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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Families in public housing Ireland, Florence Louise 1964

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FAMILIES IN PUBLIC HOUSING  by FLORENCE IRELAND LIA1-! JUURUP SHEILA MILLER  T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of t h e Requirements f o r t h e Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i.n the; S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming t o t h e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r t h e degree of M a s t e r of S o c i a l Work  S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work The U n i v e r s i t y  196* of B r i t i s h  Columbia  In  presenting  this  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an B r i t i s h Columbia, freely  advanced degree at I agree that  the  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  agree that for  t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  D e p a r t m e n t o r by that  copying or  gain  s h a l l not  School of  be  be  this  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  S o c i a l Work  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a . Date  May  PI,  1964  I  further  copying of  g r a n t e d by  of  s h a l l make i t  study.  his representatives. p u b l i c a t i o n of  University  Library  permission for extensive  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  the  the  this  Head o f  thesis my  I t i s understood thesis  the  for  written  financial  permission.  In presenting  this  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an B r i t i s h Columbia, freely  advanced degree at I agree that  the  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  agree that for  t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  D e p a r t m e n t o r by that  c o p y i n g or  gain  s h a l l not  School of  be  study.  be  this  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  S o c i a l Work  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a .  I  the  of  s h a l l make i t further  copying of  g r a n t e d by  his representatives. p u b l i c a t i o n of  University  Library  permission for extensive  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  the  this  Head o f  thesis my  I t i s understood thesis for written  the  financial  permission.  In  presenting  this  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an B r i t i s h Columbia, freely  advanced degree a t I agree that  the  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  agree that for  t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  D e p a r t m e n t o r by that  copying or  gain  shall  School of  not  be  study.  be  this  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  S o c i a l Work  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a .  I  the  of  s h a l l make i t further  copying of  g r a n t e d by  his representatives. p u b l i c a t i o n of  University  Library  permission for extensive  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  the  this  Head o f  thesis my  I t i s understood thesis for written  the  financial  permission.  Abstract T h i s i s the second  i n s t a l m e n t of a s e r i e s of s t u d i e s of  the w e l f a r e and community: "aspects of p u b l i c h o u s i n g .  The  f i r s t s t u d y , e n t i t l e d P u b l i c Mousing and W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s , by James S. Brown, David Kogawa, and Raymond P e t e r s (undertaken as t h e s e s , now p u b l i s h e d ) , e x t e n s i v e l y reviewed  the  most r e l e v a n t r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g t o the w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d by p u b l i c h o u s i n g t e n a n t s , as w e l l as i s s u e s of community r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  The p r e s e n t s t u d y , on the o t h e r  hand, f o c u s s e s on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n the developments,  and a l l t h a t the move t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n -  v o l v e s f o r them p e r s o n a l l y . With t h i s o b j e c t i v e , d a t a was  o b t a i n e d from the U n i t e d  S t a t e s and B r i t a i n , and the e x p e r i e n c e of these c o u n t r i e s i n the f i e l d of p u b l i c h o u s i n g was examined.  A  comparison  was made between s t a t i s t i c s and r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n brought t o g e t h e r from both the U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t a i n , and  those  of the l o c a l Vancouver p r o j e c t s , r e l a t i n g t o (a) the t y p e s of f a m i l i e s , the number of c h i l d r e n and e l d e r l y p e r s o n s , the age s t r u c t u r e of the communities, r e n t s , and  (b) f a m i l y incomes and  ( c ) components of " b a l a n c e " i n the  In sum,  developments.  i t has been found t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , i n a l l  t h r e e c o u n t r i e s s i m i l a r f a m i l y p r o f i l e s e x i s t , w i t h some e x c e p t i o n s , n o t a b l y c o n c e r n i n g the number of o l d p e o p l e . B o t h i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and i n the Vancouver p r o j e c t s the p r o p o r t i o n of e l d e r l y t e n a n t s i s f r e q u e n t l y h i g h e r than i n B r i t i s h p u b l i c h o u s i n g developments.  Furthermore,  in Britain,  where p u b l i c h o u s i n g has formed a l a r g e p a r t of the h o u s i n g  s t o c k f o r many y e a r s , t h e standard f a m i l y o f f a t h e r , mother and c h i l d r e n comprise a much g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t e n a n t p o p u l a t i o n than i s found i n t h e two o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e a r e s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the h i g h p r o p o r t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n , and of young m a r r i e d c o u p l e s .  The  incomes o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e n a n t s a r e low, and many a r e supplemented by government a s s i s t a n c e b e n e f i t s .  Some common  problems emerge r e l a t i n g t o d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a d a p t i n g t o t h e "new"  l i f e , and many o f these c o u l d be a l l e v i a t e d by more  awareness o f t h e human a s p e c t o f h o u s i n g , r e l o c a t i o n , and s e r v i c e s p r o v i s i o n on t h e p a r t o f p l a n n e r s , housing a u t h o r i t i e s , w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s and t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c .  Acknowledgements We  wish, t o e x p r e s s our thanks and  the i n t e r e s t and of t h i s s t u d y .  appreciation for  h e l p r e c e i v e d from o t h e r s  i n the  In t h i s r e s p e c t we would p a r t i c u l a r l y  t o acknowledge our debt t o the f o l l o w i n g persons o r g a n i z a t i o n s : C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing  Mra.  and  his staff.  like  and  Corporation;  the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y , e s p e c i a l l y Mr. Sutherland,  completion  Colin  Me would a l s o l i k e t o thank  E t h e l A l l a r d y c e and Mr. "Clarence MacKenzie f o r t h e i r  c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n c o l l e c t i n g d a t a from the MacLean Park  and  Skeena T e r r a c e p r o j e c t s i n Vancouver. I t has been a most r e w a r d i n g e x p e r i e n c e and  great  p r i v i l e g e t o have worked under the d i r e c t i o n of Dr.  Leonard  C. March, D i r e c t o r of R e s e a r c h , the S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, whose v a l u a b l e i n f o r m u l a t i n g the d e s i g n t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d , and has been v e r y much  of the s t u d y , o r g a n i z i n g the  i n composing the f i n a l  support r e c e i v e d from husbands and of the  ma-  presentation  appreciated.  In a d d i t i o n , c r e d i t must be g i v e n f o r the  preparation  assistance  report.  patient  f a m i l i e s throughout  the  Table o£ Contents I  page 1  I n t r o d u c t o r y ^ Chapter  Overview. Method o f Study (a) P e r s p e c t i v e of B r i t i s h h o u s i n g e x p e r i e n c e . New d i r e c t i o n s i n h o u s i n g and p l a n n i n g : B a r l o w , S c o t t and Uthwatt r e p o r t s . Four t y p e s o f h o u s i n g development. (b) U n i t e d S t a t e s e x p e r i e n c e . Background i n f o r m a t i o n . Contrasts i n projects. (c) The Canadian scene: P i o n e e r i n g i n T o r o n t o . Developments i n Vancouver. The f i r s t f o u r p r o j e c t s Some c o m p l i c a t i n g f a c t o r s . II  Family P r o f i l e s  51  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t y p e s . Types of f a m i l i e s i n Vancouver' p r o j e c t s . Age o f head o f f a m i l y . C h i l d r e n . Comparable U n i t e d S t a t e s p r o f i l e s . The e l d e r l y . Some B r i t i s h s u r v e y s . Ill  F a m i l y Incomes: The Cost o f S h e l t e r  100  Vancouver. E l i g i b i l i t y and Income. Rent-income r e l a t i o n s h i p . Amount and D i s t r i b u t i o n of Income. U n i t e d S t a t e s comparisons. Length o f tenancy. The e l d e r l y — a s p e c i a l group? B r i t i s h incomes and r e n t s . Some g e n e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . IV  B a l a n c e d and Unbalanced Communities: The S t r u c t u r e o f Who l i v e s i n p u b l i c housing? E l i g i b i l i t y r e q u i r e ments. The f a m i l i e s w i t h problems. The concept of 'balance'. The c o n d i t i o n of imbalance. The 'bulge'. S o c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n — o c c u p a t i o n -e d u c a t i o n . New approaches.  V  From t h e " O l d " t o t h e "New": The Meaning o f Moving . . 195 "A b e t t e r i i f e " . S p e c i a l needs o f r e l o c a t e d f a m i l ies. Problems.-- people o r p r o j e c t ? Social d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . Human r e s o u r c e s . Summary — The t a s k ahead.  A p p e n d i c e s : A (i) B r i t i s h S o c i a l Surveys i f i i ) The New Towns v i i ( i i i ) The London County C o u n c i l W a i t i n g L i s t A n a l y s i s , J u l y 1963 viii B ( i ) S o c i a l Problems Focussed by P u b l i c Housing and R e l o c a t i o n Neighbourhoods x ( i i ) . The J o i n t Task F occe. U.S.A. x i i ?  C  Bibliography  T a b l e I . Types o f F a m i l i e s (by P a r e n t a l S i t u a t i o n ' ) , Urban Canada and Urban B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961.  xv  xvi  CHAPTER I Housing conditions have fundamental importance f o r the health and s o c i a l well-being of a nation.  In our  Western culture the basic u n i t of s o c i a l organization i s the family, and one of our democratic values i s that each family i s e n t i t l e d to t h e i r own "home".  No country  holding t h i s value can consider that i t i s meeting i t s o b l i g a t i o n s f o r the welfare of i t s c i t i z e n s , as long as there are f a m i l i e s within i t s borders who are l i v i n g i n substandard  dwellings and i n overcrowded conditions.  Past experience i n one country a f t e r another has demonstrated that p r i v a t e enterprise i s unequal to the task of providing r e l a t i v e l y cheap dwellings of good q u a l i t y so that f a m i l i e s with r e s t r i c t e d incomes may be o f f e r e d an opportunity f o r better housing.  For t h i s  reason, i t has been considered an important task f o r the community to undertake as a p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and, as i n the case of education, environmental  s a n i t a t i o n and  s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , the p r o v i s i o n of housing has now become a p u b l i c s o c i a l service i n many countries i n Europe, as well as i n the United States and Canada.  In t h i s way i t  can be regarded not only as a means f o r overcoming gross i n e q u a l i t i e s i n environment and opportunity, but also f o r  2  securing improvements i n standards of l i v i n g f o r a l l citizens. The p r o v i s i o n of sound p h y s i c a l s h e l t e r , however, i s only a l i m i t e d aspect of an adequate program f o r p u b l i c housing.  More and more a t t e n t i o n i s being  given to the people who l i v e i n housing p r o j e c t s .  It i s  coming to be recognized that tenants are not just "numbers of f a m i l i e s " but are l o t s of p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l i e s having varying c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  As a r e s u l t , i n recent years, a  number of surveys have been c a r r i e d out i n B r i t a i n , the United States, and more r e c e n t l y i n Canada, to study the s o c i a l e f f e c t s of r e l o c a t i o n and redevelopment." * 1  Some  problems have emerged which are common to a l l three countries, notably problems f o r f a m i l i e s i n the re-making of a home, often under conditions which are quite d i f ferent from expectations, and quite f o r e i g n to previous l i v i n g conditions.  Much of t h i s , of course, i s i n e v i t a b l e  and must be accepted as the p r i c e to be p a i d f o r better housing and improved neighbourhoods. of adjustment  However, the process  can be helped or hindered, i n many ways that  have not always been f u l l y understood, but as experience i n p u b l i c housing mounts much information i s becoming  1 Some d e t a i l s of recent surveys i n B r i t a i n are given i n Appendix A, and studies undertaken i n a l l three countries are l i s t e d i n the Bibliography.  3  a v a i l a b l e , which, when properly i n t e r p r e t e d , w i l l lead to more purposeful planning and refocussing on the s o c i a l aspects of p u b l i c housing. The lack of normal services i s one of the c h i e f complaints i n housing developments.  The main burden of  p r o v i s i o n n e c e s s a r i l y f a l l s on the appropriate  local  governments, but voluntary s o c i a l service has p a r t i c u l a r importance i n the formative period when the p u b l i c serv i c e s are not as yet f u l l y developed, and when s o c i a l organization i s s t i l l f l e x i b l e .  The long delay i n pro-  v i d i n g b u i l d i n g s f o r s o c i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , and sometimes educational purposes, has been one of the most f r u s t r a t i n g experiences f o r the tenants of p u b l i c housing. The main object of t h i s report has been to study the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n p u b l i c housing developments i n three countries, with the aim of considering what kind of adaptation these f a m i l i e s have to make.  I t i s also hoped to take a f r e s h look at the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of housing managers, as well as those of government housing agencies, c r e a t i n g and maintaining, and voluntary agencies,  i n the complex task of  i n partnership with statutory  the environment and the conditions  i n which the l i f e of a new community can f l o u r i s h . The  importance of reviewing these questions at  4 t h i s time i s c l e a r f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s .  One  i s that  Canadian p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s now b e i n g b u i l t on a s i z e a b l e scale a f t e r a long-delayed s t a r t .  Another  i s that United  S t a t e s e x p e r i e n c e i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g s i n c e the war some markedly  d i f f e r e n t f e a t u r e s from those of the pre-war  earlier-project experience.  A t h i r d i s the major d i f -  1  f e r e n c e s imported i n t o " r e - h o u s i n g " and the New  " r e - l o c a t i o n " by  Towns as w e l l as the major weight which  h o u s i n g now  has  "council"  assumes i n the g r e a t m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e s of  Britain. The dependence of d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l development on p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and on the s e l e c t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n , w i t h which  original  i t i s closely interlocked,  become i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p a r e n t .  has  Good p l a n n i n g can p r o v i d e  the b a s i s f o r a good community, and m i s t a k e s i n p l a n n i n g , once made, are hard t o r e c t i f y .  What matters most i s  t h a t f u t u r e p l a n s s h o u l d take f u l l account ence which  i s now  available.  of the e x p e r i -  A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no  one  model which c o u l d be f o l l o w e d everywhere, the t e s t of success i s the e x t e n t t o which the scheme makes p o s s i b l e a f u l l and s a t i s f y i n g l i f e In of  i n t h a t community.  r e v i e w i n g the background e x p e r i e n c e i n the p r o v i s i o n  p u b l i c housing,  See below, p.  it  32.  is  reasonable  to  look  5  f i r s t at B r i t a i n , then the United States, then Canada. B r i t a i n has been i n t h i s f i e l d f o r the longest time, but both B r i t a i n and the United States have had very extensive experience, while Canada i s j u s t now beginning to move i n t o the f i e l d on a moderate s c a l e .  Method of the Study A s e r i e s of studies i n housing and neighbourhood planning have been undertaken by Master of S o c i a l Work students at t h i s School of S o c i a l Work i n the l a s t f i v e years.  The present one i s p a r t of the enquiry i n t o the  s i g n i f i c a n c e of p u b l i c housing f o r contemporary and future welfare s e r v i c e .  A f i r s t instalment of t h i s ,  completed  as a j o i n t t h e s i s by James Brown, David Kogawa, and Hay Peters i n 1962-3* bas now been published.  While  this  reviewed some of the issues i n f a m i l y welfare, i t also brought together experience i n the community s e t t i n g of housing p r o j e c t s , and on methods of co-ordinating services between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agencies and the housing administration.  The present study grows out of the same  background experience, but devotes major attention to a basic question:  what kind of f a m i l i e s are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of p u b l i c housing, and how should t h i s a f f e c t planning  6 now and i n the future? There i s an underlying assumption s t i l l d i s cernible i n studies of housing that i t i s tbe f a m i l i e s who b r i n g tbe problems to tbe p r o j e c t ,  Tbis i s undoub-  t e d l y true of a small proportion of tbe tenants.  But a l l  p r o j e c t s i n part merely concentrate  sucb as  "problems" —  low income, or widowhood, or b r i n g i n g up a large family wbicb were i n tbe community before.  —  Tbey may be b e t t e r  dealt witb i f tbe p r o j e c t i s well designed, ably managed, supplied witb needed community s e r v i c e s , wisely located. But concentration, or r e l o c a t i o n , may themselves create new problems:  both central-area p r o j e c t s and outer or  suburban p r o j e c t s bave contributed recent experience on tbis. nesses:  Moreover, f a m i l i e s bave strengths as well as weakaccommodations and neighbourhoods need s i m i l a r  assessment of t b e i r assets as w e l l as t b e i r One to  liabilities.  of tbe purposes of tbe present review of experience i s c l a r i f y tbe f a c t o r s needed i n a balanced approacb. Like tbe previous study, i t bas t o wrestle witb  tbe f a c t s tbat ( a ) , tbere are now many kinds of bousing p r o j e c t s , (b), major changes bave occurred, botb i n Great B r i t a i n and i n tbe United States, wbicb must be understood before experience  i n these countries can be made a p p l i -  cable to Canada.  Whereas tbe preceding study drew mainly  on United States reports, tbe present one redresses tbe  7  balance by g i v i n g mucb more a t t e n t i o n to B r i t i s b and s t u d i e s .  surveys  Though i t was boped to draw on appropriate  European sources, l i m i t a t i o n s of time bave again made t b i s impossible.  A great deal of information was  sougbt  by correspondence and not a l l of t b i s bas yet been utilized. Since tbere are now  four d i f f e r e n t p r o j e c t s i n  operation i n Vancouver, tbe opportunity bas been taken to compile  some basic s t a t i s t i c s , thanks to tbe co-operation  of tbe Vancouver Housing Authority.  Two  of tbe p r o j e c t s  bave been tbe subject of d e t a i l e d study, as part of a s e r i e s of neighbourhood analyses, by other Master of S o c i a l Work students, and advantage bas been taken of t b e i r collaboration.  Tbe managers of tbe p r o j e c t bave been most  h e l p f u l i n d i s c u s s i n g and responding to questions.  The Perspective of B r i t i s h Housing Experience As almost everybody knows, England i s one of tbe most densely populated urban areas i n tbe world; and i t bas been predominantly  urban f o r a long time.  I t i s one  of tbe leading countries i n developing a bousing p o l i c y , both n a t i o n a l l y and l o c a l l y .  But i t bas been so because  of tbe heavy burden wbicb tbe I n d u s t r i a l Revolution placed  8  on i t i n the nineteenth century.  Not only were the masses  of houses r a p i d l y put up i n the f a c t o r y towns of poor q u a l i t y , crowded together, b u i l t without p r o v i s i o n of services or r e c o g n i t i o n of what nowadays are c a l l e d neighbourhood s e r v i c e s , but time bas d e t e r i o r a t e d tbem and m i l l i o n s are now  urgently i n need of replacement  Acute bousing shortages a f t e r two world wars made a l l the problems more severe i n 194-5 • World War  At tbe end of  I I about a h a l f m i l l i o n bouses bad been destroyed,  and three and a h a l f m i l l i o n others were damaged (representing about one bouse i n every t h r e e ) .  A l e s s recog-  nized f a c t o r bas been tbe high p r o p o r t i o n a l increase i n tbe number of households compared to tbe increase i n t o t a l population.  Tbe trend bas been towards tbe break-up of tbe  three-generation family l i v i n g as one household, and thus towards a greater number of d i s t i n c t family u n i t s witb a smaller average s i z e .  Metropolitan concentration, a newer  feature of modern Canada, i s of course a h i g h l y marked c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n B r i t a i n , with tbe enormous aggregation of London exceeded by few areas i n tbe world except perhaps New  York and Tokyo.  1 Tbe United Kingdom bas a land area of about 93»000 square miles and a population of over 52,000,000 (1961 Census); tbe population of some 550 persons per square mile i s one of tbe highest i n tbe world.  9  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r formulating housing p o l i c y and supervising housing programs, as well as o v e r a l l planning, has been established as a n a t i o n a l matter f o r at l e a s t f i f t y years.  The agencies concerned are the M i n i s t r y  of Housing and L o c a l Government i n England and Wales, the Secretary of State i n Scotland, and the M i n i s t r y of Health and Local Government i n Northern Ireland.  The actual  p r o v i s i o n of housing accommodation i n any area, however, i s considerably decentralized, and i n general i s , by comparison with North America, extremely vigorous respect.  i n this  The municipality i n B r i t a i n has c l e a r responsi-  bilities —  (a) to plan f o r new housing and slum clearance  where necessary, (b) to see that adequate standards are maintained i n newly b u i l t and e x i s t i n g houses and (c) to ensure, as f a r as p o s s i b l e , that housing conditions are s a t i s f a c t o r y i n that area.  P r a c t i c a l l y a l l l o c a l govern-  ments now administer blocks or "estates" of "council housing", much of which was o r i g i n a l l y slum clearance; and i n s e l e c t i n g tenants f o r " c o u n c i l " dwellings i t i s usual to give preference  to f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n overcrowded or  otherwise u n s a t i s f a c t o r y conditions. About three and three-quarter m i l l i o n of the 14,750,000 houses i n England and Wales, and over h a l f a m i l l i o n of the 1,600,000 houses i n Scotland are owned by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , (that i s about one house i n f o u r ) .  10 P r i v a t e enterprise i s responsible f o r about b a l f tbe bouses and f l a t s now being b u i l t , but l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s b u i l t about seventy per cent of tbe 3*750,000 houses completed between, 194-5 and tbe end of I960. Tbe majority of new dwellings are detached (separate), semi-detached  and terraced bouses or bungalows;  tbe remainder are f l a t s or maisonettes (duplexes) i n blocks of from two to t h i r t e e n , and sometimes twenty-one storeys high.  Host of tbe t a l l blocks are b u i l t i n c e n t r a l  areas of the c i t i e s , since tbe o l d and u n f i t bouses wbicb are being replaced were u s u a l l y densely populated. tbe Hew  In  Towns and c e r t a i n other new r e s i d e n t i a l areas,  however, tbey are planned to counter-balance smaller scale b u i l d i n g s , tbe purpose being to provide a v a r i e t y of types of accommodation at a moderate o v e r - a l l density. Tbis bas both s o c i a l and a r c h i t e c t u r a l objectives.  A  v a r i e t y of b u i l d i n g s gives more scope f o r a pleasing and s a t i s f y i n g appearance witb tbe p o s s i b i l i t y of f l e x i b l e use of open space.  But i t i s also an answer to tbe needs  of the "family c y c l e " —  the f a c t that the number and ages  of f a m i l i e s change i n tbe course of a generation —  and,  more r e c e n t l y , to the danger of one-class bousing areas, where tbe most economical or most " e f f i c i e n t " b u i l d i n g s o l u t i o n bas been adopted without reference to s o c i a l and community o b j e c t i v e s .  11 Housing subsidies have been provided i n B r i t a i n since 1919$  when they were f i r s t introduced to f a c i l i t a t e  the b u i l d i n g of houses f o r l e t t i n g at moderate r e n t s . Since the second world war, there i s a long s t r i n g of changing l e g i s l a t i o n :  but subsidies at higher r a t e s ,  payable annually f o r as long as s i x t y years from the year of b u i l d i n g completion, have been provided f o r a l l new housing accommodation b u i l t with n a t i o n a l government approval, whether by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s or by the New  Town  "development corporations". In B r i t a i n during the years f o l l o w i n g World  War  I, housing began to emerge as one of the most important of the p u b l i c s o c i a l s e r v i c e s .  The volume of b u i l d i n g by  l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s increased from a mere t r i c k l e u n t i l i t now  exceeds that of p r i v a t e b u i l d i n g , and about 21 per  cent of B r i t i s h f a m i l i e s could be s a i d to be l i v i n g i n such a dwelling.  Like education and the s o c i a l s e c u r i t y  and h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , i t has ceased to be thought of as e x c l u s i v e l y designed f o r the b e n e f i t of the working c l a s s e s , and there i s no longer a stigma attached to l i v i n g i n subsidized housing, as there undoubtedly was i n the i n t e r war p e r i o d .  In general, there i s l i t t l e doubt that post-  war housing represents a b e t t e r standard of accommodation f o r a greater number of f a m i l i e s at rents they can a f f o r d , than anything e a r l i e r i n B r i t a i n ' s h i s t o r y .  12 In over f o r t y years of experience, of course, there have been mistakes as well as achievements,  and a  number of lessons bave been learned as a r e s u l t .  Although  i t i s true tbat some councils experimented more than others, many of tbe pre-war bousing developments were characterized by t b e i r sameness and dreary monotony of a r c h i t e c t u r e , ^ t h e i r tendency to become mere dormitory estates thus increasing transport costs, and above a l l t b e i r lack of p r o v i s i o n f o r tbe s o c i a l needs of tbe people. A simple but e f f e c t i v e i l l u s t r a t i o n of tbe l a t t e r point i s given by L. £. White who compares tbe s o c i a l p r o v i s i o n i n a small established town of only 2,500 people and a bousing estate of twice tbat population.  Tbe  comparison  was made i n 1939* f i v e years a f t e r tbe b u i l d i n g of tbe 2 estate bad s t a r t e d .  Nursery and Infant Schools . . . . Primary Schools Secondary Schools Churches and Chapels Community H a l l s Taverns Hotels Post O f f i c e Cinemas ••  Small Town  Housing Estate  1 3 1 11 1 4 7 1 1  1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 Tbe V i c t o r i a n s exploited tbe idea tbat architecture was an upper-class s p e c i a l i t y wbicb had nothing to do witb "bousing". 2 L. E. White, Community or Chaos: and t h e i r S o c i a l Problems, p. 9*  New Housing Estates  13  Small Towns Libraries Parks and Recreation Grounds Youth Organizations .... Adult Organizations ....  Housing Estate  1 3 7 15  0 1 5 8  The comparison between organizations c a t e r i n g f o r youth and adults i s even more i n v i d i o u s than the f i g u r e s suggest, as both youth and adult organizations on the estate catered f o r only a f r a c t i o n a l minority of the population.  Moreover, the many smaller services provided  by churches i n the small town have been ignored. c a l c u l a t e d that, before the war,  I t was  l e s s than 2 per cent of  the tenants on the large municipal estates were served by community centres* However, one should n e i t h e r forget to compare these estates with the s q u a l i d s t r e e t s they replaced, nor to take i n t o account the l a c k of b u i l d i n g space and the concern f o r preserving park space i n such a densely popul a t e d country as B r i t a i n ,  As p r o j e c t followed p r o j e c t ,  these estates have improved g r e a t l y .  The best  housing of the inter-war period i s represented  low-density by  wythehshawe, near Manchester, and by the e a r l y London County Council estates at Tottenham and Roehampton, a l l of which were influenced by the "garden c i t y " movement.  Many  of the landscaping additions to housing have been s p e c i f i c a l l y B r i t i s h developments.  14 Although b u i l d i n g was  at a s t a n d s t i l l during  the war, t h i n k i n g , w r i t i n g and planning went on, three important reports were published — Barlow, Uthwatt, and Scott Committees —  and  those of the which were to  r e v o l u t i o n i z e the whole prospect of town and  country  planning, at l e a s t as f a r as i t s t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s i s concerned.  These famous reports were r e l a t e d to three of  the most d i f f i c u l t elements of planning i n B r i t a i n :  the  d i s t r i b u t i o n of the i n d u s t r i a l population, land-use i n r u r a l areas, and land values, e s p e c i a l l y increases i n land value due to housing and urban development. Named a f t e r the Chairmen of the Commission and Committees which produced them, S i r Thomas Barlow, Lord J u s t i c e Scott, and Mr, J u s t i c e Uthwatt, these reports a l l agreed that the use of land f o r industry, f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r amenity, or f o r urban development could not be  left  to the operation of an u n r e s t r i c t e d system of p r i v a t e land ownership and p r i v a t e economic e n t e r p r i s e .  The Barlow  Report (1940) dealt with the geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of the i n d u s t r i a l population.  Previously, planning had been  piecemeal, but the Barlow Commission f o r the f i r s t time looked at the question n a t i o n a l l y .  This i s the key pro-  blem, because the l o c a t i o n of work-places determines the l o c a t i o n of homes, and the size of towns, among other things.  15  The Uthwatt Report (194-2) studied the problem of land values i n r e l a t i o n to t e r r i t o r i a l planning, and  was  a d i r e c t outcome of tbe Barlow Commission's recommendations tbat, unless reasonable s t a b i l i t y could be assured, tbe whole planning process would be held to ransom by land speculators. ment i n 1954-  Unfortunately, and 1959  tbe Acts passed by tbe govern-  bave r e j e c t e d every vestige of tbe  Uthwatt proposals.^" Tbe report of tbe Scott Committee (19A2) dealt witb land u t i l i z a t i o n  i n r u r a l areas so tbat tbey might  absorb a c e r t a i n amount of urban encroachment without l o s s to t b e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c way  of l i f e .  The response  by tbe Government to these Reports was manifested by tbe establishment  of a Central Planning Authority, wbicb was  e f f e c t e d by tbe passing of tbe M i n i s t r y of Town and Country Planning Act, 194-31 by wbicb tbe c e n t r a l planning powers were t r a n s f e r r e d from tbe M i n i s t r y of Works and Buildings to a new  M i n i s t r y charged with the duty of  "ensuring consistency and c o n t i n u i t y i n tbe framing and execution of a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y with respect to tbe use tbe  of  land". In a d d i t i o n to these reports a number of surveys  1 I t bas been estimated tbat the e f f e c t of the 1959 Act bas been to r a i s e land costs over the whole country by 25 per cent. This, of course, i s the s i t u a t i o n also i n North America except that land costs bave r i s e n f a r more.  16 and reports of l i f e on the housing estates, published about the same time, helped to focus a t t e n t i o n on t h e i r s o c i a l problems*  Stimulated by such n a t i o n a l bodies as the Town  and Country Planning A s s o c i a t i o n , the Housing Centre, the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Planning and Regional Reconstruction, and the National Council of S o c i a l Service, conferences were h e l d and d i s c u s s i o n and survey groups were started*  Nor  was i n t e r e s t e n t i r e l y confined to the t e c h n i c a l experts or housing a u t h o r i t i e s *  Through the use of documentary  f i l m s and popular discussions (which s t a r t e d during the war years i n the Services and i n the C i v i l Defence u n i t s ) , the problems of housing and planning have been brought before the people f o r whom the plans are presumably being made • The s o l u t i o n to the anonymity of the great housing estates was thought to l i e i n the c r e a t i o n of the "neighbourhood u n i t " .  "Neighbourhood u n i t s " were proposed  as a planning device as e a r l y as 1929 by Clarence Perry and others who worked on the Regional Plan f o r Greater New  York; but the components were evolved also i n various  towns f o r many of the housing p r o j e c t s b u i l t by Western European countries ( i n c l u d i n g Sweden, Holland, Denmark, Germany, France and Switzerland) a f t e r the f i r s t World War.  In B r i t a i n , neighbourhood objectives were given  vigorous formulation by Professor Abercrombie of the  17  U n i v e r s i t y of London, and t h e i r incorporation i n the new plans f o r Greater London were followed by various adoptions i n dozens of B r i t i s h c i t i e s t h e r e a f t e r .  In  the London Plan, tbere was a conscious endeavour to recover much that was worthwhile i n tbe o l d v i l l a g e t r a d i t i o n and t r a n s l a t e i t i n t o modern urban terms.  I t could  be applied equally as a p r i n c i p l e of planning to the reconstruction of " b l i t z e d " or "blighted" c e n t r a l areas, or to tbe planning of new estates and s a t e l l i t e towns. The population, too, would be l i m i t e d , perhaps, to f i v e to t e n thousand people, wbicb i s a r e l a t i v e l y small community i n B r i t a i n .  In contrast with tbe one-  c l a s s estates, tbere would be a wise mingling of people with a d i v e r s i t y of occupations and income l e v e l s , i n order to produce a s o c i a l l y balanced community.  A variety  of accommodation would be needed, and tbere would be p r o v i s i o n also f o r o l d people.  I t was r e a l i s e d tbat each  estate would need a l l tbe e s s e n t i a l s o c i a l services, and even some suitable l i g h t industry. Unfortunately,  owing to tbe budget l i m i t a t i o n s  wbicb showed up as the r e a l i t y of tbe post-war period, not a l l t h i s could be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a c t i o n .  Host of  tbe l a r g e r new estates, however, have been planned on neighbourhood l i n e s , even though s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n are often s t i l l inadequate.  Most of the  18  post-war estates contain a v a r i e t y of types of accommodation, so that interchange w i l l he p o s s i b l e , and f a m i l i e s w i l l no longer have to move from the estate as t h e i r housing needs change.  In the same way, a deter-  mined e f f o r t has been made to achieve a better s o c i a l balance, and one of the i n d i c a t o r s of t h i s was that the words "working c l a s s " were omitted from the 194-9 A c t . The same Act provided f o r a small proportion of nonsubsidised housing t o middle-income group f a m i l i e s by l o c a l authorities.  Nevertheless, since the a l l o c a t i o n of  new houses i s r i g h t l y determined by housing need, the proportion of these "non-subsidy" houses i s l i k e l y to remain small f o r some time. Although, as compared with the average pre-war schemes, post-war developments have included better l a y out and s i t i n g , and better standards of a r c h i t e c t u r a l design; f o r the f i r s t t e n years or so since the war, l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s were b u i l d i n g new houses to meet the general shortage, as f a s t as t h e i r resources would permit, on any a v a i l a b l e s i t e which could be acquired. of slum clearance and the redevelopment  Problems  of c e n t r a l areas,  i n v o l v i n g high costs of land, the displacement and compensation  of industry, the rehousing of o v e r s p i l l  19 population,  and the c r e a t i o n of new open spaces, were  v i r t u a l l y i n c o l d storage u n t i l the 1954- Housing Repairs and Rents Act gave a new turn to housing p o l i c y .  To-day  the wiser p o l i c y of planned redevelopment within the confines of e x i s t i n g c i t i e s , together with the planning of new towns, or the enlargement of small towns, to receive both industry and o v e r s p i l l population from i n d u s t r i a l centres, i s generally acknowledged as tbe r i g h t way to proceed.  Tbis was r e c e n t l y confirmed by tbe  l a t e s t Government report (1964) recommending plans to redesign tbe whole of South-East England, an area which embraces n e a r l y one-third of B r i t a i n ' s population. Tbe p l a n includes tbe c r e a t i o n of three more new towns, expansion of c e r t a i n others, and doubling the size of tbe p  greenbelt around London. Types of P u b l i c Housing i n B r i t a i n Against t b i s background, which i s a matter of  1 " O v e r s p i l l " can best be described as tbe extent to wbicb e x i s t i n g c i t y population can s p i l l over i n t o tbe countryside, i n t o New or Expanded Towns, attracted outwards by new and r e l o c a t e d industry and by new p u b l i c bousing. " O v e r s p i l l " i s thus r e l a t e d t o d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of densely populated urban areas. 2 "Greenbelt" means an area of open space of many kinds ( i n c l u d i n g farming as w e l l as parks and n a t u r a l woodland) o r i g i n a l l y designated to prevent the c a p i t a l from spreading endlessly i n t o tbe countryside i n which b u i l d i n g developments are r e s t r i c t e d . I t bas been c o n t i n u a l l y threatened and i n some areas a c t u a l l y encroached as i n the l a s t ten years.  20 s o c i a l p o l i c y as well as of h i s t o r y , i t i s possible to d i s t i n g u i s h four kinds of p u b l i c housing i n B r i t a i n .  And  t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t because of the d i f f e r e n c e s between them, and also because some of the developments vary so much, i n approach or s i z e or both, from North American developments.  The four categories are (1) slum  clearance or replacement housing i n the c e n t r a l areas of many large c i t i e s , (2) housing estates situated within or on the o u t s k i r t s of many large c i t i e s , (3) planned extensions New  to c e r t a i n small towns, and  Towns.  (4) the  eighteen  They w i l l be separately discussed i n t h i s  order; so that more general references i n other chapters can be r e l a t e d back to them i f necessary.  They may  be  b r i e f l y r e f e r r e d to as replacement housing, "estates", "extended towns", and New 1)  Towns, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Replacement Housing In Hay  Government was  1963  the M i n i s t e r of Housing and Local  able to announce that more than a quarter  of the slums had been c l e a r e d .  But the main emphasis i n  l o c a l authority housing i s s t i l l on slum clearance.  Most  of the cleared s i t e s i n B r i t i s h c i t i e s are to be a l l o c a t e d to new  housing; but i t i s r a r e l y possible to rehouse on  a s i t e more than s i x t y to seventy per cent of those d i s placed by clearance.  Densities i n the o l d areas were  21 often as nigh as 150 persons to the acre, and might even reach 300.  The need to rehouse on the s i t e s as many  people as i s compatible with reasonable standards of accommodation and amenity d i c t a t e s the type of bousing t o be provided.  In c e n t r a l areas of Birmingham, 80 per cent  of the new development i s i n f l a t s , and t b i s may be taken as t y p i c a l of the majority of schemes i n tbe c e n t r a l areas. L i v e r p o o l favours 'mixed development', of wbicb tbe Everton Heights scheme i n tbat c i t y i s an example, and most a u t h o r i t i e s include some 'maisonettes' as well as high blocks.  (duplexes)  In London, the best example of  mixed development i s S t . Anne's neighbourhood,  Poplar,  where the people have l o s t t h e i r s t r e e t s but have gained open space, gardens with flowers growing alongside tbe paths, playgrounds, and paddling pools. Most of the f a m i l i e s who have long endured tbe discomforts of tbe slums look forward eagerly to tbe o f f e r of a better home and welcome tbe prospect of tbe move, yet a sharp d i s t i n c t i o n must be drawn between (a) rehousing f o r slum clearance and (b) p r o v i d i n g houses f o r f a m i l i e s who are on the ordinary waiting l i s t .  Tbe  l a t t e r seek a new home v o l u n t a r i l y , but, once a slum clearance program i s i n operation, the occupants of slums w i l l be required to move whether they wish to or not. Por t b i s reason, even more than when f a m i l i e s are rehoused  22  at t h e i r own  request as a r e s u l t of lack of accommodation,  compulsory rehousing, such as i s involved i n  redeveloping  old areas, e n t a i l s a heavy r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the society i n whose name the compulsion i s applied.  Because of the  complex nature of human needs, i t has to he  recognized  that more than the p r o v i s i o n of p h y s i c a l h a b i t a t i o n w i l l be required to compensate f o r the non-material s a t i s f a c t i o n s which may  have been l o s t .  "Che process of clearance  and r e b u i l d i n g w i l l be  long, and during the period of r e b u i l d i n g many of the inhabitants of the o l d areas w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be rehoused on housing estates, or perhaps i n an "expanded town" by s p e c i a l arrangement between the municipal concerned.  authorities  This r a i s e s the s e r i e s of welfare and housing  p o l i c y matters which have now  become f a m i l i a r i n the  United States since p u b l i c housing gained momentum there, and are u s u a l l y summed up as the " r e l o c a t i o n " problems. In most Canadian c i t i e s , they are hardly taken s e r i o u s l y as large or immediate i s s u e s . 2)  Housing "Estates" As already i n d i c a t e d , municipal  have undergone considerable  housing estates  change i n structure, b u i l d i n g  materials and lay-out since t h e i r e a r l y development., Wherever they were b u i l t , i n the inter-war  years, they  23  were, u n t i l r e c e n t l y , a l l too apt to be drab and unimaginative, having an average density of twelve houses to tbe acre.  I n d i v i d u a l l y , w i t h i n tbe l i m i t s l a i d down, the  houses were often well-designed, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f tbe c o u n c i l wbicb b u i l t them was fortunate i n i t s a r c h i t e c t ; but tbe lack of v a r i e t y i n materials and economies i n s i z e and type of b u i l d i n g contributed to tbe impressions of monotony so often complained about*  A few outstanding  examples only, set out to achieve good v i s u a l and s o c i a l results. Housing estates are to be distinguished from p r o j e c t s on redeveloped areas because, f o r tbe most p a r t , tbey are b u i l t on tbe o u t s k i r t s of towns or on available unused s i t e s w i t h i n c i t y boundaries.  Some of the pre-war  estates were b u i l t to r e l i e v e tbe general bousing shortage, whilst others, notably those b u i l t under tbe s o - c a l l e d "Greenwood" Act (tbe Housing Act of 1930), were s p e c i f i c a l l y intended as slum clearance schemes.  In tbe e a r l y  days tbe vast majority (75 per cent) of the houses had three bedrooms, intended as they were to meet the needs of young married couples.  R e a l i z a t i o n of the problem  t b i s created f o r tbe next generation when tbe c h i l d r e n whom these bouses were designed to accommodate grew up and married, leaving t b e i r bouses under-occupied, l e d to a fundamental  change i n tbe planning of these e s t a t e s .  24 Over the country as a whole, the proportion of threebedroom houses (or other dwellings) has f a l l e n from per cent i n 1955  to 41 per cent i n 1 9 5 9 * w h i l e  63*1  high  blocks of f l a t s and maisonettes are appearing; at the same time some smaller houses, e s p e c i a l l y bungalows f o r o l d people, are being b u i l t , suited as f a r as possible to the kinds of f a m i l i e s who are going to l i v e i n them.  This  "mixed" development, as i t i s c a l l e d , also implies cont r a s t s i n the height and form of b u i l d i n g s , and i n the treatment of private and p u b l i c open space, as well as g i v i n g v i s i b l e expression to the actual s o c i a l v a r i e t y of a community and a f f o r d i n g more economical use of land. A number of the post-war estates have been planned i n neighbourhood u n i t s , each with i t s own primary school, stores, l o c a l s e r v i c e s , and amenities to serve the , immediate needs of the f a m i l i e s housed there. However, i n some cases, these p r o j e c t s have been developed as mere "housing estates", without s u f f i c i e n t regard to the i n t e g r a t i o n of housing with places of work, commerce, shopping and entertainment f a c i l i t i e s , which take up space and cost money but make a l l the d i f f e r e n c e between an a t t r a c t i v e  1 J . H. Nicholson, New  neighbourhood  Communities i n B r i t a i n , p. 2 1 .  25  and a packed mass of unrelieved s t r e e t s .  The weakness has  a r i s e n not only from lack of imagination on the part of responsible housing a u t h o r i t i e s , but i s also tbe r e s u l t of f i n a n c i a l stringency, of piecemeal  l e g i s l a t i o n , and tbe  absence of any co-ordinated economic or i n d u s t r i a l planning p o l i c y at a n a t i o n a l l e v e l .  Once an estate i s established  without such f a c i l i t i e s , the balance i s d i f f i c u l t to correct l a t e r * 3)  Expanded Towns In 1952, a new branch of bousing  (witb some  smaller precedents from tbe past) was given l e g a l recognition.  Under tbe Town Development Act of that year, some  small towns may enter into agreements witb large c i t i e s to take t b e i r " o v e r s p i l l " population and to provide them with both bouses and employment.  Tbis Act bad tbe same  general aim as the New Towns Act —  to provide accom-  modation outside the congested areas —  but while the  l a t t e r provided f o r the cost to be met by government c r e d i t s , tbe Town Development Act r e l i e d on the e x i s t i n g machinery of l o c a l government, witb c e n t r a l government assistance.  F i n a n c i a l assistance might be of one of the  f o l l o w i n g kinds:  (a) a f i x e d government payment, (b) a  payment dependent upon arrangements between "importing" and "exporting" m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and (c) any d e f i c i t wbicb would have to be met by tbe "importing" a u t h o r i t y .  26 Expanded Towns are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the p r i n c i p l e of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and •"overspill", of the overcrowded i n d u s t r i a l centres, e s p e c i a l l y London. to them has developed  Migration  i n importance because even the  m u l t i p l y i n g New Towns have not been enough as o v e r s p i l l recipients.  The towns chosen f o r expansion have c a r e f u l l y  planned programs f o r the development of s u i t a b l e industry, and the population growth i s c a r e f u l l y r e l a t e d to i n d u s t r i a l needs* Expansion of t h i s kind brings with i t a number of problems, one of which i s that the o l d town centre i s no longer adequate, and there i s a delay i n providing stores and other f a c i l i t i e s i n time to keep pace with the growth of the town.  In the e a r l y stages, the program ran  i n t o d i f f i c u l t i e s because the country towns, surprised i n t h e i r quiet country ways, found i t d i f f i c u l t to adjust to the newcomers and there r e s u l t e d some tension and h o s t i l i t y on both s i d e s .  However, there are i n c r e a s i n g signs of  co-operation as the people i n the country began to recognize the very material advantages of sponsored growth. Several studies have h i g h l i g h t e d some other d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n t h i s s c h e m e I t has been pointed  1 See, f o r instance, H. B. Eodgers, "Employment and the Journey to Work i n an O v e r s p i l l Gommunity," The Sociol o g i c a l Review. December 1959; J« B. Cullingworth,,  27 out, f o r instance, that to secure the e f f e c t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l r e - l o c a t i o n with population t r a n s f e r i s a task of very great d i f f i c u l t y , i n which i t would be u n r e a l i s t i c to expect complete success.  I t i s not merely  a matter of estimating tbe number of jobs that the community i s l i k e l y to need, and then attempting an equivalent volume of new  new  to guide  employment i n t o tbe area.  Tbe  d i f f i c u l t y becomes apparent when i t i s recognized that any population contains a most complex mixture of s k i l l s , experience, a b i l i t y and ambitions,  and that i t s char-  a c t e r i s t i c occupational structure may  f i t neither tbe type  of work a v a i l a b l e i n e x i s t i n g l o c a l industry nor tbe s p e c i a l demands of tbe new provide employment nearby.  enterprises brought i n to Tbe f a c t tbat t b i s bas  occurred  i n some of tbe Expanded Towns, where the range of work bas remained narrow, has r e s u l t e d i n a widespread f e e l i n g of insecurity.  For instance, Gullingworth reports that at  Swindon, i n comparison witb London, the number of jobs i n the area i s very r e s t r i c t e d and, furthermore, v i r t u a l l y no others within reasonable  there are  t r a v e l l i n g distance.  Tbis bas given r i s e to f e a r of tbe p o s s i b i l i t y of redundacy and of tbe insecure future f o r school leavers.  It  " S o c i a l Implications of O v e r s p i l l : Tbe Worsley S o c i a l Survey," Tbe S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. J u l y I 9 6 0 ; J . B. Gullingworth, "The Swindon S o c i a l Survey: A Second Report on the S o c i a l Implications of O v e r s p i l l , " The S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, v o l . 9» 1 9 6 1 .  28 must be borne i n mind, however, tbat most of these problems may be resolved with the passage of time, and the f e e l i n g of i n s e c u r i t y and f e a r of the future of which Cullingworth speaks may be normal reactions following from the  very r e a l break with a f a m i l i a r environment and way of  life. By the end of 1959* t h i r t y - e i g h t schemes f o r Expanded Towns had been approved, providing f o r about 62,500 houses of which nearly h a l f were f o r London overspill.  By the same date, 9*862 houses had been, or were  being b u i l t ; and at l e a s t 3,850 f a m i l i e s had moved out from London, through t h i s arm of B r i t i s h housing p o l i c y . 4)  Hew Towns In  1946, on the recommendation  of the E e i t h  Committee, the Labour Government passed the New Towns Act  —  and thereby launched a great experiment i n s o c i a l  planning. In drawing up h i s Greater London Plan i n 1944, Sir  P a t r i c k Abercrombie proposed that a s e r i e s of new  towns should be established to which people and industry from the overcrowded boroughs of the metropolis could be moved. to  The s i t e s he recommended were about twenty-five  t h i r t y miles from London, w e l l outside the suburban  fringe.  This suggestion aroused considerable i n t e r e s t ,  P u b l i c Housing i n B r i t a i n  Stevenage New  Town: F l a t l e t s f o r the E l d e r l y  29 and proposals f o r new towns appeared i n several other planning reports then "being prepared f o r a number of other cities.^" In 1945 a committee was set up under tbe c h a i r manship of Lord R e i t h , which issued i t s reports the following year,  The recommendations i n these reports were  incorporated into tbe Hew Towns Act, 1946.  Tbe Act dealt  witb tbe c o n s t i t u t i o n and functions of the development corporations and the method by which tbe new towns were to be financed.  The Development Corporations, which are  appointed by and are responsible to tbe M i n i s t e r of Housing and L o c a l Government, and financed by loans r a i s e d through tbe Treasury, bave tbe power to acquire, by agreement or by compulsory purchase, any land or property necessary f o r t h e i r purposes, to c a r r y out b u i l d i n g and other operations, and to provide tbe services required 2 f o r tbe development of tbe town.  As regards the l a t t e r ,  however, tbe Development Corporations must work i n conjunction witb tbe P a r i s h , D i s t r i c t , Borough or County Councils which operate within t h e i r designated areas, f o r these are s t i l l the r a t i n g a u t h o r i t i e s which must supply a l l tbe s e r v i c e s normally rendered by l o c a l government. 1 The New Towns of B r i t a i n . Central O f f i c e of Information Reference Pamphlet No. 44, 1961. 2 Ibid.  30 It was intended that u l t i m a t e l y the Corporations should be d i s s o l v e d and that the New Towns should be handed over to the appropriate l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , but i t was argued that the e x i s t i n g r u r a l or urban a u t h o r i t i e s were not suited to take over such r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and i n 1959 the New Towns Act made p r o v i s i o n f o r the s e t t i n g up of a single Commission f o r England and Wales — Commission f o r the New Towns —  known as the  which w i l l take over the  assets and l i a b i l i t i e s of each of the Development Corporations as i t completes i t s work. The New Towns are designed as self-contained and balanced communities, each with i t s proper complement of schools, shops, s o c i a l amenities and p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , to which industry and population have been moved from a congested area.* " 1  They are intended to o f f e r a combi-  nation of urban f a c i l i t i e s with low-density housing and access to ample open space.  So f a r as housing i s con-  cerned, the q u a l i t y of design i n the New Towns i s higher than that of most l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s .  More thought has  been given to i n d i v i d u a l house design, to layout and the grouping of houses, and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to other amenities. The fundamental difference between New Towns  1 A l i s t of New Towns may be found i n Appendix A.  31  and other forms of housing development i s the d i r e c t l i n k between industry and housing.  U n t i l the recent  duction of the I n d u s t r i a l S e l e c t i o n Scheme —  intro-  which permits  workers on the housing l i s t s of l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n London to apply f o r jobs i n New of New  Town houses was  Town f a c t o r i e s —• the a l l o c a t i o n  r e s t r i c t e d to b u i l d i n g workers, to  employees of firms which erected or leased premises i n Towns, and to teachers and other p r o f e s s i o n a l workers moved there to serve the needs of the new  New who  communities.  I t has meant, despite c e r t a i n t r a n s i t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of keeping housing and f a c t o r y construction i n step, that the New  Towns have a d e f i n i t e character, a  s o c i a l focus, as places to l i v e and work.  The  conditions  of work are among the best i n the country; the buildings are new,  the plants are new,  the i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s are  easy to reach from the workers' homes, thus abolishing long, expensive journeys.  A l l these have an important  e f f e c t on i n d u s t r i a l morale and personal h e a l t h . The success that B r i t a i n and other European countries have had i n the experiment of developing  New  Towns, has presumably l e d to an i n t e r e s t i n t h i s kind of innovation i n the United States. Congress on January 2?» 1964,  In h i s message to  President Johnson asked  f o r authority to include i n an extensive housing and  32  redevelopment program, planning f o r New  T wns along much 0  the same l i n e s as i n B r i t a i n .  United States Experience The f e d e r a l government of the United States f i r s t entered the f i e l d  of housing during World Wax  I to  provide dwellings f o r workers engaged i n n a t i o n a l defence. This served as a precedent f o r the c r e a t i o n of a housing d i v i s i o n i n the P u b l i c Works Administration during the depression of the 1930's which c a r r i e d out the  first  program of slum clearance and b u i l t the f i r s t houses f o r low-income f a m i l i e s .  The f a m i l i e s who  received t h i s  b e n e f i t were p r i m a r i l y manual workers, motivated towards self-improvement.  They were poor and needed low-rental  accommodation, but they were urbanites, accustomed to high density l i v i n g , and were mostly employed.  L o c a l housing  a u t h o r i t i e s screened out welfare r e c i p i e n t s and f a m i l i e s with problems; and even the most progressive A u t h o r i t i e s established quotas to c o n t r o l the composition of t h e i r tenant bodies. During World War  I I , housing programs, as i n  Canada, refocussed on p r o v i s i o n of dwellings f o r workers i n war i n d u s t r i e s and f o r servicemen;  but, a f t e r the  war,  33  the new  Housing Act of 1?A9 made p r o v i s i o n f o r the con-  s t r u c t i o n of p u b l i c housing u n i t s " f o r the purpose of promoting the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and emotional well-being" of a l l c i t i z e n s concerned.  Tbis l e g i s l a t i o n provided  that f i r s t preference must be given to f a m i l i e s displaced by clearance a c t i v i t y , and i t p r o h i b i t e d l i m i t a t i o n on intake of welfare-assisted f a m i l i e s , and therefore a generation of bousing tenants was  created.  new  Tbere bave  been various changes of l e g i s l a t i o n up to the most recent Housing Act of 1961,  established to eliminate substandard  bousing and to a i d i n a program of urban renewal. several changes of administration, there i s now  After  one major  Department, tbe P u b l i c Housing Administration i n tbe Housing and Home Finance Agency. Families l i v i n g i n united States p u b l i c housing to-day bave these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; h a l f of the f a m i l i e s are non-white, almost h a l f are l i v i n g on assistance or benefit incomes, one-third are one-parent f a m i l i e s , onequarter are e l d e r l y , a l l are low-income f a m i l i e s . general i t i s c l e a r that they are deprived and taged —  In  disadvan-  the victims of f a i l u r e of an a f f l u e n t s o c i e t y to  improve the l o t of a l l of i t s c i t i z e n s . term also i s "unacculturated" —  But a f a v o u r i t e  not used to urban l i v i n g ,  from r u r a l or peasant backgrounds, handicapped by language and other ethnic d i f f e r e n c e s .  However, i t was  recognition  of the f a c t that these same f a m i l i e s are neither unworthy,  34 nor undeserving, nor incapable, and that the e f f o r t of helping them overcome dependency and e s t a b l i s h a new self-image would be worth-while,  that l e d to the c r e a t i o n  of a Task Force by the Housing and Home Finance Agency and the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n , to provide health, education and welfare services f o r f a m i l i e s r e s i d i n g i n p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s . Announcement of the j o i n t plan was made i n 1962:  its  aim i s to develop l o c a l task f o r c e s , and to a i d plans i n a l l p o s s i b l e ways from t h i s f e d e r a l centre also."'" In h i s message to Congress on January 27»  1964,  by President Johnson, one of the major proposals made was f o r the c r e a t i o n of complete new  communities, each  with thousands of homes and f a c i l i t i e s f o r business, shopping, c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ; and with jobs "designed-in", much i n accordance of B r i t a i n .  with the New Towns  To make sure that the p l a n provided a l l the  desired f a c i l i t i e s and the best land use, and to be sure i t included homes f o r e l d e r l y and low-income f a m i l i e s , f i n a l approval would be up to the Housing Administrator p i n Washington.  1 See Appendix B f o r a f u l l e r account of the Task Force. 2 President Johnson, Message to Congress, January 27, 1964. (Quoted i n Wall Street Journal, January 28, 1964.)  35  In the United States to-day, p u b l i c housing developments are often huge p r o j e c t s of skyscraper type, b u i l t i n redevelopment areas to replace e x i s t i n g slums, or on new t r a c t s of formerly unused land i s o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g neighbourhood s e r v i c e s .  Both types of projects  s u f f e r from lack of imaginative design, from the prov i s i o n of community structure and open space, and common neighbourhood warmth.  Skyscrapers are so f a m i l i a r i n tbe  United States that they are not perhaps to be unexpected i n p u b l i c bousing:  but tbe packed tenement b u i l d i n g has  also been a product of economical b u i l d i n g f o r as large a number of people as possible with a given amount of financing.  As i l l u s t r a t i o n s of community planning  d i r e c t e d to o f f s e t some of these elements i n p u b l i c bousing, as opposed to tbe l a c k of such planning, two d e s c r i p t i v e p i c t u r e s of p r o j e c t s i n tbe United States are worth recounting. B u i l t as an important f a c t o r i n the renewal of Chicago's South Side, the Robert R. Taylor Homes was, i n 1962, tbe nation's l a r g e s t p u b l i c bousing community.  It  bouses 4,405 f a m i l i e s on a s i t e where once l e s s than 800 households l i v e d i n squalor.  Tbe thirty-one buildings  comprising Taylor Homes, while tbey are sizeable, occupy . only about seven per cent of tbe 95 acre s i t e , leaving, p l e n t y of room f o r playgrounds and gardens, and assuring  P u b l i c Housing i n the U n i t e d  States  36  a l l apartments of plenty of a i r and l i g h t .  Three-quarters  of the apartments have three or four bedrooms, one of which i s large enough t o accommodate three or four c h i l d r e n . There i s a community b u i l d i n g p r o v i d i n g headquarters  for  a Chicago Park D i s t r i c t program, f o r a branch of the Chicago Department of Health, and f o r Firman House, a neighbourhood settlement.  There are four p u b l i c schools  and one p a r o c h i a l school on the s i t e , and new shopping centres.  Churches on the s i t e have improved t h e i r pro-  p e r t i e s and expanded t h e i r s e r v i c e s . The Chicago Housing Authority has i n s t i t u t e d a Good Neighbour Program which extends to a l l i t s housing p r o j e c t s and which i s designed t o promote tenant programs and develop leadership, to b r i n g s e r v i c e s t o the r e s i d e n t s , to improve l i v i n g standards and to f o s t e r s e l f - r e s p e c t . The Taylor Homes have experimented with new programs, such as teaching homemaker s k i l l s to tenants i n conjunction with the Board of Education, and g i v i n g classes on c r e d i t buying i n conjunction with the Mayor's Committee on New Residents.  The Homes have a C i t i z e n ' s Committee a l s o ,  composed of tenant leaders and neighbourhood business, education and c l e r g y leaders. In contrast, Columbia Point Housing Project i n Boston has been described as resembling a p r i s o n ; i t has heavy chain fences, topped with barbed wire,ringing the  37  b u i l d i n g s ; everything i s girded with cement and asphalt; i t i s known as "Alcatraz" or "The Rock". tree i n s i g h t .  There i s not a  I t has come to be i n f e s t e d with r a t s .  Apartments i n tbe h i g h - r i s e blocks bave small rooms, paper t h i n walls, and exposed pipes.  The elevators of the  blocks are often out of order.  There i s nothing f o r tbe  young people of the project to do except to s i t i n tbe hallways,  and "nowhere to go" as i t i s s i t u a t e d i n an  i s o l a t e d part of Boston.  I t was b u i l t on cheap land  (because unwanted land):  economies l e d to maximum pro-  v i s i o n at dangerous disregard f o r amenity. Laundry must be done i n the kitchen sink as there are no other f a c i l i t i e s on tbe p r o j e c t ; tbe a l t e r native i s to take the washing by bus to a launderette. There are no restaurants, no l i b r a r y , no super-market, no Protestant or Jewish church, and no complete elementary school.  U n t i l a few months ago there was not even a  public telephone.  Xet 7000 people l i v e i n t h i s development.  These two housing developments are probably n e i t h e r the best nor the worst i n tbe United States.  But  they point up one of the c r i t i c a l features of p u b l i c bousing, which i s the imperative need that i t develop e i t h e r a "project community" or a community i n t e g r a t i n g the p r o j e c t and the surrounding neighbourhood, or both.  The a l t e r -  native i s segregation of the poor i n t o "communities" tbat  38  do not represent  a cross-section of the general  population,  so that a l l the good that decent housing can accomplish f o r a family i s undone because there has been no cons t r u c t i v e change i n the family's c u l t u r a l environment. Income r e s t r i c t i o n shows up, a l s o , as a dangerous p o l i c y when pushed to extremes. tenancy was  For, where once screening f o r  d i r e c t e d towards k e e p i n g out of p u b l i c housing  the welfare-assisted family, i t i s now the opposite p r a c t i c e — to even modest l e v e l s . h i s now  d i r e c t e d towards  e v i c t i n g those whose incomes r i s e As Michael Harrington has said i n  famous book, The Other America, the r e s u l t of  t h i s i s the c r e a t i o n of projects which r e f l e c t modern poor-farm mentality".  "the  Canadian c i t i e s are  fortunate  that they do not have to face low-income housing of the same dimensions as the great American c i t i e s .  But  there  i s much that can be learned from United States p u b l i c housing and applied i n Canada, as the program here i s stepped up to meet the great need.  The Canadian Scene Subsidized r e n t a l housing p r o j e c t s operated by l o c a l Housing A u t h o r i t i e s now centres throughout Canada.  e x i s t i n about  twenty-five  Large, or several p r o j e c t s ,  39  have been b u i l t i n only f i v e c i t i e s :  S t . John's (New-  foundland), H a l i f a x , St. John (New Brunswick), Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver.  The majority of others are very  small, mainly located i n Ontario.  Canadian p u b l i c bousing  on any large scale, i n short, i s so f a r only being developed i n a few main c i t i e s .  I t was hoped i n the present  study to obtain comparable data f o r a l l of them:  but i t  bas proved more p r a c t i c a l to review l a r g e r scale experience from B r i t a i n and tbe United States, and to survey only tbe four l o c a l p r o j e c t s i n Vancouver i n d e t a i l .  Information  i s a v a i l a b l e , however, f o r Canada's f i r s t major venture into p u b l i c bousing, wbicb i s i n Toronto, and t h i s i s the best i n t r o d u c t i o n to tbe subject. Tbe Regent Park (North) p r o j e c t , a slum clearance and redevelopment program, got under way i n 194? and completed ten years l a t e r .  was  The major story of the develop-  ment of t h i s p r o j e c t bas been documented i n Albert Rose's book Regent Park.  1  Tbere were over s i x hundred bouses and  commercial b u i l d i n g s , most of them i n poor r e p a i r , on tbe s i t e , p r i o r to demolition. now  The population on the s i t e i s  close to double what i t was then, yet there i s con-  s i d e r a b l y more open space.  The p r o j e c t , located on f o r t y -  two and-a-balf acres of cleared land i n densely populated  1 A l b e r t Rose, Regent Park. A Study i n Slum Clearance.  40 down-town Toronto, i s comprised of:  56 rowhouses, 13  three-story apartment blocks, 6 s i x - s t o r y apartment blocks, and the Administration and Community Center Building.  The William C. Dies B u i l d i n g f o r "Diminishing  Families" was added l a t e r and completed i n 1959 Buildings occupy ten-and-one-half acres of the p r o j e c t area, parking, four-and-one-half  acres, play  areas, ten-and-one-half acres, and there are seventeen acres of open space.  The buildings are grouped along the  outer boundaries of the s i t e ; some divide the inner space into three large sections. the p r o j e c t area.  No through s t r e e t s cut across  Recreational and p l a y spaces include  two baseball diamonds, areas f o r basket b a l l and v o l l e y b a l l , two "Tiny Tot Playgrounds", and i c e r i n k s i n the winter.  The Administration B u i l d i n g includes a gymnasium,  stage, and a games room.  Four c r a f t s rooms and a boxing  r i n g are located i n the basement of one of the blocks. Indoor play f a c i l i t i e s f o r the young c h i l d r e n are located i n the William C. Dies B u i l d i n g .  Supervision of  r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i s provided by the Department of Parks and Recreation.  The William C. Dies B u i l d i n g f o r  1 The d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e n t a l u n i t s i n Regent Park (North) i s as follows: 31 bachelor s u i t e s ; 190 one-bedroom s u i t e s ; 562 two-bedroom s u i t e s ; 498 three-bedroom s u i t e s ; 821 four-bedroom s u i t e s ; 34- five-bedroom s u i t e s .  41  "diminishing f a m i l i e s " has communal balconies and large main f l o o r lounging rooms.  two  The Garden Club of  Toronto presented d e t a i l e d landscaping plans f o r an adjoining garden, which i s intended  to provide a measure  of privacy to the occupants of t b i s b u i l d i n g . The Housing Authority of Toronto was i n 1947 16933).  (the C i t y of Toronto Act, 1947,  established  and By-law number  I t i s composed of f i v e members appointed by C i t y  Council upon the recommendation of the Board of Control. The majority of members may  not be elected representatives.  I t i s of i n t e r e s t to note tbat tbe Housing Authority i s now  engaged i n tbe f o l l o w i n g areas of  acti-  vity: 1.  The construction, maintenance, operation and manage- ,  ment of Regent Park (North) housing p r o j e c t . 2.  The maintenance, operation and management of. War  Time, Emergency and other Miscellaneous 3.  ,  Housing.  The construction, maintenance, operation and manage-  ment of new  or renovated housing financed under the  charter of the C i t y of Toronto Dividend Housing  Corporation  Limited. 4.  Tbe  operation and management of tbe Housing Registry.  In October, 1958,  a "Housing Registry" was  established  f o r l i s t i n g of available accommodation at reasonable  42 rents, and where prospective tenants may apply f o r leads. The R e g i s t r y i s operated as a p u b l i c s e r v i c e , and by  1963,  close to s i x thousand would-be tenants were given eont a c t s regarding available low-rental housing. 5. for 6.  The r e l o c a t i o n of f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n areas scheduled redevelopment. To provide C i t y Council with advice and information  on a l l p u b l i c housing p o l i c i e s and to investigate s p e c i a l projects. Developments i n Vancouver The development of p u b l i c housing i n Vancouver has moved along somewhat d i f f e r e n t l i n e s compared witb Toronto, although here a l s o , i t originated from concern over c l u s t e r s of neighbourhoods with overcrowded substandard housing, and the f a c t that the volume of new housing was out of step with demand, and that the cost of family dwellings was out of the reach of a large prop o r t i o n of the population. The notion of p u b l i c housing i n Vancouver, as elsewhere, was o r i g i n a l l y c l o s e l y l i n k e d with slum c l e a r ance and rehousing.  The e a r l y beginnings of the low-rental  housing movement i n Vancouver can be traced back to tbe e f f o r t s of the newly-founded Vancouver Housing A s s o c i a t i o n and i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s , during the m i d - t h i r t i e s .  After a  43 l e n g t h y l u l l , which l a s t e d i n t o post war y e a r s , i n t e r e s t was re-evoked i n the f o r t i e s . area, i d e n t i f i e d  A major survey of the S t r a t h c o n a  as a " c r i t i c a l " area w i t h regard t o housing  o t h e r w e l f a r e a s p e c t s , was c a r r i e d out i n 1 9 4 7 - 4 8 ,  and  p l e t e w i t h p r o p o s a l s f o r an e x t e n s i v e "neighbourhood tation"  program, i n c l u d i n g p u b l i c h o u s i n g .  taken by the c i t y a l o n g the proposed l i n e s .  com-  1  rehabili-  No a c t i o n was I n s t e a d , the  first  t h r e e p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s i n Vancouver, L i t t l e Mountain, Orchard  Park and Skeena T e r r a c e were e r e c t e d on vacant  o u t s i d e the S t r a t h c o n a a r e a .  sites  The s i t e f o r the f i r s t p r o j e c t ,  L i t t l e Mountain, was purchased i n 1950, the p r o j e c t was comp l e t e d i n 1955. Terrace  i n late  Orchard 1962.  Park was opened i n 1958 and Skeena  A l a t e r study ( 1 9 5 7 ) . o f the F a l s e Creek  a r e a , c a r r i e d out by the C i t y ' s P l a n n i n g Department,^ d e s i g nated the S t r a t h c o n a area a "comprehensive redevelopment a r e a " and p r i o r i t y s i t e w i t h i n a recommended twenty y e a r urban scheme.  renewal  Vancouver's f o u r t h p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t , MacLean  Park, completed i n A p r i l 1963,, i s l o c a t e d i n t h i s a r e a , and today i s the c i t y ' s  o n l y "slum c l e a r a n c e and redevelopment"  p r o j e c t , i n the s t r i c t e s t  sense.  Vancouver, t h u s , i n 1964 has a sample of slum c l e a r a n c e p r o p e r , and t h r e e p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s , b u i l t on vacant sites  i n e x i s t i n g neighbourhoods, which d e f y  classification  by r e f e r e n c e t o the p o p u l a r terms coined t o d e s c r i b e types of  L. C. Marsh, R e b u i l d i n g a Neighbourhood, Report on a Demonstration S lumn71e"Sr<Shc"e- "SticrUrfiari "KSHa"b i 1 i t a t i o n P r o j e c t i n a Key C e n t r a l Area i n Vancouver. 9  Vane ouver_ Redeve1qpment Study, C i t y of Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department!!  44 p r o j e c t s i n the U.S.  and B r i t a i n . ( d i s c u s s e d above).  T h i s type  of development ;has only'been p o s s i b l e because much vacant l a n d :  w i t h i n c i t y b o u n d a r i e s was  s t i l l available.  Dr. L. Marsh has  commented: " I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , i n d e e d , t h a t some i n s t a l m e n t s of p u b l i c h o u s i n g have been " i n f i l l i n g " ( i . e . , u t i l i z i n g s i t e s ) r a t h e r than d e m o l i t i o n p r o j e c t s .  vacant  But p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e s ,  and l a n d p r e s s u r e s of the type f a m i l i a r t o Western Europe are not f a r away from Canadian  c i t i e s : most p l a n n e r s would m a i n t a i n  i n f a c t t h a t t h e y are a l r e a d y ; . h e r e .  m1  The d e c i s i o n t o pursue  t h i s type of development i n d e a l i n g w i t h the need f o r l o w - c o s t r e n t a l h o u s i n g suggests t h a t s h o r t - t e r m f i n a n c i a l g o a l s were major f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n g the c h o i c e of s i t e s f o r the f i r s t three p r o j e c t s .  The p r o j e c t s were an i m p o r t a n t , though s m a l l ,  s t e p forward i n a l l e v i a t i n g the h o u s i n g needs of low-income f a m i l i e s throughout "Vancouver. " p l a n t e d " i n t o neighbourhoods welfare aspects.  w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of o t h e r  I n the Vancouver Redevelopment Study the  f o l l o w i n g statement redevelopment  On the o t h e r hand they were  i s made ( w i t h r e g a r d t o  "comprehensive  a r e a s " and " l i m i t e d redevelopment  areas"):  "Common t o both i s the need t o c o n s i d e r the a r e a as a whole, for  i n s t a n c e by the improvement of community f a c i l i t i e s and  s t r e e t p a t t e r n s and by the r e c o g n i t i o n of the importance p u b l i c morale and e d u c a t i o n . "  2  These w o r t h w h i l e  of  principles  should h o l d whereser:..' community b u i l d i n g goes on, and  this  i n c l u d e s the s i t u a t i o n i n which p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s I n t r o d u c e d i n t o a neighbourhood. t h a t such neighbourhood  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d the e v i d e n c e p l a n n i n g has been i n v o l v e d when Van-  couver'^ f i r s t t h r e e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s were s t a r t e d . J . S. Brown, D. Kogawa, R. P e t e r s , Public^J^ousJ^g^_and W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s : A comparative Review oT^omffilnity '~Experienee :  2 Vancouver Redevelopment Study.  45  I t can be agreed, i n d e e d , t h a t " i n f i l l i n g " has d e l a y e d redevelopment o f c r i t i c a l areas o f t h e c i t y , as f o r example, "Strathcona"  and the F a l s e Creek s e c t i o n s which have  continued  t o d e t e r i o r a t e f o r t e n o r f i f t e e n . yejnrs:-. .• - Howe-yer^ ; a-ma.&oy.. r e d e ;  velopment program, which i n v o l v e s e x t e n s i v e  d e m o l i t i o n and r e -  c o n s t r u c t i o n i n some areas and l i m i t e d re-development i n o t h e r s , i s now p r o j e c t e d f o r Vancouver, over a 2 0 y e a r p e r i o d .  Mac-  Lean Park i s the f i r s t o f s e v e r a l h o u s i n g "hanks" t o be b u i l t w i t h a view t o r e h o u s i n g persons who w i l l be d i s p l a c e d i n o r d e r t o make d e m o l i t i o n p o s s i b l e . There a r e some s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e MacLean Park p r o j e c t and t h e o t h e r t h r e e , r e l a t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t MacLean Park i s a s l u m - c l e a r a n c e p r o j e c t whereas t h e o t h e r s a r e not.  Tenant s e l e c t i o n i n t h e former i n v o l v e d p r i o r i t y t o r e s i -  dents t o be d i s p l a c e d , which i m p l i e s t h a t p o p u l a t i o n istics  character-  o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r a r e a had t o be t a k e n i n t o account  i n p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n i n g  the p r o j e c t .  Tenants f o r t h e o t h e r  t h r e e p r o j e c t s , on t h e o t h e r hand, were drawn from a l l over the c i t y , t h e r e f o r e d e c i s i o n s about t h e s i z e and k i n d s o f u n i t s t o be b u i l t c o u l d be made more a r b i t r a r i l y , and were based on a broader estimate  of need i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g .  I t goes w i t h o u t  s a y i n g t h a t i m p o r t a n t consequences f o l l o w f o r t h e f a m i l i e s e n t e r i n g p u b l i c h o u s i n g , depending on whether t h e y move w i t h i n t h e i r o l d neighbourhood o r i n t o a t o t a l l y strange  one.  In the  f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r more, w i l l be s a i d about the d i f f e r e n c e s i n population  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s between MacLean Park and t h e o t h e r  projects. L i t t l e ^Mouritain.  Vancouver's f i r s t p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t  i s s i t u a t e d e a s t o f Queen E l i z a b e t h park -- i t s b o u n d a r i e s a r e  46 Main S t r e e t and O n t a r i o S t r e e t , 33rd Ave. and 37th Ave. The p r o j e c t i s s i t u a t e d on seven a c r e s o f land and houses 224 families. blocks.  I t c o n s i s t s o f r o w h o u s e s and  three-storeyyapartment  The b u i l d i n g s a r e o f modern but unassuming d e s i g n ,  they a r e w i d e l y spaced and p l e a s a n t l y - a r r a n g e d w i t h lawns and w i n d i n g roads between them.  There a r e b l a c k t o p p e d  areas a t t h e  back o f the. b l o c k s f o r c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y , equipped w i t h some swings and sandboxes.  Fromson, Hansen and Smith g i v e a more  d e t a i l e d account o f t h e p r o j e c t ' s i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r d e s i g n and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g  neighbourhood.  T h i s p r o j e c t has b e n e f i t e d  from r a p i d growth o f t h e a r e a s i n c e t h e p r o j e c t was e s t a b l i s h e d , t h r o u g h development o f t h e Oakridge Shopping Centre and t h e lower Main S t r e e t a r e a .  Nearby Queen E l i z a b e t h Park, o f c o u r s e ,  i s one o f t h e c i t y ' s showplaces i n l a n d s c a p i n g .  These  develop-  ments have been u n r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o j e c t and t h e g a i n s t o t h e t e n a n t s have been i n c i d e n t a l r a t h e r than OrcJiard^^Park.  planned.  The second i n s t a l m e n t o f p u b l i c housing i n  Vancouver i s s i t u a t e d on an e l e v e n acre s i t e a t Nanairao S t r e e t between 4 l s t and 45th Avenues E a s t .  The p r o j e c t i s made up o f  e i g h t b l o c k s w i t h 10 apartments i n each, 53 rowhouses, 28 p e n s i o n e r u n i t s and 8 u n i t s f o r t h e handicapped.  E. M. Reid  d e s c r i b e s t h e appearance o f t h e p r o j e c t : "The g e n e r a l e x t e r i o r appearance o f the p r o j e c t now compares f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h e p r i v a t e housing  i n t h e envio^ons, and bordered  w i t h t h e huge  shade t r e e s a l o n g 4 l s t Ave., w i t h t h e North Shore mountains as a backdrop, t h e p r o j e c t " p r e s e n t s a p l e a s i n g scene t o t h e v i e w e r . " R e i d comments a l s o on l e s s f a v o u r a b l e a s p e c t s ;  (1) t h e c l o s e n e s s  Fromson, Hansen. Smith, The L i t t l e Mountain Low-Rental Housing P r o j e c t , A Survey o f " i t s " We'IfSre" "A^STTs'TFaTTc^u^r, T55'5-"5o7"Master oT SoclaT^TofK T h e s f s U " .T3 X." ~~L95T. 1  47 of u n i t s f o r the e l d e r l y and  handicapped t o f a m i l y u n i t s , where  l a r g e numbers of c h i l d r e n l i v e and  (2) t r a f f i c h a z a r d s :  --  "Many rowhouses, c o n t a i n i n g a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n  of the  population  45th Avenues,  are o r i e n t a t e d  toward b o t h 4lst and  where the f l o w of t r a f f i c project.  i s heavy.  No f e n c e s surround  the  Nanaimo S t r e e t , c u t t i n g through the middle of  the  p r o j e c t , has become a t h r o u g h S t r e e t . " the neighbourhood and found i n the Reid  i s located  F u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n of  i n t e r i o r d e s i g n of the  report.  SJ^ejna^^Terrace. projects  child  The  1  t h i r d of Vancouver's p u b l i c h o u s i n g  c l o s e t o the e a s t e r n  at Lougheed Highway and  l i v i n g units i s  Cassiar Street.  l a r g e s t of the f o u r , i s composed of 234 uted i n 95 rowhouses, 7 b l o c k s  b o r d e r of the  City,  This project,  the  dwelling units  (with ten s u i t e s i n each),  one  6 s t o r e y h i g h - r i s e b l o c k w i t h 69  The  project derives  suites for elderly  i t s name from i t s l o c a t i o n and  b u i l t on s l o p i n g ground n o r t h  distrib-  tenants.  design  of Lougheed Highway, the  and  --  buildings  are grouped a t d i f f e r e n t e l e v a t i o n s which makes an a t t r a c t i v e terraced e f f e c t .  While t h i s i s an a s s e t  s l o p i n g s t r e e t s and The  i n appearance, the  w a l k s cause i n c o n v e n i e n c e t o the  project s i t e includes  s p a c i o u s green a r e a s and  o f f toward the highway;-which, i n c i d e n t a l l y , i s below the p r o j e c t ground.  tenants.  i s fenced  considerably;-  Skeena T e r r a c e i s f a i r l y i s o l a t e d  as compared t o the o t h e r <;t.h:.ree p r o j e c t s .  To the n o r t h  and  west are average r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s but w i t h no major shopp i n g a r e a c l o s e by. development o r vacant  To the e a s t and  the south i s i n d u s t r i a l  land.  E. M. R e i d , Orchard Park: A Tenant Survey of the Second I n s t a l m e n t of PubTTc"Hous"irig "In "varicouve'r " (D€C7~T95QM£Y"1960) M a s t e r of S o c i a l : Work T h e s i s , U.B.C. 1962. 1  Vancouver's  -  Public  Housing  Skeena Terrace  -  48 MacLean Park.  Vancouver's slum c l e a r a n c e p r o j e c t i s l o -  c a t e d i n t h e c e n t r a l p a r t of t h e c i t y bounded by G e o r g i a S t r e e t , J a c k s o n Avenue, Union S t r e e t and Dunlevy Avenue.  The  p r o j e c t c o n s i s t s of 38 rowhouses and one h i g h - r i s e apartment block.  The l a t t e r has 52 1-bedroom and 69 b a c h e l o r  d e s i g n e d f o r s i n g l e t e n a n t s and c o u p l e s .  apartments  In the h i g h - r i s e  b u i l d i n g t h e r e i s a l a r g e lounge on t h e main f l o o r f o r t h e t e n a n t s ' u s e . The grounds i n c l u d e a r e c e s s e d , grassed at  area  t h e c e n t r e o f t h e p r o j e c t and a b l a c k - t o p p e d p l a y a r e a f o r  the c h i l d r e n .  Some l a n d s c a p i n g has been done on t h e grounds.  The p r o j e c t a r e a on t h e whole, has a c l e a n and t i d y appearance, and stands i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l  district  which i s i n q u i t e p o o r r e p a i r , b u t which i s mapped f o r g r a d u a l re-development.  The g e n e r a l a r e a i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e Vancouver  Redevelopment Study as f o l l o w s : "This was a good r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t 4o o r 50 y e a r s ago, and s t i l l has t h e c h a r a c t e r o f a genuine  neighbourhood.  S t r a t h c o n a S c h o o l a c t s as a f o c a l  c e n t r e and t h e r e i s an ample s u p p l y of churches and s o c i a l c e n t r e s , most o f which serve p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c groups r e s i d e n t in  the area.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , age, changes o f occupancy and con-  v e r s i o n s o f d w e l l i n g s have induced widespread The  deterioration."  s t u d y s t a t e s f u r t h e r t h a t t h e a r e a was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  (and s t i l l  i s ) a h i g h percentage  of Old Age A s s i s t a n c e r e -  c i p i e n t s , f a m i l i e s on S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e , and a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of  s i n g l e men, many of them accommodated i n Chinese  Houses" (cheap b o a r d i n g  houses).  "Bachelor  2  I n t h e d i s t r i c t i n which MacLean Park i s l o c a t e d almost one-half the p o p u l a t i o n i s Chinese. 2  4  9  Compared w i t h many European c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y B r i t a i n and  t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n n a t i o n s , and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , Canada i s  a novice and  i n the f i e l d of p u b l i c housing —  i n a s m a l l way.  i t has s t a r t e d l a t e  Y e t i n a narrower p e r s p e c t i v e  i t can now  l o o k back on a h i s t o r y and e x p e r i e n c e o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g o f i t s own.  Canada a l o n g w i t h o t h e r w e s t e r n c o u n t r i e s has now t o  cope w i t h a l o n g term t r e n d toward e x t e n s i v e  urbanization.  It  i s t h i s as w e l l as slum c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e o l d e r "core" which has brought t o t h e f o r e the demand f o r l o w - r e n t a l h o u s i n g i n urban c e n t r e s .  Concern over slum c o n d i t i o n s i n T o r o n t o ,  M o n t r e a l and o t h e r l a r g e c i t i e s was f i r s t v o i c e d a t t h e t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y .  Pressure  f o r slum c l e a r a n c e  and redevelopment  i n T o r o n t o gained impetus i n t h e 1930's, b u t World War I I i n t e r v e n e d between a c t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e proposed p l a n s . war  i n d u s t r i a l and p o p u l a t i o n  Post-  growth emphasized t h e o v e r - a l l  need f o r h o u s i n g and out o f t h i s a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g has come. Two major f a c t o r s impede t h e development of p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Canada.  The f i r s t i s a l a g i n p u b l i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  h o u s i n g i s s t i l l c o n c e i v e d by many as b e i n g  i n conflict  Public with,  or a t h r e a t t o , p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e and home ownership,  notions  d e e p l y i n g r a i n e d i n our c u l t u r e .  social  and  But r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t  economic f a c t o r s make p u b l i c h o u s i n g a n e c e s s a r y p a r t i n  the s t r u c t u r e o f today's c i t i e s i s g a i n i n g ground. L e g i s l a t i v e complications  a r e a second f a c t o r which im-  pede development of p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Canada.  Housing i s under  p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n : however, i t was r e c o g n i z e d f e d e r a l f i n a n c i n g was r e q u i r e d need f o r h o u s i n g .  early, that  i n o r d e r t o meet t h e n a t i o n ' s  N a t i o n a l Housing A c t s document t h e p r o -  50 - g r e s s i v e l y w i d e n i n g scope of f e d e r a l a i d f o r h o u s i n g from l o a n s t o home b u i l d e r s and provision f o r subsidized  "limited dividend"  p u b l i c housing i n partnership  p r o v i n c i a l governments, on a s e v e n t y - f i v e cent s h a r i n g b a s i s . drawn up and  The  companies, t o with  to twenty-five  per  p r o v i n c i a l governments, i n t u r n , have  l e g i s l a t i o n i n o r d e r t o a v a i l themselves of t h i s a i d ,  to further regulate  f i n a n c i a l responsibility for public  h o u s i n g between themselves and  municipalities.  Not  only  may  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have t o share i n the f i n a n c i n g of p u b l i c h o u s i n g , but  i n i t i a t i v e at l o c a l l e v e l i s required  provincial aid.  W i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; , shared by t h r e e l e v e l s  of government, i t i s obvious t h a t p l a n n i n g and  s e t t i n g up  p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t becomes a c o m p l i c a t e d and matter. has  for federal-  It explains  a l s o why  rema/lned f u z z y and  a  delicate  p u b l i c h o u s i n g p o l i c y i n Canada  open t o v a r i a t i o n from l o c a l i t y t o l o -  cality. The  N a t i o n a l Housing Act  Mortgage and 19^6,  i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by"the  Housing C o r p o r a t i o n ,  Central  a crown company s e t up  in  p r i m a r i l y as a f i n a n c i a l agent of the f e d e r a l government.  P r o v i n c i a l governments have passed l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the l i s h m e n t of Housing A u t h o r i t i e s , who, s t e r the p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s .  estab-  at l o c a l l e v e l s , admini-  CHAPTER I I  The  b a s i c everyday concept " f a m i l y " emerges i n a new and per-  p l e x i n g l i g h t i f one i s C o n f r o n t e d ' w i t h study o f f a m i l i e s .  t h e t a s k of making a  Q u e s t i o n s which do not come up i n common  usage o f t h e term need t o be d e a l t w i t h .  What t y p e s of con-  s t e l l a t i o n s o f persons a r e c a l l e d " f a m i l i e s " ? c l a s s i f y the d i f f e r e n t c o n s t e l l a t i o n s ?  How d e f i n e and  I n p r a c t i c e t h e term  " f a m i l y " i s f r e q u e n t l y used synonymously w i t h "household": a l though t h i s may not be t e c h n i c a l l y c o r r e c t , i t i s p r a c t i c a l f o r t h e purposes of t h i s s t u d y ,  since i t deals w i t h a tenant  p o p u l a t i o n , and a l s o r e c o g n i z e s  t h a t " a l l k i n d s and c o n d i t i o n s  of p e o p l e " , i n c l u d i n g s i n g l e p e r s o n s , may c o n s t i t u t e a household.  L i t e r a t u r e i n the s o c i a l sciences o f f e r s a wealth of  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of f a m i l i e s according sions of f a m i l y composition unfortunate  t o t h e d i f f e r e n t dimen-  such as s i z e , t y p e , age.  that there i s l i t t l e  i ti s  i f any c o n s i s t e n c y among t h e  i n d i v i d u a l r e p o r t s as t o such c a t e g o r i e s used, s i n c e t h i s d e r s comparative s t u d i e s d i f f i c u l t and sometimes  ren-  impossible.  In some h o u s i n g r e p o r t s , t h e e l d e r l y a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e overa l l f i g u r e s , not so i n o t h e r s ; g r o u p i n g s by age show a wide range o f v a r i e t y .  The b a s i c d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f f a m i l i e s  a c c o r d i n g t o f a m i l y t y p e s has p r o b a b l y most c o n f u s i o n .  been t h e s u b j e c t o f  Numerous " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s " have been d e v i s e d ,  none o f which seem e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . The c h o i c e o f some terms, which have become w i d e l y used t o denote c e r t a i n t y p e s  52 of f a m i l i e s , seem u n f o r t u n a t e .  "Broken" f a m i l y , which i s i n -  tended t o d e s c r i b e f a m i l i e s where one p a r e n t c a r r i e s the connotation ships.  i s missing,  o f i n s t a b i l i t y o r poor f a m i l y r e l a t i o n -  I n p r a c t i c e many such f a m i l i e s may be q u i t e s o l i d and  h e a l t h y , whereas o b v i o u s l y some f a m i l i e s w i t h both p r e s e n t may be p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y "broken,"  parents  F o r t h i s reason the  term "one-parent" f a m i l y seems more a p p r o p r i a t e . The  overall'average  income f o r a p r o j e c t , f o r example,  i s r a d i c a l l y a f f e c t e d by the p r o p o r t i o n o f e l d e r l y c o u p l e s i n the t o t a l accommodation; s i m i l a r l y , by the p r o p o r t i o n o f oneparent  f a m i l i e s ( s i n c e , w o r k i n g women i n v a r i a b l y earn l e s s  t h a n most male heads o f f a m i l i e s ) .  What i s needed i s t h e  average income, number o f c h i l d r e n , o r r e n t s p a i d , e t c . f o r p ^ P ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ i ^ . 3 as such, f o r one-pare n ^ f ^ m i ^ i ^ e s , as such, and  so on. Absence o f t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n c r e a t e s c o n t i n u -  ous problems o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s f i g u r e s reviewed  i n t h i s and t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r .  The  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f a m i l y t y p e s used i n a r e c e n t  B a l t i m o r e Report stands  out as an improvement over p r e v i o u s  ones, and i s b e i n g f o l l o w e d i n many p a r t s o f the U n i t e d f o r p u b l i c housing U.S.  studies.  N a t i o n a l housing  1  I t i s , however, n o t used i n t h e  statistics.  F o r the purposes o f t h e p r e s e n t adaptation  States  study the f o l l o w i n g  o f the B a l t i m o r e f a m i l y type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s  used f o r the Vancouver p r o j e c t s , and as c o n s i s t e n t l y as i s p o s s i b l e f o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s d i s c u s s i o n . "Standard"  f a m i l i e s - B o t h p a r e n t s and a t l e a s t one c h i l d under the age o f 21 i n the home.  Types of Fami^ 1951-1957/ ^ a l ^ l l n ^ r e ^  V10.  -  s Low-Rent Pro j e c t s , "and ITou'sTng^ffge'ncy ,~"p ?~T, 1  53 "Ojne-Parent" f a m i l i e s - Only one p a r e n t and a t l e a s t one c h i l d under t h e age o f 21 i n t h e home. "Adult" f a m i l i e s A l l members o f t h e household over t h e age o f 21 and t h e head or spouse under t h e age of 70. "Elderly" families Head o f household o r spouse over 70 y e a r s o f age o r o l d e r , i n c l u d i n g s i n g l e persons over 70. "S>ingle-Person" f a m i l i e s - Households o f one person under t h e age o f 70 y e a r s .  Of c o u r s e , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f a m i l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i s not something t h a t j u s t "happens"; i n a broad sense i t i s p l a n n e d .  The p l a n n i n g  i sreflected  b o t h i n p o l i c y and i n t h e d e s i g n and l a y o u t o f t h e p r o j e c t s . The  u n i t d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e Vancouver p r o j e c t s  (Table I )  shows c l e a r l y t h a t when t h e f i r s t p r o j e c t was developed s i n g l e persons were e x c l u d e d , s i n c e no s i n g l e u n i t s were b u i l t . was any p r o v i s i o n made f o r t h e v e r y l a r g e f a m i l y .  Nor  In t h e newer  p r o j e c t s , s i n g l e u n i t s have been added i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers, and  the p r o p o r t i o n  o f two and three-bedroom u n i t s has been de-  c r e a s e d w h i l e f o u r and f i v e - r o o m houses have been added.  It  was mentioned e a r l i e r , t h a t t h e MacLean Park p r o j e c t was b u i l t w i t h t h e h o u s i n g needs o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r a r e a i n mind. very high proportion  The  of s i n g l e u n i t s and one-bedroom s u i t e s  (121 out o f 159) c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h i s p r o j e c t from t h e o t h e r s , which a r e m a i n l y geared t o h o u s i n g f a m i l i e s .  In the  o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f t h e f o u r p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i n Vancouver, i t i s a l s o evident  t h a t MacLean Park i s q u i t e  distinctive  from t h e o t h e r t h r e e p r o j e c t s i n t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i t s residents.  The d i f f e r e n c e s a r e r e l a t e d both t o t h e o r i g i n and  the l o c a t i o n o f t h i s p r o j e c t .  I t i s f o r t h i s reason that  MacLean Park i s s e p a r a t e d from t h e t h r e e  other p r o j e c t s ,  5  4  termed h e r e , t h e "middle a r e a " p r o j e c t s , t o d i s t i n g u i s h them from the p r o j e c t i n t h e downtown o r c e n t r a l a r e a , which i s p a r t o f t h e slum c l e a r a n c e and "comprehensive  redevelopment"  s e c t i o n of t h e c i t y . Table I . Types of Accommodation P r o v i d e d by Vancouver P u b l i c Housing P r o j e c t s (1964) Mountain  iUnits  ra"""j STceeTTS—~T^aTEe^rT| Park Terrace i Park »  Total  0  18  21  69  108  I-bedroom  40  34  48  52  174  2- bedroom  92  64  70  13  244  3-bedroom  92  50  69  13  224  4-bedroom  -  3  21  6  30  -  5  169  234  Single  units  Family u n i t s :  5-bedroom Total  224  Source: Vancouver Housing  l  6 786  159  Authority,  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of f a m i l y t y p e s i s an i m p o r t a n t  dimension  i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f any neighbourhood.  Fre-  q u e n t l y g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a r e made a l o n g these l i n e s : t h e suburbs are thought o f as p o p u l a t e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y by m a r r i e d c o u p l e s w i t h c h i l d r e n , downtown a r e a s a r e known f o r t h e i r l a r g e mobile p o p u l a t i o n .  single,  P u b l i c h o u s i n g i n t h e minds o f many i s  associated exclusively with families with children.  Originally  c o n c e i v e d i n t h i s way, t h e scope o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g has widened t o become a r e s o u r c e f o r o t h e r f a m i l y t y p e s as w e l l , and t h e s t e r e o t y p e d c o n c e p t i o n about such h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i s becoming more and more m i s l e a d i n g . In Vancouver, t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n ,  55 i n a l l f o u r p r o j e c t s t a k e n t o g e t h e r , i s 66.4 h a l f of t h e s e a r e " s t a n d a r d " f a m i l i e s (36.1 "one-parent" f a m i l i e s (30.3 with children.  per cent.  Over  per cent).  Of the  p e r c e n t ) a l l but a few are mothers  " A d u l t " f a m i l i e s (9.3 p e r c e n t ) and  "single"  f a m i l i e s (4.6 p e r c e n t ) are the two s m a l l e s t groups. f a m i l i e s o r a household ( s i n g l e and c o u p l e s ) make up  Elderiy about  o n e - f i f t h the t o t a l h o u s i n g p r o j e c t p o p u l a t i o n . T a b l e 2.  D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by F a m i l y Type and P r o j e c t , Vancouver P u b l i c H o u s i n g , J a n u a r y , 1964. Housing  jFamily Type  iddle Little Orchard Skeena VlacLean A l l Four MArea T e r r a c e Park Projects Projects Mountain Park P.C. 21.4  P.C. 36.1  P.C. 39.8  -3  30.3  36.4  11.5  14.4  9.3  8.0  14.8  14.5  43.4  19.7  13.7  3.0  3.4  14.5  4.6  2.1  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  "Standard"  P.C. 43.9  P.C. 36.9  P.C. 38.5  "One-parent"  40.3  37.5  32.1  4.0  7.8  11.8  -  "Adult" "Elderiy" Single Total  Totals  Project  100.0  6  Source: Data from Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y f i l e s ,  1964.  F u l l y comparative f i g u r e s are not a v a i l a b l e f o r o t h e r p a r t s of Canada.  However, i n 1957  t h e r e were a p p a r e n t l y o n l y  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 125  t e n a n t s (out of 1289  h o u s e h o l d s ) , or about  10 p e r cent " e l d e r l y " f a m i l i e s i n the T o r o n t o Regent Park project.  I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t "a few s h o r t of 1200  housing  u n i t s were t e n a n t e d by m a r r i e d c o u p l e s w i t h o r w i t h o u t c h i l dren." 1  1  These p r o p o r t i o n s have undoubtedly changed:  A. Rose, Regent P a r k , p.  186.  there  56 a r e p r o b a b l y more e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s  today.  C o n s i d e r i n g f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n , a comparison w i t h the l a r g e r community shows t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n  of"one-parent"  f a m i l i e s i n the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i s v e r y h i g h . 45.7  In the p r o j e c t s ,  p e r cent of f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n were "one-parent f a m i -  l i e s as opposed t o o n l y 8.6 B r i t i s h Columbia.  per cent of t h i s type i n urban  C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , the p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s  w i t h female f a m i l y heads i s much h i g h e r i n the p r o j e c t s than i n the s u r r o u n d i n g community. (Table 1.  Appendix C ) .  The  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of f a t h e r l e s s f a m i l i e s i n the housing p r o j e c t s c l e a r l y r e f l e c t s the f a c t t h a t the f a m i l y w i t h o u t a f a t h e r i s l i k e l y t o have a low economic s t a t u s , 'IMiddle A r e a " J'ro j e g t s_ . e c t s , 76.2  In the t h r e e "middle a r e a " p r o j -  p e r cent of the t e n a n t s are " s t a n d a r d " or  parent" f a m i l i e s , that i s f a m i l i e s with c h i l d r e n .  "one-  There seems  however, t o be a t e n d e n c y y f o r fewer f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n t o e n t e r the newer p r o j e c t s .  L i t t l e Mountain,  the o l d e s t p r o j e c t ,  has the h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n of these f a m i l i e s : 4-3.9 " s t a n d a r d " , and 4o.3  p e r cent "one-parent"  families.  chard Park the c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i g u r e s are 36.9 and  i n Skeena T e r r a c e 38.5  and 32.1  p e r cent In Or-  and 37.5  p e r cent (Table  per cent,  2).  Comparing the number of s t a n d a r d and one-parent f a m i l i e s i n these p r o j e c t s i t i s found t h a t L i t t l e Mountain and Skeena T e r r a c e have 3 t o 6 p e r cent more s t a n d a r d f a m i l i e s , whereas i n Orchard  Park the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t a n d a r d and  f a m i l i e s i s approximatelyyequal.  one-parent  A comparison w i t h e a r l i e r  f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n of s t a n d a r d and one-parent f a m i l i e s i n Orchard c a l l y r t h e same as i t was  i n 1959.  s i d e r a b l e change has taken p l a c e .  Park has remained p r a c t i In L i t t l e Mountain conThere has been a c o n s i s t e n t  57 d e c r e a s e i n t h e number o f s t a n d a r d f a m i l i e s (from 77.2 p e r cent i n 1955 t o 43.9 p e r cent i n 1964) and an i n c r e a s e o f one-parent f a m i l i e s (from 11.1 p e r cent t o 40.3 p e r c e n t ) . (Table 3). Table 3.  F a m i l y C o m p o s i t i o n of R e s i d e n t s o f L i t t l e Mountain P r o j e c t . (1955, 1958 and 1964)  Type o f F a m i l y  1955  1964  1958  "Standard"  77.2  55.3  43.9  "One-parent"  11.1  29.0  4o.3  8.0  13.3  11.8  "Elderly" "Adult"  4.0 •  100.0  j Total Source;  100.0  ;  100.0  "The L i t t l e Mountain Low-Rental'Housing P r o j e c t : A Survey o f i t s W e l f a r e A s p e c t s . " M a s t e r of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U.B.C., 1959.  A d u l t f a m i l i e s , t h a t i s , c h i l d l e s s f a m i l i e s whose head or spouse i s under age 70, i n t h e "middle a r e a " p r o j e c t s make up 8.0 p e r cent o f t h e t o t a l number o f f a m i l i e s , and t h e y cons t i t u t e an i n c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n i n t h e newer p r o j e c t s . pared w i t h L i t t l e Mountain  Com-  (4 p e r c e n t ) t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f  a d u l t f a m i l i e s has a p p r o x i m a t e l y doubled p e r c e n t ) and n e a r l y t r i p l e d  i n Orchard  Park (7.8  i n Skeena T e r r a c e (11.5 p e r c e n t ) .  S i n g l e f a m i l i e s , as noted e a r l i e r , were not p r o v i d e d f o r i n L i t t l e Mountain.  Both i n Orchard Park and Skeena T e r r a c e t h e y  make up about 3 p e r cent o f a l l t e n a n t f a m i l i e s .  Elderly  f a m i l i e s (13.7 p e r cent o f t h e t o t a l i n t h e t h r e e p r o j e c t s ) a l s o showed a s m a l l i n c r e a s e i n the' newer p r o j e c t s .  (Table 2).  58 M a c l e a n Park.  Broadly speaking the d i s t r i b u t i o n of  f a m i l i e s i n MacLean Park, w i t h and w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n , i s t h e reverse of the p i c t u r e i n the other three p r o j e c t s .  In the  l a t t e r , 76.4 p e r cent of a l l f a m i l i e s had c h i l d r e n , i n MacLean Park 72.3 p e r cent of t h e f a m i l i e s have no c h i l d r e n .  Of  the 27.7 p e r cent f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n i n t h i s p r o j e c t , 21.4 p e r cent a r e s t a n d a r d f a m i l i e s and 6.3 p e r cent a r e one-parent families.  The p r o p o r t i o n of one-parent  families i s s i g n i f i -  c a n t l y l o w e r than i n t h e o t h e r p r o j e c t s .  I t can be presumed  that t h i s r e f l e c t s the cohesiveness of the A s i a t i c a s i g n i f i c a n t element i n t h e s e s u b c u l t u r e s . of  family,  (About 55 p e r cent  t h e t e n a n t s i n MacLean Park a r e o f A s i a t i c o r i g i n ,  predom-  i n a n t l y Chinese). Correspondingly, the remaining f a m i l y types are a l l prop o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h e r i n MacLean Park than i n t h e o t h e r p r o j e c t s . The percentage  o f a d u l t f a m i l i e s (14.4) i s n e a r l y quadrupled  i n comparison w i t h L i t t l e M o u n t a i n (4.0).  S i n g l e persons  show t h e h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n a t e i n c r e a s e (l4.5 p e r cent as compared t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 p e r cent i n Orchard Skeena T e r r a c e ) . of  70.  Park and  These a r e t h e s i n g l e persons under t h e age  The l a r g e s t group o f f a m i l i e s i n MacLean Park a r e t h e  " e l d e r l y , " 43.4 p e r c e n t .  The c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i g u r e f o r t h e  o t h e r p r o j e c t s i s around 13 p e r c e n t .  I n t h i s e l d e r l y group  t h e r e a r e 22 c o u p l e s and 47 s i n g l e p e r s o n s , 42 o f t h e l a t t e r b e i n g men. MacLean Park p r o j e c t thus i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a v e r y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f people i n t h e i r s e v e n t i e s and a f a i r l y l a r g e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n i n l a t e middle-age.  Three-quarters  of  these groups a r e made up o f s i n g l e p e o p l e , and t h e m a j o r i t y  of  them a r e men.  By i t s v e r y n a t u r e t h i s w i l l change  59  r a d i c a l l y w i t h i n t e n : y e a r s o r more, and a new  occupancy  p o l i c y w i l l have t o take account of t h i s . Age  of .Heatp^of  the^J^JQy.  A marked p r o p o r t i o n of people over 60 y e a r s of age now  l i v i n g i n Vancouver p u b l i c h o u s i n g .  are  B u t , as seems t o be  the case w i t h a l l p u b l i c h o u s i n g , t h e r e i s a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of  c h i l d r e n and young people than i n the community a t l a r g e . Table 4 .  Ages of F a m i l y Heads Vancouver P u b l i c H o u s i n g , J a n u a r y ,  1964.  Age  of F a m i l y L i t t l e Area Orchard Skeena MacLean A l l Head Park T e r r a c e Park Projects! Projects Mountain ' P:O. , r .TT. P c 16.2 Under 30 18.8 12.8 23.9 6.9 18.8 31-40  30 3  22.1  27.0  10.1  23.2  26.9  4l-50  23.9  20.8  13.7  7.6  16.4  19.0  51-60  12.2  10.1  6.6  8.8  9.2  9.4  Over 60  20.8  28.2  28.8  66.0  35.0  25.9  r  *  Totals  (a)  100  100  100  100  100  100  1  (a) F o r a few f a m i l i e s ( p a r t i c u l a r i l y i n the L i t t l e Mountain p r o j e c t ) t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was not a v a i l a b l e , percentages t h e r e f o r e r e l a t e to recorded data o n l y . C o n s i d e r i n g a l l f o u r Vancouver p r o j e c t s , 35 p e r cent of a l l f a m i l i e s are those where the f a m i l y head i s 60 y e a r s of age o r o l d e r . 50,  The groups, by age of f a m i l y head, up t o age  are f a i r l y e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h between 16 t o 23 p e r  cent of f a m i l i e s i n each.  F a m i l i e s w i t h age of f a m i l y head  between 51 and 60 y e a r s c o n s t i t u t e the s m a l l e s t group, per cent. for  Not y e t " e l d e r l y , " and presumably  9.2  no l o n g e r c a r i n g  young c h i l d r e n , these f a m i l i e s do, however, remain i n the  projects.  T h i s age group of f a m i l y i s c o n s i d e r e d the  e l i g i b l e f o r admission to p u b l i c housing.  least  However, the h o u s i n g  60 needs o f t h i s  g r o u p may need  progressively earlier ditions  forced retirement  on t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t .  many p e r s o n s during  t o be r e c o n s i d e r e d  i n this  with  due t o c h a n g i n g  con-  I t must a l s o be remembered  group spent  the depression,  i n the l i g h t of  t h e i r most p r o d u c t i v e  little  opportunity  that  years  f o r educational  advancement and s a v i n g . Regent  Park  (North), t h e ' o l d e s t major p u b l i c housing  ject  i n Canada, was c o n f r o n t e d  lies  among i t s own t e n a n t s ,  believed  t o be u n i q u e  families with and  f a m i l i e s dwindled viving  i n Canada.  spouse.  little  persons.  i n size,  the problem  and h a s f o u n d  c h i l d r e n with  none f o r s i n g l e  with  1  With the passage  r e q u i r e these  designed  f o r l a r g e r family u n i t s being  as  C. D i e s  that  not  t o leave the  occupied  by s i n g l e  2  information  of. age o f f a m i l y head  i s a v a i l a b l e t o compare t h e i n the Vancouver p r o j e c t s  census f i g u r e s f o r the Vancouver  A direct  per-  F a m i l i e s " was e r e c t e d  i n t h e l a r g e r community, b u t some i d e a may be  f r o m t h e 1961 area.  tenants  or a sur-  t o s t a y on, w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n s u i t e s  B u i l d i n g f o r "Diminishing  No c o r r e s p o n d i n g  with  o f t i m e many  Thus a f t e r t h e p r o j e c t was c o m p l e t e d The  an a f t e r t h o u g h t .  distribution  which i s  p r o v i s i o n made f o r c o u p l e s  t h e y were p e r m i t t e d  William  a solution,  fami-  T h i s p r o j e c t was p l a n n e d f o r  project,  sons o r c o u p l e s .  of these  leaving only the parents  Rather than  pro-  c o m p a r i s o n between t h e s e  gained  Metropolitan  and t h e p r o j e c t s i s  p o s s i b l e , ( a ) b e c a u s e t h e age c a t e g o r i e s do n o t c o i n c i d e ;  (b) b e c a u s e t h e p r o j e c t c o u n t  includes single  I t would a p p e a r t h a t a few s i n g l e initially. 1  tenants  persons,  were  whereas  accommodated  The B u i l d i n g i s named a f t e r Mr. W. C. D i e s , M.S.M., o r i g i n a l member o f t h e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y o f T o r o n t o , i n r e c o g n i t i o n of h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n the f i e l d of p u b l i c housing. 2  61 t h e y a r e e x c l u d e d i n t h e census f i g u r e s . (Table 5).  Possibly  the broad o b s e r v a t i o n can be made t h a t , i n t h e p r o j e c t s , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f f a m i l i e s w i t h head over 60 y e a r s of age appears t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r than i n t h e community.  MacLean  Park, o f c o u r s e , w e i g h t s t h i s measurement, perhaps  unduly.  T a b l e 5.  Age o f F a m i l y Head. M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver  Age o f Head o f Family (a)  A r e a , 1961.  Per Cent  Under 25  3.8  25 - 34  21.2  35 - 44  25.1  45 - 54  21.9  55 - 64  13.1  65-69  "•7 10.2  Over 70 Total  100.0  (a) A f a m i l y c o n s i s t s o f a husband and w i f e ( w i t h o r w i t h o u t unmarried c h i l d r e n ) o r a p a r e n t , w i t h one or more c h i l d r e n never m a r r i e d . Source: Canada Census, 1961. "Middle Area"  Jects.  B u l l e t i n 2. 23-29.  I n these p r o j e c t s t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f  f a m i l i e s w i t h head of f a m i l y over 60 y e a r s of age i s more i n p r o p o r t i o n w i t h o t h e r age g r o u p s ; however, i n Orchard 1  Park  and Skeena T e r r a c e i t i s s t i l l t h e l a r g e s t s i n g l e group (28.2 and 28.8 p e r c e n t ) by a s m a l l margin. 1 Vancouver  I n L i t t l e Mountain  Redevelopment Study, p. 4 l .  this  62 group i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r a t 20.8 The  per cent.  (Table 4 ) .  p e r c e n t a g e of the youngest f a m i l i e s (age of head under  30 y e a r s ) i s c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r i n the newer p r o j e c t s — p e r cent i n L i t t l e Mountain; 23.9 The  age group 31 t o 4o  M o u n t a i n (30.3 m i d d l e age  p e r cent i n Skeena T e r r a c e .  i s the l a r g e s t s i n g l e group i n L i t t l e  p e r c e n t ) , which may  l i e s have c o n t i n u e d  i n d i c a t e t h a t younger f a m i -  r e s i d e n c e f o r a number of y e a r s .  groups(41 t o 50,  i n L i t t l e Mountain (36.1  51 t o 60)  of t e n a n c y .  The  are c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r  p e r cent i n the two groups  e s p e c i a l l y as compared w i t h Skeena T e r r a c e correspondingly.)  (Table 4 ) .  (20.3  T h i s as w e l l may  together)  per  cent  reflect  length  I t i s common o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t a c o n c e n t r a t i o n  p r o g r e s s i v e l y o l d e r age  12.8  groups occurs as a h o u s i n g  of  project  matures. MacLean Park.  The  age d i s t r i b u t i o n of the head of f a m i l y a t  MacLean Park i s most o b v i o u s l y a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h a t i n the general population.  However, i t p r o b a b l y  c o r r e s p o n d s more  c l o s e l y w i t h the p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  particular  a r e a where the p r o j e c t i s l o c a t e d . Of the households i n t h i s p r o j e c t , 66.6  p e r cent  f a m i l i e s w i t h head of f a m i l y over 60 y e a r s of age. ported  are  It i s re-  i n the Vancouver Redevelopment Study (1957) t h a t a l -  though the Comprehensive Redevelopment Areas (MacLean Park i s l o c a t e d i n one)  " c o n t a i n o n l y 6 p e r cent of the C i t y ' s  p o p u l a t i o n t h e y accommodate 14 c e i p t of Old Age  p e r cent of a l l p e r s o n s i n r e -  A s s i s t a n c e o r Old Age  w i t h Cost of L i v i n g B o n u s . "  1  Pension, plus  those  C o n s i d e r i n g the h i g h p r o p o r t i o n  of o l d people of s m a l l means i n the a r e a the c o n c e n t r a t i o n Vancouver Redevelopment S t u d y , p.  41.  of  63 the  elderly The  i n the p r o j e c t  youngest  (6.9 p e r c e n t ) family  families  31 t o 60 y e a r s  the smallest s i n g l e  compared w i t h  area" projects); this  area  S i z e _of  are f a i r l y  evenly distributed  of a l l f a m i l i e s  the o t h e r groups  o f V a n c o u v e r may p o s s i b l y  size  pro-  under-repre-  of t h i s  "middle  same g r o u p  a l s o be l a r g e .  housing  that the size  public  presence  o f v e r y many c h i l d r e n  i s s m a l l e r than  ( T a b l e 4).  housing.  nancial  one m i g h t e x p e c t .  large families  of predominantly  the r e s u l t  average-size  than  i n the surrounding  In J a n u a r y ,  1964,  f o u r Vancouver p u b l i c  The c o r r e s p o n d i n g  36.4  p e r cent  The l a r g e s t  size  figure, 1  I " "the t o t a l  2.  3.9  f o r the Metroof the Vancouver  have one o r two' members  group c o n s i s t s  Canada C e n s u s , 1961 B u l l e t i n  i n the  t o g e t h e r was  f o r 1961,  of a l l f a m i l i e s  single  i n some o f t h e  of household  p r o j e c t s taken  p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r a r e a was 3.3.  although  community.  the average housing  of high-density  families,  t h e r e a r e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more l a r g e f a m i l i e s  projects  fi-  seem, however, t h a t t h e h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f c h i l d r e n '  concentration  persons.  by  associated with maintaining a large family.  the Vancouver p r o j e c t s i s mainly  projects  The  live i n  T h i s n o t i o n i s presumably r e i n f o r c e d  implications  I t would  o f f a m i l y i n Van-  i n p r o j e c t s has p r o b a b l y / l e d  to the conclusion that predominantly  only.  In t h i s  Family.  couver's  in  i n each.  w i t h be-  ( a s i t was i n t h e  however, t h e r e l a t i v e  In g e n e r a l , i t appears  public  group  The age g r o u p s o f head o f  t h e age g r o u p 51 t o 60 i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y  sented  in  comprise  i n this project.  tween 7 and 10 p e r c e n t ject  i s not s u r p r i s i n g .  of families  with  2  64  members (22.5 p e r c e n t ) . N e a r l y t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e t o t a l number o f f a m i l i e s have up t o 4 members. As can be e x p e c t e d , the p r o p o r t i o n o f l a r g e r f a m i l i e s d e c r e a s e s the v e r y l a r g e f a m i l y o f 8 persons  p r o g r e s s i v e l y and  o r more make up 3.4 p e r  cent o f t h e t o t a l tenant p o p u l a t i o n . (Table 6 ) . Compared w i t h t h e l a r g e r community, t h e o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e i n t h e f a m i l y s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n a l l Vancouver p r o j e c t s t a k e n t o g e t h e r i s t h a t t h e r e a r e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y fewer s m a l l f a m i l i e s (2 and 3 members) i n t h e p r o j e c t s (5.2 percentage p o i n t s l e s s ) , and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f f a m i l i e s w i t h 6 o r more members (4.4 percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s i n g l e persons  points higher).  The  and f a m i l i e s w i t h 4 and 5 mem-  b e r s i s p r a c t i c a l l y t h e same i n t h e p r o j e c t s and i n t h e community. (Table 7 ) . The l e s s e r p r o p o r t i o n o f s m a l l f a m i l i e s may be r e l a t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t c h i l d l e s s c o u p l e s , u n l e s s  they  are e l d e r l y , a r e not c o n s i d e r e d e l i g i b l e f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g , except under s p e c i a l "Middle Area'  :  circumstances.  froj^ects.  designed p r e d o m i n a n t l y  The "middle a r e a " p r o j e c t s , a r e  for families.  Consequently  the propor-  t i o n of s i n g l e p e r s o n households i s c o n s i d e r a b l y lower than i f the f o u r p r o j e c t s a r e t a k e n t o g e t h e r .  S i n g l e persons make up  9 o r 10 p e r cent o f t h e t o t a l households i n Orchard Skeena T e r r a c e . Mountain.  Park and  There a r e no s i n g l e person households i n L i t t l e  Two-person f a m i l i e s c o n s t i t u t e about 20 p e r cent i n  a l l three p r o j e c t s .  The l a r g e s t s i n g l e group f o r t h e t h r e e  p r o j e c t s t o g e t h e r a r e 4 member f a m i l i e s (21.7 p e r c e n t ) ; howe v e r , t h e p r o p o r t i o n of these f a m i l i e s i s o n l y v e r y h i g h e r than t h a t of 2 and 3 member f a m i l i e s .  slightly  Individually  seen, t h e l a r g e s t group i n L i t t l e M o u n t a i n i s made up o f 3 member f a m i l i e s (24 p e r c e n t ) ; i n Orchard  Park i t i s 4 member  64 Table 6 .  S i z e of Household (Persons)  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Tenants by Household S i z e . Vancouver Housing P r o j e c t s , 1964.  Little Orchard Skeena MacLean T e r r a c e Park Mountain Park P.C.  1  '-2-.  Middle All Area Projects Projects  P.C.  P.C.  P.C.  P.C  10.7  9.0  44.0  13.9  6.2  -  P.C.  2  19.9  20.2  20.9  30.8  22.5  20.4  3  24.0  18.5  17.5  6.9  17.4  20.1  4  23.1  25.6  155.5  6.3  ,18.6  21.7  5  15.4  11.9  15.0  5.7  12.5  14.3  6  10.8  8.9  7 7  3.8  8.1  9.1  7  5.0  2.4  4.3  • 0.6  3.3  4.0  1.8  1.8  8.1  1.9  3.7  4.2  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  8 and over Total  T a b l e 7.  Number of Persons  ?  Households by Number o f Persons M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area (1961) and Vancouver P u b l i c H o u s i n g / 1964. Metropolitan Vancouver Area  All Projects  Middle Area Projects  P.C. 13.2  P.C. 13.9  2-3  45.1  39.9  40.5  4-5  31.0  31.1  36.0  6 o r more  10.7  15.1  17.3  100.0  100.0  100.0  .1  jTotal  P:C. 6.2  Source: Canada Census, 1961. B u l l e t i n 2 . Vancouver A u t h o r i t y f i l e s , - 1964.  Housing  65 families are  (25.6  of equal  p e r c e n t ) ; i n Skeena T e r r a c e  size  (17.5  f a m i l i e s decreases  per cent).  Park both  w i t h 8 o r more members.  The projects  i s 8.1  family size taken  single  persons  munity  (6.2  p e r cent  i s less  and 13.2  are  larger  are  significantly  a 1  44 p e r c e n t  this  area"  smaller representation correspondingly,  f o r example,  persons  number o f h o u s e h o l d s ,  The p e r c e n t a g e s  of f a m i l i e s with  larger  of the remaining  Each of these  the corresponding  The a b s e n c e o f s i n g l e p e o p l e average f o r the p r o j e c t s .  families to-  number o f groups,  g r a d u a l l y from  t o 0.6 p e r cent groups  groups  make up  i n proportion  of the t o t a l  3 members  of 6.9  of fami-  is significantly  i n the other  in Little  i n the  that i s , i n  S i n g l e and 2 p e r s o n  They d e c r e a s e  there  7).  (Table single  i s f o u r times  com-  Families with  1  6 o r more members  with  this project  are quite small.  s m a l l e r than  1  n  group  w i t h 7 members.  "middle  of t h a t i n the l a r g e r  compose n e a r l y 75 p e r c e n t  cent  lies  half  i n t h e community.  i n the other p r o j e c t s .  households.  per  of the three  show a r e l a t i v e l y  I  6).  (Table  In the p r o j e c t s the p r o p o r t i o n of  than  of the t o t a l  MacLean P a r k t h i s  course,  families).  shows marked d i f f e r e n c e ' f r o m t h e Met-  more f a m i l i e s  a  of families  (8 o r more  families  i n p r o p o r t i o n i n the p r o j e c t s ;  ^9j^- , !L^ ,S^-.?-  Little  i s a s i g n i f i c a n t ex-  Groups o f l a r g e r f a m i l i e s ,  three p r o j e c t s than  gether  per cent  p e r cent r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .  also  the p r o j e c t s .  (19  distribution  together  2 and 3 members  than  have 1.8  Skeena T e r r a c e  r o p o l i t a n Vancouver area.  in  The p r o p o r t i o n o f l a r g e r  the p r o p o r t i o n of the l a r g e s t  members) t h e r e  two g r o u p s  p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n a l l the p r o j e c t s .  M o u n t a i n and O r c h a r d  ception,  these  projects.  Mountain i n f l u e n c e s  66 On  the  o t h e r hand, t h e  make up is  1.9  per  about the  cent  largest  of a l l f a m i l i e s  Orchard  Distribution  o f C h i l d r e n .and  half  Park.  55  the Vancouver p u b l i c of p u b l i c  well  i n MacLean P a r k ,  (Table  housing  t h i n g s as d a y  cent)  housing  The  in  Little  Adolescents. make up  of the t o t a l  projects.  This  implications  other implications  more  than  population in is characteristic  everywhere, though t h e r e a r e ,  variations. known, b u t  per  families  which  6).  i s noteworthy t h a t minor c h i l d r e n  (approximately  local  8 members o r more,  same as t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s e  M o u n t a i n and  It  families,  of  course,  f o r s c h o o l s a r e by f o r welfare  n u r s e r i e s , p l a y space  and  now  services,  such  e q u i p m e n t , a r e by  no  means g e n e r a l l y a p p r e c i a t e d . At the  the  time  of t h i s  study  f o u r Vancouver p r o j e c t s ;  There are  related  are  The  newly b u i l t .  of course  change w i t h  g e t h e r 43.3  per  cent  adults  y e a r s ) ; and (16  Of  653  time.  per  o n l y 9.6  o f 1504  from  others than  relative  In the  cent  are  this  children  age  group),  is similar  teenagers,  groups  may  f o u r p r o j e c t s taken  to-  are  of p r e - s c h o o l  age  (between  847  families,  are from a few  Two-parent f a m i l i e s  two  7 young  8).  (69.7  per  cent  whereas t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f i n the  girls.  of the p r o j e c t s  o f s c h o o l age  children,  one-parent  parents.  t h a t two  in  p e r c e n t a r e a d o l e s c e n t s and  c a n t l y more p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n in  fact  723  than  p r o p o r t i o n o f age  y e a r s ) . (Table  the t o t a l  families, with  to- 21  t o the  children  o f them b o y s and  of a l l c h i l d r e n  (up t o 6 y e a r s ) ; 47.1 15  781  s u b s t a n t i a l l y more y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n  which i s p r o b a b l y  and  t h e r e were 1504  types  two-parent  children have  live  signifi-  of a l l c h i l d r e n school-age  of f a m i l i e s .  One-parent  67 families  have s i g n i f i c a n t l y  more a d o l e s c e n t s (63.4 p e r c e n t  of the t o t a l  adolescent group),  as m e n t i o n e d  earlier,  of a l l minors It  a d o l e s c e n t s make up l e s s  t o draw c o m p a r i s o n s  o f minor c h i l d r e n  figures  because  a g a i n t h e age g r o u p i n g s  broadly  speaking  f o r urban  British  Columbia,  do n o t c o r r e s p o n d .  However,  that  the proportion of pre-school  i s markedly  higher than  comparison  of the c h i l d r e n s '  i n t h e V a n c o u v e r p r o j e c t s and t h e Regent cannot  dardized.  be made, s i n c e  However, a s s e e n  s i d e r a b l y more s c h o o l - a g e  children  proportion  of the oldest  to project  (11 p e r c e n t ) t h a n  this  group  projects, group tion lated  Park  group  statistics,  i n Regent  i s slightly  i n Toronto,  that  in  pre-  The  i n the Toron(9.6 p e r c e n t ) .  age l i m i t f o r  t o 21 f o r t h e V a n c o u v e r in relative  shown h e r e .  t o t h e age o f t h e p r o j e c t . i s the f a c t  larger  i t i s i n Vancouver  i n which case t h e d i f f e r e n c e  of older c h i l d r e n  pretation  taken a l l t o g e t h e r .  however, t h e u p p e r  g r e a t e r than  Park than  a r e o f more e q u a l ' p r o -  may be 19 y e a r s a s opposed  i s actually  Park p r o j e c t i n  i n T a b l e s 8 and 10,. t h e r e a r e c o n -  i n the Vancouver p r o j e c t s  I n Regent  age d i s t r i b u t i o n  t h e age c a t e g o r i e s a r e n o t s t a n -  s c h o o l e r s , w h e r e a s t h e s e two g r o u p s portion  i n the l a r g e r  ( T a b l e s 8, 9).  A direct  Toronto  10 p e r c e n t  between t h e age d i s -  Canada and u r b a n  i t appears  i n the projects  community.  than  however,  i n t h e V a n c o u v e r p r o j e c t s and t h e  overall  children  standard f a m i l i e s ,  i n the p r o j e c t s .  isdifficult  tribution  than  1  size  of this  The l a r g e r  propor-  i t may be p r e s u m e d , In support  of t h i s  is re-  inter-  1957 t h e r e were 2439 c h i l d r e n and  The H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y o f T o r o n t o R e p o r t o f May 1963, u s e d a s source, m a t e r i a l , d o e s n o t s p e c i f y t h e u p p e r age l i m i t f o r t h i s g r o u p , i t i s shown a s " o v e r 16 y e a r s - t e e n a g e r s . " 1  68 Table 8.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C h i l d r e n and A d o l e s c e n t s . Vancouver P u b l i c H o u s i n g , 1964.  Age o f Children  Middle Little Orchard Skeena MacLean A l l T e r r a c e Park Mountain Park P r o j e c t s Area  Pre-school (up t o 6 y e a r s )  P.C.  P.C.  P.C.  39.8  45.3  4l.8  School-age (7-15 y e a r s )  46.6  46.6  A d o l e s c e n t s and Young a d u l t s (16-21 y e a r s )  13.6  8.1  100.0  100.0  Total  T a b l e 9.  P.C.  P.C.  P.C.  59.8  43.3  41.9  51.1  31.6  47.1  48.4  7.1  8.6  9.6  9.7  100.0 100.0  100.0  100.0  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C h i l d r e n ( i n f a m i l i e s ) , Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia l a r g e c e n t r e s (100,000 and o v e r ) , 1961.  Age Group  Urban M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas Canada No."  B r i t i s h Columbia P.C.  No.  P.C.  1,081,208  35.3  104,764  34.3  1,322,737  43.2  135,844  44.4  400,623  13.1  4l,707  13.6  at s c h o o l  (292,119)  (72.9)  (35,141)  (84.3)  not a t s c h o o l  (108,504)  (27.1)  (6,566)  (15.7)  19-24  257,345  8.4  at s c h o o l  (58,882)  (22.9)  (6,959)  (29.7)  (198,463)  (77.1)  (16,496)  (79.3)  100.0  305,770  100.0  Under 6 y e a r s 6-14 15-18  not a t s c h o o l Total  3,061,913  33,455  Source: Canada Census, 1961. B u l l e t i n 2. 1-6.  7.7  6 adolescents  (up t o 19 y e a r s  9  o f a g e ) i n Regent  them between t h e a g e s o f 13 and 19 y e a r s . 22.6 p e r c e n t  of the t o t a l  corresponding  figure  that  the t o t a l  although  project agers  has r e m a i n e d  P a r k , 550 o f  The g r o u p made up  number o f c h i l d r e n  reported.  f o r 1963 was 30 p e r c e n t . number o f c h i l d r e n  fairly  stable,  The  1  This indicates  i n t h e Toronto-  the proportion of teen-  has i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y o v e r  the past  s i x years.  ( T a b l e 10). Table  10.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C h i l d r e n and T e e n a g e r s Regent P a r k ( N o r t h ) P r o j e c t , I963.  Age Pre-school (0-4 y e a r s ) School-age (5-16 y e a r s ) Teenagers (a) ( o v e r 16) Total ( a ) U p p e r age l i m i t years. Source:  "Middle  As a  26  1568  63  273  11  2487  100  i s not s p e c i f i e d ,  presumably  1963.  Area"  Projects.  school-age  In t h e "middle  children  They a r e a l s o t h e l a r g e s t  c a n be e x p e c t e d ,  Little  Report  19 May,  area" projects  make up t h e l a r g e s t  single  group w i t h i n each p r o j e c t .  Mountain, t h e o l d e s t p r o j e c t , has  smaller proportion of pre-school  Rose, R e g e n t  Cent  646  The H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y o f T o r o n t o ,  taken'together, group.  Per  Number  P a r k , p . 186.  children  (39.8 p e r c e n t )  70 and t h e h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e o l d e s t age group (13.6 p e r c e n t ) , as compared w i t h t h e o t h e r "middle a r e a " p r o j e c t s .  The  v a r i a t i o n between t h e t h r e e p r o j e c t s w i t h i n a l l age groups, however, i s o n l y up t o 6 percentage p o i n t s .  The d i s t r i b u t i o n  between p r e - s c h o o l and school-age c h i l d r e n w i t h i n t h e p r o j e c t s i s almost e q u a l i n Orchard spectively).  Park (^5.3 and 46.6 p e r cent r e -  I n L i t t l e Mountain  t h e r e a r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y more  school-age c h i l d r e n (46.6 p e r c e n t ) than p r e - s c h o o l e r s (39.8 per cent).  Skeena T e r r a c e shows t h e l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e i n  s i z e between these age groups, t h e r e a r e 51.1 p e r cent s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n and 41.8 p e r cent p r e - s c h o o l e r s .  Adolescents  and young a d u l t s make up 13.6 p e r cent o f a l l minors Mountain, t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g groups i n Orchard  in Little  Park and Skeena  T e r r a c e a r e 8.1 and 7.1 p e r c e n t . (Table 8). MacLeari J?ark.  MacLean Park i s t h e o n l y Vancouver p r o j e c t  where t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r (59.8 p e r c e n t ) than t h a t o f school-age c h i l d r e n (31.6 per c e n t ) .  T h i s may be r e l a t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s p r o j e c t  has a m a r k e d l y ^ h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f s t a n d a r d f a m i l i e s .  Standard  f a m i l i e s , as was noted e a r l i e r , tend t o have more younger children.  The young a d u l t and a d o l e s c e n t group I n MacLean Park  i s comparable w i t h Orchard Park and Skeena T e r r a c e i n r e l a t i v e s i z e , (8.6 p e r c e n t ) . (Table 8). The U n i t e d S t a t e s P r o f i l e . There were w e l l over o n e - h a l f a m i l l i o n f a m i l i e s o f a l l k i n d s i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 196I ; t h e 1  One y e a r , 1961, i s taken p a r t l y because i t i s a census y e a r and t h e anchor p o i n t f o r Canadian s t u d i e s , p a r t l y because complete f i g u r e s a r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s y e a r ( f u l l 1961 s t a t i s t i c s a r e not p u b l i s h e d t i l l l a t e i n I962K . F o r t h e purposes o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , i t i s more v a l u a b l e zo g e t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e components of t h e " p u b l i c ' h o u s i n g p o p u l a t i o n " than t o g e t more up-to-the-minute t o t a l s . 1  REGIONS - U. S.A.  NORTH  SOUTH  71 d e t a i l e d make-up of these aggregate later.  households  i s considered  B e f o r e s e t t l i n g on a " u n i v e r s e " which i s most appro-  p r i a t e f o r Canadian comparisons,  a number of q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t o  the t o t a l f i g u r e s must be enumerated. The  s t a n d a r d s t a t i s t i c s now  c o l l e c t e d f o r the n a t i o n as  a whole, by the H.H.F.A., .(Housing and House F i n a n c e  Agency),  P u b l i c Housing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , are d i v i d e d f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reasons which are themselves tions.  1  One  v a l u a b l e , i n t o two major c o m p i l a -  of these r e l a t e s o n l y t o f a m i l i e s a l r e a d y i n  p r o j e c t s ; the o t h e r , t o f a m i l i e s who reported. assessed  The  have moved i n the  yyear  f i r s t group must have t h e i r income p o s i t i o n  i n order to r e t a i n e l i g i b i l i t y ,  upper l i m i t i n a l l U.S. are f a m i l i e s who  s i n c e t h e r e i s an  low-rent p r o j e c t s .  The  have been on the w a i t i n g l i s t ,  l y made a p p l i c a t i o n s , and whose e l i g i b i l i t y was  o t h e r group o r have r e c e n t reviewed  prior  to moving i n t o the p r o j e c t s i n the p a r t i c u l a r y e a r r e p o r t e d . T a k i n g a g a i n the y e a r  were r e -  examined and  1 9 6 1 as base, 4 - 2 0 , 8 0 0 f a m i l i e s 1 2 1 , 9 0 0 f a m i l i e s were a d m i t t e d , presumably  f o r the  f i r s t time.  Now  the t o t a l s t a t i s t i c s r e l a t e t o w e l l over h a l f -  a - m i l l i o n households;  and t h e r e can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t t h e y  a r e v e r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a t l e a s t the more urban low-income groups of the U n i t e d S t a t e s . F o r purposes of comparison w i t h Canada, however, some imp o r t a n t e x c l u s i o n s should be made from these f i g u r e s .  To  begin  w i t h , t h e r e are now p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i n P u e r t o R i c o and the V i r g i n I s l a n d s , i n A l a s k a and i n H a w a i i .  The  terms and  c o n d i t i o n s a r e no d o u b t " i n many ways s i m i l a r , but i t i s s i m p l e r to  c o n f i n e a t t e n t i o n t o c o n t i n e n t a l U n i t e d S t a t e s (and some  t a b u l a t i o n s r e l a t e o n l y t o t h i s a r e a , i n any c a s e ) .  Next a  F a m i l i e s ^ i n 'Low-; Rent ".Projects, and F a m i l i e s Mc>vIng .Into Lqw-Rerrc" H o u s i n g . H . F " . A ' P u o T f c " Housing 'AdmfnYs'tVat'idn f T 9 6 1 . 1  72 c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f major s o c i a l consequence i s t h a t Negroes a r e a v e r y l a r g e and a s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l population r e s i d e n t i n p u b l i c housing.  There i s no q u e s t i o n ,  of c o u r s e , t h a t Negroes ought t o be e l i g i b l e on e q u a l terms w i t h w h i t e s f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g -- t h e c r i t e r i o n i s t h e need f o r h o u s i n g , not pace o r c o l o u r . w i t h t h e Canadian  B u t t h e r e i s no p a r a l l e l  s i t u a t i o n i n terms o f numbers, on t h i s m a t t e r .  In any c a s e , a l s o , s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s , income, a r e a p t t o d i f f e r so markedly  particularly  that the standard  t i s t i c s normally f o l l o w separate t a b u l a t i o n s .  1  sta-  I t i s more a-  p p r o p r i a t e f o r the present e x p l o r a t i o n s t o take the s t a t i s t i c s f o r white f a m i l i e s only.  A l s o , where p o s s i b l e , s t a t i s t i c s f o r  the N o r t h e r n and Western major census r e g i o n s of t h e U n i o n o n l y , a r e used, because o f t h e c l o s e r s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e Canad i a n r e g i o n s than those of t h e Southern S t a t e s .  Naturally  such f i g u r e s a r e not t o be t a k e n as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e t o t a l United States. Race.  S i n c e any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s t a t i s t i c s on p u b l i c  h o u s i n g i n t h e U.S. cannot e n t i r e l y d i s r e g a r d t h e o v e r a l l t r e n d s o c c u r r i n g i n p u b l i c housing i n respect of race, i t i s h e l p f u l t o bear i n mind t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t s about t h e major r e g i o n s . I n 1961, 51 p e r cent o f a l l r e s i d e n t s i n U.S. p u b l i c were non-white, as compared w i t h 36 p e r cent i n 1949. centage o f non-white  housing The p e r -  f a m i l i e s i n t h e N o r t h e r n S t a t e s was 47  i n 1961, i n t h e South 58 p e r c e n t , and i n t h e West, 4o p e r c e n t .  '''There a r e growing p r o p o r t i o n s o f P u e r t o R i c a n s , Mexicans i n t h e c a t e g o r y "Negro and o t h e r s . " I n Canadian p r o j e c t s , t h e r e a r e a l r e a d y many persons o f O r i e n t a l o r i g i n , and many I n d i a n s : b u t i t would be i n v a l i d t o assume t h a t U.S. f i g u r e s h e a v i l y weighted"by Negroes would serve as comparative m a t e r i a l f o r t h e s e groups.  73 A l l r e g i o n s have i n c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n s o f non-white since  residents  1952; t h e West e x p e r i e n c e d t h e l a r g e s t i n c r e a s e , and  the N o r t h t e n d i n g t o l e v e l o f f and s t a b i l i z e a t 47 p e r c e n t . The  proportion  o f non-white f a m i l i e s moving i n t o p u b l i c  hous-  i n g f o r t h e f i r s t time was 35.5 p e r cent i n 1961. With these f a c t s as a background, t h e i n f o r m a t i o n now  which  f o l l o w s r e f e r s only t o white f a m i l i e s , e i t h e r already i n  the p r o j e c t s ,  o r r e c e n t l y moved i n t o them.  Types of J?ami l y . One  o f t h e problems o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e U.S. f i g u r e s ,  p a r t i c u l a r i l y f o r comparative purposes w i t h t h e o t h e r count r i e s , i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e d a t a i s b a s i c a l l y compiled so as to r e f e r t o " a l l f a m i l i e s " (including e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s ) .  Some  information  on e l d e r l y / f a m i l i e s as a group i s p r e s e n t e d , b u t  very l i t t l e  information  i s g i v e n on younger f a m i l i e s as d i s -  t i n c t i v e groups. When t h e r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f 194,467 w h i t e f a m i l i e s i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n t h e U.S. was made i n 1961, i t showed  that  the p e r c e n t a g e s of major f a m i l y t y p e s were; Standard 43.2 p e r c e n t ; Broken 21.4; A d u l t 18.4; S i n g l e  17.0.  are  included  but i f e l d e r l y persons  are  separately  w i t h i n these c a t e g o r i e s ,  E l d e r l y persons  counted, they;'represent 28 p e r cent of t h i s  t o t a l o f f a m i l i e s re-examined.  This i s a high proportion of  e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s i n a community, and t h e r e f o r e ,  the i n c l u s i o n  of t h i s group i n t h e above f i g u r e s , makes these p e r c e n t a g e s somewhat n o n - t y p i c a l One  of t h e " f a m i l y "  structure  of the p r o j e c t s .  of t h e ways i n which s t a t i s t i c s a r e compiled f o r t h e  P u b l i c Housing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  i n t h e U.S. i s by a d i v i s i o n of  f a m i l i e s i n t o those w i t h c h i l d r e n , and those w i t h o u t These two broad groups i n c l u d e  children.  e l d e r l y p a r e n t s , as w e l l as  74  as  one-parent  families.  Over the p a s t  b e e n a steady; i n c r e a s e i n c h i l d l e s s the reason  for this  is directly  the p a s s i n g of the Housing d e r l y persons a result single Adult cent  eligible  o f an  persons and  o f 21.1  in  characteristics  per cent  may  ones f o r f a m i l i e s first  projects.  be  slum  clearance, or  disabled  but  in residence.  i n 196I; and  this  from  i t i s also  Taking  o f 35.4  the  per  contrasts with  indicates  of r e s i d e n t s of p u b l i c  1  be  compared w i t h t h e  i n t o the p r o j e c t s  about  the major housing  a  change  i n the  .1961.  t o low  income, e l i g i b i l i t y bousing,  i s g i v e n to three groups, families  housing  (head  requirements  A word to  the  requirements  (b) b e i n g a f f e c t e d  (c) being completely without  elderly  persons;  in  corresponding  the b a s i s f o r e l i g i b i l i t y  i n substandard  f o r admission  families,  i n 1952,  now  In a d d i t i o n  (a) l i v i n g  ted  housing;  together gives a t o t a l minors  moving  said  are,  ference  i t results  decade.  These f a c t s  should  of  w h i c h made s i n g l e e l -  public  o f a l l ages t o remain  Single families  in this  administrative:  Part  has  i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f A u t h o r i t i e s p e r m i t t i n g  figure  U.S.  years there  f a m i l y groups.  o f 1956,  f o r U.S.  of f a m i l i e s without  the  Act  several  housing.  Pre-  service-connec-  o r s p o u s e o v e r 62), may  be  by  waived  and  f o r these  groups. The  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f a m i l y types a l r e a d y i n p u b l i c  a r e compared w i t h f a m i l y t y p e s m o v i n g Table  11.  These f i g u r e s ,  a r e a l l d e r i v e d from  two  and  i n ( i n the year  subsequent  publications  ones i n t h i s  of the Housing  housing 1961)  section and  Home  i . e . , f a m i l i e s o f f o r m e r members o f t h e armed f o r c e s o r t h o s e where t h e head o f t h e f a m i l y i s s e r v i n g h i s two y e a r s compulsoryymilitary training. 1  in  75 F i n a n c e Agency ( P u b l i c Housing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Division).  Program P l a n n i n g  Tbe second s e t o f f i g u r e s r e l a t e t o a t o t a l o f  1  75,067 w h i t e f a m i l i e s admitted' t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n c o n t i n e n t a l U.S. i n 1961. Table 11.  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Types o f F a m i l i e s i n U.S. P u b l i c H o u s i n g , 1961. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s  Type o f F a m i l y  Already i n  Moving i n  Standard  43.2  52.5  Broken  21.4  20.0  Adult  18.4  18.2  Single  17.0  9.2  100.0  100.0  Total  W h i l e t h e p e r c e n t a g e of Standard f a m i l i e s moving i n t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g (52.5) i s c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r than t h a t o f those f a m i l i e s who have been housed f o r some time (43.2), n e v e r t h e l e s s i t r e p r e s e n t s a d e c r e a s i n g number o f S t a n d a r d f a m i l i e s moving i n t o t h e p r o j e c t s , dent s i n c e cent.  a t r e n d which has been e v i -  1956, when t h e comparable p r o p o r t i o n was 55.7 p e r  T h i s i s o f f - s e t -- r e l a t e d t o t h e terms o f t h e H o u s i n g  Act  o f 1956, as noted p r e v i o u s l y  the  number o f s i n g l e persons moving i n (from 2.1 p e r cent i n  1956 t o 9.2 p e r cent i n 1961).  -- by a s t e a d y i n c r e a s e i n  The p r o p o r t i o n s o f Broken and  A d u l t f a m i l i e s moving i n i n t h i s same p e r i o d ^ d j ^ l i ^ Low - Re ht' "ffou s ing^. 1  has remained  and Faro 11ies  Moving_jinto  76 relatively Age  stable.  o f Head  pf Family.  In g e n e r a l , f a m i l i e s getting  i n low-rent  o l d e r , y e a r by y e a r .  There  housing  a r e two r e a s o n s  (1) t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n i n r e s i d e n c e o f o r i g i n a l have r e m a i n e d  families.  o f t h e head .of t h e f a m i l y was  cent  of the t o t a l  i s that  families,  the Chicago  of the f a m i l i e s aged in  i n 196I.  regional  The l a r g e s t  office  areas,  One m i g h t  t o the r e l a t i v e  "65 One  or over". interesting  r e p o r t e d 31 p e r c e n t have  heads  s p e c u l a t e as t o whether t h i s i s  wealth  of o l d e r persons  or t o the p r o v i s i o n s f o r housing  both p u b l i c reported  and p r i v a t e  housing.  New Y o r k r e g i o n a l  t h e s m a l l e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f young f a m i l i e s  I n r e s p e c t o f f a m i l i e s who moved jects  i n these  the e l d e r l y  c e n t ) , w h i l e San F r a n c i s c o r e p o r t e d t h e l a r g e s t  i n t h e U.S. d u r i n g 1961,  t h e m e d i a n age o f t h e head years  i n 1961.  f a m i l y head was 30.4  of those in this  i n them  —  office  (10.5 p e r c e n t ) .  into public  t h e a g e s o f t h e heads o f c h i l d l e s s  two  (4.7 p e r  housing  t h e r e a r e some f a c t s  o f f a m i l i e s who do have c h i l d r e n .  and  percentage  i n projects within i t s jurisdiction  category.  related  65.2  wherein the  65 o r o v e r , w h i l e San F r a n c i s c o r e p o r t e d o n l y 18 p e r c e n t  this  pare  who  " u n d e r 25" were o n l y 7 p e r  median age o f t h e f a m i l y head was 44.7.  fact  families  Those households  (26) was t h e g r o u p whose f a m i l y head was aged The  f o r this,  t h e r e f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , and (2) t h e a d m i s s i o n  o f more and more e l d e r l y age  i n t h e U.S. a r e  that  procom-  f a m i l i e s with those  In the a l l - a d u l t  of the f a m i l y i s r i s i n g ,  households and was  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e median age o f t h e families with same  children  has s t a b i l i z e d ,  year.  Thus, w h i l e a l a r g e percentage  o f young f a m i l i e s a r e  ^  77 Table  12.  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n Age o f Head. 1961.  of F a m i l i e s  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n F a m i ]Lies Age  o f Head  Already i n  26  25-34  22  34  35 - 44  21  15  45 - 54  14  55 - .64  10  6  26  15  100  100  65  25  and  over  Total (a) i n c l u d e s w h i t e  families  applying  f o r admission  projects  are themselves  does t h e age t h e age  o f head  -  changing.  As  of f a m i l i e s  distribution  i s now  (a)  7  i n A l a s k a and  t o the p r o j e c t s ,  of  in  7  Under  of  Moving  by  Hawaii.  the p o p u l a t i o n s of  the p r o j e c t s  i n them.  "age"  the  so  T h i s upward movement  becoming f a m i l i a r  to housing  ad-  ministrators .  ,§A^ -,.9_^- J^ Hy3 • r  J  steadily  T  h  e  since  phenomenon.  tering  average  v  e  r  S  a  size  but  s  l  z  e  o  f  mean was this  family  has  has  is a statistical person  a l r e a d y been n o t e d .  who  r a t h e r than a fami"families"  en-  However, a s i s  a l s o been a s l i g h t  the h o u s i n g each  decline  i n the  are a p p l y i n g f o r accommodation  year.  same s i x - y e a r p e r i o d ,  The c o m p a r a b l e f i g u r e 1964, was 3.9.  decreased  3 . 9 (approximately) i n 1 9 5 5  increase i n single  of the f a m i l i e s  During t h i s  uary,  1  e  b e l o w , t h e r e has  entering  1  The  the p r o j e c t s  elaborated  and  a  1 9 5 5 . The  3.5 1" 1961,  and ly  r  r  this  f o r Vancouver's  decrease  projects  i n the  i n Jan-  78 average s i z e of f a m i l y has been e v i d e n t a l s o f o r those f a m i l i e s who  entered  was  3.81  the p r o j e c t s each y e a r .  i n 1955  a sharp i n c r e a s e  but 3.6l  i n 1961.  The  mean number of p e r s o n s  At the same time t h e r e  i n the p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e persons  housed; these would be e l d e r l y people m a i n l y . was  from 2.2  p e r cent i n 1956  The  was  being  increase  (the y e a r i n which s i n g l e p e r s o n s  became e l i g i b l e f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g ) t o 9.2  p e r cent i n  1961.  The  p e r c e n t a g e of l a r g e r - s i z e d f a m i l i e s . ( i  who  moved i n each y e a r has remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e a t about  s  15 p e r cent s i n c e 1952.  o r  m  o r e persons)  However, each y e a r s i n c e t h a t  t h e r e have been fewer f a m i l i e s i n the s i z e and  x  "two  or three  time,  person"  the " f o u r o r f i v e p e r s o n " s i z e , e n t e r i n g the p r o j e c t s .  T h i s f a c t i n i t s e l f i n d i c a t e s t h a t even when s i n g l e p e r s o n s are e x c l u d e d , the f a m i l i e s who U.S.  are e n t e r i n g p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n the  are somewhat s m a l l e r i n s i z e than t h e y were about a  cade p r i o r t o 1961.  de-  Of c o u r s e , the s t a t i s t i c a l i n f l u e n c e  of  the e n t r a n c e of l a r g e numbers of s i n g l e e l d e r l y p e r s o n s s i n c e 1956,  cannot be d i s r e g a r d e d  f o r the y e a r s s i n c e t h a t  time.  There are fewer l a r g e r - s i z e f a m i l i e s ( o v e r s i x p e r s o n s ) moving i n t o the p r o j e c t s as compared w i t h those a l r e a d y i n . T h i s needs c a r e f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , however, s i n c e i t must be borne i n mind t h a t f a m i l i e s a l r e a d y : i n the p r o j e c t s can i n crease i n s i z e while l i v i n g there.  The  ( s i z e of s u i t e s ) i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t ;  local project  would be needed t o e s t a b l i s h t h i s  range of accommodation studies  situation.  Number of Klinor C h i l d r e n . There has been a d e c r e a s e i n the average number of minor c h i l d r e n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s p r o j e c t s i n the l a s t few because the p r o p o r t i o n of e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s i n the  years  projects  79 Table 13.  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f F a m i l i e s , by S i z e o f F a m i l y , 1961. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Families  Number o f Persons  Already i n  one two three or four five' or s i x seven o r e i g h t nine o r more Total Mean number of persons (a) i n c l u d e s  Moving i n (a)  17 23  9 22  30 20 8 3  41 21 6 1  100  100  3.56  3.61  w h i t e f a m i l i e s i n A l a s k a and H a w a i i  has been i n c r e a s i n g .  The average number o f minor c h i l d r e n f o r  a l l households i n 1961 was 1.91, down from t h e i960 f i g u r e o f 1.97.  On t h e o t h e r hand, f o r f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n , t h e av-  erage was 2.96, a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e from i960. figures  include  elderly families with children  Although these i n t h e home,  t h i s l a t t e r group would be s m a l l i n number, and the f i g u r e o f 2.96 i s p r o b a b l y a good i n d i c a t i o n o f the number o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e normal and one-parent f a m i l i e s i n U n i t e d S t a t e s  Public  Housing. For  f a m i l i e s moving i n t o the p r o j e c t s  t h e average number  of c h i l d r e n i n a l l f a m i l i e s was I.89 i n 1961, a s l i g h t  drop  from t h e i960 f i g u r e o f 1.93. S i m i l a r l y as i n the f a m i l i e s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d projects,  i n the  a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n t h e average number o f minors  80 was e v i d e n t moved  i n those  into a unit  f a m i l i e s who do have c h i l d r e n ,  i n 1961 2.52  f o r the f i r s t  2.6,  compared w i t h  with  f o u r o r more m i n o r s r o s e  17.5  per cent  with  this  i n 1961.  fact,  Table  16.8  p e r cent  i n 1954  I t i s important  t o note,  i n connection  from  l 4 . Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n Number o f M i n o r s .  have b e e n  to  available  Already i n  Total Mean Number o f Minors (a) i n c l u d e s white Over o n e - h a l f have f r o m  i n 1961,  families, with housing  3  27 4o 24 7 2  100  100  1.91  1.89  families  the f a m i l i e s  i n the United  Hawaii. States  and a b o u t  public  two-thirds  are f a m i l i e s with youngsters.  The new  were, t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , p r e s u m a b l y y o u n g  one o r two c h i l d r e n  c a n r e p r e s e n t a good  which w i l l  i n (a)  i n A l a s k a and  one t o f o u r c h i l d r e n ,  a l l the households  residents  Moving  35 31 2g  none one o r two three or f o u r five or s i x s e v e n o r more  housing  o f F a m i l i e s by  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Families  Minors  ren,  was  The p r o p o r t i o n o f f a m i l i e s  that larger dwelling units  Number o f  lic  The a v e r a g e  1953.  since  of  i n 1956.  time.  and who  —  start  t h e f a m i l y f o r whom pubin life  s e r v e them w e l l i n l a t e r y e a r s .  f o r the c h i l d (Table l 4 ) .  81 F a m i l i e s .with .MJ.jTors . (Standard p l u s One-parent). The most u s u a l f a m i l y f o r h o u s i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the f a m i l y composed of two p a r e n t s w i t h c h i l d r e n of v a r y i n g ages, from i n f a n t s up t o those p a s s i n g out of t h e i r teens t o grownup or a d u l t s t a t u s .  In U.S.  p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s , these  key f a m i l i e s -- f a m i l i e s w i t h " c h i l d r e n " — t h i r d s of the t o t a l , o r 64.6  per cent.  r e p r e s e n t e d two-  O n e - t h i r d of these  " f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n " had o n l y one p a r e n t i n the home.  This  i s u s u a l l y the mother, and t h i s i s a n o t h e r f a m i l y t o whom subs i d i z e d h o u s i n g can make the d i f f e r e n c e between "managing" o r sinking into despair. A: s i z e a b l e p r o p o r t i o n (28 p e r c e n t ) of these same " f a m i l i e s '  1  w i t h c h i l d r e n " were l a r g e f a m i l i e s of s i x or more p e r s o n s , and about o n e - t h i r d had a t l e a s t f o u r c h i l d r e n . F o r an i l l u s t r a t i o n of how  the s t r u c t u r e of the p r o j e c t s ,  i n r e s p e c t of the f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n them, has changed o v e r the y e a r s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t , i n 194-9, e i g h t y t h r e e p e r cent of the t o t a l f a m i l i e s i n the h o u s i n g were " f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n " , as compared w i t h the 64.6 196I,  p e r cent i n  noted above.' A l t h o u g h the p r o p o r t i o n o f t h i s group has  been d e c l i n i n g s t e a d i l y s i n c e the y e a r of 1949, d e c l i n e b e g i n s i n 1956  the s h a r p e s t  -- the y e a r i n which s i n g l e e l d e r l y  persons were a d m i t t e d t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g f o r the f i r s t t i m e . T h i s p o i n t s up the f a c t t h a t much of the p r o v i s i o n i n h o u s i n g i n the l a s t few y e a r s has been f o r s i n g l e u n i t s f o r the o l d r  age p e r s o n .  Of course o l d p e o p l e must be d e c e n t l y housed.  The q u e s t i o n i s , whether the p r o p o r t i o n t h a t t h e y s h o u l d r e p r e s e n t i n a p u b l i c h o u s i n g community which we are s t r i v i n g t o keep as "normal" as p o s s i b l e , has not been reached — i n some s e c t i o n s of the U.S.,  in fact,  has not a l r e a d y been s u r p a s s e d .  82 As  c o u l d be  children, ly  expected,  t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h o s e who  u n d e r t h e age  eral  years.  families  families  will  be  has  s t a y i n g on  —  first  age and  was  head  f a m i l y i s aged  Table  Age  a decrease  15.  to  • TO.ready i n  35-44  30.8  19.3  45 - 54  16.9  55 - 64  5.6  3.0  2.3  1.4  over  100  Total  a large percentage  of f a m i l i e s w i t h minor  t h e p r o j e c t s and  "Broken" or one-parent  families,  o n e - t h i r d of the t o t a l  of  proportion  of t h i s  of the  i n the p r o j e c t s r e f l e c t  upward a s  g r o u p has  m  100  m o v i n g i n t o t h e p r o j e c t s have a head  sent  Moving  4o.8  "bulge"  whose  "Families with  33.9  families  young  of f a m i l i e s  25 - 34  young, t h e  into  are very  27.8  While  older  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of "Families with Children"  25  and  that  a r e coming  10.4  65  sev-  44".  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n " by Age o f Head  o f Head  under  the  the p a s t  This i s naturally  i n the percentage "25  fami-  is steadily increasing  27.8 p e r c e n t i n 19.61.  by  of the  growing  t h e p r o p o r t i o n who --  with  t o the f a c t  f a m i l i e s who  " u n d e r 25"  accompanied of the  related  over  i n the p r o j e c t s ,  time,  o f head  have a head  been d e c l i n i n g  However, f o r t h o s e  f o r the  each year,  o f 35,  T h i s i s , of course,  each y e a r . housing  of the group of f a m i l i e s  f a m i l y who  noted  " f a m i l i e s with  been r i s i n g ,  is  t h e movement  families as  children  but  age. above,  of  (Table repre-  children." slowly,  15).  each  The  83 year.  At the same t i m e , the p e r c e n t a g e of these f a m i l i e s  have a young head (under 35) y e a r by y e a r , and  i n 1961,  who  has been d e c r e a s i n g g r a d u a l l y ,  was  44.4  per cent.  T h i s may  be a  s l i g h t i n d i c a t i o n t h a t f a m i l i e s i n the lower-income groups are t e n d i n g t o break up a t an e a r l i e r age.  On the o t h e r hand, i n  t h i s group of one-parent f a m i l i e s , those who  have f o u r or  more c h i l d r e n have been an i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n of the each y e a r . T h i s may  In I 9 6 I , almost o n e - t h i r d were i n t h i s  be due  total  category.  t o e l i g i b i l i t y arrangements, not n e c e s s a r i l y  a t r e n d i n f a m i l y t y p e s , but i t i s o b v i o u s l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the p l a n n i n g of w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i n the p r o j e c t s . f a m i l i e s , who, f a m i l i e s , who 1961,  i t should be noted, are not n e c e s s a r i l y "broken" came i n t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g f o r the f i r s t time i n  were 27.6  d r e n " who  One-parent  p e r cent of the t o t a l of " f a m i l i e s w i t h  entered that year.  chil-  T h i s p e r c e n t a g e has remained  rel-  a t i v e l y s t a b l e f o r a number of y e a r s . Famijjie^sJ^i^o^t Children.  ( A d u l t and S i n g l e "Families'').  As has been p r e v i o u s l y noted, t h e r e i s a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n of c h i l d l e s s f a m i l i e s i n U.S. per c e n t ) .  housing p r o j e c t s ,  (35.4  Over t w o - t h i r d s of these f a m i l i e s are e l d e r l y ,  t h e i r numbers are i n c r e a s i n g each y e a r . t h e r e were 52.4  F o r example, i n  1952,  p e r cent of o l d e r f a m i l i e s (age of head of  f a m i l y 65 or o v e r ) i n the t o t a l of " f a m i l i e s w i t h o u t but i n 1961,  and  t h i s p r o p o r t i o n had r i s e n t o 69.  children,"  A g a i n these  per-  centages i l l u s t r a t e the sharp i n c r e a s e i n the numbers of o l d e r people  i n the p r o j e c t s over these  years.  S i n g l e - p e r s o n s are a r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g group i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , and  i n f a c t , show the g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n a t e i n c r e a s e .  They were o n l y 18.9  p e r cent of the c h i l d l e s s f a m i l i e s i n  1952,  84 but 44.7  p e r cent i n i960, and 48 p e r cent i n 1961.  person f a m i l i e s , whom one would presume would be  Two-  chiefly  c o u p l e s , were a l s o 48 p e r cent of the c h i l d l e s s f a m i l i e s , but i n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y younger than the person " f a m i l i e s " .  single  The r e m a i n i n g f o u r p e r cent of f a m i l i e s  i n t h i s group were d i s t r i b u t e d i n t h r e e - p e r s o n and  larger  households. T h i s same t r e n d towards an o l d e r average age f o r f a m i l i e s w i t h o u t y o u n g s t e r s i s e v i d e n t i n the d a t a a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i i s k i n d of f a m i l y who time.  first  The p r o p o r t i o n of young c h i l d l e s s f a m i l i e s (age of head  under 25) 21.6  i s e n t e r i n g h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s f o r the  i s d e c r e a s i n g r a p i d l y each y e a r , and i n 1961,  was  p e r cent of the t o t a l of " f a m i l i e s w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n . "  On the o t h e r hand, as has been noted, " f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n " w i t h young heads have been an i n c r e a s i n g l y h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of  those e n t e r i n g the p r o j e c t s f o r the f i r s t t i m e .  age group (age of head 65 and o v e r ) were 51.3  The o l d e r  p e r cent of the  c h i l d l e s s f a m i l i e s coming i n t o the h o u s i n g i n 1961,  also a  s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n each y e a r as i s t r u e f o r those who  are a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n the p r o j e c t s .  The  i n f l u e n c e of  l o w e r i n g the age of e l i g i b i l i t y t o h o u s i n g from 65 t o 62,  and  the e x t e n s i o n of e l i g i b i l i t y t o s i n g l e e l d e r l y persons i n  1956,  can be seen i n the changing p r o p o r t i o n s of f a m i l i e s whose head i s aged 55 o r o v e r .  I n 1957,  t h i s group was  58 p e r cent of  the t o t a l of c h i l d l e s s f a m i l i e s e n t e r i n g h o u s i n g , but i n t h e y were almost 70 p e r c e n t .  1961,  85 Elderly^ Families . E l d e r l y f a m i l i e s a r e becoming a g r e a t e r segment o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n each y e a r , and t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s markedly demonstrated  i n U n i t e d S t a t e s Housing S t a t i s t i c s .  There a r e  i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f e l d e r l y a p p l i c a n t s on w a i t i n g l i s t s for  l o w - r e n t h o u s i n g , and i n t h e p r o j e c t s themselves as r e g u -  l a t i o n s a r e adopted  to f a c i l i t a t e their entry.  Some c i t i e s i n  the N o r t h e r n s t a t e s of t h e U.S., where t h e problem  of housing  the s e n i o r s i t i z e n s i s p r e s s i n g , have t a k e n a c t i o n t o b u i l d u n i t s designed e s p e c i a l l y f o r o l d people and have added a cons i d e r a b l e number t o t h e i r p u b l i c h o u s i n g . e x p e d i e n t measures a r e b e i n g t r i e d .  In a d d i t i o n , other  F o r example, i n Chicago  i n 1963, t h e Housing A u t h o r i t y s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e were a p p r o x i mately 4500 apartments,  i n v a r i o u s stages o f development, i n  t h e i r h o u s i n g t h a t were designed f o r e l d e r l y p e o p l e .  However,  r e g i s t r a t i o n s f o r these u n i t s t o t a l l e d more than 8000.' I n an attempt t o augment t h e s u p p l y o f s u i t a b l e h o u s i n g f o r t h i s  seg-  ment o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , t h e A u t h o r i t y arranged a t h r e e y e a r d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t wherein i t supplements  t h e r e n t payments  (maximum s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n i s $50 p e r month) i n 100 approved and p r i v a t e l y - o w n e d apartment  buildings.  Consideration i s also  b e i n g g i v e n , n o t a b l y I n Chicago, bat^also:;. "inl'some p o t h e r c e n t r e s to  t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f r e c o n d i t i o n i n g e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g f o r use  as p u b l i c h o u s i n g d w e l l i n g s f o r o l d p e o p l e . E l d e r l y f a m i l i e s a r e d e f i n e d , f o r purposes to  of e l i g i b i l i t y  l o w - r e n t h o u s i n g i n t h e U.S., as those w h e r e i n t h e head o r  spouse i s a t l e a s t 62 years' o l d o r i s d i s a b l e d .  Disabled per-  sons a r e those i n r e c e i p t of t h e r e l e v a n t S o c i a l S e c u r i t y b e n e f i t s , f o r which age r e q u i r e m e n t s nated i n t h e second h a l f o f 1961.  ( f o r m e r l y 50) were e l i m i -  These f a m i l i e s were s u b j e c t  to r e - e x a m i n a t i o n f o r t h e f i r s t time i n 1961, and t h e i r e n t r y  _  Housing f o r the E l d e r l y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s -  86 adds t o t h e a l r e a d y h i g h percentage  of e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s i n  the p r o j e c t s . In a l l ,  54,214 E l d e r l y f a m i l i e s were re-examined  i n 1961  and o f these 31,525 l i v e d i n t h e N o r t h e r n s t a t e s w h i l e o n l y 3,937 l i v e d i n t h e West.  E l d e r l y f a m i l i e s r e p r e s e n t e d 28 p e r  cent o f a l l w h i t e f a m i l i e s re-examined i s most s i g n i f i c a n t  i n I96I; a figure  which  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y because i t i s i n c r e a s i n g  each y e a r ) f o r p l a n n i n g o f b o t h w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s t o t h e housi n g and t h e d e s i g n o f h o u s i n g .  I n these old-age  families  t h e r e was an e q u a l d i v i s i o n (l4 p e r c e n t ) between those w i t h o n l y one a d u l t (may i n c l u d e a c h i l d ) and those w i t h two o r more a d u l t s .  I n o t h e r words, s i n g l e e l d e r l y people form about  14 p e r cent o f t h e r e s i d e n t s of U.S. p u b l i c h o u s i n g . The number o f E l d e r l y f a m i l i e s moving i n t o t h e p r o j e c t s i n 1961 was 13,735.  Of t h e s e , 7,122 moved i n t o h o u s i n g i n  the N o r t h e r n s t a t e s and 1,315 i n t o h o u s i n g i n t h e West.  One-  a d u l t f a m i l i e s were 52.1 p e r cent o f t h e t o t a l , two o r more a d u l t f a m i l i e s were ^7.9 p e r c e n t . In t h e Vancouver p r o j e c t s t h e r e i s an e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n of 19^7 p e r c e n t .  However, t h e s e a r e people a l l 70 y e a r s o f  age o r o l d e r and t h e r e f o r e t h e percentage w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s percentage sons 62 y e a r s o f age o r o l d e r .  i s n o t comparable  o f 28.0, which i n c l u d e s p e r -  I n t h e f o u r Vancouver p r o j e c t s  however t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f f a m i l i e s who have, "as t h e f a m i l y head, a person o f 60 y e a r s o f age o r o l d e r , i s 3.5.° P  e r  cent.  S i n c e t h e r e w i l l be even more persons over t h e age o f 60 y e a r s (not d e s i g n a t e d as heads o f f a m i l i e s ) i n t h e Vancouver p r o j e c t s , i t does seem p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e may be a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f e l d e r l y people i n them --using.age c a t i o n year —  62 as t h e demar-  than i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s p r o j e c t s .  87 Comparatiye B r i t i s h  Overvlew  F a m i l y Types Without on-the-spot e n q u i r y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o get i n f o r m a t i o n on the t y p e s of f a m i l y t o he found i n p a r t i c u l a r h o u s i n g developments  i n B r i t a i n , of the k i n d r e f e r r e d t o above  i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the Vancouver  projects.  Some i n d i c a t i o n ,  however, of the type of household i n a h o u s i n g e s t a t e as compared w i t h the r e s t of the c o u n t r y i s p r e s e n t e d by Mogey, who undertook a s t u d y of B a r t o n , the post-war m u n i c i p a l e s t a t e the  o u t s k i r t s of O x f o r d , a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d .  1  on  Mogey c l a s s i f i e d  households i n t o f i v e t y p e s , which i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare w i t h the f o r m u l a t i o n f o l l o w e d e l s e w h e r e i n t h i s s t u d y : Tyge^A: Households  c o n s i s t i n g of the housewife and  her  husband o n l y . Type^B: Households  i n c l u d i n g the h o u s e w i f e , h e r husband,  and one o r more of the h o u s e w i f e ' s own c h i l d r e n aged 0-14 Type^C; Households  years.  i n c l u d i n g the h o u s e w i f e , h e r husband,  and one o r more grown-up sons o r daughters aged 15 o r o v e r but not any  below.  Type D; Households  c o n s i s t i n g s o l e l y of a d u l t s aged 15  or  o v e r , but not c o n t a i n i n g grown-up sons o r d a u g h t e r s of t h e h o u s e w i f e . (Housewife, h e r husband and o t h e r a d u l t s ) . p e r s o n households w i l l a l s o be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s T y p e E : Other h o u s e h o l d s .  Single  group.  T h i s group w i l l c o n t a i n  house-  h o l d s c o n s i s t i n g of widows w i t h c h i l d r e n o r widows w i t h grownup sons o r d a u g h t e r s .  I t w i l l a l s o c o n t a i n households  con-  s i s t i n g of the h o u s e w i f e , h e r husband, one o r more m a r r i e d c h i l d r e n , and some g r a n d c h i l d r e n . J . M. Mogey, F j j ^ j J T ^ n d .Neighbqurhood^ O x f o r d , p. 16. . 1  Two^Stud^les J.n _  88 In the  summary;-below, these t y p e s have been g i v e n names  which h e l p t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . data c o l l e c t e d f o r Barton, i t i s a l s o possible relative  Prom  the  t o see  their  importance.  Table 16.  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Types of 1955.  Type of F a m i l y A:  Two-person f a m i l i e s  B:  S t a n d a r d f a m i l i e s : younger c h i l d r e n  C:  Standard f a m i l i e s : o l d e r  D:  Adult f a m i l i e s , including  (no  children) children  Barton Estate  Great Britain  11  16  7.0  37  4  20  0  15  - 15  12  s i n g l e persons  E: Mixed h o u s e h o l d s , i n c l u d i n g  one-parent families Total  Families.  100  100  I t seems t h a t the canons f o r s e l e c t i o n of a c o u n c i l house i n B a r t o n f a v o u r e i t h e r type B households or type E h o u s e h o l d s , whereas i n the r e s t of the c o u n t r y t h e r e i s a more even d i s tribution.  Mogeyyalso r e p o r t e d t h a t d u r i n g the p e r i o d  50 t h e r e were h a r d l y any I t was  inhabited  persons. en"  one-person households (1 per  Large f a m i l i e s  1  There were a l s o 9.9  d r e n , or a d u l t  cent).  m a i n l y by f a m i l i e s of t h r e e , f o u r or f i v e  families, consisting  cent.  1938-  constituted of one  5.2  p a r e n t and  per  c e n t , and  "brok-  c h i l d r e n , 5.8"per  per cent of f a m i l i e s w i t h o u t  chil-  families.  S i m i l a r f i g u r e s are  f i v e n f o r the e l e v e n B e l f a s t  'Large' f a m i l i e s , c o n s i s t eighteen.  of f i v e or more c h i l d r e n  estates,  under  89 i n a survey c a r r i e d out by D o r i t a F i e l d and Desmond N e i l l .  1  There were v e r y f e w one-person households (0.3), q u i t e a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of l a r g e f a m i l i e s (23.5 p e r c e n t ) , and h a r d l y any "broken"  f a m i l i e s (3 p e r c e n t ) .  The t y p i c a l o r model f a m i l y  c o n s i s t e d o f f a t h e r , mother and two c h i l d r e n .  The next most  f r e q u e n t a r e f a m i l i e s o f two a d u l t s and t h r e e c h i l d r e n , and two a d u l t s and one c h i l d .  These t h r e e groups o f f a m i l i e s made  up 5^ p e r cent o f a l l t h e households. c h i l d r e n f a m i l i e s comprised tal.  F o u r - c h i l d r e n and f i v e -  a f u r t h e r 15.2 p e r cent o f t h e t o -  Thus almost 70 p e r cent of t h e f a m i l i e s c o n s i s t e d o f two  a d u l t s and from one t o f i v e c h i l d r e n .  Only about 7 p e r cent  were w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n under 18 y e a r s o f age. F a m i l y .Size S e v e r a l s t u d i e s , which have now been made of a l l k i n d s of p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n B r i t a i n , g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on f a m i l y s i z e . John Westergaard and Ruth G l a s s , f o r i n s t a n c e , u n d e r t o o k a s u r vey o f t h e London County C o u n c i l e s t a t e o f Lansbury^ E a s t End of London.  L a n s b u r y p c o n s i s t s o f replacement  i n the housing  on a slum c l e a r a n c e s i t e , which was e x h i b i t e d as " L i v e A r c h i t e c t u r e " d u r i n g t h e F e s t i v a l o f B r i t a i n i n 1951.  Although the  o r i g i n a l a r e a had some o f t h e w o r s t , most d i l a p i d a t e d and congested h o u s i n g i n London, t h e new f e a t u r e s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e r e b u i l t s e c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a r e v i t a l i z e d town c e n t r e and mark e t p l a c e , have won a c c l a i m i n many a r c h i t e c t u r a l and p l a n n i n g journals. D o r i t a F i e l d and Desmond N e i l l , A Survey o f Mtew H o u s i n g E s t a t e s i n B e l f a s t , p. 11. The above figuTes"~are D a s e d "ofTa" 1  I t was g i v e n t h e name o f t h e Lab-our Member o f P a r l i a m e n t f o r t h e a r e a , (George L a n s b u r y ) , who has l o n g r e p r e s e n t e d t h i s a r e a , and was most i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s e e i n g t h e p l a n s ( f i r s t p r o j e c t e d i n t h e County o f London P l a n ) brought "to f r u i t i o n as a p r i o r i t y i n t h e E a s t End d i s t r i c t a f t e r t h e war. 2  90 Westergaard and G l a s s found Lansbury's p o p u l a t i o n and household s t r u c t u r e f o l l o w e d the p a t t e r n made f a m i l i a r by o t h e r new r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , h a v i n g  f a r more c h i l d r e n and young  p e o p l e , and a l s o f a r more l a r g e households ( f i v e o r more p e r s o n s ) , even though i t was much more p h y s i c a l l y a p a r t o f Popl a r and the E a s t End than most " C o u n c i l h o u s i n g "  units.  The  1  average f a m i l y s i z e f o r Lansbury was 3.76, which i s f a i r l y ' t y p i c a l o f e s t a t e s peopled from t h e h o u s i n g  lists.  In t h e i r survey o f t h e B e l f a s t e s t a t e s , F i e l d and N e i l l found t h a t the average s i z e o f f a m i l i e s i n t h e i r sample was 4.86 p e r s o n s .  They compared t h i s f i g u r e t o t h e average number  of persons p e r occupied was c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r .  p r i v a t e house i n B e l f a s t and found i t 2 The I n c r e a s e  i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e , how-  e v e r , s i n c e f a m i l i e s i n B e l f a s t appear t o be l a r g e r t h a n those i n London( an average s i z e of 3.97 compared w i t h 2.82  accord-  i n g t o t h e 1951 Census). One may compare household s i z e i n t h r e e h o u s i n g e s t a t e s w i t h the 1951 census f i g u r e f o r B r i t a i n , i n the f o l l o w i n g table. I t can be seen, t h a t f a m i l i e s c o n t a i n i n g f o u r o r f i v e persons predominate on t h e newer h o u s i n g e s t a t e s , such as B a r t o n and Lansbury, b o t h o f which were b u i l t s i n c e t h e war. In S h e f f i e l d , which i s a much o l d e r e s t a t e d a t i n g from t h e r e a r e many more even l a r g e r f a m i l i e s . however, a number o f t h r e e - g e n e r a t i o n  This could  1926, include,  f a m i l i e s s i n c e some o f  the e a r l y r e s i d e n t s o f t h a t e s t a t e a r e now grandmothers.  In  B r i t a i n as a whole, on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e a r e more s i n g l e p e r s o n h o u s e h o l d s , and many more f a m i l i e s c o n t a i n i n g o n l y two 1  John Westergaard and Ruth G l a s s , "A P r o f i l e o f Lansbury."  2 D o r i t a F i e l d and Desmond N e i l l , op. c i t .  91 o r t h r e e persons w i t h a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s containing four or f i v e Table 17. Family  persons.  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Household  (persons)  Great B r i t a i n 1951  Barton - 1954  Size.  Lansbury S h e f f i e l d 1953 1953  1  9  4.5  38  32  35.9  29  49  48  36.5  6-7  6  11  11  14.8  8 o r more  2  1  0  100  100  1  11  2-3  5  4-5  Total  2  .  .  100  8.3: 100  .  On the o t h e r hand, young m a r r i e d c o u p l e s w i t h no f a m i l y as y e t , o r perhaps  one c h i l d , may o b t a i n a house i n a New  Town by i n d u s t r i a l s e l e c t i o n b e f o r e they; would q u a l i f y on t h e waiting l i s t s .  Thus i n 1961, 49 p e r cent of a l l households i n  Hemel Hempstead were f a m i l i e s of two o r t h r e e p e r s o n s ;  27.6  p e r cent were f a m i l i e s o f f o u r ; 15.5 p e r cent were f a m i l i e s of f i v e o r more p e r s o n s .  S i m i l a r f i g u r e s a p p l y t o Stevenage,  where t h e r e were 42 p e r cent of f a m i l i e s of two o r t h r e e p e r sons i n i960. Number of ^ChJ^d^ren. The ma j,or:i problem  of a l l new h o u s i n g developments has so  f a r been t h e number of c h i l d r e n i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n .  In b l o c k s  of f l a t s , New Towns, and o t h e r h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s a l i k e , t h e age s t r u c t u r e i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of the c o u n t r y as a whole. the new a r e a s t h e r e a r e f a r more c h i l d r e n , because f a m i l i e s  In  92 w i t h c h i l d r e n have p r i o r i t i e s on the w a i t i n g l i s t s ; and, the case of the New  in  Towns, the employees most a n x i o u s t o move  w i t h t h e i r f i r m s are commonly those w i t h young c h i l d r e n . F i e l d and N e i l l found i n t h e i r survey of the B e l f a s t e s t a t e s t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n of u n d e r - f o u r t e e n s was  almost  t w i c e t h a t i n the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , whereas t h e r e were r e l a t i v e l y fewer i n the age-group f o u r t e e n t o s e v e n t e e n . l a r s i t u a t i o n was a new  A simi-  r e p o r t e d by H i l d a J e n n i n g s i n her s u r v e y of  estate i n B r i s t o l ; "The s c h o o l s were overcrowded by an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g c h i l d p o p u l a t i o n , and one d o c t o r who a n a l y z e d the aged i s t r i b u t i o n of h i s p a t i e n t s s a i d t h a t i t seemed t h a t over h a l f the i n h a b i t a n t s of the e s t a t e were c h i l d r e n of f i f t e e n y e a r s and under, w h i l e 35 per cent were under f i v e y e a r s of age. N e a r l y f o u r - f i f t h s of h i s work c o n s i s t e d of a c u t e emergency t r e a t m e n t of c h i l d r e n . . . . I n t h i s preponderance of young f a m i l i e s Mossdene was not e x c e p t i o n a l . The way i n which the p o i n t s s y s tem worked indeed made.it almost i n e v i t a b l e on the new e s t a t e . Even when, as i n redevelopment or c l e a r a n c e schemes, a mixture of age groups were r e h o u s e d , the d e s i r e of the o l d t o remain i n f a m i l i a r p a r t s of B r i s t o l meant t h a t i t was m a i n l y the young who went t o the o u t l y i n g e s t a t e s . " !  T h i s same s i t u a t i o n i s a l s o d e s c r i b e d by Young and  Willmott  a t G r e e n l e i g h , which i s the pseudonym f o r a p o s t - w a r London County C o u n c i l e s t a t e .  Young and W i l l m o t t s t a t e t h a t Green-  l e i g h s r e s i d e n t s , mostly couples 1  mainly  w i t h young c h i l d r e n , f a l l  i n t o two age-groups, the p a r e n t s  f o r t y - f i v e , and  between t h i r t y  the c h i l d r e n under f o u r t e e n .  and  At p r e s e n t  "bulge"  the  of c h i l d r e n t h e r e i s so l a r g e t h a t t h e i r need f o r p s c h o o l s i s s e v e r e l y t a x i n g the e d u c a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s . One may see v e r y c l e a r l y what happens when t h i s "bulge" 1  H i l d a Jennings,  S o c i e t i e s _ i ] ^ t h e ^Making, p.  137.  2 M i c h a e l Young and P e t e r W i l l m o t t , F a m i l y ^ n d J^lj^sjiip i n E a s t London, p. 166.  94 moves up t h r o u g h t h e age groups by comparing t h e age s t r u c t u r e of t h e v a s t pre-war e s t a t e o f t h e London County C o u n c i l a t Dagenham i n 1931 w i t h what i t became i n 1958. T a b l e 18.  1  Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of P o p u l a t i o n on t h e Dagenham "Estate, 1931 and 1958, and i n England and Wales, 1958. Dagenham  Age 0-4  England and Wales, 1958  1931  1958  15  4  8  29 ( a )  16  1  15-29  19  20  x  30-39  21  1  3  14  4o-49  11  14  14  50-59  3  17  60-69 70 and over  2  12 4  I  100  100  100  5-14  Total  5  ?  (a) 5-13, 14-29 i n 1931 Even i n 1958 t h e r e were some important  differences i n  Dagenham s age s t r u c t u r e and t h a t of t h e c o u n t r y as whole. 1  F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e were fewer c h i l d r e n under f i v e , and more o l d e r people i n t h e i r f i f t i e s and s i x t i e s .  But t h e s e d i f -  f e r e n c e s a r e not n e a r l y so extreme as t h e s i t u a t i o n twentyseven y e a r s e a r l i e r .  At t h a t time 44.5 p e r c e n t o f t h e p e o p l e  l i v i n g on t h e e s t a t e were below t h e age o f f o u r t e e n , and 16 per cent over foity; i n 1958 t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g  f i g u r e s were 20  P e t e r , W i l l m o t t , The_ _ E v q l u t i o n of a Community, p. 23.  A Neighbourhood U n i t , B a s i l d o n New Town  95 p e r cent and 47 p e r In the New  cent.  Towns, even though the f a m i l y s i z e i s s m a l l e r ,  surveys show t h a t here a l s o t h e r e are abnormal numbers of children.  At P e t e r l e e , f o r example, i n 1963,  the p o p u l a t i o n were under f i v e y e a r s of age; t o n A y c l i f f e 13.7 corresponding 14.6  13.9  p e r cent  i n 1962  a t New-  p e r cent were below t h i s age, w h i l e the  f i g u r e s f o r Harlow and Crawley i n 1961  p e r cent and  of  14.0  per cent.  were  On the o t h e r hand, i n the  c o u n t r y as a whole, o n l y 7.9  p e r cent of the p o p u l a t i o n were  c h i l d r e n i n t h i s age group.  F o r the same y e a r s quoted above,  i n Harlow and Crawley 36.6 people  p e r cent and 35.6  p e r cent of the  l i v i n g t h e r e were c h i l d r e n under f o u r t e e n , w h i l e i n  Great B r i t a i n the c o r r e s p o n d i n g The  f i g u r e was  23.2  i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s unbalanced age  per cent.  structure w i l l  appear i n the tremendous p r e s s u r e on a l l the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n , such as s c h o o l s , p l a y g r o u n d s ,  maternity  and  c h i l d w e l f a r e c e n t r e s , and w i l l c r e a t e f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s as the "bulge" moves up the age groups. "new  housing"  No f e a t u r e of the  i s more c r i t i c a l , and f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l  be g i v e n t o i t i n a l a t e r  chapter.  Elde^rly^^FamjLlles. The  number of o l d people  i n p u b l i c housing  i s s i z e a b l e , but the p r o p o r t i o n s are s t i l l the number i n the c o u n t r y as a whole.  in Britain  low compared t o  In mid-1961 the  percen-  tage of people aged 65 and over i n the U n i t e d Kingdom was t i m a t e d as 11.7 new  per c e n t ,  1  w h i l e the p e r c e n t a g e i n any of the  communities i s about a t h i r d as much.  1  es-  On the o t h e r hand,  B r i t a i n - An O f f i c i a l Handbook, H.M.S.O.,  1963.  96 i n some o f t h e pre-war e s t a t e s , such as Dagenham, t h e " b u l g e " of young m a r r i e d c o u p l e s l i v i n g t h e r e i n 1931 has g r a d u a l l y been moving up i n t o t h e o l d e r age groups; i n 1958, 7.3 p e r cent of the p o p u l a t i o n was between s i x t y and s i x t y - f o u r , and 8.7 p e r cent were aged s i x t y - f i v e and o v e r . An i n c r e a s i n g number o f e l d e r l y people have been a p p l y i n g to  l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s f o r h o u s i n g , and t h i s has f i n a l l y had  i t s impact on government p o l i c i e s .  As a r e s u l t , a u t h o r i t i e s  are b e i n g encouraged t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r r a t e o f b u i l d i n g t o meet t h i s new demand.  A s i g n i f i c a n t d e c i s i o n t a k e n by t h e  London County C o u n c i l , f o r example, has i n c r e a s e d t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f one and two-room d w e l l i n g s i n new developments from 20 t o 30 p e r c e n t .  T h i s i s n e a r l y one i n t h r e e —  enough t o  change t h e c h a r a c t e r (as w e l l as t h e needs) o f a housing a r e a . A few y e a r s ago l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s i n England and Wales were a l l o c a t i n g about 7 p e r cent o f t h e i r b u i l d i n g programs t o h o u s i n g s u i t a b l e f o r o l d p e o p l e ; i n 1959 i t was about 27 p e r c e n t , w h i l e i n S c o t l a n d t h e y have i n c r e a s e d the p r o p o r t i o n from 3.8 p e r cent i n 1952 t o 15.4 p e r cent i n 1959. There have been o t h e r developments o f a c o n s t r u c t i v e r a t h e r than a merely " s t a t i s t i c a l " n a t u r e .  I n 1958, t h e M i n i -  s t r y asked t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o b u i l d group f l a t l e t s i n which o l d people c o u l d have s e l f - c o n t a i n e d b e d - s i t t i n g rooms and k i t c h e n s o f t h e i r own, but would share communally c e r t a i n o t h e r a m e n i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g the s e r v i c e s o f a r e s i d e n t "warden. Some o f these b l o c k s , c o n t a i n i n g between 20 t o 30 " f l a t l e t s " , are s i t u a t e d c l o s e t o t h e c e n t r e s o f h o u s i n g e s t a t e s , w h i l e ' o t h e r s a r e i n s m a l l towns o r v i l l a g e s .  Some a r e designed  s o l e l y f o r persons o f r e t i r e m e n t age, t h a t i s , men over 65 and  97 women over 60.  Others a r e i n t e n d e d f o r s i n g l e persons w i t h  the g r e a t e s t h o u s i n g need, i r r e s p e c t i v e of age, and consequently  younger t e n a n t s a r e a l s o accommodated.  is  carefully selected.  The r e s i d e n t warden  I n a r e c e n t s t u d y undertaken by t h e  M i n i s t r y ( c o v e r i n g s i x of these b l o c k s ) f o u r of the wardens had n u r s i n g e x p e r i e n c e , and one was a t r a i n e d and e x p e r i e n c e d social  worker.  1  D i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e tenant s e l e c t i o n . old  A l l the  people a r e e i t h e r drawn from t h e c o u n c i l h o u s i n g w a i t i n g  l i s t s , o r come from e x i s t i n g c o u n c i l d w e l l i n g s , o r from clearance areas.  slum  The aim i s t o accommodate p e n s i o n e r s , l i v i n g  a l o n e , who a r e l i k e l y t o b e n e f i t from a degree of s u p e r v i s i o n because o f poor h e a l t h o r i n f i r m i t y , though s t i l l a b l e t o l o o k a f t e r themselves.  They a r e not i n t e n d e d f o r t h e many o l d  people who a r e s t i l l f a i r l y capable and can l i v e i n s e l f - c o n t a i n e d f l a t s and bungalows. It  seems t o be t h e g e n e r a l e x p e r i e n c e of l o c a l  t h a t a r e a s scheduled f o r redevelopment  authorities  contain a higher pro-  p o r t i o n o f o l d people than o t h e r d i s t r i c t s .  A l t h o u g h some o l d  f o l k may be q u i t e ready t o move t o h e a l t h i e r s u r r o u n d i n g s outs i d e t h e c i t y c e n t e r s , many f i n d i t hard t o leave a p l a c e which i s f a m i l i a r and where t h e y have f r i e n d s and n e i g h b o u r s . T h i s f a c t o r i s r e c o g n i z e d by l o c a l h o u s i n g managers who t r y , where p o s s i b l e , t o g i v e p r e f e r e n c e t o them f o r r e h o u s i n g on the s i t e which has t o be c l e a r e d . Among t h e Expanded Towns, Worsley makes s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n for  o l d people i n two groups o f bungalows; t w e n t y - f i v e a r e  Grouped F l a t l e t s " f o r Old P e o p l e : A S o c i o l o g i c a l M i n i s t r y of "Housing 'and L o c a l 'Government,' 1962. x  Study,  98 l e a s e d i n each group, w i t h a warden I n charge.  The groups  share a common room and t e l e v i s i o n room, b o t h o f which a r e f r e q u e n t e d by o t h e r o l d f o l k from t h e town.  I n Swindon, o l d e r  t e n a n t s a r e housed m a i n l y i n b u i l d i n g s o f a p r e f a b r i c a t e d t y p e , w h i l e i n B l e t c h l e y o l d p e o p l e ' s bungalows a r e mixed w i t h o t h e r dwellings —  an arrangement  which now appears t o be g e n e r a l l y  preferred. The p r o p o r t i o n o f o l d people i n t h e New Towns v a r i e s widel y b u t r a r e l y approaches t h e number t o be found i n l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d communities.  Although a t East K i l b r i d e there are  s a i d t o be 600 men and women over 65, and -- most e x c e p t i o n a l l y —  2,600 aged between 45 and 60, f o r t h e most p a r t t h e numbers  are much s m a l l e r .  A t A y c l i f f e t h e r e a r e 298 t e n a n t s over 60,  w h i l e a t Hemel Hempstead t h e e s t i m a t e d number of people aged 65 and over was 650, and s a i d t o occupy 10 p e r cent o f t h e dwellings there.  1  A t t h i s l a s t town, t h e f i r s t group o f bunga-  lows b u i l t was o f f e r e d t o r e t i r e d people on t h e London h o u s i n g l i s t s , and was so s u c c e s s f u l t h a t t h e C o r p o r a t i o n b u i l t 200 more i n a l l neighbourhoods, w i t h a view t o a t t r a c t i n g  further  o l d people from London, b u t t h e y were l a t e r g i v e n t o r e l a t i v e s of t e n a n t s . A l l t h e Development C o r p o r a t i o n s a r e now w e l l aware o f the importance o f t h e k i n s h i p group, and o f p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e o l d , but a t t h i s stage i t i s not easy t o f i l l a d e q u a t e l y what i s g e n e r a l l y acknowledged  t o be a gap i n e a r l i e r p l a n n i n g . F o r  i n s t a n c e , t h e 200 o l d people a t Crawley a r e i n t h e main,  rela-  t i v e s of t e n a n t s brought from London, but t h e demand exceeds  N i c h o l s o n , op. c i t . , p. 64.  99 the accommodation a v a i l a b l e .  A t Stevenage t h e number o f e l -  d e r l y people i s a l s o i n c r e a s i n g , and t h e C o r p o r a t i o n has f o r some y e a r s been a l l o c a t i n g a s m a l l percentage each y e a r t o t h e p a r e n t s o f e x i s t i n g t e n a n t s .  of dwellings A t p r e s e n t 462  e l d e r l y people have been accommodated i n Stevenage under t h i s policy. The e a r l i e r p l a n o f an o l d p e o p l e ' s home o r c o l o n y i s now i n d i s f a v o u r .  Grouped bungalows a r e a c c e p t a b l e i f t h e r e  are not t o o many o f them c l u s t e r e d t o g e t h e r , and t h e p r e f e r r e d method i s t o d i s t r i b u t e them throughout The  t h e neighbourhoods.  l e s s they are'' s e p a r a t e d from t h e g e n e r a l community t h e  more l i k e l y t h e y a r e t o s e t t l e h a p p i l y . seems, a r e s p e c i a l l y v a l u e d i n New Towns.  Old p e o p l e , i t now The Development  C o r p o r a t i o n s f i n d them an a s s e t i n s e t t l i n g t h e i r communities and make s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n f o r them. people's found  Self-governing old  c l u b s and o l d p e o p l e ' s w e l f a r e committees a r e t o be  i n New Towns, as w e l l as meal s e r v i c e s , c h i r o p o d y , and  night attendents. arranged.  Group h o l i d a y s f o r t h e aged, a r e a l s o o f t e n  CHAPTER I I I E^^I^J^SS^S3,}-, , £ r  ,|ie  Cost .of .^e l ^ e r  Vancquyer:^ Income and^ jtejnts P u b l i c Housing A u t h o r i t i e s as a r u l e d e v i s e some e l i g i b i l i t y and r e n t a l r e g u l a t i o n s a l o n g w i t h procedures  f o r tenant  s e l e c t i o n , i n o r d e r t o a s s u r e ; (1) t h a t t h e a v a i l a b l e accommod a t i o n goes t o t h e s e c t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n f o r whom t h i s type of h o u s i n g i s i n t e n d e d , (2) t h a t p r i o r i t i e s among t h e e l i g i b l e a p p l i c a n t s a r e a s s i g n e d a c c o r d i n g t o urgency of need, (3) t h a t adequate housing  and  i n the "tenant's means.  i s made a v a i l a b l e a t r e n t s w i t h -  I t i s these r e g u l a t i o n s , which ex-  p l i c i t l y and i m p l i c i t l y g i v e a c l u e t o t h e p h i l o s o p h y of a h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y on t h e b a s i c g o a l s and purposes of p u b l i c housing.  F o r whom i s such housing intended?  "Low-income  f a m i l y " i s a c o n v e n i e n t l y vague term which lends i t s e l f t o being e i t h e r stretched or r e s t r i c t e d . to  What i s p u b l i c housing  a c c o m p l i s h f o r t h e f a m i l i e s w i t h i n i t , and f o r t h e commun-  i t y o f which i t i s a p a r t ? In a l l o c a t i n g p r o r i t l e s f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g accommodation the two main f a c t o r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d , b r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , a r e need f o r b e t t e r h o u s i n g , and t h e income l e v e l o f t h e p r o s p e c tive  tenants. Income, c l e a r l y , i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n d e c i d i n g  whether a person o r f a m i l y can o r cannot secure adequate housing  on t h e open market.  S t u d i e s over s e v e r a l decades have  c o n f i r m e d t h a t o u t l a y f o r s h e l t e r should not exceed 20 t o 25  101 p e r cent o f t h e income o f f a m i l i e s w i t h l i m i t e d o r middle i n comes, though f o r h i g h e r bearing.  incomes t h i s " r u l e o f thumb" has no  I n p r a c t i c e t h e amount o f r e n t p a i d i n p r o p o r t i o n  t o t o t a l e a r n i n g s becomes most c r u c i a l f o r t h e lowest income groups, as an e x c e s s i v e  p r i c e f o r s h e l t e r i s p a i d a t t h e expense  of o t h e r e s s e n t i a l s ; and s i n c e h o u s i n g i s a permanent need, i n the l o n g r u n may have grave e f f e c t s on a f a m i l y ' s t o t a l and  health  welfare. D i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s use d i f f e r e n t methods f o r c o p i n g  with  the problem of t e n a n t s e l e c t i o n , and views v a r y on the q u e s t i o n of what range o f income l e v e l s should be r e p r e s e n t e d housing p r o j e c t s .  i n public  S e g r e g a t i o n ( o f c e r t a i n income l e v e l s o r  f a m i l y t y p e s ) and d i v e r s i t y i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g each have import a n t consequences which need t o be r e c o g n i z e d On t h i s i s s u e a g a i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s  and d e a l t w i t h .  (and a r e a s w i t h i n  c o u n t r i e s ) have found v a r i o u s answers. The  Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y has f o l l o w e d t h e Canadian  p o l i c y of a c c e p t i n g a m o d e r a t e l y wide range o f income groups i n t o the l o c a l housing p r o j e c t s .  The a c t u a l amounts of maximum  income a r e p e r i o d i c a l l y reviewed i n t h e l i g h t of changing c o s t s and wage l e v e l s .  Minimum incomes a r e not s t i p u l a t e d ;  however, s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r a t e s of t h e day a r e i n p r a c t i c e used as t h e l o w e r l i m i t , as persons i n B.C. w i t h incomes below t h a t , may a p p l y f o r supplementary a s s i s t a n c e t o b r i n g income up t o these l e v e l s .  their  The maximum monthly incomes, which  are r e l a t e d t o f a m i l y s i z e , ranged a t the time o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y from $125 f o r a s i n g l e person t o $412.50 f o r a f a m i l y of seven o r more. The  r e n t scheme used by t h e Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y  102 r e l a t e s the r e n t p a i d t o f a m i l y income and s i z e , and i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h the w o r k i n g p r i n c i p l e t h a t 20 t o 25 p e r cent of income should go f o r r e n t .  Rents f o r the l a r g e r f a m i l i e s  a t the lower end of the s c a l e are a c t u a l l y somewhat below 20 per cent.  "The  P r o g r e s s i v e Rent S c a l e " , s t i l l i n use, i s an  a d a p t a t i o n of a system developed i n a s p e c i a l study a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work i n 1948.  1  Tenant r e n t s i n the Vancouver p r o j e c t s are based on the f a m i l y ' s net income, e x c l u d i n g f a m i l y a l l o w a n c e s .  I n the case  of c h i l d r e n (under age 25) w i t h e a r n i n g s of t h e i r own, who l i v i n g i n t h e i r p a r e n t ' s h o u s e h o l d , $75  are  p e r month of t h e i r i n -  come i s c o n s i d e r e d as f a m i l y income; e a r n i n g s of l e s s than $75  per month are i g n o r e d .  Income D i s t r i ^ b u t i q n In January 1964,  43.4  p e r cent of a l l f a m i l i e s i n the  Vancouver p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s had incomes of l e s s than $150  p e r month.  At $250 o r under p e r month, over 80 p e r cent  c o u l d be accounted f o r . F a m i l i e s w i t h monthly incomes of t o $300, and from $301 t o $377.50, made up 8.2 7.7  $251  p e r cent and  p e r cent r e s p e c t i v e l y ; and o n l y v e r y few f a m i l i e s (2.3  c e n t ) earned over $377.50.  These f a c t s come t o l i f e  i n t e r m s of a c t u a l f a m i l i e s . i n the Vancouver p r o j e c t s , 339  Out of a t o t a l of 781  per  further households  l i v e d on l e s s than $150  per  month, and o n l y 18 f a m i l i e s had monthly incomes over $377.50." (Table  19).  2- F o r a few f a m i l i e s i n f o r m a t i o n on income was not a v a i l a b l e . Humphrey C a r v e r and A l l i s o n Hopwood, Rents f o r Regent Park; "A Rent S c a l e System f o r a P u b l i c . Housing I W j e W T ^ ^ u ^ e ^ T f r " L i t t l e Mountain Housing' P r o j e c t : A Survey of i t s W e l f a r e A s p e c t s " . 1  M?s\ir.~Tnifsis:  iry;xTi99?:  ~~  ~  ~  103 Table 19.  Income  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P u b l i c Housing Vancouver, 1964.  Little Orchard Skeena MacLean T e r r a c e Park Mountain Park  Tenants  All Middle P r o j e c t s Area Projects  P.C.  P.C.  P.C.  P.C.  P.C.  P.C.  Under $150  29.0  46.4  37.3  69.2  43.4  3618  150-250  47.5  36.3  40.8  24.5  38.4  42.0  251-300  10.4  5.4  10.7  4.4  8.2  9.2  301-377.50  10.4  10.7  7.3  1.3  7.7  9.3  Over 377.50  2.7  1.2  3.9  0.6  2.3  2.7  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  T o t a l (a)  (a) I n c l u d e s a few n o n - s t a t e d I t i s m e a n i n g l e s s , however, t o l o o k a t p r o j e c t f a m i l i e s i n a vacuum.  In order t o gain p e r s p e c t i v e ,  they must be seen  i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e l a r g e r community o f which t h e y a r e a p a r t . F o r l a c k of c o r r e s p o n d i n g d a t a , i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o draw d i r e c t comparisons.  However, i t i s o f importance t o note, t h a t  i n t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver a r e a i n 1961, t h e average  yearly  wage and s a l a r y income f o r males was $4,219; t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i g u r e f o r females was $2,219.  Y e t i n 1.964, i n t h e Vancouver  p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , over 4o p e r cent of f a m i l i e s were m a i n t a i n e d on l e s s than $1800; and 80 p e r cent of f a m i l i e s l i v e d on l e s s than $3,000.  I t may be e s t i m a t e d t h a t o n l y  about 5 p e r cent o f t h e f a m i l i e s i n t h e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s had an income comparable t o t h e average wage and s a l a r y income f o r . males i n t h e l a r g e r community. A few comparative f i g u r e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r Toronto Regent Park ( N o r t h ) .  I n 1957, t h e income s t r u c t u r e o f t h e  f a m i l i e s i n t h i s p r o j e c t was as f o l l o w s :  104 Number  Per Cent  $100 p e r month o r l e s s  85  6.5  $100 t o $150 p e r month  159  12.4  $150 t o $320 p e r month  993  77.1  $320 t o $350 p e r month  52  4.0  1289  100.0  Incomes  Total  The " t y p i c a l " f a m i l y income i n Regent Park, judged by t h i s d a t a , was $250 t o $300 p e r month. F o r obvious reasons ( d i f f e r e n c e i n time when these  data  were c o l l e c t e d , and d i f f e r e n t i a l economic f a c t o r s o p e r a t i v e i n B.C. and O n t a r i o ) , t h e above f i g u r e s a r e not d i r e c t l y comp a r a b l e w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s i n t h e Vancouver p r o j e c t s .  However,  the g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n can be made, t h a t b o t h Regent Park and the Vancouver p r o j e c t s have a p p r o x i m a t e l y  t h e same range o f i n -  come d i s t r i b u t i o n , and a heavy c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a more spec i f i c income l e v e l .  T h i s , however, i n 1957, was c o n s i d e r a b l y  h i g h e r i n Regent Park, than what i t i s i n t h e Vancouver p r o j e c t s to-day.  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e l e n d s i t s e l f t o many p o s s i b l e  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ' : t h a t incomes a r e g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r i n O n t a r i o , t h a t tenant  s e l e c t i o n p o l i c i e s d i f f e r , e t c . I t must be p r e -  sumed t h a t t h e e x p l a n a t i o n does not l i e i n any s i n g l e f a c t o r . At l e a s t p a r t o f t h e answer i s found i n t h e f a c t t h a t Regent Park, a t t h e t i m e , was occupied  predominantly  by wage e a r n i n g  " s t a n d a r d " f a m i l i e s ; whereas t h e Vancouver p r o j e c t s have a much 2 h e a v i e r p r o p o r t i o n o f s i n g l e , e l d e r l y and one-parent f a m i l i e s . 1  2  Rose, R e j ^ n ^ J ^ r k ,  p. 187.  A s t a n d a r d i z e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f a m i l i e s (Chapter I I ) • would p e r m i t a more understandable d i s c u s s i o n o f average i n comes!  105 More up-to-date d a t a r e g a r d i n g incomes  i n Regent Park i n d i c a t e  t h a t t h e income l e v e l s t h e r e have gone down s i n c e 1957. I n 1961,  t h e average income o f t h e head o f t h e home was $215.97;  i n c l u d i n g secondary wage e a r n e r s ( 4 9 2 ) , t h e average income o f f a m i l i e s was $ 2 S 5 . l 6 . 1  One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e de-  c r e a s e may be, t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s i n g l e persons and e l d e r l y c o u p l e s has i n c r e a s e d i n t h e Regent Park p r o j e c t 1957.  since  T h i s i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g f o r  d i m i n i s h i n g f a m i l i e s , which has been d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . M i d d l e Area P r o j e c t s .  Comparing the t h r e e "middle a r e a "  p r o j e c t s ( t h o s e n o t b u i l t on replacement o r "comprehensive redevelopment"  s i t e s ) , i t i s noted t h a t t h e o l d e s t one, L i t t l e  M o u n t a i n , has t h e l o w e s t p r o p o r t i o n (29 P e r Cent) o f f a m i l i e s l i v i n g on l e s s t h a n $150 p e r month.  T h i s group i s c o n s i d e r a b l y  l a r g e r i n t h e newer p r o j e c t s , and forms t h e l a r g e s t income group (46.4 p e r c e n t ) i n Orchard Park.  I n L i t t l e Mountain and  Skeena T e r r a c e t h e l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f f a m i l i e s earn between $150 and $250 p e r month (47.5 and 4o.8 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . In a l l t h r e e p r o j e c t s , incomes  of $250 t o $377.50 a r e f a i r l y  e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d -- between 15 and 20 p e r cent o f t h e f a m i l i e s i n each p r o j e c t f a l l i n g  i n t o t h i s group.  The h i g h e s t i n -  come group, namely f a m i l i e s w i t h monthly e a r n i n g s over $377.50, v a r i e s i n t h e t h r e e p r o j e c t s , b u t o n l y from 1.2 t o 3.9 p e r c e n t . The a c t u a l number o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s i s v e r y s m a l l -- 6 i n L i t t l e Mountain, 2 i n Orchard Park and 9 i n Skeena T e r r a c e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t i n L i t t l e Mountain t h e p r o p o r t i o n of t h e lowest-income f a m i l i e s ( l e s s than $150 p e r month) has i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y s i n c e I958 (from 17.2 t o 29.0 p e r c e n t ) , whereas t h e h i g h e s t income groups ($300 and Housing A u t h o r i t y o f T o r o n t o .  R e p o r t , May 1963.  Vancouver s P u b l i c Housing  MacLean P a r k  lo6 o v e r ) have decreased c o n s i d e r a b l y (from 24.4  t o 13.1  per c e n t ) .  I n Orchard Park the income d i s t r i b u t i o n has remained a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same as i t was  i n 1959.  T h i s p r o j e c t , however,  had, from the s t a r t , a much h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s a t the l o w e s t income l e v e l . MajsLean Park.  The  (Table  19).  income d i s t r i b u t i o n i n MacLean Park  shows a v e r y d i s t i n c t i v e p a t t e r n .  N e a r l y 70 p e r cent of a l l  t e n a n t s have an income of l e s s than $150  p e r month, and  93.7  p e r cent of the t o t a l t e n a n t p o p u l a t i o n l i v e on l e s s than $250 p e r month.  T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g , c o n s i d e r i n g the v e r y h i g h  p r o p o r t i o n of p e n s i o n e r c o u p l e s and s i n g l e p e n s i o n e r s i n t h i s project. —  The  income of the r e m a i n i n g f a m i l i e s —  t e n i n number  ranges from $250 up t o $377.50 and o v e r , w i t h o n l y one  f a m i l y i n the top income c a t e g o r y .  (Table 19).  The  Vancouver  Redevelopment Study r e c o r d s t h a t i n I956-57 the median  monthly  Income f o r f a m i l i e s i n the "East End Survey A r e a " (which  was  s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l ) was $246; the median income of s i n g l e p e r sons was  c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r ($125  of age and $60  f o r persons under 65  f o r the o l d e r " s i n g l e g r o u p ) .  1  years  I n the MacLean  Park p r o j e c t the l o w e s t income group i s v e r y much h i g h e r ' t h a n i n the o t h e r p r o j e c t s ( o v e r t w i c e as l a r g e as the c o r r e s p o n d i n g group i n L i t t l e M o u n t a i n ) , which i s c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o the h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e e l d e r l y people and p e n s i o n e r c o u p l e s in this project.  The "East End Survey:-Area" comprises about l600 b l o c k s . The b o u n d a r i e s of the a r e a are B u r r a r d I n l e t , Main S t r e e t , the F a l s e ' C r e e k F l a t s , and S e m i i n and MacLean D r i v e .  107 Income by F a m i l y  Composition  I t was s t a t e d e a r l i e r t h a t a l a r g e number o f t h e f a m i l i e s i n t h e Vancouver h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d a t a narrow income l e v e l (around $150 t o $250 p e r month).  T h i s does not  i m p l y t h a t t h e economic s t a t u s o f these f a m i l i e s i s v e r y s i m i l a r , since the f a c t i s that the s i z e of f a m i l y w i t h i n t h i s i n come l e v e l has a v e r y wide s p r e a d .  F a m i l y s i z e i s an i m p o r t a n t  f a c t o r t o keep i n mind when e s t i m a t i n g t h e economic s t a t u s o f the p r o j e c t f a m i l i e s , as i t can be o f c r u c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the lowest income l e v e l s .  F a m i l y a l l o w a n c e , and d e c r e a s i n g  r e n t s f o r l a r g e f a m i l i e s have an e q u a l i z i n g e f f e c t , but t h e y by no means b r i d g e t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e f i n a n c i a l  situation,  a s , f o r example, i n t h e case o f a couple w i t h a monthly income of $200 p e r month, compared t o a f a m i l y o f seven, l i v i n g on t h e same amount, t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n r e n t would be o n l y $10. Table 20.  Monthly Income Under $150  R e l a t i o n between Incomes and'Family S i z e : P u b l i c Housing R e s i d e n t s , Vancouver, 1964. Total  Number o f , P e r s o n s i n F a m i l y 1  2  6  8 o r more  105  93  71  66  1  1  -  2  339  4  37  51  67  37  16  14  300  13  5  3  5  64  3  16  5  5  60  151-250  4  251-300  -  3  19  16  -  6  7  8  -  -  2  4  4  4  1  3  18  176 136 145  98  63  25  29  781  301-377.50 o v e r 377.50 Total  •  109  7  x  The lowest income group ( l e s s than $150 p e r month) i n these p r o j e c t s i s made up o f f a m i l i e s w i t h one t o f o u r members.  108 with, the e x c e p t i o n of a h a n d f u l of l a r g e r f a m i l i e s a t t h a t i n come l e v e l i n L i t t l e Mountain. of  The veryaheavy c o n c e n t r a t i o n  one and two member f a m i l i e s i n t h i s income group i s because  of the i n f l u e n c e of the l a r g e numbers of p e n s i o n e r s i n MacLean Park.  In a l l p r o j e c t s , the w i d e s t range of f a m i l y s i z e i s  found i n the $150  t o $250 p e r month income group.  as noted e a r l i e r , i s the l a r g e s t or second i n each of these p r o j e c t s .  T h i s group,  l a r g e s t income group  I n L i t t l e Mountain and Orchard  Park  a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of these f a m i l i e s are composed of up t o f o u r members, whereas i n Skeena T e r r a c e the p i c t u r e i s r e v e r s e d , and over h a l f of the f a m i l i e s have f i v e or more members.  In the "middle a r e a " p r o j e c t s , the spread  i n the higher-income  f a m i l i e s tends t o be weighted toward  the  larger family. Source of Income. The  income of p u b l i c housing f a m i l i e s i n Vancouver i s  d e r i v e d from f o u r main s o u r c e s : e a r n i n g s , unemployment i n s u r ance, p e n s i o n s , and s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , A s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s have o t h e r income, suoh as maintenance payments, i n t e r e s t from s a v i n g s , o r payments made by r e l a t i v e s .  I n some  cases the f a m i l y ' s t o t a l income i s made up from a c o m b i n a t i o n of the above-mentioned s o u r c e s .  F o r the purposes  of t h i s  s t u d y , the f o u r main c a t e g o r i e s a r e used, and the r e s t a r e grouped t o g e t h e r .  The c a t e g o r y of " p e n s i o n s , " i n c l u d e s c o u p l e s  where e i t h e r spouse i s i n r e c e i p t of Old Age S e c u r i t y , r e g a r d l e s s of the o t h e r spouse's  s o u r c e o f income, 7  ( i t was  found t h a t i n a number of cases one member of an e l d e r l y c o u p l e was a p e n s i o n e r whereas the spouse was A s s i s t a n c e or Old Age A s s i s t a n c e ) .  i n r e c e i p t of S o c i a l  F a m i l i e s f o r whora'a v e r y  109 s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l income was d e r i v e d from a second o r t h i r d source a r e grouped  under t h e main source o f income.  Summing up t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e t o t a l p r o j e c t popul a t i o n i n Vancouver,  i n January 1964, 31.7 p e r cent o f t h e  f a m i l i e s a r e supported by t h e i r e a r n i n g s ; 3.1 p e r cent a r e t e m p o r a r i l y unemployed and i n r e c e i p t of Unemployment I n s u r ance.  The p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s i n r e c e i p t o f S o c i a l A s s i s t -  ance (31.5 p e r c e n t ) i s p r a c t i c a l l y e q u a l i n s i z e t o t h e group of wage-earners:  11.7 p e r cent o f t e n a n t s have o t h e r sources  of income. T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n i s markedly d i f f e r e n t from t h e income d i s t r i b u t i o n of f a m i l i e s i n t h e Toronto Regent Park ( N o r t h ) p r o j e c t , where, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e study assembled  i n 1957* t h e  p i c t u r e w i t h r e g a r d t o p r i n c i p a l wage-earners was as follows:"'' Source o f Income  Number of Tenants  Old Age A s s i s t a n c e (persons i n need, aged 65-69) Old Age S e c u r i t y A l l o w a n c e s (persons over 70) War V e t e r a n s ' A l l o w a n c e s ( m a i n l y o l d e r p e r s o n s ) Mothers' A l l o w a n c e s ( u s u a l l y widowed mothers) .. Unemployment R e l i e f ( g e n e r a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r unemployables) Unemployment Insurance  20 125 54 22 22 19  C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e r e were 1289 households i n Regent Park a t the time o f the s t u d y , Rose e s t i m a t e s on t h e b a s i s of t h e above i n f o r m a t i o n , t h a t s l i g h t l y more than a thousand t e n a n t s were primary wage-earners.  2  I t would appear t h a t c l o s e t o 80 p e r  c e n t o f Regent Park f a m i l i e s were l i v i n g o f f t h e i r e a r n i n g s i n 1957, compared t o an e s t i m a t e d 33 t o 4o p e r cent of wagee a r n e r s i n the Vancouver  p r o j e c t s , i n 1964.  Rose, Regent Park, p. 188. Loc. c i t .  i t must be s t r e s s e d  110 t h a t , i n I n t e r p r e t i n g these s t a t i s t i c s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o keep i n mind, t h a t d a t a on income and source of income a r e s u b j e c t t o a g r e a t d e a l of v a r i a t i o n ; f o r example,  seasonal  employment i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n t h e Vancouver s i t u a t i o n . I t i s a recognized  f a c t t h a t i n Canada, s o c i a l  assistance  payments a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y below t h e income of wage-earners. Exceptions,  o f c o u r s e , a r e found -- f o r i n s t a n c e , i f p a r t -  time and s e a s o n a l tom  workers a r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t .  At t h e b o t -  l e v e l of t h e wage s c a l e f a m i l y s i z e may, i n some c a s e s ,  determine whether a f a m i l y i s f i n a n c i a l l y . b e t t e r o f f w i t h earnings or i n r e c e i p t of s o c i a l  assistance.  1  In view o f t h e markedly lower economic s t a t u s o f f a m i l i e s i n r e c e i p t of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , and t h e l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f such f a m i l i e s i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e v i e w what i s t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e f a m i l i e s i n t h e Vancouver p r o jects.  I n t h e e a r l i e r s t u d i e s o f L i t t l e Mountain and Orchard  Park i t was r e p o r t e d  that the percentage of s o c i a l  assistance  r e c i p i e n t s was c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r among one-parent f a m i l i e s , and  t h a t these f a m i l i e s , c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y  had a markedly lower  average income than two-parent f a m i l i e s . The  s i t u a t i o n i n t h e Vancouver p r o j e c t s today i s s t i l l  v e r y much t h e same.  I n t h e "middle a r e a " p r o j e c t s 60 t o 66  p e r cent o f two-parent f a m i l i e s a r e m a i n t a i n e d on e a r n i n g s . Among one-parent f a m i l i e s , i n these p r o j e c t s , 57 t o 73 p e r cent are i n r e c e i p t o f s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e .  I n MacLean Park t h e p e r -  centage o f wage-earning, two-parent f a m i l i e s i s h i g h e s t o f the f o u r p r o j e c t s —  85.5 p e r c e n t .  Of t h e one-parent f a m i l i e s  I n B r i t i s h Columbia supplementary a s s i s t a n c e may be a p p l i e d f o r , i f income from o t h e r sources f a i l s below t h e r a t e s of t h e d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e payments. E l i g i b i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s as t o a s s e t s a l l o w e d v a r y f o r t h e different categories. 1  Ill i n t h i s p r o j e c t 40 p e r cent have e a r n i n g s as t h e i r primarysource of income, and an e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n o f these f a m i l i e s receive s o c i a l assistance mainly. _"M^dle^^ A r e a ^ P r o j e c t s .  In L i t t l e Mountain  the l a r g e s t  p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s (38.9 p e r c e n t ) m a i n t a i n e d on e a r n i n g s a t t h e time of t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y .  themselves  The  second  l a r g e s t group (29.9 p e r c e n t ) were i n r e c e i p t of s o c i a l assistance.  I n Orchard Park t h e s i t u a t i o n was r e v e r s e d --  39.3 p e r cent of t h e f a m i l i e s i n t h i s p r o j e c t l i v e d on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and 26.8 p e r cent were e a r n i n g wages.  I n Skeena  T e r r a c e , t h e s e two groups were of f a i r l y e q u a l s i z e (32 p e r cent e a r n i n g s ; 36.3 p e r cent s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ) . Table 21.  Source o f Income: P u b l i c Housing yancouver, 1964.  Little Mountain  Source of Income  P.C. Earnings  38.9  Unemployment Insurance  Tenants,  Middle Orchard Skeena MacLean A l l Area T e r r a c e Park Park P r o j e c t s "Projects P.C. P.C. P.C. P.C. P.C. 26.8  32.0  26.4  3.6  2.6  31.7  33.1  . -9  3.1  3.4  1  Pensions  14.9  18.4  18.4  41.5  22.1  17.2  Social Allowance  29.9  39.3  36.3  18.2  31.5  34.8  Other  12.2  11.9  10.7  12.0  11.6  11.5  Total  100  100  100  100  100  100  The p r o p o r t i o n of pensionersjsrsonewhat s m a l l e r i n L i t t l e Mountain  (l4.9 p e r c e n t ) than i n t h e o t h e r two p r o j e c t s (both  18.4 p e r c e n t ) , though not r a d i c a l l y  different.  These f i n d i n g s correspond w i t h the e a r l i e r o b s e r v a t i o n  .  112  t h a t the newer p r o j e c t s -- Skeena T e r r a c e and e s p e c i a l l y Orchard Park -- have a c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r percentage of f a m i l i e s i n t h e lowest income group as compared t o L i t t l e Mountain. F a m i l i e s i n r e c e i p t of Unemployment Insurance make up a r e l a t i v e l y small p r o p o r t i o n i n a l l three p r o j e c t s , ranging from 2.6 p e r cent i n Skeena T e r r a c e t o 4.1 p e r cent i n L i t t l e Mountain.  1  T h i s i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e above o b s e r v a t i o n  t h a t L i t t l e Mountain has t h e h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n of wage-earning  f a m i l i e s . " (Table. 21). The p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s w i t h mixed sources of income  i s r o u g h l y t h e same i n the t h r e e p r o j e c t s , r a n g i n g from 10.7 p e r cent i n Skeena t o 12.2 p e r cent i n L i t t l e Mountain. (Table 21).  Only a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of these f a m i l i e s a c t u a l l y de-  r i v e t h e i r income from o t h e r than the f o u r main c a t e g o r i e s . The o t h e r s , i t appears, have a c o m b i n a t i o n of e a r n i n g s and s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e mainly, i n a v a r i e t y of r a t i o s .  ^ Sj£^^?3££• a  l n  t h i s p r o j e c t the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n  (41.5 p e r c e n t ) of a l l f a m i l i e s g a i n t h e i r income from p e n s i o n s . About a q u a r t e r (26.4 p e r c e n t ) l i v e o f f e a r n i n g s , and o n l y 18.2 p e r cent of t h e f a m i l i e s (9 out o f 159) a r e i n r e c e i p t of  social assistance solely.  The p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s w i t h  " o t h e r " income i s 12 p e r cent i n l i n e w i t h t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g group i n t h e o t h e r p r o j e c t s .  Here a l s o , " o t h e r " income means  m a i n l y a c o m b i n a t i o n of e a r n i n g s and s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . (Table 21). I t i s noted t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s m a i n t a i n e d T h i s , of c o u r s e , i s a v a r i a b l e f i g u r e , anyway, i f t h e unemployed g e t j o b s . I f t h e y don't, t h e y w i l l add t o s o c i a l assistance percentages. 1  113 on e a r n i n g s and unemployment i n s u r a n c e , and  of f a m i l i e s w i t h  o t h e r income, i s f a i r l y s i m i l a r t o the c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n the "middle a r e a " p r o j e c t s .  The percentage  groups  of p e n s i o n e r s  and of f a m i l i e s i n r e c e i p t of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , however, d i f f e r s markedly i n MacLean Park from these groups i n the other p r o j e c t s . of p e n s i o n e r s 17.2  In MacLean Park the v e r y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n  (41.5 p e r cent as compared t o the average of  i n the o t h e r s ) i s as e x p e c t e d ,  number of e l d e r l y people  i n view of the l a r g e  in this project.  The  group of s o c i a l  a s s i s t a n c e r e c i p i e n t s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r i n MacLean Park (18.2  p e r cent compared t o 34.8,  area" p r o j e c t s ) .  the average f o r the  "middle  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e , i t i s presumed, r e l a t e s t o  the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l e r number of one-parent f a m i l i e s i n MacLean Park. (Table  21).  Rerits  '  '  .  The Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y ' s p o l i c y w i t h r e g a r d t o incomes and r e n t s was  discussed e a r l i e r i n t h i s  chapter.  A n o t h e r f e a t u r e , r e l a t i n g t o f a m i l i e s a l r e a d y i n the p r o j e c t , whose income i n c r e a s e s above the e l i g i b i l i t y maximum f o r t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r group, needs comment.  Whether such f a m i l i e s  should  be r e q u i r e d t o l e a v e the p r o j e c t o r be a l l o w e d t o remain,  has  been a s u b j e c t f o r debate wherever p u b l i c housing has been introduced.  The Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y has found a com-  promise s o l u t i o n : the f a m i l i e s may ever, a "surcharge"  remain i n the p r o j e c t , how-  i s added t o t h e i r r e n t s .  Briefly,  this  means, t h a t a t e n a n t whose income i n c r e a s e s beyond the maximum amount, must pay an a d d i t i o n a l t h i r t y p e r cent of the amount by which the income exceeds the maximum, i f he c o n t i n u e s t o l i v e i n the p r o j e c t .  T h i s f e a t u r e , as can be e x p e c t e d ,  i s not  Unp o p u l a r among t e n a n t s , who a r e i n the h i g h e r income groups. F a m i l i e s a t h i g h e r income l e v e l s , and who c o n s e q u e n t l y pay h i g h e r r e n t s , a c t u a l l y make up a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f the t o t a l project population.  In the f o u r p r o j e c t s taken together,  over 70 p e r cent o f t h e f a m i l i e s pay l e s s than $50 p e r month i n r e n t ; c l o s e t o 30 p e r cent pay l e s s than $30.  Rents be-  tween $50 and $59 drop t o 9.2 p e r cent of t h e t o t a l , and the p r o p o r t i o n c o n t i n u e s t o decrease f o r p r o g r e s s i v e l y h i g h e r rents. Table 22.  Rent  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Rents P a i d Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y , J a n u a r y 1964. Little Mountain  Middle Orchard Skeena MacLean A l l •Area T e r r a c e Park Park Projects jects  p.c. •  P.O.  P.C.  P.C.  P.C.  P.C.  Less than #30  17.8  22.6  24.5  58.8  29.1  21.6  30-49  41.8  47.6  44.7  28.5  4l.2  44.4  50-59  11.8  11.9  5.1  9.2  10.3  60-69  13.6  6.5  7-7 6.4  3.8  80 o  9.0  70-79  7.7  6.0  6.4  2.5  5.9  6.8  80 and over  7.3  5.4  10.3  1.3  6.6  7.9  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  LOO.O  Total  _"Midd:le^Are_a" P r o j e c t s .  I n these p r o j e c t s 59 t o 70 p e r  cent o f f a m i l i e s pay a r e n t o f l e s s than $50 p e r month. L i t t l e Mountain and Orchard  In  Park over t w o - t h i r d s of these t e n -  a n t s pay between $30 and $49, whereas i n Skeena T e r r a c e t h e p r o p o r t i o n i s somewhat l e s s .  In a l l three p r o j e c t s the r e -  maining h i g h e r r e n t groups drop markedly and become p r o g r e s s i v e l y s m a l l e r , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of Skeena T e r r a c e where t h e  115 • h i g h e s t r e n t group  ($80 and over) jumps t o 10.3 p e r cent as  compared t o 7.3 and 5.4 p e r cent i n L i t t l e Mountain and Orchard Park r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r the c o r r e s p o n d i n g groups. MacLean J?ark.  The p r o p o r t i o n of r e n t s under $50 i n  MacLean Park make up 86.8  p e r cent of t h e t o t a l r e n t s .  In  c o n t r a s t t o t h e o t h e r t h r e e p r o j e c t s over t w o - t h i r d s of these r e n t s a r e i n the under $30 range.  Rents f o r s i n g l e p e n s i o n -  e r s a r e f i x e d a t $22 p e r month i n Vancouver's  projects.  Con-  s i d e r i n g t h e v e r y h i g h number of p e n s i o n e r s and e l d e r l y people i n t h i s p r o j e c t ; t h e low average r e n t i s t o be expected ($33.33 i n MacLean Park as compared t o $43.41 i n Orchard and $46.89 i n Skeena T e r r a c e ) .  Park  The r e m a i n i n g r e n t groups  i n MacLean Park make up o n l y 12.7 p e r c e n t , and decrease from 5.1 p e r cent i n t h e $50 t o $59 r e n t l e v e l t o 1.3 p e r cent o f r e n t s of $80 o r o v e r .  I n f a c t o n l y two t e n a n t s i n MacLean  Park pay t h i s h i g h r e n t .  116 Income P i s j f j j ^ o " .  S  . Publi_c HousIn^.  As I s the p o l i c y f o r Canadian p u b l i c h o u s i n g ,  i n the  U n i t e d S t a t e s a l s o , t h e r e a r e s e t upper-income l i m i t s t o e l i g i b i l i t y f o r U.S. p u b l i c h o u s i n g .  relating  The upper-income  l i m i t , a p p a r e n t l y , ranges -in t h e neighbourhood of $6500-7000 per year.  However, t h e i n d i v i d u a l A u t h o r i t i e s have wide d i s -  c r e t i o n a r y powers i n s e t t i n g income;;ceilings and r e n t s  (sub-  j e c t t o r e v i e w by t h e P.H.A.) and these upper income l i m i t s may not be e n t i r e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . i t y ^ 'requirements  Minimum income e l i g i b i l -  do not appear t o be i n e f f e c t ; however, i n  c e r t a i n c a s e s , persons s e e k i n g e n t r a n c e  t o t h e p r o j e c t s may  not be a b l e t o a f f o r d t h e r e n t s charged.  For t h i s  reason,  P r e s i d e n t Johnson has c a l l e d f o r a new s u b s i d y , p a i d t o t h e l o c a l h o u s i n g agency, of $120 a n n u a l l y f o r each u n i t so occupied.! Some examples of income l i m i t s s e t by t h e Chicago Housing A u t h o r i t y (as o f June 30, 1963) i l l u s t r a t e the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n . ' These l i m i t s a r e graded a c c o r d i n g t o whether the p r o j e c t i s f e d e r a l l y or state aided.  Upper l i m i t s f o r f e d e r a l l y - a i d e d  p r o j e c t s a r e lower than those f o r s t a t e - a i d e d p r o j e c t s .  They  are a l s o graded a c c o r d i n g t o t h e number of persons i n t h e f a m i l y , and a c c o r d i n g t o whether t h e f a m i l y i s e l d e r l y o r nonelderly.  The l i m i t s f o r o l d people a r e lower than f o r younger  families.  There i s an income l i m i t on a d m i s s i o n , and a h i g h e r  l i m i t f o r c o n t i n u e d accupancy.  F o r example, i n a f e d e r a l l y -  a i d e d p r o j e c t (of 41 p r o j e c t s i n Chicago,  32 a r e f e d e r a l l y -  a i d e d ) , t h e income l i m i t f o r a f a m i l y of two n o n - e l d e r l y persons i s , on a d m i s s i o n , $4200 p e r y e a r ; f o r c o n t i n u e d occupancy t h e l i m i t i s $5125 -- a d i f f e r e n c e of $925. f a m i l y of seven o r more, t h e a d m i s s i o n 1  For a  l i m i t i s $5200 p e r y e a r ;  P r e s i d e n t Johnson, Message t o Congress, J a n . 27th, 1964."  117  the c o n t i n u e d occupancy l i m i t i s $6760 -- a d i f f e r e n c e of $1260.  A d m i s s i o n l i m i t s f o r e l d e r l y persons i n these p r o j e c t s  a r e $3000 f o r a s i n g l e person and $3600 f o r a two-person  fami-  Admission l i m i t s f o r s t a t e - a i d e d p r o j e c t s range from $250  ly.  600 h i g h e r than those f o r the f e d e r a l l y - a i d e d  projects.  A l l these l i m i t s a p p l y a f t e r " a u t h o r i z e d exemptions," allowed f o r .  have been  There i s a s p e c i a l s c a l e a p p l i c a b l e t o f a m i l i e s  d i s p l a c e d by p u b l i c improvement programs.  This scale ranks,  g e n e r a l l y , i n between t h e a d m i s s i o n and the c o n t i n u e d occupancy s c a l e s , as i l l u s t r a t e d above. B e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e 1961 r e p o r t s of t h e H.H.P.A.,  1  come t a b l e s a r e computed as t o t a l f a m i l y income.  a l l in-  F o r purposes  of the p r e s e n t s t u d y , i t has been p o s s i b l e t o e x t r a c t  infor-  mation r e f e r r i n g o n l y t o w h i t e f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n t h e N o r t h e r n and Western s t a t e s , and what f o l l o w s r e f e r s t o these segments of t h e U.S. p u b l i c h o u s i n g p o p u l a t i o n o n l y . vantage  T h i s has t h e ad-  o f e l i m i n a t i n g f a c t s about the l e s s t y p i c a l  Southern  s t a t e s , but a g a i n , i t cannot be t a k e n as r e p r e s e n t i n g the p i c t u r e f o r the t o t a l U.S.  2  I n a l l , 233,5^5 f a m i l i e s i n t h e  N o r t h and West were re-examined  i n 1961 f o r c o n t i n u e d  i t y f o r occupancy i n U.S. p u b l i c h o u s i n g .  eligibil-  Of t h e s e , 9 7 . 8 p e r  cent were found t o be w i t h i n the income l i m i t s f o r occupancy set by t h e v a r i o u s h o u s i n g A u t h o r i t i e s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Incomes. The median incomes f o r w h i t e f a m i l i e s who a t the time of reassessment  1  were e l i g i b l e t o remain i n t h e p r o j e c t s i n t h e  H.H.F.A., B u l l e t i n ' s 2 2 5 . 1 and 2 2 6 . 1 .  p  Where t o t a l U.S. i n f o r m a t i o n h e l p s t o c l a r i f y t h e d i s c u s s i o n , i t has been i n c l u d e d and noted.  118 N o r t h , was $2539; i n t h e West t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g median was $2647.  A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c income, t h e r e f o r e ,  a month.  But, one-third  l e s s than $2000 a y e a r .  i s $210 t o 220  o r more o f t h e N o r t h e r n f a m i l i e s had (For a l l white f a m i l i e s e l i g i b l e i n  the t o t a l U.S. t h e median income was $2282, which shows t h e e f f e c t on t h e average o f p o o r e r economic c o n d i t i o n s  i n the  Southern s t a t e s , when s t a t i s t i c s f o r the South a r e i n c l u d e d i n the t o t a l ) . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note from t h e r e p o r t t h a t ,  i n the  N o r t h , a s m a l l group, 2 p e r cent o f t h e f a m i l i e s , had incomes of over $6000 and were s t i l l e l i g i b l e f o r s u b s i d i z e d  housing.  T h i s can be compared w i t h t h e upper income l i m i t s f o r Vancouver p u b l i c housing of $4950 f o r t h e l a r g e s t f a m i l i e s , as an exp r e s s i o n of some o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s countries,  i n t h e economy o f t h e two  i n c l u d i n g t h e p u r c h a s i n g power o f t h e d o l l a r , as  w e l l as d i f f e r e n c e s  of administrative  policy.  In both t h e N o r t h and t h e West average f a m i l y f o r f a m i l i e s moving i n t o t h e p r o j e c t s ferent  incomes  were not r a d i c a l l y d i f -  from those a l r e a d y i n . However, t h e newer f a m i l i e s ,  j u s t moving i n , expected l o w e r incomes d u r i n g t h e y e a r than d i d those f a m i l i e s who have been l i v i n g i n t h e p r o j e c t s f o r a time.  Twenty-two p e r cent o f N o r t h e r n f a m i l i e s i n t h e  projects  expected incomes o f over $4000, w h i l e o n l y 12 p e r  cent o f t h e new f a m i l i e s expected such  incomes.  A s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower p r o p o r t i o n o f " f a m i l i e s moving i n " i n t h e West expected incomes o f under $2000 (25 p e r c e n t ) t h a n d i d f a m i l i e s i n t h e N o r t h (33 p e r c e n t ) . traced  T h i s can be  t o t h e f a c t t h a t a g r e a t e r percentage o f o l d people  are moving i n t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n t h e North than i n t h e West. Incomes o f s e n i o r  c i t i z e n s a r e markedly: lower t h a n those o f  119 o t h e r f a m i l i e s -- i n 1961 t h e y were o n l y s l i g h t l y over  one-half  as much. (Table 23). Table 23.  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of White F a m i l i e s w i t h i n Income L i m i t s / by Amount o f income and Region. 1961. ( a )  Expected Incomes  Already i n North  P.C. w i t h t o t a l f a m i l y income under $2000  ' West  Moving i n North  West  36  30 .  33  25  2000 - 2999  23  28  31  38  3000 - 3999  19  23  24  26  4000 and over  22  17  12  11  100  100  100  100  2647  2538  2651  Per Cent Median t o t a l f a m i l y income  $2539  (a) I n c l u d e s f a m i l i e s f o r whom d a t a on r a c e were not attainable Source of Income. The p r o p o r t i o n o f f a m i l i e s i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g re-examined i n 1961 who were unemployed was 48 p e r c e n t , f o r both t h e N o r t h and West r e g i o n s .  Of t h e remainder,  t h a t i s t h e 52 p e r  cent o f f a m i l i e s xvho had w o r k e r s , 8 l p e r cent i n both r e g i o n s were t o t a l l y s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g ; t h e r e s t , were r e c e i v i n g some form o f f i n a n c i a l h e l p .  (Table 2 4 ) .  As s i s t a n c e _ j m d J3eneef i t s . The number o f f a m i l i e s who were e x p e c t i n g t o r e c e i v e some form o f o r g a n i z e d s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e o r government w e l f a r e " A s s i s t a n c e " r e f e r s t o o r g a n i z e d r e l i e f payments. "Benef i t s " r e f e r s t o payments made under t h e c o n t r i b u t o r y s o c i a l s e c u r i t y schemes. 1  120 b e n e f i t i n 1961 was s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r than i n i960, cont i n u a i n g an upward t r e n d t h a t has been e v i d e n t s i n c e 1952. In the N o r t h t h i s was 54 p e r c e n t ; i n t h e West 55 p e r c e n t . (Table 24).  To a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t t h i s i s due t o t h e p r o -  p o r t i o n of e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s i n low-rent housing. l y a r e e x c l u d e d , t h e 1961 percentage  I f the e l d e r -  of f a m i l i e s expecting  r e l i e f o r b e n e f i t s becomes 35 f o r b o t h r e g i o n s ; t h e same as i n 1956, t h e y e a r i n which t h e a d m i s s i o n o f s i n g l e  elderly  p e r s o n s , the w a i v e r o f h o u s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s , and t h e e x t e n s i o n of p r e f e r e n c e t o t h e e l d e r l y , were a l l a u t h o r i z e d .  1  Each y e a r a r i s i n g p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s w i t h workers as w e l l as those w i t h o u t w o r k e r s , both N o r t h and West; expect t o r e c e i v e some form of a s s i s t a n c e o r b e n e f i t s . r i s e was i n t h e f a m i l i e s w i t h no workers  The s h a r p e s t  i n t h e North -- a g a i n  t i e d t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n s of e l d e r l y persons i n the Northern p r o j e c t s .  I n t h i s r e g i o n t h e percentage  f a m i l i e s ( i . e . , w i t h breadwinners  of unemployed  on i n s u r a n c e o r a s s i s t a n c e )  r o s e from 79 i n 1952 t o 92 i n 1961. F o r the purpose  of f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n , some i n f o r m a t i o n  which r e f e r s t o t h e whole of t h e U.S., and t o younger f a m i l i e s o n l y can be p r e s e n t e d h e r e .  As i n t h e p a s t , t h e p r o p o r t i o n  of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e r e c i p i e n t s was h i g h e r among one-adult f a m i l i e s than among f a m i l i e s w i t h two o r more a d u l t s .  Most o f  these one-adult f a m i l i e s who r e c e i v e some form of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e would be "Broken"  o r one-parent  families.  Families  i n t h i s younger age group who a r e r e c e i v i n g " b e n e f i t s " o n l y ' would be the d i s a b l e d , and, those r e c e i v i n g  survivor's  On t h e o t h e r hand, 94 p e r cent of the o l d people i n t h e p r o j e c t s were r e c e i v i n g some form of a s s i s t a n c e o r b e n e f i t s .  121 benefits.  Two-adult f a m i l i e s i n r e c e i p t o f b e n e f i t s o n l y a r e  f a r h i g h e r i n number than one-adult f a m i l i e s (13,199 as compared t o 8,148).  I t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e f i g u r e o f 13,199 i s  p r o b a b l y a v e r y c l o s e i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e number of young ( w h i t e ) f a m i l i e s i n a l l U.S. p r o j e c t s who q u a l i f y because o f d i s a b i l i t y of t h e head o r spouse of t h e f a m i l y . F o r f a m i l i e s moving i n t o t h e p r o j e c t s i n 1 9 6 l , t h e p e r centage of f a m i l i e s who were unemployed was 4-7 i n t h e N o r t h and  4o i n t h e West.  age  o f t h e N o r t h e r n e n t r a n t s r a t h e r than a r e f l e c t i o n o f e c -  onomic c o n d i t i o n s .  This d i f f e r e n c e i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the  Of t h e r e m a i n i n g f a m i l i e s , who had work-  e r s , 86 p e r cent i n t h e N o r t h and 91 p e r cent i n t h e West were s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g .  These a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y  higher  propor-  t i o n s than among f a m i l i e s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n p r o j e c t s . (Table 24). who  These c o u l d w e l l be t h e upwardly mobile f a m i l i e s  don't s t a y l o n g i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g . For f a m i l i e s moving i n t o t h e p r o j e c t s i n 1961, 49 p e r  cent o f N o r t h e r n f a m i l i e s and 4 l p e r cent of Western f a m i l i e s expected t o r e c e i v e e i t h e r o r b o t h a s s i s t a n c e and b e n e f i t s . These f i g u r e s a r e lower than those f o r e s t a b l i s h e d f a m i l i e s , but  s t i l l represent  an upward i n c r e a s e from p r e v i o u s  years,  f o r newly-housed f a m i l i e s . Rents. In t h e l a s t decade o r so, t h e r e has been a d e c l i n e i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f v e r y low r e n t s f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g , w i t h an accompanying i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f r e l a t i v e l y rents.  high  Some o f t h i s s i m p l y r e f l e c t s h i g h e r b u i l d i n g c o s t s and  the g e n e r a l l y r i s i n g l e v e l of wages and p r i c e s .  F o r example  i n t h e N o r t h , 13 p e r cent o f f a m i l i e s p a i d r e n t s of under  122 Table 24. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of A l l F a m i l i e s by A s s i s t a n c e and B e n e f i t s R e c e i v e d , and Employment Status, by R e g i o n s , 1961. ( a ) Employment Status  Already in Total  P.C. a s s i s t a n c e or b e n e f i t incomes North.  West  Workers No: Workers T o t a l Workers  Workers  9  91  49  14  89  55  19  95  41  9  88  46  81  9  51  86  11  45  81  5  59  91  12  54  West Employed, (not r e c e i v i n g assistance or benefits) North  Moving i n  x  (a) I n c l u d e s a few f a m i l i e s f o r whom d a t a on race were not a v a i l a b l e . $25  i n 1952, b u t by 1961, t h i s percentage was reduced t o 2 p e r  cent.  Conversely,  i n 1952, o n l y 27 p e r cent p a i d r e n t s of  over $50 p e r month, b u t by 1961,44 p e r cent were p a y i n g rents. and  such  T h i s i s caused p r i m a r i l y by i n c r e a s e s i n minimum r e n t s  t h e use o f w e l f a r e r e n t s  1  by more l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , and  the upward t r e n d i n r e l a t i v e l y h i g h r e n t s caused by the l a r g e r groups o f f a m i l i e s w i t h h i g h e r incomes. 1961,  I t was expected i n  t h a t t h i s upward t r e n d would i n c r e a s e markedly i n t h e  next few y e a r s , i f , as seemed l i k e l y , more a u t h o r i t i e s adopted f i x e d r e n t schedules but t o s i z e of u n i t .  —  c a l l i n g f o r r e n t s r e l a t e d not t o income  Such schedules  had a l r e a d y been adopted  by some a u t h o r i t i e s , b u t had l i t t l e e f f e c t i n 1961.  "Welfare r e n t s " a r e l i n k e d t o w e l f a r e payment s c a l e s and a r e g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r than s e t minimum r e n t s would be otherwise.  123 Some e x a p l e s of r e n t s c h e d u l e s can be g i v e n f o r the Chicago H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y , as of June 30, I963.  1  Graded  r e n t s c a l e s are used f o r a l l e x c e p t t h r e e of the f e d e r a l l y aided p r o j e c t s . $55  Tenants are charged $1.00  p e r month f o r each  of a n n u a l income, a f t e r c e r t a i n a u t h o r i z e d  from g r o s s Income. $55;  F o r example, i f income i s $3000, r e n t i s  i f income i s $4000, r e n t i s $73;  r e n t i s $95.  deductions  i f  income i s $5200,  There a r e some s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g  t h i s graded rent-income f o r m u l a .  Minimum and maximum r e n t s  are s e t f o r each s i z e of u n i t , below which the r e n t may not f a l l nor above which i t may not r i s e . the minimum r e n t f o r a b a c h e l o r the maximum i s $90;  i s $46,  this,  u n i t (no bedrooms) i s $36,  f o r a two-bedroom  $41; the maximum $110;  To i l l u s t r a t e  u n i t the minimum i s  f o r a f i v e - b e d r o o m u n i t the minimum  the maximum i s $150.  There are a l s o s p e c i a l s e t  r e n t s f o r the v a r i o u s s i z e d u n i t s f o r t e n a n t s i n r e c e i p t of public assistance.  These range from $50 f o r a b a c h e l o r  unit  ($45 f o r s i n g l e old-age o r d i s a b i l i t y a s s i s t a n c e ) t o $75 f o r a five-bedroom u n i t . F l a t r e n t s are charged a t a l l c i t y - s t a t e developments and t h r e e f e d e r a l l y - a i d e d developments. f o r $45; f o r $90.  tow-bedroom  u n i t s f o r $65;  Bachelor units rent  and f i v e - b e d r o o m u n i t s  There i s a l s o a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h e r s c a l e of  r e n t s f o r f a m i l i e s whose incomes have r i s e n above the maximum allowed move. mum  f o r continued  occupancy, and who a r e under n o t i c e t o  F o r example, a f a m i l y whose income exceeded the maxi-  a l l o w a b l e by $1000 t o 1999 would be charged $100  f o r a two-bedroom  unit.  U t i l i t i e s are i n c l u d e d i n r e n t s , or  Chicago Housing A u t h o r i t y Income L i m i t s and Rent S c h e d u l e s , June 30, 1963. 1  rent  124 f i x e d amounts a r e deducted from r e n t s i f t e n a n t s  purchase  t h e i r own u t i l i t i e s . Rent ^Leye Is The median g r o s s r e n t f o r f a m i l i e s i n t h e p r o j e c t s i n 1961, was, i n t h e N o r t h , $46; i n t h e West i t was $48.  Fami-  l i e s i n the North were p a y i n g more of t h e lower r e n t s b u t a l s o a c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f h i g h r e n t s than was the case f o r W e s t e r n e r s . (Table 25). The New Y o r k r e g i o n has t h e h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n (33 p e r c e n t ) of f a m i l i e s r e n t s o f $60 and over i n t h e whole c o u n t r y .  paying  T h i s i s due, i n  p a r t a t l e a s t , t o t h e use o f r e l a t i v e l y h i g h f i x e d r e n t s i n a tnumber of l a r g e p r o j e c t s i n New Y o r k C i t y , which f i l l e d up in  I96I.  I n 1961, f o r f a m i l i e s moving i n t o t h e p r o j e c t s , median g r o s s r e n t s were up from i960 i n both t h e North and the West by $2.00  Median r e n t of f a m i l i e s c o n t i n u e d  West than i n t h e N o r t h , but o n l y by $1.00.  h i g h e r i n the I n 1952, i n t h e  N o r t h , r e n t was $38, but t h i s average had r i s e n t o $45 by 1961.  I n t h e West, t h e average r e n t was $37 i n 1952 and $46  i n 1961. (Table 25). The p r o p o r t i o n of r e n t s under $25 d e c l i n e d i n both r e g i o n s and was o n l y one p e r cent o f t h e f a m i l i e s i n the North and  the West.  The p r o p o r t i o n o f these new f a m i l i e s  paying  r e n t s over $60 was c o n s i d e r a b l y lower, as c o u l d be e x p e c t e d , than f a m i l i e s a l r e a d y l i v i n g i n t h e developments. l e s s , these p r o p o r t i o n s  Neverthe-  (18 p e r cent i n t h e North and 13 p e r  cent i n t h e West) were up from t h e y e a r b e f o r e .  This i s a  f u r t h e r c o n f i r m a t i o n of how the r e n t s c a l e i s c l i m b i n g by y e a r .  year  I n 1955, i n t h e N o r t h , t h e comparable f i g u r e t o t h e  125 Table 2 5 . D i s t r i b u t i o n of R e n t a l Groups. Monthly gross  Already i n  rent  Moving i n  North  Hest  North  West  P.C. 12  P.C.  P.C.  P.C.  .9  9  30-49  45  46  53  50 - 59  16  24  18  60-69  15  11  over 7 0  12  10  13 5  6 56 25 10 3  100  100  100  100  48  45  46  Under  $30  Total Median g r o s s  rent  $  46  18 per cent p a y i n g over $ 6 0 , was  o n l y :L p e r  v e r y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s , the Southern s t a t e s o n l y , are now a t r e n t s under $ 2 0 .  Only a  are l o c a t e d i  moving i n t o U.S.  housing  On the o t h e r hand, 2 8 p e r cent of the  f a m i l i e s moving i n i n the New $ 6 0 or more.  and these  cent .  Y o r k r e g i o n d i d so a t r e n t s of  F o r the Chicago r e g i o n t h i s precentage was  l4.  Re n t - Inc qroe^ Re la t i o n s h i p s Rent-income r a t i o s are computed on the b a s i s of t o t a l f a m i l y income.  F o r f a m i l i e s i n the p r o j e c t s the p r o p o r t i o n  of rent-income r a t i o s of under 2 0 p e r cent has d e c r e a s e d , and the p r o p o r t i o n of r a t i o s of a t l e a s t 3 0 p e r cent has The  increased.  v e r y h i g h r a t i o s g e n e r a l l y a p p l y t o w e l f a r e f a m i l i e s and  t o whom minimum r e n t s a p p l y ; the low r a t i o s , t o f a m i l i e s payi n g maximum r e n t s and  those for.whom l a r g e deductions., a l l o w -  ances or exemptions are p e r m i t t e d f o r r e n t purposes. More e x t e n s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n i s g i v e n f o r f a m i l i e s who moving i n t o the p r o j e c t s .  are  F o r t h i s group, rent-income r a t i o s  those  126 have i n c r e a s e d a l s o , as more w e l f a r e r e n t s have been i n t r o duced and as more p r o j e c t s have adopted  f l a t rents.  t o t a l U.S. ( i n c l u d i n g Negro and o t h e r non-white  F o r the  families) 7  p e r cent had g r o s s r e n t s which amounted t o 16 p e r cent o r l e s s o f t o t a l f a m i l y income.  Nine p e r cent had g r o s s r e n t s  which amounted t o a t l e a s t 30 p e r cent o f t o t a l income, and 4 p e r cent had r e n t s which amounted t o 40 p e r cent o r more o f t o t a l income. A l s o , f o r a l l r a c i a l groups i n t h e whole c o u n t r y , w h i l e l e s s than 1 p e r cent o f a d m i s s i o n s were a t maximum r e n t s , o f t h i s group, 83 p e r cent had rent-income r a t i o s below 20 p e r c e n t , and they were almost t o t a l l y f a m i l i e s o f f i v e o r more persons.  High r a t i o s a f f e c t e d none of t h e l a r g e s t  a d m i t t e d a t maximum r e n t s .  families  Where minimum r e n t s were b e i n g  used, r e n t s a t o r below o n e - f i f t h o f t o t a l f a m i l y income a c counted f o r 2© p e r cent o f t h e f a m i l i e s , a l l but a s m a l l numb e r o f whom were f a m i l i e s o f t h r e e o r more p e r s o n s .  On t h e  o t h e r hand, minimum r e n t s meant t h a t 30 p e r cent o r more o f t o t a l f a m i l y income went t o p a y i n g t h e r e n t o f 30 p e r cent o f the f a m i l i e s .  Of t h e s e , l e s s than o n e - t h i r d had t h r e e o r  more members. S t i l l l o o k i n g a t t h e t o t a l U.S. p i c t u r e , the l a r g e s t f a m i l i e s tend t o have t h e l o w e s t "rent-income r a t i o s . ample, o n l y 2 p e r cent o f one-person  F o r ex-  f a m i l i e s have a r a t i o o f  l e s s than 20 p e r c e n t , b u t 79 p e r cent o f f a m i l i e s of f i v e o r more people have t h i s r a t i o .  The upward t r e n d i n a l l r e n t -  income r a t i o s has been e v i d e n t f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , and i s most marked i n t h e l a r g e r f a m i l i e s . mentioned  Added t o t h e f a c t o r s a l r e a d y  which make f o r h i g h e r r a t i o s -- a d d i t i o n o f w e l f a r e  127 r e n t s , i n c r e a s e s i n minimum r e n t s , f i x e d r e n t s — a l s o been an upward r e v i s i o n o f r e n t s c h e d u l e s .  t h e r e has Then, t o o ,  f i x e d r e n t s a r e h i g h , and t h e r e f o r e t h e i r e f f e c t can o n l y be to raise  ratios.  3&I)i^S^3F3^.r3^^^^^ ,  A d 1m  ss ion  T h i s i t e m i s covered i n t h e r e p o r t on f a m i l i e s who moved i n t o U.S. h o u s i n g i n 1961 but t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n i s not broken down by r e g i o n .  However, f o r t h e t o t a l U.S., and f o r  f a m i l i e s on which d a t a was a v a i l a b l e on p r e v i o u s r e n t , 27 p e r cent o f w h i t e f a m i l i e s moving i n began p a y i n g r e n t s which were h i g h e r than those t h e y had been p a y i n g p r e v i o u s l y . Length o f Tenancy Among w h i t e f a m i l i e s re-examined i n 1961, 42 p e r cent had l i v e d i n l o w - r e n t h o u s i n g l e s s than t h r e e y e a r s , about the same as i n i960.  (Up u n t i l i960 t h e p r o p o r t i o n of e l i g i b l e  w h i t e f a m i l i e s w i t h tenancy o f such d u r a t i o n had s t e a d i l y decreased).  1  Seven and o n e - h a l f p e r cent had l i v e d i n l o w - r e n t  h o u s i n g more than t e n y e a r s and 31 p e r cent more than f i v e years. There i s evidence t h a t t h e l o w e s t income f a m i l i e s a r e those most a p t t o s t a y i n l o w - r e n t p r o j e c t s a t l e a s t years.  five  Twenty-seven p e r cent o f t h e f a m i l i e s a d m i t t e d i n  1956 w i t h incomes o f under $1500 were s t i l l  i neligible  resi-  dence i n 1961, as compared w i t h o n l y 19 p e r cent of t h e f a m i l i e s a d m i t t e d w i t h incomes of a t l e a s t $3500.  Because of t h e s c a r c i t y of p r i v a t e h o u s i n g i n t h e U.S. f o r m i n o r i t y groups, non-white f a m i l i e s a r e l e s s a p t t o move from p u b l i c h o u s i n g .  128 Only 1 p e r cent o f t h e f a m i l i e s expected incomes o f a t l e a s t $4000 a t a d m i s s i o n i n 1956; a t l e a s t 11 p e r cent expected such incomes i n 1961, which r e f l e c t s t h e r i s e i n wages i n these f i v e y e a r s .  C o n v e r s e l y , 35 p e r cent of t h e f a m i l i e s  a d m i t t e d i n 1956 and s t i l l  i n r e s i d e n c e i n 1961, had expected  incomes of under $1500 a t a d m i s s i o n w h i l e 28 p e r cent expected such low incomes i n 1961.  l£SS^3^° -, . E l d e r l y r  Earn 11 l e s  Because t h e incomes of e l d e r l y people i n s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g i n t h e U.S. a r e markedly  lower than those o f younger f a m i l i e s ,  and because aged t e n a n t s a l r e a d y r e p r e s e n t over o n e - f o u r t h of the p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e h o u s i n g and may soon be more, i t i s imp o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r t h e i r incomes s e p a r a t e l y from t h e o t h e r groups.  I n t h i s way some a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f the e f f e c t o f these  low incomes on t h e p i c t u r e when a l l ages of f a m i l i e s a r e cons i d e r e d t o g e t h e r may be made.  As an example o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e  between t h e o l d and t h e young f a m i l i e s , t h e median t o t a l income f o r e l d e r l y persons l i v i n g i n t h e p r o j e c t s i n the N o r t h was  o n l y $1,445, whereas f o r t h e younger f a m i l y i t was $3206.  (Table 2 6 ) .  Incomes of s i n g l e e l d e r l y persons a r e a l s o sub-  s t a n t i a l l y lower than those of two o r more e l d e r l y forming a "family."  persons  The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t almost a l l  s e n i o r c i t i z e n s who a r e i n s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g a r e l i v i n g on government a s s i s t a n c e o r b e n e f i t s , and where t h e r e a r e two o l d people i n t h e f a m i l y b o t h a r e r e c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l h e l p . E l d e r l y f a m i l i e s who have minors i n t h e home have incomes which a r e a l i t t l e h i g h e r than those of t h e o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s . Such low incomes f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s mean t h a t a l l t h e o t h e r  129 problems  o f o l d age a r e r e i n f o r c e d by t h e n e c e s s i t y t o g e t  a l o n g on v e r y l i t t l e money.  But t h e h o u s i n g may be one o f  t h e i r g r e a t e s t aids i f the rent i s not t o o h i g h . Some comparisons may be made between median incomes of old  and young f a m i l i e s . Table 26.  Median T o t a l Income o f E l d e r l y and N o n - E l d e r l y F a m i l i e s by Region f o r i960 and 1961. Income of E l d e r l y f a m i l i e s -- a comparative P.C.  Elderly Households  Younger Households  1961  I960  1961  i960  I96I  I960"  North  $1445  $1425  $3206  $3211  45.1  44.4  West  $1470  1465  ' 3047  ' 2959  48.2  49.5  Census Region  Incomes rose g e n e r a l l y , except f o r n o n - e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s i n the North.  E l d e r l y f a m i l i e s i n t h e West had h i g h e r incomes  than those i n t h e N o r t h , on t h e average, but f o r younger f a m i l i e s t h e r e v e r s e was t r u e , both i n i960 and 1961.  I t can  be seen from T a b l e 26, t h a t o l d people a r e l i v i n g on incomes of  l e s s than h a l f those of o t h e r f a m i l i e s . F o r f a m i l i e s moving i n t o t h e p r o j e c t s , a l l t y p e s r e f l e c t -  ed h i g h e r median incomes.  I n t h e N o r t h t h e median income was  $1,602, $157 h i g h e r than t h e median f o r e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s a l ready l i v i n g i n t h e p r o j e c t s i n 1961.  I n the West t h e median  income was a l s o h i g h e r a t $1508, b u t o n l y $38 above t h e median of $1470 of Western old-age f a m i l i e s a l r e a d y l i v i n g i n t h e p r o j e c t s i n 1961 (Table 2 6 ) .  I n t h e case o f f a m i l i e s moving i n t o  the p r o j e c t s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e h i g h e s t median income was i n t h e N o r t h r a t h e r than t h e West, t h e o p p o s i t e of what i s t r u e f o r e s tablished families.  S i n g l e o l d people tended t o have incomes  130 Source of Income Income e x a m i n a t i o n s f o r c o n t i n u e d occupancy  show t h a t  few members of aged households have a member of the f a m i l y who  i s g a i n f u l l y employed.  In the N o r t h e r n p a r t of the  coun-  t r y 13 p e r cent of e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s have an e a r n e r compared w i t h 68 p e r cent f o r younger f a m i l i e s .  In the West even fewer  members were w o r k i n g and the percentage was  ten.  Among young-  e r f a m i l i e s i n the West 64 p e r cent had someone w o r k i n g . may  It  be noted, i n p a s s i n g , t h a t 2 or 3 times as many e l d e r l y  Negro f a m i l i e s have a worker than do w h i t e f a m i l i e s . r a t i o i s h i g h e s t i n the Southern Table 27.  states.  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of E l d e r l y and NonE l d e r l y F a m i l i e s by Source of Income and C o m p o s i t i o n of the F a m i l y , 1961.  Assistance or Benefits  P.C. e l d e r l y receiving None  This  Moving i n Already i n Two or Two or One T o t a l One A d u l t Total more A d u l t more Adults Adults  families 5  5  6  7  7  7  Assistance (with or without b e n e f i t s )  36  4i  32  27  30  24  Benefits without assistance  58  54  63  66  63  69  100  100  100  100  100  100  64  46  73  73  56  79  A s s i s t a n c e ( w i t h or without b e n e f i t s )  20  36  12  14  33  8  B e n e f i t s without assistance  15  17  14  13  11  13  100  100  100  100  100  100  Per Cent P.C. elderly receiving None  Per Cent  families  131 N i n e t y - f o u r p e r cent of the o l d people In the p r o j e c t s are r e c e i v i n g some form of a s s i s t a n c e or b e n e f i t s . them are drawing S o c i a l S e c u r i t y b e n e f i t s and than are r e c e i v i n g r e l i e f payments, a l t h o u g h  More of  r e t i r e m e n t funds the d i f f e r e n c e  i s not e x c e s s i v e , (53 p e r cent compared t o 41 per c e n t ) . comparisons can be made here of p e r c e n t a g e s of e l d e r l y n o n - e l d e r l y by the source family.  of income and  composition  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s not c l a s s i f i e d  f o r w h i t e f a m i l i e s i n the t o t a l As c o u l d be e x p e c t e d ,  Some  and  of the  by r e g i o n and i s  U.S.  f a r f e w e r younger f a m i l i e s are r e -  c e i v i n g b e n e f i t s o n l y , t h a n are o l d people (15 p e r cent compared t o 58 p e r c e n t ) .  Those who  a r e , would be drawing e i t h e r  s u r v i v o r ' s or d i s a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e payments, i n the main. significantly  A  s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n of young f a m i l i e s are depen-  dent on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , as compared t o o l d e r f a m i l i e s , a l s o , (20 p e r cent compared t o 36).  Those young f a m i l i e s who  o n l y one a d u l t i n the f a m i l y , and who  have  draw a s s i s t a n c e p r i m a r i -  l y (36 p e r c e n t ) are f o r the most p a r t "broken" f a m i l i e s . (Table 27).  S u b s i d i z e d housing  s i n g l e people.  i s not planned f o r younger  I t i s c l e a r l y p o s s i b l e , however, t h a t r e c e n t l y  bereaved widows o r widowers, under n o t i c e t o l e a v e , would s t i l l be i n the p r o j e c t s , and  i n some cases are a l l o w e d  to  stay. S i n c e mid-1961, the age  l i m i t f o r payment of d i s a b i l i t y  b e n e f i t s has been removed, and  t h e r e f o r e more d i s a b l e d persons  became e l i g i b l e f o r such b e n e f i t s and t o o , s i n c e t h e y are g i v e n p r e f e r e n c e .  consequently  for  housing  D i s a b l e d persons are i n -  c l u d e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y w i t h e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s , and t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n recent f i g u r e s .  Persons whose o n l y income i s a s -  132 - s i s t a n c e o r b e n e f i t s a p p a r e n t l y are a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n  on  the w a i t i n g - l i s t than f o r m e r l y . Rents f o r E l d e r l y F a m i l i e s Average r e n t s p a i d by E l d e r l y f a m i l i e s i n U.S. housing  public  are lower than those p a i d by younger f a m i l i e s .  This  i s because s p e c i a l r e n t s c a l e s are used by;;'"the l o c a l A u t h o r i t i e s which are a p p l i c a b l e o n l y t o the e l d e r l y and which r e p r e sent r e a s o n a b l e  rent-income r a t i o s i n most c a s e s , o r where  f i x e d r e n t s are used, these are a d j u s t e d downwards. incomes of e l d e r l y p e o p l e , b o t h s i n g l e persons and  Since  the  households  of two or more p e o p l e , are n o t a b l y lower than those  of younger  f a m i l i e s , when r e n t s are c a l c u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o income, the r e n t s are a l s o lower.  However, t h e y are not as p r o p o r t i o n a t e -  l y low as one might e x p e c t .  F o r example, the median r e n t p a i d  by old-age f a m i l i e s ( i n c l u d e s s i n g l e p e r s o n s ) i n the s t a t e s i n 1961 was 1961  $36.62.  was  $37  and  Northern  i n the West the comparable r e n t  Rents f o r yyounger f a m i l i e s i n these r e g i o n s i n  were an average of $11  h i g h e r p e r month.  The  l a c k of a  g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e between the average r e n t s p a i d by old-age f a m i l i e s and younger f a m i l i e s r e s u l t s from the l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s t o whom e i t h e r a minimum r e n t or a welfare rent i s a p p l i c a b l e .  Minimum r e n t s , where used, appear  t o be s e t a t a f a i r l y h i g h r a t e , as f o r example i n Chicago, where the minimum r e n t f o r a b a c h e l o r u n i t i s $36.  The  fixed-  r e n t minimum a p p l i c a b l e t o persons i n r e c e i p t of a s s i s t a n c e o r b e n e f i t s i s even h i g h e r . h o u s i n g , when the t e n a n t surance,  F o r a b a c h e l o r u n i t i n Chicago  i s drawing Old Age  the r e n t i s s e t a t $45  comparison, s i n g l e p e n s i o n e r s  p e r month.  or D i s a b i l i t y i n In Vancouver, i n  pay a f i x e d r e n t of $22  p e r month.  133 . As i s t r u e f o r a l l t y p e s o f f a m i l i e s i n t h e N o r t h and West, r e n t s a r e g e t t i n g h i g h e r each y e a r f o r e l d e r l y households a l s o .  Fewer old-age f a m i l i e s a r e p a y i n g r e n t s under  $30 p e r month, and 11 p e r cent were p a y i n g r e n t s over $50 p e r month i n 1961.  One-quarter  o f t h i s l a t t e r group were  f a m i l i e s who had minors i n t h e home.  Some o f these f a m i l i e s  might be o c c u p y i n g l a r g e r u n i t s where f i x e d r e n t s a p p l y . S i n g l e s e n i o r c i t i z e n s p a i d r e n t s which were, on an a v e r age, $7 lower than those p a i d by t h e l a r g e r - s i z e d  elderly  groups. F o r t h e e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s who moved i n t o p u b l i c  housing  i n 1961, t h e median g r o s s r e n t was $35, i n both t h e Northland t h e West.  Rents were up by a few d o l l a r s from t h e p r e -  v i o u s y e a r ; t h e h i g h e s t i n c r e a s e was a $4 one f o r s i n g l e e l d e r l y persons i n t h e West.  I n view of t h e f a c t t h a t exempt-  i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y a l l o w e d f o r m i n o r s , i n computing g r o s s r e n t o f f a m i l i e s w i t h o u t minors  rent, the  i s u s u a l l y h i g h e r than  t h a t of f a m i l i e s w i t h m i n o r s , a t any g i v e n l e v e l of income. T h i s was found t o be so f o r these t y p e s o f f a m i l i e s who ent e r e d t h e h o u s i n g i n 1961, however, t h e r e was o n l y a one d o l l a r d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two groups.  Rents a t a d m i s s i o n have  s h i f t e d q u i t e s h a r p l y f o r e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s , even a l t h o u g h the median has r i s e n o n l y s l i g h t l y .  Fewer f a m i l i e s a r e p a y i n g  the lower r e n t s and more f a m i l i e s a r e p a y i n g t h e h i g h e r r e n t s each y e a r .  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t .  It  should be noted t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n t h e t a b l e i s not c l a s s i f i e d by r a c e and r e f e r s t o b o t h w h i t e and non-white tenants.  134 Table 28.  Family Composition  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f F a m i l i e s Moving i n t o P r o j e c t s i n 1961 w i t h Rents Below $25 and w i t h Rents o f a t L e a s t $40, by Census Region and F a m i l y Type. Percentage o f f a m i l i e s w i t h r e n t s Under $25  At l e a s t $40  1961  1959  1961  0.5  1.2  78.1  71.0  Elderly  2.9  3.9  43.1  31.4  single two o r more (with minors) (no m i n o r s )  4.3  8.0  30.3  18.6  1.4 1.2  3.3 2.9  68.8 57.2  56.8 42.3  0.2  1.5  74.7  67.I  Elderly  5.9  23.0  32.0  21.9  single two o r more (with minors)  8.8  36.2  16.3  9.1  3.0  8.6  66.3  50.5  (no m i n o r s )  1.5  49.5  36.0  North Non-elderly  West Non-elderly  '  4.4  1959  135 Income and The New  Jrtent  D i s t r i b u t J ^ o n ^ In B r i t j . s j i  m a j o r i t y of d w e l l i n g s b u i l t by l o c a l c o u n c i l s and  Town development c o r p o r a t i o n s are f o r l e t t i n g  unfurnished,  a t e i t h e r economic o r s u b s i d i z e d r e n t s , t o people i n need of accommodation.  The  l o c a l a u t h o r i t y has complete d i s c r e t i o n  as t o r e n t s charged and  c o n d i t i o n s of t e n a n c y .  S u b s i d i e s from  the Exchequer and the revenue from l o c a l r a t e s ( t a x e s ) are portant f a c t o r s i n t h e i r determination.  Some a u t h o r i t i e s op-  e r a t e d i f f e r e n t i a l r e n t or r e n t - r e b a t e schemes, and i n t o account the incomes and  im-  liabilities  so take  of t e n a n t s .  Average  weekly net r e n t s i n post-war 2 or 3-bedroom houses i n England and Wales range from 9/11  t o 54/-  (approximately  $ 7 . 5 0 ) f o r a 2-bedroom house and from 12/2 m a t e l y $1.70  $1.4o  to 60/-  t o $ 8 . 4 o ) f o r a 3-bedroom h o u s e .  (approxi-  1  In B r i t a i n , need (not income) i s the c r i t e r i o n ing e l i g i b i l i t y  to  determin-  f o r r e s i d e n c e i n l o c a l a u t h o r i t y houses, and  r e n t s , w i t h some e x c e p t i o n s , are f i x e d a c c o r d i n g t o s i z e of rented u n i t . 1945,  O l d e r houses, f o r i n s t a n c e those b u i l t  before  are c o n s i d e r a b l y cheaper, and most l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s  t r y and a l l o c a t e these f o r f a m i l i e s w i t h l i m i t e d  incomes.  A c c o r d i n g t o v a r i o u s s t u d i e s the income of t e n a n t s l o c a l a u t h o r i t y houses and £8 t o £15  f l a t s v a r i e s somewhere between  p e r week ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y  $22.50 t o $ 4 2 . 0 0 ) .  In slum  c l e a r a n c e e s t a t e s the incomes of the c h i e f wage e a r n e r s inclined estates.  t o be r a t h e r lower t h a n those  on the new  are  suburban  In B r i s t o l , f o r example, d u r i n g the y e a r 1953-54  Housing_in pamphlet"^!" 1  in  B r i t a i n , C e n t r a l O f f i c e of  Information  136 the d i s p a r i t y between incomes of C o r p o r a t i o n t e n a n t s g e n e r a l l y was g r e a t .  At one end o f t h e s c a l e 61.5 p e r cent of the t e n -  a n t s earned  l e s s than £9 p e r week ($25.20), w h i l e a t t h e o t h e r  end 4.8 p e r cent earned  over £13 p e r week ($36.4o).  As time  went on and t h e g e n e r a l l e v e l o f e a r n i n g s r o s e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s became l e s s marked, so t h a t , i n 1956-57, t h e p r o p o r t i o n of t e n a n t s i n t h e lowest income group had f a l l e n t o 33.7 p e r cent and i n t h e h i g h e s t income group had r i s e n t o 24.7 p e r c e n t .  1  A more r e c e n t a n a l y s i s of t h e a p p l i c a n t s on t h e London County C o u n c i l w a i t i n g - l i s t r e v e a l e d t h a t , i n 1959, 54 p e r cent of the a p p l i c a n t s had weekly incomes between £11 and £15 ($30.80 and $42.00), w h i l e 31 p e r cent had incomes between £6 and £10 ($16.80 and $28.OO) . 2  f o r manual workers i n England  As t h e average weekly e a r n i n g s and Wales f o r 1959 was about  £13 10s ($37.90)3 t h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t , on t h e whole, incomes of r e s i d e n t s i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g a r e r a t h e r l e s s than t h e n a t i o n al  average. Westergaard and G l a s s found t h a t , a t Lansbury  , two-  f i f t h s of t h e c h i e f wage-earners had weekly incomes of under £ 7 p e r week ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y $21) and t h e r e were a few h o l d s headed by old-age p e n s i o n e r s . i n Lansbury  house-  At the end of 1951, r e n t s  ranged from 25/- f o r t h r e e rooms t o 35/- f o r f i v e  rooms, ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y $3.60 t o $5.00). low r e n t a l s by Canadian standards  These may seem v e r y  (as i n d e e d , most European  r e n t a l s i n government-aided h o u s i n g d o ) : n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e y  1  J e n n i n g s , p ^ ^ c l t . , p. 122.  2  See Appendix A.  3 Annual A b s t r a c t of S t a t i s t i c s , No. 99, 1962, H.M.S.O.  137 r e p r e s e n t e d a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e over the amount they p a i d b e f o r e moving.  had  In f a c t , t w o - t h i r d s of the t e n a n t s were  p a y i n g a t l e a s t t w i c e as much r e n t as b e f o r e .  As Westergaard  and G l a s s emphasize, such an i n c r e a s e c o u l d o n l y be met a complete change i n the p a t t e r n of f a m i l y e x p e n d i t u r e .  through 1  F i e l d and N e i l l , i n t h e i r study of the e s t a t e s a t B e l f a s t , d i s c o v e r e d t h a t more than o n e - t h i r d of the f a m i l i e s had more than one e a r n e r , and v e r y few had no p o t e n t i a l a d u l t male earner.  The  s i x t y - o n e m a r r i e d women who  worked made up a  c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n of the s u b s i d i a r y e a r n e r s .  The mean  weekly income of the 319 f a m i l i e s i n t h e i r sample was £10 4d  ($29.30) and 85 p e r cent of the f a m i l i e s had  tween £6 and £14  ($18.00 and $42.00).  6s  incomes of be-  Twelve of the f a m i l i e s  were almost e n t i r e l y dependent on N a t i o n a l I n s u r a n c e , N a t i o n a l A s s i s t a n c e o r P e n s i o n Payments.  I f these were e x c l u d e d ,  the  mean weekly income of f a m i l i e s w i t h an e a r n e r was £10,9s,2d ($29.90 a p p r o x i m a t e l y ) . Income:Rents of E l d e r l y Tenants One  of the p o s s i b l e consequences of r e t i r e m e n t i s p o v e r t y .  Loss of income due t o i l l n e s s ,  unemployment o r o l d age i s l i k e -  l y t o c a l l f o r some degree of adjustment f o r most wage-earners. People from low-income f a m i l i e s , however, are apt t o be  hardest  hit. In h i s book, The F a m i l y L i f e of Old, Jfe^opJIe, P e t e r Townsend compared the average income of o l d people s t i l l a t work w i t h t h a t of o l d people who were r e t i r e d .  He found t h a t the income  Westergaard and G l a s s , op. c i t . , p. F i e l d and N e i l l , op. c i t .  43.  138 of  s i n g l e and widowed people i n h i s sample f e l l by 68 per cent  (on a v e r a g e ) , w h i l e t h a t of m a r r i e d people f e l l by 52 p e r c e n t , when t h e y r e t i r e d .  Even these f i g u r e s , he s u g g e s t s , do not  r e p r e s e n t the f u l l e x t e n t of the drop i n the s t a n d a r d of ing  liv-  i n the l a s t y e a r s of l i f e , as the income of some people  had a l r e a d y plunged b e f o r e r e t i r e m e n t , i n t h a t t h e y had l i g h t e r and l e s s - w e l l - p a i d j o b s . undertaken  taken  Townsend, whose survey  1  was  i n B e t h n a l Green and t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e d predominant-  l y w o r k i n g - c l a s s p e o p l e , found t h a t the t o t a l p e r s o n a l incomes of  r e t i r e d persons were o n l y a l i t t l e h i g h e r , a f t e r d e d u c t i n g  r e n t , than the N a t i o n a l A s s i s t a n c e s c a l e s . A N a t i o n a l A s s i s t a n c e Board supplementary on the assumption  g r a n t i s based  t h a t , a p a r t from r e n t , the amount r e q u i r e d 2  by one person l i v i n g a l o n e was £2  17s 6d  ($8.25) p e r week.  S p e c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , however, such as the c o s t of l a u n d r y o r domestic h e l p , were met by a d d i t i o n s t o t h i s amount. Board were aware t h a t p e n s i o n e r s w i t h c h i l d r e n and  The  relatives  o f t e n r e c e i v e d s m a l l i r r e g u l a r g i f t s of money, and these were not counted as income.  What can be s a i d i s t h a t r e t i r e m e n t  p e n s i o n s and N a t i o n a l A s s i s t a n c e payments are v e r y s m a l l when compared w i t h average weekly e a r n i n g s i n . B r i t a i n . the p e n s i o n f o r a s i n g l e person was  18 p e r cent of average  weekly e a r n i n g s ; f o r a m a r r i e d couple i t was In  I n 1955*  29 p e r c e n t .  a s m a l l sample s t u d y of t e n a n t s l i v i n g i n the grouped  flatlets,  85 or more p e r cent of o l d people were l i v i n g  1  Townsend, The F a m i l y L i f e of Old P e o p l e , p.  2  In A p r i l ,  176.  1961.  3 Grouped F l a t l e t s f o r Old P e o p l e , M i n i s t r y of Housing and Loca1 Government~ p. b.  on  139 p e n s i o n s o f one k i n d o r a n o t h e r (widows, o l d age, o r r e t i r e ment), w i t h o r w i t h o u t source of income.  a s s i s t a n c e g r a n t s , and had no o t h e r  Rents i n these f l a t l e t s , i n c l u d i n g h e a t i n g ,  ranged from e i g h t e e n  s h i l l i n g s ($2.60) p e r week t o twenty-nine  s h i l l i n g s and s i x p e n c e  ($4.25) p e r week.  These a r e almost a s -  t o n i s h i n g l y low r e n t s , from a N o r t h American p o i n t o f viexv: but an e x c e l l e n t example o f the d i r e c t c o n t r i b u t i o n which s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g can make t o t h e o l d person's budget. Rents i n t h e New Towns From the t e n a n t s ' p o i n t o f view, one o f t h e most p r e s s i n g problems i n the New Towns has been the l e v e l of r e n t s . meetings have c l a i m e d to earnings;  t h a t r e n t s a r e unduly h i g h i n r e l a t i o n  i t has a l s o been f r e q u e n t l y complained t h a t  ness f o r any l e n g t h o f time makes t h e burden of r e n t s able.  Protest  sick-  intoler-  On the o t h e r hand, w h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t r e n t s a r e much  h i g h e r t h a n i n London, (where many people were e i t h e r l i v i n g i n two o r t h r e e rooms o r e l s e s h a r i n g accommodation w i t h  rela-  t i v e s ) , a g r e a t number o f f a m i l i e s f e e l t h a t t h e v a s t l y supe r i o r nature  o f t h e i r new accommodation outweighs such ob-  jections . In some New Towns t h e r e n t s a r e h i g h e r than i n o t h e r s . F o r i n s t a n c e , the 1963 a n n u a l r e p o r t o f Stevenage Development Corporation  s t a t e s t h a t t h e average net r e n t was i n t h e r e g i o n  of £2 t o £2 5s ($6.00 t o $6.50), w h i l e i n June 1963, r e n t s i n B a s i l d o n ranged from £2 f4  6s 8d f o r a one-bedroom f l a t t o  l4s l i d f o r a four-bedroom house w i t h garage ($6.70 t o  $13.60).  The Stevenage C o r p o r a t i o n p o i n t s out t h a t t h e y a r e  " w e l l aware that...some f a m i l y budgets a r e so f i n e l y b a l a n c e d t h a t s i c k n e s s , t h e r e d u c t i o n o r l o s s of a w i f e ' s e a r n i n g s , o r  140 of overtime payments can have s e r i o u s  consequences...such  d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e a m a t t e r o f much concern t o the C o r p o r a t i o n , whose purpose i t i s t o e s t a b l i s h a community as w e l l as t o b u i l d a town.  1,1  In Stevenage  i n 1963 l e s s than 0.05 p e r cent of t h e  t o t a l amount due i n h o u s i n g r e n t s had t o be w r i t t e n o f f as irrecoverable.  The C o r p o r a t i o n had s e t up a r e n t - r e b a t e  scheme t o h e l p t e n a n t s unable t o meet t h e i r r e n t s i n f u l l , e i t h e r because t h e f a m i l y income was permanently t o o low, o r because  i t had been t e m p o r a r i l y reduced through s i c k n e s s , un-  employment o r o t h e r domestic u p s e t . "High r e n t s " may be o v e r s t r e s s e d as a c o m p l a i n t .  Never-  t h e l e s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e New Towns, t h e y have t o be r e ckoned w i t h as y e t a n o t h e r f a c t o r m i l i t a t i n g a g a i n s t a b a l a n c e d population.  A l l income groups cannot be p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y r e p -  r e s e n t e d , i f t h e y e x c l u d e f a m i l i e s w i t h low incomes, and e s p e c i a l l y those h a v i n g a l a r g e number of dependent c h i l d r e n . There a r e a l r e a d y e x c e p t i o n s , of which Harlow i s one.  The  Development C o r p o r a t i o n t h e r e i s , now, b u i l d i n g v a r i o u s t y p e s of houses f o r the lowest income groups as w e l l as a s p e c i a l quota (20 p e r c e n t ) f o r t h e h i g h e r ones.  Sjpme G e n e r a l  ,9 J^J^?5^A° l . 0  r  3  P u b l i c h o u s i n g , as i t e x i s t s today i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s tends t o segregate t h e low-income  f a m i l y i n t o one homogeneous  "poor" community, and t h e r e are a t l e a s t dangers of i t happening i n Canada.  The major reason f o r t h i s i s the s e t t i n g  Stevenage Development C o r p o r a t i o n , S i x t e e n t h Annual Report f o r the P e r i o d ended ,3_lst .March,  141 of maximum income l e v e l s f o r e l i g i b i l i t y t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g : "The a b l e , r i s i n g f a m i l i e s are c o n s t a n t l y d r i v e n out as t h e i r incomes c r o s s the c e i l i n g f i g u r e s , " wrote H a r r i s o n S a l i s b u r y i n h i s study of d e l i n q u e n c y , The Shook-Up G e n e r a t i o n . "By s c r e e n i n g a p p l i c a n t s for"" Tow-rent apartments t o e l i m i n a t e those w i t h even modest wages, the new community i s b a d l y handicapped. I t I s d e p r i v e d of the normal quota of human t a l e n t s needed f o r s e l f - o r g a n i z a t i o n , s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e and s e l f - i m p r o v e m e n t . A human c a t c h p o o l i s formed t h a t breeds s o c i a l i l l s and r e q u i r e s e n d l e s s o u t s i d e assistance." 1  The  same c o n d i t i o n has been shown t o be t r u e f o r B r i t a i n  but f o r a d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n .  While t h e r e are no income c e i l i n g s  i n B r i t a i n , t h e r e are more e s t a b l i s h e d c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s , which m i t i g a t e s a g a i n s t higher-income groups a s s o c i a t i n g thems e l v e s w i t h those below them i n c l a s s s t a n d i n g .  This kind  segregation  of f a m i l i e s ,  and  saps the a s p i r a t i o n s and m o t i v a t i o n s  of  i t i s a poor model f o r the young people i n the p r o j e c t s .  I t l e a d s t o " r e j e c t i o n " of the p r o j e c t by the neighbourhood.  surrounding  Some d i s c u s s i o n , a t t h i s p o i n t , of the  issues  i n v o l v e d i n income c e i l i n g s f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s i n d i c a t e d . Income c e i l i n g s a r e , of c o u r s e , d i r e c t l y t i e d t o the purpose of p u b l i c h o u s i n g , t h a t i s , t h a t i t i s intended v i d e decent h o u s i n g f o r low-income f a m i l i e s . t h e r e f o r e , t h a t any  The  I t would appear,  problems t h a t a r i s e because of t h i s f a c t  are thus i n the n a t u r e of b e i n g change.  to pro-  " b u i l t - i n " and  not s u b j e c t  to  r e s u l t s of t h i s p o l i c y have not been happy; the  problems of the p o o r have become the problems of p u b l i c housing  management, and  the money spent on p u b l i c h o u s i n g  s e e m i n g l y f a i l e d t o a c h i e v e one penditure  was  intended  has  of the key g o a l s t h a t t h i s  to achieve —  ex-  that i s , to give disadvan-  Quoted i n T u n l e y , "Tragedy of a V e r t i c a l Slum," S a t u r d a y E v e n i n g P o s t , June, 1963.  The  142 -taged f a m i l i e s a chance a t a b e t t e r s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g i n a normal  environment.  In d e b a t i n g t h i s problem  one a l s o has t o t a k e i n t o con-  s i d e r a t i o n the a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . W h i l e t a x - p a y e r s may  be prepared t o support low-income f a m i l i e s  i n s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g , t h e y have d e f i n i t e i d e a s of what cons t i t u t e s a low income, and any thought of r a i s i n g the income c e i l i n g s t o a l l o w persons w i t h even modestly h i g h incomes t o l i v e i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s bound t o meet w i t h an o u t c r y of opposition.  Y e t , i f r e n t s are t i e d t o income, how much a c t u a l  s u b s i d i z a t i o n i s i n e f f e c t , i f h i g h e r income f a m i l i e s are p a y i n g c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y h i g h e r rents?' This raises a f u r t h e r question.  I f rents r i s e too high  f o r the type of accommodation then h i g h e r income f a m i l i e s  will  l o o k f o r something b e t t e r than p u b l i c h o u s i n g w i t h i t s p r e s e n t associations.  A g a i n , home ownership  more a t t r a c t i v e t o the middle-income  has now become e a s i e r and f a m i l y , as low-down pay-  ments, and monthly payments no h i g h e r than some p r o j e c t r e n t s , are b e i n g o f f e r e d i n some new r e a l - e s t a t e  developments.  Management of Vancouver's p r o j e c t s i s f a c e d w i t h t h i s  problem,  as t h e y s t r i v e t o keep "good" f a m i l i e s from moving out of t h e i r p r o j e c t s i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a b a l a n c e d community, i n the f a c e of  "easy" home-ownership i n the  suburbs.  There i s an a l t e r n a t i v e t o r a i s i n g the l e v e l of maximum income a l l o w a b l e t o a c h i e v e a more balanced community and i s t o s e t a minimum income a l l o w a b l e .  this  I n the o p i n i o n of the  a u t h o r s t h i s i s n e i t h e r m o r a l l y nor l e g a l l y d e f e n s i b l e , whether by s t a t u t e o r more s u b t l e means.  P u b l i c h o u s i n g should be  a v a i l a b l e t o whatever f a m i l y needs i t . One  s o l u t i o n t h a t would seem worthy-of c o n s i d e r a t i o n  143 would be t o c o n t i n u e for  with, a r e a s o n a b l e maximum income c e i l i n g  a d m i s s i o n t o t h e p r o j e c t s but t o a b o l i s h t h e r u l i n g t h a t  when a f a m i l y exceeds t h i s maximum t h e y must move out.  This  would have t h e e f f e c t o f a l l o w i n g some o f t h e f a m i l i e s who s e r v e as a b e t t e r model f o r t h e r e s t , who g i v e t h e p r o j e c t some s t a b i l i t y , t o s t a y on i n i t i f t h e y so d e s i r e . a l s o mean t h a t t h e i r r e n t s , i f these c o n t i n u e  T h i s would  t o be r e l a t e d t o  income ( w i t h some r e a s o n a b l e maximum r e n t f o r d i f f e r e n t s i z e d u n i t s ) , would be h i g h enough t o o f f s e t t h e b e n e f i t s of s u b s i dization.  Many f a m i l i e s would s t i l l move, but perhaps enough  would s t a y t o r a i s e t h e g e n e r a l atmosphere o f d e f e a t project.  i n the  Of c o u r s e , i t would a l s o mean t h a t t h e program o f  p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g would need t o be speeded up considerably.  (There i s a t o p i c f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y h e r e , t h a t i s ,  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between move-outs and w a i t i n g l i s t s and new construction).  Such a procedure would a l s o mean e d u c a t i o n of  the p u b l i c as t o t h e purpose, i n o r d e r t o g a i n p u b l i c support and  approval. I t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n under p r e s e n t l e g i s l a t i o n and a d m i n i -  s t r a t i o n that f o r many/families p u b l i c housing w i l l t h e i r h o u s i n g need f o r a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d . l i e s w i l l move as soon as an i n c r e a s e d  serve These f a m i -  income makes i t pos-  s i b l e f o r them t o o b t a i n decent h o u s i n g i n t h e p r i v a t e market. T h i s i s t h e i d e a t h a t p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s not intended "bargain"  housing, that i s , that f a m i l i e s with  t o be  relatively  h i g h incomes s t a y on i n i t i n o r d e r t o save on r e n t  costs.  T h i s o n l y appears t o be a p p l i c a b l e , however, where f i x e d r e n t s are i n e f f e c t and not when r e n t s go up w i t h income. o t h e r hand, f o r o t h e r f a m i l i e s , t h e aged, t h e i l l ,  On t h e "broken"  P u b l i c Housing i n the U n i t e d  Chicago  States  144 f a m i l i e s , p u b l i c h o u s i n g may t h e i r h o u s i n g problem.  The  p r o v i d e a l o n g term s o l u t i o n t o o n l y o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b t a i n a good  d w e l l i n g place i s i n p u b l i c housing.  This i s also true f o r  f a m i l i e s i n r e c e i p t of w e l f a r e b e n e f i t s .  I t has been found  t h a t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , these f a m i l i e s r e p r e s e n t  almost  h a l f of the t o t a l t e n a n t p o p u l a t i o n i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g .  In  Vancouver, t h i s f i g u r e appears t o be around E5§ p e r c e n t . While t h e r e are l o n g w a i t i n g l i s t s f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g , are the people who  w i l l need t o be s e r v e d .  these  But more housing  c o u l d be a b e t t e r s o l u t i o n t o the problem of s e g r e g a t i o n i f t h i s were coupled w i t h the a b o l i t i o n of f i x e d c e i l i n g s on i n comes f o r c o n t i n u e d occupancy i n the p r o j e c t s . T h i s i s s u e , then, r a i s e s a f u r t h e r i s s u e , t h a t of whether r e n t s should be r e l a t e d t o income o r whether they should fixed.  be  R e l a t i n g r e n t t o income embodies the p r i n c i p l e of ad-  j u s t i n g them t o a b i l i t y  t o pay r a t h e r than t o the c h a r a c t e r of  the d w e l l i n g o c c u p i e d .  I t means, a l s o , t h a t changes i n r e n t  w i l l o c c u r w i t h changes i n income.  Another important  factor  t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , i s the r e n t l e v e l i n r e l a t i o n t o income, t h a t i s , the rent-income  ratio.  The  principle  i n v o l v e d i s t h a t f a m i l i e s should pay a t l e a s t some minimum p e r centage of t h e i r incomes f o r h o u s i n g .  The a c t u a l l e v e l , how-  e v e r , should be a r e f l e c t i o n of what f a m i l i e s are a b l e t o pay; t h i s w i l l v a r y i n accordance w i t h a number of economic v a r i a b l e s . O n e - f i f t h of the income appears t o be a f a i r l y  standard r e n t :  income r a t i o . F i x e d r e n t s ( o r f l a t r e n t s as they are sometimes  termed),  by c o n t r a s t , mean t h a t the r e n t f o r a u n i t i s s e t and does not v a r y w i t h changes i n the income of the t e n a n t .  Customarily,  145 r e n t s a r e f i x e d i n accordance w i t h t h e s i z e of t h e d w e l l i n g u n i t , o r , i n some c a s e s , o t h e r f a c t o r s . In some s e c t i o n s of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , r e n t s a r e f i x e d i n accordance w i t h t h e s i z e of t h e u n i t and a l s o t h e type of a s s i s t a n c e o r b e n e f i t t h e tenant r e c e i v e s .  R e n t s , when w e l -  f a r e b e n e f i t s a r e p a r t o f income, a r e s e t h i g h e r than t h e normal f i x e d r e n t f o r a u n i t , i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .  More and  more housing a u t h o r i t i e s a r e a d o p t i n g f i x e d r e n t s i n t h a t country a t the present time.  These " f i x e d " r e n t s a r e g e n e r a l -  l y h i g h e r than r e n t s r e l a t e d t o income, and t h e r e s u l t i s t h a t i n t h e U.S., where w e l f a r e b e n e f i t s a r e not always as g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e as i n Canada, many low-income f a m i l i e s cannot a f f o r d t o move i n t o p u b l i c  housing.  In B r i t a i n , a p a r t from a few e x c e p t i o n s , r e n t s a r e f i x e d f o r t h e i r s u b s i d i z e d housing  a c c o r d i n g t o s i z e of u n i t .  How-  e v e r , i n cases of s e r i o u s need, a method o f r e n t r e b a t e s has been d e v i s e d .  T h i s method, which i s b e i n g used by some l o c a l  a u t h o r i t i e s i n B r i t a i n , i s b e i n g g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e Manchester C o r p o r a t i o n f o r t h e i r o v e r s p i l l e s t a t e , Wythenshawe. On t h i s e s t a t e , r e n t s a r e reckoned t o be about a s i x t h o f t h e f a m i l y ' s net income, but a c t u a l l y , these r e n t s a r e f i x e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s i z e of t h e house.  Because l a r g e f a m i l i e s a r e  f r e q u e n t l y p o o r e r than s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s , they a r e unable t o pay t h e r e n t f o r t h e s i z e of accommodation they need. rebates could help t o solve t h i s s i t u a t i o n .  Rent  The way i n which  r e b a t e s a r e g i v e n t o needy t e n a n t s v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y .  Some  a u t h o r i t i e s a p p l y schemes r e l a t e d t o the income o f the c h i e f earner of the f a m i l y ,  while others include c h i l d r e n ' s earn-  i n g s , i n whole o r i n p a r t , w i t h t h e f a m i l y income.  Occasional-  l y , t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e r e n t which f a m i l i e s p a i d  before  146 t h e y were rehoused and charged.  The  the r e n t f o r the new  d w e l l i n g i s not  r e n t - r e b a t e schemes a p p l i e d i n S c o t l a n d are  not  o n l y more generous on the whole, than those a p p l i e d i n E n g l a n d , but they are sometimes extended t o h i g h e r income groups when the f a m i l y i n c l u d e s many c h i l d r e n .  1  In Vancouver's p r o j e c t s , r e n t s are t i e d t o income, except i n the case of s i n g l e p e n s i o n e r s , whose r e n t s are f i x e d a t $22.  The  r e n t s are a p p r o x i m a t e l y  20 p e r cent of income.  A number of problems a r i s e , b o t h f o r housing  management,  and f o r the t e n a n t s , when r e n t s are t i e d t o income l e v e l s . P o s s i b l y the most o b j e c t i o n a b l e aspect f o r both groups i s the n e c e s s i t y f o r repeated or f a l l . and  r e c a l c u l a t i o n of r e n t as incomes r i s e  F o r management, t h i s i n v o l v e s e x t r a book-keeping,  f o r the t e n a n t s , i t means l o s s of p r i v a c y i n h i s f i n a n c i a l  a f f a i r s as each income change must be r e p o r t e d . l i k e r e n t f l u c t u a t i o n s , and  Tenants d i s -  s i n c e i n c r e a s e s i n income auto-  m a t i c a l l y b r i n g on r e n t i n c r e a s e s , i t i s f e l t t h a t i n c e n t i v e t o r a i s e income i s reduced.  There are o b j e c t i o n s , t o o , t o the  i n c l u s i o n i n t o t a l income f o r r e n t c a l c u l a t i o n p u r p o s e s , such items as overtime  pay,  income from temporary employment, or  the wages of secondary e a r n e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y c h i l d r e n . In a study of v o l u n t a r y move-outs from p u b l i c  housing  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the P.H.A. r e p o r t e d t h a t w h i l e 71 cent of the f a m i l i e s regarded  per  the r e n t - a d j u s t e d - t o - i n c o m e  prin-  c i p l e as "a good i d e a " , a t the same t i m e , o n e - t h i r d of the same_ f a m i l i e s gave a,s a b a s i c r e a s o n f o r moving out, In Denmark and Sweden, d i r e c t s u b s i d i e s p a i d by governmenttare made t o f a m i l i e s w i t h low incomes. 1  The f a c t i s , of c o u r s e , t h a t the r e n t i n c r e a s e t a k e s o n l y a p e r c e n t a g e , and does not take the whole of an income r i s e - - u s u a l l y not over 20 p e r c e n t . 2  147 d i s a a t i s f a c t i o n with r e n t s .  1  Fromson, Hansen and Smith found  i n t h e i r study of the L i t t l e Mountain p r o j e c t , t h a t a l l lowincome f a m i l i e s (under $200) as a r u l e , thought the r e n t - s c a l e f a i r ; o n e - f i f t h i n the middle-income group ($200 t o 300), o n e - t h i r d i n the upper income groups, found i t u n f a i r .  and Fami-  2  l i e s whose incomes are i n c r e a s i n g are most l i k e l y t o have  ob-  j e c t i o n s t o t h i s p r o c e d u r e , and t o f e e l t h a t r e n t s become t o o h i g h f o r the type of accommodation, or h i g h e r t h a n what they want t o pay f o r r e n t .  F a m i l i e s who  s u f f e r income  set-backs,  on the o t h e r hand, are g l a d t o have an adjustment made and l o w e r i n g of t h e i r r e n t .  F u r t h e r , t e n a n t s c o m p l a i n of  a  frequent  r e n t changes when t h e i r incomes are r i s i n g , . b u t f a m i l i e s whose incomes are f a l l i n g want r e n t reviews must d e c i d e and  often.  Thus, management  s e t r e g u l a t i o n s i n r e s p e c t of r e v i e w s  that  attempt t o p l e a s e a d i f f e r i n g s e t of a t t i t u d e s . F a i l u r e on the p a r t of t e n a n t s t o f u l l y understand purposes of r e n t s - a d j u s t e d - t o - i n c o m e  g i v e r i s e t o some d i s -  s a t i s f a c t i o n s w i t h t h i s method of s e t t i n g r e n t s . who  Families  say t h a t "because r e n t s go up, they cannot save and  ahead'", t h i n k of p u b l i c h o u s i n g as " b a r g a i n " housing, i t i s not.  I t i s not intended  housing expenditures  the  t o r e l e a s e Income f o r  'get which  non-  but r a t h e r t o p r o v i d e h o u s i n g a t r a t e s  a t which the f a m i l y can a f f o r d t o  pay.  C o n s i d e r a t i o n might be g i v e n t o the f a c t t h a t i f r e a l e s t a t e p r i n c i p l e s are important  f o r housing,  in part, fixed  r e n t s ( i . e . , a c c o r d i n g t o k i n d of accommodation —  not income  of the t e n a n t ) i s p r o p e r p r a c t i c e .  proposed  A l a n d l o r d who  M o b i l i t y and M o t i v a t i o n s . . . survey of f a m i l i e s moving from 1 ow-rTn^'n-o^rngr^ "Home" F i n a n c e Agency; "AprH";"T958. 1  —i  ~<  —i  2  —  —  —  —> —  —  —  —  —  —r  —i  —  L i t t l e Mountain Low-Rental Housing P r o j e c t , M.S.W. T h e s i s ,  V.B.V:~£959:—  !  :  :  ;  148 t o r a i s e a person's r e n t because h i s income had gone up, would not be a b l e t o keep h i s r e n t a l s o c c u p i e d .  Of c o u r s e ,  r e n t s f o r p u b l i c housing must be s u b s i d i z e d , low r e n t s .  Fixed  r e n t s , i t i s t r u e , would tend t o m i t i g a t e a g a i n s t l a r g e f a m i l i e s o r v e r y low-income groups, u n l e s s r e b a t e s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d . I t would, however, be no more i n c o n v e n i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y than the present  n e c e s s i t y o f income  checking.  There i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e range o f complaint  in Britain,  Canada, and i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h a t r e n t s f o r p u b l i c are t o o h i g h .  housing  I n B r i t a i n , where r e n t s a r e g e n e r a l l y f i x e d ,  they a r e o f t e n c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r than what t h e t e n a n t s have been accustomed.  I n 1951, Westergaard and G l a s s commented  t h a t r e n t was t h e dominant t o p i c o f c o n v e r s a t i o n i n Lansbury, and  t h e most s e r i o u s o b j e c t o f c o m p l a i n t .  1  A t t h e time o f  t h e i r survey, a number of Lansbury households were a l r e a d y i n c o n s i d e r a b l e f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , w h i l e f o r many o t h e r s , any c o n t i n g e n c y ,  such as i l l n e s s , unemployment o r under-  employment, would have been enough t o upset a p r e c a r i o u s  bal-  ance. Increased  r e n t s have been a source  housing e s t a t e s too.  of concern on o t h e r  Young and W i l l m o t t found t h a t on "Green-  l e i g h " , r e n t s were n e a r l y t h r e e times as h i g h , on average, as t h e y used t o be i n B e t h n a l Green, one o f t h e p o o r e r  districts 2  i n London's E a s t End from which many o f t h e r e s i d e n t s came. On t h e S h e f f i e l d e s t a t e , a l t h o u g h were c o m p a r a t i v e l y  the earnings  h i g h , many o f t h e wives found i t n e c e s s a r y  t o go out t o work i n o r d e r t o make ends meet. 1  of the tenants  In f a c t , a  Westergaard and G l a s s , "A P r o f i l e o f Lansbury", p. 43.  Young and W i l l m o t t , "Family and K i n s h i p i n E a s t London,'P. 143. . . 2  149 much h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of m a r r i e d women worked on t h i s e s t a t e than i n the c o u n t r y as a w h o l e .  1  In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , f i x e d r e n t s a r e not so common, but these a r e o f t e n h i g h .  The main body o f c o m p l a i n t stems  from how h i g h r e n t s can c l i m b i f income r i s e s .  T h i s may be  one o f t h e major problems i n how h i g h e r income f a m i l i e s view i n creases i n rent i n p u b l i c housing. In Vancouver, a t t h e L i t t l e Mountain p r o j e c t , c o m p l a i n t s of t h i s same n a t u r e have been made.  Tenants w i t h t h e h i g h e r  incomes f e e l t h a t r e n t s a r e t o o h i g h ; t h e y a r e a l s o a p t t o sugg e s t t h a t , i n c e r t a i n ways, t h e y a r e s u b s i d i z i n g lower income 2 families. I f t h e r e a r e t e n a n t s i n t h e close-to-maximum income r a n g e s , l i v i n g i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g , who a r e c o m p l a i n i n g t h a t r e n t s r i s e t o o h i g h , and a l s o t h e lower income groups c o m p l a i n i n g t h a t t h e y cannot a f f o r d t h e -rent, s h o u l d we i g n o r e these e x p r e s s i o n s of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n ?  Or s h o u l d an attempt be made t o f i n d out  the v a l i d i t y o f these c o m p l a i n t s , which a r i s e a g a i n and a g a i n ? I t would be easy, but a m i s t a k e , t o d i s r e g a r d them on t h e ground t h a t they stem from a l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p o l i c y .  It is  p o s s i b l e t h a t h o u s i n g o f f i c i a l s a r e r e f l e c t i n g a r i g i d and i n f l e x i b l e view o f "economic n e c e s s i t i e s " .  Is there information  a v a i l a b l e t h a t would i n d i c a t e t h e a c t u a l r e a l i s m o f s e t t i n g r e n t s a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - f i f t h o f income w i t h o u t any v a r i a t i o n as incomes r i s e o r f a l l ? '  In r e l a t i o n t o v a r i a t i o n s i n l i v i n g  The 1951 Census showed t h a t 17 p e r cent o f m a r r i e d ( i n c l u d i n g widowed and d i v o r c e d ) women i n Great B r i t a i n were working' f u l l t i m e , w h i l e another.5 p e r cent worked p a r t - t i m e . The comparative f i g u r e s f o r t h e S h e f f i e l d e s t a t e were 20 p e r cent and 26.2 p e r c e n t . See T.S. Simey, ( e d . ) . 1  I t i s a l s o brought out i n t h e L i t t l e Mountain s t u d y t h a t t h i s i s p a r t l y a m a t t e r of e d u c a t i o n and communication w i t h t a n a n t s , so t h a t t h e y understand p o l i c y . 2  150 c o s t s f o r items i n a f a m i l y ' s budget i n d i f f e r i n g t h e r e may  regions,  be a case f o r a f l e x i b l e r a t i o on t h i s b a s i s  alone.  In Vancouver' p r o j e c t s the r e n t s c a l e i s c a l c u l a t e d the b a s i s of two  f a c t o r s : not income a l o n e , but income  f a m i l y s i z e -- the r e n t d e c r e a s i n g goes up.  on  and  r e l a t i v e l y as f a m i l y s i z e  T h i s seems sound, as i t has the e f f e c t of p r o v i d i n g  a b a s i c exemption p e r p e r s o n i n the f a m i l y .  However, i t does  not make enough p r o v i s i o n f o r the d i f f e r e n c e i n managing on a low income o r a medium income.  The  question  i s whether  the p r e s e n t s c a l e a c t u a l l y compensates f o r the f i x e d c o s t s  of  b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s , such as f o o d , which f a m i l i e s must meet f o r each p e r s o n .  I t may  be argued t h a t p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s not  concerned w i t h b u d g e t a r y items o t h e r t h a n r e n t .  In the  light  of r e a l i t y , however, can the c o s t of the two b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s , and  p r i n c i p a l items of a f a m i l y budget —  be separated? f a m i l y and  food and  Even w i t h the exemptions, both the  shelter  —  low-income  the medium-income f a m i l y of the same s i z e , i n Van-  couver, w i l l be p a y i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - f i f t h of the income i n r e n t .  Yet the low-income f a m i l y may  remaining  be p a y i n g  out  t w i c e as much as i t s budget f o r the combined items of food  and  s h e l t e r as the medium-income f a m i l y .  be  b e t t e r a b l e t o pay and this  rent rebates  Who  then i s g o i n g t o  the r e n t on time each month?  according  Fixed  t o f a m i l y s i z e would h e l p t o  solve  situation. T h i s l e a d s i n t o the item of r e n t - d e l i q u e n c y ,  problem managers of p u b l i c h o u s i n g are so o f t e n  w i t h which harrassed.  Rents which are t o o h i g h f o r the f a m i l y budget may one  rents  of the f a c t o r s which e n t e r h e r e .  w e l l be  In f a c t , t e n a n t s whose  income i s so low t h a t t h e y are g e n u i n e l y  unable t o pay  their  151 r e n t , was  a c a t e g o r y of r e n t - d e l i n q u e n c y  C e n t r a l Housing A d v i s o r y  described  Committee i n B r i t a i n .  by  the  Solutions  1  adopted f o r t h i s problem i n B r i t a i n , have been (a) t o t r a n s fer  such f a m i l i e s t o the cheaper pre-war houses, o r (b) where  rent-rebate  schemes are i n e f f e c t , t o a p p l y these t o lower  rents.  second s o l u t i o n sounds p r e f e r a b l e t o the  The  first,  which l a t t e r might i n v o l v e a r e t u r n t o run-down h o u s i n g or overcrowded c o n d i t i o n s . Of c o u r s e , t h e r e are o t h e r reasons f o r  rent-delinquency.  There are f a m i l i e s whose incomes are adequate t o meet the charged but who larity.  cannot be induced t o pay  i t w i t h any  B r i t i s h e x p e r i e n c e endorses the i d e a of  rent  regu-  individual  a t t e n t i o n t o these f a m i l i e s , not n e c e s s a r i l y on the b a s i s  of  o f f e r i n g a s s i s t a n c e , but r a t h e r as a w a r n i n g measure, w h i c h , i f i t f a i l s , i s f o l l o w e d by a c o u r t o r d e r t o r e c o v e r a r r e a r s as a d e b t , r a t h e r than a n o t i c e f o r  the  possession.  Such f a m i l i e s are t o be found i n Vancouver's h o u s i n g , and  i t i s commendable f h a t the managers have made e f f o r t s  to  a s s i s t these f a m i l i e s by h e l p i n g them w i t h t h e i r b u d g e t a r y d i f f i c u l t i e s i n order to avoid  evictions.  A t h i r d c a t e g o r y of r e n t - d e l i n q u e n c y Housing A d v i s o r y i r r e g u l a r , who who  by  Central  Committee i s the f a m i l y whose income i s o f t e n  i s unable t o budget p r o p e r l y , i f a t a l l ,  i s c o n s t a n t l y i n debt.  United  described  In B r i t a i n , as i n Canada and  and the  S t a t e s , these f a m i l i e s are viewed as h a v i n g problems  of p s y c h o l o g i c a l dependency.  I t i s recognized  that housing  management alone cannot s o l v e the complex of problems t h a t  C e n t r a l Housing A d v i s o r y Tenants.  Committee, U n s a t i s f a c t o r y  152 may  be l e a d i n g t o r e n t d e l i n q u e n c y .  B r i t a i n has  marshalled  a number of community s e r v i c e s t o h e l p these f a m i l i e s , as have a l s o c e r t a i n c i t i e s i n the U.S.  The  "half-way houses" pro-  v i d e d by the London County C o u n c i l i n B r i t a i n , and concentrated  used f o r  e f f o r t s towards r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , are an e x a m p l e .  These are " g r o u p - l i v i n g " homes f o r f a m i l i e s . t i o n i s f u r n i s h e d and  The  1  accommoda-  c o n s i s t s of s e p a r a t e rooms f o r each  f a m i l y , but k i t c h e n and  r e c r e a t i o n rooms are s h a r e d .  The  pur-  pose i s t o a s s i s t t h e s e f a m i l i e s t o become good t e n a n t s f o r t h e i r own  dwelling unit i n p u b l i c housing.  t h o r i t i e s use  Some w e l f a r e  au-  s e p a r a t e o l d e r d w e l l i n g s f o r the same purpose.  T o r o n t o Housing A u t h o r i t y has r e c e n t l y s t a r t e d a somewhat similar pilot project.  The  C i t y P r o p e r t y Department has  a p a i r of semi-detached houses on City-owned l a n d .  These  d w e l l i n g s p o s s e s s e x c e p t i o n a l l y d u r a b l e q u a l i t i e s and signed  to withstand  thereby reducing  the hazards of f i r e t o a minimum.  some r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e f o r e The  are  de-  the r i g o u r s of i n o r d i n a t e l y hard wear,  d e s i g n e d t o accommodate f a m i l i e s c o n s i d e r e d  project.  built  They were  t o be i n need of  admittance t o a p u b l i c housing  experiment has proven most s u c c e s s f u l , and  the  Housing A u t h o r i t y have advocated the e r e c t i o n of more such 2 units. A d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t from Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y  was  c a r r i e d out by the Youth Development C e n t e r , t o f i n d out what e f f e c t s s o c i a l s e r v i c e h e l p t o low-income problem f a m i l i e s , c o n s i s t e n t l y delinquent  i n p a y i n g r e n t , would have on  C e n t r a l Housing A d v i s o r y Tenants, p. 30  Committee,  ! !  their  Unsatisfactory  Housing A u t h o r i t y of T o r o n t o R e p o r t , May  1963.  153 rent-paying patterns.  A s o c i a l worker was  assigned  to i n t e r -  cede f o r some of these f a m i l i e s w i t h the h o u s i n g management, i n r e s p e c t of problems of r e n t - d e l i q u e n c y .  In t h i s r o l e of  i n t e r c e s s o r , the worker succeeded i n e n a b l i n g the study group of f a m i l i e s t o remain i n the p r o j e c t , w i t h r e n t s p a i d up, a l though she d i d not a c h i e v e  the g o a l of h a v i n g  once a month, on t i m e , and  in f u l l .  them pay  rents  None of the study group  f a m i l i e s were e v i c t e d , but o n e - q u a r t e r of the c o n t r o l group, who  had  t o "go  i t a l o n e " , were e v i c t e d , d u r i n g the time of  the d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t .  The  s o c i a l worker was  c o l l e c t o r , but an e n a b l e r .  One  of the major recommendations  of the f i n a l r e p o r t of the p r o j e c t was  not a r e n t  that rents f o r  income f a m i l i e s be c o l l e c t e d on a weekly b a s i s —  low-  a basis  which more a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t s the b u d g e t a r y c a p a c i t y of stable  un-  families.  Undoubtedly, these measures and t h e r e i s t o be any  s e r v i c e s are needed i f  improvement i n these f a m i l i e s , o r i f t h e y  are t o f e e l any hope o r encouragement.  However, does t h i s  k i n d of p r o v i s i o n do any more than a patch-up j o b , i f incomes continue  t o be i r r e g u l a r , or even n o n - e x i s t e n t ?  i s t h a t i f a man y e a r s of age, slim.  i s unemployed, u n s k i l l e d , and  The  reality  over f o r t y  h i s chances of o b t a i n i n g a s t e a d y job today are  I f a member of the f a m i l y s u f f e r s a p r o l o n g e d  i t w i l l break the f a m i l y . t o l i v e on_a  sum  The  illness,  unemployable p e r s o n i s expected  of money t h a t can s c a r c e l y be s t r e t c h e d t o  cover b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s . Not u n t i l we  f a c e these b a s i c f a c t s about our  present-  day s o c i e t y , w i l l we be moving i n t o the r e a l i s s u e s which are g i v i n g r i s e t o dependency.  And  not u n t i l p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s  15^ a d m i n i s t e r e d and developed i n t h e c o n t e x t o f these  problems,  economic as w e l l as s o c i a l and i n d i v i d u a l , w i l l i t be i n t r u e perspective.  Where does t h e unemployed man over f o r t y take  h i s f a m i l y i f he i s e v i c t e d from p u b l i c housing?  Back t o  a n o t h e r slum? where h i s r e n t may be lower but t h e accommodat i o n d e p l o r a b l e and t h e environment d e m o r a l i z i n g f o r h i s children?  And i s he t o be accepted as a c a n d i d a t e f o r p u b l i c  h o u s i n g l a t e r , i f t h i s slum a r e a i n time comes under redevelopment?  CHAPTER LV  The  S t r u c t u r e of the^ P r o j e c t  Low-rent, s u b s i d i z e d p u b l i c h o u s i n g was signed  to provide  f a m i l i e s , who  originally  de-  decent l i v i n g accommodation f o r low-income  were unable t o f i n d s u i t a b l e homes i n the  v a t e market a t r e n t s t h e y c o u l d a f f o r d t o pay.  The  pri-  ultimate  aim of h o u s i n g programs, however, i s not j u s t the p r o v i s i o n of d w e l l i n g u n i t s . declared  As the U n i t e d S t a t e s Housing A c t s have  f o r many y e a r s , t h e y should  i n c l u d e the major t a s k  of promoting the " p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and  emotional  well-being  of a l l c i t i z e n s concerned by means of s a f e r and more s a n i t a r y h o u s i n g i n a more d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . "  1  Public  h o u s i n g programs are p a r t of n a t i o n a l w e l f a r e p r o v i s i o n  and  t h e i r success as w e l f a r e measures, a c c o r d i n g l y , i s bound  up  w i t h the amount of i n t e r e s t and  e f f o r t invested  i n them by  the p u b l i c , by the h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s r e s p o n s i b l e , and s o c i a l a g e n c i e s i n the communities.  by  Have these programs  succeeded i n i m p r o v i n g h e a l t h , l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and  social  l i f e f o r f a m i l i e s ; or have t h e y f a i l e d t o a c h i e v e these jectives?  ob-  A g r e a t d e a l can be s a i d on e i t h e r s i d e of t h i s  question. Most people would agree t h a t , w i t h a l l t h e i r s h o r t c o m i n g s , new  h o u s i n g developments have made c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o b e t t e r  Housing A c t , 19,49 ( P u b l i c Law No. 171, E i g h t y - f i r s t Cong r e s s , Chapt. 338, S e c t i o n 2. Quoted i n "Today's Housing Program, the Community, and S o c i a l Casework," D a n i e l J . Rans o h o f f , Marriage^ a, nd JFamily ^ L i l v i n g , May, 1955. 1  156 living.  On t h e whole —  though t h e r e a r e some e x c e p t i o n s --  the houses and apartments a r e w e l l planned structed.  and soundly  con-  I f they a r e b u i l t on s i t e s removed from t h e d i r t  and n o i s e of f a c t o r i e s , i n areas where t h e a i r i s c l e a n , t h e y a f f o r d many f a m i l i e s , f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , homes r a t h e r than h o v e l s , and more space and f a c i l i t i e s f o r a normal f a m i l y life.  C h i l d r e n b e n e f i t p a r t i c u l a r i l y by b e t t e r h e a l t h , and  i f there i s reasonable proved  i m a g i n a t i o n i n the p r o j e c t , from im-  f a c i l i t i e s f o r p l a y and comparative  danger.  H o p e f u l l y , t h e housewife's  absence of t r a f f i c  burden i s l i g h t e n e d , t o o ,  by an e a s i e r p l a c e t o c l e a n and i n which t o cook and do l a u n dry.  I n more than one c o u n t r y , i t has o f t e n been found  rehoused f a m i l i e s t a k e on a new l e a s e on l i f e .  Having  that been  g i v e n a "new s t a r t , " they b e g i n t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n the comnumity, they may f i n d common i n t e r e s t s and form new a s s o c i a tions . In a survey completed i n 1963, —  P u b l i c Housing and  W e I f a r e _ S e r v i c e s , by Brown, Kogawa and P e t e r s -- which was a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e r e i s much e v i d e n c e , however, o f t h e o t h e r s i d e of the s t o r y .  Housing a u t h o r i t i e s  i n B r i t a i n , U n i t e d S t a t e s , and Canada a r e f a c e d w i t h a v a r i e t y of problems i n t h e management o f t h e i r developments.  Some  of these a r e i n e v i t a b l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f low-Income f a m i l i e s i n one p l a c e ; o t h e r s r e f l e c t of r e a d j u s t m e n t .  difficulties  Some o f these problems were brought w i t h  them by the new r e s i d e n t s ; some r e s u l t from poor p r o j e c t p l a n ning.  At f i r s t s i g h t t h e problems a r e v e r y mixed —  depression  and dependency; c h i l d n e g l e c t , d e l i n q u e n c y , v a n d a l i s m ; r e n t - p a y i n g p r a c t i c e s , p o o r household  management.  poor  157 But  there  dimension."  i s a l s o what might w e l l be c a l l e d the  "third  S e v e r a l A u t h o r i t i e s have j o i n e d w i t h H e a l t h  W e l f a r e a g e n c i e s , both p u b l i c and grams d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e  and  p r i v a t e , to i n s t i t u t e pro-  constructive assistance  —  t o com-  bat f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n of d i s a d v a n t a g e d f a m i l i e s , t o r e h a b i l i t a t e them, and A strong conclusion  t o p r e v e n t r e c u r r e n c e s i n the  future.  of the study i s t h a t p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o -  j e c t s s h o u l d be an i n t e g r a l p a r t of neighbourhoods.  If this  i s t o be a c h i e v e d , t h e r e must be p r o v i s i o n i n the community for  an adequate number of h e a l t h , w e l f a r e  facilities and  the  and  recreational  t o ensure t h a t everyone can have b o t h the  services  l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t t h e y need o r d e s i r e .  a d d i t i o n , s e r v i c e s are r e q u i r e d some w e l l known, o t h e r s , new  In  i n the p r o j e c t s themselves  and  original —  as measures t o  combat apathy, v a n d a l i s m , poor housekeeping and. b u d g e t a r y t i c e s , and  family disorganization.  alone, there  i s now  an i m p r e s s i v e  —  In U n i t e d  States  prac-  cities  a r r a y of d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o -  j e c t s which are b e i n g pursued on the b a s i s of the above f a c t s . A f u r t h e r s t u d y i n Vancouver, a l s o b e i n g undertaken by S o c i a l Work p o s t - g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s ,  i n c l u d e s , among o t h e r s ,  community s u r v e y s i n two d i s t r i c t s of the c i t y , which have p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s w i t h i n t h e i r boundaries.  These  s t u d i e s w i l l c o n t r i b u t e documentation of neighbourhood and  needs, i n c l u d i n g o r g a n i z e d  health, welfare  a l s e r v i c e s r e l e v a n t t o urban r e n e w a l — p u b l i c housing or The ing  patterns  recreation-  whether t h i s  includes  not.  p r e s e n t s t u d y f o c u s s e s on a c l o s e r l o o k at the hous-  p r o j e c t s themselves and  there  and  two  the people who  i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the k i n d s  l i v e i n them. of f a m i l i e s who  Are are  158 most e l i g i b l e f o r , or most r e q u i r e , p u b l i c housing? does moving t o the new development mean? f a m i l y ' s budget? tinguished?  What  What happens t o the  Can a s s e t s as w e l l as l i a b i l i t i e s be  dis-  I s i t p o s s i b l e t o t a k e a f r e s h l o o k a t the r e -  s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of h o u s i n g managers, as w e l l as those of the governments and communities  Involved?  I f a new  h o u s i n g and c i t y r e b u i l d i n g ("urban renewal")  chapter i n  i s opening,  how  should w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s f i g u r e i n the pages?  V ' h o L i v e s JLn  P u b l i c Hocusing?  The r e s i d e n t s of p u b l i c h o u s i n g are not b a s i c a l l y ent from people e l s e w h e r e .  differ-  What _is the d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t ,  i n h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , f a m i l y t y p e s are grouped i n unbalanced proportions. The major f a c t o r g i v i n g r i s e t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s , of course, " e l i g i b i l i t y " requirements.  Eligibility  f o r public  h o u s i n g v a r i e s i n the t h r e e c o u n t r i e s we have had under s t u d y . These v a r i a t i o n s are l i n k e d w i t h a number of f a c t o r s , such as a v a i l a b i l i t y of h o u s i n g , c u r r e n t s o c i a l v a l u e s of the c o u n t r y , the n a t u r e of the economy, and b a s i c demographic f e a t u r e s . As an i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s , i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , a n o t a b l y " y o u t h - o r i e n t a t e d " n a t i o n , the emphasis was a t f i r s t p l a c e d on p r o v i d i n g h o u s i n g f o r young f a m i l i e s .  Now  t h e r e i s a wide  awakening t o the l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of i l l - h o u s e d e l d e r l y p e o p l e , and emergency measures t o p r o v i d e decent h o u s i n g are b e i n g considered i n several quarters.  In B r i t i s h Columbia, the  1  E l d e r l y C i t i z e n s Housing A i d A c t , 1955 (funds were made a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s purpose s e v e r a l y e a r s p r i o r t o the passage of the A c t ) .  159 government has made p r o v i s i o n f o r a decade f o r funds t o a s s i s t in  t h e f i n a n c i n g o f h o u s i n g f o r t h e e l d e r l y by n o n - p r o f i t o r -  ganizations.  T h i s r e f l e c t s p r e v a i l i n g v a l u e s and demographic  f e a t u r e s ; t h e h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of e l d e r l y people  living in  B r i t i s h Columbia i s well-known, but t h e r e i s a l s o a r e l a t i v e l y l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f w e l f a r e s e r v i c e f o r c h i l d r e n and f o r t h e aged. With r e g a r d t o t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f h o u s i n g , i n a l l t h r e e c o u n t r i e s demand s t i l l f a r exceeds s u p p l y ; t h e r e a r e l o n g w a i t i n g l i s t s , and o n l y t h e most needy can be deemed e l i g i b l e . In  t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a t t h e end o f t h e 1963 f i s c a l  year,  t h e r e were 538,000 u n i t s i n t h e P u b l i c H o u s i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n program, and a n o t h e r 182,000 i n v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , making a t o t a l o f 720,000 u n i t s . a s t r o n o m i c a l t o Canadians,  1  While t h i s number may seem  i t s r e l a t i v e s m a l l n e s s can be  judged by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e U.S. Housing A c t o f 1961, was e s t a b l i s h e d t o h e l p e l i m i n a t e 11,000,000 substandard v e a l e d i n t h e i960 census!  In B r i t a i n , although  units refour-and-a-  h a l f m i l l i o n new houses have been p r o v i d e d s i n c e t h e end o f the war,  i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t over t h e next twenty y e a r s  125,000 new houses a .year w i l l be needed t o keep up w i t h t h e growth of households, cleared.  2  w h i l e 600,000 slums s t i l l remain t o be  Vancouver f i g u r e s may seem t i n y i n comparison t o  t h e s e huge a g g r e g a t e s , b u t they need t h e i r own a p p r o p r i a t e perspective.  I n November 1963, t h e Housing A u t h o r i t y had some  450 f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n e l i g i b l e f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g , w i t h  H.H.P.A., "P.H.A. H i g h l i g h t s . "  J u l y - A u g u s t , I963.  H o u s i n g Command 2050. May 1963, H.M.S.O., London.  i6o an a d d i t i o n a l 600 s i n g l e e l d e r l y p e r s o n s , on I t s w a i t i n g l i s t . l S i n c e t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f Orchard Park i n 1959, 393 p u b l i c housi n g u n i t s have been b u i l t , compared w i t h about 12,921 d w e l l i n g u n i t s b u i l t d u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d (up u n t i l t h e end o f 1963) 2 i n t h e C i t y o f Vancouver, g e n e r a l l y .  i n Canada, s i n c e t h e  war, t h e t o t a l amount o f l o w - r e n t p u b l i c h o u s i n g has not exceeded 2 p e r cent o f t h e t o t a l b u i l d i n g achievement.  Between  the y e a r s 1950 and 1962, 11,167 u n i t s i n 93 h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s were approved  under f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l arrangements.  9,035 u n i t s were completed  and.turned  over t o l o c a l  Of t h e s e , housing  a u t h o r i t i e s by t h e end o f 1962.3 Low income i s t h e p r i m a r y d e t e r m i n a n t f o r e l i g i b i l i t y  h  t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g b o t h i n Canada and i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The upper Income l i m i t i n Vancouver, f o r t h e l a r g e s t  families,  i s $4950; such l i m i t s exceed $6500 p e r annum i n some p a r t s o f United States.  Average incomes,  however, a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y  lower than t h e s e maximums, so t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f people l i v i n g i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g a r e s u b s i s t i n g on a v e r y moderate amount o f money each month.  I n Vancouver, f o r example, 36.8  p e r cent o f f a m i l i e s i n t h e "middle a r e a " p r o j e c t s , had an i n come o f JLe^ss than, J> 150 p e r month.  Minimum incomes do not  appear t o be i n e f f e c t i n most a r e a s , a l t h o u g h i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h i s may be l e f t t o t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t y , s u b j e c t t o r e v i e w by t h e P u b l i c Housing  housing  Authority.  In Vancouver, t h e r e i s no minimum income d e s i g n a t e d ; however, Vancouver Housing A s s o c i a t i o n , B u l l e t i n no.54. C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , R e g i o n a l O f f i c e , Vancouver, B.C. 3 Canada Year Book, 1963-64. i n B r i t a i n , t h e p r i m a r y cons i d e r a t i o n i n s e l e c t i n g t e n a n t s i s h o u s i n g need a r i s i n g from f a c t o r s such as o v e r c r o w d i n g , i l l h e a l t h and c o n d i t i o n o f d w e l l i n g . Q u e s t i o n s o f income a r e i r r e l e v a n t . 1  2  161 i n e f f e c t i t i s the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e s c a l e , s i n c e f a m i l i e s or  s i n g l e persons h a v i n g incomes below s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e  r a t e s would be supplemented cial  up t o these r a t e s under p r o v i n -  legislation. The  second most i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i o n f o r e l i g i b i l i t y i s  the c o n d i t i o n of p r e s e n t h o u s i n g .  In g e n e r a l , o v e r c r o w d i n g ,  substandard accommodation, o r d i s p l a c e m e n t by p u b l i c  action  are r a t e d h i g h i n the p o i n t - s c a l e systems used t o determine priority.  The c o n d i t i o n of p r e s e n t h o u s i n g does not  neces-  s a r i l y i n i t s e l f determine the k i n d s of f a m i l i e s moving i n t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g , but i t s h o u l d be mentioned i t s importance.  As has a l r e a d y been n o t e d , i n B r i t a i n i t i s  the p r i m a r y c r i t e r i o n f o r e l i g i b i l i t y . the requ i r e m e n t  here because o f  In the U n i t e d S t a t e s  of poor p r e s e n t accommodation may  be  waived  i n the case of e l d e r l y , d i s a b l e d , o r s e r v i c e - c o n n e c t e d f a m i lies. of  1  i n a l l t h r e e c o u n t r i e s a l s o , where the c o n s t r u c t i o n  p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the redevelopment  for  an a r e a as a replacement  plans  f o r slums, the f a m i l i e s i n those  a r e a s are g i v e n p r i o r i t y over f a m i l i e s on the r e g u l a r w a i t i n g l i s t s f o r new  h o u s i n g ( p r o v i d i n g , of c o u r s e , t h a t t h e y meet  the income e l i g i b i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s where these  exist).  In a d d i t i o n t o the above r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r e l i g i b i l i t y , o n l y c e r t a i n k i n d s of f a m i l i e s are a d m i t t e d t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g . Without e x c e p t i o n , i n the t h r e e c o u n t r i e s under s t u d y , p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s designed f o r young f a m i l i e s and f o r e l d e r l y -- a t f i r s t aged c o u p l e s , and more r e c e n t l y , s i n g l e men  and women.  people  elderly  I t has never been i n t e n d e d f o r younger s i n g l e  " S e r v i c e - c o n n e c t e d " f a m i l i e s i n c l u d e those whose head i s s e r v i n g h i s two y e a r s compulsory m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e , as r e q u i r e d i n the U.S. 1  162 people.  I n t h e Vancouver p r o j e c t s , i n t h e case of younger  p e o p l e who a r e widowed t h r o u g h d e a t h o f t h e i r spouse, t h e y are a l l o w e d t h r e e months t o f i n d o t h e r accommodation, a l t h o u g h i f a s i n g l e u n i t i s a v a i l a b l e , t h e widowed p e r s o n may be p e r mitted  t o move i n t o i t .  Disabled  p e r s o n s a r e a l s o e l i g i b l e , b u t t h e age of t h e  d i s a b l e d person i s a f a c t o r .  In the United States,  disabled  p e r s o n s o f a l l ages, I f i n r e c e i p t o f s o c i a l s e c u r i t y d i s a b i l i t y insurance b e n e f i t s are e l i g i b l e f o r housing. B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e d i s a b l e d  In  p e r s o n s e e k i n g r e h o u s i n g must  be s i x t y y e a r s of age o r more, a l t h o u g h i n p r a c t i c e e x c e p t i o n s are sometimes made.  Pew d i s a b l e d  t h i s age group have so f a r a p p l i e d sent t h e r e a r e no a p p l i c a n t s list.  o r handicapped persons i n i n Vancouver, and a t p r e -  i n t h i s c a t e g o r y on t h e w a i t i n g  The Vancouver Housing A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e ,  commended t h a t t h e age l i m i t of s i x t y be e l i m i n a t e d  has r e i n order  t o make t h e h o u s i n g a v a i l a b l e t o handicapped persons o f a l l ages.  1  I n t h e i r o p i n i o n , t h i s group s u f f e r s h a r d s h i p i n l o -  c a t i n g s u i t a b l e accommodation a t r e n t s t h e y can a f f o r d i n t h e p r i v a t e market.  I t i s o f i n t e r e s t t o note i n t h i s r e s p e c t  t h a t , i n B r i t a i n , t h e London County C o u n c i l a l l o c a t e 100 houses a n n u a l l y  t o persons s u f f e r i n g from  tuberculosis.  2  F a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n a r e g i v e n p r e f e r e n c e over f a m i l i e s without c h i l d r e n , although t h i s i s , of course, r e l a t e d t o the s i z e of units a v a i l a b l e . has  The number o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e f a m i l y  a l s o been used as a c r i t e r i o n f o r p r i o r i t y f o r h o u s i n g  1  Vancouver Housing A s s o c i a t i o n , Bulletin^^No.^ J54 .  See London County C o u n c i l w a i t i n g Appendix A. 2  l i s t analysis i n  —  163 the l a r g e r f a m i l i e s g e t t i n g a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y .  However, i n  Vancouver a t l e a s t , t h i s p r a c t i c e has now been d i s c o n t i n u e d , as i t has been found t o have l i t t l e r e l a t i o n t o the need f o r h o u s i n g , i n two ways.  The f i r s t  i s t h a t the p o i n t s g i v e n f o r  o v e r c r o w d i n g i n p r e s e n t accommodation tend t o t a k e care of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y . The  second  i s t h a t many p r i v a t e l a n d l o r d s i n Vancouver are  prepared t o a c c e p t c h i l d r e n i n t o t h e i r r e n t a l s , and t h e r e f o r e t h e s e f a m i l i e s are not so h a r d - p r e s s e d t o f i n d somewhere t o l i v e , as might be the case i n o t h e r a r e a s .  Of c o u r s e , the  l a r g e f a m i l y i s p r e s s e d by income, as w e l l as shortage of large units.  The p o l i c y of g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e t o f a m i l i e s w i t h  c h i l d r e n has the e f f e c t of i n c r e a s i n g the p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of c h i l d r e n i n h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s as compared w i t h the community i n g e n e r a l : and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s i s becoming c l e a r e r e v e r y y e a r t o the d e s i g n e r s of p r o j e c t s . A g a i n s p e a k i n g g e n e r a l l y , h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s tend t o g i v e p r e f e r e n c e t o "normal" or two-parent "broken" or one-parent  families.  families  The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t  normal f a m i l i e s add s t a b i l i t y t o the p r o j e c t , and t h e s e are the f a m i l i e s whom p u b l i c h o u s i n g was planned t o a s s i s t .  over  historically  originally  I t i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e y are  less  l i k e l y t o be a problem t o management o r t o the community as a whole.  Yet a s t u d y of problem  f a m i l i e s t h a t was made i n  B a l t i m o r e ' s h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i n 1956 In these p r o j e c t s i t was  d i d not b e a r t h i s o u t .  found t h a t the ( w h i t e ) s t a n d a r d f a m i -  l y appeared w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f r e q u e n c y among the "problem The  f a m i l i e s " than i n the p r o j e c t p o p u l a t i o n g e n e r a l l y .  s t u d y showed t h a t t h i s was  not t r u e f o r "broken"  164 families.  1  While i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t the normal f a m i l y be  w e l l represented  i n h o u s i n g developments, at the same time  c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be g i v e n t o the , f a c t t h a t the mother who  is  attempting  may  t o b r i n g up c h i l d r e n by h e r s e l f on a low income  need, even more, the h e l p of s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g , and  i s very  l i k e l y t o respond w e l l t o i t .  i t is a  f a t h e r w i t h c h i l d r e n ; and has been e s t i m a t e d  Sometimes, of c o u r s e ,  the same p o s s i b i l i t i e s h o l d good.  It  t h a t , a t the p r e s e n t t i m e , 25 p e r c e n t of  the f a m i l i e s on the w a i t i n g l i s t f o r h o u s i n g i n Vancouver are i n the c a t e g o r y i n Canada and  of "broken" f a m i l i e s .  the U n i t e d  I n any h o u s i n g p r o j e c t  S t a t e s , however, t h i s type of f a m i l y  w i l l almost c e r t a i n l y be p r e s e n t i n numbers s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r than i n the w i d e r community. titled  In B r i t a i n , i n a report  " U n s a t i s f a c t o r y Tenants," the C e n t r a l Housing  en-  Advisory  Committee drew a t t e n t i o n t o t h e ' d i f f i c u l t i e s which unsupported mothers w i t h c h i l d r e n have i n f i n d i n g homes f o r t h e m s e l v e s . the 401 1954  mothers i n N a t i o n a l A s s i s t a n c e Board h o s t e l s e a r l y i n  o n l y 116  for  Of  had  a house, and  t h e y stood  t h e i r names on a l o c a l a u t h o r i t y w a i t i n g t h i s may  have been p a r t l y due  l i t t l e chance of s u c c e s s .  The  list  to a b e l i e f  that  Committee s t r o n g l y  recommended t h a t , In the i n t e r e s t s of the c h i l d r e n , h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s should families.  a l l o t more of a v a i l a b l e r e n t a l s t o such  2  Some s e l e c t i o n of the f a m i l i e s who  w i l l go i n t o the  j e c t s i s made on the b a s i s of s u i t a b i l i t y , and  t h i s gives  prorise  Housing A u t h o r i t y of B a l t i m o r e C i t y , Problem FamJTies i n P u b l i c H o u s i n g , 1956. The. o p p o s i t e was fo^WTTof^egro'^fSmilles. 1  C e n t r a l Housing A d v i s o r y Committee, U n s a t i s J ^ c J : q r y a n t s : S i x t h Report of the ^Housing _Managejne~ffi^'^ 2  Ten-  165 t o a number of q u e s t i o n s about the l e g a l and moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s i n r e s p e c t of f a m i l i e s may  be l a b e l l e d  "undesirable tenants."  who  Some A u t h o r i t i e s be-  l i e v e t h a t such f a m i l i e s do not p r o p e r l y b e l o n g i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g , and t h e y s t a t e a number of arguments t o support view.  One  of t h e i r main p r o p o s i t i o n s i s t h a t f a m i l i e s w i t h  problems l o w e r the tone of the p r o j e c t , and g i v e i t a name."  this  "bad  Many of the s t a b l e f a m i l i e s i n the p r o j e c t s are  likely  t o h o i d t h i s view a l s o , and would agree w i t h the managers t h a t such f a m i l i e s s h o u l d be e x c l u d e d . c l a s s " neighbours  was,  D i s l i k e of s o - c a l l e d  i n f a c t , the second most common r e a s o n  g i v e n by a group of f a m i l i e s , s t u d i e d i n B a l t i m o r e i n whose reasons  "low-  f o r moving v o l u n t a r i l y were  canvassed.  1957,  1  As a f u r t h e r support t o t h i s argument, H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t i e h o l d i n g t h i s view have s t a t e d t h a t the p r e s e n c e of "problem" f a m i l i e s i n the p r o j e c t s d i s c o u r a g e s e l i g i b l e s t a b l e f a m i l i e s from a p p l y i n g f o r needed h o u s i n g . A u t h o r i t i e s housing  In the o p i n i o n of t h e s e  should be g i v e n t o "...good  hard-working  f a m i l i e s , s t r u g g l i n g t o get a l o n g but s e t back by low e a r n i n g c a p a c i t y , i l l n e s s , large f a m i l i e s to support, or other f a c t o r s i n p r e f e r e n c e t o f a m i l i e s "...weakened by d r i n k i n g , low m o r a l standard, i n a b i l i t y t o accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or to hold jobs." T h i s same view i s g i v e n somewhat d i f f e r e n t emphasis by f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n from the o t h e r s i d e of the  the  Atlantic.  B a l t i m o r e Urban Renewal and Housing Agency, W h y ^ J j j J ^ w a s F a m j l l i e s .Le^ve .^^JA^^^^A^^ ^ 3 e n t , however,"ttiat 1nrte ren t"'" in"'"'t'hTi's""" vTew" wa s """a" "de g r e e of r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e a l s o . 1  e v l (  Housing A u t h o r i t y of B a l t i m o r e C i t y , j ^ o b l e m ^ F a m i l i e s I n B u b l i e Housing. 2  166 "Throughout t h e Report on t h e Poor Law and l i t e r a t u r e of t h e V i c t o r i a n e r a t h e r e a r e many quoted examples of the housewife who, i n s p i t e o f p o v e r t y , was a b l e to keep h e r c o t t a g e as c l e a n as a new p i n and d r e s s her c h i l d r e n i n s p o t l e s s ( a l t h o u g h mended) garments. In t h i s workaday w o r l d , however, we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h o r d i n a r y f o l k , not w i t h d e m o n s t r a t i o n specimens. The average housewife t a k e s a p r i d e i n h e r home i f i t r e sponds t o h e r e f f o r t s , but she cannot be expected t o d e a l w i t h d i l a p i d a t i o n , l a c k o f w a t e r o r g r o s s overcrowding."! T h i s was w r i t t e n by a m e d i c a l O f f i c e r o f H e a l t h i n Britain.  Other m a t t e r s  of g r e a t concern t o h o u s i n g managers,  however, a r e r e l a t e d t o r e n t - p a y i n g p r a c t i c e s , s i n c e r e n t s are the l i f e - b l o o d o f the p r o j e c t , and these k i n d s o f f a m i l i e s are o f t e n the ones who g e t behind  i n t h e i r r e n t payments.  F o r example, f o r t y - t h r e e p e r cent o f t h e problem f a m i l i e s i n the B a l t i m o r e study were c o n s i d e r e d t o be r e n t - p a y i n g r i s k s by t h e management s t a f f .  2  These a r e cogent arguments f o r e x c l u d i n g " u n d e s i r a b l e " families.  There i s , however, an e q u a l l y important o t h e r s i d e  of t h i s q u e s t i o n .  I t may be s a i d t h a t t h e r e i s an o b l i g a t i o n  on t h e p a r t o f h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s t o house a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f low-income f a m i l i e s —  not j u s t well-behaved  "model" f a m i l i e s  who would g i v e t h e management s t a f f l i t t l e t r o u b l e . " P u b l i c h o u s i n g i s t a x - s u p p o r t e d , and t h e r e f o r e , belongs t o a l l c i t i z e n s and  should be a v a i l a b l e t o any f a m i l y who meets the e l i g i b i l i t y  requirements  which a r e s e t down.  In a d d i t i o n , since p u b l i c  h o u s i n g has i n h e r e n t i n i t s p u r p o s e , p r o v i s i o n o f a decent p l a c e i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n can l i v e and grow up, i s t h e r e any j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n denying t h i s r i g h t t o t h e c h i l d r e n of problem 1  M a c k i n t o s h , '•'Hqusi^  ,.Life .  Housing A u t h o r i t y of B a l t i m o r e C i t y , Problem F a m i l i e s ^ i n P u b l i c Housing. 2  167 families?  I t c o u l d be argued t h a t these c h i l d r e n are even more  i n need of a good p h y s i c a l environment than are the c h i l d r e n of s t a b l e f a m i l i e s .  P a r e n t s need a chance t o o , and a new  home  c o u l d be a f a c t o r i n b r e a k i n g the c y c l e of s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g p o v e r t y , i f , i n a d d i t i o n t o the home, the o t h e r s e r v i c e s t h a t these f a m i l i e s need are a l s o p r o v i d e d . gument must e v e n t u a l l y be f a c e d .  And  an u l t i m a t e a r -  If incorrigible  families  a r e t o be e x c l u d e d , where are t h e y t o go? Must the slums be preserved  t o keep a p l a c e f o r them; are they t o be l e f t  c r e a t e new  to  ones; or s h o u l d the community b u i l d a p p r o p r i a t e r e -  h a b i l i t a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r them? The  q u e s t i o n of the i n c l u s i o n or e x c l u s i o n of u n d e s i r a b l e  f a m i l i e s cannot be answered e a s i l y i n view of the many f a c t s w h i c h are now  coming t o l i g h t i n p r o j e c t s .  But whether the  q u e s t i o n i s answered o r n o t , problem f a m i l i e s are g a i n i n g adm i s s i o n t o h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s through a r e d i s p l a c e d , and areas.  o b t a i n new  l e g a l p r e f e r e n c e when t h e y  h o u s i n g ' i n the redevelopment  T h i s i s law i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s under the terms of the  Housing A c t of 1949, islation.  and  i t i s a t l e a s t echoed i n Canadian l e g -  However, t h i s cannot be c o n s i d e r e d t o be a problem  t h a t concerns h o u s i n g management o n l y , a l t h o u g h  i n the U n i t e d  S t a t e s , h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s have come t o l o o k f o r management programs t h a t are adapted t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  today's  low-income f a m i l i e s , r a t h e r than v i g i l a n t l y k e e p i n g the problem f a m i l y out of p u b l i c h o u s i n g .  I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  o t h e r community h e a l t h and w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s  t o j o i n w i t h hous-  i n g management and t o g e t h e r , f i n d the s o l u t i o n s . A u t h o r i t y r e p o r t has put the i s s u e v e r y  clearly:  One  Housing  168 "The k i n d s of problems one f i n d s among the p r o j e c t f a m i l i e s are not unique t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g . They c o r respond t o the d i f f i c u l t i e s found among the Towincome r a m i l l e s tnr oughout rne communltyT The e x i s t e n c e , the i n t e n s i t y , ana t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o r t h e s e problems i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the r e s o u r c e s and f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n the community f o r h e l p i n g f a m i l i e s d e a l w i t h problems t h a t a r e beyond t h e i r a b i l i t i e s t o r e s o l v e a l o n e . I n a d d i t i o n , the p r o j e c t s must have s t a f f members equipped t o understand the needs of these f a m i l i e s and the r e s o u r c e s of the community, so t h e y can be of maximum a s s i s t a n c e i n h e l p i n g problem f a m i l i e s work out s o l u t i o n s . " ! r  * One  of the major a t t i t u d e s which has a n e g a t i v e impact i n  p l a n n i n g programs f o r these k i n d s of people i s the f e e l i n g h e l d b o t h by h o u s i n g management and s o c i a l w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s t h a t many f a m i l i e s would not a c c e p t o r use h e l p i f i t were offered.  T h i s had grown out of p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , of f a i l -  ure on the p a r t of these f a m i l i e s t o make use of agency s e r v i c e s , o r h e l p o f f e r e d by management.  However, i t s h o u l d be  kept i n mind t h a t the r e a d i n e s s o r a b i l i t y t o use h e l p does not remain s t a t i c .  As c i r c u m s t a n c e s change, some f a m i l i e s t h a t  were u n r e s p o n s i v e and d i s i n t e r e s t e d might become more a c c e s s ible.  Then, t o o , we have not as y e t p e r f e c t e d the t e c h n i q u e s  and methods f o r w o r k i n g w i t h impoverished and d e p r i v e d f a m i l i e s , but t h i s s h o u l d not d i s c o u r a g e us from c o n t i n u e d tion.  experimenta-  Some e x p e r i m e n t s , i n d e e d , are a l r e a d y underway. In B r i t a i n , the p r o c e s s e s employed i n r e h a b i l i t a t i n g these  f a m i l i e s make use of the s e r v i c e s of l o c a l a u t h o r i t y , the n a t i o n a l government and v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . a u t h o r i t y l e v e l , the departments  At the  local  concerned w i t h problem  fami-  l i e s i n c l u d e the h o u s i n g , w e l f a r e , h e a l t h , and the c h i l d r e n ' s  Housing A u t h o r i t y of B a l t i m o r e C i t y , Problem F a m i l i e s i n P u b l i c H o u s i n g , ( u n d e r l i n i n g added). 1  169 department.  I f a housing a u t h o r i t y considers  a  prospective  t e n a n t a p o t e n t i a l problem, i t w i l l v e r y l i k e l y o f f e r accommod a t i o n i n one of i t s o l d e r p r o p e r t i e s .  The f a m i l y , however,  i s a s s u r e d t h a t , should t h e y prove t o be good t e n a n t s , w i l l be t r a n s f e r r e d t o a b e t t e r house l a t e r . cognized, nevertheless,  they  The f a c t i s r e -  t h a t any r e h o u s i n g w i t h o u t a p r o l o n g e d  attempt t o s e c u r e b e t t e r s t a n d a r d s i s l i k e l y m e r e l y t o r e s u l t i n a r e p e t i t i o n o f the p r e v i o u s h i s t o r y o f a r r e a r s and e v i c t i o n . The  h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y , t h e r e f o r e , works i n c l o s e  w i t h the v a r i o u s departments and v o l u n t a r y Many a u t h o r i t i e s have a l r e a d y representatives "the  co-operation  a g e n c i e s concerned.  s e t up committees c o n s i s t i n g o f  of a l l the o r g a n i z a t i o n s  which would  consider  needs o f t h e f a m i l y as a whole" and d e c i d e how t h e l o c a l  s e r v i c e s c o u l d b e s t be a p p l i e d t o meet these needs, and which worker s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r the p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y .  p l a c i n g such a f a m i l y , many a u t h o r i t i e s attempt t o f i n d  In toler-  ant and h e l p f u l neighbours f o r t h e s e f a m i l i e s . In the case o f major r e n t - d e l i n q u e n c y ,  i t i s occasionally  n e c e s s a r y t o e v i c t a t e n a n t , but t h i s s t e p i s t a k e n n o r m a l l y as a l a s t r e s o r t .  A u t h o r i t i e s have been a d v i s e d  t o regard  an  e v i c t i o n not merely as a s o l u t i o n o f t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s , but as a stage i n the t r e a t m e n t o f a f a m i l y . I ~>  ll I 1 I " I 'I  ~l  II •|^*^  I - I l'~  temporarily  ~ t I " I I ~|l  II  I ~  I ~ l ~l ~I l~> I ' I ~ l II 'I l"l I ~  ~1l | —I I ~I ~ I ~ I ~l  ~'  E v i c t e d f a m i l i e s are  "II ~ll  accommodated by; the N a t i o n a l A s s i s t a n c e  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e g i n s from t h e r e .  B o a r d , and  I t i s o f i n t e r e s t t o note  t h a t the London County C o u n c i l a l l o c a t e 50 d w e l l i n g s  annually  t o "problem" f a m i l i e s s e l e c t e d by the M e d i c a l O f f i c e r o f Health  so t h a t measures f o r t h e i r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n can be under-  t a k e n i n t h e i r own homes.  These f a m i l i e s a r e a l s o helped by  the p r o v i s i o n of l o w - c o s t f u r n i t u r e and m a t e r i a l s f o r  170 redecorating. In t h e l i t e r a t u r e on p u b l i c h o u s i n g , t h e r e has been a g r e a t d e a l of emphasis on t h e "problem f a m i l y " , s i n g l e d out from a l l o t h e r f a m i l i e s , and termed m u l t i p r o b i e m f a m i l i e s i n the U n i t e d  S t a t e s , and i t i s not w i t h i n t h e scope of t h i s r e -  p o r t t o attempt t o secure new d a t a .  W h i l e t h e r e can be no  1  doubt t h a t these f a m i l i e s do absorb an i n o r d i n a t e amount o f the time and e f f o r t of h o u s i n g management, a t t h e same time the f a c t s i n d i c a t e t h a t , as a p e r c e n t a g e of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n s i n p u b l i c housing, the incidence r e l a t i v e l y small.  of problem f a m i l i e s i s  The U.S. P u b l i c Housing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n  i t s p u b l i c a t i o n " P u b l i c Housing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n H i g h l i g h t s " f o r J u l y and August I963, quotes t h e New Y o r k C i t y Housing Authori t y i n p u t t i n g the p r o p o r t i o n  of I t s problem f a m i l i e s a t 2.5  2 per cent.  Much, of c o u r s e , depends on the d e f i n i t i o n of a  problem f a m i l y .  The B a l t i m o r e  P u b l i c Hqusj.ng r e p o r t e d Baltimore  s t u d y on Problem F a m i l i e s i n  t h a t 6 p e r cent of t h e f a m i l i e s i n  p r o j e c t s c o u l d be d e s i g n a t e d  as problem f a m i l i e s .  T h i s f i g u r e appears t o be f a i r l y standard c i t i e s at present.3  f o r l a r g e American  But even i f t h e p r o p o r t i o n s were as h i g h  as t e n p e r c e n t , i t should be apparent t h a t , f o c u s s i n g t i o n on t h i s group of f a m i l i e s , c o u l d l e a v e n e g l e c t e d  attena great  many people i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g who may be h a v i n g problems but who a r e not themselves problems t o the community.  I t might  be more t o the p o i n t t o say t h a t n i n e t y p e r cent o f t h e people "''A t e n t a t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f a m i l y and p r o j e c t problems has been i n c l u d e d i n Appendix B. 2  H.H.F.A., "P.H.A. H i g h l i g h t s . "  3 Housing A u t h o r i t y f o r B a l t i m o r e i n P u b l i c Housing.  C i t y , Probletn Pam 1 l i e s  171 are  "non-problem  f a m i l i e s " ; but t h a t t h e i n c i d e n c e of c e r t a i n  s p e c i f i c problems t r a i n i n g ) i s wide.  ( f o r example,  i l l n e s s , need f o r p a r e n t a l  Brown, Kogawa and P e t e r s make the d i s t i n c -  t i o n t h a t ( a ) problem f a m i l i e s a r e one t h i n g , (b) t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of problems among f a m i l i e s i s a n o t h e r .  1  In summary, types and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f f a m i l i e s who are  l i v i n g i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g a r e determined t o a g r e a t e x t e n t  by e l i g i b i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s and a d m i s s i o n p o l i c i e s o f h o u s i n g authorities.  Because of t h i s f a c t o r , an unbalanced h o u s i n g  p r o j e c t community may be the r e s u l t .  The next s e c t i o n of t h i s  r e p o r t a t t e m p t s t o e x p l o r e t h e meaning of t h i s "unbalance" t o the  f a m i l i e s who l i v e i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g and t o the management,  and some ways i n which a more b a l a n c e d community might be achieved.  B a l a n c e d and Unbalanced  Communities  What i s meant by a "balanced community"?  A community  which i s w e l l b a l a n c e d i n the s o c i a l sense would  presumably  be an average c r o s s - s e c t i o n of t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , ing  includ-  a d i v e r s i t y of age groups, f a m i l y t y p e s , e d u c a t i o n , oc-  c u p a t i o n , and income l e v e l s .  A p o p u l a t i o n so mixed would r e -  q u i r e a v a r i e t y of accommodation and a l s o s e r v i c e s .  Such a  community would be f r e e from problems which were d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o i t s s t r u c t u r e , o r t o an i n o r d i n a t e p r o p o r t i o n o f people w i t h a c e r t a i n l e v e l of income o r s t a t u s . In c o n s i d e r i n g p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i n r e l a t i o n t o  Brown, Kogawa, P e t e r s , op. c i t .  172 t h e i r "balance" important  i n t h i s sense, t h e s i z e of t h e p r o j e c t i s an  factor.  I n Vancouver, the p r o j e c t s a r e s m a l l com-  pared t o o t h e r c e n t e r s , issue of balance  1  but t h e i r number i s growing and t h e  i s already a r i s i n g .  There can be no doubt  t h a t t h i s i s one of t h e major problems t h a t p u b l i c housing i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i s f a c i n g a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e .  Zetta Putter  has commented on t h i s i n h e r a r t i c l e , " S o c i a l Work and P u b l i c Housing": " I n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e , e f f i c i e n t l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y , housing u n i t s f o r people i n need, mammoth communities have been c r e a t e d w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s t h a t a r e s o c i a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y homogeneous.... Thus, s o c i a l c l a s s s e g r e g a t i o n e v o l v e d as an end product o f f o r c e s and p o l i c i e s geared toward d i f f e r e n t and f r e q u e n t l y i d e a l istic goals." 2  In B r i t a i n , one o f t h e g r e a t e s t problems t h a t arose  from  the b u i l d i n g o f t h e i n t e r - w a r " e s t a t e s " was t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e y appeared t o e x a g g e r a t e s o c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n .  It  might be s a i d t h i s has been g o i n g on s i n c e t h e c r e a t i o n of a "working c l a s s " by t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n ; b u t t h e g r e a t r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e t c h e s o f t h e e s t a t e expose i t t o view. 194o  In  Thomas Sharp c r i t i c i z e d t h e s i t u a t i o n , i n h i s book Town  Planning,  i n s t r o n g terms:  "...Around t h e g r e a t c i t i e s we have enormous o n e - c l a s s communities ( i f t h e y can be c a l l e d communities) the'slike of which t h e w o r l d has never seen b e f o r e ; B e c o n t r e e . . . where no l e s s than 120,000 w o r k i n g - c l a s s people l i v e i n one enormous c o n c e n t r a t i o n : . . . N o r r i s Green, one o f many L i v e r p o o l C o r p o r a t i o n e s t a t e s , housing 50,000 working-class inhabitants..."3 L i t t l e Mountain has 224 u n i t s , Orchard Park 169, Skeena T e r r a c e 234 and MacLean P a r k 159. 1  2  Oct.,  P u t t e r , " S o c i a l Work and P u b l i c H o u s i n g , " S o c i a l Work, 1963. , . . Thomas Sharp, Town P l a n n i n g , p. 86.  173 In t h i s c h a p t e r and the p r e c e d i n g  one v a r i o u s r e f e r e n c e s  have been made t o the ways i n which p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s tend t o be unbalanced i n s t r u c t u r e and now  status.  These can  be  summarized and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y . Our  i n v e s t i g a t i o n has shown t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n s of  types  of f a m i l i e s i n most Canadian and U n i t e d S t a t e s s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g developments are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the p r o p o r t i o n s i n a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n .  Little  infor-  mation i s a v a i l a b l e on the B r i t i s h p r o j e c t s i n r e s p e c t of types of f a m i l i e s , but t h e r e i s some evidence  to indicate  t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n of "broken" f a m i l i e s i s f a r l e s s than i n the o t h e r two c o u n t r i e s . tural differences.  T h i s may,  of c o u r s e , r e f l e c t  cul-  "Broken" f a m i l i e s c o n s t i t u t e a h i g h p r o -  p o r t i o n of the f a m i l i e s found i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g  i n the U n i t e d  S t a t e s , and t h i s so f a r i s v e r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Vancouver. In the t h r e e "middle 36.6  a r e a " p r o j e c t s one-parent f a m i l i e s were  p e r cent of the t o t a l .  1  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that  Chicago,  w i t h a much g r e a t e r number of p r o j e c t s , had a s i m i l a r  propor-  t i o n of "broken" f a m i l i e s .  1963,  F o r the y e a r ending June  t h e y r e p o r t e d t h a t 33 per cent of the f a m i l i e s i n t h e i r p r o j e c t s had may  o n l y one p a r e n t  i n the home.^  These  percentages  be compared w i t h those f o r the p o p u l a t i o n as a whole.  1956  In  the p e r c e n t a g e of f a m i l i e s where t h e r e were c h i l d r e n un-  d e r and o n l y 8.1  over f o u r t e e n but o n l y one p a r e n t a t home c o n s t i t u t e d p e r cent of the p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia.3  C u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n c o n f i r m s p r e v i o u s evidence t h a t these f a m i l i e s are drawn from a wide s e c t o r of the t o t a l c i t y -p a r t i c u l a r l y from a r e a s where cheap accommodation can be found. p The Chicago Housing A u t h o r i t y , " H i g h l i g h t s of the O p e r a t i o n " , June 1963. Census of Canada, 1956, B u l l e t i n : 1-19. 1  3  174 On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e normal f a m i l y o f f a t h e r , mother and c h i l d r e n i s n o t found i n t h e h o u s i n g developments t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t one would expect t o f i n d I t i n t h e w i d e r community,  although the s t a t i s t i c  population.  i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e g e n e r a l  In t h e Vancouver p r o j e c t s , s t a n d a r d o r "normal"  f a m i l i e s were 39.8 p e r cent o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n s i n L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , Orchard Park and Skeena T e r r a c e .  I n Chicago, how-  e v e r , 51 p e r cent o f a l l r e s i d e n t s c o n s i s t e d o f husband, w i f e and c h i l d r e n . ing  I n B r i t a i n ' s v a r i o u s k i n d s o f s u b s i d i z e d hous-  t h e r e appears t o be a much h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of normal  families.  I n f a c t , one o f t h e reasons why s t u d i e s on t y p e s o f  f a m i l i e s i n B r i t a i n does not appear t o have been undertaken t o any e x t e n t may be because these f a m i l i e s o b v i o u s l y predominate. On one o f t h e h o u s i n g e s t a t e s ( B a r t o n ) a s u r v e y r e v e a l e d t h a t 70 p e r cent o f t h e f a m i l i e s c o n s i s t e d o f husband, w i f e and c h i l d r e n under f o u r t e e n . ing  The l a r g e development o f p u b l i c hous-  has meant t h a t i t i s a normal r a t h e r than an e x c e p t i o n a l .  p a r t of the housing stock.  There a r e some c l e a r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p r o j e c t d e v e l o p ment when t h e r e i s a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f ' b r o k e n " f a m i l i e s ing  in i t .  liv-  T h i s w i l l mean t h a t a l a r g e group of women w i t h o u t  husbands w i l l s u f f e r from l o n e l i n e s s , absence o f s o c i a l and t h e l a c k o f t h e e m o t i o n a l support o f a husband.  life,  I f they  a r e a l s o w o r k i n g t o support t h e i r f a m i l i e s t h e r e may be uns u p e r v i s e d c h i l d r e n l e f t t o t h e i r own d e v i c e s a f t e r s c h o o l . What i s needed, i s t o encourage t e n a n t groups t o undertake p l a y , e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s ,  and above a l l  t o p r o v i d e s a f e and s u f f i c i e n t p l a y a r e a s f o r c h i l d r e n . need f o r  The  175 s u p e r v i s i o n of p l a y a r e a s i s a major c o n c e r n , e s p e c i a l l y when a number of the mothers may something  be away, w o r k i n g .  Whether t h i s i s  t h a t t e n a n t groups c o u l d o r g a n i z e f o r t h e m s e l v e s ,  or  whether management s h o u l d arrange f o r l o c a l p a r k s through the Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Department of the C i t y , o r b o t h , i s a matter f o r l o c a l e x p l o r a t i o n . A second  i m p l i c a t i o n f o r the community i s the presence i n  i t of f a r more women than men  as heads of h o u s e h o l d s , whereas  i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y t h i s i s not the c a s e . up i n t h i s environment  C h i l d r e n growing  might w e l l develop d i s t o r t e d  t i o n s of normal f a m i l y l i f e .  expecta-  This l a t t e r point i s reinforced  when the normal f a m i l i e s i n t h e i r m i l i e u are a l s o p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y s m a l l i n number, or e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s are p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h i n number, as i s the case i n p r o j e c t  living.  The numbers of c h i l d r e n , and o f t e n the numbers of a c e r t a i n age g r o u p i n g , a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n p u b l i c than i n the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . a l l the Vancouver p r o j e c t s .  housing  T h i s has been demonstrated  in  I n a l l f o u r developments t h e r e  are 1504 minors i n a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of 782 f a m i l i e s .  This  p r o p o r t i o n of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 55 p e r cent of c h i l d r e n i n the p r o j e c t s compares w i t h a p r o p o r t i o n of 41.8 p e r cent of young people under the age of twenty-one i n the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . A l s o , t h e r e tends t o be a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of v e r y young c h i l d r e n i n the p r o j e c t s as compared t o the c i t y as a whole. F o r example, 43.3 p e r cent of the c h i l d r e n were s i x y e a r s o r under i n the Vancouver p r o j e c t s , compared w i t h 34.3 p e r cent of c h i l d r e n under s i x i n l a r g e urban c e n t e r s .  In Regent  Canadian Housing S t a t i s t i c s , 1962, C.M.H.C. (1961 information). 1  2  -Canada Census, 1961.  Bulletin 2  :  1-6.  census  1  176 P a r k (North.) i n T o r o n t o , i n 1963,  c l o s e t o h a l f the  of the development were c h i l d r e n .  population  1  In B r i t a i n a l s o , as we have seen, t h e r e are about t w i c e as many c h i l d r e n aged f o u r and d i z e d housing  under i n some of the s u b s i -  as are found i n the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n .  Child-  r e n aged n i n e t e e n and under c o n s t i t u t e , on an a v e r a g e , 41  per  cent of the tenant p o p u l a t i o n compared t o 29 p e r cent i n England and Wales.  No f i g u r e s are a v a i l a b l e f o r comparison  w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s p r o j e c t s as a whole, but i n Chicago's p r o j e c t s i n June 1963,  t h e r e were 91,000 m i n o r s , almost double  the number of the a d u l t s . These f a c t s about the h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of young c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n p u b l i c housing about p l a y space.  The  r e i n f o r c e the statements made above  r e s i d e n t s have more t h a n once c a l l e d  a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s need, and have a l s o commented on the necess i t y of h a v i n g a fenced dlers.  Not  and  s a f e p l a c e s e t a s i d e f o r the  tod-  o n l y are outdoor p l a y a r e a s r e q u i r e d , but a l s o  i n d o o r p l a y space f o r wet newer apartment b l o c k s .  and The  r a i n y days, e s p e c i a l l y i n the a l t e r n a t i v e i s t h a t the c h i l d r e n  w i l l be p l a y i n g i n the h a i l s of the b u i l d i n g s , which i s uns a f e , annoying t o o t h e r t e n a n t s , and damaging t o the b u i l d i n g s . As has been p o i n t e d out In p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , the needs of these c h i l d r e n cannot be met  by the p r o j e c t a l o n e .  i m a g i n a t i v e p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n of h o u s i n g improving  the f a c i l i t i e s  However,  can go f a r towards  f o r c h i l d r e n , f o r example, t h r o u g h  the p r o v i s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n rooms t h a t c o u l d be used by 1  The H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y of T o r o n t o , May  1963.  Brown, Kogawa and P e t e r s , o p ^ c i t . ; Fromson, Hansen and S m i t h , op. c i t . 2  v  tenant  177 co-operatives f o r day-nurseries or kindergartens. P r o b a b l y because of t h e l a r g e number o f c h i l d r e n i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , the o p i n i o n i s h e l d t h a t these j e c t s a r e p o p u l a t e d m a i n l y by l a r g e f a m i l i e s .  pro-  T h i s i s a mis-  t a k e n i m p r e s s i o n , however, as i n a l l t h r e e c o u n t r i e s under s t u d y , t h e average f a m i l y c o n s i s t s of p a r e n t s and o n l y two o r three c h i l d r e n .  While t h e r e a r e more l a r g e r f a m i l i e s i n t h e  Vancouver p r o j e c t s , f o r example; the percentage  of f a m i l i e s  h a v i n g s i x o r more members i s o n l y 15.1 p e r cent as compared to  11.2 p e r cent i n the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n of B r i t i s h Colum-  bia . The and  p a r e n t s o f these c h i l d r e n a r e a l s o r e l a t i v e l y young,  i n new h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s t h e r e i s o f t e n a gap between t h e  y o u t h f u l t e n a n t s and those of advancing y e a r s , w i t h few i n t h e middle-age groups.  I t has been noted  i n B r i t a i n t h a t , as t h e  p r o j e c t s mature, t h i s o v e r - p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of young people moves up t h e age s c a l e , r e s u l t i n g i n a phenomenon which has been termed a " b u l g e " .  There a r e not s u f f i c i e n t new admis-  sions of young'families t o counteract t h i s . ted  out t h a t u n l e s s c i r c u m s t a n c e s  I t has been p o i n -  or p o l i c y should  interfere,  t h i s "bulge" w i l l i n time produce a p o p u l a t i o n which i n t u r n i s predominately  middle-aged and then o l d .  T h i s same phenom-  enon i s b e g i n n i n g t o appear i n some U n i t e d S t a t e s p r o j e c t s , as has been noted i n Chapter  I I . T h i s i s r e l a t e d a l s o t o the  r a t e of t u r n o v e r i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g .  Those p r o j e c t s h a v i n g a  lower r a t e o f t u r n o v e r than average would show more evidence of a "bulge" moving up i n t o o l d e r age groups.  This p i c t u r e  has not appeared i n Vancouver's p r o j e c t s as y e t , s i n c e t h e r a t e o f t u r n o v e r , which i s e s t i m a t e d t o be 20 p e r cent p e r ann"-um, seems t o be f a i r l y s t a n d a r d f o r the p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e  178 i n b o t h Canada and Recognition underlined new  towns.  the U n i t e d  States.  of the m a t t e r of s p e c i a l a g e - s t r u c t u r e  i n s e v e r a l s t u d i e s of b o t h h o u s i n g e s t a t e s 1  is and  F o r i n s t a n c e , as r e g a r d s the a n t i c i p a t e d heavy  demand f o r employment f o r s c h o o l l e a v e r s i n the coming y e a r s , due  t o the "bulge" moving up, the S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s O f f i c e r  a t Stevenage New  Town recommended a g r a d u a l b u i l d i n g - u p  of  o f f i c e jobs through c a r e f u l p h a s i n g of a number of p r o j e c t s t o a b s o r b , i n p a r t i c u l a r , 50 p e r cent of the g i r l s 10 per cent of the boys who,  i t i s estimated,  a b l e f o r t h i s k i n d of work.  The  and  about  w i l l be  avail-  Social Relations Officer  a l s o suggested t h a t a c l o s e l i a i s o n should be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h the Youth Employment S e r v i c e , and  t h a t the Youth Employ-  ment O f f i c e r be c o n s u l t e d about f u t u r e p r o j e c t s .  He  consider-  ed t h a t a j o i n t study of the male j u v e n i l e employment s i t u a t i o n was New  indicated.  The  Development C o r p o r a t i o n  Town p o i n t s out t h a t the a g e - s t r u c t u r e  the number of women i n Stevenage, who  i n the same  diagrams show t h a t  have reached the  i n f a m i l y development when c h i l d r e n r e p r e s e n t  stage  l e s s of a t i e  t o the home, i s i n c r e a s i n g q u i t e f a s t , and w i l l form a more s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of t h e ' p o p u l a t i o n Corporation  f o r some time ahead.  The  s t a t e s t h a t i t i s from such a d i r e c t i o n t h a t most  of the i n c r e a s e i n the w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n  i s coming, and  that  an i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r employment s u i t a b l e f o r m a r r i e d women c o u l d be e x p e c t e d .  Stevenage Development  Corporation  has a l s o g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o the need f o r s o c i a l  activity  See Edward C a r t e r , The^ Future_ of Lqndc>n, pp. 121,126; Young and W i l l m o t t , F a m i l y ancP K i n s h i p l r i jiast; ^Lqndon, p. 166.  179 f o r the r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g numbers of young p e o p l e . The  i m p l i c a t i o n of the changing p o p u l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e i n  d e v i s i n g a h o u s i n g program has been r e f e r r e d t o i n s e v e r a l studies.  In a r e p o r t t o the P e t e r l e e Development C o r p o r a t i o n ,  G. Brooke T a y l o r draws a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t t h a t the demand f o r accommodation was  initial  f o r two and three-bedroom d w e l l -  i n g s , but an e x a m i n a t i o n of f a m i l y t r e n d s demonstrates  that  t h e r e i s l i k e l y t o be a l a t e r need f o r the l a r g e r house, and he recommended t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n of four-bedroom increased.  houses be  He a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e r e w i l l u l t i m a t e l y be  a l a r g e demand f o r o l d p e o p l e ' s d w e l l i n g s and he  suggested  t h a t s t e p s be t a k e n t o b u i l d , o r r e s e r v e l a n d , f o r t h i s p u r pose.  I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o t a k e account of the f a c t t h a t t h e y  s h o u l d be s i t e d c l o s e t o s e r v i c e s such as shops, p o s t and the The  office,  like. o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t which we have made i n r e l a t i o n  t o age s t r u c t u r e i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s the h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of e l d e r l y people who States projects.  are l i v i n g i n the Vancouver and U n i t e d I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , e l d e r l y persons  (and  d i s a b l e d ) r e p r e s e n t 28 p e r cent of the p r o j e c t p o p u l a t i o n , and the same h i g h i n c i d e n c e i s a p p e a r i n g i n Vancouver, where the percentage  of persons over s i x t y f o r the t h r e e "middle area '  p r o j e c t s was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25.9 13.6  1  per cent.  T h i s compares w i t h  p e r cent f o r the p o p u l a t i o n i n g e n e r a l i n B r i t i s h  Columbia.  In T o r o n t o , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t o suggest t h a t about 7 p e r cent of the r e s i d e n t s i n Regent Park ( N o r t h ) were over the age of  2  ^ Rose, Regent Park,, A Study i n ^ S l u m ^ C l e a r a n c e , p. 186. I n 1959 S i n g l e ' e l d e r l y people 'were ' i n e l i g i b l e " f o r p u b l i c housi n g except i n s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Census of Canada, 1961. 1  180 65 i n 1957, however, t h i s percentage has seemingly; i n c r e a s e d since that time.  From t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e , the p r o p o r -  t i o n of e l d e r l y persons i n B r i t i s h s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g has been v e r y much l o w e r than t h e p r o p o r t i o n whole.  This leads t o questions  c i e s i n these d i f f e r e n t areas.  i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n as a  as t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p o l i In the United S t a t e s , the high  p r o p o r t i o n o f e l d e r l y persons i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o n e g l e c t on t h e p a r t o f governments t o p r o v i d e ing  s p e c i a l hous-  f o r t h e aged p o p u l a t i o n , but some e f f o r t s a r e now b e i n g  made towards c a t c h i n g up w i t h t h i s b a c k l o g . not been t h e case t o t h e same e x t e n t  W h i l e t h i s has  i n B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e  l o n g w a i t i n g l i s t s o f s i n g l e e l d e r l y persons I n d i c a t e continuing.;;: d e f i c i t s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f accommodation f o r t h i s group.  I n c i d e n t a l l y , i t should  be noted t h a t s e t t i n g t h e age  of e l i g i b i l i t y a t 60 tends t o draw i n t o t h e w a i t i n g l i s t a group who a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y citizens.  The q u e s t i o n  young f o r d e s i g n a t i o n as e l d e r l y  a r i s e s as t o whether e l d e r l y people  p r o p e r l y b e l o n g i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n such l a r g e as t h e y b e g i n t o appear i n Vancouver's p r o j e c t s . to question  proportions T h i s i s not  t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s group has a need f o r and a  r i g h t t o decent h o u s i n g , b u t r a t h e r t h a t t h e i r presence i n such l a r g e numbers f u r t h e r unbalances t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e popu l a t i o n i n t h e p r o j e c t s compared t o t h e normal community. In p l a n n i n g  h o u s i n g f o r b o t h young and o l d , c o n s i d e r a t i o n  should be g i v e n t o t h e f a c t t h a t n e i t h e r age group i s comfort a b l e w i t h l a r g e numbers o f t h e o p p o s i t e  age group.  Some o l d  p e o p l e l i k e c h i l d r e n , some do not, b u t even those who do, would f i n d i t t i r i n g t o be surrounded c o n s t a n t l y by l a r g e groups o f g e n e r a l l y n o i s y and exuberant y o u n g s t e r s .  Similarly,  c h i l d r e n often l i k e o l d people, but f i n d I t tiresome t o  181  r e s t r i c t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s out of d e f e r e n c e f o r the aged. Further,  l i v i n g i n a community w i t h a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of o l d  people tends t o be d e p r e s s i n g  f o r young a d u l t s .  I t may  be  t h a t s e p a r a t e accommodation f o r the e l d e r l y away from the  pro-  j e c t would be more s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r a l l concerned, w i t h a s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n of " p u b l i c h o u s i n g " r e s e r v e d  f o r the aged.  T h i s would have the e f f e c t of p r o v i d i n g more accommodation f o r "normal" and  one-parent f a m i l i e s i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g ,  but  would r e q u i r e t h a t the government e n t e r i n t o an expanded  pro-  gram of p r o v i s i o n of accommodation f o r e l d e r l y persons as a s e p a r a t e group. A n o t h e r s o l u t i o n c o u l d be t h a t s m a l l u n i t s f o r e l d e r l y people be p r o v i d e d  w i t h i n the p r o j e c t and  bourhood, which would m i t i g a t e a g a i n s t e l d e r i y i n t o e i t h e r one  surrounding  segregation  of  neighthe  huge b u i l d i n g on the p r o j e c t , or  one  l a r g e development i n the community. In h i s "Housing" Message t o Congress on J a n u a r y 27,  1964,  P r e s i d e n t Johnson proposed t h a t e l d e r l y persons owning homes i n urban renewal a r e a s would get h e l p i n r e p a i r i n g them so t h a t t h e y would not have t o be t o r n down.  Special financing  t h r o u g h government a g e n c i e s would be s e t up ' i n c l u d i n g , among o t h e r t h i n g s , p r o t e c t i o n f o r . t h e aged p e r s o n i n r e s p e c t repayment of p r i n c i p a l .  of  E l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s would j o i n e l -  d e r l y f a m i l i e s i n being e l i g i b l e f o r s i m i l a r low-interest l o a n s t o buy  houses.  M e n t i o n has a l r e a d y been made of a n o t h e r of the major k i n d s of unbalance which occurs In p u b l i c h o u s i n g d e v e l o p ments.  T h i s i s the s o c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n  i n t o one  community,  of low-income f a m i l i e s , w i t h l o w e r l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n  and  182 and  lower job s k i l l s .  many o f t h e designed  This kind  conditions  of the  to eliminate.  This  V a n c o u v e r so f a r b e c a u s e t h e within  normal r e s i d e n t i a l  was  a major problem  day  i n the U n i t e d  i n the  of s i t e ,  and  States,  interesting in  1957,  than port.  than  comes were u n d e r $150  18.9  per  -area" p r o j e c t s  i n 1964  gory.  connection,  tions  In t h i s of the  general  Park...has ceased thus  of r e l a t i v e l y  in greatest  1  2  fits  R.  need  of  i t exists toe v e n b e e n made  (or l a c k of  it),  landscape  horizonis  to  the  i n the  b i g urban c e n t r e s  develop-  of  people themselves.  on t h e  the  It is  cent  month, w h i l e  per  cent  reported  a low-rental  in this  i n Vancouver's  were 36.8  Rose has  incomes  "middle  in this  that  some  catesec-  that"Regent  h o u s i n g p r o j e c t , and  b e n e f i t to those  i n the  is  community  housing."3  Tumley, T r a g e d y o f a V e r t i c a l  re-  o f f a m i l i e s whose i n -  p u b l i c i n Toronto consider  little  lowest  other p r o j e c t s studied per  there  t o be  are this  sharp c r i t i c i s m ,  of the  in  i n Regent P a r k ( N o r t h ) i n T o r o n t o ,  f o r most o f t h e  T h e r e were o n l y  and  been t o c o n v e r t  This  i n the  however,  c h a r g e has  design  i t i s t o the  t o note t h a t  years,  f a r f e w e r f a m i l i e s were l i v i n g  i s true 2  1  s m a l l and  In B r i t a i n ,  done has  to features  ments w h i c h have b e e n b u i l t United  developments are  slums!  was  a s u b s t a n t i a l problem  inter-war  however, more r e l a t e d t o t h e choice  i s not  S t a t e s , where t h e  slums i n t o v e r t i c a l  perpetuates  slums t h a t p u b l i c h o u s i n g  areas.  t h a t what p u b l i c h o u s i n g has tal  of s e g r e g a t i o n  Sifcum.  p.  .89.  A l s o t h e number o f f a m i l i e s i n r e c e i p t o f w e l f a r e was negligible.  3 R o s e , R e g e n t P a r k , A S t u d y i n Slum  Clearance.  bene-  183 As has been p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f the a u t h o r s o f the p r e s e n t r e p o r t , t h e r e i s no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r e x c l u d i n g from p u b l i c h o u s i n g those who have the g r e a t e s t need f o r i t —  the lowest-income groups.  The answer, t h e r e -  f o r e , l i e s i n some measures which w i l l a s s u r e t h a t h i g h e r i n come groups w i l l a l s o want t o l i v e i n the p r o j e c t s .  As has  been s u g g e s t e d , t h i s may mean the • e l i m i n a t i o n of upper-income c e i l i n g s f o r continued  occupancy, p r o v i s i o n o f more p u b l i c  h o u s i n g , and r e a l i s t i c h e l p t o the d i s a d v a n t a g e d f a m i l i e s i n improving t h e i r s o c i a l adjustment. A community composed w h o l l y  of persons w i t h i n a f a i r l y  narrow income range tends t o be i n e r t , w h i l e a m i x t u r e a w i d e r range of v a l u e s ,  provides  i n t e r e s t s and examples which can l e a d  t o changed a s p i r a t i o n s and a d i f f e r e n t s t y l e o f l i v i n g . e s t a t e i n B r i t a i n , where t h e r e was l i t t l e way o f o c c u p a t i o n a l  i f anything  Onoone  i n the  b a l a n c e , i t was observed t h a t boys had  not changed t h e i r l e v e l o f a s p i r a t i o n s u b s t a n t i a l l y s i n c e 1930, and were s t i l l a t t r a c t e d t o s t e e l w o r k s  o r the mines,  but g i r l s about t o leave s c h o o l now wished t o become n u r s e s , c l e r k s and w a i t r e s s e s .  But p r e s s u r e  towards c o n f o r m i t y  the m a j o r i t y l e d some I n d i v i d u a l s , a t t e m p t i n g  from  t o r i s e i n the  s o c i a l s c a l e , e i t h e r t o f o r f e i t t h e i r ambitions or subject themselves t o g r e a t s t r a i n i n t h e attempt t o b e t t e r t h e m s e l v e s . Moreover, i t was suggested t h a t t h i s u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o r i s e above one's f e l l o w s had c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e problem o f l a c k o f l e a d e r s h i p on t h e e s t a t e .  1  O c c u p a t i o n o f the head of the f a m i l y w i l l always be a Simey ( e d . ) , Neighbourhood and Community, p. 8 7 . See a l s o , Young and W i l l m o t t T ^ a W J t y ^ "In "East London . 1  184 s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n determining community.  the f a m i l y ' s s t a t u s i n the  Low-income f a m i l i e s o f t e n have a breadwinner  whose employment i s low i n the s c a l e of o c c u p a t i o n s .  Studies  completed i n B r i t a i n have shown t h a t t h e r e i s a heavy p r o p o r t i o n of manual workers i n s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g .  This  informa-  t i o n i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , and  t h e r e i s grow-  i n g i n d i c a t i o n t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l data should be now  regularly  collected.  Kingdom  But because of i t s i n t e r e s t , the U n i t e d  information i s included here. In B r i t a i n , i n most of the redevelopment a r e a s and  hous-  i n g e s t a t e s , t h e r e i s a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y g r e a t e r number of s e m i - s k i l l e d and  u n s k i l l e d manual w o r k e r s , and  a correspond-  i n g l y s m a l l e r number of w h i t e - c o l l a r , m a n a g e r i a l and s i o n a l people than i n the p o p u l a t i o n i n g e n e r a l . Westergaard and don  profes-  For  instance,  G l a s s found t h a t , i n - t h e i r s u r v e y of the Lon-  County C o u n c i l e s t a t e of Lansbury, n e a r l y 90 per cent of  the c h i e f wage e a r n e r s dockers,  stevedores,  i n t e r v i e w e d , were manual workers --  t r u c k d r i v e r s , s k i l l e d and s e m i - s k i l l e d  f a c t o r y o p e r a t i v e s and  general l a b o u r e r s .  i s t r u e on o t h e r e s t a t e s .  The  1  same s i t u a t i o n  Mogey found t h a t i n B a r t o n ,  m u n i c i p a l h o u s i n g e s t a t e o u t s i d e O x f o r d , t h e r e was p r o p o r t i o n of s k i l l e d and the n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e .  whole.2  Q  n  s e m i - s k i l l e d and  per cent were i n p r o f e s s i o n a l  per cent i n the C i t y of Oxford as a  L i v e r p o o l e s t a t e , t h e r e were m o s t l y  skilled,  u n s k i l l e d w o r k e r s , n e a r l y a l l of whom were  engaged i n the manufacture of e l e c t r i c a l equipment. 1  higher  s e m i - s k i l l e d workers compared t o  Only 0.7  s e r v i c e compared t o 4.5  a  a  w e s t e r g a a r d and  G l a s s , op. c i t . , p.  Of  38.  Mogey, op. c i t . , p. 17; see a l s o , C o l l i s o n , P e t e r , " O c c u p a t i o n , E d u c a t i o n , and Housing i n an E n g l i s h C i t y " , American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y , May i960, p. 593. 2  their  185 s m a l l sample of 41 f a m i l i e s  l i v i n g on the London County Coun-  c i l post-war e s t a t e i n E s s e x , W i l l m o t t and Young found  that  o n l y s i x were employed i n c l e r i c a l o r non-manual o c c u p a t i o n s . In the s t u d y of the S h e f f i e l d e s t a t e i t was  1  observed t h a t the  o c c u p a t i o n s of the r e s i d e n t s had changed o n l y t o a s m a l l ex2 tent since they f i r s t a r r i v e d s k i l l e d workers was  t h e r e i n 1930.  j u s t as s m a l l , the l a r g e s t  The  number of  single  a l l b e i n g l a b o u r e r s and s e r a i - s k i l l e d o r u n s k i l l e d  group  workers,  w i t h v e r y few wage e a r n e r s i n c l e r i c a l and w h i t e - c o l l a r  occu-  pations. The  s i t u a t i o n I s a t l e a s t p o t e n t i a l l y , and  a c t u a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n the New aged by the New  Towns.  sometimes  I n d u s t r y has been encour-  Towns on the b a s i s of o f f e r i n g h o u s i n g t o  employees who would agree t o move when t h e i r f i r m moved t o a new  location.  The r e m a i n i n g workers are r e c r u i t e d  s p e c i a l scheme s e t up and operated by the M i n i s t r y who  draws them from l o c a l a u t h o r i t y h o u s i n g l i s t s .  through a of Labour, This sys-  tem ensures t h a t each head of a household moving i n t o a Town s t a r t s w i t h a j o b .  New  I n d u s t r i a l i s t s under t h i s p l a n ,  r e c e i v e an " a l l o c a t i o n of h o u s i n g " from the Development Corporation.  Many of them p r e f e r to'use i t f o r s k i l l e d ,  than u n s k i l l e d workers.  rather  As one of the o b s e r v e r s p u t s i t ,  "Firms w i l l tend t o use t h e i r houses f o r f i t young men  in  whom they see an investment f o r the f u t u r e r a t h e r t h a n f o r 3 p e o p l e who  might c r e a t e any s o r t of problem."  Thus, i n  1951,  •'•Willmott and Young, o p ^ c i t . , p. 122. Mark Hodges and C y r i l S m i t h , "The S h e f f i e l d E s t a t e , " , from Neighbourhood^and Community, ed. T.S. Simey, p. 85. 3 Gerard Brooke T a y l o r , " S o c i a l Problems" of New Towns," from Community O r g a n i z a t i o n . i n Great B r i t a i n , ed. P e t e r K u e n s t l e r , p. o4. 2  =  P u b l i c Housing i n B r i t a i n  3 a s i l d o n New Town  186 t/here was, I n Crawley, a s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o p o r t i o n o f s k i l l e d workers among t h e f i r s t f i r m s t o open f a c t o r i e s t h e r e , as i n d i c a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : Table 29.  Occupations o f Workers  1951.3='  Type  Males  Managerial Clerical T e c h n i c a l and s k i l l e d S e m i - s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d Total  In  i n Crawley New Town, Females  Total  44 71 593 352  64 35 175  4 135 628 527  1,060  277  1,337  3  7  some o f t h e towns, i n d u s t r y was a l r e a d y y f i r m l y e s -  t a b l i s h e d , o r c l o s e a t hand.  T h i s group i n c l u d e s A y c l i f f e ,  Corby and Stevenage, w h i l e P e t e r l e e and Glenrothes'owed  their  d e s i g n a t i o n , m a i n l y t o t h e need t o house t h e miners w o r k i n g i n nearby p i t s .  The d e s i r a b i l i t y o f b a l a n c e was r e c o g n i z e d  and t h e C o r p o r a t i o n s attempt t o a c h i e v e t h i s by d e v e l o p i n g w i t h i n t h e town, a c o u n t e r p o i s e t o t h e predominant dustry.  local i n -  A t A y c l i f f e , t h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n of  m a n a g e r i a l s t a f f as heads of households and a much l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of s k i l l e d w o r k e r s .  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e number o f  u n s k i l l e d workers i s s m a l l compared t o t h e number of t h e s e on l o c a l a u t h o r i t y e s t a t e s . this respect.  2  Corby, however, i s d i f f e r e n t i n  H a v i n g been f i r s t developed by a s t e e l company,  Corby has a h i g h l y unbalanced employment s t r u c t u r e .  This i s  L.E. W h i t e , New Towns_ -- T h e i r .Challenge and O p p o r t u n i t y ,  1  p. 50. • ' : ; ' D. Pocock, "Some F e a t u r e s o f t h e P o p u l a t i o n o f Corby New Town", The S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, V o l . 8, Dec. i 9 6 0 . 2  187 r e f l e c t e d i n the 1951  Census, i n which Corby d i f f e r e d  markedly  from the n a t i o n a l averages f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l , i n t e r m e d i a t e and u n s k i l l e d c l a s s e s .  The t a b l e below d e s c r i b e s the p e r -  centage of persons i n the f i v e s o c i a l c l a s s e s i n Corby and Harlow, w i t h the c o r r e s p o n d i n g  f i g u r e s f o r England and  Wales.  Harlow, i t must be mentioned, has 10 p e r cent of m i d d l e - c l a s s houses, as w e l l as houses b u i l t f o r s a l e o n l y , which may to  help  account f o r the h i g h number i n the f i r s t two c l a s s e s . T a b l e 30.  Class  Professional Intermediate Skilled Semi-skilled Unskilled Others Total  D i s t r i b u t i o n of R e s i d e n t s by S o c i a l C l a s s e s . 1951 Census Harlow 1961  Corby i960  P.C.  P.C.  England and Wales 1951 P.C.  7.5 13.6 62:5 8.3 3.6 4.5  2.1 5.0 54.1 13.6 25.2  3.0 18.0 50.0 16.0 13.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  However, a p a r t from a m i n o r i t y of towns such as Corby, (which a t t r a c t e d a v a r i e d c o l l e c t i o n of l a b o u r e r s , b e i n g a "boom town" d u r i n g the g e n e r a l d e p r e s s i o n ) , the p r o p o r t i o n of u n s k i l l e d w o r k e r s , p u b l i c u t i l i t y employees  and p e o p l e i n the  d i s t r i b u t i v e t r a d e s , remains below normal i n the New Towns f o r two r e a s o n s .  In the f i r s t p l a c e , the r e n t s are t o o h i g h ; i n  the second, s i n c e the m a j o r i t y of new r e s i d e n t s are workers who  have moved w i t h t h e i r f a c t o r y , the p e r c e n t a g e of s k i l l e d  workers tends t o be f a r h i g h e r than i n normal r e s i d e n t i a l tricts .  dis-  188 One  i n t e r e s t i n g new development t h a t has o c c u r r e d i n  Vancouver's p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s t h a t s e v e r a l young U n i v e r s i t y f a m i l i e s have moved i n t o the L i t t l e Mountain p r o j e c t .  These  are medicine and law s t u d e n t s , and t h e r e are a l s o some s t u d e n t c h a r t e r e d a c c o u n t a n t s . - These people c o u l d p r o v i d e p o t e n t i a l l e a d e r s h i p and a t the same t i m e , a good image f o r the young people of the p r o j e c t s .  E d u c a t i o n l e v e l s have been found t o  be c o n s i s t e n t l y lower where the f a m i l y has a low income, and one would e x p e c t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h i s would h o l d t r u e f o r project families.  T h i s has been demonstrated  s t u d i e s have been f o c u s s e d on t h i s  i n B r i t a i n where  problem.  P e t e r C o l l i s o n found t h a t those whose e d u c a t i o n t e r m i n a ted a t f o u r t e e n y e a r s of age were o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d (73.9  per  c e n t ) i n a m u n i c i p a l h o u s i n g e s t a t e i n O x f o r d , compared t o t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the c i t y as a whole: (59.4  per c e n t ) ;  a l l r e m a i n i n g groups were u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d , i n c l u d i n g those whose e d u c a t i o n t e r m i n a t e d a t t h i r t e e n y e a r s or e a r l i e r . On the S h e f f i e l d e s t a t e , a l s o , i t was  1  found t h a t o n l y 2 o r 3  out of about 100 p u p i l s who s i t f o r the " e l e v e n p l u s " ex2 a m i n a t i o n each y e a r proceed t o a grammar s c h o o l , a p r o p o r t i o n 1  which may  be compared w i t h the n a t i o n a l f i g u r e of 18 p e r c e n t ,  o r t h a t f o r the c i t y as a whole (about 16 p e r c e n t ) .  The i n -  t e l l i g e n c e of the c h i l d r e n a t the l o c a l county s c h o o l as shown People whose e d u c a t i o n t e r m i n a t e d a t 13 y e a r s of age o r e a r l i e r , are now found m o s t l y i n the upper age groups, and t h e s e groups are u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d on the e s t a t e . Tenants aged 45 y e a r s or more c o n s t i t u t e d 10 p e r cent of the p o p u l a t i o n and those aged 65 y e a r s o r more 1.8 p e r c e n t . F o r Oxford the c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i g u r e s are 35.3 p e r cent and 11.2 p e r c e n t . P e t e r C o l l i s o n , o p . c i t . , p. 594. 1  The " E l e v e n p l u s " e x a m i n a t i o n i s the method used by L o c a l E d u c a t i o n . i n B r i t a i n t o determine what type of secondary s c h o o l i s most s u i t a b l e f o r each c h i l d . 2  189  by t h e O t i s and Moray House t e s t s I s l o w e r t h a n t h e n a t i o n a l average.  1  Willmott  and Young, on t h e o t h e r hand, found  the p e o p l e on t h e London County C o u n c i l  estate  they  that  studied  were becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y s t a t u s c o n s c i o u s and i n t e r e s t e d p  in  t h e e d u c a t i o n o f the.ir c h i l d r e n . The  is  structure  of t h e community i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g , t h e n ,  "unbalanced" when compared w i t h t h e w i d e r community i n i t s  k i n d s o f f a m i l i e s , age groups, and s o c i a l l e v e l s .  No c o n c e r -  ted attempt t o c o u n t e r a c t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r problem appears t o have been made i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s u n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y . h i s message t o Congress, J a n u a r y 2 7 , 1964, P r e s i d e n t included  In  Johnson  i n proposed e x t e n s i v e l e g i s l a t i o n on h o u s i n g , some  measures t o combat t h e s e g r e g a t i o n f e a t u r e s  of p u b l i c  T h i s b i l l would enable t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t o buy an e x t r a u n i t s a y e a r from among e x i s t i n g d w e l l i n g s p r i v a t e market.  housing. 15,000  a v a i l a b l e on t h e  O f f i c i a l s b e l i e v e r e - f u r b i s h i n g would  usually  be much cheaper than b u i l d i n g new u n i t s , would a l l o w more f l e x i b l e arrangements f o r h o u s i n g l a r g e f a m i l i e s and would av o i d t h e " g h e t t o " atmosphere of some b i g p u b l i c p r o j e c t s . a d d i t i o n , t h e b i l l would l e t a u t h o r i t i e s l e a s e u n i t s i n each of t h e next f o u r  10,000 p r i v a t e  years.  A s i m i l a r development has t a k e n p l a c e i n T o r o n t o . framework of a " r e n t VT.  In  In the  c e r t i f i c a t e p l a n " , t h e T o r o n t o Housing  S. Simey, Neighbgur^o^od _and  Comrrmnity, p. 8 6 .  Young and W i l l m o t t , F a m i l y and K i n s h i p _ i n E a s t _London, 162. — : ~ ' 2  p.  3 A l l t o l d , t h i s would i n c r e a s e p u b l i c h o u s i n g by 240,000 d w e l l i n g u n i t s over t h e next f o u r y e a r s .  190 A u t h o r i t y has e n t e r e d  i n t o d i r e c t l e a s e s w i t h owners of p r i v -  a t e d w e l l i n g u n i t s , which a r e then r e n t e d by t h e A u t h o r i t y t o f a m i l i e s o f low income i n accordance w i t h t h e r e n t s c a l e used for  t h e Regent Park p r o j e c t .  A number o f r e g u l a t i o n s have  been drawn up t o cover t h e f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s  o f t h e scheme.  Some of t h e advantages o f t h e p l a n a r e t h e absence of i n i t i a l c a p i t a l costs f o r the housing,  lower upkeep c o s t s , t h e i n t r o -  d u c t i o n o f low-income f a m i l i e s i n t o t h e main stream of community l i v i n g ,  and economic i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h p r i v a t e b u i l d e r s .  D i s a d v a n t a g e s a r e t h a t t h e p l a n o n l y f l o u r i s h e s when t h e p r i vate r e n t a l market i s s o f t , and overuse o f t h e scheme c o u l d d e l a y t h e program of government p r o v i s i o n o f h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . In B r i t a i n , a l t h o u g h omitted  t h e words "working c l a s s " were  from t h e Housing A c t , 19^9, and p u b l i c housing was  thus made a v a i l a b l e t o a l l those  i n need, i r r e s p e c t i v e of so-  c i a l s t a t u s , t h e middle c l a s s have been slow t o a v a i l themselves of t h i s o f f e r .  Moreover, e f f o r t s t o a t t r a c t people  w i t h h i g h e r incomes t o t h e " e s t a t e s " have met w i t h l i t t l e cess.  On t h e London C o u n t y ' C o u n c i l ' e s t a t e ,  suc-  Harold H i l l , f o r  example, a p r o p o r t i o n of m i d d l e - c l a s s houses were b u i l t , but i t seems t h a t a f t e r a time most of t h e t e n a n t s who accepted them moved out a g a i n t o a d j o i n i n g a r e a s .  Tradition dies  hard  i n the o l d c o u n t r i e s . Although  t h e p r o v i s i o n of middle-income housing  at Harold  H i l l was not s u c c e s s f u l , t h i s does seem t o be an i d e a t h a t i s worthy of c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r Canadian housing  developments.  P.E.H. B r a d y , "Rent C e r t i f i c a t e P l a n o p e r a t i n g i n Canada; f i r s t year's. e x p e r i e n c e a n a l y z e d " , J o u r n a l of H o u s i n g , J u l y 1963." T h i s new form'of p u b l i c h pu sing""" invoTvea' ""arPame nd'me n t t o the O n t a r i o Housing Development A c t . 1  191 The  government has made p r o v i s i o n f o r p r i v a t e b u i l d e r s t o  c o n s t r u c t h o u s i n g on a l i m i t e d d i v i d e n d b a s i s , but has the maximum income f o r p r o s p e c t i v e t o a t t r a c t investment money.  set  t e n a n t s at t o o low a  level  I f a s a t i s f a c t o r y formula  could  be a r r i v e d at w i t h p r i v a t e b u i l d e r s , i n c l u d i n g such h o u s i n g i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g developments would, p e r h a p s , be a means of a c h i e v i n g a more b a l a n c e d community. The  concept of  'balance  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of New  1  i s one  of the c e n t r a l i d e a s i n  Towns, t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s them from  ordinary housing e s t a t e s , p r i v a t e s p e c u l a t i v e p r o j e c t s dormitory  suburbs.  I t means t h a t a town should  enough s c h o o l s , e n t e r t a i n m e n t and and  other amenities  t i o n should  and  not o n l y have  leisure f a c i l i t i e s ,  stores  f o r i t s p o p u l a t i o n , but t h a t t h i s p o p u l a -  be s u f f i c i e n t l y d i v e r s e i n i t s i n t e r e s t s and  p a t i o n s t o g i v e the town a h e a l t h y urban c o m p l e x i t y .  occu-  For  this  r e a s o n the R e i t h Committee l a i d such emphasis on s o c i a l b a l ance, and  i n s i s t e d t h a t the New  Towns must not be  one-class  communities l i n k e d t o unplanned f a c t o r y development. Committee urged t h a t New and  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and  Towns should research  i n c l u d e "head o f f i c e s  establishments,  t i o n s of Government Departments and  The  i n c l u d i n g sec-  other p u b l i c o f f i c e s .  It  i s most d e s i r a b l e t h a t p r o p r i e t o r s , d i r e c t o r s , e x e c u t i v e s . . . should  l i v e i n the towns.  w r i t e r s , a r t i s t s and lar  Many p r o f e s s i o n a l men  o t h e r s p e c i a l i s t s not t i e d t o a p a r t i c u -  l o c a t i o n . . . r e t i r e d people from home and  e v e r y k i n d of o c c u p a t i o n , means.  and women,  o v e r s e a s , from  as w e l l as people of independent  nl  Quoted i n Norman M a c k e n z i e , The New T^wn^; ^ h ^ ^ ^ S u ^ e s s of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , F a b i a n ResearcIT"SerTe~s~. 1  192 In  o r d e r t o a t t r a c t the middle c l a s s e s t o them, s e v e r a l  New Towns have now b u i l t houses e s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d t o a p p e a l to  p r o s p e c t i v e t e n a n t s o r p u r c h a s e r s from the h i g h e r income  groups.  Most New Towns, t o o , encourage p r i v a t e b u i l d i n g and  r e s e r v e s i t e s f o r t h i s , and, i n a d d i t i o n , attempt t o promote s o c i a l m i x i n g by the b u i l d i n g of houses i n " c l u s t e r s " , w i t h a view t o e n c o u r a g i n g n e i g h b o u r l i n e s s . New Towns make use of a s t u d y e n t i t l e d  "Housing S t r u c t u r e  and H o u s i n g Need" which was produced by the R e s e a r c h . S e c t i o n of ted,  the M i n i s t r y of Housing soon a f t e r the New Towns were s t a r and which s e t s out a s t a n d a r d p o p u l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e of  100,000 persons developed from n a t i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s and c a s t s of b i r t h s , deaths and m a r r i a g e s .  fore-  The e s t i m a t e broke  down the 100,000 p o p u l a t i o n i n t o households on v a r i o u s assumpt i o n s and then r e l a t e d them t o t y p e s of d w e l l i n g s . a b l e d p l a n n e r s i n New Towns t o see what a normal  T h i s en-  'stationary? , -  p o p u l a t i o n l o o k e d l i k e and thus showed a t a r g e t towards which t h e y c o u l d b u i l d , on the r e a s o n a b l e assumption t h a t the  ulti-  mate shape of the town's p o p u l a t i o n would r e s e m b l e , not the shape of the households on e n t r y i n t o the town, but the shape of  a "normal" o r b a l a n c e d p o p u l a t i o n .  be t a k e n t o o l i t e r a l l y ;  Even t h i s s h o u l d not  and i t seems the p a t h of wisdom t o have  a margin of space i n hand.  F o r example, c o n t r a r y t o the  assumptions of t e n y e a r s ago, when even o f f i c i a l  census  c a s t s were t h a t the b i r t h - r a t e would f a l l a f t e r the post-war bulge of b i r t h s , the b i r t h - r a t e has r i s e n  fore-  immediate steadily.  Women m a r r i e d s i n c e the war are h a v i n g a g r e a t e r number of c h i l d r e n i n the f i r s t f i v e y e a r s of marriage than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s d i d i n the t h i r t i e s .  As a consequence, t'.:?  193 the R e g i s t r a r - G e n e r a l ' s p o p u l a t i o n f o r e c a s t s f o r the 1970's show an i n c r e a s i n g , not a d e c l i n i n g p o p u l a t i o n .  T h i s makes  the M i n i s t r y ' s Research s e c t i o n f o r e c a s t of household ( p a r t i c u l a r l y as r e g a r d s than  ever.  size  the l a r g e r h o u s e h o l d s ) more l i k e l y  1  In the p l a n n i n g of the New i s f a i r l y w i d e l y used and  Towns, the neighbourhood u n i t  neighbourhood-centred  activities  have p l a y e d a v a l u a b l e p a r t i n t h e i r s o c i a l development. has been found t h a t where these u n i t s have come n e a r e s t success  t h e y are e i t h e r based on n a t u r a l g e o g r a p h i c a l  o r s t r o n g l y r e i n f o r c e d by l o c a l l y - g r o u p e d s e r v i c e s .  It to  features, They must  f i r s t s a t i s f y " f e l t needs" i n c l u d i n g the need t o b e l o n g  to  some p l a c e which i s r e c o g n i z a b l y d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r p l a c e s . C r i t i c s of neighbourhoods a l l e g e t h a t t h e y c o n f l i c t w i t h  the  development of l o y a l t y t o the town as a whole. S o c i a l development i s an accepted Development C o r p o r a t i o n and o f f i c e r who  some New  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a  Towns have a p p o i n t e d  i s mainly r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s .  In g e n e r a l ,  an new  communities must depend f o r s o c i a l development on much the same a g e n c i e s  as those n o r m a l l y a t work w i t h i n an e s t a b l i s h e d  community: the s t a t u t o r y and  v o l u n t a r y s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , church-  es and  In the e a r l y s t a g e s , the  groups of a l l k i n d s .  impetus  must l a r g e l y come from e f f o r t s t o h e l p the newcomers t o e s t a b l i s h t h e m s e l v e s , and  such h e l p i s f o r t h c o m i n g  from the  so-  c i a l development o f f i c e r s . O r i g i n a l l y , the New  Towns were intended  t o form an  Brooke T a y l o r , Re p g r t o n the Ne e d f or Soc i a 1 - P r q v ijs i o n s i n the New Town of N e W o n ^ y c T i f f e y p'p'.' " 8 - ^ 1  194  i m p o r t a n t p a r t of a program of planned m i g r a t i o n from the over-populated c i t i e s .  There a r e , however, v a r i o u s reasons  f o r t h e i r f a i l u r e as r e c i p i e n t s  of o v e r s p i l l .  F o r one  thing,  t h e y r a p i d l y d e v e l o p l i v e s of t h e i r own and t h e i r people must p r o v i d e f o r t h e i r own young f a m i l i e s .  Moreover, as New Town  i n d u s t r y g e t s on i t s f e e t , t h e r e i s a tendency f o r r e c r u i t ment of workers t o be n a t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l ,  r a t h e r than i n  response t o an imposed p o l i c y of o v e r s p i l l from a n o t h e r c i t y .  CHAPTER V From t h e "Old" t o t h e "New" —  The meaning of Moving  Moving t o a new home i n a new neighbourhood has t h e same meaning f o r f a m i l i e s who a r e g o i n g i n t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g as i t has f o r any f a m i l y p r e p a r i n g t o move, but w i t h o f t e n some h i g h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s , on t h e one hand, and some f e e l i n g s o f a n x i e t y , on t h e o t h e r .  heightened  There w i l l be a n t i c i p a t i o n  of e n j o y i n g new c l e a n s u r r o u n d i n g s , w i t h new and modern e q u i p ment, w i t h no more o v e r c r o w d i n g , i n which t o b r i n g up c h i l d r e n .  and a decent neighbourhood But t h e r e w i l l be some f e a r  of t h e f a m i l y ' s a b i l i t y t o measure up t o t h e new s t a n d a r d o f the home and neighbourhood, e s p e c i a l l y when t h e move i s from a slum d i s t r i c t t o a s t a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a .  There w i l l be  hope coupled w i t h sadness, and t h e sadness w i l l be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e a v i n g o l d f r i e n d s and neighbours  b e h i n d , perhaps even  an e t h n i c group i n which t h e f a m i l y f e e l s c o m f o r t a b l e .  It  w i l l mean l e a v i n g s c h o o l s and c h u r c h e s , t h e c o r n e r s t o r e , and a l l t h e o t h e r f a m i l i a r p l a c e s t h a t make a neighbourhood one's own.  I n B r i t a i n , t h e move t o t h e l a r g e e s t a t e s i n t h e suburbs  has meant l e a v i n g t h e warmth o f t h e town, t h e " b r i g h t l i g h t s , " and t h e c h e e r f u l n o i s y b u s t l e o f t h e crowds.  in<the U n i t e d  S t a t e s , t h e o p p o s i t e has o f t e n been t r u e as r u r a l  families  have moved i n t o urban h o u s i n g and have had t o make an a d j u s t ment t o a d e n s e l y - p o p u l a t e d  environment, t o t h e n o i s e and h i g h  tempo o f t h e c i t y . F o r f a m i l i e s who a r e l i v i n g i n s l u m - c l e a r a n c e  areas, there  196 i s a n o t h e r f a c t o r t h a t must be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n by h o u s i n g o f f i c i a l s and w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s .  These f a m i l i e s a r e  not moving v o l u n t a r i l y ; t h e y may r e s e n t t h e move, even i f i t means b e t t e r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , r a t h e r than welcome i t .  It  may mean i n c o n v e n i e n c e s t o them t h a t t h e y a r e not prepared t o accept.  I t may mean h i g h e r r e n t a l payments which t h e y a r e un-  a b l e t o meet.  R e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s f a c t o r , and  redevelopment  p l a n n i n g which i n c l u d e s c o n c r e t e measures t o a s s i s t such f a m i l i e s , can go f a r towards f o r e s t a l l i n g problems f o r b o t h t h e h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s and t h e f a m i l i e s concerned.  Proposed  new  h o u s i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s s e e k i n g ways o f a l l e v i a t i n g f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered households.  by d i s p l a c e d  I f a f a m i l y must move t o h i g h e r - c o s t q u a r t e r s ,  t h e r e would be a s u b s i d y f o r up t o two y e a r s t o pay t h e d i f f e r ence between 20 p e r cent o f t h e i r income and t h e i r new r e n t cost.  F o r those d i s p l a c e d f a m i l i e s who cannot a f f o r d t h e  r e n t s charged  i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g , t h e b i l l would make p r o v i s i o n  f o r a s u b s i d y , p a i d t o t h e l o c a l h o u s i n g agency, o f $120 a n n u a l l y f o r each u n i t so o c c u p i e d .  1  In B r i t a i n , t o o , t h e f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s o f moving have a l s o been g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  Under t h e Housing A c t , 1936,  l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s have power t o pay t o any person  displaced  under slum c l e a r a n c e , r e a s o n a b l e a l l o w a n c e s towards t h e expenses o f moving, wherever t h e s e c o u l d not be met w i t h o u t h a r d ship,  i n t h e case o f t r a n s f e r s from one p r o j e c t t o a n o t h e r ,  removal expenses may be charged t o t h e h o u s i n g revenue a c c o u n t . The London County C o u n c i l , f o r example, i s prepared t o pay P r e s i d e n t ' s Message t o Congress, J a n . 27, 1964.  Vancouver's Redevelopment P r o j e c t MacLean Park  Tn  the  new.  197 up t o a maximum of £25  ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y $75.00).  Under the  same A c t , l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s were empowered t o p r o v i d e ture to tenants  on a limited s c a l e .  creased by the Housing A c t , 1949,  These powers have been i n -  which e n a b l e s l o c a l a u t h o r i -  t i e s t o s e l l f u r n i t u r e t o t e n a n t s or s u p p l y i t on an ment p l a n .  Payments f o r i t may  furni-  instal-  be c o l l e c t e d w i t h the r e n t ,  which i n B r i t a i n i s p a y a b l e weekly. As soon as an a r e a has been d e c l a r e d f i t f o r c l e a r a n c e i t c r e a t e s u n c e r t a i n t y about the f u t u r e f o r those it.  living  on  A g r e a t d e a l can be done t o r e l i e v e t h i s a n x i e t y i f f u l l  and a c c u r a t e  i n f o r m a t i o n can be g i v e n t o the f a m i l i e s a f f e c t -  ed, i n a p e r s o n a l v i s i t by a member of the housing  department.  In B r i t a i n , the C e n t r a l Housing A d v i s o r y Committee p o i n t e d out t h a t , i f t h i s were done, the housing  o f f i c e r would  be  g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y of g e t t i n g t o know the f a m i l i e s t o be moved and would thus be a b l e t o c o n s i d e r and meet t h e i r r e q u i r e m e n t s more e a s i l y .  In t h i s way,  a l l o c a t i o n of d w e l l i n g s  c o u l d take i n t o account such m a t t e r s as e x i s t i n g t i e s w i t h neighbours.  F o r example, where two  o r t h r e e f a m i l i e s have  l o n g been r e l y i n g on each o t h e r as n e i g h b o u r s , l o o k f o r each o t h e r ' s h e l p even more i n a new would e a g e r l y welcome a j o i n t move.  The  they may district  well and  Committee s t r e s s e d  the importance of u s i n g humane and w e l l - q u a l i f i e d s t a f f f o r these v i s i t s , because the p r o c e s s r e q u i r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e s k i l l and in  choosing  of t r a n s p l a n t i n g f a m i l i e s  judgment i n a s s e s s i n g needs,  the r i g h t k i n d of a l t e r n a t i v e accommodation, and  i n p l a c i n g f a m i l i e s on the p r o j e c t s . t i n g up of a b r i e f t r a i n i n g course s t a f f who  I t recommended the s e t -  f o r housing  have never b e f o r e had e x p e r i e n c e  management  of slum  clearance  198 as t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t h a t "such a course would not o n l y p r o v i d e v e r y u s e f u l t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n but would h e l p those a t t e n d i n g i t t o approach slum c l e a r a n c e w i t h a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e human as w e l l as t h e p h y s i c a l problems  involved.  1 , 1  B e i n g o b l i g e d t o move may have even more meaning f o r o l d p e o p l e l i v i n g i n a redevelopment  area.  While some w i l l be  q u i t e ready t o l e a v e f o r b e t t e r and h e a l t h i e r s u r r o u n d i n g s , o t h e r s , who have l i v e d a l o n g time i n t h e i r p r e s e n t homes, w i l l be l o a t h e t o break t h e l i n k s w i t h t h e p a s t .  Where pos-  s i b l e , i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o house o l d p e o p l e on o r near t h e c l e a r e d s i t e , as was done i n MacLean Park i n Vancouver. The p e r p l e x i t i e s o f a move t o a new house a r e c l e a r l y much g r e a t e r f o r t h e e l d e r l y than f o r o t h e r s .  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e dread o f  change which i s u s u a l i n o l d age, some o f them may s i m p l y f e e l t h a t t h e whole p r o c e s s i s beyond them.  Going t o see t h e new  house, g i v i n g up u n s u i t a b l e f u r n i t u r e , t a k i n g down c u r t a i n s , c o n s t i t u t e some o f t h e p h y s i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d .  Fur-  t h e r w o r r i e s may a r i s e from s e p a r a t i o n from r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s on whom t h e y depend f o r h e l p , and from t h e l o s s o f social contacts.  I f t h e r e i s no one t o h e l p them, o l d people  f i n d the move q u i t e overwhelming. has been r e c o g n i z e d .  In B r i t a i n , t h i s  problem  Some Old People's W e l f a r e Committees  have r e c r u i t e d a team o f h e l p e r s t o l i g h t f i r e s , hang c u r t a i n s , arrange f u r n i t u r e , make beds and so on. Much a s s i s t a n c e can be g i v e n by h o u s i n g managers through i n t r o d u c t i o n s t o l o c a l o l d p e o p l e ' s c l u b s , and t o t h e i r immediate  neighbours.  Wel-  coming Committees, t o o , a r e e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e t o t h e aged. "Moving from t h e Slums," Se y e n t h Rep o r t • o f t h e H qus i n g Management Sub-Committee o f the" 'Central Housing "Tid'v i s dry VommZtteeT H".Tyr.S".'07"Xonc1oh'', r95o*'. ; 1  -  199 But f o r most f a m i l i e s , d e s p i t e t h e s e f e a r s and  regrets,  the chance t o move t o b e t t e r accommodation a l s o means a chance at a b e t t e r l i f e .  I t i s a c r i t i c a l p o i n t i n the  family's  ongoing f u n c t i o n i n g , a p o i n t a t which the f a m i l y can move f o r w a r d i f helped t o do so, or s u f f e r f u r t h e r f e e l i n g s of f e a t ; l o s s of m o t i v a t i o n  through d i s a p p o i n t m e n t and  s t r e s s e s w i t h which t o cope.  The  question  may  be  new  asked  whether f a m i l i e s moving i n t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g r e a l i z e an proved standard  t h a t t h e r e may  their  F i r s t , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t o suggest  be improvement i n the p h y s i c a l h e a l t h of p e r -  sons so rehoused, and, well-being.  im-  of l i v i n g , or whether i t f a l l s s h o r t of  hopes and e x p e c t a t i o n s .  de-  secondly,  e v i d e n c e of p s y c h o l o g i c a l  For instance, Putter r e p o r t s :  " . . . i n a s t u d y of the e f f e c t s of h o u s i n g on m o r b i d i t y and mental h e a l t h conducted a t John Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y , r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t i n f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g (as compared w i t h a c o n t r o l group not l i v i n g i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g ) t h e r e were 1) a l o w e r i n c i d e n c e of i l l n e s s , 2) fewer severe e p i s o d e s of i l l n e s s , 3) a l o w e r r a t e of d i s a b i l i t y , and 4) a lower i n c i d e n c e of a c c i d e n t s . . . . " ! •.Although many c r e d i t a b l e s t u d i e s have shown t h a t p e o p l e who  are l i v i n g i n good h o u s i n g a r e , i n the main, h e a l t h i e r  t h a n those who  l i v e i n s u b - s t a n d a r d d w e l l i n g s and,  certain diseases,  that f o r  n o t a b l y the e n t e r i c i n f e c t i o n s and  c u l o s i s , m o r b i d i t y and  tuber-  m o r t a l i t y r a t e s f o r those l i v i n g i n  sound s a n i t a r y s t r u c t u r e s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r than f o r f a m i l i e s and  i n d i v i d u a l s l i v i n g i n sub-standard housing,  not  enough a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o the p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s  P u t t e r , " S o c i a l Work and  P u b l i c H o u s i n g , " S o c i a l Work.  200 of bad and  housing.  Family L i f e  disease  M a c k i n t o s h r e f e r s t o t h i s i n h i s book H o u s i n g when he s t a t e s t h a t "the symptoms of slum-  are perhaps l e s s d e f i n i t e , but t h e y are not l e s s r e a l  t h a n those of p h y s i c a l i n f i r m i t y .  Only a s t u d e n t of l i f e  in  an u n h e a l t h y a r e a can grasp t h e i r f u l l meaning, and the words, ' d e j e c t e d ' , ' d i s h e a r t e n e d ' , 'exasperated , and 1  other s i m i l a r  terms have a s e r i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n r e l a t i o n t o n a t i o n a l h e a l t h and  well-being."  1  At Regent's Park ( N o r t h ) , Rose s t a t e s t h a t "a g r e a t  pre-  ponderance of p o s i t i v e responses c o n c e r n i n g the e f f e c t s of r e h o u s i n g upon the p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g of f a m i l i e s f o r m e r l y r e s i d e n t i n s u b - s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g d e s e r v e s p a r t i c u l a r emphasis. In t h i s r e s p e c t  one  cannot f a i l t o be impressed by the  a p p r o x i m a t i o n of t e n a n t and p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n . " t o say t h a t , d e s p i t e the absence of s t a t i s t i c a l  He  close continues  information,  t h e r e emerged f a i r l y c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t c o n t a g i o u s d i s ease was  l e s s frequent  among c h i l d r e n .  among rehoused f a m i l i e s , e s p e c i a l l y  C o n c e r n i n g s p e c i f i c i l l n e s s e s such as r e s p i r -  a t o r y i n f e c t i o n s , c o l d s , pneumonia, asthma, the e v i d e n c e of improvement was  conclusive, too.  There was  f o r e , t h a t p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and  no doubt, t h e r e -  e m o t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s con-  t r i b u t e d t o t h i s improvement most s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  Rose based h i s  e v i d e n c e on r e s e a r c h undertaken f o r a M a s t e r of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s by a former P u b l i c H e a l t h  Nurse.  2  On the o t h e r hand, t h e r e i s much e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t p r o j e c t l i v i n g c r e a t e s problems t h a t m i t i g a t e a g a i n s t a f a m i l y ' s M a c k i n t o s h , op.  c i t . , p.  Rose, qp. c i t . , p.  150.  46.  201 a b i l i t y t o l i v e up t o t h e community's expected s t a n d a r d s of behaviour.  (There w i l l a l s o be many d i s a d v a n t a g e d f a m i l i e s  who w i l l b r i n g a host of i n t e r f a m i l i a l and s o c i a l problems w i t h them).  I t has been s a i d t h a t t h e b e h a v i o u r of problem  f a m i l i e s , may, i n p a r t , be a p r o d u c t of the a c t i v i t i e s o f nonproblem p e r s o n s .  1  T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s o c i a l s c i e n c e and  economic t h e o r y which more and more c l e a r l y i s d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t t h e more a f f l u e n t and advantaged members of our s o c i e t y are p e r p e t u a t i n g  the c u l t u r e o f p o v e r t y  through n e g l e c t i n g t o  share w i t h the p o o r , o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n e d u c a t i o n , f a r e and employment.  health,  wel-  These a r e broad i s s u e s , but t h e y p o i n t  t o t h e n e c e s s i t y t h a t the problems t h a t a r i s e , both f o r f a m i l i e s and  management, i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g developments, be brought i n -  t o p e r s p e c t i v e and examined f o r r o o t causes.  Planning  solu-  t i o n s can then be based on a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of causes, and,  t h e r e f o r e , w i l l be more l i k e l y t o be s u c c e s s f u l . As has been noted above, when a f a m i l y moves t o new hous-  ing,  t h e r e w i l l be t h e e x p e c t a t i o n  t h a t i t w i l l be a b e t t e r  p l a c e i n which t o b r i n g up c h i l d r e n , t h e r e w i l l be s a f e grounds i n s t e a d of c h i l d r e n r u n n i n g be open space i n s t e a d of c o n g e s t i o n .  on t h e s t r e e t s , t h e r e  will  The e x p e c t a t i o n w i l l be  of freedom from a t l e a s t some o f t h e d i s c o m f o r t of slum l i v i n g .  play-  and a l s o worry  T h i s h o l d s t r u e whether t h e new h o u s i n g i s i n  a new d i s t r i c t o r i n t h e o l d one r e d e v e l o p e d .  B u t , i f when t h e  f a m i l y moves, t h e y f i n d t h a t , f o r example, a main a r t e r i a l s t r e e t runs through t h e p r o j e c t p r o p e r t y ,  or that the only  C h a r l e s V. W i l l i e , Morton 0. Wagonfeld, Lee J . Cary, The; E f f e c t of S o c i a l J3ery i c e upon, R e n t a l _ P a y i n g [ P a t t e r n s ^of Low-income ^ r ~ Q j j [ ^ ^ Youth" DeV'eTop merit "Cenfef 1~'"'Syracuse 1  202 p l a y g r o u n d s are a few a r e a s of cement o r a s p h a l t , t h a t the h o u s i n g u n i t s are crowded c l o s e l y t o g e t h e r , t h e n the o l d problems are s t i l l p r e s e n t . t h a t l e d t o neighbourhood  I t f o l l o w s t h a t any r e l i e f of s t r e s s c o n f l i c t i n the o l d d i s t r i c t has  t a k e n p l a c e and the c o n f l i c t s w i l l c o n t i n u e i n the new trict.  not  dis-  Wherever a l a r g e group of c h i l d r e n are gathered t o g e -  t h e r (and our s t u d y has shown the h i g h number of c h i l d r e n i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g ) w i t h nowhere t o go and n o t h i n g t o do, t r o u b l e i s bound t o a r i s e , between both the c h i l d r e n and t h e i r p a r e n t s , which the h o u s i n g management may  be c a l l e d on t o r e s o l v e .  Is  t h i s the f a u l t of the people i n v o l v e d , o r i s i t a r e s u l t of poor p l a n n i n g of the p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s of the p r o j e c t i n the f i r s t place?  Can we expect f a m i l i e s i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g t o be  good neighbours w i t h o u t the a m e n i t i e s of a good  neighbourhood?  In the U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t a i n , many of the new developments have been b u i l t i n the suburbs q u i t e i s o l a t e d from n e c e s s a r y s e r v i c e s .  housing  of towns, o f t e n  T h i s has not taken  p l a c e i n Vancouver, a l t h o u g h the Skeena p r o j e c t i s on the v e r y edge of the c i t y , l o c a t e d next t o an i n d u s t r i a l a r e a , and f o r many f a m i l i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the aged, moving t o t h i s p r o j e c t has meant a move from down town t o v i r t u a l l y out of town. c o s t s of g e t t i n g t o work, t o r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , p i n g c e n t e r s , o r even t o v i s i t  The  t o shop-  f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s , are v e r y  r e a l concerns f o r people l i v i n g on low incomes, and i f t h e i r p r o j e c t i s t o o f a r removed from urban c e n t e r s the r e s u l t be i s o l a t i o n and l a c k of normal s o c i a l l i f e . to  may  I f i t c o s t s more  get t o work, o r i f a woman must take the bus t o do the  f a m i l y shopping, o r t o t a k e the c h i l d r e n t o the d e n t i s t , o r , as has happened i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , pay bus f a r e f o r them  203 t o go t o s c h o o l , then t h e r e may not be enough money l e f t t o pay t h e r e n t .  I n a study o f t h e 'expanded' town of Swindon  i n E n g l a n d , t h e most c o n s i s t e n t c r i t i c i s m made by t h e t e n a n t s itfas t h e l a c k o f shopping f a c i l i t i e s .  The m a j o r i t y of f a m i l i e s  had been used t o a wide range o f shops l i t e r a l l y doorstep."  "on t h e i r  I n r e l a t i o n t o p o p u l a t i o n s i z e , t h e r e was no  doubt, t h a t t h e number o f shops on some o f t h e e s t a t e s was comp a r a t i v e l y low. The n e c e s s i t y t o p l a n t h e shopping was ano t h e r "adjustment" which t o o k some time t o make. The  c o n s t a n t ' s t r a i n o f t r y i n g t o g e t by on a v e r y  little  money, and t h e t e n s i o n t h i s a r o u s e s , I s i n c r e a s e d when new items a r e added t o t h e budget.  A g a i n , t h i s i s unnecessary i f  planning f o r p u b l i c housing l o c a t i o n took i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n these f a c t o r s o f expense f o r t h e f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n t h e p r o jects.  Can we expect p e o p l e t o pay t h e i r r e n t s p r o m p t l y i f  we burden them w i t h added c o s t s of l i v i n g ? The  p h y s i c a l aspects  o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g have some f u r t h e r  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e g o a l o f r a i s i n g t h e m o t i v a t i o n o f lowincome f a m i l i e s , o f g i v i n g them a chance t o b e t t e r t h e m s e l v e s . I f a n y t h i n g has been l e a r n e d from p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i t must be t h a t b u i l d i n g h i g h - r i s e apartments f o r . f a m i l y l i v i n g i s a complete m i s t a k e .  I t may be argued t h a t  t h i s type o f b u i l d i n g c u t s h o u s i n g c o s t s , but a t what expense to the emotional  l i v e s o f mothers and c h i l d r e n ?  Again, are  we not d e l i b e r a t e l y p u t t i n g o b s t a c l e s i n t h e way of a c h i e v i n g f u l l b e n e f i t f o r f a m i l i e s o f t h e advantages o f good accommodation?  As one t e n a n t  living  has so a p t l y put i t , "Who can  mind a f o u r y e a r o l d from a seventh s t o r e y window?"  The.  r e s u l t i s that the c h i l d r e n stay i n , or play i n the h a l l s of  204 the b l o c k .  One  would wonder a l s o whether the c o s t s of main-  t a i n i n g t h e s e b l o c k s do not s u b s t a n t i a l l y exceed the c o s t maintaining  of  s m a l l e r u n i t s i n which the t e n a n t s would have an  i n t e r e s t and  investment f o r themselves i n l o o k i n g a f t e r t h e i r  p i e c e of p r o p e r t y .  Mrs.  Dorothy Montgomery of P h i l a d e l p h i a ' s  P r i v a t e Housing A s s o c i a t i o n has  spoken out s t r o n g l y  against  the c o n t i n u a t i o n of h o u s i n g f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n i n h i g h rise blocks.  In r e f e r e n c e  t o the Columbia P o i n t p r o j e c t  s c r i b e d i n the opening c h a p t e r of t h i s r e p o r t , she has  de-  said,  " I t ' s more or l e s s t y p i c a l i n t h a t i t s m i s t a k e s are b e i n g peated a l l over the c o u n t r y . w i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n  There's no r e a s o n why of New  York, should  any  Yet we  city  go on p u t t i n g  up h i g h - r i s e p r o j e c t s w i t h a l l t h e i r b u i l t - i n e v i l s . p l e n t y of land i n most c i t i e s .  re-  There's  go on b u i l d i n g t h e s e  monstrosities." T h i s same"lack of r e a l i z a t i o n of the needs of young f a m i l i e s has been commented on i n r e l a t i o n t o the London County C o u n c i l e s t a t e of Lansbury i n B r i t a i n .  Despite  a v a r i e t y of  t y p e s of h o u s i n g on the e s t a t e , the a l l o c a t i o n of these not-made a c c o r d i n g houses and cupied  by  t o need.  In 1953,  o n e - t h i r d of the  was scarce  ground f l o o r " m a i s o n e t t e s " w i t h gardens were oc" a d u l t " households w i t h no c h i l d r e n under t e n  a l t h o u g h the needs of t h e s e f a m i l i e s c o u l d have been met  years, in  f l a t s or upper m a i s o n e t t e s of e q u a l s i z e . 1 Anothe r of the advantages of new l o o k f o r w a r d t o i s an end been s u b j e c t e d  housing that f a m i l i e s  t o o v e r c r o w d i n g t h a t t h e y may  t o i n substandard h o u s i n g .  Westergaard and  G l a s s , op _ c i t .  In the  United  have  205 S t a t e s t h i s has not always proved t o be the end r e s u l t when a f a m i l y moves i n t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g .  In B a l t i m o r e ' s s t u d y of  problem f a m i l i e s i n i t s p r o j e c t s i t was found t h a t 17 p e r c e n t of  the w h i t e problem f a m i l i e s l i v e d  too  small f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s .  cent of t h e Negro f a m i l i e s .  i n apartments t h a t were  The same was t r u e f o r 37 p e r F u r t h e r , crowding among problem  f a m i l i e s exceeded t h a t f o r p r o j e c t f a m i l i e s as a whole.  In  e v e r y s i z e d w e l l i n g u n i t , the average number of occupants among the  problem f a m i l i e s was i n e x c e s s of the number f o r the p r o -  j e c t f a m i l i e s as a w h o l e .  1  In a n o t h e r s t u d y done i n the  U n i t e d S t a t e s , l a c k of space was g i v e n as a r e a s o n f o r f r e e c h o i c e move-out from p u b l i c h o u s i n g by a s i g n i f i c a n t number of f a m i l i e s .  Seven p e r c e n t , on the a v e r a g e , l e f t  primarily  because t h e y were unable t o get l a r g e r accommodation i n the  2 projects.  These f a c t s p o i n t t o the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the  p a r t of h o u s i n g o f f i c i a l s t o p l a n the s i z e of f a m i l y u n i t s i n accordance w i t h the knowledge  t h a t f a m i l i e s do grow l a r g e r .  Our s t u d y has shown the i n c r e a s e s t h a t o c c u r i n the s i z e of f a m i l i e s as t h e y c o n t i n u e t o l i v e i n the p r o j e c t s ( T a b l e s 15, 18)  .  Of c o u r s e , i t i s o b v i o u s l y i m p o s s i b l e t o p l a n so t h a t  a l l f a m i l i e s can get u n i t s of a p p r o p r i a t e s i z e when t h e y need them. the of  N o n e t h e l e s s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t checks be kept upon  space r e q u i r e m e n t s of low-income  f a m i l i e s so t h a t the s i z e  new u n i t s w i l l b e a r a r e l a t i o n t o the needs of the p o p u l a -  t i o n t o be s e r v e d . B a l t i m o r e Housing A u t h o r i t y , Problem F a m i l i e s i n P u b l i c H ousting. H.H.F.A.-P.H.A., " M o b i l i t y and M o t i v a t i o n s - - S u r v e y of F_a.milies ,Mqvin_g from _L~o¥-T?ent ^3fiUs"'in^\"' ^Aprf 1^ T95%~. ~~ 2  L  ,r  206 In a d d i t i o n t o t h e p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s which have a b e a r i n g on t h e k i n d o f adjustment which a f a m i l y w i l l be a b l e t o make when moving t o a new home i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g , t h e r e w i l l  also  be s o c i a l f a c t o r s o f t h e new environment t h a t a f f e c t t h i s adjustment o r r e s u l t i n f a i l u r e o f a d j u s t m e n t .  A number of  these f a c t o r s have a l r e a d y been noted i n t h i s r e p o r t but t h e y can be summarized and r e f o c u s s e d here f o r purposes o f c l a r i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r h o u s i n g management and w e l fare agencies. F e e l i n g s o f i s o l a t i o n have been d i s c u s s e d as t h e s e r e s u l t from removal from f r i e n d s and accustomed of  a c t i v i t i e s , and l a c k  money t o v i s i t r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s .  In the United  S t a t e s , because t h e p r o j e c t s a r e huge and i m p e r s o n a l , many f a m i l i e s have i s o l a t e d themselves from t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s out of  f e a r , and l a c k o f s o c i a l s k i l l s .  They l i v e w i t h a k i n d of  low-key, but c o n s t a n t , u n d e r c u r r e n t o f a p p r e h e n s i o n .  In B r i -  t a i n , a t W o r s l e y , w h i c h i s an expanded town, t h e f a m i l i e s themselves t o t h e m s e l v e s " , t h e y became "home-centred" than "community c o n s c i o u s " .  rather  E n e r g i e s were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e  home,"in t h e garden and around t h e T.V. s e t . the  "kept  F o r many f a m i l i e s  new p a t t e r n of l i f e was e n j o y e d , o r a t l e a s t a c c e p t e d as a  n e c e s s a r y consequence  o f t h e i r h a v i n g "improved  themselves".  But f o r o t h e r s , t h e s o c i a l c l i m a t e of t h e e s t a t e , t h e c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e t o conform t o a d i f f e r e n t way o f l i f e ,  the s t r a i n of  l o n g j o u r n e y s t o work and t h e s e p a r a t i o n from r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s a l l combined t o make l i f e u n p l e a s a n t and b a r r e n . I t was t h e t o t a l i t y of t h e s i t u a t i o n r a t h e r than any one change which produced t h i s r e a c t i o n .  1  Young and W i l l m o t t i n t h e i r  J.B. C u l l i n g w o r t h , " S o c i a l ^ I m p l i c a t i o n s o f O v e r s p i l l : t h e Worsley. S o c i a l S u r v e y " , The S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, J u l y , i 9 6 0 . 1  207 s u r v e y o f 'Greenleigh>, and Mogey i n h i s s u r v e y o f B a r t o n , a l l commented on t h i s " r e t r e a t t o the home" p a t t e r n on t h e new estates.  Moreover,  an i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d y o f t h e i n c i d e n c e o f  n e u r o s i s which was made on one e s t a t e , r e v e a l e d t h a t a d m i s s i o n s t o h o s p i t a l w i t h t h i s d i a g n o s i s were t w i c e t h e f i g u r e o f t h e n a t i o n a l average —  t h e i n c i d e n c e b e i n g much h i g h e r among wo-  men than among men.  1  Views as t o t h e cause o f t h i s  differ.  F i n a n c i a l and o t h e r p e r s o n a l w o r r i e s a r e blamed, and t h e sense of  i s o l a t i o n which many young w i v e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , might  is also a factor.  feel  One m e d i c a l o f f i c e r h o l d s t h e view t h a t  the v e r y open l a y - o u t s on some e s t a t e s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s sense o f i s o l a t i o n among those who have come from a r e a s o f high density. T h i s r e p o r t has demonstrated  the high p r o p o r t i o n of e l -  d e r l y and broken f a m i l i e s who a r e l i v i n g i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g . These groups e s p e c i a l l y , may have problems  o f l o n e l i n e s s , and  even l e s s money than t h e o t h e r k i n d s o f f a m i l i e s t o e n j o y a needed break from t h e d u l l n e s s o r s t r e s s of everyday  living.  M e n t a l h e a l t h demands t h a t t h e r e be some enjoyment and r e l a x a t i o n f o r each p e r s o n .  I f t h i s f a c t i s acknowledged,  then i t  f o l l o w s t h a t i t i s common sense, i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t f u r t h e r breakdown i n f a m i l i e s , t h a t t h e more a f f l u e n t members o f s o c i e t y share some o f t h e i r advantages w i t h t h e l e s s a f f l u e n t . One way t h i s can be done i s by t h e p r o v i s i o n i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s of r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , equipment, and hobby rooms.  such as game rooms, movie  But f a m i l i e s who have l e a r n e d t o  F. M. M a r t i n , J.H.F. B r o t h e r s t o n and S.P.W. Chave, " I n c i d e n c e o f N e u r o s i s i n a New Housing E s t a t e " , B r i t i s h "journal of P r e v e n t i v e and S o c i a l M e d i c i n e , OctV V-FST'. 1  208 e x p e c t n o t h i n g , o f t e n cannot make use out h e l p t o do so.  of such f a c i l i t i e s  with-  I t i s a l s o an o b l i g a t i o n of our s o c i e t y  t o see t h a t such h e l p i s o f f e r e d and made a v a i l a b l e . T h i s has been done i n many cases by h o u s i n g management i t s e l f , o r by h o u s i n g management j o i n t l y w i t h w e l f a r e c i e s i n the community.  agen-  In some of the Vancouver p r o j e c t s the  management has encouraged the f o r m a t i o n  of Tenant  Councils  which serve as forums f o r d i s c u s s i o n of common problems, which a l s o promote i n t e r e s t groups and  and  recreational activi-  t i e s , w i t h the h e l p of management, f o r the p r o j e c t r e s i d e n t s . Three Vancouver p r o j e c t s produce a n e w s l e t t e r f o r the d e v e l o p ment.  At the Skeena p r o j e c t , a Tenant C o u n c i l i s i n the  cess of f o r m a t i o n .  At t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t ' a l s o , the management  has a s s i s t e d i n the f o r m a t i o n  of a teen-age c l u b who  t e e n a g e r s from o u t s i d e the p r o j e c t , and a T o t - S p o t . i s a k i n d of c o - o p e r a t i v e in supervising.  pro-  invite in The  latter  n u r s e r y which the mothers take  There are a l s o Scout and  Cub  turns  groups a c t i v e .  A l l t h i s has been done d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t t h e r e are no equate f a c i l i t i e s  ad-  i n any of Vancouver's p r o j e c t s f o r h o l d i n g  a meeting o r a c l u b s e s s i o n .  F o r example, the Tenant's  A s s o c i a t i o n of Orchard Park must r e n t a room i n a nearby Church t o h o l d i t s m e e t i n g s .  Housing Management i n Vancouver  has a l s o encouraged and a i d e d the h e a l t h a g e n c i e s t o b r i n g t h e i r programs i n t o the p r o j e c t s ; some i l l u s t r a t i o n s are V i c t o r i a n Order of Nurses, the P u b l i c H e a l t h Nurses and c u l o s i s mobile  the tuber-  clinic.  I t seems q u e s t i o n a b l e ,  however, whether b o t h h o u s i n g  management and w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s have t a k e n f u l l advantage of a l l the methods a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l of h e l p i n g f a m i l i e s a d j u s t  209 t o p r o j e c t l i v i n g , and a l s o whether t h e y have made f u l l use of t h e , perhaps u n r e c o g n i z e d , p o t e n t i a l o f t h e h o u s i n g t e n a n t s themselves.  F o r example, as has been d i s c u s s e d , moving t o a  new home can h o l d a number o f f e a r s f o r low-income f a m i l i e s . One s u g g e s t i o n  t o h e l p overcome t h i s i s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a  welcoming o r o r i e n t a t i o n program, f o r t h e new t e n a n t s , i n which b o t h t h e management and o l d e r r e s i d e n t s c o u l d Such a program would i n c l u d e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e necessary t o the tenant,  join.  information  and a l s o such i n f o r m a t i o n as would  enable him t o make a b e t t e r s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t .  Introductions  t o o t h e r t e n a n t s , a warm welcome, o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e p r o j e c t and  t h e neighbourhood would go f a r t o a l l e v i a t i n g f e e l i n g s o f  s t r a n g e n e s s , and would r e i n f o r c e t h e I d e a t h a t t h i n g s b e ^ d i f f e r e n t than t h e y had been.  could  I n o t h e r words, a good r e l a -  t i o n s h i p t o t h e p r o j e c t c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d from t h e b e g i n ning. One o f t h e i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s about Vancouver's p r o j e c t s i s t h a t a number o f d i f f e r e n t r a c i a l and e t h n i c groups a r e l i v i n g together  i n them w i t h no e v i d e n c e o f disharmony because  of these d i f f e r e n c e s . the t o l e r a n c e s  T h i s has t h e advantage o f b r o a d e n i n g  o f c h i l d r e n and p r e v e n t i n g  founded p r e j u d i c e .  t h e growth o f un-  I t a r i s e s t h a t f u r t h e r use c o u l d be made  of t h i s good atmosphere.  S i n c e t h e c u l t u r e s of o t h e r coun-  t r i e s a r e o f t e n not understood o r l i t t l e known by Canadians, t h e r e a r e i n these s i t u a t i o n s p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r e x t e n d i n g t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o u r young people t h r o u g h p a r t i e s , o r even s m a l l group i n t e r e s t c l u b s , sponsored by t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of o t h e r c u l t u r e s . Many people a l s o , coming t o l i v e i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g , w i l l b r i n g s p e c i a l s k i l l s o r l e a d e r s h i p p o t e n t i a l i t y which may be  210 encouraged t o a s s i s t t h e l e s s a b l e , both by I n s t r u c t i o n , a n d example.  A c a r p e n t e r might be asked t o o r g a n i z e  the b u i l d i n g  of some p l a y g r o u n d equipment; f i n d i n g t h e m a t e r i a l s might be the j o b o f some o f t h e p o t e n t i a l l e a d e r s . maker c o u l d t e a c h o t h e r s h e r s k i l l s .  A skillful  home-  An o l d man c o u l d  tell  about t h e e a r l y days i n Vancouver t o a group o f s m a l l boys, and an o l d l a d y t e a c h some l i t t l e g i r l s t o k n i t o r c r o c h e t . S o c i a l work has demonstrated t h a t p e o p l e grow and change when t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i t i e s a r e supported and when t h e y themselves become engaged i n t h e p l a n n i n g  of a c t i v i t i e s , but t h a t  this  does not happen when ready-made programs, are imposed on them. The  U n i t e d S t a t e s J o i n t Task Force o f t h e Department o f  Health, Education,  and W e l f a r e and t h e Housing and Home F i n a n c e  Agency, emphasizes t h i s f a c t i n t h e i r b o o k l e t d e s i g n e d t o a i d S t a t e and l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n p l a n n i n g programs f o r p u b l i c housing  tenants:  ^.A^.IPJL ;^^  ^he ^voice o f r e s i d e n t s must ^5,.A -.^^ and t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n s_ought Ip r e a c h i n g d e c i s i o n s as t o where t o be;gin; t h a t i s , i n ^ i d e n t i f y ing _the" problems' or^ho'^ . 1  ,R^" ,^ ^A n  n  e  1  To sum up, when a f a m i l y moves from an o l d home t o a new one,  t h i s can be a c r i t i c a l p o i n t i n t h e f a m i l y ' s l i f e , e s -  p e c i a l l y i f t h i s i s a deprived housing,  household moving i n t o p u b l i c  who sees t h e move as a chance f o r a b e t t e r l i f e .  It  i s t o o u r g r e a t advantage t o understand how t h e f a m i l y f e e l s a t t h i s p o i n t i n i t s c a r e e r , and t o support t h e s t r e n g t h s t h e f a m i l y may have, i n o r d e r t o ensure t h a t t h i s e x p e r i e n c e  does  U.S. Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and W e l f a r e , and H.H.F.A., Services, f o r F a m i l i e s L i v i n g i n P u b l i c H o u s i n g , p. 4.  211 not prove t o be a n o t h e r d i s a p p o i n t m e n t on top of a l o n g s e r i e s of d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s .  Some ways i n which t h i s can be done have  been s u g g e s t e d , but t h e r e are many o t h e r s t h a t would be ful also.  I t means t h a t t h e r e must be an emphasis on  t i v e r a t h e r than on c o n v e n t i o n a l , s t e r e o t y p e d t h e r e must be a p p r o p r i a t e  help-  imagina-  t h i n k i n g , and  s t a f f , not t o o overworked w i t h  to-day a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t o e x e r c i s e and  implement i t .  day-  The  Joint  Task Force s t r e s s e s t h i s p o i n t a l s o , c a l l i n g f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p by s k i l l e d selves i n co-operative ty  workers who  can a s s i s t r e s i d e n t s them-  e f f o r t s t o improve f a m i l y and  communi-  life. I t has been s t a t e d , but i s worth r e p e a t i n g , t h a t w h i l e a  s m a l l group of t e n a n t s w i l l be problems t o the management and t o the community, the m a j o r i t y of f a m i l i e s l i v i n g h o u s i n g w i l l be maintaining  "...occupied  p r i m a r i l y with earning a  a home, c a r i n g f o r and  and  1  But these same f a m i l i e s w i l l be  j e c t t o the s t r e s s e s of l i v i n g s e c u r i t y and e m o t i o n a l  on a low-income —  i n s e c u r i t y . And  i n c r e a s e d by poor p r o j e c t d e s i g n ,  these s t r e s s e s may  t h a t i n the  be  and planning  c l o s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n be g i v e n t o these f o u r  as programs are d e v e l o p e d .  F o r , embodied i n these  f a c t o r s are the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g p r i n c i p l e s which w i l l mean  U.S. Department of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e and H.H.F.A., S e r v i c e s f o r F a m i l i e s L i v i n g i n P u b l l ^ c ^ o ^ s J - n g . 1  sub-  economic i n -  location, f a c i l i t i e s  I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , important  of p u b l i c h o u s i n g , aspects  development,  o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e u s e f u l l y i n the  l i f e of the community."  management.  living,  r e a r i n g c h i l d r e n , and  a s s u r i n g f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n h e a l t h y growth and an e d u c a t i o n  in public  212 s u c c e s s f u l p r o j e c t s meeting a community need i n a d e s i r a b l e and r e s p e c t e d f a s h i o n , o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , u n s u c c e s s f u l p r o j e c t s which p r e s e n t problems t o the h o u s i n g management, t o the t e n a n t s and t o the community. The f u r t h e r f a c t o r of the importance  of i n c l u d i n g i n any  r e h o u s i n g development o r new p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g for  neighbourhood  s e r v i c e s t o meet t h e needs of a l l k i n d s of  f a m i l i e s , cannot be o v e r - s t r e s s e d . F o r t h i s i s what makes the d i f f e r e n c e between I s o l a t i o n o r i n t e g r a t i o n . b i l i t y of h o u s i n g o f f i c i a l s  The r e s p o n s i -  does not end w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c -  t i o n of d w e l l i n g u n i t s , but e x t e n d s , not o n l y t o the o t h e r necessary f a c i l i t i e s  on the p r o j e c t i t s e l f , but t o the n e i g h -  bourhood where the p r o j e c t w i l l be l o c a t e d .  Joint planning  w i t h the s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s of the community i s needed t o ensure the s u c c e s s of the program b e f o r e t r o u b l e d e v e l o p s  be-  cause of gaps i n s e r v i c e o r l a c k s of n e c e s s a r y a m e n i t i e s . Through p u b l i c h o u s i n g we a r e o f f e r i n g f a m i l i e s a b e t t e r s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g .  We expect them t o respond w i t h a b e t t e r  s t a n d a r d of behaviour.'  But e x p e r i e n c e has shown t h a t some  f a m i l i e s cannot respond  i n t h i s way w i t h o u t s u b s t a n t i a l h e l p  and encouragement, many o t h e r s need o n l y a l i t t l e h e l p , and some w i l l need none a t a l l .  But f o r a l l t h r e e of these  levels  of a d j u s t m e n t , the " s t a n d a r d of b e h a v i o u r " a c h i e v e d w i l l  be  d i r e c t l y dependent on whether the p r o j e c t ' m e e t s the r e a s o n a b l e needs o f f a m i l i e s , w i t h o u t a d d i n g unnecessary  strains  u n r e a l i s t i c d e s i g n and u n t e n a b l e r e g u l a t i o n s and Good h o u s i n g i n good neighbourhoods  of  policies.  i s as much an  c a t i o n of a n a t i o n ' s p r o v i s i o n f o r the h e a l t h and  through  indi-  prosperity  i t s c i t i z e n s as are e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and  public  213 h e a l t h programs.  Yet Canada, which does not h e s i t a t e t o  s u b s i d i z e the two l a t t e r w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , i s slow t o a c c e p t the i d e a of p u b l i c h o u s i n g as a s i m i l a r w e l f a r e n e c e s s i t y . But the 1961  Census i n Canada showed t h a t 1,006,356 homes  were d e s i g n a t e d as e i t h e r i n major need of r e p a i r o r overcrowded.  1  T h i s huge b a c k l o g of substandard h o u s i n g i s a  c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of the need f o r a g r e a t l y expanded program of p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Canada i n l i n e w i t h what has been accomp l i s h e d i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , p r o f i t i n g both from t h e i r n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n the p u r s u i t of the commonly h e l d g o a l of the e l i m i n a t i o n of slums, and the p r o v i s i o n of a decent and a t t r a c t i v e home f o r each and e v e r y  1  Canada Year Book, 1963-1964, Housing  household.  Statistics.  APPENDIX A  i APPENDIX A Social  Surveys  Data from a number of s o c i a l s u r v e y s has been used i n the t e x t . of  I t might be of some i n t e r e s t here t o d e s c r i b e some  them and i n d i c a t e the k i n d s of f e a t u r e s t h a t t h e y have  stressed. Three s t u d i e s of urban a r e a s of the t y p e s from which most of those moving t o the h o u s i n g e s t a t e s come,throw l i g h t on the degree of a d a p t a t i o n t h e y a r e c a l l e d on t o make. ll^^J^illS^L^  > J.M. Mogey compares l i f e  In  i n St.  Ebbe's (an o l d d i s t r i c t i n the c e n t r e of O x f o r d ) w i t h l i f e  at  B a r t o n , an e s t a t e on the o u t s k i r t s t o which many from S t . Ebbe's have moved.  B a r t o n was b u i l t between 1946  and c o n s i s t s of 1006 unit..  and  1950  houses w i t h g a r d e n s , b u i l t as a s i n g l e  In i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n the l e s s o n s of pre-war y e a r s were  u n f o r t u n a t e l y d i s r e g a r d e d i n the urgent p r e s s of b u i l d i n g more and more houses'.'  Mogey's s t u d y was f i n a n c e d by the  Board of S o c i a l S t u d i e s of Oxford U n i v e r s i t y , supplemented a g r a n t from the N u f f i e l d F o u n d a t i o n .  by  F a m i l y and K i n s h i p i n  E a s t London, by M. Young and P. W i l l m o t t , i s a l s o a s t u d y i n contrasts —  t h i s time between B e t h n a l Green and "G;reenleigh»  -- a pseudonym f o r the London County C o u n c i l e s t a t e where l a r g e numbers from B e t h n a l Green have"been s e t t l e d . l e i g h " i s a post-war e s t a t e s i t u a t e d i n E s s e x , n e a r l y  "Greentwenty  m i l e s from the m e t r o p o l i s , and c o n s i s t s of d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of h o u s i n g w i t h gardens back and f r o n t . undertook t h i s s u r v e y between 1953 of  W i l l m o t t and Young  and 1955  from the  Institute  Community S t u d i e s whose concern w i t h h o u s i n g and town  p l a n n i n g has been t w o - f o l d , ( a ) a d e s i r e t o make p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r h o u s i n g p o l i c y and p l a n n e r s and and(b) an i n t e r e s t i n new communities  and new  architects,  h o u s i n g schemes,  as p l a c e s In which t o study changing The  p a t t e r n s of  life.  t h i r d study of t h i s k i n d i s S o c i e t i e s i n the Making  i n which H i l d a J e n n i n g s d e s c r i b e s the f i n d i n g of f i v e y e a r s ' c l o s e study of the c l e a r a n c e a r e a of B a r t o n H i l l , B r i s t o l , f o l l o w s those who Research  have moved out t o l i v e on the new e s t a t e s .  f o r t h i s survey was  U n i v e r s i t y Settlement. are, The  c a r r i e d out by members of 'the  D i f f e r e n t as the t h r e e areas s t u d i e d  t h e y have f e a t u r e s i n common which  are'unmistakable.  most marked f e a t u r e which these communities, i n t h e i r o l d  s e t t i n g , had  i n common i s , as Young and W i l l m o t t put i t , t h a t  " k i n s h i p i s the door t o community." work" i n which "Mum"  There i s a " k i n s h i p n e t -  (the w i f e ' s mother) i s the f o c a l p o i n t  and the t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n f a m i l y i s the f i r s t The  and  f a m i l y i s "neighbourhood centred"and  l i n e of  strong street  t i o n s h i p s are l o c a l i s e d by c o r n e r s t o r e s .  "Mum"  families  and the r e l a t i v e s are l e f t  i s h e l d t o be a major cause of unease.  rela-  The b r e a k i n g of the  k i n s h i p t i e when the young m a r r i e d people arid t h e i r move t o an e s t a t e and  defence.  behind  With the b r e a k i n g of  the k i n s h i p t i e t h e r e goes a l s o the b a s i s of community i n the form i n which I t has been known and  shared.  F u r t h e r , the  community gave not o n l y a sense of b e l o n g i n g but  (according to  Mogey) "a t r a d i t i o n a l s e t of b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s and a mechanism t o f i n d out what i s e x p e c t e d . " are no l o n g e r commonly accepted  In the new  s e t t i n g there  standards.  There i s a l s o b a s i c agreement among the t h r e e s t u d i e s as t o how  the average f a m i l y r e a c t s t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n .  The  " r e t r e a t t o the home" r e f e r r e d t o by many o b s e r v e r s of these new  communities i s s a i d by Mogey t o have brought the husband  and w i f e c l o s e r t o g e t h e r . the new  Young and W i l l m o t t agree a l s o t h a t  community i s home-centred.  However, i t would be  wise t o assume t h a t a l l o l d - e s t a b l i s h e d communities share  unthis  c l o s e l y - k n i t k i n s h i p o r g a n i z a t i o n based on l o c a l i t y o r t h a t t h e i r members e x p e r i e n c e t h i s degree o f d e p r i v a t i o n when t h e y m i g r a t e , e s p e c i a l l y those i n N o r t h A m e r i c a .  Another important  f a c t o r which s h o u l d not be f o r g o t t e n i s t h a t a l l t h e s e s u r v e y s l e a v e out t h e time element, t h e r e f o r e , some i m p o r t a n t quest i o n s have remained unanswered.  Are t h e i s o l a t i o n from  rela-  t i v e s and f r i e n d s and t h e a l o o f n e s s from n e i g h b o u r s p a r t o f a new way o f l i f e  o r a r e t h e y merely t r a n s i t i o n a l ?  What s o c i a l  p a t t e r n s e v o l v e on h o u s i n g e s t a t e s when people have had time to set  s e t t l e down?  These were t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t P e t e r W i l l m o t t  out t o answer when he undertook h i s s t u d y o f t h e London  County C o u n c i l ' s v a s t h o u s i n g e s t a t e a t Dagenham, which i s now over 40 y e a r s o l d .  I n h i s book, T h e _ E v o l u t i o n o f a Community, r  he found t h a t , g i v e n a l l t h e d i s c o u r a g e m e n t s , people a t Dagenham had managed t o d e v e l o p a way o f l i f e v e r y much l i k e t h e old. I n f o r m a t i o n from f o u r o t h e r s t u d i e s has a l s o been brought together i n the t e x t .  One of t h e s e i s a s u r v e y c a r r i e d out  by John Westergaard and Ruth G l a s s , f o r t h e b e n e f i t of  chiefly  Town P l a n n e r s , on the' London County C o u n c i l e s t a t e o f  La^n_sbury.  T h i s e s t a t e c o n s i s t s o f about 419 o n e - f a m i l y houses  w i t h gardens, as w e l l as b l o c k s of f l a t s -- a r a r i t y i n t h e central areas.  S t a r t e d i n 1951, Lansbury i s t h e core o f a  new neighbourhood  u n i t i n P o p l a r , a borough  i n t h e E a s t End o f  London, o f which the. p o p u l a t i o n i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y "working class".  The f a c t t h a t t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t e n a n t s were born  i n t h e same d i s t r i c t and employed i n t h e same k i n d s of j o b s h e l p s t o make them a s o c i a l l y homogenous group.  Westergaard  and G l a s s s e t out t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n s -- What'did bury mean t o t h e p e o p l e who l i v e t h e r e ?  Lans-  Has r e s e t t l e m e n t  brought about any p o s i t i v e changes i n t h e i r mode o f l i v i n g ?  iv They made a number o f recommendations f o r p l a n n e r s  relating to  the need t o p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r d i v e r s i t y of d w e l l i n g s f o r househ o l d s a t s u c c e s s i v e stages  o f t h e i r l i v e s , and a more r a t i o n a l  a l l o c a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t d w e l l i n g types. Two e s t a t e s i n the North o f England were s t u d i e d by memb e r s o f t h e i r l o c a l u n i v e r s i t i e s , and t h e i r r e p o r t s were brought t o g e t h e r i n Neighbourhood and Community, e d i t e d by T. S. Simey.  These a r e an e s t a t e o u t s i d e L i v e r p o o l and one i n  Sheffield. The  L i v e r p o o l E s t a t e i s s i t u a t e d near a v i l l a g e on t h e out-  s k i r t s o f the c i t y .  I t was b u i l t i n 1942-43 t o p r o v i d e accom-  modation f o r the f a m i l i e s o f workers engaged on important p r o d u c t i o n i n nearby f a c t o r i e s .  war  At t h e end o f t h e war t h e C i t y  C o u n c i l began t o l e t t h e houses t o f a m i l i e s on i t s w a i t i n g list.  I t s 496 d w e l l i n g s , w i t h gardens back and f r o n t , a r e  semi-detached bungalows c o n t a i n i n g t h r e e bedrooms.  Most of  the 2000 r e s i d e n t s on t h e e s t a t e had been c i t y d w e l l e r s  before  the move. The  S h e f f i e l d ^ E s t a t e was b u i l t t o p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y  accom-  modation when s e v e r a l slum a r e a s i n t h e c i t y were c l e a r e d under the p r o v i s i o n s o f the H o u s i n g A c t , 1923. 1926 and b u i l d i n g c o n t i n u e d  Work was s t a r t e d i n  f o r t e n y e a r s , "in t h e course o f  which over 6,000 people were moved -- whole s t r e e t s t o g e t h e r i n some c a s e s , no attempt b e i n g made t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h the previous groupings of neighbours.  The 1666 houses were b u i l t  to a t y p i c a l "corporation" pattern —  some w i t h two bedrooms,  some w i t h t h r e e , and a few w i t h f o u r .  About h a l f were semi-  detached r e s i d e n c e s , w h i l e the remainder were b u i l t i n b l o c k s of from t h r e e t o s i x .  The e s t a t e i s s i t u a t e d on a h i l l s i d e  l e s s than.a m i l e from t h e c i t y and c o m p l e t e l y  i s o l a t e d from  o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s except a t one p o i n t .  I n 1952,  V  a t t h e time o f t h e s u r v e y , t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n was over 7,000. B o t h L i v e r p o o l and S h e f f i e l d a r e c i t i e s which expanded enormously  during the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution.  In the eighteen  s i x t i e s , L i v e r p o o l , d e a l i n g i n Lancashire's c o t t o n , exported more goods than t h e c a p i t a l , and between 1801 and 1851 t h e popul a t i o n of S h e f f i e l d , famous f o r i t s s t e e l f a c t o r i e s , had i n c r e a s e d from 46,000 t o 135,000, and today i s i n t h e r e g i o n of 513,800. The r e s e a r c h e r s s e t out t o s t u d y t h e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t h e people l i v i n g on t h e s e e s t a t e s and t h e y found  evidence  t o suggest t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t s had not o n l y shared i n t h e s o c i a l advances o f t h e p a s t twenty y e a r s b u t " t h a t i n c e r t a i n  specif-  i c r e s p e c t s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y perhaps  i n m a t t e r s o f h e a l t h and  h y g i e n e , removal t o a new environment  has had a d i r e c t bene-  f i c i a l effect."  However, t h e f a c t t h a t both e s t a t e s were t e n -  anted m a i n l y by u n s k i l l e d workers had c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e absence among them o f p o t e n t i a l l e a d e r s , a m a t t e r of c o n s i d e r a b l e concern t o those who sought t o d e v e l o p community i n s t i t u tions.  They c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e r e was a s t r o n g need f o r some-  one t o h e l p t h e i n h a b i t a n t s s e t t l e and e s t a b l i s h good r e l a t i o n s with t h e i r fellow residents. obvious...that t h i s possessed  Moreover, t h e y s t a t e t h a t " i t i s  'sense of b e l o n g i n g ' i s u n l i k e l y t o be  i n any l a r g e degree by r e s i d e n t s on new e s t a t e s un-  l e s s c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d by h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s t o t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e houses t o a s u f f i c i e n t v a r i e t y o f p e o p l e , who  can be regarded as t h e raw m a t e r i a l o f a new community  ...Much more a t t e n t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , needs t o be p a i d t o t h e ' c o m m u n i t y y b u i l d i n g ' a s p e c t s of t h e work of h o u s i n g management departments...Unless  t h i s can be done s u c c e s s f u l l y , i t i s  o n l y t o o p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e people who a r e moved from  congested  c e n t r a l a r e a s t o t h e suburbs w i l l f i n d t h a t t h e y have merely  vi exchanged the p h y s i c a l d i r t and d i s o r d e r of one  k i n d of slum  f o r the l o n e l i n e s s and a n x i e t i e s of a n o t h e r . . . R e h o u s i n g needs t o be regarded The  more as a s o c i a l s e r v i c e than i t has  been."  1  f i n a l study concerns a group of e s t a t e s s i t u a t e d i n  the B e l f a s t a r e a . Housing T r u s t  B u i l t s i n c e the war by the N o r t h e r n  (an a d d i t i o n a l s t a t u t o r y housing  Ireland  a u t h o r i t y es-  t a b l i s h e d by the M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h and L o c a l Government i n 1945  t o supplement the b u i l d i n g program of t h e . - l o c a l a u t h o r i -  t i e s ) these e s t a t e s were the s u b j e c t of a survey c a r r i e d by D o r i t a F i e l d and Desmond N e i l l i n 1953-4.  W h i l e most of  them were b u i l t on the o u t s k i r t s of the c i t y , t h r e e s i t e s were chosen w i t h i n i t s boundary on which 288 eventually constructed. has 924 80.  The  The  smaller houses were  l a r g e s t of the e s t a t e s , Cregagh,  d w e l l i n g s , w h i l e the s m a l l e s t , C l i f t o n d e n e , has survey was  out  only  o r g a n i z e d by the Department of S o c i a l S t u -  d i e s i n the Queen's U n i v e r s i t y of B e l f a s t and arose c u s s i o n s w i t h members of the Housing T r u s t who  out of d i s -  were p a r t i c u -  l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the i n c i d e n c e of the c o s t s of heat  and  l i g h t and the j o u r n e y t o work on the budgets of those f a m i l i e s t h a t had been rehoused. References Mogey, J .M., F a m i l y and N e l g h J ^ u r h q Oxford tini'v'ers i'ty'Tare's s", 19567  Two^ S t u d i e s _in^ O x f o r d ,  Young, M i c h a e l and W i l l m o t t , P e t e r , F a m i l y "and K i n s h i p i n E a s t London, Penguin Books, M i d d l e s e x ^ 196 2; \ l  J e n n i n g s , H i l d a , S o c i e t i e s i n the Making, Routledge and P a u l , London", V^S2~. "  Kegan  W i l l m o t t , P e t e r , The _Eyqlutiqn__of_ a Community:_ A Study of Pagenham A f t e r ~F"drty ' ^ears," "Routledge^'^ancT^egah^Fa 1,  T. S. Simey, Neighbourhood! and  Community, p.  l48.  W e s t e r g a a r d , John and G l a s s , Ruth, "A P r o f i l e o f Lansbury," The Town P l a n n i n g Review, v o l . x x v , 1954-55. Sirriey, T.S. ed ., Meighbourhood, and Commun11 y, The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s of Liverp'od: F i e l d , D o r i t a and N e i l l , Desmond, A Survey of New Housing E s t a t e s i n B e l f a s t , The Department "of "SoclaT " S t u d i e s , The queen s"""Uriive"rsity o f B e l f a s t , 1957. r  THE NEW TOWNS ENGLAND  Planned  B a s i l d o n , Essex Bracknell,  Population  106,000  Berkshire  50,000-60,000  Corby, Northamptonshire  75,000  C r a w l e y , Sussex  70,000-75,000  Harlow, Essex  80,000  Hatfield,  26,000  Hertfordshire  Hemel Hempstead, H e r t f o r d s h i r e  80,000  Newton A y c l i f f e , County Durham  20,000  Dawley,  90,000  Shropshire  Skelmersdale,  Lancashire  80,000  P e t e r l e e , County Durham  30,000  Stevenage,  80,000  Hertfordshire  Welwyn Garden C i t y ,  Hertfordshire  50,000  WALES Cwmbran,  Monmouthshire  55,000  SCOTLAND Cumbernauld,  Dunbartonshire  East K i l b r i d e , Glenrothes,  Lanarkshire  Fifeshire  70,000 70,000 32,000  L i v i n g s t o n , M i d l o t h i a n and West L o t h i a n  70,000  viii  The London County C o u n c i l W a i t i n g  L i s t A n a l y s i s J u l y 1963  The number o f a p p l i c a t i o n s covered by t h e a n a l y s i s i s 46,984 p e r s o n s . (a)  According  t o Borough  The g r e a t e s t number o f a p p l i c a n t s (5,077) a r e drawn from I s l i n g t o n , t h e borough w i t h t h e second l a r g e s t  population.  On a p r o p o r t i o n b a s i s , however, t h e demand from a p p l i c a n t s is greatest (b)  i n respect  o f B^ethna, 1 Green.  A l i e n s ^ and Immigrant F a m i l i e s  A t o t a l o f 4,640 a p p l i c a n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g from cent o f t h e t o t a l l i s t have come abroad. A  j u s t under 10 p e r Of these 4,640 ap-  p l i c a n t s , 4o p e r cent have been r e s i d e n t i n t h i s c o u n t r y  since  1946 o r b e f o r e , 46 p e r cent came here between 1947 and 1956 and  l4 p e r cent a r r i v e d between 1957 and 1962.  Over  one-half  of t h e s e a p p l i c a n t s have come from E i r e . I t w i l l be noted t h a t t h e number of West I n d i a n f a m i l i e s r e g i s t e r e d on t h e w a i t i n g l i s t must be expected t o grow.  i s s m a l l (4o8), b u t t h e number  (218 C y p r i o t s , 289 from  Pakistan,  I n d i a and C e y l o n ) . (c) E l d e r l y ^ap_plleants There has been some i n c r e a s e b o t h i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n and a l s o i n t h e a c t u a l number of e l d e r l y people r e g i s t e r e d on t h e housing  waiting l i s t .  The number of e l d e r l y a p p l i c a n t s i s 5,118.  (d) A p p 1 i c a n t s Income The number o f a p p l i c a n t s f a l l i n g i n each income range i s exp r e s s e d as a percentage o f t h e t o t a l number who s u p p l i e d i n formation  as t o t h e i r incomes.  1959 a r e a l s o  given.  The comparable f i g u r e s f o r  Weekly Income £5 £6 £11 £16  or less - £10 - £15 o r more  1962  1959  8$ 17$ 58$ 17$  9% 3lfc 54$ 6%  The Income g i v e n by a p p l i c a n t s may r e p r e s e n t , i n some cases g r o s s e a r n i n g s as d i s t i n c t from n e t e a r n i n g s a f t e r d e d u c t i o n of n a t i o n a l i n s u r a n c e c o n t r i b u t i o n s , income t a x , e t c . , and may o r may not i n c l u d e overtime pay i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e b a s i c wages. (e)  Number o f households which i n c l u d e a b l i n d person i s 305.  (f)  Number o f a p p l i c a n t s d i s a b l e d from war s e r v i c e i s 1,562.  (g)  Rent p a i d Up t o 30/  -  30/1 t o 50/50/1 t o 70/over 70/not s t a t e d  . 13,793 = 5,259 = 3,092 ~Z 3/118  " "  46,984  "  Total  21,722 households "  By f a r t h e g r e a t e s t demand i s f o r a 3-room d w e l l i n g (19,751). The  a n n u a l a l l o c a t i o n o f houses t o problem f a m i l i e s i s 50,  and  t o t u b e r c u l o s i s cases i s 100; a l s o 25 a r e a l l o c a t e d t o  the e l d e r l y p a r e n t s o f t e n a n t s . In 1963 i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t some 3,466 London r e s i dents would be rehoused on e s t a t e s , o r i n new and expanding towns under t h e i n d u s t r i a l s e l e c t i o n scheme.  A f u r t h e r 800  were expected t o be rehoused under v a r i o u s p r 1 o r 1 t y such as .slum c l e a r a n c e ,  s p e c i a l needs, e t c .  As i n p r e v i o u s  y e a r s an a l l o c a t i o n o f 50 d w e l l i n g s has been p r o v i d e d f o r problem f a m i l i e s s e l e c t e d by t h e M e d i c a l  a1locatiqns  f o r 1963  O f f i c e r of Health  under arrangements agreed by the Housing committee so t h a t measures f o r t h e i r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n can be undertaken i n t h e i r own homes. ( o l d e r i n - c o u n t y d w e l l i n g s , m o b i l e homes, and o u t - o f - c o u n t y accommodation a r e used f o r t h i s p u r p o s e ) .  APPENDIX B  X  APPENDIX B A CLASSIFICATION FOR DISTINGUISHING AND ANALYZING "PROBLEMS" I.  F a m i l y ^ S t r u c t u r e and I t s w e l f a r e ^ i m p l i c a t i o n s a.  The s i n g l e - p a r e n t ~ i ~  i.  II.  ~i ~>i i •—• i —> i  i —i • — • i -1 i — • — ~i  family -i i~  ~ i i ~i i~> i —i II ~  breadwinner; sources o f income, e t c . ; d i f f i c u l t i e s of f i n d i n g work: care and s u p e r v i s i o n of c h i l d r e n : s o c i a l needs -- morale, l o n e l i n e s s , need f o r s u p p o r t : other?  ii. iii. iv. b.  ~ i —i ~  Handicapped f a m i l i e s ( t w o - p a r e n t a l ) ( d e t a i l s and t y p e s ) i. d i s a b i l i t i e s ( p h y s i c a l , earning-power) ii. ethnic, c u l t u r a l , literacy, etc. (inciuding iii. e l d e r l y dependents iv. large f a m i l i e s  mobility)  Econqmic Dependency a.  0 c cup at1qna1 ( e a r n i n g - c a p a c i t y ) i. ii. iii. iv.  s k i l l levels other vocational inadequacies unemployment, I r r e g u l a r i t i e s , e t c . d i s t a n c e from work, home-ties, e t c .  Tai..- 'Income 1 eye 1 s I. ii. iii. III.  s i z e of f a m i l y r e n t burden ( o f t e n h i g h e r ) o t h e r budget d i f f i c u l t i e s ( i n c l u d i n g  debts)  Household Management ii  ' I ' I I I  • i  —i r i  I~I  —i n  "i  ~  • i~ii^  ~i  I~I  'i  i~>  a. b.  budgeting a b i l i t y , a b i l i t y (or i n a b i l i t y ) t o plan f a m i l y maintenance ( c o o k i n g , l a u n d r y , shopping, d i e t etc.)  c.  p r o p e r t y maintenance  IV.  Fam l l y Ma l a d jus true nt a. m a r i t a l d i s c o r d o r weaknesses b. p a r e n t a l ( c h i l d r e n needs, d i s c i p l i n e , s o c i a l i z a t i o n , etc.) c. s o c i a l . r e l a t i o n s (husband, w i f e , c o u p l e s ) d. s p e c i a l problems of young f a m i l i e s V. C h i l d r e n _and Youth a. b. c. d.  i n f a n t s and young c h i l d r e n s c h o o l age and t e e n a g e r s school r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e c r e a t i o n a l (non-school) r e l a t i o n s h i p s  xi  e.  employment, v o c a t i o n ,  f.  delinquency,  VI.  t r a i n i n g , continued  gangs, a c t i v i t i e s  and  education  associations  Landlord^^ a.  VII.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f r o m e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e most common d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h i s area b. individuals c. group a s s o c i a t i o n s d. a u t h o r i t y versus co-operative p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n regul a t i o n s , maintenance, e t c . e. e x p e r i e n c e on T e n a n t C o u n c i l s Cqmmunity^ (Ne l ^ b o ^ r h q q d R e l a t i o n s  a. b. c. d. e.  f. g. h. i.  work i s s u e s : o p p o r t u n i t i e s ( o r l a c k ) ; t y p e o f work, etc. p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s ("stigmas", p r e j u d i c e , b a r r i e r s t o communication, group a s s o c i a t i o n ) a s s e t s and l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ( p h y s i c a l , facilities, etc.) l e g a c y o f d e p r i v e d environment from which r e s i d e n t s came " P r o j e c t environment" i s the neighbourhood. Design, buildings, street patterns, play f a c i l i t i e s , i n s t i t u t i o n a l elements, e f f e c t of large u n i t s , e t c . new-neighbourhood s o c i a l ' r e s o u r c e s ( h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , e d u c a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n , e t c . ) A r e t h e y by new u n i t s ? Modifications, additions, adaptations, e t c . u n b a l a n c e d c o m m u n i t i e s -- s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n p r o s and c o n s segregations? new p l a n s , e x p e d i e n t s , i n n o v a t i o n s .  xii  The_ J o i n t T a s k The Finance fare  creation,  combination  ing  Housing  grew o u t o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t  on a s i n g l e  produce  The  a c h a n g e , a n improvement  i n the s o c i a l  provide residing  projects  that  s i n c e both departments  with  t h e same c l i e n t e l e ,  trate  their  Task Force  for families  on t h e c o n c e p t  fragmented  more e f f e c t i v e bits  as a  and p i e c e s o f  T o o o f t e n p r o g r a m s have f a l l e n  attempts  i s to  t o combine and c o n c e n -  would p