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The literature of addiction : confessions 1821-1960 Jenkins, Logan Burris 1976

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THE LITERATURE OF ADDICTION: CONFESSIONS 1821-1960 by LOGAN BURRIS JENKINS B.A., San Diego S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1970 M.A., San Diego S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , I97I A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n the Department of ENGLISH We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1976 (0) Logan Burris Jenkins, 1976 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f E n g l i s h  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date October 5 . 1976 Chairman: Warren Tallman ABSTRACT Ever since De Quincey's Confessions of an English  Opium-Eater announced the r e a l i t y of opium addiction i n 1821, the l i t e r a t u r e representing addiction has excited the reading public. Nevertheless, the h i s t o r i c a l continuity (or presence) of the l i t e r a t u r e of addiction has been l a r g e l y overlooked. Inevitably perhaps, the l i t e r a t u r e of addiction has taken the form of the autobiographical confession. The drug confession, however, extends the search f o r absolution to blatant self-advertisement, apocalyptic s o c i a l commentary, and the sober c o l l e c t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c data. Consequently, the story of addiction has displayed tremendous v a r i e t y : the Romantic addict at the mercy of h i s own s u b j e c t i v i t y , the genteel urban v i c t i m of the la t e 19"th century, the outlaw, the mystic, the avant-garde a r t i s t , the black s a t i r i s t of the 20th century. Only by following the h i s t o r i c a l development of the addict does the dynamic between the l i t e r a r y f a cts and the popular myths become comprehensible. The early confessions propose addiction as not so much a s o c i a l problem as a d i s t i n c t human p o s s i b i l i t y . The representative addicts--De Quincey, F i t z Hugh Ludlow, and i i B a u d e l a i r e - - s u g g e s t t h e i n h e r e n t n o b i l i t y o f purpose b e h i n d the t a k i n g o f opium o r h a s h i s h , no m a t t e r how t h e y might d i s a g r e e upon the m o r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the a d v e n t u r e . The p o p u l a r c o n f e s s i o n s o f the l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y , on the o t h e r hand, c o n c e i v e o f opium a d d i c t i o n as a s e r i o u s d i s e a s e . They u n i f o r m l y d e p l o r e De Quincey's d e f e n s e o f opium. The opium e a t e r h i m s e l f becomes an o b j e c t o f p i t y and l o a t h i n g . Moreover, m i r a c l e c u r e s b e g i n t o appear i n t h e p o p u l a r c o n f e s s i o n s , t r a n s f o r m i n g the Romantic . a f f l i c t i o n i n t o a b u s i n e s s o p p o r t u n i t y . The p u r p l e r h e t o r i c o f t h i s p e r i o d c o n t r i b u t e d t o the s t e r e o t y p e s r e g a r d i n g a d d i c t s and s p o n s o r e d l e g i s l a t i v e measures d e s i g n e d t o r e g u l a t e t h e use o f n a r c o t i c s . I n the 2 0 t h c e n t u r y the European drug p e r s o n a l i t y r e t u r n s t o t h e Romantic l e g a c y . A l e i s t e r C r o w l e y , James Le e , and J e a n C o c t e a u a l l f i n d i n drugs a p o t e n t i a l r e l a t e d t o the a r c h e t y p a l f u n c t i o n o f t h e drug t a k e r as p r o p h e t and h e a l e r ; t h e y c l a i m f o r drugs s i g n i f i c a n t r e w a r d s . These a d d i c t s s a n c t i f y t h e p e r c e p t i o n s and i n t u i t i o n s o f the d r ug t a k e r and p o s i t the w i t h d r a w a l agony as the p r i c e t o be p a i d f o r e x t r a o r d i n a r y modes o f v i s i o n . I n A m e r i c a , however, the e x p e r i e n c e o f drugs seems h a r d l y so h o p e f u l . R a c i a l i n t o l e r a n c e and a s t e r n work e t h i c f o r c e d the a d d i c t underground. The a d d i c t became a c r i m i n a l by n e c e s s i t y and by d e c r e e . I t i s t o t h i s image o f the o l d - t i m e a d d i c t - t h i e f t h a t Burroughs g r a v i t a t e s toward when he r e p u d i a t e s u p p e r - c l a s s A m e r i c a n l i f e . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o o v e r e s t i m a t e W i l l i a m B u r r o u g h s ' r o l e i n the h o u s i n g o f the a d d i c t i n t h e l i t e r a t e mind. He has d e d i c a t e d more o f h i s e n e r g i e s t o the d i s c u s s i o n o f a d d i c t i o n t h a n any o t h e r s i n g l e l i t e r a r y f i g u r e w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f De Quincey. A d d i c t i o n d e v e l o p s i n the Burroughs d r u g canon f r o m a m e a n i n g f u l way o f l i f e t o t he p r e m i e r h e a l t h problem i n the w o r l d . He s y n t h e s i z e s a r i c h h i s t o r y when he p r e s e n t s the a d d i c t as a r t i s t - s c h o l a r , i n v a l i d , m y s t i c , s c i e n t i s t , c r i m i n a l , and d e v i a n t . B u r r o u g h s ' s t r a n g e n e s s becomes l e s s s t r a n g e by v i r t u e o f t h i s s u r v e y o f the l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y o f a d d i c t i o n . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 1 EARLY CONFESSIONS ? 2 POPULAR CONFESSIONS ^ 5 3 CROWLEY, LEE, AND COCTEAU 88 4 ADDICTION, CRIME, AND PRISON 131 5 JUNKIE, "IN SEARCH OF YAGE," AND NAKED LUNCH 1 7 ^ FOOTNOTES 264 LIST OF WORKS CITED • 282 v INTRODUCTION The v a r i e t y of l i t e r a t u r e occasioned by drug a d d i c t i o n unnerves any meaningful sense of h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y . I n "Burroughs and the L i t e r a t u r e of A d d i c t i o n , " Frank McConnell l o c a t e s "an English-American t r a d i t i o n of l i t e r -a ture . . . Romantic i n i t s o r i g i n s and i m a g i n a t i v e d i r e c t i o n . " Yet when a c t u a l l y a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h i s a d d i c t i o n l i t e r a t u r e , McConnell c a l l s a t t e n t i o n o n l y to De Quincey, C o l e r i d g e , Malcolm Lowry, and W i l l i a m Burroughs as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p r a c t i t i o n e r s of the form. Though-he n o t i c e s (to d i s m i s s as undeserving) such lame candidates as D o r i a n Gray and The Man w i t h the Golden Arm--as w e l l as the g e n e r a l l y under-r a t e d Junkie--McConnell f a i l s to n o t i c e the h i s t o r i c a l middle of the l i t e r a r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of drug a d d i c t i o n . Consequently, even h i s p l a u s i b l e t h e o r e t i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s - -the Romantic beginnings, or the m a t e r i a l i s m of the a d d i c t - -seem somewhat e v i s c e r a t e d , based as they are upon e x c l u s i o n , o v e r s i g h t , or i n d i f f e r e n c e . By promoting a r a d i c a l a f f i n i t y between C o l e r i d g e and Burroughs, f o r example, McConnell d i s c o u n t s the process of a century between the Romantic p o e t - p h i l o s o p h e r and the h i p , a n a l y t i c underworld 1 2 c h a r a c t e r m i r a c u l o u s l y d e l i v e r e d by the e l o q u e n t r i t u a l o f w i t h d r a w a l . F o r whatever r e a s o n , t h e continuum of a d d i c t i o n l i t e r a t u r e from De Quincey to Burroughs has been s l u r r e d o v e r . Where M c C o n n e l l yokes t o g e t h e r the a r i s t o c r a t i c a d d i c t s d e s p i t e m a n i f e s t d i s a g r e e m e n t s i n h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t , A l e t h e a H a y t e r f a l l s out on the o t h e r s i d e when she i n s i s t s upon a s t r i c t s e p a r a t i o n between the educated, s e n s i t i v e , p r o t e c t e d a r t i s t - a d d i c t (as s y m b o l i z e d by C o l e r i d g e and De Quincey) and the i l l i t e r a t e , e f f a c e d , f u g i t i v e j u n k i e o f t o d a y . She sees tremendous d i f f e r e n c e s i n o r i e n t a t i o n , c a u s i n g opium t o produce d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s i n the minds of the s e l f - c o n s c i o u s and e v e r - a n x i o u s a d d i c t of t o d a y from i t s e f f e c t s i n the minds of the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a d d i c t s . They i n d e e d f e l t g u i l t towards God and t h e i r f a m i l i e s and t h e i r own wasted t a l e n t s , n o t towards s o c i e t y and the law; a n x i e t y about e a r n i n g t h e i r l i v i n g , b u t n o t about f i n d i n g the money f o r the dr u g , o r how t h e y c o u l d g e t s u p p l i e s . D i f f e r -ent g u i l t s and a n x i e t i e s produce d i f -f e r e n t p a t t e r n s i n the i m a g i n a t i o n . . . . Though H a y t e r ' s c o n c l u s i o n i s i n some sense s e l f - e v i d e n t , the t a c i t i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t De Quincey's work c a l l s f o r l i t e r a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n whereas the l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h modern a d d i c t i o n w a r r a n t s n o t h i n g so much as p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . Though b e t t e r i n f o r m e d t h a n M c C o n n e l l on the 3 s u b j e c t of a d d i c t i o n , Hayter a l s o f a i l s to a p p r e c i a t e the development from the Romantic a d d i c t to the outlawed ju n k i e of the 20th century. The need i s not so much to d i s c u s s the l i t e r a t u r e of a d d i c t i o n i n t h e o r e t i c a l terms (somehow t h a t comes q u i t e e a s i l y ) as i t i s to f i n d i t , to r e v i v e the v o i c e s who d e f i n e d themselves i n r e l a t i o n to an e x t r a o r d i n a r y d i s e a s e . While r e t a i n i n g e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s of the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l c o n f e s s i o n as p r a c t i c e d by St. Augustine, Rousseau, and Malcolm X, the drug c o n f e s s i o n performs the s i n g u l a r drama of a v o i c e s u r f a c i n g f o r one b r i e f moment to t e s t i f y to the opium l i f e - - a n d then f a d i n g i n t o o b s c u r i t y (or, as w i t h Cocteau and Burroughs, f a d i n g i n t o the movies). T h i s survey of the drug c o n f e s s i o n intends to salvage from r e l a t i v e o b s c u r i t y the a d d i c t s who advanced themselves as the exemplum of a d d i c t i o n : Ludlow, B l a i r , The H a b i t u a t e , Cobbe, Cole, The E d i t o r , Lee, Black, S t r e e t , B l a c k s t o c k , as w e l l as the supremely g i f t e d d e c a dents—De Quincey, B a u d e l a i r e , Crowley, Cocteau, and the Master A d d i c t h i m s e l f , W i l l i a m Burroughs. There e x i s t s a l a r g e body of l i t e r a t u r e i n f l u e n c e d by the use of drugs. A d i s t i n c t i o n should be drawn, t h e r e f o r e , between the l i t e r a t u r e which expresses the v i s i o n a r y p o t e n t i a l i n h a l l u c i n o g e n i c drugs and the 4 l i t e r a t u r e w hich d e d i c a t e s i t s e l f t o the sober d e f i n i t i o n of the p h y s i c a l and m o r a l a f f l i c t i o n o f a d d i c t i o n . A c t i n g upon t h i s c r u c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n , P e t e r H a i n e s does n o t i n c l u d e i n h i s drug a n t h o l o g y work r e s u l t i n g f r om the use o f the 'hard d r u g s ' such as h e r o i n and c o c a i n e , as i n the main i t i s o f such a s p e c i a l i z e d n a t u r e as to need f a r more e x p l a n a t i o n t h a n I have space a v a i l a b l e and a l s o because I p e r s o n a l l y have f o u n d i t u n i n - n s p i r e d and o f o n l y minor l i t e r a r y v a l u e . I r o n i c a l l y perhaps, the l i t e r a t u r e o f a d d i c t i o n c o n s i s t e n t l y a v o i d s the onus of " i n s p i r a t i o n , " u n i f o r m l y p r e f e r r i n g m o r a l c r e d i b i l i t y and s c i e n t i f i c p r e c i s i o n : " I n s o f a r a s I succeed i n D i r e c t r e c o r d i n g of c e r t a i n a r e a s o f p s y c h i c p r o c e s s I' may have l i m i t e d f u n c t i o n . . . . I am not an e n t e r t a i n e r , " Burroughs warns. C l o s e r t o the t r a c t a r i a n and the s c i e n t i s t t h a n the avant-garde a r t i s t , the c o n f e s s i n g a d d i c t does n o t e n t i r e l y succumb t o t h e v i s i o n a r y p o t e n t i a l of opium; on the c o n t r a r y , he f r e e s h i m s e l f by an a c t of w i l l from the d e b i l i t a t i n g drug i n o r d e r t o pass judgement, and c o l l e c t d a t a , on h i s body and s o u l . Though t h e r e i s something c o m p e l l i n g about c o r r e l a t i n g l i t e r a r y s t y l e and m e t a b o l i s m , t h i s s u r v e y cannot p r e t e n d t o d i v i n e any drug's i n f l u e n c e upon any g i v e n c o m p o s i t i o n . I n the b i z a r r e Genius and D i s a s t e r , a p s y c h o l o g i s t a t t e m p t s 5 a d r u g - o r i e n t e d "brand of s t y l i s t i c s : I f i t may be expressed so: purple patches of a l c o h o l i n w r i t i n g always weighs heav-i e r than opium. The purple patches of a l c o h o l are unmistakable. But even more unmistakable are the opium stigmata, as, f o r example, i n Kubla Khan, the a l t e r n a t e s h i f t i n g s and drag of a t t a c k , of p l a n , of purpose, of s e t t i n g , of c h a r a c t e r , the syncopation, the phantasmagoria and h a l l u c i n a t i o n . -5 More important than t h i s c a l i b e r of s p e c u l a t i o n i s the r e s t o r a t i o n of the a d d i c t ' s i d e n t i t y as he a d j u s t s to the b o d i l y and s o c i a l punishments of transcendence. I t i s probably i m p o s s i b l e to f u l l y comprehend the drug t a k e r ' s r o l e i n the g e n e s i s of mysterious knowledge. Norman 0 . Brown s p e c u l a t e s t h a t "the o r i g i n a l s u b l i m a t o r , the h i s t o r i c a l a n c e s t o r of p h i l o s o p h e r and prophet and poet, i s the p r i m i t i v e shaman, with h i s techniques f o r e c s t a t i c departure from the body, s o u l - l e v i t a t i o n , s o u l -t r a n s m i g r a t i o n , and c e l e s t i a l n a v i g a t i o n . " And d o u b t l e s s h a l l u c i n o g e n i c drugs a s s i s t e d i n l a u n c h i n g the p r i m i t i v e medicine man toward the knowledge he sought.' The a d d i c t , however, i s a d i s t u r b i n g mutation of the o r i g i n a l h o l y man, now made s i c k by drugs i n s t e a d of b e i n g r e l e a s e d by them. Drug c o n f e s s i o n s s e r i a l i z e the d i v i s i o n between the l o s t e t h e r e a l i t y of the Romantic opium honeymoon and 6 the r e a l i t y of the body (symbolized by the e p i l e p t i c e r u p t i o n s of withdrawal). T h i s p e r v e r s i o n of the i n f l u e n t i a l mythic presence of the drug t a k e r accounts f o r the e r o t i c h o r r o r which has f o l l o w e d the a d d i c t ' s c o n f e s s i o n ever s i n c e De Quincey f i r s t e l e c t r i f i e d the r e a d i n g p u b l i c w i t h the news of a d d i c t i o n . 7 Chapter 1 EARLY CONFESSIONS In the I856 v e r s i o n of the C o nfessions of an E n g l i s h  Opium E a t e r , Thomas De Quincey, seventy years o l d , an opium us e r f o r over f i f t y y ears, s i c k and impoverished, asks him-s e l f the o l d a d d i c t ' s q u e s t i o n : What was i t t h a t d i d i n r e a l i t y make me an opium-eater? That a f f e c t i o n which f i n a l l y drove me i n t o the h a b i t u a l use of opium, what was i t ? P a i n was i t ? No, but misery. Casual o v e r c a s t i n g of sunshine was i t ? No, but blank d e s o l a t i o n . Gloom was i t t h a t might have departed? No, but s e t t l e d and a b i d i n g darkness. De Quincey, l o o k i n g back, e s t a b l i s h e s a c o n n e c t i o n between opium a d d i c t i o n and a d i s t r e s s so d e v a s t a t i n g as to subsume e n t i r e the p h y s i c a l and p s y c h i c p l e a s u r e s of l i v i n g ; he i n i t i a t e s a d i s t i n c t i v e v o c a b u l a r y of a d d i c t i o n - - h e r o i c , h y p e r b o l i c ; p e n i t e n t i a l , a b j e c t . The pains i n c i d e n t to a d d i c t i o n beggar mere catalogues of symptoms, n e c e s s i t a t e "impassioned prose" to express the f u r i o u s i n t e r n a l landscape born of a d d i c t i o n : 8 There i t was, th a t f o r years I was persecuted by v i s i o n s as ugly, and as g h a s t l y phantoms as ever haunted the couch of an Orestes; and i n t h i s unhappier than he, that s l e e p which comes to a l l as a r e s p i t e and a r e s t o r a t i o n , and to him e s p e c i a l l y as a b l e s s e d balm f o r h i s wounded h e a r t and h i s haunted b r a i n , v i s i t e d me as my b i t t e r e s t scourge. At no time, however, does De Quincey s i n g l e out opium as the s o l e f a c t o r of h i s d i s t r e s s : opium e x i s t s i n a complex matrix, p i v o t a l c e r t a i n l y , but not u l t i m a t e l y t e l l i n g i n i t s e l f . To understand the f i r s t l i t e r a r y document m a n i f e s t l y occasioned by drug a d d i c t i o n , i t i s necessary to u n r a v e l " i n v o l u t e s , " c l u s t e r s of subconscious elements dredged up by De Quincey's e x t r a o r d i n a r y i n t r o s p e c t i o n . In the summer of 1812 "I had s u f f e r e d much i n b o d i l y h e a l t h from d i s t r e s s of mind connected w i t h a v e r y melancholy event." De Quincey r e f e r s to the death of Kate Wordsworth, to whom he was c l o s e l y a t t a c h e d . He then r e c o r d s t h a t the next year "I was a t t a c k e d by a most a p p a l l i n g i r r i t a t i o n of the stomach, i n a l l r e s p e c t s the same as t h a t which had caused me so much s u f f e r i n g i n youth, and accompanied by a r e v i v a l of a l l the o l d dreams'.' (Confessions 310). U n t i l t h i s time, De Quincey had been a d i l l e t a n t e i n the world of opium; f o r over e i g h t y e ars he had spaced " t h i s l u x u r y " a t i n t e r v a l s of up to two or three weeks, a f t e r having o r i g i n a l l y i n t r o d u c e d h i m s e l f to opium through the i n s i s t e n c e of rheumatic pains of the f a c e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a t t h i s p o i n t 9 i n I 8 I 3 De Quincey became an a d d i c t ("I c o u l d r e s i s t no longer") and, d e s p i t e a few s h o r t p e r i o d s of a b s t i n e n c e , remained one f o r the r e s t of h i s l i f e . But n o t i c e the order of the preceeding equation: the death of an innocent baby g i r l made De Quincey m i s e r a b l y unhappy (an event p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y connected with h i s dearest s i s t e r ' s death as w e l l as with the l o s s of Ann, the f i f t e e n -y e a r - o l d p r o s t i t u t e who helped De Quincey d u r i n g h i s London ord e a l ) which allowed the r e c u r r e n c e of a g a s t r i c d i s o r d e r which had r e s u l t e d from "my own unpardonable f o l l y , " h i s escape at seventeen from the c o n f i n e s of s c h o o l to Northern Wales and, e v e n t u a l l y , to London. And even more, "the o l d dreams" renewed themselves, becoming e v e n t u a l l y nightmares of a " l o s t P a r i a h woman," t h e a t r i c a l tableaux that "were drawn out by the f i e r c e chemistry of my dreams i n t o i n s u f -f e r a b l e splendour t h a t f r e t t e d my h e a r t " (Confessions 3 2 7 ) > dreams, the "immediate and proximate cause of my a c u t e s t s u f f e r i n g " (Confessions 3 2 6 ). And over t h i s s u f f e r e r opium f o l d e d i t s wings. The u n r e m i t t i n g v e r i t y of s l a s h e d innocence--m e l a n c h o l y - - b o d i l y distress--opium--nightmare: the c i r c l e of De Quincey's a d d i c t i o n . Before De Quincey, the single-mindedness of s u f f e r i n g g e n e r a l l y ignored the a d d i c t i v e p r o p e r t i e s of opium. De Quincey announces a d d i c t i o n , the r e a l i t y of a d d i c t i o n , when he admits t h a t " i t was s o l e l y by the t o r t u r e connected with 1 0 the attempt to abjure i t , t h a t i t kept i t s hold"' (Confessions 3 3 8 ) . But beyond t h i s , De Quincey c a l l s a t t e n t i o n to a p a r t i c u l a r m e n t a l i t y over which opium e x e r t s an e s p e c i a l l y f a t a l i n f l u e n c e . Some people can take opium and l e a v e i t , "but to t h a t other c l a s s whose nervous s e n s i b i l i t i e s v i b r a t e to t h e i r profoundest depths under the touch of the a n g e l i c 3 p o i s o n . . . opium i s the Amreeta cup of b e a t i t u d e . " ^ De Quincey n o t i c e s a p r e d i l e c t i o n to opium i n both p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l terms, but a p r e d i l e c t i o n based upon the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of h i s own experience. I t was necessary, t h e r e f o r e , to i n c l u d e h i s c h i l d h o o d i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of h i s own a d d i c t i o n . De Quincey t e n t a t i v e l y o u t l i n e s a determinism of a d d i c t i o n ; h i s experience allowed opium to be the transcendent, i r r e -s i s t a b l e s o l u t i o n t h a t f o r him i t turned out to be. Quite simply, De Quincey w r i t e s the f i r s t case h i s t o r y of drug a d d i c t i o n ; the Confessions--and the surrounding i n f o r m a t i o n - - c o n t i n u a l l y a f f i r m what i s now p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y a xiomatic: the present o n l y becomes e x p l i c a b l e i n terms of the past. De Quincey g i v e s the a d d i c t a past, a c h a i n of f a t a l i t y , an i n v e r t e d Jacob's l a d d e r . He even donates h i s d reams—scenes i n h a b i t e d by g r i f f i n s , Thugs, p a r i a h g i r l s , demonic Malays, r o v i n g d a c o i t s - - R o r s c h a c h t e s t s of the sub-conscious w r i t t e n i n "impassioned prose." I t i s important to remember t h a t the f i r s t anatomy of a d d i c t i o n (and perhaps the most i n f l u e n t i a l one) p r e s e n t s a d d i c t i o n as i n c i d e n t 11 to a p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n f i r m i t y , a s i g n a l weakness, an i n a b i l i t y to cope. And by so doing De Quincey a c t u a l l y n o u r i s h e s the optimism of the neb-Freudian encounter groups--the search f o r the "problem"--wh'ich c h a r a c t e r i z e s much of the therapy d e a l i n g w i t h a d d i c t i o n today. Offhand, i t seems p e r f e c t t h a t a remarkable a d d i c t should spend the m a j o r i t y of h i s l i f e coming to terms w i t h h i s a d d i c t i o n i n such a p u b l i c way. I f anything, i t i s the remarkableness of De Quincey t h a t keeps him out of the popular l i n e - u p of a d d i c t i o n : They £the Confessions'^ are a m e d i t a t i o n on the mechanism of the i m a g i n a t i o n , an e x p l o r a t i o n of the i n t e r i o r l i f e of an a l t o g e t h e r excep-t i o n a l b e i n g who happened a l s o to be an opium eat e r , but from whose experiences no v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn about w h a t ^ w i l l happen to an o r d i n a r y opium a d d i c t . De Quincey h i m s e l f , however, n o t i c e s i n w r i t i n g the C o n f e s s i o n s "the s e r v i c e which I may thereby render to the whole c l a s s of opium-eaters." Cocteau's j o u r n a l s u f f e r s the same k i n d of commentary, a commentary which tends to d i s c r e d i t the d i s t i n c t l y s o c i a l v a l u e of the a r t - c o n f e s s i o n , and o b v i o u s l y f a v o r s the a r t i s t i c v a l u e , d e s p i t e the a u t hors' c o n t e n t i o n of a genuine r e c i p r o c i t y of m o t i v a t i o n between the a r t i s t i c and the s o c i a l . - ' Though the s t o r y of a d d i c t i o n takes on an i n c r e a s i n g l y n a t u r a l i s t i c c o l o r the more modern i t gets, the t r a d i t i o n does not t h e r e f o r e evaporate. De Quincey 12 i n v e n t s the p r o v o c a t i v e concept of the " a d d i c t i v e p e r s o n a l -i t y , " o r the i n d i v i d u a l who, t h r o u g h a f a l l i b i l i t y t h a t c o u l d be d i s c u s s e d i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l terms, d i s p l a y s a p a t h o l o g i c a l s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o modes of escape, be i t opium, s l e e p , sex, o r s u i c i d e . What makes the a r t c o n f e s s i o n d i f f e r e n t from the normal case s t u d y i s t h a t the c o n f e s s o r i s a t t h e same time s i n n e r and judge, i n v a l i d and d o c t o r . " I t i s my du t y , i t seems, t h u s f a r t o be a p h y s i c i a n - - t o g u a r a n t e e , so f a r as human f o r e s i g h t can g u a r a n t e e , my own c o r p o r e a l s a n i t y " ( W r i t i n g s 4 1 5 ) . And so w i t h the s o u l . De Quincey performs i n t e r n a l l y the f u g i t i v e l i f e of the 2 0 t h c e n t u r y j u n k i e i n the sense t h a t he l i t e r a l l y p r e s c r i b e s f o r h i m s e l f ; he l i s t e n s down i n s i d e h i m s e l f f o r the i n d i s p e n s a b l e p l e a s u r e s , and the unendurable p a i n s . A r e m a r k a b l e s c h o l a r and s t y l i s t , b ut an a d d i c t , De Quincey d o m e s t i c a t e s the a d d i c t , g i v e s him a home i n our p o p u l a r minds. To a p p r e c i a t e t h i s , De Quincey s h o u l d be seen i n t h r e e d i s t i n c t phases: b e f o r e a d d i c t i o n , as a c o n f i r m e d a d d i c t , and as a c o n f e s s o r . Though the w r i t i n g o f the C o n f e s s i o n s o c c u r e d when he was more o r l e s s (but always) a d d i c t e d , De Quincey's r e f l e x i v e memories of c h i l d h o o d combine w i t h a d i s c i p l i n e d o b j e c t i v i t y t o form a c u r i o u s l i t e r a r y c r e a t u r e , a t once p i t i f u l , t a c t f u l , and s h o c k i n g . 13 Almost c o n v e n t i o n a l l y , and d e s p i t e the obvious drudgery of l e a r n i n g Greek and L a t i n a t an e a r l y age, De Quincey assures us t h a t he was th a t v i s i o n a r y youth of The Prelude, t h a t "my c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i n f i r m i t y of mind r a n but too de t e r -m i n a t e l y towards the s l e e p of endless r e v e r y , and of dreamy a b s t r a c t i o n s from l i f e and i t s r e a l i t i e s " ( W r i t i n g s 263). Opium, then, a c t s f i g u r a t i v e l y as a r e s t o r a t i v e , as i t does f o r the n a r r a t o r of " L i g e i a . " The mind under opium feeds upon the past and e a s i l y summons the b l i t h e n e s s of youth. De Quincey r e c a l l s h i s maiden experiences w i t h opium, when he would walk around London, h i g h , on Saturday n i g h t : F o r opium ( l i k e the bee, that e x t r a c t s i t s m a t e r i a l s i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y from r o s e s and from the soot of chimneys) can o v e r r u l e a l l f e e l i n g s i n t o a compliance with the master key. Some of these rambles l e d me to g r e a t d i s t a n c e s : f o r an opium-eater i s too happy to observe the motion of time. (Confessions 3°5) De Quincey c l e a r l y i m p l i e s t h a t opium o r i g i n a l l y was a means of r e t u r n i n g to a harmonyl(or "un e q u i l i b r e , " as Cocteau would say) made imp o s s i b l e by the complex nature of h i s d i s t r e s s . But the expansion of the benigner f e e l i n g s , i n c i d e n t to opium, i s no f e b r i l e access, but a h e a l t h y r e s t o r a t i o n to that s t a t e which the mind would n a t u r a l l y r e c o v e r upon the removal of any deep-seated i r r i t a t i o n of p a i n t h a t had d i s t u r b e d and q u a r r e l l e d with the impulses of the h e a r t o r i g i n a l l y j u s t and good. (Confessions 298) Ik De Quincey b e t r a y s an i n o r d i n a t e tendency toward a l i f e removed from the e x i g e n c i e s o f d a i l y l i v i n g , and makes of t h i s r e s i d u a l r e s i s t e n c e b o t h a m y s t e r i o u s e p i s t e m o l o g y and a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the use o f opium: Among the powers i n men which s u f f e r by t h i s too i n t e n s e l i f e of the s o c i a l i n s t i n c t s , none s u f f e r s more t h a n the power of dreaming. L e t no man t h i n k t h i s i s a t r i f l e . The machinery f o r dreaming p l a n t e d i n the human b r a i n was n o t p l a n t e d f o r n o t h i n g . That f a c u l t y , i n a l l i a n c e w i t h the power of d a r k n e s s , i s the one g r e a t tube t h r o u g h w h i c h man communicates w i t h the shadowy. And the dreaming organ, i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the h e a r t , the eye and the e a r , composes the m a g n i f i c e n t a p p a r a t u s which f o r c e s the i n f i n i t e i n t o the chambers of a human b r a i n , and throws dark r e f l e c t i o n s from e t e r n i t i e s below a l l l i f e ^ u p o n the m i r r o r s o f the s l e e p i n g mind. And i t i s opium "which i n d e e d seems to p o s s e s s a s p e c i f i c power i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n ; n o t m e r e l y e x a l t i n g the c o l o u r s of the dream-scenery, b u t f o r deepening i t s shadows; and above 7 a l l , f o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g the sense o f i t s a w f u l r e a l i t i e s . " A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y G o t h i c i n t r o s p e c t i o n , n o t t a k i n g opium seems tantamount t o t u r n i n g one's f a c e t o the w a l l : " I t i s i s the f a c u l t y of m e n t a l v i s i o n , i t i s i n the i n c r e a s e d power of d e a l i n g w i t h the shadowy and d a r k , t h a t g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v i r t u e o f opium l i e s . " De Quincey proposes a k i n d Of s i c k l y , i f d e t e r m i n e d , a d v e n t u r i n g i n t o h o r r i f i c , i f p r o f o u n d , s u b c o n s c i o u s t e r r i t o r y , c r e a t i n g i t 15 seems the f r a i l t y and the earnestness of the t y p i c a l Poe or H.P. L o v e c r a f t n a r r a t o r d i s t r a u g h t w i t h h i s own s e n s i -t i v i t y . D r i v e n to n e u r o t i c r e v e r y , yes, but n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l sympathy. Fo r reasons t h a t he c o u l d never adequately e x p l a i n , De Quincey l e f t s c h o o l a t seventeen and e v e n t u a l l y experienced a b s o l u t e d e p r i v a t i o n i n London. De Quincey*s f e a r of p e r s e c u t i o n , h i s a t t r a c t i o n to the l o s t p a r i a h g i r l , h i s sympathy wit h the lower c l a s s e s , a l l d e r i v e from t h i s p e r i o d i n London. Probably the most memorable f e a t u r e of De Quincey's dream l i f e - - " t h e tyranny 9 of the human face' - - r e s u l t s from De Quincey's f r u i t l e s s search f o r Ann on and around Oxford S t r e e t . The young a r t i s t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d i s a f f i l i a t e d , the l o s t , the hungry, seems almost a stock c h a r a c t e r , and though i n De Quincey's case the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s h a r d l y complete (there i s a pronounced g e n t i l i t y i n De Quincey as w e l l ) , he does a s s i s t i n a fundamental way w i t h the t r a n s m i s s i o n of a t r a d i t i o n of a r t occasioned by d i s a f f i l i a t i o n , h a b i t u a l p a i n , shame, the search f o r a b s o l u t i o n . Perhaps because De Quincey i n some ways c o o r d i n a t e s with the world of h i s day--h i s c l a s s i c a l , i f b i z a r r e , s c h o l a r s h i p ; h i s sometimes maddening t a c t - - h i s i s o l a t i o n can seem a mere v a r i a n t of the Romantic norm. However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t sober Wordsworth, whom De Quincey admired u n f a i l i n g l y , e v e n t u a l l y 16 turned away from him, e i t h e r because of De Quincey's dependence upon opium (which r e c a l l e d C o l e r i d g e ) or because a r a t h e r common woman bore De Quincey a son, an i n d i s c r e t i o n a p p a r e n t l y not a m e l i o r a t e d by marriage. In the Co n f e s s i o n s , f i n a l l y , there emerges a p o r t r a i t of a young man wit h m a g n i f i c e n t p o t e n t i a l who i s a t the same time f a t a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d beyond r e c a l l . While c o n t r i b u t i n g to the fo r m a t i o n of an enduring s t e r e o t y p e of the urban a r t i s t , De Quincey a l s o d e s c r i b e s the v a r i o u s ways i n which the a d d i c t i o n to opium renders the e x e c u t i o n of a r t i m p o s s i b l e . The p l e a s u r e s of opium De Quincey hymns i n the 1821 v e r s i o n of the Con f e s s i o n s ; the pains of opium he spends the r e s t of h i s l i f e w r i t i n g : De Quincey a t seventy i s s t i l l w r i t i n g what he had w r i t t e n i n h i s t h i r t y - s i x t h year--the s t o r y of h i s a d d i c t i o n . And f i g u r i n g i m p o r t a n t l y i n De Quincey's assessment of a d d i c t i o n i n s o f a r as the w r i t e r i s concerned i s the wasting of the w i l l , the same symptom of a d d i c t i o n t h a t would d r i v e B a u d e l a i r e to d i s t r a c t i o n i n the next g e n e r a t i o n of a d d i c t s . S i x t e e n y e a r s a f t e r w r i t i n g the o r i g i n a l C o n f e s s i o n s , De Quincey, w h i l e w r i t i n g a r e t r o s p e c t i v e on C h a r l e s Lamb, s p e c u l a t e s on j u s t t h i s s u b j e c t . And he f i n d s t h a t the main l i a b i l i t y of w r i t i n g under the i n f l u e n c e of long-term a d d i c t i o n (and remember De Quincey was s t i l l an a d d i c t ) i s a sense of d i s g u s t both p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l f o r the w r i t i n g a t 17 hand. In any s t a t e of h e a l t h , I do not w r i t e w i t h r a p i d i t y . Under the i n f l u e n c e of opium, however, when i t reaches i t s maximum i n d e c r e a s i n g the l i v e r and deranging the d i g e s t i v e f u n c t i o n s , a l l e x e r t i o n what-ever i s r e v o l t i n g i n excess; i n t e l l e c t u a l e x e r t i o n , above a l l , i s connected h a b i t -u a l l y , when performed under opium i n f l u e n c e , w i t h a sense of d i s g u s t the most profound f o r the s u b j e c t which d e t a i n s the thoughts; a l l t h a t morning f r e s h n e s s of animal s p i r i t s ... . a l l t h a t dewy f r e s h n e s s i s exhaled and burnt o f f by the p a r c h i n g e f f e c t s of opium on the animal economy. ( W r i t i n g s 73) "L'opium permet de donner forme a l ' i n f o r m e ; i l empeche, h e l a s ! de communiquer ce p r i v i l e g e a a u t r u i , " w r i t e s Cocteau, e x p r e s s i n g the d i f f i c u l t y of b e a r i n g witness to a t r a n s c e n -10 dent d i s e a s e , an unbearably s e n s i t i z e d exhaustion. To p r o p e r l y confuse matters, i n t h i s same a r t i c l e De Quincey admits t h a t he wrote the 'Confessions when "armed . . . by a sudden i n c r e a s e i n opium" and thereby r e t a i n e d f o r a p e r i o d "a remarkable glow of s p i r i t s " ; t h i s r e s p i t e , however, was "purchased a t a heavy p r i c e of subsequent s u f f e r i n g . . . " ( W r i t i n g s 75)' Aside from d i g n i f y i n g the C o n f e s s i o n s w i t h an abnormal e x i s t e n t i a l v a l u e f o r De Quincey h i m s e l f , these remarks promote extreme opium i n t o x i c a t i o n to something l i k e e x t r a - l u c i d p e r c e p t i v e n e s s , c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the normal d u l l n e s s of the a d d i c t : I t i s mere c h i l d i s h h e l p l e s s n e s s , or s e n i l e 18 p a r a l y s i s , of the judgement, which d i s t r e s s e s the man i n attempting to grasp the upshot and the t o t a l e f f e c t . . . of what he has h i m s e l f so r e c e n t l y produced. There i s the same i m b e c i l i t y i n attempting to h o l d t h i n g s s t e a d i l y together, and to b r i n g them under a comprehensive or u n i f y i n g a c t of the judging f a c u l t y , as there i s i n the e f f o r t s of a drunken man to f o l l o w a c h a i n of re a s o n i n g . ( W r i t i n g s 77) De Quincey e v i d e n t l y d e s i r e s us to see him as s u r f a c i n g i n the C o n f e s s i o n s , h e r o i c a l l y t e s t i f y i n g to the l i f e , the acute l i f e , behind h i s d a i l y h y d r a u l i c gaze a t the empty page before him. De Quincey c h a r t s a d i s t i n c t l y subconscious l i f e , e x h i b i t s the a r t i f a c t s , or " i n v o l u t e s , " of the subconscious made luminescent under the i n f l u e n c e of opium. He can v i r t u a l l y p a i n t scenes a t w i l l a g a i n s t the screen i n h i s b r a i n . He f e e l s t h a t he i s going down i n t o h i s v i s i o n s and these are "accompanied by deep-seated a n x i e t y and gloomy melancholy"--"Nor d i d I, by waking, f e e l t h a t I had reascen-ded." Space and time s w e l l to i n f i n i t e p r o p o r t i o n s . And most i m p o r t a n t l y , "the minutest i n c i d e n t s of ch i l d h o o d , or f o r g o t t e n scenes of l a t e r years, were o f t e n r e v i v e d : I c o u l d not be s a i d to r e c o l l e c t them; f o r i f I had been t o l d of them when waking, I should not have been able to acknow-ledge them as p a r t s of my experience" (Confessions 327-28). De Quincey seems to be heading toward a r e g r e s s i v e s o l i p s i s m enforced by opium. 19 But i t simply does not work out t h a t way. De Quincey*s f i n a l d e c l a r a t i o n on opium seems u n b e l i e v a b l y .sanguine. F i r s t of a l l , he claims t h a t opium has allowed him the l o n g l i f e he has enjoyed. Without opium " t h i r t y - f i v e y e ars ago, beyond a l l doubt, I should have been i n my grave." He goes on to r e f u t e the t o l e r a n c e f a c t o r i n a d d i c t i o n and to a s s e r t t h a t , taken a l l around, opium has been the s l i g h t s e d a t i v e h i s nervous system r e q u i r e s : At present and f o r some years, I have been h a b i t u a l l y content w i t h f i v e or s i x g r a i n s d a i l y , i n s t e a d of three hundred and twenty to f o u r hundred g r a i n s . L e t me wind up t h i s r e t r o s p e c t w i t h saying , t h a t the powers of opium, as an anodyne, but s t i l l more as a t r a n q u i l i z e r of nervous and anomalous sen-s a t i o n s , have not i n the s m a l l e s t degree decayed; and t h a t , i f i t has c a s u a l l y un-v e i l e d i t s e a r l y power of e x a c t i n g s l i g h t p e n a l t i e s from any t r i v i a l i n a t t e n t i o n to a c c u r a t e p r o p o r t i o n s , i t has more than com-mensurately renewed i t s a n c i e n t p r i v i l e g e of l u l l i n g i r r i t a t i o n and or s u p p o r t i n g p r e t e r n a t u r a l c a l l s f o r e x e r t i o n . ( W r i t i n g s ^20) Such a p u r r i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the e l d e r l y a d d i c t , a p p a r e n t l y e x o r c i s e d of the f u r i e s t h a t had haunted h i s e a r l i e r years, l e a v i n g him more p r o l i x and seemingly i n v u l n e r a b l e . De Quincey p l a y s a v a r i e t y of r o l e s i n h i s casebook of the opium-eater: v i s i o n a r y , adventurous youth; s p a r k l i n g debutante of opium; f e r o c i o u s u s e r submerged i n gloom; and f i n a l l y the urbane, moderate, thoroughly a d j u s t e d a d d i c t s o o t h i n g h i s exacerbated nerves. 20 But t h e r e i s another of De Quincey's poses which i n a sense arches over a l l the o t h e r s , o r g a n i z e s them i n t o a coherent s t r u c t u r e . When De Quincey steps away from h i m s e l f i n order to hear h i m s e l f , sentence h i m s e l f , he d i g n i f i e s the c o n f e s s i o n mode beyond measure, but o n l y i f he can be b e l i e v e d . o n l y i f h i s s e l f - o b s e r v a t i o n s m a i n t a i n a c e r t a i n c r e d i b i l i t y . In the I856 r e v i s i o n of the C o n f e s s i o n s , De Quincey w r i t e s , "For i n these i n c i d e n t s of my e a r l y l i f e i s found the e n t i r e substratum, together w i t h the s e c r e t and u n d e r l y i n g motive of those pompous dreams . . . which were i n r e a l i t y the t r u e o b j e c t s — f i r s t and l a s t - - c o n t e m p l a t e d i n these C o n f e s s i o n s " ( W r i t i n g s 233)• The dreams make up the o b j e c t of the C o n f e s s i o n s , though the dreams o n l y become e x p l i c a b l e i n r e l a t i o n - t o the whole l i f e . Why the dreams? Because they might prove i n s t r u c t i v e as examples of the way continued doses of opium i n f l u e n c e the human b r a i n . The assumption i s t h a t the world needs to know the t r u t h about opium, and " i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the s e r v i c e I may thereby render to the whole c l a s s of opium-eaters," De Quincey takes the job on h i m s e l f , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e C o l e r i d g e , the o n l y person known to the p u b l i c as having d a l l i e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and f o r many years w i t h opium, c o u l d not be'looked to f o r any candid r e p o r t of i t s h i s t o r y and progress; b e s i d e s t h a t , C o l e r i d g e was under a permanent craze of having n e a r l y accom-p l i s h e d h i s own l i b e r a t i o n from opium; and 21 thus he had come to have an e x t r a reason f o r s e l f - d e l u s i o n . ( W r i t i n g s ^19) The C o n f e s s i o n s impose c e r t a i n demands on De Quincey: i f he i s to i n s t r u c t , he has to c r e a t e the i l l u s i o n t h a t he h i m s e l f has no "reason f o r . s e l f - d e l u s i o n , " and to do t h i s he has to s t r i c t l y d e f i n e h i s r e l a t i o n w i t h the work as he w r i t e s i t . T h i s need to e s t a b l i s h c r e d i b i l i t y marks each and every e f f o r t De Quincey makes to d e f i n e opium's " h i s t o r y and progress." De Quincey's c r e d i b i l i t y depends a good d e a l on h i s i n n a t e good t a s t e , or d i s c r e t i o n , when i t comes down to r e v e a l i n g s e n s i t i v e d e t a i l s of h i s l i f e . He knows t h a t he must t e l l a good deal--and t h a t the most i n t i m a t e psycholog-i c a l l y — b u t he does not want to r e p e a t the unwholesomeness of Rousseau's autobiography or any other s c o u n d r e l ' s : Nothing, indeed, i s more r e v o l t i n g to E n g l i s h f e e l i n g s , than the s p e c t a c l e of a human b e i n g o b t r u d i n g on our n o t i c e h i s moral u l c e r s or s c a r s , and t e a r i n g away t h a t 'decent drapery', which time, or indulgence to human f r a i l t y , may have drawn over them: a c c o r d i n g l y , the g r e a t e r p a r t of our c o n f e s s i o n s ( t h a t i s spon-taneous and e x t r a - j u d i c i a l c o n f e s s i o n s ) proceed from demireps, adventurers, or s w i n d l e r s . . . . (Confessions 2 5 3 ) A group, De Quincey assures us, to which he does not belong. H i s s t r i p t e a s e w i l l be an u n w i l l i n g one. Looking n e r v o u s l y around h i m s e l f , a s k i n g us, "Do I have t o ? " De Quincey 22 arouses a d i s t i n g u i s h e d brand of g e n t e e l p r u r i e n c e : A l l t h i s [/the p o s s i b i l i t y of i m p r o p r i e t y ! I f e e l so f o r c i b l y , and so n e r v o u s l y am I a l i v e to reproach of t h i s tendency, t h a t I have f o r many months h e s i t a t e d about the p r o p r i e t y of a l l o w i n g t h i s , or any p a r t of my n a r r a t i v e , to come before p u b l i c eye, u n t i l a f t e r my death (when, f o r many reasons, the whole w i l l be p u b l i s h e d ) : and i t i s not without an anxious review of the reasons f o r and a g a i n s t t h i s step, t h a t I have, a t l a s t , concluded on t a k i n g i t . ( Confessions 2 5 3 ) Yet De Quincey wrote the Co n f e s s i o n s w i t h a d e a d l i n e imposed by the p u b l i s h e r s on t h i s s e c r e t h i s t o r y t h a t (one wonders) he had kept hidden w i t h such a n x i e t y . Winningly, De Quincey c o n s t r u c t s a persona of unimpeachable moral g r a v i t y , the co n f e s s o r h i m s e l f , as opposed to the a d d i c t h i m s e l f . And though somewhat inv e n t e d f o r the oc c a s i o n , t h i s r e c t i t u d e - -or d i s t a n c e from a d d i c t i o n - - f i g u r e s s t r o n g l y i n the emerging s t r u c t u r e of the c o n f e s s i o n as De Quincey conceives i t . As does the c o n f e s s o r ' s s o b r i e t y . T h i s De Quincey f e e l s to be p a r t i c u l a r l y important. R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t opium i s an indulgence, and t h a t he has in d u l g e d i n i t to excess, De Quincey proudly announces t h a t he has p r a c t i c a l l y weaned h i m s e l f of t h i s " f a s c i n a t i n g e n t h r a l l m e n t " ; he has "at l e n g t h accomplished what I never y e t heard a t t r i b u t e d to any other man—have untwisted almost to i t s f i n a l l i n k s , the accursed c h a i n which f e t t e r e d me" (Confessions 2 5 ^ ) . 23 Sadly, De Quincey l a t e r admits t h a t he took more opium than u s u a l while w r i t i n g the C o n f e s s i o n s , but d e s p i t e t h i s , he f e e l s compelled to support the c o o l l y a u t h o r i t a r i a n v o i c e of the c o n f e s s o r with s u f f i c i e n t props. De Quincey l a t e r concedes t h a t he has misrepresented the r e a l s t a t u s of the c o n f e s s o r , and he c i t e s two reasons: f i r s t , such s u f f e r i n g as De Quincey was to d e s c r i b e "presumes i n the r e c o r d e r a power of s u r v e y i n g h i s own case as a c o o l s p e c t a t o r , and a degree of s p i r i t s f o r adequately d e s c r i b i n g i t , which i s would be i n c o n s i s t e n t to suppose i n any person speaking from the s t a t i o n of an a c t u a l s u f f e r e r . . . ."; and second, he r e a l l y thought he had j u s t about k i c k e d : "In s u f f e r i n g my readers t h e r e f o r e to t h i n k of me as a reformed opium-eater, I l e f t no impression but what I shared myself 11 . . . ." I r o n i c a l l y , the c o n f e s s o r i s c o n f e s s i n g h i m s e l f r e g a r d i n g h i s c o n f e s s i o n s , making the admission, probably p a i n f u l , t h a t he f e e l s o b l i g e d to make i n S u s p i r a de  Profundus: Or, i n the imagery of my dreams, which t r a n s l a t e d e v e r y t h i n g i n t o t h e i r own l a n -guage , I saw through v a s t avenues of gloom those towering gates of i n g r e s s which h i t h e r t o had always seemed to stand open, now a t l a s t b a r r e d a g a i n s ^ my r e t r e a t , and hung with f u n e r a l crape. De Quincey was to be an a d d i c t a l l h i s l i f e . But the o r i g i n a l C o n f e s s i o n s depend upon the r e c t i t u d e and s o b r i e t y 2k of the man as he i s a t t h i s moment. De Quincey c o u l d excuse h i s amendments of r e a l i t y f o r the purpose of c r e d i b i l i t y i n two ways. F i r s t , De Quincey c o u l d h a r d l y w r i t e h i s own mental and p h y s i c a l anatomy without c o n s i d e r i n g i t to be of the profoundest importance. Remember h i s l i f e w o r k was to have been named De emendatione  human i n t e l l e c t u s , the t i t l e b e i n g taken from Spinoza. De Quincey simply does not want to a l l o w the reader any means of t a k i n g the C o n f e s s i o n s l i g h t l y . S t r a n g e l y , De Quincey lends credence to the n o t i o n t h a t the a d d i c t can l i v e p r o d u c t i v e l y o n l y when he i s withdrawn from drugs, s i n c e he pretends to b e l i e v e i t h i m s e l f . As he becomes the E n g l i s h Opium-Eater i n f a c t and i n repute, the pose of a b s o l u t e s o b r i e t y becomes i m p o s s i b l e , though he can d i m i n i s h or even d i s m i s s opium's importance, as has been seen i n the r e v i s i o n . Second, i t seems c e r t a i n t h a t De Quincey had a keen i n t e r e s t i n h i s l i f e becoming a permanent c o n t r i b u t i o n to r e s e a r c h d e a l i n g w i t h opium. In the C o n f e s s i o n s De Quincey reminds us t h a t ; I speak from the ground of a l a r g e and profound p e r s o n a l experience: Whereas most of the u n s c i e n t i f i c authors who have at a l l t r e a t e d df opium, and even those who have w r i t t e n e x p r e s s l y of the m a t e r i a medica, • make i t e v i d e n t , from the h o r r o r they express of i t , t h a t t h e i r experimental 25 knowledge of i t s a c t i o n i s none a t a l l . (Confessions 299) And j a u n t i l y , he says, "And, t h e r e f o r e , worthy d o c t o r s , as there seems to be room f o r f u r t h e r d i s c o v e r i e s , stand a s i d e , and a l l o w me to come forward and l e c t u r e on t h i s Matter" (Confessions 297). De Quincey assumes a s c i e n t i f i c importance i n the s u b j e c t , and he assumes t h a t h i s e x p e r i -ences achieve a v a l i d i t y i n p r o p o r t i o n to the o b j e c t i v i t y of the c o n f e s s o r h i m s e l f . But at the same time De Quincey e s t a b l i s h e s another b a s i s f o r c r e d i b i l i t y when he s t r e s s e s the importance of a c t u a l , f i r s t h a n d experience. The o n l y expert i n a d d i c t i o n i s the a d d i c t h i m s e l f . Burroughs, f o r i n s t a n c e , ends d i s c u s s i o n when he says that "I can say d e f i n i t e l y t h a t weed i s an a p h r o d i s i a c and t h a t sex i s more enjoyable under the i n f l u e n c e of weed than without i t . Anyone who has used good weed w i l l v e r i f y t h i s statement. S i m i l a r l y , De Quincey speaks because he knows. Though never a "former" a d d i c t , De Quincey yearns a f t e r the t i t l e , to the p o i n t t h a t i n an appendix to the Confessions he f a c t u a l l y d e s c r i b e s the withdrawal process, and though "I cannot stand s t i l l o r s i t f o r two minutes together," and i t seems as though a l l the thoughts which had been f r o z e n up f o r a decade of years of opium, had now a c c o r d i n g to the o l d f a b l e been thawed out a t o n c e — s u c h a m u l t i t u d e stream i n on me from a l l q u a r t e r s , 26 he s t i l l m a i n t a i n s t h a t i t i s evident t h a t thus much of b e n e f i t may a r i s e to the persons most i n t e r e s t e d i n such a h i s t o r y of opium--viz. to opium-e a t e r s i n g e n e r a l - - t h a t i t e s t a b l i s h e s , f o r t h e i r c o n s o l a t i o n and encouragement, the f a c t t h a t opium may be.renounced; and without g r e a t e r s u f f e r i n g s than an o r d i n a r y r e s o l u t i o n may support; and by a p r e t t y r a p i d course of descent. Which only makes sense as an example of wish-withdrawal, an ingenuous attempt to d i s t a n c e h i m s e l f from opium i n order to e r e c t a veneer of r e s p e c t a b i l i t y over h i s d a i l y shame. The c o n s i d e r a b l e p o p u l a r i t y of De Quincey's C o n f e s s i o n s r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n of the a c t u a l e f f e c t of the Co n f e s s i o n s on subsequent ge n e r a t i o n s of miserable drug f i e n d s . Orthodox o p i n i o n from the 1 9 t h and e a r l y 2 0 t h c e n t u r i e s g e n e r a l l y h e l d that De Quincey e x e r c i s e d a d e l e t e r i o u s s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e i n d e s c r i b i n g h i s opium experiences. T e r r y and P e l l i n s sum up the p r e v a i l i n g s u s p i c i o n : I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t even today of most of those who have come i n t o contact w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of i n d i v i d u a l s s u f f e r i n g from c h r o n i c opium i n t o x i c a t i o n , there are few who have not known one or more who owed t h e i r f i r s t i n t o x i c a t i o n to the drug to a p e r u s a l of De Quincey's s o r r y masterpiece. Not o n l y has i t i n f l u e n c e d i n d i v i d u a l s of s u i t a b l e p s y c h o l o g i c make-up to f a l l under the sway of the drug but a l s o i t was the f o r e r u n n e r of a host of 27 other morbid and i l l - c o n c e i v e d c r e a t i o n s on the p a r t of m i s l e a d i n g w r i t e r s who have chosen to apply what mediocre or other g i f t s they have had to the s t i m u l a t i n g of e x p l o i t a b l e d e s i r e s and weaknesses. T h i s , what may be termed the e d u c a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e , has continued to the present time as i s e v i d e n t to anyone f a m i l i a r with the p e r i o d -i c a l s or d a i l y p r e s s . Aware t h a t the P l e a s u r e s of Opium c o n t r o l the tone of the C o n f e s s i o n s , De Quincey c i t e s a d i s i n c l i n a t i o n to t a l k about unpleasant t h i n g s , and the haste of composition, as reasons. And he then promises a t h i r d p a r t which would 16 emphasize the pains of opium—which he never wrote. A f t e r h i s squabble with C o l e r i d g e - - C o l e r i d g e charged De Quincey w i t h t a k i n g opium f o r voluptuous reasons where he, C o l e r i d g e , took opium on l y to a l l a y pain--De Quincey becomes more s e n s i t i v e to the charge t h a t he promotes opium-eating: "Teach opium-eating.' D i d I teach wine-d r i n k i n g ? D i d I r e v e a l the mystery of s l e e p i n g ? D i d I inaugurate the i n f i r m i t y of laughter?"" And he concludes by a b s o l u t e l y denying any " e d u c a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e " i n s o f a r as opium i s concerned: "My f a i t h i s , t h a t no man i s l i k e l y to adopt opium or l a y i t a s i d e i n consequence of a n y t h i n g 17 he may read m a book." The r e a l o b j e c t i s "pure s c i e n c e , " as Burroughs (as Benway) would say. De Quincey: 28 I say that opium, or any agent of equal power, i s e n t i t l e d to assume t h a t i t was r e v e a l e d to man f o r some h i g h e r o b j e c t than t h a t i t should f u r n i s h a t a r g e t f o r moral d e n u n c i a t i o n s , ignorant where they are not h y p o c r i t i c a l , c h i l d i s h where not dishonest; t h a t i t should be s e t up as a t h e a t r i c a l scarecrow f o r s u p e r s t i t i o u s t e r r o r s , of which the r e s u l t i s o f t e n -times to defraud human s u f f e r i n g of i t s r e a d i e s t a l l e v i a t i o n , and of which purpose i s , *Ut p u e r i s p l a c e a n t et declamatio f i a n t . ' ( W r i t i n g s 214) Knowledge, De Quincey maintains, abrogates p e t t y concerns of how someone was i n t r o d u c e d to opium when, chances are, a toothache c o u l d perform the i n t r o d u c t i o n as e a s i l y as the most l u r i d d e s c r i p t i o n s . In the world of drugs t h i s i s not an unimportant n o t i o n . A n o t i c e a b l y r e s p o n s i b l e study of marijuana, the La Guardia Report, r e c e i v e d c r i t i c i s m i n the e a r l y f o r t i e s because i t d i d not e f f e c t i v e l y s t a t e the Pains of Marijuana (to use De Quincey's f o r m u l a ) : A l r e a d y the book has done harm. One i n v e s t i g a t o r has d e s c r i b e d some t e a r f u l parents who brought t h e i r 16 year o l d son to a p h y s i c i a n a f t e r he had been de t e c t e d i n the a c t of smoking mari-juana. A n o t i c e a b l e mental d e t e r i o r a t i o n had been e v i d e n t f o r some time even to t h e i r l a y minds. The boy s a i d he had read an account of the La Guardia Committee r e p o r t and t h a t t h i s was h i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r u s i n g marijuana. He read i n Down Beat, a m u s i c a l j o u r n a l , an a n a l y s i s of t h i s r e p o r t under the c a p t i o n " L i g h t Up Gates, Report F i n d s 'Tea' a Good K i c k . " i a 29 And t h i s i s from the e d i t o r i a l page of the J o u r n a l of the  American M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , which i n d i c a t e s the c o l l u s i o n "between the Bureau of N a r c o t i c s and the AMA i n s a n c t i o n i n g ignorance as the s u p e r i o r means of c o n t r o l l i n g drug use, p r e f e r r i n g s o c i a l l y u s e f u l propoganda to any k i n d of l i b e r -a t i n g t r u t h . De Quincey b r i n g s h i m s e l f forward as the t r u t h about opium and i t s i n f l u e n c e , and he has been b i t t e r l y censured f o r h i s p a i n s , which i s one c e r t a i n , i f p erverse, proof of h i s importance. "You can almost judge the importance of a d i s c o v e r y by the e f f o r t s made 19 to suppress i t , " Burroughs has warned. y The c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the p a r t i c u l a r s of h i s i n t e r i o r l i f e are i n themselves important as l i t e r a t u r e and as s c i e n c e begins and ends De Quincey's l i f e i n l e t t e r s . De Quincey d e l i n e a t e s the f r e q u e n t l y r e c u r r i n g form of a d d i c t i o n ; he c r e a t e s the d i s t i n c t i v e way i n which something t h a t had never been w r i t t e n about a l l of a sudden becomes the s u b j e c t of desperate m e d i t a t i o n . Even when the p h y s i c a l r e a l i t i e s of another person's experience were w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t , or depending on another drug, i t was l i k e l y he would c a r r y De Quincey's C o n f e s s i o n s i n h i s mind as the f u l f i l l m e n t of the genre. F i t z Hugh Ludlow, f o r example, an American hasheesh-eater w r i t i n g i n the 1850's admits the p r o b a b i l -i t y t h a t 30 every man h e r e a f t e r , who opens the m y s t e r i e s of t h a t g r e a t s o u l w i t h i n him, speak, so f a r as he can, down the channels through which Thomas De Quincey has spoken, nor out of v a i n p e r v e r s i t y r e f u s e to use a passage which the one grand pioneer has made to a l l . 2 0 De Quincey*s unexampled success w i t h t r a n s f o r m i n g a medical problem, drug a d d i c t i o n , i n t o a s p i r i t u a l a f f l i c t i o n w i t h u n l i m i t e d metaphoric p o s s i b i l i t i e s i s one of the more s i g n i f i c a n t l e g a c i e s from the Romantic p e r i o d . D o s t o e v s k i c o u l d have used a j u n k i e , but chances are t h a t he would have had to have read De Quincey before he would have r e a l i z e d the p o t e n t i a l i n h e r e n t i n the image of the a d d i c t . Sending out deeply considered, not always t r u t h f u l messages, De Quincey's a d d i c t staggers w i t h i n h i s own s t r i c k e n s u b j e c t i v i t y (as though he can o n l y dream). Ludlow's hasheesh-eater, on the other hand, seems o v e r w r i t t e n , camp, u n w i t t i n g l y m i s l e a d i n g , humorously earnest, a b s o l u t e l y c o m m e r c i a l — a 1 9 t h century "Reefer Madness." De Quincey maintains t h a t h i s opium dreams are important i n terms of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l connections to be drawn wi t h h i s c h i l d -hood experience. Ludlow, on the other hand, t r e a t s h i s dreams as p o t e n t i a l l y cosmic t r u t h s t h a t can only be d i s c u s s e d i n t r a n s c e n d e n t a l language. De Quincey l i s t e n s , w itnesses h i m s e l f i n a n a l y t i c language, whereas Ludlow g a l l o p s through g a l a x i e s , l e a p i n g to awed c o n c l u s i o n . 31 One reader has even taken Ludlow's a c t i v i t y to be d e s i r a b l e , c l a i m i n g t h a t h i s book " c e r t a i n l y p r o v i d e s . . . more l i v e l y and c o l o r f u l r e a d i n g than do the g r o s s l y o v e r r a t e d c o n f e s s i o n s of the ' E n g l i s h opium-eater,' Thomas De Quincey."' But o n l y i f your t a s t e runs toward Byzantine drug s p e c t a c u l a r of a p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n t i n e n t k i n d . The Hasheesh E a t e r stands i n the same r e l a t i o n s h i p to the i n t e r i o r l i f e of an opium a d d i c t as the most e s c a p i s t MGM m u s i c a l stands to the d a i l y l i f e on the s t r e e t s d u r i n g the Depression. In The Hasheesh E a t e r Ludlow r e c o g n i z e s no fo r m a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between past experience and consciousness under the i n f l u e n c e of h a s h i s h . When de-s c r i b i n g the f e e l i n g when h a s h i s h f i r s t takes e f f e c t , Ludlow w r i t e s t h a t "the n e a r e s t resemblance to the f e e l i n g i s t h a t c o n t a i n e d i n our i d e a of the instantaneous s e p a r a t i o n of s o u l and body" (50)• I t i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine anything l e s s d e s c r i p t i v e , except perhaps h i s dithyramb to the beauty of the American c o l l e g i a t e song " t r o l l e d from manly t h r o a t s , which keep good chord and-time, and f i r s t l e a r n e d w i t h i n these homely w a l l s , which, to the true American c o l l e g i a n , are dearer than a l l the towers of Oxford" ( 155 ) - Where De Quincey's a n x i e t y u l t i m a t e l y r e f e r s to the i n d i v i d u a l body and psyche, Ludlow gazes f a r away: I y i e l d e d to no sensual g r a t i f i c a t i o n . The motives f o r the has h i s h - i n d u l g e n c e 32 were of the most e x a l t e d i d e a l nature, f o r of t h i s nature are a l l i t s e c s t a s i e s and i t s r e v e l a t i o n s - - y e s , and a tho u s a n d - f o l d more t e r r i b l e , f o r t h i s v ery reason, i t s u n u t t e r a b l e pangs. (4-7) Though met a p h y s i c a l melodrama c e r t a i n l y , Ludlow has a l s o found another tack w i t h which to e s t a b l i s h c r e d i b i l i t y - -h i s p u r i t y . And i t i s t r u e t h a t Ludlow's h a l l u c i n a t i o n s seem d e f i n i t e l y Spenserian. The Galahad of a d d i c t i o n , Ludlow swallows h i s bol u s and r i d e s o f f to f i g h t the G i a n t of O r i e n t a l drugs: "Censure me not h a r s h l y , ye who have never known what f a s c i n a t i o n there i s i n the e c s t a s y of beauty; there are baser a t t r a c t i o n s than those which i n v i t e d me" ( 4 6 ) . Ludlow was a c h i l d of h i s time (with the emphasis on c h i l d ) . Perhaps i n f l u e n c e d by Emerson, i n t e r e s t e d i n the O r i e n t and the fabulousness of The A r a b i a n N i g h t s , e x h i b i t i n g a s u i t a b l y v i s i o n a r y c o n s t i t u t i o n - - " A f e e b l e c h i l d h o o d soon exhausted i t s s u p e r f l u o u s a c t i v i t i e s , and i n t o books, i l l h e a l t h , and musing I s e t t l e d down when I should have been p l a y i n g c r i c k e t , hunting, or r i d i n g " ( 6 2 ) —Ludlow appears the l i p - s m a c k i n g l y p r i g g i s h c o u n t e r p a r t to Owen Warland i n Hawthorne's "The A r t i s t of the B e a u t i f u l . " But not q u i t e so a b s o l u t e l y i d e a l i z e d , i n t h a t Ludlow was a s o r t of s c i e n t i f i c g l u e - s n i f f e r , the W i l l i a m James of ado l e s c e n t druggers: 33 Now w i t h the c h l o r o f o r m b o t t l e beneath my nose have I set myself c a r e e r i n g upon the wings of t h r i l l i n g and a c c e l e r a t i n g l i f e , u n t i l I had j u s t enough power remaining to r e s t o r e the l i q u i d to i t s p l a c e upon the s h e l f , and s i n k back i n t o the enjoyment of the d e l i c i o u s apathy which l a s t e d through the few succeeding moments. Now ether was s u b s t i t u t e d f o r chloroform, and the d i f -f e r e n c e of t h e i r phenomenon noted, and now some other e x h i l e r a n t i n the form of an o p i a t e or s t i m u l a n t , was the i n -strument of my experiments, u n t i l I had run through the whole gamut of queer agents 1 w i t h i n my reach. And then enter Cannabis I n d i c a , "a powerful agent i n cases of lockjaw" (17). Ludlow s t e a l s an amount of h a s h i s h from h i s f r i e n d , the f r i e n d l y d r u g g i s t , who works a t h i s " f a v o u r i t e l o u n g i n g - p l a c e , " the American drugstore. Ludlow goes on to experience d i s l o c a t i o n s that can o n l y f i n d a p a r a l l e l i n the s e n s a t i o n a l r e p o r t s of the e f f e c t s of LSD i n the 1960's: "Hashish I c a l l e d 'the drug of t r a v e l , ' and I had o n l y to d i v e r t my thoughts s t r o n g l y toward a p a r t i c u l a r p a r t of the world p r e v i o u s l y to swallowing my bolus to make my whole f a n t a s i a i n the s t r o n g e s t p o s s i b l e degree t o p o g r a p h i c a l " (52). And l i k e LSD p o p u l a r l y c o n s i d e r e d , H a shish i s Manichean, l e a d i n g i n e v i t a b l y to c o n f r o n t a t i o n s w i t h almost m o r a l i t y p l a y p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of e v i l . During one h e l l i s h v i s i o n a " s h e - f i e n d " presses her h i s s i n g h e a r t on h i s b r e a s t . And on another o c c a s i o n a bevy of d e v i l s serenade him, and he d e s c r i b e s the scene wi t h customary 34 melodramatic t a c t : I s t i l l remember the meaning of the song they sang, although there i s no language y e t coined which w i l l convey i t , and f a r be i t from me even to suggest i t s nature, l e s t I should seem to perpetuate i n any degree such p r o f a n i t y as beyond,' the abodes of the l o s t no l i p s are capable of u t -t e r i n g . ( 7 0 ) D e s p i t e these n i g h t m a r i s h v i s i o n s , however, Ludlow s t o u t l y m aintains t h a t a n g e l i c t r u t h has been r e v e a l e d to him: Hasheesh i s indeed an accursed drug, and the s o u l a t l a s t pays a most b i t t e r p r i c e f o r a l l i t s e c s t a s i e s ; moreover, the use of i t i s not the proper means of g a i n i n g any i n s i g h t , y e t who s h a l l say t h a t a t t h a t season of e x h a l t a t i o n I d i d not know t h i n g s as they are more t r u l y than ever i n the o r d i n a r y world. (91) The h a s h i s h s t a t e even becomes equated i n Ludlow's mind wit h the a c t u a l heaven: "Yet through a l l the l o n g agonies which attended i t s abjurement, I consoled myself w i t h the knowledge t h a t the i n f i n i t e g l o r i e s of the past should beam i n on me again" ( 9 2 ) . Angels speak to Ludlow, y e t even with t h i s profound a i d , Ludlow admits to a few p a s t -times which make l i f e without h a s h i s h worth l i v i n g : blowing soap bubbles, b u i l d i n g houses out of books, and w r i t i n g the notes which make up the book we are r e a d i n g . There i s , however, one i n t e r e s t i n g i n t r u s i o n of concrete r e a l i t y i n t o the book. Convinced that he w i l l never be able 35 to withdraw from h a s h i s h , Ludlow runs a c r o s s an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "The Hasheesh E a t e r . " Up to t h i s time Ludlow has assumed t h a t he i s the o n l y h a s h i s h e a t e r i n North America, and he f i r s t imagines t h a t the a r t i c l e must be about h i m s e l f . He reads the a r t i c l e and d i s c o v e r s t h a t the author has s u c c e s s f u l l y abandoned the use of h a s h i s h , and with new r e s o l v e (and with the author's a i d ) Ludlow succeeds i n withdrawing from h a s h i s h . T h i s may seem over-done to anyone who knows the f i r s t t h i n g about h a s h i s h , but w i t h i n the context of the book the withdrawal from h a s h i s h i s fearsome indeed: "I speak c o n f i d e n t l y , y e t without exaggeration, when I say t h a t I have spent many an hour i n t o r t u r e such as was never known by Crammer at the stake or Gaudentio d i Lucca i n the I n q u i s i t i o n . . . " ( ^5 ) • Having emerged wi t h h i s s o u l i n t a c t , Ludlow ends h i s book w i t h the name (Dr. J.W. Palmer) and address of the d o c t o r who had w r i t t e n the a r t i c l e on h a s h i s h and goes on to urge other hasheesh e a t e r s to seek the d o c t o r out and be helped as he was helped. Though Ludlow seems the e q u i v a l e n t of the m i l e s g l o r i o s u s i n the l i t e r a t u r e i n v o l v i n g drug a d d i c t i o n , he too w o r r i e s over h i s s t r a i n e d c r e d i b i l i t y . With h i s r e l u c t a n c e to be too graphic i n the drawing of s u f f e r i n g , w i t h h i s L a t i n and Greek droppings, with a myriad of mincing d e l i c a c i e s , 36 Ludlow makes the same attempt as De Quincey to assure us t h a t he has escaped from "the v e r y w i t c h p l a n t of h e l l , the weed of madness," or i n o t h e r words, "the hasheesh s t a t e " which " i n i t s i n t e n s e s t forms, i s g e n e r a l l y one of the w i l d e s t i n s a n i t y " (100). But there i s a g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e "between Ludlow and De Quincey. Where De Quincey's attempts a t c r e d i b i l i t y seem w i s t f u l machinations i n c i d e n t on p a t h o l o g i c a l s e l f - d o u b t , Ludlow's attempts seem merely sanctimonious, a c t u a l l y imagining h i m s e l f to be the spokes-man f o r an i d e a l creed t h a t demands an unusual eloquence b e f o r e a n y t h i n g i n the l e a s t can be f e l t to be meant by the language. T h i s eloquence Emerson had, f o r i n s t a n c e , and Emerson would probably have r e i s s u e d h i s p r e s c r i p t i o n of i n t o x i c a t i n g water f o r the poet i f he had ever read Ludlow's u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y h i l a r i o u s account t h a t advances the myth of h a s h i s h a d d i c t i o n i n t o the popular mind f o r perhaps the f i r s t time i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . An i n c r e d i b l y f l o r i d v i s i o n of the O r i e n t c o n t r i b u t e d to Ludlow's c u r i o u s i t y about the i n f l u e n c e of h a s h i s h , and he remains convinced t h a t h a s h i s h r e t a i n s i n i t s e l f pecu-l i a r l y E a s t e r n p r o p e r t i e s : In l a t e r days, I b e l i e v e , and now w i t h a l l due modesty a s s e r t , I unlocked the s e c r e t , not by a h y p o t h e s i s , not by processes of reasoning, but by j o u r n e y i n g through those self-same f i e l d s of weird experience which 37 are d i n t e d by the sandals of the g l o r i o u s o l d dreamers of the E a s t . (17) I n France, however, i n t e r e s t i n h a s h i s h and opium as means of escape from d a i l y r o u t i n e was not even p a r t i c u l a r l y arcane among a r t i s t s , s c i e n t i s t s , and the c u r i o u s . And the ambience of the O r i e n t , w i t h which h a s h i s h and opium were a s s o c i a t e d , had been evoked i n r a c y households s i n c e a t l a t e s t 1 6 6 4 , the year of the s u c c e s s f u l f o r m a t i o n of the Compagnie des Indes O r i e n t a l e s . The many t r a v e l books d e a l i n g w i t h the East n a t u r a l l y d i s c u s s e d the e x o t i c s t i m u l a n t s to be found t h e r e - - c o f f e e , t e a , perfumes, h a s h i s h , and opium. The A r a b i a n Nights c e r t a i n l y provoked an i n t e r e s t i n the E a s t , as w e l l as i n s e c r e t and e r o t i c 22 p o t i o n s . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Napoleon was f o r c e d to gxve an order outlawing h a s h i s h f o r h i s s o l d i e r s d u r i n g h i s E g y p t i a n campaign. In sum, e s o t e r i c f a s h i o n r e a d i l y i n t e r e s t e d i t s e l f i n the strange, f a b l e d i n t o x i c a n t s of the east. • In 1 8 1 8 S i l v e s t r e de Sacy p u b l i s h e d "Memoire sur l a d y n a s t i e des A s s a s s i n s , " or the s t o r y of the Old Man of the Mountain, the p i c t u r e s q u e background to h a s h i s h t h a t would crop up everywhere i n s c h o l a r l y drug c i r c l e s . (Burroughs to Ginsberg: "And always remember. 11 No t h i n g i s True. E v e r y t h i n g i s p e r m i t t e d . ' L a s t words of Hassan Sabbah. The Old Man of the Mountain." 2-^) De Quincey's Co n f e s s i o n s 38 a p p e a l e d t o the F r e n c h as w e l l , opening up the m e t a p h o r i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f opium and, i n the p r o c e s s , h a s h i s h ( d i f -f e r e n t as t h e y may be) . A l f r e d de Musset a d a p t e d — a n d s e n t i m e n t a l i z e d — t h e C o n f e s s i o n s i n t o F r e n c h i n 1828. I t was an e r a o f N e o - P l a t o n i s m , magnetism, Swedenborg, o c c u l t i s m , and o p p o s i t i o n t o the m a t e r i a l i s m s h a p i n g the f u t u r e . The w i d e s p r e a d i n t e r e s t i n t r a n s c e n d e n t e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h drugs i s one a s p e c t of the p e r i o d ' s m o d e r n i t y ; the famous "Club des H a c h i c h i n s " a t the H o t e l Pimodan evokes p e r f e c t l y the c h a r a c t e r of c o n s c i o u s n e s s - e x p a n d i n g drugs i n the Western w o r l d — s e c r e t , e x p e r i m e n t a l , s p i r i t u a l i s t . Moreau de Tours, who o f f i c i a t e d a t the meetings of the c l u b , p u b l i s h e d i n 1845 P_u H a s c h i s c h e t de 1 ' a l i e n a t i o n mentale where he argues t h a t the p h y s i c i a n c o u l d b e n e f i t from t a k i n g h a s h i s h i n o r d e r t o comprehend the p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d i s t u r b e d mind, a r a t i o n a l e w h i c h w i l l l a t e r prompt e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h p e y o t e , m e s c a l i n e , and LSD. I n 1851 B a u d e l a i r e p u b l i s h e d "Du v i n e t du h a c h i s h , " i n w hich he d e c l a r e s h i m s e l f r a t h e r i n f a v o r of wine, even w h i l e condemning h a s h i s h : Le v i n e x a l t e l a v o l o n t e , l e h a c h i s h l ' a n n i h i l e . Le v i n e s t un s u p p o r t p h y s i q u e , l e h a c h i s h e s t une arme pour l e s u i c i d e . Le v i n r e n d bon e t s o c i a b l e . Le h a c h i s h e s t i s o l a n t . L'un e s t l a b o r i e u x pour a i n s i d i r e . , 1 ' a u t r e e s s e n t i e l l e m e n t p a r a s s u e x . 2 39 B a u d e l a i r e ' s judgement c o n t r a s t s markedly wi t h De Quincey's comparison between wine and opium: "Wine robs man of h i s s e l f - p o s s e s s i o n ; opium g r e a t l y i n v i g o r a t e s i t " (Confessions 313)• But these remarks suggest d i v e r g e n t i n t e r e s t s to a degree c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the two men. De Quincey p o s i t s self-knowledge born of i n t r o s p e c t i o n to be opium's g r e a t e s t f a v o r ; B a u d e l a i r e , on the other hand, yearns f o r the r e t u r n to g r e g a r i o u s , e l a s t i c , p r o d u c t i v e h e a l t h , t h i s b e i n g i n h i s view the most s e d u c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e to s a l v a t i o n . In h i s t r i a l r u n before "Le poeme du h a s c h i s c h " B a u d e l a i r e i n i t i a t e s the expansion of h a s h i s h from a mere i n t o x i c a n t to a moral c h a l l e n g e , going f a r beyond the three essays by G a u t i e r p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g the 1830.'s and 40's which had been content to d e s c r i b e the h a s h i s h experience and the h a l l u c i n a t i o n s one might expect. What De Quincey e v e n t u a l l y accommodated h i m s e l f t o , and found b e n e f i t i n ( h i s a d d i c t i o n ) , B a u d e l a i r e c o n s i d e r s the g r e a t e s t of a l l p o s s i b l e s i n s , the equal to s e l l i n g one's s o u l . B a u d e l a i r e d i v i d e s Les p a r a d i s a r t i f i c i e l s i n t o two p a r t s : "Le poeme du h a s c h i s c h " and an abridged r e n d e r i n g of De Quincey's Confessions, and S u s p i r a de Profundus. De s p i t e "des renseignements nombreux et minutieux, e x t r a i t s 2 5 des notes ou des c o n f i d e n c e s d'hommes i n t e l l i g e n t s , " which seems no more than a stock attempt a t c r e d i b i l i t y , "Le poeme du h a s c h i s c h " i s a deeply p e r s o n a l m e d i t a t i o n 40 w r i t t e n i n the a t tu r n s o b j e c t i v e and t r a n s c e n d e n t a l language c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of drug l i t e r a t u r e . In "Du v i n et du h a c h i s h " B a u d e l a i r e s p e c u l a t e s t h a t Quand i l y aura un vrai^medecin philosophe, chose q u i ne se v o i t guere, i t pourra f a i r e une pu i s s a n t e etude sur l e v i n , une s o r t de ps y c h o l o g i e double dont l e v i n ^ et l'homme composent l e s deux termes. B a u d e l a i r e a c t u a l l y becomes t h a t p h i l o s o p h i c a l doctor i n "Le poeme du h a s c h i s c h , " o n l y now i t i s man and h a s h i s h t h a t make up the two terms. T h i s encroachment i n t o the p h y s i c i a n ' s domain i s not unique to B a u d e l a i r e . De Quincey p r o c l a i m s opium to be the " U n i v e r s a l Panacea," the cure f o r consumption. Ludlow never ceases to e x t o l the n o b i l i t y of d o c t o r s . And d u r i n g h i s cure, Cocteau w r i t e s , "Jamais je n ' a i r e g r e t t e p l u s profondement de n ' a v o i r pas ete N / 27 poete et medecin, comme A p p o l l o n . " ' B a u d e l a i r e , however, steps completely i n t o the r o l e of moral do c t o r , evading h i s true r o l e as c o n f e s s o r . The d i f f e r e n c e between "Le poeme du Has c h i s c h " and The Doors of P e r c e p t i o n ( d i s r e g a r d i n g c o n c l u s i o n s ) i s t h a t Huxley i s t e l l i n g us e v e r y t h i n g he knows, whereas B a u d e l a i r e knows much more--his s t r u g g l e w i t h a d d i c t i o n - - b u t i n s e l f - d e f e n s e (and, u l t i m a t e l y , as pe r s o n a l punishment) he adopts an a u t h o r i t a r i a n v o i c e , s t r i c t l y moral, a b s o l u t e l y persuaded, w i t h which he condemns h i m s e l f to h e l l . 41 H a s h i s h , B a u d e l a i r e a r g u e s , i n c i t e s unbounded n a r c i s s i s m , s e l f - l o v e t h a t excuses e v e r y t h i n g , even remorse f o r p a s t s i n s . E v e r y t h i n g i n the l e a s t u n p l e a s a n t becomes an oc-c a s i o n f o r " d ' a n a l y s e v o l u p t u e u s e " ; c o n t e m p l a t i o n becomes co n f u s e d w i t h a c t i o n ; the h a s h i s h u s e r ends by pompously d e c l a r i n g h i s own v i r t u e , as Rousseau had done w i t h o u t h a s h i s h . And f i n a l l y , the h a b i t u a t e dreams o f h i m s e l f as God: he s e l l s h i s s o u l t o the d e v i l : "En e f f e t , t o u t homme q u i n'accepte pas l e s c o n d i t i o n s de l a v i e , vend son ame." H a s h i s h t h u s becomes a v a r i a n t o f t h e F a u s t i a n p a c t . The h a s h i s h u s e r b e g i n s by h u n g e r i n g f o r the i n f i n i t e , and though t h i s hunger d e f i n e s h i s g r e a t n e s s , i t l e a d s him t o "ce p a r a d i s d ' o c c a s i o n " p e c u l i a r t o h a s h i s h and opium. The o n l y s a l v a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o B a u d e l a i r e , l i e s i n p r a y e r , f a s t i n g , and work, e s p e c i a l l y work. B a u d e l a i r e u l t i m a t e l y expounds an e t h i c o f work i n "Le poeme du h a s c h i s c h , " an e t h i c e x e m p l i f i e d by B a l z a c . B a u d e l a i r e condemns h a s h i s h and opium i n a p e r s o n a l s c o u r g i n g r i t u a l , the i n t e n s i t y o f the e x c o r i a t i o n b e s p e a k i n g the t e m p t a t i o n B a u d e l a i r e h i m s e l f e x p e r i e n c e d . The f a c t i s , 28 B a u d e l a i r e took opium from 1842 on a r e c u r r e n t b a s i s . I n 1857, the y e a r L e s p a r a d i s a r t i f i c i e l s was p u b l i s h e d , B a u d e l a i r e w r i t e s , Est-^ce l e ph y s i q u e ma^ade q u i diminue 1 * e s p r i t e t l a v o l o n t e , ou e s t - c e l a 42 l a c h e t e s p i r i t u e l l e q u i f a t i g u e l e corps, je n'en s a i s r i e n . y Mais ce que je sens, c ' e s t un immense decouragement, une s e n s a t i o n / d * i s o l e m e n t i n s u p p o r t a b l e , une peur p e r p e t u e l l e d'un malheur vague, une d e f i a n c e complete de mes f o r c e s , une f absence t o t a l e de d e s i r s , une i m p o s s i b i l i t e de t r o u v e r un amusement quelconque... S i l e moral peut g u e r i r l e physique, un v i o l e n t t r a v a i l contiriu me guer^ra, mais i f f a u t v o u l o i r avec une v o l o n t e a f f a i b l i e ; - - c e r c l e v i c i e u x . 2 9 B a u d e l a i r e ' s c o n f e s s i o n l i e s u n w r i t t e n between "Le poeme du h a s c h i s c h " and Les F l e u r du Mai, each of which takes up the i m p l i c a t i o n s of a d d i c t i o n , the one as moral t r a c t and the other as h i g h l y symbolized poetry. Though B a u d e l a i r e does not f e e l i t necessary to repeat De Quincey, and t r a n s l a t e s the C o n f e s s i o n s i n s t e a d , though he never p o i n t s the f i n g e r at h i m s e l f but i n s t e a d maintains a v o i c e of " i n f l e x i b l e a u t h o r i t y " (Burroughs' phrase), B a u d e l a i r e comes back to us i n f u r t i v e c o n f e s s i o n , r e c o n c i l e s i n an e q u i v o c a l way h i s i s o l a t i o n , h i s f a t i g u e , and h i s need to speak i n "impassioned prose" "medicale et poetique a l a f o i s " the t r u t h of h i s rewards, and punishments. B a u d e l a i r e ' s need to speak i s both moral and a r t i s t i c : a c h i n g and l u n a t i c as moral i n s t r u c t i o n , c o o l and r e f i n e d as a r t . B a u d e l a i r e c a l m l y s t a t e s t h a t " l a meme f l e t r i s s u r e moral s'applique a toutes l e s i n v e n t i o n s q u i tendent a diminuer l a l i b e r t e humaine et 1 ' i n d i s p e n s a b l e douleur," 30 i n c l u d i n g e t h e r and c h l o r o f o r m i n surgery. Arguing, m ^3 e f f e c t , h i s own damnation, B a u d e l a i r e never once excuses h i m s e l f , or "brings up h i s s y p h i l i s - - t h e opium user remains s i l e n t — t h e p h y s i c i a n and the preacher speak, and t h e i r v e r d i c t i s i r r e v e r s i b l e : B a u d e l a i r e ' s s a l v a t i o n can o n l y be won by a determined s t o i c i s m u n a f f e c t e d by "the c l a i m s 31 of the ageing, c a u t i o u s , nagging, f r i g h t e n e d f l e s h . L i k e Burroughs, B a u d e l a i r e comes to a "program of t o t a l 32 a u s t e r i t y and t o t a l r e s i s t a n c e . " ^ Though he was r e l u c t a n t to openly admit h i s a d d i c t i o n , the symptoms of a d d i c t i o n — the l o s s of the w i l l , the sense of d i s g u s t — i n s t r u c t B a u d e l a i r e , and i n a way s i m i l a r to De Quincey, B a u d e l a i r e ' s v i s i o n begins and ends wi t h the fundamental p o l a r i t i e s of a d d i c t i o n i n the 1 9 t h century: i n d u l g e n c e — a b s t i n e n c e ; e c s t a s y — m e l a n c h o l y ; r e v e r y — w o r k . B a u d e l a i r e ' s e x c r u c i a t i n g C a t h o l i c i s m condemns the indulgence i n opium i n the same way t h a t Hopkins' C a t h o l i c i s m condemns the o v e r - l u s c i o u s indulgence i n the w r i t i n g of poetry: they are being kept from God's work. God cannot be served as H i s equal. Subsequent g e n e r a t i o n s i g n o r e d the informed u r b a n i t y behind De Quincey's acceptance of opium as an i n d i s p e n s a b l e element i n h i s l i f e . But the a u s t e r i t y behind B a u d e l a i r e ' s c o n c l u s i o n s on h a s h i s h and opium would s u i t e x a c t l y a young country ready to apotheosize work and a b s t i n e n c e , and a t the same time anathematize the use of o p i a t e s with such z e a l t h a t the a d d i c t would i n f a c t become w i t h i n the popular i m a g i n a t i o n the d e v i l B a u d e l a i r e saw w i t h i n the m i r r o r s of h a s h i s h and opium. 45 Chapter 2 POPULAR CONFESSIONS Though h o v e r i n g above the o r d i n a r y American p e r c e p t i o n of the drug a d d i c t , the pale and l e a r n e d w r a i t h married to opium does not completely exhaust h i m s e l f i n the Gothic t a l e as p r a c t i c e d by Poe. The popular drug c o n f e s s i o n s of the 1 9 t h century f r e q u e n t l y summon the spectre of De Quincey to j u s t i f y maiden e x p l o r a t i o n s i n t o opium; d e s p i t e h i s p r o t e s t s , f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s of a d d i c t s would see De Quincey as a promoter of opium--the s c h o l a s t i c pusher contaminating h i g h l y s e n s i t i v e readers with the f a t a l f i r s t glimpse of the p l e a s u r e s of opium. The repentant a d d i c t c o u l d look back on having read De Quincey as the f i r s t s t ep i n h i s u n w i t t i n g walk i n t o s l a v e r y . One a d d i c t w r i t e s : While i n my sophomore year i n c o l l e g e , I read De Quincey's C o n f e s s i o n s o f an E n g l i s h Opium E a t e r and a l s o h i s l a t e r u t t e r a n c e , S u s p i r a de Profundus. The f i r s t essay k i n d l e d w i t h i n me a d e s i r e to experience f o r myself the grand dreams to which the drug gave b i r t h i n him. The l a t t e r d i d not warn me--I had not the remotest i n -t e n t i o n of becoming an opium-eater, nor cou l d a s p e c i a l d i v i n e r e v e l a t i o n have 46 then made me b e l i e v e t h a t my s i g h s would ever ascend from the midnight depths. The g e n t e e l c o n f e s s i o n s of the 1 9 t h century u n i f o r m l y deplore the human d i s a s t e r occasioned by De Quincey and h i s f a s c i n a t i n g dreams; c o n t r a s t i n g l y , they swing i n t e r e s t toward the a d d i c t ' s degradation, h i s g u i l t and i s o l a t i o n , h i s p a t h e t i c d e s i r e to r e t u r n to the h e a l t h y , s o c i a l world, and above a l l , the moral t r i a l of withdrawal. In doing so, they o n l y c o n v e n t i o n a l l y n o t i c e the p r o v o c a t i v e i n t e r i o r t e r r i t o r y which De Quincey went to such pains to i n h a b i t . The popular c o n f e s s i o n s b e g i n the movement from a d d i c t i o n seen as an e s p e c i a l l y s e n s i t i z e d a f f l i c t i o n to a d d i c t i o n seen as a d i s g u s t i n g and s o c i a l l y dangerous d i s e a s e . Beyond t h e i r somewhat d a f f y l i t e r a r y i n t e r e s t , there i s at l e a s t one important b e n e f i t from r e v i e w i n g the drug c o n f e s s i o n s of t h i s p e r i o d : the p e r s e c u t i o n of the a d d i c t i n the 20th century becomes a comprehensible h i s t o r i c a l development. No l o n g e r the s u p e r i o r i n d i v i d u a l at the mercy of h i s own s u b j e c t i v i t y , the p o p u l a r c o n f e s s o r s c r e a t e d l o a t h i n g i n p r o p o r t i o n to the p i t y they aroused. H. Wayne Morgan comments: The w r i t i n g s r e v e a l e d people w i t h i n t e n s e f e e l i n g s of i s o l a t i o n from humanity and unworthiness. T h e i r accounts c r e a t e d some sympathy f o r the a d d i c t . But they a l s o helped shape the popular s t e r e o t y p e s 47 of a d d i c t i o n and were a f a c t o r i n the d r i v e f o r n a t i o n a l r e g u l a t i o n . By p o r t r a y i n g h i m s e l f as sp_ miserable , the a d d i c t begs f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n t e r f e r e n c e i n h i s l i f e , or at l e a s t s a n i t a r i u m s equipped to answer h i s unique needs. Whitman's statement i n "A Sun-Bath—Nakedness" serve s as a model of c o n v i c t i o n i n a country which would i n the next g e n e r a t i o n impose any punishment necessary to separate the drug f i e n d from h i s "damnable d i r t " : " S h a l l I t e l l you, reader, to what I a t t r i b u t e my a l r e a d y much-restored he a l t h ? That I have been almost two years, o f f and on, without drugs and 3 medicines, and d a i l y m the open a i r . " - ' Out on the farm, w r i t e s one a d d i c t , the cure comes n a t u r a l l y , "but as soon as I began to have l e i s u r e , I found t h a t I was not cured." P h y s i c a l l a b o r i n a r u r a l s e t t i n g was b e l i e v e d to be a p r o p h y l a c t i c a g a i n s t a d d i c t i o n , the a n t i d o t e to the d e s t r u c t i v e e f f e c t s of the American c i t y upon the nervous systems of h i g h l y - s t r u n g i n d i v i d u a l s p r e d i s p o s e d to drugs: " E s s e n t i a l l y a nervous people, prone to go to excess i n every t h i n g , g l a d l y welcoming n a r c o t i c s and s t i m u l a n t s , we go to a v e r y decided excess i n a l l matters of t h i s kind."-' The opium a d d i c t emerged as the avant-garde v i c t i m of urban p r e s s u r e s , and though commentators could o n l y s p e c u l a t e as to how many a d d i c t s 48 t h e r e a c t u a l l y were a t any g i v e n t i m e , the nervous e x h a u s t i o n which s u p p o s e d l y n u r t u r e d the opium v i r u s would c o n t i n u a l l y "be u n d e r s t o o d t o "be on the r i s e . F i t z Hugh Ludlow s t r i k e s t h e common n o t e : The h a b i t i s g a i n i n g f e a r f u l ground among our p r o f e s s i o n a l men, the o p e r a t i v e s i n our m i l l s , our weary sewing women, our fagged c l e r k s , our d i s a p p o i n t e d w i v e s , o u r f o r m e r l i q u o r - d r u n k a r d s , o ur v e r y d a y - l a b o r e r s , who a g e n e r a t i o n ago took g i n ; a l l o f our c l a s s e s , from the h i g h e s t t o the l o w e s t , a r e y e a r l y i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r consumption of the drug. By the l a t e 1860's a n a l y s t s of the drug s i t u a t i o n began t o use e m p i r i c a l methods t o e s t a b l i s h the e x t e n t o f a d d i c t i o n and the k i n d s of pe o p l e v u l n e r a b l e t o the d i s e a s e : The number o f c o n f i r m e d o p i u m - e a t e r s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i s l a r g e , n o t l e s s , j u d g i n g from the t e s t i m o n y of d r u g g i s t s i n a l l p a r t s o f the c o u n t r y as w e l l as from o t h e r s o u r c e s , t h a n e i g h t y t o a hundred thousand. . . . N e i t h e r the b u s i -n ess n o r the l a b o r i n g c l a s s e s c o n t r i b u t e v e r y l a r g e l y t o the number. P r o f e s s i o n a l and l i t e r a r y men, p e r s o n s s u f f e r i n g from p r o t r a c t e d nervous d i s o r d e r s , women ob-l i g e d by t h e i r n e c e s s i t i e s t o work beyond t h e i r s t r e n g t h , p r o s t i t u t e s , and i n b r i e f , a l l c l a s s e s whose b u s i n e s s o r whose v i c e s make s p e c i a l demands upon the nervous system, a re those who f o r the most part„ compose the f r a t e r n i t y of o p i u m - e a t e r s . And i n a d d i t i o n t o the nervous v i c t i m s , the C i v i l War spawned a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f a d d i c t s , many h a v i n g had 49 morphine admi n i s t e r e d by the newly d i s c o v e r e d method of subcutaneous i n j e c t i o n . A d d i c t i o n was commonly r e f e r r e d to as the " S o l d i e r ' s D i s e a s e " a t t h i s time. From the l a t e 186o's onward, commentaries on a d d i c t i o n c u s t o m a r i l y warned a g a i n s t the number of a d d i c t s a l r e a d y i n the country and expressed the earnest c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the h a b i t threatened to e s c a l a t e beyond c o n t r o l . Besides t h e i r m a nifest s o c i a l conscience, the g e n t e e l c o n f e s s i o n s convey a profound awareness of p e r s o n a l g u i l t . One a d d i c t , w r i t i n g under the pseudonym of the H a b i t u a t e , t e s t i f i e s to the presence of a s t e r n super-ego when the immediate e f f e c t s of opium wear o f f : A s i c k e n i n g , d e a t h - l i k e s e n s a t i o n about the h e a r t ; a s e l f - a c c u s i n g sense of having committed some wrong,--of b e i n g g u i l t y b e f o r e God; a l o a d of f e a r and t r e m b l i n g , c o n t i n u a l l y abide with and oppress the v i c t i m i n the f i r s t stages;--but more e s p e c i a l l y when the i n f l u e n c e of the drug i s dying away. Though the a c t of c o n f e s s i o n m i t i g a t e s the g u i l t which haunts the a d d i c t , i t i s s u c c e s s f u l withdrawal which b r i n g s f o r t h the e c s t a t i c r e a f f i r m a t i o n of v a l u e s which had been obfuscated by the degrading r e a l i t i e s of a d d i c t i o n . A l l a d d i c t s l i e — t h e reformed a d d i c t t e l l s the whole t r u t h . The a d d i c t l i v e s o n l y f o r h i m s e l f , i s a s l a v e to h i s c r a v i n g - - f a m i l y means e v e r y t h i n g to the reformed a d d i c t . 50 The a d d i c t d r a i n s the v i t a l i t y of a young country on the move—unchained, he s p i t s i n h i s hands, ready to get back to work and make up f o r l o s t time. M y s t e r i o u s l y , however, the extreme s p e c t a c l e which separates the unregenerate a d d i c t from the grace of metabolic normalcy--or withdrawal--cannot be adequately d e s c r i b e d : "Were I to continue w r i t i n g both day and n i g h t f o r a week I could not then f u l l y r e l a t e the u n u t t e r a b l e torments I Q have gone through," w r i t e s a p h y s i c i a n a d d i c t . T h i s admission, conceded by the m a j o r i t y of t e s t i f y i n g a d d i c t s - -t h a t language i s b e i n g used to express what cannot be e x p r e s s e d — l o c a t e s a p o t e n t i a l poetry i n the c r i s i s of withdrawal, s i g n a l s a resource to such f u t u r e w r i t e r s as Cocteau and Burroughs, r e g a r d l e s s of the use to which the c o n f e s s i o n s were commonly put--whether as s o c i o l o g i c a l case s t u d i e s , propaganda f o r r e p r e s s i v e laws, or unconsulted volumes i n medical l i b r a r i e s . "An Opium-Eater i n America," by W i l l i a m B l a i r (an Englishman), appearing i n Knickerbocker Magazine i n 1842, r e v e a l s the tendency to i m i t a t e De Quincey's p i o n e e r i n g anatomy of a d d i c t i o n w h i l e - w r i t i n g i n a b r i e f , j o u r n a l i s t i c form. L i k e so many other a d d i c t s , B l a i r makes e x p l i c i t the c o n n e c t i o n between h i s own a d d i c t i o n and De Quincey's w r i t i n g s : 51 The strange c o n f e s s i o n of De Quincy *Lsic} had l o n g been a f a v o r i t e with me. The f i r s t p a r t had i n f a c t been g i v e n as a model i n E n g l i s h composition, and a l s o as an e x e r c i s e to be rendered i n t o P a t i -v i n i a n L a t i n . The l a t t e r p a r t , the ' M i s e r i e s of Opium,'• I had most unac-countably always n e g l e c t e d to read.l° B l a i r s i n g l e s out the Confessions as a symbol of p r e c o c i o u s l e a r n i n g as w e l l as an a l l u r i n g d i r e c t i v e toward a means of r e l i e v i n g the d i s t r e s s i n c i d e n t to s c h o l a r s h i p . I f the d e b i l i t a t i n g d r i v e f o r s c h o l a s t i c e x c e l l e n c e had never been undertaken, B l a i r i m p l i e s , then he might have avoided "the i n f e r n a l drug which has i m b i t t e r e d my e x i s t e n c e f o r seven most weary y e a r s " (4?). L u d i c r o u s l y , B l a i r claims to have s t u d i e d L a t i n , Greek, P e r s i a n , Hebrew, I t a l i a n , and French, b e s i d e s h i s more than p a s s i n g i n t e r e s t i n metaphys-i c s , p oetry, s c i e n c e , and f i c t i o n . T h i s s i n g u l a r over-achievement takes i t s p h y s i c a l t o l l : I s u f f e r e d from constant head-ache; my t o t a l i n a c t i v i t y caused the d i g e s t i v e organs to become t o r p i d ; and- the i n n u t r i -t i o u s nature of the food which I allowed myself would not supply me with the s t r e n g t h which my assiduous l a b o u r s r e q u i r e d . My nerves were d r e a d f u l l y shaken; and at the age of f o u r t e e n I e x h i b i t e d the e x t e r n a l symptoms of o l d age. (48) U n l i k e De Quincey, however, B l a i r does not take opium f o r the f i r s t time to a l l e v i a t e unbearable p a i n (he i s always 52 i n pain) but r a t h e r to i n s u r e h i s s u r v i v a l : "But now t h a t I knew t h a t u n l e s s I could by a r t i f i c i a l s t i m u l i o b t a i n a sudden i n c r e a s e of s t r e n g t h I must STARVE, I no l o n g e r h e s i t a t e d . I was desperate" ( 4 9 ) . A f t e r t a k i n g opium and e x p e r i e n c i n g a " c r e e p i n g t h r i l l " a t t e a , B l a i r goes to the t h e a t e r (De Quincey o c c a s i o n a l l y went to the opera a f t e r t a k i n g opium). I n c r e d i b l y , B l a i r t u r n s demoniac under the i n f l u e n c e of opium: "As I r a n up the s t a i r s I rushed a f t e r and f l u n g back everyone who was above me" (50)• Promoting opium as more an e n e r g i z e r than a s e d a t i v e , B l a i r works s t e a d i l y f o r s i x months "without l a s s i t u d e or d e p r e s s i o n of s p i r i t s . " I n s i d e the t h e a t e r , however, "on t h a t memorable n i g h t which i s an 'oasis i n the d e s e r t ' of my subsequent e x i s t e n c e , " B l a i r f a l l s i n t o a "dreary a b s t r a c t i o n . " Though he f e e l s o b l i g e d to s e r v i c e the e x p e c t a t i o n s aroused by De Quincey's ornate v i s i o n s , B l a i r admits t h a t the e n t e r p r i s e i s beyond him: "I w i l l not attempt f u r t h e r to d e s c r i b e the m a g n i f i c e n t v i s i o n which a l i t t l e p i l l of 'brown gum1 had conjured up from the realm of the i d e a l b e i n g . No words t h a t I can command would do j u s t i c e to i t s T i t a n i a n splendour and immensity" ( 5 0 ) . And e v e n t u a l l y the De Quinceyan nightmares a t t a c k the benighted opium e a t e r , but a g a i n B l a i r b a r e l y i n t i m a t e s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s opened up by 53 De Quincey; he c l a i m s , f o r example t h a t darkness always brought the most h o r r i b l e f a n c i e s and o p t i c u l a r and a u r i c u l a r or a c c o u s t i c a l d e l u s i o n s of a f r i g h t f u l nature, so v i v i d and r e a l , t h a t i n s t e a d of a b l e s s i n g , s l e e p became a curse; and the hours of darkness became hours which seemed days of misery. (52) Perhaps an even more b l a t a n t example of c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y i s B l a i r ' s a s s e r t i o n t h a t a l i t e r a r y p i e c e , "The F r a t r i c i d e ' s Death," appeared to him i n much the same way t h a t C o l e r i d g e r e c a l l e d having p e r c e i v e d "Kubla Khan": d i r e c t l y a f t e r t a k i n g a l a r g e dose of opium, "I composed the ' F r a t r i c i d e ' s Death,' or r a t h e r i t composed i t s e l f and f o r c e d i t s e l f upon my memory without any a c t i v i t y or v i o l a t i o n on my p a r t " ( 5 2 ) . B l a i r i n e f f e c t c o n s t r u c t s a makeshift p a s t i c h e of the s c h o l a s t i c opium e a t e r , one based upon the two r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e models--De Quincey and C o l e r i d g e . The n a t u r a l i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n of the p h y s i c a l d i s r u p t i o n s i n c i d e n t to a d d i c t i o n d i s t i n g u i s h e s B l a i r from De Quincey and C o l e r i d g e , who were content to e n t e r t a i n a d d i c t i o n i n the language of G o t h i c romance. By b r e a k i n g the b a r r i e r s of common decency, B l a i r i n i t i a t e s an e x t r a o r d i n a r y p r u r i e n c e which, w h i l e masquerading as p r e c i s e m e d i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n , proposes the a d d i c t as a d i s g u s t i n g , l e p r o u s h o r r o r : Burning heat, attended with constant 54 t h i r s t , then, "began to torment me from morning t i l l n i g h t : my s k i n "became s c u r f y ; the s k i n of my f e e t and hands peeled o f f ; my tongue was always f u r r e d ; a f e e l i n g of c o n t r a c t i o n i n the "bowels was c o n t i n u a l ; my eyes were s t r a i n e d and d i s c o l o r e d , and I had unceasing head-ache. But i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l heat was the pervading f e e l i n g and appearance. My d i g e s t i o n "became s t i l l weaker, and my i n c e s s a n t c o s t i v e n e s s was p a i n f u l i n the extreme. (51) And i n d e s c r i b i n g the o r d e a l of withdrawal, B l a i r l i k e w i s e f i n d s o c c a s i o n to reduce h i m s e l f to a k i c k i n g mass of raw f l e s h : I c o u l d not r e s t , e i t h e r l y i n g , s i t t i n g or s t a n d i n g . . . . My s i g h t "became weak and dim; the gnawing at my stomach was p e r p e t u a l , resembling the s e n s a t i o n caused by ravenous hunger; but food, though I ate v o r a c i o u s l y , would not r e -l i e v e me. I a l s o f e l t a s i n k i n g i n my stomach, and such p a i n i n the back t h a t I c o u l d not s t r a i g h t e n myself up. A d u l l constant aching p a i n took p o s s e s s i o n of the c a l v e s of my l e g s ; and there was a c o n t i n u a l motion of the nerves from head to f o o t . My head ached; my i n t e l -l e c t was t e r r i b l y weakened and confused. (55) De Quincey*s s t r i p t e a s e was a p s y c h o l o g i c a l one. B l a i r , on the other hand, removes h i s d i r t y bandages and with s u l l e n unconcern p o i n t s out h i s suppurating cankers and u l c e r s . A p r o f e s s i o n a l h o r r o r , he performs f o r pay. B l a i r demonstrates the p h y s i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the opium 55 plague, and, f o r t u n a t e l y or not, he does not break the news d e l i c a t e l y . The f i r s t r e p o r t on opium a d d i c t i o n to e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f on a popular f o o t i n g i n America presents the a d d i c t as a t t u r n s d i s g u s t i n g , v i o l e n t , immoral--and eminently d e p o r t a b l e . Having withdrawn from opium once, B l a i r hoped to e s t a b l i s h a new l i f e i n America. A f t e r an u n s u c c e s s f u l attempt to f i n d l i t e r a r y work i n New York, however, he r e l a p s e s , blaming the New World f o r h i s undeserved i n d i g e n c e : I was so melancholy and hopeless t h a t I r e a l l y found i t necessary to have recourse e i t h e r to brandy or opium. I p r e f e r r e d the l a t t e r , although to a s c e r t a i n the d i f f e r e n c e , merely as a p h i l o s o p h i c a l experiment, I took r a t h e r copious draughts of the former a l s o . But observe; I d i d not i n t e n d ever a g a i n to become t h e ' s l a v e of opium. ( 5 6 ) Needless to say, he becomes r e - a d d i c t e d , " f r e q u e n t l y unable to procure a dinner; as the few d o l l a r s I r e c e i v e d from time to time s c a r c e l y s u f f i c e d to supply me w i t h opium." B l a i r i l l - h u m o r e d l y concludes h i s p i e c e : "I have no hope whatever of g a i n i n g a r e s p e c t a b l e l i v e l i h o o d i n t h i s country; and I s h a l l t h e r e f o r e r e t u r n to England the moment I can o b t a i n passage" (57)• B l a i r ' s contempt f o r America and h i m s e l f even i n c l u d e s the p r o s p e c t of w r i t i n g h i s opium h i s t o r y , a p r o j e c t o r i g i n a l l y intended to be a book, "but 56 b e f o r e I had w r i t t e n more than two or three sheets, I became d i s g u s t e d with the s u b j e c t " (57)• . I t seems f a i r to assume t h a t we are r e a d i n g the waste product of t h a t l a r g e r ambition. De Quincey, i t w i l l be remembered, took i n o r d i n a t e amounts of laudanum to w r i t e h i s C o n f e s s i o n s ; B l a i r , on the other hand, w r i t e s from the p e r s p e c t i v e of e x i l e , b i t t e r n e s s , and l a c k of opium. "An Opium-Eater i n America" p r o p h e t i c a l l y descends to the hardpan of 2 0 t h century urban drug a d d i c t i o n — p o v e r t y , poor h e a l t h , i n v o l u n t a r y withdrawal, h u s t l i n g . Though not p r e c i s e l y i n the r o l e of c o n f e s s o r , F i t z Hugh Ludlow again takes command of the American drug scene, t h i s time as the r e i g n i n g a u t h o r i t y on opium a d d i c t i o n d u r i n g the l a t e 1860's. The. f e v e r i s h i d e a l i t y of the h a s h i s h e a t e r r e t u r n s to e a r t h i n the d i s g u i s e of a g r i e v o u s l y concerned p h y s i c i a n a t t e n d i n g the m i s e r i e s of the a f f l i c t e d . H i s well-known a r t i c l e , "What S h a l l They Do To Be Saved?" appearing i n Harper's i n I 8 6 7 , advances the improbable image of Ludlow watching over a p r a c t i c e composed of opium e a t e r s e a r n e s t l y seeking c u r e — t h e a d d i c t ' s d e d i c a t e d F a t h e r Damien. Ludlow c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y conceives of withdrawal as an i n c r e d i b l y complex, almost medieval medical c h a l l e n g e as w e l l as a m o r a l l y i n s t r u c t i v e s p i r i t u a l d i s t r e s s . Ludlow proposes the most s u b t l e a l c h e m i c a l means to e x t r a c t the 57 p o i s o n from the s u f f e r e r ' s wracked system, evoking the s c i e n t i f i c G othicism of t e s t tubes, hermetic experiments, arcane terminology, and the constant t h r e a t of death. But at the same time, Ludlow r e c o g n i z e s the withdrawal process as a k i n d of deathbed c o n f e s s i o n , a t e r r i b l y s i g n i f i c a n t human event f o r the p a t i e n t and f o r the sympathetic witness. In attempting to p l a y midwife to the withdrawing a d d i c t , Ludlow a s p i r e s to f i n a l l y become that " v r a i medecin ph i l o s o p h e " t h a t B a u d e l a i r e had e n v i s i o n e d . While Ludlow pretends to be the a l t r u i s t i c " p r a c t i t i o n e r " without a drug h i s t o r y of h i s own, there is. an o v e r t c o n f e s s i o n i n the Harper's a r t i c l e , though one contained by Ludlow's d e c o r a t i v e s c i e n t i s m and s e n t i m e n t a l drama. Ludlow witnesses the mute c o n f e s s i o n of a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a d d i c t who s t r u g g l e s w i t h i n withdrawal: In p u b l i s h i n g h i s case I am not v i o l a t i n g t h a t H i p p o c r a t i c vow which p r o t e c t s the r e l a t i o n s of p a t i e n t and a d v i s o r ; f o r , as I dropped my f r i e n d ' s wasted hand and stepped to the t h r e s h o l d , he repeated a request he had o f t e n made to me, s a y i n g : " I t i s almost l i k e Dives a s k i n g f o r a messenger to h i s b r e t h r e n ; but t e l l them, t e l l a l l young men, what i t i s , 'that they come not i n t o t h i s torment.'" (385) Where De Quincey entered a v i s i o n a r y p s y c h i a t r i c p r o f i l e , where B l a i r s n e e r i n g l y p u l l e d back h i s f i l t h y sheet, Ludlow's 58 Mr. A s i g n s over h i s cadaver to s c i e n c e — a n d Ludlow, the boy whose f a v o r i t e l o u n g i n g p l a c e was the American drugstore, e a g e r l y r e p o r t s upon the autopsy. Rather than some skidrow bum, however, Ludlow conjures up an e x t r a v a g a n t l y accomplished a d d i c t who e x p r e s s l y sends f o r Ludlow a f t e r enduring years of s u f f e r i n g : He was one of the b r a v e s t , - f a i r e s t , most generous nat u r e s I ever came i n cont a c t with; was v e r s a t i l e as a Yankee C r i c h t o n ; had r i d d e n h i s own horse i n a t r o t t i n g match and beaten B i l l Woodruff; had c a r r i e d h i s own l i t t l e 3 0-ton schooner from the Chesapeake to the Golden Gate through the S t r a i t s of Magellan; had swum with the Na v i g a t o r s ' I s l a n d e r s , shot b u f f a l o , hunted chamois, and lunched on mangosteens a t Penang. (378) The e x t r a o r d i n a r y Mr. A n e v e r t h e l e s s became a d d i c t e d to opium "as happens wi t h the m a j o r i t y of opium-eaters, through a medical p r e s c r i p t i o n " (377)• A normal man might have r e p u d i a t e d opium with the disappearance of the o r i g i n a l malady, but l i k e De Quincey, Mr. A d i s c o v e r e d i n opium something a b s o l u t e l y compelling: There are c e r t a i n men to whom opium i s as f i r e to tow, and my f r i e n d was one of these. . . . He had t a s t e d as many sources of e a r t h l y p l e a s u r e as any man I ever knew; but the e c s t a s i e s of form and c o l o r , wine, Eros, music, perfume, a l l the l u x u r i e s which wealth c o u l d purchase or hig h - b r e e d i n g a p p r e c i a t e , were as no t h i n g to him i n com-59 p a r i s o n with the memory of th a t time on which h i s f a m i l y threw away t h e i r sympathy when they c a l l e d i t h i s "month of s u f f e r i n g . " (377) Ludlow preaches a r a d i c a l sympathy f o r the a d d i c t which t a c i t l y r e f e r s hack to De Quincey's r e s p e c t a b l e , i f voluptuous, opium h i s t o r y . Though opium a t t r a c t s c e r t a i n h i g h l y developed i n d i v i d u a l s , the a d d i c t i o n to opium i s s t i l l a d i s e a s e amenable to medical procedures: Now, such a man i s a proper s u b j e c t , not f o r r e p r o o f , but f o r medical treatment. The problem of h i s case need embarrass nobody. I t i s as p u r e l y p h y s i c a l as one of small-pox. When t h i s t r u t h i s as wide l y understood among the l a i t y as i t i s known by p h y s i c i a n s , some progress may be made i n s t a y i n g the f r i g h t f u l ravages of opium among the present g e n e r a t i o n . (379) The paradox i n h e r e n t i n Ludlow's p u b l i c view of a d d i c t i o n — a d d i c t i o n presupposes t r a n s c e n d e n t a l experience while at the same time i t can be reduced to a medi c a l problem--c r e a t e s w i l d f l u c t u a t i o n s i n p e r s p e c t i v e : the p h y s i c i a n c o m p i l i n g data and the Romantic poet a g o n i z i n g over the s p i r i t u a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of a d d i c t i o n . Ludlow sees withdrawal, f o r example, as a p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t e which f o r the a d d i c t means p a s s i n g from death to l i f e and which prompts i n the onlooker a hemorrhage of sympathy. But i n keeping with h i s 60 bogus p h y s i c i a n ' s smock, Ludlow r e l i s h e s the image of withdrawal as a v i l e e r u p t i o n i m p e r s o n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by the " p r a c t i t i o n e r " : U s u a l l y as e a r l y as the t h i r d day a f t e r i t s abandonment . . . opium begins to show i t s d i s s o l u t i o n s from t h e . t i s s u e by a profuse and i n c r e a s i n g l y a c r i d b i l i o u s d i a r r e a h , which must not be checked i f d i a g n o s i s has r e v e a l e d s u f f i c i e n t c o n s t i -t u t i o n a l v i g o r to j u s t i f y any attempt a t abandonment of the drug. Hemmorhoids may r e s u l t ; they must be t o p i c a l l y t r e a t e d . . . . Short of threatened c o l l a p s e , the bowels must not be r e t a r d e d . (382-83) Regarding the mental anguish of withdrawal, however, Ludlow's sentences s w e l l w i t h o r a c u l a r sympathy: The t o t a l i t y of the experience i s onl y c o n c e i v a b l e by adding t h i s p h y s i c a l t o r t u r e to a mental anguish which even the O r i e n t a l pen of De Quincey has but f e e b l y p a i n t e d ; an anguish which s l a y s the w i l l , y e t l e a v e s the s o u l conscious of i t s murder; which u t t e r l y b l o t s out hope, and e i t h e r p a r a l y z e s the r e a s o n i n g f a c u l t y which might suggest encouragements, or deadens the emotional nature to them as thoroughly as i f they were not p e r c e i v e d ; an anguish which sometimes i n c l u d e s j u s t , but always a v a s t amount of u n j u s t s e l f -reproach, which b r i n g s every f a i l u r e and i n c o n s i s t e n c y , every misfortune or s i n of a man's l i f e as c l e a r l y b e f o r e h i s fac e as on the day he was f i r s t m o r t i f i e d or degraded by i t - - b e f o r e h i s f a c e , not i n one t e r r i b l e dream, which i s once f o r a l l over with s u n r i s e , but as haunting ghosts, made out by the f e v e r i s h eyes of the s o u l down to the minutest d e t a i l of 61 g h a s t l i n e s s , and never l e a v i n g the s i d e of the rack on which he l i e s f o r a moment of dark or d a y l i g h t , t i l l s l e e p , at the end of a month, f i r s t drops out of heaven on h i s agony. (383) Ludlow p r e d i c t s the spasms of l a c e r a t i n g memory a s s o c i a t e d w i t h withdrawal which Cocteau and Burroughs would adopt as a p o e t i c mode i n the 2 0 t h century--the i n s i s t e n t v o i c e of the withdrawing a d d i c t " t a l k i n g to any body who may happen to be present i n a low-voiced, s u i c i d a l manner, which i n e x p e r i e n c e f i n d s a b s o l u t e l y b l o o d f r e e z i n g " ( 3 8 2 ) . Where B a u d e l a i r e summoned the blandishments of the D e v i l to d e f i n e the p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of h a s h i s h and opium, Ludlow evokes the p a s s i o n of C h r i s t to suggest the p h y s i c a l o r d e a l of withdrawal: "From the hour he f i r s t r e f u s e d h i s c r a v i n g , and went to the b a t t l e f i e l d of the bed, he had endured such agony as I b e l i e v e no man but the opium-e a t e r has ever known" ( 3 8 O ). I t i s an agony which more o f t e n than not r e s u l t s i n martyrdom. Ludlow has known s u c c e s s f u l cures, "but i n no case i s there any r e l i e f to a desperate case of opium-eating save death" ( 3 8 I ) . And l i k e a m i n i s t e r i n g angel, Ludlow eases the martyr's s t r u g g l e with e i t h e r r e s t or, more f r e q u e n t l y , death: "I may g i v e chloroform. I always do i n the denouement of bad c a s e s - - e t h e r - - n i t r o u s oxide. In employing the f i r s t two agents I secure r e s t , 62 but I induce death nine times out of t e n " ( 3 8 I ) . Ludlow concludes h i s somber h i s t o r y w i t h the admission t h a t Mr. A c o u l d not be withdrawn from opium: "He w i l l have to take opium a l l h i s l i f e . F u r t h e r s t r u g g l e i s s u i c i d e . . . . He w i l l have to continue the h a b i t which k i l l s him on l y because abandoning i t k i l l s him sooner .... . ." ( 3 8 4 ) . The v e r y next year Ludlow's name appeared again, t h i s time i n a l e a r n e d d i s c u s s i o n of a d d i c t i o n and p o s s i b l e cures. I n c r e d i b l y or not, Ludlow had become so eminent i n the f i e l d t h a t the e d i t o r of The Opium H a b i t , Horace Day, concluded h i s book w i t h a l e n g t h y l e t t e r from Ludlow o u t l i n i n g the k i n d of i n s t i t u t i o n which would be h e l p f u l to a d d i c t s and which, i t i s hoped, some p h i l a n t h r o p i c i n d i v i d u a l might care to fund--with Ludlow, of ^course, at the helm. Ludlow goes on to d e s c r i b e a U t o p i a n d i s i n t o x i c a t i o n center, a L e x i n g t o n turned i n t o a g e n t e e l h e a l t h spa. While s a y i n g good-bye to Mr. A, Ludlow had bemoaned "the h e l p l e s s n e s s of a p r a c t i t i o n e r who has no i n s t i t u t i o n of h i s own to take such cases to when I shook h i s poor, dry sallow hand and bade him good-bye a t the s t a t i o n " (380). Ludlow foreshadows the numerous s a n i t a r i u m s and i n s t i t u t i o n s designed to withdraw the a d d i c t . U n l i k e Synanon and other i n c a r n a t i o n s , however, Ludlow's Lord's I s l a n d program would i n v o l v e no p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n whatsoever; he e n v i s i o n s an e l a b o r a t e compound 63 wherein every c o n c e i v a b l e mechanical and chemical a i d would r e l i e v e the a d d i c t from withdrawal symptoms. I t e m i z i n g h i s a r s e n a l of weapons, Ludlow c i t e s f o r s p e c i a l recommendation such a l l e v i a t e s as cannabis i n d i c a ( h i s o l d f o e ) , bromide of potassium, s c u t e l a r i a , capiscum, b e l l a d o n a , a t r o p i n , nux vomica, and, f i n a l l y , s t r y c h n i a . On the s t r i c t l y mechanical s i d e , he mentions hot b r i c k s , g a l v a n i c b a t t e r y treatments, R u s s i a n baths, T u r k i s h baths, almost c o n t i n u a l massage, o c c a s i o n a l pummeling by punching machines, and b e e f - t e a enemas. No f i g h t a g a i n s t the d e v i l c o u l d have more aroused the most gadgety of s o r c e r e r s . . Ludlow c o n f i d e n t l y imagines scores of a d d i c t s s h u f f l i n g o f f crowded f e r r i e s to be transformed i n t o s h i n y new pennies, thanks to h i s i s l a n d r e t r e a t bounded by the f o r g i v i n g sea i n s t e a d of "fences, b o l t s , and b a r s . " To anyone u n f a m i l i a r w i t h Ludlow's r e c o r d , i t must have seemed a momentous o c c a s i o n when i n a l e t t e r to Harper's i n June, I 8 7 0 , he announces t h a t a t l o n g l a s t the cure to opium a d d i c t i o n has been d i s c o v e r e d . Ludlow solemnly p r e d i c t s t h a t "the d i s c o v e r y . i s one which ranks i n importance to human weal and woe with v a c c i n a t i o n , chloroform, or any grandest achievement of b e n e f i c e n t s c i e n c e which marks an 11 age." I t i s not, however, an a l t o g e t h e r triumphant achievement. No l o n g e r d i s p l a y i n g the "hopeful, f r o l i c s o m e 64 b e a r i n g of the young man who was always a b l i t h e boy,"'1"*' Ludlow i s now an i n v a l i d w i t h not much time to l i v e , inex-p l i c a b l y going away, back to Europe, and a d d r e s s i n g h i s l a s t p u b l i c words to the v i c t i m s he has attempted to h e a l : To-day s a i l i n g f o r Europe, an i n v a l i d , w i t h a l l the u n c e r t a i n t i e s of r e t u r n which attend such a one, may I ask to say . . . a word or two, i n p a r t i n g , to the c l a s s of our s u f f e r i n g f e l l o w men and women f o r whom . . . I have spent a l a r g e p a r t of my l i f e - - a l l t h a t p a r t , indeed, which i s u s u a l l y the l e i s u r e of a l a b o r i o u s p r o f e s s i o n ? He goes on to assure the opium e a t e r s t h a t he has indeed d i s c o v e r e d a p a i n l e s s cure. Since he i s disembarking f o r Europe, they should get i n touch with my noble-hearted and p h i l a n t h r o p i c f r i e n d , Mr. Henry Read of L o w e l l , Massachusetts, who possesses a l l my i n f o r m a t i o n on the su b j e c t , and has k i n d l y consented to l e t me r o l l o f f upon h i s shoulders the l o v i n g but heavy burden of answering such q u e s t i o n s as might, i f I s t a i d here, be addressed to me.13 Sounding t i r e d but content, Ludlow r e t i r e d from the s t r i f e , l e f t f o r Europe, and b a r e l y l i v e d out the summer. In December, 1 8 7 0 , Harper's "Easy C h a i r " w r i t e s an a p p r e c i a t i v e r e t r o s p e c t i v e of F i t z Hugh Ludlow, the young man who had prepared f o r law, and who wrote s h o r t sketches 65 and a r t i c l e s f o r magazines as w e l l as a t r a v e l book on the lk American West. The "Easy C h a i r " f e e l s i n c l i n e d to f o r g i v e Ludlow f o r h i s d e c i d e d l y s c i e n c e f i c t i o n a l announcement before h i s departure: The p u b l i c note, as p r e s e n t l y appeared, was not as frank as i t should have been; but i t i s not necessary to impute any i l l i n t e n t i o n to the w r i t e r . He was a l r e a d y wasted to a shadow and g r i e v o u s l y i l l , and h i s p r i v a t e note c l e a r l y shows h i s premonition that he should not r e t u r n from h i s voyage to Europe which he was about to undertake. The "Easy C h a i r " makes Ludlow's f i n a l c o n f e s s i o n f o r him: A cloud of s o r r o w f u l rumors had enveloped the young man's l i f e . Many of them, -.as i s always the case, were doubtless untrue, but many a l s o were probably o n l y too much j u s t i f i e d i n the minds of those who had known him, and who c o u l d not h e l p f e e l i n g , with the Easy C h a i r , t h a t the sad o l d legend was v e r i f i e d i n him, and that a t the v e r y o u t s e t of h i s l i f e he had thought-l e s s l y y i e l d e d to an i n t o l e r a b l e but hope-l e s s tyranny, which, seeming to s t i m u l a t e h i s powers, r e a l l y exhausted them, while i t r e l a x e d h i s moral purpose and destroyed h i s w i l l . 1-5 Ludlow d i e d at the age of t h i r t y - f o u r , the Grand Young Man of American drug a d d i c t i o n — P u r i t a n , cursed, even b r i l l i a n t . L i k e B a u d e l a i r e , Ludlow atoned f o r h i s g u i l t , but i n s t e a d of w r i t i n g moral t r a c t s , Ludlow searched f o r 66 the h o l y cure, "what I confess has been one of my l i f e ' s r u l i n g p a s s i o n s - - a v e r y agony of seeking to f i n d - - a n y means of b r i n g i n g the h a b i t u a t e d opium-eater out of h i s 16 h o r r i b l e bondage . . . ." Opium E a t i n g : An A u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l Sketch, p u b l i s h e d i n I876, does not pretend to Ludlow's s c i e n t i f i c p r e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g a d d i c t i o n . "I am no p h y s i c i a n and not l e a r n e d i n p h y s i o l o g y , " the Ha b i t u a t e concedes. "Therefore I cannot e n t e r i n t o a l e a r n e d a n a l y s i s of the opium a p p e t i t e " (90). Furthermore, the Ha b i t u a t e warns the reader not to expect a n y t h i n g l i k e De Quincey's gorgeous dreams but k i n d l y accept "a d u l l and t r u d g i n g n a r r a t i v e of s o l i d f a c t s , d i s a r r a y e d of a l l f l o w e r s of speech, and d e l i v e r e d by a mind, the f a c u l t i e s of which are bound up and baked hard by the s e a r i n g p r o p e r t i e s of opium--a mind without e l a s t i c i t y or f e r t i l i t y - -a mind p r o s t r a t e " ( v i i ) . N e i t h e r s c i e n t i s t nor l i t e r a r y man, the Ha b i t u a t e i s a v e t e r a n of the C i v i l War and a simple c l e r k attempting to put down i n everyday language the s t o r y of h i s a d d i c t i o n as a matter of p u b l i c conscience: "I have good reason to b e l i e v e t h a t even now the use of opium i s c a r r i e d on to such an extent, t h a t a census of the v i c t i m s would s t r i k e the country with t e r r o r and alarm" (113)• During such an emergency, he must speak " l e s t my 67 mouth be s e a l e d f o r e v e r " i n order to salvage those who can be warned: Oh! i f I can d e t e r but one from being drawn i n t o the "maelstrom," as C o l e r i d g e has so a p t l y termed i t ; i f I can save but one from the woe and misery I s u f f e r d a i l y , I s h a l l f e e l w e l l rewarded f o r the e f f o r t I have made to r e c o r d my unhappy p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y . (115) Deep w i t h i n a d d i c t i o n , the Hab i t u a t e , " w r i t i n g , as I do, by snatches and i n haste," emerges to sound a word of warning. A f u l l t h i r d of Opium E a t i n g d e a l s w i t h the H a b i t u a t e ' s experiences as a p r i s o n e r of war i n Confederate p r i s o n s , e s p e c i a l l y A n d e r s o n v i l l e : ! " A n d e r s o n v i l l e ! Dread word! Dread name f o r c r u e l t y , and p a t r i o t s * graves, I stand p a r a l y z e d before thy h o r r i d gates! Thou grim L e v i a t h a n of Death!" (19) The p r i v a t i o n s s u f f e r e d as a p r i s o n e r r e s u l t i n t e r r i b l e p h y s i c a l a f f l i c t i o n s a f t e r h i s r e l e a s e : "From the ravages' made on my e n t i r e p h y s i c a l system by constant headaches, and the t e r r i b l e agonies and torments of my stomach, my mind became d e b i l i t a t e d . In my extremity, I c r i e d to God, and asked him why He so a f f l i c t e d me!" (54) The Habituate touches h e a v i l y upon a source of n a t i o n a l g u i l t w h i le d i s c u s s i n g the e t i o l o g y of h i s a d d i c t i o n . Rather l i k e the crusaders who brought l e p r o s y back from the Holy Land, the 68 Habituate j u s t i f i e s h i s a d d i c t i o n and subsequent i s o l a t i o n 17 by v i r t u e of h i s p a t r i o t i s m . ' There i s , however, another major f a c t o r i n the e t i o l o g y of the H a b i t u a t e ' s a d d i c t i o n . The p h y s i c i a n , while a t r a d i t i o n a l symbol f o r i n t e g r i t y , occupies a p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n i s t e r p o s i t i o n i n the e a r l y l i t e r a t u r e of a d d i c t i o n , s i n c e he i s the normal conduit between opium and the s u f f e r i n g p a t i e n t . The p h y s i c i a n i s the predecessor of the c y n i c a l a d d i c t who seduces youngsters by the dozens j u s t o u t s i d e s c h o o l y a r d gates. Almost l u d i c r o u s l y , the e v i l p h y s i c i a n dogs the steps of the s u f f e r i n g H a b ituate f o r s i x months i n order to g a i n h i s t r u s t . D espite m i s g i v i n g s , the Habituate f i n a l l y a llows the p h y s i c i a n to t r e a t him, though "I e m p h a t i c a l l y charged him not to a d m i n i s t e r me any opium or morphia, as I had a h o r r o r of such t h i n g s " (55)• A f t e r a time, the Habituate p r e d i c t a b l y r e a l i z e s t h a t he depends upon h i s r e g u l a r hypodermic i n j e c t i o n s and i n due course d i s c o v e r s t h a t he i s a d d i c t e d to morphine: "Thus was I, as the n o t o r i o u s f l y , i n v i t e d i n t o the p a r l o r of the s p i d e r , and met w i t h something l i k e the same sad f a t e " ( 5 8 - 5 9 ) -Though i n d i g n a n t , the Habituate can do n o t h i n g a g a i n s t h i s seducer: " J u s t i c e c a l l s him to account, and s i n k s h i s abhorred countenance out of s i g h t of man" (59)• On two counts, then, the Habituate excuses h i m s e l f from the 69 s u s p i c i o n of having c o n t r a c t e d the opium di s e a s e through some i n h e r e n t i n f i r m i t y of w i l l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , Opium E a t i n g r e v e a l s a r e s p e c t a b l e man beside h i m s e l f with g u i l t , deserved or not. A r e s i d e n t paranoia a l e r t s him to h i s s t a t u s as a p a r i a h to h i s f e l l o w men and to God: I t seems the p e c u l i a r province of those so happy as to escape t h i s e a r t h l y dam-n a t i o n , to d e r i d e and blame f o r want of energy and f o r c e the poor v i c t i m - - p e r h a p s to the crime of some one else,--and n o t h i n g but b l a c k l o o k s and condemnation from h i s fellow-man does he r e c e i v e ; he, from whom even the f a c e of h i s Maker seems almost turned away,'as he winds h i s weary p i l g r i m a g e through a chaos of u n u t t e r a b l e woe down to h i s s o o n - f o r g o t t e n grave. (80-81) Not at a l l removed from the e s t i m a t i o n of the world, "the opium e a t e r ' s s e n s i b i l i t i e s are not armor. A wound from a c r u e l word p i e r c e s deep and r a n k l e s " (122). L i k e a 19 th century Wanderer, the opium e a t e r staggers through h i s b l i g h t e d i n t e r i o r landscape: No tongue or pen w i l l ever describe--mine s h r i n k s from the attempt, and the imagina-t i o n of another, without s u f f e r i n g i t a l l , c o u l d s c a r c e l y conceive i t p o s s i b l e - - t h e depth of h o r r o r i n which my l i f e was plunged a t t h i s time; the days of humil-i a t i o n and anguish, n i g h t s of t e r r o r and agony, through which I dragged my wretched being. (68-69) 70 As Ludlow s t r o n g l y suggested, the v i r t u o u s opium e a t e r s u f f e r s an exemplary p a i n : "His g e n e r a l conduct i s m i l d , simple, and c h i l d - l i k e . A l l the animal i s dormant, q u i t e dead. The b e a u t i f u l , the good, the f r e e from sham, the genuine and u n a f f e c t e d , meet h i s a p p r o v a l " ( 9 7 ) . A k i n d of ravaged P r i n c e Myshkin, the opium e a t e r absorbs u n b e l i e v a b l e p a i n w hile s t i l l r e t a i n i n g h i s n a t u r a l innocence and goodness. As p a r t of h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n d e t a i l i n g h i s a d d i c t i o n , the H a b i t u a t e must descend to concrete d e s c r i p t i o n , but he i s r e l u c t a n t to do so. D i s g u s t i n g p h y s i c a l symptoms r a p i d l y become metaphors of o v e r s t a t e d i n t e n s i t y : My food would f r e q u e n t l y be a r r e s t e d i n the lower bowels, where i t would seem determined to abide with me f o r e v e r , c u t t i n g me l i k e a sharp-cornered stone, r e n d e r i n g me almost w i l d with nervous d i s t r e s s , and almost e n t i r e l y dethroning my mind f o r the time being. I t was a p e r f e c t h e l l - r a c k , and sometimes l a s t e d f o r days. (86) Withdrawal, e a s i l y the most f r i g h t f u l aspect of a d d i c t i o n , i s a n a r r a t i v e p r e r e q u i s i t e which the H a b i t u a t e promises to f u l f i l l , "although s i c k and weary of the s u b j e c t , and s i c k and weary i n body and mind" ( 115 ) . Sadly, the H a bituate can o n l y r e c a l l o l d attempts a t withdrawal s i n c e a t t h i s stage of h i s a d d i c t i o n "seventy-two hours of abstinence would, I t h i n k , prove f a t a l i n my case; and I b e l i e v e t h a t 71 I would d i e by the e x p i r a t i o n of t h a t time" ( 1 1 6 ) . The Habituate goes on to catalogue the by now f a m i l i a r withdrawal symptoms: the " a c r i d and f i e r y d i a r r h o e a , " the p a i n f u l s e n s i t i v i t y of the body, "the mouth c o n t i n u a l l y d r e u l s , and i n some i n s t a n c e s i s u l c e r a t e d and s o r e , " the "apparent s t a t i o n a r y p o s i t i o n of time," and "thoughts which march l i k e f u n e r a l p r o c e s s i o n s through the mind" (117-18) . Though the H a b i t u a t e i s f o r c e d to draw back the c l o t h of decency, he f o r c e f u l l y argues f o r a k i n d of yeoman s t a t u s i n the a r i s t o c r a c y of opium e a t e r s . As should be obvious from the quoted passages from Opium E a t i n g , he h a r d l y speaks i n a v o i c e " d i s a r r a y e d of a l l f l o w e r s of speech." In f a c t , p i e c e s of Shakespeare f r e q u e n t l y appear to f r e s h e n up the s t o r y : "Whether to annoy the reader w i t h the h i s t o r y of my repeated attempts and f a i l u r e s , t h a t i s the q u e s t i o n : f o r t h a t I d i d attempt to throw o f f my s h a c k l e s , h o n e s t l y and e a r n e s t l y , I would have the reader f a i r l y b e l i e v e " (61). The H a b i t u a t e e v i d e n t l y a s p i r e s to a c u l t u r e f a r beyond what one would expect from a simple c l e r k a d d i c t e d to opium s i n c e the age of twenty. I t seems c e r t a i n , however, that the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the form demanded t h a t the opium e a t e r a t l e a s t attempt to r i v a l the c u l t u r e of a De Quincey, even i f the r e s u l t veered toward u n i n t e n t i o n a l burlesque. I t was probably i m p o s s i b l e f o r a l i t e r a t e 1 9 t h century 72 a d d i c t not to "become something of a c r i t i c of Romantic p e r s o n a l i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y De Quincey and C o l e r i d g e . These two famous opium e a t e r s governed the p u b l i c i m a g i n a t i o n r e g a r d i n g a d d i c t i o n , but more im p o r t a n t l y , they e x p l a i n e d the a d d i c t to h i m s e l f . Moreover, the two presented a convenient d u a l i t y , s i n c e De Quincey was so e a s i l y e x c o r i a t e d and C o l e r i d g e so e a s i l y defended. E x p r e s s i n g the g e n t e e l norm, the Habituate deplores De Quincey: the Confessions "show the man to have been m o r a l l y depraved, and u t t e r l y r e g a r d l e s s of the i n f l u e n c e of h i s w r i t i n g s . The r e s u l t of the opium h a b i t , f i r s t , l a s t , and always, i s to b r i n g unhappiness" ( 7 1 ) ' The dreams which De Quincey recovered mean n o t h i n g to the H a b i t u a t e , being mere symptoms of opium r a t h e r than any i n d i c a t i o n of s u p e r i o r i n t r o s p e c t i o n : I have always thought i t the acme of the r i d i c u l o u s to a t t r i b u t e to the p e c u l i a r f o r m a t i o n of De Quincey*s b r a i n a s p e c i a l a p t i t u d e f o r dreaming m a g n i f i c e n t dreams. Le t any one, b o l d enough to undertake so c o s t l y an experiment, t r y the v i r t u e s of opium i n the c a p a c i t y of producing dreams, and, my word f o r i t , he w i l l e i t h e r c l a i m a s p e c i a l a p t i t u d e f o r dreaming h i m s e l f , or, w ith me, give a l l the c r e d i t to the s u b t l e and mighty powers of opium. (95) De Quincey can never be f o r g i v e n f o r having thrown "a glamour of enchantment over the s u b j e c t of opium, i r r e s i s t a b l y tempting to some minds" ( 1 2 6 ) . The H a b i t u a t e , on the other 73 hand, t r u s t s t h a t "I have s a i d n o t h i n g t h a t can a l l u r e any one i n t o the h a b i t : my whole o b j e c t has been p r o f e s s e d l y and i n r e a l i t y , to do the c o n t r a r y " (129). C o n t r a s t i n g l y , the H a b i t u a t e conceives of C o l e r i d g e as the noble v i c t i m of opium who warned De Quincey a g a i n s t the drug, deplored the p e r n i c i o u s i n f l u e n c e of the C o n f e s s i o n s , and p r i v a t e l y bemoaned the e n e r v a t i n g consequences o f h i s h a b i t . The Habituate w r i t e s an i n c r e d i b l e eulogy to C o l e r i d g e ' s departed s p i r i t : Numbered wit h the s a i n t s i n heaven i s the sweet-minded, l o n g - s u f f e r i n g C o l e r i d g e . Oh, venerated shade! thy s p i r i t l i v i n g y e t upon the e a r t h has kept mine company i n t h i s sad ebb and flow of time. Thy nature, so g e n t l e , so tender, and so t r u e ; thy h e a r t so pure; thy whole being so per-f e c t and so h i g h , hath been a l i g h t e d t o r c h to me i n t h i s my dark e s t a t e , t r a v -e l l i n g up the rugged h i l l of time, and r o l l i n g my stone along; hath been balm to my wounds, wine to my s p i r i t , and hope to my o 1 e r - f r e i g h t e d h e a r t ! ( lo4-05) The H a b i t u a t e performs the u l t i m a t e r e d u c t i o ad absurdum of the posthumous debate between De Quincey and C o l e r i d g e . In Doctor Judas: A P o r t r a y a l of the Opium H a b i t , p u b l i s h e d i n 1 8 9 5> W i l l i a m Cobbe e s s e n t i a l l y agrees with the H a b i t u a t e ' s c o n v i c t i o n - - a n d De Quincey's and C o l e r i d g e ' s examples--that the opium e a t e r c o u l d be a s u p e r i o r i n d i v i d u a l : "The f a c t of opium s l a v e r y i s f a i r l y good evidence of 74 i n t e l l i g e n c e ; f o r i t would seem t h a t those who are s t o l i d , those who are commonplace, and those who are s t u p i d have no 18 a f f i n i t y f o r the drug." And p r e d i c t a b l y , Cobbe b i t t e r l y denounces De Quincey's i n f l u e n c e on young people: "The e v i l s of the f a s c i n a t i n g 'Confessions of an E n g l i s h Opium-E a t e r ' have been beyond estimate and are d a i l y d r i v i n g innocents to e t e r n a l r u i n " (12). Cobbe reminds h i s readers t h a t De Quincey was a d d i c t e d when w r i t i n g h i s C o n f e s s i o n s , answering De Quincey's f e a r t h a t the p u b l i c would not take h i s f i n d i n g s s e r i o u s l y i f i t knew th a t he was t a k i n g opium at the moment of composition. Cobbe urges us to take the word of h i s withdrawn f r i e n d s over t h a t of De Quincey: " T h e i r evidence i s to be c r e d i t e d above h i s , because they have been cured of a d d i c t i o n , with i t s a s s o c i a t e d e v i l s of l y i n g , d e ception, and moral cowardice" (27). Though an admitted attempt to redeem the a d d i c t from the world's poor o p i n i o n , Doctor Judas takes as an important f o r m a l o b j e c t i v e the a n n i h i l a t i o n of the Confessions as a s i g n i f i c a n t documentation of drug a d d i c t i o n : "Opium i s a f i e n d t h a t deserves no a p o l o g i s t ; i t i s a l t o g e t h e r infamous and y i e l d s no good to any c r e a t u r e who may get w i t h i n i t s m e r c i l e s s c l u t c h e s . De Quincey's defense of i t i s a b s o l u t e l y i n d e f e n s i b l e , and, a l s o , i l l o g i c a l and d i s h o n e s t " (123). Having m i r a c u l o u s l y with-drawn from opium f o r some ei g h t e e n months, Cobbe d e c l a r e s 75 h i m s e l f as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a d d i c t of h i s time. A former s o l d i e r i n the C i v i l War, m i n i s t e r , E n g l i s h teacher, IRS agent, and f i n a l l y a l i t e r a r y man, Cobbe's acute g u i l t over h i s l i f e as an opium e a t e r makes of Doctor  Judas a l a b o r of c o n t r i t i o n which p r e c l u d e s a r t i s t i c or commercial c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : "Because I would make r e s t i t u t i o n as f a r as i n me l i e s , I have t o l d the p l a i n s t o r y of s l a v e r y " (318). As with the H a b i t u a t e , however, "the p l a i n s t o r y of s l a v e r y " i n v o l v e s the awed exaggeration p e c u l i a r to a d d i c t i o n melodrama: Of a l l the pains t h a t are and may be, i n t h i s world or the next, i t seems imp o s s i b l e t h a t any can equal those endured when every b o d i l y c e l l i s i n a rage because i t i s emerging-, from the s t u p e f y i n g drunkenness of opium. I t i s a b o d i l y c r u c i f i x i o n t h a t tongue cannot p o r t r a y or p e n c i l d e p i c t . (I65) Not the c l a i r v o y a n t L u d l o v i a n p h y s i c i a n , Cobbe r e t u r n s to the a u t h o r i t y claimed by De Quincey, B l a i r , and the H a b i t u a t e - -f i r s t - h a n d experience: "Other books w i l l be w r i t t e n upon t h i s a l l - i m p o r t a n t s u b j e c t ; y e t the f a c t s h e r e i n r e l a t e d must be and abide because they are t r u t h " (10-11). L i k e the g e n t e e l a d d i c t t h a t he i s , Cobbe maintains t h a t h i s a d d i c t i o n to opium was through no f a u l t of h i s own. He r e c a l l s t h a t h i s f a t h e r was f i f t y when Cobbe was born, h i s g r a n d f a t h e r was s i x t y and a drunkard when Cobbe's 76 f a t h e r was born, and h i s mother's f a t h e r was seventy when she was born. Such d e c r e p i t seed, Cobbe i m p l i e s , c o u l d o n l y produce degenerate o f f s p r i n g : "I was born of parents whose n a t u r e s were h i g h l y s e n s i t i v e , both being s u b j e c t to melancholy and to p e r i o d i c a t t a c k s of ex c e s s i v e nervousness" (17). And to take any chance of a normal, h e a l t h y l i f e away from him, Cobbe's mother f a v o r e d o p i a t e s as a remedy f o r c h i l d h o o d complaints: "Thus from i n f a n c y up I was f e d p a r e g o r i c , Bateman's drops, Godfrey's c o r d i a l , or laudanum, whenever lamentations from any cause evoked the sp e c t r e of impo s s i b l e d i s e a s e " (19)• Needless to say, Cobbe proves an easy v i c t i m to "the h e l l drug, morphine" a d m i n i s t e r e d subcutaneously by an i g n o r a n t — o r s i n i s t e r — p h y s i c i a n , to whom goes the immediate blame: " E i t h e r t here i s no s i n i n the opium h a b i t u e ' s l i f e , o r h i s misdeeds belong to him who made them p o s s i b l e " (33)• Cobbe promotes the image of a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y weakened i n d i v i d u a l h e l p l e s s i n a drug-dependent s o c i e t y , the v i c t i m of g e n e t i c and environmental f a c t o r s : "The r e a d i n e s s with which the mature man of t h i r t y -e i g h t succumbed to opium was undoubtedly due to . . . e a r l y habitude and h e r e d i t a r y environment" ( I 9 ) • In c i t i n g h e r e d i t y as a major f a c t o r i n the e t i o l o g y of h i s a d d i c t i o n , Cobbe e s s e n t i a l l y agrees w i t h the medical o p i n i o n of h i s day. One p h y s i c i a n , f o r example, b e l i e v e d t h a t morphine 77 a d d i c t i o n " f o l l o w s v e r y l a r g e l y from a l c o h o l i c , s y p h i l i t i c , 19 t u b e r c u l o u s , h y s t e r i c a l , and n e u r o t i c a n c e s t o r s . " 7 S i g n i f -i c a n t l y , f a l l i n g prey to such an i n e v i t a b l e f a t a l i t y r e l i e v e s Cobbe of the major g u i l t f o r h i s s u b j u g a t i o n to opium: " I t i s as r e p r e h e n s i b l e to a t t a c h censure to the opium ' f i e n d ' as i t would be to reproach the v i c t i m of small-pox" (303)• The o f t e n maudlin pathos of the c o n f e s s i n g a d d i c t d e r i v e s from t h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t a d d i c t i o n i s a disease e n t i r e l y independent of the w i l l . : Cobbe c o n s t r u c t s a p o r t r a i t of the opium e a t e r which i n v o l v e s an a b s o l u t e d i v i s i o n between a b u l l y i n g opium t y r a n t and an i r r e p r o a c h a b l e o r i g i n a l s e l f . I t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t metaphors of p o s s e s s i o n by the d e v i l f r e q u e n t l y appear to d e s c r i b e the a d d i c t ' s i n t e r n a l r e a l i t y : "The f i r s t work of the Judas drug i s to double-lock the p r i s o n door of the w i l l , so t h a t s u c c e s s f u l s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the demonaic p o s s e s s i o n i s i m p o s s i b l e " (27) • The superimposed opium p e r s o n a l i t y c o n t r a d i c t s the per s u a s i o n s of the g e n t e e l a d d i c t , r e n d e r i n g him s u s p i c i o u s , a n t i - s o c i a l : " S c a r c e l y had there come a r e a l i z i n g sense of the s u b j e c t i o n , when there was present a purpose to take no one i n t o confidence" (45). Cobbe warns a g a i n s t assuming t h a t the moral changes e f f e c t e d by the opium s e l f r e p r e s e n t any fundamental change i n the opium e a t e r ' s c h a r a c t e r : "Deception and l y i n g are 78 j u s t as p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s of the opium h a b i t as c o n t r a c t i o n of the muscles or d i s o r d e r of the v i s i o n " (50). The burden of Doctor Judas i s to persuade the reader t h a t behind the d e s p i c a b l e , l e p r o u s mask of the opium e a t e r r e s i d e s a p i t i f u l c r e a t u r e p a i n f u l l y aware of h i s s t a t u s as a p a r i a h : " W i l l - l e s s , h e l p l e s s , n e r v e l e s s , and d e s o l a t e , he i s of a l l c r e a t u r e s most unhappy" (7-8). Despite t h i s moral and p h y s i c a l e n e r v a t i o n , however, the a d d i c t does not completely l o s e touch with h i s innate g e n t i l i t y : He does not frequent the saloons, gambling houses, or have low a s s o c i a t i o n s ; never becomes a c r i m i n a l , nor c o n s o r t s with low companions. In a l l the stages of a d d i c t i o n he i s r e s p e c t a b l e i n appearance and does e v i l to no one except h i m s e l f , beyond the s u f f e r i n g t h a t comes to those who love him,-because of h i s n e r v e l e s s , p u r p o s e l e s s l i f e . (300) By arguing f o r a n a t i v e s e l f untouched by opium, Cobbe supports the p o s s i b i l i t y of a bsolute cure: "The e f f e c t ceases with the cause; p e r f e c t h e a l t h crowning the h e a l e d man w i t h r e j o i c i n g " ' (38) . By s i m p l i f y i n g the connection between opium and the a d d i c t to t h a t of a p a r a s i t e l i v i n g o f f a h e l p l e s s h o s t , Cobbe conceives of cure as simple s e p a r a t i o n from the drug. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , 20th century j u n k i e s r e l a p s i n g minutes a f t e r r e l e a s e from i n v o l u n t a r y withdrawal cures would d i s p r o v e the s i m p l i c i t y of Cobbe's theory of a d d i c t i o n . 79 The search f o r tolerable cure i s one of the major sources of continuity i n the l i t e r a t u r e dealing with addiction. One physician warned against the various miracle cures of the era: Persons who have used alcohol associated with the morphin often become vociferous reformers, and t h e i r positiveness i s sus-picious. Such men are found about sani-tariums, on the streets, and i n public places, at reform meetings, proclaiming loudly and emphatically t h e i r escape, and boasting of the means that they used. This class have become prominent as managers and supporters of the "gold cure" asylums and the secret drugs to break up morphinism. After a time they disappear, relapsing to the old a d d i c t i o n . 2 0 The drug confession seems suspiciously close to a kind of huckstering, or How I Lost My Habit i n Three Short Days. In the beginning of Doctor Judas, Cobbe suggests that the chances of successful cure are gloomy indeed: "Those who have not yet experienced the agony should know that where one has been delivered a m i l l i o n have died i n chains, and herewith be warned" (15)• B y the conclusion of the confession, however, Cobbe informs h i s readers that a cure f o r addiction does exist, though ( l i k e Ludlow) Cobbe goes l i g h t l y on the d e t a i l s of the cure i n t h i s book "designed f o r the general reader and not f o r s c i e n t i f i c students and scholars only" ( 1 2 ) . Devoting some three hundred pages to the moral, 80 p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of opium a d d i c t i o n , Cobbe manages onl y a few remarks on h i s mysterious cure, seemingly remembering i t as a dream: "I do know t h a t the treatment was p u r e l y s c i e n t i f i c , t h a t the cure was r a d i c a l " (309) . Though l a c k i n g so much as a name or a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , Cobbe's cure o c c a s i o n s the w i l d l y o p t i m i s t i c language which by Cobbe's time had become a convention of the l i t e r a t u r e of a d d i c t i o n : Touched with a compassion t h a t comes of the memory of the agony of the t r i s t f u l enslavement, I d e c l a r e , with a l l the i n t e n s i t y of my be i n g , t h a t a t l a s t , i n the c l o s i n g decade of the n i n e t e e n t h century, f o r the f i r s t time i n the world's h i s t o r y , a cure has been found f o r the dis e a s e of opium, and t h a t i t y i e l d s as e a s i l y to i n t e l l i g e n t s c i e n t i f i c t r e a t -ment as does ague and f e v e r , or any other d i s e a s e ; w i t h t h i s added encouragement, t h a t whereas i n n e a r l y a l l other d i s e a s e s there i s a p p r e c i a b l e percentage of f a t a l -i t i e s , i n the treatment f o r the opium h a b i t everyone i s r e s t o r e d , w i t h not a v e s t i g e of the curse remaining. (320) Though Cobbe t r i u m p h a n t l y p r o c l a i m s h i s m i r a c l e cure, he a l s o d e c l a r e s h i m s e l f a s t e r n advocate of l e g i s l a t i o n to curb the flow of n a r c o t i c s to unsuspecting v i c t i m s : "Among a l l c l a s s e s the h a b i t i s i n c r e a s i n g to an extent t h a t should o c c a s i o n alarm and i n c i t e the people to d r a s t i c measures f o r r e l i e f and r e l e a s e " (193). And Cobbe's d i s t r u s t of p h y s i c i a n s p r e d i c t s the c r i m i n i l i z a t i o n o f the p h y s i c i a n ' s 81 maintenance of the a d d i c t : "Medical men would denounce as a g l a r i n g outrage upon t h e i r r i g h t s and an a s s a s s i n a t i o n "of s c i e n c e any l e g i s l a t i v e s t a t u t e s making i t a penal o f f e n s e to use opium i n the p r a c t i c e ; y e t s o c i e t y must p r o t e c t i t s e l f " (171-72). Sounding l i k e a l a t e V i c t o r i a n A n s l i n g e r , Cobbe a t t a c k s the i n t e g r i t y of the p h y s i c i a n and by so doing paves the way f o r governmental i n t e r f e r e n c e i n the p a t i e n t -p h y s i c i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p : There should be g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n of the young i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s , t h a t they be warned i n advance of the d i r e f u l p e r i l ; the a d u l t should be t o l d t h a t i t s " l u r e i s woe, i t s s t i n g i s death." L e g i s l a t i v e bodies should be urged to provide f o r the cure of those i n the h a b i t , and enact laws f o r the r e s t r i c t i n g the use of the t o x i c drug to the i n t e l l i g e n t p h y s i c i a n . (308) Cobbe announces the m i g r a t i o n of the f r e n z i e d r h e t o r i c of the l i t e r a t u r e of a d d i c t i o n i n t o the l e g i s l a t i v e process. As s t u d i e s began to d i s c o v e r who were the a d d i c t s i n America, i t became c l e a r t h a t there were more female a d d i c t s 21 than male. Cobbe takes up t h i s aspect of a d d i c t i o n and h i t s r i g h t a t the touchstone of the American concept of c i v i l i z a t i o n - - t h e p u r i t y and goodness of the American wife and mother. By r e p r e s e n t i n g opium to be a d i r e c t t h r e a t to m a t e r n i t y , Cobbe scores a p e r s u a s i v e p o i n t : A good woman i s r a r e l y overcome of a l c o h o l , 82 but hundreds of thousands of pure, v i r -tuous, and i n t e l l i g e n t wives and mothers i n the l a n d are under the p i t i l e s s t h r a l l of opium. A l a s ! they were mothers b e f o r e opium had f a s t e n e d i t s gyves about them, because i t never permits the joys of mater-n i t y to hallow the home of women i n i t s t o i l s . (307-08) W r i t i n g i n the same year, Henry Cole, i n Co n f e s s i o n s of an  American E a t e r , t u r n s Cobbe's warning on i t s head, g r a n t i n g to women the s p e c i a l power to cure the s i n f u l a d d i c t : I f the world was l o s t by a woman's t r a n s -g r e s s i o n , i t s s a l v a t i o n and redemption has, and w i l l , come through her; and the honor and the g l o r y w i l l be accorded to her by the redeemed, w i l l be incomparable by any f i g u r e of speech, no matter how much ex-aggerated. 22 Cole never doubts t h a t i t i s a world i n need of redemption: "There i s no department of l i f e , no order of s o c i e t y , from the h i g h e s t to the lowest, t h a t cannot muster a l a r g e r o l l of opium t a k e r s " (5) • In c o n f e s s i n g h i s g u i l t and a d v e r t i s i n g the means of h i s d e l i v e r a n c e , Cole exchanges the pseudo-s c i e n t i s m of Ludlow and Cobbe f o r a f e r v e n t brand of evan-g e l i c a l f a i t h h e a l i n g based upon the guidance of feminine temperance. U n l i k e the m a j o r i t y of g e n t e e l opium e a t e r s , Cole i n c l u d e s opium i n a complex of a s s o c i a t e d v i c e s which together breed the opium e a t e r : "In my own case, I a s c r i b e 83 the c o n t i n u a l use of opium, i n g r e a t measure, to gambling and a s s o c i a t e d v i c e s " ( 8 ). Cole claims to have been an a l c o h o l i c and a l s o to have engaged i n ambiguous c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s . And u n l i k e h i s more f a s t i d i o u s predecessors, Cole r e c o g n i z e s a s t i m u l a t i n g p r o p e r t y i n opium: "A small q u a n t i t y of t h i s d e l u s i v e f l u i d made of me, f o r the time being, a new c r e a t u r e , and weariness and f a t i g u e f l e d , and the animal and c a r n a l nature found e x p r e s s i o n where i t other-wise would have l a i n dormant" ( 3 2 ) . 2 ^ Opium thus becomes a means of i n c r e a s i n g p h y s i c a l potency, though Cole i n s i s t s t h a t opium s t i m u l a t i o n does not u l t i m a t e l y compensate f o r i t s a s s o c i a t e d p a i n s : "Unlike De Quincey, I have no language to d e i f y the Opium god, although from the bottomless p i t of d e s p a i r he has o f t e n l i f t e d me to an e x a l t e d p h y s i c a l p a r a d i s e , but onl y to h u r l me back again--and again--and again! "'. ( 8 ) The use of opium l e a d s Cole to a p h y s i c a l p a r a d i s e and an e x i s t e n t i a l h e l l : "I looked upon the opium h a b i t as a gross s i n , and one which must, so l o n g as indul g e d i n , separate me from God" ( 1 1 0 ) . In Co l e ' s system, s u c c e s s f u l cure from opium a d d i c t i o n suggests l e s s the s e p a r a t i o n of the a d d i c t from opium than the re u n i o n of the a d d i c t with God. A f t e r y ears of opium, a l c o h o l , gambling, and s t a r v a t i o n , the American Opium E a t e r meets a young woman. I n the shadow 84 of the church they confess to each other, she i n deep mourning and he l o o k i n g "more l i k e an i n v a l i d , - - w i t h o u t "being one,--pale, t h i n , and emaciated" (53)- T h i s Gertrude, who l a t e r became h i s wife and mother to h i s c h i l d r e n proves to be the key to withdrawal: The n o b l e s t , and grandest, and pure s t , and s a i n t l i e s t t h i n g on t h i s b e a u t i f u l p l a n e t of o u r s , - - s i n - c u r s e d and f u l l of misery and wretchedness as i t i s at p r e s e n t , - - i s a pure and s p o t l e s s woman, and to t h i s , the h i g h e s t type of woman-A f t e r meeting such a paragon, Cole takes i t upon h i m s e l f to undergo p u b l i c d e c l a r a t i o n and withdrawal, though with some h e s i t a t i o n : I l a c k e d not onl y the courage of a p u b l i c d e c l a r a t i o n , but such an a c t on my p a r t was f r e i g h t e d with f a r g r e a t e r consequences than any one c o u l d c o n c e i v e , — a n abandon-ment of opium and an e x c r u c i a t i n g death or a worse f a t e i n a drawn-out e x i s t e n c e of i m b e c i l i t y . ( I l l ) But then the m i r a c l e . Having f i n a l l y decided to withdraw--"The p h y s i c a l agony I f e l t prepared to undergo u n t i l r e l e a s e d and s et f r e e by death" (113)--Cole does not experience any withdrawal symptoms whatsoever. No d i a r r h e a , no r e s t l e s s n e s s , no d i s c o m f o r t of any k i n d : "My mind and body were under a peace f a r more transcendent than t h a t ever d e r i v e d from the hood, 85 d i s t i l l a t i o n of the poppy's famous n e c t a r ! " (122) Of the i n s u f f e r a b l e e l o n g a t i o n of time i n c i d e n t to withdrawal, Cole w r i t e s : "In more than f o r t y years of l i f e I have never known such a f l e e t i n g day" (118) . I t becomes c l e a r t h a t i t i s a r i g g e d game, however, when he weakens and decides to take a shot: "No sensation--no a b s o r p t i o n , even; only a lump of r a i s e d f l e s h marked the unabsorbed drug" (122). The e x a l t e d c o n d i t i o n of h i s s o u l , a i d e d by the s a i n t l y Gertrude, arms Cole a g a i n s t the drug. He has been granted immunity: "Nature's laws t r a n s g r e s s e d were, being a s s i s t e d and supplanted by a s u p e r n a t u r a l or s p i r i t u a l power" (124). Having achieved h i s u n p a r a l l e l e d r e l e a s e , Cole cannot h e l p but w r i t e a k i n d of hagiography when w r i t i n g the s t o r y of h i s a d d i c t i o n . He r e t u r n s to the power of c o n f e s s i o n and s u p e r n a t u r a l i n t e r -v e n t i o n as the means to the cure which s c i e n c e can never patent. While o f f e r i n g f a r and away the most dramatic of cures, Cole p r e s e n t s some concrete o b s e r v a t i o n s of the everyday r e a l i t i e s of the a d d i c t i n the l a t e 1 9 t h century. F o r example, Cole documents the ease with which opium c o u l d be obtained d e s p i t e the w e l t e r of l o c a l and s t a t e r e g u l a t i o n s : In a l l the years I had been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h opium t a k e r s , i n c i t i e s of s e v e r a l S t a t e s , w i t h s t a t u t o r y enactment, severe and p e n a l t i e s l a r g e f o r v i o l a t i o n of the 86 law, and i n innumerable drug s t o r e s , the Opium E a t e r never experienced any more d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g the drug than i n buying the most harmless t h i n g . (49) He a l s o r e c o r d s the prevalence of s a n i t a r i u m s designed f o r drug a d d i c t s : "The f a c t t h a t almost everywhere throughout our l a n d , i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r those a d d i c t e d to some one of the many drug h a b i t s . . . would be i n i t s e l f ample apology f o r t h i s work" (2-3). Cole a c t u a l l y s e t s out to d e s t r o y the myth of " s c i e n t i f i c " cures f o r the simple reason t h a t he has t r i e d them and they d i d not work; he e v e n t u a l l y comes to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n such i n s t i t u t i o n s are i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y a d d i c t s themselves. In an appendix Cole pays t r i b u t e to F i t z Hugh Ludlow, n o t i n g t h a t he too was an u n f o r t u n a t e opium user, as w e l l as a p h y s i c i a n , and, what i s q u i t e o f t e n the case, p r a c t i c e d on o t h e r s f o r t h a t which he c o u l d f i n d no balm f o r him-s e l f . The Opium E a t e r , i n h i s experience i n l o o k i n g f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n h i s d i r e ex-t r e m i t y , has twice been under treatment by men, s i n c e deceased, one s u i c i d a l l y , who were a d d i c t e d to the same h a b i t as h i m s e l f . ( I 6 5 ) Besides assuming t h a t Ludlow was i n f a c t a p h y s i c i a n , Cole supposes t h a t " t h i s gentleman was at the head of an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r opium e a t e r s l o c a t e d on Lord's I s l a n d " ( I 8 3 ) . A d i s t i n c t l y f a n c i f u l h i s t o r i a n , Cole n e v e r t h e l e s s perpetuates the skep-87 t i c i s m r e g a r d i n g the p h y s i c i a n which was to r e s u l t i n the lamentable i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the pre d a t o r y s c r i p t w r i t i n g 24 d o c t o r wxth n o t a b l y humane men. The d i s p a r a t e v o i c e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r - - B l a i r , Ludlow, the Ha b i t u a t e , Cobbe, C o l e - - e v e n t u a l l y come to agree on one e s s e n t i a l p o i n t : a d d i c t i o n i s a grave p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l problem which should a t any c o s t be e r a d i c a t e d to preserve d i s t i n c t l y American v a l u e s . The popular c o n f e s s i o n s c o o r d i n a t e d i d e o l o g i c a l l y w i t h the temperance mood of the country around the t u r n of the century. And y e t i n v e s t i g a t o r s such as W i l l i a m James and Havelock E l l i s c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n to a m y s t i c a l p o t e n t i a l i n drugs which, while evoking the memory of the H o t e l Pimodan, p r e d i c t e d the urgent excitement surrounding LSD i n the I 9 6 0 * s . The popular c o n f e s s i o n s indeed h e l p e d c r e a t e the s t e r e o t y p e s of the a d d i c t which r e s u l t e d i n the a d d i c t becoming the v i c t i m of a p u n i t i v e m e n t a l i t y masquerading as hygiene. T h a n k f u l l y perhaps, the popular c o n f e s s i o n s of the 1 9 t h century t e l l o n l y a p a r t of the s t o r y of the drug t a k e r and h i s r e l a t i o n to our always backward knowledge of drugs and the q u e s t i n g mind. 88 Chapter 3 CROWLEY, LEE, AND COCTEAU By the t u r n of the 2 0 t h century no one c o u l d p u b l i c l y p r e s c r i b e a d d i c t i v e drugs to a l l e v i a t e o r d i n a r y d e p r e s s i o n without c u t t i n g orthodox m o r a l i t y on a major nerve. In "Uber Coca" and other papers Freud concluded t h a t the modest use of cocaine improves the q u a l i t y of l i f e i n s e v e r a l ways--for example, as an a p h r o d i s i a c , or as a r e c o u r s e a g a i n s t d e p r e s s i o n and f a t i g u e . But a mere three y e ars l a t e r , i n I 8 8 7 , Freud p u b l i s h e d "Craving F o r and Fear of Cocaine" i n o r d e r to d i s s o c i a t e h i m s e l f f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l reasons from the s p e c t r e of cocaine a d d i c t i o n , though he 1 s t i l l m a i n t a i n s t h a t cocaine i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a d d i c t i v e . Freud's b r i e f c a r e e r i n psychopharmacology p r e d i c t s the powerful f o r c e s which would e v e n t u a l l y render any reasonable debate on the s u b j e c t of drugs p r o f e s s i o n a l l y compromising. Dr. Watson's warning to Sherlock Holmes c a r r i e s p u b l i c o p i n i o n toward r i g i d homogeneity: "'Count the c o s t ! Your b r a i n may, as you say, be roused and e x c i t e d , but i t i s a p a t h o l o g i c a l and morbid process which i n v o l v e s t i s s u e -89 change and may a t l e a s t leave a permanent weakness.'"'' Or at most transform the drug f i e n d i n t o a d e s p i c a b l e , l e p r o u s c r i m i n a l , r e f l e x i v e l y dangerous, s e x u a l l y i n s a t i a b l e , c r u i s i n g the s t r e e t s f o r unknown purposes, the i n c a r n a t i o n of Mr. Hyde, t h a t l a s c i v i o u s l a t e V i c t o r i a n nightmare, . . . 3 the pure s p i r i t of c o c a i n e . The p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g World War I, however, allowed at l e a s t three v o i c e s to emerge from the world of l e t t e r s which, i f they do not undermine the p r e v a i l i n g o p i n i o n s on what had come to be c l a s s i f i e d as Dangerous Drugs, do c h a l l e n g e the h y p e r - h y g i e n i c s b e i n g espoused as the e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n of mental and p h y s i c a l s a n i t y . Drugs r e s t o r e themselves as means of bohemian magic, i n c a n t a t o r y , a moral p r i s o n o n l y to those who misunderstand t h e i r e l a b o r a t e and a n c i e n t r i t u a l s . Jean Cocteau: On p a r l e t o u j o u r s <^e l ' e s c l a v a g e de 1'opium. Non seulement l a r e g u l a r i t e d'heures q u ' i l impose ^ s t une d i s c i p l i n e , mais encore une l i b e r a t i o n . . . . I I r a s s u r e . I I r a ^ s u r e par son luxe, par ses r i t e s , par 1'elegance a n t i m e d i c a l e des lajpes, fourneaux, p i p e s , par l a mise au p o i n t s e c u l a i r e de c e t empoisonnement exquis.^" Cocteau's t r a n c e d e r o t i c i s m concerning opium t h r e a t e n s i n a fundamental way t r a c t a r i a n d i s c u s s i o n s of drugs and the e v i l s of a d d i c t i o n . None of the g e n t e e l assumptions--c l e a n l i n e s s , v i g o u r , s o c i a l s t anding, p r o g r e s s — a p p l y . 90 A l e i s t e r Crowley, James Lee, and Cocteau h i m s e l f , each i n an i n d i v i d u a l way walks r i g h t o f f the stage organized by moral a u t h o r i t y ; t o g e t h e r they complicate the image of the a d d i c t , take him out of the p o l i c e r e p o r t and the e v a n g e l i c a l medical r e p o r t , out of h e l l , , p e r d i t i o n , and the p e n i t e n t i a r y , and p l a c e him i n a p r o g r e s s i v e frame-work which e a s i l y evades p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l orthodoxy, c r e a t i n g i n the meantime a k i n d of b i o l o g i c pornography o u t l a n d i s h l y r e l a t e d to mysticism. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t imagining the same reader f o r The D i a r y of a Drug F i e n d , The Underworld of  'the E a s t , and Opium: ,j o u r n a l d 'une des i n t o x i c a t i o n , such v a r i o u s I n t e r e s t s they d i s p l a y . Crowley employs h i s D i a r y as a p o l i t i c a l instrument, as promotion f o r h i s r e t r e a t a t C e f a l u and h i s p h i l o s o p h y of W i l l . Lee w r i t e s a t r a v e l -adventure which c e l e b r a t e s p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e . And Cocteau meditates upon a r t while a t the same time w r i t i n g a j o u r n a l d e s c r i b i n g the withdrawal process. I t would be d i f f i c u l t to arrange a menage a t r o i s with more d i s c o u r a g i n g p r o s p e c t s . To say t h i s , however, i s to d i s r e g a r d the p e c u l i a r luminescence of drugs as a s u b j e c t f o r l i t e r a t u r e . The books i n q u e s t i o n a s s i s t i n propagating the popular a s s o c i a t i o n between sex, v i o l e n c e , and drugs; they p r o f f e r a l i c e n s e as t h r e a t e n i n g to moral a u t h o r i t y as any other form of human deviance. " I t i s a book t h a t ought to be 91 burned," w r i t e s one reviewer of the D i a r y . J The world of drugs promises unique s a t i s f a c t i o n s f o r p r u r i e n t r e a d e r s . Even withdrawal humps and g r i n d s i n a strange k i n d of metabolic pornography: the head whipped by the spine i n d e v a s t a t i n g spasms, the e p i l e p t i c p o s s e s s i o n of the : body by a l i e n s p i r i t s , c e l l u l a r t o r t u r e . Drugs a u t o m a t i c a l l y invoke e r o t i c v i o l e n c e i n the 2 0 t h century. "A number of m o r p h i n i s t s have e r o t i c paroxysms of a few days' d u r a t i o n , " one p h y s i c i a n warns. " T h e i r conduct d u r i n g t h i s time i s t h a t of se x u a l maniacs. Rapes, sed u c t i o n s , and other c r i m i n a l a c t s occur, sometimes b o l d l y , or with s e c r e t i v e n e s s and cunning." I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t C l a r i s s a , drugged and raped (the same t h i n g ? ) , ever r e a l l y fades from the popular mind. By 1922, the year of the D i a r y , drug l i t e r a t u r e n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e d e r o t i c and punishable crime. I t i s no wonder, then, t h a t Crowley, w r i t i n g f o r hard cash f o r the f i r s t time i n h i s l i f e , chose the contemporary drug m i l i e u f o r h i s s u b j e c t . The D i a r y departs s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the formula of the drug c o n f e s s i o n s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s study. Crowley does not d e c l a r e h i m s e l f as an a d d i c t (though he happened to be one') but i n s t e a d r e c o r d s the d i a r i e s of S i r P e t e r Pendragon, and h i s w i f e Lou, both a d d i c t s to cocaine and h e r o i n . " T h i s i s a t r u e s t o r y , " Crowley a f f i r m s i n the p r e f a c e , q u i c k l y e s t a b l i s h i n g the c r e d i b i l i t y t h a t 92 the i l l u s i o n of r e a l l i f e "brings to unbelievable events. The i l l u s i o n , however, does not hold. The Diary o f f e r s the choice of accepting the d i a r i e s as actual accounts reproduced by Crowley, "rewritten only so f a r as was necessary to conceal p e r s o n a l i t i e s , " or as true i n s p i r i t , l i k e l y to have happened or going to happen, a Robinson Crusoe of the drug world, a work of f i c t i o n , and not the genuine case study which the conventions of drug l i t e r a t u r e demand. In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y the Diary was the twenty-seven g day employment that i t i s assumed to be, and though he undoubtedly drew from h i s own various and experimental experiences with drugs as well as the r e a l i t i e s of bohemian London, Crowley invented the Diary f o r s i x t y pounds ready money and dictated every word to h i s Scarlet Woman of the moment. Despite h i s adopting a f a l s e (or l i t e r a r y ) voice, Crowley confesses in'the Diary; no matter with what unctuous self-esteem he "saigne de l'encre," as Cocteau says the hero must. Crowley appears i n the Diary as a mystical drug counselor, the harbinger of a new aeon, and only t a c i t l y as a functioning heroin addict. 1 0 Crowley, going under the a l i a s of B a s i l King Lamus. (aka Big Lion), completely reprograms the l i v e s of the two drug fiends whose d i a r i e s he presumably authors. King Lamus p l i e s the model of con: truth serves authority. Lamus's assumption of unlimited prescience extends the 93 meaning of c r e d i b i l i t y to another plane: he not o n l y wants to be b e l i e v e d , he wants to be f o l l o w e d . To b e g i n w i t h , Lamus commands h i s two homeless orphans to w r i t e the d i a r i e s we are r e a d i n g . As wit h Ludlow and Cocteau, w r i t i n g the h i s t o r y of one's a d d i c t i o n serves as therapy f o r withdrawal. Lou w r i t e s : "The only r e s p i t e I have i s t h i s d i a r y . I t r e l i e v e s me to w r i t e of my s u f f e r i n g s ; and b e s i d e s i t i s important f o r the s p i r i t u a l l i f e . B a s i l must have the r e c o r d to read" (226). Cocaine and h e r o i n come to dominate t h e i r l i v e s , but even t h i s overwhelming s i c k n e s s begins and ends with K i n g Lamus, as though he planned t h e i r a d d i c t i o n as a s p i r i t u a l e x e r c i s e : "'You encouraged us to go on,'" S i r P e t e r accuses. " ' C e r t a i n l y , ' admitted Lamus, 'and now, I'm encouraging you to stop'" ( 155 ) . K i n g Lamus courses through t h e i r minds, even when they f o o l i s h l y r e v o l t a g a i n s t h i s W i l l . Lou r e a l i z e s t h a t "King Lamus i s always at the r o o t of my b r a i n " and "I am the f i r s t - b o r n c h i l d of K i n g Lamus without a mother. I am the emanation of h i s essence" (169). P e r i o d i c a l l y , Lamus appears to impress upon the p a i r t h a t he understands t h o r -oughly what i s happening to them (he r e f e r s to t h e i r o r d e a l 11 as an'"experiment" ) and t h a t he i s u n i q u e l y s u i t e d to a s s i s t them when the crash f i n a l l y comes. On one o c c a s i o n , without s a y i n g a word, he hands them a card r e a d i n g : "Don't 94 f o r g e t me when you need me" ( 9 6 ). The hope of withdrawal, f o l l o w i n g madness and s u i c i d e attempts, i n e v i t a b l y composes i t s e l f i n terms of King Lamus and h i s d o c t r i n e of W i l l . S i r P e t e r and Lou's l i v e s so completely depend upon Ki n g Lamus and h i s W i l l (which i s , a l t r u i s t i c a l l y enough, to have them f i n d t h e i r W i l l s : "Do What Thou W i l t S h a l l Be the Whole of the Law") t h a t i n r e p o r t i n g t h e i r s a l v a t i o n they a c t u a l l y t e s t i f y to Lamus's power. "You have been t r i e d i n the c r u c i b l e and come out pure g o l d , " Lamus t e l l s P e t e r (363)• There i s l i t t l e doubt who i s the a l c h e m i s t or what the g o l d standard. King Lamus h a l f -s e r i o u s l y informs S i r P e t e r t h a t "your b r a i n soaks up the h i g h l y charged p a r t i c l e s of my atmosphere. And before you know where you are, i n s t e a d of e x p r e s s i n g y o u r s e l f — w h a t l i t t l e s e l f you have to express--you w i l l be r e -p e a t i n g , i n a debased currency, the words of wisdom t h a t from time to time have dropped from my r e f i n e d l i p s . " (251) A f t e r p a s s i n g through Lamus's h o l y alembic, S i r P e t e r and Lou a s p i r e to j o i n "a number of s e l e c t e d people to a c t as a s o r t of b r a i n f o r the world i n i t s present s t a t e of c e r e b r a l c o l l a p s e " (252). When S i r P e t e r d i s c o v e r s h i s t r ue W i l l (to b u i l d h e l i c o p t e r s ) , he begins "to p e r c e i v e dimly t h a t the B i g L i o n had worked out the whole s i t u a t i o n i n a m a s t e r l y f a s h i o n . He had done with h i s 95 m a t e r i a l - - u s , what I was doing w i t h my m a t e r i a l , the law of mechanics" (355)• In the D i a r y Crowley f u l f i l l s the dream i n which he e x e r c i s e s t o t a l c o n t r o l over h i s s u f -f e r i n g p a t i e n t s , those c r i p p l e d from " s p i r i t u a l d i s t r e s s " - -the a r c h e t y p a l h e a l e r , i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the m y s t e r i e s of drugs, e r o t i c i s m , s p i r i t s , and death. And u s u a l l y some o r g a n i z a t i o n as w e l l . The Abbey of Thelema a t C e f a l u had been i n e x i s t e n c e f o r over two years when the D i a r y was p u b l i s h e d l a t e i n 1922. In a note to the D i a r y C r o w l e y - a s - e d i t o r w r i t e s : The Abbey of Thelema a t " T e l e p y l u s " i s a r e a l p l a c e . I t and i t s customs.and members, w i t h the surrounding scenery, are a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d . The t r a i n i n g t h e r e g i v e n i s s u i t e d to a l l c o n d i t i o n s of s p i r i t u a l d i s t r e s s , and f o r the d i s -covery and development of the "True W i l l " of any person. Those i n t e r e s t e d are i n v i t e d to communicate with the author of t h i s book. (246) The Abbey proves j u s t the r u r a l t o n i c whereby the young c i t y couple experience r e g e n e r a t i o n under B i g L i o n ' s guidance. Though something l i k e Hawthorne's The B l i t h e d a l e  Romance i n the b r e a t h - i n h a l i n g l y r i c i s m surrounding what i s , a f t e r a l l , a k i n d of Utopian experiment, the D i a r y grabs f o r the c l i n i c a l a u t h o r i t y of a m e d i c a l r e p o r t , reminding one of Ludlow's f e t c h i n g recommendation of the noble doc t o r who weaned him from the p e r n i c i o u s h a s h i s h 9 6 h a b i t , but a t the same time d i s t u r b i n g l y s i m i l a r to a brochure f o r s a n i t a r i u m s c l a i m i n g to be p e c u l i a r l y s u i t e d to care f o r the drug a d d i c t s who, due to the new r e p r e s s i v e laws designed to suppress t h e i r s t a t e of being, were l e f t 12 h e l p l e s s . One reviewer of the D i a r y n o t i c e s the r e a l p o i n t : I t i s not a p l e a s i n g book, but Mr. Crowley i n v i t e s anyone i n t e r e s t e d i n the system of t r a i n i n g he d e s c r i b e s to communicate w i t h him. Doubtless there must be many v i c t i m s , and r e l a t i v e s of v i c t i m s , of t h i s and o t h e r c r a z e s who w i l l accept h i s i n v i t a t i o n . 3 And y e t t h i s Mr. Crowley, who, d i s g u i s e d as King Lamus, "c o u l d use cocaine as a fencing-master uses a r a p i e r , as an expert, without danger of wounding h i m s e l f , " was a d d i c t e d to h e r o i n b e f o r e and a f t e r he wrote the D i a r y , h a v i n g f a i l e d to withdraw from the drug h i m s e l f . S h o r t l y b e f o r e the D i a r y , Crowley wrote an a r t i c l e f o r The E n g l i s h  Review, "The Great Drug D e l u s i o n , " d e s c r i b i n g h i m s e l f as "a New York S p e c i a l i s t " who had t r i e d to a d d i c t h i m s e l f to h e r o i n f o r the sake of s c i e n c e — b u t had f a i l e d . Pre-d i c t a b l y , there i s an advertisement f o r the " S p e c i a l i s t ' s " 14 c l i n i c l o c a t e d a t C e f a l u . Though Crowley never e n l i s t e d more than a few r e c r u i t s f o r h i s Abbey of Thelema, h i s f a i l u r e was not through l a c k of nerve. H i s i n t e n t i o n s ; 97 i n the D i a r y sink to those of a cancer c l i n i c i n T i j u a n a and yet o u t r a g e o u s l y r i s e to those of a h e d o n i s t i c savant c o o l l y d i s p e n s i n g s a l v a t i o n to the orphans of a d i s i n t e -g r a t i n g s o c i a l order. The D i a r y s t r e n u o u s l y a f f i r m s another of Crowley's creeds: "Love i s the Law; Love under W i l l . " Love t h a t i s separated from the true W i l l allows a d d i c t i o n to occur. Cocaine l i f t s the body to c a r n a l l o v e and without the i n t e r v e n t i o n of W i l l l e a d s to i r r e s p o n s i b l e excess. Lou's f i r s t words to S i r P e t e r : "Your k i s s i s q u i t e b i t t e r w i t h c o c a i n e " (28). A f t e r h i s f i r s t s n o r t , S i r P e t e r r e a l i z e s the emotional p o t e n t i a l of c o c a i n e : "I r e c o g n i z e d , f o r one s w i f t second, the meaning of my p r e v i o u s d e p r e s s i o n . I t was my sense of i n f e r i o r i t y to her! Now I was her man, her mate, her master!" (25-26) Cocaine f u n c t i o n s i n the P a r a d i s e s e c t i o n as an e r o t i c means of r e l e a s e , s t i m u l a t i n g beyond moral c o n t r o l , s w e l l i n g l o v e u n t i l the two rush to S i r P e t e r ' s a i r p l a n e and f l y to P a r i s : "For the f i r s t time i n my l i f e I was b e i n g a b s o l u t e l y myself, f r e e d from a l l i n h i b i t i o n s of body, i n t e l l e c t , and t r a i n i n g which keep us, normally, i n what we c a l l the sane courses of a c t i o n " (36). The s h i v e r i n g c a r n a l i t y of cocaine e v e n t u a l l y becomes i d e n t i f i e d w i t h l o v e i t s e l f : "The e x a l t a t i o n of l o v e was combined with t h a t of cocaine; 98 and the romance and adventure of our l i v e s formed an e x h i l a r a t i n g s e t t i n g f o r those superb jewels" (42). And i n a solemn moment S i r P e t e r r e v e a l s t h a t without cocaine sexual love might even he i m p o s s i b l e : I come of a v e r y r e f i n e d race, keenly observant and e a s i l y nauseated. The l i t t l e i n c i d e n t s i n s e p a r a b l e from l o v e a f f a i r s , which i n normal circumstances tend to j a r the d e l i c a c y of one's s e n s i -b i l i t i e s , do so no l o n g e r when one's furnace i s f u l l of coke. E v e r y t h i n g soever i s transmuted as by "heavenly alchemy" i n t o a s p i r i t u a l b e a t i t u d e . One i s i n t e n s e l y conscious of the body. But as the Buddhists t e l l us, the body is. i n r e a l i t y an instrument of p a i n or d i s c o m f o r t . We have a l l of us a sub-conscious i n t u i t i o n t h a t t h i s i s the case; and t h i s i s a n n i h i l a t e d by cocaine. (46) S n o r t i n g extravagant amounts of cocaine from each ot h e r ' s hand serves as f u r i o u s f o r e p l a y , even the sexual a c t i t s e l f . Deep i n a d d i c t i o n , Lou w r i t e s : "I took a whole l o t of cocaine. I t d u l l e d what I f e l t . I was a b l e to f a n c y I l o v e d him" ( 1 4 3 ) . Withdrawing i n an I t a l i a n j a i l , S i r P e t e r r e a l i z e s t h a t Lou's " h a i r was t o u s l e d and d i r t y ; her complexion was sallow, m o t t l e d with unwholesome red . Her eyes were b l e a r e d and bloodshot. Dark purple r i n g s were round them" (124). Thus the b a s i c melodrama of drug l i t e r a t u r e (drugs degrade the body and deprave the mind) v i n d i c a t e s i t s e l f not o n l y i n terms of cocaine but, by 99 i m p l i c a t i o n , c a r n a l l o v e as w e l l . But there i s another f a c t o r i n the drug equation r e s o l v e d f i n a l l y a t the Abbey. Cocaine sponsors c a r n a l l o v e , but h e r o i n puts the body to sleep; h e r o i n sponsors a k i n d of q u i e s c e n t s p i r i t u a l i t y , untouchable, unmoved, t i m e l e s s . Cocaine i s the agent w i t h which G r e t e l Webster, the e v i l w i t c h of l o v e , hopes to cr e a t e d e s t r u c t i v e l o v e , and i t i s h e r o i n with which another b i z a r r e woman, Haidee Lamoureux, attempts to seduce the two orphans i n t o death. Haidee l u g u b r i o u s l y pleads f o r a n e g a t i v e d e l i v e r a n c e i n t o the hands of h e r o i n ; she r e p r e s e n t s the bleak confidence of death i t s e l f : "A wan smile f l i c k e r e d on her hollow cheeks. There was something a p p a l l i n g i n i t s w i n t r y splendour. I t s i l e n c e d us" ( 7 0 ) . In the middle of w i t h -drawal Lou evokes t h i s f a m i l i a r presence (". . . D i d Quattrocento f i n g e r f a s h i o n i t / Hollow of cheek as though i s drank the wind / And took a mess of shadows f o r i t s 1 S meat?" i n her d i a r y : I saw the s p i r i t of h e r o i n today-when I went up to the magic room. I t i s tremendously t a l l and t h i n , w i t h t a t -t e r e d rags f l u t t e r i n g around i t , and these t u r n i n t o l i t t l e b i r d s t h a t f l y o f f i t , t h a t come and burrow i n t o one's s k i n ! (214) More than a Gothic t a c t i c , Haidee has renounced e v e r y t h i n g f o r " d i v i n e p u r i t y , " the ambience of h e r o i n . "I f e e l 100 t h a t c o n t a c t of any s o r t , even wi t h myself, contaminates me" (69). She takes the two young people t e m p o r a r i l y i n t o her power, d i s m i s s i n g l o v e as a d i s g u s t i n g d i s t r a c t i o n from her mysterious purpose: "You have to be born i n t o i t , married w i t h i t , and dead from i t before you understand i t . D i f f e r e n t people are d i f f e r e n t . But i t always takes some months at l e a s t before you get r i d of t h a t s t u p i d n o n s e n s e - - l i f e . As l o n g as you have animal p a s s i o n s , you are an animal. How d i s g u s t i n g i t i s to t h i n k of e a t i n g and l o v i n g and a l l those a p p e t i t e s , l i k e c a t t l e ! " (68-69) " L i s t e n : T h e i r Garden of D e l i g h t s i s a t e r m i n a l sewer," Burroughs warns. "Now I've f o r g o t t e n what love means, except f o r a f a i n t sense of nausea when i t comes under my n o t i c e . I h a r d l y eat at a l l - - i t ' s o n l y b r u t e s t h a t want to wallow i n a c t i o n t h a t need three meals a day. I h a r d l y ever talk--words seem such a waste, and they are none of them t r u e . No one has y e t invented a l a n -guage from my p o i n t of view. Human l i f e or h e r o i n l i f e ? I've t r i e d them both; and I don't r e g r e t having chosen as I d i d . " (69-70) S i r P e ter r e a l i z e s " t h a t Haidee, l o w - c l a s s , commonplace, i g n o r a n t g i r l t h a t she was, had somehow been sucked i n t o a stupendous maelstrom of t r u t h " (I03). And Lou r e c a l l s "what Haidee s a i d about the s p i r i t u a l l i f e . We were being prepared to take our p l a c e s i n the new order of Humanity" (1 101 The f r a n t i c , g e n i t a l l o v e i n i t i a t e d hy cocaine g i v e s way to h e r o i n d e a t h - i n - l i f e : • d i r t y f i n g e r n a i l s , s i l e n c e , f i l t h y rooms, f a l l i n g out h a i r , and, s t r a n g e l y , the ex-e r i e n c e of l o v e on a h i g h e r plane: I t i s a f o r m l e s s calm. But l o v e ! We had never l o v e d l i k e t h i s b e f o r e . We had d e f i l e d l o v e with the grossness of the body. . . .We were conscious of every nerve to the t i n i e s t f i l a m e n t ; and f o r t h i s one must be i n e f f a b l y a l o o f from movement. ( I 6 9 ) But when t h i s f i n e c a l i b r a t i o n i s d i s t u r b e d , when the "hourglass of junk" (Burroughs' phrase) runs out, then "I f e e l as i f I had d i e d and got f o r g o t t e n i n some b e a s t l y p l a c e where there was n o t h i n g but hunger and t h i r s t . Nothing means anything any more except dope, and dope i t s e l f doesn't mean anything v i t a l " (1^7). The seeming i m p o s s i b i l i t y of withdrawal sends them to Ki n g Lamus r a t h e r than t r a d i t i o n a l medical help—"We venomously c o n t r a s t e d the calm confidence of King Lamus with the c r o a k i n g clamour of the a u t h o r i t i e s " ( 1 8 2 ) - - j u s t as any j u n k i e , cut o f f from h i s supply, f l u s h e d out by the Dangerous Drug A ct, a u t o m a t i c a l l y f e l l prey to any c h a r l a t a n a d v e r t i s i n g a c e r t a i n method of cure. H i s t o r i c a l l y , S i r Pe t e r and Lou are i n the vanguard of a l l those who found drugs easy to o b t a i n u n t i l they were 102 completely addicted•and were then f o r c e d by t h e i r p e r s i s t e n t h a b i t s and r e p r e s s i v e laws to go down i n t o the underworld as a l i f e - a n d - d e a t h n e c e s s i t y r a t h e r than as an e x c i t i n g indulgence. G r e t e l (the o n l y woman who does not l o v e K i n g Lamus) p l a y s the p a r t of bogey-pusher, g i v i n g the couple honeymoon g i f t s of cocaine and h e r o i n , and then d i s a p p e a r i n g when the s t u f f becomes necessary to m a i n t a i n a human form. In the book's immediate background the champions of p u b l i c m o r a l i t y are b e a t i n g the drum to outlaw the s t a t e s of b e i n g induced by drugs: The papers are d i s g u s t i n g . I t ' s the s i l l y season r i g h t enough. Every time one p i c k s one up, t h e r e ' s something about cocaine. That o l d f o o l P i a t t i s on the warpath. He wants to "arouse p u b l i c o p i n i o n to a sense of the a p p a l l i n g danger which thr e a t e n s the manhood and womanhood of England." (142) A f t e r they have been swindled i n the b l a c k market, Lou remarks: L a s t n i g h t ' s swindle was made p o s s i b l e by the g r e a t p h i l a n t h r o p i s t Jabez P i a t t . H i s D i a b o l i c a l Dope Act has c r e a t e d the t r a f f i c which he was t r y i n g to suppress. I t d i d n ' t e x i s t before except i n h i s r o t t e n imagina-And underground t r a f f i c o b v i o u s l y asks h i g h e r p r i c e s : "The p r i c e of cocaine has gone up from a pound an ounce to anything you l i k e to pay" (146). t i o n 103 But the c l e v e r (and probably astute) i r o n y i n the D i a r y i s t h a t Jabez P i a t t , the g r e a t reformer of the day, who had r e a l i z e d h i s ambition of " p u t t i n g through a law f o r s u p p r e s s i n g the e v i l of drugs," owns a cocaine f a c t o r y i n S w i t z e r l a n d . He ends up o f f e r i n g S i r P e t e r shares i n the company, i n f o r m i n g him t h a t "thanks to the very Act which I had so a r d u o u s l y laboured to put upon the S t a t u t e Book, t h a t l i t t l e b o t t l e of yours which c o s t s me l e s s than f i v e s h i l l i n g s to manu-f a c t u r e , and was s o l d r e t a i l f o r a matter of f i f t e e n s h i l l i n g s , can now be s o l d - -d i s c r e e t l y , you u n d e r s t a n d - - i n the West End f o r almost anything one cares to ask--ten, twenty, even f i f t y pounds to the r i g h t customer. Eh? What do you-say to t h a t ? " He laughed g l e e f u l l y . "Why, i l l - n a t u r e d people might say I had put through the Act f o r the v e r y purpose of making a b u l l market f o r my produce!" (289-90) Crowley c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e s the e v i l i n t e n t i o n s of those who would c r i m i n a l i z e the use of drugs and thereby c r e a t e tremendous sources of c a p i t a l based upon the lowest u n i t i n the "pyramid of junk" (again Burroughs' phrase): the a d d i c t i n the s t r e e t . As the a d d i c t turns i n t o a p a r i a h (m o r a l l y and l e g a l l y ) i t becomes n a t u r a l to e x p l o i t him. U n t y p i c a l l y , S i r P e t e r and Lou have l i t t l e need f o r money; r a t h e r they d e s p e r a t e l y need connections f o r drugs; Lou f i n a l l y whores h e r s e l f to a d o c t o r f o r h e r o i n (the gov-ernment p r e s c r i p t i o n h a r d l y serves to f i x them). They 104 l i v e i n f e a r o f d i s c o v e r y , f i n a l l y moving t o s o r d i d rooms i n Soho t o be c l o s e r t o h e r o i n c o n n e c t i o n s : "We had b o t h o f us a c e r t a i n shame i n a d m i t t i n g t o each o t h e r t h a t we were renegades" ( 1 8 4 ) . O n l y h e r o i n h o l d s them t o g e t h e r : I h a t e d P e t e r from t h e depths o f my s o u l . I would have g i v e n a n y t h i n g i n the w o r l d - -e x c e p t the h e r o i n - - t o be a b l e n e v e r t o see him a g a i n . But he had the money, why s h o u l d n ' t we e n j o y o u r a b j e c t r u i n as we had e n j o y e d our romance? Why n o t w a l l o w i n the m o i s t , warm m i r e ? (203) F i n a l l y the d e g r a d a t i o n s t h a t accompany a d d i c t i o n l e a d them t o a s u i c i d e p a c t . S i r P e t e r and Lou seem s t a n d a r d v i c t i m s o f a d d i c t i o n e x c e p t f o r the stupendous p e r s o n a l i t y s t a n d i n g adamantly between them and the g r a v e — K i n g Lamus. ( N a t u r a l l y he a r r i v e s t o t a l k them out of c o m m i t t i n g s u i c i d e . ) But i n s t e a d of t h e temperancemonger s t e r e o t y p e , Lamus h o l d s h i m s e l f up as a c o n n o i s s e u r of drugs ("'I've j u s t been t h i n k i n g t h a t we s h o u l d a l l be the b e t t e r f o r a l i t t l e h e r o i n , ' " £26l3 Lamus r e m a r k s ) , p o s s e s s i n g a M e p h i s t o p h e l i a n a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l h i s a p p e t i t e s on e v e r y l e v e l , i n c l u d i n g a d d i c t i v e drugs. S i r P e t e r : I c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d p e r f e c t l y how i t was t h a t B a s i l c o u l d t a k e a dose of h e r o i n o r c o c a i n e , c o u l d i n d u l g e i n h a s h i s h , e t h e r , o r opium as s i m p l y and u s e f u l l y as the o r d i n a r y man can o r d e r a cup of s t r o n g 105 b l a c k c o f f e e when he happens to want to work l a t e a t n i g h t . He had become com-p l e t e l y master of h i m s e l f , because he had ceased to oppose h i m s e l f to the s p i r i t u a l w i l l - p o w e r of which he was the v e h i c l e . He had no f e a r or f a s c i -n a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d to any of these drugs. He knew t h a t these two q u a l i t i e s were aspects of a s i n g l e r e a c t i o n ; t h a t of emotion to ignorance. He c o u l d use cocaine as a fencing-master uses a r a p i e r , as an expert . . . . (362) The use of drugs r e p r e s e n t s no moral i s s u e i n the D i a r y , but a d d i c t i o n does, s i n c e a d d i c t i o n estranges the v i c t i m from h i s t r u e W i l l . I t was Crowley's p u b l i c o p i n i o n t h a t e v e r y t h i n g , even matter c o u l d be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o something b e n e f i c i a l on a m y s t i c a l as w e l l as on an o r d i n a r y plane: Now.Samahdi, whatever i t i s , i s a t l e a s t a s t a t e of mind e x a c t l y as are deep thought, anger, s l e e p , i n t o x i c a t i o n , and m e l a n c h o l i a . . . . Morphine makes men h o l y and happy i n a n e g a t i v e way; why should there not be some drug which w i l l produce the p o s i t i v e e q u i v a l e n t . ' While p r e p a r i n g the stage f o r Timothy L e a r y and R i c h a r d A l p e r t , Crowley a l s o enunciates the p l e a f o r honest r e s e a r c h which goes back at l e a s t to De Quincey. About h a s h i s h Crowley w r i t e s : "But today I c l a i m the hashish-phenomenon 18 of the f i r s t importance; and I demand i n v e s t i g a t i o n . " By Crowley's time, however, an honest and r a t i o n a l d i s -c u s s i o n of drugs amounted to s u b v e r s i o n . And e s p e c i a l l y ! 106 one must remember, i f Crowley was the man to i n i t i a t e d i s c u s s i o n . Crowley proposes a freedom t h a t g a l l s , freedom over sexual taboos and freedom over time and matter, the freedom to open up the d o c t o r ' s sacred b l a c k bag a t w i l l . The D i a r y f i g u r e s as one of the b a s i c elements i n the p u b l i c v i l i f i c a t i o n of Crowley, sugge s t i n g as i t does modes of b e h a v i o r unbearable to the epoch i n which he l i v e d . Crowley o b v i o u s l y enjoyed doing e v i l t h i n g s , but he a l s o enjoyed spreading e v i l rumours about h i m s e l f , i n some cases c o n t r i b u t i n g phrases to the y e l l o w j o u r n a l i s m t h a t f o l l o w e d h i s c a r e e r with such outraged perseverance. In the D i a r y , f o r example, G r e t e l , the e v i l w i tch, whispers to Peter: "He's over a hundred years o l d , i n s p i t e of h i s l o o k s . He's been everywhere, and done e v e r y t h i n g , and every step he t r e a d s i s smeared wi t h blood. He's the most e v i l and dangerous man i n London. He's a vampire, he l i v e s on r u i n e d l i v e s . " (22) Crowley r e v e l s i n the s e l f - d i r e c t e d s l a n d e r , even adding some Tom Sawyer touches to h i s gory r e p u t a t i o n . But even Crowley might have been s u r p r i s e d at the h o r r o r i n c i t e d by the p u b l i c a t i o n of the D i a r y . James Douglas, f o r example, screamed t h a t the book " i s an e c s t a t i c eulogy of the drug [cocaine] and of i t s e f f e c t s upon the body 107 and the mind. A cocaine t r a f f i c k e r would welcome i t as a r e c r u i t i n g agent which would b r i n g him thousands of new 19 v i c t i m s . . . . " 7 As wit h De Quincey b e f o r e him, Crowley, was seen as a propagandist with a d e l e t e r i o u s s o c i a l e f f e c t r a t h e r than as a s e r i o u s i n v e s t i g a t o r i n t o l a r g e l y unre-searched areas. And to make the atmosphere even more poisonous, Crowley's protege, Raoul Loveday, d i e d a t C e f a l u , and the newspaper s t o r i e s gleaned from i n t e r v i e w s w i t h B e t t y May (Loveday's wife) and Mary B u t t s d i d not redound to h i s c r e d i t : The f a c t s are too u n u t t e r a b l y f i l t h y to be d e t a i l e d i n a newspaper, f o r they have to do wit h sexual o r g i e s t h a t touch the lowest depth of d e p r a v i t y . The whole i s mixed up i n a hocus-pocus of d o u b t f u l mysticism, o f which Crowley i s the "Purple P r i e s t . " C h i l d r e n under ten, whom the Beast keeps a t the "abbey," are made to witness h o r r i b l e s exual debauches unbe-l i e v a b l y r e v o l t i n g . F i l t h y incense i s burned and cakes made of goats' b l o o d and honey are consumed i n the windowless room where the Beast conducts h i s r i t e s . The r e s t of the time he l i e s i n a room hung wi t h obscene p i c t u r e s c o l l e c t e d a l l over the world, s a t u r a t i n g h i m s e l f with drugs. The v o i c e of moral outrage always amuses and e l e c t r i f i e s , u n t i l one r e c a l l s t h a t the E n g l i s h p u b l i s h e r , C o l l i n s , allowed the D i a r y to go out of p r i n t as a r e s u l t of p u b l i c p r e s s u r e , d e c l a r i n g t h a t he would never p u b l i s h Crowley a g a i n . Crowley was accused p u b l i c l y of b e i n g a 108 pimp, a t h i e f , and a c a n n i b a l ("A Man We'd L i k e to Hang" one h e a d l i n e r e a d s ) . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , a n o v e l about drugs proved the forum i n which Crowley f i r s t opened h i m s e l f to p u b l i c outrage. As has been n o t i c e d , drugs e x e r c i s e a strange i n f l u e n c e over the popular mind, s t i m u l a t i n g f a n t a s i e s of u n b r i d l e d l u s t , deflowered v i r g i n s , u n n a t u r a l potency (Lamus " f a s -c i n a t e s " women "with a thousand d i f f e r e n t t r i c k s , " G r e t e l informs S i r P e t e r ) . Crowley a c h i e v e s i n a b l a t a n t form the conne c t i o n between e r o t i c i s m , drugs, and weird r i t u a l which would i n f l u e n c e the o c c u l t s o c i e t i e s which would 21 i n t u r n spawn C h a r l e s Manson. The i d e a of programming a group of s p i r i t u a l adepts through a drug and sex-induced p s y c h i c v u l n e r a b i l i t y must e v e n t u a l l y be c r e d i t e d to Crowley. The h o r r o r t h a t he aroused i n the 1920's p r e f i g u r e s the v i l i f i c a t i o n of C h a r l e s Manson i n the l a t e I 9 6 0 * s . I t might seem t h a t Crowley's arcane a t t a i n m e n t s - - h i s s y n t h e s i s of magic and yoga, h i s s t u d i e s i n the Cabbalah, h i s sex-magick, h i s p l a n to convert the world--would serve to d i s s o c i a t e him from the everyday a d d i c t . In a sense they do. But i n a fundamental way Crowley belongs w i t h the j u n k i e s of the 2 0 t h century: he went through the p s y c h o s i s of withdrawal and attempted to o b j e c t i f y h i s experience the way Cocteau and Burroughs would; he 109 o f f e r s h i s knowledge f o r whatever good i t can do the world (and h i m s e l f , l e t i t he noted). Despite the messianic tone t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s so many other w r i t e r s d e a l i n g w i t h drugs, d e s p i t e the w h i f f s of incense, the ornate jewelry, the shaved head and the hyp n o t i c s t a r e of the Beast, Crowley belongs with those who have p a i d the e p i l e p t i c dues of withdrawal. Along w i t h withdrawal as s p i r i t u a l and b i o l o g i c a l s p e c t a c l e , the a s s o c i a t i o n of the E a s t ( a b o r i g i n a l c i t y man) with e r o t i c v i c e s and s u b t l e v i o l e n c e accounts f o r the major sense of c o n t i n u i t y i n Western drug l i t e r a t u r e . De Quincey's demonic Malay t h r e a t e n s and s e d u c e s — r e p r e -sents ambivalent p s y c h o l o g i c a l compulsions. D i r e c t knowledge of the E a s t ( u s u a l l y d e s p i t e the l u x u r i o u s c o l o n i a l overworld) commands a unique c r e d i b i l i t y , dependent upon s e l f - c o n t r o l and, above a l l , a h i g h l y developed r e s p o n s i v e n e s s to e v i l . Crowley must have "been everywhere"; h i s c o l l e c t i o n of pornography must have been " c o l l e c t e d a l l over the world." Crowley ( f o l l o w i n g S i r R i c h a r d Burton) defines, a k i n d of cosmopolitanism on a d i s t i n c t l y v e r t i c a l plane, j S i m i l a r l y , James Lee, i n s t e a d of l y i n g on a p i l l o w made i r i Singapore, a c t u a l l y p e n e t r a t e s the s e c r e t s ( t y p i c a l phrase) of the warm, dark opium den, the l a v i s h b o r d e l l o , the Thuggee S o c i e t y ; he wanders "the underworld, the j u n g l e s , 110 and the drug haunts of the F a r E a s t " ^ i n search of transcendent sensation--and he goes alone. The underworld: symbol sugge s t i n g m a r g i n a l outer p r e c i n c t s where bodies g i v e themselves up to p l e a s u r e w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g c r u e l animal v i g i l a n c e . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Lee never takes drugs w i t h another white man: an o c c a s i o n a l Chinese to smoke opium, an I n d i a n d o c t o r to i n s t r u c t him i n the use of drugs, but never a white man. Lee i d e n t i f i e s drugs and the O r i e n t . China:' " I t was a country of which I had read so many strange t h i n g s , I wanted to see them f o r myself; to delve below the s u r f a c e , and to f i n d out a l l I c o u l d about the drug h a b i t t h e r e , the g r e a t e s t drug u s i n g country i n the world"" (181). I f by the 20th century the i d e a l of search has been traded i n f o r the b u s i n e s s of s i g h t s e e i n g , Lee searches with u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e r v o u r f o r the a d d i c t ' s h o l y g r a i l - - a n d what i s more, he a c t u a l l y f i n d s i t , the pharmaceutical p h i l o s o p h e r ' s stone, the " E l i x i r of L i f e . " Though somewhat of a p a s t o r a l r e t r o s p e c t i v e of an epoch when drugs were cheap and l e g a l ("Where are a l l the young f e l l o w s t h a t I once knew? Then so f u l l of l i f e and s p i r i t s . Or the p r e t t y young g i r l s ; Chinese, Indian, Japanese, Malay, or white, of those days. Most w i l l be dead, and the r e s t o l d " [ l O l ] ) . The Underworld of the East, I l l p u b l i s h e d i n 1935. t u r n s a nervous eye to o r t h o d o x o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g n a r c o t i c drugs: "My hope i s a l s o t h a t t h i s book w i l l a c t as a w a r n i n g to any who may be tempted t o i n d u l g e i n n a r c o t i c drugs of any k i n d , by showing the t e r r i b l e consequences t h e y can produce" ( v ) . I t so happens, however, t h a t t h e s e " t e r r i b l e consequences" are n o t i c e a b l e o n l y i n t h e i r absence. Moreover, Lee p r e s c r i b e s a workable and even s a l u t a r y system of c o n s t a n t drug use, one depending, he e a s i l y a d m i t s , upon c a r e f u l knowledge of drugs as w e l l as upon u n l i m i t e d s u p p l y , n o d d i n g p o l i t e l y t o the a u t h o r i t i e s as he says i t : "The l i f e of a drug t a k e r can be a happy one; f a r s u r p a s s i n g t h a t o f any o t h e r , o r i t can be one of s u f f e r i n g and m i s e r y ; i t depends on the u s e r ' s knowledge" ( 2 ) . Lee's system depends upon a l t e r n a t i n g drugs: I f I had been t a k i n g heavy doses of c o c a i n e f o r some t i m e , l i v i n g i n a s t a t e o f m e n t a l e x h i l a r a t i o n and s t i m u l a t i o n o f e v e r y b o d i l y f a c u l t y , t h e n I knew t h a t I must r e v e r s e , and g i v e the nervous system a p e r f e c t r e s t , under the s o o t h i n g i n f l u e n c e of morphia; and o b t a i n l o n g sound s l e e p s , w i t h the a i d of opium. Moreover, these a l t e r n a t i v e drugs were e q u a l l y f a s c i n a t i n g . I t would be d i f f i c u l t t o say t h a t one was more so t h a n a n o t h e r , and the c o n t r a s t i n t h e i r a c t i o n made each one seem more a t t r a c t i v e t h a n the l a s t . ( 3 8 ) Though Lee p a s s i v e l y submits t o the Dangerous Drug A c t i n E n g l a n d and a d v i s e s h i s r e a d e r to do the same, the 112 Underworld i s i n no sense an a n t i - d r u g book: A l l these n a r c o t i c drugs, which are commonly known as Dangerous Drugs, are r e a l l y the g i f t o f God to mankind. Instead of them doing him harm, they r e a l l y should be the means of p r e s e r v i n g h i s h e a l t h , and making h i s l i f e a s t a t e of c o n t i n u a l happiness. (38) While c o n t i n u a l l y emphasizing the n e c e s s i t y of knowledge when d e a l i n g with drugs, Lee o f f e r s an e x q u i s i t e image of drugs without o f f e r i n g a n y t h i n g by way of the joys of normal e x i s t e n c e . Having k i c k e d once, he w r i t e s : "I was i n p e r f e c t h e a l t h , but I longed to s t a r t u s i n g drugs again, because I found t h a t i t was the o n l y way to be r e a l l y happy; to get away from the deadly sameness of l i f e i n t h i s world" ( 1 0 6 ) . Echoing S h e r l o c k Holmes' r e p l y to Watson's admonition--"But I abhor the d u l l r o u t i n e of e x i s t e n c e " - - L e e u n d e r l i n e s the e t e r n a l m o t i v a t i o n f o r the use of drugs: the d e s i r e to transcend a dingy and u n i n -t e r e s t i n g r e a l i t y . Lee has been an a d d i c t f o r some t h i r t y y ears, and f o r ei g h t e e n of those years he has performed as an engineer i n p r i m i t i v e circumstances while t a k i n g a l t e r n a t i n g doses of morphine, cocaine, opium and h a s h i s h . Though a n a t i v e w i f e f o l l o w s h i s wanderings a t a d i s t a n c e , she seems more an embarrassing monkey than a companion. She does not share h i s drug l i f e , and i t i s something of a s i n i s t e r 113 mystery when he w r i t e s t h a t "she d i e d suddenly . . . i n 1918, from an overdose of some drug, I t h i n k morphia." Never e s t a b l i s h i n g h i m s e l f anywhere, never q u e s t i o n i n g h i s need to t r a v e l , Lee c o n t i n u a l l y s i g n s on with d i f f e r e n t companies and goes f o r t o u r s of s e r v i c e i n Assam, the Malay A r c h i p e l a g o , A f r i c a , and f i n a l l y China, "the land of my dreams." A f t e r having c o n t r a c t e d to work i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y p e s t i l e n t i a l a r e a i n West A f r i c a , he simply says, "There was something about jungle l i f e which was a t t r a c t i v e to me" ( 212 ) . Lee's outward s t o i c i s m , however, conceals h i s z e a l to d i s c o v e r mysterious drugs. In Malaya, "I had l e t i t be known t h a t I would pay f o r c u r i o u s specimens of p l a n t s , and n a t i v e s p a s s i n g down r i v e r o f t e n brought me specimens, and they knew t h a t I would pay i n opium" ( 1 27 ) . I t i s from t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e s e a r c h t h a t Lee d e r i v e s the drug he r e f e r s to as the " E l i x i r of L i f e . " With the d e d i c a t i o n of a p r o f e s s i o n a l b o t a n i s t — " T h e Pharmacopoeia w i l l never be complete u n t i l every p l a n t and f l o w e r and • r o o t has been t e s t e d " ( 6 1 ) — h e searches f o r unknown se n s a t i o n s : "There are a l s o s e c r e t drugs known o n l y to a few i n China, drugs which are t e r r i b l e i n t h e i r a f t e r -e f f e c t s , but which are more a l l u r i n g than any of those mentioned here. I do not give the names of them here" (37)• Lee blends elements of the mad, impressionable s c i e n t i s t 114 i n t o the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r of the lone, p e r f e c t l y sane e x p l o r e r . We are never r e a l l y c e r t a i n how to i n t e r p r e t him. Burroughs w i l l c r e a t e the same problem i n a l a t e r chapter. Speaking " i n my own simple language," Lee o f f e r s a course on how to i n t e l l i g e n t l y a l t e r n a t e drugs while m a i n t a i n i n g h e a l t h , but at the same time he i n s t r u c t s the reader i n the proper conduct i f one i s to descend beneath the s u r f a c e of f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s . Because he does not evince the normal European condescension toward O r i e n t a l s , and because he renounces the h a b i t u a l company of O c c i d e n t a l s , Lee f i n d s doors open to him t h a t are normally c l o s e d to Europeans. In China, f o r i n s t a n c e , "I soon became f r i e n d l y with one or two we l l - t o - d o Chinese who used drugs, and who knew the underworld of the c i t y t h o r -oughly, so t h a t soon I had the e n t r y of p l a c e s of which v e r y few Europeans had any i d e a of the e x i s t e n c e " (239)• Lee enf o r c e s the i d e a t h a t China i s a country of s u r f a c e s and t h a t one must behave p r o p e r l y i f he i s ever to f i n d the s e c r e t l i f e hidden beneath the innocent e x t e r i o r : What strange s i g h t s may a man not see d u r i n g seven years i n a country l i k e China, i f he goes to look f o r them beneath the s u r f a c e ? I t i s a country of camouflage and hidden ways. Innocent l o o k i n g junks, q u i e t l y f l o a t i n g down 115 the r i v e r s and c a n a l s , may be r e a l l y sumptuously f u r n i s h e d gambling dens and drug haunts, where o r g i e s of many k i n d s are c a r r i e d on. No European, u n l e s s he i s i n t r o d u c e d by a t r u s t e d Chinese, w i l l ever have the e n t r y to these p l a c e s . (2) Both p a r t i c i p a n t and s p e c t a t o r , Lee advances the myth of the p e r f e c t l y a d j u s t e d a d d i c t , a t home i n any s i t u a t i o n ("For myself, I had p l e n t y of books, and my drugs and experiments" _127_) somehow removed from the normal European i n h i b i t i o n s which make O r i e n t a l customs s u s p i c i o u s by r e p u t a t i o n and i n t o l e r a b l e i n p r a c t i s e . Another aspect of t h i s cosmopolitan p e r s o n a l i t y i s the i n s i s t e n c e upon anonymity, r e m i n i s c e n t of Burroughs' warning a g a i n s t d i r e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by a u t h o r i t y . While Lee's wife t a l k s to s t r a n g e r s , "I was g r a d u a l l y edging to the o u t s k i r t s as I hate b e i n g i n the p u b l i c gaze . . . " ( 179 ) - In keeping with t h i s r e l u c t a n c e to stand out, Lee never exposes h i m s e l f by t a l k i n g too f r e e l y — a n i n d i s p e n s a b l e t r a i t w i t h i n the world of d r i f t e r s , a d d i c t s , and t h i e v e s : Although I was a q u i e t man, I always got on w e l l i n a rough crowd, e s p e c i a l l y among f o r e i g n e r s . A Dutchman t o l d me t h a t I was the o n l y Englishman whom he c o u l d ever get on w i t h . I was v e r y popular w i t h a l l i n the mess i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t I spoke v e r y l i t t l e ; I never made c o n v e r s a t i o n f o r the sake of making i t . (220) 116 A f u n c t i o n of Lee's d e s i r e f o r anonymity i s the d i r e c t n e s s of h i s language. The normal drug c o n f e s s i o n draws a d d i c t i o n i n s e n s a t i o n a l , a p o c a l y p t i c language. Lee's speech departs r a d i c a l l y from the f e r v e n t s c h o l a s t i c i s m of De Quincey and Ludlow (even the D i a r y ) as w e l l as from the melodrama of j o u r n a l i s t i c accounts of a d d i c t i o n . Instead, Lee t r a n s m i t s the hard data r e c e i v e d by the s i l e n t t r a v e l l e r who through d i s c i p l i n e and b a s i c sense s e i z e s the s i t u a t i o n d i r e c t , eyes open, "a neat Smith & Wesson" which "I always c a r r i e d . . . i n my h i p pocket" (133)> and a body a l i v e w i t h v e i n s , t r e a t e d d i s p a s s i o n a t e l y as means of c o n s t a n t l y changing pleasure,. In c o n t r a s t to De Quincey, whom opium drowns i n h i s own s u b j e c t i v i t y , Lee o b j e c t i f i e s drugs i n t o an a r s e n a l of weapons, much as Crowley proposes i n the D i a r y . Drugs, used i n t e l l i g e n t l y , i n s u r e h i s s u r v i v a l . The jungle and the underworld demand o c c a s i o n a l b u r s t s of c o n c e n t r a t i o n , or unusual endurance, which can be achieved with the r i g h t drug a t the r i g h t time: But f o r A l i ' s opium we might never have got back, because such a p o s i t i o n c a l l s f o r the best of mind and body; calmness, keen p e r c e p t i o n , s t a y i n g power, and t h i s opium w i l l supply when wanted. Now, under such a s i t u a t i o n , cocaine would not have been so good, i t might even have been a disadvantage i f used alone. 117 I t would not produce calmness and d e l i b -e r a t i o n . I t would produce a f e e l i n g of g r e a t v i t a l i t y , but there would be the l i a b i l i t y to hurry, and not to be c a u t i o u s enough. (162) Though the m i l i t a r y establishment, f o r obvious reasons, has always been i n t e r e s t e d i n s t i m u l a n t s , J Lee o u t l i n e s a democracy of drug use; every d r u g - - s e d a t i v e s , s t i m u l a n t s , h a l l u c i n o g e n s — i n f l u e n c e s the mind i n an i n s t r u c t i v e way. Lee r e c o n c i l e s m i l i t a n c y w i t h the v o l u n t a r y o v e r l o a d i n g of h i s own senses. A f t e r t a k i n g an e s p e c i a l l y l a r g e dose, "I was i n no sense i n t o x i c a t e d , as drugs do not a f f e c t one t h a t way. I co u l d walk and move about with the same ease and c e r t a i n t y as when i n a normal s t a t e , o n l y the senses were a f f e c t e d i n q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t way" (213). What f o r some may be f r i g h t e n i n g h a l l u c i n a t i o n s to Lee are i n s t r u c t i v e angles of v i s i o n , modes of i n q u i r y : "I have s a t up through the n i g h t t a k i n g drugs u n t i l the room has been peopled with s p i r i t s " ( 3 ) . The paradox i n Lee i s h i s c l e a r p e r c e p t i o n of s u r f a c e s a l o n g s i d e h i s d e s i r e to go beneath, beneath the s u r f a c e s of strange s o c i e t i e s and beneath normal forms of consciousness: Drugs to me meant, not so much b o d i l y p l e a s u r e s which they brought, as mental p l e a s u r e s ; the powerful s t i m u l a t i o n of the i m a g i n a t i o n ; the effacement of the present, so t h a t I c o u l d l i v e , almost 118 i n r e a l i t y , i n other scenes and p e r i o d s of the world's h i s t o r y . (66) H a l l u c i n a t i o n and d i s t o r t i o n serve the i n s t i n c t f o r s u r v i v a l as means of s p e c u l a t i o n , as i n d i s p e n s a b l e knowledge. The conscious m a n i p u l a t i o n of drugs prompts s p e c u l a t i o n s which b e g i n i n h a l l u c i n a t i o n : By now i n t r o d u c i n g h a s h i s h and minute a d d i t i o n s of one or two other drugs, the v i s i o n s which I saw, and the thoughts which accompanied them, began to change i n c h a r a c t e r , and became grotesque and f a n t a s t i c . I s t a r t e d o f f by t u r n i n g my thoughts to the mystery of the u n i v e r s e . ( I 8 9 ) Instead of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t r o s p e c t i o n of De Quincey, or the f e v e r i s h metaphysics of Ludlow, Lee's v i s i o n s r e s u l t i n a r a s h of mental c a l c u l a t i o n s h a v i n g to do with astronomy, geology, p h y s i c s — p r a c t i c a l l y a textbook on elementary p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e , a comprehensible Eureka--which r e t u r n to the r e a l world i n the sense t h a t s c i e n c e f i c t i o n r e t u r n s — a s f a c t u a l dream, as a warning. Lee does not attempt to transcend phenomenal r e a l i t y , as Ludlow t h i n k s he does; r a t h e r he wants to understand the p h y s i c a l u n i v e r s e from a s c i e n t i f i c p o i n t of view, as a machine whose a c t i o n he can p r e d i c t . F u t u r i s t i c s p e c u l a t i o n thus becomes i n Lee's hands an aspect of drug use. One c h a r a c t e r i s t i c example: 119 Nothing i s more c e r t a i n than t h a t , sometime i n the dim f u t u r e , a l l l i f e on t h i s p l a n e t . w i l l c'ome to an end. I f we escape a l l the d i s a s t e r s a l r e a d y mentioned then the human race may l i v e f o r hundreds of m i l l i o n s of year s , u n t i l c o l d e v e n t u a l l y b r i n g s about the f i n a l death. Long b e f o r e t h i s occurs, the whole of mankind w i l l be l i v i n g a t the equator, a l a n d of i c e and snow, and semi-darkness. They w i l l be dressed i n s k i n s and the sun w i l l appear as a p u r p l e - c o l o u r e d b a l l i n the sky. By then a l l v e g e t a t i o n w i l l have d i s -appeared from the f a c e of the e a r t h , but man w i l l have made g r e a t s t r i d e s forward i n s c i e n c e and i n v e n t i o n ; he w i l l have i n -vented new k i n d s of s y n t h e t i c foods. He w i l l burrow deep down i n t o the e a r t h f o r chemical means of producing heat, to r e p l a c e the sun's. Great c i t i e s w i l l be b u i l t underground, a r t i f i c i a l l y heated and ven-t i l a t e d , and every a i d of s c i e n c e w i l l be made use of i n an endeavor to p r o l o n g l i f e a l i t t l e l o n g er, but the end w i l l come. ( 57 -58 ) One wants to say t h a t i t makes l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i f Lee i s c o r r e c t or not i n h i s p r e d i c t i o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e , Lee cl a i m s t h a t " s c i e n t i s t s are wasting t h e i r time when they t a l k about r e l e a s i n g the energy of the atom. The o n l y energy i n nature i s g r a v i t a t i o n , i n one form or another" ( 9 1 ) • As with Burroughs ("Perhaps i f a junkie c o u l d keep h i m s e l f i n a constant s t a t e of k i c k i n g , he would l i v e to a phenomenal age" ), Lee's d r i v e toward the u n i v e r s a l law and the u l t i m a t e consequences seems l e s s rewarding than the data c o l l e c t e d from h i s everyday l i f e . The (one h e s i t a t e s to 120 say m y t h i c a l ) value, of the Underworld depends l e s s on the accuracy of Lee's s p e c u l a t i o n s than on the s t o i c a l image of Lee h i m s e l f , s o l v i n g the problems of the u n i v e r s e w i t h h i s eyes s t e a d i l y on the door, w a i t i n g to be murdered. The " E l i x i r of L i f e " r a i s e s a s i m i l a r problem of c r e d i b i l i t y as i t r e l a t e s to accuracy and good f a i t h . E i t h e r the " E l i x i r " serves a metaphoric. purpose (as t a c t i c of comic drug l i t e r a t u r e , i e . the Abbey i n the D i a r y ) or i t i n f a c t e x i s t s . I t i s i n Sumatra t h a t Lee d i s c o v e r s t h i s drug t h a t n o r m a l i z e s i n s t a n t l y any unusual s t a t e of b e i n g : Not o n l y would t h i s drug remove a l l forms of i n t o x i c a t i o n , e x h i l a r a t i o n , and n a r c o t i c e f f e c t s , but i t would remove p a i n of most k i n d s . I t would reduce the temperature i f too hot, producing a f e e l i n g of warmth when too c o l d , and remove f a t i g u e . (156) When the Dangerous Drug Act comes i n t o e f f e c t , Lee d e c l a r e s t h a t he k i c k s the h a b i t " e a s i l y w i t h the a i d of the drug . . . " ( 2 7 8 ) . P r e d i c t a b l y , the drug-has no s c i e n t i c name, but somewhere, Lee assures us, " i n the i s l a n d of Sumatra there e x i s t s the p l a n t from which I made the drug I c a l l e d the ' E l i x i r of L i f e ' " ( 2 7 8 ) . Taking something from good o l d - f a s h i o n e d snake o i l on the one hand and Ponce de Leon's F o u n t a i n of Youth on the other, Lee r e v e a l s the one drug t h a t can r e l i e v e every human problem 121 and . . . n o t h i n g i s r e v e a l e d ; i t was a memory, a mirage, you have.to go out and f i n d i t y o u r s e l f . Lee teaches us the f a c t s of l i f e (as Burroughs does) and then hands us a dream f o r a diploma: "This s t o r y w i l l "be as a message of hope to a l l drug a d d i c t s " ( 3 ) . In the Underworld Lee launches the c h i m e r i c a l hope of a m a s t e r f u l agent (pre-d i c t i n g Burroughs' f a i t h i n apomorphine) which "breaks the a u t h o r i t y of a d d i c t i o n w h ile a t the same time not b e i n g a d d i c t i v e . Before he d i s c o v e r s the " E l i x i r " Lee - experiences symptoms of withdrawal which he r e l a t e d i n c o n v e n t i o n a l terms: I was s u f f e r i n g t e r r i b l y ; I c o u l d not s l e e p nor s i t s t i l l , and I was on the f i d g e t a l l the time. I had a h o r r i b l e toothache, and I was jumpy and nervous. I c o u l d not get a wink of s l e e p a t n i g h t , f o r I would be up h a l f a dozen times walking about the room, as I had cramps i n my f e e t and l e g s , which I c o u l d not keep i n one p o s i t i o n w h i l e l y i n g on bed f o r more than a minute, before they began to ache again. I f e l t wretched i n the extreme, and I t h i n k t h a t the worst symptom of a l l was the h o r r i b l e f e e l i n g of d e p r e s s i o n and gloom~-so t e r r i b l e t h a t i t d e f i e s d e s c r i p t i o n . . . . I c o u l d not stand i t any l o n g e r and I i n j e c t e d a whole g r a i n dose. (29) Both the D i a r y and the Underworld i n s t r u c t the reader i n how to n a v i g a t e or a v o i d the trauma of withdrawal; no 122 matter how f a n t a s t i c a l l y , they h o l d out the hope of n o r m a l i t y and h e a l t h . Cocteau's Opium: .journal d'une  d e s m t o x i c a t i o n , on the other Jiand, d e f i n e s i t s e l f s t r i c t l y i n terms of withdrawal. No deus ex machina descends to d e l i v e r the s u f f e r e r , no Ki n g Lamus, no E l i x i r . Cocteau d i s c o v e r s i n the e x t r a o r d i n a r y d i s l o c a t i o n s of withdrawal a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s p e c t i v e , disabused and hopeless, from which s c i e n c e can be served and h i s work (th a t prodding echo throughout drug l i t e r a t u r e ) can be done. The D i a r y d e s c r i b e s a t y p i c a l curve i n a d d i c t i o n m o r a l i t y drama: o r g i a s t i c excess, withdrawal-madness, and the determined r e s o l u t i o n to l e a d a p r o d u c t i v e l i f e . Withdrawal serves as c e l l u l a r and moral r e t r i b u t i o n , w h i le the e f f e c t e d cure supposes the r e s o l u t i o n of the c o n f l i c t which p r e c i p i t a t e d a d d i c t i o n i n the f i r s t p l a c e . Cocteau, however, e x p l o i t s h i s own withdrawal from opium as a unique d i v i d e between "un e t a t c o n sidere comme anormal a un e t a t considere comme normal" ( 1 3 ) • He i s o l a t e s w i t h -drawal as the eloquent moment of a d d i c t i o n , as Burroughs would do with Naked Lunch. Cocteau w r i t e s - - a n d draws--from w i t h i n withdrawal, employing i n an e x i s t e n t i a l sense the l i t e r a r y convention which allows v o i c e s to l i v e and w r i t e at the same time, thereby g a i n i n g the immediacy of the d i a r y (an i n h e r e n t l y fragmented medium) and the 123 c r e d i b i l i t y i n h e r e n t i n a d e l i b e r a t e attempt to organize from w i t h i n m e tabolic chaos a s e r i e s of i l l u m i n a t i o n s : N L 1opium permet de donner forme a l ' i n f o r m e : i l empeche^ h e l a s ! de communiquer ce p r i v i l e g e a a u t r u i . Q u i t t e a perdre l e sommeil^ je g u e t t e r a i l e moment unique, d'une d e s i n t o x i c a t i o n ou c e t t e f a c u l t e f o n c t i o n n e r a encore un peu et c o l n c i d e r a , par megarde, avec l e r e t o u r du pouvoir communicatif. (151-52) Cocteau bears witness of an i n e f f a b l e world untamed by l i t e r a r y convention and h a r d l y a f f e c t e d by medi c a l knowledge. In Opium Cocteau attempts the genuine form of withdrawal as d i s t i n c t from the r e f l e c t i v e h i s t o r i e s of a d d i c t i o n t h a t we have seen thus f a r . As with the c o n f e s s i o n i n g e n e r a l , Opium addresses the s o c i a l world; i t a t t a i n s i t s e x p l i c i t purpose i n s o f a r as i t i s e x p l i c a b l e as a f i e l d r e p o r t o r i g i n a t i n g i n extreme circumstances. O b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n i s an end i n i t s e l f , the r e s u l t of a d e s i r e to serve the medical p r o f e s s i o n : I I f a u t l a i s s e r une t r a c e de ce voyage que l a m e m o i r e ^ u b l i e , i l f a u t , l o r s q ^ e c ' e s t p o s s i b l e , e c r i r e , d e s s i n e r sans repondre aux i n v i t e s romanesques de l a douleur, ne pas p r o f i t e r de l a souffranee comme d'une musique, se f a i r e a t t a c h e r l e porte-plume, au p i e d s i c'est n e c e s s a i r e , a i d e r l e s mede-c i n s que l a paresse ne renseigne pas. ( 2 6 ) 12k Cocteau, i n hoping " a r r i v e r au s t y l e des c h i f f r e s , ' " r e p e a t s h i s c o n v i c t i o n on a s t y l i s t i c l e v e l t h a t h i s f u n c t i o n i n Opium i s to express i n the most p e l l u c i d manner p o s s i b l e p h y s i c a l and p s y c h i c phenomena as he experiences them: J ' a i v o u l u prendre des notes au f u r et a mesure de mon s e j o u r a l a c l i n i q u e , et s u r t o u t me c o n t r e d i r e , a f i n de s u i v r e l e s etapes du t r a i t e m e n t . I I i m p o r t a i t de p a r l e r de 1*opium sans g£ne, sans l i t t e r a t u r e et sans aucune connaissance medicale. ( 1 3 1 ) As with Naked Lunch, however, Opium's i n t e n t i o n s b e l i e i t s e f f e c t s . D e s p i t e Cocteau*s c l a i m t h a t Opium belongs "entre l e s brochures de medecins," he cannot escape the m e t a p h o r i c ' p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n withdrawal, which i s to say t h a t he cannot speak of withdrawal "sans l i t t e r a t u r e . " The assurance of o b j e c t i v i t y — t h e hope of a s s i s t i n g s c i e n c e and s u c c e s s f u l c u r e — s e r v e s as a convention of drug l i t e r a t u r e , as a means of e s t a b l i s h i n g c r e d i b i l i t y . With Cocteau, however, o b j e c t i v i t y a c t u a l l y ( r a t h e r than h y p o t h e t i c a l l y , as with Ludlow) a c t s as an element of form, suggesting a metabolic s t o i c i s m a k i n to B a u d e l a i r e ("La v i e se passe avec t r o p de perfectionnement, de c o n f o r t " ) and a l s o to Hemingway i n the sense t h a t s t y l i s t i c c o n t r o l operates as a method of s e l f - d e f e n s e , as a m i r r o r r e f l e c t i o n of berserk anxiety. 2-' I t i s i n Cocteau's pretence t h a t he i s , 125 or can be, p e r f e c t l y o b j e c t i v e t h a t we know we are r e a d i n g l i t e r a t u r e . " J ' e c r i s ces l i g n e s apres douze jours et douze n u i t s sans sommeil" (19)/ Cocteau admits e a r l y on i n Opium. I n i t i a l l y a p i e c e of data ( i e . withdrawing a d d i c t s experience insomnia) t h i s admission from the p a t i e n t , i f taken s e r i o u s l y , e v e n t u a l l y b r i n g s h i s a n a l y t i c f a c u l t y i n t o q u e s t i o n (has he r e a l l y not s l e p t f o r twelve days? i s t h a t p o s s i b l e ? has he counted r i g h t ? i s he l u c i d ? ) and reminds us that i n s t e a d of a machine imp a r t i n g data the p a t i e n t achieves moments of l u c i d i t y to mark the f l i g h t of "une b l e s s u r e au r a l e n t i . " Reminiscent of the Dreamer 26 i n Chaucer's "The Book of the Duchess" (or, f o r that matter, Jake Barnes, who a l s o has t r o u b l e s l e e p i n g ) , the p a t i e n t i n Opium has s u f f e r e d so v i o l e n t l y t h a t something must happen to r e s o l v e an unendurable p h y s i c a l and mental g r i e f , one compact with madness. De Quincey attempts to d i s s o c i a t e h i m s e l f from the r a d i c a l d i s l o c a t i o n s of w i t h -drawal while he i s w r i t i n g , promotes i n doing so an a u t h o r i a l calm. Cocteau, on the other hand, f i n d s i n the p e r s p e c t i v e of the wakeful s u f f e r e r a s p e c i a l l i c e n c e to fancy which c o n t r a d i c t s h i s earnest p r o c l a m a t i o n that "Je verse des p i e c e s a charge et a decharge au d o s s i e r du proces de l'opium" (13)• Rather Cocteau murders the 126 s o l i p s i s t i c hedonism, the wonderful s o l i t u d e c r e a t e d by opium; he s p i l l s over the page; l i k e Chopin and Rousseau, he "saigne de l ' e n c r e . " T h i s i s not to c r y bad f a i t h between Cocteau and h i s readers--"aux fumeurs, aux malades, aux amis inconnus que l e s l i v e s r e c r u t e n t et q u i sont l a seule excuse d ' e c r i r e " ( 1 3 ) . On the c o n t r a r y , the t r u t h of withdrawal demands grotesque fancy, paradox, f u g i t i v e attempts to say i n words what cannot be s a i d i n words. Any anatomy of withdrawal must take fragmentation as the t r u t h of the experience; t h a t the p a t i e n t o r g a n i z e s h i s impressions i n t o a coherent s t r u c t u r e both suggests h i s d e s i r e to r e t u r n to the s o c i a l world and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , h i s i n s t i n c t to i n s t i g a t e a form whereby h i s experience can be understood. "I 27 a p p a r e n t l y took d e t a i l e d notes on s i c k n e s s and d e l i r i u m , " ' Burroughs observes ( i t a l i c s mine). Cocteau too emphasizes the i d e a t h a t the notes which make up Opium e x i s t on the verge of e x t i n c t i o n : "La sueur, l a b i l e precedent quelque substance fantome q u i se s e r a i t d i s s o u t e sans l a i s s e r d'autre t r a c e s qu'une grosse d e p r e s s i o n , s i un porte-plume ne l ' a v a i t c a n a l i s e e , l u i p r e t a n t volume et contour" (246). Withdrawal forms such a d i s t i n g u i s h e d r e a l i t y t h a t i t cannot even be remembered when the cure i s e f f e c t e d . The notes thereby e x i s t as a n t e r i o r to the automatic r e p r e s s i o n 127 which i s cure; the n o t e s - - f o r g o t t e n , random, fragmented evidence of o r d e a l — c o n t r i b u t e to Cocteau's understanding of withdrawal as a l i t e r a r y p o s s i b i l i t y . Cocteau does not n e c e s s a r i l y always innovate, however. He employs the t r a d i t i o n a l main f e a t u r e of drug l i t e r a t u r e : withdrawal as s p i r i t u a l warfare, d e v i l and angel each w i t h an arm. Cocteau cannot h e l p but r e c a l l the a r c h e t y p a l image of withdrawal, the image which provokes f a s c i n a t i o n and d i s g u s t — e x o r c i s m . On epuise l e malade, on le, vidange., on pousse l a b i l e / e t , bon gre mal gre, on retourne aux legandes q u i v o u l a i e n t qu'on chass&t l e s demons par des p l a n t e s , des charmes, des purges, des v o m i t i f s . (25) Cocteau's s p e c i a l i r o n y i s t h a t i n s t e a d of the d e v i l clawing at h i s e n t r a i l s , the memory of heaven b e g u i l e s h i s mind. "N'attendez pas de moi que je t r a h i s s e , " he warns. "Naturellement 1'opium r e s t e unique e t son euphorie s u p e r i e u r e a c e l l e de l a sante. Je l u i doxs mes heures p a r f a i t e s " ( 2 5 ) . Cocteau mourns f o r the slowness of opium: Je ne s u i s pas un d e s i n t o x i q u e f i e r d,e son e f f o r t . J ' a i honte d "etre/Chasse de ce monde aupres duquel l a sante ressemble aux f i l m s i g n o b l e s ou des m i n i s t r e s inaugurent une s t a t u e . ( 1 0 0 ) The p r i c e of the cure i s the u n r e m i t t i n g contemplation of 128 opium, "1'inquietude amoureuse t r a d u i t e dans l e s e n s i b l e " ( 8 9 ) . When Cocteau no l o n g e r needs to w r i t e about opium, he i s cured. " I I f a u d r a i t que j ' i n v e n t e " (246). Withdrawal i s a c e l l u l a r compulsion, "une absence q u i regne, un des-potisme n e g a t i f " (89), which i s a t the b e g i n n i n g i r r e s i s t a b l e and a t the end f o r g o t t e n beyond remembering, l e a v i n g the s u f f e r e r "vide, pauvre, ecoeure, malade" (261). And y e t p o s s i b l y more self-aware than he had been. Perhaps the most important aspect of Opium i n terms of i t s e x t e n s i o n of drug conventions i s the use of withdrawal as a mode of p e r s o n a l f l a s h b a c k , r e v e a l i n g i n momentary epiphanies unknown sources of n o s t a l g i a . "A m i l d degree of junk s i c k n e s s always brought me the magic of c h i l d h o o d , " 2 8 Burroughs w r i t e s . Cocteau a l s o experiences i n withdrawal the " r e t o u r de l a memoire et du sentiment du temps (meme chez moi ou i l s e x i s t e n t t r e s peu a l ' e t a t normal)" ( 159 ) -H i s memories of Proust, though s t r u c t u r a l l y s i t u a t e d to l i t e r a l l y perform the r e t u r n of memory, do not seem remark-able i n the course of the j o u r n a l — P i c a s s o , S a t i e , c h i l d -hood scenes, dogs, the t h e a t e r , a n y t h i n g and e v e r y t h i n g inform Cocteau's unloosed memory. P a r a l l e l i n g De Quincey's c o n c e n t r a t i o n on memory i n h i s a n a l y s i s of opium,: Cocteau evokes the image of the s u f f e r e r who i n withdrawal r e c o n t a c t s animal l i f e as w e l l as the r e v e a l i n g past, thus adding a 129 dimension to withdrawal as a s t a t e of being, s u g g e s t i n g a h y p n o t i c s t a t e where the p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r u t h may be t o l d . As w i t h yage, which, a c c o r d i n g to Burroughs, " s p e c i f i c a l l y 29 reproduces the s t a t e of withdrawal," 7 withdrawal imparts a sense of t r a v e l through memory, independent of w i l l o r i n v e n t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e m y s t e r i o u s l y t r u e . About De  Profundus: "On q u i t t e c e t t e l e t t r e avec 1'impression d ' a v o i r l u un chef-d'oeuvre de s t y l e , parce que to u t y e s t v r a i . . . " (14 - 1 7 ) . Without the use of memory as an element of form Opium would be p o e t i c , s a d l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l . S i c k n e s s a f f l i c t e d w ith i n v o l u n t a r y memory adds the dramatic, the p s y c h o l o g i c a l . I t i s im p o s s i b l e to deduce f o r c e r t a i n why Cocteau must leave opium, except to observe t h a t the i n e x o r a b l e demands of work move Cocteau (as they d i d Ba u d e l a i r e ) back and f o r t h between opium-and the cure: "Le t r a v a i l q u i m'exploite a v a i t b e s o i n de 1*opium; i l a v a i t b e s o i n que je q u i t t a s s e l'opium; une f o i s de p l u s je s u i s sa dupe" ( 262 ) . Opium, then, disengages from contaminative, but a t times p r o d u c t i v e , l i f e : " I I a r r i v e au fumeur d'etre un chef-d'oeuvre. Un chef-d'oeuvre q u i ne se d i s c u t e pas. Chef-d'oeuvre p a r f a i t , parce que f u g i t i f , sans forme et sans juges" ( 115 ) . The attempt to impose form on h i m s e l f w i t h h i s notes from withdrawal i n d i c a t e s t h a t Cocteau i n c u r i n g 130 h i m s e l f from a d d i c t i o n must k i l l the p e r f e c t i o n he once l i v e d i n : opium, l i k e h e r o i n i n the D i a r y , s i g n i f i e s a transcendent death, warm and m o t i o n l e s s , while the cure r e p r e s e n t s exaggerated h u r r y , speed, "tout un printemps a f f o l e l e s v e i n e s , c h a r r i a n t g l a c e s et l a v e s de f e u " ( 2 3 ) . The s t y l e of opium would i n v o l v e "des v i t e s s e s q u i a r r i v e n t a 1 *immobilite" (81), whereas the s t y l e of cure would break c o n s e q u e n t i a l l o g i c and u l t i m a t e l y (one presumes) syntax. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Cocteau withdrew from opium so t h a t he c o u l d w r i t e t h i s j o u r n a l . Opium can be c o n s i d e r e d as an avant-garde experiment i n language, a l i n g u i s t i c study of the e f f e c t s of speed. Or as a p r e d a t o r y e x e c u t i o n of a s t a t e of b e i n g . P r o u s t ' s accomplishment t e s t i f i e s to the power of the image of the i n v a l i d v i o l a t e d by memory and time. Cocteau guts t h i s image i n terms of withdrawal. Perhaps more s e n s i t i v e to the nuances of d e l i r i u m , Burroughs would c a r r y on the angle of v i s i o n f i r s t s e i z e d by Cocteau. And y e t Burroughs connects a t some v i t a l p o i n t with a l l these j u n k i e s who preceeded him. Burroughs shares w i t h Crowley t h a t messianic m i s s i o n , a t once profound and l u n a t i c , and a l s o t h a t aura of unspeakable e v i l . And with Lee (perhaps the most c e n t r a l , a f t e r a l l ) Burroughs d i s p l a y s g r a v i -t a t i o n a l k i n s h i p : the lone t r a v e l l e r and the mad s c i e n t i s t , s e a r c h i n g f o r the f i n a l k i c k , e t e r n a l l y on the look out. 131 Chapter 4 ADDICTION, CRIME, AND PRISON Boosters, pimps, bunko men—American j u s t i c e coaches them as c a r e f u l l y f o r t h e i r r o l e s as i t does i t s d e t e c t i v e s , lawyers, and judges. In the p i l l o r y o r on the t h i r d page of the morning e d i t i o n , the c r i m i n a l unlucky enough to be caught performs a c r u c i a l p a r t i n the d a i l y r i t u a l which s u s t a i n s the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a u t h o r i t y , as w e l l as the p e r t i n e n c y of the p i e t i e s which support i t . C o n c i s e l y , "Crime b r i n g s t o g e t h e r u p r i g h t consciences and c o n c e n t r a t e s them." Though the dramatic e x p l o i t a t i o n of the a d d i c t as a community s a c r i f i c e does not b e g i n i n earnest u n t i l the e a r l y 1920's, the a s s o c i a t i o n of a d d i c t i o n w i t h a c r i m i n a l p r e d i l e c t i o n was a l r e a d y f i r m l y implanted i n the p u b l i c mind by the t u r n of the century. The image of the a d d i c t moves from the gorgeous s e n s i t i v i t y of De Quincey to the d i r g e f u l i n v a l i d i s m of the l a t e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y to the r a p a c i o u s degeneracy connected with the " c r i m i n a l m e n t a l i t y " of the 2 0 t h century. A l f r e d L i hdesmith analyzes one r e s u l t : 132 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t crime i s sometimes e x p l a i n e d i n terms of psycho-p a t h i c p e r s o n a l i t y j u s t as drug a d d i c t i o n i s . We may note a l s o t h a t those who seek to prove psychopathy among drug a d d i c t s c i t e c r i m i n a l i t y a s evidence of i t , w hile those who are i n t e r e s t e d i n demonstrating the psychopathy of c r i m i n a l s c i t e a d d i c t i o n as s u p p o r t i n g evidence. In t h i s way p s y c h o l o g i c a l guesswork accompanies the h i s -t o r i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the a d d i c t i n t o a c r i m i n a l by n e c e s s i t y and by decree. In r e a l i t y , economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have f o r c e d the a d d i c t out i n t o the s t r e e t s and make of s u c c e s s f u l t h i e v i n g the concomitant to a d d i c t i o n . But i n t h i s advance from the i n v a l i d ' s couch to the s t r e e t c o r n e r and the p r i s o n c e l l , the nature of n a r c o t i c a d d i c t i o n changes. These are d i f f e r e n t people l i v i n g under d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . The modern a d d i c t r e s i s t s p u b l i c p r e s -sures which the g e n t e e l g e n e r a t i o n s of a d d i c t s would have co n s i d e r e d h e a r t l e s s beyond comprehension. Crowley, Lee, and Cocteau never descend to the t y p i c a l l y g r a y i s h American experience of drug a d d i c t i o n . The c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r l i v e s never made i t necessary to l i v e w i t h i n s k i d row ghettoes p a t r o l l e d by pre d a t o r y n a r c o t i c s agents. T h i s i s not to say t h a t Crowley and Lee do not deplore the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the Dangerous Drug Act, or t h a t Cocteau i s not cognizant of the f u g i t i v e s t a t u s of the opium smoker. Neve r t h e l e s s , they never d i s p l a y t h a t crouched awareness 133 of a u t h o r i t y which i s to "become the standard f e a t u r e of the modern l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g with a d d i c t i o n . L e r o y S t r e e t , f o r example, d e s c r i b e s a r e c u r r i n g dream while w i t h i n the deep coma induced by the hyoscine cure f o r a d d i c t i o n : " F i n a l l y , j u s t as I l o c a t e d a hypodermic and a c t u a l l y had i t i n my hands, g i g a n t i c members of the n a r c o t i c s squad b u l g i n g with muscles b a t t e r e d down the door and pinned me to the f l o o r . T h i s nightmare of the i n t r u d i n g agents occurs f r e q u e n t l y i n Burroughs, n o t a b l y i n the Hauser and O'Brien s e c t i o n of Naked Lunch, where Burroughs takes sweet f a n t a s y revenge. Regular i n c a r c e r a t i o n imposes new d i s c i -p l i n e s on the urban a d d i c t , a p t i t u d e s which d i s t i n g u i s h him from h i s composed and a l o o f f o r e i g n f e l l o w a d d i c t s : "I have l e a r n e d the c e l l u l a r s t o i c i s m t h a t junk teaches the user," Burroughs observes. "I have seen a c e l l f u l l of s i c k j u n k i e s s i l e n t and immobile m separate misery." With the e x c e p t i o n of Cocteau, the r e g u l a r use of o p i a t e s has been d i s c u s s e d thus f a r i n terms of the accepted m e d i c a l usage of the 1 9 t h and even 20th c e n t u r i e s . As has been n o t i c e d , most a d d i c t s were c r e a t e d as a r e s u l t of poor judgement on the p a r t of p h y s i c i a n s . A d d i c t s took t h e i r chosen drug--opium, morphine, laudanum, or whatever i t might b e - - e i t h e r o r a l l y or by hypodermic i n j e c t i o n . I t i s a matter of h i s t o r y , however, t h a t from the 1870*s on there 134 were a s i g n i f i c a n t number of people who e x c l u s i v e l y smoked opium and who guarded a t r a d i t i o n d i r e c t l y opposed to the lamentable v i c t i m s of m e d i c a l m a l p r a c t i c e : "The opium smoker of the n i n e t e e n t h century belonged to an e l i t e underworld group which d e s p i s e d and g e n e r a l l y avoided a l l c o n t a c t with the hypodermic user or 'opium eater* of r e s p e c t -able society."-^ A contemporary a u t h o r i t y r e p o r t s that opium smokers tended to be wayward " s p o r t i n g c h a r a c t e r s " who responded to the s e c r e c y and s i l e n t a f f a b i l i t y of the opium j o i n t t r a d i t i o n a l l y run by a d i s c r e e t Chinaman: Men and woman, young g i r l s , v i r t u o u s or j u s t commencing a downward ca r e e r , hardened p r o s t i t u t e s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the "hoodlum" element, young c l e r k s and errand boys who could i l l a f f o r d the waste of time and money, and young men who had no work to do were to be found smoking together i n the back rooms of l a u n d r i e s i n the low, p e s t i l e n t i a l dens of Chinatown, r e e k i n g with f i l t h and over-run w i t h vermin, i n the c e l l a r s of d r i n k i n g saloons, and i n houses of p r o s t i t u t i o n . The s e n s a t i o n a l p h y s i c a l and moral degradations evoked by opium smoking became a f i x e d p o i n t i n the p u b l i c mind. The drug's i n f l u e n c e and the c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t i n g i n the opium den understandably became a source of p r u r i e n t i n t e r e s t . Older a d d i c t s supposedly took advantage of the a p h r o d i s i a c p r o p e r t i e s of opium to have t h e i r way with v i r t u o u s young g i r l s : "Female smokers, i f not a l r e a d y 1 3 5 l o s t i n p o i n t of v i r t u e , soon "become s o . " 1 Cob"be comments on t h e s i n k o f i n i q u i t y i t s e l f : "The s u r r o u n d i n g s a r e always r e p u l s i v e and the inmates are c r i m i n a l s o r p e t t y o f f e n d e r s a g a i n s t p o l i c e r e g u l a t i o n s . They a r e i g n o r a n t , g i l l i t e r a t e , v u l g a r , " b r u t a l , and w i c k e d . " F u r t h e r m o r e , "because smoking opium d i d n o t have any p l a c e i n m e d i c a l usage, the image of the m a l e v o l e n t f r i e n d o r the v i c i o u s p r o s t i t u t e i n i t i a t i n g the u n s u s p e c t i n g v i c t i m b e g i n s to form as a f u n c t i o n of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of o p i a t e a d d i c t i o n . F a c t o r s such as t h e s e c o n t r i b u t e d t o the i d e a t h a t smoking opium spreads through a community l i k e t y p h o i d and f o r o b v i o u s h y g i e n i c r e a s o n s must be s c o u r e d away. One s e n s i b l e p h y s i c i a n o f V i r g i n i a C i t y , Nevada, w r i t e s about smoking opium i n the e a r l y 1880's: "The h a b i t grew v e r y r a p i d l y , u n t i l i t r e a c h e d young women of more mature age, when the n e c e s s i t y f o r s t r i n g e n t measures became 9 a p p a r e n t , and was met by the p a s s i n g o f a c i t y o r d i n a n c e . The s t o r y goes t h a t the f i r s t C a u c a s i a n t o smoke opium i n A m e r i c a d i d so i n 1868 i n San F r a n c i s c o and t h a t the second smoked i n 1871 a t the p r o m p t i n g of the f i r s t . No m a t t e r how t h a t was, i n one decade one would be a b l e to s e r v e time i n Nevada f o r m a i n t a i n i n g o r p a t r o n i z i n g an opium den, o r f o r mere p o s s e s s i o n o f smoking opium. I n C a l i f o r n i a t h e punishment f o r a f i r s t o f f e n s e of the 136 smoking opium laws was a f i n e of $50, but f o r the second o f f e n s e the punishment was $500 and s i x months i n j a i l . Even the p r i c e of smoking opium r e f l e c t e d p u b l i c d i s a p p r o v a l : the duty on a pound of r e g u l a r opium was $1 whereas the duty f o r smoking opium was $ 6 . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the f i r s t p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n l e v e l l e d at the drug problem was the ban on the i m p o r t a t i o n of smoking opium i n 1909. Though l e g i s l a t i o n c o u l d never wipe out such a popular p r a c t i c e , c i t y ordinances and s t a t e laws h a r r a s s e d the opium smoker and prepared the way f o r n a t i o n a l r e g u l a t i o n . The p u n i t i v e m e n t a l i t y of American j u s t i c e toward h e r o i n a d d i c t i o n f i n d s i t s precedence i n the 19th century's c l a s s - c o n s c i o u s a t t i t u d e toward the p r a c t i c e of smoking opium. By 1910 l o c a l and f e d e r a l p r e s s u r e s had f o r c e d the opium j o i n t s deeply underground. I t i s h a r d l y c o i n c i d e n t a l t h a t about t h i s time h e r o i n ( d i s c o v e r e d i n I 8 9 8 and thought not h a b i t - f o r m i n g ) began to achieve p o p u l a r i t y with the men and women about town. R e f e r r i n g to the year. I 9 I 2 , S t r e e t w r i t e s , "There was no law a g a i n s t the s a l e of h e r o i n , f o r i t was s t i l l regarded c h i e f l y as a cough medicine. Anyone with the p r i c e c o u l d go i n t o n e a r l y any drug s t o r e 10 and buy a packet of the pure drug." As with smoking opium, there was a p a t t e r n of s e d u c t i o n i n v o l v i n g naive youth and the c y n i c a l machinations of an e l d e r l y a d d i c t : 137 "Oftentimes one o l d a d d i c t w i l l c o r r u p t a t one s i t t i n g t e n 11 or twenty boys." Where the West had i n i t i a t e d the smoking of opium, the gangs of d i s s o l u t e young men i n New York appear to have i n t r o d u c e d the p r a c t i c e of s n o r t i n g h e r o i n . Of course the use of the hypodermic would f o l l o w when the supply of h e r o i n t i g h t e n e d on the b l a c k market, but the d i s r e p u t a b l e people s n o r t i n g h e r o i n served as a br i d g e i n the p u b l i c mind between the opium smokers of the past century and the j u n k i e s of the 20's. The young and pre-dominantly male a d d i c t s of the e a r l y 20th century sought a n a r c o t i c which would supply the same comforts t h a t smoking opium had f o r the l a s t f o r t y years. In choosing h e r o i n , they make the unfortunate exchange of a warm room f o r a windy s t r e e t . With the passage of s t a t e laws (New York's Boylan Law, f o r example) and f i n a l l y the H a r r i s o n Act i n 1914, the bla c k market began to f e a t u r e n a r c o t i c drugs ot h e r than smoking opium. N a t u r a l l y , the p r i c e s went up and the q u a l i t y of the drugs went down. I t was s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y easy to o b t a i n h e r o i n , but there was c l e a r l y a p u b l i c consciousness of a d d i c t i o n which presaged s t e r n e r attempts to wipe out the v i r u l e n t d i s e a s e . A f t e r a v a r i e t y of dismal attempts to cure a d d i c t s through p u b l i c means ( S t r e e t d e s c r i b e s one such hyoscine cure i n New York), maintenance c l i n i c s had 138 a few years to prove themselves capable of answering the problem; d e s p i t e some l o y a l support, they were c l o s e d down by the N a r c o t i c D i v i s i o n , the c l i n i c i n Shreveport hanging on u n t i l e a r l y 1923• By t h i s time the r i g h t o f the do c t o r to p r e s c r i b e n a r c o t i c s to h i s p a t i e n t - a d d i c t had d i s -appeared; p r e s c r i b i n g drugs to an a d d i c t was not "a l e g i t -imate purpose." I t was i l l e g a l f o r a d d i c t s to have drugs i n t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n u n l e s s the drugs had been p r e s c r i b e d , which was i m p o s s i b l e u n l e s s the docto r i n v o l v e d put h i s common humanity (or h i s a v a r i c e ) above the r i s k of a j a i l sentence. Only e l d e r l y a d d i c t s i n c a p a b l e of withdrawing were exempt from these, u n e t h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the H a r r i s o n A c t , which i n r e a l i t y was designed as a means of r e g u l a t i n g the drug t r a f f i c r a t h e r than c r e a t i n g a new 12 c r i m i n a l c l a s s . Though a r a t h e r s l i g h t s h o r t s t o r y , "A Modern Opium E a t e r " i l l u s t r a t e s the t r a d i t i o n a l c onception of the smoking of opium as a p o l i c e problem. The i m p l i c a t i o n of the t i t l e i s t h a t the De Quincey of today i s an e d i t o r from San F r a n c i s c o who smokes opium, s t e a l s i n order to m a i n t a i n h i s h a b i t , and ends up a member of a c r i m i n a l gang. S u i t a b l y , t h i s t a l e was p u b l i s h e d i n 1914, the year of- the H a r r i s o n A c t . S t o r i e s such as t h i s groomed a d d i c t s to be the s t a p l e of the p e n i t e n t i a r y system. 1 3 9 I f he were not i n p r i s o n , the E d i t o r ' s account would begin c o n v e n t i o n a l l y enough. He warns of the r a p i d l y spreading h a b i t : not o n l y San F r a n c i s c o but "every other g r e a t c i t y i n the country . . . numbers i t s ' f i e n d s ' by thousands and tens of thousands." He f i r e s up the o l d machinery when d e s c r i b i n g the d e v i l who has once possessed him: "For f i v e years there has not been a day, s c a r c e l y an hour, d u r i n g which my mind and body have not been under the i n f l u e n c e of the most s u b t l e and i n s i d i o u s of drugs" ( 1 2 1 ) . The e x t r a o r d i n a r y d i f f e r e n c e i n the E d i t o r ' s s t o r y from h i s p r edecessors', however, i s t h a t h i s c r e d i b i l i t y m a i n t a i n s i t s e l f because he has withdrawn from opium—but h i s s o c i a l s t a n d i n g can never r e t u r n . Opium has taken him to the other s i d e and l e f t him t h e r e : "To-day I am a c o n v i c t s e r v i n g my second p e n i t e n t i a r y sentence--a 'two-time l o s e r ' i n the language of the underworld, my world now" ( 1 2 1 ) . A d d i c t i o n seems to be unpardonable, l e a v i n g o n l y the under-world to house the a d d i c t . A l l the penance i n the world cannot r e c t i f y t h i s s o c i a l mutiny e q u i v a l e n t w i t h the d e c i s i o n to commit systematic crime. Opium, a c c o r d i n g to the E d i t o r , not only n e c e s s i t a t e s i t s e l f , i t works on the i n d i v i d u a l i n such a way as to p redispose him to the commission of crime: I had been a u s e r of opium about e i g h t 140 months when I f i r s t began to r e a l i z e a mental change i n myself--a new moral viewpoint, so to speak. I handled a s t o r y of the a r r e s t of a c r i m i n a l w i t h r e a l r e g r e t , while the news of a c l e v e r crime with the p e r p e t r a t o r s s a f e l y a t l i b e r t y was a p e r s o n a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n . (125-26) Though i n one sense a restatement of De Quincey*s more than p a s s i n g i n t e r e s t i n the a r t of murder, the E d i t o r ' s i n t e r e s t i n crime does not remain t h a t of a s c h o l a r l y bystander. The in t e r m e d i a t e stage of a d d i c t i o n throws up a k i n d of Sherlock Holmes sans moral tone. F o r i n s t a n c e , the E d i t o r s o l v e s a crime which has the p o l i c e b a f f l e d , but he h e l p s the c r i m i n a l to escape to the O r i e n t (of a l l places) a f t e r he d i s c o v e r s the t h i e f to be a b r o t h e r opium smoker. The E d i t o r e x p l a i n s h i s s i g n a l success i n t h i s i n s t a n c e with the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n : Take two men of s i m i l a r i n t e l l e c t s and propound a problem, p r e f e r a b l y i n c r i m -i n a l i t y . I f both men are users of opium t h e i r minds w i l l a r r i v e a t e x a c t l y the same r e s u l t by e x a c t l y the same mental processes. I have t e s t e d i t scores of times and the r e s u l t s were the same n i n e -teen times out of twenty. (128) Opium, then, c o n s t r u c t s c r u e l back alleyways i n the human b r a i n : "Opium-made plans, p l o t s , i n s p i r a t i o n s — c a l l them what you w i l l — a r e devious, t r i c k y , shrewd because of t h e i r abnormality" (128). F o r t h i s reason "a normal b r a i n and 141 an opium b r a i n have n o t h i n g i n common" (128). The E d i t o r proposes an opium species, endowed wi t h one weapon which p r o t e c t s i t from deserved a n n i h i l a t i o n — u n p r e d i c t a b l e cunning. The Chinaman r u l e s over one s e c t o r of the underworld as both t r a d i t i o n a l purveyor of smoking opium and r e s i d e n t sage. P r e d i c t a b l y , the E d i t o r smokes opium f o r the f i r s t time i n Chinatown. He e v e n t u a l l y buys h i s own layout- when the expense of smoking out becomes p r o h i b i t i v e . T h i n k i n g he can q u i t at any time, the E d i t o r hears "the wisdom of ages" from the a n c i e n t a d d i c t who cooks h i s p i l l s (and who the E d i t o r c a l l s L e e ) : "Bimeby maybe you go to j a i l , no got f l i e n d b l i n g you hop, not got money g i v e n policeman catchem hop, you q u i t " (125)• The o l d Chinaman p r e d i c t s the f u t u r e e x a c t l y , but the E d i t o r b l i t h e l y descends down the opium l a d d e r : "I laughed a t h i s warning. Had I but known i t , the wisdom of ages, the experiences of u n t o l d thousands of wrecked l i v e s were summed up i n the h a l t i n g words I allowed to pass me unheeded" (125)• The Chinaman f u n c t i o n s as the spokesman and symbol f o r a d d i c t i o n to smoking opium, as w e l l as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the q u a l i t y 14 of the human mxnd s a t u r a t e d with the accursed drug. R a c i a l i n t o l e r a n c e sharpened i t s e l f on the image of the Chinaman as the c u r a t o r of the moral abyss of opium. Jack 142 Black r e c a l l s a p a r t i c u l a r l y i l l u s t r a t i v e moment from San F r a n c i s c o a t the t u r n on the century: About t e n o'clock there was a s t i r i n the h a l l and s e v e r a l p o l i c e came i n with China-men from a gambling-house r a i d . T h i s was before they had cut o f f t h e i r queues, and i n s t e a d of h a n d c u f f i n g t h e i r p r i s o n e r s the cops came i n d r i v i n g the s i l e n t , s t o l i d Chinese b e f o r e them l i k e c h a r i -o t e e r s . Each cop had the t a i l s , of three Chinemen's queues i n each hand. ~* The E d i t o r maintains t h a t the opium a d d i c t (and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , the s h i f t y Chinese) would be i n v u l n e r a b l e i f he were not a s l a v e to h i s h a b i t . The s l a v e r i n g need imposed by a d d i c t i o n f l u s h e s the opium smoker out i n t o the open where he can be found s t i n k i n g i n h i s own hydrophobic b e s t i a l i t y . Though dangerous, "an opium smoker s u f f e r i n g f o r the drug and l a c k i n g the money to buy what alone can s t i l l the f r i g h t f u l agony i n nerve and limb i s as simple as a coot" ( 1 2 8 - 2 9 ) . As soon as the hungry smoker smokes, however, the opium m e n t a l i t y gains sway, " l i k e a guardian, a mentor, p o i n t i n g out r e p r o v i n g l y the f o l l y of t h a t same mind, committed while i n want of opium" ( 1 3 1 ) . And t h i s s u s u r r a n t S o c r a t e s l i s t e n s f o r the heavy shoes o u t s i d e the door: But now, opium once a g a i n having made me as near normal as was p o s s i b l e , I sensed danger, imminent, immediately impending. 143 I t was not alone the knowledge of g u i l t , i t was something more d e f i n i t e , some-t h i n g i n t u i t i v e . In the underworld there i s a s p e c i e s of f o r e s i g h t termed "hophead hunches." They are regarded with s u p e r s t i t i o u s awe the country over. (132) D e s p i t e t h i s h i g h l y developed a l e r t system, however, the E d i t o r proposes i n c a r c e r a t i o n as the t e r m i n a l f u n c t i o n of withdrawal. A f t e r l e a v i n g j o u r n a l i s m , "I occupied myself with p r i z e f i g h t promotion, gambling c l u b s and stock t r i c k s , a l l v e r g i n g on swindles, but permeated w i t h the s u b t l e n e s s of the drug t h a t c r e a t e d them" ( I 3 0 ) . But opium drags i t s v i c t i m even lower: "And now I was r i p e f o r the f i n a l stage of the opium h a b i t - - c r i m i n a l i t y " (130). Out of need f o r opium, the E d i t o r f o r g e s some checks and ends up s e r v i n g a year sentence i n p r i s o n . He has proved h i m s e l f " r i g h t " to the o t h e r inmates and j o i n s a gang of opium smokers on h i s r e l e a s e : "I was d i s c h a r g e d , uncured of the drug h a b i t , and r e t u r n e d to s o c i e t y a h u n d r e d f o l d more dangerous a menace than b e f o r e " ( I 3 I ) . They run out of drugs and earn another sentence i n p r i s o n , where the E d i t o r w r i t e s h i s c o n f e s s i o n . The E d i t o r draws an i d e a l p o l a r i t y between the two p r i s o n s where he has served time. In the f i r s t , he r e c e i v e d a l l the opium he needed: "I l i v e d i n an environment and and under c o n d i t i o n s , both moral and p h y s i c a l , t h a t c r e a t e 144 c r i m i n a l s i n s t e a d of c o r r e c t i n g them" ( 131 ) . But i n t h i s second one, t h i n g s are run on the square; he was g i v e n a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g withdrawal, and now, a cured man, he thanks the providence t h a t l e d him to t h i s c e l l : "I am the f o u r t h man I have ever known who has e s c a p e d - - i f I have escaped. Each of the f o u r was saved e x a c t l y as I have been, i n an i n s t i t u t i o n l i k e t h i s . . . " (135)• The E d i t o r ' s s t o r y promotes the treatment of a d d i c t i o n with p r i s o n sentences which was to be a p r a c t i c a l f a c t of l i f e f o r thousands of a d d i c t s i n the f u t u r e . I t had not been so u n t i l t h i s time. As f e d e r a l and s t a t e p r i s o n r o s t e r s swelled with j u n k i e s i n the 20's and 30's, the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a d d i c t i o n demanded some k i n d of i n s t i t u t i o n a l q u a r a n t i n i n g became a f i x e d a r t i c l e of f a i t h , and that l a c k i n g unique f a c i l i t i e s f o r such a purpose, i t f e l l upon the p r i s o n s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s to separate from s o c i e t y 16 such a contaminative and s u b v e r s i v e deviancy. Though perhaps p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y l i n k e d with such C i v i l War h o r r o r s as A n d e r s o n v i l l e , the modern p e n i t e n t i a r y system symbolizes the change from the e r r a t i c mob j u s t i c e of the f r o n t i e r to the implacable a u t h o r i t y of urban c i v i l j u s t i c e . Monotony and d e t e n t i o n r e p l a c e v i o l e n c e and e x p u l s i o n . And n a t u r a l l y , the composition of the c r i m i n a l c l a s s changes as the e x e c u t i o n of c i v i l c o n t r o l changes. 145 More r e l i a b l e means of d e t e c t i n g and p r o s e c u t i n g crime (a development f o r which P i n k e r t o n i s the o b v i o u s symbol) f o r c e the f r o n t i e r s o l d i e r - c r i m i n a l t u t o r e d by Q u a n t r i l l t o d e v e l o p r a d i c a l c a u t i o n s . J a c k B l a c k d e s c r i b e s t h i s new c r i m i n a l t y pe r e s p o n s i v e to a t e c h n o l o g i c a l p o l i c e f o r c e a l r e a d y employing the B e r t i l l o n system and not f a r away from f i n g e r p r i n t i n g : He i s s i l e n t , s e c r e t i v e , wary; f o r e v e r t r a v e l i n g , always a n i g h t "worker." He shuns the b r i g h t l i g h t s , seldom s t r a y i n g f a r from h i s k i n d , n ever coming t o the s u r f a c e . C i r c u l a t i n g t h r o u g h space w i t h h i s a l w a y s - r e a d y a u t o m a t i c , the yegg r u l e s the u n d e r w o r l d of c r i m i n a l s . (5) I n You Can't Win B l a c k r e c a l l s the p e r i o d i n the West from r o u g h l y 1890 t o 1914. R a i s e d i n the p o s t - C i v i l War f r o n t i e r , ( t h e c o w a r d l y murder of J e s s e James was the d i s a s t e r o f h i s boyhood), t h e young B l a c k f e e d s o f f the c a l l o u s n e s s and the sense of honor w h i c h accompanied the C i v i l War's memory. M o t h e r l e s s ("There i s no s u b s t i t u t e h i s f a t h e r to s h i f t f o r h i m s e l f i n h o t e l s and rooming houses, B l a c k ' s y e a r n i n g f o r a d v e n t u r e , e x c i t e d by dime n o v e l s and the examples o f men around him, l e a d s him t o the r o a d a t the age of s i x t e e n . But i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to Huck, who i s a l s o m o t h e r l e s s and a d v e n t u r o u s , B l a c k , f o r the home avows) and l e f t by 146 b e f o r e h i s l i f e on the road even begins, has worked f o r a c o r r u p t b a r k e e p e r - p o l i t i c i a n , f o r a c i g a r s t o r e f r o n t i n g f o r a gambling j o i n t i n the back, and as a messenger c o l l e c t i n g b i l l s from the " p a r l o r houses" i n the T e n d e r l o i n . Hannibal e x i s t s i n another realm a l t o g e t h e r from Black's Kansas C i t y . S p o r t i n g people and shady e n t e r p r i s e prepare Black f o r a p a r t n e r s h i p i n the "yeggs"--an amorphous migrant s o c i e t y haphazardly congregating at r a i l r o a d j u n c t i o n s , dance h a l l s , wine dumps, gambling j o i n t s , and Chinese l a u n d r i e s . The brave journey to San F r a n c i s c o ends i n a ten year p e r i o d of a d d i c t i o n . The Chinaman c l o s e s the door behind him when (and i t i s every n i g h t ) the e l e c t r i c t e n s i o n o f c r i m e — e n t e r i n g a h o t e l room, r i f l i n g t r o u s e r s , p u l l i n g o f f r i n g s , p l a n t i n g the s t o l e n a r t i c l e s — c a n o n l y be r e l e a s e d by s i x or e i g h t p i l l s of opium. Years before a d d i c t i o n , however, Black j o i n s a way of l i f e on the road which o r g a n i z e s such d i v e r s e elements as yeggs, b i n d l e s t i f f s , migrant workers, bra s s p e d d l e r s , and p l a i n t h i e v e s . The f i r s t day Black begins to l e a r n a new language t r a n s m i t t e d w i l l i n g l y by t a l k a t i v e and k i n d l y bums s "I was j u s t a f t e r g e t t i n ' a>>six months f l o a t e r out of Denver an' went down to Pueblo to do a l i t t l e D.D.ing with lavender f o r myself. I got myself a Ik7 bunch of lavender and ducat." The other bum laughed, h i s mouth f u l l of c h i c k e n . "You're t a l k i n g Chinook to t h a t k i d . What does he know about the D.D. and ducats." "You're r i g h t , " I s a i d . "I don't know what he i s t a l k i n g about." I was anxious to l e a r n , but d i d n ' t l i k e a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s . (69) P r i s o n , however, i s the Academy of c r i m i n a l s c i e n c e , the source of both i n d i s p e n s a b l e knowledge and l o y a l c o n t a c t s . P r i s o n produces the teachers who d r i l l Black i n the b a s i c i m p l i c a t i o n s of b e i n g " r i g h t " : I thought i n terms of t h e f t . Houses were b u i l t to be b u r g l a r i z e d , c i t i z e n s were to be robbed, p o l i c e to be avoided and hated, s t o o l pigeons to be c h a s t i s e d , and t h i e v e s to be c u l t i v a t e d and p r o t e c t e d . That was my code; the code of my companions. (69) In the d i s c i p l i n e d conduct of the p r o f e s s i o n a l t h i e f , Black d i s c o v e r s the r a d i c a l s e c u r i t y which f o l l o w s from a code of e t h i c s based on v i t a l c o n t a c t between men. Under c o n d i t i o n s of uniform anonymity, the fundamental q u e s t i o n ( r i g h t or wrong?) gets answered q u i c k l y and u n e r r i n g l y . B l a c k ' s t e a c h e r s guard t h e i r m a nifest i d e n t i t i e s i n a number of ways. None of them r e t a i n s h i s f a m i l y name. Each employs a "monoger" (from monogram and p o s s i b l y the d e r i v a t i o n of moniker): Black takes courses from the S m i l e r , the Sanctimonious K i d , S o l d i e r Johnny, Foot-and-a-half George, 148 and, by example, S a l t Chunk Mary (a madam and fence " r i g h t e r than A p r i l r a i n " ) . L i k e Lee, t h i s p a t r i c i a n c l a s s of the underworld r e s i s t s formal c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . F oot-ahd-a-half George: "His eyes were s m a l l and cunning. They looked as i f they had been taken out, f r i e d i n o i l , and put back. Dead, pale blue and e x p r e s s i o n l e s s , they gave no h i n t of the cunning, always-busy b r a i n behind them" ( 1 0 9 ) . The Sanctimonious K i d warns Black that " n i n e t y - n i n e men out of a hundred are pi c k e d up through some p e c u l i a r i t y of dress and i d e n t i f i e d by the same" ( 139 ) . And l i k e B i l l Gains 1 7 ("He was p o s i t i v e l y i n v i s i b l e ; a vague r e s p e c t a b l e presence" ), S o l d i e r Johnny "was born l u c k y . H i s fa c e and f i g u r e were n e u t r a l . A hard man to p i c k up on h i s d e s c r i p t i o n . Medium s i z e and weight. A f t e r one look a t him you cou l d n ' t say whether h i s h a i r was brown or b l a c k , whether h i s eyes were gray or blu e " ( 1 11 ) . Even i n . d y i n g the t h i e f takes h i s i d e n t i t y with him. When George gets shot a f t e r . r o b b i n g a safe, "Nobody claimed the dead man's body and he was b u r i e d unnamed and unknown" (215)• As Black proves to h i m s e l f many times, the c r i m i n a l ' s o n l y defense i s h i s s i l e n c e . You Can't Win pres e r v e s the atmosphere of the under-world b e f o r e the War, r e p r e s s i v e a n t i - d r u g laws, and P r o h i b i t i o n . Black l o o k s back on the o l d Barbary Coast as the Rome of Western v i c e : 14-9 Those were the days when there were saloons by the thousand; when the saloon keeper ordered the p o l i c e to pinch the S a l v a t i o n Army f o r d i s t u r b i n g the peace by s i n g i n g hymns i n the s t r e e t ; when there were race t r a c k s , gambling u n r e s t r i c t e d , crooked p r i z e f i g h t s ; when there.were c r i b s by the m i l e and hop j o i n t s by the score. (338) Young Black prowls the d i v e s of San F r a n c i s c o and f i r s t smokes opium ("the Judas of drugs," as he comes to c a l l i t ) i n Chinatown: " C u r i o s i t y was my o n l y excuse f o r my f i r s t 'smoke.' I t made me v e r y s i c k , and although I became a smoker a f t e r , i t was years before I touched the pipe again" (141). N e v e r t h e l e s s , Black n o t i c e s the i n t e g r a l p a r t t h a t opium p l a y s i n the composition of the underworld. In San F r a n c i s c o , f o r example: The T e n d e r l o i n was s a t u r a t e d with opium. The fumes of i t , streaming out of the Baltimore House at the corner of Bush and Grant, s t r u c k the n o s t r i l s b l o c k s away. Every room i n i t was tenanted by hop smokers. The p o l i c e d i d not molest them. (140) In a Chinese l a u n d r y i n Chicago, "Thieves, p i c k p o c k e t s , and pimps and t h e i r g i r l s smoked unmolested day or n i g h t " (217 :K When Black does b e g i n to smoke r e g u l a r l y , he adopts a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d means of p l e a s u r e and r e l a x a t i o n i n the underworld. While not e x a c t l y a l l i e s , the c r i m i n a l and the Chinaman 150 f i n d themselves i n common cause a g a i n s t p r y i n g a u t h o r i t i e s . On the s u b j e c t of buying a gun (a .38, of course, because i t i s the most common) the Sanctimonious K i d says, "'The Chinks are safe to do any k i n d of busi n e s s with, buying or s e l l i n g . They don't t a l k ' " (I38). The yegg p r i z e s adamant d e s c r e t i o n over any other v i r t u e , and the Chinaman has i t i n abundance. The c r i m i n a l smoker c o u l d f i n d i n a Chinese laundry the promise of s e c u r i t y which a l i f e without a home and a name makes p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . The onl y domestic d e t a i l i n You Can't Win i n v o l v e s Chinese l i v i n g q u a r t e r s i n Vancouver: The p l a c e was a b i g l o f t . The foggy a i r was hot, s t i f l i n g , and l a d e n with every Chinese s m e l l — o p i u m , tobacco, f i s h , and damp c l o t h e s d r y i n g . Chinamen were cooking, e a t i n g , smoking hop, gambling, or s l e e p i n g i n c u r t a i n e d bunks that l i n e d the w a l l s . (237-38) Black admits t h a t a f t e r a robbery "I always had to hunt up a hop j o i n t and r o l l myself a few p i l l s , ' j u s t f o r the good of my nerves'" ( 2 8 7 ) . I t i s as good as coming home. Cocteau w r i t e s : "Un des prodiges de 1'opium e s t de changer instantanement une chambre inconnue en une chambre s i f a m i l i e r e , s i p l e i n e de s o u v e n i r s , qu'on pense 1 ' a v o i r / 18 occupee t o u j o u r s . " Opium and the Chinaman's home produce the s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t i n u i t y i n Bla c k ' s l i f e as a c r i m i n a l - -151 h i s s o l e c o n n e c t i o n with the f r o n t i e r C a t h o l i c s c h o o l where he had been a c h i l d e s p e c i a l l y eager to say h i s p r a y e r s . Opium conjures innocence: "For ten years I had never gone to s l e e p without t a k i n g i t . I owed to i t a l l the sl e e p , a l l the r e s t and f o r g e t f u l n e s s and contentment I had had i n t h a t time" ( 3 7 2 ) . The acute, cumulative a n x i e t i e s of the p r o f e s s i o n a l t h i e f f i n d temporary surcease i n the domestic s a f e t y of the Chinese f a m i l y . Besides the s e d a t i v e value of the opium den, Black c o n s i d e r s opium as a means of a r r i v i n g at c r i m i n a l plans, though he i s l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c on the s u b j e c t than the E d i t o r . Black runs a c r o s s hop smokers who p r e s e n t plans which i n r e t r o s p e c t seem f a n c i f u l ; r e a l i t y i s never " a l t o g e t h e r the r o s y dream of a hop f i e n d " ( 2 4 2 ) . Such a p l a n l e a d s him to t r y c h l o r o f o r m as an a i d to b u r g l a r y and proves to h i m s e l f t h a t t h i s technique belongs i n n o v e l s and i n opium dreams, the two d e r i v i n g from s i m i l a r departures from c o l d f a c t : "As an agent f o r s t u p e f y i n g a s l e e p i n g person without waking him, I maintain, i n s p i t e of the o p i n i o n s of f i c t i o n w r i t e r s and romancing t h i e v e s , ' i t can't be done*" ( 2 4 9 ) . E a r l i e r the Sanctimonious K i d i n s t r u c t s Black, "'You've read a l o t of books about c r i m i n a l s , but f o r g e t i t a l l ' " ( 1 4 1 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , Black cooks up at l e a s t one p l a n which b a r e l y keeps a l i v e the s u p e r s t i t i o n 152 t h a t the opium smoker harbors an e s p e c i a l l y t r i c k y and i n t u i t i v e s l a n t upon c r i m i n a l problems: A moderate q u a n t i t y of opium w i l l not inflame or d i s t o r t the i m a g i n a t i o n . I do not say i t i s an a i d to c l e a r t h i n k i n g , but i t i s a f a c t t h a t I l e f t the l a u n d r y w i t h what I thought, and s t i l l t h i n k , was n o t h i n g l e s s than an i n s p i r a t i o n . (304) G e n e r a l l y , however, Black does not show any i n t e r e s t i n p r o v i n g opium to be i n s t i n c t with crime--he began to s t e a l w e l l before he ever smoked. S i m i l a r l y , Black punctures the pigeon-breasted r h e t o r i c of the more s h e l t e r e d opium-eater. Gone are the i n e f f a b l e pangs. In f a c t , Black i n s i s t s t h a t the d i s t r e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h withdrawal e x i s t s p r i m a r i l y on a mental plane. Knowing t h a t opium i s d e s t r o y i n g h i s h e a l t h , he withdraws from opium by h i m s e l f i n a rooming house, a s s i s t e d by a more compelling o b s e s s i o n : " I t would have been a good d e a l harder to q u i t i f I hadn't had t h a t f e a r of j a i l always before me. That took my mind o f f the opium" ( 3 7 3 ) . And i n Folsom P r i s o n , Black k i c k s a h a b i t of years s t a n d i n g while b e i n g punished with a s t r a i t j a c k e t : "I had an opium h a b i t , but s u f f e r e d so much from the j a c k e t t h a t I f o r g o t a l l about the h o p — a n o t h e r proof to me t h a t the h a b i t i s mostly mental" ( 3 6 4 ) . He d i s p l a y s a " c e l l u l a r s t o i c i s m " which cannot r e f e r to the whining, h e r o i c a l metaphors 153 with which a d d i c t i o n had composed withdrawal i n the 1 9 t h century. The disma l ashram where i t a l l "began c o n t r o l s B l a c k ' s mind i n a way th a t the claims of withdrawal on the f l e s h cannot. By the time he makes h i s promise to go s t r a i g h t , Black has served sentences i n New Westminster, Folsom, A l c a t r a z , and a v a r i e t y of l o c a l j a i l s . Most of h i s c r i m i n a l years have "been spent i n p r i s o n . F a r from making opium u n a v a i l a b l e , however, p r i s o n a f f i r m s the use, and p r i n c i p l e , of opium: i n p r i s o n n a r c o t i c s become a p o l i t i c a l and economic f a c t o r — the way to k i l l time. In Folsom, f o r example, "Opium was the medium of exchange i n the p r i s o n . About three hundred men used i t h a b i t u a l l y and a hundred more, o c c a s i o n a l l y . Incoming p r i s o n e r s smuggled money i n and we b r i b e d the p o o r l y p a i d guards to buy hop at Sacramento" (357)• N a t u r a l l y , "I j o i n e d the schemers and soon had my share of power and i n f l u e n c e " (358)• The d e s i r e to escape from p r i s o n f i n d s i t s v e n d i b l e s u b s t i t u t e i n opium-sleep: "For years i n the j a i l I had s l e p t away a l l the time I could; I had s l e p t ten or twelve or f o u r t e e n hours a day" ( 373 ) - As i n Lee's O r i e n t , opium proves a means of adjustment to one's e n v i -r o n m e n t — a means to c o l d v i g i l a n c e and warm r e v e r i e s of s e c u r i t y . Though the s t o r y of a r e f o r m a t i o n , You Can't Win w i l l 154 "be remembered as a picaresque t r a v e l book of crime. What-ever he s u f f e r s on the road to h i s f i n a l c o n f e s s i o n of g u i l t to a j u r y , the l o y a l t i e s of other t h i e v e s make up the human content of h i s l i f e . Burroughs e x p l a i n s h i s e a r l y a t t r a c t i o n to a n t i - s o c i a l g e s t u r e s and s e c r e t p a r t n e r s : At t h i s time I was g r e a t l y impressed by an autobiography of a b u r g l a r , c a l l e d You Can't Win. The author claimed to have spent a good p a r t of h i s l i f e i n j a i l . I t sounded good to me compared with the d u l l n e s s of a Midwest Suburb where a l l c o n t a c t with l i f e was shut out. ' Burroughs puts the f i n g e r on Black as the De Quincey of crime, while a l s o without apparent i r o n y c o n c e i v i n g of the prison-crime-opium m a t r i x as a means of freedom. Bl a c k ' s r e t i r e m e n t to h i s l a w - a b i d i n g l i b r a r y would have seemed to the young Burroughs to be l a c k i n g the v i t a l c o ntact e v i d e n t i n h i s l i f e as a t h i e f and c o n v i c t ; B l a c k ' s t h i r t e e n year s t i n t of l e g i t i m a c y between the w r i t i n g of the book and the events which the book d e s c r i b e s f i g u r e as the o n l y r e a l p r i s o n sentence he has ever served. T h a n k f u l l y , however, Black does not t u r n completely white when he r e t i r e s from crime and the hop j o i n t . H i s o l d underworld c r o n i e s v i s i t him from time to time i n the l i b r a r y where he works. O c c a s i o n a l l y he f i n d s h i m s e l f g a z i n g f o n d l y at a rack of r i n g s i n the d i s p l a y window 155 of a jewelry s t o r e . He a l s o r e c o g n i z e s and a c cepts the bar s i n i s t e r t h a t d i s f i g u r e s h i s f a c e : "I can't remember a time t h a t any woman, young or o l d , ever stopped me on the s t r e e t and asked me to be d i r e c t e d " ( 1 ) . B l a c k ' s c o n v e r s i o n to the o r d i n a r y program i s a r e t i r e m e n t from an exhausting advocacy, but one that does not s i g n a l some attainment of the domestic i n t e g r a t i o n he never had. Probably s t i l l c e l i b a t e , he occupies a c e l l i n the P u e r t a V a l l a r t a of p r i s o n s , the Baden of opium dens. "I have no money, no w i f e , no auto. I have no dog. I have n e i t h e r a r a d i o s e t nor a rubber p l a n t - - I have no t r o u b l e s " ( 39 *0. The strange u n w o r l d l i n e s s of the c r i m i n a l - c o n v i c t s t i l l f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n the l i b r a r i a n ' s l i f e : "Habit i s the s t r o n g e s t t h i n g i n l i f e . . . " (385)• Leroy S t r e e t , w r i t i n g i n 1953 about a p e r i o d long past, a l s o cannot escape the evidence of h i s l i f e as a h e r o i n a d d i c t i n New York: r Dope i s out of my l i f e and has been f o r a l o n g time. Yet whenever I go to a b a t h i n g beach, I t r y to h i d e the t i n y blue marks of the hypo needle which form a d o t t e d t a t t o o on my l e g s . That brand of the drug a d d i c t has made i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r me to sprawl at ease i n the sun a f t e r a swim. Other people have s c a r s and are not s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , but I can't get over the f e e l i n g t h a t everyone would r e c o g n i z e mine f o r what they are. (4) 156 And the f e a r of p e r s e c u t i o n r e s u l t i n g from h i s t h i r t e e n year a d d i c t i o n erupts n i g h t l y i n h i s dreams: I am caught with the drug and the needle hidden on me, dragged to the s t a t i o n house, f l u n g i n t o a c e l l . I s u f f e r a l l the anguish and the torments of the a r r e s t e d a d d i c t - - a n d then I wake up, sometimes screaming with f e a r , always drenched i n p e r s p i r a t i o n . (4 -5 ) But no matter how m o r t i f i e d S t r e e t p r o f e s s e s to he over h i s a d d i c t i o n , i t s t i l l remains t h a t i t a l l happened twenty^ seven years ago: "Our e l d e s t w i l l he graduated from h i g h s c h o o l next year, and i f there are any prouder parents i n the world, I don't know them" (244). S t r e e t ' s and Black's r e f o r m a t i o n s form a n a t u r a l d u a l i t y : Black a s p i r e s to a s t a t e of grace, and S t r e e t wants d e s p e r a t e l y to he a good f a t h e r and c i t i z e n — " I ' v e done some of the most s a t i s -f y i n g work of my l i f e i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n which p r o v i d e s r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s f o r the s o r t of k i d I used to he before I got on the dope" (245)• With I Was A Drug A d d i c t , the f i r s t h a n d s t o r y of a d d i c t i o n moves from the back rooms of Chinese l a u n d r i e s to the f r o n t stoops of New York, from the opium smoking t h i e f of the West to the h e r o i n s n o r t i n g c i t y tough of the E a s t . S t r e e t i s a teenager i n Greenwich V i l l a g e when Black i n h i s middle t h i r t i e s r e t i r e s to h i s l i b r a r y . I t i s a c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e 157 i n time and p l a c e . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , a f r i e n d warns Black a g a i n s t going to New York: "Almost a l l the t h i e v e s "belong to g a n g s — the I r i s h , the Jews, and the dagoes. They f i g h t each other, "but they make common cause a g a i n s t an o u t s i d e r , e s p e c i a l l y i f he's from the West, and t h e y ' l l know you i n a minute with your s o f t hat and your Western t a l k . " (219) S t r e e t , on the oth e r hand, i s New York, "born and r a i s e d . He l e a v e s the c i t y o n l y to make f o r the most p a r t f u t i l e attempts at c u r e — s e a r c h i n g f o r the h e a l i n g p r o p e r t i e s of the country and the moral i n f l u e n c e of work. S t r e e t r e v e r s e s Black's p a t t e r n of constant t r a v e l w i t h o c c a s i o n a l s t a y s i n l a r g e c i t i e s . And more im p o r t a n t l y , the l e s s o n s of modern a d d i c t i o n — h o w be s t to p l a n t your works i n a safe bathroom, how to a v o i d the newly founded n a r c o t i c s agents, how to diagnose an a d d i c t s t o o l p i g e o n — s u p e r s e d e the o f f e n s i v e , d i s c i p l i n e d code of the p r o f e s s i o n a l t h i e f who may or may not have smoked opium. The sense of coherent s o c i e t y p e r s i s t s among h e r o i n a d d i c t s , though i t i s b a r b a r i z e d somewhat by the need f o r the drug. A f u n e r a l f o r a f r i e n d , f o r example, i s an o p p o r t u n i t y to search h i s bathroom f o r h i s p l a n t , as w e l l as a chance to g o s s i p about new drug connections w i t h f r i e n d s . By r e c o v e r i n g what amounts to the g a s l i g h t p e r i o d of h e r o i n a d d i c t i o n , S t r e e t l o c a t e s 158 the major s h i f t i n the drug world from the s o r d i d hut r e l a t i v e l y unmolested dive to the bathrooms and s t r e e t c o r n e r s of the major c i t i e s . As moral h i s t o r y , I Was A Drug A d d i c t confirms stock n o t i o n s on the e t i o l o g y and the e f f e c t s of a d d i c t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , S t r e e t l i n g e r s l o v i n g l y on h i s p o r t r a i t of the e l d e r l y a d d i c t - s e d u c e r as an i n e x p l i c a b l e vampire who arouses the f e a r and l o a t h i n g u s u a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r i n f a n t kidnappers or o c c u l t murderers. S t r e e t puts f o r t h the by-now-antiquated law. "Behind every new 'dope f i e n d * i s an o l d e r one who f o r one reason or another b r i n g s the neophyte i n t o a group of what might be c a l l e d e s t a b l i s h e d a d d i c t s " (7)• Though i t i s commonly understood t h a t pushers i n f e c t new a d d i c t s i n order to cre a t e customers, S t r e e t takes h i s f i r s t s n o r t of h e r o i n at the prodding of a charming o l d e r man, John Devon, who would have c o n s i d e r e d i t degrading to s e l l drugs. Lee (as, i r o n i c a l l y enough, h i s f r i e n d s c a l l him) steps up to take h i s f i r s t blow, not because Devon hopes to make any money out of him, but because the o l d e r man craves an audience, has to have one. He i s an An c i e n t Mariner i n expensive checkered pants, c a s t i n g a s p e l l of h e r o i n over the unwary u r c h i n s who a l l o w h i s eloquence, l i k e c a r n i v a l sounds, to p u l l them i n . S t r e e t r e t u r n s f r e q u e n t l y to the image of the "high stoop" a t 159 the Devons' and a dozen p a l e , s i c k boys hooked to h e r o i n under g a s l i g h t , above them a turned-out rheumatic dandy w i e l d i n g a snuf f box of h e r o i n with s p e c i a l s t y l e , t a l k i n g famous a d d i c t s . Devon's m a l i g n i t y p r e d i c t s Burroughs' B i l l Gains, a l s o from a w e l l - t o - d o f a m i l y : Gains was one of the few j u n k i e s who r e a l l y took a s p e c i a l p l e a s u r e i n s e e i n g non-users get a h a b i t . . . . Gains l i k e d to i n v i t e young k i d s up to h i s room and give them a shot, u s u a l l y compounded of o l d " c o t t o n s , " and then watch the e f f e c t s , s m i l i n g h i s l i t t l e s m i l e . 2 0 And Gains u s u a l l y begins h i s i n t e r m i n a b l e r o u t i n e s a f t e r a shot, perhaps h i s d i s g u s t i n g d a i l y b u l l e t i n on the c o n d i t i o n of h i s bowels. Devon, on the other hand, " t a l k e d mostly of drugs and t h e i r history'" ( 37 ) - Even a f t e r f o r t y y e a r s , S t r e e t cannot q u i t e c o n t r o l h i s i n d i g n a t i o n : "What a world of s u f f e r i n g and d i s g r a c e might have been avoided i f t h i s e v i l panderer had been put behind bars f o r h i s crimes of debauching the young" ( 9 ) • S t r e e t remembers the p e r i o d when p u b l i c o p i n i o n , s u c k l e d on f o r t y years of b i z a r r e c a u t i o n a r y l i t e r a t u r e , f i r s t supported l e g i s l a t i v e attempts to r e g u l a t e drug consumption. As would be u s u a l , however, the t h r e a t of plague accompanied p u b l i c s c r u p l e s : "A wave of a d d i c t i o n among the stage people of the day, i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l well-known 160 Broadway f i g u r e s , had aroused the p u b l i c and the a u t h o r i t i e s " ( 3 ° ) . T h i s k i n d of scare r e s u l t s i n the Boylan Law i n New York which i n t u r n r e s u l t s i n h i g h e r p r i c e s and another reason to f e a r the p o l i c e , though "most of us had gained c o n s i d e r a b l e experience i n dodging cops through the p e t t y t h e f t s which kept us s u p p l i e d " ( 9 2 ) . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , S t r e e t ' s c h i l d h o o d hero i s "Legs" Diamond while they are both i n reform s c h o o l . With the enforcement of the drug l e g i s l a t i o n , however, i t r a p i d l y becomes c l e a r t h a t the a d d i c t i s an e s p e c i a l l y v u l n e r a b l e c r i m i n a l when a d d i c t i o n i t s e l f i s made a crime, s i n c e an a d d i c t must possess h e r o i n i n order to use i t . The stoop changes from a h i s t o r y c l a s s to a s u r v i v a l f i e l d camp: "The t a l k a t the Devon's was now a l l of t r i c k s on both s i d e s i n the b a t t l e to a v o i d a r r e s t , of the underground o r g a n i z a t i o n of the drug t r a f f i c , of p o s s i b l e s t o o l pigeons" ( 1 03 ) . D e s p i t e the b e s t - l a i d p l a n s , however, p r i s o n takes whomever death l e a v e s behind. Using r e l a t i v e l y pure h e r o i n — " T h e p o i s o n h i t us hard and f a s t " ( l 0 9 ) - - t h e a d d i c t of S t r e e t ' s g e n e r a t i o n develops unmistakeable p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The j u n k i e stands out l i k e a r e d t i e or a funny hat; he has a shrunken body, a p r o t r u d i n g s k u l l , hollow cheeks. Reminiscent of Mr. Hyde, S t r e e t ' s c l o t h e s hang on h i s wasted body, and he pays no a t t e n t i o n to p h y s i c a l hygiene. N a r c o t i c s agents e a s i l y 161 c l a s s i f y an a d d i c t on s i g h t . During the War, the d r a f t r e j e c t s S t r e e t on account of h i s obvious a d d i c t i o n , one of 80,000 to be r e f u s e d f o r the same reason: "Small and skinny and o b v i o u s l y unhealthy, I c o u l d n ' t get taken on even a t the war p l a n t s " (191). S t r e e t promotes h e r o i n a d d i c t i o n as a neighborhood b l i g h t which d e s t r o y s young boys w i t h s t a g g e r i n g comprehensiveness: "Of more than 100 a d d i c t s i n my neighborhood whom I knew, boys who a c q u i r e d the h a b i t a l i t t l e sooner or a l i t t l e l a t e r than I, a l l are dead except myself" (4). Beyond the f a t a l p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n c i d e n t to a d d i c t i o n , S t r e e t d e p l o r e s the accompanying moral decay which B a u d e l a i r e n o t i c e d i n opium and h a s h i s h use. The young j u n k i e drops out of s c h o o l ; he s t e a l s from h i s l o n g -s u f f e r i n g parents; he l i e s as a way of l i f e . S t r e e t c o u l d have f u l f i l l e d h i s dream to be a commercial a r t i s t , "but the drugs seemed to draw a c u r t a i n between me and the f u t u r e . I c o u l d not be bothered w i t h thoughts of what might happen tomorrow or next week. I l i v e d - - a n d s t o l e - - f o r today" (38). The wasting of the w i l l and the d i f f i c u l t y i n working e f f e c t i v e l y t h a t echo down through the l i t e r a t u r e i n v o l v i n g a d d i c t i o n f i n d e n t h u s i a s t i c e x p r e s s i o n i n I Was A Drug A d d i c t . S t r e e t r e l i s h e s the s l i d e from a normal boy i n t e r e s t e d i n b a s e b a l l to a degenerated specimen of urban o f f a l i n order 162 to i l l u s t r a t e the e f f e c t s of h e r o i n , t a c i t l y a g r e e i n g w i t h the n a r c o t i c s agents who a r r e s t him: "In t h e i r experience the j u n k i e s were hopeless cases, the scum of s o c i e t y , f a r worse than c r i m i n a l s " (172). By a l l o w i n g h e r o i n a d d i c t i o n to he w i t h one e x c e p t i o n u n i f o r m l y d e v a s t a t i n g , S t r e e t c o n t r i b u t e s to the l u r i d t r a d i t i o n of f i l m s - - " T h e Man With A Golden Arm" and "A Touch of E v i l " f o r example--which Lenny Bruce has i n mind when he asks, " I s n ' t there one producer i n Hollywood with guts who's hooked who w i l l do a p i c t u r e showing the b r i g h t s i d e of i t ? The w e l l - a d j u s t e d 21 n a r c o t i c s user and h i s f a m i l y . " H e r o i n d e s t r o y s human attachments, as S t r e e t i l l u s t r a t e s a g a i n and again. Both of h i s b r o t h e r s d e t e s t him f o r the weakness that t u r n s him i n t o a s h i f t y t h i e f and a t r i a l to t h e i r mother. By n e g a t i n g r e s p o n s i b l e human l o y a l t i e s , h e r o i n negates the meaning of l i f e — a n d the means of cure. N e v e r t h e l e s s , some unmutilated p a r t of S t r e e t ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e moves him to care f o r a group of d i p h t h e r i c c h i l d r e n and, u l t i m a t e l y , to f a l l i n l o v e with a young woman who persuades him to go to church: "Love f o r those k i d s on the i s l a n d , l o v e f o r Elenore had added a m i s s i n g element which p r o v i d e d a more,, powerful i n c e n t i v e to break the h a b i t than any p u r e l y s e l f i s h d e s i r e s to r e g a i n h e a l t h and s t r e n g t h " ( 238 ) . A f t e r t h i r t e e n y ears of a d d i c t i o n , S t r e e t stumbles upon 163 the components of c u r e : h e a r t h and home r o u t the p o i s o n i n v a d e r . L i k e many a d d i c t s "before him, S t r e e t h o l d s out the hope o f c u r e w h i l e w a r n i n g a g a i n s t t h a t f i r s t t e m p t a t i o n : ' T h i s i s the t e s t i m o n y of my own l i f e . I t h i n k o f i t f i r s t as a w a r n i n g t o t h o s e who may by saved from the f i r s t s t e p o f the i n n o c e n t s n i f f of j o y powder or p u f f of m a r i j u a n a . But a l s o i t i s p r o o f t h a t , t h r o u g h the development of those s e n t i m e n t s of a f f e c t i o n and l o y a l t y and s e r v i c e which we t a k e too much f o r g r a n t e d , t h e r e i s no such t h i n g as a h o p e l e s s case. (246) The r o l e s of b u s i n e s s man, husband, f a t h e r , and t a x p a y e r f l o w n a t u r a l l y from the w i t h d r a w a l of h e r o i n from the j u n k i e . S t r e e t ' s p e r s o n a l c u r e may seem d i s t i n c t l y u n r e a l , b u t the i n s t i t u t i o n a l c u r e s w h i c h he undergoes seem as c o a r s e as one c o u l d hope. P e r i o d i c a l l y , he e n t e r s t h e v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s l o c a t e d i n New Y o r k ' s E a s t R i v e r : " I r e f l e c t e d g l o o m i l y t h a t my l i f e was a s u c c e s s i o n o f t r i p s on t h i s o i l y passage which New Y o r k e r s c a l l a r i v e r . H a r t ' s , B l a c k w e l l ' s and R i k e r ' s had a l l been t r i e d , and had done me no good" (214). New Y o r k ' s c i v i l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e d u c e s Ludlow's f a n t a s t i c i s l a n d t o s e r v i c e a b l e b a r n s on B l a c k w e l l ' s I s l a n d where a d d i c t s undergo a h y o s c i n e cure w h i c h p u t s the a d d i c t i n t o a coma f o r seventy-two h o u r s : he wakes up twenty pounds l i g h t e r , and c u r e d . S t r e e t documents the a d d i c t ' s f i r s t 164 c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the f o r b i d d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s designed to process him i n t o a s t a t e of h e a l t h . S t r e e t a l s o documents the overpowering tendency to r e l a p s e , even a f t e r months of a b s t i n e n c e . S t r e e t ' s h i s t o r y of problematic cures based upon temporary a b s t i n e n c e suggests a much more i n t i m a t e source of a d d i c t i o n than the s t a l w a r t m o r a l i s t s of a d d i c t i o n c o u l d have conceded as p o s s i b l e f o r anyone above the b e a s t j Cobbe, f o r i n s t a n c e , b e l i e v e s "there i s no opium ' f i e n d ' upon the face of the e a r t h , who, i f he had the s t r e n g t h to break the s h a c k l e s by h i s own w i l l , c o u l d be induced to r e t u r n to i t , so l o n g as memory h e l d a p l a c e i n the 22 chamber of h i s mind." S t r e e t , on the c o n t r a r y , r e l a p s e s ten minutes a f t e r being r e l e a s e d from one of the c i t y ' s "cures." I Was A Drug A d d i c t c a p i t a l i z e s upon the t r a n s i t i o n between unr e g u l a t e d drug use and the subsequent severe p o l i c e c o n t r o l , when New York was attempting to f i n d some s o l u t i o n to the enigma of the a d d i c t ' s tendency to r e l a p s e . S t r e e t , f o r example, remembers the lobby of the maintenance c l i n i c where the whole a d d i c t p o p u l a t i o n congregrated f o r p r a c t i c a l l y f r e e h e r o i n : . . . I saw a woman hand her i n f a n t to another female a d d i c t to h o l d while she crouched over to s i n k a needle i n t o her t h i g h . Then she took back the baby and immediately began to nurse i t . I saw t h i s scene repeated s e v e r a l times be f o r e 165 I l e a r n e d that the babies born of a d d i c t mothers and f e d on t h e i r m i l k , s p e e d i l y a c q u i r e d a h a b i t too and would w a i l e n d l e s s l y i f the mother was l o n g d e p r i v e d of her drug. W i t h i n a matter of a few minutes a f t e r she got a shot, the baby would get enough of i t from the m i l k to be soothed. (208) S t r e e t performs an estimable h i s t o r i c a l s e r v i c e , even w h i l e unconscionably e x p l o i t i n g such a sure t h i n g as the p u r i t y of a baby's diet--pornography which n e g l e c t s to wonder i f the mother i n j e c t e d h e r s e l f through her dress, or i f she cared f o r her c h i l d . I t seems f i t t i n g t h a t S t r e e t ' s c o l l a b o r a t o r c o l l a b o r a t e d with M o r r i s L. E r n s t to w r i t e Report on the American Communist. The p r e j u d i c i a l e f f e c t s of the p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l i s m behind J- Was A Drug A d d i c t sap i t s h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e . Black seems f a r away with h i s charming v a c i l l a t i o n s between compressed language and s c h o o l i s h melodrama; between "Si x f e e t away, I c o u l d f e e l the s l u g s h i t him" (200) and "Gloom s e t t l e d over the camp and Tragedy waited i n the wings f o r h i s cue to s t a l k upon the stage" (198). S t r e e t ' s i d e o l o g i c a l o p p o s i t i o n to h i s own past (some twenty-seven years d i s t a n t ) cuts him from h i s own experience, or a t l e a s t the language of t h a t experience. Junkie, p u b l i s h e d i n the same year as I Was A Drug A d d i c t , rushes i n to f i l l the l i n g u i s t i c gap. Burroughs evokes the nuances of a disabused v o i c e - -166 mobster and opium smoker compact--which f i n a l l y serves as the l i t e r a r y language of the big c i t y addict: "I could put down one of those nostalgic routines about the old German doctor who l i v e d next door and the rats running around i n the back yard and my aunt's e l e c t r i c car and my 23 pet toad that l i v e d by the f i s h pond." His memories merely "nostalgic routines," Burroughs blackmails cool, wrings moving messages out of photographs i n the waste basket. In the continuum between Street's and Burroughs' experiences of addiction i n New York, Harvey Blackstock's B i t t e r Humour occupies a somewhat bizarre medial position, waiting as i t does u n t i l I 9 6 7 to be published and, l i k e You Can't Win and I Was A Drug Addict, r e f e r r i n g to a period well past, i n t h i s case the Depression and World War II on the p r a i r i e s and West Coast of Canada. Blackstock's professionalism toward crime r e c a l l s Black, as does h i s over-powering connection with prison, and h i s p r e d i l e c t i o n to narcotics as a companion to the criminal l i f e . During the Depression, the seasonal migrations of vagrants and beggars surfaced as a matter of public conscience. To Black i t must have a l l seemed quite f a m i l i a r . In B i t t e r Humour the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of work pushes the young Blackstock out to the f r e i g h t s . Passing through New Brunswick, 16? he i s p i c k e d up f o r vagrancy and g i v e n two months i n j a i l . The prospect of j a i l no l o n g e r i n t i m i d a t e s him: "No matter what happened, the worst they could do was put me i n j a i l 24 and I'd a l r e a d y s u r v i v e d t h a t experience once." And would many times more, each time forming new c o n t a c t s w i t h people who c o u l d i n s t r u c t him i n crime j u s t as the S m i l e r and the Sanctimonious K i d had taught Black f o r t y years b e f o r e . The sense of s o c i e t y which p r i s o n imposes upon the p r i s o n e r s c o n d i t i o n s l i f e on the o u t s i d e . A f t e r every p r i s o n sentence, B l a c k s t o c k d u t i f u l l y c a r r i e s errands out and smuggles c i g a r e t t e s or dope back i n . "In Calgary, I met a young f e l l o w who had been i n L e t h b r i d g e and who thought the o n l y way to get by was s t e a l i n g " ( 6 ) . They become p a r t n e r s u n t i l caught and sentenced. Then "I teamed up w i t h another f e l l o w who had been to j a i l s e v e r a l times, mostly f o r r i d i n g f r e i g h t s , begging, and vagrancy. He had done some b o o s t i n g , or s h o p l i f t i n g , but hadn't been caught at i t y e t " (23)• They become p a r t n e r s u n t i l caught and sentenced. The p i c t u r e s q u e coherence of B l a c k ' s c r i m i n a l s o c i e t y has disappeared, and i n i t s p l a c e a s o c i e t y of a b s o l u t e l y c y n i c a l e x - c o n v i c t s who do not even grant each other the l u x u r y of a moniker--only the experience of p r i s o n matters. B l a c k s t o c k does not c o n c e a l the s k e p t i c i s m that governs 1 6 8 even the most p r o f e s s i o n a l t h i e f ' s l i f e : "We had to s t e a l to s u r v i v e , we thought, and when we d i d get caught, as we knew we i n e v i t a b l y would, we would go to j a i l whether the p o l i c e l i k e d us or not" (24). In Cal g a r y he and y e t another p a r t n e r break i n t o safes l o o k i n g f o r drugs and money with the c l e a r knowledge that they w i l l be apprehended: "By now we knew, of course, t h a t sooner or l a t e r we would get pinched and probably go to the pen. In the meantime we were e n j o y i n g o u r s e l v e s " ( 9 ^ ) . B l a c k s t o c k ' s f a t a l i s m proves to be p e r f e c t l y j u s t i f i e d . He spends w e l l over twenty years s e r v i n g time i n L e t h b r i d g e and O k a l l a p r i s o n s , and New Westminster, P r i n c e A l b e r t , and Ki n g s t o n p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . The w i l l i n g n e s s to endure o f f i c i a l punishment as a gesture of d e f i a n c e e a s i l y f i g u r e s as the most important p r i s o n v i r t u e . Black, f o r i n s t a n c e , e s t a b l i s h e s h i s r e p u t a t i o n when he serves three days i n the Hole f o r the sake of a p r i s o n p r i n c i p l e . S i m i l a r l y , one p r i s o n e r says of B l a c k s t o c k h i m s e l f : "'He's young and he's tough and he j u s t don't care. I f you t h i n k I'm l y i n g , j u s t ask him i f he d i d n ' t do s i x days a t once i n the black h o l e , and l o s e a l l h i s r e m i s s i o n ' " (27). A l s o the r i g h t c o n v i c t must always confess to e v e r y t h i n g i f he i s caught: a d e t e c t i v e o f f e r s B l a c k s t o c k a reduced sentence f o r p l e a d i n g "not g u i l t y " so the others i n on i t co u l d be t r i e d . Outraged 169 n e g a t i v e response. On another o c c a s i o n , an a d d i c t now: The d e t e c t i v e took me out s i d e the door and t o l d me, "I know you're g e t t i n g your drugs from V e r n i e E p t e r , and i f you want to set him up f o r me, I ' l l see t h a t you don't get charged as an h a b i t u a l . I f you don't go along with me you w i l l be charged." I s a i d , " I f you know as much about me as you c l a i m t o, you should know t h a t I don't do t h a t k i n d of t h i n g . " He s a i d , "Yes, I know. But when the pressure i s put on, a l o t of f e l l o w s change t h e i r minds. Do you t h i n k E p t e r would do i t f o r you? You c o u l d s e t him up, and he doesn't have to know i t ' s you." I s a i d , "I'd know i t was me, and I have to l i v e with myself, whether I'm i n j a i l or o u t s i d e . " (200) Though B l a c k s t o c k goes to trade s c h o o l i n p r i s o n - - " I had l e a r n e d more about s t e a l i n g i n the three years I'd done i n P r i n c e A l b e r t than on a l l my oth e r sentences combined" (128)--he i n h e r i t s the s t r a n g e l y c h i v a l r o u s code of the c r i m i n a l p r e c i s e l y because he holds to h i s s i l e n c e under pr e s s u r e . A d d i c t i o n does not tremendously a l t e r B l a c k s t o c k ' s c h a r a c t e r as a c r i m i n a l ; he punches i n safes as u s u a l . But as S t r e e t had a l r e a d y experienced, the jun k i e i s put at a d i s t i n c t disadvantage so f a r as the p o l i c e are concerned: " I t ' s the e a s i e s t t h i n g i n the world f o r a policeman to frame a junkie i f he wants t o . A l l he needs to do i s f i n d n a r c o t i c s i n the room, or i n the j u n k i e ' s pocket when he 170 i s f r i s k i n g him. Who's going to b e l i e v e a junkie a g a i n s t a policeman?" (135-36) I r o n i c a l l y , the l i t t l e a p p r e c i a t e d h a r d s h i p s of b u r g l a r y o c c a s i o n B l a c k s t o c k ' s f i r s t use of drugs. Black observes t h a t b u r g l a r y s u b j e c t s the t h i e f to e s p e c i a l l y unhealthy c o n d i t i o n s , such as l y i n g i n wet grass e a r l y i n the morning. He even c o n t r a c t s t u b e r c u l o s i s as a r e s u l t (which he cures w i t h d a i l y doses of crude c a s t o r o i l ) . S i m i l a r l y , B l a c k s t o c k s u f f e r s from the inconveniences of the trade while working Vancouver's marine c l i m a t e : "The wet weather and the h i d i n g at n i g h t w a i t i n g f o r t h i n g s to get j u s t r i g h t to break i n t o some pl a c e brought back rheumatic f e v e r from which I had s u f f e r e d as a c h i l d . I got c r i p p l e d up so th a t I c o u l d b a r e l y walk" (37)• Instead of g o i n g to a doctor, however, B l a c k s t o c k c o n s u l t s a jun k i e f r i e n d who p r e s c r i b e s codeine phosphate i n the m a i n l i n e . In Vancouver " a l l the j u n k i e s admitted codeine was a poor s u b s t i t u t e f o r opium, but at l e a s t i t was l e g a l , and some of them had switched f o r t h a t reason" ( 3 8 ) . F r e q u e n t l y a r r e s t e d , n a t u r a l l y B l a c k s t o c k withdraws i n p r i s o n . One example: "When I got to my c e l l I was s t i l l h i g h , which i s what I had hoped would happen; but about e i g h t o'clock a t n i g h t the e f f e c t s of the morphine s t a r t e d to wear o f f . From then on I was p r e t t y s i c k f o r from t e n days to two weeks" (160). No evidence of i n d e s c r i b a b l e t o r t u r e s — 171 j u s t the automatic r e v e r s i o n to p r i s o n r o u t i n e . B l a c k s t o c k i n f a c t d i s m i s s e s the i d e a t h a t an a d d i c t must overcome insurmountable d i f f i c u l t i e s i n withdrawing from a d d i c t i o n : I knew p e r s o n a l l y a t l e a s t t h i r t y people, mostly men, but a few women, who had been drug a d d i c t s and q u i t , and been o f f f o r at l e a s t f i v e y e a r s . But these s e l f - s t y l e d experts upon n a r c o t i c s get t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n from p o l i c e r e c o r d s and such p l a c e s . P o l i c e don't keep r e c o r d s of drug a d d i c t s who have q u i t . (253) B l a c k s t o c k blames cocaine and marijuana f o r the poor press t h a t h e r o i n and the other opium d e r i v a t i v e s have r e c e i v e d : " I t i s the e f f e c t s of these drugs t h a t g i v e the drug a d d i c t the image of k n i f i n g or s h o o t i n g people, or of jumping o f f hi g h b u i l d i n g s , or committing sex crimes" (152-53)• In a strange way, B l a c k s t o c k answers Lenny Bruce's p l e a f o r the w e l l - a d j u s t e d n a r c o t i c s user. As a j u n k i e , he marries f o r the second time: "My wife was a drug a d d i c t too, and we got a l o n g g r e a t " (131)• He ho l d s down a v a r i e t y of jobs i n between p r i s o n sentences i n order to throw o f f p o l i c e s u s p i c i o n . The married couple even reduce t h e i r h a b i t s to week-ends, much the way De Quincey had saved opium f o r Saturday n i g h t s . They f r e q u e n t l y v i s i t f r i e n d s i n Calgary, other s a f e - c r a c k e r s and c o n v i c t s and bo o s t e r s , and t h e i r wives. Despite these p e r i o d s of domestic f e l i c i t y , however, 172 B l a c k s t o c k never spends more than a year at a time on the o u t s i d e , and h i s s t o r y , l i k e B l a ck's, u l t i m a t e l y reduces to a statement on the powerful r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g between p r i s o n , crime, and a d d i c t i o n . Between h i s f i r s t shot i n Vancouver and h i s c o n v e r s i o n to l e g i t i m a t e l i f e i n 1958, B l a c k s t o c k a s s o c i a t e s more and more e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h j u n k i e s . A f t e r one sentence, he works f o r a few weeks i n C a l g a r y . When h i s companions come i n t o town to v i s i t the whorehouses and the bars, B l a c k s t o c k p r e f e r s to v i s i t a doctor and r e c e i v e a h a l f g r a i n shot of morphine: " A f t e r having a f i x , I'd buy books and what other t h i n g s I needed, and go to my room where I'd read and c o a s t " ( 8 3 ) . B l a c k s t o c k emphasizes p r i s o n as a means of study: he goes through the t w e l f t h grade s o l e l y by v i r t u e of correspondence courses, as w e l l as t e a c h i n g h i m s e l f how to make n i t r o g l y c e r i n . A f t e r a term a t L e t h b r i d g e , he decides t h a t he would l i k e to t r y h i s hand blowing s a f e s : "The f e l l o w t h a t was to be my p a r t n e r f o r the next few months met me on the bus when I got to Calgary. We went to h i s room and had a f i x of morphine. He t o l d me he had a few s a f e s l i n e d up" ( 9 3 ) -P r i s o n and n a r c o t i c s and crime congeal i n t h i s r e n t e d c e l l c o nnecting two minds s t u d y i n g the e x e c u t i o n of a c r i m i n a l p l a n . Morphine a c t s as a sacrament to p r i s o n and i t s 1 7 3 m e d i t a t i v e l e s s o n s , answering the needs of p s y c h o l o g i e s a t t e n d i n g imprisonment as the source of fundamental know-ledge, or t h a t which r e c o n c i l e s absolute i s o l a t i o n with v i t a l c o n t a c t between men. 174 Chapter 5 JUNKIE, "IN SEARCH OF YAGE," AND NAKED LUNCH But Hubbard wrote on and on t h i s huge l e t t e r i n the bar while the Chinese Laundryman watched him from a c r o s s the s t r e e t nodding. The tendency i s to c o n s i d e r Junkie as an example of tough n a t u r a l i s t i c autobiography which d e t a i l s a p a r t i c u l a r l y seamy s i d e of urban l i f e but which does not f a c e up to the d i f f i c u l t i e s of technique which d e f i n e a major l i t e r a r y e f f o r t such as Naked Lunch. Ihab Hassan, d e d i c a t e d to an a e s t h e t i c of s i l e n c e f i r s t i n t i m a t e d by Burroughs i n Naked Lunch, regards Junkie p r i m a r i l y i n terms of i t s content: "The i n t e r e s t of the book l i e s mainly i n i t s c o l d d e p i c t i o n 2 of the s o r d i d and implacable world of a d d i c t i o n . " Norman M a i l e r s t a t e d (under oath) t h a t " i t i s j u s t a v e r y good, h a r d - b o i l e d s o r t of n o v e l . I t i s a f a l s e n o v e l . He wrote i t to make some money; but i s i s w e l l - w r i t t e n . " ^ Burroughs h i m s e l f has done h i s best to downgrade Junkie's i n t e n t i o n s : "I simply was endeavoring to put down i n a more-or-less 175 j o u r n a l i s t i c s t y l e something about my experiences with a d d i c t i o n and a d d i c t s . " Burroughs has even gone so f a r as to d i s m i s s the book as born of boredom and i n e x p e r i e n c e : "I had n o t h i n g e l s e to do. W r i t i n g gave me something to do every day. I don't f e e l the r e s u l t s were at a l l spec-t a c u l a r . Junkie i s not much of a book, a c t u a l l y . I knew ver y l i t t l e about w r i t i n g a t the time."-' Gregory Corso r e p o r t s Burroughs as saying, "Any man doing h i s job works to make h i m s e l f o b s o l e t e . " ^ A c t i n g upon Camus' p r o v i s i o n t h a t the a r t i s t must always be prepared to r e p u d i a t e h i s 7 own work. Burroughs d e c l a r e s h i s 1953 s e l f o b s o l e t e and by so doing c u t s a d r i f t what may be the most i n f o r m a t i v e book on modern drug a d d i c t i o n ever w r i t t e n — a s w e l l as a n a t i v e example of American l i t e r a t u r e . Perhaps more s e d u c t i v e than the d i s m i s s a l i s the use of Junkie as a g l o s s , or a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d companion to the r e a d i n g of Naked Lunch. Tony Tanner b e l i e v e s t h a t s i m p l i c i t y p rovide many c l u e s f o r the s u r r e a l works which were to f o l l o w . . . . here i s the a c t u a l i n which h i s v i s i o n i s grounded." Though i t i s t r u e t h a t Junkie can be used i n t h i s way, l i t e r a r y s l e u t h i n g f o r " c l u e s " perhaps l e a d s one to d e p r e c i a t e the book's b i z a r r e s o b r i e t y , or what A l l e n Ginsberg r e f e r s to as " B i l l ' s n a t u r a l s t y l e : uncomplicated n a r r a t i v e 176 dry, bony, factual."''' Junkie gathers the v a r i o u s meanings of a d d i c t i o n and c o n c e n t r a t e s them i n an idiom which amal-gamates a n a l y t i c and h i p e x p r e s s i o n , the one p a r l a n c e r e i n f o r c i n g the other i n terms of a f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l . S i m i l a r to t h a t of Hemingway and Nathanael West, the s t y l e of Junkie serves as a d e f e n s i v e response to trauma, perhaps the l i n g u i s t i c c o u n t e r p a r t to the " c e l l u l a r s t o i c i s m t h a t junk 10 teaches the u s e r . " Though Junkie f r e q u e n t l y goes beyond h a r d - b o i l e d r e p o r t i n g ( t h a t i s , toward the h a l l u c i n a t o r y and the d i d a c t i c ) , the disabused composure imposed by a d d i c t i o n has become an element of s t y l e , an enforced d i s c i p l i n e , a way of l i f e . U nless i t i s measured a g a i n s t other drug c o n f e s s i o n s , Junkie's o r i g i n a l i t y may be overlooked. And y e t patent s i m i l a r i t i e s do e x i s t between Junkie and other v o i c e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e of a d d i c t i o n . F o r example, Burroughs has 1 p o i n t e d out t h a t a d d i c t i o n i s l a r g e l y a disease of exposure; n e v e r t h e l e s s , W i l l i a m Lee (Burroughs' pseudonym i n Junkie and Naked Lunch) echoes De Quincey when he advances h i m s e l f as being o r i g i n a l l y g i f t e d i n the areas of experience w i t h which the use of drugs has been c o n v e n t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d : I was s u b j e c t to h a l l u c i n a t i o n s as a c h i l d . Once I woke up i n the e a r l y morning l i g h t and saw l i t t l e men p l a y i n g i n a b l o c k house I had made. I f e l t no f e a r , o n l y a f e e l i n g 177 of s t i l l n e s s and wonder. Another r e c u r r e n t h a l l u c i n a t i o n or nightmare concerned " a n i -mals i n the w a l l , " and s t a r t e d with the d e l i r i u m of a strange, undiagnosed f e v e r t h a t I had a t the age of f o u r or f i v e . (7) Furthermore, Lee's e a r l i e s t memories r e c a l l the t e r r o r which i n h i s m a t u r i t y he would regard with a p p a r e n t l y deadpan i n t e r e s t : "I was a f r a i d to be alone, and a f r a i d of the dark, and a f r a i d to go to s l e e p because of dreams where a s u p e r n a t u r a l h o r r o r seemed always on the p o i n t of t a k i n g shape." De Quincey proposed the v i s i o n a r y young man s c a r r e d by c h i l d h o o d trauma as the i d e a l ground f o r opium; Lee p r o v i d e s the modern complement to the Romantic a d d i c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y — t h e " d i s t u r b e d " c h i l d . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Lee p o s i t s the p a c i f i c a t i o n of an e r u p t i v e subconscious l i f e as i r r e s i s t i b l e to the young boy t h a t he was: "I r e c a l l h e a r i n g a maid t a l k about•opium and how smoking opium b r i n g s sweet dreams, and I s a i d , 'I w i l l smoke opium when I grow up'" ( 7 ) . From the beginning, Lee i s marked f o r drugs, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t by the time he has grown up o l d hop smoking days are a s u b j e c t f o r n o s t a l g i a ("Bart knew a few o l d r e l i c s from hop smoking times, s p e c t r a l 12 j a n i t o r s , grey as ashes. . . . " ) and those "sweet dreams" n o t i c e a b l y absent. Lee departs from De Quincey's formula of the a d d i c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y when he conceives of drugs as a means of 178 overcoming h i s sense of b e i n g shut out from meaningful l i f e ; he i s the o u t s i d e r who f i n a l l y e n t e r s i n t o the s o c i a l and economic world through h i s t r o p i s m toward drugs. Born i n t o the he a r t of American a f f l u e n c e ("With my t r u s t fund I c o u l d l i v e without working or h u s t l i n g . I was s t i l l cut o f f from l i f e as I had been i n the Midwest S u b u r b "£ 9 } ) 1 Lee's l i f e b e f o r e n a r c o t i c s i s a c o n t i n u a l d r i f t from one u n s a t i s f a c t o r y a c t i v i t y to another. Harvard, f o r i n s t a n c e , "was a fake E n g l i s h setup taken over by the graduates of fake E n g l i s h p u b l i c s c h o o l s " ( 9 ) . Lee toys w i t h European t r a v e l , graduate courses, judo, a n a l y s i s - - h i s a n a l y s t " f i n a l l y abandoned a n a l y t i c o b j e c t i v i t y and put me down as an 'out-and-out con"' (10). Even the War f a i l s to i n c l u d e Lee as a c i t i z e n i n good standi n g : "I decided I was not going to l i k e the Army and copped out on my nuthouse r e c o r d - -I'd once got on a Van Gogh k i c k and cut o f f a f i n g e r j o i n t to impress someone who i n t e r e s t e d me a t the time" (10). Lee r e a c t s to the i l l u s i o n s i n American l i f e by c o n s t r u c t i n g n e g a t i v e p o s t u r e s - - o r c o v e r s - - o f h i s own. More i m p o r t a n t l y , however, the p r o s a i c r e a l i t i e s of American l i f e f i g u r e as a f a c t o r i n the e t i o l o g y of Lee's a d d i c t i o n : "You become a n a r c o t i c s a d d i c t because you do not have s t r o n g m o t i v a t i o n s i n any other d i r e c t i o n . Junk wins by d e f a u l t " (11). Lee does d i s c o v e r one world which could have made junk 179 unnecessary: By a c c i d e n t I met some r i c h homosexuals, of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l queer set who c r u i s e around the world, humping i n t o each o t h e r i n queer j o i n t s from New York to C a i r o . I saw a way of l i f e , a vocabulary, r e f e r -ences, a whole symbol system, as the s o c i o l o g i s t s say. But these people were j e r k s f o r the most p a r t , and a f t e r an i n i t i a l p e r i o d of f a s c i n a t i o n I c o o l e d o f f on the setup. (9) Lee c l e a r l y i m p l i e s the r e a l o b j e c t of h i s s e a r c h — a p e r s p e c t i v e , an epistemology, a language. In t h i s r e s p e c t i t i s n o t a b l e t h a t Lindesmith's d i s c u s s i o n of opium a d d i c t i o n presupposes the i n d i v i d u a l ' s membership i n s o c i a l groups, and h i s a b i l i t y to communicate with h i s f e l l o w s i n terms of language symbols. A d d i c t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e c o n f i n e d e x c l u s i v e l y to man l i v i n g i n s o c i e t y . I t depends upon those complex f u n c t i o n s which are made p o s s i b l e only by the e x i s t e n c e of the symbolic s t r u c t u r e s i n language. 3 Lee descends to the junky-carny world i n search of a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e devoid of j e r k s - - o r a meaningful sound. Along with drugs, the mystique of crime evokes i n s t i n c t i v e sympathy i n the a d o l e s c e n t Lee. The "symbol system" of You  Can't Win o f f e r s an a l t e r n a t i v e to h i s s u f f o c a t i n g o r i g i n s , the "comfortable capsule . . . cut o f f from l i f e i n the c i t y " (8). U n l i k e Black, however, who gains the S m i l e r , Lee's maiden f o r a y s i n t o crime i n s u r e h i s i s o l a t i o n : 180 I saw there was no compromise p o s s i b l e w i t h the group, the o t h e r s , and I found myself a good d e a l alone. The environment was empty, the a n t a g o n i s t hidden, and I d r i f t e d i n t o s o l o adventures. My c r i m i n a l a c t s were ge s t u r e s , u n p r o f i t a b l e and f o r the most p a r t unpunished. I would break i n t o houses and walk around without t a k i n g any-t h i n g . As a matter of f a c t , I had no need of money. (9) Having f l e d St. L o u i s , Lee's e a r l y l e a n i n g toward crime develops c o n s i d e r a b l y i n New York d u r i n g the wartime p e r i o d : "I worked as a p r i v a t e d e t e c t i v e , an exterminator, a bar-tender. I worked i n f a c t o r i e s and o f f i c e s . I played around the edges of crime" (10). Lee makes the same descent i n t o the New York underworld t h a t the E d i t o r had made over t h i r t y years b e f o r e i n San F r a n c i s c o . P r e d i c t a b l y , one of Lee's gestures i n crime ( f e n c i n g a Tommy gun and a box of morphine s y r e t t e s ) exposes him to drugs and he soon becomes a d d i c t e d : "I came i n contact w i t h junk, became an a d d i c t , and thereby gained the m o t i v a t i o n , the r e a l need f o r money I never had b e f o r e " (10). The economic r e a l i t i e s of a d d i c t i o n t ransform Lee i n t o a c r i m i n a l , whether i t be as a l u s h - r o l l e r o r as a pusher. H i s h i s t o r y r e a f f i r m s the i n t e r a c t i o n between a d d i c t i o n and crime: the c r i m i n a l environment a l l o w s exposure to n a r c o t i c s , and a d d i c t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s crime. The c h i v a l r i c l o y a l t i e s of You Can't Win c r e a t e the' 181 r a d i c a l s e c u r i t y which s u s t a i n s the " r i g h t " t h i e f . The h i g h l y d e d i c a t e d yegg s o c i e t y f i n d s an approximate form i n Junkie, though one p e r i l o u s l y c l o s e to the s p i r i t of Montana B l a c k i e 1 s t o a s t and f a t a l i s t i c prophecy: "The s t o o l 14 pigeon i s the coming r a c e . " The agony of withdrawal makes the j u n k i e e s p e c i a l l y v u l n e r a b l e to p o l i c e p e r s u a s i o n . Pushing i n a s m a l l way to keep up h i s h a b i t , Lee comes i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h the whole spectrum of j u n k i e s capable of sudden l o s s e s of c h a r a c t e r . Lee assesses each customer i n terms of h i s a b i l i t y to h o l d onto s i l e n c e under pr e s s u r e : Gene D o o l i e , C h r i s , Nick, the nameless people s c o r i n g through Nick, they a l l r e p r e s e n t the subversive weakness which th r e a t e n s Lee's s e c u r i t y : The agent may come on with the o l d cop con: "I hate to send a young k i d l i k e you away. Sure you made a mistake. That can happen to anybody. Now l i s t e n , I'm going to give you a break, but y o u ' l l have to co-operate w i t h us. Otherwise I won't be able to h e l p you." Or e l s e they j u s t b e l t him i n the mouth and say, "Where d i d ; you get i t ? " With l o t s of people t h a t ' s a l l i t takes. You c o u l d f i n d every type informer, o v e r t or p o t e n t i a l , among my customers. ( 7 0 ) Outside New York, the s i t u a t i o n i s , i f anything, worse. In New Orleans, Pat informs Lee t h a t "'the town i s et up with pigeons . . . i t ' s r e a l l y tough'" ( 8 7 ) . And i n Mexico C i t y , Ike r e p o r t s : "'I know every h i p i n Mexico C i t y . And 182 I wouldn't t r u s t one of 'em. Not one" ( 123 ) . At the c l o s e of J u n k i e, B i l l Gains c a r r i e s the news to Lee i n Mexico C i t y , and i t i s as though the whole s o c i e t y (and code) has c o l l a p s e d : "Louie the B e l l Hop went wrong. Tony and Nick went wrong, Herman d i d n ' t make p a r o l e . The Gimp g o t ' f i v e to ten, Marvin the w a i t e r d i e d from an overdose'" ( 151 ) . Moreover, Lee's o l d l u s h - r o l l i n g p a r t n e r , Roy, has a l s o gone wrong, sub-sequent l y hanging h i m s e l f i n the Tombs: "Roy had always taken an i n t o l e r a n t and p u r i t a n i c a l view of pigeons. 'I don't see how a pigeon can l i v e with h i m s e l f , ' he s a i d to me once" (151)• A s i d e from the f e a r of d e f e c t i n g f e l l o w j u n k i e s , Lee d i s p l a y s an almost p a t h o l o g i c a l f e a r of being watched and consequently trapped. He i s s t i l l the boy " a f r a i d to go to s l e e p because of dreams where a s u p e r n a t u r a l h o r r o r seemed always on the p o i n t of t a k i n g shape." The r e c u r r e n t symbol of Lee's d i s t r a u g h t v i g i l a n c e i s , of course, the subway s t a t i o n where there i s no secure p l a c e i n which to r o l l a drunk: "149th S t r e e t i s a s t a t i o n w i t h s e v e r a l l e v e l s and dangerous f o r lush-workers because there are so many spots where cops can h i d e , and i t i s n ' t p o s s i b l e to cover from every angle" ( 4 5 ) . And "Queen's P l a z a i s another s t a t i o n where i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to cover y o u r s e l f from every angle. 1 ^  You j u s t have to take a chance" ( 4 7 ) . While a pusher, 183 Lee d e l i v e r s h e r o i n to "a s m a l l p l a c e down s e v e r a l steps from s t r e e t l e v e l . There was only one door. I always f e l t trapped when I went i n t h e r e . The p l a c e gave me such a f e e l i n g of d e p r e s s i o n and danger t h a t I c o u l d h a r d l y b r i n g myself to go through the door" (57)• Lee's awareness of impending d i s a s t e r , r a t h e r than r e f l e c t i n g d i r e c t l y upon h i s own c h a r a c t e r , i s almost a convention i n the world of a d d i c t i o n and crime: "Pushing junk i s a constant s t r a i n on the nerves. Sooner or l a t e r you get the 'copper j i t t e r s , ' and everybody l o o k s l i k e a cop. People moving about i n the subway seem to be edging c l o s e r so they can grab you before you have a chance to throw away the junk" ( 6 5 ) . Lee's s h o r t (and r e l a t i v e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l ) c a r e e r i n crime u n d e r l i n e s the e l e c t r i c t e n s i o n which accompanies a d d i c t i o n i n t h i s century. That Lee and Gains, both well-educated and from well- t o - d o backgrounds', f i n a l l y escape from the dynamics of New York a d d i c t i o n o n l y t e s t i f i e s to the i m p o s s i b l e c o n d i t i o n of l i f e which others l e s s f o r t u n a t e endure d a i l y . Though a b s o l u t e l y c o r r u p t , Mexico C i t y (where L u p i t a , the l o c a l pusher, supports the p o l i c e ) o f f e r s a modicum of s e c u r i t y to the benighted j u n k i e whose c h a r a c t e r can no l o n g e r support him. "'Sure, I can s c o r e , ' " Gains informs Lee. "'But i f I s t a y i n the S t a t e s I ' l l wind up doing about ten y e a r s ' " ( I 5 D . 184 While Junkie d e c l a r e s a c o o l - b u t - w i s t f u l eulogy to the t r a d i t i o n a l c r i m i n a l code, there i s an i n n e r c i r c l e of a d d i c t s who embody the v i r t u e s of Black's s o c i e t y of opium smokers and t h i e v e s . I n e v i t a b l y , Lee g r a v i t a t e s toward the o l d - t i m e r s who r e p r e s e n t the innate r e s p e c t a b i l i t y of a departed e r a : Bob Riordan, f o r example, "was a d i g n i f i e d , w h i t e - h a i r e d man of seventy . . . an old-time con man, junk-pusher, and p i c k p o c k e t . He looked the way bankers looked around 1910" (76). U n l i k e the younger a d d i c t s , "Bart was O.K. I f there was a beef, he would take the r a p without t a l k i n g . Anyway, he had t h i r t y years experience i n junk and knew what he was doing" (59)• George the Greek "decided who was r i g h t and wrong. George p r i d e d h i m s e l f on h i s i n t e g r i t y . 'I never beat nobody'" (43). S u i t a b l y , George has served time on three d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s , e a r n i n g h i s immaculate r e p u t a t i o n i n the process. Along with Gains and Lee h i m s e l f , I z z y "was one of the 103rd S t r e e t boys. Iz z y had done time f o r pushing, was known as a thoroughly r i g h t guy . . . " (58). The most memorable example of t r a d i t i o n a l c r i m i n a l c h a r a c t e r , however, i s Abe Green, the one-legged Brooklyn pusher: "He (the agent) wakes me up i n the middle of the n i g h t and s t a r t s b e a t i n g me over the head with h i s gun. Wants me to g i v e him my connection. I t o l d him, 'I'm f i f t y -185 f o u r years o l d and I've never g i v e n you guys anything y e t . I ' l l he dead f i r s t . ' " T e l l i n g about a s t r e t c h i n A t l a n t a where he k i c k e d a h a b i t c o l d : "Fourteen days I was b e a t i n g my head a g a i n s t the w a l l and blood came out my eyes and nose. When the screw came, I'd s p i t i n h i s f a c e . " Coming from him, these n a r r a t i v e s had an e p i c q u a l i t y . ( 7 7 - 7 8 ) I t i s i n d i c a t i v e of Lee's sympathies t h a t while p u t t i n g down almost every group t h a t comes under h i s a t t e n t i o n -average American c i t i z e n s , p o l i c e , homosexuals, teaheads, h i p s t e r s — h e r e s e r v e s moments of coded tenderness f o r the o l d - t i m e r s , e s p e c i a l l y those from 1 0 3 r d S t r e e t : "The h i p s t e r -bebop j u n k i e s never showed a t 1 0 3 r d S t r e e t . The 1 0 3 r d S t r e e t boys were a l l o l d t i m e r s — t h i n , s a l l o w f a c e s ; b i t t e r , t w i s t e d mouths; s t i f f - f i n g e r e d , s t y l i z e d g e s t u r e s . . . . They a l l looked l i k e junk" (42). U n l i k e S t r e e t , Lee commits h i m s e l f to the urban c h a r a c t e r of junk; he makes the look and f e e l of junk h i s own: You c o u l d always f i n d a few ju n k i e s s i t t i n g i n the c a f e t e r i a o r s t a n d i n g o u t s i d e with coat c o l l a r s turned up, s p i t t i n g on the sidewalk and l o o k i n g up and down the s t r e e t s as they waited f o r the connection. In summer, they s i t on the i s l a n d benches huddled l i k e so many v u l t u r e s i n t h e i r dark s u i t s . (41) The image of old-time a d d i c t s w a i t i n g on the con n e c t i o n u l t i m a t e l y extends to the concept of the junk neighborhood, 186 "a p o i n t where dubious e n t e r p r i s e touches S k i d Row" (118) , the g r a v i t a t i o n a l f i e l d charged with the s p i r i t o f junk: "I don't spot junk neighborhoods by the way they look, but by the f e e l , somewhat the same process by which a dowser l o c a t e s hidden water. I am walking along and suddenly the junk i n my c e l l s moves and twitches l i k e the dowser's wand: 'Junk here!'" (82) A k i n d of urban-Gothic c h r o n i c l e r of a d d i c t i o n , Lee's v i s u a l , and metabolic s e n s i t i v i t y to the s p i r i t of junk--"A ghost i n d a y l i g h t on a crowded s t r e e t " - -r a i s e s both junk's domination over the junkie and images of r e s i g n e d beauty. In the reduced world of junk, there are e s s e n t i a l l y two a c t i v i t i e s (as opposed to p e r c e p t i o n s ) : s c o r i n g f o r n a r c o t i c s and a v o i d i n g p o l i c e d e t e c t i o n . In Naked Lunch Lee ( s t i l l Burroughs' persona) emphasizes the u b i q u i t o u s presence of the p o l i c e i n the a d d i c t ' s p h y s i c a l and p s y c h i c l i f e : And always cops: smooth, c o l l e g e - t r a i n e d s t a t e cops, p r a c t i c e d , a p o l o g e t i c p a t t e r , e l e c t r o n i c eyes weigh your c a r and luggage, c l o t h e s and f a c e ; s n a r l i n g b i g c i t y d i c k s ; s oft-spoken country s h e r i f f s with some-t h i n g b l a c k and menacing i n o l d eyes c o l o r of a faded grey f l a n n e l s h i r t . . . . (11-12) During the "copper j i t t e r s , " the Lee of Junkie "could f e e l the F e d e r a l s moving s t e a d i l y c l o s e r . I t was a q u e s t i o n of 18? time" (68). And s i g n i f i c a n t l y , Naked Lunch opens with the t e l e p a t h i c c e r t a i n t y t h a t the p o l i c e are c l o s i n g i n : "I can f e e l the heat c l o s i n g i n . . ." ( 1 ) . As Lee makes so apparent, n o t h i n g so s c h o o l s the American d e v i a n t as the f e a r of the p o l i c e . In Junkie Lee c o n f r o n t s a Mexican cop: "I was not t a l k i n g to a s o l i d t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l cop. I was t a l k i n g to the r e c u r r e n t cop of my dreams--an i r r i t a t i n g , non-d e s c r i p t , d a r k i s h man who would rush i n when I was about to take a shot or go to bed w i t h a boy" ( 132 ) . To the j u n k i e a r r e s t means unusual punishment--the death of the junk s e l f — a s a matter of p o l i c e procedure. Lee d i s c u s s e s w i t h c o n t r o l l e d i n d i g n a t i o n the l e g a l background of the p e r s e c u t i o n of a way of l i f e ; i n L o u i s i a n a , f o r example, "the State l e g i s l a t o r s drew up a law making i t a crime to be a drug a d d i c t . They d i d not s p e c i f y where or when or what they meant by drug a d d i c t " (90 - 91 ) . T h i s law s u b j e c t e d anyone wi t h needle marks to seventy-two hours d e t e n t i o n with the express purpose of e x t r a c t i n g a c o n f e s s i o n from the k i c k i n g j u n k i e . Taking advantage of the h i s t o r i c a l d e g r a d a t i o n and demeaning of the a d d i c t , the p o l i c e e x e r c i s e u n p a r a l l e l e d power over the i n c a r c e r a t e d junkie ("white junk," Burroughs c a l l s i t ) by t h e i r a b i l i t y to impose a s t a t e of withdrawal on the a d d i c t . Not o n l y do they s y s t e m a t i c a l l y break down the l o y a l t i e s which s u s t a i n him, the p o l i c e 188 r o u t i n e l y employ t o r t u r e on the j u n k i e . A W I t i s d i f f i c u l t to underestimate the importance of withdrawal i n Burroughs' w r i t i n g : "No one knows what junk i s u n t i l he i s junk s i c k " (109) Lee says. In d i r e c t oppo-s i t i o n to De Quincey, Burroughs has maintained t h a t "junk narrows consciousness. The o n l y b e n e f i t to me as a w r i t e r (aside from p u t t i n g me i n t o c ontact w i t h the whole carny 17 world) came to'me a f t e r I went o f f i t . " ' In " D e p o s i t i o n : Testimony Concerning A S i c k n e s s " Burroughs g i v e s more of an i d e a of what withdrawal means i n r e l a t i o n to the "death r o u t e " of a d d i c t i o n : Only excuse f o r t h i s t i r e d death route i s THE KICK when the junk c i r c u i t i s cut o f f f o r the non-payment and the j u n k - s k i n d i e s of junk-lack and overdose of time and the Old S k i n has f o r g o t t e n the s k i n game sim-p l i f y i n g a way under the junk cover the way s k i n s w i l l . . . . A c o n d i t i o n of t o t a l exposure i s p r e c i p i t a t e d when the K i c k i n g A d d i c t cannot choose but see smell and l i s t e n . . . . Watch out f o r the c a r s , ( x i i i ) As Cocteau has a l r e a d y i l l u s t r a t e d , the withdrawal from a d d i c t i o n puts the a d d i c t i n touch w i t h a rush of s e n s a t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s which had been f r o z e n under the a n e s t h e t i c i n f l u e n c e of opium. The e r o t i c subconscious which De Quincey had seen as a f u n c t i o n of opium becomes i n the 20th century a f u n c t i o n of withdrawal. Though the l i t e r a t u r e of a d d i c t i o n has c o n s i s t e n t l y presented withdrawal as a s t r u g g l e eminently 189 meaningful on the moral plane, Lee demonstrates t h a t w i t h -drawal occasions changes i n h e a l t h , s e x u a l i t y , p e r s o n a l i t y , p e r c e p t i o n , and memory which, taken together, prove of g r e a t p e r s o n a l and a r t i s t i c v a l u e . Of course, Naked Lunch remains the c l a s s i c e x p o s i t i o n of withdrawal ( f o l l o w e d "by Cocteau's more epigrammatic r e p o r t ) ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , Junkie performs a v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e when i t l u c i d l y d e l i n e a t e s the d i s l o c a t i o n s to he expected (and r e l i s h e d ) through the course of withdrawal. A p p r o p r i a t e l y , Lee's f i r s t experience w i t h withdrawal takes p l a c e i n the Tombs. Lee o f f e r s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the primary p h y s i c a l symptoms: My nose and eyes began to run, sweat soaked through my c l o t h e s . Hot and c o l d f l a s h e s h i t as though a furnace door was swinging open and shut. I l a y down on the bunk too weak to.move. My l e g s ached and t w i t c h e d so t h a t any p o s i t i o n was i n t o l e r a b l e , and I moved from one s i d e to the o t h e r s l o s h i n g about i n my sweaty c l o t h e s . (40) L a t e r on, i n a New Orleans j a i l , Lee a g a i n s u f f e r s i n v o l u n t a r y withdrawal, though by t h i s time he i s experienced enough to g e n e r a l i z e upon the v a r i o u s symptoms: People v a r y i n the way junk s i c k n e s s a f f e c t s them. Some s u f f e r mostly from v o m i t i n g and d i a r r h o e a . The asthmatic type, w i t h narrow and deep chest, i s l i a b l e to v i o l e n t f i t s of sneezing, w a t e r i n g at eyes and nose, i n 190 some cases, spasms of the b r o n c h i a l tubes that shut o f f the b r e a t h i n g . In my case, the worst t h i n g i s the lo w e r i n g of b l o o d p r e s s u r e with consequent weakness, as i n shock. I t i s a f e e l i n g as i f the l i f e energy has been shut o f f so t h a t a l l the c e l l s i n the body are s u f f o c a t i n g i n t o a p i l e of bones. (103-04) While approximating the language of medical symptomology--and Lee has attended medical school i n Vienna--he must r e s o r t to metaphor to express the p h y s i c a l anguish of the junk-thaw, when " t o u t un printemps a f f o l e l e s v e i n e s , 18 c h a r r i a n t g l a c e s et l a v e s de f e u . " Lee a l s o goes beyond normal med i c a l p e r c e p t i o n s when he emphasizes the e f f e c t of withdrawal upon s e x u a l i t y . G e n e r a l l y speaking, the standard symptomologies of withdrawal do not n o t i c e the acute s e x u a l e x c i t a t i o n i n c i d e n t to w i t h -drawal, and i f they do, no p a r t i c u l a r c o n c l u s i o n s are drawn: These symptoms, which are what we d e s c r i b e d under the name of abstinence phenomena, c o n s i s t of t r e m b l i n g of the l e g s , n e u r a l g i a s , pains, sweats, a l t e r n a t i n g d i l a t i o n of the p u p i l s , d i p l o p i a , yawning, dyspnoea, cough, p a i n i n the r e g i o n of the h e a r t , weakness of the h e a r t , t h i r s t , d i a r r h o e a , v o m i t i n g , sexual s t i m u l a t i o n , a l b u m i n a r i a , v e s i c a l tenesmus, suppresion of u r i n e , e t c . - ^ One p h y s i c i a n , however, w r i t i n g i n 1914, n o t i c e s t h a t i n withdrawal "the sexual d e s i r e r e t u r n s , o f t e n p a i n f u l l y and 20 e x c e s s i v e l y and then s u b s i d e s . " An acquaintance of Lee's 191 performs a short r o u t i n e upon t h i s r e v e r s e image of the l a s c i v i o u s h e r o i n a d d i c t of popular i m a g i n a t i o n : "You know how i t i s when you s t a r t to come o f f the s t u f f . " He i n d i c a t e d h i s g e n i t a l s , p o i n t i n g with a l l h i s f i n g e r s , then t u r n i n g the hand palm up. "You go o f f r i g h t i n your pants. I remember one time I was w i t h L a r r y . You know that k i d L a r r y . He was pushing a while back. I s a i d , 'Larry, you got to do i t f o r me.' So he took down h i s pants. You know he had to do t h a t f o r me." (114) What the medical p e r s p e c t i v e f i n d s j u s t another symptom, Lee develops i n t o a demonic image which stands as an emblem f o r withdrawal: My body was raw, t w i t c h i n g , tumescent, the j u n k - f r o z e n f l e s h i n a g o n i z i n g thaw. I turned over on my stomach and one l e g s l i p p e d o f f the bench. I p i t c h e d forward and the rounded edge of the bench, p o l i s h e d smooth by the f r i c t i o n of c l o t h , s l i d a l ong my c r o t c h . There was a sudden rush of blood to the g e n i t a l s at the s l i p p e r y c o n t a c t . Sparks exploded behind my eyes; my l e g s twitched--the orgasm of a hanged man when the neck snaps. (105) By the time of the Mexico C i t y withdrawal, the phenomenon has become mere r o u t i n e : "I drew my knees up, my hands c l a s p e d between the t h i g h s . The pressure of my hands set o f f the h a i r t r i g g e r orgasm of junk s i c k n e s s . I got up and changed my underwear" ( 129 ) . We see i n these o b s e r v a t i o n s of a d d i c t i o n obvious p r e d i c t i o n s of what w i l l become a 192 m a j o r — a n d c o n t r o v e r s i a l — m o t i f i n Naked Lunch: the ceremonial hangings. Lee l i k e w i s e extends normal me d i c a l p e r c e p t i o n s when he emphasizes the extreme g a r r u l i t y of the withdrawing a d d i c t . During withdrawal, My emotions s p i l l e d out everywhere. I was u n c o n t r o l l a b l y s o c i a b l e and would t a l k to anybody I cou l d p i n down. I f o r c e d d i s t a s t e f u l l y i n t i m a t e confidences on p e r f e c t s t r a n g e r s . S e v e r a l times I made the crudest sexual p r o p o s i t i o n s to people who had g i v e n no h i n t of r e c i p r o c i t y . (130) "When I come o f f the junk," Lee d e c l a r e s on another o c c a s i o n , "I o f t e n run through a p e r i o d of u n c o n t r o l l e d s o c i a b i l i t y and t a l k to anyone who w i l l l i s t e n " ( 1 2 7 ) . Dupre, a New Orleans a s s o c i a t e , d i s p l a y s the same r e a c t i o n to withdrawal: "When he was g e t t i n g p l e n t y of junk, Dupre was s i l e n t . Now he was g a r r u l o u s " (114). Lee catalogues the s o c i a l e q u i v a l e n t to the p h y s i c a l and sexual e r u p t i o n s which a t t a c k the a d d i c t d u r i n g withdrawal; the g a r r u l i t y of the k i c k i n g junkie i s j u s t another symptom, a v e r b a l e x c r e t i o n . The f i n a l s u p p r e s s i of the l e e r i n g l y c o n f i d e n t i a l A n c i e n t Mariner i n Naked Lunch--the apotheosis of S i l e n c e i n the "Atrophied P r e f a c e " — can thus be seen as a f i g u r a t i v e s l e e p , the s i g n of achieved cure. The meaning of withdrawal does not end, however, wit h 193 p h y s i c a l , sexual, and s o c i a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . Withdrawal oc c a s i o n s moments of poignant n o s t a l g i a , while at the same time i t lead s to a p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r e a t e n i n g order of h a l l u c i n a t i o n . A 1 9 t h century p h y s i c i a n catches t h i s fundamental j u x t a p o s i t i o n : "Found her awake, v i o l e n t l y d e l i r i o u s , c h a t t e r i n g w i l d l y ahout t h i n g s t h a t had oc c u r r e d i n her younger days--so f a r as she co u l d he u n d e r s t o o d — t a l k i n g to imaginary c h a r a c t e r s and b e l i e v i n g the room to be f i l l e d 21 with d e v i l s . " Those memories of "younger d a y s " - - s i g n a l l e d i n Burroughs' work by the sme l l of burning l e a v e s , piano music down a windy s t r e e t , t r a i n s , c a r n i v a l s and peep shows-e x i s t i n uneasy t e n s i o n with the e n t r o p i c h a l l u c i n a t i o n which appears to be the gr a d u a t i n g l e s s o n of cure. As Cocteau suggests, withdrawal s t i m u l a t e s the memory to an e x t r a o r d i n a r y degree. In a r e v e a l i n g passage Lee d e l i n e a t e s the i n t e r p l a y between the lobotomized absence of a d d i c t i o n and the b e g u i l i n g memories of junk s i c k n e s s : One morning i n A p r i l , I woke up a l i t t l e s i c k . I l a y there l o o k i n g at shadows on the white p l a s t e r c e i l i n g . I remembered a l o n g time ago when I l a y i n bed be s i d e my mother watching l i g h t s from the s t r e e t move a c r o s s the c e i l i n g and down the w a l l s . I f e l t the sharp n o s t a l g i a of t r a i n w h i s t l e s , piano music down a windy s t r e e t , b u r n i n g l e a v e s . . . . I went i n t o the bathroom to take a shot. I was a l o n g time h i t t i n g a v e i n . The needle clogged twice. Blood ran down my arm. The junk spread through my body, an i n j e c t i o n of death. The dream 194 was gone. I looked down at the "blood t h a t r a n from elbow to w r i s t . I f e l t a sudden p i t y f o r the v i o l a t e d v e i n s and t i s s u e . Tenderly, I wiped the b l o o d o f f my arm. "I'm going to q u i t , " I s a i d to myself. (128) T h i s episode i n v o l v i n g the sharp dream of youth and the complementary death-in-junk r e s u l t s i n the f i n a l r e s o l u t i o n f o r cure which concludes J u n k i e . Where De Quincey conceived of opium as the mechanism whereby images of c h i l d h o o d c o u l d be analyzed and r e l i v e d , Lee counters t h a t opium i s a n t i -dream and only i n junk s i c k n e s s does the memory r e t u r n . The Rube i n Naked Lunch symbolizes t h i s t e r r i b l e d u a l i t y of d e a t h - d i s s o l u t i o n and dream-innocence: "The Rube has a s i n c e r e l i t t l e boy look, burns through him l i k e blue neon. That one stepped r i g h t o f f a Saturday Evening  Post cover with a s t r i n g of b u l l h e a d s , and preserved h i m s e l f i n junk. H i s marks never beef and the Bunko people are r e a l l y c a r r y i n g a needle f o r the Rube. One day L i t t l e Boy Blue s t a r t s to s l i p , and what crawls out would make an ambulance a t t e n -dant puke. The Rube f l i p s i n the end, running through empty automats and subway s t a t i o n s , screaming: 'Come back, k i d ! ! Come back!!' and f o l l o w s h i s boy r i g h t i n t o the East R i v e r , down through condoms and orange p e e l s , mosaic of f l o a t i n g newspapers, down i n t o the s i l e n t b l ack ooze . . . ." (3 -4 ) The p e r s o n a l i t y , h e l d i n t a c t under the i n f l u e n c e of junk, breaks i n t o two d i s t i n c t p a r t s — t h e degraded junkie and the innocent dream—when ju n k - s i c k n e s s begins. The course 195 of withdrawal can he i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of t h i s progress from the n a r c i s s i s t i c junkie-youth preserved i n junk ("The o l d junky has found a v e i n . . . he push home the h e r o i n and the hoy who jacked o f f f i f t y years ago shine immaculate through the ravaged f l e s h , f i l l the outhouse w i t h the sweet sme l l of young male l u s t " \NL 95 -96J ) to the harrowing r e c o g n i t i o n of d i s s o l u t i o n which i s , u l t i m a t e l y , the l e s s o n of cure. As most of the a d d i c t s i n l i t e r a t u r e t e s t i f y , the v e r y b e g i n n i n g of a d d i c t i o n produces v i s i o n s or se n s a t i o n s of a pl e a s a n t k i n d . When Lee takes h i s f i r s t shot, however, he serves n o t i c e of a marked m a l e f i c p o t e n t i a l i n the honey-moon of junk; i n comparison with De Quincey's encomiums to the pl e a s u r e s of opium, Lee's d e s c r i p t i o n s seem ominous I had the f e e l i n g t h a t some h o r r i b l e image was j u s t beyond the f i e l d of v i s i o n , moving, as I turned my head, so th a t I never q u i t e saw i t . I f e l t nauseous; I l a y down and c l o s e d my eyes. A s e r i e s of p i c t u r e s passed, l i k e watching a movie: A huge, n e o n - l i g h t e d c o c k t a i l bar th a t got l a r g e r and l a r g e r u n t i l s t r e e t s , t r a f f i c , and s t r e e t r e p a i r s were i n c l u d e d i n i t ; a w a i t r e s s c a r r y i n g a s k u l l on a t r a y ; s t a r s i n the c l e a r sky.' The p h y s i c a l impact of the f e a r of death; the s h u t t i n g o f f of breath; the stop p i n g of b l o od. (19) indeed: Junk q u i c k l y ceases to generate images, however, u n t i l the 196 process of withdrawal takes place-, and then even the marginal humanity of the f i r s t junk v i s i o n has vanished: One aft e r n o o n , I c l o s e d my eyes and saw New York i n r u i n s . Huge centipedes and sc o r p i o n s crawled i n and out of empty bars and c a f e t e r i a s and drugstores on Forty-second S t r e e t . Weeds were growing through the cracks and h o l e s i n the pavement. There was no one i n s i g h t . (40) More h o r r i f y i n g , however, i s the..Mexico C i t y withdrawal: When I c l o s e d my eyes I saw an O r i e n t a l f a c e , the l i p s and nose eaten away by the d i s e a s e . The di s e a s e spread, m e l t i n g the face i n t o an amoebid mass i n which the eyes f l o a t e d , d u l l c r u s t a c e a n eyes. Slowly a new fa c e formed around the eyes. A s e r i e s of f a c e s , h i e r o g l y p h s , d i s t o r t e d and l e a d i n g to the f i n a l p l a c e where the human road ends, where the human form can no l o n g e r c o n t a i n the c r u s t a c e a n h o r r o r t h a t has grown i n s i d e i t . (135) Reminiscent of De Quincey's demonic Malay and the tyranny of the human fa c e (as w e l l as Ivan Karamazov's d i s g u s t e d 22 a n a l y s i s : "One r e p t i l e devours another . . . ." ) Lee's withdrawal v i s i o n s r e l y upon a p o c a l y p t i c imagery to express the d e p r e s s i o n which accompanies cure: "The c o n v e r s a t i o n had a nightmare f l a t n e s s , t a l k i n g d i c e s p i l l e d i n the tube metal c h a i r s , human aggregates d i s i n t e g r a t i n g i n cosmic i n s a n i t y , random events i n a dying u n i v e r s e " (141). L i k e any Dark Night of the Soul, the o r d e a l of withdrawal i s 197 a voyage which changes u t t e r l y : "Like a man who has been away a l o n g time, you see t h i n g s d i f f e r e n t when you r e t u r n from junk" ( 152 ) . Since Lee i s w r i t i n g from a post-cure p e r s p e c t i v e (or so the reader assumes), i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to encounter p e r c e p t i o n s which r e f l e c t the e n t r o p i c tendencies of w i t h -drawal. Subway Mike, f o r i n s t a n c e , "looked l i k e some s p e c i a l i z e d k i n d of underground animal t h a t preys on the animals of the s u r f a c e " ( 2 3 ) . And Mary, who has a dis e a s e which i s d i s s o l v i n g her bones, s e t s Lee to musing i n a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v e i n : There was something boneless about her, l i k e a deep sea c r e a t u r e . Her eyes were c o l d f i s h - e y e s t h a t looked at you through a v i s c o u s medium she c a r r i e d about wi t h her. I could see those eyes i n a shape-l e s s , p r o t o p l a s m i c mass u n d u l a t i n g over the dark sea f l o o r . (26) At another time she wears the " e x p r e s s i o n of a masturbating i d i o t , " and on y e t another she expresses "monkey-like rage." In Mexico C i t y Lee encounters a c h a r a c t e r m y s t e r i o u s l y connected w i t h junk: "His eyes are b l a c k with an i n s e c t ' s unseeing calm. He loo k s as i f he no u r i s h e d h i m s e l f on honey and Leva n t i n e syrups t h a t he sucks up through a p r o b o s c i s " (119). And f i n a l l y the k i c k i n g Gene D o o l i e serves as both s u b j e c t and r e f l e c t i o n of Lee's own p s y c h i c 198 i n t e r i o r , s i n c e i n an accurate sense the withdrawing a d d i c t i s what he sees: D o o l i e , s i c k , was an unnerving s i g h t . The envelope of p e r s o n a l i t y was gone, d i s s o l v e d by h i s junk-hungry c e l l s . V i s c e r a and c e l l s , g a l v a n i z e d i n t o a loathsome i n s e c t -l i k e a c t i v i t y , seemed on the p o i n t of bre a k i n g through the s u r f a c e . H i s f a c e was b l u r r e d , u n r e c o g n i z a b l e . (71) Burroughs simply t r a d e s i n s i m i l e f o r metaphor when he c r e a t e s the c r e a t u r e s of Naked Lunch. I t i s probably dangerous to assume t h a t the withdrawal experience completely governs the p e r c e p t i o n s i n Junkie, but i t does appear t h a t J u n k i e ' s i n t e r n a l l o g i c enforces the c o n n e c t i o n between withdrawal h a l l u c i n a t i o n s and the nov e l ' s s e r i o u s l y s a t i r i c i n t e n t i o n s ; i n other words, the s a t i r i c s p e c u l a t i o n which informs p a r t s of Junkie can be seen as the deadpan r e p o r t i n g of the nightmare p e r c e p t i o n s of withdrawal. Horror l e a d s to outraged judgement of an u n u s u a l l y t h e o r e t i c a l and systematic v a r i e t y . In New Orleans, f o r example, Lee d i s c u s s e s homosexuals i n terms of t h a t " f i n a l p l a c e where the human road ends": A room f u l l of f a g s g i v e s me the h o r r o r s . They j e r k around l i k e puppets on i n v i s i b l e s t r i n g s , g a l v a n i z e d i n t o hideous a c t i v i t y t h a t i s the n e g a t i o n of e v e r y t h i n g l i v i n g and spontaneous. The l i v e human b e i n g has moved out of these bodies l o n g ago. But 199 something moved i n when the o r i g i n a l tenant moved out. Fags are v e n t r i l o q u i s t s ' dum-mies who have moved i n and taken over the v e n t r i l o q u i s t . The dummy s i t s i n a queer bar n u r s i n g h i s beer, and u n c o n t r o l l a b l y yapping out of a r i g i d d o l l f a c e . (84) The f a g s have become obnoxious p o s t u r i n g d o l l s , p e r c e p t u a l l y and s a t i r i c a l l y . And when Lee r e c o r d s ( i n d i s t i n c t l y Western terms) h i s damning f i r s t impressions of New Orleans, he r e a f f i r m s the connection between s a t i r i c t heory and post-cure d e p r e s s i o n , s i n c e he too i s one of the u n r e q u i t e d (both i n New Orleans and a t the end of J u n k i e ) : But a complex p a t t e r n of t e n s i o n s , l i k e the e l e c t r i c a l mazes dev i s e d by p s y c h o l o g i s t s to unhinge the nervous systems of white r a t s and guinea p i g s , keeps the unhappy pl e a s u r e - s e e k e r s i n a c o n d i t i o n of uncon-summated a l e r t n e s s . . . . The d r i v e r s o r i e n t themselves l a r g e l y by the use of t h e i r horns, l i k e b a t s . (81) While b e i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of J u n k i e ' s content, w i t h -drawal f u n c t i o n s as a c r u c i a l determiner of i t s v i s i o n . The i n c r e d i b l e plenum of w i t h d r a w a l — e p i l e p t i c p h y s i c a l s u f f e r i n g , sharp sexual r e d i s c o v e r y , the degrading search f o r a Wedding Guest, n o s t a l g i a , e n t r o p i c h a l l u c i n a t i o n -complicates the l i t e r a r y v o i c e of the a d d i c t beyond measure. The unrepentant s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y of Junkie r e s u l t s i n p a r t from the persuaded b e l i e f t h a t the withdrawal experience 200 (and the junk world) i n v e s t s the junkie with i n d i s p e n s a b l e knowledge: Junk i s a c e l l u l a r equation t h a t teaches the user f a c t s of g e n e r a l v a l i d i t y . I have l e a r n e d a g r e a t d e a l from u s i n g junk: I have seen l i f e measured out i n eyedroppers of morphine s o l u t i o n . I experienced the a g o n i z i n g d e p r i v a t i o n of junk s i c k n e s s , and the p l e a s u r e of r e l i e f when j u n k - t h i r s t y c e l l s drank from the needle. Perhaps a l l p l e a s u r e i s r e l i e f . I have l e a r n e d the c e l l u l a r s t o i c i s m t h a t junk teaches the user. I have seen a c e l l f u l l of s i c k j u n k i e s s i l e n t and immobile i n separate misery. They knew the p o i n t l e s s n e s s of complaining or moving. They knew t h a t b a s i c a l l y no one can h e l p anyone e l s e . There i s no key, no s e c r e t someone e l s e has t h a t he can give you. ( 1 1 - 1 2 ) Lee c l a i m s f o r junk i t s rewards, as De Quincey, Ludlow, Crowley, James Lee, and Cocteau had done before him. Though the q u e s t i o n of advocacy can be asked, i t i s the wrong q u e s t i o n . More to the p o i n t i s , how e f f e c t i v e l y does Junkie e s t a b l i s h once and f o r a l l the f a c t s of a d d i c t i o n ? Whatever e l s e , Junkie i s an i c o n o c l a s t i c survey of the modern n a r c o t i c s a d d i c t , e s p e c i a l l y when compared w i t h works p u b l i s h e d under the auspices of the Tr e a s u r y Department, and even with S t r e e t ' s I Was A Drug A d d i c t : "A l o t of nonsense has been w r i t t e n about the changes people undergo as they get a h a b i t . A l l of a sudden the a d d i c t looks i n the m i r r o r and does not re c o g n i z e h i m s e l f " ( 3 ^ ) . Lee takes 201 i t upon h i m s e l f to set the r e c o r d s t r a i g h t , never doubting t h a t what he has l e a r n e d from a d d i c t i o n can be s u c c e s s f u l l y t r a n s l a t e d i n t o " f a c t s of g e n e r a l v a l i d i t y . " Kerouac r e c a l l s Burroughs s e v e r a l years before the w r i t i n g of J u n k i e : He was a teacher, and i t may be s a i d t h a t he had every r i g h t to teach because he spent a l l of h i s time l e a r n i n g ; and the t h i n g s he l e a r n e d were what he c o n s i d e r e d to be and c a l l e d "the f a c t s of l i f e , " which he l e a r n e d not o n l y out of n e c e s s i t y but because he wanted t o . . . . Now the f i n a l study was the drug h a b i t . He was now i n New Orleans, s l i p p i n g along the s t r e e t s with shady c h a r a c t e r s and haunting connection b a r s . 2 3 Lee's down-to-ground pedagogy i n e v i t a b l y l e a d s him to engage i n debate the m e d i c a l and p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s who c o n t r o l p u b l i c o p i n i o n toward drugs: In 1937 . weed was p l a c e d under the H a r r i s o n N a r c o t i c s A c t . N a r c o t i c s a u t h o r i t i e s c l a i m i t i s a h a b i t - f o r m i n g drug, t h a t i t s use i s i n j u r i o u s to mind and body, and t h a t i t causes the people who use i t to commit crimes. Here are the f a c t s : Weed i s p o s i t i v e l y not h a b i t - f o r m i n g . You can smoke weed f o r years and you w i l l experience no d i s c o m f o r t i f your supply i s suddenly cut o f f . I have seen teaheads i n j a i l and none of them showed withdrawal symptoms. I have smoked weed myself o f f and on f o r f i f -teen y e a r s , and never missed i t when I r a n out. . . . Weed does not harm the g e n e r a l h e a l t h . (30) Sensing t h a t Lee had gone too f a r , the e d i t o r s of the Ace 202 e d i t i o n of Junkie provided the f o l l o w i n g f o o t n o t e (the 24\ " f r i g h t e n e d f o o t n o t e s " as Ginsberg c a l l e d them ) to keep orthodoxy c l e a r l y i n view: " A u t h o r i t i e s m a i n t a i n t h a t the marijuana smoker u s u a l l y forms a p s y c h o l o g i c a l h a b i t p a t t e r n ; under present laws, the use of marijuana i s i n i t s e l f a crime." And Lee goes so f a r as to impugn the i n t e g r i t y of the N a r c o t i c s Bureau: Now t h a t the N a r c o t i c s Bureau has taken i t upon i t s e l f to i n c a r c e r a t e every a d d i c t i n the U.S., they need more agents to do the work. Not o n l y more agents, but a d i f f e r e n t type of agent. L i k e d u r i n g p r o h i b i t i o n , when bums and hoodlums f l o o d e d the I n t e r n a l Revenue Department, now a d d i c t -agents j o i n the department f o r f r e e junk and immunity. (146) T h i s charge r e c e i v e s another d i s c l a i m e r from the e d i t o r s : "This statement i s hearsay and the p u b l i s h e r accepts no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s accuracy." The most memorable example, however, of Lee's d r i v e toward combative c o n c l u s i o n s i s h i s s p e c u l a t i o n i n v o l v i n g the long-term e f f e c t s of a d d i c t i o n on the human organism: When you stop growing you s t a r t dying. An a d d i c t never stops growing. Most users p e r i o d i c a l l y k i c k the h a b i t , which i n v o l v e s s h r i n k i n g of the organism and replacement of the junk-dependent c e l l s . A user i s i n a c o n t i n u a l s t a t e of s h r i n k i n g and growing i n h i s d a i l y c y c l e of shot-need f o r shot completed. 203 Most a d d i c t s look younger than they are. S c i e n t i s t s r e c e n t l y experimented with a worm that they were able to s h r i n k by w i t h h o l d i n g food. By p e r i o d i c a l l y s h r i n k i n g the worm so t h a t i t was i n con-t i n u a l growth, the worm's l i f e was pro-. longed i n d e f i n i t e l y . Perhaps i f a j u n k i e c o u l d keep h i m s e l f i n a constant s t a t e of k i c k i n g , he would l i v e to be a phenomenal age. (11) P r e d i c t a b l y , Lee's assumption r e g a r d i n g the c e l l u l a r impact of withdrawal " i s not the view of r e c o g n i z e d medical a u t h o r i t y , " and h i s image of the a d d i c t as p o t e n t i a l Methuselah " i s c o n t r a d i c t e d by r e c o g n i z e d medical a u t h o r i t y . " Though Lee's z e a l to teach may l e a d him i n t o specious pseudo-science, the e s s e n t i a l m i s s i o n remains t h a t of the d e d i c a t e d f i e l d r e p o r t e r b r i n g i n g back i n f o r m a t i o n which has e i t h e r been suppressed or overlooked. The " f r i g h t e n e d f o o t n o t e s " are thus e n t i r e l y a p p r o p r i a t e , d r a m a t i z i n g as they do Lee's adversary r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h r e c o g n i z e d medical and l e g a l o p i n i o n . Lee's l e c t u r e s - s p e c u l a t i o n s oftentimes b r i s t l e over the h i s t o r i c a l d e g r a d a t i o n of the 20th century a d d i c t , but the fundamental human drama of Junkie i s the t r a d i t i o n a l search f o r cure which every drug c o n f e s s i o n e v e n t u a l l y comes to dramatize. Lee attempts a number of cures, but none of them are more than e q u i v o c a l l y s u c c e s s f u l ; the temptation of a shot u s u a l l y b r i n g s him back to junk a f t e r s h o r t p e r i o d s 204 of a b s t i n e n c e . In Mexico C i t y , f o r example, "I s t a r t e d the cure f i v e times. I t r i e d r e d u c i n g the shots, I t r i e d the Chinese cure, but n o t h i n g worked" (127). Lee a c t u a l l y reminds one of Ludlow with h i s f e v e r i s h attempts to a l -l e v i a t e the d i s t r e s s i n c i d e n t to withdrawal. I n goof b a l l s , a l c o h o l , a n t i h i s t a m i n e s , benzedrine, Ike's s o l u t i o n i n v o l v i n g cinnamon, c l o v e s , and sage (always something) Lee searches f o r the p e r f e c t s u b s t i t u t e : "Once, i n Texas, I k i c k e d a h a b i t on weed, a p i n t of p a r e g o r i c , and a few L o u i s Armstrong r e c o r d s " (40). U l t i m a t e l y f u t i l e home grown cures such as t h i s u n d e r l i n e the wasting of the w i l l which has appeared over and over a g a i n as an i n h e r e n t f a c t o r i n a d d i c t i o n : " I t gave me a t e r r i b l e f e e l i n g of h e l p l e s s n e s s to watch myself break every schedule I set up as though I d i d not have c o n t r o l over my a c t i o n s " (127). Lee c o n t i n u a l l y emphasizes i n h i s search f o r cure h i s d e s i r e to r e a c t i v a t e the non-junk w i l l . . . the g o a l , i t would seem, of any e n l i g h t e n e d governmental program. As i n S t r e e t ' s time, government i n s t i t u t i o n s designed to withdraw the a d d i c t p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n Junkie. Needless to say, they are s i g n a l l y i n e f f e c t i v e . The a d d i c t e n t e r s a cure to c o o l o f f or reduce h i s h a b i t , but r a r e l y to e v e n t u a l l y withdraw f o r good. During a junk drought, f o r example, Roy opts to go to R i k e r ' s I s l a n d f o r the 205 " t h i r t y - d a y cure": "This i s not a r e d u c t i o n cure. They don't g i v e any junk, or even a s l e e p i n g t a b l e t . A l l they o f f e r the a d d i c t i s t h i r t y days' d e t e n t i o n . The place i s always f u l l " ( 37 ) - But i t i s Lexington, of course, which stands as the symbol of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n e f f i c a c y i n t r e a t i n g j u n k i e s . Lee e n t e r s L e x i n g t o n j u n k - s i c k and checks out j u n k - s i c k , e v e n t u a l l y c u r i n g h i m s e l f and s t a y i n g o f f junk f o r f o u r months i n Texas. Nothing l i k e Ludlow's dream i s l a n d , L e x i n g t o n does g i v e to the a d d i c t a renewed under-s t a n d i n g of h i s i d e n t i t y as an a d d i c t . J u s t as p r i s o n schools the c r i m i n a l , L e x i n g t o n gathers together j u n k i e s who contemplate junk with s p e c i a l l o v i n g n e s s , a s s i s t e d by the g a r r u l i t y which, as Lee has p o i n t e d out, i s in h e r e n t to withdrawal. Lee r e c o r d s i n tape r e c o r d e r f a s h i o n the s t y l e and symbolism of the back-and-forth flow of con-v e r s a t i o n committed to junk: "So t h e r e we were i n County. Goddamn both of us s h i t t i n g i n our pants l i k e a goose. H e l l , when I b i t i n t o t h a t orange i t was so b i t t e r . Must have been f i f t e e n or twenty g r a i n s i n i t , shot i n with a hypo. I d i d n ' t know she had t h a t much sense." "The guard says to me, 'Drug A d d i c t ! Why you s o n o f a b i t c h , you mean you're a dope f i e n d ! W e l l , y o u ' l l get no medicine i n here!'" "So I h i t P h i l l y s i c k as a sonofa-b i t c h . " 2 0 6 "Well, the croaker says, 'Okay, how much do you use?'" "Ever use powdered De Laudid? Lots of guys k i l l e d themselves with i t . About as much as you can put on the end of a toothpick. The big end, that i s , no more." "Cook i t up and shoot i t . " "On the nod." "Loaded." "That was back i n '33» Twenty-eight dol l a r s an ounce." "We used to make a pipe out of a bottle and a rubber tube. When we got through smoking,. we'd break the b o t t l e . " "Cook i t up and shoot i t . " "On the nod." "Sure you can shoot cocaine i n the skin. It h i t s you right in. the stomach." "H and coke. You can smell i t going i n . " ( 7 5 - 7 6 ) As Alexander King has noticed, a stay at Lexington reaffirms 2 5 the addict's connection with the masonic world of junk. (In a Mexican j a i l : "The junkies were grouped together, In Junkie Lexington i s a clearing house where young junkies encounter the old-timers, those retrograde characters whose routines summon the t r a d i t i o n s of junk--hitting the pipe, burning down a croaker, lucky scores--the whole "symbol system." Lee i s fascinated but leaves s t i l l sick--and cures himself. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that when Lee does get around to making h i s Mexico City stand against junk-death, he sends Old Ike away. Despite prolonged periods of self-punishing drunkenness ta l k i n g and passing the junkie gesture back and forth ft 5 20? and subsequent uremia, the Mexico C i t y cure was f o r Lee-Burroughs as c h i m e r i c a l as the cures which preceded i t , as the casebook of Naked Lunch i n d i c a t e s . W i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e of Junkie, however, the Mexico C i t y cure i s c r u c i a l f o r the reason t h a t i t i s the l a s t one. Lee does r e c e i v e a shot of morphine and cocaine from Old Ike and he does take a s o c i a b l e shot w i t h B i l l Gains, which o b v i o u s l y suggests t h a t h i s r e s o l u t i o n f o r cure i s somewhat t e n t a t i v e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , Lee's experimentation w i t h Peyote toward the end of Junkie and h i s d e d i c a t e d i n t e r e s t i n Yage suggest a development i n Lee's c o n c e p t i o n of how to o b t a i n "momentary freedom from the claims of the ageing, c a u t i o u s , nagging, f r i g h t e n e d f l e s h " ( 153 ) - Lee's new i n t e r e s t a p p a r e n t l y p r e c l u d e s junk on a b a s i c b i o l o g i c a l l e v e l : "The d e c i s i o n to q u i t junk i s a c e l l u l a r d e c i s i o n , and once you have decided to q u i t you cannot go back to junk permanently any more than you c o u l d s t a y away from i t b e f o r e " ( 152 ) . The new o b s e s s i o n with Yage d i s t a n c e s Lee from junk j u s t as De Quincey had d i s t a n c e d h i m s e l f from h i s C o n f e s s i o n s by h i s announcement of p e r s o n a l cure. Instead of normal h e a l t h , however, Lee s t i l l hankers a f t e r transcendence: I decided to go down to Columbia and score f o r yage. . . . I am ready to move on south and look f o r the uncut 208 k i c k t h a t opens out i n s t e a d of narrowing down l i k e junk. Maybe I w i l l f i n d i n yage what I was l o o k i n g f o r i n junk and weed and coke. Yage may be the f i n a l f i x . (153) Junk was the wrong drug--but the r i g h t i d e a . When James Lee went to South America, he encountered a Yellow Fever epidemic and r e t u r n e d to England d i s a p p o i n t e d . Some f o r t y y e a rs l a t e r , W i l l i a m Lee (soon to come out from underneath t h a t cover) r e a d i e s h i m s e l f f o r the e x p e d i t i o n . Burroughs' 1953 South American l e t t e r s to Ginsberg ( p u b l i s h e d as "In Search of Yage" i n The Yage L e t t e r s , I963) r e d e f i n e the s t o i c a l l e s s o n s of withdrawal i n terms of the p i o n e e r i n g search through n a t i v e areas f o r an indigenous m i n d - a l t e r i n g drug. "In Search" proposes a d e f i n i t e ( i f u l t i m a t e l y i l l u s i v e ) o b j e c t i v e - - l o c a t i n g , t a k i n g , and a s s e s s i n g Yage ( a l s o r e f e r r e d to as Ayahuasca or B a n n i s t e r i a Caapi)--whereas e v a s i o n and f l i g h t s t r u c t u r e the a c t i o n of Junkie. N e v e r t h e l e s s , Burroughs' r e l i a n c e upon junk metaphors argues f o r the s u r v i v a l of the junk-withdrawal p e r s o n a l i t y as expressed i n Junkie. Ominously, B i l l Gains appears i n the f i r s t l e t t e r to remind Burroughs of h i s 103rd S t r e e t o r i g i n s : "I was g e t t i n g o f f junk and he kept nagging me why was I k i d d i n g myself once a j u n k i e always a j u n k i e . I f I q u i t junk I would become a sloppy l u s h or go c r a z y t a k i n g 209 cocaine. . . . Junk i s a cause with h i m . " ^ . Burroughs ente r s Bogota "thanking God I d i d n ' t h i t t h i s town junk s i c k " (12). In the same c i t y there i s "a damp c h i l l t h a t gets i n s i d e you l i k e the i n n e r c o l d of junk s i c k n e s s " (13)• And the "brujo (or medicine man) who prepares a p o r t i o n of Yage f o r Burroughs r e c a l l s the o l d - t i m e r s from 1 0 3 r d S t r e e t : "There was a s l y g e n t l e n e s s about him l i k e an o l d time j u n k i e " (28). Burroughs a l s o r e s u r r e c t s the sagacious Chinaman as the symbol of junk: At 5 o ' c l o c k had a few d r i n k s i n a Chinese r e s t a u r a n t , where the owner p i c k e d h i s t e e t h and went over h i s books. How sane they are and how l i t t l e they expect from l i f e . He looked l i k e junk to me but you can never be sure w i t h the Chinese. They are a l l b a s i c a l l y j u n k i e s i n outlook. (45) Yage may be the o b j e c t of the immersion i n t o the jung l e , but junk governs the composition of the f i e l d r e p o r t e r ' s notes. Lee's attempt to r e p u d i a t e junk i n f a v o r of the open-ended Yage was i n p a r t a s t r u c t u r a l stratagem (an open door a t the end of the novel) and a l s o a persuaded h e i g h t e n i n g of Yage to a p o t e n t i a l l y transcendent s o l u t i o n to the dynamics of n a r c o t i c a d d i c t i o n . Perhaps s a d l y , Yage does not l i v e up to these g r e a t e x p e c t a t i o n s . F o r "In Search" at any r a t e , Gains i s probably r i g h t - - " o n c e a junkie always a j u n k i e . " 210 Consequently, the search f o r Yage e a s i l y t r a n s l a t e s i n t o the nerve-wracking k i n e t i c s which dominated, the course of J u n k i e . For example, Burroughs' f e a r f u l i n t u i t i o n s of a menacing environment can he seen as the n a t u r a l response of the American d e v i a n t — w h e t h e r as the s o l i t a r y youngster marked f o r crime and drugs, the New York h u s t l e r , the a d d i c t d e s t i n e d to r e l i v e the p a i n f u l emergence of withdrawal, or the lone t r a v e l e r i n a l i e n t e r r i t o r y . R e c a l l i n g Lee's r e a c t i o n to New Orleans, Burroughs n o t i c e s t h a t i n Popayan "a c u r i o u s , n e g a t i v i s t i c h o s t i l i t y pervades the p l a c e " (15). Macao provokes t h i s same vague f e e l i n g of dread: "Nothing out of the o r d i n a r y hut i n a l l my experiences as a t r a v e l e r - -and I have seen some God awful places--no p l a c e ever brought me down l i k e Macao. And I don't know e x a c t l y why" (20). The apprehension t h a t he might be f o r e v e r h e l d i n suspension keeps Burroughs c o n s t a n t l y on the move. In Macao an o l d German t e l l s him: "'I hate t h i s p l a c e but what i s a f e l l o w to do? I have my business here. My w i f e . I'm stuck'" ( 1 9 ) . Burroughs takes steps to i n s u r e t h a t the same t h i n g does not happen to him, though the f e a r of b eing cornered invades him f r e q u e n t l y . Guayaquil: "Nightmare f e a r of s t a s i s . H o r r o r of being f i n a l l y stuck i n t h i s p l a c e . T h i s f e a r has f o l l o w e d me a l l over South America. A h o r r i b l e s i c k f e e l i n g of f i n a l d e s o l a t i o n " (38). And i n Peru: " T h i s p l a c e g i v e s 2 1 1 me the s t a s i s h o r r o r s . The f e e l of l o c a t i o n of b eing j u s t where I am and nowhere e l s e i s unendurable" ( 43 ). By the l a s t l e t t e r of "In Search," t h i s a d versary r e l a t i o n s h i p with South America has i n t e n s i f i e d , provoking i n Burroughs the i n c o n s o l a b l e p e r c e p t i o n of e n t r o p i c d e t e r i o r a t i o n which Lee had experienced i n Mexico C i t y d u r i n g withdrawal: Every n i g h t the people w i l l be u g l i e r and s t u p i d e r , the f i x t u r e s more hideous, the w a i t e r s ruder, the music more g r a t i n g on and on l i k e a speedup movie i n t o a nightmare v o r t e x of mechanical d i s i n t e -g r a t i o n and meaningless change. (46) To escape h i s own p e r c e p t i o n s "I wanted to l e a v e Lima r i g h t away. T h i s f e e l i n g of urgency has f o l l o w e d me l i k e my ass a l l over South America. . . . Where am I going i n such a hurry? . . . Suddenly I have to leave r i g h t now" ( 4 6 ) . Having d i s c a r d e d hope of Yage d e l i v e r a n c e , Burroughs r e v e a l s the t r u e f o r c e which g a l v a n i z e s him i n t o such f u r i o u s movement—the h o r r i f i c p e r c e p t u a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the w i t h -drawal experience. In Junkie Lee presents a s h o r t preview of the Yage experience when he d i s c u s s e s h i s experiments w i t h Peyote (another n a t i v e h a l l u c i n o g e n ) i n Mexico C i t y . A companion remarks to Lee t h a t some j u n k i e s have been able to q u i t n a r c o t i c s with the use of Peyote: " ' I t seems l i k e they 212 d i d n ' t want junk when they s t a r t e d u s i n g peyote'" (149). C l e a r l y , t h i s remark p r e d i c t s Lee's optimism r e g a r d i n g Yage's power to make junk unnecessary. And beyond t h i s , Yage's reputed e f f i c a c y i n a l l o w i n g c o n t a c t w i t h the I n d i a n m e n t a l i t y i s foreshadowed by Lee's experience with Peyote: Our f a c e s swelled under the eyes and our l i p s got t h i c k e r through some g l a n d u l a r a c t i o n of the drug. We a c t u a l l y looked l i k e Indians. The others claimed they f e l t p r i m i t i v e and were l a y i n g around on the g r a s s and a c t i n g the way they f i g u r e d Indians a c t . (149) Lee, however, i s having none of i t : "I d i d n ' t f e e l any d i f f e r e n t from o r d i n a r y except h i g h l i k e on benny." When Lee does experience Peyote v i s i o n s , they g r a v i t a t e i n e v i t a b l y toward "the f i n a l p l a c e where the human road ends": In one dream, I was coming down with r a b i e s . I looked i n the m i r r o r and my face changed and I began howling. In another dream I had a c h l o r o p h y l l h a b i t . Me and about f i v e other c h l o r o p h y l l ad-d i c t s are w a i t i n g to score on the l a n d i n g of a cheap Mexican h o t e l . We t u r n green and no one can k i c k a c h l o r o p h y l l h a b i t . One shot and you're hung f o r l i f e . We are t u r n i n g i n t o p l a n t s . (15°) Lee's Peyote experience performs i n mi n i a t u r e the Yage e x p e r i e n c e — t h e optimism r e g a r d i n g k i c k i n g junk f o r good, the presumed t e l e p a t h i c c o n t a c t with Indians, and the 213 r e c u r r e n c e of the h o r r i f i e d p e r c e p t i o n of the r e t u r n to the "crustacean h o r r o r . " More than anything e l s e , i t i s Yage's reputed t e l e p a t h i c p o t e n t i a l which seduces Lee i n t o a c c e p t i n g i t as a p o s s i b l e s a l v a t i o n from h i s narrowed-down l i f e as a j u n k i e : "Yage i s supposed to i n c r e a s e t e l e p a t h i c s e n s i t i v i t y . . . . I do want usable knowledge of t e l e p a t h y . What I look f o r i n any r e l a t i o n s h i p i s c o n t a c t on the non-verbal l e v e l of i n t u i t i o n and f e e l i n g , t h a t i s , t e l e p a t h y " (152). I t should be n o t i c e d , however, t h a t Lee proposes an i n c r e a s e i n a mode of communication d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to h i s c e l l u l a r s e n s i t i v i t y to junk n e i g h b o r h o o d s — a s w e l l as to h i s customary method of " r e c e i v i n g " f o r the most p a r t h o s t i l e p l a c e s and p e r s o n a l i t i e s . When Lee meets Herman, f o r example, "waves of h o s t i l i t y and s u s p i c i o n flowed out from h i s l a r g e brown eyes l i k e some s o r t of t e l e v i s i o n broadcast. The e f f e c t was almost l i k e a p h y s i c a l impact" (17) • And then there i s Gene D o o l i e : When one p e r s o n a l i t y meets another f o r the f i r s t time, there i s a p e r i o d of mutual examination on the i n t u i t i v e l e v e l of empathy and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . But i t was im p o s s i b l e to r e l a t e one's s e l f to D o o l i e i n any way. He was simply the f o c a l p o i n t f o r a h o s t i l e i n t r u s i v e f o r c e . (60) 214 In Panama, the c i v i l s e r v a n t s , i n s t e a d of sending out h o s t i l e emanations, send n o t h i n g at a l l : "You can not c o n t a c t a c i v i l servant on the l e v e l of i n t u i t i o n and empathy. He j u s t does not have a r e c e i v i n g s e t , and he g i v e s out l i k e a dead b a t t e r y " ("In Search" 9 ) . P a r t of the dream of Yage i s the non-verbal c o n t a c t w i t h l e s s d i s c o u r a g i n g , more like - m i n d e d i n d i v i d u a l s — o r "the p e r f e c t l y spontaneous, p e r f e c t l y r e s p o n s i v e companion," as A l a n Ansen 27 s t y l e s him. ' P a u l Bowles r e p o r t s t h a t Yage i s , more than any other, a group drug, i t s p a r t i c u l a r p r o p e r t y being the f a c i l -i t a t i o n of mental t e l e p a t h y and emotional empathy among those who have taken i t . He Burroughs i n s i s t e d t h a t with i t com-munication was p o s s i b l e w i t h the Indians, although i t made him v i o l e n t l y i l l . The paradox (so r e m i n i s c e n t of James Lee) i s t h a t Burroughs had to t r a v e l alone i n t o f o r b i d d i n g environments to e s t a b l i s h a means of communication—and then i n t o s i t u a t i o n s 29 where the only others around were Indians. y "In Search" i s a f r u s t r a t i n g c o l l e c t i o n of l e t t e r s because of the b r e v i t y of Burroughs' d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s of the awaited Yage s t a t e of being. F o r example, Burroughs' f i r s t dose of Yage oc c a s i o n s dreams of a composite c i t y (the f o r e r u n n e r to the Composite C i t y i n Naked Lunch), but he l e a v e s Yage's r o l e i n the dream up i n the a i r : 215 "I can not say whether these dreams had any c o n n e c t i o n with Yage" ( 2 1 ) . Burroughs e v e n t u a l l y d e s c r i b e s one Yage s e s s i o n , "but contents h i m s e l f with the f r o n t end of the experience: Blue f l a s h e s passed i n f r o n t of my eyes. The Hut took on an a r c h a i c f a r - P a c i f i c look w i t h E a s t e r I s l a n d heads carved i n the support p o s t s . The a s s i s t a n t was o u t s i d e l u r k i n g there with the obvious i n t e n t to k i l l me. I was h i t by v i o l e n t , sudden nausea and rushed f o r the door . . An u n c o n t r o l l a b l e mechanical s i l l i n e s s took p o s s e s s i o n of me. Hebrephrenic meaningless r e p e t i t i o n s . L a r v a l beings passed before my eyes i n a blue haze, each one g i v i n g an obscene, mocking squak (I l a t e r i d e n t i f i e d t h i s squaking as the c r o a k i n g of f r o g s ) - - I must have vomited s i x times. I was on a l l f o u r s convulsed with spasms of nausea. I c o u l d hear r e t c h i n g and groaning as i f I was someone e l s e . ( 2 9 - 3° ) Burroughs then takes s i x nembutals and, d e s p i t e some f e v e r , a p p a r e n t l y s l e e p s without f u r t h e r i n c i d e n t . While being suggestive, Burroughs does not s y s t e m a t i c a l l y assess the i m p l i c a t i o n s of Yage. Fo r example, the f i n a l sentence of h i s d e s c r i p t i o n f a i n t l y evokes the phenomenon of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a n s f e r , but the reader must wait u n t i l the l a t e r books to get any i d e a what t h i s means on an i m a g i n a t i v e l e v e l - -rampant metamorphoses i n Naked Lunch, f o r i n s t a n c e , or the "Who Am I To Be C r i t i c a l ? " chapter of The S o f t Machine, where Burroughs' persona changes bodies and outlook with 2 1 6 a young Indian a f t e r a medicine man g i v e s them a dose of Yage. More immediately important, however, i s the n o t i c e a b l e s i m i l a r i t y between the s t a t e of Yage i n t o x i c a t i o n and the s t a t e of withdrawal. Burroughs' 195^ l e t t e r to The B r i t i s h  J o u r n a l of A d d i c t i o n f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e s t h i s unusual a f f i n i t y : ""The s i m i l a r i t y between withdrawal phenomena and c e r t a i n drug i n t o x i c a t i o n i s s t r i k i n g . . . . Paranoid ideas are f r e q u e n t . B a n n i s t e r i a Caapi s p e c i f i c a l l y reproduces the s t a t e of withdrawal." Burroughs a l s o n o t i c e s the pre-eminence of the c o l o r blue i n withdrawal and the tendency of '"'familiar o b j e c t s . . . to s t i r w ith a w r i t h i n g f u r t i v e 30 l i f e . " - ' Though i t i s apparent t h a t something happened m Columbia which prompted Burroughs to a f f i r m h i s o r i g i n a l s p e c u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g Yage, one i s f o r c e d to the b i z a r r e c o n c l u s i o n that Burroughs'-search through South America r e s u l t e d i n an approximate d u p l i c a t i o n of the metabolic and p e r c e p t u a l chaos which i s withdrawal. "In Search," then, i s a t r a v e l book which d i s p l a y s s c i e n t i f i c , p o l i t i c a l , and s o c i a l i n t e r e s t - - b u t not t e r r i b l y i n f o r m a t i v e on the s u b j e c t of Yage and t e l e p a t h y . As Yage 31 recedes i n importance, the search becomes e v e r y t h i n g , o c c a s i o n i n g a new mythology f o r Burroughs h i m s e l f , one which l i f t s h i s l i f e from the degrading p o l a r i t y of s t r e e t -corner and l o c a l p r e c i n c t c e l l . By e n t e r i n g the a b o r i g i n a l 217 jungle (where the drug t a k e r ' s a r c h e t y p a l r o l e of h e a l e r and prophet s t i l l m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f - ^ 2 ) Burroughs c o n s t r u c t s s u r p r i s i n g l y l e g i t i m a t e sources of a u t h o r i t y . The r e a l i t i e s of deviancy would make such an e x t e n s i o n i m p o s s i b l e i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s : "South America does not f o r c e people to be de v i a n t s . You can be queer or a drug a d d i c t and s t i l l m a i n t a i n p o s i t i o n . . . . I n the U.S. you have to be a de v i a n t or e x i s t i n d r e a r y boredom. . . . Make no mistake a l l i n t e l l e c t u a l s are d e v i a n t s i n the U.S." (41) Burroughs d i s c o v e r s a new r e s p e c t a b i l i t y i n South America as a s c i e n t i f i c adventurer i n t o l a r g e l y unassessed areas. Instead of the author of a j u n k i e ' s c o n f e s s i o n , he spreads the word among h i s a s s o c i a t e s i n Columbia t h a t he has w r i t t e n a presumably t e c h n i c a l book on marijuana. W i l l i a m Burroughs J r . r e c a l l s t h a t "there was a g e n e r a l c o n s p i r a c y i n the f a m i l y to convince me t h a t B i l l was an e x p l o r e r , probably because of h i s South American 3 3 s o r t i e f o r Yage . . . . " ^ A deviant embarrassing to the f a m i l y has a l l of a sudden transformed h i m s e l f i n t o a s c i e n t i s t - e x p l o r e r - - a l m o s t ( l i k e James Lee) a romantic legend. As has been n o t i c e d , Burroughs remains f a i t h f u l to h i s junk o r i g i n s , but i n h i s new r o l e as e x p l o r e r - s c i e n t i s t he seems no t h i n g l i k e the j u n k - s i c k c h a r a c t e r d r i f t i n g i n t o town on the look out f o r the junk q u a r t e r : "For a jungle 218 t r i p you need medicines: snake b i t e serum, p e n i c i l l i n , e n t r e o v i o l f o r m o and a r a l e n are e s s e n t i a l s . A hammock, a bl a n k e t and a rubber bag known as a t u l a to c a r r y your gear i n " ( 1 3 ) . °h the s u r f a c e , i t would seem that n o t h i n g c o u l d keep such a c o n s i d e r e d a s s a u l t on the jungle from succeeding. And y e t the s t o r y of "In Search" i s one of c o n t i n u a l h a s s l e s and d e l a y s , most of them d e r i v i n g from the i n e f f i c i e n t b u r e a u c r a t i c network which impedes movement through Columbia d u r i n g c i v i l war: " T r a v e l i n Columbia i s d i f f i c u l t even w i t h the soundest c r e d e n t i a l s . I have never seen such u b i q u i t o u s and annoying p o l i c e ' 1 (25-26) . Burroughs i s a c t u a l l y put under town a r r e s t i n one Columbian v i l l a g e ( f o r a c l e r i c a l e r r o r i n h i s passport) and on another o c c a s i o n i s f o r c e d to remain i n a v i l l a g e u n t i l an a i r p l a n e a r r i v e s : Sure you t h i n k i t ' s romantic at f i r s t but wait t i l you s i t there f i v e days onna sore ass s l e e p i n g i n I n d i a n shacks and e a t i n g yoka and some hunka nameless meat l i k e the smoked pancreas of a two toed s l o t h and a l l n i g h t you hear them f i d d l e f u c k i n g w i t h the motor . . . . (33) Burroughs p r e s e n t s the humorous image of an i n t r e p i d e x p l o r e r who cannot manipulate the cumbersome machinery of the modern world w e l l enough to even get i n t o the jungle, l e t alone 219 accomplish h i s announced m i s s i o n . When he f i n a l l y does score f o r specimens of Yage, i t i s as though the p r i m i t i v e drug was w a i t i n g j u s t o u t s i d e the c i t y l i m i t s . A German landowner hears the nature of Burroughs* i n t e r e s t : "A h a l f hour l a t e r I had 20 pounds of Yage v i n e . No t r e k through v i r g i n jungle and some o l d white h a i r e d c h a r a c t e r saying, 'I have been e x p e c t i n g you my son.' A n i c e German 10 minutes from Macao" (28) . Burroughs r i d i c u l e s the myth he has c o n s t r u c t e d f o r h i m s e l f . Ever s i n c e Innocents Abroad, t r a v e l l i n g Americans have been making fun of t h e i r own p r e t e n s i o n s . By d e f l a t i n g the e x p l o r e r myth, Burroughs e n t e r s i n t o t h i s l i v e l y t r a d i t i o n based upon misadventure: On my way back to Bogota wi t h n o t h i n g accomplished. I have been conned by medicine men (the most i n v e t e r a t e drunk, l i a r and l o a f e r i n the v i l l a g e i s i n -v a r i a b l y the medicine man), i n c a r c e r a t e d by the law, r o l l e d by a l o c a l h u s t l e r (I thought I was g e t t i n g t h a t innocent back woods ass, but the k i d had been to bed w i t h s i x American o i l men, a Swedish B o t a n i s t , a Dutch Ethnographer, a Capuchin f a t h e r known l o c a l l y as The Mother S u p e r i o r , a B o l i v i a n T r o t s k y i t e on the lam, and j o i n t l y fucked by the Cocoa Commission and P o i n t F o u r ) . F i n a l l y I was p r o s t r a t e d by m a l a r i a . (19-20) The i n f l u e n c e of commerce, s c i e n c e , r e l i g i o n , r a d i c a l p o l i t i c s , and f o r e i g n a i d stand between Burroughs and t h a t "innocent 220 back woods ass"--between Burroughs and the o r i g i n a l South America. C o m i c a l l y , Burroughs presents h i m s e l f as c e r t a i n l y as d e d i c a t e d to the blandishments of a t t r a c t i v e and w i l l i n g boys as he i s to the m i s s i o n at hand. Of course, Junkie p r e d i c t e d these sudden l a p s e s of a t t e n t i o n - - " I should have been more a l e r t , of course," Lee remarks, "but I never c o u l d mix v i g i l a n c e with sex" (85 )--hut the d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t Burroughs now sees the humor i n the s i t u a t i o n : Ho hum dept. R o l l e d again. My g l a s s e s and a pocket k n i f e . L o s i n g a l l my f u c k i n g v a l u a b l e s i n the s e r v i c e . T h i s i s a n a t i o n of kleptomaniacs. In a l l my experience as a homosexual I have never been the v i c t i m of such i d i o t i c p i l f e r i n g s of a r t i c l e s of no c o n c e i v a b l e use to anyone e l s e . G l a s s e s and t r a v e l l e r ' s checks y e t . Trouble i s I share w i t h the l a t e F a t h e r F l a n a g a n — h e of Boy's Town--the deep con-v i c t i o n t h a t there i s no such t h i n g as a bad boy. (42) And to make the e x p e d i t i o n more c h a o t i c , Burroughs seeks a s s i s t a n c e at the U n i v e r s i t y of Bogota where i n Kafkaesque f a s h i o n "people rush out of o f f i c e s and c l a i m some o b j e c t from the l i t t e r i n the h a l l and have i t c a r r i e d back i n t o t h e i r o f f i c e s . The p o r t e r s s i t around on c r a t e s smoking and g r e e t i n g everybody as 'Doctor?" (12). Burroughs j o i n s an e x p e d i t i o n w i t h the Cocoa Commission i n which s t r i f e between the B r i t i s h and Columbian c o n t i n g e n t s makes any 221 r e s e a r c h i m p o s s i b l e . The s e a r c h f o r Yage d e t e r i o r a t e s (as does Burroughs' cosmic v i s i o n ) i n an a b s u r d shambles. He a c t u a l l y seems l u c k y to have come out of the j o u r n e y w i t h any i n f o r m a t i o n - - o r p e r s o n a l e f f e c t s — a t a l l . What d i s t i n g u i s h e s " I n S e a r c h " from J u n k i e i s B u rroughs' n e w l y - e n a c t e d f a c u l t y f o r s e l f - r i d i c u l e , even w h i l e ( l e t i t be noted) t a k i n g the f o r m a l o b j e c t i v e s o f the e x p e d i t i o n — i n f o r m a t i o n on t e l e p a t h y , l o c a l f o l k w a y s , the p o l i t i c a l a t m o s p h e r e — t o be of maximum imp o r t a n c e . Of c o u r s e , t h i s p a r o d i c impulse can be e x p l a i n e d i n p a r t by the r e l a t i v e i m f o r m a l i t y o f w r i t i n g t o a s y m p a t h e t i c f r i e n d , e s p e c i a l l y when compared w i t h the c h i l l i n g chore of w r i t i n g from e x i l e t o a g e n e r a l l y h o s t i l e p u b l i c , as Burroughs had done i n J u n k i e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , Burroughs, by the w r i t i n g of " I n S e a r c h , " has f o r m a l l y d e v e l o p e d the concept of the r o u t i n e , the i n f l u e n c e o f which s p i l l s over i n t o a l l the l e t t e r s . The r o u t i n e : b l a c k s a t i r e i n t e n d e d t o shock and amuse, m o r a l i t y and humor i n an obscene p o s i t i o n , "the l e c t u r e and the Tom Sawyer handstand meant t o impress the work's 34 b l a u e Blume." J The one r o u t i n e which remains i n t a c t i s t h e parody of the t r u e l o v e c o n f e s s i o n , the B i l l y B r a d s h i n k e l r o u t i n e added as a p o s t s c r i p t t o the f i r s t l e t t e r . The r o u t i n e i s a p p a r e n t l y prompted by a n o s t a l g i c o u t b u r s t i n the body o f 222 the l e t t e r : "I remembered a pr o h i b i t i o n era road house of my adolescence and the taste of gin rickeys i n a mid west summer. (Oh my God! And the August moon i n a v i o l e t sky and B i l l y Bradshinkel 1s cock. How sloppy can you get?)" (8) In the routine Burroughs sees just how sloppy he can get, spinning a t e a r f u l tale out of the death a young homosexual love. Before anyone gets the idea he means i t , however, he adds, "And I got a s i l o of queer corn where that come from. Another routine: A man who manufactures dreams to order. Any kind you want and he guarantees y o u ' l l believe they hap-pened just that way—(As a matter of fa c t I have just about sold myself B i l l y Bradshinkel)" (9). In a routine such as t h i s one Burroughs discovers a technique whereby he can entertain attacks of nostalgia (The Professor i n Naked Lunch: "'The nostalgia f i t i s on me boys and w i l l out w i l l y s i l l y . . . boys walk down the carny Midway eating pink spun sugar . . . " Q34_} ) and then dismiss them as disgusting and embarrassing wet dreams. During the routine, Burroughs would undoubtedly agree with the Nathanael West of The Dream L i f e of Balso Sne l l: "An i n t e l l i g e n t man finds i t easy to laugh at himself, but hi s laughter i s not sincere i f i t i s thorough. . . . The r i t u a l of f e e l i n g demands burlesque and, whether the bur-35 lesque i s successful or not, a laugh. . . . The same question of the thoroughness of Burroughs' 223 laugh a r i s e s w i t h the v i c i o u s l y and s c a t o l o g i c a l l y s a t i r i c r o u t i n e s which i m p l i c a t e Burroughs as a s a t i r i s t of such overweening d i s g u s t t h a t , l i k e the s a t y r s of f o r m a l E l i z a b e t h a n s a t i r e , the mud sometimes s p l a t t e r s back on h i m s e l f . Before the case becomes so extreme, however, Burroughs can seem n o t h i n g more than a p r a c t i c a l s p o i l e r , a harmless v e r s i o n of A.J. i n Naked Lunch: " R e c a l l w alking by some American women i n the c o r r i d o r who looked l i k e o f f i c e r s ' wives. One of them was s a y i n g , 'I don't know why but I j u s t can't eat sweets.' 'You got d i a b e t e s l a d y , ' I s a i d . They a l l w h i r l e d around and gave me an outraged s t a r e " ( 7 ) . " ^ D e c i d e d l y more p u r u l e n t i s the dream t h a t Burroughs r e c o r d s : "The E n g l i s h and French d e l e g a t e s d i d s h i t on the f l o o r , and t e a r i n g the T r e a t y of S e v i l l e i n t o ' . s t r i p s with such merriment d i d wipe t h e i r back-s i d e s w i t h i t , s e e i n g which the Spanish delegate withdrew from the conference" (35)• But of course the most notable example of b l a c k s a t i r e , "Roosevelt A f t e r I n a u g u r a t i o n , " i s announced i n "In Search" ("Enclose a r o u t i n e I dreamed up. The i d e a d i d come to me i n a dream from which I woke up l a u g h i n g - - " Qj-2"} ) but waited u n t i l b e i n g p u b l i s h e d by F l o a t i n g  Bear to appear i n p u b l i c , having been " b r i c k e d out of the C i t y L i g h t s Volume by p a r a n o i d p r i n t e r s i n England." One sample s e l e c t i o n : 224 Roosevelt f o r c e d that august body {_The Supreme Court]] one a f t e r the other, on t h r e a t of immediate r e d u c t i o n to the rank of C o n g r e s s i o n a l L a v a t o r y A t t e n -dants, to submit to i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h a purple assed baboon, so that venerable, honored men surrendered themselves to the embraces of a l e c h e r o u s s n a r l i n g simian, while Roosevelt and h i s strumpet wife and the v e t e r a n brown nose Harry Hopkins, smoked a communal hookah of h a s h i s h , watch the lamentable s i g h t w i t h c a c k l e s of obscene l a u g h t e r . . . . In the course of time, the Supreme Court came to c o n s i s t of nine purple assed baboons, and Roosevelt, c l a i m i n g to the only one able to i n t e r p r e t t h e i r d e c i s i o n s , thus gained c o n t r o l of the h i g h e s t t r i b u n a l i n the land.3 8 In t h i s f a s h i o n Burroughs becomes a p o l i t i c a l s p o i l e r , r e d u c i n g the sacred cows to purple assed baboons. The p o i n t , however, i s not r e a l l y whether t h i s i s e f f e c t i v e S w i f t i a n s a t i r e . More important, Burroughs has found a technique whereby he can d i s t a n c e h i m s e l f from the two complementary d i r e c t i o n s i n which withdrawal drags human c o n s c i o u s n e s s — t o w a r d n o s t a l g i a and toward e n t r o p i c h a l l u c i n a t i o n . He has imposed upon withdrawal a workable l i t e r a r y form. The r e a l a n c e s t r y of the r o u t i n e goes back to Junkie, where so o f t e n c h a r a c t e r s c a r r y on what amount to t a l k i n g j a g s , never depending upon v e r a c i t y to c a r r y the s t o r y but r a t h e r the humor and i n t e r e s t i t can arouse. Jack, f o r 225 example, "was an i n v e t e r a t e l i a r who seemed to l i e more f o r h i m s e l f than f o r any v i s i b l e audience" (15)• And Joe the Mex "was a l i a r , and l i k e most l i a r s , he was c o n s t a n t l y changing h i s s t o r i e s , a l t e r i n g time and personnel from one t e l l i n g to the next" (43). And th ere i s B i l l Gains: "One of B i l l ' s most d i s t a s t e f u l c o n v e r s a t i o n r o u t i n e s c o n s i s t e d by d e t a i l e d b u l l e t i n s on the s t a t e of h i s bowels" (59)• And then there i s Old Ike, who w i l l always t e l l a s t o r y i f there i s anyone to l i s t e n : " ' I remember once out by Mary I s l a n d . We was on the boat and the C o l o n e l got drunk and f e l l i n the water and come near drowning with h i s two p i s t o l a s . We had a h e l l of a time to get him out.' Ike blew through the needle" ( 1 37 ) . The r o u t i n e , while being f i r m l y based i n h i s junk e x p e r i e n c e — t h e g a r r u l o u s junkie e i t h e r f e e l i n g s o c i a b l e a f t e r a shot or s u f f e r i n g the v e r b a l e x c r e t i o n which accompanies w i t h d r a w a l - - i s Burroughs' s t u d i e d response to the keen poignance and the fearsome d e s o l a t i o n of withdrawal. The r o u t i n e w i l l serve as h i s major means of s e l f - d e f e n s e i n Naked Lunch. I t i s not p r o d u c t i v e to r i g h t e o u s l y promote, or under-mine, Naked Lunch's p o s i t i o n as one of the more i n t e r e s t i n g and c h a l l e n g i n g n o v e l s i n post-War America. The Times  L i t e r a r y Supplement g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d the f u t i l i t y of r e s o l v i n g the i s s u e t h a t Naked Lunch c r e a t e s i n i t s 226 "Ugh" correspondence, the q u e s t i o n f i n a l l y s e t t l i n g down 39 comfortably i n t o f i l t h and i t s a r t i s t i c uses. 7 As with Crowley's n o t o r i o u s The D i a r y of a Drug F i e n d , the u n c r i t i c a l outrage, and r a p t u r e , p r e c i p i t a t e d by Naked Lunch's appearance (as The Naked Lunch i n the 1959 Olympia Press e d i t i o n ) i n d i c a t e s n o t h i n g so much as i n d i v i d u a l r e a c t i o n s to drug a d d i c t i o n , s a d i s t i c e r o t i c i s m , and what might be c a l l e d the idiom of degeneracy (or urban decadence). Burroughs has remarked that "some people have much more t o l e r a n c e f o r 40 unusual happenings than o t h e r s . " Perhaps i t i s as simple as t h a t . C e r t a i n l y l a c k of t o l e r a n c e allowed Naked Lunch to become ( i n d i s p u t a b l y ) a "footnote i n the h i s t o r y of 4-1 c e n s o r s h i p , " and c e r t a i n l y something as i n d e f e n s i b l e r e f u s e s to take from Naked Lunch the s i g n i f i c a n c e of an e x t r a o r d i n a r y mind i n t e r p r e t i n g the p e r s o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of o p i a t e a d d i c t i o n : the n o v e l i s a t l e a s t worthy of the same r e s p e c t accorded De Quincey's Confessions• At the Boston t r i a l Ginsberg had t h i s to say: "He [Burroughs] r e a l l y confessed completely, put e v e r y t h i n g down so t h a t anybody c o u l d see i t . . . . There .is a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g 4-2 hidden or l e f t out." I t seems e n t i r e l y a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t t h i s s p e c i a l emergence from death to l i f e — w i t h d r a w a l — should be the o c c a s i o n f o r such a b r i n g i n g f o r t h . The opening words of Naked Lunch plunge the reader 2 2 7 (or, more a p p r o p r i a t e l y , the l i s t e n e r ) i n t o a consciousness imprisoned by f e a r : "I can f e e l the heat c l o s i n g i n , f e e l them out there making t h e i r moves, s e t t i n g up t h e i r d e v i l d o l l s t o o l pigeons, crooning over my spoon and dropper I throw away a t Washington Square S t a t i o n . . . ." Reminiscent of the E d i t o r ' s "hophead hunches," the t e l e p a t h i c p r e s c i e n c e of the n a r r a t o r (who we assume to be the f a m i l i a r W i l l i a m Lee) operates as an a l e r t system, touching o f f a d r e n a l f e a r . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine, however, whether the "copper j i t t e r s " are a l e g i t i m a t e assessment of the s i t u a t i o n (anyone can be an enemy, even o l d f r i e n d s ) or an unnerving f a n t a s i z i n g paranoia; the " j i t t e r s " a s s i s t s u r v i v a l (by o r d e r i n g e v a s i o n and f l i g h t ) but they a l s o dismantle any sense of w e l l - b e i n g . As i n Junkie, the cumulative pressure of pushing junk to u n r e l i a b l e customers c r e a t e s the b a s i c a n x i e t y of the pusher: "And i f my k i d customers ever h i t the stand: 'He f o r c e me to commit a l l k i n d a awful sex a c t s i n r e t u r n f o r junk' I c o u l d k i s s the s t r e e t good-bye" ( 7 ) . The c o n c e p t i o n of the p o l i c e as malevolent voodoo t e c h n i c i a n s - - " I knew they were out there powowing and making t h e i r e v i l f u z z magic, p u t t i n g d o l l s of me i n Leavenworth" ( 5 )--underscores Lee's u t t e r h e l p l e s s n e s s : he i s a hunted man with no means of defense other than i n t u i t i o n and f l i g h t . The e x t e n s i o n of t h i s overwhelming f e a r of p o l i c e 228 i n t e r f e r e n c e i s the " s t a s i s h o r r o r " which had sent Burroughs h i m s e l f i n t o headlong t r a v e l through South America and e v e n t u a l l y to t e r m i n a l a d d i c t i o n i n Tangier. In the f i r s t chapter of Naked Lunch Lee f l e e s from New York and pushes i n t o the h e a r t of America (going west, s t r a n g e l y enough, i n s t e a d of south, as i n J u n k i e ) : And the U.S. drag c l o s e s around us l i k e no other drag i n the world, worse than the Andes . . . and what h i t s you when you get o f f the Malmo F e r r y i n (no j u i c e tax on f e r r y ) Sweden knocks a l l t h a t cheap, tax f r e e j u i c e r i g h t out of you and b r i n g s you a l l the way down . . . . But there i s no drag l i k e U.S. drag. You can't see i t , you don't know where i t comes from. (12) Wholesale d e n u n c i a t i o n s such as these t e l l us more about Lee's h a b i t u a l r e a c t i o n to l o c a t i o n than they do about the a c t u a l environment which he encounters. No p l a c e o f f e r s any s e c u r i t y to a psyche dominated by the f e a r of "an i r r i t a t i n g , d o n d e s c r i p t , d a r k i s h man who would rush i n when I was about to take a shot or go to bed with a boy." E v i l s t a l k s the i n t e r n a l landscape: "America i s not a young l a n d : i t i s o l d and d i r t y and e v i l b e f o r e the s e t t l e r s , b e f o r e the Indians. The e v i l i s there w a i t i n g " (11). A n t e r i o r to the b i t t e r s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m w i t h which Burroughs j o i n s such i n v e r s e l y p a t r i o t i c w r i t e r s as Henry M i l l e r and Nathanael 2 2 9 West ("In l i f e p r o o f houses they hover over the young, sop up a l i t t l e of what they shut out" [ l l j ) i s the persuaded s u s p i c i o n t h a t behind the forms of c i v i l i z a t i o n , j u s t out of s i g h t , a malignant f o r c e i s a t work. As e a r l y as the pre f a c e of Junkie, t h i s c o n v i c t i o n has sponsored a d o l e s c e n t g e s t u r e s of freedom: "The environment was empty, the a n t a g o n i s t hidden, and I d r i f t e d i n t o solo adventures." Lee's f l i g h t can be seen as not simply an ev a s i o n of the p o l i c e but as a r a d i c a l means of p a c i f y i n g the n a t i v e dread swol len to i n c r e d i b l e p r o p o r t i o n by the r e a l i t i e s of a d d i c t i o n . Along with the "copper j i t t e r s " and the " s t a s i s h o r r o r s , the opening chapter r e c o r d s examples of drug-induced psychose a l l of which invoke extreme s t a t e s of f e a r . Old Ike r e m i n i s c e s : "I was t r a v e l l i n g with Irene K e l l y and her was a s p o r t i n g woman. In Butte, s t a t e on Montany, she gets the coke h o r r o r s and run through the h o t e l screaming Chinese coppers chase her with meat c l e a v e r s . " Ike a l s o remembers " t h i s cop i n Chicago s n i f f coke used to come i n form of c y s t a l s , blue c r y s t a l s . So he go nuts and s t a r t screaming the F e d e r a l s i s a f t e r him and run down t h i s a l l e y and s t i c k h i s head i n the garbage can" (18). Lee r e c a l l s t a k i n g a morning s p e e d b a l l (a combination shot of morphine and cocaine "I89O cops with b l a c k mustaches b l o c k the doors and l e a n 230 i n through the windows s n a r l i n g t h e i r l i p s hack from blue and h o l d embossed badges . . . . P u r p o s e f u l s c h i z o p h r e n i c d e t e c t i v e s s n i f f a t your chamber pot" (19)• In Cuernavaca or Taxco (he i s not q u i t e sure which) Lee and Jane v i s i t a pious teahead who " i s p u t t i n g down junk and coming on w i t h t e a " : "I take three drags, Jane looked a t him and her f l e s h c r y s t a l l i z e d . I leaped up screaming 'I got the f e a r ! ' and r a n out of the house" (20) . In the context of the f i r s t chapter, the "coke h o r r o r s " and the " t e a f e a r " provoke s i m i l a r s t a t e s of acute a n x i e t y . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the o n l y remedy f o r the "coke h o r r o r s " i s i t s n a t u r a l o p p o s i t e , morphine: " S i t back and p l a y i t c o o l and shoot i n p l e n t y of the GI M" (19). The same might be s a i d of the "copper j i t t e r s , " the " s t a s i s h o r r o r s , " the " t e a f e a r " - -and the d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t s of withdrawal. These v a r i o u s syndromes of f e a r might seem random r e a c t i o n s of p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e i n d i v i d u a l s i f i t were not t h a t Burroughs c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e s withdrawal as a c e n t r a l source of f e a r : "I have n o t i c e d two s p e c i a l r e a c t i o n s of e a r l y withdrawal: (1) E v e r y t h i n g l o o k s t h r e a t e n i n g ; (2) m i l d paranoia. The d o c t o r s and nurses appear as monsters of e v i l " (242). Undoubtedly withdrawal i s not the o n l y source of f e a r i n Naked Lunch. Burroughs notes, f o r example, t h a t the " s e c t i o n d e s c r i b i n g The C i t y and the Meet Cafe w r i t t e n 231 i n s t a t e of Yage i n t o x i c a t i o n . . . " ( 1 0 9 ) . And what i s more, he has s t a t e d t h a t "I owe many of the scenes i n 4 3 'Naked Lunch* d i r e c t l y to the use of cannabis." J Never-t h e l e s s , i n Burroughs' system the presence of these o t h e r drugs l e a d s us back to withdrawal: The s i m i l a r i t y between withdrawal phenomena and c e r t a i n s t a t e s of drug i n t o x i c a t i o n i i s s t r i k i n g . Hashish, B a n n i s t e r i a Caapi (HarmalineT, Peyote (Mescaline) produce s t a t e s of acute s e n s i t i v i t y , with h a l l u -c i n a t o r y viewpoint. . . . Paranoid i d e a s are f r e q u e n t . (243) The grotesque c r e a t u r e s t h a t populate Naked Lunch can b e s t be approached i n terms of the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s e f f e c t e d by withdrawal (along with a l l the other j i t t e r s , h o r r o r s , and f e a r s ) . Instead of an a c t u a l s t o o l pigeon or a n a r c o t i c s agent or a pusher, Lee p e r c e i v e s "monsters of e v i l " reduced to loathsome mutations a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r c o m p u l s i o n s — W i l l y the Disk (a human r a d a r gadget f e d on junk), B r a d l e y the Buyer (an anonymous policeman who e v e n t u a l l y feeds on the t o r t u r e he imposes), and "Fats" Terminal (the a r c h e t y p a l pusher f e d by the ju n k i e s he supposedly s e r v i c e s ) . Lee sees i n the major symbols of American a d d i c t i o n t h a t " f i n a l p l a c e where the human road ends"; as i n Junkie, the percep-t i o n s of withdrawal i n v o l v e b e r serk p a r a n o i a which only on r e c o l l e c t i o n emerge as systematic s a t i r e . 232 The r u s h i n g v o i c e which opens Naked Lunch defends i t s e l f from i n c a p a c i t a t i n g f e a r by assuming the r o l e of f a s t - t a l k i n g con man who cannot stop t a l k i n g u n t i l he has f l e e c e d h i s mark, the "young, good l o o k i n g , crew cut, Ivy League, a d v e r t i s i n g exec type f r u i t " ( 1 ) . Though i t i s p o s s i b l e to e x p l a i n Lee's s t a r t l i n g e x h i b i t i o n i s m i n the f i r s t chapter as a predatory W.C. F i e l d ' s r o u t i n e , or as a means of d i s c h a r g i n g the pressure from h i s c l o s e c a l l w i t h the agent i n the white t r e n c h coat, i t seems more l i k e l y t h a t Lee i s a g a i n l a b o r i n g under the i n f l u e n c e of the i n v o l u n t a r y g a r r u l i t y which r e s u l t s from withdrawal: "I was u n c o n t r o l l a b l y s o c i a b l e and would t a l k to anybody I c o u l d p i n down. I f o r c e d d i s t a s t e f u l l y i n t i m a t e confidences on p e r f e c t s t r a n g e r s " (Junkie 1 3 0 ) . The c e l l u l a r panic of withdrawal o c c a s i o n s an almost p h y s i c a l need to shock and e n t h r a l l , an amused r e l i s h f o r g h o u l i s h anecdotes. Jack's r o u t i n e i n Junkie suggests the l i n e a g e of t h i s d i s t u r b i n g a n t i c sense: "My p a r t n e r was going through the j o i n t . The guy was s l e e p i n g , and I was s t a n d i n g over him with a t h r e e - f o o t l e n g t h of pipe I found i n the bathroom. The pipe had a f a u c e t on the end of i t , see? A l l of a sudden he comes up and jumps s t r a i g h t out of bed, running. I l e t him have i t w i t h the f a u c e t end, and he goes on running r i g h t out i n t o the other room, the b l o o d s p u r t i n g out of h i s head t e n f e e t every 233 time h i s h e a r t beat." He made a pumping motion wi t h h i s hand. "You could see the b r a i n there and the blood coming out of i t . " Jack began to laugh u n c o n t r o l l a b l y . "My g i r l was w a i t i n g out i n the car. She c a l l e d me--ha-ha-ha!--she c a l l e d me--ha-ha-ha!--a cold-blooded k i l l e r . " He laughed u n t i l h i s face was p u r p l e . (18) Rather l i k e the E n g l i s h v o i c e of In Our Time ("It was 44 \ a b s o l u t e l y t o p p i n g " ) Lee d i s g u i s e s d i s g u s t i n g memories as a p p e t i z i n g l i g h t entertainment: "Ever see a hot shot, kid? I saw the Gimp catc h one i n P h i l l y . We r i g g e d h i s room with a one-way whore-house m i r r o r and charged a sawski to watch i t . He never got the needle out of h i s arm. They don't i f the shot i s r i g h t . That's the way they f i n d them, dropper f u l l of c l o t t e d b l o o d hanging out of a blue arm. The look i n h i s eyes when i t h i t - - K i d , i t was t a s t y . . . ." (2) T h i s b u r s t of s a d o - e r o t i c c o n v e r s a t i o n aimed at the f r u i t f u n c t i o n s as a n o i s y i n t e r l u d e w i t h i n the major movement of the f i r s t chapter: the f l i g h t from both the a c t u a l p o l i c e and, one f e e l s more i m p o r t a n t l y , the d e s o l a t e d landscape o f - h i s d i s l o c a t e d p e r c e p t i o n s . D e s p i t e the gush of t a l k and movement, however, the n a r r a t i v e of the f i r s t chapter o c c a s i o n a l l y slows down almost to s i l e n c e - - o r sight--when the bumptious W i l l i a m Lee becomes a k i n d of medium f o r j u n k - s i c k j u n k i e s every-where : 234 . . . B a r t knew a few o l d r e l i c s from hop smoking times, s p e c t r a l j a n i t o r s , grey as ashes, phantom p o r t e r s sweeping out dusty h a l l s with a slow o l d man's hand, coughing and s p i t t i n g i n the j u n k - s i c k dawn, r e t i r e d asthmatic fences i n the-a t r i c a l h o t e l s , Pantopon Rose the o l d madam from P e o r i a , s t o i c a l Chinese w a i t e r s never show junk s i c k n e s s . B a r t sought them out w i t h h i s o l d junky walk, p a t i e n t and c a u t i o u s and slow, dropped i n t o t h e i r "bloodless hands a few hours of warmth. (4-5) Somehow so a p p r o p r i a t e l y , the urban c h a r a c t e r of the o l d -time j u n k i e p r e s e n t s i t s e l f i n s t i l l e d poetry which hushes the r a p p i n g a d d i c t , d i s p e r s e s him as w i d e l y as America 4 S d i s p e r s e d Whitman The w o r l d network of j u n k i e s , tuned on a cord of r a n c i d jissom, t y i n g up i n f u r n i s h e d rooms, s h i v e r i n g i n the junk-s i c k morning. (Old Pete men suck the b l a c k smoke i n the Chink laundry back room and Melancholy Baby d i e s of an overdose of time or c o l d turkey w i t h -drawal of breath.) In Yemen, P a r i s , New Orleans, Mexico C i t y and I s t a n b u l . . . The l i v i n g and the dead, i n s i c k n e s s or on the nod, hooked or k i c k e d or hooked again, come i n on the junk beam . . . . (6) Lee sees back i n t o the past through the contemplation of junk, the "panhandler of dreams, past i n v a d i n g the present, r a n c i d magic of s l o t machines and roadhouses" (11). The n o s t a l g i a which accompanies withdrawal becomes a d i r g e to 235 Black's pre-War c r i m i n a l world: "(Through the "bars of East S t . L o u i s l i e s the dead f r o n t i e r , r i v e r b o a t days.)" (11) Whether B i l l Gains "huddled i n someone e l s e ' s over-coat l o o k i n g l i k e a 1910 banker w i t h p a r e s i s " (4 ), or "The washes down a yen pox hard and b l a c k as c i n d e r " (7), the aggrieved g e n t i l i t y of the a d d i c t soothes the mind e l e c t r i f i e d w i t h f e a r . Due to the g e n e r a l l y h e l d b e l i e f t h a t Naked Lunch c h r o n i c l e s the progress of a p a r t i c u l a r cure ( s p e c i f i c a l l y , Burroughs' apomorphine cure, ca. 1956 ) , the temptation i s to d i s c o v e r i n the n o v e l a l i n e a r s t r u c t u r e a c c o r d i n g to how one supposes a drug cure to take p l a c e . The Lee we meet at the b e g i n n i n g of Naked Lunch should t h e r e f o r e be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the one we meet i n the c o n c l u d i n g "Hauser and O'Brien" chapter. McConnell b e l i e v e s , f o r example, t h a t the s t y l i s t i c development toward the " a b s o l u t e l y d e n o t a t i v e language" of Burroughs' 1956 l e t t e r to The B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of A d d i c t i o n ( i n c l u d e d as an appendix to the Grove P r e s s e d i t i o n s ) suggests the process of withdrawal: "Bracketed between the d i m i n i s h i n g r e a l i s m of the i n d u c t i o n and the growing r e a l i s m of the denouement, the Interzone s e c t i o n i s f o r c e d i n e v i t a b l y i n t o the f i c t i v e shape 47 of a withdrawal symptom To i d e n t i f y Old Chinaman dip s r i v e r water i n t o a r u s t y t i n can 236 "growing r e a l i s m " with e f f e c t e d cure, however, seems a dubious procedure. By v i r t u e of a m i s l e a d i n g premise, McConnell has a r r i v e d at a d e f e n s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n . To take tough, r e a l i s t i c n a r r a t i o n as evidence of cure r e s u l t s i n l u d i c r o u s i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n Burroughs' work up to and i n c l u d i n g Naked Lunch. The s t y l e of the "Hauser and O'Brien" chapter r o u g h l y corresponds with the h a r d b o i l e d s t y l e of Junkie. Are we to assume, then, t h a t Junkie composed i t s e l f i n an e x c l u s i v e language of cure? The r e a l i s m of the c o n c l u d i n g chapter d e t e r i o r a t e s i n the l a s t twenty l i n e s , becoming fragmented and o b s c u r e l y s p e c u l a t i v e . Has there been an i n t e r r u p t i o n i n the cure? The "Atrophied P r e f a c e " (the s u r r e a l p o s t s c r i p t which f o l l o w s the "Hauser and O'Brien" chapter) r e t u r n s f u l l - f o r c e to the c o l l a g e o r g a n i z a t i o n of v a r i o u s p a r t s of I n t e r zone. " Does Burroughs i n t e n d to suggest a r e l a p s e ? Furthermore, Burroughs demonstrates t h a t he can manage concrete d e t a i l s of observed r e a l i t y d u r i n g the supposed withdrawal s e c t i o n s ( i n the " H o s p i t a l " chapter, f o r example). Imposing a s t r u c t u r e upon Naked Lunch i n terms of s t y l e does not a s s i s t i n d i s -c o v e r i n g the presence, or the s i g n i f i c a n c e , of cure i n the n o v e l . A c l o s e study of the s t o r y of Hauser and O'Brien does h e l p the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of where Naked Lunch has been and 237 where the i n v a l i d - s u r v i v o r i s going. As McConnell n o t i c e s , t h i s f i n a l chapter departs from the f l e e t i n g tenor of the middle of the n o v e l by p r e s e n t i n g the reader w i t h a s t r a i g h t -forward, c o n s e c u t i v e p l o t . B r i e f l y , the v a u d e v i l l e cop team of Hauser and O'Brien are ordered to p i c k up a man named W i l l i a m Lee at a h o t e l on 103rd S t r e e t . They e n t e r Lee's room while he i s t y i n g up f o r a shot. In r e t u r n f o r being allowed to take the shot, Lee promises to s e t up a well-known pusher. A f t e r , t a k i n g the shot--"I pressed the plunger down wit h my thumb, f e e l i n g the junk pound through my v e i n s to f e e d a m i l l i o n junk-hungry c e l l s , to b r i n g s t r e n g t h and a l e r t n e s s to every nerve and muscle" (211-12)--Lee s q u i r t s a l c o h o l i n t o Hauser's eyes with h i s s y r i n g e , gets a gun out of h i s s u i t c a s e , and shoots both d e t e c t i v e s . He immediately h i t s the s t r e e t s , scores f o r f i f t y d o l l a r s worth of h e r o i n . A f t e r spending the n i g h t i n the Everhard baths, he c a l l s the N a r c o t i c s Department, a s k i n g to speak with e i t h e r Hauser or O'Brien. The Department claims never to have heard of the d e t e c t i v e s . D r i v i n g away i n a t a x i , Lee concludes t h a t he has been "occluded from space-time" and t h a t "the Heat was o f f me from here on out" (217) • As is. obvious, Lee i s s t i l l v e r y much a j u n k i e . H i s f i r s t thought a f t e r k i l l i n g the d e t e c t i v e s i s o b t a i n i n g enough h e r o i n to remain mobile. I t was Lee's l a c k of junk 238 i n Junkie which r e s u l t e d i n h i s f i r s t a r r e s t - - " . . . I was a l r e a d y s i c k and d i d not have the energy to leave town" (39)' i n the f i n a l chapter junk m i l i t a n t l y i n s u r e s Lee's s u r v i v a l : junk s t i m u l a t e s the body, and the accoutrements of junk--the s y r i n g e and a l c o h o l - - s e r v e as an e f f e c t i v e weapon. Perhaps more important, however, i s the r e t u r n to the c r u c i a l moment of both Junkie and the opening chapter of Naked Lunch--the heat c l o s i n g i n on the v u l n e r a b l e New York 48 a d d i c t . In p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y portentous f a s h i o n the "Hauser and O'Brien" chapter reworks Lee's r e l a t i o n s h i p to the " r e c u r r e n t cop of my dreams . . . who would rush i n when I was about to take a shot or go to bed with a boy." "Hauser and O'Brien" may evoke the o l d 103rd S t r e e t scene, but i t i s c l e a r t h a t the s t o r y takes p l a c e i n a d i f f e r e n t time and f e a t u r e s a r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d Lee. Most s t r i k i n g l y , Lee has aged, has become h i m s e l f one of the o l d - t i m e r s , as have Hauser and O'Brien: "They been on the C i t y N a r c o t i c s squad f o r 20 years. Oldtimers l i k e me. I been on the junk 16 years" (209)• Instead of going back to the memory of h i s l i f e i n New York d u r i n g the F o r t i e s , Lee seems to be c o n s t r u c t i n g a f a n t a s y i n present time, somewhere i n the middle F i f t i e s . O'Brien h i m s e l f had a r r e s t e d Lee f o r a v i o l a t i o n of P u b l i c H e a l t h Law 33^— "That was about 15 years ago. My f i r s t a r r e s t " (213). 239 Apparently, Lee g i v e s h i m s e l f the chance to imagine h i m s e l f not as he was then ( h e l p l e s s ) hut as he imagines h i m s e l f to be now—capable, assured, on the o f f e n s i v e . Lee d i s c h a r g e s a s i x t e e n - y e a r - o l d o b s e s s i o n through a f a n t a s y cop k i l l i n g . L i k e the r o u t i n e man i n "In Search," Lee "manufactures memories to order. Any k i n d you want and he guarantees y o u ' l l b e l i e v e they happened j u s t t h a t way." When Lee d i s c o v e r s t h a t Hauser and O'Brien no l o n g e r e x i s t i n present t i m e — t h a t there are no more Anglo-Saxons on the s q u a d - - i t i s p r o b l e m a t i c whether the cop k i l l i n g f a n t a s y r e p r e s e n t s a meaningful p s y c h o l o g i c a l achievement or a g r a t u i t o u s episode which recedes i n importance, l e a v i n g the a u s p i c i o u s knowledge t h a t the f a n t a s y i s no longer necessary, l i k e junk. C e r t a i n l y the f a n t a s y (the junk o r i g i n r e v i s i t e d ) fades away l i k e an o l d f i l m , sharp y e t i n c o r p o r e a l - - a n d Lee h i m s e l f fades i n t o an i r r e t r i e v a b l e past, l e a v i n g the cured Burroughs to remember, lament, and go forward. W i t h i n the s t o r y of Lee and Hauser and O'Brien are h i n t s of a new source of i d e n t i t y which d i s t i n g u i s h e s Lee from the g a r r u l o u s junkie of the f i r s t chapter. Even the f a n t a s y p o l i c e know Lee to be something more than a run-of-t h e - m i l l j u n k i e . F i r s t of a l l , the L i e u t e n a n t g i v e s the two d e t e c t i v e s unusual o r d e r s : "'Don't take time to shake 240 the p l a c e down. Except "bring i n a l l books, l e t t e r s , manuscripts. Anything p r i n t e d , typed or w r i t t e n " ( 2 0 9 ) . Lee the junkie has a p p a r e n t l y been promoted to Lee the s u b v e r s i v e underground w r i t e r . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Lee i s r e c a l l i n g h i s New Orleans a r r e s t when h i s l e t t e r s served as i n c r i m i n a t i n g evidence (the F e d e r a l agent who read h i s l e t t e r s a t t h a t time was Houser) but i t seems more l i k e l y t h a t Lee has found a new i d e n t i t y (a new " r e f e r e n c e system") which e x i s t s i n t e n s i o n w i t h the junk s e l f . A f t e r Lee k i l l s the two d e t e c t i v e s , he gathers up h i s e s s e n t i a l m a t e r i a l s : "My hands were a l r e a d y r e a c h i n g f o r what I needed, sweeping my notebooks i n t o a b r i e f c a s e with my works, junk, and a box of s h e l l s " (213). Lee has become i n the f a n t a s y a k i n d of composite junkie and w r i t e r , incapable of d i v i s i o n u n t i l the f i n a l r e a l i z a t i o n t h at the junkie belongs to the p a s t and the w r i t e r to the f u t u r e . The f i n a l twenty l i n e s of Naked Lunch r e q u i r e c l o s e i n s p e c t i o n to see how d i f f i c u l t a s e p a r a t i o n takes plac e between the o l d 103rd S t r e e t s e l f and the adventurous w r i t e r of p r o p h e t i c s c i e n c e f i c t i o n : In the cab I r e a l i z e d what had happened. . . . I had been occluded from space-time l i k e an e e l ' s ass o c c l u d e s when he stops e a t i n g on the way to Sargasso. . . . Locked out. . . . Never a g a i n would I have a Key, a P o i n t of I n t e r s e c t i o n . . . . The Heat was o f f 241 me from here on out. . . . r e l e g a t e d w i t h Hauser and O'Brien to a l a n d l o c k e d junk past where h e r o i n i s always twenty-eight d o l l a r s an ounce and you can score f o r yen pox i n the Chink Laundry of Sioux F a l l s . . . . F a r s i d e of the world's m i r r o r , moving i n t o the past with Hauser and O'Brien clawing a t a n o t - y e t of T e l e p a t h i c Bureauc-r a c i e s , Time Monopolies, C o n t r o l Drugs, Heavy F l u i d A d d i c t s : "I thought of that three hundred years ago." "Your p l a n was unworkable then and u s e l e s s now. . . . L i k e Da V i n c i ' s f l y i n g machine plans. . . ." (217) Lee-Burroughs' junk s e l f j o i n s Hauser and O'Brien i n "a l a n d l o c k e d junk p a s t " r e c a l l e d by an anonymous Lex i n g t o n a d d i c t i n Junkie: "'That was back i n '33- Twenty-eight d o l l a r s an ounce*" ( 7 5 ) . S i m i l a r l y , s i x t e e n y e ars of a d d i c t i o n separates Lee-Burroughs from the f r o n t i e r Chinese laundry of B l a c k ' s world of opium smoking t h i e v e s . As w i t h Cocteau's cure, there i s a sense of heartbreak b a r e l y m i t i g a t e d by the prospect of unimpeded l i t e r a r y (and cinematic) p r o d u c t i o n . Schooled i n the dynamics of a d d i c t i o n , Burroughs-as-author appears a t the v e r y end of Naked Lunch as a f u t u r i s t i c , e s o t e r i c , c o n t r o v e r s i a l f o r c e i n l i t e r a t u r e , the manufacturer of l i t e r a r y " f l y i n g machine p l a n s . " The "Hauser and O'Brien" chapter i s an a l l e g o r y of d e l i v e r a n c e f o l l o w e d by a d i f f i c u l t e x e g e s i s of the r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t -49 forward t e x t . y 242 Other paradigms of cure h e l p focus the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s f i n a l o c c l u s i o n from space-time. One obvious example of an a l l e g o r i c a l performance of cure occurs i n the " H o s p i t a l " chapter where Burroughs-as-patient i s n o t i c i n g the " l a s t , a l l - o u t yen" which "seems to g a i n a dream power" (57)• The f a n t a s y of the Guard immediately f o l l o w s . F o r t u n a t e l y f o r Burroughs, the Guard spends most of h i s time grooming s i n c e no one has ever a r r i v e d at the F r o n t i e r b e f o r e . The Guard i s wearing "a uniform of human s k i n , b l a c k buck j a c k e t w i t h c a r i o u s y e l l o w t e e t h buttons . . . ." ( E a r l i e r Burroughs mentions i n a note that " j u n k i e s l o s e t h e i r y e l l o w fangs f e e d i n g the monkey" _ i5^•) The Guard a p p a r e n t l y watches over the perimeters of the junk world--to walk across the border i s to escape from a d d i c t i o n . D r a m a t i c a l l y , Burroughs proposes h i m s e l f as a lone s u r v i v o r . Despite the Guard's i n c r e d u l i t y , "I walk through" ( 5 8 ) . Though a s l i g h t (and one suspects premature) a l l e g o r y sandwiched between f a c t u a l h o s p i t a l o b s e r v a t i o n s and h i l a r i o u s r o u t i n e s , the f a n t a s y of the Guard o u t l i n e s a Junkie's Progress, one which s i g n a l s Burroughs d e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r cure, as w e l l as s i g n a l l i n g one p o s s i b l e way of f o r m u l i z i n g h i s triumph over the "nightmare i n t e r l u d e of c e l l u l a r p a n i c " which i s withdrawal. "Hauser and O'Brien" l i k e w i s e s i g n a l s a f u g i t i v e d i s c o v e r y of the w i l l to r e s i s t the d e m o r a l i z i n g 2^3 dynamics of a d d i c t i o n . T u r n i n g back to the main body of Naked Lunch, however, one misses a sense of conse c u t i v e movement toward the momentous--if disguised--showdown of the "Hauser and O'Brien" chapter. The apparent t r a c k l e s s n e s s of Naked Lunch's i n t e r i o r i s due i n p a r t to the f a c t t h a t the a l l e g o r i c a l i n n e r debate over a d d i c t i o n does not account f o r the t o t a l i t y of the n o v e l . In f a c t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t at times to r e l a t e to each other a v a r i e t y of a u t h o r i a l presences--the c o n f e s s i n g a d d i c t , the s a t i r i c p r a n k s t e r , the p o l i t i c a l a n a l y s t , the m o r a l i s t , the s c i e n t i s t , the i n n o v a t i v e l i t e r a r y t e c h n i c i a n . But the opening and c l o s i n g chapters suggest the governing r o l e of a d d i c t i o n w i t h i n the i n t e n t i o n s of the n o v e l . Though Naked Lunch can be assessed as something more than a r e p o r t upon the p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l , and economic c o n d i t i o n s of the j u n k i e as r e c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g withdrawal, i t n e v e r t h e l e s s remains t h a t the n o v e l c o n s i s t e n t l y and v a r i o u s l y attempts to house a d d i c t i o n - w i t h d r a w a l i n a l i t e r a r y s t r u c t u r e , an endeavor at once mechanical and Romantic. I t may w e l l be t h a t Junkie i s more i n f o r m a t i v e r e g a r d i n g the s t r e e t f a c t s of a d d i c t i o n , but Naked Lunch reaches f o r p e r c e p t u a l d i s r u p t i o n s which Junkie (due to l i m i t a t i o n s of technique) c o u l d o n l y imply as a b s t r a c t p o s s i b i l i t i e s . To f i n d the s e l f - d e c l a r i n g a d d i c t i n Naked Lunch one 244 would presumably t u r n to the " H o s p i t a l " chapter which f e a t u r e s such promising s u b t i t l e s as " D i s i n t o x i c a t i o n Notes," "Withdrawal Nightmares," and "Habit Notes." But, as w i t h so many oth e r s e c t i o n s of Naked Lunch, t h i s s e c t i o n d i s p l a y s some d i f f i c u l t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g i t s form before "time jumps l i k e a broken t y p e w r i t e r " and another f a n t a s y takes over. C e r t a i n l y , however, Burroughs p r o v i d e s some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g "the nightmare i n t e r l u d e of c e l l u l a r panic, l i f e suspended between two ways of being"--the f a m i l i a r paranoia, the c o l o r blue, everyone l o o k i n g l i k e a drug a d d i c t , dreams of junk, h o s p i t a l r o u t i n e , the s o r d i d days of A l g i e r and t e r m i n a l a d d i c t i o n , the e f f e c t s of cocaine, how to h i t a v e i n by i n s t i n c t , and so on. The one f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d w i t h -drawal nightmare summons once a g a i n the f e a r of p e r s e c u t i o n and the a d d i c t ' s compulsion to defend h i m s e l f : A m i r r o r - l i n e d c a f e . Empty. . . . W a i t i n g f o r something. . . . A man appears i n a si d e door. . . . A s l i g h t , s h o r t Arab dressed i n a brown j e l l a b a w i t h grey beard and grey face . . . There i s a p i t c h e r of b o i l i n g a c i d i n my hand. . . . S e i z e d by a c o n v u l s i o n of urgency, I throw i t i n h i s f a c e . . . . " (56) In more c a s u a l r e c o r d i n g s Burroughs reproduces the random s h i f t s from concrete o b s e r v a t i o n to dream-routine: Using a new type s l e e p i n g p i l l c a l l e d 245 S o n e r y l . . . . You don't f e e l s leepy. . . . You s h i f t to s l e e p without t r a n s i t i o n , f a l l a b r u p t l y i n t o the middle of a dream. . . . I have been years i n a p r i s o n camp s u f f e r i n g from m a l n u t r i t i o n . . . . The P r e s i d e n t i s a junky but can't take i t d i r e c t because of h i s p o s i t i o n . So he gets f i x e d through me. . . . ( 6 7 ) Having scented an entertainment, Burroughs goes on to d i s c u s s the Osmosis Recharge whereby the P r e s i d e n t and Burroughs : come i n t o unspeakable c o n t a c t . In f a c t i t i s d i f f i c u l t to decide whether the " H o s p i t a l " chapter e x i s t s as a s i n c e r e attempt to reproduce the s t a t e of withdrawal w i t h f a c t u a l f i e l d notes (the r o u t i n e s thus being data) or as a chance to c r e a t e amusing j u x t a p o s i t i o n s : The l a v a t o r y has been l o c k e d f o r three s o l i d hours. . . . I t h i n k they are u s i n g i t f o r an o p e r a t i n g room. . . '. NURSE: "I can't f i n d her pu l s e , doctor." Dr. BENWAY: "Maybe she got i t up her snatch i n a f i n g e r s t a l l . " (59) Burroughs transforms i n t o fragmented b i t s of r e p o r t i n g and burlesque the o p p r e s s i v e l y solemn h a l l u c i n a t i o n s common to drug c o n f e s s i o n s s i n c e De Quincey; he r e p l a c e s penitence with i r r e v e r e n t humor; he all o w s the comic w r i t e r to:: move i n t o the n a r r a t i v e and goose the f a c t u a l r e p o r t e r i n t o unseemly h i l a r i t y . T h i s same apparent s c h i z o p h r e n i a a t t a c k s the s e c t i o n s 246 donated to the r e c o v e r y of the Yage s t a t e , where a g a i n we would expect a c e r t a i n committment to hard i n f o r m a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e Yage d u p l i c a t e s the "s i c k n e s s and d e l i r i u m " of withdrawal, the oc c a s i o n , Burroughs claims i n " D e p o s i t i o n : Testimony Concerning A S i c k n e s s , " of the e n t i r e t y of Naked L u n c h . ^ And to a c e r t a i n extent Burroughs does p l a y the r o l e of ps y c h i c experimenter, p r e s e n t i n g h i s v i s i o n of the Composite C i t y as the c e r t a i n r e s u l t of Yage. Burroughs goes back to the ambience of South America to capture the t a s t e and sme l l of Yage: "Cooking smells of a l l c o u n t r i e s hang over the C i t y , a haze of opium, h a s h i s h , the r e s i n o u s red smoke of Yage, smell of the jungle and s a l t water and the r o t t i n g r i v e r and d r i e d excrement and sweat and g e n i t a l s " (108). More i m p o r t a n t l y , however, Burroughs c h a r a c t e r i z e s Yage as the a n t i t h e s i s to withdrawal paranoia: "Images f a l l slow and s i l e n t l i k e snow. . . . S e r e n i t y . . . A l l defenses f a l l . . . e v e r y t h i n g i s f r e e to enter or go out. . . . Fear i s simply i m p o s s i b l e " (109)• And p r o v o c a t i v e l y , metamorphasis appears as a d i r e c t f u n c t i o n of Yage: "I f e e l myself t u r n i n g i n t o a Negress, the b l a c k c o l o r i n v a d i n g my f l e s h . . . Convulsions of l u s t . . . My l e g s take on a w e l l rounded P o l y n e s i a n substance" ( 109 ) . D e s p i t e such suggestive v a r i a n t s to withdrawal, the chapter donated to Yage d e t e r i o r a t e s i n t o a s e r i e s of r o u t i n e s i n v o l v i n g the 247 d i p l o m a t i c b r u j o , Clem and Jody, and the Prophet. Again the i r r e p r e s s i b l e s p o i l i n g v o i c e of the withdrawing a d d i c t (or the comic w r i t e r ) f r a c t u r e s any sense of c o n s e c u t i v e movement toward co n s i d e r e d o p i n i o n s on Yage. I t i s as though the s c i e n t i s t can o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y q u e l l the g a r r u l o u s junkie who i s w a i t i n g o n l y f o r a crack of s i l e n c e to speak and speak and speak. The hemmorrhage of t a l k a t i v e n e s s which accompanies withdrawal f i n d s formal r e c o g n i t i o n i n the body of Naked  Lunch. I n d i s c r e e t t a l k e r s roam through the pages of the n o v e l f i g u r a t i v e l y u r i n a t i n g - - o r e j a c u l a t i n g - - i n t o t h e i r v i c t i m s ' ears. One c h a r a c t e r remarks, f o r example, t h a t "I was a f t e r b e i n g raped myself by a p r i d e of rampant bores" (14-2). Nothing compares, however, wit h the Rampant Bores who escape from Benway's R e c o n d i t i o n i n g Center i n F r e e l a n d : the " i n t e l l e c t u a l a v a n t - g a r d i s t " who i n j e c t s h i s v i c t i m s with bulbocapnine and spouts s c i e n t i f i c " g i b b e r i s h " ; the E n g l i s h C o l o n i a l ("So a f t e r the t h i r d pink g i n when he gets to know you, he s h i f t s to dysentery. 'Most e x t r a o r d i n a r y d i s c h a r g e . More or l e s s of a white y e l l o w c o l o r l i k e r a n c i d jissom and s t r i n g y you know'" JJ38-39J ) ; the South American e x p l o r e r who uses a blow gun with curare d a r t s to p a r a l y z e h i s prey; the e x h i b i t i o n i s t who d i s p l a y s t r o p h i e s r e c e i v e d f o r d i s g u s t i n g degradations ("Stole an opium s u p p o s i t o r y 248 out of my grandmother's ass" [ 4 l | ); and the hypochondriac who r e q u i r e s a s t r a i t j a c k e t i n order to show h i s suppurations and s c a r s to the u n w i l l i n g "bystander. Burroughs c o n t i n u a l l y warns the reader of Naked Lunch a g a i n s t the t a l k a t i v e r e p r o b a t e s who have grabbed the microphone and w i l l speak u n t i l f o r c i b l y cut o f f . The P r o f e s s o r n o t i c e s t h a t " i f t h i s p r o l i x i t y be not cut s h o r t w i l l succumb to the i n f i r m i t i e s of age and j o i n her daughter i n formaldehyde" (86 ). As suspect as the P r o f e s s o r i s the Wise Man: ". . . and some o l d w h i t e h a i r e d fuck staggers out to g i v e us the b e n e f i t of h i s r i p e i d i o c y . Are we never to be f r e e of t h i s grey-beard l o o n l u r k i n g i n every mountain top i n T i b e t , s u b j e c t to drag h i m s e l f out of a hut i n the Amazon, waylay one i n the Bowery? 'I've been e x p e c t i n g you, my son.' And he makes with a s i l o of corn. ' L i f e i s a s c h o o l where every p u p i l must l e a r n a d i f f e r e n t l e s s o n . And now I w i l l unlock my Word Hoard. . . . " " ' I do f e a r i t much.' "'Nay, n o t h i n g s h a l l stem the r i s i n g t i d e . ' " ' I can't stem him, boys. Sauve  q u i peut.* "'I t e l l you when I lea v e the Wise Man I don't even f e e l l i k e a human. He c o n v e r t i n g my orgones i n t o dead b u l l s h i t . ' " (116) "And I got a s i l o of queer corn where t h a t come from," Burroughs w r i t e s to Ginsberg, sabotaging the B i l l y B r a d s h i n k e l r o u t i n e and s u g g e s t i n g the d i s g u s t w i t h which he beholds h i s 2 ^ 9 own u n c o n t r o l l a b l e i m a g i n a t i o n . The image of the compulsive t a l k e r does not exhaust i t s e l f i n terms of withdrawal and s e l f - r i d i c u l e . The P r o f e s s o r ' s l e c t u r e on the A n c i e n t Mariner p r o v i d e s a key to y e t another e x t e n s i o n of the meaning of the g a r r u l o u s withdrawing a d d i c t : "He __the Mariner] may be rambling, i r -r e l e v a n t , even crude and rampant s e n i l e . But something happens to the Wedding Guest l i k e happens i n p s y c h o a n a l y s i s when i t happens i f i t happens. I f I may be p e r m i t t e d a s l i g h t d i g r e s s i o n . . . an a n l y s t C s i ° 3 °f m y acquaintance does a l l the t a l k i n g — p a t i e n t s l i s t e n p a t i e n t l y or not. . . . He reminiscences . . . t e l l s d i r t y jokes ( o l d ones) achieves c o u n t e r p o i n t s of i d i o c y undreamed of by The County C l e r k . He i s i l l u s t r a t i n g at l e n g t h t h a t n o t h i n g can ever be accom-p l i s h e d on the v e r b a l l e v e l . . . . He a r r i v e d a t h i s method through o b s e r v i n g that The L i s t e n e r — T h e A n a l y s t — w a s not re a d i n g the mind of the p a t i e n t . . . . The p a t i e n t — T h e T a l k e r — w a s r e a d i n g h i s mind. . . . That i s the p a t i e n t has ESP awareness of the a n a l y s t ' s dreams and schemes whereas the a n a l y s t c o n t a c t s the p a t i e n t s t r i c t l y from f r o n t b r a i n . . . . Many agents use t h i s a p p r o a c h — t h e y are n o t o r i o u s l y long-winded bores and bad l i s t e n e r s . . . . ( 8 7 - 8 8 ) T h i s passage d i g n i f i e s the compulsive speaker w i t h a r a t i o n a l e and a purpose beyond the v e r b a l e x c r e t i o n caused by withdrawal. The P r o f e s s o r proposes g a r r u l i t y as a source of mysterious s e l f - d i s c o v e r y f o r the L i s t e n e r - R e a d e r , 250 as w e l l as a form of d i s g u i s e f o r the Speaker-Agent. The reader must "be prepared to read the "rambling, i r r e l e v a n t , even crude and rampant senile"" v o i c e s i n Naked Lunch as s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a n t s of the c o n f e s s i n g v o i c e which means to be taken dead s e r i o u s l y . The g r e a t Benway, f o r example, stands out as the most l o q u a c i o u s m e d i c a l h o r r o r i n the n o v e l , t y p i f y i n g Buchenwald a t t i t u d e s toward medical ex-p e r i m e n t a t i o n — I r i s 's pure sugar d i e t or h i s p u r e l y a e s t h e t i c o p e r a t i o n s . The i r o n y i s t h a t Benway o c c a s i o n a l l y serves as Burroughs' mouthpiece on p o l i t i c a l s u b j e c t s : "A bureau takes r o o t anywhere i n the s t a t e , t u r n s malignant l i k e the N a r c o t i c Bureau, and grows and grows, always r e p r o d u c i n g more of i t s k i n d , u n t i l i t chokes the host i f not c o n t r o l l e d and e x c i s e d " ( 1 3 ^ ) . Though e x c e p t i o n a l f o r many reasons, Naked Lunch's r e f u s a l to c o n s i d e r c h a r a c t e r as independant of the c o n f e s s i n g a d d i c t - - a n d i t s d e d i c a t i o n to withdrawal as a l i t e r a r y mode--defines i t s s p e c i a l i n t e g r i t y . Another example of a withdrawal symptom which undergoes r a d i c a l e x t e n s i o n i n Naked Lunch i s the sexual e r u p t i o n symbolized by the ceremonial hangings. R e p u d i a t i n g any e r o t i c i n t e n t i o n w i t h these c o n t r o v e r s i a l scenes, Burroughs w r i t e s i n the " D e p o s i t i o n " t h a t " c e r t a i n passages i n the book t h a t have been c a l l e d pornographic were w r i t t e n as a t r a c t a g a i n s t C a p i t a l Punishment i n the manner of Jonathan 251 S w i f t ' s Modest P r o p o s a l " ( x i i ) . D e s p i t e Burroughs' p r o t e s t , the hanging scenes r e c a l l a mode of sado-masochistic e r o t i c i s m (Roland i n J u s t i n e , f o r example) which seems to have more to do w i t h the a p o c a l y p t i c p o t e n t i a l of the 51 orgasm than the e x e c u t i o n of C a r y l Chessman. More important, however, than the e r o t i c e f f e c t s of the hanging sequences (which are i n s c r u t a b l y personal) are the c o r r e -spondences which Burroughs develops between demonic s e x u a l i t y and withdrawal. As has been n o t i c e d , Lee's i n v o l u n t a r y orgasm d u r i n g withdrawal evokes the image of the hanged man: "Sparks exploded behind my eyes; my l e g s twitched--the orgasm of a hanged man when the neck snaps" (Junkie 1 05 ) . In the hanging scenes of Naked Lunch orgasm t r i g g e r s o f f the memories of youth a s s o c i a t e d with withdrawal: "He stand up screaming and b l a c k blood s p u r t s o l i d from h i s l a s t e r e c t i o n , a pale white s t a t u e s t a n d i n g t h e r e , as i f he had stepped whole ac r o s s the Great Fence, climbed i t as innocent and calm as a boy climb the fence to f i s h i n the f o r b i d d e n pond . . . " ( 9 5 ) . The j u x t a p o s i t i o n of demonic orgasm a g a i n s t n o s t a l g i c memories occurs f r e q u e n t l y through the hanging sequences. When Mark reaches orgasm, "a t r a i n r o a r through him w h i s t l e blowing . . . boat w h i s t l e , f o g -horn, sky r o c k e t b u r s t over o i l y lagoons . . . " ( 95 ) - L i k e piano music down a windy s t r e e t and the s m e l l of burning 252 l e a v e s , the sound of t r a i n s comes to stand f o r an a t t a c k of n o s t a l g i a i n c i d e n t to orgasm (and junk s i c k n e s s ) : "Two hoys j a c k i n g o f f under r a i l r o a d b r i d g e . The t r a i n shakes through t h e i r b o d i e s , e j a c u l a t e them, fades with d i s t a n t w h i s t l e " (81). One c h a r a c t e r i s a c t u a l l y "working on the most marvelous i n v e n t i o n . . . a boy who d i s a p p e a r s as soon as you come l e a v i n g a s m e l l of burning l e a v e s and a sound e f f e c t of d i s t a n t t r a i n w h i s t l e s " ( 1 11 ) . T h i s complex matrix i n v o l v i n g withdrawal, demonic orgasm, n o s t a l g i a (and p o s s i b l y moral a l l e g o r y ) i s a r i c h l i t e r a r y c o r r e l a t i v e to the psycho-sexual search f o r a b s o l u t i o n - s a t i e t y . The p o e t i c mode which Burroughs d i s c o v e r s i n the process of withdrawal i s perhaps most f u l l y r e a l i z e d i n the at t u r n s a n a l y t i c and i n t e n t i o n a l l y d e l i r i o u s " Atrophied P r e f a c e " - -the r e t r o s p e c t i v e commentary on the j u n k i e ' s progress toward cure and a u t h o r s h i p . Due to i t s manifest u s e f u l n e s s as a resource f o r t h i n g s to say about Naked L u n c h - a s - l i t e r a r y -experiment, the "Atrophied P r e f a c e " ( i n c l u d e d i n the 1959 Olympia Press e d i t i o n ) can e a s i l y be overlooked as a forum f o r some of Burroughs' most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w r i t i n g on the s u b j e c t of a d d i c t i o n - w i t h d r a w a l ; d e s p i t e o u t b u r s t s of p r o b l e m a t i c l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , the withdrawal p e r s p e c t i v e has become a l i t e r a r y i n s t i n c t , a m a n n e r i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r l y s uggestive s t a t e of being. The "Atrophied 253 P r e f a c e " i s l e s s a commentary upon the body of Naked Lunch than a reworking of the withdrawal experience--an attempt to say i t a l l a g a i n . A passage which can be taken to mean th a t Naked Lunch i s about withdrawal a c t u a l l y t r i g g e r s memories of withdrawal w i t h i n the " A t r o p h i e d P r e f a c e " i t s e l f : Lee The Agent i s t a k i n g the junk cure . . . space-time t r i p p o r t e n t o u s l y f a m i l i a r as junk meet cor n e r s to the a d d i c t . . . cures past and f u t u r e s h u t t l e p i c t u r e s through h i s s p e c t r a l substance v i b r a t i n g i n s i l e n t winds of a c c e l e r a t e d Time. . . . Pick a shot. . . . Any shot. . . . (218) Burroughs goes on to p u l l out shapshots of past cures: "Formal knuckle b i t i n g , f l o o r r o l l i n g shots i n a p r e c i n c t c e l l . . . . 'Feel l i k e a shot of H e r o i n , B i l l ? Haw Haw Haw"' (218). More p i c t u r e s flow i n t o the n a r r a t i v e , t h i s time from C e n t r a l America where "In Search'" began: " T e n t a t i v e h a l f impressions t h a t d i s s o l v e i n l i g h t . . . pockets of r o t t e n ectoplasm swept out by an o l d junky coughing and s p i t t i n g i n the s i c k morning. . . . Old v i o l e t brown p i c t u r e s t h a t c u r l and crack l i k e mud i n the sun: Panama C i t y . . . " (218 - 1 9 ) . A f t e r Gains and Lee have bought a l l the p a r e g o r i c p o s s i b l e i n Panama, "Gains back to Mexico C i t y . . . . Desperate s k e l e t o n g r i n of c h r o n i c junk l a c k g l a z e d over with codeine and goof b a l l s . . . " while Lee e n t e r s South America and 254 withdrawal: "And Lee "back to sex and p a i n and time and Yage, b i t t e r Soul Vine of the Amazon" (219). Oddly enough, i t i s Cannabis ( i n the form of Majoun) which o c c a s i o n s acute a n x i e t y i n a v i l l a o u t s i d e Tangier--"and suddenly don't know where I am" (220). J u s t as Lee jumping up screaming "I got the f e a r " begins the openly h a l l u c i n a t e d r o u t i n e s and a l l e g o r i e s of Naked Lunch, Cannabis paranoia overcome ("I decide to p l a y i t c o o l and maybe I w i l l get the o r i e n t a t i o n b efore the Owner shows") p r e c i p i t a t e s a u t h o r i t a t i v e statements on l i t e r a t u r e , p o l i t i c s , and mysticism. The withdrawal experience ( s y m b o l i c a l l y reproduced with the overdose of Majoun) can now be c o n t r o l l e d and put to work. I t i s p o s s i b l e , then, t h a t the "Atrophied P r e f a c e " i s a more r e f i n e d example of what can be c a l l e d the language of withdrawal ( f i r s t attempted by Crowley and extended by Cocteau). I t i s the language of a consciousness a f f l i c t e d by memory, r e m i n i s c e n t of Proust and D u r r e l l i f i t were not t h a t memory accompanies p h y s i c a l p a i n : "Powder t r a i n s burn back through pink c o n v o l u t i o n s of tumescent f l e s h . . . s e t o f f f l a s h bulb of orgasm . . . p i n - p o i n t photos of a r r e s t e d motion . . . smooth brown s i d e t w i s t e d to l i g h t a c i g a r e t t e " (234). What might s t a r t out as a mock-heroic r o u t i n e winds up as a b i t t e r dose of n o s t a l g i a : 255 My V i k i n g h e a r t f a r e s over the great brown r i v e r where motors put put put i n jungle t w i l i g h t and whole t r e e s f l o a t with huge snakes i n the branches and sad-eyed lemurs watch the shore, ac r o s s the M i s s o u r i f i e l d (The Boy f i n d s a pink arrowhead) out along d i s t a n t t r a i n w h i s t l e s , comes back to me hungry as a s t r e e t boy don't know how to peddle the ass God gave him. . . . (230) And what begins as s t r a i g h t pornography ends w i t h a n o s t a l g i c Mid-west image: "Johnny on a l l f o u r s and Mary sucking him and running her f i n g e r s down the t h i g h backs and l i g h t over the o u t f i e l d s of the b a l l park" (225). The presence of withdrawal as a p r i n c i p l e of composition e n r i c h e s shards of poignant memory: "In a v a l e of cocaine and innocence sad-eyed youths y o d e l f o r a l o s t Danny Boy" ( 2 2 9 ) ,or "'Come and jack o f f . . .' I 929 " (227) or Ginsberg's example of sad r e s i g n a t i o n : "Motel . . . Motel . . . Motel . . . broken neon arabesque . . . l o n e l i n e s s moans a c r o s s the c o n t i n e n t l i k e f o g horns over s t i l l o i l y waters of t i d a l r i v e r s " ( 2 25 - 26 ) . Amid the n o s t a l g i a and the r o u t i n e s of the "Atrophied P r e f a c e , " however, the l i s t e n e r does indeed hear a new v o i c e . L i k e De Quincey's c o n f e s s o r turned l i t e r a r y t h e o r e t i c i a n , Burroughs attempts to r a d i c a l l y reduce the i n t e n t i o n s of Naked Lunch: 256 There i s only one t h i n g a w r i t e r can w r i t e about: what i s i n f r o n t of h i s  senses a t the moment of w r i t i n g . . . . I am a r e c o r d i n g instrument. . . . I do not presume to impose " s t o r y " " p l o t " " c o n t i n u i t y " . . . I n s o f a r a s I succeed i n D i r e c t r e c o r d i n g of c e r t a i n areas of ps y c h i c process I may have l i m i t e d f u n c t i o n . . .• . I am not an e n t e r t a i n e r . (221) Of course, t h i s comment does not r e f l e c t the experience of 52 Naked Lunch, J but i t does suggest what Burroughs thought a t the time o f w r i t i n g the "Pr e f a c e " r e g a r d i n g the im a g i n a t i v e r e s t o r a t i o n of the withdrawal experience. By redu c i n g h i s w r i t i n g to the r e c o r d i n g of p s y c h i c process, Burroughs promotes h i s w r i t i n g to the s t a t u s of f a c t , t r a d i t i o n a l l y the most sought a f t e r s t a t u s i n the l i t e r a t u r e of a d d i c t i o n . Burroughs a p p a r e n t l y b e l i e v e d that h i s c r e d i b i l i t y goes up i n r e l a t i o n to the d i s t a n c e t h a t he can achieve from any t a i n t o f l i t e r a r y f a c i l i t y ; he transforms h i s h a l l u c i n a t i o n s i n t o symptoms which can be d i s p a s s i o n a t e l y d i s c u s s e d and demonstrated, r a t h e r l i k e an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t making f i e l d r