists between a society and i t s l i t e r a r y products. According to many works on the sociol-ogy of literature, literature (and i n particular the novel) i s often consid-ered to reflect society i n the sense that i t provides documentary i l l u s t r a -3 txons or photographic images of various aspects of historical communities. This view of literature would seem to be one which i s held by many historians for, as one writer notes: One of the principal reasons for the almost complete absense i n France of a social history i s the existence of great works of literature, which certainly look l i k e irrefutable documents, and which, moreover, by their verbal magic solidly reconstruct things past and generate, so to speak, a recurrent experience of them. 4 In such cases a lit e r a r y product i s seen to resemble a museum through which the researcher has merely to wander, noting such things as methods of transportation and housing, styles of furniture and clothing and the state of laws, social structure and institutions. Among the reference works consulted for this study, there are many examples of scholars who approach literature i n this manner. Eric Hobsbawm, for example, i n his book Bandits states that he fre-quently relies on lit e r a r y material as a source of information on the 5 r e a l i t i e s of social banditry. His discussion of haiduk bandits, for instance, i s based on "songs and ballads, which are one of the chief -5-sources for our knowledge of this type of banditry." w From these sources Hobsbawm discovers, among other things, that "the motive to become a haiduk 7' was s t r i c t l y economic" and that runaway g i r l s often joined haiduk bands. In this same chapter Hobsbawm refers to the medieval Chinese novel Water Margin as a source of information on haiduk banditry in. China. Sa Meng-wu, in his study Shui-hu-chuan yu. Chung-kuo she-hui also uses this novel as a documentary source i n his discussion of traditional Chinese society. As an example of usury i n this period Sa Meng-wu cites an episode from the third chapter of Water Margin i n which a wealthy neigh-borhood bully forces an impoverished singing g i r l to hand over daily the larger half of her earnings i n repayment of a supposed debt owed to him. Two other examples of scholars who employ literature as a documentary source are Jaroslav Prusek and H. F. Schurmann. Prusek i n his article "Les  contes chinois du Moyen-age comme source de l'histoire economique et  sociale sous les dynasties des Sung et des Yuan", culls from the San Yen collection of short stories, evidence on such things as the legal status of women, the price of concubines and trading patterns between north and south China. Schurmann in , "On Social Themes i n Sung Tales", also uncovers information on the status of women as well as on social mobility and marital relations. ^ Scholars such as these who turn to literature for documentary i l l u s t r a -tion or' an elegant allusion, tend to regard the f i c t i o n a l characters as "li v i n g beings responsible for their actions" ^ and as representative or typical of their supposed counterparts i n the nonfictional world. In order to insure the typicality of this documentary evidence the investigator must rely on a belief that an author "has served, to a greater -6-or lesser degree, as a witness, gathering'together i n a l i t e r a r y form the fruits of a largely disinterested exploration of his or her society. 12 Therefore, according to Lucien Goldmann, scholars would prefer to rely on writers who have given proof of less creative imagination by employing images and experiences for the purpose of simple i l l u s t r a t i o n rather than as symbolic expressions of transcendent truths. However, Louis Chevalier i n his book Laboring Classes and Dangerous Classes, contends that even i n the works of such imaginative writers as Balzac there i s a passive or lower level which merely records "facts, persons and places, undistorted by the interposition of any subjective 13 viewpoint." Chevalier compares these passages to " f i l e s of archival material" and he uses them as such i n his work claiming that analysed carefully this literature provides "a mass of facts previously uncompiled." The problems with this approach to the evidence of literature are manifold but here I .will outline just a few. To begin, i t must be recognized that even the most mediocre or unimaginative work i s the. product of some process of selective observation and reconstruction. This process ms governed, i n part, by the following: First, the conventions of a particular art form. As Joan Rockwell notes: When we consider how not just some people, but a l l people, spend their time between getting up i n the morning and going to--bed at fright, i t becomes evident that the novel i s remarkably selective for emotional rather than emotionally neutral events. 15 In this context i t i s interesting to note that Chevalier, with the aid of considerable nonliterary material, was able to ascertain that many of Balzac's descriptions of crime were heavily influenced by earlier genres -7-of picaresque literature. Thus they were not a reflection of the social situation i n the writer's own time and would have been very misleading had they been approached as such. Secondly, the selection process i s governed by the degree to which an author has been socialized by a particular group or community and thus i s able to record only what she or he has been taught to see and i n the manner in which they have been taught to see i t . Thus, for example, the personalities and experiences of women are often not 'reflected' i n literature so much as they are frefracted' through received patriarchal notions of female character and place. This might seriously affect some of the social facts concerning women i n traditional Chinese society which such scholars as Schurmann and Sa Meng-wu claim to have discovered i n Chinese literature. Finally, the process i s governed by the extent and effectiveness of overt social pressure exercised by means of o f f i c i a l censorship and/or public approval i n the form of financial support or honorary awards. • The above factors tend to encourage a writer not to produce photographic images but to record the biases which result from a particular group's meditation upon i t s e l f and society i n general. The author's depiction of society and the researcher's interpretation of that depiction are further governed by the complex problem of realism i n art. In the preface to Les Paysans, Balzac noted that the novelist (or historian of manners): ...obeys harsher laws than those that bind the historian of facts. He must make everything seem plausible, even the truth, whereas in the domain of history properly so-called, the impossible i s justi f i e d by the fact that i t occurred. 16 The extent to which an author must make a story 'seem plausible' and -8-the methods employed in so.doing are governed in the f i r s t instance by the agreed upon biases which were, discussed above. They are further governed by the conventions of realism which are attached to certain art forms at various times. As Northrope Frye notes, "when the public demands likeness to an object, i t generally wants the exact opposite, likeness to the p i c t o r i a l 17 conventions i t i s familiar with." Lastly, realism i s governed by the ex-pertise of both the author and public i n regard to the aspects of society being portrayed and the accepted myths which accumulate around unfamiliar features. The researcher's approach to literature which seems plausible often reveals more of the character of the investigator's mental framework than of the l i t e r a r y product i t s e l f . Thus speaking of the Tale of Genji, Diana Spearman writes that: . . . i t i s sufficient to say that there i s nothing i n i t that could not have happened,,although the incidents are sometimes explained i n terms that we should not now accept, the idea for example, that il l n e s s i s caused through possession by some ev i l s p i r i t . 18 For Spearman then, the material world of the Tale of Genji and those experiences therein which are recognizable i n the sense that they f i t within some vague definition of reality, can b<e referred to as somehow comparable to social fact while ghosts and e v i l s p i r i t s must be placed under the rubric of superstition. It i s sufficient to say that the definition of re a l i t y i s i n great 19 part culturally defined and that i f literature i s to, be used as a document then an unconcious application of the researcher's definition of reality to historical literature would tend to result i n the reconstruction of a society not sufficiently remote from the student's own. -9-This i s a special problem for the Western scholar who i s investigating the yu-hsia tradition. Unfamiliar with elements of the martial arts, the student may label as magic or fantasy what i s i n fact a depiction of consummate s k i l l . Recognition of the above problems suggests that a more f r u i t f u l approach to the evidence of literature would be a study of the values and attitudes which i t expresses. As Maurice Keen remarks in reference to the outlaw legends of medieval England, "they are useful to the historian primarily because they can t e l l him what' his records so often conceal, what 20 i t was men really believed i n and what they really desired." Consequently, in this paper yu-hsia literature w i l l not be approached as documentary sources for the study of material aspects of traditional Chinese society. Instead, representative works from this tradition w i l l be examined as expressions of certain values and attitudes. The problem remains however, to outline a method for the identification and analysis of these sentiments. John Goodlad i n his book A Sociology of Popular Drama, suggests that culture should be considered as consisting of two elements: ...an expressive element concerned with the way people reveal • their understanding of their environment, their beliefs about i t and their effective reaction to i t , and an instrumental element through which people seek to exercise control over their environment. 21 22 As Goodlad and other sociologists recognize, individual cultural products contain these two elements and i t would seem that the social historian would profit from the a b i l i t y to identify and explain these two elements i n historical literature. In his study of ludruk drama, James Peacock discovered that even when direct observation i s possible, cultural products provide a unique and superior form of information about some aspects of society. Peacock writes, that: Because daily actions must take place under conditions not to t a l l y of the actors' choosing, the actors cannot t o t a l l y express their ideals through their daily actions...But on the ludruk stage, they can construct i n fantasy... conditions which allow them to express their ideals i n pure form. ... fLudruk] lays bare aspects,of Javanese existence'that cannot , be seen with the naked eye. It leads to a more acute diagnosis of daily Javanese l i f e . 23 With this i n mind, i t i s possible to go beyond: Robert Ruhlmann's statement that Chinese f i c t i o n " may well be the only available source for 2ZL the study of certain values and attitudes..." and say that narrative fi c t i o n , including drama, may well be the best possible source for the study of such attitudes and thus an excellent tool for the study of social history. Even more than simple expressions of social values and norms, cultural products seem to indicate areas of stress i n a particular society, or as Goodlad would say, the 'effective reactions' to the environment. Popular culture often deals with and expresses emotions at areas of social l i f e i n which tensions are regularly f e l t . Tensions may be seen to result, for example, from the disparity, observed or imagined, between an ideal system of justice and the inequities which abound i n daily l i f e . Or they may be seen to result from the attempts to reinforce the a r t i f i c i a l polarization of various groups, such as men.and women, within the society. The way i n which literature and drama deal with these tensions i s a component of the instrumental element of culture as defined by Goodlad. A cultural product i s instrumental in that i t i s either functional or dys-functional. I f i t i s functional i t serves i n various ways to maintain and stabilize the social order and to justify and sanctify i t s existence. I f . i t i s dysfunctional the effect i s the reverse-.Goodlad maintains, that popular culture i s almost always;functional. This thesis i s of interest to the student of the yu-hsia tradition for i t has often been described 25 as a literature of popular protest and as being potentially subversive. Popular culture can be functional by a) providing some form of release for the tensions which were mentioned above and/or b) by instructing members of the community about the social structure and about acceptable behavior within that structure. One method of providing release i s i n the portrayal of a social situation, which w i l l be a disguised or exaggerated expression of a situation with which the audience, i s .familiar. The audience w i l l be encouraged to • relive or re-experience the tension of the incident, tension which w i l l subsequently be released as they also experience the resolution of the conflict. As Peacock notes: Ludruk portrays these people's daily conflicts i n ,such a way that i t 'cures' or relieves tensions which they develop as a result of suoififsucMoonflicts.. Having been cured, they can return to their daily chores with renewed s p i r i t , or decreased anxiety and resentment. They also may be less l i k e l y to quit their chores, which i s another way of saying that they may be less l i k e l y to' rebel against the increasingly modernized daily patterns i n which they are involved. 27 In a similar way anti-social impulses are controlled by allowing the listener to experience the feeling of being a wrongdoer:-.but also of 28 suffering the punishment for such deeds. Comedy i s also a form of release, not only because laughter i s therapeutic i n i t s e l f but also because, as Goodlad states, "in the permissive atmosphere of comedy i t i s possible to discuss openly what 29 cannot be mentioned in normal social intercourse." -12-One of the many subjects which i t i s d i f f i c u l t to discuss overtly on a public level i s the doubt that society functions and i s structured i n the best or only possible way. This doubt i s , I believe, expressed i n comedy and drama through incidents of mistaken identity where i t i s momentarily possible to mistake a woman for a man or an upperclass person for a commoner. Mistaken identity i s a fundamental characteristic of the outlaw legends which w i l l be reviewed i n chapter three of this study. In these tales, the outlaws are constantly mistaken not only for law abiding citizens but for agents of the law i t s e l f . In order to remain functional however, such drama must resolve the confusion i n the end by clearly redefining characters and putting them back i n their proper places. The formula of mistaken identity i s closely related to, and often overlaps, the practice i n fi c t i o n and drama of role reversal or symbolic inversion. As mentioned previously, tension may develop because of dissatisfaction with the a r t i f i c i a l polarization of various groups within the community. One way of dealing with this tension i s to allow people to temporarily change places i n f i c t i o n or in festivals. One of the more common types of role reversal i s that involving the sexes where both men and women temporarily adopt the clothing, characteristics and status normally assargnecl to the opposite sex. In European tradition the masculinized woman i s most often represented i n cultural products by a variation of the amazon type, such as Tasso's Clorinda and Spenser's Britomart. In the f i n a l chapter of this thesis, the nu-hsia or female social bandit, w i l l be discussed as a possible parallel to the amazon i n European tradition. In the third chapter, the possibility of labelling -13-the outlaw, legends as somewhat different forms of symbolic inversion w i l l also be investigated. Symbolic inversion allows people to express doubts about the way society i s structured but controls the doubt by putting people back i n their proper clothes at the story's or the festival's end. Symbolic inversion also emphasizes the distinctness of roles and defines the 'normal' by contrasting i t with the abnormal. This i s then, also an example of how a cultural product can be functional through instruction. In order for a social system to survive i t i s necessary that a l l members be cognizant of the rules which maintain the structure and of the expected behavior which corresponds to certain acceptable roles. It i s also necessary for the community to be assured that although the system' may have i t s shortcomings, ultimately i t i s just. • To acquire a thorough understanding of the rules of society i t i s 30 beneficial to see 'an i n t e l l i g i b l e arrangement of social phenomena" which appear i n daily l i f e to be haphazard. Literature and drama provide this pattern of phenomena by spotlighting a limited number of situations and responses to those situations embodied in accepted role models. 31 In his article "Values, Roles and Personalities" , Arthur Wright notes that i n China, where the didactic purpose of culture was particularly stressed, exemplary figures and their situations became especially symbolic and i l l u s t r a t i v e of social values and- norms. For this reason, Wright and his colleagues contend that the study of the lieh-chuan or collected traditions, (of which the yu-hsia lieh-chuan of Ssu-ma Ch'ien are an example), provides an unparalleled opportunity for the study of these sentiments. -14-In order to remain functional, the minatory characters of f i c t i o n must be punished i n this world or the next, just as the virtuous must be rewarded. While the punishment of the unjust or e v i l may be seen simply as exemplary retribution for the purpose of assuring the community that ( somewhere) justice prevails, i t may at times serve the same function as a r i t u a l exorcism which seeks to restore the balance of things. I would suggest that the r i t u a l i s t i c murders of the adultress P'an Chin-lien and of P'an Ch'ia-yun the informer wife of Lu Chun-i, i n the novel Water Margin, are examples of the exorcism of what were f e l t to be pre-eminent incarnations of female e v i l . While Goodlad may claim that popular culture i s functional, censors fear and revolutionaries hope that cultural products have the power to be dysfunctional. Thus when asked how China could be saved, a young Mao Tse-tung 32 i s reported to have said "Imitate the heroes of Liang Shan P"'o." As Joan Rockwell notes: The assumption here i s that the fate of imaginary people... w i l l have the power to mobilize public opinion, change the' accepted values and norms and force a change in social relations themselves. 33 In an article entitled "The Chinese Novel as a Subversive Force" , CP. Fitzgerald seems to concur with the early opinion of Chairman Mao as to the incendiary potential of the novel Water Margin. Written i n 1951» Fitzgerald's .article was heavily influenced by contemporary criticism of this novel i n mainland China. During the 1950s i n articles such as 35 L i Hsi-fan's "A Great Novel of Peasant Revolt" , Water Margin was hailed as a r e a l i s t i c novel which truthfully reflected the social structure of the Sung dynasty. More importantly, i t was seen as a work of art which -15-had served as a textbook for peasant revolutionaries. This was not the f i r s t time that revolutionary potential, had been ascribed to the yu-hsia tradition. In the early twentieth century the revolutionary martyr Ch'iu Chin (1879-1907) took to wearing a short sword and styled herself Chien Hu Nu-hsia or the female hsia from Shao-hsing. In her poetry she equated her actions and her cause with those of both the male and female hsia of romantic literature. ^ In light of this, w i l l a study of representative works of the yu-hsia tradition reveal that i t i s in fact an anomaly i n the thesis that popular culture i s functional? On the strength of internal evidence can yu-hsia literature be seen to express, unlikej ludruk for example, unacceptable norms and values which are potentially dysfunctional? Before these questions can be studied i t d i s necessary to review the available secondary literature on the yu-hsia and to comment i n particular on the problems encountered i n the attempts to define the fundamental characteristics of the yu-hsia. -16-NOTES TO CHAPTER I 1" 1 • Translated from Pan Ku, Han Shu ( Peking: Chung-hua shu-chu, 1962)f vol. 3, p.1123 2 -A.Lehman, 11 The Writer as Canary," Journal of Contemporary History vol. 2 no. 2 (1967), p. 15 3 M.C. Albrecht, " The Relationship of Literature and Society," American Journal of Sociology vol. 59 no.5 (March 1954)» P- 425 •E.K. Bramstedt, Aristocracy and the Middle Class i n Germany (Chicago:1 University of Chicago Press, 1964), pp..1-6 D. Laurenson, The Sociology of Literature ( London: MacGibbon and Kee, 1972) , p. 13 A. Lehman, " The Writer as Canary ", p. 15 J. Rockwell, Fact i n Fiction (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1974), P« h ^L. Chevalier, Laboring Classes and Dangerous Classes ( New York: H. Fertig, 1973) , P. 29 ^"E. Hobsbawn, Bandits (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1969), P'« 109 ^Ibid.,p. 62 Jean Chesneaux's studies of secrect societies, which Hobsbawm refers to i n his general bibliography, actually provide closer models of what he defines as haiduk banditry. However, he does not refer to these works in the haiduk chapter. 8 Sa Meng-wu, Shui-hu-chuan yu Chung-kuo 'she-hui ( Nanking: Cheng-chung shu-chu, 1946), p. 32 ^ J . Prusek, Chinese History and Literature ( Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1970): 467-494 H.F. Schurmann, "On Social Themes i n Sung Tales1,'" Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, vol. 20 (1957): 239-261 -17-NOTES TO CHAPTER I (Con't) 11 G.N. Pospelov, "Literature and Sociology," International Social Science  Journal vol. 19 no. 4 (1967), p. 542 12 L. Goldmann, "The Sociology of Literature," International Social  Sciences Journal vol. 19 no. 4 (1967), p. 494 For further discussion of Goldmann's views see. D. Laurenson, The Sociology of Literature, p. 20 13 L. Chevalier, Laboring Classes and Dangerous Classes, pp. 31 and 59 1 Z tIbid. , p. 40 15 J. Rockwell, Fact i n Fiction, p. 86 l6 Balzac quoted i n G. Watson, The Study of Literature (London: Allen Lane the Penguin Press, 1969), p. 180. This sentiment i s shared by Northrope Frye who writes that J! We note i n passing that imitation of nature i n f i c t i o n produces, not truth or reality, but p l a u s i b i l i t y , and p l a u s i b i l i t y varies i n weight from a mere perfunctory concession i n a myth or folktale to a kind of censor principle i n a naturalistic novel."'Anatomy of C r i t - icism (New Jersy: Princeton University Press, 1957), p. 51 17 Ibid., p. 132. For discussions of this topic see also E. Auerbach, Mimesis:The Representation of Reality i n Western Literature (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1953) and J. Prusek, "Realistic and Lyric Elements i n the Chinese Medieval Story," Chinese History and Literature 385-395 18 D. Spearman, The Novel and Society (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1966), p. 123 19 discussed i n P. Berger and T. Luckmann, The Social Construction .of  Reality ( New York: Anchor Books, 1967) 20 M. Keen, The-Outlaws of Medieval Legend ( Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1961), p. 7-J. Goodlad, A Sociology of Popular Drama (London: Heinemann, 1971), P-3 NOTES TO CHAPTER I (Con't) ^See for example the discussion in M.C. Albrecht, "The Relationship of Literature and Society." 23 J. Peacock, Rites of Modernization; Symbolic and Social Aspects of  Indonesian Proletarian Drama. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968), pp. 236-237 *^R. Ruhlmann, " Traditional Heroes in Chinese Popular Fiction," The  Confucian Persuasion, ed. A. Wright (Stanford: Stanford University Press, I960), p. 142 ^see for example, J.J.Y. Liu, The Chinese Knight-errant (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul,>1967), p/ xi 26 An analysis of collections of French folktales and a study of Wolfram Eberhard's work in Taiwan (Studies in Taiwanese Folktales, (Taipei, 1971) led me to conclude that many folktales dealing with kings, queens, princes etci are disguised expressions of tensions within the family and that folktales told by nonprofessional story tellers are of value for • psychological rather than sociological insights. 27 J. Peacock, Rites of Modernization, p. 238 28 The peculiar qualities of oral culture (of which traditional Chinese popular culture is an example) enhance the release and instructional funci tions. Feng Meng-lung, in the preface to Ku-chin Hsiaoeshuo, speaks of the effects of the professional storyteller: ...they will gladden you, startle you, make you weep for sorrow, make you dance and sing; some will prompt you to draw your sword; others will make you want to bow in reverence; or strangle yourself...Although a man from his childhood days intone the AnAnalects of Confuciussor the Classic of F i l i a l Piety, he will not be moved so swiftly or so profoundly as by these storytellers. (translated by Cyril Birch in Stories From a Ming Collection, p. 8) What Feng Meng-lung describes heise is, I believe, what the ancient Greeks called mimesisw/CTKs» which described the tendency of oral presentation to draw the listener into complete identification with the character being portrayed. The listener is encouraged, not only to live through the character but to take away from the performance a vivid memory of his or her actions for future reference in daily l i f e . The form of the presentation is governed by these ends. Characters are clearly defined and their -19-NOTES TO CHAPTER I (Con't) qualities exaggerated. Rhythmic speech and song, the use of percussion instruments, formulaic expression and dance not only hypnotise the audience so that they can be effectively drawn into the character and situation, but also act as mnemonic devices. Obviously the very attendance of the audience at such performances w i l l prove to be cathartic. 29 J. Goodlad, A Sociology of Popular Drama, p. 44 30 F. Fearing quoted i n Ibid., p. 4 31 A. Wright, "Values, Roles and Personalities," Confucian Personalities (Stanford: Stanford University Press,. 1962), p.3 ^^ Mao Tse-t'ung quoted in St Schram, Mao Tse-t'ung (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1972), p. 43 33 J. Rockwell, Fact i n Fiction, p. 40 C P . Fitzgerald, "The Chinese Novel as a Subversive Force," Mean.jin vol. 10 no. 3.(1951): 259-266 35 L i Hsi-fan. "A Great Novel of Peasant Revolt," Chinese Literature vol. 12 no. 12 (1959)¥62- 71 For examples of further discussions on Water Margin i n mainland China during the 1950s see Shui-hu yen-chiu lun-wen chi (Peking: Tso-chia cft'u-pan-she, 1957) The career of Ch'iu Chin i s discussed by Mary Rankin in, "The Revolutionary Movement in Chekiang: A Study i n the Tenacity of Tradition," China i n  Revolution ed. M.C. Wright (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968): 319-361 and in, "The Emergence of Women at the End of the Ch'ing: The Gase of Ch'iu Chin," Women in.Chinese Society ed. M. Wolf and R. Witke (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1974): 39-66 - 2 0 -II. A REVIEW OF THE SECONDARY LITERATURE ON THE YU-HSIA In the f i n a l chapter of his book The Chinese Knight-Errant, James Liu notes i n passing that: We have seen such a varied gallery of characters, real or ficticious, to whom the term 'knight-errant' fyu-hsialhas been applied, that the reader may question the justification of i t s use. However, on reflection he might be convinced that there are i n fact certain common denominators among those who have been graced with the appellation. 1 What are the 'common denominators' which serve to encompass such a disparate group of characters within the yu-hsia tradition? This question i s a major concern to the authors of the secondary literature on this subject. Consequently, this chapter w i l l review their attempts to isolate the fundamental characteristics which define the yu-hsia as a distinct group. The ongoing debate which centers on the correct translation of the term yu-hsia i s one indication that the problem has yet to be convincingly resolved. The source of this problem seems to reside i n the yu-hsia l i e h -chuan (Collected Traditions of the Yu-hsia) of the Shih Chi and Han Shu, the texts which serve as the core of the discussions found i n the second-ary literature. The seminal works of the yu-hsia l i t e r a r y tradition are the yu-hsia  lieh-chuan found i n the Shih Chi written by Ssu-ma Ch'ien (c. 145-86 B.C.) and i n the Han Shu written by Pan Ku (A.D. 32-92). It would seem that problems concerning the identification of the fundamental attributes of the hsia begin with the interpretation of these two works. The challenge facing the researcher who examines the yu-hsia lieh-chuan i s aptly summarized by Burton Watson who writes i n reference to Pan Ku that: -21-It i s d i f f i c u l t to determine just what i n Pan ;Ku':s eyes, qualified a man to be called a knight (hsia) or a strongman (hao), outside of a certain swagger-ing contempt for conventional morality, an elaborate concern for honour, and a fondness for the grand gesture. 3 The i n i t i a l d i f f i c u l t y arises when the lieh-chuan are approached as i f they were documentary sources of general information or insouciant records of factual material on the history of the yu-hsia. Thus, i n James Liu's study, the lieh-chuan serve as the basis for his discussion of 'The Historical Knight-errant' or the facts of the yu-hsia as opposed to the fictions of literature. However, internal evidence suggests that-'the lieh-chuan were not intended by their authors to serve as the equivalent of archival documents. In the f i r s t place, examples of hsia are scattered throughout the histories and i t i s assumed that the reader i s familiar with the general nature of hsia-type a c t i v i t i e s . Most of the authors seem to be aware of this for i n their studies they discuss such individuals as Ching K'o and Nieh Cheng who are included i n Ssu-ma Ch'ien's Collected Traditions I I c of the Assassin-Retainers , or Liu Pang founder of the Han dynasty. In spite of this, discussions i n the secondary literature invariably center on the yu-hsia lieh-chuan which are approached as primary sources of information on such social facts as hsia class origin, general activities and moral code. In addition to the forgoing, two further characteristics of the l i e h -chuan seem to have been overlooked by the researchers. The f i r s t i s that, as one historian has noted: , ...the contents of the traditions (lieh chuan) draw heavily on a body of semi-folklore and oral tradition rather than -22-upon the documentary records of the, professional annalists. • • » With regard to this semi-fictional and f o l k l o r i s t i c aspect of the lieh-chuan i t i s perhaps worth mentioning that many scholars see i n the Records of the Historian (Shi Chi) not only the beginning of the conventional form of dynastic history, but also the seeds of f i c t i o n writing. 6 For this reason alone i t would seem unsound to approach the lieh-chuan as i f they were equivalent to archival documents. However, i n addition to the above observation, one must take into account the respective historians' 7 views of the function of their work in society. As Burton Watson notes , Ssu-ma Ch'ien's opinion of the role of the historian was heavily influenced by the Kung-yang and Tso-shih commentaries on the Spring and Autumn Annals. These texts stressed the view that Confucius compiled the Annals not as a disinterested record of historical events but as a work intended to elucidate his moral principles. The same may be said of Pan Ku as w i l l be demonstrated. Therefore, the yu-hsia lieh-chuan should1be approached with the understanding that they are in great part collections of legends which have subsequently been molded to the respective moral and didactic purposes of Ssu-ma Ch'ien and Pan Ku. Statements made by these historians, particu-l a r l y i n their eloquent prefaces, must be seen as elements of this larger moral purpose and be analysed as such. Ssu-ma Ch'ien's chapter on the yu-hsia i s primarily a collection of stories about an exceptional group of commoner hsia who, i n the face of a variety of misfortunes were able to lead such exemplary lives that they l e f t their names to posterity. The moral seems to be that righteous and virtuous men, though dressed i n rags and hidden i n a sea o& commoners, w i l l be recognized and rewarded by having conferred upon them the immortality of history. -23-Poverby i s one element of their misfortune and to emphasize this Ssu-ma Ch'ien compares these hsia to Confucius' disciples Chi Tzu and Yuan Hsun who did not join fellow Confucian scholars i n finding fame and fortune through becoming prime ministers and high o f f i c i a l s . Instead they lived in obscurity, "in barren hovels with vine-woven doors; wearing rough clothes 8 and eating coarse food." Yet because of their virtue their disciples were s t i l l writing of them four-hundred years later. Ssu-ma Ch'ien goes on to mention hsia l i k e Meng-ch'ang and Chun-shen who, though worthy men, achieved famereasi.ly because of their wealth and connections with the influential people of their time. In contrast to these men he notes that: ...there were others, knights of the lanes and byways who, though they had no such advantages were so upright i n conduct and careful of their honor that their reputation was known a l l over the empire and there was no one who did not praise them as worthy men. This: i s not quite so easy to do. 9 In the most frequently quoted passage of the lieh-chuan Ssu-ma Ch'ien characterizes the conduct of these commoner hsia. He-writes that: As for the wandering knights, though their actions may not always conform to perfect righteousness, yet they are always- true to their word. What they undertake they invariably carry out. Without thinking of themselves they hasten to the side of those who are i n trouble, whether i t means survival or destruction, l i f e or death. Yet they never boast of their accomplishments but rather consider i t a disgrace to brag of what they have done for others. 10 According to the author, the immense power wielded by these men was the direct result of their righteous reputations, i n contrast to the corrupt 11 hao-tsu or powerful families who abused their power "making the poor 12 serve them, arrogantly and cruelly oppressing the weak and helpless." Another element of the misfortune with which these hsia had to contend was the chaotic times which were apparently responsible for the fact that -24-they "sometimes ran afoul of the law i n their day." In the hsia legends which the historian adopted, i t i s l i k e l y that the "extra-legal activities of these individuals were already portrayed as being somehow different from ordinary crime. However, i t seems that under the brush of Ssu-ma Ch'ien the biographies were further subjected to the principle of h u i j ^ , or 13 avoidance, another legacy of the Spring and Autumn Annals. Hui i n the Shih Chi may simply involve the scattering of elements of a person's l i f e over various chapters of the history i n order to achieve the desired image for each section. Thus in the yu-hsia lieh-chuan, the poverty of Chu Chia i s stressed, while i n another section we.- are told that - I I he was a land owner who had easy access to prontinenbtofficials. In another instance of hui, Ssu-ma Ch'ien seems to neglect to relate the extra-legal activities of many of the hsia or atleast to mitigate or justify them. It has been said of Ssu-ma Ch'ien that i f a person' had ten faults 15 and one merit he would take special care to record the one merit. The merit 1in the case of the hsia was a reputation for righteousness, the faults were their criminal activities, which the author attempted to avoid. Pan Ku c r i t i c i z e d Ssu-ma Ch'ien's attempt to portray the hsia's criminal activities as misfortunes when he wrote in the preface to his yu-hsia lieh-chuan that: ...they [the hsia ] allowed themselves to d r i f t into a shabby and'inferior way of l i f e . That they brought death to themselves and destruction to their families was no mere stroke of i l l fortune. 16 Pan Ku's didactic purpose i s to i l l u s t r a t e the results of a failure to abide by a s t r i c t rule of law and order. According to his preface i t seems that he too w i l l focus on commoner hsia, but for the purpose of intensifying, for his readers, the ominous results of this neglect of the -25-i law. Thus he mentions that i t was bad enough that young nobles engaged i n hsia activities, but:-How much more, then, have those lik e Kuo Hsieh offended iwho, though mere commoners i n rank, arrogate to themselves the authority to take human l i f e ! The guilt that they incur by so doing i s too great to be excused from punishment. 17 One would suppose that Pan Ku, intent upon this message of maintaining the status quo, would proceed to portray the hsia i n such a way that their crimes would indeed not appear to be the result of misfortunes,,but,a fundamental aspect of their a c t i v i t i e s . Yet he seems to have been infected by the romance which surrounds these individuals for even i n his 'fire and brimstone' preface, he writes that: When we observe their kindness and universal lovingness, when we see them aiding the distressed, helping those i n trouble, behaving i n a modest and retiring fashion and not boasting of,their deeds, then, to be sure we recognize i n them qualities that are'far removed from the ordinary. But what a pity they could not' have proceeded i n accordance with the Way and virtue1 18 . . The ambiguous portrayal of the yu-hsia begins i n his preface, but the confusion i s compounded when Pan Ku proceeds to adopt verbatim, three stories . from Ssu-ma Ch'ien which, as has been suggested, were constructed i n order to convey the 'one merit'. Furbftermore, Pan Ku structures his new hsia stories i n exactly the same manner. Therefore, to reiterate the points of this brief review, the yu-hsia  lieh-chuan seem to be collections of legendary material which have been structured, unsuccessfully i n the Han Shu, to i l l u s t r a t e moral lessons. To approach them as archival documents and to take their statements at face value w i l l clearly lead to unwarranted conclusions and understandable confusion on the part of researchers when they attempt to characterize the yu-hsia. i -26-The secondary literature, as previously mentioned, approaches the yu-hsia lieh-chuan as primary documents and the authors accept at face value statements made by the respective historians. Adopting the structure of the lieh-chuan they attempt to define the hsia mainly i n terms of their common class origins and their exemplary moral conduct. The majority of the writers state that the hsia were a social group 19 of commoners by birth or circumstance. They are content, l i k e Ho Ping-t i , that Ssu-ma Ch'ien " i s as specific as a modern student can expect about 20 the social origin of the prominent hsia of Han fimes." They a l l draw attention to the phrases lu-hsiang chih hsia, hsia of the lanes and byways, and p'i-fu chih hsia, hsia of the commoners, and seem to agree that: ...the social origin of the hsia leaders of early Han times was as a rule so humble, obscure and.unmistakably plebian that Ssu-ma Ch'ien deeply regrets the almost complete absence of records of their conduct and deeds in the works of the,Confucian and Moist schools. But whenever their family background i s given, i t i s invariably humble and poor. For example, iChu Chia never had any money i n his house....21 On the basis of this information the writers advance various theories on the hsia . Lao Kan suggests that the yu-hsia were originally unemployed or displaced artisans and peasants who turned to hsia activities as a pro-22 fession. In his book Pien-shih yii Yu-hsia, T'ao Hsi-sheng speculates that the hsia were not a l l commoners by birth but included i n their ranks members of the warrior class who had fallen on hard times. These men l i k e l y became the leaders of hsia groups because of ; their military 23 and organizational s k i l l s . In the above studies commoner status i s posited as one of the fundamental characteristics which defined the hsia as a separate group. However, as previously mentioned, the histories do not state that even the majority of the hsia were commoners but dwell on their supposed i poverty for a didactic purpose. Continuing the effort to define the yu-hsia, Tatsuo Masubuchi and James Liu contend that, i n Liu's words, "being a knight-errant was more a matter of temperament than of social origin.,and that knight-errantry was a way of behavior? rather than a profession." There i s l i t t l e disagreement among a l l of the writers as to how to characterize this way of behavior? They simply refer to Ssu-ma Ch'ien's statement quoted above on page 23, a passage which Ch'u T'ung-tsu describes as "this authori-tative statement [which] gives a viv i d description of the activities of 25 the yu-hsia." As the hsia, i n spite of these honorable activities, were ignored by the Confucians and the Moists, i t i s understandable that the researchers attempt to compare and contrast this hsia 'ideology' with the various major schools of philosophy. Lao Kan inspired perhaps by popular notions of Ssu-ma Ch'ien's Taoist sympathies, attempts to compare the yu-hsia and Taoist philosophies. The connection arose, he believes, primarily because both groups shared commoner origins. In his essays on the origin of the 26 • • ' Moist philosophy , Feng Yu-lan discusses the similarities and contrasts between the Moists and the hsia. James Liu reviews aspects of the Legalist and Confucian philosophies i n relation to the h'sia. It i s particularly important.for the purpose of Liu's study to i l l u s t r a t e a conflict between the Confucians and the hsia for, as he states i n the preface to his work: Recently, scholars in the West have come to realize the i n -adequacy of the popular image of traditional Chinese society -28-as a monolithic one i n which everyone conformed to a r i g i d Confucian code of behavior...[An] important i l l u s t r a t i o n of the s p i r i t of protest and nonconformity i n China i s knight-errantry. 27 As Liu notes, the attempts by Lao Kan and Feng Yu-lan-to define the 2 yu-hsia through comparative studies of their philosophy are unsuccessful. Liu's own attempt to set the hsia against Confucianism and traditional social norms in general i s rather forced. A l l of these discussions are however, highly speculative and based on the flimsiest of evidence. In the end, this approach f a i l s to resolve convincingly the problem of yu-hsia identity. In spite of Ssu-ma Ch'ien's efforts to bypass the subject of criminality, three historians have suggested that extra-legal activities are a third fundamental element of the yu-hsia way of behavior. Ho Ping-ti writes that: From the standpoint of social history, i t may be said that the most fundamental characteristic of the hsia as a social group was i t s reliance on i l l e g a l and violent means to establish and maintain i t s power. 29 For Ho Ping-ti,TatsuooMasubuchi and Ch'u T'ung-tsu, the yu-hsia  lieh-chuan can also be used as documents for the study of underworld activities i n the Han dynasty. Ch'u contends that on the basis of the his-tories, the yu-hsia appear to have been one of the powerful families of . hao-tsu , of their time, along with groups such as imperial relatives, consort families and o f f i c i a l s . He further suggests that their power was based primarily on physical force rather than on wealth or p o l i t i c a l 30 power. The other two authors however, accept Ssu-ma Ch'ien's inference that the influence of the hsia was based on their reputations for ex-31 emplary conduct. - 2 9 -A l l three authors emphasize that the extra-legal activities of the hsia seem to have been justified and separated from common criminality because, as one writes, "there were kinds of social grievances and i n -justice which only the hsia could redress through extra-legal means and on channels." Ch'u adds that the injustice was often committed by o f f i c i a l s who thus " became the target of the redressing [of wrongs] and many o f f i c i a l s 33 were murdered by the yu-hsia." This criminality i s further tempered, according to these scholars, by the moral code which i s outlined i n Ssu-ma Ch'ien's preface. However, in attempting to appear more objective,' they are careful to point out that Ssu-ma Ch'ien and Pan Ku were discussing a few extraordinary hsia who managed to l i v e up to this code while the majority most l i k e l y f e l l far short of this ideal. These scholars are to be commended for their observation that no matter how exemplary Ssu-ma Ch'ien attempted to portray the hsia, he could not separate them from criminal ac t i v i t i e s and remain credible. It would seem that they are jus t i f i e d i n pointing to this aspect of the hsia legends as a fundamental quality of their identity. However, they persist i n the practice of approaching the lieh-chuan as archival material, —~—— —-— — i and they are rather arbitrary i n their choice of elements which 'seem plausiblel'to them as historians and the dismissal or explanation of other elements which seem to them to be/ exaggerated. While these scholars come closest to a working definition of the yu-hsia, I would suggest that i n their discussions they have- confused three separate topics of study: illegitimate or extra-legal power groups and activities; the yu-hsia legends which are the romanticization - 3 0 -of the individuals involved i n these extra-legal activities, legends which are used to a moral end by the historians; and f i n a l l y the study of criminals who seek to identify their activities with this romantic trad-i t i o n . As w i l l be shown i n the next chapter, this confusion i s common to the study of outlawry. In light of the forgoing discussion, i t i s interesting to note the 35 various translations which have been proffered for the term yu-hsia. i As Ho Ping-ti notes, the most common translations are 'knight-errant' or 'wandering knight' terms which are used, for example, by James Liu and Burton Watson. The major d i f f i c u l t y with these translations i s of course their association with a particular class and a code of chivalry during the European medieval period and the tendency of both reader and re-searcher to attempt to mold the hsia into Chinese Lancelots. The power of suggestion i s evidenced i n the work of James Liu who, though admitting that the yu-hsia are closest i n s p i r i t to the Robin Hood ballads, proceeds to devote the bulk of his discussion to a comparative study with the European knights...However, i n recognition of the importance of extra-legal activities i n the' definition of the hsia, knight-errant i s particularly inappropriate. Ho Ping-ti suggests the terms 'underworld leaders' or'underworld i stalwarts' as translations which emphasize the criminal element. They do not, however, express the separation of the hsia extra-legal activities from common criminality. In an attempt to rectify this, Ch'u. T'ung-tsu suggests the cumbersome translation 'redresser-of-wrongs'. While the term yu-hsia may be beyond a perfect translation, I would suggest that 'social bandit' or 'social outlaw' are the most representative terms. In proffering these translations, I am suggesting that the yu-hsia are part of the tradition which includes Robin Hood and certain American outlaws. In the following chapter, the fundamental characteristics of the social outlaw w i l l be reviewed and an attempt w i l l be made to indicate the similarities which exist between the yu-hsia and these legendary heroes. NOTES TO CHAPTER I J.J.Y. Liu, The Chinese Knight-Errant (London^ Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1967), p. 193 ^Quotations i n this chapter from the Shih Chi and Han Shu are taken from: Ssu-ma Ch'ien, Shih Chi (Peking: Chung-hua shu-chii, 1962) vol. 10 translation. Burton Watson, Records of the Grand Historian of China (NewyYork: Columbia University Press,195&) vol. 2 Pan Ku, Han Shu (Peking: Chung-hua shu-chii, 1962) vol. 8 translation. B. Watson, Courtier and Commoner in Ancient China ( New York: Columbia University Press, 1 9 7 4 ) ' B. Watson, Courtier and Commoner, p. 222 ^Translated i n B.Watson, Records of the Historian: Chapters from the  Shih Chi (New York: Columbia University Press, 1969) For discussion of these individuals as yu-hsia see for example, J.J.Y. Liu, The Chinese Knight-Errant, p. 25 and T'ao Hsi-sheng, Pien-shih  yu Yu-hsia (Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1933)» P» 75 ^Liu Pang i s discussed by Tat'suo Masubuchi, "The Yu-hsia and the Social Order i n the Han Period,". Annals of the Hitotsubuchi Academy vol. 3 no. 1 (19521), p. 90 °D.C. Twitchett, "Chinese Biographical Writings," Historians of China  and Japan ed. W. C. Beasley and E.G. Pulleyblank. (London: Oxford Un-iversity Press, 196l) , p. 96 A similar observation i s made by. Watson:" It i s clear from his use of the word chuan here that Ch'ien had i n mind the tales or legends told about men of ancient times, and i n addition that he was well aware that these old tales were sometimes of questionable authority." Ssu-ma Ch'ien  Grand Historian of China ( New York: Columbia University Press, 1958)»P- 96 B. Watson, Ibid., p. 85 Ssu-ma Ch'ien, Shih Chi"vol.10 p. 3181 • B. Watson, Records of the Grand Historian of China vol. 2 p. 453 Shih Chi vol. 10 p. 3183 Records of the Grand Historian ... vol. 2 p. 455 NOTES TO CHAPTER I (Con't) 10 Shih Chi vol 10 p. 3181 Records of the Grand Historian vol 2 p. 453 11 For a discussion of the hao-tsu see Ch'u T'ung-tsu, Han Social  Structure ( Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1972), p. 160 1 2Shih Chi vol 10 p. 3183 Records of the Grand Historian vol 2 p. 455 13 For a discussion of hui see B. Watson, Ssu-ma Ch'ien: Grand Historian  of China pp. 81-83 ^B. Watson, Records of the Grand Historian of China vol. 1 p. 301 and vol. 2 p. 455 1 ^ B. Watson, Ssu-ma Ch'ien: Grand Historian of China p. 96 1A Pan Ku, Han Shu vol. 8 p. 3699 B. Watson, Courtier and Commoner, p. 222,. ^Pan Ku, Han Shu vol. 8 p. 3699 B. Watson, Courtier and Commoner p. 224 1 ft Han Shu vol 8 p. 3699 Courtier and.Commoner p. 224 "^See for example, Lao Kan, "Lun Han-tai t i Yu-hsia," T'ai-ta Wen-shih-che Hsueh-pao no. 1 (1950), p. 238 Ho Ping-ti, "Records of the Grand Historian: Some Problems of Translation," Pacific Affairs vol. 36 no. 2 (1963), p. 177 T'ao Hsi-sheng, Pien-shih yu. Yu-hsia, p. 73 ' Ch'u T'ung-tsu, Han Social- Structure, p. 189 Of) Ho Ping-ti," Records of the Grand Historian..," p. 177 2 1 I b i d . , p. 177 NOTES TO CHAPTER I (Con'.t) Xao Kan, "Lun Han'tai t i Yu-hsia," p. 239 2^T'ao Hsi-sheng, Pien-shih yii Yu-hsia, pp. 73-74 2 /\j.J.Y. Liu, The Chinese Knight-Errant, p. 3 Tatsuo MaSubuchi, "The Yu-hsia and the Social Order i n the Han Period, p. 85 25 Ch'u T'ung-tsu, Han Social Structure, p.186 2 6Feng YuJrlan.Chung-kuo Che-hsueh Shih-Pu (Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1936), pp. 1-49 and 49-60 2^J.J.Y. Liu, The Chinese Knight-Errant p. x i 2 8 I b i d . , pp. 11-12 2^Ho Ping-ti, "Records of the Grand Historian..," p. 179 3°Ch'u T'ung-tsu, Han Social Structure, p. l60 -^ Ho Ping-ti, "Records of the Grand Historian..," p.177 Tatsuo Masubuchi, "The Yu-hsia and the Social Order i n the Han Period," p. 85 ^2Ho Ping-ti, "Records of the Grand Historian..," p. 177 ^Ch'u T'ung-tsu, Han Social Structure, p. 179 -^ "Ho Ping-ti, Records of the Grand Historian..," p. 179 -^Discussions 0 f the translation of yu-hsia are to be found i n : Ch'u T'ung-tsu, Han Social Structure, p. 186 Ho Ping-ti, "Records of the Grand Historian..," p. 176 J.J.Y. Liu, The Chinese Knight-Errant, p. 209 Tatsuo Masubuchi, "The.-,Yu-hsia and the Social Order i n the Han Period p. "'87 ' B.Watson, Courtier and Commoner, p. 222 III. A DISCUSSION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOCIAL BANDIT Social banditry i s a form of outlawry defined by Eric Hobsbawm and discussed most extensively i n his book Bandits. In this book, Hobsbawm attempts to outline the fundamental characteristics of both the myth and the rea l i t y of social banditry, which he describes as "one of the most 1 universal phenomena known to history and one of the most amazingly uniform." Social bandits, according to the author, are distinguished from common criminals by popular opinion, for while the state regards them as outlaws they remain within the moral order of the community. They are "considered by the people as heroes, as champions, avengers, fighters for "justice, per-haps even leaders of liberation, and i n any case as men to be admired, helped 2 and supported." Two shortcomings of Hobsbawm's analysis of social banditry are of special importance for this study. The f i r s t i s that the author f a i l s to distinguish adequately between the social bandits of myth and legend and the bandits of the nonfictional world. This may be the result of Hobsbawm's i excessive reliance on novels, ballads, songs and folktales as sources of documentary information. The second shortcoming i s that Hobsbawm's analysis f a i l s to penetrate these li t e r a r y materials in any depth. In the f i n a l chapter of Bandits Hobsbawm writes that: We have so far looked at the reality of social banditry and at their legend or myth chiefly as a source of information about that reality, or about the social roles bandits are supposed to play ( and therefore often do ) the values they are supposed;to represent, their ideal-and therefore often also their r e a l - relationship with the people. 3 Despite these claims, the author has d i f f i c u l t y producing convincing -36-evidence,of bandits who measure up to Robin Hood, a figure characterized by Hobsbawm as "the international paradigm of social banditry." ^ When he does attempt to produce historical Robin Hoods, they are invariably introduced with such qualifying statements as, "Just so i n real l i f e ('or was i t cont-emporary legend?'), Zelim Khan the Robin Hood of early twentieth century 5 i Daghestan...", or, "the Catalan brigands of the sixteenth century, atleast i n the ballads, must k i l l only i n defence of their honour."^ It i s interesting to note that another historian has encountered similar d i f f i c u l t i e s i n his attempt to unearth evidence of the existence of actual 7 Robin Hoods. For a chapter entitled "The Outlaw xn History" , Maurice Keen searched through fifteenth and sixteenth century English administrative documents for instances of outlaws matching the description of Robin and his band of merry men. What he uncovered were some fascinating references to permanent outlaw bands which, as early as the 1400s, were attempting 8 '• • to identify themselves with the bandit romances. However, 'Keen concluded that i n the end " i t i s impossible to portray [them]... as being i n any true 9 • sense upholders of the cause of social justice." Hobsbawm's analysis of social banditry i s similar to much of the sec-ondary literature on the yu-hsia i n that i t i s a combination of sources and discussion of various forms of outlawry; of the social outlaw or romanticization of the outlaw; and of attempts by many extra-legal individuals and organizations to identify themselves with this romantic tradition. As Anton Blok has pointed out, on the basis of available information the social bandit must be seen primarily, i f not exclusively, 10 as a cultural expression. For, as we are told i n the Robin Hood ballads: -37-So curteyse an outlawe as he was one Was never none yfounde. 11 While the myths and legends of the social outlaw may not correspond to actual experience, they do provide an excellent opportunity for the study of certain values and attitudes. Therefore, the following pages w i l l be devoted to a discussion of the social outlaw in f i c t i o n , the major characteristics of these heroic figures and some of the values and attitudes which the outlaw tales express. While actual social banditry may not be the most universal social phenomena, social bandit tales are remarkably similar. In this discussion i t w i l l be shown i n what respects the yu-hsia are part of the universal 12 phenomenon which includes such figures as Robin Hood and B i l l y the Kid. What are the fundamental characteristics of the European and American social outlaw? Fi r s t , and most importantly, the social outlaw i s clearly distinguished from the common criminal by virtue of the fact that he does not possess a natural criminal temperament. This i s emphasized in a number of ways. For example, the social outlaw's character i s idealized to the point where he appears to be supra-moral and thus not only within the moral order of the community, but ah embodiment of i t s most respected values. One of Robin HoodSs most pronounced attributes i s his courtesy and respect for the social conventions. He and his men are particularly courteous i n respect to their social superiors. Robin's reputation for fairness and benevolence i n addition to this courtesy i s responsible for inducing many of the men who have been sent to capture him into joining his band. Robin Hood i s portrayed as an extremely devout man. Not only does he hold three masses a day, but he also seems to enjoy divine protection i n - 3 8 - . i ! the person of the Virgin Mary who i s often responsible for saving his l i f e . Finally, despite their ' j o l l i t y ' and the references to feasts i n the ballads, Robin and his men are depicted as leading a Spartan existence, i n contrast to the soft l i f e of the e v i l sheriff. Forced to spend a night l i v i n g i n the forest with the band, the sheriff exclaims: This i s a harder order... Than any anker [anchorite] or frere, For al the golde i n Mery Englonde I wolde not longe dwell here. 13 Some of these qualities were transferred to the American Robin Hoods. j Jesse James was represented i n legend as a devout Baptist who taught i n church singing school. The James boys were always "polite, defferential and accomodating." B i l l y the Kid's saintly character was enhanced by the exaggeration of his youth and diminutive size. As one historian notes, i n his legends B i l l y "has a l i t t l e bay mare, and a l l he wants to do i s sing • • 15 a l i t t l e , dance a l i t t l e and l i v e out his own l i t t l e adventurous l i f e . " Social outlaws are further distinguished from the common criminal by virtue of the fact that they were forced into outlawry through some unfortunate circumstance or social injustice rather than as a result of some i defect i n their character. While the medieval English ballads do not re-cord Robin's entry into outlawry,, later ballads portray him as the wronged Earl of Huntington, bankrupted and hounded into the forests by the e v i l abbot of St. Mary's',; In American folklore, B i l l y the Kid was forced into outlawry after he avenged the assassination of his friend John Tunstall. In the legend, Tun-s t a l l was portrayed as a brave citizen who stood up to the powerful and corrupt trading combines of New Mexico which handpicked the law officers and exploited the poor Mexican farmers. As K. L. Steckmesser writes, the -39-Kid's pursuit of Tunstall's k i l l e r s "gives his biography the aura o£ a holy crusade." ^ ' Unlike the ordinary criminal, the social outlaw i s admired and helped by the citizenry and i s often able to assume the identity of an ordinary member of the community. In the Robin Hood ballads, the outlaw receives help from many law abiding citizens including the knight Richard atte Lee and an old woman who t e l l s him that: If thou be Robin Hood... ,as thou dost seem to be, I'le'for thee provide, and thee I w i l l hide From the bishop and his company. For I remember one Saturday night, Thou brought me both shoes and hose; Therefore I'le provide thy person to hide, And keep thee from thy foes. 17 One of the more intriguing aspects of the outlaw legends is.the num-ber of disguises which are assumed throughout the tales as the bandits leave the wilderness and enter into the towns and villages. This, I believe, i s meant to indicate'that the outlaw i s at heart the same as the ordinary citizen. Thus we find Robin Hood entering Nottingham at various times dressed as a potter, a monk, and a butcher. The ultimate test of the out-law's innate respectability i s the face to face encounter with the agents of the law in which they are not recognized as outlaws. Thus Ly t e l l Jon lives i n the sheriff's home as a retainer for many months'under an assumed identity. Robin has dinner with the sheriff i n his guise of a potter and i s mistaken another time for the knight Sir Guy. In American legend, B i l l y the Kid attempts to settle down and l i v e as •an ordinary citizen on numerous occasions and at one point marries into an aristocratic Mexican family. However, he i s prevented from doing so by the vindictive agents of the law who force him back into the outlaw's l i f e . According to other tales, the outlaw "Sam Bass liked to go into town posing as a Texas Ranger and ask farmers' opinions of his outlaw career. Jesse James assumed the dialect and manner of a country bumpkin and joined the 18 posse which was searching for' himself." The forgoing discussion i l l u s t r a t e s how the social bandit i s distinguished in temperament from the common criminal. However, the social bandit i s further removed from the criminal by virtue of the fact that his crimes are not ordinary crimes but are just or backed by some cause. Thus Robin Hood k i l l s only i n self defense or i n just revenge. He k i l l s the sheriff, whom he has freed on many occasions, precisely because the sheriff betrays Robin's friend Richard and attempts to execute-the knight. When Robin beheads the sheriff, the ballad further j u s t i f i e s this murder by having Robin proclaim: Lye thou there, thou proud sheryf, Evyll mote thou thryve; There myght no man to thee trust Thee whyles thou were alyve. 19 This same quality i s found i n the American outlaws. The Kid "shot only 20 to protect himself" and "those he k i l l e d deserved what they got." Of the James brothers i t was said that "they do not k i l l save i n stubborn 21 self defense. They have nothing i n common with a murderer." One of the most common practices ascribed to the social bandit of legend i s that he "robs from the rich, to give to the poor". It i s important to recognize that even i n the legends this phrase i s somewhat li k e a form-ulaic expression which describes a more complex situation. Social outlaws do not rob indiscriminately nor do they distribute money i n an arbitrary fashion. -41-While the earliest Robin Hood ballads intone the fact that he "dyde poor men much goode", the most celebrated recipient of his aid i s the knight Richard atte Lee who has been unjustly robbed of his lands by the ev i l abbot of St. Mary's. Not only does Robin give Richard the money to buy back his land, but he also arrays the knight i n resplendent attire which the outlaw feels i s the proper dress for Richard's station.He i s also presented with a horse and an esquire because the merry men contend that: It were grete shame... A knyght alone to ryde. 22 It i s important to note that not only i s there no expression of iden-t i t y of solidarity with the peasantry i n these stories, there i s also no depiction of multitudes of the poor to whom Robin and his men give aid. Instead, they aid those who have been unjustly deprived and this does not seem to include those born to poverty. In the same respect, i t i s important to note that Robin w i l l steal from everyone, except women and children. In one ballad he actually t r i e s to take money from a beggar who i s passing by the forest. However, i f the-victim i s honest and just Robin w i l l return, sometimes half, sometimes double the money that he has taken. I f they are wicked, as most f r i a r s i n these tales are, then he! keeps i t a l l . In American legend, the fat f r i a r s are replaced by big banks and railroads. According to his legend: Jesse James was a man, a friend to the poor, He would never see a man suffer pain. And with his brother Frank, he robbed the Chicago bank And stopped the Glendale train. 23 At the same time that Jesse James was distributing money to the des-erving, B i l l y the Kid was being hailed as the American Robin Hood because - 4 2 -"he'd steal from the white people and give i t to the Mexicans." ""H' Once again i n spite of these formulaic references, actual incidents of these outlaws giving to the 'poor' are extremely rare. A third attribute which distinguished the social bandit, not only from the common criminal, but from the ordinary person as well, i s what may be termed his s k i l l s of survival. These s k i l l s may include cleverness, feats of strength and expertise i n the use of weaponry. Robin Hood was "reachless in a roote" and was able to evade the sheriff's men on many occassions. He i s renowned, of course, for his use of the bow and arrow; Thryes Robin shot about And always he s l i s t the wand. 25 In the American legends, these s k i l l s have been translated into tales of eluding posses, dealing single-handedly with hundreds of Indians and the fast draw. The only time in the ballads when Robin misses the mark with his arrow i s when he i s competing i n an archery contest before the king. This incident i s used to symbolize the fourth characteristic of outlaw legends, loyalty to the ultimate font of justice, be i t God or the king. In this tale the king has ridden to the forest disguised as a rich monk in order to attract and thereby confront Robin Hood. When the outlaw demands alms from the monk, the disguised king immediately gives Robin a l l that he has and t e l l s him that i f he had more money Robin should have i t a l l . The outlaw i s impressed with this stranger and invites him to dine with the band. During dinner Robin confides to his guest that: I love no man i n a l l the worlde So well as I do my kynge. 26 The outlaws then proclaim an archery contest i n which the loser w i l l receive a buffet from his master. For the f i r s t time Robin loses and as there i s no other master in the band he hands his arrow to the guest. The disguised king r o l l s up his sleeve and deals Robin a mighty blow, knocking him to the ground. From this humble place Robin looks up into the face of the king and recognizes him for the f i r s t time. Thereupon, he begs the king for a pardon for both himself and his men and the king, having witnessed the true nature of these outlaws, grants the pardon. So impressed i s he with the outlaw's virtue, that he dones Robin's livery of Lincoln Green and rides out of the forest leading Robin and his men. The f i n a l characteristic of the outlaw legends i s that the outlaw, because of his invincible nature and supra-moral temperament, must die by treason. Robin i s betrayed by his trusted cousin the prioress of Kirkley to whom Robin has gone to be bled for a minor ailment. The prioress instead bleeds him to death. Betrayal runs throughout the tales of American outlaws. As Kent Steckmesser writes: Jesse James was betrayed by Robert Ford, a 'dirty l i t t l e coward' according to the ballad interpretation. B i l l y the Kid was shot down by a onetime friend turned Judas, Pat Garrett. 21 Thus in the end, the saintly character of the social outlaw i s reiterated by portraying him as a martyr, done to death unfairly by a lesser human being. Therefore, to reiterate, the most constant elements of the social outlaw legends are: the social outlaw i s not a criminal by nature but i s j i n fact an exemplary figure; a l l of the social outlaw's crimes can be somehow justified; the outlaw i s skilled i n the use of weapons and i n feats of strength; he i s loyal to the ultimate font of justice; and fi n a l l y , he -44-dies through betrayal. In order to ascertain to what extent the yu-hsia tradition resembles the aforementioned bandit legends, four representative yu-hsia w i l l be analysed for the fundamental characteristics of the social outlaw. The four personalities are: Kuo Hsieh and Yuan She from the yu-hsia lieh-chuan of the Shih Chi and Han Shu; Sung Chiang, the bandit leader of the novel-Water Margin; and f i n a l l y , Shih-san Mei, the heroine of the popular, but l i t t l e studied nineteenth century novel A Tale of Compassionate Heroism ( Erh-nu Ying-hsiung chuan). There are few stories i n the Shih Chi and Han Shu which lend themselves to the type of analysis possible i n the Robin Hood ballads, for most of the tales lack the circumstantial detail necessary for such an analysis. Some of the stories merely record the fact that certain men were engaged in hsia-type activities with no elaboration of these activities or of the background of the individuals. Therefore, the following discussion w i l l be restricted to two of the more complete biographies, those of Kuo Hsieh , found i n the Shih Chi and Han Shu and of Yuan She found only i n the Han Shu. In his youth Kuo Hsieh was given to petty crime but even at this stage of his l i f e he did not hesitate to avenge the wrongs of his friends or to aid the distressed. The story, however, emphasizes his later years when, we are told, Hsieh mellowed and his conduct became exemplary. He rewarded;. "hatred with virtue-, giving generously and expecting l i t t l e in.return. 2 9 When he saved peoples' lives he did not boast Sf i t . " Hsieh's respect for justice i s such that he excuses the murderer of his nephew because he recognizes that his relative was in the wrong. As a result of this moral rectitude, Hsieh enjoys unparalleled respect i n the community which enables - 4 5 -him to influence local o f f i c i a l s and to act as an arbiter i n many family and community feuds. Led to accept Hsieh's power as being based on a reputation for exemplary conduct, the reader i s prepared to accept as unjust the recommendation by ev i l o f f i c i a l s that Hsieh and his family be transported along with other powerful families. In revenge for this act, the father of the o f f i c i a l who ordered the transportation i s murdered by one of Hsieh's retainers. Hsieh must flee because he i s suspected of having perpetrated this crime. The authorities are thwarted for a considerable time in their efforts to capture him because of the willingness of admiring citizens to harbour the fugitive. One host commits suicide i n order to avoid having to give informa-tion on Hsieh's whereabouts. Finally he i s apprehended but after a f a i r t r i a l he i s judged innocent. At this t r i a l however, a scholar i s overheard to v i l i f y Hsieh as a common criminal and i s forthwith murdered by one of Hsieh's retainers. In spite of this apparently, the tribunal forwards their innocent verdict to the emperor. At'this point, an imperial secretary intervenes, convincing the emperor that, "Even though he did not know the man who murdered the Confucian 30 scholar, his guilt i s greater than i f he had done the deed himself." The o f f i c i a l i s successful for Hsieh and his family are subsequently ex-ecuted. Yuan She, the son of a former governor of Nan Yang, resigns from his job as a government clerk with the intention of avenging the murder of his uncle. Before he can carry out this deed, the enemy i s dispatched by some admirer of She's among the citizenry. - 4 6 -She i s constantly surrounded by admirers and some of the wealthier give him money to ereettan elaborate tomb for his father. While he lavishes money on this tomb however, She and his family remain destitute and the story t e l l s us that, "His only concern was to relieve the poor and troubled, 31 for he regarded i t as his duty to aid those who were in distress." The story never elaborates on any of Yuan She's crimes but as i n the case of Hsieh, portrays his retainers as the bane of his existence. He i s arrested countless times for the crimes apparently committed by these people and takes a position as a government o f f i c i a l i n an attempt to separate himself from them. • Wang Yu-kung, a minor o f f i c i a l who, for some unknown reason, holds a grudge against She, convinces•his superior Lord Yin, that the grave of She's father must be destroyed because i t oversteps the bounds of propriety and that i f Lord Yin were to submit a memorial reiterating a l l of She's crimes he would most l i k e l y receive a promotion. Lord Yin follows this advice and Wang Yu-kung i s subsequently dispatched by She's retainers. Later, while staying at the home of a friend, She encounters Lord Yin and i s insulted by him. Thus, doubly wronged, She has Yin assassinated. She's friend pursuades him to go to the prison o f f i c i a l s and beg for a pardon which, he i s assured, w i l l be sufficient. The friend however, betrays Yuan She and i s responsible for having him executed and his head hung in the market place. While these two stories are not as developed as the Robin Hood ballads, they do contain many of the fundamental characteristics of the social outlaw tales. Both men are carefully differentiated from common criminals by - 4 7 -virtue of their exemplary conduct and just deeds. They are forced into outlawry and continually suffer for crimes committed by someone else. In the end, because they are admired by a l l good citizens, their deaths are the result of unfairness and betrayal. In contrast to the laconic.style of the yu-hsia lieh-chuan, the des-cription of the social outlaw i n the vernacular novel i s more admissible to the type of analysis which i s possible i n the Robin Hood ballads. By far the most popular tale of the yu-hsia tradition i s the story of the Water Margin, f i r s t completed i n the fourteenth century. Of the many outlaws who populate this novel, none comes closer to the paradigm of the social outlaw than Sung Chiang, the leader of the outlaw band. In the 32 one hundred and twenty chapter version of this novel both his manner and his experiences are quite similar to those of Robin Hood. As i n the case of Robin Hood, Sung Chiang i s portrayed as a man of exemplary character and his c i v i l i z e d manner i s thrown into sharp re-l i e f by the contrasting character of the anarchical"Li Kuei. Like Robin Sung enjoys divine protection, i n this case the goddess Chiu-t'ien Hsuan Nu who protects him from his enemies and gives him guidance^ i n the form of heavenly books. While Sung Chiang does not hold three masses a day, he i s responsible for organizing a week long Taoist ceremony i n which the services are held three times daily i n thanks for the divine assistance accorded the outlaw band. "So curteyse an outlawe" i s equally descriptive of Sung and l i k e Robin his courtesy i s responsible for inducing many of his enemies to join his band. His supra-moral nature i s further illustrated by contrast-ing him with 'bad' outlaw leaders such as.the miserly Chou Tung who - 4 8 -attempts to force a marriage with a local landlord's daughter. ^ Sung's munificence i s indirectly responsible for forcing him into outlawry. A woman who Sung Chiang aids, subsequently forces her daughter upon him. When the daughter attempts to black mail her benefactor, Sung murders her. His reputation for benevolence and moral integrity i s such that the local magistrate i s prepared to overlook the incident. However, the mother of the victim persists u n t i l Sung i s forced to flee. Many of the other characters of Water Margin are also "forced to ' climb Liang Shan'-'.Lu Ta, for example, i s forced into outlawry, after he k i l l s a butcher who had been exploiting innocent citizens. Yang Chih flees after k i l l i n g a neighborhood bully and Wu Sung after murdering the adults eress P'an Chin-lien. The opinion that Sung Chaing and many of his band are not natural criminals, i s stressed by the disguise element mentioned i n connection with the Robin Hood ballads. At various times members of tAe band are able to enter towns and villages undetected, dressed as porters, hunters, priests etc. At the same time many of these men are aided by reputable citizens and at the end of the story assume positions as government o f f i -c i a l s . Sung Chiang's1 crimes are not simple crimes. He k i l l s only i n self defence or just revenge. His murder of Yen P'o-hsi i s made to seem just by exaggerating her e v i l nature. Sung k i l l s the family of a magistrate whose wife betrayed him. He also avenges himself on a minor o f f i c i a l who seeks preferment by unjustly accusing Sung of rebellious intentions. It i s important, to note that throughout the novel Sung Chiang orders his -49-men to spare the innocent when their villages have been taken i n battle. Stealing from the rich to give to the poor i s particularized i n Water Margin as i n the Robin Hood ballads. There are no pitiable masses to whom the band gives aid, but certain deserving individuals. Gifts and money are distributed to the guests at the bandits' l a i r no matter what their station. When the bandits succeed i n taking a village they leave half of the food and part of the other booty to the innocent among the villagers. • i As for robbing the r i c h r perhaps the most celebrated theft i s that of the birthday gi f t s destined for the e v i l minister Ts'ai Ching. The robbery i s just, not only because of the nature of the intended recipient but also because the money for these g i f t s has been squeezed unjustly from the people. As for s k i l l s of survival, these seem to be distributed throughout the band. However, Sung Chiang himself i s an invincible general. Sung Chiang, l i k e Robin Hood, i s loyal to what he believes to be the ultimate font of justice, i n t h i s case the emperor. For much of the story he reiterates his devotion to the emperor and his hope for a pardon from him. Like the king i n Robin's story, the emperor v i s i t s the bandits' l a i r and has a chance to see the righteousness of the outlaws for him-self. Though the v i s i t i s only i n a dream i t , i s equally significant. Out-side of the dream, the emperor pardons Chiang and his men and makes them government o f f i c i a l s . Sung subsequently fights many battles against out-law bands on behalf of the emperor. -50-Finally, l i k e Robin Hood, Sung's death i s the result of betrayal. In the f i n a l chapter of Water Margin Sung i s given wine which has been poisoned by the four e v i l ministers who have stood between him and the emperor throughout the tale. Shih-san Mei i s the heroine of the popular novel A Tale of Compas-sionate Heroism, written by the Manchu o f f i c i a l Wen K'ang i n 1844« <• As Shih-san Mei i s an example of the-nii-hsia or female hsia, her story w i l l be examined in greater depth i n the f i n a l chapter of this paper. However, at this point i t i s necessary to examine the story for the fundamental characteristics of the social bandit legend. Speaking of the heroine, Wen K'ang writes that: This individual, possessed of both a heroic temperament and a compassionate nature, was a valiant among the group of rouged and powdered, foremost i n the c i r c l e of the virtuous and just hsia. But she harboured a grievance which penetrat-ed her bones and made her heart b i t t e r . As a result of this, though she was a young woman, yet i t aroused i n her the inclination to 'restrain the powerful and aid the weak' and to follow the activities of those who k i l l and scatter money. If she saw an injustice i n her path, she would p u l l out her sword .to help. Once she had made an alliance, she would carry loyalty to the utmost extent. I f she encountered the corrupt kind, though their power burned to heaven, yet"to her they were l i k e clay pigs and ceramic dogs. However, i f she encount-ered just people, though they were poor and cold and begging for food, yet she loved them l i k e the awesome phoenix and the dazzling unicorn. Clearly she was a mercurial dragon s p i r i t , to be compared to the merciful Boddhisattva. 34 As the author indicates, Shih-san Mei's character i s a mixture of compassion and heroism. In the novel she i s moved by the f i l i a l devotion of a young scholar and does not hesitate to aid him i n various ways to free his father from an unjust prison sentence. She herself i s a model of f i l i a l piety and lives a Spartan existence i n a thatched hut on a lonely mountain and refuses any reward for her services. -51-The bitterness i n her heart i s the incident which forced her into the l i f e of an outlaw. Her father was thrown into prison by an e v i l o f f i c i a l i n retaliation for his refusal to allow Shih-san Mei to become = the concubine of the o f f i c i a l ' s son. When her father dies i n jail,,, Shih-san Mei has to flee i n order to save her own l i f e and that of her mother. The major purpose of her l i f e after this i s to assassinate this o f f i c i a l but she delays this project u n t i l the death of her mother. Even as an outlaw, Shih-san Mei commands respect and i s especially revered and aided by the Teng family. That she i s at heart a good citizen i s illustrated most clearly when a respected o f f i c i a l decides'that she w i l l be a f i t wife for his sonre. Shih-san Mei's crimes are not ordinary crimes. She single-handedly dispatches ten monks and the mistress of the head monk, who apparently rob and murder visitors to their monastery. The poem which she leaves on the monastery wall explaining the justice of this crime,.is accepted by a passing o f f i c i a l , and the incident i s forgotten. The heroine robs in order to support her aged mother. As she explains to one group of people," I'm nineteen years old and I don't know how to do needlework. You could t e l l me to sew on buttons for a l i v i n g but I wouldn't know where to begin. I have to rely on my sword and cross-35 bow i n order to search out 'masterless money' for my expenses." When asked to explain what i s meant by 'masterless money' she answers: If i t ' s l i k e that money i n the sack which you got i n exchange for your land and w i l l give to the o f f i c i a l s to save your father, then i t ' s legitimate money^3L)L *t?\) • And again, i f i t ' s l i k e the money which a capable o f f i c i a l saves up from his rightful salary, or the wealth which a merchant -52-saves as the result of his t o i l and travelling, or finally-l i k e the extra clothes and food which the villagers gain as a result of their plowing and sowing, then i t i s leg-itimate money. •On the other hand, there are corrupt o f f i c i a l s who disregard their reputations and have l i t t l e regard for the lives of the people, who travel around with their pouches stuffed with money. In addition there are the minions and lackeys of the powerful families who profit when their masters make money at court. But when their masters f a l l , then they stuff money into a sack and flee. Finally, there are those crafty scoundrels who befriend local o f f i c i a l s in order to exploit the naive rustics, and who rely on money to behave i n tot a l disregard for the law. They are capable of committing every crime under the sun. A l l of this money can be referred to as masterless moneyj^^ i)^^^ ' ^ Shih-san Mei.uses this masterless money not only to support her mother but also to aid the distressed. For example, she gives the young scholar money torhelp save his father and gives a poor family money for their daughter's dowry. like Robin Hood, Shih-san Mei i s exceptionally skilled i n the use of weapons and i s also renowned for her strength and her a b i l i t y to leap over high walls. ' The form i n which loyalty and respect for the'ultimate font of justice i s expressed i n this novel i s somewhat less dramatic. After her mother's death the heroine prepares to carry out her plan to assassinate her father's murderer. However, she learns that her enemy has been dispatched by the emperor, the greatest hero on earth or i n heaven. Apparently, on being informed of this o f f i c i a l ' s crimes the emperor ordered him to commit suicide. Finally, the theme of betrayal i s barely suggested i n the case of Shih-san Mei and i s largely absent from the nu-hsia tales i n general. As w i l l be seen tin the f i n a l chapter, when these women have finished with -53-their social bandit careers, they either disappear or marry and become conventional Chinese wives and mothers. As the foregoing discussion has shown, representative personal-i t i e s from the yu-hsia tradition bear a remarkable likeness to bandits such as Robin Hood. The resemblance i s such that they too can be referred to as social outlaws. There remains the task of deciding what general sentiments these social outlaw tales express. In the f i r s t chapter of this paper, John Goodlad was quoted as suggesting a division of cultural products into expressive and instrumental 37 elements. How are these two elements manifested i n social outlaw literature? Overall, the social outlaw legends are declarations of faith i n the status quo and sanctions of the accepted norms and values and are not protests against these. In the tales there i s no animus directed against the legal system, against rank or against wealth as such but rather the emphasis i s on social solidarity. The outlaws accept social ranks, reproducing a graded hierarchy i n their bands and displaying a respect for their social superiors including just o f f i c i a l s . Their ultimate loyalty i s , of course, to the king or emperor who i s at the apex of the hierarchy. Not only i s there no animus directed against the rich, but i n fact many of the recipients of the outlaws' munificence are wealthy individuals who have momentarily run into financial d i f f i c u l t i e s or who are to be rewarded for some good service. While 'steal from the rich, to give to the poor' i s a frequent cliche of these stories, we never see great masses of poor for whom we -54-feel pity. Rather poverty i s particularized, li k e instances of injustice, and appears to be an exception rather than a norm. In this form i t i s also speedily rectified through gifts from the outlaw. Outlaw legends may well be one of the most powerful sanctions for a community's system of values. The outlaw leaders are portrayed as free and able to survive without the protection of a community. And yet, of their own free w i l l , they choose to abide by and to exemplify the system of values which the community knows to be right. The tales also express the understanding that from time to time e v i l elements appear i n society which upset the harmony and cause injust-ices to be perpetrated. In the ballads this e v i l i s most often enshrined i n corrupt o f f i c i a l s who by rights should be the opposite i n character and conduct to the outlaw. However, i t i s they who posses the natural criminal tendencies and they are innately e v i l , unlike the majority of good o f f i c i a l s . These e v i l o f f i c i a l s act somewhat like distorting mirrors refracting the benevolent rays which emanate from God or the emperor and which'usually guarantee a harmonious society. The foregoing are aspects of the expressive element i n outlaw l i t e r a -ture. How do people seek to control their environment i n these tales? In the legends, the outlaw i s an agent who helps to maintain and stabilize the social system. There i s also a powerful cathartic element xin the out-law tale. The outlaw i s 'status-less' and i s placed outside of the town limits. His system of values reflects those of the citizenry and defines him as their agent but at the same time he i s invested with extraordinary -55-powers which cannot be tolerated for long i n the community. In the tales, the citizenry arms the outlaw, both physically and psychologically, i n order that he may combat the forces of e v i l . This act i s in part a'recognition of the fact that i n order to exist i n harmony the members of the community must disarm themselves through compromise. The outlaw acts outside of the community and on behalf of the citizens to r i d them of aberrant elements. The outlaw i s the symbolic inverse of the font of justice, be i t God the emperor or the king. These individuals are outside and above the social system, the outlaw i s outside and below.it. The outlaw sees injustice where the emperor cannot and thus acts as his agent as well. This i s why the outlaw meets the king or emperor face to face and often joins his household or his staff. And ultimately, because he i s after a l l a temporary expedient, the outlaw or his outlaw activities must come to an end. His death or reintegration into the social fabric i s an indication that harmony has been restored. There i s also a cathartic effect i n the outlaw ballads. In the frequent and bloody battles between the forces of good and e v i l , justice i s convincingly meted out and e v i l i s seen and f e l t to be purged.from the environment. The social outlaw legends may therefore be described as functional i n regard to their societies for they serve to maintain and stabilize and to justify and sanctify the social order. They encourage the idea that injustice i s a particularized aberration which can be dealt with through heroic sacrifice and not mass revolt. -56-Therefore, studies of individuals or groups who identified-their activities with the social outlaw w i l l most l i k e l y reveal that these elements encouraged conservatism or at the most reformist sentiments. They w i l l also show that for these groups injustice was particularized and easily,remedied and that they acted as agents on behalf of the larger community and not as inciters of mass rebellion against authority. In light of this i t -is interesting to note that the most recent communist criticisms of the novel Water Margin support some of the points of this discussion. These, criticisms are an attempt to rectify the ev-aluations <3f the novel which were made 'in the 1950s. At that time. Water  Margin was described as a 'great novel of'peasant revolt and Sung Chiang was lauded as a great revolutionary leader. It was seen as an example of classical realism, truthfully portraying social conditions i n the Sung dynasty and serving as a textbook for revolution. At present the novel i s no longer described as r e a l i s t i c but as a legend which has been twisted by the ruling classes. It i s no longer viewed as a textbook for revolution but indeed i s seen to teach through negative example. Sung Chiang has now become a minatory figure, a capitulationist unlike the revolutionary Chao Kai. As one communist c r i t i c explains: i Sung Chiang from the start wants to serve the emperor; before going to Liangshan he opposes the peasant revolt; after reaching Liangshan he sabotages the revolt from within. This novel extols his capitulationist line while relegating to a . secondary position true rebels...By having Sung Chiang and • his lieutenants poisoned by Kao Chiu and other wicked o f f i c i a l s after they have suppressed Fang La's revolt, the novel presents Sung Chiang as a tragic hero. This serves to project the theme that these men are loyal subjects dying for their cause who • oppose corrupt ministers but remain loyal to the emperor. 3$ -57-In answer to the question which was posed at the end of the f i r s t chapter, i t can be seen that the yu-hsia tradition i n general and the novel Water Margin i n particular, confirm the thesis that popular culture i s generally functional. However, i f the yu-hsia tradition i t s e l f i s functional, can the same be said for the female yu-hsia ? The following chapter w i l l deal with the problem of the nii-hsia, characters who appear to conflict with the norms of behavior and place usually .ascribed to women i n trad-i t i o n a l Chinese society. NOTES TO CHAPTER I I I "LE. Hobsbawm, Bandits (London*:::Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1969), p. 14 2 I b i d . , p. 13 3 I b i d . , p. 109. This approach to his sources i s reaffirmed i n an ar-t i c l e e n t i t l e d , "Social Bandits: Reply," Comparative Studies-in Society  and History v o l 14'ono. 4 (1972): 503-504 • In t h i s a r t i c l e Hobsbawm asks of the pure Robin Hood, 'Does he1 exist at a l l ? " His answer i s that': The strongest evidence f o r h i s existence l i e s i n the sharp d i s t i n c t i o n which r u r a l public opinion makes between bandits who do and those who do not play the role of Robin Hood... Such d i s t i n c t i o n s can be traced i n conversation, i n song and story...p. 504 ^E. Hobsbawm, Bandits, p. 15 5 I b i d . , p. 36 • Ibid., p. 38 7 i n M. Keen, The Outlaws of Medieval Legend (Toronto: University, of Toronto Press,'' 196l) , p. 191 I b i d . p. 197 I b i d . p. 206 A. Blok, "The Peasant and the Brigand: Social Banditry Reconsidered," Comparative Studies i n Society and History v o l . 14 no. 4 (1972), p. 500 i n J . Ritson, Robin Hood (London: J.C. NImmo, I885), p. 3 On American! outlaws as Robin Hoods, see K. Steckmesser," Robin Hood and the American Outlaw," Journal of American Folklore v o l 79 (1966): 348-355 A \ NOTES TO CHAPTER III (Con't) i On the yu-hsia as Robin Hoods see J.J.Y. Liu, The Chinese Knight-Errant, p. 203 J. Ritson, Robin Hood, p. 36 "''^K. St eckmes ser, "Robin Hood and the American Outlaw," p. 351 15 / K. Steckmesser, The Western Hero i n History and Legend (Oklahoma: Oklahoma University Press, 1965), p. 95 l 6 I b i d . , p. 100 17 J. Ritson, Robin Hood p. 172 18 K. Steckmesser, "Robin Hood and the American Outlaw," p. 352 19 / J. Ritson, Robin Hood p. 62 20 K. Steckmesser, " Robin Hood and the American Outlaw," p. 352 21 K. Steckmesser, Ibid., p. 352 22 J. Ritson, Robin Hood, p. 16 2°, Quoted i n J.C. Holt," Origins and Audience of the Robin Hood Ballads, Past and Present 18 (November i960) , p. 92 2 l \ . Steckmesser,"Robin Hood...," p. 350 25 J. Ritson, Robin Hood, p. 52 2 6 I b i d . p. 69 2^K. Steckmesser,"Robin Hood...," p. 353 -60-NOTES TO CHAPTER III (Con't) 28 The story of Kuo Hsieh i s found i n B. Watson, Records of the Grand  Historian of China ( New York:Co3iumbia University Press, 1961) vol2. p. 457 Yuan She in B. Watson, Courtier and Commoner i n Ancient China ( New York: Columbia University Press, 1974), P« 240 29 B. Watson, Records of the Grand Historian... p. 457 3°Ibid., p. 461 31 B. Watson, Courtier and Commonerp. 242 32 The one hundred and twenty chapter version i s the one referred to in most c r i t i c a l studies. In this discussion I have had to rely on Richard Irwin's summaries of chapters 72-120 and his translation of the f i n a l chapter. R. G. I. Irwin, The Evolution of a Chinese Novel: Shui-hu-chuan (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1953) 33 In chapter five of the novel Translated from Erh-nu1 Ying-hsiung Chuan ( Hong Kong: Ta-tung shu-chii, no date), p. 47 3 5 I b i d . p. 66 9 3 6 I b i d . , p. 66 37 J. Goodlad, A Sociology of Popular Drama , p. 3 Shih Chung, "What Sort of Novel i s Water Margin?" Chinese. Literature vol. 12 no. 12 (1975) P- 86. In the same volume see Chih Pien, "The-Current Criticism of Water Margin," p. 82. See also the collection of recent criticisms of the Water Margin,K'ai-chan t u i Shui-hute P'ing-lun (Hong Kong:Sheng-huo; Tu-shu; Hsin-chih; San-lien shu-tien, 1975) -61-IV. A DISCUSSION OF THE AMAZONIAN FIGURE IN CHINESE FICTION In the preceding chapter, through an analysis of the character Shih-san Mei, i t was shown that i n most respects the nu-hsia display •the same fundamental attributes and express similar values i n regard to the general structure and functioning of society as do their male counter-parts. In addition to their role as social bandits however, the nu-hsia may also be examined as one form of the cultural stereotype of the martial activities, the fi c t i o n a l characters reviewed i n this chapter are i n -variably portrayed as law breakers.' However, the laws which are trans-gressed by these viragoes are those which define the cultural ideals of conduct appropriate to the sexes. As their t i t l e s , female social bandit and woman soldier indicate, these militant women i n masculine attire are depicted as engaging in roles usually associated with the male i n Chinese society. Indeed one historian has described them as the "antithesis of the ideal Confucian woman." However, Chinese martial women appear to ; contravene a more universal ideal of womanhood: some Western scholars have referred to them as anti-2 women and as amazons. Amazon i s a term used i n Western culture to denote a cultural type defined as a "vigorous female who scorns domesticity, b e l i t t l e s matrimony, invades masculine occupation such as war, and even woman Whether dressed for battle or for bandit -62-subjugates meri;" ^  "Amazon" i s also used to designate the Western myths of the barbaric countries of women. While lack of space prohibits an i n depth analysis, I hope to dem-onstrate b r i e f l y that the amazons and the nil chan-shih shared a number of fundamental characteristics and that these attributes did not seem to change significantly over a long period of time. This chapter w i l l also investigate the ways in which the studies of the amazonian figure may. contribute to-ward an understanding of the role of the martial woman in Chinese culture. The study of the nu. chan-shih i s beneficial to the social historian primarily because i t provides information on the cultural evaluations of men and women and the ideal delegation of roles, temperament and behavior between the two sexes. Therefore, while these characters suggest a number of problems for study, this chapter w i l l confine i t s e l f to the following two: First, what are the fundamental characteristics of a representative sample of nil chan-shih which have provoked their description as anti-Confucian and amazonian? ^  Second, as in the case of the social bandit, how can we account for the existence of cultural stereotypes which appear to contra-vene accepted norms and values? 5 In a recent collection <Sf essays entitled Woman, Culture and Society a number of scholars developed and illustrated the thesis that, underlying and encouraging the almost, universal asymmetry i n the roles, behavior and cultural evaluations of men and women was an equally universal ideal, i f not real, division of various societies into domestic/female and public/ male spheres. ^ This general thesis i s exhibited i n the traditional Con-7 fucian ideals of social structure. Throughout the Book of Rites and in particular i n the section entitled the Nei Tze , the desire for a str i c t - 6 3 -separation of the sexes i s repeatedly expressed. It i s manifested i n the prescribed rules of conduct which forbid men and women to handle the same utensils, to s i t on the same mat or to hang their clothes on the same rack. The Book of Rites also expresses the sentiment that the affairs and activ-i t i e s of the extra-domestic sphere are appropriate to men, while women are to be confined to the domestic sphere. While i n reality only the gentry were i n a financial position to enforce this arrangement, the ideal seems to have transcended the boundaries of class. As one scholar notes: The ideal woman was she who concentrated a l l her efforts on her household tasks, she who was the nei-.jen, she who i s within. Participation i n outside affairs and especially i n public matters was abhorred and branded as the root of a l l e v i l and the cause of the downfall of the great dynasties. 9 In the Book of Rites i t states that at the age of ten "a g i r l ceased to go out (from the women's apartments). Her governess taught her (the arts of) pleasing speech and manners, to be docile-', and obedient.. .to learn a l l . 10 woman's work..." In sharp contrast to this, the stories of the nu chan-shih indicate that at an early age these young women were separated from the domestic sphere. In the late ninth century short story Yinniang /the:, S'wordswoman -for-example, Yinniang i s kidnapped from her home at the age of ten by a mendicant nun. She i s transported to a. wild area populated only by exotic animals such as tigers and monkeys. There, instead of the domestic arts, Yinniang i s taught to climb along the c l i f f s , to f l y , to k i l l animals (and eventually humans) with deadly accuracy and to employ various forms of magic. In many tales, the separation from the domestic sphere i s suggested by the young woman's identification with her' father who i s usually en-gaged in some military career. At an early age, Shih-san Mei, the heroine -64-of the nineteenth century novel A Tale, of Compassionate Heroism, began training i n the military arts with her father, i n i t i a l l y because the general had no son but later because Shih-san Mei displayed a talent for such 11 | a c t i v i t i e s . In Madame Yang Studies the Stars, a village play recorded i n the early twentieth century and based on a legend which predates Water Margin, Madame Yang's daughter Ch'iu Chu heeds the instructions of her dead father i n a 12 dream and goes off to battle to save her brother. In so doing she ignores her mother's pleas to remain at home and Madame Yang complains that she has no control over her daughter. A minor character comments that the Yang 13 family appear to have no domestic regulations. In addition of course, these young women are separatee), from home ,and from other women while involved i n their masculine occupations. Shih-san Mei refuses to li v e as a guest i n a large household but chooses instead to inhabit a hut on a lonely mountain and i s continually wandering about i n search of e v i l o f f i c i a l s to rob. Hua Mu-lan and Ch'iu Chu go far from home i n order to fight i n wars. Yinniang constantly travels on her magic donkey from patron to patron. Purple Silk and Hung Hsien f l y hundreds of miles a day i n the service of various friends. Separation from the domestic sphere and identification with the father are also important elements in the European amazon tales. In Vergil's Aeneid, when the father of Camilla i s banished from his kingdom, he takes his infant daughter with him on his endless -journeys through lonely mountains where wild beasts lurk. He dresses Camilla i n tiger skins and teaches her the 1 / • military arts. Clorinda, i n Tassois Jerusalem Delivered, i s abandoned at birth by her mother and taken on a long journey by a fait h f u l eunuch -65-i n her mother's service. She also i s identified with wild animals and learns 15 the military arts while roaming i n the lonely areas between c i t i e s . Finally, i n Spenser's Faerie Queene, the magician Merlin gives King Ryence an enchanted mirror which warns him of enemies who may attempt to invade his kingdom. One day his only child Britomart, from whom he keeps nothing, looks into this mirror and sees the image of her future husband, where== upon she leaves home dressed i n male armor and begins an endless journey i n search of this man. ^ Like the bandit who must disguise himself i n order to enter the non-bandit community, the nil chan-shih must don masculine attire i n order to 17 enter the male sphere. Before going .off to war, Ch'iu Chu runs to change her clothes: Now I've dressed myself i n uniform I wear a cap, a blue suit and a pair of-boots. Do you think I look lik e a warrior, Mother? IS In a sixteenth century play about Hua Mu-lan, a young woman who went to war as a substitute for her aged father, the heroine i s shown putting on her father's armor before leaving for battle. At the last moment she realizes that her tiny bound feet w i l l never f i l l her father's boots. Thus she i s portrayed as painfully unwrapping the bindings i n order to enlarge her three inch golden lotuses. At'the same time the audience i s reassured that her family has a magic formula which w i l l return her feet 19 to their small size in order to insure her future marriage. Hua Mu-lan i s an exception among the mi chan-shih and among the amazon figures i n that her masculine attire serves to hide her true sex for 20 twelve years. Unlike the bandit's c i v i l i a n attire, the martial woman's masculine dress does not always seem to be intended to conceal her sex-e -66-ual identity and often extraordinary beauty. In Cursing at the City Wall, a village play recorded in the early twentieth century and based on a T'ang dynasty tale, the warrior Fan Li-hua sights an army advancing on the city. Among the group she recognizes a woman: In the center there i s a female general. She i s very beautiful and awe inspiring. She wears a seven star helmet and chain armor. A bronze mirror on her breast i s as bright as the f u l l moon. A precious sword i s carried under her arm. She rides a noble bay horse. 21 In the play Madame Yang Studies the Stars, on the f i r s t part of her journey Ch'iu Chu i s recognized by her brother who remarks that her dis-guise i s not good enough. Thereupon, he cuts off her hair and f i l l s the holes i n her pierced ears. However, she i s s t i l l described as walking lik e a g i r l , a reminder that even i n masculine dress, many of the nu. chan-shih such as Shih-san Mei and Purple Silk retain their bound feet. Similarly, i n the Chinese medieval novel Water Margin, the warrior Hu San-niang, though dressed in armor, i s immediately recognized as a beau-t i f u l woman by a member of the opposite camp. This man offers to do battle with her i n order to win her for himself. In this part of the story, Hu San-niang i s identified as much by her sexual appeal as by her martial s k i l l s . In European tales, the amazon i s outfitted i n a very traditional manner with "the moonlike shield, the battle axe invented by Penthesilia, the buskins, the robe knotted at the knee leaving one breast exposed" and 22 always a beautiful helmet. One of the most popular scenes i n the amazon tales i s one i n which a male knight knocks the woman's helmet from her head, thus exposing her stunning beauty and revealing her floor-length golden 23 hair. - 6 7 -In the stories of the martial women masculine attire i s intended to serve more as a symbol than as a disguise, a symbol of the higher status enjoyed by men -in the male sphere. In a late ninth century short story the heroine Hung Hsien or Red Thread, claims that she was a male doctor in a past l i f e but that because of a mistake she was responsible for the death of twin fetuses. Consequently, i n this l i f e she was "condemned to be a woman. Though my body i s thus humiliated my s p i r i t i s s t i l l f u l l of 2.L resource." For the nu chan-shih the masculine attire i s a temporary respite from the humiliation of womanhood. That the state of womanhood i_s thus despised i s clearly illustrated i n two episodes i n which men are forced to dress as women. In the novel A Tale of Compassionate Heroism Shih-san Mei defeats a great bandit chief on behalf of an elderly friend. The bandit i s then told that he must dress i n women's'''clothes and parade around a stage. Rather than suffer such humiliation he offers to commit suicide. ^ In Spenser's Faerie Queene, the great knight Artegall i s defeated i n battle by the amazon queen Radigund. Because of this defeat and because he rejects her as a lover, Radigund has him dressed i n a woman's clothes and set to work at such tasks as spinning and weaving. Of this custom of Radigundfi, another knight remarks that "I rather chose to die i n lives despite/ than to lead that shameful l i f e . " For his part Spenser remarks 26 that this was a l l "A sordid a f f a i r for a mind so brave." I suspect that the masculine attire, while not hiding the woman's sexuality, i s nevertheless also meant symbolically to separate her from the sense of pollution associated with menstruation and pregnancy and thus perhaps to prevent the contamination of the male sphere. In this context, • • . \ ' ' \ -68-i t i s interesting to note that i n the only story of an active nil chan-shih 27 i n which the woman i s portrayed as a mother, she k i l l s her child. The power of r i t u a l pollution i s one form of the considerable i l l e - . 28 gitimate and indirect power that women often wield. While the nu chan-shih are separated from this power their masculine dress awards them the 29 right to legitimate authority which i s usually the preserve of men. Miss Cloud, from the eighteenth century tale of the same name,for example, on the day of her wedding, puts on her masculine attire and walks into the marriage hall i n order to give her dissolute fiance a dressing down. Brand-ishing her sword in his face she accuses him of cowardice and of failure to show any gratitude either to the state or to herself for the beneficial acts which they have performed on behalf of his family. The character Shih-san Mei, when dressed as a man, usurps the authority of parental figures and arranges a marriage between two young people her own age, even prov-iding them with a dowry. In a parody of these situations, Madame Sung i n the early Ch'ing dynasty novel Flower Shadows Behind the Curtain, puts on her military dress and gathers together a female army armed with kitchen knives, cudgels and broom handles and goes -to search out and punish her wayward husband. Amazonian women i n European literature are constantly admonishing their male counterparts and usurping their authority. The warrior Britomart, for example, battles with six brothers who are unfairly harassing another knight. Having defeated them, she collects their swords and, standing upon the;'.swords gives the men'a lecture on the tenets of chivalry. The young men 30 admit their fault and swear fealty to her. Tasso's Clorinda i s also shown reprimanding a group of warriors for failure of duty at which point * - 6 9 -"to do her w i l l the men themselves prepare/ i n their faint hearts her looks 31 such terror breed!" There i s also something i n the symbolism of the masculine attire which has i t s parallel i n the Western belief that the amazons severed or seared one breast i n order to become better warriors. The idea i s that a woman's body i s not naturally suited to martial pursuits and must somehow be 32 altered. Finally, i n addition to describing this attire as masculine, the stories i n many cases further emphasize i t s exotic nature. Thus Shih-san Mei and Purple Silk dress entirely i n red. Hung Hsien dresses i n a man's clothes "with a dragon's head on her chest and the name of the great s p i r i t 33 T a i - i on her forhead." One reason for this exotic air may be to link the nil chan-shih with the mysterious countries of women which were believed to exist on the peripheries of'the'known world. Likewise, the amazonian type in European culture was constantly associated with the mythological q I amazonian kingdoms? These "inverted commonwealths" are an important element i n the study of the martial woman and w i l l be discussed later i n this paper. Along with their masculine attire these women also assume the character t r a i t s , s k i l l s and behavior normally assigned to men. A l l of them are por-trayed as exceptionally intelligent and skilled i n the art's of war and 35 appear to be superior i n these arts in relation to their male peers.. Besides the element of authority already mentioned, the nu chan-shih often conceive of clever strategems which will' save their friends and outwit the foe. Hung Hsien devises a plan which intimidates her patron's enemy and thus saves his l i f e . Yinniang develops a number of clever devices -70-which protect her employer from various assassination attempts. In actual battle the women are also superior. Shih-san Mei defeats ten men singlehandedly. Miss Cloud vanquishes an entire band of robbers alone. An important elment of this combat s k i l l i s the use of magic. While C. T. Hsia notes that magic was an important feature of most military • adventures, i t was particularly associated with women warriors and Tao-i s t s . Shih-san Mei attempts to dissociate herself from'this tradition of magic by claiming that her talents are learned and not the g i f t of 37 some immortal. However, at this point, she does not mention her magic donkey which i s able to f l y hundreds' of l i i n an instant, or her a b i l i t y to leap onto, roofs and over walls inspite of her three inch bound feet. The martial women who are masters of magic and military arts have an interesting ancestress i n Chinese mythology. The Dark G i r l "£\~$C was believed to have been a teacher of the Yellow Emperor who was himself the mythical teacher of various s k i l l s to humankind. The Dark G i r l made magic drums for him when he was about to slay a monster and i s also believed 38 to have been the author of three books on military strategy. This figure seems to be echoed i n the goddess Chiu-t'ien Hsuan Nu who, in.the novel Water Margin gave the bandit leader Sung Chiang heavenly books containing military strategy. Later i n the novel she gave him advice on how to win an important battle. In a similar vein from the annals of Wu ( f i r s t cen-tury A.D.; comes the story of a mysterious young woman who grew up "in a deep forest, i n the wilderness, away from men." This woman i s a master of magic and swordsmanship and i s invited to instruct the emperor's troops. Western myth also has i t s share of \warrior sorceresses and goddesses who, along with fairy god mothers bestow various talents on their charges. In the amazonian tales the gods continually intervene. The goddess Diana uses a l l of her powers to protect Clorinda. Britomart, on the other hand, i s aided by the sorcery of a male, Merlin the magician, the famous teacher of King Arthur. The sorceress Melyssa i s an important figure i n the l i f e of Bradamante, Ariosto's amazonian heroine. The aggressive, masculine behavior of these women i s not confined to battle, for martial women are often quite forceful and singleminded i n their choice and pursuit of husbands and lovers. In the play Cursing at the City Wall, the female warrior Fan Li-hua t e l l s the audience: Once I married Yang the Slob. I didn't lik e that ugly fellow. One day when we were on the battle f i e l d , I k i l l e d him with my sword. Then I fought with the general of the enemy. He was a brave, handsome young man named Hsueh Ting-shan. • ' I f e l l i n love with him and later married him. 40 In the early Ch'ing novel Flower Shadows Behind the Curtain, Kin Ping the daughter of a bandit chieftan, chooses a young prisoner for her lover, simply because she finds him sexually attractive. Later, much to her amusement, she also discovers that he i s possessed of enormous intelligence. In the story of Yinniang, after returning from her sojourn with the mendicant nun, the young woman chooses an itinerant mirror grinder for her husband, and we are told, her father dared not object. This man i s described as having no talents and the couple must be supported by Yin-niang 's father for a while. The husband has no active role i n the story except to follow his wife as she goes to the aid of various generals.-\ -72-Finally Yinniang decides to retire alone into the mountains and leaves her husband in the care of a patron. 'The woman as wooer' i s also an important element in the European tales. Bradamante and Britomart are tireless in their pursuit of their chosen husbands. At one point Bradamante prepares to fight to the death with another woman for the sake of her lover. As mentioned previously, Radigund continued the persecution of Artegall because he rejected her advances. The f i n a l important characteristic of the amazon tale i n both the West and the East i s that the amazon i s not l e f t to wander in her masculine role forever. The only exception to this i s when the story or play i s clearly an episode from a well known saga, such as that of the Yang family. In the Chinese tales, Miss Cloud and Hung Hsien disappear. Purple Silk and Yinniang go to join the Taoist immortals i n the mountains. Shih-san Mei, Hua Mu-lan, Kin Ping and Hu San-niang marry. It i s important to note that this conversion from the warrior's l i f e to that of a nei-jen does not require any d i f f i c u l t transition. After twelve years of li v i n g l i k e a man Hua Mu-lan simply walks into her old room, puts on her skirt, fashions her hair into an elaborate coiffure and becomes a woman. It would seem that femininity i s an innate condition for these women. In the European tales i n somewhat the same manner, Britomart and Bradamante become the founding mothers of great families. Clorinda and Camilla are k i l l e d i n battle. As the foregoing discussion indicates, the nu. chan-shih are the antithesis of the ideal Confucian woman because theylleave the domestic -73-sphere and adopt the status, behavior and dress of men. However, they also contravene a Western ideal of womanhood and thus are justly labelled by Western scolars as amazons. In the West however, amazon also refers to mythological kingdoms of women where the'single martial heroines were found i n great numbers. Chinese culture also harboured visions of many countries of women which scolars such as Eberhard have referred to as amazon countries. ^ s ih_ong with places such as the kingdoms of giants and pygmies, the lands of the g r i f f i n s , the two-headed people and the phoenixes, the amazon countries were always described, by both Chinese and Westerners as existing I o on the bounds of the known world. These Looking Glass kingdoms were forever beyond the horizon, either i n a spatial or a temporal sense, and by their barbaric nature they helped to define the boundaries of the c i v i l -ized world. ^ The fundamental barbaric aspect of both Western and Asian countries of women was that i n various ways and in varying degrees, the 'natural' asymmetrical relationship of the sexes was reversed with women occupying the positions of authority. In the extreme these kingdoms were imagined as Adamless Edens where women conceived children by copulating with strangers from neighboring tribes, by walking into magic lakes and rivers or by looking into enchanted wells. Male children were returned to their father's tribe, were murdered, or died naturally at._ an early age. In other cases these barbarian countries were described as matriarchies i n which men were assigned the roles, status and behavior usually be-longing to women i n the 'ci v i l i z e d ' nations. In one version of the Western . . -74-amazon myth for example, we read that: ..,.there was once.. .on the bounds of the inhabited world, a race which was ruled, by. women and followed a manner of l i f e unlike that Which prevails among us,/_Fpr i t was the custom among them .that the. women should practise, the arts of war and be required to serve i n the army...then, when the years of their service i n the f i e l d had expired, they went into the men for the procreation of children, but they kept i n their hand the administration of the magistracies and of the affairs of state. The men, however, l i k e our married women, spent their days about the house, carrying out the orders which were given them by their wives; and they took no part i n military campaigns or i n the affairs of the community by virtue of which they might become presumptuous and rise up against the women. [!] When the children were born the babies were turned over to the men...46 Likewise in Chinese writings such as the Han dynasty work Classic of  the Mountains and the Seas (Shan-hai Ching) which anticipated and perhaps inspired the Country of Women i n the novel Flowers i n the Mirror, we are told that: Among the south western barbarians...there i s a Kingdom of Women. Its women are fierce and i t s men respectful. A woman i s the ruler of the people and takes a nobleman to husband...Men are appointed as concubines...at most a hundred men, at least a single mate. 47 And i n the Kingdom of Women south of the Onion Range, "It i s their custom for women to make light of men. Women of the nobility have many male attendants, men cannot have female attendants..." For the social historian, the important link between the Kingdoms of Women and the martial heroines i s that they a l l are imaginative por-trayals of women who have assumed the roles, status, dress and behavior usually thought of as masculine and male. If literature i s functional, i f i t serves to maintain and stabilize the social order, to justify and sanctify i t s existence, how can we explain-:the existence of characters who are the antithesis of the ideal Confucian woman? -75-In an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Women on Top" ^ 7 Natalie Zemon Davis discusses various manifestations of the unruly woman i n early modern European fes-t i v a l and l i t e r a t u r e . Among these women out of place, the author includes many amazonian types such as Britomart and Clorinda. In an effort to d i s -cover the role of such anti-women i n European culture, Ms. Davis reviews 50 the studies of anthropologists such as Victor Turner i n which the authors discuss the characteristics and functions of r i t e s of status reversal (symbolic inversion). Central to Turner's discussion of r i t e s of status reversal and r i t e s of passage i s the concept of l i m i n a l i t y which the author expands from 51 i t s use i n Van Gennep's work The Rites of Passage. In t h i s work Van Gennep defined three phases i n t r a n s i t i o n r i t e s : The f i r s t phase, separation, comprises symbolic behavior s i g -n i f y i n g the detachment of the i n d i v i d u a l or group from either an e a r l i e r fixed point i n the social, structure or from an est-ablished set of c u l t u r a l conditions, (a state-) During the i n t e r -vening l i m i n a l period the state of the r i t u a l subject becomes ambiguous, neither here nor there, betwixt and between a l l f i x e d points of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; he passes through a symbolic domain that has few or none of the attributes of his past or coming state. • In the t h i r d phase the passage i s consummated and the r i t u a l subject...reenters the s o c i a l structure, often, but not always at a higher l e v e l . 52 According to Turner the ambiguity of t h i s l i m i n a l period i s charac-te r i s e d by symbolic representations of death and r e b i r t h , i n v i s i b i l i t y and anonymity, darkness, b i s e x u a l i t y , propertylessness and the wilderness. While stressing that l i m i n a l i t y i s a condition found both i n passage r i t e s and i n r i t e s of status reversal, Turner does point to an important d i s -t i n c t i o n . According to the author: ...one might contrast the l i m i n a l i t y of the strong (and getting stronger) with that of the permanently weak. The l i m i n a l i t y of those going up usually involves a putting down or a humbling of -76-the novice as i t s principal cultural constituent; at the same time, the liminality of the permanently structural inferior contains as i t s key social element a symbolic or make believe elevation of the r i t u a l subjects to positions of immanent authority. The stronger are made weaker, the weak act as though they were strong.. .53'•.[In the latter case the inferiors exercise r i t u a l authority over their superiors affecting] the rank and style of the superiors, sometimes to the extent of arraying themselves in a hierarchy mimicking the secular hier-archy of their so-called betters. 54 On the basis of descriptions such as the above, Natalie Davis con-cluded that the amazonian type i n Western literature and fest i v a l was a form of symbolic inversion, an instance of the permanently structural inferiors (women) mimicking the attributes of their superiors (men). Due to the similar asymmetrical relationship of the sexes in China, the nu chan-shih may also be seen as examples of. symbolic inversion. While noting that rites of passage and status reversal share the quality of liminality, Turner also suggested that the f i r s t r i t e i s often accompanied by the second. This would seem to be the situation which i s portrayed i n the novels A Tale of Compassionate Heroism and Flower 56 Shadows Behind the Curtain. In what may be termed the preliminal phase of A Tale of Compassionate  Heroism the young hero An Chi i s depicted as the equivalent of a nei-jen. He i s sheltered from the coarse outside world and i s compared more than once by family and friends to a l i t t l e g i r l . Then a series of separations from an ordered family environment and from parental figures mark the liminal phase of the story. An Chi's father, An Hsueh-hai, i s appointed to a post i n South-east China and he and his wife depart, leaving their son i n Peking to study for the examinations. Soon after his arrival, An Hsueh-hai i s held responsible for the co l -lapse of a flood dam whereupon he i s deprived of his post and ordered -77-to pay a considerable amount of money i n damages. On hearing this news, An Chi manages to borrow half of the required sum and sets out, accompanied by two trusted servants, on a long and per-ilous journey to save his father. Throughout this journey the author repeatedly employs images of darkness and death and depicts the extra-domestic environment as a hostile wilderness. A second separation occurs when the two'travelling companions ab-andon An Chi, one because of his mother's death, the second because of a serious i l l n e s s . Thereupon, An Chi i s entrusted to the care of two si n i s -ter donkey drivers. These men leave him alone at an inn, pretending to deliver a letter to An Chi's relatives at a nearby village but i n fact they plot to rob and k i l l the inexperienced young man. At this point when An Chi i s symbolically an orphan, portrayed as a weak and helpless victim, intimidated by the environment and the strangers at the inn, a mysterious young woman his own age rides into the court-yard. Though she too i s alone, her demeanour i s the opposite of An Chi's. She i s i n complete command,-ordering about the employees of the inn. The young woman sits i n the courtyard outside An Chi's room and stares at him. An Chi i s both frightened by this boldness^and at the- same time sexually attracted to a woman for the f i r s t time. In an effort to protect himself from this woman, An Chi asks the employees of the inn to place a great stone r o l l e r i n front of his door. The men are unable to move this stone but the young woman picks i t up with one hand and asks An Chi where he" would l i k e her to put i t . Anonymity i s the keynote as the two young people converse for the -78-f i r s t time. An Chi attempts to conceal his true identity and the young woman refuses to divulge her own name,.. Eventually An Chi breaks down i n • tears and t e l l s the woman his name and a l l of his troubles. She then de-parts instructing An Chi to wait for her return. However, the donkey drivers come back to the inn and force An Chi to continue the journey. On the evening of the f i r s t day they stop at a mon-astery where the monks secretly murder the donkey drivers. The abbot at-tempts to k i l l An Chi, f i r s t by poison and finally'by. tying him to a post and preparing to cut out his heart and eat i t . Just as the monk raises the knife to strike he i s k i l l e d by a projectile shot from the bow of a figure dressed i n red and silhouetted against the f u l l moon. At this moment An Chi faints, taking on the appearance of death. The figure turns out to be the young woman from the inn; and she unties An Chi and helps him to stand by handing him one end of her crossbow. At this point An Chi proclaims her to be the father and mother of his rebirth. }^  jtjft fe4 jfc ^ JX^T ' ****** ^ Chi i n a safe place, the young woman proceeds singlehandedly to k i l l a l l of the monks in the monastery. Following this bloodbath the young woman discovers the three members of the Chang family who had been captured by the monks and whose daughter Golden Phoenix i s a mirror image of herself, i n order that Golden Phoenix and An Chi may travel together without impropriety, the young woman (who now calls herself Shih-san Mei) arranges their bethrothal. She gives An Chi the rest of the funds for his father's release, and gives Golden Phoenix the money for her dowry. Shih-san Mei accompanies the Chang family and An Chi part of the way - 7 9 -on their journey but must return to care for her aged mother. Therefore she gives An Chi her crossbow and t e l l s him that at the sight of it ' any bandit i n the region w i l l become submissive. She also promises to return to the monastery and recover an inkstone engraved with the name of An Chi's father. On the journey the group does meet with bandits and An Chi handles the situation with a new found maturity and authority. Recognizing the crossbow, the bandits offer the travellers an escort for the rest of the passage. An. Chi.is subsequently reunited with his parents who are taken aback by his authoritative demeanour. He pays his father's debt and i s married to. Golden Phoenix. This marks the beginning of the postliminal phase of the novel and i t i s now necessary to put the world right-side-up by deal-ing with Shih-san Mei. By putting various clues together An Hsueh-hai, An Chi's rescued father, discovers the true identity of Shih-san Mei. Apparently her real name i s Jade Phoenix and she i s the daughter of An Hsueh-hai's late friend General Ho. From this moment An Hsueh-hai takes over the responsibility for Jade Phoenix's l i f e . Discovering the whereabouts of her mountain dwelling, An ,-Hsueh-hai goes to Jade Phoenix i n disguise with her crossbow over his shoulder. (Had she known that he was coming to reward her for saving his son she would have refused to see him.) A few days prior to An Hsueh-hai's arrival Jade Phoenix's mother had died and from this point in the story the author emphasizes the fact that Jade Phoenix i s an orphan in need of protection. An Hsueh-hai t e l l s her of her true identity and details of her child--80-hood. He also informs Jade Phoenix that the enemy she has been preparing to k i l l for so many years i s already dead. At this moment Phoenix attempts to commit suicide because, as she says, the main purpose of her l i f e i s over. However, she i s prevented from doing so because one of the adults has hidden her knife and for the f i r s t time her l i f e i s l i t e r a l l y out of her hands. An Hsueh-hai reveals his identity and persuades Jade Phoenix to ac-company her mother's coffin to a proper burial i n Peking. He promises that at the end of the year's mourning he w i l l allow her to become a nun. On the journey back to Peking Jade Phoenix has a dream i n which her dead parents do not recognize her but t e l l her that her destiny l i e s with the An family. In this dream An Chi appears and.angers Jade Phoenix to the point that she raises her hand to strike him. At this moment however, she discovers that she has lost a l l of her martial powers and she awakes with a start. By the end of the year of mourning, An Hsueh-hai has already decided that Jade Phoenix w i l l become An Chi's second wife. On the day that she i s to assume her religious vocation An Hsueh-hai presents Jade Phoenix with her parents' s p i r i t tablets and lectures her at length on her f i l i a l duty to marry and bear children. Using various arguments, including the idea that she has symbolically exchanged engagement gif t s with An Chi (the cross-bow and the inkstone), An Hsueh-hai convinces Jade Phoenix to marry his son. After the ceremony Jade Phoenix becomes a conventional nei-jen, im-mersing herself i n domestic affairs and giving birth to a boy. For his part, An Chi takes the examinations and continues his rise i n the hierarchy by becoming a respected and renowned o f f i c i a l . It i s interesting to note that this same pattern appears i n the early -81-Ch'ing novel Flower Shadows Behind the Curtain. In this story the young man Hsiao Ko i s also separated from his mother and on a journey i n search of her i s abandoned by his travelling companion. like An Chi, he i s described by family and friends as g i r l - l i k e and passive. Alone, i n a desolate forest, Hsiao Ko encounters the daughter of a bandit chief, a strong assertive woman named Kin Ping. Kin Ping prevents her father from k i l l i n g Hsiao Ko and eating his heart. However, the bandit chief forces the young man to witness a mass execution of prisoners. Fol-lowing this^ bloodbath Hsiao Ko i s bethrothed to Kin Ping. Leaving Kin Ping behind, Hsiao Ko continues his journey and i s even-tually reunited with his mother. Like An Chi's parents, she too i s aston-ished at her son's maturity and authoritative a i r . Finally, after both of Kin Ping's parents have died she i s reunited with Hsiao Ko. After a year she gives birth to a boy while Hsiao Ko becomes a wealthy o f f i c i a l . While the nu chan-shih and the countries of women may be seen as exampl of symbolic inversion, the problem of the function of these characters must s t i l l be considered. As Natalie Davis points out, students of this phen-omenon generally agree that rites of symbolic inversion are functional: They can clarify, the structure by the process of reversing . i t . They can provide an expression of and a safety valve for conflicts within the system...But, so i t i s agreed, they do not question the basic order of the society i t s e l f . They can renew the system, but they cannot change i t . 57 The stories of the nu. chan-shih define and c l a r i f y the normal or the c i v i l i z e d by contrasting i t to the abnormality of the martial woman and to the barbarism of the countries of women. As Turner notes, "nothing eg underlines regularity so much as absurdity and paradox." They clearly -82-offer instruction i n the appropriate roles for men and women and def i n i -59 tions of masculine and feminine. But perhaps most importantly they remind women and teach men that masculine attributes are associated with higher status. For as one scholar remarks i n connection with the legends of female transvestite saints i n medieval Europe: That a female might desire to be a male... seemed to be a healthy desire, a normal longing not unlike the desire of a peasant to become a noble. This did not mean that either women or peasants were allowed to cross the status lines i n any great numbers, but that the desire to do so was accepted as a norm. 60 • • • Males on the other hand, lost status i f they wore-items of female apparel, and the only way that society could justify such a loss was through attaching erotic con-notations to such conduct which made i t both dangerous and sinful. 6 l According to this author, the only time that male cross-dressing was tolerated was during festivals when usual standards of behavior were l a i d aside or among male actors who were already regarded as status-less and outside of the caste system. As the single martial women were used to cl a r i f y the social structure, I so too were the tales of past or barbarian matriarchies. Joan Bamberger 62 i n an article entitled "The Myth of Matriarchy" describes such legends as examples of 'myth as social charter' for they offer justification "for male dominance through the evocation of a vision of a catastrophic altern-ative - a society dominated by women." It i s interesting to note that Johann Bachofen, who published the earliest and most popular study of mat-riarchy i n 1861, conceived of matriarchy as a liminal period i n the ev-olution of humankind from i t s chaotic infancy to i t s patriarchal adult-hood. ^ -83-The tales of the martial women seem to indicate that there i s a need to define and reinforce constantly,^ masculine and feminine roles, behavior and status. As the women train for their martial careers and as the young men travel through their perilous r i t e s of passage, the stories clearly reveal the attitude that masculinity (as opposed to fernininity) i s an achieve-ment, something which must be learned and earned. Femininity i s something so natural that young women easily f a l l into i t and indeed young men must be forced away from i t . Older men must avoid femininity at the risk of their lives and self esteem. That this constant struggle to achieve an ideal and a r t i f i c i a l pol-arization of the sexes i s responsible for much anxiety and conflict i s evidenced by the almost universal association of symbolic androgyny with 65 Utopias. Of androgynous gods and paradises Joseph Campbell writes that, "they conduct the mind beyond objective experience into the symbolic realm 66 where duality i s l e f t behind." The male transvestite actors i n ludruk drama: ...often accentuate the fact that they combine male and female elements by clearing their throats i n a gruff bass, and spec-tators never t i r e of discussing the fact that the transvestite singer i s really, a man, although he looks lik e a woman. 67 These androgynous figures are i n turn associated with the utopian image of Javanese court culture, with the idea of communitas, eroticism without procreation, and the innocence of childhood. Similarly, i n the novel Flowers in the Mirror, while the Country of Women i s depicted' as a place of danger and anxiety, the Country, of the Sexless People i s depic-ted as a utopia. It may well be that i n the case of the martial woman, the combination - 8 4 -of masculine dress and behavior with female beauty and sexuality i s meant to serve as an androgynous symbol. Surely this androgyny i s reaffirm-ed when i n both the West and East, a male actor portrays a woman masquer-ading as a man. While the characters teach about the polarization of the sexes, at the same time they may be offering a brief respite from this structure. Finally, I suggest that the stories of the martial women provide re-lease for the conflicts which occur between the legitimate authority of men and the considerable informal power of women, particularly i n the domestic sphere. Though this power i s acknowledged in the stories i t i s ultimately destroyed, overcome or pushed- away into the boundaries of ci v i l i z a t i o n and perhaps the concious mind. As Joan Bamberger writes: Young adolescent males learn as part of the i n i t i a t i o n process that men, not women, rule i n their society, although this fact may well contradict other expectations prevalent i n childhood domestic experience. As the male offspring of female supervised households, young boys need to be reeducated with regard- to their future social and p o l i t i c a l roles... The'-'myth of the Rule of Women i n i t s many variants may be re-garded as a replay of these crucial transitional stages i n the l i f e cycle of an individual male. • 68 Similarly, the psychologist Philip Slater, writing of the victory of Theseus over the amazons notes that, " i t seems l i k e l y that the Victory Over the Women, so conspicuous i n Athenian lore, primarily describes an 69 event i n the emotional l i f e of each male child." Clearly the two male 'adolescents An Chi and Hsiao Ko, are portrayed as rejecting their fem-inine elements and in fact i t i s they who become anti-women. At the same time their maturity i s marked by the rule over and subjugation of rather 70 obvious mother figures i n the form of Shih-san Mei and Kin Ping. -85-While. the f i c t i o n a l accounts of the martial women, li k e r i t e s of status reversal, may be seen to be functional through instruction and re-lease, Natalie Davis suggests that these unruly women could undermine as well as reinforce the social structure, that they could "widen behavioral 71 options for women..." While this problem must be raised i t i s clear from Ms. Davis' article that i t i s d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible to document such influence. At present, for example, the consensus would seem to be that the warrior Joan of Arc was influenced not by the amazon myths but 72 by tales of the female transvestlte saints. However, there i s not much evidence for this assumption. Similarly, i n the case of the revolutionary martyr Ch'iu Chin, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to separate out the strands of her remarkable development. While she.1 did. write of Joan of Arc and of fi c t i o n a l female warriors, she appears 73 to have been equally influenced by the historical warrior Chin Liang-yu and by women such as Sophia Perovskya and Madame Roland. As Mary Wright has shown, i n studying Ch'iu''Chin's rejection of the typical female role one must take into account not only the myriad influences at work through f i c t i o n but as well the influence of an unusually l i b e r a l upbringing. Consequently, while I agree with the suggestion that the problem of 'spillover' must be studied, I suggest that the f i c t i o n a l tales of the martial women and the kingdoms of women were used.to reinforce and sanc-t i f y the asymmetrical relationship of thelsexes i n Europe and in China. The rule of women in the public sphere was, and continues to be, the stuff of fantasy. - 8 6 -NOTES TO CHAPTER IV M.Rankin, "The Emergence of Women at the End of the Ch'ing: The Case of Ch'iu Chin," Women i n Chinese Society ed. M. Wolf and R. Witke (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1974), p. 53 2 For example, E. Schafer writes that, "[in place of the universal mother] and i n place of the dreaming, haunted shamanesses of antiquity, we get, i n the Yellow River Valley at least, the survival of the anti-woman or amazon- warrior viragoes lik e Hua Mulan, and vigorous politicians li k e the Empress Wu." E. Schafer, The Vermilion Bird (Los Angeles: Univer-sity of Californai Press, 1967) p. 80 C. Wright, "The Amazons i n Elizabethan Literature," Studies i n  Philology vol. "37 no. 2 (1940), p. 433 The characteristics of the nu chan-shih are compiled from the follow-ing characters: Ch'iu Chu i n "Madame Yang Studies the Stars," S. Gamble, Chinese Village  Plays (Amsterdam: Philo Press, 1970): 429-439 and i n C. T. Hsia, "The Military Romance: A Genre in Chinese Fiction," Studies i n Chinese Literary  Genres ed. C. Birch (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974), PP« 373-375. Fan Li-hua i n "Cursing at the City Wall," Chinese Village Plays:- 643-648 and i n C.T. Hsia, "The Military Romance..." pp. 377-378 Hu San-niang i n J. H. Jackson (tr.) Water Margin (Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1937), vol. 2 p.665 Hua Mu-lan i n Y. Tchen, "La Chinoise des Origines au xx Siecle," Histoire Mondiale de l a Femme (Paris: Nouvelle Librairie.de" France, 1967) vol. 2 pp. 396-397 and i n F. Ayscough, Chinese Women, Yesterday and Today (London: Jonathon Cape, 1938): 131-135 and i n Wang Fan-t'ing, Chung-hua  l i - t a i fu-nu. (TaipeiCommercial Press, 1966), pp. 131-135 Hung Hsien i n the T'ang short story "Hung Hsien" found i n J. J. Y. Liu, The Chinese Knight-Errant, pp. 90-91 and i n E. D. Edwards, Chinese  Prose Literature of the T'ang Period (London: Arthur Probsthain, 1938) vol. 2 pp. 123-127 Kin Ping i n Flower Shadows Behind the Curtain (New York: Pantheon, 1959) chapters 31 and 33 Madame Sung in Flower Shadows Behind the Curtain chapters 24 and 25 Miss Cloud i n the eighteenth century short story "Miss Cloud" found i n W. Bauer, The Golden Casket (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1964) pp. 344-34-6 Purple Silk i n L i Ju-chen, Flowers i n the.Mirror Berkeley, 1965 Shih-san Mei in Wen K'ang, A Tale of Compassionate Heroism (Erh-nii Ying-hsiung chuan (Hong Kong: Ta-tung shu-chu, n.d.) Yinniang i n the T'ang dynasty short story "Yinniang the Swordswoman" found i n J.J. Y. Liu, The Chinese Knight-Errant, pp. 89-90 and i n C.C. Wang, Traditional Chinese Tales (Ne.w York: Columbia University Press, 1944) pp. 98-103 -87-NOTES TO CHAPTER IV (Con't) The characteristics of the amazonian type are compiled from the f o l -lowing: Bradamante in Ludovico Ariosto, Orlando Furioso ( Oxford at the Clar-edon Press, 1972) Britomart i n Edmund Spenser, Faerie Queene (Oxford at the Claredon Press, 1968) Camilla i n V i r g i l , Aeneid ( New York:Charles Scribners, 1951) Clorinda i n Torquato Tasso, Jerusalem Delivered (New York: Capricorn Books, 1963) C. Wright, "The Amazons i n Elizabethan Literature." M. Rosaldo and L. Lamphere(eds.) Woman, Culture and Society(Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1974) ^The general thesis i s discussed i n three articles i n Woman, Culture  and Society: M. Rosaldo, "Woman, Culture and Society: A Theoretical Overview," pp. 17-42 ' N. Chodorow, "Family Structure and Feminine Personality," pp. 43-66 S. Ortner, "Is Female to Male as Nature i s to Culture?" pp. 67-87 On this same -topic see also: N. Chodorow, "Being and Doing: A Cross-cultural Examination of the. Socialization of Males and Females," i n Woman i n Sexist Society ed. V. Gornick and B. Morgan (New York: Basic Books, (1971):173-197 P. Slater, The Glory of Hera: Greek Mythology and the Greek Family (Boston: Beacon Press, 1968) part 1: Origins and Consequences K. Millet, Sexual Po l i t i c s (New York: Avon Books,1971), PP- 43-87 L i Chi: Book of Rites translated by James Legge (New York: University Books 1967) 2 vols. "i b i d . , vol. 1 p. 449 R^. Van Gulik, Sexual Life i n Ancient China (Leiden: E.J. B r i l l , 196l) P- 45 M. Rankin in "The Emergence of Women at the End of the Ch'ing" writes that: By the l890's orthodox views of women had been compromised i n many ways. Nonetheless, i t was s t i l l accepted that women functioned mainly within the household and men without. Education and l i t e r a r y s k i l l s which foremen were stepping stones to power and prestige, remained largely an adornment even for the most admired and able women, p.44 L i Chi: Book of Rites vol. 1 p. 479 -88-NOTES TO CHAPTER IV (Con't) 11 Yinniang, Madame Sung, Hua Mu-lan, the Yang women and Kin Ping are a l l daughters of military men. Hung Hsien i s i n lifelong service to a general. 12 her sister, Yang Wan-hua eventually follows her. 13 "^Madame Yang Studies the Stars" p. 434 1 Z * V i r g i l , Aeneid, p. 319 15' Torquato Tasso,Jerusalem Delivered, p. 245 l6 E. Spenser, -Faerie Queene, p. 366 vol. -1 17 An interesting American legend combines the themes of bandit/citizen and male/female. A popular story told of Belle Starr, Queen of the Bandits, has i t that this notorious bandit disguised herself as a man and rode into town. In a crowded inn, she had to share a room and a bed with the county judge. Only as Belle rode off i n the morning did she inform the judge of her true identity. B. Rascoe, Belle Starr the Bandit Queen (New York: Random House, 1941), pp. 19-21 18 "Madame Yang Studies the Stars" p. 434 19 A scene from the Mu-lan play-by Hsu Wei (1521-93) described by F. Ayscough, Chinese Women, Yesterday and Today, pp. 217-219 20 In the version of the tale related by Ysia Tchen, Mu-lan's disguise works so well that she i s offered the hand of a general's daughter i n marriage. A similar situation i s found in the European epic poem Huan de Bordeaux (1220). A young woman named Ide served i n male disguise i n the Holy Roman Emperor's troops. In recognition of her valor she i s given the hand of the emperor's daughter i n marriage. When her true sex i s discovered she i s con-demned to death but God answers her prayers and turns her into a man at the last moment. Discussed i n J. Foster, Sex Variant Women i n Literature (Lon-don: F. Muller, 1958), p. 34 2 1"Cursing at the City Wall" p. 646 - 8 9 -NOTES TO CHAPTER IV (Con't) 22 C. Wright, "The Amazons i n Elizabethan Literature" p. 441 "23 ..I. suspect that many of the combats between men and women i n both Chinese and Western literature are meant as metaphors for sexual intercouse. In.his book Sexual Life i n Ancient China, R. H. Van Gulik discusses the popular use of military terniinology to describe intercourse, p. 157 and pp. 278-279 2^"Hung Hsien," E.D. Edwards, Chinese Prose Literature of the T'ang  Period, vol. 2 p. 126. Shih-san Mei also comments on the fact that being born a woman i s bad luck. Wen K'ang, Erh-iiij. Ying-hsiung.Chuan p. 66 25 Wen K'ang,' Erh-nu Ymg-hsiung1 Chuan, p. 119 26 E. Spenser, Faerie Queene, vol. 2 p. 203 and p. 214 2^"Ts'ui Shen-ssu's Wife," J.J.Y. Liu, The Chinese Knight-Errant, pp. 96-97 On this subject see; M. Wolf, Women and the Family i n Rural Taiwan (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1972) and, E. Ahern, "The Power and Pollution of Chinese Women," Women in Chinese Society, pp. 193-214 2<^M. Rosaldo, "Woman, Culture and Society," pp. 21-22 P. Slater, The Glory of Hera, pp. 7-9 30 E. Spenser, Faerie Queene, v. 1 p. 351 -^T. Tasso, Jerusalem Delivered, p. 32 3 2Diodorus Sicuius (Diodorus of S i c i l y ) Translated by CH. Oldfather (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1953.)» vol. 2 p. 249 C. Wright, "The Amazons of Elizabethan Literature," pp. 452-453 -^"Hung Hsien," E. D. Edwards, Chinese Prose Literature of the T'ang  Period, p. 125 -90-NOTES TO CHAPTER IV (Cori't) ^ C . Wright, "The Amazons i n Elizabethan Literature," p. 454 35 Many of these women are also literate, thus trained xn two masculine occupations. There are also tales in Chinese culture of women such as Lin Yu-yu who dress as men and enjoy careers as students and degree candidates. These stories would require a separate study. C. T. Hsia includes a quotation from the military romance Feng-shen "In battle you should exercise special caution against three types of opponents: Taoist priests, monks, and women. These three types of warriors, i f they do not belong to heretical sects, usually com-mand magic arts. Since they rely on such arts, you w i l l certainly be injured i f you are not careful. C. T. Hsia, "The Military Romance," p. 373 37 Wen K'ang, Erh-nli Ying-hsiung chuan, p. 67 ^8R.H. Van Gulik, Sexual Life i n Ancient China, p. 75- The Dark G i r l was also believed to be an instructress i n methods of sexual intercourse, another example of the comparison of battle and sex. On the subject of women and magic i n China Eberhard writes that,"Wu , the normal Chinese word for shaman, sorcerer and magician, really always designated a female shaman, sorcerer or magician." W. Eberhard, The Local Cultures of South and East China (Leiden:E.J. B r i l l , 1 9 6 8 ) p . 30"o" -^J.J.Y. Liu, The Chinese Knight-Errant, p. 85 ^ 0"Cursing at the City Wall," p. 645 i 1 There i s much about this episode which suggests the' treatment of Merchant Lin i n the Country of Women i n the novel Flowers i n the Mirror. ^2W. Eberhard, "Ideas About Social Reforms i n the Novel Ching Hua  Yuan," Festschrift fur A. Jensen (Munich,1968), p. 117 and p. 118 ^Sources on the Western amazonian kingdoms include: H. Diner, Mot hers-' and' Amazon s (New York: Julian Press, 1965) D. Sobol, The Amazons of Greek Mythology (New Jersey: A.S. Barnes, 1972) -91-NOTES TO CHAPTER IV (Con't) Diodorus of S i c i l y , Translated by CH. Oldfather. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1953^ Throughout volume 2 . For the amazonian kingdoms in Chinese culture' see: P. Pe l l i o t , Notes on Marco Polo vol. 2 (Paris: Librairie Adrien-Mais-onneuve, 1963): 671-725 W. Rockbill, The Land of the Lamas (London: Longmans, I 8 9 I ) , p. 3 3 9 ^"For descriptions of the continual movement of the mythologial kingdoms to unexplored regions see; D. Sobol, The Amazons of Greek Mythology, p. 114 and C. Wright,"The Amazons of Elizabethan Literature," p. 434 45 For example, see P. Pe l l i o t , Notes on Marco Polo, p. 675 ^Diodorus of S i c i l y , vol. 2 p. 249 ^P. Pelliot, Notes on Marco Polo, p. 679 ^ I b i d . , pp. 694-695 49 N. Z. Davis, "Women on Top," Society and Culture i n Early Modern  France,(Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1975): 124-151 50 V. Turner, The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure (Chicogo: Aldine,1969) and Dramas Fields and Metaphors (Ithica: Cornell University Press, 1974) M. Gluckman, "Rituals of Rebellion i n South-East Africa," Order  and Rebellion i n Tribal Africa (Londen: Cohen and West, 1963) A. Van Gennep, The Rites of Passage Translated by M Vizedon. (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1965), P- 11 52 As described by V. Turner i n The Ritual Process, pp. 94-95 5 3 I b i d . , p. 168 5 Z fIbid., p. 167 5 5 I b i d . , p. 171 NOTES TO CHAPTER IV (Con't) -^The similarity i n the themes of these two novels has not hitherto been noticed. ^N. Davis, "Women on Top," p. 130 5a V. Turner, The Ritual Process, p. 176 'Magical transvestism also helps to reinforce the definitions of masculine and feminine. For a discussion of cross-dressing for supersti-tious reasons see H. Levy, Chinese Footbinding:" The History of a Curious  Erotic Custom (New York: Walton Rawls, 1966), pp. 192-196 D UV. Bullough, "Transvestites i n the Middle Ages." American Journal  of Sociology vol. 79 (1974), p. 1392 6 l I b i d . , p. 1381 6 2 J . Bamberger, "The Myth of Matriarchy: Why Men Rule i n Primitive Society," Woman, Culture and Society pj5; 263-280 6 3 I b i d . , p. 279 J.J. Bachofen, Myth Religion and Mother Right. Translated by R. Manheim. (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1967) Matriarchy i s followed by patriarchy and preceeded by unregulated hetaerism. The Demetrian ordered matriarchy thus assumes a middle position, representing the transition of mankind from the lowest stage of existence to the highest, p. 198 65 On androgyny see; J. Campbell, The Hero With a Thousand Faces (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1968), pp. 152-156 M. Delcourt, Hermaphrodite: Myths and Rites of the Bisexual Figure  i n Classical Antiquity (London: Studio Books. 1961) ' j . Campbell, The Hero With a Thousand Faces,p.. 152 _93-NOTES TO CHAPTER IV (Con't) 67 J. Peacock, Rites of Modernization,p. 198 ^J. Bamberger, "The Myth of Matriarchy" p. 277 69 7P. Slater, The Glory of Hera, p. 393 70 Th'e rejection of the feminine aspect and the victory over the women i s repeated i n Greek myths. Hercules, Theseus and Achilles a l l spent part of their lives dressed as and behaving as women. Theseus married the amazon Antiope and defeated the amazons at Athens. Hercules married the amazon Deneira and decimated the Asiatic amazons. Achilles k i l l e d the last amazon on the battle f i e l d of Troy. 7 1N. Davis, "Women on Top," p. 131 7 2V..Bullough, "Transvestites i n the Middle Ages," pp. 1389-1390 73 On Chin liang-yu see A. Hummel, Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period '(Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1943) pp. 168-169 7^M .Rankin, "The Emergence of Women at the End of the Ch'ing: the Case of Ch'iu Chin," pp. 52-53 \ CONCLUSION In the preparation of this study I have ranged over a wide f i e l d to gather together representative tales from the yu-hsia tradition; my method, not entirely conventional for an historian, has been somewhat li k e that of the messengers of the Han prince who traversed the kingdom in order to collect the songs of the people. The task was undertaken with similar expectations to those of the prince; that an examination of these tales / would lead one to an understanding of various aspects of the milieu from which they arose. In the past, those few scholars who have attended to this rich t r a d i -tion have approached their material as i f i t were the equivalent of archival documents. Consequently, what they learned of the historical world from the yu-hsia tales was restricted to such social facts as the apparent class origins and common activities of the hsia. However, as this discussion has attempted to demonstrate, what the Han prince learned of the world outside his window while listening to the songs and what the student of the yu-hsia tradition w i l l discover while reviewing such tales as Water Margin, i s precisely that which archival records so often conceal. The yu-hsia literature reveals how people i n traditional Chinese society understood various aspects of their environ-ment, their beliefs about i t , and the ways i n which they attempted -to control i t . While this l i t e r a r y tradition expresses a variety of attitudes, i t primarily reveals the understanding of society as an ordered hierarchy at the apex of which si t s the ultimate font of justice, the emperor. According -95-to the yu-hsia tales, i n this system poverty and injustice are aber-rations rather than the norm. Thus, i n this particularized form these ab-errations may be dealt with by the social bandit who acts as the agent of the community. Problems are solved through heroic self-sacrifice and not through mass rebellion against authority. The frequent bloody battles i n these tales between the forces of good and e v i l are important cathartic elements as justice i s seen and f e l t to be done. In addition however, bloody battles between men and women are an important cathartic element i n those tales which deal specifically with female social bandits. While the nii-hsia tales express similar values i n regard to the gen-eral structure and functioning of society as do those told of their male counterparts,, they particularly stress the idea that a harmonious society should be composed of a hierarchy of the sexes. Nii-hsia tales seem to pro-vide instruction, i n the definitions of masculine and feminine and i n the roles, status and behavior which are appropriate to men and women. However, they also reveal that .this a r t i f i c i a l polarization i s the source of considerable tension and attempt to deal with this through various cathartic devices such as the battles mentioned above. In the future, studies of the Chinese social bandit might focus on the period 1850-1911 when the yu-hsia tradition seems to have played a complex role in Chinese society. It was during this era that the novel A Tale of  Compassionate Heroism enjoyed i t s greatest success. It was followed, i n 1879, by the social bandit novel Three Hsia and Five Altruists (San-hsia  Wu-yi) and i t s many sequels. Eventually these popular tales provided"the subjects for the f i r s t films made i n China i n the early twentieth century. -96-In_light of this immense popularity i t would be interesting to i n -vestigate, the use of the, yu-hsia tradition by various organizations and personalities of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Doc-uments, folksongs and folktales relating to secret societies such as the Ko-lao Hui (Elder Brothers Society) and the Hsiao-tao Hui (Small Swords Society) could be examined in an effort to determine exactly how these groups were influenced by the social bandit tales. In addition, individuals involved i n p o l i t i c a l activities i n the late Ch'ing apparently used the jen-hsia or social bandit s p i r i t , to enhance their various philosophies. Liang Ch'i-ch'ao, the reformer, seems to have identified the yu-hsia with radical patriotism and the revolutionary martyr Ch'iu Chin also made use of this tradition to express her ideals. Finally, while this study has emphasized the similarities between cultural expressions i n China and the West, future investigations may dis-cover an equal number of differences. For example, the attitudes toward women expressed i n both Western and Chinese amazonian literature appear to be similar. However, the male female hierarchy was much stricter i n China and thus symbolic sexual inversion may have been more widespread both i n literature and i n f e s t i v a l . In spotlighting the expressive and instrumental elements of the yu-hsia literature, the foregoing discussion has attempted to demonstrate that this tradition i s a promising and vi r t u a l l y untouched f i e l d of study and that particular problems concerning the yu-hsia warrant intensive analysis on the part of students .of Chinese social history. -97-BIBLIOGRAPHY I. WESTERN LANGUAGE SOURCES Ahern, Emily. "The Power and Pollution of Chinese Women" i n Margery Wolf and Roxane Witke (eds.) Women i n Chinese Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1974: 193-214 Albrecht, Milton. "The Relationship of Literature and Society", American  Journal of Sociology volume 59 no. 5 (March 1954): 425-436 Ariosto, Ludovico. Orlando Furioso. Translated by Sir John Harrington. Oxford at the Claredon Press, 1972 Auerbach, Eric. Mimesis: The Representation of Reality i n Western Literature. New Jersey .'Princeton University Press, 1953 Ayscough, Florence. Chinese Women, Yesterday and Today. 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The Hero With a Thousand Faces. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1968 Chesneaux, Jean. Secret Societies i n China i n the,Nineteenth and Twentieth  Centuries.Translated by G i l l i a n Nettle. London: Heinemann, 1971 -98-ed. Popular Movements and Secret Societies i n China, 1840-1950. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1972 Chevalier, Louis. Laboring Classes and Dangerous Classes. Translated by Frank Jellinek. New York: H. Fertig, 1973 Chih Pien. "The Current Criticism of Water Margin", Chinese Literature no. 12 (1975): 82-85 Chodorow, Nancy. "Being and Doing: A Cross-Cultural Examination of the Socialization of Males and Females", i n Vivian Gornick and Barbara Morgan (eds.) Woman i n Sexist Society New York : Basic Books, 1971: 173-197 Ch'u, T'ung-tsu. Han Social Structure Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1972 Davis, Natalie, Zemon. "Women on Top", Society and Culture i n Early Modern  France.Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1975: 124-151 Delcourt, Marie. Hermaphrodite: Myths and Rites of the Bisexual Figure i n Classical Antiquity. Translated by Jennifer Nicholson. /London: Studio Books, 1961 Diner, Helen. Mothers and Amazons. Translated by John Lundin. New York: Julian Press, 1965 Diodorus of Sicily.Translated by C. H. Oldfather. Vol. 2. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1953 Eberhard, Wolfram. The Local Cultures of South and East China. Translated by Alide''Eberhard. Leiden: E. J. B r i l l , 1968 "Ideas About Social Reform i n the Novel Ching Hua Yuan", Festschrift fur A. Jensen. Munich, 1968: 113-121 Edwards, E. D. Chinese Prose Literature of the T'ang Period, vol. 2 London: Arthur Probsthain, 1938 Fitzgerald, C. P. "The Chinese Novel as a Subversive Force", Mean.jin. vol. 10 no. 3 (1951): 259-266 Fleming, J. V. "Historians and the Evidence of Literature", Journal of Interdisciplinary T THistory. vol. 4 no. 1 (1973-74): 95-105 Foster, Jeanette. Sex Variant, Women i n Literature. London: F. Muller, 1958 Frye, Northrope. Anatomy of Criticism. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1957 Gamble, Sydney ed. Chinese Village Plays From the T'ing Hsien Region. Amsterdam: Philo Press, 1970 - 9 9 -Gluckman, Max. "Rituals of Rebellion i n South-east Africa", i n Order and Rebellion i n Tribal Africa London: Cohen and West, 1963: 110-136 Goldmann, Lucien. "The Sociology of Literature", International Social  Science Journal vol. 19 no. 4 (1967): 493-516 Goodlad, John S. R. A Sociology of Popular Drama. Londan: Heinemann, 1971 Goodrich, Luther' C. The Literary Inquisition of Ch'ien-lung. Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1935 Han, Yu-shan. Elements of Chinese Historiography California: W.M. Hawley,1955 Hilton, R. H. "The Origins ofSRobin Hood", Past and Present 14 (November 1958): 69-93 Ho, Ping-ti. "Records of the Grand Historian: Some Problems of Translation", Pacific Affairs vol. 36 no. 2 (1963): 171-182 Hobsbawm, Eric J. Bandits London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1969 Holt, J.C. "Origins and Audience of the Robin Hood Ballads", Past and Present 18 (November i960): 89-110 Hsia, C. T. The Classic Chinese Novel New York: Columbia University Press, 1968 "The Military Romance: A Genre i n Chinese Fiction", i n Cy r i l Birch (ed.) Studies i n Chinese Literary Genres Berkeley: Univ-ersity, of California Press, 1'974: 339-390 Huang, J. C. Heroes and V i l l a i n s i n Communist China New York: Pica Press, 1973 Hulsewe, H. F. P. "Notes on the Historiography of the Han Period", i n W. G. Beasley and E. G. Pulleyblank (eds.) Historians of China  and Japan London: Oxford University Press, 1961: 31-43 Hummel, Arthur. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1943 Humphries, Rolf. ,The Aeneid of V i r g i l : A Verse Translation New York: Scribners, 1951 Irwin, Richard G. I. The Evolution of a Chinese. Novel: Shui-hu-chuan Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1953 Jackson, J. H. (tr.) Water Margin 2 vols. Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1937 Kean, Vladimir (tr.) Ko-Iien Hua-Ying- Flower Shadows Behind the Curtain. New York: Pantheon, 1959 -100-Keen, Maurice. The Outlaws of Medieval Legend Toronto: University of Tor-onto Press, 1961 Laurenson, Diana and Swingewood, Alan. The Sociology of Literature London: MacGibbon and Kee, 1972 Leenhardt, Jacques. "The Sociology of Literature: Some Stages i n Its His-tory". International Social Science Journal vol. 19 no. 4 (1967): 517-533 Legge, James. L i Chi: Book of Rites 2 vols. New York: University Books, 1967 Lehman, A. G. "The Writer as Canary", Journal of Contemporary History vol. 2 no. 2 (1967): 15-24 Levy, Howard. Chinese Footbinding: The History of a Curious Erotic Custom New York: Walton Rawls, 1966 L i , Hsi-fan. "A Great Novel of Peasant Revolt", Chinese Literature vol. 12 no. 12 (1959): 62-71 L i , Ju-chen. Flowers i n the Mirror"Translated by Lin;;.Tai-yi Berkeley: University of California Press, 1965 Liu, James J. Y. The Chinese Knight-Errant London: Routledge and Kegan Paul 1967 Lo wenthai, Leo. Literature, Popular Culture and Society. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 196T ' Masubuchi, Tatsuo. "The Yu-hsia and the Social Order i n the Han Period", The Annals of the Hitotsubuchi Academy vol. 3 no. 1 (1952):84-101 Millet, Kate Sexual P o l i t i c s New York: Avon Books, 1971 Morris, Ivan. The World of the Shining, Prince: Court Life i n Ancient Japan New York: Knopf, 1964 1 ~ ' Peacock, James L. Rites of Modernization:Symbolic and Social Aspects of Indonesian Proletarian Drama Chicago :•. University of Chicago Press, T9S8 '• Pelliot, Paul. Notes On Marco Polo vol. 2 Paris: Librairie Adrien-Maison-neuve, 1963 Pospelov,G. N. "Literature and Sociology", International Social Science  Journal vol. 19 no. 4 (1967): 534-549 Prusek, Jarpslav, "The Realistic and Lyric Elements in the Chinese Medieval Story", Chinese Literature and History Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1970: 385-395 "Les contes chinois du Moyen-age comme source de l'histoire economique et sociale sous les dynasties des Sung et des Yuan",, .. . -101-Ghinese Literature and History Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1970: 467—494 Rankin, Mary B.. "The Revolutionary Movement i n Chekiang: A Study in the Tenacity of Tradition", i n Mary C. Wright (ed.) China i n Revolution: The Fi r s t Phase New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968:319-361 "The Emergence of Women at the End of the Ch'ing: The Case of Ch'iu Chin", i n Margery Wolf and Roxane Witke (eds.) Women i n  Chinese Society Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1974:39-66 Rascoe, B. Belle Starr the Bandit Queen New York: Random House, 1941 Ritson, Joseph. Robin Hood London: J. C. Nimmo, 1885 Rockhill, William. The Land of the Lamas London: Longmans, 1891 Rockwell, Joan. Fact i n Fiction London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1974 Rosaldo, Michelle (ed.) Woman, Culture and Society Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1974 Ruhlmann, Robert. "Traditional Heroes in Chinese Popular Fiction", i n Arthur Wright (ed.) The Confucian Persuasion Stanford: Stanford University Press, i960: 141-176" Schafer, Edward. The Vermilion Bird Los Angeles: University of California Press, 19"o7 Schram, Stuart. Mao Tse-T'ung Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1972 Schurmann, H. F. "On Social Themes in Sung Tales", Harvard Journal of Asiatic  Studies vol. 20 (1957): 239-261 Shih Chung. "What Sort of Novel i s Water Margin?", Chinese Literature vol. 12 no. 12 (1975): 86-94 Slater, P h i l l i p . The Glory of Hera: Greek Mythology and the Greek Family Boston: Beacon Press,1968 Smith, J. C. (ed.) Spenser's Faerie Queene 2 vols. Oxford at the Claredon Press, Fourth edition, 1968 Sobol, Donald. The Amazons i n Greek Mythology New Jersey: A.S. Barnes, 1972 Spearman, Diana. The Novel and Society London: Routledge and Kegan Paul,1966 Steckmesser, Kent L. 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Beasley and E. G. Pulleyblank (eds.) Historians of China and Japan London: Oxford University Press, 1961: 24-30 . Van Gennep, Arnold. The Rites of Passage Translated by M. Vizedon London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1965 Van Gulik, R. H. Sexual Life i n Ancient China Leiden: E.J. B r i l l , 196l Wang, Chi-Chen. Traditional Chinese Tales New York: Columbia University Press, 1944 Watson, Burton. Ssu-ma Ch'ien: Grand Historian of China New York: Columbia University Press, 1958 : Records of the Grand Historian of China 2 vols. New York: Columbia University Press, 196l Records of the Historian: Chapters from the Shih Chi New York: Columbia University Press, 1969 ™ ' Courtier and Commoner i n Ancient China New York: Columbia . University Press, 1974 Watson, George. The Study of Literature London: Penguin Press, 1969 Wellek, Rene. Theory of literature New York: Harcourt Brace, 1942 Wolf, Margery. Women and the Family i n Rural Taiwan Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1972 -103-Wright, Arthur. "Values Roles and Personalities", i n Arthur Wright (ed.) Confucian Personalities Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1962: 3-23 Wright, Celeste. "The Amazons i n Elizabethan Literature", Studies i n  Philology vol. 37 no. 2 (1940): 433-456 I I . CHINESE LANGUAGE SOURCES Feng, Yu-lan>j| Chung-kuo Che-hsueh Shih Pu ^  WL&W-^L^$ Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1936 • " Lao, Kan *0 "Lun Han-tai t i Yu-hsia", ^ Skf%1gfl jfc T'ai-ta ,Wen-shih-che Hsueh-pao No. 1,^1950): 237-252 Pan, Ku.J^S Han S h u y l l ^ r Vol. 3 and vol. 8. Peking: Chung-hua shu-chii, 1962 Sa, Meng-wu.^*_^. Shui-hu-chuan yu Chung-kuo she-hui ^ "f^ V ^ T i ^ T Nanking: Cheng-chung shu-chu, 1946 Ssu-ma, Ch'ien ^ )jfi Shih Chi Jtt?"t^E vol. 10 Peking: Chung-hua shu-chu, 1962 ' T'ao, Hsi-sheng.ffe^i Pien-shih yu Yu-hsia ± ^ Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1933 Wang, Fan-t'ing3E^| J^g- Chung-hua l i - t a i fa-mi ^ j ^ ^ T Taipei: Commercial Press, 1966 Wen, K'ang ^  Erh-mi Ying-hsiung Chuan f \ L ~ f c - ^ L Hong; Kong:Ta-tung shu-chu, n.d. Shui-hu Yen-chiu Lun-wen-chi ^ " o ^ ^C. ^fc Peking: Tso-chia.ch'u-pan-she, 1957 K'ai-chan t u i Shui-hu te Pl-ng-Iun" Hong Kong: San-lien shu-tien Hsiang-gang fen-tien, 1975 

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