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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Caribou tribal council Zirnhelt, David 1976

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THE CARIBOU TRIBAL COUNCIL by DAVID ZIRNHELT B.A., University of B.C. 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Dept. of Political Science) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1976 0 David Zirnhelt, 1976 In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 - i i -Abstract T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the native people of the North American continent did not evolve levels of organization beyond that of the band. In addition, p o l i t i c a l organizations as we know them did not e x i s t . As a r e s u l t there i s no h i s t o r i c a l precedent for the levels of organization which the Indian leadership now recognize as necessary f o r the protection of what remains of t h e i r way of l i f e , and for a r e b i r t h of t h e i r culture under conditions that they c o n t r o l , independent of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s which has controlled much of t h e i r l i v e s over the past century. In the l a t e 1960's, p a r t l y as a re s u l t of the p e r m i s s i b i l i t y of democratic ideology adopted by the DIA and p a r t l y because of the increase of sophistication of the Indian leadership i n dealing with the white man's ways, the movement towards more l o c a l control has seen demands placed upon the DIA to respond to the Indian's needs as they themselves define them. This thesis traces the recent development i n the Cariboo-Chilcotin region of the In t e r i o r of B.C.; and i n p a r t i c u l a r , the development of the Caribou T r i b a l Council (CTC) as i t increased i t s p o l i t i c a l c a p a b i l i t y and attempted to mount an independence movement and control the program funds of DIA following the re j e c t i o n of government funds by the Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs. Material collected f o r t h i s thesis includes extensive interviews w i t h T r i b a l Council members and resource people, the written documentation - i i i -immediately relevant to t h i s subject, and viewing video tape films of some recent important meetings. In developing t h i s interpretive chronology, the author witnessed several meetings of the T r i b a l Council and one of t h e i r major workshops. In addition, various people associated with the Council have commented on the draft of the paper. The struggle to unify three d i s t i n c t c u l t u r a l groupings makes the a l l i a n c e of bands at best a loose a l l i a n c e . The Caribou T r i b a l Council was able to develop and maintain the i n i t i a t i v e i n p o l i c y matters towards the Department of Indian A f f a i r s . That i n i t i a t i v e , p a r t l y because of e f f o r t s of the Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs,was given strength by the c u l t u r a l movement towards independence of Indian people. Because the Department di d not respond quickly and p o s i t i v e l y to the Indian i n i t i a t i v e , the p o l i t i c a l strength of the CTC waned enough to a point where the DIA could r e - e s t a b l i s h i t s i n i t i a t i v e and the CTC was forced to react. The DIA i n i t i a t i v e was a return to i t s former p o s i t i o n of s t a t i n g that i t would decide when the Indian people were ready f o r more control over Departmental programs and what form the t r a i n i n g f o r that control would take. In the meantime the other major thrust of Indian p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , that of the land claims, which i s not directed at DIA, remains a focus of considerable energy. What w i l l become of the land claim issue i s d i f f i c u l t to say, but at least some bands seem to be resolute i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to achieve recognition and settlement of the claim. In the meantime, the l o c a l - i v -DIA o f f i c e remains a symbol of the presence of the agency which had controlled so much of the l i v e s of the Indian people, and on which they seem to have become dependent. As a symbol, i t remains a target for the a l l i a n c e of the three t r i b e s comprised of the 15 bands i n the d i s t r i c t . A recent p o l i t i c a l phenomenon which i s related to the need f o r an increased administrative c a p a b i l i t y on the part of bands i s the emergence of Area Councils based la r g e l y on t r i b a l c u l t u r a l l i n e s . - v -TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction and Background p. 1 2. From Non-Political Culture to P o l i t i c a l Culture p. 8 3. The Caribou T r i b a l Council and i t s A c t i v i t i e s p. 27 4. The Rejection of Funds and Independence Movement p. 71 5. Conclusion p. 114 6. Bibliography p. 121 - v i -ILLUSTRATIONS AND TABLES Illustration I - Chronology of Important Events p. ix Illustration II - Reserve Communities in the Williams Lake District p. 6 - v i i -Acknowledgement Throughout the period of my research I have been accorded a reception by people associated with the T r i b a l Council f o r which I am thankful. This receptiveness i s t y p i c a l as part of an ingenuousness which to t h i s point during these t r y i n g , struggling times has characterized Indian p o l i t i c s at the d i s t r i c t l e v e l . These chiefs and resource workers have been h e l p f u l i n providing me access to materials. In p a r t i c u l a r two of the Community Development (CD.) workers, Ron M i l l s and Brendan Kennedy have been good enough to spend hours conveying information and interpretations of events to me which has helped establish perspective. These two and Brian Mayne of the F i s h Lake Centre have provided invaluable comments on the o r i g i n a l d r aft. In the e a r l y part of my research, Dave Somerville was help f u l i n providing access to h i s extensive correspondence on behalf of the Council. In addition copies of an e a r l i e r draft have gone to several chiefs and both chairmen of the Council. In general they had no comments to add, f e e l i n g that the thesis was b a s i c a l l y correct i n matters of fact and interpretation. I t was good of them to take the time to read so much paper. To those closest to me who have done my chores at home while I have been out doing f i e l d work and who have, i n doing so, given much moral support and otherwise made i t possible: Susan, Joan, Bob, Harriet and Clarence. - v i i i -F i n a l l y , I am grateful to my advisor, Paul Tennant, f o r the confidence he has shown i n my completion of t h i s t h e s i s , and to Mabel Cornwall, who typed and typed on such short notice. - i x -Chronology of Important Dates Federal Government issues Statement on Indian P o l i c y Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs i s formed National Indian Brotherhood i s activated Caribou T r i b a l Council i s formed, known then as Williams Lake D i s t r i c t Council of Chiefs UBCIC hires f i r s t C D . worker f o r Nazkb and KLuskus bands Caribou Indian Enterprises i s established under Indian control UBCIC hires second CD. worker Nazko-KLuskus seek moratorium on Development F i s h Lake Cultural Education Centre opens under Indian control Nazko and KLuskus bands blockade road construction March: T r i b a l Council hires administrator Lakes and Babine D i s t r i c t s r e j e c t Capital Projects Funds A p r i l 3: UBCIC Land Claims assembly at Terrace A p r i l 23: UBCIC rejects federal funding May 1: Occupation of DIA o f f i c e i n Williams Lake May 13: Declaration sent to Prime Minister May 14: Declaration of Independence by A l k a l i Lake Band-June 20: Meeting with Bob Williams, Resources Minister. J u l y 7: Minister of Indian A f f a i r s indicates negotiations to transfer funds w i l l proceed August 22: Anaham band secedes from T r i b a l Council September 17: DIA Regional Director meets with T r i b a l Council negotiating committee : Council agrees to accept interim funding November 10 - 14: Council workshop for preparing negotiating p o s i t i o n November 12: DIA proposes l o c a l government t r a i n i n g programme, l o c a l Government advisors, and f i n a n c i a l advisors December: Shuswap chiefs h i r e education consultant 1976 - January: Toosey Band claims m i l i t a r y reserve : Shuswaps take over some education funding. 1. Introduction and Background This subject has been chosen because i t i l l u s t r a t e s some facets of present day p o l i t i c s of aboriginal people i n Canada. These peoples are c a l l e d the "Fourth World", 1 by George Manuel, President of the National Indian Brotherhood. The thesis i s a documentation and interpretation of part of an important era i n the nascent movement of "independence" for the Indian people of Canada. Independence here does not mean an independent state. Rather i t means the maximum.degree of s o c i a l and economic s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y subject to the constraints of a t o t a l population of 3-4,000. A s u b t i t l e of t h i s thesis might have been "the p o l i t i c s of independence", since most of the Indian bands i n the Caribou T r i b a l Council used the a l l i a n c e as a stronger p o l i t i c a l voice than t h e i r own i n achieving some greater measure of economic subsistence and a r e j e c t i o n of a p a t e r n a l i s t i c administration - the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development (DIA) - which has subjugated i t s c l i e n t s . From the idea of independence comes the objective of self-determination. I t i s i n the struggle to define and determine t h e i r own future that the Indian people have sought to supplant the DIA bureaucracy and i t s programs. The s t r i v i n g f o r p o l i t i c a l power by the Caribou T r i b a l Council and the desire to r e t a i n power on the part of the DIA have given r i s e to a f a r c i c a l s i t u a t i o n where the Department appears not to be hearing what i s being said to i t . The issue has become one of each party i n the c o n f l i c t saying i t w i l l decide when the Indians -2-are ready for t h i s independence and what form i t w i l l take. On the surface that issue seems simple enough; but i t i s not e a s i l y resolved. Below the surface, other currents affect t h i s power struggle: the century o l d land claim, the s o c i a l deprivation which affects p o l i t i c a l mobilization and the conditioned dependency on the Departmental programs. One matter i s c e r t a i n : while the native leaders and t h e i r resource people have been r a p i d l y increasing t h e i r competence to deal with the white man's machinery of government, and to define the issues, the same o l d weaknesses of the bureaucracy p e r s i s t amid and despite a pre-revolutionary s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n . There has been hardly a p a r a l l e l increase i n sophistication of the Indian A f f a i r s personnel. The o f f i c i a l s seem to accept i n theory that when the Indians are ready for self-government, the trappings of power must be handed to them. I t i s the practice of t h i s theory that i s so d i f f i c u l t f o r the o f f i c i a l s . I t i s i r o n i c that at a time of confrontation that Ottawa should seek 2 to i n s t a l l administrative hardliners as area supervisors of DIA, thus complicating the devolution of power by administrative r i g i d i t y . In tracing the development of the Caribou T r i b a l Council as an " a l l i a n c e 3 of the 15 bands of the Shuswap, C h i l c o t i n , and Carrier nations" i t i s my objective not only to provide information about the important a c t i v i t i e s of the native people, but some analysis of the nature - 3 -of the p o l i t i c a l organization as represented by the Council at t h i s point i n time. In doing so, I w i l l f i r s t seek to determine what t r a d i t i o n a l , c o l o n i a l , and modern influences there are on p o l i t i c a l organization which affect current Indian p o l i t i c s i n the Williams Lake D i s t r i c t today. Secondly, those substantive matters which the Council considered i n i t s e a r l y days of existence w i l l be investigated to shed some l i g h t on the p o l i c i e s which led toward self-determination. T h i r d l y , I w i l l investigate what a c t i v i t i e s the Council pursued as part of the Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs (tFBCIC) strategy of re j e c t i n g governmental funding i n A p r i l , 1975, and to what extent the independence movement has been successful i n achieving i t s goals. For the period from May, 1975 to January, 1976, I have observed f i r s t -hand many of the T r i b a l Council a c t i v i t i e s . And I have submitted a draft of the paper to several chiefs and several resource people associated with the T r i b a l Council. Their comments are incorporated by way of corrections of f a c t , elaborations and i n some cases re-interpretations of events. Assumptions i n t h i s thesis about the nature of the DIA bureaucracy originate: p a r t l y with the author's exposure to the federal c i v i l service while employed i n a deputy minister's o f f i c e i n Ottawa for two years and a further year as a program manager i n a Vancouver regional o f f i c e of another department, and p a r t l y with the study of governmental organizations. -4-Before commencing research on t h i s topic permission was sought, and received, by way of a l e t t e r to the Caribou T r i b a l Council's Research Advisory committee and by a personal appearance at a T r i b a l Council meeting. I t was hoped that t h i s research and the written thesis would benefit the Indian people by providing students at the F i s h Lake Cultural Centre and elsewhere with an interpretation and documentation of a c t i v i t i e s of the Council during t h i s important era. Demographic and Geographic Background I t i s not necessary to repeat here information reported frequently about the p l i g h t of the Canadian Indian. Suffice i t to say that i n t h i s region of the B r i t i s h Columbia i n t e r i o r the s o c i a l conditions are worse for those reserves that are close to the towns and physical f a c i l i t i e s better than f o r those a greater distance away where ranching, hunting, trapping and guiding sustain a more hopeful l i f e . In the Cariboo - C h i l c o t i n area l i e s the Williams Lake D i s t r i c t , one of f i f t e e n such D i s t r i c t s i nto which the f i e l d organization of the B.C. Region of the federal Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development i s divided. This D i s t r i c t encompasses approximately 30,000 square 4 miles containing a t o t a l population of approximately 60,000 of which i t i s estimated more than 4,000 are of native descent. For the f i s c a l year 1975 -1976 the Department states there are i n the D i s t r i c t about 3,523 ^ Indians. In the largest part of t h i s region, -5-the C h i l c o t i n area west of the Fraser River, the Indian people are probably s t i l l a majority. The 15 bands l i v e primarily i n f i f t e e n communities, although some of these i n d i v i d u a l communities are spread over a distance of up to 60 miles and divided i n t o many small reserves, some of which are c a l l e d homesteads or hunting and f i s h i n g camps, or else are the meadows where hay i s put up for winter feed. The C h i l c o t i n people west of the Fraser River have s i x bands: Toosey, Anaham, A l e x i s Creek, Nemiah V a l l e y , Stone and Alexandria. The Shuswaps have f i v e bands at Williams Lake, A l k a l i Lake, Dog Creek/Canoe Creek, Canim Lake and Soda Creek. The Carriers of t h i s d i s t r i c t (Southern Carriers) have four bands located at Ulkatcho, KLuskus, Nazko and Quesnel. As noted on the map of reserve communities on page 6, the C h i l c o t i n Toosey band i s located i n t r a d i t i o n a l Shuswap t e r r i t o r y , while the C h i l c o t i n Alexandria band i s located i n t r a d i t i o n a l Carrier t e r r i t o r y . These movements took place about 100 years ago when some populations were v i r t u a l l y decimated by epidemics. - 6 -R e s e r v e C o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e tfillia-23 L a k e D i s t r i c t S c a l e i s 40 m i l e s ( a p o r o x l m a t e l y } to. I i n c h 40 0 40 80 I t • II • • — - j ' B o u n d a r i e s o f T r a d i t i o n a l T r i b a l A r e a s -7-Chapter 1 - Footnotes 1. G. Manuel and M. Posluns, The Fourth. World, Don M i l l s , C o l l i e r MacMillan, 1974. 2. This move on the part of the department was introduced: at the November, 1974 meeting of the Regional Directors General of the Department of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. 3. Typewritten letterhead of the Caribou T r i b a l Council. 4. Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t , Planning Department estimates f o r the year 1975. 5. See Coyoti P r i n t s , Vol I I I , No. 3, March 3, 1976, estimate based on d i s t r i b u t i o n proposal f o r community a f f a i r s c a p i t a l funds. -8-2. From Non-Political Culture to P o l i t i c a l Culture In t h i s thesis I am concerned mainly with the l a t e s t phase of North American Indian h i s t o r y , that recent period characterized by the emergence of a new sense of national consciousness and common purpose and by attempts to achieve e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l organizations and the v i a b l e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l reintegration of Indian I n s t i t u t i o n s within the contemporary i n d u s t r i a l society. 1 However, the phase before t h i s one, that of s t a b i l i z i n g white/Indian relations with the i n s t i t u t i o n of government controls has l e f t a legacy which affects the evolution of native p o l i t i c s today. Some of that legacy w i l l be dealt with here as i t i s necessary to show some of the c u l t u r a l adaptation that has taken place i n the t r a n s i t i o n a l period. ^ Tr a d i t i o n a l l y the type of s o c i a l organization of the native people of t h i s area can be said to be migratory atomistic, that i s small groups of people (bands) which moved and reconstituted themselves as dictated by the seasonal cycles and the pertaining economic exigencies. Only some of the Southern Carriers had the extended family and crest group as basic s o c i a l u n i t s . Thus there was ce r t a i n l y no h i s t o r i c precedent for al l i a n c e s of the kind we are studying. -9-In general aboriginal peoples of the American continent have never evolved to the l e v e l of" organization of the state with the exception of the Incas. With a unique exception (the Incas of Guzco, Peru), then, the American Indians must be regarded as eminently s e p a r a t i s t i c . 4 S p e c i f i c a l l y on the subject of B.C. Indians, Duff writes that The l o c a l t r i b e s were composed of more or less uneasy a l l i a n c e s of such k i n groups; no e f f e c t i v e form of organization was developed above the l e v e l of the t r i b e ; and of course, nothing comparable to the state or kingdom ever evolved. 5 Only the five-Nations Iroquois evolved anything resembling the chiefdom i n complexity, a p o l i t i c a l form most evident on the Afr i c a n continent and i n some South East Asian areas. T r i b a l organization has never existed as such, although we may be seeing t h e i r evolution through allianc e s of bands from the same c u l t u r a l groupings. I t i s only i n the time of the white man that band organization as defined by the Indian Act ^ a body of Indians a) f o r whose use and benefit i n common, lands, the l e g a l t i t l e of which i s vested i n Her Majesty,..., b) f o r whose use and benefit i n common, monies are held by Her Majesty., or c) declared by the Govenor i n Council to be a band f o r the purposes of t h i s Act. has become a permanent i n s t i t u t i o n . I t has been of minimal value for p o l i t i c a l integration of the community. On the topic of Indian -10-p o l i t i c a l organization, Wilson Duff states In most groups i n B.C. there are no purely governmental organizations as such, separate from k i n and other classes of structure, nor was there any merely p o l i t i c a l chieftainship even within the v i l l a g e s . For t h e i r own purposes, as part of the adaptation of the communities to the new influences the traders, missionaries and o f f i c i a l s found i t necessary to invent i n s t i t u t i o n s and of f i c e s which were purely governmental i n nature. 7 As part of the resurgence of a consciousness which i s akin to feelings of nationalism, the constituent groups of the t r i b e s , the bands, are seeking to have many of the functions of the modern state devolved upon them with the e f f e c t that, should they succeed, they w i l l maintain a f a i r l y highly decentralized system of community government. When the Indian people emphasize resource u t i l i z a t i o n and the t r a d i t i o n a l economy, the band model of l o c a l government based on the B r i t i s h system i s inadequate. For, the Indian i s dealing with the objective of economic development based on the land and i t s resources, the control of resources, and means of production. Resource development and management, however, has not been part of l o c a l government functions g i n Canada nor provided f o r by the Indian Act. In the Canadian system these primary sectors of economic a c t i v i t y have come under the purview of senior levels of government: p r o v i n c i a l and federal. In part t h i s very inadequacy of the l o c a l government model has upset t r a d i t i o n a l patterns and aided i n the destruction of a way of l i f e . Now the bands seek to reintegrate such matters as mental health or s p i r i t u a l development with a combination of modern and t r a d i t i o n a l -11-expl o i t a t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l lands and the l i f e supported upon them. In order to reassert aboriginal t i t l e to land and resources and i n order to secure guarantees of those rights i n perpetuity enshrined i n the laws of the Governments of Canada, (not to be extinguished), the native people have had to resort to levels of organization roughly p a r a l l e l l i n g the governments of Canada, fe d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and regional, f o r which there i s no h i s t o r i c a l precedent among t h e i r people. H i s t o r i c Inter-Tribal Relations A cursory look at the h i s t o r i c relations among the trib e s i n t h i s part of the central i n t e r i o r reveals that there was considerable mixing and contact, not always f r i e n d l y , e s p e c i a l l y on the f r o n t i e r s of the t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s . At one time h a l f of the Shuswap people at Soda Creek had Carrier blood as a r e s u l t of intermarriage with the Carrier people to the north of them. These two trib e s had been warring but before the white man came they made t h e i r peace. Since the making of peace the Carriers have been f r i e n d l y and helped the Shuswap i n fights with the C h i l c o t i n . The Chilcotins and the Shuswaps i n the southern part of t h i s area had a h i s t o r y of war, p a r t l y as a r e s u l t of the C h i l c o t i n hunting parties moving east towards -12-the Fraser River into t r a d i t i o n a l Shuswap lands. The Chilcotins had more amicable relations with the B e l l a Coolas, as d i d the Carriers at Ulkatcho. The Shuswap's r e t a l i a t i o n s against the Chilcotins were, according to one source, 1 1 lessened somewhat with the advent of the white man's law i n the area. There i s only one reference to an overt attempt at i n t e r - t r i b a l a l l i a n c e i n t h i s area that has appeared i n studies of B.C. history. According 12 to d i a r i e s of Mclnnis i n a book c a l l e d Dunlevy, the Shuswaps annually held a gathering at Lac La Hache where war s k i l l s would be contested and h o s t i l i t i e s probably dispelled. At one of these gatherings, i n 1859, representatives of the two other c u l t u r a l groups were present. At one point during the games, one of the C h i l c o t i n " c h i e f s " made a proposal to unif y the Indians i n the area i n order to prevent the growing intrusion by white men seeking gold. In the ensuing orations by Chief Williams, a Shuswap from the now Williams Lake area, and a Carrier leader from Alexandria area both argued that there was much to be gained from the white man i n terms of reading and w r i t i n g s k i l l s . An a l l i a n c e of war was not struck. Whether t h i s event i s born out i n h i s t o r i c a l fact i s not so important as the symbol i t represents of the lack of u n i f i e d voice or action against the white man u n t i l the development of the T r i b a l Council, some 200 years a f t e r contact. -13-A f t e r the apparent f a i l u r e to secure an a l l i a n c e of war against the white man, the Chilcotins u n i l a t e r a l l y used violence i n what has 13 been c a l l e d the " C h i l c o t i n uprising". In 1864 there were several massacres aimed at stopping the building of the road from the west coast. The subsequent capture and hanging of some of the raiding parties stemmed the violence and the Chilcotins then sought to protect t h e i r lands by declaring the C h i l c o t i n v a l l e y t h e i r t e r r i t o r y and 14 closed to settlement. They had considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n having these lands surveyed as reserves. Throughout t h i s period the t r i b e s had been severely reduced i n numbers and weakened by white man's diseases. The C h i l c o t i n s ' e f f o r t s were the most decisive actions against colonization, and the only resort to violence as a means to achieve p o l i t i c a l goals. On the whole, then, settlement of t h i s part of the i n t e r i o r of the Province occurred without u n i f i e d opposition from the native population. While there has been opposition to white intrusions, i t was not u n t i l 1973 that a more highly organized e f f o r t to h a l t intrusions began i n earnest when the Nazko and KLuskus bands objected to encroachments into t h e i r homeland. To t h i s day, c u l t u r a l differences and feelings of r i v a l r y and jealousy l i e just below the surface and have undoubtedly hampered any great degree of u n i f i e d p o l i t i c a l action. Whatever the t r a d i t i o n a l differences, the chiefs have now t r i e d to transcend those differences f o r the sake of the very people who harbour these feelings. -14-Colonial Legacy Part of the legacy of the c o l o n i a l regime i s the dependency cycle 15 and demoralization of what one chief has c a l l e d the " l o s t generation". By the close of the 19th century Indian children were being f o r c i b l y taken from t h e i r homes to the Oblate Fathers r e s i d e n t i a l school at St.Joseph's Mission. Native people were disenfranchised u n t i l 1949, i n pr o v i n c i a l elections and 1960, i n federal elections. Thus the elder leaders were brought up without a formal say i n the federal p o l i t i c a l system. Hand outs along with the lack of self-government have created a s i t u a t i o n of l i t t l e hope and l i t t l e power. The reserve s i t u a t i o n has hampered p o l i t i c a l co-operation between bands, even between those of the same culture, u n t i l recently. In the Hawthorn .report the authors state that c u l t u r a l bonds may turn into "organized p o l i t i c a l l i n k s on the basis of a l o c a l aaministrative u n i t " . They go on to say In B.C., however, the reserve system and the s t r i c t d e f i n i t i o n of bands has operated to create s t a t i c p o l i t i c a l units of small s i z e , to turn bands i n upon themselves p o l i t i c a l l y , and to prevent the growth of wider p o l i t i c a l u n i t s . I t w i l l be much harder now to amalgamate bands or create larger p o l i t i c a l authorities than i t would have been eighty years ago, but i t i s s t i l l not impossible. 17 As we: w i l l see l a t e r DIA's l e g a l i s t i c approach of requiring funding to be d i r e c t l y transferred to bands only (who may then transfer the -15-funds to a larger administrative u n i t ) , has been a factor a f f e c t i n g the development of the T r i b a l Council. This p o s i t i o n by the department i s reinforced by what has become known as "band autonomy", a concept held by bands themselves. The Modern Period For many bands, the very practice of band government as i t i s today i s a new phenomenon. As recently as 20 years ago, only one t h i r d of the bands were electin g councils. Six bands elected councils i n 1955. Of the bands without councils, f i v e determined a council by custom, two were represented by a customary chief and three bands were dealt with d i r e c t l y by the superintendent. One band, Nazko, elected i t s f i r s t council i n 1971, and another, KLuskus, only i n 18 1973. Thus the practice of formalized elective and organizational p o l i t i c s i s s t i l l new and hardly provides a basis f o r larger scale p o l i t i c a l organization. The notion of p o l i t i c s as an a c t i v i t y going beyond the day to day i n t e r e s t s of the family to matters of growth and s u r v i v a l f o r a larger grouping was not developed at a l l i n the t r a d i t i o n a l cultures and hardly was nourished by the c o l o n i a l regime. In conclusion, i t can be said that the p o l i t i c a l form known as the band c o u n c i l , imposed upon the native peoples by the c o l o n i a l governments, has become very much a part of the evolving p o l i t i c a l culture, even -16-though the band council structure i s inadequate to f u l f i l l the present needs of native peoples. As some Indians have sai d , " i t i s the only-form of self-government we have so u n t i l something else better i s developed we w i l l keep i t . " Indeed, band councils are becoming so much a part of p o l i t i c a l culture that one of the most highly advanced community schools, at A l k a l i Lake, treats band organization as part of the curriculum. B r i e f Overview of Indian P o l i t i c a l Organizations The A l l i e d Tribes of B.C. was formed i n 1915-1916 at Spence's Bridge to carry the land claim of the B.C. Indians to Parliament i n Ottawa, to support the Nishga land claim and to protest the McKenna-McBride Commission which was cutting o f f lands from the e x i s t i n g reserves. In 1916 t h i s a l l i a n c e represented the Shuswap, C h i l c o t i n and Carrier t r i b e s . Then the p e t i t i o n to Parliament i n 1922 named the i n t e r i o r Indian chiefs and reserves represented by Chief Johnny C h i l l i t z a , hereditary chief of the Okanagan t r i b e s ; they included the chiefs of the Williams Lake, A l k a l i Lake and Anaham Lake reserves from t h i s D i s t r i c t . This a l l i a n c e did not constitute a formal organization as such but d i d at least nominally and p a r t i a l l y represent some of the bands of the Williams Lake D i s t r i c t . The f i r s t formal organization i n Canada to be formed was the Native 19 Brotherhood of B.C. which was established i n 1931. I t was e s s e n t i a l l y -17-a north coast organization. By 1936 the P a c i f i c Coast Native Fisherman's Association was founded composed of Southern Kwakiutl. These two had merged by 1942 as the Native Brotherhood of B.C., a Protestant organization and b a s i c a l l y s t i l l a union f o r coast fishermen. A r i v a l Catholic organization c a l l e d the North American Indian Brotherhood was created i n 1945 as an offshoot of the Native Brotherhood. I t was predominantly coast S a l i s h and Nootka and apparently spent much of i t s time i n c o n f l i c t with the Native Brotherhood. In the i n t e r i o r two organizations emerged, both seemingly shortlived. 20 The B.C. I n t e r i o r Confederacy was organized i n 1945 against a proposed new Indian Act, B i l l 67. I t wanted to secure the r e j e c t i o n of the b i l l and to draw up a new Act perhaps l i m i t e d to B.C. In part t h i s organization was created because the r i v a l r i e s of the other native organizations meant that they d i d not represent the i n t e r i o r Indians. As f a r as we know the Chilcotins were represented i n t h i s Kamloops based organization by Tom Elkins from the Anaham band. The objectives of the Confederacy were to i n s t i t u t e self-government, to improve a g r i c u l t u r a l advice, to restore ancient water rights and to reconstitute o l d reserve boundaries. Interest waned i n the organization and only occasional meetings were held, f o r example i n 1955. The second organization to emerge was the Native Rights Committee of 21 the I n t e r i o r Tribes of B.C. Just what t h i s committee did was not c l e a r ; however, i t d i d not r e s u l t i n any organization of any -18-l a s t i n g import. In an attempt to shed some l i g h t on the i n t e r i o r Indian organization, Hawthorn concluded that the i n t e r i o r Indians by and large either were not organized i n economic matters or confined t h e i r r o l e to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n white groups. 22 I t would appear that the only white organizations i n which the native people have participated have been the l o c a l stockmen's associations. In 1955 the Nishga T r i b a l Council was formed to replace the ad hoc Nishga Land Committee (formed i n 1913), and so expanded a c t i v i t i e s into the area of welfare i n general. Later the Nootkas and Coast S a l i s h were to create i n t e r t r i b a l organizations s i m i l a r to the Nishgas During the 1960s the Department held rounds of consultations which brought the leaders together f o r the f i r s t time to consider common problems and solutions. While no p o l i t i c a l organization formed as a r e s u l t and while i t was probably not the intention of the government to do so, these consultations d i d set the p o l i c y of consultation before the Indian people and provided a stimulus to organization. The national organization, the National Indian Brotherhood was r e a l l y activated only i n the period of 1968-1969, getting i t s r e a l impetus when the federal government issued the white paper on Indian A f f a i r s . -19-I t was i n the same year that the Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs (UBCIC) was created, holding i t s f i r s t a l l chiefs conference i n November, 1969. I t was formed f o r the purpose of s e t t l i n g land claims, but soon developed into a service bureaucracy running a valuable Community Development program and offering assistance to bands i n the co-ordination of s o c i a l services and f i n a n c i a l administration. The Union i s undoubtedly the most important organization a f f e c t i n g p o l i t i c a l evolution i n the Williams Lake D i s t r i c t . I t provided a body of expertise and a source of p o l i t i c a l strength. The Union began contacts with representatives from the chiefs i n the f i f t e e n Indian A f f a i r s D i s t r i c t s , thus having regional representation from areas having the same boundaries as the Department. While the p r i n c i p l e of organization was important for dealing with a common fo c a l point, namely the f i e l d o f f i c e , i t contributed to the fact that t h i s organization directed i t s e f f o r t s to an attack on the bureaucracy, and not to something more p o s i t i v e , such as c u l t u r a l r e v i v a l . Worthy of note are two other organizations which have had some impact. The National Association f o r Red Power, formed sometime i n the l a t e 1960s, sent organizers into the i n t e r i o r , but d i d not succeed i n converting the leadership. S i m i l a r l y , the American Indian Movement has had a marginal e f f e c t on the consciousness of the native people, but no permanent e f f e c t on the p o l i t i c s of the region. I t i s true, -20-however, that the goals of these organizations are shared by the l o c a l leadership, but they do not provide a dr i v i n g force f o r organization. The o v e r a l l trend since the o r i g i n of the UBCIC has been towards smaller and more u n i f i e d p o l i t i c a l units such as the Caribou T r i b a l Council ( D i s t r i c t Council) and more recently, Area Councils, several of which would occupy the same t e r r i t o r y as the T r i b a l Council. Both Area and T r i b a l Councils are i n a good pos i t i o n to work e f f e c t i v e l y f o r change of an administrative nature whether or not they a c t u a l l y become aamiriistrative organizations themselves. There i s no doubt that both are closer to the bands and can be controlled by them much more e a s i l y than the more distant p r o v i n c i a l and national organizations. Hawthorn Report and Regional Organizations Out of the democratic philosophy (based on elective l o c a l government) which had been developed by the Department i n order to move away from the time-tired paternalism, there grew a r e a l i z a t i o n that i t was necessary to consult with Indian leadership i n order to have effect i v e programming within the Department. Just what the s p e c i f i c o r i g i n of one of these mechanisms, the D i s t r i c t Council, i s unclear; however, the Hawthorn report, a major analysis of Indian administration, d i d mention two i n s t i t u t i o n s which would be b e n e f i c i a l i n the improvement of the Indian s i t u a t i o n . One of the recommendations involved creating -21-a more e f f i c i e n t administrative u n i t where bands were small and scattered. They were c a l l e d Local Improvement D i s t r i c t s or Resource Development D i s t r i c t s : The setting up of such D i s t r i c t s should receive a high p r i o r i t y i n the community and economic development programs, and a special point should be made of intensive consultation with the Indians i n the setting up of these D i s t r i c t s or regional u n i t s . 25 The nature of these units was to be b a s i c a l l y administrative presupposing, of course, that the necessary community development occurred to bring the p o l i t i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s of the bands membership to a point where they could manage these tasks. What was act u a l l y devised two years l a t e r was more consultative and advisory than administrative. The second type of i n s t i t u t i o n suggested i n t h i s report was the Regional Agency Advisory Council, since the Agency Superintendent had no wide p o l i c y body to refe r matters to or to discuss administrative procedures with. The following r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were suggested: 1. To provide services not able to be provided by the Band Councils 2. To select representatives of the Indian people to agencies such as the school board. 3. To supervise Indian i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the proposed Probate Court. 4. To raise revenues d i r e c t l y , by subsidy, or by contributions 26 by Band Councils. -22-In many ways t h i s i s a prototype of the D i s t r i c t Council (Tribal Council) as i t was developing at the time of the declaration of independence and the r e j e c t i o n of funding. (These are discussed l a t e r i n the thesis.) I t appears that shortly after publication of the Hawthorn report, or perhaps even at the same time, the Department moved to e s t a b l i s h these consultative bodies, ostensibly f o r t h e i r own ease of communicating information of an administrative nature and to serve as sounding boards f o r changes i n departmental p o l i c y . According to one source, 27 Doug Hance, the f i r s t chairman of the Council, two Indian agents talked about the idea, but i t took a t h i r d agent to a c t u a l l y c a l l a meeting together. The Council began meeting three to four times a year. Departmental O f f i c i a l s attended and the agenda was l a r g e l y designed 28 by the D i s t r i c t Supervisor. The f i r s t meetings were held around 1969-1970. Dates are unclear because t h i s Council p a r t l y evolved out of the Caribou Indian Residential School Advisory committee that 29 was functioning at that time. I t was composed of the chiefs and delegates from the bands i n the D i s t r i c t . Thus the Department was taking i n i t i a t i v e about the same time as the UBCIC was organizing on a regional basis. Both organizations, then, had the same reference group i n the region. For the chiefs involved i t was convenient that they.would have information coming from both sources. -23. -Chapter 2 - Footnotes 1. E.B. Leacock and N.O. L u r i e , Nortk American Indians i n H i s t o r i c a l  Perspective, New York, Random House, 1971, p. 12. Many of the stated goals of the Indian people involve co-existence with the i n d u s t r i a l society or a blending of two: cultures. See G. Manuel and M. Posluns, op. c i t . , and Kew, 'TMazkb and KLuskus: Social Conditions and Prospects f o r the Future", Nazko Memio, 1974. 2. For a discussion see R.W. Dunning, "Some problems of Reserve communities: A Case Study", i n J.S. Frideres, Canada's Indians: Contemporary C o n f l i c t s , Scarborough, Prentice-Hall, 1974, pp. 59-86, e s p e c i a l l y , pp. 80-84. 3. The Crest Group i s a group of related people holding hereditary names or priviledges i n common. See Kew, op. c i t . , p. 4. R. Lowie, "Some Aspects of P o l i t i c a l Organization Among the American Aborigines", R. Cohen and J . Middleton, Comparative P o l i t i c a l Systems, Garden C i t y , Natural H i s t o r y P r e s s , 1967 and 1970. 5. W. Duff j The Indian History of B.C., Vol. I: the Impact of the White Man, V i c t o r i a , P r o v i n c i a l Museum of Natural History and Anthropology, 1964 (c ) , p. 105. 6. Indian Act, R.S.C, c. 149, S.I. -24-7. Duff, op. c i t . , p. 71. 8. The powers of the Band Councils are s i m i l a r to the powers of Municipal Governments i n Canada. See Section 81, Indian Act, R.C., C. 149, S. 1. 9. James T c i t , The Shuswap, Memoirs of the American Museaumof Natural History, Vol TV, Part V I I , New York, G.E. Stenchert § Co., 1909, p. 468-69. 10. I b i d . , p. 541. 11. I b i d . , p. 542. 12. E. Beeson, ed. Dunlevy, L i l l o o e t , L i l l o o e t Publishing L t d . , 1971. 13. E.S. Hewlett:, The C h i l c o t i n Uprising, Masters Thesis, Department of History, University of B r i t i s h . Columbia, 1972. 14. F i s h Lake Centre, "Indian Land and Native T i t l e i n the Chilcotin-Caribou", c i r c a . January, 1976. 15. The Tribune, September 30, 1975, Williams Lake, interview with. Chief E r i c G i l b e r t 16. H.B. Hawthorn, ed. Survey of the Contemporary Indians Of Canada, Vo l . I I , Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, Ottawa, 1968. -25- . 17. I b i d . , p. 919. 18. Kew, op. c i t . , p. 38 and 40. 19. J.S. Frideres, Canada1s Indians: contemporary c o n f l i c t s , Scarborough, Prentice-Hal1, 1974, pp. 59-86, esp. chapter 5, "Indian Organizations", pp. 111-131. 20. Hawthorn, op. c i t . , p. 962. 21. Coyoti P r i n t s , V o l . I I , No. 6, (July 16, 1975), "The Native Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia: A P o l i t i c a l History", p. 3. 22. Hawthorn, op, c i t . , p. 967. 23. Duff, op. c i t . , p. 107. 24. Canada, Department of Indian A f f a i r s § Northern Development, Statement  of the Government of Canada on Indian P o l i c y , 1969, Ottawa, 1969. 25. Hawthorn, op. c i t . , p. 17. 26. Hawthorn, op. c i t , p. 953. 27. D i s t r i c t Supervisors were c a l l e d Indian Agents. They were the senior o f f i c i a l s i n the D i s t r i c t o f f i c e . -26-28. At one time D i s t r i c t Supervisors were c a l l e d Indian agents. 29. Interview with. Doug Hance, January, 1975. -27-3. The Caribou T r i b a l Council At the time of i t s inception the Council was evidently known to i t s members as the Williams Lake D i s t r i c t Council of Indian Chiefs, or the Williams Lake D i s t r i c t Indian Council. I t was to change i t s name, or at least adopt a formal name, only i n 1975 at the height of independence a c t i v i t i e s . The Caribou T r i b a l Council (CTC) was described as an al l i a n c e of the f i f t e e n bands of the C a r r i e r , Shuswap, and C h i l c o t i n nations. 1 Symbolically the name Caribou T r i b a l Council implies a great deal. To be c a l l e d the Williams Lake D i s t r i c t Council meant that the Council was immediately i d e n t i f i e d with the white town of Williams Lake and i n p a r t i c u l a r with the Indian agency centred i n Williams Lake. (The actual Williams Lake band resides at Sugar Cane - seven miles from the Town of Williams Lake). 'Caribou' i s more an Indian name, as the s p e l l i n g used i s that of the name of the animal. 'Cariboo' as i n the white man's s p e l l i n g of the region, apparently derived from the misspelled nick name of Cariboo B i l l , an early white miner. " T r i b a l Council" i s decidedly more Indian than i s " D i s t r i c t Council of Chiefs". As the name suggests, the CTC i s an al l i a n c e of c h i e f s , not a federation, nor an amalgamation or any other form of administrative union. At the time of i t s having adopted a name f o r i t s e l f , i t had evolved to becoming a f u l l - f l e d g e d p o l i t i c a l organization independent of the Department's paternal hands. -28-In the growth of the CTC there are two d i s t i n c t periods. F i r s t , there i s the period of early growth, and development up to May, 1975, during which there were murmurings of independence, clothed i n statements about giving d i r e c t i o n to the D i s t r i c t Office on various matters. Then there i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t period following the r e j e c t i o n of governmental funds by the UBCIC at Chilliwack i n A p r i l , 1975. This period continues u n t i l January, 1976 when preparations were s t i l l being made for the bands to take over funds as a prelude to or necessary condition f o r the closure of the DIA o f f i c e i n Williams Lake. Murmurings of Independence During the period from 1969 u n t i l 1973, one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t events i n the d i s t r i c t was the closing down of C h i l c o t i n Forest, a t r a i n i n g centre f o r native peoples i n the C h i l c o t i n which was conceived and operated by the Department at great cost. I t proved to be too expensive as an i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g exercise. The Council of Chiefs considered what to do and around 1971 Cariboo Indian Enterprises logging company was formed, with loans from seven bands i n the d i s t r i c t . This company, Indian owned and operated, began to pick up where the C h i l c o t i n Forest project had l e f t o f f . The r e s t of the physical plant which consists of many housing units and a school/resource centre/office complex was soon taken over by another Indian controlled -29-venture, F i s h Lake Cultural Education Centre.. A f a i l u r e when operated by DIA, C h i l c o t i n Forest became a symbol of p o l i t i c a l development of the Indians i n the area. During t h i s time the chiefs began t a l k i n g about land claims i n general and supported several land claim related actions on the part of some of the bands. I t was i n 1973 that the Nazko and KLuskus bands developed an active stand on independence and sought to have a moratorium placed on the forest developments f o r a f i v e year period u n t i l such time as the land claims and a j o i n t Indian/industry development proposal could be worked out. Support f o r these a c t i v i t i e s were the beginnings of the T r i b a l Council's own a c t i v i t i e s towards private enterprise and government departments other than DIA. I t was by no means incidental that i t was those bands, Nazko and KLuskus, who started the action; since i t was there that the f i r s t Community Development o f f i c e r , Brendan Kennedy, had begun working, f i r s t as a volunteer and then 2 on the s t a f f of UBCIC's community development program. Membership and Decision Making Membership of the T r i b a l Council consists of the chiefs of the member bands. However, when a chief cannot attend he can send a delegate who i s considered a spokesman for the band. In the concensus decision-making that takes place, i t does not matter whether the person speaking -30-formally represents h i s people by v i r t u e of being i n a po s i t i o n of authority such as a chief or co u n c i l l o r . Rather what counts i s that he i s understood to represent the general views of the band. One can often hear at meetings that a representative of the band i s either the chief or h i s delegate. The executive committee .of non chiefs are not considered members of the Council. Decision-making i s by consensus. The chairman announces a decision when he feels there i s a consensus and then asks i f there i s agreement. As a r u l e , there i s nodding of heads for agreement and the showing of hands i s seldom seen. During meetings, i f i t appears to the chairman that the members are not ready to make a decision, then the matter i s deferred to be raised again only when i t appears that the subject matter has developed s u f f i c i e n t l y to enable a decision to be made. Sometimes chiefs or delegates j u s t do not appear f o r a meeting i f the issue i s being forced. Generally a s p e c i f i c resolution i s made when a matter relates to the operation of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s or i t s programs. A resolution i s usually worded af t e r a consensus i s reached. I t i s written up on the Band Council Resolution form and i t i s signed b y t h e members present, as long as the quorum of one h a l f the membership i s present. I f i t i s such an important matter that i t bears discussion at the band l e v e l then the D i s t r i c t Council Resolution i s taken back and sometimes a Band Council Resolution (BCR) i s then presented duly signed by the quorum of Council of the -31-Band. The Band Council Resolutions axe often necessary to convince the Department that the T r i b a l Council does i n fact speak on the bands behalf. However, the Department i s not consistent as some matters requiring the expenditure of band funds formally requires BCRs i n order to i n i t i a t e action by the Department. This rather cumbersome procedure i s a r e s u l t of the fact that the Department does not always recognize the Council as an authoritative body. The only formal power i s that which.is delegated to i t by the Bands, the Bands o f f i c i a l l y and l e g a l l y retaining the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r autonomy. During some of the speeches at the mass meeting following the r e j e c t i o n of funds i n A p r i l , 1975, there was t a l k of not using Band Council Resolutions any longer and throwing out Robert's Rules of Order and returning to the o l d way of making decisions and conducting a f f a i r s , that i s by consensus. In the f i r s t f i v e years of i t s existence the Council met every three months, the meetings l a s t i n g f o r two days.Then, during the period a f t e r the r e j e c t i o n of funds, meetings were held at least every month for a day, occasionally more frequently. Meetings frequently begin on Indian time, that i s , when there are enough present to make the discussion worthwhile. There i s always joking about the Indian time f o r t h e i r own meetings. No one appears to get upset at a l a t e s t a r t , sublimating t h e i r displeasure. Sometimes meetings do not even happen. -32-With. respect to the a f f a i r s of the Council, the chairman i s expected to f a c i l i t a t e the agenda and the development of the meeting. I t does not appear that the chairman i s a power f i g u r e , attempting to d i r e c t the meeting or the a f f a i r s of the Council. I t i s very much a c o l l e g i a l a f f a i r . At meetings with the DIA and others, he i s not always the spokesman. Council members are free to speak up as are the s t a f f (or resource people as they are c a l l e d ) . The f i r s t chairman of the Council was the chief of the Anaham band, Doug Hance, who fo r many years had chaired the Advisory Committee to the student residence at St.Joseph's Mission. He served f o r four years, r e t i r i n g but s t i l l serving on the executive committee and turning over to one of h i s young understudies, Irvine Harry, then the young chief of the A l k a l i band. This t r a n s i t i o n was without contest and took place without regard to the c u l t u r a l background of the person involved, Harry being from one of the Shuswap bands. Irvine Harry was to become the Assistant Executive Director of the F i s h Lake Centre and then i n the spring of 1975 the Executive Director, when as i t was arranged the white person who was f i l l i n g that p o s i t i o n , Dave Ross, stepped down. Hance, the f i r s t chairman, had been instrumental i n the establishment of the Cariboo Indian Enterprises, the logging operation based at -33-F i s h Lake and the Cultural Education Centre. Hance s t i l l attends the most important meetings and plays very much, a background advisory r o l e . In l a t e 1975 the chairman resigned, c i t i n g personal reasons. He was not replaced. At the time of w r i t i n g , meetings were chaired by anyone who could be cajoled into i t , usually one of the resource people who have had more experience conducting meetings than the chie f s . This s i t u a t i o n i s changing as many of the younger chiefs are growing i n t h e i r experience. At least one of the chiefs who i s also a resource person has chaired meetings. Committees of the Council Special committees are used when necessary and there are also some standing committees. There are only infrequent reports from committees, and very few decisions are referred to the committees for the simple reason that the Council has been b a s i c a l l y a communication vehicle for leadership. The p o l i c i e s and programs the Council considers seldom appear complex enough that they cannot be dealt with by the Council i n one or two sessions; although that s i t u a t i o n i s changing with the advent of the land claims issues and large-scale program transfers being envisioned. Some of the preparation of information -34-and recommendations f a l l s upon the shoulders of one or another of the resource people who i n effect act as one-person committees or as a committee of s t a f f . The oldest formal committee i s the executive committee. I t was formed i n 1973 at the suggestion of the Indian Agent who reasoned that he would l i k e a p o l i c y body to ref e r to when i t was not expedient to c a l l a f u l l Council meeting. The Council agreed and elected a committee of three, two of whom were c h i e f s , from ten people who were nominated f o r the positions. Since t h i s committee developed into one having f i n a n c i a l decision-making powers, i t was decided that none of the chiefs should s i t on the committee, because non-chiefs were supposed to be impartial. This committee met to prepare agendas f o r meetings, to make recommendations as to where excess administration funds available to bands might go. In t h i s they advised the Department. Records are not kept of these meetings. Since the Council was a communication device above a l l , i t seemed desirable to delegate the minimum of tasks of a consultative nature, since written reports were hardly s u f f i c i e n t to get information across. In f a c t , during the period of active negotiation with the Department, the executive committee d i d not meet. One of the most active committees i s the D i s t r i c t Education committee, which began independently of the Council. The committee has since -35-formally become recognized as a sub-committee of Council with "the authority to make decisions". ^ In the case of a c o n f l i c t on major issues, the Council can overrule committee decisions. The committee i s supposed to report regularly, but t h i s does not happen. I t s membership includes Williams Lake School D i s t r i c t representatives, home-school co-ordinators, and representatives of band education committees where they, e x i s t . The Education committees have had the part-time services of one of the Outreach workers on contract with the Department of Manpower and Immigration. Ray Hance, one of these workers, was instrumental i n establishing the D i s t r i c t Education Committee. In the f a l l of 1975 a co-ordinator of D i s t r i c t Education, Alan Haig^Brown, was h i r e d by the l o c a l school board to work with native people. In addition, the DIA employee responsible f o r education reports regularly to t h i s committee, as i t i s h i s e f f e c t i v e reference group. Important matters requiring the chiefs attention are brought either from t h i s committee or d i r e c t l y to the Council. However, education i s possibly the single largest program ( f i n a n c i a l l y ) and i s considered so important that the committee's work i s e s s e n t i a l . A personnel committee exists but only comes into e f f e c t to prepare job descriptions and to interview candidates f o r jobs associated with the Council's work, f o r example, Community Development workers funded under the Local I n i t i a t i v e s Program and that of Administrator. There was t a l k at one time about the establishment of a D i s t r i c t -36-Recreation committee, but i t i s unclear what happened to the proposal. During the height of the action a f t e r the UBCIC rejected government funding and commenced the enhanced independence movement, ^ an ad hoc committee was struck to develop the newly-founded Warrior Society. The society was to be active on each reserve and would provide the band with a form of a general community development and land claim resource i n addition to front l i n e personnel during confrontations with the o f f i c i a l s over such matters as land, f i s h i n g r i g h t s and so on. Presumably t h i s society would strengthen the band councils and therefore the T r i b a l Council i n i t s negotiations with the Department. The reasons that t h i s committee di d not get i t s a c t i v i t i e s o f f the ground are two f o l d . F i r s t , such an e f f o r t was an overextension of the organizational energy available at that point i n time and second, on the strength of a l e t t e r from the Minister i t appeared that negotiations would get underway soon and some of the impetus f o r confrontation was gone. In general there was probably an overestimation of the probable l i f e of the militancy which was spawned i n a j u b i l a n t mood at the time of the r e j e c t i o n of funding. In terms of the h i s t o r y of the Council one of the important developments i n the l a s t two years i s the emergence of the Housing and Capital A f f a i r s committee which has been delegated the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of recommending how funds are to be allocated f o r housing construction -37-and r e p a i r , and f o r water and sewer construction and repai r . Bands make t h e i r requests to t h i s committee and then the committee makes i t s recommendations to Council. In the early days of the Council, departmental o f f i c i a l s , would, i n the words of Chief G i l b e r t , " j u s t throw out a pot of money and watch the chiefs f i g h t over i t as dogs would over bones". The Department di d a c t u a l l y present some kind of formula. This kind of consultation only served to p i t the chiefs against each other. Where ten houses were needed, one or two might be available. So by developing a more acceptable method of handling these recommendations ( i n e f f e c t the decisions) the chiefs were able to move beyond c o n f l i c t to co-operation i n conducting t h e i r a f f a i r s . While the committee has not successfully pursued the matter, i t was assigned the task of seeking alternative funds f o r housing and renovations. Committees, then, have not been the mainstay of t h i s Council. Most business i s conducted i n open assembly of chiefs and delegates, where the maximum of communication i s necessary since many of them l i v e without telephones. Since, the e s s e n t i a l l y p o l i t i c a l and communication r o l e s , rather than administrative roles are predominant, complexity i s reduced thereby reducing the need f o r a complex committee structure. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so given that the two most complex matters developed by the Council, namely Cariboo Indian Enterprises and Fish Lake Centre have t h e i r own Boards of Directors, on which several of the chiefs s i t . -38-One i s a l i m i t e d company and the other an incorporated society. When there are no programs to administer, the execution of p o l i c y i s rather more simple. The Committees that do e x i s t have no terms of reference, and there i s l i t t l e formalization of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . S t a f f The a c q u i s i t i o n of s t a f f was a milestone event i n the development of the T r i b a l Council. In the years 1969 to 1975, the only s t a f f that the Council had were two Community Development workers and they did not work d i r e c t l y f o r the CTC but were assigned f u l l time duties for one or more bands. The f i r s t CD worker, Brendan Kennedy, di d not come on the s t a f f of the UBCIC u n t i l 1971 at which time he was assigned to continue to work for the two Carrier bands of Nazko and KLuskus. The second worker, Ron M i l l s , came to work for the UBCIC assigned to the C h i l c o t i n people. The C h i l c o t i n area stretches 200 miles west of the Fraser River and some of the bands l i v e a considerable distance from the main road, thus making work with these bands a f u l l time job. Thus any time that these two workers could volunteer to the T r i b a l Council was l e f t over from or d i r e c t l y related to t h e i r other duties. M i l l s served as secretary, preparing minutes for the Council which provided a much needed communication device f o r those who were unable to attend meetings. A t h i r d p osition existed f o r a CD worker assigned to the Shuswap bands, but the Council was unable to keep anyone i n t h i s p o s i t i o n for any length of time. Both the -39-chalrmen were employees i n some capacity or other of one of the major enterprises associated with the CTC and were able, therefore, to spend considerable amounts of time conducting the a f f a i r s of Council. However, none of the part time s t a f f i n g was s u f f i c i e n t to co-ordinate and develop p o l i c y f o r the growing number of matters that came before the Council. The Council resolved to h i r e an administrator and did so i n March of 1975. I n i t i a l l y the administrator was to be a manager for the CTC and an assistant to the CTC representative to the UBCIC. At t h i s time i t was expected that authority would be given i n some way from the Department to h i r e a So c i a l Service Co-ordinator f o r the D i s t r i c t . A l s o , i t was expected that the D i s t r i c t would soon take over the Community Development program from the Union and h i r e seven workers. The Union had already assigned a f u l l time land claim worker, Walt Taylor, to the D i s t r i c t and so altogether there would soon be a large s t a f f . S ecretarial work was done by some of the employees at the Fi s h Lake Centre. At the Centre there were always people to be c a l l e d upon to a s s i s t i n various kinds of a c t i v i t i e s such as the preparation of proposals. About the time when a cadre of f u l l time s t a f f was ra p i d l y developing, the Union voted to re j e c t government funding. The Caribou T r i b a l -40-Council supported t h i s move. The Council could r e t a i n i t s administrator only with the interim assistance of borrowed funds from Cariboo Indian Enterprises. Those on UBCIC sa l a r i e s had to f i n d other sources of income such as the Company of Young Canadians. At t h i s time the land claim worker l e f t f o r personal reasons. In addition to the persons already mentioned, there were two Outreach Workers, one i n each h a l f of the t e r r i t o r y , who assisted the bands and the D i s t r i c t Council i n matters r e l a t i n g i n any way to employment, such as t r a i n i n g , general communication, economic development and land claim work. The administrator saw h i s role not so much as administrator but rather as a co-ordinator of coirammity development, a term comprehensive enough to encompass a l l of the assignments to s t a f f be i t f i n a n c i a l t r a i n i n g or economic development. From the d i r e c t i o n which the Council had been moving i n i t s h i r i n g of s t a f f , i t was c l e a r l y apparent that the Council was going to be an agent of development helping a l l the bands where required. I f necessary, i t seemed ready to handle the administration of programs but that prospect never r e a l l y was developed into p o l i c y . A large developmental s t a f f was envisioned, but no bureaucratic empire. Indeed when the s t a f f was i t s l a r g e s t , the Council had about the same number of s t a f f as one of the smaller, but more developed bands, -41-Nazko. About the s t a f f of the F i s h Lake Centre, i t must be said that they served as a general resource not only to the bands i n d i v i d u a l l y , but also c o l l e c t i v e l y , through the Council. These people were predominantly white, but the key positions were double staffed with native people serving as understudies to these positions. g For the seven months that the administrator was i n p o s i t i o n , he had wide l a t i t u d e as a spokesman for the Council at meetings and i n correspondence with Ottawa and regional headquarters of the Department. The Council was moving i n the d i r e c t i o n of being a Council lead by i t s chief executive o f f i c e r , not by the chairman. In p r a c t i c e , the administrator, Dave Somerville, showed much i n i t i a t i v e , although i n p r i n c i p l e he took d i r e c t i o n from the chiefs. This was an obvious case where the executive committee could have given d i r e c t i o n to the chief employee, but i t seemed almost to be displaced by the administrator, since he was no f u l f i l l i n g the r o l e that they had assumed before: developing agenda, recommending courses of action, being spokesman, and preparing materials f o r the meetings. During the months before the r e j e c t i o n of funding, the Council had instructed i t s chairman and resource people to investigate the f e a s i b i l i t y of establishing an administrative centre to house the o f f i c e s of t h i s growing organization. In a proposal to the Council i n January, Irvine Harry, the chairman stated "We presently have f i v e D i s t r i c t -42-positions and three more w i l l be f i l l e d by March". ^ Council was to apply to the F i r s t C i t i z e n Fund.for the financing of a centre f o r Williams Lake, on a piece of land donated f o r the purpose by the Williams Lake band. The development of the centre was to be one of the tasks of the new acmnnistrator, but he was cut short by the l a t e A p r i l r e j e c t i o n of funds, barely one month af t e r h i s a r r i v a l . Stimuli to Organization During the period covered by t h i s t h e s i s , a number of s i g n i f i c a n t factors underpinned the awakening of native people's organization i n the i n t e r i o r . This awakening l e d to the evolution of a f u l l fledged interest group i n the form of the Caribou T r i b a l Council capable of p o l i t i c a l action. Dahrendorf suggests that there are t e c h n i c a l , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l conditions that must obtain before a p o t e n t i a l interest group (quasi-group) becomes an organized group or i n s t i t u t i o n . Most important of the technical conditions are the existence of a charter, or system of values, for which the group needs to organize, and a personnel. Rapidly deteriorating s o c i a l conditions coupled with a marked increase i n the number of children meant that s u r v i v a l fo r many people became a value to be emphasized. The Indians wanted to protect t h e i r way of l i f e from the erosion that had caused i t s near disappearance i n some parts of the region. And, the chiefs became more aware that the DIA was not able to f u l f i l l i t s promise of more l o c a l government f o r the people which, i t was hoped by a l l , -43-would r e s u l t i n better s o c i a l conditions. The personnel of t h i s group are the chiefs and councillors of the bands which were already selected f o r other reasons. They had common problems which meant they were easy to bring together i n spite of c u l t u r a l differences. They were a l l Indians a f t e r a l l which gave them more i n common than any of them had with the white society. Further, the p o l i t i c a l conditions existed f o r the organization's formation. In the 1960s the DIA was not going to fo r b i d the Indians to organize; i n fact the DIA encouraged and i n i t i a t e d the formation of the T r i b a l Council, a l b e i t not i n the form into which i t evolved. The condition of communications between the members gave r i s e to f u l f i l l m e n t of the s o c i a l conditions required for the formation of t h i s i n terest group. Considerable intermarriage takes place between bands of the same c u l t u r a l groupings and between the c u l t u r a l groupings themselves. Young Indians would meet at the St. Joseph's Mission school and then l a t e r meet i n j a i l s , workplaces, stampedes, funerals, weddings and some recreation a c t i v i t i e s , such as hockey and s o f t b a l l . Then as communications improved a greater organizational strength, was possible. People met at the Fish Lake Centre at various t r a i n i n g and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . A Centre newsletter became a ta b l o i d newspaper i n early 1975. More cars and trucks were available f o r t r a v e l . Resource people, including CD s t a f f helped f a c i l i t a t e the transmission of p o l i t i c a l information. -44-The UBCIC, formed i n 1969, played an important role i n the dissemination of information and i n the organization of contacts between a l l the chiefs of B.C. r e s u l t i n g i n a greater awareness of t h e i r own problems. The l o c a l chiefs who were by t h i s time younger, better educated and more able to deal i n the white man's language and ways, were able to quickly learn the potential strength they had by being organized. T r i b a l Council A c t i v i t i e s During the Formative Years The following discussion w i l l deal with the kinds of matters that made up Council business. Some of the more important matters w i l l be dealt with i n d e t a i l . Other things w i l l only be mentioned. Throughout these f i r s t s i x years of the Council's existence the Department became ostensibly more and more committed to permitting bands to administer programs. However, the devolution of administration took place l a r g e l y without regard f o r a requisite amount of t r a i n i n g . Local Government Adviser In order to lessen the dependence on the Department and to enhance l o c a l c o n t r o l , the Council sought to control the f i e l d o f f i c e p o s i t i o n of Local Government Adviser. This p o s i t i o n had to do with the development of the capacity f o r bands to take over programs. DIA had had long enough to t r y to develop t h i s c a p a b i l i t y , now i t was up to the Indian -45-people themselves to control the p o s i t i o n . The p o s i t i o n had been created with a person being selected i n December, 1974, without the CTC being informed. In the view of the Council t h i s issue was t y p i c a l of so many of the dealings and relationships with the Department. According to the Department, at least l a t e r on i n the confrontation that ensued, the p o s i t i o n was described as one of an adviser to the Department on matters of when a band was ready to take over control of a program. Negotiations commenced between the l o c a l DIA Supervisor and the Council over the seconding of the adviser to the bands through the Council. I t was reported to Council that the D i s t r i c t Supervisor agreed. Apparently, either he had the authority to make t h i s decision or he had the approval of the regional o f f i c e . Encouraged, the Council selected one of the community development workers, Ron M i l l s , to become the Local Government Adviser. Then the Department changed i t s mind about the secondment. Who exactly began t h i s reversal process i s unclear. In a l e t t e r to the T r i b a l Council the Regional Director stated that the p o s i t i o n would have to remain a departmental p o s i t i o n , advising the bands on the preparation of budgets and complying with the formalities necessary to secure the orderly release of funds for programs, f o r example, how to f i l l out the proper Band Council resolution. I t was clear that the Department would not allow t h i s p o s i t i o n to be turned into anything resembling a Community Development -46-posi t i o n . I t was unclear how they saw the necessary development taking place among the Indian leadership to take over these programs i f they continued i n s t a f f i n g these v i t a l positions with personnel who d i d not have the confidence of the Indian people. Negotiations had been i n good f a i t h on the part of the Council and therefore i t was not surprising that they were upset at t h i s about-face. The Council then asked for a meeting with the Regional Director, Mr. Wight, from the Vancouver headquarters of the B.C. region, who allegedly was responsible f o r t h i s decision since he wrote the l e t t e r to the Council. Mr. Wight would not attend, but instead sent a senior aide, Mr. Jutras, who was i n charge of the Local Government program fo r the Department. At the meeting i n Williams Lake on March 13, 12 1975, Jutras t o l d the Council that t h i s p o s i t i o n would be one of the very l a s t to be phased out as bands assume more l o c a l control. He r e i t e r a t e d that the o f f i c i a l would advise the Department, not the bands, when the bands were ready to take over a program. I t thus appeared that there was to be no one on the DIA s t a f f who was responsible f o r doing the necessary developmental work. Presumably that was up to the UBCIC meagre CD program. Mr. Jutras went on to say that surely the Council would understand the position of the Department which was that they d i d not want "outsiders" advising the Department about i t s a f f a i r s . He f e l t sure that the Council -47-would not want outsiders advising them. This apparent insider/outsider dichotemy represented the r e a l attitude of the Department, as they seemed to see t h e i r c l i e n t e l e as adversaries. I f the Deparmental o f f i c i a l s d i d not see the bands i n d i v i d u a l l y or the Indian people as a whole as adversaries, then they c l e a r l y saw the a l l i a n c e of bands as a competing force to be reckoned with only i f you could not ignore i t . The Department was seeking l o y a l advice,.something they could only get i f they controlled the behaviour of the Advisers. Somehow that should mean good advice about a band's readiness. The Department was not being l o y a l to i t s c l i e n t s . This i s c l e a r l y a reinforcement of paternalism. The chiefs had been f o r c e f u l i n t h e i r insistence on c o n t r o l l i n g t h i s p o s i t i o n and then i n t h e i r disappointment at the change of heart and mind on the part of the Department. Somehow they were either mislead by incompetence or misled by the constant flu c t u a t i o n of responsiblity f o r decisions within the bureaucracy. Any hope of a rapid transfer of funds was dealt a severe blow and the Department once again reneged on what was perceived to be a promise to the Indian people. A s i m i l a r issue developed with respect to the p o s i t i o n which was already s t a f f e d , that i s the p o s i t i o n of the Band Financial Adviser. The Council d i d not know about t h i s p o s i t i o n being f i l l e d and f e l t -48-they. should have been consulted. The incumbent to the p o s i t i o n proved unsatisfactory to the bands who required the services. The DIA, of course, f a i l e d to see t h i s . The Council then passed a resolution to have t h i s person removed and replaced with someone of the Council's 13 own choosing who would be responsible to the Council. The Regional Director said that the proposal made on t h i s matter was too c o s t l y and that he could not agree with the request. There the matter rested, 14 although at the January, 1975 meeting i t was suggested that a formal delegation meet with the Regional Director on the matter. The Council took the attitude that the cost of a competent f i n a n c i a l adviser was not a consideration, since that was what the Indian people decided they needed and i t was up to the Department to f i n d the funding for such an adviser. The incumbent was released and the po s i t i o n remained u n f i l l e d u n t i l i t was brought up again i n November of 1975 along with the proposal by the Department to est a b l i s h two Local Government Adviser positions i n the DIA Williams Lake o f f i c e . During these two issues the Council became increasingly concerned about the lack of consultation and passed a resolution directed to the Department to the eff e c t that h i r i n g , transferring and f i r i n g of a l l employees would have to be approved by the T r i b a l Council. No reply was received.to t h i s demand. I t had become abundantly clear that i f any progress was to be made towards the rapid devolution of responsiblity to the Indian people and t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s , that -49-key positions i n the Department would have to be controlled by the Indians i n order f o r a clear representation of the Indian p o s i t i o n to be placed before theDepartment. The Department for i t s part persisted i n maintaining that i t needed a monopoly of control on these key p o s i t i o n s , a l b e i t at the r i s k of increasing the f r u s t r a t i o n of the c l i e n t s . To the opposition of the Caribou T r i b a l Council, the DIA's response, which was r e a l l y no response at a l l , was to delay appointment of a l o c a l Government Adviser and of a Band Financial Adviser. The T r i b a l Council d i d , however, win a postponement of the f i l l i n g of these positions. With respect to d i r e c t economic development two planning a c t i v i t i e s were underway during 1974 and 1975 supported by the T r i b a l Council. F i r s t , a proposal f o r an Indian-run sawmill as a complement to Cariboo Indian Enterprises and F i s h Lake t r a i n i n g programs was being developed. Secondly, modelled a f t e r the Indian Fisherman's Assistance Plan, the i n t e r i o r Indians with UBCIC assistance proposed a Ranchers and F r u i t Growers Assistance Plan (long term, low interest loans and grants). The proposal was sent to the Minister who sent the group back to the drawing boards. While neither actually died, after the r e j e c t i o n of funds, they were put on i c e , as i t were, only to be reactivated l a t e r . In recognition of the importance of economic development, the T r i b a l Council decided that the t h i r d , and vacant, Community Development p o s i t i o n , would be f i l l e d w ith someone capable of a s s i s t i n g bands i n economic development matters such as these two. -50-The Land Claim A second important issue that confronted the Council was the land claims. This claim i s more than j u s t a claim to ownership of lands i n addition to the e x i s t i n g reserves. I t i s b a s i c a l l y a claim to 15 Aboriginal Rights and Native T i t l e to a l l of the lands i n B.C. not ceded by Treaty, as w e l l as the recognition of the need for compensations for past trespasses and guarantees of future shared resource use agreements and revenue sharing. The Indian people do not seek to have t h e i r T i t l e and Rights recognized only to have them extinguished. Rather they wish these Rights to be recognized i n perpetuity. In addition the land claim i s a statement about c u l t u r a l s u r vival and the guarantee of an economic subsistence i n a mode chosen by the Indian people. I f previous i n t e r i o r Indian organizations lacked a p o s i t i v e program of s o c i a l development Cas was suggested about the I n t e r i o r Confederacy by the Hawthorn report), then t h i s Council was beginning to evolve such a p o l i c y which could be considered the basis of a socio-economic program. With the assistance and leadership of the UBCIC the Council began to a s s i s t the bands i n land claim work, both research and action. Such a p o l i c y held the hope of the survival of and restoration of t r a d i t i o n a l livelihoods which would ensure economic su r v i v a l along side the more rapacious culture of the white society. -51-The approach to the Land Claim by the UBCIC had evolved from a f a i r l y l e g a l i s t i c approach which was d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible f o r the Indian leaders to comprehend to one of c u l t u r a l s u r vival based on a p o l i t i c a l mobilization around the issues related to t r a d i t i o n a l native use of the land and i t s resources. This s i g n i f i c a n t evolution meant that more than j u s t UBCICs lawyers and researchers could p a r t i c i p a t e i n actions to resolve the issue. Through the l a n d d a i m research centre and program of the UBCIC, the Council had a land claim worker attached to the D i s t r i c t . While he took some of the basic t r a i n i n g and was a l o c a l Indian person, he d i d not maintain contact with the Council and i t s constituent bands. He was questioned by a member of the Council and i t was determined that he was not going to do the job as arranged, f o r personal reasons. There was much work to be done since most of the Indian people and some of the chiefs d i d not know what the land claim was a l l about, to say nothing of how they might organize to resolve the issue. While one or more workers were necessary to a s s i s t i n dealing i n the language and terms that would be understood by the governmental representatives and the other c i t i z e n s of the province, i t was also essential to use the information that the elders of the bands had. The Band Council had, by design and by constant paternalism over the years, been reduced to r e s t r i c t i n g the scope of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s to accord with programs offered by the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and to a struggle to survive day-to-day. So f o r the land claim to become a part of the Band Council's -52-function meant that there would have to be an education and development process at v i r t u a l l y a l l l e v e l s of Indian organization. While the Union of Chiefs were organizing and t r a i n i n g workers, at least one community had begun a long process of r e s i s t i n g encroachments on t h e i r community and i t s economic base. When the forest industry of Quesnel began to stretch further west i n planning the logging of the Blackwatef River watershed, the Nazko and KLuskus people, with the help of t h e i r community development worker, i n i t i a t e d contacts with a myriad of agencies and departments i n an attempt to f i r s t secure a moratorium f o r a f i v e year period and to then co-operate with the logging industry on the development of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l areas. This strategy of following the "proper channels" proved to be f r u i t l e s s so when the bulldozers started to push the road i n behind the v i l l a g e of Nazko, the people put up a human blockade. The D i s t r i c t Council had supported the e f f o r t s of the Nazko and KLuskus ^ bands and also supported t h e i r blockade through the representation of the chairman of the Council and others from other bands. These two bands were l a t e r supported by the Council's Executive Committee when they met with Mr. Williams, the Minister of Lands § Forest Resources. This incident resulted i n a three month moratorium on development. More importantly i t indicated that the p o l i t i c a l consciousness of at l e a s t one of the bands had reached a l e v e l where they could confront forces opposed to t h e i r interests and use t a c t i c s of c i v i l disobedience -53-to the government and i t s c l i e n t s , the i n d u s t r i a l concerns, as a defence of t h e i r aboriginal r i g h t s . The fact that a moratorium had been declared by the Minister of Lands and Forests indicated to other bands that they could stop development. I t was also a learning process which concluded i n an understanding that the "proper channels" of p e t i t i o n , l e t t e r s , phone c a l l s , would not r e s u l t i n any action on the part of the au t h o r i t i e s , at lea s t action which would bring the pa r t i c u l a r issue closer to resolution i n a manner acceptable to the Indian people. The NazkO and Kluskus people were successful i n securing some funds from the federal government to do the i n i t i a l study to back t h e i r claim and to put f o r t h a proposal that would meet the interests of the parties concerned. The study team was headed by Walt Taylor who had worked on land claim a c t i v i t i e s i n the U.S., James Bay, and 17 i n Northern B.C. When the i n i t i a l study was presented and while an answer was awaited from the Minister of Lands and Forests Walt Taylor was selected by the Council executive and the Land Claims Centre of UBCIC i n December 1974, as the D i s t r i c t Land Claims Research Co-ordinator. In J u l y 1974, previous to the acq u i s i t i o n of a s t a f f member to work f u l l time a s s i s t i n g the bands who were ready to proceed with land claim action of one sort or another, the UBCIC and T r i b a l Council c a l l e d f o r the establishment of land claim committees for each of -54-the bands. ± 0 This action meant that the resource people of the T r i b a l Council would a s s i s t the Band Councils i n the creation of these committees and the T r i b a l Council would help i n the education of these committees on matters related to the larger issues involved -h i s t o r y , the law, actions i n other areas of Canada. Some bands, but by no means a l l , created committees to begin the c o l l e c t i o n of records and 'data' from o l d people. The Fish Lake Centre resources centre assisted with the c o l l e c t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e . At t h i s same meeting the Council agreed that a 'professional' should be hired who would t r a i n an Indian from the d i s t r i c t . However, information was not r e a d i l y transformed into action. Progress on the development of land claim by the bands was indeterminate during the period from summer 1974 to the spring of 1975. Nazko and Kluskus were s t i l l awaiting a response from t h e i r proposal which i n part c a l l e d f o r an extension to the moratorium. In the process of developing an awareness and strategies for band councils, the T r i b a l Council held a general f i r s t workshop for a 19 week i n February, 1975 including topics such as l o c a l government, economic development, s o c i a l services and land claims. Members of the UBCIC land claims research s t a f f and the cut-off lands committee were present. Land claims were the subject of the UBCIC conference i n Terrace on A p r i l 3, 1975. The Indian "leaders unanimously agreed -55-to press f o r settlement of aboriginal t i t l e as t h e i r f i r s t p r i o r i t y " . Ten of the f i f t e e n bands of the Williams Lake D i s t r i c t were represented at t h i s meeting. The chiefs agreed to discuss aboriginal t i t l e with t h e i r bands and to report back and continue discussions l a t e r i n A p r i l . 2 1 P a r t l y out of concern f o r the lack of response by the P r o v i n c i a l Government to the NazkO-KLuskus study Report No. 1, the Council decided to meet with Mr. Williams on A p r i l 18 when he was i n Williams Lake to speak with the representatives of the forest industry on matters of concern to the companies. They had to demand a meeting by sending a threatening note to Mr. Williams. I t i s interesting to note that Doug Hance, manager of Cariboo Indian Enterprises was not permitted to enter the meeting, as he was not a member of Cariboo Lumber Manufacturers' Association, the host organization. Mr. Williams met with the chiefs fo r a short time that evening and agreed to meet sometime i n June with the Council. He also agreed that there would be no further encroachments on "undeveloped crown land" u n t i l he had met with the 22 Council i n June. About t h i s same time, by way of an u n o f f i c i a l l e t t e r from the band land claim worker, the Anaham band had intimated that the band could not be responsible for what might happen to men : and equipment on the road that was being b u i l t into the Palmer Lake area and which threatened the hunting areas of some band members. The government stopped the development on the basis of a l e t t e r from one of the Councillors of the band. Subsequently, a new chief of the band allowed development to proceed. -56-When the construction of a logging road threatened the meadows and 23 hunting and f i s h i n g areas of the A l k a l i Lake band i n early May, the Band Council issued a Declaration of Independence on May 14, 1975, signed by a majority of band members layin g claim to 100 square miles of t e r r i t o r y surrounding the reserves of the band. "The Declaration" c i t e d the dependence on DIA and the trespass on native t e r r i t o r y as causes of the s o c i a l conditions of the band. Therefore, a greater measure of s e l f - r e l i a n c e , by way of rej e c t i n g services and control of DIA, was seen as an immediate objective. They declared any in t r u s i o n as an unlawful act. This was not to be the band's whole land claim, but i t represented a s t a r t by stopping further direct encroachments on the closest of the t r a d i t i o n a l land. The Minister of Lands and Forests had said there would be no further developments u n t i l he met with the chiefs. The band seriously questioned h i s word, and so moved u n i l a t e r a l l y , declaring i t s independence i n the same s p i r i t as the Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs had moved i n the r e j e c t i o n of Indian A f f a i r s funding j u s t three weeks before. There had been a T r i b a l Council meeting on May 13 and 14th, however, the chief d i d not bring up the matter f o r either comment or support. Band autonomy means that the bands can act independently i n cases such as t h i s knowing i m p l i c i t l y they have the support from other bands. But t h i s action d i d have implications f o r the T r i b a l Council. The declaration was to go into e f f e c t on June 1. Mr. Williams i n a phone c a l l to Chief Chelsea of the A l k a l i band said that he would refuse to meet -57-with the other chiefs " i f the A l k a l i Lake Band holds to t h e i r Declaration 24 of Independence". Feeling that the gun was put to h i s head the chief agreed to hold o f f on forcing the issue u n t i l the meeting with Williams on June 19 and 20. The band did act with the assistance of the land claims worker of the T r i b a l Council. In general t h i s was the kind of work that such a worker would be expected to do and would not need the d i r e c t i o n of the T r i b a l Council. The ground rules of t h i s sort of action were w e l l known and agreed to among the current leadership i n the area. This action came at a time when the Nazko-KLuskus band was s t i l l waiting f o r a reply to i t s proposal and so the A l k a l i band r e a l i z e d i t would have to act d i r e c t l y , not bothering to go through the 'proper channels'. An act of c i v i l disobedience now rendered inoperative a machine used i n building the road and l e d the logging company to remove i t s equipment, thus heightening the concern of the Forest Service and the companies. The chief then began negotiations with the economic interests effected, the logging companies and the ranchers whose grazing areas were involved.He had hoped to e f f e c t a solution to the c o n f l i c t of interests which would ine v i t a b l y occur before he met with the Minister. The other component to the declaration was the demand f o r 1,000,000 doll a r s f o r the purchase of a sawmill and logging equipment as p a r t i a l reparation f o r resources extracted i n the past. Subsequently, the chief agreed i n discussion with other c h i e f s , that any meeting wi t h the Minister would involve the T r i b a l Council. -58-A second workshop, t h i s time exclusively on the topic of land claims was held during the four days p r i o r to the meeting with Mr. Bob Williams. I t provided an opportunity for a synthesis of positions on the part of the bands who attended. The results of the meeting with Mr. Williams served to further heighten the awareness of the leaders that progress i n land claims settlement was not to be ra p i d , but rather d i f f i c u l t . Williams would not give the committment that settlement of the issue would precede further logging development. At least two of the c h i e f s , those from A l k a l i Lake and Toosey stated on no uncertain terms that they would permit no roads through t h e i r areas. When the Minister f i n a l l y did meet with the Council on June 20', he stated c a t e g o r i c a l l y that he had not come to t a l k about land claims as that was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a committee of cabinet; he had come e s s e n t i a l l y to f i n d a way for the government to accommodate the wishes of the Indian people 25 i n allowing the large-scale development of "crown timber". This meeting was h i s t o r i c i n that i t was the f i r s t time according to Mr. Williams (andhot denied by the Indian c h i e f s ) , that a Minister of the resources department had come to meet o f f i c i a l l y with the Indian people. Mr. Williams said i f he could not f i n d an accommodation that would permit logging to continue, then "that's that". That was that; he di d not f i n d a way and the chiefs were dissappointed at a reaffirmation of the seeming lack of genuine willingness on the part of the p r o v i n c i a l government to negotiate, or even move towards negotiations with acts of good f a i t h , as they had i n the - 5 9 -case of the cut-off lands when they had given back a token amount of land to the bands involved i n the lands cut o f f by the McKenna-McBride Commission i n 1916. In summary, then, the land claims a c t i v i t i e s were followed through at the D i s t r i c t l e v e l by the T r i b a l Council, those a c t i v i t i e s having been i n i t i a t e d on a province-wide basis by the UBCIC. Some bands were moving qui c k l y , two as early as 1973 with the help of a Community Development worker on s t a f f of the Union. Others moved independently with l i t t l e assistance of professional workers. Each a c t i v i t y seemed to follow a learning experience associated with the Nazko-KLuskus study and blockade. In the o v e r a l l perspective, i t seems that there was a move towards a moratorium on further resource development i n order f o r the Indians to develop either counter or j o i n t proposals f o r a type of development that would respect the ecology and the way of l i f e i t supported as seen by the Indians as b e n e f i c i a l to t h e i r people's future. With the r e j e c t i o n of funding, and a massive concentration of a c t i v i t y at the T r i b a l Council l e v e l on the subject of negotiations with the DIA f o r the transfer of funding, the a c t i v i t i e s became no more than a t r i c k l e where once there was a stream. Community Development The purpose of Community Development CCD) i s e s s e n t i a l l y the development and communication of information with the intent of mobilizing community - 60 -members to take some action which the leaders f e e l i s necessary f o r the w e l l being of that community. The a c q u i s i t i o n of Community Development s t a f f was d e f i n i t e l y a milestone i n the development of the T r i b a l Council. The CD program was i n i t i a t e d 26 by the Department of Indian A f f a i r s i n 1962, but according to the analysis by the President of the National Indian Brotherhood, George Manuel, the Department f a i l e d to follow through with the r e q u i s i t e economic development. The UBCIC took over the program under d i r e c t -funding from Indian A f f a i r s i n Ottawa i n 1971 and hired the f i r s t worker i n the Williams Lake d i s t r i c t , Brendan Kennedy. While his work centred p r i m a r i l y around Nazko, h i s efforts, on behalf of the band had d e f i n i t e s p i l l over effects f o r other bands, as he would often accompany the chiefs to the UBCIC meetings and other meetings and afterward give advice where i t was requested on what might be done on these matters which were discussed. He was also present at the T r i b a l Council meetings when various matters were discussed, often being asked to prepare the information f o r the discussions. In 1973 two more positions were created and f i l l e d although the chiefs could keep only one of the positions f i l l e d , the one for a worker assigned to the C h i l c o t i n people, Ron M i l l s ; the Shuswap one being u n f i l l e d most of the time. (Technically Ron M i l l s ' p o s i t i o n was part of the Community Family L i f e Education program operated by UBCIC, but funded by the Medical -61-Services Branch of the Department of National Health and Welfare.) While the development of the T r i b a l Council was only incidental to the tasks of a s s i s t i n g communities, the workers r e a l i z e d as did the chiefs that some stronger p o l i t i c a l voice was necessary i n addition to the mere exchange of information or the completion of some basic tasks f o r the bands themselves. For instance, any program that the band wishes to take over requires considerable background discussion and work. Much of t h i s r e s p o nsiblity f e l l to the CD workers. They also assisted where necessary i n the operation of the band elections. The l i s t of tasks i s endless. Some of them can be very s p e c i f i c and, on the surface at l e a s t , not d i r e c t l y r e l ated to mobilization. An i n d i c a t i o n of the importance attached to the CD program was the fac t that i n March of 1974, the Council decided to take over the CD program with seven workers to be hired who would work under the di r e c t i o n of the Council. This proposal was put forward j u s t before the Regional Director of Indian A f f a i r s and h i s colleagues advocated to the Departmental executive and Minister that the CD program was 27 a low p r i o r i t y . The reasons were not made e x p l i c i t but the Director did admit to t h i s p o s i t i o n upon questioning at a meeting with the 28 T r i b a l Council some time l a t e r . Given the paucity of funds available f o r t h i s program, other sources -62-were exploited to f u l f i l l t h i s necessary function. In the years 1974 and 1975, i t s demise under the a n t i - i n f l a t i o n axe of the federal government i n l a t e 1975, the Company of Young Canadians (CYC) had several projects i n operation on reserves such as developing co-operative c a t t l e ranches and other social, and economic projects. In fact t h i s program was tapped to re-employ several of the Indian leaders, a chief and a band manager i n p a r t i c u l a r , a f t e r the r e j e c t i o n of DIA funds. A CYC p o s i t i o n was also used to employ one of the CD workers, Ron M i l l s , who became the acting administrator of the T r i b a l Council, Such a c t i v i t i e s as he performed were considered to be consistent with the aims of the CYC. The l o c a l f i e l d co-ordinator of the CYC took up residence at F i s h Lake which served as a useful centre of communications f o r h i s work. Another major influence on the a c t i v i t i e s of the T r i b a l Council and a program coming out of the general educational thrust of the F i s h Lake Centre was the funding of two native outreach workers for the 29 D i s t r i c t . Funded by the Department of Manpower and Immigration f o r the purpose of extending employment related services into the community to counsel and motivate those people who might ordinarly not a v a i l themselves of the services of the Manpower Centres. In the case of native communities, Outreach attempts to place people i n educational opportunities, some of which are available at the F i s h Lake Centre, and i n jobs. The two workers divided the area for convenience. They often found themselves involved i n community -63-and economic development work. In general, during the formative period and af t e r the r e j e c t i o n of funding, these two workers, along with the other resource people working either at Fish Lake or f o r the bands, provided the Indian people and t h e i r leaders with information about the Department and about the Indian movement. In the eyes of the. leaders a d i r e c t relationship exists between employment or gainful existence and the land claim and community development. I f the acq u i s i t i o n of s t a f f was a milestone event i n the evolution of the Council then the decision to run t h e i r own CD program was d e f i n i t e l y another such event. What remains unclear both from the records and from conversations with some of the people involved with the T r i b a l Council i s the connection between community development, economic development and land claims a c t i v i t i e s . While there are obvious theoretical connections and continuums, i t does not appear that the Council i t s e l f had a well-formulated organizing p r i n c i p l e behind these a c t i v i t i e s . Perhaps such a p r i n c i p l e or strategy was ju s t beginning to happen when the re j e c t i o n of funds occurred thus throwing energy into the d i r e c t i o n of closing down the DIA o f f i c e and taking over i t s programs. -64-Pro grams Being prim a r i l y a communication, developmental and p o l i c y body, the Council never a c t u a l l y ran a program as such by handling the service, h i r i n g the employees and paying the b i l l s and then accounting for the funds expended. Nevertheless, i t has been instrumental i n s e t t i n g up programs. In addition i t has assisted chiefs and band councils i n the implementation of programs. I t has never r e a l l y been intended that the Council would become a service bureaucracy loaded with programs. The leadership and the resource people were aware of what had happened to the UBCIC which, although formed e s s e n t i a l l y to handle land claims, had developed a program capacity and become administration-oriented, rather than developmental. The idea of the Council administering programs was anathema to those who desired band autonomy and decentralization. The Department however, i n s i s t e d on confining the band to being the agent responsible f o r administering programs, given the way the Indian Act presently reads. While i t i s now recognized that bands can delegate t h e i r programs to a D i s t r i c t (Tribal) Council once they have been turned over to the band i t s e l f , t h i s development d i d not take place before the r e j e c t i o n of funds 30 and so f a r has not occurred during the most recent developments. Nevertheless, during discussions both before and after the r e j e c t i o n i t was suggested on several occasions that the Council was prepared to handle programs which would be more e f f i c i e n t l y handled by a large administrative u n i t such as i t s e l f , or programs which the -65-bands were not yet ready to administer because of t h e i r own state of development. Communication In the f i e l d of communications, the Council was involved i n two a c t i v i t i e s . F i r s t l y , i t took over the publishing of Coyoti Prints from the Fish Lake Centre. This occurred at the time of r e j e c t i o n of funds and as the independence movement began to gather momentum. It was necessary to have an organ of communication for disseminating essential news and information about a c t i v i t i e s within and without the D i s t r i c t . I t continued i t s t a b l o i d form ( i t started as a mimeographed publication) and published more frequently during the summer to keep the Indian people abreast of developments i n the struggle with the Department. The c i r c u l a t i o n i s approximately 900. In addition to news, c u l t u r a l items and advertisements f o r courses, etc. are published. Secondly, the Council was holding discussions with representatives from RAVEN (Radio Audio V i s u a l Education Network), the communications organization used e f f e c t i v e l y i n the North and on the Coast among native people. The Council envisaged radio sets on each of the reserve communities to f a c i l i t a t e communications. Since many of the people do not have phones, they r e l y on people t r a v e l l i n g and on "Message Time" on the l o c a l commercial radio st a t i o n which broadcasts messages three times a day to people who cannot be contacted by any other easy method. Probably because of commercial radio's public nature, -66-hardly any important information other than meeting notices are communicated i n t h i s manner. Offers by both the Cariboo Radio Network and the Tribune newspaper i n Williams Lake to run materials prepared by native people regularly went la r g e l y u n f i l l e d . Services During the formative stage of the Council's h i s t o r y , i t discussed ex i s t i n g s o c i a l and physical services to the people. Some of these were housing, l i b r a r i e s , welfare aides, education, water, and manpower programs, (such as Local I n i t i a t i v e s , Local Employment Assistance Program, Opportunities f o r Youth, and Outreach) and the Native Courtworkers Program. One of the f i r s t substantive matters where money was being allocated, on which the Council was consulted by the DIA was the d i s t r i b u t i o n of Community A f f a i r s Capital funds, designated f o r housing, water and sewerage. This budget amounted to $559,000.00 for the f i s c a l 31 year 1975-1976. While the f i n a l authority rested with the Department, i t was nevertheless a small step i n consultation. The Executive Committee made recommendations to the Council i n the f i r s t years, because the Executive Committee could be considered i m p a r t i a l , l a t e r becoming a committee on which no chiefs sat, only former c h i e f s . Then i n 1975, a committee of two chiefs and one band manager was struck to. make these, recommendations to the Department. This committee -67-was to be used again i n the following year. Such a well-intentioned t a c t i c served the cause of disunity among an already divided people because the monies available did not approach the needs of the people. But the chiefs were able to overcome the d i v i s i v e influence by having recommendations made by the committee a f t e r careful review of various bands' needs, sometimes a f t e r an on s i t e inspection of reserves. Now, for the f i s c a l year 1976-1977, the Council has suggested that 32 i t s committee consider a per capita method of a l l o c a t i n g the funds. The committee however deliberated and recommended a modified method used by the bands i n the KamlOops D i s t r i c t . As a general r u l e the i n i t i a t i v e to place these matters on the agenda of the T r i b a l Council was taken by someone or some agency outside the Council. The Council processed the information and made recommendations to whatever authority had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r decisions. The Council was not at a point of developing i t s own programs either f o r i t s e l f or f o r the bands to operate. They r e s t r i c t e d themselves to discussing the implementation and modification of e x i s t i n g programs. On larger issues of p o l i c y such as consultation, devolution of l o c a l government, community development and the land claims, they d i d move towards creating a positivee program of socio-economic development. In summary, then, during the formative years from 1969 to May 1975, a number of changes occurred which d i r e c t l y affected the growing a b i l i t y f o r self-government and heightened a c t i v i t y on the.part -68-of the T r i b a l Council. The chiefs were younger (the average age of the 15 chiefs dropped from 46 i n 1965 to 33 i n 1975) and better educated i n the white man's language and ways, quickly learning how the Department of Indian A f f a i r s operated towards the Indian people. They had, over the years, reviewed many programs and had developed some of t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s such as s t a f f i n g , community development, the Fish Lake Centre, Cariboo Indian Enterprises and land claim a c t i v i t i e s . Relations were developed w i t h the UBCIC making communication and information exchange between Indian people much better than ever before. The UBCIC also connected the leadership with an e l i t e attempt at fostering an Indian movement i n B.C. During th i s period the Council developed plans f o r i t s own cadre of community and economic development s t a f f i n addition to advisers i n s o c i a l service administration and i n land claims organization. The T r i b a l Council took steps to control the a c t i v i t i e s of the Department that had controlled too much of t h e i r l i v e s f o r many generations;' they wanted to be consulted on personnel matters and they wanted to control the important p o s i t i o n of Local Government Adviser and Band Financial Administrator. The Department's response was not encouraging, preferring to move at the slow pace at which i t had been proceeding for many years and to which i t had become accustomed. -69-Qlapter 3 - Footnotes 1. See letterhead of the Council, summer of 1975, and various a c t i c l e s i n Coyoti P r i n t s , the d i s t r i c t newsletter. 2. See Kew, op. c i t . p. 41. 3. Caribou T r i b a l Council (Williams Lake D i s t r i c t Council) Minutes, A p r i l 30, 1975. 4. Minutes of the T r i b a l Council, October 25 and 26, 1974. 5. The re j e c t i o n of funds and the independence movement are the subj ect of Chapter 4. 6. D i s t r i c t Council Minutes. January 30, 31, February 1, 1975. p. 8. 7. Ron had not been formally trained i n CD, but had worked i n the childcare f i e l d f o r about seven years, f i r s t at the Indian Student Residence i n Kamloops, then with youth i n detention schools i n Vancouver. In addition to t h i s experience he had taken several years of s o c i a l science at university. 8. He resigned i n November, 1975 largely because of family pressures to move back to Manitoba. 9. D i s t r i c t Council Minutes, February 1, 1975. 10. For a f u l l e r discussion of the process of c o n f l i c t group formation see R. Dahrendorf, Class and Class C o n f l i c t i n Industrial Society, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1971, pp. 182-89. "Quasi-groups" are not organizations but rather.the basic class out of which organization of an interest group can be expected to form given c e r t a i n conditions. The example used i n t h i s discussion are the French peasants i n the days of Louis Napoleon. 11. Minutes of D i s t r i c t Council, J u l y 27, 28, 1974. 12. Video, Fish Lake Centre, "Jutras Meeting with D i s t r i c t Council, March 13. 1975". 13. Williams Lake D i s t r i c t Council Minutes, March 21, 1974. 14. Williams Lake D i s t r i c t Council Minutes, January 30, 31, February 1, 1975. 15. East Fraser D i s t r i c t Council, "Land Claims Action Proposal", c. 1975, mimeo. This was adopted by the Union of Chiefs to be taken back to the bands for discussion. See also Cummings, P.A., Native Rights i n Canada, Toronto, General Publishing Co., 1972. -70-16. Minutes of D i s t r i c t Council, December 15, 1973. 17. Nazko-KLuskus Study Team, "Report to Nazko and KLuskus Bands of the Carrier Indians", Nazko V i l l a g e miriieo, August 17, 1974. 18. D i s t r i c t Council meeting minutes of Ju l y 27 and 28, 1975. 19. For a report of the workshop, see Coyoti P r i n t s , Vol I I , No. I , (March 4, 1975), and video tapes at the Resource Centre, F i s h Lake on the same subject. 20. Coyoti P r i n t s , V o l . I I , No. I I , ( A p r i l 4, 1975.) 21. This l a t e r meeting, A p r i l 21 to 25 l e d to the re j e c t i o n of funding, not so much for strategic reasons with respect to the land claims but as a protest to the issuance of guidelines f o r the conduct of l o c a l government by the Department. 22. Press release by Williams Lake D i s t r i c t Council of Indian Chiefs, A p r i l , 1975, p. 2. 23. The chief was acting on information given to him by the Planner of the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t who had been consulted about the Forestry's plans. 24. As reported i n Coyoti P r i n t s , V o l . I I , No. IV, (June 4, 1975), and i n interviews with T r i b a l Council resource people. 25. Fish Lake Centre, video, June 20, 1975, "Meeting with Bob Williams". 26. Manuel and Posluns, The Fourth World, op. c i t . , p. 128. 27. Regional Directors of Indian A f f a i r s Conference i n Kingston, Ontario, November, 1974. 28. They were Ray Hance and Frank Supernault. In addition there was a non-status Indian worker, George Keener who, af t e r the re j e c t i o n of a l l government funds by the B.C. Association of Non-Status Indians, was taken onto the project which funded the status workers. At t h i s time status and non-status began to move cl o s e l y together. 29. The administration of funds by an Area Council composed of three of the Shuswap bands w i l l l i k e l y occur i n the near future. 30. For the following f i s c a l year 1976-1977, i t was up to $634,000. 31. T r i b a l Council meeting at Redstone, January 15, 1976. -71-4. Independence and the Rejection of Funds Out of f r u s t r a t i o n with the amount of funds available, the Lakes and Babine D i s t r i c t Councils both rejected t h e i r c a p i t a l projects allotments. In both cases the D i s t r i c t Councils turned back the money because the amounts a l l o t t e d by the DIA simply were not s u f f i c i e n t to r e s u l t i n any meaningful and worthwhile progress being made. 1 These actions triggered an intensive period of reassessment of the d i r e c t i o n p r o v i n c i a l Indian p o l i t i c s had taken. Origins of the Independent Movement In the beginning of A p r i l , the UBCIC held a conference on land claims i n Terrace. That meeting served to give an impetus to the independence movement. F i r s t l y , the Indians r e a l i z e d that programs are used by government to d i s t r a c t from the land claims. Once the land claims are s e t t l e d , native people f e l t they would be able to afford to design and operate t h e i r own programs. Secondly, the Union was under increasing pressure from Red Power and AIM people who said that the UBCIC executive had been preoccupied with w r i t i n g papers on the land claim, instead of taking action; therefore they were threatening more revolutionary action which might end i n bloodshed. Thir d l y , not very much of what was proposed by the Union could be understood by, nor acted upon by the average chief, therefore, those -72-chiefs rejected the Union's l e g a l i s t i c approach to the land claims. Fourthly, there was both confusion and despair at the increasing formality and bureaucratization of the band administration o r i g i n a t i n g with the lack of t r a i n i n g . F i f t h l y , i t was r e a l i z e d that the administration of programs was not the solution to problems whereas c u l t u r a l re-i d e n t i f i c a t i o n through the land claims a c t i v i t i e s were more l i k e l y to solve the problems. S i x t h l y , the UBCIC general membership r e a l i z e d that stopping a l i e n a t i o n of land and resources was the r e a l issue, 3 not settlement. Seventhly, many chiefs were becoming confused with the complexities of the issues as a r e s u l t of the paucity of i n t e l l i g i b l e information. Given these factors, what was to happen at Chilliwack l a t e r that month was not surprising. The Chilliwack Meeting - A p r i l 21 - 25, 1975 Just before the Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs were to meet at Chilliwack i n l a t e A p r i l , 1975, the Department of Indian A f f a i r s issued guidelines (Program C i r c u l a r D series) f o r the administration of funds by Bands. These guidelines were interpreted by the National Indian Brotherhood's Executive Council as an attempted u n i l a t e r a l r e v i s i o n of the Indian Act, to seriously r e s t r i c t the powers of band councils, to transfer r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Indians to other agencies and p r o v i n c i a l governments and therefore 4 i n e f f e c t to subtly implement the White Paper of 1969, and force the band councils to r a i s e t h e i r own taxes. ^ Manuel, the President, -73-recommended that the chiefs follow the lead taken by the chiefs of New Brunswick and re j e c t the P o l i c y guidelines and d i r e c t i v e s , demand that programs continue under previous guidelines and that i f forced to operate under the new guidelines, that the chiefs return a l l program funds including band core funds to the Department. as of June, 1975. Core funds are monies allocated to the basic administration of the band o f f i c e s , including s a l a r i e s to the chiefs and band administrative s t a f f . Manuel also c i t e d the f a i l u r e to negotiate on the land claim issue which involved rentals f o r resources not paid as reason to reject funding. He also stated Programs transferred to band administration have been deliberately programmed to f a i l . The Indian people w i l l never obtain s e l f -r e l i a n c e , self-determination and meaningful social-economic development as long as government o f f i c i a l s i n s i s t on making decisions f o r us, and are callous and insensitive to the r e a l needs of the Indian people. 6 The Union passed the following motion that was to be the surge towards independence: WHEREAS we are t i r e d of Department of Indian A f f a i r s welfare-oriented programs; and WHEREAS the Department of Indian A f f a i r s programs as they currently are w i l l never allow us Native People to gain s e l f - r e l i a n c e and self-determination; and WHEREAS these Department of Indian A f f a i r s programs are used to keep us i n bodage and dependent on and therefore continually manipulated by the Department of Indian A f f a i r s ; THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that a l l D i s t r i c t s take s i m i l a r action to the Lakes D i s t r i c t Council of Chiefs by reje c t i n g t h e i r c a p i t a l projects funds u n t i l such time as the Department of Indian A f f a i r s begins to negotiate on an equal basis with, and with respect to our p r o v i n c i a l and national leaders. -74-The following amendment was added: That the above motion apply to a l l government programs and according to George Manuel's recommendations. 7 Robert's Rules of Order were thrust aside, the West Coast Talking Stick introduced and there was ceremonial dancing. Thus an era of a great leap forward was ushered i n . Cultural r e v i v a l , the recovery of a sense of i d e n t i t y and the unity of a l l B.C. Indians were to be the hopeful underpinnings of p o l i t i c a l organization for t h i s new phase of recovery. This h i s t o r i c decision was taken on A p r i l 23, 1975. The chiefs returned home to t h e i r people and met on A p r i l 28th at a mass meeting at the Longhouse at the Stampede Grounds i n Williams Lake. The implications of t h i s new d i r e c t i o n and the implications of the r e j e c t i o n of funds were discussed. Over 200 native people attended. This turned out to be the largest gathering of Indian people that had ever happened i n t h i s d i s t r i c t and the meeting e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y and unanimously supported the Chilliwack resolution. 8 The next day bands who had not discussed the decision were to meet and report back to the next meeting. The day a f t e r that, A p r i l 30, nearly a l l the chiefs reported to the second mass meeting that t h e i r people generally supported the -75-decision. Two chiefs argued f o r a r e j e c t i o n of a l l government funds. However, the chiefs c o l l e c t i v e l y agreed on rejecting only DIA funds as, i t was argued by the Council's administrator, that other government funds might be used to fund the independence movement. The meeting then decided to celebrate the "independence" by the demonstration and peaceful occupation of the Williams Lake DIA o f f i c e on May 1, the day of Celebration around the province. I t was perceived to be a revolutionary time. Eight months l a t e r some of the high hopes were to be reduced to further feelings of bitterness at the f a i l u r e to secure the rapid transfer of funding by the Department and thus the ushering i n of the next phase of self-determination. What was to have been a casting o f f of a shroud was short l i v e d as the DIA was act u a l l y always determined to dictate the terms of the transfer of authority and the absence of m i l i t a n t determination on the part of the Indian people was to leave no alternative but to play the game of transferring funds by the rules of the powerful. Nevertheless, underlying t h i s t a c i t acceptance of departmental authority i s a deep reluctance to accept the Department 1s authority which may surface i n a new determination to seek recognition of native t i t l e and aboriginal r i g h t s . In the midst of the attempt to take control from the Department, there was another major thrust of the Indian strategy, which was -76-to continue to t r y to s e t t l e the land claims question. In the case of most of the tr i b e s of B.C., the claims had to be developed, and they had just begun. To some t h i s was the r e a l issue and the control of DIA funding was ju s t the means to an end. In the meantime, that i s before resources were returned and compensation f o r past extractions paid, funding was necessary to deal with current s o c i a l problems and to develop administrative c a p a b i l i t i e s to administer the new economic development schemes that might be developed. Indeed some of these economic developments schemes would have to be financed i n i t i a l l y , and that funding could come from current economic development programs of the federal government. While some of the bands, a minority, pursued the resource/land issue, the main preoccupation of the T r i b a l Council was the transfer of departmental programs to the bands or the Council where necessary and desirable. Rejection of funds became the transfer of funds. As of January, 1976, the 9 band councils and i n some cases the new area councils were discussing the p o s i t i o n paper ^ adopted by the annual general assembly of the UBCIC at Kamloops i n November 1975, but few had f u l l y formulated t h e i r positions i n a form suitable for the commencement of any negotiations. Perhaps the notable exception was the Toosey Band's Declaration which l a i d claim to 144 square miles of the C h i l c o t i n M i l i t a r y Reserve which i t was argued could be turned over to the band by a sincere 11 federal government since i t was federal property. -77-Celebration and Strategy The peaceful occupation of the Indian A f f a i r s o f f i c e on May 1, 1975 was w e l l organized. The R.C.M.P. were n o t i f i e d of the fact that the occupation would be effec t i v e between the hours of 8:30 A.M. and 4:30 P.M., and that no drugs or alcohol would be consumed and 12 that no weapons would be carried. The R.C.M.P. i n turn informed the organizers that they would only remove the demonstrators i f the Department was to request them to do so. The Department did not. During the day long occupation some leaders talked about the f a i l u r e s of DIA over the years and about what the closure meant. 13 Others spoke about land claims. Some bands subsequently posted t h e i r reserves with signs which read that no o f f i c a l of the Department was allowed on the reserve unless he had the permission of the band 14 council. DIA personnel were persona non grata. Letters to t h i s effect were sent to the DIA D i s t r i c t Supervisor's o f f i c e . The T r i b a l Council met on May 13 and 14 i n a strategy session. I t was an agenda f u l l of the basic issues confronting the Indian people of the d i s t r i c t . Discussion was open to the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of any interested person, keeping i n s p i r i t with the determination to follow o l d Indian customs f o r meetings rather than the parliamentary procedures associated with the agents of oppression. One of the f i r s t decisions made was that of sending a declaration to the Prime -78-Minister of Canada stating the p o s i t i o n of the Caribou T r i b a l Council on the phasing out of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and turning over the funds d i r e c t l y to the band councils. ^ Decisions were also made at t h i s meeting on, one, sending people to the Court hearing f o r the Chief of the Quesnel band who along with f i v e of h i s band members was charged with f i s h i n g out of season; (aboriginal r i g h t s to food f i s h i n g was an important issue i n the economics of independence) two, forming a Warrior Society, an action group under the d i r e c t i o n of the chief of a band serving as organizers of f i s h - i n s , p i c k e t i n g , demonstrations and other community l e v e l a c t i v i t i e s related to land claims; three, planning a land claims workshop where chiefs would help each other map out a s p e c i f i c claim for each band; four, the transfer of c a p i t a l and revenue funds held i n t r u s t i n Ottawa; f i v e , keeping resource workers on s t a f f ; s i x , the funding of Coyoti Prints as the Council news organ. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that t h i s meeting spent no time dealing with program-related issues, rather i t dealt only with p o l i t i c a l and developmental a c t i v i t i e s . The l e t t e r to the Prime Minister was the most important decision as i t was the f i r s t communication on what was to.become a long and involved prelude to negotiations with the Department for the wholesale transfer of program monies and s a l a r i e s . In part the l e t t e r stated: -79-A f i r s t step . . . f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r Region can be accomplished by the Government of Canada closing down forever the Williams Lake D i s t r i c t Office of the Department of Indian Suppression and beginning to arrange the transfer of the f i l e s to the respective bands and the payment of Indian reparations money d i r e c t l y to the l o c a l leadership of the Chiefs and Councils of the Band i n t h i s region. 16 They further informed the Prime Minister that even i f they were to a l l end up i n j a i l , the people would be exercising aboriginal r i g h t s , e specially hunting and f i s h i n g , i n order to provide f o r the people. Some Characteristics of the Independence Movement The independence movement that was kicked o f f as a re s u l t of the rej e c t i o n of funding had a number of notable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Some of the leaders heralded the c u l t u r a l renaissance which saw the return to the elders, a return to dance, a renewed sharing of wealth and resources (including food), a heightening of s p i r i t u a l i s m , and a respect f o r the voice of women and youth. Leadership sought to broaden i t s base to include more members of the community, hence an emphasis on participatory democracy which the Department never promoted. Staff and chiefs undertook extensive f i e l d t r i p s to f a m i l i a r i z e the Indian people with the movement and the meaning of the Chilliwack decision. PanTndianism was also a feature of t h i s movement, demonstrated by much t a l k of unity with other Indians and much p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s sponsored by other t r i b e s around B.C. F i n a l l y , -80-there was an e f f o r t i n public relations which, was directed to the white townspeople, the p o l i c e , and various i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t , The Williams Lake and D i s t r i c t Labour Council and churches. The l o c a l media were used at least i n the early stages of the movement to put the Indian message across to Indian and non-Indian people a l i k e . During t h i s period a f t e r the declaration of independence, the T r i b a l Council as i t now c a l l e d i t s e l f (to further the Indian i d e n t i t y of the i n s t i t u t i o n ) met more frequently than ever before i n i t s short h i s t o r y . I t met at least once a month and sometimes more, where previously i t had met only quarterly. Much had to be discussed, some things f o r the f i r s t time ever. The period before independence saw the chiefs learning about the ways of the operations of the Department. However that learning d i d not e n t a i l what to do about the prospect of accelerating the a c q u i s i t i o n by bands of programs to administer and salary do l l a r s to spend. Since, as has been stated before, communications are d i f f i c u l t (especially with the Council's headquarters having been moved to F i s h Lake where radio phone i s the only means of communications other than road) , meetings were a necessary means of information dissemination and feedback for decision making. The written word was hardly considered to be a r e l i a b l e enough means. (As a general rule minutes are read out -81-at meetings, even though they are c i r c u l a t e d before hand.) In par t , the task was to b u i l d a movement where none existed before and at the same time b u i l d a regional p o l i t i c a l c a p a b i l i t y that could sustain enough p o l i t i c a l power to ensure that the Department s i t up, take notice and act. That would require a unity of purpose which was to be fostered by frequent meetings of these chiefs who might o r d i n a r i l y never see each other except at these meetings. The key people were the elected leaders. Chiefs had been elected e s s e n t i a l l y to deal with the Department; t h i s they were embarking on i n a scale scarcely i f ever contemplated before. The tasks of organizing the Council's a c t i v i t i e s and implementing i t s decisions were l e f t up to the new administrator. Communications between meetings were maintained with a new fervour with the assistance of the Community Development workers, the Outreach workers, the C.Y.C. workers, and the s t a f f at the Fi s h Lake Centre. Every t a c t i c a l move made by the Council administrator had to be backed up by the chiefs or the Department would probably not l i s t e n . So he and the other resource people spent much time t r a v e l l i n g over the extensive area securing Band Council Resolutions (BCR's) i n support of the major decisions of the T r i b a l Council. While the chiefs were waiting to hear from either the Prime Minister or the Minister of Indian A f f a i r s about the closure of the DIA o f f i c e , -82-the meeting between the T r i b a l Council and Mr. Bob Williams, Minister of Lands and Forests, was looming on the horizon. This meeting was being held at the end of the workshop on land claims. The workshop became an h i s t o r i c event with the chiefs discussing t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l hunting and f i s h i n g areas and confronting the problem of overlapping t e r r i t o r i e s . Where two bands used the same area, as was claimed by the elders, the chiefs agreed to both claim the area i n t h e i r • land claims. The workshop res u l t s were not c h i s e l l e d into stone; rather the effects were inconclusive as f a r as any p a r t i c u l a r claim was concerned. There was l i t t l e doubt, however, that i t served to r a i s e the l e v e l of awareness of those present--some seventy-five people i n all--and l a y the ground work for further elaborations of claims i n the future. As was mentioned e a r l i e r , the meeting with Williams was also inconclusive, serving to point out the adamancy of the chiefs impressing the land claims on the one hand and Mr. Williams' intransigence on the other with respect to refusing to further developments u n t i l a settlement was reached. The T r i b a l Council intimated that "the C h i l c o t i n summer promises "I Q to grow hotter" as a r e s u l t of the meeting with Williams. E a r l i e r i n June, a second occupation of the Williams Lake DIA o f f i c e had taken place, t h i s time organized by a contingent of the B.C. Chapter of the American Indian Movement (AIM). They were determined to press the issue of the need to close down the bureaucracy. They occupied -83-other f i e l d o f f i c e s and then the regional headquarters i n Vancouver. Apparently they had consulted only two of the f i f t e e n bands i n the Williams Lake D i s t r i c t before staging the occupation. While not opposed to the t a c t i c of occupation, the chiefs did not want the action of outsiders to preempt any course of action they wanted to take. In a Council meeting l a t e r that week, i t was decided to allow the o f f i c e to open again. The reasons were not clear. The Council also made i t clear that i f the services of ATM were required they would be so on the terms the Council would formulate. The Minister of Indian A f f a i r s d i d not reply to the declaration to the Prime Minister u n t i l J u l y 7th when he took the occasion to reply to Chief Charleyboy of the A l e x i s Creek Band i n care of the T r i b a l Council. 19 Chief Pat r i c k Charleyboy had written d i r e c t l y to the Minister to r e i t e r a t e the stand taken by the Council, once again urging the closure of the o f f i c e . As you request, I am prepared to close t h i s D i s t r i c t Office as soon as we can arrange with you and the Band Councils f o r the orderly transfer of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and functions to each band . . . I am sending a copy of t h i s correspondence to my Regional Director and he w i l l expect to hear from your Council very sho r t l y , so that the necessary arrangements can begin. 20 The "orderly transfer . . . to each band" was to become the stumbling block i n the months to follow. The words "with you and the Band  Councils" (my emphasis) were ominous. I t was the beginning of -84-the reversal of what was interpreted as a committment to negotiate with the T r i b a l Council as the agent of the bands to a p o s i t i o n of dealing band by band d i r e c t l y Cseen by Indian leaders as divide and r u l e ) . The Minister said i n h i s l e t t e r that he expected the negotiating to be done with the B.C. Regional Director, Mr. Wight, who was located i n Vancouver. The Council created a negotiating committee at i t s meeting of J u l y 30 and 31. This committee was composed of four chiefs and the Council Administrator. Resource people to the committee were the chairman and the two Community Development workers for the D i s t r i c t . They were to work towards the closure date suggested by Mr. Buchanan, October 1, 1975. The Council further decided at t h i s meeting that negotiations should be held with Ottawa, not with the Regional Director. The committee would bargain f o r two l e v e l s of funding: band funding and T r i b a l Council funding, the l a t t e r to include funding the F i s h Lake Centre. They would i n s i s t on the transfer to Indian control of the f u l l budget of the Williams Lake o f f i c e f o r s a l a r i e s and operations and maintenance. A d i s t r i c t workshop was planned to prepare a negotiating package, to which were i n v i t e d various chiefs and resource people, including several resource people not employed by the Council. For the purposes of these negotiations the federal-p r o v i n c i a l Master Tu i t i o n Agreement concerning the education costs of Indian students i n p r o v i n c i a l schools was to be excluded since for the 1975-1976 school year i t would have to be continued as i t -85-was for schooling to take place that year. Some communication breakdown must have occurred, because when the Regional Director, Mr. Wight, was meeting with the negotiating committee of the Thompson-Nicola D i s t r i c t Council, the Caribou negotiating committee who were i n v i t e d as observers asked Wight about negotiations with the Caribou T r i b a l Council, he denied knowledge of the Ju l y 9th l e t t e r from the Minister to Chief Charleyboy and i n s i s t e d on meeting with the bands i n d i v i d u a l l y . He said that he had been operating under instructions from headquarters to deal with ind i v i d u a l bands. The vast majority of the bands c l e a r l y wished to deal with DIA through t h e i r negotiating committee as occurred i n the Thompson-Nicola area. Why the Department could not treat the Caribou T r i b a l Council i n the same way as the Thompson-Nicola was never clear. I t appeared that the Regional Director was playing games with the n i c e t i e s of 21 proper procedure. I t i s unclear whether the Minister's wish was being subverted or whether the management of the issue was simply incompetent. Some of the o f f i c i a l s of the Department claim to be morally and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y incapable of the deviousness that has been attributed to them by the Indian people and t h e i r advisers. Whatever the r e a l reason, the negotiations took a long time to begin. In August and September, o f f i c i a l s said no preparations were being made f o r the negotiations as the RD would handle the negotiations -86-d i r e c t l y and would await the proposal from the Council. I t could wel l be that he expected a l l transfer of funds to take place under ex i s t i n g rules and guidelines. I f that was so then he had not c a r e f u l l y read the reasons f o r the r e j e c t i o n of funding. The Indians wanted funds to be transferred on t h e i r own terms and they expected to negotiate those matters with the Department, for example what form the auditing would take. I t was to be more than j u s t speeding up the process already underway, although i t was that too. One of the concerns of the Minister and h i s o f f i c i a l s were the bands that d i d not f e e l ready to take over programs and therefore might need the services of the Department. The T r i b a l Council had discussed t h i s matter and had created a method to resolve the problem. I t would h i r e personnel on a contract b a s i s , subject to performance (therefore avoiding problems attendant to career personnel) to provide the services under the d i r e c t i o n and supervision of the T r i b a l Council u n t i l such time as the band f e l t ready to be independent. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , bands could seek services d i r e c t l y from the regional o f f i c e of the Department i n Vancouver, although t h i s was not the method suggested by the Council. The f i r s t alternative was unacceptable to the Department p a r t l y because there was a mistrust of the Council's resource people because they were not fo r the most part l o c a l Indians and they d i d not recognize D i s t r i c t or T r i b a l Councils as administrative bodies. The second alternative was not r e l i s h e d since i t meant an increase -87-i n workload on the regional personnel and i n some cases an addition of regional headquarters personnel who were more remote from the bands to replace f i e l d o f f i c i a l s . Throughout t h i s period the Council was strong by v i r t u e of the militancy of some of the c h i e f s , the continuous support by resource people , and the dogged determination on the part of the new T r i b a l Council Administrator who served as spokesman for the Council and who conducted the paper and telephone war. He had been i n the employ of the Council fo r only two months before the r e j e c t i o n of funding. I t i s not c e r t a i n whether h i s r e l a t i v e newness hampered the unity and strength of the Council. The resource people were busy providing part of the necessary communication function. The chairman of the Council had begun a move into the background, having become disenchanted with organizational p o l i t i c s , a move which was to end i n h i s resignation i n the f a l l , f o r e s s e n t i a l l y personal reasons. During the paper war the administrator had c a r e f u l l y recorded a l l actions and correspondence. He sent frequent reminders to the Minister on the lack of progress, suggesting that even heightened militancy lay j u s t beneath the surface. Through the l a t e r part of the month of J u l y and the early part of August, attempts were made to b r i e f the Assistant Director of Indian A f f a i r s and the D i s t r i c t Supervisor on the matter of how the Council wished the negotiations to proceed. While i t had not been discussed personally with Mr. Wight, the Regional Director, i t had been discussed -88-with h i s A s s i s t a n t , Mr. Jutras, who attended the Kamloops meeting with, the Thompson-Nicola D i s t r i c t Council's negotiating committee. He s t i l l pleaded ignorance of the J u l y 7 l e t t e r from the Minister to Chief Charleyboy, almost a month and a h a l f after i t had supposedly been sent as instructions from the Minister to the Regional O f f i c e . I f the Minister and h i s o f f i c i a l s were not engaging i n outright deception, then they were incompetent to a point of being i n a breach of f a i t h serious enough to have the same effects on the Indian people , as deviousness or outright p l o t t i n g . Whatever the Minister's intention of i n s i s t i n g on dealing with the Band Council's i n d i v i d u a l l y i n the Williams Lake d i s t r i c t , he seriously mdermined the s p i r i t and r e a l i t y of unity which the leadership had mustered i n the struggle to take control of t h e i r own a f f a i r s . In the i n i t i a l stages meetings wi t h the Regional Director had not gone w e l l fo r the Thompson-Nicola Council. The s i t u a t i o n prompted a telegram from the Caribou negotiating committee to the Minister on August 1 which stated i n part: In view of f a i l u r e s to reach settlement with Thompson-Nicola and Kootenay-Okanagan, the Caribou T r i b a l Council see ho reason to begin discussion with Wight. 23 The telegram went on to say that they wished to meet d i r e c t l y with Mr. Buchanan i n order to resolve the issue causing the breakdown. -89-The p o s i t i o n of the Council was that the organization and maintenance budget and sala r i e s i n the D i s t r i c t Office were "Indian monies" and should be turned over to the bands or the Council for t h e i r control. Beginnings of Disunity During t h i s waiting period almost four months a f t e r the declaration of independence, the new chief of the largest band i n the D i s t r i c t , the Anaham band of the C h i l c o t i n s , seceded from the a l l i a n c e . In 24 a l e t t e r to the Administrator of the T r i b a l Council, Chief Maxine Mack wrote that at a Band Council meeting i t was decided to break o f f connections with the T r i b a l Council i n order to manage t h e i r own a f f a i r s . No funds were to go from the band coff ers, he s a i d , to the Fi s h Lake Centre since, he alleged that the band received l i t t l e benefit from the Centre. The chief was mistaken about these funds, since the band would have had to successfully apply f o r funds to e s t a b l i s h a c u l t u r a l education centre of i t s own. Since they did not they only prevented funds from going to the Fish Lake Centre. He further charged that some of the resource people were a source of annoyance to members of the band. Copies of the l e t t e r were sent to the Minister and o f f i c i a l s i n the Department. S p e c i f i c a l l y the chief stated -90-We want to continue our own development and growth separated from leadership and control from the Fish Lake Centre.... We want to b u i l d up our own business (ranching) and be under our own control - separated from any supervisory body l i k e the T r i b a l Council. 25 Im p l i c i t i n the l e t t e r was a sense that independence from the Department was an objective as w e l l , but there was l i t t l e evidence to that ef f e c t i n the months to come. On in s t r u c t i o n from Council members, Somerville r e p l i e d and rebutted the misunderstandings and allegations i n the l e t t e r s . E s s e n t i a l l y he r e p l i e d that Fish Lake had i n fact benefitted many members of the Anaham band and that the T r i b a l Council was not a supervisory body and therefore d i d not threaten band autonomy. Perhaps the Council 1s posture was too r a d i c a l f o r the new chief who had l i t t l e experience conducting band a f f a i r s . To make things worse, there were allegations that there were i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the e l e c t i o n of the new chief which resulted i n many members of some families not voting. Some evidence indicates that the new chief and council were part of a reactionary coup on the reserve. There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y that the chief was influenced by some of the white professional people on the reserve, who had vested interests i n the established order, f o r instance the teacher, h i s wife and the p r i e s t . They were known not to be on good terms with the Community Development worker f o r the C h i l c o t i n people. What did not s i t w e l l with the other chiefs was the fact that the chief d i d not hold a band meeting to decide on h i s major move i n t h i s regard, whereas -91-other chiefs a l l held band meetings during t h i s time to determine the w i l l of the people. To t h i s point,. there were a few confused bands who f e l t they might 27 not be able to go i t alone r i g h t away, and therefore were leary of casting o f f DIA, but were generally i n accord with the Council's posi t i o n . However, the remainder of the chiefs were able to maintain a loose a l l i a n c e i n order to push t h e i r p o s i t i o n during the pre-negotiation phase. The secession of the Anaham band dealt a severe blow to unity and months l a t e r was s t i l l used by the Department as cause to undermine the majority p o s i t i o n of the T r i b a l Council as a representative voice of the Indian people i n the region. Seasoned observers and participants i n Council a c t i v i t i e s agree that the s p i r i t of unity of the T r i b a l Council was severely affected. As of January, 1976, fourteen of the f i f t e e n bands had sent Band Council Resolutions supporting the continued funding of the Fish Lake Cultural Education Centre. Yet the Assistant Deputy Minister of Indian A f f a i r s , Mr. Lesaux could telegram the Centre and state that due to opposition by bands that funding would be discontinued. So f a r as the Centre ever knew only one Band Council ever at any time withdrew i t s support from the Centre. I t would appear that at t h i s time that a combination of the fact that a small minority of bands were not f u l l y behind the Council -92-and the o l d resentments by the Department towards the non-native resource people became an effec t i v e raison d'etre for the insistence on dealing band by band rather than with the T r i b a l Council; even though i t was clear that through one form of communication or other, be i t telegrams, signatures on the declaration to the Prime Minister or l e t t e r s , that two thirds of the Band Councils supported the po s i t i o n of the T r i b a l Council. In the words of one of the c h i e f s , "the Department i s resentful of the people who work for us because they are doing exactly what the Departmental o f f i c i a l s should have been doing a l l along." 28 29 The ominous words alluded to above became more blatant as the Minister wrote to Chief Charleyboy (this time not to the Council) on August 12 sending copies to the Council since Charleyboy i n s i s t e d that he do so, I have asked my f i e l d o f f i c i a l s i n B.C. to arrange for meetings on t h i s matter with each band i n the Williams Lake D i s t r i c t . These discussions should give the in d i v i d u a l band members an opportunity to voice t h e i r opinions. 30 Then on the f i r s t of September as the T r i b a l Council was awaiting confirmation of a meeting w i t h Mr. Wight, Les Healy, a Special Assistant to the Minister r e p l i e d to a l e t t e r from Chief Myers of the Stone band. Chief Myers had i n s i s t e d on negotiations s t a r t i n g with the Council. Healy's l e t t e r said -93-In order to insure that whatever i s done r e f l e c t s the wishes of the community, i t i s necessary f o r the Band members to vote to decide whether or not they want t h e i r c hief and Council to assume greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r needed services. 31 In essence the Department had interpreted the rapid devolution of program r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as being consistent with t h e i r stated objectives on l o c a l government for the Indian bands of Canada. Under the Act, apparently a l l the Department needed was the appropriate i n s t r u c t i o n by way of Band Council Resolutions. Was t h i s requirement for a vote by the band membership a new departure? Or was t h i s j u s t a p o l i t i c a l ploy on the part of a wounded bureaucracy? Evidence available indicates that most of the bands had held meetings anyway to.discuss the myriad of issues associated with the independence movement and therefore i f the Band Councils d i d not have power already as elected representatives then they were given a popular mandate and delegated the authority as a r e s u l t of these band meetings. The Department could hardly retreat from the p o s i t i o n of majority of band rule f o r dealing with each d i s t r i c t as they had i n Thompson-Nicola, then retreat to requiring n o t i f i c a t i o n d i r e c t l y from each Band Council supporting the Council's move, and then f i n a l l y requiring f u l l band meetings. Nothing but s t a l l i n g f o r time was to be gained by the Department appealing above the heads of the elected leaders d i r e c t l y to the Indian people. Now those governments created by the Department to deal with Indian people were acting against the Department's interest of s u r v i v a l and the Department wanted to change the ground rules. -94-A f t e r Mr. Wight's denial of knowledge of the J u l y 7 l e t t e r , the administrator wrote a long l e t t e r explaining a l l the steps and reviewing a l l the correspondence that had been exchanged since early May. The suspicion grows that D i s t r i c t , Regional and Ottawa personnel of the DIA have taken advantage of our placing f a i t h i n your good intentions and have interpretted our reasonableness as weakness to be exploited. Mr.Minister, unless you correct the s i t u a t i o n s w i f t l y , the good f a i t h w i l l be short c i r c u i t e d , and the rumblings of militancy w i l l become a r e a l i t y . I f t h i s should happen do not come out i n the media-with statements that you w i l l not negotiate under m i l i t a n t pressures and action. 32 This information was communicated to Mr. Wight along with a copy of the July 7 l e t t e r . Somerville was careful to keep the Conservative opposition c r i t i c and N.D.P. leader informed about what had transpired. He also sent copies to the N.I.B. president and the M.P. for the area. These communications do not appear to have helped move the wheels of power, but i n the event of a confrontation may have served to demonstrate the v a l i d i t y of the Indian's cause. A telegram from the Minister on August 29 to the members of the negotiating committee indicated that negotiations were proceeding with the Thompson-Nicola and Okanagan-Kootenay regions and that i t was necessary for the bands to negotiate with the regional and d i s t r i c t o f f i c i a l s who would be responsible f o r implementing any 33 administrative arrangements made. For over a week the administrator, Dave Somerville, had sought to secure a meeting date for the meeting with Wight. -95-Just before t h i s telegram, the chiefs learned that Wight had planned a tour of the area to:meet with bands. The A l k a l i Lake band had i n v i t e d the Caribou T r i b a l Council to meet with Mr. Wight when he had planned to meet with the band on September 3. Wight cancelled h i s v i s i t but f a i l e d to n o t i f y the band. The day of the meeting, the Chief (Chelsea) phoned Wight and was informed that he was not available. He was connected with an o f f i c i a l at least two l e v e l s below Wight i n the hierarchy. When the chief was not getting any answers to when a meeting with the Council might be held, he suggested that perhaps the only way to obtain a meeting would be to occupy the o f f i c e , Wight cut into the telephone conversation to say that an occupation would not be necessary. The Council had intended to surprise the Regional Director with t h e i r presence and demand that he recognize the p r i n c i p l e of negotiating with the representat of the majority of the bands. I t appeared that Wight was avoiding the issue. This incident of the planned surprise was the only occasion of a devious t a c t i c on the part of the T r i b a l Council during the whole period of t h i s study. Because of the misunderstanding as to the insistence that the meeting be held d i r e c t l y with the bands, the Minister sent a l e t t e r on September 4 i n which he said: -96-In my l e t t e r of Ju l y 7 I assumed the majority of bands i n the Williams Lake D i s t r i c t wished the D i s t r i c t Office closed. However, information that has subsequently reached me suggests that some of the bands are not yet ready to dispense with the service supplied by that o f f i c e . I t i s for that reason that I have asked the Indian A f f a i r s s t a f f i n B.C. to meet with each of the 15 bands to determine t h e i r wishes f i r s t hand. I w i l l be guided by the resu l t s of those meetings. I have no objection to Mr. Wight meeting with your executives as you suggest, provided t h i s does not interfere with the band meetings I have requested. 35 It was t h i s question of the majority of bands which from the standpoint of the Department seemed to be i n question. The o r i g i n a l declaration to the Prime Minister had been signed by nine of the f i f t e e n c h i e f s . Mr. Buchanan had received a copy of that declaration. The administrator contended that ten chiefs had signed telegrams to the Minister i n mid-June confirming the p o s i t i o n of the Council. A l e t t e r from the Regional Planner, A l a i n Cunningham, to Somerville said that the three telegrams indicated only s i x signatures, since some were duplicated. Later, however, he had admitted that another telegram was found. Wight had not even received these from the Minister -u n t i l much l a t e r - af t e r the meeting which f i n a l l y took place on September 17. The o f f i c i a l s were s p l i t t i n g h a i r s . Perhaps copies of a l l correspondence emanating from the T r i b a l Council should have been sent to Wight; however, i t might be expected that the in t e l l i g e n c e system and the communication system might be better than i t was during a time as c r i t i c a l f o r both the Department and the Indian people. As a r e s u l t of a f a i l u r e to secure a date fo r the meeting and having phoned the Minister's o f f i c e and Regional o f f i c e d a i l y (and on some -97-days, hourly), the administrator prepared a thorough chronology i n a l e t t e r o u t l i n i n g the attempts made and suggested that the chiefs were weary of the run-around and " I f meaningful negotiations do not begin soon, Williams Lake DIA o f f i c e w i l l be closed by occupation" That l e t t e r was not sent because Wight telephoned to arrange a meeting for September 17, i n Williams Lake. Then the same contents were 37 sent i n a l e t t e r the day before Wight was to meet with the Council i n order to serve notice of the f r u s t r a t i o n f e l t by the c h i e f s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , the negotiating committee who had been delegated the unenviable task of conducting these t a c t i c s . Other chiefs were busy hunting, f i s h i n g , and haying, as the season for haying had been wet delaying the harvesting u n t i l l a t e summer and early f a l l . Progress Outside the Williams Lake D i s t r i c t The UBCIC held several meetings of the Council of chiefs (composed of one representative from each of the f i f t e e n d i s t r i c t s i n B.C.) and a general assembly i n an attempt to c l a r i f y the p o s i t i o n of the Union and to d i r e c t i t s energies towards the land claims a c t i v i t i e s and settlement. The Union bowed out of the f i g h t over the r e j e c t i o n of funding. Within a month or two of the A p r i l 23rd decision the vast majority of the provinces' native peoples, i n f a c t , some twelve of the f i f t e e n d i s t r i c t s , decided to stay with the Department and receive i t s services. Three d i s t r i c t s , including the Caribou T r i b a l Council, held f i r m on t h e i r commitment to close down the DIA o f f i c e i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t . Councils were now l e f t to t h e i r own strategies. -98-In the meantime, the Union f e l t land claims were the important issue 38 and so set i t s e l f up exclusively as a land claim centre and lobby, and sought to unify status and non-status Indian people of the province by conducting negotiations with the B.C. Association of Non-Status Indians (BCANSI). Throughout the summer there were several a l l -Indian conferences as c u l t u r a l happenings. Representatives went to a l l of these from the Caribou D i s t r i c t but none of them had any d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l impact on the Council's attempt to negotiate the transfer of funds. This i s not to discount the i n d i r e c t e f f e c t of the moral support that they engendered f o r pro-independence a c t i v i t i e s . Some of the leaders found these as a source of strength when the unity of the Council was being eroded by delays and by the secession from the Council by the Anaham band. The fact that progress was f i n a l l y being made i n the area immediately to the south, i n Thompson-Nic o l a , was s i m i l a r l y a source of strength and encouragement to the chiefs and people i n the Caribou D i s t r i c t . Meeting with the Regional Director A meeting date, September 17, was f i n a l l y confirmed for Mr. Wight to meet with the T r i b a l Council negotiating committee. The meeting was held i n Williams Lake on neutral ground. The spokesman for the Indians, Administrator Dave Somerville, opened the meeting with a quotation from a speech by the Governor-General of Upper Canada i n 1854: -99-The time has arrived when the machinery so elaborately devised with the object of protection may be modified i n some d e t a i l s ; i f the c i v i l i z i n g process to which the Indians have been subject for so many years has been accompanied by success, they surely by t h i s time would have arrived at a s u f f i c i e n t l y enlightened condition to be emancipated from the state i n which they have been" maintained THE ORIGINAL INTENTION NEVER CAN HAVE BEEN TO RETAIN THIS PEOPLE IN A STATE OF PERMANENT MINORITY AND TO REGARD THEM AS UNFIT TO ASSUME RESPONSIBILITIES WHICH MUST SOONER OR LATER DEVOLVE UPON EVERY MEMBER OF A COMMUNITY. 39 Obviously, 121 years was long enough f o r the chie f s . Mr. Wight was informed i n no uncertain terms that he was not to set foot on any of the reserves represented at that meeting. Eight bands being represented by c h i e f s , a ninth band having a delegate present. Eight was at l e a s t a slim majority represented at that meeting. Mr. Wight seemed to get the message when he was asked i f he would meet f o r serious negotiations or would the o f f i c e have to be closed by occupation. He r e p l i e d that the Minister should be given the chance to close i t the "nice way". Then he agreed to meet with the Council i n mid-November to discuss a po s i t i o n paper. With that commitment, the chiefs then decided to accept interim 40 funding f o r bands and the Fish Lake Centre from the Department thereby l e g i t i m i z i n g the keeping open of the o f f i c e i n the meantime. However, the Council held to i t s p o s i t i o n of majority decision and i n s i s t e d that Wight would not be welcome on any of the reserves represented by the Council. -100-The meeting was closed, not by threats, but by a short speech by the dean of the c h i e f s , the former chairman of the Council, Doug Hance. He said simply that Mr. Wight should go back to h i s superiors and suggest that they improve t h e i r attitude towards the Indian people. They should i n e f f e c t begin at long l a s t to l i s t e n to what the Indians were saying, and act on that advice. Mr. Wight put h i s understanding of the meeting on record i n a l e t t e r addressed to a l l chiefs and councillors i n the D i s t r i c t Comments from chiefs representing eight bands suggested they would l i k e to see the Williams Lake D i s t r i c t Office closed i n the near future. We understand that t h i s important matter w i l l be discussed by a l l bands at forthcoming workshops and Band meetings. I am looking forward to discussing the future delivery of programs and services to your members i n greater d e t a i l at the meeting planned i n November. 41 While there s t i l l may have been misunderstandings, both parties seemed to agree that they could proceed u n t i l the next meeting. The impasse was temporarily removed. Planning: The November Workshop As the workshop was being planned and papers delegated to various resource people a dispute with the Department developed about DIA funding the workshop. The Council maintained that the workshop was consultation, or at least preparation f o r consultation, or perhaps -101-t r a i n i n g , money for both being available i n DIA budgets. As i t turned out the Department said i t was not consultation since no departmental personnel were to be present; nor was i t t r a i n i n g as there were no DIA personnel present f o r doing the t r a i n i n g . At two points at least there had apparently been commitments to fund the workshop and the submission of a budget was apparently a l l that was needed. Because of these d i f f i c u l t i e s , the workshop was postponed twice, taking some of the already dying momentum out of the Council's a c t i v i t i e s . The b a l l had now been thrown to the chiefs and t h e i r resource people to come up with a package f o r negotiations. For two weeks before the workshop, the administrator had been away from the d i s t r i c t pursuing job opportunities back i n Manitoba since his family was desirous of returning whence they had come. His absence was a c r i p p l i n g influence on the preparation of the package since he was to co-ordinate i t s preparation f o r the chiefs. Then at the workshop he resigned, e f f e c t i v e immediately. He was replaced pro tern by one of the Community Development workers, Ron M i l l s . The co-ordination and planning of the workshop, then f e l l into the hands of one of the c h i e f s , Ray Hance, who resides at F i s h Lake and who was on salary as an Outreach worker. By the time the workshop took place, only one paper was ac t u a l l y presented i n written form, others were given o r a l l y . The workshop saw much information presented -102-often f o r the f i r s t time about the extent of expenditure by the DIA on behalf of the Indian people i n the d i s t r i c t . The turn out was small. For what was to have been a seminal e f f o r t to design the future of l o c a l government, the p a r t i c i p a t i o n was disappointing. At the end of two days there were s t i l l only seven chiefs present. There was a handful of observers from bands and from the white community. One thing became c l e a r , much had to be discussed before the Council would be ready to meet with the Regional Director. As the workshop wound up, the resource people were instructed to prepare a written submission with recommendations which would be cir c u l a t e d to a l l bands f o r decisions at a l a t e r time. These papers were on the following subjects: l o c a l government land management economic development education housing, community improvement s o c i a l services In spite of i t s lack of o v e r a l l success i n achieving i t s objectives, the workshop was a big step forward f o r some of the chiefs who attended. As one observer pointed out during the workshop, "there's a l o t of growth going on here". Proposals were made on several subjects i n the form of alternatives which ranged from a "do nothing approach" -103-to "do everything immediately". In terms of an approach to p o l i c y -making the Council made a major step i n formulating alternatives. T r i b a l Councils and Area Councils As the summer progressed and the r e a l i t y of l o c a l government on a d i f f e r e n t scale began to sink into the minds of those associated with the T r i b a l Council. Now an idea spread, slowly at f i r s t , that there may be other forms of p o l i t i c a l cum administrative organizations other than that which was developing i n the form of the T r i b a l Council which covered the large area and the three c u l t u r a l groupings. A r t i c l e s appeared i n Coyoti P r i n t s on the subject of the Council, what i t was, and what i t could do. There were other models to look at. Immediately to the south of the Caribou area, an inter-band a l l i a n c e i n the Nicola V a l l e y formed an administrative u n i t , the Area Council, f o r the purpose of operating programs but c e n t r a l i z i n g the administration of them f o r the bands i n the M e r r i t t area. While the subject of d i f f e r e n t or modified organizations d i d not surface formally on the agenda of the T r i b a l Council u n t i l the November workshop, the Area Council would come up i n conversations with resource 42 people and chiefs. The administrator, who had considerable experience i n Manitoba with Indian organizations, wrote the following i n an a r t i c l e i n Coyoti -104-P r i n t s : The closing of the DIA o f f i c e i n Williams Lake w i l l not mean that a l l the programmes w i l l be handed over to the Caribou T r i b a l Council administration. As we break with the DIA past we s h a l l be developing our own system of strong l o c a l government. As t h i s takes place, the form of the a l l i a n c e c a l l e d the T r i b a l Council w i l l be worked out more formally... the T r i b a l Council i s not a supervisory body. I t i s an a l l i a n c e of Bands working i n co-operation and unity; how i t functions i s determined by the leadership of the bands that belong to the a l l i a n c e . 43 At the November workshop, no discussion took place about the future r o l e and constitution of the T r i b a l Council. Area Councils were discussed. As was reported a f t e r the workshop, There was a good deal of discussion on the idea of forming Area Councils as a more e f f i c i e n t way to take over the controls and funds from DIA and an opportunity f o r those bands who have more i n common to group together and to work together while s t i l l maintaining a D i s t r i c t T r i b a l Council f o r the larger issues to be dealt with. The consensus reached was that forming Area Councils was a good idea and i n the long run a stronger and more workable way to take control now held by DIA from the bands. 44 One of the chiefs who had made considerable progress both i n the take over of programs before the r e j e c t i o n of funds and i n evolving a land claim indicated that he could not wait f o r a l l the chiefs to be ready to move; because that might take a long time. Therefore, he was anxious to form a Shuswap Area Council i n order to h i r e the expertise necessary to develop a c a p a b i l i t y to take over education, to mention one matter at lea s t . This chief and others involved i n the Shuswap area had v i s i t e d the Nicola V a l l e y administration i n M e r r i t t , at the suggestion of Alan Haig-Brown, the D i s t r i c t Education -105-Co-ordinator, which served as a model of bands co-operating administratively through the Area Council. I t operated as a kind of a federation for p a r t i c u l a r purposes. So i n January 1976,after introductory meetings the Shuswaps as a nascent Area Council hir e d a consultant to begin the development process leading towards the take-over of education funding. The three chiefs involved met weekly as of January, 1976. The two other Shuswap chiefs were i n v i t e d to meetings but were not active participants 45 i n the education discussions. The C h i l c o t i n chiefs met i n January, at t r a c t i n g to. one of t h e i r meetings the chief of the defected Anaham band. They i n v i t e d the nearby Ulkatcho Band of C a r r i e r s , but they did not attend. At the second meeting, a pro tern administrator was appointed and proposals were asked f o r on structure and functions of an Area Council. Then i n February, the band manager of the Nazko band c a l l e d a meeting of the Carrier people to discuss the formation of an Area Council f o r the northern part of the D i s t r i c t . Previous to t h i s , about a year before, there had been a Pan-Carrier meeting c a l l e d further north to discuss the c u l t u r a l bonds of a l l the Carrier people. At that time the NazkO people who attended considered that they would be further ahead i f they stayed with the rather more developed Caribou T r i b a l Council, which i s not to say that they would not develop further c u l t u r a l t i e s with the other Carrier people as time progressed. -106-This exploration of area Councils as a new form began to happen i n earnest when the bands were faced with the need to h i r e expertise and to begin to take over and administer large numbers of programs. I t also happened at a time when negotiations to transfer funds had not taken place and energies were being dissipated. One could not help wondering i f these new p o l i t i c a l forms were r e a l l y developmental devices rather than administrative vehicles. While based i n the f i r s t instance on geographical l i n e s , there was a general c o r r e l a t i o n of the area to c u l t u r a l groupings. For the Carriers and the C h i l c o t i n s , the prospect of a c u l t u r a l l y based un i t held the hope of dealing with matters i n the native tongue, rather than the English which they had to use at T r i b a l Council meetings. The Shuswaps who were not so fortunate, as most of them had not been able to preserve t h e i r language, took English as the common language. An advantage equally compelling to that of administrative e f f i c i e n c y and effectiveness was the opportunity that culturally-based organizations would permit p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the elders who were so important to t r a d i t i o n a l t r i b a l a c t i v i t i e s , but who could not understand English. Evolving DIA Strategy: Training f o r Local Government As negotiations were approaching i n the l a t e f a l l , the Regional Director assigned a trusted aide, A l a i n Cunningham, the Regional Planner, to meet with various bands and with T r i b a l Council representatives -107-i n what appeared to be hopes of improving the i n t e l l i g e n c e fed into the regional o f f i c e . Presumably, p a r t l y as a r e s u l t of t h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e , the RD formulated a strategy on how matters were to proceed, even before the Council had prepared i t s package f o r the negotiations. Just as the workshop got underway, Wight wrote to the Chiefs and Councillors on the subject of accelerating the transfer of l o c a l government to the bands: The foremost objectives of the Department are not d i f f e r e n t from yours i n t h i s regard. I now wish to present a plan of action which I hope w i l l meet with your needs i n establishing responsible l o c a l government at the community l e v e l . I must stress that the l e g a l relationship between our department and the Indian bands i s of fundamental importance and w i l l be maintained. Wight proposed: f i r s t l y , that two Local Government Advisers and a Band Financial Adviser be placed i n the Williams Lake o f f i c e ; secondly, that intensive t r a i n i n g commence f o r councillors and s t a f f ; and t h i r d l y , that l o c a l government agreements be entered into by the Department and a l l the bands i n the region to insure the transfer of programs i n an "ordinary manner". He said that "agreements w i l l embrace p r i n c i p l e s of sound l o c a l government which we hope w i l l a s s i s t bands i n meeting t h e i r objectives." He went on to say that the f i e l d s t a f f would no longer "provide p a t e r n a l i s t i c services 47 which band administration can provide to t h e i r members". -108-T r i b a l Council Response While s t i l l t r y i n g to c o l l e c t a l l the information for a negotiating package, the Council's next step was to c a l l a meeting to discuss the contents of Wight's l e t t e r with him. The meeting was set f o r 48 December 4th. Due to inclement weather, Wight could not attend the meeting. Ten chiefs attended. Two others, the chiefs of Anaham and Ulkatcho, were i n Williams Lake but did not attend when they learned Wight was not going to be there, apparently not wishing - to l e g i t i m i z e the Caribou T r i b a l Council as a forum representing them. The Council, at i t s meeting, rejected the proposals and passed the following resolution: (We) Do hereby resolve: that although the Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs i s no longer concerned with the re j e c t i o n of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s , the following bands, although we are presently accepting interim funding from DIA, we hereby reaffirm our pos i t i o n to re j e c t DIA controls but that we wish i n no way to jeopardize the righ t s of other bands i n t h i s D i s t r i c t who request Department of Indian A f f a i r s services. 49 This resolution was signed by the chiefs of A l k a l i Lake, Canoe Creek, Canim Lake, Toosey, Quesnel, Stone, A l e x i s Creek, Nazko, Kluskus and Williams Lake - ten bands i n a l l . The Council also unanimously passed a resolution demanding the removal of two of the Williams Lake DIA s t a f f - the economic development o f f i c e r responsible f o r ag r i c u l t u r a l projects and the s o c i a l services o f f i c e r - and t h e i r replacement immediately with personnel acceptable to the T r i b a l Council. There was agreement to r e t a i n the present D i s t r i c t Supervisor, -109-Mr. Underwood, as long as the o f f i c e was open. The Council then resolved to send a delegation to meet with Wight to discuss the Council's counter-proposal. That proposal was, i n essence, that f i v e Local Government Advisers selected by and under the control of the T r i b a l Council be placed i n the area, but funded of course by the Department. Reaffirmation of the Department's Position As a r e s u l t of the meeting which took place i n Wight's o f f i c e i n Vancouver between Wight and a small delegation from the T r i b a l Council -one chief and two resource people - Wight issued a l e t t e r to a l l bands stating that i t was not possible f o r him to provide funds through the T r i b a l Council f o r the f i v e Local Government Advisors l o c a l government i s not a transferable program and f o r the programs that are transferable, funds can be made available only to Bands and hot to Area Councils, D i s t r i c t Councils or T r i b a l Councils. 50 However, he d i d concede to permit a Council representative to form part of the selection committee f o r the positions he proposed, a small concession considering the scope of the Council's demands. He then added that he would have a t r a i n i n g o f f i c e r a s s i s t i n the development of t r a i n i n g programs f o r the bands' potential s t a f f people. He also agreed that there were some unfortunate delays -110-i n processing Band Council Resolutions requesting funds i n the regional headquarters. Some delays, he s a i d , were a r e s u l t of s i t - i n s i n the o f f i c e and bands being l a t e sending i n audits f o r previous funds. The b a t t l e i n the ongoing struggle had been l o s t , a f a m i l i a r story. I t remained clear that the Department would u n i l a t e r a l l y decide who was ready when for more autonomy. The idea that t h i s decision should be made by the people themselves was not accepted by the Department. So the confrontation had become a series of skirmishes which the Council d i d not win. Then the Department reverted to i t s p o s i t i o n which i t held before the declaration of independence and the r e j e c t i o n of funds. The only changes were that they now added one more Local Government Adviser and seemed to be w i l l i n g to enhance the band t r a i n i n g program. Presumably, the t r a i n i n g program was available to the bands e a r l i e r , but not as available as i t was now purported to be. I t , too, had strings attached. I t was not to be held at the Fi s h Lake Centre, allegedly because the 51 Department was no longer funding the Centre. L i t t l e d i d i t matter that the available d o l l a r s would go much further and reach more 52 native people than i f sessions were held i n Williams Lake. The Department would decide who would do the tr a i n i n g so i t was l e f t up to bands to come up with s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g proposals. The T r i b a l Council expressed displeasure at the Department's recalcitrance i n face of the l o g i c of holding the t r a i n i n g at Fish Lake, but i n the hope that some good would come out of the t r a i n i n g , there the matter rested. - I l l -Chapter 4 - Footnotes 1. Lou Demerais, Memorandum of UBCIC to a l l bands, "Rejected Capital Project Funds - Lakes and Babine D i s t r i c t s " , March 27, 1975. 2. This summary anaysis of the UBCIC Terrace Conference was made i n written comments on an early draft of t h i s thesis by Brendan Kennedy who has been a close observer and participant i n UBCIC and Nazko-KLuskus a c t i v i t i e s since 1969. 3. This r e a l i z a t i o n came nine months af t e r the NazkO blockage of the logging road. 4. Minister of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, "Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian P o l i c y , 1969". 5. George Manuel, telegram to Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs, A p r i l 23, 1975. 6. Manuel telegram, A p r i l 23, 1975. 7. Minutes, A l l Chiefs Conference, Chilliwack, A p r i l 23, 1975. For interpretation see UBCIC " B u l l e t i n " , A p r i l 30, 1975. 8. Coyoti P r i n t s , V o l . I I , No. I l l , (May 21, 1975), p. 6. 9. Area Councils are discussed as a new form of Indian r e g i o n a l / t r i b a l organization on pages 87-90. In ef f e c t they are at present federations of bands f o r s p e c i f i c administration purposes, f o r example, education programming. 10. East Fraser D i s t r i c t Council, "Land Claim Action Proposal", mimeo., November, 1975. 11. Toosey Band 12. L i l a S e l l a r s , l e t t e r to Williams Lake Detachment of R.C.M.P., May 1, 1975, witnessed by Frank Supernault and Rick G i l b e r t . 13. "DIA Occupation", F i s h Lake Centre video, May 1. 14. For instance, the Sugar Cane reserve of the Williams Lake Band. 15. Caribou T r i b a l Council Minutes, May 13, 14, 1975. 16. Chiefs of the Caribou T r i b a l Council, l e t t e r to.P.E. Trudeau, Prime Minister Canada, May 13, 1975. -112-17. I am indebted to Brendan Kennedy, who observed t h i s movement from a vantage point I d i d not have and who described the movement . for me i n some h e l p f u l comments on the draft of the thesis. My own observations and those of others would corroborate h i s perceptions. 18. Caribou T r i b a l Council, Press Release, June 20th. 19. Patrick Charleyboy has apparently made 51 unsuccessful t r i p s over 100 miles of rough C h i l c o t i n road to discuss a band ranch proposal for DIA funding as an economic development project. He was, understandably, frustrated. 20. J . Buchanan, l e t t e r to Patrick Charleyboy, J u l y 7, 1975. 21. D. Somerville, Council Administrator, l e t t e r to J . Buchanan, Minister of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, August 22, 1975 i n which Somerville l i s t s the chronology of events as the Council sought to eff e c t negotiations with the Department and the Regional Director. 2 22. Interviews with Elmer Derrick, an o f f i c i a l i n the Vancouver Regional Office of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s i n September, 1975 and E r i c Underwood, Williams Lake D i s t r i c t Supervisor, August, 1975. 23. Caribou T r i b a l Council, telegram to J . Buchanan, August 1, 1975. 24. Maxine Mack, l e t t e r to D. Somerville, August 20, 1975. 25. Maxine Mack, l e t t e r to D. Somerville, August 20, 1975. 26. Somerville, D., l e t t e r to Maxine Mack, Anaham Band, August 28, 1975. 27. In p a r t i c u l a r the Ulkatcho and Alexandria bands. 28. Rick G i l b e r t , Williams Lake Band Chief, October 30, 1975. 29. See page 83. 30. J . Buchanan, l e t t e r to Patrick Charleyboy, August 12, 1975. 31. L. Healy, l e t t e r to Tony Myers, September 1, 1975. 32. D. Somerville, l e t t e r to J . Buchanan, August 22, 1975. See Appendix I. 33. J . Buchanan, telegram to D. Somerville and Chiefs Hance, Chelsea, Charleyboy, and G i l b e r t , August 29, 1975. -113-34. D. Somerville, l e t t e r to L. Wight, August 22, 1975. 35. J . Buchanan, l e t t e r to D. Somerville, September 4, 1975. 36. D. Somerville, draft l e t t e r to J . Buchanan, not sent because Wight had phoned to arrange a meeting f o r September 17 i n Williams Lake. 37. D. Somerville, l e t t e r to Buchanan, September 16, 1975. 38. See Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs, " B u l l e t i n " , A p r i l 30, 1975. 39. Quoted i n Coyoti P r i n t s , V o l . I I , No. 9, (October 21, 1975) 40. Cultural Education Centre funding came d i r e c t l y from Ottawa. 41. L. Wight, l e t t e r to a l l chiefs and c o u n c i l l o r s , September 19, 1975. 42. One source indicates that the Area Council idea was introduced by Alan Haig-Brown formerly a teacher at Stone and A l k a l i reserves and currently the f i r s t D i s t r i c t Education Co-ordinator of Indian Education employed by the Williams Lake School D i s t r i c t by special arrangement with the p r o v i n c i a l Department of Education. 43. D. Somerville, "The T r i b a l Council", Coyoti P r i n t s , V o l . I I , No. 9, (October 21, 1975), p. 2. 44. R. M i l l s , " T r i b a l Council Workshop", Coyoti P r i n t s , V o l . I I , No. 10, (November, 1975), p. 7. 45. There i s a note i n the T r i b a l Council Minutes of October 25, and 26, 1974 about an attempt by Chief Charleyboy to c a l l a meeting of a l l the C h i l c o t i n Chiefs. 46. L. Wight, l e t t e r to a l l Chiefs and Councillors, Williams Lake D i s t r i c t , November 12, 1975. 47. Loc. c i t . 48. Aeroplanes were not landing at Williams Lake as there was a severe snowstorm. 49. Caribou T r i b a l Council Minutes, December 4, 1975. 50. L. Wight, l e t t e r to a l l bands, December 19, 1975. 51. According to E r i c Russel, DIA Training O f f i c e r , at the Caribou T r i b a l Council meeting of January 15, 1976. 52. The Fish Lake Centre had audio-visual equipment and a projection room. In addition family accommodation was available as many band members are unwilling to leave t h e i r families f o r more than a few days. To accommodate them i n Williams Lake would be p r o h i b i t i v e l y expensive. -114-5. Conclusion I t has been found that the Indian leadership of the Williams Lake D i s t r i c t have attempted to maintain a p o l i t i c a l a l l i a n c e of chiefs and band councils f o r which there i s no h i s t o r i c a l precedent. In f a c t , f o r many years a f t e r contact with the white man, these tri b e s remained s e p a r a t i s t i c . The Chilcotins and Shuswaps were never f r i e n d l y ; some of these h o s t i l i t i e s remain. In general, the fact that three d i s t i n c t c u l t u r a l groupings reside i n t h i s D i s t r i c t means that any great degree of p o l i t i c a l cohesion i s u n l i k e l y except at the T r i b a l l e v e l , that i s between bands of the same c u l t u r a l group. The imposed c o l o n i a l system of l o c a l government has kept the bands separated p o l i t i c a l l y under the Indian Act. The l o c a l government structure i s inadequate to the needs of people with respect to resource management. Previous Indian organizations i n the i n t e r i o r of B.C. have not been successful i n establishing a p o l i t i c a l force. However, following an ideology of self-determination of native people, the DIA i n i t i a t e d a D i s t r i c t l e v e l consultative mechanism f o r i t s own purposes which evolved into a viable organization, the Caribou T r i b a l Council. As the structure of the CTC evolved with the creation of various committees, i t served as a more eff e c t i v e forum for the discussion of common problems and the resolution of these problems. Despite -115-the lack of strongly i d e n t i f i e d leadership r o l e s , more and more matters were brought before the Council. Nevertheless, i t remained a f a i r l y informal organization. Two major i n i t i a t i v e s were taken, the Cariboo Indian Enterprises logging operation i n 1971 and the Fish Lake Cultural Education Centre i n 1973. I t became clear that i f the bands were to control t h e i r a f f a i r s they would need to be able to control positions i n the Department that d i r e c t l y affected them. Two positions i n p a r t i c u l a r , that of the Local Government Adviser and the Band Financial Adviser were deemed important; since bands had to be prepared to handle funds. In the confrontations which ensued the DIA withheld f i l l i n g the positions i n the Williams Lake o f f i c e ; but they would not turn these positions over to the bands through the T r i b a l Council. I t was the p o l i c y of the Council that a l l h i r i n g , transferring and f i r i n g of DIA f i e l d personnel had to be approved by Council. The Department di d not recognize t h i s demand. In order to enhance s e l f determination, the Council resolved to acquire s t a f f and e s t a b l i s h a D i s t r i c t Administrative centre i n Williams Lake. Thus i t was a s i g n i f i c a n t step when they hired an able administrator who would co-ordinate a c t i v i t i e s of the T r i b a l Council and i t s s t a f f ; and i n i t i a t e p o l i c i e s and programs. The development of a counter-bureau to the DIA promised to strengthen the technical c a p a b i l i t y of the organization to deal with the DIA. -116-The CTC was d e f i n i t e l y taking the i n i t i a t i v e and the DIA was reacting. Unfortunately, too much of t h i s i n i t i a t i v e rested with the administrator and not enough with the chiefs of the Council. Just as a T r i b a l Council e l i t e of resource people and organizers was being established, the UBCIC moved to re j e c t government funds from the DIA i n favor of a mass movement towards independence of the Indian people of B.C. and independence to be made possible by the land claim. What was to have been the rej e c t i o n of funds i n favor of greater s e l f - r e l i a n c e became f o r the CTC a declaration to the Prime Minister that the DIA f i e l d o f f i c e should be closed down and the budget turned over to band councils to administer. At the same time the independence movement, characterized by c u l t u r a l r e - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , was to be organized. However, the abortive attempt to secure negotiations with DIA on the transfer of funds seemed to exhaust energies available for the movement. The DIA refused to acknowledge a majority positon of the T r i b a l Council. The Department used the defection of one band and the equivocation of two others as an excuse to hold up negotiations. Even as the T r i b a l Council was, i n good faith., developing a p o s i t i o n paper, having secured the agreement to negotiate, the DIA returned to i t s strategy of establishing f i e l d o f f i c e positions of the Local Government and the Band Financial Advisers, only t h i s time increasing the complement of these people and suggesting a DIA controlled t r a i n i n g program. They permitted a CTC representative -117-to s i t on the selection committee. In the meantime the DIA i n Ottawa had cut o f f funds to the Cultural Education Centre which was important to many of the c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s involved with the independence movement and as a t r a i n i n g centre. While there was a heightened awareness of the problems besetting the Indian people i n t h e i r dealings with the government, the Indian bands and the CTC were maneuvered back to a point where they were before the re j e c t i o n of funds. There was a temporary slow down of land claim actions; however, early i n January, 1976, the Toosey band l a i d claim to the federal m i l i t a r y reserve on which the Fish Lake Cultural Education Centre was located, thus ind i c a t i n g that the land claim a c t i v i t i e s are very much a l i v e . J Thus the independence movement d i d not i n t h i s short space of time achieve a l l i t s goals. However, at least one c u l t u r a l grouping, the Shuswaps have made s i g n i f i c a n t progress i n c o n t r o l l i n g education through t h e i r nascent Area Council. I n i t i a t i v e had returned to the DIA as f a r as control of funds was concerned, although s p e c i f i c bands retained the i n i t i a t i v e concerning c u l t u r a l and land claim issues. -118-I t i s speculation what w i l l happen, but i t seems that the c r e d i b i l i t y of the T r i b a l Council as a u n i f i e d p o l i t i c a l force equal to that of the Department has been diminished. What may well occur i s a development of a confrontation s i m i l a r to that of May, 1975, evolving out of the a c t i v i t i e s of the Area Councils as they go through the preparation f o r program con t r o l , and,the unknown eff e c t of the land claim action proposal 1 and the r a i s i n g consciousness of the Indian people about the land and future c u l t u r a l s u r v i v a l . I t may w e l l be that the only hope rests i n s h o r t - c i r c u i t i n g the Department and i t s "program" view of the world and eventually displacing i t with a program of the Indian's own design, as they evolve an alternative strategy to survive based on the s p i r i t of independence and an increased s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . They can never win the struggle by playing by the rules of the p a t e r n a l i s t i c Department. I t knows i t s own rules w e l l and i s masterful at interpreting i t s custodial r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s under the Indian Act. The r e a l desired changes that the Indians want i n terms of freedom of action o u t s t r i p the current p o s s i b i l i t i e s under the Indian Act. Had there been a combination of good intentions and competence i n adapting the wheels of bureaucracy to the expressed needs and wishes of the Indian c l i e n t e l e the Department would have seized the opportunity to gain a large step forward i n i t s ostensible goal of allowing -119-independence to develop among the people. Instead the incompetence and intransigence caused a di s s i p a t i o n of energy so v i t a l to that movement towards independence. On the other hand, the confirmation of the Department's p a t e r n a l i s t i c approach may just cause a further increase i n f r u s t r a t i o n which i n turn w i l l unite the people once again against a common enemy: the DIA. In the words of one of the resource workers: There i s no question that the o l d CD days are gone. Basic awareness to varying degrees i s present i n each community. Now t r a i n i n g i s the issue. The next one w i l l be l o c a l government, which d i r e c t l y could r e - v i v i f y the land claims movement. 2 Above a l l , the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i s not s t a t i c . -12GV Conclusion - Footnotes 1. East Fraser D i s t r i c t Council, "Land Claim. Action Proposal" date, c i r c a . November, 1975, adoped by the UBCIC. 2. Comment by Brendan Kennedy i n notes on draft of t h i s paper -121-BIBLIOGRAPHY I Manuscript Sources A. Correspondence A l k a l i Lake Band, signed by 40 band members and Chief and Council, l e t t e r to Whom i t May Concern, "Declaration of Independence of the A l k a l i Lake Band", May 14, 1975. Buchanan, Judd, l e t t e r to Charleyboy, P a t r i c k , J u l y 7, 1975. Buchanan, Judd, (signed by Les Healy), l e t t e r to Charleyboy, Patrick, August 12, 1975. Buchanan, Judd, telegram to Somerville, D., August 29, 1975. Buchanan, Judd, l e t t e r to Somerville, D., September 2, 1975. Buchanan, Judd, (signed by Healy, Les), l e t t e r to Somerville, D., September 4, 1975. Caribou T r i b a l Council, l e t t e r to Prime Minister of Canada, May 13, 1975. Caribou T r i b a l Council Negotiating Committee, telegram to Buchanan, Judd, August 1, 1975. Caribou T r i b a l Council, l e t t e r to Larry Wight, December 4, 1975 and Wight, Larry, l e t t e r to A l l Bands, December 19, 1975. Chambers, Fred, l e t t e r to Williams, Bob, June 19, 1975. Charleyboy, P a t r i c k , l e t t e r to Buchanan, Judd, J u l y 17, 1975. Charleyboy, Pat r i c k , l e t t e r to Buchanan, Judd, September 4, 1975. Cunningham, A., l e t t e r to Somerville, D., September 22, 1975. Demerais, Lou, l e t t e r to Chief Dennis P a t r i c k , March 27, 1975. Demerais, Lou, UBCIC memorandum to A l l Bands,"Rejected C a p i t a l . Project Funds - Lakes and Babine D i s t r i c t s " , March 27, 1975. Hamilton, M i l l i e , l e t t e r to Chiefs Patrick and Boyd, May 12, 1975. Hardcastle, W.G., l e t t e r to Somerville, D., Ju l y 25, 1975. Harry, I r v i n e , l e t t e r to F i r s t C i t i z e n Fund Advisory Committee, no date. -122-Healy, Les, l e t t e r to Myers, Tony, September 1, 1975. Leseaux, P.B., telegram to Harry, I r v i n e , December 10, 1975. ' Mack, Maxine, l e t t e r to Somerville, D., August 20, 1975. Manuel, G., telegram to Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs, A p r i l 23, 1975. McGilp, J.G., telegram to E l i , Mary, August 7, 1975. M i l l s , Ron, l e t t e r to A l l Band Councils and Resource Workers,December 18, 1975. Myers, Tony, l e t t e r to Buchanan, Judd, J u l y 18, 1975. Pyper, J.F., l e t t e r to Harry, I r v i n e , February 4, 1975. Pyper, J.F., l e t t e r to Somerville, Dave, June 16, 1975. Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to L e v i , Norman, A p r i l 22, 1975. Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to A l l Chiefs, May 17, 1975. Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to A l l Chiefs, May 29, 1975. Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to A l l Chiefs, June 6, 1975. Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to Prime Minister of Canada, June 16, 1975. Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to Buchanan, Judd, June 22, 1975. Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to A l l Chiefs, J u l y 14, 1975. Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to Mack, Maxine, Ju l y 14, 1975. Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to A l l Chiefs i n T r i b a l Council, August 4, 1975. Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to A l l Chiefs i n T r i b a l Council, August 9, 1975. Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to Buchanan, Judd, August 22, 1975. Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to Wight, Larry, August 22, 1975. -123-Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to A l l Chiefs i n T r i b a l Council, August "25, 1975. Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to Mack, Maxine, August 28, 1975. Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to Buchanan, Judd, August 29, 1975. Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to Buchanan, Judd, September 11, 1975, (not sent, draft only). Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to Buchanan, Judd, September 16, 1975. Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to Buchanan, Judd, September 22, 1975. Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to Local I n i t i a t i v e s Program, September 30, 1975. Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to Wight, L., October 1, 1975. Somerville, Dave, l e t t e r to A l l Chiefs i n the Caribou T r i b a l Council, October 30, 1975. Stern, Michael (White B u f f a l o ) , l e t t e r to Somerville, D., June 18, 1975. Toosey Indian Band, Statement to Prime Minister Trudeau, June 6, 1975. Wight, L.E., l e t t e r to A l l Chiefs and Councillors, Williams Lake D i s t r i c t September 19, 1975. Wight, L.E., l e t t e r to A l l Chiefs and Councillors, Williams Lake D i s t r i c t November 12, 1975. Williamsj Robert, l e t t e r to Somerville, D., June 9, 1975. B. Theses Goldman, I. The Algatcho Carrier of B r i t i s h Columbia, PhD t h e s i s , Department of Anthropology, Columbia University, New York, 1953. Hewlett, E.S. The C h i l c o t i n Uprising: A Study of Indian-White Relations  in" 19th Century B.C., M.A. t h e s i s , Department of History, University: of B.C., 1972. -124-C. Miscellaneous Buchanan, J . , "Future of Indian A f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia", Press release, Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, Ottawa, May 30, 1975. Cariboo T r i b a l Council Minutes: A p r i l 30, 1973 September 28, 1973 December 13, 14, 1973 March 20, 21, 1974 Ju l y 27, 28, 1974 October 25, 26, 1974 January 30, 31, February 1, 1975 May 13, 14, 1975 September 17, 1975 December 4, 1975 December 17, 1975 January 15, 1976 Caribou T r i b a l Council, "June 20 Meeting with Bob Williams", Press release, June 20, 1975. Caribou T r i b a l Council, no t i t l e , Outline of detailed b r i e f s to be prepared f o r workshop i n preparation f o r negotiations with DIA, August 8, 1975. Caribou T r i b a l Council, "Meeting with L. Wight", September 17, 1975. C h i l c o t i n Area Council, Minutes, January 13, 1976. "Declaration of the Takla Lake Band #17" West Fraser D i s t r i c t Council, "Land Claims Action Proposal", mimeo, 1975. Fish Lake Cultural Education Centre, "Indian Land and Native T i t l e i n the Chilcotin-Caribou", and unfinished report, c i r c a . January, 1976. Gambill, Perry, "How Democracy came to St. Regis", unpublished paper, Public Archives of Canada, Manuscript D i v i s i o n , 16 pp. Indians of the Williams Lake D i s t r i c t , Minutes of Special Meeting, A p r i l 28, 1975. Indians of the Williams Lake D i s t r i c t , Minutes of Second Special Meeting, A p r i l 30, 1975. Kew, Michael, "Nazko and Kluskus: Social Conditions and Prospects f o r the Future", NazkO, mimeo., 1974. Mayne, Brian, "Aboriginal Right", F i s h Lake Centre, mimeo., no date, c i r c a . 1974. -125-Nazko-KLuskus Study Team, Report to Nazko and KLuskus Bands of Carrier Indians, "Nazko V i l l a g e , mimeo., August 17, 1974. Summary of Proceedings of meeting c a l l e d by J . Weir, Government Agent (B.C.), Williams Lake, on behalf of Chief Andy Chelsea, A l k a l i Lake Band, May 30, 1975. Rowat, Don, "Implementing Local Government f o r Indians: The Need f o r C l a r i f y i n g Concepts", mimeo., October, 1973, Carleton University. Thompson River D i s t r i c t Council, u n t i t l e d statement on the transfer of funds to bands, J u l y 29, 1975. Toosey Indian Band, an open l e t t e r to the Minister of National Defense i n the Government of Canada, January 21, 1976. Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs, B u l l e t i n , A p r i l 30, 1975. Williams Lake D i s t r i c t Council of Indian Chiefs (Caribou T r i b a l Council) Press release, no t i t l e , on subject of meeting with B.C. Resources Minis t e r , Bob Williams, A p r i l 17, 1976. Williams Lake and D i s t r i c t Labour Council, press release, no date, c i r c a . June, 1975. Wilson, B i l l , "Comments... at J o i n t Chiefs' Council § B.C.A.N.S.I. Executive Meeting", mimeo., August 15, 1975. II Printed Sources A. Government Publications B r i t i s h Columbia, Papers r e l a t i n g to the Indian Land Question, 1850-1975, V i c t o r i a , 1875. Canadaj Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development,"Basic P r i n c i p l e s Related to Indian Local Government: Program C i r c u l a r D-l" Canada, Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, "Guideline Related To D i s t r i c t Councils: Program C i r c u l a r D-2" Canada, Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, "Guidelines Relate to Band Core Funding: Program C i r c u l a r D-3". Canada, Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, "Guidelines Related to Funding Of Band Operated Local Services: Program C i r c u l a r D-4", Draft, December 12, 1975. -126-Canada, Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, Dialogue, V o l . I , No. 1, December, 1973. Canada, Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, Indian News, Vol. 17, No. 3, (Summer, 1975). Canada, Parliament, Ottawa •, Report of the Special Parliamentary Committee  on the B.C. Indian, Session 1926-27, Ottawa. Canada, Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, Statement  of the Government of Canada on Indian P o l i c y , 1969, Ottawa, 1969. Canada, Parliament, Indian Act, R.S., c. 149, S. 1. B. General Works 1. Books Beeson, Edith, ed. Dunlevy, L i l l o o e t , L i l l o o e t Publishing Ltd., 1971. Qjmmings, P.A., Native Rights i n Canada, Toronto, General Publishing Co., 1972. Dahrenderf, R a l f , Class and Class C o n f l i c t i n In d u s t r i a l Society, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1959(c). Drucker, D. The Native Brotherhoods: Modern I n t e r t r i b a l Organizations on the  Northwest Coast, BAE - B 168, 1958. Duff, Wilson, The Indian History of B r i t i s h Columbia, V o l . 1, The Impact  of the White Man, V i c t o r i a , P r o v i n c i a l Museaum of Natural History and Anthropology, 1964. Dunning, R.W., "Some Problems of Reserve Communities. A Case Study", i n Fridere: J.S., Canada1s Indians: Contemporary C o n f l i c t s , Scarborough, Prent i c e - H a l l , 1974, pp. 59-86. Frideres, J.S., Canada's Indians: Contemporary C o n f l i c t s , Scarborough, Prenti c e - H a l l , 1974. Hawthorn, H.B. Belshaw, C S . and Jamieson, S.M., The Indians of B r i t i s h Columbi  A Study of Contemporary Social Adjustment, University of Toronto Press and the University of B.C., 1958. Hawthorn^,H.B. (ed), A Survey Of the Contemporary Indians of Canada, Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, Ottawa, 1967. -127-Hawthorn, H.B., ed., A^Survey of the Contemporary Indians of Canada, Part 2, Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, Ottawa, 1968. Jonness, D., The Indians Of Canada, Canada, National Museum of Canada, 1955 (c.1932). La V i o l e t t e , F.E., The Struggle f o r Survival: Indian Cultures and the Protestan Ethic i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1961. Leacock, E.B. and Lurie, N.O., ed., North. American Indians i n H i s t o r i c a l  Perspectives, New York, Random House, 1971. Lowie, R., "Some Aspects of P o l i t i c a l Organization Among the American Aborigine: Cohen, Rand Middleton, J . , Comparative P o l i t i c a l Systems, Garden C i t y , Natural History Press, 1967, pp. 63-88. Manuel, George and Posluns, Michael, The Fourth World, Don M i l l s , C o l l i e r Macmi: 1974. Morice, A.G., The History of the Northern i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia, London, John Lane, 1904. Te i t , James, The Shuswap, Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol. IV, Part V I I , New York, G.E. Stenchert § Co., 1909. 2. Periodicals "B.C. Native People Choose Freedom", Akwesasne Notes, early summer, 1975, p. 4-7. "Indians Learn Forest S k i l l s at C h i l c o t i n Training Centre", H i b a l l e r , 18(1), 37-42 (1967). Taylor, Walters, "Working Toward a Higher Quality of L i f e " , Akwesasne Notes, early autumn, 1975, p. 37. 3. Newspapers "Alexis Creek Indian Band Claim Range", The Tribune, June 17, 1975. "AIM occupy DIA o f f i c e s " , The Tribune, June 12, 1975. Caribou T r i b a l Council, Coyoti P r i n t s , V o l . I I , (1975), No.s 3 to 10, V o l . I l l (1976), No. 1 and 2. "Chiefs reshuffle union to work on Land Claims", Sun, Vancouver, December 5, 1975. -128-"Ct e l c o t i n getting Hot", The Tribune, June 24, 1975. F i s h Lake Cultural Education Centre, Coyoti P r i n t s , Vol I I , (1975) No. 1 and 2. "No t r i n k e t and bead settlement, says Wilson", The Tribune, Williams Lake, July 1, 1975. "Survival Means Independence", The Tribune, June 26, 1975. "Too many grants, too many handouts, paved the way f o r the l o s t generation", The Tribune, Williams Lake, September 30, 1975. I l l Personal Inquiries Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t , Planning Department, estimate f o r population of the Regional D i s t r i c t , January, 1975. Interviews with: Ron M i l l s Brendan Kennedy Dave Somerville E r i c G i l b e r t Patrick Charleyboy E r i c Underwood (Sept. 1975) Elmer Derrick (Oct. 9, 1975) Frank Supernault Irvine Harry Doug Hance (Jan., 1976) Brian Mayne Jim Herbison Note: Where only one interview was involved the date i s noted. Where there i s no date, the author had several and i n some cases, many discussions over the period of research from August, 1975 to January, 1976. TV Video Tapes Fi s h Lake Centre, "Fis h Lake Workshop F i n a l Assembly, February 14, 1975", Tapes I and I I . F i s h Lake Centre, "Fish Lake Workshop, February 13, 1975, Tape I I I (Land Claims) Lehal, Tape TV Land Claims - Ruben Ware, Tape V Land Claims -Cut-off Lands. David Ross Ray Hance Andy Chelsea A l l a n Haig-Brown Dennis Patrick (November, 1975) Walt Taylor (June, 1975) Stanley Stump E r i c Sargent Don Smith (October, 1975) Emil Girard Wally Hamm (January, 1976) -129-F i s h Lake Centre, " D i s t r i c t Council Meeting, A p r i l , 1975, St. Joseph's Mission", Tape I , I I , and I I I . Fish Lake Centre, "Chilliwack Debates on Rejection of Indian A f f a i r s , A p r i l 24, 1975", Tapes I and I I . Fish. Lake Centre, " D i s t r i c t Council Meeting, Longhouse, A p r i l 30, 1975." Fish Lake Centre, "Occupation of Williams Lake DIA O f f i c e , May 1, 1975", Tapes I , I I , and I I I . F i s h Lake Centre, "Meeting with Bob Williams, June 20, 1975", Tapes I , I I , I I I and TV. Fish Lake Centre, " T r i b a l Council Meeting with Wight, September 17, 1975.", Tape I , I I , I I I , IV, V, and VI, (Tribal Council Meeting Af t e r Meeting with Wight). F i s h Lake Centre, " T r i b a l Council Workshop", November 10-14, 1975". Fish Lake Centre, "Nazko March 5, 1975, Meeting held f o r B.C. Government", Parts I , I I , and I I I . Fish Lake Centre, "Jutras Meeting with D i s t r i c t Council", March 13, 1975; Same meeting, another tape, "Meeting with DIA, March 13, 1975", Sugar Cane. 

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