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The reliability and internal consistency of the thematic apperception test Epstein, Marilyn 1964

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THE  RELIABILITY  OP  THE  AND  THEMATIC  INTERNAL CONSISTENCY APPERCEPTION TEST  by MARILYN; EPSTEIN B.A.,  Brooklyn! College, 1947  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  Master of Arts i n the Department of Psychology  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming t o the standard required from candidates f o r the degree of MASTER OF ARTS  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1964  In the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  British  mission  for  reference  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may  be  cation.of  written  Department  of  /ydy  and  by  for  Library  &£trlU  the  I further  Head o f my  Columbia,  agree that for  of •  not  per-  scholarly  Department  shall  of  make i t f r e e l y  or  t h a t ; c o p y i n g or  f i n a n c i a l gain  4^  fulfilment  University  shall  this thesis  permission..  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date  the  study *  the  in partial  degree at  I t i s understood  this thesis  w i t h o u t my  that  c o p y i n g of  granted  representatives-  this thesis  advanced  Columbia, I agree  available  his  presenting  be  by publi-  allowed  iii  ABSTRACT  The purpose of t h i s study was t o investigate the repeat r e l i a b i l i t y and i n t e r n a l consistency under short-term conditions of several indices of agression and anxiety as measured by the TAT. In view of the v a r i a t i o n s i n the r e s u l t s reported i n the few studies concerned with this problem, a s p e c i f i c i t y hypothesis was suggested. This hypothesis states that no general evaluation can be made o f the temporal and i n t e r n a l s t a b i l i t y of the TAT. Such statements probably only have meaning i n terms of s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s . The variables employed i n the present study were aggression and anxiety and the r e s u l t s should not be generalized beyond these v a r i a b l e s . One group of subjects was given standard TAT instructions at two successive administrations, while a second group was asked to t e l l a d i f f e r e n t s t o r y to each card. This procedure was designed to c o n t r o l and study the influence of memory e f f e c t s . I t was found that memory e f f e c t s are very strong, and where the instructions i n t e r f e r e with t h e i r operation, repeat r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s are very low. The TAT cards included two high, two medium and two low aggressive content cards, as determined by a panel of judges and from previous research. The purpose of t h i s part of the study was t o determine i f the r e l i a b i l i t y of the t e s t v a r i e s with the l e v e l of card ambiguity f o r a given d r i v e . The r e s u l t s d i d not support the hypothesis that responses t o s t i m u l i which are unambiguous f o r a given drive are more l i k e l y to be stable over time than responses made to a r e l a t i v e l y ambiguous stimulus. The i n t e r n a l consistency was evaluated by c o r r e l a t i n g the scores obtained on the f i r s t session by a l l subjects i n terms of the l e v e l of ambiguity. These c o r r e l a t i o n s were quite low, i n d i c a t i n g the need f o r caution i n using an additive treatment of scores from d i f f e r e n t TAT cards.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  The writer wishes t o give s p e c i a l acknowledgement to Dr. D. T. Kenny under whose supervision t h i s thesis was c a r r i e d out.  Not only d i d the problem originate  with him, but the subsequent work would never have been brought t o f r u i t i o n without h i s continuous encouragement and advice. Thanks are also due t o Dr. D. C. G. MacKay f o r a c r i t i c a l reading of the t h e s i s ;  t o Mrs. Joyce T r e i t ,  who acted as independent judge f o r several aspects of the work; and t o the many students who contributed generously of t h e i r time t o act as subjects.  iv  CONTENTS  Chapter  Page ABSTRACT  I II III  3V  V  i i i  THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND  1  REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH  5  EXPERIMENTAL METHOD  12  S e l e c t i o n of cards  12  Subjects  14  Procedure  15  Scoring of the TAT protocols  15  S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis  18  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  20  Repeat R e l i a b i l i t y  20  Internal Consistency  21  Comparison of present findings with previous research  26  Implications of present and past findings  26  SUMMARY  29  REFERENCES  31  APPENDIX! I.  Instructions t o judges  33  APPENDIX I I . Instructions t o S's  34  APPENDIX I I I . Instructions t o independent scorer...  35  V  LIST OF TABLES  Table 1.  2.  Page Summary of repeat r e l i a b i l i t y and i n t e r n a l consistency correlations as reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e  10  Rank order of nine TAT cards f o r manifest aggression  .  13  3.  Repeat r e l i a b i l i t y f o r s i x TAT cards  22  4-.  Repeat r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s with cards of varying ambiguity taken separately  23  Internal consistency of s i x TAT cards i n terms of l e v e l of ambiguity  25  5.  CHAPTER THE PROBLEM AND  I  ITS BACKGROUND  While research concerned with the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) has been extensive, very l i t t l e evidence exists on either the i n t e r n a l consistency or repeat r e l i a b i l i t y of the t e s t . One l i k e l y reason f o r t h i s l a c k i s the claim of some psycho l o g i s t s that t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y i s not to be expected i n projective instruments because i t i s almost impossible to a t t a i n the same motivational s i t u a t i o n i n successive administrations or, as McClelland says, "to put the subject back i n the condition he was i n before he made the f i r s t response" (1958, p. 20).  Tomkins  has compared t h i s s i t u a t i o n to the d i f f i c u l t y of t r y i n g to measure the r e l i a b i l i t y of a response to a joke;  i f a joke t o l d twice i n  succession to the same person does not produce the same response both tiroes, no inference about the r e l i a b i l i t y of the response can be made (Lesser, 1961).  Kagan (i960) suggests that the question of  r e l i a b i l i t y probably only has meaning with respect to s p e c i f i c variables scored from s p e c i f i c s t i m u l i and considers t h i s s i m i l a r to a s p e c i f i c blood t e s t , where i t i s not expected that the t e s t w i l l be a r e l i a b l e index of a l l compounds i n the blood.  This  comparison i s probably not v a l i d i n view of actual c l i n i c a l practice with the TAT, where i t i s commonly used to give a global picture of personality. a fruitful  However, f o r research purposes t h i s appears to be  approach.  2  The increasing concern with t h e o r e t i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d research on the TAT and the growing recognition of the inadequacy of the purely empirical approach (Lindzey, 1958)  i s another reason f o r  the lack of i n t e r e s t i n investigations of the psychometric of the TAT.  aspects  The time and e f f o r t involved i n c o l l e c t i n g data f o r  r e l i a b i l i t y studies has obviously seemed incommensurate with the importance of the s t r i c t l y empirical r e s u l t s to be derived from such studies. Nevertheless, a reasonable case can be made f o r studies on the temporal and i n t e r n a l s t a b i l i t y of TAT measurement. l i t y of measurement has been the minimal requirement s c i e n t i f i c data.  Reliabi-  of a l l  In applying t h i s c r i t e r i o n to the TAT i t should  be noted that the summation of scores f o r s i m i l a r story-events from d i f f e r e n t cards assumes that the scores are "tapping" s i m i l a r psychological processes.  I f the scores do co-vary together, then  the TAT should possess i n t e r n a l consistency. (Jensen, 1959)  I t has been suggested  that any a d d i t i v e treatment of TAT v a r i a b l e s i s  s i m i l a r to adding together pounds, gallons and inches.  To refute -  t h i s argument requires many more data on the i n t e r n a l s t a b i l i t y of the t e s t than are currently a v a i l a b l e . While c e r t a i n procedural problems intrude into studies of the t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y of the TAT, i t would nevertheless seem  '  desirable to have some consistency of measurement i n fantasy assessment.  Lindzey and Herman (1955), i n one of the few studies on the  r e l i a b i l i t y of the TAT, concluded that t r a d i t i o n a l questions about  3  r e l i a b i l i t y should be asked about the TAT since the "...answers to such questions w i l l prove necessary eventually f o r a f u l l understanding of the c l i n i c a l f u n c t i o n of these instruments.  In  view of t h i s , even very fragmentary f i n d i n g s , i f they o f f e r any p o s s i b i l i t y of cumulating with the results of other studies, are highly desirable and to be encouraged" (p. 41-42).  I t seems c l e a r ,  therefore, that a c r u c i a l task now f a c i n g the TAT researcher i s the c o l l e c t i o n of r e l i a b i l i t y data. The main aim of the present study i s to determine the i n t e r n a l consistency and repeat r e l i a b i l i t y of the TAT under short-term conditions.  Repeat r e l i a b i l i t y studies of the TAT have generally  used a r e l a t i v e l y long i n t e r v a l between successive administrations of the t e s t and were p r i m a r i l y concerned with the long-range s t a b i l i t y of various fantasy contents.  From a psychometric point  of view t h i s does not provide s a t i s f a c t o r y evidence f o r t e s t - r e t e s t reliability. The primary focus i n the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s on the t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y and i n t e r n a l consistency of various indices of aggression and anxiety.  One of the purposes of the study i s  to investigate the e f f e c t s of instructions at the second t r a t i o n of the t e s t .  adminis-  The general procedure i n t h i s research  requires one group of subjects to respond to the cards the second time under i d e n t i c a l f i r s t administration i n s t r u c t i o n s and another group to t e l l t h e i r s t o r i e s t o the cards under instructions to make up a new  story.  Another purpose of the present study i s to examine the effects  of drive-structure of TAT cards on the temporal s t a b i l i t y of aggression and anxiety.  In conformity with Kagan's hypothesis  (1955) i t was predicted that temporal s t a b i l i t y of fantasy v a r i a b l e s would be a d i r e c t p o s i t i v e function of the drive-structure of TAT  cards.  The t h i r d purpose of the present research i s to investigate the i n t e r n a l consistency of aggression and anxiety i n d i c e s .  In  general, i t seems reasonable to expect fantasy indices of aggression and anxiety to covary p o s i t i v e l y within a given set of TAT cards.  5  CHAPTER I I REVIEW QF RELATED RESEARCH  In view of the vast quantity of research on the TAT the review of the l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be l i m i t e d to those studies bearing d i r e c t l y on the problem of r e l i a b i l i t y and i n t e r n a l consistency of t h i s t e s t . The TAT v a r i a b l e which has been studied most extensively i s the achievement motive.  In an unpublished study by E. L. Lowell,  described by McClelland et a l . (1953), two equivalent forms of Atkinson's achievement pictures were administered to the same group of f o r t y male college students with an i n t e r v a l of one week between measures, and a product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n o f .22 was reported.  The authors draw attention to the d i f f i c u l t y of being  c e r t a i n that the periods of stimulation immediately preceding the two measures were equivalent f o r each subject on the two administrations and t h i s i s offered as a possible explanation of the low reliability.  Atkinson (1950) found the product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n  to be .64. between these same two equivalent forms when they were administered at the same time. cards (Cards 1, 7 BM and 8 BM).  These pictures include three TAT The other pictures are from other  sources. Haber and Alport (1958) report a t e s t - r e t e s t  reliability  c o r r e l a t i o n of .54- f o r achievement with a comparable set of pictures and an equivalent experimenter used i n the second session.  6  The i n t e r v a l between administrations was three weeks.  The same  study also analyses the responses to the pictures i n terms of ambiguity of the stimulus f o r the achievement motive.  The repeat  r e l i a b i l i t y of the low-cue pictures taken separately i s .36, while f o r the high-cue pictures i t i s .59.  The c o r r e l a t i o n be-  tween the high-cue pictures and the low-cue pictures i s .57. These f i n d i n g s would seem to lend some support t o Kagan's hypothesis (1955) that content categories reported to s t i m u l i ambiguous f o r that content are less l i k e l y t o be stable than those produced by s t i m u l i which suggest that content. Both McClelland and Atkinson postulate a "set f o r response v a r i a b i l i t y " to account f o r low t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y and suggest that thematic apperceptive responses may show c y c l i c a l alternation over three successive administrations.  •  .  As a by-product of research on the r e l a t i o n between TAT performance and s e l f - r a t i n g s , C h i l d et a l . (1956) reported r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of i n t e r n a l consistency ranging from-.07 to +.34-, with a mean of .13 on ten major Murray TAT v a r i a b l e s . was administered on a group basis.  The t e s t  The authors point out that  these correlations are f a r lower than the r e l i a b i l i t y of the s e l f r a t i n g questionnaires they used t o measure the same v a r i a b l e s . These r e s u l t s have prompted one reviewer to state that "any scoring system based on the addition of themes e l i c i t e d by various pictures is fallacious.  A theme on one card i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y correlated  i  7 with the same theme on another card to j u s t i f y an additive t r e a t ment of TAT v a r i a b l e s "  (Jensen, 1959,  p.  311).  Auld et a l . (1955) report a t e s t - r e t e s t  reliability  c o e f f i c i e n t of .13 and a rank order c o r r e l a t i o n of .10 f o r sexual motivation using Guttman derived scales f o r TAT scoring.  The  above c o e f f i c i e n t s are f o r eighteen subjects who were enclosed i n a sealed submarine f o r over a month.  The same study reports an  unsuccessful attempt to construct a r e l i a b l e scale of the same type to measure aggression. Tomkins (194-7) concludes  that repeat r e l i a b i l i t y i s a function  of the time i n t e r v a l between successive administrations, that i s , as the time i n t e r v a l increases the r e l i a b i l i t y declines , except where the personality of the i n d i v i d u a l i s extremely s t a b l e .  He  reports r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of .80 f o r subjects retested a f t e r two months, .60 when there was a six-month i n t e r v a l , and .50 when there was ten months between administrations .  No f u r t h e r d e t a i l s  are given on t h i s study and therefore i t i s d i f f i c u l t to evaluate these r e s u l t s .  Tomkins states that the protocols were analysed  according to "Murray's quantitative need-press scheme" but gives no further information about the variables employed. In a study on r e l i a b i l i t y and s i t u a t i o n a l v a l i d i t y Lindzey and Herman (1955) report s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ranging from .12 to .45 with eight cards on s i x v a r i a b l e s .  Each story was  scored on a f i v e - p o i n t r a t i n g scale f o r each of the v a r i a b l e s .  The  authors emphasize that these f i n d i n g s apply only to the story r a t i n g  8  method of quantifying protocols and suggest using d i f f e r e n t units of a n a l y s i s . In the same paper Lindzey and Herman describe an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of repeat r e l i a b i l i t y where subjects were asked, a f t e r a two month i n t e r v a l , to t e l l a story d i f f e r e n t from the f i r s t story they had t o l d to each card.  There were twenty subjects involved who  t o l d stories to four TAT cards and the s t o r i e s were scored f o r seventeen v a r i a b l e s .  The correlations ranged from .00 to .94,  consistently high standard errors  (.17  with  to .72).  In a very recent study on i n t r a i n d i v i d u a l consistency of TAT s t o r i e s when the test i s administered under several d i f f e r e n t condit i o n s , Wylie et a l . (1963) report r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Aggression and Dependency.  They used twelve TAT cards, divided  i n t o two sets of s i x each, which they judged to be equal i n " p u l l " f o r these two v a r i a b l e s . To two of t h e i r groups the t e s t was  admini-  stered twice with t y p i c a l instructions and a one-week i n t e r v a l between t e s t i n g sessions.  The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were .4-3 f o r Aggres-  s i o n and .38 f o r Dependency.  They concluded that the l e v e l of  i n t r a i n d i v i d u a l consistency i s too low f o r r e l i a b l e i n d i v i d u a l diagnosis. Table 1 shows a summary of the research evidence related to TAT r e l i a b i l i t y and i n t e r n a l consistency.  Inspection of t h i s table  reveals that researchers have paid scant attention to r e l i a b i l i t y studies.  Examination of the data i n Table 1 shows that there i s  9  very l i t t l e evidence to support the b e l i e f of either the temporal or i n t e r n a l s t a b i l i t y of the TAT.  However, i n terms of the v a r i -  ation i n the few correlations which have been reported, a s p e c i f i c i t y hypothesis, as suggested by Kagan ( i 9 6 0 ) , may assumed.  be  This hypothesis would assert that no general statement  may be made about TAT r e l i a b i l i t y or i n t e r n a l consistency. t h i s assumption  If  i s v a l i d , then these two psychometric aspects of  the TAT would vary as a consequence of the v a r i a b l e being scored. On t h i s basis i t would be expected that repeat r e l i a b i l i t y and i n t e r n a l consistency would d i f f e r f o r various TAT scoring scales. If t h i s hypothesis i s reasonable, then i t would not be sensible to ask, i n general, what the r e l i a b i l i t y of the TAT i s .  Rather, one  should ask, f o r example, what i s the r e l i a b i l i t y of TAT aggression, as scored by s p e c i f i c  criteria.  The present study i s designed to go a l i t t l e way toward f i l l i n g the research gap on two major TAT variables, namely, those of aggression and anxiety.  If the s p e c i f i c i t y hypothesis i s correct, the  evidence obtained from this research could not be generalized beyond these two v a r i a b l e s .  '  TABLE 1  SUMMARY OF REPEAT RELIABILITY AND INTERNAL CONSISTENCY CORRELATIONS AS REPORTED IN THE LITERATURE REPEAT RELIABILITY I  Method  Time Interval  Variable  Lowell  40  Equivalent form  One Week  Achievement  .22  Haber and Alport  26  Equivalent form  Three Weeks  Achievement  • 54#  Auld et a l .  18  Same form  One Month  Sex  .13  Tomkins  15 15 15  Same form  Two Months Six Months Ten Months  Lindzey and Herman  20  Same form  Two months  Correlation  "Murray's quantitative need-press scheme" n Abasement n Affiliation n Autonomy n Cognizance n Counteractive Achievement n Recognition p Dominance p Rejection Hero A s s i s t s Others Hero A s s i s t e d by Others Story Outcomes Achievement of Goals F a i l u r e to Achieve Goals Tension R e l i e f Words Food Words (goal) Food Words (instrumental) Total Food Words  (Table continued on next page)  .80 .60 .50 .32 .00 .49 # .49 # .67  .94 .45 .66 .50 .67 .50 .07 .86 .82 .60 .28 .30  m # # # ##  u m  INTERNAL CONSISTENCY  Atkinson Lindzey and Herman  N  Variable  40  Achievement  .64 ##  n Achievement n Aggression n Sex n Abasement n Nurturance Narcissism  .19 .29 .45 .28 .12 .20  148  C h i l d et a l .  183  Wylie et a l .  24  Achievement Aggression Autonomy Deference Dominance Isolation Nurturance Responsibility Sociability Succorance Aggression Dependency  Correlatic  #  +.27 m +.34 m +.21 U +.30 ## + .10 -.02 -.07 -.06 + .10 + .12 .43 # .38  # P<.05 ##P<.01 x  # ## ## ##  I t i s impossible to evaluate the significance of the correlations reported i n this study because no d e t a i l s are given on the methods employed.  12  CHAPTER I I I EXPERIMENTAL METHOD  Selection of cards Seventeen volunteers from a senior course i n psychology at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia were asked to rank order nine TAT pictures (Cards 1, 2, 3BM, 4, 6BM,  11, 14, LSBM, 18GF)  of the amount of h o s t i l i t y expressed i n them. instructions.)  i n terms  (See Appendix I f o r  These cards were selected because they are thought  to represent a range of aggression i n terms of t h e i r card p u l l . There were four females and thirteen males i n the group, and t h e i r ages ranged from twenty to forty-two, with a mean of 23.82 and a standard deviation of 4-.88. Table 2 shows the frequency distributions for their ratings. It can be seen from Table 2 that some cards are more consist e n t l y rank ordered than others, as can be r e a d i l y assessed by v a r i a t i o n i n the number of subjects assigning d i f f e r e n t ranks to the same p i c t u r e .  For example, card 18GF i s generally regarded by  these subjects as aggressive, whereas f o r card 6BM the subjects do not e s p e c i a l l y agree amongst themselves as to i t s aggressiveness. On the basis of these judgements cards 1 and 14 were selected as low-aggressive, cards 3BM and 11 as moderately aggressive, and cards 18BM  and 18GF as highly aggressive.  Previous research lends  strong support f o r the present c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of TAT cards i n terms of t h e i r aggressive properties. Lindzey and Goldberg (1953) and  13  TABLE 2  BANK ORDER OF NINE TAT CARDS FOR MANIFEST AGGRESSION  CARD  1  2  3  4RANK5  1  1  6BM 11  1  18GF  12  4  6  5  2  7.3  1  6.2  4  4  2  4  5  1  1  4  2  5  4  2  2  1  2  3  1  6  3  1  2  2  4  1  3  1 3  9  3  14 18BM  8  2  3BM 4  7  1  2  2  6  9  4-  1  1  1  1  2  MEAN RANK  5.4  3.8 1  4.8  3  1  5.1  1  12  8.1 2.2  1  1  1  2.2  Stone (1956) found that cards 1 and 14 show l i t t l e "aggressive pull."  The l a t t e r author also found that cards 18BE and 18GF have  e s p e c i a l l y strong "agressive p u l l " and that cards 3BM and 11 are of moderate "aggressive p u l l . "  <  Further evidence that the cards are c l a s s i f i e d c o r r e c t l y i s provided by data from the present study.  The means on the aggres-  s i o n scale where the scores can vary from zero t o s i x vary i n the predicted d i r e c t i o n .  For the low aggressive cards the mean i s .33,  f o r the moderate aggressive cards i t i s 2.22, and f o r the high aggressive cards, 3.21. Subjects The subjects were f o r t y volunteers from an introductory course i n psychology and a senior course i n psychology at UBC.  Any subject  who had t o l d s t o r i e s t o TAT cards on any previous occasion was eliminated, as were those whose f i r s t language was not English.  The  age range of the subjects was from seventeen to forty-three, with a mean of 22.50 and a standard deviation of 5.09.  Ten females and  t h i r t y males p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . At the time they were asked t o volunteer, subjects were informed that they must be prepared to see the examiner f o r two sessions, each l a s t i n g about an hour.  They were also t o l d that  the study involved an investigation of one of the major projective t e s t s but were given no further information about the purpose of the study.  15  Procedure A l l t e s t s were given on an i n d i v i d u a l basis by the same examiner.  Responses were recorded e l e c t r i c a l l y and transcribed  at a l a t e r time. On the f i r s t administration a l l subjects were given convent i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n s , that i s , they were instructed t o give as dramatic a story as possible f o r each p i c t u r e . for  (See Appendix I I  complete instructions.) At the second session, approximately one week l a t e r , every  second subject  (Group B, N=20) was asked to t e l l a d i f f e r e n t story  to each card.  The following paragraph was added to the reading of  the o r i g i n a l i n s t r u c t i o n s :  "You are urged to make no e f f o r t to  r e c a l l your previous stories to the pictures.  I f one of the s t o r i e s  you t o l d before comes to mind, simply put i t aside and t e l l the next story that occurs t o you."  The other twenty subjects (Group  A) were given exactly the same i n s t r u c t i o n s as they had received on the f i r s t administration.  I f a subject asked i f he should give the  same or a d i f f e r e n t story, he was t o l d , "That i s up to you."  Scoring of the TAT protocols The story protocols were scored on nine scales, and f o r each of the scales which was not completely objective an independent judge scored one story from each protocol i n order to determine scoring agreement.  The story selected from each protocol f o r t h i s  treatment was v a r i e d systematically, that i s , card 1 f o r S - l , card  16  3BM f o r S-2, etc.  This procedure was followed f o r the aggressive  content scale, i n t e r n a l punishment s c a l e , external punishment scale and s i m i l a r i t y of p l o t .  Scorer r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s are given  i n the text below and are always based on f o r t y s t o r i e s . The records were scored f o r the following variables: I.  Aggression Effects 1.  Stone's (1956) aggressive content scale.  This i s a  weighted scale i n which each aggressive response i s categorized as involving a Death content, a Physical Aggression content, or a Verbal Aggression content.  These content variables are weighted  on a point system, as 3, 2 and 1 points r e s p e c t i v e l y . Each response i s also scored i n terms of whether i t shows active aggression or "potential" aggression.  An action i s scored as "potential" i f the  aggression i s implied or placed i n the future, or i t may be a wish or idea that i s not acted upon, f o r example, "He planned t o k i l l her," or "He was thinking of s u i c i d e but changed his mind." I f the action i s "potential" only half the point c r e d i t i s given.  Scorer  r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h i s scale yielded a Pearson product moment r of .92, p<.01. 2.  Smith and Coleman's (1956) h o s t i l i t y c o n t r o l score.  This score "...was obtained by d i v i d i n g the number of h o s t i l e themes i n a record which were not P (potential) scores by the t o t a l number of h o s t i l e themes produced" (p. 328).  This score represents the  degree to which the h o s t i l e feelings i n the subject's h o s t i l e themes were acted out i n the story as overt h o s t i l i t y .  17  3.  Parcel!'s (1956) external punishment 3core.  This  score was arrived at by "...summing the frequency of such themes as the following when they were directed toward the hero;  assault,  i n j u r y , threat, quarreling, deprivation of some p r i v i l e g e , object or comfort, domination, physical handicap, such as blindness, etc., rejection."  (p. 450).  This scale r e f l e c t s the subject's  pation of extrapunitive aggression.  antici-  Scorer r e l i a b i l i t y yielded  a Pearson r of .70, p<.01. 4.  Purcell's (1956) i n t e r n a l l y based punishment score.  This score included "suicide, s e l f - d e p r e c i a t i o n and f e e l i n g s of g u i l t , shame or remorse"  (p. 450),  It i s thought that t h i s scale  measures the subject's degree of a n t i c i p a t i o n of i n t e r n a l punishment.  The Pearson r f o r scorer r e l i a b i l i t y on t h i s scale was  .94,  p<.01.  II.  Anxiety e f f e c t s A.  Freezing Effects 1.  Briefness, or the t o t a l number of words i n the  story. (Lindzey and Newburg, 1954)•  This score was merely a count  of the number of words i n each story, with the expectation that briefness w i l l be associated with anxiety (Handler et a l . , 1957). 2.  Number of adjectives per 100 words.  and Newburg, 1954)-  (Lindzey  The t o t a l number of adjectives was divided by  the t o t a l number of words, and a negative r e l a t i o n s h i p with anxiety i s postulated (Mandler et a l . , 1957).  18  B.  Conflict Effects 1.  D i s t r e s s . a r e v i s i o n of the scale developed by-  Thomson (i960). sentence was  One  point was  given f o r each fragment (where a  l e f t incomplete i n meaning), and f o r each s h i f t  (where the subject the utterance was f o r each story. 2.  started word or sentence, and s h i f t e d before finished).  These points were added together  A high score i s i n d i c a t i v e of anxiety.  Vagueness and h e s i t a t i o n .  (Lindzey and Newburg, 1954).  For each story a count was made of the number of statements showing either vagueness or h e s i t a t i o n , or both, f o r example, "I'm  not  sure," I don't know," "I can't t e l l . " III. the two  Memory E f f e c t s :  A global judgement was  s t o r i e s t o l d by any subject to a single card were the same  or d i f f e r e n t .  This judgement was  rather than on any drive content. given to the independent judge.) the two  made on whether  based on the p l o t of the  story,  (See Appendix I I I f o r instructions There was  95$ agreement between  judges f o r f o r t y s t o r i e s .  Statistical  Analysis  Since the range of scores on most of the v a r i a b l e s was  very  l i m i t e d , tetrachoric c o r r e l a t i o n s , calculated by the method d e s c r i bed by Edwards (1954), were used i n most cases to compute the i n t e r n a l consistency and repeat r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s . where the range was  However,  s u f f i c i e n t l y great (Briefness, Number of  adjectives per 100 words, and H o s t i l i t y Control) product moment  19  correlations were calculated.  Separate analyses were made f o r the  cards i n terms of the three l e v e l s of ambiguity and f o r the cards as a whole. A l l p l e v e l s f o r the reported correlations are f o r two-tailed t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  In the case of Pearson product moment r's  with a sample s i z e of 40, the obtained r must be .31 t o be s i g n i f i cant at a p of .05 and .40 t o be s i g n i f i c a n t at a p of .01. Comparable values with an £ o f 20 are .44 and .56, respectively. With respect to the tetrachoric c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e from zero was established by evaluating the significance of the corresponding c h i squares.  Thus, f o r a sample s i z e of 40,  the obtained tetrachoric c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t must be .60 to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l and .47 at the .05 l e v e l . values with an N of 20 are .79 and .64, respectively.  Similar  20  CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Repeat R e l i a b i l i t y It i s evident from Table 3 that the repeat r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Group A (subjects given conventional instructions on both occasions) are f a i r l y substantial i n most instances. It w i l l be noted from Table 3, however, that, since 81.7$  of the  s t o r i e s were e s s e n t i a l l y the same, these r e l a t i v e l y stable r e s u l t s are probably more a measure of memory effects than of r e l i a b i l i t y . On the other hand i t can be seen from Table 3 that the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Group B are very low, with the except i o n of Briefness, Vagueness and D i s t r e s s .  The r e l i a b i l i t y of  .64  f o r Briefness i s not s u r p r i s i n g i n view of the established s t a b i l i t y of word fluency.  The correlations f o r Vagueness and Distress are  probably spuriously high due to the f a c t that the scores on these scales were zero f o r the majority of subjects. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that even when subjects were specif i c a l l y asked to give d i f f e r e n t s t o r i e s to the cards, over one-quarter of the s t o r i e s were e s s e n t i a l l y the same.  This would appear to cast  some doubt on McClelland's hypothesis that "making a c e r t a i n associative response tends to introduce resistance to give i t again" (1958, p. 20). Table 4 shows the repeat r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s obtained  21  by analysing the cards i n terms of the three l e v e l s of ambiguity. The scores on the low aggressive cards f o r Session I were correl a t e d with the low aggressive cards on Session I I f o r each subject, the moderately aggressive with the moderately aggressive, and the high aggressive with the high aggressive on both sessions. This procedure was designed to t e s t Kagan's hypothesis (1955 that content categories reported t o s t i m u l i ambiguous f o r that content are less l i k e l y to be stable than those produced by s t i m u l i which suggest that content.  I t i s evident from Table 4 that the  r e l i a b i l i t y of the three aggressive scales (aggressive content, external punishment and i n t e r n a l punishment) does not covary with the drive structure of TAT cards.  This f i n d i n g i s not consistent  with Kagan's hypothesis.  Internal Consistency Internal consistency was evaluated by c o r r e l a t i n g the scores obtained on the f i r s t session f o r a l l subjects i n terms of the l e v e l of ambiguity.  The two low aggressive cards were correlated with the  medium aggressive cards, the low aggressive with the high aggressive, and the medium aggressive with the high aggressive. are shown i n Table 5.  These r e s u l t s  I t i s perhaps noteworthy that there i s a s l i g h t  trend f o r the medium aggressive cards and the high aggressive cards to correlate more highly than f o r the low aggressive cards t o correlate with the medium aggressive cards or f o r the low aggressive cards t o correlate with the high aggressive cards.  In general, how-  ever, the correlations are somewhat low, with the exception again  22  TABLE  3  REPEAT RELIABILITY FOR SIX TAT CARDS  (N*40)  SCALE  GROUP A (N = 20)  GROUP B ( N = 20)  Aggressive Content  .59#  .00  External Punishment  .61#  .30  Internal Punishment  .81##  .02  H o s t i l i t y Control  .17  Briefness  .61##  .64#  Adjectives per 100 words  .19  .11  Distress  .28  •8L#  Vagueness  .71##  .90##  S i m i l a r i t y of P l o t  81.7$ Same  25.8$ Same  Note:  # ##  p<.05 p<.01  -.o##  Briefness, Adjectives per 100 words, and H o s t i l i t y Control are product moment r ' s j a l l others are tetrachoric c o r r e l a t i o n s . The same applies to the other t a b l e s .  TABLE  4  REPEAT RELIABILITY COEFFICIENTS WITH CARDS OF VARYING AMBIGUITY TAKEN. SEPARATELY Low v s . Low Group A Group B  SCALE  Medium v s Medium Group A Group B  High v s . High Group A Group B  Aggressive Content  .07  .00  .95#  .30  .47  .30  External Punishment  .88#  .61  .62  .62  .94##  .16  Internal Punishment  .48  .00  .46  .27  .41  .20  Briefness  .66##  .49#  .55#  .60##  .70##  .77##  Adjectives per 100 words  .32  .23  .02  .17  .08  Distress  .80##  .32  .37  .65#  .61  .60  Vagueness  .63  .71#  .46  .62  .86##  .51  S i m i l a r i t y of Plot  85$ Same  20$ Same  82.2$ Same  40$ Same  77.5$ Same 17.5$  Note:  # ##  p<.05 P<-01  -.06  H o s t i l i t y Control i s not included i n t h i s table because t h i s scale gives just one f i g u r e f o r each subject. This also applies t o Table 5.  24  of Briefness and Vagueness.  The s i z e of these c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i -  cates the necessity f o r caution i n the use of additive treatment of scores from d i f f e r e n t TAT cards.  Evidence must s t i l l be provided  that s i m i l a r responses t o d i f f e r e n t cards are tapping s i m i l a r psychological processes before a summation of scores from d i f f e r e n t cards can be j u s t i f i e d .  TABLE  5  INTERNAL CONSISTENCY OF SIX. TAT CARDS IN TERMS OF LEVEL OF AMBIGUITY (N^AO)  Aggressive Content Low v s . Medium Low v s . High Medium v s . High  .16 .21 .46  External Punishment Low v s . Medium Low v s . High Medium v s . High  ,04.OA.30  Internal Punishment Low v s . Medium Low v s . High Medium v s . High  .48# .40 .04  Briefness Low v s . Medium Low v s . High Medium vs. High  .48# .58## .68##  Adjectives per 100 words Low v s . Medium Low v s . High Medium v s . High  .03 .08 .08  Distress Low vs. Medium Low v s . High Medium v s . High  .18 .68## .03  Vagueness Low v s . Medium Low v s . High Medium v s . High  ,60# .32 .67##  # P*.05 ## p<:.01  26  Comparison of Present Findings With Previous Research It i s d i f f i c u l t to compare the findings of the present study with previous work since the design of this study i s quite d i f f e r e n t from most of the others.  Only Lindzey and Herman (1955) instructed  t h e i r subjects to t e l l d i f f e r e n t stories t o the pictures on the second administration, thus minimizing memory e f f e c t s which are apparently very strong.  They d i d not score t h e i r s t o r i e s f o r aggres-  sion i n the repeat r e l i a b i l i t y part of t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , so no comparison can be made on t h i s basis.  However, t h e i r "abasement"  can be compared reasonably with the i n t e r n a l punishment scale, and "dominance" and "rejection" with the external punishment scale used i n the present study.  In a l l cases the correlations they report are  higher than those obtained i n t h i s study. In measurements of i n t e r n a l consistency there i s more agreement between the c o e f f i c i e n t s obtained by t h i s investigator and those reported by others. of  Lindzey and Herman's (1955) reported c o e f f i c i e n t  .29 f o r aggression i s close to those obtained i n t h i s study  (.16  f o r low aggressive content cards v s . medium, .21 f o r low vs. high and .46 f o r medium vs. high).  These figures are also f a i r l y close  to the .34 f o r aggression reported by C h i l d et a l . .43 f o r aggression reported by Wylie et a l .  (1956), and the  (1963).  Implications of Present and Past Findings On the basis of the s p e c i f i c i t y hypothesis suggested by Kagan (i960) and accepted i n this present study, the r e s u l t s presented  27  here could not be generalized beyond the two v a r i a b l e s measured, that i s , aggression and anxiety, as measured by the s p e c i f i c scales used. nal  It seems safe to say, however, that the temporal and  inter-  s t a b i l i t y of these two v a r i a b l e s i n r e l a t i o n to the TAT i s  quite  low. In evaluating psychometric data on projective t e s t s there  seem to be two common approaches:  one either recommends that the  t e s t be sent i n t o o b l i v i o n , or else one points out the proven c l i n i c a l value of the t e s t , recommends caution i n i t s use, and advocates further research to account f o r the lack of s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l s of psychometric excellence. more reasonable approach.  For t h i s investigator the l a t t e r seems the The TAT has c e r t a i n l y established i t s  c l i n i c a l usefulness, but i n view of the contradictory evidence on i t s s t a b i l i t y , both i n t e r n a l l y and over time, well-designed  research  on these aspects of the t e s t would be valuable. With such low l e v e l s of i n t e r n a l and temporal s t a b i l i t y caution i s obviously required i n research with the TAT.  Rigorous controls  are necessary since any observed changes, f o r example, pre- and therapy changes, may instrument.  post-  be a t t r i b u t e d to the u n r e l i a b i l i t y of the  In c l i n i c a l p r a c t i c e i t seems that the usefulness  of  the t e s t must continue to be based on the s k i l l and experience of the p r a c t i t i o n e r . Further p r o f i t a b l e research could c e r t a i n l y be done on the McClelland-Atkinson  hypothesized c y c l i c a l a l t e r n a t i o n .  administration of the TAT more consistent with the f i r s t  Is a t h i r d administra-  28  t i o n than i s the second?  Such research would have to pay s p e c i a l  attention to the minimization of memory effects since these obviously loom large i n repeated administrations of the t e s t . In using the instructions to t e l l a d i f f e r e n t story which were employed i n the present study the question a r i s e s as to what these instructions mean to the subject.  The impression of t h i s i n v e s t i -  gator i s that t h i s meaning ranges from " T e l l me another story i f you can think of one," t o "The l a s t story you t o l d was not s a t i s factory and I would c e r t a i n l y hope that you can do better than that." The motivational state of the subject w i l l almost, c e r t a i n l y vary, depending on h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the i n s t r u c t i o n s .  29  CHAPTER V SUMMARY  The purpose of the present study has been to evaluate the repeat r e l i a b i l i t y and i n t e r n a l consistency under short-term conditions of several indices of aggression and anxiety as measured by the TAT. Three main questions were posed and investigated as follows: 1.  What are the e f f e c t s of varying the instructions on the  second administration of the t e s t ?  One group of subjects was  given standard TAT instructions at both administrations, while a second group was asked to t e l l a d i f f e r e n t story to each card. This procedure was designed to control and study the influence of memory e f f e c t s . In the f i r s t group i t was found that over 80% of the stories given were e s s e n t i a l l y the same on both administrations of the t e s t , and even i n the second group 25% of the s t o r i e s were the same.  It  i s thus apparent that memory e f f e c t s are very strong and must be controlled i n any repeat r e l i a b i l i t y investigations of the  TAT.  The r e l a t i v e l y high repeat r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the f i r s t group are probably more of a measure of memory e f f e c t s than of r e l i a b i l i t y per se, since the c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the second group are very low. 2.  What are the effects of varying l e v e l s of card ambiguity  f o r a given drive ( i n t h i s case, aggression) on the temporal  stabi-  30  l i t y of that drive.  Following Kagan's hypothesis  (1955), i t was  predicted that temporal s t a b i l i t y of fantasy variables would be a d i r e c t p o s i t i v e function of the drive structure of TAT  cards.  The findings of t h i s study were not consistent with t h i s hypothesis. 3.  What i s the degree of i n t e r n a l consistency of aggression  and anxiety indices on the TAT?  The i n t e r n a l s t a b i l i t y  was  evaluated by c o r r e l a t i n g the scores obtained on the f i r s t session by a l l subjects i n terms of the l e v e l of ambiguity.  These corre-  l a t i o n s were also quite low, i n d i c a t i n g the need f o r caution i n using an additive treatment of scores from d i f f e r e n t TAT  cards.  In a l l aspects of t h i s study a s p e c i f i c i t y hypothesis, as suggested by Kagan (i960), has been assumed.  This hypothesis  asserts that no meaningful statements can be made about the  TAT  r e l i a b i l i t y or i n t e r n a l consistency i n general, but only about specific variables.  This hypothesis was accepted because of the  v a r i a t i o n i n the few c o r r e l a t i o n s reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e on both i n t e r n a l consistency and repeat r e l i a b i l i t y of the TAT.  Thus  the r e s u l t s of t h i s study could not reasonably be generalized beyond the two variables studied, namely aggression and anxiety.  31  REFERENCES  Atkinson, J . S., Studies i n projective measurement of achievement motivation. Univ. of Michigan. Abstract i n Univ. Microfilms, v o l . X, no. 4$ Publication no. 1945., 1950. Auld, F., Eron, L. D., and L a f f a l , J . Application of Guttman's s c a l i n g method to the TAT. Educ. psychol. Measmt.. 1955, 15, 422-435. C h i l d , I. L., Frank, K. F., and Storm. T. S e l f - r a t i n g s and ' TAT: t h e i r r e l a t i o n s to each other and to childhood background. J . Pers.. 1956, 25, 96-114. Edwards,•A. L. New York:  S t a t i s t i c a l methods f o r the behavioral sciences. Rinehart, 1954.  Haber, R. N., and Alpert, R. The r o l e of s i t u a t i o n and picture cues i n projective measurement of the achievement motive. In J . W". Atkinson (Ed.) Motives i n fantasy, action and society. Princeton, N. J . : Van Nostrand, 1958, pp.  644-663. Jensen, A. R. Thematic apperception t e s t . In 0. K. Buros (Ed.) The f i f t h mental measurements yearbook. Highland Park, N. J . : Gryphon Press, 1959, pp.. 310-313. Kagan, J . The s t a b i l i t y of TAT fantasy and stimulus ambiguity. J . consult. Psychol.. 1959, 23,'266-271. Kagan, J . Thematic apperceptive techniques with c h i l d r e n . In Projective techniques with c h i l d r e n . New York-London: Grune & Stratton, I960, pp. 105-129. Lesser, G. S. Custom-making projective tests f o r research. J . pro.i. Tech.. 1961, 25, 21-31. Lindzey, G. Thematic apperception t e s t : J . pro.1. Tech.. 1958, 22, 174-180.  the strategy of research.  Lindzey, G., and Goldberg, M. J . Motivational differences between males and females as measured by the Thematic Apperception Test. J . Pers.. 1953, 22, 101-117. Lindzey, G., and Herman, P. S. Thematic apperception t e s t : a note on r e l i a b i l i t y and s i t u a t i o n a l v a l i d i t y . J . pro.i. Tech.. 1955, 19, 36-42.  32  Lindzey, G., and Newburg, A. S. Thematic apperception t e s t : a t e n t a t i v e a p p r a i s a l o f some "signs" o f anxiety. J . consult. Psychol., 1954, 18, 389-395. McClelland, D. C , Atkinson, J . W., C l a r k , R. A., and L o w e l l , E. L. The achievement motive. New York: Appleton-CenturyC r o f t s , 1953. McClelland, D. C. Methods of measuring human motivation. In J . W. Atkinson (Ed.) Motives i n fantasy, a c t i o n , and s o c i e t y . P r i n c e t o n , N. J . j Van Nostrand, 1958, pp. 7-42.. Mandler, G., Lindzey, G., and Crouch, R. G. Thematic apperception t e s t : i n d i c e s o f anxiety i n r e l a t i o n to t e s t anxiety. Sduc. psychol. Measmt.. 1957, 17, 466-474. P u r c e l l , K. The TAT and a n t i s o c i a l behavior. 1956, 20, 449-456.  J . c o n s u l t . Psychol..  Smith, J . R., and Coleman, J . C. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between manifest a t i o n s o f h o s t i l i t y i n p r o j e c t i v e t e s t s and overt behavior. J . pro.i. Tech.. 1956, 20, 326-334. Stone, H. The TAT aggressive content s c a l e . 20, 445-452.  J . pro.i. Tech., 1956,  Thomson, M. C. The e f f e c t s of stimulus d e p r i v a t i o n on s t o r i e s t o l d to TAT d e s c r i p t i o n s . Unpublished MA t h e s i s . U. B r i t . C o l . , I960. Tomkins, S. S. The thematic apperception t e s t . Grune and S t r a t t o n , 1947.  New York:  Wylie, R. C , S i s s o n , B. D., and Taulbee, E. I n t r a i n d i v i d u a l consistency i n " c r e a t i v e " and "memory" s t o r i e s w r i t t e n f o r TAT p i c t u r e s . J . consult. Psychol.. 1963, 27, 145-151.  33-  APPENDIX, I:  Instructions to judges  GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS  The purpose along a dimension of the scale you of the amount of on the f a c t o r of  of t h i s study i s to scale nine d i f f e r e n t pictures of h o s t i l i t y (aggression). For the purposes are asked to rank order the pictures i n terms h o s t i l i t y expressed i n them. Base your judgement h o s t i l i t y only.  You are to regard the pictures as s o c i a l scenes i l l u s t r a t e d i n a story book. Any of the following acts, thoughts or attitudes should be viewed as i l l u s t r a t i n g what we mean by h o s t i l i t y : Physical h o s t i l i t y acts, such as k i l l i n g , assaulting, combative, destructive, shooting, h i t t i n g , s e l f injury: H o s t i l e attitudes,  such as being malicious, embittered, hating quarrelsome, domineering, i r r i t a b l e , scorning, grouchy, surly, r e s e n t f u l ; and  Verbal h o s t i l i t y .  such as being venomous, abusive, threatening, o v e r - c r i t i c a l , argumentative, q u a r r e l l i n g , cursing, blaming, r i d i c u l i n g and l y i n g . SPECIFIC DIRECTIONS FOR RANKING PICTURES  The pictures are spread out i n f r o n t of you i n a random fashion. You are to rank order them according to t h e i r degree of h o s t i l i t y . Examine a l l the pictures c a r e f u l l y before making any rankings. Rank as number one the picture which expresses the most host i l i t y , anger or aggression. Next, f i n d the second most h o s t i l e picture and place i t beside the f i r s t ; then the t h i r d most h o s t i l e picture and place i t by the second and so on down to the n i n t h picture that i s l e a s t aggressive, which w i l l appear at the extreme right. A f t e r you have l a i d out the whole sequence before you, you may wish t o change the order of the pictures. You may change the order of the pictures as many times as you l i k e to obtain your f i n a l ranking. Thank you f o r your cooperation.  3U  APPENDIX I I :  Instructions t o a l l S's on f i r s t TAT administration  " I am going to show you some p i c t u r e s , one at a time, and I want you t o make up as dramatic a s t o r y as you can f o r each. T e l l what has l e d up to the event shown i n the p i c t u r e , describe what i s happening at the moment, what the characters are f e e l i n g and t h i n k i n g , and then give the outcome. Speak your thoughts as they come to your mind. You can make up any kind of story you please. Let y o u r s e l f go f r e e l y . Do you understand? I want you to speak c l e a r l y so I can hear every word."  APPENDIX I I I :  I n s t r u c t i o n s t o independent scorer on e v a l u a t i n g s i m i l a r i t y of p l o t  You are asked to judge whether the two s t o r i e s t o l d by any subject t o a s i n g l e card are e s s e n t i a l l y the same or d i f f e r ent. The concern here i s w i t h the manifest p l o t content of the s t o r y , r a t h e r than any d r i v e content. Exactness of language i s not to be used as a c r i t e r i o n of s i m i l a r i t y . The f o l l o w i n g questions may be used i n making your judgement 1.  Are the same characters involved i n the story?  2.  Is the hero the same?  3.  Do the same things happen to the hero?  4-.  Is the outcome the same?  5.  Are the thoughts and f e e l i n g s a t t r i b u t e d to the characters e s s e n t i a l l y the same?  The s t o r i e s should not be considered d i f f e r e n t because of the a d d i t i o n or s u b t r a c t i o n of d e t a i l s ; however, i f the f i r s t story i s simply r e c a l l e d , and then the subject proceeds to give the "next chapter" t h i s would be a d i f f e r e n t s t o r y .  

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