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One parent families : their housing needs Hood, Nancy E. 1976

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ONE PARENT FAMILIES - THEIR HOUSING NEEDS  by  NANCY E. HOOD B.A., Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  School o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1976  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e the L i b r a r y I further for  agree  scholarly  by h i s of  shall  this  written  at make  it  freely  that permission  for  of  financial  British  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  of  Columbia,  British for  gain  Columbia  the  requirements  reference copying of  I agree and this  shall  that  not  copying or  for  that  study. thesis  by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  is understood  of  The U n i v e r s i t y  of  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d It  fulfilment  available  permission.  Department  Date  the U n i v e r s i t y  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  ABSTRACT  The work began as a response to a question put forth by a person involved with housing f o r single parents, "What i s the best kind of housing f o r one parent f a m i l i e s ? "  In answer to this question the  accommodation requirements of this group must be explored.  The purpose  of t h i s thesis i s to delineate these needs and to suggest ways i n which these housing needs should be met. The Canadian work on single parents (Canadian Council on S o c i a l Development, 1972; Guyatt, 1972; Schlesinger, 1975) does not focus s p e c i f i c a l l y on housing but does i d e n t i f y i t as a problem or issue f o r the single parent group.  In keeping with the methodologies  of the f i r s t  two studies c i t e d , a survey of organizations which serve one parent f a m i l i e s was conducted.  In addition two case studies of housing projects  i n the Vancouver-Victoria area, the YWCA Group Homes and the Bishop Cridge Xejntre f o r jthe_jFjrm£ly^ formed part of the research design. Findings were obtained through questionnaires, interviews and group meetings.  Some of the encounters were video-taped to be used l a t e r i n  feeding back the r e s u l t s to the study p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Through these  feedback sessions and analysis of the findings of a l i t e r a t u r e review, the survey of organizations and the two case studies, a number of conclusions were drawn.  These conclusions about the housing needs of  one parent f a m i l i e s were presented i n terms of four issues which repeatedly emerged i n the research: Income Discrimination I s o l a t i o n versus Integration Childcare and Support Services.  ii  Insufficient f o r the one  income was  parent f a m i l y .  found to be  the g r e a t e s t  housing  problem  A u n i v e r s a l income maintenance scheme would  a m e l i o r a t e t h i s problem w i t h the fewest p o s s i b l e d i s t a s t e f u l s i d e a f f e c t s f o r the c l i e n t  group.  However, i f t h i s i s not f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t e  schemes f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s a r e Discrimination  suggested.  because they a r e p a r e n t s on t h e i r own  they have c h i l d r e n was  a l s o a great concern.  of s i n g l e parent status  single  can be d i s c o u r a g e d by b r i n g i n g The  such i n j u s t i c e s r e a l answer to  however l i e s i n a s o c i e t a l change i n a t t i t u d e towards  parenthood.  I s o l a t i o n versus Integration designed e s p e c i a l l y f o r a c l i e n t within  because  L a n d l o r d r e j e c t i o n because  to the a t t e n t i o n o f the Human R i g h t s Commission. t h i s problem  and  r e f e r s t o the c o n t r o v e r s y about  group o r h o u s i n g p e o p l e u n i d e n t i f i a b l y  the c o n t e x t o f the r e s t o f the community.  approaches  not e i t h e r a l o n e , a r e r e q u i r e d  one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s .  housing  An i n t e g r a t e d  I t was  found  that  both  t o meet the d i v e r g e n t needs o f  approach  to the d e l i v e r y o f  services  f o r s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s i s r e q u i r e d with both patterns of housing. C o - o r d i n a t i o n would ensure a system  t h a t through the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c  sectors  o f s e r v i c e s from c r i s i s o r t r a n s i t i o n s h e l t e r s to h o u s i n g  s u b s i d i e s would be a v a i l a b l e . Childcare  and  s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s a r e the second  e x p r e s s e d by the s i n g l e p a r e n t . to g a i n independence.  The  greatest  Both o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s p e r m i t the p a r e n t  i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e s e i n t o the r e s i d e n t i a l  environment  would a c h i e v e t h i s i n the most e f f i c i e n t way  Suggestions  r e g a r d i n g the f u n d i n g and  are a l s o  proffered.  need  possible.  the l o c a t i o n o f s e r v i c e  facilities  iii A l l o f these i s s u e s have been d i s c u s s e d significant  elsewhere.  What i s  i s t h a t these i s s u e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d as h o u s i n g needs.  i s s u e s a r e i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d i n the minds o f the s i n g l e p a r e n t s must make d e c i s i o n s about the h o l i s t i c approach one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s .  housing.  This i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p points  These who to  n e c e s s a r y i n the d e l i v e r y o f h o u s i n g s e r v i c e s to  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION THE NEED FOR STUDY TERMS AND CONCEPTS DEFINED THE NATURE OF THE INQUIRY CHAPTER TWO - ONE PARENT FAMILIES:  THE LITERATURE  THE NATURE OF SINGLE PARENTHOOD THE ONE PARENT FAMILY - THE SOCIETAL CONTEXT The Canadian Context The American E x p e r i e n c e The B r i t i s h Context a) The N e t h e r l a n d s b) Germany c) S c a n d i n a v i a THE SCANDINAVIAN EXAMPLE - A SPECIAL CASE SUMMARY CHAPTER THREE - REGARDING THE METHODOLOGY THE USER NEED STUDY THE ACTION RESEARCH STANCE THE ONE PARENT POPULATIONS THE THESIS FORMAT - FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION CHAPTER FOUR - YWCA GROUP HOMES THE HISTORY OF THE GROUP HOMES THE HOUSING NEEDS OF THE GROUP HOMES RESIDENTS THE FINDINGS THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF GROUP HOMES SUMMARY CHAPTER FIVE - BISHOP CRIDGE CENTRE FOR THE FAMILY BACKGROUND INFORMATION THE HOUSING NEEDS OF THE BISHOP CRIDGE/HAYWARD HEIGHTS RESIDENTS  V  Page  THE  FINDINGS  SUMMARY CHAPTER SIX - ORGANIZATIONS WHICH SERVE ONE PARENT FAMILIES  33 37 39  ORGANIZATIONS QUERIED - THE METHOD  39  ORGANIZATIONS CONTACTED Big Brothers Big Sisters B.C. I n d i a n Homemakers A s s o c i a t i o n Crossreach S i n g l e Parents Family P l a c e Parents Without P a r t n e r s P r o j e c t Parent T r a n s i t i o n House Vancouver and D i s t r i c t P u b l i c Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n V o l u n t e e r Grandparents The Workshop  40 40 4° 40 41 41 41 42 42 43 43 43  THE FINDINGS Income a) Emergency Housing b) Income M i x c) A C u l t u r e o f P o v e r t y Discrimination Services L o c a t i o n Requirements The P h y s i c a l Design o f t h e Environment  44 44 44 45 46 47 48 48 49  THE  49  ROLE OF THE ORGANIZATION  SUMMARY  50  CHAPTER SEVEN - THE HOUSING NEEDS OF ONE PARENT FAMILIES: SYNTHESIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  ,51  THE  ISSUES  51  THE  INTERRELATEDNESS OF THE ISSUES  52  RECOMMENDATIONS - AN ISSUE ORIENTATION Income Discrimination I s o l a t i o n versus I n t e g r a t i o n C h i l d c a r e and Support S e r v i c e s  54 54 57 59 61  SUMMARY  64  LITERATURE;; CITED  65  APPENDIXliA: Housing Needs o f One Parent F a m i l i e s , Questionnaire  67  APPENDIX B: Housing Needs o f One Parent F a m i l i e s , Questionnaire  74  vi  Page  APPENDIX C: Bishop C r i d g e Centre f o r t h e Family "Threshold": P o l i c y f o r Hayward H e i g h t s R e n t a l Accommodation  81  APPENDIX D: The Bishop C r i d g e Centre f o r t h e F a m i l y , A p p l i c a t i o n f o r R e n t a l Accommodation  83  APPENDIX E: Q u e s t i o n Schedule f o r O r g a n i z a t i o n Membership Interviews  86  APPENDIX F: Human R i g h t s Case T e s t o f New B.C. Code, Newspaper A r t i c l e  87  APPENDIX G: Census and S t a t i s t i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n Concerning t h e One Parent Family  88  VIDEOTAPE: Located i n the Special Collections D i v i s i o n of the Library  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e to thank Penny G u r s t e i n f o r her c o - o p e r a t i o n an a f f i l i a t e d r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t ; my McAfee,  for their  parents  who  readers,  guidance and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m ;  so w i l l i n g l y  contributed  s t a f f people from the o r g a n i z a t i o n s , Bishop B r i d g e  Henry Hightower and  C e n t r e f o r the Family.  in Ann  the s i n g l e  time and i n f o r m a t i o n ;  the  the YWCA Group Homes, and the F i n a l l y I would l i k e to say a  s p e c i a l thank you to the f e l l o w members o f the c o n s u l t i n g  collective,  E. C u l l and J . Davidson f o r c r e a t i n g such a s t i m u l a t i n g environment i n which to work and f o r f a i t h f u l l y renewing t h e i r spirit.  partner's  viii  You see two men, a woman and some c h i l d r e n w a l k i n g on the s t r e e t and you t h i n k i t s a f a m i l y . Then you see two women, a man and a c h i l d . I s t h a t a f a m i l y too? How do you d e s c r i b e these new r e l a t i o n s h i p s ?  The f a m i l y as we know i t d i d n ' t always e x i s t . These emerging l i f e s t y l e s e v o l v e d from needs and c o n t e x t s , they a r e dynamic. The p e o p l e a r e a l i v e , interested, searching. They a r e r e j e c t i n g the i d e a o f one d e f i n i t i v e mode imposed f o r e v e r .  Jacques Gagne Assistant Executive Director Vanier I n s t i t u t e o f the Family  1. CHAPTER ONE  - INTRODUCTION  I n c r e a s i n g l y the working d e f i n i t i o n o f f a m i l y , "one mother p l u s f a t h e r p l u s two  and a h a l f c h i l d r e n e q u a l one  i s becoming u n t e n a b l e .  average  one  Canadian f a m i l y , "  Changes i n f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e and s o c i e t a l v a l u e s  have r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s i n g d i v e r s i t y of l i f e s t y l e s . i n f o r m a l f a m i l y f o r m a t i o n and  Communal l i v i n g ,  the emergence o f the one parent f a m i l y  p r e s e n t c h a l l e n g e s t o those p e o p l e ,  i n c l u d i n g p l a n n e r s , who  are d e s i g n i n g  s o c i a l and h o u s i n g p o l i c y and programs i n Canada.  THE NEED FOR  STUDY  Comparatively almost  little  i s known about a type of f a m i l y which  t e n p e r c e n t of a l l Canadian f a m i l i e s .  A c c o r d i n g to the  comprises 1971  census,  478,745 of the 5,070,685 f a m i l i e s i n Canada are headed by  parent.  F a m i l i e s headed by a male s i n g l e p a r e n t numbered 100,680 w h i l e  378,065 f a m i l i e s had a one-parent  female head  one  (see appendix f o r a d d i t i o n a l  census d a t a ) . T h i s t h e s i s i s the outcome of a q u e s t i o n posed by a person i n v o l v e d with s i n g l e parent  housing:  I've had c a l l s i n v i t i n g me to submit p r o p o s a l s f o r h o u s i n g f o r single parents. The money i s t h e r e but I don't know what to ask f o r . What i s the b e s t k i n d o f h o u s i n g f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t s ? T h i s t h e s i s i s i n t e n d e d as an i n i t i a l one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . '  s t e p i n ^planning h o u s i n g  - I t v i s an attempt  t o go beyond  for'  -  the e x i s t i n g Canadian s t u d i e s , t o i n c o r p o r a t e s t u d i e s conducted c o u n t r i e s and Columbia and  survey r e s e a r c h i n the V a n c o u v e r / V i c t o r i a areas of to extend  one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s .  '  1 i n other British  the knowledge base c o n c e r n i n g the housing needs of The purpose i s to d e l i n e a t e the housing needs of  one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n o r d e r t h a t p l a n n i n g might be more r e s p o n s i v e to  2.  t h i s segment o f s o c i e t y .  The c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t h a t h o u s i n g  needs and s o c i a l s e r v i c e needs, o r d e l i v e r y systems t o meet these needs, cannot,  a t l e a s t f o r one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s , be planned  i s a s o c i a l s e r v i c e , s u b s i d i z e d or not.  separately.  S o c i a l s e r v i c e s cannot  Housing substitute  f o r appropriate housing.  TERMS AND CONCEPTS DEFINED The Canadian census d e f i n e s a "one p a r e n t f a m i l y " as, "one parent w i t h an unmarried  c h i l d r e g a r d l e s s o f age, o r a man and/or woman w i t h a  g u a r d i a n s h i p c h i l d or ward under 21 y e a r s o f age." p a r e n t f a m i l y i s used  The  When the term one  i t i n c l u d e s p a r e n t s who a r e :  1.  Widowed, d i v o r c e d , s e p a r a t e d , d e s e r t e d and  unmarried;  2.  Male and female  3.  Those who a r e c u r r e n t l y r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and those who a r e s e l f s u p p o r t i n g (the "working poor" and the middle income group);  4.  Those who have become heads o f one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r and those who have had a l o n g e r e x p e r i e n c e ;  5.  Those w i t h p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , those w i t h l a t e n c y age .. c h i l d r e n and those w i t h a d o l e s c e n t s ;  6.  Those who a r e members o f one p a r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s and those who a r e n o t . (Canadian C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Development, 1971, p. 4)  parents;  terms "one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s " and " s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s " a r e used  interchangeably i n t h i s The  concept  thesis.  o f " u s e r need" i s e s s e n t i a l f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f the  research design. As l o n g as the terms a r e d e f i n e d b r o a d l y , i t would p r o b a b l y be g e n e r a l l y accepted t h a t the needs o f people a r e o f two k i n d s , p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l . Food, c l o t h i n g and s h e l t e r are examples o f p h y s i c a l needs. I l l u s t r a t i o n s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l  3.  needs might i n c l u d e the need f o r a f f e c t i o n , the need f o r e x p e r i e n c e and the need f o r a sense o f s t a t u s and s i g n i f i c a n c e . ( S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l o f Metro Toronto, 1961, p. 2) An examination  of the h o u s i n g requirement  o f one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n v o l v e s  both the p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s of the concept. the term "housing" r e f e r s t o the s h e l t e r i t s e l f  Therefore,  and to the r e l a t e d  services. Another means of need has a l s o been c o n s i d e r e d - t h i s i s s o c i e t a l need. or for  D e f i n e d i n the context o f s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , a s o c i e t a l need i s f e l t  expressed need which, " t h e community which i t has a c c e p t e d some measure  has acknowledged as a need and of c o l l e c t i v e  ( S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l o f Metro Toronto,  responsibility  1961, p. 2 ) .  Housing f o r one  p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i s i n the p r o c e s s of becoming a s o c i e t a l need.  This  p r o c e s s has two p a r t s , 1) a need the community  and  a c c e p t s as such,  2) the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the need i s a t l e a s t i n p a r t a community  responsibility.  One aim o f t h i s t h e s i s i s to p r e s e n t the f e l t  needs o f one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s so t h a t these needs may acceptance  gain further  as s o c i e t a l needs.  THE NATURE OF THE INQUIRY If  t h i s study were to be c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n one word i t would be  "investigative".  The purpose, as s t a t e d , i s to i d e n t i f y needs.  This  i s a p i o n e e r i n g e f f o r t w i t h r e s p e c t to the e l u c i d a t i o n o f the h o u s i n g s e r v i c e requirements  o f the one p a r e n t f a m i l y i n the Canadian c o n t e x t .  When the h o u s i n g needs o f one parent f a m i l i e s have been d e a l t w i t h i n a q u a l i t a t i v e manner f u r t h e r work w i l l magnitude o f the need.  be r e q u i r e d to a s c e r t a i n the exact  T h i s l a t t e r t a s k , the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the  magnitude o f the demand f o r h o u s i n g  s e r v i c e s , i s not w i t h i n the terms  of reference of t h i s thesis.  While there i s no attempt to delineate the  magnitude of the needs of one parent families, i n the s p e c i f i c housing services examined wherever possible some comment i s made concerning the adequacy of a service.  The need i n these cases i s assessed i n terms of  the t o t a l number of applications for a service versus the number that are able to be accommodated. Time and budget constraints made a t r a d i t i o n a l random sample approach p r o h i b i t i v e .  As the concern was with the q u a l i t a t i v e rather  than quantitative aspects of housing need three single parent populations were chosen.  The residents of the two housing projects and the members .  of the various single parent organizations are not necessarily a repre-- sentative sample of the one parent families i n the Lower Mainland. However, the selection of two working models of one parent family housing plus a survey of organizations i s an attempt to draw from the broadest spectrum of the single parent community i n terms of age, income and lifestyle. The research process consisted of three phases.  The f i r s t phase of  the research involved a review of the l i t e r a t u r e concerning the one parent family.  The second phase concerned the determination of needs.  Information from two groups of single parents, the residents of the Vancouver YWCA and the residents of the Bishop Cridge Centre for the Family i n V i c t o r i a , i s presented i n the form of two case studies.  The  r e s u l t s of a survey of organizations which serve one parent families are also discussed. The t h i r d phase of the research involved information dissemination activities.  The findings, recommendations and the videotape have been  presented to various groups, for example the B.C. Human Rights Commission,  5.  the YWCA Housing  Committee and Group Homes r e s i d e n t s , the Bishop  Cridge  S t a f f and r e s i d e n t s , the p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e o f The S t a t u s o f Women, C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing  Corporation - regional o f f i c e  staff.  T h i s c h a p t e r has o u t l i n e d the author's concern t h a t a g r e a t e r knowledge base c o n c e r n i n g one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s be o b t a i n e d i n o r d e r t h a t the most s u i t a b l e h o u s i n g programs and p o l i c i e s may be f o r m u l a t e d . Towards t h a t end t h i s t h e s i s i d e n t i f i e s the housing needs o f one parent families.  On the b a s i s o f these some recommendations and d i r e c t i o n s  f o r f u r t h e r study a r e i d e n t i f i e d a l t h o u g h the primary purpose i n v o l v e s the d e l i n e a t i o n o f the h o u s i n g needs o f one p a r e n t  families.  Chapter Two d i s c u s s e d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l approaches  used i n t h i s  Chapter Three reviews the p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e ,  the background  l i t e r a t u r e about  the n a t u r e o f s i n g l e parenthood  thesis.  and the p o l i c y and  r e s e a r c h documents from o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , n o t a b l y Great B r i t a i n ,  Sweden  and Denmark. Chapters F i v e through S i x d i s c u s s t h e t h r e e p o p u l a t i o n s , r e s e a r c h methodologies  employed and f i n d i n g s .  and recommendations are p r e s e n t e d .  In Chapter  Seven the c o n c l u s i o n s  6. CHAPTER TWO  - ONE  PARENT FAMILIES:  THE  LITERATURE  In t h i s c h a p t e r some o f the l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g the n a t u r e of s i n g l e parenthood  i s reviewed.  P o l i c i e s and programs from o t h e r c o u n t r i e s  are examined.  F o l l o w i n g t h i s d i s c u s s i o n the needs o f s i n g l e p a r e n t s which  are i d e n t i f i e d  i n the l i t e r a t u r e are p r e s e n t e d .  THE NATURE OF SINGLE PARENTHOOD In the I n t r o d u c t i o n the one p a r e n t f a m i l y i s d e f i n e d i n terms of a d u l t and one or more c h i l d r e n w i t h l i t t l e came t o be a one p a r e n t f a m i l y .  and why  the f a m i l y  T h i s i s a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n i n an  to narrow the f o c u s o f the study. t h e s i s the how  emphasis on how  one  Although i t i s not pursued  attempt  in this  o f one parent f a m i l y f o r m a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y f o r an  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h i s f a m i l i a l phenomenon.  Sprey i n an a r t i c l e which  emphasizes m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s t a t e s , "the s p e c i f i c type o f s i n g l e parenthood  - bereavement, d i v o r c e , s e p a r a t i o n , o r unwed motherhood  - i s o f g r e a t importance" s i n g l e parenthood, which face  (Sprey, 1975,  p. 49).  He proceeds  to d i s c u s s  " i t s major e m p i r i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s " and the problems  often result.  Many o f : t h e concerns one p a r e n t  families  have c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the c r i s e s which r e s u l t e d i n the  one p a r e n t f a m i l y f o r m a t i o n , f o r example the death of a spouse.  The  one p a r e n t f a m i l y i s an a b e r r a t i o n from the s t a t i s t i c a l norm and  i t is  s o c i a l l y stigmatized the  because  crisis  which  of  the  absence  of  one  brought  the  family  parent  about.  and  because  of  This  produces  a s i t u a t i o n where, " g i v e n the r e c i p r o c a l n a t u r e o f e m o t i o n a l  r o l e behavior, i t i s h i g h l y d o u b t f u l that a l l o b l i g a t i o n s of that nature can be absorbed  by the remaining p a r e n t "  (Sprey, 1975,  p.  50).  7.  Much of the emphasis i n the l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g the one  parent  f a m i l y i s p l a c e d on the s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs o f the f a m i l y , what Sprey r e f e r s to as " e m o t i o n a l r o l e b e h a v i o r " .  There a r e t h r e e d i v e r g e n t  responses  to these s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs o f f e r e d .  approach,  c o n t r i b u t i o n s p r i m a r i l y by s o c i a l workers,  The  advocates  ment o f s e r v i c e s to meet the needs of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t (CCSD, 1972;  N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on I l l e g i t i m a c y , 1968;  service the  group  N i c h o l s o n , 1968).  The s e l f - h e l p o r mutual support a l t e r n a t i v e i s suggested by an o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t s ( C l a y t o n , 1971).  establish-  internal  A combination  approach,  the outcome o f a c o l l a b o r a t i v e p r o j e c t by an o r g a n i z a t i o n and a government s e r v i c e agency i s a l s o documented W e l f a r e , 1974).  Buckland  (Department of N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and  i n "Toward a Theory o f Parent E d u c a t i o n :  Family  L e a r n i n g C e n t e r s i n the P o s t - I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y " suggests f a m i l y e d u c a t i o n programs as a means o f p r e v e n t i n g f a m i l y c r i s i s . Many a f f l u e n t m i d d l e - c l a s s f a m i l i e s f u n c t i o n a t a p s y c h o l o g i c a l s u r v i v a l l e v e l , while other f a m i l i e s s t i l l s t r u g g l e a t a p h y s i c a l s u r v i v a l l e v e l i n a s o c i e t y which has not y e t e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r i t i e s i n terms o f human well-being. F a m i l i e s tend to f e e l b e w i l d e r e d by change r e s i s t a n t and r e a c t i v e , , not h a v i n g been taught any s k i l l s f o r the management o f change. (Buckland, 1972,  p.  151)  A s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e i s concerned w i t h one the s i n g l e p a r e n t c a t e g o r i e s mentioned by Sprey - unwed motherhood. e x p e r i e n c e o f unwed mothers i n New  The  emotional and  financial  problems of young mothers are examined from a micro p e r s p e c t i v e . t h i s t h e s i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t  The  York over a s i x year p e r i o d i s docu-  mented i n a study by Sauber and C o r r i g a n .  of  of  f i n d i n g concerns  In terms  the changes i n the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the h o u s i n g o c c u p i e d as the one parent f a m i l y s t a b i l i z e s .  8.  That some of these mothers and t h e i r f a m i l i e s must l i v e i n inadequate and crowded h o u s i n g , and t h a t they, l i k e o t h e r young f a m i l i e s e i t h e r i n an e f f o r t to improve t h e i r q u a r t e r s or f o r o t h e r r e a s o n s , have moved from p l a c e t o p l a c e , i s a l r e a d y c l e a r from the d a t a p r e s e n t e d . For the group as a whole, however, the h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s found to e x i s t when the f i r s t - b o r n was n e a r i n g the age of s i x y e a r s appear somewhat b e t t e r than the h o u s i n g o c c u p i e d by the young f a m i l i e s when the f i r s t - b o r n was l e s s than e i g h t e e n months of age. To some e x t e n t , these improvements r e f l e c t the f a c t t h a t many have moved to homes o f t h e i r own, d e c r e a s i n g the crowding t h a t e x i s t e d when they l i v e d w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s or o t h e r s , and fewer may be l i v i n g i n the temporary q u a r t e r s they may have had to e s t a b l i s h f o r themselves when they f i r s t became p a r e n t s w i t h an i n f a n t to c a r e f o r . !  (Sauber, 1970, A Vancouver based  study  (Pernios, 1-969), a l s o from, a micro p e r s p e c t i v e ;  . e s t a b l i s h e s an i n v e n t o r y of problems  fexperienced  i n c o - o p e r a t i v e homes (see page 20). the mothers are ranked  p.80)  and weighted  by the s i n g l e mothers  The past and - a n t i c i p a t e d problems o f as  follows:  P a s t Problems Rank Order: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.  Daycare Income management P e r s o n a l adjustment L i v i n g arrangements C h i l d r e a r i n g and c a r e G e t t i n g a l o n g i n the community Employment Sex e d u c a t i o n Job t r a i n i n g Family court a c t i o n Health  Weighted  Score  113 97 90 88 79 76 67 51 43 40 26  A n t i c i p a t e d Problems - fewer problems were a n t i c i p a t e d than a l r e a d y been e x p e r i e n c e d . Rank Order: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Daycare C h i l d r e a r i n g and c a r e L i v i n g arrangements Income management P e r s o n a l adjustment  living  Weighted 92 85 82 81 71  Score  had  9.  "Those areas o f g r e a t e s t concern t o 60c o r more o f the mothers i n c l u d e d : daycare, and  income management, p e r s o n a l adjustment,  c h i l d r e a r i n g and c a r e ,  g e t t i n g a l o n g i n the community" (Poulos, 1969, pp. 10-12). The e a r l i e r l i t e r a t u r e which i s not d i s c u s s e d here f o c u s s e s on  illegitimacy.  The disappearance  o f t h i s term i n l a t e r w r i t i n g s i s perhaps  i n d i c a t i v e o f a chancing s o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e towards s i n g l e mothers.  This  change i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n a d e l i g h t f u l n a r r a t i v e by K l e i n , The S i n g l e Parent E x p e r i e n c e . lifestyle,  Her t o p i c i s s i n g l e parenthood  t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f those who have chosen  parenthood.  as an a l t e r n a t i v e the r o l e o f s i n g l e  Many o f these people opt f o r communal l i v i n g  arrangements.  T h i s i n t e r e s t i n g group o f s i n g l e p a r e n t s , an unknown but a s s u r e d l y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l one parent p o p u l a t i o n , i s n o t d e a l t w i t h specifically  i n this  thesis.  THE ONE PARENT FAMILY - THE SOCIETAL CONTEXT The needs o f the one parent f a m i l y must be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n the larger social structure. through a comparison The  Two e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r attempt  this  o f one and two p a r e n t  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the s i n g l e parent t o the r e s t o f s o c i e t y i n  terms o f h i s o r h e r s o c i a l and economic p o s i t i o n i s the t o p i c o f a p o s i t i o n paper by a l o c a l c h a p t e r o f a s i n g l e parent o r g a n i z a t i o n . a s p e c t s o f s i n g l e parenthood of the P a r e n t s Without  The  socio-economic  a r e d i s c u s s e d i n a paper by Campbell,  a member  P a r t n e r s o r g a n i z a t i o n (see Chapter Four f o r i n f o r m -  a t i o n concerning t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n ) .  Working from t h e assumption  that  s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s have d i f f e r e n t  c o s t s and d i f f e r e n t problems than two  p a r e n t f a m i l i e s , the author goes on t o make s p e c i f i c recommendations c e r n i n g housing support s e r v i c e s and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e :  con-  10.  Housing:  I t i s recommended t h a t s u b s i d i z e d housing be  p r o v i d e d , i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the community a t l a r g e r a t h e r than i n low income o r s i n g l e parent segregated h i g h d e n s i t y a r e a s . T h i s i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h the r e s t o f the community i s seen as a way o f encouraging  s i n g l e p a r e n t s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n " t o  maintain a reasonable s o c i a l l i f e ,  and f o r the c h i l d r e n  p a r t i c u l a r l y t o g e t t h e advantages o f a wide spectrum o f background and e d u c a t i o n among t h e i r f r i e n d s " .  The i n t e -  g r a t i o n o f s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n t o apartment b u i l d i n g s w i t h a maximum o f 15% o f the u n i t s t o be i n h a b i t e d by one parent f a m i l i e s i s suggested  i n terms o f l o c a t i o n .  s i n g l e parent h o u s i n g which i s planned  Any  should a f f o r d  "easy  access t o s t o r e s , r e c r e a t i o n and c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s and public transportation".  Income:  Government i n t e r v e n t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y  payment o f support and suggest  t o ensure the  t h a t o u t s t a n d i n g payments  should be " t r e a t e d as d e l i n q u e n t Income Taxes".  The payment  p l u s a p r o c e s s i n g surcharge would be taxed back and passed to the one p a r e n t f a m i l y concerned. financial assistance.  along  There i s a l s o a need f o r  A s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l y allowance i n  a d d i t i o n t o the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e a l l o t m e n t , a c c o r d i n g to need, should be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e c h i l d r e n s ' allowance parent f a m i l i e s (Campbell,  The  Canadian  i n one  P a r e n t s Without P a r t n e r s , u n p u b l i s h e d  paper).  Context  In 1972 i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n the one p a r e n t f a m i l y r e s u l t e d i n two  s t u d i e s , the Guyatt  study sponsored  by the V a n i e r I n s t i t u t e f o r the  11.  F a m i l y and  the Canadian C o u n c i l on  S o c i a l Development  Investigation.  Guyatt i d e n t i f i e s f i n a n c i a l need as the g r e a t e s t parent f a m i l i e s followed (for information  from the  Appendix on Census and outlay  f o r the  c l o s e l y by 1971  t h e i r need to be  included  i n the  Housing r e p r e s e n t s  "More adequate p u b l i c support i n the  guaranteed annual income and/or a g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d s i n g l e p a r e n t s " i s recommended. s e r v i c e s are a l s o r e q u i r e d  one  The  the  subsidized  CCSD study  focussed The  report  the Guyatt study.  s e p a r a t e s u b s i d y f o r the one  advocated.  onments are f o r t h by  the  suggested.  The  and  i n c o r p o r a t i o n of these i n t o the r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r Preventive  F a m i l y L i f e E d u c a t i o n a k i n to t h a t  Buckland i s a l s o recommended.  The  need f o r a c e n t r a l  put  organization information  i s deemed n e c e s s a r y .  American E x p e r i e n c e The  trend  towards s i n g l e parenthoos i s i n c r e a s i n g i n the U.S.  t h i s i s marked by  the  f a c t t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n  mothers have, over the and  A  Support  o f s i n g l e or s o l e p a r e n t s , to a c t as a c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e and centre  a  daycare  makes s i m i l a r recommendations to those o f f e r e d by p a r e n t f a m i l y i s not  largest  f a m i l y allowance to  Support s e r v i c e s and  i n g r e a t e r numbers.  see  form of  p r i m a r i l y on a survey o f s i n g l e p a r e n t s e r v i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  daycare s e r v i c e s and  community  census s u b s t a n t i a t i n g Guyatt's t h e s i s  Statistical Material).  family.  problem of  wife f a m i l i e s .  from the  fifties,  p o l i c y the U.S. describes little  The  l a s t decade, i n c r e a s e d  s i x t i e s to the  a leader.  the p l i g h t of white and  change.  The  They simply advocate:  seventies.  increased  In terms of  r e c e n t work by Ross and  black  by  ten times f a s t e r than husband  growth r a t e i n female headed f a m i l i e s has  through the  i s not  of f a m i l i e s headed  and  s i n g l e mothers, but /  social  Sawhill  recommends  12.  ... opportunities for women to earn an adequate income and to make young women aware of the r i s k s they face i n their adult years. But i n the meantime, there w i l l be a need for other kinds of support: income maintenance programs which do not unwittingly exacerbate family i n s t a b i l i t y , and private transfers s i m i l a r to current alimony and c h i l d support payments but placed on a new and more equitable basis. (Ross and Sawhill, 1975, p. 173) The B r i t i s h Context The findings of a government sponsored research inquiry one parent families i n B r i t a i n were published i n 1974.  This  concerning represents  s i x years of research, and i s the most thorough study of the one parent family i n existence.  The report makes some 230 recommendations.  For the  purposes of this thesis the most s a l i e n t are drawn to attention.  In view  of their findings that one parent families "have many of the expenses of two parent families and some a d d i t i o n a l expenses" and that "generally they have considerably lower income than other families there i s a need for extra help," f i n a n c i a l assistance for one parent families i s recommended (Finer, 1974, p. 266).  This help should be i n the form of a  Guaranteed Maintenance Income Allowance (GMA), on a non-contributory basis.  Housing was found to be the largest single problem a f t e r f i n a n c i a l  difficulties.  These d i f f i c u l t i e s include inadequate income for r e n t a l  payments and to pay for household furnishings.  I t should be noted that  the majority of Finer's recommendations have not been implemented. The GMA has not been adopted due to f i n a n c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s and because i t i s means tested and this contravenes government p o l i c y .  A housing  grant for furnishings has been i n s t i t u t e d . The Finer Committee recommended the GMA a f t e r considering the schemes of other countries.  In an appendix to the Finer Report, "Income Mainten-  ance for One Parent Families In Other Countries" the p o l i c i e s of the  13.  N e t h e r l a n d s , Germany and the S c a n d i n a v i a n n a t i o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d . B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o a b r i e f statement significant  t o note t h a t no c o u n t r y surveyed " t r e a t s such  (one p a r e n t ) as a b s o l u t e l y d i s t i n c t two p a r e n t f a m i l i e s " o f the d i f f e r e n t  a)  c o n c e r n i n g these p o l i c i e s i t i s  (Cockburn,  families  from o r as c o m p l e t e l y i d e n t i c a l t o  1975, p. 2 1 ) . The p o l i c y p a t t e r n s  c o u n t r i e s a r e summarized:  The N e t h e r l a n d s : When compared w i t h Germany and S c a n d i n a v i a , the N e t h e r l a n d s  "goes as f a r as any n a t i o n i n t r e a t i n g a l l f a m i l i e s a l i k e " 1974,  p. 2 1 ) . One and two p a r e n t f a m i l i e s enjoy " f a i r l y h i g h f a m i l y  allowances".  b)  (Cockburn,  A few " c o n c e s s i o n s " a r e made f o r the one p a r e n t  Germany: P o l i c i e s and programs here p r o v i d e f o r t a x a l l o w a n c e s ,  f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n s and h o u s i n g f o r working  s i n g l e mothers.  s t r o n g work o r i e n t a t i o n and the p a r e n t i s encouraged Programs f a c i l i t a t e  c)  family.  subsidies  There  i sa  t o seek employment.  this.  Scandinavia: Tax exemptions and income maintenance a r e geared t o the one p a r e n t  family.  These programs p l u s housing allowances a r e " d e s i g n e d t o be  h e a v i l y dependent on t h e presence o f c h i l d r e n " .  A program f o r  support payment advance, a scheme where support i s guaranteed government i n the event o f a d e f a u l t i s i n e f f e c t .  by the  14.  It  i s worthwhile n o t i n g t h a t i n a l l o f the European c o u n t r i e s where  p o l i c i e s were examined the problem o f one p a r e n t f a m i l y d e f i n i t i o n i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t problem, as i t i s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The problem of c o h a b i t a t i o n does e x i s t but the evaluators indicate program design can control for t h i s .  THE SCANDINAVIAN EXAMPLE - A SPECIAL CASE I t would be an e x a g g e r a t i o n to say t h a t t h e r e are no housing problems for  s i n g l e parents i n Scandinavia.  However a quote from some c o r r e s p o n -  dence does i n d i c a t e t h a t the housing "It  s i t u a t i o n i s somewhat b r i g h t  there.  i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the l o c a l governments to a t t e n d to the s o c i a l  needs of a l l i t s i n h a b i t a n t s .  Due  to a heavy investment  we have a t the moment no shortage o f f l a t s i n Sweden."  program i n b u i l d i n g This picture painted  by a government department may be o v e r l y o p t i m i s t i c , however  the i n v e s t -  ment program f o r h o u s i n g f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t s i n S c a n d i n a v i a i s l o n g established. i n Denmark.  I n 1939 Mothers A i d , C e n t r e s and C o l l e c t i v e Houses were b u i l t An i n t e g r a t e d program i s a v a i l a b l e to the mothers, from p o s t -  n a t a l c a r e i n c o n v a l e s c e n t homes to c o l l e c t i v e houses where i n t e r i m accommodation  i s provided.  A d e s c r i p t i o n of these c o l l e c t i v e homes  follows: Through the combined e f f o r t s o f Mothers A i d and a p r i v a t e f o u n d a t i o n (Egmont H. P e t e r s e n ' s Fund) appartment houses w i t h c o l l e c t i v e f a c i l i t i e s , the s o - c a l l e d C o l l e c t i v e Houses, were e s t a b l i s h e d i n Copenhagen w i t h 100 f l a t s and i n Arhus w i t h 48. Most o f the f l a t s a r e intended f o r mothers w i t h one c h i l d and c o n s i s t o f one l i v i n g room, a s m a l l room f o r the c h i l d , a k i t c h e n e t t e and a bathroom. A few of the f l a t s are designed f o r mothers w i t h two c h i l d r e n and have an e x t r a room. The f l a t s a r e r e n t e d f u r n i s h e d and a t a r e a s o n a b l e p r i c e . Creches and k i n d e r g a r t e n s have been opened i n connection w i t h the C o l l e c t i v e Houses. The purpose o f these houses i s t o g i v e the s i n g l e mother and h e r c h i l d s e c u r i t y i n p l e a s a n t s u r r o u n d i n g s d u r i n g the d i f f i c u l t t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d a f t e r the baby's b i r t h . She can r e a r r a n g e her l i f e , s t a r t to work, secure a permanent  15.  f l a t and perhaps b e g i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . Through the c o n t a c t w i t h s o c i a l workers and d o c t o r s of Mothers A i d casework h e l p and p s y c h i a t r i c h e l p are a v a i l a b l e c o n c e r n i n g any problems which may a r i s e . A few r e g u l a t i o n s i n the C o l l e c t i v e Houses are n e c e s s a r y , but on the whole the mothers are c o n s i d e r e d completely p r i v a t e people w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r themselves and the c h i l d . The apartments are r e n t e d f o r a s p e c i f i e d p e r i o d u s u a l l y f o r two o r t h r e e y e a r s . I t i s f e l t that s i n g l e women w i t h c h i l d r e n should not be 'segregated' i n s p e c i a l houses f o r a l o n g time. In the l o n g run i t w i l l no doubt be b e t t e r f o r them and t h e i r c h i l d r e n to l i v e among o t h e r f a m i l i e s under o r d i n a r y c o n d i t i o n s . When they have been h e l p e d through the d i f f i c u l t i e s of." the t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d they must move out to make room f o r o t h e r s who need a s s i s t ance to a new s t a r t . ( S k a l t s , 1973, In Norway a 1973  p.  18)  report i n d i c a t e s that f a c i l i t i e s f o r single  were l i m i t e d but p l a n n i n g f o r mothers' homes was  underway.  parents  In Norway and  i n Sweden p i l o t p r o j e c t s which assume a p r e v e n t a t i v e stance to f a m i l y breakup have been e s t a b l i s h e d . Perhaps i n f o r m a t i o n from government sources should be viewed somewhat skeptically.  However, the e v i d e n c e does suggest  t h a t t h e r e has been a  c o n c e r t e d attempt to e s t a b l i s h an i n t e g r a t e d program f o r s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y to  s i n g l e p a r e n t s , i n Sweden and Denmark i n p a r t i c u l a r .  approach to the p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s f o r the one parent  The i n t e g r a t e d family i n  S c a n d i n a v i a c o u l d be p r o f i t a b l y s t u d i e d by the a r c h i t e c t s of our social  own  policy.  SUMMARY The  review o f the l i t e r a t u r e has brought a v a r i e t y o f i s s u e s t o the  centre stage.  The needs of s i n g l e p a r e n t s  socio-economic. housing,  daycare,  The  one p a r e n t  are s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  f a m i l y ' s problems concern  community r e l a t i o n s and e m o t i o n a l  income,  stability.  s o l u t i o n s i n terms of p o l i c i e s and programs have been examined.  Several These  are important guides to the recommendations which are formulated Chapter Seven.  17.  CHAPTER THREE - REGARDING THE METHODOLOGY  T h i s c h a p t e r o u t l i n e s the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l approach  employed.  THE USER NEED STUDY In a d i s c u s s i o n about  user/heeds r e s e a r c h t h r e e types a r e i d e n t i f i e d :  F i r s t l y s t u d i e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a , u s u a l l y undertaken i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a housing programme o r redevelopment scheme, to a s c e r t a i n both the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p o p u l a t i o n and t h e i r expressed needs. Secondly, s t u d i e s o f u s e r response to a p a r t i c u l a r type o f house, o r item o f equipment such as the h e a t i n g system, t o p r o v i d e feedback t o the d e s i g n e r . The t h i r d type a r e more s t r a t e g i c s t u d i e s , the aim o f which i s t o g e n e r a l i s e c o n c e r n i n g needs and o r d e r s o f p r i o r i t y among u s e r s . (Hole, p. 2) T h i s t h e s i s i s of- the t h i r d k i n d , what H o l e  calls  a s t r a t e g i c u s e r need  study.S e v e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s a r e made by Hole on the b a s i s o f a review o f u s e r studies i n B r i t a i n .  The f i r s t  concerns the r e l a t i v i t y o f need:  But s i n c e standards o f comfort and amenity v a r y f o r one s o c i e t y to another, o r throughout the h i s t o r y o f a s i n g l e s o c i e t y , one r e t u r n s t o a s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n o f need, i e . r e l a t i v e t o t h e stage o f economic development i n a l l s o c i a l norms o f a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y . (Hole, p. 3). The  r e l a t i v i t y o f needsdoes n o t mean t h a t they a r e so ephemeral  as t o make u s e r r e s e a r c h not worthwhile.  I t does mean t h a t needs change.  What i s now a need was once c o n s i d e r e d a l u x u r y .  As s o c i e t a l  achievements  and e x p e c t a t i o n s r i s e i n terms o f the p r o v i s i o n o f housing so a r e p e o p l e ' s concepts o f need expected are expected identified The  to r e f l e c t  i n their  to r i s e .  The needs o f the one p a r e n t f a m i l y  the c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and needs t h a t a r e  society.  second p o i n t Hole makes i s i n response  do n o t know what they want".  t o the c r i t i c i s m ,  He suggests t h a t a u s e f u l approach  "People i s to  18.  obtain information concerning and d i s l i k e s and  the u s e r ' s own  from t h e r e proceed  a s s e r t s t h a t , "Faced w i t h meaningful a b l e to d i s c r i m i n a t e " . design i n t h i s  T h i s has  d w e l l i n g , h i s or her  to p r e s e n t o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s . a l t e r n a t i v e then, people  He  are w e l l  i n f l u e n c e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e and  interview  thesis.  H i s t h i r d s u g g e s t i o n i n v o l v e s a problem of e f f e c t i v e between r e s e a r c h e r and response  likes  communication  the a r c h i t e c t s of b u i l d i n g and program d e s i g n .  In  to the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i n o r d e r to be e f f e c t i v e the needs must  be communicated, a v i d e o tape h i g h l i g h t i n g the concerns  of the one  parent  f a m i l i e s forms an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the r e s e a r c h methodology.  THE  ACTION RESEARCH STANCE E x p e r i e n c e w i t h o t h e r r e s e a r c h endeavours has demonstrated t h a t the  information gathering process  i s more s u c c e s s f u l when t h e r e i s an  i n t e r c h a n g e of i n f o r m a t i o n between the r e s e a r c h e r and  the u s e r s .  In  a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s a moral o b l i g a t i o n to p r o v i d e something i n r e t u r n f o r the knowledge which has been shared.  In keeping w i t h these  feedback s e s s i o n s were h e l d w i t h those who  sentiments,  have i n p u t i n t o the r e s e a r c h  process. I n t e r v i e w s w i t h some o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s were taped.  These v i d e o -  taped i n t e r v i e w s were then shown at a meeting of study p a r t i c i p a n t s s e r v e d as a focus f o r the group meeting.  The  group meeting was  taped and became a p a r t of a documentary tape h i g h l i g h t i n g the i s s u e s of concern  to one p a r e n t  families.  the Department of Human Resources,  also housing  T h i s completed v i d e o t a p e which  accompanies t h i s t h e s i s has been viewed by people Hall,  and  from Vancouver C i t y  CMHC l o c a l and r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s ,  and p r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l s t a f f members of the YWCA. i s w r i t t e n the i n f o r m a t i o n d i s s e m i n a t i o n p r o c e s s  As t h i s  continues.  thesis  19.  I t was found ficiencies, tool.  t h a t v i d e o tape, i n s p i t e o f some c i n e m a t i c  served as an e f f e c t i v e communication and d a t a  collection  A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e use o f v i d e o tape, the advantages and  problems o f t h e medium and a c r i t i c a l  commentary on the v i d e o  which accompanies t h i s t h e s i s have been appended f o r those i n the p o t e n t i a l o f v i d e o as a p l a n n i n g  THE  insuf-  tape  interested  tool.  ONE PARENT POPULATIONS The  d e c i s i o n t o choose two h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s and a survey o f o r g a n i z -  a t i o n s has been i n f l u e n c e d by the one p a r e n t f a m i l y s t u d i e s o f t h e Canadian C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Development  (CCSD) and Guyatt, b o t h i n 1971.  These  s t u d i e s f o c u s on one p a r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h d e s i g n s , hence the s e l e c t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s which s e r v e one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s as one o f the p o p u l a t i o n .  I n a d d i t i o n t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n t a c t e d the CCSD i n t e r -  viewed some 113 s i n g l e p a r e n t s .  The study does n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s was  a random sample o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n .  I n view o f the f a c t t h a t drawing  such  a sample would i n v o l v e much g r e a t e r f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s than were a v a i l a b l e f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s , the d e c i s i o n t o choose two case s t u d i e s was made. two  YWCA Group Homes and Bishop  C r i d g e were chosen.  These  p o p u l a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t age groups (YWCA mothers tend t o be a  younger group) a t d i f f e r e n t  stages i n the l i f e  cycle  ( t h e Bishop  Cridge  c h i l d r e n are p r i m a r i l y s c h o o l age, those i n Group Homes a r e under t h r e e years of age).  THE  THESIS FORMAT - FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION The  two case s t u d i e s and the survey o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e  presented i n separate chapters. to r e f l e c t  The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f these i s designed  the emergence o f i s s u e s i n the r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s .  Knowledge  20.  gathered  from t h e Group Homes mothers i n f l u e n c e d t h e q u e s t i o n s  the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  asked  The i s s u e s and recommendations  which emerge from t h e p r o c e s s o f l i t e r a t u r e review,  field  research with  the t h r e e p o p u l a t i o n s i s then summarized i n a c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r . r e p e t i t i o n i s recognized but'the  d e s i r e t h a t t h e t h e s i s r e f l e c t the  r e s e a r c h PROCESS made t h i s the d e c i s i o n n e c e s s a r y .  Some  21.  CHAPTER FOUR - YWCA GROUP HOMES  For t h e woman who doesn't want t o s t a y on w e l f a r e , t h e g o i n g can be rough. F i n d i n g a j o b t h a t pays enough, a p l a c e t o l i v e , someone t o l o o k a f t e r t h e c h i l d r e n and f r i e n d s t o l e n d moral support p r e s e n t s such a massive stumbling b l o c k t h a t i t o f t e n d e t e r s h e r from even making an i n i t i a l e f f o r t . (Carson, 1975, p. 9) One s o l u t i o n t o t h i s dilemma  i s a group home.  The group home concept  i m p l i e s s h e l t e r and support b u t depending on t h e management and the p h i l o s o p h y the r e s u l t s may v a r y . l i v e communally  A group home may be a p l a c e where people  i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f any o r g a n i z a t i o n o r agency.  Alternatively  a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n t r o l over the l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n can be m a i n t a i n e d by the use o f house p a r e n t s .  The term group home as i t i s used i n t h i s  chapter c h a r t s a m i d d l e course between  these two extremes.  The group  home f o r t h e purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s a p l a c e , p h y s i c a l l y i t may be a house o r apartment, where women l i v e c o o p e r a t i v e l y under t h e guidance o f a homes d i r e c t o r , a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the s u p p o r t i n g agency.  A group  homes model f o r s i n g l e mothers and t h e i r c h i l d r e n i s o p e r a t e d i n Vancouver under the a u s p i c e s of t h e YWCA.  THE HISTORY OF THE GROUP HOMES In September,  1966, the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver  suggested t h a t an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y committee be s t r u c k " t o c o n s i d e r the problems o f unmarried p a r e n t s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n " ( B r i t i s h P r o v i n c i a l Government,  1972, p. 6 1 ) . The Committee  Columbia  recommended t h e  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f group homes f o r unmarried mothers w i t h the p r o v i s i o n of daycare.  The e x i s t e n c e o f c o o p e r a t i v e homes f o r unmarried mothers  came t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y .  By August 1967  a home had been e s t a b l i s h e d by a young mother w i t h an e i g h t e e n month  22.  old  son.  The  C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y p r o v i d e d a grant f o r f u r n i s h i n g s  for  the c o o p e r a t i v e and occupant-governed house.  were t h r e e such homes.  F i n a n c i a l support  and  l i n g were p r o v i d e d by a number of agencies  By August 1967,  s e r v i c e s such as  and  departments.  there  counsel-  A provincial  evaluation report relates: Meetings were s e t up among these agencies i n o r d e r to d e v i s e a formula f o r f i n a n c i n g and g i v i n g on-going s e r v i c e and i t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t the young women who composed the c l i e n t group were d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n s and p l a n n i n g i n a t l e a s t one of these meetings. Much emphasis was p l a c e d on p r e s e r v i n g the .. i n d i g e n o u s c h a r a c t e r o f the p r o j e c t . (YWCA, 1972, E a r l y i n 1968  budget p r e s s u r e s were f e l t .  purchase major a p p l i a n c e s f o r the homes and group worker.  65)  I t became n e c e s s a r y  no  longer v i a b l e .  assume the m a n a g e r i a l  p r o v i n c i a l l y funded.  The  d i r e c t o r s of the YWCA agreed  first  1968.  t h e r e has been a change from a "communal house model" f o r  f o u r f a m i l i e s , e s s e n t i a l l y s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s w i t h one k i t c h e n , one  or two bathrooms and  house may  A u n i t may  central  a s e p a r a t e bedroom f o r each mother  c h i l d , to a " c o o p e r a t i v e house model".with no more than two sharing a unit.  be  Group Home committee composed of YWCA  board members and Group Homes r e s i d e n t s met. i n May S i n c e 1968  financial  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the homes which would  The  to  to secure the s e r v i c e s o f a  I t became c l e a r t h a t the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n of  s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was to  p.  be an apartment or house.  a c t u a l l y be an apartment b u i l d i n g .  The  t h a t t h i s o f f e r s the r e s i d e n t s more p r i v a c y but  and  families  A cooperative  important  cooperative  feature i s purchasing,  b a b y s i t t i n g and p l a n n i n g f o r the t o t a l house are p o s s i b l e . The The  c h i l d c a r e program i s an important  Group Homes have a  daycare  p a r t of Group Homes l i f e .  c e n t r e f o r c h i l d r e n 18 months to 4 y e a r s .  •23V  The  c e n t r e i s used by the r e s i d e n t s and by o t h e r one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n  the s u r r o u n d i n g community.  Some o f these p a r e n t s are former  Group Homes  residents. In 1975 a f t e r o p e r a t i n g f o r e i g h t y e a r s and undergoing changes i n those y e a r s the model was undergoing "evaluation. s t a f f has w i t n e s s e d  a number o f The Group Homes  a movement away from the communal l i v i n g i d e a l so  p o p u l a r a t the i n c e p t i o n o f the program.  I n d i v i d u a l s u i t e s which a f f o r d  g r e a t e r p r i v a c y a r e more i n keeping w i t h the needs o f most mothers. Contact w i t h Group Homes was made as they move i n t o t h i s new phase which c o u l d permit g r e a t e r freedom f o r the i n d i v i d u a l mother w i t h i n the collectivity. A meeting was c a l l e d by the D i r e c t o r o f Group Homes t o d i s c u s s the p o s s i b i l i t y . o f a housing families. and  study c o n c e r n i n g the needs o f one p a r e n t  The p r i n c i p l e purpose of t h i s i n t e r c h a n g e between the r e s i d e n t s  the r e s e a r c h e r was to a s c e r t a i n whether the r e s i d e n t s were w i l l i n g t o  p a r t i c i p a t e i n such a study.  THE  The answer w a s : a f f i r m a t i v e and e n t h u s i a s t i c .  HOUSING NEEDS OF THE GROUP HOMES RESIDENTS I n f o r m a t i o n about Group Homes was o b t a i n e d from a review o f p r o j e c t  r e c o r d s from the i n c e p t i o n o f the p r o j e c t , and through homes r e s i d e n t s . contacted.  a survey o f group  Twenty Group Homes' r e s i d e n t s , p a s t and p r e s e n t , were  Nine o f t h e t h i r t e e n r e s i d e n t s l i v i n g i n the homes  questionnaires  completed  (see Appendix) and d i s c u s s e d t h e i r views c o n c e r n i n g the  Group Homes model.  Two o f the women chose n o t t o p a r t i c i p a t e and two  o t h e r s were i n the p r o c e s s o f moving and c o u l d n o t be reached.  Attempts  were made t o c o n t a c t the women who had l i v e d i n Group Homes between 1972 and  1975.  T h i s y i e l d e d e l e v e n completed  questionnaires.  Due to a l a c k  24.  of f o r w a r d i n g  addresses  or i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g  the whereabouts of  many past r e s i d e n t s i t proved i m p o s s i b l e t o r e a c h many.  THE  FINDINGS A f t e r many c o n v e r s a t i o n s , a few  group d i s c u s s i o n s and  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , a number of s a l i e n t i s s u e s  were  a n a l y s i s of  identified.  major concerns of the m a j o r i t y of the mothers were expressed w e l l by one mother who  i d e n t i f i e d f o u r major housing  and  The  particularly  housing-related  needs: The need to have o t h e r g i r l s i n the same s i t u a t i o n to r e l a t e to. The need to have a f r e e b a b y s i t t e r to a l l o w me break every now and a g a i n . The need f o r a day get some work.  care c e n t r e nearby f o r me  to have a  to be a b l e to  The need f o r an adequate house f o r a r e a s o n a b l e  price.  She went on- to say t h a t Group Homes met these needs. You-can t a l k about problems you have w i t h your c h i l d ~ a n d i f o t h e r s i n g l e p a r e n t s have had t h a t problem i t can be s o l v e d . You r e a l i z e someelse has the same problems and you're not alone and you can l i v e and enjoy l i f e and s o l v e problems i n time. '  Many of the women s t r e s s e d the importance of the s h a r i n g i n Group Homes.  The need to have, "someone who  t h i n g s I go through"  surfaces repeatedly.  to have o t h e r people  around who  as w e l l as having c h i l d r e n and  get another  understands the  It i s particularly  are i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g to  the o p p o r t u n i t y  experience  supportive "parent"  to " t a l k about problems w i t h your  p o i n t of view i n r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n " .  Residents  form study groups t o examine s p e c i f i c i s s u e s u s u a l l y r e l a t e d to care.  In the p a s t the study  different  groups have i n v o l v e d mothers and  child-  fathers  25.  from t h e community, s t a f f from the YWCA daycare as w e l l as women from Group Homes. the C h a l l e n g e , Generally  The study group uses common r e a d i n g s ,  f o r example C h i l d r e n  as a b a s i s f o r d i s c u s s i o n . t h e exchange o f b a b y s i t t i n g s e r v i c e s works w e l l .  can be a source o f t e n s i o n i f a mother e m o t i o n a l l y women t o take the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r her c h i l d .  pressures  Instances  This  the other  of t h i s  kind  are u l t i m a t e l y r e s o l v e d by the r e s i d e n t s and t h e Group Homes D i r e c t o r . Severe and c o n t i n u i n g  tensions  not s u i t e d t o the l i f e  a r e o f t e n an i n d i c a t o r t h a t a mother i s  i n Group Homes and i t s u n d e r l y i n g  cooperative  philosophy. Daycare i s an extremely important f e a t u r e o f Group Homes.  One o f  the major aims o f the program i s t h a t the mother i s a b l e t o pursue c e r t a i n g o a l s which w i l l e v e n t u a l l y l e a d t o h e r "independence" (YWCA, 1972) .  A mother can p l a c e h e r c h i l d  to s c h o o l o r o b t a i n employment.  i n daycare and then i s a b l e t o go  S e v e r a l mothers s t a t e t h a t they would  l i k e t o be a b l e t o spend more time w i t h  t h e i r young c h i l d r e n but f e e l  they have t o " g e t ahead i n the w o r l d " .  T h i s t e n s i o n between n u r t u r i n g  one's c h i l d and seeking many s i n g l e p a r e n t s .  f i n a n c i a l independence i s a problem faced by  I n Group Homes t h e r e a r e mechanisms f o r management  of t h i s type o f t e n s i o n .  I n t h e daycare c e n t r e  exposed t o s t a f f and to o t h e r a d u l t s . centrally  i n a l a r g e house, serves  s e t t i n g the c h i l d r e n a r e  The daycare c e n t r e ,  located  as an i n f o r m a l meeting p l a c e f o r the  mothers, a b l e t o i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r  c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s o t h e r  than  their  parents. The  r e n t a-mother i n Group Homes pays i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y  lower than the r e n t she would pay f o r s i m i l a r accommodation i n t h e open h o u s i n g market.  The s h a r i n g o f f a c i l i t i e s and f u r n i s h i n g s , t h i n g s  such  26.  as laundry appliances, lawn mowers, etc., represent savings that i n d i v i d u a l consumption would not r e a l i z e .  Once the building i s purchased, with-the  exception of one b u i l d i n g where rent i s subsidized, the homes pay for themselves, ie., the rent the women pay covers most operating costs. Major maintenance costs are absorbed-by the Province. Group Homes mothers are assured of accommodation they can afford.  Because of this they are not t o t a l l y pre-occupied  with  rental worries and they are able to expend their energies i n more p r o f i t a b l e ways.  This expenditure contributes to their further economic  and emotional independence. Both current and past residents i d e n t i f i e d problems they encountered during their Group Homes sojourn.  The d i f f i c u l t i e s the mothers mentioned  as primarily those encountered i n group l i v i n g : "I have to remember the place i s not only mine and I have to consider my room-mates as far as decorating goes. . There was  a lack of privacy.  There was a lack of choice of room-mates. Couldn't get along with one of the g i r l s . The house was never r e a l l y clean.' The usual complaints of housecleaning. We always seemed to be defending our c h i l d to each other - nothing r e a l l y drastic. Discussion with the project director reaffirmed what past residents said about the problems of group l i v i n g .  When the rules of their cooperative  community become too r e s t r i c t i v e many of the women have come to the r e a l i z a t i o n they are ready to leave. The majority of residents who  contributed to the study through  interviews or questionnaires were very p o s i t i v e . the views of past residents who  It should be noted that  did not enjoy a s i m i l a r l y positive  27.  experience may not be represented.  This i s explained by the fact that the  decision was made not to contact c e r t a i n past residents when i t was f e l t , in view of information obtained  from the d i r e c t o r and other residents, that  such an exchange would not be p r o f i t a b l e i n terms of data c o l l e c t i o n because of severe emotional upheavals i n the l i f e of these past residents. The Group Homes d i r e c t o r related a number of instances where, i n spite of the s e l e c t i o n process,  a number of applicants unsuited to a cooperative  l i v i n g arrangement did become residents.  These people often stayed  only  a short while or i f they were a disruptive and destructive influence they were asked to leave.  I t should be noted that the Group Homes  experience can and has proven b e n e f i c i a l for those i n need of emotional support.  The Group Homes model i s not equipped to deal with people who  suffer from severe mental imbalance.  In the past the admission of such  mothers has proven to be detrimental to the incoming mother herself and other house residents. The interpersonal dynamics of Group Homes cannot be overemphasized. The benefits the residents and t h e i r children receive are l a r g e l y a function of the amount of commitment the mothers are w i l l i n g to give. Because the benefits which may be derived from Group Homes l i f e are so dependent on the resident, great onus i s placed on the d i r e c t o r who oversees the admissions process.  The s e l e c t i o n process of necessity  must i d e n t i f y those women who would neither benefit from nor contribute to the other mothers i n the Group Homes.  In an attempt to do this the  interviewing process i s extensive and may include resident mothers. THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF GROUP HOMES The importance of Group Homes because of the emotional support they provide has been emphasized.  The goal of increasing confidence and  28.  c o n t r i b u t i n g to the development of a p r o d u c t i v e can be a t t a i n e d . An e v a l u a t i o n  But a t what  and independent i n d i v i d u a l  cost?  study o f the YWCA Group Homes found  that,  "The c o s t of keeping'a mother and c h i l d i n the Group Homes can be h a l f the c o s t of p u t t i n g the c h i l d i n c a r e and the mother on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . " (YWCA, 1972, p. 58) This a s s e r t i o n i s substantiated  w i t h the f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s : Separate Care  Group Homes Care T o t a l budget f i g u r e 1972-73 O p e r a t i o n c o s t per month f o r 4 houses  3,544  Cost per month f o r one house  886  Cost per month f o r mother and c h i l d  Mother on S.A.  $102  C h i l d i n care ($11 per diem)  330  $42,528  : '.:: $  221  Cost per month f o r mother and c h i l d $432  If the mother i s on the o p p o r t u n i t i e s program and s t i l l r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e or i n on a manpower grant the t o t a l c o s t i n Group Homes i s s t i l l l e s s . Homes c o s t Social Assistance  $221 175 $396  I f the s i n g l e mother i s employed and l i v i n g t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t s a v i n g i n money.  i n Group Homes  I f the s i n g l e mother i s b r i e f l y r e c e i v i n g S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e or on a manpower grant t h e r e i s s t i l l a s a v i n g i n p u b l i c money when she l i v e s i n a Group Home, but more important i s the b e n e f i t to the c h i l d and the mother from the Group Home a u x i l i a r y s e r v i c e s which become an i n v e s t m e n t • i n human r e s o u r c e s f o r the f u t u r e good o f the community. SUMMARY The s t a f f of the YWCA i s cognizant o f the s i n g l e p a r e n t s .  of the changing accommodation needs  In response to these changes the s t a f f would  l i k e to accommodate the mothers i n i n d i v i d u a l s u i t e s w i t h i n a  cooperative b u i l d i n g .  Achievement of this goal i s dependent on the  p r i o r i t y and funding given to Group Homes by the Province. There i s every reason to believe that with the improving status of the single mother and the changing pattern of the family the demand for moderately priced housing l i k e Group Homes w i l l increase.  The human  benefits which can result f o r mothers and children are s i g n i f i c a n t . In addition, the cost of supporting a mother and a c h i l d i n Group Homes can represent h a l f the cost of supporting  a c h i l d i n care and a mother  on s o c i a l assistance. In terms of the r e a l i z a t i o n of human p o t e n t i a l and the cost of housing and services, the Group Homes model deserves serious consideration.  CHAPTER FIVE - BISHOP CRIDGE CENTRE FOR.THE FAMILY  The Bishop  C r i d g e Centre  f o r t h e Family i s a n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t y  t h a t p r o v i d e s low r e n t a l housing families. profit  and c h i l d c a r e s e r v i c e s f o r one parent  The c e n t r e i s l o c a t e d i n V i c t o r i a and i s managed by a non-  society.  BACKGROUND INFORMATION The Home.  c e n t r e began i n 1873 as the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o t e s t a n t Orphans  I n 1969, s e n s i n g the changing  need f o r r e s i d e n t i a l care o f  c h i l d r e n , t h e s o c i e t y c o n s t r u c t e d twenty-nine townhouses and e s t a b l i s h e d daycare,  a f t e r s c h o o l and summer programs f o r the r e s i d e n t s and f o r  s i n g l e p a r e n t s i n the s u r r o u n d i n g community.  The Centre, i n c o r p o r a t e d ,  i n t h e same townhouse c o u r t y a r d s e t t i n g , t h r e e group l i v i n g homes f o r r e s i d e n t i a l care o f c h i l d r e n by s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t s . The  twenty-nine garden apartments and t h r e e group l i v i n g homes  ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as Hayward H e i g h t s ) twelve and a h a l f a c r e s i t e i n V i c t o r i a . on t h e premises and a major shopping The  a r e s i t u a t e d on a wooded There a r e l a u n d r y  area i s w i t h i n walking d i s t a n c e .  actual units are a t t r a c t i v e b r i c k construction.  j o i n t d i n i n g and l i v i n g rooms a r e on the f i r s t bathroom a r e on t h e second f l o o r .  facilities  floor,  The k i t c h e n and the bedrooms and  Rents f o r these u n i t s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y  below market p r i c e i n s p i t e o f a r e n t i n c r e a s e e f f e c t i v e October 1, 1975.  Number o f Bedrooms i n Unit  Previous Rent  Rent A f t e r Increase  2 bedroom  $115  $129  3 bedroom  $148  $166  4 bedroom  $168  $188  31.  Daycare, a f t e r s c h o o l and the  summer programs f o r c h i l d r e n are a v a i l a b l e  on  site. O r i g i n a l l y the housing  and accompanying s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by  C r i d g e were intended to be of i n t e r i m n a t u r e . c l e a r to the o r i g i n a l t e n a n t s . s t a f f and  the board  n a t u r e of tenancy  T h i s was  the  not made e x p r e s s l y  T h i s u n f o r t u n a t e f a c t i s r e c o g n i z e d by  of the C r i d g e .  In an e f f o r t to c l a r i f y  at Hayward Heights  the i n t e r i m  a " T h r e s h o l d " p o l i c y was  (see Appendix) to c u r r e n t tenants i n June 1975.  the  issued  In the f u t u r e , tenants  w i l l e n t e r i n t o an agreement w i t h the Centre whereby the d u r a t i o n and c o n d i t i o n s o f tenancy  are expressed  a c o n t r a c t u a l understanding  i n a w r i t t e n form (see Appendix) and  between l e s s e e and  Many of the f a m i l i e s who  l e s s o r w i l l be  moved to the C r i d g e f i v e y e a r s ago  r e s i d e t h e r e because the r e n t i s w i t h i n t h e i r means and p r o v i s i o n and p r o x i m i t y of  childcare service.  because they have no o t h e r p l a c e to go. vacancy r a t e s l e a v e l i t t l e  reached.  Others  due  still  to the  remain  simply  E x o r b i t a n t r e n t s and near zero  a l t e r n a t i v e but to remain i n Hayward H e i g h t s .  Many of the tenants f e e l t h r e a t e n e d by the " T h r e s h o l d " p o l i c y which s t a t e s , Unless e x c e p t i o n a l circumstances can be shown, the maximum p e r i o d o f time which any one f a m i l y may be be expected to r e s i d e i n the premises i s t h r e e y e a r s . (see Appendix) When q u e r i e d about tenant a n x i e t y r e g a r d i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c l a u s e , the s t a f f s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e had been e f f o r t s to r e a s s u r e tenants t h a t the p o l i c y i s i n no way  a dictum  foreshadowing  mass e v i c t i o n .  each f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n would be i n d i v i d u a l l y examined was little housing in  The  s t r e s s e d but d i d  to assuage the f e a r s of the Hayward H e i g h t s r e s i d e n t s . committee to a c t as l i a i s o n w i t h the board  response  to the a n x i e t y and  and  resentment tenants f e l t  f a c t that  A  s t a f f was  tenant struck  towards the  Cridge  32.  management.  The a c t i v a t i o n o f a tenant housing committee and the r e c e p t i -  v i t y o f the c u r r e n t board of i n t e r c h a n g e i s a r e c e n t development a t the Centre.  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p e r s o n n e l changes at the C r i d g e have r e s u l t e d  i n p o l i c y and program e v a l u a t i o n by the s t a f f and the board. the Bishop C r i d g e Centre f o r the F a m i l y was committee was  e s t a b l i s h e d as the r e s i d e n t s  g e t t i n g underway.  THE HOUSING NEEDS OF THE In  Contact w i t h  BISHOP CRIDGE/HAYWARD HEIGHTS RESIDENTS  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a t the Centre the purpose  to  g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g h o u s i n g needs o f one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s  to  a s s e s s the C r i d g e ' s accommodation, Hayward H e i g h t s i n terms o f the  was and  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s o f the C e n t r e : 1) good q u a l i t y housing i n a t t r a c t i v e s u r r o u n d i n g s a t a moderate r e n t a l for  one p a r e n t  families;  2) many s e r v i c e s which a l l o w the mother to seek employment and not have the burden o f concern of her  children. (Bishop C r i d g e Centre f o r the F a m i l y , pamphlet)  Initially  the r e s e a r c h e r v i s i t e d  A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r and another  the C r i d g e and i n t e r v i e w e d the  s t a f f member.  r e s e a r c h e r would make a second v i s i t  I t was  agreed t h a t  to i n t e r v i e w the r e s i d e n t s .  the This  i  v i s i t was  preceded by a l e t t e r o f i n t r o d u c t i o n .  t h r e e days and evenings  i n V i c t o r i a and  twenty-nine  One  u n i t was to  residents.  vacant.  The r e s e a r c h e r spent  i n t e r v i e w e d twenty-two of the  of the t e n a n t s had r e c e n t l y moved and  the  The remaining s i x r e s i d e n t s were away or d i d not choose  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. The  r e s e a r c h e r used a q u e s t i o n n a i r e (see Appendix) as the b a s i s f o r  the i n t e r v i e w s .  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e addressed  t h r e e s e t s of  issues:  33.  1) the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the housing needs o f f a m i l i e s , 2) the adequacy of c u r r e n t accommodation ( i e . Hayward H e i g h t s ) i n meeting  these needs,  3) the d i f f e r e n c e , i f any, between the h o u s i n g needs o f one parent and those o f the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n .  families  In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n the r e s u l t s  of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t e r v i e w s a r e summarized.  THE  FINDINGS B e f o r e moving to Hayward H e i g h t s the t e n a n t s had v a r i o u s types of  accommodation.  The  (no d i s t i n c t i o n was f a m i l i e s had l i v e d  g r e a t e s t number (41%) l i v e d  i n single family dwellings  made r e g a r d i n g the type of t e n u r e ) . i n duplexes  (27%), apartments  There were t h r e e reasons why d e s i r e d accommodation:  The  other  (23%) or townhouses ( 9 % ) .  people were unable to o b t a i n t h e i r  1) p l a c e s were beyond f i n a n c i a l means, 2) l a n d - ,  l o r d s d i d not want c h i l d r e n , and  3) they d i d not want to r e n t to s i n g l e  parents.  Many people  (33%) were r e s t r i c t e d by a combination  factors.  When a s k i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y about  o f these  e x p e r i e n c e s encountered when  l o o k i n g f o r accommodation the m a j o r i t y of the Bishop C r i d g e r e s i d e n t s (64%) s a i d they had d i f f i c u l t y  f i n d i n g a p l a c e t h a t would have c h i l d r e n  and the same number i n d i c a t e d d i f f i c u l t y  f i n d i n g a l a n d l o r d who  would  have a s i n g l e p a r e n t as a t e n a n t . The Hayward H e i g h t s r e s i d e n t s were asked they encountered when l o o k i n g f o r h o u s i n g .  to r e l a t e the " h a s s l e s "  The  s t o r i e s they  were a l l d i f f e r e n t and a l l i n v o l v e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n one  recounted  form or another  sometimes o v e r t , sometimes masked. The l a n d l o r d s t o l d me they d i d n ' t want to r e n t to a woman on her own' because these k i n d s of women e n t e r t a i n too many men. Pets a r e f i n e , but you might as w e l l k i l l your k i d s i f you want to l i v e i n V i c t o r i a . I a p p l i e d to r e n t a p l a c e through a r e a l e s t a t e agency. They turned me down because  34.  I was a s i n g l e parent and l a t e r when they thought I might make t r o u b l e about t h i s they wrote me a l e t t e r of apology but I d i d n ' t get the p l a c e , they had r e n t e d i t to someone else.' I was l i v i n g i n t h i s house f o r e i g h t l a n d l o r d found out about my d i v o r c e . f o r t y d o l l a r s because he s a i d I was a a d i v o r c e e . I had been a good tenant but t h a t d i d n ' t seem to matter. When p l a c e and was l o o k i n g f o r a duplex, I l o s t my husband e i g h t months ago." I a l t h o u g h what I say i s t r u e i n a way. d i f f e r e n c e i f the l a n d l o r d t h i n k s I'm of a "wicked d i v o r c e e " . The  months when the He r a i s e d " t h e r e n t greater r i s k being f o r e i g h t months I moved out of t h a t would j u s t say " I don't l i k e l y i n g I t r e a l l y makes a a poor widow i n s t e a d  respondents were asked to d e f i n e the housing needs o f  families.  The v a r i e d responses  s u f f i c i e n t space  include:  reasonable rent (27%);  ( 2 7 % ) ; adequate l a u n d r y f a c i l i t i e s  t h a t i s most f r e q u e n t l y expressed i s the requirement (50%).  their  (23%).  The  need  f o r enough bedrooms  Many o f these mothers s l e e p i n the l i v i n g room to p r o v i d e t h e i r  children with greater privacy. Less than h a l f of the respondents housing was (32%) f e l t one-quarter  (45%) s t a t e d t h a t Hayward H e i g h t s  the k i n d of accommodation they sought.  Nearly one-third  t h a t they d i d not f i n d the housing'they were s e e k i n g and (23%) had mixed views.  When asked about p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e  a s p e c t s o f Hayward H e i g h t s h o u s i n g f o r b o t h p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n e q u a l number (41%) c i t e ' the r e a s o n a b l e r e n t and the A m a j o r i t y (64%) i n d i c a t e the u n d e r s t a n d i n g circumstances i s a d i s t i n c t  almost  childcare  an  programs.  from o t h e r s i n s i m i l a r  advantage.  More than h a l f say t h a t l i v i n g w i t h a l l s i n g l e p a r e n t s i s not a good i d e a .  Some of t h e i r comments may  e x p l a i n the d i v e r g e n t p o i n t s of view.  When a l l one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s l i v e t o g e t h e r the k i d s f o r g e t about two parent f a m i l i e s . They t h i n k t h a t m a r r i a g e can't work.  35.  Here your neighbours understand you. They went through the same t h i n g . I don't t h i n k t h e r e would be t h a t unders t a n d i n g w i t h two p a r e n t f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r s . I t i s e a s i e r to l i v e here, none o f the k i d s have f a t h e r s so they a r e n ' t j e a l o u s o f each o t h e r f o r t h a t r e a s o n . "I f e e l i t i s n e c e s s a r y to move back i n t o the mixed community - get away from problem f a m i l i e s . Less than one-quarter  (23%) f e e l  f a m i l i e s i s h e l p f u l to them. indifferent  (14%).  When asked  t h a t l i v i n g w i t h o t h e r one  Others have mixed f e e l i n g s  parent  (14%) o r were  about the i d e a of one parent  living  together  i n the community, fewer (20%) have n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s than when asked  about  the p e r s o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f l i v i n g w i t h o t h e r one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s .  The  same number (32%) have mixed a t t i t u d e s towards the g e n e r a l i d e a of some type of one parent f a m i l y community w h i l e more than one-quarter l o o k f a v o u r a b l y on t h i s type of l i v i n g arrangement.  When asked  (27%) i f living  w i t h o t h e r one parent f a m i l i e s i s b e n e f i c i a l f o r the c h i l d r e n , an e q u a l number r e a c t p o s i t i v e l y and n e g a t i v e l y . I t might b o t h e r my k i d s . t o l i v e i n a mixed community. They a r e used to o t h e r one parent f a m i l i e s . I think two p a r e n t f a m i l i e s would make my k i d s f e e l j e a l o u s . K i d s who have f a t h e r s tend to b r a g about i t . At l e a s t here t h e r e a r e o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n the same boat. Kids can be c r u e l . One p a r e n t f a m i l i e s l i v i n g t o g e t h e r i s a good i d e a f o r an i n t e r i m p e r i o d - to 'get s t a r t e d ' . I don't see how i t c o u l d be done any o t h e r way. We a r e p e r c e i v e d as a 'separate' community. The k i d s f e e l i t . They are teased about i t and some have even been beaten up o v e r i t . * ' R e s i d e n t s were asked f a m i l i e s and now of  about the i d e a l k i n d of accommodation f o r t h e i r  to c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e s to the k i n d of h o u s i n g  available  - a l t e r n a t i v e s i n terms of d e s i g n , p r i c e and a m e n i t i e s p r o v i d e d . the r e s i d e n t s i n d i c a t e t h e i r f i r s t p r e f e r e n c e and  then a second  and  Many  perhaps f i n a n c i a l l y more f e a s i b l e c h o i c e . would l i k e to l i v e  i n a house.  a house i n the c o u n t r y .  The  great m a j o r i t y  (73%)  More than o n e - t h i r d (36%) would p r e f e r  Most o f t e n the f i n a n c i a l l y more f e a s i b l e c h o i c e  i s a duplex o r townhouse. As a group the mothers i n t e r v i e w e d were people who l i f e as p a r t of a two p a r e n t f a m i l y .  They were asked  parent f a m i l y l i f e v e r s u s one parent f a m i l y l i f e and question:  had  to examine  different  About o n e - t h i r d (32%) of the  r e s i d e n t s f e e l t h a t the needs are not d i f f e r e n t w h i l e h a l f of the respondents  (50%)  say the needs are d i f f e r e n t .  Needs N o t . D i f f e r e n t : The needs are not d i f f e r e n t . With the h o u s i n g c r i s i s , f a m i l i e s w i t h f a t h e r s have j u s t as many problems. The needs a r e n ' t d i f f e r e n t , w i t h s u b s i d i e s women make j u s t as much money as men do. Everybody w i t h k i d s  has  The needs a r e the same. i s o n l y one income.  the same problems. I t i s : more d i f f i c u l t  i f there  v  Needs Are  two  t o answer the  "Are the h o u s i n g needs of one parent f a m i l i e s any  from those o f the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n ? "  experienced  Different:  I f you o n l y have one cheque coming i n , i t i s much h a r d e r r e n t - w i s e . You have to cope w i t h problems by y o u r s e l f and i t i s good to be around o t h e r s who understand. I t i s h a r d e r to f i n d a p l a c e because of p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . ' The needs a r e d i f f e r e n t e s p e c i a l l y f o r the young s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l y . Support and daycare . are both necessities. • There i s enough h o u s i n g f o r everyone but s i n g l e p a r e n t s r e a l l y need a p l a c e to get on t h e i r f e e t . L a n d l o r d s would r a t h e r r e n t to a man has more money anyway.'  - who  usually  37.  • S i n g l e p a r e n t s have more d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g accommodat i o n because of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . People's a t t i t u d e s toward s i n g l e p a r e n t s must be changed.V  SUMMARY In terms of meeting  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s e s t a b l i s h e d by  Centre s e v e r a l changes are n e c e s s a r y . younger c h i l d r e n who  would use the  i n Hayward H e i g h t s .  The  First  childcare  the  of a l l f a m i l i e s w i t h programs should be housed  i n e r t i a on the p a r t of the c u r r e n t , many of  them o r i g i n a l , tenants p r e v e n t s t h i s from b e i n g  accomplished.  Communication between the C r i d g e management and Hayward H e i g h t s r e s i d e n t s i s needed. Housing  One  o f the tenants expressed hope t h a t the  Tenant's  Committee would be concerned w i t h a l t e r n a t i v e housing, i e . , would  h e l p the tenants f i n d housing so they c o u l d move away from the C r i d g e when they are no l o n g e r i n need of the k i n d of support and p r o v i d e d by the C e n t r e . suggestion.  T h i s a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n stance i s an e x c e l l e n t  The C r i d g e c o u l d and perhaps  misunderstandings  about  services  s h o u l d , i n view o f p a s t  the n a t u r e o f the accommodation, p l a y an  active  r o l e i n f i n d i n g accommodation f o r people when they are ready to l e a v e . Frequent  exchange between t e n a n t s , the board and s t a f f c o n c e r n i n g i s s u e s  such as the f i n a n c i n g o f the C r i d g e c o u l d o n l y p r e c l u d e many misunderstandings . The Bishop C r i d g e Centre f o r the Family p r o v i d e s a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f accommodation f o r one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s .  The  childcare  programs which  have a r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n are an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the l i v i n g the Bishop C r i d g e Centre a f f o r d s . method of i n s t r u c t i o n .  Not  experience  a l l p a r e n t s would agree w i t h the  However, t h i s k i n d o f housing s h o u l d be  as one o f a range of types of accommodation f o r one parent  available  families.  The Bishop C r i d g e Model, a townhouse c l u s t e r w i t h facilities housing  l i k e the YWCA Group Homes i s a working  i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  childcare  example o f one parent  The housing p r o v i d e d by the C r i d g e i s  i n t e n d e d t o be i n t e r i m accommodation and when t h i s b a s i c premise adhered  to c e r t a i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems such as the problem  parent f a m i l y d e f i n i t i o n , are r a i s e d . C r i d g e i s a good one.  While  The concept developed by the  the f i n a n c i a l f e a s i b i l i t y o f such  an u n d e r t a k i n g i s u n c e r t a i n i n view o f r i s i n g c o s t s .  project.  o f one  the i d e a o f a p r i v a t e s e c t o r p r o v i d i n g t h i s  type o f accommodation i s a t t r a c t i v e ,  could p r o f i t  i s not  The p u b l i c s e c t o r  from the e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s p r i v a t e l y conducted  housing  The C r i d g e Model i s one f u r t h e r example o f the way i n which  the d i v e r g e n t h o u s i n g requirements  o f one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s can be met.  CHAPTER SIX - ORGANIZATIONS WHICH SERVE ONE PARENT FAMILIES  T h i s chapter  has a t w o f o l d purpose.  Following a b r i e f  of each o r g a n i z a t i o n the i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e e l e v e n concerning  t h e housing  requirements o f one parent  Secondly, t h e r o l e o f these-.organizations  description  organizations  families i s discussed.  i s analyzed  i n terms .of t h e  needs the o r g a n i z a t i o n s meet and t h e p o s s i b l e r o l e they c o u l d p l a y i n b e t t e r i n g t h e l o t o f one parent The one  families.  r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e d e s i g n a t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n s which  parent  f a m i l i e s as one o f t h e t h r e e p o p u l a t i o n s  d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Two.  i n t h e study i s  The d i s t i n c t i o n made by Guyatt  types o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , 1) government a g e n c i e s ,  serve  concerning  2) v o l u n t a r y  agencies  3) s e l f - h e l p groups, has n o t been employed s i n c e most o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d r e c e i v e government"funding o f some k i n d , use the s e r v i c e s o f v o l u n t e e r s , and began as s e l f - h e l p  organizations.  ORGANIZATIONS QUERIED - THE METHOD  A list was  o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s which serve t h e needs o f one parent  compiled.  The o r g a n i z a t i o n s were c o n t a c t e d  were i n t e r v i e w e d  and o f f i c e r s o r s t a f f  ( I n t e r v i e w Schedule, see Appendix).  of some o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n t a c t e d  the researcher  n o t i c e s placed i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n s ' newsletters. was  designed  families  Members o r u s e r s i n response to  An i n t e r v i e w  schedule  In l i g h t o f Issues p r e v i o u s l y r a i s e d by s i n g l e p a r e n t s i n  t h i s research process.  I t should be noted t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e  40.  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s was YWCA Group Homes and completed,  gathered a f t e r the work on  the Bishop C r i d g e Centre f o r the Family had  and a number of r e c u r r i n g i s s u e s had been i d e n t i f i e d .  the  been These  i s s u e s i n f l u e n c e d the n a t u r e of the i n t e r v i e w schedule used i n interviewing other o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  ORGANIZATIONS CONTACTED Other o r g a n i z a t i o n s were c o n t a c t e d , however, o n l y those o r g a n i z a t i o n s which p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the needs of one parent and  those which are mentioned i n Chapter  B i g B r o t h e r s a r e men  who,  families  S i x are d e s c r i b e d .  on a v o l u n t e e r b a s i s , p r o v i d e guidance  f r i e n d s h i p to f a t h e r l e s s boys.  The m a j o r i t y of the L i t t l e  come from low income f a m i l i e s .  Many o f the boys l i v e i n p u b l i c  and  Brothers housing.  The boys share t h e i r problems w i t h the B i g B r o t h e r s and o f t e n these i n v o l v e problems w i t h  housing.  B i g S i s t e r s i s a s i b l i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n designed  to h e l p g i r l s i n need of  a f r i e n d i r r e g a r d l e s s of the number of p a r e n t s i n the f a m i l y . majority  (60%) of L i t t l e  S i s t e r s are from f a m i l i e s headed by  mothers, 20% a r e from f a m i l i e s headed by s i n g l e  B.C.  The single  fathers.  Ind i a n Homemaker s' As so c i a t i o n i s an o r g a n i z a t i o n of I n d i a n women  funded  under the N a t i v e P a r t i c i p a t i o n Program.  The Homemakers a r e  a c t i v e i n human r i g h t s , e d u c a t i o n , c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , and to c i t e o n l y a few of t h e i r concerns. interest  they have expressed  immigration,  They were approached because of the  r e g a r d i n g housing  for native children (status  41.  and n o n - s t a t u s )  and  the p r o v i s i o n of  daycare..  C r o s s r e a c h S i n g l e P a r e n t s i s an o r g a n i z a t i o n designed f o r the s i n g l e p a r e n t .  The membership., 60%  to p r o v i d e  are s i n g l e mothers,  support 40%  s i n g l e f a t h e r s , h e l p i n the o p e r a t i o n of a d r o p - i n c e n t r e f o r the p a r e n t s . Meetings f o r p a r e n t s are h e l d i n v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s throughout and are conducted was  by s t a f f l e a d e r s .  P r i o r to March 31,  funded by the Vancouver S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department.  1976  the  city  Crossreach  They p l a n t o  c o n t i n u e as a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n i n s p i t e o f the l a c k of f u n d i n g .  Family P l a c e i s a c e n t r e i n Dunbar-West P o i n t Grey funded by the Vancouver Community Resources Board.  The  c e n t r e . i s used by non-working p a r e n t s  d u r i n g the day, p r i m a r i l y by non-working mothers w i t h p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . The  s e t t i n g i s i n f o r m a l , a l i b r a r y about f a m i l y l i f e  and  child  c o f f e e brewing and a v a i l a b l e s t a f f c o u n s e l l o r s to chat and Family P l a c e a c t i v i t i e s .  rearing,  organize  C r o s s r e a c h S i n g l e P a r e n t s use Family P l a c e  and o t h e r members of the community such as s e n i o r s a r e b e i n g encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e .  P a r e n t s Without P a r t n e r s i s an i n t e r n a t i o n a l non-profit educational and o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r s i n g l e , s e p a r a t e d , d i v o r c e d and widowed p a r e n t s . are p a r e n t s w i t h and without of the Chapter  c o n t a c t e d are p r i m a r i l y i n t h e i r t h i r t i e s and  There are a p p r o x i m a t e l y fathers. and  the custody o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  e q u a l numbers of s i n g l e mothers and  social  Members  The members forties. single  P a r e n t s Without P a r t n e r s forms a lobby f o r s i n g l e parent needs  t o t h i s end have p u b l i s h e d a paper,  S i n g l e Parent F a m i l i e s " .  "The  Socio-Economic  Needs of  42..  Project Parent i s a daycare/drop-in centre funded by the Vancouver Resources Board.  Its purpose i s to improve the s e l f image of i t s members,  90% of these single parents are on welfare, and to present alternatives and options open to them.  Two groups of twenty parents v i s i t the  Project Parent Centre twice weekly.  In the Centre's converted warehouse  the members use the a c t i v i t y room, kitchen and laundry f a c i l i t i e s while their children are cared for by daycare  staff.  This service  attempts  to meet the needs of single mothers who are experiencing emotional instability.  The Project Parent s t a f f organize the a c t i v i t i e s at the  Centre, counsel as well as chauffeur many of the mothers and children to the Centre.  Transition House i s a refuge for women and children i n a c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n . Funding i s provided by the P r o v i n c i a l Government. The Transition House i s a large duplex with s i x bedrooms, two l i v i n g rooms and a shared kitchen.  The residents share meal and the cooking  and cleaning r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . a maximum of one month.  Women may stay at Transition House for  There i s no charge f o r the food or shelter  provided. The House s t a f f advise the women on l e g a l , health and housing matters. The s t a f f e s s e n t i a l l y provide friendship and r e f e r r a l to l e g a l aid and other services.  The permanent s t a f f i s augmented by teenagers involved  in the Teenager's Opportunity Program, a p r o v i n c i a l program that gives monetary incentives to s o c i a l assistance recipients who perform volunteer work of some kind. Although the allowable period of residence i s one month, women are encouraged to make t h e i r own plans and move along due to the great demand for Transition House services.  There have been as many as twenty-seven  43.  f a m i l i e s i n r e s i d e n c e a l t h o u g h the House can c o m f o r t a b l y h a l f t h a t many.  accommodate  There a r e as many as seventy f a m i l i e s each month who  must be turned away because the House i s f i l l e d  to c a p a c i t y .  Vancouver and D i s t r i c t P u b l i c Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n i s an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p u b l i c housing  t e n a n t s ' groups.  I t s purpose i s t o a f f e c t  of p o l i c i e s and programs f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g . by women comprise t i o n ' s concerns  65% o f the p u b l i c h o u s i n g  the p l a n n i n g  One parent f a m i l i e s headed tenants.  Many o f t h e A s s o c i a -  about accommodation, r e c r e a t i o n and daycare a r e  a r t i c u l a t e d i n terms o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r needs o f the one parent f a m i l y .  V o l u n t e e r Grandparents  i s a n o n - p r o f i t p r o v i n c i a l l y funded  b r i n g s t o g e t h e r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s and c h i l d r e n without Lower Mainland.  grandparents  i n the  T h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e f a m i l i e s who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n  f i n d i n g a grandparent fills  society that  a r e one parent f a m i l i e s .  The s u r r o g a t e  grandparent  a gap and sense o f i s o l a t i o n which c a n e x i s t when t h e r e i s o n l y one  p a r e n t and o f t e n no o t h e r r e l a t i v e s i n t h e Mainland  area.  The grand-  p a r e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e a l s o f i n d i t a g r a t i f y i n g e x p e r i e n c e . c h i l d r e n and grandparents might.  The  engage i n a c t i v i t i e s t h a t any f a m i l i a l twosome  They walk, t a l k , go t o t h e park  together.  The Workshop i s an Outreach Manpower Program i n the West End of Vancouver. I t s purpose i s to help s i n g l e p a r e n t s and o l d e r women r e - e n t e r the work force.  The s t a f f o f t h i s program were c o n s u l t e d because o f t h e i r  knowledge about the needs o f s i n g l e p a r e n t s i n the h i g h d e n s i t y apartment m i l i e u o f t h e West End.  I n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from these o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d e d i n s i g h t f u l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g housing needs o f one parent  families.  44. THE  FINDINGS As o u t l i n e d i n the chapter  of the study i s intended  concerning  to convey the p r o c e s s  involved i n t h i s research enquiry. made w i t h  the o r g a n i z a t i o n s  repeatedly:  methodology, the p r e s e n t a t i o n of discovery  t h a t was  At the p o i n t when t h e c o n t a c t was  some major housing i s s u e s had s u r f a c e d  income, d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , s e r v i c e s .  of o r g a n i z a t i o n s which serve one parent  The f i n d i n g s o f the survey  f a m i l i e s are described  i n terms  of needs and these i s s u e s , l o c a t i o n requirements and the p h y s i c a l d e s i g n of the environment.  Income The  organizations  r e a f f i r m e d the f i n d i n g s o f Canadian, B r i t i s h and  American s t u d i e s t h a t the f i n a n c i a l need o f one parent g r e a t e s t problem ( S c h e s i n g e r ,  1975, p. 1 0 ) . There i s g e n e r a l  t h a t t o o b t a i n the k i n d o f housing the p a r e n t s t h e i r f a m i l i e s more income i s r e q u i s i t e . s i n g l e mothers, a r e on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . would be termed low income."'"  families i s their agreement  would l i k e t o have f o r  Many s i n g l e p a r e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y Many o t h e r one parent  The v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s  families  i d e n t i f y a number  of h o u s i n g r e l a t e d problems t h a t r e s u l t due to i n s u f f i c i e n t  income.  They o f f e r a v a r i e t y o f s o l u t i o n s t o t h e income i s s u e , a)  Emergency Housing: I n s u f f i c i e n t income o r no independent income o f t e n means t h a t a  s i n g l e mother must r e l y on t h e s e r v i c e s o f an agency l i k e T r a n s i t i o n House i n a time o f emergency.  When the l i m i t on the l e n g t h of s t a y a t  S t a t i s t i c s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e c o n c e r n i n g the a c t u a l number o f one parent f a m i l i e s on government a s s i s t a n c e i n the Vancouver a r e a . I n a Toronto based r e p o r t female heads o f f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n form the l a r g e s t category o f Family B e n e f i t r e c i p i e n t s (James, 1973).  45.  T r a n s i t i o n House i s up the mother i f she has not been a b l e to f i n d  a  p l a c e to l i v e a t a p r i c e she can a f f o r d , i s o f t e n f o r c e d to r e t u r n t o an intolerable marital situation.  The need f o r a c r i s i s type of s h e l t e r  l i k e T r a n s i t i o n House would c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t even i f t h e r e were an adequate supply o f housing and the mother had the e f f e c t i v e demand n e c e s s a r y to secure such housing.  I f s i n g l e p a r e n t s d i d have  income to secure h o u s i n g , the t u r n o v e r would be g r e a t e r and  sufficient  Transition  House would be a b l e to more adequately meet the demand of s i n g l e mothers in  b)  crisis.  Income Mix: The i d e a of income mix has r e c e n t l y come i n vogue and two  views r e g a r d i n g i t are expressed by the o r g a n i z a t i o n s . mix  opposing  Income and  age  i s d e s i r o u s because o f the v a r i e t y i t would i n t r o d u c e i n t o our some-  times s t e r i l e and i s o l a t i o n i s t  urban environment.  p a r e n t O r g a n i z a t i o n e n v i s a g e s an urban groups and  income mixes l i v i n g  environment  brought  community w i t h d i f f e r e n t  i n p r o x i m i t y to one another.  about by human mix i s a step toward  community a k i n t o the s m a l l town concept. expressed-by  The V o l u n t e e r Grand-  the V a n c o u v e r - P u b l i c Housing  age  The  type o f  replicating  a  The o p p o s i t e view i s and Tenants  Association.  They view income mix p o l i t i c a l l y as a movement away from s u b s i d i z e d housing  -by  means of d i f f u s i n g low income people a c r o s s the c i t y .to make  them l e s s v i s i b l e of  and  " e a s i e r to ignore".  In a d d i t i o n , the  possibility  i n i t i a t i n g s e l f - h e l p e d u c a t i o n a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ,  be emerging c u r r e n t l y i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g , i s d i m i n i s h e d . income mix  s a i d to  The view a g a i n s t  i s not n e c e s s a r i l y h e l d by a l l or even most members o f the  Vancouver P u b l i c Housing  and Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n .  I t i s , however, an  i s s u e to be r a i s e d when c o n s i d e r i n g the m e r i t s and  c)  c o s t s of income  mix.  A C u l t u r e of P o v e r t y : Repeatedly  the sense of f r u s t r a t i o n and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t i s c i t e d  a problem f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t s w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t  income.  Public  housing  i s sometimes the o n l y f i n a n c i a l l y f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e and here wearing  away p r o c e s s i s not i n any way  ameliorated.  as  the  A number of p a r e n t s  i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n s v o i c e d the concern t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n would be i n f l u e n c e d by what seemed to be a " s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e - p u b l i c syndrome".  Oscar Lewis'  of parents. any generated credance  On  c u l t u r e of p o v e r t y was  housing  r e f e r r e d to by a couple  the b a s i s of t h i s study n o t h i n g can be s a i d r e g a r d i n g  i n f l u e n c e , however an O n t a r i o government study l e n d s some  to the f e a r s expressed.  Women r e a r e d by t h e i r mother o n l y (as opposed t o a two p a r e n t f a m i l y ) are more than twice as l i k e l y as those > r e a r e d by two p a r e n t s t o r e p o r t t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s received welfare.' (James, 1973, The  p.  80)  s e v e r i t y of the h o u s i n g problem i n s u f f i c i e n t  is reflected  income can p r e s e n t  i n a s c e n a r i o by a member o f the B i g B r o t h e r s O r g a n i z a t i o n .  A mother on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was  l i v i n g i n a two  basement apartment and p a y i n g $155  One  o f her  c h i l d r e n had been v e r y s i c k a number of times due  to the  dampness and c o l d i n the s u i t e .  to o b t a i n  a d d i t i o n a l money f o r r e n t .  They were unable  B e f o r e such monies c o u l d be  s e c u r e d the p u b l i c h e a l t h nurse had w i t h a statement  f o r rent.  room  to step i n .  Finally,  from a d o c t o r s a y i n g t h a t i f the f a m i l y  c o n t i n u e d to l i v e under i t s c u r r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s c o u l d d i e , money was  obtained.  the  child  47.  Discrimination The  s i n g l e p a r e n t ' s s e a r c h f o r r e n t a l accommodation i s o f t e n  f r u s t r a t e d by l a n d l o r d r e f u s a l s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e p r o s p e c t i v e t e n a n t ' s m a r i t a l s t a t u s and sex.  T h i s i s t r u e f o r s i n g l e f a t h e r s and mothers.  T h i s i s mentioned as a f a c t o r by t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f each o f t h e organizations.  The f o l l o w i n g t r u e l i f e e x p e r i e n c e r e l a t e d by one o f t h e  o r g a n i z a t i o n s c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as a housing problem single parents. • I am a 29 y e a r o l d mother, my son i s aged 6 and I am s e p a r a t e d and r e c e i v i n g no income o t h e r than from my s e c r e t a r i a l p o s i t i o n which n e t s $500 p e r month. I have been i n Vancouver t h r e e months. My f i r s t two weeks were spent i n a t e n t on t h e beach. I then managed t o get i n t o an apartment w i t h another woman and h e r c h i l d . T h i s was a t h r e e bedroom apartment and c o s t me $150 per month as my share o f t h e r e n t . However, w i t h t h e two c h i l d r e n and the l a n d l o r d l i v i n g below, problems arose and I f e l t f o r c e d t o move out o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . I t took me two weeks t o f i n d t h a t apartment l o o k i n g each day and spending a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r hours each day. Most r e p l i e s t o a d v e r t i s e m e n t s were met w i t h ' s o r r y no k i d s and no p e t s ' . T h i s i s r a t h e r h e a r t b r e a k i n g and a l s o seems t o have g i v e n my son a complex about him b e i n g t h e cause o f our n o t b e i n g a b l e t o f i n d a proper p l a c e t o l i v e i n . On moving out o f the apartment, I spent one f u l l week l o o k i n g and answering ads i n between k e e p i n g my hours a t work. I was f i n a l l y f o r c e d to take a s i n g l e room 18' x 10' approx. w i t h two m a t t r e s s e s on the f l o o r , a chest o f drawers and a c h a i r . I share two e l e c t r i c h o t p l a t e s w i t h two o t h e r .'Basement Tenants' w i t h whom I a l s o share t h e u n l i g h t e d r e f r i g e r a t o r and shower/toilet,. There a r e mice (as the room I now have was f o r m e r l y t h e ' c o o l room,and "food storage'). I t i s s t i l l q u i t e a c o l d room a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s an o l d f a s h i o n e d h e a t e r now s e t up i n t h e room. The basement i s v e r y b a d l y l i t and i s a l s o the excess s t o r a g e p l a c e f o r the l a n d l o r d , h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n . The entrance i s a t t h e back o f the house and i s a l s o unlit. F o r t h i s I have to pay $100 p e r month. I found t h a t rooms a d v e r t i s e d f o r $ 6 0 — $80 were immediately i n c r e a s e d to $100 because d f my son, t h e excuse g i v e n b e i n g t h a t more h e a t i n g and e l e c t r i c i t y was used, which i s u t t e r nonsense as we cannot c o n t r o l the h e a t i n g and u s u a l l y take a shower t o g e t h e r to e l i m i n a t e l o n g p e r i o d s i n t h e shared bathroom.  for  48.  Services The o r g a n i z a t i o n s suggest t h a t c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s such as are important.  daycare-  In a d d i t i o n support s e r v i c e s such as c r i s i s and d r o p - i n  c e n t r e s which h e l p p a r e n t s d u r i n g t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n i n t o s i n g l e are a l s o n e c e s s a r y .  For reasons which, w i l l be developed  l o c a t i o n requirements  parenthood  i n the s e c t i o n  the overwhelming m a j o r i t y of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  on  spokes-  people f e e l these s e r v i c e s should be i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h the h o u s i n g .  Day  c a r e c e n t r e s i n apartment b u i l d i n g s are o f t e n c i t e d as an example of the kind of i n t e g r a t i o n  desirable.  L o c a t i o n Requirements I t i s important t h a t the one p a r e n t f a m i l y f i n d accommodation on a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e , as many do not own all  the o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  to the p r o x i m i t y of s e r v i c e s and  o f s i n g l e parenthood.  f o r p l a c e s i n K i t s i l a n o and suggested  the West End  t h a t r e s i d e n c e elsewhere  The spokesperson  stressed  by  the  the g e n e r a l  In view of the g r e a t demand  a number o f the s i n g l e  parents  i n the c i t y c o u l d be a c c e p t a b l e .  from the B.C.  I n d i a n Homemakers A s s o c i a t i o n  i n d i c a t e s t h a t r e s i d e n c e i n the c i t y i s important Concern  T h i s was  In Vancouver, areas such as K i t s i l a n o and  West End are favoured due community acceptance  vehicles.  for cultural  also  reasons.  i s expressed t h a t whether I n d i a n s i n g l e mothers are accommodated  i n s i n g l e parent housing o r whether they l i v e i n d e p e n d e n t l y , i t i s important  t h a t they be c l o s e enough to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the I n d i a n community,  f o r example the I n d i a n F r i e n d s h i p C e n t r e . would f a c i l i t a t e  this.  v o i c e s concern about social l i f e  The  A Vancouver c i t y  location  suburban c h a p t e r o f P a r e n t s Without  the e x c l u s i o n of the s i n g l e parent from  i n the suburban s e t t i n g .  Partners  neighbourhood  Problems o f r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n i n  high density areas, state a preference  i n h i g h r i s e s f o r example, l e a d t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n t o f o r medium d e n s i t y h o u s i n g w i t h ,  r e c r e a t i o n and c h i l d c a r e  The  "easy access  to stores,  s e r v i c e s , and p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " .  P h y s i c a l Design o f the Environment In terms o f d e s i g n  the s i n g l e p a r e n t s  express needs which a r e  t y p i c a l o f any f a m i l y , p r i v a c y and p l a y space f o r c h i l d r e n f o r example. The  s i n g l e parents  place great  importance on communal space i n apartment  b u i l d i n g s because o f the i s o l a t i o n one parent the o n l y people t o t a l k w i t h . the most important d e s i g n  The concept o f shared space i s perhaps  f e a t u r e f o r the one parent  In terms o f community and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g Family  Place  can f e e l when c h i l d r e n a r e  and V o l u n t e e r  family.  certain organizations,  Grandparents f o r example, d i s c u s s the need t o  group housing t o f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r a c t i o n among peer and d i f f e r e n t age groups.  I n planned developments s o c i a l space should be s e t a s i d e f o r  family places. and  support  A c t i v i t i e s and programs designed t o combat l o n e l i n e s s  s i n g l e parents  would then be a v a i l a b l e i n the home environment.  THE ROLE OF THE ORGANIZATION "Organization  as a s u r v i v a l i m p e r a t i v e "  perhaps an a p p r o p r i a t e The  organizations  phrase t o c a p t u r e  contacted  fulfill  1972, p. 1 ) , i s  the purpose o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n .  the needs o f s i n g l e p a r e n t s  by v i r t u e o f the f a c t t h a t the p a r e n t s p a t i o n i n the group.  (Bertrand,  f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t through  sometimes partici-  There i s , however, another r o l e to be p l a y e d by  the o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h i s concerns a f f e c t i n g change. Modern c i v i l i z a t i o n depends l a r g e l y on o r g a n i z a t i o n s as the most r a t i o n a l and e f f i c i e n t form o f s o c i a l grouping known. By c o o r d i n a t i n g a l a r g e number o f human a c t i o n s the o r g a n i z a t i o n creates a powerful s o c i a l t o o l . ( E t z i o n i , 1964, p. 1)  Although Parents Without Partners as an international organization does attempt to affect the decision making process, through submission of b r i e f s for example, single parents have not become a lobbying force of any s i g n i f i c a n t strength i n this country.  This i s not the case i n  B r i t a i n where the National Council for One Parent Families i s a most vocal group.  Reasons for this difference i n p o l i t i c a l activism i s beyond  the scope of this thesis.  However, there i s a potential for c o a l i t i o n of  Canadian organizations which serve one-parent may be the way to i n i t i a t e  families.  This  to make the needs of one parent families into focus and  action.  SUMMARY In t h i s chapter the findings of the survey of organizations which serve one parent families have been discussed.  The p o t e n t i a l for these  organizations to organize and act i n unison has also been explored. In the following chapter these findings along with those of the two case studies are brought together.  SI-  CHAPTER SEVEN - THE HOUSING NEEDS OF ONE PARENT FAMILIES SYNTHESIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  The p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s o f t h i s t h e s i s i n v o l v e d the f i n d i n g s of a l i t e r a t u r e review, case s t u d i e s o f the YWCA Group Homes and the  Bishop  C r i d g e Centre f o r the F a m i l y , and a survey of o r g a n i z a t i o n s which serve the one p a r e n t f a m i l y .  The purpose  of t h i s chapter i s s y n t h e s i s .  needs o f the one p a r e n t f a m i l y as they emerged from the review,  The  case  s t u d i e s , and survey are summarized.  F u r t h e r recommendations c o n c e r n i n g  ways i n which these needs can be met  and areas which m e r i t  additional  r e s e a r c h are d i s c u s s e d .  THE  ISSUES C e r t a i n needs o f the s i n g l e p a r e n t and h i s o r her f a m i l y have been  brought  out i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  and the Canadian  In our own  c o u n t r y the s t u d i e s by  Guyatt  C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Development emphasize the need f o r  support s e r v i c e s and  childcare  assistance.  Guyatt  suggests t h a t  p a r e n t f a m i l i e s l i v e i n l e s s adequate h o u s i n g than t h e i r two family counterparts.  single  parent  Reasons f o r t h i s are d i s c u s s e d by a number o f  authors c i t e d e a r l i e r , however, a l l o f the s a l i e n t i s s u e s a r e covered i n the Report o f the Committee on One  Parent F a m i l i e s , the F i n e r  Report.  T h i s i n c l u s i v e r e p o r t s t r e s s e s that "housing problems c l o s e l y money problems as a cause o f h a r d s h i p and s t r e s s to one parent ( F i n e r , 1974,  p. 357).  c o u n s e l l i n g and  case s t u d i e s and  families"  S o c i a l work support s e r v i c e s such as f a m i l y  childcare  one p a r e n t f a m i l y .  rival  s e r v i c e s a r e a l s o deemed important  These concerns were r e f l e c t e d  survey of o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  emerged as a c e n t r a l housing r e l a t e d  f o r the  i n the f i n d i n g s of the  In a d d i t i o n , a f o u r t h  concern  i s s u e f o r the one p a r e n t f a m i l y -  52.  discrimination.  The substance of this issue was discussed i n the l i t e r a -  ture by Sprey, however, the profundity of the barrier i n obtaining accommodation became apparent from the f i e l d research. Four housing related issues emerged from the l i t e r a t u r e review, case studies and organizations survey:  income, discrimination, i s o l a t i o n  versus integration,"'" and support and childcare services.  A l l of these,  perhaps with the exception of i s o l a t i o n versus integration, are discussed elsewhere with reference to the one parent family.  Perhaps the most  s i g n i f i c a n t finding of this research i s the interrelatedness of these issues.  This theme deserves further elaboration before the individual  issues are explored at length.  THE INTERRELATEDNESS OF THE ISSUES Throughout the research the assertion was made by professionals that there i s no housing problem faced by one parent families. have i s an income problem.  What they  The single parents themselves care l i t t l e for  the planners and bureaucrats' battles over concepts and semantics.  As f a r  as they are concerned when they look for accommodation they are forced, due to a lack of e f f e c t i v e demand and competition for very tight supply, to accept the dregs of the housing market.  The one parent family spends  the largest proportion of their income on housing and they consider lack of funds as a housing problem.  ^ This issue w i l l be developed l a t e r . B r i e f l y i t involves the question of whether one parent families should be accommodated independently i n the community or integrated within the general community i n single parent housing of some kind ( i s o l a t i o n ) . Isolation perhaps has a negaative connotation. This i s not intended. The term ' i s o l a t i o n versus integration' although used i n a somewhat d i f f e r e n t sense was coined by Sylvia Goldblatt i n a paper by the same name i n W.E. Mann, Canada: A Sociological P r o f i l e , 1968.  53..  Suppose for a moment that income i s not an issue for the one parent family.  What other needs do they have?  for example are important. related to housing?  Child care and support services,  The question a r i s e s ,  As things exist now  ut are these necessarily  they are not generally related  to housing although examples where they are related have been discussed, for example, Transition House,. Group.Homes•and Bishop Cridge.  The. parents stress  however, the need for these to be incorporated within the r e s i d e n t i a l environment,  i f not within the actual, building ..then i n the context of the  surrounding community.  This i s the kind of thing Family Place i s  attempting to accomplish.  In the current tight housing situation even  i f the parent finds accommodation which he or she can afford, even i f support and  childcare  services are located nearby or t r a n s i t makes these  accessible, by v i r t u e of the fact the parent i s a single parent he or she i s often automatically considered a problem tenant and because of this i s denied housing. The one parent family needs to obtain housing and to do this they must have adequate income and discrimination must be thwarted. that they are able to function they require childcare reasonable distance of the home environment  In order  services within a  - the closer the better.  Support services depending on theremotional s t a b i l i t y of the parent are also a consideration. Income should not be considered independently of the need for c h i l d care, should not be considered independently of the r e a l i t y of landlords' perceptions of the one parent family, and should not be considered independently of the single parents need for emotional support ... what i s needed i s a h o l i s t i c approach i n the delivery of housing services to the one parent family.  54.  RECOMMENDATIONS - AN ISSUE ORIENTATION  Income I t i s c l e a r t h a t one parent f a m i l i e s tend through low income s e c u r i t y and f a c t o r s promoting e x c e s s i v e m o b i l i t y , t o be c h a n n e l l e d i n t o i n f e r i o r types o f h o u s i n g . ( F i n e r , 1974, p. 365) "The average income o f two parent f a m i l i e s has been compared to t h e average incomes o f f a m i l i e s w i t h s i n g l e male heads o r female heads, and i t has been shown t h a t t h e average f a m i l y income o f s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e s i n g l e parent i s a woman. (Guyatt, 1972, p. 59) The  lower  income makes p r o v i s i o n o f s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g almost an  impossibility.  The need f o r a d d i t i o n a l income t o o b t a i n , among o t h e r  t h i n g s , a b e t t e r standard of housing, i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e and by the f i e l d r e s e a r c h . Report which  The need f o r t h i s i s a t t e s t e d t o i n the F i n e r  states,  A good and secure home i s e s s e n t i a l t o s u c c e s s f u l f a m i l y life. There i s an important sense i n which t h i s h o l d s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s , i n that the presence o r absence o f housing c o n d i t i o n s may w e l l t i p t h e b a l a n c e on whether such f a m i l i e s surmount or succumb t o the f i n a n c i a l and s o c i a l handicaps from which they a r e apt to s u f f e r . ( F i n e r , 1974, p. 357) There  i s evidence t o suggest  s u b s t a n t i a l e x t r a expenses" childcare,  investment  d r y e r , convenience even exceed parent"  that a s i n g l e p a r e n t i s o f t e n " f o r c e d f o r t h i n g s such as household  maintenance,  i n "time s a v i n g " a p p l i a n c e s such as a c l o t h e s  foods, e t c .  These e x t r a e x p e n d i t u r e s may " e q u a l or  the s a v i n g to t h e household  ( F i n e r , 1974, p.  of not maintaining the other  266).  What can be done t o a l l e v i a t e the problem housing?  into  of i n e f f e c t i v e demand f o r  In view o f g r e a t e r need o f one parent f a m i l i e s and = a f t e r ^-examining  p o l i c i e s of Denmark, Norway, Sweden, The F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c o f Germany and the N e t h e r l a n d s , The F i n e r Committee on One Parent F a m i l i e s recommends, "A S p e c i a l One Parent F a m i l y A l l o w a n c e " guaranteed  maintenance allowance  ( F i n e r , 1974, p. 284).  The  (GMA) advocated by t h e B r i t i s h  committee  i s i n keeping w i t h t h e i r g o a l o f , g u a r a n t e e i n g t o lone p a r e n t s a s u f f i c i e n t l e v e l o f maintenance t o o f f e r them a r e a l c h o i c e between working and s t a y i n g home t o l o o k a f t e r the c h i l d r e n , without i n e q u i t y to lowincome two p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . The allowance has two p a r t s , t h e c h i l d c a r e . allowance f o r t h e a d u l t which "would be e x t i n g u i s h e d by the time income reached about  the l e v e l of  average male e a r n i n g s , and t h e c h i l d b e n e f i t which would c o n t i n u e t o be payable t o a l l l o n e p a r e n t s , whatever t h e i r income" ( F i n e r , 1974, p. 285). The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e income program i s t h a t i t r e c o g n i z e s t h e g r e a t e r need o f one parent f a m i l i e s .  The GMA as proposed  by the F i n e r Committee  would a l l o w a p a r e n t t o s t a y a t home w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n o r t o go t o work g a i n i n g economic advantage by d o i n g s o . A s i n g l e payment f i g u r e would be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e a d u l t and another f o r t h e c h i l d  so as to a v o i d as  much as p o s s i b l e d e t a i l e d i n q u i r i e s as to f a m i l y c i r c u m s t a n c e s . embarassment and a n x i e t y over maintenance payments and c h i l d  The  support  from the spouse would be avoided i f such a scheme were adopted.  Any  payments from the spouse would be passed over t o t h e a u t h o r i t y up t o the l e v e l o f the GMA b e n e f i t  ( F i n e r , 1974, p. 295). The GMA  accomplishes  what t h e maintenance advance schemes i n t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n c o u n t r i e s do but is  integrated into a h o l i s t i c  scheme which i s a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l s i n g l e  p a r e n t s i r r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r sex o r i f they a r e working their  or looking after  children. The B r i t i s h government chose n o t to implement t h e GMA f o r two r e a s o n s :  56.  ... f i r s t l y because i t i s means t e s t e d and i t i s the Government's o b j e c t i v e to reduce dependence on meanst e s t e d b e n e f i t s , not extend i t , and s e c o n d l y because i t would be extremely e x p e n s i v e . (correspondence w i t h the Dept. of and S e c u r i t y , J u l y 1975) It should as GMA  be n o t e d t h a t no  suggestion  i s : b e i n g suggested.  British  social policy.  The  t e s t i n g and  of d i r e c t l y a d o p t i n g such a program  program was  t a i l o r e d to the e x i s t i n g  I t i s the g o a l s which are a c h i e v e d  which are of s p e c i a l importance. expense the  advantage which would be  The  p r e s e n t e d to one  advantage c o u l d make the two  c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be  problems of  enforcing  parent f a m i l i e s .  economic  Government  family formation.  Economic  given  to the p o s s i b l e r e s u l t a n t problems  In the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l study o f income mainten-  not been found to be  s t r a t i v e problem i n the c o u n t r i e s  a cause f o r concern nor  studied.  When an audience  Committee an  admini-  specific  i s implemented m o n i t o r i n g i s recommended.  Cockburn  found t h a t the s o c i a l worker i n e f f e c t m o n i t o r s the s i t u a t i o n and can be p.  little  question  of concealment and  ambiguity"  (Cockburn,  "there 1974,  46). The  field  research  recommendations:  and  one  p o l i c y which s p e c i f i c a l l y a i d s s i n g l e  p a r e n t f a m i l i e s by Cockburn f o r the F i n e r  p o l i c y such as the GMA  means  parent f a m i l y l e s s a t t r a c t i v e than the  When p l a n n i n g  as w e l l as the advantages.  The  second problem i n v o l v e s the  p o l i c y c o u l d c r e a t e d i s i n c e n t i v e s to f o r m a l  c o h a b i t a t i o n has  GMA  •••''„  a c o h a b i t a t i o n r u l e are o b v i o u s .  ance schemes f o r one  the  B e s i d e the c r i t i c i s m s r e g a r d i n g  When i s a s i n g l e p a r e n t a s i n g l e parent?  parents,  by  i s s u e of c o h a b i t a t i o n i s a l s o r a i s e d when such a  -program i s c o n s i d e r e d .  parent family.  Health  l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w prompt the  following  57.  1.  I t i s suggested  t h a t the advantage of p r o v i d i n g a i d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r  one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s be c o n s i d e r e d .  An i n - d e p t h examination  i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s c o u l d prevent mistakes  of p o l i c i e s  and suggest ways of h a n d l i n g  the problems of s i n g l e parent d e f i n i t i o n and d i s i n c e n t i v e s to parent at  family formation.  The problem of stigma i n a program d i r e c t e d  a p a r t i c u l a r group i s r e c o g n i z e d .  T r a d e - o f f s must be made, between  the advantages o f a d d i t i o n a l income v e r s u s the disadvantages brings.  two  stigma  An adequate u n i v e r s a l scheme f o r income maintenance i s  d e f i n i t e l y p r e f e r a b l e but i n the i n t e r i m a d d i t i o n a l f u n d i n g f o r the one parent f a m i l y i s suggested 2.  U n t i l such time as a guaranteed form of housing  income program i s i n t r o d u c e d , some  s u b s i d y program, r e s p o n s i v e to both one and  f a m i l y needs, s h o u l d be 3.  i n view of t h e i r g r e a t e r need.  two  parent  adopted.  I t i s recommended t h a t a "maintenance advance scheme" be e s t a b l i s h e d . The monthly maintenance or c h i l d  support would be p a i d d i r e c t l y  to  the p a r e n t w i t h c h i l d custody by the government and would t h e r e f o r e be guaranteed.  The  spouse, u s u a l l y the husband, would r e m i t payment t o  the government. 4.  A f u r n i s h i n g s grant or low i n t e r e s t government l o a n would enable s i n g l e parent t o equip a home to a r e a s o n a b l e deeply i n t o  standard without  the  going  debt.  Discrimination D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s one of the major problems the one parent f a m i l y must d e a l w i t h when l o o k i n g f o r accommodation. people  to f i n d but seemingly  Housing  is difficult  s i n g l e p a r e n t s are near  l a n d l o r d s ' l i s t s of a c c e p t a b l e t e n a n t s .  f o r many  the bottom of  O f t e n the o n l y reason f o r the  58.  l a n d l o r d ' s r e f u s a l to r e n t i s the f a c t t h a t the p r o s p e c t i v e tenant i s a single  parent.  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n was  the second most s i g n i f i c a n t  issue (after childcare)  i d e n t i f i e d by the s i n g l e p a r e n t s from the Group Homes and Cridge. "  Members of v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s are concerned  the  Bishop  about the image  o f the s i n g l e p a r e n t .  In a d i s c u s s i o n w i t h them p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i s seen  as a means of changing  t h i s image.  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n stands i n the way  o b t a i n i n g h o u s i n g even i f the f a m i l y has adequate income. about the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t the s i n g l e parent? B.C.  of  What can be done  The d e c i s i o n by  the  Human R i g h t s Commission i n favour of a s i n g l e parent i n p a r t p r e s e n t s  an answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n . a reminder  The Warren case  (see Appendix) w i l l  to l a n d l o r d s but many s i n g l e p a r e n t s who  l e g i s l a t i o n would not make a f o r m a l p r o t e s t .  are unaware of the  But p u b l i c a t i o n and  ment o f the Human R i g h t s A c t are not s u f f i c i e n t .  serve as  enforce-  In Saskatchewan, the  D i r e c t o r of the Human R i g h t s Branch has made e x t r a o r d i n a r y e f f o r t s to t h a t the code, as i t a p p l i e s to h o u s i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i s s t r i c t l y As a r e s u l t , some homeowners have l e f t  rooms unrented  enforced.  r a t h e r than f a c e  the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e n t i n g to people they do not f e e l are d e s i r a b l e . a r e s u l t the Human R i g h t s advocates "zealousness  ( t h a t ) has  caused  see  As  i n Saskatchewan have been chained w i t h  a housing  shortage"  (Gordon, 1975,  p. 9 ) .  As a r e s u l t the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n laws i n t h a t p r o v i n c e have been made more "palatable".  I t i s not enough t o simply e n f o r c e the law.  l a n d l o r d s choose not to r e n t to one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s must be and  dispelled.  The reasons understood  why  59.  In  response  t i o n s have been 1.  t o the i s s u e of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n the f o l l o w i n g recommendaformulated:  I t i s recommended t h a t the p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n program by the Human R i g h t s Branch i n f o r m s i n g l e p a r e n t s of t h e i r r i g h t s e s p e c i a l l y  those  r i g h t s which a p p l y to h o u s i n g . 2.  F u r t h e r , the B.C.  Human R i g h t s Commission, through  program o f some k i n d , s h o u l d attempt of  single parents.  an e d u c a t i o n  t o change the s t e r e o t y p i c image  Such a program c o u l d be aimed at l a n d l o r d s '  o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r example.  I s o l a t i o n Versus I n t e g r a t i o n What i s the b e s t l i v i n g environment f o r the one p a r e n t f a m i l y ? Should of  the one p a r e n t f a m i l y be housed, t h a t i s i n t e g r a t e d , w i t h the  the community, or are t h e r e advantages to s e p a r a t e housing f o r  p a r e n t families, t h a t i s i s o l a t e d from the r e s t of the community? f i n d i n g s o f the case s t u d i e s and both  patterns  families. may  are  necessary  where  survey o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t  t o meet the d i v e r g e n t needs o f one  Others want to l i v e  daycare,  i n a s m a l l s i n g l e parent housing  circum-  complex  a f t e r s c h o o l and summer programs are a v a i l a b l e f o r c h i l d r e n Others want to l i v e i n d e p e n d e n t l y  perhaps a i d e d by a h o u s i n g s u b s i d y . or may  parent  A s i n g l e mother w i t h an i n f a n t and l i t t l e p a r e n t i n g e x p e r i e n c e  on the premises.  i n the community  People w i t h ' i t h i s l a t t e r  not choose to p a r t i c i p a t e i n groups designed  s i n g l e parent f a m i l y . some k i n d of h o u s i n g for  The  d e s i r e c o o p e r a t i v e o r communal housing w i t h o t h e r s i n s i m i l a r  stances.  may  rest  preference  to a s s i s t  The p a r e n t s , p r i n c i p a l l y women, who  the  want t o l i v e i n  f o r one parent f a m i l i e s i n d i c a t e they want to..do  v a r y i n g p e r i o d s of time.  D e s i r e d l e n g t h of s t a y ranges  from  so  60.  "until  I f i n i s h my  t r a i n i n g and can a f f o r d a p l a c e o f my own"  my c h i l d r e n a r e ready  to l e a v e home".  Sprey  to "when  indicates that s i n g l e  parenthood  i s o f t e n a t r a n s i t o r y stage i n the l i f e c y c l e due to the  remarriage  of many s i n g l e p a r e n t s  (Sprey, 1975).  As evidenced by the  r e s e a r c h i n a d d i t i o n to the l e n g t h of time the f a m i l y i s a one p a r e n t f a m i l y i t s needs a r e dependent -on the age o f the parent and t h e e m o t i o n a l and economic s t a b i l i t y o f the f a m i l y u n i t .  There a r e many ways to meet the many  needs. What i s r e q u i r e d i s some c o o r d i n a t i o n t o ensure the needs are b e i n g met to the b e s t o f s o c i e t y ' s a b i l i t y .  One gap which has been  identified  i n the Vancouver a r e a s e r v e s to i l l u s t r a t e . The l e s s adequate mothers who keep t h e i r b a b i e s cannot c a r r y t h e i r share of the . r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t h i s k i n d o f Group Home. I n s t e a d they need a. home w i t h a l i v e - i n house mother. (YWCA, 1972, p.'41) What can be done about the need to p r o v i d e h o u s i n g a l o n g the I s o l a t i o n v e r s u s I n t e g r a t i o n continuum? 1.  I t i s recommended t h a t a wide v a r i e t y o f accommodation, p r o v i d e d by the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s , be made a v a i l a b l e to one parent  families.  At p r e s e n t i n Vancouver, T r a n s i t i o n House and YWCA Group Homes a r e o n l y a b l e to meet a f r a c t i o n o f the need. 2.  The P r o v i n c e should fund more emergency housing  l i k e T r a n s i t i o n House.  A c c o r d i n g t o c u r r e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s a t l e a s t two more c e n t r e s l i k e T r a n s i t i o n House are r e q u i r e d to meet the needs women and t h e i r  children  f a c e i n Vancouver. 3.  I t i s recommended t h a t accommodation w i t h l i v e - i n s t a f f be p r o v i d e d for  s i n g l e p a r e n t s who  i s i n t e n d e d to p r o v i d e .  r e q u i r e more support  than the Group Homes model  Emphasis would be p l a c e d on a c h i e v i n g emotional  ..-stability.' 4.  The  demand f o r placement i n YWCA Group Homes i s such t h a t a t l e a s t  three more houses c o u l d be funding 5.  The  immediately.  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s could also provide  housing f o r one  B u i l d i n g s which are a c q u i r e d  p l a n c o u l d be  parent  as p a r t of a land  A h o u s i n g subsidy  would enable one  parent f a m i l i e s to " i n t e g r a t e " they so d e s i r e .  The  p r i v a t e s e c t o r should  be encouraged to p r o v i d e  one  parent f a m i l i e s .  P r o v i n c i a l Government should  type and the  assembly  used f o r Group Homes.  w i t h the r e s t of the community should 7.  Additional Provincial  would make t h i s p o s s i b l e .  families.  6.  filled  The  accommodation f o r monitor  q u a n t i t y o f housing t h a t comes: onto the market and  the  fill  "gaps".  Childcare  and. Support  Services  In the case s t u d i e s , survey of o r g a n i z a t i o n s the importance of r a t h e r than attend night  childcare  daycare  was  repeatedly  and  literature  stressed.  The  i s employed because some p a r e n t s do  c l a s s e s so a f a c i l i t y needs to be  as w e l l as the daytime.  The  statement from the F i n e r  report:  review  term c h i l d c a r e  s h i f t work or  a v a i l a b l e i n the  evenings  reasons f o r t h i s need as expressed i n a  Of p a r t i c u l a r importance f o r mothers w i t h c h i l d r e n i s the p r o v i s i o n o f accommodation which i n c o r p o r a t e s f a c i l i t i e s f o r the c a r e of young c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y when the mother i s working or i s undergoing t r a i n i n g and t h i s need i s b e i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c o g n i z e d . ( F i n e r , 1974,  p.  59)  In a paper d e s c r i b i n g an i d e a l environment the r e l a t i o n s h i p of service f a c i l i t i e s  to the p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e  is  described:  the  62.  C o n c e p t u a l l y the b u i l t - i n environment i s a model i n which the f a m i l y i s t h e hub o f the wheel and a l l s e r v i c e s which the f a m i l y r e q u i r e s as a f u n c t i o n i n g and v i a b l e system are so arranged t h a t they a r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e family. Based upon advanced t e c h n o l o g y , these s e r v i c e s a r e s e r v a n t s o f the f a m i l y r a t h e r than the other way around. F o r the young d u a l - c a r e e r f a m i l y i t i s important t h a t they have day-care and a f t e r - s c h o o l s e r v i c e s . I n s t e a d o f f o l l o w i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n o f l o c a t i n g "mother-helper" a c t i v i t i e s i n a s e t t l e m e n t house, church, o r o t h e r c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d a r e a o f t h e community, we would b u i l d such s e r v i c e s i n our model community so t h a t they a r e i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e apartment, townhouse, duplex, o r s i n g l e - f a m i l y home s t y l e o f - l i v i n g . ' (Sussman, 1970,.p. 12) The  i n t e g r a t i o n of c h i l d c a r e  f a c i l i t i e s has been s u c c e s s f u l i n  r e s i d e n t i a l environments such as the Bishop C r i d g e Centre f o r t h e F a m i l y . This  "maximum i n t e g r a t i o n " i s an i d e a l .  possible  t h e l o c a t i o n o f housing f o r t h e s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l y ,  any  family,  the  residences o f the f a m i l i e s .  should provide  care f a c i l i t i e s child  Should t h i s i d e a l n o t be  childcare .service f a c i l i t i e s  indeed,  i n proximity to  The a s s e r t i o n has been made.ithat  should b e " l o c a t e d  within walking distance  child  by the youngest  (Sussman, 1970, p. 1 5 ) . The d i s t a n t l o c a t i o n o f c h i l d c a r e  f a c i l i t i e s places  even g r e a t e r  burdens on the f a m i l y  t h a t has only.one  p a r e n t t o manage t r a v e l to and from the c e n t r e w i t h the c h i l d . Support s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s which i n c o r p o r a t e s  a r e a l s o important.  Family Places,  A planned environment  f o r example, i s an i d e a l t o move toward.  When new developments a r e b e i n g planned the i n t e g r a t i o n of these i s a must.  The t a s k i s much more simple than t r y i n g t o f i t them i n t o  e x i s t i n g b u i l t environments. developers could  facilitate  service f a c i l i t i e s . described  services  Some government i n c e n t i v e s the i n t e g r a t i o n o f  The g o a l  by Sussman.  childcare  to private and support  should be t o move away from the c e n t r a l i s m  The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s e r v i c e systems tend t o c e n t r a l i z e , based on b u r e a u c r a t i c e f f i c i e n c y , and the consequences a r e t h a t f a m i l i e s have t o r e a c h out o f t h e i r homes i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n any type o f s e r v i c e . I t i s q u i t e common i n m i d d l e c l a s s neighborhoods t o see mothers b u s s i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n to s c h o o l i n t h e i r automobile, something they have done f o r years. In f a c t , a l l l i f e o u t s i d e the f a m i l y i s b u i l t around i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the church, the s c h o o l , the l e i s u r e time f a c i l i t y . The r h e t o r i c i s t h a t these a g e n c i e s e x i s t f o r the:"family, but the e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y i s t h a t r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e concern i s g i v e n t o what may be the d e s i r e s o f needs of the f a m i l y . (Sussman, 1970, p. 10) In  t h e environment which e x i s t s the a c t u a l support  o f t e n dependent on government f u n d i n g .  s e r v i c e s are  As t h i s i s w r i t t e n a number o f  p r o v i n c i a l ..cutbacks have been d i s c u s s e d .  While  T r a n s i t i o n House and  Family P l a c e have o b t a i n e d f u n d i n g f o r another y e a r , C r o s s r e a c h S i n g l e P a r e n t s has had i t s f u n d i n g t e r m i n a t e d .  Many o f the support s e r v i c e s f o r  s i n g l e p a r e n t s operate on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . a n d C r o s s r e a c h p l a n s t o c o n t i n u e i n t h i s manner.  To be t r u l y e f f e c t i v e i t i s n e c e s s a r y  to h i r e  s t a f f people and t h i s i s p o s s i b l e o n l y w i t h government f u n d i n g .  This  w i l l come about o n l y when the p r o c e s s o f becoming a s o c i e t a l need i s advanced  further.  As the community a c c e p t s the needs o f one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s as s o c i e t a l needs the f o l l o w i n g w i l l be p o s s i b l e . 1.  2.  Developers  s h o u l d be encouraged, by means o f i n c e n t i v e s , t o p r o v i d e  childcare  facilities  i n their  C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing  projects.  C o r p o r a t i o n and the p r o v i n c i a l  govern-  ments s h o u l d e n t e r i n t o c o s t s h a r i n g agreements i n o r d e r t h a t c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s , which w i l l be used by p e o p l e o t h e r than r e s i d e n t s o f a CMHC f i n a n c e d b u i l d i n g may be p r o v i d e d .  T h i s c o o p e r a t i o n between  the two l e v e l s o f government would f a c i l i t a t e the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f  daycare  or c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s .  The  responsibility  for operating  c o s t s would of course remain w i t h the p r o v i n c e . 3.  I t i s suggested  t h a t i n the p l a n n i n g of r e s i d e n t i a l developments the  s e r v i c e s which a s s i s t one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s be c o n s i d e r e d and p r o v i d e d w i t h i n the planned  developments.  space  be  These c o u l d be r e q u i r e d  - j u s t as a c e r t a i n amount of green space i s r e q u i s i t e . 4.  Funding  of s e r v i c e s such as Family P l a c e and T r a n s i t i o n House s h o u l d  be g i v e n f o r l o n g e r than the c u r r e n t one y e a r p e r i o d t o a l l o w l o n g e r range p l a n n i n g by these o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  SUMMARY T h i s t h e s i s d e l i n e a t e s a number o f housing needs of one families.  These needs are p r e s e n t e d i n terms of i s s u e s .  a t i o n s which are o f f e r e d are not a l l i n c l u s i v e .  The  parent recommend-  They do i n d i c a t e  i n i t i a l s t e p s which s h o u l d be taken t o meet the needs of one  the  parent  families. The primary purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to p r e s e n t the needs of p a r e n t f a m i l i e s and  to f u r t h e r the acceptance  needs as d e s c r i b e d i n the f i r s t  of these as  one  societal  chapter.  I t has been s a i d t h a t •- A c t i o n of any k i n d without r e s e a r c h , whether i t i s to b r i n g about change i n an i n d i v i d u a l group's v a l u e s or b e h a v i o r or to c r e a t e new environments, i s f o l l y ; on the other hand, r e s e a r c h without b e i n g f o l l o w e d w i t h a c t i o n is«stupidity. (Sussman, 1970,  p.  6)  As t h i s i s w r i t t e n the feedback p r o c e s s c o n t i n u e s and t h e r e f o r e appended to the If of  are  thesis.  t h i s t h e s i s provokes some thought  the one parent f a m i l y and  has served i t s purpose.  the r e s u l t s  and d i s c u s s i o n about the needs  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the community then i t  65.  LITERATURE CITED  B e r t r a n d , A l v i n L. S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n - A General Systems and Role Theory P e r s p e c t i v e . P h i l a d e l p h i a , Pa.: F.A. D a v i s Co., 1972. Buckland, C l a r e M. "Toward a Theory o f Parent E d u c a t i o n : L e a r n i n g Centres i n the Post I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y , " The C o - o r d i n a t o r , A p r i l 1972. Canadian C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Development. Ottawa, October 1971.  The One  Parent  Family Family  Family.  Campbell, E a r l . "Socio-economic Needs o f S i n g l e Parent F a m i l i e s , " u n p u b l i s h e d paper p r e s e n t e d to P a r e n t s without P a r t n e r s , Chapter 153, Vancouver. Carson, Susan.  "The Other  S i d e , " Weekend Magazine,  February 22,  Clayton, P a t r i c i a . "Meeting the Needs o f the S i n g l e Parent The F a m i l y C o - o r d i n a t o r , October 1971.  1975.  Family,"  Cockburn, C h r i s t i n e and Hugh H e c l o . "Income Maintenance f o r OneParent F a m i l i e s In Other C o u n t r i e s : An A p p r a i s a l , " Report of the Committee on One-Parent F a m i l i e s , 1974. Department o f N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e . Peer-Professional Partnership: A Unique Approach to S e r v i c e s f o r S e p a r a t i n g P a r e n t s . Ottawa, A p r i l 1974. E t z i o n i , A m i t a i . Modern O r g a n i z a t i o n s . P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1964.  Englewood C l i f f s ,  N.J.:  F i n e r , M o r r i s . Report o f the Committee on One-Parent F a m i l i e s . of H e a l t h and S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , Cmnd 5629, London, 1974. Gordon, Sheldon. "Telling J u l y 26, 1975, p. 9. Guyatt, D o r i s E. the Family,  Department  i t l i k e i t i s i n Saskatchewan," F i n a n c i a l P o s t ,  One-Parent F a m i l y i n Canada. 1971.  The V a n i e r I n s t i t u t e of  Hole. W.V. "User Needs and the Design of Houses: The C u r r e n t and P o t e n t i a l C o n t r i b u t i o n of S o c i o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s , " u n p u b l i s h e d paper from the B u i l d i n g Research S t a t i o n , M i n i s t r y o f P u b l i c Works, Great Britain. James, Jean M. F a m i l y B e n e f i t s Mothers i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto. M i n i s t r y of Community and S o c i a l S e r v i c e s , 1973.  66.  K l e i n , Carole. The S i n g l e Parent E x p e r i e n c e . Company, 1973.  New York:  Walker and  M o r i s e y , P a t r i c i a G. "From S c a n d i n a v i a t o the Urban Ghetto I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the S c a n d i n a v i a n W e l f a r e Programs," N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on I l l e g i t imacy, Unmarried P a r e n t s and T h e i r C h i l d r e n , 1968. N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on I l l e g i t i m a c y . 1968. Nicholson, 1968.  Jill.  Unmarried P a r e n t s and T h e i r C h i l d r e n ,  Mother and Baby Homes.  London:  A l l e n & Unwin, L t d . ,  P o u l o s , Susan. A Problem Inventory o f S i n g l e Mothers. C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver, 1969. Ross, Heather L. and I s a b e l V. S a w h i l l . The Urban I n s t i t u t e , 1975.  Vancouver:  Time o f T r a n s i t i o n .  Washington:  Sauber, Mignon and E i l e e n C o r r i g a n . The S i x Year. E x p e r i e n c e o f Unwed Mothers as P a r e n t s . Community C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r New York, 1970. S c h l e s i n g e r , Benjamin. The One Parent Family. Toronto P r e s s , 1975. S k a l t s , Vera.  Mothers' A i d in'Denmark.  Toronto:  U n i v e r s i t y of  Det Danske Selskab, 1973.  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l o f M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o . Report on the Concept o f Needs and the D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f P r i o r i t i e s , 1961. Sprey, J e t s e . "The Study o f S i n g l e Parenthood: Some M e t h o d o l o g i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s , " i n S c h l e s i n g e r , The One Parent Family, 1975. Sussman, M a r v i n . " C o n s t r u c t i o n o f B u i l t - i n Environments: Housing S e r v i c e s , " unpublished paper, Case Western Reserve U n i v e r s i t y , 1970. YWCA. "An E v a l u a t i o n o f Group Homes f o r S i n g l e P a r e n t s , " document, Vancouver, 1972.  unpublished  APPENDIX  A  67.  Housing Meeds of One P a r e n t Families  A research project i s being conducted this summer on single parent families and their housing needs.  Information i s being sought concerning present  difficulties i n your housing situation as well as solutions that could alleviate the problems.  The study w i l l include a survey of housing-related comrmnity serv-  ices such as day care, single parent organizations and financial and legal assistance.  The final report w i l l provide policy and design recommendations to aid  government and private agencies i n planning their housing programs. The YWCA i s supporting this study and a section of a report w i l l • look at Group Homes as a type of communal l i v i n g . We feel i t i s important that single parents identify the housing issues.  We hope you w i l l help us by f i l l i n g out the questionnaire. There i s no need to sign your name as individuals w i l l not be  identified.  Do give us your name i f you would like a copy of the report. Thank you.  Penny Gurstein  Nancy Hood  N. Hood  HOUSING NEEDS OF ONE PARENT FAMILIES  1.  Row d i d you hear about Group Homes?  2.  What vfere y o u r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group Homes?  3.  B e f o r e moving i n t o Group Homes what were y o u r h o u s i n g needs? Please l i s t  68 .  h o u s i n g r e l a t e d needs e.g., the. need t o be c l o s e t o some s e r v i c e .  "THE GROUP HOME EXPERIENCE 4.  Do you f e e l t h a t Group Homes have met y o u r needs?  •5.  Please l i s t  t h e advantages  o f l i v i n g i n a Group Home,  f o r you  f o r your  6.  Please l i s t  child  t h o s e a s p e c t s o f Group Home l i f e  which y o u found bothersome  f o r you  f o r your  7.  child  Was t h e daycare p r o v i d e d an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f Group Homes?  Please check one  l) 2)  T h i s was v e r y i m p o r t a n t Important  - 2 3) Not anymore important than other aspects of Group Home l i f e  4) Not important  8.  How did you feel about l i v i n g with other single parents? Please check one.  l ) this was most helpful  Why?  2) this was not helpful 3)  undecided  AFTER MOVING OUT When you l e f t Group Homes what kind of accommodation were you looking for? Please check one  1) an apartment 2) a room 3) a cooperative house 4) house 5) 'other - please specify  10.  Were you looking for accommodation with another single parent?  1) Yes 2) No 11.  Did you find the type of accommodation you had hoped to find?  1) Yes 2) No b) If you answered no, that i s you were not able to obtain the kind of accommodation you wanted, please l i s t the reasons you were unable to find such a place?  - 3~ 12.  What kind of accommodation did you move into?  70,  1) an apartment 2) a room 3) a cooperative house, shared a place with others 4) house 5) other - please specify 13.  Did you share the accommodation with another single parent? 1) Yes  2) No 14.  After moving out did you make contact with any single parent organizations? 1) Yes  2 ) No 15.  Did you maintain contact with Group Homes, perhaps through the daycare centre? 1) Yes  2) No 16.  •  Did you have any "hassles" trying to find a place that would take children? 1) Yes  2) No b) If yes please describe the kinds and number of difficulties encountered.  17.  Did you experience any discrimination because you are a single parent? 1) Yes  2) No b)  If yes please describe these experiences in detail.  What do you think about single parents l i v i n g together i n the community?  Did other people think you were d i f f e r e n t because you l i v e d i n Group Homes?  What kind o f support was provided when single parents l i v e d together i n a Group Home?  How d i d t h i s support influence/help one parent families?  Do you think single parent f a m i l i e s should l i v e separately i n the community, i . e . i t i s not important f o r s i n g l e parents to group together?  1) Yes 2) No 3)  Undecided  a)  Do you think a group s i t u a t i o n i s a good one f o r single parents and t h e i r children?  b)  Would you have l i k e d to remain i n group homes longer than you  THE  ALMOST IDEAL  72  If told to choose the kind of accommodation vie wanted we a l l might say a castle or mansion. Keeping in mind some economic constraints we would like to consider alternatives to the kind of housing available now ~ alternatives i n terms of design, price and the amenities provided. When we assume some economic constraints we mean that we a l l can not l i v e i n castles. We do not mean that a person who can not presently afford anything else should be "satisfied" with substandard accommodation. The following questions are intended to bring out your ideas about housing and housing for one parent families i n particular. 24.  What kind of place would you and your child live i n i f you could choose? (Please describe fully - e.g. large apartment on ground floor, etc.)  25.  Where would you like to be located' and why?  26.  What services are important to you and your child? centre) Please l i s t .  27.  Where, i n terms of the location of your residence, would you like these services to be located? (e.g. the school should be within two blocks)  28.  Do you think the housing needs of one parent families are any different than those of the general population?  (e.g. day care, drop-in  We welcome any comments about this questionnaire or about the study i n general.  73o  -  6-  *  We are interested i n your ideas about the kinds of housing you would like to see for one parent families.  If you have ideas about floor plans, building  types, etc., feel free to sketch these on the back of the questionnaire.  Thank you for completing this questionnaire.  We realize that i t i s lengthy  and has required some consideration. We sincerely hope our report w i l l have some impact on housing policy.  I f you are interested i n receiving a copy of  the report or more information about the results of our Group Homes research please note this on the questionnaire.  Thanks again.  74  APPENDIX B  July 19, 1975  Housing Needs of One Parent Families As part of the research concerning the housing needs of one parent  families  we are interested i n the Bishop Cridge Family Centre and the housing i n Hayward Heights.  We would l i k e to know about the housing needs of your fam-  i l y and the adequacy of your current housing i n terms of these needs. The report that w i l l r e s u l t from the research e f f o r t s  i s intended to provide,  policy and design recommendations for government and private agencies.  Com-  pleting the questionnaire w i l l help us i n formulating recommendations based on contact with as many one parent families as  possible.  Please indicate on your questionnaire i f you would l i k e a copy of our findings and recommendations. Thank you.  Penny Gurstein Nancy Hood  N.B.  Please return to N. Hood  Information About Your F a m i l y 1.  Number of c h i l d r e n i n your family?  2.  Ages of these children?  3.  Age of family head? under 20  20 - 25 26 - 30 31 - 35 36 - 40 41 - 45 46 - 50 over 50 4.  Family income (please check as many as applicable) S o c i a l Assistance Unemployment Insurance V.O.P. other Government Income f u l l time employment part time employment support from spouse  Before you moved to Hayward Heights 5.  How did you hear about the Bishop Cridge Centre?  6.  How d i d you hear about Hayward Heights housing?  7. . What type of accommodation did you have before moving to Hayward Heights  8.  Is t h i s (Hayward Heights) the kind of housing you had hoped to find?  1) Yes  .  2) No b)  I f you answered no, that i s you were not able to obtain the kind of accommodation you wanted, please l i s t the reasons you were unable to f i n d such a place.  9.  When you were looking for a place did you have any "hassles" t r y i n g to find a place-that would have children?  l)  Yes  2) No that would havs a on© parent family?  l)  Yes  2) No b)  I f you d i d experience d i f f i c u l t i e s  please describe the number and kinds  of "hassles" encountered.  Your Hayward Heights Experience 10.  Please outline the housing needs of your family.  —  J ~  .  77.  .11. - Do you feel that your present housing adequately meets these needs?  b)  12.  1)  Yes .  2)  No  Please explain why  Please l i s t the advantages of l i v i n g i n Hayward Heights, for the parent  for the children  13.  Please l i s t those aspects of Hayward Heights l i f e which you f i n d bothersome .  for the parent  for the children 14.  Was the daycare an important factor i n your decision to move to Hayward Heights? Please check one  1)  This was very important  2)  Important  3)  Not as important as other aspects of Hayward Heights  4)  Not important  ~  4  "  78  0  15. Were the after school and summer programs important factors in your decision to move to Hayward Heights? Please check one  l ) This was very important 2) Important 3) Not as important as other aspects of Hayward Heights 4)  16.  Not important  Do you make use of the Bishop Cridge Fajnily Centre services and facilities? 1) Yes 2) No  b)  17.  Please outline why  If you answered yes to question 7 specifically how does your family use the Centre?  18.  (Please outline fully)  How do you feel about living with other single parent families? Please check o n e  1) this i s most helpful .  2) this i s not helpful 3) undecided  Please describe why you feel this  . way?  - 519.  79.  What do you think about one parent families l i v i n g together i n the community?  Is this a good or bad idea and why?  20.  Would you prefer to l i v e elsewhere i n the community?  21.  Do you think l i v i n g with other one parent families i s beneficial for the children?  1) Yes 2) b)  No  Please explain why.  6 80.  The Almost Ideal I f t o l d to choose the kind o f accommodation we wanted we a l l might say a c a s t l e or mansion. Keeping i n mind some economic constraints we would l i k e to consider a l t e r n a t i v e s to the kind of housing a v a i l a b l e now - a l t e r n a t i v e s i n terms o f design, p r i c e and the amenities provided. When we assume some economic constraints we mean that we a l l can not l i v e i n c a s t l e s . We do not mean that a person who can not presently afford anything e l s e should be " s a t i s f i e d " with substandard accommodation. The following questions are intended to bring out your ideas about housing and housing for one parent f a m i l i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r . 22. What kind of place would you and your c h i l d l i v e i n i f you could choose? (Please describe f u l l y - e.g. large apartment on ground f l o o r , e t c . )  23. Where would you l i k e to be located' and why?  '24. What services are important to you and your c h i l d ? centre) Please l i s t .  (e.g. day care, drop-in  25. Where, i n terms of the l o c a t i o n of your residence, would you l i k e these services to be located? ( e . g . the school should, be within two blocks)  26. Do you think the housing needs of one parent f a m i l i e s are any d i f f e r e n t than those of the general population?  We welcome any comments about t h i s questionnaire or about the study i n general.  Appendix  C  June, 1975  BISHOP CRIDGE CENTRE FOR THE FAMILY "THRESHOLD" POLICY FOR HAYWARD HEIGHTS RENTAL ACCOMMODATION  The r e n t a l accommodation p r o v i d e d by the Centre i s designed to accommodate one parent f a m i l i e s o f low income. I t i s not expected t h a t tenants w i l l c o n s i d e r the accommodation to be o f a permanent n a t u r e over a p e r i o d o f y e a r s , but t h a t i t may prove o f a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g times o f f a m i l y s t r e s s and u n t i l more long-term arrangements a r e made. A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t e n a n c i e s a r e open t o one parent f a m i l i e s w i t h two o r more dependent c h i l d r e n (each under e i g h t e e n y e a r s o f age). One p a r e n t i s a person who i s e i t h e r : (i)  unmarried, o r  (ii)  s e p a r a t e d due t o d e s e r t i o n , i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y , long-term i l l n e s s o r i n c a r c e r a t i o n o f spouse, o r  (iii)  divorced, or  (iv)  widowed  Income.  A p p l i c a n t s income from a l l sources must n o t exceed:  i n the case of  a p a r e n t w i t h two c h i l d r e n  $464  i n the case of  a parent w i t h t h r e e c h i l d r e n  $536  i n the case of  a parent w i t h f o u r  children  $608  i n the case of  a parent w i t h f i v e  children  $675  i n the case of  a parent w i t h s i x  i n the case of  a parent w i t h seven  children  $799  i n the case of  a parent w i t h e i g h t  children  $861  A l l o w a b l e income i s s u b j e c t t o annual  The  children  $737  adjustments.  'one p a r e n t ' s h a l l be t h e o n l y r e s i d i n g a d u l t i n t h e premises  5.  I f a f t e r commencement of residence the circumstances of a tenant change so that he or she no longer q u a l i f i e s as a 'one parent' as defined i n Rule 2, the tenant s h a l l forthwith n o t i f y the Administration of that fact and the tenant s h a l l be expected to vacate the premises within ninety days from the end of the month wherein the change of circumstance occurs.  6.  Each tenancy i s subject to annual review.  7.  In the event that the family circumstances change so that there are less than two dependent children under age eighteen l i v i n g i n the home or the maximum income l i m i t s are exceeded, the matter of a continued tenancy s h a l l be reviewed by the Adminis t r a t i o n forthwith.  8.  Unless exceptional circumstances can be shown, the maximum period of time which any one parent family may be expected to reside i n the premises i s three years.  The above p o l i c y has been established to enable the Bishop Cridge Centre for the Family to a s s i s t and serve the maximum number of 'one parent' families i n need. Thank you f o r your co-operation.  APPENDIX D. THF. KTSHOP CRTDGE CENTRE FOR THE FAMILY  83.  APPT.TCATTON FOR RENTAL ACCOMMODATION  Name  Mr. Miss Mrs. .  (Given Names)  (Surname)  Telephone Number  Address M a r i t a l Status:  Married  Widowed  Occupation  Divorced  Separated  Single  Employed by:  Length of Residence i n V i c t o r i a  Children to be housed  Birthdate  Relationship  Occupation, School/Grade  10  When?  Any change i n family expected?, Monthly salary or Wages  $  (net) per month  Social Assistance  $  per month  Family Support/Alimony  $  per month  Family Allowance  $  per month  Pensions  $  per month  Other Income  $  per month  Total Income ( A l l Sources)  $  per month  84. Present Accommodation  Why  How Long?  No. of Bedrooms  Rent  do you wish new accommodation?  Ownership  Have you ever owned a home?, Do you own a car?  Furniture  Assets  Amount  Creditors  References  •  Name  Amount  Address  Occupation  Telephone No.  1 2 3 Family Doctor ,  Telephone Number  Next of kin/or  '  Telephone Number  Relative or close friend (for Emergency contact)  Services Required Day Care After School Education/ Social/Recreational Counselling S k i l l s Available  This information i s complete and accurate to the best of my knowledge and the Bishop Cridge Centre may v e r i f y by enquiry. I have read and understand the policy statement on rental accommodation, and, i n the event my application i s accepted, agree to be bound by i t s provisions. Date  Application received by  Signed  Applicant ^  Staff  Action  The information concerning the Bishop Cridge Centre f o r th Family was provided by one of the residents on the Tenants Committee.  86.  APPENDIX Question 1.  E  S c h e d u l e f o r O r g a n i z a t i o n Membership I n t e r v i e w s  How d i d y o u l e a r n about t h e " H o u s i n g Needs o f one P a r e n t F a m i l i e s " r e s e a r c h project.  2.  What o r g a n i z a t i o n do y o u b e l o n g t o , e . g . V o l u n t e e r G r a n d p a r e n t s ,  Crossreach,  etc.? 4.  4.  Describe your c u r r e n t housing s i t u a t i o n a)  t h e t y p e o f u n i t e . g . h o u s e , apartment e t c .  b)  the l o c a t i o n  c)  the cost ( i f  renting)  I s t h i s t h e k i n d o f accommodation y o u wanted? I f y e s why? I f no why?  5.  What s e r v i c e s a r e i m p o r t a n t t o you? e . g . d a y c a r e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e t c .  6.  What s e r v i c e s would y o u l i k e t o gave? currently available to you).  (Services other than those  Why?  7.  Have y o u e x p e r i e n c e d any problems w i t h l a n d l o r d s ?  8.  Have y o u been d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t because  9.  a)  y o u have c h i l d r e n ?  b)  you are a s i n g l e  parent?  How do y o u f e e l about one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s l i v i n g t o g e t h e r ? L i v i n g i n t h e same house p e r h a p s ? L i v i n g i n a s i n g l e p a r e n t h o u s i n g complex?  10.  Do y o u f e e l t h e h o u s i n g needs o f p a r e n t f a m i l i e s a r e any d i f f e r e n t those o f the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n ?  than  MMiM  w a n / 0  v./oc  u r/ v t wo x . LUUC  itsi  APPENDIX F:  She 'didn't suit property/ denied house tacted the human rights branch. Human rights o f f i c e r Hanne Jensen told the board she investigated Mrs. Warren's complaint and Cleland admitted that his sole reason for rejecting her was his fear that a single woman would not be able to handle the property. She said she advised him that it was his perfect right as a landlord to make sure tenants mow the lawn, care for the garden or face eviction. But she said she informed him that anybody who refuses to rent accom" modation on the grounds of  DAVID BAINES scedent-setting case the rights of single against the rights lords to choose their was heard before a if inquiry Thursday, sse, which may de: how much clout recently-proclaimed. Rights Code has, is : case of alleged sex '•nation since the m was enacted  not seeking financial comdren, aged 11; 12 and 16. She said she adequately pensation, be recom-. cared for large properties mended the board award ] in the past. On one occas- only nominal damages in • \ sion, she said, she lived on her favor. a double lot and the landBill Black, a member of lord complimented her on the Human Rights Com-; the condition she kept the ' mission, which serves an' property. educational and 1 i a s o n But neither Cleland nor f u n c t i o n between thej Fowler asked her any ques- branch and the public,; tions about her gardening agreed with Carsen. | ability or past accommodaHe said he believes land-: tion. Neither did they ask lords should have the right her for references, she .to pick and choose their volves around the said. 1 tenants as long as they do i of whether a landThe men admitted they j not abrogate the rights of j is the right, in cerrejected Mrs. Warren solees,torefuse rental ly because she did "not fit other people. In this case, lodation to a the category of tenant we he said, he felt Mrs. Vf^ because she is a were looking for." areht. "Surely to God," said nied. sex and'marital status may «n Ruff, director Cleland in a Dec. 18 letter The board is empowered be guilty of a breach of the human r i g h t s to the human r i g h t s to force a person convictHuman Rights Code, prosaid the case will branch, "I, as an owner, ed under the code to make claimed Oct. 10. 1 important preceCleland and Fowler testi- have somerightto say who available any services de1 determining what nied the complainant. fied they had never heard , occupies my property. >n women have "This is Canada we live of the legislation until Miss the new Human It can also order remunJensen began investigating j in, not Russia. If Mrs.eration of any financial Jode. Warren wishes to pursue the case. Lindsay Cleland, loss suffered by the comle landlords facing The two men are part- this matter further, it is plainant and, in cases her privilege. I have no in- where there is proven damrge, said the outners in Souih Granville NORENE WARREN all illustrate just Holdings Ltd., which owns tention whatsoever of apo- age to self-respect, the jits a landlord has . . . denied house the property in question logizing to her or reconsid- board can award up to nine who will occu-, She said Cleland then and two other properties. ! ering renting the property $5,000 damages. * •operty. Cleland is the sole pro- to her." asked her if she thought ive-member board she could look after the prietor of F. A. Cleland . The board of inquiry was ry, which is ap- house and property, which and Son, which manages 28" told the property has alby the minister of is located on a double-size properties. F o w l e r has j ready been rented to anothxler the terms of corner lot. She said she been a salesman for the j er family. Meanwhile, Mrs. Warren has found a small,firm for 14 years. ^ j, listened to more could. r hours argument 'Mrs. Warren said she Both said they have a er, more expensive house. But Mrs. Warren said •partment of labor was very excited at the general policy not to disthat although she is paying 111 Kingsway. criminate against anybody , possibility of securing the r Rod Germaine, house and thought her for any reason, as long as $25 more per month bel of the board, chances were so good she they appeartobe responsi- cause of the alleged disboard will deliver suspended her bouse hunt- ble people. "; crimination, she is more ct in written form ing while she awaited word They said they have sev- concerned about the princir date. eral single women who ple than the money. from Cleland. rent property they own or Gary Carsen, assistant Ann* Warren, of . On Oct 15, she said, Cledirector of the human t Fifty-fourth, told land told her he had dis- manage. d she saw a "for cussed the situation with But they said it is their rights branch, said the gn Oct: 9 on the, the co-owner of the house, specific policy not to rent branch contends Fowler of a four-bedroom David Fowler, and had de- the double^size corner lot and Cleland have violated 2796 East Forty- cided they did not want to to a single woman simply the Human Rights Code. But since Mrs. Warren is rent to a woman who war because they have learned through "bitter experi"on her own." ^ . • > lephoned Cleland, ence" that a single woman e co-owners of the' He explained they were is often incapable of caring d arranged an ap- not worried about her abili- for a> family and a large \K^caLA^E3^^uH t to see the prop- ty tor pay the*$35fc' per piece of property. month rent, but were, 11, she said. ^^iN/V-j ,^P^IL_ U,i^/< Cleland asked her afraid she would not be Mrs. Warren, a licensed practical nurse,. said she r circumstances abletocare for the yard holds • a regular part-rime « said, she told properly, she said-r Mrs. Warren said she >job, with the South Vancoulad three children ver Health Unit as well as separated from,, was so disappointed at the caring; for her three chilnews that she begantocry. , ' , ,- Then, she said,.she became^ • .w ' " *' • ... angry and eventually*!con-3 !  1  Is  1  1  -fife  s  4  :  APPENDIX G: Census and  S t a t i s t i c a l Information The One Parent Family  Concerning  The purpose of t h i s appendix i s to n u m e r i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e p o s i t i o n of the one parent f a m i l y i n our s o c i e t y .  The  the  t r e n d towards  s i n g l e parent f a m i l y f o r m a t i o n i s demonstrated i n C h a r t s 1 and  2.  The  components of the B.C.  s i n g l e parent p o p u l a t i o n a r e d e s c r i b e d i n C h a r t s  3 through  6 the economic p o s i t i o n of the one parent f a m i l y  5.  In.Chart  i s examined by comparing the average families.  The  incomes of one and  two  parent  economic p i c t u r e i s broadened by the d a t a of  social  a s s i s t a n c e r e c i p i e n t s from the Vancouver Community Resources Board. To demonstrate the adequacy of the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f u n d i n g to one parent f a m i l i e s some t y p i c a l budgets and presented  i n C h a r t s 8 through  10.  available  t h e i r breakdowns are  CHART 1:  THE TREND IN CANADA  In 1966 T o t a l # of Families  4,526,266  One P a r e n t F a m i l i e s  371,855  One Parent F a m i l i e s as a Percentage o f a l l F a m i l i e s  8.22%  In 1971 T o t a l // o f F a m i l i e s  .5,070,680  One Parent F a m i l i e s  478,745  One Parent F a m i l i e s as a Percentage of a l l F a m i l i e s  CHART 2:  9.44%  THE B.C. TREND  In 1966 Total # of Families  445,297  One P a r e n t F a m i l i e s  35,534  One Parent F a m i l i e s as a Percentage o f a l l F a m i l i e s  7.98%  In 1971 T o t a l # of Families  533,625  One Parent F a m i l i e s  50,205  One Parent F a m i l i e s as a Percentage o f a l l F a m i l i e s  9.41%  In 1966 i n B.C., 8% o f a l l f a m i l i e s were headed by one p a r e n t . In 1971 t h i s had r i s e n to 9.41%.  CHART 3: HEADS OF FAMILIES BY SEX AND MARITAL  STATUS  BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1971  MARITAL  STATUS  SEX  TOTAL  Male  Married  (Husband & Wife at Home)  Female  487,915  98.74  483,425  97.83  14,240 —  502,155  36. 06  ;  4, 490  .91  14,240  36.06)  Widowed  2,815  .57.  14,240  36. 52  17,240  Divorced  2,110  .43  8,405  21. 29  10,515  Never M a r r i e d  1,305  .26  2,415  6. 12  3,720  494,145  100.00  39,485  100. 00  533,630  (One Spouse at Home  TOTAL  Source:  U n p u b l i s h e d 1971 Census Data - a v a i l a b l e from the Department o f Economic Development  CHART 4: ONE PARENT FAMILIES BY SEX AND MARITAL STATUS OF HEAD BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1971  MARITAL STATUS  SEX  TOTAL  Male  Female  N  %  N  %  M a r r i e d , One Spouse a t Home  4,490  41.,88  14,240  36.,06  18,730  Widowed  2,815  26..26  14,420  36..52  17,240  Divorced  2,110  19..68  8,405  21..29  10,515  Never M a r r i e d  1,305  12..17  2,415  6,.12  3,720  10,720  100..00  39,485  100..00  50,205  TOTAL  CHART 5: ONE PARENT FAMILIES BY SEX OF HEAD BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1971  SEX  TOTAL  Male  Number o f F a m i l i e s  Source:  Female  N  %  N  10,720  21.35  29,485  78.65  50,205  Unpublished 1971 Census Data - a v a i l a b l e from the Department o f Economic Development.  NOTES ON  CHARTS  3-5  These t a b l e s a r e f o r "head of F a m i l i e s " , not"Heads of Households." The r e l e v a n t Census d e f i n i t i o n s a r e : "Census F a m i l y : C o n s i s t s of a husband and w i f e (with o r w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n who have never been m a r r i e d , r e g a r d l e s s of age) or a parent w i t h one o r more c h i l d r e n never m a r r i e d , l i v i n g i n the same dwelling. A f a m i l y may c o n s i s t a l s o of a man or woman l i v i n g w i t h a g u a r d i a n s h i p c h i l d or ward under 21 y e a r s f o r whom no pay was received. The "HEAD OF THE FAMILY", i s the husband i n a husbandw i f e f a m i l y , or the parent i n a one-parent f a m i l y . " "Household: A person or group of persons o c c u p y i n g one d w e l l i n g . I t u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s of a f a m i l y group, w i t h or without l o d g e r s , employees, e t c . However, i t may c o n s i s t of two or more f a m i l i e s s h a r i n g a d w e l l i n g , or a group of u n r e l a t e d persons or of one person l i v i n g alone."  As shown i n Chart 3, and as noted above, i n two-parent f a m i l i e s ("married - husband and w i f e a t home") the husband i s d e s i g n a t e d by census procedures as the 'Head of the F a m i l y . "  The N's  may  be out by 5, due  to Census rounding  procedures.  Guyatt i n The One-Parent F a m i l y i n Canada based  on 1966 d a t a  economic problems as a major concern f o r t h e one parent  identifies  family,  i t has been shown t h a t the average f a m i l y income o f s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower (than t h e income o f a two-parent f a m i l y ) , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the s i n g l e parent i s a woman. (Guyatt, 1971, p. 59). The 1971 census c o n f i r m s t h i s a s s e r t i o n .  CHART 6: In B.C. Average Income o f One Parent i n 1970  Families $5,845  N a t i o n a l Average f o r One Parent i n 1970  Families 6,036  In B.C. Average Income o f Two Parent i n 1970  Families  N a t i o n a l Average f o r Two Parent i n 1970  $10,574 Families 9,958  94.  CHART 7: NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF CASES AND INDIVIDUALS BY CATEGORIES Categories  Individuals  Cases  Single Persons: Male Female  6,639 3.352  38.2 19.3  6,639 3,352  23.9 12.0  733 3,987 147  4.2 22.9 .8  14,601  52.4  512  2.9  1,024  3.7  1,613  9.3  1,613  5.8  393  2.3  621  2.2  Families: 2 Parents 1 Parent - Female 1 Parent - Male Couples Bdg./Nursing Home Residents Others:  Status Indian, Child with Relative, e t c .  17,376 100.0  TOTALS  FIGURE A Categories by Cases  FIGURE B Categories by Individuals  27,850 100.0  FIGURE C Categories by^ Dollars Issued  Source of Data: * V.R.B. Case Stats. - Dec. 22/75 (cheques to cover month of Jan./76) Averages f o r category calculated from case s t a t s , and government statement  +  Based on government statements  I n f o r m a t i o n from the Vancouver Resources Board i n d i c a t e s t h a t an average o f 14% o f a l l VRB S.A. c a s e s a r e two p a r e n t f a m i l i e s , and 86% a r e s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . Of the s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s , 96% have a s i n g l e female parent There i s o n l y a s l i g h t d e v i a t i o n seven months - not more than 1%.  from the mean percentage f o r the  Based on the Monthly Cheque Issue f o r June 1975 - December 1976. I n f o r m a t i o n from Vancouver Resources Board Researcher, Ruth Chisholm.  CHART 8: INCOME INFORMATION FROM THE VANCOUVER RESOURCES BOARD, NUTRITION SERVICES  I n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by Irene  Family Size (# o f Members)  Zilinski  Total Income  Support  Shelter  2  140  130  270  3  175  145  320  4  210  160  370  5  250  170  420  6  285  180  465  7  315  190  505  N.B.: S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e r e c i p i e n t s r e c e i v e a b a s i c amount of support and then an a d d i t i o n a l amount t o pay f o r accommodation. The Vancouver Resources Board c o v e r s the c o s t o f accommodation - above a c e r t a i n s p e c i f i e d amount the Board w i l l pay 75% o f the c o s t o f s h e l t e r . The r e c i p i e n t absorbs the other 25%.  CHART 9: THE  INCOME BREAKDOWN OF AN "AVERAGE" ONE PARENT FAMILY ON GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE BUDGETS*  i n f o r m a t i o n from Irene Z i l i n s k i , Vancouver Resources Board  The budget i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d from sample budgets o f single parents.  Percentage o f Income Expended Rent - l i g h t and heat  56%  Food  30%  Transportation  4%  Laundry and P e r s o n a l Needs  4%  Household c o s t s  2%  Telephone  2%  G i f t s , R e c r e a t i o n , Books and Newspapers  2%  TOTAL  100%  CHART 10: ACTUAL DOLLAR ALLOCATION FOR:FAMILIES ON GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE BASED ON AN AVERAGE ONE PARENT FAMILY BUDGET  Family S i z e  2  3  4  5  6  7  T o t a l Income S h e l t e r and Support  270.00  320.00  370.00  420.00  465.00  505.00  Rent Heat, L i g h t , . (56%)  151.20  179.20  Food  81.00  96.00  111.00  126.00  139.50  151.50  10.80  12.80  14.80  16.80  18.60  20.20  10.80  12.80  14.80  16.80  18.60  20.20  5.40  6.40  7.40  8.40  9.30  10.10  Telephone (2%)  5.40  6.40  7.40  8.40  9.30  10.10  G i f t s , Recreation, Books, Newspapers (2%)  5.40  6.40  7.40  8.40  9.30  10.10  (30%)  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (4%)  207.20  235.20  260.40  282.80  Laundry and P e r s o n a l Needs (4%) Household Costs  (2%)  

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