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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Amesbury psalter Madonna and Child Nalos, Doreen 1976

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THE AMESBURY PSALTER MADONNA AND CHILD by DOREEN NALOS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f . F i n e A r t s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d : THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r , 1976 © Doreen Nalos, 1976 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thesis for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Doreen Na1os Department of FINE ARTS  The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date Sep tember U . 1 976 i i ABSTRACT The d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e Amesbury P s a l t e r , c . 1 2 5 0 , i s o f i m m e d i a t e a p p e a l b e c a u s e o f i t s s k i l l e d e x e c u -t i o n a nd t h e r i c h n e s s o f i t s d e c o r a t i o n . I t i s , m o r e o v e r , i n t e r e s t i n g i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y ; t h e Madonna  and C h i l d p a g e , w h i c h p r e s e n t s M a r y as t h e V i r g o  l a c t a n s , a p p e a r s t o be t h e e a r l i e s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s t y p e o f Madonna w h i c h i s o f E n g l i s h p r o v e n -a n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s i s t h e o l d e s t image o f M a r y known t o u s , i t has n e v e r b e e n t h e p o p u l a r im-age o f t h e V i r g i n as has b e e n , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e -p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e a t e d H o d e g e t r i a . T h i s e s s a y t r a c e s t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e V i r g o  l a c t a n s t o t h e c u l t o f I s i s i n E g y p t , e x p l o r e s t h e image o f M a r y e x p r e s s e d i n t h e o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s t h r o u g h t h e c e n t u r i e s , and e x a m i n e s p o p u l a r c o n c e p t s o f t h e V i r g i n p o r t r a y e d i n v e r n a c u l a r l i t e r a t u r e , and t h e v a r i o u s ways i n w h i c h t h e Madonna and C h i l d theme has b e e n v i s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d . W h i l e attempts t o l i n k t h e t h e o l o g i c a l a n d / o r p o p u l a r c o n c e p t s o f Mary, w h i c h o b t a i n e d a t a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e and p l a c e , w i t h s p e c i f i c i m a g e s o f i i i t h e V i r g i n , a r e s o m e t i m e s e r r o n e o u s , t h e r e a r e a few e x a m p l e s o f t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s o f l a t e Romanesque and e a r l y G o t h i c E u r o p e w h i c h s u g g e s t t h a t t h e y w e re t a k e n o v e r f r o m t h e B y z a n t i n e w o r l d b e c a u s e o f a new r e l i g i o u s a t m o s p h e r e . E v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e Madonna as t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s i n m i d - t h i r t e e n t h ^ c e n t u r y E n g l a n d m i g h t have come a b o u t t h r o u g h t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f H e n r y I I I whose p i e t y seemed t o be e x p r e s s e d f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e f o r m o f a r t i s t i c r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , h i s i n t e r e s t i n t h e P r i o r y o f A m e s b u r y , w h i c h has b e e n w e l l d o c u m e n t e d , m i g h t s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s o - c a l l e d Sarum M a s t e r , who c r e a t e d t h e A m e s b u r y P s a l t e r , was one o f t h e many a r t i s t s e m p l o y e d b y H e n r y , whose r o y a l p a t r o n a g e o f a r t h a s n o t b e e n e q u a l l e d i n t h e a n n a l s o f E n g l i s h h i s t o r y . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Z I A b s t r a c t i i I I T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i v I I I L i s t o f F i g u r e s v IV A c k n o w l e d g m e n t v i V A b b r e v i a t i o n s U s e d i n F o o t n o t e s v i i i V I T e x t C h a p t e r I 1 N o t e s 12 C h a p t e r I I 21 N o t e s 34 C h a p t e r I I I 44 N o t e s 52 C h a p t e r I V 61 N o t e s 70 C h a p t e r V 85 N o t e s 105 V I I B i b l i o g r a p h y 121 V I I I P l a t e s 146 IX S u p p l e m e n t a r y P l a t e s 167 X E x c u r s u s 174 V L I S T OF FIGURES F i g u r e I ENGLAND: P l a c e s M e n t i o n e d i n P a p e r v i i F i g u r e I I F o l i o 4a o f t h e A m e s b u r y P s a l t e r R e c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m a c o p y o f H o l l a e n d e r , P l a t e V I I 177 ACKNOWLEDGMENT I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o Dr. M a r y M o r e h a r t o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f F i n e A r t s f o r h e r c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m , h e r g e n e r o u s e n c o u r a g e m e n t , and h e r p a t i e n t g u i d a n c e as my t h e s i s a d v i s o r . I w i s h t o t h a n k a l s o D r . G e o f f r e y B. R i d d e -h o u g h , P r o f e s s o r E m e r i t u s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f C l a s s i c a l S t u d i e s , f o r h i s p a i n s t a k i n g t r a n s l a t i o n o f numerous L a t i n and Greek t e x t s w h i c h p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e h e l p i n t h e r e s e a r c h o f b a c k g r o u n d m a t e r i a l . v i i v i i i ABBREVIATIONS USED IN FOOTNOTES AB A r t B u l l e t i n BM B u r l T r i g t o n M a g a z i n e CHR C h a r t e r R o l l s , H e n r y I I I CR C l o s e R o l l s , H e n r y I I I GBA G a z e t t e des B e a u x - A r t s LR L i b e r a t e R o l l s , H e n r y I I I PL P a t r i o l o g i a L a t i r i a , M i g r i e WC J o u r n a l o f t h e W a r b u r g and C o u r t a u I d I n s t i t u t e s 1 CHAPTER I I n t h e m i d - t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y a g r o u p o f manu-s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n s was p a i n t e d , d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g among " t h e most b e a u t i f u l m i n i a t u r e s e v e r p r o d u c e d i n England.""'" One o f them, t h e A m e s b u r y P s a l t e r , c . 1 2 5 0 , i s t h e m a n u s c r i p t w h i c h i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o t h i s p a p e r . The a r t i s t who c r e a t e d t h i s l o v e l y w o r k i s known t o us as t h e Sarum M a s t e r be-c a u s e t h e f u l l - p a g e d e c o r a t i o n s o f t h r e e o f t h e w o r k s a t t r i b u t e d t o h i m , o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i m , a r e l i n k e d w i t h p l a c e s c l o s e t o S a l i s b u r y . H o w e v e r , as w i l l be s u g g e s t e d , t h e a r t i s t o f t h i s l u x u r i o u s p s a l t e r m i g h t h a v e b e e n a c o u r t p a i n t e r e m p l o y e d by H e n r y I I I a t C l a r e n d o n P a l a c e . I n t h e m i d d l e y e a r s o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , " t h e g r o w t h o f p r i v a t e and p e r s o n a l d e v o t i o n among l a y p e o p l e i n h i g h s o c i e t y . . . i n c r e a s e d t h e demand n 3 f o r i l l u m i n a t e d p s a l t e r s 1 . ' ; t h e y were t h e e a r l i e s t b o o k s o f l i t u r g y d e s i g n e d f o r t h e u s e o f l a y m e n ^ and t h e most w i d e l y p r o d u c e d o f E n g l i s h m a n u s c r i p t s . The c o n t e n t s o f p s a l t e r s were augmented t o i n c l u d e a v a r i e t y o f m a t e r i a l , n o t o n l y r e l i g i o u s i n n a t u r e b u t a l s o s e c u l a r ^ a s , f o r e x a m p l e , c a l e n d a r d e c o r a t i o n s 2 a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e z o d i a c a l s i g n s . T h u s , p s a l t e r s became "un a u t h e n t i q u e compendium de v i e e t de c u l t u r e m e ' d i e v a l e , "^ w i t h l a v i s h ornamen-t a t i o n w h i c h f r e q u e n t l y o c c u p i e d t h e w h o l e p a g e . The B e a t u s page o f t h e A m esbury P s a l t e r i s p a r t i c u -l a r l y r i c h i n i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n ; t h e i n i t i a l l e t t e r 'B'; shows a T r e e o f J e s s e r e p r e s e n t i n g s i x s u b s i d -i a r y O l d T e s t a m e n t f i g u r e s , and i n c l u d e s t h e f i r s t 7 two l i n e s o f t h e t e x t o f t h e p s a l m . L a r g e h i s t o -r i a t e d i n i t i a l s p r e f a c e d t h e m a j o r p s a l m s ( t h e A m e s b u r y P s a l t e r h a s t e n o f them) and l e s s e l a b o r -a t e l y p a i n t e d i n i t i a l s d e c o r a t e d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f v e r s e s w i t h i n t h e p s a l m s . D a t i n g f r o m t h e m i d d l e o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , m a r g i n a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s were f r e q u e n t and o f t e n " c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n v e n t i v e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n g o f a h i g h l y v a r i e d n a t u r e . " The m a r g i n a l i l l u s -t r a t i o n s o f t h e B e a t u s page o f t h e A m e s b u r y P s a l t e r , f o r e x a m p l e , d e m o n s t r a t e a d e l i g h t f u l l y w h i m s i c a l a p p r o a c h t o s u b j e c t m a t t e r ; a m i l d - l o o k i n g l i o n w e a r i n g a c r o w n i s s t r e t c h e d i n a b e d , t h e c o v e r i n g o f w h i c h l e a v e s two l a r g e paws b a r e t o t h e a n k l e s ; a t t h e b e d s i d e s t a n d s a dog ( o r , as H o l l a e n d e r s u g -g e s t s , i t m i g h t be a b e a r ) on i t s h i n d l e g s , 3 " w i t h h e a d - d r e s s i n g and c r u t c h e s , h o l d i n g up t h e t y p i c a l m i d - 1 3 t h c e n t u r y m e d i c i n e b o t t l e , s p e c i m e n s o f w h i c h c a n be s t u d i e d among t h e o b j e c t s o f m e d i -9 a e v a l p o t t e r y f r o m O l d Sarum i n S a l i s b u r y Museum." To a r t i s t s f r o m E n g l a n d i s c r e d i t e d t h e d e v e l -opment o f t h e r a n g e o f p r e f a t o r y m a t e r i a l i n c l u d e d i n p s a l t e r m a n u s c r i p t s , a d e c o r a t i v e programme w h i c h was " w i d e l y a d o p t e d i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s d u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r i e s : t h e a d d i t i o n t o t h e p s a l t e r o f a s e t o f f u l l - p a g e f r o n t i s p i e c e p i c t u r e s . " " ^ Where-a s , f o r m e r l y , i l l u m i n a t i o n s c o n c e n t r a t e d o n i l l u s -t r a t i n g e v e n t s i n t h e l i f e o f D a v i d , C h r i s t o l o g i c a l s c e n e s were a d d e d " t o r e v e a l t h e p r o p h e t i c i m p o r t o f t h e p s a l m s . S c e n e s o f C h r i s t ' s C h i l d h o o d a n d o f H i s P a s s i o n were most f r e q u e n t l y c h o s e n f o r i l l u s -12 t r a t i o n a n d t h u s t h e V i r g i n i s f e a t u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y w h i c h , as N o r d e n f a l k comments, i s " a n o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e s t e a d y g r o w t h d u r i n g t h e Romanesque p e r i o d o f 13 t h e new c u l t o f t h e Madonna." W h i l e t h e A l b a n i P s a l t e r , d a t e d a f t e r 1 1 4 5 , 1 4 i s n o t t h e f i r s t p s a l t e r t o e m p h a s i z e , i n i t s d e c o -15 r a t i o n s , s c e n e s f r o m t h e l i f e o f C h r i s t , i t i s r e m a r k a b l e b e c a u s e i t s f u l l - p a g e i l l u m i n a t i o n s i n -c l u d e n o t o n l y l i n e a n d c o l o u r e d wash d r a w i n g s , b u t a l s o f o r t y f u l l y p a i n t e d s c e n e s . 1 ^ N o r d e n f a l k s t a t e s 4 t h a t i t i s t h e " e a r l i e s t e x a m p l e o f a d e - l u x e 17 p s a l t e r i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f a p i o u s g e n t l e w o m a n " an d , t h a t i t i s n o t by c h a n c e t h a t t h e V i r g i n i n t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n i s shown h o l d i n g a book i n h e r l a p , 18 b e c a u s e i t i s "no d o u b t a p r i v a t e p s a l t e r . " By t h e m i d d l e o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e f u l l - p a g e i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e l i f e o f C h r i s t , w h i c h g e n e r a l l y . p r e f a c e d p s a l t e r s i n c l u d e d a Madonna and C h i l d , a C r u c i f i x i o n , a C h r i s t i n M a j e s t y a n d , f r e q u e n t l y , s c e n e s f r o m t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t and A p o c r y p h a l w r i t i n g s . ^ The f u l l - p a g e i l l u s t r a t i o n s w h i c h p r e f a c e t h e 20 A m e s b u r y P s a l t e r a r e : The A n n u n c i a t i o n , f o l . 3 a . (5 1/5: x 7 3/5 i n . ) The V i r g i n and C h i l d , f o l . 4 a . (5 1/10 x 7 3/5 i n . ) The C r u c i f i x i o n , f o l . 5 a (7 1/2 x 7 3/5 i n . ) C h r i s t i n G l o r y , f o l . 6 a (5 1/2 x 7 3/5 i n . ) 2 1 I t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s p a p e r , h o w e v e r , t o e x a m i n e b u t one o f t h e s e i l l u s t r a t i o n s , t h e V i r g i n and C h i l d p a g e , i n an a t t e m p t t o d e m o n s t r a t e i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e h i s t o r y o f W e s t e r n a r t i n g e n e r a l , and o f 22 E n g l i s h a r t i n p a r t i c u l a r ( p l . l ) . N o t h i n g i s known o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e A m e s b u r y P s a l t e r f r o m t h e t i m e o f i t s e x e c u t i o n u n t i l D r . D a n i e l L y s o n s o f B a t h , S o m e r s e t , a p r e v i o u s f e l l o w o f A l l S o u l s ; C o l l e g e , O x f o r d , d o n a t e d t h e manu-2 3 s c r i p t t o i t s l i b r a r y i n 1772. I t i s assumed t h a t 5 t h e p s a l t e r was composed f o r t h e nun o f A m e s b u r y 24 P r i o r y who i s p i c t u r e d a t t h e f o o t o f t h e V i r g i n on f o l i o 4a o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t and a l s o b e n e a t h t h e C h r i s t i n G l o r y on f o l i o 6 a , w here she k n e e l s b e s i d e a l e c t e r n h o l d i n g a book on w h i c h i s i n s c r i b e d B e a t u s v i r q u i non a b i i t , t h e o p e n i n g w o r d s o f t h e f i r s t p s a l m . The name o f t h e nun i s unknown t o u s , b u t i t m i g h t be s u p p o s e d t h a t she c o m m i s s i o n e d t h e work b e c a u s e , as D u g d a l e s a y s , a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f E l e a n o r o f B r e t a g n e i n 1 2 4 1 , and h e r b u r i a l a t A m e s b u r y , t h e p r i o r y " a p p e a r s t o have b e e n one o f t h e s e l e c t r e t r e a t s f o r f e m a l e s i n t h e h i g h e r r a n k s 2 5 o f l i f e , " a ny one o f whom w o u l d be i n a p o s i t i o n t o c o m m i s s i o n t h i s r i c h l y d e c o r a t e d m a n u s c r i p t f o r h e r p r i v a t e u s e . The V i r g i n and C h i l d f o l i o o f t h e p s a l t e r shows t h e V i r g i n s e a t e d i n a c u s h i o n e d , b a c k l e s s t h r o n e , s u c k l i n g t h e C h i l d w h i l e s u p p o r t i n g Him on h e r l e f t k n e e . A t t h e f e e t o f t h e V i r g i n i s a s m a l l f i g u r e o f a nun who h o l d s a s c r o l l r e a d i n g : AVE MARIA G R A C l f A ] PLENA D fpM? IN [uj S TECUM BENE fDICTA7 . W h i l e t h e V i r g i n ' s h e a d i n c l i n e s t o w a r d s t h e C h r i s t C h i l d , and H i s r i g h t h a n d t o u c h e s H i s m o t h e r ' s h a n d w h i c h s u p p o r t s h e r b r e a s t , t h e C h i l d g a z e s t o -w a r d t h e v i e w e r ; a l t h o u g h t h i s g aze e s t a b l i s h e s 6 c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e o n l o o k e r , t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e w h i c h seems t o i n f o r m H i s e y e s p r e s a g e s C h r i s t as t e a c h e r and t h u s d i m i n i s h e s t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e C h i l d and H i s m o t h e r . M o r e o v e r , t h e d r a g o n and t h e l i o n b e n e a t h t h e V i r -g i n ' s f e e t i n d i c a t e h e r t r i u m p h o v e r d e m o n i c m i g h t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p s a l m - v e r s e , "Thou s h a l t w a l k upon t h e a s p and t h e b a s i l i s k , a n d t r a m p l e t h e l i o n and t h e d r a g o n " ( P s . 90.13) b e c a u s e , t o M a r y a l s o , "was a w a r d e d t h e t r i u m p h o v e r h e r s l a n d e r e r s and t h e v i r g i n 2 6 was c e l e b r a t e d as t h e d e s t r u c t r e s s o f a l l h e r e s i e s . " T h a t h e r s t a t u e s q u e f o r m t o w e r s above t h e f i g u r e o f t h e nun b e s i d e h e r s t r e s s e s t h e i n s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e human s t a t e . When R i c k e r t p r a i s e s t h e Sarum M a s t e r ' s C r u c i f i x i o n s c e n e i n t h e A mesbury P s a l t e r f o r i t s " b a l a n c e b e t w e e n r i c h l i n e a r p a t t e r n and s t r o n g c o n -t o u r d r a w i n g i n t h e f i g u r e s , b e t w e e n s y m b o l i s m and 2 7 e m o t i o n , " h e r w ords a r e f i t t i n g l y d e s c r i p t i v e o f t h e V i r g i n and C h i l d f o l i o . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s l a r g e l y t h e " s t r o n g c o n t o u r d r a w i n g " w h i c h i n v e s t s t h e page w i t h a s e n s e o f f o r m a l i t y i n i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n ; t h e f i r m h a n d l i n g o f l i n e m i n i m i s e s t h e s e n s u o u s ex-p r e s s i v e q u a l i t i e s a p p a r e n t , f o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e 7 M o t h e r and C h i l d image o f t h e P r i s c i l l a Catacomb ( p i . 5 ) . The v i s u a l r i c h n e s s o f t h e w o r k , h o w e v e r , i s a b u n d a n t l y c l e a r . The l a r g e f l o w i n g r h y t h m s and t h e v a r i e t y o f s m a l l e r c u r v e s o f t h e p a i n t i n g i m p a r t a s e n s e o f v i t a l i t y t o t h e s c e n e w h i c h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n t h e d r a w i n g o f t h e f i g u r e o f t h e C h r i s t C h i l d w i t h i t s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e mus-c u l a r s t r u c t u r e o f t h e b ody so n o t i c e a b l e i n t h e e x e c u t i o n o f H i s f e e t . The c o l o u r s o f deep b l u e , deep r o s e p i n k , b u r n t o r a n g e , and p a l e g r e e n a r e e n h a n c e d b y a b a c k g r o u n d o f b u r n i s h e d i m p r e s s e d g o l d , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f m a n u s c r i p t s i l l u m i n a t e d i n 2 8 t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y . The g o l d i s p a t t e r n e d w i t h a s t y l i z e d l e a f o r f l o w e r m o t i f w i t h i n a r e p e a t e d s h e l l - s h a p e , and c l u s t e r s o f d o t s p a t t e r n t h e g o l d a b o u t t h e c e n s i n g a n g e l s i n t h e u p p e r c o r n e r s o f t h e p a i n t i n g . T h e r e i s no a t t e m p t t o i n d i c a t e an i l l u s i o n o f s p a c e o r o f p e r -s p e c t i v e ; t h e g o l d m e r e l y p r o v i d e s a g l o w i n g b a c k -g r o u n d f o r t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The a n g e l on t h e l e f t - h a n d s i d e o f t h e page i s d r e s s e d i n a p a l e g r e e n t u n i c w i t h a r o s e -c o l o u r e d o v e r m a n t l e ; t h e a n g e l on t h e r i g h t w e a r s a t u n i c o f b u r n t o r a n g e and a n o v e r g a r m e n t o f deep b l u e e d g e d w i t h w h i t e , s t i p p l e d w i t h t h e t h r e e - d o t 8 m o t i f . The same o r a n g e h u e , w o r n o v e r a w h i t e u n d e r -g a r m e n t , c o l o u r s t h e c l o t h i n g o f t h e C h r i s t C h i l d , t h e n e c k o f Whose gown opens t o r e v e a l a p a l e g r e e n l i n i n g w h i c h i s v i s i b l e a t H i s w r i s t and on t h e i n n e r s u r f a c e o f H i s f l o w i n g h e m l i n e . The V i r g i n ' s u n d e r g a r m e n t , w h i c h i s c l o s e -f i t t i n g a b o u t h e r l e f t f o r e a r m and w r i s t and w h i c h f a l l s i n t o ample f o l d s a b o u t h e r f e e t , i s w h i t e . The m a t e r i a l o f h e r gown i s b l u e , p a t t e r n e d w i t h a d o t m o t i f , and h e r c l o a k o f d u s k y p i n k i s s p r i n k l e d w i t h t i n y c i r c l e s , and d i a p e r e d w i t h a c r o s s and c r e s c e n t d e s i g n , w h i c h i s a v a r i a t i o n o f the' s t a r 29 and c r e s c e n t d e v i c e o f t h e badge o f H e n r y I I I . The l i n i n g o f t h e V i r g i n ' s c l o a k i s t h e same p a l e p i n k as t h e s c a r f w h i c h c o v e r s h e r h a i r ; a w i s p o f h a i r t o u c h e s h e r f o r e h e a d , a n o t h e r b r u s h e s h e r r i g h t c h e e k . H e r w a i s t i s c i r c l e d by a g o l d e n b u c k l e d g i r d l e , and g o l d l a c e b o r d e r s t h e hem o f h e r b l u e gown w h i c h r e v e a l s a l i n i n g o f r e d , as does t h e w i d e w r i s t o f h e r s l e e v e . The a d o r i n g nun w e a r s a b l a c k h o o d , a w h i t e g u imp, a nd a d a r k b l u e c l o a k o v e r a g a r m e n t o f p a l e r 30 b l u e , t h e edges o f w h i c h a r e t o u c h e d w i t h w h i t e . B o t h t h e V i r g i n and C h i l d a r e n i m b e d , and a r e d h a l o c r o s s e d i n g o l d s u r r o u n d s t h e t i g h t l y c u r l e d h a i r o f t h e C h i l d on h e r k n e e . 9 The f i g u r e s a r e f r a m e d by c o l u m n s s u p p o r t i n g a l o b a t e a r c h s u r m o u n t e d by t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l o f a t i l e d r o o f f l a n k e d by t o w e r s , and t h e w h o l e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s b o r d e r e d by r o s e - c o l o u r e d b a n d s a t t h e t o p and b o t t o m w i t h b l u e a t t h e s i d e s , p a t t e r n e d w i t h a s i m p l e f o l i a t e d e s i g n . E a c h c o r n e r i s d e c o -r a t e d w i t h q u a t r e f o i l s o f p a l e g r e e n . I t i s , h o w e v e r , n o t t h e l u x u r i o u s n a t u r e o f t h e d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e Madonna and C h i l d page o f t h e A m e s b u r y P s a l t e r t h a t i s o f i n t e r e s t h e r e , b u t t h e f a c t t h a t M a r y i s d e p i c t e d as a V i r g o l a c t a n s , w h i c h a p p e a r s t o be t h e e a r l i e s t known m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h i s t y p e o f Madonna i n m a n u s c r i p t f o r m w h i c h i s o f 31 E n g l i s h p r o v e n a n c e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s t o be n o t e d t h a t t h e A m e s b u r y i l l u m i n a t i o n i s n o t t h e e a r l i e s t known V i r g o l a c t a n s o f W e s t e r n m e d i e v a l a r t . T h a t p r i v i l e g e b e l o n g s t o a p e n d r a w i n g w i t h c o l o u r e d wash p r o d u c e d i n F r a n c e as p a r t o f a J e s s e T r e e d e s i g n e x e c u t e d a t C i t e a u x b e t w e e n t h e y e a r s 32 1 1 1 0 - 1 1 2 0 , ( p l . 2 ) f a m a n u s c r i p t w h i c h h a s b e e n de-s c r i b e d as b e i n g a "compendium o f t h e new d e v o t i o n t o t h e h u m a n i t y o f t h e S a v i o u r and H i s e a r t h l y M o t h e r " ' 34 b e c a u s e i t i n c o r p o r a t e s themes new t o W e s t e r n a r t w h i c h were t o m i n i s t e r " t o t h e d e v o t i o n o f l a t e r 35 c e n t u r i e s . " T h a t t h e p r o v e n a n c e o f t h e w o r k i s 10 C i t e a u x i s o f i n t e r e s t ; a l l o f i t s h o u s e s were d e d i c a t e d t o M a r y , and i t was t h e r e t h a t B e r n a r d j o i n e d t h e C i s t e r c i a n O r d e r p r i o r t o h i s b e c o m i n g one o f t h e g r e a t m o n a s t i c l e a d e r s whose d e v o t i o n t o t h e V i r g i n has b e e n w i d e l y d o c u m e n t e d . The mood o f t h e C i t e a u x w o r k , h o w e v e r , i s q u i t e d e v o i d o f human f e e l i n g and does n o t i n any way a c c o r d w i t h t h e l i t e r a r y w o r k s o f W e s t e r n c h u r c h -men a p p e a r i n g a l m o s t a t t h e same t i m e as t h e manu-s c r i p t as e x a m p l e d b y t h e w r i t i n g s o f S t . A n s e l m ' s p u p i l and b i o g r a p h e r , Eadmer ( c . 1 0 6 0 - 1 1 3 0 ) . H i s p r o s e i s l y r i c a l i n p r a i s e o f t h e V i r g i n ' s l o v e f o r 3 7 t h e C h i l d and c o n t r a s t s t h e s t i f f a n d f o r m a l i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e C'lteaux m a n u s c r i p t i l l u s t r a t i o n w here M a r y i s shown s e a t e d f r o n t a l l y on a b o l s t e r -c o v e r e d b a c k l e s s t h r o n e f r o m w h i c h she s t a r e s i n t o t h e v i e w e r ' s s p a c e . A p a r t f r o m s u p p o r t i n g h e r b a r e d b r e a s t w i t h h e r r i g h t h a n d , she p a y s no h e e d t o t h e C h i l d on h e r l e f t k nee Who h o l d s a s c r o l l i n H i s l e f t h a n d a n d b l e s s e s w i t h H i s r i g h t h a n d . A b o u t t h e h e a d o f t h e V i r g i n i s t h e G r e e k i n s c r i p t i o n T h e o t o k o s w h i c h b e a r s " e l o q u e n t t e s t i m o n y t o t h e p r o x i m i t y o f 3 8 t h e B y z a n t i n e m o del f r o m w h i c h i t was d e r i v e d . " The V i r g o l a c t a n s image i t s e l f , h o w e v e r , was n o t a B y z a n t i n e i n v e n t i o n ; i t i s t h e o l d e s t t y p e o f 11 Madonna r e p r e s e n t a t i o n known t o usDy and i s o f C o p t i c o r i g i n . T h u s , t h e A m e s b u r y P s a l t e r M a r i a  l a c t a n s c . 1 2 5 0 , as t h e e a r l i e s t known e x a m p l e o f t h i s t y p e o f Madonna w h i c h i s o f E n g l i s h p r o v e n a n c e , i s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t o W e s t e r n a r t i n g e n e r a l , a n d t o E n g l i s h a r t i n p a r t i c u l a r . 12 NOTES - CHAPTER 1 ^O. E l f r i d a S a u n d e r s , E n g l i s h I l l u m i n a t i o n (New Y o r k : H a c k e r A r t B o o k s , 1 9 6 9 ) , 62. 2 e . . E.G. M i l l a r , L a M i n i a t u r e A n g l a i s e du X --Seek.. X I I I ^ T T T a r i s : G. v a n O e s t , 1 9 2 6 ) , 108. The members o f t h e g r o u p s o f m a n u s c r i p t s r e l a t e d t o t h e A m e s b u r y  P s a l t e r a r e : t h e Sarum M i s s a l o f H e n r y o f C h i c h e s t e r (Ms L a t . 24, J o h n R y l a n d s L i b r a r y , M a n c h e s t e r , E n g l a n d ) , t h e Sarum B i b l e o f W i l l a i m de H a l e s (Ms R o y a l 1 B X I I , B r i t i s h Museum, L o n d o n ) , and t h e W i l t o n P s a l t e r ( R o y a l C o l l e g e o f P h y s i c i a n s , L o n d o n , E n g l a n d ) . F o r a de-s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e m a n u s c r i p t s and a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e a c h o t h e r , and t o t h e Am e s b u r y  P s a l t e r , s ee A l b e r t H o l l a e n d e r , "The Sarum I l l u m i -n a t o r and h i s S c h o o l " , The W i l t s h i r e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l  and N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M a g a z i n e , C L X X I X , v o l . 1 ( D e v i z e s . ; 1 9 4 3 ) , 231. F o r i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e Sarum  M i s s a l , s ee M.R. James, C a t a l o g u e o f L a t i n M a n u s c r i p t s  i n t h e J o h n R y l a n d s L i b r a r y , v o l . 1 ( M a n c h e s t e r , 1 9 2 1 ) , e n t r y no. 24, 73-75 and p i s . 51-57; M i l l a r , 109; P e t e r B r i e g e r , E n g l i s h A r t 1216-1307 ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , 177; E.W. T r i s t r a m , E n g l i s h M e d i e v a l W a l l  P a i n t i n g , v o l . 2 ( O x f o r d : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 0 ) , 174. A m e d i c a l t r e a t i s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s g r o u p o f manu-s c r i p t s was known t o be i n p r i v a t e hands i n Germany. A c c o r d i n g t o H o l l a e n d e r , t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e N a z i r e -gime t o w a r d t h e p r o p e r t y o f n o n - A r y a n s , h o w e v e r , a nd t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f w a r , made t h e w h e r e a b o u t s o f t h e manu-s c r i p t a m a t t e r f o r c o n j e c t u r e ( H o l l a e n d e r , 2 3 1 ) . 13 7 B r i e g e r , 1 7 1. C o n c e r n i n g t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p o f b o o k s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , s ee a l s o N i g e l J . M o r g a n , " G o t h i c M a n u s c r i p t s i n E n g l a n d , " The Book T h r o u g h F i v e T h o u s a n d Y e a r s ; e d . H e n d r i k D. L. V e r v l i e t , ( L o n d o n : P h a i d o n , 1 9 7 2 ) , 233. 4 C a r l N o r d e n f a l k , "Book I l l u m i n a t i o n , " Roman-esqu e P a i n t i n g f r o m t h e E l e v e n t h t o t h e T h i r t e e n t h  C e n t u r y , t r a n s . S t u a r t G i l b e r t ( S k i r a : L a u s a n n e , 1 9 5 8 ) , 170. 5 e Siizli M a r g a r e t R i c k e r t , L a M i n i a t u r e A n g l a i s e ( X I I I XV 6^ ( M i l a n : E l e c t a E d i t i o n s , 1 9 5 9 ) , 5. 6 I b i d . 7 F o r an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e B e a t u s page o f t h e Ame s b u r y P s a l t e r , s ee H o l l a e n d e r , p i . X. L i l l i a n M.C. R a n d a l l , Images i n t h e M a r g i n s o f  G o t h i c M a n u s c r i p t s . ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , 9-10. 9 H o l l a e n d e r , 246, p i . X. 1 ( ^ C a r l N o r d e n f a l k , "Book I l l u m i n a t i o n , " E a r l y  M e d i e v a l P a i n t i n g f r o m t h e F o u r t h t o t h e E l e v e n t h  C e n t u r y , t r a n s . S t u a r t G i l b e r t ( S k i r a : L a u s a n n e , 1 9 5 7 ) , 186. n i b i d . 12 C a r l N o r d e n f a l k , "Book I l l u m i n a t i o n , " Roman-e s que, 172. 14 1 3 I b i d . 1 4 F r a n c e s Wormald, The S t . A l b a n s P s a l t e r ( L o n d o n : W a r b u r g I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 6 0 ) , 5. The m a n u s c r i p t i s unnumbered a n d p r e s e n t l y a t S t . G o d e h a r d ' s H i l d e -s h e i m . I t was " p r o b a b l y w r i t t e n a t S t . A l b a n s and b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r f o r C h r i s t i n a , a n c h o r e s s o f Mark-y a t e , and a f t e r 1145 f i r s t p r i o r e s s o f M a r k y a t e " (Wormald, 5 ) . 1 5 0 t t o P a c h t , The S t . A l b a n s P s a l t e r ( L o n d o n ; Warbug I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 6 0 ) , 51. P a c h t p o i n t s o u t t h a t C o t t o n T i b . C V I , a m i d - e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y p s a l t e r , p r o b a -b l y b a s e d on a t e n t h c e n t u r y e x e m p l a r , a l s o f e a t u r e d f u l l - p a g e d e c o r a t i o n s o f s c e n e s f r o m t h e l i f e o f C h r i s t T h e s e were n o t p a i n t e d , h o w e v e r , b u t e x e c u t e d i n o u t -u l i n e d r a w i n g ( P a c h t , 5 1 ) . "^Wormald, 6. 1 7 N o r d e n f a l k , 170. " ^ N o r d e n f a l k , 172. 19 R i c k e r t , 6. C o n c e r n i n g t h e r a n g e o f m a t e r i a l i n c l u d e d i n p s a l t e r s o f t h i s p e r i o d , see Canon F. H a r -r i s o n , E n g l i s h M a n u s c r i p t s - c. 1240-1400 ( L o n d o n : S t u d i o P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 3 7 ) , 2 1 f f . 20 A m e s b u r y P s a l t e r , Ms L a t . V I , A l l S o u l s C o l l e g e ( C o d r i n g t o n L i b r a r y ) , O x f o r d . See M i l l a r p i s . 81-83 and pp. 62, 6 3 , 108; H o l l a e n d e r , p i s . V I , V I I , V I I I , I X , X, X I I , X I I I . 15 H o l l a e n d e r , 242-243. 2 2 U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d , ' E n g l i s h ' and ' E n g l a n d ' may r e f e r t o any l o c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s . 2 3 H o l l a e n d e r , 239. The p s a l t e r i s a b o u t 10 x 14 i n c h e s , i s two i n c h e s t h i c k , a nd i s e n c l o s e d i n a d a r k m o r o c c o b i n d i n g o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y ( H o l -l a e n d e r , 241) . 24 T r i s t r a m , 172; M i l l a r , 62. B r i e g e r w r i t e s t h a t " p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p o f s u c h i l l u m i n a t e d m a n u s c r i p t s , and t h e w i s h t o show c l o s e r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h s a -c r e d f i g u r e s c a u s e d t h e f r e q u e n t a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e o w ner's p o r t r a i t a t t h e f e e t o f C h r i s t o r t h e V i r g i n . F i r s t , t h e s e f i g u r e s were o u t s i d e t h e f r a m e , l i k e t h a t o f M a t t h e w P a r i s o r t h e A b b o t i n t h e Evesham P s a l t e r , b u t g r a d u a l l y t h e y were i n c l u d e d i n t h e m a i n c o m p o s i -t i o n " ( B r i e g e r , 1 7 1 ) . F o r e x a m p l e s o f f e m a l e sup-p l i c a n t f i g u r e s i n m a n u s c r i p t s p r i o r t o t h e d a t e o f t h e A mesbury P s a l t e r , see "The I l l u s t r a t i o n s t o S t . A n s e l m ' s P r a y e r s and M e d i t a t i o n s , " O t t o P a c h t , WC X I X ( L o n d o n , 1 9 5 6 ) , p i s . 1 5 a , 23b, 2 3 c , i l l u s -t r a t i n g Ms A u c t . D 26. F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n c o n -c e r n i n g t h e p r i v a t e c o m m i s s i o n i n g o f p s a l t e r s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , see G u n t h e r H a s e l o f f , D i e P s a l t e r i l l u s -t r a t i o n im 13 J a h r h u n d e r t ( K i e l . ; 1 9 3 8 ) , 5. A mesbury P r i o r y was d e d i c a t e d i n t h e y e a r 980 t o t h e p a t r o n a g e o f S t . M a r y and S t . M e l o r u s (See S i r W i l l i a m D u g d a l e , M o n a s t i c u m A n g l i c a n u m , I I ( L o n d o n : James Bohn, 1 8 4 6 ) , 333. C o n c e r n i n g t h e " m e d i e v a l L i f e o f M e l o r u s t h e M a r t y r , a b r i d g e d f r o m a F r e n c h work and p r o b a b l y 16 w r i t t e n a t A m e s b u r y , " see a l s o A l b a n B u t l e r , B u t l e r ' s  L i v e s o f t h e S a i n t s , v o l . 4, e d . and r e v . and s u p p l e -m e nted by H e r b e r t T h u r s t o n and D o n a l d A t t w a t e r ( A b e r -d e e n : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) , 4-5. M e l o r u s was a B r e t o n s a i n t , and Canon D o b l e r e c o r d s t h a t " t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y saw a g r e a t i n f l u x o f t h e r e l i c s o f B r e t o n s a i n t s i n t o E n g l a n d b e c a u s e o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f K i n g A t h e l s t a n " (Canon G.H. D o b l e , S t . M e l o r , ' C o r n i s h S a i n t s , " s e r i e s , no. 13 ( L o n g Compton, 1 9 2 7 ) , 2 4 ) . 2 5 D u g d a l e , I I , 333-334; D a v i d K n o w l e s , The  M o n a s t i c O r d e r s i n E n g l a n d ( C a m b r i d g e : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , 362. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e i s no r e c o r d o f t h e p s a l t e r i n t h e a u d i t o f t h e p r i o r y h e l d i n 1256, w h i c h m i g h t be an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t i t w a s , i n d e e d , h e l d i n p r i v a t e h a n d s . 26 E r n s t G u l d a n , E v a und M a r i a ( G r a z - K o l n : Hermann B o h l a u s , 1 9 6 6 ) , 95. F o r a s t u d y o f t h e a s s o -c i a t i o n o f t h i s p s a l m - v e r s e w i t h M a r y , s e e G u l d a n , 9 3 - 9 5 . 2 7 M a r g a r e t R i c k e r t , P a i n t i n g i n B r i t a i n , t h e  M i d d l e A g e s , P e l i c a n H i s t o r y o f A r t S e r i e s , e d . N i k o l a u s P e v s n e r ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h : P e n g u i n B o o k s , 1 9 5 4 ) , 116. 2 8 M o r g a n , " G o t h i c M a n u s c r i p t s i n E n g l a n d , " 238. The P s a l t e r o f R o b e r t o f L i n d s e y e ( 1 2 1 2 - 1 2 2 2 ) , Ms 59, S o c i e t y o f A n t i q u a r i e s , L o n d o n , made f o r t h e A b b o t o f P e t e r b o r o u g h , i s an e a r l y e x a m p l e o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e w h i c h a t t a i n e d g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y i n t h e l a t e r y e a r s o f t h e c e n t u r y b o t h i n E n g l a n d and i n F r a n c e ; see M i l l a r , p i s . 69 , 70-. 17 " " " T r i s t r a m , W a l l P a i n t i n g s , 197; see a l s o E. W. T r i s t r a m , "An E n g l i s h M i d - F o u r t e e n t h C e n t u r y P i c -t u r e , "BM L X X X I I I , J u l . 1943, 62. 30 P a r t o f t h e c o n t e n t s o f a p e n c i l l e d n o t e a t t a c h e d t o t h e p r i n t e d c a t a l o g u e o f 1842 i n t h e C o d r i n g t o n L i b r a r y o f A l l S o u l s C o l l e g e , O x f o r d , w h i c h c i t e s t h e Am e s b u r y P s a l t e r , r e f e r s t o t h e d r e s s o f t h e monks and nuns p i c t u r e d i n t h e m a n u s c r i p t as b e i n g " b l u e o v e r g r e e n , t h e c o l o u r s o f t h e O r d e r o f F o n t e v r a u l t " ( H o l l a e n d e r , 2 3 9 ) . The C a t h o l i c E n c y c -l o p e d i a , h o w e v e r , i n f o r m s us t h a t " t h e h a b i t o f t h e F o n t e v r i s t nuns was a w h i t e t u n i c and s u r p l i c e w i t h a b l a c k g i r d l e a n d b l a c k v e i l , t h e c o w l was b l a c k ; " s e e The C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , e d . C h a r l e s G. H e b e r -mann e t a l _ . (New Y o r k : R o b e r t A p p l e t o n Company, 190 7-1912) v o l . 6, 130. T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n a c c o r d s more c l o s e l y w i t h t h e h a b i t o f t h e nun p i c t u r e d on f o l . 4 a . and f o l . 6 a . o f t h e Amesbury P s a l t e r t h a n does t h e d e s c r i p t i o n a p p e n d e d t o t h e l i b r a r y c a t a l o g u e o f 1842. 31 V i c t o r L a s a r e f f i n h i s " S t u d i e s o f t h e I c o n o -g r a p h y o f t h e V i r g i n , " A r t B u l l e t i n 2 0 , 1938, l i s t s Ms 1 DX, f o l . 4 i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum, as p i c t u r i n g a V i r g o l a c t a n s . T h i s f o l i o i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n S i r G. W a r n e r ' s s e l e c t i o n s i n R e p r o d u c t i o n s o f I l l u m i n a t e d  M a n u s c r i p t s , B r i t i s h Museum, S e r i e s I I I , t h i r d e d i -t i o n , 1 9 2 5 , p l a t e X I V , w h i c h shows The L a s t S u p p e r and C h r i s t W a s h i n g t h e D i s c i p l e s ' F e e t . The c o n t e n t s o f t h i s p s a l t e r , d a t e d c. 1220 ( t h u s p r e - d a t i n g t h e Am e s b u r y P s a l t e r ) , h ave b e e n d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l by J.A. H e r b e r t i n "A P s a l t e r i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum ( R o y a l Ms 1 DX) I l l u m i n a t e d i n E n g l a n d E a r l y i n t h e 18 T h i r t e e n t h C e n t u r y , " W a l p o l e , v o l . 3, 1914, 47-56 p i s . X L I - L ; i n i t I c a n f i n d no m e n t i o n o f t h e r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n o f a V i r g o l a c t a n s . The Sarum M a s t e r , i n t h e Sarum M i s s a l o f H e n r y o f C h i c h e s t e r , p i c t u r e s t h e N a t i v i t y ( f o l . 149b, Ms L a t . R 24, J o h n R y l a n d s L i b -r a r y , M a n c h e s t e r ) i n w h i c h t h e V i r g i n i s shown n o u r i -s h i n g h e r C h i l d . T h i s m a n u s c r i p t i s d a t e d by H o l l a e n -d e r 1 2 5 2-1264; see H o l l a e n d e r , 235. W h i l e he d a t e s t h e A m e s b u r y m a n u s c r i p t as " a f t e r 1252" ( p . 239) a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e V i r g i n and C h i l d o f t h a t m a n u s c r i p t w i t h t h e V i r g i n and C h i l d o f t h e m i s s a l ( f o l . 150a) shows c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t h e l a t t e r w h i c h s u g g e s t t h a t i t i s a w o r k l a t e r t h a n t h e A mesbury P s a l t e r . H e l l e V i i r l a i d , t h r o u g h Dr. M a r y M o r e h a r t , drew my a t t e n t i o n t o a d e c o r a t e d i n i t i a l '0' i n Ms 729 f . 94, L i b r a r y o f t h e H u n t e r i a n Museum, G l a s g o w , o f a n i m b e d woman g i v i n g s u c k t o two monks, an i l l u s t r a t i o n w h i c h i s d a t e d t o t h e t h i r d q u a r t e r o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . T h i s i n i t i a l d e c o r a t e d P s a l m 72 o f a p s a l t e r p r o b a -b l y made i n Y o r k c. 1175. T h e r e i s no r e f e r e n c e i n t h e t e x t o f t h e p s a l m w h i c h seems t o w a r r a n t s u c h a n i l l u s t r a t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e f i g u r e i s p o s s i b l y t o be i n t e r p r e t e d as r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e C h u r c h . The C h u r c h h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d f r e q u e n t l y b y " q u a l i t i e s t h a t o r i -g i n a l l y b e l o n g e d t o M a r y " a s , f o r e x a m p l e , when Mech-t i l d de M a g d e b u r g r e l a t e s how S t . F r a n c i s and S t . D o m i n i c w e re " ' f e d a t t h e two b r e a s t s t h a t a r e so f u l l o f s w e e t m i l k t h a t t h e y n e v e r c a n r u n d r y -- f o r t h e s e b r e a s t s a r e t h e O l d and New T e s t a m e n t , w i t h w h i c h o u r m o t h e r t h e C h u r c h s u c k l e s a l l t h e c h i l d r e n o f God'" ( Y r j o H i r n , The S a c r e d S h r i n e ( B o s t o n : B e a c o n H i l l P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , 3 6 5 ) . L a s a r e f f n o t e s a 19 m a n u s c r i p t , t h e A r m e n i a n G o s p e l o f 1 3 2 3 , e x e c u t e d by T o r o s T a r o n e t z i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f B i s h o p G a r e g i n i n E t c h m i a d z i n , i n w h i c h t h e r e a r e two r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n s o f t h e V i r g i n ; i n one she i s shown as a V i r g o  l a c t a n s n u r s i n g t h e C h i l d a n d , i n t h e o t h e r , she i s s e a t e d on a t h r o n e w i t h t h e C h i l d b u t i s n u r s i n g t h e a p o s t l e s P e t e r and P a u l . ( V i c t o r L a s a r e f f , " E a r l y I t a l o - B y z a n t i n e P a i n t i n g i n S i c i l y , " BM L X I I I , no. 2. J u l . - D e c . 1 9 3 3 , 280, n. 1 0 ) . 32 D a v i d M. Robb, The A r t o f t h e I l l u m i n a t e d  M a n u s c r i p t ( S o u t h B r u n s w i c k : A.S. B a r n e s , 1 9 7 3 ) , 203. The m a n u s c r i p t i s f o l . 40v o f a L e c t i o n a r y ( D i j o n , B i b l . Mun., Mss 6 4 1 - 6 4 2 ) , d a t e d by Robb as e a r l i e r t h a n t h e C T t e a u x w o r k m e n t i o n e d b e l o w , p. 49f. 33 R i c h a r d W. S o u t h e r n , The M a k i n g o f t h e  M i d d l e Ages (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , 239 . 34 W a t s o n s t a t e s t h a t t h i s m a n u s c r i p t page r e p r e s e n t s t h e o n l y e x a m p l e known t o h i m o f t h e de-p i c t i o n o f t h e p r e f i g u r a t i o n s o f t h e V i r g i n w h i c h d a t e s p r i o r t o 1200; see A r t h u r W a t s o n , The E a r l y  I c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e T r e e o f J e s s e ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 4 ) , 7 9 f f , p i . V I . 35 S o u t h e r n , 2 3 9 . 3 6 S o u t h e r n , 2 3 9 - 2 4 0 . 37 See J a c q u e s P a u l M i g n e , PL 1 5 9 : 5 6 5 , i n w h i c h Eadmer s a y s o f M a r y : " S u p e r a t e r g o omnium r e r u m 20 c r e a t a r u m amores e t d u l c e d i n i s i m m e n s i t a s qua e x s u l -t a b e t e t l i q u e f i a t a n i m a e j u s i n eumdem Domum Deum suum." ( " T h e r e f o r e , t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e l o v e o f t h a t V i r g i n t o w a r d h e r Son s u r p a s s e s a l l t h e l o v e s a n d s w e e t n e s s e s o f a l l c r e a t e d t h i n g s , and so does t h e i m m e n s i t y o f t h e s w e e t n e s s i n w h i c h h e r s o u l e x u l t e d a nd m e l t e d i n t o t h e same L o r d God." T r a n s l a t e d b y G.B. R i d d e h o u g h ) . S o u t h e r n c o m p a r e s t h e " m e t a p h y s i c a l e c s t a s y " o f A n s e l m ' s w r i t i n g s w i t h t h e " h i s t o r i c a l r h a p s o d y " o f t h e w r i t i n g s o f Eadmer, w h i c h a r e t h u s c l o s e r t o " t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f p o p u l a r d e v o t i o n " ( R i c h a r d W. S o u t h e r n , S t . A n s e l m and h i s B i o g r a p h e r ( C a m b r i d g e : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963), 288). 3 8 S o u t h e r n , M a k i n g , 239. 39 • / L o u i s R e au, I c o n o g r a p h i e de l ' A r t C h r e t i e n ( P a r i s : P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 1 9 5 5 ) , v o l . 2 : 2 , 9 6 . 21 CHAPTER I I The i c o n o g r a p h i c . s i m i l a r i t i e s M a r y s h a r e s w i t h t h e E g y p t i a n f i g u r e s o f I s i s s u c k l i n g t h e i n f a n t H o r u s have p r o m o t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n j e c t u r e c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r o b a b l e i n f l u e n c e s w h i c h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c u l t o f t h e I s i s l a c t a n s e x e r t e d u p o n t h e c u l t o f t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s . The v i s u a l s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n them have b e e n t o o f r e q u e n t l y commented upon t o w a r r a n t e l a b o -r a t i o n . " ' " H owever, some m e n t i o n o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e I s i s l a c t a n s as i t p e r t a i n s t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s i s r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r f o r us t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e u n u s u a l n a t u r e o f t h i s t y p e o f p r e s e n t a t i o n . The c u l t o f I s i s was " t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f a l l t h e E g y p t i a n c u l t s b e c a u s e i t b e l o n g e d t o a l l 2 c l a s s e s f r o m t h e h i g h e s t r a n k t o t h e l o w e s t . " I t e v o l v e d f r o m t h e c u l t o f O s i r i s who was r e g a r d e d as " t h e a n c e s t o r God o f a l l E g y p t . . . and f l o u r i s h e d . . . u n t i l a b o u t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t w e n t i e t h 3 d y n a s t y . " D u r i n g t h e T w e n t y - s e c o n d D y n a s t y , t h e c u l t o f O s i r i s waned b e c a u s e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c u l t o f S e r a p i s , t h e God o f t h e d e a d , who was p a r t 22 E g y p t i a n and p a r t G r e e k ; h o w e v e r , t h e v e n e r a t i o n f o r -m e r l y a c c o r d e d O s i r i s was t r a n s f e r r e d t o h i s s o n H o r u s , b o r n o f O s i r i s ' s i s t e r / s p o u s e , I s i s . H o r u s was wor-4 s h i p p e d as t h e " p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f l i f e and s t r e n g t h , " and I s i s , t h e m o t h e r who n u r t u r e d h i m w i t h h e r m i l k , came t o be r e v e r e d as a s y m b o l o f t h e g i v e r o f l i f e , and t h e p r o t e c t o r o f i t . ^ By t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y B.C., h u n d r e d s o f ex-t a n t ex_votc_ images and a m u l e t s i n b r o n z e and f a i e n c e t e s t i f y t o t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y o f t h e c u l t o f I s i s . ^ So p o p u l a r were t h e s e i m a g es t h a t a summary o f t h e i r g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c a n be s t a t e d as s h o w i n g a s e a t e d , f r o n t a l l y p r e s e n t e d f i g u r e w i t h h e r l e g s and f e e t c l o s e t o g e t h e r : she i s c l o t h e d i n a g a r m e n t w h i c h s h e a t h e s t h e c o n t o u r s o f h e r r i g i d b o d y , and h e r h e a d i s r e s p l e n d e n t w i t h t h e h o r n s and s o l a r d i s c w h i c h s i g n i f y h e r s t a t u s , l i k e t h a t o f H a t h o r , as g o d d e s s o f t h e h e a v e n s . I s i s s u p p o r t s H o r u s w i t h h e r l e f t arm a n d , w i t h h e r r i g h t h a n d , o f f e r s h e r l e f t b r e a s t f o r h i s n o u r i s h m e n t . H o r u s does n o t r e -c l i n e i n e a s e a c r o s s h i s m o t h e r ' s k n e e s , b u t i s shown as a s t i f f , a w k w a r d l y s e a t e d , a l m o s t u p r i g h t f i g u r e , d r e s s e d i n a c l o s e - f i t t i n g g a r m e n t ; h i s l e g s and f e e t a r e p r e s s e d t o g e t h e r and h i s arms a r e h e l d c l o s e t o h i s s i d e s . H i s g a z e i s n o t d i r e c t e d t o w a r d h i s 23 g o d d e s s m o t h e r , a nd h e r g a z e i s n o t upon h i m ; i n -d e e d , t h e r e i s no s e e m i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r d e p e n -d e nce b e t w e e n m o t h e r a nd c h i l d . T h u s , t h e t r a d i -t i o n a l I s i s l a c t a n s f i g u r e s c a n be d e s c r i b e d g e n e r -a l l y as b e i n g f o r m a l and h i e r a t i c i n t h e i r p r e s e n t a -t i o n ( p i • 3) . The s p r e a d o f t h e I s i s c u l t i s a t t e s t e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t e v e n p r i o r t o A l e x a n d e r ' s c o n q u e s t o f E g y p t i n 332-331 B.C., t h e g o d d e s s was a c c o r d e d hom-age b y t h e G r e e k s , t h e C a r t h a g i n i a n s ( p e r h a p s b y t h e P a l e s t i n i a n s ) , a n d a l s o b y t h e P h o e n i c i a n s , who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g I s i s / H o r u s f i g u r e s t o 7 a l l p a r t s o f t h e known w o r l d . L a t e r , d u r i n g t h e Graeco-Roman p e r i o d , t h e images o f I s i s s u c k l i n g H o r u s ( H a r p o c r a t e s ) a p p e a r e d on c o i n s , l a m p s , a m u l e t s , and o t h e r p o r t a b l e o b j e c t s w h i c h were so numerous t h a t T r a n Tarn T i n h d i v i d e s them i n t o f o u r g r o u p s , o n l y one o f w h i c h i s i m p o r -g t a n t h e r e -- " t h e I s i s l a c t a n s s e a t e d on a t h r o n e " --b e c a u s e o f i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e e n t h r o n e d V i r g i n s u c k l i n g t h e C h r i s t C h i l d . A c c o r d i n g t o T r a n Tarn T i n h , t h e p r o t o t y p e o f t h e Graeco-Roman p r e s e n t a t i o n o f I s i s s u c k l i n g H a r p o c r a t e s " d o i t a v o i r e t e c r e e a A l e x a n d r i e dans un m i l i e u g r e c q u i p o u r t a n t n ' e ' t a i t p a s i m p e r m e a b l e /< 9 aux i n f l u e n c e s e g y p t i e n n e s . " The many Graeco-Roman 24 i mages o f t h e l a c t a n s f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e t o us p e r m i t ( a s do t h e E g y p t i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ) a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i r g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . ^ Compared w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l I s i s l a c t a n s f i g u r e s , t h e G r a e c o -Roman images p o s s e s s a g e n r e q u a l i t y w h i c h t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s l a c k . The s t a t u e f r o m E s h s h e i k I b a d a , d a t e d t o t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y , d e m o n s t r a t e s t h i s d i f -f e r e n c e i n mood ( p i . 4 ) . T r a n Tarn T i n h w r i t e s t h a t t h i s w o r k i s t r a n s i t i o n a l b e t w e e n l a t e Roman an d 11 / C o p t i c a r t , and r e c o r d s " l e d e c l i n du c u l t e i s i a q u e d e v a n t l a p o u s s e e du C h r i s t i a n i s m e . " A f e e l i n g o f movement i s i m p l i e d i n t h i s work by t h e f i g u r e o f t h e c h i l d who r e a c h e s h i s h a n d t o h i s m o t h e r ' s b r e a s t , and by I s i s whose r i g h t f o o t i s p l a c e d s l i g h t l y a h e a d o f h e r l e f t , as i f t o accommodate h e r l a p t o t h e com-f o r t o f t h e r e c l i n i n g H a r p o c r a t e s . H i s h e a d i s m o u l -d e d w i t h a f u l l n e s s o f f o r m i n d i c a t i v e o f c h i l d h o o d ; t h e s t r i a t i o n s o f h i s h a i r , and t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f h i s e a r , make o f h i m a more human b a b y t h a n was h i s E g y p t i a n c o u n t e r p a r t . H i s m o t h e r does n o t l o o k a t h i m , b u t h e r g a z e i s s o f t e n e d b y a f a i n t s m i l e w h i c h p r o j e c t s a s e n s e o f w e l l - b e i n g a n d c o n t e n t m e n t w i t h h e r m o t h e r l y t a s k . A l t h o u g h I s i s d i s p l a y s t h e t r a d i -t i o n a l i s a i c k n o t o f h e r gown a c r o s s h e r b r e a s t s , t h e a r t i s t a l l o w s h e r d r e s s t o c u r v e i n ample f o l d s a b o u t 25 h e r l i m b s , and t o r e v e a l an a b u n d a n c e o f m a t e r i a l i n h e r u n d e r g a r m e n t . The h i e r a t i c , r i g i d q u a l i t y o f t h e E g y p t i a n I s i s has b e e n l e s s e n e d ; t h e m o t h e r has be-come a Demeter f i g u r e , a g o d d e s s o f f e r t i l i t y , who s h a r e s w i t h woman k i n d t h e c o m f o r t o f s u c k l i n g h e r 13 c h i l d , a nd f r e q u e n t l y t h e Graeco-Roman m o t h e r i s shown w i t h h e r h e a d i n c l i n e d i n a g e s t u r e o f t e n d e r -n e s s t o w a r d s h e r i n f a n t . " * " ^ T h u s , w h i l e " l a t y p o l o g i e e g y p t i e n n e ne d i s -p a r a i s s a i t p a s a v e c l a c r e a t i o n du t y p e i s i a q u e g r e c o - r o m a i n , " ^ t h e r e i s a n o t a b l e d i s t i n c t i o n t o be o b s e r v e d b e t w e e n them: t h e Graeco-Roman f i g u r e s a r e imbued w i t h a g e n r e q u a l i t y o f p r e s e n t a t i o n w h i c h i s l a c k i n g i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l E g y p t i a n f i g u r e s . F u r -t h e r m o r e , i n s t e a d o f t h e c u b i c s u p p o r t o f t h e l a t t e r f i g u r e s , t h e Graeco-Roman I s i s r e s t s on a h i g h - b a c k e d c h a i r , o r throne."*"^ She has become t h e " t h r o n e - g o d -17 d e s s " as h e r name i m p l i e s , " and i n so d o i n g she f o r e s h a d o w s t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s o f C o p t i c a r t w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o T r a n Tarn T i n h , r e p r e -s e n t s t h e e a r l i e s t known i n s t a n c e o f t h i s t y p e o f Madonna. However, i t has b e e n c l a i m e d f r e q u e n t l y t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t known r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Mary- s u c k l i n g t h e C h r i s t C h i l d i s d e p i c t e d i n t h e P r i s c i l l a C atacomb, 26 Rome, d a t e d t o t h e end o f t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y , b u t t h e s t a t e o f d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h i s f r e s c o makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o f o r m a p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n as t o w h e t h e r i t i s , i n d e e d , a V i r g o l a c t a n s ( p i . 5 ) . The f i g u r e h a s b e e n o b l i t e r a t e d b e l o w t h e w a i s t , b u t one assumes 20 t h a t t h e woman i s s e a t e d . She s u p p o r t s h e r c h i l d w i t h h e r l e f t h a n d b e n e a t h h i s h e a d , w h i c h i s t u r n e d t o t h e s p e c t a t o r ; h i s r i g h t h a n d t o u c h e s h e r r i g h t b r e a s t w h i c h he m i g h t be s u c k l i n g a n d , as i s u s u a l i n 21 Roman c a t a c o m b p a i n t i n g s , n e i t h e r f i g u r e i s n i m b e d . As T r a n Tarn T i n h p o i n t s o u t w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n a n d C h i l d i n c a t a c o m b p a i n t i n g s and i n t h e d e c o r a t i o n o f s a r c o p h a g i i n e a r l y C h r i s t i a n a r t , i t i s n o t t h e image o f t h e M a r i a  l a c t a n s w h i c h i s p i c t u r e d b u t t h e Madonna w i t h C h i l d s e a t e d on h e r k n e e s and t h e V i r g i n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e M a g i , w h i c h i n t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s o f o u r >ky 2 2 e r a " c o n n a i t une vogue e x t r a o r d i n a i r e " : M a r y i s p o r t r a y e d , n o t " p o u r e l l e - m e m e , m a i s p o u r j o u e r un A / 2 3 r o l e dans l ' e c o n o m i e du S a l u t . " T h u s , t h e s e p r e s e n -t a t i o n s do n o t e m p h a s i z e t h e human, m o t h e r l y a s p e c t o f M a r y as much as t h e y s t r e s s " 1 ' a s p e c t c h r i s t o l o -g i q u e e t 1 ' a s p e c t e s c h a t o l o g i q u e " 2 4 o f M a r y as t h e M o t h e r o f God. B e c a u s e t h e P r i s c i l l a c a t a c o m b p a i n t i n g c a n n o t 27 be i n d i s p u t a b l y i d e n t i f i e d as a V i r g o l a c t a n s , one c a n a g r e e w i t h T r a n Tarn T i n h t h a t t h e most a n c i e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s t y p e o f V i r g i n i s o f C o p t i c 25 o r i g i n - ; . ; t h e o n l y images known t o us a r e t h o s e w h i c h have b e e n p r e s e r v e d i n p r i v a t e , n o t p u b l i c , p l a c e s o f 26 ' w o r s h i p a s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e w a l l - p a i n t i n g s i n t h e m o n a s t e r y o f B a w i t , and t h o s e i n t h e m o n a s t e r y o f S a q q a r a where t h e y d e c o r a t e what a r e d e s c r i b e d by W e s s e l as ' c e l l s ' p r o b a b l y u s e d by monks f o r p r i v a t e m e d i t a t i o n a n d w h i c h t h e y c o u l d i n h e r i t as p e r s o n a l 2 7 p r o p e r t y . The d a t i n g o f t h e s e C o p t i c m o n a s t i c p a i n t i n g s , as G r a b a r p o i n t s o u t , i s " h i g h l y u n c e r -2 8 t a i n " a n d , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f R e s t l e , t h e r e i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e d a t e o f t h e s i x t h 29 c e n t u r y w h i c h has b e e n " s u g g e s t e d r e p e a t e d l y . " I n t h e p a i n t i n g s f r o m c e l l A a t S a q q a r a , M a r y i s shown s e a t e d on a h i g h - b a c k e d t h r o n e i n an a t t i t u d e 30 r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e Queen o f H e a v e n ( p i . 6 ) . A l -t h o u g h t h e C h i l d i s n u r s i n g , h i s h e a d i s t u r n e d i n an a t t i t u d e w h i c h , w h i l e i t has t h e e f f e c t o f e s t a b l i s h i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e v i e w e r , d e c r e a s e s t h e s e n s e o f i n t i m a c y b e t w e e n m o t h e r and C h i l d , and d i m i n i s h e s t h e human q u a l i t y o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The p a i n t i n g f r o m c e l l 1725 ( p i . 7) o f t h e same m o n a s t e r y shows t h e V i r g i n s u p p o r t i n g t h e C h i l d 28 on h e r r i g h t k n e e a nd s u c k l i n g Him w i t h h e r l e f t b r e a s t as He r e a c h e s up t o h e r l e f t arm: i n d e e d , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t He c l a s p s h e r w r i s t w h i l e He g a z e s 31 a t h e r . E v e n f r o m t h e f r a g m e n t s r e m a i n i n g o f t h i s l o v e l y p a i n t i n g , one c a n j u d g e t h e warmth o f t h e r e -l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t s b e t w e e n m o t h e r and C h i l d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e e x a m p l e s o f t h e C o p t i c V i r g o  l a c t a n s a r e u n u s u a l b e c a u s e t h e y a r e b u t two o f f i v e w a l l - p a i n t i n g images o f t h i s t y p e o f V i r g i n among 32 many p i c t u r i n g M a r y e n t h r o n e d w i t h t h e C h r i s t c h i l d . A t a l a t e r d a t e , i n t h e n i n t h and t e n t h c e n -t u r y , t h e V i r g i n i s shown as a l a c t a n s f i g u r e i n t h e d e c o r a t i o n o f C o p t i c S a y y i d i c M a n u s c r i p t s , as f o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e P i e r p o i n t M o r g a n Ms 600, f o l . i v , 3 3 d a t e d by Cramer t o 906 w h i c h R e s t l e d e s c r i b e s as s h o w i n g " a P a n t o c r a t o r b u s t i n a c l i p e u s b e i n g c a r r i e d by A n g e l s , w i t h f o u r E v a n g e l i s t s and an e n t h r o n e d 34 M a r i a l a c t a n s down b e l o w . " ( s e e b e l o w , p. 33). W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o what may be t e r m e d t h e p u b l i c i m a g e s o f t h e n u r s i n g m o t h e r i n C o p t i c a r t , T r a n Tarn T i n h q u e s t i o n s t h e f u n e r a l s t e l e o f M e d i n e t -35 e l - F a y u m , d a t e d t o t h e f i f t h o r s i x t h c e n t u r y , w h i c h h a s b e e n w i d e l y a c c e p t e d as d e p i c t i n g t h e V i r g i n 3 6 n u r s i n g t h e C h r i s t C h i l d ( p i . 8 ) . Images o f t h e c r o s s i n c i s e d i n t h e l i m e s t o n e r e l i e f h ave b e e n i n s t r u m e n t a l i n i t s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , as ha v e b e e n t h o s e on a s e c o n d s t e l e , p r o b a b l y o f more r e c e n t 3 7 d a t e . I n s u p p o r t o f h i s o p i n i o n t h a t n e i t h e r o f t h e s e w o r k s c a n be p o s i t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d as t h e 3 8 V i r g o l a c t a n s , T r a n Tam T i n h c i t e s t h e e x a m p l e o f a n u r s i n g m o t h e r c a r v e d on a f u n e r a l s t e l e i n t h e C o p t i c Museum, C a i r o , t h e i n s c r i p t i o n o f w h i c h r e a d s : Alwv KT]pv£ci ri)v <Pi\o | injropa Kai 0i\d&eX-|, .. I/IOV ativ T(KVO> <i> T* ip.-u><t> xelpat ibs di/its iariv-fiecn] TC fiTjrpos Kai dSeA- ' ifiov, Kai dSeXtpov dpi Kypv-yp,a pAyiarov, &v Kai i) aco* ijipodvvT) Kara T6V Koop,ov A c -AaAr/rai, Xeparovs Ka 'lepa£ AA .. NeicDNecy From h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f i t , T r a n Tam T i n h c o n c l u d e s t h a t "comme I s i s e l l e £seratous] a e'pouse s o n f r e r e 40 Comme I s i s e l l e a l l a i t e s o n e n f a n t . " B e c a u s e t h e d e c e a s e d i s p i c t u r e d i n t h e g u i s e o f I s i s , i t i s T r a n Tam T i n h ' s o p i n i o n t h a t , s i m i l a r l y , "nos chre'-t i e n n e s p o u v a i e n t c o n t i n u e r c e t t e t r a d i t i o n en l a ' c h r i s t i a n i s a n t . • H o w e v e r , o f t h e many r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e V i r g i n and C h i l d w h i c h d a t e t o t h e e a r l y C h r i s t i a n p e r i o d i n E g y p t , e x a m p l e s o f t h e M a r i a l a c t a n s a r e s u r p r i s i n g l y few i n number. They do n o t d e c o r a t e c h u r c h e s o r c h a p e l s v i s i t e d by t h e 30 p u b l i c , b u t a r e o f a p r i v a t e n a t u r e , e i t h e r i n m a n u s c r i p t f o r m o r as w a l l - p a i n t i n g s f o r t h e c e l l s o f monks, h e r m i t s o f t h e d e s e r t . As d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e p a i n t i n g s a t S a q q a r a , t h e y e x h i b i t what may be t e r m e d h i e r a r c h i c o r g e n r e q u a l i t i e s o f p r e s e n -t a t i o n . Of t h e e a r l y C h r i s t i a n images whose e x p r e s -s i o n i s t i c c o n t e n t c a n be t e r m e d g e n r e by n a t u r e , L a s a r e f f , i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e P r i s c i l l a c a t a c o m b m o t h e r and c h i l d , w h i c h i n h i s o p i n i o n i s t h e most 42 a n c i e n t e x a m p l e o f t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s , s t a t e s , t h a t t h e y may be c o n s i d e r e d t o r e s u l t f r o m t h e o u t g r o w t h o f i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t i v e s e e k i n g i n a t i m e when r e l i g i o n h a d n o t y e t become a dogma and no s y s t e m o f i c o n o g r a p h y h a d t i m e t o f e t t e r t h e m i n d o f t h e a r t i s t b y a t h o u s a n d c o n v e n t i o n -a l i t i e s . 3 The g e n r e t y p e o f p r e s e n t a t i o n m i g h t w e l l h ave b e e n a d o p t e d by C h r i s t i a n a r t , n o t o n l y i n t h e West, b u t a l s o i n t h e E a s t , w here a l e s s f o r m a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s was known t o B y z a n t i u m t h r o u g h 44 e a r l y C h r i s t i a n and l a t e H e l l e n i s t i c a r t . B u t , l a r g e l y b e c a u s e o f t h e c o n s e r v a t i s m o f B y z a n t i n e t a s t e e s p e c i a l l y p r e v a l e n t a t t h e c o u r t o f C o n s t a n -t i n o p l e , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i c o n i c E g y p t i a n image o f t h e n u r s i n g m o t h e r was a d o p t e d . T h u s , t h e f i g u r e s o f 31 b o t h V i r g i n a n d C h i l d " a c q u i r e d a c o l d s o l e m n i t y and 4 5 an e m p h a s i z e d a s c e t i s m . " A l t h o u g h one s h o u l d b e a r i n m i n d t h e e f f e c t s o f i c o n o c l a s m on t h e B y z a n t i n e e m p i r e , 4 ^ i t w o u l d ap-p e a r , as L a s a r e f f p o i n t s o u t , t h a t t h e image o f t h e M a r i a l a c t a n s was more p o p u l a r i n t h e C h r i s t i a n E a s t t h a n i t was i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , and more p o p u l a r i n 4 7 t h e p r o v i n c e s t h a n i n t h e c a p i t a l . T h e r e a r e , how-e v e r , few e x a m p l e s t o q u o t e , and t h e s e b e l o n g t o t h e e l e v e n t h and t w e l f t h c e n t u r i e s . Two s e a l s now i n t h e L i k h a c h e v C o l l e c t i o n , L e n i n g r a d , show t h e e n t h r o n e d V i r g i n s u c k l i n g t h e C h i l d Who r e c l i n e s a c r o s s h e r l a p . I n L a s a r e f f ' s o p i n i o n , t h e y p r o b a b l y e x a m p l e t h e 48 " i c o n t y p e p o p u l a r i n t h e p r o v i n c e s " and a r e t h e o n l y two known V i r g o l a c t a n s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f C o n s t a n t i n o p o l i t a n p r o v e n a n c e . B o t h a p p e a r i n manu-s c r i p t f o r m . On f o l i o 163 o f t h e C h r i s t i a n T o p o g r a p h y o f Cosma I n d i c o p l e u s t e s , now i n t h e Smyrna L i b r a r y , t h e e n t h r o n e d V i r g i n i s shown w i t h t h e m y s t i c a p p e l l a t i o n X ^ f / 7 ^ 5 • The C h i l d i s s e a t e d on h e r k n e e s , H i s h e a d i s t u r n e d t o t h e l e f t and He s u c k l e s h e r r i g h t b r e a s t . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , t h e image o f t h e V i r g i n i s a l l e g o r i c a l , i t s f o r -m a l c h a r a c t e r i n d i c a t e s i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l y t h a t i t i s d e r i v e d f r o m i c o n i c p r o t o -t y p e s . I n t h e H o m i l i e s o f J a c o b u s Mona-ch u s ( V a t . Gr. 1 1 6 2 , f o l . 1 5 9 r ) S t . E l i z a b e t h i s r e p r e s e n t e d f e e d i n g S t . J o h n 32 f r o m h e r b r e a s t . H e r e a l s o t h e e x e c u -t i o n i s d i s t i n c t l y i c o n i c a n d a f f o r d s u n e q u i v o c a l e v i d e n c e o f t h e p r e s e n c e i n C o n s t a n t i n o p o l i t a n a r t o f t h e V i r g o  l a c t a n s t y p e , e v e n t h o u g h i t was n e v e r w i d e l y d i f f u s e d . 4 9 H o wever, t h e s e i m a g es o f t h e M a r i a l a c t a n s , l i k e t h o s e p i c t u r e d i n t h e c e l l s o f C o p t i c monks i n E g y p t a nd i n C o p t i c c o d i c e s , a r e i m a g e s o f a p r i v a t e , and n o t a p u b l i c , n a t u r e . Y e t , p r i o r t o t h i s t i m e , we have l i t e r a r y e v i d e n c e o f t h e e a r l i e s t p u b l i c i m a g e s o f t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s known t o us f r o m l i t e r a r y s o u r c e s o n l y , as a t t e s t e d b y a l e t t e r f r o m G r e g o r y I I ( P o p e , 715-731) t o Leo t h e I s a u r i a n ( 7 1 7 - 7 4 1 ) i n w h i c h G r e g o r y w r i t e s : We o u r s e l v e s when we e n t e r t h e c h u r c h a n d c o n t e m p l a t e p i c t u r e s o f t h e m i r a c l e s o f o u r L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t and o f h i s H o l y M o t h e r h o l d i n g i n h e r arms o u r L o r d and God b e i n g n o u r i s h e d , and a n g e l s s t a n d i n g a b o u t a nd s i n g i n g a t h r i c e -h o l y hymn we come away n o t w i t h o u t b e i n g moved.50 An e x a m p l e o f t h e t y p e o f V i r g i n o f w h i c h G r e g o r y w r i t e s i s t o be s e e n i n t h e c a v e c h u r c h o f t h e P a n t o c r a t o r on t h e I s l e o f L a t m o s , A s i a M i n o r , where a f r a g m e n t a r y f r e s c o p i c t u r e s t h e V i r g i n s e a t e d on a j e w e l l e d , b o l s t e r - c o v e r e d t h r o n e , n u r s i n g 51 t h e C h r i s t C h i l d . W u l f f h y p o t h e s i s e s t h a t t h e p a i n t i n g o f t h e P a n t o c r a t o r c a v e may be d a t e d i n 52 t h e s e v e n t h o r t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y . 33 I n t h e most r e c e n t r e s e a r c h e s on t h e s e p a i n t i n g s , h o w e v e r , R e s t l e s u g g e s t s a t e n t a t i v e d a t i n g o f t h e m i d d l e o f t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y and l i k e n s t h e i c o n o -g r a p h y o f t h e M a r i a l a c t a n s f r e s c o t o t h a t o f t h e C o p t i c S a y y i d i c p a i n t i n g , on f o l . i v , o f Ms 6 0 0 , 5 3 d a t e d 906, P i e r p o i n t M o r g a n ( s e e p.28 a b o v e ) . J u d g i n g f r o m a p h o t o g r a p h o f t h i s f r a g m e n t a r y work 54 and a s k e t c h w h i c h h e l p s t o c l a r i f y i t , t h e C h i l d i s shown i n a s e m i - r e c u m b e n t p o s i t i o n w h i c h s u g g e s t s a n o n h i e r a t i c a p p r o a c h t o s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n a s t y l e r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e P r i s c i l l a c a t a c o m b p a i n t i n g d a t e d t o t h e end o f t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y ( s e e p i . 5 ) , and t o t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s f r o m c e l l 1725 a t S a q q a r a ( p i . 7 ) . T h u s , w h i l e t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e i n t h e E a s t o f b o t h p r i v a t e and p u b l i c e x a m p l e s o f t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s t y p e o f Madonna, t h e r e a r e few e x a m p l e s t o be c i t e d : i t d oes n o t seem t o have r e p r e s e n t e d t h e p o p u l a r image o f t h e V i r g i n as was, f o r e x a m p l e , t h e s e a t e d H o d e g e t r i a d e p i c t i o n o f M a r y . 34 NOTES - CHAPTER I I ^ C o n c e r n i n g t h e l i n k s b e t w e e n t h e I s i s l a c t a n s and t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s s e e : C.R. M o r e y , E a r l y C h r i s t i a n  A r t ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 3 ) , 89; H e n r y M a y r - H a r t i n g , The Coming o f C h r i s t i a n i t y t o A n g l o - S a x o n E n g l a n d ( L o n d o n : B.T. B a t s f o r d , 1 9 7 2 ) , 189; H u b e r t u s P.J.M. Ahsmann, Le C u l t e de l a S a i n t e V i e r g e  e t l a L i t t e r a t u r e F r a n c h i s e P r o f a n e du Moyen Age ( U t -r e c h t , 1 9 3 0 ) , 4; M a r t i n W e r n e r , "The Madonna and C h i l d i n t h e Book o f K e l l s , " p t . I , AB, M a r c h 1972, 5; H e l e n R o s e n a u , "The P r o t o t y p e o f t h e V i r g i n and C h i l d i n t h e Book o f K e l l s , " BM, L X X X I I I , 1 9 4 3 , 228; V i c t o r L a s a r e f f , " S t u d i e s i n t h e I c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e V i r g i n , " AB 20, 1938, 28-29; L o u i s R eau, I c o n o g r a p h i e de l ' A r t  C h r e t i e n ( P a r i s : P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 1 9 5 5 ) , 2:2, 96; P i e r r e du B o u r g u e t , C o p t i c A r t ( L o n d o n : M e t h u e n , 1 9 7 1 ) , 103. F o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o s c h o -l a r s who have w r i t t e n on t h e same s u b j e c t m a t t e r , see V i n c e n t T r a n Tarn T i n h , I s i s L a c t a n s : C o r p u s des Mon- uments G r e c o - R o m a i n s d ' I s i s a l l a i t a n t H a r p o c r a t e ( L e i d e n : E . J . B r i l l , 1973) 40-42. 2 M a r g a r e t A. M u r r a y , The S p l e n d o u r t h a t was  E g y p t ( L o n d o n : S i d g w i c k and J a c k s o n L t d . , 1959) 164. 3 E . W a l l i s Budge, A H i s t o r y o f t h e E g y p t i a n  P e o p l e ( L o n d o n : J.M. Dent and Sons L t d . , 1914) 181. R e c e n t d a t i n g o f t h e t w e n t i e t h d y n a s t y i s 1190-1170 B.C. a n d t h e d a t i n g o f t h e t w e n t y - s e c o n d d y n a s t y i s 950-720 B.C. (See W o l f h a r t W e s t e n d o r f , P a i n t i n g , S c u l p -t u r e , arid A r c h i t e c t u r e o f A n c i e n t E g y p t , t r a n s , f r o m 35 t h e German by L e o n a r d M i n s (New Y o r k : H a r r y N. Abrams I n c . , 1 9 6 8 ) , 253. 4 B u d g e , 181. 5 I b i d . As T r a n Tam T i n h r e c o r d s , " I ' a l l a i t -ement a p p a r t i e n t en p r e m i e r l i e u "a l a v a c h e c e l e s t e p a r e x c e l l e n c e , H a t h o r " ( 2 ) . W i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l u n i f i -c a t i o n o f s i n g l e k i n g d o m s i n E g y p t o c c u r r e d a u n i f i -c a t i o n o f s e p a r a t e r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . The s t a t u s o f some gods was e l e v a t e d t o more t h a n l o c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e ; f u r t h e r m o r e , names p e r t a i n i n g t o c e r t a i n gods were e q u a t e d w i t h o t h e r s who were i n v e s t e d w i t h s i m i l a r a t -t r i b u t e s . T h u s , I s i s came t o s h a r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f H a t h o r and " i t i s o f t e n i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h one f r o m t h e o t h e r . " ( M u r r a y , 181; see a l s o H. I d r i s B e l l , C u l t s a nd C r e e d s i n Graeco-Roman E g y p t ( L i v e r p o o l : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 4 ) 1 0 ; F r a n c h i s e Dunand, Le C u l t e  d ' I s i s e t l e s P t o l e m e e s ( L e i d e n : E . J . B r i l l , 1973) 1 , 1 4 f f . ) As i s w e l l known, I s i s was n o t a l o n e p r i v i l e g e d t o s u c -c o u r t h e p h a r a o h s (Dunand, I , 9, 2 1 , a l s o T r a n Tam T i n h , 3 ) , h o w e v e r , i f we j u d g e by t h e number o f e x t a n t s t a -t u e s o f h e r i t was she who was most d e a r t o t h e h e a r t s o f t h e E g y p t i a n p e o p l e . ^ T r a n Tam T i n h , 8; f o r a l i s t o f e x a m p l e s o f t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , see a l s o T r a n Tam T i n h , 8, n.3. ^ T r a n Tam T i n h , 9, 10. " I I p a r a i t a u s s i qu'a l ' e p o q u e r o m a i n e , des b r o n z e s de s t y l e e g y p t i e n ou e g y p t i s a n t o n t 6te i m p o r t e s en E u r o p e . " ( T r a n Tam T i n h , 1 1 ) . F o r a d o c u m e n t e d a c c o u n t o f f i n d s o f t h e s e I s i s / H o r u s f i g u r e s i n E u r o p e , see T r a n Tam T i n h , 10-12. 36 Dunand w r i t e s t h a t " I I f a u t r e m a r q u e r que, s e l o n l a t r a d i t i o n r a p p o r t e e p a r A r r i e n , I s i s e s t l a s e u l e d i v i n i t e e g y p t i e n n e a q u i A l e x a n d r e a i t f a i t e l e v e r un t e m p l e a u p r e s de c e u x des d i e u x g r e c s l o r s q u ' i l f o n d a A l e x a n d r i e . " (Dunand ( 3 3 , n 3 ) ) 8 T r a n Tam T i n h , 31. 9 I b i d . 1 0 I b i d . '''''"Ibid, 55 . 12 I b i d , 37. 13 Erman r e c o r d s t h a t " V e r s 1'an 450 a v a n t J e s u s - C h r i s t , H e r o d o t e a p a r c o u r u l ' E g y p t e en o b s e r v -a t e u r a t t e n t i f e t i n f a t i g a b l e . . . P o u r l u i , O s i r i s e t I s i s ne s o n t a u t r e s que D i o n y s u s e t Demeter . . . " ( A d o l p h e Erman, L a R e l i g i o n des E g y p t i e n s ( P a r i s : P a y o t , 1 9 5 2 ) , 380. 1 4 T r a n Tam T i n h , 33. 1 5 I b i d , 15. 1 6 I b i d , 31. 17 W e s t e n d o r f , 5. I l e n e H. F o r s y t h i n The  T h r o n e o f Wisdom ( P r i n c e t o n : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 2 ) , 29, c ommenting on t h e I s i s / H o r u s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w h i c h e m p h a s i z e t h e m o t h e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p , p a r t i c u l a r l y 37 i n t h e n o u r i s h m e n t o f t h e i n f a n t , p o i n t s o u t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e t h r o n e , " s i n c e I s i s means ' t h e s e a t ' o r ' t h e t h r o n e ' and p e r s o n i f i e s t h e ' s a c r e d c o r o n a t i o n s t o o l c h a r g e d w i t h t h e m y s t e r i o u s power o f k i n g s h i p ' " . The C h r i s t i a n image o f t h e V i r -g i n and C h i l d , t h e r e f o r e , i s c o m p l e x i n m e a n i n g . As F o r s y t h w r i t e s , " I t i s i n t e n s e l y r e l i g i o u s as w e l l as human. I n c l a i m i n g a s e a t f o r h i m s e l f i n t h e V i r -g i n , C h r i s t t a k e s p o s s e s s i o n o f h e r n o t as a m a l e p o s s e s s e s a f e m a l e , b u t as C h r i s t i a n d i v i n i t y p o s s e s -s e s t h e e a r t h and h i s C h u r c h . " ( F o r s y t h , 2 9 ) . Q u o t a -t i o n s w i t h i n t h e F o r s y t h r e f e r e n c e c i t e E. Neumann, The G r e a t M o t h e r , t r a n s . R. Manheim (New Y o r k , 1 9 5 5 ) , 76; see a l s o Dunand, 3. 1 8 T r a n Tarn T i n h , 43-44. 19 V i c t o r L a s a r e f f , " S t u d i e s i n t h e I c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e V i r g i n , " AB 20, 1938, 27; P i e r r e du B o u r g u e t , E a r l y C h r i s t i a n P a i n t i n g , t r a n s . Simon Watson T a y l o r ( W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n : L o n d o n , 1966, f i g . 6 6 ) ; A. V e n t u r i , L a Madone: R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s de l a V i e r g e  dans ' I ' A r t I f a l l e n ( P a r i s : G a u l t i e r , M a g n i e r , 1 9 0 2 ) , 2-3. A p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s i m i l a r s u b j e c t m a t t e r , t h e s o - c a l l e d Madonna d e l l a V e l a t i o , i s d a t e d t o t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y ( L a s a r e f f , 2 8 ) . See a l s o F. C a b r o l , H. L e c l e r q , D i c t i o n n a i r e d ' A r c h e o l o g i e  C h r e t i e r i n e e f de L i t u r g i e ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r e L e t o u z y e t A ne, 1 9 3 2 ) , 10:2 , i l l . opp. c o l s . 1 9 9 9 - 2 0 0 0 ; du B o u r g u e t , p i s . 69, 70; W a l t e r L o w r i e , A r t i n t h e  E a r l y C h u r c h (New Y o r k : P a n t h e o n B o o k s , 1 9 4 7 ) , p i . 1 8 c ; D a v i d T a l b o t R i c e , The B e g i n n i n g s o f C h r i s t i a n A r t , 2 00-395, t r a n s . S t u a r t G i l b e r t , James Emmons ( L o n d o n : 38 Thames and Hu d s o n , 1 9 6 7 ) , f i g . 177. Wh e t h e r t h i s r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n p i c t u r e s t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s i s d o u b t e d ; see L a s a r e f f , 28, n. 21 ; G r a b a r d e s c r i b e s t h e s c e n e as a " m o t h e r s u c k l i n g h e r c h i l d b e s i d e a s t a n d i n g f i g u r e , " ( 9 8 ) ; V o l b a c h s a y s t h a t i t i s m e r e l y a "Madonna and C h i l d " (W.F. V o l b a c h , E a r l y C h r i s t i a n A r t ( L o n d o n : Thames and Hu d s o n , 1 9 6 1 ) , 1 3 , and W i l p e r t comments t h a t " D i e s e t z e n d e F r a u i s t M a r i a m i t dem C h r i s t u s -k i n d e , " J o s e f W i l p e r t , D i e G o t t g e w e i h t e n J u n g f r a u e n  i n den E r s t e n J a h r h u n d e r t d e r K i r c h e ( F r e i b u r g im B r e i s g a u : H e r d e r , 1 8 9 2 ) , 6 1 . 20 As f a r as I am a w a r e , no s t a n d i n g V i r g o  l a c t a n s i s known t o d a t e f r o m t h i s p e r i o d . An e a r l y e x a m p l e o f t h e t y p e d e s i g n a t e d as a M a r i a l a c t a n s ( a l t h o u g h t h e C h i l d does n o t p a r t a k e o f H i s m o t h e r ' s n o u r i s h m e n t ) i s t o be s e e n i n t h e c l e r e s t o r y l a n c e t window i n N o t r e Dame C a t h e d r a l , C h a r t r e s . Suppl. p i . 5. F r a n k l d a t e s t h e s t a i n e d g l a s s t o c. 1221: see P a u l F r a n k l , "The C h r o n o l o g y o f t h e S t a i n e d G l a s s Windows a t C h a r t r e s , AB XLV, Dec. 1963, 319; M a u r i c e V l o b e r g , L a V i e r g e e t L ' E n f a n t dans l ' A r t F r a n c a i s ( G r e n o b l e : J . Rey, 1 9 3 3 ) , I , i l l . p. 87; A. S t u b b e , L a Madone  Dans l ' A r t ( B r u s s e l s , 1 9 5 8 ) , i l l . 118. D r . M a r y More-h a r t h a s drawn my a t t e n t i o n t o a c r o w n e d s t a n d i n g V i r g o l a c t a n s h o l d i n g t h e C h r i s t C h i l d on h e r l e f t arm p i c t u r e d on a m i d - t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y s e a l ; s ee F r a n c o i s E y g u n , " S c e a u x de N o t r e Dame de M o n t m o r i l l o n , " S i g i l l o g r a p h e du P o i t u ( P o i t i e r s , 1 9 3 8 ) , p i . X L I . 21 N.H.J. W e s t l a k e , H i s t o r y o f D e s i g n i n M u r a l  P a i n t i n g f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t t i m e s t o t h e t w e l f t h c e n -t u r y ( L o n d o n : James P a r k e r , MCMV), I , 25. 39 T r a n Tam T i n h , I s i s , 46; see a l s o W e r n e r , " K e l l s " , 2. 23 T r a n Tam T i n h , 43. F o r e a r l y d e p i c t i o n s o f M a r y and t h e C h r i s t C h i l d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e M a g i , see V o l b a c h , E a r l y C h r i s t i a n A r t , p i . 225 w h i c h shows a c a r v e d i v o r y d a t e d t o t h e m i d - s i x t h c e n t u r y , and p i . 2 2 2 , a n o t h e r i v o r y , i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum, d a t e d t o t h e end o f t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y ; p i . 112 p i c t u r e s a s i l v e r r e l i -q u a r y c a s k e t f r o m San N a z a r o M a g g i o r e , M i l a n , a l s o d a t e d t o t h e end o f t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y , w i t h t h e A d o r a -t i o n o f t h e M a g i on t h e f r o n t o f i t . Of s l i g h t l y l a t e r d a t e i s a s i l v e r v i a l ( c . 600, V o l b a c h , p i . 2 5 4 ) , and a g o l d e n m e d a l l i o n f r o m C y p r u s o f t h e same d a t e w h i c h i s now i n t h e D u mbarton Oaks C o l l e c t i o n ( V o l b a c h , p i . 2 4 8 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Mango, t h e r e i s d o c u m e n t a r y e v i -d ence o f a m o s a i c a t B e t h l e h e m s h o w i n g " t h e m o t h e r o f God h o l d i n g t h e l i f e g i v i n g i n f a n t on h e r bosom and t h e a d o r a t i o n o f t h e g i f t - b e a r i n g M a g i " w h i c h Mango s a y s , "may have b e e n made i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e b a s i l i c a o f t h e N a t i v i t y by J u s t i n i a n " (527-5 6 5 ) ; see C y r i l Mango, The A r t o f t h e B y z a n t i n e E m p i r e 3 1 2 - 1 4 5 3 , S o u r c e s and Documents i n t h e H i s t o r y o f A r t S e r i e s , e d . H.W. J a n s o n (New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1 9 7 2 ) , 114. C o n c e r n i n g t h e s e images o f t h e V i r g i n and C h i l d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e M a g i , M a l e p o i n t s o u t t h a t " l a f o r m u l e s y r i e n n e d i f f e r e de l a f o r m u l e h e l l e n -i s t i q u e " ; t h e f o r m e r " n ' e s t p l u s a s s i s e de p r o f i l e , m a i s de f a c e . " F u r t h e r m o r e , M a l e m a i n t a i n s t h a t " l e s deux f o r m u l e s , h e l l e n i s t i q u e e t o r i e n t a l e de 1 ' A d o r a t i o n des Mages se r e n c o n t r e n t dans l ' a r t f r a n ^ a i s du X I I s i e c l e . L a f o r m u l e h e l l e n i s t i q u e a v e c s a V i e r g e de p r o f i l nous e s t a r r i v e e p a r l ' a r t c a r o l i n g i a n " ; see 40 E m i l Ma kle, L ' A r t R e l i g i e u x du X I I « en F r a n c e ( P a r i s , 1 9 2 2 ) , 64, 66. 24 T r a n Tam T i n h , 43. 2 5 " i b i d . T r a n Tam T i n h , 46. 2 7 K l a u s W e s s e l , C o p t i c A r t , t r a n s , f r o m German, J e a n C a r r o l l , S h e i l a H a t t o n ( L o n d o n : Thames and Hud-s o n , 1966) , 163. 28 /• A n d r e G r a b a r , The G o l d e n Age o f J u s t i n i a n , t r a n s . S t u a r t G i l b e r t and James Emmons (New Y o r k : O d y s s e y P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ) , 173. 29 M a r c e l l R e s t l e , B y z a n t i n e Wall P a i n t i n g m  A s i a M i n o r ( G r e e n w i c h , Conn.: New Y o r k G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1 9 6 8 ) , I , 79. C a i r o , C a i r o , 30 T h i s f r e s c o i s now i n t h e C o p t i c Museum, 31 T h i s f r e s c o i s now i n t h e C o p t i c Museum, 3 2 T r a n Tam T i n h , 4 4 - 4 5 . 3 3 M a r i a C r a m e r , K o p t i s c h e B u c h m a l e r e i (Reck-l i n g h a u s e n : 1 9 6 4 ) , c o l . p i . V I I I . 3 4 R e s t l e , I , 78. 41 35 T r a n Tarn T i n h , 45; du B o u r g u e t , E a r l y C h r i s -t i a n A r t , 155, d a t e s t h i s s t e l e t o t h e f o u r t h c e n -t u r y . I t m e a s u r e s 50 x 34 cms. and i s now i n t h e B e r -l i n S t a a t l i c h e Museen; J o h n B e c k w i t h , C o p t i c S c u l p t u r e , 300-1300 ( L o n d o n : A l e c T i r a n t i , 1 9 6 3 ) , 17, s t a t e s t h a t i t i s " a d i r e c t d e s c e n d a n t f r o m t h e s t a t u e s o f I s i s and H o r u s , b u t o n l y a v a g u e d a t e o f ' f i f t h o r s i x t h c e n t u r y ' h a s b e e n a s s i g n e d t o i t . . . a n e a r l i e r d a t e i s a r g u a b l e . " 3 6 See f o r e x a m p l e W e s s e l , who s t a t e s t h a t t h i s s t e l e r e p r e s e n t s " t h e e a r l i e s t p i c t u r e o f t h e n u r s i n g M o t h e r o f God" ( 9 7 ) ; a l s o du B o u r g u e t , E a r l y C h r i s t i a n  A r t , i l l . p. 155, d e s c r i b e d as d e p i c t i n g t h e " S u c k l i n g V i r g i n . " 3 7 T r a n Tarn T i n h , 4 5 ; s e e a l s o W e s s e l , 97. 3 8 T r a n Tarn T i n h , 45; see a l s o L a s a r e f f , 50. 39 T r a n Tarn T i n h , 30, n . l . 40 I b i d . T r a n Tarn T i n h t r a n s l a t e s t h e i n s c r i p -t i o n " L ' e t e r n i t e p r o c l a m e c e l l e q u i aime s a mere e t s o n f r e r e . A v e c l ' e n f a n t , j e g i s i c i comme l a j u s t i c e , e n t r e l a mere e t l e f r e r e . E t j e s u i s de mon f r e r e l e g r a n d h e r a u t , l u i - m e m e e t a n t l a s a g e s s e r e p a n d u e dans l ' u n i v e r s . S e r a t o u s ( a g l e de) 21 a n s , I e r a x . 1'a'n 4 . . . N e i o n e s y . " ( T r a n Tarn T i n h , 3 0 ) . 4 1 T r a n Tarn T i n h , 45. F o r an e x a m p l e o f t h e 42 C h r i s t i a n u se o f a s t e l e , c e n t u r i e s a f t e r i t was c a r v e d w i t h a d e p i c t i o n o f I s i s s u c k l i n g H o r u s , s e e H. L e c l e r q , M a n u e l d ' A r c h e o l o g i e C h r e t i e n n e D e p u i s l e s O r i g i n e s  J u s q u ' a u V I I I 6 S i e c l e ( P a r i s : L e t o u z y , 1 9 0 7 ) , I I , 3 2 5 f . i l l . 250 on p.324. ^ ^ L a s a r e f f , 29. 4 3 L a s a r e f f , 28. 44 L a s a r e f f , 29. I b i d . 46 F o r a r e c e n t e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f I c o n o c l a s m on t h e v i s u a l a r t s , i n B y z a n t i u m , see S t e v e n R u n c i m a n , B y z a n t i n e S t y l e and C i v i l i z a t i o n ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h : P e n g u i n B o o k s L t d . , 1 9 7 5 ) , 7 8 f f . See a l s o N. K o n d a k o f f , H i s t o i r e de 1 ' a r t B y z a n t i n , F r e n c h ed. t r a n s . M. T r a w i n s k i (New Y o r k : B u r t F r a n k -l i n r e p r i n t , 1 9 7 0 ) , I , 1 5 4 f f . 4 7 L a s a r e f f , 33. 4 8 L a s a r e f f , 30. 49 I b i d . F o r t h e Cosmas I n d i c o p l e u s t e s i l l . s e e L a s a r e f f , f i g . 2. C o n c e r n i n g t h e a n a l o g y b e t w e e n t h e V i r g i n M a r y and ( ' t a b l e ' ) , see i i Y r j o H i r n , The S a c r e d S h r i n e ( B o s t o n : B e a c o n H i l l P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , 460. The J a c o b u s Monachus m a n u s c r i p t i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n L a s a r e f f , f i g . 3. " ^ G i o v a n n i Domenico M a n s i , e d . S a c r o r u m  Cone i l l o r u m C o l l e c t i o ( G r a z : 1 9 6 0 ) , X I I , c o l s .965-968; G r e e k and L a t i n t e x t s t r a n s l a t e d b y G.B. R i d d e h o u g h ^ F o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s f r e s c o , s e e O s k a r W u l f f , " D i e M a l e r e i e n d e r A s k e t e n h o h l e n des L a t m o s , " i n T h e o d o r W i e g a n d , e d . , Der Latmos, v o l . 3 ( B e r l i n : K o n i g l i c h e M u s e e n , 1 9 1 3 ) , 8 9 - 9 1 . 5 2 W u l f f , 201. 53 R e s t l e , B y z a n t i n e W a l l p a m t i n g s , I , 78. W u l f f , 197 Abb. 122 a, b. 44 CHAPTER I I I I t i s n o t u n t i l t h e t w e l f t h century''" t h a t s e v e r a l p u b l i c images o f t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s , e x e -c u t e d i n a v a r i e t y o f m e d i a , c a n be c i t e d i n t h e West. The b e s t known o f them i s a m o s a i c o f t h e Madonna r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e c e n t r a l tympanum o f t h e f a c a d e o f S a n t a M a r i a i n T r a s t e v e r e , Rome, w h i c h p i c t u r e s M a r y f l a n k e d by what a r e r e f e r r e d t o f r e -q u e n t l y as t h e F i v e W ise V i r g i n s t o h e r r i g h t , and t h e f i v e F o o l i s h V i r g i n s t o h e r l e f t , a l t h o u g h a c -c o r d i n g t o t h e most r e c e n t s t u d y o f t h i s w o r k , O a k e s h o t t t h i n k s i t " u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e W i s e a n d F o o l i s h V i r g i n s a r e t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e mo-2 s a i c . " I t i s , h o w e v e r , o n l y t h e c e n t r a l g r o u p o f t h e m o s a i c w h i c h c o n c e r n s us h e r e a n d , e x c e p t f o r t h e s m a l l d o n o r f i g u r e s w h i c h w e r e a d d e d i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e w ork d a t e s 3 t o c. 1190 ( P l a t e 9 ) . T h e r e i s a c e r t a i n s t i f f n e s s o f p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h i s l a c t a n s image w h i c h i s p a r t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e use o f m o s a i c , p a r t l y t o t h e p l a c -i n g o f t h e C h r i s t C h i l d i n an u p r i g h t p o s i t i o n on t h e V i r g i n ' s l e f t knee (a p o s e r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l I s i s / H o r u s f i g u r e s o f E g y p t ) , b u t m a i n l y 45 due t o t h e s t r o n g B y z a n t i n e i n f l u e n c e e v i d e n t i n t h e d e c o r a t i o n o f M a r y ' s t h r o n e and i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e d r a p e r i e s . A l t h o u g h h e r h e a d i s i n c l i n e d t o w a r d t h e C h i l d , h e r gaze i s a b s t r a c t e d and she does n o t p r o j e c t t h e f e e l i n g o f m a t e r n a l c o n c e r n f o r t h e I n f a n t she n o u r i s h e s who i s , i n d e e d , r e p r e s e n t e d as a C h i l d and n o t as a b a b y . T h i s s e e m i n g l a c k o f c o n c e r n on t h e p a r t o f t h e V i r g i n f o r t h e C h i l d i s a p p a r e n t a l s o i n a n o t h e r image o f t h e M a r i a l a c t a n s , t h e c a r v i n g o f N o t r e Dame  de H a l , B e l g i u m , g e n e r a l l y d a t e d t o t h e end o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , 4 w h i c h d e p i c t s a somewhat f o r b i d d i n g image o f t h e Madonna. W h i l e t h e work d i s p l a y s a c e r -t a i n f l u i d i t y o f r h y t h m w h i c h b e a r s t r a c e s o f what m i g h t be d e s c r i b e d as g o t h i c * s t y l e , t h e r e i s a s e v e r i t y a b o u t i t w h i c h d e n i e s t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a t e n d e r , m o t h e r l y Madonna, i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t she s u c k l e s t h e C h i l d . D a t e d t o t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n -t u r y i s an u n u s u a l image w h i c h , w h i l e i t i s d e s i g -n a t e d a s . a • l a c t a n s f i g u r e , shows t h e C h i l d r e f u s i n g H i s m o t h e r ' s n o u r i s h m e n t . I t i s t h e l i n t e l s c u l p t u r e f r o m A n z y - l e - D u c now i n t h e Musee H i e r o n , P a r a y - l e -M o n i a l ^ i n w h i c h t h e C h i l d i s s e a t e d on t h e V i r g i n ' s r i g h t k n e e ; a l t h o u g h she o f f e r s Him h e r r i g h t b r e a s t , 46 He l e a n s b a c k a c r o s s t h e t h r o n e i n s u c h a v i o l e n t man-n e r t h a t He a p p e a r s t o be i n d a n g e r o f f a l l i n g o f f h e r l a p . The C h r i s t C h i l d ' s r i g h t h a n d i s r a i s e d i n b l e s -s i n g , and b o t h He and t h e V i r g i n a r e n i m b e d ; o t h e r -w i s e , one m i g h t q u e s t i o n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e H o l y P a i r 6 ( p i . 1 0 ) . C o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h t h e l i n t e l c a r v i n g o f A n z y -l e - D u c i s a n o t h e r l a c t a n s f i g u r e i n w h i c h t h e C h i l d does n o t s u c k l e , t h e s o - c a l l e d Madonna o f Pom R u p e r t . T h i s work i s d e s e r v i n g o f n o t e b e c a u s e i t d i s p l a y s a mood q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d . M a r y i s shown c r a d l i n g h e r C h i l d and o f f e r i n g Him h e r l e f t b r e a s t ; He does n o t t u r n away f r o m t h e V i r g i n , b u t h o l d s h e r l e f t b r e a s t i n b o t h h i s h a nds as i f a b o u t t o p a r t a k e o f H i s m o t h e r ' s n o u r i s h m e n t ( p i . 1 1 ) . Of t h i s c h a r m i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , S t u b b e comments, "En d e h o r s de s o n a l l u r e r e a l i s t e , i l c o n v i e n t e g a l e m e n t de n o t e r s a s e n s i b i l i t e c h o s e e t o n n a n t e p o u r l ' e p o q u e , " w h i c h s e n t i m e n t i s e c h o e d by S o u t h e r n who s a y s t h a t t h e C h i l d has l a i d down t h e s y m b o l s o f h i s w i s dom and a u t h o r i t y . O n l y t h e i n -s c r i p t i o n r o u n d t h e b o r d e r d i s c l o s e s t h e h i d d e n i d e n t i t y , a l l e l s e i s h u m a n i t y , f r a i l t y a n d l o v e . 8 A work o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o t h i s p a p e r , b e c a u s e o f t h e s t y l i s t i c l i n k s w h i c h c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d 47 b e t w e e n i t and t w e l f t h c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g s i n E n g l a n d , i s a f r e s c o o f F r e n c h p r o v e n a n c e . U n l i k e t h e p r e -v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d e x a m p l e s o f M a r y as l a c t a n s f i g u r e , i t shows t h e V i r g i n i n a n a r r a t i v e s c e n e d u r i n g t h e f l i g h t o f t h e H o l y F a m i l y i n t o E g y p t , w h i c h i s p a i n t e d above t h e c h a n c e l a r c h o f t h e c h a p e l o f S t . J u l i e n -l e - C h a r t r e u x . T h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n p e r -f o r m i n g h e r m o t h e r l y d u t i e s i n u n u s u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s s e r v e s t o h e i g h t e n t h e e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e n a r r a t i v e , and t o make o f i t one o f t h e most t o u c h i n g o f known r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e n u r s i n g Madonna ( p i . 1 2 ) . The c h a p e l o f S t . J u l i e n was p r o b a b l y a t t a c h e d 9 t o a h u n t i n g l o d g e b u i l t i n 1160 by H e n r y I I P l a n t a -g e n e t , K i n g o f E n g l a n d and Duke o f Normandy, a t P e t i t Q u e v i l l y , n e a r Rouen. I n 1 1 8 3 , t h e K i n g d o n a t e d t h e h u n t i n g l o d g e and t h e c h a p e l t o a c o m m u n i t y o f nuns whose m i s s i o n was d e v o t e d t o t h e c a r e o f g e n t l e w o m e n s u f f e r i n g f r o m l e p r o s y . " ^ B e t w e e n 1183 and 1190, t h e c h a p e l was p a i n t e d w i t h n a r r a t i v e s c e n e s accompa-n i e d by t h e d e c o r a t i v e use o f a c a n t h u s m o t i f s w h i c h show r e m a r k a b l e s t y l i s t i c a f f i n i t i e s w i t h s i m i l a r m o t i f s w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n E n g l a n d d u r i n g t h e t w e l f t h 12 c e n t u r y . E n g l i s h e x a m p l e s o f t h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s o c c u r i n w a l l - p a i n t i n g s i n S t . G a b r i e l ' s C h a p e l , 48 13 C a n t e r b u r y , d a t e d 1130 - 1140 and i n m a n u s c r i p t i l -14 l u m i n a t i o n s s u c h as t h e B u r y B i b l e (1121 - 1148) , t h e L ambeth B i b l e (1130 - 1 1 4 0 ) , 1 5 and t h e f i r s t v o l -ume o f t h e W i n c h e s t e r B i b l e ( c . 1160 - 1170).. As J a l a b e r t n o t e s , t h i s t y p e o f a c a n t h u s m o t i f " e s t a p e u v 17 p r e s u n i q u e en F r a n c e , " and t h u s i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t E n g l i s h a r t i s t s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e work i n t h e c h a p e l , t h e d e c o r a t i o n o f w h i c h c o u l d be a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e m i s s i o n a t P e t i t 18 Q u e v i l l y . S u p p o r t f o r t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f E n g l i s h w o r k m a n s h i p i s t h a t a r t i s t s who w o r k e d i n W i n c h e s t e r a r e known t o have w o r k e d a b r o a d a t t h e end o f t h e t w e l f t h and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . P a c h t was t h e f i r s t t o p o i n t o u t t h e s t y l i s t i c s i m i -l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n work a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e s o - c a l l e d M a s t e r o f t h e M o r g a n L e a f o f t h e W i n c h e s t e r B i b l e and h i s a s s o c i a t e s w i t h w a l l - p a i n t i n g s f o r m e r l y i n t h e C h a p t e r House o f t h e A r a g o n e s e m o n a s t e r y o f 19 S i g e n a f o u n d e d i n 1183 by Queen S a n c i a . S u b s e q u e n t r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t a r t i s t s who w o r k e d a t Win-c h e s t e r a l s o w o r k e d i n t h e m o n a s t e r y i n S p a i n , w h e r e , as B o a s e w r i t e s , " t h e p a i n t i n g s and t h e d e c o r a t i v e 20 m o t i f s c o n s t a n t l y r e c a l l c o n t e m p o r a r y E n g l i s h w o r k . " F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e W e s t m i n s t e r P s a l t e r , w h i c h i s d a t e d 21 c. 1200, a l s o m a n i f e s t s s t y l i s t i c a f f i n i t i e s 49 w i t h d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s i n t h e P e t i t Q u e v i l l y p a i n t -i n g s as w e l l as s i m i l a r i t i e s o f f i g u r e s t y l e , e s -2 2 p e c i a l l y i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e d r a p e r i e s . J a l a -b e r t c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e p s a l t e r a n d t h e w a l l - p a i n t -i n g s " d o i v e n t e t r e ' d e l a meme f a m i l l e e t du merne t e m p s . " 2 3 A l t h o u g h t h e n u r s i n g Madonna i n t h e c h a p e l o f S t . J u l i e n and t h e s o - c a l l e d Madonna o f Pom R u p e r t a r e b o t h e x a m p l e s o f t e n d e r Madonnas, i t has b e e n s t a t e d t h a t t h i s t y p e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n 24 i s u n u s u a l i n Romanesque a r t . T h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , s e v e r a l w h i c h c o u l d be c i t e d w h i c h , a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e 2 1 n o t l a c t a n s f i g u r e s , a r e e x p r e s s i v e o f m a t e r n a l l o v e . One c a n s a y , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e y do n o t seem t o be a s -s o c i a t e d w i t h e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c e n t r e s o f m a j o r i m p o r -t a n c e , e x c e p t f o r a m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n w h i c h d e c o r a t e s a commentary on I s a i a h i n t h e S a n c t i H i e r -o n y m i E x p X a n a t i o I s a i a m , e x e c u t e d a t C i t e a u x c. 1125 -1 1 3 0 2 6 ( p i . 1 3 ) . The C i t e a u x m a n u s c r i p t shows t h e s t a n d i n g V i r g i n s u p p o r t i n g t h e C h i l d on h e r r i g h t arm. L i k e t h e C i t e a u x l a c t a n s f i g u r e , she i s p a r t o f a J e s s e T r e e d e c o r a t i o n ( s e e a b o v e , p . 9 f ) . C h r i s t ' s r i g h t arm e n c i r c l e s H i s m o t h e r ' s n e c k , and h i s f a c e i s p r e s s e d a g a i n s t h e r r i g h t c h e e k . Of t h i s c h a r m i n g 50 w o r k , O u r s e l w r i t e s t h a t M a r y i s p i c t u r e d a l a m a n i e r e d'une p r i n c e s s e de l a C o u r de B y z a n c e , une a d m i r a b l e V i e r g e a 1 ' E n f a n t q u i , p a r s a m a g n i f i c e n c e e t s a s p l e n d o u r a t t e i n t l ' u n des sommets de l ' a r t du Moyen Age, a 27 1'apogee de l a g r a n d e f l o r a i s o n romane. The i l l u s t r a t i o n i s c r i s p l y e x e c u t e d i n c o l o u r e d l i n e and wash, as was t h e C i t e a u x l a c t a n s f i g u r e , b u t t h e mood o f t h a t work i s i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e mood o f t h e l i t t l e s t a n d i n g Madonna on whose h a l o 2 8 r e s t s t h e dove o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t . To my k n o w l e d g e , t h e e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t i e s o f t h i s i l l u m i n a t i o n have b e e n i n no way b e t t e r d e s c r i b e d t h a n b y W a t s o n who s a y s t h a t " i t s s p i r i t u a l i m p o r t h a s a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n t o h u m a n i t y t h a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s more g l o r i o u s l y ma-j e s t i c as w o r k s o f a r t b u t o f a k i n d a l i e n t o t h e 29 s p i r i t u a l n e e d s o f m a n k i n d . " A l t h o u g h t h e C i t e a u x w o r k i s n o t a V i r g o l a c -t a n s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e i t i s t h e f i r s t e x a m p l e 30 o f F r e n c h p r o v e n a n c e o f t h e E l e o u s a Madonna. C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e l a c t a n s , t h e E 1 e o u s a was d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e s e a t e d H o d e g e t r i a when t h e h e a d s o f t h e V i r g i n and 31 C h i l d were b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r . T h u s , b y t h e end o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , b o t h t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s and t h e E l e ous a t y p e s o f Madonna were known i n F r a n c e . B e c a u s e o f t h e c l o s e p o l i t i c a l 51 a s s o c i a t i o n s b e t w e e n F r a n c e and E n g l a n d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , and b e c a u s e o f t h e a f f i n i t i e s o f s t y l e be-t w e e n w o r k s o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y o r i g i n a t i n g i n E n g l a n d and t h e w a l l - p a i n t i n g s o f P e t i t Q u e v i l l y , t h e f a c t t h a t no s u r v i v i n g e x a m p l e o f an E l e o u s a o r o f a V i r g o l a c t a n s Madonna o f E n g l i s h p r o v e n a n c e c a n be c i t e d b e f o r e c. 1250 i s s u r p r i s i n g . A t t h a t t i m e , h o w e v e r , b o t h t y p e s o f V i r g i n a p p e a r e d i n E n g l a n d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . 52 NOTES - CHAPTER I I I ''"Of e a r l y e x a m p l e s o f t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s i n t h e West, L a s a r e f f s t a t e s t h a t t h e y m a n i f e s t "unde-n i a b l e e v i d e n c e o f E a s t e r n , t h a t i s S y r o - E g y p t i a n i n -f l u e n c e " ( V i c t o r L a s a r e f f , " S t u d i e s i n t h e I c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e V i r g i n , " AB, 1938, 3 3 ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , L a s a -r e f f s u p p o r t s h i s o p i n i o n b y r e f e r e n c e t o b u t one w o r k , t h e i v o r y n i n t h - c e n t u r y c o v e r o f a G o s p e l book ( B i b . N a t . 1043) ( L a s a r e f f , 33) w h i c h a p p e a r s t o be a f o r g e r y . The V i r g i n o f t h e G o s p e l book i s shown s e a t e d on a w i d e t h r o n e on t h e l o w e r p a r t o f t h e c o v e r , t h e u p p e r p a r t o f w h i c h d e p i c t s t h e C r u c i f i -x i o n . Of t h i s w o r k , L a s a r e f f s t a t e s t h a t " G o l d s c h m i d t c o n s i d e r s i t t o be a c o p y o f a C a r o l i n g i a n r e l i e f o f t h e M e t z s c h o o l " ( L a s a r e f f , 3 3 , n. 46 ) . A c o n s i d e r -a t i o n o f G o l d s c h m i d t ' s s c h o l a r s h i p on t h i s i v o r y , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f i t , h o w e v e r , l e a v e s no d o u b t i n o u r m i n d t h a t i t i s , as G o l d s c h m i d t c o n v i n c i n g l y a r g u e s , a f o r g e r y , p r o b a b l y d e v i s e d a b o u t t h e y e a r 1800 (See A. G o l d s c h m i d t , D i e E l f e n -b e i n s k u l p t u r e n Aus P e r Z e i t P e r K a r o l i n g i s h c e n , V I I I - X I J a h r h u n d e r t ( O x f o r d : B r u n o C a s s i r e r , 1914) p i . X X X I I , f i g . 79.) G o l d s c h m i d t nowhere s t a t e s , t h a t t h i s r e l i e f i s a c o p y o f a C a r o l i n g i a n w o r k . What he s a y s i s " P i e s e Madonna a b e r s a u g t i h r K i n d , was im A b e n d l a n d im f r u h e n M i t t e l a l t e r s o n s t n i c h t n a c h z o w e i s e n i s t " ( G o l d s c h m i d t , 44) and t h a t t h e i v o r y r e v e a l s " g r o s s e s A n a l o g i e n m i t dem z w e i f e l l d s e c h t e n A d a l b e r -o r e l i e f i n M e t z " ( 4 4 ) , w h i c h , h o w e v e r , d e p i c t s t h e C r u c i f i x i o n o n l y . L a s a r e f f ' s comment t h a t t h e " r e l i e f i s p r o b a b l y d e r i v e d f r o m some v e r y a n c i e n t i c o n o -g r a p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n o f E g y p t i a n o r i g i n " ( L a s a r e f f , 34) 5 3 i s m i s l e a d i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , b e c a u s e L a s a r e f f c i t e s o n l y t h i s w ork as b e l o n g i n g t o t h e f i r s t e x a m p l e s o f t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s i n W e s t e r n a r t , i t h e l p s t o c o n f i r m t h a t i t i s an u n u s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e theme. 2 W a l t e r O a k e s h o t t , The M o s a i c s o f Rome: f r o m  t h e t h i r d t o t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s ( L o n d o n : Thames and H u dson, 1 9 6 7 ) , 247. 3 I b i d . 4 A. S t u b b e , L a Madorie dans l ' A r t ( B r u s s e l s , 1 9 5 8 ) , 6 7 , see a l s o M a u r i c e V l o b e r g , L a V i e r g e e t 1 ' E n f a n t dans l ' A r t 'Franca i s ( G r e n o b l e , 1 9 3 3 ) , p. 70. ^The g r o u p i s a c c o m p a n i e d by s a i n t s and i s s e t b e l o w an e n t h r o n e d C h r i s t i n a m a n d o r l a . M a l e n o t e s s i m i l a r i t i e s o f p o s i t i o n i n g b e t w e e n t h e A n z y -l e - D u c tympanum f i g u r e s and t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f f i -g u r e s i n f r e s c o e s a t B a w i t and i s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e Romanesque i c o n o g r a p h y i s d e p e n d e n t on E a s t e r n i c o n o g r a p h i c s o u r c e s . See E m i l Ma^le, L ' A r t R e l i g i e u x  du X T I ^ e n F r a n c e ( P a r i s , 1 9 2 2 ) , 3 5 f . , p i s . 134, 135. ^ S e v e r a l i m a g es w h i c h d a t e t o t h e end o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , w h i c h were f o r m e r l y d e s i g n a t e d as V i r g o l a c t a n s f i g u r e s , have r e c e n t l y b e e n a c c e p t e d as images o f S t . N i c h o l a s a n d h i s m o t h e r ; see W i l l i a m S. D a l e , "An E n g l i s h C r o s i e r o f t h e T r a n s i t i o n a l P e r i o d , " AB X X X V I I I , S e p t . 1956, pp. 1 3 7 - 1 4 1 ; V i r g i n i a W y l i e E g b e r t , " S t . N i c h o l a s : t h e F a s t i n g C h i l d , " AB X L V I , M a r c h , 1964, pp. 6 9 - 7 0 ; L e o n P r e s s o u y r e , "Le S a i n t H i l a i r e G a l e a t a au M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t , 54 GBA v o l . 73, 1969, pp. 1 2 9-140; K u r t B u a c h , " D i e Madonna aus S t . G e n g u l f , " , Z e i t s c h r i f t des D e u t s c h e n  V e r e i n s f u r K u r i s t w i s s e r i s c h a f t , 1/4, B e r l i n , 1970, pp. 13-17; L e o n P r e s s o u y r e , " S t . B e r n a r d and S t . F r a n c i s : M o n a s t i c I d e a l s and I c o n o g r a p h i c P r o g r a m s , " G e s t a X I I , 1 9 7 3 , pp. 71-92. I n t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f S t . N i c h o -l a s and h i s m o t h e r , n e i t h e r f i g u r e i s n i m b e d , and t h e c h i l d i s shown r e f u s i n g n o u r i s h m e n t b e c a u s e , a c c o r d i n g t o l e g e n d , e v e n as a b a b y t h e S a i n t e x e r c i s e d a b s t i -n e n c e , t h u s p r o v i n g h i s e x t r e m e p i e t y . A t t h e end o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , images o f N i c h o l a s were u s e d as e x e m p l a f o r m o n a s t i c c o n d u c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y b y t h e B e n e d i c t i n e s . 7 A. S t u b b e , L a Madorie dans l ' A r t ( B r u s s e l s , 1 9 5 8 ) , 67. 8 R i c h a r d W. S o u t h e r n , The M a k i n g o f t h e M i d d l e  A g e s (New H a v e n , 1 9 6 5 ) , 240, d a t e d 1 1 7 0 - 1 1 9 0 . The i n s c r i p t i o n w h i c h s u r r o u n d s t h i s w o r k i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f i t ; c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e on t h e l e f t h a nd edge o f t h e c a r v i n g i s " P o r t a C l a u s a , " i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e f i g u r e i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e V i r g i n . 9 . A D e n i s e J a l a b e r t , " F l e u r s P e i n t e s a l a V o u t e de l a C h a p e l l e du P e t i t Q u e v i l l y , " GBA X L I I I , 1 9 5 4 , 5; P a u l Deschamps, M a r c T h i b o u t , L a P e i n t u r e M u r a l e en F r a n c e au Debut de L'Epoque G o t h i q u e ( P a r i s C e n t r e N a t i o n a l de l a R e c h e r c h e S c i e n t i f i q u e , 1 9 6 3 ) , 64; Y v e s B o n n e f o y , P e i r i t u r e s M u r a l e s de l a F r a n c e G o t h i q u e ( P a r i s , P a u l H a r t m a n n , MCMLIV), 157. J a l a b e r t , 23. 55 *"'"Deschamps and T h i b o u t d a t e t h e work t o 1 1 8 3 , 6 4 ; B o n n e f o y t o t h e e n d o f t h e c e n t u r y , 1 5 7 , and J a l a -b e r t t o a l i t t l e b e f o r e 1 1 9 0 , 22. 12 J a l a b e r t , 8. F o r d e t a i l s o f t h e s e d e c o r -a t i o n s , see J a l a b e r t , f i g s . 2-9. 13 J a l a b e r t , 8; d a t e d by E.W. T r i s t r a m , M e d i e v a l  W a l l P a i n t i n g ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 0 ) , I , 20. C o n c e r n i n g t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e a c a n t h u s m o t i f and t h e u s e o f i t i n A n g l o - N o r m a n m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i -n a t i o n s , see J a l a b e r t 1 7 f f . F o r i l l s , o f t h e d e c o -r a t i v e m o t i f s i n S t . G a b r i e l ' s C h a p e l , see T r i s t r a m , I , p i s . 20-22, s u p p l . p i . 2 c . 1 4 J a l a b e r t , 10, f i g s . 12-14; B u r y B i b l e (Cam-b r i d g e C o r p u s C h r i s t i e C o l l . , Ms 2 ) . F o r d a t i n g , see D a v i d M. Robb, The A r t o f t h e I l l u m i n a t e d M a n u s c r i p t ( S o u t h B r u n s w i c k : A.S. B a r n e s , 1 9 7 3 ) , 197. F o r i l l s , o f t h e a c a n t h u s d e c o r a t i o n i n t h e B u r y B i b l e , s e e E.G. M i l l a r , L a M i n i a t u r e A n g l a i s e du X e - X I I I e S t e e l e . . ( P a r i s , 1 9 2 6 ) , p i . 37, f o l . 70; p i . 38, f o l . 94; p i . 3 9 ( b ) , f o l . 381v; p i . 40, f o l . 344v. J a l a b e r t , 1 1 , f i g . 15. Lambeth B i b l e ( L o n d o n , Lambeth P a l a c e Ms 3, and M a i d s t o n e Museum, Ms P 5 ) , e x e c u t e d a t C a n t e r b u r y . F o r i l l s , o f t h e a c a n t h u s m o t i f i n Ms 3, see M i l l a r , p i . 4 1 , f o l . 198. J a l a b e r t , 1 1 f . W i n c h e s t e r B i b l e ( C a t h e d r a l L i b r a r y , I , f o l . 88. F o r i l l s . , s e e J a l a b e r t f i g s . 16 ( a ) , ( b ) , ( c ) . A l l t h e m a n u s c r i p t s o f t h e W i n c h e s t e r 56 S c h o o l a r e n o t e d f o r t h i s a c a n t h u s t y p e o f d e c o r a t i o n w h i c h h a d b e e n u s e d i n E n g l i s h m a n u s c r i p t p a i n t i n g p r i o r t o t h e Norman i n v a s i o n ; see f o r e x a m p l e , t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e B e n e d i c t T o n a l o f S t . A e t h e l w o l d , f r o m t h e L i b r a r y o f t h e Duke o f D e v o n s h i r e , c. 975 -980, p i s . 4 - 7 , f o l s . 51v, 2 4 v , 2 5 , 9 0 v , 9 1 , 1 0 2 v , 103 ( M i l l a r ) and t h e B e n e d i c t T o n a l o f R o b e r t o f  J u m i e g e s , end o f t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y , now i n t h e B i b . N a t . , Rouen, p i . 8, f o l s 21v; p i . 9, 54v - 55. See J a l a b e r t , 8, f o r e x a m p l e s o f t h i s t y p e o f d e c o r a t i o n e x e c u t e d i n E n g l a n d d u r i n g t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . 17 J a l a b e r t , 6. J a l a b e r t , 23. 19 I' O t t o P a c h t , "A C y c l e o f E n g l i s h F r e s c o e s i n S p a i n , " BM, May, 1 9 6 1 , pp. 1 6 6 - 1 7 5 , p a r t i c . p. 172. S i g e n a i s i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f H u e s c a w h i c h s u f f e r e d g r a v e war damage i n 19 36 when much o f t h e c o n v e n t was d e s t r o y e d . The r e m a i n i n g f r a g m e n t s o f t h e f r e s -c o e s o f t h e C h a p t e r House h a v e b e e n r e s t o r e d and r e -a s s e m b l e d i n t h e Museum o f C a t a l a n A r t , B a r c e l o n a . 20 T.S.R. B o a s e , E n g l i s h A r t 1 1 0 0 - 1 2 1 6 ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 3 ) , 275. O a k e s h o t t i s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t w o r k on t h e W i n c h e s t e r B i b l e was aban-doned " a b o u t t h e y e a r 1180, w i t h 1190 as a ' l a t e s t p o s s i b l e d a t e ' " ( W a l t e r O a k e s h o t t , S i g e n a : Romanesque  P a i n t i n g s i n S p a i n and t h e W i n c h e s t e r B i b l e A r t i s t s ( L o n d o n : H a r v e y M i l l a r and M e d c a l f , 1 9 7 2 ) , 1 4 2 ) ; w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e S i g e n a f r e s c o e s , P a c h t s u g g e s t s t h a t " t h e most l i k e l y y e a r s t o have p r o d u c e d t h a t g r e a t 57 c y c l e o f w a l l p a i n t i n g s a r e t h e f i r s t two d e c a d e s o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y " ( P a c h t , 1 7 5 ) ; see J a l a b e r t , 24, and f i g . 30, f o r h e r c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e a c a n t h u s d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s i n t h e S i g e n a f r e s c o e s w i t h t h o s e a t P e t i t Q u e v i l l y . 21 J a l a b e r t , 12, f i g . 18. W e s t m i n s t e r P s a l t e r (BM Ms R o y a l 2a X I I ) d a t e d by M e y e r S c h a p i r o , "An I l l u m i n a t e d E n g l i s h P s a l t e r o f t h e E a r l y T h i r t e e n t h C e n t u r y , " WC X X I I I , 3-4, 1 9 6 0 , p. 187. 2 2 J a l a b e r t , 2 1 , f i g s . 2 5, 26. 2 3 J a l a b e r t , 21. F o r I l l s . , s e e M i l l a r , p i . 6 2 f f , f o l s . 1 4 v - 1 5 ; p i . 63; f o l s . 1 2 v, 13, 13v. 24 George Z a r n e c k i , Romanesque A r t (New Y o r k : U n i v e r s e B o o k s , 1 9 7 1 ) , 174, i n r e f e r e n c e t o p l a t e 190. See a l s o A. C a i g e r - S m i t h , E n g l i s h M e d i e v a l M u r a l  P a i n t i n g s ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , 12. 25 F o r e x a m p l e s o f t h e t e n d e r V i r g i n i n Romanesque a r t , see W a l t e r Cahn, "Romanesque S c u l p -t u r e i n A m e r i c a n C o l l e c t i o n s V I : B o s t o n Musuem o f F i n e A r t s , " G e s t a , I X / 2 , 1970, w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s a p o l y c h r o m y a nd l i m e s t o n e c a r v i n g a t t r i b u t e d t o a work-shop a t P i a c e n z a . I t d a t e s t o t h e s e c o n d q u a r t e r o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y ; h e i g h t , 2 9 " , w i d t h , 15 3/4", d e p t h , 8 1/2". I t i s a work o f g r e a t e x p r e s s i v e p o wer, w h i c h Cahn s a y s s u g g e s t s a t e n d e r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n C h r i s t and H i s m o t h e r w h i c h " p a r t a k e s i n s o m e t h i n g o f t h e m y s t i c a l u n i o n b e t w e e n S p o n s a a nd S p o n s u s o f t h e Song o f S o n g s , " ( 7 0 ) . P i c t u r e d i n t h e s e c o n d v o l u m e o f a 58 B i b l e i n L y o n s i s a n o t h e r t e n d e r V i r g i n d e c o r a t i n g an i n i t i a l a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e Song o f S o n g s , Ms 410, f o l . 270v, d a t e d t o t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y ; see L e s M a n u s c r i t s P e i n t u r e s en  F r a n c e du V I I au X I I S i e c l e ( P a r i s : B i b . N a t . , 1 9 5 4 ) , p i . X X X I , no. 230. C o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n and t h e Song o f S o n g s , see Y r j o H i r n , The S a c r e d S h r i n e ( B o s t o n : B e a c o n H i l l P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , 4 4 0 f f . A work w h i c h has b e e n v a r i o u s l y d a t e d , b u t w h i c h Deschamps and T h i b o u t a s c r i b e t o t h e end o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , i s t h e w a l l - p a i n t i n g o f "Le M a r i a g e M y s t i q u e de S a i n t -C a t h e r i n e " i n t h e c h u r c h o f N o t r e Dame, M o n t m o r i l l o n , V i e n n e , w h i c h shows t h e V i r g i n h o l d i n g t h e C h i l d on h e r r i g h t k nee a nd k i s s i n g H i s l e f t h a n d w h i l e He t o u c h e s t h e h e a d o f S a i n t C a t h e r i n e w i t h H i s r i g h t ; s ee Deschamps and T h i b o u t , 6 1 , p i . X X V I I ; H e n r i F o c i l l o n , P e i n t u r e s Romanes ( P a r i s : P a u l H a r t m a n n , 1 9 5 0 ) , p i . 44; V l o b e r g , i l l . p. 138. 2 6 R o b b , f i g . 137 ( D i j o n , Mun. Mus. Ms 129, f o l . 4 v ) . 2 7 C h a r l e s O u r s e l , M i n i a t u r e s C i s t e r c i e n n e s 1 1 0 9 - 1 1 3 4 ( P a r i s : 1 9 6 0 ) , 12. 2 8 As i s w e l l k n o w n , ' t h e T r e e o f J e s s e i l l u s -t r a t i o n s a r e b a s e d on t h e b i b l i c a l p r o p h e c y a c c o r d i n g t o I s a i a h ( X I : I ) , "And t h e r e s h a l l come f o r t h a r o d o u t o f t h e s t e m o f J e s s e , and a B r a n c h s h a l l grow o u t o f h i s r o o t s . " As W a t s o n comments, "The dove a t r e s t on t h e n i m b u s o f t h e V i r g i n , i s i n harmony w i t h t h e words t h a t f o l l o w , "And t h e s p i r i t o f t h e L o r d s h a l l 59 r e s t upon h i m . .. . ( I s a i a h ( X I : 2 ) ; see A. W a t s o n , The E a r l y I c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e J e s s e T r e e ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 4 ) , 89. 2 9 I b i d . 30 E l e b u s a , l i t e r a l l y t r a n s l a t e d , means "She who has t a k e n a baby i n h e r h a n d , " o r " C h i l d h o l d e r . " 31 L a s a r e f f , 38; C a i g e r - S m i t h , 4; M a r t i n W e r n e r , "The Madonna and C h i l d M i n i a t u r e i n t h e Book o f K e l l s , " AB, M a r c h , 1 9 7 2 , 4. C o n t r a r y t o L a s a r e f f ' s s t a t e m e n t ( 3 6 ) , t h e E l e o u s a was n o t a B y z a n t i n e i n v e n t i o n de-v e l o p e d on B y z a n t i n e s o i l . The e a r l i e s t r e p r e s e n -t a t i o n o f t h e E l e o u s a known t o us i s v a r i o u s l y d a t e d f r o m t h e s e v e n t h t o t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y and i s a s m a l l C o p t i c i v o r y M o t h e r and C h i l d e n t h r o n e d b e t w e e n two a n g e l s , now i n t h e W a l t e r s A r t G a l l e r y , B a l t i m o r e . The V i r g i n h o l d s t h e C h i l d on h e r l e f t arm; h i s arms e n c i r c l e H i s m o t h e r ' s n e c k , and t h e i r f a c e s t o u c h e a c h o t h e r i n a f f e c t i o n ( s u p p . p i . 1 ) . The most famous E l e o u s a Madonna, h o w e v e r , i s o f B y z a n t i n e o r i g i n . She i s t h e V i r g i n o f V l a d i m i r ( s u p p . p i . 2) p a i n t e d i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e c. 1125, t a k e n t o K i e v , t o V y s h e g o r o d , t o V l a d i m i r i n 1185, and e v e n t u a l l y t o Moscow i n 1918 ( D a v i d T a l b o t R i c e , B y z a n t i n e P a i n t i n g : t h e L a s t  P h a s e ( L o n d o n : W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1 9 6 8 ) , 1 1 ) . C h a t z i d a k i s w r i t e s t h a t t h i s " I c & n e m i r a c u l e u s e p a r e x c e l l e n c e , c o n s i d e r e e p e n d a n t l o n g t e m p s comme l ' i c ^ n e p r o t e c t r i c e du p e u p l e R u s s e , e l l e f u t l e m o d e l e q u i a s e r v i p o u r un g r a n d nombre"' d ' i c o n e s r u s s e s " ( M a n o l i s C h a t z i d a k i s , " L a V i e r g e de V l a d i m i r , " S a g g i e memorie  d i s t o r i a d e l l ' a r t e " ( V e n i c e , 1 9 5 8 - 1 9 5 9 ) , 2, 2 4 - 2 5 ) . 60 O n l y t h e heads o f t h i s p a i n t i n g a r e o r i g i n a l ( C h a t -z i d a k i s , 2 5 ) , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e mood i t e x p r e s s e s makes t h e s m a l l C o p t i c i v o r y Madonna and C h i l d a p p e a r t o be somewhat s t i f f a n d f o r m a l i n c o m p a r i s o n . Of t h e V l a d i m i r Madonna, R i c e w r i t e s t h a t " t h e i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t o f l o v e has become t h e a i m o f a r t , r a t h e r t h a n t h e mere d e s c r i p t i o n o f two f i g u r e s as s y m b o l s o f d i v i n i t y " ( R i c e , 1 1 ) . R i c e n o t e s a l s o t h a t a t t h e t i m e o f t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e V l a d i m i r Madonna, n o t h i n g c o m p a r a b l e was p r o d u c e d i n I t a l y w h ere p a i n t i n g d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e " t y p i c a l Romanesque" s t y l e ( R i c e , 3 1, 211-212, n. 1 4 ) . Con-c e r n i n g t h i s i c o n , s e e a l s o P a u l o M u r a t o f f , L a  P i f t ur'a' B i z an t i r i a , (Rome: n . d . ) , 131-132. 61 CHAPTER IV W h i l e i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e r e i s no known p r e c e d e n t i n E n g l a n d f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e V i r g o  l a c t a n s t y p e o f Madonna p r i o r t o t h a t o f t h e A m e s b u r y P s a l t e r , c. 1250, t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e w i t h t h e E l e o u s a Madonna, w h i c h a p p e a r e d f u l l y - f l e d g e d c o n -t e m p o r a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e A m e s b u r y m a n u s c r i p t i n t h e pen and c o l o u r e d wash d r a w i n g o f t h e Madonna and C h i l d b y M a t t h e w Paris"'" ( p i . 1 4 ) , and i n a v a r i a t i o n o f t h i s t y p e o f Madonna i n t h e w a l l - p a i n t i n g o f t h e r o u n d e l i n t h e B i s h o p ' s P a l a c e a t C h i c h e s t e r i n w h i c h t h e C h i l d s t a n d s on H i s m o t h e r ' s k n e e s ( p i . 1 5 ) . From t h e f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e i n a L a t i n c o d e x i n t h e Book o f K e l l s , t h e r e were i n t i m a t i o n s , b u t no more t h a n i n t i m a t i o n s , o f t h e p o s s i b l e d e v e l o p m e n t o f an E l e o u s a t y p e o f V i r g i n o f E n g l i s h p r o v e n a n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e d a t i n g and t h e p l a c e o f e x e c u t i o n o f t h e K e l l s m a n u s c r i p t r e m a i n p r o b l e m a t i c , 4 work may h a v e b e g u n on I o n a i n t h e l a s t y e a r s o f t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y and c o n t i n u e d a t K e l l s i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y . ^ The Madonna i s r e p r e s e n t e d as a f u l l - l e n g t h f i g u r e s e a t e d on a h i g h - b a c k e d t h r o n e w h i c h i s p r e s e n t e d i n p r o f i l e ; ^ t h e V i r g i n ' s l e g s a r e 62 a l s o i n p r o f i l e w h i l e h e r u p p e r body i s shown f r o n t a l l y . The C h r i s t C h i l d , who e x t e n d s H i s l e f t h a nd t o w a r d s 7 M a r y , i s s u p p o r t e d on h e r l e f t k nee as He r e c l i n e s a c r o s s h e r l a p ( p i . 1 6 ) . I t i s t h i s s e m i - r e c u m b e n t p o s i t i o n o f c o m p a r a t i v e e a s e t h a t has t h e e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e s e n s e o f d e p e n d e n c y b e t w e e n t h e C h i l d g and H i s m o t h e r and w h i c h s u g g e s t s a p r o t e c t i v e a t t i -t u d e on t h e p a r t o f t h e V i r g i n t o w a r d s h e r I n f a n t . The t r a c e o f t e n d e r n e s s p r e s e n t i n t h e K e l l s g Madonna i s a p p a r e n t a l s o i n t h e s o - c a l l e d Y o r k Madonna ( p i . 1 7 ) , w h i c h i s d a t e d n o t l a t e r t h a n t h e t w e l f t h 10 c e n t u r y . I t i s c a r v e d i n r e l i e f on a s t o n e s l a b ; t h e u p p e r p o r t i o n o f t h e work i s m u t i l a t e d , and t h e h e a d s o f t h e V i r g i n a nd C h i l d a r e m i s s i n g . M a c L a g e n i s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t " t h e y must h a v e b e e n c l o s e t o -gether.""'""'" A l t h o u g h t h i s p o s i t i o n i n g w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h e E l e o u s a t y p e o f V i r g i n , e x a m i n a t i o n o f a r e p r o -d u c t i o n o f t h i s work does n o t b e a r o u t M a c L a g e n ' s a s s e s s m e n t o f i t , b u t a c c o r d s w i t h t h a t o f R i c e who, n o t i n a g r e e m e n t a b o u t t h e p r o x i m i t y o f t h e h e a d s , c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e Y o r k Madonna r e p r e s e n t s an " i n t e r -m e d i a t e t y p e " b e t w e e n t h e I l o d e g e t r i a and t h e E l e o u s a , w h i c h no d o u b t was due t o a " c o n f u s i o n i n c o p y i n g t h e m o d e l s i m p o r t e d f r o m t h e E a s t . " ^ The w o r k s o f E n g l i s h p r o v e n a n c e t h a t most 63 c o n s i s t e n t l y d i s p l a y a s e n s e o f warmth and t e n d e r -n e s s a r e t h e i v o r y c a r v i n g s o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , t h e b e s t o f w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e a " p e c u l i a r l y i n t i m a t e 13 and p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g . " One s u c h work i s t h e c h a r m i n g h e a d o f a Tau C r o s s c r e d i t e d t o t h e S c h o o l o f W i n c h e s t e r and d a t e d a b o u t t h e m i d d l e o f t h e c e n -14 t u r y . The c e n t r a l m e d a l l i o n on one s i d e o f i t shows a t h r e e - q u a r t e r v i e w o f t h e V i r g i n who h o l d s t h e C h i l d on h e r l e f t arm. I n H i s l e f t h a n d He ap-15 p e a r s t o h o l d an a p p l e , w h i l e H i s r i g h t h a n d r e a c h e s t o w a r d s t h e f a c e o f H i s m o t h e r whose h e a d i s i n c l i n e d t o w a r d s Him. A l s o d a t e d t o t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y i s p a r t o f t h e g l a s s o f C a n t e r b u r y C a t h e d r a l w h i c h s u r v i v e d t h e f i r e o f 1174"^ and w h i c h shows t h e e n t h r o n e d V i r g i n c r o w n e d as t h e Queen o f H eaven h o l d i n g t h e C h r i s t C h i l d s e a t e d f r o n t a l l y on h e r l a p w i t h H i s r i g h t h a n d r a i s e d i n b l e s s i n g ( p i . 1 8 ) . What d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m t h e s t a i n e d g l a s s window, " L a ». 17 V i e r g e de l a B e l l e V e r r i e r e " ( 1 1 3 7 ) , a t C h a r t r e s C a t h e d r a l , w h i c h c a n be c o m p a r e d w i t h i t s t y l i s t i -c a l l y , i s t h a t t h e C a n t e r b u r y V i r g i n s u p p o r t s t h e b l e s s i n g h a n d o f t h e C h i l d w i t h h e r own a n d , as Rackham p o i n t s o u t , i n t h i s s m a l l g e s t u r e c a n p e r -h aps be i n t e r p r e t e d t h e " g r o w i n g s e n t i m e n t a l i s m " o f 64 t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o w h i c h t h e p r e a c h i n g o f 18 S t , F r a n c i s was t o g i v e s u c h p o w e r f u l i m p e t u s . As f a r as t h e p o p u l a r v e n e r a t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n and C h i l d theme i n t h e West i s c o n c e r n e d , t h i s "grow-i n g s e n t i m e n t a l i s m " h a d e s t a b l i s h e d r o o t s l o n g b e f o r e t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y ; as e a r l y as t h e p o e t r y o f N o t k e r o f S t . G a l l e n ( d . 9 1 2 ) , t h e f o r e m o s t o f t h e C a r o l i n g i a n p o e t s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n M a r y and t h e C h i l d was e x p r e s s e d i n l y r i c t e r m s . As G r a e f r e c o r d s , " E v e n i n h i s A s s u m p t i o n hymn t h e r e a p p e a r s 19 t h e p i c t u r e o f t h e V i r g i n s u c k l i n g t h e C h i l d and i n t h e hymn f o r t h e P u r i f i c a t i o n , t h e p o e t b i d s h e r 20 e x u l t , b e c a u s e ' y o u r l i t t l e one h a s s m i l e d a t y o u . ' " L a t e r , i n t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y , m o n a s t i c t e a c h i n g a d v o c a t i n g c o m p a s s i o n f o r s u f f e r i n g , a n d t h u s f o r 21 t h e h u m a n i t y o f C h r i s t , f o s t e r e d more v i v i d f o r m s o f d e v o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n , n o t o n l y t o w a r d s t h e S a v i o u r , 22 b u t a l s o t o w a r d s M a r y as t h e M o t h e r o f C h r i s t . How-e v e r , as S o u t h e r n comments, i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e p i o n e e r s o f m e d i e v a l s p i r i t u a l i t y i n t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y d i d n o t so much i n i t i a t e , as g i v e way t o a p r e v a i l i n g s e n t i m e n t o f p i t y and t e n d e r n e s s , w h i c h t h e y i n t e r p r e t e d a n d e x p r e s s e d i n a r t and l e t t e r s . 2 3 W i t h t h e r i s e o f t h e m e n d i c a n t o r d e r s i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y and o f t h e F r a n c i s c a n s and D o m i n i c a n s 65 i n p a r t i c u l a r , " t h e f r u i t s o f m o n a s t i c e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e e l e v e n t h and t w e l f t h c e n t u r i e s " were b r o u g h t t o o r d i n a r y p e o p l e ; 2 4 t h e t e a c h i n g s o f S t . A n s e l m o f C a n t e r b u r y and S t . B e r n a r d o f C l a i r v a u x "became t h e 25 p r o p e r t y o f t h e l a y and c l e r i c a l w o r l d a l i k e " and t h e e f f e c t s o f F r a n c i s c a n h u m i l i t y , p o v e r t y , and r e v e r e n c e t o w a r d s a l l e a r t h l y c r e a t u r e s ( w h i c h h a s b e e n w i d e l y documented) were t o l e s s e n t h e d i s t i n c t i o n f o r m e r l y a c c o r d e d t h a t w h i c h was human and t h a t w h i c h was d i v i n e . 2 6 S u c h was t h e v e n e r a t i o n shown t h e V i r g i n by t h e D o m i n i c a n s i n F r a n c e , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e y were f r e -\ 2 7 q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o as " l e s f r e r e s de M a r i e . " When t a k i n g t h e i r v o w s , t h e y " p r o m e t t e n t o b e i s s a n c e non s e u l e m e n t a D i e u , m a i s a u s s i a l a V i e r g e . " 2 ^ T h e i r a r d o u r f o r M a r y i s w i t n e s s e d by t h e w r i t i n g s o f 29 A l b e r t u s Magnus ( d . 1280) whose O p e r a i n c l u d e two t r a c t s d e v o t e d t o h e r a l o n e ; De L a u d i b u s B e a t a e M a r i a e V i r g i n i s and t h e M a r i a l e , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t "a g l o r i f i -30 c a t i o n , -- i n d e e d a d e i f i c a t i o n o f M a r y . " Whether a u t h o r e d by A l b e r t u s Magnus o r a n o t h e r , t h e s e w o r k s 31 a r e i m p r e s s i v e i n t h e i r p r a i s e o f t h e V i r g i n ; h e r e , " s y m b o l i c a l l y , M a r y i s e v e r y t h i n g i m a g i n a b l e ; she h a s 32 e v e r y v i r t u e and a mass o f power and p r i v i l e g e s . " The most i m p o r t a n t i m p e t u s t o t h e c u l t o f M a r y , 66 h o w e v e r , was p r o v i d e d by t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f m i r a c l e s t o r i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h e r name. I t was n o t t h e s e p a r a t e l e g e n d s o f t h e V i r g i n w h i c h h a d b e e n i n c i r -33 c u l a t i o n f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t t i m e s t h a t assumed i m p o r -t a n c e , b u t t h e c o m p i l a t i o n s o f them w h i c h o r i g i n a t e d 34 i n E n g l a n d b e t w e e n t h e y e a r s 1100 and 1140, t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e m s e l v e s "an i n d e p e n d e n t l i t e r a r y e x i s t e n c e . . . w h i c h t o o k E u r o p e by s t o r m i n t h e 35 t w e l f t h and t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . " They were p r o b a -b l y t r a n s l a t e d i n t o F r e n c h d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f H e n r y I I , o r s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , b e c o m i n g " i n t h e i r l a t e r d e v e l -3 & opment more F r e n c h t h a n E n g l i s h . " T h u s , S o u t h e r n s t a t e s , t h e y p r o v i d e an i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l t o t h e h i s t o r y o f G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e , t h e s t r u c t u r a l p r i n -c i p l e s o f w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o h i m , were d e v i s e d a t Durham b u t n o t e x p a n d e d u n t i l t h e s e c o n d t h i r d o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y when t h e y were g i v e n new l i f e i n t h e I l e -3 7 d e - F r a n c e r e g i o n . S o u t h e r n does n o t a r g u e , o f c o u r s e , t h a t t h e M a r y l e g e n d s e q u a l t h e " a r t i s t i c i m p o r t a n c e " o f t h e f l o r e s c e n c e o f G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e , b u t t h a t "as an e x p r e s s i o n o f m e d i e v a l s e n s i b i l i t y , . . . t h e y 3 8 a r e q u i t e as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e p e r i o d . " Whereas a c c o u n t s o f t h e m i r a c l e s o f t h e V i r g i n h a d f o r m e r l y b e e n i n c l u d e d among t h e l i v e s o f o t h e r s ( o r h ad b e e n u s e d t o " e m p h a s i z e t h e s a n c t i t y o f s u c h 67 39 p l a c e s as S o i s s o n s . . . o r C h a r t r e s " ) , i n t h e 40 m o n a s t i c c o l l e c t i o n s c o m p i l e d by A n s e l m o f B u r y , D o m i n i c o f Evesham, and W i l l i a m o f M a l m e s b u r y , M a r y 41 a l o n e i s h o n o u r e d . Above a l l , t h e s e w r i t i n g s , i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g s o f B e r n a r d o f C l a i r v a u x , s t r e s s M a r y ' s r o l e as M e d i a t r i x ; t h e V i r g i n r e p r e -s e n t s man t o God, and w h i l e God a l o n e c a n a c t , t h e V i r g i n , t h r o u g h t h e medium o f t h e l e g e n d s , i s shown 42 t o be p r e - e m i n e n t i n b e i n g H i s i n s t r u m e n t . F u r t h e r -m ore, h e r a t t r i b u t e s as a m o t h e r a r e e x t o l l e d b e c a u s e , as H i r n comments, "He c o u l d n o t , so p e o p l e i m a g i n e d , r e f u s e H i s a s s e n t t o any o f h e r p r a y e r s , i f o n l y she r e m i n d e d Him o f t h e t i m e He l a y as a C h i l d a t h e r b o s o m . " 4 3 44 T h i s u n i v e r s a l a s p e c t o f t h e Madonna de-p i c t e d i n t h e m i r a c l e h i s t o r i e s t y p i f i e s M a r i a n l e g -e n d s ; w h i l e i n d i v i d u a l s a i n t s became a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p e c i f i c p l a c e s , o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r c h u r c h e s , t h e l e g e n d s o f t h e Madonna t r a n s c e n d e d t h e bounds o f g e o g r a p h y and were a d o p t e d i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s w h ere d e t a i l s o f t h e s t o r i e s were m o d i f i e d as n e e d e d . 4 ^ The e f f e c t s o f t h e s t o r i e s c o m p i l e d by D o m i n i c a t t h e m o n a s t e r y o f Evesham i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y 4 6 were f e l t t h r o u g h o u t E u r o p e a n l i t e r a t u r e , a r t and p r e a c h i n g f o r a t l e a s t f o u r 68 c e n t u r i e s a f t e r h i s d e a t h . ' As a r e s u l t o f t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , M a r y , i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , came t o be c o n s i d e r e d no l o n g e r as t h e "mere d i v i n e , m a i s c o m p a t i s s a n t p l u t o t a nos m i s e r e s comme femme, comme mere des hommes." 4 8 I t i s w i t h r e s p e c t t o M a r y ' s r o l e , "comme \ 4 9 femme, comme mere des hommes," t h a t t h e l e g e n d s were o f p o t e n t i n f l u e n c e upon t h e p o p u l a r m i n d . Theo-l o g i c a l a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l w r i t i n g s f r e q u e n t l y w e r e e q u i v o c a l ; s o m e t i m e s M a r y was i n v e s t e d w i t h a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e i d e a o f " C h u r c h " ; some-t i m e s t h e C h u r c h was c r e d i t e d w i t h a t t r i b u t e s c o n -c e r n i n g M a r y . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , " t h e l e g e n d s and t h e w o r k s o f a r t a r e q u i t e u n a m b i g u o u s i n t h e i r c o n -c r e t e l a n g u a g e . " ^ T h e r e c a n be no s y m b o l i s m i n t h e m i r a c l e h i s t o r i e s when t h e y r e l a t e d how t h e V i r g i n c u r e d p i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h h e r m i l k . ^ B e c a u s e o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f i n t h e b e n e f i c e n t 52 p o w e r s o f t h e m i l k o f t h e V i r g i n , i t became one o f t h e most v a l u e d r e l i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h M a r y and t h e c u l t s u r r o u n d i n g i t was p r o v i d e d i m p e t u s b y t h e S e v e n t h C o u n c i l o f N i c a e a i n 787 w h i c h f o r b a d e t h e c o n s e c r a t i o n o f any Roman C a t h o l i c c h u r c h w i t h -53 o u t p o s s e s s i o n o f a s a i n t l y r e l i c . T h e r e was, o f c o u r s e , a p a u c i t y o f r e l i c s a t t r i b u t e d t o M a r y , whose 69 b o d y a l l e g e d l y was t a k e n s t r a i g h t w a y t o h e a v e n a f t e r 54 d e a t h . T h u s , h e r A s s u m p t i o n i s t h e p r o b a b l e r e a s o n f o r t h e numerous r e l i c s o f t h e m i l k o f t h e Madonna, w h i c h u s u a l l y c o n s i s t e d o f a " p a r c e l l e du s o l c r e t a c e de l a g r o t t e a B e t h l e h e m o*u l a V i e r g e n o u r r i s s a i t s o n e n f a n t . 1 , 5 5 I n t h e e l e v e n t h a nd t w e l f t h c e n t u r i e s , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e l i c , as t h o s e o f s a i n t s i n g e n e r a l , assumed i n c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e b e c a u s e o f t h e g r o w t h i n t h e number and f r e q u e n c y o f p i l g r i m a g e s w h i c h p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e s h a p i n g o f m e d i e v a l s o c i a l l i f e . 5 6 70 NOTES - CHAPTER IV ^"Matthew P a r i s ' d r a w i n g o f t h e V i r g i n and C h i l d , w i d e l y d a t e d as c. 1250, i s i n c l u d e d w i t h h i s C h r o n i c a  M a j o r a (Bm Ms R o y a l 14C V I I , f o l . 6 a ) . A l t h o u g h , t o my k n o w l e d g e , t h e o b s e r v a t i o n has n o t b e e n made e l s e -w h e r e , t h e i n s c r i p t i o n on t h i s d r a w i n g i s n o t a u t h o r e d by M a t t h e w P a r i s , b u t i s a q u o t a t i o n f r o m a sermon by A m b r o i s e A u t p e r t ( d . 784) on t h e A s s u m p t i o n o f Ma r y . A u t p e r t was a n a t i v e o f P r o v e n c e who went t o I t a l y as A b b o t o f B e n e v e n t o , b u t whose i m p o r t a n c e l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t h i s w r i t i n g s i n f l u e n c e d W e s t e r n M a r i o l o g y u n d e r s u c h names as A u g u s t i n e and A l c u i n ( H i l d a G r a e f , M a r y : a h i s t o r y o f D o c t r i n e and D e v o t i o n (New Y o r k : Sheed and Ward, 1 9 6 3 ) , I , 1 6 5 ) . A u t p e r t was t h e f i r s t L a t i n w r i t e r t o d e v e l o p sermons d e v o t e d e n t i r e l y t o t h e p r a i s e o f M a r y ( G r a e f , I , 1 6 6 ) . F o r A u t p e r t ' s t e x t o f t h e P a r i s i n s c r i p t i o n , s ee PL 39, 5:2131. C h i c h e s t e r R o u n d e l , d a t e d c. 1250 by W a l t e r O a k e s h o t t , The Sequence o f M e d i e v a l A r t ( L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r , 1 9 5 0 ) , p i . 6. As T r i s t r a m w r i t e s o f t h i s e n c h a n t i n g w o r k , " i t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o q u o t e a c o m p o s i t i o n t o w h i c h one c o u l d more f i t l y a p p l y t h e t e r m , Tfen.YOuyJ^C^'K.k.y ( " s w e e t l y l o v i n g a n d a l l h o l y " ) " (E.W. T r i s t r a m , E n g l i s h M e d i -e v a l W a l l P a i n t i n g (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 0 ) , I I , 8 ) . F o r f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h i s w o r k , see W.R. L e t h a b y , " E n g l i s h P r i m i t i v e s - - I " BM X X I X , 1 9 1 6 - 1 9 1 7 , 1 9 5 f . ; A. C a i g e r - S m i t h , E n g l i s h M e d i e v a l  M u r a l P a i n t i n g ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s ) , 12. The C h i l d p i c t u r e d s t a n d i n g on H i s m o t h e r ' s k n e e s i s an u n u s u a l v a r i a n t o f t h e E 1 e o u s a o f w h i c h few d a t e 71 p r i o r t o t h e C h i c h e s t e r R o u n d e l ; f o r examples, see A. V e n t u r i , L a Madone: R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s de l a V i e r g e  dans 1 ' a r t I t a l i e n ( P a r i s : G a u l t i e r M a g n i e r , 1 9 0 2 ) , 6; a m o s a i c i n t h e c h u r c h o f S a n t a Romana, Rome, d a t e d t o t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y ; V i c t o r L a s a r e f f , " S t u d i e s i n t h e I c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e V i r g i n , " AB 20, 1938, f i g . 2; a m a n u s c r i p t i l l u s t r a t i o n f r o m t h e E x u l t e t  S c r o l l , c. 1115 ( B i b . N a t . no. 7 1 0 ) ; t h e P i a c e n z a Madonna, d a t e d t o t h e s e c o n d q u a r t e r o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y ( s e e a b o v e , p. ) ; A. S t u b b e , L a Madorie  dans l ' A r t , ( B r u s s e l s , 1 9 5 8 ) , 219, f i g . 78 i l l u s -t r a t e s t h e N i c h o l a s o f V e r d u n ( a c t . l a t e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y and e a r l y t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) R e l i q u a r y o f  N o t r e Dame i n w h i c h t h e C h i l d i s shown s t a n d i n g on H i s m o t h e r ' s k n e e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e v i s i t a t i o n o f t h e M a g i ; Raymond K o e c h l i n , L e s I v o i r e s G o t h i q u e s  F r a n ^ a i s ( P a r i s , 1968) I I I , p i . I V , no. 12, d a t e d t o t h e s e c o n d q u a r t e r o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 3 M a r t i n W e r n e r , "The Madonna and C h i l d M i n i a -t u r e i n t h e Book o f K e l l s , " I , AB M a r c h , 1972, 2. 4 I b i d . 5 I b i d . ^ A c c o r d i n g t o L a s a r e f f , t h e s e a t e d H o d e g e t r i a t y p e o f V i r g i n "was b r o u g h t i n t o W e s t e r n i c o n o g r a p h y d i r e c t l y f r o m C o p t i c a r t " as e x a m p l e d by t h e K e l l s Madonna ( L a s a r e f f , 6 1 ) . Of t h i s image o f t h e V i r g i n , R o s e n a u comments t h a t "an a n c i e n t f o r m has b e e n r e -c o n s t i t u t e d u n d e r t h e s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s r e q u i r e -ments w h i c h were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e e a r l i e r 72 p e r i o d . " ( H e l e n R o s e n a u , "The P r o t o t y p e o f t h e V i r g i n and C h i l d i n t h e Book o f K e l l s , " BM L X X X I I I , 1 9 4 3 , 228) 7 W e r n e r , 2. I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t i t was n o t u n t i l t h e e l e v e n t h o r t w e l f t h c e n t u r y t h a t t h e I n f a n t was f r e q u e n t l y shown s u p p o r t e d by H i s m o t h e r ' s r i g h t arm. F o r i l l s . , s ee N i k o d i m P a v l o v i c h K o n d a k o v , I k o n o g r a f i i a B b g o m a t e r i , I I , ( P e t r o g r a d : 1 9 1 5 ) , i l l s . 1 5 2 - 1 6 1 . L a s a r e f f s t a t e s t h a t t h i s c u s t o m h a d a l -r e a d y "become r a t h e r w i d e l y d i f f u s e d by t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y " ( L a s a r e f f , 5 8 ) . F o r w o r k s i n w h i c h t h e C h i l d i s s e a t e d and s u p p o r t e d on e i t h e r t h e l e f t o r t h e r i g h t s i d e o f t h e V i r g i n , s e e L a s a r e f f , 64. g W e r n e r , 4. 9 F o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s w o r k , see E r i c Mac-L a g e n , "A Romanesque R e l i e f i n Y o r k M i n s t e r , " P r o c . o f t h e B r i t . Academy, X, 1 9 2 1 - 1 9 2 3 , 4 7 9 - 4 8 5 . " ^ J o h n B e c k w i t h , I v o r y C a r v i n g s i n E a r l y M e d i -e v a l E n g l a n d ( L o n d o n : H a r v e y M i l l a r and M e d c a l f , 1 9 7 2 ) , 9 1 ; f o r o t h e r comments a n d d a t i n g s , see D a v i d T a l b o t R i c e , The B y z a n t i n e E l e m e n t i n L a t e  S a x o n A r t ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 7 ) , 7f". 11 M a c L a g e n , 481. 1 2 R i c e ^ 9. M.H. L o n g h u r s t , E n g l i s h I v o r i e s ( L o n d o n : G.-P. Putnam Sons L t d . , 1 9 2 6 ) , 28. 73 """""John B e c k w i t h , I v o r y C a r v i n g s i n M e d i e v a l  E n g l a n d , 700 - 1200 , e x h . c a t . V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum, May 8 - J u l . 7, 1974, 5 1 , f i g s . 78, 79; L o n g h u r s t , p i . X X X I X , no. 29; A. G o l d s c h m i d t , D i e  E l f e r i b e i n s k u l p t u r e n P e r K a r o l i r i g i s c h e n , X I - X I I I J a h r h u n d e r t ( O x f o r d : B r u n o C a s s i r e r , 1 9 1 4 ) , p i . I l l , 1 2a. " ^ I n G e n e s i s I I : 2-3, o n l y " f r u i t a n d n o t a p p l e i s m e n t i o n e d . B u t , p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e o f t h e d o u b l e m e a n i n g i n L a t i n o f t h e w o r d "malum" -- a p p l e as w e l l as e v i l -- t h e f o r b i d d e n f r u i t came t o be t h o u g h t o f as an a p p l e " ; see 0. S c h m i t t , R e a l T e x i k o n zu d e u t s c h e n  K u n s t g e s c h i c t e ( S t u t t g a r t , 1 9 4 8 ) , I , 748-750, q u o t e d by B a r b a r a C habrowe, " I c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e S t r a s b o u r g C a t h e d r a l C h o i r S c r e e n , " G e s t a , 6, J a n . 1967, 38, n. 14. " ^ T h e r e i s no f i g u r e d s t a i n e d g l a s s e x t a n t i n E n g l a n d w h i c h p r e - d a t e s e x a m p l e s t o be f o u n d a t C a n t e r -b u r y C a t h e d r a l w h i c h s u r v i v e d t h e f i r e o f 1174 ( M a r g a r e t R i c k e r t , P a i n t i n g i n B r i t a i n : t h e M i d d l e  Ages ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h , P e n g u i n B o o k s L t d . , 1 9 5 4 ) , 1 0 9 ) ; P e t e r B r i e g e r , E n g l i s h A r t 1216 - 1307 ( O x f o r d : C l a r -endon P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , 94. T h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n and C h i l d i s p a r t o f a l a n c e t window b o u g h t i n 1938 f r o m a s a l e a t S t . A l b a n ' s C o u r t , N o n i n g t o n , b e c a u s e i t was c o n s i d e r e d t o b e l o n g t o t h e a n c i e n t g l a s s o f C a n t e r b u r y C a t h e d r a l ( B e r n a r d Rackham, The A n c i e n t G l a s s o f C a n t o r b u r y C a t h e d r a l ( L o n d o n : Lund H u m p h r i e s , 1 9 4 9 ) , 6 5 ) . 74 " D a t e d by P a u l F r a n k l , "The C h r o n o l o g y o f S t a i n e d G l a s s i n C h a r t r e s C a t h e d r a l , " AB XLV, Dec. 1 9 6 3 , 319. See G o t h i c P a i n t i n g , J a c q u e s D u p o n t , C e s a r e G n u d i , t r a n s . S t u a r t G i l b e r t ( S k i r a : G eneva, 1 9 5 4 ) , 33, f o r c o l . p i . o f " L a B e l l e V e r r i e r e . " F r a n k l s t a t e s t h a t i t i s one o f f o u r windows f r o m t h e Romanesque C a t h e d r a l w h i c h s u r v i v e d t h e f i r e i n 1194; i t was p r o b a b l y s a v e d by t h e v a u l t o f t h e Romanesque a p s e i n w h i c h i t was s i t u a t e d . The window was l a t e r e n l a r g e d "by t h e a d d i t i o n o f a n g e l s a t t h e s i d e s and n a r r a t i v e s c e n e s b e l o w , " and i s now i n t h e w a l l o f t h e s o u t h t r a n s e p t a t C h a r t r e s ( s e e F r a n k l , 3 0 1 ) . C o n c e r n i n g t h e w i d e b o r d e r o f t h e C a n t e r b u r y window, Rackham w r i t e s t h a t i t d i s p l a y s c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s o f s t y l e p r e s e n t i n t h e J e s s e T r e e window o f A b b o t S u g e r a t S t . D e n i s (1150) and i n t h e c a p i t a l s o f C a n t e r b u r y C a t h e d r a l d e s i g n e d by W i l l i a m o f Sens (Rackham, 76, i l l . 6 6 ) . F o r i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f p o r -t i o n s o f t h e b o r d e r s o f t h e S t . D e n i s w i n d o w s , see Carmen Gomez-Moreno, M e d i e v a l A r t f r o m P r i v a t e C o l - l e c t i o n s , e x h . c a t . The C l o i s t e r s , O c t . 30, 1968 -J a n . 5, 1969 (New Y o r k : M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t ) , i l l s . 174-177. 18 Rackham, 67. 19 H i l d a G r a e f , M ary: a h i s t o r y o f D o c t r i n e  and D e v o t i o n ( L o n d o n : S h e e d and Ward, 1 9 6 3 ) , I , 181 i n r e f e r e n c e t o W. v o n den S t e i n e n , N o t k e r d e r D i c h -t e r und s e i n e g e i s t i g e W e l t ( B e r n e , 1 9 4 8 ) , I I , 66. I b i d . Q u o t e d by G r a e f f r o m v o n den S t e i n e n , I I , 24. 75 """"Concerning t h e r a p i d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e " i n t i m a t e and e m o t i o n a l image o f C h r i s t a f t e r 1200 ," see C a i g e r - S m i t h , 68-69. 2 2 R i c h a r d W. S o u t h e r n , The M a k i n g o f t h e M i d d l e  A g e s (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , 232; see a l s o G i l e s C o n s t a b l e , " T w e l f t h C e n t u r y S p i r i t u -a l i t y and t h e L a t e M i d d l e A g e s , " M e d i a e v a l arid R e n a l s -s a r i c e S t u d i e s , 5, e d . O.B. H a r d i s o n , J r . , ( U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s ) , 3 0 f f . I n t h e y e a r s s u b s e -q u e n t t o t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e C o u n c i l o f N i c a e a , i n 325, when t h e Son was a c c e p t e d as b e i n g o f t h e "same n a t u r e as t h e F a t h e r " ( Y r j o H i r n , The S a c r e d S h r i n e ( B o s t o n : B e a c o n H i l l P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , 1 8 7 ) , M a r y was more f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o as t h e M o t h e r o f God. Her p o s i t i o n i n t h e h i e r a r c h y o f s a i n t s was f u r t h e r s e c u r e d more t h a n a c e n t u r y l a t e r , i n 4 3 1 , a t t h e C o u n c i l o f E p h e s u s and E p h e s u s became t h e " b i r t h p l a c e o f t h e o f f i c i a l Madonna c u l t " ( H i r n , 189) . The Coun-c i l was p r o p i t i a t e d b y a sermon d e l i v e r e d b y P r o c l u s ( d . 446) i n w h i c h he a c c l a i m e d M a r y as t h e M o t h e r o f God. N e s t o r i u s , t h e P a t r i a r c h o f C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , r e -f u s e d t o g r a n t M a r y t h e t i t l e o f T h e o t o k o s , a r g u i n g t h a t t h e r e was a d i s t i n c t i o n t o be made b e t w e e n t h e h u m a n i t y o f C h r i s t and H i s d i v i n i t y . C y r i l o f A l e x -a n d r i a , o p p o s i n g t h e N e s t o r i a n s , a r g u e d t h a t " I f C h r i s t was t r u l y God as w e l l as man, t h e n M a r y , h i s M o t h e r was a l s o t r u l y t h e M o t h e r o f God" ( G r a e f , I , 1 0 3 ) . The r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e C o u n c i l was i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h i s o p i n i o n a nd t h u s , M a r y was deemed w o r t h y o f t h e t i t l e o f T h e o t o k o s . H e n c e f o r t h , t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e V i r g i n were e s t a b l i s h e d and h e r r e l a t i o n s t o God t h e F a t h e r and t o t h e C h i l d were f o r m u l a t e d (Hirn,188) . 76 Her s t a t u s was e u l o g i z e d i n e x a g g e r a t e d l y p o e t i c t e r m s , a g e n r e o f w r i t i n g w h i c h o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e E a s t , as e x a m p l e d by t h e A k a t h i s t o s hymn o f Romanos. D a t e d t o t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y , t h i s hymn was w r i t t e n i n t w e n t y -f o u r s t a n z a s , t h e l a t t e r t w e l v e d e v o t e d t o t h e p r a i s e o f C h r i s t and t o M a r y as T h e o t o k o s ; i t was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o L a t i n n o t l a t e r t h a n t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y , and i t i s s t i l l s u n g t o d a y ( G r a e f , I , 1 2 9 ) . T h i s work l a t e r i n f l u e n c e d L a t i n w r i t e r s s u c h as V e n a n t i u s F o r t u n a t u s (530 - c.600) ( G r a e f , I , 120-130) who r e f e r s t o M a r y as t h e M o t h e r g i v i n g n o u r i s h m e n t t o h e r C h i l d and s p e a k s o f t h e V i r g i n i n t e r m s w h i c h w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t " A l m o s t i m p e r c e p t i b l y she has l e f t t h e s t r i c t l y t h e o l o g i c a l s p h e r e and become an image f u l f i l l i n g men's d e s i r e f o r b e a u t y and s e c u r i t y " ( G r a e f , I , 1 3 0 - 1 3 1 ) . F o r a b r i e f , c l e a r l y s t a t e d a c c o u n t o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e C o u n c i l o f E p h e s u s , and t h e r e a s o n s f o r w h i c h i t was c o n v e n e d , see G r a e f , I , 101-111. H i r n w r i t e s t h a t t h e c h u r c h i n w h i c h t h e c o u n -c i l was c o n v e n e d "was t h e f i r s t a n d , a t t h a t t i m e , t h e o n l y c h u r c h i n C h r i s t e n d o m w h i c h h a d b e e n d e v o t e d t o t h e w o r s h i p o f t h e Madonna" ( H i r n , 189) . See a l s o PL 7 1 , c o l . 713, i n w h i c h G r e g o r y o f T o u r s r e c o r d s t h e a c c o u n t o f Adamnan o f I o n a ( c . 624 - 704) w h e r e i n t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e B a s i l i c a o f C o n s t a n t i n e ( t h e C a t h e d r a l o f E p h e s u s ) was a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f t h e Madonna. The c h o i c e o f E p h e s u s as t h e m e e t i n g p l a c e f o r t h e C o u n c i l i s o f i n t e r e s t b e c a u s e , a c c o r d i n g t o A c t s 19 o f t h e B i b l e , P a u l ' s m i s s i o n t o t h e E p h e s i a n s was g r e e t e d w i t h no s m a l l h o s t i l i t y on t h e p a r t o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s who had l o n g v e n e r a t e d t h e Goddess D i a n a , b o t h f o r h e r v i r g i n i t y and f o r h e r m o t h e r h o o d . She was, we a r e 77 t o l d , w o r s h i p p e d t h r o u g h o u t " a l l A s i a and t h e w o r l d . " ( A c t s 1 9 : 2 7 ) . 23 S o u t h e r n , 256; see a l s o C o n s t a b l e , 3 0 f f . 2 4 S o u t h e r n , 255. The c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e f i r s t hymn i n t h e l i n g u a v o T g a r e i s c r e d i t e d t o S t . F r a n c i s , and i n F r a n c i s c a n p o e t r y i n g e n e r a l " t h e most power-f u l , as w e l l as t h e most t e n d e r m y s t i c i s m i s l i n k e d w i t h u n q u a l i f i e d r e a l i s m and t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e common man" ( H a r r y B. Gutman, "The R e b i r t h o f t h e F i n e A r t s and F r a n c i s c a n T h o u g h t , " F r a n c i s c a n S t u d i e s 26, no. 3., S e p t . 1945 ; 2 1 6 ) . 25 S o u t h e r n , 240; s e e a l s o D a v i d K n o w l e s , The R e l i g i o u s O r d e r s i n E n g l a n d ( C a m b r i d g e : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 0 ) , 1 3 3 ; H u b e r t u s P.J.M. Ahsmann, Le C u l t e de l a S a i r i t e V i e r g e e t l a L i t t e V a t u r e F r a n c a i se P r o f -«, arie du Moyeri Age ( U t r e c h t , 1 9 3 0 ) , 38; O . E l f r i d a S a u n d e r s , E n g l i s h A r t i n t h e M i d d l e Ages ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 3 2 ) , 110; D a v i d K n o w l e s , D i m i t r i O b l e n s k y , The C h r i s t i a n C e n t u r i e s (New Y o r k : McGraw H i l l , 1 9 6 8 ) , I I , 261. ^ ^ B r i e g e r , 98. 27 Ahsmann, 34. 2 8 A h s m a n n , 35. Tome XX, d a t e d 1245 - 1248 , b e g u n i n P a r i s where A l b e r t u s Magnus was t e a c h i n g ; p r o b a b l y f i n i s h e d i n 1256 i n Germany where he f i l l e d t h e o f f i c e o f 78 P r o v i n c i a l o f h i s O r d e r f o r t h a t c o u n t r y ( H e n r y O s b o r n T a y l o r , The M e d i e v a l M i n d ( L o n d o n : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 3 8 ) , I I , 4 5 1 . 3 0 T a y l o r , I I , 4 6 1 . 31 j i . . I b i d . 3 2 T a y l o r , I I , 4 6 1 - 4 6 2 . 33 The e a r l i e s t o f t h e s e s t o r i e s came f r o m t h e M i d d l e E a s t and a p p e a r e d t h e r e b e t w e e n t h e f o u r t h and s i x t h c e n t u r i e s ( J . C . J e n n i n g s , "The O r i g i n s o f t h e ' E l e m e n t s S e r i e s ' o f t h e M i r a c l e s o f t h e V i r g i n , " M e d i a e v a l arid R e n a i s s a n c e S t u d i e s ( L o n d o n : W a r b u r g I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 3 8 ) , V I , 90).. One o f t h e e a r l i e s t e x t a n t v e r s i o n s o f t h e T h e o p h i l u s l e g e n d , p e r h a p s t h e most f r e q u e n t l y e n c o u n t e r e d o f any o f t h e s e s t o r i e s , i s t h a t o f P a u l t h e Deacon o f N a p l e s , "who f l o u r i s h e d i n t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y " and who a d a p t e d t h e t a l e f r o m t h e G r e e k o f E u t y c h i a n u s ( S i s t e r M a r y V i n c e n t i n e G r i p k e y , The B l e s s e d V i r g i n M a r y as M e d i a t r i x i n t h e  L a t i n and O l d F r e n c h L e g e n d p r i o r t o t h e F o u r t e e n t h  C e n t u r y ( W a s h i n g t o n : C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y o f A m e r i c a , 1 9 3 8 ) , 10.) H r o t s w i t h a , t h e nun o f G a n d e r s h e i m (c.930) w r o t e a " m e t r i c a l v e r s i o n o f t h e T h e o p h i l u s l e g e n d " ( G r i p k e y , 17; G r a e f , I , 2 0 4 - 2 0 5 ) ; see a l s o B e v e r l y B o y d , The M i d d l e E n g l i s h M i r a c l e s o f t h e V i r g i n ( C a l i f o r n i a : H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y , 1 9 6 4 ) , 6) w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e f o r e r u n n e r o f t h e F a u s t l e g e n d b e c a u s e T h e o p h i l u s makes a p a c t w i t h t h e d e v i l f r o m w h i c h he i s redeemed by t h e i n t e r c e s s i o n o f t h e V i r g i n ( G r a e f , I , 1 7 1 ; see a l s o L i n a E c k e n s t e i n , Woman' Un d e r 79 M o n a s t i c i s m ( C a m b r i d g e : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 8 9 6 ) , 165. 34 R i c h a r d W. S o u t h e r n , "The E n g l i s h O r i g i n s o f t h e ' M i r a c l e s o f t h e V i r g i n ' " , M e d i a e v a l and  R e n a i s s a n c e S t u d i e s ( L o n d o n : W a r b u r g I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 5 8 ) , I V , 177; see a l s o S o u t h e r n , M a k i n g , 2 4 6 f f ; B o y d , 5-7. 35 S o u t h e r n , " M i r a c l e s " , 178; G r i p k e y , 62. The p o p u l a r i t y o f s u b s e q u e n t v e r s i o n s o f t h e l e g e n d s w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n t h e v e r n a c u l a r i s a t t e s t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e M i r a c l e s de l a S a i n t e V i e r g e , w r i t t e n i n F r a n c e b e t w e e n t h e y e a r s 1218 - 1227 by G a u t i e r de C o i n c y , c o n t a i n e d f i f t y - f o u r m i r a c l e s o f w h i c h s e v e n t y -n i n e m a n u s c r i p t s a r e e x t a n t ( G r i p k e y , 132); f o r a f u r -t h e r l i s t o f t h e s e c o l l e c t i o n s , see S i x t e n Ringbom, " D e v o t i o n a l Images and I m a g i n a t i v e D e v o t i o n s : N o t e s on t h e p l a c e o f a r t i n L a t e M e d i e v a l P r i v a t e P i e t y , " GBA 73, 1969, 160. These s t o r i e s a nd e x e m p l a were f r e q u e n t l y i l l u s t r a t e d , as f o r e x a m p l e , t h e G a u t i e r de C o i n c y t a l e o f t h e S a r a c e n w h i c h was d e c o r a t e d by P u c e l l e ( R i n g b o m , 1 6 1 , f i g . 2 ) . The i l l u s t r a t i o n i s o f t h e t a l e o f t h e h e a t h e n S a r a c e n who, " i n t h e p r e -s e n c e o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n . . . b e g a n t o p o n d e r d o u b t f u l l y on I n c a r n a t i o n " w h e r e u p o n s t r e a m s o f o i l were e m i t t e d f r o m t h e b r e a s t s o f t h e image. T h u s , " t h e S a r a c e n became c o n v e r t e d t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s f a m i l y and many f e l l o w S a r a c e n s . " ( R i n g b o m , 1 6 0 ) . S o u t h e r n , " M i r a c l e s " , 177. 80 37 I b i d . "Durham was t h e f i r s t b u i l d i n g i n E u r o p e t o have ^ r i b b e d s t o n e v a u l t s t h r o u g h -out;^ c h o i r , by 1104; nav.e 1128-1133 " ( L a r ous s e E n c y c To - p e d i a o f B y z a n t i n e and M e d i e v a l A r t , e d . Rene Huygbe (New Y o r k : H a m l y n , 1 9 6 3 ) , 2 9 4 ) . 3 8 S o u t h e r n , " M i r a c l e s " , 177. 39 J e n n i n g s , 90. 40 A n s e l m , A b b o t o f B u r y S t . Edmunds ( d . 1 1 4 8 ) , nephew o f A n s e l m who became A r c h b i s h o p o f C a n t e r b u r y i n 1 0 9 3 , i s "known t o h i s t o r i a n s as t h e d e v o t e d p r o -t a g o n i s t o f t h e most a d v a n c e d f o r m o f d e v o t i o n t o t h e B l e s s e d V i r g i n t h e n known i n E u r o p e -- t h e C e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e F e a s t o f t h e C o n c e p t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n " ( S o u t h -e r n , M a k i n g , 2 5 1 ) . 41 J e n n i n g s , 9 0 - 9 1 . M a l m e s b u r y ' s M a r i a l e was w r i t t e n c. 1143 . T h e s e t h r e e c o l l e c t i o n s w e r e l a t e r c o n f l a t e d . The p r i n c i p a l m a n u s c r i p t i s Ms 97 ( t h i r -t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) o f S a l i s b u r y C a t h e d r a l ( B o y d , 7 and 7, n. 1 6 ) . 42 G r i p k e y , 220. 4 3 H i r n , 360. See a l s o Bede's sermon d e l i v e r e d on t h e F e a s t o f t h e A s s u m p t i o n o f M a r y , De S a n c t a  M a r i a V i r g i n e (PL 94, 422-423) i n w h i c h he r e c o r d s Pope Z e p h i r u s as a d d r e s s i n g h i s l i s t e n e r s i n t h e f o l -l o w i n g t e r m s , "Nunc autem, f r a t r e s , s e r v i a m u s semper t a l i r e g i n a e , quae non d e r e l e n q u i t s p e r a n t e s i n s e . Cum d i l i g a t o r a t i o n e s s a n c t o r u m , e t e x a u d i a t , m u l t o 81 m a g i s matrem suam e x a u d i t p r o p e c c a t o r i b u s e x o r a n t e m . " ("So, now b r e t h r e n , l e t us a l w a y s s e r v e s u c h a q u e e n , who a b a n d o n e t h n o t t h o s e who p u t t h e i r hope i n h e r . Though he l o v e t h t h e p r a y e r s o f t h e s a i n t s a nd h e a r -e t h them, much more d o t h He l i s t e n t o h i s M o t h e r p r a y i n g f o r s i n n e r s . " ) ( P L 94; 423A, t r a n s , b y G.B. R i d d e h o u g h ) . 44 S o u t h e r n , M a k i n g , 2 4 8 f f . 45 S o u t h e r n , M a k i n g , 2 4 9 f . ^ J e n n i n g s , 84. 4 7 J e n n i n g s , 9 1 . " H i s l e g e n d s a p p e a r i n L a t i n a n d v e r n a c u l a r m a n u s c r i p t s ( t h e y were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o N o r m a n - F r e n c h w e l l b e f o r e t h e end o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n -t u r y ) , i n i n n u m e r a b l e s e r m o n s , i n t h e c a n t i g a s o f A l f o n s o X o f C a s t i l e , t h e p o e t r y o f Francois V i l l o n , i n t h e w a l l - p a i n t i n g s a t t h e C h a p e l a t E t o n C o l l e g e and a t W i n c h e s t e r C a t h e d r a l , and i n L i n c o l n s h i r e f o l k -l o r e " ( J e n n i n g s , 9 1 ) . F o r a l i s t o f t h e t i t l e s o f D o m i n i c ' s s t o r i e s , see J e n n i n g s , 8 4 - 8 5 , and f o r t h e i r p l o t s , 9 2 - 9 3 . W r i t i n g i n 1968, J e n n i n g s s t a t e s t h a t " D o m i n i c ' s c o l l e c t i o n s c o n s i s t i n g o f a p r o l o g u e and f o u r t e e n l e g e n d s i s t o be f o u n d i n i t s p u r e s t f o r m i n two m a n u s c r i p t s -- B a l l i o l C o l l e g e Ms 240, a t w e l f t h c e n t u r y m a n u s c r i p t f r o m Monk's K i r b y ( f o l s . 1 3 7a - 1 4 8 a ) ; and an e a r l y t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y manu-s c r i p t f r o m B u r t o n A b b e y , now i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f P r o f e s s o r F r a n c e s Wormald ( f o l s . . 35d - 4 5 e ) " ( J e n n i n g s , 84) . 82 Ahsmann, 23. 49 I b i d . 5 ^ H i r n , 365. 51 I b i d . S i m i l a r l y , H i r n s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e c a n be no q u e s t i o n o f s y m b o l i s m i n t h e many i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e ' l a c t a t i o n ' o f B e r n a r d o f C l a i r v a u x (365) w h i c h became p a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r i n w o o d c u t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A c c o r d i n g t o l e g e n d , " q u i ne s ' e s t a c c r e d i t e d q u ' a p r e s l e X I I e s i e c l e , l a s t a t u e de l ' e g l i s e de S a i n t - V o r l e s se s e r a i t animee au moment ou B e r n a r d r e c i t a n t d e v a n t e l l e l ' A v e m a r i s S t e l l a p r o n o n ^ a i t l e v e r s e t : M o n s t r a t e e s s e matrem. M a r i e a u r a i t a l o r s f a i t j a i l l i r de s a m a m e l l e s u r l e s l e v r e s de s o n p i e u x ami t r o i s g o u t t e s du l a i t d o n t e l l e a v a i t j a d i s n o u r r i J e s u s " (Ahsmann, 32, n. 2; see a l s o E m i l e M a l e , L ' A r t R e l i g i e u x du X I I e ^ e n C F r a n c e ( P a r i s : 1 9 2 2 ) , 427). F o r i l l s . , s e e L e x i k o n d e r M a r i e n k u n d e , e d . K o n r a d A l g e r m i s s e n e t a l . ( R e g e n s b u r g , 1 9 6 7 ) , I , c o l . 714, 717, 719. See a l s o c o l s . 7 1 6 f f . f o r numer-ous r e f e r e n c e s t o o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e ' l a c -t a t i o n ' o f B e r n a r d ; s ee a l s o M i l l a r d M e i s s , "The V i r -g i n o f H u m i l i t y , " AB X V I I I , Dec. 1936, p. 4 6 0 f f . and f i g . 26 f o r a f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y M a j o r c a n r e p r e s e n -t a t i o n o f t h e l e g e n d . I n C o n s t a b l e ' s o p i n i o n , t h e p e r s o n a l d e v o t i o n o f B e r n a r d t o M a r y has b e e n f r e -q u e n t l y o v e r e m p h a s i z e d ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , C o n s t a b l e w r i t e s , " B e r n a r d p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e l a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f M a r i o l o g y , r i g h t down t o t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y ; and t h e m i r a c l e o f t h e l a c t a t i o n , t h o u g h o f r e l a t i v e l y l a t e o r i g i n , e x p r e s s e s a 83 s p i r i t u a l t r u t h i n a s s o c i a t i n g C i s t e r c i a n p i e t y w i t h t h e m a t e r n a l and f e m i n i n e e m p h a s i s o f l a t e r s p i r i t u -a l i t y " ( C o n s t a b l e , " T w e l f t h - C e n t u r y S p i r i t u a l i t y , " 46) . 5 2 O r v i e d o C a t h e d r a l was b e l i e v e d a l s o t o p o s s e s s a p h i a l o f t h e V i r g i n ' s m i l k , as was L a o n , where i t was p r e s e r v e d i n a c r y s t a l v a s e . F o r G u i b e r t de N o g e n t ' s c o n d e m n a t i o n o f t h e l a t t e r as a f a l s e r e l i c , s ee J o n a t h o n S u m p t i o n , P i l g r i m a g e : an image o f M e d i -e v a l R e l i g i o n ( L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r , 1 9 7 5 ) , 43. The c u l t o f r e l i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s a i n t s b e g a n p e r h a p s e a r l i e r t h a n t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y ( S u m p t i o n , 2 2 ) . T h i s c u l t r e a c h e d " e p i d e m i c p r o p o r t i o n s a f t e r t h e s a c k o f C o n s t a n t i n o p l e i n 1204, when t h e m a r k e t was i n u n d a t e d w i t h o b j e c t s whose a u t h e n t i c i t y was im-p o s s i b l e t o p r o v e " ( S u m p t i o n , 3 1 ) ; see a l s o S u m p t i o n , 21, 2 2 f f , 4 1 f f , f o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e c u l t o f r e l i c s . 53 D.J. H a l l , E n g l i s h M e d i a e v a l P i l g r i m a g e ( L o n -don: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l L t d . , 1 9 6 5 ) , 8. 54 S o u t h e r n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s i s t h e r e a s o n why t h e V i r g i n "had p l a y e d a m i n o r p a r t i n t h e m i r a c u -l o u s i n t e r v e n t i o n r e c o r d e d by p i o u s w r i t e r s " ( M a k i n g , 2 4 7 ) . ^ A h s m a n n , 21; s e e a l s o 21, n. 5. The p r i n c i p l e r e a s o n s f o r p i l g r i m a g e s i n c l u d e d a s e n s e o f " c l o s e r c o n t a c t w i t h C h r i s t , H i s M o t h e r and H i s s a i n t s i n c e r t a i n p l a c e s ; t h e hope o f b e n e f i t t i n g 84 f r o m a p h y s i c a l l y h e a l i n g p o wer; and t h e p r o s p e c t o f e a r n i n g an i n d u l g e n c e f o r t h e r e m i s s i o n o f an u n u s u a l l y s e v e r e p e n a n c e " ( K n o w l e s / O b l e n s k y , C h r i s -t i a n C e n t u r i e s , I I , 264; see a l s o C.R. Cheney, M e d i -e v a l S t u d i e s and T e x t s ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , 3 5 4 ) . S u m p t i o n , h o w e v e r , l i k e n s t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f p i l g r i m a g e s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t o t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e m e n d i c a n t f r i a r s and o f l o c a l h e r m i t s who " o f f e r e d an e s c a p e f r o m t h e s t i f l i n g f r a m e w o r k o f p a r i s h l i f e . P i l g r i m a g e s o f f e r e d a n o t h e r e s c a p e . A s u r p r i s i n g l y l a r g e number o f p i l g r i m s seem t o h a v e l e f t t h e i r homes s o l e l y i n o r d e r t o deny t h e i r p a r i s h p r i e s t h i s m o n o p o l y o v e r t h e i r s p i r i t u a l w e l f a r e " ( S u m p t i o n , 1 3 ) . 85 CHAPTER V As S o u t h e r n comments on t h e p l a c e o f r e l i g i o n i n m e d i e v a l s o c i a l l i f e , b e f o r e p r e a c h i n g became an i m p o r t a n t means o f s p r e a d i n g new ways o f t h o u g h t and d e v o t i o n , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t m i r a c l e s and m i r a c l e s t o r i e s , s h r i n e s and p i l g r i m a g e s were t h e most i m p o r t a n t f o r c e i n d i s s e m i n a t i n g t h e i d e a s and s e n t i m e n t s t o w h i c h S t . A n s e l m and S t . B e r n a r d had g i v e n i n d i f f e r e n t ways so s t r o n g an i m p u l s e A The v e n e r a t e d r e l i c o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t s h r i n e d e d i c a t e d t o t h e V i r g i n i n E n g l a n d , t h e P r i o r y o f Our L a d y o f W a l s i n g h a m , N o r f o l k , was a p h i a l o f t h e V i r g i n ' s m i l k t h o u g h t t o have b e e n b r o u g h t f r o m 2 P a l e s t i n e by r e t u r n i n g C r u s a d e r s . Commenting on t h e n o n - l i q u i d n a t u r e o f t h e r e l i c , k e p t on t h e h i g h a l t a r a t W a l s i n g h a m , Erasmus d e s c r i b e s how t h e V i r -g i n ' s m i l k f e l l on t h e r o c k as she s a t and n u r s e d t h e C h i l d : " I t h a r d e n e d and t h e n , by God's w i l l so 3 i n c r e a s e d . " A l t h o u g h s a t i r i c a l i n v e i n , h i s w r i t i n g d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e s t r e n g t h o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f i n t h e r e l i c , and t h e r e s u l t i n g w e a l t h i t a t t r a c t e d t o t h e s h r i n e . Much o f t h e w e a l t h o f W a l s i n g h a m , h o w e v e r , r e s u l t e d f r o m H e n r y I l l ' s i n t e r e s t . A l t h o u g h 86 p i l g r i m a g e s t o i t b e g a n a b o u t 1153, o r s o o n a f t e r , 4 H e n r y was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a k i n g i t a popu-l a r s h r i n e ; 5 h i s f i r s t v i s i t was i n 1226, and t h e r e i s d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e o f t w e n t y more d u r i n g t h e n e x t t h i r t y y e a r s . 6 I t was t o Our L a d y o f W a l s i n g -ham t h a t t h e K i n g made h i s l a s t p i l g r i m a g e s h o r t l y b e f o r e he d i e d a t W e s t m i n s t e r on November 16, 1271. T h e r e a r e numerous documents r e f e r r i n g t o t h e g i f t s H e n r y b e s t o w e d on t h e s h r i n e , many o f them o f a p r a c t i c a l n a t u r e , s u c h as wax, t a p e r s , and t r e e s f o r b u i l d i n g , b u t i n 1246 he d o n a t e d t w e n t y marks f o r t h e m a k i n g o f a g o l d c r o w n f o r t h e image o f t h e g V i r g i n h o u s e d t h e r e . On S e p t e m b e r 30, 1538, t h e image o f t h e V i r -g i n w h i c h h a d b e e n l o n g t h e g l o r y o f W a l s i n g h a m was b r o u g h t t o L o n d o n b y s p e c i a l i n j u n c -t i o n f r o m C r o m w e l l , w i t h a l l t h e n o t a b l e images t o w h i c h any s p e c i a l p i l g r i m a g e s were made, and t h e y were b u r n t a t C h e l s e a . 9 We have no r e c o r d o f w a l l - p a i n t i n g s t h a t p r o b a b l y once d e c o r a t e d W a l s i n g h a m b u t , b e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l i c h o u s e d t h e r e a n d , as M e i s s p o i n t s o u t , t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h e c u l t o f t h e l a c t a n s f i g u r e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s r e l i c , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t an image o f t h e n u r s i n g V i r g i n was p a r t o f i t s d e c o -r a t i o n s . S u p p o r t f o r t h i s s u g g e s t i o n i s t o be f o u n d 87 i n t h e s m a l l c h u r c h o f C a n f i e l d , n e a r G r e a t Dunmow, E s s e x , where a w a l l - p a i n t i n g o f t h e c r o w n e d V i r g i n s e a t e d f r o n t a l l y on a d a i s shows h e r s u p p o r t i n g t h e C h r i s t C h i l d on h e r l e f t arm and s u c k l i n g Him"'""'' ( p i . 1 9 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , a c c o r d i n g t o T r i s t r a m , p i l g r i m a g e s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n f l u e n c i n g p a i n t i n g t h r o u g h o u t 12 E n g l a n d , n o t o n l y t h r o u g h t h e " t r a n s m i s s i o n o f i n -f l u e n c e s " b u t , a l s o , p r o b a b l y t h r o u g h t h e d i s s e m i n a -t i o n o f " t e c h n i c a l m e t h o d s , q u i t e a p a r t f r o m t h o s e 13 p r o v i d e d by m o n a s t i c and r o y a l c o n n e x i o n s . " C a n f i e l d l i e s i n t h e c o u n t y a d j a c e n t t o L o n d o n a n d , w h i l e i t c a n n o t be s a i d t o be c l o s e t o W a l s i n g -ham, i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e s i t e o f t h e s h r i n e i s o f i n t e r e s t ; t h e most t r a v e l l e d r o a d f o r p i l g r i m s l e a v i n g t h e c i t y o f L o n d o n t o v i s i t Our L a d y b y t h e s e a a t W a l s i n g h a m l i e s t h r o u g h B r a n d o n and Fakenham a f t e r 14 l e a v i n g Newmarket, w h i c h i s b u t t w e n t y - f i v e m i l e s on t h e map due n o r t h o f C a n f i e l d . B e t w e e n Newmarket and W a l s i n g h a m , t h i s r o a d i s s t i l l c a l l e d t h e P a l m e r ' s Way. C o n c e r n i n g t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e Madonna and C h i l d a t C a n f i e l d t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t " t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e C o u r t S c h o o l e x t e n d e d t o t h e c o u n t y " ^ o f E s s e x , w h i c h i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g i n v i e w o f i t s p r o x i m i t y t o L o n d o n , and o f H e n r y ' s i 88 p a t r o n a g e o f a r t which, s t i m u l a t e d so p r o d i g i o u s a demand f o r p a i n t i n g t h a t v i l l a g e c h u r c h e s as w e l l as 17 a b b e y s and c a t h e d r a l s were e n r i c h e d w i t h d e c o r a t i o n s . Of H e n r y I l l ' s d i r e c t l i n k s w i t h E s s e x , we know he owned a manor h o u s e a t N e w p o r t , and a p a l a c e a t 18 H a v e r i n g - a t t e - B o w e r f o r w h i c h we h a v e r e c o r d s o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n i n g o f a M a r i o 1 a , an A n n u n c i a t i o n s c e n e f o r t h e Queen's C h a p e l i n 1 2 5 1 , and t h e p u r c h a s e o f 19 a n image o f t h e V i r g i n i n 1253. T h u s , t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t p a i n t e r s a t t a c h e d t o t h e c o u r t o f H e n r y I I I were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e C a n f i e l d Madonna. T h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , a s p e c t s o f t h i s w o r k , and o f i t s l o c a l e , w h i c h s u g g e s t t h e p r o b a -b l e r e a s o n f o r t h e V i r g i n ' s b e i n g d e p i c t e d as a M a r i a l a c t a n s . The s t y l i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e C a n f i e l d  Madonna and t h e Madonna and C h i l d o f M a t t h e w P a r i s Cpl. 14-) p r o d u c e d c. 1250 a t S t . A l b a n s A b b e y , t h e m o t h e r h o u s e o f t h e E n g l i s h B e n e d i c t i n e s , a r e so s t r i k i n g t h a t we c a n o n l y assume t h a t t h e E s s e x a r t -20 i s t was f a m i l i a r w i t h P a r i s ' w o r k . We know t h a t M a t t h e w m i g h t have b e e n i n v o l v e d i n t h e e x e c u t i o n o f an e x t e n s i v e programme o f w a l l d e c o r a t i o n a t S t . A l -b a n s w h i c h was t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e a b b e y c. 1220 -21 1150 u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f W a l t e r o f C o l c h e s t e r . 89 I t i s more t h a n l i k e l y , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e C a n f i e l d a r t i s t c o u l d have b e e n b r o u g h t f r o m E s s e x ( a l s o t h e home c o u n t y o f W a l t e r , as h i s name s u g g e s t s ) t o a s s i s t i n t h i s programme, and may have w o r k e d w i t h P a r i s . As an a r t i s t , M a t t h e w P a r i s ( c . 1 2 2 0 - 1 2 5 9 ) d e m o n s t r a t e s c o n s i d e r a b l e o r i g i n a l i t y . N o t o n l y i s h i s Madonna arid C h i l d t h e f i r s t e x a m p l e o f an E l e o u s a V i r g i n o f E n g l i s h p r o v e n a n c e known t o u s , ( s e e a b o v e , p.61) b u t a l s o , he i s c r e d i t e d w i t h i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e f i r s t known r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f S t . F r a n c i s r e c e i v i n g 2 2 t h e s t i g m a t a ; M a t t h e w ' s i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f h e r a l d r y i n h i s C h r o n i c a M a j o r a a r e n o t o f a r t i s t i c i n t e r e s t a l o n e , b u t d e m o n s t r a t e a b r e a d t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n on a s u b j e c t w h i c h , as f a r as i s known, h a d n o t b e e n 2 3 p r e v i o u s l y c a t a l o g u e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h r o u g h o u t M a t t h e w ' s c h r o n i c l e s , t h e r e a r e d r a w i n g s w h i c h w i t -n e s s h i s a b i l i t y t o use t r a d i t i o n a l m o t i f s and i n v e s t them w i t h new m e a n i n g . 2 4 I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o s u g -g e s t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t M a t t h e w P a r i s m i g h t have i n t r o -d u c e d t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s image t o t h e a r t i s t o f t h e C a n f i e l d Madonna. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h a t M a t t h e w P a r i s was on f a m i l -i a r t e r m s w i t h H e n r y I I I i s a t t e s t e d b y numerous e n t r i e s i n M a t t h e w ' s c h r o n i c l e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t S t . A l b a n s was a f a v o u r i t e v i s i t i n g p l a c e f o r H e n r y I I I . 90 The abbey was w i t h i n one d a y ' s r i d e t o t h e n o r t h o f t h e K i n g ' s London r e s i d e n c e , and s t a b l e s were k e p t 25 a t S t . A l b a n s t o accommodate t h r e e h u n d r e d h o r s e s , t h u s f a c i l i t a t i n g f r e q u e n t v i s i t s f r o m members o f t h e r o y a l c o u r t . M a t t h e w t e l l s us o f one o c c a s i o n when H e n r y s p e n t a week a t t h e a b b e y d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e h e , M a t t h e w , was t h e " k i n g ' s c o n s t a n t c o m p a n i o n 2 6 i n t h e p a l a c e , a t t a b l e , a n d i n h i s c h a m b e r . " I n s p i t e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h m i g h t have e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e m o n a r c h and t h e monk c o n c e r n i n g p o l i t i -c a l a f f a i r s , one c a n n o t d o u b t t h a t t h e a e s t h e t i c i n t e r e s t s o f t h e two men w o u l d have p r o v i d e d a b o n d o f s y m p a t h y b e t w e e n them. T h u s , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t i t was t h r o u g h M a t t h e w P a r i s t h a t H e n r y I I I , as w e l l as t h e C a n f i e l d a r t i s t , was a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e L a c -t a n s i m a g e , p e r h a p s e x e c u t e d by Matthew, h i m s e l f , i n S t . A l b a n s Abbey as p a r t o f what was a m a j o r d e c o r a -t i v e programme o f w h i c h t h e r e a r e b u t f r a g m e n t s l e f t . The f a c t t h a t t h e C a n f i e l d Madonna i s s i t u a t e d i n a c h u r c h o n , o r n e a r , a p i l g r i m a g e r o u t e f r o m L o n -don t o t h e s h r i n e o f W a l s i n g h a m , p r o v i d e s a l i n k w i t h 2 7 two images o f t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s i n t h e c h u r c h o f S t o n e , K e n t ( p i . 2 0 ) . T h i s c h u r c h l i e s c l o s e t o t h e 2 8 P i l g r i m ' s Way b e t w e e n London and C a n t e r b u r y , a n d , b e c a u s e o f t h e w a l l - p a i n t e d s c e n e s o f t h e m a r t y r d o m 91 o f S t . Thomas p i c t u r e d t h e r e , and t h e p r o b a b i l i t y 29 t h a t t h e r e was an a l t a r p l a c e d b e n e a t h t h e p a i n t i n g , t h e c h u r c h w o u l d no d o u b t be v i s i t e d by t h e f a i t h f u l " a f t e r l e a v i n g D a r t f o r d f o r R o c h e s t e r a n d C a n t e r b u r y , " a r o a d c e r t a i n l y t r a v e l l e d by H e n r y I I I when he p a i d 30 homage t o S t . Thomas B e c k e t . The images o f t h e M a r i a l a c t a n s a t S t o n e a r e 31 s e t one on e a c h s i d e o f t h e M a r t y r d o m o f S t . Thomas and t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l f a c t o r s w h i c h s u p p o r t t h e hypo-t h e s i s t h a t t h e y r e s u l t e d f r o m H e n r y ' s p a t r o n a g e : t h e b u i l d i n g o f S t o n e C h u r c h i s c r e d i t e d t o masons 32 f r o m W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y ; t h e r e i s an i n s c r i p t i o n above t h e M a r t y r d o m o f S t . Thomas w h i c h r e s e m b l e s one o f s i m i l a r a r r a n g e m e n t i n t h e r o y a l P a i n t e d P a l a c e a t 33 W e s t m i n s t e r , and t h e images o f t h e V i r g i n , a l t h o u g h s i m p l y e x e c u t e d i n o c h r e s and b l a c k l i n e , a r e o f monumental p r o p o r t i o n s a n d , as T r i s t r a m p o i n t s o u t , i n d i c a t i v e o f w o r k s o f a " h i g h o r d e r , " p e r h a p s e x e -34 c u t e d u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f c o u r t p a i n t e r s . 35 T r i s t r a m d a t e s t h e f i g u r e s as 1250 - 1275 , w h i c h makes them c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h t h e p a i n t i n g o f Ma r y s u c k l i n g h e r I n f a n t i n t h e A m e s b u r y P s a l t e r . T h u s , t h e C a n f i e l d w a l l - p a i n t i n g and t h e w a l l -p a i n t i n g s i n t h e c h u r c h a t S t o n e a r e t h r e e s u r v i v i n g images o f t h e V i r g i n r e p r e s e n t e d as t h e M a r i a l a c t a n s , 92 a l l d a t e d t o t h e m i d d l e o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e i s a l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h e r e was a f o u r t h image o f t h e n u r s i n g V i r g i n a t t h e s h r i n e o f Our L a d y o f W a l s i n g h a m w h i c h , b e c a u s e o f H e n r y ' s i n t e r e s t i n t h e s h r i n e , c o u l d w e l l h ave b e e n a s s o -c i a t e d w i t h h i s p a t r o n a g e , e i t h e r e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f c o u r t p a i n t e r s o r as a r e f l e c t i o n o f c o u r t i n f l u e n c e . H e n r y ' s a c t i v i t i e s as a p a t r o n o f a r t , and t h e i m p o r t a n c e he a t t a c h e d t o h i s r o l e as s u c h , a r e a b u n d a n t l y e v i d e n t i n h i s d e c o r a t i v e p l a n s f o r C l a r e n d o n P a l a c e , b u t two and a h a l f m i l e s e a s t o f S a l i s b u r y . J u d g e d f r o m d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e , t h e e s t e e m H e n r y a c c o r d e d C l a r e n d o n w h i c h , a f t e r West-m i n s t e r i n L o n d o n , may h a v e b e e n t h e most i m p o r t a n t 3 6 r o y a l r e s i d e n c e i n E n g l a n d , s u p p o r t s t h e b e l i e f t h a t , h ad i t s u r v i v e d , C l a r e n d o n w o u l d " p r o b a b l y have d e s e r v e d t o r a n k i n t h e a n n a l s o f E n g l i s h p a i n t i n g 3 7 i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r W e s t m i n s t e r P a l a c e . " B e y o n d a few f r a g m e n t s o f m a s o n r y , h o w e v e r , l i t t l e i s l e f t o f C l a r e n d o n b u t t h e r e c o r d s o f H e n r y ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s t o h i s a r t i s t / c r a f t s m e n . These a r e so d e t a i l e d t h a t C l a r e n d o n i s t h e p a l a c e " c o n c e r n i n g whose c o n f i g u -3 8 r a t i o n we c a n now f o r m t h e c l e a r e s t i d e a . " We r e a d , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t t h e w a i n s c o t o f t h e K i n g ' s l o w e r 93 chamber i s t o be d e c o r a t e d w i t h " t h e he a d s o f k i n g s and q u e e n s " and t h a t t h e u p p e r chamber w a l l s must be p a i n t e d w i t h s c e n e s o f " t h e h i s t o r y o f S a i n t M a r g a r e t t h e V i r g i n , and t h e f o u r e v a n g e l i s t s . " T h i s room, t o o , i s r e q u i r e d t o have i t s w a i n s c o t p a i n t e d g r e e n b u t " s p o t t e d w i t h g o l d , and he a d s o f men and women t h e r e o n ; a l l p a i n t i n g t o be done i n good and e x q u i -39 s i t e c o l o u r . " Many e n t r i e s i n t h e r o l l s a p p l y i n g t o H e n r y ' s r e i g n i n d i c a t e t h a t he e x e r c i s e d c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n o v e r h i s workmen, a t l e a s t , T r i s t r a m n o t e s , u n t i l t h e l a s t y e a r s o f h i s l i f e . H e n r y I l l ' s r o l e as an a r t p a t r o n was i n f l u -e n c e d by t h e new m e n d i c a n t o r d e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e F r a n c i s c a n s , o f whom i t h a s b e e n s a i d t h e i r t e a c h i n g s 41 s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d " t h e te m p e r o f h i s d e v o t i o n . " I n 1250, H e n r y b u i l t a c h a p e l a t C l a r e n d o n f o r t h e " f r i a r s m i n o r f o l l o w i n g t h e k i n g ' s c o n s o r t , " and i n t h e same y e a r we r e a d o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n i n g o f p a i n t -i n g s o f t h e H o l y T r i n i t y and S t . M a r y f o r t h e i r cham-u 42 b e r . H e n r y ' s i n t e r e s t i n t h e F r a n c i s c a n s and t h e e x e c u t i o n o f w o r k s o f a r t f o r them a t C l a r e n d o n l i n k s t h e c o u r t p a i n t e r s a t t h e p a l a c e w i t h w a l l - p a i n t i n g s f o r m e r l y d e c o r a t i n g S t . J o h n ' s c h u r c h , W i n c h e s t e r . These p a i n t i n g s no l o n g e r e x i s t , b u t t h e r e i s 94 d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e o f them i n t h e f o r m o f d r a w i n g s 43 e x e c u t e d i n 1853 w h i c h , as T r i s t r a m n o t e s , show t h a t t h e s p i r i t i n f o r m i n g t h e work as d i s -t i n c t f r o m t h e q u a l i t i e s d i s p l a y e d i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n and e x e c u t i o n p r o -c e e d e d f r o m a F r a n c i s c a n s o u r c e , as i s shown by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f S t . F r a n c i s i n t o t h e p a i n t i n g s ; and t h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e f i r s t F r a n c i s c a n s d i d n o t l a n d i n E n g l a n d u n t i l 1224.44 As t h e s e p a i n t i n g s a r e d a t e d t o t h e m i d d l e o f t h e 45 c e n t u r y , o r a l i t t l e l a t e r , t h e y a r e c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h t h e d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e C l a r e n d o n P a l a c e q u a r t e r s o f t h e F r a n c i s c a n s by c o u r t p a i n t e r s . T h u s , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p a i n t i n g s f o r m e r l y t o be s e e n i n t h e c h u r c h o f S t . J o h n ' s , W i n c h e s t e r , b u t a few m i l e s f r o m C l a r e n d o n , c o u l d have b e e n c a r r i e d o u t by t h e same a r t i s t s . S u p p o r t f o r t h i s s u g g e s t i o n i s p r o v i d e d by S a u n d e r s who comments t h a t H e n r y was i n l a r g e p a r t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e c u l a r i z a t i o n o f a r t i n E n g l a n d , f o r i t was t h e l a y a u t h o r i t i e s a nd n o t t h e r e l i g i o u s who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f d e c o r a t i v e programmes d e s i g n e d n o t o n l y f o r t h e c h u r c h b u i l d i n g s b u t a l s o f o r p a l a c e s and c a s t l e s . 4 6 Of more i m p o r t a n c e t o t h i s p a p e r , h o w e v e r , i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e o f t h e d r a w i n g s 95 o f t h e W i n c h e s t e r p a i n t i n g s p r o v e s t h a t t h e V i r g i n was 4 7 r e p r e s e n t e d t h e r e as t h e M a r i a l a c t a n s . T h u s , i f c o u r t p a i n t e r s e x e c u t e d t h e W i n c h e s t e r w a l l - p a i n t i n g s , w h i c h seems l i k e l y , we c a n c o n c l u d e a d i r e c t l i n k be-tween t h e l a c t a n s image and H e n r y I I I . P r i o r t o t h e c a n o n i z a t i o n o f Thomas B e c k e t , W i n c h e s t e r was " t h e f i r s t c i t y i n B r i t a i n i n p o p u l a r e s t e e m , and i n t h e 4 8 number o f p i l g r i m s who v i s i t e d i t " t o p a y homage t o 49 K i n g A l f r e d and St.. S w i t h i n , h i s t u t o r . A c h u r c h i n W i n c h e s t e r w h i c h d i s p l a y e d t h e Madonna as a V i r g o  l a c t a n s i n d i c a t e s c l e a r l y t h a t i t was n o t o n l y a p r i v a t e i m a g e , as e x e m p l i f i e d by the A m e s b u r y P s a l t e r , b u t a l s o a p u b l i c one. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e p a t t e r n i n g o f t h e n i m b i o f t h e f i g u r e s p a i n t e d i n S t . J o h n ' s c h u r c h , W i n c h e s t e r , i s u n u s u a l and s i m i l a r t o t h e d e c o r a t e d n i m b u s o f t h e f i g u r e o f S t . Agnes (C. 1250) i n S t . P e t e r ' s c h u r c h , F a r n b o r o u g h , ^ w h i c h m a n i f e s t s r o y a l a s s o c i a t i o n s ; S t . Agnes i s shown i n company w i t h M a r y M a g d a l e n e and w i t h S t . E u g e n i a ^ whose h a l o f e a t u r e s t h e s t a r and c r e s c e n t d e s i g n o f H e n r y I l l ' s b a d g e . The t h r e e s a i n t s a r e a l s o i d e n t i f i e d by l a r g e L o m b a r d i c l e t -t e r i n g o f s k i l l e d e x e c u t i o n s u g g e s t i v e o f t h e i n f l u -e n c e o f t h e s c r i p t o r i u m o f t h e P r i o r y S c h o o l o f 5 2 W i n c h e s t e r . T h u s , as T r i s t r a m w r i t e s , b o t h t h e 96 p a t t e r n o f t h e nimbus and t h e l e t t e r i n g , "may f u r n i s h a c l u e t o t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e work l i n k i n g i t w i t h 5 3 W i n c h e s t e r , a r o y a l as w e l l as a m o n a s t i c c e n t r e . " F u r t h e r , t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e m o t i f s o f t h e k i n g ' s badge i n w a l l - p a i n t i n g s i n F a r n b o r o u g h p r o v i d e s a l i n k b e t w e e n H e n r y I I I and t h e l a c t a n s image o f t h e V i r g i n a t W i n c h e s t e r . M o r e o v e r , t h e h e a d s o f S t . E u g e n i a and S t . Agnes p i c t u r e d a t F a r n b o r o u g h b e a r a " r e m a r k a b l e r e s e m b l a n c e t o t h e h e a d o f t h e V i r g i n i n t h e a l t a r p a i n t i n g a t W i n c h f i e l d c h u r c h . 5 4 B o t h t h e F a r n b o r -ough c h u r c h and t h a t o f W i n c h f i e l d a r e c l o s e t o Farnham C a s t l e , b u i l t b y H e n r y o f B l o i s (1129 - 1171) as a r e s i d e n c e f o r t h e B i s h o p s o f W i n c h e s t e r , and t h e r e i s d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e t o p r o v e t h a t t h e c a s t l e a u t h o r i t i e s w e r e , t o some e x t e n t , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s m a i n t e n a n c e . 5 5 T h e r e i s p r o o f a l s o o f a " d i r e c t r o y a l a s s o c i a t i o n " w i t h H e n r y I I I i n t h e m a t t e r o f t h e upkeep o f t h e c a s t l e . 5 6 As T r i s t r a m s a y s : T h i s w o u l d e x p l a i n how i t came a b o u t t h a t i n t h e s e p a i n t i n g s d i v e r s e e l e -ments f r o m t h e two W i n c h e s t e r S c h o o l s , t h e C o u r t a n d t h e P r i o r y , were f u s e d w i t h one a n o t h e r and t h u s a c c o u n t f o r t h e v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s i n them w h i c h p o i n t t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e one o r t h e o t h e r . 5 7 97 T h a t t h e r e i s a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p a t t h i s t i m e b e t w e e n w a l l - p a i n t i n g s and m i n i a t u r e p a i n t i n g has been w i d e l y a c k n o w l e d g e d . " M i n i a t u r e s . . . s e r v e d as t y p e s o r p r o v i d e d s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e p a i n t e r ; b u t c o n v e r s e l y t h e r e a r e i n s t a n c e s . . . i n w h i c h t h e m i n i a t u r i s t seems t o h a v e w o r k e d f r o m w a l l -5 8 p a i n t i n g s . " I f one e x a m i n e s t h e f i r m c o n t o u r s o f t h e h e a d o f t h e A m e s b u r y V i r g i n , t h e o v a l f a c e , t h e c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e n e c k , t h e s t r o n g c u r v e o f t h e b rows and n o s e , and t h e l a r g e , r o u n d b l a c k e y e s , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e s t y l e o f t h e p s a l t e r d e c o r a -t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f w a l l - p a i n t i n g s i n t h e H o l y S e p u l c h r e C h a p e l a t W i n c h e s t e r p a i n t e d a b o u t t w e n t y -f i v e y e a r s p r i o r t o t h e m a n u s c r i p t , and s i m i l a r a l s o t o p a i n t i n g s i n t h e C h a p e l o f t h e G u a r d i a n A n g e l s , W i n c h e s t e r , e x e c u t e d a l m o s t c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s l y w i t h 59 t h e p s a l t e r . These w a l l - p a i n t i n g s have b e e n c i t e d as e x a m p l e s o f " t h e r e f i n e m e n t o f c o u r t t a s t e " ; ^ W i n c h e s t e r was t h e s e a t o f a r o y a l p a l a c e and t h e a n c i e n t c a p i t a l o f Wessex. As T r i s t r a m w r i t e s , t h e c i t y was " n o t o n l y h e i r t o a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n s b u t a b s o r b e d a l s o t h e p r o g r e s s i v e i d e a s and methods o f t h e C o u r t S c h o o l . " 6 1 I n d e e d , T r i s t r a m , whose k n o w l e d g e o f w a l l -p a i n t i n g s i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s r e c o g n i z e d as 98 a u t h o r i t a t i v e , comments t h a t t h e s t y l i s t i c r e l a t i o n -s h i p b e t w e e n them and t h e w o r k o f t h e Sarum M a s t e r i s s u c h t h a t I f we w i s h t o c o n c e i v e w i t h t h e u t m o s t v i v i d n e s s t h e i m p r e s s i o n p r o d u c e d o r i -g i n a l l y b y t h e c o m p l e t e s e r i e s o f w a l l -p a i n t i n g s t h a t once a d o r n e d o u r g r e a t -e s t c a t h e d r a l s and c a s t l e s , we c a n n o t do b e t t e r t h a n s t u d y s u c h b o o k s as t h e ' S a l i s b u r y ' g r o u p . . . t o a t t e m p t t o i m a g i n e them as w a l l - p a i n t i n g s e x e c u t e d on a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e r s c a l e . 6 2 I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o s u g g e s t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e Sarum M a s t e r was n o t o n l y an i l l u m i n a t o r , b u t a l s o a w a l l -. . 63 p a i n t e r . The p r o v e n a n c e o f t h e ' S a l i s b u r y ' g r o u p o f i l l u m i n a t i o n s , and t h u s t h e p r o v e n a n c e o f t h e A m esbury  P s a l t e r , has b e e n g e n e r a l l y c r e d i t e d t o t h e new c a t h e -d r a l i n S a l i s b u r y . 6 4 The o r i g i n o f t h e p a i n t i n g s i n a m a n u s c r i p t o f t h i s p e r i o d , h o w e v e r , i s n o t n e c e s -6 5 s a r i l y t h e same as i t s t e x t . I t i s i m p r o b a b l e t h a t w o r k s o f s u c h o u t s t a n d i n g c a l i b r e as t h e A m esbury m i n i a t u r e s w o u l d have b e e n c a r r i e d o u t i n a c a t h e d r a l s e t t i n g as " d i s t i n c t f r o m a m o n a s t i c s c h o o l " 6 6 a n d , f u r t h e r , t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e c a t h e d r a l a t S a l i s b u r y i n h e r i t e d f r o m O l d Sarum any t r a d i t i o n o f p a i n t i n g w h i c h m i g h t h a v e p r o d u c e d w o r k s o f t h i s h i g h o r d e r , n o r t h a t t h e new c a t h e d r a l h a d e s t a b l i s h e d 6 7 t r a d i t i o n s o f i t s own. 99 T h e r e i s no d o u b t , h o w e v e r , a b o u t S a l i s b u r y ' s r e p u t a t i o n f o r t h e s p e c i a l r e g a r d i n w h i c h t h e V i r g i n was v e n e r a t e d t h e r e , e v e n b e f o r e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t c a t h e d r a l b e g a n i n 1 2 2 0 . 6 8 When t h e n e e d f o r a new c a t h e d r a l a r o s e , M a r y , h e r s e l f , was c r e d i t e d 69 w i t h c h o o s i n g t h e s i t e f o r i t and t h e b u i l d i n g was d e d i c a t e d t o h e r h o n o u r by A r c h b i s h o p B o n i f a c e o f 70 C a n t e r b u r y i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e K i n g i n 1258. T h u s , t h e s p e c i a l r e g a r d t r a d i t i o n a l l y a c c o r d e d M a r y a t S a l i s b u r y was g i v e n new i m p e t u s by t h e b u i l d i n g o f 71 t h e c a t h e d r a l , and H e n r y I l l ' s i n t e r e s t i n i t was e m p h a s i z e d by t h e p r o x i m i t y o f C l a r e n d o n P a l a c e where t h e K i n g s p e n t so, many o f h i s c r e a t i v e e n e r g i e s i n t h e p e r s o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e d e c o r a t i v e programmes c a r r i e d o u t t h e r e by h i s c o u r t p a i n t e r s . Of t h e d e c o r a t i o n o f S a l i s b u r y C a t h e d r a l i t -s e l f ( t h e f o c a l p o i n t , as i t w e r e , f o r t h e v e n e r a t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n , g i v e n e m p h a s i s i n t h e s o u t h o f E n g l a n d by t h e a r t p a t r o n a g e o f H e n r y I I I ) , T r i s t r a m e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e new c a t h e d r a l may w e l l have p r o v i d e d t h e i m p e t u s f o r what a p p e a r s t o be t h e e s t a b -l i s h m e n t a t S a l i s b u r y o f "one o f t h e e a r l i e s t p r e -d o m i n a n t l y l a y s c h o o l s o f p a i n t i n g . " He a d d s , t h e men o c c u p i e d i n S a l i s b u r y C a t h e d r a l were p r e s u m a b l y drawn f r o m s u c h g r o u p s as may be f o u n d l o c a l l y , o r were p e r h a p s 100 drawn f r o m among t h e C o u r t p a i n t e r s a t C l a r e n d o n , o r f r o m b o t h . ^ T h u s , i f t h e A mesbury P s a l t e r p a i n t i n g s were c a r r i e d o u t i n S a l i s b u r y C a t h e d r a l , t h e p r o x i m i t y o f a r t i s t s o f t h e C o u r t S c h o o l e m p l o y e d a t C l a r e n d o n i n d i c a t e s t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e i r d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e u pon t h e w o r k. T r i s t r a m s u g g e s t s , h o w e v e r , t h a t W i n c h e s t e r i s t h e more l i k e l y p r o v e n a n c e f o r t h e p s a l t e r i l l u m i n a t i o n s b e c a u s e t h e Sarum M a s t e r p r o -d u c e d w o r k s f o r nuns o f b o t h A mesbury and W i l t o n , b o t h o f them B e n e d i c t i n e h o u s e s s i t u a t e d b u t t w e n t y m i l e s f r o m t h e l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d B e n e d i c t i n e P r i o r y 73 S c h o o l o f W i n c h e s t e r . However, w h e t h e r o f S a l i s b u r y o r W i n c h e s t e r p r o v e n a n c e , t h e A mesbury V i r g o l a c t a n s c a n be s e e n t o f i t i n t o t h e c o n t e x t o f w a l l - p a i n t i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e l a c t a n s theme w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n t h e s o u t h o f E n g l a n d , c. 1250. W h i l e t h i s r e g i o n o f E n g l a n d was n o t a l o n e t h e b e n e f i c i a r y o f H e n r y ' s a r t i s t i c p a t r o n a g e , t h e s o u t h o f E n g l a n d was t h e a r e a where t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e C o u r t S c h o o l w o u l d be p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e ; H e n r y l i v e d i n t h e s o u t h , p r i n c i p a l l y c l o s e t o A m esbury. T h u s , t h e a p p e a r a n c e i n E n g l a n d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l e x a m p l e s o f t h e Madonna p i c t u r e s as a V i r g o l a c t a n s was due t o t h e K i n g ' s p a t r o n a g e w h i c h f o s t e r e d t h e i m a g e , as 1.01 w e r e ; t h a t i t was n o t an i s o l a t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e n u r s i n g V i r g i n i n d i c a t e s t h e r e c o u l d have b e e n o t h e r s l o s t t o us t h r o u g h a c c i d e n t s o f t i m e . I f M a t t h e w P a r i s d i d n o t s u g g e s t t h e theme o f t h e M a r i a l a c t a n s t o H e n r y I I I , a Madonna p i c t u r e d as t h i s t y p e o f V i r g i n c o u l d have b e e n c o p i e d i n F r a n c e and b r o u g h t t o E n g l a n d by one o f t h e numerous a r t i s t / c r a f t s m e n i m p o r t e d by H e n r y . 7 4 T h i s image m i g h t have h e l d p a r t i c u l a r a p p e a l f o r t h e K i n g be-c a u s e i t i s known t h r o u g h d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e t h a t he e n t e r t a i n e d p r e f e r e n c e s f o r c e r t a i n themes w h i c h seemed t o be o f s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e t o h i m ( a s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t o f D i v e s and L a z a r u s ) w h i c h were r e -75 p e a t e d . D u r i n g a p e r i o d c o i n c i d e n t a l w i t h t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e A m e s b u r y P s a l t e r , t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e V i r g i n was r e p r e s e n t e d many t i m e s i n t h e p a l a c e s and 7 6 c a s t l e s o f H e n r y I I I . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o p r o p o s e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e r e c o u l d have b e e n a w a l l - p a i n t i n g o f t h e n u r s i n g V i r g i n a t C l a r e n d o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t w o u l d seem t o be an a p p r o p r i a t e theme f o r t h e d e c o -r a t i o n o f t h e Queen's a p a r t m e n t s , f o r w h i c h , as T r i s t r a m n o t e s , documents p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e i m a g es 77 t h e r e a r e " d i s a p p o i n t i n g . " B e c a u s e i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e nun f o r whom t h e A m e sbury P s a l t e r was p r o b a b l y c o m m i s s i o n e d was o f 102 r o y a l b l o o d , she c o u l d have b e e n p r i v y t o t h e Queen's a p a r t m e n t s and s e e n an image o f t h e l a c t a n s Madonna t h e r e ; a t t h e v e r y l e a s t one c a n assume t h e theme h e l d p a r t i c u l a r a p p e a l f o r h e r b e c a u s e , i n t h e l u x u r -i o u s l y d e c o r a t e d book d e s i g n e d f o r h e r p e r s o n a l u s e , she c h o s e t o be p i c t u r e d k n e e l i n g a t t h e f o o t o f t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s . The r o y a l c o n n e c t i o n s o f t h e A m e s b u r y P s a l t e r , h o w e v e r , a r e more d i r e c t . P a t t e r n i n g t h e d u s k y p i n k gown o f t h e V i r g i n i s t h e s t a r and c r e s c e n t , a v a r i a n t o f t h e c r o s s and c r e s c e n t m o t i f o f H e n r y I l l ' s b a d g e , w h i c h i s a p r o m i n e n t p a r t o f t h e d e c o r a t i o n o f many o f t h e w o r k s o f a r t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i m . W h i l e t h e d e v i c e c o u l d have b e e n u s e d w i t h o u t any s u c h s p e c i f i c 7 8 r e f e r e n c e t o t h e K i n g , t h e r e i s d o c u m e n t a r y e v i -d e nce t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i t s i g n i f i e d H e n r y ' s p e r s o n a l 79 i n t e r e s t i n w o r k s i n w h i c h i t a p p e a r e d . I n 1 2 4 3 , f o r e x a m p l e , H e n r y c o m m i s s i o n e d an e m b r o i d e r e d b a n n e r , f o r h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n t o W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y , t o hang 8 0 n e a r t h e a l t a r . W h i l e t h e K i n g l e f t t h e c o m p o s i t i o n and t h e d e s i g n o f t h e b a n n e r t o t h e needlewoman em-81 p l o y e d i n i t s m a k i n g , he d e t a i l e d i t s i c o n o g r a p h y . I t was t o be " e m b r o i d e r e d i n g o l d w i t h a C r u c i f i x i o n and a t t e n d a n t f i g u r e s o f t h e V i r g i n and S t . J o h n w i t h 8 2 'a s t a r and t h e c r e s c e n t moon a b o v e . ' " 103 A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no c o l o p h o n i n t h e A m e s b u r y P s a l t e r t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i t was c o m m i s s i o n e d by H e n r y I I I , t h e l i n k s b e t w e e n t h e r o y a l f a m i l y and Amesbury 8 3 P r i o r y w h i c h p r e c e d e d h i s r e i g n , c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h -84 85 o u t i t , and p e r s i s t e d a f t e r h i s d e a t h , make i t p r o b a b l e t h a t h i s i n t e r e s t i n t h e p s a l t e r was o c c a -s i o n e d by h i s p e r s o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e nun f o r whom i t was p r e s u m a b l y c r e a t e d . D o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e d a t e d J a n u a r y 1 2 , 1 2 3 3 , t e s t i f i e s t h a t a n o r d e r was t r a n s m i t t e d b y t h e K i n g t o t h e S h e r i f f o f W i l t s h i r e w h i c h r e q u i r e d h i m " t o go i n p e r s o n t o A m b r e s b i r ( y ) and t o c a u s e A l p e s i a , t h e k i n g ' s c o u s i n , a nun o f t h a t h o u s e , t o have t h o s e t h i n g s t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e r o b e s she n e e d s . " 8 6 T h i s i s d i r e c t p r o o f o f H e n r y ' s c o n c e r n f o r A l p e s i a when she e n t e r e d t h e n u n n e r y and i t i s t e m p t i n g t o s u g g e s t t h a t h i s p e r -s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n h e r l a t e r l e d t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e A m esbury P s a l t e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r o y a l d e v i c e w h i c h d i a p e r s t h e V i r g i n ' s gown i n t h e p s a l t e r , t h e h i g h d e g r e e o f c r a f t s m a n s h i p d i s p l a y e d i n t h e l u x u r i o u s n a t u r e o f i t s d e c o r a t i o n s and t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e t e x t was w r i t t e n a t S a l i s b u r y C a t h e d r a l s c r i p t o -r i u m , t h e d e c o r a t i o n was e x e c u t e d e l s e w h e r e ( s e e a b o v e , p.98 ) , i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p a i n t e r was a member 104 o f t h e C o u r t S c h o o l o f a r t i s t s e m p l o y e d by H e n r y I I I a n d , b e c a u s e S a l i s b u r y and C l a r e n d o n a r e s i t u a t e d w i t h i n t h r e e m i l e s o f e a c h o t h e r , t h a t t h e i l l u m i -n a t o r o f t h e Amesbury P s a l t e r w o r k e d a t H e n r y ' s p a l -a c e t h e r e . T h u s , c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f euphony a s i d e , one c o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e a r t i s t o f t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s image o f t h e Madonna i n t h e A n t e s b u r y P s a l t e r , t h e one we now c a l l t h e Sarum M a s t e r , c o u l d as f i t t i n g l y be r e f e r r e d t o as t h e M a s t e r o f C l a r e n d o n . 105 CHAPTER V - NOTES ^ R i c h a r d W. S o u t h e r n , The M a k i n g o f t h e  M i d d l e Ages (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , 255 - 256. C o n c e r n i n g A n s e l m o f C a n t e r b u r y , G r a e f comments t h a t "Though q u a n t i t a t i v e l y M a r y h o l d s a v e r y s m a l l p l a c e i n A n s e l m ' s work (most o f t h e M a r i a n w r i t -i n g s p u b l i s h e d u n d e r h i s name a r e s p u r i o u s ) , h i s t e a c h -i n g on h e r n e v e r t h e l e s s h a d an enormous i n f l u e n c e on m e d i e v a l M a r i o l o g y " H i l d a G r a e f , M a r y : a h i s t o r y o f  D o c t r i n e and D e v o t i o n (New Y o r k : S h e e d and Ward, 1 9 6 3 ) , I , 210. 2 S i d n e y H e a t h , I n t h e S t e p s o f t h e P i l g r i m s ( L o n d o n : R i c h and Cowan, 1 9 5 0 ) , 192. F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e W a l s i n g h a m s h r i n e , see D a v i d K n o w l e s and D i m i t r i O b l e n s k y , The C h r i s t i a n Cen-t u r i e s (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., 1 9 6 8 ) , 264; J.C. D i c k i n s o n , M o n a s t i c L i f e i n M e d i e v a l E n g l a n d ( L o n d o n : Adam and C h a r l e s B l a c k , 1 9 6 1 ) , 8 1 f ; D.J. H a l l , E n g l i s h M e d i e v a l P i l g r i m a g e ( L o n d o n : R o u t -l e d g e and Kegan P a u l L t d . , 1 9 6 5 ) , 1 0 4 f f . As S u m p t i o n r e c o r d s , " P i l g r i m a g e s t o s h r i n e s o f t h e V i r g i n were common i n t h e E a s t , b u t t h e r e i s no m e n t i o n o f them i n t h e West u n t i l t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y , when a monk o f B o b b i o o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e B l e s s e d V i r g i n f r e q u e n t l y w o r k e d m i r a c l e s f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h o s e who came t o t h e abbey o f S t . Columban w i t h t h e i r t r o u b l e s " ; see J o n a t h o n S u m p t i o n , P i l g r i m a g e : an image o f M e d i e v a l  R e l i g i o n ( L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r , 1975), 49. D e s i d e r i u s E r a s m u s , "A P i l g r i m a g e f o r R e l i -g i o n ' s S a k e , " Ten C o l l o q u i e s , t r a n s , and e d . 106 C r a i g R. Thompson (New Y o r k : B o b b s - M e r r i l Co., 1 9 5 7 ) , 73-74. 4 N i k o l a u s P e v s n e r , N o r t h E a s t N o r f o l k and  N o r w i c h , B u i l d i n g s o f E n g l a n d S e r i e s ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h : P e n g u i n Books L t d . , 1 9 6 2 ) , 187. 5 H a l l , 112. P e v s n e r w r i t e s t h a t t h e s h r i n e o r i g i n a t e d i n a c h a p e l b u i l t " a d i n s t a r o f t h e h o u s e i n N a z a r e t h where t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n t o t h e V i r g i n t o o k p l a c e " ( P e v s n e r , 1 8 7 ) . 6 H a l l , 112; see a l s o S i r M a u r i c e P o w i c k e , K i n g H e n r y I I I and t h e L o r d E d w a r d ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 7 ) , I I , 488. 7 S i r M a u r i c e P o w i c k e , The T h i r t e e n t h C e n t u r y , 1 2 1 6 - 1 3 0 7 ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , 225; H e n r y was a t W a l s i n g h a m i n t h e S e p t e m b e r o f 1272 ( H a l l , 1 1 2 ) . 8 H a l l , 112; P e v s n e r , 187; D i c k i n s o n , 82. Q Rev. James Lee W a r n e r , A r c h e o l o g i c a l J o u r n a l , X I I I , 1856, p. 126; see a l s o S i r W i l l i a m D u g d a l e , A n g l i c a n u m M o n a s t i c u m , e d . J . C a l e y e t a l . ( L o n d o n : 1817 - 1 8 3 0 ) , V I , 71. 1 0 M i l l a r d M e i s s , "The V i r g i n o f H u m i l i t y " , AB X V I I I , 4, 4 5 2 , n. 52. See E.W. T r i s t r a m , E n g l i s h M e d i e v a l W a l l  P a i n t i n g ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 0 ) , I I , 107 518. F o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s w o r k , see J.G. W a l l e r , P r o c . o f S o c . o f A n t i q s . 1882, 214. T r i s t r a m does n o t d a t e t h i s p a i n t i n g d i r e c t l y ; W a l l e r s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s e a r l i e r t h a n t h e w a l l - p a i n t i n g s i n S t . J o h n ' s c h u r c h , W i n c h e s t e r , w h i c h T r i s t r a m d a t e s t o t h e m i d d l e o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , o r a l i t t l e l a t e r ( s e e T r i s t r a m , I I , 177. 12 T r i s t r a m , I I , 256. 1 3 T r i s t r a m , I I , 266. 1 4 H a l l , 105; see a l s o W i l l i a m P a g e , e d . A H i s t o r y o f N o r f o l k ( L o n d o n : A r c h i b a l d C o n s t a b l e L t d . , 1 9 0 6 ) , I I , 399. " ^ C o n c e r n i n g t h e P a l m e r ' s Way, S u m p t i o n w r i t e s , "On h i s way home, t h e p i l g r i m u s u a l l y wore a badge o r t o k e n s h o w i n g where he h a d b e e n . The b e s t known and p r o b a b l y t h e e a r l i e s t o f t h e s e s o u v e n i r s was t h e p a l m o f J e r i c h o w h i c h p i l g r i m s c u s t o m a r i l y b r o u g h t b a c k f r o m J e r u s a l e m " ( S u m p t i o n , 1 7 3 ) . 1 6 T r i s t r a m , I I , 331. 1 7 F o r r e f e r e n c e s t o H e n r y I l l ' s r o l e as an a r t p a t r o n , see W.R. L e t h a b y , W e s t m i n s t e r Abbey and  t h e K i n g ' s C r a f t s m e n ( L o n d o n : D u c k w o r t h § Co., MCMVI); T a n c r e d B o r e n i u s and E.W. T r i s t r a m , E n g l i s h  M e d i e v a l P a i n t i n g ( C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 2 7 ) , 9-10; 0. E l f r i d a S a u n d e r s , E n g l i s h A r t  i n t h e M i d d l e Ages ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 3 2 ) , 114 f f ; M a r g a r e t R i c k e r t , P a i n t i n g i n B r i t a i n : t h e 108 M i d d l e Ages ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h : P e n g u i n Books L t d . , 1 9 5 4 ) , 105; P o w i c k e , H e n r y arid E d w a r d , I , 240. 1 o T r i s t r a m , W a l l P a i n t i n g , I I , 331. 19 H a v e r i n g i s now r u i n e d , b u t t h e p l a n s f o r i t s u r v i v e a n d , a c c o r d i n g t o B o r e n i u s , a r e p u b l i s h e d i n A.W. Clapham,-Some Famous B u i l d i n g s arid T h e i r S t o r y , L o n d o n , n.d. pp. 146-150 ( T a n c r e d B o r e n i u s , " T h e C y c l e o f Images i n t h e P a l a c e s and C a s t l e s o f H e n r y I I I , " WC V I ( 1 9 4 3 ) , 4 3 ) . 20 See T r i s t r a m , I I , 344, where he s t a t e s t h a t t h i s w ork was " i n f l u e n c e d by t h e S t . A l b a n s S c h o o l o f a b o u t t h e m i d d l e o f t h e c e n t u r y " ; s e e a l s o N i k o l a u s P e v s n e r , E s s e x , 2nd e d . ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h : P e n g u i n B o o k s L t d . , 1 9 6 5 ) , 197. 2 1 T r i s t r a m , I I , 327. F o r a l i s t o f W a l t e r o f C o l c h e s t e r ' s w o r k s a t S t . A l b a n s , s e e T r i s t r a m , I I , 327; W i l l i a m P a g e , "The S t . A l b a n s S c h o o l o f P a i n t i n g , M u r a l and M i n i a t u r e - 1," A r c h a e o l o g i a 5 8 : 1 , 1902, pp. 275 - 292; W.R. L e t h a b y , " E n g l i s h P r i m i t i v e s - 1," BM X X I X , 1 9 1 6 / 1 7 , 1 8 9 f f . F o r i l l s , o f t h e p a i n t i n g s i n S t . A l b a n s A b b e y , see T r i s t r a m , I I I , p s . 161 - 169. W a l t e r o f C o l c h e s t e r was r e s p o n s i b l e a l s o f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e s h r i n e f o r Thomas B e c k e t ; see M a t t h e w P a r i s C h r o n i c a M a j o r a , I I I , 1 2 1 6 - 1 2 3 9 , e d . H.R. L u a r d ( L o n d o n , Longman, 1876), 5 9 f . A.G. L i t t l e , " I l l u m i n a t e d M a n u s c r i p t s , " pp. 37-52, F r a n c i s c a n H i s t o r y arid L e g e n d , e d . A.G. L i t t l e ( M a n c h e s t e r : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 ) , 4 1 . 109 An i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s work, C h r o n i c a _ M a j o r a ( C o r p u s C h r i s t i e C o l l . Camb., Ms 1 6 , f o l . 6 6 ) i s shown i n MvR. James, "The D r a w i n g s o f M a t t h e w P a r i s , " Walpo1e X I V , 1925 - 1926 , p i . X I . 2 3 R i c h a r d V a u g h a n , M a t t h e w P a r i s ( C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , 252-253. 2 4 B e t t y K u r t h , " M a t t h e w P a r i s and V i l l a r d de H o n n e c o u r t " BM 8 1 , Jan.- Dec. 1942 , 227- 228 ; George H e n d e r s o n , " S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h M a n u s c r i p t I l l u m i n a t i o n , I " , WC XXX, 1967, 30. F o r a c a t a l o g u e o f M a t t h e w P a r i s ' i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n h i s c h r o n i c l e s d a t i n g f r o m t h e C r e a t i o n t o 1118, and f r o m 1189 - 1253 i n c l u s i v e , s ee M.R. J ames, A D e s c r i p t i v e C a t a l o g u e o f t h e Mss  i n C o r p u s C h r i s t i e C o l l , C a m b r i d g e , v o l . 2 ( C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 1 2 ) , pp. 50-58. 25 V a u g h a n , 11. 2 6 M a t t h e w P a r i s , E n g l i s h H i s t o r y , t r a n s . J.A. G i l e s ( G e o r g e B e l l and S o n s , 1 9 0 2 ) , I I I , 220. 2 7 As T r i s t r a m w r i t e s , " t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e same s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n s u c h c l o s e p r o x i m i t y i s a c u r i o u s phenomenon o f w h i c h no c o m p l e t e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n c a n be g i v e n " ( T r i s t r a m , I I , 2 9 3 ) . However, he c o n j e c t u r e s t h a t t h e y m i g h t have b e e n v o t i v e o f f e r i n g s . ( T r i s t r a m , I I , 2 9 3 - 2 9 4 ) . 2 8 T r i s t r a m , I I , 294. 29 I b i d . 110 I b i d , 31 J o h n Newman, West K e n t arid t h e W e a l d ( H a r -m o n d s w o r t h : P e n g u i n B o o k s L t d . , 1 9 6 9 ) , 257. 32 Newman, 49. Newman comments t h a t t h e " B i s h o p s o f R o c h e s t e r h a d a manor h o u s e a t S t o n e , and t h e c h u r c h was i n t h e i r p a t r o n a g e . Y e t t h e l i n k s o f s t y l e a r e n o t w i t h R o c h e s t e r , b u t w i t h W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y " (Newman, 5 2 5 ) . 3 3 T r i s t r a m , I I , 294. 34 T r i s t r a m , I I , 293. 35 • " i b i d . 3 6 B o r e n i u s , " P a l a c e s a n d C a s t l e s , " 4 0 ; f o r t h e d e c o r a t i o n o f C l a r e n d o n P a l a c e , s e e T r i s t r a m , I I , 207, 208-219, 528-525. 37 T a n c r e d B o r e n i u s , "A D e s t r o y e d C y c l e o f W a i l - P a i n t i n g s i n a C h u r c h i n W i l t s h i r e , " A n t i q u a r i e s  J o u r n a l X I I , 1 932, 393. 3 8 B o r e n i u s , " P a l a c e s and C a s t l e s , " 40. 39 D a t e d a t C l a r e n d o n , May 25, 1255, LR 1245 -125 1 , 63. ^ ^ T r i s t r a m , I I , 209; A. C a i g e r - S m i t h , E n g l i s h  M e d i e v a l M u r a l P a i n t i n g s ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , 82. I l l y " " P e t e r B r i e g e r , E n g l i s h A r t , 1216 - 130 7 ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , 98. 4 2 T r i s t r a m , I I , 215. T h e r e i s much documen-t a r y e v i d e n c e o f t h e K i n g ' s i n t e r e s t i n t h e f r i a r s m i n o r . We r e a d , f o r e x a m p l e , o f an o r d e r d a t e d May 27, 1244, f o r money t o be g r a n t e d t o t h e C a n t e r -b u r y F r a n c i s c a n s f o r t h e b u i l d i n g o f a c h u r c h (LR, 1 2 4 0 - 1 2 4 5 ) , 2 3 3 ) , a n d on December 7, 1256, t h e k i n g i n s t r u c t e d t h e f e e d i n g o f t h e S a l i s b u r y F r a n c i s c a n s , (LR, 1251 - 1260 , 3 4 6 ) . 4 3 D r a w i n g s e x e c u t e d by F . J . B a i g e n t ; see B r i t . A r c h e o l o g i c a l J o u r n a l , 1854 I X , 5-11; I b i d . , 1855, X, 53-5, 78 ( T r i s t r a m I I , 1 7 7 - 1 7 8 , 6 2 0 ) : f o r r e p r o d u c t i o n s o f t h e C r u c i f i x i o n w i t h S t . F r a n c i s , and t h e M a r t y r d o m o f S t . Andrew and t h e L a s t J u d g e -ment w i t h S t . F r a n c i s l e a d i n g t h e B l e s s e d i n t o P a r a -d i s e , see L i t t l e , F r a n c i s c a n H i s t o r y , Ch. 1, p i s . v , v i ; see a l s o T r i s t r a m , I I I , p i s . 55 , 56. 44 T r i s t r a m , 178. C o n c e r n i n g t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e F r a n c i s c a n s i n E n g l a n d , s e e E. G u r n e y S a l t e r , The Coming o f t h e F r i a r s M i n o r t o E n g l a n d and Germany ( L o n d o n : J.M. D e n t , 1 9 2 6 ) , 6. I t i s o f i n t e r e s t t o n o t e t h a t , i n I t a l y , where t h e F r a n c i s c a n movement was f o u n d e d , i t was n o t u n t i l t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s became a f r e q u e n t image. Then i t a p p e a r e d as t h e V i r g i n o f H u m i l i t y w h e r e i n M a r y u s u a l l y i s shown s e a t e d on t h e g r o u n d w h i l e she nour r i s h e s t h e C h i l d ; see M i l l a r M e i s s , "The V i r g i n o f H u m i l i t y , " AB X V I I I , Dec. 1936, 4 3 4-464; G e o r g i n a G o d d a r d K i n g , "The V i r g i n o f H u m i l i t y , " AB X V I I , 112 S e p t . 1935, 4 7 4 - 4 9 1 . T h i s i s n o t t o s a y , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e V i r g o l a c t a n s d i d n o t a p p e a r i n t h e D u g e n t o ( t h e T r a s t e v e r e m o s a i c has b e e n m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , pp. 4 4f. I l l ) ; see a l s o E v e l y n S a n d b e r g - V a v a l a , L ' i c o n o -g r a f i a d e l l a Madonna c o l Bambino riella P i t t u r a I t a l " i a n a d e l D u g e n t o ( S i e n a , 1 9 3 4 ) , 55. The few w o r k s w h i c h c a n be c i t e d , h o w e v e r , are'.marked by b e i n g i c o n i c i n t h e f o r m a l i t y o f t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n . ^ T r i s t r a m , I I , 177. 46 S a u n d e r s , E n g l i s h A r t , 116. 4 7 T r i s t r a m , I I , 6 2 0 - 6 2 1 , where t h e V i r g i n i s d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g " c r o w n e d , s e a t e d on a T h r o n e w i t h a d i a p e r e d s e a t , s u c k l i n g t h e C h i l d . " 48 H e a t h , S t e p s o f t h e P i l g r i m s , 1 4 1 . 49 4 y I b i d . 5 0 T r i s t r a m , I I , 178, p i s . 55-56. As T r i s t r a m n o t e s ( 1 7 8 ) , t h i s d e c o r a t i o n a p p e a r s a l s o on t h e n i m -bus o f J e s s e i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a J e s s e T r e e i n Ms 43, f o l . 33v, t h e B e a t u s page o f t h e H u n t i n g f i e l d P s a l t e r , P i e r p o i n t M o r g a n L i b r a r y , New Y o r k . M i l l a r d a t e s t h i s m a n u s c r i p t t o t h e e n d o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n -t u r y ( E r i c G. M i l l a r , La M i n i a t u r e A n g l a i s e du X X I I I e ^ ( P a r i s : G. v a n O e s t , 1 9 2 6 ) , p i . 59. ^ T r i s t r a m , I I , 197, w h ere he s t a t e s t h a t t h i s i s t h e o n l y w a l l - p a i n t i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f S t . E u g e n i a known t o h i m . 113 5 2 T r i s t r a m , I I , 196. 5 3 T r i s t r a m , I I , 197. 5 4 I b i d . T h ese w o r k s a r e now h i d d e n b e n e a t h a t h i c k l a y e r o f p l a s t e r . F o r t u n a t e l y , t h e y were r e c o r d e d i n d r a w i n g s made by F . J . B a i g e n t i n 1851 and by W.R. L e t h a b y a f t e r 1883 ( T r i s t r a m , I I , 1 9 6 ) . C o n c e r n i n g t h e s t r a t e g i c i m p o r t a n c e o f Farnham d a t i n g t o a n c i e n t t i m e s , s ee H i l a i r e B e l l o c , The O l d Road ( L o n d o n : A r c h i b a l d C o n s t a b l e a n d Co., 1 9 0 4 ) , 8 9 f . , and f o r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t i t s d i r e c t l i n k s w i t h W i n c h e s t e r by p r e h i s t o r i c t r a c k p e r p e t u a t e d i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y b y p i l g r i m s t r a v e l l i n g b e t w e e n W i n c h e s t e r a n d C a n t e r b u r y , see B e l l o c , 36, 37, 53; see a l s o H e a t h , p. 142. 5 5 T r i s t r a m , I I , 197. 5 6 I b i d . I b i d . 5 8 T r i s t r a m , I I , 380; see a l s o T r i s t r a m , I , 64; C a i g e r - S m i t h , M u r a l P a i n t i n g s , 7 8 f f . c q T r i s t r a m , I I , 172. W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e Sarum M a s t e r ' s m i n i a t u r e s , T r i s t r a m s a y s t h a t " C e r -t a i n f e a t u r e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n n o t e d as common t o them and t o t h e p a i n t i n g s a p p e a r a l s o i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n s o f o t h e r c e n t r e s ; b u t t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f them a l l seems t o be p e c u l i a r t o t h e w o r k s u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n " ( T r i s t r a m , I I , 1 7 3 ) . F o r i l l s , o f t h e c h a p e l o f t h e 114 H o l y S e p u l c h r e , s e e T r i s t r a m , I I I , p i s . 28 - 41 and f o r i l l s , o f t h e c h a p e l o f t h e G u a r d i a n A n g e l s , i b i d , p i s . 4 4 - 5 1 , s u p p . p i . 19. C o n c e r n i n g t h e d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e l a t t e r - n a m e d c h a p e l by W i l l i a m o f W e s t m i n s t e r , a p p o i n t e d K i n g ' s p a i n t e r by H e n r y I I I a t W i n c h e s t e r i n 1 239, see W.R. L e t h a b y , " E n g l i s h P r i m i t i v e s - I I , " BM, X X I X , A p r i l - D e c e m b e r 1916, 281-289. 6 0 T r i s t r a m , I I , 172. 6 1 T r i s t r a m , I I , 173. 6 2 T r i s t r a m , I I , 382. T r i s t r a m c o mpares t h e t e c h n i q u e o f t h e w a l l - p a i n t i n g o f t h e Wheel o f F o r - t u n e i n R o c h e s t e r C a t h e d r a l w i t h t h e t e c h n i q u e o f th e A m e sbury P s a l t e r m i n i a t u r e s ( T r i s t r a m , I I , 287; i l l s . T r i s t r a m , I I I , p i s . 1 3 3 , 134, 135.. See a l s o T r i s t r a m , I I , 360-361 f o r a c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n w a l l -p a i n t i n g s a t Horsham S t . F a i t h , n e a r N o r w i c h , and th e w o r k s o f t h e Sarum M a s t e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e C r u c i f i x i o n o f t h e Am e s b u r y P s a l t e r ; i l l s . , T r i s t r a m , I I I , p i s . 205, 206, 2 0 7 ) . 6 3 S u p p o r t f o r t h i s s t a t e m e n t i s f o u n d i n d o c u -mented e x a m p l e s o f a r t i s t / c r a f t s m e n who were t a l e n t e d i n more t h a n one f i e l d o f c r e a t i v e e n d e a v o u r ; D u n s t a n , t h e monk who became A r c h b i s h o p o f C a n t e r b u r y i n t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y , was a m i n i a t u r i s t and a g o l d s m i t h ( V i r g i n i a W y l i e E g b e r t , The M e d i e v a l A r t i s t a t Work (New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ) , 6 8 ) . M a s t e r Hugo, c r e d i t e d w i t h i l l u m i n a t i n g t h e B u r y B i b l e (1121 - 1138) f o r t h e Abbey o f B u r y S t . Edmunds, made b r o n z e d o o r s f o r t h e c h u r c h , " c a r v e d a f i n e r o o d , 115 and e v e n c a s t a g r e a t b e l l " f o r i t ( T r i s t r a m , I , 6 3 ) . M a t t h e w P a r i s , a c o n t e m p o r a r y o f t h e Sarum M a s t e r , was n o t o n l y a s c r i b e and i l l u m i n a t o r , b u t a l s o a g o l d s m i t h and a s c u l p t o r (Andrew M a r t i n d a l e , The R i s e o f t h e A r t i s t i n t h e M i d d l e Ages and E a r l y  R e n a i s s a n c e ( L o n d o n : Thames and H u d s o n , 1 9 7 2 ) , 7 0 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , he was p r o b a b l y a w a l l - p a i n t e r ( T r i s t r a m , I I , 327; see a l s o p 5 7 £ a b o v e ) . 6 4 M i l l a r , L a M i n i a t u r e , 6 3 ; R i c k e r t , P a i n t i n g  i n B r i t a i n , 115; B r i e g e r , E n g l i s h A r t , 174; G. E l f r i d a S a u n d e r s , E n g l i s h I l l u m i n a t i o n , 62; A l b e r t H o l l a e n d e r , "The Sarum I l l u m i n a t o r and H i s S c h o o l , "The W i l t s h i r e  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M a g a z i n e , C L X X I X , v o l . 1, D e v i z e s , Dec. 1 9 4 3 , 230. 6 5 T r i s t r a m , I I , 174; s e e a l s o T r i s t r a m , I I , 379, where he s t a t e s t h a t " . . . t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e w r i t i n g o f a book m i g h t be done and p a i d f o r i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e m i n i a t u r e s . " 6 6 T r i s t r a m , I I , 1 7 4-175. T r i s t r a m w r i t e s , " S i n c e t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e c a t h e d r a l s c h o o l s was t h e t r a i n i n g o f t h e p a r o c h i a l c l e r g y , i t i s n o t l i k e l y , and t h e r e seems t o be no p o s i t i v e e v i d e n c e t o e s t a b -l i s h t h e c o n t r a r y , t h a t t h e y made any c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e a r t o f t h e p e r i o d " ( T r i s t r a m , I I , 4 3 8 ) . As B r i e g e r comments, "The a r t o f m e d i e v a l E n g l a n d up t o t h e y e a r 1200 i s a l m o s t e n t i r e l y a p r o d u c t o f t h e g r e a t m o n a s t e r i e s . T h e r e was no c o u r t a r t i n t h e B y z a n t i n e s e n s e , o r f o r t h a t m a t t e r i n t h e C a r o l i n g i a n o r : S a l i a h s e n s e , a l t h o u g h t h e W e s t e r n c o u r t s drew t h e m a j o r p a r t o f a r t i s t i c t a l e n t f r o m t h e m o n a s t e r i e s " 116 ( B r i e g e r , E n g l i s h A r t , 1 0 8 ) . 6 7 T r i s t r a m , I I , 174. 6 8 T h e c u l t o f M a r y b e g a n a t S a l i s b u r y e v e n b e f o r e t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e p r e v i o u s c a t h e d r a l a t O l d Sarum, c. 10 76 b y Hermannus, p r i v a t e c h a p l a i n t o Edward t h e C o n f e s s o r ( s e e J o h n B r i t t o n , The  B e a u t i e s o f E n g l a n d and W a l e s ( L o n d o n : 1814) XV, 2 9 ) ; f o r t h e h i s t o r y o f O l d Sarum C a t h e d r a l , see W.H. R i c h J o n e s , e d . The R e g i s t e r o f S t . Osmund ( L o n d o n : Longman and Co., 1 8 8 4 ) , I I , p. x x v , c i . From t h e e a r l y d ays o f C h r i s t i a n i t y i n E n g l a n d t h e r e h a d b e e n a community o f nuns a t O l d Sarum w h i c h was d e d i c a t e d t o M a r y ( B r i t t o n , 3 1 ) ; f o r f u r t h e r r e f e r -e n c e s t o t h e s p e c i a l v e n e r a t i o n a c c o r d e d t h e V i r g i n a t S a l i s b u r y , s e e R i c h J o n e s , I I , c i i i , c x x , a l s o S a u n d e r s , E n g l i s h A r t , 146. 69 The b u i l d i n g o f t h e new c a t h e d r a l was o c -c a s i o n e d by t h e f r i c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e c l e r g y and t h e c a s t e l l a n s ; t h e c h u r c h a t O l d Sarum was s i t u a t e d w i t h i n t h e c a s t l e p r e c i n c t s , and a c c e s s t o i t was p e r m i t t e d o n l y a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e c a s t l e a u t h o r i t i e s ( B r i t t o n , p. 8 6 f f ; R i c h J o n e s , p. x x v ) . R i c h a r d P o o r , dean o f S a l i s b u r y and B i s h o p o f C h i -c h e s t e r i n 1215, a f t e r u n s u c c e s s f u l n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e A b b e s s o f W i l t o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e g r a n t i n g o f l a n d f o r t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e c a t h e d r a l , was a l -l e g e d l y i n s t r u c t e d b y t h e V i r g i n t o s i t e i t a t " M e r r i f i e l d " ( B r i t t o n , 128, see a l s o R i c h J o n e s , p. c i v - c v ) i 117 / u P u g h / C r i t t a l l , 209. 71 I n d u l g e n c e s d a t i n g f r o m May 2 1 , 1258, were g r a n t e d t o p i l g r i m s v i s i t i n g t h e c a t h e d r a l on f e a s t d ays a s s o c i a t e d w i t h M a r y ( R i c h J o n e s , 3 2 9 ) ; f u r t h e r -more, a c c o r d i n g t o S a u n d e r s , t h e r e v e r s e o f t h e s e a l o f R o b e r t o f B i n g h a m , B i s h o p o f S a l i s b u r y , p i c t u r e s what she d e s c r i b e s as a "human p r e s e n t m e n t " o f t h e V i r g i n a n d C h i l d , d a t e d 1228, w h i c h p r e - d a t e s t h e t e n d e r V i r g i n s o f t h e S a l i s b u r y r e g i o n p r o d u c e d i n t h e m i d - t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y ( s e e S a u n d e r s , I l l u m i n a t i o n , 6 5 ) . However, i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e w r i t i n g s o f W a l t e r de G r a y B i r c h , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t o h i s a u t h o r i t a t i v e w o r k , S e a l s ( L o n d o n , 1 9 0 7 ) , I c a n f i n d no t r a c e o f t h i s s e a l , n o r does t h e H i s t o r y o f W i l t s h i r e , pub-l i s h e d i n 1956, by t h e I n s t i t u t e o f H i s t o r i c a l Re-s e a r c h , L o n d o n , l i s t i t as b e i n g among s e a l s b e l o n g i n g t o r e l i g i o u s h o u s e s o f t h e c o u n t y ( s e e P u g h / C r i t t a l l , 2 0 9 f ) . W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o H e n r y I l l ' s p e r s o n a l i n t e r -e s t i n t h e new c a t h e d r a l a t S a l i s b u r y , M a t t h e w P a r i s r e c o r d s t h a t W i l l i a m o f Y o r k , b i s h o p o f S a l i s b u r y , was a f r i e n d o f t h e K i n g ( M a t t h e w P a r i s , E n g l i s h H i s -t o r y , I I I ( G i l e s ) 154) who h a d p r o m o t e d h i m t o t h e b i s h o p r i c ( P a r i s , I I I , 1 6 2 ) . W i l l i a m d i e d i n 1256, b e f o r e t h e c o n s e c r a t i o n o f t h e new c a t h e d r a l b u t , as T r i s t r a m w r i t e s , t h e K i n g ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i t were e m p h a s i z e d b e c a u s e o f h i s f r i e n d s h i p ( T r i s t r a m , I I , 2 0 7 ) , and t h e b u i l d i n g was g e n e r o u s l y g i f t e d by h i m ; see f o r ex a m p l e CR, 1234 - 1237, 279 , 280 , 409; LR 1245 - 1251 , 61 , 334 . T r i s t r a m , I I , 207. 118 73 W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e B e n e d i c t i n e s , T r i s -t r a m w r i t e s , t h a t o f t h e " v a r i o u s o r d e r s o f monks i n E n g l a n d i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h a t most i n -t e r e s t e d i n t h e a r t s , as r e g a r d s b o t h p a t r o n a g e and p r a c t i c e , was t h e B e n e d i c t i n e . M o s t o f t h e i m p o r t a n t m o n a s t e r i e s , s u c h as t h o s e a t C a n t e r b u r y , S t . A l b a n s , W i n c h e s t e r , W e s t m i n s t e r and B u r y S t . Edmunds w h e r e , o r i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h w h i c h , t h e c h i e f E n g l i s h s c h o o l s f l o u r i s h e d , were B e n e d i c t i n e ; a nd when we h a v e e x a m i n e d t h e d i f f e r e n t c e n t r e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y we h a v e h a d o c c a s i o n t o r e m a r k f r e q u e n t l y upon t h e c o - e x i s t e n c e a t a c e n t r e w here t h e a r t s were e v i d e n t l y c u l t i v a t e d o f a g r e a t r o y a l c a s t l e o r p a l a c e and a n o t a b l e B e n e d i c t i n e h o u s e " ( T r i s t r a m , I I , 4 7 3 ) . 74 F o r a l i s t o f t h e names o f t h e s e workmen, see S a u n d e r s , E n g l i s h A r t , 116-117; a l s o C a i g e r -S m i t h , M u r a l P a i n t i n g s , 82. 75 F o r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e theme o f D i v e s and L a z a r u s , see LR 1251 - 1260 , 263; E.W. T r i s t r a m , "An E n g l i s h M i d - F o u r t e e n t h C e n t u r y P i c t u r e , " BM L X X X I I I , J u l y 1943, 161; T r i s t r a m , W a l l P a i n t i n g , I I , 196, 4 7 1 . F o r o t h e r e x a m p l e s o f H e n r y I l l ' s p r e f e r r e d t h e m e s , see B o r e n i u s , " P a l a c e s and C a s t l e s , " a nd C a i g e r -S m i t h , M u r a l P a i n t i n g , 82. 7 6 B o r e n i u s , " P a l a c e s and C a s t l e s , " 4 7 - 5 0 . 7 7 T r i s t r a m , I I , 216. As T r i s t r a m comments, t h i s c o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e p a i n t i n g o f t h e a p a r t m e n t s o f t h e K i n g ' s c o n s o r t 119 c o u l d have b e e n t r a n s m i t t e d v e r b a l l y ( T r i s t r a m , 2 1 6 ) . ^ T r i s t r a m , I I , 81. 79 ' I b i d . 8 0 R. K e n t L a n c a s t e r , " A r t i s t s , S u p p l i e r s and C l e r k s : t h e Human F a c t o r s i n t h e A r t P a t r o n a g e o f K i n g H e n r y I I I , " WC, XXXV, 1972, 85; s e e a l s o T r i s -t r a m , I I , 8 1 . 81 L a n c a s t e r , 85. The name o f t h e needlewoman was M a b e l o f S t . Edmunds, one o f t h e b e s t d o c u m e n t e d o f a r t i s t s w o r k i n g f o r H e n r y I I I ; s e e CR, 1237 - 1242, 321, 372 ; CR, 1242 - 1247, 36 ; s e e a l s o L a n c a s t e r 8 3 f f ; R i c k e r t , 128. 8 2 T r i s t r a m , I I , 8 1 . 8 3 See a b o v e , p. 5; f u r t h e r m o r e , a c c o r d i n g t o D u g d a l e , 334, and de G r a y B i r c h ( S e a l s ) I s a b e l l a o f L a n c a s t e r , t h e P r i o r e s s o f Am e s b u r y i n 1202, was o f r o y a l b l o o d . 8 4 S e e P u g h / C r i t t a l l , W i l t s h i r e I I I , 2 4 5 f . f o r a l i s t o f r o y a l g i f t s t o t h e n u n n e r y and o f c o u r t v i s i t s made t o i t ; s ee a l s o T r i s t r a m I I , 174; CHR, 1226 - 1257, 64 , 80 ; LR 1226 - 1240 , 195 , 438 ; CR 1254 - 1256 , 334. 8 5 H e n r y I I I d i e d on t h e s i x t e e n t h o f November, 1272 ( P o w i c k e , 1 3 t h C e n t u r y , 225) ; E l e a n o r , h i s widow, 120 r e t i r e d t o Amesbury i n 1286 ( P o w i c k e , H e n r y and E d w a r d , I I , 817; P u g h / C r i t t a l l , 24 7; D u g d a l e , I I , 3 3 4 ) . See a l s o D u g d a l e , I I , 334 where i t i s r e c o r d e d t h a t i n 1285, s e v e n y e a r o l d M a r y , s i x t h d a u g h t e r o f Edward I , w i t h t w e l v e o f h e r c o m p a n i o n s , became a nun a t Amesbury. F o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o Ames-b u r y ' s r o y a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , s ee P u g h / C r i t t a l l , 247. LR, 1226 - 1240 , 195. 121 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ahsmann, H u b e r t u s P e t r u s J o h a n n e s M a r i a . Le C u l t e de l a S a i h t e V i e r g e e t l a L i t t e r a t u r e du Moyen  Age. U t r e c h t , 19 30 . B a u c h , K u r t . " D i e 'Madonna aus S t . G e n g u l f ; " . ' Z e i t -s c h r i f t des D e u t s c h e n V e r e i n s f u r K u n s t w i s s e n -s c h a f t , 1/4. B e r l i n , 1 9 7 0 , pp. 13-17. B e c k e r , P a u l . Das B i l d d e r Madonna. S a l z b u r g , 1965. B e c k w i t h , J o h n . C o p t i c S c u l p t u r e , 300-1500. L o n d o n : A l e c T i r a n t i , 1963 . 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P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e S o c i e t y o f A n t i q u a r i e s , 1882. p p. 212-224. W a r n e r , S i r G. B r i t i s h Museum I l l u m i n a t i o n s . S e r i e s I I I , t h i r d e d i t i o n . L o n d o n : B r i t i s h Museum, 1925 . W a r n e r , Rev. James Lee* A r c h e o l o g i c a l J o u r n a l , X I I I ( 1 8 5 6 ) , 1 1 5 - 1 3 3 . 141 W a t s o n , A r t h u r . The E a r l y I c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e T r e e o f  J e s s e . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934. W e r n e r , M a r t i n . "The Madonna and C h i l d M i n i a t u r e i n t h e Book o f K e l l s - I , " A r t B u l l e t i n ( M a r c h 1972): 1-23. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ "The Madonna and C h i l d M i n i a t u r e i n t h e Book o f K e l l s - I I , " A r t B u l l e t i n ( J u n e 1 9 7 2 ) : 129-139. W e s t l a k e , N.H.J. H i s t o r y o f D e s i g n i n M u r a l P a i n t i n g  f r o m E a r l i e s t Times t o t h e T w e l f t h C e n t u r y V o l . 1. L o n d o n : James P a r k e r , MCMV. W e s s e l , K l a u s . C o p t i c A r t . T r a n s l a t e d f r o m t h e G e r -man by J e a n C a r r o l l a n d S h e i l a H a t t o n . L o n d o n : Thames and H u d s o n , 1966. W e s t e n d o r f , W o l f h a r t . P a i n t i n g , S c u l p t u r e , and A r c h i - t e c t u r e o f A n c i e n t E g y p t . T r a n s l a t e d f r o m t h e German by L e o n a r d M i n s . New Y o r k : H a r r y N. Abrams I n c . , 1968. W i l p e r t , J o s e f . D i e G o t t G e w e i h t e n J u n g f r a u e n I n Den  E r s t e n J a h r h u n d e r t e n P e r K i r c h e . F r e i b u r g i m B r e i s g a u : H e r d e r , 1892. W i e g a n d , T h e o d o r (ed.) P e r Latmos V o l . 3, No. 1. B e r l i n : K o n i g l i c h e Museen zu B e r l i n , 1 913. W i t t , R.E. I s i s i n t h e Graeco-Roman W o r l d . New Y o r k : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 . 142 Wormald, F r a n c e s , C R . D o d w e l l , and O t t o P a c h t . The S t . A l b a n s P s a l t e r . L o n d o n : The W a r b u r g I n s t i -t u t e , U n i v e r s i t y o f L o n d o n , 1960. W u l f f , O s k a r . D i e A l t c h r i s t l i c h e K u n s t v o n I h r e n A n f a n g e n b i s z u r m i t t e des E r s t e n J a h r h u n d e r t s 2 v o l s . P o t s d a m : A k a d e m i s c h e V e r l a g s g e s e l l -s c h a f t A t h e n a i o n M.B.H., 1936. " D i e M a l e r e i e n d e r A s k e t e n h o h l e n des L a t -mos," pp. 89 - 202 i n Der L a t m o s , e d i t e d b y T h e o d o r W i e g a n d , 3 : i . B e r l i n : K o n i g l i c h e Museen zu B e r l i n , 1913. Z a r n e c k i , G e o r g e . L a t e r E n g l i s h Romanesque S c u l p t u r e 1 1 4 0 - 1 2 1 0 . L o n d o n : A l e c T i r a n t i L t d . , 1935 Romanesque A r t . New Y o r k : U n i v e r s e B o o k s , 1971. 143 ENCYCLOPEDIAS The C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , 1907 - 1 9 1 2 , s . v . " F o n t e -v r a u l t " b y Raymund W e b s t e r . _ _ _ _ _ _ s . v . " W a l s i n g h a m P r i o r y " b y J o s e p h C l a y t o n . D i c t i o n n a i r e d ' A r c h e o l o g i e ChreVieririe e t de L i t u r g i e , 1 9 2 4 - 1 9 5 3 , s . v . " M a r i e , Mere de D i e u " by Dom H. L e c l e r q . L a r o u s s e E n c y c l o p e d i a o f B y z a n t i n e a n d M e d i e v a l A r t , 2 d /ed. " I l l u m i n a t e d M a n u s c r i p t s , " Romanesque A r t by J e a n H u b e r t , p. 285. L e x i k o n d e f M a r i e n k u n d e , 1967, s . v . " B e r n h a r d C l a i r -v a u x " by 0. S t e g m u l l e r . 144 E X H I B I T I O N CATALOGUES B e c k w i t h , J o h n . I v o r y C a r v i n g s i n E a r l y M e d i e v a l 'England, 700 - 1200. L o n d o n : V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum, May 8 - J u l y 7, 1974. C o c k e r e l l , S.C. E x h i b i t i o n o f I l l u m i n a t e d M a n u s c r i p t s . L o n d o n : B u r l i n g t o n F i n e A r t s C l u b , 1908. D e u c h e r , F l o r e n s . The Y e a r 1200 V o l . 2. New Y o r k : M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum, F e b r u a r y 12 - May 10 , 1970 . Gomez-Moreno, Carmen. M e d i e v a l A r t f r o m P r i v a t e C o l -l e c t i o n s . New Y o r k : The C l o i s t e r s . O c t o b e r 30, 1968 - J a n u a r y 5, 1969. H o f f m a n n , K o n r a d . The Y e a r 1200 V o l . 1. New Y o r k : M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum, F e b r u a r y 12 - May 10, 1970. The de K o l b C o l l e c t i o n o f Romanesque A r t ; The Madonna  and C h i l d . New Y o r k : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o t r e Dame. J u l y 1 - S e p t e m b e r 28, 1969. Les M a n u s c r i t s P e i n t u r e s en F r a n c e du V I I e au X I I e  S i e c l e . P a r i s : B i b . N a t . , 1954. La V i e r g e dans l ' A r t F r a n ^ a i s . P a r i s : P e t i t P a l a i s , 1950. 145 MATERIAL RECEIVED TOO LATE FOR CONSIDERATION IN THIS PAPER R o n i g , F r a n z J . "Zum T h e o l o g i s c h e n Geh'alt Des B i l d e s d e r S t i l l e n d e n M u t t e r g o t t e s , " p p . 19 7-214 i n D i e G o t t e s m u t t e r I . E d i t e d b y L e o n h a r d K u p p e r s . R e c k l i n g h a u s e n : V e r l a g A u r e l B o n g e r s , 1974. 146 PLATES 147 IMSJHSM ROVAU, BUCKS., EN<!. P L A T E Hi. 148 c A r e w K A B a e y 1110-112,0 . AKlNg o f THE Ml DOLE A>qes. p i . I . F U A T g 3. 149 ISIS AflcTA/VS, EiqiiTH C_?NTORy.8C. TA.M T I N H , p i ."SCfVg.S. cjQAEco- R O M A N PfcjvRE . D A T E » T O THE F O U R T H CCNTURy. FROM ESH S H E I K . . ia*iliA. N O W I N C A H L E M M U S E U M ^" - 'QA, V. T R A N T A m T i N H , p l . X l ^ f l g . 7 . / b l PLATS 152 q^we/sew, pi.xxxvi. PLATE 7. 153 MAftV NURglU<y M S CHILP. WALL- PAINTING. MONAertlty O P ' S A R R A R A T M O W IN THE CoTTiC MUSEUM, C A I R O - KLAuS vVESSE L , pi . jr; P L A T E € . 154 MKDlNET- £L- PA»yoCl. SUOCLIN^ VIRCJlM, C-foor-th cent). lMCi«£to LIMESTONE, 5"OK34c"«S-Q ER.LIN , STATE BouR.qoET, EARlY CHRISTIAN/ ABT, p. iS5". p U A T E ^ 155 S T A . M A R i ^ I N TfcASTEve«.e. M O S A I C OF THE FAcAbe. CENTRAL. qRoyP. THE t>ATE is c, "go. EXCEPT P-ettTWE SM ALL FIGURES OF b o N O R S C.TKlVt*AKm C«*.+vra). W A L T E R - OAKeaHoTT M o S A i c . 5 g>rRoh*£, .1:59 PLATE, i© 156 PLATE n . 157 P L A T E 154). ftAXE '3. 159 MAfcoNlsiA, r H I L T ^ gX.T>LANJATi O IN. fSAlAM, C7TEA.UX ABBgy. c.'ISo . SiS,. MUN, BiToN, M s . /aQjfol.Av. BQXtZ c.t*\S. q e O R C i E Z A R N j e - C K l / R O M A M C S « L V e ART p«. 190. "PLATE 4 . . 160 MATTHEW PARIS. MADONNA AMD CHILD. CHRPM/CA  MATORA (BM. MS RoyAL /4C Vll,/bl. (><\). M. R.TAfVIES, "THE t>«AWliVCS OF MATTHEW PARIS. v pRoNT/SPlEctL , W A L P O L S xiy »92.5"-/git . K A T E fS. 161 C H I C H E S T E R , fiOUNDEU C . B I S H O P ' S P A L A C E , C H I C H E S T E R . . F R o N T i f i P i E C E , T R i f f T R A M J . PLATE if* • 162 PLATE »1-113 HiqH, C||S 0 C R y F T , Y O R K r^HNSTEnpk,. BftlTMSH A R T AIM'S T H E iv> E A IT g R RAN EAM< F S A X L ANT> R\NiTncoWE'R.. < f , l .3t . o^p.pA7 PLATE IS-164 PLATE 2-0. 166 0=9 00 v m C g L A C T A M S . . U A U . ' P A l N T i l S i q S »N S T O N E CHVR.CH, K E N T C IZ5"0. 167 SUPPLEMENTARY PLATES Sopp. PLATE I. 168 VlRCjir^ EMTt igeNCD BETWEEN TWO  ANQeuS . IVOR.1,C . NIINtTH CENTURA HE-iqHT 2fce»<HS7 WIDTH If.feOHS-WAUTERS A R T <SAU.eRV, SALT irvto R £. & O O R < 3 » J £ T , COPTI C ART, -p 5OPP. PLATE g,. QuB. UAI>y O P V l A Z H N H g . ( b E T A l L V P A N E L ( *ii3o> T H E m e T v ^ v c o v G A L L E R Y / M O S C O W . R . I C E , ^ V l A M T I N E P A I N T INI<^ . ' T H E I A W P I I ^ g Supp. PLATE 3 . 170 P H o T O . F - T R o f M A ^uaeSy C O L O U R . C E N T R E S l - l t i C S CXt>., F A R M H A M So PP. PLATE. 6. 172 VlgqrNt A N D CHILTJ). S T A I N E D C^i-ASS-T H I R T E E N T H C E N T O R y . e-ATHCISR A L OF N o T R E - D A M E , O H A R T R E S . * T u B B £ ft. \ l g . S o P P . P L A T E . 173 174 EXCURSUS W h i l e w o r k i n g on t h i s p a p e r , I b e g a n t o q u e s -t i o n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n arid C h i l d f o l i o o f t h e A m e s b u r y P s a l t e r ; t h e l o n g e r I l o o k e d a t i t , t h e more p u z z l i n g i t a p p e a r e d t o b e . I h a v e no a u t h o r i -t a t i v e s u p p o r t t o c i t e f o r t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w ; t h e y m e r e l y r e p r e s e n t a v i s u a l o p i n i o n , as i t w e r e , w h i c h s u g g e s t s an a r e a f o r r e s e a r c h b e y o n d t h e s c o p e o f t h e p r e s e n t e s s a y . An a s p e c t o f t h e A m e s b u r y V i r g o l a c t a n s p a g e , i n w h i c h i t d i f f e r s f r o m o t h e r w o r k s i n t h e S a l i s b u r y g r o u p o f m a n u s c r i p t s , i s t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e b a n d o f r o s e p i n k c o l o u r i n s i d e t h e c i n q u e f o i l a r c h i t e c t u r a l f r a m e w o r k w h i c h e n c l o s e s t h e f i g u r e s . I t does n o t a p p e a r i n t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n s c e n e o f t h e same p s a l t e r , n o r i n t h e V i r g i n ' arid C h i l d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e Sarum M i s s a l (Ms L a t . 24, f o l . 1 5 0 a , J o h n R y l a n d s L i b r a r y , M a n c h e s t e r , E n g l a n d ) , b o t h o f w h i c h p r e s e n t t h e i r f i g u r e s w i t h i n a r c h e s o f s i m i l a r d e s i g n . T h i s b a n d i n g seems t o f u n c t i o n as a means o f i n t e g r a t i n g t h e h a l o e d h e a d o f t h e A m esbury V i r g i n w i t h i n t h e h i g h e s t l o b e o f t h e a r c h , t h e apex o f w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e c e n t r a l a x i s o f t h e p a i n t i n g . The o p i n i o n t h a t 175 t h i s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e h e a d and h a l o m i g h t h a v e b e e n due t o a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s b o r n e o u t b y e x a m i -n a t i o n o f t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n page o f t h e same manu-s c r i p t ( s u p p . p i . 3 ) ; a l t h o u g h t h e V i r g i n ' s h e a d i s i n c l i n e d t o w a r d t h e a n g e l on t h e l e f t o f t h e p a i n t -i n g , t h e apex o f t h e a r c h i s e m p h a s i z e d b y t h e b r o a d s t r i p o f b r i g h t , r e d c o l o u r e m a n a t i n g f r o m i t and e n c l o s i n g t h e dove o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t w h i c h i s t h u s l i n k e d t o t h e V i r g i n ' s h a l o . S i m i l a r l y , w h i l e i n t h e l e f t h a n d p a n e l , G a b r i e l ' s h e a d , as he i n c l i n e s i t t o w a r d t h e V i r g i n , i s p o s i t i o n e d t o t h e r i g h t o f c e n t r e , y e t f r o m a c o m p o s i t i o n a l p o i n t o f v i e w , i t i s b r o u g h t b a c k , as i t w e r e , t o t h e c e n t r a l a x i s o f t h e s p a c e he o c c u p i e s by t h e t o p m o s t c u r v e s o f h i s h a l f - c l o s e d w i n g s w h i c h a r e s e t s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e h a l o , and by t h e i n n e r e d g es o f t h e w i n g s w h i c h echo i t s s h a p e . W h e r e a s , i n t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n and t h e C h r i s t  i n M a j e s t y , one i s i m p r e s s e d by t h e harmony o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n f i g u r e s w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k , an e q u i v a l e n t s e n s e o f harmony i s l a c k i n g i n t h e V i r g i n  and C h i l d ( p i . 1 ) . One s u r m i s e s t h a t t h e a r t i s t m i g h t have a t t e m p t e d t o u n i f y h i s work b y t h e u s e o f t h e n o n - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l d e v i c e o f t h e b a n d o f c o l o u r w h i c h c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d t o be p a r t o f t h e 176 a r c h i t e c t u r a l f r a m e w o r k . However, I w o u l d l i k e t o s u g g e s t t h a t p a r t o f t h e a r t i s t ' s c o n c e r n .might have b e e n t o i n t e g r a t e a d e s i g n t h a t had b e e n a l t e r e d f r o m i t s o r i g i n a l c o n c e p t i o n ; we m i g h t be l o o k i n g a t a f i g u r e d e s i g n e d i n i t i a l l y n o t as a s e a t e d V i r g i n , b u t as a s t a n d i n g V i r g i n . I m m e d i a t e l y o b v i o u s t o t h e v i e w e r i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e l e f t a n d r i g h t h a n d s i d e s o f t h e V i r -g i n ' s t h r o n e a r e u n m a t c h e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e awkward j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t h e l e f t h a n d edge o f t h e t h r o n e and t h e nun's f a c e makes i t a p p e a r as i f t h e d a i s h a d t o be s q u e e z e d i n t o an a r e a a l r e a d y l a r g e l y o c c u p i e d by h e r f i g u r e . M o r e o v e r , t h e r i g h t h a n d s i d e o f t h e t h r o n e i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r t h a n t h e l e f t , and w o u l d seem t o be more so were i t n o t f o r t h e l i n i n g o f t h e a r c h w h i c h ' c a p t u r e s i t s p r o f i l e , ' a nd r e d u c e s t h e i n s i s t e n c e o f i t s v i s u a l i m p a c t . On t h e nun's s i d e o f t h e p a g e , t h i s f r a m i n g v e e r s s l i g h t l y t o t h e l e f t , a g a i n as i f t o a l l o w room f o r h e r p r e s e n c e . A n o t h e r a w k w a r d n e s s m a n i f e s t i n t h e V i r g i n  a n d C h i l d c o n c e r n s t h e p a i n t i n g o f t h e l e g s o f t h e Madonna, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t o f h e r r i g h t l e g w h i c h b e a r s no r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h e r b o d y ; i t seems t o be an a f t e r t h o u g h t . I f one t r i e s t o i g n o r e t h i s ' l e g ' , t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t M a r y was once a s t a n d i n g V i r g i n f i q U R . E 2 , . 177 Re CoK5TR.ufcTgX> F R O M A. CoPj/ Op Hot.L.AeNbER#f P L A T E VII 178 g a i n s i n c r e d i b i l i t y ; f u r t h e r m o r e , t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e Madonna m e a s u r e a r a t i o o f 9:1 - e x a c t l y t h e p r o -p o r t i o n s o f t h e s t a n d i n g V i r g i n i n t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n s c e n e . When one r e c o n s t r u c t s t h e M a r i a l a c t a n s b y a s i m p l e r e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e d r a p e r i e s , t h e p r e s e n -t a t i o n a p p e a r s t o be v i s u a l l y much more a c c e p t a b l e ( f i g . 2 ) . A c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e A m e s b u r y Madonna and t h a t o f t h e s e a t e d V i r g i n i n t h e Sarum M i s s a l ( s u p p . p i . 4) a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e same a r t i s t a n d d a t e d by H o l l a e n d e r 1252 - 1264 , shows t h e l a t t e r f i g u r e p o r -t r a y e d w i t h more p l a u s i b i l i t y , a l t h o u g h t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p b e t w e e n t h e l e g s o f t h e Sarum V i r g i n and h e r body i s s t i l l n o t c o n v i n c i n g l y a c h i e v e d . The p r o -p o r t i o n s f o r t h i s f i g u r e a r e n o t 9:1, as i n t h e Ames-b u r y Madonna, b u t 7:1. A s s u m i n g t h a t t h e A m e s b u r y  Madonna was o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d as a s e a t e d f i g u r e , t h e i n e p t n e s s o f i t s c o m p o s i t i o n c o m p a r e d w i t h t h a t o f t h e Sarum Madonna s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e f o r m e r i s an e a r l i e r w o r k . N e v e r t h e l e s s , I p r o p o s e t h a t t h e awk-w a r d n e s s o f t h e A m e s b u r y Madonna and C h i l d page i n t h e h a n d l i n g o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a l e l e m e n t s i s s u c h t h a t t h e s u g g e s t i o n i t has b e e n a l t e r e d m e r i t s c o n -s i d e r a t i o n . H owever, i f i n t h e o r i g i n a l d e s i g n , t h e V i r g i n 179 was s t a n d i n g , was she t h e n a V i r g o l a c t a n s ? T r a d i -t i o n a l l y t h i s t y p e o f V i r g i n i s a s e a t e d f i g u r e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s a s t a i n e d g l a s s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a s t a n d i n g V i r g i n ( c . 1221) ( s u p p . p i . 5) i n C h a r t r e s C a t h e d r a l who h o l d s t h e C h i l d on h e r r i g h t arm. The C h i l d ' s h e a d i s c l o s e t o t h a t o f t h e V i r -g i n , a n d He does n o t p a r t a k e o f t h e n o u r i s h m e n t p r o -f e r r e d by H i s m o t h e r . The b r e a s t a r e a o f t h e Madonna i s p r o m i n e n t l y d i s p l a y e d , an u n u s u a l f e a t u r e f o r t h i s p e r i o d , a n d one w h i c h does n o t become g e n e r a l u n t i l t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e Madonna o f H u m i l i t y i n t h e f i r s t q u a r t e r o f t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n I t a l y . The b r e a s t a r e a o f t h e A m e s b u r y Madonna i s e m p h a s i z e d a l s o ( s u p p . p i . 6 ) , b u t t h e a n a t o m i c a l a wkwardness o f i t s u g g e s t s t h a t i t was a d d e d a f t e r t h e o r i g i n a l c o n -c e p t i o n o f t h e p a g e . I f M a r y was once a s t a n d i n g f i g u r e h o l d i n g t h e C h i l d on h e r l e f t arm and i n c l i n i n g h e r h e a d t o -w a r d Him, a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l H o d e g e t r i a t y p e o f V i r g i n ( d e m o n s t r a t e d b y t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y m o s a i c i n T o r c e l l o C a t h e d r a l ) a nd t h e E 1 e o u s a t y p e o f p r e s e n t a t i o n , w o u l d be i n d i c a t e d , and s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n i n g o f t h e hands o f t h e V i r g i n and C h i l d was o t h e r w i s e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e d r a w i n g o f t h e u n d e r g a r m e n t 180 a b o u t t h e f e e t o f t h e A m esbury Madonna seems t o be u n n e c e s s a r i l y c o m p l i c a t e d . I t s u g g e s t s a l t e r a t i o n a l s o ; i t i s n o t t h e warm h o n e y - c o l o u r e d g a r m e n t she w e a r s i n t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n s c e n e and t h e r e i s no i n d i -c a t i o n o f a r i g h t f o o t . I n t h e Sarum M i s s a l , b o t h f e e t o f t h e s e a t e d V i r g i n a r e p r o m i n e n t l y d i s p l a y e d . The d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e s i z e o f t h e f i g u r e o f t h e C h i l d w o u l d a p p e a r t o be more so i f h e l d by a s t a n d i n g f i g u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e V i r -g i n ' s o u t e r g a r m e n t was e m p l o y e d i n t h e u s u a l manner and c r o s s e d M a r y ' s b o d y t o e n f o l d H i s r i g h t f o o t and a l l o w t h e l e f t f o o t t o l i e a c r o s s i t s l o w e r edge be-f o r e b e i n g c a u g h t o v e r t h e Madonna's l e f t w r i s t . H owever, h e r o u t e r g a r m e n t c o u l d have b e e n d r a p e d t o e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e s t a n d i n g f i g u r e , w h i c h w o u l d have p r o v i d e d a more h a r m o n i o u s a r r a n g e m e n t . From o b s e r v a t i o n , o f r e p r o d u c t i o n s o f t h e A m e sbury p a g e , t h e r e does n o t a p p e a r t o be more t h a n one h a n d i n v o l v e d i n i t s p a i n t i n g ; t h e r e f o r e , I s u g -g e s t t h a t i t was a f t e r t h e p a i n t i n g o f t h e o v e r l y l a r g e f i g u r e o f t h e C h i l d , w h i c h shows c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n m o d e l l i n g , and i s a more a c c o m p l i s h e d d r a w i n g t h a n i s t h a t o f t h e V i r g i n , t h a t t h e Sarum M a s t e r d e c i d e d t o a l t e r h i s s t a n d i n g V i r g i n t o a s e a t e d V i r g i n . 181 B e c a u s e we know n o t h i n g o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n i n g o f t h e Amesbury P s a l t e r , n o r o f i t s o r i g i n a l owner, t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e Sarum M a s t e r ' s p r o b a b l e a l t e r -a t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n and C h i l d p a g e , w h i c h I p r o p o s e c a n be a r g u e d b e c a u s e o f i t s v i s u a l a w k w a r d n e s s and i t s l a c k o f c o m p o s i t i o n a l harmony c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e o t h e r f u l l - p a g e i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e p s a l t e r , r e m a i n m a t t e r s f o r c o n j e c t u r e . 

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