Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The backcountry of Manning Provincial Park : management and use 1976

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1976_A8 F69.pdf [ 9.44MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0093764.json
JSON-LD: 1.0093764+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0093764.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0093764+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0093764+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0093764+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0093764.ris

Full Text

THE EACKCCUNTBY CP MANNING PROVINCIAL EARK MANAGEMENT AND USE LUCY FOX A . B . , U n i v e r s i t y of M i c h i g a n , 1973 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE BEQUIEEMENTS FGB THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY CF GRADUATE STUDIES Schoo l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g we accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e g u i r e d s t andard THE ONIVEFSITY CF EBITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1976 c o p y r i g h t c l a imed Lucy Fox , 1976 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the r equ i rement s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the l i b r a r y s h a l l make i f f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copy ing o f t h i s t h e s i s fo r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s unders tood tha t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l owed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . S c h o o l c f Community and B e g i c n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Hesbrcok P l a c e Vancouver , Canada V6T 115 A p r i l 1, 1976 i ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s s t u d i e s the use and management o f a p o r t i o n o f the backcountry i n Manning P r o v i n c i a l P a r k , l o c a t e d 140 m i l e s east o f the Vancouver a r e a . L i k e many o ther North American w i l d l a n d s near urban c e n t r e s . Manning Park i s e x p e r i e n c i n g i n c r e a s e d p r e s s u r e due to p o p u l a t i o n growth i n the s u r r o u n d i n g area and the c u r r e n t p o p u l a r i t y of h i k i n g and camping a c t i v i t i e s . Demand f o r backcountry r e c r e a t i o n a rea s appears to be i n c r e a s i n g f a s t e r than new l a n d s are added to park sys tems . The r e s u l t : t r a i l s and camps i te s become more crowded, with p o s s i b l e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s on both the p h y s i c a l environment and on the " w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e " o f h i k e r s . E n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y d e t e r i o r a t i o n , which may i n d i c a t e t h a t a g i v e n a r e a ' s b i o p h y s i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y has been exceeded , can i n c l u d e p o l l u t i o n of s t reams , presence o f l i t t e r , and the chopp ing o f l i v e t r e e s f o r f i r e w o o d . P s y c h o l o g i c a l consequences of heavy use have been r e c o g n i z e d more r e c e n t l y as impor tan t f o r backcountry management. These r e f e r to the h i k e r ' s t o l e r a n c e f o r o ther humans i n the a r e a , f o r some backpackers the w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e i s enhanced by s o c i a l e n c o u n t e r s , whi le f o r c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s , the mere e v i d e n c e o f another camping p a r t y can r u i n a t r i p . L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n on Manning P a r k ' s backcountry— b i o p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and problems, and v i s i t o r numbers, types and needs—has been c o l l e c t e d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t i s f e l t managers and p l a n n e r s have not g i v e n adeguate i i a t t e n t i o n to the p r e f e r e n c e s and o p i n i o n s of bacxcountry v i s i t o r s . T h u s , the f o l l o w i n g s teps were under t aken : *1 An examinat ion of v a r i o u s management c h o i c e s a v a i l a b l e i n p l a n n i n g f o r backccuntry h i k i n g a r e a s , through a review of r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e ; •2 A case s tudy o f the b a c k c c u n t r y o f Manning P a r k , f o c u s i n g cn the Heather T r a i l . F i r s t , data were o b t a i n e d r e g a r d i n g v i s i t o r s - - t h e i r backgrounds , p r e f e r e n c e s f o r backccunt ry f a c i l i t i e s , numbers of v i s i t o r s , and management a l t e r n a t i v e s . H a l f - h o u r p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s were conducted a t camps i te s i n the summer of 1975, f o l l o w e d up with ma i l ed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n October 1975. Second , i n f o r m a t i o n about pre sent management p r a c t i c e s , planned f u t u r e deve lopments , and the o p i n i o n s c f managers on backcountry use and development , was o b t a i n e d . P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s were conducted with n a t u r a l i s t s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and p l a n n e r s , and the c o n c e p t u a l p l an developed fox the a rea by the Parks Branch p l a n n e r s was examined. • 3 Sugges t ion c f p r a c t i c a b l e management procedures which would h e l p t o c r e a t e a backccuntry environment meeting user needs and d e s i r e s , whi le a i d i n g i n the maintenance o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y . The case s tudy r e v e a l e d t h a t managers l a c k the data on use l e v e l s , v i s i t o r o p i n i o n s , and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s , which would g r e a t l y a s s i s t f u t u r e management and p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s . V i s i t o r s , t o o , l a c k i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the p a r k , i t s f e a t u r e s , and f a c i l i t i e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , they are i i i not exposed to information about the proper types of behaviour, those least l i k e l y to damage the biophysical environment. Two primary reasons exist for t h i s deficiency: the park supplies l i t t l e information, and v i s i t o r s tend to avoid the Nature House, thus not receiving the available information. The following recommendations were set forward: » 1 That a hiker r e g i s t r a t i o n system be implemented; «2 That mere extensive information be made available, and that v i s i t e r s be encouraged to take advantage of i t ; *3 That a n a t u r a l i s t be hired to hike the Heather T r a i l loop during peak use times; *4 That unobtrusive physical measures be taken to curb t r a i l erosion and widening; «5 That a new lec-p t r a i l be constructed connecting the Three Brothers peaks; and *6 That park managers participate in seminars and workshops dealing with biophysical and psychological carrying capacity problems in the backccuntry, and various workable solutions to them. i v TABLE CP CONTENTS Pacje INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHAPTER 1—OVERVIEW Of THE PROBLEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 H i s t o r i c a l Context 2 Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Study Des ign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 O b j e c t i v e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Study Components 12 CHAPTER 2—C A S E STUDY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Area D e s c r i p t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Study Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 User I n f o r m a t i o n 23 Contac t With Managers And P l a n n e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 CHAPTER 3—STUDY FINDINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i . . ^ . . . . . . . 32 O b s e r v a t i o n s Regarding Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * .. 32 Amount Of Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Use Impact And Ev idence Of Overuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Background I n f o r m a t i o n P e r t a i n i n g To H i k e r s . . . . . . . 41 Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 E x p e r i e n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Frequency Of H i k i n g A c t i v i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 E d u c a t i o n . 4 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . * . . . . . . . 44 Occupat ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 P l a c e Of O r i g i n 46 V Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 T r i p D e t a i l s and P l a n n i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 I n f o r m a t i o n , A d v i c e , And Sugges t ions . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Group S i z e 50 T r i p Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 H i k e r D i s t r i b u t i o n Over Campsi tes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 H i k e r A t t i t u d e s Towards Backcountry Improvements . . 54 T r a i l s . . • . . , • 54 I n f o r m a t i o n a l S igns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Garbage H a n d l i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • - . . . . . . 57 F irewood 59 P r o v i s i o n Of A d d i t i o n a l T r a i l s And Campsi tes . . . 60 Numbers And Conges t ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 On The T r a i l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 In Camps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Behav iour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 D e p r e c i a t i v e E e b a v i c u r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Use Of Des ignated W i l d e r n e s s Campsi tes . . . . . . . . . 72 G e n e r a l A t t i t u d e s 73 Management Procedures To A l t e r Pre sent Behaviour And Use P a t t e r n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 A l t e r i n g Or R e s t r i c t i n g Behaviour 76 Procedures Which Would L i m i t Numbers . . . 82 The T y p i c a l Heather T r a i l Backpacker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 CHAPTER 4—THE MANAGEMENT CF MANNING PARK: THE PRESENT SITUATION AND FUTURE TRENDS 100 M a n a g e r i a l A t t e n t i o n To P h y s i c a l Aspec t s Of Backccuntry Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 1 v i The Role Of A d m i n i s t r a t o r s . . . . . 1 0 1 The Role Of N a t u r a l i s t s 102 M a n a g e r i a l C o n t a c t With Backcountry H i k e r s . . . . . . . . 103 The Role Of A d m i n i s t r a t o r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 The Hole Of N a t u r a l i s t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 M a n a g e r i a l A t t i t u d e s Towards Backcountry Use And P o l i c i e s 107 P e r c e p t i o n s Of Managers R e l a t i n g To T h e i r Roles In A f f e c t i n g Use . . . . . . . . . . , 107 Backcountry Problems P e r c e i v e d By Managers 108 Probab le Future Developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 The C o n c e p t u a l P lan And H i k i n g T r a i l s . . . . . . . . . . 111 The C o n c e p t u a l P l a n And Nature I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . . 113 R e a c t i o n s Of Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 CHAPTER 5—CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 9 C o n c l u s i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 C r i t e r i a For Dec i s ionmaking 125 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 APPENDIX 1—TABLES 141 APPENDIX 2—QUESTIONNAIRES 172 v i i LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page I— Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 I I— Exper i ence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 I I I — E d u c a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 I V — P l a c e Of O r i g i n 145 V — A t t r a c t i o n Of Manning Park 146 V I — A t t r a c t i o n Of Heather T r a i l 147 VII— - I i i f o r m a t i o n Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 V I I I — Group S i z e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 IX— T r i p Length 150 X— D e s i r a b l e Treatment C£ Hud Patches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 X L — S i g n s Beguested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 XII— -Management Of L i t t e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 X I I I — P r o v i s i o n Of F irewood 154 XIV— -Mean O v e r a l l B e a c t i o n To H i k e r Numbers . , 155 XV— I d e a l Number Of Camped Groups . . 156 X V I — Maximum T o l e r a b l e Number Of Camped Groups . . . . . . . . . 157 X V I I — Observed D e p r e c i a t i v e Behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 X V I I I — l i m i t a t i o n Of Campfires 159 XIX— Fees . . . 160 XX— Dogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 X X I — P a r t y S i z e L i m i t s 162 X X I I — B e g i s t r a t i o n System . . . . . . . . . . . . . • - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 X X I I I — P a t r o l s 164 XXIV— B e s p o n s i b i l i t y For Damage Caused 165 XXV— B a t i o n i n g Systems 166 v i i i XXVI— P r e f e r r e d Type Of R a t i o n i n g System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 X X V I I — Advance Signup For Campsites 168 X X V I I I — Advance S ignup For I n d i v i d u a l Spots . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 XXIX— E l i m i n a t i o n Of Eoad Access 170 XXX— C e r t i f i c a t i o n 171 i x LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1— Map Cf Manning P r o v i n c i a l P a r k , B. C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2— Map Of Case Study a r e a : The Heather T r a i l . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3— Photographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 4— Sample Continuum Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 5— Continuum S e t , Completed Using Mean Responses . . . . . . . . 62 6— -Continuum S e t , Completed I l l u s t r a t i n g Numbering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 7— Photographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 8— -Nature House T r a i l Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 X JCKN08IEDGEMENTS Many i n d i v i d u a l s who a s s i s t e d me i n d e v e l o p i n g and p r o d u c i n g t h i s document deserve my warmest t h a n k s . P r o f e s s o r s I r v i n g Fox and W i l l i a m flees p r o v i d e d me with v a l u a b l e s u p p o r t , g u i d a n c e , and c r i t i c i s m throughout the s t u d y . Working w i t h them has been both c h a l l e n g i n g and s a t i s f y i n g . The B r i t i s h Columbia Parks Branch p l a n n e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y C o l i n C a m p b e l l , Barbara H o r t o n , and Mel T u r n e r , were h e l p f u l , i n t e r e s t e d , and generous wi th t h e i r t i m e . C h a r l i e Young, my f r i e n d and husband, was an e n t h u s i a s t i c and r e s o u r c e f u l f i e l d a s s i s t a n t , who encouraged me i n the darker moments. Hundreds of hours of p a t i e n t a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n by Howard C h e r n i a c k made i t p o s s i b l e f o r me to produce a c o m p u t e r - p r i n t e d t h e s i s . F i n a l l y , my thanks go to the many people connected with Manning P a r k , without whose i n t e r e s t and c o o p e r a t i o n t h i s s tudy would not have been p o s s i b l e , namely the Heather T r a i l b a c k p a c k e r s . Park N a t u r a l i s t Graham B e l l , and D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t Herb G r e e n , who took the t ime to share t h e i r o p i n i o n s and f e e l i n g s with me. 1 OIlCDUCTIpJ T h i s t h e s i s p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s of a r e c r e a t i o n a l use s tudy o f a backcountry area i n Manning P r o v i n c i a l P a r k , which border s the populous Lower Main land o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t i s b e l i e v e d tha t both day and o v e r n i g h t use of t h i s f a c i l i t y are i n c r e a s i n g i n p o p u l a r i t y , On the o ther hand , i t i s not p r e s e n t l y r e c e i v i n g management a t t e n t i o n geared towards h e l p i n g i t cope with i n t e n s i f i e d use . T h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , i s concerned with the e f f e c t s of i n c r e a s e d use both on the h i k e r s * enjoyment of t h e i r backcountry e x p e r i e n c e and cn t h e i r o p i n i o n s of d e s i r a b l e management g o a l s and p r a c t i c e s f o r the a r e a . 2 CHAPTER J Q2M1IM CF THE H G B I E H HISTORICAL CONTEXT In an i n c r e a s i n g l y popula ted and u r b a n i z e d North A m e r i c a , many forms of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p r o v i d i n g e scape , p h y s i c a l c h a l l e n g e , communion with n a t u r e , and s o l i t u d e are g a i n i n g p o p u l a r i t y . G r e a t e r numbers of people are e x e r t i n g p r e v i o u s l y u n f e l t p re s sure on r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d s , p a r t i c u - l a r l y w i l d l a n d r e s o u r c e s . A l l a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e , a c c o r d i n g to Lucas (1964, page 25) p o i n t s t o a g r e a t e r r e l a t i v e demand f o r w i l d l a n d r e c r e a t i o n than f c r e ther forms o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . The W i l d l a n d Research Center (1962,page 236) , p r e d i c t e d an e i g h t f o l d i n c r e a s e i n w i l d e r n e s s use by the year 2000, and o n l y a f o u r f o l d i n c r e a s e i n camping i n g e n e r a l . W i l l a r d (1971,page 120) , s t a t e s t h a t users of lew- d e n s i t y r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s are i n c r e a s i n g i n number f a s t e r than the a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s are g rowing . In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p r o v i n c i a l park o v e r n i g h t use jumped U058 between 1971 and 1974, w h i l e the p r o v i n c e ' s p o p u l a t i o n rose by j u s t 9% ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada e s t i m a t e ) . P r o v i n c i a l pa rk l ands i n c r e a s e d from 2.68 m i l l i o n h e c t a r e s i n 1971 to 3.8 m i l l i o n h e c t a r e s i n 1974 ( B r i t i s h Columbia Parks Branch f i g u r e s ) . Much of the newly-added p a r k l a n d i s i n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , however, and i s t h e r e f o r e i n a c c e s s i b l e to Lower Main land r e s i d e n t s . 3 S i n c e demand i s i n c r e a s i n g f a s t e r than the supp ly o f u sab le " w i l d l a n d " o r p a r k l a n d , the s i t u a t i o n near r a p i d l y - growing areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia deserves some a t t e n t i o n . Throughout Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , w i l d l a n d s near urban c e n t r e s are p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e to p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e s ( M a c N e i l l , 1971, page 136) . V i s i t o r s to G l a c i e r Peak W i l d e r n e s s , near S e a t t l e , Washington, i n c r e a s e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 431, to 7400 a n n u a l l y , between 1958 and 1965, a c c o r d i n g to r e g i s t r a t i o n data (Hendee, 1968, page 4 ) . Backcountry use i n J a sper N a t i o n a l P a r k , e a s i l y reached by C a l g a r y r e s i d e n t s , i n c r e a s e d by 30$ between 1963 and 1973 (pe r sona l communica t ion , F l a n a g a n , J a sper Park S u p e r i n t e n - d e n t , 1975). The C a l i f o r n i a S i e r r a , w i t h i n a few hours of San F r a n c i s c o and Les A n g e l e s , has seen a much sharper i n c r e a s e i n use than the n a t i o n a l average of 12%. Nash (1968, page 268) r e p o r t s t h a t over 450 people have camped at one time at s m a l l Shadow Lake i n the flinarets W i l d e r n e s s . Three hundred people c l i m b Mt. Whitney, the S i e r r a ' s h ighes t peak, on the average summer weekend. Labor Day weekends send 1500 people t o the peak. Haft t r a v e l through the Grand Canyon v i a the C o l o r a d o S i v e r i n c r e a s e d from e i g h t y v i s i t e r s i n 1958 to 9935 i n 1970, and 16,422 i n 1972. V i s i t o r s to the USDA F o r e s t S e r v i c e W i l d e r n e s s e s and P r i m i t i v e Areas i n c r e a s e d f o u r t e e n t imes between 1946 and 1970. Over the same p e r i o d de s i gna ted w i l d e r n e s s acreage i n c r e a s e d by a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3$ (Stankey, 1973, page 2 ) . a it i s impor tan t to note t h a t the r e c r e a t i o n a l areas under d i s c u s s i o n are not t r u e " w i l d e r n e s s e s , " a l though they may be r e f e r r e d t o i n the l i t e r a t u r e as w i l d or w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s . In f a c t , they may be managed and s e r v i c e d r e g u l a r l y , as t r a i l s are c o n s t r u c t e d , p i t t o i l e t s c l e a n e d , d e a d f a l l c l e a r e d o f f t r a i l s , l i t t e r c o l l e c t e d , and camps i te s p a t r o l l e d . In t h i s t h e s i s , the term " w i l d l a n d s " w i l l be used i n r e f e r e n c e to these backccunt ry areas which are not t r u e w i l d e r n e s s . Such areas are c a r e d f o r and managed fo r human use , but with the i n t e n t i o n c f p r o t e c t i n g the w i l d and r u s t i c atmosphere. PROBLEM STATEMENT The problems brought on by overuse may be b e t t e r under- s tood i f one l o o k s at w i l d l a n d s used f o r r e c r e a t i o n as a common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e . They are p u b l i c l y owned, l i k e a i r , oceans and f i s h e r i e s , and can be used by more than one i n d i v i d u a l c r economic u n i t . At low l e v e l s of use an a d d i - t i o n a l user may impose no c o s t . But s i n c e the r e s o u r c e i s f i n i t e , a s a t u r a t i o n p o i n t e x i s t s , beyond which t h e r e are more u ser s than are s o c i a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y , p h y s i c a l l y , or p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d e s i r a b l e . The a d d i t i o n a l user causes o t h e r s to s u f f e r d i s u t i l i t i e s , or a d e c l i n e i n the g u a l i t y o f the e x p e r i e n c e ; thus h i s or her presence i s n e g a t i v e . As T h o r s e l l (1971, page 25) expresses the d i lemma, " T h i s i s the type o f problem f a c i n g w i l d e r n e s s p l a n n e r s and managers. The c e n t r a l i s s u e i s t h a t o f any common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e — t h e s p e c t r e of 5 growing demand, r i s i n g p o p u l a t i o n , f i n i t e s t o c k s , u n l i m i t e d e n t r y , c o n g e s t i o n , d e c l i n e i n q u a l i t y , and l a c k of e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l mechanisms to ensure an unimpaired y i e l d of b e n e f i t s , " as use i n c r e a s e s i n w i l d l a n d a r e a s , management p r a c t i c e s and p o l i c i e s f o r l o w - d e n s i t y r e c r e a t i o n ( e . g . , b a c k p a c k i n g , d a y - h i k i n g , c a n o e i n g , c r o s s - c o u n t r y s k i i n g ) must adapt to ensure an " u n i m p a i r e d y i e l d o f b e n e f i t s , " or tha t the p h y s i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l , and psycho- l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s o f a g iven area are not exceeded . The s p e c i f i c term " p h y s i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y " d e a l s with the e f f e c t s of human v i s i t a t i o n on the n o n - l i v i n g env i ronment . For example, t h i s c a t egory would i n c l u d e the a b i l i t y of the t e r r a i n t o r e s i s t e r o s i o n . The p h y s i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of a pr imary sand dune would be much lower than t h a t of a w e l l - d r a i n e d f o r e s t f l o o r , on the b a s i s of h a r d i n e s s and r e s i s t a n c e to s i t e i m p a c t . A d d i t i o n a l l y , a s i t e ' s c a p a c i t y t o " a b s o r b " t r a i l s and b r i d g e s without e x p e r i e n c i n g s i g n i f i c a n t d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s g u a l i t y would be a de terminant of p h y s i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i n the r e c r e a t i o n c o n t e x t . The l a c k of a v a i l a b l e d e a d f a l l t imber f o r c ampf i re s or a d e a r t h of empty camping spots might i n d i c a t e t h a t an a r e a ' s p h y s i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y had been surpassed (Nash, 1967, page 2 6 6 ) . B i o l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y r e f e r s to the p o i n t beyond which human a c t i v i t y w i l l have permanent - i r r e v e r s i b l e e f f e c t s on l i f e i n the w i l d l a n d env i ronment . A change i n p l a n t numbers or types or i n the numbers, b e h a v i o u r , or 6 d i s t r i b u t i o n o f an animal s p e c i e s w i l l a f f e c t e t h e r p l a n t - an ima l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the sys tem, 8hen man p o l l u t e s water b o d i e s , feeds bread t c b e a r s , or dams a s t r eam, he i s l i k e l y t o a l t e r l i f e sys tems . At some p o i n t these c u m u l a t i v e b i o - s y s t e m i c changes may a f f e c t the b i o l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of a r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a . P s y c h o l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , a more r e c e n t l y popu- l a r i z e d c o n c e p t , r e f e r s to the degree to which one i s w i l l i n g to t o l e r a t e o t h e r people be fore the w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e d e c l i n e s (Nash, 1967, pages 267-268) . In the w i l d l a n d environment any human a c t i v i t y or ev idence o f human presence i s t o a degree an i n t r u s i o n . The q u e s t i o n here i s one o f t h r e s h o l d : l e v e l s of t o l e r a n c e vary among i n d i v i d u a l s ; At one extreme i s the person who needs complete s o l i t u d e and fo r whom the s i g h t , sound , or even knowledge of another camping par ty i n the v i c i n i t y r u i n s the w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e . Not uncommon, on the o t h e r hand , are those v i s i t o r s who a c t i v e l y seek out o t h e r p a r t i e s , organ- i z i n g community campf i re s and p i t c h i n g t h e i r t e n t s n e a r b y . R e c r e a t i o n a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , t h e n , i s NOT a s i n g l e , a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g v a l u e . I t i s f l e x i b l e , changing under d i f f e r e n t management and inves tment l e v e l s and wi th user needs and e x p e r i e n c e s . One s i n g l e a rea w i l l probably be r e g a r d e d d i f f e r e n t l y and assume d i f f e r e n t c a p a c i t i e s , i f viewed by d i f f e r e n t user groups or managed at d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s o f i n t e n s i t y . Management can e x e r t a g rea t d e a l o f i n f l u e n c e over an a r e a ' s c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . For example, a 7 t r a i l c o n s t r u c t e d on e r o s i o n - r e s i s t a n t rock M i l l have a r e l a t i v e l y h igh b i o p h y s i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , whi le i t s v i s i t o r s ' t o l e r a n c e f o r o t h e r s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , may be c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r . Thus , the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i s not e c o l o g i c a l but p s y c h o l o g i c a l . On the o ther hand , the use of a more s e n s i t i v e c o a s t a l wetland might be l i m i t e d by b i o p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s be fore i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y was r e a c h e d . In such a c a s e , management can e i t h e r a l t e r the b i o p h y s i c a l environment to t o l e r a t e h e a v i e r u se , or l i m i t numbers so t h a t use l e v e l s r e s p e c t b i o p h y s i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s . Stankey (1972, page 61) p r o v i d e s a more l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n cn some ways i n which managers can a l t e r c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . A g u e s t i o n of t r a d e - o f f i s i n v o l v e d h e r e : g r e a t e r l e v e l s of use w i l l b r i n g c e r t a i n b e n e f i t s to s o c i e t y , i n the form of more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r more peop le . With h e a v i e r use , however, these b e n e f i t s are l i k e l y to be s h o r t - l i v e d . Lower l e v e l s of use may be ach ieved o n l y i f some people are denied acces s to the r e s o u r c e . B e n e f i t s w i l l be s t r e t c h e d over a l o n g e r t ime h o r i z o n , i f c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i s mot s u r p a s s e d , but fewer nentbers of s o c i e t y w i l l share them. In examining w i l d l a n d c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y with a view to i m p r o v i n g r e s o u r c e s management, the r e c r e a t i o n p lanner shou ld c o n s i d e r the p r e f e r e n c e s and needs pf the r e s o u r c e u s e r s ; i n t h i s c a s e , the r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . These p e r c e p t i o n s can and should p lay an impor tant r o l e i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f many s h o r t and long- range management d e c i s i o n s , from t r a i l 8 widening and f i r e w o o d p r o v i s i o n t o c h a r g i n g user fees and r a t i o n i n g campground space . Lucas expressed support f o r management d e c i s i o n s which i n c o r p o r a t e user o p i n i o n s , s t a t i n g t h a t the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s have s u c c e s s f u l l y advanced a view c f r e s o u r c e s as o b j e c t s c u l t u r a l l y p e r c e i v e d , not d e f i n e d e n t i r e l y i n p h y s i c a l terms . " R e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s can s c a r c e l y be s t u d i e d except i n p e r c e p t u a l t e rms . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of a r e source so e l u s i v e and s u b j e c t i v e as w i l d e r n e s s . " (1964c, page 22.) But he f e e l s t h a t " . . . i t would be i m p o s s i b l e to g i v e every r e c r e a t i o n i s t what he says he wants at every time and p l a c e . Some wi shes , i f met now would a f f e c t the r e s o u r c e so t h a t the wishes c o u l d not be met i n the f u t u r e . " Hendee ' s v i ewpo in t (1968, page 2) i s s i m i l a r to L u c a s ' second s t a tement : w i l d e r n e s s management cannot and shou ld not "be reduced to a p o p u l a r i t y c o n t e s t . " He emphasizes t h a t " i n f o r m a t i o n about user behav ior and a t t i t u d e s dees not opera te i n a vacuum and i s not the s o l e or u l t i m a t e c r i t e r i o n with which to shape w i l d e r n e s s management d e c i s i o n s . " E c o l o g i c a l , l e g a l , and o ther c o n s i d e r a t i o n s may not be w e l l - u n d e r s t o o d by the p u b l i c . A d d i t i o n a l l y , the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f v i s i t o r a t t i t u d e s i n t o w i l d l a n d d e c i s i o n m a k i n g i s not a s imple proces s hav ing c l e a r - c u t , " c o r r e c t " answers. Al though i t may be tempt ing to d e p i c t the w i l d l a n d r e c r e a t i o n i s t as hav ing c e r t a i n p r e d i c t a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or f e a t u r e s , such a s t e r e o t y p e would be i n a c c u r a t e . Backccuntry h i k e r s are by no means 9 homogeneous i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c background, w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e , o r a t t i t u d e s . Many w i l d l a n d v i s i t o r s t u d i e s , such as Hendee (1968) , Lucas (1964b), Stankey (1971), and T h o r s e l l (1971) i l l u s t r a t e these d i f f e r e n c e s . Per whom, t h e n , should w i l d l a n d s be managed? Do we t r y t o manage one w i l d l a n d f o r a l l v i s i t o r t y p e s , c u t t i n g i t i n t o s m a l l p i e c e s l i k e a j igsaw? I r r e p a r a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage c o u l d r e s u l t , and nobody w i l l be s a t i s f i e d — n e i t h e r the s o l i t u d e l o v e r nor the Coney I s l a n d a f i c i o n a d o . On the o t h e r hand, t r e a t i n g w i l d e r n e s s v i s i t o r s * responses i n an i n d i s c r i m i n a t e f a s h i o n might mean t h a t o n l y the v i s i t o r whose needs and t a s t e s l i e "on the average" would be s a t i s - f i e d . I t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s v i s i t o r , says S t a n k e y , who can be accommodated e l sewhere or i n a d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t y . At the same t i m e , o p p o r t u n i t i e s would be l o s t f o r those s e e k i n g n e a r - n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s , which are e v e r - d i m i n i s h i n g and i r r e p l a c e a b l e . Having dec ided t h a t v i e w p o i n t s o r i e n t e d towards p r e s e r v a t i o n , c o n s e r v a t i o n , and minimal human i n t e r v e n t i o n are most r e l e v a n t i n the wi ldernes s or backcountry p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , how does the manager i s o l a t e those w i l d l a n d v i s i t o r s h o l d i n g these b e l i e f s ? In an e f f o r t to s i n g l e out those v i s i t o r s whose a t t i t u d e s would be most r e l e v a n t f o r p l a n n i n g and management, t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s tudy was l i m i t e d to O v e r n i g h t v i s i t o r s who penet ra ted a minimum of 8.5 m i l e s i n t o the b a c k c o u n t r y . T h i s means of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g user sub-groups was used a l s o by Semmarstrom (1966), who d i d not 10 sample h i k e r s whose v i s i t s were s h o r t e r than t h r e e days . Lucas (1964) handled v a r i a t i o n i n v i s i t o r t a s t e s by d i f f e r - e n t i a t i n g p a d d l i n g c a n o e i s t s from motorboa te r s , p l a c i n g mere weight on the c a n o e i s t s * views and w i l d e r n e s s c o n c e p t s . He f e l t t h a t c a n o e i s t s wculd be mere p r e s e r v a t i o n - o r i e n t e d than m o t o r b o a t e r s ; t h u s , the c a n o e i s t s " o p i n i o n s were mere c r u c i a l f o r w i l d l a n d p l a n n i n g . The W i l d l a n d Research Center i s o l a t e d r e l e v a n t v i e w p o i n t s a f t e r f i r s t r a t i n g users a c c o r d i n g t o p r i o r w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e , "a rough and a d m i t t e d l y p a r t i a l measure of commitment" (ORBBC Report 3, 1962, page 135). Hendee (1968) and Stankey (1971) developed s c a l e s f o r the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of users on the b a s i s c f va lues u n d e r l y i n g t h e i r o p i n i o n s and m o t i v a t i o n s r e l a t i n g to w i l d e r n e s s use . User s more o r i e n t e d to w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n i d e a l s , s o l i t u d e , and minimal i n t r u s i o n o f c i v i l i z a t i o n f e l l at one end of the continuum and were l a b e l l e d " p u r i s t s . " These people were thus f e l t to be more impor tan t i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g than were the n o n p u r i s t s or " u r b a n i s t s " at the o p p o s i t e end of the s c a l e . T h u s , i t i s p o s s i b l e , a l t h o u g h unavo idab ly s u b j e c t i v e , to i s o l a t e the p e r c e p t i o n s and o p i n i o n s of p a r t i c u l a r user sub-groups , f o r the purpose o f p l a n n i n g f o r backcountry r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s . 11 STUDY DESIGN O b j e c t i v e s o f the s tudy were f o u r f o l d , and d i r e c t e d towards the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f user va lues and o p i n i o n s i n t o the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s : (1) To examine a range o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and management c h o i c e s a v a i l a b l e i n p l a n n i n g f o r backcountry h i k i n g a r e a s ; (2) to determine what type of backcountry environment i s d e s i r e d by Heather T r a i l u s e r s : t r a i l and campsi te development , f a c i l i t i e s d e s i r e d , optimum and t o l e r a b l e numbers of v i s i t e r s , and degree o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g u l a t i o n p r e f e r r e d ; (3) To a c g u i r e r e l e v a n t data about present management o f Manning P r o v i n c i a l P a r k ' s b a c k c o u n t r y : • A t t i t u d e s towards backcountry users and management goa l s h e l d by park s t a f f ; * In fo rmat ion r e g a r d i n g l e v e l s of use, c r o w d i n g , and f a c i l i t i e s ; and •• Management procedures p r e s e n t l y i n e f f e c t ; and ( 4 ) To e v o l v e seme o v e r a l l g u i d e l i n e s and s p e c i f i c management procedures with the aim of c r e a t i n g a backcountry environment meeting user needs and d e s i r e s . User p e r c e p t i o n s and o p i n i o n s w i l l r e c e i v e pr imary c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the development of p r a c t i c a b l e p r o p o s a l s , but e c o l o g i c a l . 12 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and p o l i t i c a l concerns s i l l a l s o be weighed. Study Components L i t e r a t u r e B e v i e w T h i s s e c t i o n c o n s i s t e d of (1) an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s i m i l a r s t u d i e s conducted i n w i l d l a n d areas of the Uni t ed S t a t e s and Canada, c o v e r i n g backcountry r e c r e a t i o n i s t s , t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s , needs , and o p i n i o n s , and (2) a c o m p i l a t i o n of v a r i o u s backcountry management and p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s advocated i n the l i t e r a t u r e , f r e q u e n t l y based on the r e s u l t s of user s t u d i e s . P e r t i n e n t f i n d i n g s have been i n c l u d e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . Case Study A backcountry use and management s tudy was undertaken i n Manning P r o v i n c i a l P a r k , where no p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h i s type have been conduc ted . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the a rea i s d e s e r v i n g c f a t t e n t i o n and c o n c e r n , f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s : (1) i t s p r o x i m i t y t o the Lower Main land p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e , be ing on ly three hours from c e n t r a l Vancouver ; (2) problems o f c o n g e s t i o n are mounting i n w i l d l a n d r e c r e a t i o n areas c l o s e r to Vancouver , such as the B lack Tusk s e c t i o n of G a r i b a l d i P r o v i n c i a l Park . I t was dec ided to l i m i t the e f f o r t t o the Heather T r a i l 13 l o o p p o r t i o n o f Manning Park f o r reasons to be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 2. The case s tudy focused on the p e r c e p t i o n s and o p i n i o n s of backcountry users who v i s i t e d the area f o r a minimum of one n i g h t and penet ra ted at l e a s t 8.5 m i l e s . Users were i n t e r v i e w e d and observed i n the b a c k c o u n t r y , and were subsequent ly r e - s u r v e y e d with a mai lback q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e v e r a l months l a t e r . In format ion was generated r e l a t i n g to user backgrounds , user o p i n i o n s o f e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s and p h y s i c a l management needs , p e r c e p t i o n s o f numbers and c o n g e s t i o n , user b e h a v i o u r , and r e a c t i o n s to v a r i o u s management a l t e r n a t i v e s . In a d d i t i o n , the r o l e s o f park a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , n a t u r a l i s t s , and p l anner s were e x p l o r e d c u r s o r i l y , and an e f f o r t was made to understand t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards backcountry use prob lems , management p r i o r i t i e s , and p o l i c y development . 14 CHAPTER 2 CASE STOBI ABES EESCBIFIICN ZIGU.BE 1 x BANNING £ B C V I N C I A L PABK^ BBI.TIS.H CCLUMBIA Manning P r o v i n c i a l Eark i s l o c a t e d i n the Cascade Mounta in s , one hundred f o r t y a i l e s east of Vancouver , B r i t i s h Co lumbia , t o u c h i n g the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary, as shewn i n F i g u r e 1. Over 176,000 a c r e s i n s i z e , i t ho lds 15 r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r people wi th many outdoor s i n t e r e s t s . Summer o f f e r s p i c n i c k i n g , d a y h i k i n g , back- p a c k i n g , na ture s t r o l l s , c a n o e i n g , and f i s h i n g . w i n t e r , on the o t h e r hand, a t t r a c t s s k i e r s to c r o s s - c o u n t r y t r a i l s and the Gibsons Pass d o w n h i l l a r e a . Park v i s i t o r s can s t a y at a motel o f f e r i n g a sauna and d i n i n g room, i n r u s t i c c a b i n s , a t c a r campgrounds, or t e n t i n de s i gna ted w i l d e r n e s s camps i te s ( h e r e a f t e r "Die ' s " ) cn the o v e r n i g h t t r a i l s . M o t o r i s t s p a s s i n g through f i n d the park c e n t r e area a t t r a c t i v e f o r a l u n c h or r e s t s t o p . The l o o k o u t p o i n t , na ture t r a i l s , a l p i n e meadows a r e a , and o ther day-use f a c i l i t i e s are used by these v i s i t o r s as s e l l as by o v e r n i g h t e r s . G e n e r a l v e g e t a t i o n p a t t e r n s r e f l e c t Manning P a r k ' s l o c a t i o n i n an area o f t r a n s i t i o n between c o a s t a l f o r e s t and i n t e r i o r b i o t i c zones (Lyons, 1952, pages 6-12) . The western p o r t i o n of the p a r k , i n the Sumallo and S k a g i t r i v e r v a l l e y s , i s dominated by t y p i c a l c o a s t a l f o r e s t v e g e t a t i o n : western red cedar [Thuja £ l i c a t a ], Douglas f i r [ Pseudotsucja fflSSSissii]* and western hemlock [Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a 1 (Cyca and Harcombe, 1970, page 34) . The under s to ry i s c h a r a c t e r - i z e d by b l a c k b e r r y [Bubus u r s i n u s ], t h i m b l e b e r r y C l i £ S £ v i f I c r u s ], r e d b e r r y e l d e r , [Sambucus racemgsa var a r b o r e s c e n s ] , sa lmonberry [Bubus s ^ e c t a b i 1 i s ] , rhododendron £Sij°i2^§ill£OJ3 l a c r o E h y l l u m ], K i n n i k i n n i c k £ Arc t o s t aphy lo s U y a ^ u r s i ] , and o ther shrubs . Near Manning Park Lodge at the p a r k ' s c e n t r e grow s tands o f l o d g e p o l e p ine [ P i n u s c o n t o r t a ] and Engelmann spruce [ P i c e a g l a u c a s sp . J n a g l m ^ n n i i ] , whi le 16 f u r t h e r e a s t , approaching the d r i e r l a n d s , b l a c k cot tcnwcod f Populps t r i c h o c a r n a ], t r e m b l i n g aspen [ P A t r e m u l o i d e s ], and Ponderosa p ine [ P i n u s £ c n d e r o s a ] are common. At h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s a l p i n e f i r [ A b i e s l a s i o c a r p a ], white bark p ine £ 2 i S i J § § I f e l S S i J l i s ] , and l e s s abundant ly a l p i n e l a r c h [ L a r i x l y a l l i ] are s e e n . Manning Park boasts an i n c r e d i b l e a r r a y o f a l p i n e f l o w e r s d u r i n g J u l y and August . The best-kncwn expanse s t r e t c h e s f o r f i f t e e n m i l e s , from B l a c k w a l l Peak nor thwest t o Niccmen Bidge (Cyca and Harcombe, 1970, pages 34-36) . The p a r k ' s h i k i n g t r a i l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those used by o v e r n i g h t v i s i t o r s , deserve a t t e n t i o n , as they are l i n k e d to the focus o f t h i s t h e s i s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y ten t r a i l s or l o o p s of v a r i e d d i f f i c u l t y are used by o v e r n i g h t h i k e r s . The l a k e s Chain T r a i l , a 5 .5 mi le s t r o l l from the p a r k i n g l o t at L i g h t n i n g Lake to the D8C at the northwest end of S t r i k e L a k e , i s p robab ly the l e a s t t a x i n g . The Mount F r o s t y and S k y l i n e t r a i l s i n v o l v e more u p h i l l s t renuous w a l k i n g . T r a i l s in tended f o r o v e r n i g h t use g e n e r a l l y have at l e a s t one DEC. Longer l o o p s , such as Mount F r o s t y - W i n d y J o e , and H e a t h e r - G r a i n g e r C r e e k - S k a i s t , c o n t a i n two or t h r e e , p l aced a d a y ' s h ike a p a r t . Some camps i tes c o n s i s t o f n o t h i n g more than spaces c l e a r e d f o r t e n t i n g and a few rock f i r e r i n g s . Other s have p i t t o i l e t s , f i r e g r a t e s , cement f i r e p l a c e s and stump " c h a i r s . " S e v e r a l camps i tes p r o v i d e c u t f i rewood e a r l y i n the sea son . Manning Park t r a i l s do not a l l r e c e i v e e q u a l f o o t 17 t r a f f i c . R e l a t i v e l y non-s t renuous h i k e s l i k e the LaXes C h a i n and Heather T r a i l s are probab ly the most f r e g u e n t l y t r a v e l e d and are popu la r with one-day as w e l l as o v e r n i g h t h i k e r s . On the o ther hand, the Bonnev ier T r a i l , e a s i l y reached but r e q u i r i n g a s teep c l i m b and o f f e r i n g l i t t l e water , r e c e i v e s sparse summer use (per sona l communicat ion with Manning Park n a t u r a l i s t , summer 1975). In a thorough examinat ion of v i s i t o r p e r c e p t i o n s o f h i k e r b e h a v i o u r , numbers, and area management, each o v e r n i g h t t r a i l would be t r e a t e d . I t s backpackers would be sampled and i n t e r v i e w e d p e r s o n a l l y i f p o s s i b l e , and i t s management would be s t u d i e d . C o l l e c t i o n of data on a l l t r a i l s would be p a r t i c u l a r l y important f o r Manning P a r k , where t r a i l s are used , managed and ma in ta ined at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t users of one r e l a t i v e l y remote and arduous t r a i l may d i f f e r c o l l e c t i v e l y and i n d i v i d u a l l y from those t a k i n g an e a s y - a c c c e s s and graded f r a i l . The former group might possess g r e a t e r e x p e r i e n c e than the l a t t e r , and h o l d d i f f e r e n t p r e f e r e n c e s and o p i n i o n s . G iven c e r t a i n c o n s t r a i n t s , however, i t was not p o s s i b l e to s u r v e y , even s u p e r f i c i a l l y , backcountry h i k e r s and f a c i l i t i e s throughout the park . S ince two f i e l d workers had l e s s than two months i n which to work, i t was f e l t tha t usable data c o u l d be ga thered f o r o n l y one t r a i l i n Manning P a r k . 18 The Heat.her-Grai.nger C r e e k - S k a i s t l o o p ( h e r e a f t e r " H e a t h e r T r a i l " ) was chosen as the s tudy a r e a . I t i s s u s p e c t e d t h a t p h y s i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l overuse problems c o u l d be d e v e l o p i n g a long the l o o p , p a r t i c u l a r l y over the very popular segment between the p a r k i n g l o t and the K i c k i n g Horse camps i te area (see F i g u r e " U n d i s c o v e r e d " Camp n Nicomen Lake Nicomen Ridge N t Four th B r o t h e r Mtn< o Old K i c k i n g Horse a New K i c k i n g Horse ^ T r a i l y Secondary Road / / Highway • Des igna ted Campsi te n U n o f f i c i a l Campsite W T h r e e B r o t h e r s ° M t n s . Big Buck n t n . Buckhorn T r a i l M i l e s 0 1 • i b e g i n s ^ p a r k J Lodge FIGURE 2. CASE STUDY AREA—THE HEATHER TRAIL F i r s t , the t r a i l i s regarded by the p u b l i c as un ique , due to the f i f t e e n or more m i l e s of u n i n t e r r u p t e d meadow i t c r o s s e s . I t s unigueness may be c o n t r i b u t i n g to the t r a i l ' s 19 p o p u l a r i t y , r e l a t i v e to o ther Manning Park t r a i l s . Second, a n ine mi le u p h i l l road to the t r a i l h e a d ( e l e v a t i o n o f g r e a t e r than 6500 fee t ) e ra ses most of the c l i m b u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with the v i ewing c f a l p i n e meadows. The l a t t e r are thus e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e to people whc would o therwi se p r o b a b l y not be s t r o n g enough to reach them, d i d the road not e x i s t . The t w e n t y - s i x mi le loop b e g i n n i n g at B l a c k w a l l Peak c o n t a i n s o n l y two s i g n i f i c a n t c l i m b s , n e i t h e r l o n g e r than one m i l e . The second t h i r t e e n mi le s are n e a r l y a l l d o w n h i l l , r e t u r n i n g h i k e r s to the highway ( e l e v a t i o n approx- i m a t e l y 4300 f e e t ) . An a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r p o s s i b l y e x a c e r b a t i n g the e f f e c t s of overuse i s the n a t u r e of a l p i n e meadows t h e m s e l v e s . The meadows are more f r a g i l e and v u l n e r a b l e t o damage brought on by human use than are v e g e t a t i o n communit ies a t lower e l e v a t i o n s . F o u r t h , s e v e r a l na ture paths where guided walks are c o n d u c t e d , and a na ture hut with d i s p l a y s and pamphlets are l o c a t e d i n the p a r k i n g l o t a rea a t B l a c k w a l l Peak. These a t t r a c t i o n s might b r i n g i n c r e a s e d t r a f f i c to the Heather T r a i l , which beg ins a t t h i s p o i n t . The anatomy of the Heather T r a i l deserves some a t t e n t i o n at t h i s p o i n t . The t r a i l ' s predominant f e a t u r e , the a l p i n e meadows, beg in approx imate ly o n e - h a l f mi l e pas t Buckhorn camps i te (see F i g u r e 2 ) , and c o n t i n u e to Nicomen Ridge n e a r l y unbroken , a l though do t ted with s m a l l clumps o f f i r s . From Nicomen Ridge the t r a i l drops s h a r p l y to Nicomen L a k e , s k i r t s i t s n o r t h s i d e , and descends g r a d u a l l y through 20 c o a s t f o r e s t f o r t h i r t e e n m i l e s . Changes i n e l e v a t i o n are noted on the a t t a c h e d map. The f i r s t three mi le s of t r a i l c o n s i s t s of a p a r t i a l l y overgrown jeep r o a d , which narrows a t Buckhorn camp to a wel l -compacted path v a r y i n g i n width from one to f i v e f e e t . The path widens to a jeep road once a g a i n f o r the l a s t four m i l e s or so of the S k a i s t l e g . In f a c t , the t r a i l between G r a i n g e r Creek and th e highway was o r i g i n a l l y a wagon r o a d . For many years l o g g i n g s l a s h has b l o c k e d the road around mi le 23 ; t h u s , the " r o a d " today e x i s t s o n l y between tha t p o i n t and the highwayi The l a r g e s t c a m p s i t e , l o c a t e d at Buckhorn , approx- i m a t e l y t h r e e mi le s i n from B l a c k w a l l Peak, has an outhouse , t h r e e - s i d e d s h e l t e r c o n t a i n i n g s e v e r a l r u s t i n g bedframes and c o o k i n g p o t s , and about fen rock f i r e r i n g s se t i n c l e a r e d t e n t i n g a r e a s . A s tream t r a v e r s e s the c a m p s i t e , p r o v i d i n g water a l l s ea son . S e v e r a l paths have been worn c o n n e c t i n g t e n t and f i r e areas with the stream and main t r a i l . Campsi te number two, known as K i c k i n g H o r s e , i s approx- i m a t e l y 8.5 m i l e s from E l a c k w a l l and 5.6 m i l e s from Buckhorn , s e t between the T h i r d and Four th B r o t h e r s (see F i g u r e 2 ) . K i c k i n g Horse i s a c t u a l l y two c a m p s i t e s , a l t h o u g h j u s t one i s r e c o g n i z e d by the park a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The o r i g i n a l c a m p s i t e , h e r e a f t e r c a l l e d " G i d K i c k i n g H o r s e , " l i e s i n a s m a l l d e p r e s s i o n which remains s l i g h t l y swampy i n t o Augus t , a l though the t e n t i n g s i t e s are u n a f f e c t e d by the water . I t c o n t a i n s an outhouse and a t h r e e - s i d e d s h e l t e r with t a b l e s , p o t s , and a woodstove. In 1975 the 21 s h e l t e r c o n t a i n e d l a r g e puddles f o r most of the season , and was used o n l y by the t r a i l crew. O l d K i c k i n g Horse has f i v e e s t a b l i s h e d camping s p o t s , a l though on ly one i s v i s i b l e from the t r a i l . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a f t e r the one or two e a s i l y - l o c a t e d spot s are o c c u p i e d , newcomers do not bother t o look f o r the e t h e r s , t u r n i n g back i n s t e a d t c a more d e s i r a b l e camp l o c a t e d about o n e - q u a r t e r mi le back a long the t r a i l . T h i s s i t e , probab ly c r e a t e d by o v e r f l e w from Gid K i c k i n g Horse , w i l l be known as "New K i c k i n g Horse " f o r d i s c u s s i o n purposes . New K i c k i n g Horse i s w e l l - d r a i n e d , has a b e t t e r and more c o n v e n i e n t l y - l o c a t e d water source than has O l d K i c k i n g H o r s e , i n a d d i t i o n to s i x o r seven f i r e and t e n t i n g a r e a s . There i s no outhouse or s h e l t e r . The h i l l y topography i s o l a t e s New from O l d K i c k i n g Horse , even though they a re s epara ted by o n l y s e v e r a l hundred y a r d s . H i k e r s u n f a m i l i a r with the area sometimes a r r i v e a t New K i c k i n g H o r s e , s t ay f o r one or two d a y s , and l e a v e the way they e n t e r e d , unaware of the e x i s t e n c e of Old K i c k i n g Horse . B o i s t e r o u s groups i n one c f the s i t e s can be heard o c c a s i o n a l l y i n the o t h e r , on a wind le s s n i g h t . Nicomen L a k e , at mi le 13, has two c a m p s i t e s : one s m a l l area ( three t e n t i n g spots) and one c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r space , with over a dozen c l e a r e d t e n t i n g and f i r e s p o t s . T h e ' s m a l l e r a r e a , l o c a t e d where the t r a i l f i r s t meets the l a k e , was q u i t e muddy f o r most of the 1975 s e a s o n . I t appeared to s e rve as an o v e r f l o w campsi te and was not as d e s i r a b l y l o c a t e d as the l a r g e r a r e a . The l a t t e r i s l o c a t e d 22 more a e s t h e t i c a l l y , i n a dry s e c t i o n a long the northwest end o f the l a k e . I t i s not r e a d i l y v i s i b l e from a d i s t a n c e , u n l e s s a c o l o u r f u l t e n t i s spo t t ed from atop Nicomen H i d g e . There i s n e i t h e r outhouse nor s h e l t e r a t the l a k e . The l a s t h a l f of the Heather T r a i l l o o p c o n t a i n s no o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d c a m p s i t e s . Backpackers c o m p l e t i n g the c i r c u i t and not wi sh ing to h i k e the f i n a l t h i r t e e n - p l u s mi le s i n one day must make camp somewhere a long the t r a i l . Quite a few, perhaps a dozen s c a t t e r e d f i r e s c a r s are v i s i b l e a long t h i s s t r e t c h of t r a i l , due t o the absence of DHC' s . One l a r g e r campsi te with a c l e a r e d area o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 600 square f e e t , a l a r g e f i r e p l a c e , and a c rude p i c n i c t a b l e , i s l o c a t e d s e v e r a l hundred f e e t down an abandoned t r a i l which f o r k s o f f from the main c i r c u i t at G r a i n g e r Creek (see F i g u r e 2 ) . T h i s campsi te i s i d e a l l y l o c a t e d but remains und i s covered by p re sen t -day t r a v e l l e r s who use the new G r a i n g e r - S k a i s t l e g . H i k e r s wanting t c l eave the beaten t r a c k to bushwhack or e x p l o r e u s u a l l y c l i m b one , two, or a l l o f the Three B r o t h e r s . These "mounta ins " are l i t t l e more than g e n t l y r o l l i n g upward e x t e n s i o n s of the meadows, and r e g u i r e l i t t l e e f f o r t to be c l i m b e d , a l t h o u g h rock f aces prevent easy a scent of a l l s l o p e s . a l t e r n a t i v e l y , backpackers can v i s i t the F o u r t h B r o t h e r or c l i m b the rocky sc ree s l o p e r i s i n g above the south s i d e c f Nicomen Lake . 23 STUDY BETAGDOLOGY I n f o r m a t i o n about the Heather T r a i l u s e r s , env i ronment , and management was gathered from three s o u r c e s : » O v e r n i g h t h i k e r s i n J u l y and August ; • Banning Park manager ia l and n a t u r a l i s t s t a f f ; • P l a n n e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s l o c a t e d o u t s i d e the park 0 £ € £ I n f o r m a t i o n G a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about r e c r e a t i o n i s t s u s i n g the Heather T r a i l was f e l t to be an ext remely impor tant component of the case s t u d y , f o r s e v e r a l r ea sons . F i r s t , as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , v i s i t o r o p i n i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s compri se an i m p o r t a n t a spect o f the w i l d l a n d d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s , and every e f f o r t shou ld be made to o b t a i n them. Second , these data can be o b t a i n e d on ly from the h i k e r s t h e m s e l v e s ; no o u t s i d e observer can s p e c u l a t e on the meaning o f the w i l d l a n d e x p e r i e n c e and o p i n i o n s r e l a t e d to i t . A d d i t i o n a l l y , no up- to -da te Manning Park user data are a v a i l a b l e to the agenc ie s c o n c e r n e d . Not o n l y have o p i n i o n s t a t i s t i c s not been g a t h e r e d , but s e v e r a l years ago the o p t i o n a l h i k e r r e g i s t r a t i o n system was d i s c o n t i n u e d ; t h u s , park s t a f f have no c o n c r e t e i d e a c f use l e v e l s . Chances are good t h a t managers'1 p e r c e p t i o n s of use l e v e l s are i n c o r r e c t anyway (Hendee and L u c a s , unpub l i shed m a n u s c r i p t , page 4 ) . There are s e v e r a l ways i n which user i n f o r m a t i o n can be 24 c o l l e c t e d . An i n t e r v i e w can be a d m i n i s t e r e d o r a l l y t c back- c o u n t r y h i k e r s , e i t h e r at c a m p s i t e s , on t r a i l s , or a t e x i t p o i n t s . S i m i l a r l y , h i k e r s i n these p l a c e s can be handed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to be r e t u r n e d i m m e d i a t e l y , l e f t i n a drop box, ox mai led back . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e i r c o m p l e t i o n can be p l a c e d at e x i t p o i n t s , as w i t h the B r i t i s h Columbia Parks Branch user s t u d i e s (1975). Researchers sometimes m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to home addres se s gathered from t r a i l r e g i s t e r s , f i r e p e r m i t s , automobi le r e g i s t r a t i o n s , or from h i k e r s t h e m s e l v e s . In the l a s t case the r e s e a r c h e r may f i r s t i n t e r v i e w s u b j e c t s and l a t e r f o l l o w up by m a i l , or may make o n l y minimal c o n t a c t i n the b a c k c c u n t r y , merely s o l i c i t i n g p e r m i s s i o n t o send a q u e s t i o n n a i r e l a t e r . User i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s s tudy was gathered i n two s t e p s . f i r s t , f i f t y - s e v e n i n t e r v i e w s were conducted at New and Old K i c k i n g Horse s i t e s and at Nicomen Lake . These i n t e r v i e w s were f o l l o w e d up t h r e e months l a t e x with a mai led q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I n t e r v i e w s were g e n e r a l l y h e l d a t the r e s p o n d e n t ' s camping s p o t , with a few e x c e p t i o n s o c c u r r i n g a t K i c k i n g Horse , when a par ty was merely p a s s i n g t h r o u g h , on t h e i r way to camp at Nicomen Lake , and at Nicomen L a k e , when p a r t i e s based at K i c k i n g Horse a r r i v e d f o r day v i s i t s . Respondents were a t l e a s t f i f t e e n years o l d , as was the case i n the ORESC' survey* The d e s i r e d respondent (s) were s e l e c t e d a f t e r a group was approached, i n t r o d u c t i o n s were made, and p e r m i s s i o n to conduct the i n t e r v i e w was g r a n t e d . 25 I f the s i t u a t i o n was not conduc ive to h o l d i n g an i n t e r v i e w ( e . g . , i f the p a r t y had j u s t a r r i v e d and taken o f f i t s g e a r ) , arrangements •were made f o r the i n t e r v i e w e r to r e t u r n at a des igna ted t i m e . Due t o the s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n s i z e , s t r i c t sampl ing procedures were not f o l l o w e d . The i n t e r - v iewers adhered to the f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s , however, i n s e l e c t i n g r e s p o n d e n t s : • The r a t i o of male to female re spondent s was t o approximate t h a t of the backpacker p o p u l a t i o n ; • I n e x p e r i e n c e d as w e l l as e x p e r i e n c e d backpackers were t o be i n t e r v i e w e d (There was a tendency f o r seasoned h i k e r s to v o l u n t e e r to be i n t e r v i e w e d , whi le the n o v i c e s showed a r e l u c t a n c e t o p a r t i c i p a t e ) ; • T h e age d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the backpacker p o p u l a t i o n was to be matched i n the sample chosen . T h i s was accompl i shed f a i r l y e a s i l y , because i n t r a g r o u p age d i f f e r e n c e s were u s u a l l y s l i g h t ; and • For groups o f f i v e o r fewer i n d i v i d u a l s , one respondent was c h o s e n ; f o r groups of f i v e t o t e n , two were c h o s e n , and so o n . I n t e r v i e w s g e n e r a l l y r e g u i r e d t h i r t y to f o r t y minute s . Respondents were extremely c o o p e r a t i v e , answering a l l q u e s t i o n s and f r e q u e n t l y showing i n t e r e s t i n the aims and outcome of the s t u d y . Sometimes t h i s enthus iasm was shared by group members o t h e r than the re spondent . In these cases the i n t e r v i e w e r s at tempted to separa te comments made by the respondent from those added by o t h e r s p r e s e n t , but i n s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s the r e s p o n d e n t ' s views were d e f i n i t e l y swayed by comments from h i s or her companions . 26 Behaviour o b s e r v a t i o n by the i n t e r v i e w e r s , to a c q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n not a s c e r t a i n a b l e through q u e s t i o n i n g , was an i m p o r t a n t component of the • u s e r s t u d y . For example , one c o u l d not expect to o b t a i n an a c c u r a t e response to the g u e s t i o n , "Do you l i t t e r ? " But an o b s e r v a t i o n of the respondent d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w and a check o f h i s or her camps i te might y i e l d the d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n . Behav iour o b s e r v a t i o n was employed a l s o to check r e s p o n d e n t s 1 a c t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e i r i d e a s . Did people who s a i d t h a t a l i t t e r c o l l e c t i o n f a c i l i t y was not needed l e a v e l i t t e r behind? Did the person who s a i d he does not l i k e to camp near o ther groups pay s o c i a l v i s i t s to a l l h i s n e i g h b o u r s ? Such i n f o r m a t i o n i s ex t remely s u b j e c t i v e , of c o u r s e , but i t was hoped : tha t i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s would be avo ided by hav ing one person compi le a l l the behav iour o b s e r v a t i o n and a p p l y the same s t andards to each group. In r e a l i t y behaviour o b s e r v a t i o n was o n l y a p a r t i a l s u c c e s s . I t a f f o r d e d a c l o s e l ook at a s p e c t s of the back- pack ing t r i p g e n e r a l l y not covered i n mai led q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . But f u l l o b s e r v a t i o n o f a l l camped g roups , which would n e c e s s i t a t e not one but s e v e r a l c h e c k s , was u n f o r t u n a t e l y not f e a s i b l e . Some of the t e n t i n g a r e a s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n O l d K i c k i n g Horse , were out of the i n t e r v i e w e r s ' s i g h t . Here i t was d i f f i c u l t t o observe i n d i v i d u a l and i n t e r g r c u p b e h a v i o u r . The i n t e r v i e w e r s were r e l u c t a n t to i n t r u d e on v i s i t o r s ' p r i v a c y , sc u n l e s s a group was camped i n s i g h t of the i n t e r v i e w e r s , o b s e r v a t i o n s were s p o r a d i c and not 27 c o n s i s t e n t . Wood g a t h e r i n g , f i x e b u i l d i n g , l i t t e r i n g , d i s h w a s h i n g , and n a t u r a l l y , t o i l e t h a b i t s were d i f f i c u l t to o b s e r v e . On the o ther hand, b l a t a n t v i s i b l e v i o l a t i o n s of r e c o g n i z e d camping e t h i c s — c h o p p i n g o f l i v e wood, c r e a t i n g new f i r e s c a r s , and abandoning t i n cans—tended to s t and o u t . When p o s s i b l e , a t tempts were made to examine each campsi te a f t e r i t s occupants had d e p a r t e d , a l though one c o u l d not be sure t h a t the l a s t occupants were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r l i t t e r found i n f i r e p l a c e s or hacked t r e e s . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d o r i g i n a l l y t h a t c o n c l u s i o n s would be drawn about i n d i v i d u a l s ' and g roups ' p r e f e r r e d camping e n v i r o n m e n t , based cn t h e i r camps i te c h o i c e s . For s e v e r a l rea sons l i t t l e usable i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be o b t a i n e d through pure o b s e r v a t i o n . T h i s area w i l l be t r e a t e d more e x t e n - s i v e l y i n the EEHAVIOOB s e c t i o n of Chapter 3 . The i n t e r v i e w approach c o n t a i n e d s e v e r a l weaknesses, which may a f f e c t the v a l i d i t y and a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the f i n d i n g s , and shou ld be r e c a l l e d as the r e s u l t s and c o n c l u s i o n s of the s tudy are presented i n subsequent c h a p t e r s . F i r s t o f a l l , there were on ly two i n t e r v i e w e r s c o v e r i n g seventeen m i l e s of t r a i l (from New K i c k i n g Horse to the end of the S k a i s t p o r t i o n of the l o o p , as i l l u s t r a t e d on F i g u r e 2 ) . Because they h iked and camped t o g e t h e r i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t some h i k e r s who c o u l d have o therwi se been i n t e r v i e w e d were never even s p o t t e d . T h i s problem had both s p a t i a l and tempora l a s p e c t s . The i n t e r v i e w e r s spent s i x t e e n days on the t r a i l : f i v e F r i d a y through Sunday 28 p e r i o d s p l u s one Monday h o l i d a y . I t was f e l t t h a t the probab le very low Monday through Thursday numbers would not j u s t i f y weekday v i g i l s (per sona l communicat ion with Park N a t u r a l i s t , 1975). T h u s , the sample of f i f t y - s e v e n r e p r e s e n t s the most predominant k i n d of Heather T r a i l o v e r n i g h t v i s i t o r , who c o u l d account fo r as much as t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the t r a i l ' s o v e r n i g h t use . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a s p a t i a l b i a s arose out of the confinement of the user s e a r c h to the DHC's at K i c k i n g Horse and Nicomen Lake . The i n t e r v i e w e r s f e l t c e r t a i n t h a t over 90% of the weekend o v e r - n i g h t v i s i t o r s t r a v e l l i n g t o or beyond New K i c k i n g Horse used the DWC's, when meadow o b s e r v a t i o n from the tops of the Three B r o t h e r s f a i l e d to p o i n t up any t e n t s f o r s e v e r a l m i l e s a r o u n d , and when Saturday a f t e r n o o n t r a i l s i d e watches around mi le 6-7 r e v e a l e d t h a t p a r t i e s e n t e r i n g the area were a l l headed f o r the E E C ' s . Judging from the number of r ecent ly -made f i r e s c a r s a long the t r a i l i n the B i g Buck a r e a , mi le 4 -5 , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t most of the non-DHC use i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h i s a r e a , out of the i n t e r v i e w range (see F i g u r e 2 ) . Thus , a l though an area as l a r g e as th e Three B r o t h e r s meadows c o u l d not be scanned c o m p l e t e l y , i t i s f e l t t h a t very few i n t e r v i e w s were l o s t because the i n t e r v i e w e r s s t ayed at the D H C ' s . The second par t of the user s tudy c o n s i s t e d of a f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n n a i r e sent to a l l re spondents i n October 1975. A p o s t a l s t r i k e i n t e r f e r e d with the mai lback p r o c e d u r e , but a f t e r a te lephoned or h a n d - d e l i v e r e d reminder 29 t o a l l non-respondents l i v i n g i n the Vancouver a r e a , a r e t u r n r a t e of 86% was a c h i e v e d . The f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n - n a i r e , f o u r pages i n l e n g t h , touched on p o i n t s net brought up i n the p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s , and expanded on management a l t e r n a t i v e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the g u e s t i e n s o f overuse and r a t i o n i n g . Both p a r t s of the user s t u d y , the p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w and the f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n n a i r e , ga thered i n f o r m a t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : ( 1 ) Data on i t i n e r a r y and group members, back- ground s o c i o - e c o n o m i c data on r e s p o n d e n t s ; (2) Data on t r i p p l a n n i n g , v i s i t o r m o t i v a t i o n , and the s e r v i c e s p rov ided by park s t a f f i n these a r e a s ; (3) O p i n i o n s on present f a c i l i t i e s and amount of development , r e a c t i o n s to the p r o v i s i o n of v a r i o u s h y p o t h e t i c a l a m e n i t i e s ; (4) R e a c t i o n s to numbers, and p e r c e p t i o n s of t o l e r a b l e use l e v e l s i n camps i tes and on t r a i l s ; and (5) R e a c t i o n s to v a r i o u s management s t r a t e g i e s which c o u l d be implemented to cut or f o r e s t a l l o v e r u s e , by r e d u c i n g v i s i t e r t r a f f i c and p l a c i n g c c n t r o l s on b e h a v i o u r . Contac t With Managers and P l a n n e r s S e v e r a l persons i n v o l v e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of management p o l i c i e s f o r Manning Park were c o n t a c t e d d u r i n g the s t u d y . Mr. David Bruce , of the North Vancouver R e g i o n a l o f f i c e o f the Parks B r a n c h , under whose j u r i s d i c t i o n Manning Park f a l l s , was i n t e r v i e w e d before the case s tudy and user survey were u n d e r t a k e n . I t was hoped to o b t a i n an idea o f 30 the amount o f a t t e n t i o n the government g i v e s to Manning P a r k ' s b a c k c o u n t r y , r e l a t i v e to o ther a r e a s . In a d d i t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n on the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s ' s p e r c e p t i o n c f p re sen t management problems of Manning P a r k ' s b a c k c o u n t r y , and the s e r i o u s n e s s of these prob lems , was sought . Mr. B r u c e ' s knowledge o f Manning Park problems i s l i m i t e d p a r t l y by h i s p h y s i c a l detachment from them, and a l s o by h i s need t o d e a l wi th with park areas and problems p e r c e i v e d to be mere p r e s s i n g . A d d i t i o n a l l y , l i m i t e d funds prevent h i s o f f i c e from h i r i n g the p e r s o n n e l to undertake the s t u d i e s r e q u i r e d to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on backcountry problems i n Manning P a r k . Mr. D. E . (Herb) G r e e n , D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , based i n Manning P a r k , was i n t e r v i e w e d both before and a f t e r the user s tudy was comple ted . Because he i s s t a t i o n e d permanent ly i n the p a r k , he was assumed to be f a m i l i a r with backcountry problems as they have changed over t i m e , use l e v e l s , and v i s i t o r needs , as w e l l as present ' management p r i o r i t i e s . I n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o c o n t a c t s between Manning Park managers and backcountry u s e r s , and the r o l e of managers i n i n f l u e n c i n g use p a t t e r n s was sought , but i t was r e a l i z e d t h a t Green has l i t t l e c o n t a c t with backcountry u s e r s . The i m p r e s s i o n was conveyed t h a t h i s budget ing and p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t do not f avour backcountry s t u d y . More " i m m e d i a t e " are maintenance needs , keeping the machinery r u n n i n g . Mr. Green mentioned that he i s approached f r e q u e n t l y by s tudent s f o r a s s i s t a n c e and and f u n d s , and 31 gave the i m p r e s s i o n of be ing consequent ly wary of these who wish to t e l l him "how to run h i s show." H i s h e s i t a n c y was u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , but i t may have b locked communicat ion with the i n t e r v i e w e r s a t t i m e s . A l though the o p i n i o n s and data ga ined from Mess r s , Eruce and Green were v a l u a b l e , i t was f e l t t h a t mere e x t e n s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n d e a l i n g with user-manager r e l a t i o n s , user h a b i t s , and backccunt ry needs was r e q u i r e d . E o r t h i s purpose , an i n t e r v i e w with Mr. Graham B e l l , Park N a t u r a l i s t , was c o n d u c t e d . I n s i g h t was a l s o ga ined i n t o the r e l a t i o n s between the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s o f f i c e and the Nature House p e r s o n n e l . The n a t u r a l i s t s * f a m i l i a r i t y with b a c k c c u n t r y users and problems was somewhat l i m i t e d , because the bu lk of t h e i r t ime i s spent with day u s e r s , and few backccunt ry t r i p s are made. I t was f e l t t h a t t h i s s tudy shou ld not be undertaken wi thout r egard f o r the " r e a l w o r l d " , or Manning P a r k ' s f u t u r e development as c o n c e i v e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia government. The Parks Branch P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n was t h e r e f o r e a l s o c o n s u l t e d , and Mr. Mel T u r n e r * s c o n c e p t u a l p lan f o r the park was s t u d i e d . D e t a i l s of a l l these c o n t a c t s w i l l be p re sen ted i n Chapter 4. 32 CJ AFTER 3 STUDY FINDINGS T h i s chap te r p r e s e n t s a summary of the data o b t a i n e d i n the user p o r t i o n o f the case s t u d y . Some of the data were ga thered from o b s e r v a t i o n , whi le e ther f a c t s were o b t a i n e d from the p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s and mai lback q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Re levant data from e ther North American s t u d i e s of backccunt ry users are i n c l u d e d f o r compari son and c o n t r a s t p u r p o s e s . OBSERVATIONS REGARDING USE Amount of Use An attempt was made to c r e a t e a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e of the amount of summer use a long the Heather T r a i l l o o p . S ince nc r ecords are kept by e i t h e r the park a d m i n i s t r a t i o n or n a t u r a l i s t s , the a u t h o r ' s e s t i m a t e s are based p r i m a r i l y on d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , s e v e r a l p o i n t s determined through o b s e r v a t i o n governed the e s t i m a t i n g p r o c e d u r e : • The h i k i n g season i n c l u d e s J u l y and Augus t ; • weekday use (Honday through Thursday) i s m i n i m a l ; • O v e r n i g h t e r s r e a c h i n g New K i c k i n g Horse or beyond were c o u n t e d ; • Ten percent was added to each weekend t o t a l , t o account f o r groups not seen by the i n t e r v i e w e r s ; and • Each group c o n s i s t s o f 3.8 i n d i v i d u a l s . < 33 T h u s , over the f i v e weekends f o r which user counts were made, e i g h t y - f i v e groups were e s t imated to have camped o v e r n i g h t on weekends, between New K i c k i n g Horse and Nicomen L a k e , i n c l u s i v e . To t h i s f i g u r e s i x t y more groups were added, to account f o r use on the three unmonitored weekends i n August . T h i s b r i n g s the s u b t o t a l to 550 i n d i v i d u a l s . Buckhorn JJsej: P e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n and r e p o r t from h i k e r s p l a c e d the probab le use o f Euckhcrn camp at twelve groups on each o f the e i g h t weekends. T h u s , approx imate ly 390 i n d i v i d u a l s would be added t o the area t o t a l . I^JiSday Ose,: I f one c o n c l u d e s on the same bases t h a t about twelve o v e r n i g h t groups use the area every Monday through Thursday p e r i o d (ha l f s t o p p i n g at Euckhorn and h a l f go ing to K i c k i n g Horse or Nicomen L a k e ) , then the t o t a l i s i n c r e a s e d by 365. As a b a l l p a r k f i g u r e , t h e n , i t can be s t a t e d t h a t summer o v e r s i g h t use of the K i c k i n g Hor.se-Nicomen Lake area was around 730 i n d i v i d u a l s ^ I n c l u d i n g Buckhorn^ the fi jgure f e t c h e s 1300 o y e r n i g h t e r s . . Day Use.: E s t i m a t i o n of day use i s jnuch more d i f f i c u l t . Few d a y h i k e r s venture beyond the E i g B u c k - F i r s t Bro ther area and i n t o the area where they would be seen by the i n t e r v i e w e r s . 34 Many h i k e o n l y one or two mi le s beyond the B l a c k w a l l p a r k i n g l o t . A d i s c u s s i o n of "day use" per se i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l , u n l e s s some i n d i c a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e o f the h a b i t s and r e l a t i v e impacts c f h i k i n g g roups . The average s i z e of d a y - h i k i n g p a r t i e s was not d e t e r m i n e d , but fo r the sake c f ease i n computat ion i t was assumed to be 4 .0 i n d i v i d u a l s . A l though t h i s f i g u r e I s s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than the a c t u a l f i g u r e f o r o v e r n i g h t groups , i t was f e l t to be r e a s o n a b l e , g i v e n t h a t f a m i l y groups and c l u b s tended t o take day t r i p s , whi le c o u p l e s with no c h i l d r e n were more l i k e l y to make o v e r n i g h t t r i p s . Judg ing from the numbers s p o t t e d between the p a r k i n g l o t and the F i r s t B r o t h e r on Sunday a f t e r n o o n s , an average weekend f i g u r e o f t w e n t y - f i v e d a y - h i k i n g groups i s p roposed . T h i s means t h a t .100 day h i k e r s used the t r a i l each weekend, 800 throughout the summer. l £ summary i t i s l i k e l y tha t the area ex tend ing from New K i c k i n g Horse to Nicomen l a k e a and c o n t i n u i n g on to the highway^ r e c e i v e d about 800 i n d i v i d u a l s i n the summer of and t h a t the r e g i o n around and i n c l u d i n g Euckhcrn camjs saw 2000 h i k e r s . Use Impact and Evidence o f Overuse T h i s s e c t i o n was net compi led s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , s i n c e no b i o l o g i c a l data were g a t h e r e d , nor were measurements made o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l parameters . O b s e r v a t i o n s c o n s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y o f the f o l l o w i n g i t e m s : 35 • v i s i b l e ev idence o f human presence on t r a i l s and i n c a m p s i t e s , • degree of camps i te use , • changes i n t r a i l and camps i te appearance over the s e a s o n , and • h i k e r p e r c e p t i o n s of use l e v e l s and a rea c a p a c i t y . V i s i b l e Evidence o f Human Presence Much of the t w e n t y - s i x mi le l o o p c o m p r i s i n g the Heather T r a i l does not d i s p l a y much wear and t e a r , c o n s i d e r i n g the thousands of f o o t s t e p s i t r e c e i v e s each season. Even i n p a r t s c f the f r a g i l e meadows a r e a , t a l l untrampled gras ses and f l o w e r s grow r i g h t up to the t r a i l s i d e , the path i t s e l f r e m a i n i n g one to two feet wide over m i l e - l o n g s t r e t c h e s . The problem spot s are numerous, however. Pa tches of snow remain throughout the area u n t i l l a t e i n the s ea son , even though the t r a i l can be c o m p l e t e l y c l e a r and dry by mid- J u l y . Mel twater r i v u l e t s course downwards, c r o s s i n g the path a t dozens of p o i n t s (these d i m i n i s h i n number and s i z e as the summer p r o g r e s s e s ) , making mud puddles as l o n g as f o r t y to f i f t y f e e t . There i s a tendency fo r h i k e r s to a v o i d these swampy s t r e t c h e s , b e a t i n g out a l t e r n a t e p a r a l l e l paths and d e s t r o y i n g the meadows ad j acent to the o r i g i n a l t r a i l . H i k e r s not minding the mud and wetness plunge through the p u d d l e s , c r e a t i n g an e v e r - w i d e n i n g p o t h o l e a t the p o i n t where the r i v u l e t and t r a i l i n t e r s e c t (see F i g u r e E v i d e n c e c f p o n d i n g , t r a i l - w i d e n i n g , a l t e r n a t e p a t h s , a n d d e s t r o y e d v e g e t a t i o n . fIGUJE 3 37 Amount of Campsite Dse I t would be d i f f i c u l t to s t a t e , on the b a s i s of summer 1975 use e s t i m a t e s , that camps i te s were e i t h e r over or u n d e r - u s e d . No c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s of use appeared t o e x i s t . K i c k i n g Horse and Buckhorn were most crowded when the lower Main land was e x p e r i e n c i n g sunny dry weather . A p l e a s a n t weekend i n J u l y or August would probab ly draw four to s i x groups to each of the K i c k i n g Horse s i t e s , and s i x or seven groups per n i g h t to Buckhorn . A c o l d and r a i n y weekend, such as August 8 , 9 , and 10, 1975, drew o n l y two groups to New K i c k i n g Horse and none to Old K i c k i n g Horse . On the average . Two or three groups would extend t h e i r h i k e s to Niccmen L a k e , e i t h e r f c r a day t r i p or to complete the c i r c u i t . I t i s p r o b a b l y safe to say t h a t f o r the camps i te s o b s e r v e d , c a p a c i t y , as d e f i n e d by the number o f e x i s t i n g t e n t and f i r e a r e a s , was not exceeded i n 1975, except over the h o l i d a y weekend, August 1 to 4. I t was at t h i s t ime o n l y t h a t some camping p a r t i e s may have had d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g an unoccupied camping s p o t . 38 Changes; i n T r a i l and Campsite Appearance Camps i tes wi ths tood the summer t r a f f i c wi thout m a n i f e s t i n g dramat i c changes ; the changes n o t i c e d over the season are probab ly more or l e s s permanent, however, p r o v i d e d t h a t human use c o n t i n u e s . , Both K i c k i n g Horse s i t e s were a l t e r e d l i t t l e between e a r l y J u l y and mid Augus t . One new c l e a r e d t e n t i n g area and f i r e r i n g was c r e a t e d at C l d K i c k i n g Horse . I t i s p o s s i b l e tha t some lower t r e e branches a d j a c e n t t o camps i te s were chopped o f f . But many branches were c o n s p i c u o u s l y absent at the b e g i n n i n g o f the s e a s o n , so s c a r s c r e a t e d i n 1975 would have been d i f f i c u l t to i s o l a t e , (see F i g u r e 3 ) . U n t i l the August h o l i d a y , Nicomen Lake camping areas r e c e i v e d very l i t t l e use and consequent ly showed no apparent change. Four new f i r e p i t s were made (see F i g u r e 3 ) , over f o r t y f i s h were seen taken from a l a k e a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d of a mi le by 100 yards i n a r e a , and perhaps a dozen wads of t o i l e t paper were s c a t t e r e d i n exposed areas d u r i n g t h a t weekend. I t i s very p o s s i b l e tha t Nicomen Lake r e c e i v e d more v i s i t o r s on t h a t weekend than d u r i n g any o t h e r s i m i l a r p e r i o d . T r a i l c o n d i t i o n s changed markedly over the season. In e a r l y J u l y dry spo t s between Euckhcrn and K i c k i n g Horse were b a r e l y more numerous than swampy s t r e t c h e s . Meadow s o i l s are most v u l n e r a b l e t o damage at t h i s t i m e , when snowmelt i s b a r e l y o v e r , the h i k i n g season has begun, and the ground i s s t i l l s a t u r a t e d ( O n d e r h i l l , 1966, pages 3 -4 ) . As mentioned e a r l i e r , h i k e r s tended to a v o i d the mud by l e a v i n g the t r a i l 39 f o r c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e s . As the mud g r a d u a l l y d r i e d , they r e v e r t e d to the o r i g i n a l p a t h . Eut the meadow w i l l not r e g e n e r a t e r e a d i l y where i t was t rampled and e r a d i c a t e d . Research conducted i n the Uni ted S t a te s n a t i o n a l parks i n d i c a t e s t h a t on dry meadows such as t h e s e , where the growing season i s about s i x t y days , r ecovery of worn ground w i l l take about 100 y e a r s . Along the a l p i n e s t r e t c h e s of the Heather T r a i l , p a r t i c u l a r l y where summer i n u n d a t i o n o c c u r s ; bare- s c a r s , a p p a r e n t l y c r e a t e d over past s e a s o n s , are widespread . A study o f wear f a c t o r s a long the Heather T r a i l ( O n d e r h i l l , 1S66, page 3) came to the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s ten years ago: S o i l compact ion i s and w i l l remain the major problem i n v o l v e d i n use h e r e . The c o n d i t i o n of seme of the o l d e s t t r a i l s i n the park i n d i c a t e s t h a t n a t u r a l f a c t o r s opera te extremely s l o w l y to r e l i e v e compact ion and that p l a n t growth i s i n h i b i t e d as l o n g as the c o n d i t i o n p e r s i s t s . Where o f f - t r a i l wear r e s u l t s i n s o i l compact ion r e s u l t s w i l l be slow and i n s i d i o u s and w i l l be ex t remely d i f f i c u l t to r e p a i r . In a d d i t i o n t o the expected wear and t e a r on des igna ted camps i te s and t r a i l s , ev idence c f use was apparent i n s e v e r a l new f i r e s c a r s which appeared on the Big Buck r i d g e , a windswept and dry p l a t e a u between Buckhorn and the F i r s t B r o t h e r (see F i g u r e 2 ) . T h i s a rea seemed to a t t r a c t v i s i t o r s who se t out too l a t e i n the day to reach K i c k i n g Horse before da rk . 40 User P e r c e p t i o n s of Use Levels and Area C a p a c i t y H i k e r p e r c e p t i o n s o f use ev idence and overuse are an i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l element i n d e t e r m i n i n g the i d e a l use l e v e l . The i n t e r v i e w e r s at tempted to draw out user f e e l i n g s i n t h i s a r e a , wi thout a s k i n g too many d i r e c t or l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s . - In g e n e r a l , f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t v i s i t o r s are somewhat aware of p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l wear and t e a r , but they do not l i n k them c a u s a l l y with o v e r u s e . Any problems apparent now are not f e l t t c be very s e r i o u s or worsening at t h i s t i l ® * l i t t e r was not r a i s e d as a c o n c e r n ; i n f a c t * a number of u ser s {20%) commented cn i t s absence . Only a s m a l l number o f v i s i t e r s (105?) mentioned the chopping o f l i v e branches as a prob lem. People seemed aware, however, of the f i n i t e nature of the a r e a ' s wood s u p p l y . La te season h i k e r s had ne more d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g f i rewood than d i d J u l y v i s i t o r s , and t h e r e appeared to be more than adequate wood f o r a l l , but people r e c o g n i z e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of a f u t u r e s h o r t a g e . C o m p l a i n t s about meeting too many people or l e t s o f people were r a r e , except over the h o l i d a y weekend. N i n e t y - o n e percent f e l t the area at seme t ime c o u l d have " t o o many p e o p l e , " but a t l e a s t h a l f d i d not f e e l t h a t t ime had a r r i v e d . These q u e s t i o n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n l a t e r p a r t s of t h i s c h a p t e r . 41 BACKGROUND INFORMATION PERTAINING TO HIKERS Aae The o v e r n i g h t v i s i t o r s are g e n e r a l l y young , 15% under t h i r t y and 1 5 1 between twenty and t w e n t y - f o u r , i n c l u s i v e . (See T a b l e I .) The age d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Heather T r a i l backpackers shows f i g u r e s f o r younger u s e r s , s p e c i f i c a l l y those i n the f i f t e e n t o t w e n t y - f o u r age group , t o be s i m i l a r to those o b t a i n e d f o r comparable h i k i n g p o p u l a t i o n s . Approx imate ly o n e - t h i r d of the G a r i b a l d i - D i a m o n d Head t r a i l u s e r s , c n e - g u a r t e r of t h e Gar iba ld i -Cheakamus u s e r s , and 465? o f the G a r i b a l d i - Black Tusk users were between f i f t e e n and t w e n t y - f o u r y e a r s , i n c l u s i v e (Hor ton , 1 9 7 5 , pages 4 - 6 ) . Ju s t under h a l f the Mount Robson backcountry users were from f i f t e e n to twenty- f o u r (8555 were between f i f t e e n and f o r t y - n i n e , i n c l u s i v e ) (Ga in , Swanky, and T a y l o r , 1 9 7 5 , page 1 2 ) . F i g u r e s f o r Mount A s s i n i b c i n e user s were very s i m i l a r (Gain and Swanky, 1 9 7 5 , page 2 ) . I f one l o o k s a t some s t u d i e s conducted i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the bulk c f w i l d e r n e s s users seem to be o l d e r . Hendee ' s P a c i f i c Northwest s u r v e y , conducted i n 1 9 6 5 , r e v e a l e d o n l y about 1 9 % of users to be i n the s i x t e e n to t w e n t y - f o u r group . A h igh 4 6 3 were between t h i r t y - f i v e and f i f t y - f o u r , wi th a qua r te r between t w e n t y - f i v e and t h i r t y - four (Hendee, 1 9 6 8 , pages 1 1 - 1 2 ) . Scmmarstrom's d a t a , ga thered around the same t i m e , showed a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n to 42 e x i s t among backcountry users on the Olympic P e n i n s u l a , where over h a l f were o l d e r than t h i r t y - f i v e (Scmmarstrcm, 1966, pages 10-11) . I t may be t h a t p o p u l a t i o n pyramids are changing g r a d u a l l y , and t h a t the i n f l u x of young people i n t o w i l d e r n e s s a c t i v i t i e s over the l a s t decade ( i f indeed such a t r e n d e x i s t s ) i s the i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t o f h igh b i r t h r a t e s i n the l a t e f o r t i e s and i n t o the f i f t i e s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h e r e c o u l d be d i f f e r e n c e s i n the age s t r u c t u r e s c f Canadian and U n i t e d S t a t e s h i k i n g p o p u l a t i o n s , as a r e s u l t o f the o l d e r American i n t e r e s t and involvement i n h i k i n g d i s c u s s e d by Nash (1967). Exper i ence Heather T r a i l h i k e r s are f a i r l y new to the s p o r t , with 15% hav ing made "backpack ing t r i p s o f at l e a s t two n i g h t s i n l e n g t h " f o r f i v e or fewer y e a r s , n e a r l y h a l f f o r two or fewer y e a r s . (One-night t r i p s were not counted h e r e , i n an e f f o r t to r u l e out l e s s " s e r i o u s " h i k i n g e x c u r s i o n s . ) n e a r l y everyone (83%) had made at l e a s t one p r e v i o u s backpacking t r i p . (See Tab le I I . ) V i s i t o r s to G a r i b a l d i Park were s i m i l a r l y new to back- c o u n t r y h i k i n g , with about 451 hav ing backpacked f o r two years or l e s s , and about o n e - q u a r t e r f o r two to f i v e y e a r s . I t i s assumed t h a t respondents were p e r m i t t e d t o i n c l u d e o n e - n i g h t t r i p s i n answering t h i s g u e s t i c n (Hor ton , 1975, pages 21-28) . Mount Bobson v i s i t o r s were somewhat more 43 e x p e r i e n c e d , o n e - t h i r d having zero t c two years e x p e r i e n c e , and an a d d i t i o n a l 21% with two to f i v e y e a r s background. One-guar te r had more than ten years e x p e r i e n c e . I t shou ld be noted t h a t r i d e r s , c l i m b e r s , and h i k e r s sere lumped t o g e t h e r f o r t h i s q u e s t i o n ( G a i n , Swanky, and T a y l o r , 1 9 7 5 , page 1 2 ) . Backpackers i n Mount A s s i n i b o i n e Park se re even a b i t more e x p e r i e n c e d . As i n Mount fiobson, 25% had been a c t i v e f o r over ten y e a r s , and o n l y 22$ ( l e s s than h a l f the number of Heather T r a i l backpackers i n t h i s ca teqory) had h i k e d f o r two or fewer years (Gain and Swanky, page 2 ) . Frequency of H i k i n g A c t i v i t y Backpacking - seems to be an o c c a s i o n a l a c t i v i t y f o r mest r e s p o n d e n t s . O n e - h a l f the users had made two or fewer two- n i g h t t r i p s over the past two summers. Only 10% had made more than s i x of these t r i p s over the p r e v i o u s two summers. The Hendee P a c i f i c Northwest s tudy o f f e r s an i n t e r e s t i n g c o m p a r i s o n , r e i n f o r c i n g the f i n d i n g t h a t Heather T r a i l backpackers hike l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than i s t y p i c a l f o r North American backpacker s . The average number of t r i p s i n t o " w i l d e r n e s s - t y p e a r e a s , " i n 1 9 6 5 , f o r each r e s p o n d e n t , was 6 , 3 , of average l e n g t h 2.3 days each . Al though the t r i p s are s h o r t , t h i s means 1 4 . 5 person-days over a season of no more than t h r e e months (Hendee, 1 9 6 8 , page 2 1 ) . Average t r i p l e n g t h i s not i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Heather T r a i l f i n d i n g s (see s e c t i o n on T r i p l e n g t h ) . But when cne r e a l i z e s t h a t o n l y 101 o f Heather T r a i l u ser s made s i x t r i p s 44 over the pas t two summers, the P a c i f i c Northwest u se r s are c o m p a r a t i v e l y a c t i v e . E d u c a t i o n The sample was ex t remely w e l l - e d u c a t e d , when compared wi th the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n ( l abour force ) as a whole (see T a b l e I I I ) . O n e - t h i r d had u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g beyond an undergraduate degree . E i g h t y - t h r e e percent had f i n i s h e d a t l e a s t some u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g . I t would appear t h a t some of the remain ing 175? w i l l a t t e n d u n i v e r s i t y upon f i n i s h i n g h i g h s c h o o l and r e a c h i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e age. A s o c i o - economic survey conducted i n B r i t i s h Columbia p r o v i n c i a l park campgrounds showed 685? of the persons sampled to have r e c e i v e d at most a high s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n ( B l a c k w a l l , 1971, page 7 1 ) . T h i s s t a t i s t i c would suggest t h a t backcountry r e c r e a t i o n i s t s may - be more h i g h l y educated than outdoor r e c r e a t i c n i s t s c r campers i n g e n e r a l . F i n d i n g s of o t h e r backcountry user s t u d i e s would l end suppor t to t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n . The 1346 P a c i f i c Northwest backpacker s , horseback r i d e r s , and d a y - h i k e r s sampled by Hendee were n e a r l y as h i g h l y educated as Heather T r a i l u s e r s : o n l y 36% had no more than a h i g h s c h o o l degree , 36% had seme u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n or a degree , and 28% had completed some graduate work (Hendee, 1968, page 13) . Data on 179 C a l i f o r n i a High S i e r r a w i l d e r n e s s users i n 1960 showed on ly 1851 to have f i n i s h e d o n l y h igh s c h o o l or l e s s , 49$ with some u n i v e r s i t y c r a degree , and o n e - t h i r d with 45 graduate s c h o o l t r a i n i n g , r e s u l t s very s i m i l a r to those of the Heather T r a i l s u r v e y . P a d d l i n g c a n o e i s t s i n the BWC& i n 1960-61 were a l s o ext remely w e l l - e d u c a t e d . O n e - f i f t h had f i n i s h e d o n l y h igh s c h o o l or l e s s , 54% had a u n i v e r s i t y degree or some u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t i o n , and 24% had completed some graduate work (Lucas , 1964). I t s h o u l d be remembered t h a t da ta on the High S i e r r a and users i s now n e a r l y f i f t e e n years e l d . I t i s p o s s i b l e tha t an expanding appre- c i a t i o n f o r w i l d e r n e s s va lues i s d i f f u s i n g downward i n s o c i e t y (Hendee, 1968, page 12) , which would l e a d one to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t P a c i f i c Northwest , High S i e r r a , and BWC& user s of 1975 would show an o v e r a l l lower l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n . Owing to the very few s t u d i e s a v a i l a b l e , however^ and c o n s i d e r i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s i n survey methodology, geograph ic l o c a t i o n , and o t h e r f a c t o r s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to p o i n t with c e r t a i n t y t o any t r e n d . Occupa t ion From o c c u p a t i o n data i t seems t h a t user s are i n a h igh income group , f o r the most p a r t , wi th a h igh p r o p o r t i o n i n h i g h - s t a t u s jobs or with the p o t e n t i a l to a c g u i r e such s t a t u s . One-guar te r are s t u d e n t s and 11% are p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( d o c t o r s , l a w y e r s , and e n g i n e e r s ) . Only 16% were employed as l a b o u r e r s . 46 P lace of O r i g i n The t r a i l seems to a t t r a c t people l i v i n g w i t h i n a t h r e e - h o u r d r i v e of Manning P a r k . Over t h r e e - f i f t h s of the t r a i l users l i v e i n the Lower Mainland ( i n c l u d i n g Vancouver , n o r t h shore communi t ie s , C o g u i t l a m , Richmond, and S u r r e y ) . Over f o u r - f i f t h s l i v e i n the Lower Mainland and F r a s e r V a l l e y combined. Only 5% are Amer ican . (For d e t a i l s see Tab le I V . ) P l a c e of o r i g i n f i g u r e s f o r backccuntry h i k e r s i n Mount Robson P r o v i n c i a l Park were s i m i l a r i n both T h o r s e l ^ s s tudy (1971) and the E r i t i s h Columbia Parks Branch survey (Ga in , Swanky, and T a y l o r , 1975, page 11) . The d i s t r i b u t i o n was ex t reme ly d i f f e r e n t from tha t en the Heather T r a i l : o n l y 161 were B r i t i s h Co lumbians , whi le 2151 were from A l b e r t a and 43% from the U n i t e d S t a t e s . As f o r horseback r i d e r s , the p a t t e r n showed more E r i t i s h Columbians and fewer Amer icans . In Mount A s s i n i b o i n e Park , A l b e r t a n s form the l a r g e s t s i n g l e group (37%) , f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y by Americans (35%), whi le B r i t i s h Columbians accounted f o r o n l y 14% of the use . These f i g u r e s are f o r h i k e r s , r i d e r s , and c l i m b e r s (Gain and Swanky, 1975, page 3 ) . G a r i b a l d i P r o v i n c i a l Park v i s i t o r o r i g i n f i g u r e s were much c l o s e r t c the se gathered i n Manning P a r k . E i g h t y - t h r e e percent o f Diamond Head t r a i l u s e r s , 78% of the Cheakamus v i s i t o r s , and 75% of the B lack Tusk users o r i g i n a t e d i n G r e a t e r Vancouver (which may i n c l u d e some of th e communit ies c l a s s i f i e d as " F r a s e r V a l l e y " i n the Heather T r a i l s tudy) (Hor ton , 1975, pages 21-29) . 47 Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n There were t w i c e as many males as females h i k i n g the Heather T r a i l . In compar i son , sex d i s t r i b u t i o n i n areas surveyed by the B r i t i s h Columbia Parks Branch was c l o s e to t h i s f i g u r e . " The percentage of males was h i g h e s t (70%) at G a r i b a l d i - B l a c k Tusk , and lowest (60%) at Cheakamus (Hor ton , 1975, pages 4 - 6 ) . In the ORBBC study males outnumbered females four to cne ( w i l d l a n d Research C e n t e r , 1962, page 134) . I f t h i s s tudy were repea ted t o d a y , such a marked d i f f e r e n c e between males and females might not be the case t o d a y , s i n c e women may be p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n w i l d l a n d r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s to a g r e a t e r ex tent than they d i d i n 1960. 48 TBIP DETAILS AND PLANNING C h o i c e of Manning Park Nineteen percent of Heather T r a i l v i s i t o r s c i t e d " a l p i n e meadows" as the main r e a s o n f o r t h e i r c h o i c e o f Manning Park . E v i d e n t l y meadows are synonymous:with Manning Park to t h i s g roup , a l though i n r e a l i t y l i t t l e of Manning P a r k ' s a c c e s s i b l e a rea i s i n meadow. C o n v e n i e n c e , or the p a r k ' s p r o x i m i t y to the Lower Main land and E r a s e r V a l l e y , was named by 25%. Another 16% chose Manning Park on the recommendation o f a f r i e n d or f a m i l y member (see Tab le V ) . Cho ice o f Heather T r a i l The. d e c i s i o n to take t h i s t r a i l i s g e n e r a l l y made i n advance . E i g h t y percent o f the re spondents had known which t r a i l they would h i k e , i n advance of t h e i r t r i p . Pr imary reasons f o r c h o o s i n g the Heather T r a i l were t h r e e : • the meadows (46%), • i t s l e n g t h , a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a t w o - t o - t h r e e n i g h t t r i p and l o n g e r than most o ther park t r a i l s (21%), and • i t s r e l a t i v e ease and gu ick access by r o a d , p u t t i n g the meadows w i t h i n c o n v e n i e n t reach (18%)• F o r a more complete breakdown, see Tab le V I . 49 InformatloPj Aclvice^ and Suggestions Communication of information and advice about the t r a i l was accomplished primarily through contact with friends and family members, p a r t i c u l a r l y for inexperienced hikers ( 5 7 % ) . The popular t r a i l guidebooks, Exjeloring Manning Park ( 4 9 % ) and !03 Hikes i n Southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia (33%) were heavily used. There was a tendency for Exploring Manning Park to be p a r t i c u l a r l y persuasive i n helping hikers to formulate t h e i r t r a i l choice and t r i p plans, Half the v i s i t o r s deciding on the Heather T r a i l i n advance had used t h i s bock, while only 1 4 % of those undecided before t h e i r a r r i v a l had used i t . Fewer than o n e - f i f t h of the respondents v i s i t e d the Nature House adjacent to Manning Park lodge (across the highway from the access road to the meadows). A mere 7 f u t i l i z e d the Nature Hut located up i n the meadows, only several hundred feet from the t r a i l h e a d . Surprisingly, those v i s i t o r s using the Heather T r a i l for the f i r s t time actually v i s i t e d the Nature House and Nature Hut a b i t less ( 8 % ) than those who already knew the area ( 1 1 % ) . S i m i l a r l y , maps and pamphlets from the Nature House and Nature Hut were carried by 22%, a large number of these v i s i t i n g the two nature f a c i l i t i e s (see Table VII). There are clear s i m i l a r i t i e s i n information d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns for the Heather T r a i l in Manning Park and for Mount Bcbson and Mount Assiniboine Parks, although the c l i e n t e l e are of diverse origins and would seemingly reguire d i f f e r e n t types of information and patronize 50 d i f f e r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e s . Mount A s s i n i b c i n e u ser s r e l i e d h e a v i l y on a d v i c e from f r i e n d s , which was r e c e i v e d by 50%. Fewer (28%) used t r a i l gu ides or maps ( G a i n , Swanky, and T a y l o r , 1975, page 14) . For Mount Eobson, s p e c i f i c a l l y the Berg Lake T r a i l , wcrd-of-mouth i s the most f r e q u e n t l y named i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e , f o l l o w e d by a gu idebook , H i k i n g i J E l i l ^ of the Canadian R c c k i e S i , As with the Heather T r a i l u s e r s , none wrote to V i c t o r i a f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , and o n l y 10% s topped at the Nature House, a s u r p r i s i n g l y low number, c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t 65% were f i r s t - t i m e users and 43% were from the U n i t e d S t a te s (Gain and Swanky, 1975, page 13) . Group S i z e Groups of two predominated , c o m p r i s i n g 38% of the sample , with another 20% c o n s i s t i n g of t h r e e s . S e v e r a l l a r g e r groups were encountered (of e l e v e n , t h i r t e e n , and twenty- two) . The average group s i z e was 3.8 (see Tab le V I I I ) . R e s u l t s of • the B r i t i s h Columbia Parks Branch surveys i n d i c a t e s i m i l a r group s i z e s i n o t h e r backcountry a r e a s . G a r i b a l d i - D i a m o n d Head and Black Tusk p a r t i e s averaged 3.5 i n d i v i d u a l s , and Gari fcaldi-Cheakamus groups averaged 3.6 (Hor t on , 1975; pages 4 - 8 ) . Mount Rcbson and Mount A s s i n i - boine Parks a t t r a c t e d a s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r average group of 2 .7 i n d i v i d u a l s ( G a i n , Swanky, and T a y l o r , 1975, page 11, and Ga in and Swanky, 1975, page 4 ) . As i n the Heather T r a i l s u r v e y , groups c f two were most common i n the Olympic 5 1 N a t i o n a l Park backcountry (Sommarstrom, 1966, page 10) . T r i p s were s h o r t and " t o the p o i n t , " j u s t long enough to p e r m i t p a r t or a l l of the c i r c u i t to be h iked with no d e l a y . Seventy p e r c e n t of the groups s t ayed one or two n i g h t s , and over 90% of the t r i p s were three n i g h t s or fewer i n l e n g t h . The average backpack t r i p l a s t e d 2.28 n i g h t s (see Tab le I X ) . Heather T r a i l backpackers were not an o v e r l y adventurous l o t . Only about 20% l e f t the t r a i l to e x p l o r e cn t h e i r own or bushwhack. In most of these c a s e s , the s i d e t r i p was on the Three B r o t h e r s . I t c o u l d be argued t h a t h i k e r s s tuck to the t r a i l s and d i d not bushwhack because they d i d not want to see the meadows damaged u n n e c e s s a r i l y . However, t h e i r r e a d i n e s s to l e a v e the t r a i l s to a v o i d muddy patches might not be c o n s i s t e n t with such an a t t i t u d e . Other s u r v e y s , i n a d d i t i o n to Hendee's (1968) , showed backcountry t r i p l e n g t h to be c l o s e to t h a t o f Heather T r a i l o v e r n i g h t h i k e s . G a r i b a l d i - D i a m o n d Head h i k e s averaged 2.3 n i g h t s , Cheakamus t r i p s 2.5 n i g h t s , and B l a c k Tusk t r i p s 2,4 ( H c r t o n , 1975, pages 21-28) . Mount A s s i n i b o i n e h i k e s averaged 3.3 n i g h t s (horseback r i d e s were twice as long) (Gain and Swanky, 1975, page 5 ) . Mount fiobson v i s i t s averaged 3 n i g h t s ( G a i n , Swanky, and T a y l o r , 1975, page 12). The d i f f e r e n c e between parks such as Mount Robscn , on one hand , and G a r i b a l d i or Manning on the o t h e r hand , seems t o 52 e x p l a i n the d i s c r e p a n c y ; the r e l a t i v e remoteness of Mount Robson and the d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d by i t s v i s i t o r s , who ccme from Vancouver , C a l g a r y , Edmonton, and the Uni t ed S t a t e s , would probab ly j u s t i f y a s t ay l o n g e r than t h a t of a F r a s e r V a l l e y f a m i l y spending a weekend i n Manning P a r k . When one has t r a v e l l e d 1000 m i l e s to reach the t r a i l , a s t ay o f three days does not seem very l o n g . I t was p o i n t e d out i n the Mount Robson s tudy t h a t most v i s i t o r s , however, are on a Rocky Mountain t r i p , not e x c l u s i v e l y a Mount Robson t r i p , and v i s i t o ther parks i n the a r e a . Hiker D i s t r i b u t i o n Over Campsites Hew K i c k i n g Horse r e c e i v e d 16% more use than d i d Old K i c k i n g Horse , d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the two camps i te s c o n t a i n r o u g h l y the same number of t e n t i n g spaces . T h i s i n c r e a s e d use of New K i c k i n g Horse probably r e s u l t e d from i t s be ing " f i r s t i n l i n e " and the o n l y camps i te apparent t o newcomers not aware o f Old K i c k i n g Horse j u s t ahead. A d d i t i o n a l l y , as mentioned i n Chapter 2, the camping spots a t New K i c k i n g Horse are more c o n s p i c u o u s ; to some v i s i t e r s a seemingly d e s e r t e d Old K i c k i n g Horse might have g i v e n the i m p r e s s i o n of abandonment. Assuming t h a t Vancouver weather was e n c o u r a g i n g , both New and Old K i c k i n g Horse e x p e r i e n c e d moderate use cn F r i d a y s (two t o t h r e e groups each) and were g e n e r a l l y f u l l or approaching c a p a c i t y on Saturdays (nine to e l e v e n groups over the e n t i r e a r e a ) . Few o v e r n i g h t users e n t e r e d the area on Sunday. Use was h e a v i e r over the August 53 1-4 h o l i d a y , but was not observed f i r s t hand at e i t h e r K i c k i n g Horse s i t e . Nicomen l a k e use p a t t e r n s were bcth d i f f e r e n t and s u r p r i s i n g . As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 2, the l a k e s i t e s r e c e i v e d l i t t l e o v e r n i g h t use ( i . e . , no more than two groups each weekend) with the e x c e p t i o n c f the t h r e e - n i g h t h o l i d a y weekend. At t h a t t ime over n i n e t e e n groups o c c u p i e d the l a k e s i d e camps, and four new f i r e r i n g s were c r e a t e d by p a r t i e s occupy ing , , n€w n s i t e s . About h a l f the groups r e a c h i n g the l ake completed the e n t i r e c i r c u i t , whi le the remain ing h a l f r e t r a c e d the t h i r t e e n mi le s back to the p a r k i n g l o t . 54 HIKER ATTITUDES TOWARDS EACKCCUNTBY IMPROVEMENTS Heather T r a i l backpackers are g e n e r a l l y c f the o p i n i o n t h a t the area shou ld be l e f t as p r i m i t i v e as p o s s i b l e . The backcountry s h o u l d be kept f r e e c f development , a p l a c e w h e r e o n e can escape from planned improvements and " b u r e a u c r a t i c " r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . People d i d not compla in^ however, about e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , which i n c l u d e o u t h o u s e s , t h r e e - s i d e d s h e l t e r s , and t r a i l s . About one- ff w » t h i r d of the respondents s t a t e d , without being a s k e d , tha t the area shou ld be kept r u s t i c and n a t u r a l . These f i n d i n g s are supported by both Merriam and Ammcns (1964, page 393} and t h e W i l d l a n d Research Center (1962), who r e p o r t t h a t v i s i t o r s to the western U n i t e d S t a t e s wanted s imple campgrounds and opposed a d d i t i o n a l improvements . Eby (1972) determined t h a t a m a j o r i t y of Wel l s Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park users wanted to see the area ma inta ined as " w i l d e r n e s s " , wi th o n l y rudimentary improvements . Hendee ' s sample a l s o scorned i n t r u s i o n s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , o b j e c t i n g to new s h e l t e r s , campgrounds, and roads . As wi th the Heather T r a i l sample , no o b j e c t i o n s to e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s were r a i s e d (Hendee, 1968, pages 45-54) . T r a i l s S a t i s f a c t i o n with t r a i l s was h i g h ; t h e i r c o n d i t i o n was d e e m e d ' " e x c e l l e n t " or " good" by the e n t i r e sample , 40% and 60% r e s p e c t i v e l y . Br idges and stream c r o s s i n g s as they now 55 e x i s t sere approved unanimous ly . The a n t i - d e v e l o p m e n t a t t i t u d e was extended to o t h e r q u e s t i o n s as s e l l , such as t h a t o f muddy p l a c e s cn the t r a i l . As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 2 , numerous i n u n d a t e d segments c f the t r a i l , from t h r e e to f i f t y f e e t l o n g , were unpleasant enough t c f o r c e most h i k e r s o f f the pa th . Yet 60% wanted n o t h i n g done about the mud. Seasons g i v e n expres sed a common theme: "Leave i t n a t u r a l , i t ' s supposed t o be t h i s way," and " Y o u ' v e got t o make ycur own way and do i t y o u r s e l f out here i n the bush—we d o n ' t want s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t " were popular s e n t i m e n t s . Of the 40% s u g g e s t i n g a method f c r c o p i n g wi th the mud, o n e - h a l f recom- mended s t e p p i n g s t o n e s . Other p o s s i b i l i t i e s , such as c o r d u r o y , l e g b r i d g e s , and g r a v e l , were c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s p o p u l a r , (See f a b l e X.) I n f o r m a t i o n a l S igns At t h i s t ime t h e r e are very few s i g n s and d i r e c t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s . As ide from the s i g n r e a d i n g HEATHE.fi TBAIL l o c a t e d at the t r a i l h e a d , the o n l y s i g n a long the t w e n t y - s i x mi l e s t r e t c h i s s i t u a t e d at approx imate ly mi le 3, and reads BUCKHORN CAMP—JUST AHEAD. when gues t ioned about the g u a l - i t y o f s i g n s and mark ings , 42% f e l t t h e r e was some i n a d e - quacy. S e v e r a l c o n f u s i n g spot s were c i t e d f r e g u e n t l y as needing c l a r i f i c a t i o n . One of these i s the p o i n t where the jeep road meets Buckhorn camp and d i s appear s (see F i g u r e 2 ) . U n t i l Augus t , when a crude s i g n i n d i c a t i n g TBAIL was t i e d to a t r e e , there was a grea t d e a l of u n c e r t a i n t y as t o whether 56 the t r a i l cut a c ro s s the campsi te or s k i r t e d i t . Another p o i n t of c o n f u s i o n i s the B c n n e v i e r T r a i l c u t o f f , a f o rk tha t most people s a i d i t would be h e l p f u l * but not e s s en- t i a l , to l a b e l . Others v o i c e d the o p i n i o n t h a t camps i te markings were needed, p a r t i c u l a r l y a t K i c k i n g Horse . L a s t l y , i t was f e l t t h a t markings a t Nicomen fiidge were needed. Humours were c i r c u l a t e d of p a r t i e s r e a c h i n g the top o f the r i d g e (mile 12.5 on F i g u r e 2) and t u r n i n g back , t h i n k i n g they had somehow passed the l a k e or were s t i l l s e v e r a l mi le s away from i t . In f a c t the l a k e l i e s j u s t cne mi l e from t h i s p o i n t , tucked away below the r i d g e and b a r e l y out of s i g h t . Al though v i s i t o r s f e l t t h a t markings at these p l a c e s would be h e l p f u l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n view of the f a c t t h a t h i k e r s cannot o b t a i n s k e t c h or t o p o g r a p h i c a l maps of t h i s t r a i l from the Nature House. T h u s , the 80% o r so of backpackers not p o s s e s s i n g t o p o g r a p h i c a l maps or guidebooks o b t a i n e d e l sewhere mcst p r e s e n t l y r e l y on word-of-mouth and common sense , When asked what types o f i n f o r m a t i o n s i g n s were needed, 42% wanted t o see none, aga in a r e f l e c t i o n of a n t i - development s e n t i m e n t s . Most v i s i t o r s oppos ing s i g n s f e l t i t more d e s i r a b l e t o p r o v i d e the needed i n f o r m a t i o n i n maps- and b o o k l e t s . Of the types o f i n f o r m a t i o n regues ted by the r e m a i n i n g 58%, mileage markers were the most h e a v i l y f avoured (21%). S p e c i f i c d i s t a n c e s t o the camps i te s were regues ted by 16%, and i n f o r m a t i o n about mountains and f l o w e r s was d e s i r e d by 18%. (See Tab le XI . ) h i k e r s wi th no 57 p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e were more l i k e l y to name the l a t t e r c a t e g o r y than were v i s i t o r s with s e v e r a l years background . Hendee found t h a t seven out of f en P a c i f i c Northwest u ser s f avoured s i g n s c o n v e y i n g o n l y d i r e c t i o n a l and key d i s t a n c e i n f o r m a t i o n . The remain ing 30% regues ted i n t e r p r e t i v e m a t e r i a l (Hendee, 1968, pages 45-47 ) , whi le 23% of T h o r s e l l * s sample f e l t i n t e r p r e t i v e s i g n s were needed ( T h o r s e l l , 1971, page 113). Garbage Hand l ing Respondents were asked i f they would l i k e t o see a garbage c o l l e c t i o n f a c i l i t y at backcountry camps. Best u ser s assumed t h a t t h i s meant l i t t e r c a n s . One-guar te r were s t r o n g l y i n f a v o u r , whi le o n e - h a l f were s t r o n g l y opposed to such a development . Those i n support c i t e d the convenience as a r a t i o n a l e , and many s t a t e d t h a t the cans would a m e l i o r a t e the s i t u a t i o n by removing the " n e e d " to d i s c a r d l i t t e r cn the g round . Those oppos ing backcountry l i t t e r c o l l e c t i o n o f f e r e d a v a r i e t y of s u p p o r t i v e r e a s o n s . The u s u a l defence was an a v e r s i o n to the i n c r e a s e d " o r g a n i z a t i o n " and encroachment of c i v i l i z a t i o n t h a t t h i s would mean. Users a l s o mentioned the mess ines s , a t t r a c t i o n o f b e a r s , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t s , and the problem of removing the l i t t e r from the b a c k c o u n t r y . About 25% of the re spondents f e l t t h a t l i t t e r cans i n the b a c k c c u n t r y were not c o m p a t i b l e with the essence of b a c k p a c k i n g , t h a t one packs out what he or she packs i n . 58 S u p p o r t e r s of garbage d i s p o s a l tended t o be the youngest v i s i t o r s (ages f i f t e e n to n i n e t e e n ) , and those with no p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n the b a c k c o u n t r y . The twenty to t w e n t y - f o u r and t h i r t y and over age groups were the most s t r o n g l y opposed to the i d e a . ' Garbage d i s p o s a l was favoured a g r e a t d e a l more by the users of New K i c k i n g Horse than by those at O l d K i c k i n g Horse and Nicomen Lake (21% e a c h ) . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e may be a t t r i b u t e d to the s l i g h t l y l a r g e r number of n o v i c e s u s ing New K i c k i n g Horse . I t i s c l e a r from the vodka b o t t l e and Tang wrappers i n the outhouse at Old K i c k i n g Horse t h a t u se r s had found a c o n v e n i e n t t r a s h r e c e p t a c l e not a v a i l a b l e at New K i c k i n g H o r s e . Nicomen L a k e , however, does not have an outhouse , y e t l i t t l e garbage was n o t i c e d i n the l a k e . N e a r l y o n e - h a l f of the sample responded p o s i t i v e l y to the g u e s t i o n , "Would i t be a good i d e a t o g ive l i t t e r b a g s to b a c k p a c k e r s ? " O n e - t h i r d were n e g a t i v e . The s t r o n g e s t f e e l i n g among the nega t ive group was t h a t bags would not be an i n c e n t i v e to someone accustomed to l i t t e r i n g ; i n o ther words, " I f y o u ' r e going to l i t t e r wi thout a bag , y o u ' l l do so with o n e . " Seme respondents mentioned t h a t n e a r l y a l l backpackers c a r r y bags which become emptied as food i s e a t e n , and another bag i s was te fu l and unneces sa ry . Respondents with u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y those hav ing completed graduate work, were most l i k e l y to oppose l i t t e r bags . Those with mixed f e e l i n g s o f t en s a i d , " L i t t e r bags might be neces sary / f o r some h i k e r s , but I d o n ' t need 59 t h e m . " See T a b l e XII f o r a breakdown of user o p i n i o n s on garbage h a n d l i n g and l i t t e r bags . Firewood As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , at t h i s t ime t h e r e does not appear to be a f i r e w o o d s h o r t a g e . While checks d i d not show f i r e w o o d use by 9 5 % c f the o v e r n i g h t groups to d i m i n i s h the o v e r a l l a v a i l a b l e s u p p l y , even though some of the k i n d l i n g l o c a t e d i n the a rea immedia te ly c i r c l i n g the camps i te s d i s a p p e a r e d e a r l y i n the sea son , however. Those wi thout a ha tche t or camp saw were unable to u t i l i z e the l a r g e r p i e c e s . Dsers were asked how they would f e e l about the p r o v i s i o n of cut wood i n c a m p s i t e s . O n e - q u a r t e r were s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t i v e of a cu t wood s u p p l y , and another 16% f e l t scmewhat p o s i t i v e but foresaw problems . In a d d i t i o n to the obv ious convenience a f f o r d e d i t was f e l t t h a t the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f chopped wood might de ter would-be " h a c k e r s . " But c o s t s were s e v e r a l , i n c l u d i n g : t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f organ- i z a t i o n and c i v i l i z a t i o n to the b a c k c c u n t r y , monetary c o s t s , wood s o u r c e s , and wood t r a n s p o r t . A d d i t i o n a l l y , many backpackers c o n s i d e r f o r a g i n g f o r wood and having t o c a r r y i t to the campsi te tc be an i n t e g r a l par t o f the e x c u r s i o n , which would be l o s t i f the s e r v i c e were p r o v i d e d . N e a r l y 40% were f l a t l y opposed f o r these r e a s o n s . Wood p r o v i s i o n was o n l y 72% as popular at New K i c k i n g Horse as at Old K i c k i n g Horse . (See Table X I I I . ) Comparisons with data from o t h e r backcountry s t u d i e s i s 60 r i s k y , because c o n d i t i o n s and supp ly d i f f e r among a r e a s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o t e , however, t h a t 85% of the Mount Eobson sample ( G a i n , Swanky, and T a y l o r , 1975, page 22) f avoured the p r o v i s i o n of f i r e w o o d . P r o v i s i o n o f A d d i t i o n a l T r a i l s and Campsites More than 75% f e l t the Heather T r a i l had s u f f i c i e n t c a m p s i t e s . Over 60% wanted t o see more t r a i l s i n the meadows a r e a , with a p p r o x i m a t e l y one-guar te r of these re spondent s s p e c i f y i n g l o n g e r or l o o p t r a i l s . About h a l f of those f a v o u r i n g an expans ion o f the t r a i l system g u a l i f i e d the regues t by adding t h a t " o n l y a . c o u p l e " of a d d i t i o n a l t r a i l s were needed, and t h a t some of the area s h o u l d be l e f t n a t u r a l . 61 NUMEERS ANL CONGESTION A p p r o x i m a t e l y 20% of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was devoted to user p e r c e p t i o n s of numbers and c o n g e s t i o n , both on the t r a i l and i n c a m p s i t e s . Very • P l e a s a n t Very Unpleasant. 1 Very I P l e a s a n t Very Unplea sant Very 1 P l e a s a n t Very Unpleasant »' Very i P l e a s a n t Very Unpleasant 1 Very i P l e a s a n t Very Unpleasant 1 Very u P l e a s a n t Very Unpleasant » IIGUBE 4. SAMPLE CONTINUUM S J T X AS SHOWN TO HIKERS Cn The T r a i l Respondents were asked t o imagine themselves s e e i n g c e r t a i n numbers of groups (as d i c t a t e d t o them by the i n t e r v i e w e r ) i n the course of a d a y ' s h i k e . These numbers-- 0 , 2;, 4, 8, 12, and 16—were not d i s c l o s e d p r i o r t o the performance of the e x e r c i s e . 62 Very P l e a s a n t Very P l e a s a n t I Very p l e a s a n t L Very P l e a s a n t L- Very P l e a s a n t - r * / 0 Groups Very P l e a s a n t I 2 Groups 4 Groups 8 Groups 12 Groups 16 Groups Very Unpleasant -J Very Unpleasant I Very Unpleasant J Very Unpleasant J Very Unpleasant J Very Unpleasant * — > FIGUEE 5. CCNTINDUK SET- COMPLETED USING MEAN BESPCNSES Respondents q u a n t i f i e d t h e i r r e a c t i o n to each number s e p a r a t e l y , by p l a c i n g a s l a s h mark on a h o r i z o n t a l c o n t i n u u m , r a n g i n g from VEBY PLEASANT to VEBY UNPLEASANT. A nes l i n e was used f o r each group number, s i x l i n e s i n a l l per r e s p o n d e n t , as i n F i g u r e 5. T h u s , each re spondents r a t i n g s generated a curve as the s i x p o i n t s were c o n n e c t e d , as i n F i g u r e 6. For data a n a l y s i s the continuum was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o e i g h t numbered segments, where 0 = " V e r y P l e a s a n t " and 8 = " V e r y U n p l e a s a n t , " as i n F i g u r e 7 . Mean 63 va lu e s f o r the s i x l i n e s (graphs) are summarized g r a p h i c a l l y i n T a b l e X I V . . Very P l e a s a n t I I 1 K* J ;— 0 Groups Very Unpleasant I Very P l e a s a n t I 1 — a 7 Very P l e a s a n t I it 1—1—~ 2 Groups T Very Unpleasant I 1 ~ 8 7 Very P l e a s a n t I '. 5 T T Very Unpleasant 1 T 1 4 Groups 8 7 1 I  1 r 1 'V 1 Very Unpleasant I T 1 Very P l e a s a n t I 8 Groups T 5 r Very Unpleasant I 3 * . 12 Groups Very P l e a s a n t I 8 7 1 6 ' 5 f Very Unpleasant 4 3 1 2. 1 16 Groups I1GUHE 6.. CONTINUUM SIT A COMflETED^ I M J S T J M I N G JJUJBEBIKG SYSTEM In summary, most users l i k e the i d e a of s e e i n g " j u s t a few" groups per day . Even though s e e i n g no one at a l l i s a more a t t r a c t i v e p ro spec t than i s s ee ing e i g h t or mere g r o u p s , the i d e a of be ing c o m p l e t e l y a lone makes seme 64 v i s i t o r s f e e l uncomfor tab le . Soaie expre s sed the needs to be r e a s s u r e d o f the route and informed c f c o n d i t i o n s ahead and d i s t a n c e s to camps. Seeing no cne r a t e d e i t h e r very h i g h (7 or 8) or very lew (0 t o 3 ) , wi th low r a t i n g s g i v e n i n p a r t i c u l a r by i n e x p e r i e n c e d and younger (teenaged) u s e r s . C o m p l a i n t s about h igh numbers were l a r g e l y n o n e x i s t e n t , except over the h o l i d a y weekend. Xet 89% of the re spondents f e l t the t r a i l c o u l d someday have " t o o many p e o p l e . " I n t e r p r e t a t i o n c f numbers and crowding p e r c e p t u a l data from o t h e r s t u d i e s , and comparison of the c o n c l u s i o n s with those p e r t a i n i n g to the Heather T r a i l i s d i f f i c u l t . Such p e r c e p t i o n s r e s u l t from the i n t e r a c t i o n of many i n t e r c o n n e c t e d and p o o r l y - u n d e r s t o o d f a c t o r s ; w i l d e r n e s s a t t i t u d e s , m o t i v a t i o n s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , weather and t e r r a i n c o n d i t i o n s , use l e v e l s , and the s i z e and behav iour of o t h e r p a r t i e s . Comparing and c o n t r a s t i n g of p e r c e p t u a l re sponses i n f l u e n c e d by these v a r i a b l e s , which d i f f e r g r e a t l y among s tudy a r e a s , would be m i s l e a d i n g . Per the purposes of c h a r t i n g g e n e r a l t r e n d s , and r e c o r d i n g the range of a t t i t u d e s p robed , however* seme r e l e v a n t f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o numbers and crowding f e l l o w . Stankey (1971) found t h a t 25% o f the v i s i t e r s to the BWCA and the B r i d g e r and Bob M a r s h a l l W i l d e r n e s s e s and the High U i n t a s P r i m i t i v e Area f e l t crowded (Stankey, 1973, pages 42-43) . The m a j o r i t y of T h o r s e l l ' s 1971 sample b e l i e v e d t h a t Bowrcn L a k e , Mount Bobson, and G a r i b a l d i P r o v i n c i a l Parks were becoming s a t u r a t e d and c o u l d not 6 65 accommodate f u r t h e r user p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s . F i f t y p e r c e n t c f the Bowron Lake Park c a n o e i s t s f e l t crowded, and 2 5 S e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g camps i tes ( T h o r s e l l , 1 9 7 1 , pages 1 2 5 - 1 2 7 ) . The Mount A s s i n i b o i n e s tudy r e v e a l e d t h a t g e n e r a l l y h i k e r s beg in to f e e l crowded when they meet around f i f t e e n o ther groups i n the p a r k . T o l e r a n c e l e v e l s v a r i e d , though , from the few who s a i d they would f e e l crowded meeting l e s s than f i v e to the 25% t o l e r a t i n g mere than f i f t y groups (Gain and Swanky, 1 9 7 5 , page 1 3 ) . T h o r s e l l ( 1 9 7 5 , page 127) determined t h a t G a r i b a l d i u ser s c o u l d meet 6.5 groups per day (about 2 3 people) be fore f e e l i n g crowded, whi le Mount Bobscn and Bowron l a k e users had a t h r e s h o l d o f j u s t f o u r g roups . The l a t t e r two groups may no t be accustomed to s ee ing as many v i s i t o r s as r G a r i b a l d i Park r e c e i v e s . Scmmarstrom ( 1 9 6 6 , page 2 4 ) , i n t r y i n g to e s t a b l i s h a c o r r e l a t i o n between numbers seen and enjoyment ga ined from h i k i n g , r e c e i v e d a v a r i e t y of r e s p o n s e s . Twenty-e igh t p e r c e n t s a i d the more people they e n c o u n t e r e d , the l e s s enjoyment they r e c e i v e d , which would match the Heather T r a i l r e s p o n s e . T w e n t y - f i v e percent s a i d t h a t t h e i r response would depend on whether the groups were encountered on t r a i l s or i n camps. Only 1% p e r c e i v e d a r e v e r s e c o r r e l a - t i o n ; tha t i s , more people meant more enjoyment . However, one f i f t h of the sample d i d not f i n d t h a t t h e i r enjoyment was i n f l u e n c e d by the number o f people they e n c o u n t e r e d . T w o - t h i r d s of S t a n k e y ' s B r i d g e r and Eob M a r s h a l l 66 W i l d e r n e s s samples agreed t h a t , " I t ' s most e n j o y a b l e when you d o n ' t meet anyone i n the w i l d e r n e s s , " whi le one h a l f of the BWCA and High U i n t a s P r i m i t i v e Area u se r s f e l t t h a t way. These f i g u r e s show tha t be ing a lone may have been more i m p o r t a n t to users of these areas than f o r Heather T r a i l b a c k p a c k e r s . S t a n k e y ' s f i n d i n g s showed t h a t h i k e r s were more t o l e r a n t of numbers a t the o u t s e t of a t r i p , when encounter s with o t h e r groups were e x p e c t e d , than i n the i n t e r i o r backcountry s e c t i o n s , where o ther groups were seen as i n t r u d e r s (Stankey, 1S73, pages 2 6 - 2 7 ) . ; Along the Heather T r a i l t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n d i d not seem to e x i s t ; o n l y about 15% of the respondents camped at Nicomen Lake were s u r p r i s e d to see o t h e r groups p e n e t r a t i n g t h a t f a r i n t o the b a c k c o u n t r y . Stankey may have i n t e n d e d the term " i n t e r i o r " to mean t w e n t y - f i v e to t h i r t y m i l e s or more, i n which case Nicomen Lake would not be an i n t e r i o r s p o t , but s t i l l on the p e r i p h e r y . In Camps A v a r i e t y o f re sponses were g i v e n to the q u e s t i o n , "What would be the i d e a l number of groups b e s i d e s y o u r s , at t h i s c a m p s i t e ? " N a t u r a l l y , d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e r r a i n , v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r , open space , and d i s t a n c e s between groups may have l e d to d i f f e r e n t o v e r a l l r e s p o n s e s . The mean number o f groups c i t e d was 3 . 8 1 , whi le the modal response was 6. A l s o f r e g u e n t l y chosen were 1 , 0 , and 2, i n t h a t 67 o r d e r . (See Tab le XV.) respondents were subsequent ly a s k e d , "What would be the maximum number of groups you c o u l d t o l e r a t e here be fore you 'd move away?" A g a i n , d i f f e r e n c e s i n camps i te c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may have a l t e r e d responses among t h e a r e a s . The mean number was 8 . 9 , w i th a modal response of 1 0 . (See T a b l e XVI . ) s e v e r a l re spondents q u a l i f i e d t h e i r answers to these q u e s t i o n s and to the " p l e a s a n t - u n p l e a s a n t " cont inuum by s t a t i n g ' t h a t group s i z e and h a b i t s were as s i g n i f i c a n t as the a c t u a l numbers i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l . I f was conc luded t h a t most backcountry v i s i t o r s do not l i k e to be a lone i n a c a m p s i t e ; the presence of o ther humans seems to c r e a t e a sense of s e c u r i t y and communion, even though i n t e r a c t i o n may be m i n i m a l . In f a c t , the groups g e n e r a l l y i n t e r a c t e d l i t t l e , with c o n t a c t c o n s i s t i n g mainly o f the exchange of g r e e t i n g s and p a r t i c u l a r s . K i c k i n g Horse t e n t i n g areas are f i f t y f e e t apar t at a minimum, f a c i l i t a t i n g a low l e v e l of i n t e r a c t i o n but a t the same t ime a l l o w i n g groups to be aware of one a n o t h e r ' s p re sence . At the l a r g e open Niccmen Lake c a m p s i t e , where the dozen or so camping spots are g e n e r a l l y twenty to t h i r t y f e e t a p a r t , many examples of v i s i t o r i n t e r a c t i o n were observed . G e n e r a l l y , where p o s s i b l e people would choose to be s epara ted by s e v e r a l c amps i t e s . L i t t l e i n t e r - group a c t i v i t y o c c u r r e d , a f t e r i n i t i a l g r e e t i n g s had been exchanged. The 12$ c l a s s i f i e d as " e x t r e m e l y g r e g a r i o u s " were not p a r t i c u l a r , but i n t e r a c t e d with anyone who would 68 pay a t t e n t i o n to them (see subsequent s e c t i o n on G e n e r a l A * t i t j }de s ) . The i d e a o f s e p a r a t i o n i s f u r t h e r e n f o r c e d by the f e e l i n g of more than f o u r - f i f t h s c f the respondents t h a t every group shou ld have i t s own f i r e r i n g . Those who d i d share a f i r e ( for s o c i a l i z i n g , c o c k i n g , or warmth) wanted to do so v o l u n t a r i l y ; they d i d not want to f e e l the s h a r i n g f o r c e d upon them. O t h e r s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d an even g r e a t e r i n t o l e r a n c e f o r o t h e r p a r t i e s camped near the r e s p o n d e n t . Stankey conc luded t h a t 65% o v e r a l l (80% i n t h e B r i d g e r and Bob M a r s h a l l Wi ldernes se s ) would exper i ence a l o s s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n or r e c r e a t i o n a l g u a l i t y i f , a f t e r making camp i n an i s o l a t e d s p o t , two or t h r e e p a r t i e s a r r i v e d on the scene . Only 30% s a i d they would remain camped at t h a t s i t e , and j u s t 3 % a c t u a l l y would en j cy the presence of the newcomers (Stankey, 1 9 7 3 , page 2 7 ) . Heather T r a i l re spondents d i d not e x h i b i t t h i s degree o f a v e r s i o n to o t h e r g roups , as one can see from the data p r e s e n t e d . 69 EEEAVICUB Most c o n c l u s i o n s about user behav iour sere drawn from o b s e r v a t i o n s made by the author d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . Whenever p o s s i b l e , camping p a r t i e s were observed o u t s i d e the i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n , but t h i s added i n s i g h t was only ga ined i n about o n e - h a l f the t o t a l c a s e s ; t h a t i s , when a group was camped w i t h i n the a u t h o r ' s s i g h t . Two g e n e r a l types o f b e h a v i o u r were o b s e r v e d : (1) behav iour r e l a t i n g to camping e t h i c s , which c o u l d a f f e c t the b i o p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , and (2) s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r . In g e n e r a l users are w e l l - b e h a v e d . They keep t o the t r a i l s and seem to be aware of the need t o do t h i s . They do not make many s i d e t r i p s i n t o the b u s h , but t h i s r e l u c t a n c e stems more from a l a c k of d e s i r e f o r e x p l o r a t i o n than a c o n c e r n f o r t r a m p l i n g meadows and i n c r e a s i n g e r o s i o n , as was noted i n the s e c t i o n TBIP DETAILS AND PLANNING. J 2 § I £ § c i a t i v e Eehayiour B i k e r s l e f t very l i t t l e l i t t e r i n consp icuous p l a c e s . S i x o r e i g h t p i e c e s ( c i g a r e t t e b u t t s and gum wrappers) over t w e n t y - s i x m i l e s i s remarkably l i t t l e , c o n s i d e r i n g the f a c t t h a t a c l e a n - u p crew v i s i t e d the area once i n e a r l y J u l y , 1975, and not a t a l l i n 1974 ( c o n v e r s a t i o n wi th youth crew l e a d e r , 1975). At l e a s t o n e - f i f t h of the sample responded to i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g l i t t e r d i s p o s a l by s ay ing t h a t the problem i s not s e r i o u s enough to r e q u i r e manager ia l 70 a t t e n t i o n . Al though some l i t t e r was n o t i c e d d u r i n g 25% o f the i n t e r v i e w s , on ly 19% of the groups observed l e f t l i t t e r i n t h e i r c a m p s i t e s . . • V i s i t o r comments i n o ther user s t u d i e s g ive the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t l i t t e r i s o r d i n a r i l y more p r e v a l e n t and r e p u l s i v e and c o n t r i b u t e s more t o w i l d e r n e s s d e g r a d a t i o n than a l o n g the Heather T r a i l . The l i t t e r problem seems t o be foremost i n the minds of re spondent s and i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t d e p r e c i a t i v e b e h a v i o u r . P r i d d l e (1964, pages 49-53) r e p o r t e d t h a t l i t t e r and other ev idence of human c a r e l e s s n e s s were very c r u c i a l i n d e t e r m i n i n g the g u a l i t y of the w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e . T h o r s e l l found "garbage" to be the most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d c o m p l a i n t , named by o n e - t h i r d of the Bowrcn l a k e and Mount Robson user s ( T h o r s e l l , 1971). S t a n k e y ' s sample almost unanimously (99%) expressed annoyance a t f i n d i n g l i t t e r , and f o r t w o - t h i r d s o f the r e s p o n d e n t s , l i t t e r was judged worse than e n c o u n t e r i n g too many people (1973, page 29) . Garbage was the mcst f r e g u e n t l y mentioned d e t r i m e n t i n Mount Bobson P a r k , c i t e d ay about o n e - q u a r t e r of the respondents (Ga in , Swanky, and T a y l o r , 1975, page 25) . In G a r i b a l d i P a r k , however, on ly 8% of Cheakamus v i s i t o r s and none of the Diamond Head and Black Tusk users mentioned l i t t e r (Horton, 1975, pages 21-28) . The i n t e r v i e w e r s were i n t e r e s t e d i n the f a c t t h a t many Heather T r a i l users who would probab ly never dream o f l i t t e r i n g paper o r p l a s t i c on the t r a i l found i t p e r f e c t l y a c c e p t a b l e t o leave t i n cans i n the f i r e p i t s , a f t e r hav ing 71 burned off- the food remains . C o n c e i v a b l y t h i s p r a c t i c e i s s i m p l y net seen as l i t t e r i n g , but r a t h e r as d e p o s i t i n g the re fuse where i t w i l l not annoy p e o p l e , and e v e n t u a l l y be c o v e r e d with a shes . The m o t i v a t i o n s behind t h i s behav iour u n f o r t u n a t e l y c o u l d not be exp lored i n any d e p t h , hecause the l i t t e r was always d i s c o v e r e d a f t e r the par ty r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t had l e f t the a r e a . Other forms of d e p r e c i a t i v e behav iour were observed o n l y i n f r e q u e n t l y . Only 22% of the re spondent s were observed hack ing t r e e s , and nobody was seen washing d i s h e s or c l o t h i n g , or t a k i n g a bath i n a stream or Nicomen l a k e . Near ly e v e r y o n e ' d i s p l a y e d proper campf ire h a b i t s , and o n l y t h r e e c r f our f i r e s were seen burn ing with no one i n a t t e n d a n c e . User behav iour i s summarized i n Tab le X V I I . I t should be remembered t h a t these f i g u r e s are probably on the low s i d e , as o n e - h a l f o f the groups were seen o n l y i n the i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n . Each of the f i f t y - s e v e n respondents was ranked on a behav iour cont inuum, which ranged from C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t (1) to U t i l i z a t i o n i s t | 5 ) , with N e u t r a l or average at ( 3 ) . The r a t i n g s were based on the i n t e r v i e w e r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n of the respondent d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w and whenever p o s s i b l e at o ther t i m e s . Those n ine respondents (16%) f o r whom i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d r e c e i v e d (3)'s a u t o m a t i c a l l y . Wood-gather ing h a b i t s , c a m p f i r e - m a k i n g , f i r e - e x t i n g u i s h i n g , waste d i s p o s a l , d i s h w a s h i n g , and 72 b e h a v i o u r towards o ther groups were c o n s i d e r e d . Hot on ly the r a t i n g procedure but a l s o the c h o i c e o f v a r i a b l e s to be examined was h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e , based l a r g e l y on the a u t h o r ' s p e r s o n a l s t a n d a r d s . Due t o the amount c f p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t between author and r e s p o n d e n t , f r e g u e n t l y l o n g e r than the h a l f - h o u r i n t e r v i e w , e v a l u a t i o n was undoubtedly c o l o u r e d by i m p r e s s i o n s net r e l a t e d to a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r . But a c o n s c i o u s attempt was made to e v a l u a t e everyone by uni form s tandards and to a v o i d bas ing any par t o f the r a t i n g on s t a t e m e n t s — o n l y b e h a v i o u r ; Ha l f the respondents s cored at a (2) l e v e l or "Somewhat C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t " ; t h e r e were no " C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s . " Only 10% were deemed "Somewhat U t i l i z a t i o n i s t " or " U t i l i z a t i c n i s t . " Ose of Des ignated Wi ldernes s Campsi tes The s m a l l m i n o r i t y , 5 % , who d i d not use the DWC's, f a i l e d t c do so more o f t e n out of i gnorance or poor p l a n n i n g than out of a d e s i r e to a v o i d the camps i t e s . V i s i t o r s were g e n e r a l l y aware tha t t h e i r o v e r a l l impact would be l e s s i f they d i d not c r e a t e new c a m p s i t e s . Many v i s i t o r s were g r a t e f u l f o r the convenience of DWC's; they d i d not have to t o t e r o c k s f o r ' f i r e r i n g s and were a s sured of a r e l a t i v e l y f l a t p l a c e on which t c s l e e p . 73 Genera l A t t i t u d e s H i k e r s were r u l e - c c n s c i o u s , as mentioned above, but the knowledge of e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s d i d not seem to extend f a r beyond the memcr iza t i cn of a few i n v i o l a b l e bromides : " D o n ' t l i t t e r , " " S t ay on the t r a i l , " "Take n o t h i n g but p i c t u r e s and leave n o t h i n g but f o o t p r i n t s . . . " Few users mani fe s ted a deeper awareness of the e f f e c t s o f human v i s i t a t i o n upon the b i o p h y s i c a l env i ronment . Approx imate ly 60% f e l t they had " l i t t l e " or " n o " impact on the w i l d l a n d env i ronment . A mere 5% f e l t they had "much" i m p a c t . Those p e r c e i v i n g an impact g e n e r a l l y r e l i e v e d i t to c o n s i s t o f c r u s h i n g of meadows and f l o w e r s (25%), use c f f i r ewood (23%) , f o o t s t e p s (15%), and e r o s i o n (7%). Hhen asked t o s t a t e examples of human a c t i v i t y : v i s i b l e or a u d i b l e from the t r a i l , 11% n o t i c e d a i r p l a n e s , 16% n o t i c e d f i r e s c a r s made bes ide the t r a i l , and j u s t 18% were aware of a l a r g e c l e a r c u t space and l o g g i n g roads (as r e c e n t as 1972) a c ro s s the v a l l e y , v i s i b l e frem a two to three mi le s t r e t c h between Buckhorn and K i c k i n g Horse . A f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e , i d e n t i c a l t c the behav iour c o n t i n u u m , was d e v i s e d f o r the purpose of r a t i n g user a t t i t u d e s as " C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t , " "Somewhat C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t , " " N e u t r a l , " "Somewhat U t i l i z a t i o n i s t , " and " U t i l i z a t i o n i s t . " N e a r l y h a l f the users s cored " N e u t r a l , " another 32% scored on the " C o n s e r v a t i o n " s i d e , or 1 and 2, and 24% were p l a c e d on the " U t i l i z a t i o n i s t " s i d e , or 4 and 5. fiespondents i n t h e i r t eens averaged 3 .7 , whi le the r e s t of the sample 74 averaged 2 . 6 , s l i g h t l y mere C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t . Hendee*s f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t as i n the Heather T r a i l s u r v e y , f a m i l i a r i t y wi th c e r t a i n causes o f p o l l u t i o n and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n i s h i g h , but sometimes awareness was s u r p r i s i n g l y low. Ninety percent c f the P a c i f i c Northwest users {Hendee, 1968, page 42) b e l i e v e d t h a t a l l ev idence of v i s i t a t i o n s h o u l d be removed when one l e a v e s a c a m p s i t e , and o n l y t h r e e out of ten f e l t i t p e r m i s s i b l e to bathe and wash c l o t h i n g i n streams and l a k e s . But 855? b e l i e v e d nonccmbus t ib le garbage shou ld be b u r i e d , and o n e - h a l f d i d not see o b j e c t i o n s to c u t t i n g l i v e brush f o r beds and c a m p s i r e s . T h i s t y p i c a l P a c i f i c Northwest respondent would have probab ly s cored lower than 2 .6 on the Heather T r a i l a t t i t u d e s c a l e ; Although Heather T r a i l users were not asked about t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards washing and b a t h i n g i n streams or c u t t i n g brush f o r beds and c a m p f i r e s , i t can be assumed from the very few who d i d these t h i n g s tha t a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y low number would condone the p r a c t i c e s . S e v e r a l p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s e x i s t , t h a t p r o b a b l y e x p l a i n the a t t i t u d e d i f f e r e n c e s between P a c i f i c Northwest respondents and Heather T r a i l u s e r s . The d i s c r e p a n c i e s might be a t t r i b u t e d t o a b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e between the two samples , but a more l i k e l y cause i s the t e n - year gap between the two s u r v e y s . I t i s p robab le t h a t the same P a c i f i c Northwest g r o u p , i f sampled i n 1975, would have mani fe s ted a more h i g h l y deve loped e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s c i e n c e than they d i d i n 1965. 7 5 Gain, Swanky, and Taylor ( 1 9 7 5 , page 1 7 ) also write of the gap between v i s i t e r awareness of what they should dc and what they actually dc. V i s i t o r s generally kept to themselves (for more information see section on NOMBEfiS AND CONGESTION). «hen ranked on a four-point scale ranging from (1) Much i n t e r - action to (4) No i n t e r a c t i o n with other groups, 7 5 % of the sample scored 3 cr 4. For the rating process, greetings and exchange of "small t a l k " upon a r r i v a l , with no l a s t i n g e f f e c t throughout the stay, was considered a ( 3 ) , L i t t l e i n t e r a c t i o n . 76 MANAGEMENT IEOCEDDUES TO AITEE PRESENT BEHAVIOUR AND OSE PATTERNS SI J ^ § s t x i c t i n g Behaviour l i j i t a t^cns cn Camcf i re s R e s t r i c t i o n o f campf i re s might be employed to l e s s e n impact on the w i l d l a n d r e s o u r c e s . Bhen asked i f they would suppor t a l i m i t a t i o n on f i r e s i f the wood s u p p l y began to d i m i n i s h , 75% s a i d " Y e s , d e f i n i t e l y . " An a d d i t i o n a l 11% of the sample s t a t e d a b i t r e l u c t a n t l y tha t they would support such a r e g u l a t i o n . Fewer than 10% of the remain ing 14% were n e g a t i v e about the idea o f l i m i t i n g f i r e s , u s u a l l y f o r the reason tha t the evening campf i re was both impor tan t and i r r e p l a c e a b l e . O v e r a l l , about h a l f the G a r i b a l d i sample surveyed i n 1974 f avoured l i m i t s on c a m p f i r e s , which would r e q u i r e a l l users t c c a r r y s t o v e s , Precentages v a r i e d among the t r a i l s ; the Diamond Bead users were 54% i n f a v o u r of the ban , 44% of the Cheakamus users supported i t , w h i l e 48% o f the G a r i b a l d i v i s i t o r s were i n f avour of the ban. Only a long the Cheakamus T r a i l d i d mere users oppose the ban than support i t . G a r i b a l d i user v i ews , which somewhat resembled the views of Heather T r a i l users (see T a b l e X V I I I ) , were s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t from those of Mount A s s i n i b o i n e v i s i t o r s . Only o n e - f i f t h o f the Mount A s s i n i b o i n e sample suppor ted a ban cn campf i re s (Gain and Swanky, 1975, page 77 12) . T h i r t y percent of the Mount Robson v i s i t o r s agreed with the i d e a c f a ban (Ga in , Swanky, and T a y l o r , 1975, page 20 ) , a l a r g e r f i g u r e but s t i l l l e s s than h a l f the number o f Heather T r a i l v i s i t o r s s u p p o r t i n g a ban. User Fees Backccuntry fees c o u l d d i s courage use whi le h e l p i n g t o c o v e r the c o s t s of t r a i l and campsi te maintenance. I t has been argued t h a t the users o f the r e s o u r c e , not the g e n e r a l p u b l i c ; shou ld bear these c o s t s . And f o r l o w - d e n s i t y r e c r e a t i o n , such as backccuntry h i k i n g , the per c a p i t a c o s t s can be tremendous. when t h i s argument was p r e s e n t e d , 40% were i n f avour of f e e s , and 45% were c l e a r l y opposed. A s p e c i f i c amount was not suggested by the i n t e r v i e w e r s , a l t h o u g h some respondents wondered about the amcunt of the f e e . The response g iven to them was "an amount s i m i l a r t o t h a t charged at the c a r campgrounds" (which i s $2.00 per n i g h t ) . Reasons f o r oppos ing a fee i n c l u d e d , " D i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t low-income p e o p l e , " " P u b l i c l a n d s s h o u l d be f r e e , " " A fee w i l l mean t h a t wood and runn ing water from a tap w i l l be p r o v i d e d next y e a r , " and "Fees w i l l o n l y go to c o v e r the c o s t s of t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " D e t a i l s are p r o v i d e d i n Table XIX. User fees were supported by about 40% c f Hendee*s sample (1968, page 60) . In c o n t r a s t , o n l y 23% of the re spondent s surveyed by S tankey , and 10% of the Mount Rcbson backpackers q u e s t i o n e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia Parks Branch 78 ( G a i n , Swanky, and T a y l o r , 1975, page 20) suppor ted u ser f e e s . I t Bight be p o s s i b l e to a t t r i b u t e Hendee ' s h i g h e r re sponse to the number of horseback r i d e r s (25%), who might as a group f e e l d i f f e r e n t l y from h i k e r s . Fees were f a v o u r e d , however, by on ly 16% of the Mount Bobson horseback r i d e r s , not a much h igher re sponse than t h a t g i v e n by the h i k e r s . T w e n t y - f i v e percent o f the Mount A s s i n i b o i n e h i k e r s , a l a r g e r number a l though net c l o s e t o be ing a m a j o r i t y , responded f a v o u r a b l y to the i d e a of fees (Gain and Swanky, 1975, page 12) . In comparing user a t t i t u d e s , i t would be h e l p f u l to knew hew these r e s e a r c h e r s phrased and presented t h e i r q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g user f e e s . Dogs Approx imate ly 11% of the respondents brought dogs on the t r a i l , a p r a c t i c e which does not v i o l a t e park r u l e s as l o n g as the animals are l e a s h e d , fiespondents were asked whether dogs s h o u l d be permi t t ed on the Heather T r a i l . Ju s t over 46% f e l t ne dogs shou ld be a l l owed under any c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Most of the r e m a i n i n g re spondent s were d i v i d e d among p e r m i t t i n g dogs to run l o o s e a lways (26%) and r e g u i r i n g them t o te l ea shed i n camps i te s but not on t r a i l s (see T a b l e X X ) . flhen the G a r i b a l d i users were q u e s t i o n e d about a ban on domes t i c a n i m a l s , t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the B lack Tusk qroup and o n e - h a l f of the Cheakamus and Diamond Head h i k e r s were i n f a v o u r , f i g u r e s which agree with the Heather T r a i l r e s u l t s . 79 I t « a s noted i n the Horton study (1975, pages 21-28) t h a t the h igh p o s i t i v e response from E l a c k Tusk users might have been a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r support f o r the r e c e n t l y - i n a u g u r - a ted ban on domest ic animals i n t h a t a r e a . L i m i t s on Group, S i z e I t was suggested t o re spondent s t h a t p l a c i n g l i m i t s cn p a r t y s i z e might be a b e n e f i c i a l management s t e p . Near ly h a l f (45%) i n d i c a t e d t h a t they would f avour a l i m i t of s i x per g roup . An a d d i t i o n a l 11% favoured a • l i m i t of twelve per group . Cf t h i s 56% m a j o r i t y , over o n e - h a l f i n d i c a t e d t h a t l i m i t s would h e l p tc reduce e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage, s i n c e l a r g e groups e x e r t e d g r e a t e r demands on • the a r e a . Approx imate ly o n e - t h i r d of t h i s m a j o r i t y s t a t e d t h a t s i z e l i m i t s would he lp t c a l l e v i a t e c r o w d i n g , whi le another t h i r d b e l i e v e d they would help reduce n o i s e and rowdines s . Of the t w o - f i f t h s opposed to l i m i t s , o n e - t h i r d f e l t t h a t such r e s t r i c t i o n s would be i m p o s s i b l e t o e n f o r c e and t h e r e f o r e would be p o i n t l e s s . S e v e r a l re spondents d i s a g r e e d with par ty s i z e l i m i t s but were i n agreement with c o n t r o l l i n g o v e r a l l numbers u s ing o t h e r means. In g e n e r a l people from p a r t i e s of seven or more i n d i v i d u a l s d i d not support a l i m i t . For a d e t a i l e d breakdown of a t t i t u d e s towards pa r ty s i z e l i m i t s , see T a b l e XXI . C a n o e i s t s i n the BWCA were e q u a l l y d i v i d e d on the g u e s t i o n of r e s t r i c t i n g par ty s i z e . As f o r b a c k p a c k e r s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f the B r i d g e r Wi ldernes s users wanted to 80 see l i m i t s i n s t i t u t e d , yet there was v i r t u a l l y no suppor t f o r backpacker l i m i t s ' i n the o ther two western areas s t u d i e d by S tankey , the Eob M a r s h a l l Wi ldernes s and High U i n t a s P r i m i t i v e a r e a . For a l l three western a r e a s , the idea of l i m i t s on the s i z e of hcrse p a r t i e s was r e c e i v e d mere f a v o u r a b l y than were l i m i t s cn backpacker s , Stankey c o n c l u d e d t h a t most v i s i t o r s see l i t t l e b e n e f i t a s s o c i a t e d with group s i z e l i m i t s f o r backpacker s , whose p a r t i e s average o n l y t h r e e to four per sons . On the e ther hand, r e s t r i c t i o n s on horse p a r t i e s would a f f e c t many more i n d i v i d u a l s (Stankey, 1973, page 35) . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s i n t e r e s t i n g , i n l i g h t c f the f a c t t h a t Heather T r a i l u s e r s , who encounter an average group o f 3.8 i n d i v i d u a l s and no horse p a r t i e s , were c o n s i d e r a b l y more p o s i t i v e i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards pa r ty s i z e l i m i t s * There was seme range i n responses f o r the d i f f e r e n t t r a i l s sampled i n G a r i b a l d i Park , Par ty s i z e r e s t r i c t i o n s were most welcome with Cheakamus users (47% i n f avour and 44% opposed) , and l e a s t p o p u l a r with Diamond Head users (33% i n f avour and 53% opposed) ( f lorton, 1975, pages 21-29) . For Mount Bobson Park the responses te p a r t y s i z e l i m i t s are more c o m p l i c a t e d and harder to i n t e r p r e t , because they r e f l e c t the a t t i t u d e s of r i d e r s , h i k e r s , and c l i m b e r s a l l t o g e t h e r . A h igh two- t h i r d s c f r e spondent s f e l t the s i z e o f a l l groups shou ld be l i m i t e d , with the most popular l i m i t s b e i n g 12 or 6 (Ga in , Swanky, and T a y l o r , 1975, pages 21-22) . In Mount A s s i n i b o i n e P a r k , 52% of the h i k e r s supported s i z e l i m i t s , a 81 f i g u r e not too f a r from tha t g iven by Heather T r a i l users (Gain and Swanky, 1 9 7 5 , page 1 2 ) . H i k e r R e g i s t r a t i o n Systems Dur ing the p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s many respondents were c u r i o u s . t o know why s e l f - r e g i s t r a t i o n systems d i d not e x i s t f o r the Heather T r a i l (or f o r the whole of Manning Park as w e l l ) . Seasons behind the absence of such systems f o r Manning Park w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 4. I t was d e c i d e d to determine the amount of demand e x i s t i n g f o r such as sy s tem. T h r e e - f i f t h s b e l i e v e d one shou ld be compul sory , and 29% d i d not (see T a b l e X X I I ) . Sa fe ty f a c t o r s mot ivated most o f those i n f a v o u r ; however, i t was a l s o f e l t t h a t the park a d m i n i s t r a t i o n shou ld t r y to amass a c c u r a t e t r a i l use s t a t i s t i c s , and t h a t r e g i s t r a t i o n would be one s t e p t c t h i s end. The i d e a of a compulsory r e g i s t r a t i o n system was popular with a l l G a r i b a l d i groups ( 6 8 % f o r Diamond Head, 7 2 % f o r Cheakamus, and 7 0 S f o r B l ack Tusk users) (Hor ton , 1 9 7 5 , pages 2 1 - 2 9 ) . P a t r o l s Respondents were asked i f they b e l i e v e d t h a t r e g u l a r p a t r o l s a long the Heather T r a i l were n e c e s s a r y , and i f so , a t what i n t e r v a l s . Gnly 1 1 % d i d not support p a t r o l s . The most popu la r response was " w e e k l y , " named by o n e - t h i r d . 82 Twice-weekly p a t r o l s were favoured by about one-quarter of the h i k e r s . See Table 23. These responses and the a t t i t u d e towards compulsory r e g i s t r a t i o n seem to i n d i c a t e that people want to be "checked up on" f o r s a f e t y reasons, and t h a t they do not o b j e c t to the presence of an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e . In the areas • s t u d i e d by Stankey, where United S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v i c e rangers are on duty s e a s o n a l l y , t w o - t h i r d s favoured t h e i r presence, and users d i d not f e e l t h a t they were being checked up on i n a negative sense (Stankey, 1973, page 39). While keeping i n mind the Heather T r a i l user r e a c t i o n to p a t r o l s , one should note that about t h r e e - g u a r t e r s cf the sample (see Table XXIV) f e l t t h a t h i k e r s should be held r e s p o n s i b l e f o r damage done t c campsites. Respondents f a v o u r i n g p a t r o l s of one or two times a week were more l i k e l y tc support t h i s i d e a than were those l e s s enthu- s i a s t i c about f r a i l p a t r o l s . Procedures Which Would L i m i t Numbers S e v e r a l questions d e a l i n g with the concept of r a t i o n i n g were posed during the p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s , i n an attempt to determine the degree c f v i s i t o r f a m i l i a r i t y and experience with r e s e r v a t i o n and r a t i o n i n g systems i n other w i l d l a n d areas, and to d i s c o v e r user r e a c t i o n to r a t i o n i n g systems. Approximately one-quarter had v i s i t e d an area where a r e s e r v a t i o n - p e r m i t system was i n e f f e c t . Examples of these areas i n c l u d e the Eowron Lake canoe c i r c u i t (Bowron Lake P r o v i n c i a l Park i n b r i t i s h Columbia), Grand Canyon, North 83 C a s c a d e s , and Rocky Mountain N a t i o n a l Parks i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and J a sper N a t i o n a l Park i n A l b e r t a . I f we l o c k at p o s i t i v e and nega t ive re sponses to r a t i o n i n g from the sample as , a whole , 4 4 % supported or t o l e r a t e d i t , whi le 53% r e a c t e d n e g a t i v e l y t o the p r i n c i p l e . I t i s p robab ly safe to say t h a t v i s i t o r s who have e x p e r i e n c e d systems elsewhere are much more t o l e r a n t of the i d e a f o r Manning Park than are those users who have never been exposed to a r a t i o n i n g or r e s e r v a t i o n sys tem. About 83% of the "exposed" group r e a c t e d p o s i t i v e l y or a t l e a s t t o l e r a n t l y to the i d e a , whi le c f the group never e x p e r i e n c i n g a sys tem, a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d were s u p p o r t i v e . See T a b l e XXV. whether the t o l e r a n t and p o s i t i v e people possessed a p a r t i c u l a r t r a i t s e t t i n g them a p a r t from the nega t ive p e o p l e , and at the same t ime m o t i v a t i n g them to v i s i t an area where a r a t i o n i n g system was i n e f f e c t , i s not known and would be d i f f i c u l t to d e t e r m i n e . Exper i ence with r a t i o n i n g systems i n d i c a t e s t h a t h i k e r s respond much more p o s i t i v e l y than i s u s u a l l y expected by managers (Hendee and l u c a s , u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , pages 6 -7) . The r a t i o n i n g - r e s e r v a t i o n s g u e s t i o n was t r e a t e d i n g r e a t e r depth with the mai lback g u e s t i o n n a i r e . Somewhat more was known about the u s e r s , use p a t t e r n s and problems o f the a r e a . A r e l a t e d but d i f f e r e n t l y phrased q u e s t i o n e l i c i t e d a s i m i l a r nega t ive re sponse . Respondents were asked i f they thought r a t i o n i n g was neces sary on the Heather 8 a T r a i l d u r i n g J u l y and August . F i f t y - c n e percent s a i d " n o " ( i n c o n t r a s t , 5 3 % were not s u p p o r t i v e c f r a t i o n i n g d u r i n g the p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e v s ) . F o r t y - f i v e percent f e l t the need f o r r a t i o n i n g , wi th most ( 3 5 % ) a d v o c a t i n g a r a t i o n i n g system on weekends o n l y . E leven p e r c e n t supported r a t i o n i n g f o r seven days per week. Mest people f a v o u r i n g r a t i o n i n g eguated e x c e s s i v e numbers (as w e l l as e x c e s s i v e l y l a r g e p a r t i e s ) wi th e n v i r o n m e n t a l , not p s y c h o l o g i c a l damage. Those opposed to r a t i o n i n g g e n e r a l l y f e l t i t was too p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y r e s t r i c t i v e , b u r e a u c r a t i c , and o v e r l y r e l i a n t cn r a l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . Those respondents i n d i c a t i n g support f o r a r a t i o n i n g sy s tem, e i t h e r on weekends or a l l the t i m e , were then g iven a c h o i c e of v a r i o u s systems and were asked to check the one they p r e f e r r e d . T h e i r s e l e c t i o n s are summarized i n Tab le XXVI . The most a c c e p t a b l e form of r a t i o n i n g , chosen by 39% of the " p o s i t i v e " segment, was a combina t ion o f a f i r s t - c c m e f i r s t - s e r v e d and a m a i l r e s e r v a t i o n sys tem. T h i r t y percent chose a f i r s t ^ c o m e f i r s t - s e r v e d system a l o n e . The l o t t e r y o p t i o n was not s e l e c t e d by anyone. T h i s sugges t s tha t people dc not l i k e t o l e a v e t h e i r " f a t e " to c h a n c e , but would r a t h e r e x e r t seme c o n t r o l over t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . I t a l s o appears from the response to t h i s q u e s t i o n , as w e l l as from s ta tements made at e t h e r t imes i n the i n t e r v i e w s t h a t these people f i n d i t impor tant to make l a s t - m i n u t e p l a n s . Many l i v e i n or c l o s e to Vancouver , and dc not c r cannot p l a n f o r weeks i n advance (which i s the amount of t ime they 85 p e r c e i v e a ' r e s e r v a t i o n would r e q u i r e o f them). T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s not as impor tant i n o t h e r B r i t i s h Columbia parks mentioned i n t h i s c h a p t e r ; f o r example. Mount fiobson and Mount a s s i n i b o i n e a t t r a c t a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of o u t - c f - p r o v i n c e and U n i t e d S t a te s v i s i t o r s . T h e i r t r i p s are net as l i k e l y to be spur-o f - the-moment . P r e v i o u s h i k i n g e x p e r i e n c e on t h e Heather T r a i l may be connected with r e spondent s * views on r a t i o n i n g . Over two- t h i r d s (68.4$) of those users f o r whom t h i s was not the f i r s t v i s i t f avoured r a t i o n i n g e i t h e r a l l week or on weekends. Only 36% c f the f i r s t t ime v i s i t o r s to the heather T r a i l supported any r a t i o n i n g . when o ther v a r i a b l e s were examined with r e s p e c t t o r a t i o n i n g t h e r e were s l i g h t but p o s s i b l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between those respondents wanting r a t i o n i n g seven days per week and those wanting i t o n l y on weekends. Those wanting r a t i o n i n g a l l the t ime had seen on the average 7 .2 groups per day cn the t r a i l , more than those wanting r a t i o n i n g on ly on weekends or not s u p p o r t i n g i t at a l l (whose average number o f groups seen was 5;7 g r o u p s ) . S t r a n g e l y enough, those wanting r a t i o n i n g seven days a week e x h i b i t e d a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t o l e r a n c e f o r people i n campgrounds. T h e i r average " i d e a l " number of groups i n camps i te s was 4 . 7 , 142% of the i d e a l number named by the r e s t o f the sample . Age and o c c u p a t i o n d i d not appear to be c o r r e l a t e d with o n e ' s o p i n i o n cn r a t i o n i n g . There may, however, be a 86 connection between education l e v e l and r a t i o n i n g views. The more h i g h l y educated respondents were not as l i k e l y to favour r a t i o n i n g on a seven days per week b a s i s as were those with l e s s f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . Using the education s c a l e presented e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter (1=scme high s c h o o l , 2= high s c h o o l graduate, 3=some u n i v e r s i t y or c o l l e g e , 4= c o l l e g e graduate, and 5=graduate work) the mean education l e v e l of respondents f a v o u r i n g seven-day r a t i o n i n g was 2 . 8 * f o r weekend r a t i o n i n g 3.5 and f o r no r a t i o n i n g 3 . ? . Geographic o r i g i n d i d not seem to a f f e c t one's response to r a t i o n i n g , although the i n t e r v i e w e r s had suspected t h a t Lower Mainland r e s i d e n t s would respond more f a v o u r a b l y than Vancouver I s l a n d , United S t a t e s , and other more d i s t a n t u s e r s . There was a tendency f o r respondents f a v o u r i n g r a t i o n i n g t c a l s o look k i n d l y on other behaviour c o n t r o l s , such as l i m i t s on campfires. The f o l l o w i n g two p r o v i s i o n s , which c o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n a r a t i o n i n g system, were set before a l l respondents, not j u s t those who i n d i c a t e d that they supported a r a t i o n i n g programme of some type. Users were i n s t r u c t e d to assume i n r e a c t i n g to these t h a t a r a t i o n i n g system of some v a r i e t y had been agreed upon f o r the Heather T r a i l . ihen asked i f they thought a r a t i o n i n g system should r e g u i r e v i s i t o r s to be signed up i n advance f o r the d i f f e r e n t campsites (Buckhorn, K i c k i n g Horse, and Nicomen Lake) f o r p a r t i c u l a r days, a m a j o r i t y of the sample {55%) was n e u t r a l . T h i s high 87 figure cf undecided cr uncommitted views was unexpected tut not very surprising. Although nearly everyone was f a m i l i a r with the concept cf rationing, few had given any .previous thought to i t s mechanics. See Table XXVII for d e t a i l s . An even larger percentage (two-thirds) were neutral towards the assignment of- i n d i v i d u a l camping spots at the campgrounds. Fifteen percent liked the idea, and 11% opposed i t (see Table XXVIII). This d e t a i l i s probably even more d i f f i c u l t for most people to v i s u a l i z e , and they therefore cannot give d e f i n i t e responses. Despite the high number of neutral responses, a surprising number favoured these two provisions. In the event that a procedure such as campsite assignment were ever seriously contemplated by the administration, the large number of neutral cr undecided v i s i t e r s might be f a i r l y e a s i l y manipulated cr "converted," i f public r e l a t i o n s programmes were c a r e f u l l y designed. fiespondents were also presented with several management procedures that would t h e o r e t i c a l l y control behaviour and l i m i t use with cut placing a r b i t r a r y l i m i t s on numbers. For example, an unlimited number of v i s i t o r s might be l e t into the area as long as they conformed te a particular standard or exhibited certain l e v e l s of talent or prowess. In general respondents were not certain about th e i r reactions to these controls. Fcr example, i t was suggested i n the questionnaire that the presently-used access road be o f f - l i m i t s to overnight users. Only day hikers planning to 88 remain i n the v i c i n i t y o f the p a r k i n g l o t and s h o r t nature t r a i l s would then be p e r m i t t e d on the r o a d . O v e r n i g h t e r s would presumably r each Buckhorn (see F i g u r e 2) v i a a n ine or t en mi l e t r a i l which does not p r e s e n t l y e x i s t . (Another o p t i o n , not presented i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , would i n v o l v e b l o c k i n g the road halfway u p , at t h e • L o o k o u t P o i n t , and c u t t i n g a t r a i l from that spc t to Buckhorn. The o b j e c t o f such a procedure would be to lower use by d i s c o u r a g i n g c a s u a l o v e r n i g h t t r i p s and making the h i k e to the meadows a l i t t l e more c h a l l e n g i n g . The m a j o r i t y 153%) were n e u t r a l , but p o s i t i v e outweighed n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e s . See Tab le XXIX. Stankey found 40% of h i s re spondents i n f avour of a s i m i l a r procedure (1973, pages 32-33) . Respondents were presented with the i d e a of r e q u i r i n g o v e r n i g h t h i k e r s to o b t a i n some type of c e r t i f i c a t i o n , which would probably te granted upon p r e s e n t a t i o n of proof t h a t the v i s i t o r had completed a course or passed a t e s t . The g o a l i n t h i s case would be t o ensure that u ser s possessed some b a s i c knowledge of e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s and proper w i l d l a n d b e h a v i o u r , Response t o t h i s g u e s t i o n was s i m i l a r : 51% n e u t r a l , 29% p o s i t i v e , and 20% n e g a t i v e . See T a b l e XXX f o r a breakdown of r e s p o n s e s . The most a c c e p t a b l e means f o r h a n d l i n g overuse was the most t r a d i t i o n a l and c o n v e n t i o n a l s o l u t i o n : b u i l d i n g mere f a c i l i t i e s t c accommodate i n c r e a s e d numbers. Over t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the sample f avoured s p r e a d i n g out the v i s i t e r s and p r o v i d i n g b e t t e r d i s p e r s a l . There i s a d i f f e r e n c e 89 between the number o f people f a v o u r i n g t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e and the number s t a t i n g i n the p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w t h a t mere t r a i l s were needed. Perhaps the d i s c r e p a n c y r e s u l t e d from the c o n t e x t i n which the b u i l d i n g of mere t r a i l s as an a l t e r n a t i v e to r a t i o n i n g was p r e s e n t e d . In o ther words, some people 'who might not have f e l t at the t ime of the i n t e r v i e w t h a t more t r a i l s i n the meadows area were needed saw i t l a t e r on as a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to r a t i o n i n g . Heather T r a i l respondents seem t o be somewhat mere t o l e r a n t o f r a t i o n i n g c o n c e p t s than were o t h e r groups sampled e l s e w h e r e . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s d i f f e n c e r e f l e c t s the t ime gap between the Heather T r a i l s tudy and o ther e a r l i e r s u r v e y s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , a f t e r many of these surveys were made, the Uni t ed S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v i c e and N a t i o n a l Parks S e r v i c e i n a u g u r a t e d s e v e r a l r a t i o n i n g programmes which have r a p i d l y gained p u b l i c a p p r o v a l . In g e n e r a l , o t h e r s t u d i e s have not shown backpackers t c be s u p p o r t i v e o f r a t i o n i n g sys tems , f a v o u r i n g i n s t e a d e d u c a t i o n a l campaigns d i r e c t e d at cop ing with overuse by r e d u c i n g d e p r e c i a t i v e behav iour (Sommarstrom, 1 9 6 6 ) . Hendee as w e l l ( 1 9 6 8 , page 60) found r a t i o n i n g to be unpopu la r . Only t h r e e out o f ten users agreed t h a t " t h e use of w i l d e r n e s s - t y p e areas has to be r e s t r i c t e d to l i m i t e d numbers of people i n a g iven area at a g iven t i m e . " Hendee f e e l s tha t acceptance c f c o n t r o l s such as r a t i o n i n g systems h inges g r e a t l y on an under s t and ing on the par t of users o f the n e c e s s i t y f o r l i m i t a t i o n s . T h i s under s t and ing can be 90 conveyed through c a r e f u l l y planned p u b l i c i t y campaigns . Not one of the " d i r e c t " r a t i o n i n g t e c h n i g u e s proposed by Stankey (1973, pages 30-32) was accepted by a m a j o r i t y o f the sample ; Some methods, however, were c o n s i d e r a b l y more p o p u l a r than o t h e r s . H a i l r e s e r v a t i o n s were f avoured by 43%, whi le second-ranked was a f i r s t - c o m e f i r s t - s e r v e d system (18%). T h i s breakdown was s i m i l a r to t h a t of Heather T r a i l r e s p o n d e n t s , i f one c o n s i d e r s tha t Stankey d i d not i n c l u d e the " m a i l r e s e r v a t i o n s and f i r s t c o m e - f i r s t s e r v e d " c o m b i n a t i o n o p t i o n . The unpopular l o t t e r y (18%) s t i l l won more suppor t than with Heather T r a i l v i s i t o r s . Stankey c o n c l u d e d t h a t users of the EWCA, B r i d g e r and Bob M a r s h a l l W i l d e r n e s s e s , and the High U i n t a s P r i m i t i v e Area p r e f e r to take an a c t i v e r o l e i n a s s u r i n g a p l a c e f o r themselves i n the b a c k c o u n t r y . In the event tha t r e s t r i c t i o n s on numbers are deemed n e c e s s a r y , t h e y , l i k e Heather T r a i l u s e r s , do not want t o r e l y on a l o t t e r y (Stankey, 1973, pages 30-31) , In more r e c e n t surveys ( B r i t i s h Columbia Parks Branch , 1975) ever 501 of the c a n o e i s t s i n Bcwron Lake Park favoured the i m p l e l e n t a t i c n of a r e s e r v a t i o n system. A very h i g h 80% of the groups i n t e r v i e w e d p e r s o n a l l y i n Mount Robson Park agreed with a " w i l d e r n e s s p e r m i t " sys tem, a l t h o u g h o n l y 10% had used such a system i n the p a s t . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t c compare t h i s f i g u r e with Heather T r a i l d a t a , however, because i t i s not c l e a r how the term " w i l d e r n e s s permit sy s tem" was d e f i n e d . Fewer, t u t s t i l l a m a j o r i t y of the h i k e r s sampled by g u e s t i o n n a i r e (57%) supported p e r m i t s , but 91 only 2 0 % agreed with reservations. A first-come f i r s t - served method was more popular than advance reservations, contrary to what Stankey discovered. The 60% opposing reservations f e l t them to be too bureaucratic and not permitting spontaneity, comments i d e n t i c a l to these made by Heather T r a i l v i s i t o r s (Gain, Swanky, and Taylor, 1 9 7 5 , pages 2 0 - 2 1 ) ; Eesult tabulated for Hount Assiniboine users are not greatly d i f f e r e n t : 67.% of hikers supported permits, but only 2 5 % advocated a- reservations system. A first-come f i r s t - served system was somewhat more acceptable than a mail reservation system (Gain and Swanky, 1 9 7 5 , page 1 2 ) . 92 THE TYPICAL BEATHEB TBAIL EACKPACKEB The f o l l o w i n g s c e n a r i o i s i n t e n d e d to summarize seme s i g n i f i c a n t and memorable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p e r c e p t i o n s , and o p i n i o n s of Heather T r a i l b a c k p a c k e r s , based on the mest f r e q u e n t v i s i t o r responses and o b s e r v a t i o n s made by the i n t e r v i e w e r s . A summer t r a v e l l e r would be very l i k e l y to meet t h i s " t y p i c a l h i k e r . " W e ' l l c a l l him M a u r i c e ; he i s t w e n t y - t h r e e years e l d and C a u c a s i a n , with a u n i v e r s i t y degree . A Vancouver r e s i d e n t , he i s employed as a government s o c i a l worker . As a teenager he made f requent day and o n e - n i g h t t r i p s with the S c o u t s , but he has o n l y backpacked, or made t r i p s of at l e a s t two n i g h t s i n l e n g t h f o r about two y e a r s . T h i s Heather T r a i l h i k e i s h i s t h i r d such e x c u r s i o n . Maurice has p r e v i o u s l y v i s i t e d o ther a t t r a c t i o n s i n Manning P a r k , such as the d o w n h i l l s k I area and the Beaver Pond. A d d i t i o n a l l y , he once made a day t r i p on the Heather T r a i l , as f a r as Buckhorn camp. He and Jane , a f r i e n d , chose Manning Park t h i s weekend because , l e a v i n g F r i d a y a f t e r n o o n , they d i d not want to spend too much t ime i n t r a n s i t . Jane had heard too t h a t G a r i b a l d i P a r k , t h e i r o ther c h o i c e , was e x p e c t i n q bad weather . The Heather T r a i l was chosen e s p e c i a l l y f o r i t s a l p i n e f l o w e r s , w h i c h , a c c c r d i n q to E x p l o r i n g flanning Park (Cyca and Harcombe, 1970, page 4 0 ) , were at a peak at t h a t t i m e , l a t e J u l y . M a u r i c e ' s b r o t h e r , who had v i s i t e d the area 93 p r e c i s e l y one year e a r l i e r , added some e n t h u s i a s t i c words about the meadows. The coup le dec ided a g a i n s t s t o p p i n g a t the Nature House or a l p i n e meadows Nature Hut ; they had r e c e i v e d a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n they c o u l d p o s s i b l y use from o t h e r s o u r c e s . B e s i d e s , i t was l a t e i n the a f t e r n o o n , and they hoped to a r r i v e at K i c k i n g Horse be fore d a r k . They parked i n the des igna ted l o t and l o o k e d around fo r r e g i s t r a t i o n forms and a d r o p - o f f box, l i k e they had used at J a sper N a t i o n a l Park . S l i g h t l y d i s a p p o i n t e d not to f i n d a p l a c e to r e g i s t e r , they se t o f f . Maurice and Jane n o t i c e d o n l y two or t h r e e p i e c e s of l i t t e r a long the t r a i l , and commented to each o t h e r t h a t i t was a good t h i n g people packed out what they had brought i n . The t r a i l at G a r i b a l d i had not seemed as c l e a n . They wondered i f l i t t e r bags were handed out at the Nature H u t . A f t e r pa s s ing s e v e r a l groups of d a y h i k e r s a d m i r i n g the f l o w e r s , they reached Euckhorn . Jane n o t i c e d a p i l e of cut wood bes ide the panabode s h e l t e r , and remarked to Maurice t h a t she would f i n d i t very tempting to s e t t l e down with a p i l e of t h a t wood, but i t - would somehow take away par t of the fun of " r o u g h i n g i t . " One of the reasons she l i k e d backpack ing was tha t she c o u l d do t h i n g s fo r h e r s e l f l i k e gather wood, f o r d s t reams , and maneuver her way around o b s t a c l e s i n the t r a i l . She hoped there would net be pre- cut wood at K i c k i n g Horse . Maur ice commented to Jane on the e x c e l l e n t c o n d i t i o n o f the t r a i l . He was somewhat s u r p r i s e d t h a t such popu la r and 94 a c c e s s i b l e t r a i l s c o u l d remain so p r i m i t i v e and undeveloped . He guessed t h a t i t was f o r t u n a t e they had not come two weeks e a r l i e r , f o r i t would have been a swim r a t h e r than a h i k e . By t h i s t ime much of the wetness r e s u l t i n g from snowmelt had d i s a p p e a r e d , l e a v i n g o n l y o c c a s i o n a l muddy pa tches . Bypas s ing these s t r e t c h e s was a l l par t of the f u n , Maurice f e l t . He r e a l i z e d tha t i n d e v i a t i n g from the t r a i l he i n f l i c t e d some damage upon the g r a s s e s , but b e l i e v e d i t impor tant to keep the h i k i n g e x p e r i e n c e as n a t u r a l as p o s s i b l e and l eave the mud as i t was. Forks i n the t r a i l d i d not f aze Jane and M a u r i c e ; by c o n s u l t i n g the Manning Park guidebook and f o l l o w i n g f o o t p r i n t s , they c o u l d p i c k out the r i g h t way. They would r a t h e r use a guidebook or map than see s i g n s everywhere i n the b a c k c o u n t r y , anyway. They wondered, however, i f any h i k e r s ever f o l l o w e d - t h e wrong f o r k . A f t e r t h r e e hours o f h i k i n g they a r r i v e d at what c o u l d have—and shou ld have been K i c k i n g Horse . A l o v e l y stream d i v i d e d a somewhat r u s t i c - l o c k i n g p l a t e a u i n t o s e v e r a l p a r t s . About a h a l f dozen t e n t i n g and f i r e areas were c l e a r e d , but t h e r e was n e i t h e r an outhouse nor a s h e l t e r , c o n t r a r y to what M a u r i c e ' s b r o t h e r had s a i d . They dec ided t h a t t h i s p lace must be the c a m p s i t e , s i n c e two groups had a l r e a d y p i t c h e d t e n t s and were cook ing supper . A f t e r g r e e t i n g the o ther p a r t i e s , they chose a t e n t s i t e about cue hundred f e e t from them, ac ros s the stream (see F i g u r e 7 ) . 95 Maurice's and Jane's tent Maurice enjoys a snack s i t e . New K i c k i n g Hcrse. At Nicomen Lake. View of C l d K i c k i n g Hcrse Panabcde s h e l t e r set behind v a l l e y , from camp's centre r e d d i s h t r e e s i n l e f t photo. FIGURE 7 96 They se t up t h e i r t en t and cooked some dehydrated c h i c k e n stew on the s tove brought a long f o r t imes l i k e t h i s , when they were e x c e e d i n g l y t i r e d and i t was d a r k . They l ooked forward to e n j o y i n g a campf i re cn S a t u r d a y , and a gu ick check c f the area r e v e a l e d an abundance o f f i r e w o o d . Maur ice was s t r u c k by the l a c k of crowding a long the Heather T r a i l , compared with some of G a r i b a l d i P a r k ' s t r a i l s they had t a k e n . On the Heather T r a i l they had seen on ly f i v e or s i x groups F r i d a y , by no means a huge crowd. With more than s i x or e i g h t groups the t r a i l would have begun to resemble a c i r c u s , but Maurice enjoyed pa s s ing a few f r i e n d l y f aces and exchanging p l e a s a n t r i e s . , For s i m i l a r rea sons he and Jane enjoyed the presence o f the two o ther groups at K i c k i n g H o r s e ; however, they hoped the camps i te would not f i l l up. Sa turday morning they packed a p i c n i c l u n c h and s t a r t e d towards Nicomen Lake , approx imate ly f i v e m i l e s away. Only about o n e - g u a r t e r mi le from t h e i r camp they n o t i c e d a s h e l t e r , and f i g u r e d i t was the one M a u r i c e ' s b r o t h e r had ment ioned . They wondered i f the campsi te had been abandoned, s i n c e no one appeared t c be u s ing i t , Jane and Maur ice enjoyed the f lower s and expans ive views very much, but they became a b i t concerned when, a f t e r hav ing h i k e d about f o u r mi le s and reached the top c f a r i d g e , they c o u l d see no s i g n of the l a k e . Cou ld they p o s s i b l y have veered o f f the c o r r e c t t r a i l ? Maurice suggested they t u r n back , p r e c i s e l y at the moment when a group of h i k e r s coming 97 towards them c a l l e d , " Y o u ' v e o n l y get another twenty m i n u t e s ! " Sure enough, they walked f i f t y f e e t and suddenly the l a k e jumped at them from a h a l f - m i l e below (see F i g u r e 7) . Shen they r e t u r n e d f i v e hours l a t e r to K i c k i n g Horse , a l l the s i x c r seven campsi tes were f u l l . A l though the camp was not unbearab ly crowded, they c o n s i d e r e d moving down the h i l l and out of s i g h t of the o ther g roups . They dec ided a g a i n s t the move, however, a f t e r r e a l i z i n g the impact which t h e i r t e n t and f i r e would have on the meadows. Maurice and Jane were f a i r l y c o n s c i e n t i o u s campers , knew something about man's impact on the n a t u r a l env i ronment , and t r i e d t o minimize t h e i r mark. At l e a s t , they packed out garbage , s t ayed on the t r a i l , and put out t h e i r f i r e s with p l e n t y o f water . And they d i d n ' t p i c k f l o w e r s . Maur ice and Jane would probab ly support a good many measures which might he lp to preserve the beauty of the Heather T r a i l and sur round ing meadows, even though t h e i r freedom c f a c t i o n might be l i m i t e d as a r e s u l t . They would be w i l l i n g t o g ive up campf i re s i f a wood shor tage d e v e l o p e d , even though they l o v e an evening f i r e . They would favour weekly c r twice-weekly p a t r o l s of the a r e a , which would c o n t r o l the v i o l a t i c n s c f r u l e s and camping e t h i c s . They would l i k e to see b a c k p a c k e r s , i n c l u d i n g t h e m s e l v e s , h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r damage they i n f l i c t e d on the a r e a , a l t h o u g h they are u n c e r t a i n as to how such m o n i t o r i n g and p r o s e c u t i o n s c o u l d be c a r r i e d c u t . Dogs 98 s h o u l d not be a l l o w e d on the t r a i l , they f e e l , a l t h o u g h they would c e r t a i n l y en joy the company o f t h e i r p e t . H h i l e not who lehear ted ly s u p p o r t i n g the i d e a of a user f e e , they would pay w i l l i n g l y i f a fee was r e g u i r e d . They would r a t h e r see B r i t i s h Columbia t axpayer s s u b s i d i z e the maintenance o f p u b l i c l a n d s , however. a d d i t i o n a l l y , they suspec t t h a t a user fee would b r i n g areas l i k e the Heather T r a i l c l o s e r to be ing car campgrounds. They a l s o expres sed concern f o r low- income groups who might not be ab le t c a f f o r d a f e e . One t h i n g they would l i k e to see l i m i t e d i s l a r g e h i k i n g p a r t i e s , l i k e t h a t group o f twenty-two s t a y i n g at Buckhorn when they passed through they a r e a . Jane and Maur ice have n o t i c e d t h a t l a r g e r groups tend t o e x e r t a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y great impact on the env i ronment . Sometimes Maurice wonders i f the t r a i l w i l l become s p o i l e d by i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f backpacker s . One c o u p l e he spoke with s a i d they had been p r a c t i c a l l y a lone on the Heather T r a i l f our year s e a r l i e r , and t h a t they n o t i c e d s e v e r a l f i r e s c a r s t h i s t r i p which had not e x i s t e d on the e a r l i e r v i s i t . Yet Maurice does not know of a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n . R e s e r v a t i o n sys tems , l i k e those used i n the S t a t e s , sound t e r r i b l y b u r e a u c r a t i c . One comes to the back- c o u n t r y to escape r u l e s , r e g u l a t i o n s , and l i n e - u p s , B e s i d e s , he and Jane c o u l d not p o s s i b l y p lan f o r months, or even weeks, i n advance . I t would be t e r r i b l e to wake up at dawn, d r i v e t h r e e hours to Manning P a r k , and then not be a b l e t c get a p e r m i t . 99 He had heard some h i k e r s t a l k i n g about how grea t i t would be t c c u t down cn crowding by b l o c k i n g o f f the acces s road to the meadows. H i s r e a c t i o n was mixed . Sure , he and Jane c o u l d s t i l l make t h a t h i k e , tu t not i n a weekend, wi th the e x t r a t e n mi le s u p h i l l t o do. Would e l d e r l y people and day v i s i t o r s then be ba r red from the nature t r a i l s i f they c o u l d n ' t walk ten s t renuous mi le s ? That c e r t a i n l y would be u n f a i r , but the i d e a o f a roadb lock f o r o v a r n i g h t e r s was not as p r e p o s t e r o u s . Maur ice conc luded tha t at l e a s t one more t r a i l s u i t a b l e f o r a t w c - t o - t h r e e day h i k e would be needed soon i n the meadows a r e a , to accommodate some of the backpackers p r e s e n t l y u s ing the Heather T r a i l . T h i s way, more r e s t r i c t i v e measures l i k e r a t i o n i n g c o u l d be put o f f f o r a w h i l e . The s i t u a t i o n was nowhere near be ing d i s a s t r o u s , i n h i s mind; the Heather T r a i l c o u l d d e f i n i t e l y become o v e r - crowded i n the f u t u r e , but i t was g u i t e a p l e a s a n t p lace to spend a J u l y weekend i n 1975. 100 CHAPTEB J4 ' THE MANAGEMENT OF J!ANNING PASK THE PEESENT SITOATION AND FUTUBI T 8 E N D S Before new management p o l i c i e s and strategies can be recommended, i t i s important to understand present o v e r a l l policy and procedures. The following section summarizes e x i s t i t g conditions, and attempts to provide an insight into the perceptions cf those people in charge of managing the park and i t s backcountry. In order to simplify discussion, the indiv i d u a l s involved are divided into two groups: the administration (referring tc the D i s t r i c t Superintendent and his s t a f f ) , and the na t u r a l i s t s (who s t a f f the Nature House), who together comprise the management. Information about present management practices was obtained in personal interviews with Messrs. Green and B e l l , D i s t r i c t Superintendent and Park Naturalist, respectively. Further information about the former's perceptions and opinions has 9 been taken from a mailed guestionnaire administered by the author, and from his written reactions to the conceptual plan created by the Parks Branch. 101 MANAGERIAL ATTENTION TO PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF EACKCGUNIBY USE The Rc le of A d j i n i s f r a t o r s A c c o r d i n g t o M r . , G r e e n , D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , a l l t r a i l s are checked once each season by a maintenance crew. At t h i s t ime d e a d f a l l t r e e s b l o c k i n g the paths are c a r r i e d away or sawed o f f . L i t t e r d e p o s i t e d by h i k e r s and c r o s s - c o u n t r y s k i e r s i s c o l l e c t e d and hauled away. In 1975 the t r a i l ' c r e w s were observed working on the Lakes Cha in T r a i l i n l a t e June , and the Heather T r a i l i n mid J u l y . S ince the most h e a v i l y - u s e d l e g of the Heather T r a i l i s l a r g e l y i n meadow, l i t t l e c l e a r i n g work was r e q u i r e d . Mr. Green appeared to know which t r a i l s are h e a v i l y used and which are n o t . Yet i t seemed t h a t he was not p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l - i n f o r m e d about the b a c k c o u n t r y . For example, he was not aware t h a t K i c k i n g Horse i s not one but two c a m p s i t e s . The P r o s p e c t o r ' s T r a i l , d e s c r i b e d by Cyca and Harccmbe (1970, page 8.2), l o c a t e d i n the p a r k ' s c e n t r e , was unknown to h i m . I t i s rumoured t h a t the t r a i l was rendered u s e l e s s by l e g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n 1972, but the author was n e v e r t h e l e s s s u r p r i s e d t h a t i t s mention d i d not r i n g a b e l l with Green . Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n does not wish t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o the logged a r e a s , and t h e r e f o r e does not r e c o g n i z e the e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s t r a i l . But i f one assumes a genuine l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n , i t probably r e f l e c t s the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s emphasis on e ther a reas of g r e a t e r p r i o r i t y , f e l t t o be mere 102 deserving of time and money, It i s easy to see that the large number of day-to-day maintenance tasks f a l l i n g on the should.ers of the administration (e.g., overflow crowds at car camps, sewage disposal, and read repairs) could dwarf les s pressing questions involving the backcountry. More frequent and open communication between the superintendent's o f f i c e and the Nature House could probably improve the guality of information reaching the administration. Eut better communication would not by i t s e l f generate interest and enthusiasm regarding the backcountry, which the administration seems to now lack. The Bole of Naturalists Park n a t u r a l i s t s become f a m i l i a r with the various t r a i l s , t h e i r conditions, and levels of use, through occasional "hiking days" and from speaking with hikers who stop at the Nature House after completing a t r i p . Each n a t u r a l i s t hikes one of the t r a i l s every two weeks, to report on muddiness, snow, l i t t e r , and apparent use l e v e l s . Reports are sent to the superintendent's o f f i c e and are updated p e r i o d i c a l l y . As one should expect, n a t u r a l i s t s seem to be better informed about t r a i l locations and campground f a c i l i t i e s than are administrators. 103 MANAGERIAL CONTACT RITH EACKCOONIBY OSEBS The Bcle of Administrators The administration does not view in t e r a c t i o n with backcountry v i s i t o r s as one cf i t s primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , although Green states that his o f f i c e does communicate with them. Contacts are of several types: •Correspondence with prospective v i s i t o r s desiring park and t r a i l information, * Handling complaints, suggestions, and praise. On the whole their personal contact with backcountry v i s i t o r s i s minimal and most l i k e l y i n d i r e c t , through the n a t u r a l i s t s , who carry out their orders and ins t r u c t i o n s . Most v i s i t o r s are probably aware of the existence of the superintendent's o f f i c e , but do not give i t much thought. The buildings are set back several hundred feet from the highway, and are not readily v i s i b l e to hikers bound for the alpine meadows. for any v i s i t o r wanting to meet with Mr. Green (or any cf the other administrators) an appointment would probably have to be pre-arranged. One can understand that the superintendent would not be able to maintain "open house" f c r park v i s i t o r s , yet i t would seem desirable that the administration to have some di r e c t contact with them, including the backcountry hikers. 104 The Bole of Naturalists Nearly a l l backccuntry biker-manager contacts involve the n a t u r a l i s t s . They occur at the Nature House, set i n a grove cf trees several hundred yards from the lodge. The Nature House provides a variety of services available nowhere else in the park. F i r s t , t r a i l reports for most areas are kept, as described e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter. Additionally, c o l o u r f u l and informative booklets of i n t e r e s t to hikers can be obtained, and displays of natural phenomena can be viewed. - Prospective hikers sometimes enguire about regis- t r a t i o n ; that i s , signing up for a t r a i l and recording one's sta r t i n g and f i n i s h i n g dates. The n a t u r a l i s t s respond, according to B e l l , by informing people that a r e g i s t r a t i o n system does not e x i s t , and If they want to ensure that a search w i l l be conducted in the event that they do not return cn schedule, they should n o t i f y the Boyal Canadian Mounted Police or a f r i e n d . Users freguently ask which t r a i l s are crowded, states B e l l . Naturalists usually describe the Heather T r a i l as well-used or even crowded, but do not know i f t h i s comment tends to discourage use. Naturalists as well as hikers associate the Three Ercthers area with alpine meadows, and usually recommend t h i s route to people who want to view flowers. B e l l i s wary about recommending the Heather T r a i l as easy or f l a t . There i s apparently a p o s s i b i l i t y that a lawsuit against the park could r e s u l t i f a hiker were 105 i n j u r e d a f t e r t a k i n g a t r a i l recommended by the s t a f f as " e a s y . " T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y was mentioned by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , n a t u r a l i s t s , and p l anner s from the Parks B r a n c h . The Nature House a l s o r e c e i v e s c o m p l a i n t s , s u g g e s t i o n s , and general •comments from r e t u r n i n g h i k e r s . Some v i s i t o r s suggest t h a t t o p o g r a p h i c maps be made a v a i l a b l e a t the Nature House. Other s ask t h a t s h e l t e r s be c l e a n e d and r e p a i r e d . B e l l r e c a l l e d t h a t o c c a s i o n a l l y h i k e r s compla in about the " d i f f i c u l t y of the Heather T r a i l . " The nature e d u c a t i o n r o l e of the n a t u r a l i s t s r e c e i v e s g r e a t e r emphasis with day u ser s than with o v e r n i g h t b a c k p a c k e r s , a c c o r d i n g to B e l l . The f a c t t h a t l e s s than o n e - f i f t h o f the Heather T r a i l sample v i s i t e d the Nature House or a l p i n e meadows Nature Hut , and E e l l ' s e s t i m a t e t h a t he c o n t a c t s a maximum of 30% o f backcountry users would c o n f i r m t h i s s ta tement . A l though the Heather T r a i l survey d i d not show " e x p e r i e n c e d " v i s i t o r s to use the Nature House l e s s than f i r s t t ime v i s i t o r s , E e l l b e l i e v e s t h a t a d i f f e r e n c e i n v i s i t a t i o n f requency e x i s t s . He a t t r i b u t e s the a l l e g e d a v e r s i o n of seasoned backpackers to the Nature House to t h e i r r e l a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e , the f e e l i n g t h a t they know a l l t h e r e i s to know about h i k i n g , a f t e r hav ing made a few t r i p s i n t o the b a c k c o u n t r y . In a d d i t i o n , the Nature House i s p robab ly not p e r c e i v e d as o f f e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and s e r v i c e s u s e f u l to b a c k p a c k e r s , whi le i t appears to be geared t o the needs of r o a d s i d e campers and c a s u a l 106 s t r o l l e r s . This perception may be v a l i d , to a certain extent. No topographic maps are available, as was mentioned above. The sketch map provided shows no d e t a i l and does not even include most of the Heather T r a i l loop. Park n a t u r a l i s t s are not a source merely of information, t r a i l reports, and wildflower pamphlets, although t h i s function i s emphasized. They are in an excellent position to educate backcountry users about proper behaviour and environmentally sound camping practices. B e l l t r i e s tc stress certain points when talking with hikers; for example, camping i n the designated areas, and keeping dogs on leashes. Yet he does not want to give people the idea that many rules are being thrust at them. 107 MANAGERIAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS BACKCOUNTRY USE AND POLICIES Perceptions Of Managers Relating To Their Rcles In Affecting Use Mr. Green believes he exerts some degree of influence over hiker behaviour and backcountry use, while E e l l , speaking for the n a t u r a l i s t s , does net believe the l a t t e r have very much impact on the way the backcountry i s used. This i n e f f e c t u a l feeling i s attributed to the lack of authority i n the hands cf n a t u r a l i s t s , who have no power to enforce the rules governing camping areas, dogs, and l i t t e r . A d d i t i o n a l l y , they do not contact very many of the v i s i t o r s whose behaviour they might influence. B e l l feels they have more e f f e c t on the behaviour and attitudes of day users p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the guided nature walks. Perhaps as serious as the i n a b i l i t y to reach backcountry v i s i t o r s i s the apparent lack of communication and exchange of ideas and suggestions related to backccuntry management, between n a t u r a l i s t s and administration, according to B e l l . In order for the n a t u r a l i s t s to place more attention on backccuntry problems and users, the administrations's backing would be reguired, since n a t u r a l i s t s are d i r e c t l y responsible to the D i s t r i c t Superintendent. 108 Backcountry Problems P e r c e i v e d By Managers L i t t e r Green sees backcountry l i t t e r , d e p o s i t e d by both h i k e r s and s k i e r s , as a major problem, p o i n t i n g to the many s a c k s f u l l c a r r i e d out of h e a v i l y - u s e d areas each sea son . Judg ing from the dear th c f l i t t e r a long the Heather T r a i l , i t i s ' safe to say t h a t t h i s s ta tement i s p r o b a b l y more a p p l i c a b l e t o o t h e r t r a i l s i n the park . B e l l , t o o , sees l i t t e r as a problem, but does not p e r c e i v e i t t c be as s e r i o u s as o t h e r m a t t e r s . Camping C u t s i d e o f Des ignated Areas T h i s problem i s r a i s e d by both Green and B e l l , but E e l l seems to p l a c e mere emphasis on i t . When be e n c o u n t e r s groups t e n t i n g o u t s i d e the DWC»s , he urges them t o move. C o n s i d e r i n g the n a t u r a l i s t s * i n f r e g u e n t and l o c a l i z e d v i s i t s to the backcountry and the s m a l l areas they do c o v e r on the v i s i t s , t h e i r i n f l u e n c e over campers i s probably minor . The park a d m i n i s t r a t i o n takes very l i m i t e d a c t i o n t c d e a l with t h i s p r o b l e m , probab ly because of the money and time i n p u t s which would be r e g u i r e d f o r p a t r o l s . I t was r e p o r t e d , however, t h a t the L i g h t n i n g Lakes area was moni tored d u r i n g the 1975 h i k i n g sea son , and t h a t a p a t r o l was seen i n the Three E r c t h e r s area on at l e a s t one August weekend. 109 i Dogs Dogs not kept on a leash are a serious problem, ' i n B e l l ' s opinion. They annoy campers desiring solitude and guiet, or at le a s t r e l i e f from c i t y noises. They may r a t t r a c t bears to the campsites, harass w i l d l i f e , and be attacked by bears and coyotes inhabiting the Nicomen lake area. B e l l f e e l s that many dog owners are either unaware of these problems or insens i t i v e to the wishes and rights of other campers. Either way, they frequently deny that t h e i r pet could harm anyone cr be harmed i t s e l f . B e l l believes that corrective measures imposed from the outside are necessary, i f the dog s i t u a t i o n and the problem of tenting outside of designated areas are to be corrected, for, unfortunately "people w i l l do what they can; get away with." The park managers are somewhat handicapped in coping with backccuntry problems, because they lack the necessary information and d i r e c t contact with hikers and t r a i l s . B e l l devotes only a small part of h i s time to investigating backcountry use and conditions. Green i s responsible for the maintenance and management of many f a c i l i t i e s , such as roadside camps, s k i h i l l s , and picnic areas, which are experiencing an average annual increase in use of 105? ( B r i t i s h Columbia Parks Branch s t a t i s t i c s ) . In a park of Manning's size and di v e r s i t y these amenities are extremely valuable and must be given attention. I t i s easy to see how the backccuntry, which receives only a f r a c t i o n of the park's v i s i t o r s , may take on a r e l a t i v e l y low p r i o r i t y . To 110 p l a c e the same emphasis on backecuntry management t h a t i t g i v e s tc e ther a r e a s , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t h i s budget and s t a f f are l i m i t e d . But the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s absence of c o n t a c t wi th the backecuntry and apparent l a c k of concern f o r problems r e s u l t i n g from i n c r e a s e d use are s e r i o u s d e f i c i e n c i e s . One conseguence i s tha t the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has o n l y a vague i d e a o f the p h y s i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s c f the v a r i o u s areas i n v o l v e d . T h e r e f o r e , no i n f o r m a t i o n has been c o m p i l e d , which c o u l d form a b a s i s f o r the a d o p t i o n of s t andards a g a i n s t which i n c r e a s i n g use and i t s r a m i f i c a t i o n s can be e v a l u a t e d . Management p o l i c i e s geared to handle c u r r e n t and p r o j e c t e d use wi thout b r i n g i n g about a d e c l i n e i n the g u a l i t y of e i t h e r the b i o p h y s i c a l or the p s y c h o l o g i c a l environment cannot be e s t a b l i s h e d . l e t d e s p i t e t h i s present l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n . Green has a r t i c u l a t e d a management goa l f o r the b a c k e c u n t r y , t o " m i n i m i z e the impact of human use whi le at the same time p e r m i t t i n g an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l of v i s i t a t i o n . " The r e f e r e n c e t c " m i n i m i z i n g the i m p a c t " seems r a t h e r i n c o n g r u o u s , when i t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t f i r s t of a l l , the present impact o f backcountry use i s not known. Second , no method e x i s t s f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s p r e s e n t management i n p u t s i n t h i s a r e a . And i t i s d i f f i c u l t to see how an a c c e p t a b l e use f i g u r e w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d , when the most b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n r e g u i r e d f o r such a d e c i s i o n , namely present use l e v e l s , does not e x i s t . FBOEAEIE FDTDEE DEVELOPMENTS F u t u r e developments a f f e c t i n g the backccunt ry o f Manning Park are u n c e r t a i n at t h i s t i m e . The C o a s t a l P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n c f the Parks Branch has c r e a t e d a c o n c e p t u a l p l an f o r the pa rk ; however, s e v e r a l s teps remain be fore the p lan can be implemented. The p l a n as a whole t r e a t s almost every f e a t u r e and f a c i l i t y i n the pa rk , i n c l u d i n g many on ly p e r i p h e r a l to the backcountry and h i k i n g a c t i v i t y . These i n c l u d e l i v i n g q u a r t e r s f o r park employees , r o a d s i d e p i c n i c k i n g s p o t s , and r e s t a u r a n t f a c i l i t i e s f o r the d o w n h i l l s k i a r e a . Such t o p i c s , of d o u b t f u l r e l e v a n c e to the s tudy area and problems addressed i n t h i s t h e s i s , w i l l not be covered h e r e . Two areas of emphasis i n the p l a n , h i k i n g t r a i l s and na ture i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , were f e l t t o have d i r e c t b e a r i n g on the study area and i t s f u t u r e management, and have t h e r e f o r e been s e l e c t e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The C o n c e p t u a l P lan and H i k i n g T r a i l s The p lan groups Manning Park f e a t u r e s i n t o three c l a s s e s : (1) P r e s e r v a t i o n F e a t u r e s , (3) P r i m i t i v e a c c e s s , and (4) Easy A c c e s s . C l a s s (2 ) , Nature Conservancy a r e a s , are found i n some E r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Parks o t h e r than Manning. F e a t u r e s judged to be un ique , f o r e i t h e r e c o l o g i c a l o r 1 1 2 h i s t o r i c a l r e a s o n s , may be c l a s s e d as P r e s e r v a t i o n F e a t u r e s (C la s s 1 ) . The Three E r c t h a r s area f a l l s i n t o the e c o l o g i c a l g r o u p , f o r reasons o f i t s s u b a l p i n e and a l p i n e e n v i r o n m e n t s ; r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l a n d systems o f the Cascades . S p e c i f i c f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to t h i s a r e a s ' s e c o l o g i c a l uniqueness are i t s d i v e r s i t y of p l a n t communit ies and g e o l o g i c u n i t s . Other areas c l a s s e d as e c o l o g i c a l P r e s e r v a t i o n Fea ture s i n c l u d e Strawberry F l a t s [ F r a g a r i a spp . 3# Rhododendron F l a t s [Rhododendron macrochy11urn ], and the Sumallo Grove ( c o a s t a l f o r e s t ) . H i s t o r i c a l f e a t u r e s c o n s i d e r e d worthy c f p r e s e r v a t i o n i n c l u d e the Dewdney and Hope T r a i l s . The P r e s e r v a t i o n Feature d e s i g n a t i o n makes the Three B r o t h e r s meadows s u i t a b l e f o r h i k i n g , na ture i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and o b s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , with f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d f o r t h r e e p r i m i t i v e campgrounds. The p lan f o r e s e e s the Heather T r a i l i n the same way i t p r e s e n t l y e x i s t s ; a p p a r e n t l y no changes are proposed . One Parks Branch p lanner i n d i c a t e d t h a t no fu ture l i m i t s on use of the Heather T r a i l w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d . I t i s f e l t t h a t the t r a i l shou ld remain e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e even i f the number of h i k e r s c o n t i n u e s to i n c r e a s e . I t would be d i f f i c u l t , p o l i t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , to s t a r t " a c t i n g l i k e an i v o r y tower" (per sona l communica t ion , Parks Branch p l a n n e r ) , and suddenly c l o s e o f f a reas t h a t have always been r e a c h a b l e by everybody . whi le the Heather T r a i l i s de s i gna ted e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e to a l l v i s i t o r s , the p l an i d e n t i f i e s a proposed remote a l p i n e t r a i l , the 113 Chuwanten Loop (C la s s 3 ) , to serve the needs of backpackers s e e k i n g s o l i t u d e and i s o l a t i o n . T h u s , a h i e r a r c h y of t r a i l s v a r y i n g i n d i f f i c u l t y , a c c e s s i b i l i t y , and remotenes s , i s expected to accommodate a s ide range of i n t e r e s t s and needs . _Jhe C o n c e p t u a l P lan and Nature I n t e r p r e t a t i o n The Parks Branch p l anner s have devoted a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of e f f o r t and space i n the c o n c e p t u a l p l a n to r e - o r g a n i z i n g the nature i n t e r p r e t a t i o n programme. T h i s s e r v i c e i s f e l t to be extremely impor tan t i n Manning P a r k , which r e c e i v e s so many v i s i t e r s each y e a r . S e v e r a l changes were proposed by the p l anning s t a f f : (1) R e l o c a t i o n of the Nature House from i t s present s i t e ( s e v e r a l hundred yards d i r e c t l y west of the lodge) to the south bank o f the Similkameen R i v e r , behind the lodge . (2) Expans ion of i n t e r p r e t i v e f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s , with an a m p h i t h e a t r e , more i n t e r p r e t i v e t r a i l s , e x h i b i t s and guided walks added. The r e s u l t i n g assemblage (and the apparent rea son f o r the r e l o c a t i o n of the Nature House) would be a c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d i n t e r p r e t i v e area b u i l t a long the theme "The Cascades : Meeting P l a c e c f the Coast and I n t e r i o r . " 114 Reac t ions of Managers The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and n a t u r a l i s t s of Manning Park have r e a c t e d to these p r o p o s a l s and g e n e r a l l y to f u t u r e management q u e s t i o n s i n v a r i e d and i n t e r e s t i n g ways. T h e • a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has not r a i s e d o b j e c t i o n s to the t h r e e - p a r t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n sys tem, nor to the i n c l u s i o n o f the Three B r o t h e r s area i n the P r e s e r v a t i o n Fea tures c l a s s . A l though Green does not see the need t o expand the present backcountry t r a i l sy s tem, be o f f e r e d no n e g a t i v e comments r e g a r d i n g the f o u r proposed t r a i l a d d i t i o n s . Green d i f f e r s most markedly from the p l a n n e r s i n h i s a t t i t u d e towards the p l a c e of nature i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n Manning P a r k . He contends t h a t the Nature House s h o u l d be phased out and f a c i l i t i e s o ther than s e l f - g u i d i n g t r a i l s s c a l e d down. He bases h i s response on c o s t s and the f a c t t h a t he does not f e e l pre sent f a c i l i t i e s are be ing used h e a v i l y enough t o j u s t i f y t h e i r maintenance , l e t a lone t h e i r e x p a n s i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o G r e e n , i n h i s w r i t t e n response to the p l a n * s p r o p o s a l s . I t i s our o p i n i o n t h a t the present na ture program i s too e x p e n s i v e . He shou ld have a s t a f f member who i s i n v o l v e d i n - t h e mark ing , maintenance , and c a r e o f a comprehensive s e l f - g u i d e d nature t r a i l s sys tem. The present Nature House system shou ld be phased o u t . He e x p l a i n s why he f e e l s the Nature House i s u n d e r - u s e d : We b e l i e v e t h a t the Nature House has never been a f o c a l p o i n t f o r v i s i t o r s . The f o c a l p o i n t has a lways been the l o d g e . One has o n l y to compare the use f i g u r e s t c a r r i v e at t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . I n f o r m a t i o n has always been d i s s emina ted from the l o d g e , and we b e l i e v e t h a t the Nature House has a very minor r o l e i n t h i s v i s i t o r s e r v i c e . 115 The use f i g u r e s Green mentions r e v e a l t h a t the Nature House a t r a c t e d 22,456 v i s i t o r s i n 1974, w h i l e the lodge drew about three t imes tha t number. Comparisons of the two f a c i l i t i e s are of q u e s t i o n a b l e v a l i d i t y , s i n c e they serve g u i t e d i f f e r e n t purposes . F i r s t c f a l l , most b a s i c a l l y , s h o u l d the Nature House be judged o n l y on i t s c a p a b i l i t y to d i s s e m i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n ? I f we make the assumption t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i s i o n by i t s e l f i s a v a l i d c r i t e r i o n , and i f we a c c e p t G r e e n ' s f i g u r e s , shou ld i t be s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the lodge a t t r a c t e d t h r e e t imes the people who v i s i t e d the Nature House? F i r s t , the lodge i s more c o n s p i c u o u s , v i s i b l e from the highway, d i s p l a y i n g f l a g s and s i g n s . The Nature House i s surrounded by t r e e s , i s u n o b t r u s i v e , and r e c e i v e s l i t t l e i f any p u b l i c i t y . Second, the lodge p r o v i d e s r e s t a u r a n t , washroom, and newsstand f a c i l i t i e s , a v a i l a b l e nowhere e l s e i n the park . I t i s t rue tha t backcountry users do not take f u l l advantage o f the Nature House, but 22,000 people spread over a three-month season does not seem p a r t i c u l a r l y lew. I t would mean 7500 v i s i t o r s per month or 250 a day , a f a i r l y s teady f l o w . we might assume, on the o ther hand , t h a t a Nature House s h o u l d be e v a l u a t e d by c r i t e r i a e t h e r than the mere p r o v i s i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n . These might i n c l u d e i t s emphasis on na ture a p p r e c i a t i o n and the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of c o n s e r v a t i o n v a l u e s , f o r example. Ie must then ask i f the f i g u r e of 22,456 i n c l u d e s v i s i t o r s u t i l i z i n g s e r v i c e s p rov ided by the n a t u r a l i s t s without a c t u a l l y g e t t i n g counted at the Nature 116 House. I f t h i s i s the c a s e , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s argument seems i l l o g i c a l , because i t assumes t h a t cne must s tep i n s i d e the Nature House to b e n e f i t from i t . Persons u s i n g the s e l f - g u i d i n g t r a i l s , f o r i n s t a n c e , would c e r t a i n l y be exposed to the n a t u r a l i s t s ' nature a p p r e c i a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n v a l u e s * I t shou ld be noted t h a t G r e e n ' s downplay o f the importance o f the Nature House and " l i v e ™ n a t u r a l i s t s r e f l e c t s a s t r o n g b i a s , wi th which the use f i g u r e s may have been i n t e r p r e t e d , i n o r d e r t o j u s t i f y the phas ing cut o f the e x i s t i n g Nature programme. B e l l ' s o p i n i o n s on the nature i n t e r p r e t a t i o n programme, which he f e e l s are shared by the e ther n a t u r a l i s t s , d i f f e r from those h e l d by the park a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . He b e l i e v e s s t r o n g l y i n the importance of the present Nature House programmes, but does not f e e l tha t enough emphas i s , p e r s o n n e l , and funding are devoted t o backcountry use and problems . N a t u r a l i s t s , he s t a t e s , spend l i m i t e d time i n the backcountry and have no a u t h o r i t y t o c o r r e c t problems they see . T h e i r i n f l u e n c e alone on the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f backcountry use and h i k e r behav iour i s not s u f f i c i e n t . Through more f r eguent and e f f e c t i v e h i k e r - n a t u r a l i s t c o n t a c t s , B e l l b e l i e v e s that d e p r e c i a t i v e behav iour c o u l d be reduced and h i k e r s d i s p e r s e d more e v e n l y over the a r e a . The l a t t e r b e n e f i t c o u l d help a l l e v i a t e c o n g e s t i o n and r e s u l t a n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n on p r e s e n t l y crowded t r a i l s . B e l l advoca te s the h i r i n g of a " h i k i n g n a t u r a l i s t , " who would a s ses s backccuntry problems and e n v i r o n m e n t a l changes , whi le 117 d e t e r m i n i n g v i s i t o r needs and p r e f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g management, He i s not o p t i m i s t i c , however, t h a t the nature programme w i l l deve lop a backecuntry o r i e n t a t i o n , s i n c e he b e l i e v e s the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n would not "go f o r i t . " B e l l f e e l s a l s c that i t i s impor tant to p l a n now f o r backcountry p r e s e r v a t i o n , be fore problems become more s e r i o u s , " t c compensate f o r the wear and t e a r of f u t u r e y e a r s . " Many u s e r s , as borne out i n the Heather T r a i l s u r v e y , have never v i s i t e d a h i k i n g area where a r a t i o n i n g or r e s e r v a t i o n system was used . Some of these people regard such programmes as t h r e a t s t o t h e i r f reedom, and c o n s e g u e n t l y want n o t h i n g to do with them, a l th ough t h e i r b e l i e f s are based on f anta sy and hear say . B e l l b e l i e v e s t h a t some exposure , even i n d i r e c t , to such systems o p e r a t i n g i n o t h e r parks would he lp to erase these nega t ive a t t i t u d e s . When one c o n s i d e r s the f a c t t h a t r a t i o n i n g systems i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s have c o n s i s t e n t l y met with g r e a t e r succes s and acceptance than managers o r i g i n a l l y a n t i c i p a t e d (Hendee and L u c a s , unpub l i shed m a n u s c r i p t , pages 6-8, and F a z i o and G i l b e r t , 1 9 7 4 , pages 7 5 4 - 7 5 6 ) , t h i s i d e a seems g u i t e l o g i c a l . B e l l * suggests a s l i d e show f e a t u r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e management s t r a t e g i e s used i n cop ing w i t h backcountry prob lems , and pamphlets e x p l a i n i n g seme o f the t e c h n i g u e s p r e s e n t l y employed i n Canadian and Uni ted S t a t e s parks i n o r d e r t c p re se rve h i k i n g areas and enhance the w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e . B e l l sees t h i s new angle of the nature programme as a l s c f a c i l i t a t i n g the implementa t ion o f c e r t a i n 118 r e g u l a t i o n s he b e l i e v e s n e c e s s a r y , as d i s c u s s e d above. These r e s t r i c t i o n s i n c l u d e l i m i t s on par ty s i z e , a ban on dogs , and s t r i c t enforcement o f the des igna ted camping areas r u l e which now e x i s t s . A l t h o u g h the P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n of the Parks Branch b e l i e v e s t h a t Manning Park shou ld g ive more a t t e n t i o n to backcountry use and problems , i t does not view t h i s r o l e as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the Nature House, which i s supposed to c o n c e n t r a t e on nature e d u c a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The Parks Branch r e c o g n i z e s t h a t funds are not l i k e l y to be made a v a i l a b l e f o r backecuntry i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and p r o j e c t s , but i s s t i l l unable to suggest an a l t e r n a t e way i n which Manning Park c o u l d address these i s s u e s . 119 COJCIDSICKS AND BECCMMJNDATIONS CONCLUSIONS Many c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s £ 0 1 management can be drawn from these s i t u a t i o n s , o b s e r v a t i o n s , and the data ga thered i n the v i s i t o r s u r v e y . S e v e r a l appear to be p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t i n the development of a management program f o r Banning P a r k * s b a c k c c u n t r y , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the Heather T r a i l . The f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s shou ld be c o n s i d e r e d i n p l a n n i n g f o r the next s e v e r a l years o f h i k e r a c t i v i t y . £ & § £ i c e Cf Data Heleyant To Management There i s very l i t t l e e x i s t i n g data of use i n p l a n n i n g f o r the management of the b a c k c c u n t r y . Except f o r a t e n - y e a r - o l d Parks Branch study o f the a l p i n e meadows near the p a r k i n g l o t { O n d e r h i l l , 1966), no c u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s c o v e r i n g use l e v e l s , b i o p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s and changes , or user o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g management. Dse of Campsi tes The t h r e e camps i t e s s t u d i e d (two at K i c k i n g Horse and one a t Nicomen Lake) dc not appear to be used beyond t h e i r p re sent p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t i e s ; t h a t i s , the number of c l e a r e d t e n t i n g areas and f i r e r i n g s . The o n l y e x c e p t i o n to t h i s 120 conclusion would be the E r i t i s h Columbia Day holiday weekend i n early August. Here campsites, then, are probably not needed on the Heather T r a i l at this time, since the existing ones seem to be handling the demand. This i s not meant to imply that v i s i t e r s occupying previously designated spots do not exert an impact cn the biophysical environment, however. It i s also probably true that the number of campers does not exceed either the " i d e a l " or " t o l e r a b l e " use c e i l i n g s suggested by respondents (see Chapter 3 ) . Therefore, i t can be stated that campsites are not receiving more use than v i s i t o r s f e e l they should, and t h e i r psychological carrying capacity has not been reached. Ose Cf The T r a i l Use of the t r a i l by hikers i s i n f l i c t i n g some biophysical damage on the natural environment. The meadews have been p a r t i a l l y or completely eradicated i n some spots adjacent to the t r a i l . Intense impact concentrated i n small areas i s compacting the s o i l and may be a f f e c t i n g the v i a b i l i t y of certain plant species as well as the burrowing a c t i v i t y of pocket gophers and meadow mice. Drainage patterns could be affected by the ponding and-muckiness caused by many footsteps in wet or sncwy patches. Erosion along the t r a i l i s v i s i b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n areas where snow remains u n t i l mid-summer. Here, hikers make detours around the extremely vulnerable wet or muddy areas, only causing 121 them t c s p r e a d ; at the same time the a c t i o n of t h e i r hoots d e s t r o y s s l o p e s t a b i l i t y on cut banks . The f a c t tha t h i k e r numbers are i n c r e a s i n g means t h i s impact i s g r e a t e r every y e a r . That p o r t i o n of the t r a i l over which h i k e r s were observed c o n t i n u a l l y , between the Three B r o t h e r s and Nicomen L a k e , does not p r e s e n t l y a t t r a c t numbers i n excess of what h i k e r s can t o l e r a t e (see Chapter 3 ) . But no t h r e s h o l d s or l i m i t s based on b i o p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s have been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h i s a r e a . A g a i n , the v i s i t o r and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n , which would be p r e r e g u i s i t e to e s t a b l i s h m e n t of such l i m i t s , has not been c o l l e c t e d . I n f o r m a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n Heather T r a i l backpackers are not r e c e i v i n g adeguate i n f o r m a t i o n p r i o r to t h e i r h i k e s . T h i s d e f i c i e n c y c o u l d be c o n t r i b u t i n g d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y to the misuse o f the b a c k c o u n t r y . The i n f o r m a t i o n l a c k i n g can be c a t e g o r i z e d i n the f o l l o w i n g way: Knowledge Concern ing the Park as a J h c l e H i k e r s are ' o f t e n unaware of a l t e r n a t e t r a i l s , which would o f f e r a s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e and at the same time d i s p e r s e h i k e r s more e g u a l l y over the t r a i l s . They have l e a r n e d of the Heather T r a i l from f r i e n d s , q u i t e f r e g u e n t l y , and are not in formed of o ther t r a i l c h o i c e s . 122 Imprecise Knowledge Cf Campsites And JDistances Hikers know that there are three campsites named Buckhorn, Kicking Horse, and Nicomen Lake, but they often do not know how long a hike i s required to reach them, esp e c i a l l y Kicking Horse. The r e s u l t i s that probably 10% and perhaps as many as 1 5 % c f the groups cannot plan i n advance to reach the campsite by dark. They pitch their tents wherever' they happen to be when night f a l l s . Even though more than two-thirds of the Heather T r a i l v i s i t o r s consult guidebooks describing the t r a i l and i t s features, t h i s information i s not r e a l l y helpful to them at the time when they need i t . a l i k e l y reason i s that they are unable to translate " f i v e miles"- in print to " f i v e miles" of hiking, and therefore misjudge distances. One would expect th i s to be common among inexperienced hikers, who form a large segment cf the overnight population. Lack Of Information on Terrain and Topography Hikers are poorly informed about the lay of the t r a i l : i t s ups, dcwns, and other d e s c r i p t i v e d e t a i l s . Topographical maps are available outside the park but the Nature House does not stock them. Thus, since most v i s i t e r s do not tote their guidebooks, the only remaining choice i s the park's t r a i l map, which contains only the f i r s t six miles cf the Heather T r a i l loop, up to the Three Brothers {see Figure 8) . 123 The res u l t i n g problem i s not a danger of getting l e s t , for the t r a i l i s easy to follow, Eut people are acre l i k e l y to camp wherever they get t i r e d or when i t gets dark, i f they do not know where the next carap i s . It i s suspected, for instance, that many of the caspfire scars on Niccmen fiidge would not have been made, i f the hikers responsible had known they were only cne a i l e from the Lake. 124 Insufficient Information ftbout Proper Behaviour L i t t l e emphasis i s given to informing hikers of the camping practices least l i k e l y to damage the environment. Although depreciafive behaviour was not as prevalent as had been expected, i t was nevertheless evident: the interviewers believed t h i s behaviour to be inadvertent, lar g e l y due to naivete on the part of f i r s t - t i m e backpackers. Nature House s t a f f are guite w i l l i n g tc discuss backcountry behaviour with v i s i t o r s . Most hikers do not stop at the Nature House, however, i t was discovered. 125 CRITERIA ICR DEC!SIGN-MAKING Management d e c i s i o n s are always i n f l u e n c e d t c some e x t e n t by c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a c r s t a n d a r d s , a g a i n s t which v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s are examined. At some p o i n t the dec i s i onmaker must a r r i v e at these g u i d i n g c r i t e r i a , a l though they may or may not be s t a t e d e x p l i c i t l y . Such a s tatement a i d s i n the c l a r i f i c a t i o n c f the d e c i s i o n m a k i n g procedure i n s e v e r a l ways. The s teps t aken i n r e a c h i n g d e c i s i o n s and the r e a s o n i n g employed are v i s i b l e and can thus be r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d and g u e s t i o n e d . The b i a s e s of dec i s i onmaker s are more l i k e l y to become apparent . A d d i t i o n a l l y , any depar ture from the s t a t e d c r i t e r i a w i l l be n o t i c e a b l e immedia te ly and open to c h a l l e n g e . Two c r i t e r i a have been e s t a b l i s h e d , a g a i n s t which i t i s b e l i e v e d f u t u r e management d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g the backcountry o f Manning Park s h o u l d be a s s e s s e d : (1) The b i o p h y s i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of the backcountry shou ld not be exceeded ; i n o ther words , i t s b i o p h y s i c a l e lements and a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s s h o u l d be p re se rved to the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e e x t e n t . (2) The backecuntry h i k i n g e x p e r i e n c e s h o u l d be enhanced , through the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of h i k e r needs and p r e f e r e n c e s , as s e l l as the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f the a r e a . 1 2 6 BECCMKENEATICNS S e v e r a l recommendations are proposed , drawn from the s tudy c o n c l u s i o n s and adher ing to the above two c r i t e r i a . A l though they were des igned wi th the Heather T r a i l and i t s u ser s i n mind, t h e i r a p p l i c a b i l i t y i s not n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d to t h i s s i t u a t i o n . (1) That a backcountry h i k e r r e g i s t r a t i o n system be implemented : A r e g i s t r a t i o n system would beg in to s h r i n k the gap between managers and backecuntry h i k e r s . F i r s t , i t would p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about h i k e r numbers, d e s t i n a t i o n s , and d i s t r i b u t i o n over t r a i l s and c a m p s i t e s . I t would a l s o c r e a t e a s e t t i n g conduc ive to h iker-manager exchange: v i s i t o r s c o u l d ask q u e s t i o n s of n a t u r a l i s t s , who would be i n an i d e a l p o s i t i o n t o convey " b a c k c o u n t r y use v a l u e s " and p o i n t cut the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e at the Nature House (see d e s c r i p t i o n of recommendation 3 be low) . T h i s d i a l o g u e ga in s importance when i t i s remembered that n e a r l y h a l f c f the Heather T r a i l o v e r n i g h t h i k e r s are i n t h e i r f i r s t two years of b a c k p a c k i n g ; T e s t i n g i n Bocky Mountain N a t i o n a l Park , C o l o r a d o , r e v e a l e d i t was these backpackers who ga ined the most from i n t e r p r e t i v e i n p u t s . Al though the Rocky Mountain system i n v o l v e s mandatory permi t s and r a t i o n i n g , i t i s f e l t t h a t the proposed r e g i s t r a t i o n system f o r Manning Park c o u l d e x e r t a comparable i n f l u e n c e ' o n hiker-manager communicat ions and thus on w i l d e r n e s s camping i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h u s , Heather 127 T r a i l managers could conceivably influence large numbers of r e c r e a t i o n i s t s at a point in t h e i r development when "they are e s p e c i a l l y amenable to learning how to use the wilderness i n ways that w i l l help preserve i t s unigue q u a l i t i e s " (Fazio and G i l b e r t , 1974, paqe 756). The envisioned r e g i s t r a t i o n system could operate in a manner sim i l a r to the followinq: * A l l backcountry hikinq parties would regi s t e r at the Nature House, conveniently located, adjacent to the lodge. Heather T r a i l v i s i t o r s could a l t e r n a t i v e l y register at the alpine meadows Nature Hut. Hikers starting out at times when the Nature House i s not open could leave t h e i r r e g i s t r a t i o n i n a deposit box outside the door. * Registration information would include name, address, number In party, length of stay, and proposed route (including campsites). * Additional r e g i s t r a t i o n forms and a covered wooden deposit box could .fee placed at trailheads, for use by v i s i t o r s neglecting tc stop at the Nature House, ensuring maximum compliance. * large signs i n plain view could be erected on the highway, several hundred yards east and west of the lodge and Nature House, informing v i s i t e r s of the r e g i s t r a t i o n p o l i c y ; for example, GOING HIKING OVERNIGHT? PLEASE REGISTER AT THE NATURE HOUSE, JUST AHEAD ON YCUR RIGHT(LEFT). It i s believed that the mere presence of these simple d i r e c t i o n a l signs could draw registrants who would 128 o t h e r w i s e i g n o r e the r e g i s t r a t i o n p o l i c y . A Utah s tudy (Brown and Hunt , 1969, page 80) r e v e a l e d t h a t f a c i l i t y use p a t t e r n s , such as v i s i t a t i o n o f r o a d s i d e r e s t a r e a s , c o u l d be i n f l u e n c e d markedly by s i g n s p o i n t i n g the way. Brown and Hunt b e l i e v e t h a t people do what they are t o l d without g u e s t i o n i n g i t , un le s s i t v i o l a t e s t h e i r f i x e d b e l i e f s or e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s procedure would probab ly not be viewed by h i k e r s as an i n c o n v e n i e n c e ; on the c o n t r a r y , over 60% of those surveyed favoured a " c o m p u l s o r y " r e g i s t r a t i o n sy s t em. The c o s t o f a r e g i s t r a t i o n system cannot be e s t imated p r e c i s e l y , but i t would be m i n i m a l . Assuming t h a t Becommendation 3 was implemented , the h i k i n g n a t u r a l i s t c o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r keep ing the system i n o r d e r and c o l l e c t i n g the d a t a . C o n s i d e r a t i o n was g iven t o r a t i o n i n g sys tems , over the course of t h i s s t u d y . I t was dec ided f i n a l l y , however, t h a t a r a t i o n i n g system f o r the area i n g u e s t i o n s h o u l d not be implemented at t h i s t i m e . L i m i t a t i o n o f numbers would be a major and s e r i o u s s t e p , and wi thout c o n c r e t e i n f o r m a t i o n on pre sent and o p t i m a l maximum use l e v e l s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n , and c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , i t would be d i f f i c u l t to j u s t i f y the need f o r r a t i o n i n g . I t i s f e l t , however, t h a t i f use of the Heather T r a i l c o n t i n u e s to i n c r e a s e over the next s e v e r a l y e a r s , r a t i o n i n g may have t o be c o n s i d e r e d s e r i o u s l y . In t h a t e v e n t , the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by backcount ry v i s i t o r r e g i s t r a t i o n and the h i k i n g n a t u r a l i s t ' s e f f o r t s (see Becommendation 3 ) , would be ex t remely u s e f u l i n 129 p l a n n i n g a system which wculd he lp to reduce b i o p h y s i c a l damage, and enhance the backccunt ry e x p e r i e n c e , whi le not d i s p l e a s i n g or a l i e n a t i n g the p u b l i c . (2) That more e x t e n s i v e rac jcccuntrx i2 f c rmat i . cn he a v a i l a b l e f o r p r o s p e c t i v e h i k e r s : Much can be done to i n c r e a s e the q u a n t i t y and g u a l i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n geared to the needs of backccunt ry h i k e r s . An e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t y , the Nature House, i s seen as the pr imary i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t r e . I t c c u l d p r o v i d e : • Topographic maps f o r the p r i c e one would pay at a map s t o r e or I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, • Sketch maps of each t r a i l , i n d i c a t i n g camps i te l o c a t i o n , approximate d i s t a n c e s , and prominent f e a t u r e s ( e . g . . F i r s t B r o t h e r , Niccmen Badge).-. A map of the Heather T r a i l l o o p c o u l d be drawn i n about o n e - h a l f h o u r , and reproduced at a few cent s per copy . • A s m a l l l i b r a r y of books ccncerned with b a c k p a c k i n g , the n a t u r a l h i s t o r y and geography of the Cascades , and t r a i l s i n the a r e a . These m a t e r i a l s would be f o r use i n the Nature House o n l y , f o r the p e r u s a l o f h i k e r s s t o p p i n g i n to r e g i s t e r or o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n . N a t u r a l i s t s would be a b l e t o take advantage c f t h i s " l i b r a r y c o r n e r " through i n c r e a s e d c o n t a c t s with v i s i t e r s . The co s t would not have to exceed f i f t y d o l l a r s . • A b l a c k b o a r d or l a r g e f l a n n e l b o a r d , d i s p l a y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about t r a i l c o n d i t i o n s , such as snow and e x c e s s i v e mud, and use l e v e l s . These d i s p l a y s c o u l d be 130 updated e a s i l y , when new i n f o r m a t i o n was r e c e i v e d . Such a board would be t i m e - s a v i n g ; h i k e r s i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n r e g i s t e r i n g and l e a r n i n g which t r a i l s were crowded, f o r example , c o u l d do so without w a i t i n g to see a n a t u r a l i s t . An i n f o r m a t i o n board would probab ly be l e s s e x p e n s i v e , over an e n t i r e s ea son , than p r i n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e a s e s . • A s l i d e show, p o i n t i n g out r e a l - l i f e p i c t o r i a l examples of s e n s i b l e and d e p r e c i a t i v e h i k i n g and camping b e h a v i o u r , or more s imply " d o ' s and d e n t ' s . " H i k e r s would be exposed t o ev idence o f o v e r u s e , such as t r a i l e r o s i o n and chopped t r e e s , which they might not o therwi se r e c o g n i z e . The s l i d e show c o u l d a l s o i n c l u d e i l l u s t r a t i o n s of some management s t r a t e g i e s adopted i n o ther p a r k s , such as r a t i o n i n g . I d e a l l y , these would be presented i n a p o s i t i v e way, shewing how a l l can b e n e f i t , managers from fewer maintenance and • •environmental problems , and h i k e r s from an enhanced backcountry e x p e r i e n c e . F a z i o and G i l b e r t c o n c l u d e d , on the b a s i s o f Bocky M o u n t a i n ' N a t i o n a l Park user responses t c a p o s t - v i s i t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h a t a s l i d e e x h i b i t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e f f e c t i v e than e ther media ( e . g . , b r o c h u r e s , s t a tewide t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t s , and i l l u s t r a t e d newspaper f e a t u r e a r t i c l e s ) i n i n c r e a s i n g v i s i t o r s ' knowledge of low-impact camping concept s and procedures • ( F a z i o and G i l b e r t , 1974, page 755) . A s l i d e show c o u l d be q u i t e i n e x p e n s i v e , i f i t were des igned so t h a t no n a r r a t i o n was needed and v i s i t o r s c o u l d a c t i v a t e i t with a s w i t c h . ( 1 3 1 ( 3 ) T h a t a "hiJsiS.9 n a t u r a l i s t " b e h i r e d ^ a s a s p e c i a l i s t i n b a c k e c u n t r y § £ J L i S S S I S S i l i p r o b l e m s a n d a d v o c a t e - o f h i k e r n e e d s J l i a i s o n b e t w e e n h i k e r s a n d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i T h e " h i k i n g n a t u r a l i s t " w o u l d h a v e t h r e e p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n s : • T o o b s e r v e a n d d o c u m e n t c h a n g e s i n b a c k e c u n t r y c o n d i t i o n s ( e . g . , e r o s i o n , d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e m e a d o w s , d e c r e a s e d w o o d s u p p l y , i n c r e a s e d l i t t e r , a n d t h e e f f e c t s o f d o g s o n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ) m o n i t o r i n g t h e s e o n a n o n g o i n g b a s i s , • T o e s t a b l i s h a r a p p o r t w i t h b a c k e c u n t r y h i k e r s , d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r n e e d s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g m a n a g e m e n t , a n d r e l a y i n g t h e s e t c t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , • T o a t t e m p t t c l o w e r t h e i n c i d e n c e o f d e p r e c i a t i v e b e h a v i o u r , b y e x p l a i n i n g b a c k e c u n t r y r e g u l a t i o n s t o h i k e r s . I t i s f e l t t h a t m o s t v i o l a t o r s ; s u c h a s t h o s e c a m p i n g o u t s i d e d e s i g n a t e d a r e a s o r l e a v i n g c a m p f i r e s b u r n i n g , a r e n o t k n o w i n g l y b e h a v i n g u n w i s e l y , a n d w o u l d p r o b a b l y r e s p o n d w i l l i n g l y t o s u g g e s t i o n s m a d e b y t h e h i k i n g n a t u r a l i s t . H i k e r s s u r v e y e d o n t h e H e a t h e r T r a i l g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t e d t h e i d e a o f a " p a t r o l , " a n d i t i s t h u s b e l i e v e d t h a t a h i k i n g n a t u r a l i s t w o u l d b e w e l c o m e d i n t h e b a c k e c u n t r y . T h e h i k i n g n a t u r a l i s t c o u l d o p e r a t e i n o n e o f a t l e a s t t w o w a y s , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t w e e k e n d u s e o f t h e H e a t h e r T r a i l i s r e l a t i v e l y h e a v y , w h i l e H o n d a y t h r o u g h T h u r s d a y n u m b e r s 132 are low. He or she cculd spend Friday through Sunday periods interacting with hikers cn the t r a i l and in campgrounds, while using Mondays through Thursdays to gather biophysical data and make observations regardimg environmental change, and backccuntry maintenance and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n needs. Alt e r n a t i v e l y , a l l these tasks could be performed on weekends, and the n a t u r a l i s t would spend weekdays working on displays, the s l i d e show, l i b r a r y , and r e g i s t r a t i o n data at the Nature House. Naturally, there are other p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Perhaps not one but two hiking n a t u r a l i s t s should be hired. Not only could they divide the f i e l d work, but they might alsc work more e f f i c i e n t l y and enjoy t h e i r jobs to a greater degree, as a result of each ether's company. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to predict a person's emotional response to being alone i n the backccuntry, especially i f he or she were to experience periods of complete i s o l a t i o n . Two hiking n a t u r a l i s t s would provide each ether with some degree of security and reinforcement, i t i s f e l t , even i f they were not always working together. Cost would undoubtedly be a deciding factor in the choice of one or two, or any number of hiking n a t u r a l i s t s . It i s suggested that university students be hired, either one student trained i n ecology, or two students, with at least one having a behavioural sciences background as well as some environmental expertise. The student (s) could be housed i n the area where park s t a f f l i v e . I t i s estimated that a hiking n a t u r a l i s t paid at $800 133 a month would c o s t the park $3200, f o r one month o f p r e p a r a t i o n and t h r e e of f i e l d w o r k and Nature House d u t i e s . For two s t u d e n t s the sea sona l c o s t would be $6400, not an unreasonably h i g h f i g u r e , when one r e a l i z e s t h a t not only the park but a l l B r i t i s h Columbia h i k e r s would b e n e f i t from the e x p e n d i t u r e . 1H± 2k*% t r a i l maintenance be geared towards m i n i m i z i n g the adverse impact of h i k e r s on the b i o p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t x £ a r t i c u l a r l y the a l p i n e meadows.: I t i s recommended tha t g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n be g iven to the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the a l p i n e meadows and widening of the t r a i l , which appears to be a problem at the p re sen t t i m e , and may be worsening as use i n c r e a s e s . Management a t t e n t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y needed as snowmelt i s f i n i s h i n g and the p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e inundated areas are r e c e i v i n g human i m p a c t . An i n d i v i d u a l or s m a l l team, such as the t r a i l crew or h i k i n g n a t u r a l i s t s c o u l d perform "a r e l a t i v e l y s imple e f f o r t and c c v e r the e n t i r e l e n g t h of meadows t r a i l , as f a r as Nicomen E i d g e , i n two days , three i n c l u d i n g the r e t u r n t r i p . I t i s suggested t h a t s t e p p i n g - s t o n e s be p l a c e d a long and i n the t r a i l ' o v e r l i k e l y problem a rea s . u n l i k e c o r d u r o y o r g r a v e l , r o c k s would not have to be brought i n from the o u t s i d e , and would be a f a i r l y u n o b t r u s i v e p r o t e c t i o n measure. Care s h o u l d be taken to p l a c e the rocks i n an a s y m m e t r i c a l " h a p h a z a r d " f a s h i o n , c o n s i d e r i n g many h i k e r s * s e n s i t i v i t y and a v e r s i o n to s i g n s of p lanned development i n the b a c k e c u n t r y . 134 (5) That a new loop t r a i l be constructed^, providing access to the tcps of the Three -Brothers mountains: The fecommended Three Erothers mountaintops loop t r a i l i s envisioned for day use; that i s , side t r i p s by hikers staying in a designated camping area and day users wanting a f i f t e e n to sixteen mile t r i p . The prevision cf DWC's on t h i s t r a i l i s not recommended, since there does not appear to be a need for more overnight camping space on the Heather T r a i l , and a campsite would greatly increase the adverse impact of hikers on the Three Erothers. Although the number of Heather T r a i l hikers climbing the Three Brothers i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y high (about 20%), each hiking group blazes i t s own route. The impact exerted and damage to vegetation i s consequently spread over a large area, though i t may be r e l a t i v e l y l i g h t i n any one spot. Considering that ten years ago the natural vegetation cn dry ridges and exposed areas, such as the Three Brothers, was being destroyed by human a c t i v i t y (Underbill, 1966, page 5), and given the increased human use over t h i s time period, i t i s believed that steps should be taken now t c preserve a maximum amount of the meadows. Providing hikers with an opportunity to reach the tops of the Three Brothers "peaks," while l i m i t i n g their impact to one two cr three foot s t r i p , i s suggested as a preservation measure. This proposed t r a i l could begin where the Heather T r a i l bypasses the F i r s t Brother, and re j o i n the Heather T r a i l near Kicking Horse, approximately one-half mile beyond the Third Brother. 135 ' (6) That park managers p a r t i c i p a t e i n jsorkshcps and seminars d e a l i n g with b i o p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y problems i n the b a c k e c u n t r y : These workshops are seen as neces sary f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . Managers l a c k i n g an under s t and ing of backcountry prob lems , as w e l l as the p e r s o n n e l and time r e g u i r e d to cope wi th them. The workshop s e t t i n g would c r e a t e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r managers t o improve t h e i r a b i l i t y to cope with demands on the b a c k e c u n t r y . Many managers r e c e i v e d t h e i r t r a i n i n g and e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e i n an e r a when c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s emphasis was p l aced on the b a c k c o u n t r y , r e l a t i v e to o ther a s p e c t s of parks . Fewer h i k e r s i n past y e a r s meant tha t l e s s p re s sure was p l aced on the backcountry env i ronment . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e do not seem to be o p p o r t u n i t i e s today f o r managers to update t h e i r knowledge and a c q u i r e a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of park management p r i o r i t i e s which have s u r f a c e d i n the l a s t ten y e a r s . In the workshop s e t t i n g managers c o u l d share the problems they have f aced and the s o l u t i o n s they have d e v e l o p e d , whi le b e n e f i t t i n g from the i d e a s of o t h e r s who have been f aced with s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s . Sound backecuntry p l a n n i n g , t h e n , must look ahead, To wai t u n t i l b i o p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y problems demand' immediate , i n t e n s i v e management i n p u t , i s unwise. By t h i s t ime the s i t u a t i o n may have d e t e r i o r a t e d t o the p o i n t where the l o g i c a l r e m e d i a l a c t i o n w i l l be i n e f f e c t i v e . I t i s f e l t , t h e n , t h a t the a d o p t i o n of these s i x recommendations can p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e f o u n d a t i o n 136 r e q u i r e d f o r s e n s i b l e management e f f o r t s . Implementat ion o f these recommendations would l e a d to g r e a t e r s e n s i t i v i t y and knowledge f o r both the p u b l i c and managers, with r e g a r d t o backcountry prob lems , needs , and g o a l s . I t i s l i k e l y , as w e l l , tha t the measures i n d i c a t e d would lower the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t seme severe e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems w i l l s u r f a c e s o c n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the Heather T r a i l environment and the backcountry exper i ence o b t a i n e d by h i k e r s u s ing i t would be ma inta ined at the l e v e l d e s i r e d by a i l c o n c e r n e d . 137 BIBIICGJJPHY A l k e r , Kevin G. 1973. P l a n n i n g and Dec i s ionmaking i n the F i s h and w i l d l i f e B r a n c h : A Study of S tee lhead F i s h e r m e n ' s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , P r e f e r e n c e s , O p i n i o n s , and A t t i t u d e s . Unpub l i shed masters t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A l l d r e d g e , Bendel B. 1972. P u b l i c Use P o l i c y and B a t i o n i n g f o r F e d e r a l P a r k s , B e c r e a t i c n A r e a s , and F a c i l i t i e s . N a t i o n a l Parks S e r v i c e paper , 22 pages. Behan, B. W. 1972. " w i l d e r n e s s P u r i s m : Here He Go A g a i n . " American F o r e s t s 78 (12 ) , 8-11. Behan, B. W. 1974. " P o l i c e S ta te w i l d e r n e s s — A Commentary on Mandatory W i l d e r n e s s P e r m i t s . " J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y 72 (2 ) , 98-99. B l a c k h a l l , Bobert J . 1971. A Soc io-Economic Survey o f Campers i n Four E r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Parks 1967 . " Unpubl i shed masters t h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Brown, P e r r y , and John D. Hunt . 1969. I n f l u e n c e o f I n f o r m a t i o n S igns on V i s i t o r D i s t r i b u t i o n and U s e . " J o u r n a l o f l e i s u r e Eesearch 1 ( 1 ) , 79-93. B r y a n , J . H . , e d . 1971. P r e s e r v i n g Wi ldernes s i n Cur N a t i o n a l P a r k s . N a t i o n a l Parks and C e n s e r v a t i c n A s s o c i a t i o n . 122 pages. B u l t e n a , G. I . and L o w e l l K l e s s i g . 1S69. " S a t i s f a c t i o n i n Camping: A C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and Guide t o S o c i a l R e s e a r c h . " J o u r n a l of L e i s u r e Besearch 1 ( 4 ) , 348-354. C a t t o n , W i l l i a m B. and J . C . Bendee. 1968. " W i l d e r n e s s U s e r s : What Do They T h i n k ? " American F o r e s t s 74(9) 29- 31 , 60-61. C a t t o n , W i l l i a m . 1969. " M o t i v a t i o n s of Wi ldernes s U s e r s . " Pulp and Paper Magazine c f Canada. December 19, 1969, 121-126. Chubb, M i c h a e l , and Pe te r G. A s h t o n . 1969. Park and B e c r e a t i o n Standards B e s e a r c h : The C r e a t i o n c f E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y C o n t r o l s f o r E e s e a r c h . Department o f Parks and B e c r e a t i c n Be source s , T e c h n i c a l Beport 5, Mich igan S ta te U n i v e r s i t y . C l awson , M a r i o n , and Jack K n e t s c h . 1966. Economics o f Outdoor B e c r e a t i o n . P u b l i s h e d f o r Besources For the Fu ture by Johns Hopkins P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , 238 pages. C y c a , B o b e r t , and Andrew Harccmbe. 1970. J x p l o r i n c j Manning 138 P a r k . Gundy ' s and E e r n i e * s Guidebooks , Vancouver . E b y , P h i l i p , 1975. The Value of Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n . Unpubl i shed masters t h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y of E r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . F a z i o , James B . , and Douglas I . G i l b e r t . 1974. "Mandatory W i l d e r n e s s P e r m i t s : Some I n d i c a t i o n s of S u c c e s s . " J o u r n a l of F o r e s t r y 7 2 ( 1 2 ) , 753-756. F e d e r a t i o n o f Mountain Clubs c f E r i t i s h Co lumbia . 1974. P r o c e e d i n g of the Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Management C o n f e r e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia . G a i n , S c o t t , and Tom Swanky. 1975. Mount a s s i n i b o i n e V i s i t o r Use S tudy . E r i t i s h Columbia Parks Branch P l a n n i n g Report #41. G a i n , S c o t t , Tom Swanky, and L e s l i e T a y l o r . 1975. Mount Robson V i s i t o r Use S tudy . E r i t i s h Columbia Parks Branch P l a n n i n g Report #36. Hendee, John C , e t a l . 1968. Wi ldernes s Users i n the P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t — T h e i r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , V a l u e s , and Management P r e f e r e n c e s . U. S. D. A . F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research Paper PNW-61, S2 pages . Hendee, John C . and Robert Luca s . 1973. Mandatory Wi ldernes s P e r m i t s—a Necessary Management T o o l . " J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y 71 (4) , 206-209. Hendee, John C . and Robert L u c a s . Mandatory W i l d e r n e s s P e r m i t s — - S o c i a l Cost s and B e n e f i t s . Unpubl i shed m a n u s c r i p t . H o r t o n , E a r b a r a . 1975 G a r i b a l d i Park V i s i t o r Use S tudy . B r i t i s h Columbia Parks Branch P l a n n i n g Report #39. H o r t o n , B a r b a r a . 1975. Golden Ears Park V i s i t o r Use S t u d y . B r i t i s h Columbia Parks Eranch P l a n n i n g Report #24. J o h n s o n , Warren a. 1967 "Over-Use o f the N a t i o n a l P a r k s . " N a t i o n a l Parks Magazine 41(241) , 4-7 . J u u r a n d , P . 1971. The R e l a t i o n of T r a i l Use t o the W i l d e r n e s s T r a i l E x p e r i e n c e . Unpubl i shed masters t h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y of Western O n t a r i o . LaPage, W i l b u r . 1969. "The Camper Views the I n t e r v i e w . " J o u r n a l o f L e i s u r e Research 1 (2 ) , 181-186. L i m e , D a v i d . 1970. "Research f o r Determining the C a p a c i t y o f the Boundary Waters Canoe a r e a . " The N a t u r a l i s t 21 (4 ) , 9-13. L u c a s , Robert C . 1963a. "The S ta tus of R e c r e a t i o n Research 139 E c l a t e d to U s e r s . " P r o c e e d i n g s : S o c i e t y of American F o r e s t e r s , 127-130. L u c a s , Eobert C . 1963b. V i s i t o r R e a c t i o n to Timber H a r v e s t i n g i n the Eoundary Waters Canoe A r e a . U . S. D. A . F o r e s t S e r v i c e . Lake S t a te s F o r e s t Exp. S t a . Research Note L S - 2 , 3 pages. L u c a s , Robert C . 1964a. "User Concepts of W i l d e r n e s s and T h e i r I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Resource Management." i n New H o r i z o n s f o r Resources R e s e a r c h i Western -Resources Paper s . B o u l d e r , U n i v e r s i t y of Colorado P r e s s , 29-39. Lucas' , Robert C . 19641. " W i l d e r n e s s P e r c e p t i o n and Use : the Example o f the Boundary Waters Canoe A r e a . " N a t u r a l Resources J o u r n a l 3 ( 3 ) , 394-411. L u c a s , Robert C. 1964c. " W i l d e r n e s s - U s e r C o n c e p t s . " The N a t u r a l i s t 15 (4 ) , 22-29. L u c a s , Eober t C . 1969. "Research Needed f o r N a t i o n a l P a r k s , " pages 284-303 i n Canadian Parks i n P e r s p e c t i v e , ed . by J . G. N e l s o n . Harves t House, M o n t r e a l . L y o n s , C . P. 1952. T r e e s x ShrufiiU and F lowers to Know i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T o r o n t o , Dent . M a c N e i l l , J . W. 1971. E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management. Ot tawa , I n f o r m a t i o n Canada. M e r r i a m , L . C , J r . 1964. "Eob M a r s h a l l : Some Soc ioeconomic C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . " J o u r n a l of F o r e s t r y , 62 , 789-795. M e r r i a m , I . C . J r . 1967. G l a c i e r — A T r a i l Park and I t s U s e r s . N a t i o n a l Parks Magazine 41(234) , 5-8. Merr i am, L . C. and R. E . Amnions. 1968 " W i l d e r n e s s User s and Management i n Three Montana A r e a s . " J o u r n a l of F o r e s t r y 66(5) , 390-395. Nash, R o d e r i c k . 1967. Wi ldernes s and the American Mind . New Haven and London, Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 300 pages . Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Resources Review Commiss ion. 1962. W i l d e r n e s s and R e c r e a t i o n — A Report on Resource s , V a l u e s , a n d Prob lems . Report 3. W i l d l a n d Research C e n t e r , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a . P e t e r s o n , George L . and David L ime . 1973. "Two Sources of B i a s i n the Measurement of Human Response to the W i l d e r n e s s E n v i r o n m e n t . " J o u r n a l of l e i s u r e Research 3 (1 ) , 66-73. P r i d d l e , George . 1964. l i l d e r n e s s P e r c e p t i o n i n the A l g o n q u i n Park i n t e r i o r . Unpubl i shed masters t h e s i s , C l a r k U n i v e r s i t y . 140 field, L e s l i e . 1966. " U t i l i z i n g User P r e f e r e n c e s i n P r e d i c t i n g Outdoor B e c r e a t i o n Demand." i n R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h : Proceed ings o f the N a t i o n a l Conference on B e c r e a t i o n Research . U n i v e r s i t y P a r k , P e n n s y l v a n i a , 86- 92. Somfflarstrcm, A l l a n . 1966. The Impact c f Human Use on R e c r e a t i o n a l Q u a l i t y : the Example o f the Olympic N a t i o n a l Park B a c k c c u n t r y . Unpubl i shed masters t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of W a s h i n g t o n . S t a n k e y , George H. 1971. The P e r c e p t i o n of Wi ldernes s C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y : A Geographic Study i n N a t u r a l Resources Management. Unpubl i shed P h . D . t h e s i s , M i c h i g a n S ta te U n i v e r s i t y . S t a n k e y , George H. 1973. V i s i t o r P e r c e p t i o n s of W i l d e r n e s s R e c r e a t i o n C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y . U . S. D. A . F o r e s t S e r v i c e Besearch Paper INT-142, 61 pages . T h o r s e l l , James W. 1971 W i l d e r n e s s R e c r e a t i o n Users-—Their C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , M o t i v a t i o n s , and O p i n i o n s : A Study of Three B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s . Unpubl i shed P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . U n d e r b i l l , J . E . 1966. Wear F a c t o r s on the S u b a l p i n e Meadows of Manning Park (With Recommendations f o r . C o n t r o l Measures ) . B r i t i s h Columbia Parks B r a n c h . Vaux, H. J . 1975. "The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Income Among W i l d e r n e s s U s e r s . " J o u r n a l of L e i s u r e Besearch 7 ( 1 ) , 29-37. V e a l , A . J . 1973. P e r c e p t u a l C a p a c i t y : A D i s c u s s i o n and Seme Besearch P r o p o s a l s . Working Paper #1. C e n t r e f o r Urban and B e g i o n a l S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y of Birmingham. Wagar, J . 1964. The C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y o f W i l d l a n d s f o r R e c r e a t i o n . S o c i e t y o f American F o r e s t e r s monograph 7. 24 pages. Wagar, J . 1966. "Some Fundamental C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Outdoor B e c r e a t i o n . " J o u r n a l of F o r e s t r y 64(10) , 667-673. W i l l a r d , D a n i e l E . 1971. "How Many i s Too Many? D e t e c t i n g the Ev idence o f Over-Use i n S t a t e P a r k s , " Landscape A r c h i t e c t u r e 6 1 ( 2 ) , 118-123. i f i i l i s 14 2 T i l l ! I "HOH o l d a r e y o u ? " Y e a r s J % 1 5 - 1 9 7 1 2 . 3 2 0 - 2 4 19 3 3 . 3 2 5 - 2 9 27 2 9 . 8 3 0 - 3 4 6 1 0 . 5 3 5 - 3 9 2 3 . 5 4 0 - 4 4 4 7 . 0 4 5 - 4 9 1 1.8 50+ 1 1.8 JASil II £XPERI£N££ "For how many years have you taken backpacking t r i p s of at least two nights?" Years J % 0 10 17.5 1 6 10.5 2 10 17.5 3 7 12.2 4 5 8.8 5 5 8.8 6-9 4 7.1 10+ 10 17.5 144 T£J&i III "How many years c f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n have you had?" J s a t h e r I r a i l Canadian Users P o v u l a t i o n * * Amount Completed % % Seme H . S . 8.8 35 .0 F i n i s h H . S . 17.5 18.9 Some U n i v . 28.1 6.9 U n i v . Degree 14.0 5.9 Grad . S t u d i e s 31.6 * * S o u r c e : S t a t i s t i c s Canada monthly survey o f the Canadian l a b o u r f o r c e , ages 14 and e v e r , A p r i l , 1972. 145 fUCE OF GBIGIN l o c a t i o n J J Lower Mainland 36 63.2 F r a s e r V a l l e y 11 19.3 V a n c ' r I s l a n d 3 5.3 Thompson-Gkanagan 3 5,3 Other Canada 1 1,8 U n i t e d S t a t e s 3 5 .3 146 J i l J i C l I O N OF MANNING JPAEK "Shy d i d your group choose Manning Park? Eeason J j§ Near V a n c ' r or F r a s e r V a l l e y 14 24.6 A l p i n e Meadows 11 19.3 F r i e n d *s Suggest ion 9 15.8 New Exper i ence 7 12.3 V a r i e t y of T r a i l s 6 10.5 Good weather 3 5.3 Snow Mel ted 2 3.5 F i s h i n g 2 3.5 D i d n ' t Know 3 5.3 3ABIJ VI OF HEAIHEB TBAIL "why d i d your group choose the Heather T r a i l ? " Beason J % A l p i n e F lowers 26 4 5 . 6 P e r f e c t Length 12 21.1 Ease of T r a i l 10 17.5 F r i e n d ' s Advice 10 17.5 Easy Boad Access 6 10.5 Three B r o t h e r s 6 10.5 N a t u r a l i s t ' s Advice 5 8.8 148 T J E I i VII I1I2IJ3J2IGJ SOURCES "flhere d i d ycu get i n f o r m a t i o n about the Heather T r a i l ? " Source J J§ f r i e n d or Fami ly 28 57.0 M££l2JLi£9 J i f l f i iSS £ . 3 1 * 25 49.1 JOJ Hikes 19 3 3.0 Nature House map 11 22.4 Nature House 9 18.0 Nature Hut 3 7.0 Parks Branch 0 0.0 149 l i l l i 2111 GBOUP SIZE Members J J 1 1 2.0 2 22 4 3 . 1 3 11 2 1 . 6 4 5 9.8 5 6 11.8 6-7 3 5.9 10+ 3 6.0 150 2ABIE IX TBIP LENGTH 1 17 2 9 . 8 2 21 3 6 . 8 3 12 2 1 . 1 ii 2 3.5 5 2 3.5 6 3 5.3 151 TABLE X DESIRABLE TREATMENT CE MUD PATCHES "Should crossing through muddy areas of the t r a i l be made easier?" Response J % No-Leave As Is 34 59.6 Stepping Stones 1.2 21.1 Eridges 4 7.0 logs c r Corduroy 7 12.3 J i l l ! II SIGNS REQUESTED "Is there any information you would l i k e to have presented along the t r a i l ? " Response J % No Signs 24 42.1 Mileage Markers 12 21.1 Interpretive Information 10 17.5 Distance tc Camps 9 15.7 Rules 2 3.5 153 TAEIE XII MANAGEKENT GF LITTEB "Mould you l i k e to see a p l a c e p rov ided f o r garbage d i s p o s a l i n the b a c k e c u n t r y ? " " H o u l d you l i k e to see l i t t e r b a g s g iven t o h i k e r s ? " Garbage D i s p o s a l l i t t e r Bags Response J % # % Yes 14 2 4 . 6 24 4 2 . 1 Q u a l i f i e d Yes 5 8.8 5 8.8 N e u t r a l - M i x e d 6 1 0 . 5 4 7.0 Q u a l i f i e d Nc 2 3.5 5 8.8 No 30 5 2 . 6 19 3 3 . 3 154 T i l l I Mil I1GVISI0N OF FIEEJOCD "would you l i k e t o see cu t f i rewood p r o v i d e d here? C a m p s i t e s New KH ~ ~ O l d " KH Nicomen T o t a l Response J % # 3 1 J # % Yes 2 1 2 . 5 6 4 2 . 9 5 2 6 . 3 16 2 8 . 1 Q u a l i f i e d Yes 2 12.5 2 1 4 . 3 4 2 1 . 1 15 5.8 N e u t r a l - M i x e d 3 18.8 1 7.1 3 15.8 7 1 2 . 3 Q u a l i f i e d No 2 1 2 . 5 1 7.1 0 0.0 3 5.8 No 7 4 3 . 8 4 28 . 6 7 3 6 . 8 22 3 8 . 6 TABLE XIV MM OVERALL BEACI'ICN TO HIKER NUMBERS** (Where 8=Very E l e a s a n t and 0=Very Unpleasant) H i k e r Groups Mean In Quest ion Jgspcnse Zero 5 . 4 2 6 Two 5 . 9 8 1 Four 5 . 7 2 2 E i g h t 4 . 5 5 6 Twelve 3 . 4 4 4 S i x t e e n 2 . 5 1 9 * *See t e x t pages 6 1 - 6 3 f o r a d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n . TABLE IV What would be the i d e a l , most comfor t ab le number of groups i n t h i s c a m p s i t e , be s ide s y o u r s ? " I d e a l Number o f Camped Groups # % Zero 8 15.4 Gne 1 1.9 Two 9 17.3 Three 7 13.5 Four 8 15.4 F i v e 3 5 .8 S i x 11 21.2 Seven 1 1.9 E i g h t 2 3.8 Ten 1 1.9 Over Ten 1 1.9 157 2'iSiI Ml MAXIMUM TOIEBAEIE NOKBEB QF CJMFED GJSiJES "What would be the maximua number c f groups you c o u l d take here be fore you would move away?" Maximum Number Camped Groups # % Three 2 4.1 Four 5 1 0 . 2 F i v e 4 8.2. S ix 6 1 2 . 2 Seven 3 6.1 E i g h t 2 4.1 Nine 2 4.1 f en 14 2 8 . 6 Over Ten 11 2 2 . 4 11BLE XVII BEPBECIATIVE EEHfiVIGUB O E S E i v l E BY INTJEVIJJEHS Behav iour J Observed L i t t e r e d 21.9 L e f t Unt idy Camp 19.4 Made New F i r e p i t 18.0 L e f t F i r e Going 14.8 Hacked Trees 11.1 159 U B I I XVIII l-lUJSiUPJ £1 C J M P f IRES " I f f i r e w o o d s u p p l i e s become a prob lem, s h o u l d h i k e r s have to c a r r y s toves and l i m i t c a m p f i r e s ? " Response J % Yes 43 75.4 Q u a l i f i e d Yes 6 10.5 N e u t r a l - M i x e d 1 1.8 Q u a l i f i e d No 2 3.5 No 5 8.8 2/jBLl XIX FEES " S h o u l d backcountry h i k e r s pay a fee to h e l p cover the c o s t s c f t r a i l and campsi te maintenance?" l e sponse J % Yes . 22 38.6 N e u t r a l - M i x e d 8 14.0 No 27 47.3 161 DCGS " S h o u l d dogs b e . . . ? " Besconse # % Free Always 12 25.2 Free i n Camp, Leashed cn f r a i l 1 2.1 Free on T r a i l , Leashed i n Camp 9 12.? Leashed Always 4 8.2 Not P e r m i t t e d 22 45.8 162 TABLE X X I 11J2I SIZE LIMITS "Do you t h i n k h i k i n g p a r t i e s should be...?" Eesponse J J Not l i m i t e d 22 45.8 L i m i t e d to 6 20 41.6 l i m i t e d to 12 6 12.5 l i m i t e d to 20 0 0.0 l i l l i Mil SIGIiUJlION S Y S T E M "Would you favour a compulsory r e g i s t r a t i o n system f o r t h i s t r a i l ? " Response # 2 Yes 29 61.5 No Opinion 6 10.3 No 14 29.2 TABLE XXIII " S h o u l d the Heather T r a i l and campsi tes be p a t r o l l e d i n summer ( v i s i t e d by a park s t a f f member)?" Eesjgonse J % Hot At A l l 6 12.5 Twice A Reek 14 29.2 Weekly 21 43.7 Twice A Month 5 10.5 Monthly 2 4.2 165 TABLE XXIV EESPjQJSIEILITJ FOR DAMAGES CAUSED " S h o u l d backccunt ry campers be r e s p o n s i b l e f c r damages c a u s e d , such as hacked branches and new f i r e p i t s ? " Response # J Yes 35 73 No O p i n i o n 5 10.7 No 8 16.3 166 TIEII XXV RATIONING SYSTEMS "How would you f e e l about the implementat ion of a r a t i o n i n g system f o r t h i s a rea ? " Had Used Had Not Used Response J % J J P o s i t i v e 8 14.0 2 3.5 T o l e r a t e 4 7.0 11 19.3 Negat ive 3 5.3 27 47.4 Undecided 0 0.0 2 3.5 167 l i i & l Mil FRETERJED TYPE OF HJTICNING SYSTEM "which of the following rationing methods would you most prefer?"** Response # % 1st-Ccme 1st-Served 7 30.4 Mail Reservation 5 21.7 1st-Ccme Ist-Served plus Mail Reservation 9 39.1 Lottery 0 0.0 1st-Come 1st-Served plus Lottery 1 4.3 Hot Sure 1 4.3 **0nly those respondents favouring rationing were asked t h i s guestion. T A B L E X X V I I i J U J C J SIGNOf F O B CAMPSITES " S h o u l d r a t i o n i n g i n c l u d e s ignup f o r c a m p s i t e s ? " Response # % Yes 14 29.5 N e u t r a l 27 55.2 No 8 15.3 TABLE XXVIII ADVANCE SIGNUP FOE INDIVIDUAL SPOTS "Should rationing include signup for i n d i v i d u a l spots, such as #6 at Buckhorn?" R e s p o n s e J Jj Y e s 7 1 4 . 6 N e u t r a l 3 2 6 6 . 7 No 9 1 8 . 7 TABXE XXIX ELIHIKMIGN OF BG AD ACCESS " S h o u l d the road to the meadows be c l o s e d to back- p a c k e r s , who would i n s t e a d h ike up from the highway?" Response J % Yes 13 27.1 N e u t r a l 25 52.0 No 10 20.8 1 7 1 TABLE XXX CERTIFICATION "Should hikers have to pass a test covering backcountry behaviour and ecology pr i n c i p l e s before they use the t r a i l ? " Response J % Yes 14 29.2 Neutral 24 50.C No 10 20.8 APPENDIX 2 C O I S T I C N N I I B E S 173 S e c t i o n _ Aj. Prey ious_ Exper ience How many backecuntry h ike s of two or more n i g h t s have you made i n the l a s t two year s ? F o r how many year s have you been making these t r i p s ? Hew many v i s i t s to Wanning Park have you made? On t h i s t r i p sc f a r , how many n i g h t s have you spent i n the backecuntry? (IF THIS IS NOT Fl.fiST TIME) What areas i n the park have you v i s i t e d on e a r l i e r t r i p s ? Hew l o n g do you expect to be i n the backecuntry? S e c t i o n _ E A T r i £ _ C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Why d i d you choose Manning Park f o r t h i s t r i p ? How d i d you get to the park? How many people are i n your group? Why d i d you s e l e c t t h i s r o u t e ? Did you r e c e i v e a d v i c e or s u g g e s t i o n s as t c t r i p and r o u t e p l a n n i n g ? From whem? Did you f o l l o w them? (IF RESPONDENT STAYED ANYWHERE FOR MORE THAN ONE NIGHT) Why d i d your group s t a y at . f c r n i g h t s ? Where do you p lan to go from h e r e , t c complete your t r i p ? Have you made any a l t e r a t i o n s i n your r o u t e s i n c e you s e t out? Why? Secti,on_Cj. B a c k c c u j j t r y _ F a c i l i t i e s Would ycu say t r a i l c o n d i t i o n s are e x c e l l e n t , good , f a i r , or poor? (IF FAIR OR PCCR) What are the problems you 've n o t i c e d ? Would you l i k e t c see any th ing done t o the t r a i l s y o u ' v e taken? 174 Have you dene any bushwhacking cn t h i s t r i p ? (IF YES) where d i d you bushwhack? would you l i k e to see a t r a i l cu t t h e r e ? Are wider c r s t u r d i e r b r i d g e s needed a c r o s s streams? Do you t h i n k t h a t c r o s s i n g through muddy areas shou ld be made e a s i e r ? What do you suggest? Are t r a i l s g e n e r a l l y wel l-marked? Where are b e t t e r markings needed? I s t h e r e i n f o r m a t i o n b e s i d e s the t r a i l name i t s e l f t h a t you l i k e t c see cn t r a i l s ? Do you l i k e t c see cu t f i r ewood p r o v i d e d i n the b a c k c c u n t r y ? Why or why not? Do you t h i n k t h a t a p l a c e to l e a v e o n e ' s garbage shou ld be prov ided i n the backccunt ry? Would you l i k e t c see l i t t e r b a g s g i v e n to h i k e r s ? Did you expect t h i s camps i te t o be more p r i m i t i v e , l e s s p r i m i t i v e , or about l i k e i t i s ? Do you cock with a f i r e o r s tove? (IF STOVE) Why dc you use a s t c v e ? Do you ever use a f i r e anyway, f o r purposes o ther than cook ing? (IF FIEE OB ECTH) On t h i s t r i p , have you had any t r o u b l e f i n d i n g enough f i rewood? How many f i r e p i t s are needed at t h i s c a m p s i t e , i n your o p i n i o n ? I s there a n y t h i n g e l s e r e g a r d i n g backccuntry f a c i l i t i e s , which you 'd l i k e t o mention now? S § c t i o n _ D j L Bgckcountry_ I n t e r a c t i o n s About how many groups have you seen cn the t r a i l today? About hew many of these d i d you stop to converse with? 175 I would l i k e to get an idea cf hew ycu would f e e l abcut encountering d i f f e r e n t numbers of people while you hike. Please "rate" your feelings cn a continuum from "Very Pleasant" to "Very Unpleasant," by placing a slash mark at the point cn the l i n e which best matches your feelings. Very Pleasant, . Very Unpleasant Very Pleasant Very Unpleasant Very Pleasant • _• Very Unpleasant Very Pleasant Very Unpleasant Very Pleasant, . Very Unpleasant Very Pleasant ; Very Unpleasant Before you came to Banning, did you expect to see mere people, fewer people, or about the same number you're seeing on t r a i l s ? For t h i s campsite, what do you feel would be the i d e a l or mest comfortable number of groups, i n addition to yours? For t h i s campsite, what dc you f e e l would be the maximum number of groups ycu could tolerate before you'd move away? Before a r r i v i n g at t h i s campsite, had you expected to fin d more people, fewer people, cr the same number of people you're encountering? (IF BESPCNDENT STAYED IN AN ABEA NOT DESIGNATED AS A CAMPSITE) why did you camp i n an area not designated as a wilderness campsite? S§ctign_Ej. M£ia§IiSi« Alternatives Have you ever v i s i t e d a wilderness area where a permit was required? (IF YES) 8hat were your feelings about the permit system used there? (IF NO) How would you f e e l about writing away for a permit to hike for a s p e c i f i c number of days i n the backccuntry here? Suppose that, under the permit system, you could not get a permit to use Manning Park for the time available 1 7 6 tc you. where would you go instead? Do you think that backccuntry hikers should pay a fee to help cover the costs of t r a i l and campsite maintenance? _ I f ,firewood supply becomes a problem, do you think backpackers should be reguired to use stoves, and that ca ni pf i r e s be limited? Should more backccuntry t r a i l s be cut? more campsites created on the new t r a i l ( s ) ? Are more wilderness campsites needed on t h i s t r a i l ? Thank you very much for allowing me to speak with ycu. Your answers w i l l be very helpful to me. I would l i k e to ask you a couple of personal guestions f c r the purpose of background data comparisons. Section_F2 Eacko,round_Data .What i s your age? Hew many years cf formal education have you had? What i s your occupation? Would you be w i l l i n g to answer seme further guestiens by mail i n a couple of months? Address_ Sect ion.. G; In tgr viewer _Gbsgry a tiens Date Time Weather_ Group composed of Family Friends Bcth_ Other groups i n campsite Eire p i t s in campsite . Much Seme l i t t l e No int e r a c t i o n between respondent's group and others. Respondent located his camp Far from Intermediate Near other groups. ._Was not observed. 177 Did respondent l o c a t e on t e r r a i n sc that e t h e r s could e a s i l y camp nearby? Was respondent observed l i t t e r i n g ? Was he observed hacking branches? Did respondent make an e f f o r t t c cl e a n up camp? Bury f i r e s ? Did respondent's group make a new f i r e p i t ? (IF YES) Here t h e r e others remaining which could have been used? C o n d i t i o n of respondent's campsite: _̂  Clean . Some l i t t e r Much l i t t e r Evidence of hacked branches i n area: Hone Seme Much Natura l firewood s u p p l y : Abundant Some L i t t l e Any problems mentioned spontaneously; e.g., l i t t e r , n o i s e , e t c . 178 How d i d you get i c f c r a j a t i c n about Manning Park and the Heather T r a i l f o r your t r i p ? (Check a l l t h a t a p p l y . ) f r i e n d or f a m i l y Spoke with n a t u r a l i s t at a l p i n e meadows hut Pamphlet or map from Nature House I I £ l o i i n g _ M a n n i n g _ P a r k hook J 0 3 _ H i k e s _ i n_Southwe^tern_ E^C. Boo k I n f o r m a t i o n from the Parks Eranch i n V i c t o r i a • Own p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e Before you a r r i v e d at Manning, d i d you know which t r a i l you would take? Yes No I f n o , how d i d you f i n a l l y dec ide? When ycu h iked the Heather T r a i l d i d you have any d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g a spot t o p i t c h ycur t e n t at Not a t a l l Buckhorn ( f i r s t campsite) K i c k i n g Horse (second campsite) Nicomen Lake Do you f e e l t h a t the Heather T r a i l shou ld be p a t r o l l e d i n summer ( v i s i t e d by a park s t a f f member)? Not at a l l Weekly , ^Monthly Twice a week Twice a month Did you b r i n g a dog cn the t r a i l ? Yes No Do you f e e l t h a t dogs shou ld be p e r m i t t e d and not r e s t r i c t e d i n any way? p e r m i t t e d : l ea shed on t r a i l s but f r e e i n camps i te s ? p e r m i t t e d : l e a s h e d i n campsi tes but f r ee cn t r a i l s ? 179 p e r m i t t e d : l e a s h e d or t i e d a t _ a l l _ t i m e s ? not permi t ted? Would you l i k e t o see a compulsory r e g i s t r a t i o n system a t the b e g i n n i n g c f the t r a i l ? Yes ___No Do you t h i n k the Heather T r a i l c o u l d ever have " t o o many p e o p l e ? " Yes No O p i n i o n No Do you t h i n k t h a t use of the Heather T r a i l s h o u l d be l i m i t e d or r a t i o n e d d u r i n g the " b u s y " months of J u l y and August? a) Yes , a l l the time b) Yes , but o n l y Fr iday-Sunday and h o l i d a y s c) No d) No O p i n i o n Why? I f you answered a) or b ) , p l ea se check the system you f a v o u r . 1) A l i m i t e d number o f permi t s i s s u e d a t the park on a f i r s t - c o m e f i r s t - s e r v e d b a s i s . 2) A l i m i t e d number of permi t s g iven out i n a l o t t e r y . 3) A l i m i t e d number o f permit s g iven out i n a m a i l r e s e r v a t i o n sys tem. 4) A l i m i t e d number of permi t s g i v e n out i n a geograph ic guota system (for example , a c e r t a i n number g iven to Vancouver r e s i d e n t s , t o the I s l a n d , Okanagan, e t c . ) . . 5) 1) and 2) 6) 1) and 3) Assume f o r a moment t h a t the park has adopted a r a t i o n i n g system of some t y p e . How would you f e e l about the f o l l o w i n g : 180 S i g n i n g up f o r one c f the des ignated campsi tes a l o n g the t r a i l i n advance of your t r i p ? Favour N e u t r a l , Oppose Being matched with a s p e c i f i c camping p l a c e w i t h i n a l a r g e r c a m p s i t e ; e . g . , #6 a t fiuckhorn? Favour N e u t r a l Oppose Being h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r any damage odne t c tha t a r e a ; e . g . , branches hacked o f f t r e e s , l i t t e r , new f i r e s c a r s , e t c . ? Favour . N e u t r a l Oppose There are ways c f l i m i t i n g use cn a p a r t i c u l a r t r a i l , by making i t harder t o use , without a c t u a l l y e x c l u d i n g anybody. P l e a s e i n d i c a t e your f e e l i n g about the f o l l o w i n g ; People who want to h i k e the Heather T r a i l would beg in t h e i r h i k e down the mounta in , and would have t o h ike s e v e r a l m i l e s u p h i l l t o reach the meadows ( a l l c f the road to the meadcws would be open o n l y t c people u s i n g the s h o r t nature p a t h s ) . ;Favcur _ N e u t r a l Oppose People wanting to use the Heather T r a i l would have to pass a t e s t , demonsrat ing an under s tand ing of the f o r e s t and a l p i n e meadows environments and ways of l e s s e n i n g man's impact on them. Favour N e u t r a l .Oppose B u i l d i n g mere t r a i l s i n the a l p i n e meadows o f Manning, which would net go near the Heather T r a i l , sc human use would be more e v e n l y spread around the a r e a . Favour . N e u t r a l Oppose Do you t h i n k h i k i n g p a r t i e s shou ld not be l i m i t e d be l i m i t e d to 6 people be l i m i t e d to 12 people be l i m i t e d to 20 people? Shy? 181 Please f e e l f r e e t c make a d d i t i o n a l comments about these q u e s t i o n s , c r to add any o ther o p i n i o n s cn r e l a t e d t o p i c s . THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOE YOUS CGGPESATION AND INTEBEST.

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
Malaysia 3 0
United States 1 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 3 2
Ashburn 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}

Share

Share to:

Comment

Related Items