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Edvard Munch’s ’Alpha and Omega’ series: a summation of the Frieze of life series Zogaris, Evangeline 1976

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EDVARD MUNCH'S 'ALPHA AND OMEGA' SERIESs A SUMMATION OP THE FRIEZE OF LI F E SERIES by E v a n g e l i n e Z o g a r i s B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE DEPARTMENT OF FINE ARTS We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1976 (c) Evangeline Zogaris In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes i s fo r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of F i n e A r t s  The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date A p r i l . 1976 i ABSTRACT The A l p h a and Omega s e r i e s was exe c u t e d i n 1908, d u r i n g Munch's h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n i n a p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c where he was r e c e i v i n g i n t e n s e t r e a t m e n t s f o r a mental breakdown. The s u b j e c t m a t t e r and t h e ic o n o g r a p h y of t h e A l p h a and Omega s e r i e s i s c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d w i t h Munch's most s i g n i f i c a n t works, the F r i e z e of L i f e s e r i e s , w i t h w h i c h he was p r e o c c u p i e d between the y e a r s 1892 t o 1902. The two main i s s u e s of the F r i e z e of L i f e s e r i e s which d e a l w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between man and woman and. the a s p e c t s of l i f e and d e a t h , a r e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Munch's p h i l o s o p h y on l i f e , l o v e and d e a t h as i t was f o r m u l a t e d f rom h i s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . Between the y e a r s 1902 t o 1908, Munch no l o n g e r p a i n t e d works which were t h e m a t i c a l l y o r i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o the F r i e z e of L i f e s e r i e s . These y e a r s a r e s t i g m a t i z e d as h i s wandering y e a r s which were spent t r a v e l l i n g around Europe. He p u r p o s e l y stayed, away from Norway, because d u r i n g t h i s period, he t r i e d t o a v o i d any c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h memories of p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s which he f e a r e d might a f f e c t h i s m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l s t a b i l i t y . F i n a l l y i n 1908, he s u f f e r e d a severe.! mental c r i s i s and a d m i t t e d h i m s e l f t o a p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c i n Copenhagen. With h i s d o c t o r ' s encouragement, Munch c a r r i e d out h i s p r e v i o u s p l a n s of p u t t i n g t o g e t h e r a p o r t f o l i o made up of a poem about man and woman, and I l l u s t r a t e d by a s e r i e s of l i t h o g r a p h s ; i n t h i s work, he once a g a i n d e a l t w i t h the p h i l o s o p h i c a l i s s u e s of l i f e , l o v e and d e a t h . Through the r e v a l u a t i o n of Munch*s p h i l o s o p h i e s w h i c h were c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d w i t h h i s i n n e r f e e l i n g s and a n x i e t i e s , h i s d o c t o r b e l i e v e d t h a t Munch would be a b l e t o b r i n g under c o n t r o l a l l h i s f r u s t r a t i o n s and t h u s r e c o v e r from h i s m ental i l l n e s s . An e x a m i n a t i o n of the s o c i a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l m i l i e u i n whi c h Munch l i v e d and worked, w i l l e n a b le one t o comprehend h i s p h i l o s o p h y on l i f e , l o v e and d e a t h as i t was d e r i v e d from h i s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . An a n a l y s i s of the works w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e F r i e z e of L i f e s e r i e s w i l l l a t e r be used f o r comparison between t h e F r i e z e and t h e A l p h a and Omega s e r i e s . Through the r e v a l u a t i o n of h i s p h i l o s o p h i e s as th e y were r e c r e a t e d i n t h e A l p h a and. Omega c y c l e and t h r o u g h the f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n of the c y c l e , l n which he sought vengeance on woman f o r t h e harm she had caused him, he summarized a l l h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l n o t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g l i f e , l o v e and. d e a t h . A f t e r the c o m p l e t i o n of the A l p h a and Omega c y c l e , and a f t e r h i s r e c o v e r y , he seldom, i f a t a l l , e x e c u t e d works which were r e l a t e d t o t h e main i s s u e s of the F r i e z e of L i f e s e r i e s . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS I v CHAPTER I . THE SOCIAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL MILIEU WHICH INFLUENCED MUNCH' S LI F E A3® WORKS 1 Notes 10 I I . THE SIGNIFICANCE AND ORIGIN OF THE FRIEZE OF L I F E SERIES 13 Major Works of the F r i e z e of L i f e 17 Notes 29 I I I . MUNCH'S L I F E AND ART BETWEEN THE YEARS 1902 t o 1908 - HIS MENTAL BREAKDOWN 32 Notes 38 IV. THE ORIGIN AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ALPHA AND OMEGA CYCLE 39 Notes 57 CONCLUSION 59 BIBLIOGRAPHY 6 l APPENDIX A 70 ILLUSTRATIONS 78 i v LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS F i g u r e Page 1. P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t ' s S i s t e r I n g e r 78 2. E v e n i n g 78 3. The Day A f t e r 79 4. Tete-a-t§te 79 5. Rue L a f a y e t t e 80 6. S p r i n g Day on K a r l Johan S t r e e t 80 7. S i c k C h i l d 81 8. Two Human Be i n g s - The L o n e l y Ones 81 9. The V i s i o n 82 10. The A l l e y 83 11. S y m b o l i c Study 84 12. Three A s p e c t s of Woman 84 13. The V o i c e 85 14. A t t r a c t i o n 85 15. The K i s s 86 16. To the F o r e s t 86 17. Vampire 8? 18. Ashes 87 19. M e l a n c h o l y 88 20. J e a l o u s y 88 21. S e p a r a t i o n 89 22. The Scream 89 23. Madonna 90 V F i g u r e . . Page 24. L i f e and Death 90 25. Four Sons of Max L i n d e 91 26. Harbour of Lubeck 91 27. Female Nudes w i t h Red Carpet 92 28. At Do c t o r Jakobsen's C l i n i c . 93 29. P o r t r a i t of Dr. Jakobsen . . 9^ 30. The Nurse 9^ 31. M e l a n c h o l i a - The Insane Woman 95 32. The Death of Omega 96 33. The Rag and Bone Man o r The Wanderer 97 34. The T i t l e V i g n e t t e 98 35. The Poisonous F l o w e r 99 36. A l p h a and Omega 100 37. The R i s i n g Moon 100 38. To the F o r e s t 101 39. Shadows 101 40. The Snake i s S t r a n g l e d 102 41. The Bear 102 42. The T i g e r 103 43. The T i g e r and t h e Bear 103 44. Omega and the Fl o w e r s 104 45. Omega's Eyes , 105 46. Omega and the Donkey 106 47. Omega and the P i g 106 v i F i g u r e Page 48. Omega Weeps 107 49. Omega's F l i g h t 107 50. A l p h a ' s Progeny 108 51. D e s p a i r 108 52. Omega's Death 109 53. A l p h a ' s Death 109 1 CHAPTER I THE SOCIAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL MILIEU WHICH INFLUENCED MUNCH'S L I F E AND WORKS Edvard Munch's most famous works, w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e the F r i e z e of L i f e s e r i e s , a r e concerned w i t h the p h i l o s o p h i c a l i s s u e s of l i f e , l o v e and d e a t h . Munch's p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h e o r i e s on thes e i s s u e s were p r i m a r i l y i n f l u e n c e d by two major f a c t o r s : f i r s t , by h i s f a m i l y environment and second, by the Bohemian m i l i e u s i n which he worked and l i v e d . . Munch's y o u t h was v e r y unhappy. H i s f a m i l y environment was c o n s t a n t l y t h r e a t e n e d by s i c k n e s s and d e a t h . H i s mother d i e d of t u b e r c u l o s i s when he was f i v e y e a r s o l d ; n i n e y e a r s l a t e r one of h i s s i s t e r s a l s o d i e d f rom the same d i s e a s e . L a t e r s t i l l , a n o t h e r was admitted, t o a men t a l i n s t i t u t i o n . Munch h i m s e l f was weak, o f t e n s i c k , and d i d not a t t e n d s c h o o l r e g u l a r l y . H i s f a t h e r , a m e d i c a l d o c t o r , was a p i o u s and c o n s e r v a t i v e man who, a f t e r h i s w i f e ' s d e a t h , became e x t r e m e l y r e l i g i o u s and l o s t a l l a f f e c t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g f o r h i s c h i l d r e n . He was a te n s e and s h o r t -tempered man and l e f t t he ca r e of h i s c h i l d r e n t o h i s s i s t e r -i n - l a w . As Munch grew o l d e r , h i s f a t h e r ' s r e c l u s i v e n e s s and emphasis on r e l i g i o n a f f e c t e d him a g r e a t d e a l and r e s u l t e d i n c o n s t a n t and b i t t e r arguments between them. At t h e age of e i g h t e e n Munch began h i s a r t i s t i c 2 e d u c a t i o n a t the R o y a l Academy of K r i s t i a n i a , under Norway's most famous n a t u r a l i s t i c a r t i s t , C h r i s t i a n Krogh. Once he l e f t h i s f a m i l y environment and came i n t o the c i t y of K r i s t i a n i a t o s t u d y a r t , he became i n v o l v e d w i t h a group of l i t e r a r y and a r t i s t i c f i g u r e s , known as K r i s t i a n i a Bohemes. 1 T h i s Bohemian c i r c l e c o n s i s t e d of a group of a n a r c h i s t s , who opposed a l l s o c i a l c o n v e n t i o n s which t h e y b e l i e v e d undermined the n a t u r a l and s o c i a l i m p u l s e s and f i n a l l y l e d t o h y p o c r i c y . They were a n t i - b o u r g e o i s ; i n f l u e n c e d by Marx's w r i t i n g s . Marx's p h i l o s o p h i e s impressed the K r i s t i a n i a Bohemes because they f a c e d t h e o p p r e s s i o n of the Swedish r u l e and the r i s e of 2 c a p i t a l i s m . The most i n f l u e n t i a l f i g u r e of the Boheme c i r c l e was Hans J a e g e r , who was a d e t e r m i n i s t and. an advocate of f r e e l o v e . He e x p r e s s e d h i s s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m q u i t e openly i n h i s n o v e l s ( e . g . ' S i c k Love', 1885). J a e g e r l n 1885. p u b l i s h e d h i s major work ' K r i s t i a n i a Bohemian'.3 T h i s book was l i k e a b i o g r a p h i c a l t e x t of t h e l i v e s of the K r i s t i a n i a Bohemes; i t d e s c r i b e d J a e g e r ' s p e r s o n a l l o v e e x p e r i e n c e s and h i s c r i t i c i s m on the f a l l a c i e s of t h e b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y . A l s o i n 1886, C h r i s t i a n Krogh p u b l i s h e d a n o v e l , c a l l e d ' A l b e r t i n a ' , w h i c h d e s c r i b e d t h e l i f e of a p r o s t i t u t e . Krogh*s n o v e l was c o n f i s c a t e d , but a y e a r l a t e r he p a i n t e d a l a r g e work which d e p i c t e d a scene from h i s n o v e l . Munch was i n f l u e n c e d by b o t h 4 J a e g e r ' s n o v e l s and Krogh's l i t e r a r y and a r t i s t i c works. In the e a r l y y e a r s of h i s a r t i s t i c e d u c a t i o n , Munch had e x e c u t e d n a t u r a l i s t i c works, w i t h g e n e r a l themes l i k e p o r t r a i t , P o r t r a i t of The A r t i s t ' s S i s t e r I n g e r , 1884 ( P i g . 1 ) , 3 and l a n d s c a p e s , E v e n i n g , 1888 ( F i g . 2 ) . In t h e s e p a i n t i n g s he p r i m a r i l y c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e of the work r a t h e r t h a n the c o n t e n t . Y e t , a t the same time he p a i n t e d a number of works, Day A f t e r , 1885 (Fig-. 3 h and T e t e - a - t e t e ,  1885 ( F i g . 4 ) , which i n d i c a t e t h a t he was becoming i n f l u e n c e d by J a e g e r ' s and Krogh's works, as w e l l as by the s o c i a l environment of the Bohemes. In the s e p a i n t i n g s he not o n l y d e a l s w i t h i t s f o r m a l a s p e c t s but w i t h the c o n t e n t as w e l l . L i k e J a e g e r ' s and Krogh's works, the s u b j e c t m a t t e r of Day a A f t e r , h a s A p r o s t i t u t e and a scene from h e r l i f e , as i t s b a s i c theme. T g t e - a - t g t e a l s o r e p r e s e n t s a scene from the l i f e of the Bohemes as J a e g e r d e s c r i b e d them i n h i s n o v e l ' K r i s t i a n i a Bohemian'. These Bohemes were a l s o g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by Henrik Ibsen's l i t e r a r y works which p l a c e d a g r e a t emphasis on the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s s o c i a l r o l e w i t h i n h i s environment. Ibsen emphasized the d u t y of the i n d i v i d u a l towards h i m s e l f . The Bohemes used t h i s concept as t h e i r p r i m a r y code of t h e i r a r t i s t i c and l i t e r a r y aims which c l a i m e d : "thou s h a l t w r i t e down one's own l i f e " . T h i s f o c u s on t h e I n d i v i d u a l and h i s b e h a v i o u r , a l s o e x p r e s s e d by K i e r k e r g a a r d and Van Hartmann, de v e l o p e d a g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n the s t u d y of p s y c h o l o g y , d u r i n g and a f t e r the 1880's.^ T h i s i n t e r e s t p r i m a r i l y depended on the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s of the t i m e . The v a s t growth of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and. t h e e x p a n s i o n of the c i t i e s had r e s u l t e d i n the l o s s of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s n a t u r a l f u n c t i o n as a human b e i n g w i t h i n h i s s o c i e t y . T h i s s e l f - d e c e p t i o n , was "the 4 e x p r e s s i o n of a frame of mind i n - w h i c h the w e s t e r n w o r l d had l o s t i t s exuberant b e l i e f i n i t s e l f " . ^ S c a n d i n a v i a n w r i t e r s , l i k e t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n F r a n c e , changed by the end of the 1880*s, from a s o c i a l and r e a l i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e t o a m y s t i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l one. Munch's a r t work a l s o changed from r e a l i s t i c t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l . In 1889 he moved t o P a r i s , w i t h & government s c h o l a r s h i p , t o c o n t i n u e h i s a r t i s t i c e d u c a t i o n . F o r a w h i l e he was i n v o l v e d w i t h the i m p r e s s i o n i s t s and t r i e d t o copy t h e i r s t y l e . He e x e c u t e d a number of works i n the i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c manner, Rue L a f a y e t t e , 1891 ( F i g . 5 ) , S p r i n g Day on K a r l Johan. S t r e e t ,  1891 ( F i g . 6 ) . But a t t h e same t i m e , d u r i n g h i s summer v i s i t s a t Norway, he e x e c u t e d a number of works, The S i c k C h i l d , f i r s t v e r s i o n done i n 1886 ( F i g . 7 ) , M e l a n c h o l y , 1891 ( F i g . 19), Two Human B e i n g s - The L o n e l y Ones, I889 ( F i g . 8 ) , which demonstrate t h a t Munch was b e g i n n i n g t o be concerned w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s f e e l i n g s . These works d e p i c t the i n d i v i d u a l i n m e l a n c h o l y and d e s p a i r , i s o l a t e d f r om h i s environment and. s o c i e t y . They d e a l w i t h i l l n e s s , S i c k C h i l d , s e p a r a t i o n and i s o l a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l , M e l a n c h o l y , and w i t h the i s o l a t i o n of man and woman, Two Human Being s - The L o n e l y Ones. Munch c o n s i d e r e d the S i c k C h i l d , which was p r i m a r i l y i n s p i r e d by t h e memories of h i s s i s t e r ' s d e a t h , t o be the work w h i c h marked the t u r n i n g p o i n t of h i s a r t i s t i c c a r e e r . He e x p l a i n e d t h a t : In t h e S i c k C h i l d I broke new t r a i l s f o r m y s e l f . I t was a b r e a k t h r o u g h i n my a r t . Most of what I l a t e r d i d was b o r n i n t h i s p a i n t i n g . ? 5 T h i s p a i n t i n g i s s i g n i f i c a n t because i t i s the f i r s t work i n w h i c h he f u l f i l l s h i s i n t e n t i o n as he f i r s t s t a t e d i n 1891, w h i c h was t o d e p i c t human emotions: The p a i n t e r d e p i c t s h i s d e e pest emotions, h i s s o u l , h i s sorrows and j o y s . He d e p i c t s the human b e i n g not the o b j e c t . These p a i n t i n g s a r e d e s i g n e d t o move p e o p l e . 8 In S i c k C h i l d Munch wanted t o p o r t r a y the s t a t e of a s i c k c h i l d and t h e e f f e c t t h a t i l l n e s s has on the p a t i e n t , as w e l l as on the r e l a t i v e s . The c o n t r a d i c t o r y t e n d e n c i e s t h a t were i n e x i s t e n c e i n Europe by the end of the 19th c e n t u r y had an e f f e c t on woman and h e r s o c i a l r o l e w i t h i n s o c i e t y . Up t o t h e end of the 1880*s, t h e s o c i a l a t t i t u d e towards woman was a V i c t o r i a n one; t h a t i s , one of male dominance and s u p p r e s s i o n . I n t h e a r t s the s u p p r e s s i o n of woman was d i s g u i s e d by the f a l s e i d e a l i z a t i o n of woman.9 T h i s i d e a l i z e d woman n e v e r e x i s t e d . In r e a l i t y woman's r o l e had changed a c c o r d i n g t o the demands of u r ban i n d u s t r i a l development. Woman was f o r c e d t o l e a v e home and go t o work i n f a c t o r i e s o r o f f i c e s . Women, as wage e a r n e r s , were r e a c h i n g a s o c i a l s t a t u s e q u a l t o t h a t of man. As a r e s u l t , "man began t o see woman as a t h r e a t t o t h e power 10 t h a t he had e x e r c i s e d i n s o c i e t y up t o t h a t t i m e " . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a b a t t l e between the se x e s . In l i t e r a t u r e , t h i s b a t t l e was b e s t e x p r e s s e d i n the works o f the S c a n d i n a v i a n w r i t e r s l i k e Ibsen and S t r i n d b e r g . I bsen i n h i s p l a y 'The D o l l ' s House' d e s c r i b e d how a m a r r i e d woman f i n a l l y r e a c t s ^ a g a i n s t the s u p p r e s s i o n 6 imposed on h e r by her d o m i n e e r i n g husband as w e l l as by s o c i e t y . S t r i n d b e r g i n h i s p l a y 'The F a t h e r ' I s d r i v e n t o i n s a n i t y by h i s w i f e . In the l a s t argument between the f a t h e r and h i s w i f e , t h e f a t h e r e x p l a i n s t h a t a l l the women i n h i s l i f e had brought him n o t h i n g but pains My mother, who d i d n ' t want t o b r i n g me, i n t o the w o r l d because my b i r t h would b r i n g h e r p a i n , she was my enemy My s i s t e r was my enemy, when she t a u g h t me t o be h e r v e s s e l . The f i r s t woman I took i n my arms, was my enemy f o r she gave me t e n y e a r s ' i l l n e s s i n r e t u r n f o r the l o v e I gave h e r . My d a u g h t e r became my enemy, when she had t o choose between me and you. And you, my w i f e , you were my m o r t a l enemy, f o r you n e v e r l e t me be, t i l l you had be l y i n g d e a d . H Thus, by the end of the 19th c e n t u r y , t h e r e were two o p p o s i n g s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s towards woman: woman as a v i r g i n and woman as a p r o s t i t u t e . The v i r g i n was the i d e a l i z e d woman who i n r e a l i t y was sup p r e s s e d by man. The p r o s t i t u t e was the v i l i f i e d woman who had r e f u s e d t o be suppressed by man. Munch was I n f l u e n c e d by t h e s e s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s towards woman. The s o c i a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l m i l i e u t h a t he was exposed t o a f t e r 1892, h i s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , and most of a l l , h i s a r t works, w h i c h have woman as a c e n t r a l theme, e l u c i d a t e t h e g r e a t i n f l u e n c e t h a t the s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s towards woman had on him. A f t e r 1892, when Munch e x h i b i t e d h i s a r t a t B e r l i n , he a t t r a c t e d a number of i n d i v i d u a l s who were known as t h e B e r l i n Bohemes. T h i s Boheme c i r c l e was made up of a number of S c a n d i n a v i a n w r i t e r s ; S t r i n d b e r g , H e i b e r g and Drachman; a 7 P o l i s h p o e t , S. P r z y b y s z w e s k i ; the German w r i t e r s , R i c h a r d Dehmel, Arno H o l z and Max Dauthendey; the German a r t c r i t i c M e i e r - G r a e f e , and the Norwegian composer Frank D e l i u s . Most of t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s were a d v o c a t e s of p s y c h o l o g y , symbolism, 12 m y s t i c i s m , the o c c u l t and alchemy. They were a t t r a c t e d t o Munch's work because t h e y f e l t t h a t h i s work r e p r e s e n t e d t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h e o r i e s on p s y c h o l o g y and symbolism. F o r example, P r z y b y s z w e s k i i n 1894 wrote an a r t i c l e on Munch's work v i e w i n g i t from t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of t h e new ps y c h o l o g y . J Max Dauthendey was a t t r a c t e d t o t h e s y m b o l i c a l elements i n Munch's work, The V i s i o n , 1893 ( F i g . 9 ) . As a r e s u l t , he wrote a s t u d y on Munch's a r t works and. a poem on 14 the theme of The V i s i o n . S t r i n d b e r g a l s o wrote a r e v i e w f o r one of Munch's e x h i b i t i o n s , w h i c h was h e l d a t the B i n g ' s G a l l e r y i n P a r i s , i n 1896. S t r i n d b e r g , a l o n g w i t h P r z y b y s z w e s k i , was one of Munch's b e s t f r i e n d s and a s u p p o r t e r of h i s i d e a s on woman. ^  j j e w a s a m i s o g y n i s t who c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d h i s h a t r e d f o r woman i n many of h i s books, l i k e 'The Madman's Defense'. I n t h i s book, he d e a l t w i t h p u r i t a n d i s g u s t f o r s e n s u a l d e s i r e s , as w e l l as w i t h the i n n e r f e e l i n g s of l o v e , h a t r e d and sadism w h i c h he r e l a t e d t o s e x u a l d r i v e s . He c o n c e i v e d o f women as whores and vampires who t r y t o o u t w i t men and suck away a l l t h e i r energy. Munch a l s o c o n c e i v e d o f women i n the same way and r e p r e s e n t e d them i n many of h i s works as whores, The A l l e y , 1894 ( F i g . 10) and v a m p i r e s , Vampire, 1893 ( F i g . 1 7). 8 Munch's s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s d u r i n g the B e r l i n p e r i o d were as u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and d i s c o u r a g i n g as the ones i n which he had been i n v o l v e d i n K r i s t i a n i a . D u r i n g the 1880's among the K r i s t i a n i a c i r c l e , he had been engaged i n numerous l o v e a f f a i r s w hich negated any p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t . But one of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s , which l a s t e d f o r s i x y e a r s and ended w i t h h i s t r i p t o P a r i s l n 1889, was w i t h a m a r r i e d woman, t h r e e y e a r s h i s e l d e r . T h i s a f f a i r a f f e c t e d him a g r e a t d e a l . The presence of the woman's husband and of her o t h e r l o v e r s haunted him and c r e a t e d f e e l i n g s of envy and d i s t r u s t . In the f o l l o w i n g y e a r s h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h women were always of s h o r t d u r a t i o n ; he always l e f t a woman as soon as he r e a l i z e d t h a t h e r i n t e n t i o n s were s e r i o u s . He c l a i m e d t o be a g a i n s t m a r r i a g e because he f e l t t h a t t oo o f t e n the woman he l o v e d d i d not want him. Yet he w a s ; f i l l e d w i t h l o v e and a f f e c t i o n f o r women who belonged t o o t h e r men. An example of such a r e l a t i o n s h i p was h i s a t t i t u d e towards Dagny J u e l , P r z y b y s z w e s k i ' s w i f e . Munch was f a s c i n a t e d by h e r w i t and h e r beauty and used her i n many of h i s works, i n c l u d i n g the Madonna, 1895 v e r s i o n s ( F i g . 23), and. Salome. Munch had a v e r y p a i n f u l and d e s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a woman who belonged t o the Norwegian b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y . T h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p l a s t e d f o r f o u r y e a r s , d u r i n g which t h e woman t r i e d t o b i n d him t o her s i d e . Munch d e c i d e d t o l e a v e h e r , because he f e a r e d t h a t h i s work and h i s i n t e r e s t s might be a f f e c t e d by the woman's d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s . But the woman 9 was determined t o marry him, and sought h e l p from h e r f r i e n d s who t r i e d t o g e t him back t o h e r . The e v e n t s t h a t f o l l o w e d 1 ? had bad e f f e c t s on Munch and a l s o made h i s p e r s o n a l e x i s t e n c e d i f f i c u l t l n Norway; as a r e s u l t he moved away i n 1904. Munch n e v e r q u i t e r e c o v e r e d from h i s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h i s woman and h e r f r i e n d s ; t h e a f f a i r haunted him u n t i l h i s nervous breakdown i n 1908. As a r e s u l t of the s o c i a l m i l i e u i n which Munch worked and l i v e d and of h i s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h women, he began t o c o n c e i v e of women as h a v i n g t h r e e b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I n i t i a l l y , as a young woman e n t e r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e , she i s pure and v i r g i n a l . L a t e r , as man's s e x u a l p a r t n e r , she i s e x t r e m e l y d i s h o n e s t and a t h r e a t t o man's e x i s t e n c e . He saw her as "a whore who a t a l l t i m e s of 1 8 the day and n i g h t seeks t o o u t w i t man and cause h i s f a l l " . F i n a l l y , i n the r o l e of a mother, he thought of woman as a h e r o i c f i g u r e who i s w i l l i n g t o r i s k d e a t h i n o r d e r t o b r i n g f o r t h l i f e . Munch p a i n t e d a g r e a t number of works which have as a c e n t r a l theme woman and her v a r i o u s a s p e c t s . A key t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a l l h i s works which d e a l w i t h woman i s a s k e t c h he made, Sy m b o l i c Study, 1893 ( F i g . 1 1 ) , f o r the p a i n t i n g , Three A s p e c t s of Woman, 1895 ( F i g . 1 2). These works w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n c h a p t e r I I . 10 CHAPTER I NOTES 1 T h i s Norwegian Boheme c i r c l e resembled the Montparnasse Bohemes of P a r i s . 2 Munch was a l s o aware of Norway's p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . In l a t e r y e a r s , between 1904-1906, when he was a b r o a d , he wrote t o h i s aunt of h i s c o n c e r n f o r h i s c o u n t r y , and of h i s d e s i r e t h a t Norway become l i b e r a t e d from the Swedish r u l e . 3 Hans J a e g e r ' s book, ' K r i s t i a n i a Bohemian', was c o n f i s c a t e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r i t s p u b l i c a t i o n , and J a e g e r was i m p r i s o n e d f o r two y e a r s . 4 Munch read J a e g e r ' s books and kept them a l l h i s l i f e . I n 1 9 0 5 . w h i l e s t i l l a b r o a d , he wrote t o ask h i s aunt t o go .to h i s home a t A a s g a a r d s t r a n d and t a k e J a e g e r ' s books back home w i t h h e r . See: I n g e r E. Munch, Edvard Munchs Breu  F a m i l i e n ( O s l o : Johan Grundt Tamum F o r l a g , 1 9 4 9 ) , L e t t e r 2 3 4 , d a t e d 2 7 , 7 , 1 9 0 5 . 5 K i e r k e r g a a r d , l i k e I b s e n , p l a c e d a g r e a t emphasis on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o choose and d e c i d e f o r h i m s e l f . A l s o , Van Hartmann wrote 'The P h i l o s o p h y and the Sub-c o n s c i o u s * ( p u b l i s h e d i n I 8 6 9 ) which d e a l s w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s s u b - c o n s c i o u s . 6 A r n o l d Hauser, The S o c i a l H i s t o r y of A r t (New York: V i n t a g e Books, 1 9 5 1 ) , p. 2 2 0 . 7 Johan H. Laangard and R e i d a r R e v o i d , Edvard Munch (New York: M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 5 2 . 8 R e i n h o l d H e l l e r , "Edvard Munch and C l a r i f i c a t i o n of L i f e " , O b e r l l n C o l l e g e B u l l e t i n , 2 9/3 ( s p r i n g , 1 9 7 2 ) , 1 2 2 . 9 " I t was an e r a i n which women were kept as v i r t u a l p e t s , s e t up on marble p e d e s t a l s and made t o f e e l h e l p l e s s and t h e r e f o r e d e s i r a b l e A woman perched on a p e d e s t a l makes f o r an a t t r a c t i v e d e c o r a t i o n , and h e r s u p p o s e d l y 11 CHAPTER I NOTES (con t ' d ) p r e c a r i o u s p o s i t i o n poses v e r y . . l i t t l e t h r e a t t o anyone's v i r i l i t y . Few a r t i s t s r e p r e s e n t e d women as the y r e a l l y were." I a n Thompson, "The Rol e of Woman i n the Iconography of A r t Nouveau", A r t J o u r n a l , 31 ( W i n t e r , 1971-72), 188. 10 Hans Hess, How P i c t u r e s Mean, (New York: Pantheon Books, 1974),p. 74. 11 August S t r i n d b e r g , The F a t h e r , (London: Penguin Books, 1958), P. 71. 12 F o r example, P r z y b y s z w e s k i was g r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n p s y c h o l o g y . In 1892 he had w r i t t e n a study "Towards a Psy c h o l o g y of th e I n d i v i d u a l " . He had a l s o s e r i o u s l y s t u d i e d and p r a c t i s e d o c c u l t i s m and wrote a book on the h i s t o r y of sa t a n i s m . 13 P r z y b y s z w e s k i e x p l a i n e d t h a t : The o l d a r t and the o l d ps y c h o l o g y had been an a r t and a psy c h o l o g y of the c o n s c i o u s p e r s o n a l i t y , whereas t h e new a r t was t h e a r t of the i n d i v i d u a l . A l l t h a t i s pr o f o u n d and obscure e v e r y t h i n g from w h i c h the medium of language has as y e t d i v i d e d no system of d e f i n i t i o n and which i s thus i n a r t i c u l a t e and has m a n i f e s t e d I t s e l f o n l y as a dim p r e s e n t i m e n t f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n the c o l o u r s of Munch and thus e n t e r s i n t o our u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s . J.P. Ho d i n , "Edvard Munch: The Founder of E x p r e s s i o n i s m " , S t u d i o , 166 (November, 1963), 182. 14 Max Dauthendey's poem 'The V i s i o n ' i s i n c l u d e d i n R e i n h o l d H e l l e r ' s a r t i c l e , "Edvard Munch's V i s i o n and. t h e S y m b o l i s t Swan", A r t Q u a r t e r l y , 36 (Autumn, 1973). 211. 15 Most of the a r t h i s t o r i a n s , as w e l l as many of Munch's c o n t e m p o r a r i e s b e l i e v e t h a t S t r i n d b e r g was t h e p r i m a r y i n f l u e n c e on Munch's c o n c e p t i o n of woman, as b e i n g a t h r e a t of man. F o r example, Max Dauthendey wrote a comedy 'Maya', i n which he c o n c e n t r a t e s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between S t r i n d b e r g and Munch and e x p l a i n s how S t r i n d b e r g i n f l u e n c e d Munch. 16 Munch wrote of t h i s a f f a i r i n h i s f i c t i o n a l d i a r i e s , i n w h i c h he r e f e r r e d t o th e woman as "Fre H e i b e r g " . 12 CHAPTER I NOTES (c o n t ' d ) 17 The woman's f r i e n d s d e c i d e d t o l i e t o Munch and pr e t e n d t h a t she was d y i n g . They h u r r i e d t o get Munch t o her s i d e , and what f o l l o w e d i s q u i t e w e l l known: "One stormy n i g h t a; s h i p came s a i l i n g f r o m L a r h o l l e n t o Aasgaard. s t r a n d w i t h Munch's f r i e n d s on board. They had t o come and f e t c h Munch. The l a d y was a t de a t h ' s d o o r , they s a i d , and wanted t o speak t o him f o r t h e l a s t t i m e . Munch f o l l o w e d them. The l a d y wrapped i n a shroud l a y on a b i e r f l a n k e d by two l i g h t e d c a n d l e s . As Munch came towards h e r she r o s e up and s a i d : " I knew t h a t you would come." Munch was shocked by t h i s t r i c k . He t u r n e d t o l e a v e her a g a i n , but she took a r e v o l v e r , p o i n t e d i t a t h e r b r e a s t and threatened, t o shoot h e r s e l f . To q u i e t h e r , Munch l a i d h i s hand on the muzzle of the gun. I t went o f f , and wounded h i s m i d d l e f i n g e r w h i c h was c r i p p l e d , e v e r s i n c e . " J.P. H o d i n , The Dilemma of B e i n g Modern, (London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1956), pT 27. 18 Reinhold. H e l l e r , Edvard Munch: The Scream, (London: Penguin P r e s s , 1973)# P. 39^ 13 CHAPTER I I THE SIGNIFICANCE AND ORIGIN OF THE FRIEZE OF L I F E SERIES Between the y e a r s 1892 t o 1902, Edvard Munch ex e c u t e d h i s most famous and most s i g n i f i c a n t works, w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e the F r i e z e of L i f e s e r i e s . Munch h i m s e l f c o n s i d e r e d t h e F r i e z e of L i f e a s : "one of h i s most i m p o r t a n t 1 works i f not the most i m p o r t a n t " . In t h i s s e r i e s , Munch wanted t o e x p r e s s h i s p h i l o s o p h y on l i f e , l o v e and d e a t h as he had e x p e r i e n c e d i t . As he emphasized, t h r o u g h h i s a r t , he t r i e d t o c l a r i f y t h e meaning of l i f e f o r h i m s e l f and f o r o t h e r s : In my a r t , I have t r i e d t o c l a r i f y l i f e and i t s meaning f o r m y s e l f . I a l s o Intended t o h e l p o t h e r s e x p l a i n l i f e f o r themselves. 2 The F r i e z e of L i f e d e a l s w i t h two p r i m a r y i s s u e s : f i r s t , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and woman, and second the a s p e c t s o f l i f e and d e a t h . I t i s o f t e n a s s e r t e d t h a t Munch's c o n c e p t i o n of the F r i e z e was f o r m u l a t e d out of h i s German environment and t h a t i t was p r i m a r i l y i n f l u e n c e d by the l i t e r a r y works of Ibsen and S t r i n d b e r g . ^ But he d e n i e d any e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s , , as s u c h , and emphasized t h a t the c o n c e p t i o n of the F r i e z e o r i g i n a t e d d u r i n g the 1880's, b e f o r e he moved t o B e r l i n : C e r t a i n a r t c r i t i c s have sought t o prove t h a t the i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t e n t of t h i s F r i e z e was i n f l u e n c e d by German i d e a s and my c o n t a c t w i t h 14 S t r i n d b e r g i n B e r l i n ; I t r u s t t h a t the f o r e g o i n g comments w i l l s u f f i c e t o r e f u t e t h i s a s s e r t i o n . The themes and moods of the v a r i o u s p a n e l s s p r a n g d i r e c t l y f r om the c o n t r o v e r s e r i e s of the e i g h t i e s and c o n s t i t u t e a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the r e a l i s m t h e n p r e v a l e n t . ^ " In 1889, Munch had begun t o w r i t e a d i a r y (known as S t . Cloud M a n i f e s t o ) , which acted, as a s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y t e x t of h i s i n n e r t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s . In one p a r t of t h e t e x t , he expressed h i s d e s i r e s t o p a i n t works of a r t w h i c h would d e p i c t p e o p l e as t h e y l i v e , l o v e and s u f f e r . I n i t , he wrote how t h e s e d e s i r e s had e v o l v e d from h i s e x p e r i e n c e s and h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s one n i g h t i n a dance h a l l i n S t . C l o u d . As Munch was c l o s e l y w a t c h i n g the people i n the dance h a l l , h i s eyes caught a c o u p l e who were b u s i l y i n v o l v e d w i t h each o t h e r . In the c o u p l e ' s p a s s i o n a t e embraces, he . r e a l i z e d how much l i f e depended, on t h e b i o l o g i c a l u n i o n between man and woman, and how, t h r o u g h them, l i f e e v o l v e d from one g e n e r a t i o n t o a n o t h e r : S t . C l o u d , 1889. These two i n t h a t moment when they a r e no l o n g e r themselves but o n l y one of thousands of l i n k s t y i n g one g e n e r a t i o n t o a n o t h e r g e n e r a t i o n . P e o p l e s h o u l d u n d e r s t a n d the s a n c t i t y o f t h i s and t a k e o f f t h e i r h a t s as i f they were i n c h u r c h . I would make a number of such p a i n t i n g s (The F r i e z e of L i f e s e r i e s ) . No l o n g e r would i n t e r i o r s , p e o p l e who o n l y read, and k n i t be p a i n t e d . These should r a t h e r be l i v i n g p eople b r e a t h i n g and f e e l i n g , s u f f e r i n g and l o v i n g . I f e l t I have t o do t h i s . I t would be so s i m p l e . The f l e s h would t a k e on form and t h e c o l o r s come t o l i f e . 5 At the same time t h a t Munch was i n v o l v e d w i t h the b a s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between man, woman and l i f e , he was e q u a l l y concerned w i t h the n a t u r e of l i f e and d e a t h . 15 He had been g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h ; h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s f a t h e r had been one of c o n s t a n t c o n f l i c t and. argument, because of Munch's Boheme s t y l e of l i v i n g and h i s l a c k of r e l i g i o u s d e d i c a t i o n . A few months b e f o r e h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h he r e c e i v e d f r o m him a b i b l e c o n t a i n i n g the f o l l o w i n g i n s c r i p t i o n : " B l e s s e d a r e they who h e a r God's word and keep i t . Never f o r g e t t h i s . T h i n k o f t e n of e v e r l a s t i n g e t e r n i t y . " ^ Munch was d e e p l y moved by h i s f a t h e r ' s l a s t g e s t u r e and. he began t o r e c o n s i d e r many of h i s Boheme p h i l o s o p h i e s . The d e a t h of h i s f a t h e r c o n v i n c e d him t h a t t h e r e was more t o l i f e t h a n the Boheme a t t i t u d e of l i v i n g o n l y f o r the p r e s e n t . He r e a l i z e d t h a t he l o v e d l i f e , y e t he f e a r e d d e a t h w h i c h t h r e a t e n e d l i f e and w h i c h , In h i s c a s e , had t a k e n the ones t h a t he l o v e d the most. A month a f t e r h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h , he wrote l n h i s S t . Cloud M a n i f e s t o of h i s l o v e f o r l i f e and h i s f e a r of d e a t h which c o n s t a n t l y haunted him: S t . C l o u d , 4 Feb. 1890 I t r u l y f e a r d e a t h . And I l o v e l i f e . I l o v e the sun t h a t s h i n e s t h r o u g h the window. I l o v e even th e f e v e r and i t s h a l l u c i n a t i o n s , the h a l f - c o n s c i o u s s t a t e when you see shadows bowing over you. I t ' s them, f a t h e r , y o u r s i s t e r who a r e w a t c h i n g o v e r you. You hear the words they w h i s p e r . . And I l i v e w i t h the dead, my mother, my s i s t e r , my g r a n d f a t h e r , my f a t h e r , m o s t l y w i t h him.''7 D u r i n g t h i s s t a g e of d e p r e s s i o n , Munch began t o c o n c e i v e of l i f e as an a s p e c t of d e a t h , and of l o v e - t h e b i o l o g i c a l u n i o n between man and woman - as a m e d i a l stage of l i f e w h ich l e a d s i n t o d e a t h . 16 The development of the F r i e z e and t h e manner i n whic h the works were executed i s somewhat vague and c o m p l i c a t e d . None of the l i t e r a t u r e on Munch c o n c e n t r a t e s s o l e l y on the development of the F r i e z e from the b e g i n n i n g u n t i l the f i n a l c o m p l e t i o n i n 1902. Only R e i n h o l d H e l l e r a t t e m p t s t o g i v e a o s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y of the g e n e s i s and meaning of the F r i e z e . Yet t h i s s t u d y does not i n c l u d e t h e f i n a l s e r i e s of t h e F r i e z e , as i t was e x h i b i t e d i n t h e 1902 B e r l i n S e c e s s i o n . N o t h i n g much i s known about the B e r l i n S e c e s s i o n e x h i b i t i o n e x c e p t t h a t the F r i e z e was d e s c r i b e d i n the c a t a l o g u e as a s e r i e s "of p i c t u r e s of l i f e " . A l s o , the s e r i e s c o n s i s t e d of 22 p a i n t i n g s and i t was d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s e c t i o n s under the h e a d i n g s : Seeds of Love, F l o w e r i n g and P a s s i n g of Love, L i f e and A n x i e t y , Death. The o n l y o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e on t h i s e x h i b i t i o n i s H e l l e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of i t . He c l a i m s t h a t the n a r r a t i v e p l o t of t h e F r i e z e was p r i m a r i l y based on the theme of l o v e : Love b e g i n s d u r i n g midsummer n i g h t w i t h dreams of coming l o v e w h i c h a r e f o l l o w e d b y t h e f i r s t k i s s . Course of l o v e c o n t i n u e s , p l e a s u r e m i n g l e d w i t h p a i n , a t t a i n i n g h i g h e s t i n t e n s i t y i n t he Madonna f a c e l o v i n g woman, .love d i s r u p t e d , t h o u g h t s of j e a l o u s y and d i e s i n the moment of d e s p a i r . 9 Thus, i n o r d e r t o r e a s s e s s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the F r i e z e of L i f e i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o d e a l w i t h i t s v a r i o u s works w h i c h c o n c e n t r a t e on the two b a s i c i s s u e s of t h e F r i e z e - the r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and woman and t h e a s p e c t s of l i f e and d e a t h . MAJOR WORKS OF THE FRIEZE OF L I F E SERIES The main i s s u e s t h a t Munch was c o n f r o n t e d w i t h i n the F r i e z e (the r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and woman and the a s p e c t o f l i f e and deat h ) were p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e d t o ; h i s c o n c e p t i o n of the t h r e e b a s i c t y p e s of woman; the v i r g i n , t e m p t r e s s and mother. He a s s o c i a t e d most of the works of the F r i e z e w i t h one o r more of thes e t h r e e t y p e s . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Munch's c o n c e p t i o n of t h e t h r e e b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of woman i s e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r t o comprehend, the theme of the F r i e z e ' s works. The v i r g i n , a c c o r d i n g t o Munch, i s the pure young woman e n t e r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e . The te m p t r e s s i s man's s e x u a l p a r t n e r , e x t r e m e l y d i s h o n e s t and a t h r e a t t o man's e x i s t e n c e . The mother-widow, i s a h e r o i c f i g u r e who r i s k s d e a t h t o b r i n g f o r t h l i f e . In 1893 Munch made a s k e t c h , S y m b o l i c Study ( F i g . 1 1 ) , f o r one of h i s p r i m a r y works, The Three A s p e c t s of Woman ( F i g . 1 2 ) . In t h i s s t u d y , he i n c o r p o r a t e s a l l the v a r i a t i o n s of a woman's c h a r a c t e r . The s k e t c h i s made up of a frame w h i c h d i v i d e s the study i n t o two p a r t s . The o u t e r v e r t i c a l and. h o r i z o n t a l p a r t s of the frame a r e made up of female f i g u r e s The d i v i d i n g element i n the mid d l e of t h e st u d y i s a l s o made up of t h r e e female heads, which a r e p l a c e d o v e r a man's head. T h i s frame e n c l o s e s two scenes. The f i r s t scene d e p i c t s a v a r i a t i o n of the M e l a n c h o l y - J e a l o u s y theme. In t h i s v e r s i o n of the me l a n c h o l y theme, w h i c h p r e o c c u p i e d Munch a g r e a t d e a l , 18 t h e p r i m a r y r o l e s have been a l t e r e d . The male„figure, who i s the p r i m a r y element i n t h e o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n , has been r e p l a c e d here by a female f i g u r e . The scene d e p i c t s a young woman d r e s s e d i n w h i t e , s e a t e d on t h e s h o r e , r e j e c t e d by her l o v e r who w a l k s away w i t h a n o t h e r woman. The o t h e r scene r e p r e s e n t s a v a r i a t i o n o f t h e theme To The F o r e s t . The scene d e p i c t s a young woman, d r e s s e d i n r e d , c u d d l e d by a man. The c o u p l e walks o f f towards t h e f o r e s t . The frame r e p r e s e n t s t h e t h r e e main a s p e c t s o f woman: t h e v i r g i n , t h e t e m p t r e s s and the mother o r widow. The v i r g i n woman i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e y e l l o w female f i g u r e on the l e f t who f o l d s h e r hands t i m i d l y i n f r o n t o f he r . The t e m p t r e s s i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e r e d - v i o l e t f i g u r e , who l i e s s e n s u a l l y a t t h e t o p o f t h e frame w i t h horns s p r o u t i n g d i a b o l i c a l l y from h e r head. The mother i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e green nude a t t h e r i g h t who f o l d s h e r hands p r a y e r f u l l y and has a h a l o over h e r head. The theme o f the t h r e e a s p e c t s o f woman i s r e p e a t e d f o r t h e second t i m e i n t h e s k e t c h by t h e t r i c h e p h a l o u s female image which i s used as a d i v i d i n g element. Y e t , t h e theme i s p a r t l y a l t e r n a t e d here t o r e d e v e l o p t h e theme as i t i s c o n c e i v e d by a man. He i m p l i e s t h i s , by r e p r e s e n t i n g a bearded man i n a c o n t e m p l a t i v e mood f a c i n g downwards w i t h h i s eyes c l o s e d . He i s o b v i o u s l y t h i n k i n g o f the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f woman which a r e s y m b o l i c a l l y d e p i c t e d over h i s head: t h e v i r g i n i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e blonde h a i r e d r head; t h e t e m p t r e s s by t h e r e d - h a i r e d head and t h e mother by 19 the b l a c k - h a i r e d head. I n t h i s same s k e t c h , Munch a l s o d e a l s w i t h the theme of d e a t h , w h i c h was an i m p o r t a n t element w i t h i n the F r i e z e of L i f e r e p r e s e n t i n g a n o t h e r a s p e c t of l i f e . Death i s here p o r t r a y e d by t h e g r e y i s h , g r e e n c o r p s e w h i c h l i e s und_erneath the man. The theme of d e a t h i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h i s s k e t c h because Munch c o n c e i v e d i t t o be a n o t h e r a s p e c t of woman, s i n c e he b e l i e v e d t h a t the mother h e r o i c a l l y r i s k e d l i f e t o b r i n g f o r t h an o f f s p r i n g . He s i m p l i f i e d t h e Sy m b o l i c Study, i n t o the p a i n t i n g Three A s p e c t s of Woman, whi c h r e p r e s e n t s t h r e e female f i g u r e s u n d e r neath a t r e e , i n f r o n t of t h e sea sh o r e . He made a number of v e r s i o n s of t h i s p a i n t i n g , u s u a l l y a l t e r n a t i n g t h e background e f f e c t s o r some d e t a i l s of t h e f i g u r e s . Yet the c e n t r a l theme remains the same: the v i r g i n f i g u r e i s always d e p i c t e d i n w h i t e , and. f a c e s the sea; the te m p t r e s s i s alw a y s p o r t r a y e d naked w i t h her arms o u t s t r e t c h e d over h e r head; and. the mother-widow f i g u r e i s always d e p i c t e d i n b l a c k f a c i n g downwards w i t h h er hands f o l d e d i n f r o n t of h e r . The s y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of th e s e t h r e e f i g u r e s i s p u r p o s e l y used t o e x e m p l i f y the t h r e e t y p e s of woman, as Munch h i m s e l f c o n c e i v e d them: The t h r e e women. I r e n e , d r e s s e d ; i n w h i t e , g a z i n g d r e a m i l y out i n t o l i f e . Maya, hungry f o r l i f e naked. The woman of sorrows w i t h r i g i d p a l e f a c e among the t r e e s I r e n e ' s f a t e - as nurse . ! 0 The i d y l l i c s e t t i n g of the t r e e s and. the sea shore i s a l s o s y m b o l i c . I t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h N o r d i c mythology and the 20 n o r t h e r n t r a d i t i o n a l concept o f woman.11 In t h e N o r d i c myths, woman a l s o b e l o n g e d t o t h r e e b a s i c t y p e s which were s y m b o l i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e t h r e e maidens known as Norns. The Norns were r e l a t e d t o t h e t r e e o f l i f e , Y g g d r a s i l l , which t h e y guarded and t o o k c a r e o f . Andreas Munch s t a t e d t h e myth of the Norns as f o l l o w s s The w o r l d had f o r i t s c e n t r e a g r e a t t r e e , a mighty ash c a l l e d Y g g d r a s i l l . So huge was t h i s t r e e t h a t i t s branches s t r e t c h e d out o v e r heaven and e a r t h a l i k e . Three r o o t s s u p p o r t e d t h e g r e a t t r u n k and one p a s s e d i n t o t h e r e a l m o f the A e s i r , a second i n t o t h a t o f t h e f r o s t g i a n t s , and a t h i r d i n t o t h e r e a l m o f t h e dead. Beneath th e r o o t i n g i a n t l a n d was the s p r i n g o f M i m i r , whose w a t e r s c o n t a i n e d wisdom and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Near th e s p r i n g o f f a t e d w e l t t h r e e maidens c a l l e d the Norns, who r u l e d _ t h e d e s t i n i e s o f man and were c a l l e d F a t e ( V r o r ) B e i n g ( V e r o a n d i ) and N e c e s s i t y ( S k u l d ) . They watered t h e t r e e each day w i t h pure water and w h i t e n e d i t w i t h c l a y from t h e s p r i n g , and i n t h i s way p r e s e r v e d i t s l i f e . 12 Munch's a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h N o r d i c mythology i s t o be found i n o t h e r p r i m a r y works of the F r i e z e , which a r e r e l a t e d t o the theme of l o v e and d e a t h . The v i r g i n a l a s p e c t o f woman i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one o f t h e F r i e z e ' s p r i m a r y works known as t h e V o i c e , 1893 ( F i g . 13), which c o n s t i t u t e s t h e f i r s t s t a g e o f t h e Frie:ze*s n a r r a t i v e p l o t o f l o v e . I n t h e V o i c e Munch d e a l s w i t h t h e theme o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t g i r l who has become aware o f her s e x u a l a b i l i t i e s . The p a i n t i n g d e p i c t s a young g i r l , d r e s s e d i n w h i t e , w i t h h e r arms b e h i n d h e r , s t a n d i n g among the t r e e s w i t h a v i e w of a. sea shore and t h e moon i n the background. He d e p i c t s t h i s young woman i n a p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e as she becomes awakened by h er s e x u a l d r i v e s : Munch shows us the r e c e n t l y matured g i r l as she has h e r Summer N i g h t ' s Dream; i . e . how the s e x u a l w i l l r i s e s s t i f f l y f o r the f i r s t time d u r i n g a p a l e , m o o n l i t n i g h t n e a r the s e a , and how the g i r l r o v e s among the t r e e s , l o n g l y , a l l h e r l i m b s n e r v o u s l y t e n s e , h e r hands rampled t o g e t h e r b e h i n d h e r , h e r head t o s s e d back, and h e r eyes s t a r i n g , s t a r i n g wide and. v a m p i r e - l i k e . ^ 3 Munch a s s o c i a t e s the woman's s e x u a l d e s i r e s w i t h an i n n e r v o i c e which t r i e s t o come out of h e r . A l s o , the woman's pose, which i s p a r t i a l l y r e l a t e d t o the t e m p t r e s s ' s pose i n the p a i n t i n g The Three A s p e c t s of Woman, i n c r e a s e s h e r p r o v o c a t i v e q u a l i t y . By d e p i c t i n g the young woman w i t h h e r arms h e l d b e h i n d h e r , he i m p l i e s t h a t she i s ready t o p r e s e n t h e r s e l f t o a man. The male personage i n t h i s p a i n t i n g i s s y m b o l i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d by the p h a l l i c symbol of the round moon and. i t s c o l u m n - l i k e r e f l e c t i o n on the wa t e r . Munch used t h i s p h a l l i c symbol i n a number of h i s works which have e r o t i c i s m as a c e n t r a l t h e m e . ^ The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e p h a l l i c symbol w i t h o r g a n i c shapes, such as the moon and. t h e sun, d a t e s back t o E g y p t i a n t i m e s . D u r i n g the E g y p t i a n e r a , t h e moon r e p r e s e n t e d the female personage and the sun t h e male. Munch a l t e r e d the t r a d i t i o n a l symbolism; f o r him the moon was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the male personage. T h i s a l t e r e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n has i t s o r i g i n i n N o r d i c mythology. I n Norse mythology the moon i s d e s c r i b e d as a m a s c u l i n e persona; the b r o t h e r of the sun: The gods caused, time t o e x i s t , s e n d i n g N i g h t and Day t o d r i v e round the heavens i n c h a r i o t s drawn by s w i f t h o r s e s . Two f a i r c h i l d r e n , a g i r l 22 c a l l e d sun and a boy c a l l e d moon were a l s o s e t by them on paths a c r o s s the sky. -^5 Munch a s s o c i a t e d the p h a l l i c image of t h e moon w i t h the s y m b o l i c scenes of the f o r e s t and the sea scape: t o scenes and o b j e c t s t h a t he saw i n n a t u r e . He was i n s p i r e d by A a s g a a r d s t r a n d ' s s c e n e r y and used, i t as the s y m b o l i c s e t t i n g f o r most of the works of the F r i e z e . 0 The f o r e s t s and the t r e e s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m y t h o l o g i c a l l i f e t r e e , Y g g d r a s i l l . I n Norse Mythology, the f o r e s t s were c o n c e i v e d of as s a c r e d a r e a s where s a c r e d r i t e s were performed. A l s o Aasgaard was the p l a c e where t h e i r gods r e s i d e d : "Once heaven and e a r t h were formed, i t was time t o s e t about the b u i l d i n g of Aasgaard, the r e a l m of the g o d s . " 1 ? Thus Munch p o r t r a y e d most of the works of the F r i e z e w i t h i n a s y m b o l i c s a c r e d s e t t i n g . F o r example, the theme of the V o i c e (an a d o l e s c e n t woman awakening t o h e r f i r s t s e x u a l d e s i r e s ) i s g i v e n b o t h a s a c r e d and a s y m b o l i c e f f e c t . By d e p i c t i n g the young g i r l w i t h i n the sac r e d s u r r o u n d i n g s of a f o r e s t where p r e - c h r i s t i a n r i t e s were performed, he makes the f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e s o f l o v e a nalogous t o t h e Norse t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s a c t s . A l s o , the f o r e s t and the sho r e s of the f j o r d a r e N o r t h e r n symbols of the t r a d i t i o n a l meeting p l a c e of Norwegian l o v e r s a t m i d n i g h t ; the time of c o u r t i n g . The second s t a g e of woman - the t e m p t r e s s - i s r e l a t e d t o t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e F r i e z e ' s works w h i c h have as a c e n t r a l theme the r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and woman. Munch p r e s e n t s the f i r s t s t a g e of l o v e , i n the scene of A t t r a c t i o n , I896 ( F i g . 1 4 ) , where he d e p i c t s t h e c o u p l e as t h e y f i r s t meet and t u r n towards each o t h e r i n a midsummer n i g h t s e t t i n g . The man's attachment t o t h e woman i s s y m b o l i c a l l y i m p l i e d by t h e woman's l o n g h a i r , which e n c i r c l e s and e n g u l f s t h e f i g u r e o f 18 th e man. A l s o t h e u n i t y between t h e man and t h e woman i s s y m b o l i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e p h a l l i c symbol which i s p l a c e d between them. The second s t a g e o f l o v e , which i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n The K i s s , 1892 ( F i g . 15), d e p i c t s t h e f i r s t s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e between t h e c o u p l e . Munch r e p r e s e n t s t h e c o u p l e as t h e y a r e l o s t i n a. p a s s i o n a t e k i s s , t h e i r b o d i e s t i g h t l y embracing each o t h e r . F o l l o w i n g t h e k i s s i s t h e b i o l o g i c a l u n i o n between man and woman, as i t t a k e s p l a c e i n To The F o r e s t , 1897 ( F i g . 1 6 ) , where no one can d i s t u r b them. Munch gave a prominent p l a c e t o t h i s p a i n t i n g , w i t h i n t h e F r i e z e , by d e s c r i b i n g i t as t h e p a i n t i n g which h o l d s t h e whole l i f e c y c l e t o g e t h e r : The theme o f t h e l a r g e s t p i c t u r e , Man and Woman, i n t h e f o r e s t , showing t h e two f i g u r e s , perhaps s t a n d s somewhat a p a r t from t h e o t h e r s , but i t i s as n e c e s s a r y t o the F r i e z e as a whole as t h e b u c k l e i s t o t h e b e l t . I t i s a p i c t u r e o f l i f e as o f dea t h ; o f t h e f o r e s t , t h a t sucks t h e nourishment from t h e dead: o f the c i t y t h a t r i s e s beyond the t r e e t o p s . I t i s a. p o t r a y a l of th e p o w e r f u l f o r c e s t h a t s u p p o r t our l i v e s . 19 The theme To The F o r e s t i s not o n l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e theme o f l o v e and w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and woman, but a l s o w i t h t h e second i s s u e o f t h e F r i e z e ' s i n t e n t i o n s , t h a t i s , t h e a s p e c t s o f l i f e and dea t h . Munch had a double image o f woman as the t e m p t r e s s 24 i n t he r o l e o f man's s e x u a l p a r t n e r . As the woman who was w i l l i n g t o come i n t o u n i o n w i t h man i n o r d e r t o b r i n g f o r t h l i f e , she was c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e woman who was f u l f i l l i n g her n a t u r a l r o l e i n l i f e . But as a s e x u a l p a r t n e r o f man, she was c o n c e i v e d as a whore who t r i e s t o o u t w i t man and suck h i s blood, and h i s energy. I n Vampire, 1893 ( F i g . 1 7 ) , Munch r e p r e s e n t s a woman b e n d i n g o v e r a man, h e r l o n g h a i r e n v e l o p i n g most o f h i s body. D r i v e n by h i s s e x u a l d e s i r e s man t u r n s t o woman f o r r e l i e f o n l y t o f i n d out t h a t she has changed i n t o a. vampire because o f her s t r o n g s e x u a l d e s i r e s . She bends o v e r him, l i k e an a n i m a l eager t o d r a i n h i s s e x u a l energy away: " I n Vampire man f a l l s v i c t i m t o the consequences o f h i s d e s i r e s . He i s t r a p p e d and env e l o p e d by woman the 20 w i t c h . " The theme o f woman as a v i c t o r o v e r man and man's d e s p a i r and emptiness a f t e r s e x u a l u n i o n i s more f u l l y d e v e l o p e d i n Ashes, 1894 ( F i g . 1 8 ) . In Ashes Munch d e p i c t s a young woman w i t h l o n g h a i r s t a n d i n g w i t h h e r hands over h e r head. (A g a i n h e r pose i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f the t e m p t r e s s ' s pose i n The Three A s p e c t s o f Woman). Her d r e s s i s h a l f open, which i m p l i e s t h a t an e r o t i c a c t has t a k e n p l a c e . The woman st a n d s t r i u m p h a n t l y e r e c t , as she has o u t w i t t e d man t h r o u g h t h e i r s e x u a l a c t and has made him, h e r pr e y . Man i s d e p i c t e d i n the n e a r c o r n e r , w i t h h i s hands o v e r h i s bent head. H i s s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h the woman have d r i v e n him away i n d e s p a i r , r a t h e r t h a n b i n d i n g him c l o s e r t o h e r . Another a s p e c t o f man's d e s p a i r , which was r e l a t e d 25 t o h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h woman, was t h e woman's r e j e c t i o n o f man f o r a n o t h e r l o v e r . The two works o f the F r i e z e ' s s e r i e s , M e l a n c h o l y , 1891 ( F i g . 19) and J e a l o u s y . 1895 ( F i g . 2 0 ) , d e a l w i t h t h i s a s p e c t o f r e j e c t i o n . I n M e l a n c h o l y Munch d e a l s w i t h t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s t h a t t h e woman's r e j e c t i o n have on man. He d e p i c t s t h e r e j e c t e d l o v e r s e a t e d on t h e s h o r e , w i t h h i s back t u r n e d away from the sea and t h e c o u p l e on t h e f j o r d . He f a c e s downwards, r e s t i n g h i s head on h i s arm. He seems t o be l o s t i n h i s t h o u g h t s , b r o o d i n g over t h e woman's r e j e c t i o n . Munch, i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s work e x p l a i n e d t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s t h a t such a r e j e c t i o n have on a l o v e r : When you l e f t me t o c r o s s t h e ocean, i t was as i f some w i r e s h e l d us t o g e t h e r . They t o r e open something l i k e a wound. 21 The theme o f s e p a r a t i o n was a l s o r e s t a t e d i n t h e p a i n t i n g S e p a r a t i o n , I 8 9 6 ( F i g . 21) which i s c o u n t e r p a r t t o the f i r s t s t a g e o f l o v e , A t t r a c t i o n . I n S e p a r a t i o n Munch d e p i c t s t h e c o u p l e i n t h e same midsummer s e t t i n g as i n A t t r a c t i o n , but here t h e c o u p l e t u r n s away from each other? t h e woman t r i u m p h a n t l y l o o k i n g towards t h e se a , the man, d e f e a t e d f a c i n g downwards. The f i n a l s t a g e of the F r i e z e ' s n a r r a t i v e p l o t o f l o v e , The Scream, 1893 ( F i g . 2 2 ) , d e a l s w i t h t h e u l t i m a t e d e s p a i r of man which l e a d s him t o i n s a n i t y . I n D e s p a i r , 1892, Munch d e p i c t e d a l o n e l y man on t h e f j o r d l o o k i n g downwards. In I 8 93 , i n The Scream, t h e f i g u r e o f t h e man i s r e p l a c e d by 26 a s k e l e t a l image which l o o k s out o f t h e p i c t u r e w i t h i t s mouth wide open and i t s hands o v e r i t s e a r s . The image i s s e x l e s s and i t s body t a k e s t h e shape o f t h e l i n e a r c u r v a t u r e o f t h e s t r i a t e d l a n d s c a p e and sky. On one o f t h e s e r e d s t r i a t i o n s , Munch wrote "can o n l y have been done by someone 22 insane'.'. T h i s scene r e p r e s e n t s an i n t e n s e mood o f a n x i e t y and d read which i s p r o j e c t e d from an i n n e r s t a t e t o an e x t e r i o r one; from t h e i n t r o s p e c t i o n o f t h e s u b c o n s c i o u s t o an environment i n f e c t e d by t h e i n n e r s t a t e . Man's u l t i m a t e d e s p a i r and i n s a n i t y r e s u l t s from h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h woman and from h i s complete i s o l a t i o n from h i s s o c i a l and n a t u r a l environment. The second p r i m a r y i s s u e o f t h e F r i e z e ' s theme which d e a l s w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l a s p e c t s o f l i f e and death i s r e l a t e d t o t h e t h i r d a s p e c t o f woman, t h e mother o r widow f i g u r e . The mother a s p e c t o f woman was p r i m a r i l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t he theme o f Madonna, 1895 ( F i g . 23), i n which Munch d e p i c t s t h e mother as s a i n t ; an i d o l i z e d f i g u r e w i t h a h a l o o ver h e r head. He e n c i r c l e s t h e f i g u r e by a frame made up of spermatozoa and a f e t u s image p l a c e d a t the f a r l e f t c o r n e r o f t h e frame i n o r d e r t o s y m b o l i c a l l y i m p l y the n a t u r a l r o l e o f mother i n l i f e . The Madonna was d e s c r i b e d by one o f Munch*s f r i e n d s , S i g b j o r n O b s t f e l d e r , as t h e epitome o f woman, i n h e r r o l e o f b r i n g i n g f o r t h l i f e : F o r me, h i s Madonna p a i n t i n g i s the epitome o f h i s a r t . I t i s t h e w o r l d ' s madonna, woman who g i v e s b i r t h i n p a i n t h a t which l i e s a t t h e bottom o f l i f e as not c l e a r l y seen by 27 our eyes, e i t h e r i n form, c o l o r o r i d e a Munch sees woman as she c a r r i e s t h e g r e a t e s t m a r v e l of the w o r l d i n h e r womb He seeks t o d e p i c t t h a t moment when she f i r s t becomes c o n s c i o u s of t h i s i n a l l i t s gruesomeness.23 Munch c o n s i d e r e d woman t h e l i f e g i v e r - as a h e r o i c f i g u r e who was w i l l i n g t o c o u r t d e a t h i n o r d e r t o b r i n g f o r t h the g i f t of l i f e . He c o n c e i v e d her as t h e immediate f a c t o r x w h i c h l i n k s g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n s A n o t h e r a s p e c t of woman i s t h e e a r t h , a n x i o u s always w a i t i n g t o be in s e m i n a t e d t o ta k e p l a c e a t the p r o p e r time and a n x i o u s t o have the seed. grow. T h i s was the woman o f f e r i n g h e r s e l f f o r the l i f e of the c h i l d , The Madonna, s e r v i n g as the l i n k i n the c h a i n o f g e n e r a t i o n s . 2 4 Munch a s s o c i a t e d the a c t of b i r t h and. l i f e w i t h t h e a s p e c t of d e a t h . He b e l i e v e d t h a t the a s p e c t s of l i f e and. d e a t h depended, on and emerged, from each o t h e r . H i s . p h i l o s o p h y o f l i f e and. d e a t h were dependent on t h e b e l i e f o f an a f t e r l i f e . But h i s c o n c e p t i o n of an a f t e r l i f e was not r e l a t e d t o the c h r i s t i a n c o n c e p t . He b e l i e v e d t h a t the a f t e r l i f e was a m e d i a l stage i n the c o n s t a n t e v o l v i n g c i r c l e of l i f e and d e a t h . Munch d e f i n e d h i s c o n c e p t i o n of the a f t e r l i f e , i n one o f h i s s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y t e x t s : One must b e l i e v e i n an a f t e r l i f e because i t can be demonstrated t h a t t h e atoms o f l i f e - o r the l i f e s p i r i t - must c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t even a f t e r t he body d i e s . But t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of h o l d i n g a body t o g e t h e r , of c a u s i n g m a t t e r t o change and. d e v e l o p , t t h i s l i f e - s p i r i t of what does i t c o n s i s t ? There i s n o t h i n g t h a t ceases t o e x i s t ; t h e r e i s no example i n n a t u r e of something c e a s i n g t o e x i s t . A body does not d i s a p p e a r a f t e r i t d i e s . I t s components s e p a r a t e a r e from the o t h e r and become t r a n s f o r m e d . But of what does t h i s a c t u a l s p i r i t of l i f e r e a l l y c o n s i s t ? 2 5 28 Munch a s s o c i a t e d the m e d i a l stage of the a f t e r l i f e w i t h the d e c o m p o s i t i o n of a human c o r p s e ; as i t d i s i n t e g r a t e s i n t o t he s u r r o u n d i n g components of the e a r t h , t o become f e r t i l i z e r s f o r t h e new l i f e . The p r o c e s s of me t a b o l i s m , from the s t a g e of d e a t h i n t o l i f e , was i n c o r p o r a t e d by Munch i n a number of s t u d i e s , Man Under T r e e , 1902, Woman With T r e e , 1897 and i n t o a l i t h o g r a p h , L i f e and Death, 1897 ( F i g . 2k). T h i s work i s d i v i d e d i n t o an upper and. lower r e g i o n by means of a h o r i z o n t a l band. In the l o w e r s e c t i o n , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s the underground s e c t i o n o f the e a r t h , a woman's c o r p s e w i t h a b l o a t e d body, l i e s , as i f b u r i e d i n the e a r t h . From h e r , gaseous f a c e masks r i s e up a l o n g t h e b o r d e r w h i c h d i v i d e s the two r e g i o n s of the p i c t u r e . At the l e f t s i d e , a l o n g the b o r d e r , beneath a t r e e t h a t grows out of a s k u l l and spreads i t s b r anches l a d e n w i t h f r u i t , s t a n d s a pregnant woman f a c i n g towards t h e s e a . The p r o c e s s o f l i f e i n t h i s work i s s y m b o l i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the woman - t h e mother -l i f e g l v e r ; w i t h the t r e e of l i f e , Y g g d r a s i l l (as i n the Norse m y t h o l o g y ) ; w i t h the sea; and a l s o w i t h t h e decomposed b o d i e s w h i c h a c t as f e r t i l i z e r f o r the new l i f e . The p a i n t i n g s w h i c h have been d i s c u s s e d i n t h e second p a r t of t h i s c h a p t e r c o n s t i t u t e p a r t of t h e F r i e z e ' s s e r i e s . These p a i n t i n g s r e p r e s e n t some of t h e b a s i c themes of the F r i e z e ' s i s s u e s , which c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and woman and.the a s p e c t s of l i f e and d e a t h . 29 CHAPTER I I NOTES 1 R e i n h o l d H e l l e r , Edvard Munch's ' L i f e F r i e z e ' s  I t s B e g i n n i n g s and O r i g i n s . ( I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y : Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , 1969). p. 3 2 R e i n h o l d H e l l e r , "Edvard Munch and C l a r i f i c a t i o n of L i f e " . O b e r l l n C o l l e g e B u l l e t i n , 29/3 ( S p r i n g , 1972), 121. 3 T h i s a s s e r t i o n i s supported, by the m a j o r i t y of the a r t h i s t o r i a n s who have w r i t t e n on Munch. Y e t i t i s b e s t stated, i n the Winnipeg A r t G a l l e r y E x h i b i t i o n C a t a l o g u e , Edvard Mmrnh 8 The Graphic Wnr-ks. (1969-1970,) p. 10. "This e x p a n s i v e e f f o r t was o b v i o u s l y the f r u i t of i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , as w e l l as a v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n of l i t e r a r y ; and p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a s c u r r e n t l y expounded by S c a n d i n a v i a n , German and. S l a v o n i c a r t i s t a n t s ( s i c ) of h i s c l o s e a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h I b s e n and S t r i n d b e r g among o t h e r s . " 4 Johan H. Langaard and R e i d a r R e v o l d , Edvard  Munch. (New York: M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., 1964), p. 56. 5 I b i d . , 49-50. 6 H e l l e r , "Edvard Munch and C l a r i f i c a t i o n of L i f e " , 121. 7 I b i d . , 128-9. 8 H e l l e r , Edvard Munch's ' L i f e F r i e z e ' : I t s  B e g i n n i n g s and. O r i g i n s . 9 R e i n h o l d H e l l e r , Edvard Munch: The Scream (London: Penguin P r e s s , 1973), p. 34. 10 Langaard and R e v o l d , Edvard Munch, 55 • 11 Munch had l e a r n e d the N o r d i c mythology and the Sagas T a l e s a t an e a r l y age from h i s u n c l e Andreas, who was an e x p e r t h i s t o r i a n , and an a u t h o r i t y on N o r d i c mythology. 30 CHAPTER I I NOTES (c o n t ' d ) 12 E l l i s , H . R . D a v i d s o n , Gods, Myths of N o r t h e r n  Europe (England: Penguin Books L t d . , 1964), p^ 2E~. 13 H e l l e r , Edvard. Munch: The Scream, 46. 14 Munch used, t h i s p h a l l i c symbol i n the f o l l o w i n g works: The V o i c e , 1895 ( P a i n t i n g ) . M o o n l i g h t , 1895 ( P a i n t i n g ) . Woman, 1895 ( D r y p o i n t and A q u i t i n t ) . A t t r a c t i o n , 1896 ( L i t h o g r a p h ) . Three A s p e c t s of Woman, I896 ( L i t h o g r a p h ) . E v e n i n g , 1897 ( L i t h o g r a p h ) . Salome P a r a p h r a s e , I898 (Woodcut). Two Women on the Shore, I898 ( P a i n t i n g ) . Summer N i g h t - The V o i c e , I898 ( P a i n t i n g ) . Head of Woman below a Woman's B r e a s t , I898 (Woodcut). Dance of L i f e , 1899-1900 ( P a i n t i n g ) . Dance on the Shore, 1900-1902 ( P a i n t i n g ) . Seascape, 1898 (Woodcut). Menschen and T i e r e , 1908 ( L i t h o g r a p h ) . Woman on the Shore on a M o o n l i g h t , 1921 ( P a i n t i n g ) . E v e n i n g (from A l p h a and Omega c y c l e ) , 1908 ( L i t h o g r a p h ) . 15 D a v i d s o n , Gods, Myths of N o r t h e r n Europe, 28. 16 Even when Munch moved away from Norway, he c o n t i n u e d t o use a Norwegian s e t t i n g f o r h i s works. O f t e n , i n t he d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s works i n l e t t e r s t o h i s a u n t , he emphasized t h a t the s e t t i n g s were t a k e n from h i s home a t Aa s gaa r d s t rand.: "And the m o t i f i s t a k e n from the b e a c h . o u t s i d e my house a t Aasgaardstrand." . In g e r Munch, Ed.yard Munchs Brev F a m i l i e n . ( O s l o : Johan Grundt Tanum F o r l a g , 1949), L e t t e r 232, w r i t t e n a t N o r d s t r a a n d 19 , 1 2 , 1 9 0 4 . 17 D a v i d s o n , Gods, Myths of N o r t h e r n Europe, 28. 18 I n many of h i s works, Munch used the d e v i c e of a woman's l o n g f l o w i n g h a i r t o i m p l y the bond between man and woman. 31 CHAPTER I I NOTES (c o n t ' d ) 19 Langaard and R e v o i d , Edvard Munch, 56 • 20 Los A n g e l e s , Museum of A r t , Edvard Munch: H e l l e r , "Edvard Munch and C l a r i f i c a t i o n of L i f e " , 22 H e l l e r , Edvard Munch; The Scream, 87. 23 H e l l e r , Edvard Munch's ,M,lfe F r i e z e ' : I t s  B e g i n n i n g s and I t s O r i g i n s , 195-6. 24 H e l l e r , Edvard Munch: The Scream, 39. 25 R e i n h o l d H e l l e r , "The Iconography of Edvard Munch*s S p h i n x " , A r t f o r u m , 9 ( O c t o b e r , 1970), 75. ( J a n u a r y 28 - March 9, 21 127. 32 CHAPTER I I I MUNCH'S L I F E AND ART BETWEEN THE YEARS 1902 t o 1908 -HIS MENTAL BREAKDOWN The y e a r s between Munch's l a s t e x h i b i t i o n of the F r i e z e of L i f e i n 1902, and h i s mental breakdown i n 1908, a r e s i g n i f i c a n t y e a r s which i n d i c a t e the r e a s o n s behind Munch's nervous breakdown. By the t u r n of the c e n t u r y the B e r l i n Bohemes had d i s p e r s e d , p r i m a r i l y because of the c o n s t a n t arguments between the members of the group. C o n f l i c t s had d e v e l o p e d among them as t o who was t h e o r i g i n a t o r of t h e i r i d e a s and. p h i l o s o p h i e s w h i c h they a l l e x p r e s s e d s i m i l a r l y , e i t h e r i n t h e i r l i t e r a r y o r a r t i s t i c works. S t r i n d b e r g l e f t B e r l i n f o r P a r i s ; D e l i u s moved t o E n g l a n d ; P r z y b y s z w e s k i , a f t e r h i s w i f e ' s d e a t h , moved t o Poland, and c u t o f f a l l h i s p r e v i o u s t i e s w i t h h i s f r i e n d s i n Norway and Germany. Munch a l s o d e c i d e d to move back t o Norway and s e t t l e f o r good, a t h i s summer home a t Aasgaard.strand. By t h a t t i m e , h i s work was r e c e i v i n g g r e a t r e c o g n i t i o n i n Norway and Germany; he held, many e x h i b i t i o n s , s o l d many of h i s works and r e c e i v e d many commissions t o p a i n t p r i v a t e works. At l a s t , Munch b e l i e v e d t h a t now he c o u l d a f f o r d t o s e t t l e a t h i s summer home and c o n t i n u e h i s a r t work i n peace. But a f t e r s e t t l i n g a t A a s g a a r d s t r a n d , he was c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a s e r i o u s of c o n f l i c t s between h i s Norwegian 33 m i s t r e s s , whom he had d e c i d e d t o l e a v e , and t h e i r common f r i e n d s . A f t e r the d r e a d f u l s h o o t i n g i n c i d e n t , h i s l i f e i n Norway became u n b e a r a b l e . Wherever he went, he met the woman and h e r f r i e n d s , who made l o u d p u b l i c s c e n e s . 1 Munch was una b l e t o be a r t h i s s i t u a t i o n and he began t o d r i n k v e r y h e a v i l y and got i n v o l v e d i n many p u b l i c f i g h t s w i t h h i s f r i e n d s . In one of t h e s e i n c i d e n t s , i n 1904, he n e a r l y k i l l e d one of h i s f r i e n d s , a p a i n t e r named L u d v i g K o r s t e n . The a f f a i r was made p u b l i c i n the l o c a l newspapers. Munch was d e e p l y d i s t u r b e d and d e c i d e d t o move away from Norway u n t i l a l l t h e s e i n c i d e n t s were f o r g o t t e n . As a r e s u l t of t h e s e i n c i d e n t s , h i s work and fame began t o s u f f e r . Because the p u b l i c s c a n d a l s were l n the l o c a l news, Munch l o s t the f a v o u r of the Norwegian people and found i t d i f f i c u l t t o s e l l h i s works o r g e t any commissions i n Norway. In one of h i s l e t t e r s t o h i s a u n t , he e x p l a i n e d the s i t u a t i o n he was f a c e d w i t h : I f i n d i t would i n the l o n g r u n be i m p o s s i b l e t o l i v e i n Norway where a r t i s t s a r e regarded as s c a n d a l s ( s i c ) and a b i t o f c a r e l e s s b e h a v i o r can be regarded as p l e b e i a n and one cannot even make a penny.^ Munch d e c i d e d t o move back t o Germany t o g e t away from h i s Norwegian f r i e n d s and t o enable him t o g e t good commissions. The f o l l o w i n g y e a r s , u n t i l the y e a r of h i s mental breakdown i n 1908, can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as the most t r a n s i e n t y e a r s o f Munch's l i f e . In Germany he l e d an u n s t a b l e l i f e , moving from one 3^ h o t e l t o a n o t h e r , o r b o a r d i n g w i t h r i c h f a m i l i e s who had commissioned him t o p a i n t p r i v a t e works. In t h e e a r l y months of h i s t r a v e l s he was v e r y happy t o be away from Norway and v e r y s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i s work and new a c q u a i n t a n c e s . He wrote t o h i s a u n t : I am here and away from Norwegians which i s a c o n s o l a t i o n Here I have found peace and I f e e l v e r y w e l l . I t h i n k I w i l l r e n t a house i n Germany out i n the c o u n t r y . I must get away from the whole uns a v o r y s t o r y and t h e Bohemians and have a p e a c e f u l e x i s t e n c e f o r a w h i l e . 3 But a f t e r a w h i l e Munch once a g a i n began t o c o m p l a i n , e i t h e r about h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s or h i s p a t r o n s , o r about the s t a t e of h i s n e r v e s w h i c h were a f f e c t e d by h i s memories of the i n c i d e n t s i n Norway. He began t o t r a v e l more f r e q u e n t l y from one p a r t of Germany t o a n o t h e r , and o c c u p i e d h i m s e l f more i n t e n s e l y w i t h h i s a r t work i n o r d e r t o f o r g e t h i s bad memories. But t h e f a t i g u e of c o n s t a n t t r a v e l l i n g and t h e p r e s s u r e of h i s work had a bad e f f e c t on h i s n e r v e s and r e s u l t e d i n a minor nervous breakdown i n 1905. Munch d e c i d e d t o move t o a h e a l t h r e s o r t a t Bad L o r s e n i n T h u r i n g i a , f o r r e l a x a t i o n and a p o s s i b l e c u r e . But a l t h o u g h the t h e r a p y a t the r e s o r t gave him some measure of p h y s i c a l r e l a x a t i o n , t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y s i d e reminded him a g r e a t d e a l of Norway and a f f e c t e d him p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y . T h u r i n g i a made him homesick f o r Norway, but a t the same t i m e , t h e t e r r i b l e memories of h i s p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s t h e r e p r e v e n t e d him from r e t u r n i n g . He wrote t o h i s aunt of h i s d e s i r e t o r e t u r n t o Norway and a l s o e x p l a i n e d t h e r e a s o n s t h a t k e p t him away: 35 I t i s r a t h e r sad. t h a t I cannot v i s i t my i d y l l i c home i n A a s g a a r d s t r a n d but when I t h i n k about a l l the u n c o m f o r t a b l e s i t u a t i o n s I g e t i n t o when I am t h e r e t h e n I t h i n k I had b e t t e r s t a y where I am i n a f o r e i g n country.5 In 1907, Munch t r a v e l l e d t o Warnemunde and s t a y e d f o r a y e a r because the c o u n t r y s i d e reminded him of h i s own c o u n t r y . A f t e r h i s r e t u r n t o Germany, he once a g a i n complained about h i s m ental s t a t e , and wrote t o h i s aunt t h a t he was s e a r c h i n g f o r a q u i e t p l a c e where he c o u l d g e t some r e l a x a t i o n : I must f i n d a p l a c e where I can s t a y f o r a y e a r i n complete c o u n t r y q u i e t , i n o r d e r t o g e t my n e r v e s i n shape a g a i n . " He a l s o emphasized t h a t a l l h i s p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s and. h i s c o n s t a n t t r a v e l l i n g had made him more of a r e c l u s e and more a f r a i d of p e o p l e : By the way I see a l m o s t no one; a shyness of people i s the r e s u l t of the o l d s t o r y . ? At the end of 1907, Munch once a g a i n t r a v e l l e d t o Warnemunde and. t h e n t o Sweden. On h i s r e t u r n t o Germany, he f i n a l l y d e c i d e d t o move back t o Norway. On h i s r e t u r n he spent some time w i t h an o l d f r i e n d of h i s , the w r i t e r S i g u r d M a t h i e s s o n , w i t h whom he went on a f o u r day d r i n k i n g s p r e e . By the end of t h e f o u r days he was i n a s t a t e of p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l c o l l a p s e and. he s u f f e r e d a s e v e r e nervous breakdown. As a r e s u l t , he d e c i d e d t o commit h i m s e l f t o a p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c where he would r e c e i v e p r o p e r t r e a t m e n t . He committed h i m s e l f t o Dr. Jakobsen's p r i v a t e c l i n i c i n Copenhagen where he remained f o r n i n e months. From the h o s p i t a l he wrote t o h i s aunt and e x p l a i n e d t h a t he was glad, t h a t f i n a l l y he would 36 be r e c e i v i n g p r o p e r t r e a t m e n t and emphasized t h a t he should have done so a f t e r the f a t a l i n c i d e n t w i t h h i s m i s t r e s s ; I have had m y s e l f a d m i t t e d t o a n e r v e s s a n a t o r i u m . I hope t h a t here I w i l l f i n d a cure f o r the u n b e a r a b l e i n n e r t u r m o i l w h i c h I,have s u f f e r e d from s i n c e t h a t s t o r y . I should have done t h i s a l o n g time ago, t h e n I would have saved m y s e l f and you and many o t h e r s a l o t of u n p l e a s a n t n e s s . When you t h i n k of what I went t h r o u g h those days , a l o n g w i t h t h e o t h e r p e r s e c u t i o n s i t i s q u i t e R r e a s o n a b l e that the nervous system be s h a t t e r e d . * * * * * The g r e a t t u r m o i l and i n s t a b i l i t y t h a t Munch e x p e r i e n c e d a f t e r 1902 not o n l y a f f e c t e d h i s p h y s i c a l and m e ntal s t a b i l i t y , but had a l s o c r u c i a l e f f e c t s on h i s a r t work. A f t e r the 1902 B l o m q u i v t E x h i b i t i o n , where he e x h i b i t e d the F r i e z e of L i f e as a complete s e r i e s , Munch ceased a l l work on themes wh i c h were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the F r i e z e ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g l i f e , l o v e and d e a t h . The b a s i c r e a s o n f o r t h i s d i s c o n t i n u a t i o n was the f a c t t h a t the p r i m a r y i s s u e s of the F r i e z e were c l o s e l y i n f l u e n c e d by h i s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . At t h a t t i m e , Munch wanted t o f o r g e t a l l h i s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s and thus a v o i d any p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n h i s works w h i c h would b r i n g back memories from th e p a s t . A f t e r 1902, Munch p a i n t e d works which had o b j e c t i v e , themes. He p a i n t e d m a i n l y commissioned, works, «which were e i t h e r p o r t r a i t s of the p a t r o n ' s f a m i l y , Four Sons of Max L i n d e , 1903 ( F i g . 2 5 ) , P o r t r a i t of Dr. Max L l n d e , 1 9 0 2 , o r 37 scenes of t h e p a t r o n ' s e s t a t e s , Dr. Max L i n d e ' s House, 1903. He p a i n t e d numerous l a n d s c a p e s , such as Avenue i n Snow Koesen, 1906 and Harbour of Lubeck, 1907 ( P i g . 26), w h i c h show t h a t h i s a r t work was now concerned n o t w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s f e e l i n g s , but w i t h t h i n g s t h a t he saw i n n a t u r e . He a l s o p a i n t e d a number of works which have woman as a c e n t r a l theme, B r u n e t t e and B l o n d e , 1903 and Female Nudes w i t h Red. C a r p e t ,  1903 ( F i g . 27). But the e x e c u t i o n and c o n t e n t of these works d i f f e r e x c e e d i n g l y from the F r i e z e ' s works, w h i c h a l s o have woman as t h e i r c e n t r a l theme. I n t h e F r i e z e ' s works, Munch p r i m a r i l y c o n c e n t r a t e d on the c o n t e n t of t h e work; on the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of woman and how th e y r e l a t e t o l i f e , l o v e and d e a t h . I n the p a i n t i n g s of women t h a t he p a i n t e d a f t e r 1902, he i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the form of the f i g u r e - the nude. He p a i n t e d nudes t o show the s e n s u a l i t y of women as i t i s e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e i r forms which Munch r e n d e r e d i n f l u i d s t r o k e s and. v i v i d c o l o r s . 38 CHAPTER I I I NOTES 1 At t h a t time Munch wrote t o h i s aunt and e x p l a i n e d the s i t u a t i o n ^ t h a t he was f a c i n g , and the e f f e c t s t h a t t h i s woman had on him and h i s work. He e x p l a i n e d : "In K r i s t i a n i a I met so many of the c o n f r e r e s of t h a t 'woman' t h a t I j u s t g e t angry as i t i s b e s t t o by p a s s . i t That m i s e r a b l e woman has a l s o managed t o d e s t r o y my peace and t a k e n the p l e a s u r e out of t h e s u c c e s s I have a c h i e v e d . " I n g e r E. Munch, Edvard Munchs Brev F a m i l l e n ( O s l o : Johan Grundt Tanum F o r l a g , 1949), L e t t e r s 229, 230, w r i t t e n a t A a s g a a r d s t r a n d on 21,11,1904. 2 I b i d , L e t t e r 234. 3 I b i d , L e t t e r s 231, 235. 4 In a l e t t e r t o h i s a u n t , Munch e x p l a i n e d t h a t , "the b e a u t i f u l mountain s c e n e r y reminds me of Norway i t has ( a l s o ) the advantage t h a t t h e r e a r e no Norwegians w i t h i n m i l e s " . I n g e r E. Munch, Edvard Munchs Br e v F a m i l l e n , L e t t e r 249, w r i t t e n on 8,3,1906. 5 I b i d , L e t t e r 266. 6 I b i d , L e t t e r 267. 7 I b i d , L e t t e r 266. 8 I b i d , L e t t e r 2?0. 39 CHAPTER IV THE ORIGIN AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ALPHA AND OMEGA CYCLE D u r i n g h i s h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , Munch made s e v e r a l p o r t r a i t s of the h o s p i t a l s t a f f and of h i s f r i e n d s who v i s i t e d him. He a l s o made minor - drawings of the a n i m a l s t h a t he saw d u r i n g h i s v i s i t s t o t h e Copenhagen Zoo. But the most s i g n i f i c a n t work t h a t he e x e c u t e d , which i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o h i s p s y c h i a t r i c t r e a t m e n t s and h i s r e c o v e r y i s a poem t h a t he w r o t e , e n t i t l e d A l p h a and. Omega, and i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h twenty-two l i t h o g r a p h s . The poem's n a r r a t i v e p l o t c o n c e n t r a t e s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e f i r s t man and woman, A l p h a and Omega, and t h e i r l i v e s on e a r t h . I t b e g i n s w i t h t h e i r i n i t i a l a c q u a i n t a n c e and ends w i t h each of the c o u p l e ' s d e a t h . The main i s s u e s of the poem's p l o t and the b a s i c s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e l i t h o g r a p h s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e t h e A l p h a and Omega c y c l e w i t h t h e works and themes of t h e F r i e z e of L i f e s e r i e s . The o r i g i n and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the A l p h a and Omega s e r i e s i s i n i t i a l l y somewhat vague and c o n f u s i n g . A comprehensive s t u d y of t h e A l p h a and Omega s e r i e s has been c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e d by the h i s t o r i a n s who have w r i t t e n on Munch's work. Seldom, i f a t a l l , does one f i n d a c a s u a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the s e r i e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e on Munch. Only 1 2 Gustav S c h i e f l e r and Werner Timm d e a l w i t h the A l p h a and 40 Omega s e r i e s i n an a n a l y t i c a l manner. S c h i e f l e r g i v e s a condensed d e s c r i p t i o n o f the poem?;s l i t h o g r a p h s . Y e t h i s o v e r a l l c r i t i c i s m of the n a r r a t i v e p l o t of the s e r i e s i s s h o r t and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . He s i m p l y s t a t e s t h a t the theme of the poem c o n c e n t r a t e s on the u n f a i t h f u l n e s s of women: "the s e r i e s p r e s e n t s the u n f a i t h f u l n e s s of woman, as p a i n t e d by t h e i m a g i n a t i o n of the a r t i s t . Timm d e v o t e s a whole c h a p t e r t o the s e r i e s , under h e a d i n g s w h i c h d e s c r i b e i t as " s a t i r e and c a r i c a t u r e " . He sees the s e r i e s as been one of Munch's most p e s s i m i s t i c works, which demonstrates h i s detachment from the theme of the s e r i e s . He e x p l a i n s t h a t Munch's detachment from and s a t i r i c a l a l l u s i o n s t o the s t o r y of the poem i n d i c a t e t h a t he c o u l d now d e a l w i t h the b a s i c i s s u e s of t h e F r i e z e of L i f e and w i t h p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s , w i t h o u t g e t t i n g p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d . He e x p l a i n s Munch's detachment t o t h i s work i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the a f f i n i t i e s between the F r i e z e of L i f e and the A l p h a and Omega s e r i e s : I t s r o o t s b e i n g b u r i e d i n h i s e a r l i e s t e x p e r i e n c e s of l i f e . I t must, however, n ot be ov e r l o o k e d t h a t the a c t u a l e v e n t s a r e t r e a t e d here i n a manner of a p a r a b l e showing h i s g r e a t e s t detachment. Behind the s a t i r i c a l a l l u s i o n t o the f i r s t human c o u p l e , l i e s t he s u g g e s t i o n of a summation of b a s i c e x p e r i e n c e s . To a l a r g e e x t e n t t h e s e v e r y e x p e r i e n c e s had p r e v i o u s l y been i m p o r t a n t m o t i f s i n h i s p i c t u r e s ; l o v e and j e a l o u s y , the f a i t h f u l n e s s of woman, m e l a n c h o l i a , a n x i e t y and. d.eath. The s u b j e c t s of t h i s s e r i e s a r e l i n k e d w i t h the r e s t of h i s c r e a t i o n t h r o u g h c l o s e i c o n o g r a p h i c r e l a t i o n s h i p and even t h r o u g h an i n n e r c o n t i n u i t y . 41 Other a r t h i s t o r i a n s a s s o c i a t e the A l p h a and Omega s e r i e s w i t h Munch's mental breakdown o r r e f e r t o i t as a s a t i r e o r a v e r y funny work. Arve Moen r e l a t e s the s e r i e s t o Munch's men t a l r e c o v e r y , by d r a m a t i z i n g the s e r i o u s n e s s of h i s i l l n e s s . She e x p l a i n s t h a t i n the poem: L i e s the key t o h i s s e l f - a n a l y s i s , y e t t h e r e i s r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t i t w i l l n e v e r be e n t i r e l y u n d e r s t o o d by an O u t s i d e r . The a r t i s t h i m s e l f r e g a r d e d the poem a t the same time as a s e t t l e m e n t and an escape out of h i s c r i s i s . 5 Moen compared the s e r i e s t o Munch*s o t h e r works which have l o v e and woman as a c e n t r a l theme: "a s y m b o l i c f a b l e (which) crowns t h a t p a r t o f Munch's work which had woman and l o v e as i t s c e n t r a l t h e m e . S t e n e r s e n a l s o r e l a t e d the poem t o Munch's mental c r i s i s by e m p h a s i z i n g t h a t "the poem A l p h a and Omega r e f l e c t s the men t a l and s p i r i t u a l problems 7 c o n f r o n t i n g him", and t h a t i t i s a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t work, because " o n l y when he wrote the poem he r e v e a l e d h i m s e l f as Q f u l l y as i n h i s p i c t u r e s . " 0 D e k n a t e l e x p l a i n e d t h a t Munch•s i n t e n t i o n i n the s e r i e s was t o t e l l t h e s t o r y of man and woman b o t h i n f u n and i n e a r n e s t , i n o r d e r t o approach i t "w i t h s u f f i c i e n t detachment and p e r m i t a n o t e of i r o n i c s e l f - r i d i c u l e . S e l z a l s o i m p l i e d t h a t the s e r i e s was a v e r y funny work and "a r a t h e r s u r p r i s i n g work t o come from the hands of an a r t i s t so l i t t l e i n c l i n e d towards humour." 1^ These i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the Al p h a and Omega s e r i e s a r e q u i t e m i s l e a d i n g . Munch's i n t e n t i o n i n the c y c l e was not t o c r e a t e a s e r i e s o f works 42 which would make the r e a d e r o r the v i e w e r l a u g h about the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between man and woman. In the s e r i e s , Munch wanted t o r e c r e a t e h i s whole p h i l o s o p h y on l i f e , l o v e and de a t h as he had c o n c e i v e d of i t b e f o r e 1902, and had : represented, i t i n the works of the F r i e z e of L i f e s e r i e s . The development of the A l p h a and Omega s e r i e s o r i g i n a t e d p a r t l y from h i s h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n and the p s y c h i a t r i c t r e a t m e n t s t h a t he r e c e i v e d w h i c h enabled him t o r e c o v e r from h i s c r i s i s . Munch's i l l n e s s has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as b e i n g f u l l "of a n x i e t y , s e v e r e a g o r a p h o b i a and i d e a s of p e r s e c u t i o n . ' He was a l s o d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g a " n e u r o t i c o r s c h i z o i d 12 p e r s o n a l i t y . " At f i r s t , h i s d o c t o r d e c i d e d t o t r e a t Munch t h r o u g h hot e l e c t r i c a l b a t h s and e l e c t r i c a l s h o c k s . Munch, i n h i s l e t t e r s t o h i s a u n t , d e s c r i b e d the v a r i o u s t r e a t m e n t s t h a t he was r e c e i v i n g : Dear Aunt: I had b e t t e r t e l l you a l i t t l e about my l i f e h e r e . I t i s of cour s e v e r y d i f f e r e n t from my u s u a l . At f i r s t , I s t a y e d i n bed. f o r a l o n g time and the n l i t t l e by l i t t l e t he d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t s , b a t h s - b a t h s and an e x t r a c t of pi n e n e e d l e s and e l e c t r i c b a t h s t h a t work v e r y w e l l . A f t e r b r e a k f a s t I have had a i r t r e a t m e n t s . I get wrapped up and l a i d a t an open window. 13 A d r a w i n g t h a t he made a t the h o s p i t a l , A t . D r . Jakobsen's C l i n i c , 1908 ( F i g . 28) d e p i c t s Munch r e c e i v i n g e l e c t r i c a l t r e a t m e n t s . The dra w i n g r e p r e s e n t s Munch s e a t e d near a t a b l e on which two e l e c t r i c a l a p p a r a t u s a r e p l a c e d . A n u r s e , s t a n d i n g n e a r Munch i s h o l d i n g w i r e l e a d i n g from.one of those a p p a r a t u s and i s handing i t t o the d o c t o r who i s *K3 a p p l y i n g i t t o the t o p of Munch*s head. At the t o p of the d r a w i n g , Munch w r o t e : P r o f e s s o r Jakobsen i s e l e c t r i f y i n g the famous p a i n t e r , Munch, and i s b r i n g i n g a p o s i t i v e m a s c u l i n e f o r c e and a n e g a t i v e f e m i n i n e f o r c e i n h i s f r a g i l e b r a i n . ^ From Munch's d e s c r i p t i o n Of h i s t r e a t m e n t s , one would t h i n k t h a t h i s d o c t o r ' s approach was based s i m p l y on the use of e l e c t r i c t r e a t m e n t s and on the i d e a of p h y s i c a l r e l a x a t i o n . But h i s t r e a t m e n t s i n c l u d e d more th a n t h a t ; h i s d o c t o r was a b r i l l i a n t man who was c o n s c i o u s of h i s p a t i e n t s ' need f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . He spent most of h i s time c h a t t i n g w i t h h i s p a t i e n t s i n o r d e r t o comprehend t h e i r problems. Dr. Jakobsen encouraged Munch t o c o n t i n u e h i s a r t work. He knew t h a t t h i s would r e l a x h i s p a t i e n t more. Munch h i m s e l f emphasized the need t o c o n t i n u e h i s a r t . Even d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d of my g r e a t e s t d e p r e s s i o n , a s t r a n g e and s o o t h i n g peace came over me when I p a i n t e d , as i f e v e r y t h i n g e v i l l e t go of me the moment I s t a r t e d . ^ 5 He p a i n t e d a number of t h e h o s p i t a l s t a f f ; P o r t r a i t of Dr. J akobsen, 1908 ( F i g . 29) and The Nurse, 1908 ( F i g . 30), and of s i c k p a t i e n t s ; M e l a n c h o l i a - The Insane Woman, 1908 ( F i g . 31). These works show the a f f e c t i o n he f e l t f o r the h o s p i t a l s t a f f and h i s c o n c e r n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g f o r a s i c k woman's s i t u a t i o n . He a l s o made numerous drawings of a n i m a l s from h i s v i s i t s t o the Copenhagen Zoo, w h i c h he l a t e r used i n v a r i o u s scenes of t h e A l p h a and Omega s e r i e s . The s u b j e c t m a t t e r of t h e s e works i n d i c a t e t h a t Munch was not 44 concerned w i t h h i s i n n e r f e e l i n g s o r a n x i e t i e s , but r a t h e r p a i n t e d the people and t h i n g s t h a t he was coming i n c o n t a c t w i t h . As Munch's r e c o v e r y p r o g r e s s e d , the D o c t o r once a g a i n encouraged him t o c a r r y out h i s p l a n s f o r a s e r i e s of works w h i c h would d e a l w i t h h i s memories of p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s . The D o c t o r b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s work would not harm Munch, but r a t h e r enable him t o r e v e a l h i s problems and a l s o r e l e a s e him from h i s i n n e r a n x i e t i e s . R e i n h o l d H e l l e r argues t h a t the c o n c e p t i o n and o r i g i n of the A l p h a and Omega s e r i e s c o m p l e t e l y o r i g i n a t e d from the D o c t o r ' s approach- t o t h e r a p e u t i c t r e a t m e n t s . He emphasized t h a t : A common t h e r a p e u t i c p r a c t i c e i s t o have the p a t i e n t d e p i c t h i s n e u r o s i s as though t h e y were a c t u a l l y o c c u r r i n g and t h e r e b y t o b r i n g them under c o n t r o l . I t was a p r a c t i c e a l r e a d y used i n 1908 by Munch's d o c t o r i n Copenhagen and the r e s u l t was the s e r i e s of l i t h o g r a p h s of A l p h a and Omega.1° Yet H e l l e r ' s t h e o r y i s q u i t e m i s l e a d i n g . A d r a w i n g done by Munch i n 1896, The Death of Omega ( F i g . 32), which has the same s u b j e c t m a t t e r and q u i t e s i m i l a r i c o n o g r a p h i c elements as the l i t h o g r a p h , Omega's Death, 1909 ( F i g . 52), From the Al p h a and Omega c y c l e , p roves t h a t Munch must have c o n c e i v e d of the s e r i e s l o n g b e f o r e h i s h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was not u n t i l h i s h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n t h a t he d e c i d e d t o execute the whole s e r i e s , because up t o t h a t time he had t r i e d t o a v o i d any c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h h i s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s . The s u b j e c t m a t t e r of the A l p h a and Omega s e r i e s , ^5 as w e l l as t h e theme of a n o t h e r work, The Rag and Bone Man or  The Wanderer, 1908 ( F i g . 33) which was a l s o made d u r i n g h i s h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , s t a n d a p a r t from the o t h e r works done a t the same t i m e , as h i s most p e r s o n a l and fundamental works. T:he: theme of the Wanderer was as a d i s g u i s e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Munch h i m s e l f and how he thought he had spent h i s time b e f o r e h i s h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n . T h i s work d e p i c t s t h e a r t i s t i n the f o r e g r o u n d of a narrow c i t y s t r e e t , t h r o u g h w h i c h he a i m l e s s l y wanders, c a r r y i n g w i t h him the heavy burden of a l l h i s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s . In the Wanderer, as w e l l as the A l p h a and Omega c y c l e , Munch s y m b o l i c a l l y e x p r e s s e s h i s i n n e r t h o u g h t s and a n x i e t i e s , as he t r i e s t o b r i n g them under c o n t r o l . * * * * * The n a r r a t i v e p l o t of t h e A l p h a and Omega i s p a r t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c h r i s t i a n f a b l e of the f i r s t human c o u p l e on e a r t h - the s t o r y of Adam and. Eve. The s t o r y d e s c r i b e s t h e c o u p l e ' s f i r s t a c q u a i n t a n c e , t h e i r a t t r a c t i o n , t h e i r s e x u a l u n i o n and. t h e i r happy days t o g e t h e r on an i s l a n d , f i l l e d w i t h a n i m a l s and f l o w e r s . But t h i s i d y l l i c p e r i o d was fo l l o w e d , by a n g u i s h and anger because of the woman's u n f a i t h f u l n e s s which r e s u l t e d i n numerous l o v e a f f a i r s w i t h the a n i m a l s on t h e i s l a n d . A l l t h e s e l o v e a f f a i r s t a k e p l a c e d i r e c t l y b e f o r e the man, who endures 46 e v e r y t h i n g because of h i s l o v e f o r the woman. He o f t e n .forgave the woman and t o o k h e r back, u n t i l she d e c i d e d t o l e a v e him and t r a v e l t o a n o t h e r i s l a n d , on the back of one of the a n i m a l s . Once the man i s r e j e c t e d and l e f t a l o n e on the i s l a n d , he i s f i l l e d w i t h p a i n , l o n e l i n e s s and d e s p a i r . He can not cope w i t h the r e j e c t i o n , n o r w i t h the woman's many o f f s p r i n g who demand a t t e n t i o n from him. When the woman f i n a l l y d e c i d e d t o r e t u r n t o the man, he has no more mercy f o r L h e r and, d r i v e n by g r e a t anger, he k i l l s h e r . But i n r e t u r n , he i s k i l l e d by the woman's o f f s p r i n g , who a r e half-man,..:half-animal, i n t h e i r d e s i r e t o seek vengeance f o r t h e i r mother's d e a t h . Munch o r i g i n a l l y wrote the poem bo t h i n Norwegian and French.. The poem read as f o l l o w s : A l p h a and. Omega were the f i r s t humans on the i s l a n d . A l p h a , l y i n g on the g r a s s , had f a l l e n a s l e e p and was dreaming. Omega came c l o s e t o him and saw him, and was f i l l e d w i t h c u r i o s i t y . Omega p i c k e d a b r a n c h of f e r n , t i c k l e d him and awakened him. A l p h a l o v e d Omega; i n the e v e n i n g t h e y would s i t by each o t h e r l o o k i n g a t the column of m o o n l i g h t t r e m b l i n g on the sea which surrounded the i s l a n d . They went deep i n t o t h e f o r e s t , and. i n t h e f o r e s t t h e r e were many a n i m a l s and s t r a n g e p l a n t s ; the p l a c e was d a r k and m y s t e r i o u s , but t h e r e were many l o v e l y l i t t l e f l o w e r s . Once (Omega) got f r i g h t e n e d and h i d s u d d e n l y i n t h e arms of A l p h a . On many days th e i s l a n d , was bathed i n s u n s h i n e . One day, Omega was l y i n g o u t s i d e the wood w h i l e A l p h a was s i t t i n g f a r t h e r away i n t h e shadow of the f o r e s t . A huge c l o u d r o s e f r o m the ocean, s p r e a d over the sky and covered t h e i s l a n d w i t h shadow. A l p h a c a l l e d Omega, but Omega d i d not h e a r . A l p h a saw t h a t Omega h e l d i n h e r hands the head of an enormous s e r p e n t , which had s l i d f rom under the f e r n s a l o n g h e r body; she looked a t i t s g l i t t e r i n g eyes. Suddenly r a i n began t o 4 7 f a l l , and A l p h a and Omega were t e r r i f i e d . One day, when A l p h a met the s e r p e n t i n the f i e l d , he f o u g h t w i t h i t and k i l l e d i t as Omega loo k e d on from a d i s t a n c e . One day she met a be a r ; Omega trembled when she f e l t t h e s o f t s k i n of t h e bear a g a i n s t her body. When she put her arms around i t s neck, the arm d i s a p p e a r e d i n the f u r . Omega meets a poet-hyena who had s c r a g g l y f u r ; h e r j ; u s u a l a f f e c t i o n a t e words do not t o u c h him. With h e r s m a l l s o f t hands she made a l a u r e l w r e ath and, b r i n g i n g h e r sweet f a c e c l o s e t o h i s grumpy f a c e , she crowned him. A t i g e r bent h i s f i e r c e , c r u e l head over the head of Omega. Omega d i d n o t t r e m b l e . She put her s m a l l hand between the jaws on t h e t i g e r and c a r e s s e d h i s t e e t h . When the t i g e r met the b e a r , he s m e l l e d Omega's s c e n t - t h e perfume of the p a l e a p p l e blossom which Omega k i s s e d e v e r y morning a t s u n r i s e . They f o u g h t and t o r e each o t h e r t o p i e c e s . A l l of a sudden as i f on a c h e c k e r b o a r d -which hadn't been i n v e n t e d y e t - the p i e c e s changed. Other a n i m a l s s t r e t c h t h e i r necks and observe the game. The eyes of Omega were changeable; n o r m a l l y t h e y were l i g h t b l u e . But when she l o o k e d a t h e r l o v e r s , h e r eyes t u r n e d b l a c k w i t h t r a c e s of c a r m i n e - r e d , and a t such moments.she used t o h i d e h e r mouth b e h i n d a f l o w e r . The h e a r t of Omega was f i c k l e . One day A l p h a saw her s i t t i n g n ear the r i v e r k i s s i n g a donkey l y i n g a t her knees. Then A l p h a went t o get on o s t r i c h and l e a n e d a g a i n s t i t s neck, but Omega, busy w i t h h e r f a v o u r i t e p a s t i m e , k i s s i n g , d i d n o t l o o k up. Omega f e l t t i r e d and unhappy t h a t she c o u l d n ' t embrace a l l the a n i m a l s of the i s l a n d . She s a t on the g r a s s i n t e a r s . Then she s t o o d up, wandered about t h e i s l a n d , and met a p i g . She k n e l t down, h i d i n g h e r body l n h e r l o n g b l a c k h a i r , and she and the p i g look e d a t each o t h e r . But Omega got bored. One n i g h t when the g o l d e n column of the moon t r e m b l e d on the w a t e r , she f l e d on the back of a roebuck over the sea t o the p a l e green land, under the moon. A l p h a s t a y e d on the i s l a n d a l o n e . One day, the c h i l d r e n of Omega came t o him; a new g e n e r a t i o n had grown up on t h e i s l a n d . They gathered, around A l p h a and c a l l e d him t h e i r f a t h e r . They were l i t t l e p i g s , l i t t l e s nakes, l i t t l e monkeys, l i t t l e w i l d a n i m a l s , _ a n d o t h e r b a s t a r d s of man. He was i n d e s p a i r . He r a n a l o n g the s e a . The sky and w a t e r were the c o l o r of b l o o d . He heard s h r i e k s i n the a i r and covered h i s e a r s . The 48 e a r t h , t h e sky, and. t h e sea t r e m b l e d and he f e l t a g r e a t a n g u i s h . One day the roebuck brought Omega back. A l p h a w a s ; - s i t t i n g on the beach and. she came toward, him. A l p h a f e l t h i s b l o o d b e a t i n g , h i s muscles s w e l l e d , and he s t r u c k Omega so hard t h a t she d i e d . When he l e a n e d over the body and. saw h e r f a c e , he was t e r r i f i e d by i t s e x p r e s s i o n . I t was the v e r y same t h a t she had had i n t h e f o r e s t when he l o v e d h e r most. While he was s t i l l l o o k i n g a t h e r , he was a t t a c k e d from behind, by a l l h i s c h i l d r e n and the a n i m a l s of the i s l a n d who t o r e him t o p i e c e s . The new g e n e r a t i o n f i l l e d t h e i s l a n d . 17 The i l l u s t r a t i v e m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t e d of t h r e e v i g n e t t e s and e i g h t e e n l i t h o g r a p h s . A d e s c r i p t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l i t h o g r a p h s and the poem i s g i v e n i n the Appendix A. In the A l p h a and Omega s e r i e s Munch once a g a i n d e a l s w i t h two of the p r i m a r y i s s u e s i n the F r i e z e o f L i f e s e r i e s ; t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and woman and the a s p e c t s o f l i f e and. d e a t h . In the poem's l o v e s t o r y of t h e f i r s t c o u p l e on e a r t h , A l p h a and Omega, and. t h r o u g h t h e i r s y m b o l i c names whic h s i g n i f y t he b e g i n n i n g and the end, Munch r e c r e a t e s h i s whole p h i l o s o p h y on l i f e , l o v e and d e a t h . As i n the F r i e z e of L i f e , he r e d e v e l o p e d h i s p h i l o s o p h y on the i s s u e of the l o v e between t h e cou p l e and. how i t e v o l v e d t h r o u g h t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f : a t t r a c t i o n , b i o l o g i c a l u n i o n , j e a l o u s y , s e p a r a t i o n , m e l a n c h o l y , d e s p a i r and f i n a l l y d e a t h . The second i s s u e w h i c h d e a l s w i t h the a s p e c t s of l i f e and d e a t h was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the b i o l o g i c a l u n i o n between the man, t h e woman and t h e a n i m a l s , which brought f o r t h l i f e - the o f f s p r i n g - who c o n t i n u e t h e b i o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n of man. 4-9 The A l p h a and Omega s e r i e s i s a l s o Munch's summation of a l l h i s past r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h women and h i s f i n a l a t t a c k on t h e woman's s e x u a l r o l e i n l i f e . He wanted t o emphasize woman's f e e b l e n e s s and her g r e a t u n f a i t h f u l n e s s w hich r e s u l t i n man's f a l l . The A l p h a and Omega l o v e s t o r y b e g i n s w i t h the c o u p l e ' s f i r s t a c q u a i n t a n c e , as i t i s p o r t r a y e d i n t h e scene of A l p h a and Omega ( F i g . J>6). Here, i n s t e a d of h a v i n g the co u p l e meet i n a midsummers n i g h t s e t t i n g , as he had. f i r s t c o n c e i v e d of the i n i t i a l a c q u a i n t a n c e i n t h e theme of A t t r a c t i o n ( F i g . 1 4 ) , he d e p i c t s . t h e man l y i n g , s l e e p i n g and the woman, who has o b v i o u s l y been awakened, by her s e x u a l d e s i r e s , c u r i o u s l y a p p r o a c h i n g the man and awaking him w i t h the t i p of a f e r n f r o n d . The man, unawareuof the woman's t r u e n a t u r e , f a l l s i n l o v e w i t h h e r and. s i t s by h e r s i d e , i n f r o n t of the sea s h o r e , The R i s i n g Moon ( F i g . 3 7 ) . The theme of A t t r a c t i o n i s extended, i n t h i s scene o f The R i s i n g Moon. A l t h o u g h the i c o n o g r a p h i c f o r m a l i t i e s i n t h i s scene v a r y somewhat from the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n , t h e b a s i c s y m b o l i c elements of the sea shore and the p h a l l i c image of the moon which s y m b o l i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t s the b i o l o g i c a l u n i o n between man and woman, have been a g a i n i n c l u d e d . I n the scene To The F o r e s t ( F i g . 38), which d e p i c t s the c o u p l e e n t e r i n g the f o r e s t , Munch r e c r e a t e s the o r i g i n a l theme of To The F o r e s t ( F i g . 16), as he i n i t i a l l y c o n c e i v e d of i t i n the F r i e z e of L i f e s e r i e s . He i n c l u d e s t h i s theme 50 i n t he A l p h a and Omega i n o r d e r to..imply the b i o l o g i c a l u n i t y of the c o u p l e as i t t a k e s p l a c e w i t h i n t h e n a t u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s of the f o r e s t and a n i m a l s . In the scene of Shadows ( F i g . 39) Munch d e a l s w i t h the theme of J e a l o u s y ( F i g . 20) as he r e p r e s e n t e d i n the F r i e z e of L i f e . Shadows d e p i c t s the woman c u d d l i n g t h e snake as the man watches f r o m : w i t h i n the f o r e s t . I n t h i s scene, he uses the same i c o n o g r a p h i c Imagery f o r t h e p o r t r a y a l of the r e j e c t e d l o v e r as i s i n t h e o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of J e a l o u s y . I n the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n , he p o r t r a y e d the d e f e a t e d l o v e r i n a f r o n t a l pose i n one of the l o w e r c o r n e r s of the p a i n t i n g , l o o k i n g out t o t h e v i e w e r . The man i s t h e r e f o r e s e p a r a t e d f r om the s e n s u a l c o u p l e a t the back. In Shadows, the d e f e a t e d l o v e r i s a g a i n p o r t r a y e d i n a f r o n t a l p o s i t i o n , a t the upper l e f t c o r n e r of the p a i n t i n g , s e p a r a t e d from the woman and the snake by the h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s of the t r e e s i n which he i s e n c l o s e d . The v a r i o u s e r o t i c scenes which r e p r e s e n t t h e woman h a v i n g h er numerous l o v e a f f a i r s w i t h the a n i m a l s on the i s l a n d , d i f f e r i n c o n o g r a p h l c a l l y from the works of the F r i e z e of L i f e . I n most of the A l p h a and Omega e r o t i c s c e n e s , Munch c o n c e n t r a t e s on. s i m p l e d e p i c t i o n s of e r o t i c a c t s between the woman and the a n i m a l s . F o r example, i n the scenes of The Bear ( F i g . 41) and The T i g e r ( F i g . 4 2 ) , he d e a l s w i t h the e r o t i c theme of The K i s s ( F i g . 15) as he r e p r e s e n t s the woman,passionately k i s s i n g t he a n i m a l s . He 51 a l s o d e a l s w i t h the r i v a l r y of the l o v e r s , The T i g e r and  the Bear as they q u a r r e l o v e r the woman and t e a r each o t h e r t o p i e c e s . In the scenes Omega and the F l o w e r s ( F i g . 44), Omega's Eyes ( F i g . 45), Omega Weeps ( F i g . 48), and i n the v i g n e t t e The Poisonous F l o w e r ( F i g . 35) Munch once a g a i n e l a b o r a t e s on t h e woman's v a r i o u s a s p e c t s ; I n Omega and  the F l o w e r he p o r t r a y s the woman as a v i r g i n - a pure woman -who has awakened by her s e x u a l d e s i r e s and c l i n g s t o the 1 R f l o w e r s which s y m b o l i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t l o v e . In Omega's  Eyes, he d e a l s w i t h the second stage of woman - t e m p t r e s s and the s e x u a l p a r t n e r of man. In t h i s scene, he r e d e v e l o p s the theme of Vampire ( F i g . 1 7 ) , the s e n s u a l woman, who, d r i v e n by h e r s e x u a l d e s i r e s , sucks up man's energy. In the p a r t of t h e poem whi c h d e s c r i b e s t h i s scene, Munch p o i n t s out how the woman's eyes used t o change i n accordance w i t h h er i n n e r s e x u a l d e s i r e s s "But when she l o o k e d a t h e r l o v e r s , h e r eyes t u r n e d b l a c k w i t h t r a c e s of car m i n e - r e d and a t such moments she used t o h i d e h er mouth behind a f l o w e r . " Omega sucks the f l o w e r w i t h h er l i p s , as the vampire woman sucks the man's neck i n Vampire. In Omega Weeps, Munch r e s t a t e s the theme of the mother-widow, the r e j e c t e d woman, who st a n d s a p a r t and weeps. Here, Omega has l o s t a l l h e r p r e v i o u s beauty and i s portrayed, as r a t h e r o l d and w i t h e r e d . The theme of the t h r e e a s p e c t s of woman i s a g a i n s t a t e d i n the v i g n e t t e The Poisonous F l o w e r , which i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y r e s e m b l e s the t r i c h e p h a l o u s image of the S y m b o l i c Study 52 ( F i g . 11). Here Munch r e p r e s e n t s the t h r e e a s p e c t s o f woman; the v i r g i n , the t e m p t r e s s and the mother-widow. In t he scene of Omega's F l i g h t ( F i g . 49), Munch r e c o n s t r u c t s i n a s i m i l a r i c o n o g r a p h i c f o r m a t , t h e theme of Me l a n c h o l y ( F i g . 19) as he had i n i t i a l l y c o n c e i v e d of i t i n 1891. As i n the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n o f M e l a n c h o l y , A l p h a , the man, has "been r e j e c t e d by the woman, f o r a n o t h e r l o v e r ; i n t h i s s t o r y f o r the d e e r , and i s l e f t b e h i n d , a l o n e , on the i s l a n d . The m e l a n c h o l i c f i g u r e o f the man, who has been overcome by sadness and l o n e l i n e s s , i s r e p r e s e n t e d on the sh o r e , i n a c o n t e m p l a t i v e pose, w i t h h i s back t u r n e d away from the woman who r i d e s on the back of h e r l o v e r , the d e e r . In t h e scene of A l p h a ' s Progeny ( F i g . 50), the man i s f i l l e d w i t h anger and a n x i e t y ; he i s un a b l e t o cope w i t h h i s l o n e l i n e s s and most of a l l , w i t h the woman's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; i n t h i s c a s e , h e r o f f s p r i n g , who t r y t o c l i n g t o him, c a l l i n g him f a t h e r . The theme o f D e s p a i r ( F i g . 51) i s her e r e c r e a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n o f The Scream ( F i g . 22), which p o r t r a y a man i n u l t i m a t e a n g u i s h . In D e s p a i r , the man i s r e p r e s e n t e d f u l l s i z e and naked, but the over a l l e f f e c t of the scene i s s i m i l a r t o t h e o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of The Scream. In D e s p a i r , the man i s represented, a g a i n , i n f r o n t of the sea s h o r e , a g a i n s t a background marred by s t r i a t i o n s . The man's f a c e i s s i m i l a r t o the o r i g i n a l m a s k - l i k e e x p r e s s i o n of the image i n The Scream, who has h i s hands o v e r h i s e a r s t o shut out the screams of n a t u r e , which a r e no more t h a n 53 the echoes coming from w i t h i n him. A l s o , the p a r t of t h e poem whi c h d e s c r i b e s the scene of D e s p a i r i s s - s i m i l a r t o the d e s c r i p t i o n t h a t Munch gave i n which he e x p l a i n e d the ev e n t s 19 t h a t had i n s p i r e d the theme of the scream. 7 In the poem he w r o t e : Sky and water were the c o l o r of b l o o d . He heard the s h r i e k s i n the a i r and covered, h i s e a r s . The e a r t h , the s k y , and the sea trembled and he f e l t a g r e a t a n g u i s h . In the scene of Omega's Death ( F i g . 52), Munch r e p r e s e n t s Omega's murder a f t e r her r e t u r n t o the i s l a n d . He p o r t r a y s the man, d r i v e n by anger, k n e e l i n g o ver the woman and. s t r a n g l i n g h e r t o d e a t h . I n A l p h a ' s Death ( F i g . 5 3 ) , he d e p i c t s the man as he i s a t t a c k e d and k i l l e d , by the ha l f - m a n , h a l f - a n i m a l c r e a t u r e s - the woman's o f f s p r i n g who seek revenge f o r t h e i r mother's d e a t h . Throughout the A l p h a and Omega s e r i e s , Munch p l a c e s a g r e a t emphasis on woman's n a t u r e and the g r e a t c o n t r o l t h a t she has over man. I n t h e T i t l e V i g n e t t e ( F i g . 3 4 ) , he s y m b o l i c a l l y p o r t r a y man as he i s e n g u l f e d i n a woman's l o n g f l o w i n g h a i r and i s s u f f o c a t e d by h e r g r a s p . He used the same symbolism of h a i r to; show the o b l i t e r a t i o n of man as he used i n the scenes of A t t r a c t i o n ( F i g . 14) and S e p a r a t i o n ( F i g . 21) i n the F r i e z e of L i f e . Through the symbolism of The  Poisonous F l o w e r , he a g a i n s t a t e d the dangerous, poisonous n a t u r e of woman, who aims t o d e s t r o y and k i l l man. In the s t o r y of A l p h a and. Omega he emphasized man's f a i t h f u l n e s s and l o v e f o r the woman; h i s g r e a t c o n c e r n f o r h e r and h i s 54 d e s i r e t o p r o t e c t h er from e v i l t h a t he r i s k s h i s l i f e t o b a t t l e and. d e s t r o y i t , The Snake i s S t r a n g l e d ( F i g . 4 0 ) . But Munch e x p l a i n s t h a t n o t h i n g can prevent woman from e x p o s i n g h e r t r u e n a t u r e , w h i c h i s f e e b l e and u n f a i t h f u l . He c o n c l u d e s t h a t "even i f a man t r a v e l s t o a d e s e r t e d i s l a n d w i t h h i s woman, he has no way of t r u s t i n g h e r . " 20 j_f t h e r e a r e no o t h e r men around, she w i l l submit t o and have l o v e a f f a i r s w i t h the a n i m a l s on the i s l a n d . In the A l p h a and Omega s e r i e s , Munch r e d e v e l o p e d the F r i e z e ' s b a s i c i s s u e s i n o r d e r t o r e v a l u a t e h i s p h i l o s o p h y on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between man and woman. In the F r i e z e of L i f e , Munch concluded the l o v e c y c l e w i t h the theme of Th'e Scream, w h i c h p o r t r a y s man's u l t i m a t e d e s p a i r . The Scream s i g n i f i e d man's f a l l w h ich i s caused by woman. Thus, the c o n c l u d i n g p a r t of t h e F r i e z e ' s n a r r a t i v e p l o t of l o v e l e f t woman as the s o l e v i c t o r o v er man and n a t u r e . I n the A l p h a and Ombega s e r i e s , Munch d e v e l o p s the l o v e s t o r y one s t e p f u r t h e r , by c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the theme of revenge, which i n t u r n b r i n g s a d r a m a t i c end t o b o t h the man and. the woman. In A l p h a and Omega, i n s t e a d of c o n c l u d i n g the l o v e s t o r y w i t h man's men t a l and p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n he c o n c e n t r a t e s on the man's anger w h i c h has been c r e a t e d by t h e woman's u n f a i t h f u l n e s s . I n s t e a d of l e t t i n g t he woman have her way, Munch e l a b o r a t e s on the mora l a s p e c t s of p u r i t a n revenge w h i c h preaches "an eye f o r an eye and a t o o t h f o r a 55 t o o t h . " So, i n h i s d e s i r e t o seek vengeance on woman f o r the p a i n t h a t she has g i v e n man, he d e s i r e s t o k i l l woman and d e s t r o y h e r f o r e v e r . He b e l i e v e d t h a t o n l y t h r o u g h t h i s a c t o f vengeance c o u l d man r e a f f i r m h i s p r i d e and c o n t i n u e h i s e x i s t e n c e . However, he was aware t h a t t h i s vengeance was j u s t as temporary as a human b e i n g ' s l i f e on e a r t h . He was aware t h a t the p h y s i c a l laws o f n a t u r e a r e p r i m a r i l y c o n cerned w i t h t h e e v o l u t i o n o f l i f e , and a r e s t r o n g e r t h a n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and woman. Thus, a f t e r t h e woman's d e a t h , Munch sought t o b r i n g an end t o man's l i f e , i n o r d e r t o complete the c y c l e o f l o v e and l i f e between t h e c o u p l e . Through t h e f i n a l a c t o f t h e s e r i e s , which i l l u s t r a t e s t h e man's dea t h caused by t h e woman's o f f s p r i n g , Munch once a g a i n e l a b o r a t e s on t h e F r i e z e ' s second i s s u e o f l i f e and death. In t h e f i n a l a c t , t h e woman's o f f s p r i n g k i l l t h e man, i n t h e i r d e s i r e t o seek vengeance f o r t h e i r mother's death. Thus, n o t h i n g remains o f the c o u p l e except t h e woman's o f f s p r i n g from h er v a r i o u s c o p u l a t i o n s w i t h the d i f f e r e n t a n i m a l s on the i s l a n d , who remain t o c o n t i n u e l i f e . But th r o u g h t h i s f i n a l a c t o f man's d e a t h , Munch a l s o wanted t o emphasize t h a t t h e woman s t i l l remains t h e s o l e v i c t o r , who even a f t e r h e r death i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n l i f e by her o f f s p r i n g . Thus, i n the end, the man was once a g a i n t h e l o s e r , who a f t e r h i s d e a t h had n o t h i n g t o l e a v e b e h i n d , which would i n d i c a t e t h e l o v e and l i f e t h a t he had e x p e r i e n c e d on e a r t h . T h e r e f o r e , the A l p h a and Omega s e r i e s i s not a. 56 s a t i r i c a l o r a c o m i c a l work. The s e r i e s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Munch's mental i l l n e s s and h i s f i n a l r e c o v e r y . The two l a s t scenes o f t h e s e r i e s which d e a l w i t h t h e c o u p l e ' s d e a t h , were used by Munch as a f i n a l c a t h a r s i s from h i s mental i l l n e s s . The woman's death s i g n i f i e d h i s f i n a l vengeance on woman as w e l l as a summation o f a l l h i s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h women. In t u r n , t h e man's dea t h i n d i c a t e h i s r a t i o n a l approach on t h e a s p e c t o f revenge on which he based a l l h i s h a t r e d o f woman. Through t h e man's d e a t h , he shows t h e e v e n t u a l d e s t i n y o f man, a f t e r t h e woman's de a t h . He emphasizes t h a t t h e r e i s no more l i f e l e f t f o r man, a f t e r t h e woman d i e s . Thus, he k i l l s t he man and ends the c y c l e o f l o v e and l i f e between t h e c o u p l e . In f a c t , t h e c o u p l e i s no l o n g e r s i g n i f i c a n t o f l i f e , s i n c e t h e woman's o f f s p r i n g r e m a i n t o c o n t i n u e t h e e v o l u t i o n o f l i f e . A f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e Alpha and Omega c y c l e , and a f t e r h i s r e c o v e r y , Munch r e t u r n e d t o Norway and l i v e d as a r e c l u s e a t h i s summer home a t A a s g a a r d s t r a n d , u n t i l h i s deat h . He ne v e r a g a i n p a i n t e d works which were t h e m a t i c a l l y or i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e F r i e z e o f L i f e . Indeed, the f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e Alpha and Omega s e r i e s had summarized a l l h i s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e and p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h p h i l o s o p h i c a l i s s u e s o f l i f e , l o v e and d e a t h , and had a c t e d as a c a t h a r s i s f o r a l l t h e f r u s t r a t i o n and a n x i e t y which had caused h i s mental i l l n e s s . 57 CHAPTER IV NOTES 1 Gustav S c h i e f l e r , Edvard Munch Das GraphIsche  Werk, 1906-1926 ( B e r l i n : E u p h o r i a n , 1928), pp. 59-62. 2 Werner Tlmm, The G r a p h i c A r t of Edvard Munch (New York: New York G r a p h i c S o c i e t y L t d . , 1973), PP. 7^-75. 3 Gustav S c h i e f l e r , Edvard Munch.,-. Das G r a p h i s c h e  Werk, 1906-1926, p. 59. Werner Timm, The G r a p h i c A r t of Edvard Munch, p. 75. 5 A r v e M o e n , Edvard Munch; Woman and Eros ( O s l o : F o r l a g e t Norsh K u n s t r e p r o d u k s j on, 1957), P^ 2c~i 6 I b i d . , p. 27. 7 R a l p h S t e n e r s e n , Edvard Munch: Close-Up of a Genius ( O s l o : C y l d e n d a l Norsk f o r l a g , 1972), p. 31. 8 I b i d . , p. 149. 9 F r e d e r i c k B. D e k n a t e l , Edvard Munch. (New York: C h a n t i c l e e r P r e s s I n c . , 1950), p. ^ T. 10 Jean S e l z . Edvard Munch (New York: Crown P u b l i s h i n g I n c . , 197*0, p. 68. 11 S t a n l e y S t e i n b e r g and Joseph Weiss, "The A r t of Edvard Munch and I t s F u n c t i o n i n h i s Mental' L i f e " , The  P s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , 23/3 (195*0, P. ^ 3 . 12 R e i n h o l d H e l l e r , Edvard Munch: The Scream (London: Penguin P r e s s , 1973), p. 91. 13 I n g e r E. Munch, Edvard Munchs Brev F a m i l l e n , ( O s l o : Johan Grundt Tanum F o r l a g , 19^9), L e t t e r 272. CHAPTER IV NOTES (c o n t ' d ) Jean S e l z , E d v a r d Munch, p.68. 58 I n g e r E. Munch, Edvard Munchs Brev F a m i l i e n , L e t t e r 273. 16 R e i n h o l d H e l l e r , E d v a r d Munch: The Scream, p.89. 17 R e i n h o l d H e l l e r , "Edvard Munch and the C l a r i f i c a t i o n o f L i f e " , O b e r l i n C o l l e g e B u l l e t i n , 29/3 ( S p r i n g , 1972), pp. I83-7. 18 R e i n h o l d H e l l e r argues t h a t i n Munch's work, t h e p l a n t s y m b o l i z e s t h e " P l a n t o f A r t " . I n h i s a r t i c l e "The Iconography o f E d v a r d Munch's Sph i n x " A r t f o r u m , 9, (October, 1970), pp.77-8, he emphasized t h a t : "The p l a n t Munch d e s c r i b e d as f i l l e d w i t h t h e h e a r t ' s b l o o d of t h e a r t i s t t h e p l a n t g r o w i n g i n t h e p r e s e n t , r o o t e d i n t h e p a s t , a p p e a r i n g f o r t h e f u t u r e t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e a r t i s t ' s m e l a n c h o l y c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f l i f e . " I somehow r e f u t e the v a l i d i t y o f t h i s t h e o r y because i n Munch's work, t h e p l a n t was p r i m a r i l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l i f e and d e a t h works, i n t h a t once t h e human co r p s e had d i s s o l v e d i n t h e ground, l i f e s p r a n g f o r t h , i n the form o f e i t h e r a p l a n t o r a t r e e . S i n c e l i f e and death were d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o v e which brought f o r t h l i f e and s i n c e i n t h e s t o r y of A l p h a and Omega, Omega's n a t u r e i s i n t e r r e l a t e d so much w i t h t h e a n i m a l s and t h e p l a n t s , i t i s f a i r t o s u f f i c e t h a t t h e p l a n t here a c q u i r e s t h e s y m b o l i c imagery o f a d e s i r e d l o v e . A l s o the f l o w e r o f l o v e was used i n the work The Dance o f L i f e i n which Munch p l a c e s t h e f l o w e r of l o v e between the v i r g i n female and t h e e r o t i c c o u p l e . Y e t , H e l l e r ' s t h e o r y t h a t t h e f l o w e r s y m b o l i z e s t h e a r t i s t i s c o r r e c t i n t h a t Munch a s s o c i a t e d h i s a r t work w i t h h i s l i f e and p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . 19 "One e v e n i n g I was w a l k i n g a l o n g the p a t h i n one s i d e l a y t h e c i t y and below me t h e f j o r d . I was t i r e d and i l l . I s t o p p e d and l o o k e d a c r o s s t h e f j o r d . The sun was s e t t i n g , t h e c l o u d s were dyed r e d - l i k e b l o o d . I f e l t a scream pass t h r o u g h n a t u r e ; i t seemed t o me t h a t I c o u l d hear t h e scream. I p a i n t e d t h e p i c t u r e , p a i n t e d t h e c l o u d s as r e d b l o o d . The c o l o r s were s c r e a m i n g . " Johan H. Langaard and K e i d a r R e v o l d , E d v a r d Munch (New York: M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., 1964), P- 53. 20 R a l p h S t e n e r s e n , Edvard Munch: Close-Up of a. Ge n i u s , p. 31« 59 CONCLUSION The A l p h a and Omega c y c l e i s t h e m a t i c a l l y and i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o Munch's most s i g n i f i c a n t work,-The F r i e z e of L i f e s e r i e s . In bo t h t h e s e s e r i e s , Munch was p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h two b a s i c p h i l o s o p h i c a l i s s u e s : the r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and. woman, and t h e a s p e c t s of l i f e and d e a t h as they were developed from h i s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . In the F r i e z e of L i f e , he d e a l t w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p and l o v e between man and woman, which e v e n t u a l l y reached the stage of u l t i m a t e d e s p a i r f o r man because of the woman's f e e b l e n e s s and u n f a i t h f u l n e s s . The o n l y p o s i t i v e a s p e c t of the c o u p l e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p , Munch f e l t , was t h e i r b i o l o g i c a l u n i o n which brought f o r t h l i f e - the o f f s p r i n g - who c o n t i n u e l i f e . In the A l p h a and Omega s e r i e s he r e d e v e l o p e d the F r i e z e ' s n a r r a t i v e p l o t of l o v e , u n t i l the stage of d e s p a i r . But h e r e , i n s t e a d o f h a v i n g the man r e a c h a p h y s i c a l and mental d e t e r i o r a t i o n , he c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e a s p e c t of revenge, which r e s u l t s i n the c o u p l e ' s d e a t h . With t h e i r d e a t h , he c o n c l u d e d the c y c l e of l o v e and l i f e between the -couple. S t i l l , he emphasized,; t h a t the woman's o f f s p r i n g w i l l r e main on e a r t h , t o c o n t i n u e the c y c l e of l i f e . These two f i n a l a c t s of t h e s e r i e s a c t e d as a f i n a l c a t h a r s i s f o r Munch's f r u s t r a t i o n s and a n x i e t i e s . Through the woman's d e a t h , he was a b l e t o get h i s revenge on woman and 6o and f i n a l l y d e a l w i t h h i s h a t r e d f o r woman. By the man's d e a t h , he showed t h a t t h e r e was no l i f e l e f t f o r man a f t e r the woman's d e a t h . Thus, a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n of the s e r i e s and a f t e r h i s r e c o v e r y , Munch never a g a i n painted, works which were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p h i l o s o p h i c a l i s s u e s of the F r i e z e of L i f e s e r i e s . A l s o , a f t e r h i s r e c o v e r y , he never a g a i n had. any p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t s w i t h women and he n e v e r a g a i n mentioned any of h i s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h women. 61 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books on A r t i s t s Benesch, O t t o . Edvard Munch. Londons Phaidon P r e s s , i960. Bock, Henning and Busch, Gunter. Edvard Munchs Probleme, Forschungen, Thesen. P r e s t e l s V e r l a g Munchen, 1973. D e k n a t e l , F r e d e r i c k B. Edvard Munch. New York5 C h a n t i c l e e r P r e s s I n c . , 1950. H e l l e r , R e i n h o l d . Edvard Munch's ' L i f e F r i e z e ' s I t s  B e g i n n i n g s and O r i g i n s . I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y , Ph. D. D i s s e r t a t i o n . 1969. . Ed.yard Munchs The Scream. Londons Penguin P r e s s , 1973,; H o d i n , J.P. Edvard Munch. London: Thames and Hudson, 1972. Langaard., I n g r i d . Edvard Munchs Modningsar. O s l o : G y I d e n d a l Norsh F o r l a g , i960. Langaard, Johan H. and R e v o l d , R e i d a r . Edvard Munch. New York: M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., 196~Tj~ . A Year by Year Record of Edvard Munch's L i f e . O s l o : H. Aschehougand. Co., 1961. Madsen, Stephan T s o h u d i . Munch's W a l l P a i n t i n g s . Oslos O s l o U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959. M e s s e r s , Thomas H. Edvard. Munch. New Yorks H a r r y N. Abrams I n c . , 1971. Moen, A r v e . Edvard Munchs Age and M i l i e u . O s l o : F o r l a g e t Norsh K u n s t r e p r o d u k s j o n , 1956. Edvard Munch: Nature and A n i m a l s . O s l o : F o r l a g e t Norsh K u n s t r e p r o d u k s j o n , 1958. . Edvard. Munch: Woman and. E r o s . O s l o : F o r l a g e t Norsh K u n s t r e p r o d u k s j o n , 1957. Munch, I n g e r . Edvard Munchs Brev F a m i l i e n . O s l o : Johan Grundt Tanum F o r l a g , 1949. S c h i e f l e r , Gustav. Edvard. Munch, Das G r a p h i s c h e Werk, 1906- 1926. GerTirTi E u p h o r l a n , 1928. Selz, J e a n . Edvard. Munch. New York: Crown P u b l i s h i n g I n c . , 197 IH S t e n e r s e n , R a l p h . Edvard Munchs Close-Up of a Ge n i u s . O s l o : C y l d e n d a l Norsk F o r l a g , 1972. Svenaeus, G o s t a . Edvard Munch: Das Unlversum des M e l a n c h o l l e . Lund5 P u b l i s h i n g of New S o c i e t y of L e t t e r s a t Lund, 1968. . Edvard Munch: In M a n n l i c h e n G e h l r n I I . Lund: P u b l i s h i n g of New S o c i e t y o f L e t t e r s a t Lund, 1973. Timm, Werner. The G r a p h i c A r t of Edvard Munch. New York: New York G r a p h i c S o c i e t y L t d . , 1973. A r t i c l e s : Boe, Roy A s b j b r n . "Edvard Munch: H i s L i f e and Work from 1880 t o 1920." Marsyas, 15 (1970), 113-4. . " J e a l o u s y : An Important P a i n t i n g by Edvard. Munch." M i n n e a p o l i s I n s t i t u t e of A r t s B u l l e t i n , 45 ( J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , 1956)• C r o c k e t t , Campbell. " P h s c h o a n a l y s i s i n A r t C r i t i c i s m . " J o u r n a l of A e s t h e t i c s , 17/1 (September, 1958), 34-44. Cummings, H.S. "On the Tau or Emblem of L i f e . " The J o u r n a l  of B r i t i s h A r c h a e o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 27 (1871), 307-314. G a t t l i e b , C a r l a . " P i c a s s o ' s G i r l Before, a M i r r o r . " J o u r n a l  of A e s t h e t i c s , 24/4 (Summer, 1966), 509-518. Hakansson, Tore. " S t r i n d b e r g and i t s A r t s . " S t u d i o  I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 181 ( F e b r u a r y , 1971), 62-7. H a l l , Donald. "Munch's Scream." P a r t i s a n Review. 24/2 (1957), 211-3.V 63 H e l l e r , R e i n h o l d A. "Edvard Munch and C l a r i f i c a t i o n of L i f e . " O b e r l l n C o l l e g e B u l l e t i n , 29/3 ( S p r i n g , 1972), 120-249. . "Edvard Munch's V i s i o n and the S y m b o l i s t Swan." A r t Q u a r t e r l y . 36 (Autumn, 1973), 209-49. . "The Iconography of Edvard Munch's S p h i n x . " A r t f o r u m , 9 ( O c t o b e r , 1970), 72-80. H o d i n , J.P. "Edvard Munch: Founder o f E x p r e s s i o n i s m . " S t u d i o , 166 (November, I963), 180-3. . "Edvard Munch: Norway's Gen i u s . " S t u d i o , 130 ( J u l y , 1945), 21-4. . " L ' H e r i t a g e de Munch." V i n g t i m e S l e c l e P a l s . Iss23 (1964), 3-8. . "The L o n e l y Path of Edvard Munch." S t u d i o , 143 (May, 1952), 150-3. . "A Madonna M o t i f i n t h e Work of Munch and D a l i . " A r t Q u a r t e r l y , 16/2 (Summer, 1953), 106-113. . "Munch and E x p r e s s i o n i s m . 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" I m p r e s s i o n s of S c a n d i n a v i a . " American A r t i s t , 28 ( A p r i l , 1964), 45-6. Kokoschka, Oskar. "Edvard Munch's E x p r e s s i o n i s m ( P a r t I ) . " C o l l e g e A r t J o u r n a l , 12/4 (Summer, 1953), 312-20. . "Edvard Munch's E x p r e s s i o n i s m ( P a r t I I ) . " C o l l e g e A r t J o u r n a l , 13/1 ( F a l l , 1953), 15-8. Kuh, K a t h e r i n e . "Edvard Munch." Chicago A r t I n s t i t u t e B u l l e t i n , 45 ( A p r i l , 195U, 22-5. Lund, Ida K. "Edvard Munch." P a r n a s s u s , 9 (March, 1937), 21-4. McCay, Vernon and Baughman, M a r j o r i e I . " A r t , Madness and Human I n t e r a c t i o n . " A r t J o u r n a l , 30/4 (Summer, 1972), 413-7. M e l v i l l e , R o b e r t . "The Eve They Have P a i n t e d . " A r c h i t e c t u r a l  Review, 155 (March, 1974), 159-61. Myer, B e r n a r d . "Development of Modern A r t Symbolism." American A r t i s t , 15 (November, 1951), 64. Neumeyer, A l f r e d . "Edvard Munch 1863-1944." Magazine of A r t , 37 (November, 1944), 263-7. Neve, C h r i s t o p h e r . "Echoes of Munch's Scream." Country L i f e , ( F e b r u a r y 14, 1974), 302-3. Ragon, M i c h e l . "Des P e i n t r e s R e a g i s s e n t Contre L'Impressionisme L e a d e r s : Gauguin, Van Gogh, Munch." Connaissance  des A r t s , 206 ( A p r i l , 1969), 104-11. R e i d a r , R e v o l d . "Le Grand. P e i n t r e N o r v e g i a n Edvard Munch E s t Mort." A r t s B e a u x - A r t s , L i t e r a t u r e , S p e c t a c l e s , (August 9, 1946), 3. R.S.D. "The Edvard Munch E x h i b i t i o n : A G r e a t Norwegian A r t i s t i n R e t r o s p e c t . " The M i n n e a p o l i s I n s t i t u t e  of A r t s , 39/23 ( O c t o b e r 7, 1950), 113-9. S a l d a , F.X. "The V i o l e n t Dreamer: Some Remarks on the Work of Edvard Munch." J o u r n a l of A e s t h e t i c s , 28/2 ( W i n t e r , 1969), 149-53. S c h i e f l e r , Gustav. "Edvard Munch's A l f a Og Omega." 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La Revue  B l a n c h e , 10 (I896), 525-6. S u t t o n , Denys. "Edvard Munch: Master of A n g u i s h and L i g h t . " Country L i f e . 16 (November, 1951). T i s d a l e , C a r o l i n e . Look Back i n A n g s t . " The G u a r d i a n , (January 26, 1974), p. 23. Thompson, J a n . "The R o l e of Woman i n the Iconography of A r t Nouveau." A r t J o u r n a l , 31/2 ( W i n t e r , 1971-72), 158-67. Werner, A l f r e d . "Edvard Munch: Agony and Achievement." American A r t i s t , 36 (December, 1972), 40-4. W h i t e f o r d , Frank. "Edvard Munch: Scene, Symbol and A l l e g o r y . " S t u d i o , 187 ( F e b r u a r y , 1974), 57-60. A u x i l i a r y Sources and Related. M a t e r i a l : A s k e l a n d , J a n . A Survey of Norwegian P a i n t i n g . O s l o : K i r s t e s B o k t r y k k e r i , 1963. Avermoete, Roger. La Gravure Sur B o i s Moderne de 1'Occident. P a r i s : Dorbon A i n e , 1928, pp. 269-75. D a v i d s o n , E l l i s H.R. Gods, Myths of N o r t h e r n Europe. England: Penguin Books Ltd.., 1964. 66 Digby, George W i n g f i e l d . . Meaning and Symbol l n Three Modern  A r t i s t s . Londons Faber and Fa b e r , 1955. Dunbar, A.F. Symbolism i n M e d i e v a l Thought. New Yorks R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l , 1961.; F r e u d , Sigmund. Freu d : D i c t i o n a r y of P s y c h o a n a l y s i s . New Yorks P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1958. . A Young G i r l ' s D i a r y . London: Unwin B o o l e s , 1921. G o l d w a t e r , R o b e r t . P r i m i t i y l s m i n Modern A r t . New York: V i n t a g e Books, 1967, pp. 57-61. H a m i l t o n , George Heard. P a i n t i n g and S c u l p t u r e I n Europe:  1880-1940. M i d d l e s e x : Penguin Books, 1972, pp. 122-9. Hauser, A r n o l d . The S o c i a l H i s t o r y of A r t . New Yorks V i n t a g e Books, 1951, pp. 210-23. Hess, Hans. How P i c t u r e s Mean. New Yorks Pantheon Books, 1974, pp. 69-89. Hod.in, J.P. The Dilemma of B e i n g Modern. London: . R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1956, pp. 23-33. Huneker, James. I v o r y , Apes and Peacocks. New York: C h a r l e s S t r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1915, pp. 222-39. I b s e n , H e n r i k . A D o l l ' s House. London: Penguin Books, 1965. . When We Dead Awaken. Londons Penguin Books, 195B: K e r n , W a l t e r , J.P. Hodins European C r i t i c . London: Cary, Adams and Mackey, 1965, pp. 110-23. Manwood, P a u l . E x p r e s s i o n i s m . London: Heron Books, i960. M i l n e r , John. S y m b o l i s t s and Decadents. London: S t u d i o V i s t a , 1971. Munch, Andrew P. Norse Mythology: Legends of Gods and  Heroes. New York: The A m e r i c a n - S c a n d i n a v i a n F o u n d a t i o n , 1926. Myers, Bernard S. The German E x p r e s s i o n i s t s . New York: F r e d e r i c k A. P r a e g e r , 1956, pp. 25-34. 67 N o c h l i n , L i n d a . I m p r e s s i o n i s m and P o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s m : 1874-1904. New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1966, pp. 203-9. Read, H e r b e r t . A r t Now. London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1934, pp. 84-7. S c h m u t z l e r , R o b e r t . A r t Nouveau. New York: H a r r y N. Abrams I n c . , 1962. S e l z , P e t e r . German E x p r e s s i o n i s t P a i n t i n g . B e r k l e y and Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1957. S t r i n d b e r g , Auguste. Three P l a y s : The F a t h e r , M i s s J u l i a ,  E a s t e r . London: Penguin Books, 1964. W h i t t i c k , A r n o l d . Symbols, S i g n s and T h e i r Meanings. London: Leonard H i l l , 197.1. W i l l e t t , John. E x p r e s s i o n i s m . London: World U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , 1970. W o r r i n g e r , W i l h e l m . A b s t r a c t i o n and Empathy. London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l L t d . , 1953-Z i g r o s s e r , C a r l . The E x p r e s s i o n i s t s . New York: George B r a z i l l e r I n c . , 1957, pp. 15-8. Museum, and E x h i b i t i o n C a t a l o g u e s : Bremen. A u s s t e l l u n g K u n s t h a l l . Edvard Munch: Das Z e i c h n e r i s c h e Werk. May 3 - June 28, 1970. B a s e l . G a l e r i e B e y e l e r . Edvard. Munch. September - December, 1965. B e r l i n . Museen Zu B e r l i n . Edvard Munch: G r a p h i k aus dem  K u p f e r s h o h k a b i n e l t d e r S t a a t l i c h e n . 1971. B e r n t s e n . G a l e r i e Kaabe. Edvard. Munch. F e b r u a r y 16 - March 13, 1968. Beuningen - Rotterdam. Rotterdam Museum. Edvard Munch. December 10, 1958 - F e b r u a r y 8, 1959. B r u s s e l s . B i b l i o t h e q u e , R o y a l e A l b e r t . Edvard Munch. May 8 - J u l y 31, 1971. London. Hayward G a l l e r y . Edvard Munch. January 12 - March 3, 1974. 68 London. Marlborough F i n e A r t s . Munch - Nolde. J u l y -August, 1969. Los A n g e l e s . Museum of A r t . Edvard Munchs L i t h o g r a p h s , E t c h i n g s , Woodcuts. January 28 - March 9, 1969. Munchen. Munchen Hans d er Kunst. Edvard Munch. October 6 -December 16, 1973. New Yo r k . Museum of Modern A r t . Edvard Munchs A S e l e c t i o n , of h i s P r i n t s f r o m American C o l l e c t i o n s . 1957. Munch Museum. Edvard Munchs B i o g r a p h i c a l Pamphlet. Munch Museum. Edvard Munchs M a s t e r p i e c e s from  A r t i s t s C o l l e c t i o n s i n Munch Museum. Munch Museet. Edvard Munch; Des Z e i c h n e r i s c h e Werk. Auswahl aus dem Munch Museet. 1970. Munch Museum. The G r a p h i c Works. 1972-3. Museum of Modern A r t . Edvard Munch. September 26 -October 18, 1970. Winnipeg. Winnipeg A r t G a l l e r y . Edvard Munch. The G r a p h i c Works. 1969 - 1970. LEAF 69 OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING. 70 APPENDIX A A d e s c r i p t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e l i t h o g r a p h s and the poem: 1. T i t l e V i g n e t t e : T h i s d e p i c t s a man's head surrounded by l o c k s of h a i r . The man has r a i s e d eyebrows, i n w a r d l y turned, p u p i l s and t h e c o r n e r s of h i s mouth t u r n downwards. Above the head i s p l a c e d the t i t l e of the poem; 'Alpha and Omega*. 2. Table of C o n t e n t s : T h i s sheet c o n s i s t s of t h e t i t l e s of the e i g h t e e n p r i n c i p a l s h e e t s . I t i s d e c o r a t e d by ornamental b o r d e r s . Munch a l s o i n c l u d e d two human f a c e s s i t u a t e d , a t the l e f t and r i g h t bottom c o r n e r s . The f a c e a t the l e f t s i d e i s l a u g h i n g , t h e f a c e a t the r i g h t i s i n agony. 3. V i g n e t t e - S a t y r : T h i s d e p i c t s a s a t y r ' s head w i t h matted h a i r and be a r d . From i t s f o r e h e a d grow, l i k e c u c k o l d ' s h o r n s , two c l e n c h e d f i s t s . 4. V i g n e t t e - The Poisonous F l o w e r : T h i s v i g n e t t e c o n s i s t s of a f l o w e r whose stem, w i t h downward h a n g i n g l e a v e s , grows from; r o o t . I n s t e a d of a f l o w e r , i t b e a r s t h r e e women's heads. The heads a r e of a young, midd l e aged and an o l d woman. 5. A l p h a and Omega: T h i s scene d e p i c t s t h e man l y i n g on the gr o u d , s l e e p i n g . B e s i d e him s t a n d s , h a l f c r o u c h i n g , a 71 woman who i s t r y i n g t o t i c k l e him awake on h i s cheek w i t h a t w i g of f e r n . In the background l i e s a. h i l l y l a n d s c a p e . T h i s scene r e l a t e s t o t h e p a r t o f t h e poem which d e a l s w i t h t h e f i r s t e n c o u n t e r o f t h e c o u p l e : "Alpha and Omega were t h e f i r s t humans on t h e i s l a n d . A l p h a , l y i n g on the g r a s s , had f a l l e n a s l e e p and was dreaming. Omega came c l o s e t o him, saw him, and was f i l l e d w i t h c u r i o s i t y . Omega p i c k e d a br a n c h of f e r n t i c k l e d him, and awakened him." 6. The R i s i n g Moon: T h i s scene d e p i c t s t h e c o u p l e , c l i n g i n g on t o each o t h e r , naked, seen from b e h i n d , s i t t i n g on a h i g h r i v e r bank. The man i s t o t h e l e f t , t h e woman t o t h e r i g h t . The vi e w i s o f a sea bay b o r d e r e d on the o t h e r s i d e by a bank i n which the r i s i n g moon i s r e f l e c t e d . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p a r t of t h e poem whi c h d e s c r i b e d t h e u n i t y and l o v e between t h e c o u p l e : "Alpha l o v e d Omega? i n t h e e v e n i n g t h e y would s i t c l o s e t o each o t h e r l o o k i n g a t t h e column o f mo o n l i g h t t r e m b l i n g on t h e sea which s u r r o u n d e d t h e i s l a n d . " 7. To The F o r e s t : The scene d e p i c t s t h e c o u p l e from b e h i n d , w a l k i n g i n t o a dense f o r e s t . T h i s a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s p a r t o f t h e poem's d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e u n i t y and l o v e between t h e c o u p l e which t a k e s p l a c e w i t h i n the m y s t e r i o u s s u r r o u n d i n g s o f n a t u r e ; t h e f o r e s t : "They went i n t o deep f o r e s t , and i n t h e f o r e s t t h e r e were many a n i m a l s and p l a n t s ; t h e p l a c e was dark and m y s t e r i o u s on many days t h e i s l a n d was bathe d i n s u n s h i n e . " 8 . The Shadow: T h i s scene d e p i c t s t h e man, woman, and snake. I n th e m i d d l e o f t h e p i c t u r e t h e woman l i e s f u l l l e n g t h on t h e ground. She c a r e s s e s t h e snake which l i e s o v e r her body. Near t h e l e f t edge o f the p i c t u r e i s t h e man, l o o k i n g f o r t h from t h e dark of t h e dense f o r e s t . H i s c h i n r e s t s i n h i s hands on arms propped 72 on t h e ground. Behind t h e woman and t h e snake l i e s t h e s e a , and on t h e edge o f the o t h e r s i d e o f t h e se a , l i e s t h e f o r e s t . To t h e r i g h t a b l a c k storm c l o u d r i s e s o v e r the f o r e s t . The scene i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p a r t o f t h e poem which d e s c r i b e d t h e b e t r a y a l o f woman and t h e i n t r u d e r which comes between them: "One day, Omega was l y i n g o u t s i d e t h e wood w h i l e Alpha, was s i t t i n g f a r t h e r away i n the shadow o f t h e f o r e s t . A huge c l o u d r o s e from t h e ocean, s p r e a d o v e r t h e sky, and c o v e r e d the i s l a n d w i t h i t s shadow. Alpha c a l l e d Omega, but Omega d i d not hear . A l p h a saw t h a t Omega h e l d i n h e r hands t h e head o f an enormous s e r p e n t , which had s l i d from under t h e f e r n s a l o n g her body; she l o o k e d a t i t s g l i t t e r i n g eyes. Suddenly r a i n began t o f a l l , and Alpha and Omega were t e r r i f i e d . " 9. The Snake i s S t r a n g l e d : T h i s scene d e a l s w i t h t h e b a t t l e between the man and t h e snake. The man i s shown e n t a n g l e d w i t h t h e snake, s e i z i n g i t around t h e neck. The woman l i e s i n t h e background, a t t h e l e f t , on h e r stomach w i t h h er hands propped up, w a t c h i n g . T h i s scene i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p a r t o f t h e poem which d e s c r i b e d t h e b a t t l e between t h e two r i v a l s , t h e man and t h e snake, as t h e woman watches from f a r away: "One day when Alpha, met t h e s e r p e n t i n t h e f i e l d , he f o u g h t w i t h i t and k i l l e d i t , as Omega, l o o k e d on from t h e d i s t a n c e . " 10. The Bear: On t h e same s h e e t , t h e r e i s a double r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Omega, b e i n g b u s i l y i n v o l v e d w i t h two a n i m a l s . At t h e l e f t , she crowns a. hyena w i t h a l a u r e l w r e a t h , and a t t h e r i g h t , she k n e e l s and embraces a be a r . The scene i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p a r t o f t h e poem which d e s c r i b e s Omega's a f f a i r w i t h t h e bear: "One day she met t h e bear; Omega t r e m b l e d when she f e l t t h e s o f t s k i n o f t h e bear a g a i n s t h e r body. When she put h er arms around i t s neck t h e arm d i s a p p e a r e d i n th e f u r . " I t a l s o d e s c r i b e s Omega's a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h t h e hyena. "Omega meets a poet-hyena who had I 73 s c r a g g l y f u r ; her u s u a l a f f e c t i o n a t e words do not to u c h him. With h e r s m a l l s o f t hands she made a l a u r e l w r e ath and b r i n g i n g her sweet f a c e c l o s e t o h i s grumpy f a c e , she crowns him." The scene d e p i c t s the upper body of Omega l y i n g down. The head of the t i g e r i s over h e r . I t s r i g h t forepaw i s l y i n g under Omega's neck. Omega c a r e s s e s the t i g e r ' s muzzle w i t h h e r r i g h t hand. The scene . i l l u s t r a t e s the p a r t of the poem whi c h r e p r e s e n t s Omega and the t i g e r embracing: "The t i g e r bent h i s f i e r c e c r u e l head over the head of Omega. Omega d i d n ot t r e m b l e . She put her s m a l l hand between the jaws of the t i g e r and c a r e s s e d h i s t e e t h . " The scene d e p i c t s the d a r k bear a t the l e f t , seen from the s i d e , g o i n g t o the r i g h t . To the r i g h t i s the l i g h t t i g e r , seen from the s i d e , g o i n g t o the l e f t . The a n i m a l s walk towards each o t h e r ready t o b a t t l e . In the background i n l i g h t l i n e s i s . d e p i c t e d the c o u p l e , A l p h a and Omega, h o l d i n g on t o each o t h e r , surrounded by a g i r a f f e , a l i o n , and an o s t r i c h , s t a n d i n g b e f o r e a l i g h t drawn f o r e s t , w a t c h i n g the b a t t l e . The scene i l l u s t r a t e s t he p a r t of the poem which d e s c r i b e s the b a t t l e between the woman's two r i v a l s , the b e a r and. the t i g e r : "When the t i g e r met the b e a r , he s m e l l e d Omega's s c e n t - the perfume of the p a l e a p p l e blossom which Omega k i s s e d e v e r y morning a t s u n s h i n e . They f o u g h t and t o r e each o t h e r t o p i e c e s Omega n e s t l e d c l o s e t o A l p h a ; c u r i o u s and not u n d e r s t a n d i n g , the o t h e r a n i m a l s s t r e t c h t h e i r necks and observe t h e game." 11. The T i g e r : 12. The T i g e r and the Bear: 13. Omega and the F l o w e r s : The scene d e p i c t s the woman a l o n e , k n e e l i n g ; h er l e g s turned, somewhat t o the l e f t , her upper body e r e c t . She p r e s s e s f l o w e r s t o h e r mouth. 74 Omega's Eyes: The scene d e p i c t s the..half upper p a r t of the woman, seen from the f r o n t . Her eyes a r e wide open and s t a r i n g t o the d i s t a n c e . She i s p r e s s i n g f l o w e r s t o her . l i p s . The above two scenes i l l u s t r a t e the p a r t of t h e poem which d e s c r i b e s the f e e b l e n a t u r e of woman, c h a r a c t e r i z i n g woman as changeable as i s n a t u r e : "The Eyes of Omega were changeable; n o r m a l l y they were l i g h t b l u e . But when she l o o k e d a t her l o v e r s , h e r eyes t u r n e d b l a c k w i t h t r a c e s of c a r m i n e - r e d and a t such moments she used t o h i d e h er mouth behind, a f l o w e r . Omega and the Donkey: The scene d e p i c t s the woman k n e e l i n g , seen from the s i d e , towards the r i g h t on the ground. She i s seen k i s s i n g a donkey which l i e s i n f r o n t of h e r , whose nose i s s t r e t c h e d toward her mouth, as she h o l d s i t s head i n her hands. The man i s depicted, i n , l i g h t t o n es i n the background w i t h an o s t r i c h . In the [background s t r e t c h e s the f o r e s t . The scene i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p a r t of the poem whi c h >describes Omega's a f f a i r w i t h the donkey, w h i l e A l p h a sees h e r from a f a r . The woman who i s busy k i s s i n g , does not even n o t i c e the man: "The h e a r t of Omega was' f i c k l e . One day A l p h a saw h e r s i t t i n g n e a r the r i v e r k i s s i n g a donkey l y i n g a t her knees. Then A l p h a went t o g e t the o s t r i c h and. l e a n e d a g a i n s t i t s neck, but Omega, busy w i t h h e r f a v o r i t e p a s t i m e , k i s s i n g , d i d not l o o k up." Omega and the P i g : T h i s scene d e p i c t s the woman k n e e l i n g h o l d i n g her l o n g h a n g i n g h a i r forward t o c o v e r h e r body, w h i l e l o o k i n g s e n s u a l l y a t the f a t p i g s i t t i n g on the r i g h t . The p i g l o o k s e q u a l l y s e n s u a l l y back a t h e r . Behind, th e s e two f i g u r e s s t a n d s a p i l e of wood. At the d i s t a n c e a t the l e f t , a hut can be seen i n f r o n t of the water. Behind the hut st a n d s the f o r e s t and. s l o p i n g mountains. T h i s scene i l l u s t r a t e s t he p a r t of the poem which d e s c r i b e s the woman's f l i r t i n g w i t h the p i g : "Then she stood, up, wandering about the i s l a n d , and met 75 t h e p i g . She k n e l t down, h i d h e r body i n her l o n g b l a c k h a i r , and she and t h e p i g l o o k e d a t each o t h e r . " 17. Omega Weeps: T h i s scene d e p i c t s t h e woman i n f u l l f i g u r e k n e e l i n g . She i s seen from t h e f r o n t , h e r knees t u r n e d a l i t t l e b i t t o t h e r i g h t . She has an u n p l e a s a n t l o o k on h e r f a c e , h e r h a i r h a n g i n g , t a n g l e d and uncombed on b o t h s i d e s o f h e r f a c e . She has t h i c k h a n g i n g b r e a s t s and a b l o a t e d stomach. Her hands hang down, s t o c k e d a t h e r s i d e s . T h i s scene i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p a s t of t h e poem which d e s c r i b e s Omega's boredom and unhappiness: "Omega f e l t t i r e d and unhappy t h a t she c o u l d n ' t embrace a l l t h e a n i m a l s o f t h e i s l a n d . She s a t on t h e g r a s s i n t e a r s . " 1.8. Omega's Escape: T h i s scene d e p i c t s t h e man a t t h e l e f t s i t t i n g on a st o n e i n f r o n t o f the sea s h o r e . He i s seen from t h e s i d e , f a c i n g r i g h t . He has h i s elbows on h i s knees and h i s f a c e r e s t s on h i s hands. The beach s t r e t c h e s i n f r o n t o f him i n a shape o f a c u r v e e n c l o s i n g a. l a r g e bay o f the sea i n t h e background. In t h e water i s a d e e r , on whose back the woman l i e s . The moon i s r e f l e c t e d on t h e water. The scene i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p a r t o f the poem which d e s c r i b e s Omega's f l i g h t : "But Omega got bored. One n i g h t when t h e g o l d e n column o f the moon t r e m b l e d on t h e wa t e r , she f l e d on t h e back o f a roebuck o v e r t h e sea on t h e p a l e green l i g h t under t h e moon. A l p h a s t a y e d on t h e i s l a n d a l o n e . " 19. A l p h a ' s Progeny: T h i s scene d e p i c t s t h e man s i t t i n g on a s t o n e . He i s a l m o s t seen c o m p l e t e l y from t h e s i d e , t u r n e d t o t h e r i g h t , h i s elbows on h i s knees and h i s f a c e i n h i s hands. B e h i n d him l i e s t h e edge o f t h e sea sh o r e . Ahead o f him rig.es t h e l a n d , w i t h a hut seen i n t h e d i s t a n c e i n f r o n t o f t h e f o r e s t . I n f r o n t o f t h e man a l o n g l i n e o f c r e a t u r e s , half-man, h a l f -a n i m a l , w i t h t h e b o d i e s o f a n i m a l s and t h e heads o f humans, s t a n d l o o k i n g a t t h e man. 76 The scene i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p a r t o f t h e poem which d e a l s w i t h Omega's progeny as t h e y approach and c a l l t o t h e man, t o p r o t e c t them: "One day, t h e c h i l d r e n o f Omega came t o him; a new g e n e r a t i o n had grown up on t h e i s l a n d . They g a t h e r around A l p h a and c a l l him t h e i r f a t h e r . They were l i t t l e p i g s , l i t t l e s n akes, l i t t l e monkeys, l i t t l e w i l d a n i m a l s and o t h e r b a s t a r d s of man." 20. D e s p a i r : T h i s scene d e p i c t s t h e man, s t a n d i n g r i g h t w i t h h i s l e g s s l i g h t l y a p a r t , t u r n e d towards t h e v i e w e r , i n f r o n t o f t h e sea s h o r e . The man i s g r i p p i n g h i s head w i t h b o t h o f h i s hands, t h r o w i n g h i s hands upward, and w i t h h i s round, wide-open mouth, he seems t o be u t t e r i n g a scream. The sea shore s t r e t c h e s i n a c u r v e , f o r m i n g a bay. The se a , s k y , e a r t h and f i g u r e o f t h e man a r e formed by a number o f s t r i a t i o n s . T h i s scene i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p a r t o f the poem which d e s c r i b e s t h e man's u l t i m a t e d e s p a i r : "He was i n d e s p a i r . He r a n a l o n g t h e sea . Sky and water were t h e c o l o r o f b l o o d . He he a r d s h r i e k s i n t h e a i r and c o v e r e d h i s e a r s . The e a r t h , t h e s ky and t h e sea t r e m b l e d and he f e l t a g r e a t a n g u i s h . " 21. Omega's Death: The scene d e p i c t s t h e bay of t h e sea a t t h e l e f t and a t t h e r i g h t , t h e l a n d w i t h a hut i n t h e d i s t a n c e , w i t h t h e f o r e s t and mountains r i s i n g b e h i n d . I n t h e f o r e g r o u n d k n e e l s t h e man, seen h a l f from t h e s i d e , f a c i n g a t t h e l e f t . With h i s l e f t hand on t h e sand, he s u p p o r t s h i m s e l f , w h i l e w i t h t h e o t h e r hand he s t r i k e s t he head o f the woman, whose body l i e s i n t h e waves o f t h e sea. which appears t o melt i t , under t h e water. T h i s scene i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p a r t o f the -poem which d e a l s w i t h Omega's r e t u r n t o t h e i s l a n d and her de a t h a t t h e hands o f A l p h a : "One day t h e roebuck brought Omega back. Alpha, i s s i t t i n g on t h e beach and she comes towards him. Alph a f e l t h i s b l o o d b e a t i n g , h i s muscles s w e l l e d and he s t r u c k Omega, so h a r d t h a t she d i e d . " 77 22. A l p h a ' s Death: The scene d e p i c t s the man i n the f o r e g r o u n d l y i n g i n f r o n t of the beach, w i t h one o f h i s l e g s i n the water. A group of a n i m a l s a t t a c k him, t h r o w i n g s t o n e s and b i t i n g him. They a l s o appear t o be y e l l i n g . The t i g e r i s a t t a c k i n g the body and s t r i k i n g i t w i t h h i s paw, between the l e g s . T h i s scenes i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p a r t of the poem whi c h d e s c r i b e s A l p h a ' s d e a t h by Omega's o f f s p r i n g : "While he was s t i l l l o o k i n g a t h e r , he was a t t a c h e d f r om behind by a l l h i s c h i l d r e n and t h e a n i m a l s of the i s l a n d who t o r e him.;to p i e c e s . " 78 F i g . 4: T e t e - a - t e - t e , 1885. F i g . 5: Rue L a f a y e t t e , 1891. F i g . 6: S p r i n g Day on K a r l J o h a n S t r e e t , 1891. F i g . 7: S i c k C h i l d , ( F i r s t v e r s i o n executed i n 1886. T h i s v e r s i o n was done i n 1894. F i g . 8: Two Human Being s - The Lonely-Ones, 1889. i g . 9: The V i s i o n , 1893. F i g . 10s The A l l e y , 1894. P i g . l i t S y m b o l i c Study, 1 8 9 3 . F i g . 14: A t t r a c t i o n , 1896. F i g . 1 6 : ro The F o r e s t , 1 8 9 7 . 87. F i g . 18: Ashes, 1894. F i g . 19: M e l a n c h o l y , 1891. F i g . 20: J e a l o u s y , 1895. 89 F i g . 23: Madonna, 1895. F i g . 24: L i f e and Death, 1897. 91 F i g . 25: Four Sons of Max L i n d e , 1903. F i g . 26: Harbour of Lubeck, 1907. 93 F i g . 28s At D o c t o r Jakobsen's C l i n i c , 1909. F i g . 29: P o r t r a i t of Dr. Jakobsen, 1909. i g . 30: The Nurse, 1909. F i g . 3 1 : M e l a n c h o l i a - The Insane Woman, 1 9 0 9 . F i g . 32: The Death of Omega, 1896. 97 F i g . 33s rhe Rag and Bone Kan or The Wanderer, 1 9 0 9 . 9 8 P i g . 35s The Poisonous F l o w e r , 1909. F i g . 36: A l p h a and Omega, 1909. 101 F i g . 3 9 : Shadows, 1 9 0 9 F i g . 40: The Snake i s S t r a n g l e d , 1909. F i g , 4 1 j The Bear, 1909. P i g . 42: The T i g e r , 1909. 104 F i g . 44: Omega and the F l o w e r s , 1909. F i g . 45: Omega's Eyes, 1909. 106 F i g . 4 7 j Omega and the P i g , 1 9 0 9 . 107 F i g . 4 9 : Omega's F l i g h t , 1 9 0 9 . 109 F i g . 53 : Alpha's Death, 1909. 

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