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Nonverbal communication, response to performance feedback and psychophysiological activity in depression Prkachin, Kenneth Martin 1976

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NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION, RESPONSE TO PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK, AND PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY IN DEPRESSION by KENNETH MARTIN PRKACHIN B.A., Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department cof Psychology We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1976 In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is fo r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten pe rm i ss i on . Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date l^crrk /ff7f* i Abstract The present study evaluated selected aspects of recent behavioural, cog-n i t i v e , and psychophysiological theories of depression. Of major concern was Lewinsohn's suggestion that a d e f i c i t i n s o c i a l - s k i l l may be a c r i t i c a l determinant of depressive behaviour. An analysis of the concept of s o c i a l s k i l l suggests that i t may involve two component processes: 1) the a b i l i t y to emit s i t u a t i o n a l l y appropriate behaviours that others can i d e n t i f y and respond to d i s c r i m i n a t i v e l y , and 2) the a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y and respond d i s c r i m i n a t i v e l y to the s i t u a t i o n a l l y - a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour of others. It follows from Lewinsohn's p o s i t i o n that depressed subjects should ex-h i b i t d e f i c i t s i n e i t h e r or both of these processes. In order to evaluate t h i s hypothesis, three groups of subjects <— depressed, nondepressed p s y c h i a t r i c controls, and normal controls — p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a two-part experiment. In the f i r s t part, which was designed to e l i c i t various forms of f a c i a l expressive behaviour, subjects were exposed to a d i f f e r e n t i a l c l a s -s i c a l conditioning procedure, i n which one CS was followed by presentation of a "pleasant" p i c t o r i a l UCS, another CS was followed by an aversive auditory UCS, and a t h i r d CS was presented with no consequating event. Videotapes were made of subjects' f a c i a l expressions during CS presentation and continuous recordings of subjects' skin conductance and heart rate were taken. In the second part of the experiment, subjects observed the video-tapes from the f i r s t session of 3 other subjects, one from each group of subjects. In t h i s session, subjects'were required to guess, on the basis of changes i n the f a c i a l expressions of the subjects observed, which of the 3 types of conditioning t r i a l the observed subject was undergoing. During t h i s session, subjects also estimated t h e i r a n t i c i p a t e d performance i i immediately p r i o r to undergoing each of the three sets of judgements. Results of the judgemental task indicated that depressed subjects were the most d i f f i c u l t of a l l subjects to accurately judge and that t h i s d e f i c i t did not seem to be due to response predispositions on the part of depressed subjects. This f i n d i n g was interpreted as being consistent with Lewinsohn's s o c i a l - s k i l l hypothesis, but inconsistent with Ferster's notion that the depressive i s a poor observer of the environment. The three groups' e s t i -mations of t h e i r a n t i c i p a t e d performance di d not d i f f e r systematically, thus f a i l i n g to support Beck's specualtion that the depressive i s charac-t e r i z e d by a generalized set of negative expectations regarding the outcome of future events. More importantly, changes i n subjects' verbal ratings of t h e i r a n t i c i p a t e d performance were highly correlated with the discrepancy between a n t i c i p a t e d and actual performance on previous t r i a l s f o r a l l groups. This f i n d i n g was inconsistent with predictions from Seligman's "learned-helplessness" model of depression. F i n a l l y , psychophysiological data i n -dicated that depressives were electrodermally hyperresponsive i n comparison with other subjects, and also exhibited an elevated tonic heart-rate. These findings were interpreted as being inconsistent with speculation that the depressive i s r e f r a c t o r y to stimulation. i i i Acknowledgement I would l i k e to express my deep appreciation to the many people who have aided me eit h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y i n the formulation, running and analysis of t h i s research. I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l to the following people for t h e i r help: Dr. Kenneth Craig, f o r serving as senior advisor, f o r supporting me i n innumerable ways, and e s p e c i a l l y f o r introducing me to, and i n s i s t i n g upon, experimental r i g o r ; Dr. Demetrios Papageorgis, f o r serving as advisor and for h i s many h e l p f u l comments; Dr. Gunther Reith, for helping me acquire subjects; Tom Whalen, who donated generously of h i s time to b u i l d the equip-ment used i n the study; The s t a f f of ward West 2, Health Sciences Center Hospi t a l ; V i r g i n i a Green, whose programming help with the more d i f f i c u l t and tedious data analyses was inestimable; Judy Hawkins, who converted my scrawl to p r i n t ; And many of my fellow students and friends who gave me support and/ or refreshments when needed. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract i Acknowledgement i i i L i s t of Tables v i L i s t of Figures v i i Chapter I - Rationale 1 Chapter II - L i t e r a t u r e Review 6 Depression: epidemiology and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 6 Theories of depression 13 Biophysical theories 13 Intrapsychic and cognitive theories of depression 16 Behavioural theories 19 S o c i a l s k i l l and s o c i a l communication d e f i c i t s i n depression 36 Psychophysiological a c t i v i t y i n depression 49 Chapter I II - Method 57 Overview 5 7 Subjects 57 Apparatus 63 Procedure 68 Session 1 68 Session 2 71 Qu a n t i f i c a t i o n of psychophysiological data 75 Chapter IV - Results 76 Judgemental data 76 Communication accuracy 76 Category choice analysis 82 Performance and predictions of performance 84 Psychophysiological data 90 Skin conductance 90 Heart rate . 99 Psychometric data - Self-Monitoring scale 105 Chapter V - Discussion 107 Subject c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 107 Judgemental data 108 Communication accuracy 108 Category choice analyses 111 Performance and predictions of performance 117 Psychophysiological data 119 V TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page Skin conductance 119 Heart rate 124 Psychometric data ~ Self-Monitoring of expressive behaviour 131 Methodological and i n t e r p r e t i v e problems 134 References 137 Appendix A - Snyder's (1975) Self-Monitoring Scale 149 Appendix B - Post-hoc analysis of 4-factor heart-rate i n t e r a c t i o n 151 v i LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Age, m a r i t a l status, h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n status, primary diagnoses, and medication regimens of a l l subjects i n the study. Table 2. Results of the m u l t i v a r i a t e analysis of MMPI p r o f i l e s . 60 64 Table 3. Results of the analysis of variance for judge-mental accuracy data. 78 Table 4. Results of Tukey HSD analysis of simple e f f e c t s of Receiver X Sender X T r i a l Block i n t e r a c t i o n (communication accuracy data). 81 Table 5. Results of the analysis of variance f o r category choice data: Frequency of choice of " p i c t o r i a l " response category. Table 6. Results of the analysis of variance for category choice data: Frequency of choice of " n e u t r a l " response category. 85 87 Table 7. Correlations between difference scores r e f l e c t i n g (1) change i n predictions and (2) discrepancy between predictions and performance. 89 Table 8. Results of the analysis of variance for skin conductance data. 92 Table 9. Results of the analysis of variance for heart-irate data. 101 Table 10. Mean composite sender scores for PC and D outpatients and inpatients. 135 v i i LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1. Schematic representation of Lewinsohn's model of the o r i g i n s and maintenance of depressive behaviour. 31 Figure 2. Average group p r o f i l e s on the MMPI. 65 Figure 3. Schematic representation of the d i f f e r e n t i a l conditioning procedure used i n t h i s study. 70 Figure 4. Manner i n which videotapes were selected for showing to i n d i v i d u a l subjects. 72 Figure 5. Mean number of correct i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s by receiver subjects of the type of conditioning t r i a l sender subjects were experiencing. 79 Figure 6. Mean number of c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d con-d i t i o n i n g t r i a l s as a function of diagnostic category of receiver subject, diagnostic category of sender subject, and t r i a l blocks. 80 Figure 7. Frequency of correct or incorrect judgements that sender subjects were undergoing a p i c t o r i a l conditioning t r i a l as a function of diagnostic category of sender and receiver subjects. 86 Figure 8. Mean skin conductance values over the f i v e scoring i n t e r v a l s . 94 Figure 9. Mean skin conductance values over the f i v e scoring i n t e r v a l s on aversive t r i a l s and on the p i c t o r i a l and neutral t r i a l s combined. 95 Figure 10. Mean skin conductance values over the f i v e scoring i n t e r v a l s on aversive and on the p i c t o r i a l and neutral t r i a l s combined as a function of subjects' diagnostic categories. 97 Figure 11. Mean skin conductance values over the f i v e scoring i n t e r v a l s as a function of type of conditioning t r i a l and t r i a l blocks. 100 Figure 12. Depiction of the s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between subjects' diagnostic category, type of conditioning t r i a l , t r i a l blocks, and scoring i n t e r v a l s f o r heart-rate data. 103 Chapter I RATIONALE The present study evaluated selected aspects of recent behavioural theories concerning the o r i g i n and maintenance of depressive behaviour. Although the phenomena of depression have provoked a wide p r o l i f e r a t i o n of speculative accounts as to t h e i r o r i g i n , ( cf. Beck, 1967; Becker, 1974) and a s i g n i f i c a n t quantity of empirical research on the biology of depression (Mendels and Stinnett, 1973; P e r r i s , 1973), only i n recent years have behavioural researchers approached the area. The conceptual background derives from Lewinsohn's (1974a, 1974b; Lewinsohn, Weinstein and Shaw, 1969) m u l t i f a c t o r i a l account of the o r i g i n s and maintenance of depression. According to t h i s formulation, a number of s i t u a t i o n a l and personal factors are causally r e l a t e d to the production of a low rate of response-contingenti.positive reinforcement. This l a t t e r state of a f f a i r s represents the c r i t i c a l e l i c i t i n g condition for depressive behaviour. Depressive behaviour i s thereafter maintained through a number of processes such as increasing s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n and aversive feedback which produce a " v i c i o u s c i r c l e " e f f e c t maintaining and deepening the depression. Of the personal factors which Lewinsohn has i d e n t i f i e d as c r i t i c a l antecedents of depression, perhaps the greatest emphasis has been placed on what has been termed a d e f i c i t i n " s o c i a l s k i l l " , defined as the a b i l i t y to emit behaviours that are reinforced by others, and not to emit behaviours that are punished by others. According to t h i s formulation, c e r t a i n types of behaviour which are e s s e n t i a l f or e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l i n t e r -action may be diminished or e n t i r e l y absent i n the r e p e r t o i r e of depressed 2 persons. Several d i f f e r e n t l i n e s of research have provided evidence consistent with t h i s s o c i a l s k i l l d e f i c i t hypothesis, including studies in v o l v i n g the d i r e c t observation of the behaviour of depressed and non-depressed subjects i n small-group i n t e r a c t i o n (Lewinsohn, Weinstein, and Alper, 1970; Lib e t and Lewinsohn, 1973; L i b e t , Javorek and Lewinsohn, 1973), and studies i n v o l v i n g observation of the non-verbal behaviour of depressed subjects i n interview s i t u a t i o n s (Ekman and Friesen, 1974; Shannon, 1970). An analysis of t h i s concept suggests that what has been termed " s o c i a l s k i l l " may involve important component processes: (1) the a b i l i t y to emit behaviours which others can i d e n t i f y and respond to d i s c r i m i n a t i v e l y , and (2) the a b i l i t y to accurately i d e n t i f y and respond d i s c r i m i n a t i v e l y and appropriately to behaviour emitted by others. The former process may be termed "expressive" s o c i a l communication and the l a t t e r "receptive" s o c i a l communication. Both processes are conceived a's >involving the phenomenon of stimulus c o n t r o l . In the case of "expressive" s o c i a l com-munications, the hypothetical depressive d e f i c i t involves an i n a b i l i t y to emit behaviours which con t r o l the r e i n f o r c i n g and pun i t i v e behaviour of others. In the case of "receptive" s o c i a l communications, i t i s sug-gested that the depressive's behaviour may be under r e l a t i v e l y weak s o c i a l stimulus c o n t r o l . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t may be that the depression-prone i n d i v i d u a l i s r e l a t i v e l y unable to respond appropriately to behaviours emitted by others which serve as di s c r i m i n a t i v e s t i m u l i f o r the r e i n f o r c i n g and punitive behaviour of the i n d i v i d u a l toward whom they are directed. I f the depressive i s characterized by a d e f i c i t i n s o c i a l s k i l l and i f the concept of s o c i a l s k i l l i s meaningfully r e l a t e d to the processes of 3 expressive and receptive s o c i a l communication, then depressed i n d i v i d u a l s might be expected to e x h i b i t d e f i c i t s i n e i t h e r or both of these areas. These hypotheses were tested i n the present study by employing two tasks. In the f i r s t task, f a c i a l expressive behaviour from depressed and nondepressed subjects was e l i c i t e d by aversive, neutral and "pleasant" forms of stimulation presented within a t r i p a r t i t e d i f f e r e n t i a l c l a s s i c a l conditioning procedure. S u b j e c t s ' f a c i a l expressions during t h i s task were videotaped. During the second (judgemental) task, depressed and non-depressed subjects were shown the videotapes of other subjects undergoing the f i r s t task and.were required to i d e n t i f y , on the basis of - f a c i a l expression behaviour emitted by the subjects they were observing, which of three d i f f e r e n t phases of the conditioning procedure' the observed subject was undergoing. Three groups of subjects — depressed, p s y c h i a t r i c c o n t r o l and normal c o n t r o l — were employed. I t was predicted that, r e l a t i v e to nondepressed subjects, depressed subjects would be both d i f f i c u l t f o r others to judge accurately and inaccurate i n making judgements of others. A second aspect was concerned with the evaluation, of predictions from Beck's (1967) and Seligman's (1972, 1975) theories of depression. Beck's theory states that depression occurs among people who e x h i b i t a c o n s t e l l a t i o n of disorders of thought, characterized as abnormalities i n a primary t r i a d of cognitive schemata. The components of t h i s primary t r i a d include: (1) a negative construction of experience, (2) a negative self-concept, and (3) negative expectations with regard to the outcome of future events. I t would seem to follow from Beck's conceptualization that at l e a s t the second and t h i r d of the above components might be r e f l e c t e d i n a tendency for depressed subjects to be r e l a t i v e l y p e s s i m i s t i c i n com-4 parison with nondepressed subjects when required to estimate the adequacy of t h e i r performance on a given task. In the present study, subjects p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the second part of the experiment made judgements on the videotapes of other subjects p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the f i r s t part of the experi-ment on three separate t r i a l s . In order to evaluate Beck's formulation, subjects were required to estimate how well they would perform p r i o r to each of these occasions. On the basis of Beck's theory, i t was predicted that, r e l a t i v e to nondepressed subjects, depressed subjects would provide lower estimates when requested to a n t i c i p a t e t h e i r performance. Seligman's theory p o s i t s that depression occurs when the i n d i v i d u a l has acquired a cognitive set which i s characterized as "learned helplessness". The c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s set i s said to be the i n d i v i d u a l ' s " b e l i e f " or "expectation" that h i s behaviour and i t s outcome are independent of one another. I t would seem to follow from t h i s formulation that an i n d i v i d u a l who believes that h i s responding and i t s outcome are independent events would be r e l a t i v e l y u n l i k e l y to change h i s estimations of h i s future performance i n the l i g h t of feedback regarding previous performance. The use of a methodology which required subjects to predict t h e i r perfor-mance immediately p r i o r to undergoing each of three separate t r i a l s on a task allowed for in v e s t i g a t i o n of the extent to which discrepancies between predictions of performance and act u a l performance were related.to the sub-sequent changes i n predictions of performance among depressed and non-depressed subjects. On the basis of Seligman's theory, i t was predicted that changes i n depressed subjects' estimates of t h e i r performance on subse-quent t r i a l s would be unrelated to discrepancies between estimates of per-formance and actual performance on p r i o r t r i a l s . 5 A f i n a l aspect of the present study dealt with the question of differences between depressed and nondepressed subjects i n autonomic a c t i v i t y . C l i n i c a l descriptions of depressed patients and c e r t a i n theore-t i c a l p ositions characterize depression as a state of decreased "arousal" and decreased responsivity to stimulation (cf. Lazarus, 1968, 1972). The r e s u l t s of empirical studies i n t h i s regard have been contradictory and inconclusive (e.g., Ban, Choi, Lehman and Adamo, 1966; Lewinsohn, Lobitz and Wilson, 1973). The use of c l a s s i c a l conditioning methodology :: i n the present study presented an opportunity to acquire data pertaining to these issues. Thus, measures of electrodermal and cardiovascular a c t i v i t y were taken from a l l subjects p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study. 6 Chapter II LITERATURE REVIEW Depression: Epidemiology and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n The authors of several basic reviews of the experimental, t h e o r e t i c a l and c l i n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on the topic of depression have been unanimous i n agreeing that s c i e n t i f i c s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n the area . i s remarkably poor both i n terms of an adequate quantity of w e l l - c o n t r o l l e d experimental data and i n terms of the development of a coherent approach to the organi-, zation of such data (cf. Beck, 1967; Grinker, M i l l e r , Sabshin , Nunn & Nunnaly, 1961; Lewinsohn, 1974a, b). Friedman (1964, p. 244) notes that " I t seems as i f the p s y c h i a t r i c profession has taken f o r granted that a l l that can be known about depression has already been discovered and thoroughly described. As a matter of f a c t , one finds ... that c l i n i c a l l y , r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e new has been added to the de s c r i p t i o n of depressions i n general since an t i q u i t y . Textbook descriptions of t h i s e n t i t y are stereotyped accounts which have been copied from book to book and repeated from generation to generation". This state of a f f a i r s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y disconcerting when one considers the ubiquity of the problem of depression. McLean and Ledwidge (1974) note that " r e a c t i v e depression i s the primary diagnosis of 19% of Canadian and 25% of American p s y c h i a t r i c f a c i l i t y i n p a t i e n t s . " In surveys of the general population, Mayer-Gross, S l a t e r and Roth (1960) found that approximately 3 out of every 1000 people could be characterized as being depressed to a severe enough degree to require treatment. Roth (1959) suggested that the incidence of depression may be as high as 4% i n men and 8% i n women. Canadian s t a t i s t i c s for the year 1970 reveal that 40.46% 7 of a l l p s y c h i a t r i c h o s p i t a l inpatients f a l l within one of the International C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Diseases' categories of depression (McLean & Ledwidge, 1973). Various other epidemiological researches a t t e s t to the wide-ranging presence of depression (cf. Silverman, 1968) and further r e i n f o r c e the b e l i e f that the present state of disarray with respect to the scien-t i f i c understanding of the o r i g i n s and treatment of depression i s a major shortcoming of contemporary research i n psychopathology. One possible source of t h i s confused and confusing state of a f f a i r s stems from the lack of an adequate d e f i n i t i o n of depression. Lewinsohn (1974a, p. 63 ) notes that The term "depression" ... i s sometimes used to r e f e r to a normal mood state, an abnormal mood state, a symptom, a symptom syndrome, as well as to a disease process and possibly to a ser i e s of disease processes. The American P s y c h i a t r i c Association's Diagnostic and S t a t i s t i c a l Manual  of Mental Disorders - Second E d i t i o n (American P s y c h i a t r i c Association, 1968) l i s t s at l e a s t 7 major disorders characterized as depressive i n nature (e.g., Psychotic Depressive Reaction, Manic-Depressive I l l n e s s ) , and at l e a s t 6 other disorders which presumably have depressive elements (e.g., Adjustment Reaction of Adult L i f e , Asthenic Personality) yet nowhere i s i t s p e c i f i e d what the exact c r i t e r i a are for describing a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l as depressed. Although such a lack of d e f i n i t i o n a l guidelines may be considered t r i v i a l by some, i t i s probable that t h i s shortcoming i s res-ponsible for the r e l a t i v e l y low r e l i a b i l i t y of i n t e r - p s y c h i a t r i s t agree-ment on the diagnosis of depression (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock & Erbaugh, 1962). (This, however, i s not an uncommon c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of p s y c h i a t r i c d e s c r i p t i v e systems (Ullmann & Krasner, 1968) and other general psychological 8 taxonomies (Mischel, 1968)). In attempting to come to some s o r t of d e f i n i t i o n of what i s meant by the term, the question a r i s e s as to whether we should speak of "depres-sion" or "depressions". The h i s t o r y of speculation about depression i s highlighted by issues and controversies regarding the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and d i s t i n c t i o n of various "types" of depression (Beck, 1967; Becker, 1974). Thus attempts have been made to formalize the difference between g r i e f and melancholia (Freud, 1917), endogenous and reactive depression (cf. Becker, 1974), psychotic and neurotic depression (cf. Beck, 1967), i n addition to the various forms of depression outlined i n the current'Jhy-used p s y c h i a t r i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n manual (American P s y c h i a t r i c Association, 1968). These numerous d i s t i n c t i o n s , however, are more concerned with an i m p l i c i t or e x p l i c i t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of presumed e t i o l o g i e s than with a simple descrip-t i o n of observable phenomena which lead to the inference of "depression". McKinney and Bunney (1969), following from Lehman (1959), d i s t i n g u i s h be-tween the primary and secondary "symptoms" of depression, the former con-sidered to be invariant i n a l l depressions, while the presence of the l a t t e r tends to be more v a r i a b l e . The primary symptoms r e f e r to the presence of a "despairing emotional state", and "the depressive mood". Secondary symptoms r e f e r to "such things as s o c i a l withdrawal, psychomotor retardation, anorexia, weight los s and sleep disturbances" (McKinney and Bunney, 1969, p. 240). The d i f f i c u l t i e s involved i n t h i s ambiguous d i s t i n c t i o n can be i l l u s t r a t e d by considering the attempt to formulate research analogues of depression based on behavioural phenomena observed i n animals subjected to p a r t i c u l a r experimental manipulations (McKinney and Bunney, 1969; Seligman, 1972, 197 4;Suomi. and Harlow, 1972). McKinney and Bunney c i t e as one of the 9. main factors l i m i t i n g the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of such models the f a c t that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to assess the primary emotional state i n animals. As Skinner (1963) has pointed out, however, i t i s no easier to o b j e c t i v e l y assess the "primary emotional state" i n humans. The l a b e l i n g process which r e s u l t s i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of the diagnosis of depression to an i n d i v i d u a l represents a s e r i e s of inferences drawn from the observation of overt behaviours such as v e r b a l i z a t i o n of g u i l t , dysphoria, fatigue, presence of a "sad" f a c i a l expression (depressive facies) (Beck, 1967) , c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of voice q u a l i t y (Hargreaves, Starkweather & Blacker, 1965), decreased verbal p r o d u c t i v i t y (Aronson & Weintraub, 1967; H i n c h l i f f e , Lancashire & Roberts-197Ja) decreased general a c t i v i t y l e v e l (Williams, Barlow & Agras, 1972), and various nonverbal cues such as stooped posture and slow g a i t (Waxer, 1974). Other•diagnostic factors include s i t u a t i o n a l and h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o rs such' as recent loss or separation or, the occurrence of an unusually large number of recent l i f e - s t r e s s e s (Paykel, Myers, Dienelt, Klerman, Lindenthal & Pepper, 1969). Furthermore, Wittenborn (1965) emphasizes that the diagnosis of depression also involves the exclusion of behaviours such as b i z a r r e v e r b a l i z a t i o n s and apparent delusions and h a l l u c i n a t i o n s thought to t y p i f y persons l a b e l l e d as schizophrenic. Yet other authors allow that such things as somatic delusions, and h a l l u c i n a t i o n s characterize the phenomenon termed "psychotic depression". Beck (1967) notes that i n c e r t a i n instances, patients presenting with a v a r i e t y of somatic complaints but none of the other " c l a s s i c a l " signs of depression may a c t u a l l y be s u f f e r i n g from a "masked" form of depression. Thus, i t i s apparent that a wide range of phenomena have been subsumed under the s i n g l e l i n g u i s t i c l a b e l "depression". I t must be pointed out 10 however, that many of the t r a d i t i o n a l l y noted signs of depression are not in v a r i a n t across a l l people so described. This point can be i l l u s t r a t e d by considering the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c l i n i c a l ratings of the severity of depression and many of the somatic changes taken to be signs confirming the diagnosis of depression. Beck (1967) emphasizes that the presence of these signs i s highly v a r i a b l e , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e i r low i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s with each other, and t h e i r low (,27-.31) c o r r e l a t i o n with ratings of the sev e r i t y of depression. The issue of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s c e n t r a l to, and has occupied the attention of most authors of t r e a t i s e s on the topic of depression. So pervasive has been the tendency to dichotomize and c l a s s i f y various types and l e v e l s of depression that Stengel (1964) i n a review of such c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n schemes, reported having found 38. The assumption underlying the various approaches to c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s that differences i n patterns of depressive phenomena r e f l e c t the operation of d i f f e r e n t e t i o l o g i c a l processes. Thus., the formulation of a taxonomic scheme represents an early stage of theory-building. Of the many d i s t i n c t i o n s t y p i c a l l y made, the two most frequently made are between endogenous and exogenous (or reactive) depression and between psychotic and neurotic depression. The endogenous-reactive d i s t i n c t i o n i s based on the observation that among p s y c h i a t r i c patients whose problems seem of a depressive nature, two extreme groups can be roughly discriminated: a group whose depressive pattern seems c l e a r l y to be a reaction to a recent los s or l i f e - s t r e s s , and a group for whom no apparent p r e c i p i t a t i n g factor can be i d e n t i f i e d and for whom depressive behaviour seems to have pe r s i s t e d over a r e l a t i v e l y 11 long period of time. Because l i f e circumstances appear to be so intimately l i n k e d up with the r e a c t i v e depressive pattern, i t s causation has commonly been ascribed to environmental or intrapsychic f a c t o r s . The endogenous pattern, due to i t s apparent independence from environmental circumstances, has been a t t r i b u t e d more often than not to genetic and biochemical i n -fluences (although intrapsychic processes, at times, have been grouped i n t h i s c l a s s ) . I t i s highly possible, however, that the l a t t e r could be a case of causal inference by default, since there i s no obvious reason why in t h i s case a genetic-biochemical explanation should be e i t h e r more parsimonious or more v a l i d per se than a psychological explanation. Further-more, controversy s t i l l centres around the v a l i d i t y of the endogenous-reactive d i s t i n c t i o n . For example, Stenbach (1965) i n a retrospective analysis of 86 patients diagnosed as depressed, concluded that i n a l l cases at l e a s t one disturbing event could be r e l a t e d to the onset of the depres-sive episode. The format of t h i s study, however, could not be considered s c i e n t i f i c a l l y acceptable. This issue becomes incr e a s i n g l y complex when considering the possible e t i o l o g i c a l r o l e of p r e c i p i t a t i n g events. Mendels notes that "... the fa c t that a patient reports an association between a s t r e s s f u l l i f e experience and the onset of an i l l n e s s .. . does not ... constitute proof that the reported stress caused the i l l n e s s . " (Mendels, 1971, p. 28). A v a r i e t y of explanations of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r e s s f u l events and the onset of depressions i s a v a i l a b l e : (1) the s t r e s s -f u l event may temporally coincide with, but be causally unrelated to the onset of depression, (2) the s t r e s s f u l event may be an e f f e c t of the depression, rather than vice versa, (3) the l i f e stress may i n t e r a c t with an underlying p r e d i s p o s i t i o n a l f a c t o r , (4) the s t r e s s f u l event may have been 12 a c r i t i c a l e l i c i t i n g f a c t o r . While factor a n a l y t i c studies of depression have derived factors r e f l e c t i n g the endogenous-reactive pat-terns, these factors-are t y p i c a l l y b i p o l a r , with the /terms e n d o g e n oau s and r e a c t i v e describing t h e opposite poles (Carney, Roth & Garside, 1965; Ki l o h & Garside, 1963). While the authors argue from these findings that endo-genous and reactive depression are independent c l i n i c a l e n t i t i e s , the fact that the endogenous and reactive patterns represented the extreme points along a s i n g l e b i p o l a r factor supports a unidimensional continuum i n t e r -p r etation. Controversy regarding the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these findings s t i l l rages (Becker, 1974). Beck (1967) i n summarizing the endogenous-reactive debates concluded that while some differences i n symptomatology between the two groups are apparent, l i t t l e evidence, whether p h y s i o l o g i c a l , psychological or genetic supports the proposition that endogenous depression r e s u l t s from some sort of biochemical disturbance, while reactive depression i s somehow environ-mentally determined. The neurotic-psychotic d i s t i n c t i o n i s another dichotomy about which there i s considerable disagreement. The d i s t i n c t i o n was formulated i n order to d i s t i n g u i s h those depressions which evidence "gross misinterpreta-ti o n of r e a l i t y ... delusions and h a l l u c i n a t i o n s " (Beck, 1967, p. 82) from those which seem l e s s b i z a r r e . As with the endogenous-reactive d i s t i n c t i o n , the psychotic-neurotic d i s t i n c t i o n i s taken to represent a p a i r of indepen-dent "types" of depression; however, even l e s s research i s a v a i l a b l e here to support the v a l i d i t y of the d i s t i n c t i o n . What evidence there i s would seem to support the view that the neurotic-psychotic d i s t i n c t i o n p r i m a r i l y 13 r e f l e c t s a dimension of s e v e r i t y of depression. In addition to the endogenous-reactive, and the psychotic-neurotic d i s t i n c t i o n s , a wide v a r i e t y of other terminologies has been used to further subdivide depressive phenomena. Yet i t i s apparent that methodo-l o g i c a l , conceptual and empirical inconsistencies have f r u s t r a t e d most attempts to bring order to the area. Possibly because of t h i s , the c l i n i c a l use of these terminologies r e f l e c t s t h i s inconsistency. The terms endo-genous and psychotic, and reactive and neurotic are t y p i c a l l y used i n t e r -changeably i n the c l i n i c a l s e t t i n g . Further, Mendels (1971) reported that the term endogenous can also be substituted for the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of manic-depressive psychosis. With such a degree of confusion both i n the l i t e r a -ture and i n c l i n i c a l p r a c t i c e , i t i s l i t t l e wonder that theories of depres-sion based on such nosologies have r a r e l y been subjected to c r i t i c a l t e s t s . Theories of depression The p r o l i f e r a t i o n of t h e o r e t i c a l explanations of depressive phenomena has been so widespread that the present discussion cannot hope to provide a representative sampling of them. For t h i s reason, the present discussion w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d to those p o s i t i o n s which can be deemed to have had a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the professional community. Biophysical theories. Probably the oldest t r a d i t i o n with respect to the provision of explanatory models f o r depression has been to ascribe the o r i g i n s of depressive behaviour to genetic or biochemical influences. Although the humoural theories of the Greeks can be seen to have relevance here, i t was probably Kraepelin (1913) who provided the greatest impetus for the hypothesis that depressive phenomena, p a r t i c u l a r l y the pattern he 14 termed "manic-depressive p s y c h o s i s " , d e r i v e from aberrant physiology. Kallman (1952) presented impressive evidence to the e f f e c t that manic-depressive psychosis i s the r e s u l t of a h e r e d i t a r y p r e d i s p o s i t i o n . U t i l i z i n g the technique of studying p a i r s of p a t i e n t s v a r y i n g i n t h e i r h e r e d i t a r y s i m i l a r i t y to one another, he found a 100% concordance r a t e f o r manic-depressive psychosis among i d e n t i c a l twins. H i s s t u d i e s , however, were subject to',? a number of methodological d i f f i c u l t i e s , i n c l u d i n g prob-lems of d i a g n o s i s , sampling b i a s and determination of z y g o s i t y . L a t e r s t u d i e s attempting to c o r r e c t f o r these d i f f i c u l t i e s reported decidedly more humble f i g u r e s (Beck, 1967). Most recent research on genetic t r a n s -mission of a f f e c t i v e d i s o r d e r s has been concerned w i t h e s t a b l i s h i n g mor-b i d i t y r a t e percentages among r e l a t i v e s of probands diagnosed as s u f f e r i n g from i l l n e s s e s of psyc h o t i c p r o p o r t i o n s . Much of t h i s research i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a h y p o t h e t i c a l genetic c o n t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n r e s t r i c t e d d i a g n o s t i c groups ( P e r r i s , 1973). Most of the more recent p h y s i o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s of depression d e r i v e from observation of the apparent e f f e c t s on depressed i n d i v i d u a l s of p h y s i c a l and pharmacological t h e r a p i e s . K r a i n e s ' (1965) theory l a y s parr-t i c u l a r emphasis on pathophysiology of the hypothalamus as the c e n t r a l e t i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e i n depression. Beck (1967) c r i t i c i s e s t h i s theory on the grounds that the evidence on which i t i s based i s fragmentary, questionable and i n c o n s i s t e n t . A more i n f l u e n t i a l p o s i t i o n i n recent years has been t h a t of S c h i l d k r a u t (1965) and h i s c o l l e a g u e s , and has come to be known as the catecholamine hypothesis. B r i e f l y , the substance of t h i s p o s i t i o n has derived from the apparent e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the monamine oxidase i n h i b i t o r s and t r i c y c l i c antidepressants i n the treatment of depression. The argument 15 runs somewhat as follows: since these substances (monoamine oxidase i n h i b i t o r s and t r i c y c l i c s ) seem e f f e c t i v e i n the treatment of depression, and since t h e i r e f f e c t s seem to involve the provision of an increase i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y of norepinephrine at receptor s i t e s i n the brai n , depression might be due to a r e l a t i v e d e f i c i t i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y of norepinephrine at those receptor s i t e s . In addition to the c r i t i c i s m that few, i f any, te s t s of the catecholamine hypothesis have come from the study of depressed humans, i t can also be objected that the l o g i c of t h i s argument runs up against the c o r r e l a t i o n - c a u s a l i t y issue and would hold only i n a system i n which possible a l t e r n a t i v e modes of c a u s a l i t y are extremely r e s t r i c t e d . A c r i t i c a l test of t h i s hypothesis would involve experimentally producing a decrease i n brain norepinephrine at the appropriate s i t e s and observing whether depressive behaviour resulted. Even so, t h i s would not preclude the p o s s i b i l i t y that such a norepinephrine depletion could be the r e s u l t of behavioural processes. Empirical evidence has increasingly supported the proposition that environmental events have numerous e f f e c t s upon physi-o l o g i c a l structure and function (Airman, Wallace, Anderson and Das, 1968; Greenough, 1975; M i l l e r , 1972). A further area of b i o l o g i c a l research into depression which has provoked some e t i o l o g i c a l hypotheses has been concerned with sodium and potassium e l e c t r o l y t e balance i n depression. Interest i n the r o l e of these substances derives from the importance of e l e c t r o l y t e d i s t r i b u t i o n and movement between axons and e x t r a c e l l u l a r f l u i d i n theirmaintenance of neuronal r e s t i n g p o t e n t i a l and the propagation of action p o t e n t i a l s . While a con-siderable quantity of research has been conducted along these l i n e s , the area i s fraught with methodological d i f f i c u l t i e s and inconsistent findings. 16 In general, the only consistent f i n d i n g seems to be that of sodium retention among depressed pa t i e n t s , diminishing with recovery from depression. With regard to changes i n potassium metabolism, no consistent patterns have been found (Baer, 1973). A recent attempt to integrate p h y s i o l o g i c a l theories of depression with psychodynamic, object-loss and reinforcement models appears i n Akiskal and McKinney (1975). Intrapsychic and cognitive theories of depression. This section deals with those explanatory models of depression i n which the causal process i s l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t e d to the operation of hypothetical (and often complex) mental apparatuses. The c l a s s i c a l psychoanalytic p o s i t i o n on depression o r i g i n a t e d i n the writings of Abraham (1911, 1916) and was l a t e r elaborated by Freud (1917). According to Abraham, the "melancholic" i s characterised by a hereditary p r e d i s p o s i t i o n toward o r a l e r o t i c i s m such that h i s psychosexual development f a i l s to progress beyond the o r a l stage. The re-enactment of childhood f r u s t r a t i o n s in l a t e r l i f e produces a l i b i d i n a l regression to t h i s stage and concomitant melancholia. Freud contended that melancholia i s produced by a loss i n fact or fantasy that threatens the ego. As a r e s u l t of t h i s threat, the ego i n t r o j e c t s the l o s t object, and the person's h o s t i l i t y to-ward that object emerges i n the form of masochistic self-derogation. Unfortunately l i t t l e , i f any empirical data have been brought to bear on these hypotheses. A number of authors have proposed, and attempted to v e r i f y the hypothesis that depression i s produced by achievement-related a t t i t u d e s 17 inculcated i n the depressed person during childhood by h i s or her parents. Cohen, Baker, Cohen, Fromm-Reichmann, and Weigert (1954) argued that de-pressed patients were raised i n f a m i l i e s that had been singled out as "different' 1 by the community. Within t h i s context, the parents attempt to achieve higher status by pressuring One person to achieve. The person singled out i n t h i s manner thus acquires a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to depression i n l a t e r l i f e . Becker (1960) reformulated t h i s hypothesis ; emphasizing that the c h i l d l a t e r to become a depressive, reacts to parental pressure to con-form and achieve by adopting the values of h i s parents and other a u t h o r i t i e s as a means of p l a c a t i n g them. In comparing a group of manic-depressive patients with a group of normal controls, equated on age, education and reading a b i l i t y , he found the manic-depressive subjects to score higher on scales purporting to measure the extent to which achievement i s invested with p o s i t i v e value (value achievement), authoritarianism, and conventional at t i t u d e s . Curiously, no differences were found on a scale of need for achievement. Katkin, Sasmor, and Tan (1966) contrasted conformity and achievement-related c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of depressed and paranoid schizophrenic subjects. In an Asch-paradigm test of conformity, depressed subjects showed a greater tendency to conform. However, i n contrast with Becker's (1960) findings, no differences were observed between the groups on a number of questionnaire measures of achievement o r i e n t a t i o n . The inconsistency be-tween these studies with respect to achievement o r i e n t a t i o n may r e f l e c t differences i n the control groups u t i l i z e d , and suggest that differences i n achievement o r i e n t a t i o n may beimore a function of p s y c h i a t r i c status than being s p e c i f i c to depressed patients. Beck (1967) proposed an e n t i r e l y cognitive theory of depression, 18 according to which depression i s the r e s u l t of the a c t i v a t i o n of a t r i a d of cognitive disturbances that predispose an i n d i v i d u a l to the various forms of a f f e c t , thought and behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of depression. The com-ponents of t h i s t r i a d include a tendency to construe experiences i n a negative manner, a negative view of the s e l f , and negative expectations regarding the future. This cognitive t r i a d r e s u l t s i n a tendency f o r the i n d i v i d u a l to misinterpret experience and thus produces the a f f e c t i v e , motivational, p h y s i c a l and behavioural disturbances of depression. According to Beck (1970), the operation of t h i s primary t r i a d can be ob-served i n a number of cognitive errors including those of a r b i t r a r y inference, overgeneralization, s e l e c t i v e abstracting, etc. A number of studies by Beck and h i s colleagues have provided support f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n . The basic paradigm employed i n these studies has involved exposing depressed and nondepressed subjects to success and f a i l u r e experiences while concurrently assessing various measures of per-formance, expectancy and mood. Loeb, Beck, Diggory, and T u t h i l l (1967) found that depressed subjects gave lower p r o b a b i l i t y of success estimates than did nondepressed subjects when asked to evaluate t h e i r likely future performance on a card-sorting task. Depressed subjects gave lower ratings of t h e i r actual performance than did nondepressed subjects, i n sp i t e of the fa c t that t h e i r actual performance did not d i f f e r . A l a t e r study by Loeb, Beck and Diggory (1971) found e s s e n t i a l l y the same r e s u l t s . These findings are consistent with the notion that depressives evidence negative expectations with regard to the outcome of future events, and a negative construction of experience. Although Beck's p o s i t i o n i s reasonably well-elaborated, i t s value 19 as an h e u r i s t i c model of the o r i g i n of depression i s questionable. I t neglects to explain on the basis of t h e o r e t i c a l or empirical considera-tions how cognitions become disordered, or how disordered cognitions can be assumed to exert t h e i r e f f e c t s on physiology, behavior, a f f e c t or motivation, and runs afoul of the l o g i c a l requirement that once one postulates an i n -t e r n a l mechanism as an explanatory device, one must them explain the opera-t i o n of the i n t e r n a l device (Skinner, 1953). Behavioural theories. Concurrent with the recent rapid development of techniques foi? the modification of psychopathological problems has been the willingness of c l i n i c i a n s and researchers to extend the general p r i n c i p l e s and conceptual o r i e n t a t i o n of behavioural psychology to phenomena which have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been the province of other schools of thought and to problems which seem, on an i n t u i t i v e l e v e l , to contraindicate a behavioural approach. Thus, Skinner (1957) i n i t i a t e d the extension of basic p r i n c i p l e s of operant behaviour to an analysis of language and thinking, Lindsley (1960) has studied h a l l u c i n a t i o n s within the context of free-operant responding, various aspects of schizophrenia have been subjected to intense behavioural analysis (Salzinger, 1973), and pain and pain-related behaviours have come within the purview of behavioural approaches (Craig & Coren, 1975; Fordyce, Fowler, Lehman, DeLateur, Sand and Trieschmann, 1973). In recent years, t h e o r i s t s working from a behavioural o r i e n t a t i o n have begun the attempt to account for the o r i g i n s and maintenance of the phenomena of depression. The o r i g i n s of a behavioural account of depression can be traced to Skinner's (1953) Science and human behaviour wherein he h i g h l i g h t e d a "weakening (or reduced p r o b a b i l i t y of occurrence) of most forms of behaviour" 20 (p. 165) as a c e n t r a l feature of depressions and speculated that such a state of a f f a i r s could r e s u l t from a los s of control over the s o c i a l en-vironment, or a preponderance of aversive co n t r o l exerted upon the i n d i v i -dual by the environment. Although Skinner's remarks were c l e a r l y specu-l a t i v e , h i s major contribution toward the theory of depression was i n pointing out the f e a s i b i l i t y of accounting f o r a presumably intrapsychic phenomenon within the context of a functional analysis of behaviour. Ferster (1965, 1966) provided the f i r s t elaboration of Skinnerian concepts as they r e l a t e to depression. According to t h i s perspective, the c e n t r a l feature of most depressions i s a reduced frequency of emission of p o s i t i v e l y reinforced behaviour. The depressed person i s assumed to be deriving r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e payoff for engaging i n any v a r i e t y of behaviours and, hence, these behaviours e i t h e r drop out of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s repertoire, or f a i l to develop over time. Coincident with the reduction i n p o s i t i v e l y reinforced behaviour i s an increased frequency of occurrence of a v e r s i v e l y motivated behaviour such as verbal complaints, c r y i n g , etc. These patterns of behaviour .^thought to be the major data c h a r a c t e r i z i n g a depressive reper-t o i r e ^ can be r e l a t e d to several v a r i a b l e s . Such variables include: (1) an increase i n the quantity of behaviour required to produce a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t upon the environment (schedule of reinforcement); (2) the presence of aversive and conditioned aversive s t i m u l i ; (3) sudden changes i n the environment such as the loss of a di s c r i m i n a t i v e stimulus/conditioned re-i n f o r c e r (as i n the death of a spouse or loved one); (4) a disproportionate maintenance of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e p e r t o i r e by negative rather than p o s i t i v e reinforcement; (5) punishment; (6) phy s i c a l organismic changes (such as those involved i n ageing) which prevent the i n d i v i d u a l from engaging i n previously 21 reinforced behaviour; and (7) a d e f i c i t i n the learning of behaviours required i n order to obtain p o s i t i v e reinforcement i n important l i f e -contexts., (Ferster, 1966). Whereas Ferster stressed the importance of a wide v a r i e t y of behavioural processes i n the etiology of depressive behaviours, Lazarus (1968, 1972) focused h i s attention p a r t i c u l a r l y upon a generalized loss of r e i n f o r c e r s . Lazarus (1968) r e s t r i c t e d his argument to cases i n which verbal and l i f e - h i s t o r y data suggest that the i n d i v i d u a l has undergone " s t r e s s f u l or other provoking emotional experiences" ( i . e . , the s o - c a l l e d " r e a c t i v e " depression as opposed to the "endogenous" pattern which Lazarus accepts as p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y determined). I t i s held that depression i s best conceived as a state of "emotional i n h i b i t i o n " r e s u l t i n g from the presence of inadequate or i n s u f f i c i e n t r e i n f o r c e r s . Covert i d e a t i o n a l phenomena such as the a n t i c i p a t i o n of a nonreinforcing state of a f f a i r s may have a s i m i l a r e f f e c t to that of the material loss of r e i n f o r c e r s . The state of behavioural deprivation which r e s u l t s from an acute or chronic nonreinforcing state of a f f a i r s i s assumed to produce a depressive behavioural pattern characterized as one of r e f r a c t o r i n e s s to a wide v a r i e t y of s t i m u l i . The operant processes which are assumed to r e s u l t i n t h i s state of r e f r a c t o r i n e s s are hypothesized to produce t h i s e f f e c t through an elevation of sensory thresholds (Lazarus, 1972). While Lazarus' speculations regarding elevated sensory thresholds and behavioural r e f r a c t o r i n e s s to stimulation have some i n t u i t i v e appeal, empirical data relevant to h i s p o s i t i o n are meagre and contradictory. Research on psychophysiological r e a c t i v i t y i n depression, which might be taken as an index of the depressive's responsiveness to stimulation, has 22 resulted i n inconsistent findings (Ban, Choi, Lehman, and Adamo, 1966; Protopopov, 1948(reviewed i n Astrup, 1962); Lewinsohn, Lobitz and Wilson, 1973). (This research w i l l be reviewed i n greater d e t a i l i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n ) . Further data from d i f f e r e n t kinds of research are also incon-s i s t e n t with the hypothesis that the depressed person i s characterized by having elevated sensory thresholds. I f t h i s were the case, i t would seem reasonable to assume that such a change i n sensory functioning would be expressed i n impaired performance on c e r t a i n c o g n i t i v e - i n t e l l e c t u a l and concept formation tasks. Yet Friedman (1964) found that patients rated as being severely depressed showed l i t t l e or no impairment on a v a r i e t y of psychological t e s t s . Nutter, Cruise, Spreng, Weckowicz and Yonge (1973) found no differences i n performance between patients rated as highly and s l i g h t l y depressed on the basis ;of the Beck Depression Inventory and a group of nondepressed normal control subjects on a concept formation task. A recent paper by M i l l e r (1975) has taken issue with these and s i m i l a r findings and has argued that a v a r i e t y of "psychological d e f i c i t s " have been observed i n empirical research with depressed subjects. I t i s not c l e a r , however, how most of the d e f i c i t studies reviewed by M i l l e r r e l a t e to Lazarus' proposals. Thus, i t must be concluded that support for Lazarus' hypothesis r e l a t i v e to elevated sensory thresholds i n depression remains, at best, equivocal. Costello (1972a, 1972b) argued that while the processes empha-sized by Ferster (1965, 1966) and Lazarus (1968, 1972) may produce depres-sive behaviour, these conditions can be r e l a t e d to a s i n g l e , unitary pro-cess; a decrement i n the effectiveness or r e i n f o r c e r s brought about through endogenous p h y s i o l o g i c a l factors (e.g., a decrease i n brain norepinephrine) 23 or the disruption of a chain of behaviours. Pointing to evidence from factor a n a l y t i c studies regarding the large loading of "l o s s of i n t e r e s t " items on factors of depression, Costello argues that the conditions i d e n t i f i e d by Ferster and Lazarus have i n s u f f i c i e n t h e u r i s t i c power to explain the reported los s of i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v i t i e s that have no c l e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the s p e c i f i c e t i o l o g i c a l factor under consideration. Thus, so the argument goes, "even i n the case where a (depressed) person's be-haviour was narrowly under the control of the person who i s now dead, and where none of the learned instrumental behaviours are being e l i c i t e d , there i s no obvious reason why, for instance, the grieved person should have no appetite for food when i t i s f r e e l y presented" (Costello, 1972a, p. 242). One mechanism through which t h i s l o s s i n r e i n f o r c e r effectiveness may come about involves a decrease i n the "at t r a c t i v e n e s s " of a r e i n f o r c e r as a r e s u l t of the removal of an antecedent CS or S^. The absence of a w e l l -established from a behavioural chain reduces the reinforcement e f f e c t i v e -ness of a l l components of that chain. In t h i s way, a v a r i e t y of performances which may be components of an extended chain of behaviours, but which may not appear to have any obvious r e l a t i o n s h i p to the s p e c i f i c l o s s suffered by the depressed i n d i v i d u a l , may be weakened. In spite of the f a i r l y elaborate t h e o r e t i c a l background Costello used i n formulating h i s p o s i t i o n , c e r t a i n aspects of h i s argument are not c l e a r . The f i r s t question r e l a t e s to whether or not the hypothesis that r e i n f o r c e r s lose t h e i r effectiveness f o r the depressed person i s s p e c i f i c to those events and s t i m u l i which have been major r e i n f o r c e r s for the depressed i n d i v i d u a l i n the past. In other words, i s t h i s change a decrease i n the effectiveness of r e i n f o r c e r s per se, or i s i t simply a weakening i n 24 the c o n t r o l of the person's behaviour by s t i m u l i which i n the past have been s a l i e n t reinforcers? There are some empirical data which bear upon t h i s question. The studies reported by Loeb, Beck and t h e i r colleagues (Loeb, Beck, Feshbach and Wolf, 1964; Loeb, Beck, Diggory, and T u t h i l l , 1967; Loeb, Beck, and Diggory, 1971), discussed e a r l i e r i n r e l a t i o n to Beck's theory, are of relevance here. These studies contrasted the e f f e c t s of a r t i f i c i a l l y c o n t r o l l e d success and f a i l u r e experiences on depressed and nondepressed subjects. Across a l l three studies, i t was found that apparently successful performance produced higher s e l f - r a t i n g s of optimism and l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n , and greater increments i n actual performance among depressed subjects than among nondepressed subjects. These findings suggest that, contrary to Costello's proposal, depressed i n d i v i d u a l s are more powerfully a f f e c t e d by p o s i t i v e reinforcement than are nondepressed subjects. One must be cautious about over-interpreting these fin d i n g s , ' however, since the contrast groups i n these studies were a l l drawn from p s y c h i a t r i c populations, and i t may have been that these groups were simply l e s s a f f e c t e d by p o s i t i v e reinforcement than were the subjects i n the depressed groups. Seligman (1972, 1973; cf. also Wolpe, 1971) has recently pro-posed a highly i n f l u e n t i a l model f or the etiology of depression derived from the study of "learned helplessness" i n animals. In a series of aver-sive conditioning studies, various animal species (including man) have been Subjected to experimental procedures inv o l v i n g the presentation of un-c o n t r o l l a b l e aversive s t i m u l i (Maier, Seligman and Solomon, 1969; Seligman and Groves, 1970; Thornton and Jacobs, 1971), usually severe e l e c t r i c a l shock. The t y p i c a l behavioural e f f e c t s of t h i s type of treatment include: 25 \ diminished response i n i t i a t i o n , a diminished response r e p e r t o i r e , an i n a b i l i t y to le a r n adaptive responding when escape, avoidance or p o s i t i v e reinforcement become av a i l a b l e (Overmier and Seligman, 1967; Seligman and Maier, 1967) and a v i r t u a l absence of p a i n - e l i c i t e d aggression (Powell and Creer, 1969). Other e f f e c t s include: anorexia and concomitant weight loss, whole brain norepinephrine depletion and an increased frequency of ulcer formation ( M i l l e r and Weiss, 1969; Weiss, 1968; Weiss, Stone and H a r r e l l , 1970). Animals which had been provided with a p r i o r h i s t o r y of mastery over aversive events, i n the form of avoidance t r a i n i n g , remained r e l a t i v e l y immune to the e f f e c t s of learned helplessness t r a i n i n g (Seligman and Maier, 1967; Maier, 1970). The diverse phenomena produced by learned helplessness t r a i n i n g are, at the same time, phenomena which are frequently noted to be associated with c l i n i c a l reactive depression, and th i s s i m i l a r i t y lends credence to the suggestions of Seligman (1972, 1973), Wolpe (1971) and others that s i m i l a r processes may be operating, notwith-standing t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m s of such "subject analogues" (Maher, 1966). In one of the e a r l i e s t papers o u t l i n i n g h i s p o s i t i o n on the re l a t i o n s h i p between learned helplessness and depression, Seligman (1972, p. 241) i n t e r j e c t e d a word of caution, noting that "most of the evidence for (the learned helplessness model of) depression i s l a r g e l y anecdotal and selected experimental tests i n man on the helplessness theory of de-pression are needed." Since that time, some research r e l a t i n g to the theory has become a v a i l a b l e . One such; l i n e of research has taken as i t s basis, the close conceptual s i m i l a r i t y between learned helplessness and Rotter's (1966) concept of locus of c o n t r o l . According to Rotter, i n -dividuals vary i n the extent to which they perceive reinforcement as being 26 under t h e i r own control ( i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l ) , or under the con t r o l of such factors as luck and circumstance (external locus of c o n t r o l ) . S i m i l a r l y , the "helpless" i n d i v i d u a l has learned that responding and reinforcement are independent of each other. Thus, i f learned h e l p l e s s -ness and external c o n t r o l are em p i r i c a l l y s i m i l a r , and the learned help-lessness model of depression i s v a l i d , depressed i n d i v i d u a l s should tend to score toward the external end of the i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l dimension. A.number of studies have attempted an empirical test of t h i s hypothesis by i n v e s t i g a t i n g the c o r r e l a t i o n between locus of con t r o l scores and scores on various indices of depression. M i l l e r (1971) re-ported a rank order c o r r e l a t i o n of .24 (p_^<.001) between the Beck Dep-ression Inventory and Rotter's (1966) Internal-External scale, i n a group of 201 undergraduates. Abramowitz (1969) reported a Spearman's rho of s i m i l a r magnitude (p = .28, _p_ < .05) between external locus of control and depression as measured by the G u i l f o r d D (depression) scale. Calhoun, Chaney and Dawes (1975) investigated the c o r r e l a t i o n between Rotter's Internal-External scale and Zung's (1965) Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Lubin's (1965) Depression Adjective C h e c k l i s t , analysed separately for sex. Respondents were 81 undergraduates. Results revealed s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between external locus of con t r o l and depression (as mea-sured by the Zung scale) for both sexes (r = .58 for males, .38 for females), but only one s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between locus of c o n t r o l and depression as measured by the Lubin scale (.50 for males, .09 for females) . Although s i g n i f i c a n t , the magnitude of these c o r r e l a t i o n s leave much to be desired, and must be considered to give rather weak support to 27 the learned helplessness model of depression. One source of t h i s weak re l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and depression could r e l a t e to the p o s s i b i l i t y that whereas the depressed i n d i v i d u a l may on the whole per-ceive an independence between what one does and i t s e f f e c t on the environ-ment, there i s also that component of the phenomenology of depression termed " g u i l t " which implies that the depressed i n d i v i d u a l perceives that at some time i n h i s l i f e , h i s behaviour has had adverse consequences, probably for some member of the s o c i a l environment. Thus, while behaviour and i t s p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s may seem independent, the i n d i v i d u a l may be overly s e n s i t i z e d to the adverse e f f e c t s of h i s actions. To the extent that t h i s i s an accurate c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , the notion that the depressed person has acquired a form of helplessness may be lacking i n s p e c i f i c i t y . A further p o t e n t i a l source of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s found i n these studies r e l a t e s to the wording of items on the various locus of c o n t r o l scales. The content of items scored i n the "external" d i r e c t i o n tends to be nega-. tively-toned and s o c i a l l y undesirable. I t would seem l i k e l y , therefore that depressed subjects would be r e l a t i v e l y more l i k e l y to endorse "external" items than would nondepressed subjects. In a more d i r e c t test of the learned helplessness model of depression, M i l l e r and Seligman (1973) examined a se r i e s of predictions from the theory among four groups of college students d i f f e r e n t i a t e d into depressed and nondepressed groups according to t h e i r Beck Depression In-ventory scores and i n t e r n a l and external locus of control groups according to t h e i r Rotter Internal-External scale scores. A l l subjects were exposed to two s e r i e s of tasks. In the f i r s t (or chance) task, subjects were seated i n front of a p r o j e c t i o n screen and asked to predict whether the 28 s l i d e they were about to see would have an "X" or an "0" marked on i t . The experimenter s u r r e p t i t i o u s l y c o n t r o l l e d which of the s l i d e s would a c t u a l l y be presented, thus c o n t r o l l i n g the subject's performance on the task. In the' second (or s k i l l ) task, subjects were required to operate an apparatus c o n s i s t i n g of a t i l t e d wooden platform connected, through a pulley, to a s t r i n g . Balanced on the platform was a s t e e l bearing which was a c t u a l l y held i n place on the platform by a concealed electromagnet, thus allowing the experimenter to c o n t r o l whether or not the bearing would f a l l o f f the platform. Subjects' task was :to r a i s e the platform, by p u l l i n g the s t r i n g , to a predetermined l e v e l without l e t t i n g the bearing f a l l . Ten t r i a l s on each task were given. P r i o r to each t r i a l on both tasks, subjects were required to estimate on a 0-10 scale the p r o b a b i l i t y that they would be successful i n achieving the experimental goal. In order to c o n t r o l for the e f f e c t s of reinforcement the same 50% monetary reinforcement schedule was used on both tasks. A series of predictions from the learned helplessness model were tested. The following r e s u l t s were interpreted as being consistent with the model. Three measures of expectancy change revealed that nondepressed subjects showed greater expectancy changes than did depressed subjects on the s k i l l task. Nondepressed subjects showed more change i n expectancies for success on the s k i l l task than on the chance task, whereas depressed subjects did not. In the s k i l l task, expectancy changes were s i g n i f i c a n t l y and negatively correlated with Beck Depression Inventory scores, while i n the chance task they were not. Thus, the learned helplessness model of depression received considerable support. At l e a s t two weaknesses which r e s t r i c t the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of t h i s study are apparent. The f i r s t i s 29 the f a i l u r e to include a p s y c h i a t r i c c o n t r o l group against which to evaluate whether or not the differences obtained were s p e c i f i c to depressed i n d i v i d u a l s or whether they were more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to p s y c h i a t r i c status i n general. The second drawback r e l a t e s to the f a c t that the range of depression scores obtained from subjects i n the study (-0*-21) was r e l a -t i v e l y small compared to the t o t a l p ossible range of scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (0-63). Thus, the amount of information gathered on the magnitude of e f f e c t s as a function of s e v e r i t y of depression i s r e s t r i c t e d . Lewinsohn and h i s colleagues at the U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon have engaged i n what i s c e r t a i n l y the most p r o l i f i c attempt to account for depression within a s o c i a l learning context. Drawing from the e a r l i e r t h e o r e t i c a l accounts of Ferster (1965, 1966) and the more recent proposals of Seligman (1972, 1973), Lewinsohn (1974a) suggests that the numerous behavioural patterns which h i g h l i g h t the depressive c o n s t e l l a t i o n are f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d to a low rate of response-contingent, p o s i t i v e re-inforcement. ' The suggestion i s that the p a r t i c u l a r reinforcement regimen that the i n d i v i d u a l i s experiencing serves a s ' a n e l i c i t i n g stimulus for various respondents which in turn have operant consequences by s e t t i n g the occasion for -depressive behaviours" (Lewinsohn, Weinstein and Shaw, 1969, p. 232). In addition to being e l i c i t e d by s i t u a t i o n a l events, depressive behaviours are often strengthened as a r e s u l t of s o c i a l reinforcement i n the form of sympathy, concern and other more subtle pay-o f f s . At the same time, the depressed person himself becomes an aversive stimulus to others, prompting avoidance on t h e i r part, thus further i n -creasing h i s i s o l a t i o n and reducing the reinforcement a v a i l a b l e to him. A 30 non-reinforcing environment can occur through a number of processes such as a s p e c i f i c loss through the death of a s i g n i f i c a n t other or accumula-t i n g misfortunes. Lewinsohn further suggests that another highly important antecedent of a low rate of p o s i t i v e reinforcement i s a lack of s o c i a l s k i l l on the part of the depressed person. Lewinsohn's t h e o r e t i c a l system i s represented schematically i n Figure 1. I t i s apparent that, while s o c i a l learning t h e o r i s t s have only recently begun to be concerned with developing a formulation of depression, there has been no dearth of speculation since the beginnings of t h i s attempt. To what extent these formulations can be supported on empirical grounds i s , of course, a major concern. Some data which bear on a selected aspect of the pos i t i o n s of Lazarus (1968, 1972) and Seligman.(1972, 1973) have already been reviewed (cf. pp. 22 & 26). Yet, for the most part, support for behavioural theories of depression has been forthcoming on purely l o g i c a l , rather than empirical grounds. I f the depressed person i s best characterized by a given behavioural c o n s t e l l a t i o n (e.g., a low rate of emission of behaviour), then : i t would s e e m to follow t h a t the v a r i a b .1 e s ;- i d e n t i f i e d by Ferster, Lewinsohn a r i d others a r e c r i t i c a l b e c a u s e of the fact that b a s i c research d e a l i n g ' with s i m i l a r r e s p o n s e classes h a s shown t h e m t o b e i m p o r t a n t i n ' a 1 a b o r a -t o r y s e t t i n g . P e r h a p s t h e m o s t- : " important of these r e l a t e s to the d e f i n i t i o n of behaviour and reinforcement. The key tenet of most of the behavioural approaches to depression i s that the depressed person i s characterized by a general reduction i n the amount of behaviour he or she engages i n . Yet even i f i t were pos s i b l e to measure POTENTIALLY REINFORCING EVENTS Quantitative aspects (a) how many Qu a l i t a t i v e aspects Type Function (b) i n t e n s i t y of g r a t i f i c a t i o n s o c i a l \ bo'dily \achievement consumatory i n t e l l e c t u a l j competitive stimulation seeking AVAILABILITY OF REINFORCEMENT IN THE ENVIRONMENT ' Separation Through Divorce, Death, e t c . Poverty S o c i a l I s o l a t i o n INSTRUMENTAL BEHAVIOR OF THE INDIVIDUAL S o c i a l Occupational Other S k i l l Academic "Depression" LOW RATE OF POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT Verbal Statement of: Somatic Symptoms: } Dysphoria S e l f -depreciation Rejection Guilt Material burden Fatigue Sleepless-ness Loss of Appetite Headaches S o c i a l Avoidance S o c i a l r e i n f o r c . F i g . 1. Schematic representations of Lewinsohn's model of the or i g i n s and maintenance of depressive behaviour (adapted from Lewinsohn, 1974a, p. 67). 32 the amount of behaviour engaged i n by a person both p r i o r to and during an episode of depression, i t could s t i l l be pointed out that any l i v i n g organism i s continuously engaging i n behaviour of some sor t . A second d i f f i c u l t y i n most behavioural theories of depression derives from the fac t that most such theories propose that depression o r i g i n a t e s from a reduction i n the amount of p o s i t i v e reinforcement impinging upon the i n -d i v i d u a l . The d i f f i c u l t i e s with t h i s proposal are both conceptual and p r a c t i c a l . In order to determine whether a given i n d i v i d u a l has experienced a decrement i n reinforcement, i t i s f i r s t necessary to i d e n t i f y what were previously the r e i n f o r c e r s f or h i s behaviour. Yet the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of r e i n f o r c e r s cannot be made independently of t h e i r e f f e c t s on behaviour (Skinner, 1938). In addition, applied behaviour analysts t y p i c a l l y note the subtlety of r e i n f o r c e r s and concomitant d i f f i c u l t y i n i d e n t i f y i n g them. One p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem has been to simply i d e n t i f y on an i n t u i t i v e basis a sample of events and s t i m u l i which may reasonably be thought to have r e i n f o r c i n g value, and assume that these items are a reasonably representative sample of a universe of r e i n f o r c e r s (Cautela and Kastenbaum, 1967; MacPhillamy and Lewinsohn, 1971). Even so, however, these samples may miss i d e n t i f y i n g important r e i n f o r c e r s on an i d i o -graphic basis. In the end, however, even granted that i t were possible to i d e n t i f y a l l r e i n f o r c e r s f or a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l , the p o s s i b i l i t y of observing the occurrence of a l l r e i n f o r c i n g events for that person at a l l times remains remote. Fortunately, however, enough evidence consistent with the be-havioural p o s i t i o n on depression i s a v a i l a b l e that the aforementioned issues do not loom large. The f i r s t such l i n e of evidence comes from 33 f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c studies of depressive symptomatology. Among the most powerful of factors obtained i n t h i s research are factors which load highly on items r e f l e c t i n g a decreased general a c t i v i t y l e v e l among de-pressed patients. Grinker et a l . (1961) reported among t h e i r a nalysis of a "Current Behaviours" c h e c k l i s t , a factor r e f l e c t i n g i s o l a t i o n , with-drawal and apathy, and a fa c t o r r e f l e c t i n g a general retardation of behaviour and gai t . A factor highly s i m i l a r to the apathy factor of Grinker et a l . was reported by Friedman, Cowitz, Cohen and Granick (1963) and loaded heavily on items r e f l e c t i n g retardation, apathy, l o s s of energy, withdrawal and i s o l a t i o n . Lorr, Sonn and Katz (1967) report the i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n of a s i m i l a r f a c t o r . Other studies have focussed on noncontent aspects of verbal behaviour. Aronson and Weintraub (1967) compared the verbal p r o d u c t i v i t y of depressed p s y c h i a t r i c patients with that of a group of normal army inductees and found that i n 10 minute speech samples, depressed patients produced s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s speech. Using the MMPI depression scale as an index of severity of depression i t was also found that as depression decreased, verbal p r o d u c t i v i t y approached normal, while as i t increased, p r o d u c t i v i t y diverged from that of normal subjects. H i n c h l i f f e , Lancashire and Roberts (1971a) and Truax (1971) report r e p l i c a t i o n s of these findings, the former using as subjects p s y c h i a t r i c patients with a primary diagnosis of depression, and the l a t t e r using schizophrenic patients varying i n depression. One s i g n i f i c a n t caution that must be pointed out i n the i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of these findings i s that none of these studies u t i l i z e d a p s y c h i a t r i c c o n t r o l group i n order to evaluate the extent to which verbal p r o d u c t i v i t y differences are s p e c i f i c to depressive status. Williams, 34 Barlow and Agras (1972) developed a behavioural observation scale f o r the rat i n g - o f severe depression. Items on the scale included such behaviours as t a l k i n g , taking a shower, smiling, etc. Correlations between ratings of depression from t h i s scale and from more t r a d i t i o n a l measures of depression such as Hamilton's (1960) Rating Scale for Depression, and Beck's Depression Inventory (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock and Erbaugh, 1962) were .71 and .67 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Analysis of ratings of depression as assessed by these measures and d i s t r i b u t e d over time revealed that as patients improved i n depressive status, the number of d i s c r e t e be-haviours engaged i n , increased. I t was further noted that patients who were discharged while t h e i r behavioural ratings revealed a d e c l i n i n g trend i n the amount of behaviours engaged i n were more l i k e l y to be re-admitted to h o s p i t a l within a period of one year than were patients whose ratings revealed the opposite trend. The l a t t e r f i n d i n g , however, i s based on a small sample and cannot be regarded as anything more than suggestive. Lewinsohn and L i b e t (1972) and Lewinsohn and Graf .(1973) investigated the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the extent to which a person engages i n behaviour that i s rewarding and depression as assessed by Lubin's (1965) Depression Adjective Checklist. Since a major assumption of Lewin-sohn's approach to depression i s that a low rate of p o s i t i v e reinforcement i s a c r i t i c a l e l i c i t i n g condition for depression, i t was predicted that s e l f - r a t i n g s of depression would be negatively c o r r e l a t e d with the number of pleasant a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n . In the f i r s t study (Lewinsohn and L i b e t , 1972), 30 college students were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d into a depressed group, a p s y c h i a t r i c c o n t r o l group and a normal co n t r o l group according • to s t r i c t psychometric and c l i n i c a l c r i t e r i a (MMPI p r o f i l e s , scores on the 35 Grinker et aL (1961) Feelings and Concerns Checklist and ratings by i n t e r -viewers). A l l subjects were administered the Pleasant Events Schedule (MacPhillamy and Lewinsohn, 1971) which consists of 320 events and a c t i v i t i e s that the subject rates according to how pleasant these a c t i v i t i e s are and how often they are engaged i n . From the i n i t i a l t e s t i n g , an i n d i v i d u a l pleasant a c t i v i t i e s schedule was generated for each subject and consisted of the 160 items deemed by him or her to be the most pleasant of the en t i r e schedule. For the next 30 days, subjects rated the extent to which they engaged i n such pleasant a c t i v i t i e s and f i l l e d out the Lubin c h e c k l i s t . For the two dependent v a r i a b l e s , f i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s , computed over days, were performed. The f i r s t was a measure of the re l a t i o n s h i p between pleasant a c i t i v i t e s and mood on the same day (0 displacement). In order to obtain evidence regarding the d i r e c t i o n of c a u s a l i t y , the d a i l y ratings were d i s -placed one and two days i n eit h e r d i r e c t i o n so that i n one case the depres-sion scale score preceded the pleasant a c t i v i t i e s score, while i n the other case, the a c t i v i t i e s score preceded the depression score. In t h i s manner i t was found that same day ratings r e s u l t e d i n a r e l a t i v e l y strong mean c o r r e l a -t i o n between few pleasant a c t i v i t i e s and depressive mood (mean jr was i n the neighbourhood of -.40). The displaced c o r r e l a t i o n s did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i -cantly from one another, thus making i t impossible to i n f e r the d i r e c t i o n of c a u s a l i t y . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study, therefore, support one> of- t h e b a s i c tenets of behavioural theories of depression — that there i s an association between the extent to which a person engages i n pleasant a c t i v i t i e s and mood — b u t f a i l to confirm a further implication of such theories — that changes i n a c t i v i t y l e v e l temporally precede, and are causally r e l a t e d to changes i n mood. In a l a t e r study, Lewinsohn and Graf (1974) attempted to 36 r e p l i c a t e these findings using a broader sample of subjects (including p s y c h i a t r i c patients) divided into three age ranges (18-29, 30-49 and 50 and over). Groups were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d according to the same c r i t e r i a as used i n the previous study. The previous findings of a strong negative c o r r e l a t i o n between pleasant a c t i v i t i e s and depressed mood was r e p l i c a t e d . In addition, the magnitude of t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n for depressed subjects was s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than i t was for p s y c h i a t r i c and normal control subjects. An analysis of the mean number of pleasant a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by the various groups revealed that depressed subjects reported engaging i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer pleasant a c t i v i t i e s than did the other groups. Assuming an i d e n t i t y between pleasant a c t i v i t e s and reinforcement value, these r e s u l t s support the hypothesis that depression i s accompanied by a low rate of p o s i t i v e reinforcement. Further analysis revealed that t h i s difference was due to both a r e s t r i c t e d range of pleasant a c t i v i t i e s on the part of the depressed patients, and the fact that depressed subjects engaged i n fewer r e p l i c a t i o n s of pleasant a c t i v i t i e s than did subjects i n the other groups. S o c i a l s k i l l and s o c i a l communication d e f i c i t s i n depression. One can conclude from the evidence reviewed thus f a r that a s i g n i f i c a n t quantity of empirical data i s consistent with many of the ex-pectations and hypotheses of behavioural accounts of depression. Yet, i f the depressed i n d i v i d u a l i s so because he emits a low frequency of p o s i t i v e l y reinforced behaviours, c e r t a i n questions s t i l l remain unanswered, v i z : what variables may be expected to induce such a nonreinforcing state of a f f a i r s , , and can c e r t a i n organismic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s be i d e n t i f i e d which predispose an 37 i n d i v i d u a l to experiencing such circumstances? One manner of attempting to resolve these questions derives from the s o c i a l - s k i l l hypothesis o r i g i n a l l y o utlined by Lewinsohn, Weinstein and Shaw (1969, c f . also Lewinsohn, 1974a, 1974b), This hypothesis states that the depressed person i s characterized by a lack of s o c i a l s k i l l , defined as the i n a b i l i t y to emit behaviours that are p o s i t i v e l y reinforced, and not to emit behaviours that are punished by others. S i m i l a r l y , Ferster (1973) has suggested that the "basic behavioural process" underlying depressions may be a l i m i t e d " r e p e r t o i r e of observation" which i s to say that the depression-prone i n d i v i d u a l e x h i b i t s a r e l a t i v e or absolute low frequency of emission of behaviours which may be described as coming under the control of environmental d i s c r i m i n a t i v e s t i m u l i . (Appa-re n t l y Ferster saw no reason to d i s t i n g u i s h between diminished responsive-ness to s o c i a l as opposed to non-social stimuli.) An analysis of these formulations suggests that the i n d i v i d u a l predisposed toward becoming depressed may exhibit d e f i c i t s i n two p o t e n t i a l l y distinguishable patterns of d i s c r i m i n a t i v e behaviors: . 1) the a b i l i t y to emit s i t u a t i o n a l l y appropri-ate behaviour which may be unambiguously i d e n t i f i e d and responded to by others, and 2) the a b i l i t y to perceive or respond dfecriminatively to the s i t u a t i o n a l l y appropriate behaviour of others. Cast i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t terminology, i t might be suggested that the depressed person exhibits d e f i c i t s i n both expressive and receptive aspects of s o c i a l communication. A s i g n i f i c a n t proportion of most people's d a i l y l i v e s i s spent within a context of interpersonal i n t e r a c t i o n . Skinner (1953) has noted that a large bulk of the reinforcement that one obtains occurs i n such s i t u a t i o n s i n the form of s o c i a l reinforcement, Given the importance of such everyday interpersonal i n t e r a c t i o n s f or the a c q u i s i t i o n of reinforcement, i t can be 38 assumed that most people acquire repertoires of s o c i a l behaviour which f a c i l i t a t e these performances. One component of such a r e p e r t o i r e would include those behaviours which set the occasion for the r e i n f o r c i n g and punitive behaviours of others. Stated somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y , i t i s suggested that the types of behaviour an i n d i v i d u a l emits i n a given interpersonal s i t u a t i o n cue the types of behaviour which are directed back toward that person. According to the formulation presented herein, the person who i s predisposed toward becoming depressed may ei t h e r be characterized by a low frequency of emission of such " s o c i a l cueing" behaviours, or a r e l a t i v e l y higher frequency of emission of behaviours which les s adequately cue the modes of behaviour emitted by other people. As a r e s u l t of t h i s , the i n d i v i d u a l who exhibits such a d e f i c i t would frequently f a i l to acquire reinforcement. Further, he or she would run the r i s k of experiencing a r e l a t i v e l y greater frequency of aversive behaviour directed toward him by other persons. This behavioural d e f i c i t on the part of the i n d i v i d u a l predisposed toward becoming depressed may have further untoward consequences i n that he or she may serve as an ambiguous s o c i a l stimulus prompting avoidance on the part of others. Aside from the obvious negative sequelae of being avoided by others, such a state of a f f a i r s may be further destruc-r t i v e i n that the i n d i v i d u a l i s then faced with a greater reduction of s o c i a l reinforcement i n addition to the l o s s of models for the emission of appro-p r i a t e behaviour. The second form of behavioural d e f i c i t which i s proposed to characterize the depressive — a r e l a t i v e i n a b i l i t y to respond appropriately to the s o c i a l communication of others ^- represents a pattern complementary to that described above. Just as e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l communication requires 39 the emission of responses which c o n t r o l the s o c i a l behaviour of others, i t can also be assumed that a second component of t h i s process includes a s e n s i t i v i t y to meaningful nuances of the behaviour of others. A s i g n i f i c a n t proportion of the behaviour of others i n interpersonal contexts consists of the emission of behaviours of various degrees of subtlety which serve as di s c r i m i n a t i v e s t i m u l i for the i n d i v i d u a l toward whom the behaviour i s directed. An i n d i v i d u a l who i s r e l a t i v e l y unable to discern and e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e such cues i n the behaviour of others i s u n l i k e l y to emit responses which adequately conform to the requirements of the s i t u a t i o n . Such a person would f a i l to adequately reinf o r c e the other person's behaviour and t h i s , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , would r e s u l t i n the emission of aversive, or at best nonreinforcing behaviour on the part of the other. I t i s herein hypothesized that such a d e f i c i t may underlie and be causally r e l a t e d to the occurrence of depression. While empirical d a t a ' d i r e c t l y relevant to these hypotheses are scanty, a number of converging l i n e s of evidence a t t e s t to t h e i r p l a u s i b i l i t y . Studies reviewed in previous sections r e l a t i n g to patterns of verbal pro-ductivity' provide findings consistent with, and predictable from the present formulation (Aronson and Winetraub, 1967; H i n c h l i f f e , Lancashire, and Roberts, 1971; Truax, 1971). These studies reported that depressed patients could be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from normal controls i n terms of low l e v e l s of t o t a l speech output generated i n standardized s i t u a t i o n s . To the extent that depression i s re l a t e d to a s o c i a l communication d e f i c i t of the type suggested by the present formulation i t would be expected that depressed patients would show deviant patterns of verbal behaviour, Other studies of the verbal i n t e r a c t i o n patterns of depressed 40 subjects provide data consistent with the t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n o u t l i n e d above. Rosenberry, Weiss and Lewinsohn (1969) reported that depressed sub-j e c t s responded l e s s predictably and homogeneously than nondepressed sub-j e c t s when asked to i n d i c a t e , while l i s t e n i n g to tape recorded speeches, when they would behave i n such a manner.as to maintain rapport with the speaker. Lewinsohn, Golding, Johannson, and Stewart (1968) required p a i r s of depressed and normal subjects to communicate with each other v i a t e l e -typewriters. While normal-normal subject p a i r s tended to increase the number of words typed per message, p a i r s of depressed subjects showed t h i s tendency to a l e s s e r extent. This difference, however, was only marginally s i g n i f i c a n t (p_ < .10). U t i l i z i n g a highly complex system for the recording of verbal i n t e r a c t i o n (Lewinsohn, Alper, Johannson, L i b e t , Schaeffer, Rosenberry, S t e r i n , Stewart and Weinstein, 1971), a number of differences have been found between depressed and nondepressed subjects with respect to the kind and quantity of verbal behaviours observed i n small group s e t t i n g s . Within such a context, depressed i n d i v i d u a l s tend to e l i c i t fewer verbal behaviours from other people than do subjects belonging to psychometrically-defined normal and p s y c h i a t r i c - c o n t r o l groups (Lewinsohn, Weinstein, and Alper, 19.70; Schaeffer and Lewinsohn, 1971; Libet and Lewinsohn, 1973; Libet, Javorek, and Lewinsohn, 1973). Other d e f i c i t s observed among depressed subjects i n these studies include engaging i n fewer behaviours, emitting fewer p o s i t i v e r e -actions toward others, and evidencing a longer latency of reaction to others' behaviour than do nondepressed persons (Libet and Lewinsohn, 1973). Taken together, these findings strengthen the p o s i t i o n o u t l i n e d above i n that they report patterns of behavioural d e f i c i t s representing both receptive and expressive aspects of the s o c i a l communication process among depressed 41 subjects. The g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of these findings remains questionable, however, due to the fact that a l l subjects i n these studies were college students. Another area of research p e r t a i n i n g to the present formulation consists of the study of various forms of "expressive" behaviour, commonly subsumed under the l a b e l "nonverbal communications".''' Such overt expressive behaviours as gestures, changes i n f a c i a l expression, eye contact, etc., have i n recent years been the subject of considerable inquiry ( c f . Ekman and Friesen, 1968) although only a few investigations i n t h i s general area have employed depressed subjects. I t i s evident that these various forms of behaviour may be s a l i e n t discriminative s t i m u l i f or other people i n the s o c i a l environment and, to a large extent, may be important i n c o n t r o l l i n g the dispensation of reinforcement on the part of other people. Waxer (1974) showed sounds-edited videotapes of the standardized intake interviews of 5 depressed and 5 nondepressed p s y c h i a t r i c patients to 67 psychology f a c u l t y , graduates and undergraduate students, asking them to i d e n t i f y , on the basis of nonverbal cues alone, the diagnostic group membership of each of the peo-ple observed. Results of t h i s study revealed that judges were able to c o r r e c t l y discriminate depressed subjects from nondepressed subjects at a l e v e l beyond the .0005 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Thus, i t i s apparent that 1. The use of t h i s terminology introduces some p o t e n t i a l confusion with respect to d e f i n i t i o n s and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s of various components of the s o c i a l communication process. This can be highlighted by considering Skinner's (.1957) d e f i n i t i o n s of verbal behaviour, v i z . : any behaviour r e i n f o r c e d through the mediation of other people (p, 2 ) . l n terms of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , most of what i s commonly r e f e r r e d to as "nonverbal communication" may, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , be "verbal" but "nonvocal". For the purposes of the present discussion, however, the more common d i s t i n c t i o n — nonverbal — w i l l be retained. 42 there i s something about the nonverbal behaviour of depressed people which i s s a l i e n t enough to allow other people to discriminate them from other people having d i f f e r e n t diagnostic l a b e l s . According to questionnaire data acquired from ra t e r s , some s p e c i f i c behaviours which d i f f e r e n t i a t e d de-pressed subjects from other subjects included decreased eye contact, and postural cues. H i n c h l i f f e , Lancashire and Roberts (1971b)compared depressed subjects with subjects whose depressive episodes had undergone remission on t o t a l duration of eye contact, eye contact while speaking, and t o t a l number of eye contacts with an interviewer during a 5 minute interview. Analyses revealed s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower scores on a l l three v a r i a b l e s for the presently depressed group. While i t i s unclear how these behaviours may be f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d to the manner i n which other people behave toward the depressed person, i t i s p o s s i b l e that they may a f f e c t others' reactions i n a manner consistent with the above hypothesis. Ekman and Friesen (1974) contrasted the nonverbal behaviour i n interview s i t u a t i o n s of 31 female depressives 9 of whom wereodiagnosed as psychotic depressives, 7 of whom were neurotic depressives and 15 of whom c a r r i e d the diagnosis of schizophrenia. The a c t i v i t y of subjects' hands during the interviews was c l a s s i f i e d i n t o two groups of movements: i l l u s t r a t o r s (which "seem to i l l u s t r a t e what i s being said v e r b a l l y " (p. 211)) and adaptors (which seem to be less d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to a process of embellishing the flow of speech and are characterized by such a c t i v i t i e s as picking, rubbing, or squeezing). I t was found that psychotic depressives engage i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s " i l l u s t r a t i o n " than do schizophrenics A s i g n i f i c a n t trend i n the same d i r e c t i o n was found i n the neurotic depres-sive group. Although an increase i n i l l u s t r a t o r a c t i v i t y was found between admission and discharge among the depressed groups, i t i s not reported 43 whether t h i s increase was of a large enough magnitude to eliminate d i f -ferences between these subjects and those i n the schizophrenic group, These subjects were also given ratings on the B r i e f P s y c h i a t r i c Rating Scale (BPRS, Overa l l and Gorham, 1962) and c o r r e l a t i o n a l analyses were c a r r i e d out between i l l u s t r a t o r a c t i v i t y and the various scales of the BPRS. The most important findings f o r the purposes of the present discussion were s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n s between i l l u s t r a t o r a c t i v i t y and the scales depressive mood (_r = -.51 at admission, -,39 at discharge) and motor retardation (r = -.66 at admission, -.36 at discharge). The studies reviewed t h i s f a r provide some evidence for the existence, among depressed subjects, of deviant patterns i n expressive aspects of s o c i a l communication. C l e a r l y , both the quantity and the qu a l i t y of th i s research can be brought to bear on questions regarding the presence, extent and nature of any d e f i c i t s i n receptive aspects of the s o c i a l communication process among depressives. While the notion that the depressed patient i s characterized by a r e l a t i v e i n s e n s i t i v i t y to the interpersonal communications of others i s not unheard of i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Cohen at a l . , 1954; Stuart, 1967) no studies have attempted to test t h i s hypothesis d i r e c t l y , and what evidence there i s r e l a t i v e to t h i s issue i s only sug-gestive. Shannon (1970) compared the performance of a depressed, a schizo-phrenic and a medical patient c o n t r o l group on the B r i e f A f f e c t Recognition Test (BART; Ekman and Friesen, 1974). This t e s t uses the tachistoscopic presentation of s t i l l p i ctures of people portraying the f a c i a l expressions of 6 d i f f e r e n t emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, e t c . ) . Subjects are simply required to indicate which emotion i s being portrayed. Performance of the depressed group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y impaired r e l a t i v e to the medical 44 cont r o l group, but not to the schizophrenic group i n the recognition of "anger"; and was s i g n i f i c a n t l y impaired r e l a t i v e to both groups i n the recognition of "f e a r " . A methodology f or more adequately assessing the hypothesis that depression may be re l a t e d to d e f i c i t s i n the emission of and response to s o c i a l communication cues i s suggested by research on s o c i a l communica-tio n among nonhuman primates which has recently been extended to the study of " a f f e c t i v e recognition" i n man. The basic paradigm under consideration here was o r i g i n a l l y developed to investigate factors thought to be re l a t e d to the grossly deviant s o c i a l behaviour seen i n adult rhesus monkeys who had been subjected to s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n treatments i n e a r l i e r l i f e . B r i e f reviews of the many d e f i c i e n c i e s i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n observed i n such animals are a v a i l a b l e i n Harlow (1962) and Mason (1960), In attempting to account f o r these phenomena, Mason (1960) proposed a theory s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to the formulation of depression advocated here. B r i e f l y , Mason hypothesized that the pervasive s o c i a l d e f i c i t s observed i n rhesus monkeys subjected to early i s o l a t i o n experiences r e s u l t from a d e f i c i t i n the a b i l i t y to emit cues c o n t r o l l i n g reinforcement from the s o c i a l environment and a consequent i n a b i l i t y to learn appropriate behaviours. A test of t h i s hypothesis was conducted by M i l l e r , Caul and Mirsky (1967; c f . also M i l l e r , 1967; Mirsky, 1968). A group of rhesus monkeys which had been ra i s e d i n t o t a l s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n for t h e i r f i r s t year of l i f e , and a group of f e r a l rhesus monkeys of the same age were i n i t i a l l y tested and compared on an avoidance task. No differences i n a b i l i t y to acquire the avoidance res-ponse were found between the two groups. Subsequent to t h i s i n i t i a l t e s t i n g , the same subjects were tested on a co-operative avoidance task 45 i n which a "sender" monkey was administered e l e c t r i c shock on a Sidman schedule while a " r e c e i v e r " monkey c o n t r o l l e d the manipulandum which could be used i n order to avoid shock for the other monkey. The sender monkey's face was broadcast to the receiver monkey v i a a closed c i r c u i t t e l e v i s i o n screen. A 6 second CS was presented to the sender monkey immediately p r i o r to the administration of each shock. I f , during t h i s period, the receiver monkey operated the manipulandum, shock could be avoided. A l l possible p a i r s of f e r a l and.isolate monkeys were tested as both senders and receivers. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study showed that while f e r a l - f e r a l p a i r s were able to acquire adequate avoidance responding, n e i t h e r i s o l a t e -i s o l a t e nor f e r a l - i s o l a t e p a i r s were e f f e c t i v e . In the l a t t e r case, avoidance responding was poor regardless of whether i s o l a t e or f e r a l monkeys performed as senders of receivers. The authors note that these findings i n d i c a t e an i n a b i l i t y on the part of the i s o l a t e monkeys to emit f a c i a l cues f a c i l i t a t i n g the a c q u i s i t i o n of an avoidance response by the f e r a l monkeys as well as a further i n a b i l i t y to make use of the f a c i a l cues of f e r a l monkeys i n order to acquire an avoidance response themselves. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between these patterns of behaviour and those hypothesized to characterize the depressive i n the present formulation should be apparent. The basic paradigm outlined by M i l l e r , Caul and Mirsky (1967) has been adapted to research on human subjects by several authors. The basic concept i n studies of t h i s nature has been one of determining whether i t i s possible f or human subjects to recognize f a c i a l cues which d i f f e r e n t i a t e between varying experimental conditions. Gubar (1966) assigned u n i v e r s i t y students to groups of 3 subjects each. One subject i n each group was designated the "experienced" observer. Upon h i s a r r i v a l at the laboratory, 46 the "experienced" observer p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a discrimination task. This task required the a c q u i s i t i o n of two operant responses — one negatively reinforced by shock avoidance, the other p o s i t i v e l y r e i n f o r c e d by a c l i c k on a counter. A buzzer and a b e l l presented 6 seconds p r i o r to eit h e r shock or reward served as discriminative s t i m u l i . A f t e r t h i s subjects had reached c r i t e r i o n performance on the task, a second subject was then placed i n the same experimental s i t u a t i o n . Once t h i s subject had attained c r i t e r i o n performance, the experienced observer was taken- to an adjoining room from which he could observe the other subject performing the experi-mental task. Only the subject's neck and head were v i s i b l e to the observer. The observer was then i n s t r u c t e d that the subject he was viewing was per-forming the same experimental task. A shock electrode was then attached to the observer and he performed the same task as before ( i . e . , operant button pressing responses) r e l y i n g on the subject's f a c i a l expressions as dis c r i m i n a t i v e s t i m u l i for h i s responses. The same contingencies were operative f o r the observer and the subject. A f t e r 25 t r i a l s , the experienced observer was replaced by a naive observer who had the task explained to him and who performed i t for 25 further t r i a l s . Analyses of correct and incorr e c t responses revealed that, while naive observers were unable to discriminate between shock and reward t r i a l s , experienced observers were successful at c o r r e c t l y discriminating shock and reward t r i a l s (p < .01). Lanzetta and Kleck (1970) conducted a somewhat d i f f e r e n t adapta-tion of the M i l l e r et a l . paradigm. Subjects p a r t i c i p a t e d i n 3 experimental sessions, during the f i r s t of which they were exposed to a di s c r i m i n a t i v e c l a s s i c a l conditioning procedure. A red l i g h t served as CS+ and was con-sequated 12 seconds l a t e r by administration of e l e c t r i c shock while a 47 green l i g h t served as CS^ -. T h i r t y conditioning t r i a l s were adminstered during which videotapes were made of each subject's f a c i a l area. In sessions 2 and 3, subjects returned and viewed the videotapes of s i x subjects p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the f i r s t session of the experiment. In these sessions, subjects were required to determine by observing changes i n f a c i a l expression whether the subject that they were observing was viewing a red or a green l i g h t . The f i r s t and l a s t 10 t r i a l s of the 30 that each subject experienced were shown. Incorrect guesses during the second and t h i r d sessions were consequated with e l e c t r i c shock. Results revealed that the subjects' accuracy of judgement was we l l beyond that which would be expected by chance (p_ < .001), Some further i n t e r e s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s noted i n th i s study were a strong negative c o r r e l a t i o n between an i n d i v i d u a l subject's judgemental accuracy and the accuracy with which others were able to judge that subject (r = -.80), and s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a -tions between the degree of electrodermal arousal f o r each subject i n the f i r s t session and the number of errors made i n judging that subject i n the following sessions. The former f i n d i n g indicated that subjects who made few mistakes i n judging others were themselves d i f f i c u l t to judge, while the l a t t e r f i n d i n g indicated that subjects who displayed greatest electrodermal responsiveness i n the f i r s t session were those who were most d i f f i c u l t to judge for others i n the following sessions. Yet a t h i r d v a r i a t i o n on the basic paradigm of M i l l e r et a l . has been explored by Buck, Savin, M i l l e r , and Caul (Buck, Savin, M i l l e r , and Caul, 1972; Buck, M i l l e r , and Caul, 1974). In the 1972 study, subjects were run i n p a i r s i n a sing l e session. Subjects a r r i v e d independently at the laboratory, the f i r s t one to a r r i v e being designated as the "sender" 48 subject, and the second to a r r i v e being designated as the "receiver". Sender subjects were led to an experimental room, and seated, while receiver subjects were taken to a second room. Both subjects had physio-l o g i c a l recording electrodes f o r heart rate and skin resistance.attached. Sender subjects were shown a s e r i e s of 25 s l i d e photographs depicting 5 content categories (sexual, scenic, maternal, disgusting and unusual). A f t e r observing each s l i d e f or 10 seconds, these subjects were given 20 seconds to v e r b a l i z e t h e i r emotional response to the s l i d e , At the end of t h i s v e r b a l i z a t i o n period, sender subjects then rated the strength and pleasantness of t h e i r emotional reactions to each s l i d e on 9-point scales. At the same time, receiver subjects observed a t e l e v i s i o n monitor over which was broadcast a p i c t u r e of the sender subject's f a c i a l area. Receiver subjects were required, at the end of each of the sender subject's 30 seconds observation-verbalization i n t e r v a l s , to make judgements re-garding which category of s l i d e the sender subject was viewing and to r a t e the s l i d e s on the same 9-point scale. I t was found that accuracy of communication attained l e v e l s s i g n i f i c a n t l y above that which would be expected by chance among female p a i r s , but not among male p a i r s . S i g n i -f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s were found between sender subjects' reactions for both male and female p a i r s and a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e -/correlation on ratings of the strength of sender subject's reactions was found f o r female p a i r s . Further, s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n s were found between sender subjects' pleasantness index ratings and change i n sender subjects' number of skin conductance responses from the p r e s l i d e to the s l i d e period (r_ = -.91).; /median s i z e of l a r g e s t skin conductance response during the s l i d e period (r = -.65) and heart-rate change from the p r e s l i d e period to 49 the f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n period (r = -.60), thus i n part r e p l i c a t i n g the p h y s i o l o g i c a l findings of Lanzetta and Kleck (1970). A more recent study (Buck, M i l l e r , and Caul, 1974) u t i l i z i n g the same methodology demonstrated s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t communication f o r both males and females, although communication accuracy was greater for the l a t t e r . The previous p h y s i o l o g i c a l findings were r e p l i c a t e d as w e l l . The present study employed a modification of the procedure devised by Lanzetta and Kleck (1970) i n order to test the hypothesis that depressed subjects exhibit d e f i c i t s i n the emission of nonverbal s o c i a l communication cues and i n the perception of such cues emitted by others. Three groups of subjects — r depressed, nondepressed p s y c h i a t r i c c o n t r o l s , and normal co n t r o l — p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a two-phase experimental procedure. In session I subjects' f a c i a l expressions were videotaped while they underwent a t r i - p a r t i t e d i f f e r e n t i a l c l a s s i c a l conditioning procedure. In session I I , subjects returned and were shown the videotapes of subjects from a l l three diagnostic groups recorded i n session 1, The task i n session II involved i d e n t i f y i n g which of 3 types of conditioning t r i a l the subject they were viewing was undergoing. Psychophysiological a c t i v i t y i n depression N A secondary purpose of the present study was to c o l l e c t informa-t i o n regarding patterns of autonomic a c t i v i t y i n depression. Over the years, a number of investigators have concerned themselves with studying various psychophysiological parameters i n an attempt to characterize the psycho-physiological " s t a t e " of depression. Among the p h y s i o l o g i c a l parameters whose functioning has been r e l a t e d to depression are; skin 50 resistance/conductance (Dawson, S c h e l l and Catania, 1974; Ban, Choi, Lehman and Adamo, 1966; Goldstein, 1965; Greenfield, Katz, Alexander and Roessler, 1963; Lader and Wing, 1966; Lewinsohn, Lobitz and Wilson, 1973; McCarron, 1973; Riazansky, 1965; Zuckerman, Persky and C u r t i s , 1963), electromyographic a c t i v i t y (Goldstein, 1965; Martin, 1956; Noble and Lader, 1971; Rimon, Stenback and Hahmer, 1966; Shipman, Oken, Goldstein, Grinker, and Heath, 1964; Whatmore and E l l i s , 1959, 1962), cardiovascular a c t i v i t y (Dawson et a l . , 1974; K e l l y and Walter, 1968; McCarron, 1973), electroencephalographic a c t i v i t y (Shagass, 1955a, 1955b; McCarron, 1973), g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l a c t i v i t y (Henry, 1930; Kehoe and Ironside, 1963) and s a l i v a t i o n ( B u s f i e l d and Wechsler, 1961). Methodologies employed i n t h i s research have been diverse and include studies of tonic a c t i v i t y , phasic response to various forms of stimulation, and c l a s s i c a l conditioning. Although a considerable quantity of research has been conducted from t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n , few generalizations are possible from the data, l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t of the "one shot" nature of many such studies, i n addition to the presence of empirical inconsistencies and methodological l i m i t a t i o n s . Probably the most consistent findings '.in such studies have been acquired i n studies of musculoskeletal parameters. Martin (1956) reported that electromyographic (EMG) recordings from the f r o n t a l i s and forearm extensors revealed heightened muscle tension among a group of dysthymics (anxious, depressed or obsessional patients) than among a group of h y s t e r i c s . Whatmore and E l l i s (1959) reported that r e s t i n g EMG's were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher among a group of depressives than among a group of controls, and that the degree of t h i s heightened a c t i v i t y was c o r r e l a t e d with the extent of psychomotor retardation among the depressives. A l a t e r study (Whatmore and E l l i s , 1962) reported a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n EMG a c t i v i t y among extremely retarded depressive subsequent to a course of psychotherapy, Later, evaluations during a period of "good health' 1 p r i o r to relapse showed that EMG l e v e l s increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y . This f i n d i n g prompted the conclusion On the .authors'part that heightened EMG a c t i v i t y i s a " p h y s i o l o g i c a l t r a i t " of depression-prone i n d i v i d u a l s . In a study comparing a group of depressives with a group of nondepressed p s y c h i a t r i c . p a t i e n t s and a group of normals, Goldstein (1965) recorded a number of p h y s i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g EMG a c t i v i t y taken from 7 d i f f e r e n t s i t e s . The experimental paradigm involved one period of exposure to white noise interpolated between periods of rest. In comparison to the nondepressed and normal groups, depressives manifested heightened EMG a c t i v i t y as recorded from trapezius and f r o n t a l i s s i t e s . Noble and Lader (1971) studied changes i n r e s t i n g EMG (recorded from the l e f t forearm extensor muscle) i n a group of depressed patients p r i o r to and following a course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Pre-post comparisons revealed heightened a c t i v i t y p r i o r to ECT. In sum, these findings suggest increased EMG a c t i v i t y among depressed patients, a f i n d i n g inconsistent with the notion that depression i s characterized as a state of p h y s i o l o g i c a l unresponsive-ness. Proponents of the l a t t e r p o s i t i o n have tended to look toward studies u t i l i z i n g electrodermal measures for support. Studies u t i l i z i n g electrodermal indices of arousal have tended to support the p o s i t i o n that depression i s characterized by decreased p h y s i o l o g i c a l responsiveness, although the evidence here i s contradictory. Greenfield, Katz, Alexander and Roessler (1963) exposed 40 subjects to a serie s of auditory s t i m u l i ranging from subthreshold to 120 db while 52 recording skin conductance (SC). (In keeping with the present termino-l o g i c a l convention, a l l studies of electrodermal phenomena reviewed i n t h i s section w i l l be described i n terms of skin conductance a c t i v i t y , regardless of whether the o r i g i n a l data were expressed i n terms of skin resistance as was the case with the Greenfield et a l . study.) The bottom and top q u a r t i l e of responders were thax taken, and the scores of these subjects on the MMPI D scale were compared. I t was found that low SC responders scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on t h i s index of depression that did high responders. I t seems curious that while these i n v e s t i g a t o r s were presumably interes t e d i n acquiring c o r r e l a t i o n a l data they chose the methodologically questionable t a c t i c of choosing comparison groups from the extremes of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of scores and performing a t - t e s t rather than u t i l i z i n g a l l aubjects' scores and simply computing a c o r r e l a t i o n a l c o e f f i c i e n t . McCarron (1973) compared the SC a c t i v i t y of a group of depressed subjects and a group of normals. Groups were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d according to MMPI p r o f i l e s . Subjects were given an i n i t i a l task of reading and d e l i v e r i n g the contents of an envelope. Af t e r t h i s , they were attached to the recording equipment and, a f t e r a re s t period, required to answer yes or no to 12 questions related to the contents of the envelope. Results indicated reduced l a b i l i t y of skin conductance responses for the depressed group, p a r t i c u l a r l y during the int e r r o g a t i o n procedure. Riazansky (1965) has also reported s i m i l a r findings. Other studies of electrodermal a c t i v i t y i n depression have com-pared groups of depressives with various c o n t r o l groups i n c l a s s i c a l condi-tio n i n g paradigms. Ban, Choi, Lehman and Adamo (1966) compared o r i e n t i n g responses (OR), unconditional responses (TJCR), simple conditioning and 53 d i f f e r e n t i a l conditioning across groups of normal c o n t r o l s , "neurotic" depressives, "endogenous" depressives and schizophrenics with depressive symptomatology. Conditional s t i m u l i consisted of yellow or green l i g h t s while the unconditional stimulus consisted of a 900 Hz tone presented at "maximal i n t e n s i t y " . OR amplitude was s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater f o r the normal group than f o r the patient groups as was UCR amplitude. Analysis of conditioning data revealed that the normal group exhibited a greater number of c o n d i t i o n a l a n t i c i p a t o r y skin conductance responses than did the patient groups. The normal group also evidenced greater d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of skin conductance responding during the d i f f e r e n t i a l conditioning stage of the experiment, e x h i b i t i n g fewer responses to the unreinforced c o n d i t i o n a l s t i m u l i (CS) and more responses to the re i n f o r c e d CS than d i d the depressive groups. Unfortunately, a number of d e f i c i e n c i e s i n methodology and re-porting m i l i t a t e against u n c r i t i c a l acceptance of these r e s u l t s . The authors f a i l e d to provide any data supporting the breakdown of groups into d i f f e r e n t diagnostic categories independent of c l i n i c a l judgement. I t i s also unclear whether the differences obtained are s p e c i f i c to depression or a more general c o r r e l a t e of p s y c h i a t r i c status. This c r i t i c i s m can be applied equally to a l l studies which f a i l to include a group of p s y c h i a t r i c patients who are not depressed. Furthermore, actual l e v e l s of electrodermal a c t i v i t y summarized f or the d i f f e r e n t groups and stages of the conditioning process were not reported, thus making i t impossible to evaluate the act u a l magnitude of the differences obtained. Dawson, Sc h e l l and Catania (1974) compared the skin conductance values of a group of depressed patients and a group of normal controls across 5 experimental tasks: 1) r e s t , 2) free a s s o c i a t i o n , 3) adaptation, 4) conditioning and 54 5) reaction time. Evaluations of depressed patients were made at two points i n time: 1) p r i o r to undergoing ECT, and 2) subsequent to ECT. Analyses for pre-ECT measures indi c a t e d that depressives exhibited lower UCR magnitudes and longer TJCR latency. A d d i t i o n a l l y , control subjects exhibited s i g n i f i c a n t OR and a n t i c i p a t o r y response (AR) conditioning while depressives did not. These r e s u l t s were consistent with those reported by Ban et a l . (1966), A study conducted by Lewinsohn, Lobitz, and Wilson (1973) however, reported somewhat contradictory findings. In two studies, Lewinsohn et a l , compared the SC response amplitude of three groups of college students d i f f e r e n t i a t e d according to s t r i c t psychometric c r i t e r i a into depressed, p s y c h i a t r i c c o n t r o l and normal co n t r o l categories. The experimental design followed what was b a s i c a l l y a n o n d i f f e r e n t i a l c l a s s i c a l conditioning procedure with e l e c t r i c shock as the UCS. Results revealed that the three groups did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y with respect to c o n d i t i o n a l AR a c t i v i t y , or with respect to post shock magnitudes of electrodermal a c t i v i t y . I t was found, however, that during the period corresponding to that of shock administration,, the depressed group showed a larger increase i n SC than did the other two groups; a f i n d i n g c o n t r a d i c t i n g those of Ban et a l . (1966) and of Dawson et a l . (1974). The authors suggested that depressed people tend to be more s e n s i t i v e to aversive stimulation than normals and i n d i v i d u a l s e x h i b i t i n g p s y c h i a t r i c d i f f i c u l t i e s other than depression. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to account for these discrepant fi n d i n g s , although i t i s possible that sample and stimulus differences between the various studies may have been contributory f a c t o r s . Research on cardiovascular response as i t r e l a t e s to depression i s sparse. Three studies>:show close agreement, however, i n f i n d i n g that 55 depressed patients show elevated tonic heart rate (HR) l e v e l s i n compari-son with normal controls (Kelly and Walter, 1968; McCarron, 1973; Dawson et a l . , 1974). Furthermore, Dawson et a l . (1974) found that depressed patients show l e s s HR change to d i f f e r e n t experimental procedures and i n a c l a s s i c a l conditioning paradigm than do normals. Owing to the nature of the experimental paradigm used i n order to test the major hypotheses of t h i s study, i t was p o s s i b l e to c o l l e c t concurrent information pertinent to the issue of autonomic a c t i v i t y i n depression. The p h y s i o l o g i c a l parameters of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study were skin conductance (SC) and heart rate (HR), A t r i - p a r t i t e d i f f e r e n t i a l conditioning procedure s i m i l a r to that employed by Hare and Quinn (1971) in a study of p h y s i o l o g i c a l response among psychopaths was employed. The use of HR and SC was dictated by a number of considerations. SC data are widely used i n psychophysiological.research and provide an index of auto-nomic a c t i v i t y which i s highly s e n s i t i v e to experimental treatments (although t h e i r exact meaning remains obscure (Edelberg, 1972)). Further-more, SC data have been widely used as dependent va r i a b l e s i n the study of c l a s s i c a l conditioning processes i n general (Prokasy, 1965) and as they r e l a t e to depression. Unfortunately, the use of electrodermal measures in psychophysiological research has been so widespread and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of such a c t i v i t y have been made so g l i b l y that t h e i r use as a sole c r i t e r i o n of such concepts as arousal, responsiveness and c o n d i t i o n a b i l i t y i s open to serious question. In the area of depression s p e c i f i c a l l y , several studies using electrodermal data have used t h e i r findings to argue that depressives tend to be e i t h e r under-responsive or over-responsive to ex-t e r n a l stimulation, or that depressives may be characterized as being under-56 aroused or over-aroused, etc. The use of a s i n g l e poorly understood p h y s i o l o g i c a l index as the basis for making inferences regarding o v e r a l l "arousal" i s c l e a r l y questionable e s p e c i a l l y i n the l i g h t of the low i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between a l t e r n a t i v e indices of arousal (Lacey, 1967), The use of HR data was dictated by the desire to include a second index of p h y s i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y as well as a number of other considerations. Cardiovascular a c t i v i t y i s being i n c r e a s i n g l y assessed i n contemporary psychophysiological studies, e s p e c i a l l y within c l a s s i c a l conditioning paradigms. Furthermore, some research i s a v a i l a b l e on cardiovascular a c t i v i t y i n depression and the present design allowed for an attempt at r e p l i c a t i o n of these findings. Most importantly, however, i t has become clear i n recent years that cardiovascular a c t i v i t y shows some i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l patterns i n response to various experimental manipulations and that such changes as have been found to occur may be interpreted meaningfully i n a psychological sense (Gunn, Wolf, Block and Person, 1972; Lacey, 1967). Accordingly, i n the present study, HR and SC were recorded within the context of ^  a t r i p a r t i t e c l a s s i c a l conditioning procedure i n the f i r s t session of the experiment. , . 57 Chapter I I I METHOD Overview Three groups of subjects (depressed, p s y c h i a t r i c c o n t r o l and normal control) p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the two sessions of the experiment. In session 1, which was designed to e l i c i t various types of discriminable f a c i a l expressive behaviour, subjects were exposed to a t r i p a r t i t e d i f f e r e n t i a l c l a s s i c a l conditioning procedure. The three aspects of t h i s procedure included the presentation of an aversive CS-UCS sequence, the presentation of a CS-UCS sequence designed to e l i c i t "pleasant" responses, and a neutral t r i a l . Subjects' f a c i a l expressions were recorded on videotape and t h e i r HR and SC a c t i v i t y was recorded on a polygraph during the i n i t i a l session. During the second session of the experiment subjects were shown the videotape taken i n session 1 of three other subjects, one from each diagnostic category. In t h i s second session, subjects were required to view each videotape and guess on the basis of changes i n the f a c i a l expres-sions of the subjects observed, which of the 3 types of conditioning t r i a l the observed subject was experiencing. In addition, subjects were required to estimate t h e i r a nticipated performance immediately p r i o r to observing each videotaped set of t r i a l s from each subject. Subj ects Subjects were 30 females c l a s s i f i e d into depressed (D), p s y c h i a t r i c c o n t r o l (PC), and normal control (NC) groups. P r i o r to p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the f i r s t session of the experiment, a l l subjects completed a battery of 3 psychological t e s t s , including: 1) the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), 2) the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck et a l . , 1961), 58 and 3) a scale developed i n order to assess the self-monitoring of expressive behaviour (SM; Snyder, 1975). A l l p s y c h i a t r i c subjects were patients r e -gi s t e r e d at the Health Sciences Centre Hospital at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i -t i s h Columbia. Subjects included i n the D group met the following c r i t e r i a : 1) c l i n i c a l diagnosis belonging to one of the DSM-II categories of depres-sion, 2) no h i s t o r y of ECT i n the year p r i o r to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study, 3) BDI scores of 20 or greater. BDI cut-off c r i t e r i a were decided upon i n r e l a t i o n to the values reported by Beck et al.(1961) i n t h e i r v a l i d a t i o n studies. According to t h i s report, a BDI score of 21 r e l i a b l y d iscrimina-ted between nondepressed and severely depressed subjects whereas a score of 17 r e l i a b l y discriminated nondepressed from moderately depressed subjects. Eight D group subjects were inpatients, 2 were outpatients. Subjects i n -cluded i n the PC group were also registered patients at Health Sciences Centre, and met the following c r i t e r i a : 1) presently receiving treatment for a p s y c h i a t r i c disorder other than depression, 2) no h i s t o r y of ECT i n the year p r i o r to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study, 3) BDI scores of l e s s than 20. Seven of these patients were outpatients, while 3 were inpatients. Subjects i n -cluded i n the NC group met the following c r i t e r i a : 1) no p r i o r h i s t o r y of h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n f or any p s y c h i a t r i c problem, 2) not presently taking any psychoactive medication, 3) BDI scores of 12 or l e s s , 4) no MMPI scales elevated above a T-score of 70. None of these subjects was r e c e i v i n g psy-c h i a t r i c treatment at the time of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study. Subjects i n -cluded i n t h i s group were acquired through two means: 1) h o s p i t a l s t a f f and 2) subjects r e c r u i t e d by acquaintances of the experimenter. A f i n a l condi-t i o n f or p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the experiment was w i l l i n g n e s s to take part i n a second session. Three subjects (2 i n group D, 1 i n group PC) indicated t h e i r un-59 w i l l i n g n e s s to continue during session 1 and were replaced. Inpatient subjects were a l l obtained from the same 25-bed acute care ward of the h o s p i t a l . P o t e n t i a l subjects were sequential admissions to the ward who met the above c r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the D or PC group. In ad-d i t i o n to the consent of the patient, i t was necessary to acquire consent from the patient's primary t h e r a p i s t ( s ) . The ultimate e f f e c t of t h i s was to eliminate those p o t e n t i a l subjects who were undergoing acute " c r i s i s " s i t u -ations, or who were deemed s i g n i f i c a n t s uicide r i s k s . Outpatient subjects were patients attending the ho s p i t a l ' s Behaviour Therapy C l i n i c , and were rec r u i t e d through t h e i r primary t h e r a p i s t s . No attempt was made to control patients' medication regimens. Des-c r i p t i v e data on a l l subjects are presented i n Table 1. The NC, PC and D groups had mean ages of 38.4 (S.D. = 12.05), 27.9 (S.D. = 5.40) and 38.6 (S.D. = 7.20) years r e s p e c t i v e l y . Comparison of the three groups by analysis of variance showed a s i g n i f i c a n t age difference (F_ (2, 27) = 4.97, p_ < .05). This s i g n i f i c a n t F_ value i s p r i m a r i l y accounted for by the lower mean age of group PC i n comparison with groups NC and D. Mean scores on the BDI were as follows: NC = 2.4 (S.D. = 3.84), PC = 10.2 (S.D. = 6.01), D = 32.1 (S.D. = 9.23). Analysis of variance per-formed on these data revealed, not s u r p r i s i n g l y , a s i g n i f i c a n t difference (F (2, 27) = 52.26, p_ < .01). Mu l t i p l e comparisons by the Neuman-Keuls •technique showed that a l l 3 groups d i f f e r e d from one another at the p_ < .05 l e v e l . Group p r o f i l e s on the nine regular c l i n i c a l scales of the MMPI were compared using a technique described by Greenhouse and Geisser (1959). This procedure, s i m i l a r to mu l t i v a r i a t e analysis of variance, separates 60 Table 1. Age, ma r i t a l status, h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n status, primary diagnoses and medication regimens of a l l . s u b j e c t s i n the study. Group c Subj ect M a r i t a l ^ Inpatient/ Number Age Status Outpatient 1 45 M 2 34 M 3 54 M 4 28 M 5 32 D/S 6 24 M 7 49 M 8 45 M 9 21 S 10 52 M 11 24 S Outpatient 12 18 S Outpatient 13 28 S Inpatient 14 29 M Outpatient 15 27 S Inpatient 16 33 M Outpatient 17 28 D/S Outpatient Primary Medication diagnosis regimen NC PC Anxiety neurosis Sexual dysfunction T o f r a n i l (25 mg., t . i . d . ) S e r e n t i l (25 mg., h.s.) None Chronic un- Haldol d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ( 5 mg., t . i . d . ) schizophrenia Cogentin (2 mg., b.i.d.) Sexual dysfunction Acute s c h i -zophrenic episode (with e p i -lepsy) Sexual dysfunction Sexual dysfunction None Phenobarbital (30 mg., t . i . d . ) D i l a n t i n 100 mg.,t.i.d. E l t r o x i n (.2 mg., q.i.d.) None None 61 Table 1 (continued) Group Subj ect Number Age M a r i t a l Inpatient/ Primary 0 Medication 4! Status Outpatient diagnosis . regimen PC 18 19 20 38 24 M M 30 D/S Inpatient Anxiety neuro- Diazepam sxs Outpatient Sexual dysfunction Outpatient Sexual dysfunction (4 mg., t . i . d . ) Premarin (o.625 mg.) None None 21 52 M 22 23 24 25 26 27 26 45 40 33 D/S M M 43 D/S 34 . S Inpatient Endogenous depression Outpatient Depressive neurosis Inpatient Agitated depression Inpatient Depressive neurosis Outpatient Unipolar-depressive i l l n e s s Inpatient Inpatient Reactive depression Depressive neurosis Chlordiaze-poxide (5 mg. , b. i . d.) Clominipramine 75 mg., h.s.) None Amitryptyline (50 mg., t . i . d . ) A m p i c i l l i n (250 mg., qid) Tylenol (p.r.n.) Etrefon-D (T tab, q.i.d.) M e l l a r i l (50 mg., t . i . d . ) E l a v i l (25 mg. t.i.d.) Librium (30 mg. t.i. d . ) D i l a n t i n (100 m.g., t.i.d.) Flurazepum (30 mg., b.i.d.) Valium (5 mg. q.i.d.) C h l o r a l hydrate (1 g, h.g.) 62 Table 1. (continued) Subject M a r i t a l Group Number Age Status Inpatient/ Outpatient Primary-diagnosis Medication regimen D 28 29 30 39 35 39 M M M Inpatient Inpatient Inpatient Depressive neurosis Endogenous depression Unknown Chl o r a l hy-drate (lg.h.s. ) Bipolar Lithium car-manic depres- bonate (600 mg. sive i l l n e s s b.i.d.', 300 mg. h. s. ) NC = normal c o n t r o l , PC = p s y c h i a t r i c c o n t r o l , D = depressive M = married, S = si n g l e , D/S = divorced or separated Primary diagnoses were taken from c l i n i c a l f i l e s and i n some cases may not correspond to s p e c i f i c DSM-II categories. Medications expressed i n terms of quantity and schedule of administration on the date* of each subject's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n session 1; h.s. = at bedtime, b . i . d . = twice a day, t . i . d . = three times a day, q.i.d. = four times a day. 63 components of variance into that a t t r i b u t a b l e to differences between t e s t s , groups, and the i n t e r a c t i o n between tes t s and groups. The l a t t e r term, i f s i g n i f i c a n t , i s interpretable as r e f l e c t i n g differences i n test p r o f i l e s between groups. The r e s u l t s of t h i s analysis (Table 2) revealed no r e l i a b l e differences a t t r i b u t a b l e to tes t s or the test s X groups i n t e r -action. Thus, the p r o f i l e s of test d ifferences were s i m i l a r f or a l l three groups. A tendency toward s i g n i f i c a n c e was found for the groups factor (F (27,2) = 12.40, p_ < .10) although conventional standards of s t a t i s t i c a l r e l i a b i l i t y were not obtained. This occurred despite the fact that one-way analyses of variance on each of the MMPI scales revealed several s i g n i f i c a n t d i fferences. In p a r t i c u l a r , these analyses suggested that on scales Hy, Pd, Pt, and Sc, subjects i n groups PC and D exhibited s i g n i f i -cantly elevated scores r e l a t i v e to subjects i n group NC. On the MMPI D-scale, the univariate analyses further suggested that subjects i n group D exhibited s i g n i f i c a n t l y elevated scores r e l a t i v e to subjects i n group PC, who i n turn exhibited elevated scores r e l a t i v e to subjects i n group NC. Average MMPI p r o f i l e s for the three groups are presented i n F i g . 2. Apparatus The experiment was conducted i n a room within the Health Sciences Centre complex. Subjects sat i n a comfortable, r e c l i n i n g chair. Located approximately 2 meters i n front of the subjects was a table, to the front of which was attached a 55 cm x 31 cm sheet of black cardboard on which were mounted 4 jewel l i g h t s coloured blue, red, amber and green. Each of these l i g h t s was approximately 7 mm i n diameter. The s p a t i a l 64 Table 2. Results of the multivariate analysis of MMPI p r o f i l e s (for technique, see Greenhouse and Geisser, 1959), Source SS df Tests 18,730.07 8 0,64 n.s. Groups 2,080.56 2 12.40 <• 10 Individuals (within groups) 2,265.53 27 Groups X Tests 1,864,-98* 16 0.03 n.s. Individuals (within groups) X Tests 792,295.30 216 65 Figv~2. Average group p r o f i l e s on the MMPI. NC = normal c o n t r o l , PC = p s y c h i a t r i c c o n t r o l , D = depressive. 66 arrangement of the l i g h t s was such that one l i g h t was located i n the centre of the board, approximately 10 cm from the top. The other three l i g h t s were located 10 cm below the top l i g h t with one l i g h t being centered i n the board, and the other l i g h t s placed 15 cm on either side. With t h i s arrangement, the top l i g h t was located approximately at subjects' eye l e v e l . Located immediately above and behind the l i g h t board, and s l i g h t l y to the r i g h t of the subject was a p r o j e c t i o n screen. S l i g h t l y behind and to the l e f t of the l i g h t board was located a Sony AV 3400 videotape camera. The lens of the camera was located approximately 1 meter from the f l o o r so that the angle from which subjects were videotaped was s l i g h t l y below eye l e v e l , an angle which, from p i l o t t e s t i n g , produced the highest q u a l i t y recordings. Immediately i n front of the camera's lens, was located an e l e c t r o n i c shutter device which opened and closed with the warning stimulus — condit i o n a l stimulus — unconditional stimulus sequence. Opening and c l o s i n g of the shutter was accompanied by an audible "whirring" sound as the i n t e r n a l motor was activated. Located immediately to the l e f t of the subject, on a table, was a speaker (KLH Corp. Model-22 Acoustic Suspension) over which could be presented a loud (106 decibel) noise. The dimensions of the speaker were 45 cm high x 25 cm wide x 20 cm deep. The distance between the speaker and the subject's l e f t ear when seated was approxi-mately 15 cm. Approximately 1.5 meters behind and to the r i g h t of the subject was located a stand on which the stimulus programming equipment was placed. Four Hunter decade i n t e r v a l timers c o n t r o l l e d the presentation of s t i m u l i , opening and c l o s i n g of the shutter apparatus, and event marker pen on the polygraph. 67 Unconditional s t i m u l i were of 2 types: 1) a loud, aversive noise (106 db), and 2) a s e r i e s of 15 s l i d e photographs. A d i f f e r e n t s l i d e was used on each of the 15 t r i a l s i nvolving p i c t o r i a l UCSs. The order of s l i d e s presented as UCSs to a l l subjects was as follows: 1) "You are Cute" sign, 2) p i c t u r e of a f r i e d egg l y i n g on the dessert, 3) "cute" c h i l d r e n unwrapping Christmas presents, 4) a rose, 5) p i c t u r e of shoulders and head of a woman projected upside down, 6) impossible f i g u r e , 7) newborn baby i n h o s p i t a l nursery, 8) mountain scenery, 9) h a l f -naked man projected sideways, 10) coloured l i g h t s , 11) impression of smiling face i n snow, 12) ornate painting of a cat done by a schizophrenic, 13) p i c t u r e from Harlow studies of rhesus monkey c l i n g i n g to c l o t h sur-rogate mother, 14) green-tinted telephone l y i n g on rocky beach, 15) black-and-white photograph of female nude projected upside down. The auditory UCS was recorded on an Ampex 800 tape recorder. The sound was o r i g i n a l l y produced by placing the recording microphone three inches i n front of a speaker thus producing a "feedback" noise. This stimulus was recorded at a tape speed of 17/8 inches per second and played to subjects at a speed of 3 3/4 inches per second. Continuous recordings were made of subjects' HR and SC i n both sessions on a Beckman Type-R Dynograph, using Ag/AgCl electrodes and Beckman paste as the e l e c t r o l y t e medium. Skin conductance recordings were taken from the volar surface of the t h i r d phalange on the index and r i n g finger of subjects' r i g h t hands. Skin conductance was displayed d i r e c t l y i n micromhos through a Lykken skin-conductance coupler (Beckman Type 9844). Heart-rate electrodes were placed on subjects' l e f t and r i g h t w r i s t s . Beat-to-beat changes i n heart-rate were recorded through a Beckman Type 9857 68 cardiotachometer coupler, while the raw EKG was displayed simultaneously on a separate channel c o n t r o l l e d by a Beckman Type 9806 A AC coupler. Procedure Session 1. In the f i r s t session of the study, subjects were taken to the experimental rOom and seated i n a comfortable chair. The experiment was then described to them as a two-stage procedure in v o l v i n g "one's reactions to d i f f e r e n t forms of stimulation and to other people's experi-ence of things which happen to them". Aft e r explaining the function of the various p h y s i o l o g i c a l recording electrodes, the following i n s t r u c t i o n s were read to the subjects: In front of you i s a black board with a number of coloured l i g h t s on i t . In addition, i n front of you there i s a screen and beside you there i s a speaker. When the experiment begins, a number of things w i l l happen. The f i r s t thing that w i l l happen i s that the l i g h t i n the upper hal f of the board w i l l come on. This i s your s i g n a l that what we c a l l a " t r i a l " has begun. This l i g h t w i l l remain on for several seconds. When t h i s l i g h t goes o f f , one of three l i g h t s below i t w i l l come on and remain on for several seconds. A few seconds a f t e r t h i s second l i g h t comes on, one of three things w i l l happen. The f i r s t thing that may happen i s that the second l i g h t i n the serie s may simply turn o f f . The second thing that may happen i s that a pic t u r e may be presented on the screen i n front of you. The t h i r d thing that may happen i s that you may hear a very loud, unpleasant but harmless noise. While a l l t h i s i s going on, a video-tape camera w i l l o c c a s i o n a l l y be taking films of you. After these i n s t r u c t i o n s were read to the subjects, they were given a chance to ask any questions. A l l such questions were answered except insofar as they pertained to the research paradigm or hypothesis. Subjects then signed consent forms, subsequent to which the p h y s i o l o g i c a l recording electrodes were attached. A f t e r a 5 minute adaptation period, the f i r s t session began. 69 The f i r s t s e s s i o n employed a three p a r t d i f f e r e n t i a l c l a s s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g paradigm w i t h three d i f f e r e n t CSs being consequated by three d i f f e r e n t UCSs. The CSs were the coloured jewel l i g h t s mounted i n the bottom h a l f of the stimulus d i s p l a y board l o c a t e d i n f r o n t of the subject's c h a i r . The d u r a t i o n of CS p r e s e n t a t i o n was 8 seconds, w h i l e the d u r a t i o n of p r e s e n t a t i o n of a u d i t o r y and p i c t o r i a l UCS was 4 seconds. In order to ensure that subjects would be attending to the r e l e v a n t stimulus cues, each t r i a l began w i t h the onset of a warning stimulus (WS) which preceded the CS by 6 seconds and terminated at CS onset. The WS was s p a t i a l l y separated from the CSs, and was l o c a t e d i n the upper h a l f of the stimulus board. Three d i f f e r e n t types of c o n d i t i o n i n g t r i a l were thus employed. In the f i r s t £ype, one CS was c o n s i s t e n t l y terminated by a 4 second pre-s e n t a t i o n of a p i c t o r i a l stimulus (CS-P), i n the second type a d i f f e r e n t CS was c o n s i s t e n t l y terminated by a 4 second p r e s e n t a t i o n of an a v e r s i v e a u d i t o r y stimulus (CS-A), and i n the t h i r d type, the CS was simply pre-sented f o r 8 seconds a f t e r which i t was turned o f f (CS-N). The c o n d i t i o n i n g procedure employed i s depicted s c h e m a t i c a l l y i n F i g . 3. Each type of t r i a l was presented 15 times f o r a t o t a l of 45 t r i a l s i n a l l . Three d i f f e r e n t orders of t r i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n were randonly generated w i t h the s o l e r e -s t r i c t i o n that i n each block of 3 t r i a l s , a l l three types of c o n d i t i o n i n g t r i a l would be represented. Subjects were randomly assigned to t r i a l orders. The arrangement of CS l i g h t s was a l t e r e d randomly f o r each subject i n order to c o n t r o l f o r any inherent e l i c i t i n g p r o p e r t i e s of the l i g h t s themselves. Owing to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the apparatus, however, i t was impossible to randomize the s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n of the CS l i g h t s , so that CS-P was always the l i g h t at the f a r r i g h t of the stimulus d i s p l a y , CS-A was 70 6 S E C 8 S E C 4 S E C CS-A U C S - A W S CS-P UCS-P CS-N U C S - N 1 1 S E C Fig-.:-..3. Schematic representation of the d i f f e r e n t i a l conditioning procedure employed i n t h i s study. WS = warning stimulus, CS-A = aversive c o n d i t i o n a l stimulus, CS-P = p i c t o r i a l con-d i t i o n a l stimulus, CS-N = neutral c o n d i t i o n a l stimulus, UCS-A = aversive unconditional stimulus, UCS-P = p i c t o r i a l uncondi-t i o n a l stimulus, UCS-N = neutral unconditional stimulus. S o l i d l i n e at bottom of figu r e indicates period of time during which subjects' f a c i a l expressions were videotaped. 71 always the l i g h t at the far l e f t , and CS-N was always i n the middle. I n t e r - t r i a l i n t e r v a l s ranged between 10 and 16 seconds. P r i o r to the beginning of conditioning t r i a l s , the video-tape camera was focused on the subjects' f a c i a l area. When t r i a l s began, the exposure of the videotape was c o n t r o l l e d by the automatic shutter. The shutter apparatus was wired such that i t opened 3 seconds p r i o r to CS presentation and closed at UCS onset. Thus, the video recordings only occurred during an i n t e r v a l of 11 seconds p r i o r to UCS administration, ensuring that unconditional responses were not recorded. In order to reduce the amount of time required for te s t i n g of subjects i n the second session, only the f i r s t and l a s t 15 t r i a l s were recorded onvideotape ( i . e ; , the f i r s t and l a s t 5 presentations of each CS-UCS sequence). Session 2. Inter-session i n t e r v a l s varied widely. In general, h o s p i t a l i z e d subjects underwent the second session of the experiment much sooner than did nonhospitalized subjects. Mean i n t e r - s e s s i o n i n t e r v a l s f o r the three groups were as follows: NC - 38.5 days (S.D. = 29.27), PC - 24.8 days (S.D. = 23.37), D - 20.7 days (S.D. = 11.62). P r i o r to bringing subjects back to complete the second part of the experiment, subjects were assigned to squads comprised of 2 members of each of the 3 classes of subjects. This was done i n order to make i t possible to show each subject the videotape of one person from each cl a s s of subject as depicted'in F i g . 4. In assigning subjects from each class to squads, i t was attempted, as far as possible to choose subjects of si m i l a r ages. When subjects returned to take part i n the second session, they were seated i n front of a t e l e v i s i o n monitor and the procedure of the 72 NC 1 NC 2 \_y 4 _ x PC 1 PC 2 D 1 y y~\ D 2 4 y F i g . 4. Manner i n which videotapes were selected f o r showing to i n -d i v i d u a l subject. Each octagon represents one subject. An arrow leading from one subject to another indicates that the videotape of the f i r s t subject was shown to the second, e.g., subject NC 1 observed the videotapes of subjects PC 1, D 1, and NC 2. NC = normal c o n t r o l , PC = p s y c h i a t r i c c o n t r o l , D = depressive. 73 f i r s t session was reviewed. The following i n s t r u c t i o n s were read: In the f i r s t part of the experiment, which you have already completed, you went through a procedure wherein a number of d i f f e r e n t events happened. F i r s t , the blue l i g h t i n the upper ha l f of t h i s black board went on, s i g n a l l i n g to you that a " t r i a l " had begun. Several seconds l a t e r , one of the three l i g h t s below the blue one went on. Depending on which l i g h t went on, a number of d i f f e r e n t things happened. I f the amber (red, green) l i g h t went on, several seconds l a t e r i t simply turned o f f and nothing else happened. If the green (amber, red) l i g h t went on, several seconds l a t e r , you were shown a s l i d e photograph. If the t h i r d l i g h t went on, you heard a loud noise. Thus, subjects who may have been unaware of the c o n d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s t i m u l i i n the f i r s t session had them explained at t h i s point. The i n s t r u c t i o n s then went on to say: While a l l these things were going on, a video tape r e -cording was made of your f a c i a l expressions at d i f f e r e n t points i n time. These recordings began while the f i r s t l i g h t i n the s e r i e s , the blue l i g h t , was on. They ended at the exact same time as the second l i g h t i n the se r i e s , the red, green or amber l i g h t , went o f f . No recordings were made while either the noise was on or the pic t u r e was on. Therefore, a l l that we have are recordings of people a n t i c i p a t i n g what i s about to happen to them. At t h i s point, the experimenter stopped reading the i n s t r u c t i o n s and queried the subject with regard to her understanding of the i n s t r u c t i o n s up to that point. When i t was clear that the subject Understood the cond i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s t i m u l i i n the f i r s t session, and the portion of the WS-CS-UCS sequence that was recorded, the nature of the experimental tasks was then explained. Subjects were informed that they would be viewing a serie s of 30 excerpts from each of three d i f f e r e n t people going through the f i r s t session of the experiment. They were then t o l d that they were to view each of these exerpts f o r i t s f u l l duration, and at the end of each, to guess which of the three possible events ( p i c -74 ture presentation, sound presentation, or nothing) was about to occur to the subject they were viewing. Subjects indicated t h e i r judgement by c a l l i n g out the words "sound", " p i c t u r e " or "nothing". P r i o r to showing each set of 30 excerpts from each subject, subjects were further asked to estimate the number of t r i a l s they would judge c o r r e c t l y . A f t e r i n s t r u c t i o n s had been read to the subject, HR and SC electrodes were attached and a 5 minute adaptation period took place. A f t e r the adaptation period, the judgemental task then began. Af t e r each guess, the experimenter t o l d the subject whether she was correct or inc o r r e c t , and, i f in c o r r e c t , what the correct answer was. This was done for two reasons: 1) previous research using s i m i l a r methodology had used complete informative feedback and 2) feedback allowed subjects to compare t h e i r actual performance with t h e i r p r i o r p r e d i c t i o n of t h e i r performance. Each subject was shown the videotapes of three other subjects belonging to her squad; one subject from her own group and one subject from each of the other two groups. Order of presentation of the videotapes was randomly determined for each subject. A f t e r the subject had viewed the complete set of 30 excerpts from each subject, a b r i e f pause occurred while the experimenter changed videotapes. During t h i s pause, subjects were t o l d how many excerpts they had judged c o r r e c t l y for the preceding subject, and were then asked to estimate the number they would get correct for the next subject. A f t e r the subject had viewed the f u l l complement of videotapes from 3 other subjects, electrodes were removed and the experimenter attempted to answer any questions she might have had about the experiment. .75 Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of psychophysiological data. SC data from the c l a s s i c a l conditioning phase of the experiment were recorded over f i v e scoring i n t e r v a l s corresponding to the following time periods i n r e l a t i o n to each conditioning t r i a l : (1) pre-stimulation — the average of 3 SC l e v e l s , the f i r s t occurring four seconds p r i o r to WS onset, the second at two seconds p r i o r to WS onset, and the t h i r d exactly at WS onset. (2) WS — the maximum SC response occurring i n the seven second period commencing at WS onset and ending one second sub-sequent to WS o f f s e t . (3) CS — the maximum SC value occurring i n the eight-second i n t e r v a l commencing one second subsequent to CS onset and ending one second subsequent to CS o f f s e t . (4) UCS — the maximum response occurring i n the four-second i n t e r v a l commencing one second subsequent to UCS onset and ending one second subsequent to UCS o f f s e t . (5) post-stimulation — the average of the three SC values beginning one second a f t e r UCS o f f s e t and at two and four seconds thereafter. HR data were scored over t h i r t e e n two-second i n t e r v a l s . The f i r s t scoring i n t e r v a l began four seconds "prior to WS onset, the second ' began two seconds p r i o r to WS onset, and so oh. Thus, the l a s t scoring i n t e r v a l ended four seconds a f t e r UCS o f f s e t . The mean rate i n beats per minute of. a l l beats occurring wholly or p a r t i a l l y within each scoring i n t e r v a l served as the HR value f o r that i n t e r v a l . 76 Chapter IV RESULTS Judgemental data. Communication accuracy. The major dependent v a r i a b l e of t h i s study con-s i s t e d of the number of correct judgements by each subject observing videotapes i n the second session of the experiment ("receiver subjects") of the 30 videotaped excerpts of each of 3 subjects p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the f i r s t session ("sender subjects"). Since there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the three diagnostic groups i n age, i t was of i n t e r e s t to determine whether or not there was any consistent r e l a t i o n s h i p between the age v a r i a b l e and subjects' behaviour during the f i r s t and second sessions of the experiment. For t h i s reason, composite scores were determined which r e f l e c t e d each subjects' general performance as both sender and receiver. The sender score f o r each subject was taken as the mean number of correct i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s of the type of conditioning t r i a l being experienced by that p a r t i c u l a r subject by each of the 3 receiver subjects who viewed her videotape. The receiver score was the mean accuracy of each receiver subject i n i d e n t i f y i n g the type of conditioning t r i a l being experienced by each of the 3 senders whose videotapes were being shown to her. Pearson r_'s were then calculated between the age v a r i a b l e and both of these accuracy scores. The r e s u l t s of both c o r r e l a t i o n s were i n s i g n i f i c a n t : the age-sender r_ being .03 and the age-receiver r_ being -.16. This f i n d i n g suggests that any between-group mean differences cannot be a t t r i b u t e d to a confound of age with diagnostic category. 77 Judgemental accuracy scores were subjected to a 4-factor mixed mbdel analysis of variance. The between-groups factor was diagnostic category of receiver subject. The three within-groups f a c t o r s were: diag-n o s t i c category of sender subject, t r i a l blocks (obtained by dichotomizing the data f o r each receiver's judgements of each sender at the 15th t r i a l ) , and type of conditioning t r i a l . The r e s u l t s of t h i s a nalysis (Table 3) revealed s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s f o r the type of sender (F(92, 54) = 18.04, p_ < .01) and t r i a l blocks (F (1, 27) = 33.08, p_ < .01) v a r i a b l e s , and a s i g n i f i c a n t receiver X sender X t r i a l - b l o c k s i n t e r a c t i o n (F (4, 54) = 4.10, £ < .05). The s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r the sender v a r i a b l e (Fig. 5) i s accounted for by the poor performance of a l l three types of receiver subject i n making judgements of D senders r e l a t i v e to both NC and PC senders. The t r i a l -blocks main e f f e c t r e f l e c t e d the tendency f o r the accuracy of a l l receiver subjects' judgements to improve on the second block of 15 t r i a l s f o r each sender subject judged. The s i g n i f i c a n t receivers X senders X t r i a l - b l o c k s i n t e r a c t i o n i s depicted i n F i g . 6. Post-hoc analyses of the simple e f f e c t s of t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n were performed using C i c c h e t t i ' s (1972) modification of the Tukey "honestly s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e " (HSD) procedure. Results of t h i s a n a l y s i s are presented i n Table 4. A l l di f f e r e n c e s are s i g n i f i c a n t at the £ < .05 l e v e l . The major trends of t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n can be summarized as follows. Performance of NC and PC receivers observing NC and PC subjects improved over t r i a l s . NC receivers observing D senders f a i l e d to improve over t r i a l s , while PC receivers observing D senders did. D receivers observing NC and D senders improved from t r i a l block 1 to t r i a l 78 Table 3. Results of the analysis of variance for judgemental accuracy data. Source SS df MS F . Total 1001.99 539 R 3.38 2 : ,1.69 0,54 n.s. Error 83.97 27 3.11 S 75.43 2 37.62 18.04 £_ < -01 S X- R 5.02 ;;4 1.26 0.60 n. s. Error 112.88 54 2.09 T 33.38 1 49.20 33.38 p_ <. .01 T X R 3.84 2 1.92 1.30 n.s. Error 39.79 27 1.47 C 2.23 2 1.12 0.57 n. s. C X R 4.16 4 1.04 0.53 n. s. Error 105.28 54 1.95 S X T 5.94 2 2.97 2.21 n. s. S X T X R 22.07 4 5.52 4.10 £ < .05 Error 72.66 54 1.35 S X C 2.83 4 0.71 0.50 n. s. S X C X R 7.88 8 0.98 0.70 n. s. Error 152.62 108 1.41 T X C 0.29 2 0.15 0.18 n.s. T X C X R 2.39 4 0.60 0.75 n.s. Error 152.62 54 0.80 S X T X C 3.82 4 0.95 1.00 n. s. S X T X C X R 6.60 8 0.83 0.87 n. s. Error 102.91 108 0.95 79 F i g . 5. Mean number of correct i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s by receiver subjects of the type of conditioning t r i a l sender subjects were experiencing. NC = normal c o n t r o l , PC = p s y c h i a t r i c c o n t r o l , D = depressive. 80 o • o NC_, o— —-•© PC S E .N D E R / / P /'/ /o T 1 T 2 T 1 T 2 T 1 T 2 NC i PC 4-D - i D I A G N O S T I C C A T E G O R Y OF R E C E I V E R Mean number of c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d conditioning t r i a l s as a function of diagnostic category of receiver subject, diagnostic category of sender subject, and t r i a l blocks. NC = normal co n t r o l , PC = p s y c h i a t r i c c o n t r o l , D = depressive; T i l = t r i a l block 1, T 2 = t r i a l block 2. Table 4. Results of Tukey HSD analysis of simple e f f e c t s of Receiver X Sender X T r i a l Block i n t e r a c t i o n (communication accuracy data). NC = normal co n t r o l , PC = p s y c h i a t r i c c o n t r o l , D = depressive; T s = t r i a l - b l o c k 1, T = t r i a l block 2. A. T r i a l blocks simple e f f e c t s Receiver Sender NC PC D NS T < T 1 2 T l < V T l < T2 PC T < T 1 2 T l < T2 T l = T2 D T = T 1 2 T l < T2 T l < T2 B. Senders simple e f f e c t s Receiver T r i a l •Block NC PC D T l NP = PC = D NC = PC, NC > D, PC > D NC = PC, NC > D, PC > D T2 NC = PC, NC > D, PC > D NC = PC, NC > D, PC > D NC > PC, NC > D, PC = D C. Receivers simple e f f e c t s Sender T r i a l Block NC PC D NC = PC = D NC = PC = D NC = PC = D NC = PC = D NC = PC, NC > D, PC > D NC = PC, PC = D, NC < D 82. block 2, while D receivers observing PC senders did not. In general, NC and PC senders were s i g n i f i c a n t l y easier to judge accurately than were D senders. The only exception to t h i s f i n d i n g occurred among D receivers observing PC senders during t r i a l b lock 2. In t h i s instance, D and PC senders were equally d i f f i c u l t to judge r e l a t i v e to NC senders. With regard to the receivers v a r i a b l e , the only differences observed were s i g n i f i c a n t l y poorer performance f or D receivers ( r e l a t i v e to NC and PC receivers) judging PC senders during the second t r i a l block and s i g n i f i c a n t l y poorer performance f or NC receivers ( r e l a t i v e to D receivers) judging D senders during t r i a l block 2. Because i t was of further i n t e r e s t to evaluate the r e l a t i o n s h i p between subjects' performance as senders and t h e i r performance as r e c e i v e r s , a Pearson _r was calculated between each subject's composite receiver and sender score. The r e s u l t s of t h i s analysis yielded an i n s i g n i f i c a n t _r value (r = .08). Category choice analysis. Although the analyses of communication accuracy were of major i n t e r e s t , the information that they provided with respect to subjects' task performance was incomplete. It was possible that per-formance on the task was l i k e l y to be affected by stereotyped response predispositions on the part of both sender and receiver subjects. For example, i t seemed p l a u s i b l e that depressed subjects would be r e l a t i v e l y more l i k e l y than nondepressed subjects to emit f a c i a l cues that otheri people would l a b e l "aversive" (e.g., expressions of being hurt, e t c . ) . Such a phenomenon might be expected to manifest i t s e l f i n a tendency f or a l l classes of receiver subject to choose a p a r t i c u l a r response c l a s s with greater frequency when describing depressives than when describing non-83 depressives. That i s , i f , for example, depressed sender subjects tended to emit "'aversive" cues i n general, a l l classes of receiver subject might have been expected to choose the response cl a s s i n d i c a t i v e of the presence of aversive stimulation with greater r e l a t i v e frequency when observing depressed subjects. S i m i l a r l y , i t seemed p l a u s i b l e that receiver subjects might have evidenced stereotyped response predispositions i n t h e i r choice of p a r t i -c u lar response categories. For example, depressed receiver subjects might be expected to perceive the presence of "aversive" cues i n the behaviour of others and therefore choose a p a r t i c u l a r response category more f r e -quently than other subjects. In order to evaluate these questions, the judgemental data from each receiver subject were broken down into three d i f f e r e n t scores. The frequency with which receiver subjects chose each of the three possible response categories when judging each of three sender subjects ( i r r e s -pective of whether or not the choice of a p a r t i c u l a r category was correct) was subjected to analysis of variance. Thus, three separate analyses of variance were performed: one for the frequency with which the "aversive" response category was chosen and one ana l y s i s each f o r the frequency with which the " p i c t o r i a l " and "neutral" classes were chosen. Each analysis investigated the e f f e c t s of the re c e i v e r s , senders, and t r i a l blocks var i a b l e s . Stereotyped response predispositions on the part of a given cl a s s of receiver or sender subjects would, thus, be r e f l e c t e d i n a s i g -n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r that v a r i a b l e . No s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s were found i n the analysis of the frequency with which the "aversive" response cl a s s was chosen. Analysis of the 84 frequency with which the " p i c t o r i a l " response category was chosen revealed a s i g n i f i c a n t receiver X sender i n t e r a c t i o n (F (4, 54) = 4.76, p_ < .05) (Table 5) depicted i n F i g . 7. Post hoc analyses of t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n by the Neu-man-Keuls technique showed that PC receivers judging D senders used the " p i c t o r i a l " response category s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s frequently Cp_ < .05) than did NC and D receivers judging D senders and PC receivers judging PC senders. Analysis of the frequency of choice of the "neutral" response cate-gory (Table 6) yielded a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t for the t r i a l blocks v a r i a b l e (_F (1, 27) = 7.26, p_ < .05) i n d i c a t i n g that the choice of the "neutral" response category decreased from the f i r s t to the second t r i a l block. Thus, analyses of the judgemental data revealed that D subjects were generally more d i f f i c u l t to judge accurately than were NC and PC sub-j e c t s , that performance on the judgemental task improved over time, and that there was l i t t l e evidence f o r the existence of stereotyped response predispositions on the part of any of the classes of sender or receiver subjects. Further, NC subjects' judgemental performance when observing Ds did not improve over time, nor did D rece i v e r s ' performance when judging PC senders. Performance and<predictions of performance During the judgemental task a l l subjects were asked to estimate how many t r i a l s out of 30 they would judge c o r r e c t l y p r i o r to observing each set of 3 videotapes. This was done i n order to evaluate the p r e d i c t i o n , derived from Beck's theory, that D subjects, r e l a t i v e to NC's and PC's would tend to underestimate t h e i r own performance. These data were sub-jected to a 2-way between-within analysis of variance with diagnostic 85 Table 5. Results of the analysis of variance f o r category choice data Frequency of choice of " p i c t o r i a l response category. Source _SS df MS F To t a l 420.06 179 R 6.68 2 3.34 0.95 ns Error 94.55 27 3.50 S 0.08 2 0.04 0.01 ns S X R 13.55 4 3.39 4.76 <.05 Error 153.70 54 2.85 T 0.14 1 0.14 0.10 ns T X R 1.01 2 0.51 0.70 ns Error 39,02 27 1.45 S X T 5.34 2 2.67 1.39 ns S X T X R 1.96 4 0.49 0.25 ns Error 104.03 54 1.93 86 NC PC D ' 1 ' D I A G N O S T I C C A T E G O R Y OF RECE IVER F i g . 7. Frequency of correct or incor r e c t judgements that sender subjects were undergoing a p i c t o r i a l conditioning t r i a l as a function of diagnostic category of sender and receiver subject. 87 Table 6. Results of the analysis of variance f o r category choice data Frequency of choice of "n e u t r a l " response category. Source SS df MS F P_ Total 566.20 179 R 15.63 2 7.82 1.09 ns Error 177.57 27 6.58 S 11.63 2 5.82 2.19 ns S X R 6.13 4 0.03 0.58 ns Error 143.23 54 2.65 T 9.80 1 9.80 7.26 <.05 T X R 0.10 2 0.05 0.04 ns Error 36.43 27 1.35 S X T 16.30 2 8.15 3.08 ns S X T X R 6.40 4 1.60 0.60 ns Error 142.97 54 2.65 88 category of receiver being the between groups va r i a b l e and o r d i n a l p o s i -t i o n of p r e d i c t i o n being the within-groups v a r i a b l e . The r e s u l t s of t h i s analysis revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences for the class of receiver (F = 0.23, ns) , o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n of p r e d i c t i o n (F = 0,45, nfe) or receiver X p o s i t i o n (F = 0.32, ns) terms. It was of further i n t e r e s t . t o determine the extent to which subjects' predictions of t h e i r own performance changed as a function of the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i r predictions and t h e i r actual performance. On the basis of Seligman's theory, i t was expected that there would be l i t t l e or no r e l a -tionship between changes i n D subjects' p r e d i c t i o n s , and the differences between previous predictions and previous performance. In order to evaluate t h i s , pairs of difference scores were calculated for each subject. The f i r s t p a i r of difference scores was acquired by subtracting subjects' pre-d i c t i o n s of performance for the f i r s t presentation of videotaped excerpts from t h e i r predictions for the second presentation and by subtracting sub-j e c t s ' predictions for the f i r s t presentation of videotapes from t h e i r actual performance on the f i r s t presentation. The second pair of d i f f e r e n c e scores was calculated i n the same manner, and r e f l e c t e d change i n predic-tions from the second to the t h i r d presentation of videotapes and the discrepancy between predictions and actual performance on the second pre-sentation of videotapes. The t h i r d p a i r of d i f f e r e n c e scores r e f l e c t e d change i n predictions from the second to the t h i r d presentation of video-tapes, and the discrepancy between p r e d i c t i o n and a c t u a l performance on the f i r s t presentation of videotapes. Pearson's r_'s were then calculated between each of these p a i r s of d i f f e r e n c e scores, separately for each diagnostic group. Results of t h i s analysis are presented i n Table 7 and 89 7. Correlations between di f f e r e n c e scores r e f l e c t i n g (1) change i n predictions and (2) discrepancy between.predictions and performance Group Difference 1 Difference 2 NC PC D P2 " P l A l " P l .78** . 90** .88** P 3 - P 2 A 2 - P 2 .08 .77** .71* P 3 " P2 A l " P l .47 -.13 -.05 P = p r e d i c t i o n of performance; A = actual performance; subscript r e f e r to o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n of p r e d i c t i o n or actual performanc ** £ <..01 £ < -05 90 reveal some i n t e r e s t i n g findings. For a l l groups, the c o r r e l a t i o n s between change i n predictions from the f i r s t to the second presentation of video-tapes and the discrepancy between predictions and actual performance on the f i r s t presentation of videotapes were strong, p o s i t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t . For the c o r r e l a t i o n s between change i n predictions from the second to the t h i r d presentation of videotapes and the discrepancy between predictions and actual performance on the second presentation of videotapes, both the PC and D groups s t i l l showed s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e values. Only f o r the NC group was t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n i n s i g n i f i c a n t . For the c o r r e l a t i o n between change i n predictions from the second to the t h i r d presentation of video-tapes and the discrepancy between predictions and actual performance on the f i r s t presentation of videotapes, none of the r_ values was s i g n i f i c a n t . Thus, while analysis of variance procedures revealed nothing i n the way of systematic between-group differences i n subjects' ratings of t h e i r anticipated performance, c o r r e l a t i o n a l procedures revealed s i g n i f i c a n t strong and p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between changes i n predictions and d i s -crepancies between pr e d i c t i o n s and a c t u a l performance. The magnitudes of these c o r r e l a t i o n s , however, did not appear to vary i n any systematic manner among the three groups. Psychophysiological data. Skin conductance. SC- data were i n i t i a l l y subjected to a fou r - f a c t o r , mixed analysis of variance with subjects' diagnostic category the between groups factor and type of conditioning t r i a l , and scoring i n t e r v a l providing two of the three within groups fa c t o r s . The t h i r d within groups factor was ob-tained by grouping the f i f t e e n presentations of each of the three d i f f e r e n t 91 types of conditioning t r i a l j i n t o blocks of f i v e t r i a l s each. This was done i n order to evaluate the development of response patterns as a func-t i o n of increasing experience i n the conditioning s i t u a t i o n . Due to equipment problems, the SC recordings of two subjects i n the D group were unscorable; therefore the r e s u l t s of t h i s analysis are based on an N of 8 subjects i n t h i s group, while the NC and PC groups' data are based on an N of 10 i n each group. Results of the analysis of variance (Table 8) revealed s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s for the type of conditioning t r i a l (F (4, 100) = 4.91, £ < .05), t r i a l blocks (F (2, 50) = 11,61, p < .01) and scoring i n t e r v a l (_F_C 4, 100) = 17.57, p_ < .01) var i a b l e s and s i g n i f i c a n t type of conditioning t r i a l X scoring i n t e r v a l (_F (8, 200) = 12.35, £. < .01) and t r i a l blocks X scoring i n t e r v a l (F (8, 200) = 2.81, j> < .01) i n t e r -actions i n addition to s i g n i f i c a n t conditioning t r i a l X scoring i n t e r v a l X diagnostic group (F (16, 200) = 2.30, JD < ,01) and conditioning t r i a l X t r i a l block X scoring i n t e r v a l (F (16, 400) = 3.59, £ < .01) t h i r d order i n t e r a c t i o n s . Subsequent to t h i s i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s , a serie s of planned orthogonal contrasts were performed. Two orthogonal comparisons evaluated the e f f e c t s of the type of conditioning t r i a l v a r i a b l e . These comparisons demonstrated that SC values for the aversive auditory conditioning t r i a l were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from those f o r the p i c t o r i a l and neutral t r i a l s (_t = 9.88, 2. < -01) but the l a t t e r two types of conditioning t r i a l did not d i f f e r (_t = .04, ns) . Inspection of mean SC values reveals that these values tended to be higher on aversive conditioning t r i a l s (X = 15.43 ymho) than on p i c t o r i a l (X = 15.10 ymho) and neutral (X = 15.09 ymho) t r i a l s . Orthogonal analyses of the t r i a l blocks v a r i a b l e showed that the dif f e r e n c e 92 Table 8, Results of the analysis of variance f o r skin conductance data. Source SS df MS F 2. T o t a l 90,443,58 1259 G (Diagnostic groups) 7,627.50 2 3813.75 1.36 ns Error 70,360.00 25 2814.40 C (Type of conditioning) 12.56 2 6,28 4.90 <.05 C X G 2.24 4 0.56 0.44 ns Error 63.99 50 1.28 T ( T r i a l blocks 3,543.93 2 1771.96 11.61 <.001 T X G 889.19 4 222.30 1.46 ns Error 7,630.42 50 152.61 C X T 2.30 4 0.57 0.86 ns C X T X G 7.59 8 0.95 1.42 ns Error 66.71 100 0.67 I (Scoring i n t e r v a l ) 17.12 4 4,28 17.57 <.001 I X G 2.08 8 0.26 1.07 ns Error 24.36 100 0.24 C X I 35.42 8 4.43 12.35 <.001 C X I X G 13.21 16 0.83 2.30 <. oi" Error 71.72 200 0.36 T X I 2.50 8 0.31 2.81 <.01 T X I X G 2.53 16 0.16 1.42 . ns Error 22.29 200 0.11 C X T X I 5.44 16 0.34 3.59 <.001 C X T X I X G 2.66 32 0.08 0.88 ns Error 37,82 400 0.09 93 i n SC values between the f i r s t t r i a l block and the second two t r i a l blocks was s i g n i f i c a n t ( t .= 18,76, p_ "s .01) as was the dif f e r e n c e between t r i a l block two and t r i a l block three (t_ = 4,45, p_ < ,05). Inspection of means for the three t r i a l blocks reveals an increase i n SC with longer exposure to the experimental s i t u a t i o n (X t r i a l block 1 = 13,02 Umho, X t r i a l block 2 = 15.34 umho, X t r i a l block 3 = 17,15 umho). SC values over the f i v e l e v e l s of the scoring i n t e r v a l s v a r i a b l e were subjected to a l i n e a r trend analysis which resulted i n a s i g n i f i c a n t t-value (_t = 58.81, _p_ < .01). This s i g n i f i c a n t general trend reveals a tendency for skin conductance values to increase over the f i v e scoring i n t e r v a l s as depicted i n F i g . 8, Subse-quent analyses of the i n t e r a c t i o n between t h i s l i n e a r trend component and the other independent v a r i a b l e s proved informative. The i n t e r a c t i o n between the l i n e a r trend of SC values over scoring i n t e r v a l s and the type of con-d i t i o n i n g t r i a l v a r i a b l e dichotomized by contrasting the aversive auditory conditioning condition with the neutral and p i c t o r i a l conditions combined had a s i g n i f i c a n t t_ value of 84,56 ( JD < .01). However, the i n t e r a c t i o n of the l i n e a r trend component for scoring i n t e r v a l s with the type of conditioning t r i a l v a r i a b l e dichotomized as p i c t o r i a l contrasted with neutral conditioning t r i a l s was not s i g n i f i c a n t (t_ = 1.46). The i n t e r -a ction of the l i n e a r trend over scoring i n t e r v a l s with the type of condi-t i o n i n g t r i a l (aversive auditory vs. p i c t o r i a l and neutral combined) i s depicted i n F i g . 9. From t h i s f i g u r e i t can be seen that on aversive auditory conditioning t r i a l s , SC values increased as f a r as the fourth scoring i n t e r v a l (corresponding to the period of UCS presentation) and then tended to decrease during the poststimulation i n t e r v a l ( i n t e r v a l 5) to a l e v e l s l i g h t l y below that at the fourth scoring i n t e r v a l . On the other S K I N C O N D U C T A N C E [MICROMHOS] A tn tn ^ to '_i co 'tn O O O O O <76 1 5.70 O x • 5 15.50| O cc O 1 5.30| LU o < O Q 1 5.101 O O * 1 4.90 O O T R I A L S T R I A L S Fig. 9. S C O R I N G N T E R V A L Mean SC values over the f i v e scoring intervals on aversive (A) t r i a l s and on the p i c t o r i a l and neutral (N) t r i a l s combined. 96 two types of conditioning t r i a l l i t t l e change i n skin conductance values over t r i a l s i s evident. The f i n a l set of orthogonal contrasts examined the i n t e r a c t i o n be-tween type of conditioning t r i a l , diagnostic groups and the l i n e a r com-ponent over scoring i n t e r v a l s . The f i r s t of these examined the i n t e r a c t i o n between type of conditioning t r i a l dichotomized as aversive auditory vs. p i c t o r i a l and neutral t r i a l s combined, diagnostic groups dichotomized as group D vs. groups PC and NC combined, and the l i n e a r trend over scoring i n t e r v a l s and y i e l d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t _t value (t_ = 29.47, JD < .01). The i n t e r a c t i o n between type of conditioning t r i a l ( p i c t o r i a l vs. n e u t r a l ) , diagnostic groups (group D vs. groups PC and NC combined) was i n s i g n i f i c a n t (_t = 0.13) as were the i n t e r a c t i o n . terms contrasting groups PC and NC as a function of aversive versus p i c t o r i a l and neutral t r i a l s and the l i n e a r trend over i n t e r v a l s (_t = 0.46) and the i n t e r a c t i o n term f o r groups PC vs. NC X p i c t o r i a l vs. neutral conditioning t r i a l s X l i n e a r trend (t = 0.47). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between diagnostic category of subject, type of condi-t i o n i n g t r i a l and, the l i n e a r trend over scoring i n t e r v a l s i s depicted g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g . 10. From t h i s f i g u r e i t can be seen that f o r the com-bined PC and NC group and for the D group SC values on non-aversive types of conditioning t r i a l remain f a i r l y stable over each of the f i v e scoring i n t e r v a l s . C i c c h e t t i ' s (1972) modification of the Tukey HSD mu l t i p l e com-parison procedure was used a f t e r the orthogonal analyses i n order to c l a r i f y the nature of the differ e n c e observed. These analyses were f i r s t performed on the differ e n c e between scoring i n t e r v a l s 1"through 5 on non-aversive t r i a l s for the D group and the combined PC and NC group separately. No differences between scoring i n t e r v a l s were found. Next, differences i n mean 17.BO cnoup o 17.40 A TRIALS I o O P + N TR IALS « 16.60 o X 2 o u 3.,6-20 a z o u 15.40 o-S 1 SCORING INTERVALS F i g . 10. Mean SC values over the f i v e scoring i n t e r v a l s on aversive (A) t r i a l s and on the p i c t o r i a l (P) and neutral (N) t r i a l s combined as a function of subjects' diagnostic categories. NC = normal co n t r o l , PC = p s y c h i a t r i c c o n t r o l , D = depressive. 98 SC values between scoring i n t e r v a l s 1 through 5 on aversive t r i a l s were examined. This analysis,performed on the scores of the combined NC and PC group,revealed only that scoring i n t e r v a l 4 (UCS presentation) d i f f e r e d from scoring i n t e r v a l 1 ( p r e s t i m u l a t i o n ) . In contrast, among D subjects, i n t e r v a l s 1,2, and 3 (prestimulation, WS, CS) d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from i n t e r v a l s 4 and 5 (UCS,poststimulation), but not from one another. Contrasts between aversive and nonaversive t r i a l s at each of the f i v e scoring i n t e r v a l s were conducted separately f o r groups PC and NC combined and group D. These contrasts showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean SC values on aversive t r i a l s only during UCS presentation f o r NC and PC subjects, while D subjects' mean SC on aversive t r i a l s was s i g n i f l e a n t 1 ,y higher than on non-aversive t r i a l s during UCS presentation and during the poststimulation i n t e r v a l . Since no s p e c i f i c predictions had been made beforehand with respect to the i n t e r a c t i o n between t r i a l blocks and scoring i n t e r v a l s and the i n t e r -a ction between type of conditioning t r i a l , t r i a l blocks and scoring -i n t e r v a l s , analyses of these s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s were c a r r i e d out using the modified Tukey procedure. For the t r i a l blocks X scoring i n t e r v a l s i n t e r a c t i o n SC values were compared across blocks at each of the f i v e scoring i n t e r v a l s , and then across each of the f i v e scoring i n t e r v a l s within t r i a l blocks. This analysis revealed higher SC values during t r i a l block 3 than during t r i a l block 2, and higher SC values during t r i a l block 2 than during t r i a l block 1 at each l e v e l of the scoring i n t e r v a l s v a r i a b l e . Patterns of SC change, over the f i v e scoring i n t e r v a l s d i f f e r e d s l i g h t l y during each t r i a l block. The most marked changes occurred during the f i r s t t r i a l block, where SC 99 values were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n i n t e r v a l s 4 and 5 (UCS presentation and poststimulation) than during i n t e r v a l s 1-3. During t r i a l blocks 2 and 3 SC values were higher during i n t e r v a l 4 than during i n t e r v a l 1 (pre-stimulation); no other differences were s i g n i f i c a n t . The analysis for the type of conditioning t r i a l X t r i a l blocks X scoring i n t e r v a l s i n t e r a c t i o n revealed that superimposed upon a s i g n i f i c a n t general increase i n SC values over each t r i a l block was a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n SC over scoring i n t e r v a l s during aversive conditioning t r i a l s . There were no r e l i a b l e changes i n SC values over scoring i n t e r v a l s during p i c t o r i a l and n e u t r a l t r i a l s . The pattern of SC change during aversive t r i a l s was one of increasing SC during those scoring i n t e r v a l s correspon-ding to CS and UCS presentation, with elevations being maintained during the post stimulation i n t e r v a l . A s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n SC during WS presentation was observed on the f i r s t t r i a l block but not thereafter. Further, SC values increased during those scoring i n t e r v a l s corresponding to UCS presentation and the poststimulation i n t e r v a l r e l a t i v e to the i n t e r v a l corresponding to the period of CS presentation on t r i a l blocks 1 and 3, but not on t r i a l block 2. These data are depicted g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g . 11. Heart rate. HR data were i n i t i a l l y subjected to a 3 X 3 X 3^X 13 mixed model analysis of variance. As with SC, diagnostic category of subjects comprised the b e t w e e n groups factor while type of conditioning t r i a l , t r i a l blocks, and scoring i n t e r v a l s comprised the within-groups fa c t o r s . This analysis (Table 9) revealed s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s f or diagnostic category of subject (F (2, 27) = 3.43, JD < .05), type of con-101 Table 9. Results of the analysis of variance f o r heartr-rate data. Source SS df MS F Tot a l 468,337,91 3509 G (Diagnostic groups) 88,157,38 2 44,078,69 3,43 < ,05 Error 346,629.50 27 12,838,13 C (Type of conditioning t r i a l ) 167,77 2 83,88 3,93 < .05 C X G 86,83 4 21.71 1.02 ns Error 1,153.77 54 21.37 T ( T r i a l blocks) 485.36 2 242.68 1.70 ns T X G 33.73 4 8.43 0.06 ns Error 7,709,04 54 142.76 C X T 14.44 4 3.61 0.12 ns C X T X G 286,36 8 35.79 1.23 ns Error 3,149.76 108 29.16 I (Scoring Intervals) 514.58 12 42,88 5,52 < .001 I X G 179,78 24 7,49 0.96 ns Error 2,518.51 324 7.77 C X I 140.65 24 5.86 0.96 ns C X I X G 386.17 48 8.05 1.31 ns Error 3,967.01 648 6.12 T X I 278.10 24 11.59 2.00 <, .005 T X I X G 323.49 48 6.74 1.16 ns Error 3,749.05 648 5.79 C X T X I 247.32 48 5.15 0.88 ns C X T X I X G 588.77 96 6.13 1.05 <. .001 Error 7,570.54 1296 • 5.84 102 d i t i o n i n g t r i a l (F (2, 54) = 3.92, p_ < .05), and scoring i n t e r v a l s (F_ (12, 324) = 5.32, _p_ < .01), and s i g n i f i c a n t t r i a l blocks X scoring i n t e r v a l s (F (24, 648) = 2.00, p_ < .01), and type of conditioning t r i a l X t r i a l blocks X scoring i n t e r v a l s X diagnostic groups (F (48, 1296) = 1.05, p_ < .05) i n t e r a c t i o n s (Fig. 12). A series of planned orthogonal comparisons was then c a r r i e d out i n order to evaluate some of the main e f f e c t s . These com-parisons i n d i c a t e d that mean HR for group D was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from that for groups PC and NC combined (t_ = 2.62, p_ < .05) but groups PC and NC did not d i f f e r from one abother (t_= .10, ns). Mean HR was higher for group D than for groups PC and NC (X =91.94, 81.82, 81.50,respectively). Orthogonal analyses of the c l a s s of conditioning t r i a l v a r i a b l e showed that mean.HR on aversive conditioning t r i a l s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from that on p i c t o r i a l and neutral t r i a l s combined (_t = 28.58, p_ < .01); the l a t t e r two types of conditioning t r i a l not d i f f e r i n g from each other (_t = 0.46, ns). Mean HR was higher on aversive than on p i c t o r i a l and neutral t r i a l s (X = 85.16, 84.66, 84.75,respectively). As i n the o v e r a l l analysis of variance, no s i g n i f i c a n t differences were noted i n orthogonal analyses of the t r i a l blocks v a r i a b l e . Since no s p e c i f i c p r e d i c t i o n s had been generated with respect to the s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t obtained f o r scoring i n t e r v a l s , Tukey HSD analysis was employed i n order to evaluate the s i g n i f i c a n c e of differences between a l l possible pairwise comparisons of the 13 l e v e l s of t h i s factor. This analysis showed a s i g n i f i c a n t HR deceleration during i n t e r v a l s 10, 11, and 12 r e l a -t i v e to i n t e r v a l s 1-9. The s i g n i f i c a n t t r i a l blocks X scoring i n t e r v a l s i n t e r a c t i o n was shown on post-hoc analysis to derive from the development of a pattern of HR deceleration over t r i a l blocks. During t r i a l block 1, only SCORING INTERVALS F i g . 12. Depiction of the s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between subjects' diagnostic category, type of >-> conditioning t r i a l , t r i a l blocks, and scoring i n t e r v a l s f o r HR data. Each column de- S p i c t s the. data from one group of subjects, whereas each row represents one type of conditioning t r i a l . NC = normal control, PC = p s y c h i a t r i c control, D = depressive; • A = aversive, P = p i c t o r i a l , N = neutral; TB 1 = t r i a l block 1, TB 2 = t r i a l block 2; TB 3 - t r i a l block 3. 104 i n t e r v a l 12 was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than i n t e r v a l 1, while during t r i a l block 2 HR on i n t e r v a l 12 was lower than during i n t e r v a l s 7 and 8. During i n t e r v a l s 10, 11, and 12, HR was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than during i n t e r v a l s 2 and 4, 2, 3, 4, and 7 and 2 through 7, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The, s i g n i f i c a n t four-factor i n t e r a c t i o n between diagnostic groups, type of conditioning t r i a l , t r i a l blocks, and scoring i n t e r v a l s i s shown gra p h i c a l l y i n F i g . 12. Analyses of t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n were c a r r i e d out by performing C i c c h e t t i ' s (1972) modification of the Tukey HSD procedure on the main e f f e c t s of each factor within t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n . Because the r e s u l t s of t h i s analysis were extremely complex, only the major trends i n the data w i l l be summarized here; the complex analysis i s presented i n Appendix B. On aversive conditioning t r i a l s NC subjects evidenced the development of a s i g n i f i c a n t a c c e l e r a t i v e change i n HR values occurring during the CS i n t e r v a l on t r i a l block 3. PC subjects evidenced the development of a s i m i -l a r a c c e l e r a t i v e HR change that d i d n"o t- a't; t a i n s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . D subjects evidenced no systematic changes i n HR on aversive conditioning t r i a l s . On p i c t o r i a l conditioning t r i a l s , PC subjects evidenced the develop-ment of a s i g n i f i c a n t decelerative HR change during the f i r s t post-stimulation i n t e r v a l on the second t r i a l block and a s i m i l a r , but non-significant pat-tern on the t h i r d . NC subjects evidenced somewhat lower HR values during the i n t e r v a l of UCS presentation on t r i a l block 3, but t h i s trend was, again, nonsignificant. D subjects exhibited no systematic HR changes. On neutral conditioning t r i a l s , the only HR difference that occurred was a somewhat perplexing HR "spike" among NC subjects during the l a s t i n t e r v a l of CS presentation on the f i r s t t r i a l block. 105 During a l l scoring i n t e r v a l s and t r i a l blocks, D subjects exhibited s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher HR than NC and PC subjects. By way of summary, the following seem to be the most important of the psychophysiological findings. Tonic SC l e v e l s did not d i f f e r s i g -n i f i c a n t l y between groups. A s i g n i f i c a n t increment i n tonic SC values was observed from early to l a t e r t r i a l s i n the conditioning s i t u a t i o n . A s i g n i f i c a n t type of conditioning t r i a l main e f f e c t and type of conditioning t r i a l X scoring i n t e r v a l i n t e r a c t i o n revealed greater SC a c t i v i t y on aversive than on p i c t o r i a l and n e u t r a l t r i a l s . F i n a l l y , a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between subjects' diagnostic category, type of conditioning t r i a l , and scoring i n t e r v a l s seemed to r e f l e c t greater SC a c t i v i t y on aversive conditioning t r i a l s among D subjects than among NC and PC subjects. HR data revealed greater tonic HR l e v e l among D subjects than among NC and PC subjects, greater HR l e v e l on aversive than on p i c t o r i a l and neutral t r i a l s , and a s i g n i f i c a n t 4-factor i n t e r a c t i o n between subjects' diagnostic group, type of conditioning t r i a l , t r i a l blocks, and scoring i n t e r v a l s . This l a t t e r f i n d i n g seemed to r e f l e c t r e s t r i c t e d v a r i a b i l i t y of HR for D subjects as contrasted with NC and PC subjects and the apparent development of HR acceleration on aversive t r i a l s and HR deceleration on p i c t o r i a l t r i a l s among non-D subjects. Psychometric data - Self-Monitoring Scale Snyder's (1975) scale assessing the self-monitoring of expressive behaviour (SM; see Appendix A) was administered to a l l subjects. This scale was developed i n order to d i f f e r e n t i a t e people according to t h e i r a b i l i t y to "... observe and con t r o l t h e i r expressive behaviour and s e l f -presentation" (Snyder, 1975, p.527). The aforementioned a b i l i t y seemed 106 conceptually r e l a t e d to the processes involved i n the experimental task. In p a r t i c u l a r , i t seemed l i k e l y that subjects high i n the a b i l i t y puta-t i v e l y measured by t h i s scale should exhibit better performance as r e -ceiver and/or sender subjects. To the extent that one group of subjects was characterized by exceptional performance as sender or receiver sub-j e c t s , the same group should have exhibited correspondingly exceptional scores on the SM scale. A one-way analysis of variance compared scores on t h i s scale as a function of diagnostic groups. No s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t was noted (F (2, 27) = 0.22). Two further c o r r e l a t i o n a l analyses assessed the degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between subjects SM scores and t h e i r composite scores as receivers and senders. Pearson _r values for these c o r r e l a t i o n s were -.06 and .13 r e s p e c t i v e l y ; both nonsignificant. 107 Chapter V DISCUSSION Subject c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The extent to which v a l i d conclusions about depression or depressed people can be drawn from the present study i s dependent upon the pre-sentation of evidence that the v a r i a b l e of "depression" was a meaningful discriminator of the three groups i n the study. Psychometric evidence c o l l e c t e d from the subjects i n t h i s study supports the assertion that the three groups did vary i n l e v e l of depression. It i s not su r p r i s i n g that the D group exhibited higher BDI scores than both the PC and NC groups i n l i g h t of the fac t that scores on t h i s inventory were used as s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a . While a mul t i v a r i a t e analysis revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t between-group differences i n eit h e r l e v e l or p r o f i l e of MMPI scales, inspection of Fig.2 shows that the three groups' mean scores on the D scale were ordered appropriately. Subjects i n the D group evidenced the highest scores on scale D, while PC and NC subjects exhibited lower scores, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Moreover, while the mul t i v a r i a t e analysis resulted i n nonsignificant f i n d i n g s , a simple one-way analysis of variance of D scale scores resulted i n a s i g n i f i c a n t F_ value. The evidence, then, i s consistent with the assertion that the va r i a b l e of depression was a meaningful discriminator of the groups. Inspection of F i g . 2 reveals that the mean D scale score of the PC group was elevated above a T-score of 70. This elevation was la r g e l y accounted f o r by extreme scores on :the part of 2 subjects. It i s further l i k e l y that t h i s elevation r e f l e c t s the fac t that the MMPI D-scale i s m u l t i f a c t o r i a l , and i s not a p a r t i c u l a r l y discriminating 108 measure of depression. Comrey (1957), for example, found i n a fac t o r a n a l y t i c study that items from t h i s scale load on at l e a s t a dozen f a c t o r s , only 2 of which seem c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the concept of depression. Beck (1967) devoted a great deal of attention to the problem of age differences between groups i n research on depression. He noted i n t h i s regard that the r i s k f o r depression increases with increasing age, and that i n much of the research which has compared groups of depressed i n d i v i d u a l s with groups of subjects belonging to other psychodiagnostic categories, depressive subjects often were s i g n i f i c a n t l y older. As a re s u l t of t h i s , any differences found could not be a t t r i b u t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to the e f f e c t s of depression. In the present study, the average age of group PC was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than those of groups D and NC; however, the mean ages of the l a t t e r two groups did not d i f f e r . The s i g n i f i c a n t l y younger mean age of group PC i s not su r p r i s i n g considering that the major proportion of these subjects were being treated i n a sexual dysfunction c l i n i c . This s i g n i f i c a n t difference does not seem to be p a r t i c u l a r l y troublesome methodologically i n that the age v a r i a b l e did not co r r e l a t e with subjects' e f f i c a c y i n emitting or i d e n t i f y i n g nonverbal cues d i s -criminating between the three types of conditioning t r i a l s . The fac t that the NC and D groups were approximately equal on the age v a r i a b l e allows for further disclaiming the p o s s i b i l i t y that differences between groups on the experimental task were p r i m a r i l y accountable f o r i n terms of age differences. Judgemental data. Communication .accuracy. As can be seen-in F i g . 5 -depressed'subjects were the most d i f f i c u l t "senders" to judge c o r r e c t l y . M u l t i p l e comparison 109 analyses showed that the differences between the NC and PC senders was not s i g n i f i c a n t . This f i n d i n g provides c l e a r support f o r the hypothesis that depressed i n d i v i d u a l s exhibit a d e f i c i t i n nonverbal communicative behaviour and provides further support f o r Lewinsohn's (1974, 1975; Lewinsohn, Weinstein, and Shaw, 1969) hypothesis that a lack of s o c i a l s k i l l represents a major ' antecedent condition f or the genesis of depressive behaviour. The present findings are consistent i n t h i s regard with those of several previous studies (Aronson and Weintraub, 1967; H i n c h l i f f e et a l . , 1971; Rosenberry et a l . , 1969; Lewinsohn et a l . , 1968; Lewinsohn et a l . , 1970; Libet and Lewinsohn, 1973; Lewinsohn and Graf, 1973; Libet et a l . , 1973; Schaeffer amd Lewinsohn, 1971; Ekman and Friesen, 1974) a l l of which having found evidence f o r the presence of deviant patterns of verbal or nonverbal com-municative behaviour among depressed subjects. The s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r t r i a l blocks r e f l e c t s the fa c t that subjects on the whole were easier to judge on the second 15 t r i a l s judged (ac t u a l l y the t h i r d of 3 blocks of conditioning t r i a l s i n session I, since the middle 15 conditioning t r i a l s were not videotaped) than on the f i r s t 15. This fi n d i n g may r e f l e c t ^ e i t h e r or both of two processes: (1) the develop-ment over time of more r e a d i l y discriminable changes i n f a c i a l expressive behaviour on the part of sender subjects and (2) the adaptation of receiver subjects to i d i o s y n c r a t i c nuances i n the expressive behaviour of sender subjects over the 30 t r i a l s presented per sender. Subjectively, i t was c l e a r from viewing the videotapes of session I that the former process was c r i t i c a l . This f i n d i n g provides evidence, therefore, for the development over time of d i s c r i m i n a t i v e responses under the control of the various CS 1s used i n t h i s study. 110 The s i g n i f i c a n t receivers X senders X t r i a l blocks i n t e r a c t i o n i s somewhat more complex. Inspection of F i g . 6 , along with multiple com-parison data reveal that t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y accounted f o r by non-D receivers lack of improvement i n judgemental accuracy on the second t r i a l block when judging D senders and the differences i n judgemental per-formance between D and non-D receivers. Apparently D receivers were better able to accurately judge D senders on the second block of t r i a l s than were non-D receivers.At the same time, D receivers appeared r e l a t i v e l y poor at judging PC senders on the second t r i a l block i n comparison to non-D receivers. Why t h i s might have occurred i s d i f f i c u l t to ascertain. It i s possible that D receivers, because of the s i m i l a r i t y of t h e i r own behaviour to that of other D senders were somehow better able to discriminate subtle cues emitted by these subjects. Perhaps s e l f - o b s e r v a t i o n a l processes operative while D subjects were themselves going through session I of the experiment contributed toward t h e i r being more attuned to the p a r t i c u l a r types of behaviour l i k e l y to be emitted by subjects e x h i b i t i n g behavioural c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r to t h e i r own. At the same time subjects i n the PC group, e x h i b i t i n g behaviour pathology of a d i f f e r e n t nature may have de-veloped i d i o s y n c r a t i c behaviour patterns over the course of the experiment which resulted i n the f a i l u r e of D receivers to improve judgemental accuracy when judging PC senders during the second t r i a l block. Altogether, these findings suggest that the hypothesis that depressed persons exhibit a d e f i c i t i n nonverbal s o c i a l communicative behaviour may apply s p e c i f i c a l l y to the expressive component of t h i s process as defined i n the introduction. The depressive d e f i c i t , as i t appeared on the experi-mental task, was a r e s u l t of the r e l a t i v e l y poor performance of a l l subjects i n i n c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y i n g the stimulus conditions D subjects were undergoing. It had been expected^, on the basis of Ferster's (1973) speculation that de-pressed persons are characterized by a " l i m i t e d r e p e r t o i r e of observation" that D subjects i n the present study would e x h i b i t r e l a t i v e l y poor performance while serving as receiver subjects i n session 2. Since, according to t h i s formulation, depressive behaviour i s f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d to a f a i l u r e of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s behaviour to come under the c o n t r o l of environmental d i s -criminative s t i m u l i , i n the present study i t was expected that D subjects, i n comparison to non-D subjects, would be r e l a t i v e l y unable to respond appropriately to other subjects' changes i n f a c i a l expression. That i s , D subjects should have exhibited d e f i c i e n t "receptive" s o c i a l communication. Since no s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found between any of the 3 groups of receiver subjects, the present findings f a i l to support Ferster's contention. It may have been, however, that the receiver's task i n the present study did not adequately r e l a t e to what Ferster i d e n t i f i e d as the "basic behavi-oural process" underlying the development of a depressive r e p e r t o i r e . Future research might p r o f i t a b l y attempt to i d e n t i f y more s p e c i f i c a l l y the conditions under which the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l environment exert r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d control over the behaviour of depressed i n d i v i d u a l s . Category choice analyses. The category choice analyses were conducted i n order to evaluate the extent to which consistencies i n the tendency to emit p a r t i c u l a r types of cue on the part of sender subjects, or i n the tendency to perceive p a r t i c u l a r types of cue on the part of receiver subjects played a part i n the r e s u l t s obtained. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , an analysis of the nature of t h i s experiment suggests that there are at l e a s t two d i f f e r e n t ways for a given c l a s s of sender subject to produce poor performance on the 112 part of the receiver subjects: (1) by f a i l i n g to acquire d i f f e r e n t i a t e d responses which would allow the receiver to accurately i d e n t i f y the stimulus conditions to which senders were being exposed, or (2) by emitting a p a r t i c u l a r kind of response with a r e l a t i v e l y high frequency, thus producing a consistent, predominantly incorrect manner of responding on the part of the receiver subject. With regard to the l a t t e r , f o r example, i t might be suggested that depressed subjects would frequently be l i k e l y to emit a p a r t i c u l a r type of cue that would lead to an observer to say that the depressed person was undergoing "aversive" stimulus conditions. The r e s u l t s of the category choice analyses were l a r g e l y negative, and provide l i t t l e support for the notion that any given c l a s s of sender or receiver has a tendency to emit or perceive a p a r t i c u l a r stereotyped c l a s s of nonverbal cue. The analysis of the frequency with which receiver subjects selected the response i n d i c a t i n g that sender subjects were under-going an aversive conditioning t r i a l revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t d ifferences. Thus, i t would appear that there was no tendency on the part of any given cla s s of sender subject to predominantly emit cues which receiver subjects i n general would l a b e l as belonging to a cl a s s of responses i n d i c a t i v e of aversive t r i a l s . Conversely, there was no observable tendency f o r any p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s of receiver subject to predominantly perceive i n others' behaviour cues i n d i c a t i v e of aversive t r i a l s . The analysis of the f r e -quency with which the " p i c t o r i a l " response cl a s s was chosen resulted i n no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s but a s i g n i f i c a n t senders X receivers i n t e r -action (Fig. 7 ) r e f l e c t i n g a tendency on the part of PC receivers to perceive fewer cues than NC or D receivers i n d i c a t i v e of the presence of such a t r i a l when observing D senders. No immediate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s 113 f i n d i n g i s r e a d i l y apparent. Impressionistic data suggest one possible reason for t h i s f i n d i n g . I t was noted that several PC. receivers while making judgements of D senders spontaneously verbalized d i s t r e s s at being unable to "read" or "get i n t o " the other subject. Comments such as "she's r e a l l y a stone-face" or "her expression doesn't change" were not uncommon and these subjects were occasionally observed to remind themselves that "there were pict u r e s , too". Perhaps there was a p a r t i c u l a r ambiguity about the behaviour of D subjects which caused PC subjects to s e l e c t i v e l y choose the responses i n d i c a t i v e of aversive and neutral t r i a l s at the expense of choosing the response i n d i c a t i v e of the presence of a p i c t o r i a l t r i a l . It seems l i k e l y that, among non-D senders, c e r t a i n very s p e c i f i c cues c o n t r o l l e d the use of the " p i c t o r i a l " response by receiver subjects. I f such s p e c i f i c i t y of behaviour was infrequent among D subjects, i t could account f o r the r e l a t i v e l y infrequent use of the " p i c t o r i a l " response by PC recei v e r s judging D senders. Why t h i s phenomenon was observed only among PC r e -ceivers i s d i f f i c u l t to say. The analysis of the frequency with which the "neutral" response choice was used revealed a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r the t r i a l blocks v a r i a b l e , r e f l e c t i n g a reduced frequency of the choice of t h i s response a l t e r n a t i v e during the second block of 15 t r i a l s r e l a t i v e to the f i r s t . This f i n d i n g undoubtedly r e f l e c t s the development of more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d patterns of response on the part of the sender subjects from the e a r l i e r to the l a t e r , t r i a l s of the experiment. Since during the f i r s t block of 15 t r i a l s sender subjects had not had time to develop appropriate CR's-it i s l i k e l y that t h e i r behaviour was r e l a t i v e l y d i f f u s e r e l a t i v e to t h e i r behaviour on the second t r i a l block, while by the second t r i a l block they would have had s u f f i c i e n t experience with the experimental s i t u a t i o n 114 to have acquired r e l a t i v e l y more s p e c i f i c response patterns. The r e l a t i v e l y n onspecific behaviour emitted by these subjects during the f i r s t t r i a l block was probably more l i k e l y to provoke the choice of "neutr a l " response a l t e r n a t i v e on the part of receiver subjects. As senders' responses be-came more d i f f e r e n t i a b l e toward the l a t e r t r i a l s , receiver subjects would have been more l i k e l y to choose response a l t e r n a t i v e s appropriate to the other two types of conditioning t r i a l . The category choice analyses, considered i n conjunction with the judgemental accuracy data suggest that the evident d e f i c i t among depres-sives i n the emission of nonverbal cues which may be discriminated by others r e s u l t s not from a tendency to emit a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s of behaviour to an excessive degree. Rather, i t seems that the depressive may serve as an ambiguous s o c i a l stimulus whose emission of behaviour i s not d i f -f e r e n t i a t e d enough to con t r o l the behaviour of others. The l i k e l y s o c i a l consequences of such a d e f i c i t f i t i n quite well with current behavioural theories of depression. Given that the depression-prone person i s charac-t e r i z e d by a r e l a t i v e d e f i c i t i n the extent to which she emits behaviour which others can i d e n t i f y and respond d i s c r i m i n a t i v e l y to, much of her behaviour i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s i s l i k e l y to "miss the mark". In s i t u a t i o n s i n which a p a r t i c u l a r behaviour or set of behaviours emitted by another person might be r e i n f o r c i n g , the depression-prone person's behaviour be-cause of i t s in e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n c o n t r o l l i n g others' behaviour w i l l f a i l to produce the r e i n f o r c i n g consequence. In s i t u a t i o n s where aversive contingencies p r e v a i l , the depression-prone person's behaviour i s l i k e l y to be i n e f f e c t i v e i n removing the aversive state of a f f a i r s . Thus the i n d i v i d u a l may experience a low rate of p o s i t i v e reinforcement i n addi t i o n 115 to being exposed to an aversive, punitive environment. Further probable sequelae, r e s u l t i n g from the e f f e c t s of such a d e f i c i t i n expressive s o c i a l communication are i d e n t i f i a b l e . It has been noted, that, through the process under discussion, the depression-prone i n d i v i d u a l i s l i k e l y to (a) f a i l to obtain p o s i t i v e reinforcement and (b) f a i l to avoid aversive experiences through engaging i n interpersonal behaviours. The former defines the basic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of an e x t i n c t i o n schedule, while the l a t t e r e f f e c t i v e l y defines a punishment paradigm; both being applied to attempts to engage i n interpersonal behaviour. Thus, the i n d i v i d u a l exposed to such contingencies could be expected to engage i n fewer and fewer interpersonal behaviours with the e f f e c t of producing further s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . C l i n i c a l descriptions of depressed i n d i v i d u a l s and f a c t o r a n a l y t i c research have devoted a great deal of a t t e n t i o n to what has been termed the depressive's " l o s s of i n t e r e s t i n the s o c i a l environment" (Beck. 1967; C o s t e l l o , 1972; Grinker et a l . , 1961). A t t r i b u t i n g the r e s t r i c t e d range of interpersonal contacts and v a r i e t y of interpersonal behaviour to such an i n t e r n a l process as "loss of i n t e r e s t " seems to miss the point that the behaviours implied by such a term are r e l a t e d to the contingencies of the s o c i a l environment of which they are a function, and that the l i k e l i h o o d of being exposed to such contingencies may be to a s i g n i f i c a n t extent re l a t e d to the d e f i c i t i n expressive s o c i a l communica-t i o n observed i n the present study. Although these data seem c l e a r l y supportive of the hypothesized s o c i a l communication d e f i c i t , a l t e r n a t i v e explanations are possible. Although the present findings have been applied to a p a r t i a l formulation of the etiology of depression, and the data are consistent with t h i s f o r -116 mulation, the methodology employed was inadequate for the purpose of drawing any unequivocal conclusions about the e t i o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the present f i n d i n g s . The information obtained i n the present study was c o r r e l a t i o n a l i n the sense that a d e f i c i t was observed i n a group of people defined as being depressed r e l a t i v e to groups of people who were not. I t i s possible that t h i s d e f i c i t may be a consequence of a c e n t r a l depressive "disease state", or of engaging i n depressive behaviour. If t h i s were a more adequate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the present findings, two a l t e r n a t i v e conclusions would be possible: (a) a d e f i c i t i n expressive s o c i a l communica-t i o n has l i t t l e , i f any, relevance to the etiology of depression, or (b) a d e f i c i t i n the expressive s o c i a l communication has l i t t l e relevance to the o r i g i n of depression, but may serve as a f a c t o r i n the maintenance of the disorders. In the case of the l a t t e r , i t could be assumed that the same unknown factors which are responsible f o r the production of depression are also responsible for the production of a d e f i c i t i n s o c i a l communication s k i l l s . It would then be possible to argue that t h i s superimposition of a communication d e f i c i t atop an already present depressive disorder compounds the depressive's problems by reducing reinforcement and increasing aversive experiences and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n and thus either lengthens or makes more severe the depressive episode. I t might be possible to evaluate the e t i o -l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of a d e f i c i t i n expressive s o c i a l communication by modifying the present paradigm with the i n c l u s i o n of a group of "remitted" depressives, or r e t e s t i n g a group of "formerly i l l " depressives at some s p e c i f i e d point a f t e r an apparent improvement i n t h e i r c l i n i c a l condition. Another strategy would be to select a group of subjects at "high r i s k " f o r depression and, u t i l i z i n g the appropriate control groups evaluate whether 117 or not high risk-poor communication subjects are more susceptible to e p i -sodes of c l i n i c a l depression than high risk-good communication subjects. Performance and predictions of performance. C l i n i c a l descriptions of depressed patients heavily emphasize the high frequency of p e s s i m i s t i c statements to be observed among them and often note that such patients tend to approach s i t u a t i o n s with what has been termed a " d e f e a t i s t a t t i t u d e " . Such notions have been incorporated into c e r t a i n cognitive theories of depression, p a r t i c u l a r l y that of Beck (1967). As noted i n Chapter 1, Beck's theory considers depression to be a disorder of thinking, characterized by a "primary t r i a d " of cognitive schemata con-s i s t i n g of a negative conception of the s e l f , the external world, and the future. Research relevant to t h i s formulation has employed subjects' s e l f -ratings of p r o b a b i l i t y of success and l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n while manipulating success and f a i l u r e on experimental tasks. In general, findings from t h i s l i n e of research have been consistent with the conclusions that depressed subjects tend to be r e l a t i v e l y p e s s i m i s t i c with regard to t h e i r perceived p r o b a b i l i t y of success, tend to exhibit l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n ratings which are s i m i l a r to those of non-depressed subjects, and tend to evaluate t h e i r performance more negatively than non-depressed subjects (Loeb et a l . , 1967; Loeb et a l . , 1971). It w i l l be r e c a l l e d that i n the present study, a l l subjects serving i n the receiver condition of session 2 were required to make predictions re-garding the number of correct judgements they would make on each set of 30 videotaped excerpts of each of 3 sender subjects presented to them. The data thus acquired may be seen to be roughly analogous to the p r o b a b i l i t y of success estimates used by Loeb and h i s colleagues. Analysis of variance 118 performed upon these data revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences as a function of diagnostic groups or o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n of p r e d i c t i o n . Thus, to the extent that the predictions of performance used i n the present study may be said to be a s i m i l a r dependent v a r i a b l e to Loeb et a l . ' s p r o b a b i l i t y of success estimates, the present findings f a i l e d to r e p l i c a t e those of the previous studies. Further c o r r e l a t i o n a l analyses were performed on these data i n an attempt to test some predictions derived from Seligman's (1972, 1975) theory of depression. According to Seligman's formulation, depression occurs when a person may be said to have acquired "learned helplessness". Whatever the o r i g i n s of t h i s phenomenon, i t s c r i t i c a l feature i s said to be the i n d i v i -dual's "expectation" that behaviour and i t s consequences are independent, noncontingent events. Once t h i s "expectancy" has been acquired, the various phenomena of depression follow. As noted i n Chapter 1, a test of several predictions of Seligman's theory ( M i l l e r and Seligman, 1973) found that depressed subjects showed'less change i n ratings of t h e i r p r o b a b i l i t y of success on a " s k i l l " task than did nondepressed subjects. From Seligman's p o s i t i o n i t would seem to follow that r e l a t i v e to nondepressed subjects, depressed subjects' ratings of t h e i r expectancies for success at a given task should be random, and should remain r e l a t i v e l y unaffected by feedback regarding t h e i r performance. With regard to the present study, i t would be predicted from Seligman's theory that depressed subjects' predictions of t h e i r own performance should remain stable over t r i a l s , and that changes i n predictions should not be s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with the discrepancy be-tween t h e i r p r e dictions and t h e i r actual performance on previous t r i a l s . As can be seen i n Table 7 , the r e s u l t s of the present study are strongly 119 disconfirmatory with respect to t h i s hypothesis. Difference scores r e f l e c t i n g changes i n subjects' predictions of t h e i r performance were, for the most part, s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with diff e r e n c e scores r e f l e c t i n g the d i s -crepancy between subjects' predictions and t h e i r a c t u a l performance and these c o r r e l a t i o n s were of a large magnitude f o r depressed subjects. Thus, depressed subjects' predictions of t h e i r own performance showed systematic changes i n the d i r e c t i o n of more c l o s e l y approximating t h e i r actual per-formance on previous t r i a l s — a f i n d i n g exactly opposite to what would be expected from Seligman's theory. I t would seem therefore that depressed i n d i v i d u a l s do not always behave as i f t h e i r behaviour and i t s outcome were independent. Psychophysiological data. Skin conductance. SC values increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y as a function of increased exposure to the experimental s i t u a t i o n during the c l a s s i c a l conditioning phase of t h i s study. This f i n d i n g was unexpected i n that l e v e l of SC a c t i v i t y i s commonly interpreted as r e f l e c t i n g l e v e l of arousal and, as such, should have evidenced habituation during the l a t t e r t r i a l s . The s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t for the type of conditioning t r i a l v a r i a b l e was p a r t i a l l y consistent with experimental expectations. SC values were generally elevated on aversive conditioning t r i a l s thus confirming the provocative q u a l i t i e s of the type of stimulation employed i n t h i s study. On the other hand, S6 values on p i c t o r i a l t r i a l s were i n general i n d i s t i n -guishable from those on neutral t r i a l s . Discussion of t h i s f i n d i n g i n addition to the f i n d i n g of a s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r trend component for SC values may be more f r u i t f u l l y considered i n r e l a t i o n to several of the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s observed and therefore w i l l be postponed u n t i l these 120 i n t e r a c t i o n s are considered. I n i t i a l l y , those i n t e r a c t i o n terms about which no a p r i o r i pre-d i c t i o n s had been made w i l l be discussed. These two in t e r a c t i o n s — t r i a l block X scoring, i n t e r v a l s and type of conditioning t r i a l X t r i a l blocks X scoring i n t e r v a l s — are best treated together since the patterns of SC change observed i n the two-way i n t e r a c t i o n seem to be accounted for by those patterns of change observed i n the third-order i n t e r a c t i o n . For the i n t e r -action between t r i a l blocks and scoring i n t e r v a l s , a general increase i n SC values was observed between the e a r l i e r and l a t e r scoring i n t e r v a l s . This pattern was most marked during the f i r s t t r i a l block, and became l e s s pronounced on the second and t h i r d t r i a l blocks. Analysis of the 3-way conditioning t r i a l X t r i a l blocks X scoring i n t e r v a l s i n t e r a c t i o n shown i n Fig . 11, reveals that t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t increase over scoring i n t e r v a l s i s pr i m a r i l y due to the e f f e c t s of aversive stimulation. From Fig.11 i t can be seen that l i t t l e change i n SC values occurs over scoring i n t e r v a l s on neutral and p i c t o r i a l conditioning t r i a l s . However, on aversive t r i a l s , a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n SC values i s observed from the early to the l a t e r scoring i n t e r v a l s . Orthogonal analyses of the i n t e r a c t i o n between type of conditioning t r i a l and the l i n e a r trend of SC change over scoring i n t e r v a l s confirmed i n general what was s p e c i f i c a l l y observed i n the 3-way type of conditioning t r i a l X t r i a l block X scoring i n t e r v a l s i n t e r a c t i o n . As can be seen i n Fig . 9 , an increasing l i n e a r trend of SC values was found on aversive conditioning t r i a l s , but not on p i c t o r i a l or neutral conditioning t r i a l s . Thus, only on aversive conditioning t r i a l s was a co n d i t i o n i n g - l i k e phenomenon observed i n SC values. 121 The pattern of SC change on aversive conditioning t r i a l s i s the t y p i c a l pattern observed i n trace conditioning procedures using SC as a dependent v a r i a b l e . It had been expected, however, on the basis of a study reported by Corah and Tomkiewicz (1971) that a s i m i l a r pattern of SC change would be observed on p i c t o r i a l conditioning t r i a l s . The p i c t o r i a l s t i m u l i used i n t h i s study were selected on the basis of t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y to the s t i m u l i used by Corah and Tomkiewicz. This study f a i l e d to r e -p l i c a t e these authors' f i n d i n g that electrodermal conditioning can be pro-duced through the use of p i c t o r i a l s t i m u l i of moderate " i n t e r e s t " value. Several reasons f o r t h i s f a i l u r e to r e p l i c a t e may be proposed. One possible reason may be that the p i c t o r i a l s t i m u l i used i n t h i s study were not of s u f f i c i e n t " i n t e r e s t " value to produce any consistent e f f e c t on e l e c t r o -dermal responding. Corah and Tomkiewicz had t h e i r subjects rate the i n t e r e s t value of the s l i d e s employed p r i o r to taking part i n the study. On the basis of these ratings, p i c t o r i a l s t i m u l i were chosen which had been found to have some degree of i n t e r e s t value f o r the sample of subjects they em-ployed i n t h e i r study. A second reason for the discrepancy between the findings of t h i s study and those of Corah and Tomkiewicz may r e l a t e to differences i n subject samples. Corah and Tomkiewicz' sample consisted of female college students with a mean age lower than that of any of the groups i n the present study. It may have been that the type of stimulation em-ployed was d i f f e r e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n producing changes i n electrodermal responding f o r the d i f f e r e n t subject samples involved. A t h i r d possible explanation f o r the discrepancy between the two studies r e l a t e s to contex-t u a l differences i n the paradigms employed. Corah and Tomkiewicz' procedure involved the comparison of two d i f f e r e n t types of t r i a l ( p i c t o r i a l and 122 neutral) while the present study employed three ( p i c t o r i a l , n e u tral and aversive). It may have been that presentation of p i c t o r i a l conditioning t r i a l s within the same context of and r e l a t i v e l y recent c o n t i n u i t y with aversive conditioning t r i a l s resulted i n the f a i l u r e to observe a pattern of SC change that might otherwise have occurred. An a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n might be that i n the type of conditioning procedure employed i n t h i s study and that of Corah and Tomkiewicz, c o n d i t i o n i n g - l i k e SC changes are most l i k e l y to occur on those t r i a l s employing the most intense stimu-l a t i o n . One f i n a l point worthy of emphasis i s that while the p i c t o r i a l conditioning t r i a l s i n t h i s study did not produce any r e l i a b l e SC changes, t h i s does not ne c e s s a r i l y mean that t h i s form of stimulation was not e f f e c -t i v e i n producing r e l i a b l e physiologic or behavioural e f f e c t s . C l e a r l y , the f a c t that subjects were able to accurately i d e n t i f y p i c t o r i a l t r i a l s at a better than chance l e v e l during the judgemental task of session 2 strongly indicates that r e l i a b l e behavioural changes occurred during p i c -t o r i a l conditioning t r i a l s . Evidence to be discussed l a t e r suggests that other p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s occurred on p i c t o r i a l t r i a l s . Of greatest i n t e r e s t f o r the purposes of the present study was the f i n d i n g of a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between diagnostic groups, type of conditioning t r i a l and scoring i n t e r v a l s . Orthogonal analyses of t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n revealed that neither the NC and PC groups, nor the p i c t o r i a l and neutral conditioning t r i a l s d i f f e r e d i n SC values over the 5 scoring i n t e r v a l s . Inspection of Fig.10 reveals that what change i n SC values occurred took place on aversive conditioning t r i a l s , and the pattern and magnitude of SC change d i f f e r e d as a function of diagnostic groups. Thus the D group exhibited a greater magnitude of change i n SC values from scoring 123 i n t e r v a l 3 to scoring i n t e r v a l 4 on aversive conditioning t r i a l s than did the combined control groups. Thus the D group exhibited a greater increase i n SC values during the presentation of the aversive UCS than did the NC and PC groups. A d d i t i o n a l l y , rather than observing a decrease i n the SC values during the post-stimulation i n t e r v a l as was seen i n the PC and NC groups, D group subjects exhibited further increases i n SC during t h i s period. These r e s u l t s are consistent with those of Lewinsohn, Lobitz and Wilson (1973), who reported that depressed college students, r e l a t i v e to p s y c h i a t r i c and normal controls exhibited greater electrodermal response to aversive ( e l e c t r i c shock) stimulation i n a n o n - d i f f e r e n t i a l c l a s s i c a l conditioning paradigm. Unlike the r e s u l t s reported by Lewinsohn et a l . , i n the present study, SC values continued to r i s e among D subjects during the post-stimulation i n t e r v a l , while a p a r t i a l return to prestimulation SC l e v e l s was observed among PC and NC subjects. Together with those of Lewinsohn et a l . , the findings of the present study are l a r g e l y i n c o n s i s -tent with those of other studies dealing with the electrodermal a c t i v i t y of depressed subjects during c l a s s i c a l conditioning procedures. As. reported, i n Chapter 3, Ban et a l . (1966) reported differences between depressives and normals i n the d i r e c t i o n of diminished responsivity among members of the former group i n UCR amplitude. S i m i l a r l y , Dawson et a l . (1974) reported decreased UCR magnitude among depressed subjects compared with a matched group of normals. Given the inconsistencies between these studies, i n t e r p r e t i v e statements regarding the meaning of the findings obtained i n the present study are hazardous. It may be, as Lewinsohn (1974a) suggests, that aversive stimulation produces a greater autonomic (electrodermal) response 124 among other selected diagnostic groups, but the inconsistent findings r e -viewed above argue against u n c r i t i c a l acceptance of t h i s hypothesis. The inconsistencies observed between these studies might r e f l e c t differences i n some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the various samples of depressives u t i l i z e d . In the Ban et a l . study, depressed subjects were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d into 3 groups: "neurotic", "endogenous", and " s c h i z o - a f f e c t i v e " , while i n the Dawson et a l . study a l l depressed subjects were diagnosed as s u f f e r i n g from a "primary monopolar depressive i l l n e s s " , but, more importantly, a l l had been recommended for ECT. Lewinsohn et a l . ' s subjects, on the other hand, were a l l unhospitalized college students, while i n the present study a wide v a r i e t y of patients p a r t i c i p a t e d ; ranging from outpatients to one who was being considered for ECT. It i s possible that the discrepant findings of these studies might r e f l e c t the operation of a severity of depression variables with the former two studies employing more severely depressed subjects, while the present study and that of Lewinsohn et a l . might have used les s severely depressed subjects. In t h i s regard, i t might be noted , that a severity or c h r o n i c i t y v a r i a b l e has been p r o f i t a b l y applied to the analysis of discrepant findings i n studies of electrodermal behaviour among schizophrenic subjects (DePue and Fowles, 1973). Heart rate. Subjects i n the D group were found to exhibit a greater mean HR than did subjects i n e i t h e r the NC or PC groups, r e p l i c a t i n g the findings of K e l l y and Walter (1968), McCarron (1973) and Dawson et a l . (1974). With regard to the psychophysiological mechanisms that might be re-f l e c t e d i n t h i s f i n d i n g , i t need hardly be noted that heart data are commonly taken to r e f l e c t the e f f e c t s of conditions r e f e r r e d to as " s t r e s s f u l " . S i m i l a r l y , a common i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of between-groups differences i n tonic 125 HR l e v e l suggests that the differences observed r e f l e c t disparate l e v e l s of "arousal". In accordance with t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i t might be suggested . on the basis of the present findings that depressives i n general tend to be p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y hyperaroused. What the implications of such a con-cl u s i o n f o r an explanation of the o r i g i n s and nature of depressive behaviour might be, however, are unclear. Elevated tonic HR l e v e l s have been found to characterize several c l i n i c a l groups, in c l u d i n g schizophrenics (Buss, 1966; Venables, 1966) and anxiety neurotics (Martin and Sroufe, 1970). Whether these findings r e f l e c t the operation of the same process i n a l l these groups or d i f f e r e n t processes producing the same ultimate psycho-p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t i n each s p e c i f i c group i s not known. It must be pointed out, further, that i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of psychophysiological data as r e f l e c t i n g differences i n l e v e l of arousal rest upon the general u t i l i t y concept of arousal. This concept has come under attack i n recent years f o r being vague and f a i l i n g to account f o r the complexities of psychophysiological res-ponse patterns (Lacey, 1967; Lacey and Lacey, 1970, 1974). Thus, the h u e r i s t i c value of concluding that depressives i n general tend to be hyper-aroused i s questionable. Lacey's (1967; Lacey and Lacey, 1970, 1974) speculations with respect to the meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e of v a r i a t i o n s i n HR provide the basis f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e means of accounting f o r the differences observed i n the present study. This p o s i t i o n argues that HR l e v e l s r e f l e c t a dimension of "acceptance" or " r e j e c t i o n " of environmental information by the organism. Elevations i n HR according to t h i s formulation are i n d i c a t i v e of environmental r e j e c -t i o n , while decreased HR values r e f l e c t "environmental intake" or "atten-t i o n " . Thus, i t might be argued that D subjects' elevated tonic HR l e v e l 126 r e f l e c t s an a c t i v e process of " r e j e c t i o n of the environment". Such a p o s i t i o n has some appeal i n that i t corresponds with informal descriptions of depressed patients as "tuning out" the environment. Further, c e r t a i n t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s on depression such as Lazarus' (1972) notion that the depressive exhibits elevated sensory thresholds, and Ferster's (1973) hypothesis that the depressive i s a poor observer of the environment seem to be pointing toward something s i m i l a r . The v a l i d i t y of such an explana-t i o n , however, depends upon the v a l i d i t y of Lacey's hypothesis, a hypothesis which has been subjected to a number of lengthy c r i t i c i s m s ( E l l i o t , 1972, 1974; Hahn, 1973). One a l t e r n a t i v e to Lacey's explanation of the phenomenon of HR acceleration-deceleration i s p a r t i c u l a r l y apropos here. Obrist, Webb, Sutterer, and Howard (1970) have argued that HR v a r i a t i o n represents a response to v a r i a t i o n s i n the organism's energy demands such that HR e l e -vation occurs when increased somatic a c t i v i t y requires extra energy mobi-l i z a t i o n . In t h i s regard, the most consistent psychophysiological f i n d i n g among depressed patients i s that of elevated EMG l e v e l s . Thus, the f i n d i n g of elevated tonic HR l e v e l among depressed patients could simply be a by-product of elevated somatic (EMG) a c t i v i t y . One possibly important i m p l i c a t i o n of the present f i n d i n g of elevated tonic HR among depressives r e l a t e s to the p o s s i b i l i t y of using HR measures as indices of therapeutic change i n depression. If tonic HR l e v e l i s an important c o r r e l a t e of depression, changes i n depressive behaviour, brought about as the r e s u l t of some e f f e c t i v e form of therapeutic intervention might be r e f l e c t e d i n changes i n tonic HR l e v e l . Furthermore, to the ex-tent that deviant psychophysiological response patterns are a component of 127 depressive disorders, therapeutic change could p o t e n t i a l l y be a f f e c t e d through the use of biofeedback procedures. Such a strategy seems rather i n d i r e c t , however. Orthogonal a n a l y s i s of the type of conditioning t r i a l v a r i a b l e r e -vealed that mean HR on aversive conditioning t r i a l s was greater than that on p i c t o r i a l and neutral t r i a l s . As with the SC data, these r e s u l t s are at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y i n accordance with experimental expectations, and again confirm the provocative properties of the aversive stimulation employed. It had been expected, on the basis of Lacey's speculations regarding the pattern of HR a c t i v i t y among subjects exposed to stimulation of some "i n t e r e s t value" that HR values on p i c t o r i a l conditioning t r i a l s might be s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than on aversive or neutral t r i a l s . This p r e d i c t i o n f a i l e d to be confirmed when considering the o v e r a l l main e f f e c t of the type of conditioning t r i a l . It must be pointed out, however, that t h i s main e f f e c t term was obtained by c o l l a p s i n g over 13 scoring i n t e r v a l s , 3 classes of subject, and 3 t r i a l blocks; thus f a i l i n g to account for a large amount of variance taken up by these f a c t o r s . Analyses of i n t e r a c t i o n s between the type of conditioning t r i a l v a r i a b l e and the other 3 v a r i a b l e s suggest that the anticipated "Lacey e f f e c t " may be present, though attenuated, i n the data. The s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t for the scoring i n t e r v a l s v a r i a b l e and the s i g n i f i c a n t t r i a l blocks X scoring i n t e r v a l s i n t e r a c t i o n both r e f l e c t decreasing HR values during l a t e r scoring i n t e r v a l s . This pattern of HR deceleration became more marked during l a t e r t r i a l blocks. Thus, increasing experience i n the conditioning s i t u a t i o n was accompanied by greater HR deceleration during l a t e r scoring i n t e r v a l s . Since the deceleration i n -128 v a r i a b l y occurred during the UCS and poststimulation i n t e r v a l s , t h i s phenomenon seems rel a t e d to the end of a n t i c i p a t o r y sequence and may r e f l e c t decreasing arousal, or a decrease i n somatic energy demands (Obrist et a l . , 1970). The s i g n i f i c a n t four-factor i n t e r a c t i o n between diagnostic groups, type of conditioning t r i a l , t r i a l - b l o c k s , and scoring i n t e r v a l s , though highly complex, seems amenable to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . As can be seen i n F i g . and as confirmed by post hoc a n a l y s i s , HR l e v e l s f or D subjects were s i g -n i f i c a n t l y higher than they were for NC and PC subjects at a l l l e v e l s of the type of conditioning t r i a l , t r i a l - b l o c k s , and scoring i n t e r v a l s v a r i a b l e s . Furthermore, as i s evident from Fig.12 , the greatest I n t e r v a l -t o - i n t e r v a l v a r i a b i l i t y i n HR scores occurred during aversive conditioning t r i a l s . During the f i r s t block of aversive conditioning t r i a l s , NC subjects exhibited an elevated mean HR during the f i r s t prestimulation i n t e r v a l that dropped out on the following two t r i a l blocks. During the second t r i a l block, an a n t i c i p a t o r y HR increment i s evident during the f i r s t 3 i n t e r v a l s of CS presentation, and thereafter a decrement beginning during the l a s t i n t e r v a l of CS presentation and continuing to the l a s t poststimulation i n t e r v a l was observed. During the t h i r d t r i a l - b l o c k a HR increment occurred during the second prestimulation i n t e r v a l and continued u n t i l the second i n t e r v a l of CS presentation, a f t e r which a decrement was observed. While post-hoc analysis revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between scoring i n t e r -v a ls on aversive conditioning t r i a l s f o r PC subjects, inspection of F i g . reveals roughly s i m i l a r patterns of HR change to those observed i n NC sub-j e c t s , with nonsignificant increments i n HR values occurring during the period of CS presentation. No such pattern i s r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e for D subjects on the 3 blocks of aversive conditioning t r i a l s . These data on HR 129 change demonstrate that for NC subjects, and pos s i b l y f o r PC subjects, a pattern of i n i t i a l HR ac c e l e r a t i o n , then deceleration p r i o r to UCS onset characterized HR response on aversive conditioning t r i a l s . This i s con-s i s t e n t with the pattern often observed i n studies of HR conditioning (Dronsejko, 1973). Why the response should have occurred as early as the second prestimulation i n t e r v a l during t r i a l - b l o c k 3 f o r NC subjects i s prob-lematical i n that, at that point i n the conditioning sequence, no external cue r e l i a b l y associated with UCS-A onset was presented. While t h i s could simply r e f l e c t random variance, since there were only 3 d i f f e r e n t types of conditioning t r i a l , i t i s possible that subjects, having been exposed to p r i o r p i c t o r i a l and neutral t r i a l s , were responding to the i m p l i c i t CS involved i n the contingency that 1/3 of a l l t r i a l s were of an aversive nature. This post-hoc i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s obviously highly speculative. On p i c t o r i a l conditioning t r i a l s , HR values remained f a i r l y stable over the f i r s t 11 scoring i n t e r v a l s during a l l 3 t r i a l blocks f o r PC subjects. However, during the second and t h i r d t r i a l blocks, a decelerative response occurred during the f i r s t poststimulation i n t e r v a l (12th scoring i n t e r v a l ) . Although f o r NC subjects there were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between any of the scoring i n t e r v a l s within each t r i a l block on post-hoc t e s t s , inves-t i g a t i o n of F i g . 12 reveals a roughly s i m i l a r pattern of HR deceleration occurring during l a t e r scoring i n t e r v a l s on the second and t h i r d t r i a l blocks. D subjects undergoing p i c t o r i a l conditioning t r i a l s exhibited almost i d e n t i c a l HR scores during a l l 13 scoring i n t e r v a l s . These data demonstrate the occurrence of a decelerative HR response during a period of time roughly contiguous with the presentation of p i c t o r i a l stimulation among PC subjects. In addition, i t appears possible that a s i m i l a r pattern 130 occurred among NC subjects i n spite of the f a c t that post-hoc s t a t i s t i c a l comparisons f a i l e d to show that t h i s pattern was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . These observations suggest that a "Lacey e f f e c t " of HR deceleration i n the presence of environmental s t i m u l i having " i n t e r e s t value" occurred among PC subjects, possibly occured among NC subjects, but did not occur at a l l among D subjects. Unfortunately, the present data do not provide any e v i -dence at a l l f o r the development of co n d i t i o n a l HR change to s t i m u l i r e l i a b l y preceding the presentation of p i c t o r i a l s t i m u l i . The only s i g n i f i c a n t HR change observed on neutral t r i a l s was the occurrence of an a c c e l e r a t i v e HR "spike" during the ninth scoring i n t e r v a l of the f i r s t t r i a l block for NC subjects. This spike i s d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t i n l i g h t of t h e o r e t i c a l expectations on aspects of the experimental s i t u a t i o n which might have e l i c i t e d i t . From F i g . 12 i t can be seen that nothing resembling t h i s spike was observable during l a t e r t r i a l blocks or on any other t r i a l block for the other two groups of subjects. The only other HR changes of s i m i l a r magnitude that occurred i n the experiment were observed among NC subjects during aversive conditioning t r i a l s . The only apparent i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s phenomenon takes into account the context within which netural t r i a l s were presented. It may have been that during early t r i a l s , NC subjects had not acquired f u l l y discriminated patterns of HR responding. If these subjects had f a i l e d to acquire a d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between aversive and neutral t r i a l s at t h i s point i n time, t h i s spike may have been an a c c e l e r a t i v e response i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of the presentation of an aversive UCS. This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , however, i s highly speculative. Taken together, the psychophysiological data from t h i s study lead to a number of conclusions. The electrodermal data from the present study and 131 that of Lewinsohn et a l . (1973) provide discomfirmatory evidence for Lazarus'; (1968, 1972) hypothesis that depressed persons may be characterized as " r e l a t i v e l y r e f r a c t o r y to most forms of stimulation". While the data of Ban et a l . (1966) and Dawson et a l . (1974) may be used to argue that Lazarus' de s c r i p t i o n may sometimes be the case, c l e a r l y such a g e n e r a l i -zation i s unwarranted on the basis of the present findings. With regard to the HR data, the 4-factor i n t e r a c t i o n seems to r e f l e c t the development over time of consistent a c c e l e r a t i v e and decelerative response patterns on aversive and p i c t o r i a l conditioning t r i a l s r e s p e c t i v e l y but no consistent pattern of HR change f or D subjects. Although t h i s f i n d i n g could be taken as support f o r Lazarus' hypothesis, i t seems more l i k e l y that the f a i l u r e to observe any consistent patterns of HR change among D subjects simply r e f l e c t s the operation of a " c e i l i n g e f f e c t " . In fact the f i n d i n g of a s i g n i f i c a n t l y elevated tonic HR l e v e l among depressed subjects also seems inconsistent with Lazarus. Psychometric data: Self-monitoring of expressive behaviour. P r i o r to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the.experimentj a l l subjects completed Snyder's (1975) scale assessing the self-monitoring of expressive behaviour (SM). This scale was developed i n order to assess i n d i v i d u a l differences i n the extent to which people are able to "...observe and control t h e i r expressive behaviour and sel f - p r e s e n t a t i o n " (Snyder, 1975, p.527 )• Studies of the psychometric c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the scale demonstrated i n t e r n a l consistency, temporal r e l i a b i l i t y , and discriminant v a l i d i t y , while a series of other studies provided good support f o r i t s construct v a i l i d i t y . Conceptually, i t appeared that the construct p u t a t i v e l y measured by t h i s scale should be rel a t e d to various aspects of subject's performance on the 132 experimental task i n the present study. If people scoring high on the SM scale demonstrate better c o n t r o l over t h e i r expressive behaviour and a greater a b i l i t y to use t h i s control i n order to e f f e c t i v e l y manage the impact they have on others than subjects scoring low on the scale, i t would seem reasonable that SM scores should be s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with (at least) subjects' performance as senders i n the present study, and possibly with t h e i r performance as receivers. Moreover, i f , as was hypothesized i n the present study, depressives are d e f i c i e n t i n the " a b i l i t y " to emit or perceive expressive behaviours c o n t r o l l e d by various stimulus conditions, they could be expected to score lower on the SM scale than other groups not so d e f i c i e n t . This expectation was strengthened by Snyder's (1975) finding that a mixed group of p s y c h i a t r i c patients scored s i g n i f i -cantly lower, while a group of theatre actors scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than a normative sample of u n i v e r s i t y students on the SM scale. In regard to these proposals, the present findings were completely negative. Between-group comparisons of SM scores by a n a l y s i s of variance revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences, while c o r r e l a t i o n s between subjects' SM scores and composite scores r e f l e c t i n g subjects' performance as senders and receivers revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A v a r i e t y of reasons for t h i s f a i l u r e to f i n d e i t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t between-group differences or s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between the SM scores and subjects' experimental performance can be suggested. It i s possible that the construct p u t a t i v e l y measured by the SM involves the operation of processes e n t i r e l y independent of those involved i n the pre-sent experimental s i t u a t i o n . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the present fin d i n g s could be taken as simply another demonstration of the often found poor r e l a t i o n s h i p 133 between personality tests designed to measure hypothetical i n t e r n a l t r a i t s and actual behavioural performances, v a r i a t i o n s i n which should r e f l e c t the operation of s i m i l a r processes (cf. Mischel, 1968). A t h i r d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these data suggests that the f a i l u r e to f i n d any s i g n i -f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be a t t r i b u t e d to sampling c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The subjects with which Snyder performed hi s r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y studies were, f o r the most part, drawn from samples with c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s quite markedly d i f f e r e n t from those of subjects employed i n the present study. Snyder's subjects were p r i m a r i l y drawn from college populations, and the only study using somewhat d i f f e r e n t subjects employed t h e a t r i c a l actors and psychiatric patients; a l l such groups, with the exception of the l a t t e r , varying i n a number of important respects from the groups used i n the present study. The p o s s i b i l i t y that sampling c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l a r g e l y accounted f o r the r e s u l t s obtained i n the present study gains credence when the mean scores for the two p s y c h i a t r i c groups employed i n the present study (PC X = 10.20; D X = 10.60) are compared to the mean score of Snyder's p s y c h i a t r i c group (X = 10.19). Comparison of these values with the mean SM score f o r the NC group i n the study (X = 9.60) shows that a l l , these values are quite s i m i l a r , while comparisons with the means of Snyder's actor sample (X = 18.41) suggests that sampling differences played an important r o l e i n the d i s p a r i t i e s between the two studies. As an a l t e r n a t i v e to a l l these speculations, i t could also be argued that the present findings c a l l into question the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y and c l i n i c a l meaningfulness of Snyder's fin d i n g s . In the absence of further data, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to favour one explanation over another. 134 Methodological and i n t e r p r e t i v e problems. This section deals with d i f f i c u l t i e s i n experimental design which provide p o t e n t i a l sources of bias and r e s t r i c t the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the present study and discusses i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a l issues a r i s i n g from uncontrolled aspects of the study. The f i r s t question to be dealt with r e l a t e s to the p o t e n t i a l con-founding of depressed and nondepressed p s y c h i a t r i c groups with i n p a t i e n t -outpatient status. It w i l l be r e c a l l e d that i n the present study, the bulk (8/10) of subjects included i n group D were in p a t i e n t s , while most (7/10) of the PC subjects were outpatients. It could be argued that the differences observed between group PC and D on judgemental and p h y s i o l o g i c a l data could j u s t as l i k e l y be an a r t i f a c t of inpatient-outpatient status as a r e s u l t of depressive status. In an attempt to c l a r i f y t h i s issue, inpatients and outpatients within the D and PC groups were contrasted i n terms of t h e i r composite "sender" scores. These means are presented i n Table 10 where i t can be seen that within group PC, inpatient subjects performed somewhat better than did outpatients, whereas within group D, outpatients performed better than i n p a t i e n t s . Between diagnostic categories, however, D subjects, regardless of whether they were impatients or outpatients per-formed more poorly than did PC subjects. Thus, taking into account the inpatient-outpatient status of subjects within each group s t i l l shows that D subjects performed more poorly as senders than did PC subjects, and supports the p o s i t i o n that the differences observed are at l e a s t p a r t l y a function of depressive status. Another major source of d i f f i c u l t y i n the present study r e l a t e s to Table 10. 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Archives of General Psychiatry, 1959, 1_, 7Q-80, Williams, J.G., Barlow, D.H. and Agras, W.S. Behavioural measurement of severe depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1972, 27, 330-333. Wittenborn, J.R. Depression. IN B.B. Wolman (Ed,), Handbook of c l i n i c a l  psychology, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965. Wolpe, J. Neurotic depression: experimental analog, c l i n i c a l syndromes and treatment. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 1971, 25, 362-368. Zuckerman, M., Persky, H. and C u r t i s , G.C. Relationship among anxiety, depression and autonomic v a r i a b l e s . Journal of Nervous and  Mental Diseases, 1963, 146, 481-487. Zung, W.W. A s e l f - r a t i n g depression scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1965, 12, 63-70. 149 Appendix A. Snyder's (1975) Self-Monitoring Scale Personal Reaction Inventory The statements on the following pages concern your personal reactions to a number of d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . No two statements are exactly a l i k e , so consider each statement c a r e f u l l y before answering. If a statement i s TRUE or MOSTLY TRUE as applied to you, blacken the space marked T on the answer sheet. If a statement i f FALSE or NOT USUALLY TRUE as applied to you, blacken the space marked F_. Do not put your answers on t h i s test booklet i t s e l f . It i s important that you answer as frankly and as honestly as you can. Your answers w i l l be kept i n the s t r i c t e s t confidence. 1. I f i n d i t hard to imitate the behavior of other people. 2. My behavior i s usually an expression of my true inner f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s , and b e l i e f s . 3. At p a r t i e s and s o c i a l gatherings, I do not attempt to do or say things that others w i l l l i k e . 4. I can only argue f o r ideas which I already believe. 5. I can make impromptu speeches even on topics about which I have almost no information. 6. I guess I put on a show to impress or en t e r t a i n people. 7. When I am uncertain how to act i n a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n , I look to the behaviour of others f o r cues. 8. I would probably make a good actor. 9. I r a r e l y need the advice of my friends to choose movies, books or music. 10. I sometimes appear to others to be experiencing deeper emotions than I a c t u a l l y am. 11. I laugh more when I watch a comedy with others than when alone. 12. In a group of people I am r a r e l y the centre of attention. 13. In d i f f e r e n t - s i t u a t i o n s and with d i f f e r e n t people, I often act l i k e very d i f f e r e n t persons. 150 14. I am not p a r t i c u l a r l y good at making other people l i k e me. 15. Even i f I am not enjoying myself, I often pretend to be having a good time. 16. I'm not always the person I appear to be. 17. I would not change my opinions (or the way I do things) i n order to please someone else or win t h e i r favour. 18. I have considered being an entertainer. 19. In order to get along and be l i k e d , I tend to be what people expect me to be rather than anything els e . 20. I have never been good at games l i k e charades or improvisational acting. 21. I have trouble changing my behaviour to s u i t d i f f e r e n t people and d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . 22. At a party I l e t others keep the jokes and s t o r i e s going. 23. I f e e l a b i t awkward i n company and do not show up quite so well as I should. 24. I can look anyone i n the eye and t e l l a l i e with a s t r a i g h t face ( i f f o r a r i g h t end). 25. I may deceive people by being f r i e n d l y when I r e a l l y d i s l i k e them. 151 Appendix B. Post-hoc analysis of the 4-factor heart-rate i n t e r a c t i o n This appendix describes the r e s u l t s of the post-hoc analyses of the s i g n i f i c a n t f o u r -factor HR i n t e r a c t i o n . A l l post hoc comparisons were performed using C i c h e t t i ' s (1972) modification of the Tukey HSD procedure. The r e s u l t s of these analyses w i l l be described f i r s t i n terms of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of differences i n mean HR for each l e v e l of the groups, type of conditioning t r i a l , and t r i a l blocks v a r i a b l e s . During the f i r s t t r i a l block on aversive conditioning t r i a l s , NC subjects s i g -n i f i c a n t l y elevated HR during the f i r s t 2 second scoring i n t e r v a l (cor-responding to the f i r s t of two pre-stimulation i n t e r v a l s ) r e l a t i v e to a l l other scoring i n t e r v a l s . This HR increment occurred during CS presenta-t i o n . On the t h i r d aversive conditioning t r i a l block f o r NC subjects, a s i g n i f i c a n t HR increment occurred during the second prestimulation i n t e r v a l and was maintained as f a r as the second i n t e r v a l of Cs pre-sentation. For both PC and D subjects no s i g n i f i c a n t d ifferences i n mean HR were observed between any of the 13 scoring i n t e r v a l s on the three t r i a l blocks during aversive conditioning t r i a l s . During conditioning t r i a l s on which a p i c t o r i a l UCS was presented, there were no s i g n i f i c a n t HR changes f o r NC and D subjects on any of the three t r i a l blocks, For PC subjects, however, a s i g n i f i c a n t decrement i n HR was observed during the 12th ( f i r s t prestimulation) scoring i n t e r v a l 152 on the second and t h i r d blocks of conditioning t r i a l s on which a p i c t o r i a l UCS was presented. On n e u t r a l conditioning t r i a l s , the only s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t noted was an increase i n HR during the 9th scoring i n t e r v a l ( l a s t i n t e r v a l of CS pre-sentation) on the f i r s t t r i a l block for NC subjects. Differences between mean HR on each of the three t r i a l blocks were then compared within diagnostic groups, type of conditioning t r i a l and scoring i n t e r v a l s . This analysis w i l l be described f i r s t f o r NC subjects under-going aversive conditioning t r i a l s . During the f i r s t ( f i r s t prestimulation) scoring i n t e r v a l , HR was s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater during the f i r s t t r i a l block than on the second and t h i r d which did not d i f f e r from one another. This pattern then reversed i t s e l f , so that on the second (second prestimulation) scoring i n t e r v a l s , mean HR on t r i a l block 3 was s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than on t r i a l blocks 1 and 2 which did not d i f f e r . During the 6th and 7th scoring i n t e r v a l , HR was s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater on t r i a l blocks 2 and 3 than on t r i a l block 1. During both these i n t e r v a l s , HR values on t r i a l blocks 2 and 3 did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from one another. During the 8th ( t h i r d during • CS presentation) scoring i n t e r v a l , HR values during the second t r i a l block were greater than on the f i r s t and t h i r d which did not d i f f e r . During the 9th and 10th ( l a s t during CS presentation and f i r s t during UCS presentation) scoring i n t e r v a l s , there were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n HR on any of the three t r i a l s . During the 11th (second during UCS presentation) scoring i n t e r v a l , HR was s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater on the f i r s t t r i a l block than on the •second and t h i r d t r i a l blocks which did not d i f f e r . During two poststimula-t i o n scoring i n t e r v a l s there were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between any of the t r i a l blocks. ...153 For PC subjects undergoing the aversive conditioning phase of the experiment there were no s i g n i f i c a n t HR differences between the three t r i a l blocks during i n t e r v a l s 1 ( f i r s t presentation) , 3 . ( f i r s t during WS presenta-t i o n ) , 6, 7, 8, 9 ( a l l i n t e r v a l s during CS presentation), 12 and 13 (both poststimulation). During i n t e r v a l 2 (second prestimulation), HR was s i g n i f i -c antly higher on the f i r s t t r i a l block than on the second two t r i a l blocks (which did not d i f f e r ) . During i n t e r v a l s 4 and 5 (second and t h i r d during WS presentation), HR was s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater on t r i a l block 1 than on t r i a l block 3, but t r i a l block 1 did not d i f f e r from t r i a l block 2, nor did t r i a l block 2 d i f f e r from t r i a l block 3. During i n t e r v a l 10 ( f i r s t during UCS presentation), HR was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on t r i a l block 2 than on t r i a l block 3, while t r i a l blocks 2 and 1 and 1 and 3 d i d not d i f f e r . During i n t e r v a l 11 (second during UCS presentation) t r i a l block 1 was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than t r i a l block 3 while t r i a l blocks 2 and 3 and 1 and 2 did not d i f f e r from one another. For D subjects undergoing the aversive conditioning phase of the experiment the only s i g n i f i c a n t HR difference over the three t r i a l blocks 9 was observed during the 12th ( f i r s t poststimulation) i n t e r v a l where HR on t r i a l block 1 was s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than on t r i a l blacks 2 and 3 (which did not d i f f e r ) . No s i g n i f i c a n t HR differences between the three t r i a l blocks were found for any of the three diagnostic groups during conditioning t r i a l s on which a p i c t o r i a l UCS was presented. On n e u t r a l conditioning t r i a l s , the only betweenfetrial-blocks d i f f e r e n c e found was a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater HR on t r i a l block 1 than on t r i a l blocks 2 and 3 (which did not d i f f e r ) during the 9th scoring i n t e r v a l for NC subjects. - 154 The next set of multiple comparisons examined differences i n HR between the three d i f f e r e n t types of conditioning t r i a l s within each of the 3 diagnostics groups, t r i a l blocks, and 13 scoring i n t e r v a l s . For NC sub-j e c t s during the f i r s t t r i a l block, there were no s i g n i f i c a n t HR d i f f e r e n c e s between the three d i f f e r e n t types of conditioning t r i a l during i n t e r v a l s 2 (second prestimulation), 3, 4, 5 ( a l l i n t e r v a l s during WS presentation), 6, 7, 8 ( f i r s t through t h i r d i n t e r v a l s during CS presentation), 10, 11 (both i n t e r v a l s during UCS presentation), 12 and 13 (both poststimulation). During the f i r s t scoring i n t e r v a l , HR was s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater on aversive condi-tioning t r i a l s than on p i c t o r i a l and n e u t r a l t r i a l s (which did not d i f f e r ) . During the 9th scoring i n t e r v a l , HR was greater on n e u t r a l than on aversive and p i c t o r i a l t r i a l s (which did not d i f f e r ) . For NC subjects during the second t r i a l block, the only s i g n i f i c a n t differences noted occurred i n i n t e r v a l s 6, 7, and 8 ( f i r s t 3. i n t e r v a l s during which CS was presented), i n a l l of which HR was greater on aversive than on p i c t o r i a l and n e u t r a l t r i a l s (which did not d i f f e r ) . During t r i a l block 3, NC subjects' mean HR was greater on aversive than on p i c t o r i a l and n e u t r a l t r i a l s for i n t e r v a l s 2 ( l a s t prestimulation), 3, 4, 5 ( a l l i n t e r v a l s during WS presentation), 6 and 7 ( f i r s t two i n t e r v a l s during which CS presented). During a l l other i n t e r v a l s there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d ifferences. For PC subjects, during the f i r s t t r i a l block, there were no s i g n i f i -cant differences between the 3 d i f f e r e n t types of conditioning t r i a l . During the second t r i a l block, the only s i g n i f i c a n t difference occurred during i n -t e r v a l 12 ( f i r s t poststimulation) i n which HR was higher on both aversive and n e u t r a l t r i a l s than on p i c t o r i a l t r i a l s . The f i r s t two types of condi-tio n i n g t r i a l d i d not d i f f e r . During the t h i r d t r i a l block, the only s i g n i f i -155 cant difference occurred i n the t h i r d i n t e r v a l where HR was higher on p i c -t o r i a l and n e u t r a l t r i a l s than on aversive t r i a l s , the p i c t o r i a l and n e u t r a l t r i a l s , again, f a i l i n g to d i f f e r , For D subjects there were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between types of conditioning t r i a l during any scoring i n t e r v a l i n any of the three t r i a l blocks. F i n a l l y , HR differences between the three diagnostic groups were evaluated within each type of conditioning t r i a l , t r i a l block and scoring i n t e r v a l . Most noteworthy was the f a c t that, at a l l l e v e l s of the l a t t e r three v a r i a b l e s , D subjects ' HR was s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than that for the NC and PC groups. On the f i r s t aversive conditioning t r i a l block, NC sub-j e c t s had a greater HR during i n t e r v a l 1 ( f i r s t prestimulation) than d i d PC subjects, while the reverse was true during i n t e r v a l 2 (second prestimulation) no further s i g n i f i c a n t ^.differences between groups NC and PC occurred during i n t e r v a l s 3 through 13. During the second aversive conditioning t r i a l block, groups NC and PC did not d i f f e r except at i n t e r v a l s 6 and 7 ( f i r s t and second i n t e r v a l s during which CS was presented) wherein NC subjects' HR was greater ' t h a n that for PC subjects. During the t h i r d t r i a l block, NC subjects' HR exceeded PC subjects during i n t e r v a l s 2 (second prestimulation), 3, 4, 5, (WS presentation), 6, 7, and 8 ( f i r s t three i n t e r v a l s during CS presentation). During the f i r s t t r i a l block on which a p i c t o r i a l UCS was presented, the only s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between groups NC and PC occurred during i n t e r v a l 13 ( l a s t poststimulation), where NC subjects' HR exceeded that of PC subjects. No other s i g n i f i c a n t differences occurred between NC and PC subjects during any scoring i n t e r v a l i n the second and t h i r d blocks of t r i a l s on which a p i c t o r i a l UCS was presented. 156 On neutral conditioning t r i a l s , the only s i g n i f i c a n t difference between NC and PC subjects occurred during the 9th ( l a s t i n t e r v a l during which CS presented) scoring i n t e r v a l i n the f i r s t block of t r i a l s , where NC subjects' HR exceeded that of PC subjects. 

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