UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Perception of vowel nasalization in French Lafargue, Andre Gustave 1976

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PERCEPTION OF VOWEL NASALIZATION I N FRENCH by A n d r e G u s t a v e L a f a r g u e B . A . j B . S c , M e m o r i a l U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w f o u n d l a n d , 1971 M.A., M e m o r i a l U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w f o u n d l a n d , 1975 A .THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF " THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t o f P a e d i a t r i c s D i v i s i o n o f A u d i o l o g y and S p e e c h S c i e n c e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA i May, 1976 (c) Andre Gustave Lafargue, 1976 In p resent ing t h i s t he s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree tha t permiss ion fo r ex ten s i ve copying o f t h i s t he s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r ep re sen ta t i ve s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t he s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n permi s s ion . Department of PAEDIATRICS D i v . o f A u d i o l o g y & S p e e c h S c i e n c e s The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 i i ABSTRACT The p r e s e n t s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f v o w e l n a s a l i z a t i o n i n F r e n c h . P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s h a d shown t h a t a n a s a l i z e d v o w e l i n a n o n - n a s a l i z e d c o n t e x t was p r o d u c e d w i t h t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t c l o s e d f o r p a r t o f t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e v o w e l . S i m i l a r l y , i t was f o u n d t h a t an o r a l v o w e l i n a n a s a l i z e d c o n t e x t was p r o d u c e d w i t h t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t open f o r p a r t o f t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e v o w e l . S i n g l e c y c l e s were s p l i c e d o u t o f v o w e l s o f b o t h t y p e s a t t i m e s c o r r e s p o n d -i n g t o v a r i o u s and known v e l a r h e i g h t s . They were u s e d t o c o n s t r u c t t h e s t i m u l i o f two l i s t e n i n g t e s t s . E a c h t e s t a l s o c o n t a i n e d n o n - m a n i p u l a t e d r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s ( o r a l a nd n a s a l i z e d ) as c o n t r o l s t o e v a l u a t e t h e l i s t e n e r s ' r e s p o n s e s . N a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f F r e n c h w e re a s k e d t o r a t e , on a 5 - p o i n t s c a l e , t h e d e g r e e o f n a s a l i t y o f e a c h s t i m u l u s . T h e r e seems t o e x i s t a n o n - m o n o t o n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p b e -t w e e n c u r v e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e l i s t e n e r s ' j u d g e m e n t o f n a s a l i t y and t h o s e r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e t i m i n g o f v e l a r movement. R e s u l t s a l s o s u g g e s t t h a t a r a t h e r l a r g e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n may be n e c e s s a r y f o r a F r e n c h l i s t e n e r t o p e r c e i v e an open v o w e l s u c h as [ a ] as n a s a l i z e d , w h e r e a s a s m a l l e r v e l o p h a r y n -g e a l . c r o s s - s e c t i o n may be s u f f i c i e n t t o g i v e a c l o s e v o w e l s u c h as [ e ] and [ o ] a n a s a l i z e d q u a l i t y . I t a l s o a p p e a r s t h a t i l l t h e l i s t e n e r s p e r f o r m some k i n d o f t i m e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e n a s a l i t y f u n c t i o n i n o r d e r t o j u d g e w h e t h e r a v o w e l i s n a -s a l i z e d o r n o t . An a c o u s t i c a n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d o u t , u s i n g an a n a l y s i s -b y - s y n t h e s i s method. I t shows t h a t d i f f e r e n t c h a n g e s o c c u r i n t h e v o w e l s p e c t r u m as t h e v e l u m l o w e r s e . g . , t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d f o r m a n t come c l o s e t o g e t h e r and a t l e a s t one z e r o i s p r e s e n t when t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t i s open. The p o s i t i o n a n d movement o f t h i s z e r o i n t h e s p e c t r u m s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e z e r o on t h e f r e -q u e n c y a x i s on t h e one h a n d , a nd s i z e o f t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n a n d o r a l v o c a l t r a c t on t h e o t h e r . The a c o u s t i c a n a l y s i s a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s some r e l a t i o n b e -t w e e n t h e p r e s e n c e o f a z e r o i n t h e s p e c t r u m o f v o w e l s , t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o s i t i o n o f t h e v e l u m a nd t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f n a s a l i z a t i o n . P o s s i b l e e x p e r i m e n t s a r e s u g g e s t e d f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . i v TABLE OF 'CONTENTS Chapter Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT i x 1. INTRODUCTION. 1 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 6 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 6 2.2 D i r e c t Methods 6 2.21 Cinefluorography. . . . . 6 2.22 Fiberscope. : . . . 7 2.3 I n d i r e c t Methods 9 2 .31 Aerodynamic Methods 9 2.32 Electromyography. . .. 11 2.33 Nasograph 12 2.34 Ultrasounds 12 2.4 Results Obtained i n the L i t e r a t u r e . . . 13 2.41 Results Obtained by Use of Single Methods . 13 2.42 Results Obtained by Use of a D i r e c t Method Combined wi t h EMG 14 2.43 Results Obtained by Use of Cinefluorography and Aerodynamic Parameters 1° V C h a p t e r : Page 2 . 5 P e r c e p t i o n o f N a s a l i t y i n t h e L i t e r a t u r e 17 3 . MATERIALS AND METHODS 21 3-1 S t i m u l i 21 3.2 S e l e c t i o n o f S t i m u l i U t t e r a n c e s 21 3. 3 V o w e l E d i t i n g 2 3 3.4 T e s t P r e p a r a t i o n 26 3 .5 S u b j e c t s 27 3 .6 T e s t P r o c e d u r e and E q u i p m e n t 2 8 4. RESULTS 29 4 .1 D a t a A n a l y s i s 29 4 .11 S t o r a g e and S o r t i n g o f t h e D a t a . . . 29 4 .12 N o r m a l i z a t i o n 31 4 .13 C r i t e r i a f o r S e l e c t i n g B e s t S u b j e c t s 34 4.2 A n a l y s i s o f G r a p h s '42 4 .21 G e n e r a l O b s e r v a t i o n s . . . . 42 4.22 A n a l y s i s o f I n d i v i d u a l V o w e l T y p e s 42 4 .23 G e n e r a l T r e n d s . . 44 4 .3 C o r r e l a t i o n o f R e s u l t s w i t h D a t a o f -B e n g u e r e l e t a l . (1975a) 49' 4.4 A c o u s t i c A n a l y s i s ;.5.6-' 5. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION ;.62: v i C h a p t e r Page BIBLIOGRAPHY ' • "gcf--APPENDIX - I n s t r u c t i o n s . . . 72' v i i L I S T OP TABLES T a b l e Page I., S o r t e d d a t a f o r S u b j e c t #10 . 30 I I . N o r m a l i z e d s c o r e s f o r S u b j e c t # 1 0 's r e s p o n s e s t o a l l f i v e a n d t o t h e l a s t f o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f e a c h s t i m u l u s 33 I I I . mi| q u a r t i l e d i f f e r e n c e s f o r c r i t e r i o n 2 . . . 36 I V . S t i m u l i p r e c e d i n g e a c h o f t h e l a s t f o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s i n b o t h t e s t s and t h e i r a v e r a g e s c o r e ( 2 7 - s u b j e c t g r o u p ) r e : 3 • ^5 V. S u b j e c t s ' s i j ' s f o r t h e r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s i n b o t h t e s t s -47 V I . C o m p a r i s o n o f ' t h e r e s u l t s o f T e s t 1 ( 2 7 - s u b j e c t g r o u p ) w i t h t h e d a t a o f B e n g u e r e l e t a l . (1975a) 51 V I I . C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f T e s t 2 ( 2 7 - s u b j e c t g r o u p ) w i t h t h e d a t a o f B e n g u e r e l e t a l . (1975a) 5 2 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure • Page l a Block diagram of apparatus f o r d i g i t i z a t i o n of speech s i g n a l 24 lb Block diagram of apparatus f o r production of t e s t items 24 2 Average scores ( f i v e responses) i n Test 1. . . 38 3 Average scores ( f i v e responses) i n Test 2. . . 39 4 Average scores ( l a s t four responses) i n Test 1 • . . 40 5 Average scores ( l a s t four responses) i n ' * ' '. Test 2 4l-6 Time ^ correspondence between the f i v e e s t i m u l i and the v e l a r height curve of Benguerel et a l . (1975a) 50 7 Spectra of s t i m u l i obtained by a n a l y s i s - b y -synthesis . . . 58 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my f e e l i n g s o f g r a t i t u d e t o t h e many p e o p l e who h a v e h a d a p a r t i n t h i s t h e s i s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k : A n d r e - P i e r r e B e n g u e r e l , my f r i e n d a n d s u p e r v i s o r , who p a t i e n t l y g u i d e d me t h r o u g h t h e meand e r s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t and t a u g h t me ( b e l i e v e i t o r n o t ! ! t h e a r t o f e x a c t i t u d e . J o h n G i l b e r t f o r s e r v i n g on my c o m m i t t e e . A l l my s u b j e c t s . I n g r i d J e f f r e y a n d C a r o l y n e P e d e r s o n f o r g o i n g o v e r t h e m a n u s c r i p t . ' A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s , f a c u l t y a n d s t a f f cf''AUS . < v; f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t i n many f o r m s d u r i n g t h e p a s t two y e a r s . L a s t , b u t n o t l e a s t , my p a r e n t s and Mamie f o r a l w a y s b e i n g t h e r e , when I ' n e e d e d them. C h a p t e r 1 1 INTRODUCTION M o s t human l a n g u a g e s u s e s o u n d s t o c a r r y i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m a s p e a k e r t o a l i s t e n e r . E a c h l a n g u a g e p o s s e s s e s i t s own p h o n e t i c i n v e n t o r y w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f a s e t o f s p e e c h s o u n d s . Some l a n g u a g e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , use d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p a t t e r n i n g o f man's u p p e r ' r e s p i r a t o r y s y s t e m ( e v e r y t h i n g e l s e b e i n g e q u a l ) t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e s p e e c h s o u n d s . The two c h a n n e l s v i a w h i c h t h e a i r f l o w s i n and o u t o f t h e v o c a l appa-r a t u s ( i . e . t h e n a s a l a n d o r a l c a v i t i e s ) may be u s e d t o p r o -duce d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s p e e c h s o u n d s . P e t e r s o n and Shoup ( 1 9 6 6 , p. 6 0 ) l i s t f o u r d i f f e r e n t c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f t h e r e s -p i r a t o r y s y s t e m w h i c h may be u s e d t o p r o d u c e gpeeeh- s o u n d s : " 1 . O r a l i s a c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e v o c a l t r a c t i n w h i c h t h e r e i s a v e l o p h a r y n g e a l c l o s u r e . 2. N a s a l i z e d i s a c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e v o c a l t r a c t i n w h i c h t h e r e i s an i n t e r m e d i a t e v e l o -p h a r y n g e a l o p e n i n g a nd i n w h i c h t h e r e i s n o t an o r a l c l o s u r e . 3. N a s o r a l i s a c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e v o c a l t r a c t i n w h i c h t h e r e i s a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e v e l o -p h a r y n g e a l o p e n i n g and i n w h i c h t h e r e i s n o t an o r a l c l o s u r e . ( . . . ) . 4. N o n o r a l i s a c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e v o c a l t r a c t i n w h i c h t h e r e i s an o r a l c l o s u r e b u t n o t a v e l o p h a r y n g e a l c l o s u r e . " The f o u r t h c o n f i g u r a t i o n l i s t e d by P e t e r s o n and Shoup ( 1 9 6 6 ) i s most o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as " n a s a l " i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . Some o r a l l o f t h e s e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s are used by v a r i o u s languages o f the w o r l d i n t h e i r p h o n e t i c i n v e n t o r y . I n p a r t i -c u l a r , some languages use n a s a l i z e d ( o r n a s o r a l ) vowels w h i c h are p h o n e m i c a l l y d i s t i n c t from t h e i r o r a l c o u n t e r p a r t s . French i s such a language; i t s p h o n e t i c i n v e n t o r y not o n l y c o n t a i n s n a s a l consonants but a l s o n a s a l i z e d vowels which are p h o n e m i c a l l y d i s t i n c t from o r a l v owels: f o r example, t h e two words " t e t e " : Etet] (head) and " t e i n t e " : [tet] ( c o l o u r ) d i f f e r o n l y by t h e i r v o w e l s , an o r a l one i n "t£te", a n a s a l i z e d one i n " t e i n t e " . The main d i f f e r e n c e between the two vowels i s the p resence o f an open v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t i n the p r o d u c t i o n of the l a t t e r . The main a r t i c u l a t o r which c o n t r o l s the opening and c l o s -i n g o f the v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t i s the s o f t p a l a t e o r velum. When the velum i s l o w e r e d , the v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t i s open and the a i r can f l o w t h r o u g h both the n a s a l and the o r a l cav-i t y i f the mouth i s open. The velum, l i k e most o t h e r speech a r t i c u l a t o r s , has been s t u d i e d by speech s c i e n t i s t s i n an attempt t o r e a c h a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the human communi-c a t i o n p r o c e s s . D i f f e r e n t methods have been d e s i g n e d and used t o study t h e t e m p o r a l course o f v e l a r opening d u r i n g speech. They w i l l be r e v i e w e d i n the next c h a p t e r . One o f the g e n e r a l f i n d i n g s about v e l a r p o s i t i o n concerns the r e l a -t i o n s h i p w h i c h e x i s t s between v e l a r h e i g h t and the degree o f opening of the vowel: open vowels are produced w i t h a lower velum p o s i t i o n than c l o s e ones ( F a n t , I960, p. 139). 3 V e l a r movement i n c o n n e c t e d s p e e c h has a l s o b e e n i n v e s -t i g a t e d . When v o w e l s and c o n s o n a n t s a r e u t t e r e d i n v a r i o u s c o n t e x t s , t h e v e l u m moves f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n t p h o n e s and d e p e n d i n g on t h e c o n t e x t s , d i f f e r e n t v e l a r a c t i v i -t i e s a r e o b s e r v a b l e . V e l a r movement i n F r e n c h h a s b e e n s t u d -i e d by d i f f e r e n t methods ( B e n g u e r e l 1 9 7 4 , B e n g u e r e l e t a l . 1 9 7 5 a , b ) . I n a. s t u d y o f n a s a l a i r f l o w B e n g u e r e l ( 1 9 7 4 , p. I l l ) f o u n d t h a t " T h e r e i s some s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n v e l a r c o a r t i c u l a -t i o n f o r n a s a l c o n s o n a n t s and t h a t f o r n a s a l i z e d v o w e l s , n a m e l y t h a t v e l a r o p e n i n g . g e s t u r e and n a s a l a i r f l o w s t a r t w e l l a h e a d o f t h e n a s a l s o u n d i t s e l f . " I n an a t t e m p t t o f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s s i m i l a r i t y , B e n g u e r e l e t a l . ( 1 9 7 5 a ) u s e d a f i b e r s c o p e t o s t u d y v e l a r movement when o r a l and n a s a l i z e d v o w e l s a r e u t t e r e d i n v a r i o u s c o n s o n a n t e n v i r o n m e n t s . They f o u n d t h a t , i n F r e n c h , when phone-m i c a l l y o r a l v o w e l s a r e u t t e r e d b e f o r e n a s a l c o n s o n a n t s , s u c h as i n / a n a / , t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t . s t a r t s o p e n i n g b e f o r e t h e o n s e t o f t h e c o n s o n a n t e v e n t h o u g h i t does n o t c o m p l e t e l y open u n t 1.1 a f t e r t h e o n s e t o f t h e c o n s o n a n t . T h e s e same a u t h o r s ( i b i d . , p. 71) a l s o f o u n d t h a t p h o n e m i c a l l y n a s a l i z e d v o w e l s a r e n o r m a l l y p r o d u c e d w i t h an o p e n v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t , a l -t h o u g h i n c a s e s where t h e p h o n e m i c a l l y n a s a l i z e d v o w e l s a r e b e t w e e n two v o i c e l e s s s t o p s s u c h as i n / t a t / , " t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t s t a r t s a f t e r t h e o n s e t o f t h e v o w e l ( 3 0 - 6 0 ms) and ends s l i g h t l y ( 1 0 - 2 0 ms) b e f o r e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e c o n d c o n s o n a n t . " H o w e v e r , when s p o k e n i n t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d c o n t e x t s as w e l l as o t h e r s i m i l a r . o n e s , t h e v o w e l s / a / and / a / a r e h e a r d by F r e n c h l i s t e n e r s as b e i n g p h o n e m i c a l l y o r a l and p h o n e m i c a l l y n a s a l i z e d r e s p e c t i v e l y . • I n o t h e r w o r d s , p h o n e m i c a l l y o r a l v o w e l s may be u t t e r e d w i t h t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t p a r t i a l l y open d u r i n g t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n and p h o n e m i c a l l y n a s a l i z e d v o w e l s may be u t t e r e d w i t h t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t p a r t i a l l y c l o s e d d u r i n g t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s t h u s a r i s e , t h e a n s w e r s t o w h i c h w i l l be t h e a i m o f t h i s p a r t i -c u l a r s t u d y : 1) W i t h how much v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t o p e n i n g c a n an o r a l v o w e l be p r o d u c e d by a F r e n c h n a t i v e s p e a k e r t o s t i l l be p e r c e i v e d as p h o n e m i c a l l y o r a l by a F r e n c h n a t i v e l i s t e n e r ? 2) A l t e r n a -t i v e l y , s i n c e t h e v e l u m p o s i t i o n c h a n g e s r a p i d l y t h r o u g h t h e v o w e l , does t h e l i s t e n e r p e r f o r m some k i n d o f t i m e i n t e g r a t i o n t o i d e n t i f y v o w e l s o u n d s as b e i n g o r a l o r n a s a l i z e d ? 3) I f s o , i s i t t h e " a v e r a g e v e l a r . - p a s s a g e w h i c h m a t t e r s ; o r r a t h e r t h e a v e r a g e v a l u e o f some a u d i t o r y f u n c t i o n d e p e n d i n g on t h e s i z e o f t h i s p a s s a g e ? " ( B e n g u e r e l e t a l . , 1 9 7 5 a , p. 7 1 ) . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d by means o f a p e r -c e p t i o n t e s t d e s i g n e d a n d c o n d u c t e d so t h a t d i f f e r e n t v o w e l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t o p e n i n g s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d t o F r e n c h l i s t e n e r s who w i l l be a s k e d t o e v a l u a t e s u b j e c t i v e l y t h e o r a l . o r n a s a l n a t u r e o f t h e t e s t s t i m u l i . The r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o C h a p t e r 3 o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o c e d u r e . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o u s e n a t i v e s p e a k e r s - o f F r e n c h f o r t h e l i s t e n i n g t a s k s i n c e F r e n c h , t h e l a n g u a g e i n v e s t i g a t e d , c o n t a i n s n a s a l i z e d v o w e l s w h i c h a r e p h o n e m i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m o r a l v o w e l s , .and most o t h e r l a n g u a g e s do n o t . The F r e n c h l i s t e n e r s s h o u l d be a b l e t o a s s o c i a t e a s t i m u l u s w i t h a n a s a l i z e d o r an o r a l v o w e l w h i c h t h e y use i n t h e i r s p e e c h . N o n - n a t i v e s p e a k e r s , whose l a n g u a g e does n o t c o n t a i n p h o n e m i c a l l y d i s t i n c t n a s a l i z e d v o w e l s , w o u l d n o t be e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m p r o p e r l y b e c a u s e v o w e l n a s a l i z a t i o n does n o t p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e i r s p e e c h . T h e r e f o r e , t h e y w o u l d n o t have any i n t r i n s i c r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s t o e s t a b -l i s h c r i t e r i a o f n a s a l i t y and o r a l i t y . The r e s u l t s o f t h e p e r c e p t i o n t e s t may p r o v i d e some c l u e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h a f f e c t t h e l i s t e n e r s ' s u b j e c t i v e j u d g e m e n t o f - n a s a l i t y . S i n c e t h e o r i g i n a l r e c o r d i n g s as w e l l as t h e v e l a r h e i g h t m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t s o f B e n -g u e r e l e t a l . (1975a) a r e a v a i l a b l e , one s h o u l d be a b l e t o c o r r e l a t e t h e l i s t e n e r s ' j u d g e m e n t s o f o r a l v e r s u s n a s a l i z e d v o w e l w i t h a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t o p e n i n g . I n p a r t i c u l a r , one s h o u l d be a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e a t w h a t p o i n t d u r i n g v o w e l p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e c o n t e x t s m e n t i o n e d above l i s -t e n e r s a r e a b l e t o a s s o c i a t e a n a s a l i z e d q u a l i t y w i t h t h e v o w e l t h e y p e r c e i v e . 6 C h a p t e r 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r i s a s u r v e y o f t h e d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s and methods u s e d i n t h e s t u d y o f v e l a r movement d u r i n g s p e e c h . I t w i l l a l s o i n c l u d e some o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l f i n d i n g s r e l -e v a n t t o t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h e r e a r e many p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r s t u d y i n g v e l a r movement. I t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n d i r e c t m e t h o d s , w h e r e one a c t u a l l y o b s e r v e s v e l a r movement, and i n d i r e c t methods where one u s e s o t h e r p a r a m e t e r s t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g v e l a r a c t i v i t y . Some e x p e r i m e n t e r s h a v e c o m b i n e d two o r more methods s i m u l t a n e o u s l y I n o r d e r t o g a i n more i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t o c o r r e l a t e t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by t h e m s e l v e s and o t h e r s u s i n g s e p a r a t e m e t h o d s . 2.2 D i r e c t M e thods 2.21 C i n e f l u o r o g r a p h y T h i s m e thod and i t s r e l e v a n t e q u i p m e n t a r e d e s c r i b e d i n M o l l (i960). E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e m a j o r components o f t h e e q u i p -ment a r e an X - r a y t u b e , an ..image i n t e n s i f i e r t u b e , a f l u o r o -s c o p i c s c r e e n a n d a camera. L a t e r a l X - r a y s o f t h e s u b j e c t s a r e made a t a c a m e r a s p e e d w h i c h c a n v a r y f r o m 24 t o 150 f r a m e s p e r s e c o n d . The d i s t a n c e s b e t w e e n s t r u c t u r e s ( e . g . 7 b e t w e e n v e l u m and p h a r y n g e a l w a l l ) a r e t h e n m e a s u r e d on e n -l a r g e m e n t s o f e a c h f r a m e . S u c h a m ethod p r e s e n t s s e v e r a l p r o b l e m s : i ) Though modern t e c h n i q u e s s u c h as t h e one d e s i g n e d by F u j i m u r a e t a l . (1968) may s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e d u c e t h e amount o f r a d i a t i o n s , s u b j e c t s a r e g e n e r a l l y e x p o s e d t o a h i g h r a t e o f r a d i a t i o n . T h i s f o r c e s t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r t o l i m i t t h e s i z e o f t h e c o r p u s s i n c e . . a n y one s u b j e c t c a n o n l y be e x p o s e d t o a v e r y l i m i t e d amount o f r a d i a t i o n b e f o r e h a z a r d l e v e l I s r e a c h e d . i i ) D a t a p r o c e s s i n g o f f i l m d a t a i s done f r a m e - b y - f r a m e w h i c h i s t i m e c o n s u m i n g . M o l l ( i 9 6 0 ) e s t i m a t e s t h a t 35 f r a m e s a t most c a n be m e a s u r e d and a n a l y s e d i n one h o u r , i i i ) I t g i v e s o n l y a m i d - s a g i t t a l p l a n e p i c t u r e o f t h e s u b -j e c t ' s h e a d . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s v e r y h a r d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t i s a c t u a l l y open. The v e l u m i s a t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l o r g a n m o v i n g i n a t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l c a v i t y . The e x p e r i m e n t e r u s i n g X - r a y s i s a b l e t o o b s e r v e and m e a s u r e o n l y two o f t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s , and may o n l y g u e s s a t what i s h a p p e n i n g i n t h e t h i r d d i m e n s i o n : t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t f o r i n s t a n c e , i s o n l y known by i t s s a g i t t a l p l a n e d i m e n s i o n . 2.22 F i b e r s c o p e The f i b e r s c o p e was d e s i g n e d by S a w a s h i m a and H i r o s e ( S a w a s h i m a and H i r o s e , 1968) a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o k y o , f o r o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e l a r y n x . I t c o n s i s t s o f two b u n d l e s o f v e r y 8 f i n e g l a s s f i b e r s ; one b u n d l e o f f i b e r s c a r r i e s l i g h t f r o m a l i g h t s o u r c e t o t h e o r g a n b e i n g s t u d i e d , w h i l e t h e o t h e r b u n d l e o f f i b e r s c a r r i e s t h e image o f t h e o r g a n t o a c a m e r a . U s h i j i m a and S a w a s h i m a (1972) u s e d a w i d e a n g l e f i b e r -s c o p e w h i c h was i n s e r t e d t h r o u g h t h e n o s e o f t h e s u b j e c t so t h a t t h e n a s a l s u r f a c e o f t h e v e l u m c o u l d be o b s e r v e d and f i l m e d . A f t e r f i l m i n g c a l i b r a t i o n s e n t e n c e s f o r two d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s o f t h e ' ' f i b e r s c o p e , t h e y w e re a b l e t o c o r r e l a t e d i f -f e r e n t m e a s u r e m e n t s o f v e l u m p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e amount o f o p e n -i n g o f t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t . U s i n g t h i s m e t h o d , B e n g u e r e l e t a l . (1975a, p. 67) s t u d -i e d t h e t i m i n g o f v e l a r h e i g h t i n F r e n c h . They f o u n d t h a t ' " w h i l e t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f d a t a o b t a i n e d by t h i s m e t h o d i s r e l a t i v e l y s l o w , and t h u s n o t v e r y f a v o r a b l e t o - -• t h e g a t h e r i n g o f a l a r g e c o r p u s , i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y f r e e o f e x p e r i m e n t a l a r t i f a c t s ; i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e f i b e r s c o p e does n o t i n t e r f e r e i n any way w i t h v e l a r movement s i n c e i t does n o t e x t e n d b e y o n d t h e m o v i n g p a r t o f t h e p a l a t e . " T h i s method n e v e r a l l o w e d them t o d e t e r m i n e p r e c i s e l y t h e s i z e o f t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l o p e n i n g . They c o u l d s e t a c r i t e r i o n f o r v e l a r , h e i g h t c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o an o p e n i n g o r a c l o s u r e o f t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t , b u t c o u l d n o t a s s o c i a t e a number w i t h t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l o p e n i n g . 2.3 I n d i r e c t M e t h o d s 2.31 A e r o d y n a m i c M ethods M e a s u r e m e n t s o f a e r o d y n a m i c p a r a m e t e r s p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t v e l o p h a r y n g e a l o p e n i n g and v e l a r movement. V a r i o u s de-v i c e s a r e u s e d t o p i c k up v a r i a t i o n s i n n a s a l and o r a l a i r f l o w , a n d s i m p l e o r d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e s . ' T h e s e d e v i c e s a r e c o n -n e c t e d t o t r a n s d u c e r s w h i c h e n a b l e t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r t o o b s e r v e and r e c o r d t h e f l u c t u a t i o n s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t p a r a m e t e r s d u r i n g s p e e c h . Some c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t v e l a r movement can t h e n be drawn. C e r t a i n e x p e r i m e n t e r s s t u d y v e l a r movement by o b s e r v -i n g one p a r a m e t e r o n l y . F o r e x a m p l e , B e n g u e r e l (1974) o b -s e r v e d n a s a l a i r f l o w o n l y d u r i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f p h o n e m i c a l l y o r a l . . a n d n a s a l i z e d F r e n c h v o w e l s i n d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s . H o w e v e r , m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e v a r i a t i o n s o f s e v e r a l p a r a -m e t e r s may p r o v i d e more i n f o r m a t i o n . W a r r e n a n d D u b o i s (1964) u s i n g t h e e q u a t i o n o f c o n t i n u i t y , t h e e n e r g y - e q u a t i o n , and a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e a r e a o f an o r i f i c e c a n be d e t e r m i n e d i f t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e a c r o s s t h e o r i f i c e i s m e a s u r e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e r a t e o f a i r f l o w t h r o u g h i t , d e r i v e d t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n , w h i c h t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t t h e s e v e r a l d e t a i l s o f t u r b u l e n t , n o n - u n i f o r m a n d r o -t a t i o n a l a i r f l o w by i n t r o d u c i n g a c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r k: 10 o V ,A k V 2 AP D where A v e l o p h a r y n g e a l o r i f i c e a r e a i n cm 2 o V n a s a l o r i f i c e a i r f l o w i n cm3 p e r s e c AP d i f f e r e n t i a l s t a t i c p r e s s u r e a t t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l o r i f i c e i n d y n e s p e r cm 2 D d e n s i t y o f t h e a i r , 0.001 gm p e r cm 3 k c o r r e c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t (0.65) T h i s f o r m u l a c a n be u s e d i n an a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e o r i -f i c e a r e a i n r e a l t i m e . The d i f f e r e n t p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e e q u a -t i o n c a n be d e t e r m i n e d by u s i n g t h e m e t h o d d e s i g n e d by B e n -g u e r e l (197^). D i f f e r e n t i a l s t a t i c p r e s s u r e a r o u n d t h e o r i f i c e c a n be f o u n d u s i n g two s m a l l t u b e s c o n n e c t e d t o a d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r a n d i n s e r t e d t h r o u g h t h e n a s a l meatus o f t h e s u b j e c t a n d l o c a t e d r e s p e c t i v e l y j u s t above and j u s t b e l o w t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l o p e n i n g . The d i f f e r e n t p a r a m e t e r s c a n be f e d ' i n r e a l t i m e t o a c o m p u t e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e . c r o s s - s e c t i o n A i n r e a l t i m e . The p r i m a r y d r a w b a c k o f a l l t h e s e m e t h o d s . w h i c h i n v o l v e m e a s u r e m e n t s o f a e r o d y n a m i c p a r a m e t e r s i s t h a t i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n i n t e r f e r e s t o some e x t e n t w i t h . t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n p r o c e s s . . S e c -o n d a r i l y , t h e s e methods a r e v e r y p r o n e t o a r t i f a c t s . F o r i n -s t a n c e , a n e g a t i v e n a s a l a i r f l o w may be o b s e r v e d a t t h e end o f a v o w e l p r e c e d i n g a n a s a l c o n s o n a n t ( B e n g u e r e l 1974, p. 109). T h i s n e g a t i v e a i r f l o w i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o an I n c r e a s e o f v o l u m e 11 o f t h e n a s a l c a v i t y due t o t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f t h e l o w e r i n g ...o.f the. v e l u m when t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t i s s t i l l c l o s e d . However i t does n o t i n d i c a t e an i n g r e s s i v e a i r f l o w a t t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t . 2 . 3 2 E l e c t r o m y o g r a p h y E l e c t r o m y o g r a p h y (EMG) has b e e n u s e d i n s p e e c h r e s e a r c h s i n c e t h e l a t e 1 9 5 0 's. U s i n g t h i s method_one may o b s e r v e a c t i v i t y o f t h e numerous m u s c l e s i n v o l v e d i n s p e e c h p r o d u c t i o n . S t u d i e s on v e l a r movement h a v e b e e n c a r r i e d o u t u s i n g s e v e r a l t y p e s o f e l e c t r o d e s and v a r i o u s d a t a a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e s . H i r o s e (1971) d e s c r i b e s t h e n e w e s t i n s t r u m e n t s and K e w l e y - P o r t (1973) g i v e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e most r e c e n t t e c h n i q u e s o f EMG d a t a p r o c e s s i n g . E l e c t r o d e s a r e i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e m u s c l e t o be s t u d i e d u n d e r l i g h t t o p i c a l a n a e s t h e s i a . As t h e m u s c l e i s a c t i v a t e d , p o t e n t i a l s a r e p r o d u c e d w h i c h a r e p i c k e d up by t h e e l e c t r o d e s , a m p l i f i e d and r e c o r d e d . I n t h e c a s e o f v e l a r movement, t h e two m u s c l e s o f m a i n i n t e r e s t a r e g e n e r a l l y t h e l e v a t o r v e l i p a l a t i n i and t h e p a l a t o g l o s s u s . -One o f t h e m a i n p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d i n u s i n g EMG i s t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l s p r o d u c e d a r e v e r y s m a l l ; m o r e o v e r t h e e l e c t r o d e s p i c k up a c e r t a i n amount o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l n o i s e . I n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e s i g n a l - t o - n o i s e r a t i o a nd h a v e a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f t h e a c t u a l m u s c l e a c t i v i t y i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e c o r d and a v e r a g e t h e m u s c l e p o t e n t i a l s o b t a i n e d f o r s e v e r a l t o k e n s o f t h e same u t t e r a n c e . T h i s m e t h o d i s t h e r e f o r e t i m e c o n s u m i n g e v e n t h o u g h a c o m p u t e r i s u s e d t o a v e r a g e t h e s i g n a l s . . 12 2.33 N a s o g r a p h The n a s o g r a p h I s a s i m p l e d e v i c e d e s i g n e d by O h a l a (1971) w h i c h e n a b l e s one t o m o n i t o r t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l o p e n i n g i n r e a l t i m e . I t c o n s i s t s o f a d.c. l i g h t s o u r c e a t one end o f a s m a l l p l a s t i c t u b e . The t u b e i s i n s e r t e d i n t h e s u b j e c t ' s n o s e . A l i g h t s e n s o r i s i n s e r t e d i n t h e same t u b e so t h a t " i t r e s t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y o v e r t h e j u n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e h a r d and s o f t p a l a t e when t h e l i g h t i s w e l l down i n t o t h e p h a r y n x , a p p r o x i m a t e l y a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e e p i g l o t t i s o r s l i g h t l y a b o v e " ( O h a l a 1971 , P- 2). The amount o f l i g h t i m p i n g i n g on t h e l i g h t s e n s o r and a c c o r d i n g l y t h e v o l t a g e d e v e l o p e d by i t a r e t a k e n as an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e s i z e o f t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l o p e n i n g . O h a l a (1971) m e n t i o n s t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h a c a l i b r a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t c r o s s - s e c t i o n a n d t h e n a s o g r a p h o u t p u t , v o l t a g e b e c a u s e l i g h t m i g h t i m p i n g e on t h e s e n s o r by r e f l e c t i o n as w e l l as d i r e c t l y ; i n a d d i t i o n , t h e p l a s t i c t u b e m i g h t move d u r i n g t h e p r o n o u n c i a t i o n o f t h e ! u t t e r a n c e . B u t as he p o i n t s o u t ( i b i d . , p. 3): " a t any r a t e i t o u g h t t o g i v e a f a i r l y r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t i o n o f r e l a t i v e p a l a t a l o p e n i n g and o f t h e t i m i n g o f p a l a t a l movements." 2.34 U l t r a s o u n d s Movements o f t h e l a t e r a l p h a r y n g e a l w a l l a l s o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e c l o s u r e o f t h e v e l o p h a r y n x . D u r i n g . 13 s p e e c h t h e l a t e r a l p h a r y n g e a l w a l l u s u a l l y moves m e d i a l l y . The D o p p l e r u l t r a s o u n d m e t h o d by w h i c h r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e i n -v e s t i g a t e d t h e s e movements i s d e s c r i b e d i n M i n i f i e e t a l . (1968) a n d i n K e l s e y e t a l . (1969). I t i s b a s e d on t h e f a c t t h a t an u l t r a s o u n d beam r e f l e c t e d f r o m a m o v i n g body u n d e r -goes a D o p p l e r f r e q u e n c y s h i f t . C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e c o r r e -s p o n d i n g v e l o c i t y f r o m i n d i v i d u a l p e r i o d s o f D o p p l e r s i g n a l e n a b l e s t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r t o c a l c u l a t e t h e r e l a t i v e d i s p l a c e -ment o f t h a t m o v i n g b o d y . S i n c e t h e u l t r a s o n i c t r a n s d u c e r i s p l a c e d e x t e r n a l l y on t h e l a t e r a l n e c k w a l l , t h i s method does n o t r e q u i r e t h e i n s e r t i o n o f any t u b e o r w i r e i n t h e v o c a l t r a c t n o r does i t p o s e a r a d i a t i o n h a z a r d t o t h e s u b j e c t I t i s s t i l l , h o w e v e r , a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s t a g e . 2.4 R e s u l t s O b t a i n e d i n t h e L i t e r a t u r e 2.41 R e s u l t s O b t a i n e d by Use o f S i n g l e M e t h o d s M o l l and D a n i l o f f (1971, p. 6 8 l ) u s e d c i n e f l u o r o g r a p h y t o s t u d y v e l a r movement d u r i n g c o n n e c t e d s p e e c h i n E n g l i s h " . T h e i r c o r p u s c o n s i s t e d o f s e v e r a l c o m b i n a t i o n s o f phone s e -q u e n c e s . They f o u n d t h a t i n E n g l i s h "movement t o w a r d v e l a r c l o s u r e i s i n i t i a t e d l o n g b e f o r e t h e a r t i c u l a t o r y c o n t a c t f o r t h e non n a s a l c o n s o n a n t , u s u a l l y d u r i n g t h e p r e c e d i n g n a s a l " . The m a j o r f i n d i n g o f t h e i r s t u d y was t h a t " i n s e q u e n c e s i n w h i c h a n a s a l c o n s o n a n t i s p r e -c e d e d by one o r two v o w e l s o u n d s , t h e v e l a r -o p e n i n g g e s t u r e f o r t h e n a s a l i s i n i t i a t e d n e a r t h e b e g i n n i n g o f p r i m a r y a r t i c u l a t o r y movement t o w a r d t h e f i r s t v o w e l i n t h e s e q u e n c e . " ( i b i d . , p. 683) 14 Ohala ( 1 9 7 1 ) using the nasograph to compare utterances where velum a c t i v i t y occurred, n o t i c e d a lowering of the velum f o r low vowels. His f i n d i n g s a l s o suggest that "the so f t palate begins to lower f o r an upcoming nasal consonant as soon as i t can, i . e . as soon as i t i s no longer r e q u i r e d to be closed f o r an obstruent". (Ohala, 1 9 7 1 , P> 1 ) 2.42 Results Obtained by Use of a Di r e c t Method Combined  with EMG EMG has been used simultaneously with cinefluorography and w i t h f i b e r o s c o p i c cinematography t o c o r r e l a t e muscle ac-t i v i t y w i t h movements of the velum. Lubker ( 1 9 6 8 , p. 4) by p l a c i n g electrodes " i n the middle t h i r d of the s o f t p a l a t e , at the approximate l e v e l of the p a l a t a l l e v a t o r dimple" observed v a r i a t i o n s i n p a l a t a l EMG a c t i v i t y during speech which appear to be p o s i t i v e l y c o r re-l a t e d w i t h velopharyngeal opening. F r i t z e l l (19-69, P- 7 1 ) found s i m i l a r r e s u l t s and concluded that " v a r i a t i o n s i n v e l a r e l e v a t i o n during speech which al s o occur during prolonged velopharyngeal closure as observed by researchers using cinefluorography i s determined by v a r i a t i o n s i n the degree of v e l a r muscle a c t i v i t y and not by v a r i a t i o n s i n ti m i n g and movements of adjacent s t r u c t u r e s such as hy-.pothesized by M o l l and Sh r i n e r ( 1 9 6 7 ) " . 15 U s h i j i m a a n d H i r o s e (1974) s t u d i e d EMG a c t i v i t y o f t h e l e v a t o r p a l a t i n i i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f m e a n i n g f u l d i s y l l a b i c J a p a n e s e t e s t w o r d s . By c o r r e l a t i n g t h e i r r e s u l t s w i t h U s h i j i m a a n d Sawashima (1972)'s f i b e r o p t i c a n a l y s i s o f t h e same u t t e r a n c e s , t h e y f o u n d t h a t : " e l e c t r o m y o g r a p h i c a l l y a n t i c i p a t o r y n a s a l c o a r t i c u l a t i o n g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w e d t h e so c a l l e d " l o o k - a h e a d " m e c h a n i s m ..." ( i b i d . , p. 315) and a l s o t h a t " t h e r e seems t o be no a n t i c i p a t o r y l o w e r i n g o f t h e v e l u m d u r i n g t h e v o w e l s e g -ments b e f o r e a s y l l a b l e b o u n d a r y i n t h e /CW'VN/ e n v i r o n m e n t . " ( i b i d . , p. 315) T h i s was h o t v e r i f i e d by B e n g u e r e l e t a l . (1975a,b) i n t h e i r s t u d y o f v e l a r movement d u r i n g t h e p r o d u c -t i o n o f F r e n c h v o w e l s ( b o t h o r a l a n d n a s a l i z e d ) i n v a r i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t s . They o b t a i n e d t h e i r d a t a by r e c o r d i n g EMG a c -t i v i t y o f two v e l a r m u s c l e s ( l e v a t o r v e l i p a l a t i n i a n d p a l a t o -g l o s s u s ) and by s i m u l t a n e o u s l y f i l m i n g v e l a r movement w i t h a f i b e r s c o p e . They f o u n d ( i b i d . , p. 80-) t h a t u t t e r a n c e s s u c h as / a n a / (where an o r a l v o w e l p r e c e d e s a n a s a l c o n s o n a n t ) "show a LP [ l e v a t o r p a l a t i n i ] s u p p r e s s i o n s t a r t i n g d u r i n g t h e f i r s t h a l f o r t h i r d o f t h e i n i t i a l v o w e l and c e a s i n g i n o r s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e m i d d l e o f / n / " . P a l a t o g l o s s u s a c t i v i t y i n s u c h u t t e r a n c e s was f o u n d t o be v e r y l o w . A t t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r moments t h e f i b e r o p t i c f i l m s show a l o w e r i n g o f t h e v e l u m . By c o m p a r i n g t h e u t t e r a n c e s / t a t / and / t a t / t h e y f o u n d t h a t a l o w e r i n g o f t h e v e l u m i s o f t e n a c c o m p a n i e d by i n c r e a s e d p a l a t o -g l o s s u s a c t i v i t y i n / t a t / , and t h a t t h i s a p p e a r e d t o c o r r e -s p o n d t o a s u p p r e s s i o n o f l e v a t o r p a l a t i n i a c t i v i t y . 16 T h e s e r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t a l o w e r i n g o f t h e v e l u m m i g h t be c o n t r o l l e d d i f f e r e n t l y f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f n a s a l i z e d v o w e l s t h a n f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f n a s a l c o n s o n a n t s i n F r e n c h . B e l l - B e r t i and H i r o s e (1975> p. 69) a l s o c o m b i n e d b o t h EMG and f i b e r o s c o p i c - c i n e m a t o g r a p h y and showed t h a t " t h e r e i s a s t r o n g • c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s i z e o f t h e i n c r e a s e i n EMG p o t e n t i a l and t h e s i z e o f c hange i n v e l a r h e i g h t " . T h e i r e l e c t r o d e s w e r e i n s e r t e d i n LP o n l y . 2.43 R e s u l t s O b t a i n e d by Use o f C i n e f l u o r o g r a p h y and " A e r o d y n a m i c P a r a m e t e r s L u b k e r and M o l l (1965, p. 268) u s i n g c i n e f l u o r o g r a p h y and m e a s u r i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o r a l and n a s a l a i r f l o w s f o u n d t h a t on. many, o c c a s i o n s , t h e r e may e x i s t an " i n c r e a s e i n a i r -f l o w f r o m t h e n o s e w h i l e t h e amount o f v e l o p h a r y n g e a l o p e n i n g r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t and v e l a r h e i g h t d e c r e a s e s " . One o f t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s phenomenon i s t h a t : " v e l o p h a r y n g e a l o r i f i c e a r e a may be i n c r e a s i n g e v e n t h o u g h v e l o p h a r y n g e a l d i s t a n c e a t t h e m i d -l i n e does n o t c h a n g e , t h a t i s ' , t h e m e a s u r e s o f v e l o p h a r y n g e a l d i s t a n c e may n o t p r o v i d e an a d e -q u a t e i n d e x o f v e l o p h a r y n g e a l o p e n i n g " , ( i b i d . , p. 268) T h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n seems p l a u s i b l e and s t r e s s e s t h e f a c t t h a t d i r e c t m e a s u r e m e n t s o f v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t o p e n i n g c a n n o t be o b t a i n e d w i t h a c i n e f l u o r o g r a p h i c method. 2.5 P e r c e p t i o n o f N a s a l i t y i n t h e L i t e r a t u r e 17 S i n c e n a s a l i t y i s so c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e movement o f t h e velum," d y s f u n c t i o n o f t h a t o r g a n w i l l p r o d u c e n o t i c e -a b l e d i s t o r t i o n s o f t h e s p e e c h s i g n a l . I n p a r t i c u l a r , c l e f t p a l a t e p a t i e n t s h a v e a s t r o n g n a s a l i t y component i n t h e i r s p e e c h s i n c e no v e l o p h a r y n g e a l c l o s u r e c a n be a c h i e v e d . T h e r e -f o r e , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t much o f t h e r e s e a r c h on n a s a l i t y h a s b e e n done u s i n g c l e f t p a l a t e p a t i e n t s as s u b j e c t s . Some d e v i c e s s u c h as t h e " V o i c e S y s t e m s N a s a l i t y M e t e r " p r e -s e n t e d b y W e a t h e r l e y - W h i t e e t a l . (1964) h a v e b e e n b u i l t t o mea s u r e n a s a l i t y , b u t as M o l l (1964, p. 373) h a s r e m a r k e d " i t a p p e a r s t h a t l i s t e n e r j u d g e m e n t t e c h n i q u e s p r o v i d e t h e o n l y d i r e c t and l o g i c a l l y v a l i d m e a s u r e s o f n a s a l v o i c e q u a l -i t y . " I n s t u d i e s on p e r c e p t i o n o f n a s a l i t y , s p e e c h p a t h o l o -g i s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e t r a i n e d i n t r e a t i n g v o i c e d i s o r d e r s , a r e u s u a l l y u s e d as j u d g e s . O n l y a few o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t s p e r t i n e n t t o o u r i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be r e p o r t e d h e r e . S p r i e s t e r s b a c h a n d Powers (1959) u s e d r e c o r d i n g s o f s e v e n I s o l a t e d v o w e l s and o f c o n n e c t e d s p e e c h p r o d u c e d by f i f t y c h i l -d r e n w i t h c l e f t p a l a t e s . . T h i r t y t r a i n e d s p e e c h t h e r a p i s t s j u d g e d - t h e s e v e r i t y o f - n a s a l i t y on a 7 - p o i n t s c a l e . I t was f o u n d t h a t " s e v e r i t y o f n a s a l i t y i n c o n n e c t e d s p e e c h i s r e l a t e d t o s e v e r i t y o f n a s a l i t y f o r e a c h i s o l a t e d v o w e l s t u d i e d . . . F o r c l e f t p a l a t e ' s p e a k e r s h i g h v o w e l s a r e i n ^ g e n e r a l , more n a s a l - t h a n l o w v o w e l s . F o r v o w e l s w i t h f a i r l y c o m p a r a b l e t o n g u e h e i g h t , f r o n t v o w e l s a r e more n a s a l t h a n b a c k v o w e l s " , ( i b i d . , p. 45) 18 • M a s s e n g i l l . a n d B r y s o n (1967) u s e d a c i n e f l u o r o g r a p h i c u n i t w i t h a t e l e v i s i o n m o n i t o r and a s y n c h r o n i z e d s o u n d t r a c k t o s t u d y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n v e l o p h a r y n g e a l c l o s u r e o n t h e f o u r v o w e l s [ i ] , [ae], [a] and [u] and j u d g e m e n t s o f n a s a l i t y f o r t h e s e v o w e l s . T h e i r t e n n o r m a l s u b j e c t s a t t e m p t e d t o s i m u l a t e - v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f n a s a l i t y w h i l e p r o n o u n c i n g t h e v o w e l s . Ten s t u d e n t s f r o m a s p e e c h , c l a s s were u s e d as j u d g e s o f t h e n a s a l i t y u s i n g a t h r e e p o i n t s c a l e . The a u t h o r ' s f i n d i n g s were t h a t "as t h e o p e n i n g b e t w e e n t h e v e l u m and t h e p h a r y n g e a l w a l l . i n c r e a s e d , t h e v o w e l s w ere r a t e d as b e i n g more n a s a l " ( i b i d . , p. 5 0 ) . The c o r r e l a t i o n r a n k e d i n t h e v o w e l o r d e r : [u]., [as], [ i ] and [a] where [ a ] showed t h e l e a s t c o r r e l a t i o n - . S h e l t o n e t a l . (1967) u s e d two h i g h - s e n s i t i v i t m i c r o p h o n e s t o compare n a s a l and o r a l s o u n d p r e s s u r e l e v e l s ( S P L ) w i t h ' n a s a l i t y j u d g e m e n t s . One o f t h e m i c r o p h o n e s was p l a c e d d i r e c t l y b e l o w t h e s u b j e c t ' s m o u t h , t h e o t h e r was a t -t a c h e d t o a p r o b e w h i c h was i n s e r t e d i n t h e s u b j e c t ' s n a r i s . The s i g n a l s p i c k e d up by t h e m i c r o p h o n e s were a m p l i f i e d and r e c o r d e d . Sound p r e s s u r e l e v e l m e a s u r e m e n t s , o f t h e r e c o r d e d s i g n a l s w e r e t h e n made. The a u t h o r s T o u n d t h a t a s t a t i s t i -c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t e d b e t w e e n n a s a l SPL and n a s a l i t y j u d g e m e n t s , b u t t h a t s u c h .a r e l a t i o n s h i p " i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y g r e a t t o w a r r a n t u s e o f t h e a p p a r a t u s i n t h e d i a g n o s i s o f n a s a l i t y i n i n d i v i d u a l c l i e n t s " , ( i b i d . , p. 557) D u r i n g t h e l a s t d e c a d e , F l e t c h e r d e v e l o p e d an i n s t r u m e n t c a l l e d TONAR (The O r a l - N a s a l A c o u s t i c R a t i o ) w h i c h seems t o be- r e l i a b l e e n ough t o m e a s u r e , q u a n t i f y and d i s p l a y r e l a t i v e 19 n a s a l i z a t i o n i n c o n t i n u o u s s p e e c h . ( s e e F l e t c h e r , 1970, F l e t c h e r and B i s h o p , 1970). The l a t e s t v e r s i o n c a l l e d TONAR I I ( F l e t c h e r 1976, p. 31) " i s u s e d t o d e r i v e a n u m e r i c a l a c o u s t i c r a t i o s c o r e e x p r e s s e d i n p e r c e n t " n a s a l a n c e " , w h i c h r e f l e c t s t h e r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n o f s o u n d w i t h i n a s p e c i f i e d f r e q u e n c y b a n d [350-650 Hz] e m i t t e d f r o m t h e mouth and n o s e d u r i n g s p e e c h " . I n t h e same s t u d y , F l e t c h e r f o u n d a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n • (0 i-91) b e t w e e n t h e " n a s a l a n c e " s c o r e s and j u d g e -ments o f n a s a l i t y made by n a i v e l i s t e n e r s who were p r e s e n t e d w i t h r e c o r d i n g s o f c l e f t p a l a t e speake.rs r e a d i n g a p h o n e m i -c a l l y b a l a n c e d p a s s a g e c o n t a i n i n g no n a s a l s o u n d s . P o s s i b l e c l i n i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f TONAR I I f o r s e l f m o n i t o r i n g o f v e l o -p h a r y n g e a l c l o s u r e i s d i s c u s s e d i n F l e t c h e r (1972, 1973). A l i e t a l . (1971) s t u d i e d p e r c e p t i o n o f c o a r t i c u l a t e d n a s a l i t y . They u s e d CVC a n d CVVC s y l l a b l e s where t h e f i n a l c o n s o n a n t was e i t h e r . n a s a l o r n o n - n a s a l . They s p l i c e d o u t t h e e n t i r e f i n a l c o n s o n a n t a l o n g w i t h i t s v o w e l - c o n s o n a n t t r a n s i t i o n a n d p r e s e n t e d t h e s t i m u l i t o t w e n t y - t w o s u b j e c t s . They f o u n d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s c o u l d a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t w h e t h e r t h e segment t r u n c a t e d was n a s a l o r n o n - n a s a l and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t " c o n s o n a n t s w h i c h f o l l o w e d t h e low b a c k / a / were p e r -1 c e i v e d as n a s a l w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f r e q u e n c y t h a n t h e v o w e l s / u / , / e l / and / i / " ( i b i d . , p. 5^0) E v e n t h o u g h t h e p r o p o s e d • e x p e r i m e n t s l i g h t l y d i f f e r s f r o m t'hose o u t l i n e d a b o v e , i t i s h o p e d t h a t some o f i t s r e s u l t s 20 w i l l be r e l a t a b l e t o them. A l t h o u g h most s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study are not t r a i n e d t o a s s e s s a n a s a l q u a l i t y t o a s t i m u l u s , i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e i r t a s k be r e l a t i v e l y easy because o f the phonemic o r a l / n a s a l i z e d vowel d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r mother tongue. 21 C h a p t e r 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS 3 . 1 S t i m u l i The v o w e l s t i m u l i u s e d f o r t h e two p e r c e p t u a l t e s t s w ere o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e s : I : 3 ( r e f e r e n c e ) o r a l v o w e l s : a , e, o I I : 3 ( r e f e r e n c e ) n a s a l i z e d v o w e l s : a, e, 5 I I I : 15 ( t e s t ) n a s a l i z e d v o w e l s : a i , 5,2, 0.3, a i , , a.5, £ l 3 £ 2 5 £ 3 , £ 4 , ^ 5 , 5 i , 5 2 , o 3 , 5i+, o 5 I V : 9 ( t e s t ) o r a l v o w e l s : a 1 } a 2 , a 3 , e l 5 e 2 , e 3 , °l , o 2 , o 3 1 I t e m s o f t y p e s I , I I and I I I were u s e d t o c o n s t r u c t T e s t 1 w h i l e i t e m s o f t y p e s I , I I and I V were u s e d f o r T e s t 2. The 3 ( r e f e r e n c e ) o r a l v o w e l s were s p l i c e d o u t o f t h e 3 w o r d s /tat/, / t e t / , / t o t / . • The 3 ( r e f e r e n c e ) n a s a l i z e d v o w e l s were s p l i c e d o u t o f t h e 3 w o r d s / t a t / , / t e t / , / t o t / . The 15 ( t e s t ) n a s a l i z e d v o w e l s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m 5 s i n g l e p e r i o d s i s o l a t e d i n e a c h o f t h e 3 words / t a t / , / t e t / , / t o t / w h e r e a s t h e 9 ( t e s t ) o r a l v o w e l s were c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m 3 s i n g l e p e r i o d s i s o l a t e d i n e a c h o f t h e 3 w o r d s / a n a / , / e n e / , /ono/. 3 . 2 S e l e c t i o n o f S t i m u l i U t t e r a n c e s The words / t a t / , / t e t / , / t o t / f r o m w h i c h t h e s t i m u l i o f t y p e I I I were c o n s t r u c t e d , were t a k e n f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l s o u n d 22 t r a c k o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t s by B e n g u e r e l e t a l . ( 1 9 7 5 a ,b). They h a d b e e n o r i g i n a l l y p r o d u c e d i n i s o l a t i o n by B e n g u e r e l , a n a -t i v e s p e a k e r o f F r e n c h f r o m L a u s a n n e , S w i t z e r l a n d . A f t e r d i g i t i z a t i o n , t h e s e o r i g i n a l r e c o r d i n g s w e re o b s e r v e d on a c o m p u t e r s c o p e s c r e e n . The r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o S e c t i o n 3-3 f o r a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d i g i t i z a t i o n method. The " e x p e r i m e n t e r was a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f u n d a m e n t a l f r e -q u e n c y f o r e a c h u t t e r a n c e by c o u n t i n g t h e number o f s a m p l e s i n e a c h c y c l e o f t h e v o w e l . A p i l o t e x p e r i m e n t h a d shown t h a t f u n d a m e n t a l f r e q u e n c y , . i n t e n s i t y and d u r a t i o n o f t h e s t i m u l i - - c o u l d i n f l u e n c e t h e l i s -t e n e r s ' j u d g e m e n t by p r o v i d i n g s p u r i o u s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n c u e s . I t was t h e r e f o r e d e c i d e d t o use s t i m u l i w h ere no v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e s e p a r a m e t e r s c o u l d be u s e d as c u e s by t h e l i s t e n e r s . The / a n a / , ./ene/, /ono/ u t t e r a n c e s were f o u n d t o h a v e a l o w e r f u n d a m e n t a l f r e q u e n c y ( 130 Hz) t h a n t h e / t a t / , / t e t / , / t o t / u t t e r a n c e s ( 143 H z ) . I t was d e c i d e d , t o keep t h e o r i g i n a l r e c o r d i n g s o f / t a t / , / t e t / , / t o t / t o c o n s t r u c t v o w e l s t i m u l i and t o r e - r e c o r d a s e r i e s o f / a n a / , / e n e / , /ono/ u t t e r a n c e s . H o w e v e r , s i n c e t h e / t a t / , / t e t / , / t o t / w e re t o o s h o r t t o c o n -s t r u c t r e f e r e n c e s t i m u l i , t h e same s p e a k e r u s e d i n B e n g u e r e l e t a l . (1975a) r e c o r d e d t h e 9 " u t t e r a n c e s / t a t / , / t e t / , / t o t / , / t a t / , / t e t / , / t o t / , / a n a / , / e n e / , /ono/. The u t t e r a n c e s m e n t i o n e d above were r e c o r d e d on an a u d i o t a p e u s i n g a Revox A 77 t a p e r e c o r d e r and an A l t e c 6 8 l ALO m i c r o p h o n e . A p u r e t o n e o f 143 H z , m o n i t o r e d w i t h a c a l i b r a t e d 23 f r e q u e n c y c o u n t e r , was p r e s e n t e d v i a h e a d p h o n e s t o t h e s p e a k e r who a t t e m p t e d t o p h o n a t e a t t h e f r e q u e n c y he h e a r d . The s p e a k e r a l s o p r o l o n g e d h i s / t a t / , / t e t / , / t o t / , . / t a t / , / t e t / , / t o t / u t t e r a n c e s . N a r r o w b a n d s p e c t r o g r a m s o f a l l t h e r e - r e c o r d e d u t t e r -a n c e s were made t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s e q u e n c e s w i t h t h e s t e a d i e s t f u n d a m e n t a l f r e q u e n c y . E v e n t u a l l y , t w e l v e w o r d s w i t h a f u n d a -m e n t a l f r e q u e n c y b e t w e e n 142 and 146 Hz were s e l e c t e d t o c o n -s t r u c t t h e t e s t s t i m u l i . 3.3 V o w e l E d i t i n g The t w e l v e s e l e c t e d u t t e r a n c e s were d i g i t i z e d a n d s t o r e d on a LINC t a p e u s i n g a PDP-12 c o m p u t e r a n d a s e t o f p r o g r a m s d e v e l o p e d by L l o y d R i c e a t UCLA. The c o m p u t e r c a n s a m p l e t h e s p e e c h s i g n a l a t a r a t e o f up t o 12,000 s a m p l e s p e r s e c o n d . H o w e v e r , ari s u c h a h i g h r a t e , o n l y a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1.5 s e c o n d o f s p e e c h c a n be d i g i t i z e d b e c a u s e o f t h e s l o w t r a n s f e r o f s a m p l e s t o t h e LINC t a p e . Once t h e c o r e b u f f e r h a s b e e n f i l l e d , s a m p l e s a r e l o s t a n d a n o t i c e a b l e d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e s p e e c h s i g n a l i s p r o d u c e d . To overcome t h i s p r o b l e m , t h e a u d i o t a p e c o n t a i n i n g t h e s e l e c t e d u t t e r a n c e s was p l a y e d a t h a l f s p e e d . The s i g n a l was s e n t t o t h e c o m p u t e r v i a a R o c k l a n d LP f i l t e r w i t h a 48 d B / o c t a v e a t t e n u a t i o n s l o p e and t h e c u t - o f f f r e q u e n c y s e t a t 6,000 Hz. The r e s u l t o f t h i s o p e r a t i o n was e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e d i g i t i z a t i o n o f t h e u t t e r a n c e a t a s a m p l e r a t e o f 12,000 s a m p l e s p e r s e c o n d , when p l a y e d a t r e g u l a r s p e e d ( s e e F i g . 1 a).;"~The volume c o n t r o l o f t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r .... TAPE LOW-PASS I A-D - PDP-12 RECORDER FILTER CONVERTER COMPUTER F i g . l a . Block diagram o f apparatus f o r d i g i t i z a t i o n of speech s i g n a l PDP-12 COMPUTER D-A CONVERTER ATTENUATOR LOW-PASS FILTER TAPE RECORDER RELAY CONTROL F i g . l b . Block diagram of apparatus f o r production o f t e s t items 25 was a d j u s t e d f o r each u t t e r a n c e so t h a t a l l the s t i m u l i words were d i g i t i z e d at a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same peak i n t e n s i t y . The speech s i g n a l s t o r e d on the tape was t h e n d i s p l a y e d on the o s c i l l o s c o p e s c r e e n . A knob e n a b l e d the o p e r a t o r t o move the s i g n a l back and f o r t h on the s c r e e n . A program made i t pos-s i b l e to i s o l a t e p a r t s o f the d i g i t i z e d s i g n a l and s t o r e them on tape. S i n g l e c y c l e s , c o n t a i n i n g as much as p o s s i b l e the same number o f samples, and t a k e n at f i v e d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s i n the / t a t / , / t e t / , / t o t / u t t e r a n c e s t a k e n from the d a t a o f Ben-g u e r e l e t a l . (1975a,b) and at t h r e e d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s i n the r e - r e c o r d e d /ana/, /ene/, /ono/ u t t e r a n c e s , were i s o l a t e d _and s t o r e d on the LINC t a p e . I n t e r v a l s between, the s e l e c t e d c y c l e s were a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same. E d i t e d c y c l e s were always t a k e n between two z e r o - c r o s s i n g o f the s i g n a l wave. Each o f the s i n g l e i s o l a t e d c y c l e s was t h e n r e p r o d u c e d 40 t i m e s and : s t o r e d on the LINC tape. The s i g n a l s so produced were l o n g enough to.be i d e n t i f i e d by t h e l i s t e n e r s . P o r t i o n s o f vowels ta k e n from the r e - r e c o r d e d / t a t / , / t e t / , / t o t / , / t a t / , / t e t / , / t o t / u t t e r a n c e s , h a v i n g a l e n g t h o f 40 c y c l e s were i s o l a t e d and. s t o r e d on the computer t a p e . The envelopes o f the s i g n a l s so produced had "a r e c t a n g u l a r shape. They were g i v e n a t r a p e -z o i d a l shape to produce a smooth onset and o f f s e t o f 25 ms-each. The d i g i t i z e d s i g n a l s were r e c o n v e r t e d i n t o a n a l o g s i g n a l s and r e c o r d e d on an audio tape v i a a low pass f i l t e r which was 26 s e t a t 6 , 0 0 0 Hz t o e l i m i n a t e h i g h f r e q u e n c y d i g i t a l n o i s e g e n e r a t e d by t h e c o m p u t e r (See F i g . l b ) . M i n g o g r a m s , i n c l u d -i n g a s p e e c h p o w e r d i s p l a y , w e re made o f t h e v o w e l s t i m u l i o b t a i n e d and d i f f e r e n c e s i n v o w e l i n t e n s i t y were f o u n d i n com-p a r i s o n w i t h c a l i b r a t e d 1 , 0 0 0 Hz p u r e t o n e s r e ' c o r d e d a t s e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e l e v e l s . I t was t h e n d e c i d e d t o c o r r e c t t h e i n t e n s i t y o f e a c h v o w e l so t h a t t h e y a l l be w i t h i n - . 5 dB o f e a c h o t h e r . 3.4 T e s t P r e p a r a t i o n s Two t e s t s ( T e s t 1 , T e s t 2) were c o n s t r u c t e d . B o t h t e s t s c o n t a i n e d t h e s i x r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s t i m u l i a , e , o , a , e , 5 . T h i s was done t o e v a l u a t e t h e l i s t e n e r s ' s u b j e c t i v e j u d g e m e n t o f t h e d e g r e e o f n a s a l i t y a t t r i b u t e d t o u n m o d i f i e d v o w e l s and t o h e l p e s t a b l i s h a b a s e l i n e f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e l i s t e n e r s ' r e s p o n s e s t o t h e v o w e l s r e c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m s i n g l e c y c l e s . The i t e m s o f T e s t 1 c o n s i s t e d o f f i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f e a c h o f t h e s i x r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s t i m u l i and o f t h e f i f t e e n r e -c o n s t r u c t e d v o w e l s f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l / t a t / , / t e t / , / t 5 t / u t t e r a n c e s . The t e s t s t i m u l i were r e c o r d e d i n random o r d e r on one t r a c k o f a s t e r e o t a p e . No two s t i m u l i o r i g i n a t i n g f r o m t h e same u t t e r a n c e were j u x t a p o s e d . Ten " b u f f e r " v o w e l s , s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e 105 t e s t s t i m u l i w e r e r e c o r d e d , f i v e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g , ..and f i v e a t t h e end o f t h e t a p e . F o r T e s t 2 , t h e t e s t i t e m s c o n s i s t e d o f f i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f e a c h o f t h e s i x r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s t i m u l i and o f t h e n i n e r e -c o n s t r u c t e d v o w e l s f r o m t h e r e - r e c o r d e d / a n a / , / e n e / , /one/ u t t e r a n c e s . A t o t a l o f 85 v o w e l s t i m u l i were r e c o r d e d . 27 I n b o t h t e s t s a s i l e n c e o f f i v e s e c o n d s was i n s e r t e d b e -t w e e n t h e e n d o f one s t i m u l u s and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n e x t . I n t h e f i v e s e c o n d s p r e c e d i n g e a c h s t i m u l u s , F r e n c h numbers f r o m 1 t o 115 and f r o m 1 t o 85, f o r T e s t 1 and T e s t 2 r e s -p e c t i v e l y , were r e c o r d e d a t l o w i n t e n s i t y l e v e l • o n t h e o t h e r t r a c k o f t h e s t e r e o t a p e . -Only i t e m s #6 t o 110 ( T e s t 1) and #6 t o 80 ( T e s t 2) were c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s . 3•5 S u b j e c t s T w e n t y - s e v e n n a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f F r e n c h w e re u s e d as s u b -j e c t s . T h e i r ages v a r i e d b e t w e e n 20 and 45. They h a d b e e n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a f o r p e r i o d s r a n g i n g f r o m a few days t o e i g h t e e n y e a r s . Most, r e g i o n s o f F r a n c e , i n c l u d i n g S t . P i e r r e and M i q u e l o n ( t h r e e s u b j e c t s ) w e re r e p r e s e n t e d . Two s u b j e c t s were b o r n i n S w i t z e r l a n d , - a n o t h e r s u b j e c t was.-born i n S o u t h e r n B e l g i u m and one was b o r n i n V a l d ' A o s t a i n N o r t h e r n I t a l y , and was b i l i n g u a l . One o f t h e F r e n c h - b o r n s u b j e c t s ( a g e d 22) h a d b e e n . l i v i n g i n Canada f o r most o f h i s l i f e b u t t h e l a n g u a g e s p o k e n a t home was F r e n c h . " A l l b u t one o f t h e s u b j e c t s h a d a w o r k i n g k n o w l e d g e o f E n g l i s h ; e i g h t s u b j e c t s h a d no k n o w l e d g e j o f p h o n e t i c s , w h i l e t e n h a d h a d p h o n e t i c t r a i n i n g and f i f t e e n were, t e a c h e r s o f t h e F r e n c h l a n g u a g e . The s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d no h i s t o r y o f d e a f n e s s o r h e a r i n g l o s s . Two s u b j e c t s who were c o n c e r n e d a b o u t a p o s s i b l e l o s s w ere g i v e n a t h o r o u g h a u d i o l o g i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n . T h e i r h e a r i n g was f o u n d t o be w e l l w i t h i n l i m i t s o f n o r m a l r a n g e . 28 3. 6 T e s t P r o c e d u r e a n d E q u i p m e n t The s u b j e c t was s e a t e d i n a q u i e t room w i t h an a m b i a n t n o i s e o f a b o u t 35 dBA as m e a s u r e d on a B & K mo d e l 2203 s o u n d l e v e l m e t e r . The t e s t t a p e was p l a y e d ' on a Re vox m o d e l . A 77 t a p e r e c o r d e r t h r o u g h a s e t o f GSC h e a d p h o n e s m o d e l TDH 39-300Z a t a l e v e l c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o 70 - 80 dB SPL as m e a s u r e d t h r o u g h t h e same h e a d p h o n e s w i t h a B & K m o d e l 2203 s o u n d l e v e l m e t e r , a B & K m o d e l 4152 a r t i f i c i a l e a r and a 6 cm 3 c o u p l e r . S u b j e c t s were i n s t r u c t e d , i n F r e n c h , t o a s s e s s t h e d e g r e e o f n a s a l i t y o f e a c h v o w e l s t i m u l u s on a 5 p o i n t s c a l e (See A p p e n d i x f o r t h e a c t u a l w o r d i n g o f t h e w r i t t e n I n s t r u c t i o n s ) . I n a d d i t i o n i t was p o i n t e d o u t t o t h e s u b j e c t s t h a t t h e t e s t s d i d n o t c o n t a i n any s p e c i f i c number o f o r a l o r n a s a l i z e d v o w e l s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e y w e re e n c o u r a g e d t o n o t e down what t h e y a c t u a l l y h e a r d , and n o t t o assume any p a r t i c u l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e ; i f t h e y t h o u g h t t h e y h e a r d e v e r y s t i m u l u s as n a s a l t h e y were i n s t r u c t e d t o c h e c k t h e c o l u m n " n a s a l e " a l l t h e t i m e . The f i r s t f i v e i t e m s w e re p l a y e d t o them. The t a p e was s t o p p e d and t h e s u b j e c t s were a s k e d i f t h e y h a d any q u e s t i o n s . The t a p e was t h e n r e s e t a t t h e f i r s t i t e m and f o r m a l t e s t i n g b e g a n . F i f t e e n s u b j e c t s w e re p r e s e n t e d w i t h T e s t 1 f i r s t a n d t h e r e m a i n i n g t w e l v e h e a r d T e s t 2 f i r s t . 29 C h a p t e r 4 RESULTS 4.1 D a t a A n a l y s i s 4.11 S t o r a g e and S o r t i n g o f t h e D a t a I n o r d e r t o a n a l y z e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p e r c e p t i o n t e s t s , l i s t e n e r s ' r e s p o n s e s were a s s i g n e d a number f r o m 1 t o 5 c o r -r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e number o f t h e c o l u m n i n w h i c h t h e y h a d r e g -i s t e r e d t h e i r a n s w e r ; f o r i n s t a n c e , an a n s w e r " o r a l e " was a s s i g n e d a 1, an a n s w e r " n a s a l e " a 5- L i s t e n e r s ' r e s p o n s e s were t h e n s t o r e d on a LINC t a p e s o t h a t t h e y w o u l d be a v a i l a b l e f o r c o m p u t a t i o n . R e s p o n s e s t o i t e m s #6 t h r o u g h 110 i n T e s t 1 and t o i t e m s #6 t h r o u g h 80 i n T e s t 2 were t h e n s o r t e d i n m a t r i x f o r m , f o r e a c h l i s t e n e r s e p a r a t e l y . An e x a m p l e o f s u c h a d i s p l a y i s shown i n T a b l e I . I t - w a s f e l t t h a t h e a r i n g o n l y f i v e " b u f f e r " s t i m u l i m i g h t n o t be s u f f i c i e n t f o r .most l i s t e n -e r s and t h a t a b e t t e r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e s m i g h t be o b t a i n e d by c o n s i d e r i n g o n l y t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e l a s t f o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f each- s t i m u l u s . I t was d e c i d e d t o com-p a r e t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o a l l f i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f e a c h stimur-l u s , w i t h t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e l a s t f o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f e a c h s t i m u l u s . The mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f e a c h l i s -t e n e r ' s r e s p o n s e s t o t h e f i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ( m 5 , s 5 ) and t o t h e l a s t f o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n s (m^, s^) o f e a c h s t i m u l u s were computed and l i s t e d i n T a b l e I . A l s o i n e a c h c a s e and f o r e a c h t e s t , t h e a v e r a g e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s ( s 5 , s^) w e re com-p u t e d . T a b l e I i s an e x a m p l e o f t h e s o r t e d d a t a f o r s u b j e c t Suject# 1 0 Test 1 . Test 2 . Stimuli Responses S 5 S 4 a 5 1 1 1 1 1 . 8 0 1 . 6 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 e 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 o 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 a 5 2 4 4 5 4 . 0 0 1 . 1 0 3 . 7 5 1 . 0 9 g 1 4 4 4 4 3 . 4 0 1 . 2 0 4 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 5 5 5 5 5 5 • 5 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 5 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 Si 2 1 1 1 1 . 8 0 1 . 1 7 1 . 2 5 0 . 4 3 a 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 . 8 0 1 . 6 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 a 3 • 4 2 4 4 5 3 . 8 0 0 . 9 8 3 . 7 5 1 . 0 9 a i t 5 5 5 . 4 5 4 . 8 0 0 . 4 0 4 . 7 5 0 . 4 3 a s 3 5 5 5 4 4 . 4 0 0 . 8 0 4 . 7 5 0 . 4 3 Bl 5 1 1 1 1 1 . 8 0 1 . 6 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 e 2 1 5 5 5 5 4 . 2 0 1 . 6 0 5 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 £3 5 5 5 5 5 5 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 5 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 en . 5 5 5 5 5 5 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 5 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 e 5 1 1 i 1 1 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 =i 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 " 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 =2 4 4 1 1 1 2 . 2 0 1 . 4 7 1 . 7 5 1 . 3 0 = 3 4 2 1 1 2 2 . 0 0 1 . 1 0 1 . 5 0 0 . 5 0 5i» 4 . 5 5 4 2 4 . 0 0 1 . 1 0 4 . 0 0 1 . 2 2 = 5 5 5 1 1 1 2 . 6 0 1 . 9 6 2 . 0 0 1 . 7 3 s s = 0 . 8 4 s i + = 0 . 3 9 Stimuli Responses ms a 2 2 2 1 4 2 . 2 0 0 . 9 8 2 . 2 5 1 . 0 9 e 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 a 4 5 5 5 4 4 . 6 0 0 . 4 9 4 . 7 5 0 . 4 3 g 5 5 5 4 5 4 . 8 0 0 . 4 0 4 . 7 5 0 . 4 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 . 0 0 • 0 . 0 0 5 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 Q-1 4 4 4 1 2 3 . 0 0 1 . 2 6 2 . 7 5 1 . 3 0 a 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 Q-3 2 4- 4 1 5 3 . 2 0 1 . 4 7 3 . 5 0 1 . 5 0 ei 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 ^ 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 £3 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 =1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 = 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 s s = 0 . 3 1 s i + = 0 . 3 2 Table I . Sorted d a t a ' f o r Subject #10 31 #10; i t r e p r e s e n t s h e r r e s p o n s e s t o T e s t 1 and T e s t 2 s o r t e d as d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . I n T a b l e I t h e l e f t c o l u m n r e p r e s e n t s t h e t e s t s t i m u l i . R e f e r e n c e v o w e l s i n t h e o r d e r : a, e, o, a, e, 5 were l i s t e d f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o n s t r u c t e d s t i m u l i . The n e x t f i v e c o l u m n s l i s t f o r e a c h s t i m u l u s t h e s u b j e c t ' s vetr-s p o n s e s ; t h e l a s t f o u r c o l u m n s l i s t m 5, S5, m 4, s ^ , f o r e a c h s t i m u l u s . From now o n , t h e t e s t s t i m u l i w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e f o r m s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e I . The s c o r e s t o t h e l a s t f o u r r e s p o n s e s and t o a l l f i v e r e s p o n s e s w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as m 4' s and m 5's r e s p e c t i v e l y . T a b l e I s u g g e s t s t h a t s u b j e c t #10 m i g h t h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d some d i f f i c u l t y i n a s s e s s i n g a d e g r e e o f n a s a l i t y t o some o f t h e s t i m u l i t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e y were p r e s e n t e d . I t . c a n a l s o be n o t e d t h a t s\ i s s m a l l e r t h a n S5 i n T e s t 1. The same o b s e r v a t i o n was made f o r most o f t h e s u b j e c t s and i n b o t h t e s t s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s t o t h e l a s t f o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f e a c h s t i m u l u s ' a r e more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e i r j u d g e m e n t a f t e r a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e t e s t i t e m s t h a n ' a r e t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o a l l f i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . 4.12.. N o r m a l i z a t i o n Some l i s t e n e r s , c o n s i s t e n t l y , d i d .not use t h e e x t r e m e s o f t h e f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e w h i l e r e s p o n d i n g t o p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f 1 t h e r e f e r e n c e ' v o w e l s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e i r f i v e / f o u r r e s p o n s e s c o r e s were d i s t a n t f r o m t h e e x t r e m e s c o r e s (1 o r 5) f o r b o t h 32 o r a l and n a s a l i z e d vowels. A l l the d a t a was thus n o r m a l i z e d by mapping,the s c o r e s f o r the r e f e r e n c e vowels onto 1 and 5 ( o r a l and n a s a l i z e d ) and f o r the c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o n s t r u c t e d s t i m u l i by u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f o r m u l a : m - a n = 4 + l b - a where a = s u b j e c t ' s s c o r e f o r each o r a l r e f e r e n c e vowel b = s u b j e c t ' s s c o r e f o r i t s n a z a l i z e d c o u n t e r p a r t m= s u b j e c t ' s n o n - n o r m a l i z e d s c o r e f o r one o f i t s c o n s t r u c t e d counterparts., n = s u b j e c t ' s n o r m a l i z e d s c o r e f o r t h i s same c o n s t r u c t e d vowel I t can be seen t h a t t h i s f o r m u l a maps the r e f e r e n c e vowel s c o r e s onto 1 o r 5, as- d e s i r e d . Hence, the s t a n d a r d d e v i a -t i o n s o f the n o r m a l i z e d s c o r e s f o r the r e f e r e n c e vowels are ze r o . T a b l e I I shows the n o r m a l i z e d s c o r e s and t h e i r s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r s u b j e c t # 1 0 ' s responses t o a l l f i v e and t o the l a s t f o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f each s t i m u l u s . O r i g i n a l s c o r e s d i d not always map onto a number from 1 t o 5 . I n cases where m < a, the n n < 1 ; where m > b, then n > 5 ; where a = b, the n n °°, and where b v< a then n i n many cases becomes n e g a t i v e . The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s (SD) f o r the n o r m a l i z e d s c o r e s o f the c o n s t r u c t e d - s t i m u l i are u s u a l l y l a r g e r than the SD's f o r the n o n - n o r m a l i z e d s c o r e s . T h i s i s due t o the f a c t t h a t n o r m a l i z e d s c o r e s were i n g e n e r a l l a r g e r t h a n the n o n - n o r m a l i z e d ones (because i n g e n e r a l b -"a < 4 ) . . 33 Subject#10 Test 1 . Stimuli Normalized ms SD Normalized mij SD a 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 . 0 . 0 0 e l.oo o.oo l.oo o.oo o 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 a 5 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 5 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 g 5 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 5 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 5 5 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 5 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 a x 1 . 0 0 . 2 . 1 2 1 . 3 6 0 . 6 3 a 2 1 . 0 0 2 . 9 1 1.00 0 . 0 0 a 3 4 . 6 4 1 . 7 8 . 5 . 0 0 1 . 5 9 a i , 6 . 4 5 0 . 7 3 •• 6 . 4 5 0 . 6 3 a 5 5 . 7 3 1 . 4 5 6 . 4 5 0 . 6 3 ll 2 . 3 3 2 . 6 7 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 g 2 6 . 3 3 2 . 6 7 . 6 . 3 3 0 . 0 0 g 3 - 7 . 6 7 0 . 0 0 6 . 3 3 0 . 0 0 gi> 7 . 6 7 0 . 0 0 6 . 3 3 0 . 0 0 g s 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 5 j 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 5 2 2 . 2 0 1 . 4 7 1 . 7 5 1 . 3 0 03 2 . 0 0 1 . 1 0 - 1 . 5 0 0 . 5 0 04 4 . 0 0 1 . 1 0 4 . 0 0 1 . 2 2 05 2 . 6 0 1 . 9 6 2 . 0 0 1 . 7 3 Test 2 . Stimuli Normalized ms SD Normalized m^  SD a 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 e 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 o 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 a 5.00 , 0.00 5.00 0.00 e 5.00 ' 0.00 5.00 0.00 5 5.00 0.00 5.00 • 0.00 a 2 Q-3 2 . 3 3 2 . 1 1 1 . 8 0 2 . 0 8 - 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 - 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 2 . 6 7 2 . 4 5 3 . 0 0 2 . 4 0 ej 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 e 2 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 e 3 1.00 0.00 . 1.00 0.00 0 1 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0 2 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0 3 1.00. 0.00 1.00 0.00 Table I I . Normalized scores f o r Subject #10's responses t o a l l f i v e and t o the l a s t four presentations of each stimulus type 34 4.13 C r i t e r i a f o r S e l e c t i n g t h e B e s t S u b j e c t s . . E a c h s u b j e c t ' s r e s p o n s e s were t a b u l a t e d as i n T a b l e s I and I I j a n d e x a m i n e d i n d i v i d u a l l y . Some o f t h e l i s t e n e r s a p p e a r e d _ t o h a v e p e r f o r m e d more c o n s i s t e n t l y t h a n o t h e r s . I t -was t h e n d e c i d e d .to s e l e c t t h e b e s t s u b j e c t s ( a c c o r d i n g t o some c o n s i s t e n c y c r i t e r i o n ) and t o compare t h e i r r e s u l t s w i t h t h o s e o f t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n . U s i n g t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e l a s t f o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n s , two c r i t e r i a , b a s e d on a b i l i t y t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e - b e t w e e n o r a l - and. n a s a l i z e d v o w e l s w ere e s t a b -l i s h e d : Cr-i-teri-on-1: I f a s u b j e c t made t h e o r a l / n a s a l i z e d d i s -t i n c t i o n f o r t h e s i x p a i r s o f r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s i n b o t h t e s t s by h a v i n g m 4 < 3 f o r a l l o r a l r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s and on m^ > 3 f o r a l l n a s a l i z e d r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s , t h e n he was deemed t o h a v e p a s s e d C r i t e r i o n 1. T h i s s u b j e c t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e f o r t h e o t h e r s t i m u l i c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o be a d e q u a t e s i n c e h e / s h e c o u l d u s e t h e r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s as g u i d e s i n h i s / h e r j u d g e m e n t . C r i t e r i o n 2: F o r e a c h r e f e r e n c e v o w e l and f o r e a c h t e s t , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f " t h e 27 s u b j e c t s ' m ^ 's were e s t a b l i s h e d . F o r e a c h p a i r o f r e f e r -e n c e v o w e l s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e l o w e r q u a r t i l e v a l u e f o r t h e n a s a l i z e d v o w e l a n d t h e u p p e r q u a r t i l e f o r t h e o r a l v o w e l was 35 d e t e r m i n e d and l i s t e d i n T a b l e I I I . T hese d i f f e r e n c e s r a n g e d f r o m 1.25 f o r e/e i n T e s t 2 t o 2.75 f o r o/o i n T e s t 2. S i m i -l a r l y , c a l c u l a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s w e re d e t e r -m i n e d f o r s c o r e i n t e r v a l s o t h e r t h a n t h e q u a r t i l e i n t e r v a l b u t no change i n r a n k " o r d e r ( b e t w e e n v o w e l p a i r s ) was o b s e r v e d . . ( P o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e v a l u e s .... w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 4.23). F o r e a c h s.ubject and f o r e a c h p a i r o f r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e m^ o f e a c h n a s a l i z e d v o w e l and t h e m^ o f i t s o r a l c o u n t e r p a r t were c a l c u l a t e d . - I f t h e s i x v a l u e s so o b t a i n e d f o r e a c h s u b j e c t were l a r g e r o r e q u a l t o t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g v a l u e s l i s t e d i n T a b l e I I I , t h e s u b j e c t was deemed t o .have p a s s e d C r i t e r i o n 2. S u b j e c t s p a s s -i n g t h i s c r i t e r i o n were f e l t t o h a v e made a d e f i n i t e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n b e t w e e n o r a l and - n a s a l i z e d r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s . Two o t h e r p o s s i b l e c r i t e r i a b a s e d on t h e s u b j e c t ' s c o n s i s t -e n c y i n r e s p o n d i n g were c o n s i d e r e d : 1) s e l e c t i n g a s u b j e c t i f h e / s h e h a d r e s p o n d e d a t l e a s t 3 t i m e s on t h e same s i d e o f 3 f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t s t i m u l i ; 2) s e l e c t i n g a s u b j e c t i f h i s / h e r a v e r -age s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s s.i+'s i n b o t h t e s t s w e r e s m a l l e r t h a n t h e m e d i a n s^. T h e s e two c r i t e r i a , h o w e v e r , w e r e f e l t t o be Reference vowel pair s q u a r t i l e differences Test 1. • a/a 1. 75 e/e 1. 50 o/o 2.00 Test 2. a/a 1. 75 e/e 1.25 o/o 2. 75 Table I I I . q u a r t i l e differences f o r c r i t e r i o n 2 37 t o o d e p e n d e n t on t h e s u b j e c t ' s s t r a t e g y and on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n s t r u c t e d s t i m u l i . They were t h o u g h t t o be l e s s e f f i -c i e n t t h a n t h e o t h e r s and were t h u s n o t u s e d . N i n e s u b j e c t s were t h e n g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r and t h e i r s c o r e s as a g r o u p w ere compared w i t h t h e s c o r e s o f t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n as a g r o u p . B o t h t h e f i v e - r e s p o n s e s c o r e s and t h e l a s t - f o u r - r e s p o n s e s c o r e s w e re c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y . I n e a c h c a s e , t h e n o n -n o r m a l i z e d s c o r e s w e r e a v e r a g e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r t h e 9 - s u b j e c t g r o u p and f o r t h e 2 7 - s u b j e c t g r o u p - a n d t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were f o u n d . The n o r m a l i z e d s c o r e s o f t h e 9 - s u b j e c t g r o u p w ere a l s o a v e r a g e d and t h e i r s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s c o m p u t e d . S i n c e n o r m a l i z a t i o n o f c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s ' s c o r e s r e s u l t e d i n some v e r y l a r g e , v e r y s m a l l o r n e g a t i v e numbers as m e n t i o n e d i n s e c t i o n 4.12, t h e a v e r a g e s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e n o r -m a l i z e d s c o r e s f o r t h e 2 7 - s u b j e c t g r o u p were n o t c omputed. No t s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e 2 7 - s u b j e c t g r o u p w ere f o u n d t o be l a r g e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e 9 - s u b j e c t g r o u p . The r e s u l t s o f t h e above c o m p u t a t i o n s a r e shown i n F i g . 2 t o F i g . ' 5-E a c h f i g u r e s u m m a r i z e s t h e r e s u l t s o f one t e s t . On e a c h g r a p h t h e t r i a n g l e s and d a s h - d o t l i n e r e p r e s e n t s t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e s f o r t h e 2 7 - s u b j e c t g r o u p . The c i r c l e s and d a s h l i n e on t h e one h a n d and t h e s q u a r e s a n d s o l i d l i n e on t h e o t h e r h a n d r e p r e s e n t t h e a v e r a g e n o n - n o r m a l i z e d and a v e r a g e n o r m a l i z e d s c o r e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r t h e 9 - s u b j e c t g r o u p . 38' 5 • 5 i L 2 3 . 4 . 5 . 1 2 3 4 5 a a, a 2 a 3 a • o 0 A • 6 i i 2 .Fig. 3. Average scores (five responses) in Test 2 for A 27-subject group, non-normalized O 9-subject group, non-normalized • • 9-subject group ,normalized 4.0 * « • • • ' ' a Q, Q 2 Q 3 a 4 a 5 9 F i g . .4. Average scores ( l a s t four responses) i n Test 1 f o r : A • 27-subject group, non-normalized O • 9-subject group, non-normalized D -— ~ . 9-subject group., normalized 1 1 0 0, 02 03 3 Fig. 5. Average scores (last four responses) in Test 2 for: A -—• 27-subject group, non-normalized O —— — 9 - s u b j e c t group, non-normalized O 9-subject group, normalized M2'-4.2 A n a l y s i s o f G r a p h s 4.21 G e n e r a l O b s e r v a t i o n s W h e t h e r , i n t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n F i g . 2 t o F i g . 5, one c o n s i d e r s t h e s c o r e s a v e r a g e d on f i v e o r f o u r r e s p o n s e s , f o r t h e 9 - s u b j e c t g r o u p o r f o r t h e 2 7 - s u b j e c t g r o u p , n o n - n o r m a l i z e d o r n o r m a l i z e d ( f o r t h e 9 - s u b j e c t * g r o u p ) , t h e c u r v e s o b t a i n e d h a v e b a s i c a l l y t h e same s h a p e . The m a i n d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h n o t p l o t t e d , a r e a l w a y s g r e a t e r . f o r f i v e r e s p o n s e s t h a n f o r f o u r ; t h e y a r e a l s o g r e a t e r f o r t h e 2 7 - s u b j e c t g r o u p t h a n f o r t h e 9 - s u b j e c t g r o u p . A v e r a g e s c o r e s f o r t h e 9 - s u b j e c t g r o u p r e a c h more e x t r e m e v a l u e s t h a n do t h o s e f o r t h e 2 7 - s u b j e c t g r o u p and as one s h o u l d e x p e c t , t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e s f o r t h e n o r m a l i z e d d a t a a l s o r e a c h more e x t r e m e v a l u e s t h a n f o r t h e n o n - n o r m a l i z e d o n e s , s o m e t i m e s e v e n g r e a t e r t h a n 5, e.g. f o r £3 a n d ' £ i + on P i g . 2 and F i g . 4. 4.22 A n a l y s i s o f I n d i v i d u a l V o w e l T y p e s S i n c e , as shown a b o v e , t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e c u r v e s were b a s i c a l l y t h e same f o r t h e 2 7 - s u b j e c t g r o u p as f o r t h e 9 - s u b j e c t g r o u p , i t was d e c i d e d t o use t h e c u r v e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e a v e r -age s c o r e s o f t h e w h o l e p o p u l a t i o n i n - a n a l y z i n g t h e s u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s t o i n d i v i d u a l v o w e l t y p e s . T h i s was done i n an a t -temp t t o o b t a i n more g e n e r a l r e s u l t s and t h u s , g i v e more w e i g h t t o t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s . The same comments w i l l h o l d f o r any c u r v e , m u t a t i s m u t a n d i s . I f an a v e r a g e s c o r e i s l e s s t h a n 3 , i t w i l l be p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e l i s t e n e r s j u d g e d t h e v o w e l as " o r a l " ; 43-i f an- a v e r a g e s c o r e i s more t h a n 3, i t w i l l be p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e l i s t e n e r s j u d g e d t h e v o w e l as " n a s a l i z e d " , and i f an a v e r -age s c o r e i s c l o s e t o 3 , i t w i l l be s a i d t h a t t h e l i s t e n e r s a s s e s s e d an " i n b e t w e e n " q u a l i t y t o t h e v o w e l . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e s u b j e c t s ' a v e r a g e s c o r e s f o r t h e s t i m u l i c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m / t a t / as d i s p l a y e d on F i g . 2 and F i g . 4, one may n o t i c e t h a t t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e s f o r S i and d 2 a r e l e s s t h a n 3 and t h a t t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e s ' f o r a^ and S 5 a r e more t h a n 3- The a v e r a g e s c o r e s f o r S 3 a r e c l o s e t o 3- The b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n " o r a l " and " n a s a l i z e d " a p p e a r s t o be a r o u n d S 3 . I t c a n a l s o be n o -t i c e d t h a t a v e r a g e s c o r e s f o r S 2 a r e u s u a l l y l e s s t h a n t h o s e f o r S j ; t h i s w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t s u b j e c t s h a d a t e n d e n c y t o j u d g e S 2 as more " o r a l " t h a n S i - T h e s e i t e m s w e re t h o r -o u g h l y r e c h e c k e d t o r u l e o u t a p o s s i b l e i n v e r s i o n o f t h e two i t e m s i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e l i s t e n i n g t e s t t a p e . No e x -p l a n a t i o n c a n be f o u n d t o e x p l a i n t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n . F o r s t i m u l i c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m / t e t / , one n o t i c e s ( F i g . 2 and F i g . 4) s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g a v e r a g e s c o r e s f r o m t o e\, t h e b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n " o r a l " and " n a s a l i z e d " o c c u r s b e t w e e n e1 and e 2 . A v e r a g e s c o r e s f o r e5 a r e much s m a l l e r t h a n t h o s e f o r e^ and w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t £ 5 h a d b e e n j u d g e d as " o r a l " by t h e l i s t e n e r s . A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s p o i n t w i l l be p r e -s e n t e d i n S e c t i o n 4.3. F o r s t i m u l i c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m / t o t / , t h e g r a p h s on F i g . 2 and F i g . 4 show an i n c r e a s e i n a v e r a g e s c o r e s f r o m 5 i t o 0 5 . The b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n " o r a l " and " n a s a l i z e d " o c c u r s b e t w e e n 3 1 an d 5 2 . 44 C o n s i d e r i n g t h e s u b j e c t s ' a v e r a g e s c o r e s t o s t i m u l i c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m / a n a / d i s p l a y e d i n F i g . 3 and F i g . 5 3 one n o t i c e s t h a t t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e f o r a1 and az a r e s m a l l e r t h a n t h o s e f o r a 3 . The a v e r a g e s c o r e s f o r ai and 0,2 a r e l e s s t h a n 3 and t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e s f o r a 3 a r e s l i g h t l y more t h a n 3« The g r a p h s on F i g . 3 and F i g . 5 a l s o show t h a t t h e a v e r -age s c o r e s f o r s t i m u l i c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m . / e n e / a nd / o n o / a r e a l l l e s s t h a n 3,.and t h a t t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e s f o r o 3 a r e s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n -those f o r o i and o 2 - S o , t h e l i s t e n e r s j.udged stim-... u l i c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m / a n a / , / e n e / and / o n o / as b e i n g m o s t l y " o r a l " , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f a 3 w h i c h was j u d g e d " i n b e t w e e n " . None b"f t h e s e s t i m u l i were p e r c e i v e d as " n a s a l i z e d " as was t h e c a s e f o r s t i m u l i c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m / t a t / , / t e t / a n d / t o t / , b u t a v e r a g e s c o r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t some s t i m u l i were j u d g e d more " o r a l " t h a n o t h e r s . 4.23 G e n e r a l T r e n d s T a b l e I V shows t h e s t i m u l i i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g e a c h o f t h e l a s t f o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s i n b o t h t e s t s and t h e i r a v e r a g e s c o r e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o 3 i n p a r e n t h e s e s f o r t he.2 7 - s u b j e c t g r o u p . I t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t t h o s e s t i m u l i p r e c e d i n g p r e s e n t a -t i o n s o f e and a have a v e r a g e s c o r e s more t h a n o r c l o s e t o 3 i n T e s t 1 and l e s s t h a n o r c l o s e t o 3 i n T e s t 2. I n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e a p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e p r e c e d i n g s t i m u l u s on t h e l i s t e n e r s ' j u d g e m e n t f o r t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s , Test 1. Reference vowel Precedin g stimulus a ( - 3 ) : . £5 ( < 3 ) 5 if ( > 3 ) E l ( < 3 ) e S 3 ( - 3 ) 0 5 ( > 3 ) a 3 ( 3 3 ) 5 5 ( > 3 ) o £2 ( > 3 ) £5 ( < 3 ) £ 2 ( > 3 ) £l ( < 3 ) a 3 3 ( > 3 ) e 2 ( > 3 ) gi* ( > 3 ) 5 5 ( > 3 ) e 5 l ( < 3 ) a i (<3) o 3 ( > 3 ) 5k ( > 3 ) 5 £l ( < 3 ) £3 (>3) £l ( < 3 ) £2 ( > 3 ) Test 2. Reference vowel Precedin g stimulus a £2 ( < 3 ) £l ( < 3 ) £ ( < 3 ) 0 ( < 3 ) e a 2 ( < 3 ) a 3 ( - 3 ) a 2 ( < 3 ) Q-1 ( < 3 ) 0 £3 ( < 3 ) £l ( < 3 ) a ( > 3 ) 0-3 ( = 3 ) a £3 ( < 3 ) o 2 ( < 3 ) 03 ( < 3 ) = 3 ( < 3 ) e = 3 ( < 3 ) o i ( < 3 ) a 3 ( = 3 ) = 2 ( < 3 ) 5 a 2 ( < 3 ) £3 ( < 3 ) a ( < 3 ) e ( < 3 ) Table IV. Stimuli preceding each of the l a s t four presentations of the reference vowels i n both tests and t h e i r average scores (27-subject group) r e . : 3 46V t - t e s t s were r u n t o compare t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s e v o w e l s i n T e s t 1 and T e s t 2 . The t - t e s t s show no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g -n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e s c o r e s . Thus i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e p r e c e d i n g s t i m u l u s h a d no s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on-t h e l i s t e n e r s ' r e s p o n s e s t o t h e l a s t f o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f e a n d d i n e i t h e r t e s t . I t may be c o n c l u d e d t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h i s a s s u m p t i o n does a l s o a p p l y t o any o t h e r t e s t i t e m . T a b l e V l i s t s t h e s u b j e c t s ' s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s ( s ^ ) f o r t h e r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s i n b o t h t e s t s (si+'s o f t h e 9 - s u b j e c t g r o u p were l i s t e d on t h e l e f t o f t h e t a b l e ) . C o n s i d e r i n g e a c h g r o u p o f s u b j e c t s s e p a r a t e l y , a s e r i e s o f t - t e s t s was r u n t o compare t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s^'s o f e a c h r e f e r e n c e v o w e l w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e St+'s o f a l l s i x r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s , f o r e a c h t e s t s e p a r a t e l y . The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was i n t h e 2 7 - s u b j e c t g r o u p i n T e s t 2 where t h e si+'s f o r 5 were f o u n d t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e s i x r e f e r -e n c e v o w e l s as a w h o l e ( p ^ . 0 1 ) . T a b l e V shows t h a t , f o r t h i s g r o u p , s ^ ' s f o r 5 i n T e s t 2 a r e g e n e r a l l y s m a l l e r t h a n t h e s^'s f o r t h e o t h e r r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s and t h a t t h e r e a r e more s 4 's e q u a l t o z e r o f o r 5 . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t 3 was more e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d t h a n t h e o t h e r r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s i n T e s t 2 . As n o t e d i n s e c t i o n 4 . 1 3 , t h e p a i r e/e i n T e s t 2 h a d an iiiit q u a r t i l e d i f f e r e n c e o f 1 . 2 5 w h e r e a s t h e p a i r o/5 h a d a d i f f e r e n c e o f 2 . 7 5 . T h i s shows t h a t t h e l i s t e n e r s c h o s e more e x t r e m e v a l u e s i n r e s p o n d i n g t o e and e . T h i s may be a t -t r i b u t e d t o t h r e e p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s : I ) e m i g h t be p e r c e p -t u a l l y l e s s n a s a l i z e d t h a n 5 , i . e . a. l i s t e n e r m i g h t , i n ^ 9-subject group, T e s t ; 1. 5 0.00 0.83 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.00 0.83 0.00 0.83 0.00 0.00 0.83 0.00 0.00 0.43 0.71 1.58 0.83 e 0.00 0.87 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.50 0.43 0.43 1.09 0.43 1.30 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.43 0.00 1.50 0.87 0.00 0.43 1.22 1.50 0.71 o 0.43 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.43 0.83 0.71 0.71 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.71 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.87 0.43 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.43 5. 0.50 0.50 1.09 0.00 0.00 0.83 1.73 0.00 0.43 0.43 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.50 0.43 0.50 0.00 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.50 0.43 0.00 0.71 0.83 1.12 0.43 •e 0.00 0.83 0.00 0,43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 0,43 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.87 0.00 1.30 0.50 0.50 0.83 0.83 0.50 5 o.oo 1.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.43 O.OO 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.00 0.83 1.30 1.12 0.00 Test 2. a 0.00 0.50 1.09 OiOO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.87 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.43 1.30 0.50 0.00 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.83 1.09 e o.oo 0.00 0.00 o.oo o.oo 0.43 0.00 0.87 1.22 0.00 0.50 0.43 1.12 0.00 0.00 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 1.30. 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.83 0.87 0.50 0.50 o o.oo 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.50 0.83 0.83 0.43 0.00 0.00 0.43 0.83 0.43 0.00 0.43 1.00 0.43 0.43 0.71 0.50 0.50 a 0.50 0.83 0.43 0.00 0.00 0.43 0.71 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.87 0.00 1.22 0.00 0.43 1.30 0.43 0.43 0.43 1.73 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.09 0.87 0.83 0.00 - 2 0.00 0.50 0.43 0.00 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.83 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.43 0.43 0.00 1.22 1.22 0.50 0.43 0.83 0.83 0.50 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 o.oo 0.00 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.71 1.09 0.00 Table V. Subjects' sij " f o r the reference vowels i n both tests 48 g e n e r a l , a t t r i b u t e l e s s n a s a l i z a t i o n t o an [ e ] t h a n t o an [ ? • ] . I t was n o t i c e d , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n .the c o m p u t a t i o n o f t h e m^ q u a r t i l e d i f f e r e n c e s f o r e a c h p a i r o f r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s ( l i s t e d i n T a b l e I I I ) t h a t , i n T e s t 2 , t h e u p p e r q u a r t i l e s c o r e s f o r e and o were a p a r t by 0 . 2 5 o n l y b u t t h a t t h e l o w e r q u a r t i l e s c o r e f o r e'was 1 .25 l e s s t h a n t h a t f o r 5. T h i s w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e l i s t e n e r s made some d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e e and 5 , by a s s e s s i n g a l o w e r d e g r e e o f n a s a l i z a t i o n t o e. T h u s , one s h o u l d e x p e c t t h e m^ q u a r t i l e d i f f e r e n c e f o r t h e e/e p a i r t o be s m a l l e r t h a n t h a t f o r t h e o/ 5 p a i r . 2) The f a c t t h a t 5 was more e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d -as n a s a l i z e d t h a n t h e o t h e r n a s a l -i z e d r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s may be due t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r s p e a k e r u s e d i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . A f t e r h a v i n g c o m p l e t e d t h e t a s k , many l i s t e n e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y " r e c o g n i z e d " t h e 5 more e a s i l y t h a n o t h e r s t i m u l i . 3) On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t c o u l d be t h a t i n g e n e r a l 5 i s more . e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d as n a s a l i z e d t h a n e o r a, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e s p e a k e r . One way t o v e r i f y , t h i s p o i n t w o u l d be t o r e p e a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t w i t h s e v e r a l s p e a k e r s a nd t o o b s e r v e w h e t h e r t h e r e i s any v o w e l - s p e a k e r i n t e r a c t i o n as f a r as p e r c e i v e d n a s a l i z a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d . A n o t h e r s e r i e s o f t - t e s t s c o m p a r e d t h e s u b j e c t s ' S i / s f o r e a c h c o n s t r u c t e d v o w e l w i t h t h e S i / s f o r t h e r e f e r e n c e vowels.. No. s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d . One m i g h t h a v e e x p e c t e d t o f i n d a d i f f e r e n c e w h i c h r e f l e c t e d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t e d s t i m u l i w e r e h a r d e r t o j u d g e . R e s u l t s o f t h e t - t e s t s , h o w e v e r , s u g g e s t t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t e d s t i m u l i were n o t more d i f f i c u l t t o j^udge t h a n t h e r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s . 49 No p a t t e r n c o u l d be f o u n d c o n c e r n i n g a p o s s i b l e t e s t o r d e r e f f e c t . H o w e v e r , o f t h e 9 s u b j e c t s who p a s s e d c r i t e r i a 1 and 2, 7 h a d b e e n p r e s e n t e d w i t h T e s t 1 f i r s t . 4. 3 C o r r e l a t i o n o f R e s u l t s w i t h t h e dat.a o f B e n g u e r e l  e t a l . (1975a) The d a t a o f B e n g u e r e l e t a l . (1975a) b e i n g a v a i l a b l e , c o m p a r i s o n s " were made b e t w e e n r e s u l t s o f t h e i r s t u d y a n d t h o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t one i n an a t t e m p t t o c o r r e l a t e them. B e n g u e r e l e t a l . (1975a) .had p l o t t e d t h e t i m e c o u r s e o f v e l a r h e i g h t f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t u t t e r a n c e s u s e d i n t h e i r s t u d y . T h e i r . F i g . 3 ( i b i d . , p. 71) i s an e x a m p l e o f s u c h a c u r v e f o r two d i f f e r e n t t o k e n s o f / t o t / a n d f o r one o f / t o t / . T h i s f i g u r e shows i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a s t r o n g t o k e n -t o - t o k e n r e p e a t a b i l i t y . B e c a u s e o f t h i s , B e n g u e r e l e t a l . (1975a) h a d p l o t t e d t h e t i m e c o u r s e o f v e l a r h e i g h t f o r one o n l y o f e a c h t o k e n t y p e o f t h e i r d a t a . I t _so h a p p e n s t h a t a p l o t t i n g Of v e l a r h e i g h t i n t i m e had. b e e n done by B e n g u e r e l e t a l . (1975a) f o r t h e t o k e n o f / t e t / w h i c h was u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y ( s e e F i g . 6). T h i s u n p u b l i s h e d p a r t i c u l a r p l o t was t h u s u s e d t o c o r r e l a t e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w i t h t h e i r s . The o t h e r u n p u b l i s h e d p l o t s , o f B e n g u e r e l e t a l . (1975a) were a l s o u s e d b e c a u s e o f t h e h i g h t o k e n - t o - t o k e n r e p e a t a b i l i t y . E a c h " o n e o f t h e c o n s t r u c t e d . s t i m u l i was l i n e a r i l y p r o -j e c t e d o n t o t h e p l o t s o f B e n g u e r e l e t a l . (1975a). One was t h e n a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e o f an o p e n i n g o f t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t f o r e a c h one o f t h e c o n s t r u c t e d 50 F i g . 6. Time correspondence between the f i v e e s t i m u l i and the velar height curve of Benguerel et a l . (1975a) 51, Stimuli Subjects' j udgement Velopharyngeal port a i Oral Closed a 2 Oral Open 3-3 In-between Open Nasalized Open ! S 5 Nasalized eiosed g l O ral Closed g2 Nasalized Open h Nasalized Open Nasalized Open g5 Oral Closed 51 Oral Closed 32 Nasalized Open 33 Nasalized Open 5 k Nasalized Open 3 r Nasalized Open Table VI. Comparison of the r e s u l t s of Test 1 (27-subject group) with the data of Benguerel et a l . (1975a) 52. Stimuli Sub j ects' judgement /.Velopharyngeal port 'Q-i 0-2 0-3 Oral Oral In-between Closed Closed Open E l £ 2 £ 3 Oral Oral Oral Closed Closed Closed = 1 92 = 3 Oral Oral Oral Closed Closed Closed Table VII. Comparison of the results of Test 2 (27-subject group) with the data of Benguerel et a l . (1975a) 53 vowel s t i m u l i by comparing the..velar height- (h) f o r a par-t i c u l a r stimulus with the lower l i m i t (h ) where an opening of the velopharyngeal port s t a r t s . Tables VI and VII l i s t these observations. I t should be r e c a l l e d that the velum i s at i t s lowest height f o r the production of open o r a l vowels such as /a/. I t was observed p r e v i o u s l y that S i and a 2 had average scores l e s s than 3; that average scores f o r 0.3 were close to 3 and that S.1+ and a 5 had average scores more than 3- To these s t i m u l i correspond d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s of the velum i n Benguerel et a l . (1975a)'s p l o t of the time course of v e l a r height f o r one token of / t a t / . As shown i n Table V I , to a i corresponds a high p o s i t i o n of the velum, the velopharyngeal port i s cl o s e d ; to a 2 > 2 3 and Si+ correspond a low p o s i t i o n of the velum, the velopharyngeal port i s open; to 0.5 c o r r e -sponds a p o s i t i o n of the velum s l i g h t l y above the height which corresponds to an opening of the velopharyngeal p o r t . The f i n d i n g that some s t i m u l i were i d e n t i f i e d as " o r a l " when the velopharyngeal was open or conversely, were i d e n t i f i e d as " n a s a l i z e d " when the velopharyngeal port was supposedly closed might be explained by .the f a c t that we are p l o t t i n g our s t i m u l i on a v e l a r height curve obtained f o r another token of the utterance. Although, as was shown by Benguerel et a l . (1975a, p. 71) 3 .the token-to-token r e p e a t a b i l i t y was f a i r l y h i g h , the- p o s s i b i l i t y of a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e i n the timing of the movement, e s p e c i a l l y towards the end of the vowel and close to the consonant, may not be excluded. 54 L o o k i n g a t F i g . 6 and T a b l e V I , one c a n see t h a t t o t h e E l and e 5 s t i m u l i , c o r r e s p o n d s a v e l a r h e i g h t s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h e l i m i t h e i g h t a t w h i c h t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t i s o p e n . T h e s e v o w e l s have an a v e r a g e s c o r e l o w e r t h a n 3' To t h e v o w e l s e 2 , £ 3 , w h i c h had- a v e r a g e s c o r e s g r e a t e r t h a n 3 c o r r e s p o n d s a low v e l a r p o s i t i o n a n d an open v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e l i m i t o f v e l a r h e i g h t c o r r e -s p o n d i n g t o an o p e n i n g o f t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t i s an i m p o r -t a n t f a c t o r i n s u b j e c t i v e l y d e t e r m i n i n g t h e " o r a l " / " n a s a l i z e d " q u a l i t y o f t h e v o w e l [ e ] i n F r e n c h i n t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n -d i t i o n s . To 5i w h i c h h a d an a v e r a g e s c o r e l e s s t h a n 3 c o r r e -s p o n d s a v e - l a r h e i g h t g r e a t e r t h a n t h e one n e c e s s a r y f o r an o p e n i n g o f t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t . A l l t h e o t h e r v o w e l s c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m / t o t / , i . e . 5 2 , 0 3 , 5k> 5 5 > h a v e an o p e n i n g o f t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t , a n d an a v e r a g e s c o r e g r e a t e r t h a n 3. - The same o b s e r v a t i o n made f o r and a 5 m i g h t h o l d h e r e t o e x p l a i n t h e f a c t t h a t 5 5 was a l w a y s h e a r d as more " n a -s a l i z e d " t h a n 5 2 f o r i n s t a n c e , . w h e n t h e v e l a r p o s i t i o n f o r 0 5 on t h e p l o t o f B e n g u e r e l e t a l . (1975a) i s h i g h e r t h a n f o r 5 2 . T h e s e r e s u l t s seem t o a g r e e w i t h M a s s e n g i l l and B r y s o n (1967, p. 5D's f i n d i n g t h a t " i n some i n s t a n c e s e v e n t h o u g h t h e s u b j e c t p r o d u c e d c o m p l e t e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l c l o s u r e ( c l o s u r e i n d i c a t e d i n t h e c i n e f l u o r o g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s ) , t h e v o w e l s p r o d u c e d were n e v e r t h e l e s s j u d g e d as b e i n g n a s a l . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , some o f t h e v o w e l s were r a t e d as b e i n g n o r m a l when t h e r e was as much as 8 mm o p e n i n g b e t w e e n t h e v e l u m and t h e p h a r y n g e a l w a l l " . 55 N e i t h e r f i b e r o p t i c n o r c i n e f l u o r o g r a p h i c methods e n a b l e t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r s to. d i r e c t l y o b s e r v e , and m e a s u r e , movements o f t h e p h a r y n g e a l w a l l . The o b s e r v a b l e p o s i t i o n o f t h e v e l u m m i g h t i n d i c a t e a c l o s u r e o f t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t w h i l e i n f a c t some a i r may be e s c a p i n g a l o n g t h e s i d e s o f t h e p h a r y n g e a l w a l l s and r e s o n a t i n g i n t h e n a s a l c a v i t y . I n p a r t i c u l a r , M i n i f i e e t a l . (1970, p. 594) by u s i n g t h e D o p p l e r u l t r a s o u n d m e thod showed t h a t " t h e d y n a m i c ' a r t i c u l a t o r y g e s t u r e s w i t h i n t h e p h a r y n x v a r y s y s t e m a t i c a l l y as a f u n c t i o n o f v o w e l h e i g h t . The g r e a t e s t i n w a r d movement o f t h e LPW [ l a t e r a l p h a r y n g e a l w a l l ] o c c u r s d u r i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f l o w v o w e l s , t h e r e b y o f f e r i n g t h e g r e a t e s t p h a r y n -g e a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e move-ment o f t h e LPW d u r i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f h i g h v o w e l s . " As c a n be s e e n i n T a b l e V I I , t o . o-i and a2, w h i c h h a v e an a v e r a g e s c o r e l e s s t h a n 3 c o r r e s p o n d a h i g h p o s i t i o n o f t h e v e l u m and a c l o s u r e o f t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t . To 0,3 w h i c h has a s c o r e c l o s e t o 3 c o r r e s p o n d s a low v e l a r h e i g h t w h i c h s u g g e s t s an o p e n i n g o f t h e v e l o p h a r n g e a l p o r t . T h i s s t i m u l u s was j u d g e d as b e i n g n e i t h e r " o r a l " n o r " n a s a l i z e d " b u t r a t h e r as " i n b e t w e e n " l i k e a 3 ( c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m / t a t / ) ' T h i s m i g h t be e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t T e s t 2 c o n s i s t e d o f i t e m s w h i c h were j u d g e d by most p e o p l e as b e i n g " o r a l " . A l t h o u g h t h e n a s a l i z e d r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s were a l l j u d g e d as " n a s a l i z e d " by most l i s t e n e r s , a 3 was n o t j u d g e d " n a s a l i z e d " b u t r a t h e r " i n b e t w e e n " . The average., . s c o r e , c l o s e t o 3, s u g g e s t s t h a t 56 t h e l i s t e n e r s n o t i c e d a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e i n a 3 , b u t t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t must n o t h a v e b e e n l a r g e e nough t o e n a b l e t h e l i s t e n e r s t o a s s e s s a " n a s a l i z e d " q u a l -i t y t o t h e s t i m u l u s . T h i s f i n d i n g a l s o seems t o m a t c h A l i e t a l . ( 1 9 7 1 ) ' s o b s e r v a t i o n , t h a t l i s t e n e r s c o u l d p r e d i c t t h e n a s a l q u a l i t y o f a c o n s o n a n t i f i t f o l l o w e d a v o w e l /,a/. Our s t i m u l u s a 3 was c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m a s i n g l e c y c l e s p l i c e d o u t c l o s e t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c o n s o n a n t / n / i n /ana/-A t t h a t p o i n t , one may assume t h a t t h e c u e ( s ) w h i c h e n a b l e d A l i e t a l . ( 1 9 7 1 )'s l i s t e n e r s t o p r e d i c t t h e n a s a l q u a l i t y o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s o n a n t , m i g h t a l s o be p r e s e n t i n t h e a c o u s t i c s i g n a l o f a 3 and i n f l u e n c e o u r l i s t e n e r s t o w a r d s a s s e s s i n g an " i n b e t w e e n " q u a l i t y t o a 3 . A l l t h e s t i m u l i c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m / e n e / and / o n e / w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d t o h i g h v e l u m p o s i t i o n and c l o s e d v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t , were a s s e s s e d as " o r a l " by t h e l i s t e n e r s . 4.4 A c o u s t i c A n a l y s i s An a c o u s t i c a n a l y s i s o f e a c h o f t h e c o n s t r u c t e d s t i m u l i o f T e s t 1 and o f t h e o r a l r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s was c a r r i e d o u t u s i n g an a n a l y s i s - b y - s y n t h e s i s t e c h n i q u e . The g o a l was t o o b s e r v e t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e a c o u s t i c p a r a m e t e r s i n v o w e l s p e c t r a f o r d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s o f t h e v e l u m . To d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s o f t h e v e l u m c o r r e s p o n d d i f f e r -e n t c r o s s - s e c t i o n s o f t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t o p e n i n g , t h u s d i f f e r e n t n a s a l c o u p l i n g . House and S t e v e n s ( 1 9 5 6 ) , among o t h e r s , h a v e s t u d i e d v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e s p e c t r a o f v o w e l s as 5.7 n a s a l c o u p l i n g i n c r e a s e d . They u s e d an e l e c t r i c a l a n a l o g m o d e l a n d f o u n d t h a t some o f t h e e f f e c t s i n i n c r e a s i n g n a s a l c o u p l i n g on v o w e l s p e c t r a a r e : 1) a b r o a d e n i n g and f l a t t e n i n g , o f . s p e c t r a l p e a k s w i t h most p r o m i n e n t c h a n g e s i n t h e r e g i o n o f . t h e f i r s t f o r m a n t ; 2) a r e d u c t i o n o f t h e t h i r d f o r m a n t and e v e n e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h i s p e a k ; 3) t h e p r e s e n c e o f an a n t i - r e s o n a n c e i n t h e r a n g e 700-1800 H z , i t s f r e q u e n c y i n c r e a s i n g as t h e amount o f c o u p l i n g i n c r e a s e s ; 4) a d o u b l e p e a k i n t h e r e g i o n o f t h e t h i r d f o r m a n t , when d a m p i n g i n t h e n a s a l t r a c t i s r e d u c e d . The m e thod u s e d t o examine, v a r i a t i o n s i n v o w e l s p e c t r a c o n s i s t e d o f v i s u a l l y a d j u s t i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l a c o u s t i c a l s p e c -t r u m b a s e d on F a n t ' s (i960) m o d e l , t o f i t t h e s p e c t r a o b t a i n e d u s i n g a m p l i t u d e s e c t i o n s o f t h e v o w e l s o f T e s t 1. The r e s u l t s , w h i c h a r e g i v e n i n F i g u r e 7 , a r e o n l y t e n t a t i v e and s h o u l d be e x a m i n e d k e e p i n g i n m i n d t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h t h e y were o b t a i n e d . The use o f a l a r g e r and f a s t e r c o m p u t e r w o u l d p e r -m i t a l m o s t i n s t a n t d i s p l a y o f t h e s y n t h e s i z e d s p e c t r a l e n v e -l o p e s a f t e r c h a n g e s have b e e n made. The v a l u e s g i v e n h e r e , h o w e v e r , w i l l be h e l p f u l as a p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h u s i n g more s o p h i s t i c a t e d e q u i p m e n t . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e v a l u e s o b t a i n e d f o r e and f o r t h e s t i m u l i c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m / t e t / , one may s e e t h a t : 1) t h e f o r m a n t v a l u e s o b t a i n e d f o r e a r e c l o s e t o t h o s e o f P e t e r s o n and B a r n e y (1-952, p. 183); 4 KHz. 3 KHz. 2 KHz. I KHz. OKHz a a, Oj, Q3 S4 a 5 £ e, e2 f3 £4 ?5 o 5i o2 o3 o4 3s F i g . 7. Spectra of s t i m u l i obtained by a n a l y s i s - b y - s y n t h e s i s co' 5.9 2-) t h e s p e c t r a o f e, e i and e 5 were f i t t e d by a t h e o r e t -i c a l s p e c t r u m w h i c h c o n t a i n e d no z e r o , i n f a c t , t h e s p e c t r a f o r t h e s e s t i m u l i were f o u n d t o be r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o f i t ; f o r t h e s e s t i m u l i t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g v e l u m p o s i t i o n was r a i s e d and t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t c l o s e d ; n o t s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e y w ere h e a r d as " o r a l " by t h e l i s t e n e r s ; 3) t h e s p e c t r a o f e 2 , £ 3 , e4. seem t o r e q u i r e a t l e a s t one z e r o e a c h ; f o r t h e s e s t i m u l i t h e v e l u m was l o w e r e d a nd t h e p o r t o p e n ; one w o u l d e x p e c t t h e s p e c t r u m o f t o be s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f e 2 s i n c e v e l a r h e i g h t was a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same; h o w e v e r t h i s was n o t t h e c a s e as t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e z e r o o f ei, i s m a r k e d l y h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f e 2 . L o o k i n g a t t h e v a l u e s o f t h e p a r a m e t e r s f o r - o a n d f o r t h e v o w e l s c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m / t o t / , one may n o t i c e t h a t : 1) t h e s p e c t r a f o r o and f o r 3\ a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r and t h e v a l u e s o f f o r m a n t f r e q u e n c i e s a r e c l o s e t o t h o s e g i v e n f o r t h e v o w e l [ o ] i n P e t e r s o n and B a r n e y ( 1 9 5 2 , p. 1 8 3 ) ; f o r t h e s e two s t i m u l i t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g v e l u m p o s i t i o n was r a i s e d and t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t c l o s e d ; b o t h w e re j u d g e d " o r a l " by t h e l i s t e n e r s ; 2) t h e s p e c t r a o f 5 2 , 5 3 and 0 5 seem t o r e q u i r e a t l e a s t one z e r o e a c h , whose f r e q u e n c y seem t o v a r y i n v e r s e l y w i t h v e l a r h e i g h t ; 3) t h e s p e c t r u m o f 5^ does n o t seem t o r e q u i r e any z e r o ; t h i s s p e c t r u m was f o u n d t o be r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o f i t ; t h i s may be due t o t h e s m a l l number o f m e a s u r a b l e h a r m o n i c a m p l i -t u d e s on t h e a m p l i t u d e s e c t i o n f o r t h i s s t i m u l u s ; i t i s more 6Q l i k e l y , h o w e v e r , t h a t a z e r o c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e one p r e s e n t i n 5 3 h a s moved s l i g h t l y down i n f r e q u e n c y and i s so c l o s e t o a n e a r b y p o l e t h a t t h e y p r a c t i c a l l y c a n c e l e a c h o t h e r o u t ; t h u s , no p e a k o r t r o u g h w o u l d be o b s e r v a b l e i n t h e s p e c t r a l e n v e l o p e ; t h e a p p r o x i m a t e d p o s i t i o n o f t h i s h y p o t h e s i z e d z e r o - p o l e p a i r i s shown i n b r o k e n l i n e s i n F i g . 7. 4) F l and F2 come c l o s e t o g e t h e r i n 5 2 , when t h e v e l o p h a r y n -g e a l p o r t i s o p e n ; t h i s r e s u l t s i n a b r o a d e n i n g o f t h e p e a k on t h e v o w e l s p e c t r u m . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e v a l u e s o b t a i n e d f o r t h e s p e c t r a o f a and o f t h e s t i m u l i c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m / t a t / one c a n see t h a t : 1) t h e s p e c t r u m o f a does n o t r e q u i r e any z e r o a nd t h e f r e -q u e n c y o f t h e f o r m a n t s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e g i v e n by P e t e r s o n and B a r n e y ( 1 9 5 2 , p. 183) f o r t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g v o w e l ; 2) t h e s p e c t r a o f t h e v o w e l s c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m / t a t / seem t o r e q u i r e a z e r o i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l s p e c t r a i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y m a t c h ; t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h a t z e r o i n c r e a s e s s t e a d i l y f r o m d i t o 0 , 5 , w h e r e a s t h e v e l u m l o w e r s u n t i l 0.3 and s t a r t s r i s i n g t h e r e a f t e r ; t h i s may be due t o a change i n t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e o r a l o r p h a r y n g e a l c a v i t i e s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v e l a r movement; 3) c o m p a r i n g t h e s p e c t r a o f d i and 0.2 on t h e one h a n d and t h o s e o f d 3 , &\ and as.on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t seems t h a t an a d d e d r e s o n a n c e o c c u r s a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2300 Hz i n t h e s p e c -t r u m o f t h e v o w e l s o f t h e l a t t e r g r o u p . 61 C o n s i d e r i n g t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r t h e s t i m u l i c o n -s t r u c t e d f r o m / t e t / on t h e one h a n d and f o r t h o s e c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m / t a t / a nd / t o t / on t h e o t h e r h a n d , one may s e e t h a t t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e z e r o s (when t h e y e x i s t ) i s i n g e n e r a l h i g h e r f o r t h e / t e t / s t i m u l i t h a n f o r t h e / t o t / and t h e / t a t / s t i m u l i . T h i s c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t 5 and a a r e b o t h more open t h a n e, a l t h o u g h t h i s n e e d s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . F i g . 7 a l s o shows t h a t , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e z e r o i n -c r e a s e s more r a p i d l y f r o m e 2 t o t h a n i t does f r o m 3 2 t o 3 4 o r f r o m a 2 t o d^. T h i s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g i f one c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h e o r a l v o c a l t r a c t i m p e d a n c e f o r e i s h i g h e r t h a n t h a t f o r 3 and a. A g i v e n n a s a l c o u p l i n g w i l l t h u s h a v e a g r e a t e r e f f e c t ( p e r c e n t a g e w i s e ) on e t h a n on 5 o r d ( s e e House and S t e v e n s , 1956 p. 2 2 3 ) . A c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f F i g . 7 shows t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p o s i t i o n o f z e r o s i n a v o w e l s p e c -t r u m and t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e v e l u m . H o w e v e r , i t was f o u n d t h a t two v e l a r h e i g h t v a l u e s w h i c h w e re a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l ( s u c h as i n e\ and e 2 ) d i d n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e same z e r o f r e q u e n c i e s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e f r e q u e n c y o f a z e r o i s n o t i n a o n e - t o - o n e r e l a t i o n w i t h v e l a r h e i g h t . 62 Chapter 5 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION The main goal of t h i s study was to t r y to answer the f o l l o w i n g questions: ,1) What i s the maximum amount of velopharyngeal port opening allowable f o r a vowel, (produced by a French speaker), such that I t w i l l continue to be perceived as phonemically o r a l by a French l i s t e n e r ? 2) Since i t was found by Benguerel et a l . (1975a) t h a t the velum p o s i t i o n i n an utterance such as / t a t / i s changing r a p i d l y through the vowel, and since a p o r t i o n of the phone-m i c a l l y n a s a l i z e d vowel /a/ i s produced with a closed v e l o -pharyngeal p o r t , does the l i s t e n e r perform some k i n d of time i n t e g r a t i o n to decide whether t h i s vowel i s o r a l or nasa l i z e d ? 3) What k i n d of i n t e g r a t i o n i s performed? Is i t r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y to the average v e l a r c r o s s - s e c t i o n or to some more complex auditory f u n c t i o n of the velopharyngeal c r o s s - s e c t i o n ? Two l i s t e n i n g t e s t s were prepared and presented to French l i s t e n e r s . S i n g l e c y c l e s , s p l i c e d out of French vowels and corresponding to known v e l a r height were used to construct the t e s t s t i m u l i . Each t e s t also contained 6 reference vowels ( o r a l and na s a l i z e d ) as c o n t r o l s to evaluate the l i s t e n e r s ' responses. Test 1 c o n s i s t e d of 5 presen t a t i o n s of the 6 reference vowels a, e, o, a, e, 5 and of 15 s t i m u l i constructed from 6-3. c y c l e s i s o l a t e d a t 5 d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s i n t h e v o w e l o f e a c h o f t h e 3 u t t e r a n c e s / t a t / , / t e t / , / t o t / . T e s t 2 c o n s i s t e d o f 5 r e p e t i t i o n s o f t h e 6 r e f e r e n c e v o w e l s and o f 9 s t i m u l i c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m c y c l e s i s o l a t e d a t 3 d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s i n t h e f i r s t v o w e l o f t h e 3 u t t e r a n c e s / a n a / , / e n e / , /ono/. A l l t h e u t t e r a n c e s were p r o d u c e d by a male n a t i v e s p e a k e r o f F r e n c h . L i s t e n e r s r e c o r d e d t h e i r a n s w e r s t o e a c h s t i m u l u s on a 5 - p o i n t s c a l e , 1 c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o " o r a l " a nd 5 t o " n a s a l " . S u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s were s o r t e d i n t o t a b l e s a c c o r d i n g t o s t i m u l u s t y p e and o r d e r o f p r e s e n t a -t i o n ( s e e T a b l e s I and I I ) . The s u b j e c t s who p e r f o r m e d b e s t were s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o two c o n s i s t e n c y c r i t e r i a . S u b j e c t s ' s c o r e s as a g r o u p were c o m p a r e d t o t h o s e o f t h e w h o l e p o p u l a t i o n . I t w a s s f o u n d t h a t f o r e a c h v o w e l t y p e and f o r e a c h t e s t , c u r v e s r e p r e s e n t i n g n a s a l i t y j u d g e m e n t ( s e e F i g . 2 t o F i g . 5) have b a s i c a l l y t h e same s h a p e , w h e t h e r t h e s c o r e s were a v e r a g e d on f i v e o r on f o u r r e s p o n s e s , w h e t h e r f o r t h e 9 - s u b j e c t g r o u p o r f o r t h e 2 7 - s u b j e c t g r o u p , and w h e t h e r t h e s c o r e s were n o r m a l i z e d o r n o t . By e x a m i n i n g t h e t i m e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s t i m u l i o f t h i s s t u d y and t h e u n p u b l i s h e d g r a p h s o f B e n g u e r e l e t a l . (1975a) w h i c h p l o t ' t h e t i m e c o u r s e o f v e l a r h e i g h t f o r t h e same u t t e r a n c e s ( e . g . F i g . 6), i t was p o s s i b l e t o a s s o c i a t e a p o s i t i o n o f t h e v e l u m ( t h u s t h e p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e o f an o p e n i n g o f t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t ) w i t h e a c h one o f t h e s t i m u l i . 64 I n t a b l e V I , i t was s e e n t h a t t h e t r a n s i t i o n s f r o m " o r a l " t o " n a s a l " j u d g e m e n t s o c c u r s e a r l i e r ( o n a 5 - p o i n t s c a l e ) f o r t h e i t e m s c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m / t e t / and / t o t / t h a n f o r t h o s e c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m / t a t / . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e t r a n s i -t i o n f o r e and o i s a p p a r e n t l y made b e t w e e n £i and e 2 o r .between S j a n d 5 2 w h e r e a s f o r a i t i s made a t 0 .3 . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t a r a t h e r l a r g e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n may be n e c e s s a r y f o r a F r e n c h l i s t e n e r t o p e r c e i v e t h e v o w e l [ a ] as n a s a l i z e d , w h e r e a s a s m a l l e r c r o s s - s e c t i o n may be s u f f i c i e n t t o g i v e t h e v o w e l s [ e ] and [ o ] a n a s a l i z e d q u a l i t y . T h e s e r e s u l t s a g r e e w i t h t h o s e o f House and S t e v e n s (1956). I n t h e i r s t u d y o f n a s a l i z a t i o n o f v o w e l s u s i n g an a n a l o g m o d e l , t h e y f o u n d ( i b i d . , p. 223-230) t h a t "as t h e a v e r a g e a r e a o f c o u p l i n g i n c r e a s e s , t h e 'more n a s a l ' r e s p o n s e s t o III and lul s t a r t s o o n e r and i n c r e a s e f a s t e r t h a n do s u c h r e s p o n s e s t o lei a n d . / o / , and t h e n a s a l r e s p o n s e s t o / a / a r e t h e l a s t t o be m a n i f e s t e d . " I n o t h e r w o r d s , a s m a l l e r c o u p l i n g w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e a n a s a l -i z e d q u a l i t y ,to lei and /zl t h a n to,/a/. M o r e o v e r , t h e w e l l -known f a c t t h a t t h e o r a l v o w e l [ a ] i s p r o d u c e d w i t h v e r y l o w p o s i t i o n o f t h e v e l u m m i g h t a l s o e x p l a i n t h i s phenomenon. The o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t 0 . 3 , c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m / a n a / , was j u d g e d as " i n b e t w e e n " when t h e v e l u m was a t a p o s i t i o n s l i g h t l y b e l o w t h a t where an o p e n i n g o f t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t s t a r t s , c o u l d be u s e d as a c o u n t e r - a r g u m e n t . H o w e v e r , as was men-t i o n e d i n S e c t i o n 4.22,the f a c t t h a t most i t e m s o f T e s t 2 65 were i d e n t i f i e d , as " o r a l " m i g h t h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e l i s - • t e n e r s t o w a r d s j u d g i n g 0,3 as " i n b e t w e e n " . I n t h e p r e - t e s t i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n t o t h e l i s t e n e r s , t h e y were t o l d n o t t o assume any p a r t i c u l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s t i m u l i and were e n c o u r a g e d t o n o t e down what t h e y h e a r d e v e n i f t h e y t h o u g h t e v e r y t h i n g was " o r a l " . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f a 3 was s u c h t h a t i t s o u n d e d " d i f f e r e n t " t o t h e l i s t e n e r s s i m p l y b e c a u s e o f t h e h i g h number o f s t i m u l i h e a r d as " o r a l " i n T e s t 2 . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y show t h a t i n g e n e r a l , and as e x p e c t e d , s u b j e c t s j u d g e d s t i m u l i as " o r a l " when t h e v e l u m was r a i s e d and t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t c l o s e d , w h i l e t h e y r a t e d t h e s t i m u l i as " n a s a l i z e d " w h e n e v e r t h e v e l u m was l o w e r e d and t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t open. The c u r v e s o f F i g . 2 t o F i g . 5 a l s o show t h a t s t i m u l i a r e r a t e d as more " n a s a l i z e d " as t h e v e l u m i s i n a l o w e r p o s i t i o n . A r e l a t i o n -s h i p a p p e a r s t o e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e c u r v e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e l i s t e n e r s ' j u d g e m e n t o f n a s a l i t y and t h o s e r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e t i m i n g o f v e l a r movement. I t seems t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p may n o t be m o n o t o n i c , s i n c e i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t a 2 was p e r -c e i v e d as more " o r a l " t h a n d i , when i n f a c t t h e v e l u m was a t a l o w e r p o s i t i o n f o r 5. 2 t h a n f o r d i . I n g e n e r a l , a was r a t e d as l e s s " n a s a l i z e d " t h a n e o r 5 . I n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s f i n d i n g t h e t i m e c o u r s e o f v e l a r movement was d e t e r m i n e d f o r t h e r e f e r e n c e n a s a l i z e d v o w e l s . The u n p u b l i s h e d p l o t s o f B e n g u e r e l e t a l . ( 1 9 7 5 a ) f o r t h e 66 t i m e c o u r s e o f v e l a r h e i g h t i n t h e 3 u t t e r a n c e s / t a t / , / t e t / , / t o t / were u s e d . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e h i g h t o k e n - t o - t o k e n r e p e a t -a b i l i t y , and a s s u m i n g an a p p r o x i m a t e l i n e a r i t y i n t h e t i m -i n g , o f v e l a r movement, i t was f o u n d t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e p o r t i o n o f a ( a b o u t 30%) h a d b e e n p r o d u c e d w i t h t h e v e l o -p h a r y n g e a l p o r t n o t y e t o p e n , w h e r e a s , t h e v e l u m was l o w e r e d c o m p l e t e l y f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f o, s u g g e s t i n g a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e c r o s s - s e c t i o n t h r o u g h o u t . T h i s f i n d i n g c o u l d t h u s e x -p l a i n why d was r a t e d as l e s s " n a s a l i z e d " t h a n 5. S i n c e t h e f i b e r o p t i c m e t hod does n o t e n a b l e one t o a c t u a l l y q u a n t i f y t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t c r o s s - s e c t i o n , f u r t h e r s t u d i e s n e e d t o be c o n d u c t e d t o c o r r e l a t e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p e r c e p t u a l e x p e r i m e n t p r e s e n t e d h e r e w i t h v a l u e s o f t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t . W a r r e n and D u b o i s (1964) have p r e s e n t e d a p r e s s u r e - f l o w t e c h n i q u e w h e r e b y one i s a b l e t o q u a n t i f y t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n , u s i n g a e r o d y n a m i c p a r a m e t e r s . S e c t i o n 2.31 o f t h i s t h e s i s d e s c r i b e s t h e method and a p o s -s i b l e e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t up u s i n g t h e e q u i p m e n t o f B e n g u e r e l (1974). An e x p e r i m e n t c o u l d be c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e t i m e c o u r s e o f v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t o p e n i n g d u r i n g t h e p r o d u c -t i o n o f u t t e r a n c e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . One w o u l d t h e n be a b l e t o a s s o c i a t e a r e l a t i v e v a l u e o f p o r t o p e n i n g c r o s s - s e c t i o n t o e a c h s t i m u l u s ' o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . I t a p p e a r s t h a t l i s t e n e r s do p e r f o r m some k i n d o f t i m e i n t e g r a t i o n when t h e y j u d g e a v o w e l as " n a s a l i z e d " i n F r e n c h . The f a c t t h a t t h e s t i m u l i c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m s i n g l e c y c l e s i s o l a t e d a t d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s i n t h e n a s a l i z e d v o w e l w ere 67 h e a r d as " o r a l " , " n a s a l i z e d " o r " i n - b e t w e e n " by t h e l i s t e n e r s ( d e p e n d i n g on t h e p l a c e i n t h e v o w e l where t h e c y c l e s h a d b e e n i s o l a t e d ) and t h a t t h e r e f e r e n c e n a s a l i z e d v o w e l s as a w h o l e were h e a r d as " n a s a l i z e d " s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t s t h i s h y -p o t h e s i s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f a n a s a l i z e d v o w e l d u r i n g w h i c h t h e v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t i s c l o s e d p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e l i s t e n e r ' s j u d g e m e n t o f r e l a t i v e d e g r e e o f n a s a l i t y . P o r e x a m p l e , i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e f e r e n c e v o w e l a was j u d g e d l e s s " n a s a l i z e d " t h a n 5 b e c a u s e a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e p o r t i o n o f a was p r o d u c e d w i t h a c l o s e d v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t , w h e r e a s 5 w h i c h was more o f t e n i d e n t i f i e d as " n a s a l i z e d " was p r o d u c e d w i t h a l o w p o s i t i o n o f t h e v e l u m and an open v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t t h r o u g h o u t . F u r t h e r s t u d i e s c o u l d be done t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s f i n d i n g . V o w e l s c o u l d be s p l i c e d o u t a t d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s f r o m t h e u t t e r a n c e s / t a t / , / t e t / , / t o t / , t h u s c o n t a i n i n g d i f f e r e n t p r o p o r t i o n s o f v o w e l p r o d u c e d w i t h c l o s e d v e l o p h a r y n g e a l p o r t . L i s t e n e r s w o u l d t h e n h a v e t o e v a l u a t e t h e d e g r e e o f n a s a l i t y o f t h e s e s t i m u l i . One w o u l d e x p e c t t h e t a s k t o be r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e l i s t e n e r s , b e c a u s e o f t h e m i n i m a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n s t i m u l i . As t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h i s t i m e i n t e g r a t i o n i s r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e a v e r a g e v e l a r p a s s a g e o r t o some more c o m p l e x f u n c t i o n , t h i s c o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d by r u n n i n g an e x p e r i m e n t s u c h as t h e one d e s c r i b e d above where one w o u l d c o r r e l a t e t h e t i m e c o u r s e o f ( q u a n t i f i e d ) v e l o p h a r y n g e a l o p e n i n g w i t h t h e n a s a l i t y j u d g e m e n t s o b t a i n e d i n .theesame way as i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . 68 The a c o u s t i c a n a l y s i s r e p o r t e d i n t h e l a s t p a r t o f t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s some r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p r e s e n c e o f z e r o s i n t h e s p e c t r u m o f v o w e l s , t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o s i t i o n o f t h e v e l u m and t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f n a s a l i z a t i o n . A f l a t t e n i n g o f t h e f i r s t p e a k i n t h e s p e c t r u m may a l s o o c c u r as t h e v e l u m l o w e r s . The p o s i t i o n o f t h e z e r o s h o w e v e r d o e s n o t seem t o v a r y s y s t e m a t i c a l l y w i t h t h e movement o f t h e v e l u m . Z e r o s , when t h e y were p r e s e n t , were a l s o f o u n d t o h a v e a h i g h e r f r e q u e n c y i n t h e s p e c t r u m o f e t h a n i n t h e s p e c t r a o f d and 5 s u g g e s t i n g a c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n z e r o f r e q u e n c y a n d d e g r e e o f o p e n i n g o f t h e v o w e l . More s t u d i e s n e e d t o be done i n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e f u r t h e r t h e a c o u s t i c s o f n a s a l i z a t i o n . The u l t i m a t e g o a l w o u l d be t o c o r r e l a t e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n s t u d y i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n , t h e a c o u s t i c s and t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f n a s a l i z a t i o n . The v a r i o u s p o s s i b l e e x p e r i m e n t s s u g g e s t e d i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l be h o p e f u l l y c a r r i e d o u t a t a l a t e r d a t e . They w i l l somewhat c l a r i f y some o f t h e m y s t e r i e s o f t h e human s p e e c h p r o c e s s . 69 BIBLIOGRAPHY A l i , L . , G a l l a g h e r , T., G o l d s t e i n , J . and D a n i l o f f , R. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . " P e r c e p t i o n o f C o a r t i c u l a t e d N a s a l i t y , " J . A c o u s t . S o c . o f Amer., 49, 538-540. B e l l - B e r t i , P. and H i r o s e , H. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . " P a l a t a l A c t i v i t y i n V o i c i n g D i s t i n c t i o n s : A s i m u l t a n e o u s F i b e r o p t i c and E l e c t r o m y o g r a p h i c S t u d y , " J . o f P h o n e t i c s , 3_, 6 9 - 7 4 . B e n g u e r e l , A-P. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . " N a s a l A i r f l o w P a t t e r n s and V e l a r C o a r t i c u l a ' t i o n i n F r e n c h , " S p e e c h C o m m u n i c a t i o n S e m i n a r P r o c e e d i n g s , V o l . I I , A l m q u i s t & W i k s e l l I n t e r n a t i o n a l , S t o c k h o l m , 105-112 . B e n g u e r e l , A-P., H i r o s e , H., S a w a s h i m a , M. and U s h i j i m a , T. ( 1 9 7 5 a ) . " V e l a r H e i g h t a n d i t s T i m i n g i n F r e n c h : A F i b e r o p t i c S t u d y , " Ann. B u l l . , R e s . I n s t , o f L o g o p e d i c s and P h o n i a t r i c s ("Univ. o f T o k y o ) , No. 9_, 6 7 - 7 8 . B e n g u e r e l , A-P., H i r o s e , H., S a w a s h i m a , M. a n d U s h i j i m a , T. ( 1 9 7 5 b ) . " E l e c t r o m y o g r a p h i c S t u d y o f t h e V e l u m i n F r e n c h , " Ann. B u l l . , R e s. I n s t , o f L o g o p e d i c s and P h o n i a t r i c s ( U n i v . o f T o k y o ) , No. 9, 7 9 - 9 0 . F a n t , G. ( i 9 6 0 ) . A c o u s t i c T h e o r y o f S p e e c h P r o d u c t i o n , The Hague, M o u t o n . F l e t c h e r , S.G. ( 1 9 7 0 ) . " T h e o r y a n d I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n f o r Q u a n t i t a t i v e M easurement o f N a s a l i t y , " C l e f t P a l a t e J . , 7 , 6 0 1 - 6 0 § : F l e t c h e r , S.G. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . " C o n t i g e n c i e s f o r B i o e l e c t r o n i c M o d i -f i c a t i o n o f N a s a l i t y , " J . S p e e c h and H e a r i n g D i s . , 3 7 , 3 2 9-346. F l e t c h e r , S.G. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . " P e r c e p t u a l S k i l l s i n C l i n i c a l Manage-ment o f N a s a l i t y , " F o l i a P h o n i a t . , 2 5 , 137-145. F l e t c h e r , S.G. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . " " N a s a l a n c e " V s . L i s t e n e r J u d g e m e n t s o f N a s a l i t y , " C l e f t P a l a t e J . , 1 3 , 3 1 - 4 4 . F l e t c h e r , S. G f l a n d ) B i s h o p , M.E. ( 1 9 7 0 ) . "Measurement of.:.'na-' ' s a l i t y w i t h TONAR," C l e f t P a l a t e J . , 7 , 6 1 0 - 6 2 1 . F r i t z e l l , B. ( 1 9 6 9 ) - ".The V e l o p h a r y n g e a l M u s c l e s i n S p e e c h on EMG and C i n e r a d i o g r a p h i c S t u d y , " A c t a O t o l a r y n -g o l o g i c a S u p p l . , 2 2 5 0 . 70 F u j i m u r a , Q. , I s h i d a , H. and K i r i t a n i , S. (1968). " C o m p u t e r C o n t r o l l e d Dynamic C i n e r a d i o g r a p h y , " Ann. B u l l . , Res. I n s t , o f L o g o p e d i c s and P h o n i a t r i c s ( U n i v . o f T o k y o ) , No. 2, 6-10. H i r o s e , H. (1971)- " E l e c t r o m y o g r a p h y o f t h e A r t i c u l a t o r y M u s c l e s i n S p e e c h : C u r r e n t I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and T e c h n i q u e , " H a s k i n s L a b . S t a t u s R e p o r t on S p e e c h Res. SR-25/26, 73-86. H o u s e , A.S. and S t e v e n s , K.N. (1956). " A n a l o g S t u d i e s o f t h e N a s a l i z a t i o n o f V o w e l s , " J . S p e e c h H e a r i n g D i s . , 21, 218-232. K e l s e y , C.A., M l n i f i e , F.D. and H i x o n , T . J . , (1969). " A p p l i -c a t i o n s o f U l t r a s o u n d i n S p e e c h R e s e a r c h , " J . S p e e c h and H e a r i n g R e s . , 12, 564-575-K e w l e y - P o r t , D. (1973)- " C o m p u t e r P r o c e s s i n g o f EMG S i g n a l s a t H a s k i n s L a b o r a t o r i e s , " H a s k i n s L a b . S t a t u s R e p o r t on S p e e c h R es. SR-33, 173-183-L u b k e r , J . F . (1968). "An E l e c t r q m y o g r a p h i c - C i n e f l u o r o g r a p h i c I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f V e l a r F u n c t i o n D u r i n g N o r m a l S p e e c h P r o d u c t i o n , " C l e f t P a l a t e J . , 5, 1-17-L u b k e r , J . F . a n d M o l l , K.L. (1965). " S i m u l t a n e o u s O r a l - N a s a l A i r f l o w M e a s u r e m e n t s and. C i n e f l u o r o g r a p h i c O b s e r v a -t i o n s D u r i n g ^ S p e e c h P r o d u c t i o n , " C l e f t P a l a t e J . , 2, 257-272. M a s s e n g i l l , R. and B r y s o n , M. (1967)- "A s t u d y o f V e l o p h a r y n -g e a l F u n c t i o n as R e l a t e d t o P e r c e i v e d N a s a l i t y o f V o w e l s , U t i l i z i n g a C i n e f l u o r o g r a p h i c T e l e v i s i o n M o n i t o r , " F o l i a P h o n i a t . , 19, 45-52. M i n i f i e , F.O., H i x o n , T . J . , K e l s e y , C A . and Woodhouse, R . J . (1970). " L a t e r a l P h a r y n g e a l W a l l Movement D u r i n g S p e e c h P r o d u c t i o n , " J . S p e e c h and H e a r i n g R e s . , 13, •584-594. M i n i f i e , F.D., K e l s y , C.A., and H i x o n , T . J . ( 1 9 6 8 ) . " M e a s u r e -ment o f V o c a l F o l d M o t i o n U s i n g an U l t r a s o n i c D o p p l e r V e l o c i t y M o n i t o r , " J . A c o u s t . S o c . o f A m e r i c a , 43, H 6 5 - H 6 9 . M o l l , K.L. (I960). " C i n e f l u o r o g r a p h i c T e c h n i q u e s i n S p e e c h R e s e a r c h , " J . o f S p e e c h a nd H e a r i n g R e s . , 3_ 227-241. M o l l , K.L. (1964). " O b j e c t i v e M e a s u r e s o f N a s a l i t y - a L e t t e r t o t h e E d i t o r , " C l e f t P a l a t e J . , 1, 3.71-374. M o l l , K.L. and D a n i l o f f , R. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . " I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e T i m i n g o f V e l a r Movement d u r i n g S p e e c h , " J . A c o u s t . S o c . o f A m e r i c a , 5 0 , 678-684. M o l l , K.L. and S h r i n e r , T.H. ( 1 9 6 7 ) . " P r e l i m i n a r y I n v e s t i g a -t i o n o f a New C o n c e p t o f V e l a r A c t i v i t y D u r i n g S p e e c h , " C l e f t P a l a t e J . , 4 , 5 8 - 6 9 . O h a l a , J . J . ( 1 9 7 1 ) . " M o n i t o r i n g S o f t P a l a t e Movements i n S p e e c h , " U n i v . o f C a l i f o r n i a a t B e r k e l e y P h o n o l o g y L a b . , P r o j e c t on L i n g u i s t i c A n a l y s i s R e p o r t , No. 1_3, J 0 1 - J 0 1 5 . P e t e r s o n , G.E. and B a r n e y , H.L. ( 1 9 5 2 ) . " C o n t r o l M e t h o d s Used i n a S t u d y o f t h e V o w e l s , " J . A c o u s t . S o c . o f A m e r i c a , 24, 1 7 5 - 1 8 4 . P e t e r s o n , - G . E . and Sh o u p , J . E . ( 1 9 6 6 ) . "A P h y s i o l o g i c a l T h e o r y o f P h o n e t i c s , " J . S p e e c h and H e a r i n g R e s . , 9_, 5 - 6 7 -S a w a s h i m a , M. and H i r o s e , H. ( 1 9 6 8 ) . "New L a r y n g o s c o p i c T e c h -n i q u e by Use o f F i b e r o p t i c s , " J . A c o u s t . S o c . o f A m e r i c a , 4_3, 1 6 8 - 1 6 9 . S h e l t o n , R.L., K n o x , A.W., A r n d t , W.B. a n d E l b e r t , M. ( 1 9 6 7 ) , "The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n N a s a l i t y S c o r e V a l u e and O r a l a n d N a s a l S o u n d P r e s s u r e L e v e l , " J . S p e e c h a n d H e a r i n g R e s . , 10_, 5 4 9 - 5 5 7 -S p r i e s t e r s b a c h , D.C. and P o w e r s , G.R. ( 1 9 5 9 ) - " N a s a l i t y I n I s o l a t e d V o w e l s and C o n n e c t e d S p e e c h o f C l e f t P a l a t e S p e a k e r s , " J . S p e e c h and H e a r i n g R e s . , 2_, 4 0 - 4 5 . U s h i j i m a , T. and H i r o s e , H. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . "EMG S t u d y o f t h e V e l u m D u r i n g S p e e c h , " J . o f P h o n e t i c s , 2_, 3 1 5 - 3 2 6 . U s h i j i m a , T. and S a w a s h i m a , M. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . " F i b e r s c o p i c O b s e r v a -t i o n o f V e l a r Movements D u r i n g S p e e c h , " Ann. B u l l . , Res. I n s t , o f • L o g o p e d i c s and P h o n i a t r i c s ( U n i v . o f T o k y o ) , No. 6 , 2 5 - 3 8 . W a r r e n , D.W. and D u b o i s , A.B. ( 1 9 6 4 ) . "A P r e s s u r e - F l o w T e c h -n i q u e f o r M e a s u r i n g V e l o p h a r y n g e a l O r i f i c e A r e a D u r i n g C o n t i n u o u s S p e e c h , " C l e f t P a l a t e J . , 1 , 5 2 - 7 1 -W e a t h e r l e y - W h i t e , R.C.A., D e r s h , W.C.^and A n d e r s o n , R.M. ( 1 9 6 4 ) " O b j e c t i v e M e a s u r e m e n t o f N a s a l i t y i n C l e f t P a l a t e P a t i e n t s : A P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t , " C l e f t P a l a t e J . , 1 , 1 2 0-124. 72 APPENDIX I n s t r u c t i o n s V ous a l l e z e n t e n d r e une s e r i e de v o y e l l e s . V o t r e t & c h e s e r a d ' ^ v a l u e r l e d e g r ^ de n a s a l i t y de c h a c u n e des v o y e l l e s . S i l a v o y e l l e vous s e m b l e o r a l e , comme dans l e s m o t s : b a l , b e l , b o l , c o c h e z l a c a s e de g a u c h e . S I l a v o y e l l e v o u s s e m b l e n a s a l e , comme dans l e s m o t s : p a n , p i n , p o n t , c o c h e z l a c a s e de d r o i t e . S i l a v o y e l l e v o u s s e m b l e i n t e r m e d i a l r e , u t i l i s e z c e l l e des t r o i s a u t r e s c a s e s q u i c o r r e s p o n d l e m i e u x a v o t r e j u g e m e n t ; p a r e x e m p l e , s i l a v o y e l l e vous s e m b l e p l u s o r a l e que n a s a l e v o u s u t i l i s e z l a s e c o n d e c a s e , e t c . . MERC I 

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