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Ornamentation in Mozart’s concert arias for Aloysia Weber: the traditions of singing and embellishment Dorenfeld, Joanne Williamson 1976

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ORNAMENTATION IN MOZART'S CONCERT ARIAS FOR ALOYSIA WEBER: THE TRADITIONS OF SINGING AND EMBELLISHMENT by Joanne Williamson Dorenfeld B.Mus., Oberlin Conservatory, 1967 M.Mus., The Un i v e r s i t y of Michigan, 1968 A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of The Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Musical Arts i n The Faculty of Arts (Department of Music) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1976 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y pu rpo se s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s unde r s t ood that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t ten pe rm i ss i on . Department o f Music The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 A p r i l 28. 1976 i i ABSTRACT The concert arias of Mozart a c t u a l l y include not only arias written s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r concert but also i n t e r p o l a t i o n s which subsequently assumed the character of concert a r i a s . Those i n the following study were written f o r A l o y s i a Weber, Mozart's f i r s t love and, l a t e r , h i s s i s t e r - i n - l a w . These arias are i n t e r e s t i n g for a.number of reasons: F i r s t , the f a c t that they are seldom performed today raises questions about singing technique i n the late eighteenth century. Second, the musical requirements which fostered t h i s technique must have been grounded i n a t r a d i t i o n of embellishment--a subject worthy of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Third, the concert arias are an example of the close connection between melody and instrument i n t h i s period; what was the nature of the voice f o r which they were written? Fourth, these arias were f u l l y notated at a time when the singer was generally expected to improvise. They are a written record of C l a s s i c a l ornamentation and are therefore a good choice f o r the study. The method used i s as follows: The singing t r a d i t i o n accordin to which Weber and Mozart were trained i s examined. A f t e r t h i s discussion follows a chapter on the t r a d i t i o n of ornamentation, which influenced Mozart's melodic wr i t i n g . Mozart's approach to composition and notation i s then described. F i n a l l y , the melodies i i i are analyzed through the process of de-ornamentation. A per-formable e d i t i o n of a concert a r i a from which a l l ornamentation has been removed i s included. The thesis y i e l d s the following conclusions: F i r s t , tastes in singing s t y l e change from century to century, and these preferences a f f e c t the aspects of pedagogy which are emphasized i n any given age. Second, the pieces r e f l e c t a preference f o r bright, f l o r i d melodies and high, f l e x i b l e voices. Third, Mozart was complete i n his notation f o r a number of reasons: 1) orche s t r a l accompaniment i s necessary i n the sections of free ornamentation; 2) Mozart wrote the arias f o r A l o y s i a Weber and for p a r t i c u l a r performances i n most instances; 3) by creating a f i n e composition Mozart showed himself to best advantage over the I t a l i a n musicians with whom he f e l t an intense r i v a l r y . Fourth, late eighteenth-century orna-mentation can be divided into two groups--specific ornaments and free ornamentation. C l a s s i c a l ornamentation d i f f e r s from Baroque i n two important respects: 1) i n Baroque melodies ornaments are mere f r i l l s , but C l a s s i c a l ornaments are so organic to the s t y l e that most Mozart melodies would be unthinkable without them; 2) whereas Baroque free ornamentation usually f i l l s i n spaces be-tween chord tones, C l a s s i c a l embellishment reinforces s t r u c t u r a l points. The performable e d i t i o n mentioned above resembles a simple nineteenth-century cantabile a r i a , i l l u s t r a t i n g the basic d i f f e r e n c e between the l a t e r s t y l e and that of Mozart. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES . V PREFACE V i INTRODUCTION 1 Growing German Musical Independence 5 The Concert Arias 18 I. THE SINGING TRADITION 20 Eighteenth-century Singers 22 The Singing T r a d i t i o n 27 Eighteenth-century Singing Manuals 30 General Instruction i n Singing 36 Composition and Improvisation 49 F l e x i b i l i t y . . 51 Singers of the Concert Arias 56 Alo y s i a Weber 60 Conclusion 64 II. THE TRADITION OF ORNAMENTATION 66 Style and Ornamentation 68 The Ornaments 73 Free Ornamentation 97 II I . THE CONCERT ARIAS 105 The Notation 110 Approaches to Melodic Writing I l l Ornamental Patterns 119 Analysis 120 Summary 122 IV. CONCLUSIONS 124 BIBLIOGRAPHY 126 APPENDIX I 131 APPENDIX II 135 •APPENDIX III 186 APPENDIX IV 196 V LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE 1 34 TABLE 2 120 y i PREFACE Before embarking on the main body of the thesis I would l i k e to thank the people who have helped i n i t s preparation. F i r s t of a l l , my gratitude goes to Robert Morris for h i s guidance with the work and his aid i n obtaining f i n a n c i a l assistance. Second, my p a r t i c u l a r thanks go to Gregory Butler for h i s help with the h i s t o r i c a l perspective and organization; Robert Silverman for his aid i n the o v e r a l l writing; French Tickner for h i s suggestions regarding the singing t r a d i t i o n ; and Eugene Wilson for h i s assistance with the chapter on ornamentation. Last, but most important, I wish to thank my husband, David, who has given me sincere encouragement with every aspect of my work. INTRODUCTION Aloys i a Weber held a unique place i n the l i f e of Mozart. She was not only his f i r s t great love and l a t e r his s i s t e r - i n -law but also a singer who possessed a voice well suited to eighteenth-century tastes. The concert arias written for her are seldom performed today, a f a c t which indicates some of t h e i r unique features. Their infrequent performance r a i s e s i n t e r e s t i n g questions about the musical taste and singing technique of the l a t e eighteenth century. 1 Edward 0. D. Dowries has pointed out that 2 a h i s t o r y of singing s t y l e has yet to be written; i t i s hoped that the following thesis w i l l be a contribution to t h i s subject. The most important aspect of eighteenth-century s t y l e was ornamentation. Vocal pedagogy was suited to the taste of the age, giving high p r i o r i t y to composition and vocal f l e x i b i l i t y . The singer was therefore able to meet the technical demands made on his voice. But "compare these fa c t s with the conditions e x i s t i n g today," says Weldon Whitlock, "and you get another good reason why so few singers use the concert a r i a s . They just do not have the Weldon Whitlock, "The Concert A r i a s , " NATS B u l l e t i n (October 1973), 10, 11. Edward 0. D. Downes, "The Operas of J . C. Bach as a R e f l e c t i o n of the Dominant Trends i n Opera Seria: 1750-1780" (Ph. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Harvard, 1958). 2 3 necessary technique." Investigation of eighteenth-century vocal pedagogy, discussed i n Chapter I, w i l l form a part of the follow-ing study. An important aspect of the singer's education was a mastery of composition for the purpose of improvising embellishment. Without the necessary knowledge and technique f l o r i d v a r i a t i o n s could not be executed. H. C. Robbins Landon believes that the concert a r i a s are not performed today because although there i s an abundance of singing coaches who teach opera r o l e s , there are 4 few who have the concert a r i a s i n t h e i r r e p e r t o i r e . He implies that singers today are less musically independent than t h e i r eighteenth-century predecessors. Although Weber was not expected to improvise i n these a r i a s , she nevertheless was a good c l a v i e r player and had been taught to create embellishments according to t r a d i t i o n a l methods; her knowledge of music made her thoroughly conversant with the s t y l e . This t r a d i t i o n of ornamentation, according to which Mozart was also trained, w i l l be discussed i n Chapter I I . Although period sources are a v a i l a b l e on s p e c i f i c ornaments (Manieren), information on free ornamentation i s r e l a t i v e l y scarce. Two d i s s e r t a t i o n s on t h i s subject, begun i n the 196.0's, were never Whitlock, op_. c i t • , 11. H. C. Robbins Landon, Essays on the Viennese C l a s s i c a l Style (London: Barrie and R o c k l i f f , 1970), 324. 3 completed. Weldon Whitlock has pointed out another i n t e r e s t i n g aspect of the concert a r i a s as follows: One of the strangest phenomena, with regard to these arias i s that, although they were the product of the bel canto era, when the composer expected and encouraged the singer to elaborate with a l l manner of f i o r a t u r e and embellishments, t h i s i n no way held true with the concert a r i a s . ^ No one has previously attempted to solve t h i s mystery. The usual p r a c t i c e of the period was to present the singer with a musical skeleton which was "enough to l e t the great singer have f u l l 7 l i b e r t y i n embellishing." Why Mozart broke with t r a d i t i o n can be answered according to p r a c t i c a l musical considerations, to be discussed i n Chapter I I I . That section w i l l also deal with C l a s s i c a l ornamentation from the standpoint of the concert a r i a s . As has been mentioned g above, work on t h i s subject i s incomplete. There are i s o l a t e d Eugene Narmour, "Toward a Theory of C l a s s i c a l Melody" (unfinished Ph. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Chicago, n.d.) and Joan E. Smiles, "Improvised Ornamentation i n Late Eighteenth Century Music" (unfinished Ph. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Stanford University, 1969). Whitlock, op. c i t . , 11. Giambatista Mancini, P e n s i e r i e r e f l e s s i o n i . . . (Vienna: Ghelen, 1774), new ed. with h i s t o r i c a l notes by E. Foreman (Champaign, I l l i n o i s : Pro Musica, 1968), 14. Some i n t e r e s t i n g background information has been provided by Charles Rosen, "Structure and Ornament" i n The C l a s s i c a l  Style (New York: Viking, 1971), 99-108. 4 9 examples of f u l l y notated embellishments from t h i s period, but the most complete work has been done by Paul and Eva Badura-Skoda, who have added t h e i r own embellishments to s k e l e t a l melodies pro-vided by the composer.^ This approach presents d i f f i c u l t i e s , however, because i t involves additions made by scholars i n the twentieth century who cannot p o s s i b l y have heard performances of eighteenth-century a r t i s t s . The present study includes an analysis of the concert a r i a s according to a process which could be c a l l e d "the reverse of v a r i a t i o n . " ^ These pieces are an excellent choice for a number of reasons: 1) information on the pedagogy and composition which preceeded them i s av a i l a b l e ; 2) the t r a i n i n g of the singer and the composer can be ascertained; and 3) the concert arias are a written record of C l a s s i c a l ornamentation. Mozart's thoroughness of notation i n these arias (many of which were used as substitutions i n operas) can be explained i n part by his feelings of competition with I t a l i a n opera composers. For t h i s reason a h i s t o r y of German-Italian r i v a l r y follows. See the section on free ornamentation i n Chapter II . Eva and Paul Badura-Skoda, Mozart-Interpretation (Vienna: Wancura, 1957), 177. A l l e n Forte, "Schenker's Conception of Musical Structure," Journal of Music Theory III (1959), 13. 5 Growing German Musical Independence The Mozart concert.arias are both forward- and backward-looking, r e f l e c t i n g not only older p r a c t i c e s but also procedures which composers followed a f t e r Mozart. Although Mozart's musical t r a i n i n g was t r a d i t i o n a l , his attitudes were not. The answer to the question of why he notated his embellishments can be found i n h i s personality, which was cl o s e r to that of Beethoven, his j u n i o r , than to that of Haydn, his senior. Like most of the great composers of the nineteenth century he had a strong sense of his own genius. He did not regard himself as one of many servants of a nobleman but rather as an a r t i s t who was the equal of any man. Also l i k e the composers who followed 12 him he had a strong awareness of himself as a German composer. These f e e l i n g s , i n conjunction with h i s outstanding t a l e n t s , often brought him into c o n f l i c t with the I t a l i a n musicians who had prev-i o u s l y reigned supreme i n musical c i r c l e s . Mozart doubtless wanted to show the I t a l i a n composers that he could write as well as they i n the I t a l i a n s t y l e . It may be s i g n i f i c a n t that of thirty-seven concert arias written for p a r t i c u l a r singers only eight are for I t a l i a n s . Mozart, a German composer, Mozart r e f e r r e d to himself i n t h i s way, using the language term "German." was writing I t a l i a n - s t y l e a r i a s , many of which were substitutions 13 i n I t a l i a n operas, and the singer f or whom he wrote was a German leading lady in an I t a l i a n opera company. It i s clear that his musical reputation was at stake i n these a r i a s . Mozart asserted the s u p e r i o r i t y of Weber and himself, both Germans, i n an age of I t a l i a n musical supremacy. His character therefore r e f l e c t e d a growing trend--the musical independence of the German p r i n c i p a l i t i e s . It was during the l a t e eighteenth century that the German states began to have a con-sciousness of themselves as a recognizable group. Previous to that time "Germany" was subject to foreign influences. Konrad F r i e d r i c h Uden wrote i n 1796 that "the speaking of German i s for the daughters of burghers, for the maidss The l i t t l e mademoiselle, however must rather know how to say bon jour and bon s o i r and jje vous souhaite 14 une bonne nuit than to c a l l God her greatest benefactor." In a s i m i l a r vein Robert Ergang c i t e s a poem of Burkard Menke (1675-1732) : Da h e i s s t das andre Wort g l o i r e , renome'e, Massacre, bel e s p r i t , f i e r , capricieux; La pr£cieuse hat das Deutsche gar verschworen, Es k l i n g t j a zu paysan i n ihren zarten Ohren Und kommt nach ihrem goutfe.u canailleux heraus.:;-Ein Wort franzBsisch z i e r t den ganzen Menschen aus. 13 For a d e s c r i p t i o n of the types of arias which have come to be known as "concert a r i a s , " see page 185 of the Introduction. 14 '•• Konrad F r i e d r i c h Uden, Uber die Erziehung der TOchter des Mittelstandes (Stendal, 1796), 148. ^ Robert Reinhold Ergang, Herder and the Foundations of German Nationalism (New York: Octagon, 1966), 22. 7 While at the court of Frederick, V o l t a i r e wrote, "I am i n France here. Only our language i s spoken. German i s for servants and fo r horses. In addition to French, I t a l i a n was also widely understood, being the f i r s t language under Charles VI. Metastasio, the court poet from 1729, wrote i n I t a l i a n ; and the Capuchin f r i a r Caslino delivered his sermons at St. Peter's Church i n Vienna i n I t a l i a n as l a t e as 1748. The n o b i l i t y i n A u s t r i a was cosmopolitan. It included the Colloredos of I t a l y , the family of the Archbishop of Salzburg with whom Mozart had great d i f f i c u l t i e s . This cosmopolitan n o b i l i t y came into c o n f l i c t with the Emperor Joseph I I , who appointed seven non-nobles to his cabinet. Joseph not only affected the power of noble f a m i l i e s adversely but also exhibited a p a r t i c u l a r brand of r e l i g i o u s tolerance which served to weaken the influence of I t a l y i n the r e l i g i o u s sphere as well as the p o l i t i c a l . Whereas under Maria Theresa the p r i v i l e d g e d p o s i t i o n of the Roman Catholic Church was j e a l o u s l y guarded, under Joseph the Catholic Church was n a t i o n a l i z e d . Bishops were forbidden to receive papal b u l l s and decrees without royal consent and were required to take an oath of l o y a l t y to the emperor. Because Joseph believed that monastic funds could better be used for s o c i a l reforms, he confiscated s i x t y m i l l i o n f l o r i n s from monastic property. 1 6 Ibid., 26. 8 H o s t i l i t y toward the Jesuits reached i t s climax i n the 1760's and eventually forced the Pope to dissolve the Order i n 1773. Anderson summarizes the animosity toward the Je s u i t s i n the following way: The exaggerated hatred and fear f e l t f o r the Je s u i t s everywhere i n Protestant Europe had always been echoed, sometimes with equal i n t e n s i t y , i n many parts of the Catholic world. Their wealth (sometimes grossly exaggerated by rumour), the great influence they normally possessed at Rome and i n many of the courts of Europe, above a l l the unity and d i s c i p l i n e which made them appear a kind~,of secret society, aroused widespread envy and d i s l i k e . If* Joseph made reforms i n the Church, forbidding pilgrimages and processions and declaring that the vernacular be used i n services. In an attempt to reverse Joseph's p o l i c i e s , Pope Pius VI journeyed to Vienna i n 1782, but h i s negotiations were i n e f f e c t u a l . In the arts as well as i n the p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s realms the I t a l i a n influence was on the decline, as evidenced by the appearance of a national Singspiel which threatened the existence 18 of I t a l i a n opera i n Vienna. In sp i t e of t h i s threat a new opera buffa troupe was r e c r u i t e d to stage a comeback of I t a l i a n opera there. The emperor, "from the p o l i t i c a l point of view, 19 desired a German national opera," but his musical tastes were closer to I t a l i a n opera. Paul Henry Lang describes the s i t u a t i o n M. S. Anderson, Europe i n the Eighteenth Century (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1961), 326. Joseph II founded a national opera theatre i n Vienna i n 1778, opening with Die Bergknappen by Ignaz Umlauf; Mozart's Entftlhrung was performed there four years l a t e r . Paul Henry Lang, Music i n Western C i v i l i z a t i o n (New York: Norton, 1941), 669. 9 from the standpoint of S a l i e r i , one of the l a s t of Mozart's enemies to plague him. S a l i e r i , a r r i v i n g i n Vienna at the time of the s h o r t - l i v e d supremacy of the German comic opera and recog-n i z i n g the new trend i n opera, l o s t no time i n composing a Sing-s p i e l , The Chimneysweep, which was completed i n 1781. Lang describes him i n the following way: An i n t r i g u e r l i k e his seventeenth-century compatriot L u l l y , t h i s able musician was even accused of poisoning Mozart.... There can be no question...of S a l i e r i ' s malevolent interference with the success of his Austrian colleagues. His f i n e musicianship t o l d him to concentrate his malice on Mozart....20 One of the most i n t e r e s t i n g incidents i n the Singspiel con-troversy involved S a l i e r i and Mozart. On February 17, 1786 the Emperor Joseph II gave a party for Duke Albert von Sachsen-Teschen, Governor General of the Netherlands, and the Archduchess Marie C h r i s t i n e , s i s t e r of the emperor. The f e s t i v i t i e s were held i n the Orangerie at SchOnbrunn, just outside Vienna. The arrangement of the OrangerieLhall i s i n t r i g u i n g i n i t s e l f because i t emphasizes the contrast between the two musical genres represented at the f e s t i v i t i e s . Spanning the 183-meter length of the h a l l was a long banquet table surrounded by trees decorated with exotic flowers and f r u i t s - - a splendid contrast with the barren February landscape outside. At opposite ends of the room stood twin stages--one for theatre and one for opera. Representing "theatre" on the evening i n question was the Ibid. Beethoven also had d i f f i c u l t i e s with S a l i e r i . See his l e t t e r of January 7, 1809. 10 Singspiel Per Schauspieldirektor of W. A. Mozart; "opera" took the form of Prima l a musica _e poi le parole of Antonio S a l i e r i . S a l i e r i was the more f a m i l i a r of the two composers. Perhaps the entertainments for the f e s t i v i t i e s were devised by the emperor with a competition of I t a l i a n opera and German Singspiel i n mind, considering Joseph's contradictory desire for a German opera and taste favoring I t a l i a n opera. At any rate, the event was a confron-t a t i o n of these two genres. The party also r e s u l t e d i n the competition of a German and an I t a l i a n composer. History has proven that the comparison was not a f a i r one. The audience had scarcely an opportunity to judge the music of the young Mozart, which consisted of an overture 21 and four numbers. S a l i e r i ' s work was a f u l l opera. In addition, Casti's l i b r e t t o , which re f r a i n e d from using the stereotypes of t h e a t r i c a l parody, outshone Stephanie's. Even when the scholar Josef Heinzelmann p M i s e s S a l i e r i ' s opera, h i s s p e c i f i c comments 22 r e f e r almost e x c l u s i v e l y to the l i b r e t t o . Graf von Zinzendorfj-a member of the court c i r c l e of Vienna whose diary provides a valuable source for the period under study, enjoyed S a l i e r i ' s opera buffa This uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n accountssfor the fa c t that S a l i e r i received one hundred ducats i n payment but Mozart only f i f t y . Josef Heinzelmann, "'Prima l a musica, e poi le parole' Zu S a l i e r i s Wiener Opernparodie," Oesterreichische Musikzeit-s c h r i f t XXVIII (1973), 19-28. 11 23 but found Per Schauspieldirektor "thoroughly i n d i f f e r e n t . " S a l i e r i ' s broad farce must have appealed to him more than Mozart's subtle s a t i r e . How i r o n i c that Mozart's work for the f e s t i v i t i e s was written at a time when he was i n the midst of composing The Marriage of Figaro, h i s f i r s t mature comic opera and one of the 24 greatest of a l l time. I t a l i a n composers such as S a l i e r i must have been upset with the attitudes of Joseph I I , who favored a German national opera, and of Mozart, who was able to write German operas more masterfully than D i t t e r s d o r f . Perhaps they saw s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the fa c t that there were few I t a l i a n musicians i n the centers of the North. They may also have been s e n s i t i v e to the widespread writings of such people as Karl von Moser, who said, "A German p a t r i o t must never 25 forget, that he i s a German, and not a Greek, a Roman or a B r i t o n . " Mozart was the f i r s t composer i n a new age of national conscious-ness, and the I t a l i a n s p a r t i c u l a r l y feared him because they could see t h e i r own influence diminishing before t h i s German composer. In f a c t , "In Vienna," says Mozart's biographer Nemetschek, just seven years a f t e r Mozart's death, Mozart's " I t a l i a n operas were not received with such great applause as i n Prague and i n other towns 23 Quoted i n Chris Raeburn, "An Evening at Schoenbrunn," The  Music Review XVI (1955), 96-110. 24 For a f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n of the f e s t i v i t i e s see the above a r t i c l e . 25 Karl von Moser, Neujahrwunsch an den Reichstag... (Leipzig: Neues p a t r i o t i s c h e s Archiv, 1792), 268. The i t a l i c s are mine. 12 of Germany...£as a r e s u l t of] the influence of the foreign singers 2 6 and the state of the Court Theatre." The following excerpts from Mozart's l e t t e r s r e f l e c t h i s sense of r i v a l r y with the I t a l i a n s . They show the character of a man whose reputation as a German composer was at stake i n the composition of the concert arias because he wanted to present h i s t a l e n t s and those of his singer i n the best possible l i g h t . Mozart c a r r i e d into adulthood the f e e l i n g of German-Italian r i v a l r y which had been transmitted to him by his father. In h i s l e t t e r of J u l y 11, 1763 Leopold wrote, "Indeed you can judge how p a r t i a l Jommelli i s to his country from the fa c t that he and some of his compatriots...were heard to say that i t was amazing and hardly believable that a c h i l d of German b i r t h could have such unusual 27 genius and so much understanding and passion. Ridete amici!" During Mozart's fourth journey, to Vienna, Leopold's l e t t e r of February 3, 1768 t o l d of h i s plans for Mozart. " A l l the c l a v i e r -players and composers i n Vienna" were opposed to Mozart's advancement, except for Georg Wagenseil. These composers avoided a l l occasions Franz Nemetschek, L i f e of Mozart (London: Hyman, 1956), 43. The comment suggests that the I t a l i a n singers were thus i n s t r u -mental i n having operas by I t a l i a n s performed, perhaps fearing that production of operas by German composers would r e s u l t i n a decline i n the use of Italiannsiiigg>rss. Emily Anderson, op. c i t . , I, 23. 13 where Mozart played and declared that a l l of his transpositions, sightreading and improvisations were pre-arranged. In order to convince the pub l i c of Mozart's t a l e n t , Leopold decided "to do something e n t i r e l y out of the ordinary, that i s , to get Wolfgang to write an opera f o r the theatre. Can you not imagine," he continued, "what a turmoil s e c r e t l y arose amongst those composers? What? Today we are to see a Gluck and tomorrow a boy of twelve seated at the harpsichord and conducting h i s own opera? Yes, despite 28 a l l those who envy him!" On May 11 Leopold said that he hoped t h i s opera would give Mozart the no t e r i e t y which would help him when "he attains the age and physical appearance which no longer a t t r a c t 29 admiration for his merits." The rumor c i r c u l a t e d that not Mozart but his father had written the opera, and A f f l i g i o , manager of the Burgtheater and Theater am KSrtner Tor, found reasons to postpone the opera i n spite of the emperor's o r i g i n a l request f o r the project. "Some people spread the report," said Leopold, "that the music was not worth a f i g ; others say that i t did.-not f i t the words, or was against the metre, thus proving that the boy had not s u f f i c i e n t 30 command of the I t a l i a n language." Mozart was fluent i n I t a l i a n and wrote many l e t t e r s i n t h i s language. Leopold wrote on March 13, 1770 during the f i f t h journey, to I t a l y , that Mozart had been asked to write an opera, M i t r i d a t e . 28 Ibid., I, 82. 29 Ibid., I, 85. 30 Ibid., I, 88. 14 Before the f i r s t rehearsal, he said on December 15 that "there were plenty of people who c y n i c a l l y described the music...because, as they maintained, i t was impossible f o r such a young boy, and, 31 what i s more a German to write I t a l i a n opera." Leopold described-i t s success i n h i s l e t t e r of December 29, adding, however, that before i t was produced, many people c r i t i c i z e d i t as "German and 32 barbarous." As Mozart grew older, he, too, was eager to show what a German composer could do. On October 2, 1777 he expressed h i s desire to 33 "help forward the German national theatre." His father responded on October 4, 1777 by mentioning that "...the stage f o r these I t a l i a n s does not extend very much further than Munich and prac-t i c a l l y comes to an end there." In Mannheim, T r i e r , Mainz, WUrz-burg and, i n short, "at the courts of a l l the less important 34 Protestant Princes" most of the musicians were Germans. Leopold expressed hope f o r his son's future i n November of 35 1777 because the I t a l i a n s were not i n favor at Mannheim. He reported as follows from Salzburg on August 3, 1778 that c o n f l i c t s between the I t a l i a n s and Germans were s t i l l going on: 3 1 Ibid., I, 174. 3 2 I b i c L > I> 1 7 6 -3 3 I b i d . , 1,2290. 34 Ibid., I, 295. 3 5 See Ibid., 1,3353. 15 F e r r a r i i s going to leave at the end of August. These two events w i l l mean the ru i n of Brunetti. The I t a l i a n s are losing t h e i r good name. Everyone i s going f o r them now... I shrug my shoulders and say nothing. 6 On August 21, 1778 Leopold mentioned that the e l e c t o r had performances of operas i n the German language and that "...he now wants a German 37 maestro." In t h i s c r i t i c i s m of h i s son's opera Idomeneo he added on December 4,/1780 that the music nevertheless " i s f a r from being common-38 place, as, on the whole, I t a l i a n music i s . " Mozart again faced the supposed d i f f i c u l t y of a German composer writing an I t a l i a n opera: Beecke t o l d me...among other things...that Raaff's a r i a i n Act II did not s u i t the rhythm of the words. 'So I am t o l d , ' he said, 'but T_ know too l i t t l e I t a l i a n to be able to judge. Is i t so?' I r e p l i e d , 'If you had only asked me f i r s t and written about i t afterwards! I should l i k e to t e l l you that whoever said such a thing knows very l i t t l e Italian.'39 Mozart expressed f r u s t r a t i o n at the lack of recognition he received i n his own country and wrote on August 17, 1782 that " i f Germany, my be-loved fatherland, of which, as you know, I am proud, w i l l not accept me, then i n God's name l e t France or England become r i c h e r by another 40 talented German...." One of the ways he wished to show his t a l e n t was by composing another opera, but he s t i l l faced I t a l i a n r i v a l r i e s . With regard to the l i b r e t t i s t da Ponte he said on May 7, 1783, " I f he 36 Ibid., I I , 591 37 Ibid., II , 602 38 Ibid., II, 681 39 Ibid., II, 698 40 Ibid.., II, 814 16 i s i n league with S a l i e r i , I s h a l l never get anything out of him. But indeed I should dearly love to show what I can do i n an I t a l i a n opera!" On May 21, 1785 Mozart re l a t e d the story of d i f f i c u l t i e s regarding the b u i l d i n g operations at the Kaertnerthor Theater f o r the coming German operatic stage. "To judge by the preparations, " he s a i d , " i t looks as i f they were t r y i n g altogether to r u i n German opera.... My s i s t e r - i n - l a w Mme. Lange i s the only singer who i s to j o i n the German opera. Mme. C a v a l i e r i , Adamburger, Mile. Teiber, a l l Germans of whom Germany may well be proud, have to stay at the I t a l i a n opera--and com-42' pete against t h e i r own countrymen!" Leopold wrote h i s daughter on A p r i l 28, 1786 that " S a l i e r i and a l l h i s supporters w i l l again t r y to move heaven and earth to down his opera." He added that Mozart's f r i e n d s , the Duscheks, " t o l d me recently that i t i s on account of the very great reputation which your brother's exceptional talent and a b i l -43 i t y have won for him that so many people are p l o t t i n g against him." One of the most t e l l i n g incidents i n Mozart's l i f e concerning h i s r i v a l r y with the I t a l i a n s involves two of the concert a r i a s . K. 418 and 419 were written f o r Weber as substitutions i n Anfossi's opera buffa Il_ Curioso i n d i s c r e t o . The opera was being presented i n Vienna by an I t a l i a n troupe, but the two leading r o l e s were sung by Germans, Weber and Adamberger. Mozart reported i n a l e t t e r of J u l y 2, 1783 that the opera f a i l e d , except for h i s two a r i a s . The I t a l i a n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y 41 42 Ibid., I I , 848. Ibid., I I , 890. 43 Ibid., I I , 897. 17 S a l i e r i , spread the rumor that "Mozart wanted to improve on Anfossi's opera." In objection to t h i s report Mozart i n s i s t e d that a statement be printed i n the copies of the l i b r e t t o , which said that i n no way did he wish to e c l i p s e the fame of the noted Neapolitan composer. Although Mozart thought that h i s enemies were "quite confounded" by the state-44 ment, i n f a c t they only became aware of his true f e e l i n g s . Mozart was the f i r s t composer to challenge I t a l i a n musical suprem-acy s u c c e s s f u l l y , and from t h i s time on Germany ceased looking exclus-i v e l y to I t a l y f o r i t s musicians and teachers. Mozart's concert arias f o r A l o y s i a Weber were not mere veh i c l e s f o r d i s p l a y i n g a singer's talents but were a r t i s t i c creations designed to feature both the com-poser and the singer--two supremely talented German musicians. Mozart's r e l a t i o n s h i p to the I t a l i a n s i s best summarized by h i s biographer Nemetschek as follows: An old I t a l i a n impressario of an opera company i n Germany, who seems to have f a l l e n on e v i l days ever since the r i s e of Mozart,...is wont to heave a sigh whenever he comes a-cross an opera of Mozart i n h i s l i s t and to u t t e r a cry: "He i s my undoing."45 Ibid., I I , 854. Nemetschek, op_. c i t . , 86. 18 The Concert Arias The concert a r i a s of Mozart a c t u a l l y include not only arias written s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r concert but also i n t e r p o l a t i o n s which subse-46 quently "assumed the character of concert a r i a s . " They have been compared to the instrumental concerto i n character and form. Although some are written for bass and one f o r con t r a l t o , the widest choice of ari a s by f a r i s for soprano. Some of the soprano a r i a s are also s u i t -able f o r tenor. While many are true concert a r i a s , having been intended f o r con-cert, others are substitutions f o r a r i a s i n I t a l i a n operas. S t i l l others are in t e r p o l a t i o n s . Several are l i c e n z e - - a r i a s to be used as encores. Several of the early ones were written as exercises i n pre-paration f o r Mozart's f i r s t f u l l opera. Yet the true concert arias d i f f e r from Mozart's opera a r i a s i n one important respect, noted by Paul Hamburger as follows: In the absence of a scenario, l y r i c a l phrases are allowed to l u xuriate; the orchestra i s more l i k e l y to behave as i n a piano concerto...; concertante elements abound i n solo and accompaniment; the arias are more d e f i n i t e l y w rit-ten to su i t the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of a c e r t a i n singer, and, having three or more sections of varying speed, give a completely rounded p i c t u r e of his or her character.47 In general, however, the l i s t e n e r "cannot detect any basic d i f f e r e n c e 46 - - •- • "• • ' . - - -E r i c Bloni, "Vocal Music" i n Mozart (London: Dent, 1962), 183. 47 Paul Hamburger, "The Concert A r i a s " i n The Mozart Companion, ed. . H.C. Robbins-Landon and Donald M i t c h e l l (London: R o c k l i f f , 1956), 333. 19 48 between the form of the concert and operatic a r i a . " Three notable exceptions are K. 272, 505 and 528 which, unlike opera a r i a s , do not e s t a b l i s h the emotional s i t u a t i o n by the beginning of the a r i a . In the true concert a r i a s the en t i r e range of a singer's emotional and technical c a p a b i l i t i e s i s displayed. As an aid to understanding the vocal technique necessary to execute these a r i a s , a chapter on the singing t r a d i t i o n follows. Ibid. 20 I. THE SINGING TRADITION According to Hans Engel, i n order to understand the young Mozart one need only study Leopold Mozart's V i o l i n s c h u l e . ^ The I t a l i a n t r a d -i t i o n f i r s t reached Mozart through h i s father, who had been heavily i n -fluenced by T a r t i n i ' s d e t a i l e d discussions of ornamentation and impro-vised cadenzas. Wilhelm Fischer points out another influence on the young Mozart--that of Padre M a r t i n i of Bologna--particularly i n the concert a r i a s : In the l a s t three years [1769-1772] Wolfgang...completed a number of concert arias...and i n Bologna, he had spent three months working almost d a i l y with Padre Martini...2 Throughout the year 1776 Wolfgang often wrote M a r t i n i , asking him to t e l l him "frankly and without reserve" what he thought of h i s composi-tion s . It i s i n I t a l y , Fischer claims, that Mozart "learned to write I t a l i a n opera, to handle melody and voice with v i r t u o s i t y . . . . " During his period of greatest contact with Padre M a r t i n i , Mozart wrote the following concert a r i a s : K. 70, 71, 143, 78, 88, 79, 77, 82, 83, and 74b. At the age of eight Mozart studied singing with the soprano castrato Manzuoli i n London. Angus Heriot claims that "the f i r s t Hans Engel, "Probleme der Auffuhrungspraxis," Mozart Jahrbuch (1955), 57. ~ = : Dr. Wilhelm Fischer, "Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wiener k l a s s i s -chen S t i l s : Melodik," Studien zur Musikwissehschaft IV, 88. 21 r e a l l y strong and l a s t i n g musical impression that the c h i l d received 3 was i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y the influence of Manzuoli." This view i s sup-ported by the writings of the Mozarts' f r i e n d , Baron Grimm, who said the following: He has even written several I t a l i a n a r i a s , and I am not giving up hope, that he w i l l have written an opera f o r some I t a l i a n theatre before he i s twelve yeas old. He heard Manzuoli i n London a l l winter long, and has made such good use of t h i s , that he, although h i s voice i s very small, sings with both f e e l i n g and t a s t e . 4 3 Angus Heriot, The C a s t r a t i i n Opera (London: Seeker and Warburg, : 1956), 155. 4 Louis B i a n c o l l i , The Mozart Handbook (Cleveland: World, 1954), 131, 22 Eigteenth-century Singers Mozart's teacher, the castrato Giovanni Manzuoli (1725-ca. 1771), was perhaps the most eminent castrato of the mid-eighteenth-century, at a time when F a r i n e l l i and C a f f a r e l l i were old. He was a f a v o r i t e i n Florence and sang i n the company of such people as C a f f a r e l l i and Raaf. Manzuoli sang i n Mozart's Ascanio i n Alba i n Milan i n 1771. In 1764 the English h i s t o r i a n Charles Burney heard him i n London and thought his voice to be "the most powerful and voluminous that has been heard on our stage since F a r i n e l l i . " 3 In Florence, however, Manzuoli's voice seemed less powerful to Burney. He was a good actor with a "majestic manner of singing" and a voice possessed of "native strength and sweet-ness," but Burney also thought his voice "too unwieldy f o r t r i c k s and 6 execution.: In a l e t t e r of October 2, 1777 Mozart made the following comments about a Mile. Kaiser, singer at the German national theatre i n Munich: She has a b e a u t i f u l voice, not powerful but by no means weak, very pure and her intonation i s good. V a l e s i [who studied i n Padua and was also Adamberger's teacher] has taught her.... When she sustains her voice f o r a few bars, I have been astonished at the beauty of her cres-cendo and decrescendo. She s t i l l takes her t r i l l s slowly and I am very glad. They w i l l be a l l the truer and c l e a r -er when l a t e r on she wants to t r i l l more r a p i d l y , f o r i t i s always easier to do them quickly i n any case.7 Heriot, op. c i t . , 155. 6 I b i d . Anderson, op. c i t , , I, 290. 23 Lucrezia Agujari (1743-1783), the soprano who performed under the i n d e l i c a t e name of _La Bastardella or L;a. Bastardina, was described by Mozart as having "a lovely voice, a f l e x i b l e throat, and an i n c r e d i b l e g range" of three octaves. She was celebrated for her high notes, but Mile. Weber had an even wider range. Burney said that "the lower part 9 of her voice was f u l l , round, of an exceptional q u a l i t y . " Her tones were "open and perfect, her intonation true, her execution marked and rapid. " ^ Burney wished, however, that she would have been " l e s s v i o l e n t i n the d e l i v e r y of her passages" and her looks "more tempered by feminine softness and timidity." 1"'" Her s t y l e could be "grand and majestic," but "the pathetic and tender were not what her manner or 12 f i g u r e promised." Mozart commented on the bass singer Meisner. Although he p r e f e r -red Meisner's cantabile to Raaf's, he mentioned that Meisner "has a bad habit of making his voice tremble.... The human voice trembles natural-l y — b u t i n i t s own way--and only to such a degree that the e f f e c t i s 13 b e a u t i f u l . " Heriot, op. c i t . , 50. 9 Percy A. Scholes, An Eighteenth-Century Musical Tour i n France and  I t a l y (London: Oxford, 1959), I, 95, n. 4. 1 0 Ibid. 1 1 Ibid. Ibid. 13 Anderson, op. c i t . , I I , 552. 24 Caterina G a b r i e l l i (1730-1796), soprano and student of Porpora, Gluck, and Metastasio, was described as "the greatest singer i n the 14 world." She was a good actress of great beauty, known for her prom-i s c u i t y as well as her acting a b i l i t y and knowledge of music. Burney said her treatment of slow pieces was not s u f f i c i e n t l y touching. Her voice was sweet and of l i g h t weight, and i t excelled i n a g i l i t y . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that "the greatest singer i n the world" had a l i g h t voice. When Leopold Mozart cautioned h i s son about becoming too fond of Mile. Weber's singing, the most l o f t y means of comparison was to match Weber with G a b r i e l l i . Domenico Panzacchi (1733-1805) i s described by Burney's editor as "one of the best tenors of the p e r i o d . " 1 ^ Burney said he had "a pleas-ing expression, and a f a c i l i t y of execution; he i s likewise said to be 17 an admirable actor." Mozart complained of him i n a l e t t e r to his father of November 22, 1780 i n the following way: He has inquired very meekly whether instead of "se l a se" he may not sing "se co la"--Well, why not "ut re mi f a so la"?18 1 4 Quoted i n Heriot, op_. c i t . , 164. 1 5 See Giambatista Mancini, P r a c t i c a l R e f l e c t i o n s . . . , new ed. by E. Foreman (Champaign, I l l i n o i s : Pro Musica, 1968), 147 1 6 Scholes, op. c i t . , I I , 45, n. 1. 1 7 Ibid., 50. I Q Anderson, o^. c i t , , I I , 669. 25 This passage i l l u s t r a t e s Mozart's pride i n h i s own composition; he wanted the passage performed as written. Mozart t a i l o r e d h i s a r i a s f o r p a r t i c u l a r singers, but he thought no one had better ideas about his music than he himself. This point i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n l i g h t of the composer's approach to composition and notation, a subject to be discussed i n Chapter I I I . Adriana G a b r i e l i (1755-1795) was Mozart's F i o r d i l i g i , and i t was f o r her that he wrote a concert a r i a s for a r e v i v a l of The  Marriage of Figaro, i n which she played the part of Susanna. According to Burney she possessed an "extraordinary compass of voice, as she was able to reach the highest E of our harpsichord, upon which she could dwell a considerable time, i n a f a i r , natural ,,19 voice." The castrato L u i g i Marchesi (1754-1829) made h i s debut i n Rome i n 1774 i n a production of Pergolesi's La serva padrona. He even became Court Musician to the King of Sardinia. It i s f o r him that Maria Cosway l e f t her husband and c h i l d r e n to follow him throughout Europe. Like C a f f a r e l l i , Marchesi was noted f o r h i s tantrums and a b s u r d i t i e s . At the height of h i s fame he i n s i s t e d on entering the stage descending a h i l l or on horseback, wearing Scholes, op_. c i t . , I, 114. The p i t c h i n question i s an e' 1' about one h a l f step lower than the e' 1' of today, owing to the r i s e i n p i t c h since Burney's day. 26 a helmet with large plumes, announced by trumpets and singing h i s f a v o r i t e a r i a by S a r t i . He also i n s i s t e d that he sing h i s l a s t 20 a r i a i n prison and i n chains. The amateur musician Lord Mount Edgcumbe said that he was good looking and graceful in h i s de-portment. "His vocal powers were very great," continued Edgcumbe, "his voice of extensive compass, but a l i t t l e i n c l i n e d to be thick. His execution was considerable...nor was h i s cantabile singing 21 equal to h i s bravura." He tended to over-ornament i n r e c i t a t i v e . Burney said that he missed tender expression i n Marchesi's singing. Both the p o s i t i v e and negative comments about these singers indicate the vocal q u a l i t i e s which were considered d e s i r a b l e . Strength, sweetness, f l e x i b i l i t y and good acting were stressed i n discussions on Manzuoli. The importance of an unhindered vocal technique was mentioned i n comments on Meisner and Panzacchi. In addition to f l e x i b i l i t y , cantabile was also important, as revealed i n discussions of C. G a b r i e l l i . A wide range and breath control were prized assets, according to comments on A. G a b r i e l i and Marchesi. A singer had to have a knowledge of s t y l e , which would enable him to sing with taste--a f a c t stressed i n regard to Marchesi. Although a powerful voice was necessary, i t did not have to be "thick"; a l i g h t q u a l i t y was, i n f a c t , preferable, as comments on C. G a b r i e l l i and Marchesi suggest. V i c t o r Wilder, L i f e of Mozart (New York: Scribner, n.d.), 75. For a p o r t r a i t of Marchesi see Heriot, op. c i t . , 160. 27 The Singing T r a d i t i o n A l o y s i a Weber was trained i n the t r a d i t i o n which produced singers with c l e a r , a g i l e voices. To avoid confusion at the outset, a d i s t i n c t i o n must be made between bel canto as a t r a d i t i o n a l method of singing and as a s t y l e of melody. According to the Harvard Dictionary of Music, a recent association with the term "bel canto" has been the "mid-seventeenth century development represented by L. Rossi (1597-1653) and G. Cari s s i m i (1605-1674), which c u l t i v a t e d a simple, melodious vocal s t y l e of songlike q u a l i t y , without v i r -22 tuoso coloraturas." The primary d e f i n i t i o n , however, i s : The I t a l i a n vocal technique of the eighteenth century, with i t s emphasis on beauty of sound and b r i l l i a n c e of performance rather than dramatic expression or romantic emotion. In sp i t e of repeated reactions against bel  canto (or i t s abuses, such as dis p l a y f o r i t s own sake; Gluck, Wagner) and the frequent exaggeration of i t s virtuoso element (coloratura), i t must be considered a highly a r t i s t i c technique and the only proper one for I t a l i a n opera and Mozart. Its e a r l y development i s c l o s e l y bound.up with that of the I t a l i a n opera s e r i a (A. S c a r l a t t i , N. A. Porpora, N. Jommelli, J . A. Hasse, N. P i c c i n i ) . 2 3 It i s t h i s ..definition with which the present study i s concerned. Bel canto has been described as a "method by c a s t r a t i f o r c a s t r a t i . " ^ 4 It i s therefore linked with t h i s p e c u l i a r type of W i l l i Apel, Harvard Dictionary of Music (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap, 1944 § 1969), 88. 23 Ibid. Horace Bushnell Bowman, "The C a s t r a t i Singers and Their Music" (Ph. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Indiana U n i v e r s i t y , 1952). 28 singer who f l o u r i s h e d from 1650 to 1750, although the method may have begun to evolve at an e a r l i e r time i n I t a l y . It would be erroneous to think, however, that extraordinary singing i n the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was l i m i t e d to male sopranos. Caccini's daughter, and l a t e r , Cuzzoni, Faustina Bordoni and Lucrezia Agujari sang with the same type of vocal technique and presence as the famous c a s t r a t i . Mozart compared A l o y s i a Weber to the soprano Caterina G a b r i e l l i (1730-1796), whose voice has been described as "exceptionally sweet, though of l i g h t 25 weight" and e x c e l l i n g i n a g i l i t y . Although these female singers played a large part i n the h i s t o r y of singing, i t i s the c a s t r a t i who assumed the most import-ant r o l e . Mozart himself stressed t h i s importance i n a l e t t e r to hi s teacher Padre M a r t i n i on September 4, 1776: As for the theater, we [in Salzburg] are i n a bad way for singers. We have no castrato, and we s h a l l never have them, because they i n s i s t on being handsomely paid; and generosity i s not one of our faults.26 The c a s t r a t i were much i n demand and well paid, and t h e i r p e c u l i a r p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s made them p a r t i c u l a r l y well suited to singing. One of the advantages the castrato enjoyed i n singing was See footnote 15. Anderson, op_. c i t • , I, 266. 29 that h i s voice changed very l i t t l e , making his early study d i r e c t l y applicable to the voice he ca r r i e d with him throughout h i s l i f e . The growth zones of his bones remained open, causing the long bones to continue to grow u n t i l he was well into h i s t h i r t i e s . His i n -strument did not change s u b s t a n t i a l l y throughout h i s l i f e t i m e , and h i s oversized bone structure made room for great lung •* 2 7 capacity. The vocal method of the c a s t r a t i was the one according to which A l o y s i a Weber was trained, as w i l l be seen presently. Her f i r s t teacher, Abbe" Vogler, was a student of V a l l o t t i of Padua. T a r t i n i , whose t r e a t i s e on embellishment served as a model f o r I t a l i a n v i o l i n i s t s and singers, thought V a l l o t t i to be an excellent 28 composer. Weber l a t e r studied with Anton Raaf, a p u p i l of the castrato Bernacchi; the l a s t was a student of P i s t o c c h i , considered 29 to have set the standards for the bel canto method. For further discussion see Bowman, op, c i t . and Franz HabOck, Die Kastraten und ihre Gesangkunst ( B e r l i n : Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt Stuttgart, 1927) . Scholes, op_. c i t . , I, 100. See Cornelius L. Reid, Bel Canto (New York: Coleman-Ross, 1950), 16. 30 Eighteenth-Century Singing Manuals One of the f i r s t forerunners of the eighteenth-century manuals 30 of singing was G i u l i o Caccini's Nuove Musiche (1601). A more comprehensive t r e a t i s e was Observations on the F l o r i d Song by the 31 castrato Pier Francesco Tosi (b. 1647). The work was f i r s t pub-li s h e d i n Bologna i n 1723 as Opinioni.... It was translated by 32 J. E. G a l l i a r d f o r a London p u b l i c a t i o n of 1743 and by J . F. A g r i c o l a f o r a B e r l i n e d i t i o n of 1757. 3 3 Trained by his father i n Bologna, Tosi sang contralto i n the c i t i e s of I t a l y and i n Dresden before s e t t l i n g i n London i n 1692. The most au t h o r i t a t i v e t r e a t i s e on singing of the eighteenth 34 century i s Giovanni B a t t i s t a Mancini's P e n s i e r i . . . of 1776. Mancini has been described as "a legitimate h e i r to the most authentic and a u t h o r i t a t i v e sources and t r a d i t i o n s of bel ... 30 G i u l i o C a c c i n i , Preface to Le Nuove Musiche (1601), VogelB I, 125-26. 31 Pier Francesco T o s i , Opinioni de' cantori a n t i c h i , e moderni.... (Bologna: L. d a l l a Volpe, 1723). 32 Eng. trans, by J . E. G a l l i a r d as Observations on the F l o r i d  Song..., 2nd ed. (London: J . Wilcox, 1743). A l l references to T o s i are taken from t h i s e d i t i o n . 33 Ger. trans, and annot. by J . F. A g r i c o l a , Anleitung zur Singkunst. ( B e r l i n : G. L. Winter, 1757). 34 Giovanni B a t t i s t a Mancini, P e n s i e r i , e r i f l e s s i o n i pratiche  sopra i l canto f i g u r a t o (Vienna: Stamparia d i Ghelen, 1774). Trans, and ed. by E. Foreman as P r a c t i c a l Reflections on  Figured Singing (Champaign: Pro Musica Press, 1968). A l l references to Mancini are taken from t h i s e d i t i o n . 31 35 canto." Very l i t t l e i s known of Mancini before 1760, when he became royal singing master to the Imperial Court at Vienna. His reputation as a teacher and singer must have been extensive before he was given such a high p o s i t i o n , and he must have had great influence on the singers of Vienna thereafter. Burney, who met him i n Vienna i n 1772, was pleased at the thought of a book on singing by such a great master. Mancini's teachers included Leonardo Leo (1694-1744), a composer who trained Pergolesi; Padre Ma r t i n i (1706-1784), a musical d i r e c t o r who studied with the castrato R i c c i e r i and also taught Mozart; and Antonio Bernacchi (1685-1756), a famous castrato. Bernacchi sang throughout I t a l y and Germany, performing with Handel's troupe i n London i n 1729 and founding the Bolognese School of Singing i n 1736. As a youth he had been badly taught and begged P i s t o c c h i to restore h i s voice. Within three years he responded well enough as a student to become one of the most accomplished singers of his day. His teacher, Pistocchi,,had had a s i m i l a r experience i n h i s 3 6 youth, s u f f e r i n g from bad voice t r a i n i n g . He sang soprano but occasionally l o s t his voice. Renewed study gave him an a l t o voice and a good understanding of the art of singing. Horace Bushnell Bowman points out that " P i s t o c c h i i s given c r e d i t as being the Reid, op_. c i t . , 15. For a discussion of singing p r i o r to the period i n question, see P h i l i p A. Duey, Bel Canto i n Its  Golden Age (New York: King's Crown, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1951), Chapter V. Bowman, op. c i t . , 43. 32 father of today's good singing as he set up the standards f o r the 37 bel canto method." The s t o r i e s of P i s t o c c h i and Bernacchi serve to counteract the c r i t i c i s m that these masters were proclaimed to be great because t h e i r students had good voices before they began t h e i r : studies. "This attitu d e i s d i f f i c u l t to understand," says Cornelius Reid. "Did Propora keep C a f f a r e l l i occupied with a sing l e sheet of exercise material f o r s i x years because he was already a perfect 38 singer? Hardly." Another teacher of Mancini was Padre M a r t i n i , who also taught Mozart. He studied with the soprano castrato Giovanni Antonio R i c c i e r i (1679-1744), who was a student of P i s t o c c h i . The d i f f i c u l t task of tr a c i n g the pedagogical "lineage" of Mancini has served i t s purpose. The r e s u l t i n g "family t r e e , " shown i n table 1, supports the theory that there was an established I t a l i a n singing t r a d i t i o n and that most of the reputable singers and composers of the period under consideration are linked, either by one of the teachers under whom they studied or by students they had i n common. One of the i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s about Mancini i s that h i s teacher, Bernacchi, also taught Anton Raaf (1714-1797), the tenor f o r whom Mozart wrote the part of Idomeneo and the concert a r i a "Se a l labbro" (K. 295). Raaf was one of the teachers of Weber. As previously mentioned, the pedagogical l i n e can also be 37 - 5 / Ibid. 38 Reid, op_. c i t . , 101, 33 traced through Weber's f i r s t teacher, Abbe" .Vogler, who studied with V a l l o t t i . A discussion of vocal pedagogy i s not complete without mention of N i c o l a Antonio Porpora (1687-1767), the legendary teacher who was the subject of George Sand's novel Consuelo. He was the most famous teacher i n an age of great teachers, and his pupils included the soprano castrato F a r i n e l l i , who also studied with Bernacchi. Although his method was never put i n w r i t i n g , he has been sa i d to have trained his students " i n the t r a d i t i o n a l precepts of the 39 I t a l i a n school, as expressed i n the writings of Tosi and Mancini." Because the present study concerns singers of Vienna and the growing musical independence of Germany, German sources must also be mentioned. Wohlmuth, i n h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n on the art of German singing from 1750-1790, maintains that around 1750 or 1760 Germany became independent of I t a l y i n i t s t r a i n i n g of singers, adapting I t a l i a n methods to i t s own language and making i t no longer neces-40 sary f o r singers to go to I t a l y f o r t r a i n i n g . He believes that Mancini i s the important l i n k between I t a l i a n and German singing because of his work at the Kaiser's Court i n Vienna. One of the leaders i n German voice teaching was Johann Adam H i l l e r (1728-1804) . E. Foreman, ed. , "Introduction'.' to The Porpora T r a d i t i o n (Champaign, I l l i n o i s : Pro Musica, 1968). Hans Wohlmuth, "Die GrundsStze deutscher Gesangskultur von 1750-1790" (Ph. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Vienna, 1924), 2 Johann Adam H i l l e r , Anweisung zum mus i k a l i s c h z i e r l i c h e n Gesange (Leipzig: Junius, 1780) forms an important part of the research i n Wohlmuth. TABLE 1', PEDAGOGICAL LINEAGE 35 He advocated the use of German instead of I t a l i a n singers and .. published a t r e a t i s e which included examples of solfeggio melodies 42 and t h e i r ornamented varian t s . A f i n a l mention must be made of the English h i s t o r i a n Charles Burney (1726-1814), whose comments on the powers of p a r t i c u l a r singers i s very valuable. Georg Joseph Vogler, Georg Joseph Vogler' s Stimmbildungskunst (Mannheim, 1716). 36 General Instruction i n Singing A d e s c r i p t i o n of the method of singing which reached Weber through her teachers, Vogler and Raaf, has been set down by Tosi (1723), Mancini (1774), Marpurg (1763), Vogler (1776), and others. A teacher's f i r s t consideration was the question of whether or not to teach a c h i l d to sing. Mancini recommended that a parent have his c h i l d tested before 43 giving him singing lessons. Thinking that committing a c h i l d to a musical career was f o l l y i f the c h i l d had l i t t l e t a l e n t , the masters nevertheless showed great pride i n t h e i r a r t : The ignorance of the parents does not l e t them perceive the badness of the voice of t h e i r c h i l d , as t h e i r neces-s i t y makes them believe, that to sing and grow r i c h i s one and the same thing, and to learn music, i t i s enough to have a pretty face: "Can you make anything of her?" You may, perhaps, teach them with t h e i r voice--modesty w i l l not permit me to explain myself f a r t h e r . 4 4 Mancini also talked about the monetary reason f o r c a s t r a t i n g young boys, who were not always talented, i n the hope of bringing money and fame to the boy's family. In s p i t e of the problem of the untalented c h i l d , Mancini expressed confidence i n h i s method: I had experience of t h i s remedy i n a case followed c a r e f u l l y by me, one which I cannot ever forget.... Into my hands there came a youth who had been abandoned by two masters.... I undertook v o l u n t a r i l y the fatigue and work of exercising him, without fear of weakness and h i s tender age of t h i r t e e n : f o r a long space of time I never strengthened his voice; I paid attention only to perfect intonation, graduation, and u n i f i c a t i o n of h i s voice. With t h i s method, a f t e r a c e r t a i n Mancini, op_. c i t . , 16. T o s i , op_. c i t . , 15, 16. 37 determined time, I succeeded, with the growth of h i s years, i n advancing him l i t t l e by l i t t l e i n h i s studies to the point that he found h i s voice now f l o r i d , robust, and r i c h i n i t s range, able to ascend with ease to high D-la-sol-re, and i n consequence worthy to perform i n any noble theatre. I do not need to express the pleasure which I derived...45 As previously mentioned, the c r i t i c i s m that master singing teachers produced great students by accepting only talented p u p i l s i s unfounded. In s p i t e of the f a c t that teachers occasionally accepted less capable p u p i l s , they nevertheless looked f o r c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t h e i r prospective students. Wohlmuth mentions that the German teachers sought singers with good hearing, a strong thorax and lungs, a throat of medium size and a supple l a r y n x . 4 ^ Once a student was accepted he was instructed i n care of the voice. There were many references to harm i n f o r c i n g the instrument beyond i t s capacity, such as Tosi's amusing reminder, "Let him take care...that the higher the notes, the more i t i s necessary to touch 47 them with softness, to avoid screaming." This aspect of technique must have been e s p e c i a l l y important to A l o y s i a Weber i n the d e l i c a t e passages of the concert a r i a s . 48 The best time to study singing was "with the r i s i n g of the sun" or an hour a f t e r a meal, when the singer f e l t strong but was not hind-Mancini, op. c i t . , 36. See also F r i e d r i c h Wilhelm Marpurg, Anleitung  zur Musik uberhaupt, und zur Singkunst besonders ( B e r l i n : Arnold Wever, 1763), 13. Wohlmuth, loc. c i t . , T o s i , op_. c i t . , 9. Ibid., 89. 38 49 ered i n his breathing by a f u l l stomach. The singer was not to s i t in a stooped p o s i t i o n with the abdomen pressed together, nor was he to engage i n exercises which were too v i o l e n t . The lungs could be devel-oped through other means. 3^ Closely r e l a t e d to vocal hygiene were personal attitudes and character, q u a l i t i e s which the masters also stressed. The most i n t e r -esting maxims were set down by T o s i . The singer was advised to take " s t r i c t care of his morals" and "abstain from a l l manner of disorders, and a l l v i o l e n t diversions." 3"^ "Let [the singer] shun low and disrep-utable company, but, above a l l , such as abandon themselves to scandal-52 ous. l i b e r t i e s . " Tosi's advice concerning the singer's conduct extended beyond a c t i v i t i e s which d i r e c t l y affected the voice. "Whoever does not as-p i r e to the f i r s t rank," he cautioned, "begins already to go up the second, and by l i t t l e and l i t t l e w i l l r e s t contented with the lowest." The singer was to continue studying, and even when he v i s i t e d the courts of Europe, he was to do so "without y i e l d i n g up h i s l i b e r t y to t h e i r allurements: For chains, though of gold, are s t i l l chains; and they are not a l l of that precious metal; besides, the several incon-veniences of disgrace, m o r i f i c a t i o n s , uncertainty; and, above a l l , the "T~/ Wohlmuth, op_. c i t . , 24. 5 0 H i l l e r , op_. c i t . , 14. 5 1 Ibid., 80. 5 2 Ibid., 144. 5 3 Ibid., 88. 39 hindrance of study." Sometimes h i s observations were amusing: A discreet person w i l l never use such affected expressions as, 'I cannot sing today;--I've got a deadly cold'; and, i n making his excuse, f a l l s a-coughing. I can t r u l y say, that I have never i n my l i f e heard a singer own the tr u t h , and say, 'I'm very well today.' They reserve the unseason-able confession to the next day, when they make no d i f f i c -u l t y to say, 'In a l l my days my voice was never i n better order than i t was y e s t e r d a y . ' 5 5 At other times his comments were more serious, as when he discussed jealousy: [The singer] w i l l disapprove the malicious custom of a sing-er i n repute, who ta l k s and laughs on the stage with h i s companions, to induce the public to believe, that such a singer, who appears f o r the f i r s t time on the stage, does not deserve h i s attention; when i n r e a l i t y he i s a f r a i d of, or envies h i s gaining applause. 56 " I f he that sings well provokes envy," T o s i stated, "by singing better he w i l l get the v i c t o r y over i t . " Although he thought humility was a. respectable v i r t u e , "the more the singer has of i t , the more i t de-58 presses him." ("I'm shocked to think on't.") "A timorous singer," 59 furthermore, " i s unhappy l i k e a p r o d i g a l , who i s miserably poor." The singer was to acquire assurance, f o r "assurance leads to a fortune, and a singer becomes a merit. Once the p u p i l was set on the r i g h t course of l i f e and study, the 54 Ibid. 9 146 55 Ibid. 147 56 Ibid. > 167 57 Ibid. 152 58 Ibid. > 148 59 Ibid. > 162 60 Ibid. 62. 40 teacher was obliged to t r a i n h i s ear. Mancini and T o s i believed that singing c o n s i s t e n t l y out of tune represented a natural defect which could not be corrected.^ 1 Temporarily bad intonation, however, could 62 r e s u l t from physical discomfort or d i s t r a c t i o n and could be changed. The i n s t r u c t o r ' s method for correcting intonation was to "make the 63 scholar h i t and sound the notes p e r f e c t l y i n tune i n s o l - f a - i n g . " Marpurg believed that the student could be taught intonation, and he r e l a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n g method of correcting f a u l t y intonation. If the student could not sing "cde-fga," he was to sing "cde," then resume on 64 " f " with the pattern "cde." The singer also had to be trained i n h i s stance and stage presence. He was to sing s t a n d i n g , ^ with the breast held h i g h ^ and with the music 6*7 held i n such a way as not to obscure h i s face. The singer's entry was important to h i s stage presence, for which Mancini recommended fencing and horseback r i d i n g to improve p o s t u r e . ^ In order to gain the atten-t i o n of an audience Tosi recommended that the singer remain s i l e n t f or 69 a quarter of a minute before singing an a r i a . ^ Ibid. , 19 and Mancini, op_. c i t . , 22. ^ Mancini, op. c i t . , 23. 63 T o s i , op. c i t . , 19 and Marpurg, op. c i t . , 4. 64 Marpurg, op_. c i t . , 14. ^ T o s i , op_. c i t . , 25. 6 6 G. F r i e d r i c h Wolf, Unterricht i n der Singkunst (Halle, 1784), 12, 13, c i t e d i n Wohlmuth, op. c i t . , 31. 67 T o s i , op. c i t . , 61 and Marpurg, op_. c i t . , 8. ^ Mancini, op_. c i t . , 74. 69 T o s i , op. c i t . , 63. 41 Regarding actual singing technique Mancini said that i f the throat opening was too wide, the student would sing i n the back of hi s throat. If the opening was not large enough or was too round, the tongue might h i t the soft palate, r e s u l t i n g i n a throaty, nasal or l i s p i n g sound. 7' If the teeth were closed, the sound would not carry and would be unclear. 71 The Germans made s i m i l a r comments. Opening of the throat i n singing was to be greater than i n speech, f o r , according to Minoja, "many vowels which seem good enough i n ordinary speech are i n no way s u f f i c i e n t i n de-72 clamation and even less so i n singing." H i l l e r also talked about t h i s opening of the throat, which was to be, generally speaking, appropriate for an "ah" vowel, with the tongue f l a t i n the back. The mouth was to 73 move only enough from t h i s p o s i t i o n to say the other vowels comfortably. The p o s i t i o n of the mouth was also important and was to be "rather 74 ' i i n c l i n e d to a smile, than too much g r a v i t y . " The Germans recommended 75 an opening about as wide as the width of one fi n g e r . A l l of the masters Mancini, op_. c i t . , 29. Wohlmuth, op. c i t . , 35 and Vogler, op. c i t . , 3. Marpurg, op. c i t . , 23, 24 and Ambrosio Minoja, Lettera sopra i l  canto (Meiland, 1812), 22. H i l l e r , op_. c i t . , 18 and Mancini, op_. c i t . , 30. To s i , op_. c i t . , 26 amd Mancini. op. c i t . , 30. For an i n t e r e s t i n g contrast between I t a l i a n and Dutch singers of the Renaissance, compare the figures i n Luca d e l l a Robbia's marble r e l i e f s i n the singers' g a l l e r y of the Florence Cathedral (ca. 1430) and those of Jan van Eyck's Genter A l t a r , "Die singenden Engel" (1420-1432). Wohlmuth, op_. c i t . , 37. 42 cautioned against bad habits which could be avoided by p r a c t i c i n g i n front of a m i r r o r . ^ Strangely enough, the masters had l i t t l e to say about breathing. Mancini i s the most important I t a l i a n source on t h i s subject. The chest was to be elevated, and measures of two h a l f notes (minime) were to be done i n one breath to strengthen and develop the chest. P e t r i recom-77 mended that breath not be taken at the l a s t moment. The singer was 78 always to begin the tone with the breath, q u i e t l y . Tosi expressed the same idea i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t way, deploring singers who "pro-79 voke the innocent notes with coarse s t a r t i n g s of the voice." Opinions varied on whether or not the singer might breathe i n the middle of a phrase. Mancini believed that the v o l a t i n a "must never be 80 interrupted but c a r r i e d through to the f i n a l tone i n one breath." 81 The same held f o r the arpeggiato. T o s i , however, allowed breathing i n the middle of very long passages, and H i l l e r and Marpurg described 82 the places where breaths were appropriate i n such phrases. This ev-idence suggests that the phrasing condoned i n l a t e eighteenth-century 7 6 H i l l e r , op_. c i t . , 27; T o s i . , op_. c i t . , 25, 26, 88; and Marpurg, op. c i t . , 23, 24. 77 Duey, op_. c i t . , 81. 78 Burney, The Present State..-In France and I t a l y , op. c i t . , 120 79 T o s i , op_. c i t . , 163. 80 Mancini, op_. c i t . , 126. 8 1 Ibid., 157. 8 2 H i l l e r , quoted i n Wohlmuth, op_. c i t . , 44 and Marpurg, op_. c i t . , 29. 43 singing manuals r e f l e c t e d the disappearance of the c a s t r a t i and t h e i r huge lung capacity. The most important breath exercise, also an important ornament, was the messa d i voce. Tosi mentioned that defective singers avoided i t because of the i n s t a b i l i t y of t h e i r voices. On an open vowel and done properly by a good singer, however, i t could have an exquisite 83 e f f e c t . It was the main reason f o r F a r i n e l l i ' s fame, according to 84 Mancini. Mancini's method f o r executing the messa d i voce was to teach the singer to economize the breath by beginning the tone s o f t l y , graduating i t to a louder tone and decreasing by the same degrees to the o r i g i n a l soft tone. The mouth was to be scarcely open at f i r s t , 85 then open and f i n a l l y almost closed again. Mastering t h i s exercise would make i t possible f o r the singer to sustain long tones and would "avoid that inconvenience which us u a l l y happens to singers, of f i n d i n g 86 themselves exhausted at the end of the tone." In using the breath the singer was taught that speeding the breath was e s s e n t i a l . "Let him con t i n u a l l y , by himself, use h i s voice to a v e l o c i t y of motion... that he may not go by the name of a pathetic s i n -87 ger," T o s i emphasized. The singer was to speed the breath i n sus-tained singing as well and was to "hold out every note the length of two bars." I f the speed of the breath was not constant, the r e s u l t 83 T o s i , op_. c i t . , 27, 28 and H i l l e r , op_. c i t . , 9. 84 Mancini, op_. c i t . , 46. 8 5 Ibid., 45. 8 6 Ibid., 121. 87 T o s i , o£, c i t . , 81. 44 would be " f l u t t ' r i n g i n the manner of a l l those that sing i n a very bad t a s t e . " 8 8 The only mention of resonance i n the t r e a t i s e s i n question i s a discussion of vocal defects, such as singing i n the nose or throat, which were said to r e s u l t from inappropriate opening of the throat and mouth. More i n t e r e s t i n g than the subject of resonance i s that of r e g i s t e r . Tosi distinguished between the so-called "head" (di testa) and "chest" 89 (di petto) voices. He emphasized that the head voice was e s s e n t i a l to a soprano who, "without the f a l s e t t o i s constrained to sing within the narrow compass of a few notes;" the head voice had great v o l u b i l i t y but 90 was also "subject to be l o s t f o r want of strength." The d i f f i c u l t y f o r the teacher was i n u n i t i n g the head and chest voices, " f o r i f they do not p e r f e c t l y unite, the voice w i l l be of divers r e g i s t e r s , and must 91 consequently lose i t s beauty." Mancini discussed the type of voice which was r i c h i n head tones but weak. The method he recommended f o r strengthening the chest voice was to "sing only i n the chest voice f o r a time. The exercise should 92 be done with a t r a n q u i l s o l f e g g i o . " The key word i n t h i s passage i s 8 8 Ibid., 27. 8 9 See also Marpurg, op_. c i t . , 9. 9 0 T o s i , op_. c i t . , 23-25. 9 1 Ibid., 23. QO Mancini, o£, c i t . , 36. 45 " t r a n q u i l , " f o r surely Mancini did not recommend that the singer attempt more volume by carrying chest voice up the scale and send i t out i n the manner of a blues singer. Such a p r a c t i c e would force the voice and cause the singer to form the habit of carrying heaviness into h i s high: range, r e s u l t i n g i n tension and loss of high tones. Mancini made his point c l e a r e r i n the comments which followed. He sought i n what he c a l l e d "the unhappy l i t t l e voice" a removal of " c h i l d i s h pronunciation which i s alone innate i n such l i t t l e voices" i n favor of a "rounded 93 pronunciation" and a voice "sonorous and purged of a l l defects." In order to blend r e g i s t e r s a singer with a crude or st r i d e n t voice was to sing on long notes-- to " e n c i r c l e the low notes, pass to the middle of the voice, and f i n a l l y mingle with and unite the high 94 voice." Another technique f o r blending r e g i s t e r s was the portamento 95 mentioned by a number of singing masters. Wohlmuth stresses that by portamento the masters did not mean the unpleasant s l i d i n g or drag-ging of the voice ("Tragen der Stimme") which res u l t e d from a lack of breath support. On the contrary, the I t a l i a n portamento was nothing 96 other than connection of the tones ("Aneinanderhangeh der Tone"). 93 Ibid., 36, 37. 94 Mancini, op_. c i t . , Chapter VII. 95 See f o r example T o s i , op_. c i t . , 29 and H i l l e r , op. c i t . , 4. 96 Wohlmuth, op_. c i t . , 47; H i l l e r , op_. c i t . , 11; and Vogler, op. c i t . , 3. 46 Vogler added that the end of the f i r s t tone should be the imme-97 diate beginning of the second, with no break i n between. Blending of r e g i s t e r and breath support were interconnected i n singing because the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was. so i n t r i n s i c a l l y vocal 98 that i t could not be conceived apart from i t s technique. Another of the elements with which the singer obviously had to deal was language. T o s i recommended that the student study on the three open vowels (ah, oh and oo)--with emphasis on the 99 f i r s t . Many singing masters, such as Vogler, recommended s o l -feggio, both f o r c l a r i t y of d i c t i o n and f o r ear t r a i n i n g . " ' ^ Regarding the assembling of those vowels and consonants into language, T o s i recommended that the singer know both the vernacular and La t i n , so that he might "give the proper force to the expression i n both languages." Marpurg discussed common mistakes i n pronunciation which seem to apply most d i r e c t l y to Bavarian dialect--mistakes about which Mozart also complained.""^"' Since being unaware of the sense of the words rendered the singer 102 "stupid on the stage, and senseless i n a chamber," Mancini recommended the study of language and h i s t o r y and the reading Vogler, op_. c i t . , 3. See footnote 126. T o s i , op_. c i t . , 29. Vogler, op. c i t . , 3, 4. Marpurg, op_. c i t . , 35. T o s i , l a c . c i t . 47 103 of poetry f o r the development of acting a b i l i t y . Many of the masters mentioned the problem of f o r c i n g the voice, stressing that the singer should always avoid g l o t t a l stops i n 104 h i s attacks. Marpurg echoed t h i s sentiment, saying that the higher the notes, the more s o f t , gentle, mild or smooth ("sanft") the tones should b e . 1 ^ The scholar Hans Wohlmuth mentions the apparent tendency among German singers to force the voice i n order to make a bigger tone 1*^ and repeatedly emphasizes the 107 masters' many cautions against f o r c i n g . H i l l e r , i n discussing 108 f l e x i b i l i t y , said that the voice must be l i g h t . Tosi mentioned the need f o r the singer to adjust h i s voice to acoustics i n a room i n which he was performing, and Mancini went even fu r t h e r , cautioning the young singer against f e e l i n g a need to force i n a room where he could not hear his own voice reverberate. His advice was so good that i t bears repeating: When one has the chance to sing i n a somewhat vast and f u l l church, or theater, i t often happens that a musician may have some doubts regarding the size of h i s voice. Such a one, because he has sung at a d i f f e r e n t time i n the same place, which was almost empty, has heard hi s voice better, and i t seemed to him to be more resonant, 103 .. Mancini, op_. c i t . , 65. 104 See footnote 79. Marpurg, op. c i t . , 26. Wohlmuth, op_. c i t . , 6. 107 Ibid., 16, 34. 108 H i l l e r , op_. c i t , , quoted i n Wohlmuth, op_. c i t . , 20. 48 believes that the supposed exhaustion arises from other causes than the increased density of the a i r due to the quantity of people.... In order to better hear a strong repurcussion of his own voice i n h i s own ear, he forces and sings with the whole throat. This i s an error very p r e j u d i c i a l to the beauty of the voice.... He who has once tested his voice, and through repeated experience has found i t s u f f i c i e n t to be heard i n whatever vast place...for him there i s no need to force i t , indeed he must ascertain that he i s making the usual impression on the auditor.1^9 Mancini, op. c i t . , 107. 49 Composition and Improvisation The study and mastery of composition was considered e s s e n t i a l and i s a central f a c t o r i n the present study. Wohlmuth mentions i t s importance to the German singing schools. T o s i took into account the c h i l d ' s musical i n c l i n a t i o n s i n addition to h i s vocal c a p a b i l i t i e s when considering taking him on as a student: Before entering on the extensive and d i f f i c u l t study of the f l o r i d , or figured song, i t i s necessary to consult the scholar's genius; f o r i f i n c l i n a t i o n opposes, i t i s impossible to force i t . H I Mancini noted with aggravation the number of singing schools which attempted to bypass counterpoint and harmony "and become unions for the t r a f f i c and mere shops.... They cause them to f l y over the rules of music, and teach them just enough to enable them to sing a few a r i a s , and a motet or so, then they put them before the 112 p u b l i c . " Tosi believed that attempts at singing "are i n f a l l i b l y vain, i f not accompanied with some l i t t l e knowledge of counter-point . ,,113 A singer who memorized without understanding "has not the same 114 l i g h t " but "works i n the dark." The knowledge of singers could ^ ® Wohlmuth, op_. c i t . , 15. See also Bowman, op. c i t . , 91 and Vogler, op. c i t . , 2, 7. T o s i , op. c i t . , 79. 112 ,. Mancini, op_. c i t . , 13. 113 T o s i , op. c i t . , 84, 85. Many of the masters also recommended study of the c l a v i e r as an aid to musical understanding. See Vogler, op_. c i t . , 4. 114 T o s i , op_. c i t . , 84, 85. 50 be discerned i n the way they varied the a i r s , f o r "from the nature and q u a l i t y of the v a r i a t i o n s , i t w i l l be e a s i l y discerned i n two of the greatest singers which i s the best."1''''' He advised against memorizing embellishments, f o r "whoever accustoms himself to having things put i n his mouth, w i l l have no inventions, and becomes a slave to h i s memory."1'''^ Moreover, "that ornament, which we admire 117 when natural, immediately loses i t s beauty when a r t i f i c i a l . " Free improvisation was based on a thorough knowledge of counter-point . Vogler's musical examples, although elementary, showed the process by which a singer learned to improvise. He heard the bass notes, sang solfeggio and then learned to ornament the so l f e g g i o , keeping i n mind the o r i g i n a l l i n e , which was the basis f o r the ornamented melody. Example 1. Georg Josef Vogler, Stimmbi1dungskunst V'i.j:JU-)j.j,JU-iU;,ii^lifi 1 1 5 Ibid., 95. 1 1 6 Ibid., 88. 117 Ibid., 155. This passage i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n l i g h t of the change i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between singer and composer which took place at the time of Mozart. See Chapter I I I . 51 F l e x i b i l i t y The importance of f l e x i b i l i t y was mentioned by a l l of the 118 masters and bears a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p to the present study. 119 Singers f e l t that they could not win acclaim without a g i l i t y . V o l u b i l i t y was e s s e n t i a l , f o r "whosoever has not the a g i l i t y of voice, i n compositions of a quick or l i v e l y movement, becomes odiously tiresome; and at l a s t retards the time so much, that 120 everything he sings appears to be out of tune." Regarding the method of executing coloratura passages, Mancini 121 said that they were best sung on open vowels. The singer was to connect the tones, avoiding a g l o t t a l stop on each note. By the same token he was not to connect the notes with a scoop 122 or s l i d e . Tosi complained of singers who a r t i c u l a t e d the notes i n such a way that " i t appears as i f they said Ha, Ha, Ha, or Gha, 123 Gha, Gha." Mancini also mentioned "hammered a g i l i t y " 124 ("martellato"), which he said was d i f f i c u l t and out of use. 1 1 8 See footnotes 131 and 132. 1 1 9 Mancini, op_. c i t . , 58. 1 2 0 T o s i , op_. c i t . , 52. 1 2 1 Mancini, op_. c i t . , 60. 1 2 2 Wohlmuth, op_. c i t . , 83. 1 2 3 T o s i , op_. c i t . , 57. 1 2 4 Mancini, op_. c i t . , 61. 52 Singing by leaps ("sbalzar"), however, although also d i f f i c u l t , could have a moving e f f e c t when done by a soprano with profound 125 high and low notes and a sonorous, a g i l e voice. In t h i s type of singing, as i n rapid, stepwise coloratura, the management of breath was very important. As Wohlmuth points out, "coloratura 126 momentum and breath technique were the same." As has already been mentioned, the aim of having a w e l l -c o n t r o l l e d , f l e x i b l e voice and a knowledge of counterpoint was embellishment. A deficiency of ornaments was said to displease as much as the too great abundance of them; the singer who did not 127 ornament enough was said to be d u l l . Mancini pointed out that whereas the sculptor has models of past masters i n front of him to copy or study, the singer does not. 128 The composer leaves him merely a "skeleton." Much vocal music written by the greatest masters consisted of simple cantilenas or passages which were mere indications--"enough to l e t the great 129 singer have f u l l l i b e r t y i n embellishing." A singing career without f l e x i b l e singing and impromptu embellishment would have been impossible f o r a singer i n the •' Ibid. 1 2 6 Wohlmuth, op_. c i t . , 83. 1 2 7 Mancini, op_. c i t . , 64. 1 2 8 Ibid., 14. 1 2 9 Ibid. 53 eighteenth century. Even though some singers were dependent on t h e i r composition teachers f o r t h e i r embellishments, these singers (about whose lack of sponteneity Tosi complained f o r twenty-five 130 pages!) nevertheless had to have the technique necessary f o r coloratura singing. The subject of voice i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h i s period can best be summarized by describing the goal of vocal pedagogy. The sound should be free of defects, the tone vibrant and steady and the notes always i n i t i a t e d without f o r c i n g . The singer should be able to pass from low to high notes without a break or noticeable change i n tone q u a l i t y . He should sing with confidence and good deportment and should be an expressive musician and actor. His intonation should be f a u l t l e s s , and he should know several languages, singing with pure vowels and c l e a r consonants. More important to the present study, the singer should have mastered composition f o r the purpose of embellishing. E. Foreman, in a n t i c i p a t i n g prejudice against the emphasis on f l o r i d singing, cautions readers i n his introduction to The Porpora T r a d i t i o n that "read s o l e l y from the viewpoint of the twentieth century, 131 [the Porpora method] w i l l prove nearly incomprehensible." 1 3 0 T o s i , op_. c i t . , 100-125. Foreman, op. c i t . 54 He seems to be correct i n h i s a n t i c i p a t i o n , f o r A l f r e d E i n s t e i n says that i n c e r t a i n arias f o r Mile. Weber Mozart "unfortunately 132 did not forget the element of coloratura." In addition to f l e x i b l e voices, according to Cornelius L. Reid, "voices having a high t e s s i t u r a were greatly preferred to lower voices.... The basic p r i n c i p l e s of bel canto, however, 133 are equally applicable and no less b e n e f i c i a l to a l l voices." This preference for high voices was most dramatically pointed out by Minoja, who said that the c u l t u r a l climate of h i s time was responsible f o r the general lack of deep women's voices i n Germany. Singers with low voices, misjudging t h e i r true nature, forced them-selves to sing high instead of t r a i n i n g t h e i r best range (middle and low), which could have become e x c e l l e n t . 1 3 4 To the i d e a l s of f l e x i b i l i t y and high t e s s i t u r a Mancini added a t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , brightness. That bright voices were i n favor i s emphasized by Mancini's admission, however r e l u c t a n t l y , that dark voices could sometimes be pleasing as well! The defective " v e l i e d voice" ("velata") "has enough body to be heard i n any place no matter how large; i t entices...by means of i t s marvellous thick c o l o r . " He hastened to add, however, " l e t t h i s virtuous 132 A l f r e d E i n s t e i n , Mozart: His Character, His Work (New York; Oxford, 1945), 363. 133 Reid, op_. c i t . , 11. 134 Wohlmuth, op. c i t . , 25. 55 natural defect, dimness ("Appannata") be heard only i n the soprano 135 or c o n t r a l t o . " The voice of the soprano castrato Senesino (ca. 1680-ca. 1750), a member of Handel's troupe, possessed the q u a l i t i e s admired i n singing. His voice has been described as " c l e a r , penetrating, equal and f l e x i b l e . " " * ^ Mozart was steeped i n t h i s t r a d i t i o n , and A l o y s i a Weber was trained according to i t . F l e x i b i l i t y , high t e s s i t u r a and b r i g h t -ness were the goals of the singer. The id e a l eighteenth-century 137 sound was one of "luminous and uniform b r i l l i a n c e . " Mancini, op. c i t . , 21. Reid, op_. c i t . , 27. Bence Szabolcsi, A History of Melody (London: Barrie and R o c k l i f f , 1965),~14lT ~ ~ 56 Singers of the Concert Arias In h i s l e t t e r s Mozart mentioned many singers f o r whom he wrote concert a r i a s . Several of these accounts provide useful descrip-tions of t h e i r voices. Josepha Duschek (1753-1823) was a student of Franz Duschek, whom she l a t e r married. Nannerl Mozart, i n a l e t t e r to her mother and brother of October 27, 1777, described Duschek's singing 138 as bad i n comparison with a nasal castrato she heard at court. Duschek has been described elsewhere as "Bohemia's G a b r i e l l i " - -an extremely f l a t t e r i n g comparison. It was f o r Anton Raaf (1714-1797) , a tenor and student of Bernacchi, that Mozart wrote the part of Idomeneo and the concert a r i a K. 295. Raaf l i v e d f o r extensive periods i n Lisbon; i n Madrid, where he worked under F a r i n e l l i ; and i n Naples. In Germany he received an appointment under the Ele c t o r Karl Theodor at Mannheim. Idomeneo was hi s l a s t f u l l r o l e . When Mozart f i r s t heard him i n Mannheim i n 1777 he was not impressed. Raaf was then sixty-three years old. Mozart c r i t i c i z e d his acting and, i n December of 1780, shortened one of his r e c i t a t i v e s because Raaf sang "without any s p i r i t or f i r e , and so 139 monotonous[ly.]" In a l e t t e r to h i s father of November 8, 1780 Anderson, op_. c i t . , I, 342. Ibid., I I , 698. 57 140 Mozart described him as being " l i k e a statue" on stage. Mozart's comments i n his l e t t e r of June 12, 1778 are also i n t e r e s t i n g i n l i g h t of Raaf's t r a i n i n g . He said that Raaf sang some notes with too much emphasis. "This has been a constant habit of h i s , " he continued, "and perhaps i t i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Bernacchi school.... Raaf i s too much i n c l i n e d to drop into the cantabile." Mozart said t h i s cantabile could have a nice -ef f e c t but that Raaf used the device too much. "I fancy that h i s f o r t e was bravura singing. He has a good chest and long breath.... His voice i s very b e a u t i f u l and pleasing.... In bravura singing, long passages and roulades, Raaf i s absolute master and he has 141 moreover an excellent, clear d i c t i o n . " Mozart had only a few comments to make about his f r i e n d Francesco C e c c a r e l l i . Comparing him to another castrato, dal Prato, Mozart mentioned i n a l e t t e r to h i s father of November 8, 1780 that C e c c a r e l l i must c e r t a i n l y have been much better than dal Prato. Although Mozart had not yet heard dal Prato, he knew that in the middle of an a r i a dal Prato's breath often gave out. The 142 implication i s that C e c c a r e l l i had good breath c o n t r o l . In a l e t t e r of August 7, 1778 to Abbe Bullinger at'Salzburg Mozart objected to plans f o r h i r i n g another female singer. I f a l l of 140 Ibid., I I , 660. 1 4 1 Ibid., I I , 551, 552. 142 Ibid., I I , 660. 58 the female singers were eliminated, postulated Mozart, "what would 143 happen? Nothing!--For we have a castrato." Nancy Storace (1766-1817) , born of an English mother and I t a l i a n father, was Mozart's o r i g i n a l Susanna i n The Marriage of Figaro. She studied with Rauzzini i n I t a l y . In h i s memoires Mozart's f r i e n d the I r i s h tenor Michael K e l l y t o l d an i n t e r e s t i n g story about her competi-t i o n with a castrato during a performance i n Florence: [Marchesi] sang Bianchi's "Sembianza amabile del mio bel sole" with most ravishing taste; i n one passage he ran up a v o l e t t a of semitone octaves, the la s t note of which he gave with such, exquisite power and strenth that i t was ever a f t e r c a l l e d 'La bomba del Marchesi.'144 Storace equalled t h i s feat l a t e r i n the opera, which caused Marchesi to declare that it'.she did not leave the theatre, he would be forced to resign. The teacher of Storace and Ke l l y , Venanzio Rauzzini (1746-1810), was a soprano castrato who studied with a member of the Papal Choir at Rome. C o r r i and Clementi were fellow p u p i l s . Although h i s power was li m i t e d , he had a sweet voice with " a l l the f i n i s h of bel canto tech-145 nique," and he sang with taste, according to Burney. In addition, he had an i n t e l l i g e n t manner of acting and possessed a two octave range. Rauzzini opposed the overloading of melodies with ornaments. Mozart wrote a part i n Lucio S i l l a and the motet Esultate J u b i l a t e f o r him. 1 4 3 Ibid., I I , 595. 1 4 4 Michael K e l l y , Reminiscences... (New York: Da Capo, 1968), I, 97. 1 4 5 M o l l i e Sands, "Rauzzini" i n Grove's Dictionary of Music and Music-ians (London: MacMillan, 1954), 54. 59 Mozart implied i n a l e t t e r of J u l y 2, 1783 that Rauzzini's student, Storace, was worthy competition f o r A l o y s i a Weber: Mme. Lange was at our house to t r y over her two arias and we were discussing how we could be cleverer than our enemies --f o r I have plenty of them--and Mme. Lange too has enough to do with t h i s new singer, Mile. Storace.146 Anderson, op_. c i t . , I I , 853. 60 A l o y s i a Weber 0£ a l l the singers mentioned i n the Mozart l e t t e r s , A l o y s i a Weber i s the one about whom the most extensive comments are made. She was o r i g i n a l l y a student of Abbe Vogler (1749-1814), who studied with V a l l o t t i i n Padua. Padre Francesco Antonio V a l l o t t i (1697-1780) was the best organist of h i s time i n I t a l y and was maestro d i cappella of St. Anthony's from 1730-1780. He was the author of an important theor-e t i c a l work, Trattato d i Musica, published i n Padua i n 1754. T a r t i n i c a l l e d him "a most excellent composer, and thorough master of h i s 147 a r t . " Weber's f i r s t contact with the I t a l i a n t r a d i t i o n came through V a l l o t t i ' s p u p i l Georg Josef Vogler. Mozart's i n t e r e s t in her stemmed not only from her exceptional talents but also from his love f o r her. At the age of twenty-one he considered accompanying her on a concert tour, a plan which his father discouraged. Describing her f i r s t on January 17, 1778, when she was sixteen, Mozart said she had a " l o v e l y , pure voice. The only thing she lacks: : 148 i s dramatic a c t i o n . " Her musical background and her vocal stamina were very good, f o r i n a l e t t e r of February 4, 1778 Mozart described her singing again as " e x c e l l e n t " and said that "Monday we again had a concert, and also on Tuesday and Wednesday. Mile. Weber sang t h i r t e e n Scholes, op. c i t . , 100. Anderson, op_. c i t . , I, 447. 61 times i n a l l and played the c l a v i e r twice.... What surprises me most i s her excellent sight-reading." In addition to being well grounded i n music fundamentals, she seems to have been v e r s a t i l e , singing "superbly the arias I wrote f o r De Amicis, both the bravura a r i a and 'Parto, 149 m'affretto' and 'Dalla sponda tenebrosa. "' Realizing that Wolfgang had such a strong i n t e r e s t i n t h i s g i r l and being worried that h i s son would throw away his chances of a career by l i n k i n g h i s fate with hers, Leopold cautioned him on February 12, 1778, "I am quite w i l l i n g to believe that Mile, sings l i k e a G a b r i e l l i ; that she has a powerful voice for the stage; that she has the b u i l d of a prima donna. ... " 1 5 < ^ He reminded Mozart that she had never been on a stage! Leopold recommended that Raaf hear her sing. In h i s l e t t e r of February 19 Mozart took exception to his father's comment that she must sing " l i k e a G a b r i e l l i , " saying that G a b r i e l l i could only sing roulades which tended to be too long and boring. G a b r i e l l i "was not capable of sustaining a breve properly and, as she had no messa d i voce, she could not dwell on her notes.... Mile. Weber's singing, on the other hand, goes to the heart, and she prefers to sing cantabile.... That i s her natural bent. Raaf himself (who i s c e r t a i n l y no f l a t t e r e r ) . . . s a i d 'She sang, not l i k e a student, but l i k e a m aster.'" 1 5 1 On March 7 Mozart said to his father that "a man l i k e 149 Ibid., I, 462. 1 5 0 Ibid., I, 477. 1 5 1 Ibid., I, 486. 62 you who r e a l l y understands what portamento singing i s , would c e r t a i n l y 152 f i n d complete s a t i s f a c t i o n i n her performance." He reported on J u l y 153 18 that Raaf had agreed to teach Weber. Mozart may have emphasized her cantabile singing to reassure h i s father--or he may have f e l t that she excelled i n t h i s s t y l e . In any case, the comment i s i n t e r e s t i n g , considering the f l o r i d l i n e s written i n even the most l y r i c a l of her concert a r i a s . These passages ind i c a t e that f l e x i b i l i t y was a necessary part of technique. Out of concern f o r her career, Mozart f e l t the need to caution her about her acting i n a l e t t e r of J u l y 30 regarding K. 272: I advise you to watch the expression marks--to think care-f u l l y of the meaning and the force of the words--to Dut yourself i n a l l seriousness into Andromeda's s i t u a t i o n and position--and to imagine that you r e a l l y are that very person.154 In 1778 and 1779, at the time of his greatest love f o r Weber, Mozart wrote only two arias f o r her, K. 294 and 116. Yet, a f t e r her marriage and h i s , he continued to write a r i a s f o r t h i s singer--one i n 1782, three and sketch i n 1783, and one i n 1788. In a l e t t e r to h i s daughter of March 25 and 26, 1785 Leopold was f i n a l l y able to discuss Weber's singing from f i r s t - h a n d experience. He noted that Hshe sings with the greatest expression" and added: I have often questioned people about her and I now under-stand why some said that she had a very weak voice and others that she had a very powerful one. Both statements 152 Ibid., I, 506. 153 Ibid., I I , 571. 154 Ibid., I I , 581. 63 are true. Her held notes and those she emphasizes are astonishingly loud, her tender phrases, passages and grace notes and high notes are very d e l i c a t e , so that i n my opinion there i s too much discrepancy between the two renderings. In a room her loud notes offend the ear and i n a theatre her d e l i c a t e passages demand great sil e n c e and attention on the part of the audience.155 Ibid., I I , 889. 64 Conclusion During Mozart's l i f e t i m e , when composers wrote f o r p a r t i c u l a r singers, they took into account t h e i r voices, accentuating t h e i r good points and avoiding t h e i r bad ones. As Robert Tenschert points out, singers had much more power over composers and impresarios than they 156 do now. Mozart's l e t t e r of June 27, 1781 mentioned that Antonia Bernasconi sang a l l of her arias a comma higher than other singers. She offered to sing s t i l l one quarter tone higher but i n s i s t e d on be-157 ing paid twice as much. When writing M i t r i d a t e , Mozart "was forced to wait awhile and r e s t r a i n any desire to compose a i r s f o r h i s opera. For these i t was indispensible that he should await the a r r i v a l of his in t e r p r e t e r s . These high and mighty personages expected that t h e i r voices should be taken into account and that they should be consulted on a l l p a r t s . " 1 5 8 Tenschert a t t r i b u t e s Mozart's t a s t e f u l expressiveness to h i s 159 I t a l i a n t r a i n i n g i n singing technique with Manzuoli. Once Mozart had heard a voice, he knew i t s good and bad points and was able, with 160 his f i n e ear and musicality, to emphasize i t s good points. This a b i l i t y on the part of a composer, as well as actual c o l l a b o r a t i o n with 156 . , Robert Tenschert, "Mozart und die Sanger," i n Mozart: Ein Leben ftlr "" "' die Oper (Vienna: F r i c k , 1941), 158. 157 Anderson, op_. c i t . , I I , 748. 158 Wilder, op_. c i t . , 73ff. 159 Tenschert, op_. c i t . , 155. 1 6 0 T U - J Ibid. 65 the singer, was h e l p f u l to both p a r t i e s . The more b e a u t i f u l l y he pre-sented the voice of the singer, the better he showed his own ta l e n t s to advantage. An important f a c t o r i n the c o l l a b o r a t i o n of Mozart and A l o y s i a Weber was t h e i r mutual background i n the I t a l i a n s t y l e of singing. They also shared a knowledge of the t r a d i t i o n of ornamentation, which i s the concern of the next chapter. 66 I I . THE TRADITION OF ORNAMENTATION The purpose of much ornamentation i n the Baroque Period was to f i l l i n gaps wherever they occurred i n a melodic l i n e . Among Mozart and his contemporaries, however, ornamentation was used p r i m a r i l y to high-l i g h t structure. Although the s p i r i t of C l a s s i c a l ornamentation was d i f f e r e n t from that of e a r l i e r embellishment, i t s b u i l d i n g blocks were taken from e a r l i e r models. 1 The most complete and r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e sources on ornamentation are i n German. C. P. E. Bach believed that the Germans were best able to understand the t r a d i t i o n f o r the following reasons: Because our present taste, to which I t a l i a n b e l canto has contributed greatly, demands more than French ornaments alone, I have had to accumulate the embellishments of several countries.... I believe that the s t y l e of perfor-mance i s best, regardless of the instrument, which a r t -f u l l y combines the correctness and b r i l l i a n c e of French ornaments with the suavity of I t a l i a n s i n g i n g ^ Germans are i n a good p o s i t i o n to e f f e c t such a union. French and I t a l i a n ornamentation was thus the basis of late eight-eenth-century embellishment i n Germany, and the greatest influence 3 on t h i s t r a d i t i o n came from I t a l i a n opera between 1740 and 1780. This Charles Rosen, "Structure and Ornament" i n The C l a s s i c a l Style (New York: Viking, 1971), 99-108. Karl P h i l i p p Emanual Bach, Versuch Uber die wahre Art das Cl-avier  zu spielen ( B e r l i n : In VorlegungddesAAuctoris,11759.land 176|>. Trans, and ed. by W. J . M i t c h e l l as Essay on the True Art of  Playing Keyboard Instruments (New York: W. W. Norton, 1949). A l l references to C. P. E. Bach come from t h i s e d i t i o n . Thurston Dart, The Interpretation of Music (New York: Harper and Row, 1963), 97. 67 merging of styles lasted only during Mozart's l i f e t i m e . 4 The ornaments are c l a s s i f i e d according to two groups: those which are indicated by conventional signs or a few small notes (Manieren); and those which lack signs and consist of many short notes (free ornamentation). The f i r s t are descendents of the French c l a v e p i n i s t school and the second of the I t a l i a n school.^ Mozart wrote much of his music i n competition with the I t -a l i a n musicians who had l a r g e l y c o n t r o l l e d the musical l i f e of Vienna for some time. Because of h i s genius and thorough grounding i n the s t y l e of ornamentation he won the competition. He was trained i n the t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e of embellishment, the so - c a l l e d " a i t e r e Praxis," which Hans Mersmann believes to be e s s e n t i a l to the understanding of Mozart. Both Haydn and Mozart, i n f a c t , "must f i r s t be understood from t h i s point of view."^ It i s t h i s t r a d i t i o n which i s the concern of the present chapter. 4 5 6 Bence Szabolcsi, A History of.Melody [London:' Barrie and Rock-, l i f f , 1965), 148. Robert Donington, "Ornaments" i n Grove 1s Dictionary of Music and Musicians VI (London: Macmillan, 1954), 384-48. "Manieren" i s t r a n s l a t e d as "ornaments." Hans Mersmann, "BeitrSge zur AuffUhrungspraxis der klassischen Kammermusik i n Deutschland," Archiv fUr Musikwissenschaft II (1920), 143. "Aeltere p r a x i s " i s t r a n s l a t e d as "older p r a c t i c e . " 68 Style and Ornamentation The musical graciousness of ornamentation i n the period under con-7 s i d e r a t i o n i s analagous to "elegant circumlocution" i n speech. Mozart himself dealt with t h i s verbal eloquence i n a l e t t e r to h i s s i s t e r which s a t i r i z e d the writing s t y l e of his day. Although the l e t t e r could be summarized simply as, "I hope you are well; please write soon" i t reads as follows: I hope, my queen, that you are enjoying the highest degree of health and that now and then or rather, sometimes, or, better s t i l l , o c c asionally, or, even better s t i l l , qualche v o l t a , as the I t a l i a n s say, you w i l l s a c r i f i c e f o r my bene-f i t some of your important and intimate thoughts, which ever proceed from that very f i n e and c l e a r reasoning power, which i n addition to your beauty, and although from a woman, and p a r t i c u l a r l y from one of such tender years, almost no- : thing of the kind i s ever expected, you possess, 0 queen, so abundantly as to put men and even greybeards to shame. There now, you have a well-turned sentence. Farewell.8 F l o r i d , d i s c r e e t and euphemistic speech was considered much more grac:-ious than straightforward expression. The same was true i n music. Consider the following examples, the f i r s t of which i s i n the s t y l e of the period; the second represents an obvious adherance to chord tones: Example 1. F l o r i d and P l a i n Melody 7 E r i c Blom, "Vocal Music" i n Mozart (London: Dent, 1962), 183. 8 Emily Anderson, The Letters of Mozart and His Family (London: Macmillan, 1966), I, 238. 69 In Leopold's words from a notebook to h i s son on h i s Saint's Day, 1762, ornamentation makes music more soft or mild (gelind) and singable (singbar). Ornamentation i s vocal i n o r i g i n , and "the performer should 9 imitate a good singer when playing an instrumental composition," accord-ing to the scholar F r i t z Rothschild. Not only did vocal and instrumental genres merge, but also theater, chamber and church s t y l e s . At the time of Tosi's t r e a t i s e (1723) there was no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of s t y l e s i n the "modern" p r a c t i c e of ornamenta-t i o n : By the ancients beforementioned, a i r s were sung i n three d i f f e r e n t manners; for the theatre, the s t y l e was l i v e l y and various; for the chamber, d e l i c a t e and f i n i s h e d , [ex-pressing] more v i o l e n t passions of the soul; and f o r the church, moving and grave. This d i f f e r e n c e , to very many moderns, i s quite unknown.10 By 1774 Mancini could see no d i f f e r e n c e between the three s t y l e s , except that the singer took into account the acoustics of the room i n which he was performing. 1 1 Knowledge of t h i s ornamental'style i s important to an understanding of the attitudes of eighteenth-century musicians toward melody. By i n -d i c a t i n g ornaments with signs or small notes, the composer l e f t an out-l i n e of his melodic structure i n large notes. This method of writing F r i t z Rothschild, Musical Performance in the Times of Mozart and  Beethoven.... (London: Black, 1961), 64. Pier Francesco T o s i , Opinioni.... (Bologna: L. d a l l a Volpe, 1723), Eng. trans, by J.E. G a l l i a r d as Observations on the F l o r i d Song..., 2nd ed. (London: J . Wilcox, 1743), 92. Giovanni B a r t i s t a Mancini, P e n s i e r i . . . . (Vienna: Stamparia d i Ghelen, 1774), Trans, and ed. by E. Foreman as P r a c t i c a l Reflections on  Figured Singing (Champaign: Pro Musica Press, 1968), 73. 70 pointed out the contents of the melody and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between main notes and notes which merely bound the main notes together. I t uncov-ered the "movement" (Bewegung) of the melody. Both Rudolf S t e g l i c h and 12 Adolf Beyschlag conclude that in many instances where there are incon-s i s t e n c i e s the composer's inte n t i o n was merely to i n d i c a t e movement. St e g l i c h points out that Mozart sometimes used the mordent sign throughout a piece, including places where ornaments would be approp-r i a t e . Throughout t h i s period the t r i l l and the mordent signs were often interchangeable. In some cases the composer wrote the mordent sign, but the publisher used the t r i l l , or vice versa. T a r t i n i used the word "mordent" to r e f e r to e i t h e r t r i l l or mordent. These signs, small i n comparison with the large notes which emphasized the main melody, indicated that some ornamentation was to be used. Melody was always moving, not s t a t i c , and i t proceeded from one strong s t r u c t u r a l point to another, softened and made more gracious by the ornaments which bound i t together. Yet although Mozart's f i r s t teacher, Leopold, was grounded i n t h i s t r a d i t i o n , he nevertheless was unconventional i n one respect. He eventually advised Mozart to write out his ornaments i n large notes, according to t h e i r actual value. This method of notation has i n t e r e s t i n g h i s t o r i c a l implications f o r the growing place of embellishment as an organic part of melody. (These implications w i l l be discussed i n the analysis section of the present study). Leopold's influence provides one explanation of Mozart's i n -12 For further explanation, see Rudolf S t e g l i c h , "Das Auszierungswesen i n der Musik W.A. Mozart's," Mozart Jahrbuch (1955), 181-237 and Adolf Beyschlag, Die Ornamentik der Musik (Leipzig: Breitkopf § Hartel, 1908). ~~ ' ~ 71 creasing use of notation i n large notes. But what was the melodic move-ment which large notation obscured? Returning to Mozart's early p r a c t i c e of notating movement i n large notes and ornaments i n small notes or signs, E r i c Blom discusses the r e l a t i o n s h i p of notation and movement i n the following way: The explanation i s that he acted simply according to the fashion of h i s time, which decreed that composers should, when a disonance produced i t s e l f by a melodic suspension on a strong beat of the bar, pretend that the r e a l l y im-portant note was that belonging to the chord. It was a l l merely a p o l i t e f i c t i o n whereby an intruding note was made to appear as harmless as p o s s i b l e , j u s t as i t was imperative i n p o l i t e society that however daring the con-versation might be, i t should always be wrapped up i n decorous phraseology. These appoggiaturas were nothing else than the musical equivalent of elegant circumlocu-tions used i n the place of 'strong language.' Which did not, needless to say, prevent composers form sometimes forg e t t i n g themselves and speaking out: hence any amount of inconsistency i n notation.13 Mozart was influenced by t h i s view of melody, and i n the concert arias he could not r e s i s t the temptation to "speak out" through his notation. The time of the Mozarts marks a t r a n s i t i o n between old and new practices of notation. In the a i t e r e Praxis of Leopold large notes recorded the structure of a melody, small notes or signs bound the structure, and passages of free ornamentation were l e f t to the perform-er (perhaps i n conjunction with a teacher). In the more modern p r a c t i c e of Wolfgang, a f t e r a period of some inconsistency, large notes became the standard notation of pitches regardless of t h e i r function, and a l l Blom, loc. c i t . 72 14 ornamentation i n the concert arias was notated. Yet even the newer notation recorded a s t y l e grounded i n t r a d i t i o n - - a t r a d i t i o n based on musical graciousness and taste. One notable exception was the appoggiatura. Mozart also seems to have allowed h i s singer l i b e r t i e s i n K. 294. For an i n t e r e s t i n g discussion see W i l l i Wbhler, "Eine neue entdeckte Mozart-Hand-s c h r i f t , " Acta Mozartania, 4th year (1957), 88. 73 The Ornaments The following ornaments emphasize the movement of melody i n a var i e t y of ways. In the s t y l e of the late eighteenth century the appoggiatura i s indispensable. Through the tension i t creates, the appoggiatura emphasizes the main note i t ornaments, thus pointing out the movement of the melody The descending appoggiatura i s to be stressed and played with a messa d i voce. Its longer v a r i e t y i s used i n the following instances: 1) before dotted notes, held f o r the value of the n o t e : 1 3 Example 2. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 168 2) i n 3/4 time at the beginning of the bar before a h a l f note: A l l references to Leopold Mozart i n t h i s section are taken'from the following e d i t i o n : J.G. Leopold Mozart, Versuch einer grllndlichen  V i o l i n s c h u l e (Augsburg: J . J . Lotter, 1756), trans, by E. Knocker as A Treatise on the Fundamental P r i n c i p l e s of V i o l i n Playing (London: Oxford University Press, 1948). 74 Example 3. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 169 3) i n 2/4 and 4/4 time, held longer than i n the previous example Example 4. Aft e r Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 176 Quantz, on the contrary, recommended i n his Versuch as follows: Example 5. Quantz, Versuch, Table VI, F i g . 1 75 4) The long appoggiatura i s also used i n other instances before dotted notes, the main note being omitted: Example 6. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 169 (Marpurg and Quantz made s i m i l a r recommendations.) The short appoggia-tura indicates that the stress i s on the primary note. The ornament i s attacked s o f t l y and made as r a p i d l y as possi b l e . It i s used when a long appoggiatura would be too sluggish: Example 7. Leopold Mozart, Violinschule,"172 76 Example 8. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 173 j . ^ * v • «^  <^— In such instances passing notes are permissable i n order to improve the melody and harmony. It i s also customary to make the ascending appoggiatura from a t h i r d below with two notes, s l u r r i n g these notes onto the p r i n c i p a l note, creating the s l i d e : Example 9. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 173 n ° t s Marpurg: ciftr but: B rtf or: An appoggiatura of two notes may also be made between two neighbouring notes i f the note above the p r i n c i p a l note be added, r e s u l t i n g i n the 77 double appoggiatura: Example 10. A f t e r Quantz, i n Donington, "Ornaments," 394 Example 11. Marpurg, Anleitung i n Donington, "Ornaments," 394 (Marpurg also gave s i m i l a r undotted examples.) Appoggiaturas of a semitone usually sound good: Example 12. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 174 78 They should smooth a melody, not go against i t : Example 13. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 176 r f f # _ 1 * - - 4 » H not: They may often come f a r from the p r i n c i p a l note: Example 14. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 176 C.P.E. Bach recommended s i m i l a r l y as follows: 79 Example 15. C.P.E. Bach, Essay i n Donington, "Ornaments," 391 —J— 5»« r — r — 1 0 A - - 4 The passing appoggiatura does not belong to the value of the p r i n -c i p a l note but must take i t s value from the preceeding note. I t may proceed e i t h e r by leap (Example 16) or by step (Example 17) and may also be ascending: Example 16. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 177 3 T r *-• 1 — l. — w FT" 80 Example 17. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 177 Leopold Mozart advocated that Example 17 be written as i n Example 18: Example 18. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 177 Quantz, on the contrary, notated a s i m i l a r passage as: Example 19. Quantz, Versuch i n Donington, "Ornaments," 397 In general usage the appoggiatura i s performed as Example 20: Example 20. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 178 ? r t r t i and i n vivacious tempi as Example 21: Example 21. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 178 82 An Ueberwurf makes a note more l i v e l y than an appoggiatura and must not be used i f i t r e s u l t s i n p a r a l l e l f i f t h s : Example 22. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 181 The Ru'ckfall or A b f a l l f a l l s to the next note or to the appoggiatura, e s p e c i a l l y from a large i n t e r v a l : 23. Leop'-.r' '-ic.artj V.' a 1 -.nschul;-. . 183 83 Example 23. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 183 Rueckfall i — - — — Abfall In keyboard music the simultaneous appoggiatura (acciaccatura or Zusammenschlag) i s performed as: Example 24. Af t e r Quantz, i n Donington, "Ornaments," 396 Contemporary scholars stress the importance of the appoggiatura to eighteenth-century s t y l e . W i l l i W5hler states that there are places 84 where " f a i l u r e to use an appoggiatura must be regarded as a crude offense against the s t y l e of the m u s i c . P r e s e n t - d a y writers also point out c e r t a i n problems which ar i s e as a r e s u l t of the musical implications of 17 the ornament and the way i t i s written. The appoggiatura has a strong rubato character (Example 25) and sometimes implies a r t i c u l a t i o n . (Example 26): Example 25. Rudolf S t e g l i c h , "Das Auszierungswesen....," 197 WShler, op. c i t . See M i t c h e l l , op. c i t . 85 Example 26. Mozart, Klavier Sonata i n B - f l a t , K. 333 Appoggiaturas have been notated i n a number of ways, such as the follow-18 mgr. Example 27. Appoggiatura Notation S t e g l i c h concludes that these appoggiaturas should be played melodically 19 and graciously, not mechanically. See footnote 12. Ibid. 86 Sven Hansell believes that the appoggiatura was used d i f f e r e n t l y i n 20 the early and l a t e eighteenth-century r e c i t a t i v e : Example 28. Settings of Metastasio's Artaserse by Hasse (Hansell, 246-248) Venice, 1730: Naples, 1762: Weldon Whitlock mentions that although the appoggiatura i s used i n a r e c i t a t i v e to add verbal s t r e s s , i t should be used sparingly i n an a r i a . Period sources bear him out, such as Mancini, who said that overemphasis of the appoggiatura i n a serious song brings laughter; t h i s laughter and, hence, overemphasis of the appoggiatura, i s appropriate only i n opera buffa. He went on to say that even i n r e c i t a t i v e the appoggiatura should be used c a r e f u l l y because i t can r u i n the exclamation of such words as " c r u e l " and "tyrant." 20 Sven Hostrup Hansell, "The Cadence i n Eighteenth-Century R e c i t a t i v e , " Musical Quarterly LIV (1968), 228-248. 87 The appoggiatura in i t s various forms serves the function of s stressing a main note of a melody. Its dissonance creates a tension which i s released only when the main note i s reached, thus accentuat-ing the importance of the main note. 21 The tremolo enlivens a main note and creates a sense of motion, e s p e c i a l l y i f the note i s long. Leopold Mozart described i t as being produced on the v i o l i n by r a p i d l y r o l l i n g the fi n g e r toward and away from the s c r o l l . In Turk's section on Bebung (c a l l e d "tremolo" i n the index), he recommended that the ornament be used on long notes, espec-i a l l y i n pieces of a sad character. Geminiani extended i t s use even further, saying that when i t was made on short notes i t rendered t h e i r sound more agreeable and was therefore to be used as often as pos 22 s i b l e . Leopold Mozart, however, seems to have used i t more sparing-ly and complained that "there are performers who tremble co n s i s t e n t l y 23 on each note as i f they had the palsy." The tremolo resembles another ornament i n function, the messa d i  voce, a short crescendo followed by a short decrescendo. Most of the period sources mention either the tremolo or the messa d i voce, but not both. T o s i f o r example, discusses the messa d i voce but not the trem-This ornament i s not to be confused with the seventeenth-century tremolo, which was e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t i n character (though not i n function). See the section on Caccini i n E. Foreman, The Porpora  T r a d i t i o n (Champaign, I l l i n o i s : Pro Musica, 1968). Francesco Geminiani, Compleat Instruction f or the V i o l i n (London: G... Goulding, [17--?]. y:.. •;. ' . :: : : : :! • L. Mozart, op_. c i t . , 203. 88 olo. Quantz's descriptions of the messa d i voce are s i m i l a r to others' discussions of tremolo. Leopold Mozart, i n h i s explanation of the trem-olo, says that the player should begin a long note s o f t l y , increase i n strength i n the middle and end s o f t l y . This d e s c r i p t i o n could apply as well to the messa d i voce. Mancini, i n h i s discussion of messa d i voce, says that i t i s to be used on notes with hold signs as well as on every long note. M a r t i n i recommends that the tremolo be used on long notes 24 and at the ends of phrases, tempo permitting; Leopold Mozart adds, by 25 "good instrumentalists" and "clever singers." These ornaments serve to underscore the importance i n the eighteenth century of vibrant, ac-t i v e tones. The t r i l l was considered by many to be the most important orna-ment. Haydn was asked at h i s f i r s t audition as a choirboy, "Kannst du  auch ein T r i l l e r machen?" This ornament enlivens a note even more than the tremolo and i s often used to signal a cadence. The player should never begin a piece with a t r i l l unless i t i s marked. A t r i l l i s generally used as a compound ornament, e s p e c i a l l y at the close of a_cadenza:-24 Jean Paul Egide M a r t i n i , Mglopge Moderne ou 1'art du chant... (Paris: Cochet, Luthier et Md de Musique, [1792?])"! 25 L. Mozart, loc. c i t . 89 Example 29. T r i l l s , Donington, "Ornaments" (lipase T a r t i n i said that the t r i l l might be made from the minor t h i r d or aug-mented second (Example 30), but Leopold Mozart preferred a d i f f e r e n t embellishment or a chromatic change i n t h i s case (Example 31): Example 30. T a r t i n i , T r a i t g i n L. Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 187 Example 31. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 187 1 1 m 90 A l l of Mozart's examples begin on the note above the t r i l l e d note (Ex-ample 32), but T a r t i n i gives some examples beginning on the main note: Example 32. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 187 The speed of a t r i l l i s determined by three f a c t o r s : tempo, acous-t i c s , and, on the v i o l i n , the s t r i n g . The slow t r i l l i s used i n sad, slow pieces; the medium, i n l i v e l y but moderate and gentle tempi; and the r a p i d , i n l i v e l y tempi which are f u l l of s p i r i t . T r i l l s at cadences should increase i n speed and loudness, according to Leopold Mozart, T a r t i n i , and others. Leopold Mozart said the t r i l l should never be too f a s t , and Mancini prohibited the rapid "goat-bleat" and "horse whinney," which were produced i n much the same way as a laugh. There are some instances i n which r a p i d t r i l l s are appropriate, however. They are used in small, carpeted concert h a l l s i n which the audience i s nearby. Slow t r i l l s work best i n large, resonant h a l l s , i n which the l i s t e n e r s are f a r away. On the v i o l i n , the higher the s t r i n g , the f a s t e r the t r i l l . An ornament c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the t r i l l , the h a l f shake ( P r a l l t r i l l e r ) , could be described as an inverted turn. It comes be-tween the appoggiatura and the primary note and i s played r a p i d l y ; the accent i s on the appoggiatura: Example 33. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 184 -Mb-—fr^irfl f „ ) C.P.E. Bach made a d i s t i n c t i o n between the slow and f a s t t r i l l s , but TUrk said that the two were confused i n common p r a c t i c e 26 Example 34. TUrk, Klavierschule i n Donington, "Ornaments," 412 P r a l t r i l i e r : (Adagio) Sc h n e l l t r i l l e r : (Andante) Daniel Gottlob TUrk, Klavierschule... (Leipzig and Halle: Auf Kosten des Verfassers, i n Kommission bey Schwickert i n Le i p z i g , 1789). Fac. ed. byE.R. Jacobi (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1962). Eng. trans, and abrid. by C.G. Naumburger as Tr e a t i s e on the Art of Teaching and P r a c t i c i n g the Pianoforte (London: [1804]). 92 The r i b a t t u t a or Zuriickschlag, a modification of the old vocal tremolo, i s used on a long note, u s u a l l y before a t r i l l . It works best i n adagio movements: Example 35. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 210 The t r i l l enlivens a note, often before a point of important harm-onic change. By accentuating harmonic motion i t emphasizes the move-ment of a melody. The name of the next ornament under consideration indicates i t s function, coming from mordere ("to b i t e " ) . The mordent creates a sharp accent. It may stem from the p r i n c i p a l note (Example 36) or from the two next higher and lower notes (Example 37); or i t may be composed of three notes, with the p r i n c i p a l note f a l l i n g between the neighbouring tones (Example 38): Example 36. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 207 (Adagio) 93 Example 37. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 207 -\> V » P1 -C * _ w * •> T »—• Example 38. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 207 The l a s t two were considered only by Leopold Mozart to be mordents and are more "courteous" or subtle than the other v a r i e t i e s . The mordent should always be played r a p i d l y but never u n i n t e l l i g i b l y . The prolonged mordent, a mordent of French o r i g i n , comes from a h a l f tone below the p r i n c i p a l note, i s employed i n l i v e l y passages and i s to be used sparingly: Example 39. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 209 94 The mordent creates a sense of movement i n melody. It provides a quick, sharp stress of a p r i n c i p a l note. Included among the d i v i s i o n s i s the t i r a t a , a succession of pass-ing notes and the most common of the d i v i s i o n s : Example 40. Leopold Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e , 212 It i s to be avoided when several musicians are playing from one part. The Nachschlag (springer) i s used i n slow parts to enliven the perform-ance: Example 41. Marpurg, Anleitung, i n Donington, "Ornaments," 418 95 Also included among the d i v i s i o n s are the changing note, a n t i c i p a t i o n and arpeggio. Aside from the t i r a t a , the most common of the d i v i s i o n s i s the turn (Doppelschlag). Robert Donington believes that C.P.E. Bach's preference for turns with uneven rhythms (except i n f a s t movements) 27 seems to have inaugurated a fashion. The turn i s to be used spar-in g l y and only i n solo passages: Example 42. Turns and Their Realizations Marpurg (1750): C O CPE Bach (1753): (Adagio) (Presto) Another of the d i v i s i o n s i s altered time or tempo rubato: 27 Donington, l o c . c i t . 96 Example 43. Turk, Klavierschule i n Donington, "Ornaments," 428 r-r f r - r Many writers, including Mozart, described t h i s ornament as a syncopated r i g h t hand accompanied by a steady l e f t hand: Everyone i s amazed that I can always keep s t r i c t time. What these people cannot grasp i s that i n tempo rubato i n Adagio, the l e f t hand should go on playing i n s t r i c t time, With them the r i g h t hand always follows suit.28 The d i v i s i o n s emphasize the movement of a melody i n a number of ways. Whereas the changing note creates tension by momentarily s h i f t -ing the d i r e c t i o n of the melody, the a n t i c i p a t i o n achieves t h i s e f f e c t by building up the l i s t e n e r ' s expectation of the main note. The t i r a t a and-arpeggio bind two main notes by bridging a leap with con-junct or disjunct motion. It i s at t h i s point i n the explanation of s p e c i f i c ornaments that c l a s s i f i c a t i o n becomes d i f f i c u l t . A discussion of free ornamentation begins with the t i r a t a . 28 Quoted i n Rothschild, op. c i t . , 67. 97 Free Ornamentation Late eighteeth-century embellishment i s most indebted to the I t a l i a n s f o r free ornamentation. This aspect of ornamentation i s the one which Tosi considered most important, for "he that does not vary... 29 f o r the better i s no great master." C e r t a i n l y one of the greatest masters to write free ornamentation was Mozart. Examples of f u l l y notated, ornamented melodies by other composers of t h i s period are rare. Several examples, however, have been r e p r i n t -ed. The most i n t e r e s t i n g period sources on free ornamentation are 30 Leopold Mozart's examples of cadences and Quantz's discussion of free 31 ornamentation. Present-day sources include Schmitz's discussion of 32 H i l l e r ' s ornamentation of one of his arias of 1780; Schmid's examples 33 of Haydn's ornamentation of an a r i a from h i s Tobiasoratorium; WShler's 34 discovery of Mozart's ornamentation of his concert a r i a K. 294; 29 T o s i , op. c i t . 30 L. Mozart, op_. c i t . 31 Johann Joachim Quantz, Versuch einer Anweisung die FlOte t r a v e r s i e r e zu spielen... ( B e r l i n : Voss, 1752). Trans, and ed. by E.R. R e i l l y as On Playing the Flute (New York: Free Press, 1966). 32 Hans-Peter Schmitz, Die Kunst der Verzierung im 18. Jahrhundert (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1955), 141. 33 Ernst F r i t z Schmid, "Joseph Hayden und die vokale Zierpraxis seiner Z e i t , d a r g e s t e l l t an einer A r i e seines Tobias-Oratoriums," Bericht liber die Internationale Konferenz zum Andenken Joseph Haydns, ed. B. Szabolcsi and D. Bartha (Budapest: Akademiai Kiad6, 1961), 117-29. 34 See footnote 14. 98 35 Mozart's own ornamentation of an a r i a of J.C. Bach; and Mersmann's quotation of a v i o l i n sonata of Franz Benda (1709-1786) i n the composer's 3 6 unornamented, s l i g h t l y ornamented and highly ornamented versions. The free ornamentation i n the Leopold Mozart, Quantz, H i l l e r , Haydn and Benda examples provides a background f o r understanding Mozart's pro-cess of composition. When Leopold Mozart's cadences are stripped of ornamentation t h e i r outlines reveal his own s k e l e t a l cadential figures exactly, suggesting that de-ornamenting an ornamented melody i s a good 37 way of understanding the embellishment process. Quantz's ornamentation tends to wind around the notes i n stepwise progression: Example 44. Quantz, Versuch, Table XVII W r i t t e n : 3 s M a y be p layed. I'lauto S-'lo. A N-B-r ^ S t _jg I^L. S t Ernst F r i t z Schmid, "Joseph Haydn und die vokale Zi e r p r a x i s seiner Z e i t , d a r g e s t e l l t an einer Arie seines Tobias-Oratoriums," Bericht  Uber die Internationale Konferenz zum Andenken Joseph Haydns, ed. B. Szabolcsi and D. Bartha (Budapest: Akademiai Kiadd, 1961), 117-29. See footnote 6. See examples 4, 5, and 6 i n Chapter IV. 99 Where there are repeated notes H i l l e r sometimes descends by steps and returns by a leap--the reverse of the usual p r a c t i c e (Example 45). Haydn i n such cases, on the contrary, creates a leap f i r s t and then f i l l s i t i n . He ascends higher than the o r i g i n a l note and descends lower (Example 46). Mozart's ornamentation of J . C. Bach's a r i a "Cara l a dolce fiamma" from Adriano in Seria also sheds l i g h t on the nature of vocal embellishment i n the C l a s s i c a l Period. In the opening cadenza the f i r s t version i s well s u i t e d to a performer who ex c e l l s i n singing scales; the second f i t s a higher voice with good portamento i n arpeggio passages (Example 47). Benda uses upper neighbor motion to embellish, but most often he f i l l s i n leaps with passing tones which sometimes r e s u l t i n t r i p l e t f i g u r e s . His arpeggios become t i r a t e . In some instances the melody i s foresaken altogether, and the harmonic structure i s the bas i s f o r a t o t a l l y new, improvised melody, f o r example i n portions of the Adagio (Example 48). This example i s closer to the Baroque p r a c t i c e , i n which the purpose of ornamentation was to f i l l i n gaps or add entertaining f r i l l s . In the Leopold Mozart example, 38 by contrast, ornamentation i s e s s e n t i a l to melodic structure. 38 For f u r t h e r information, see Rosen, op. c i t . and example 4 on page 117. Example 45. J O H A N N A D A M H I L L E R , A r i c m i t w i l l k i i r l i c h c r V c r a n d c r u n g , ( 1780) . Side mit tt>ifffu0rli<&cr 2$erdirtmm#. (af . . f t n , uin « tingt ' r c n U .- m i l t ic lid) ta f . < ftn, frojjffbu, mt i i i j£)t'(, M t f a d — — a l ; fc— * -* f=dt=f^a=:f: ^=~^~=z {>af . . frn, traafftw, mtin £tiL W« ?aj? — — al> 101 Example 47. J.C. Bach, "Cara l a dolce fiamma" with Mozart's embellishments ms. 1-4 ms. 53-4 Example 48. Franz Benda, Ornamentation 104 In general, leaps are f i l l e d i n , and when there are no leaps, they are often created and then f i l l e d i n . The embellishment tends to t h i c k -en before strong i n t e r n a l cadences. The concert arias are probably the most important written record of free ornamentation i n the late eithteenth century. Because of Mozart's unique approach to composition, he notated h i s embellishments in f u l l , a subject to be discussed i n the following chapter. 105 I I I . THE CONCERT ARIAS The arias of the present study, l i k e most of the concert a r i a s , were written f o r a p a r t i c u l a r singer. Bearing A l o y s i a Weber's voice i n mind, Mozart took into account the tone color and f l e x i b i l i t y of her voice i n h i s melodies. A discussion of these elements w i l l follow i n the analysis section. K. 294, "Non so d'onde viene," composed i n Mannheim i n 1778, i s based on a text of Metastasio. It was o r i g i n a l l y composed f o r Anton Raaf, "but the beginning seemed to me too high f o r h i s voice. Yet I l i k e d i t so much that I would not a l t e r i t ; and from the or-chestral accompaniment, too, i t seemed to me b e t t e r s u i t e d to a soprano...I returned to i t and made up my mind to compose i t ex-a c t l y f o r M i l e . Weber's voice," Mozart concluded i n h i s l e t t e r of February 28, 1778. 1 The piece i s modelled on an a r i a by Johann C h r i s t i a n Bach, which Mozart heard in a performance of Ezio i n 1765. Mozart's a r i a follows Bach's exactly i n i t s p r i n c i p a l section i n 3/4 meter, middle section i n duple meter and r e p r i s e . The text, from Olimpiade, was o r i g i n a l l y an expression of King Clisthenes' strange feelings of sympathy for a young man who turns out to be his long l o s t son. In Mozart's version i t i s a declaration of love, "I know not whence comes t h i s tender i n c l i n a t i o n . . . . " "The members of the orchestra," said Mozart i n a l e t t e r of March Emily Anderson, The Letters of Mozart and His Family (London: Macmillan, 1966), I, 497. 106 2 24, 1778, "never ceased p r a i s i n g the a r i a and t a l k i n g about i t . " On February 28, 1778 he declared, "This i s now the best a r i a she 3 has." On March 7, 1778 he added that i t was "absolutely made f o r 4 her" and on December 3, 1778 that i t " f i t s her l i k e a w e l l - t a i l o r e d garment." W i l l i WbTiler has pointed out some i n t e r e s t i n g aspects of t h i s a r i a following h i s discovery of an alternate version i n Mozart's hand (now i n the Braunschweiger Stadtarchiv). Whereas the published version i s r e l a t i v e l y free of ornamentation, the Braunschweiger version contains more decoration. WoTiler's explan-ation i s that the ornamented version i s a record and sanction of Weber's performance of 1778, which indicates that she may have taken some l i b e r t i e s . ^ I t could also mean that a f t e r he composed the a r i a , Mozart acted as her teacher, suggesting possible ornament-ation to h i s young prot6ge\ K. 316, "Io non c h i e d i , e t e r n i , " dates from 1779 and was composed at Paris and Munich. It i s based on the address of the Queen to the people of Thessaly in the I t a l i a n version of Alceste by C a l z a b i g i and Gluck. On July 30, 1778 Mozart s a i d that 7 t h i s e x h i b i t i o n piece " i s the best [scena] I have ever composed." 2 Ibid., I I , 517. 3 I b i d . , I, 497. 4 Ibid-, I, 506. 5 Ibid -, I I , 638. ^ W i l l i WOhler, "Eine neue entdeckte Mozart-Handschrift," Acta  Mozartania IV (1957), 67. 7 Anderson, op_. c i t . , I I , 581. 107 K. 383, "Nehmt meinen Dank, i h r holden GOnner," was com-posed in Vienna in 1782 and dates from a period i n which Mozart's concert arias are uneven i n q u a l i t y , owing to the v a r i e t y of occasions f o r which they were composed. K. 383 seems to be a l i c e n z a on a sentimental German text, which Weber must have sung i n A p r i l of 1782 at her l a s t appearance i n Vienna. Because i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a strophic song, i t w i l l not be discussed i n the present study. K. 416, "Ah, non s a i qual pena," composed i n Vienna i n 1783, i s a bravura scena, "the counterpart to that scena w r i t t e n i n Mann-heim and Munich which Mozart c a l l e d his best." A l f r e d E i n s t e i n considers the text to be from Zemira by Anfossi (Gaetano S e r t o r ) . K. 178, "Ah, s p i e g a r t i , " composed i n 1783 i n Vienna, i s a sketch. It i s seldom discussed, and Erik Werba merely mentions 9 i t as "an opener f o r a Liederabend." K. 418, "Vorrei s p i e g a r v i , oh Dio," and K. 419, "No che non s e i capace," also composed i n Vienna i n 1783, are of contrasting character. The f i r s t i s a c a n t i l e n a " ^ which i s h a l f l y r i c a l and h a l f concertante, and the second i s a dramatic bravura a r i a . 8 A l f r e d E i n s t e i n , " A r i a and Song" i n Mozart: His Character, His Work (New York: Oxford, 1945), 367. 9 E r i k Werba, "Das Mozart-Lied i n der AuffUhrungspraxis der Gegen-wart," Oesterreichische M u s i k z e i t s c h r i f t XXII (1967), 455. Bernhardt Paumgartner, Mozart ( B e r l i n : A t l a n t i s - V e r l a g , 1940), 401. 108 In K. 418 Clorinda, denying her own devotion to her lover, urges him to seek happiness with E m i l i a , her r i v a l . These two arias were written as substitutions in Anfossi's opera buffa, II curioso i n d i s c r e t o . It was being played i n Vienna by an I t a l i a n troupe, but the two leading roles were sung by Germans, Weber and Adamberger. In a l e t t e r of July 2 Mozart wrote that the I t a l i a n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y S a l i e r i , had made unpleasant insinuations and that the following s i t u a t i o n had ari s e n : Anfossi's opera " I I curioso i n d i s c r e t o , ' i n which Mme. Lange and Adamberger appeared f o r the f i r s t time, was performed the day before yesterday, Monday, f o r the f i r s t time. It f a i l e d completely with the exception of my two a r i a s , the second of which, a bravura, had to be repeated. Well, I should l i k e you to know that my friends were malicious enough to spread the report beforehand that 'Mozart wanted to improve on Anfossi's opera.' I heard of t h i s and sent a message to Count Rosenberg that I would not hand over my arias unless the following statement were p r i n t e d i n the copies of the l i b r e t t o , both i n German and i n I t a l i a n . Avvertimento The two arias on p. 36 and p. 102 have been set to music by Signor Maestro Mozart to s u i t Signora Lange, as the arias of Signor Maestro Anfossi were not written f o r her voice, but f o r another singer. It i s necessary that t h i s should be pointed out so that honour may be given to whom i t i s due and so that the reputation and the name of the most famous Neapolitan may not s u f f e r i n any way whatsoever. Well, the statement was inserted and I handed out my a r i a s , which did inexpressible honour both to my s i s t e r -in-law and to myself. So my enemies were quite confounded! E i n s t e i n concludes that "Mozart's naivete...as diplomatist...was hardly to be surpassed."* 1 Quoted i n E i n s t e i n , op_. c i t . , 368. 109 The next a r i a f o r Mile. Weber a f t e r K. 419 i s K. 538, "Ah, se i n c i e l , benigne s t e l l e , " composed at Vienna i n 1788 and based on the text of Metastasio's Eroe cinese. It i s Mozart's f i n a l a r i a - -a vocal concerto--for A l o y s i a Weber. In i t a lovelorn g i r l invokes the stars e i t h e r to l e t her die or to bless her a f f e c t i o n s . E i n s t e i n f e e l s that the work shows Mozart as a " r o u t i n i e r " because "his emotional r e l a t i o n s h i p with the f a t a l lady was e n t i r e l y at A -.12 an end." E i n s t e i n , op_. c i t . , 372. 110 The Notation As the preceeding section has shown, the concert a r i a s were written for a p a r t i c u l a r singer and, i n many instances, f or s p e c i f i c occasions--reason enough for Mozart to be thorough i n his notation. Mozart's feel i n g s of German-Italian r i v a l r y , as pointed out i n the Introduction, also influenced the care he used i n h i s w r i t i n g . A t h i r d f a c t o r , which can be r e a d i l y grasped by reading appendix I I , i s the musical necessity of orchestra parts i n the long sections of free embellishment. Many aspects of C l a s s i c a l ornamentation are revealed i n Mozart's notation of the concert a r i a s . His symbols for Manieren follow the conventions of his time, i n d i c a t i n g melodic movement 13 and expression. Of more in t e r e s t to the present study are the sections of free ornamentation, i n which Mozart displays h i s f u l l c a p a cities as a unique creative genius. A discussion of various approaches to melodic writing and an analysis o f the concert a r i a s follow. For a more thorough discussion of t h i s aspect of h i s w r i t i n g see Rudolf S t e g l i c h , "Das Auszierungswesen i n der Musik W. A. Mozarts," Mozart Jahrbuch (1955), 195-96. I l l Approaches to Melodic Writing Coloratura passages abound i n almost a l l of the concert a r i a s . They did not make outrageous demands on the singers of the eighteenth century because of the p r e v a i l i n g technique, which r e f l e c t e d audience tastes for f l e x i b l e , high voices. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that even the arias for a voice lower than Weber's--that of Nancy Storace--also included coloratura passages, p a r t i c u -l a r l y at strong s t r u c t u r a l points. In Mozart's Der Schauspiel- d i r e k t o r Storace competed on an equal footing with Weber i n coloratura passages reaching g'''. Some current theories of melody account f o r the importance of vocal q u a l i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y i n eighteenth-century melody. Bence Szabolcsi explains the connection between tone color and melody i n the following way: From South European music Mozart took over the idea of ' S t o f f l i c h k e i t , ' by which i s meant the close connection between melody and instruments, and c l e a r associations of tone-quality, tone-colour and time duration.14 Szabolcsi notes that Mozart was not unique i n "choosing f o r h i s melodies mostly the b r i g h t e s t part of the compass." 1 3 Mozart's "sunn)' melodies which extend into the high r e g i s t e r s r e f l e c t the Bence Szabolcsi, A History of Melody (London: Barrie and R o c k l i f f , 1965), 148. Ibid., 139. 112 i d e a l eighteenth-century sound, a "luminous and uniform b r i l l i a n c e . " " ^ The sound Mozart had in mind had been c u l t i v a t e d by the 17 singing t r a d i t i o n . But what of the t r a d i t i o n of ornamentation? A l l e n Forte mentions the importance of "the r e l a t i o n s h i p between theory and p r a c t i c e so f i r m l y established at the close of the eighteenth century," already dealt with i n Chapter I I . T h e o r e t i c a l t r e a t i s e s such as Leopold Mozart's Vio l i n s c h u l e c o d i f i e d the t r a d i -t i o n of improvised embellishment and served as a basis of Mozart's education. The foundation of this embellishment was harmony. Modern writers such as Hindemith have stressed the harmonic aspects of tonal melody, noting that investigations of melody end up " i n a more or less d i s t i n c t i v e f i g u r a t i o n of chord successions constructed 18 according to the rules of harmony." He goes on to say that "melody...can be reduced to a few, meager, basic f a c t s , upon which, to be sure, i n f i n i t e v a r i a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e . . . . Undoubtedly... t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y of v a r i a t i o n i s what made i t seem hopeless to e a r l i e r t h e o r i s t s to set up a c l e a r system of the laws governing tonal 19 movement." The devices which extend the movement of a melody 1 6 T k * A Ibid. 17 For a t h e o r e t i c a l treatment of the subject, see George Harold L i s t , "An Analysis of the Relationship of Non-stepwise Melodic Movement to T o n a l i t y i n Selected Works of W. A. Mozart" (Ph. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Indiana U n i v e r s i t y 1 9 5 4 ) . 18 Paul Hindemith, The Craft of Musical Composition, I (London: Schott, 1937), 178. 19 Ibid., 177. 113 from one harmonically-conceived note to the next "stem from r e p e t i t i o n . They constitute the various technical means f o r creating 20 v a r i e t y i n the continuation of a pattern...." It i s embellish-ment which creates t h i s v a r i e t y . Hindemith sums up the importance of harmony to melody by saying that "tones i n a melody which are harmonically connected... 21 are the r e a l body of the melody." It i s these tones which are written i n large notes i n most eighteenth-century music to point out the movement of the melody from harmonic tone to harmonic tone. Hindemith points out the need f o r a balance of harmonic tones (making up the degree progression) and connecting tones (making up the 22 stepwise progression). The scholar Dr. Wilhelm Fischer considers the type of melody 23 described above as being p a r t i c u l a r l y I t a l i a n . Oscar Bie, one of the most c o l o r f u l writers on the subject of melody, also d i f f e r -entiates between I t a l i a n and German s t y l e s . In r e f e r r i n g to the ways i n which harmonic tones are connected, he says that whereas German melody i s "ashamed of i t s nude existence," I t a l i a n melody 20 Arthur C. Edwards, The Art of Melody (New York: P h i l a d e l p h i a Library, 1956) , 111. 21 Hindemith, op_. c i t . , 182. 2 2 Ibid ., 193. 23 Dr. Wilhelm Fischer, "Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wiener klassischen S t i l s : Melodik," Studien zur Musikwissenschaft IV, 25, n. 4. 114 24 "goes i n t o ecstasies over i t s own existence." Szabolcsi explains the same phenomenon more concisely by saying that whereas i n melodies of Central Europe "ornamentation breaks up the musical 25 idea into sections, and then elaborates and varies i t , " i n the Mediterranean (Italo-Spanish) region ornaments are "extensions of 26 the melodic l i n e . " It i s here that the d i s t i n c t i o n between standardized and free ornamentation begins. The most i n t e r e s t i n g theory of this melodic extension i s 27 Lowmsky's " p r i n c i p l e of increasing animation." A gradual acceleration i s written i n t o the melody. Whereas a Romantic com-poser might treat a melody i n the following way, Example 1. "Romantic" Version of Mozart Melody m 1^ Mozart wrote i t t h i s way: Oscar Bie, "Melody," Musical Quarterly II (1916), 410. Sz a b o l c s i , op_. c i t . , 253. Ibid., 248. Edward E. Lowinsky, "On Mozart's Rhythm" i n Paul H. Lang, The Creative World of Mozart (New York: Norton, 1963), 40. 115 Example 2. W. A. Mozart, Piano Concerto i n D minor, K. 466, 1st movement, piano solo, m. 77-91 A l l t g r o 5» ' ^ " : accelerating the melody with free ornamentation from measure 88 on. The theory behind the melodies of Mozart's concert arias can be summarized as follows: The melody, harmonically conceived, pro-ceeds from chord tone to chord tone, ei t h e r connected by standard ornaments or extended by the use of free ornamentation. Expressed another way by Sza b o l c s i , Mozart's ornamentation "almost always involves a rewriting of the common chord or else a br i d g i n g across 28 i t i n the manner of h i s I t a l i a n contemporaries." The I t a l i a n method of ornamentation i s c l e a r l y presented i n 28 Szabolcsi, op_. c i t . , 140. 116 the musical examples of Q u a n t z / 9 A copy of one set of v a r i a t i o n s from his t r e a t i s e i l l u s t r a t e s the function of ornamentation i n bridging the common chord: Example 3. Quantz, Versuch, Table XIII, Figure 12 Examples such as these i n d i c a t e that Mozart's process of melodic composition may be understood through de-ornamentation. The most s t r i k i n g evidence that this method w i l l work can be demonstrated by examining Leopold Mozart's examples of embellished cadences. His f i r s t example reads as follows: 29 Johann Joachim Quantz, Versuch einer Anweisung die Flute t r a v e r s i e r e zu s p i e l e n . . . ( B e r l i n : Voss, 1752)7 trans by E. R. R e i l l y , On Playing the Flute (New York: Free Press 1966). ' 117 Example 4. L. Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e A reduction of t h i s ornamentation reveals the following melodic o u t l i n e : Example 5. Reduction of L. Mozart Cadenza Leopold Mozart's example, from which the ornamented version i s improvised, i s exactly: Example 6. L. Mozart, V i o l i n s c h u l e C\ 6 A closer examination of t h i s example reveals s t i l l another aspect of ornamentation, which emphasizes the d i f f e r e n c e between 118 s p e c i f i c ornaments and free ornamentation. The c i r c l e d f igures i n example 4 indicate ornaments which, when removed, do not disturb the outline or rhythm of the melody. Figures i n brackets are free ornamentation. This l a t t e r form of embellishment lengthens the melodic l i n e . Such an addition poses no performance problem i n a cadenza, during which the orchestra ceases to play. It would, however, cause insurmountable d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the main part of an a r i a i f no written orchestra parts were provided. In Mozart's concert arias the passages of free ornamentation are so important to the music that they are a f u l l y orchestrated, organic part of the whole. The ornamentation therefore consists of two types. The f i r s t binds chord tones together, leaving the melodic continuum uninterrupted. The second extends the melody by means of free ornamentation; measures are a c t u a l l y "added." 119 Ornamental Patterns While many of the ornaments i n the concert arias conform to those discussed i n Chapter I I , others are cl o s e r to free ornamentation even though they are not extensions of the melodic l i n e . Embellishments which are not standard ornaments conform to a number of recognizable patterns, shown i n appendix I. The fact that they are d i f f e r e n t from Quantz's examples i l l u s t r a t e s the d i f f i c u l t y i n categorizing free ornamentation. 120 Analysis The pieces following i n appendix II have been stripped of any ornamentation which i s not inseparable from the melodies themselves; the analyses i l l u s t r a t e the ornamented and unornamented forms of the a r i a s . The reader i s advised to follow both the melody and the reduction through the pieces simultaneously, i n much the same way as i f he were reading a text i n a foreign language with an underlying t r a n s l a t i o n . Although passages of free ornamen-t a t i o n (such as K. 294, measures 56-59) serve to r e i n f o r c e s t r u c t u r a l points, they could be e n t i r e l y removed without i n t e r r u p t i n g the main melody, as a reading of the unornamented forms of the melodies w i l l show. Some enti r e sections of the arias have not been strip p e d of embellishment because they are themselves ornamentation. These extensions of the melodic l i n e could be dispensed with altogether without di s r u p t i n g the melodic sense, although they do h i g h l i g h t structure. The following table i l l u s t r a t e s the s t r u c t u r a l im-portance of these passages of free ornamentation. TABLE 2 STRUCTURAL PLACE OF FREE EMBELLISHMENT Source Location i n Context K. 294, ms. 44 f f . before the closing section K. 294, ms. 54 f f . before the f i n a l cadence of the c l o s i n g K. 294, ms. 147 f f . before the f i n a l cadence 121 K. 316, ms. 22 f f . during a waiting period prolonging V/V, d i r e c t l y before the dominant cadence K. 316, ms. 45 f f . , ms. 59 f f . during an establishment of the dominant K. 316, ms. I l l f f . at a return to the t o n i c K. 316, ms. 131 f f . at an important deceptive cadence before the f i n a l re-establishment of the tonic K. 316, ms. 140 f f . during an establishment of the tonic K. 416, ms. 17 f f . before the cadence at the f i r s t departure from the tonic K. 416, ms. 60 f f . before a return to and cadence on the t o n i c K. 416, ms. 115 f f . at a re-entry of the opening theme and tonic K. 416, ms. 135 f f . , ms. 144 f f . during a re-establishment of the t o n i c Included i n appendix III i s a performable e d i t i o n of one of the concert a r i a s , from which ornamentation has been removed. As a cursory reading shows, the r e s u l t i s a c o l o r l e s s cantabile a r i a . Following i n appendix IV i s the a r i a Mozart intended, which explores the f u l l range of the singer's a b i l i t i e s through a wide range of emotions and a v a r i e t y of t e c h n i c a l demands. 122 Summary The preceeding analysis has shown that there are three types of ornamentation i n the concert arias. The f i r s t consists of the standard ornaments (Manieren), most of which are descendents of the c l a v e c i n i s t e school of seventeenth-century France. Of the second type are short ornaments which most e a s i l y f a l l i n t o the category of free ornamentation, except f o r t h e i r abbreviated length. They are l i s t e d i n appendix I as "ornamental patterns." Both of these types bind the chord tones on which the melodies are based. The t h i r d type consists of passages of free ornamentation which are long enough to necessitate f u l l y notated orche s t r a l parts. These passages serve to r e i n f o r c e important s t r u c t u r a l points. The standard ornaments became such an organic part of melody in the l a t e eighteenth century that Mozart i s unthinkable without them, as appendix III has shown. The "ornamental patterns" were also indispensable to melody; without them cer t a i n melodic passages would be mere outlines of chord tones. Free ornamentation, however, served a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t function. An element of melody which had become a mere ve h i c l e f or display i n the seventeenth century became i n Mozart a means of c l a r i f y i n g structure, d i g n i f i e d with i t s own o r c h e s t r a l accompaniment. Not only was t h i s element of melody important to singers, but i n Mozart's composition i t became esse n t i a l to o v e r a l l structure and rhythmic motion. I t can be expurgated without d i s r u p t i n g the 123 phrasing or cadences (appendix I I I ) , but without i t s t r u c t u r a l and rhythmic i n t e r e s t are s i g n i f i c a n t l y lessened, and much of the v i t a l i t y of Mozart's music i s l o s t . 124 IV. CONCLUSIONS Tastes i n singing s t y l e change from century to century. These preferences a f f e c t the aspects of pedagogy which are empha-sized in any given age as well as the kinds of melodies which are composed f o r singers. Mozart was care f u l i n the notation of h i s melodies f o r a number of reasons. The f i r s t i s an obvious p r a c t i c a l consideration: or c h e s t r a l accompaniment i s necessary i n the sections of free ornamentation. Second, Mozart wrote the arias f o r A l o y s i a Weber and for p a r t i c u l a r performances i n most instances. T h i r d , by creating a f i n e composition Mozart showed himself and h i s singer to best advantage. He took p a r t i c u l a r pleasure in t h i s p u r s u i t because he f e l t an intense r i v a l r y with the I t a l i a n musicians, many of whom were less talented but more successful than he. His a t t i -tude foreshadowed that of n a t i o n a l i s t i c nineteenth-century composers. In addition, Mozart had a great deal of personal pride i n h i s own a b i l i t y to create t a s t e f u l embellishment as no one else could. In h i s a t t i t u d e toward himself as an a r t i s t he also foreshadowed the musical geniuses of the nineteenth century. The arias are a written record of late eighteenth-century ornamentation, which can be separated i n t o two groups --Man i eren and free ornamentation. The former are small ornaments descended from the French school; the l a t t e r , I t a l i a n i n i n s p i r a t i o n and consisting of many notes. 125 C l a s s i c a l ornamentation d i f f e r s from Baroque in two important respects. F i r s t , i n Baroque melodies Manieren are mere f r i l l s , but C l a s s i c a l Manieren are so organic to the s t y l e that most Mozart melodies would be unthinkable without them. Second, whereas Baroque free ornamentation usually f i l l s i n spaces between chord tones, C l a s s i c a l embellishment serves to r e i n f o r c e s t r u c t u r a l points i n the music. These sections of the concert arias can be removed f o r the sake of an a l y s i s , leaving a cantabile piece resembling a simple nineteenth-century a r i a . The r e s u l t i n g a r i a can be performed as i t stands a f t e r t h i s de-ornamentation, providing an i n t e r e s t i n g contrast with the a r i a as Mozart intended i t . It i s i n t h i s way that one of the e s s e n t i a l differences between C l a s s i c a l and Romantic vocal melody can be i l l u s t r a t e d . 126 BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, Emily. The Letters of Mozart and His Family (London: Macmillan, 1966) . Anderson, M. S. 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Unterricht i n der Singkunst (Halle, 1784). 131 APPENDIX I ORNAMENTAL PATTERNS 5 -\0. 133 r — — i ¥m—4 — 1 A 134 vi. r - x 1> A f r r f k 1 i • » « — 1 ~ ~ - - J i ~ — • i 135 03 fix APPENDIX II ANALYSIS N o n | s o d o n - d o | v i e - n o q u i : ! i t o - n c - i - o a f - i I I I i I f e t - t o , q u e l | t o - n o - r o a f - I f c t I I t o , q u e l | m o - t o , c h o j - i no - t o m i i n a - s e e n c l , p e t - t o , I I f f 7 » \U M i r i 7 f i f -r-r q u e l t g e l , c h o I I S H E E T S : v e • n e s c o r - n - e n - d o m i | v a . , N 0 n | s o d o n - d . -| j I | a =1 r - 7 • •> -v i o - n o , rM n o n ! s o d ' o n d o , v i o - r.o q u e l j I 136 137 138 G p a r m i c h o ( b a - s t i t . v — - ' s o - l a r p i o - I t a , f f F I 7 7 4 r ' ^ p > j N ^ r 139 140 ~r~ fftlh— °—F I t a , ( 1 i n o , n o n I p a r - m i , I I i I l 1 n o n i p a r m i c h o ^ i " \ b a - s t i l a i s o - l a p i o - i t a , I 1 n o . p a r - m i M -c h o i b a - s t i , 53= N o n > f f M l f f " If > ? J T e m p o P r i m o s o d ' o n - d e | v i e n e , d ' o n - d e , v i o - n o q u e l i t o u s a t e n e - r o a f - f e t - t o , I q u e l m o - t o , I c h e i -141 142 n o s c o r J o m i v a I ' f f ; -i J J U i I N o n , s o d ' o n - d o J v i e - n o q u e l J t e . n o - r o a f -Y i f 7 f e t - t o , q u e l g e l , c h o -— = 3 = 1 =;*==*= w • p p — • -I . 1 1 ' ' ., | r c n - d o .. m i v a , q u e l g C i ; c h e i o - ! a v e - n e — s c o r - . r c n - d o | v a . q u e l r 143 144 4 r t o i l | c i c l I p e r m o . s o - r o - n o , i f r i r ^ * 0 as m a i l m i o , d u o l c o n - s o - l i a l - j m e - n o , c o n - 1 £ -if e n I 8 0 - - H a l - i m o . n o o u a l - C o | r a e - c i o . o u a l - c n f • Q c h o J r a g - g i o , q u a l - c l i e r r \ 145 146 147 148 0 p e t - t o , i l l e r - r o r , c h o m ' o m - p i c i l , p e t - t o , c l i i Z o - — p — a a y_ — j — : 1 m d i ( m o ^ l i o i l v i - v o u f - f c t - t o , i t t f ; r ?r f i r r 1 ( J • " ' — j — — — — — p r o n - d o i m a - l i j n i i o . i , r — — C ) n o i l t c r - ! ft >-j 'rj u - T * Y \ 149 150 151 152 153 R o n d o m Mil n o n s a - i q u a l J d o - v e r - t i , o h J D i o ! E E d o -| v c r - t i , o h \ D i o ! I l a i s c i a r , I I" 154 fa pill , gra. v o i l m i o p e -i . _ - ^—fx: n a r , i l m i o p o - , n a r : m a q u e l | p i a n - t o , I T^tp=^=*a==K zr2-i l ( m i o ( n n - o p o - n a r , . i l i m i o 155 F ^ ^ ^ W ^ » « , _ ^ t i , o h | D i - o ! . I . i l a -m M a - s c i a , - i i f i e r m o - m e n -[ t o ! C a r a k p o - s a , s e n - t o p e r l ' a f T / a n - n o H c o r m a ^ ' c a r , ,1 c o r ' m a n - c a r l " ® • — a A l l e g r o a s s a i s7\ A q u a i , b a r - b a - r o v H c o n - d o m i s o r - ' b a - E t o 3" a v - v c r - s i , D o - i , 156 —j-I d i - t e v o i , \ ,y - = 4 jtz:£--~ -j d i - t o j v o i , ' F i r V -551 ESS 157 158 159 160 K.HI8 161 :L_L§|= Clorinda E=HEH V o r - r e i s p i e - g a r - v i , o h E l D i - o ! 1 » a l e l ' a f - f a n n o m i - o , q i i a l m i c o n - d a n - n a i l f a - t o , i \ Q 162 163 ta. c h o J a i o s o r a - b r i , u n b a r b a - r o r c i s p i e - g a r - v i , o h D i - o ! i f lit:^r - t q u a l e l ' a f - f a n -• » ' O — h i -, n o m i - o , q u . i l a l ' a f I W f l g i 1 - till i r ^ t i r F 164 165 p i a n - g o - r o e t a - c o r , a p i a u - g e - r o o t a A S3 JLjM - ^ ^ " ^ A l l e g r o A h c o n - t o , 5 3 p a r - t i - t o , c o r - r o - t o , =2= fug. g i - t o , p a r - t i - t o , c o r - r o - t o , f u g - g i - t o I o n - t a - n o d a m o . I o n - t a - n o d a mo; —<>—- .... l a v o - s t r a d i -a l e t - t a E - m i - l i u V a - s p o t - t a , I a n - g u i r n o n l a 166 167 r v o - s t r a d i - l e t - t a E - m i - l i a v ' a - s p c t - t a , l a n - g u i r n o n l a _ f a - t e , e d e - g n a d ' a - P a r - t i - t e , p o r -r o ' t e i d ' a - m o r n o n p a r - l a - t e , e v o - s t r o i l s u o c o r ; p a r -t i - t e , c o r - r e - t e G5J 3 ^ 3 t o , e v o s t r o i l s u o 168 _Q 169 170 171 v a n - t i a tor-to u n co - ro EH' c h a r --C' 5©» p o r rae, a p a - co, no, c l i o n o n s c i c a - p a - co d i c o r te 172 173 H3 3/=Efcp—i p i u me stos - so ab - b o r - ro, 3 ^ e p i u me s t e s - so ab - b o r - ro , 3* s t e s - so, m e stes - so, me stes - so ab - b o r - r o . cho r r * 7 f : * r r if j . t 'ho u n i - s t a n - to a - m a - t o , cho t h o u n i - s t a n - to a - m a - t o , c h o . ti — s o - s p i - r a i p e r t e , c h o s o - s p i - r a i p e r t o , cho a HE t 'ho u n i - s t a n - te a - m a - t o , c h e t 'ho u n i - s t a n - t o a - m a - t o , c h o . " ^ M ' W . r f r t if r ^ 174 175 176 mm gno p i e - t a n o n e m r r i • t a , o t o - g l i e - t e - m i l a v i - t a , Q ' ° l a • S C l a - l o - m i i l m i 0 b c n — o I a - s c i a - t e - m i i l m i o b e n , l a . 177 178 179 z b e n , o l a - s c i a 0 -• — i—I—U» t e - m i i l m i o b e n , o to - g l i e nil t e - m i l a v i t a , o l a - s c i a - t o - m i i l m i o r ] r - ^ : r - f . . l r r ir^m .•best-EE b e n . o l a - s c i a - t e - m i , l a - s c i a 180 8} * W ,^\l<ru> J^ur m i o b e n . f * " te o - g n o r s i b e l lo mio b e n Efci nol d o l - ce a s p e t - t o , I f r If —p [P r -n e l d o l ce a - s p c t - t o , a p r o t e g - ge - to p u ro a f - f c t to f tiffIV r ^ r i ' f ^ 11'f >? * 181 182 183 i - r ^ r - i ^ r ii • — i ' • ' * " " ' * " - t e - m i i l m i o t e n „ , ^ . . -0 C n > O t o - (Jlio . S 3 1 ftfJ— t o - m i l a v i t a > 0 l a - s c i a - t c - m i i l i b e n , o l a - i - m i . l a - spin _ 1 — H s c i a - to  , s c i a 184 185 0 APPENDIX III . 418, "Vorrei s p i e g a r v i , oh Dio!" (unornamented version) iano hv i\?L*> I l - I ' D - ^ 1 1 - 1 I ' I — ^ 4 = tg.a—f=a—L— 1 r * f f y i " . ~ £^E=^EEEEEElE / r - , ! / » [—*— J f, it j, f , , 7 5 A St r • C ^ - l i r — V o r - r c i s i n e - g a r - v i , o i l I f I , O H e a v ' n , c o u l d EjEEEtf 187 m a m i c o n - d a n - n a i l f a - t o 188 189 190 42 MB 191 192 ivuegro g i - to, long - cr; par - t i - to, cor - rc - to, fug - gi - to Ion - ta, - no da For - get me, I pray you: be sifong-cr, And flee while j o u i 5>s rrr. . - - "'3—*» Jr. : -,: »: * r, .r. ~ »*—* 1 £ ^ * let - ta won you, E - mi - l ia v'a - spet - ta, For her 1 must shun you, l an - guir non la So don't let her 193 194 tJ65» 195 196 APPENDIX IV K. 418, "Vorrei s p i e g a r v i , oh Dio!" (Mozart's version) 14 Author unknown English version tiy Lorr;iinr. Noel Finli-y W.A.Mozart K. 418 (1783) Piano reduction by John R. Barrows P i a n o * A d a g i o ' O r c h e s t r a l m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e on r e n t a l 197 15 = r = t ma mi con-dan - na i l fa - to, But cru - clFate's re - str ic-t ion 198 *«5» 199 200 18 201 202 « S 5 » 203 21 0= 3 E S fa - to, e do lan - guish, From me gnu d'a - mor. you must part; Ah But 4k r*—« I — it p p- r stol - lo spio-mine is the t a - te! an-guish, ne - mi - cho mi My stars are un-^ £ ^ * cresc. 7 f i T ~ F /J} z ~ * F - * ^ ^ ^ - ^ - - • - T _ » Hj? _ • — — j i l o — — — - * — p = * = per - do s'ei re - sta, oh Dio! Bar -on ' s re - main- ing is mad mi and do. . ta l . . Ah O M i i K'- * ; rp*—>— j i i t — h — j — -ii £ > * - f f - { r - * — W cr • -* c I I - J — « r - = ( — i — > -• a - a, > i — . — * -• * ~ . .^ ..J,. ' i — i 204 fc , - o n - t o , p a r - t i - t o , c o r - r o - t o , f u g - g i - t o , l a B a r - o n , n o w l e t m e d e - l a y y o u n o l o n g - e r . E ' r e - t o , p r a y y o u ; d ' a - m o r n o n p a r - l a - t o , e v o - 6tro i l s u o c o r ; O u r l o v e l e t u s b a n - i s h F o r y o u r s i s h e r h e a r t ; p a r -F o r -tzua 205 t i - t o , c o r g e t m e , I r o - t e , p r a y y o u , d ' a - m o r O u r l o v o =j==£-— • TI p a r - l a u s b a n fP • m *• o p H-r. 2 * mm c o r , h e a r t , o F o r v o y o u r s s t r o i l s u o c o r , e i s h e r h e a r t ; F r o m v o m e s t r o i l s u o c o r , e y o u m u s t p a r t F o r fp fp fp Jp fp fp ^•- . . . i , fg : f l > - ' | l > 5a v o - s t i o i l s u o c o r . y o u r s i s h e r h e a r t . — 4- r- -"-i—p—*~r4—00 «•!> *>oo <> _ — ( t — r - t — r - m - 1 — H H - P t -»1-H-+ < 4=t£ 1 — V r — ? 

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